(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Gentleman's magazine"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



• • • • 



• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



LONDON : 

J. B. NICUOLg AND SON, PRINTCRA, 

25, PARLIAMENT 9TREKT. 



154870 



PREFACE. 



The close of another jear, and that on many accounts an un- 
questionable annus mirabilis^ calls upon us again to express our 
gratitude to the public for much kind, support, and our.tlianks to our 
contributors for the zeal and ability with which they have enabled 
us to carry on our Historical Magazine. As the busy course of life 
flows onwards it is ours to instruct and animate the men of the pre- 
sent day by holding up that guiding light which may be derived 
from the traditions of the past It is ours also to keep in store for 
the use of our successors those contemporary memorials and records 
without a knowledge of which History is a mere romance. Such a 
publication as our present Magazine is rendered necessary by a 
craving and desire which are inherent in our natures. The time 
present is far too narrow for men's thoughts. It is our privilege and 
prerogative to "look before and after." History alone enables us 
to penetrate the shadows which hang upon the past ; History alone 
teaches us with the certainty of experience what may be anticipated 
in the future. 

It is upon the sure foundation of this natural and universal want 
that we build our Magazine ; and we appeal for support to all per- 
sons who acknowledge within themselves the promptings of the feel- 
ing which we have described. Entertaining these notions of our 
position and objects, we shall constantly persevere in our endeavour 
to do what is consistent with them. Writing with no party purpose, 
we shall strive that our Magazine may be distinguished by its calm 
and truthful sobriety, by its careful dealing with facts, by its fearless 
assertion of whatever is true, and its support of whatever is wise and 
good among all classes and parties of mankind. Acting upon these 



IV PREFACE. 



principles, we will not allow ourselves to doubt that public favour 
will still continue to be shewn to our eiForts, and that to return his 
semestral thanks for long-continued favour will yet for years to come 
be the pleasing duty of the Father of this division of our literature. 



Sylvanus Urban. 



25, Parliament Street^ Weitminster, 
31M December, 1851. 




THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AMD 



HISTOIMCAL REVIEW. 

JULY, 1851. 



I 



I 



CONTENTS. 

^i?iOft CoaaiBrowDEKCK.—Portrjiit of Oliver Cromwell— Tlit* tranilition at Mllller'n 
History of GrvcLio Literftl hit— Holy dAy YJirtI— Patrick Ruthven— Cartlinals* Hals, 
&c. Ike. ,..,..., ...,.,,., , *,..,♦*.♦..*...,., 2 

Tb£ Phcscnt State of Englibu Historical LrrcEATUttK : 1. AccefFsllbilUy 

of our Hittorical Mitcriali ; 2. The Record Office* 3 

C<»tU of the PedMtiU of King Charlc»'i Statue at Cliarmg Cro&s 10 

riCB Dat-Booki or Db. Hbnry Sampson.— Mr Fmnkkud'i appeal to Chirlen It.- Dr 
OatM^a story of the fisnie Kinier— Mr. Uaxttfrind Dr. Owen— Men that ha%e leapt to 
freat estate*— Loni Oiief Justice Hale— OianrWlor Hyde— Serjeant Mftynar<r*i, 
report of a cate of Witcticrafi— Mr. Robert Ferguson's escapes— Mr, Rumtjold- 
The Countryman and the n^atch— King Willtaiii'a leare'takiJif^ at Amsterdam— 
Mercujy taken iawardly.. *.,... .... 11 

Tht Infinity of Geometric Design (iriM Engravinpx) 17 

CuitiaTiAN Iconography and Lkoendary Art: by J. G, Waller. — The 

Heavenly Host« Third Order — Principalitifa, Arch&n^el», AngeU (wit^ 

Enffrovinffit) ., .« .,,...,..«. «..».<•. tS 

Companionf of my Solitude •».,....« .♦....-•*...... 28 

Tbs SrOBt ov Nkli, Gwyn% related by Peter Canrtingham, Chapter VIL (with 

Porir«i(* of her itro SonMt % Bhf/ieiing) ♦ 33 

SytiEX Archeology— Bta^overie* in the Colkpiate Chapel at Arundel — 

Badges of the Famiiief of Pelhom and l)e In Wnrr (triYA Engraving*) .... 39 

Correapondence of Horace Walpole and the Rev. William Moaon 45 

National Education ^ 49 

JThe Saxon Chieftain : written on opening a Saxon Grave *«.... M 

XOTES OFTHB MONTH,- The Grcnt Exhibition— Conversniione at (he Mansion 
Houie — Lord Kosse*s Sojr^e§— Admiasion j^iven to NorthumlierlaTid House and to 
the Fjirl of f^llrsmereS— Exhihition of Pictures by Aniateurs— St. Peter% Chair j 
the Cufic Inscription conjectured to have been a lioax, of thf Uaron Denon— Recent 
puh1icatioo« — ..... SS 

MISCELL.% NEGUS REVIEWS.— Conversations of Goethe with tlckermann and Soret, 
SI; The Arrhitertural Quarterly Rc^vJew, No. 1. 61 ; Shiw*« Decorative Arta of the 
Bllddre Are*. 63 ; Ttie Chroincle of Battel Abbey. 63 ; Wilton and its Asfloclationit» 
63 i Bo«rrin^*a Tniii}<latioii of Schiller'n Foem^Vei; The Talhot Case^ hv the Rev. 
Hobart ^mour, 64 ; IfTustrnted DIttiea of the Olden Time 6^ 

LITiiRAflY ANI> SCIENTIFIC INTFXUGENCE— Cniver*itie» of oi«ord and Cam- 

bridge— Royal Geographical Society— Royal Asiatic Society t% 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. -Society of Antiquaries— Arclueofoerieal Institute- 

Arehcolotpcal Association— Bury and West SulTotk Archarological Institute. ... 67 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. — ProceedinKs iu Parliament. 73; Forei^ News. 74 i 

Domestic Occnrrencea. .,,,..., , y© 

Promotion* and Preferments. TJ \ Births, 78 ; MarriaBrch .... . ....*.... 78 

OBITUARY J with Memoirs of the Duchess of Leuchtenberff ; Marchionesa of Lan*- 
downr ; Farl of Shanesburr ; Eart of Bantry ; Earl orCottenhnm ; %'i«count Strath- 
allan : Viscount New ry and Morne; Lord Muntfort . HiRflit Hon. R, L. Sheil; Rev. 
Sir Robert Aflieck. Bart.; Sir Cliudiua Stephen Huuter. liart.; Major-Gen. Sir 
H. L. Bethiiue, Bart.; Major-Gen, Sir William Mori^ron: Sir William Btephennon 
Clark; Major-Gen. Palmer; John Power, Ejiq.; Michael Bland. Esq ; Henry Bame 
Sawbrid^. Esq. ; W. J. Baf^shawe, Esq. ; 3f rs. Shelley ; Rev. W. M. Kioaey \ Capt. 
Charles Gray, K.M.j Mr. Dowton ..,..,, ,,, 81— W 

Clbbgt OscBAaBD ««■«•* I 97 

Dbatmi. arran^ in Chronoloi^ical Order gs 

Sefiitrar Generarn Returns of Mortality in the Metropolii— Markets, 108 ; Meteoro- 
logical Diary— Dally Price of Stock a 104 



Bt sylvan us urban, Gekt. 




MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Portrait of Outer Cromwell. 
In the Appendix to the second Volume 
of * The Correspondence of John Hughes, 
Esq. author of the Siege of Damascus/ 
(2nd edition, 1773) there is a paper re- 
specting Mrs. Bridget Bendish, grand- 
daughter of Oliver Cromwell, written by 
the Rev. Samuel Say, a well-known Dit- 
iinting minister. At p. ii. of this paper 
Mr. Say remarks that Mrs. Bendish exactly 
vesembled the best picture of Oliver which 
he had ever seen, ' and which is now,* he 
lays, ' at Rose Hall in the possession of 
Sir Robert Rich.' This was written in 
1719, when Rose Hall, or Rous Hall, near 
Beccles in SufTolk, was the family seat of 
the Riches, the descendants of Robin 
Rich the lawyer, the principal witness 
ifainst Sir Thomas More. In the centuty 
which has since elapsed Rose Hall has 
lost its dignity, and the Riches have be- 
come extinct. In the midst of these mu- 
tations can any one tell what has become 
of the portrait of Oliver ; the best picture 
Of him which Mr. Say had ever seen, and 
which Mrs. Bendish (a high compliment 
to pay a lady) so exactly resembled ? Can 
this statement refer to the miniature by 
hooper engraved as a frontispiece to Mr. 
Cltrlyle's collection of Cromwell's Letters, 
ind which is now in the possession of 
Mrs. Bendish's descendant archdeacon 
Berners ? Q. 

In oar recent notice of " Dr. Smith's 
Dictionaries of Antiquities and Biogra- 
phy," (Gent. Mag:, for June 1851, p. 
627,) we have ascribed the English trans- 
lation of Karl Ottfried MCkller's *' History 
of Grecian Literature " to Mr. Comewall 
Lewis alone. The version was however 
made by that gentleman in conjunction 
#ith another distinguished scholar, the 
Rev. J. W. Donaldson, D.D. head master 
of King Edward's School, Bnry St. Ed. 
]|innd's. Dr. Donaldson also appended to 
Mailer's text various original annotations. 

With reference to the paper entitled 
•* Fourier and Fourierism," published in 
our Magasinefor May, 1851, Mr. Doherty 
has written tu us to say, that he " is not 
a disciple of Fourier.*' We are pleased 
to be authorised to make the announce- 
ment. 

It was stated in our March number for 
this year, p. 303, that George Sloans 
is a barrister. W. H. H assures us ' ' that 
hm is not, and I am confident never was, 
but merely a licensed special pleader ; 
this year's Law List omits his name, even 
In the latter capacity." 



S. J. remarks that in the will of the 
celebrated Dr. Robert South, he finds 
Mention of certain messuages of which 
Dr. South possessed a lease, which are 
said to he situate in or near Holtdat 
Yard in London. "Whereabouts," asks 
8. J. *' was HoLYDAY Yard ? I do not 
find it in Cunningham's Hand Book." 

Patrick Ruthven, fifth son of Wil- 
liam Karl of Gowrie and father of Marf 
the wife of Vandyck, was confined in the 
Tower from 1603 to 1622, when he was 
allowed to reside first at Cambridge and 
afterwards in Somersetshire. His daa^ter 
Mary was married to Vandyck in 1640. at 
which time her father was described as of 
St. Martin's.in-the-Fields, esquire. Let- 
ters of administration of the effects of 
Patrick Ruthven, described as Patrick 
Lord Rnthern late of Scotland, but in the 
parish of Saint George's in Southwark, in 
the county of Surrey, deceased, wert 
granted in March 1656-7 to Patrick 
Ruthven, esquire, his '* natural and lawful 
son.*' B. will be very much obUgod fat 
any information re8})ecting the marriago 
of Patrick Ruthven, his residence at Gain- 
bridge or in Somersetshire, his death in 
St. George's in Southwark, or indeed re- 
specting any other of the facts of his no> 
lancholy history. 

E. C. D. who seeks for information rt- 
specting the antiquity of the CoSTUMB OV 
Cardinals will find information upon 
the subject in the Dictionnaire Raisonn^ 
de Diplomatique, article •• Cardinal." It 
appeirs that the red hat was given to 
Cardinals by Innocent IV. at the Conncil 
of Lyons in 1243. Only Legates a latere 
had before borne that mark of distinction. 
Cardinals who belonged to monastic or- 
ders continued to wear the costume of 
their respective orders until 1591, when 
Gregory XIV. conferred upon them the 
privilege of " le rouge." Boniface VIII. 
gave them the purple about the end of the 
13th century. Several of them had already 
worn it, especially in embassies. Paul II. 
gave them the small scarlet cap, the White 
horse and housings of purple in 14C4. 

We have received a Petrotpeel of the 
Littfrary Aroeatiom and PerformoHeet of 
Edward 8. By am, ttq. of which fifty 
copies have been printed for private cir- 
culation. Mr. Byam is the authdr ott 
pamphlet published in 1811, entitl04 
*• The West Indians Defended \ " and kal 
throughout his life been warmly devoted 
to genealogical and historical researches. 



TIIE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



Till PRESENT STATE OF ENGLISH HISTORICAL LITERATUIIE. 

L Accessibility of orn Uistorical Mj^reRiAi^. 

2. The Recoed OrriCES, 



' Wifsn we !s5!t treated thh subject,* 
! cntlejnroured to show that the cus- 
Ijr of »U documents ought to hare 
il^iuon to thfir use ; thnt Hecobds, 
which, as theii* name im- 
jTi e record,'* that i*, "bear 

*iicnc!i :ii courts of Uw,** should be 
kept in sucli a w^y as \n ennsi stent 
with their <p*i"'' . !► .. ,K'ter ; that State 
FaPee* wl to recent public 

pTvtifiii! 1 ^lumld be pre- 

gi I !i rid pcrresy oi* 

if:i I pttH V ; whilst His- 

TontrAi. Pafebis ji«tfn?re which have 
fto b^faririg upon the polhicitl businef?s 
of the dny, nor can be given in evi* 
deuce a* records, should be so kept 
(2taf ihev may be open to every in- 
^trer wno demres to put them to their 
only use ; that, namely, which U con- 
nected with historical or antitjuarian 
inquiry. We further endeavoured to 
ihew that the ci^rors in our existing 
modes of en-*'"'" r^'i^" r^'if of onr inat- 
tention to r listinctiona ; 
that we sub 1. .icjil papers lo 
eonstrainea and jentoua modes of cus- 
Ut6v wbToh, in their case, are altogether 
it 'e and ridiculous; and that 
In nduct we not only do tn- 
Ifiiie iijjury to historical literature, 
•nd give indirect eneouragement to 
tmshy and contemptible publications 
which deprave the public taste, but 
thj»t we burthen the public purse with 
the mnintenanceof a costly machinery 
for this pre«ervEtion of papers which 



do not require any machinery of the 
kind ; that we place ourselves nation- 
ally in u j>o3ition of degradation when 
compared with the judicious liberality 
of many foreign eoun lines ; and that 
we encourage an opinion, dangerous to 
our aational wdfiire mid the stability 
of our institutions, that our govern- 
menti whether it be Whig or Tory» 
cares nothing about literature and tfie 
pursuits of literary men, but deter* 
mine* all questions in relation to such 
subjects, not with a fair consideration 
«jt the value of literature and its im» 
portant connection with all the blest- 
mtfs of civilization J but upon mere 
official grounds ; a desire to aggran- 
dise some particular office, or to retain 
some paltry fee. 

Having treated of the State Pap€r 
Office, and shewn the singular narrow- 
ness and absurdity of the systera ef 
management which predominated 
there, and the utt^r imi>ossibiUty, fa 
ordinary cases, of the valuable historic 
ca! papers in tbnt repository being uied 
for historical purposes, we come t6 
consider what is the state in thit re* 
spect of our 

Rgcohd OmcKs. 

Are they placed under a syffera ©f 
management which is in confbrmifj^ 
with the requirements of our historical 
literature ; a system ao contrived ad te 
give historical students, persoas who 
desire to com.memorate the facta of 



Gent. Mag. for M«rcb» IB51, p, 227. 



Tke Present State of Englieh Hietorical Literature. [July, 



our national history for the general 
instruction, reasonable facilities of 
access to the documents from which 
alone those facts can be derived ? We 
diaU see. 

It is universally allowed that we 
have a very noble collection of national 
Becords. Writers upon the subject 
have expatiated on their value with 
dignified enthusiasm. ** Happily for 
ut,** remarked Sir Joseph Aylone in 
1784, " our stores of public records 
are justly reckoned to excel in a^, 
beauty, correctness, and authority 
whatever the choicest archives abroad 
oan produce of the like sort. By an 
appeal to them the lawyer and the his- 
torian may receive satisfaction in all 
thdr inquiries, whether confined to the 
rectifying the mistakes into which some 
writers have fallen, and to the clearing 
up and explaininff of those difficulties 
in our history which have for a long 
time seemed unsurmoun table ; or 
whether they are enlarged and ex- 
tended to the attainment of a thorough 
knowledge of the laws, constitution, 
and polity of the kingdom. . . . Great 
as these benefits are to the public, yet 
they are far from being the most im- 
portant services which the public re- 
oc^s and muniments afibrd to us; 
they are the treasuries and conserva- 
tors of our laws, and the standard to 
which we must resort for the resolvinff 
sad ascertaining all constitutioniu 
points ; they are the testimonies of our 
legislation, and of all juridical and 
judicial proceedings, and the perpetual 
evidence of every man*s rights, privi- 
leges, and liberties.** Nor is more 
modem testimony less emphatic. That 
everyway accomplished gentlenuin 
whose public nosition as Deputy 
Keeper of the Records renders him 
most familiar with their contents, and 
whose learned writings prove to de- 
nionstratbn that he can use tlie Re- 
00^ as skilfully as he preserves them, 
1^ Francis Falgrave, has just in- 
formed us,* that ^ our English archives 
are unparalleled — none are equally 
ample, varied, and continuous; none 
have descended from remote times in 
equal preservation and r^ularit^, not 
even the archives of the Vatican.** 



Glorious possession! evidence, as Sir 
Francis reminds us, of the exemption of 
our country, in comparison with other 
nations, from the miseries of hostile 
devastation, whether of foreign foes or 
of domestic dissensions. The almost 
intorminable series of record rolls 
confers, in the estimation of a lover of 
the human race and a friend to its 
^wth in rational freedom, a deeper 
interest upon die White Tower which 
is the plac^ of its deposit, than all the 
ancient splendours of its chivalrous 
gaieties and the midni^t murders by 
which it has been stained. In these 
records we behold the deep founda- 
tions of that advance towards the very 
perfection of fV*eedom which for cen- 
turies we have been making. They 
contain the pedi^e of our liberdes 
Whilst other nations have over and 
over again entered anew upon what 
they Imve called the first year of 
liberty, we have stood upon the old 
paths, and, connecting ourselves with 
the generations of ancient times by 
these, we trust, indissoluble links, have 
ffone on inheriting and acquiring, evor 
holding fast and yet ursinff forward, 
teaching the world and imprintiiig 
indelibl}r on our own hearts, that oar 
fVee institudons are not the product of 
untried speculation or of revolutionary 
frenzy, but an inheritance derived 
from noble ancestors, whose memory 
it becomes us to cherish and whose 
works it is our wisdom as well as our 
bounden duty to maintain, not blindly 
or slavishly, but by adapting them 
from time to time, as our ancestors 
themselves did, to the ever-changiag 
circumstances of an ever-changmff life. 

But, besides their political and na- 
tional interest, we have been assured 
by Sir Joseph Aylofie, and reminded 
by Sir Francis Palgrave, of the great 
historical and literary value of our 
records. They are not^— even the 
oldest of them — mere ^ archsBological 
curiosities.**! 

The Saxon charters and Domesday 
book, our Rolls of the Curia Rqps and 
the Pipe, our Close and Patent Boils, 
considered as mere historical monu- 
ments, are as full of instruction, to 
say the least of them, as our oathedraLs, 



* The Uifltory of Normandy and of England, by Sir Francis Palgrave, i. 80. 
t Palgnife, i. 83. 



1851.] 



The M^tm'd Offict9. 



M the reHc*^ of Rome or Kjtiypt, »s the 
fragmeRtj of the Pjirtht;rKni and the 
nuyrblcs of Nineveh* 'Inhere Ja not ooc 
of tbem thai in compcteni hunda cau- 
not b# made lo yield itb i^uoU of in- 
fiknuAUoii about the institutions, tlti! 
w»y of the life aiwi the fluyiiigu ami 
the doroj^ oi'our aacestoi^ 

Ot coonfe it wilt be uiiiv<^r8iLUy 9up- 
po«ed that muniments so curious and 
ao vmluable, io richlj fraught with 
historiciil knowledge of all kindn and 
upon uU Bubjectt*, ary fredy used and 
referred to by our histonaiif+ and anti- 
quarian writers — ure indeed their eon- 
ftuit And peculiar study. The very 
rewae of Ibia is the fact. For any- 
t&ii^ tbat apipears to the contr»ry in 
Dr. Liti^srda History of England, tJiat 

SitosCaking writer never i^w u record. 
« uaod with exemplanr cAre the 
booka in which a few of them, apeak* 
km emnpttrmiivelyt have been [irinted 
Willi iiMiiiiiienLbfe mistakes and iuac* 
euraciea ; but of the originals and the 
Tast unprinted m&sa it ih obvioui^ that 
he knew absolutely nothing. The 
tiiat Uunc may h^ aaid ot Sharon 
'Svsnei* He added to his u*^ of the 
I authorities an oecasional con- 
iof r '^^^ - *^- i^-- liMu^ 
aeum; bttt^ i ks, he 

never coiwu - i- We 

need not spt Hani*. The 

twoennnei)' ive namcHi 

afe le4> nt the hibtorieal 

djflB oi jiresent day. 

The siyue Uuu^ may be ^id m re- 
ference to the proceed] iifflj of the 
Society of Antiquartea. Who over 
findd in tlie Arcbaeologia a paper ur 
dia<^ui.M ' ' ' ^iVJdcnce of 

record i atores of 

tbe BritiHi .uuaeujii tmve been ran- 
tttcked lor yeara to aujiply Thursday 
evening x^eadings, but how ieldom hue 
tbe aooietjr been called upon to listen 
to an elucidation of an historical fact 
by meane of those archives which are 
avowed to be the best and noblest of 
our historical inonmnent*. The only 
ejiceptiooal cases which we recollect 
hAVe occurred in papers written by 
keepers of record oliicej^— -admirable 
examples of what may be done when 
tvoord evidence ia acoeasible. 

If we pa»3 from the Society of Anti- 
(|aariea to the publishing Societies the 
wnie fact atarea ua in the face* Which 
pf tkofie Societies has ever published 



anything irom the records ? Has the 
Camden? the Roxburgh? the Bon- 
iiatyne? any one of tbern? If there 
are any instances at all — which we do 
not at present recollect— they must be 
rare and exeeptionaL 

The »ame tMitg appears in our ordi- 
nary published literature. It is full of 
references to MSS. They are hunted 
for on all sides. Never wa^ there ao 
great a hankering after authorities pre- 
viously unpublished ; but who dreams 
of going to the records? The best of 
our AISS. are imiversally overlooked. 
One solitary example alone may be 
quoted — Mrs. Greeni author ot the 
Livea of the Princesses ; a book which, 
in great part and at great expense, 
Ima been dug and ^meUed a^ it were 
out of the records. The livcii which 
Mrs. Green has written are just so 
many evidences of what information 
might be obtained upon more import- 
ant subject* if access to the record* 
were general. 

Precisely of the sante character is 
the evidence of our reprinted litera- 
ture. There exist many expensive 
books, n e w ed i tious of w h ic h, w i ( h t heir 
statements derived from records veri- 
fied and published aAer the manner 
which is now common in other branches 
of our literaturei would be invaluable; 
eiuch booka, for example, as Dugdale*a 
Baronage^ and Tanners Notitia Mo- 
nasticu. It i^ known that the»6 book:* 
ore full of etTors— the latter more 
especially (?o. But who dreams oi cor- 
recting them ? No one. Their state- 
ments are reprinted, and are daily 
vouched and handed down from gene- 
ration to generation as authorities, 
although well known to be inaccurate 
iu instances which are inmauierable* 

If we look then over the face of our 
literature, what do we find.^ That 
we possess a vast mass of most im- 
portant historical evidences; evidences 
so valuable as to lie a just subject 
even of national pride and boast. 
These evidences contain the actual 
and absolute truth respecting all the 
public transactions^ anu also respecting 
a vast number of the private trans- 
ai^tions, in which the crown and people 
of England were engaged for centunesi 
They affect all cla&ses of the people; 
they embrace all kinds of businesses* 
The histories of ail our noble families 
are written in them : few, even of the 



The Present Siaie tfEngUek HiHorical Literature. [«IbI^ 

of r«:ord8 ii io ita rttr nfttiirt eniui* 
lative. Thej Are, in tbis reiptct, pri* 
ciselj like books. As " book optnetk 
book/' 80 one record leadi to another; 
allusioni have to be cleared up, t%» 
ferences to be verified, official persoita 
to be identified, and eTents and their 
consequences to be traced out. A 
man whose object may be answered 
Without regular record investigatiopt 
or who is deterred from such investi- 
gation bj the amount of the feeB or 
otherwise, may go to a record ofllet 
merely to inspect a sinj^Ie document, 
and may come away satisfied with tht 
kind attention which he is sure to re* 
ceive fVom the liberal gentlemen ia 
charge of the ofiices, and very well 
pleased to have got his information eft 
the expense of one shilling for a searok. 
and one shilling for inspection. Btw 
let him try to write the history, upoe 
record evidence, of any great event, 
or any series of great events in £n|^ 
lish history,— the history, for exam|>M» 
of the ]oB» of Kormandy, of the de 
Montfort rebellion, of the war of Ed- 
ward I. with Scotland, or of that of 
Edward III. with France, of th« 
achievements of the Black Prince, of 
of the treatment of the royal priaonefe 
of Edward III. ; let him endeavovr !• 
write the life of any one of our great 
old English worthies, or to trace the 
series of any of our great officers ef 
state, or to bring together all tke 
royal acta relating to any particniir 
subject, he finds at once that the thing 
is impossible. The fees^ although mo* 
derate when considered singly, fbrtt 
an absolute barrier against any extett* 
sive application of research. 

Besides, the matter ought to be oett» 
sidered in another point of view. Lit** 
rary men inquire and collect roateriali 
in reference to innumerable subjects mk 
which they never write. A f>oint oc- 
curs to an inquiring man. It it a suh* 
ject for consideration or inveatigatioik 
He refers to printed books al^ut itk 
They give him little or no informatioSb 
He goes to MSS.; to records. He 
makes his notes, his transcripts. I^ani 
or weeks are passed in research, ne 
finds, perhaps, at last, that the fact if 
a dead fact altogether unworthy ef 
resuscitation. He passes it by un- 
noticed, or if he writes about it at ei^ 
a sentence, a few words, a note ef e 
Um or two at the botteofr ef » pege, ii 



meaneit of those who poeseated an 
acre of land in timet past, but can be 
traced in them. No termt of praite 
are deemed excessive when used bv 
thote who are best acquainted with 
them, to describe their importance and 
historical value* And^et, neither the 
authors who write oeneral history, nor 
the antiquariet who investigate the 
minuter incidents of the past, nor the 
societies who apply the principle of 
combination to the aid of historical 
inquiry, nor our original writers, nor 
our laboriout and painstaking editors, 
none of all the varieties of the wide 
and important class of historiod in* 
quirers make use of them. Surely 
this is a startling and singular fact; 
a fact which should make us pause ; 
a fact which should strike us with 
astonishment, and drive us to inquire 
into its cause. 

We cannot suppose that these emi- 
nent persons are ignorant of the value 
of the records. The very contrary is 
obvious from their writings. We find 
that they take advantage of every 
scrap of secondary evidence respecting 
the contents of the records. They 
refer to published record books, many 
ef them of acknowledged incomplete- 
nett and gross inaccuracy ; they have 
recourse to duplicates and imperfect 
transcripts; they inspect meagre ab- 
stracts which cnance to have found 
their way into the British Museum, or 
other accessible places ; they go any- 
where and everywhere to get informa- 
tion respecting the records, save to the 
records themselves. 

And what is the reason ? Why is 
it that, building upon secondary evi- 
dence, acknowledged to be imperfect 
and incomplete, these men do what 
thsT can by diligence and research 
without the record offices to lessen 
the imperfections and solve the inno- 
Bierabfe doubts and questions which 
hang over our history, instead of going 
to the fountain-head — to our boasted 
national archives themselves ? 

It is simply a question of £ees. 

The fees for searching and for con- 
sulting a single record are company 
tively unimportant, but when those 
feea are reiterated and repeated, as 
the;jr must be when any considerable 
business is in hand, «nd many records 
are to be consulted, they amount to 
eiL libit J lite TtffffkiHitieiii PiTH s^lta t ii?n 



last.] 



Th€ Rie^rd Ofiee$. 



sufficient to contain the result of a 
- long and tedious search, crowned, be 
it remembered, by the payment of 
who can tell what amount in fees. 
How certainly do such incidents occur 
in tlie liven of all men of research. 
How infallibly does their recurrence 
put a stop to all inspection of records. 

But we shall be told that the fees 
may be commuted, and that the chief 
officers in the Record Offices have in 
their discretion the power of remitting 
them altogether. Certainly : the com- 
mutation is five shillings per week pro* 
vided the search be limited to one 
family or place, or to a single object 
of inquiry. Such an arrangement is 
good so far as it extends, but how few 
•re able to take advantage of it: how 
few can devote a continuous week to a 
particular search. Men snatch a day 
or half a day now and then to purposes 
of this kind ; and then the proviso as 
to one family or place or object is 
Altai to all extensive inquiry : it ope- 
rates as a bonus offerea to imperfec- 
tion and inadequate research. 

As to the discretionary power given 
to the keepers of Record Offices, we 
desire to speak of those gentlemen 
with the most entire respect and es- 
tkem. Several of them are our per* - 
sonal friends, and all of them are men 
of learning, research, and courtesy. 
No better or more gentlemanly men 
exist. If we could tolerate such a 
discretionary power in the hands of 
any men it would be in theirs. But 
the truth must be told. Such discre- 
tion is fatal to the general use of the 
records by literary men. Under this 
discretion a man nnds himself, by the 
Idodness of his friend at the head of 
the office, exempted from all fees, 
whilst another person searching at the 
nme time for an equally legitimate 
literary obiect, but who chances to be 
unknown, IS mulcted to the full amount 
of the customary office charges. Or a 
man known to the head of the office 
may go one day and have a pleasant 
ohat with his friend and inspect half a 
dosen records without any charge : he 
may go the next day, when the head 
of the office chances to be absent, and 
he may have to pay his half a dozen 
shillings for his morning's amusement. 
I.fet a noble lord go to the Record 
Offlcei, his card is a passport : let Mr. 
Bnuth or Mr. Jonea be the appUcant 



— some poor student ambitious to add 
his item to the general stodc of ad* 
vancing knowle&e— he pays. Can 
these results be defended ? Is therf 
any man hardy enough to stand up in 
the face of the literary world and say 
that a rule which operates in this wmf 
does not reauire alteration ? 

The truth is that these things af# 
too much in conformity with our ge- 
neral treatment of literature. Litera* 
ture amongst us has no rights. Pri- 
vileges which she ought to possess 
dejure are sometimes awarded to herv 
but upon wrong principles, de fado 
merely. She is sometimes allowed, 
as we have seen, to inspect the re* 
cords ; but it is not because she is the 
glory of nations and the teacher of the 
world — because when she applies her- 
self to history she culls its great ex- 
amples for the instruction of mankind — 
because she binds men to their country 
by the strong tie of a patriotic attach- 
ment founded upon a knowledge of 
the heroic deeds of the days of old- 
No ! it is because she chances to be per- 
sonally acquainted with Mr. A. B., the 
truly worthy head of a Record Office. 

We cannot boast of a unity among 
literary men. Sorrowfully, on the 
contrary, are we oflen called upon to 
observe too much of the opposite 
spirit. We want some general insti- 
tute in which we should be united 
simply as literary men to act, and evi- 
dence our power for literary purposes. 
But, disunited and fragmentary as we 
are, there is sufficient propriety of 
feeling as well as sufficient esprit d$ 
corps amongst us to prevent any ar- 
rangement founded upon such false 
principles to be generally taken ad- 
vantage of. Men will never avail 
themselves of a regulation which gives 
them by favouritism what the^ ought 
to have by right ; and thus it is that i 
rule, we doubt not kindly designed^ 
but based like all our government 
dealing with literary men, upon an ig- 
norance of the proper position of the 
people for whose accommodation it 
was designed, is altogether useless and 
inoperative, and our noble series of 
Records remains unconsulted by those 
who alone could put them to that 
which (speaking of the great mass of 
them) is their only use. 

Is this state or things to remain f 
We hope not ; and therefeife it h^ 



8 



The Present State ofEngUeh Historical Literature. [July, 



been with the greatest pleasure that 
we have heard of an application .about 
to be made to the new Master of the 
Rolls upon the subject. The name of 
RoMiLLT pves an assurance that the 
subject will be considered in a kindlj, 
liberal spirit, and with a proper regard 
for the rights of literature, and fortu- 
nately the matter rests altogether in 
the breast of the Master of the Rolls. 
The Act of Parliament which vested 
the custody of the Records in that high 
officer gave him power to dispense 
with fees, and to make rules for the 
admission of '*such persons as oiuzht 
to be admitted to the use of the Re- 
cords.*" He is now about to be called 
upon to exercise this power. An ap- 
plication is to l>e made to him in tne 
following terms : — 

•• Th the Right Honorable the Master of 
the Roth. 

" Sir, — The undersigned Historical 
Writers, Members of various Literary 
Societies specially interested in the pro- 
gecQtion of historical inquiry, and persons 
otherwise engaged in literary pursuits, or 
connected therewith, beg leave most re- 
ipectfully to submit to you : — 

*• That, by the Statute 1 and 2 Victoria, 
cap. 94, sec.' 9, the Master of the Rolls is 
empowered to make rules for the admis- 
sion of such persons as ought to be ad- 
mitted to the use of the Records, Cata- 
logues, Calendars, and Indexes, and also 
to make rules for dispensing with ths pay- 
ment of fees in such case.4 as he shall 
think fit. 

" The undersigned would also most 
respectfully submit to you, th«t the re- 
searches of persons engaged in historical 
investigation and inquiry would be greatly 
facilitated, and the welfare of our national 
historical literature be promoted in a very 
hij;h degree, if you would be pleased to 
exercise the power given to you in the 
Statute before mentioned by making an 
order that such persons may have permis- 
sion granted to them to have access to the 
Pubhc Records, with the Indexes, and 
Calendars thereof, without payment of 
any fee. 

" At present any person may search 
for and inspect any Record on payment 
of a fee of one shilling for a search in the 
Calendars, which may be continued for 
one week, and of another fee of the same 
amount for the inspection of each Record, 
or such fees may he commuted at the sum 
of five shillings per week, provided the 
search be limited to one family or place, 
or to a tingle object of inquiry. 
1 



** These fees are of no benefit to aaj 
individual, but are paid over to the natioa, 
the different officers of the Record fiata- 
blishment being remunerated by salaries. 

" When a person desires to inspect one 
or two specific Records for his own pri- 
vate purposes these fees are unimportant 
in amount. 

'* But when a person engaged in histo- 
rical or antiquarian research wishes to 
build upon the evidence of public docK- 
ments— the only sure foundation of His- 
torical Truth— it ordinarily happens that 
in the progress of his inquiry he is obliged 
to refer to many Records ; the inspection 
of one almost necessarily leads him on to 
others, and, as he proceeds, he continually 
finds references and allusions to many 
more, all which he ought to inspect, if 
for no other purpose, in order to be satis- 
fied of their inapplicability to the subject 
of his research. This is the course of in- 
quiry which in such cases is absolutely 
necessary to be adopted for the establish- 
ment of historical truth. Under the pre- 
sent practice this course cannot be adopted. 
Inquirers are deterred from referring to 
Records by the total amount of the reiter- 
ated fees, and are thus compelled to copy 
erroneous or quef^tiouable statements from 
earlier authors. 

*' The literary men of the present day 
find it necessary for the establishment of 
truth to verify the authorities and refer- 
ences of earlier writers, but the amount of 
the present fees compels inquirers to ac- 
cept statements professedly built upon the 
authority of the Records as they find 
them. Thus doubt and mistake are per- 
petuated and made part of our national 
history, and thus time, which ought to be 
a test of truth, is often made to lend ad- 
ditional authority to error. 

'• The present practice cannot be de- 
fended on the ground of its productive- 
ness to the national revenue. The amount 
received for literary searches is altogether 
insignificant except to those who pay it. 
The attainment of historical truth — an 
object in which the whole nation is inter- 
ested—is therefore prejudiced, and in 
many cases defeated, by the enforcement 
of fees which produce the nation abso- 
lutely nothing. 

" The exclusion of literary men from the 
inspection of the Records excites a de- 
mand on the part of persons interested in 
historical literature for the continuance, 
at the expense of the Government, of 
works similar to those published by the 
late Record Commission. If access were 
freely granted to the Records, such de- 
mand would be silenced ; for such publi- 
cations would be undertaken by the nu- 
merous existing publishing societies, or 



1851.J 



The Record Offices, 



f» 



by oCto' volaotary fttMidiitions which 
woold he instituted for the purpose, as 
well at hj iadiTidaa]s« Every tlung" that 
b htfttoricatJy valonble at the BritiBh Mn> 
scum is publbhed without difficuUy as 
soon »s it IS discovered. 

" Even in esses in which free aceeas to 
maooscripts doea not Jead to their being 
printed, it promotes transcnptjont which 
teodf to prescrre valaable information 
against the unavoidable danger of totsl 
loflft to which it is liable whilst e^xbting 
in a single copy. With a view to thi« 
danger the House of Commons ordered a 
tnnscnpt to be made of the ParliameD- 
I tary Surrey of 1650, a manuscript exist- 
ing in the library of Lambeth Palace, and 
examples might be adduced of tbe cOTiteats 
of Cottooian MSS. destroyed by Are iu 
1731. haTing been partially supplied 
pthriHigh the meafiA of notes and tran- 
i acTipts preriously made by persons who 
had access to the MSS. 

** Many of the most valuable historical 
I works of past ages— such works, for ex- 
ample, as Dugdale'f Baronage, the founda- 
tion of all our books relating the peerage ; 
Madox*s Hiittory of the Exchequer, the 
I baaia of much of our legal history : Tim- 
Dcr^s Notitia Mooastica, the groundwork 
I of our monastic history ; and Rjmer's 
Fofdera, which first enabled historical 
writers to put general English history 
I Upon a sure foundation — were all compiled 
I principally from the Records, Every 
I oage contains many references to tliem. 
rit ia a common complaint that now-a- 
dayt no such works arc published. Under 
tbe present practice such works cannot be 
compiled^ nor can the improved hiiitorical 
criticism of the present age be appljed to 
the correction of tbe errors which unavoid- 
ably crept tato such works published in 
" nes past. 

" Lastly, the undersigned desire to 

^atate distinctly that they do not solicit 

this permission on behalf of any persons 

l^cogagcd in Record searches for legal pur* 

|.JK>sar or for any jjersous whatCTcr save 

I those who are carrying on researches for 

I historical or other literary objects ; and 

I tliey would most readily acquiesce in and 

[ japprove of the most stringent precautious 

against any abuse of the privilege which 

they solicit on literary grounds solely. . 

"' The nndersigned therefore beg with 

the greatest respect to solicit your atten- 

I tion to the circumstances they hare stnted, 

and to request that you would be pleased 

to make an order that persons who are 

merely engaged in historical iriquiry, anti- 

L^jUarian research, and other literary pur- 

[iuita connected therewith, should have 



iwrmiiflioti granted to them to have acoeia 
to the Public Records, with the Indexes 
and Cdlendora, without payment of any 
fee. 

'" And the undersigned have the bo* 
nour to be, Sir» with the greatcBt 
respect, your most obedient and 
very humble servants/' 

The Signatures to tbia letter are 
headed, we rejoice to hear, by Lord 
iSluhon—ever ready to t^ike tlic lead 
ill any literary cause — by Mr. Hjillanj, 
Mr* ilaeaiUaj, atid Sir Robert Inglis. 
Theste named — fiiogly entitled tu so 
much respect and deference — ibrni, in 
their comb mat ion, u ^xmcr which it 
would be impossible for any one not 
to treat with the very highest consi- 
deration. The other signatures will, 
we hopci comprise the leading names 
ia our literature, — Mr* Carlytci Mj-. 
Chtules Dickens, ilr. Douglas Jerrokl, 
Mr. John Forster, and many others ; 
with representatives of our hiatorical 
and antiquarian societies, the Bishop 
of Oxford, Lord Strangford, Lord 
Braybrooke, Lord Talbot, Mr. Hey- 
wood, Mr. Payne Collier, &c, &c» In 
our next nniuber we shall hope to be 
able to priut all the signatures. 

A\^e cannot doubt that the deputy 
keeper of the Records, Sir Francis 
Palgrave, who we believe has long 
been favoumble to the grimtino^ of 
the permission which ia now solicited, 
will give tbe application the important 
ud vantage of bis cordial i^upport, whilst 
^Ir. Duffus Hardy, Mr. Ounter, Mr, 
Black, and tlie otlier beads of depart- 
ments — ever bo kind iitid liberal to all 
literary applicants— will no doubt wil- 
lingly concur* And all of them will 
agree with us that a meoaurc of relief 
to be effectual must be generous. The 
regulations of the State Paper Office 
stand as a warning and an example of 
ji way in which the fees at the Record 
OtEce might he given up without any 
consequent; relief to literature ; the 
other restrictions which are imposed, 
on application for inspection of papers 
in the State Paper Oflice, would, ii" 
imported into our Record Officer, 
merely irritate and lead to new com- 
pluinti?. In dealing with the present 
application we have no doubt tbnt 
every thing of this kind will be avoided. 



Gent. IIkg, Vol. XXXVL 



10 



THE PEDESTAL OF THE STATUE OF KING CHARLES AT CHARING 
CROSS NOT CARVED BY GIBBONS. 



Mb. Ubban, 

I HAVE elsewhere * corrected the 
biographers of Le Scsur, the historians 
of art in England, and the writers of 
books about London, in the accounts 
tfaej hare given of the famous statue 
of Charles L at Charing Cross, and 
have now to correct the biographers of 
Gibbons, the hbtorians of Srt m Eng- 
land, and the writers of books about 
London, in the accounts thej have 
given of the beautiful pedestal on 
which the statue stands. 

The pedestal it is said was the work 
of Grinling Gibbons. Walpole, with 
the faithful Vertue for his guide (I use 
the epithet without a sneer) was the 
first to assign it to the chisel of our 
great carver in wood. But Walpole 
was wrong. The pedestal was wrought 
by Joshua Marshall, master mason of 
the works to Eing Charles IL You 
will ask my authority, and I reply — 
the accounts of the paymaster of the 
works and buildings from 1 April, 
1676, until 31 March, 1677, in which 
the following entries occur : — 

" Alio allowed y* sd acco»*»» for money 

by him issued, pd, and defreyed for the 

eztraordioary worke done (within the 

tyme of this accompt) in makeing a pedis- 

tall and other workes about setting up the 

brass figure at Charing Cross, viz*.-— 

*' To Joshua Marshall, ma' mason, for 

the pedistall, carving the releives, in- 

riching the capitall, paveing w*^ Purbeck 

■tone within the railes and placing 

ixviij* great stoope stones w»^out y« 

circle and other Free Masons worke 

relateing thereunto as by arreemS 

404/. 28. 6d, 

'* William Beach, smith, for the iron raile 

ballister and palisado barrs w*>> other 

smith's work thereto belonsinff. 

69/.14t. llrf. *^ * 

'* John Jolly, pavior, for lerelline and new 

naveing y* ground round Sboni the 

flgure, conteyning 1733 yards, and for 

other senrices, 88/. Ot. 4tf. 

•• John Bridges, bricklayer, for 2 rods 9 

foot of brickework under the foundation 

of the stone curb, 93 yards one foot of 

pa?eing with Flanders bricke, makeing 

two draines, and other like senrices, 

35/. 1«. 

** John Sell, oirpenter, for workmanship 



and materialls used about makefaif a 
boarded fence about y« s<* figure, 
17/. 17*. lOd. 

*' Charles Atherton, plomber. for 9 cwt. 
of lead used in fastmng the iron worke, 
6/. 9«. 9d. 

** John Cole, brasier, for worke and ma^ 
terialls used about mending the brtN 
figure, a new brass bridle, and mending 
y« sword, &c., 16/. 10«. 

" Giles Reason, carter, for senerall dales 
work with his teames and labourers em- 
ployed to carry away dirt and soil, 
5/. 3s, id. 

** Robert Streeter, serjeant painter, for 
coburing in oyle, three times in a 

Slace, the iron railes, ballisters, &c., 
/. 4s. Sd. 

'* And to sererall labourers employed in 
wheeling of earth and rubbish to raise y* 
ground under y* brick pavement, filling 
of carts, and watching by nights, &c., 
2/. U. 9d. 

*' In all the said charges of y« s** worke 
in making the pedistall and other worket 
about setting up the brass figure at 
Charing Cross, 668/. 6«. Id.'* 

The roll of the declaration of these 
accounts, from whence the above ex- 
tracts are made, is preserved in the 
Audit Office. The roll for the pre- 
ceding year includes a preliminary ex- 
pense of 13/. Ss. for work done in July, 
August, September, and October, 1675, 
on account of the same pedestal. 

I have seen Sir Francis Chantrey and 
my father stand before this pedestal, 
admiring the harmony ofits proportions, 
the force and delicacy of^ its details. 
Both were capital judges. Chantrey was 
originally a common carver in wood — 
my father originally a common stone 
mason, and each has left a lasting mo- 
nument of taste and knowled^ m the 
fine arts. Whv are their hves uii* 
written? Alas I what Allan Cunning- 
ham should have done was reserved 
for another — I hope not as Prince 
Arthur was reserved for Blackmore 
and not for Dryden. 

Who was Joshua Marshall I think I 
hear you ask P I will tell you some 
day in an annotated Walpole. 

Petes CuNNnvoHAM. 

Kensington^ 5 June. 



* Handbook for London. 2nd ed. p. 106. 



!1 



THE DAY-BOOKS OP DR. HENRY SAMPSON. 
f Concluded from Magatin€/br April, p, 388.^ 



\ 



THE foUowififf anecdote is cha- 
rftcterifttc of bo3i the parties to it. 
The excited Puritan, acting upon a mis- 
take whicli has ever been too commofii 
accept* strong feeling as evidence of 
a divine mt^tsion. The heedless sove- 
reign is for a moment startled. He 
liatens to the solemn forebodings of the 
sell^seut prophet with feelines akin to 
awe and sorrow. But the Aock soon 
ptaait OTer. In a few moments his 
nuije^ty recoyers his wonted jwlite- 
nesf, and bows out the tntnider with 
the most courtly and refined fjeatility- 

Richard Frankland, to whom thia 
jtoiT relates, was a celebrated non- 
Ooo&rmist diyiue, born in 1630, at 
T U th m ely io the parish oi' Gig^Ieswick, 
in Yorkahire. He was ^I.A. of Christ*? 
coUcjge, Cambridge, and received Pres- 
Imerian ordination in 1658, Aft^r 
lae Restoration he was ejecteil from 
iervrsl preferments, and subjected to 
a good deal of harsh treatment. He 
died in 1698. 

Tlie old Earl of Manchester here 
menticined was the well-kuown Lord 
Kimbolton of the reign of Cbarles 1. 
" M«. FiLANKLANii'ii, tht mtn^conformiii 

mitiiittr, kh goinff fo Kino Charlcs 

Secovo. 

'» Himself told me that hi; had a iriolent 
impulse apon his mind to ^ to the king ; 
thit be could seitber study nar do anything 
elie for several dajs, till he Cook up a re- 
/^lution (hut he would go to him» He 
■cqaaintfd somes with it, who spent tome 
thBe ia prajfir, as hiixi«elf also did at other 
doMib He wrote down what he intended 
10 sar to him, thinking it too adTenturons 
to apeak to a king extempore, or what 
preteace of mind he might then hare. 
So be goes to the old earl of Manchester, 
lord ehamherUin, who naed him Tery 
fHeadty, and desired him that he would 
bring him to speak to the king. The earl 
wtjaJd fain harr known what he would 
My to him, but he would not tell him. 
The ear! appoints him a place to stand at 
when the king was to pass by to the 
eoODciL When the king came out, * That 
It the tun * said the earl, ' would s|>eak 
toyoar majesty.* The king asked him. 
• Wotdd yon speak with me ? ' * Yej^/ 
iiid hct ' bat in private.' So the kiog 
ilept aside from the nobility that followed. 
Them Mid Mr. Fraaklatid. ' The Eternal 



God, whoi^e I am ami whom t serve, com- 
mands you to reform your life, your faaaily, 
your kingdom, and the church. If you do 
not there are fresh Judgments of God im- 
pending (at which words he grew pale and 
changed countenance) that will destroy 
yoa and the kingdom,' * I will,' saith 
the king, * do what I can.' Mr. Prank- 
land repeated the latter part, and added, 
' I koow the wrath of a king is as the 
rosring of a lion, but for the s&ke of your 
soul I have taken up this speech, and 
leave it with you/ The king hatted 
away, saying, * I thank you, sir/ and 
twice looking back before he went into 
the council chamljer, said * I thank yott, 
sir.' But he siaid and did not.'* fo. 18. 

The next anecdote gives us a glimpse 
jit Titus Gates, near the close of hia 
infamous life, and bis own explanation 
of one of those terrible incidents which 
brought so much dis^ace upon Eng- 
glaua in the reign of Charles U. Ire- 
land was one of the three Jesuits who 
were convicted and executed on the 
evidence of Gates and Bcdloe. 



** Dr. Oats*s tiory of the samk Kiko. 
September 'lUh [1 6] 95, 
^' It is not a week dnce Dr* Oata, as ha 
itf called, dined with Mr. Howe and de« 
lired to commui^icate with him at the 
Lrord's Supper. Mr. H. put him off, «q4 
toM him he would not expose him. fiitt 
Qoiongst other discourse he told hira, that 
about two months before he difclosed the 
plot, be was at a privat** mass with Ireland, 
where king Charles, the duke of York, 
and the duchess of Ports month communis 
cated. He says alio, that Ireland had a 
particular kindness for him. He never 
designed the accusing of him, but being 
upon bis oath, he was forced to say what 
he did. lliat after condemnation he wt4 
with Irelmnd^ who upbraided him : * but,' 
says Oates, * I am sure the king will par- 
don you,' and to that purpo'ie he says he 
went to the kirig, ami pleaded hard with 
him to spare Ireland. The king spake 
and looked very severely on him » and said, 
or swore, he would not. • I can deal,* 
said he, * very well with one of yoa, but 
I know not what to do with you both.* 
He then went to the ducheis of Forts- 
mouth, and desired her to intercede tot 
Ireland, who said she knew the king waa 
inexorable, aad when he could do nothing 

with her he went away calling her .He 

said, also, Ireland bade him take heed of 



12 



The Day-Books of Dr. Henry Sampion. 



[July. 



the king, for he would deceive him." fo. 19. 
** Penes authoremJSdes esto,** 

The following is an excellent anec- 
dote of two cSebrated men. Owen 
died in 1683, therefore of course the 
storj must be dated in or before that 
year. "Mr. Gilbert*' wa» probably 
the Bev. Thomas Gilbert, a non-con- 
formist divine of some eminence, of 
whom an account will be found in 
Wood's Athen® Oxon, iv. 406, and in 
Nonoon. Memorial, iii. 145, ed. 1803. 

*' Of Mr. Baxtbr and Dr. Owbn. 

** Mr. Gilbert told a fnend, he had 
been to Tisit Mr. Baxter that morning, 
whom he found hard at study, and ex- 
pressed himself to be very desirous that 
God would spare his life, till he had finished 
some studies and thoughts he was about 
for the church of God. * Truly,' said 
Mr. Gilbert, * I think tou are in the right 
on*t You may do God more service here 
on earth than you can do in heaven ; ' 
which saying pleased Mr. B. mightiiy, 
and made him paraphrase upon it From 
him Mr. Gilbert went to Dr. Owen, whom 
he found grunting and weary, and wishing 
himself out of this world. ' See,* said 
Mr. Gilbert, ' how you two great men, 
Mr. B. and you, that could never agree 
in TOur lives, cannot hit it in the matter 
and manner of your dying.' * Why,* saith 
the doctor, * what saith Mr. Baxter ? ' 
So Mr. Gilbert told him the story, * and ' 
saith he, ' I think Mr. Baxter is in the 
right on*t.' * Who is in the right and who 
is in the wrong,' said Dr. Owen, ' I know 
not ; but I would that I was in heaven." 
fo. 26. "FromMr. M.»' 

The next string of anecdotes is 
worthy of notice, if only on account of 
that one which relates to Lord Chief 
Justice Ray, or Wray. The parent- 
age of this great legal functionary has 
b«en quite uncertain. The research 
of Lord Campbell could only discover 
two contradictory statements upon the 
subject in the books of the Heralds* 
College; we trust that of Mr. Foss 
will be more successful. The follow- 
ing story has the merit of being pic- 
turesque, and may very possibly be 
substantially true. 

The son of the Jenkinson who re- 
nounced the leather doublet on acced- 
ing to the wealth of Paul Hobson, and 
Who is alluded to as having obtained a 
baronetcy, was Sir Paul Jenkinson of 
Walton, m the county of Derby. He 
was created a baronet on the 17th 



December, 1685. The title became 
extinct on the death of bis son the 
third baronet. Sir Jonathan, on 28th 
June, 1739. 

The Foleys will not, we hope, object 
to be reminded of their honest descent 
from Groodman Foley, the nailer. 

*' Intianeu of men thai have leapt Mo 
great estates from almost nothing , as-^ 

*' 1, Paul Hobson, of Darbyshire, 
who was first a carrier, afterwards dealt in 
lead. He left his sister^s two sons (Jen* 
kinsons) executors. One of them when 
he was to go into mourning for bis unde 
came in hjs leather doublet. The tailor 
pulled it off to take measure of him, and 
when he had done bid bim put it on 
again. ' No ' saith be, * I'll put on the 
leather doublet no more.' One of this or 
the other brother's sons is now a baronet 
upon what the old carrier left.'* 

" 2. Sir Christophbr Rat, Lord 
Chief Justice of England in Queen Eliza> 
beth*B time. He was bom in Yorkshire, 
at Bedale, but bis father came to be a 
miller in Lincolnshire, and bred np this 
son Kit so well as the country school 
and writing could help bim. At breaking 
up, he would have bad a shilling from his 
father, but be would give bim bat eight 
pence, at which he was so discontent he ran 
away [and] begged his bread with a copy of 
Terses at a justice of peace's door ; upon 
ftirtber discourse he took him in and in a 
little time became his clerk. He after- 
ward commended him to some lawyer, 
where he was clerk; so afterwards he 
studied and practised the law, till at length 
he became a serjeant and judge, and being 
in that circuit he made an errand and sent 
for his old father, who knew him not, nor 
had yet heard what became of him, or any 
thing of bis greatness. He sent his coach 
for him and his mother, who began to be 
afraid, and told the messengers they never 
spake a word against my lord judge in 
their lives. They were encouraged to go, 
and when they came, he asked the old man 
about some land be was disposed to buy, 
and then strictly about his children. 

* Had you never any else ? ' said he ; 

* Yes,' said the old man, * one proud boy 
that went away from me.' * I am that 
proud boy,' said the judge, and so like 
another Joseph was made known to his 
father, whom be owned before them all, 
and no doubt nourished him in his old 
age, though the old man was in so good 
circumstances as to live of himself and 
leave his mill." 

*• 3. The flourishing family of the Fo- 
LYES, whereof there were three brothers of 
great estates, all parliament-men (one of 
them Speaker} m this and theformer parlla- 



18«l.} 



The Datf'Bookf t>fDr. Henry Sampion. 



\Z 




I 



mtntf tod two of thfir eotu pftj-llomeat-meo 
ako, yet til of the m the grand cbildren of 
Goodman Folj the nailer, who falling in- 
dustriouslf and successfully to raalce iron, 
left a plentiful estate to that ivortby and 
hone«t gentlemaa Mr. Thomas Poly Uis 
■cm, and he Try the tame waji increased it, 
till he left each of these, three gentlemen 
an estate of jt'it^OO per aoDum, and to be 
lUre the clde&t moreWgely, — My brother 
Wooley." fo. 43. 

'Una ttory of Sir Chriiito[jlxer Wra;^ 
wUl lead properly to one about hiB 
gratia* auccessGor Lord Chief Justice 
H»Ie. 

*' Loiu> CaiBV JusTfci Bale. 
** 165H. Aug'. My brother W. Wooley 
haa ofitoo told cne a atory of a person that 
bad beflo long out of England, waa cast 
upon the shore of Cornwall, where being 
bUQger-bitten, he opened a window, where 
he eif led a loaf, took and ran away to eat 
it, hoc being apprehended Wiis sent to the 
gaol and tried for his Ufe before judge 
Hak? The jury wa* shirp upon him, and 
br a in guilty of the burgUry* 

'J igu<?dwith them that it was 

t>tti i.. ^"4.J^ly tiis hunger, &c, that if he 
waa guilty he mutt die for tt, however 
ibey went out and brought him in guilty 
A iecotid time, lie agaiti arguea with 
them, and with much ado they acquit 
him. Some years after the same judge 
waa riding the eircnlt in the north, and 
meetiag with over great entertainment by 
the aheriffv chode him much, and told him 
what & bad cstample he had giren. * Truly, 
my lord,' aaid the sheriF, * I should not 
have doike to miich for any other judge » 
bat for your Lordship 1 can aever do too 
macb. You saved my life.' ' Uow bo? ' 
Sitd the judge. " 1 was arraigned before 
jfou,' said the sheriff, * you sent out the 
jury agua and again till they quitted nie.' 
"^ Are you the man,* sajd the judge, ' that 
mt annigned for stealing the louf : ' 'The 
very fame man/ replied the sheriff; ^ since 
then such and such friends are dead, a 
i catate is faUen to nie, and I am in 
_^ IHMtyoasee." fo. G. " Penes autho* 
fvfitjfd!ii9 #f/o/' 

If the fallowing witticistii oi' uuotber 
judge l>e uot new, which we scarcely 
tlutik it is, its repetition may be ex- 
Ctt!<ed, I, because it is very excellent^ 
and 2, biH-auiM? it is here atitbenticrtted, 
\y beiJig trrtceJ up Ut CUrendoa's owu 
time, aud Ut the sober, truth-loving 
lip« of Dr. Howe* 



** A aiEPAJiTEE or CuAKCSLioit Hyde. 
'^ Madam Ciitleamui was rery angry 
with him ooce (though he brought her 
into her dichonounble hoaour) and in 
great indignation told him, * I hope to live 
to see yon hanged.' * Madam,* said he, * I 
hope to live to see you old.''' fo. ^7. 
*' From Dr. Howe.*' 

The next extract contains a nflrnt* 
tive of a very singular legal case^ vrhieli 
comes down fo U:* upon the most un- 
quegtionable autliority — that of the 
old Serjeant who* at>er haying been an 
original member of the Long Parlia- 
ment of Charles I. lived as father of 
the bur to congnitulute King William 
on his accession in 1 ^SS^ and, on ilmt 
occasion, at the age of 85, made one of 
the I'eadiest and wittiest impromptu 
answers ever spoken.* It would be 
difficult to parallel the following 
relation of superstition and mirierable 
iiiguHicieucy of legal proof. But the 
worst part of tho matter is that the 
acute lawyer by whom tlie account 
was penned waa evidently so entirely 
under the trammels of the practice and 
notion? of his lime tliat he did not dis- 
cern either the extent or real cbarnc- 
ter of the absurdities which he relates* 
We have no roonj for the comment 
which the narrative invites. It mu?<r 
be lii\nded over to some future eilitor 
of English Carney CHibre4^ or some 
commentator upon the history of po* 
pular duperstition. 

'* SitiQi/hAn iNSTAJ«CK *0F SupEa^(- 

TION, A.n. 1629. 
'* The rase, or rather hUtory qf a oBte, 
ihat happened m the county of Hertford 
in the Aih year qf the reign iff king 
Charles the Firtrt, which was takenjin^m 
a MS, qfSerieant Mainard^ Ufho write* 
ihUi : 

*' I write the evidence which was given, 
which I and many others heard, and 1 
write it exactly aocording to what was de* 
posed at the trial at the bar in the King'^s 
Bench* Johan Norkot, the wife of Arthut 
Norkot, being murdered, the question was, 
how she came by her death. The coroner's 
inciuc>t on view of the body and deposi- 
tion of Mary Norkot, John Okeman snd 
AgneA bis wife, inclined to find Joan Nor- 
cot Jeto de fet for they [i. e. the witnesses 
before mentioned] informed the coroner 
and the jury that she was found dead in 



^ ■* You most have outlived many of your legal hrethren/' remarked William^ when 
Hm «ged Uvryer waa introduced to him. * If it had not been for yon, sir,** waa hh 
' 1 ihotttd have outtived the latr itself/* 



14 



1%« Day-Sooks of Dr. Henry Sampson. 



[July. 



the bed and her throat cut, the knife stick- 
ing in the floor of the room ; that the 
night before she was so fonnd she went to 
bed with her child (now plaintiff in this 
appeal), her hnsbaDd being absent, and 
that no other person after such time as 
she was gone to bed came into the honse, 
the examinants lying in the outer room, 
and they must needs have seen if any 
stranger had come in. Whereupon the 
jury gave up to the coroner their verdict 
that she was felo de ae. But afterwards, 
upon rumour in the neighbourhood, and 
the observation of divers circumstances 
that manifested that she did not, nor ac- 
cording to these circumstances possibly 
could, murder herself, thereupon the 
jury, whose verdict was not drawn into 
form by the coroner, desired the coroner 
that the body, which was buried, might 
be taken up out of the grave, which the 
coroner assented tO| and thirty days after 
her death she was taken up, in presence 
of the jury and a great number of the 
people, whereupon the jury changed their 
verdict. The persons being tried at Hert- 
ford assizes were acquitted, but so much 
against the evidence that the judge (Harvy) 
let fall his opinion that it were better an 
appeal were brought than so foul a mur- 
der should escape unpunished. 

'* Anno, poMcfuB termino, quarto Caroii, 
they were tried on the appeal, which was 
brought by the young child against his 
father, grandmother, and aunt, and her 
husband Okeman, and because the evi- 
dence was so strange I took exact and 
particular notice of it. It was as followeth, 
vix*. After the matters above mentioned 
and related, an»ancient and grave person, 
minister of the parish where the fact was 
committed, being sworn tu give evidence 
according to the custom, deposed, that the 
body being taken out of the grave thirty 
days after the party's death and lying on 
the grass, and the four defendants present, 
they were required, each of them, to touch 
the dead body. Okeman's wife fell on 
her knees and prayed God to show token 
of their innocency, or to some such pur- 
pose, but her very words I forgot. The 
appellers did touch the dead body, where- 
upon the brow of the dead, which was of 
a livid or carrion colour (that was the ver- 
bal expression in the terms of the witness) 
began to have a dew or gentle sweat 
[which] ran down in drops on the face, 
and the brow turned and changed to a 
lively and fresh colour, and the dead 
opened one of her eyes and shut it again, 
and this opening the eye was done three 
several times. She likewise thrust out the 
ring or marriage finger three times and 
■ailed it in again, and the finger dropt 
Dlood from it on the grass.'* 



*< Hyde {Nlcholat,) Chief JuiHe; 
ing to doubt the evidence, asked Uie wit- 
ness ' Who saw this besides yourself? ' 

** fVitneae. * I cannot swear that others 
saw it; buf, my Lord,* said he, * I believe 
the whole company saw it, and if it had 
been thought a doubt, proof would have 
been made of it, and many would have 
' attested with me.' 

** Then the witness, observing some 
admiration in the auditors, he spake far- 
ther, ' My Lord, I am minister of the 
parish, long knew all the parties, but never 
had any occasion of displeasure against 
any of them, nor had to do with them, or 
they with me, but as I was minister. The 
thing was wonderful to me, but I have no 
interest in the matter, but as called upon 
to testify the truth, and that I have done.' 

" This witness was a reverend person 
as I guess about seventy years of age. 
His testimony was delivered gravely and 
temperately, but to the great admiration 
of the auditory. Whereupon, applying 
himself to the Lord Chief Justice, Ike said, 
' My Lord, my brother here present ia 
minister of the next parish adjacent, and 
I am assured saw all done as I have 
afiirmed,' whereupon that person was also 
sworn to give evidence, and did depose 
the same in every point, vix^ the sweating 
of the brow, the changes of its coloor, 
opening of the eye, the thrice motion of 
the finger and drawing it in again ; only 
the first witness deposed that he himself 
dipped his finger in the blood to examine 
it, and swore he believed it was really 
blood. I conferred afterwards with Sir Ed- 
mund Vowel, barrister-at-law, and others, 
who all concurred in this observation, and 
for myself, if I were upon my oath, can 
depose that these depositions, especially of 
the first witness, are truly here reported 
in substance. 

" The other evidence was given against 
the prisoners, viz^ against the grand- 
mother of the plaintiff and against Oke- 
man and his wife, that they lay in the 
next room to the dead person that night, 
and that none came into the house till Siey 
found her dead next morning, therefore iif 
she did not murtber herself, they must be 
the murtlierers, and to that end further 
proof was made. Ist. She lay in a com- 
posed manner in her bed, the bed cloaths 
nothing at all disturbed, and her child by 
her in the bed. 2dly. Her throat was 
cut from ear to ear and her neck broken, 
and if she first cut her throat she could 
not break her neck in the bed, nor e co«i- 
ira, 3dly. There was no blood in the bed 
saving that there was a tincture of blood 
upon the bolster whereupon her head lay, 
but no other substance of blood at aU. 
4thly. From the bed's hmd there wae 



I 



1851-3 The Day'BQokM ofDr, Bmry Sampson. 15 

by those who a^re best acqu^t^ with 
the skilful picture * drawing of our 
modern historian. 
Ferguflooi " the Judaa of Dryden'i 



A ttream of blood oa the floor, tilt it 
pooded oQ the bendiog of the floor to a 
Tcry great qiuiQtity, sad there wat alio 
another itreftm of bloo^ on the floor at 
the bed*s feet, which ponded alio on the 
floor to aaother ^eat quantity, but no 
caadntixace or oommimlcation of blood of 
either of tbe<e two pUce«, the one from 
the other, Oieither upou the bed, so that 
ihe bled in two placa» teverallf. aud it 
ra depoved that tnmiiig: up the matte of 
liie bed there were dotta of congealed 
blood in the straw of the matt« under- 
neath. ^Chlj. The bloody kulfe \a the 
momini; wu found sticking in the floor a 
food ditftaQce froan the bed, but the point 
ol the knife as it stuck in the floor was 
tomirdf the bed and the haft towards the 
door. 6tbty, Lastly » there wnf the print 
of « tbamb and four flngeri of a left hand 
on t^ d«ad peraoa'fl left hand/* 

'* Hfdtt Chief JutUet. * Uow can you 
know the print of a left hand from the 
print of a n^ht hand in such a ca«e ? * 

•* n'itnesi. * My Lord, it Is hard to 
dei«rib« it, but if it please the honorable 
juidg* (i. ♦* the judfi;e sitting on the bench 
bonde tbc ehief-joatice) to put hU left hand 
on your left hand, you cannot possibly 
pliee yoiif rii^t hand in the snine posture. 

^ Which being done, and appearing so, the 
defettdanti had dme to make their defencet , 
bat gate no efidencefi to any purpose » 

•• The jury, departing from the bar and 
returning, acquitted OjiktDan» and fuund 
th« other tliree guilty ; who being severally 
demanded why judgment should not be 
pronounced eayd nothing^ but each of 
th«m &aid^ * I did not do it I 1 did not do 
il 1 ' Judgmeat waa given, and the grand- 
mother and tbe husband executed, but the 
aunt had the privilege to be spared execu- 
tion, beiug with child, I inquired if they 
eotifeaaed any thing at execution, but did 
DOtf aa I waj toy/* 

*^ Thus far Serjeant, aflcrwardi Sir John, 
Malnard, a person of great note and judg- 
ment !0 tbe law. The paper of which 
thia la a copy waa found amongst hij 
papen since bia death,* fair written with 
bia own handa. Mr. Hunt of tbe Temple 
took a copy of it and gave it me^ which I 
hiYf hither tranacribed* U. S/' 

Amoiitf the persona who figui-ed in 
tll«fel)«iBonB of Monmouth and Argyll, 
Ihd names of Rol»ert Ferguson and 
Riehftrd Ruinbold arc well known > 
Both hare been aketched by the ef- 
fective and ftdmirtible pen of Mr. Ma- 
cauUy ; but the additional information 
of Br. Sampaon will be valued even 



grefl.t aatire,'' was deeply implicated in 
the Rye House Plot ; i>exhaps its ori- 
ginator. On its discovery he bade his 
as«ociatcs " farewell with a laugh," 
says Mr. Maeaulayt ** and told them 
thit they were novices^ that he had 
been used to tlight, concealment, and 
disguise, and fiut he should never 
leave off plotting while he lived/' The 
ditlicuUies in the way of his escape 
may be partly estimated from Mr* 
Macaulay a de«^cription of his peraon : 
** his broad Scot^jh accent, his tall and 
lean figure, his lantern jaws, the 
gleam of his sliarp eyes, which were al- 
ways overhung by his wi^, his cheeks 
inflamed by an eruption, his shoulders 
deformed by a stoop, and his gait dis- 
tinguished from that of other men by 
a peculiar ahutlle, made him remark- 
able wherever he appeared. But 
though he wasi, as it seemed, pursued 
with peculiar animosity, it was whis- 
pered that this nniniosLty was feigned^ 
ami tliat the oflicer^ of justice had 
secret orders not to see him." How 
he escaped is thus detailed by Dr. 
Sampson, uik)u the uuthority of the 
chiet agent m aflording him assistance. 

** Ma. Robert Ferguson's kscapks. 

*' When he liad brought the Duke of 
Monmouth into the noose for which he 
died, he escajied himself by wandering up 
aud down in the country. [When he wat 
endeaTonring to make his escape after tbt 

Rye House Plot] he came to an inn in lit- 
toxeter ou a market day, when, two hours 
after, the proclamation was openly made 
for 500/4 to any that could apprehend him 
aud others there named. A woman stariag 
him In the face as he stood by the kitchen 
fire, cried out * Who have you got here ? 
A traitor ? * Upon which 8ugge«tioo tbc 
landlord, a Tory, took him iato hit cham- 
ber and tbongbt to have made a prey of 
bim, hut his l^art failed him, fearing the 
ignominy of betraying hi* guests. Late 
at night, in his chamber, he [Ferguson] 
overheard a man at prayers with bis family, 
and liked what he beard so well that he 
thought he waa a man to be confided in, 
and would needs Bend for him in the 
morning. Thia man proved to be Mr. 

Murial, then achoolmajter at Utloxeter. 

He bc^n freely to disooorae with him, 




* Sir John Maynard died in 1690. 



16 



The Day-Books of Dr, Henry Sampson » 



[July, 



and would have told his name, bat Mr. 
M. forbade him. However he conveyed 
him out of the town safely , walking with 
him three miles, and gave him recom- 
mendations to Newcastle under Line and 
Congerton. At Newcastle, being weary, 
he hired a horse and had a man with him 
to fetch him back ; he therefore went to an 
inn to set up his horse first, and asked for 
the gentleman^s house to whom he was 
recommended. The landlord has his eye 
upon him, and all having their mouths 
and thoughts upon the plot, designed to 
follow him. As soon as he came to the 
gentleman he asked where he had left his 
horse ? ' At such an inn,* said he ; * then ' 
said the gentleman, who was a sober and 
suspicious Dissenter, * it is not safe for 
you to be in my house,' and so packed 
him away presently. He had not been 
gone half an hour before the innkeeper 
and constable came to search for him. 
* He only delivered in a letter and is gone,' 
said the gentleman. So they missed their 
prey. He wandered farther, got into 
Holland, came over with the Duke of 
Monmouth, and how he then also escaped 
must be wondered at. One would think 
he was reserved for great service, but he 
has shaken off his profession of religion, 
changed his side, and is imprisoned for 
the plot against King William, whence he 
will hardlj escape if any thing that touches 
his life be made out against him.'' fo. 25. 
** From the same Mr. Muriall." 

Kumbold was the proprietor of the 
Rye House, and was mixed up in the 
plot. One of Cromwell's old Ironsides, 
a soldier of Dunbar and Worcester, he 
had passed through a life of danger 
and adventure, and was at no loss for 
resources on any emergency. He es- 
caped to the continent, returned with 
Argyll, was taken prisoner, and met 
his fate like a hero. The following is 
Sampson's note about him. 

** Op Mr. Rumbold. 
** He was an officer in Oliver Crom- 
well's army, a stout man, one that carried 
the old cause and the love of it in his 
heart. He was very lavish of his tongue, 
and was often so bold in speaking against 
King Charles II., that divers told him he 
would be hanged for it. It is well known 
he came with Argyll into Scotland and 
was there executed, his quarters broaght 
to the Rye-house. At his death he de- 
clared two things ; 1st. That he was one 
of the persons that stood upon the scaffold 
at Whitehall at the time the king was ex- 
ecuted, but did not the execution : which 
he declared that others might not be sus- 
pected or sought after upon that account. 
2 



3dly. That the whole business of design- 
ing to stop the king's coach and muiSer 
him at the Rye-house was a mere inven- 
tion ; that such a thing was talked of that 
it might be done by others he knew not, 
but that he ever spake of it with design or 
preparation to do it he utterly denied it 
upon his death. He was certainly a valiant 
man and abhorred base assassinations. 
He charged his son, upon his blessing, if 
ever such a war was raised against the 
king, to be of the same side he had been. 
He was an Anabaptist by persuasion." 
fo. 27. " From Mr. Fryar of Clapham 
and his wife." 

The following story reminds us of 
anecdotes which are now told of hu- 
man beings in the lowest grade of 
intellect. It seems scarcely credible 
that in 1630 any person in England 
should have been so ignorant. 

** A Pleasant Story of a Country- 
man WITH A Watch. 

** The famous Lord Brooke, about the 
year 1630, had occasion to light oflfhis 
horse and laid down his watch on the 
grass. It was a watch of great price, the 
case set with diamonds. He left it where 
he laid it, forgetting it. Riding up to his 
company, some of them asked what o'clock 
it was ? This made him feel for his watch. 
He now remembers where he left it. 
They all rode back with him, and near the 
place meet a countryman and ask him if 
he saw not a watch. * What's that ? ' said 
he. They told him it was a thing that 
clicked and shined. (He had never seen 
one before.) ' Oh,' says he, ' I shall show 
it to you. I've mauled it and made it 
give over clicking with my stick. You 
may come near it, it will not hurt you, 
I warrant you.' He had all- battered the 
watch to pieces, think in|^ it to be some 
poisonous animal in the grass." fo. 20. 

*' Mr. Sterry that was one of the com- 
pany told it to Mr. Howe." 

The unshaken firmness of William 
in. when he took leave of the States of 
Holland, preparatory to his departure 
for England, has been celebrated by 
Burnet and Macaulay. " The Grand 
Pensionary " remarks the latter, " an- 
swered in a faltering voice, and in all 
that grave senate there was none who 
coul(f refrain from shedding tears. 
But the iron stoicism of William never 
gave way ; and he stood among his 
weeping friends calm and austere, as if 
he had oeen about to leave them only 
for a short visit to his hunting grounds 
at Loo." The following is probably the 
account of the matter once current in 



195L] 



Geofiieti'tC De^sigiu 



17 



tbe beat inforoied circles hi Eng- 

'* A'iiijr IFf//*«)w'ji iakl g hU leant oftlU 
StaitM iif Amsterdam when he came /or 
England. 

•* He told thero he came now to Ukc it 
nay be his IasI lt»«e uf them : the advea 
towand fle«tf^ was very haxard<tiu. * 1 bare 
NJ i^ Ild yt^u," ^aitU he. * to the utmost of 
my pover* and nbereia I Imvc done well 
I bope yoQ accept of it, wherciD other- 
mi/tm 1 hope you*U pardon : ' whtuh he 
ejipreijcd so affectionately that they all 
«iept. but hioi&elf/' fo. 20 

W«i ahall cooclude our solcction 
trom Dr. Sampiion*8 manuscripts with 
s memoranduin which will probably be 
jlidlged to be of coDeiKlernble prote^- 
moojd ititertzst. lu it we see the ixrsi 
traces ot tbe introiJuction into nieUieal 
practice of what ia notv one of the 
commonest ua well as the moat va- 
Ituible of our rciuedml ngeuUk 

*• Of Ike effet^i 9f 5 given inwardly* 

** 1 lately j$avc to on <? Mr. Cole, a brick- 

fcycr. Id MonkshiJ Street* 8 omioc* of 

rude ♦ ttiiokiiig him to be pitst cure. 

had an ilittc pasfiion, hud veheiiifnt 

fotolenilite pama iu Ut» belly, [Mtop- 

In hit bowels], bad cold sweats oa 

hands, which were grown block with 

coldt no sensible pals^^ bit eye* »uak» an 

hjpocratical fac«, a straight and frec^ueot 

ort of breatbiDg, and all otJier tymptoma 

a dying maa. I gate a prognostic 

' hia danger, and told them the medi- 

Tbe tint half did no senaihle hurt, 

lecoad half gare him aomc little 

the next morotng in the urinal 

VI ere some little particlesi of tbe 



9 teen, which 1 gatbsred by and into a 
Altering pap^r, and hvinf; united they were 
aa big oa a smuli bead. He grew better 
daily« bat it wa» a week before the ^ be- 
gan to pas« , , . , aiid then iome ounces of 
it were gathered, 1 obaerved tbe iaoM 
long time before it passed la Madam Anoe 
Mecklethwayt, who also recovered. Mr. 
Tyndal^ between the walli at Bog&den, 
took 3 pound of 9, and after 3 or 4 days 
time avoided it all, guUiered it all up, 
tiaved it iii a phial, shewed it to huudredit 
of persooj^, ttierc wtta not above a dram 
or two off Ibe whole weight wbeD it was 
taken t but neither of these two passed any- 
thing by urine* Madam Carre^ sifter to 
the Lord Wharton, took (for tiic luiine 
pains sad stoppages in her boweU as the 
3 former) crude 9, the phy«ician« {Dr. 
Meckti5lbwayt and Dr. Uliffbrd) garc 
order to mingle it well with conserve of 
cichurjr flower^.* Tbe apothecary (Mr- 
Freeomn, near Gray*s Inu Gate,) caused 
theitj to be beateo together 2 or 3 hotirM, 
whereby they were mightily in cur pi) rated, 
the patient awallowrd nil iu i or 4 bolu&e«, 
which »he found very heavy iu her titoinach» 
where thty lay many diiys tiil she fell itito 
a salivatiuo, which was loug, tedious,, and 
very great. She got off from it, was some- 
what eased of ber pains, but was never 
well afterwards, dying about a yeaf after* 
wards*" io, 16. 

We bid farewell tu Dr. Sumpaon, 
with a ho|>c thsit what we Imve pub- 
lisbed out of hiis Duy iSouk» will give 
tbeni u place Atnongour rticognised ma- 
nuscript biaioricsil uuthuritie^. Other 
pugsai^e^ remain unpublj&bed, which 
will well repay conisultation by ;dl in- 
tiuirers into tbe events of tjampson'ii 
period. 



GEOMETRIC DESIGN. 

The Infinity of Geometric Design exemplifiedr By Robert William Billings, 
Architect, Hon. Member of tbe Societies of Antiquaries of Scotluud and Newcjistle. 
upon-Tyite. 1849. 4 to. 

The Fower of Form applied to GeoiDetno Tracery* One Hundred Designs and their 
Poaodattooa resulting from one Diagram. By Robert William Billings, Associate of 
Institute of British Architects, fltc. J8S1. 8vo. 



MR. BILLINGS, in hi» very ex- 
tensive experience as an arcbltacturul 
dratightsoion, has for muny years de- 
||]|rbted to wrestle with all tbe diffi* 
jlties of perspective and proportion ; 
ad, whilst so engaged, be has bej^uiled 
moDotouj of his iabourit with the 



more enlivening effort to master the 
true spirit of the object of bis 5tudy. 
He baj endeavoured to penetrate be- 
neath tbe surface into those principles 
of design which actuated the older 
Jirtists, and which it may be fairlj pre- 
Bumed contain tbe secret of thetr siic- 



* We havr here so ^arty, pcrhapa Ibe earliest, form uf blue pill. 
GfcHT. Mag. Vol XXXVL D 



18 



Gemnetric Design- 



[July, 




cess. Though he does not qoestion 
the kindred knowledge which other 
practical artists may have acquired, 
hy searching in like manner for the 
primary elements of the knowledge 
of their profession, he claims to have 
been "first in the field to prove, 
that not only is the whole detail of 
Gothic Architecture founded upon 
geometric law, but that the power of 
design still remains with us, waiting 
only for its application.** He com- 
bats the notion that all architecture 
must b^ founded upon precedent, and 
ridicules the misappropriation of the 
term " design ** to a mere composi- 
tion of pilfered facts. He asserts that 
"to the skilled artist there is no 
more difficulty in exhibiting new com- 
binations of form than is experi- 
enced by the musical composer in pro- 
curing changes of sound, or by the 
arithmetician in varying the power of 
numbers ; ** and, in exemplification of 



this assertion, he has published the two 
series of designs, to which we now 
invite the attention of our readers. 

The quarto volume consists of forty 
plates ; the first twenty of which con- 
tain one hundred design for tracing 
panels, having a common diagram of 
four equal disconnected circles. 





He then proceeds to form deijigiva 
from four equul connetit^d circloa ; 
Atid afterwanlff from the din^ajiif^ of 
I some nncient panela which he found 
III Carlisle Cathednil, and Bmncepeth 
CUuirh. The re«uk h to whow that 
the combmattODfl and variations of 
form are atmoHt endless. 

*• With nature's b<m (idlest powers of 
ehnnge, all ore cof(verfiAfa<t ; and experi- 
tneat wilt show that eqi3»iUj ^nlimitl^d are 
I those of geometric art, in the |jrodiiriioii 
of com binat ions from q giren grotind- 
irorlr. 

*• One reiilar« is peeuh'tr to the Brance- 

p«th examples, a series of circubr iriicery 

I paoeU. ofion wliose diagnunf are founiJed 

' tho«eeihibir<d in pUtes 2I» ^5, and 29» 

f Tbe«c combination* of wheel or circular 

tracerjr, where one form is apparently on 

the contioual chase after snoiber, arc of 

the most intcre»tiii!<, lively, »nd even 

ptayfal d£»cription, cihibitinj^ at once un- 

^ poonded fscititf of dcjii^n mid pictare«c|Ue 

eomblnattoa of character,** 



Suiiie of the cat^kets, locks, and 
other works of the medireval smiths 
are the most beautiful produrtions of 
former times in thia atjle. But there 
are manj departments of ornamental 
art, hitherto foiifiue<l to other style?*, 
in which the application of geometric 
design would be equally novel am I 
appropriate, 

Afr. Billings's more recent volume 
pursucit the same objectj by exhiliit- 
in^j a series of one hundred deHt^iiSi 
ail resultincr from the smaller diagram 
shown in the next pajje, 

Thene de**igns are engraved on woihI, 
ami published at a price cnloulaled 
to make them generally accessible. 

'* In the first serie*, the secondsrf 
foundation of design in combiniition with 
four circlea, was neeestarilr tlic squire, 
or the octagon, two Azures a^reeiog in 
numbers with the primary diigram. In 
the pre »€ lit elTtirt. the wccondsry form. In 
couocctloft wv\h t\ie ihtte mAotcd v\\t\». 



•20 



Geometric Design. 



[July, 





is the equilateral triangle or the hexngon. 
Every geometrical figure numbering up- 
ward will be found to contribute its quota 
to this inexhaustible mine of linear de- 
▼elopement . . . The triangl<*, as a foun- 
dation for design, possesses greater power 
of variation than an j other figure. 



We have extracted two of Mr. Bil- 
linffs*8 designs from his later volume, 
with their accompanying diagrams, in 
which the curves and lines of which 
thej are composed are numbered in 
the order of their formation. In turn- 
ing over the book we find of course 
a continual approach to identity, but 
at the same time an almost infinite 
variety of expression. Some parts, as 
the small central triangle, and the 
spandrils in their outer boundaries, 
are less capable of variety than others. 
*' None of the ordinary figures apper> 
taining to Gothic Architecture have been 
used, excepting indeed as perfectly sub- 
sidiary to tlie general form. Thus, under 
the head of what has been usually termed 
design, the three circles of our diagram 
might each have been filled with a trefoil, 
a cinquefoil, and so upward in number. 
* Then, again, each of those figures might 
have inclosed a foliated or other oma- 




» 



menial boM in their centre, And the spdti- 
drils mi^ht baTc ht*^n varied to an inter- 
minable extent by objccti from the animal 
and ▼rgeUblc ksngdom. But all tbese 
hate been pnrpotcty avoided, in order to 
prove (he amount to be accompllibed vk ith 
mere Iracery." 

The author*s object, m brief, has 
been to exhibit variety of form. He 
frunkly Hdtujts that all the vurielies 
are nut e^jually lieiiutifiil, nor equally 
worthy of adoption, |But, he renmrke*, 
** if the case be so with the present 
•eriesf it is equally ao with many ex- 
amplef havinj^ only anliqulty to re* 
commend them." Hia siij/geations offer 
the freest exerciae to tnste, in the place 
of monotooou* and uni n tere« ting tn u to- 



lo^y. He inculcates the spirit which 
actuated the old masters, rntlier than 
a strict adherence to the put terns they 
chance to have left. Hi» aim h to 
check 

** thnt endleei rrpetttion which dift> 
graces our modern buildings exprcftned 
sarcasti rally as 'the artificial infmitc,* 
by i^roviiig that we have ihe power of 
proHucing the reality of infinity. Sup- 
posing (contrary to all modern practice) 
that a great builrling had to be erpcted, 
in which every wint^ow and every ceiling, 
the doors, waU'decomtionfl, screensi. and 
furnittire, required not fifty, but fifty 
thousand ditfrfent design^^ they could be 
produced by the aid of (iaed diagrsfni.*^ 




i 



CHRISTIAN ICONOGRAPHY AND LEGENDARY ART, 

By J. G. Waller. 

Thh IlEAVisifLr Host (cofttinufd). 

Third Order. — PHncipaliiiea^ ArchangeU^ Artgeltr. 



THE thiiti ortkr iii tfie mo»t import- 
ftQt in its i^inlicin tu art iiiiil icnno- 
\ srnphy of all the ranks of the Hewvcaly 
I Host; especiallj in reference to the 
, two last members, which pluy a great 
I part ill legenJnrjr history mid hy cttti- 
I ie*juence in Icfrendary art» Iinleed ni04*t 
i of theothersabdiviaionsof th«a heavenly 
I cUoir are^ as h were, refinements «f 
i tpeeulntion^ the cherubim and Keraphini 
^ excepted, as analogouit ideas («eeiu tu 
! have had a deep root in the £a«t at a 
periml of the moul Tenerable antiquity. 
The PBi!«cn*AUTiKS wena celestial 
tt>ints, each of which, uLTortrmg tti the 
. Golden Le^endt wa» ruler over a single 
I province. In the ** Guitle'* no distinc- 
(tion ia matle helwecMi the diilRrent 
f ltiemb4*rfi of the third order, which is 
I certainly ^in^ulir; hut it will Ik; found 
I tliHtt in all oarLv examples, the rnle iii 
bt^rne out» both in the Greek anrl Latin 
Clitiivh. In that manual of the Eastern 
Church which yet forms the ru le tor their 
artists* conventions, all the members 
of the third ortler are represented as 
clad in military vestment.-, with bunds 
of gold. *' They hold in their hands 
javelins with axes; the javelins ter- 
minated in lance-headji,** In the Latin 
I Church, celestial warriors armed as 
k Kildierm are always understoml to be 
the archangels, nor do I remember 
an instance where any others are at- 
tired UA In the extract alK>ve rnvt-n. 
On the imperial Dalmatie at Knrne, 
although there is no distinction ainon^ 
tlie mcmWrs of the third onler, yet 
none of theiu are «trme«i. Indeetl the 
I array of the AivliuogcU in armour 
I aimiiar to that of inorialsi belongn not 
I to the early ih*^e^ but is found froui the 
Ifburtoenth to the sixteenth centuries, 
I St. Mtchuel is always so dintinguisbed, 
' an<) occasionally others. 

At Ivirfin the Principalities art? 
repre*«ented as like the Powers, but 
with richer vestment?, and feet covered 
with hose, and they bear a branch of 
lily in the right hand. On the screen 
at Barton Turf thi>* is eAchan;;ed for 
a palm bntnch, at Stnithwold it ia a 




sceptre, but our ex- 
ample from Beau- 
chunip Chapel pre- 
sents uit with markcfl 
and distinct features. 
Not di tiering in 
many points froin 
other instil nces from 
the same series, ii 
yet bus [)eculiurities 
which are its own. 
The figure is ar- 
rayed m the garb 
of royalty, and with 
the emblems of tem- 
pi »rtd power only* A 
richly embroidered 
mantle is fliiStened on 
the breast; he bears 
a regal crown upon 
his head ; In bif* right hand he holds 
a sceptre, in his left an uplifted 
sword : these are the emblems of a 
prince, and mark the order cif Princi- 
palities. 

The Arc HA KG Ki^, To the Arch- 
angels, says Jacobus de Voragine in 
the (iolden Legend, were committed 
the rule of a single city, but this would 
give a very cirt*um*icribe<l oflice com- 
pared to that which the Archangel 
seems to hold in Christinn Iconography, 
Their p»wer was held at all times 
lu the highest estimation, not only 
amongst the Christians, hut by their 
antecessors the Jews ; and even by 
Mjihoniet, who embodied in his creed 
the doctrine of angels, which he doubt- 
less deriveil from the lutler- The 
AaciiAmiKL MicuAKt appe^u'M as the 
vanquisher of the Dragon, i, <?. Satan, 
or the spirit of evil; he h par ert^rllcnrt 
the leader of the celestial nrmie-s, anil 
to him is committed ihe office of soul - 
weighing, a myth that will be treat ei I 
more fully hereafter. In fact, from the 
fret^ucncy of bis iippesirance rn nie- 
dioval art, and the important part he 
is made to act, he takes rank before 
any other member of the heavenly 
host. ( )iie ancient writer calls St. 
Michael " Sanctus iirchitrapii, anima- 



4 




185L3 Cht*ittian Iconography and Legendaiy Art. 



1*3 



nueuiiY 



ruiu |TropugnAtor> corporum conser- 
Tftlor^ universseqae natursG illujstra- 
Uxr,** HU power over the iiiuli^ 
fptriU iti the creetl of the IVIidtlle A«^cs 
is.ilio atu*9ted by pruyer^ put into fhe 
iiionchs of the dyinjr, and nothing is 
more* common than to find uiourtg^t 
uld church belU one dedicAted Ut St, 
Michael, a^ « name {xitcnt over the 
powers of the tiir- The reverence tor 
thk archangel was grt*al mnon^st lUc 
Jews at a late period of their history; 
he waai Uieir RAtionnl protector. This 
doctrine cjafiily piiissod from them into 
the creed of the early Christians; — 
how soon, h»^ already been sh(»wii 
from its condemnntion by St. Paul. 

St. G abaiei. comes next ; he it wu8 
wbo •anounceil to the Virgin the tnes- 
Tffnice, " Hail Mary, thou that 
irMy favoured^ &c." lie conae- 
queutly plays a great part in ecolesi* 
Sistical art from the numerous repre- 
fetitationf! of that favourite subject. 
8t. Gabriel, however, although spe- 
eially hoDoured in the Christian 
Churdi, and frequently invoked in 
prayer and litanies. Is nevertheless 
the great patron of the religion of Ma* 
homet^ who seeiut^ to have chosen hitn 
in oppif^ition to St. Michael, go ho- 
noured by the Jews, It will be remem- 
bered, that it was the anjjel Gubriel who 
jfct*coinp4mie<l Mahomet in theeelebrateti 
night journey from Mecca to Jurusa- 
lem, and thence to the seventh heaven. 
There is a partial con sent, however, 
between the offices held by St. Gabriel 
and St. Michael under the Maliomme- 
dan system^ which e^howis their common 
ori^n. St. Gabriel is the ant;el of 
reviJatiun, and the recorder of the di- 
vine decrees ; but St. Michael is still 
the divine warrior or champion of 
heaven. St. Raphael, though con- 
stantly associated in the litanies with 
the other two archangels, dut*s not 
play so ^eat a part In the Christian 
mytholoigy. In apocryphal scripture 
he is made known to us, by his con- 
nexioD wltli the Story of Tobit. The 
other names of the archangels ore 
UrieU Jophiel, Abdieii &c. 

The iconograpbical history of St. 
Michael dates back to the hdh and 
sixth centuries of the Christian era, 
when representations of the measen- 

fers of heaven first began to be intro- 
uced ; but it is not until the age of 
symbolism had passed, that is, until 



after the second Council of Nice, that 
this history Ifecoines intei^stinff. In 
the earlier period there is little if any 
distinction between the array of the 
archangeS and tb»t of the other orders 
uf angels. In this particular, the in- 
fluence of Byzantine art shows itself 
to l>e paramount, and it is compara- 
tively late before we find the great 
archangel arrayed as a human warrior, 
and clad in the panoply of an earthly 
champion. In the encounter with the 
drcigon, a highly -favoured subject, and 
one which woultl be celebrated if only 
on account of the splendid picture by 
RnffaeUe, some of the earliest designs 
aflectonly the use of spirituai weapons. 
The archangel vamjuii^hes his opponent 
by the aid of a cross- surniountetl staff; 
ihus symbolising the victory of truth 
over error, the (>ower of the cross of 
Christ over the embodiment of evil. 
This mmle of ti'eating the subject con- 
tinues down to a late |>eriod, ami mny 
be noticeil on the coin called ** an 
angel,** from bearing on its reverse the 
figure of St. Michael vsim|uisbing Uie 
dragon. An interesting example of 
the archangel associated with this 
myth occurs in an Anglo-Saxon MS, 
in the Cotton collect ion j Tiberius, 
C, IV., the date being about the tenth 
century, and bearing in some portions of 
its execution considerable rcsembliince 
to the Beneilictionul of St. Etb*/lwold. 
Ill this design, St. Michael is uttired 
in a loose tunic, 11 owing to the ancles, 
over which he wears a robe some- 
what rei^mbling the Roman toga, from 
which it is doubtless copied : it is 
gathered up over the lett ahoulder, 
and one end floats freely to the wind. 
In his right band he brandishes* a lance, 
and in his left carries a semi*gtobular 
buckler^ with a boss in the Suxon form; 
hiu feet are bare, and his head is en- 
circled by a fillet, which appears to be 
connected by a rose -shaped fjrnamcnt : 
the wings are displayed, and the whole 
suggests an intention of vigorous ac- 
tion. The dragon has a lion^s head, 
and is winged. It has also a long tail 
winding in many a coil. Sculptures 
at this period are inferior as works of 
art to illuminations ; but 1 will allude 
to one example of the same subject, 
which will be useful as a comparison. 
This is preserved in the chiirt*b of St. 
Nicholas, Ipswich. Here St. Michael 
is represented in a long tunic, holding 



Christian leonography and Legendary Art. 



CJu'y, 



a sword in his right hand, ami a kite- 
8hn]>etl MM in the left. The intere«it 
of this relic is iocreaaed by Jin in- 
LRTiptiou in the vernacular tongue, 
cul m Urge letters on the ijiiJe of the 
Bfjure, to the effect that, " Here St, 
[Jflicbael fights against the Dragon." 
One other ejtaniple of this early period 
I shall be cited before 1 pass lo more 
[developed ideas. In the parapbra«e of 
ICajdnion^ phite vjj. ArchtcoJogia, voh 
rxjciv, entitled " The angela returuiug 
■to Paradi»e^"Sr. Michael appears at the 
{gat« or dot*rway of heaven^ which is 
lapproacbed by a very rude and un- 
I couth ladder- He wears a regal crown, 
land bis name ts inscribed above the 
[figure. The same attire is also given 
\u* Satan or Lucifer in two other in* 
I stances in the same work, in plate iv. 
I and in plate xv» In the latter, he is en- 
f ticing Eve to taste the forbidden fruit. 
The attire o( the angels and arch- 
kftngels up to the thirteenth and four- 
r teetith centuries does not very materially 
f difler, excepting pcrlmps that the areh- 
\ iingel IB distinguished by the fillet be- 
^ ft*re noticed; but as skill in the arts ad- 
vanced so also a greater ten dency to dia* 
, crimination ia observed^ and a greater 

► upmt of anthropoinorphisra^ ossinii' 
luting the diMtinetions amotig dlg- 

' nitaries in the realins above to those 
familiar to us on earthy until it fre- 

[ quently happens that the work of the 
artist, by interpreting the language of 

I metaphor in a literal sense, becomes 

► the meant* of adding new ideas to a 
^ legendary story, already fur removed 

► from the simple elements in which it 
I originate*!. 

In a painting of the fourteenth 
i century, discovered in the church of 
I Lenbam, Kent, reprejienting ** the 

weighing of soul^" St. Michael is ar- 
i riiyed in a lung tunic, nnd hus a mantle 

fastened upon the breast by a brooch ; 
[ hfs head is encircled by the nimbus, 
I and the feet are bare, as is generally 
I the case up to thrs period. In the 
j exercise of this important tunetion his 
I military array might not be expected, 
jtiut in later limes it is scarcely ever 
Idispenfled with. Hie curious example 
Tin the annexed en|p*aving is taken 
jlrom a M8, of the Koyal Library in 
lilie British Museum, called *• Queen 
I Mary's Psadrer:'' it is of the middle of 

the fourteenth century, and among its 

▼cry fine illuminationi* is one which I 



presume is intend- 
ed to represent the 
entire heavenly 
host, as it faces an 
invf>cation to " St* 
Michael, St. Ga- //, 
briel, St. Raphael, 
and all the holy ',, 
aogels.'* It is dis- 
posed in three 
rows, each contain- 
ing three figurefl, 
anil it is froui the 
middle of the se- 
cond row that the 
present engraving is taken. It will be 
perceived that the archangel in this 
example is attired in a full panoply 
of chain mail, over which he wears a 
long tunic or surcoat, aud about the 
neck a scarf or umice^ which is tied in 
front, the two ends hanging down 
upon the breast. It is worthy of notice, 
that all the examples here given pre- 
sent this gar men t» m\i\ at this period 
the seraphim aud cherubim are seldom 
without it. 

In the right hand the archangel 
b^jars a battle-axe, a very unusual 
accompaniment, but wliich is an evi- 
dence that even convent Jon could not 
always control the medireval artists 
from copying the thing>> around them* 
Another very remarkable feature, is the 
disposition of the wings which is that 
of the chernbira, two l>elng displayed 
above the head, two being at the sides: 
a somewhat similar example is to be 
seen in Beauchamp Chapeb There is a 
brass at Balsham, in Cambridgeshire, 
in which the conventional representa- 
tions of the cherubim standing upon the 
wheel are severally labelled with the 
names of the archangels St. Michael 
and St, Gabriel ; but an isolated case 
like this must be regarded as an 
error rather than appealed to as an 
authority- Throughout the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, St. Michael ia 
represented sometimes in '* complete 
steel,*' and in others merely with a 
lance, but at the close of tht* fifteenth 
century, or perhaps one may say as 
early at least as the middle of that 
era, St. Michael, and also the other 
archangels and higher order of the 
heavenly host, ore uttireti in a plimMse 
or feathered covering fitting close to 
the body Eke armour, with whicli, how- 
ever, I do not think it ought to be 



4 



1851. J Chrittian Iconography and Legfndaty Art. 



U 



I confounded. Witli the exce|itioii of 
I the phflae above noticed, St. Michael 
ii generally arrayed at the end of tLe 
^urteenth and during tbe fifteenth 
' eenturics in the costume of a knj^bt ; 
I but a fanciful adaptation of Roman 
f artuour was preferred by the artifits of 
I Ihe lieitaismTice, and it is thus tliat he 
^ mppeara upon the monument of Henry 
f vll. in Westminster Abbey, the work 
f of Torregiano. Of the first kin<l, there 
is a beautiful example in a MS< book 
I of Hours of the \ hr"m^ formerly in 
rihe library of the late Duke of Susiiex. 
i^The subject in which it oceura b il- 
lluatrative of the obsequies of the dead ; 
I IS the foreground of the picture^ priests 
Lftre performing the last rite of hu- 
[itianity, whilst above, m the air, a con- 
I test is going on between St. Michael 
i »nd a grim black fiend for the pos- 
P 1688100 of the Boul of ihe deceased. 
I-The archangel, a youthful figure with 
[ flowing hair, arrayed in the armour of 
^the filtec-nth century, over which he 
[wears a mantle fastened on the breast, 
[-catehes hold of the ascending spirit 
V with the left hand» whilst in the ri^ht 
f lie bears a cros^j-headed stalTor croeieri 
I with which he is thrusting back the 
f demon. Immediately above is the di- 
I Tine Father in Heaven, with youthful 
I attendant spirits, who are eagerly 
Lttretching towards the soul of the de- 
leeaaed^ to secure its advent to the 
If^lou of blias. Nothing can be more 
I delicate and beautiful of it^ kind than 
' this exquisite miniature, which belongs 
I to a period when many ancient con- 
ventions were disappearing, and when 
rihe art of illuminating itself was soon 
i to be superseded by printing and en- 
Eraving. With this I ehall close this 
brief notice of St* Michael, and proceed 
■"lo make a few remarks upon the repre- 
I sentatjons of St. Gabriel, which are 
next in importance. 

St. Gabbiei. does not diflfer in array 

from the other archangels in the early 

ijige of Christian iconography. As a 

lioly measenger, he bears u wand or 

Bceptre, which at last becomes sur- 

mountefl with a lily, or is in fact a 

branch of that flower. Among the 

I Greeks, as St. Michael was tbe warrior, 

I St. Grabriel was tbe priest, and waa 

foonaequently attired in dacerdotal gar- 

' ments, but this, although common m 

the Latin church, is too subject to 

cxoeptioQ to be put down as a general 

Gbmt. Mag. Voi« XXXVL 



rule« The cope and alb, however, 
are frequently given to St, Gabriel, 
and an ordinary cliaractertstic is a 
regal crown. In the Annunciation 
in the Benedictional of St. Etbelwold 
St. Gabriel is clothed in a loose tunic 
and mantle, tbe former being orna- 
mented with embroidery at the neck 
and round tbe sleeves. In his left 
band he holds a wand or sceptre, ter- 
minating in a fleiir-dc'lis or lily, and 
his right hand is in the act of benedic- 
tion. In the Psalter of tiueen Mary 
(Royal MSS. 2 B. VU.) the same ap- 
parel is viBible, but without the sceptre 
or the fillet which in the former design 
encircles the head. At the corner of 
a house in Bury St, Edmund's is a 
figure carved in wood, probably a 
portion of the Annunciation, or it may 
be a sign of the Archangel Gabriel, of 
the date of the latter half of the 
fifteenth century. It represents a 
youthful figure with flowing hair, 
crowned, and bearing in the right 
hand a sceptre with a tleur-de-lis 
termination, the hand of the left 
arm broken of!': the limbs are covered 
with the leathered panoply before de- 
scribed, but tbe feet are bare. The 
body is clad in akindof jupon^ around 
which is a jewelled baldric, the breast 
and shoulders being defended by plate 
armour, the precise form of which is 
somewhat indistinct. The wind's are 
broad, and reach to the ancles. There 
are other examples in which this arch- 
angel appears in the alb and amice, 
which are commonly anpropriated to 
the last member of the onler, the 
Angei; and others, as in an example 
in the Lady Cha|:>el, Winchester, in 
which no particular convention is 
used at alL In Beau champ Chapel 
St. Gabriel is represente<l in a higbly- 
enriched dalmatic, and bearing a lily, 
which is his most common distinction. 
St. Raphael in the same series, is 
well illustrated, and is a good example 
of the manner in which this archangel is 
ordinarily treated. He is represented 
as a pilgrim habited in a short white 
tunic with broad embroidered hem, 
a jjarland of roses upon his head^ and 
holding the bourdan or sttifT in his left 
hand; the variations from this type 
are not material. St> Jophjei. is said 
to have been the angel charged with 
the expulsion of our first parents from 
paradise. He is also in the above- 
E 



C^ritlian leonographt/ and Legendary Art. 



[July. 



named series the guard in u of tbc tree of 
life, And 18 represented in the fenthery 

Eanoply, holding a sword in his rieht 
ivnd, a branch with an apple in lijs 
left, and 8 tending before a sm&Il tree 
of the same ; on his head he wears a 
diadem surmounted by ft cro6»^ 

We have not space for a com- 
plete description of the many curious 
varieties of ihe angelic choir presented 
in the Beauchamp Chapet, not only 
in the st- ulpture which usks furnished 
the illustration, but in the windows, 
mutilated as they are, where the order 
of anffeb is represented singing from 
a scroll with musical notes, and which 
at one time wai* evidently carried 
round the chapel. In its pr(3i*ent 
state it 18 interesting, though aitBcult 
of examination, especially aa such nub- 
jects are extremely rare. 

The third member of this, the third 
order, ia the Angel, which gives the 
i^eneric term to the whole choir, but 
which here is limited to a special 
otHce, The angel is a sacred messen- 
ger to man, and presides over his indi- 
vidual welfare ; thus he takes the place 
of the good demon or cenius of the 
ancient mythologies. In legendary 
art the angel plays an indifipensable 
part ; he is not only the guardtfin pro- 
tector^ but the instructor of mankind, 
and is tbuj» the agent of superior intel- 
ligence. The province oi the angel is 
bounded by legendary authorities to 
the protection of an individual man 
or family, or of a church, although we 
ocoasionially find one of them presiding 
over the heavenly bodies. The sun ana 
moon are often represented in manu- 
flcripts of the tenth century and earlier 
OS guided by angels. This la parti- 
cularly to be noticed in representations 
of the Crucifixion, and sometimes the 
Mtar which guided the wise men to 
Bethlehem is held up by an angeh A 
remarkable instance of the latter is to 
be found on a piece of old embroidery, 
forming part of an mik'jtefniium^ in the 
p<>sses!iion of Mr, Bowden. Above a 
compartment, in which the subject of 
the three Magi with their offering is 
given^ and in which there is a st.ar di- 
rectly over the holy child, is an an^el 
seated upon a throne or seat, holding 
in iVont by both hands n duplicate 
figure of the same «tar» 

The representation of the angel can 
l>e directly traced to its origin in simi- 



lar figures of ^euii in classical art. 
Wings as an attribute have not always 
been constant. They begin in the fifth 
century, and instances of angels with- 
out them are not wanting as late as in 
the fourteenth century, not to mention 
examples by Kaflaelle, which I dt> not 
consider to «)elon^ t« our inquiry, as he 
was not governed ■by convention. In the 
enrly examples the angel somewhat re- 
minds us of the ancient herald in cos- 
tume, by the circumstance of carry- 
ing a wand, and this idea no doubt was 
adopted in considering their office of 
messengers. In the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries we find angels as- 
suming the vestments of priests — the 
alb, amice, daliiiutic, stole^ caT>e, and 
sometimes, though more rarely, the 
chasuble^ — a fact no less worthy of 
historical record than of philosophical 
importance^ as marking the progress 
and tendencies of the period. 

The most channing representations 
of angels, at all periods, are in those 
acts of joy whieh they celebrate with 
instrumental harmony. Tlic simplicity 
of these dciiigns, in which iuiinuterial 
beings are made to play upon pipe and 
tabor, the gittern, the fiddle or its pro- 
totype, the trumpet, &c. loses none 
i>f Its charm on account of its obvious 
inconsistency. Not only during the 
middle ages, but in the revival, artists 
seem to httve laboured with more than 
usual gusto on 
these subjects. The 
illustrntion that is 
here given is taken /T^? 
from a number of (|i//'\ 
graceful sculptures 1 .|i^^ 
on the columns of ' 
Beverley ^linster, 
date i<3urte^enlh 
century, and re- 
presents an angel 
playing upon the 
timbreK Hrnne ex- 
cellent examples of 
a rran gem e n t are to 
be seen on those 
beautiful brasses of 
Flemish design at 
Lynn RegisTandin 
that at TojjclilT 
in York&hire^ and 
North Miinms, 
Middlesex. 

The different ollices performed by 
angels, in medieval art, are too nu- 



M^: 



u^ 



1851.] Ch rhtian Icon ograph^ and Legefidary A rL 



I 



I 



merouB tu be mentioned. Tbej aid 
in Biiving^ souls from the clawu of evil 
ipiritSi and bear them in winding- 
BuiKJts to boaven. For this pur{K)at* 
they are always attendant on nmrtyr- 
doais and around the cJeath-bed:j of 
saints. Nor are they exempt from 
feelings in eonimunion with sorrowing 
or Buuerlng humnnity. They are oll:en 
represented weeping; and in legendiirT 
history tire the instruments by which 
the tormentors of the saint* are pu» 
niched. To exprcaa an idea of iiuma' 
terialily, some artists of the Ecmtis- 
mncc period have suppressed the hiwer 
part^ of the ii;;riire altogether. They 
mikke the augelif bodies terminate in 
tlowing dntpcry. One of the ear best 
instances of the adoption of this pruL"- 
ticc is seen in the works of Gianta 
Pisano^ who lived in the first half of 
the thirteenth ceutitry. PietroCaval- 
lini has also adopted the same idea, 
and in the works of the school of 
Cologne, now in the mui^eum of that 
eity, are some excellent eJLampled of 
the stLuie kind. The utmost variety 
tbat fancy could suggest has been 
pven to the colour or angels wings, 
riie most beautiful are of party- 
coloured plumage^ delicately tinctured. 
Occasiomiliy^ the plumage is imitated 
from the peacock, or studded with eyes, 
Of the latter kind^ the attiepemiium in 
the possession of Mr. Bow den exbibits 
a Hpeeiiiien ; on ii are also angeli on 
horseback playing upon musical in- 
gtruments. 

It has been before stated that the 
choirs of an^ela are frequently repre- 
tiented without any distinguishing 
marks^ or that the moat ordinary con- 
ventions arc frequently dispense*! willi. 
In an engraving given by M. Dtdron, 
IcoDograpbie Cbretiennet p* 246, " God 
creating the angelic host^'^ the angels 
arc all represented alike^ and are 
merely heads winged. In the Bene- 
dictionnl of St. Ethelwoldf in the sub- 
ject of the coming of Christ attended 
by the celestial choir, although they 
are clearly divided into three divisions 
or orders^ yet there is no distinguish- 
ing attribute. In another example, in 



27 



Queen Mary's Psalter, already alluded 
to, is an invocation to the heavenly 
host, running thus : " Sancte Michael, 
Sancte CJabnel, Sancte Raphael, omnea 
sancti angeli et archangeli^ orate pro 
nobis. Oiiines saticti l>eutoruni spiri- 
tuum ordinia orate, &c/' This pas- 
sage is illustrated by an illumination 
containing nine figures, disposed in 
three rows, corresponding to the divi- 
sion of the angelic choir; but it will 
lie quite eviilent from the descripiiou 
that no convention ha5 been strictly 
attended to* The first two figures of 
the upper row consist of cherubs on 
wheeLs according to the ordinary type, 
each cherub having six golden wings ; 
the third figure is habited in a long 
tunic, the right band uplitled, and in 
tbe lei^ A sceptre, and having four 
golden wings, two being ditifilayed 
above the head, as in the cherubim. 
The second or middle row, from whicii 
the figure of St, Michael, given at p* 
24, was derived, has been ab-eady de- 
scribed, with exception of the third 
figure, which represents a form like 
tbe cherub with golden wings standing 
before a throne ; this is probably in- 
tended to present us with the order 
of thrones, but it is evidently out of 
its place, as well as the archangel* 
The spiritual lieings in the third and 
la^t row have all six silver wings, dis- 
posed as the cherubim and serjiphim ; 
the first has a liince in the right band, 
tbe left being uplifted ; the second the 
sume, but in the right a trumpet ; the 
last has buth hands raised, as is usual 
with the cherub and seraph. 

It is evident tbat, although from the 
passage above given it would apjiear 
tbat the entire choir of angeb was in- 
tended, yet so little attention has been 
paid to their arrangement and attri- 
butes, that, with one or two excep- 
tions, we are unable to clas^ity toe 
figures according to their jspecifie 
oriler. It is, nevertheless, a very in- 
teresting example, and with it I will 
come to a close for the present. It 
will necesaariiy happen, that in future 
subject* tbe order of angels will re- 
ceive further illustration. 



COMPANIONS OP 

Companions of my Solitude. 

AMONG what tbey designate " Tbe 
British EtisajisUt"^ piiblisbcrs and edi- 
tors, we believe, reckon neither Baeon 
nor Cowley- Thev confine the title 
of honour, somewhat arbitrarily, to 
the writers of such short pftf^era of a 
jjeriodical kind as those of which the 
tirst reinarkable example was given in 
the Tader, Spectator, and Guardian. 
The^ ought rather to be called " The 
Essajristfl of the Eicrhteenth Centurj,** 
for with that period their lucubrations 
innj be abnost strietlv atlirmed to have 
be^un and ended, l^hey ext4*nd over 
it in an almost unbroken series, and 
form a very distingaiahtug and cha- 
racteristic portion of its literature, 
Theii" day, however, appears to t>e now 
coiijpletdy gone by. Ramblers and 
Idlei"^ Connoisseurs and Adventurers, 
Mirrors and Loungers, and the rest, 
will probably never again be printed 
in a collected form, though the exist- 
ing editioui* ma J continue for a time 
to occupy our bookdi elves, lasting the 
longer for being seldom or never taken 
down to be read. It must be admitted, 
we fear* that we are not so simple- 
minded a generation as our graud- 

others and great -jjrandmotherd ; not 

» easily satit^fied with innocent plca- 
iures, or put olT with " milk for baoea." 
Ilow the reading public of thoee days 
got on at all wiih no other current 
literature than such ** thin potations *' 
as were then served up at the break- 
fast-t&ble, with tbe tea and the toast, 
it inconceivable. 

The strong meat and the strong 
drink, however, take the more t^na- 
ciou* hold on our human appetite!^. 
The worbl has got tired of lluwkes- 
wortb, and even, with reverence be 
it spoken, of the cold, formal nio- 
mlizattons of Johnson ; but it con- 
tinues to read, perhaps with more 
eagerness and gusto than ever, both 
Bacon and Montaigne. Thei*e will be 
no end for a long time to come- we 
may be sure, of prmting and reprinting 
both the one and the other, intellec- 
tually at least man h by nature, and 
we apprehend even beyond the power of 
any degree or kind of civilization to 
change aim, a carnivorous and ilavour- 
loving animal ; in hl$ reading he will 
never become either a vegetarian or a 



MY SOLITIJDE. 

Londoa. post 8*0. 1851, 

teetotaller ; there, at any rate, he will 
always prefer wine to water, and beef 
to grass. 

Uever a cotlectlon shall be made of 
our English essayists of the highest 
order, who have written, not like those 
of the last century oixly or chiefly for 
the public of iheir own day — or the 
town, as their favourite expression was 
— but for posterity as well as for their 
con tern |>onirie3, or rat her, we ought per- 
haps to say, more ioT pt>sterity than for 
their contemporarie?, it will certainly 
include the works of the writer before 
us — the "Essays written during In- 
tervals of Business,** the two volumes 
entitled " Friends in Council,*' and the 
present volume, which is, upon the 
whole, perhaps the crowning one of 
the series, ft exhibits all the high 
literary qualities of its predecessors; 
their pregnant and at tbe same time 
natural and graceful style ; their 
thoughtful wisdom, enlivened by the 
play of fancy, of wit, and of humour ; 
their high and pure, yet kind and large- 
hearted, moral sinrit : and it includes 
some subjects, if not of more general 
interest thiin thf*se discussed in the 
other volumes, of greater importance, 
and going deeper into the pbilosophy 
both of our nature and of our social 
condition. 

It strikes a high and a bold note at 
once, taking up the question of social 
improvement in the very first chapter, 
and attacking the system of existing 
evils on one of its strongest points. 
Having remarked ui>on tbe vast ouan- 
tity of misplaced labour occasioned 
by many of our arrange men ts, so that 
** half the labour of the world is pure 
loss — the work of Sisyphus rollino; up 
stones to come down again inevitably * 
— our author proceeds — 

" Law, for eTaoiple, what a los« is 
there ; of time, of heart, of love, orieifurc* I 
There are good tueti whose mindi are fet 
upon itnproAin^ tlie law ; hut I doubt 
whether any of them arc prepared to go 
far eooDgh. . . . Perhaps, thuugh, some 
one great geniua will do eomethmg for us. 
I have often fancied that a mno might 
play the part of Brutua in tbe law. He 
might simulate madness in order to en^ 
sare freedom. He might make himself a 
great lawyer, riae to eminence in the pro- 



18510 



Companions ofm^ Solitude, 



29 



I 



I 



feBBiou, &nd then turn rouiiidi tku6 «aj, * f 
atn not going to etijoy thii bigh eeat and 
dignity ; but intend henceforward to be 
at) advocate for the people of thi:^ cauntrj 
agaiost the myriad oppressions and Taxa- 
tions of the law. No ch&acellorsbipa or 
cbief-jufiticethips for me. I have only 
pretended to be tbii slave in order that 
yoa fthould not say that I am an u a tried 
and unpracticai mau — that I do not im- 
derstaod your myBteries/ 

** This, of course, is not the dramatic 
way in which such a thing would be done. 
But there h greatne&s enough in the 
Urorld for it to be dooc. If no lawyer rises 
up to fill the place which my imaginatioQ 
has assigned for him, we must hope that 
statesmen will do something for us in this 
matter, that they will eventually protect 
us (though hitherto they never have done 
ao) from lawyers." 

But this writer never looks at only 
one side of his subject. Alter a few 
more paragraphs be adds^ 

'* At the same timej we must not for^t 
bow many of the evils attributed solely to 
the proceeditigs of lawyers result from 
the want of knowledge of business in the 
world in general, and its innptnesa for 
business, the antiety to arrange more and 
for a longer time (ban is wise or posaible, 
and the occasiona! trusting of affdirs to 
wometi, who in our country arc brought 
up to be utterly incompetent to the ma- 
nagement of affairs. Still, with all theac 
allowances, and taking care to admit, as 
we muat if we have any fairness, that, not> 
withstanding the element of chicanery and 
perverse small-mindedness in which they 
are involved, there are many admirable 
and very bigh'miudcd rnon to be found in 
all grades of the law (perhaps a more 
curious instance of the power of the human 
being to maintain its Klruclure tinimpaired 
in the midst of a hoatik ekm<;nt than that 
a man should be able to abide in a heated 
OYen), admitting all tfaene e^itenuatiog cir- 
cnmstftnees, we must nevertheless declare, 
aa I set out by snying, tbat law affords a 
notable example of loss of time, of heart, 
of love, of leisure.*' 

And then be quotes, as another iu- 
fltance of misplaced labour, 

•* A goodde^ of what goes on in schools 
and colleges, and, indeed, in parliaments 
and other assemblages of men, not to apeak 
of the wider wa^ite of meanti and labour 
which prevails* in all physical works, such 
a^ buildings, fumitiire» decorations — and 
not merely waste, but obstruction, so that* 
if there were a good angel attendant on 
the human race, with power to act on 
earth, it would destroy as fait as made a 



H earth, it 



considerable portion of men's productions, 
as the kindest thing which could he done 
for man and the best initruGtion for him," 

All this urges, no doubt, in the 
right direction. Economy is the rule 
for all sorts of arrangements ; our en- 
deavours mutst ever be to reduce 
waste everywhere to a mmimum. Yet* 
do our beat, there will always be 
much waste^ waste of material^ waste 
of production — above all, wa«te of 
effort, allhougb it mi^bt seem that 
that is what we could tne least aUbrd. 
But so are we and this syatem of 
things constituted, that muen of our 
mtj^t strenuous endeavouring must be 
vain and fruitless ; many various at- 
tempts must generally be made before 
we hit upon the true or the best way of 
doing any thing ; and out of some of our 
failures we do not gain even experi- 
ence, or anything except additional 
perplexity and discourafjement. In 
some departments, too, what a lavish 
prodigality there seems to be in the 
processes of nature I As if she would 
show bow in exhaustible is the wealth 
of her resources, bow much she can 
aflford to throw away without being 
even the jworer. Only consider what 
countless tnultitudes of uiinds have 
been produceil since the origin of the 
species, many of thetii doubtless en- 
dowed with capacities for high attain- 
ment and great achievement, which 
yet have never bad the psowers slum- 
bering within them applied to use, or 
even nwakeni^d out of their torpor- 
This, to be sure, b no argument for 
the maintenance of any kind of ar- 
rangement which is palpably wasteful 
and destructive; hut it ma^j help to 
alky any undue impatience with which 
w€ may be disposed to regard such 
apparent waste aa in the meantime ia 
unavoidable. 

In bis second chapter our author 
adventures upon more perilous ground, 
ami starts a subject, in these days at 
least, of a more exciting nature, which 
he continues to pursue in the one that 
follows. He mAes his quiet approach 
to it in a puragrupb which will be read 
with interest for its own sake, inde- 
pendently of what it introduces : 

" When 1 was at Milan, and saw the 
glory of thHt town, the Last Supper by 
Leonardo da Vinci, I could not help 
thinking, as my way is, of many thingat 
not perhaps very closely connected with 



ao 



Oaw^anions of my SolitHdim 



[July, 



that graud work» but which it suggesitecl 
to my mi ad. At first you ojay be diB&p- 
pointed in dndin^ the figures bo much 
Iftded, but ftoon^ with pfttient looking, 
much comes ioto view i andi after marvel- 
^ liog at the iuexpreasible bi^auty which stiH 
I remains, you find, to your ajitonishmentf 
I that DO picture, no priaC^ perhaps do de- 
icripiioD.hflB adequately represented what 
3rou can alill truce in this work. Not only 
has it not been represented, but it has 
, been utterly id is re presented. The copyist 
thought he could tel! the story better than 
I the paiDteff and where the ootlines are 
|<4imt was not oontent to leave tht^m so« 
Tbiit mut iBsert soeaething of his own. 
> which is clearly wrong. Thia, 1 thought, 
^ fa the way of most tmiilatiotiSt and I 
\ might add, of most portrait pftintiog, sad 
I searly all criticism. And it occurred to 
e that the written history of the world 
^HiB very like the prints of thia fresco, — 
smely, a clear account, a good deal of it 
[ sUerly wrong, of what at first hand is 
^ considerably obliterated , and which, except 
In minds of the highest power of imagina- 
tion, to be 3 clear conceptioQ can hardly 
be a j^st one. 

'^ And then, carrying mj application 
still farther to the most important of all 
histories, I thought how the simple raajeity 
of the original transaciion had probably 
si&ffered a like mificonception from the 
iadiug of the mat^iri&l narrative, and still 
nore from the weak inventions of those 
who could not represent accurately, and 
were impatient of any dinmeas (to their 
. eyes) in the divine original/' 

By " the fading of the material nar* 

LmtiTe" here, the writer caonot be 

[•tippo^ed to intimate tinj Biispicion 

Ibat the text of the frospetd has under- 

i gone a partial obliteration, similar to 

wbat haa befallen Leonardo da Vinci's 

great picture^ for that, we believe, is 

» au hypothesis which has been proposed 

[ hv DO sect of tbeologianH or school of 

[liblical critics* What he must mean 

, la onlj that the narrative has faded or 

become dim to ub from our imperfect 

^ appreheOiiion of the Import of a very 

peculiar mode of expression^ and still 

more through our inability to call up 

a full and faithful conception of the 

whole flocial condition and circum- 

I Stances of the time to which it relates. 

I But he goes on to consider some points 

I that are of the highest practical tm- 

f portaace. Setting out with the admis- 

Vn&n that ^* church questions seem to 

rt^oire a vast investigation^*' and being 

I evidently disinclined to dogmatize on 

liuch subjects, he intimates it to he hit; 



opinion — if he can venture to say that 
he has an opiiiion^-^Uhat whit we 
ought to seek for is a church of the 
utmost width of doctrine, and with the 
moiJt beautiful expression that can be 
devised for that doctrine." The most 
beautiful expressioUf he explains him- 
self as meaning, " in words, in deeds, 
in sculpture, and in sacred song ;" a 
ehureh '^ which should have a simple, 
easy grandeur in its proceedings that 
should plciase the elevated and poetical 
mind, charm the pt^or, and yet not lie 
open to just Ciivilling on the part of 
those somewhat hanJ, intellectual wor- 
shippers who must have a reason for 
everything; which should have vitality 
and growth in it ; and which should 
attract, and not repel, those who love 
truth better than any creature.** 

In rt^iterating this idea towards the 
end of his volume (p. 235) of '* a 
church with a very simple creed, a 
very grand ritunl, and a useful and 
devoted priesthood,** he subjoins, mis- 
givin^ly, ** But these combinations are 
only 111 Utopiiu»T Blessed Islands, anti 
other fabulous places : no vessel enters 
their porta, for they ore as yet only 
in the minds of thoughtful men** lie 
admit*, tooj that to lay down any 
guidance for action in such matters is 
very difficult indeed. He thinks, how- 
ever, that^ ^* accordinjT to the usual 
course of human alFairs^ some crisis 
will probably ucctir which nobody fore- 
sees, and then men will be obliged to 
srwjak and act boldly ;" and he would 
therefore have them bethink them- 
selves of whither they are tending in 
time- 
But it is in the third chapter that 
the question of what is onlinarily 
termed Puritanism is more vigorously 
grappled with. Here, to begin with, 
IS a very sharp attack: — 

•' Once 1 happened to overhear a dia- 
logue aomewh/it similar to ihat which 
Cliarles LainU ptrbaps, only feigned to 
hear. I was travelling in a railniiy car- 
riage with a most precise -looking formal 
person, the arch- Quaker, if there be such 
a person. H is countenance was ver j noble, 
or rather had been so before it was frozen 
up. He Raid nothing : I felt a great re- 
spect for him. At hut his mouth opened. 
I listened with attention ; I had hitherto 
lived with fouliah, gad-abottt, dinner«eat- 
ingf dancing people : now 1 was going tu 
hear the words of retired wisdom -, whert 
he thus addre»aed his young daughter 



mi ] 



Campaniom of my Solitude. 



81 



I 



I 



■tttiiig opposite, ' Hast tbw heard how 
Soutihkmptoiia went lately } ' (in thoie 
days South' Western RaUwaj ahares were 
called Soutbamptoos) ; and sEie replied, 
with like grat ity, giving him aoine infor- 
oaaQoo that ibe bad picked up about 
Soathamptcmt yesterday evening. 

** I leant back ratber sickened as I 
thought wbnt was probably the daily talk 
and the daily thoughts in that family , from 
which I conjectured all amusement was 
haniahed aayc that connected with intense 
tnooey-gettiug/ * 

A good ijtory Is always welcome; 
but let us a little examine th^ stru€* 
ture of general reaAODing which our 
author has reared upon or connected 
with bia apologue. Furitanism, as 
here ooDsideredi may be fairly de* 
lined as being a form of Christian be- 
lief which especially opposes itself to 
two things; — the first, the admiesion 
into the service of God of anything 
appealing to the iiuaginptive part nf 
our nature ; the second, the indul- 
gence in gaiety and festivity even on 
thoee occaMioud on which other Chris- 
tiaiis bold such indulgence to be allow- 
able and appropriate* It does not 
matter whetLer Puritanism be tbe 
proper name for the kind of Chris- 
tianity in question 9 it will not be dis- 
puted that there is such a Christianity 
xeaJousty and widely professed, and 
for the present purpoiie that name will 
do for It as well as any other. But 
thoae who hold this belief, whatever 
they may call themselves^ or be con- 
tented that we should call them, will 
hardJy, we apprehend, be satisfied with 
the representations or assumptions of 
our author, in regard to the reasons 
upon which they ground their peculiar 
views and tenets, *' Thure is a secret 
belief," he tells us, ** amongst some 
men that God is displeased with mBn*6 
happiness; and in eouseouenee they 
slink about creation, ashamed and 
afraid to enjoy anytbing.'^ It may be 
»o ; but there are many persons who, 
on what appear to them to be Chris- 
tian principles, object to the worthily 
unuaements and gaieties in which other 
Christians see no harm, without hav- 
ing any of the secret feeling here 
gpoken of* or at any rate without pro- 
tesing or supposing that that is the 
eonsii&ration which guides or in* 
flttences them. Afterwards, indeed, 
our ADthor himself allows the advocate 



of Puritanism to rest his cause on 
quite another ground. **Well^ but," 
he makes him exclaim, ** 1 do not ad- 
mit that my clients, on abiuring the 
pleasures of this world, fall mto pride, 
or sullen sensuality, or intense money- 
getting. They only secure to them- 
selves more time for works of charity 
and for the love of God;" and he admitj 
** that Puritanism, as far as it is an ab- 
negation of sell^ is good, or may be so.** 
But still this is, we conceive, an im- 
perfect statement of the case. 

The Puritanic objection to what are 
called innocent pleasures and amuse- 
ments assuredly lies much deeper than 
it is here made to do. The view that 
Puritanism takes of Christianity is, 
that it is something utter Iv opposed to 
and condemnatory of what may be 
ealied the spirit 01 this world ; that is, 
all the passioEiSt ta8tes> and habits of 
the unregenerated or natural man. Our 
author is mistaken in supposing (p. 27) 
that Puritans, such as lie is dealing 
with, would agree with him in holding, 
without qualification, that the culti- 
vation of tbe affections is an object of 
life that may be legitimately pursued. 
They would only admit that it may be 
pursued in a religitms or sanctified 
spirit. This is their fundamental prin- 
ciple, the indispensable condition upon 
which they alltiw tbemselves to take an 
interest in any thing. The absolute 
necessities of existence, food, raiment, 
and shelter, mutft, of course, be pro- 
vided for by the bauds or by the head ; 
but, whenever the heart, or the jpsthetic 
part of our nature. Buffers itself to be 
engaged or moved, it ought to be in a 
disliuctly and positively religious spirit* 
How can a |>erson holding such a faith 
as this take part In any of the common 
amusements of the world ? How is it 
pyossible to make religious feeling either 
the chief motive, or even any part of the 
motive, for going to a ball, or to the 
theatre, or to any other pkce of public 
amusement ? It is not, however, that 
the Puritan believes God to be dis- 
pleased with man*s happiness. He 
believes that what you call happiness 
— the sort of happiness in which you 
would have him indulge — happiness 
having no reference to religion — ia 
forbidden by God, because its tend- 
ency ia to mature and strengthen that 
natural worldliness which it is the 
main purpose of Christianity to sub- 




S2 



Companions ofmiif Solitude. 



[July, 



due* Everjrthmj^ speciailj or di«- 

tmctivelj belonging to this world is 
spoken of^ if at all, in tbe New Teata- 
ment, as he reads it, only to be de- 
douDced as that from which he iiiu^t 
wean and withdraw himself. The 
diijciple of Christianity is taught to 
look upon this world as a foreign^ it 
may l>e said an eoeroy*»» country, 
thro u eh which he is only to make 
his pilgrimage to another- A Pagan 
Horace rosy sing of lingering to gather 
the flowers by 3ie waysidu^ or of hav- 
ing thera gathered for hiiu — 

— — nimiam brevfs 

Floret amtsaae ferre jube rosie ; 
but there is nothing like that in honest 
JobnBunyan. And, as for painting and 
fine music in the worship ot God, where 
is there any mention of that either— a 
Puritan of this stamp will ask — in the 
New Testament ? " Sacred song I " 
AVhat is it that Cow per in one of his 
letters says of the performance of the 
Messiah in Westiiiinster Abbey at the 
first commemoTation of Handel ? It 
struck hirn, he declares, with as much 
astonishment and horror, as if he had 
beard that the condemned priaonera in 
Newgate had got the awful words of 
the judge*s sentence set to nmnic, and 
were preparing to perform the piece 
in concert on the night before their 
execution. 

The subjects that fill the rest of 
the volume are mostly of a less con* 
troversial character. The one which 
is treated at the greatest length re- 
quired no little both of courage 
and of skill to venture upon, — -*Uhc 

§reat sin of great cities," as it is 
^ esignated. This is the part of the 
work that will probably attract the 
largest share of immediate attention, 
and it contains many admirable things; 
but no just notion of ihe views put 
forward in it could be given in the 
, way of abridgment or summary. Nor 
' would it be possible to show forth by 
' ijMJcimen or extract what is, to our 
I mind, the fiiiant thing in the book — an 
Icarticr chapter in which the autlior 
Dolds a conversation with a descendant 
f of his own — a man of dilapidated for- 
I tone, but still owning the country- 
r bouse and garden in which the present 
I essays are supposed to have been writ- 
r ten. The mmgled humour, fancy, and 
[pathos here is exquisite. Among the 
other subjects are education, states- 
4 



manship, travelling, &c. The happiest 
thoughts in the happiest words meet 
us in every page, never soliciting our 
attention or obtruding themstjlvea upon 
us by undue emphasis or meretricious 
glare, but only for that sinking the 
deeper into our hearts in their quiet 
earnestness and beauty* We can only 
subjoin two or three short paragraphs, 
taken almost without selection. A 
rainy morning in the country makes 
our essayist break out, in some despe* 
ration, ^^ So varied^ extensive, and 
pervading are human distresses, sor- 
rows, short-coming*s miseries, and mis- 
adventures, that a chapter of aid or 
consolation never comes amiss, I 
think ;" and here is one passage that 
drops from his pen in this mooa : 

** Ptrhiips the wrongs wc endure from 
unjust treatment would be eaaier to bear 
if our notions of justice were modified • 
little. For my part, instead of pidturing 
her sword io hand, apparently engagfd im 
blindly weighing out lininll groceries — a 
Allure thiit would better denote the god- 
desB Fortune, as it teems to me — I ima- 
gine Justice travelling ARiftly round abnut 
the earth, diffusing a mifd effluence of %ht 
hke that of a polar night, but followed 
not by her owt* attetidants, but by the 
ungninlj shadows of all evil things, eury 
and prejudice, indolence and aelfishaeifp 
ber enefoiea ; and these ihadowi^ lay them- 
selves down before her in their malice, 
and love to intercept her light. The 
aspect of a good man scares thera partially 
away, and then her light lies io great 
broad spaces on the tnead : with most of 
as it ie chequered, like the sunshine under 
trees ; and there are poor creatures in 
whose presence all the evil ehadows de- 
scend, leaTing but a streak of light here 
and a spot there* where the hideous 
shadows do not quite fit in together* Hap- 
pily* however, alj these shadows are mortal, 
and, as they die away, dark miserable 
pbcea come into light and life agoiu, and 
truth returns to them as her abodes for 
ever." 

To this we may add two paragraphs 
from the next chapter : 

** The advnntages of travel are very va- 
rious and very numeroDs , 1 have already 
put the knowledge to be gained as one of 
them. But this is for the young and the 
unworn. A far greater advantage ji the 
repose of mind which travelling often 
gives, where nothing else could. It ecetut 
rather hard, though, that ali our boasted 
philosophy cannot do what a bttle chang« 
of place fto easily cfTects. It is by no 



1B51.J 



The Stm\if of Nelt Gmpi, 



dd 



I 



mdgical property^ bowereii ihat traveUing 
doet thU. It is merely tbat by t\m 
change things aj»«ume their right proper- 
tioDi^ The bightmares of care atid trou 
ble cease to weigh as if they were the only 
things of weight in the world. I know 
one who finds somewhat of the i^ame ad* 
vantage in looking at the stars. He say«, 
it suggests a welcome change of country. 
Indeed, he maintains that the aspect of 
these glorious worlds might somewhat 
comfort a mjm even under remorse/' 

Agiun : 

'' Airegirdathe etyoymeot&of travel, 1 
should be &orry to say anything pedantic 
About them. They must vary so much 
according to the nature of the individual. 
In my view, they arc to be found io the 
chance delights, rather than in the official 
part, of travelling. I ^o through a picture 
gaUery^ enjoying with imtrncted and well- 
r^^ted satisfaction all the things 1 



oitght to enjoy. l>owu m the recesses of 
my iniml, not coiutruuicated perhaps to 
any of my compaiiiont}, is a secret hope 
that the room I Eite in the distance is 
really the Inst in the building, and that I 
shall have to go tb rough no more* It hi 
a warm day^ and, stepping out on a bal- 
cony for R momeDtt 1 see a youug girl 
carefully helpiog her infirm mother out of 
church, and playfully insiflting on carry- 
ing the market burdens of both^ far too 
heavy for her little self* I watch the pair 
to the corner of th*? street, and then lurn 
hack to see the picture* which must be 
seen* But the pictures will ftide from my 
memory isooner than lliia little scene which 
I saw from the balcony. 1 have put that 
by for my private gallery. Doubtles* wc 
need not leave our own country to see 
much that is most beaattfut in nature and 
iti oonduet ; but we are often far too mQch 
engaged, and too unobservant, to see it«*' 



THE STORY OF NELL GWYR 

RBLATEn FY PETER CUNNrNORAM* 

Chap. VIL 

I in which Nelly is said to have lived— Barforcl House, Windsor, one of the few gcouiije— 

Her losses at basset— ^ Court paid to Xeliy by the Duke of Monmoutlit Lord Cavendish, Scc« 

—Death of her ujotber— Printed elegy on lier death— NwllyV household expenses— Dill lor 

her chair— Death of Mrs. Hoberts^FnundatiDn of CtieUea Hospitnl^Nelly connected with 

[ fla origlo— Nell^a father was a Captain Thomas Gwyn— Uooka dedicated to Nelly— Death of 

liter itcond son— The Eart of Burford creited Duke of 8t. Alban's— Nelly^s only letter— Ken 

^ and Nelly at Winchester— Nelly at Aviogton— Death of the King— Waj the King poisoned ? 

Ndly to have been createil Coonteas of Creenwrich if the King had lived* 



THERE are more hauaea pointed 
out in which Nell Gwyn is eaid to 
hdve live<l than sites of piJaces belong- 
ing lo King John, hunting-lodges be* 
U«?ed to have sheltered (^ueen Eliza- 
beth, or maosiona and poj^tiiig^-houiie* 
in which Olivtu' Cromwell resided or 
At up* Sbe li* sttid by some to have 
orn JiL llerelord ; by others at 
ndou ; and, ^^inee this f^lory was 
commenced^ Oxford it is found hna u 
Ikir ckini to be considered as lier birlh- 
pkce. But the house? in which she 
IS &aid to have lived fur exceed io 
number the cities contendiog I'nr the 
LoDour of her birth. She is believeil 
by 4K)uie (^> have lived ut Chelsea, by 
other!< at Bagnigge Well? ; Iligbi^ulet 

LiUid Walworth, and Filherlst near 
Wiudaor, arc addt^d to the list ol' re- 
GtKT. Mac. Vol. XXXVL 



j>uted localities. A stiiring inseriptiou 
iQ the Strand in London instructs 
the curious paeseuger that a house at 
the uppci* eud of a narrow court wati 
'* formerly the dairy of Nell Gw^-^n." 
I have been willjiig to believe in one 
and all ofthe.se eonjectural resideneei*, 
but, iifter long and carel'ul inquiiTt I 
am obliged to reject them aO. Her 
early lile was spent in Drury Lane 
:md LincolnVInn-Fields ; her latter 
life in Pall Mall, an<i in Burford Houae 
in the town of Windsor, The rate- 
books «jf the parish of St. Abu'tin's-in- 
Ihe-Ficlds reconl her residence in 
Villi Mall fryni 1670 to her death, and 
the site of her hou^e in Windsor intiy 
h^ estidjlishedj were other evidence 
waiititiLri bv uiupa uhd bciok^, and eon - 
liriin'fl bv the trutlitionary recollec- 
F 



STi 



The Stoiy of Neil Gwyn. 



[July, 



of the Coldstream (iiiards and the 
Oxford Blues were becoming unfit for 
active service, and younger men were 
required to fill their places. What 
was to become of the veterans when 
their pay was gone ? Their trade had 
been war, and their pay never ' suffi- 
cient for more than their immediate 
wants. But for Chelsea Hospital they 
might have starved on the casual 
bounty of the people and the chance 
assistance of their younger comrades. 

There is another and a stronger 
reason than any hitherto advanced for 
the part which Nelly evinced in the 
erection of Chelsea Hospital. Since 1 
undertook to write her life, such has 
been the revived interest in her name, 
that I have been kindly supplied with 
many curious illustrations, some of 
consequence, relating to her afler-life, 
and therefore to be told hereafter, and 
with one circumstance of moment 
which I should have been elad to have 
known earlier. The reader will re- 
collect that I was unable to supply 
either the Christian name or calling of 
the father of Nelly. These, by the 
kindness of two distinguished anti- 
quaries, Mr. David Lamg of Edin- 
burgh, and the late Charles Kirk- 
patnck Sharpe, I have since ascer- 
tained. Her father was ^Thomas 
Gwyn, a captain, of an ancient family 
in Wales,"* so that Nelly herself was 
a 8oldier*s daughter. Her father must 
have died when she was very youne ; 
p^haps before her birth. Iter early 
privations were those therefore inci- 
dent to a soldier*s life. Had the cap- 
tain lived, we should probably have 
never heard of Nell Gwyn. 

In an age when new books were 
numerous — and few appeared without 
a dedication — it is natural to infer that 
Nelly would not escape. Three dedi- 
cations are known to her. One in 
1674, hj Duffet, before his play of 
"The Spanish JRogue;" a second in 
1678 by Whitcomb, before a rare little 
Tolnme called " Janua Divornm : or 
the Lives and Histories of the Heathen 
Gods :** and a third in 1679, by Mrs. 
Behn, before her play of "The I^igned 
Courtezans.** All are adulatory. Whit- 
comb inscribes his book, " To the il- 
lustrious Madam Ellen Gwin;** but 
Aphra Behn, the Astrea of the stage, 



is still stronger ; " Your permission 
has enlightened me, and I with shame * 
look back on my past ignorance which 
suffered me not to pay an adoration 
long since where there was so very 
much due ; yet even now, though se- 
cure in my opinion, I make this sacri- 
fice with infinite fear and trembling, 
well knowing that so excellent and 
perfect a creature as yourself differs 
only from the divine powers in this — 
the offerings made to you ought to be 
worthy of you, whilst they accept the 
will alone. Well might Johnson ob- 
serve, that in the meanness and ser- 
vility of hyperbolical adulation, Dryden 
had never been equalled, except by 
Aphra Behn in an address to Eleanor 
Gwin. But the arrow of adulation is 
not yet drawn to the head, and Mrs. 
Behn goes on to say, " Besides all the 
charms, and attractions, and powers 
of your sex, you have beauties pecu- 
liar to yourself — an eternal sweetness, 
youth, and air which never dwelt in 
any face but yours. You never ap- 
pear but you glad the hearts of all that 
nave the happy fortune to see you, as 
if you were made on purpose to put 
the whole world into good humour." 
This however is not all, for the strain 
turns to her children, and her own 
humility, and is therefore nearer the 
truth. " Heaven has bestowed on you," 
adds Aphra, "two noble branches, 
whom you have permitted to wear 
those glorious titles which you your- 
self generously neglected." Two noble 
branches indeed they were, if the graver 
ofBlooteling, who wrought while Nelly 
was alive, has not done more than 
justice to their looks. 

Troubles were now surrounding 
Nelly. At Paris, in September, 1680, 
died James Lord Beauclerk, her se- 
cond and youngest son. In the sum- 
mer of the succeeding year. Lacy, the 
actor, was buried in St. Martin*s-in- 
the-Fields, whither she herself was 
soon to follow him. In 1683 died 
Charles Hart, her old admirer ; and in 
the following year died Major Mohun. 
A garter and other honours awaited 
the son of her old rival, the Duchess 
of Portsmouth. Yet she was still 
cheerful, and souffht still more assi- 
duously for other honours for her only 
child. Nor was the King unwilling to 



• See note on p. 39 for mj authority for this ttatcinent. 



1851.] 



Ihj Peter Cwininghain. Chapter VII. 



37 



hearken to the entreaties of Nelly in 
her boy's behalf. On the 10th of Ja- 
nuary, 1683-4, eight days atler the 
death of old Henry Jennyn, Earl of 
St. Alban's, the boy li^arl of Burford 
was created Duke of St. Alban's and 
appointed to the then lucrative otlices 
of Registrar of the High Court of 
Chancery and Master Falconer of Eng- 
land, with remainder to his heirs, by 
whom the title and the oflice of ^Master 
Falconer are still enjoyed. 

It is to this period of Nelly's life 
that a letter relates, the only letter of 
her composition that is known to exist. 
It is written on a sheet of very thin 
gilt-edged paper, and in a neat, Italian 
hand, and thus addressed : — 

*' These for Madam Jennings over- 
against the Tub Tavern in Jermiu 
Street, London. 

" }Vind9or, Burford House, 
«• Jpnl 14, 1684. 
*' Madam. — 1 have received y' Letter, 
and I desire y* would speake to my Ladie 
Williams to send me the Gold Stuflfe, & a 
Note with it, because 1 must sign it, then 
she shall have her Money y<^ next Day of 
Mr. Trant ; pray tell her Ladieship, that 
I will send her a Note of what Quantity 
of Things rie have bought, if her Ladie- 
ship will put herselfe to y*' Trouble to buy 
them ; when they are bought I will sign a 
Note for her to be payd. Pray Madam, 
let y« Man goe on with my Sedan, and 
send Potvin and Mr. Coker down to me, 
for I want them both. The Bill is very 
dear to boyle the Plate, but necessity hath 
noe Law. I am afraid M"*. you have for- 
gott my Mantle, which you were to line 
with Musk Colour Sattin, and all my 
other Things, for you send me noe Patterns 
nor Answer. Monsieur Lainey is going 
away. Pray send me word about your 
aon Griffin, for his Majestie is mighty well 

C' ased that he will goe along with my 
rd Duke. I am afrjid you are so much 
taken up with ytiur owne House, that you 
forgett my Business. My service to dear 
Lord Kildare, and tell him 1 love him with 
all my heart. Pray M™. see that Potvin 
brings now all my Things with him : My 
Lord Duke's bed, &c. if he hath not made 
them all up, he may doe that here, for if 
I doe not get my Things out of his Hands 
now, I shall not have them until this time 
twelvemonth. The Duke brought me 
down with him my Crochet of Diamonds; 



and I love it the better because he brought 
it. Mr. Lumley and everie body else will 
tell you that it is the finest Thing that 
ever was seen. Good M"*. ipeake to Mr. 
Beaver to come down too, that I may be- 
speake a Ring for the Duke of Grafton 
before he goes into France. 

" I have continued extreme ill ever since 
you left me, and I am soe still. I have 
sent to London for a Dr. I believe I shall 
die. My service to the Dutchess of Nor- 
folk and tell her. I am as tick as her 
Grace, but do not know what I ayle, al- 
though shee does 

" Pray tell my Ladie Williams that the 
King's Mistresses are accounted ill pay< 
masters, but shee shall have her Money 
the next Day after I have the stuffe. 

" Here is a sad slaughter at Windsor, 
the young mens taking y^* Leaves and 
going to France, and, although they are 
none of my Lovers, yet I am loath to part 
with the men. Mrs. Jennings I love you 
with all my Heart and soe good bye. 

" E. G.*' 
'• Let me have an Answer to this Letter." 

This highly characteristic letter was 
iound by Cole, and transmitted to 
Walpole, who has expressetl the delight 
he felt at its inirusal. Who Madam 
Jennings was I am not aware; nor 
have I succeeded in discovering any- 
thing of moment about Lady Wil- 
liams. Potvin was an upholsterer." 
The Duchess of Norfolk was the 
daughter and sole heir of Henry Alor- 
duuut Earl of Peterborough, and 
Nelly would appear to have been on 
intimate terms with her. When her 
divorce from the Duke was before a 
court of law, Nelly's evidence, imper- 
fectly as it has reached us, was very 
characteristic ol* her mode of reply 
even to an ordhiary ([uestiou. The 
father of Secretary Craggs was foot- 
man to this gallant Duchess. 

When the liyc House Plot had 
Kiven to Charles a great distaste for 
Newmarket and Audley End, he de- 
termined on building a palace at Win - 
chL'ster, and Wren was required to 
design a structure worthy of the site 
and the monarch for whom it was in- 
tended. The works were commenced 
in earnest, and Charles was oAen at 
Winchester watching the progress of 
the building, and enjoying the sports 



* See Privy Purse Expenses of the reigns of Charles II. and James II. printed by 
the Camden Society, p. 186. •* Tho. Otway "and *' Jhon Poietevin " are witneatei 
to a power of attorney of Nelly's, non in Mr. CoW« v^iMMnatu 



88 



of the chase in the New Forest or the 
relaxation of fishing in the waters of 
the Itchin. Nelly accompanied him 
to Winchester, and on one occasion 
the pious and learned Ren, then a pre- 
bendary of Winchester, was required 
to surrender his prebendal house as 
a lodging for Nelly. Ken properly 
refused to surrender his house to the 
mistress of his Sovereign. Nor was 
Charles displeased with the firmness 
displayed by this good and great man. 
It was characteristic of Charles II. to 
love in others the goodness which he 
himselfwas unable to practise. He knew 
that Ken was right; appreciated his 
motives ; and one of his last acts was to 
make the very person by whom he was 
thus so properly admonished Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, the see from which 
he chose to be conscientiously deprived, 
as Sancrofl from Canterbury, rather 
than forget the oath he had taken of 
fealty to a former Sovereign. 

Unable to obtain admission to the 
prebendal dwelling of the pious Ken, 
Nelly was lodged at Avington, the 
seat of the Countess of Shrewsburv, 
80 notorious for the part she took in 
the duel in which her husband was 
slain by the Duke of Buckingham. 
Avington lies about three miles to the 
north-east of Winchester, and before 
the death of the last Duke of Chandos 
Nelly's dressing-room at Avington 
was still shewn.* Another attraction 
of the same house was a fine character- 
istic portrait by Lely of the Countess 
of Snrewsbury as Minerva, recently 
sold at the sale at Stowe, whither it had 
been removed from Avington with the 
rest of the Chandos property. 

Ken*s refusal occurred probably 
during the last visit which Nelly was 
to m^e to Winchester. The follow- 
ing winter was spent by the court at 
Wnitehall, amid gaieties common to 
that festive season ; and what these 
gaieties were like we may learn from 
tne picture of a Sunday preserved by 
Evelyn. " I can never forget," savs 
the high-minded author of Sylva, ^Hoe 
inexpressible luxury an4 profaneness, 
gaming, and all dissoluteness, and, as 
it were, a total forgetful ness of God 
(it being Sunday evening), which this 

* Fortter's Stowe Catalogue, p. 179. 



The Story of Nell Gwyn. 



[July, 



daj se*nnight I was witness of; thfi 
King sitting and toying with his con* 
cubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, Ma- 
aarine, &c. a French boy singing love 
songs in that glorious gallery, whilst 
about twenty of the great courtiers 
and other dissolute persons were at 
basset round a large table, a bank of 
at least 2,000^ in gold before them ; 
upon which two gentlemen who were 
with me made strange reflectiona. 
Six days afler all was in the dust.**j 
The fatal termination of this Sunday 
scene was even more sudden than 
Evelyn has described. The revels 
extended over Sunday night until the 
next morning. At eight of that same 
morning the King swooned away in 
his chair, and lay for nearly two hours 
in a state of apoplexy, all his phy- 
sicians despairing of his recovery. He 
rallied for a time, regained possession 
of his intellects, and died, on the fol- 
lowing Friday, sensible of his sins, and 
seeking forgiveness both of God and 
man. His end was that of a man, 
never repining that it was so sudden ; 
and his good-nature was exhibited on 
his death -bed in a thousand particu- 
lars. He sought pardon from his queen, 
forgiveness from his brother, and the 
excuses of those who stood watching 
about his bed. What his last words 
were, is I believe unknown ; but his 
dying requests made to the Duke his 
brother concluded with " Let not poor 
Nelly starve ;" } a recommendation, 
says Fox, in his famous introductory 
chapter, that is much to bis honour. 

That Charles II. was poisoned was 
the belief of many at the time. It had 
been common previously to attribute 
the sudden death of any great person 
to poison, and the rumour on this oc- 
casion it is thought should form no ex- 
ception to the rule of vnlgar delusions. 
Yet in Charles's case the suspicions are 
not without support from competent 
authorities. " I am obliged to observe," 
says Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, 
" that the most knowing and the most 
deserving of all his physicians did not 
only believe him poisoned, but thought 
himself so too, not long after, for hav- 
ing declared his opinion a little too 
b(ndly.*'§ Bishop ratrick strengthens 



% Burnet, ii. 460, ed. 1823. Evelyn, 4 Feb. 1684-5. 
i Buckiogham's Wurka, iL 8S, 8to. 1729. 



t Evelyn, 4 Feb. 1684-5. 



IS510 



SmJieje Ayck^ohgff. 



89 



dit stipposition, from the testimony of 
Bt TbomHS MelUngton, who sat with 
fte Kin^ for three d&ja and never 
went to Ded in three nights,* Lord 
Che^terfipW, who lived among many 
wl' 'ly to be well informed, and 

w. the grandson of the Earl 

of Lhe^jiiiilieM who wa^ with Charles 
^ bis defttb, states positively that the 
Ki »!*oned*t Tbe Dachess of 

P , whcD in Eogland, in 1699^ 

U *iiui vj mive told Lord Chimcellor 
Cowper that Charles II. was poisoned 
at her house by one of her footmen in 
t dish of ehucoUte,! and Fox had 



heard a somewhat simtlar report from 
the family of his mother, who was 
great-^and-daughter to the Duchess J 
The supposed parallel cases of the 
deaths of Henry Prim^e of Wales and 
King James L are supported by no 
testimony so fltrong- a» that advanced 
in the case of King Charles IL 

Hiid the King lived, Nelly was to 
have bad a peerage for hcriielft and 
the title chosen was that of Couutess 
ofGreenwich.il This of course she 
did not now care to obtain, and her 
own end was also near. 



SUSSEX ARCHEOLOGY- 



iex ArchRf>logictl Collections, iUastmting the History and Aatiqfiitie§ of the 
County. Published bj the Sussex Archieological Society. VoUime HL 8to. 

AMONG the various provincial so- 
aetles which now contribute their 



penodicnl quota to our stores of ar- 
cbc^togical learning none has pursued 
iU way to better purpose than the 

«U Archaeological Society. A 
(f majority of its papers are sub- 
tial acce^ions to tte history of 
the county. We can only attribute 
ibis successful result to good direction 
uid distribution of labour; to the pro- 
posal of definite objects, and to their 
detertnined and earnest pursuit. The 
mere dtitftfante may tritie for ever. It 
IB true that archaeology rcquircj* mi- 
nute nud often tedious inquiries, which 
must not be discouraged, as they 
form the materials of the most trust- 
worthy edifice ; but it is also true that 
the pursuit admit* of the utmost dis- 
cursiveness in its objects of atten- 
tjan* and it is the excels of this liberty 
which requires to be checked and con- 
trolled, in order that societies may pro- 



duce something better than a farrago 
of the most heterogeneous and unequal 
qualities. It h evident that the Sussex 
Archflpologieal Soi'iety is a corps which 
has been drilled into very eliicient 
working order by its excellent secre- 
taj'y, Air. Blaauw^ who is himself one 
of the mo»t paiDstaktug and indus- 
trious of the body he so judicioualj^ 
directs. 

The preaeht volume contains several 
papers of considerable historical value. 
One of these is a series of letters ad- 
dressed to Ralph de Neville, bishop of 
Chicbi^ster, in the reign of King Henry 
111. selected by Mr. Bhiauw, from the 
originals preserved in the Tower of 
London. Though Neville was chan- 
cellor during part of the time* when 
they were written, they reveal no po- 
litical secrets; but they develo pexn any 
interesting particulars of the agricul- 
ture and condition of Sussex m thd 
thirteenth centui^^ and include some 



* Blthop Pfttrick'H Autobiography, p. lOL f Lct*«" to hit Soft. 

[i Dean Cowper in Spei»ce*s Anecdotes, ed. Singer, p. S67. § Fojt» p. 67, 

jl This I give on the authnrity of the curious passage in a MS. book by Van Bosseti, 
kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. David Laing» The wliole pigsage i% us follows :^ 

'* Charles the 2 J. naturall sone of Kin^ Charles the 2d, borne of HrlliiDor or 
Nelguioe, daughter to Thomas Guine, a capitane of ane antiept famtlie in Wales, who 
■howid beln advanced to be Countes of Greeniex, but hiDdercd by Ibe ktug's death , 
and she lived not loDg after his Ma*'*'. Item, he was advanced to the Ittir of Dukt 
SCHblane and Earle of Berward. He Is not married." (*• The Royoll CedAr," by 
Frederick Van Bossen. MS, folio. 1688. p, 129.) 

One of the last acts of the antiqoaHaa life of that curious inquirer Mr. Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe was to note down some valuable iDemoratida for this storjr of Nell 
Gwyn. Among other things. Mr. Sharpe directed Mr. Laing^s attention to the curiooi 
entry in the volume by Van Bosseu, ititl in Mr. Laing's possession. 



40 



Suteejc ArchKBology. 



[July. 



of the eailiest familiar details extant 
relating to the management of a landed 
estate. A few allusions, however, to 
public events are interspersed : among 
these is the following account of the 
execution of Sir William de Braose, in 
a letter from N. abbat of Vaudey, 

♦* Know for certain that on the morrow 
(April 30, 1230) of the apostles Philip 
and James, at a certain manor which is 
called Crokin, he was hanged in a tree, 
nor that secretly or by night, but publicly 
and in full day, 800 men, and more than 
that, being called together to this misera- 
ble and lamentable spectacle, and those 
especially to whom Sir William de Braus 
and his sons were odious on account of 
the death of their ancestors or other inju- 
ries inflicted on them.'' 

This confirms a statement of Mat- 
thew Paris, which was doubtfully re- 
ceived by Dugdale. The site of the 
manor of Crokin is not precisely as- 
certained, but Mr. Blaauw states that 
the place where Braose was buried is 
still known as Cae Gwilym ddu or 
Black William's Field. He had mar- 
ried a natural daughter of king John. 

The letter numbered 669 contains 
an extraordinary statement. A certain 
chaplain named William Dens, vicar 
of tne church of Mundeham near Chi- 
chester, was not only married, but had 
two wives, and moreover claimed to 
have the Pope's letters of dispensation 
to that effect ; though it is remarked 
that such letters could never have 
emanated from the conscience of our 
lord the Pope, and moreover were 
contrary to the statutes of the general 
council. 

In two appropriations of localities 
we believe Mr. Blaauw has fallen into 
misapprehensions. When Ralph de 
Neville was dean of Lichfield he was 
also rector of Thorp, and in p. 89 Mr. 
Blaauw remarks * that 

** From the mention of the fair of St. 
Edmund it is clear that, though there are 
numerous parbhes named Thorp in va- 



rious counties, the dean's rectory was 
Edmundthorpe, otherwise called Mering- 
thorp, or Edmerethorp, on the eastern 
border of Leicestershire, in the gift of the 
crown." 

But " the cellerer and sacrist of St. 
Edmund'' which are mentioned lead 
us to the great abbey at Bury in Suf- 
folk, and the '* fair*' held in that town. 
We conclude therefore that the Thorp . 
of which Ralph de Neville was Rector 
was Thorp Morieux in Suffolk, about 
ten miles from Bury St. Edmund's. 

In p. 41 the " prior Newicensis" is 
supposed to have oeen the head of the 
priory of Newark near Guildford in 
Surrey ; but is there not a Newick in 
the rape of Lewes, where the priory of 
Lewes possessed a manor, and probably 
had a cell or grange whose chief would 
be called the prior of Newick P 

From the close and patent rolls of 
King John some interesting notices of 
one of the Sussex castles were col- 
lected by the Rev. John Sharpe, the 
translator of William of Malmesbury, 
when resident at Shipley, in which 
parish its ruins ai*e seen. They form 
the first article in the present volume. 
The castle of Cnapp or Knepp was 
seized into the king s hands on the for- 
feiture of William de Braose. King 
John was himself at Knepp in 1206, 
1209, 1211, and 1215; and his Queen 
Isabella resided there for eleven days 
in 1214-10. At length, only four 
months before his death, John ordered 
it to be burnt and destroyed, that it 
might not fall into the hands of his 
enemies: and it was not again restored. 
The ancient castle of Pevensey re- 
ceived a similar sentence at the same 
time. 

Mr. M. A. Lower communicates 
some account of the castle of Bellen- 
combre, on the banks of the river 
Varenne in Normandy, connected with 
the history of Sussex as the original 
seat of the Warrens, afterwards Earls 
of Surrey, and the foundei*s of Lewes 



* Adding in a note that " in Nichols's Leicestershire, this name is erroneously con- 
jectured to have arisen from the grant made in 1266 to Edmund Earl of Lancaster.*' 
But this is scarcely the true state of the case. The place is called in several records 
Edmundthorpe and Thorpe Edmond ; and, as the historian of Leicestershire says, 
the fact of Earl Edmund having held the manor may have contributed to that 
corruption ; but Mr. Nichols quotes two authorities earlier than 1226, which give its 
original name ; in Domesday book it appears as Edmerestorp, and in a record dated 
1141 it is called Thorpe- Edmere. The true etymology is obviously from a Saxon 
owner named Eadmer, not Edmund. The church was dedicated to Saint Michael. 
5 



18510 



Susseje Archmology* 



41 



\ 



priory. It presents an example of the 
injunea to which some of the aiiliqul- 
tiw t>r France have recentiy been sub- 
ject^, in consequence of the flubdi- 
vijMon of estates. • 

** The proi:»ert7 wa« purcboaed hf thts 
pntent proprietor for lUc sum of 10,000 
frmci, in the year 18J5, Tor the cxprtrsi 
purpote of felling: the materials ; and ao 
little tih«med U the old man of his sordid 
fjpoliAtioo, thftt he told ua, wirh itri &tr of 
tne utmoiC Mtisf^ctioo, that he had wUbin 
Ihe litit ten ye^r^ sol J 18,000 feel of fiee- 
ttoac, procorrd hy tLe demolilioo of the 
two euimoce to wen oalj/* 

Two prints «how the very different 
ftppeaj*atice of the caslle of Betlca- 
cocabre in the year 1832 aod the year 
1849. 

Another memoir by Mr, Blaauw 
illuftrates the history of the Clnninc 
Priory of St. Poncras at Lewes, its 
prioru and monk>$. \\'li«n the rail way 
was cut through the sile of this praory 
in the years 1845 and )84G, it will be 
recollected that the site of the chapter 
house was entirely excavated* and the 
coffins of the founder WilliuiD <le 
Warren and his wife Gundrada» dangh- 
ter of the Conqueror, were, among 
others^ dkoovered.* A few yards 
further on, the line traversed the 
eastern end of the priorjr cKurch, and 
ascertained that it terminated in five 
cpsea, resembling in that res|ject, if we 
nghtly remember, the abbey church of 
Battle, Of these interesting disco- 
veries a plan by Mr. John Parsona id 
prefixed to the present memoir^ in 
which Mr. Blaauw first compares the 
foundations with the rejiort juade by 
Ji»hn Portinaiit one of the royjd eoni- 
miiisiouurssf previously to the falbng 
j^own of the church in 1538 ; and then 
'^froceeds to recount some particulars 
of the rule maintained in houses of 
the Cluuiac order, adding a lit*t of the 
priorf, with biographical particulars. J 
He also notices that in the new edition 



of the Monasticou the date of the sur- 
render of the priory is erroneously 
given as Nov. 6, 1538, instead of Nov. 
16, 1537, 

The Rev. M. A. Tierney, author of 
the History of Arundel, 8vo. 1834, has 
communicated some notes made in 
1847, during an excavation in the 
chapel formerly belouwi ng to the col- 
lege of the Holy Trinity, and still at- 
tached to the e^ist end of the pariah 
church of Arundel. This chapel, hav- 
ing been used fruiii the period of its 
Ibundation as the burial place of the 
earls, was spared from the destruction 
which overtook the college it»elf at the 
dissolution of religious houses. Henry 
the last Earl of the Fitz Alans re*^ 
ccived a gmnt of the property of the 
college in 1544, and was buried within 
the chapel in 1579. The Howards, 
who succeeded, have continued to use 
the chapel as their place of sepulturei 
but have never erected any monu- 
ments. Their interments had been 
confined to two vaults, sunk in 16*24, 
in the <:ha[!el of Our Lady^ to the 
north of the principal chapel : the re- 
spective entrances of which were un 
the north and south sides of the tomb 
of John Earl of Arundel (ob> 1421), 
marked (I) in the plan in the next page. 
These vaults being already crowded, 
it was thought adviiiable to construct 
another repository ; and with this view 
the space under the sanctuary and 
altar of the college ch»pel, extending 
from the foot of the central tomb (G) 
of Thoroaii Earl of Arundel and Bea- 
trix bis Countess to the great east 
windowt and comprising the whole 
width of the area, was selected { and 
in Feb. 1847 the works were com- 
menced, which led to the discoveries 
described by Mr. Herney. 

At the spot marked (A) was found 
the skeleton of a man, nmre than six 
feet in height^ placetl within u cofHn 
ronstructed oJ' loose stones, which had 



* BtfCiibed and engraved in oar Magazine for Dec. 1845, - 

f Tills is iocluded in the Camdiia Society's volume of Letters on the Sappression of 
the Monafterie?; where the editor, Mr. Wrifrht, adopted a MS^ inefEiornndum written 
on Ihe origiDsl MS,, stating that *' thi^ i'^ Ric^hard iVlory«on*s hand/* Portioari, how-* 
crer^ wa^ a real name, an Mr. BUauw fthowg. 

X All the prior* were Nt>rm.ius hefure Johannes de Noto Castro, who arrived at 
Lewea in 12^8, and »o were hi« auc^euors ttntil 1325. Jobo, »ayM Mr. Blaauw, was 
*• probably the firat prior of Enj|li»h birth t" hut we wonld suggest that he came 
riiber from one of the Normhn ptmMss named Ne^fcha(el^ than from a a Eagltih ** New- 
ca«tle.*' 

Gekt. Mao. Vol. XXXVI. G 



i 




An inscription, rudely scratched 
with the fxjint of ftottic ^linrp in^tru^ 
ment, announced It to belong to mart 

COUHTM or AftUMlllSL 1557, 20 OCTO- 

ABB. Deeply read lu Mr. Tierney is 
in all the annali of the Howards, it is 
an enigtxiA to explain hoir the body of 
this lady CAine t<j this sjwt. She is 
known to bnve lieen buried in the 
church of St. Clement Dunes, near 
Temple Bar.* But it apf>ear3 that 
Thomas Earl of Arundel, by hia will 
date<l 1641, det^ired that, if hit) grand' 
mother of Norfolk's Ixnly could be 
found in St. Cleiiieni*a church, it fihoald 



be carried to Arundel : and as that 
lady, who was also named Mary, and 
who died only one month before her 
mother-in -liiw the countess, was pro- 
bably laid near the same spot, Mr* 
Tierney conjectures that when the 
search was made^ in fulfilment of Earl 
Tbomna^a will^ the counters was in 
error removed and the duchess atill 
left behind. 

The neatt d»j another stone coflin 
resembling the former was found at 
(C) ; some of the stones of which, when 
htted together, proved to have been 
the jamb of one of the round*headed 



' The account of her funeral which M r. 
that of Machyn the mercfaaot-tajlor : sec 
p. 155. Th« rhief mourners were not, as 
Lumtey. lady North, and lody St. Lcger, 
Sir Anthony St. Ijcser Thf Durlif itn nf 



Tierney quotes from Strype'a MemomU is 
his Diary, printed by the Camden Soctetj, 
Strype ba« it, *' my lady of Worcester, lady 
' btit the two former, with lord North and 
X«»rfnlk's fiiiierivl orcurn i/jirf. p. 149. 



I 



1851.] 



Sufgex Arcfuffoiogy. 



43 



I 



I 
I 



windows of the ancient Norman 
church, which was pulled down to be 
replaced by the present structure, 
erected in 1360. With each of the ^tone 
coffitu m%s found & tn&8on*t; truwel or 
iloAt^ its handle pur|Kise1y ^iroken off^ 
showing, m Mr.rreenjaii suggests, that 
" iu work wa» done" — perhaps show- 
ing, we maj add, that its owner^a 
work was abo done ; for may not the 
bodies have been those of masons who 
died during the progress of the build- 
ing: P Considering the materiiils of 
which the collins were formed, tins 
appears to us a far more probable sun- 
position than that suggested by Mr. 
Ticmey, namely, that the Iwdies were 
thow of two monks of the older priory 
who were lingering there at the tmie of 
its dissolution. He is directed to this 
conclusion by the consideration that 
**they could scarcely have belonged to 
the new college ; for the brethren would 
eertaiiily not be buried nearer to (he altar 
than the fwuiert^ atjd the first three 
miAterf, Erthftnit White, and Colmordp 
have their le^raTes at the entraiice of the 
chapel leading from the church*" 

For our own part we are much in- 
clined to regard these characteristic 
entombments as those of freemasons, 
who might claim or appropriate such 
a privilege of interment during the 
pro<rree« of ecclesiastical buildings— 
of course taking with their betters the 
chances of subsequent disturbance. 

In the vault under the canopied 
tomb (E) of the earls Thomas and 
William, who died in 1524 and 1535, 
was also found the body of Henry the 
Last Fitzalan earl, inclosed in a leaden 
ease, precisely as that of his secoml 
wife already described. Acra^s the 
breMl was written 

HEN. FIZALEN 
1579. 

In the same vault were three other 
bodies, one of which was identified as 
that of Henry lorrl StatTord^ who died 
in 1637, m his sixteenth year ; and the 
others were attributed to the two earls 
commemorated by the monument 
erected over it. There was als*> found 
the lower half of a statuette of the 
Virgin, pplendidly painted and gilt. 

Mr. Lower's Observations on the 
Buckle, the badge of the fiiinily of 
Pelham, and the Crampet, the badge 
of the family of La Warr» start from 




an historical legend ; both badges 
having bad^ it is said, the same origin, 
in the ciipture of John king of France 
at the buttle of Poictiers. According 
to an inscription formerly at Lough- 
ton, one f»f the residences of the Pel* 
hams, 

** JuhHTi rle Pelham, dans le tern pa de 
Edouard ML 135G, i la guerre de Poic- 
tiersi CO |ireiiant le roi de Fraace priso- 
nier, aToit donn*^ paur ensign d*hoaneur 
la Boucle, et Roger la War le chape de 
Tepi'^e; Id Boucle ctoit port6e aut' foi* 
auz diem col^s trunc Cage." 

This inscription seems to have borne 
the date 1503; and the ^ame family 
traflition will bo found related more 
at length in Collinses Peerage. We 
confess we are not satisfie<l of the 
authenticity of the clainu Froissart 
states of king John's capture, that 
he yieldwl himself to Sir Denis Mor- 
becK, a knight of Artois in the English 
service; and, being forced from him, 
was afterwards claimed as prisoner by 
more than ten knights and esquires. 
Froissart does not mention Sir John 
Pel 1mm nor Sir Roger la Warr; nor 
do any other of the chroniclers. The 
cage occurs as a crest on the seal 
of Sir John Pelbnm, living in the reign 
of King Henry VL whicb is here en- 
graved. He and his father were both 



I hnes EjCkicV 



ilf6Q 



44 



Sussex Arch€Bology* 



[July, 



constables of Pevensey Castle; and 
that office itself may nave suggested 
the device of a cage. He quarters the 
arms of Crownell, of which family his 
mother was an heiress. But, whatever 
it« origin, the Pelham buckle was 
widely known in Sussex, and Mr. 
Lower has traced it as an architec- 
tural ornament still decorating many 
churches in the county, which were 
doubtless indebted to the munificence 
of the family. His illustrative sketches 
of these sculptures add considerable 
interest to his essay. A simple buckle 
was the cognisance, as in Sir John 




Coantereeal. 

Pelham*s seal ; but the more recent 
Pelhams (down to the present Earl of 
Chichester and the Duke of Newcastle,) 
have formed a secondary coat of arms 
of two buckles with girdles attached, 
as a quartering to their original canting 
coat of three pelicans. This wns an 
innovation in the reign of James the 
First, when Sir Thomas Pelham com- 
plains to his cousin Sir William of the 
alteration : 

** Tbey have added to the Buckle a part 
of the girdle ; which I did never see in 
all the seals of arms I have, or on any 
escatcheon." 

It was, in fact, an instance (of which 
there are other examples) of multiply- 
ing quarterings by forming them out 
of crests and Mdges. 

Mr. Lower nas been less successful 
in tracing examples of the cognisance of 
La Warr. He gives but two : one from 
Broadwater Church, and the other 
from Gerard Legh*s Accidens of Ar- 
mori^, edit. 1562, where it is described 
as " a crampette or, geven to his aun- 
oesters for takyng of the French kynge 



in fielde.** Are |bere not also examples 
of it to be seen at Halnaker ? 

Other documents contained in the 
present volume are, — a lease of the free 
chapel of Midhurst in 1514; orders 
of the Privy Council of James I. ad- 
dressed to* the sheriff and justices of 
Sussex, one in 1619 to store corn, on 
account of its too great cheapness (the 
like letters being sent to all other 
counties), and another in 1621 relating 
to further s^ate interference when com 
had become scarce; the manorial 
customs of Southese with (layton, 
dated in 1623; very curious extracts 
from the journals and account-books 
of Timothy Burrell esquire, a retired 
barrister and excellent scholar, from 
the year 1683 to 1714— full of amusing 
entries, and no less amusing sketches ; 
and notes on the wills proved in the 
consistory courts of Lewes and Chi- 
chester.* To these articles are added 
a memoir on the military earthworks 
of the Southdowns, and especially on 
Cissbury, by the Rev. Edward Turner ; 
supolementary notices on the Iron* 
worKS of Sussex, in addition to Mr. 
Lower*s memoir which we noticed at 
some length in our review of the pre- 
vious volume of the Society's Papers ;t 
figures of Encaustic Tiles found in 
Sussex; an account of the ancient 
Rectory-house of West Dean, near 
Eastbourne, remarkable as a domestic 
edifice of the 14th century ; a pedigree 
of the once flourishing family of 
Lewknor; an account, with excellent 
engravings, of the silver Watch of 
Charles u\e First, which be presented 
at his execution to Sir Thomas Her- 
bert, and which is still in the pos- 
session of his descendant Wm. Townley 
Mitford, esq. of PitU Hill; and a 
catalogue of the Sussex drawings made 
by S. II. Grimm for Sir Wm. Bur- 
rell, and now part of the Grough col- 
lection in the 6odleian Library. 

Altogether, it must be allowed that 
the third volume of the Sussex Collec- 
tions is very ably and profitably filled. 



• Mr. Lower will exoase our pointing out his misreading (p. 113) of the bequest in 
1551 of " ij payre of almond synettt and splints thereto :" the word is ryueiit, and 
the articles are the frequently mentioned Almaigne rivets, a pair consisting of a breast 
and back plate, and the splints the parU to protect the arms. 

t See our Magaxine for Nov. 1849. 



45 



851. 



HORACE WALPOLE. 

femofrs of Horace Walpole and his coBtemp<orane3 
, chiefly from Strawberry Hill. Edited ~ 



iby 



; including nwmerons original 
Warburton, Esq. 2 vols. Bvo* 



The Correspondence of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, and the Ref. WiUiara 
Mftson. Now ^rst piibU»bed from the original MSS. Edited, with notes, by the 
Rev, John Mitford. 2 vols. 8fO. 1851. 

thing except the sensa of shame, which 
induces tiiem to conceal their namei*. 
Of the book itself it is su flic lent to 



WE cannot notice the first of these 
works without expresKinjj in the very 
strongest terms our dissatisfaction with 

the mofle in which it has been com- say that we entirely concur in the pub- 

t up/* lisher a estiniHte oflt^ character, With- 



piled, or, as the phnwe runs, "jxot up, 
and more especiaUv with the share in 
the transaction with has b<?en borne by 
Mr. Eliot Wiirbiirton — **tbe editor/* 
fts be has allowed himself to be termed, 
The historj of the boob: is one not 
difficult to understand^ nor, we fear, 
to parallel. The idea uf the compila- 
tion originated probably with some 
gentleman who is not possessed of 
much literary talent^ but has a shrewd 
eye to what will sell. The execution 
of the work tell into the hands of some 
person whose literary labours ure not 
esteemed good enouf^h to uiiract the 
attention of the public. Under such 
circumitances what is a publisher to 
do with the unsaleable manufactured 
commodity ? " Reject it," answer com- 
mon sense and fair dealing. ** Xot 
■o,*' suggests the adviser, whose counsel 
has been taken on the present occasion, 
"pay for it, Mr, Publisher, pay for it 
aner your own estimate of its value ; 
wnd the pro^if-sheets to be read by 
some gentieman who has a reputation ■ 
call hitn 'editor;* put bis name on the 
title-page, and procure him to write a 
palT-prSiminary in the shape of an 
tntroauction. Horace Waljwle is a 
captivating name. Mr. Ebot War- 
bttrton has had to do with one goo<l 
book and several bad ones ; if he will 
oonciir in this little scheme, the kind 
public will remember only his good 
book, and will buy.'* 

In our estimation such a transaction 
is as discreditable to all the parties to 
it, as it is to our literature. Mr. Pub- 
lifiher fl share in it amounts to a seek- 
ing for success by other means than 
thoae of legitimate trade ; Mr. Editor's 
ii an abuse of the favour with which 
one of his works has been received 
by the public. His puff' preliminary 
plAoea hrm in the position of the scribes 
eraploycd by Messrs. Moses, in every- 



out Mr. Eliot Warburton*s name there 
was no chance of its success: and, 
under the circumstance:^) that name 
has not of course added anything to 
its value. 

The second book is one which is far 
removed from trickery of every kind. 
It is a genuine fmblication of letters 
which passed between two persons, 
about neither of whom any one eun 
reatl without a feeling of interest. 
With all his personal faults, Horace 
Walpole w,is the pleasantest and most 
vivacious of letter-writers, the cleverest 
of anecdote -tellers, the Bprightbest of 
news-gatherers. We cannot take up 
any volume of his letters without a 
certainty of beinj? interested, anmsed, 
and instructed. He puts before us 
the manners and follies of his time in 
sketchy pictures, far more eflibctive 
than the most laboured description ; 
he hits ofl' the men and women by 
whom he was surrounded, with tbeir 
more prominent faults and foibles, in 
a style which in our publi.*ihed litera- 
ture is altf>gether unrivalled. I^Iason 
was a correspondent of a cliflerent 
character, flray describes him as a 
good, well-meaning creature, full of 
fiimpiicity, tinctured with vanity, and 
ignorant of the world. In his letters 
there is little trace of these qualities. 
By contrast with bis brilliant corre- 
spondent, as a letter- writer, be is 
sterile, heavy, and pointless; careless 
in his composition, and unstudious of 
those little elegances and pretty turns 
which Horace Walpole was perpetually 
striving after. Tlie indolence, too^ of 
which Gray accuses hiro, is often ap- 
parent in his correspondence, Walpole 
IS frequently obliged to remind liim 
that " there is no conversation when 
only one talks." 

The intimacy of Maaon and Walpole 



46 



ffoi*ac€ WalpoU and MoMon* 



[July, 



originated in their commuti aequamt' 
ance with Gray, unci was promoted by 
the intcTchttnge of Iheir iimtual works. 
At the close of 1763, when the corre- 
spondence, now published, opens, we 
find Wftlpole thanking Maaon for a 
volume of his Odes and about to send 
him the third volume of his Anecdotes 
of Painting, with his forthcoming pub- 
lication of the life of Lord Herbert of 
Cher bury. The postscript is a curious 
example of the fallibility of literary 
judgment when tincture<l by political 
prejudice. **^ Have you read Mrs. 
Macaulay," that is, the first volume of 
Mrs, Catherine Macaulay's History of 
Kngland, then recently pubJishetl, " I 
am glad again to have Mr. Graves opi- 
nion to corroborate mine, that it is the 
moit sensible, unaflected^ and h^% 
History of England that we have had 
yet." Walpole lived to change his 
mind. 

Mason*s position as one of the 
executors of Gray and the publisher 
of his works increased his intimacy 
with Walpole, but it was not uutd 
after the middle of 1772, when they 
visited each other at their respective 
residejices, that, having become per- 
sonally acquainted and belter informed 
rcspectini^ the similarity of their poli- 
tical opinions, thev seemed to throw 
off all constraint m writing to each 
other. They were brought more in- 
timately into union by the publica- 
tion of the anonymous satire entitled 
the " Heroic Epistle to Sir William 
Chambers/' the authorship of which 
these letters clearly fix upon Mason. 
Walpole waa in the secret—perhaps a 
helper in the composition ; but the 
mystery is afler all scarcely yet cleared 
up. The volume was intrusted to some 
voung man who made a bargain, as for 
himself, with Almon the publisher, ancl 
received ten guineas for his presumed 
work. All direct communication wifb 
the real author was thus cut oiT. Se- 
veral jiersons were in turn suspected, 
but at length Mai«on was generally 
ilxetl upon, solely on the evidence of 
similarity of style, and he himself wiw 
thought some few years afterwards to 
have betrayed his secret, by asking his 
neighbour at a dinner party at Sir 
Joshua Reynolds's, " Don't you think 
it very odd Sir Joshua should invite 
me to meet Sir William Chambers ?" 

Ma9on*3 publicatiou of Gray's Life 
occasioned an explanation to be given 



to kim by Walpole of the cause of that 
quarrel between himself and Gray 
whicb has formed a con»picuous item 
in alt accounts of them both. Surely 
too much has been made of this inci- 
dent and said about it. The appa- 
rently candid manner in which H al- 
pole took the blame of the quarrel 
upon himself gave rise to two different 
opinions respecting it4i cause. It ex- 
cited, in the mind of Dr. Johnson, 
never friendly to Cray, a suspicion 
that if he bad not conducted himself in 
some extremely disagreeable manner, 
a person so mi Id and generous as Wal" 
pole would not have been stirred up 
to quarrel. Other critics considered 
that W&lpole'a humiliating avowal 
must have been founde<l upon a con- 
sciousness of some graver offence on 
his part than any which has come to 
light. The latter was, we believe, at 
one time the opinion of Mr. Mitford, 
who suggested, on what he considered 
good authority, thatAValpole^ suspect- 
ing Gray of having written complaints 
of him to England, clandestinely 
opened and reseated one of his letters, 
the discovery of which, by Gray, led 
to the rapture between them. Mr, 
Mitibrd seem^ now Xc think that 

" The confesiion of Walpole in thc»e 
letters is frank and tindis^aised, and his 
representation of their UQCongenial habiti 
und p«calsrities of temper on either side 
is quite sufficient to aecouat for the un* 
fortuDAte resulL" 

From the publication of the Heroic 
Epistle and the commencement of the 
Life of Gray, Walpole*s letters to Ma- 
son run on in their customary, easy, 
pleasant manner, overflowing occa* 
sionally with nuite ns much spiteful* 
oess as wit. Mason follows in a heavy, 
lumbering wny, squeezing out an 
anecdote whenever ne can do so, and 
very proud when that is the case : 
*•'' Sqtiibimm*^ he says, ''^ docti indnc 
tiqttg" When Walpole was in the vein 
nothing stopj>ed his faculty of letter- 
writing save the necessity for running 
oflT and leaving hit* blue chamber, or 
some other of his absurd little apart- 
ments in his castle at Strawberry Hill 
in which he chanced to be sitting, to 
be insjjected by visitors. 

Mason, on the contrary, was fre- 
quently driven to confess that he had 
nothing to write about ; — 

" Don *t tell me,'^ replips hti 6nenteor- 
respondentp *' you have nothing to sty : 



l6dL] 



Horace Walpote and Mason, 



47 



I 



f oo Me hoir €M»y it is to make a long 
letter : one might bafe wHUrn this in the 
l»Ie of Skj, bot f oa are a poet and a tragic 
aatbor, and wiU not condescend lo write 
an/thiDg lest jour letters should rise up 
to jodgmeDt against you. It is a mercy 
to bare no character to maintain. Your 
predecessor Mr. Pope Uboured hi* letters 
M macb as tbe Eaaay on Mao , and as they 
wcr« written to every body, tbey do not 
look as if tbey had been written to any 
body/' {I 273.) 

To write letters was at some (>e- 
rioda of Walpole'fi life his chief enjoy- 
ment. He hred much alone, bu read 
every thing tliAt was publbbeilt he 
went about goAsipping and making or 
kimdDg for tittle-tattlet and bra ruad- 
inff and his tittle-Uttle were all regu- 
Isny and carefully worked up into 
letters;— 

** Young folk*," he writes in 1777, 
** may fancy what they will of such aii- 
tiqneaaa I am having no origiual pleaiures, 
or only scraps and ends. Lord Holland 
waa always wbinia^ on tbe mberiea of old 
afc. Now I can tell both the one and the 
other that there are very cordial enjoy* 
nients which only the old can have. I bare 
joit tasted two great raptarei of tbe tort 
I mean, but indeed Uipy do not bappen 
Tery often. The trans jwrts I allude to 
are, livuig to aee the pnvuU works, sen- 
timenta, aad aneedotei of on«'« own time 
eoine to light/' 

and then he goea on to explain bow 
much of this Citid of pleai^are he had 
derired (rom Dr, Muty's Memoirs of 
Lord Chesterfield und the State Pa- 
pers of the Marecliuux de Noailles* 

Iti using what came to his knowledge, 
all was fiah, according to the proverb, 
that fell into Walpnk's net. See, in 
the following passage, what a deal he 
makes of some nonsensical rumour 
which had probably been set on foot 
by himself or some brother witling, 

'* I am charmed with a hl-w method of 
gofemment which every body el«e laughs 
at ; I man the decisiun of the directors of 
the East India Company by tossing up 
beads and tails, whether Lord Pigot should 
be a prisoner or a nabob. If every oation 
was to be ruled by this t^ompendious 
and impartial method, the people woald 
on every occasion have an equal chauce 
for happiQeas from every measure -, and 1 
beg to know where it is not three to one 
against them by every other mode. I 
would be content to live under the most 
deapotie monarchy that could be devised 



proviilcd King Heada and Tails were the 
sovereign." (i. 286.) 

Walpule is no doubt entitled to 
some credit for having thrown upon 
tbe benighted eighteenth century a 
portion of the first faint glimmering 
[tght of that day of architectural im- 
provement which bus now dawned 
upin us, and in cine respect it is en- 
couraeing to all who desire thai we 
diould ^o on improving to find how 
singularly unconscious the baron of 
Strawberry was of the absurdity of his 
little castle. Despicable as the totter- 
ing ruin now appears to every passer- 
by, it was deemed a very astonishing 
fabric by the people of bid own day, 
and its great master regarded it with 
an afleetionate pride and fondness 
which, if we did not make great allow- 
ances for the induence of his period, 
would make him a mere object of con- 
tempt. The glories of one of his Billy 
little cki^ets, set off with ornaments 
which exhibited the i>erfe€tion of igno- 
rance, called Ibrth a letter from Mason 
overflow ing with the warmest admira- 
tion , whilst a visit to Cambridge im- 
pressed the great architect of Straw- 
berry wiih fully as much aslonisliment 
as sorrow, by diaeloaing to him that, 
alter all his labours^ King's College 
Chapel was really "more beautiful 
than Strawberry Hill." It may be 
doubted whether it is not a proof of 
Walpole's superiority to many people 
in that day that he was able to discern 
tbe fact. 

Horace Walpole prided himself on 
knowing nothing of the principal lite- 
rary men of his day. They were not 
sumcicntly anatocratic to be admitted 
to hts intimacy upon teriiiH in any de- 
gree approaching to equality, Giblxm, 
as a man of station, was almost a soli- 
tary and onlv ft partial exception. Wal- 
pole quarreled, as every body knows, 
with all the antiquaries of his day, be- 
cause a paper in opposition to his liiii- 
toric Doubts was admitted intu the 
Arcbsologia. Mr. Gougb'd aequaiitt* 
ance was repelled by him in one of his 
most scorn ni! letters. Dr. Johnson 
was repudiated a.s a mere bombastic 
man of words ; and yet, in his own 
.secret heart, he had an evident and 
painful misgiving that in the present 
century Johnson and Goldsmith, Burke 
and Ileynolds, would be regarded with 
the same affectionate interest which in 



48 



Horace WalpoU and Ma»on, 



[July, 



his day was given to Pope and Swift 
and Gay and Arbuthnot. His feeling 
towards the men of letters of his own 
day may be judged from the following 
notice of the death of poor Goldsmith : 

'* The repablic of Parnassus has lost a 
member; Dr. Goldsmith is dead of a 
parple fever, snd I think might have been 
saved if he hsd continued James's powder, 
which had much effect, but his physician 
interposed. His numerous friends neg- 
lected him shamefuUj. at Isst, as if they, 
hsd no business with him when it was too 
serious to laugh. He had lately written 
epitaphs for them all, some of which hurt, 
and perhaps made them not sorry that his 
own was the first necessary. The poor 
soul had some times [some fine ?] parts, 
though never common sense." (i. 138). 

The facts are all stated here very 
incorrectly. His own indiscreet use 
of James's powders probably hastened 
poor Goldsmith's death, and there is no 
pretence for stating that his friends 
deserted him, or were ofiended with 
his Retaliation. Horace Walpole is 
never a safe authority for facts ; but 
giv.e him a joke to repeat, and who 
shall make it more effective? Witness 
the following satire upon the dress of 
the ladies in 1778 :~ 

" About ten days ago I wanted a house- 
maid, and one presented herself very 
well recommended. I said, * But, young 
woman, why do yon leave your present 
place ? ' She said she could not support 
the hours she kept ; that her lady never 
went to bed till three or four in the morn- 
ing. ' Bless me, child.* said I, ' why 
you tell me you live with a bishop^s wife, 
and I never heard that Mrs. North gamed 
or raked so late/ ' No, sir,* said she, 
' but she is three hours undressing.' 
Upon my word the edifice that takes three 
hours to demolish must at least be double 
the time in fabricating I Would not you 
for once sit up till morning to see the de- 
struction of the pyramid and distribution 
of the materiaU ? " (i. 365). 

In such an extract as the following 
one scarcely knows whether to wonder 
more at the writer's want of feeling, or 
his want of foresight : — 

" The first thing I heard on landing in 
Arlington Street was Lord Cbatbam*s 
death, which in truth I thought of no 
great consequence, but to himself; for 
either he would have remained where he 
was, or been fetched out to do what he 
could not do —replace us once more on 
the throne of Neptune/* (i. 
6 



Walpole'fl political cue fot many 
years was a mere despair of the coun- 
try and its fortunes. The reTcrtes of 
the American war were a rabject of 
unpatriotic delist both to him and his 
correspondent Mason. They diackled 
over every defeat of the anna of their 
country. 

** Was I to tell yon," remarks MaK>n 
in 1781, '* that I drink Hvder Ally's 
health every day in a glass or port, per-^ 
haps it might prompt you to pledp me in 
your glass of orange-juice ; pray do so. I 
am sorry however that the news of his 
victories come so rapidly. I wish we might 
hear no more of him till Lord North has 
unchartered the East India Company, and 
then the more the merrier. 1 remember 
five years ago that mad woman who works 
in wax told me when I went to her raree- 
show, ' that if there was a God and a 
providence, which she firmly believed 
there was, and hoped (as I seemed to be 
a parson) that I believed the same, that 
the Americans would never be conquered,' 
so I am inclined to rest my friend Hyder 
Ally's success on the same foundation." 
(ii. 176). 

Mason was the first to change thia 
tone. The correspondence here printed 
comes to a sudden end at the com- 
mencement of 1784. Fox's India Bill 
alarmed the reverend author of the 
Heroic Epistle. He who had person- 
ally hated and insulted both Kmg and 
Queen followed his acquaintance Lord 
Harcourt in becoming politically what 
was called a King's friend, and urged 
his new opinions upon his old corre- 
spondent. Walpole laughed at his ver- 
satility, and the correspondence ceased. 
There was a gleam of renewal in 1796, 
but there had never been any real 
affectionate regard on either side, and 
there was no possibility therefore of 
knitting up again the once broken inti- 
macy. Mason had found Wal pole's cor- 
respondence convenient and amusing; 
to a person resident in the country he 
was an invaluable newsmonger; whibt 
Walpole was ever delighted to have a 
respectable " friend," as it was termed, 
upon whom he might practise his gift 
of letter- writing. But the first shock 
severed a connection built upon a 
foundation intrinsically so slight. Like 
Walpole's rupture with Gray, that 
with Mason was irreparable. The at- 
tenipted renewal came when the great 
peace-maker was making rapid ad- 
vances upon the shattered frame of 



National Education* 



49 



Walpole, and the liut letter publisbed 
tn these volumes, dated 10th MArch^ 
1707, sbewi with what iilmost scornful 
unconcern Mason received the tidin<Ts 
of hi& old correspondent's death. The 
impre^ion produced hy the whole cor- 
reipondcnce is that their ** triemUhip " 
Wis one of convenience on J*oth sides — 
heartlea*^ selfihih, c<jld. 

We have ncit space to ^nve the 
munj Anecdotes wiili whieb the book 
abounds ; for, although not in nur 
judgment su interesting a^ the letters 
to ifann, nnd ptirhap* as aomu of Ihe 
Hber coIIeetionA, it contains^ many 
pleAiAnt stories, and rs a niofit accept- 
able ftddrtton to our knowledge of bath 



the politico and the literature of Wal- 
tjole s time* The editor has pnt into 
his notes some of that curious learning 
which all the world knows him to 
possess in such rare abundance ; but 
the |>o»itioii of the notes at the end of 
the viduines is fatal to their being read. 
In the next edition we hope they will be 
placed at the foot of the pages, where 
their number may be added to with 
etTeei. We would also sutrfjcst that 
the orthn»^rt]ihy should be mofleinized. 
It 18 well to bo tuld that It was loose 
and variable, but there is no use in 
printing obvious njistakes, such H9 
miridet hippocricy^ chattfidlor Thurhje^ 
Soame Jennynn^ h^. 



NATIONAL EDUCATION. 
Hhstk oil Hii laiprvivcd System uf National Edacatiun. By Hit Uct* R. Dftwea. 

Siiggc«ttve Hints towards imprnTing Seculirr Instruction. By the Rev. R. Dawes. 
Sfo* Lond. la^O. 



wo 
B ev( 

PC 



EDUCATION— the l»est mode of 
l^ucaling the j»^ople — is an almost 
cxhaustle^s subject, and time, j^o ^ur 
from making the talking and thinking 
world weury of it, renders it more than 
ever the theme ot* earnest discourse. 
Xet nnt only is the actual ]jrogress iti 
lucution throughout the land sloic^ 

t t\mw of the most important prin- 
ts h :jhouM actuate us have 
\*. i to be reiterated and argued 
ovcJ i^nd over agutn, as if they were 
novelties. We move at a rate that 
may well dishearten thexealous ; often 
far considerable pericrds ot" lime we 
Mem scarcely to move at alb Now 
tntl then indeed a gi'eiit outward im- 
pulse $eenis to l>.' j^iveu ; as i'or in- 
fttimce^ in our young days, when Joseph 
Lancaster threw all England into a 
ferment of xeni b^ his large [iromises 
of univ^r^al teaching with the smallest 
pj^^ible exj^enditure of adult power, 
And the eccleslasitical dignitaries up- 
rose in wrath, iiUicing Dr. Bell as 
their champion \n front of the bnttle. 
One is a|»t to smile now ut the thought 
of that time of vigorous warfare 
between the LancasteriJtns and the 
fnend^ to the Madras system, and to 
mte eveo at a lower amount than it 
deserves the meagre ihing which 
these parties were content to cull 
education* Meagre indeed it was; 

OesT. Jktio. Vox. XXXVl. 



and well might Mr. Wordsworth com- 
plain that, with all he could do, he 
could not ** see anything like harmoni- 
ous co- operation between these schools 
and home induenecss.'' Nevertheless 
they served an important purpote. 
Education was preached before it wajs 
underiitood or practiced to much pur* 
pose \ but the name grew tkmiliar, and 
some deeply -rooted prejudices gave 
way belbre arguments grounded on 
the su[>po,sud eliicaej^ of the gicftl re- 
medy to promote civdization, inorultty, 
and even religion among the fieople. 
We ourselves have now been taught 
bv a pretty long ex[>enence that those 
old re:isoncrs and teachers who set 
themselves against the new melbods, 
narrow in their motives as mitny of 
them might be, were not far wrong in 
their doubts as to the educational in- 
duencca of large monitorial schools. 
Far as we would be iVom discouraging 
the moiit inmerfcct attempt at com- 
municating elementiiry knowledge, our 
principal ground of hope for the radi- 
cul improvement of education springs 
from the present seemingly slackened 
rate of speed, botied as it is, we are 
convinced, on deeper consideration and 
more thorough modes of oroctidure. 
We must indeed work m both ways 
There must be an outspreading of 
knowiedge, though it be out thin, as 





5i 



l^Uimmi 



in the cMe of the Eag^ Sehoob ; but 
#e cannot be lorry if soine schodli 
which might thirty years a^o ooant 
aoholari ^ hundreds, and which were 
shown up triumphantly as proofii id 
the marTellous cheapness of 9ekaol 
eAumtion per head, have now giTen up 
their pretensions to Wholesale training, 
aire bent on obtaining teachers anA 
amstants of competent ability, are 
#illing to expend considerable sums 
on apparatus, pique themselves rathor 
<tt liberality than on meagre economy, 
and in everything look rather to the 
()«ality than to the quantity of the 
Mucational article bcwtowed. Fully 
aware, as we are, that the increased 
difficulties complained of by inspectors 
and local managers in keeping up the 
numbers of scholars in our poor schools 
must, in many cases, be attributed to 
increased poverty, and consequent in- 
tense eagerness after small earnings, we 
•ae in this fact and in its causes but added 
reasons for improving the quality of 
our education. The time is lamentably 
short. In many places it is a rare thing 
to be able to retain our children be- 
vond or even up to the age of twelve 
• m the daily schools. What, in such a 
etse, could a mere monitorial school 
do lor most of the scholars? The 
lessons being given from boards, or at 
least from a very small selection of 
books, not carried home nor the pro- 
perty of the scholar, and the aim being 
to teach reading in the shortest possible 
tkne, it is no wonder if a knowledge of 
words is aH that is acquired— words, 
almost as uninteresting to the majority 
of the scholars as the syllables which 
Ibrm them—words, pregnant indeed 
with meaning for the future time when 
the understanding of the pupils has gone 
through a fiiir process of development 
-i*>woras, never to be despised at any 
Hage, because the habit of patient ap- 
otication is valuable to every child that 
Bveis; but useful no lurtner, unless 
sMne knowledge of the things sym- 
Mised accompany the knowledge of 
the symbols. Where the time passed 
il school is very short, we know how 
hard it is to do anything well; but if 
ire wish our work to last, we must 
devote every energy of our minds to 
Axing the school impressioos, and this 
#ill never be aceomplished^ or rather b 
Mr% to ihil> if a mere, mechanical ieani>- 
Ifig to put letters aiid-weTda tocether 
be all tiiat we havo accomplishea The 



problMi, wahort, whichmhave t«4iglff 
IB our poor schoola is, bow best to «iip^ 
bine attractiveness with absolute mr. 
struction— 4iow to offer a strong 4^4 
awakening stimulus, aad y^at the«a«i|i 
timetosecure real progress. Wem«t 
not have amusement always ia vii|w« 
and yet there must be some glimpaesoi 
the enjoyment which is to come. 9o 
we not all see that, however useful as 
mental discipline the Latin gramm^f 
may be, not one boy in twenty makii 
any use of his knowledge aller hei 
leares school, and that, even in thai 
case of the Oxb, his ailer attention W 
classical learning b the oonsequenGti 
rather than the cause of his choice (» 
a profesiiion or mode of life? The 
case is really pretty much the same, 
with our country poor especially, at the 
village school. Mere learning to read 
is a valueless, uninteresting acquisition 
in the majonty of cases. The !armer*& 
boy and the milkmaid^s assistant forget 
what they have learnt in a few months 
if no interesting association has ac- 
companied the school lessons, and all 
our doings are wasted like water spiU 
upon the ground. No system that we 
are aware of has ever been concocted 
which can do much for us in meeting 
this difficulty. No books can do it-r* 
the living teacher can alone supply the 
want, or rather a plurality of teachers ; 
for it is mere mockery to exact from 
one man the labour of infusing the 
quickening element we want into tha 
minds of an hundred or an hundred 
and 6flty children. More cultivated 
teachers too are wanted : nut men 
and women of a low ^de,. who by 
means of a few months m the training 
school are thought to be sufficiently 
qualified, but individuals of some 
previous cultivation, possessing minds 
upon which the training school wiU 
tell well. Wonderful to say, there 
have been men, clergymen too, mea 
dwelling at the fountain-heads of educa- 
tion, who have given it as their opinion 
that a few months* training is suP 
ficientfor a schoolmaster. MostfuUy on 
thb point do we coincide with tbcHev. 
Derwent Coleridge, whose remarks on 
teachers, contained in a Letter on the 
National Society *s Training College at 
Stanley Grove, have lost none of their 
applicability in the oourse of the nine 
years which have intervened since they 
were publiahed. 



' A sonad, and, la a 



ex- 



IMIO 



f^tional EJue^iOk. 



<1 



«)1 



I tout.. • eiiftfnif«d iouierst«ndifif T « morni 
•r, the growth of rir1igiou« prinripteSf 
Jf veJoficd bj ifiteJIectui) ciiUu»e ; 
liorely rtiU if an e^iemiul [■ in 

Itt^ery educator, before we i; lib 

l|p«riftl (itDeij for the cUsi.H .,, v ;....;. iu of 
f vhich tib iciiool ma J be composed. And 
1^ it not be Meomed that this is less 
lil^ In the (cscherof the poor than of 
. . Not only (in tlie former 
I he a mtfer niinber of cbitdreQ 
Fl» instruct^ wUh ten tatntance and in a 
ume* children for the most part »f 
fearftt i^nd le^s prepared by 
e?fOu« ioftiruction and bome-traiomi; t 
kot he baa more to do for tbem . , . He 
' Ijjis to «opply for them all the indirect 
* ' which the chitdren of the better 

I lfi9«es owe much, and perhaps 

inr ont, of what they krow, &c. . . . 
] Bit how are theae quali6catious to be 
rtemmaiided? Not, assuredly , by any 
I tbcap or iummary method : not, let me 
^ Ventura to nr^e^ by eonraei of lectures, or 
0n« in foeda^ogic. Rather than to, let 
^fht der^man take the first thoagbtful 
r BiA, no matter what his acquirements^ of 
f Wliote piety he is asenred, and prepare 
I him for hi^ woric, as he walks with him in 
J the field* or in the streets. 1 do not say 
L WiU is enough, far from it, Bcc, , , . But 
Ltomething in this way mi^Kt be done: 
f ^m^ faiheriy discipline estahli»bcii, fome 
[iMiMii of bumble wisdom imported. 
I the other mode nothing in the lon^ 
bnt mificbief can eneoe/' — Rev, 
i Oerwvnt Colend««'s Letter, l^nd. 8vo. 

W« irtiould not indcc<l think it aU 
l0«ftbl< to regard edu<!jition, in iu eon* 
fieclifm with the church, in the maaner 
m which Mr. ColeHil^e regards it. We 
iMiiioicloGeotire^es to the coniplioated 
int ertt te tovolvcd in the quej^tion at 
th« present day ; and, while we feel 
llMt to individual clergymen ft ine«- 
••reoniberalityougbt t« be ex tend etl 
^renter thtin tlie Afro is diRpnsed t-n 
allow, they yet ought to h^ made to 
•ft clenrly what the demaml of the 
•^ renlly ie^ and not curefiifly to 
«iiroud themselves bebind human au- 
ihortiy, however venernble it mny look 
in i^*e myaiie robes of »nti<juity. 
There is much excuse fr>r harsbnesf) 
fend eeverity of lancfuage when it pro- 
oeed« from a people irritated by the 
fterpetitftl postponement of a oalian*^ 
\«^% hope — sound educ«tion. If iin 
buneet WeHleyan in a village, working 
Mr«i in bis enrtbly cttllin/r through the 
' , finals hie cotnf«rt in extempore 
{jmyer tneetiiigB^ or ev€n 



thinks he has a word of exhortfttton to 

give, worthy of bet»ig listen©*! to by hi^ 
nergldK>urs, no cUuieb wutliorily \t\ 
the world will perauiule either himself 
or hia hearers that be i'a not unjustly 
dealt with, when his own children arc 
not permitted to share the bunefiu of 
the exct^Uent village school, the otily^ 
one probably at hand, because he doei 
not approve of the church caiechittnift 
nor of their attendance at the church 
Sunday school, and eonsetjuently at 
the church, the chapel of bts own aect 
standing: all the while open for their 
reception. We know very well what 
the clergyman has to say on his own 
part. The case ii not bo clear a^ainat 
hi in as the popular cry will have it 
to be. Often^ s^ry often, the cry of 
conscience i» misplaced, and irrelijfioua 
rather than rcligiouB men are the fii^t 
to reXm \ U We bel ieve that t be clergy- 
man if flotnetimea a sufFerer from 
apprebeBiioni of oegleeted Christian 
duty, when he m\ far, as be think*, re- 
nounces the principle of consistency 
in his ministrations as to admit of aH 
outer and an inner circle amr-ng tho*« 
whn are to be his daily charge. It 19 
only doin^ a good man jui^tice to aay 
thu« much, that a sacrifice of con* 
science may not be confounded with 
N reluctant yielding up of power. We 
put our^elvei for a few momenta in 
bin place. There \^ he believe*, pro- 
vided for him a aphere of duty, an<l a 
course of auggeations and explanatory 
services are prescribed. The deme 
in which he may depart from tnent 
will be a oueation in a religioui manV 
mintL not lightly to be answered » The 
ecclesiastical year with its service^ 
rich in memories of the sacred past» if 
ever before him^ — the church and the 
school arc to him parts of a whole, 
and it W extremely ditficult, when tfaii 
is so, to m^ike the reparation ; to mt^ 
*• Here is the fltn-k ^iv*n to me; here 
are childron whom I tnual teach and 
train, as beat I iniiy ; but with some I 
muit auBpend my function and inr in- 
ilaenoe — Christian as 1 wifch it to W^ 
tliem I must leave, with whom I 
scarcely know, in the Snbbnlh houra; 
with teaohem, perhaps, who preach 
8|iftin«t me; with idlers, who know only 
that they dit^like the church and m 
ministerjs; with pleasure-lovers, wbo 
will set their own objects in oppoai» 
UQO to the more aacred oim whiuk «t 



5^2 



National Education. 



[July, 



if my duty to present.*' Cannot kind- 
hearted men, who plead so warmly for 
ihe right of the poor to universal edu- 
cation, yet feel a little for the distress 
of a scrupulous clergyman in a posi- 
tion like tliis — by no means an uncom- 
mon one? We leave it where we 
have put it, in the view of whoever 
will condescend to glance at it. Not 
as a single picture, however, for never 
were we more impressed than now 
with the danorcrous tendency of nar- 
row views of the whole matter of re- 
Spous teaching. It has been the pni- 
em of nges, perhaps more difficult to 
lolve than ever, how to uphold *^ a 
faith in spiritual realities and an Omni- 
present mind, in free and living har- 
mony with the irresistible conclusions 
of science, and the encroaching in- 
fluences of material wealth.** It does 
not seem to us that we are in any con- 
dition to writo down the desired solu- 
tion ; but practically it is our impres- 
sion that it may be acted out, nay, 
that it is so, in many instances, even 
in the church itself. The secret of it 
lies in the hearts and minds of earnest 
men, who dwell habitually themselves 
among deep religious realities, and can 
work after the manner of the present 
time. They have not so put them- 
selves to school to the middle ages as 
that the langua^ of our day is pro- 
fane to them. The ignorance, the evil, 
they have to grapple with is a more 
palpable thing in their eyes than the 
advancement of any outward church ; 
and so they go to war heart and soul 
with evil, and often, Heaven be thanked ! 
do they reduce it to the lowest pos- 
sible point, while others are auestion- 
ing about the kind of arms tney shall 
use, or whether it is lawful to use any 
new weapon, even of the same metal 
and make, when an old one is to be 
had. 

And here, ftiU in our eyes, stands 
the Rev. R. Dawes, a worthy and 
stalwart champion of education. A 
vacancy in a cathedral and the worthy 
choice of Her Maje8ty*s Ministers 
have opened the way for him to a 
deanery ; but we still recur with 
ffreater pleasure to the village of King*s 
Somborne, as the scene of his valued 
ministry. Much has been said and 
written about the Rev. R. Dawes and 
his schools; but not enough stress, 
as we believe, has been luid upon the 



good sense and qnick perception with 
which he has airected his arrows 
home to the actual dwelling-places 
of the people among whom he has 
laboured. He certainly appears to 
us to have realised that respectins 
which Mr. Wordsworth so much 
doubted ; namely, an ** harmonious 
co-operation between schools and 
home-influences.** From an early pe- 
riod he discerned the difficulties of 
which we have spoken, and bent his 
mind to something beyond the im- 
provement of a school. That it was 
needful to watch carefully the school 
itself, there could be no doubt ; and 
he did it. He took care that intelli- 
gence was awakened there, and good 
teaching in every department given. 
Various were the plans, wisely and 
kindly formed, for its improvement. 
Mr. Dawes's favourite idea was, that, 
in providing a much better school 
than ordinary for the poor, he should 
gradually draw in a higher class, 
children of the farmers, &c. who 
could get no such education else- 
where. Perfect success attended this 
view and its development in practice. 
The wealthier pupils of course were 
charged at a higher rate, and paid the 
expenses of the poorer. Thus better 
books, apparatus, and teaching were 
secured for all ; and we never heard 
that the lower grade was resarded 
with less attention than the higher in 
the school room. Yet always, and 
more especially with regard to the 
labouring poor, the question arose. 
"Will this last? Have 1 inspired 
these young people with a desire for 
private self-improvement? Will they 
go on ? Have they acquired a habit 
of working by themselves, of thinking 
by themselves ?*' Such were the Ques- 
tions continually presenting them- 
selves : and they were solved in that 
simple practical manner in which a 
country clergyman, when he does open 
his eyes and ears to the things about 
him, generally knows how to dispose 
of his difficulties. 

He determined that the school 
should be but a stepping stone to what 
was most important, and that much of 
its work should be done at home. 
The young people, aided by the cheap- 
ness of the Irish books, were ready 
purchasers, and carried home as their 
own property, not their scraps of 



185L1 



Nathnal Education, 



53 



I 



I 

I 



knowledge only, but miteriiik upon 
whicli 10 work. 

The effect nf these rae^isures was 
^oon m/inif(;5t. Children who a I first 
had neither Ink nor pen, &g. in their 
cottages soon found meflni^ of providing 
themselves with what was necessary 
for their exercises. Thej appear to 
have f;illen into the habit of preparing 
far the school aa regularly as if they 
were carefully watched over by parents. 
One girl, who takes care of her oM 
gnindTiither and his houACt '' the mo- 
ment her work is done In an evenings 
fits down so cheerfully and happily to 
her le«9ous that it U quite a pleasure 
to see lier," says the grandfatner, ami 
^'I don't think she has been ciut one 
evening since ahe came to me/* An- 
other has so far intere:«ted her elder 
brother in what she is doing that he 
itMys* at home to hear her read. An 
old man ^ays, " Why, yir, 1 have 
learnt more from my grandchild than 
ever I knew in my life before." Proofs 
like these of the interest awakened 
could not but i^how that the plan was 
the right one. The great point no 
doubt was the purchase tif books; a 
consideration whieh makes us well 
understand the merits of ebeapiiesa in 
so nece-s*ary an article* 

Together with the goo«i things we 
liftve already recapitulatedi we must 
id vert to the unwearied pains taken 
by Mr*. Dawes in the temak* depart- 
ment of the schools— the neetllework 
»nd other branches of industrial train- 
ing, Olijections, a* might be expected, 
were made by many to the enlarged 
education given at King's Somborne, 
not on the score of expense to the 
parish (for the poor were paid for by 
the richei' scholars)^ but as interlering 
with direct religions inj^truction. This, 
it is contended, has not been the case. 
Tile Dean of Hereford believes that 
liid chihlren wci*e brought into a far 
ra«>re earnest under^tanding of the 
Bible and its blei<sed truth«> through 
the more general cultivation they re- 
ceived than they would have been by 
its exclusive use. There are personal 
considerations involved in this matter 
which make it a question hardly to be 



decided without a knowledge of the 
agents employed. We ourselves be- 
lieve that mere cultivation of intellect 
will bring the pupils very little way 
towards moral and religious improve* 
ment. He who should deem that by the 
mere imitative act of setting children 
tasks to do» and sending book^ deemed 
** useful/' into their cottages* hearts 
would be touched and tiiinds awakened 
to understand and apply the greatest 
of truths, would be, we believe, sadly 
mistaken. This were to leave out the 
higher element altogether; but what 
we say is, that, through the gentle and 
vigilant ministry of minds impressed 
with devotional feeling, and the desire 
uftei' human brotherhood, the village 
school and the village home may be 
united, Aflectionate moral culturt- 
draws out the better tendencies of our 
nature, and a spirit of individual inter- 
est in the highcist truths often, if not 
always follows ; for if we feel, as we 
decidedly do, that intellectual powei 
alone does not necessarily lead to an) 
high result, we are no lc.*s persuaded 
that high moral power Is ,'^ure to lead 
to improved euUivationof the intellect 

We have no time to say anything 
minute of the BIrkbeck schools. Great 
pains seem to be taken by them to 
promote accurate knowledge on the 
subject of rehitive duty — we should 
fear the basis of Interest Is made some- 
what too prominent. If so it is a serious 
fault. Yet Ave think that, as there Is 
nothing in the constitution of these 
schools which forbids a genial teacher 
expanding the lesson of profit and 
loss into something more elevating, 
they must be doing good. They arc 
profoundly right at least in so far a? 
they steadily maintain that a man*s or 
woman's lot la life tlepends far more 
than many are willing to allow on 
fomhtei* 

It ought surely to be considered as 
one of the most cheering of all doc- 
trines that the best men or women, 
the industrious, faithful, observirig, 
and intelligent among the working 
classe«, are almost always successful 
in achieving some Uttle independence. 
The conviction of those who carefully 



• Shoald iny reader of this article wijh for an acqanintancc with ihe Letions on 
•♦ Social Science/' given at the Birkbeck tehools, be le reffrred to a serie* of little 
books iiatitished bj Mr. Ellis, and sold by Smiih and Elder. In metitioaing Mr. 
Ellis wecaauot hur off.;r our tribute of §iucere respect to oar of the most tadef^tigable 
ediUMLtioiusts of th« day. 




M 7%# Saii&k tJhutftah^ £ti^ 



tikmerve €a» ^Mor— either as nuran- wliere ih&f meet with kelpti 

fftcturen or m large empki^ers of and it is for the true 4rieiijii ef the 

agrieaitiiral laboQrers — inranably is people more and nore to tocovnige 

ikttt where the father and mother of them thas to heipthcfmsdn^toiaiim 

a ^uBtlj are watehfal of opportunities, them means of giving tlwir ehMi t m a 

ftit;i^lf seriottS) iiad weU^disdplined, healthy educatioii, and to neljr "^^^ 

mtArtnne, though it may depress, upon anything hot the sure "-'" 

Ami not hreiik them down. £very- of improring habits and char 



THB S43:ON CHIEFTAIN; 

WmiTTBN OBT OPBNINO A SAXOV OmATBi 

MaacH 7» 18ftl. 

1. 

la tf^rfiiml lap tht Sttoh cbteftain bleeps, 

While the, the first> list parent of us all, 
0*er her child hendihg, sadly siltet weeps, 

i^nd round him wraps her ratset robe for paU. 
S^l at his head the festal goblot stHuds, 

bft at the banquet quaffed in Woden's nam^ ; 
fetiji seeVs tlie trenchant blade those nerveless hands 

That bore it once to wio a hero*8 fame ; 
felin th^rfe the faidiful shield once prompt to ft^ve ;^^ 
AJike all dullM and tamish'd in the grave. 



RiBit, Stoote, rest I w^'re hindred men who wrsa^ 

A friendly circle round thy narrow bed, 
Cafte on thy giant-frame, and kindly breathe 

A pious requiem to the noble dead ; 
Thoogh ages on their winged flight have roli'd 

Since on Uf^'s scene thou play'dst thy pagesAI faiti 
ft^l leands the Saxon tongue as erst of old, 

la Saaon breasts still beats the Saaon heart ; 
God bless'd the empire-tree which thou didst pkttt» 
And still wiH bless, and mighty increase grant. 

3. 

toftb He then bless'd, and shall we not be blsel'd. 

Long as we love his soul-illnnilng light ? 
^osen bf Him to do bis high behest, 

Symbols of truth and Heaven- impart^ might, 
^u ftmhest earth the Saaon banners wave, 
. Climb mountain- wiids and ride the etoim^r %cli 1 
SMteth those fMds no more shall croudh the statfa, 

But walk erect In manly liberty ! 
JCattioe and Mercy follow o'er the main> 
With Peaee and Plenty smiling In their train. 

4. 

Va know the Truth. Blind Pagans now no mora, 

At Hertha's shrine no victim fouUy bleeds ; 
tn ibrest dade, or on the sounding shore 

No Woden-orgies fire to sanguine deeds; — 
iKit Hate, and Strffb, and Lust, have they nb MH^ 

O^er Saxon breasts — has Hell no mastery ? 
i^hfJI we Valhalla scorn, and yet allay 

Our tastes on earth with grosser luxury ? 
h^k we His heaven who die.d on cross to save, ^ %* ^ 

And sadder, wiser, quit yon l^on grave. W^ .)|^ W» 



NOTBS OF THE MONTH. 



IDe QnAt EibibiUoo— CoAvcr»«xioDe it tbe Mnn^ioa Uoufte— Lord Boftttc'i Soirto— AdiQtwifiia 
$ivm U> Nortbumb«rUi)d Uouae ind to the Earl afElleaiiierff's— £xbii>i4toD of Ficiarfi by 
AinAt«ari— St, Peler's Cti«ir ; tbe CuAc in5cripti«»n coojecturtd to Ii&ve been a hxtuk of Uiir 
BiroQ DcDOo— Recent pubticatioiu. 



During the pavt iiiontb The Grkat 
SviiBiTiQN bu iiiil cootiaued to b« Ihi; 
Mibject wbich has ^ugronned the greaUAt 
ihare of public attentiou. Tbe dully throug 
of TMitors bu eiceeded 6U,(]Ui>, and bvw 
objecu of altraction, unveiled from lime 
to time, have maintained ibe mtereit eveo 
q/ those persoriii who have been freqaeuters 
from the day of opening. Luudon has 
probsblj never been ao full gf strangers 
at durioi^ the pattt CDonthp atid greater 
DUiobefi fttill are expected to arrive during 
July. The order and guod behaviour 
which have UbtiDgui»hed boih Londoners 
and TJiiiLorft are heyondl ail praittc, jitid a 
liberal hospitality ha:i been abewa to all 
cortirrs, A CoNVKRSAirosa given uy 
tMit Lnmn Mayor at the Mansiun House, 
tlue invitaiioos to ntiich were setit freely 
to all tbe literal y and scientilic societies 
of tbe metropoiia, was a very diatinguifihed 
totertaiomeat, worthy of the chief aja> 
giatr«te of our great fuet.ropolii». A 
number of iDodek of ahtps lent by the 
Lordi of the Admifiilty, a very curious 
collection of ancicmt watcbea beloDgiDg to 
Sir ChitHea FelLowg^ and many other ar- 
ticles of antiquity or curiosity were eitbl- 
bit«d on this occasion. LOH0 Ro9aE*fi 
SoiRKB, OQ the 14th June* was honoured 
by the presence of Prince Albert, and very 
many eminent |;>ersoiis. All thci^e eveu- 
iogi of the President of the Euyal Society 
bave fiaaaed off with greut eclat, and have 
been universally conaidered to be tbe moat 
•legant and liberal of ibe literary enter- 
tainmeots of ibe aeason. The Doita ow 
NoRTuvMRKRLAND boi allowed TiKitorii 
to inspect both hh mansion at 1 1 Hiring 
Cro&s, — where are the celebrated St. Se- 
bastian of Guerctoo, tbe Coraxro family 
by Vandyck, and tbe girl with a candle, 
a famoug picture by Schalken^ — and aUo 
Sioa House, with lU few re main a of the 
old monaitery and ita beautiful gankni. 
Tua Eari. or Ei,LtSiiSR£ bas thrown 
open the gallery of bis new mansion at 
^t. Jamea'j — a Hording a rich treat to all 
wbo value picturea of the highest clasa ; 
Eaphaela, Titiana, Caraccia* of the finest 
klod. Of specimens of other schooli of 
pHintini; in this collection it in enough to 
enumerate a wonderful Cuyp, Vaiidcr- 
feJde'a Rising of the Gale, and Juii 
6tcen*« Schoolroaitcr. To have seen tbeae 
ptcturet alone is a privil<?ge of the highest 
Older. U Ike seme ooUecliou we may 



remind out readers thrre Vk now the 
Chandos portrait of Sh»kspere, bought by 
tbe Earl of EUestuere at Stow^ for ^5 
guineas, and liberally allowrd by him to 
be engraved by the Shakespeare Society. 

These and other free exhihitian» of tl)e 
highest order have drawn o& & good masjij 
of the visitors from the mpre customary 
sights of the London season. The Eihi. 
bition of the Royal Academy, in spile of 
Matlit^e's Caxton, and Landseer's «plea- 
dours, and the oddities of tbb Me* 
diiev4ilists, wns, for a time, compiratively 
unfrequented. The collection in Suffolk 
Street, although better wurtb notice then 
usual, wag nearly deserted ^ and tbe 
Fdtntex]} iu Water Colours, both the Old 
and the New Societies, began to fear that 
the tide of favour was receding from them. 
Alt this wc fane; Itos passed awtiy, for we 
rejoice to see that th^- walls of lho»e ex* 
hibitiunfl ou which pictures are marlctd u 
*' Sold/' bear witnesb that tbe public bas 
not forgotten their old favourites. 

Among new picture ExuintTiONs we 
ought to mention one in Full Mall, «r 
Amatkurs^ We mu» the mature nch- 
ness of tone which we are accustomed to 
see on ibe walls of the Exhibition of the 
elder Water Coluur Society, and there ia 
no brilliancy and truth combined whioh 
may compare with that of the modem 
Flora* Mrs. Margetts,atibe New Soci:ity i 
but many of the pictures are very ec- 
eel tent, and tliose of Miss Blake are in the 
highest degree admirable for truth, cooi' 
pletf^ncss, and deliciicy, Tbe design it 
this exhibition, whu'h bos been very bastily 
got up, is worthy of ail encouragement. 

Ttje Society of Antiquariefi brought ita 
Acasiuii to a clusc ou the 19th June, and 
the members of tbe Arcbieological Sode* 
ties are busy preparing for their annual 
OQQgress ; that of tbe As!»ocfitiioQ will 
tRke place at Derby, under the presidency 
of Sir 0.swald Mo sky ; that of the In- 
stitute at Bristol, Juhn Scaodret Harfofd, 
caq. presiidenL 

Our venerable correspondent at Cork 
bas sent us the following sug^esteil ei- 
planatioQ of ibe pleasant story told by 
Lady Morgan respectiog tbe inscriptioD 
on St. FaTCR'a Chair. W^e print tbe 
letter as we have received it, prcmiattig 
only that if our correspondent's auj^gei. 
ttonwere deemed admiaaible, the genuine- 
nesa of the cbair would not be thereby 



66 



NoiH oftite Month. 



t^riy, 



ettabliibed. Thut is qoile another quet- 
tloD. 

*'M&. Urban* — In refsrenoe to th« 
•Hide on the ' Legend of St. Peter's 
Chair' at p. 590, &c. of this month's 
Magazine, I beg to submit a few cursory 
obseryations ; — 

..** The inscription ia stated by Lady 
Morgan to have been represented to her as 
being in a Cufic character, by Baron Denoo, 
and in presence of the learned Champol- 
Uon,— the great hierogl3rphic decypherer, 
I presume. But, in place of any analogy 
to the apostle, it is said to express the 
Mahometan confesaion of faith— 'There 
is no Grod but one, and Mahomet is his 
prophet.' In the first place, it is fair to 
remark that neither of those learned men 
^>oke from personal knowledge or in- 
spection, but from a copy said to have 
been taken of the subject— how correctly 
ther could not have ascertained; but I 
will at once assert my conviction that the 
whole (ihe interpretation I mean) was a 
hoax practised by the facetious baron on 
the too inquisitive lady, who as easily be- 
lieved as she pleasurably dealt in fiction. 
The old Baron was a great wag, as his 
acquaintances, and indeed the public, well 
knew. His first literary production, a 
comedy, entitled * Julie, ou le Bon Pere,' 
proves how fondly he indulged his natural 
humour, and so he continued to do through- 
oat life, more especially delighting to 
mystify, as he called it, teaiingly qaes- 
tinning travellers, but, above all, choosing 
for the victims of his sport, ladies pre- 
paring their travels for the press — blue- 
stocking writers occasionally anxious to 
astonish the world with something new. 
I speak here of the Baron from some direct 
knowledge, and of his care, on such oc- 
casions, to be seemingly supported by a 
reference to, or rather by the non-contra- 
diction of a competent friend, as in this 
instance by Cbampollion, who, as above 
mentioned, had not seen this original 
inacription, for he did not visit Rome 
until 18V5, several years after this inter- 
view. I had a passing intercourse with 
this biKhly-gifted gentleman, and feel as- 
sured that if he did appear to confirm the 
Baron's story it was to gratify his old 
friend^s bantering habit, which the Baron 
could scarcely control. * L'esprit de 
Deoon le portait k des pareils oublis du 
ton s^rieux que convenait k sa position,'* 
says his biographer. When secretary to 
the French ambassador at Naples snd 
elsewhere, he repeatedly incurred sharp 
reprimands for the communication of lu- 
dicrous or scandalous anecdotes rather 
than what more properly belonged to his 
station. A moment's reflection would 
have satisfied Lady Morgan that he was 
7 



merely qutixiBg her; for, if bo iriibtd 
to oolour his story with any aeniblaiiee ff 
truth, be certainly would not luive haiB 
reoourae to so improbable a fiotion as the 
Mahometan symbol of finth when foime- 
thing of a more Christian eharaeter might 
have been of as easy invention ; but hUfc 
saw that he had a facile dupe to deal wtflf, 
who possibly importuned him with berlil- 
quiries, as she certainly did many ettifli% 
and he played on her credulity in returh. 

*' Her hidy ship's letter to the cardinal 
exposes her, it will be seen, to some otbfir 
pointed remarks. * The funeral sermon,* 
she Miys, ' of the Princess (Indian Begum 
Dyce Sombre) was presiohed by yiMr 
eminence when a bishop, with an earnest 
eloquence, which recalled the ^loges fnn4^ 
bres of the Bossuets and Massillons over 
the biers of the La Vallidresand other ihir 
penitents of the court of Louis XIIT.' 
Now, in vindication of truth, and in 
justice to these distinguished personages, 
it should be stated that it is an incon- 
testible fact, that neither of them ever 
pronounced the funeral oration of any 
of that sovereign's favourites, nor did 
any other ecclesiastic. Bossuet's death 
preceded that of Madame de la Valli^re 
by six years, from 1704 to 1710; and 
Massillon, then addressing Louis in the 
energetic tone and language of Christian 
morality, as his sermons of the period de- 
monstrate, did not and oould not so betray 
his duty. Besides, as\K>qise de la Valltdre 
had become a nun, it would have been con- 
trary to rule, for that mortuary tribute b 
never paid to a recluse, except, possibly, 
on beatification — here not the case. Again, 
Lady Morgan writes — * The spirit of 
movement which armed the alwsys restive 
Gallictin church, and called forth the wit 
and philosophy of monastic seclusion to 
enlighten and delight the world, by the 
Lettres Provinciales, as^ainst the bull Uni* 
genitus/ &c. Here I must indicate a 
signal anachronism ; for the first of the 
provincial Letters was dated 23rd of Janu- 
ary, 1656, and the eighteenth, or last, 
was written on the 24th of March, 1657, 
while their author, Pascal, ceased to live 
the 19th of April. 1662 ; that is, fifty-one 
years before the bull Unigenitus was pro- 
mulgated or existed, which was not till 
1713 ; nor was it acknowledged in France 
till the following year, as we find in 
H^nault's History under that date, and in 
all other records. These blunders abund- 
antly show what confidence is to be re- 
posed in the fanciful lady's narrative of 
what she saw, read, or heard. 

*• The street in Paris where Lady Mor . 
gan's credulity was thus worked on is La 
Rue dti H elder, not de Helder, so called 
after the defeat there, and capltiilation of 



185 1.] 



Notm of the Month. 



$7 



I 



I 



•isurcdlj ttie iterson&lly bnve* but mili- 
tarily the tocomprtent, Doke of York» to 
General Bruoe in 1799. 

** Youn, Stc, J\xfEs RocBE.-* 

Tlie pablishing^ trade has not been very 
active of Ute, but there are some few ini- 
portaot new faUtorica] books which we 
thsll next month bring before our readers. 
Sir Francis P&lgrave's History of Nor- 
mandy ^ iroL L and Fosses Judges of Eng- 
land, Tols. iii. and iv. nre among them. 

Amongst works which do not come 
within our ordinary scop« we may notice 

The Bjcprmdon o/ 1851 ; or, Vitwt of 
the Induttrjf^ Science, and Goremmwni of 
EuffUnd. By CharUa Babbagf, nq, Bro, 
Murraf, 1651. — An excellent and plain* 
spokeo Tolnme, toochin^ upon many things 
DMides the Great Exhibition. 1 1 is written 
with tpirit and freedom, aq^ i^ especially 
ngefui as directing attention in a very 
masterly way to the present po«itiott of 
science sod men of science in England. 
The title-page gives no indication of the 
contents, bnt the name of the anthor is a 
guarantee that whatever is touched upon 
is treated with minute pnctical knowledge 
nod perfect fearlessness. 

7%t Great Ej^hihitiGn Prise Eesay^ by 
ike Rev, J, C. WAiek. M^A. 8»o. Lend, 
IS51-— A prize of one hundred guineas 
hftTing been offered by the Re?. Dr. 
Emerton^ of Han well College, Middlesex, 
for the best Essay ou the Moral Advant- 
ages to he derived from the Union of all 
NslJolu at the Great Exhibitioo, the 
pramt oomposition was adjudged to be 
the beil. Dr. Einerton has also pub- 
Ikbed A Moral and Melt ff hue Guide to 
ike Great Exhibition, 8ro. Land. 1851. 
This consists of sngges Lions of the writers 
for the Prize Essay » and in formation re- 
specting the additional means provided for 
reUgioosiostrttction during the Exhibition. 

A Hymn Jor all Nation*, 1851, by M, 
F. TufryeTf D.CL, translated into ThiHy 
Lmtffuaffee^ and Mel to Mtteic by S. 6>- 
hmetian Weeley, Mut, Doc. %t>o, Lond, 
1851. — Thh singular work ought to be 
printed by sabacriptioUf and a copy given 
to every visitor of the Exhibition. The 
hj^oan b simple, hearty, and appropriate. 
It is translated into Hebrew, Sanscrit, 
Arabic f Chinese, Fenian^ Turkish, Hin- 
dostanee^ Ancient Greek, Latiu, Welsh, 
Irish, Gaelic', Romaic, German!, Folbh, 
Swedish, Norse, Danish, Spanish, Dutch, 
French, Italian, Manx, and Ojibway. 
la number these languages do not quite 
equal the promise of the title-page* but 
they c^nstitnte a goodly show, and there 
are generally two or three versions into 
every language. 

The Spirit of the World, und the 
Spiril which ie of God, A Sermott, by 

Gbnt. Mac. Vol. XXXVL 




John JacteoHt M.A, Recior of St, Jamet'i. 
l2mo. Skejinylon. 1851.^^ — x\n earnest, 
practical address to persons recently con- 
finned. Nothing can be more solemn or 
more suitable, 

Liffhtf on the Altar not in uee in 
the Church of England by authorityqf 
Parliament in the 2nd year of the reign 
of King Edward VI. with remarke upon 
conformity. By the Rer, T. S. L, Vogan, 
M,A, 8f^o. Rtvingtona. 1851. — ^Lights on 
the Altar are " universally supposed," 
says this writer, to be justified by some 
act of Parliament which ratified the In- 
junrliona of the 1st of Edward VI. Those 
Injunctions permitted the use of altar- 
lights ; if these fnju notions were ratified 
by act of Parliament, then the use of such 
lights is brought within the scope of the 
Rubric before tbff order of Morning Prayer, 
which directs that ornaments in uac in the 
church by the authority of Parliament in 
2iitl Edward VI. are to be retained. Until 
lately the writer partook of this universal 
sfipposition. But upon investigatioQ be 
finds that there is no such act of Parlia- 
ment, that the Injunctions never were con- 
firmed by authority of Parliament, and 
consequently that there is not even a rubri- 
cal justification for the use of altar-lights. 
This is an argument which will at this 
time have weight with many minds, and 
we therefore recommend the Bampton 
Lecturer's pamphlet to serious and genc' 
rat consideration. 

The Old Paths, Readinga founded on 
the Jtrnt five Homitie»t and on the Homily 
qf Repentance, Edited by a Layman* 
l'2mo, Rivingtons. 1851. — In this little 
book the Homilies alluded to in the title- 
page are condensed and modernised. The 
passages alio in those venerable formu* 
larieft in which the Church of Rome is re- 
buked nith severity are omitted, b» no 
longer necessary. 

A Treatise on Moral Evidences ; illue* 
irated by numerout Example* both t^ 
general Prineiplee and oftpeci/ie Actiont, 
By Edward Arthur Smedley, M.A. 8in». 
Cambridge ^ 1850. — This treatise relates to 
the highest object of CDneideration which 
can be presented to the mind of man i the 
character, namely, of that evidence upon 
which it may be concluded that God and 
man really stand in that relationship to- 
wards each other which Christianiiy de- 
clares. Whether regarded theologically 
or philosophically no more interesting or 
more important question c*n be conceited 
— none which it becomes a rational man 
to consider with greater earnestness and 
anxiety. Tlie question in one on which, 
iipart from the consideration of the par- 
ticular evidence for Clirislianity, we can 
only arrif e at a high degree of probability. 



MmtUansout Stvkws. 



iivitj. 



Wh»t tb« DAtnre of that prolNibUity if, 
pud by what slepa it maj b« arrived at, 
«if qMitioM oooiidered 07 the present 
pfitii with philoiopbioaxid argmneiitative 
ealmnets, with logical prediioii, and the 
V^pat caodovr. We heartily recom- 
m$nd hit Tolone. 

B/hittim 9f ike 4rt pf JUawuimg, Bif a 
ffffow «tf /At Jtoya/ Society. 8te. Lomf 



JMnif, 185l.*-The examples selected in 
Ibif Tolame make it a book of amusement 
Everything that Uie author has lately read, 



ibif volume make it a book of amusement 
Everything that Uie author has lately read, 
lawn even to Mrs. Candle and George 
ft^bius, has been laid under contribution 
\o fnruith illustration of the many varieties 
•f rtanoning— good and bad. The result 

ttb impart an air of freshness to tiie 
>k, and to eihibit the applicability of 
iii^ art of which it treats to the every-dsy 
bnsioess of life. And this Is espcdally 
^ caiei bfciuff in thi| inftviM th« c^. 



smples are the most important part of 
the bo^. Thia method may pmbaUr 
tend to fix something in the ^aind of tSk 
reader, but whether the somitUng fixed 
will be the contents of the cziract or iti 
application to the art of reasoning may \i$ 
doubtftiL 

TkeLMWio/HeaUkmrei^HmtoMM 
tmd Bodg; • urim of IMtmn frmm m 
M PrmHttimur to a pMiimi. Bjf Uwm 
Jokm BeMU, M.R.a8. 800. Okutoi^ 
1851.— A book containing much Knilbw 
advice upon important subjects, expit|ae4 
in simple language, without pretenit or 
fuackery. 

Peter LUil§ mid th$ Luetn SuBftme^i 
the Frog'e teeturei and oiUr Siofim^ 
A wettee^Look for mff chUdrem umd ikiia 

filsy«a/«a.8«o. Ridmimy. 1811. ^Simp^ 
dl of kindness, dcgantly printed, mi 
price one 8hil]b^;->•nMd we say mott i 



mSCBLLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



Oimwenmtime^&oeikewiikBekfnmmm 
emd Sarei. Dremeimted/rom tke Gtrmtn 
^JoknOxenford. aeo/t. London, 1858. 
<-»]t is now nearly twenty years since the 
veteran poet and philosopher of Weimar 
breathed hie last For more than half a 
century he had occupied the most promi- 
■tnt podltlon in European literature. He 
bad ushered is, and he witnessed through- 
mtt, that wonderful nra of German pro- 
ductiveness, in poetry, philosophy, and 
the arte, oi which a great part was him- 
•alf— the mre of Schiller and Jean Paul, 
tiie «ra of Kant, of Humboldt, and of 
lliebuhr, the ara of Beethoven and of 
liosart— a period which ean be compared 
only with the age of Perielea or of Eli- 
tabeth. Long before the Frenek Revolu- 
Hon, at a limo when Voltaire reigned 
Mrenw over the iateUeet of Fhinee and 
Mrmanyv Werther and Goetx von Ber. 
Sehingea had earned the name of Qoethe 
irto every eiviKssMd country, and had 
•awn the seeds ef so much that was trana- 
Itofy, and alao of so muck that haa been 

rrmanenl, fai the Hteraiure of Europe. It 
impoesibia at the present time to esli- 
»ata fully the influenoe which Goethe 
^Meeieed oeer the annda of his age. We 
fie e noug h to assure ua that we can 
iaassily attribute too much to it Tke 
•figinality and foree which characteriaed 
Hm litevature and poetry of France during 
thn ifst thfarly years of this century were 
eenfeiiedly dne to a German impetus, and 
r to iiavo scarcely su r v i ve d the great 
The taste fbr tha t xtm- 



mpeert 
Oiissan 



ordinary and horrible, origtamlly derhud 
from Germany, but carried to an eitreaii 
in France by the force of reaction agalnet 
the coldnesa of their dassio moddU, aft 
ilrat stimulated, and haa since paralyaed* 
the productiveness of the imaginative 
portfon of their literature. We trust that 
the more healthy condition which Goethe 
himself anticipafed as the consequence of 
the preeent ultra-romantic epoch is not 
ter diatant In England, our best minds 
confessed their obligations to the greatest 
of European models, and Scott and Byron 
borrowed from him without scruple tome 
of Uieir most striking characters. It was 
Goethe's extraordinary fortune to receive 
Uie homage of the master spirits of every 
country) who had owed their firat inspira- 
tiona to his genius, and, after snrvivinig 
not only hb contemporariea but his sdMN 
kurs, to maintain the diaracter of poot 
and author to the bat It waa in 1774 
that Werther fkrat dasxled the imacination 
of Europe. In 1880 we find him eM 
oeenpied in rewriting Meister*s WandO'' 
jahre, and in coanposing the second paft 
of Fkuist. 

During the calm but busy years wUel 
im m edia te ly preceded his deeease, Gotiht 
isaa engaged in preparing for the prese • 
eoa^Icto edition of his works. To asU4t 
him in the taak of arrangement and re» 
visiou, ke invited to Weimar John Peter 
Eekermaan, a young Hanoverian, whoee 
companionship and aid soon became iaa- 
pertant and almost indispensahle totheaged 
poet, and wbo after hie death beoamohil 



IMl.] 



Muceitan&Qus Reviews, 



J exMutor. fickermsnti's intimmoy 
befsri In the year 1^3, *nd from that 
prriati until Goethe's i}e«thp with but 
littlff tntermijsaioa, he bmd ftlmuit daily op- 
portunttiM of enjoy iq^ in f&mitiar ioter- 
coarse the readta of bi^ ^tiius ftad expe- 
rience. T1i« coQT«T«itJoa of the most 
M^hJy- lifted of mAokiad has the «dvan> 
tife io frejhaett and bnllianey over their 
iBore flQedftated productions. The Table - 
talk of Lather and the Life of Johnson find 
a ntoch more aomeroiiJi gUsj of rea4eri 
tlkaa die work» of either of the men whose 
prcsenoe anifnatef thoae books. But the 
•«ed mail fail into a llttiog soil. It is 
OM of Ptacal*! true&t thouj^hta : '* A 
B fttJiin qii*f»a a phia d^sprit on tronve 
qQ*it y a plui d'hommes on^inaax; lea 
gens da eommiLn ne trouvent pas de dif* 
firenee eotrv lea homines/' The task of 
repofthig conversations demands a mind 
at once retentive and discriminating. 
Wa eaiiiiot hut consider it a fortunate 
tiftOf for ihe world that Goethe had near 
hhn a mtn m capable as the aathor of the 
Conversatiooi before us, of appreciating 
and preserving the ealm^ ripe wisdom of 
feua Utter years. Eckermann^s editorial 
oecupattoni gave him frequeot occasions of 
diacosiiog with the great author the occa- 
sion, fDeaoing, and tendency of his various 
works^ and many interesting notes upon 
this subject are here preserved. The m- 
tcDtioo of pnbltshiDg this record of his 
09Bvertatioiia does not appear to have 
bt«n coonDiUDicated to Goethe until 1R30, 
when it met with his entire approval, 
** Ita value will be increased,'* he writes 
tm the author, " if I can attest that it is 
oonoetved perfectly in my spiHU" The 
ohier part of the work apprared in Oer- 
maoy in 1836; a sunplementai volume 
parti y from M« Soret s note^ wis added 
in 1B4I^. 

The following remark^ uttered by 
Goethe in his eighty-second year, may 
•erre at ooce to iUustrate the depth and 
vigour of his thoughts, and his freedom 
from the intellectual foibles of age. 

** People always fancy," said he, laugh- 
ing, ** that we must become old to becoiDe 
wise J but in truth as years advance It is 
hard to keep ourselves as wise as we were. 
Man becomes, indeed^ in the different 
itagei of his life a different beipg ; but he 
Ofinot fay that he is a better one, and to 
oertaia malten he is aii likely to be right 
in hia twentieth as In bis sixtieth jear. 
We s«e the world one way from a plain, 
iAOth«r Wiiy from the heights of a promoa- 
tory* another from the glader fields of 
Iha primary mountains. We see from 
one of these points a larger piece of world 
likia from the other; hut that is all, and 



we cannot ssy that we see more tndt 
from any one than from the rest/' 

The versatility and cotnpreheasiveaes^ 
(^eheitifjJkeiti of Goethe*s mind ha* been 
the subject of frequent eulogium. We 
coulJ ftiid no more pleasing proof of hit 
true catholicity of spirit, than in the dit< 
crimiTUiting kindness with which he frO' 
queutly refers to hts own obligations, mm 
well as tboije of hU age, to his hterarr 
contemporaries* Of Schiller wc hear, ^f 
we might expect, mo^t frequently. Thf 
touching interest of the following notf 
of a visit to Jena in 1827 cannot he snr* 
paased. 

*' We went down into thegarden^ wber« 
Goethe had cansed a little breakfast to bt 
laid out upon a stone (able in an arbour* 

* You scarcely know/ said Goethe, ** in 
what a remarkable place we are now 
seated. Here it was that Schiller dwelt. 
In this arbour, upon tliese benches, which 
are now almost broken, we have often aat 
at this old stone table^ and exchanged 
many good and great words. He was then 
in the thirties, I in the forties ; both w«re 
full of aspirations, and indeed it was lom^ 
thing. Every thing pasaea away ; I am 
no more what I was; but the old earth 
still remains, and air, water^ and land, are 
§till the same.'" 

After Schiller there is no one more fre* 
quently discussed than Byron. 

*' The English,*' said be, '* may thiali 
of Byron as tbey please ; but this ii cei^ 
tain, they can show no poet who is to be 
compnred to him. He is different from 
all the others, and for the most part 
greater," 

\ few days afterwards : 

" I have,'* said he, read once more hit 

* Deformed Transformed,' and must say 
that to me his talent appears greater than 
ever. His devil was suggested by my 
Mephistophilcs j but it is no imilation ; 
it is thoroughly new and original, close, 
genuine and spirited. There are no weak 
passages, not a place where you could put 
the head of a pin, where you do not And 
invention and thought. Were it not for 
his hypochondriacal, negative turn, ht 
would he as great as Shakspcare and the 
ancients," I expressed surprise. 

*' Yea,*' said Goethe, *• you maybe* 
lievc me. I have studied him anew, and 
am conirmed in this opinion.^' 

At another time he expresses a wish 
that Schiller had lived to know Lord 
Byrou'i works, and '* wondei^ what he 
would have said to so congenial a mind." 
Wc can easily conceive that Byron would 
not have occupied so high a plaea in 
Schiller** estimation as in that of 
Goethe. The latter however Hadt mare 



eo 



MiiceUanwfu Smews. 



[July. 



tbsn one oocarion to point oat his de- 



' His perpetual negttion and HvHtt- 
flndinf is fa\)i»{oiis eten to his exceUeat 
works. For not only does the discontent 
of the poet infect the reader, but the end 
of all opposition is negation ; and ne- 
gation is nothing. If I call ^oiT bad what 
do I gain ? Bnt if I callffooif bad, I do a 
great deal of misehief. Re who will work 
aright must nerer rail, most not trouble 
blttself at all about what is ill done, but 
only do well himself. For the great point 
b not to pull down but to buUd up, and 
in this humanity finds pure joy.*' 

But the most interesting part of 
Qoethe's conversations must always be 
tet which illustrates his own character 
and derdopment, the olyects which he 
proposed to himself in his literary careery 
and the expectations which he entertained 
on the subjects which were ever the nearest 
to his thoughts, the progress of mental 
cultivation in his own country, and the 
ceneral advancement of the race. The 
fteld in which his genius first found scope, 
and attsined its acknowledged preemi- 
nence, and the change which has since 
eome over the literary world in Germany, 
is ^ns described : — 

** That was a good time when Merck 
tnd I were young! German literature 
was yet a clean tablet, upon which one 
hoped to paint good things with pleasure. 
Now it is so scribbled over and soiled, 
tiiat there is no pleasure in looking at it, 
and a wise man does not know where- 
abouts he can inscribe anything." 

At another time be expressed himself 
more prosaically and perhaps more justly 
on the same subject. 

'* Germany itself stands so high in 
every department, that we can scarcely 
survey all it has done ; and now we must 
be Greeks and Latins and English and 
French into the bargain." 

The following advice given to Ecker- 
mann in 1824 exhibits Goethe's estima- 
tion of English literature. 

*' Tou studied the ancient languages 
but little in your youth ; therefore seek a 
stronghold in the literature of so able a 
nation as the English. And besides, our 
own literature is chiefly the offspring of 
tiieirs. Whence have we our novels, our 
tragedies, but from Goldsmith, Fielding, 
and Shakspeare ? And in our own day, 
where will you find in Germany three 
literary heroes, who can be placed on a 
level with liOrd Byron, Moore, and Walter 
Scott ?'• 

Goethe did not conceal his conscious* 
nnt of his own high position. The fol- 
lowing rtmuk ittSrodnoei ns to some 



literary rivalry. It is made with reler- 
ence to the Schlegels having set up Ttak 
in opposition to the grand Napoleon of 
the rMlms of rhyme. 

'* Tieok is a talent of great importance, 
and no one can be more sensible than my- 
self to his extraordinary merits; onlv wiien 
they raise him above himself, and place 
him on a level with me, they are in error. 
I can speak this out plsinly ; it matters 
nothing to me, for I did not make myself. 
I might just as well compare mysdf to 
Shakspeare, who is a being of a higher 
order, to whom I must look up with 
reverence." 

WUhelm Schlegel*s criticism of Euri- 
pides meets with Uie foUowing censure. 

" I do not deny that Euripides has his 
faults; but he was always a very re- 
spectable competitor with Sophocles and 
Jfischylos. If he did not possess the great 
earnestness and the severe artistic com- 
pleteness of his two predecessors, and as 
a dramatic poet treated things a little more 
leniently and humanely, be probably knew 
the Athenians well enough to be aware 
that the chord which he struck was the 
right one for his contemporaries. A pOet 
whom Socrates called his friend, whom 
Aristotle lauded, whom Menander ad- 
mired, and for whom Sophocles and the 
dty of Atiiens put on mourning on hearing 
of his death, must certainly have been 
something. If a modem man like Schle- 
gel must pick out faults in so grsat an 
andent, he ought only to do it on his 
* knees.'* 

One of the most distinguishing tnuts 
of Goethe*s genius was what the Gkrmans 
call objectivity (objectivitit), the fiumlty 
of reflecting objects, whether external or 
derived from internal experience, without 
investing them with any peculiarity bor- 
rowed from the individual mind, the same 
freedom from consdousness and manner- 
ism which, above all its excellences, cha- 
racterises the poetry of Shakspere. In this 
quality resides the charm of much that 
Goethe wrote, in which, without betraying 
himself, he makes use of his own past expe- 
rience and feelings as materials for poetry. 
*' The world is so great and ridi," he 
says to Eckermann, ** that you can never 
want occasions for poems. But they 
must be occanonal poems, that is, reality 
must give both impulse and material for 
tbdr production. A particular case be- 
comes universal and poetic by the very 
drcumstance that it is treated by a poet. 
AD my poems are occasional pocons, sug- 
gested by real life, and having therein a 
firm foundation. I attach no value to 
poems anatcbed out of the air." 
The same thought is happily ezpMised 



18510 



MUcelhrneoMM Review*. 



61 



in tbe lioea whkh he prefixed to hii« 
UDsUer poemft v 

■* Was icb irrte, wi* ich atrebtc, 
W«s ich littf and wu ich lebte, 
Stttd hler Bluinen nur im Slraiie« ; 
Und dft3 Aker wie die Jugend, 
Und die Fehlcr wie die Tu^eod 
Nijni&t »ich gilt in Lieder nui,*' 
Tbe name wbich ht;^ intcribed on bk 
atttobiogmpbT suggests the aanic view of 
the poct'f life,—'* Dkbtung nod Wahr- 
bcit/* upon which title Eckermaan re- 
porti the follow tog remark, which appeam 
to savour somewhat of petulaacf! : 

*' I called it Diehtun^ und Wahrhni 
(Poetry and Truth) » beeaiue it raises it- 
pelf by higher tendencies from the region 
W a lower reality. Now Jean Paul, in 
die fpirit of contradiction, has written 
Wahrhtit out mtiHtm Leben (Truth out 
of my life), ai if the truth from the life 
of iuch a man could be any other than 
that the author was a Philistioe,*' 

Not the least agreenble part of the work 
before ua is rhat which illustrates the 
poet's at tarhmf tit to the prince who rea- 
lised in Wciinnr the youthful dream of 
Shakspere'fi scholar king : 
*' Navarre ahall be the wonder of the 
world ; 
Our court BhulJ he a little Academe, 
Still and contemplative in livbg art." 
The death of Charles Angut tus of Saxe 
Weimar occurred at Berlin during Ecker- 
tiam'i intimacy with Goethe, and an in- 
tBIMtllig account of bis last days was com- 
mnlMted to the poet in a letter from 
Homboldt, a great part of which is tran- 
tcribed by our author. 

Upon the sobject of German Unity, so 
much discussed In the present day, this 
book contains 6ome profound remarks. 
The unity for whicii Got^tbc loiitged wait a 
unity in sympathy and inU^Uectuttl culti- 
vation^ and a uniformity in ^nancial, mo- 
octary, and commercial arrangements. 

'* But if we imagine that the unity uf 
Cvermany consists in this, that the very 
great empire should have a single great 
oapiralf and that thiis one great capital 
would conduce to the development of 
great individual talent, or to the welfare 
of the great mass of the people, we are in 

wror Whence is Germany great 

hot by tbe admirable culture of the people^ 
which equally pen-ades all parts of the 
kingdom t But does not this proceed irooi 
the variotts seats of government, and do 
not dieie fcMter and support it ? Suppose* 
for oenttulet peat, we had had in Germany 
H ODly the two capitals, Vienna and Berlin, 
H or only one of these, I should like to 

■ know how it would have fared with Ger* 

■ man culture j or even with that generalJy* 






I 



I 



I 



disused opulence which goes band in hand 
with culture. Germany has about twenty 
universities distributed about the whole 
empire, and about a hundred public libra- 
ries similarly distributed. There is also 
1 great number of colleciioos of art and 
collections of objects belonging to all the 
kingdom of nature ; for every prince hai 
taken care to bring around him these use- 
ful and beautiful objects. There are 
gymnasia and schools for arts and industry 
in abundance, nay, there is scarcely a 
German village without its school. And 
how does France stand with respect to thi^ 
last point?" 

These observations were made in 1628 : 
if they had been made twenty years later, 
the moral of the lost sentence mig bt have 
been pointed by a reference not to France. 
but to England. 

We have not space to illustrate from the 
book before us the much-dehaled question 
of Goethe *s palitical opinions. He was a 
politician in the highest^ — the Greek- 
sense of the woril, inasmuch as no subject 
was nearer to his heart than the social 
development of mankidd ; but in its or« 
dlnary meaning he would probably have 
disclaimed tbe title. The apology which 
he gives for his want of «trong national 
feeling might he transferred to the subject 
of politics. ** There is a degree of culture 
where one stands to a certain extent above 
nations.^' Goethe acquiesced, perhaps 
too readily, in the existing condition of 
political afains, because he felt his true 
sphere, where positiTe aervlce was to he 
done, was in ilie moral and intellectual 
world. 

Scarcely a page of Eckermann's work 
16 without its attraction. Mr. Oxenford 
deserves hearty thanks for making this 
interesting memorial of the greatest of 
Germans more accessible to the English 
reader. 



The Archil eciuToi Quarter i^ Review, 
Ko, I, dpo, Lond. 1851, — This new re- 
view tippeals to professional architects 
and all tliat wide cluis of persons who are 
interested in architecture as on art. It 
designs to publish ** reviewi of hooks ami 
notices of designs, modelst drawings, 
buildings, furniture, and decorationf ; 
structural and mechanical inventions i new 
appliratioas of materials ; or other works 
having relation to the several departments 
of the theory and practice of architecture 
and buililiog, and of the study and pro. 
fession of the architect." This is a wide 
field, and our contemporary has entered 
upon it with spirit. Uis Introductoi^ 
address^ his article on the Great Elxhibi* 
tioDj and on Mr, Ruskin's Stones of Tcnice 



tt 



JSli$e»llan»otu Reviews. 



IMj, 



-^^l fliibjeets of • popular character — 
9iH ably written, aad la a free, maiil j tone 
iHii^ can not bnt prodnoe an impreasion 
illion the world. Of ihoae portions of the 
miniber which are more entirely profes- 
nonal, we mast speak with difidenoe, bat 
tkef seem written with knowledge and 
fi&irness. Sach a pablication must be of 
high valae to all persona interested in ar- 
ekitectare as a profession, and through 
Hkem will exercise great inflaence upon 
the pahlic at large. We heartily wish it 
ineeess. 

The Decorative Arte of the Midile 
Agei, EceUeiattical and Civil. By Henry 
Shaw, F.fi^.^. Parte V.-^XIL Imp,Svo, 
—The public is now familiarized to the 
diffusion of works of elaborate art by the 
aereral processes of printing, and particu- 
larly by that of engraTing on wood ; and 
there has been such a succession of mar- 
▼els, both in quality and quantity, pro- 
duced to meet the taste of this picture- 
loving age, that we haye almost ceased to 
wonder at any &iish of workmanship 
where the power of multiplication is un- 
limited, and public encouragement is com- 
nensurate to very numerous impressions. 
9till, if we look with a critical eye at many 
of the most showy productions, there is 
often much that is more specious than 
iecurate, much promise of excellence 
Hhich is not fully sustained, and much 
artistic beauty that is lost or defoced in 
the mechanical processes which are em- 
ployed in its production. The peculiar 
merit of Mr. Shaw's publications is that 
they have the advantage of his superin- 
tendence throughout all the processes of 
their execution ; and unless the results 
fulfil his expectations he takes care that 
the failure shall be remedied. Of this 
efficient zeal and perseverance we have 
examples in the repetition of four plates 
in the work before us. His familiarity 
with all the branches of imitative art is 
such that he is well able to adapt each to 
•the effects he is desirous to convey. To 
the objects of the present work he has 
fummoned the several processes of en- 
graving on steel and wood, of lithography, 
printing in gold and in colours, colouring 
Dy hand, and perhaps others which escape 
our enumeration : and when speaking of 
eheapness, we must express our convic- 
tion that, considering its careful and costly 
preparation, this is certainly the cheapest 
publication of elaborate art ever presented 
to the world. Many things, such as me- 
dieval jewellery and enamels, are repro- 
duced in all their glittering colours as per- 
irQtly as if they were themselves before 
w. Other aubiects, though necessarily 
fedueed, and delineated only, are exhibited 



with careM and instructive accuraey. Th« 
volume, which is now completed, oontaiai 
in all forty-one plates i of which six tro 
representations of encrusted aoamel* ive 
of tranaiaeid enamel, one of painted enaastl, 
five of gold and silver matai-work, IhrtI of 
iron-work,thraeofwood*wofk,aixofBtaiMd 
glass, one of Venetian goblets, two'of book 
Uiominations, five of embroiderv, threo of 
fletila ware, and one of book-biodiDf, 
An introduction is prefixed detailing soint 
interesting particulars of each of thaae 
arts. Each plate also is aocoaipaniad by 
descriptive letter-press, which is freely 
gami^d with minor fubjecta engraved 
on wood. The work is now complete i 
having extended only to half the number 
of Parts originally contemplated,— thf 
only error perhaps having been too low • 
price, an error which we hope will bo re* 
medied as far as possible by the speedy 
sale of the whole impression. 

The Chnmiele qf Battel Abbey, freim 
1066 to 1 1 76. Nowfiret tranelated, wUk 
Notee, and an abetract of the eubtequeni 
Hieiory qfthe Bttablishmeni. By Mark 
Antony Lower, M^. &c. 8m.— The muh 
nastic chronicle, properly so called, is a 
compilation commencing with the earliest 
traditions of general or national history, or 
at some remarkable epoch thereof, and 
descending, in the form of annals, to a 
fuller relation of such events as were par- 
ticularly interestiog to the writer or his 
contemplated readers, from their connee* 
tionwith his own community or neigh- 
bourhood, with other churches of the sama 
order, or with the family and sueoessora of 
the founder. W ith these matters the trans- 
actions of the monastery itself are mora or 
less intermixed. The present book is not 
of this miscellaneous character; it is a 
continuous narrative, and more properly 
a history of Battle Abbey, than a chronicle. 
It remained in MS. until 1846, when the 
use of a transcript which had been made 
for the late Mr. Petrie's great work of the 
British Historians, was accorded to the 
Anglia Christiana Society. A limited 
edition of the original was then printed, 
and the present translation has been ex- 
ecuted by Mr. Lower, in order to render 
its contents more available to the purposes 
of local history, to which that gentleman 
has already made many valuable contri- 
butions. It is in records of this descrip- 
tion that we are informed of the motives 
of many acts, the bare execution of which 
is evidenced by charters. Tarious nominal 
dted9 of gift are here explained, and appear 
as bargains of sale or exchange ; and many 
free-will offerings as comprontsaa after 
long disputes. The object in the writar'a 
view wu generally the reoord oi MMoeaa- 



§§1 contett 




MUciUaneous RevifWi* 



fi9 



confetti, whtcb mi^bt serve &« useful 
^rtccdr-' •" ^vtur« emer^fticiest Thtt», 
A grr^ ! thti *' Cbrooicle of Bat- 

UP* s-^ , 1 witb tbebiitory of a long 

if'^ujlgle msmtaiutd with th« bi^hopt of 
Cbi(rb4i«t«r tQ Astert tbc ezeupt jurisdiction 
of tb« abbey* indcpeudent of their Autho- 
rity ; and macb of tb« remaioder relatea 
to tbe various luita which tha abbey pur* 
iued 10 Tindtcate ita real or luppotcd 
rjgbta in other ouartera. These matters 
ooDvey to » roodero reader of such hii^ 
lonai (be appearanca of the moaaslic 
ootnmuoiUea haTing been ezoeidingly litU 
giooa— and indeed it it difficult to avoid 
that coDcJuaioD upon tbeir own relation % 
but the object of placing upon record eo 
Buch that i« poiitively unainiabLe ia ex* 
plained when we regard it as the ruuniog 
wmmeatary upon the title- dee tl^ of their 
jtroperty'— the inCelligrnt companion to 
tb« mooaatic cartulary. Hence ^isea a 
CO rre I ponding value to the topographer. 
But It ii in i more general view that we 
would rathar commend the publication of 
•ncient hiatoriea of thia kind. They refleot 
is the truatt light the uiannera of the tiute, 
and are therefore of great value to national 
hiaiory. Ajnong tnudi that ia prosaic and 
•tdUHya in the extreme^ they contain occa- 
■iowil inddeota of real life which art 
grwphic beyond any more studied picture, 
and they reveM characterutlc gUmpsef of 
asnioeDt persons which are well worth the 
trouble of searching out. Of this nature 
ia the following anecdote of King Utnry 
the Second's ca»noi»)>t;urship in the seals 
and chartera of hi!:^ uncejators. The validity 
of a charter of Henry L was disputed : 
** but the king taking tbc charter and seal 
of hia graod£stber into hia own hands, 
tl&raad round to Gilbert da fialliol (the 
objector), and said. By the eyes of Godg* 
if you can prove this charter false, you 
vriU put a thousand pounds into my pocket 
in England 1 Gilbert t$aid little ornothing 
to thta ; and the king added tbis r<?mark- 
able fpeecht If (quoth he) the monks, by 
a charter and confirmation like thit| were 
able to show that they have a claim upon 
tbis very palace of Clarendon, in whicli I 
haw the greatest delight^ \ could not with 
justice refuse to resign it entirely to fhem." 
Th^re are other pasBai;ei$ in which the 
obaoeeUor fiecket, the chief foreiter Alan 
de Neville, tbejoatioiary Richard de Lacy, 
Henry of Eaaex the king's untortonate 
baoner-bearer, and many of tba leading 



* King Henry aeema to have had re- 
■pect to tbe oaths as well as the charters 
olhia an^eeators ; for aoother paveage tells 
«• that ** the accustomed oath ** of the 
CoiMiuaror^ when angry, waa By the 
aplendonr of God ! 



ige, app 

tcHstio manner. Many other valuable 
materia la are to be gathered from ihete 
venerable pages. On the cruel and iit- 
hospitable right of wrfcca marit the M8, 
was long since quoted by Lambarde. 
Another anecdote of Henry I L (in p. 182) 
appears to ahow the beginning of coaflr* 
uiation charters under the form of fni^it- 
imtra. In one ttory related at p, 135 two 
murrifd priests are concerned. Tbc con* 
fea»ion of an unsucceffful attempt to gala 
• reputation for miracles at Battle, in th« 
time of Abbot Walter de Lacy (ll3&- 
1171), is remarkable. It appears to hav# 
excited the derision of the neighbourhood; 
whereupon '* provoked by thb, and by 
the un worthy Lives of some of the iobabU 
tants, the iJord waxed angry with thet« 
ungtateful peoplcp and withdrew tbis favour 
from thcm,"^transferriiig it, it is asserted^ 
to the dependeDt cell of Saint Nicholas ill 
Eieter. (p. 146.) Mr. Lower has added 
to the completeness of the book by a sum- 
mary sketch of the hiitory of the abbey, 
and its soccetaion of abbata, from the timi 
when the Chronicle terminates, to the 
period of the Dimiolution. Varioui inteU 
ligent notes, as well as the general style of 
tbe tranalatioD, are highly creditable to 
hii care and skill aj editor. 



Fl'iZ/on and iU AtMOCtaiionM* By Jamet 
Smith. Smait Svo. — This is a pleasing 
littie book, compo<ied at once with taste 
and talent. Its author evinces a juat ap* 
preciatioD of all that is admirable In our 
poetical literature and all that is gallant 
and picturesque in otir historical annati. 
He may take some credit for his concep. 
lion of the term *' associations,"^ and aUH 
more for the manner tn which he has cr* 
emplitied his ide^. Local history ea4 
local description are not in themaeU ea the 
most attractive of compasitiona ; they have 
sometimea acquired a cbarui under skilful 
handa, but this has been chiefly effected 
bj the " associations '^ with other places 
and other things which a well -stored 
mind has been prepared to reflect upon 
them. Tbe writings of Dr. TVhitaket, 
perhaps the most popular of all tO£Ogra- 
phera, form an excellent example. Oo tbe 
other haudt biography has been continually 
treated in a discursive style, when we have 
been presented with *' The Life an4 
Timu ** of this or that personage of note ; 
a practice which has been not a little 
abused, and made ancillary to mere bmjlr- 
making. There may be some daager of 
tbe like result in local ** asaociatiooai*' 
though perhapa not to the same extent. 
Almost any contemporary noUbilitiea may 
be dragged into a man* a ** Life and 
Tlntes;^' bat there moat be aomethuif 



64 



]lii$e«liant(MU Rtvieto*. 



[July, 



more thui co-existence requisite to form a 
looai " assocUtion." The leading features 
of the history of Wilton, in its earliest 
•IBta» are that it was the see of an Anglo- 
Saxon bishop and the capital of the 
coon^. In medieval timest when soper- 
•eded in these respects by the neighbour- 
log city of Salisbuiy, it was principally dis- 
tinguished as the site of a rich and aristo- 
oimtic nunnery. But it is after the disso- 
lotion, when the monastic property had 
passed into the possession of the Herberts, 
^t its most interesting *' associations*' 
oommence. Wilton waa the birthplace of 
Massinger, whose &ther was one of the 
Minci|MU servants of the Earl of Pembroke. 
Spenser is presumed to have been an 
honoared guest ; and Shakspere is ascer- 
tained to have attended with his company 
of comedians to perform a play before King 
James at that monarch's first visit in 
1605. Sir Philip Sidney, whose sister Mary 
was the aocompliahed mistress of Wil- 
ton, is known to have written his Arcadia 
within these beauteous domains, and to 
hwre borrowed many of its deicripUve 
Mftions from the features they displayed. 
By a very passable ''association" Mr. 
Smith moves us in one of his chapters to 
the neighbouring parsonage of Bemerton, 
where the pious kinsman of the Pem- 
brokes, iQeorge Herbert, wss tending his 
humble flock and cherishing his devotional 
muse. From these materials, assisted by 
Incidental sketches of ancient manners, 
Mr* Smith haa composed a very agreeable 
work. Indeed, his original writing is in 
many respects better than his quotations : 
Wi lUlnde to the very imaginative descrip- 
tion of Sidney's funeral* attributed to 
Mr. C. Knight and to Mr. Hazlitt's 
ocGOunt of '* the family Vandyck.*' From 
Hailitt's extravagance in asserting that 
to be the only good picture at Wilton, 
Mr. Smith takes the precaution to dis- 
sent; and, though he has not entered 
folly into the works of art, he has added a 
catalogue of the pictures, and an abstract 
of Mr. C. Newton's valuable criticisms 
npon the statuary, which were prepared 
finrthe Aroh«ological Institute in 1849. 
In another matter Mr. Smith has been 
Misled. The Earl of Pembroke stood for 
knight of the shire of Berkshire in 1649, 
and an amusing election squib was issued 
on the occasion, professing to give the 
speeches of the nval candidates, which 
oar present author has regarded as a veri- 

* The aldermen in their violet gowns 
{then customary for mourning) are trans- 
lated into ** a vast procession of authori- 
tieain solemn purple; " and the city train- 
.bands are mentioned as the ** most im- 
prmive'' part of the cavalcade. 
8 



taUe historical document 1 Mr. Smith 
(pp. 54, 74,) repeats the old statement, 
that Wilton House was designed by Haos 
Holbein in the reign of Edward the 
Sixth. Mr. Britton has judiciously ob- 
served that *' there is no authori^ for 
the assertion that Holbein designed more 
than the porch " which goes by his name 
(Aubrey's Natural History of WilUhire, 
p. 83, note) ; snd we believe there are no 
other traces of that master's hand to be 
seen at Wilton — excepting his portraits 
of the first Earl and of the &ther of Sir 
Thomas More. The house was chiefly 
built, as Aubrey tells us, in the reign of 
Elixabeth ; materially altered in the time 
of Charles I. from the designs of a French 
architect named Solomon de Cans ; and, 
having been partially destroyed by fire in 
1648, restored under the superintendence 
of Webb, the pupil of Inigo Jones. These 
and otner interesting particulars are given 
in Aubrey's book, recently printed for the 
Wiltshire Topographical Society : and, 
though they are not entirely overlooked by 
Mr. Smith, we regret that he has placed 
so much of them in an appendix of notes 
instead of weaving them into his text. 
Possibly his acquaintance with them was 
not 80 early as iras desirable. These mat- 
ters may be rectified in the next edition 
of " Wilton and its Associations.^* It is 
embellished by numerous woodcuts, in- 
cluding several cleverly executed portraits. 

T%e Poemi of Schiller , complete ; in- 
eluding all hit early euppreseed piecee : 
attempted in Bnglith ly Edgar Alfred 
Bowring. 8w). (/. IF. Pflrifr.)— This very 
modest volame has great merit. It de- 
serves to meet with much encouragement, 
for it is a truthful as well as a poetical ren- 
dering. We have no room for criticism or 
extract, but the vigour of the translation 
may be judged from a few words extracted 
from the Hymn to Joy. 

Joy from Truth's own glass of fire 

Sweetly on the searcher smiles ; 
Lest on Virtue's steep he tire, 

Joy the tedious path beguiles. 
High on Faith's bright hill before us, 

See her banner proudly wave 1 
Joy, too, swells the Angel's chorus — 

Bursts the bondage of the grave I 

CHORUS. 

Mortals, meekly wait for Heaven ! 

Suffer on in patient love I 

In the starry realms above, 
Bright rewards by God are given. 

The Talbot Case, An authoritative 
and succinct accouui from 1839 to the 
Lord Chancellor's Judgment, with notes 
and observations, and a pr^fiice by the Rev, 



!85L] 



Literary and Scientj/ic Intelligmce* 



M* HobftTt Sermour, M.A. \9mQ. {Sft- 
?#yt.) I B51 .^In its hlBtoric^l character the 
TtJbot ctae may be regard ed m a U^o-fold 
ftipc^ ; firet, IIS excnipliffinj? the means 
by which the church of Rome ncquires it^ 
great hold upou the property of every 
country in which it is albwec! its free 
amr&c ; aad, secondly, as expliining the 
rssfl with which, in our own country, and 
in many other countrieat ilnring reroln- 
tJonary periods » the people have been in- 
duced to Mnction i resuoiption of the 
property which has found its way into the 
^onetsion of the monasteries. Mr. Sey- 
vour baa prefixed to this report of tbe 
T\i1bot case some very useful information 
retpecting the monastic system as practlied 
10 our own and other countries. 



66 



niuttrated Oittiea of ih$ Otden Tim^, 

Small Uo. {^Patthorp^ Briphtrm). ThewJ 
haTe been «!eversl editiotm of Nuracry 
Rhyme* within thew few years, »ome 
curious to the literary nntiquiiry* tod 
others very attractive fm their pretty pic- 
tures. The present is distinguished by its 
very gracefnl and delicate etchings, which 
are characterized at once by fane? and pure 
taste. Neither artist's nor editor *s nume 
is attached : but the volome is dedicitod 
by a mother to her daughter. It is really 
too rhnrming a book to be destroyed in 
the nursery, and may be recommended to 
children of a greater growth as suggest ing 
the most delightfnl reminiitcmcps of their 
earlier yean. 



LITERAKY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



I 



CNIVERSITV OF OXrORD. 

May 21, The prijte for an English 
poem on » *sacred sy Eject has been awarded 
to the Rev, John George Sheppard, M,A. 
of Wadham college. The sabject was 
"St, Paul at Athens." and ihis is the tirst 
time of ir^4 bring awarded. 



I 
I 



k 



L'KlVKRaiTY OF CAMnRIDGK. 

The Porson Prize for the best trans- 
lation of a pafftage in Shakspere into 
Greek verse ban been atljudged to George 
Morley, of St, John's college. Subject 
from Henry IV. part ii. act. iv* «cen« 4, 

The Camden MeJaJ for the best e-S- 
eieise in Latin hexameter verse is »id- 
jttdfed to F. W Hawkina, of Trinity 
college. Subject— Vythia. 

Sir Willi tun Browne'* medals for the 
Greek and Latin odea hjive both been 
sdjudged to the same gentleman. Sub. 
jeeta — Greek ode — *' Oraculorum de- 
fectio;** Latin ode^ — *' Carolns Aibcrtus 
Sardinise Rex.'* The medal for the epi- 
grams w«i not adjudged. 

The Norrisitn Priie to the author of 
the best essay on a sacred linhject has 
been adjudged to Benjamin Atldaion 
Irving, B.A. Scholar of Emmanuel col- 
kge. Subject — " The traces discernible 
In Holy Scripture of the inSuence eierted 
on the character of the Hebrews by (heir 
retidence tn Egypt*** 



ROYAL OKQGILAPHTCAL SOCIKTY. 

/«iie 2. At the anniversary meeting of 

ihjj Society the usual annnal reports were 
reid. During tlie past year, the additiona 
to the collections of the Society bite been 
Oi^iT. Maq. y^u XXXV L 



exceedingly numerous, among which it a 
munificent gift from the Imperial Geo* 
graphical Injjtitnte of Austria, of a series 
of maps at present at the World** Exhibi- 
tion at Hyde Park. A valuable bequest 
of instraments by the late Robert Shed- 
den, a fellow of the society^ has also been 
received. 

The royal donation for the " Encourage' 
ment of Geographical Science and Di«« 
covery ** bus been this year divided be- 
tween Dr- George WaUin» of Finland^ for 
his travels through Arabia, and Mr. 
Thomaa Brunner^ for his explorations tn 
the nortb- west portion of the middle is- 
land of New Zealand, both of which were 
pnblished in the last number of the So- 
ciety's JournaU The Jotironl itself, 
owing to the prosperous state of the 
Society, haa been largely increased in site 
and value. 

The Preaidcnt, Capt. W. H, Smytb« 
read a summary of the progress of geo. 
graphy during the past year ; and enume- 
rated the papers read during the stssion. 
Attention wan primarily directed to the 
papers by Cul. H. Yorkc and Dr. Buist 
of Bombay, on the use of the Aneroid, 
At the Swansea meeting of the British 
Association, in 1848, this instrument was 
ifitroiluced as a means both for meteoro- 
logical observations and for obtaining dif. 
ference& of level. Ou a cioae examination, 
however, the President had come to the 
cooctuaiou that further improvement was 
necessary before the instrument could be 
trusted otherwise than as a journeyman to 
the Torricellian tBt^e. To be used with 
success it shonM be tested by compari«on 
with a barometer at three different snd 
distant parts of the scale, before and after 



6« 



LiUrary and Scientific InttlUgence. 



[July, 



tilt obferratioDt. The PresideDt nrxt 
g%ve an elaborate account of the progress 
of geography in the different quarten* of 
tbe globe, noticing the labours of the 
bydrographic office of the Admiralty, the 
Ordnance survey, and the geological sur- 
Tty. ThHous maps by Arrowsmith were 
onmroended. and the elaborate physical 
inaps by Mr. Patermaon, of the British 
lates, and oue by the same gentleman of 
Borneo ; hs was tbe bold attempt roado by 
|4r. Wyld to impart a knowledge of geo- 
graphy to the million, by the construction 
•f his gigantic globe iu Leicester-sqaare. 
The merits of the geographical publica- 
tions of tbe year by Knight, Blackie, Fal- 
lertjn, &c. were enumerated. At the 
dOite of his summary of Africa, the Presi- 
dent, regretting the undignified contro- 
versies respecting the rise and courae of 
tbe Nile, unhesitatingly exprevsed hiscon- 
Tiction that no European traveller had yet 
seen the source of the true White Nile. 
The address concluded with the expres- 
lion of the Pr#tsideot*8 gratification in 
mrrendering tbe charge of the society to 
bit well-tried and experienced friend, Sir 
Roderick I. Murchi>on. An unanimous 

rof thanks for the services uf Capt. 
H. Smyth, R.N. was passed, together 
with a debire that the address just read be 
printed and extensively circulated. Ihe 
dinner, under the presidency of Sir R. I. 
liarchisfon, supported by several Foreign 
Ambassadors and Commissioners to the 
Oreat Exhibition, was held at the Thatched 
iiouse, and numerously attended. 



ROTAL ASIATIC SOCIXTT. 

Mtiy 17. Tbe aniuversary was held, 
prof U. H. Wilson, rresident,in the chair. 
. The rt-port of the council contained 
special notice of the late Ri^ht Hon. C. 
yi, W. Wynn. its first President, and of 
C>«ptHin Newbuid, a material contributor 
to the publications of the Society. Al- 
lasion was made to the efforts ot Framjee 
Cowatijee (or the benefit of his country, 
by the general education of the people, 
and especially by the introduction of 
ioiproved methods of agriculture, which 
kaa entitled him to the appellation of the 
Lord Leicester of ] ndia. The report then 
gave some notice of the progress of Baby- 
jiunian and As*'yrian decipherment as car- 
ried out by Col. Rawlinkon, and now in 
the course of communication to the world 
by tbe Society. Colonel Rawlicson is 
of cipiniun that tlie inscriptions at Behis- 
i6n ezieiid over a period of 1,000 years — 
from BO. 2,000 to 1,000; that tbe re- 
ligiun of tbe anoioot Assyrians and Baby- 
m uxidAf Aatfal or Sabwaa ( 



and, as be finds among tbe gods tbe names 
of Bel us, Ninus, and Semiramis, be thinks 
that tbe dynasties given by tbe Greeks 
were, in fact, lists of mythological names. 
The geography of Western Asia, as it was 
i.UOO years ago, appears to be clearlj 
made out. Colonel Rawlinson finds a king 
of Cadytis, or Jerusalem, named Kaniuii 
a tributary of the king who built tbe palace 
of Khursahad. warriug with a Pharaoh of 
Egypt, and defeating his armies on tbo 
sonth frontier of Palestine. The Meshee 
and Tubal of Scripture were dwelling in 
North Syria, the Hittites held tbe centro 
of the province, and the commercial citiel 
of Tyre and Sidon and Gasa and Acro 
flourished on the coasts. Col. Rnwlinson 
und-rtakes to identity every province and 
city named in the inscriptions. 

The report of the Oriental Translation 
Committee mentioned the production of 
the set-.ond volume of the Travels uf J£v- 
liya Effendi, of the fifth volume of Haji 
Khalfae Lexicon, and of the Makamat of 
Hariri. The Committee has accepted 
from Col. Rawlinson the offer of a trans- 
lation of the valunble and rnre geographi- 
cal work of Yak(it ; and is about to 
proceed with the third and concluding 
volume of M- Garcin de Tassy*s Histoire 
de la Litterature Hinduui et Hiiidoustani, 
including a Memoir on Hindustani Songs, 
with numerous translations. The report 
concluded with noticing the presentation 
of William the Fourth^s gold medal to 
Prof. H. H. Wilson, in acknowledgment 
of his services to Oriental literature 
generally, and especially in testimony of 
the merits of his translation of the Vishnn 
Pur>«na. The report of the committee for 
publishing Orienul Texts lamented the 
inadequacy of their funds to carry on the 
valuable works proposed for publication 
with as much activity as they could wish, 
—but slated tliat progress was making 
with M. Garcin de Ta^^y's edition of th^ 
Mantac ut Tayr, and with Mr. Morhy's 
History of the Gbazuawi Suluas, by Bai- 
bakki. 

Dr. Bird submitted tlie Auditors* Re- 
port, which was not encouraging, fur it 
showed that the expenses incurred by tbe 
Society in the publicHtion of tbe labours 
of Col. Rawlinson were, in fsct, so mucb 
in actual excels of its income. The re- 
port recommended that the fee of fivf 
guineas paid on admission into the Society 
should be abolished, to which proposal 
the meeting assented by a large majority, 
and that measures should be taken to de- 
liver series of evening lectures on some of 
tbe mure interesting and popular subjfcts 
of Oriental research. The elections of 
officers and council then took place, tbe 
lOTjner beiiPf idl fe-s^en. 




ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



MClSTr OF AXTtaiTAllieS. 

Hay 1. J. Payne Collier, oq. V.P.I 

Ctiarlct Rujtch Smilb, eax\, txn\h\ttA an 
ancient vajie and a speritnen of \\\ft Friin* 
ClHStOf Priinkisli hAtlkaie, prescqUrd Jo 
him by tUe Abbr Cocliet of Diq>|»e, who 
diarovered thtin id the Nf erovinjitiati Ceine- 
%/tty m Evcrmeu near Dieppe. Mr. Smith 
ilto cjthtbited a coloured diawirii; of Me- 
rt»i>'inxi«D buckles, found at Rantbouitlefc, 
forwarded to bim hj M. Churl ea Dutour, 
of Amiena. 

A note from John Bruce, Esq. Trfa- 
forer, waf read^ accompanying the exhibi- 
tion of an ancient picture, on pntirl. le- 
presenting tbe entry of the linp«riahst 
irmy in!o RumCt A.D. In'i7* under the 
command of the ComiteibJe of BourUofi^ 
the property of Philip Hafdwtck, ctq. 
R.A* P 5J.A* The tiile given tn the pic- 
lure iiaeU is '♦ Roraii Ctiput Mundi/' The 
»tyle of art it unqur-stmnabty ihat of the 
cjxieenth century ; niid the co>mme« m ms^ 
and armour of the ligurc* in the forc- 
, ground mdicale the same period. Chuiiwes 
tu«ik place in iieverHl uf the huilditigs re- 
prrseuted withiti a ronnpardtively few 
ytara ifrcr l^^7» nhich chaoge« are not 
shown in this picturt*, St. Peter's it 
without the dome, whirh was pariially 
ooinpleted befoie ibe dralh of Michnel 
AttKcIo in 1569. The gute here termed 
PortA $. A^^neta was termed Porta Pta 
alter it waa rebuilt by Pius t V. who reigned 
fnim ih::% to i;i63. T»ic column* of Trw- 
jao and Antociine, here termed adriaxa 
tod ocrAViAKA, a e represented without 
the oohisaal statues of St. Peter and St, 
Paul plitced upon them by Stxtua IV. 
Many other circumiataaees of this kind 
miAUt be enumerated. 

W. B. D:ckihSoa« esq* of Leamington, 
esMbited three fpecimens of Peruvmu an- 
ticjuiiy» at presi*nt in the poHsc^i^ioM of 
John Power, esq, of that plare t ohtamcd 
many yeari ago imm an aboriginal Peru* 
Ttan tomb ; itBmrty, a fillet of beaten isold^ 
iiir«4uruig fuur feet and halt an inrb ; a 
gold pUle, mea&urtn^ three uirhes by two 
inches; and a ^lunW i^idd figure or idul, 
which b^d evidently been cut in two by a 
chiiei or oibcr ihar^i instruments stated to 
have been so mutiUted by the natives at 
the tiMie Qi its removal. The n eight of 
this httif ^giire ia two pennyweights tbir* 
teen grains. 

Willimn Dickson, e«q. P.S A. comniu* 
niealed a ruu^h akeicti of some dt^covt'ries 
lately m»de iit »be ouitle of Bi^rwick-upon- 
Tweed. Thete conviited of the i^uth^ 
west tower, and of two pointed arch a ays, 



which h»d been entirely covered wUk 
earth, and, till opened lor the constrnetioft 
of a r«i!wiiy, were unknown. 

May 8. Capt. W. H, Smyth, V.P. 

Thomas Hordern Whitaker^ esq. ev» 
hibited the top stone of a Quern foiind at 
Rihcbcster, near the place where a br^e 
Roman aitar tn Apollo was di»cofered« 
wbiirb is now pi need on the bridge at SL 
John's college, Cambridge. 

George Richard Corner, esq. F S,A. 
presented to the society a carvci al^ibiiater 
tabtet rcfir*'scntinjf the Mttrtyrdom of St. 
Erasmus, appurentty of the liith century, 
eJi«ictly similnr in point of cliarader of 
art to the three srulpinred tablets ulready 
in Ibe Society's posisession, drscrihed in 
p. 2^^ of the CatMlogue of their Museum. 

Sir Henry Ellis cammuTncMted a Me* 
mori^il preserved among the Bur^thlfy Pa- 
pers in the Lfriiish Museum of the latter 
pjirt of ih>; irij^n of Queen Elizabeth, 
Irom the Wuiden and Engraver of tb« 
Mint to the Lord Treastirer, upon th* 
aiident manner in which the r6ya1 and 
other seals of England were made, and 
complaimnij; of the cmtomcrs^ alusgers, 
and otfj.t?r othcerAf who io mtinyplacei had 
caused their scdls to be engraved con rr^ry 
(o ancient uSNgv, and to the deceiving and 
defrauding the Queen's subjei^ts. 

John \ ouge Akerman, esq. cooimani- 
cuted tlte transcript of a pnper belonging 
lo the Rev. Ad^m Biiynt-^^ in the hund* 
wiiting; uf his ancestor of the sartie name, 
who had been an oilicer tn the Parlinineut 
army during the grc^jt civil war, entitled 
** The C'nse of the Prisoners of the Royal 
Prison of the ToKer uf Ix>ndon, humbly 
presented to the consideratioti of the Par* 
liament.'* ft is a remonstrance against 
niHiny eiactions and h^rdsliips ; and the 
date Irom internal evidence appeurs to 
have been the reigo of Charles IL soon 
after Hj60 or 7. 

A seiNind com municai lion was madt 
from ^ir Henry \LM\% respecting the coia« 
pulsory, and in some cases enticed, tub* 
stitutiun of new for ancient cbRrier^ of 
curporations in the litne of Charles lf» 
and J times II. introductory of a lefter 
from L'jrd Chief Juaiice Je<Frcys» t*^ f.b# 
mayor of Pontefract in Yorkshire^ dafed 
Sept. 16, llitf4, preserved among tilt 
Ad iitianal M5S. in the Biitisb Museun . 

May 15. J. Puync Collier. c*q. V p, 

Mr. Cove Jo(*es ckbitateJ a silver ri<g 
bearing the device of two bauds j^jinetf^ 
with the motto uf Chaucer s pnoresi^ 
** Amor f iiicit omnia." 

Mr* Bcruhard ^mitb ei hibited iomecii- 



1 



^B 



A H t iff ua tian Resea > tA^r* . 



[July, 



noQi bronze libuiic, one of thciu remark- 
•We for the contrivance ti> hold the tcus 
in itn plac€ by a sliding riug. 

Mr. Alcerman, the resident Secretary. 
ofTercd »oine remarl£& on nine out of a set 
of twdre rouudeU or fruit trenchers, three 
being missings exhibited to the Society by 
Colonel Sykea. Like other speciineua of 
those nuw obsolete object* > llicy wure 
painted on one Hile only, the other btjiug 
left quite biirc, Tlic figure^s pciintcd upon 
them represent inJividuuU of differciit 
grades of life in tbt; co*tunsc of the liiwi 
of James the First ; around c&th figure 
iff two linefi^ of verse, fouie of tliem quaint 
and pithy enough, — At the neit mcetio^ 
Sir Henry Ellis pointed out that these 
▼erfea are to be icea (Including the three 
raiaatng characters) in a musical work by 
John Maynard, lutani^tt entitled '^The 
XIL Wonders of the World/' fol. 1611. 
In the Catalogue of Music in the Britidi 
Museum h a memorandum attributing 
their composition to Sir John Davi«. 

Colonel Syke? exhibited at the mjdc 

ne a silver plate, about a foot in height^ 
by eight inches broad, retire«eutiag the 
emboijed figure of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel. This plate was found near Dunge- 
Otia, and ii^ supposed to have belonged to 
•Onte Russian vessel wrecked at that ipot< 

Mr. Collier communicated some further 
particulars relabve to the life of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, relating to the period 
*"et*pcen 15B4 and 159.?. 

May 22. Copt. W. H. Smyth, V.P. 

Thomas Barrett Lenuurd, esq. M.P. 
I elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Thoojaa Revcley, esq. of Kendal, pre- 
sented a fibula veAtiaria, aixd a torqui^, 
both of silver, found in April 1^17, iu a 
crevice of the lime-stone rock, on Ibe 
north aide of Orton Scar* in the parish of 
Crosby Rovenawortb, in Weslnierland. 
Mr* Heveley likewise preacoted to ibt 
Society's museum a silver coin of Lucius 
VeruSf found a few years ago in the 5sme 
nriah. These several articles, he con- 
Eii furoish eyideucc of the Hue of the 
Boman Iter from Bremetonacie north- 
wards. Mr. Reveley also presented a 
penny of Edward the Confessor, aiiU two 
pennies of the (.'onqneror, found, with 
ma ity others, in 1H34, in digging a grave 
in the Church of Bethamj in Wcatmer- 
land : and a Britiih coin stated to have 
been found at Uudderj^field. 

Ueory Caropktn, esq, eihibited to the 
Society a document, a power of ottoroej, 
under the hand and seal of Lord Chief 
Justice Holt. 

A letter front John Adey Reptou, esq, 
F.S.A. was read, upon the construction of 
timber arches, which he observed to be 
Ter)' difTerent from those executed in Alone 



or brick. Thifi psj^r wa* accompanied 
by a drawing, represent in^; in one vievr 
apecuneos of diA'erent periods, mnging 
from the tirue of Henry IIL to thai of 
Janwa L 

Bcriah Botticld, e<q. F»S.A, tjjihibited a 
small Byxautiue cotter of early miMiMC 
work, conjectureil to be as «arly as the 
eltsventh century* 

The refidenl Secretary then read the 
opeuing uf another commaoication from 
Str Henry ElUc, beittg a narraiiva of the 
principal Naval Espeditions of Engliab 
Fleets, bi^inning with that against tlie 
Spanish armada in 1588* down to l60St 
preserved in the Cottoniau MS. Tltna B. 
viii. strongly mixe»d v^ith eontctoporArj 
feeliog and contemporary aueodotc* Each 
expec^tion is comoicntrd upon in a sepa- 
rate section. 

May 2*). Lord A iscouut Mahcm^ Prnw. 

M. Fulski exhibited two broures, crpe 
uf them apparently of a boxer, of iinr 
Roman work. 

Mr. Akerman* the resident secretary, 
read a memoir ** On the \S'eapoQS of the 
Celtic and Teutonic tribes.'^ His pur- 
pose wa-s to roiew the evidence we pos- 
aeaSt rather than to uflTer any conjecture 
or theory of bis own. In the infancy of 
nations the weapon which serted the hun- 
ter iu the cbo^e wai tlie same ss that 
iitielded in war. The stone hatchets, ham 
mers, chisels, aod lance -heads of the pri* 
mitive r«4^es ot Britain and the European 
continent resemble very olo*ely those of 
the barbarous inh&bitanu of remote coun- 
tries. Two frtone hatchets, brought from 
Australia, were remarkable as being iden- 
ticid with the European aie and hammer 
heads of the primeval period. The weapons 
of bronze discovered iu the Celtic tumnli of 
the continent resemble not only those 
found in Britain, but also those of Swit- 
arertaod and Germany. The leaf-shaped 
tt words of bronxe are evidently of a auc« 
ceediog period, and were perhaps casts 
from the weapons of a more civilised 
people. TThey were probably the descrip- 
tion of swor& used by the Gaols against 
the Ramans, n. C. £^3, when Polyblui 
states that their swords bent like a atrigil. 
The account which Tacitus givca of tlie 
weapons of the Germans ia calculated to 
perplex the archieologist In bis Germa- 
nia the great historian speaks of the shoK 
speara or javelins of these people, but ia 
the Annals Germ aniens ia made to con- 
trast the long unwieldy spear of the Gtr* 
mans with tbe effective pilum of Ibe Ro> 
mans. Passages in the Old Teatncnefltt 
in Herodotus, Plato, and other writen, 
were cited to &how that brass waa used 
by the Greeks and other ancient civiliaed 
nations, down to at te^st the end of the 



1 




51.] 



Antiqtmnan Researm 



I 



fifth c-cotury n, c. The Romans did not 
bmrj arms with their dead, and be nee wu 
h*Te no poaitive monumental dstfl of the 
adoption of iron, Tbe ^aved of thf 
Franks in Gaul are fotiuti to resemble 
YBiy cipaely tUoite of the Anglo-Saxons, 
■od thoir content* prove thera to have 
boen the ocmeteries of kindrrd ruee^. The 
txe, bowerert which i» eu often fofiiid hi 
Ibe Frank gruvef , is rarely fonnd in those 
explored in thi« county. In the mimerous 
barrows of the Anglo-Saxon period ei- 
plored bj th« writer and by l>ord Londes- 
borou^h, both tu Kent and JS^nssex, bnt 
few arms wcru diacottjrifd, and not a single 
tpecimCfi of the Frank axe or fi-ancisca, 
altboagh one or two exnmplf s^ exhibited 
t(» the meeting by Mr. Rolfe of Sand- 
wich, hAvc been found in the graTca of 
the Isle of Tbaoet. On the contrary, the 
gm^s of the Franks, explored m France 
by the Abb<^' Cochet and othtTs, tiontainetl 
Bworde, axesj5pettr-hefld6<,and large knivea^ 
a fact which appears to a bow thai eveiT 
Frank wma a soldier, while the Anglo- 
Sftxon — protected by hi* insular position 
—became changed in habits and manners, 
and took to tbe pastoral life. In mapy of 
the Uimuli of the South Downa the writt^r 
bad discovered merely a flmall knife. Stitl 
ajTOi like tho$e wielded by the Franks 
were Used hy the Aoglo-i»ajtons at the 
battle of Hastings ; wbeii Wilham caused 
a fieigoed retreat to be eonnded, Che Saxons, 
•aya the Norman chronicler, pursued them, 
aacbvtth bbiaxe suspended from his neck, 
a deictipdon which would well apply to 
Ihc peculiar axe called the francisca. TIjc 
baraed pUum called theaogon^ mentioned 
by A{|albiat as used with tremendous effect 
by the Pranks, has never been discovea-d 
in any of their graves in France. That 
the Anglo-Saxons held the how in con- 
tempti or considered it the nibstle engine 
of the robber, or of one who lurked in 
arabusb, scem^ evident from sonae Anglo- 
Saxon ve rites quoted from the Exeter 
Book, as well ai from the fact of there 
beiiig no archers m the army that opposed 
tbc Normaos at Hastings. The reading 
of this coramnoication was accompanied 
by a \*crf interesting exhibition of wea- 
pons of various countries, illustrating tbe 
three periods specially treated of. 



ARCHJSOLOOlCAt I?<fSTITUTIi» 

Jmme 6. Tlie Hon. Richard Neville, 
V.P. in the Chair. 

The President of Trinity College, Ox- 
ford, eommnoicated an account of the re- 
cent discovery of nnmeiotts relics of the 
Roman period, at Slnilley Priory, Oxford- 
•bir«| a^compamed by the exhibition of a 



large assemblage of specimens of ancient 
fictile ware, from SamiaQ of the most en- 
ricbed character to the most ordinary fa- 
brication of late Komono-Britisb date. 
These remainiH were sent by the kind per- 
mission of Lady Crokci of Stud ley Priory, 
in whose possession they remain. Ves- 
tiges of ti work, apparently » paved Roman 
way, had been brought to light in tbe 
course of the excavation?, and further dis- 
coveries are nutiuipfttcd. 

Mr. Birch uffiered noma, ohaervatious on 
certain interesting objects which bad been 
brought nuder his notice, being stamps 
and inoulJs for the fabrication of ancient 
pottery. They are of exceedingly rare oc- 
currence » but !>ome specimens, as he re • 
marked, exist in the Mu^ee Ceramique, 
formed by the kte M. Brongniart, at 
Sevres : theae were dis^covered at Rhein- 
zabem and in Auvergne.. The nlics ex- 
hibited are of a ver)' coarse style of art, 
hut serve to illustrate the processes of an- 
cient fabri cation, hitlmito very imperfectly 
understood* They will be deposited in 
the Collection at the Bridsli Mnseum. 

Mr, Wynne gave a reUUion of the re- 
sult:] of his recent inveHtigaliooa at Casitell 
fiere, Merionethshire, a fortress of iai> 
portance prior to the conquest of Wale* 
by Edward I. who remained there for 
some days in 128-1, but siib*e^juently it 
appears to have heen wholly neglected, 
and it in now so overgrown with trees that 
tbe arraugtiment of tbe buildings can with 
difficulty be traced. Mr* Wynne had un- 
dertaken ti-ome exca¥u lions on the site, and 
brought to light the remains of architec- 
taral details, columns, capitaJsi and sculp- 
tured ornamenis, of the Early -English 
periodj of great beauty iii execution : he 
had found numerouiS objects, arrow-headi, 
kaives and weapons^ tbe horns of red-deer 
in abundance, with other relics, of whidi 
he exhibited those most deserving of no- 
tice, lie laid before the meeting also 
some portions, in red sand j»tone, of the 
walls of Gatacre, Shropshire, the audent 
seat of tbe family of that name. Tbeae 
walls appeared to have been coated with Ut 
coarsely vitrified encrustation ; and he ob* i 
served tbatthia vitrification extended ctoi 
to tbe joints of the masonry, a pecutiurity 
of constmction seemingly witliout parallel 
in this country. 

Mr. Franks called atteotiou to the re- 
markable fact stated by Major Kawlinson, 
that he bad discovered, in the course of 
his hitc investigations in tho East, certain 
sculptured stone.*, which, after being chi- 
selled, had been coated with a vitrified 
crust. Tlie vitrl^ed forts in Scotland ap> 
pear to present some analogy in their con- 
struction with the curious peculiarity no- 
ticed in Skropshire by Mr. Wynne, 




H 



AntiquarUin Setiafehii. 



Ciuly, 



t1i6 Rer. Dr. OKver communicated a 
detafled pedigree and memorialii of the 
Coartenar family, accompanied by tran- 
•cnpia or the wills and original unpnb- 
lithed documents connected with that 
noble honsei 

Mr. Holmes sent a transcript of another 
ctfrious paper relating to the history of 
Anthony Babington, whose letter, snppli- 
Milog the mercy of Elizabeth, had been 
brought before the Institute by Mr. Burtt 
at a previous meeting. Tbe document 
now produced is the draft of a Proclama- 
tion for tbe apprehension of Babington 
and his fellow conspirators, corrected by 
the pen of Burgliley, and in great part in 
his own hand-writing. It is preserved in 
one of the Laosdowne M SS. He observed 
that the letter communicated by Mr. Burtt 
appeared to have been printed in the State 
Tridb, from a transcript now in the Bri- 
tish Museum. The existence of the ori- 
ginal letter had not been ascertained, after 
most careful inquiries. The curious cir- 
cumstance appeared by the Proclamation 
now brought under consideration, that 
portraits of the conspirators were ordered 
by burgbley to be circulated, in order to 
render their escape the more diflScult, and 
deprive those who should harbour them of 
any ground of excuse on the plea of igno- 
rance. Some conversation ensuing in re- 
gard to this lingular precHUtiun, which is 
added in the draft of the Proclamation by 
Lord Burgblcy*8 own hand, Mr. Hamilton 
Gray observed that similar means had been 
adopted by Government to ensure the ap- 
prehension of Lady Ogilvie, the heroine of 
tbe young Chevalier's Rfbellion in 1745, 
plemres of her being sent to the various 
sea-ports, to he taken on board any ship, 
in case of a lady unknown demanding pas- 
sage. One of these portraits was actually 
br6nght into the vessel in which she es- 
caped, and placed in Lady Ogilvie's hands; 
npon which she remarked, with creat pre- 
ilnce of mind, that it was a striking like- 
nHf, and that with such a guide they could 
not fail to discover the lady. 

Mr. Edward Hoare, of Cork, commu- 
nicated a note of the discovery of two an- 
cient cups or chalices, of mixed white 
netal, now in his collection, and found 
last year at a depth of six feet, near the 
mins of Kilcoleman Castle, co. Cork. 
The spot where these vessels were brought 
tA light had been regarded as the site of a 
burial-place connected with that fortress. 
The ca>tle is interesting as having bren 
the property and residence of the poet 
Spenser, and the place where, it is believed, 
great portion of tbe ** Faerie Queene " was 
compofed. Mr. Hoare sent drawings of 
tbeSe chalices, of unusual fashion. Mr. 
OciMvJag Morgan eoatidtTtd the type of 



their form to be of an early character, an4 
pointed out some maser bowls of ancient 
date, examples presenting features of ana- 
logy with these Irish cups of metal. 

Mr. Morgan offered some observations 
on a collection of Viatoria, travelling sun- 
dials or ** journey rings," which he laid 
before the Society: and he produced at 
the same time an interesting astrolabsi 
date early in the sixteenth century, of 
which he had recently become possessed. 

Dr. Charlton, of Newcastle, broui(ht for 
the examination of tbe Society, by th« 
kind permission of Cardinal Wiseman, a 
MS. volume of considerable interest, com- 
prising the service for the blessing of 
** cramp-rings,'' and that U'^ed on the oc- 
casion of Touching for the Evil. At the 
commencement of the book are emblasoned 
the arms of Philip and Mary, and an illu- 
mination represents that queen kneeling 
before the altar, with a salver of the rin^s 
on each side of her. This part of the vo- 
lume is entitled, — **CeitMyn Prayora to 
be used by the Quenes hei^hnes in tho 
Consecration of the Crampe Rjnges." In 
a second illumination, preceding; the cere- 
monial for tbe *' beling,'' Mary again 
appears placing her hands on the neck of 
a diseased person, presented to her by the 
chaplain. Andrew Boorde, in his ** Intro- 
duction to Knowledge," mentions the hal- 
lowing of cramp-rings by the sovereign of 
England as an usage anmully observed. 

Mr. Augustus Franks gave an account 
of a most elaborate specimen of German 
chasing in silver, a large medallion, exe- 
cuted about lh6b by Heinric Reiix, of 
Leipsic : another work of the same skilful 
artist was produced by Mr. Morgan, made 
by order of John Frrderic Duke of Sax- 
ony. Several pieces of plate were exhi- 
bited, of unusual character, especially a 
large covered salt, by Miss Ffarington, 
and five remarkable salvers, brought by 
Mr. Rolls. They were found in the mint 
at Lima, where they had been deposited 
as bullion, and are enriched with designs 
of flowers and fruit in high relief. This 
fine plate is supposed to have been exe- 
cuted by the South Americans, under the 
influence of Spanish taste. 

Mr. Bird sent various objects of inter* 
est : amonj^st which was an inrdited grant 
to Byk nacre Priory, Eshex, in the thir- 
teenth century, with seal ap)>ended, in 
perfect preservation. Also, some good 
examples of ancient pottery and stone 
ware, &c. 

Mr. Coloaghi presented to the Society 
a fac'Simile cast from a remarkable heid- 
piece of steel, chased with subjects in tbe 
classical style of design, a production of 
the highest skill of the Italian armourers 
in the sixteenth century. The original 



1851.] 



Antiquarian Rettarcha. 



»» 



I 

I 

I 



I 



Jiad recently come into his possession with 
a m«^inf)Cfnt suit of urmour, sufiposed to 
biveocen worn by th« Conftable de Bour- 
buDt brought to this country with *ome 
beautiful roadaclies and arms from Rotue, 
dunng ihe late commotinQii in Italy. 

The Rev. R. F. Meredith sent an im- 
pression from a »«■ pulchmL slab in S^mer- 
tatshirer engnived with a very siDgulur 
rtprrfcnfation of a knight p wcflriog over a 
cervelhere or skull- ed}> n large chapd de- 
ftTf resembling a wide bo^in revered, U|ian 
bu bead. This singular (igur« is in mailed 
armour, with a Unas in the bund, and ibe 
aims of ibe Rtflttghg on the shietd; tiud it 
forms a very curious iiddition lo the list 
of sepuli-bral incited memorioJs of the 
fourteenth eetitury. 

The Rtv. E iwiird Wilton tent a am 
from a bronic figure of Minerva, found by 
• fhepJierd m an inclosed piastuiCp or 
tJDtng. on Salisbury PUin, An ancient 
rQcamiiment exiais in the neighbourhood. 
Tim figure h of singulur design^ although 
not ap|iaren(ly of very hii;h antiquity : but 
\U drpoait in such a spot is not eusily ex- 
plained. Not fur dtt»lant is a pUce where 
coins» weapons, Slc. have been frequently 
found ; atso a small 6gUTe or tar, reprc- 
Mtiling Mercury. 

Numerotis ioipreasioDS from ancient 
seals were Uid upon the ^ble^ some of 
them of much interest^ especially tk&t of 
J«ibn de la Pole. Earl of Lincoln, temp. 
Edw. IV. being hia seat a< Lord Lieuie* 
nant of Ireland ; alao thatof John Holand, 
Earl of Huntingdon, Lord High Aduniral, 
the marrix found in a moat in Somerset- 
fbirc i the fine corporation seal uf Droit- 
wich • with several monastic ^cals of vari- 
ous penodi. 



BBTTISH ARCBJEOLOGICAL ABftOCIATION. 

Maif 28. Ur, Williaoi Bell ^^ad a 
paper uprm the figure of a iiiphynii found 
atTbords iit Trausylvaniatttlnl0^t identicul 
wttb une of the same fabulous bra>t dug 
up and now preserTed at Colchester, 
(^ngr^ved in the Grnt. Mag. for Feb. 
1«2*?» p. lUI.) The former one i* of 
bronze, apparently intended for a standard, 
with a raifed inscriptinn in welLpre- 
■erved relief round its base. The ftrst 
stit tetters are the emphttic redupU^ 
cation of the letters S M L S M L, 
wliicb, with rhe necessary vowels, would 
give tb« reading of the entire name 
aMonuel, or, aj it was upon the triumph of 
tb« CiiiisiidM religion, traoiiferred to a 
fiend or wood -demon, undur the appelU* 
tion of Z^miet, now preserved to all time 
in Weber'* FreiichUta. Dr. Bell then 
dbterved that though, in cooformity to 
giotml use be prouuunced the name of 
lu indigenous SaUint? deity Camulu^, yet, 
U^Bk the kaowQ convertibibly of the 



c and «, the more correct pronunctatton 
ought to be Samulus, aud lo fact in the 
old classic alphabets c and t were identical 
in form, as in the modern French the c 
with lU cedule it alwitys pronounced a« j. 
The worship of this Subine deity w«t 
much cult vnteil by [he Gens Claiidin, of 
which the Emperor Claudius — as all hit 
predecessors from Tibeiius» who was also a 
Claudius (Suet, vita Tiberti, cap, i.) And a 
Sdbine from the small town Regillu% wat 
a prominent member; and as ibe first Ro- 
man tfettler of Britain, and the founder of 
the Roman coloity of Colchester, would 
have all his pre J ilections fostered and his 
devotions foltowed by the grateful or 
adulative legionttries, who also, as we learn 
from Geoffrey of Mortmonth, gave this 
city of his foundation the name of Clau« 
diopolts. The connection of the Gens 
Cbudia wiib the sphyoi is easily tmeeablo 
in the verbal agreement of the Lann 
Claudius, Clttudeus, with the Greek Oi^ijins 
both of which tt^nity /arNe, deprived of th« 
feet, and it is therefore curious and uon* 
forrntttive that both the Thorda and Col- 
chester spbynies represent the mangled 
remains of all the other parta of a bumaa 
body, the head very prominent, ejtcept 
Ihe feeL Thtt a temple was erected to 
Claudius in Coldtestcr, we learn from 
Tacitus (Aon. liv. 'i9'>19) sod this sphyni 
may have been the figure of his ind»((enous 
deity, which the ancient Etrurmus (uf 
whom the Sabines were a portion), witb 
the earliest Greek and Egypiian nation*, 
had in common. And it u nntbeai.de the 
question to renoark, that the earhesi 
heroes of Ihe nume Camillos, were aU of 
the Gens Furia, which may hnve orii^iiiNt-* 
ed in the fcrbd conformity of their nMina 
with the sphynx. w^hicbt whether m harpy, 
gorgon, or fury, would represent iho 
«ame personihcatlon of fury mid rdfune. 

Mr. Diivis exhibited several specimens 
of pottery found in excavatini^ in Banner's 
Ficld«, the peculiarity of which appeared 
in the interior of the lower pa>t of the 
neck, in eat^h of which was a division from 
the body, wiih |»erfijrations. Mr. Curo- 
iuj^ ideuiihed the.ne with some in his owti 
cidlection from the Enst Indies, and which 
are used at the present dtiy, the division 
being made to prevent if«$ects, Li^ardi, 
and other things from gettit^g in. 

Mr. Burkitt exiiibtted cnpiet of twg 
aeputchral sUbs from the churchyard of 
Christ Church, Newgate Street. Thf 
inscriptions are in Normsn French, their 
date the end of the 13th century, and they 
have been hitherto unnoticed. 




9t3VLY AND WBST SUfFOLR AaCHAO* 
LOGICAL INSTITUTE. 

This Institute held tts quarterly general 
meeting; June 6^ under the \^re$id«iicY Qf 



72 



Proeeedmgt in Parliament. 



[July, 



C* J. F. Bunbary, esq. The company 
met at the house of John Gwilt, esq. of 
Icklingfaam, where that gentleman had 
arranged in one room a variety of Roman 
juntiqnities found at that place, and in 
another a curious collection of Saxon or- 
naments, &c. from the adjoining parish of 
West Stow. An interesting paper by Sir 
Henry £. Bunbnry, Bart, on the nature 
of the Roman occupation of Icklingham, 
hftfing been read, Mr. Tymms gave a brief 
aocount of the Saxon antiquities found at 
Stow, shewing how they agreed with some 
peculiarities obserrable in the remains of 
the same people discovered in other parts 
of the kingdom, and calling attention to 
the singular fact that the spot at Stow, 
where nought but Saxon remains have 
been met with, closely adjoins that in the 
neighbouring parish, where only Roman 
objects are turned up. Owing to the quan- 
tity of rain that had fallen, and the un- 
comfortable state of the weather, the party 
were unable to proceed to the site of the 
Roman camp or station ; but went to the 
church of All Saints, where the fine Early. 
English scroll-work in iron on the church 
chest, and the decorated chancel pave- 
ment, gave rise to some interesting con- 
versation. Mr. E. K. Beonet here read a 
paper on the church, shewing that there 
were formerly three churches in this now 
small village ; one of which, dedicated to 
St. Mary, is not even known by tradition. 
The others, dedicated to St James and All 
Saints, still remain . The latter, of the De- 
corated period, has much to interest the 
ecclesiologist. The company thence pro- 
ceeded to Mildenhali, where, through the 
kindness of C. J. F. Bunbury, esq. they 
were permitted to meet in the old dining 
hall of the Manor House, formerly the 
seat of the Norths and the Hanmers. The 



hall was hung round with rubbings of fine 
braases, from the extensive coUectioii of 
J. Holmes, esq. and in a glaas case in tiie 
centre, and on the other table, was « large 
and extremely curiona assemblage of anti- 
quities, more particularly of the Roman 
and Saxon periods. Mr. Tymms then read 
a paper descriptive of the fine church of 
Mildenhall, including some aocount of a 
monument known only as ''the lord 
mayor's tomb," and which Mr. Tymms 
has found reason to assign to Sir Henry 
Barton, lord mayor of Ixmdon in 1425-6 • 
Mr. Tymms was also able from contem- 
porary documents to show that the aptrt- 
ment over the fine north porch was used 
as the Lady's chapel ; a peculiarity of 
which he believed cnily one other instance 
was known, in the neighbouring churdi of 
Fordham ; and that the masses of masonry 
in the churchyard, which have pusxled 
local antiquaries, are remains of the Chapel 
of the Charnel ; and from a large monu- 
mental slab in the chancel, denuded of its 
brass, that the remarkably fine east win- 
dow and other decorated insertions were 
the work of Richsrd de Wichforde, one of 
its Vicars. The church is a noble edifice, 
with some fine examples of early-English 
work in the chancel and in a side chapel; 
and elaborately carved roofs to the nave 
and aisles, — probably, with the font, the 
work of Sir Henry Barton, at the begin- 
ning of the 15th century. As the church 
is about to undergo extensive repsrations, 
it is hoped that the parties charged with 
their direction will preserve with care the 
many parts of it which excited so much 
interest and admiration on this occasion. 
In the evening nearly thirty gentlemen sat 
down to an excellent dinner at the Bell 
Inn, C. J. F. Bunbury, esq. in the chair. 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT. 



House of Commons. 
May 26. The consideration in com- 
mittee of the Ecclesiastical Titles 
BUI having been resumed, Mr. Ktogh 
moved the insertion after the word " void," 
of the words •* in England," thereby ex- 
empting Ireland from the operation of the 
clause. This amendment was rejected by 
84 to 39. — A farther amendment was then 
proposed by Mr. Ktoph, declaring that 
nothing contained in the clause should 
prevent the free action of the Catholic 
9 



prelates in Ireland, as regarded their spi-: 
ritual functions. — The amendment was 
opposed by the Attorney- Oenerat, who 
contended that no interference would be 
exercised by the present Bill with any spi- 
ritual functions of the bishops, unless ex- 
ercised under the prohibited titles. The 
amendment was rejected by a majority of 
344 to 59. — Another amendment was pro- 
posed by Mr. Sadleir, to the effect that 
no 1^1 proceeding should take place 
under the Act for anything done in pur- 



1851.] 



Proceeding,^ in ParliavifiHt, 



73 



i^UAQce of tUi! |)ractice in u«€ Rutcrior to and Mr. Hume iji iU i^elfctiQii, the nomi- 



I 



I 



I 
I 



the year 1850. Tbii wmii also neigetived» 
by 378 to 47. 

« A/eiy 27* Mr. Hail tie moved a seiieii 
df retolatioQs coiidemDatory of the ptidish- 
mente inflictGii daring the ciiBtnrfa»nces in 
CJbtlon ; of tlic conduct of Lord Tor- 
riogtoi), tlM? late governor of tbat ialaud ; 
abd of thnt of Earl 6rey» in signifjing her 
Majpstf's approbation of Lord Torring* 
too'e conduct dnnug and aub»ec|iient to 
tbe disturbances. — Lord Groirenor justi- 
dod the policy of Lord TorttDgton, on ac- 
coQUt of the exigency in which he found 
tbe coiouy placed. — After iome discussion 
tba d«bate w&s adjourned to the 'idth, 
wbea Lord J. Rvtseti reviewed the general 
admiiiiatrRiion of Lord Torriflgton, and 
declared that he had in a tVw weeks sup* 
preaaeda rebelUon nnd eradicated tta aeedi; 
he had left in prosjierity a colony «rhich 
he had found embnrra&sedf and the {leople 
tcaiUquii who had heeu on the verge of a 
rebelUoti.' — The Houisf divided * when the 
motiuii waa Degatifed by 2^'i to 202. 

Ma^ 2S, On committal of the Rail- 
witY At-Dtr Bill, an amendment, moved 
by Mr 4 MI f ice, and opposed by the pro- 
moters of the Billr was carried^ on a divi- 
Bioii, by 77 lo 41 votes. —Mr. Packe uub- 
aequently declared that the Bill wag a 
Riaas of incon&ijtendeH ; andi not with- 
atftodipig u remonHtnince from Mr. Li>cke 
1IBi.kebaif of thii' laeaaarc, moved that the 
dMifnttQ should l&are the rbair* — Tlie 
oo«tnille« divided— For Mr. racke'ii mo- 
tioa^ 02 i agaia«tr 56.— Tlie Bill was coti- 
ici|ii£iitJy loift. 

Ajay 30. Ill eommiUee ok the Ecclk- 
fclAATiciLTiTLK^ Bill, Mr. A'eo^A moved 
an amendment thot uo judicial procee«lingd 
should be in^^ttUited under the Act without 
the conaeut of the Attorn ey-GeiitTal beiug 
Arst had and ohtained. This amendment 
was discussed for some time, and nega- 
tived wtt bout a division. ^ The cjuestioa, 
••that the first clause stand part of the 
Bill/' havitjg been jmt, the committee di- 
vided, for the cUuiHJT 'lU*, against it, 62. 

The second reitdiiig of the Colonial 
Qualification Bill was moved by Mr. 
Hut/. — Mr. Stanford moved as an amend- 
ment, that the Bill be read a Eiccond time 
that day ait uiontlii«. A dlvii^ioii waa 
talteu — For the second reading, 7^; for 
the ameudmentf 31. — Read 2^. 

June 9. Mr. Hume moved the appoint- 
inentof a Sdect Committee on the iMCOMii: 
Tax. — Mr, Fre*A/f<?W moved a* an amend- 
ment thai the order fur nomiuating such 
committee ehoiild be discharged. —The 
Houae divided] for appointing a oommittee, 
193, against, .94 ; but, iu coaiequcnce of 
tbe difficulties between Ihe Governmeat 

Gbnt. MAtt. Vql. XXXVL 



nation waa defer red. 

June 4. Lord Metgvnd moved the *e- 
cond reading of the School EsTABLiaH- 
ME NT or ♦ScoTLANO BilL Thc measure 
was designed to provide a system of edu- 
L'alion limited to secular subjects, but sup- 
ported by locul taxation, and subjected to 
local government. Tbc noble lord vindi* 
cated the use and even neeesFity of the 
Bill by pointing to the fa^t that the pre- 
sent means of instruction^ of every d«* 
scription, did not provide for more than 
300,(>0<J pupils, which was less than half 
the number of childi'cn in Scotland of an 
age to require in:»truction. He added 
that, out of 5,000 existing schoolst 1>BI)0 
were altogether unconnected with any re- 
ligious denomination T and were found, 
nevertbelefls, to work exceedingly well. — 
Mr. J, Macktnzie^ i» moving that the Bill 
be read a second time that day six months, 
confessied thc importance of providing ex- 
tended means of education in Scotland, 
but could not consent to subvert the pre* 
sent piirochinl school system, nor to dia. 
sever religions from secular ioBtrttctioa. — 
The House divided — For the second read- 
ing, 1^4; against, I.) 7. The Bill was 
consequently lost. 

Juntb, Sir (?. GVf^ moved tiic !«econd 
reading of the Metropolih Wat en 
WoRoe Bill. Thisj measure, though in- 
troduced by the goverumeat, belonged to 
the clasa of private bilU, and was opposed 
on many questions, principilly on account 
of tbe variety of private interests with 
which it threatens injurious interference. 
xVn amendment was moved by Mr. Moffat 
tbat the Bill be read a second time that 
day six months. — Sir G. Orty trusted 
tbnt the House would oonseot to the 
second reading, offering to send the bill 
afterwarrls before a committee of sclecdoo, 
— Thc House divided— For the 2nd read- 
ing, 95^ for the amendment, 7!>. Read ^. 

Mr. 71 Baring moved a resolution set- 
ting forth tbat tbe recent excise regulations, 
by winch the dealers were allowed to mia 
CiJtcoRV with coffee, had stimulated adul- 
teration and other fraudulent practices 
with respect to the article in question, — 
Sir /♦ T*'oiioff€ vindicated the home* 
growers of chicory.— Thc Chenailor qf 
tke Sxehequer believed that thc mixture 
of chicory and coffee was quite as whole* 
some, and by many oontumcrs deemed 
more palatable than coffee alone. As a 
practical question it was found imposilble 
to prevent the admixture, and the Treasury 
had consequently withdrawn the penalties 
for an ofieuce which they could not pro- 
hibit.— On a division there appeared — 
For the resolution, 89 ; against it, 94. 
L 




^4 



Junt 6. In Committee on the Eccle- 
ftiAtTiCAL Titles Bill, Sir F. 71l«t/y«r 
proposed to add certain words, giving 
pQwer to any subject to initiate an action 
for' the penalties created nnder the biU, 
provided the consent of the Attorney- 
Ueneral were first duly obtained. — Mr. 
VTalpoU supported the amendment, re- 
marlcing Uiat they might hereafter very 
possibly have a Roman Catholic Attorney- 
General.— Lord /. RMtsill contended that 
fbr an offence against the dignity and 
sapremscy of the Crown, the law adviser 
of the Crown was the appropriate prose- 
cutor. —The committee divided — For, 130; 
•gainst, 166. 

The House hi^ving gone into committee 
on Home-made SpfkiTs in Bond, the 
Chancellor of the Bsekequer immediately 
moved that the chairman leave the chair. 
On a division the motion was negatived 
by 123 to 140 ; and the Government was 
•gain defeated on this question. — The re- 
solutions proposed by Lord Naae were 
then put and agreed to. 

June 13. Lord /. Bueeell moved for 
leave to bring in a bill to improve the 
administration of Justice in the Court of 
Chancery, and the Judicial Committee 
of Privy Council ; and also a Bill to regu- 
late the salaries of the Chief Justice of the 
Court of Queen's Bench, and the Chief 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 
It was desirable, as he stated on a former 
occasion, that the political and judicial 
fnnctions of the Lord Chancellor should 
be separated. He thought the Lord 
Chancellor should continue as the Speaker 
of the Houce of Lords, and should preside 
in that House as the Highest Court of 
Appeal. He proposed that two Judges, 
to be called the Judges of the Appeal 
Court, should be appuinted, who would 
rft and decide when the Lord Chancellor 
Mid not attend ; and who, when he was 
•nttng, would assist him in disposing of 
the business of the Court He further 
proposed, that if one of the Judges of the 
Court of Appeal should have time to do 



Foreign Nem» l^vij* 

so, he should sit for any of the other 
Equi^ Judges who might be ill. 9f 
therefore moved for leave to brins in a 
Bill for tlie appointment of two additional 
Judges to sit in the Court of Chancery ; 
and ne further proposed that the salary of 
the Lord Chancellor should be reduced 
from 14,000/. to 10,000/. a year, with the 
same retiring allowance as at present ; and 
he proposed also to reduce the salary of 
the Master of the Rolls from 7,000/. to 
6,000/. making a saving of 5,000/. to meet 
the expenses of 12,000/. a year, which, 
wUh a salary of 6,000/. a year for each of 
the two new Judges, would be the addi- 
tional eirpense created. 

The (Aaneelior qftke Rxchequer moved 
that a sum not exceeding 300,000/. be 
voted for defraying the expenses of the 
Kafir war. — Agreed to. 

The following members were appointed 
to form the select committee on the In- 
come Tax : The Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, Mr. F. Baring, Mr. Cobden, 
Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Horslwm, Mr. Hcxdey, 
Lord Naas, Mr. Newdegate, Mr. F. Peel, 
Mr. Ricardo, Mr. Roebuck, Col. Romilly, 
Lord H. Vane, and Mr. F. Villiers. 

On the vote of 23,939/. for public 
buildings, &c. in Ireland, Mr. Spooner 
moved to reduce it by the sum of 1,1^36/. 
proposed for the repairs of Matnootb 
College. — ^The vote as proposed was 
carried by only a narrow majority of two, 
there being 119 for the reduced vote, and 
121 against it. 

The third reading of the Acts or Par- 
liament Abbreviation BiU was moved* 
—The division showed—For the third 
reading, IS; against, 66; and the Bill 
was consequently lost. 

June 17. Mr. Bate moved a resolution, 
declaring that one-half of the existing Tax 
ON Malt should be repealed on and after 
the 10th Oct. 1852.— The House divided 
—For the motion, 31 ; against it, 76. 

June 18. The Sunday Trading Pre- 
vention Bill, introduced by Mr. Williams, 
was thrown out by a majority of 77 to 4S. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



On the 2nd June the railroad from Paris 
tp 1)fjoni the ancient capital of Burgundy, 
trki opened with much solemnity. The 
President honoured Dijon with his pre- 
tence, and took the opportunity to make 
•' political declaration. He asserted that 
Prance does not desire either the return of 
the ancient rffrfme, under whatever form It 
might be disguised, nor the trial of dis- 
astrons and impracticable Utopias ; and if 



his government had not realised all tbf 
ameliorations it had in view, the blamf 
lay in the maoceuvres of factions, which 

Earalysed the good dispositions of asscm- 
lies as well as of govern menu. Mere 
personal interests be entirely disregarded, 
but whatever the country imposed on him 
he would resolutely execute, for France 
should not perish in his hands. He then 
alluded to the proposals made in favour of 
a revision of the constitution ; and s«id be 




_^uld wsit with confidence the manlfesta- 
I of the coofltry rnid the dccUion of the 
embly. 

Meantvhile, the agitmtion for the ro- 
iittn of the constitution is iissutning a 
' Si ore formidable shape. The ntimber of 
important pkces which have already pe- 
titioned the Assetsblj in its favour is very 
great. On the other band the Central 
Committee at ResistJiQce has issued a bul- 
letin, dfclarinj^ that uny member of the 
Nationil Assembly who shall vole for the 
^-establishment of the Monarchy, the 
evision of the Constitution without ob- 
?ing; the prej^riptlonA contained in it, 
r the prolongatiou of the powers of Louis 
^apoleoUf shall be considered ti haTi&g 
tigued hif own senteoce of death. 

ITALT. 

Rome continues in a very bad itate ; 
otb the French and Papal governnienti 
bave been obliged to have recour»e to the 
itrictrtt mensureii. and a fre»h and not in- 
connderable Dumber of ■rre»tt have been 
mad«7, to add to the ulready overcrowded 
Driaoaa, and bo me men who resisted the 
Tench police have been shot. The fort 
It. Aogelo has been repaired by the 
*reoch, and stocked with provisionf and 
Dmunitjon ; it is capable of holdini^ a 
vry strong garrison. They have al*^ had 
he coast well touoded in the Ticinity of 
Citiu Vecchiit til these preparations 
gem to portend & protracted occuimiion. 

ALOtftfA. 

Tbe French entered the country of 
ower Kabylia on the lltti of May^ and 
l^ere desperately opposed by the itihabi- 
I Uati^ who* however, were driven from all 
Ijljheirpoffftionei and the blockade of C>igelli 
ed. The loss of the Fref»ch was esti- 
bated at 100 killed and 300 wounded* and 
hat of the Kabylea at 437 killed and 
1 ,200 wounded ; 42 villager were burnt on 
be ISehand 17tb. 

K Tery fiognlftr trial hAi been occupying 

jteat uttention in Belgium^ The accused 

tere the Count and Countess de Bocarm^, 

[•one of the olde«t families in tbe country, 

[indthe crime laid to their charge h tbftt 

"7 having poisoned the Counte«s*i brother. 

Snitave Fougnies, in order to obtain his 

tune. After seventeen days of trial, the 

I jttry gave a rerdict of Guilty against the 

tCount find Not Guilty against his wif^. 

[ tTie Court pronounced sentence of death 

Liipon Hippolyte Viftart de Bocarni^, and 

decreed that the execution should take place 

In one of the squares of Monii. 

SPAIN\ 

The ConcoriiAt recently conclnded he* 



twccn the Queen of Spain and the Pope 
decUre« that the Roman Catholic religion 
shall be mainUmed, to the exclusion of itXi 
other*, for ever. A new Archbi&hopric 
of Valbdolid h created, in addition to the 
eiiittng Arch bifl ho pries of Toledo, Qurgot, 
Granada, Sanliitgo, Seville, Turragona, 
Valencia, and Zaragosa. Eight biiihop- 
ric8 are suppressed, and three new ones — 
of Madrid, Cludad-ReaU and Vittoris— 
created. The income of the Archbi*ihops 
range from i60,0tH)to 130,000 reals, those 
of the Bbbops from 110,000 to 80,000. 
Stipulations are also made for the payinent 
of the clergy, for the estubliehmcnt and 
maintenance of religious houses, both for 
men and women, and for the restoration » 
the Bule^ and investment in the funds for 
church purpose!, of the unsold ecclesiai- 
tical property. The possessors of slicn- 
ated property are to remain in undistnrl>ed 
pone*«iont subject to certain charges- 

In a Cabinet Council hetd at Copen- 
hagen on the 2«th May, under the presi- 
dency of the King, the questton of the 
succession to the throne of Denmark wtl 
resolved in favour of the young Prince 
Christian of GlOeksburg, who lias been 
adopted by the King. In case of the de^ 
misc of the Prince the crown is to dcvoke 
npon his descendants to the eitclusinn of 
the house of Augustenburg, the members 
of which, OS first agnsits, lay claim to the 
lovereignty of tbe Duchies of Schleswig- 
Holstein on the decease of the present 
King* Duke. The decision of tbe King 
awaits the ratification of thr Chamberat 
which will shortly be convoked. 

CALIFORNIA, 

On the 1 2th March a fire broke out ei 
Nevada City^ which originated in a bow- 
ling alley, and waa supposed to be the 
work of an incendiary. The flames ex- 
tended in all directions with great rapi- 
dity » and continued to rage until the fairest 
pirt of the city was destroyed. Upwards 
of 200 hotues were either burned or torn 
down to stop further ravages. By this 
terrible calamity more than 2^000 persons 
have lost their all. The total loss soi- 
Isined is estimated at 1,'200,(KKI dollars. 
This does not include the gold diut which 
was in the possession of individuals, and 
which is estimated at 100,0<F0 doUart 
more. 

U1IITS0 STATBI* 

The seventh census of the iTnltcd 8tatei 
has been completed. The fbtlowing are 
the resnlU :— Free States • Free inhibi- 
tantt 13,533,328; staves 119. Slave 
States : Ftee inhabitants, e,39Sj$7 j 
tlavcs,3,l757B3. Districts and tcrritOflH: 



76 



Domestic Occurrences, 



[July, 



Free inhabitanto, 160,824 ; ilaTes, 3,687. 
Total population , S3,S67,498. The whole 
number of repreaentatiTes is ^3. The 
following states each have a member added 
to the number of the apportionment ; — 
Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachua- 
tetta, Maryland, Missouri, New York, 
Ponnsyltania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, 
Texas. New York will have thirty-two 
members by ration and one for fractions, 
l^rrinia is only entitled to thirteen, 
liie New York and Erie Railway is 



finished, and passengers pass from Dun- 
kirk on Lake Brie to New York in a sin- 
gle day. The distance is about 400 miles. 
This is one of the greatest efforts of mo- 
dem times. It is equiralenc in value to 
the Erie Canal, and opens vast regions to 
the commerce of the city. 



The Queenston Suspension Bridge, the 
largest structure of the kind in the world, 
being 1000 feet long, has also been 
opened. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



The totals of the reoent Cnuut have 
been published, and present the following 
ioerease in the population :— 

June 7, 1890. March Si, IMl. 
England and Wales . 15,911,757 17,905,811 

fioocland 8,aS0,184 9,870,784 

latamds in the British 
Seas 19«,040 149,916 

The population of London has increased 
ftrom 1,948,369 to S,363,141. 

8HR0PSHIBB. 

The three hundredth anniTcrsary of the 
Royal Foundation of Skrewtbury School 
htm been celebrated. On Wednesday 
April 30, after a public breakfast, at 
which about a hundred gentlemen were 
present, Haydn's grand oratorio of '<The 
Creation " was performed in the Music 
HaD, and in the evening the Head Master 
received nearly five hundred guests in 
the uppor school and library. On Thurs- 
day May 1, a large procession attended 
the Visitor, the Bishop of Lichfield, from 
the School to St. Mary's Churc^ where a 
•ermon appropriate to the occasion was 
preadied by his Lordship. In the evening 
nearly four hundred gentlemen dined to- 
gether in the Music Hall. The attend- 
ance of old members of the school ex- 
oeeded two hundred* A determination 
was expressed to commemorate the festival 
by the foundation of an exhibition or prize, 
open to general competition. 

SCOTLAND. 

A mining experiment on a gigantic scale 
has been brought to a satisfactory con- 
clusion under the superintendence of Mr. 
Goldsworthy Oumey. lu object was to 
extinguish the fire of the Burning Watte 
^CZacAinasfum, which has raged for about 
30 years over an area of 26 acres, at the 
South Sauchie Colliery near Alloa. Mr. 
Gumey*s method of effecting this object 
waa to force a stream of chokedamp 
through the mine by means of the high- 
pressure steam jet, in order to put out the 



fire and afterwards to cool down the min^ 
below any degree of heat that would per- 
mit it to re-ignite on the admission of 
atmospheric air. Not less than 8,000,000 
cubic feet of chokedamp were injected 
into the mine at the rate of 7,000 cubic 
feet per minute, and it being ascertained 
that the mine was completely filled with 
the chokedamp, it was kept so for three 
weekr, after which, by the power of the 
steam jet, which had been used for the in- 
jection of the chokedamp, water was driven 
into the shaft in the form of the finest 
spray, and the temperature was thus 
gradually reduced from 250« to 98o. A 
shaft was then sunk into the middle of the 
burning waste at the point where the fire 
was supposed to have been most fierce. 
The roof was here found to have fslleo, so 
that it was impossible to enter. The fire, 
however, was extinct. Several bore-holes 
were afterwards driven into the waste at 
different points, and no fire could be dis- 
covered ; and this mighty volcano is ex- 
tinct. The vast amount of property en- 
dangered (in this case of the value of 
near 200,000/.) and the frequency of the 
occurrence of these kinds of accidents, 
give a great public interest to this opera- 
tion. It is bat two years ago that the 
proprietor of the Dalquarren coalmine in 
Ayrshire lost, in half an hour, 1,200/. 
a-year, by a fire breaking out in one of 
his pits, which led to the total abandon- 
ment of the seam in which it occurred. 
It has burnt and destroyed the wood on 
the surface, and extended over 14 acres, 
but is now undergoing extinction by the 
process, with every prospect of suc- 



Tbe splendid estate of Cioteburn lias 
been purchased by Douglas Baird, esq. of 
GarUherrie, for the sum of 180,000/. This, 
with his previous purchase of the Shawns 
estate, at 45,000/. (being originally part 
of Closebum), will form one of the 
princely estates in Scotland. 




77 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c. 




Afoy S. Tile lUfcht Hon. Andr«w RuiberAinl 
«worn of tUe Privv CouDcil,— H. T. G. Pitit- 
ifenld to he Major of the 1st West Yoiit Militia. 

Moif U. Marklftnd BRrnard, efii|* lo be one 
of H. M. Hon. Corp«» of Gentkmen-at-Armfl, 
i*ic< O'Kelly,— Lieut.-Col. ^ViJIiiin Reed. C.B. 
of Royftl hn^. to be one of tbe UentJemfii 
Uilieri to H R. H. Prion Albert* tier Major- 
Gen. Godwin, (Mj. reairtied. 

May IS, Ouncati ArPieill, v>n. Ueaii of 
Ftcaltf» to b« one of the Lord is ui Session in 
9esotlwad, vie* I, H. Mackeniie, e»q. n»sigrned. 

Jfa^SA, William Geo nfc Audemon, est], to 
b« Auditor of the Ouch>- of CornwaH, rict^ 
Edward White, ts*}. reaipied. 

Majf 27. William Hogge and Charlifa Moa- 
tyn dneii. e&qra. to Im* A&itistanta to Lieut.* 
Gen. Sir H G. W. Smith, Bart. G.aB,, Qq- 
vernor of thi^ Cat>e of Good Hope, *a Her 
Majc«ty^s His^ti CommfsRioner for settlinit^ the 
territorie* in 8«utbern Africa* adjacent to the 
eastern and uorth-eaatern froittier of that 
colony. 

Jfoy 38. Richard Cornwall Ijtgh. caq to he 
Amistant-Secrctary to the Government of 
Malta, and Clerk to tlu* Council of Govern- 
ment of that if»laiHL— Ksvtirlited, Jamea Tyler, 
eaq. H. M. Hon. Corp«^ of Geutleroeu-at-Anns. 

Map 30. Duncan M'Neill, p^q. |one of tlie 
Ordinary Lords of Session) to be one of the 
Lordt of Justiciary in Scotland, t*KeJ, H- Mac- 
Icenaie, e^q. reai^jnetU— Brevet Major W^ C. E. 
Napier, of the 3jtli FtK)t, to Ik- LurBt.-CoIonel 
10 the Army. 

June 3. Charles Youn|^* esq. to be 11. M. At- 
torney-General for Prmcu Mward Inland; 
Williaiu Swahey, esij. to be Rejfiatrax of lleedsi, 
and James Warbwrtou, esM(. to be Colordal 
Secretary* for thai inland. 

Jtme6. 1st Life Guards, tJ W.Geor>r«» M.l>. 
to he Assistant f^nrjf eon. —Unattached, brevet 
Major G. F, Pawchal, from tlie 70th Fot^t, to be 
Major.— Brevet, Capt. J. ^ Patoot Htk ilenj^al 
Nat, Inf. to he Major in the Army in the E^st 
Indies. , ^ 

Jime 7^ Lord Cowley, K.C.U. (Ijttc Minialei 
Plcnip. to theSwibH Con federation) to be IL M. 
Envoy Rxtraorditj nry and Minister Pleuij» lr> 
the Germanic Conledt-ration. 

June 13- J. Poi»e, esq. lo be il. M, Treaj>urer 
for Prince Kdward lela^nd. 

JuneU. iloyal Artillery, trapt. K. N\ Wit- 
ford to be Lteut.-ColoneL 



to be loapecting- Commander of Coast Guard 
in Littleharopcoii dittrict ; U. Blafr in Car- 
rickfergrus diatrict. 

JfflryaL Lieut. SAmuel xMorrlsh < late Flag 
Lieut^ to Rear'Adnniral Hornby) to be Com^ 
III an der— Lieut. James V. Purchaae to be 
Commander on the retired ILit of t HI 6. 

Junr 7, Commanders P. Somerville and 
H. W. G. Maude to be Inspecting- Com* 
niaudera o/Ooaat Guard. 

June 1 1 . Vice* Adm. G eor jf e M ' Ki rde y to be 
Admiral of the Blue: Rear-Adm. the Hon. Sir 
Anthony Maitland, C.BmK.C.M.G, to be Vice 
Adminif (tf the Uinc; Capt. Arthur Fanshaue, 
C.B. to be Rear-Adm. of tlae Blue.— To be Re 
tired Rear- Ad rni rata on the terma of the l»t 
Sept. 1M46: A. P. Hamilton, D. Lawreace, 
R. H< Rog^ertt. and Bentham. 

/««e 15. Rear-Adm. the Hon. G. L, Prohv 
to be Vice-Adm. of the Blue; Capt. II. Stewart » 
C.B. to be Rear-Admiral of the Blue.— To be 
Retired Rear-Admirals oi tlie lat Sept. IfiiC, 
J. A. Murray, T. Renwick, H. Higmaii^ G 
Hewion, J. M. Ferfrn^n, J. Goiirly, A. Bald 
win» and H. C. I>eacoo. 



Mr. Aldennai* Thoinpsou to be Colonel of 
I he West Lontion .Militia, and Mr. Alderman 
WiUion to bo Lieut-Golotiil. 

Mr. i^rjeant Howley, cliairnmn of the county 
of Tipp«rarf. to be Her MfljesiyS First Ser- 
jeant In Irebndt vacated by the reaiifnalioii of 
IJr. Stock, Jodffi' of the Aduiiraity C^ourt. 

MtmUr* retuffud ia aerre in Parliamml, 

drofUik.Sta Arcli. J . Ompbell, of tiuccoth. 
ClaekmoHnaH and A'i«rfl*-.-Jamca J^hn- 
stone, eia. ^ ^ , 

JEr<irwtfM.— Robert VVip»m Crawftird. e*i|. 

iVneff .— Kdni, GllUnj Hallewell, e«|. 



Naval PnoiioTio>». 
M«f 17. Commander C Y. Ctmpbet} to 

coocoand tb« Devastation «team<aloop. 
M99 94* Commaadera Hay l£. ^. ^^iuthrop. 



ECCtEBlASTlCAL FRRrSRMK.NTS. 

Rev. S. Banks, Cottenhani R^ Cambridgirahire. 
Rev. J. Benson, Blh .St. Breock R. Corn wall. 
Rev. F, Bourdillon, Holy Trinity P.C. Ruu^ 

corn, Chesliirc. 
Rev. W. Bruce* :^t. Jainea PC. Briatol, 
Rev. J. Bumstead, Glodwick P.C. LanrAahire. 
Rev. J. Carter, Bride-Kirk V. CumberUmd. 
Rev. G. E. Cotter, Monaraiwy R. and Y. di.. 

Ctoyne. 
Rev. R. Crowe, Christ Clvarch i*X\ Woo.(- 

hoUHe, lloildei'!9lield. 
Rev.A.W. Ivlwarih, Ht<n. Prebend of Donouic I ^ 

more» in Limeiiek Cathedral- 
Rev. D. Edwardst, FcstiDtOf R. w. Maentwrov' 

C. MerioiietliKbire. 
Rev. J. A. Fell, Penkridife P.C. .Slatrordabire. 
\. E. Gayer, LL,D. VicarGtnieral of Watt) 

ford and Lismore, and Judjife of C/tnsJttofint 

Court of tho»e dioceaea. 
Rev. T. Gibbinjp» Treaaarerahip of Cloynet^n- 

thedral, and Templenacarriera R. dio, Qoyne. 
Rev. A. Griffiths, IJanelly P.C. Brecon. 
Rev, J. Grove, Wttolslone R. Gloucejiteraliiri!'. 
Rev. tS^ Ha}[H, Long Betiniuj^ton V. w. Foaton 

C. Lincolnshire, 
Rev. R. Herbert, Chettoo R. w. Denxhili K 

Glazeley R and Lough ton C. Salop. 
Rev. C. Hollrtiid, Sliipley P.C i^iiaaex. 
Rev. E, Holland, Cajwtrton R, Somerset. 
Rev. T. Horn, St.lhoutas R. Haverfordwest. 
Rev. G. Howelb^ Llait^^attock R, w^ Llangenev 

C. Brecon. 
Rev. T. James, Headinirton Moarry P.C. 0%i. 
Rev. K. Jenkins. Cayo-Conwyl V. w. Uanaawel 

V. Cartoartbeiisliire. 
Rev. G. Jowes, Tintem Abbey PC, Monmoolh. 
Rev. C. M. Kl^nert, Ipiog- R. w. ChlthtirAt 

C. Suaaex. 
Rev- F. C, Leeson, New i?t. George P.C. Stale \% 

bridge,, Laocaah ire. 
Rev. R. P. Mate, St. Mar>.tbe-Great P.C.Camb 
Rev. R. B. Matthewa, VVldworthy R. Devon. 
Rev. R. A. Maunaell, fc^vening^ Preaclierahip. 

Limerick Cathedral. 
Rev. S. Minton, St, Silajs PC, Liverpool. 
Rev. T. S. Nelaon, St. Pet er-at -Arches R, UiiL\ 
Rev. W. North, Holy THnity P.C, Greenwich, 
Rev. J. Packer, Dane- Bill P.Q, Sussex. 
Rev. H, S, Pearson, Teaveley P.C. Derbythire. 




78 



Birth* — Marriage*. 



[July, 



Sev. W. D. Phillips (R. of Cronwere), Amroatb 

V. Pembrokeshire. 
Rev. R. W. Randall, WooHariDfton R. ftad 

Graffliam R. Sussex. 
Rev. R.-Rin^.St. Michael-CoslaoyR. Norwich. 
Eev. A. B. Roasell, Westbury v. w. Priddy 

C. Somerset. 
Rev. W. L- Sandes, Ballycoslane R. Kerry. 
R^v. J. Senior, LL.D. St. Mary PC. Walkellfld. 
Rev. M. H. Simpson, Westcate district P.C. 

Wakefield. 
Rev. J. Smith. Rrisley R. w. Gateley V. Norf. 
Rev. O. D. Sparkra, Uansaintfread R. Monm. 
Rev. N. J. Spicer. Byfleet R. Surrey. 
Rev. J. H. Stockham, St. Peter P.C. Ifewlyn, 

Gomwall. 
Rev J. H.Storry.Great Tey R. (sinecure) Essex. 
Rev. S. B. Satton, St- I'eter P C. Rverton, Lane. 
Rev. A. Thomas, Ballariiadereen, Ireland. 
Rev. J. S. Treacher, i^. Mary and St. Martin 

P.C. Scilly Islands. 
Rev. J. T. Walters, Backland-Monaehomiii V. 

Devon. 
Rev. T. W. West, Seaworthy R. Devon. 
Rev. E. Woods, Basky V. Killala. 
Rev. M. Woodward, Christcharcb P.C. Pblk- 

Btone, Kent. 
Rev. U. Wtiffht. Coston R. Norfblk. 

7Vi Choplaineiet, 

Rev. W. Banister. St. James Cemetery. Liverp. 

Rev. H. M. lilakiston, British Embutsy at 
(Constantinople. 

Rev. J. Bush, West Derby Lnnatic Asylum, 
Lancashire. 

Rev. A. F. Chster, Nantwich Union, Cheshire. 

Rev. K. J. Clarke. Kilmocreen Union, Ireland. 

Rev. T. D- Dove, Sum ford Union. 

Rev. W. R Fremnntle, Bnckinghamshire Rail- 
way CompApj'. 

Rev. T. i J 11 file, nriihb Embassy at Paris. 

Rev. E^ HolFT.frfi, Stan^rdid Gaol. 

Rev. L HohneEt, Ltvcrpoob Union. 

Rev. W. LgHliy, ^SoykHiKli Union. 

Rev. H. N- Liu>(J< Mirqy(<7>^of AiUa. 

Rev. P. L. Whhe^ Alnrtitips* of Droaheda. 

Rev. C- WrJK^hc, giirapean part of toe St. John 
del Key UritM Mining Lo's. Establishment. 

Collegiate and Seholatlic Appoinimente. 

Rev. C Badham, Head Mastership of Louth 

Grammar School, Lincolnshire. 
H. M. Crowther, B.A. Head Mastership, Rings- 

bridae Grammar School, Devon. 
F. Fuller, M.A. Professorship of Mathematics, 

Kina's College, Aberdeen. 
Rev W. Cover, Principal of the Training 

School, Saltley, Birminaham. 
Rev. J. W. Green, Sub- Warden of St. Colum- 

ba*s College, Dublin. 
Rev. E. .M. Heale, Classical Professorship, 

Royal MiliUry College. Sandhurst. 
Rev. T. B. Power. Head Mastership, Cathedral 

School, Hereford. 
R. H.Wood, Maatership of Cheveley Grammar 

School, Camb. 



Rev. E. J. Speck, Secretary to the Church 

Fkstoral Aid Society. 
R«v. J. P. Wright, SecreUnr to the Chnrch of 

England Young Men's Society for Aiding 

Miasions at Home and Abroad. 



BIRTHS. 
Jifay 90. At Cbrby castle, the Wifk of P. H. 
Howard, iaq. U.P. a dan. — 29. At Burlton 
rectory, Hants, the wife of th« Rev. J. M. 
incpner, a dan,— 3). At Croft castle, Here- 
fbrtlsbire, tha^wiA of W. T. K. Davies, esq. a 
f9o.' -r-M. At. Upper BrdOk ftt. Mrs. Har- 
eottrt Jotinstone, a son and heir. — 97. At 



Methley. the Hon. Mrs. Savile, a son. 9a. At 

Washington rectory, the Hon. Mrs. L. W. 
Denman, a daa. — 9§. At Cambridge square, 
Hyde park, the wife of Dr. James Briaht, a 

aon. 20. At Brighton, the wife of Lieot.- 

Col. Bonham, 10th Hnssars, a dan. SI. At 

ILeynsham, the wife of Charles Dalboy, taq. 
CB. a son and heir. 
Lmtetf, At Merthyr. the wife of William 



beir. At Cheltenham, the wife of Gcmp 

Sotherlaod, esq. of Korse, Caithoeaa, N.B.A 
son and beir. At Moccas court, Hertfbrm- 



abire, Mrs. T. W. Chester Master, a soq. 
JuHe I. At Eaton pi. the wife of W. H. Folt 

Carew, esq. M.P. a daa. At the vicarage, 

Coniscliffle, the wife of the Rev. H. A. Banm- 

Xirtner, a son. 9. At Bath, the wifeof Capt. 
rthur Hall. Bengal Light Cavalry, a son.-^ 
4. At Dinder house. Wells, the wife of Jamff 

Curtis Somerville, esq. a son. At Ixxlgt 

villa, St. John*s wood, Mrs. Llewellyn Mostyn, 

a dau. 7. In Curann st. the Lady Guernsey, 

a aon. Lady A. Goff, a son and heir.— — 

8. At Teignmouth, the wife of Arthur Aclaod, 

esq. a son. 10. At the Chace, near AhH- 

barton, the wife of Major Coker, a daa.— ^ 
19. In Eaton square^ the wife of the. Hon. F. 
Maude. R.N. a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

March 37. A t Calcutta, Richard Barter, eaq. 
7Sth Regt. to Mary, dau. of the late Rev Jamea 
M*Cheave. Rector of Diinmanway, Cork. 

April 10. At Kurrachee, Lieut. William 
Grajr, 1st European Rect. Sub-Assistant Com- 
missary-Gen. to Ophelia, eldest dau. ofCapt. 
Eraser, 29th Bombay N.I. Assistant Commis- 
sary-Gen. 

94. At Kingston. Canada. Lieat. F. S. Beale, 
R. Art. youngest son of the late Sir J. H. Seala, 
Bart, to Harriett, second dan. of J. A. Harvey, 

esq. Ordnance Storekeeper. At Barbadoa, 

Rowland Webster, esq. Wymaster 79d High- 
landers, to Maria-Augasta-Catherina Camp- 
bell, only dau. of Alex. Stewart, esq. M.D. 
Inspector-Gen. of Army Hospitals. 

99- At Plymouth, Edw. John Sprw, eaq. 
surgeon, of Truro, to Anne, dau. of the late 

William Mudge, esq. of Tnim. At Great 

Yarmouth, the Rev. J. H. 11. M*Sttiney, B.A. 
and Assistant Curate of Great Yarmouth, to 
Emily-Sarah, younaest dau. of the late Geoiiga 
Hills, esq. Rear-Adm. of the Blue. 

SO. At Sheffield, Charles Stamlejf, esq. bar- 
rister-at-law, to Annie, second dau; of the late 

John Slaniforlh. esq. At Islington, Henry 

James Stokes, esq. M.D. third »on of Francis 
Stokes, esq. formerly of Gibralur, to Mary, 
eldest dau. of the Rev. Thomas Barton Hill, 

M.A. Incumbent of St. Stephen^s. At Bi- 

shopsteignton, the Rev. Frederick Hopkinst 
MA. second son of Henry Hopkins, esq. of 
Hubborne lodge. Hants, to Emma-Sophia, 
second dan. of W. Rickards, esq. of Tapley 

lodge, Devon. At Brighton, liooglas Hay 

Lane, esq. late Capt. 17th Lancers, to Elisa- 
beth -Middleton, only child of the late Thomai 

Ward, esq. At Brighton. Henry-William, 

eldest son of the late Charles Pourdrinter, esq. 
of Lower Tooting, to Anna-Maria, dan. of 

Charles Coles, esq. of Brighton. At St. 

George*s Hanover sq. John Rififfrose, esq. of 
Cottingham grange, Yorkshire, to Aagu6ta- 
Ann, second dau. of the late Hambly Rnapp, 

esq. of Brook st. Grosvenor sq At Bicester, 

the Rev. John FairbairnJoAa^ai, Vicar of Abb 
Kettleby, Leic. to Eliaabeth-Rebecca, eldest 

dau of W. Cole, esq. At Parkstone, Dorset, 

William Gale Coles, esq. of Clifton, second ion 
of James B. Coles, esq. bf PaHocbl lM(re. 



Marriages, 



?♦ 



I 
I 



I 



I 



I. to Hary-Enxah«th, etdeat cUu. of R. H. 

>, e5<^,-_l_At Wdlcot, ttRlli, John Webb 
B^che, rsti, of Rochcmoanf, Cork» to Eliia- 
Annrs.Frfninn!», only c*iild of the late Williini 
A. AT ' -' . -io, M.P. for Boston, «nd 
widi ! Gwynoe, esq, of Llinclwedd 

h«it ^'^1on, D^von, tlie R^v. Wni. 

i.hA trof Gre»t Urdwin* Wilts, to 

Lu^ -ar-Adm. Sir Tlios, FeMowM, 

C b aismitow, Capt, P<-/<Vt R,N. 

ftfth Min nr ?ir J H- Pelty, B«rl. to KitthjiHiie- 
J«D«. yoanfffrft dau, of John Gurn<*y Pry, «q- 

At Montreal, Canadhp t!ie Rev. David 

Lindiay^, son of the l«te James Lindaay, esq, 
of Klni^^f sq^ London, to Sophia, dnu of the 
Hev. l)«ctor Ailamson, Assisttatit Minisiter of 
Cbriit Oiiirrh Ca^tirdml. and Cbaptaio lo the 
Hun. Legislative Couned. 

Lattfy. At Fnlmniirh. John Burmattry esq. 

barriater-At-tai^r, to Catherine-Aftfi* relict of 

the Ute Ltoiretl Knox 0*Keilly, enq. C«pl. 85th 

Hr^t oht',*dflti, of the late J. GXavanaj^h, e9c|. 

"Vf>xford- 

I Georjfe'a Hanover sq. Thos, 

r?*q. surreon. of Lower Broolt 

iHi sjn of the Inte T. H. Cooke, esq. 

LO Rosalind- Helen Mai ti waring, finly 

I late B. L-Hlater, esq r>f Gray'* inn, 

sofi sT'^prtau, of Matthew de Vitr^, esq* of 

SoutUMieK crescent, Hjf'de park. At the same 

tJme, Henry Robert leomans. setrond son of 

J. F* Burnett, e*a. of Cravford. Kent, to Mary- 

Helen-Uenis, widow of \Vjlfinm Edward Few, 

eaq. and only dau, of Matthew de Vitr*^, esq. 

— -At Walton, Som. the Rev. Henry Spencer 

Sn^hf, Rector of Ruan Lanihorne, Corawatl» 

to Elisiabeth Ann, youngest dau. of the late 

JohnO, HicKley. esq. At Copcnharen* Wm. 

Marcus WeMfefvt.na, e^q. of Copenhaf^en, to 
An na« Frances, secoiHJ dnu. ofR, J.yrmnt,esq, 
m$ in^nddau. of the tale Sir Ale\^ Grant, of 

nlvty. UafL At Guernaey, the Rev. Fred. 

BHuilh B-A. Vicar of Great Marluw, [lucks. 
son of tUi* lale Rev. J. G. Bus«eL1, Rector of 
lleafofd, Devrm, lo Mary -Jane, eldest daki* of 

Oij>t. B. B, Y«le«, HN. At Ryde, J«le of 

Wiyht. John Homer *^tfMHtf«*r/». esq. or Mu^iton, 
near Dorchester, to Fsnny, dau. of the late 
Richard t^kley, e**q of Wiwiiorne Minster, 
— —At Searaii, Pevon, Lieut. Fred. WetheralJ 
Smttkf R,S'. to C(ani-i^o«i»n. third dan. of 

Lieuf. in. n,ivi*^s, R.M. At Townstal, 

Da 1 3 I ^.'W UHHtt eAQ. of Court 

hali Hotdaworth.ilaij. of the 

latt- iFi. e«q. of Dartmouth, 

vounfire^t »on of the late 

Gr^ \L D of lialdock . H ert a, 

toKi irthd«ii,ofthelateThos. 

C**'e, esq sariiLotJ, ol Poole. 

3. At St. Gf^r^eS Bhjom^biiry, John Ka9- 
terby ffwaltM, esq. eldest son of the late Rev. 
C. E- ^walea, of Over Stilton, to Mar^^arei^ 
youn«;e«t dau. of the late C. ft. Walton, e»q, 
(Mticitor. of Tl*ir>k — -At Gosforth. Wm, t. 



rer, *■- 
I Lani* 
itly, d> 
todire hall 
late Rev i 
.1 



8fer, f- il Real, son of the late 

. Lam* +4111 Rejft to Hannah- 

tly, (J.M vinlt'ttMO. f^sq. of CoK- 

, soa of the 
Swepstone, 
i.ime"S Stan- 
tlh. At PaddinjiTton, 
^i[ youujresl soo of the 
Id, Rector of Gr^alhnm, 
Juhaikoa. only dau. of Capt. 
on. of Uest Hromptnn. 
h, W, f?*»//o/>,esq ahi|>ownerf 
•ttd ont ui iW Comrn)ti»ionerA of Hastingc^t 
daat^x. tn Ctiarltv. relict of Nich. WynUail, 
eiq. U \ *^r\J^y^f. 

t , the Rev. 

Ch" I he Church 

ofll"- t :' Jane, third 

tUii. Of Uic kte J. UackJuouAe* e^q- Under 3ecre> 



tary of State for Foreitrn AlRiirt, At Dub- 
lin, the Rev. JoTin^a#«y,sonaf tbe Hon. John 
Maaay, to llmily, dau, of the lite Rev. John 
Beresford, of MacbJe hill Peebles hi re. —^ 
Joseph Chriatopher Latkmm, esq. of Ui ah op's 
Couri^ Dorrbesler, to Elizaheth-Eather, eldest 
dau. of Willi am Cox, esq. of Dorchester, and 
the Marjot ■ " ~ 1 Oxon,- — At York, tht 
Rev. Alt' if/tf^r, Rector of Great* 
ft>rd-wilh '. Line. s<m of Sir Joha 
Wilde» am] m pru w nf the Lord Chancellor, to 
Laura- Isabella, eldest dan. of W. J. Colt ma o, 
e*q lateofAldborongh halL — AtSt Saviour** 
Jersey, Arthur-Aiu^MstiiJi.sonof Joseph Long* 
more, e*q. of the Mythe hou^-e, Glouc lo fclMza* 
t>eth-Jane, dau. of the late Rev. Joliti Croker, 

of Fort EliialH!lh, Limeflck, -At St. George's 

Brattdon hill, Bri.9Uj|, Edwin Tlioftip!H]n Tu/v 
ner, e*q. third son of Capt. John Turner, R N. 
of Swansea, to Marfcaret-Aoue, only ilau. of 
P. R. BBrnea,e«q, of BriatoU— At St. Panrra*, 
Jobann-Helnricn. etdeat M)n of the (ate Johann 
Adam Kempf,e%q^ of Mayence, lo Emily- Etiza- 
beth-Mary, eldest dau. of tlie late W. A. Wal- 

ford» e«q. iM.R,C.S,L. At Lan easier, Lloyd, 

second son of J- Bajendate, esq, of Wood.side* 
Middlesex, to Ellen, eldest dau. of the Rev. J, 

Turner. Vicar of Ijinf rtster At Greenwich. 

Edward O ', esq. of Blackheath, to 

Mary-So[H f dan. of the late W, f, 

Barraud, 1 -erwelL 

7- At S't, Mary's Bryanatoii xq. 'niomia 
Chambers, esq, barrrister-at-law, to Diana- 
White, niece and fldopted child of the lale John, 

Green, e«tq. of Hertford. At St. Panerta, 

T. Clerc Smifk, esq. to Carotine, third dau. of 
the late Iniir Lachlau Maclean, of Sudbury, and 

relict of Charles Harris, csu. of Coventry.- 

M Fardnffdon, Arthur AW/dNff, esq. 1st Royal 
Reff^t. younr^st son of R. U. Newland.esq. late 
Major 30th Drafoons, to Louiiui^Bmma, tourth 
dau. of Woodh«"m Connop, e»q. of Exeter.— 
At tiRrpaden. the Rev. C. Alocdjf, Vicar of 
i^biTiiham, to Anne, dau. of the 4a(e Rev. Dr* 

Vaosittart, Rector of Shottiabrooke ^At 

North Kikioxton. nearThirak. Ro^nney Spen- 
cer Foieif, e&q. of Dublin, t*arrl»ter-*r.law. to 
Teresa, second dan. of 'I homaa 9itarl>reck, eaq» 

of Sowerby, Thirak At 31. Luke'a Nor* 

wood, the Rev. John Cave Bratene, M,A. to 
Selina-Atary, MM^ond dan. of Major William 
Turner, of the Benj^l Army. 

9. At Wold, Nortbamptinnshire, the Rev, 
F. F. Beadn/i, MA. of liath, (o Manaiina- 

Elixahetb, dau. of Ritar-Adm. Carroll, C.B. ^ 

At Bnry St, Edmiiiid^s. tln^ Rev S. Pember* 
ton. Rector Qf Little Hallm^bury, Ea^ex, to 
Marianne, dati. of the late Rev. G. J Hrj^Lntt. 
AtTynemouth,Francis Arden ( 

ILN. to Mary- Henrietta, dau. of f 

Hebd«n,esq. AtPulbaiu, Henr\ 

c^. of Lambouroe. Berks, to Klfirt 
d4u. of Lawrence Sullivan, eaq. ^i 

Viscount Pal merston. Alfred, \< _u 

of E<lward Backkouge, e*q. of Sundt j iaiui, to 
RacheK you nicest dau. of Kolwrt Bare lav, t%Q, 

of Leyton, Ease*. At Worfield, ^am«» 

Farmer, eso, of Hadon, Salop, to Jane, younr* 
est dati. of John Biiche. esq of Che-^terton. 

10. At Slonehoniiie, Geo. Temptenhin King- 
ttun, e^q. Ma. aecoml sun of L- H. Kifij??ton, 
ei^q. to Harrietts third dau of Ivibuund Ma* 

lone, CM). R S. Hospital, Ptymouih. At St, 

Pancras, Dr. Radrtiffcot Henrietta »t.Cf ven- 
dish »q. to Mary-Uei,Te, ehleist dau ; and at 
the same time. U\ VV iioir^. t ^o. or st Johti^a 
woo<l, to,\delin» f (J. F* 

UrRo^j es(|. of 4 . '^ pir. 

At St. Genu. - fl«^* 

fen, e6<|. of iha Itrtiiftii xMuiJuum, tu EtiM- 
Mary, only chitd of the tatc Richnrd Majtm, 

rs(|. At Gait. Upper Caimda, Williajii Dyne 

Barri§9H, eaq. of «UraLfordt *od of \h» Bay* 




80 



Marriaget. 



[July, 



W. M. Harrison, RectorofCltyliaDger. Devon, 
to Lucy, tbird dan. of Daniel Tye, Gent, of 

Wilmot. At St. Senran. Bretakne, Robert 

OrtatUt esq. of St. Leonard'son-m, to Sarah, 
■econd daa. of C^t. Bowden, R.N. 

13. At St. Mary's Brompton, tbe Rev. H. J . 
Swule, Incambeot of St. Mary's, West Bromp- 
ton, to Emily-Charlotte, dan. of Mr. W. Goter. 

IS. At Benniiirton, Herts, Thomas Vematjf, 
esq. of Baldock, eldest son of Charlea Veasey. 
esq. of Huntingdon, to Catherine^Anna, second 
dau. of the Rev. John Pollard, Rector of Ben- 
ninrton, and granddao. of the late Gen. and 
Lady Frances Morgan, of Crofton halU Kent. 

At Kelshall. Herts, \Vm. Henry Cook, esq. 

snrveon, Tunbridge Wells, only son of Thomas 
Okmc, esq. R.N. F.R.S. Professor of Fortifica- 
tion at Addiscombe, to Harriet, the youngest 
dao. of the Ute Rev. Edwaiti Bickerstetb, Rec- 
tor of Watton, and niece of the late Lord Lang- 
dale. At Leamington, John Davis Shertlony 

esq. of Stoberry park, Soro. and 6(h Dragoon 
Guards, to Innes-KUza, only dan. of the late 

MiJor Hamilton Maxwell. Bengal Army. 

At St. Savionr's Jersey, Henrv Luke Robituon, 
esq. Bombay N.l. third son of W. R. Robinson, 
esq. of Acton, to Eliubetb-Jane, youngest dau. 
of Capt. Heasley. R.N. AtThombury, De- 
von, the Rev. Anthony William Loveband, of 
Landkey, to PhilUs-Jane. eldest surviving dau. 
of tbe late Rev. John Kdgcnmbe. Rector of 

Thombury. At Sutton Bingham. Som. 

John Grave, esq. barrister-at-law, younger 
son of John Grove, esq. of Ferns, Wilts, to 
Clara-Cecily-Sarah, youngest dau. of the late 
Joseph Ashton Burrow, esq. of Carleton hall. 

Cumberland. At Highbury, the Rev. II. 

Mayo Gunm, of Warminster, to Isabella, dau. 

of H. O. Wills, esq. of Bristol. AtBeeston, 

Nottinghamshire, the Rev. Martin Henry 
JUehrtU, M.A. son of Martin Ricketts. esq. of 
tbe Foni, near Droit wich, to Susan, eldest dau. 

of the Rev. John WoUey, Vicar of Beeston. 

At Mangotsfield, near Bristol, John J. L. 
Bayfjf, esq. of Hill house, Gloucester, to So 
sanna, dau. of Daniel Cave, esq. of Cleve hill, 
and rranddau. of the late Dr. Locock, of 
Northampton. 

14. At Reigate, Surrey, the Rev. John Wil- 
kragfaby Hodf9ont of Kiraford, Sussex, eldest 
■on of tbe late Rev. Josej)h Hodgson, Rector 
of Leigh, Surrey, to Julia, only dau. of Wm. 

Tosswill, esq. of Reigate. Richard G. P. 

Jjflnfy, esq. of Petersneld. surviving son of the 
late R. V. Minty, esq. Ordnance Civil Service, 
to Charlotte-Mary, youngest dau. of the Rev. 
Ftancis B. Arden, Rector of Greshaai, and 

Vicar of Paston, Norfolk. At Plymouth, 

William Power Reed, esq. son of the late Lieut.- 
CoL John Reed, K.H. to Katherine, youngest 
dau. of John Humphreys, esq. of Miltown 

boose, Tyrone. At Prestbury. Joshua Flel- 

den, esq. of Stansfleld hall, near Todmorden. 
to Ellen, eldest dau. of Thomas Brocklehurst, 
esq. of the Fence, near Macclesfield. 

15. At Almondsbury, George- William, only 
son of the Rev. Henry J. GuHHing, Rector of 
Wigan, to Isabella-Mary, eldest dau. of Col. 
Master, of Knole park. Glouc and late of 3d 

Foot Guards. At Brompton, J. Duncan 

M*Andrew, esq. Capt. 78th Highlanders, to 
Smily, youngest dau. of Joseph Cammilleri, 

c«q. Comm. R.N. At St. John's Padding- 

ton, George Wilson Grove, esq. of Exeter, to 
the Hon. Louisa Lott, late of Dunmore house, 

Bradninch. At Llangarren, Herefordshire, 

the Rev. W. M. SeJMbSen, Curate of Wigton, 
Cumberland, to Charlotte; and at tbe same 
time, Thornton G. Eaeto, esq. of Upper Tulse 
bill, Brixton, to Harriett, dau. of the late 

Thomas Pearce, esq. of Llangarren Court. 

At Brighton, Jonathan Sublee Hanieon, esq. 
Of Brandesburton ball, eldest son of Jonathan 

JO 



Harrison, esq. of Pocklington, to Eliia-Jane, 
eldest dan. of the Ute Matthias Wbitehead, 

esq. of Park house, Selby. At St. Osyth. 

Charles Brandretk, esq. (late 4th Light Dra- 
goons), to BUza, yonngesit dan. of W. P. Nas- 
sau, esq. St. Osyth Priory, Essex. ^At F«l- 

bam, Jobn-William, younger sou of Qpnjamin 
Whitetoek, esq. of Point bouse, Putney, to 
Maria-Jane-Mary, only dau. of Thomas Wal- 
ford, esq. of the Pryor'a bank, Fnlhan, and 

Bolton street. Piccadilly. At Melbecka,in 

Swaledale, Richard Garth, esq. of Hawes, to 
Hannah, second dau. of Capt. Birkbeck, of 

Low Row, in Swaledale. At Yougbal, Ueiiry- 

Aylmer. eldest son of Henry Porter, esq. of 
ninslade house, Devon, to Susanne, youngest 
dau. of the late Lieut.-Col. Faunt. At Ply- 
mouth, Brutton J. Ford, esq. of Exeter, soli- 
citor, to Jane-Calmady, second dan. of Jona- 
than Luxmoore, esq. of Plymouth, solicitor. 

At Goodmanham, co. York, the Rev. Wm. 

Greemtell, onlv chiM of the late R. R. Green- 
well, esq. of Ktbblesworth, Durham, to Jane, 
dau. of the Rev.Wm. Bkm, Rector of Goodman- 
bam. At Stonehouse, Glouc Thos. BatcMel- 

dor, esq. Chapter Clerk to tbe Dean and Canons 
of Windsor, and Registrar of Eton college, to 
Elixabeth-Ann, dau. of the late Lieut. Loruner, 

formerly of the 1st Royals. At South Kcl- 

sey. Line, the Rev. Benjamin Gibbons, M.A. 
to Charlotte-Jane, dan. of George Skipworth, 

esq. of Afoorton house, South Kelsey. At 

St. George's Bloomsbury, Charles-John, se- 
cond son of Frederick Braiikwmte, esq. M. 
IifSt. C.E. to Louise-Frances, third dau. of 
Charles Windeler, esq. of Great Coram street. 
17. At St. Peter's Eaton sq. Alex. SiemaH, 
esq. of Ards, co. Done^, to Lady Isabella 
Toler, third oau. of the Dowager Countess of 

Norbury. At Melling, Lane. T. A. CurtU, 

esq. of Grandbolm cottage, Aberdeen, second 
son of Sir William Curtis, Bart, to Frances- 
Pitt, youngest dau. of L. C. Browne, esq. Wal- 
lace Cragie, Forfkrsbire. At Chiddingstone, 

Kent, the Rev. Henry W. O. PolUU, Rector of 
lllington, Norfolk, to Frances-Charlotte, only 
dau. of Henry Streatfield, esq. 

19. At St. Mark's Kennington, Capt. Wood- 
leor'd, H. M. 5tb Fusiliers, to BUzabeth, eldest 
dau. of the late W. Johnson, esq. of Micbels- 
town, CO. Cork, and widow of Capt. F. A. 
Robinson. 

20. At Jersey, Henry P. Maplee, esq. of 
London, son of the late Henry Maples, esq. of 
Tborne, co. York, to Elixabeth-Margaret, only 
dau. of John Pearse, jun. esq. and granddau. 
of the late Rear-Adm. Pearse, of Bradninch 

boose, Devon. At l^Iant, the Rev. Edmund 

WorUedge, Curate of Enfield. Middlesex, to 
Louisa, eldest dau. of the Rev. Uriah Tonkin. 

Vicar of Lelant, Cornwall. At Cheltenham, 

William Roberts Farmar, esq. H. M.sadRegt. 
to Alicia-Mary, only dan. of Edward Stone 

Cotgrave, Capt. R.N. At Shirebampton, 

near Bristol, the Rev. Charles Maunder^ In- 
cumbent of Kingswood. Glouc. to Emma, 
youngest dau. of the late Richard Cartwright, 

esq. of Shirebampton. At Cirencester, the 

Rev. W. U. Stanton, eldest son of W. Henry 
Stanton, esq. M.P. for Stroud, to Mary, second 
dau. of Mr. Charles Lawrence, of the Querns, 

near Cirencester. At Galway, Major Geog- 

kegan, late of Madras Army, to Barbara, eldest 
dau. of P. M. Lynch, esq. of Duras park, Gal- 
way. In St. Paul's Covent garden, William- 
Frederick, youngest son of Thomas De La Rue, 
esq. of Westboume terr. to Emma, third dao. 
of the late Thomas Tanner, esq. of the Army 

Medical Board. At Bristol, the Rev. Francis 

Barnet, B.A. of Taunton, eldest son of F. K. 
Barnes, esq. to Elisa, youngest dau. of H. M. 
Ambury, esq. solicitor. 



«l 



OBITUARY. 



I 



Tub DuGHitjis oir Lkuchtekaero. 

May 13, At Munich, in her G3d year, 
Au^tzjta- Amelia Duchess of I«euchteri- 
bcrg» widow of Eageoe, Viceroy of Italy* 

The Duchess of Leucbtenberg was the 
eldett daii4^hter of Kiog Maximilian Jo- 
iepK of Bavaria, She wa» bom on the 
2 lit of J line p 1 /B8^ thus betof two years 
younger than the ei-King Ludwig, her 
brother, and seven yfara older than Prince 
Karl. She waA married on the 1 4th Jan. 
1806, to Eugene Beauharnai^, Prince of 
Eichstadt. Eugene Beauharnaii, horn in 
1781, was the son of General Alexander 
Vicomte de Beauh&mais< aud Josephine 
Tftscher de la Fagerie, afteriv^ards the Em- 
press Jofiephme. At the commencement 
of the revolatioa General BeauhomAJs 
joined the jiopular party, voted for thf 
abolition of privileges;^ and eqiuality before 
the law. In the reign of terror, lie was 
accused of having by neglect contributed 
to the loss of the fortress of Mayence, was 
•rreatedf brought to Paris, and guillotined 
in 1794. Of bia two children, the daugh. 
ter, Hortense, waa married to Louis Bona- 
parte, King of Holland t whose son b the 
|»reMQt President of the French Republic; 
the ion, Eugene, was made Viceroy of 
Italy by Napoleon, and married the Prin- 
ceii Augusta of Bavaria as abflve stated. 
After the fall of Napoleon, Beauhamais 
took part in the Congrcfts of Vienna, which 
awarded htm a dotation of 5,000 /J OO francs, 
paid him by the King of Naples . Ue made 
over the sum to Bavaria, in exchange for 
the province of Leucbtenberg, in the Ober- 
pfalz, with the title of Dokc. He sub- 
sequently resided m the Bavarian cowrt, 
and died at Munich on thc2l8t Feb. 1B24. 
He was succeeded by hia eldest son Au- 
giiMus, who was in 1835 ninrried to Donna 
Maria da Gloria the Queen of Portngal, 
bat died in the same yenr^ Ou his death 
the duchy devolved on \m only surviving 
brother, Maximilittn-Joseiih-Eagene-Au- 
gustus^Napoleon, who married the eldest 
daughter of the Emperor Nicholas of 
Russia, and has a numeromi family. He 
resides ot St. Petersburg, where he is 
lieut.^General in the ai-my, and Presidetit 
of the Society of Arts. The eldest daugh- 
ter of the deceased Duchess is Queen of 
Sweden; the second is the widow of Don 
P^ro of Brazil; and the youngest \» the 
wife of Count William of Wurtemberg, 
The state funeral of the late Duchess took 
plAceat Munich on the l?tb May. 

Tbe Mabcbioness of Laxbdowne, 
Aitril 3. At Bo wood Park, in her 66th 
yeur, the Most Hon. Louisa- Empicii Mar- 
ubtouess of Xiansdowue. 

Gkkt. Mac, Vol, XXXVl. 




She was the fifth daughter of Henry- 
Thomas, second Earl of Ilchester, oy 
Maria - Theresa, datightrr of Standish 
Grady, esq, of Capercullin, co. Limerick, 
and was married to the Marquess of Lftus- 
downe on the 30fb of March, 1808, 

Of his refined niid intellectual household 
the Marchioness was the aiiimating spirit. 
It may seem strange that the pmliffi of 
being the acknowledged friend and patron 
of titeroture and art should not be more 
largely coveted in the upper circles of so- 
ciety. It is possible that the ambition is 
more extensively entertained than the 
success of the aspirauts would imply. 
However that may be, the triumph of 
that true Mecenatiau hospitality, which 
places wit on the level with wealth, and 
preferH mind to j>edrgree, appears to 
have been reserved in our days for 
the brilliant receptions of Holland and 
Lansdowne Houses. Their days are now 
paat ; whilst those who have partaken of 
the elfgant hospitalitiei of Bowood will be 
equally consciout of a vacancy not to be 
supplied in that raoie limited circle ; and 
hundreds of poor fa mi lies t spread over the 
ten thousand acres of that princely de- 
mesne, have sustained a lot>.s such as it i^ 
no derogatioD to those who shall succeed 
her to pronounce irreparable. The lively 
interest which this excellent lady took in 
every thing that related to the comfort 
and moral hahite;^ the well-being and well' 
doing of the poor on the estate, ha.< passed 
into a proverb. Stimulated by a lively 
faith, aud aided by two valuable tastes— a 
love of cottage architecture, and of the 
education of the young — in many a roomy 
and convenient peasant^s borne ; in her 
three very efficient schools at Buck hill, at 
Calne, and at Foxham ; in the lodges of 
elegant and varied designs which cover the 
avenues to the Park ; in the pictureeque 
group of gabbd buildings wbieh cluster 
about the Italian gate at Derry II ill; above 
all, in the churches, which both theie and 
at Foxham (the one by her influence 
founded, the other restored,) have pro- 
vided the mean Si of grace and truth tt* 
long' neglected populations, and niude the 
wilderness to blossom as a rose j — in and 
by such works as these she has left an 
imperishable record of vvhat may be ef- 
fected by tlie combination of a refined 
understanding, a human heart, and s re- 
ligious jipirit. 

Her ladyihip had Issne two sons and oue 
daughter, the late Earl of Kerry, the 
Earl of Shelburne, aud Lady Louisa, mar- 
ried to tf^e Hon. James Kenneth Howard, 
M,P. son of the Earl of Suffolk. Her 
funeral took place on Friday Uie Utb 
M 



82 



Obituary. — Earl of Shafiesbuty. 



[July, 



April, attended by the Marquess and his 
children, the Countesses of Kerry and 
Shelbume, the Earl of Ilchester, the Hon. 
Jb K. Howard, the Hon. John Strangwayt, 
the Hon. C. Gore, and Sir Charles I^mon. 
The mayor, aldermen, and about sixty of 
the inhabitants of Calne were permitted to 
follow their lamented patroness to the 
tomb ; and during the day every house in 
the town was entirely closed. 

The Earl of Sraftksburt. 

Jume 9. At St. Giles's House, Dorset, 
in his 83rd year, the Right Hon. Cropley 
4kshley Cooper, sixth Earl of Shaftesbury, 
and Raron Cooper of Powlett, co. Somer- 
set (1672), Baron Ashley, of Wimboume 
St. Giles, CO. Dorset (1668), and the 7th 
Baronet (1622), and a Privy Councillor. 
' The late Earl of Shaftesbury was the 
Tounger son of Anthony the fourth Earl, 
by his second wife the Hon. Mary Bou- 
Terie, second daughter of Jacob first Yis- 
oount Folkestone. He was bom in the 
bmily mansion 24 Grosvenor-square, on 
ilie 21st Dec. 1768; was edacated at 
Winchester school, and at Christ church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. Dec. 
17, 1787. He was just of age, when, at 
tile general election of 1 790, he was returned 
to parliament for Dorchester, for which 
he continued to sit until his accession to 
ttie peerage. 

On the return of the Tories to office in 
1807 he was appointed Clerk of the Ord- 
nance, which he held until his advance to 
the Upper House. This occurred on the 
death of his elder brother the fifth Earl, 
May 14, 1811. 

During the illness of Lord Walsingham 
in 1811, he temporarily filled the office of 
Chairman of Committees, and on the 10th 
Nov. 1814, he was chosen his permanent 
successor, and thereupon sworn a Privy 
Councillor. The duties of this office are 
very considerable. Those functions which 
in the Lower House occupy the time and 
attention of the Chairman of Committees, 
the Speaker's counsel, and the two ex- 
tminers of petitions, were fully and well 
done in the Upper for nearly forty years 
by " old ** Lord Shaftesbury, who was 
never old when business pressed. Strong 
common sense, knowledge of the statute 
law, and above all uncompromising impar- 
tiality made him an autocrat in his depart- 
aient. When once he heard a case, and 
deliberately pronounced judgment, sub- 
mission almost invariably followed. A 
man of the largest experience as a parlia- 
mentary agent has been heard to say that 
he remembered only one case in which the 
House reversed a decision of Lord Shaftes- 
bury : and on that occasion it became ne- 
ceuaucj to myail on the Duke of Wel- 



lington to speak in order to overcome the 
••old Earl." It would not be easy to 
cite many instances of men who have taken 
an active part in the business of a delibe- 
rative assembly after the age of 75 ; but 
the labours of Lord Shaftesbury were 
continued beyond that of fourscore. To 
all outward seeming he was nearly as effi- 
cient at one period of his life as at another. 
By the time he had reached the age of 
50— which was about half-way through 
the 15 vears that Lord Liverpool's Minis- 
try held the government — Lord Shaftes- 
bury's knowledge of his duties as chair- 
man to the Lords was complete, and then 
he appeared to settle down in life with the 
air, the habits, the modes of thought and 
action, natural to old age. He was cer- 
tainly a man of undignified presence, of 
indistinct and hurried speech, of hasty and 
brusque manner ; but there was a general 
impression that the House of Lords could 
could not have had a more efficient dudr- 
man. In the formal business of comndt- 
tees he rarely allowed them to make a 
mistake, while he was prompt as well as 
safe in devising the most convenient mode 
of carrying any principle into practical 
effect. He was no theorist; there was 
nothing of the speculative philosopher in 
the constitution of his mind ; and he there- 
fore readily gained credit for being what 
he really was, an excellent man of business. 
In dealing with minute distinctions and 
mere verbal emendations a deliberative 
assembly occasionally loses its way, and 
members sometimes ask, " What is it we 
are about ? " This was a question which 
Lord Shaftesbury usually answered with 
great promptitude and perspicuity, rarely 
failing to put the question before their 
Lordships in an unmistakeable form. 
Another valuable quality of Lord Shaftes- 
bury as a chairman consisted in his im- 
patience of prosy unprofitable talk, of 
which doubtless there is comparatively 
little in the Upper House ; but even that 
little he laboured to make less by occa- 
sionally reviving attention to the exact 
points at issue, and sometimes, by an ex- 
cusable manoeuvre, shutting out opportu- 
nity for useless discussion. When he sat 
on the woolsack as speaker, in the absence 
of the Lord Chancellor, he deported him- 
self after the manner of Chancellors; but 
when he got into his proper element at 
the table of the house nothing could be 
more rapid than his evolutions ; no hesi- 
tation, no dubiety, nor would he allow any 
one else to pause or doubt. Often has he 
been he^rd to say, in no very gentle tones, 
*• Give me that clause noir ;"—•* That's 
enough; '' — ** It will do very well as it is ; " 
— " If you have anything further to pro- 
pose, move at once;" — ** Get through the 



1851.] 



Obituary. — Earl ofBantry, 



8d 



bill now, fitid bring up that od the third 
readiof." He ulwayt made their Lord- 
ihip« fed that, come what mij^hti it wm 
tbeir duty to *' get through the bill ;" and 
■O eipeditious was the old Earl* that be 
would get out of the chair, bring up bis 
report* and move the Houne ioto auother 
committee in the short time that BufBeed 
for the ChaoeeUor to transfer himself from 
the wQokack to the Treasury bench and 
back again. 

Notwithstanding a little tendency to be 
whimsjcal, aud though he was not remark- 
able either for gravity or guavity of man- 
ner, yet Lord Shaftesbury was not only 
popular with the Peers, but he was also 
much esteemed by the profesaiooal gentle- 
men (parliamentary agenta) who practised 
in the «ort of court o?er which he pre&ided. 
In the year 1845 tboae gentlemen conveyed 
to him their united request that he would 
^ for hif portrait; and the picture, painted 
by Horaley* was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. It is uuderstoud that the So- 
ciety of Parliamentary Agents wished this 
portrait to be placed in the new House of 
Lords, or in some of the adjoining apart- 
meiita, as a memorial of tbeir respect for 
hia high character and long serviceSj, but 
it is said that the Palace Commis^oners 
bare not accepted the offer. Further 
evtdcDcea of goodwill towarda his Lord- 
ship might easily be enumerated, and it ia 
much to his honour that he never pur- 
chased popularity by any unwortliy com- 
pLiaocea, for he was a rigid observer of ail 
those ancient practices which insure order, 
completenegs^ and ** iaditfereDt justice. '^ 
To bis official saccetsor (Lord Redesdale) 
will descend the use of many valuable pre- 
cedents eitahlished by his decisions and 
enforced by his authority ; and with them 
wiU also descend an example which may 
perhaps he followed, but a rcptitatioti not 
likely to be suqiassed or soon forgotten. 
At the commencement of the present ses- 
sion an address was moved by the Mar- 
qaesa of Lausdowne, and seconded by 
Lord Stanley, recognising the eminent 
•ervioct of the Earl of ShaResbury, and 
feoommending her Majesty to confer upon 
him some retiring nUowance as a mark of 
ber favour* A similar address waa moved 
md carried in the House of Commons. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury married, on 
the 10th Dec. 179Gt Lady Anne Spencer, 
fourth daughter of George fourth Duke of 
Marlborough ; and by that lady, who sur- 
vives him, he had issue six sons and four 
daughters ,r of whom four sons and three 
daughters are Uving. They were, 1. Lady 
Carohne Mary, married in 1831 to Joseph 
Necld, esq. of Grittleton, Wilts, M.P. for 
Chippenham ; 2. Lady Harriet Anne, 
mimed in 1830 to the^ght Hon. Henry 



Thomas Lowry Corry^M.P, for Tyrone, 
brother to the Earl of Belmore ; 3. Lady 
Charlotte Barbara, married to Henry Lyi. 
ter, esq. of Rowtoa Castle, Salop ; 4. An- 
thony, now Earl of Shaf\esbury ; 5. the 
Hon. Arthur William Ashley Cooper, 
Master of St. Katharine's Hospital, and 
late Treasurer and Vice Chamberlain to 
her Majesty Queen Adelaide, who married 
iu lySl, Maria- Anne, eldest daughter of 
Colonel Hugh Duncan Bailhe, of Tarra- 
dale, CO. Ross ; 6. Frederic* , who died in 
\m^ in her 3rd year; 7. the Hon. An- 
thony Henry Ashley Cooper, a captain in 
the army, and formerly M.P. for Dor- 
chester, who married in 1835 Jane-Fran* 
ces, only child of Robert Pattison, esq. 
of Wrackleford, co. Dorset, and has issue; 
8. the Hpn. Anthony John Ashley Cooper, 
esq. barrister-at-law, who married in 1840 
Juiia^ eldest daughter of Henry John Con- 
yers, esq, of Copt Hall» Essex ; 9. the 
Hon, Anthony • Francis, who died in 1B25, 
in his 15th year ; and 10. the Mon« An<- 
thony- Lionel, who died in 1836, in h£i 
23rd year. 

The present Earl of Shaftesbury was 
bom in 1801, and has been member for 
Bath in the present parliament. He was 
formerly First Commissioner of Woodi 
and Forests, and has been highly distia- 
guished by his many public exertions for 
the amelioration of the condition of the 
people. He married in IB39 Lady Emil|r 
Cow per, sister to Earl Cowper, and has 
a numerous family. 

The Eaul of Bantry. 

May 2- At Glengariff Lodge, co. Cork, 
in his 84 th year, the Right Hon. Richard 
White, Earl of Bantry, Viscount Be re- 
haven, Viscount and Baron Bantry, of 
Bantry, co. Cork. 

Lord Bantry was bom on the 6th Aug* 
1 7 ill ; and was the eldest son of Simoa 
White, esq. of Bantry, by Frances -Jane, 
daughter of Richard Hedges Eyre, of 
Mount Hedges, esq. 

When the French threatened Ireland 
with invasion in the year 1 796, Mr. White 
distinguished himself by bis active exer^ 
tions in repelling their attempt to land in 
Bantry bay, on the 27th Jan. I797> 

In acknowledgment of hu ierricea CMi 
this occasion the corporation of Cork pre« 
sented him with a gold medial, and King 
George the Third advanced him to the 
peerage by the title of Baron Bantry, by 

* At the beginning of the same month 
the Lord Lieutenant stated in a letter to 
the Duke of Portland—** In particulari 
the spirit, activity, and exertions of Rich- 
ard White, esq, of Seafield Park, deserre 
the most honourable mention/^ 



64 



'patcut dated the 3l8t March in the same 
y«ar. Previously to the Union he was 
advanced to the dignity of a Viscount by 
the same title, by patent dated Dec. 29, 
1800 ; and on the 22nd Jan. 1816 he was 
farther advanced to the titles of Earl of 
Baatry and Yisconnt Berehaven. For 
the supporters of his arms he chose a 
grenadier and a female personifying Ire- 
land, each backed by military trophies. 
His motto was, ** The noblest motive is 
the public good.'* 

Lord Bantry received a commission as 
Captain of the Bantry volunteer corps, 
Aug. 13, 1803 ; his brother, the late Simon 
White, esq. was the second captain. 

His Lordship was at all times a firm 
and consistent Conservative. As a resi- 
dent landlord he wns justly popular with 
all parties, without distinction of sect or 
creed. 

He married, Nov. 3, 1799, Margaret- 
Anne Hare, eldest daughter of William 
first Earl of Listowel, and by that lady 
(who died in 1835), he had four sons and 
one daughter : 1. Richard, his successor ; 
2. the Hon. William Hart White Hedges, 
of Macroom Castle, co. Cork, who mar- 
ried in 1845, Jane, youngest daughter 
of the late Charles John Herbert, esq. 
of Muckross abbey, Killarney, and has 
issue two daughters ; 3. Lady Maria, who 
died in 1817, unmarried; 4. the Hon. 
Simon White, an officer in the army, who 
died unmarried in 1837 ; and 5. the Hon. 
Robert Hedges W^hite, bom in 1810. 

The present Earl was born in 1800, and 
married in 1836 Lady Mary O'Bryen, 
Hiird daughter of WMUiam Marquess of 
Thomond ; but has no children. 



Obituary, — JSarl of CoUenham. 



[July. 



Thb Earl o* Cottenham. 

April 29. At Pietra Santa, in the Duchy 
of Lucca, on his 70th birthday, the Right 
Hon. Charles Christopher Pepys, Earl of 
Cottenham, Viscount Crowhurst, of Crow- 
burst, CO. Surrey, and Baron Cottenham, 
of Cottenham, co. Cambridge, a Privy 
Councillor, a Baronet, and a Bencher of 
Lincoln's Inn. 

Lord Cottenham was the second son of 
Sir William Weller Pepys, Bart, a Master 
in Chancery, by Elixabeth, daughter of 
the Right Hon. William Dowdeswell. He 
was bom in Wimpole-street, on the 29th 
of April, 1781 ; and had, therefore, at the 
time of his decease, just completed the 
70th year of his age. He received in his 
early years all the advantages of a sound 
education, and in due time went to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
LL.B. in the year 1803 without honours. 
This was the same year in which Sir 
James Parke and Mr. Justice Coltmao, 
also of Trinity, took wrangler's degrees. 



He was admitted a member of Lincoln's 
Inn on the 26th Jan. 1801, and calkd to 
the bar by that society on the 9Srd Nor. 
1804. From the di^ that he quitted 
Cambridge he devoted himself with ua« 
remitting assiduity and signal sueoess to 
the study of his profession. Under the 
late William Tidd, so celebrated for his 
pupils and his pleadings, he was initiated 
to the most scientific part of the law, and 
he wss also for a time under the advice 
and guidance of Sir Samuel Romilly. The 
progress of Mr. Pepvs at the Cbanoery 
f>ar was not rapid. He was 92 years in 
the practice of his profession before he 
reached the rank of King's Counsel, in 
Michaelmas Term 1826. On the 6th of 
November in the same year he became a 
bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He was ap- 

gointed Solicitor- General to Qoeen Ade- 
tide in 1830 ; and (Sir John Campbell 
being the Attorney-General,) Solicitor- 
General to the King in February, 1834, 
whereupon he received the honour of 
knighthood. 

In July 1831, through the interest of 
Earl Fitz William, he was returned to Fai^ 
liament for Higham Ferrers ; in Oct. 
following he exchanged to the borough of 
Malton, in the same patronage, and for 
which he was re-elected in 1833 and 1835. 
On the retirement of Sir John Leach, 
Mr. Pepys became Master of the Rolls, 
in Sept. 1 834. To his duties in this court 
were soon afterwards added the functions 
which belong to a Commissioner of the 
Great Seal, to which he was appointed, 
jointly with others, in the month of April, 
1835, the Whigs not being then prepared 
with a Chancellor in whom they could 
confide, or whose character and position 
would add weight to their Government. 
The admirable manner in which Sir 
Charles Pepys presided in the Court of 
Chancery, however, soon led the Minister 
to place unbounded reliance in his learn- 
ing, abilities, and discretion. On the 16th 
Jan. 1836, be became Lord Chancellor, 
which office he held with great advantage 
to his party and to the country from that 
date till Sept. 1841, when, the Consenra- 
tives coming into power, he made way 
for Lord Lyndhurst. It was of course on 
his elevation to the highest place in the 
Court of Chancery that Sir Charles Pepys 
received his peerage. His title was de- 
rived from a manor near Cambridge, 
where his family had been resident from 
early in the 1 6th century. When tlie 
present Ministers returned to power, in 
August. 184b', Lord Cottenham again be- 
came Chancellor ; but his health bad in 
the interval evidently declined, and his 
frequent absence from court rendered it 
obvious that the ofiloe of Chancellor most 



1851.] 



OBircAHY*— Jlsvount Strathafhm, 



I 



I 



I 



I 



be iotnuted to &trui)ger Iiandii. la tbe 
month of Juue of last year Lord Cottea- 
liAm was rtii»ed to Ibe rank of au Etirl^ 
and the Great Seal was put in commis- 
§wo. Httf lordt»bip then weot abroad In 
the vain hope of lepairiag a constiitition 
broken down by severe iut«l1ectiia) labour, 
tbo toils of ofUci^t nnd the anxieties of 
public life, 

'* Lord Cottenliam atfards unotber iJliis- 
tration of tbe rule t bat it is not always tbc 
moat briUiftut advocate tbat makes the 
aouodcft judge. Although he was never 
remarkable for hb eloquence^ nor achieved 
extraordinanr ijucce^s as a practitioner, no 
man ever f^funed greater kurelii on the 
bench, and his decisions will long be re- 
garded as precedents of tbe hi|j,best au^ 
tbority,— as modeU for tbe imitation of his 
mioccMort. ]n politics be w&a ever a 
ttcaidy and con>(isteQt Liberal. Altboagb 
no great legal reforms were inti-oduced un- 
der his auspices, the omisaiou may be 
ascribed rather to the overwhelming natnre 
of his various duties, that preoccupied his 
entire time, than to any lack of incllnatiou 
ou his part* His name will go down to 
posterity as a aonnd lawyer ^ and ati able 
«id impartial judge/' 

III 18-i5 the baronetcy conferred on his 
Cither in 1801 devolved on L*ord Gotten- 
llini, by the death of bis elder brother Sir 
William Weller Pepys^^ mimarried; and 
la 1847 he aJjso ioherited the same dignity 
which had been couferred in 17B4 oa his 
ttQclc Sir Lucas Pepys, M.O. Physician- 
General to the Army, and Physician in 
Ordinary to King George tbe Third. 

He married June 30, 1821^ Caroline, 
daughter of William Witigfidti, esq. Mas- 
ter in Chancery, and liiece to tbe present 
£arl Digby ; and by that lady^ who »ur- 
vivea him, be had sixteen cbildrerK of 
whom twdvc survive, three jjous and 
Dilie daughters. They are all uumarrieiL 

His eldest £on, the present £«trl, was 
born in 1824; he is a M.A. of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, and Clerk of the 
Crown in the Court of Cbattcery. 
. The body of Lord Cottenhaiu was 
brought for interment to Totteridge, co. 
Herts. 



Viscount Strathallan. 

May 14. At Castle StrathaUou, Fertile 
shire, aged 84, tbe Right lloo. James An- 
drew John Lawrence Charles Drumtnondf 
sixth Vi^ount of Strathallan, and Lord 
Druramond of Cromlix (1686), and mnth 
Baron Maderty (I6(i0), a Reprei^ntative 
Peer of Scotland. 

Lord Strathallan was bora on tlie 24 th 
March, 1767, tbe younger son of the Hon. 
WiUiam Dnimmood (third sou of William 
the fourth Viscovmt), by Anne, second 



daughter of Major David Nairne, of tbe 
French service. His elder brother, Wil- 
liam, a Lieut. -Colonel in the army, died in 
the West Indies, mimariried. 

In early life his Lordship went to China, 
and be was for many year* the chief of the 
British settlement at Canton, After bis 
return home be marriedi on the 15th Jan. 
18§[*, Lady Amelia Sophia Mnrray, third 
daughter of John fourth Duke of AthoL 
He was cboscu M.P. for tbe county of 
Perth in March, 1812, on the resignatioo 
of Lord James Murray; and in opposition 
to Sir Thomas Graham, K,B. (afterwards 
Lord Ly nedoch), who had been previously 
member for tbat county from 1794 to 1807, 
Mr* Driimmood defeated SirThomiis Gra- 
ham by 69 votes to 51 i and again at the 
general election in the same year by 75 
votes to G8. He waa rechosen without op- 
position in 1 81 8 and 1820, and resigocd his 
seat in March 1824 ; having supported the 
Tory party. 

Mr. Drummoud succeeded to the repre- 
sentation of his family in 1817, oti the 
death of his cousin General Andrew John 
Drummond ; who was the only surviving 
son of James the fifth Viscount, attainted 
after the rebclHon of 1 74& ; and who 
claimed the peerage in 1787, on the ground 
of his father not having been duly named 
in the act of attainder, but which cisLim 
was rejected in 1790. 

The peerage was ultimately roatored by 
an act of parliameut which received the 
royal assent on tbe 17th June, IS2A, 

Lord Strathallan was elected one of tbe 
representative peers of Scotland on the 
next vacancy, aod was recbosea at each 
subsequent election* 

By his wife, alre^idy mentioned, and who 
died on tbel 'ith Juue 1 8411 , Lord StmLhalloii 
bad issue seven sons and two daugbters, of 
whom five sons and one daughter survive 
him* Thiiir oameswerc, I. Willi am- Henry, 
now Viscount Strathallan ; 2. the Hon. 
Marianne.Janc, married in iSl^i to George 
Drtimmoad Graeme, esq. of Inchbrachie ; 
5. the Hon. Jamc*- Robert, Capt. R.N. ; 
4. the Hon. Edmimd, of the Bengal 
Civil Service, who married in 1 837 JuUa- 
Mary, daughter of J. C. C. Sutherland, esq. 
and has issue ; &. tbe Hon. Francis- Char lea, 
who married in 1849 Charlotte Mary Athol, 
only daughter of tbe late Very He v. Sir 
Herbert Oakeley, Bart. Dean of Bocking, 
aod great-granddaughter of Charles third 
Duke of Athol I 6- the Hon, Maurice-Ed^ 
ward, who died an infant; 7. the Hon. 
Emily- June, who died in 185^9, aged eleven; 
8. the Hon. Robert- Andrew- John, of the 
Bengal Civil Service ; and !>. tlie Hon. Fre- 
derick, who died at Purncah in India in 
1848. 

The present Vi&comnt was born in 1810, 




86 Viscount Neuny and Mome.^'Lord Montfbrt. [July, 

issue, Dec. 10, 1847. His Lordship mar* 
ried secoQdly, thirteen days after, AiuM» 
daughter of Mr. William Bonham, of 
Upton Bishop, co. Hereford. He had ao 
children, and his peerage has beeome CK- 
tinct. 

In Parliament he adhered to the Whig 
party, and he was one of tiie majorttf 
who voted for the Reform act. 

His body was depoaited in Kenial Gkcen 
Cemetery on the 8th of May. He had 
expressed a wish to be interrad with big 
ancestors at Horseheath ; but therequeat 
was not complied with, on the plea that 
the Tault there was already filled. Thos, 
as in other cases of decayed fiimilies, ibm 
last of the race lies far away firom homo* 
The mansion and estate had been forfieited 
by his father's embarrassments. The for^ 
niture and pictures were removed in 1775 s 
the house sold for the materials in 1777 s 
and the park disparked. 



and married, in 1833, Christina- Maria- 
Herxey, sister to Sir David Baird, Bart 
of Newbyth, by whom he has issue a nu- 
merous famUy. 

Viscount Newry and Mornb, M.P. 

May 6. In Grosvenor-crescent, Eaton- 
square, aged 36, the Right Hon. Francis- 
Jack Viscount Newry and Mome, M.P. 
for Newry, and a Deputy. Lieutenant for 
the county Down ; son and heir apparent 
of the Earl of Kilmorey. 

His mother was Jane fifth daughter of 
George Gann Cunninghame, esq. of Mount 
Kennedy, co. Wicklow. 

He was first returned to Parliament for 
Newry in 1841, defeating Sir John Mil- 
ley Doyle by 319 votes to 237. He was 
re-chosen without opposition in 1847. His 
Lordship professed Conservative prin- 
ciples, but supported free trade in corn. 

He married, July 30, 1839, Anne-Ame- 
lia, eldest daughter of the late General the 
Hon. Sir Charles Colville, G.C.B. ; and 
by that lady, who survives him, he had 
issue Francis-Charles now Viscount Newry 
and Mome, born in 1843, two other sons 
and two daughters. His body was con- 
veyed for interment to the beautiful chapel 
adjoining Shavington Hall, near Market 
Drayton, Shropshire. Amongst the prin- 
cipal mourners were the Earl of Kilmorey, 
Viscount Newry, Hon. Robert Needham, 
Hon. Francis Henry Needham, Lord Col- 
ville, Lord Alfred Hervej, and several 
other members of the nobility and gentry 
of the neighbourhood. 

Lord Mowtfort. 

Aprii 30. At his residence in Upper 
Montagu-street, Montagu-square, in his 
78th year, the Right Hon. Henry Brom- 
ley, Lord Montfort, Baron of Horseheath, 
eo. Cambridge. 

The late Lord Montfort was the grand- 
son of Henry Bromley, esq. of Horseheath, 
who, having represented the county of 
Cambridge in Parliament, was created 
Baron Montfort in the year 1741. He 
was lineally descende^l from Sir Thomas 
Bromley, Lord Chancellor in the reign of 
Elisabeth. 

He was bom on the 14th May, 1773, 
being the only son of Thomas the second 
Lord, by Mary- Anne, daughter of Sir 
Patrick Biake, of Langham, Suffolk, Bart 

He succeeded his father in the peerage, 
Oct. 24, 1799. ■ As a decayed member of 
the peerage, he was awarded a public pen- 
sion of 600/. by grant dated 8tb Oct. 
1800 ; and a further grant of 200/. dated 
10th March, 1803. He had contracted 
an inferior alliance in 1793, by marrying 
Miss Elizabeth WatU, who died without 



Right Hon. R. L. Ssbil. 

May S3. At Florence, in his 59th 
year, the Right Hon. Richard Lalor SheU» 
her Majesty *s Minister to the Coort of 
Tuscany. 

Mr. Sheil was a native of Doblin, and 
bom in the year 1793. His &ther» Mr. 
Edward Sheil, resided for many yean al 
Cadiz, and engaged in mercantile parsnitt 
with more than ordinary success. Having 
amassed a competence, he returned to tht 
county of Waterford, purchased an eitat% 
and built a mansion. His son's edncatiaii 
commenced at Stoneyhurst, and was oca- 
tinued at Trinity College, Dublin, wb«» 
he graduated with much distinction. He 
next kept his terms at Lincoln's Inn with 
the view of being called to the Englidi 
bar ; but in the meantime his fitlMr« 
having entered anew into commercial ape- 
cuktions, lost the whole of his fortune bgr 
a disastrous partnership. His son retumad 
to Ireland, and was called to the Irish bar 
in 1814. To assist in defraying the nn* 
cessar}' expense he wrote the tragedj nf 
'* Adelaide," which the celebrated Miii 
0*Neill,by her wonderful histrionic poweTf 
rendered temporarily sucoessfuL Con- 
tinuing to write for the stage, The i^pon- 
tate, Bellamira. and Evadne, were the re- 
sult of his labours and his genins, and thej 
produced him about 2,000/. Mr. SheU 
was also supposed to be the author of e 
series of sketches of Irish jurispmdenefl^ 
which appeared in the New Montfalj 
Magazine during the editorship of Mr. 
Campbell. 

In the profession of the law, though ht 
attained the rank of Queen's Counsel, he 
never enjoyed a lucrative practice. On 
remarkable occasions he held briefii and 
made showy speeches, but the attornift 



13510 



Obituary. — JRigki Bon, /?, L, SImi, 



87 



liad DO confidence in bis kgal acquire- 
ment*, and, thougU the judf^es regarded 
affectionately his personal character and 
greatly admired his genius, yet bit argu- 
ments vrrre listened to with comparatively 
little attention. It waa said, bowcTcr, 
that be deterinined if possible to get on in 
the more ardaouit walks of the pfofcsaionT 
uid hoped for especial favour in the Rolls 
Courts having married « in 1816, Miss 
O'HaUoraOt niece to Sir William Mac 
Mahoti (who then presided in that conrt), 
aod niece also to Sir John Mac Mahou, 
who at that time was private secretary to 
the Prince Regent. But all this go&i^ip of 
the *' Four Courts " ended in nothing, 
Mr. Shell, instead of an eminent lawyer, 
bec&me a political agitator, Uis ipeecbes 
at public meetings ifn Dublin * the first of 
which was delivered by him at the early 
age of eighteent attracted the admiration 
of all chiases ; his passionatetoue delighted 
the vulgar ( hia wit and eiquisite fancy 
charmed the moat cultivated minds, while 
Kia perfect amiability of character, his high 
and generous nature, secured the friendship 
of every one who enjoyed the advantage of 
hii acquaintance. 

Id 1832 he became an active supporter 
of the Catholic Association , and in 1SZ5 
be was selected, conjointly with Mr. 
OXonnell, to attend at the House of 
Commons, and plead agoinit the Bill for 
its suppression. On bis returo, unsuc- 
cesafuli his speeches became so violent 
that a prosecution was commenced against 
him, bnt between the finding of the bilk 
and the law term to which the trial had 
been postponed Lord Liverpool was 
struck with apoplexy^ Mr, Cunning he- 
came Prime Minister, and the prosecution 
was abandoned. Then came the Welling* 
ton ministry, and the Clare election, in 
which Sheil was most active, and OXon- 
nell, tbouj^h disqualified as a Romanist, 
was returned. 

In Oct. 18^8r a great meeting on tha 
f object was announced to be held at Pe- 
aenden Heath, near Maidstone. This 
meeting Mr, Shell determined to attend. 
He came over to London, purchased a 
6'eehold in order to entitle him to speak, 

1 went to the meeting,, which was one 
oe of the wildest turbulence, Mr* 
il attempted to address the meetingt 
but he could not procure a heanng, and 
was obliged to publish bis speech in the 
newspapers. 

The Roman Catholic Relief Act, when 
it became law, opened to Mr. Sheil a new 
and more extended sphere of action. He 
was returned to Parliament in IB^d for 
Lord Anglesey's borough of Milbourne 
Port, and soon became one of the favourite 
vnXon of th» House. At fint there was 



some disposition to laugh at his shrill tones 
and vehement gesticalatioo, but Parliament 
soon recognised him as one of its oma* 
ments. His great earnestness and appa* 
rent sincerity, his unrivalled felicity of il- 
lostraiion, his extraordinary power of 
pushing the meaning of words to the ut* 
most extent, and wringing from theoa a 
force beyond the range of ordinary expreS" 
sion, much more than the force of hit 
reasoning or the range of his political 
knowledge, obtained for him in Parlia- 
ment marked attention and, for the roost 
part, unqualified applause. When he rosi 
to speak members took their places, and 
the hum of private conversation wai 
hushed, in order that the House might 
enjoy the performances of an accomplished 
artist— not that they should receive tbe 
lessons of a statesmanlike adviser, or fol- 
low the lead of a commanding politician. 
Mr. Sheil was again returned for Mil- 
bnurne Port in 1830, having been an un- 
SQCcessfuil candidate for the county of 
Louth. In 1H31^ however, he got in for 
Louth ; iu 1832 he was returned for Tip- 
perary, without contest, and again in 
1 835 ; bnt in 1837 there was an oppositioo* 
against which be prevailed. His prin- 
cipal influence in that county, exclusive 
of the weight of his pnbUc character, was 
derived from his second marriage, in ld30, 
with the widow of Edmund Power, esq. of 
Gurteen, on which occasion be assumed 
the lady's maiden name of Lalor before 
bis own. Her eldest son (whose recent do- 
cease is noticed in a subsequent page,} 
being then in his minority, whatever iii^ 
flueoce be might possess as a landlord was 
at the command of Mr. Sheil, who con- 
tinued to sit for Tippcrary until 1841, 
though he encountered some opposition on 
accepting otfice in 1838, From the gene- 
neral election in 1B41 till the time of hia 
departure for Florence in 185 ft, he repre- 
sented through the influence of the Duke 
of Devonshire the small borough of Dun- 
garvan^ always of course supportbg the 
moat liberal section of the Whigs, lo 
Feb. 1838 he was appointed one of the 
Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital. 
In March 1839 he accepted the office of 
Vice-President of the Board of Trade, and 
was sworn a Privy ConaciUor. In June 
1841 he was removed to the post of Judge- 
Ad vocatt* General, which he held only to 
the following September, when the minis, 
try went out. On the return of the pre- 
sent Ministers to oMce, iu July 1846, he 
was appointed to the office of Maiter of 
the Mint ; and in Nov. 1850, he accepted 
the post of British Minis! er to Florence. 
For many years pa^t his health had been do- 
cliiiing, his fits of gout grew more frequent 
and severe, and his speeches in ParUament, 



88 Obituary— *fv. Sir JB. AJUck^r^Sir C. S. Hunter. [July, 



never verj numerous, came at leDgth to 
be few and far between. Although the 
Mppointinent to Florence waa nothing less 
than an expatriation of the indWidoal, 
and vn extinction of what might have been 
a growing £uiie, yet he tabmitted not 
merely with a philoiophical indiiference, 
but almost in a joyoos spirit, feeling, or 
seeming to feel, that it was a great promo- 
tion and a dignified retirement. At the 
same time it was regarded, in political 
circles, in the light of a conyenient escape 
firom the awkward necessity of either sup- 
porting or opposing the anti-papal measure 
of her Majesty^s ministers, and some slight 
advantage was expected to accrue from his 
being placed in a position of so close prox- 
imity to the Court of Rome, in the event 
of future negociations with that power. 
The immediate cause of his death is stated 
to have been an attack of gout in the sto- 
mach ; but there is reason to believe that 
the late tracical death of his son*in-law 
Mr. Power (see p. 92) occasioned a shock 
which proved too great for that highly ex- 
citable nervous susceptibility and keen 
sensitiveness which invariably accom- 
panies the higher order of genius. 



RbT. SlK ROBBKT AfFLBCK, BarT. 

Afoy 7. At Dalham hall, near New- 
market, aged 86, the Rev. Sir Robert 
Affleck, the 4th Baronet (1783), a Pre- 
bendary of York. 

He was the fourth son of the Rev. 
James Affleck, Vicar of Finedon, North- 
amptonshire, Perpetual Curate of Daven- 
try, and a Prebendary of Southwell, by 
Mary, only daughter of Mr. Proctor, of 
Clay Cotou, in the same county. He was 
educated at Westminster, where he was 
eaptain of the school, and proceeded to 
Christchurch, Oxford, where he gradu- 
ated B.A. 1787, and M.A. in 1790. He 
was some time tutor to the present Rt. 
Hon. Sir James Graham, Bart. 

In 1796 Mr. Affleck was collated by 
Archbishop Markham to the vicarage of 
Westow, hi Yorkshire, and in the same 
year he was presented by the Dean and 
Chapter of York to the rectory of Trcs- 
well, in Nottinghamshire. In 1802 Arch- 
bishop Markham collated him to the pre- 
bendal stall of Throckington, in the ca- 
thedral church of York. 

He was presented in 1807 to the vicar- 
age of Doncaster, which he held for ten 
years, and was much esteemed by the in- 
habitants. He resigned the living in 
1817, on being collated by Archbishop 
Harcourt to the vicarage of Silkstone, 
near Bamsley, where he was equally re- 
spected and beloved. 

On the 10th August, 1833, he succeeded 



to the title and etitates of his family by 
the death of his brother Qeneral Sir JamM 
Affleck. He resigned the living of Wes- 
tow the same year, and those of Silkstone 
and Treswell in 1837. 

Sir Robert Affleck married, May 16, 
1800, Maria, second daughter of Sir Eli- 
jah Impey, of Newick Park, near Chi- 
Chester, some time Chief Justice in Ben- 
gal ; and by that lady, who died March 12, 
1825, he had issue sevoi sons and four 
daughters. The former are : 1. Sir Gil- 
bert, who has succeeded to the title ; he 
was bom in 1804, and married in 1834 
EJverina-Frances, eldest daughter of Fran- 
cis Ellis, esq. of Bath ; 2. Robert Affleck, 
esq. who married in 1850 Mary-Emily, 
eldest daughter of Edmund Singer Bur- 
ton, esq. of Welton Place, Northampton- 
shire ; 3. the Rev. James Danby Affleck, 
Rector of Dalham ; 4. John ; and 5. 
George. The daughters are i 1. Mary- 
Philippa, married in 1836 to the Rev. 
Thomas Francis Hall, M.A. Vicar of Hat- 
field Broad Oak, in Essex ; 2. Charlotte ; 
3. Harriet. Elizabeth, married in 1829 to 
John Thomas Bridges, esq. of St. Nicho- 
las Court, in the Isle of Thanet ; and 4. 
Marian, married in 1846 to the Rev. 
Samuel Charles, M.A. Curate of Rings- 
haU, Suffolk. 

Sir Claudivs Stbpbbn Huntik, Bt. 

ApHl 20. At MorUmer HiU, Berks, 
aged 76, Sir Claudius Stephen Hunter, 
Bart. Alderman of London and Father of 
the City, Colonel of the West London 
Militia, President of the London Life As- 
sociation, and D.C.L. 

This venerable and distinguished dtisen 
was bom V?4th Feb. 1775. He was the 
youngest son of Henry Hunter, esq. of 
Beech HiU, Berks, who was a gentleman 
of polished education and engaging man- 
ners, educated at Eton, a Fellow Com- 
moner of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
afterwards called to the bar« and marr^ 
Mary, third daughter of William Sloane, 
esq. the great-nephew of Sir Hans Sloane, 
Bart. 

The paternal ancestors of Sir C. S. 
Hunter were citizens and merchants of 
Loudon, of considerable eminence in the 
reign of Charles I. as appears from family 
records in the Heralds' College, by the 
deed executed by the judges commis- 
sioners for the settlement of estates after 
the Fire of London, by which certain pro- 
perty in the city was assigned to the ances- 
tors of the late baronet, and afterwards 
vested in his elder and only brother, 
Henry Hunter, esq. of Beech Hill, Berks, 
lineally descended from Charies Hunter, 
esq. on whom the property was settled by 
that deed. John Hunter, the son of 



[6^L] Obitijahy. — Sir Cht^ug Stephen Hunter, Bart, 



80 



Charles* haviug tnade a Tcfy consitkntble 
addition to the fortiioc he inherited from 
hit father, purcb&ied the estate of Beech 
HUl^ where himself and hi« descends nta 
chiefly resideil, and from the period of his 
retirement we do not find any of the family 
eofAged in baetQesa, except the stibjeet of 
thif notice. 

Sit G. S. Hunter was educated at Mr. 
Kewcome'a school at Hackney, then n 
semiDary of much celebrity, patTonised by 
representatiTea of the noblr houses of 
Graftou, DeTonshire, and Essex, and many 
other families of conseqaence and dts- 
tiaotioo. He waa sent to fiDish Ids edu- 
cation with a Protestant clergyman in 
Switierland, wh«re he remained two yeans. 
He was entered a etuderit of the Inner 
T^mpht but lubaequently qimlified bim- 
•all for the practical branch of the legal 
profefMon by Htc years' lervicc and tuition 
under Mc«£r^. Bcardsworth, Burley, and 
Moore* solicitors of considerable eminence 
in Lincoln's Inu, and after one yearns 
further educAtion under the Solicitor to 
the Treasury* he commenced bu.'^ineas as 
a aolicitor in LiDcoIn'd Inn. About this 
time be married Mit^a Free, the only daugh- 
ter of a Tery diatinguiiihed merchant of 
London, with whom he had a considerable 
fortune, and from this period he rapidly 
advanced iu busioes»« He became soli- 
citor to five public inslttntiona, vix* — The 
Commercial Commissioners under the In- 
come Duty Acts ; The London Dock 
Company ; The Royal lostitution ; The 
Society for the Promotion of FLeligion and 
Virtue and Suppression of Vice ; and the 
LiimKan Society. At a later period he 
wa^aoticitDr to tlie Royal Exchange As- 
aim nee Company. 

In Sept. 11^0 4 he was unanimously cho- 
sen Alderman of the ward of Oassithaw. 
He then relinquished the general nianage- 
meot of his business to his partner, and 
two years afterwards was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Royal East Regi- 
ment of London MilitiH, and dedicated 
mnell of his time to bin regiment, which 
Wat then occasionally called upmi to serve 
Bl a distance from the metropolis. In 
June 1608 he was elected one of (:he She- 
riffs of London, and for the active and 
faitlifiil discharge of his duties received 
the thanki of his felJow- citizens. 

On the death of Mr. Alderman Ncwn- 
ham, Colonel of the Royal Wei<t Refpment 
of Loudon Militia, he was on the lOtb 
Jan, 1810, by ballot^ elected Colonel of 
that regiment by a large majority of tlie 
Court of Lieutenancy, although Lieut. - 
Colonel Wigan waa the other candidate. 

Colonel Huoter finally quitted ibe pro- 
Cesttgn of the law as a solicitor in January 
18U| B^d was culled to the bar as an 

Gent. Mag. Vol. XXXVL 




bouorablc degree in his character and 
station . 

At Michaelmas IBll, he waa elected 
Lord Mayor, and at the close of his year of 
office be received the thanks of the Livery. 
as al»o of his brethren the Court of Alder- 
men and the Court of Common Cooncilr 
for the efficiency, dignity, and liberalitji 
with which he went through bis office of 
chief magistrate ; and the Crown was pleased 
in Dec. 1812 to confer upon him the 
honours of the baronetage. 

On visiting the university of Oiford, 
June 23, 1819, he received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. 

Having been left a widower, he mar- 
ried secondly, in 1841, Janet, second 
daughter of the late J amen Fenton, esq« ; 
who survives to lament the severe loss 
which she has sustained by his decease* 

The baronetcy has descended to his 
graodson, now Sir Claudiuii Stephen 
Hunter, son of the late John Hunter, esq. 
by a daughter of W. N, W. Hcwett, esq. 
of York . 

At the time of his decease the worthy 
baronet was Father of the City, having in 
the year 1835 removed from the ward of 
Bassishaw to that of Bridge Without^ 
which latter honour is now sustained by 
Sir John Key, Bart, the late alderman of 
I be word of Langboiiimi in consequence of 
bis senior, Mr. Alderman Thompson, 
M.P. wishing to continue alderman of the 
ward of Cheap, 

Aroongat other public bodies with which 
Sir C. S. Uunter was connected, was the 
London Life Association » of which Society 
be became a director in the year 1822, wbeu 
the amount of its assurance was a little 
more than 2,5I>0,000/. ; and so highly 
was he appreciated by that Company, tliat 
be was elected consecutively to fill the 
offices of Trustee, Vice-President, and 
finally President, which appointment be 
held from the year 1835 up to the period 
of his decease i and, so satisfactorily baa 
the Society progressed during the time 
he was connected with it, that the amouni 
of assurances Is understood to liave in- 
creased to nearly 6,OU0,O00/., and iU 
accumnlated capital to little short of 
2,o00,0€O/. 

The deceased Baronet was tall, band- 
somCf aud dignified in his personal ap- 
pearance t and in all the relations of life^ 
both in bis profession as a solicitor as in 
Ibat of a magiitrate, and as a husband, a 
father, and a true and bumble Christian, he 
adonied bis character in the efttimation of 
the public, and a large circle of private 
acquaintances. It has been considered by 
some tliat in the earlier period of bis life 
be displayed instances of personal vanity, 
but those who knew his real worth bear 
N 



do Gm. Sir H. L. BethMe^^Om. Sir W. Moriitm. [Jiiy, 

tmry to the MHitery Board, or BoorA af 
Ordnuioe, at Ifadru. He htd abaiiy 
been dengnated by Mr. Pfetrie, wbile Mt- 
iBf-gOTcmor of that pretideiioy, as tte 
mott oompeteQt fvnon to form a oommla-. 
•ariat ettablithmeiit, then new to Indk; 
asd in the end of 1810 he waa adeobed for 
that important undertaking hj Sir Gaoifi 
Barlow, who had tveeeeded to the govern- 
inent. Hit intimate aoqMdntaace wilk 
tiie eonititwtioB and woridng of timtf 
branch of the pablie sernee, aa wall ae 
with tba military and general naonreea of 
tha conntry, enabled him to introdnoe a 
lyatam to efieient and ecoaomical in tht 
tapply of proTisionty of equipage, and of 
carriage in eamp, in barrack, and in hoe- 
pital, at to ttaad the test of experience, 
not only hi peace, but in warfare on th« 
moat eztentiTe setle, and under the most 
trying circumttancet. 

In addition to these laboriout dutiea, he 
undertook the tuperintendenoe of the geo- 
graphical and ttatistical tnrrey of the Ma- 
drat territory in the yeart 1811 and 1818, 
when Colonel Colin Mackensie, the Snr- 
▼eyor-General, had proceeded at chief en« 
gineer in the expedition againit the ithmd 
of Jaya. In this occupation, ao congenial 
to hit tatte and aoquirementa, he took 
much delight, and acquitted himaelf greatly 
to the public advantage. 

Colonel Moriton was In the field, aa 
Commiasary-Qeneral, throughout the mili- 
tary operatiooa of the Mahratta war in 
1817 and 1818, and was present at tha 
battle of Mahidpore, in which he had an 
opportunity of exercising his talents as an 
artillery officer. 

After having been laboriously employed 
for fifteen years in the formation and di* 
rection of the Madras commissariat, he 
was transferred by Sir Thomas Monro to 
the diplomatic department as resident at 
the Court of Travancore. He was suhsa« 
quently deputed by Lord William Ben- 
lanck, the Gk)Temor-Oeneral, in conioa0> 
tion with Mr. J. M. Madeod, to admintstar 
the government of Mysore. In both sta- 
tions he manifested the same capacity far 
business and devoted regard for the inter- 
ests intrusted to him as had marked hit 



their warmest testimony to his integrity 
of heart, his benevolent and exemplary 
laal for the welfare of mankind, and tiie 
strict and honourable ditoharge of hla 
vioious dutiet. The votes of condolence 
on his loss whidi have been reeeived by 
hit widow and fSsmily bear the higfaeat 
trSmte of respect fbr his oMmory. 

A very good Kkeness of Sir C. S. Hun- 
tar, painted by S. Drommond, A.R.A. 
was published in the European Magaalne 
fbr Sept. 1812. 

MAJOK-GaM. Sin H. L. BaTRCii a, Bakt. 

Feb. 19. At Teheran, in Persia, aged 
6€, Major-General Sir Henry lindesay- 
lethuae, of Kiloonquhar, oo. Fife, Bart. 
K.L.S. a General in tlie service of the 
Shah in Persia. 

He was bom on the 12th April, 1787, 
the eldest son of Mijor Martin Ecdes 
Lindesay-Bethune, Commissary-General 
fai North Britain, by Margaret-Augusta, 
daughter of General Tovey. 

He was appointed a cadet on the Madras 
eetablishment ni 1804; and retired from 
the Hon. Company's service as a Major- 
Oeneral, Sept 1, 1822. Having been ad- 
vanced to the chief command of the army 
hi Persia, he was promoted to the load 
rank of Major-General in H.M. army in 
Asia, Dec. 31, 1835. 

The Shsh conferred upon him the order 
of the Lion and Sun of the first class. 

He was created a Baronet by patent 
dated 7th March, 1836. 

Sir Henry Bethune was an extraordi- 
•arily taU man,— it it said full seven feet 
in height: end he therefore merited, in 
isore senses than one, the appellation given 
him by the Persians, of <' the great Eng- 
Hth toldier." 

He married in 1833, Couttt, daughter 
of John Trotter, esq. of Dyrhsm Park, 
Hertfordshire, and niece to Sir Contts 
Trotter, Bart. : and had issue tiiree sons 
and live daughters. His eldest son, now 
Star John Trotter LIndessy-Betfaune, was 
horn in 1827, and it a lientonaot in the 
9l8t regiment 

Maioa.G>n. Sia William Mokisom. 

May 15. In SaviUe-row, Ma^r-Gen. 
Wtt William Morison, K.C.B., M.P. for 
Clackmannan and Kinroas, P.R.S. and 
P.R.A.S. 

He was the second ton of Jones Mori- 
ton, esq. of Greenfield, eo. Clackmannan. 
He was appointed a eadet on the Madras 
astsblishment in 1799. From bis outset 
hi life he applied his fsculties to mihtary 
teienoe, in which his attainments were 
inch as to place him on a level with men 
of celebrity in the armies of Europe. So 
early aa 1809 he filled the oflUse of secre- 



previous career. 

On the change in the constitution of tlM 
Indian Government, which took place in 
18S4, he was the first military oficer se- 
lected for a seat in the Supreme Coaneil 
of IndU. He filled that high position for 
five years, embracing the remainder of 
Lord William Bentinek's administration, 
the interreptum of Sir Charles Metcalfe, 
and the first part of the administration of 
Lord Auckland ; and he enjoyed tha entire 
confidence of Uiose three eminent man. 
During Lord Auckland't protraatod ah- 



1851 •] Qbituaky. — Siy IViliia$n ^i^phemon Clark. 



•ance from the seat of goverotfieot, the 
itilL more important aod el«vijttedl officer 
of PreaidtDt of the CouucU of fodiii «ni] 
Deputy Governor of Qeogal devuived upon 
Mm* In tbem he bore lii» facultien so 
■leekiy, and at the mhus time with so much 
prudence uui judgmeDt, u to gain ^neraj 
•pprobtttioD and good will. 

He returned to Eogknd in 1840, aftor 
forty yeara of active aervice id the Eaat, 
and aoon after attained the rank of Mi^r- 
GaneraL Impaired health now reatricted 
the ezertiooa to which hie babita and the 
activity of his mind would otherwise have 
prompted him. For above nine year«, 
however, he represented hia oatife oounty 
in Parliament^ and gave a steady support 
to the Liberal party. He found amuae- 
iiient in the study of physiail scieDce ; and^ 
to the close of Uia life, took a livciy inter- 
est m certain improvements in giinnery 
and small arms of hia own invention, by 
which be beliered that the national defence 
might be materially promoted. For hi« 
military services he had in 1821 been made 
A Companion of the Bath, and on the ex- 
tension of that order the dignity of a Civil 
Knight Commander was conferred upon 
him in 1 848. 

Sir William Motiioa'a disposition was 
remarkably benevolent and sociable, his 
heart ^arm and kind, and he. haB left many 
attached friends to lament his loss. 



large 



Sin Wm. Sticphenson Clauk. 

Mwif % At York^ in bts 70th year, 
Sir William Stephenson Clurk, Kot. one 
of the magistrates of that city, 

Uii father, William Clark, esq. was one 
of the aheriffs of York in 1 786, and his 
mother was the daughter of Francis 
Stephenson, esq. 

He was bom in York, in August^ IZJ^S; 
received the ru dim eats of a classical edu- 
cation at the grammar school, under the 
late Rev, I, Grayson, and finished his 
studiea tinder the late Rev. John Graham. 
In 1798 he was pUced with the bte Aiex- 
aoder Mather, e«q. of York, surgeon, and 
in IdOS he went to Loudou to complete 
^t medical s tudies , Having resided t b ree 
ycari in the metropolis, he commenced as 
m. general practitioner in York in 180G: 
and during a period of forty -five years his 
consistent conduct and courteous demean- 
our gained the respect of his contem- 
poraries ; his unremitting attention and 
kindnesa to his patients secured their 
oonlidence and affection ; and the extent 
and respectahiUty of his practice waa a 
proof of the ability and success with which 
be discharged the duties of his profession. 
In Oct, ISU, he married Anne, the third 
daughter of the late John Audui^ eaq. of 




Selby, who survives him, vrith a 
fainilv. 

In'lkj09, Mr. Clark was elected oq« ^ 
the city chamberlaina ; and in IB 13 #' 
memhar of the common couooil for 
Mick legate ward. For seven year^ ht 
zealoujtly and indepeodently discharged 
the dutiea of that olhce ; and was elected 
to the office of city aheriff conjointly with 
the late John W^ormald, esq. in 1820, in 
the mayoralty of the bte Earl of Zetland, 
At the conclnaion of his shrievalty he be- 
came one of '^ the gentlemen of the 
twenty -four *' aa an ei-fheritf, and io 
right tbereof he was a member of the 
upper house in the corporation, until its 
diasolution under the Municipal Reform 
Aol in 1 835. An evidence of the approval 
of his conduct by Wis fellow-citiiens la 
afforded by the fact that in that year, un- 
der popular election, he wns a successful 
candidate for muoieipal honours and was 
elected a councillor tor Micklegatc ward, 
and in 183^> he waa re-elected for the same 
ward. Ue remained in that office until 
1H39, when he waa chosen an alderman of 
the city, and by a unanimous vote of the 
council he waa elevated to the civic chair. 
During his mayoralty be was sent by Che 
corporation to London to present an ad- 
dreas to the Queen on her marriage, and 
t^reiipoQ he receivesd the honour 4>f 
knighthood* 

In the various and onerous duties of 
his mayoralty Sir W. S« Clark acted with 
great energy and ability [ his hospitality 
waa mnniticent, and be left nothing un- 
done which could in any way advance the 
prosperity of the city over whose council 
he presided. At the oooctaaioa of hia 
term of office he received the unanimoua 
thanks of the corporate body. He subae- 
qitently ointinued his aldermanic olfice, 
until die decline of his health in 1849 ; 
and in 1842 he received the honour of be- 
ing placed in the commission of the peace 
for the city, and diligently sppLit'd him- 
self to the duties of his magisterial oflSce 
up to the time of his last illness. Ue 
was also a trustee of the city charities. 
On his resignation of the oOice of alder- 
man, the city council ananimoitsly passed 
a resolution of thanks for his services. 
which iras presented to him engrossed on 
veUum, under the common seal of the 
CounciL 

Sir W. 8. Clark waa very decided in 
his political opinions. He was a Con- 
servative of the old school, true to his 
party under all changes and adversities^ 
never swerving from hia maturely- for m«d 
opinions, and ever ready on the huatiAgs 
or elsewhere to uphold and defend thoae 
principle which he eateemed essential for 
tha nation's honoiVr for the defvnoa of 



92 ObituarTw— Jfa/or-Gen. PeUtMT,^^, Powtr^ Esq, [Jul|r» 

Twenty-fix Totes were given, and they 
were emully divided. A doable retarn 
wu made, and another election waa the 
ooniequence. At thii, whidi took place 
on the 11th March, one elector waa in- 
duced to alter his mind, and Lord Breck- 
nock waa chosen by 14 Totea to 18. In 
1830, howcTcr, his Lordship retired ; and 
at that election, and in laai^the last 
which took place nnder the old regime^ 
Lord John Thynne and General Palmer 
were returned without opposition . At the 
ftnt election under the operation of the 
Reform Act, Dec. 16, 1832, General Pal- 
mer was returned by a large majority, the 
poU terminating as follows :— 
Major-General Palmer . . 1493 
John A. Roebuck, esq. . . 1138 
H.W. Hobbouse, esq. . . 1040 
In 1835 he stood successfully another 
contest — 



the Protestant Church, and for the security 
of the Throne and Constittttion. The re- 
l^ious and charitable institations of the 
elty received his liberal aupport : he was 
ever found among his Yellow-cidzens in 
plans of benevolence and mercy ; he was 
one of the earliest members and sup- 
porters of the York Church Missionaiy 
Association ; and a vice-president of the 
York Auxiliary to the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. 

His remains were interred in the family 
vault at the York Cemetery, attended by 
his three sons, his brothers G. Clark, esq. 
and R. Clark, esq. his brother-in-law J. 
Andus, esq. his sons-in-law D. Smithson, 
6mi* P. Allanson, esq. and — Bailey, esq. 
and by a numerous company of friends, 
including many members of the medical 
profession and of the dty corporation. 

MAJOR'GiNBnAL Palmbr. 
April 17. Aged 74, Major-General 
Charles Palmer, late M.P. for Bath. 

He waa the second son of John Palmer, 
esq. formerly one of the members for the 
same city, who originated the mail-coach 
system, for his services in respect to which 
he received a public grant of 50,000/. and 
a pension of 3000/. per annum for life. 
The subject of this notice was bom at 
Weston, near Bath, May 6, 1777. He 
received his education at Eton, and at 
Christ Church, Oxford. On the 17th 
of May, 1796, having then just completed 
his 19th year, he entered the army as a 
Comet in the 10th or Prince of Wales's 
Own Hussars. He served with that regi- 
ment during the whole of the Peninsular 
war, and attained the rank of Lieut.- 
Cokmel in 1810. On the 8th of Feb. 
1811, he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to 
the Prince Regent. He became Lieut. - 
Colonel of the 23rd dragoons Nov. 12, 
1814 ; Colonel by brevet June 4, 1814 ; 
and a Migor-General May 27, 1825; which 
rank was stationary. 

General Pakner was first elected member 
for Bath, on the Liberal interest, on the 
resignation of his father in Jan. 1 808. He 
continued to represent the city without a 
contest unta the 9th of June, 1826, when 
he was opposed by Lord Brecknock, son 
of the Marquess Camden, Recorder of the 
city, and he lost his election . The electors 
were then limited to the corporation, and 
only thirty voted : seventeen votes were 
recorded for Lord John Thynoe, sixteen 
for the Earl of Brecknock, and twelve for 
General Pahner. In Feb. 1828, Lord 
Braoknock was appointed a Lord Com- 
ulsBioner of the Admiralty and re-elected ; 
but in Feb. 1829, on his lordship receiv- 
ing a second appointment to the same 
post, Major-General Palmer opposed him. 



Major-General Palmer . . 1097 
John A. Roebuck, esq. . . 1042 
Colonel H. Daubeney ... 706 
At the election of 1837, General Pal- 
mer and Mr. Roebuck were defeated by 
the Conaervadve candidates, the late Lord 
Viscount Powerscourt, and W. H. L. 
Bruges, esq. On this occasion many of 
General Palmer's former friends declined 
to vote for him, in consequence of his having 
entered into an avowed coalition with Mr. 
Roebuck. The result of the poll was 
Lord Powerscourt .... 1087 
W. H. L. Brakes, esq. . . 1024 
Major-Gen. Palmer . . . 962 
John A. Roebuck, esq. . . 910 
General Palmer became proprietor of 
the Bath Theatre on the death of his 
father, and continued to be so up to a 
comparatively recent period. He was also, 
for some time, a grower of claret on es- 
tates which he held in the neighbourhood 
of Bordeaux. 

John Power, Esq. 

May 1 1 . Aged 35, John Power, esq. of 
Gurteen, co. Watcrford, a justice of the 
peace for that county. 

He was the son and heir of Edmund 
Power, esq. of Gorteen, by Anastasia, 
daughter of John Lalor, esq. of Cranagh, 
CO. Tipperary. His mother became, in 
1830, the second wife of the Right Hon. 
Richard Lalor Sheil (the subject of a pre- 
vious memoir in our present Obituary), 
and is still living. 

Mr. Power was elected to Parliament for 
Dungarvon, on a vacancy which occurred 
in Feb. 1837, defeating Mr. John Mat- 
thew Galway by 283 to 1 64. At the gene- 
ral election in the same year he was re- 
turned without opposition as one irf the 



185 1*3 Michael Bland^ Esq.^H^ B* Sawhidget Esq* 



I 



metubers for tbe comity of Woterford. 
He refipDed his Beat io August 1840. 

Mr. Power died by Kis o*q haad. On 
retiring to bia bed-room , be took a duelling 
pistol, and placing the muzzle to his head, 
fired, and instant death was the result, 
Ue ^-111 of too confiding a nature, and 
much of the immense fu titled and landed 
property of which be bcc4ime ihejioflieasor 
when he nrrived at age ia now in some 
degrve embarrassed ; btu he has left a 
fioe property of 9^000/. a year, of which 
3,000/. a year ia out of settlement, and 
which will pay his eDgafemeots. It is 
aacertaiaed that the eatue of suicide waa 
the receipt of a aolidtor^s letter a nQoaociug 
prompt proceedings agminat him as security 
for lOjOOO/. for a receiver, whoie debts, 
Iioweter, did not exceed 2^000/. Mr. 
Power had insured his life for 5,000A, 
which be assigned for a Yoluable conside- 
ration some years ago to a bank, and which 
will be i>aid by the Royal Exchange In- 
mranee Co nip any within three months. 
His widow has l^OOOf. a year marriage 
tettlement. 

Mr. Power was nniversally esteemed ^& 
an excelleut landlord, atid an ainisble 
man. He married in April lfcl40 Francefi, 
younger daughter of the late Sir John 
Power, Bart, of Kilfaoe, co, Tipperary ; 
who aurmes him» with acTeii childreu* 



the brewery under the firm of Whitbread 
atid Co. \ and resided m Montague-place^ 
Raai^ell square. He was a fellow towns- 
man and intimate friend of the re^^peeted 
Thomas Amyot, enq, the latt: Trcasorer of 
the Society of AntiquarieA ; and Mr. Bland 
wati at ouc time Treasurer of the Anti- 
quariea" Club; and also an active member 
of the Committee of the Literary Fund, * 

A few years since Mr, Bland had rft* 
tired from LontJim to St, Leonard'Sj near 
Hastings ^ but in consequcDce of the loss 
of his lady he removed to the metropolis. 

Mr. Bland married, July 15, 1800, 
Sophia^ youngest dau. of George Maltby, 
esq. of Norwichf and sister of die learned 
Bishop of Durhaiii. By that lady he had 
eight chiidreti. He bad the misfortutie to 
lose hia eldest aon Thorn sj^ in 182^, in hJN 
23d ywir. His second son, the Rev. 
George Bland, M.A, is the present Arch- 
deacon of Liudisfarne^ in the diocese of 
Durham. 



Michael Bland, Esct. RE.S. F.S.A. 

Ajtrii 19. In Cambridge Terrace, Uyde 
Park, aged 74^ Michael Bland, esq. a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, of the Society 
of Antiquaries, aud of the Linoa^an, 
Horticultural, and Geological Societies. 

This formerly well-know n member of 
the scientific circles of the metropolis was 
the only child of Mr. Thomas Bland, of 
Norwich, a member of the Society of 
^ends, and a partner in the well-known 
foercantile eatablishroent under the firm 
of Gumeyg and Bland. He was a very 
frequent corrwpondcnt of the Gentleman's 
Magazine under the sdgnature of '* A 
PWend to Accuracy." Of this gentle- 
man^ who died Aug. '2», 1818, a memoir^ 
will be found in our volume for that year, 
part ii. p. 2H J. He married Sarah ^ widow 
of Mr. Samuel Guroey, and daughter of 
Mr,. Fraocia Lawrence, of the same city, 
woolcomber. She died in 1800. 

Mr, Michael Bland was for many years 
one of the partners in the manage m^ot of 

♦ See also the " CoUections for a His- 
tory of the Ancient Family of Bland," by 
the late Nichobs Carlisle, esq. Secretary 
of the Society of Antiquaries, 4to. 1825» 
p. 18* This work was pri%ately printed 
at the expense of the gentleman now 



HE.^Rif Barnk Sawbridgk, Esa. 

April 2«. At East Hoddon ball, North- 
amptonahiret aged 72, Henry Earne Saw- 
bridge, esq. LL.B. barrister -at -law, a ma- 
gistrate and deputy lieutenant of that 
comity* 

He was bora at Sotterley in Sufifolk, on 
the 0th Sept. 17 7 «$« the only sod of Wtl- 
bam Sawbridge, esq, of East Haddon, by 
Mary, eldest daughter of Miles Barne, 
esq, of Sotterley, M*P. for Dunwich. 

He was educated at Westminster, and 
at Trinity hall, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of LL.B. in 1801, He was 
called to tlie bar by the hon. Society of the 
Inner Temple, Juae 25, 1803, and went 
I he Midland circuit. He was for many 
years Recorder of DaTentrj', having been 
elected to that office on the tth of July, 
1 %m, and resigned it on the 13th Jan. 1821. 
He took au active part in the bnsioeis of 
the county, and occupied for some year* 
the office of vice-chairman of the quarter 
seaaiona, which he resigned from failing 
liealth at the beginning of the present year. 

He married, June 20, 1836, Grace- Juhst 
widow of Thomas Christopher Glyn, esq. 
(third ^n of Sir Richard Carr Glyn, 
Baft,) and the youngest daughter of 
Thomaa Charles Bigge, esq. of Benton 
House, Northumberland, 



W, J. BAoauAWK, Esct. 

/HM I . At his residence, The Oakt, near 
Sheffield, aged 58, William John Bag- 
shawe, esq. of that place and Wormhill 
Hall, both in CO. Derby, M.A. a barriiier- 
at'law^ a deputy- lieu tenant and ntagiiiTrate 
for Derbyshire, and a oiiigistrate for the 
West Riding of Vorkibire. 

He wat the eldest son of Wiltiam Chain- 




W. J. Bag$ham$, Ssq^Mrs. P^rc^ Byuke ShHUy. [July, 



btn Daiimg, M.D. who tssumed the name 
ofBagtkawe in 1801, and was knighted 
when sheriff of Derbyshire in 1805, by 
Asien, second daughter of Nathaniel Rid- 

Kd, esq. of Gainsborough. Sir Wiitiam 
ambers Bsgshawe died in 1832. 

Mr. Bagshawe was a member of Trinity 
ooUcge, Cambridge ; where he gradoated 
B.A. 1815, M.A. 1818. He was caUed 
to the bar by the Hon. Society of the 
Middle Temple, Feb. 8, 183S. He has 
for maoy yean past been one of the moat 
•otive magistrates of his district, and has 
•Iso filled the oflSoe of chairman to the 
JBoclesall board of guardians ever since it 
was constituted. To him belongs the ho- 
nour of having been the founder, patron, 
and a liberal supporter of the Norton 
Agricultural Society. The untiring energy 
with which he has doTOted himself to the 
work of the public has entirely won the 
esteem of the neighbourhood, and will be 
long remembered as doing him honour. 

He married, Oct. 13, 1822, Sarah, third 
daughter of William Partridge, esq. of 
Bishop's Wood, co. Hereford ; and had 
issue three sons and four daughters. 

His body was interred in Norton church, 
attended by several of his brother magis- 
trates. 



Mas. Pbrct Bt88Bb Ssblley. 

Fib. 1. At her residence, S4, Chester- 
tqnace, London, aged 53, Mary Wollstone- 
craft, widow of Percy Bysshe Shelley, esq. 
■ad mother of Sir Percy Shelley, Bart, of 
Maresfield Place, Sussex. 

Mrs. Shdley was the daughter of Wil- 
liam Godwin the historian and Mary 
Wollstonecraft, the author of A Vindication 
of the Rights of Woman. 

She became the second wife* of the poet 
^elley in 1818, shortly after which they 
went to reside at Great Marlow, in Buck- 
inghamshire. They subsequently left Eng- 
land for Italy, where in July, 1832, the 
poet, while crossing the Gulf of Lorici, 
with his friend Edward EUeker Williams. 
in a little pleasure boat, was overtaken by 
one of those tremendous squalls common 
in the Mediterranean, and both were 
drowned. 

'* If it be agreed that the life of the 
author of The Revolt of Islam cannot 
as yet be fully written, it follows that the 
same reserve should be maintained with 
regard to the early days of her to whom 
the exquisite dedication of that poem is 



* Shelley's first wife was Harriet West- 
broke, the daughter of a retired coffee- 
house-keeper. With this lady he lived 
Tery unha)>pi]y, and, after bearing him two 
ehildren, she died by her own hand in 
M17. 



addresied. Those who know, as «U mvtt 
who read them, that these baantafol 
itanxas were the utteranoes of a ml af- 
fection and the confidences oi a real €om- 
panionship, will readily understand to 
what heights the genius of a young and 
gifted wonum could be winged and nerved 
by the persuasions of such a spirit as 
Shelley's, and under the influences of fo- 
reign travel. Her first work — writtao 
during her residence abroad, and the only 
one, we believe, referable to the period 
of her married life — was Frankeniteia ; 
which scared and startled the world by iti 
preternatural power, promising further io- 
apirations of a wild originality unknown 
in English fiction. Measured against that 
romance, the most breathless terrors of 
Mrs. Radciiffe, or of the more coarsely 
horrible Maturin, are tame and real. That 
Mrs. Shelley would never equal her first 
effort in poetical fiction, might have been 
foreseen at the moment of the tragedy of 
her husband's frightful death — one of 
Chose visitations the traces of which att 
never to be effaced, and which bereaved 
the survivor of guidance, companionship, 
and incitement to emulation for ever, 

'* In spite of such a death-blow, never- 
theless, the widow of Shelley, being left 
with the care of her two very young ohfl- 
dren, during many years devoted henelf 
to literary labour; producing, at inter- 
vals, Yalperga, The Last Man, Lodore, 
and another novel or two — biographies 
of foreign artists and men of letters (for 
the Cabinet Cyclopedia) — editing and ar- 
ranging the poems and posthumous frag- 
ments of her husband— «nd lastly, giving 
to the world her Italian and German 
Journals (Rambles in Germany and Italy 
in 1840, 1842, and 1843, two vols. 8vo. 
1844). of which the Italian part is as 
charming as the German portion is unsa- 
tisfactory. All Mrs. Shelley *s writings 
have a singular elegance of tone — but ^ 
of them a pervading melancholy. Her 
tales of the world we live in are unreal in 
the excess of their sadness ; while in her 
more romantic creations (such as The 
Last Man), with all their beauty, there 
is blended a certain languor which becomes 
oppressive. Hence, moet of her works of 
imagination are unfairly neglected, the 
last- mentioned romance especially. Whe- 
ther, however, such neglect shall be re- 
versed on a future day or not, her ' Frank- 
enstein will always keep for her a peculiar 
place among the gifted women of England." 
— Athenaum. 

Several original letters of Mrs. Shelley 
and her husband have been recently sold 
by auction (in May) at Messrs. Sothebf 
and Wilkinson's. 

Mrs. SheUey's elder son, WilliaBS, dM 



I 



in childhood ; the snrriTor is the pre- 
ient Sir Percy Florence Shelleyj Btrt. who 
tueoe«dc4 his grandfather, Sir Timothy 
SheUej, Jn that title in 1844. 



I 



1R51.] Rev. W. AT Kimfiff. Bjy.—CapU Charles Gray, R,M. 95 

timlj confined to htt bed hjr a disease in 
the foot and leg. No man could have been 
more patient and at the aaine time morfl 
conrageouip tot bis cheerfQlnes* aod good 
•pirita nerer forsook him, although bit 
^ufferinga were inteoAe; and in the end he 
submitted to amputation, which at first it 
WAS hoped would retiefehim \ but he sank 
At the end of a few weeks. He ia aao> 
ceeded in his rectory by the Rev. J a met 
Smith, B.D. for many years a geoior fel* 
tow and the faarsar of Trinity College^ 

In Jan, 1848 Mr, Kinaey communicated 
to this magasioe an interesting paper con* 
taioing ** Eandum RecolkettooB of a Viait 
to Walton Hall, the seat of Charles Water* 
ton^ esq." and he was the author of more 
than one patuphtet on auhjectis of the day. 



Rirv% W. M. KiNsmy, B.D. 
April t. Aged 62, the Rev. William 
Morgan Kiosey, B.D., Rector of Rother- 
field Grey's, Oxfordshire. 

Mr. Kinsey was the eon of Robert Mor> 
gftn Kinneyf eaiq. a solicitor and banker at 
Abergavenny^ where Mr, Kiosey was born; 
his mother was sister of the late Sir James 
Harington, Bart, In l^Ofi he entered the 
University of Oxford, and wa* shortly 
after chosen a scholar of Trinity College^ 
of which Society he became a fellow in 
1815. He gradnated B.A. 1809, M.A. 
1613, and served the ofiice of proctor in 
tS21 ; after which, in 18*^2, he proceeded 
to the degree of Bachelor in Divinity. 

In 1827 Mr. Kinsey made a tour in 
PortngaL The letters which he addressed 
to his friend Mr. Thomasi Haynes Bayly 
during this period, he afterwarda amplified 
from his jonmal and from the works of 
prerioas authors on that country: until at 
length they formed a very comprehensive 
revriew of its past history and actual state, 
Tbia work was publiithed in 182d, under 
the title of Portugal liloKtrated, and was 
highly embellisfaed with engravings by 
Skelton« Cooke, dec* in royal octavo. A 
second edition, somewhat enlarged, ap- 
peared in IBiB* This was dedicated to 
Lord Aockland, to whom Mr. Kinaey was 
then chaplain. There ia n notice of this 
work in our Maj^zine for May, 1829. 

In 1810 Mr. Kinsey was travelling in 
Belgiuai with Lord Alfcrd the son of Earl 
BrOwulow, and hap^iened to be in Brussels 
during the reTolntxon. Some description 
which he gave of the '* atrocities of the 
Dutch troops" upon that occiuion was 
interpreted against him as if he had taken 
an active part in the insurrection, and he 
defended himself in a letter addressed to 
the Hon, Arthur Trevor, M.P, dated Lon- 
don Oct. 20» which was printed in the 
Times newspaper. 

Mr. Kinsey was ffnbseqnently for ten 
years one of the ministers of St. John^s 
ehurch, Cheltenham t where he was highly 
Mteemedr and on quitting that cure in 
Jan. 181 '2 wsa presented with a piece of 
plate by the congregation. He published 
** The Jubilee of the Bible j or Third Cen- 
tVDsry of Coverdale'i Translation of the 
i^ole Bible into English: a Sermon 
preached in St. John's chureh, Chelten- 
ham, 4 Oct. 1823." 

Iq 1&43 be succeeded the Inte Mr. 
Roberts in the rectory of Rotherfield 
Grey's, where he chiefly resided to the 
toe of hii death, having been bitterly en- 



Capt . CHAfti.Es GftAr, R^M. 

April 13. At Glasgow, in bis 69th year, 
Capt. Charles Gray, R,M. 

This gentleman was well known In 
Edinburgh and throughout many parta of 
Scotland for his extended knowledge of 
Sootbh song, his enthusiasm for every- 
thing connected with it, and his tasteful, 
genial, §pirited contribations to it. 

He was born in Anstmtber, the birth* 
place of several celebrated men, with two 
of whom — the Rev. Dr. Chalmers and 
Professor Ten nent, the welUknown author 
of " Anster Fair''— he was long on terms 
of intimacy. The latter was one of hii 
most intimate and dearest friends, sym- 
pathising with him in bis love for the 
music of the Scotish lyre, and corre- 
sponding with him in terms of the wanAeat 
(rieodship. In early life Cnptsiu Gray 
entered the marine serrice, and after con- 
tinning in it for between thirty and forty 
years, retired on full pay to enjoy a life of 
leisure, rendered pleasant to himself and 
profitable to others by literary parsuitf, 
in the particular walk to which bis tastes 
led him. Many years ago he published 
a volume of Scotish songs, and more re- 
cently another, in which the best produc- 
tions of bis pen were included t As a song 
writer, he will be remembered for not a 
few simple and genial lays, some of which 
have been published in *• Wood's Book a( 
Scotisb Song," a work to which he con- 
tributed much useful informntioa, from 
his extensive knowledge of songs and song 
writers. His taste in this particular na- 
turally led him to entertain an enthasiai- 
tic admiration for the works of Burns, 
with whose authentic history he was more 
familiar, through a friendly intercourse 
with his family, than some of the poct'i 
biographers. The genius of Bums waa 
to him a never -failing topic of iotereit ; 
and to add some tribute to his memory 
waa among his heartiest eadeavoors* A 



96 



Obituary,— 3fr. Dowton* 



[Jidy, 



few years ago Ue cODtributed to a Glasgow 
newsp'aper a series of Tigoroos and taste- 
ft\l papers on tbe songs of Bums, and a 
^ticfu examination of tbe tarions biogra- 
idiies of the poet occapied him during the 
lUness wUch terminated in his death. 
While his tastes and acquirements led 
faim into the society of some of his best- 
known contemporaries, his amiable and 
upright character, and his great warmth 
of l^art, endeared him to all with whom 
he came in contact. His counsel and as- 
•istanoe were ever readily tendered to 
those who craved them, and his friendship 
was at once open-hearted and 0}^tn- 
htmded.— Glasgow Daily Mail. 

Mr. Dowton. 

April 19. At Brighton-terrace, Brix- 
ton, in his 88th year, the veteran come- 
dian William Dowton. 

Mr. Dowton was the son of a respect- 
able innkeeper at Exeter, where he was 
bom on the 25th April, 1764. He was 
sent at an early age to one of the best 
schools in the neighbourhood, and at the 
age of sixteen was articled to an architect. 
During his apprenticeship he occasionally 
performed at a private theatre in Exeter. 
The applause which his juvenile efforts 
obtained increased his j>redilections for the 
stage, while the duties of his master's 
office became proportionably irksome to 
him. Before he had completed one year 
of his apprenticeship his resolution was 
tiken, and, bidding adieu to plans and de- 
viations, he joined a company of strollers 
at Ashburton, where he made his debut in 
the character of Carlos, in Tbe Revenge. 
• In this situation he continued a consi- 
derable time, suffering the usual priva- 
tions attendant on a stroller's life. Being 
however nearly starved, reason suggested 
to him the propriety of seeking the pa- 
ternal roof, where he was affectionately 
received. The mania for acting, how- 
ever, speedily resumed its influence. After 
much experience with misfortune young 
Dowton was engaged with Hughes, the 
manager of the Weymouth theatre. From 
tliia place he returned to his native town, 
where he performed juvenile parts in tra- 
gedy ; he afterwards joined Mrs. Baker's 
company in Kent, and married her daugh- 
ter, by whom he had a family. One of 
his sons was for many years manager of 
that theatre. 

When his increasing reputation reached 
the ears of tbe London manager?, he re- 
ceived offers from Mr. Colman and Mr. 
Harris to join their respective corps, and 
either of these offers would have been ac- 
cepted by him but for his ambition to 
make his first appearance at Drury Lane. 
Having heard that EUiston had drawn 
12 



great houses by his performance of the 
character of Sheva in Comberiand's co- 
medy of The Jew, he wrote to Wroqgih- 
ton, at that time acting manager at Druir, 
expressing a wish to perform that part m 
London. His request was backed oy the 
recommendation of Cumberland. An en- 
gagement was entered into, and he made 
his metropolitan debut in the character ot 
Sheva in the season of 1794, with much 
success. No man on the stage was more 
versatile at this period of his career than 
Dowton; he was the able successor to 
King in many of his principal parts, which 
he long retained. His personation of Sir 
Hugh Evans, in The Merry Wives of 
Windsor, was superlatively great; no actor 
ever succeeded like him in giving it that pe- 
culiar spirit and richness of colouring un^t 
rendered it so delightfully whimsical. As 
a contrast to this character we find him as 
a representative of Hardcastle, in Gold- 
8mi&*8 comedy of She Stoops to Con- 
quer, and of Clod, in The Young Quaker, 
a favourite part of Edwin's. Dowton 
was at one time considered the best repre- 
sentative of the fantastic Malvolio that 
the stage possessed ; Rupert, in the Jea- 
lous Wife ; Sir Anthony Absolute, in The 
Rivals ; Major Sturgeon, in The Mayor of 
Garrett ; and Governor Heartall, in The 
Soldier's Daughter, were also characters 
in which he shone. His Dr. Cantwdh, 
in The Hypocrite, was universally ac« 
knowledged to be inimitable. He con- 
tinued at Drury Lane for many years, 
playing at the Hay market in the summer. 
At one of his benefits at the latter house, 
(on the 15th Aug. 1805,) he revived tiie 
burlesque of The Tailors, at whidi tiie 
fraternity took umbrage, and created a 
memorable riot in the house during the 
performance. In 1816 he played Shylock 
at Drury Lane ; but, although his con* 
ception of the character was admirable, 
tbe town, long used to his comic persona- 
tions, did not greet him very cordially 
in it. 

Dowton visited America, but at too late 
a period of his life to make any very 
strong impresion upon Brother Jonathan. 
His acting, indeed, was seldom liked at 
first. It required an acquaintance with 
his peculiarities before the raciness of hii 
humour could be relished ; for this cause 
it had become a sort of dramatic adage 
that Dowton never drew a shilling in the 
provinces. On one occasion he actually 
played Doctor Pangloss, at Faversham, to 
a single auditor ; at another time he 
began John Bull at the third act, nobody 
having come till eight o'clock. On a 
third be acted Shylock, in Rochester, to 
a seven -shilling house. 

Dowton had unwisely neglected the ad- 



1651.] 



CUrg^ Deceased. 



97 



I 



I 
I 



nutam olfered bj tbe Tbt^tritid Fund 
natn be was too old to become a member, 
and ID bis *' lere &qJ yellon- leaf*' be 
began to l«ck tbe means to smootb bis 
progresa down tbe vale of life. It was 
ffh«n his prospects were gradually becom- 
ing darker tliat a benevolent project n'a« 
■et 00 foot to give bim a bouefit at Her 
Majesty'is Tbeatret on the 8tb of June, 
1840, His professional brethren and »ia- 
cera tent their gratuitous as^iatauce on tbe 
oeeasion. and Colman'a comedy of Tbe 
Poor Oentleoian was pUytd with ao ejc- 
ccllcot cuAt. At the conclusion of tbe 
play nu address waa upoken, written by 
Sheridan Knowles. Tbe subscriptions 
and doDaiious realised a coutiidenible sum, 
with which an annuity was purchotied, 
that senred to render easy and eomfortiible 
tbe declining duys of one ot X\w. most na- 
tural actors that Eciglarid ever possessed « 
He was peculinrly fortunate* too, in the 
poiaession of good health, which, uotwitb- 
fttaading hl5 advanced age, he enjoyed 
with little iatemipti^n until frilbin a few 
days of hii^ decease. 



CLERGY DECEASED, 

Skt. 21. Agtd 14, the Rev. Bdw^d 
Reni Fepte, Rector of Hep worth (1819), 
Safolk, He was formerly Fellow of 
KlDg's Cfillege, Cambridt^e, B.A. 1802, 
M.A. l%^*yt and was presented to Hep- 
worth by that society in 1(^19- 

Pec. ,.. At Morpeth, New South 
Wales, whither he had gone to aid tbe 
Bishop of Newcastle, the Rev. H«nry 
Swan, fourth son of Thomas Swan, est}, 
of Morpeth, Xorthnmberianil. He was of 
St. John's college, Cambridge, B.A. 1845. 

Aftfy ". At Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 
36» the Rev. JqAh Hmry ScQti, British 
Chaplain at that place. 

Jiay ]2, Aged 6L the ^loji« and Rev. 
JohnEpHyn lioicawenj Rector of Wottim, 
Surrey, and Vicar of Tice burst, Snsaex, 
and a Prebeudary of Canterbury j uncle 
and heir pre*uuiptive to tJie Karl of 
Falmouth, He was the younger son of 
George-Evelyn the third Viscount, by Eli- 
labeth-Aune, only daughter aud beir of 
John Crewe, eaq. of Boleaworth Castle, eg. 
Cheiter. He was first of Christ church, 
Oxford, B.A. 1811, and afterwards of All 
S^tula, M.A. l^\%. He was presented to 
Wotton in 1818 by W, J. Evelyn, esq. aud to 
Ticehurst in 1833 by tbe Dean aud Chapter 
of Canterbury. He married in 1814 
Catharine- Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
the late Arthur Annesky, esq. and si»ter 
to Viscount Valcntia i and bad issue three 
aona sod seven daughters. Hit eldest son. 
Evelyn Boscawen, eaq. married in 1845 
tbe present Baroness le Deapeoeer, and 

GaKT, Mao. Vol. XXXVI. 



has isaiue. The second son is the Rev, 
John Townshend Boscswen, Rector of 
Lamorran, Cornwall. Tbe eldest dsu^bter, 
Charlotte, is the wife of the Rev. George 
Brydges Mttore, Rector of Tunstail in 
Kent ; Frances, tbe second, was married 
in 1850 to Arthur Edward Somerset, esq. 
second son of tbe late Lord Arthur Somer- 
set ; and Catbarine« the third, is married 
to the Rev. Lewis Francis Bagot, Rector 
of Leigh, CO. Stafford, fourtb son of tbe 
Bishop of Buth and Wells. 

At the rectory. East Mersea, Essex, 
Aged 82, the Rev, NQihaniet Fonier^ Vicar 
of "VVesr Mersea (17^7). He had also 
been Curate of East Mersea for nearly 
half a century, when the parishioners 
presented to bim a silver sniifl^^boi in 
1«36. He was of Worcester college, Ox- 
ford, B.A. 1791. 

May 11. At Elgtiit aged 85, the Rev, 
John Buchan. 

Matf 16. Tbe Rev. W, P. Blair, B.A, 
of School Cottage, Bradshaw, near Bolton. 

Ifajf 17. Aged 77, the Rev. John 
Palmet't Rector of Peldoo, Essex. He 
was of Trinity colicge. Cambridge, B.A* 
1795, M.A, 1798, and was presented to bis 
lining in 1817 by Earl Waldegrave. 

In his 77th ycar» the Rev. Chrhtopher 
SiaHHMrd, B.D. Rector of Great Snoring^ 
with Thursford, Norfolk. He was cdu- 
i*atcd at the gram mar-school of Norwich 
under Dr. Forster, and was one of the 
most favoured pupils of that dbtingnisbed 
•scholar. Having proceeded to St, John's 
caltege, Cambridge, he took his B.A. 
degree in 1799 as titb Senior Optime, and 
by bis soiH^rior classical attunments he 
had raised well-grounded expectations of 
besring off one of the Chjincetlor's gold 
medals, but was prevented passing the 
necessary examinations by a rupture of a 
bicjod-vessel on the lungs, which Uid the 
foundation of a very delicate state of 
health through his long life. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. in IH0^2, B.D. 1809; was 
elected Fellow of bis college, and was 
presented by that society to his living in 
183K He married in tbe same year Miss 
xMaria Ballard, of Norwich. 

Majf 2D. At Bradenbam rectory, Bucka, 
tbe Rev, John Irpine, M.A. formerly for 
eleven years British Chaplain at Genoa. 
He was of Magdalen baM, Oxford, B A. 
1835, M.A, 1836. 

Mag 21. At the house of Wm. Dalton, 
esq. Bury St. Edmund's, In his 44tb year, 
the Rev. John Frerv, Rector of Cotten- 
bam, Camb. and Cbaplaia to the Lord 
Bishop of London. He was the eldest son 
of George Frere, esq, of Twyford House, 
Herts, (younger brother to the late Righ 
Hon. John Bookbam Frere,) by Ebxa' 
beth-Rapcr, only dsu, of William Grant* 
O 



14^^ 



0»]TUitBT. 



i^^h 



M.D. of RothieiiJarebii*» ^* luwnntm, 
tad gr€tt*graiidii«gbter of W!lU»m H«1«, 
M.D. erf Twyford Houie. He w«« of 
tVtnUy enllcgf, Cambridge* B.A. 1830. 
M.A. 1833; and frus cylUtcd to Cot- 
teDbAco in 1839 by the Bitbop of Ely. 
He mtrrieil Auff, 1, 1939, Jafie*Browii, 
fccond dfto* of the Ref * CbarW Dtlton, 
Vicar of Kehedao. Bmcx. 

At Waterford, the Ret. Ri^^hard Jon^ 
Hnhson, M.A. Vie»r-geiieral of Watetford 
and Lismori*, Treainrcr in the cathedral 
erf Waterford, and Prebendary of 8e«kenan, 
In the cathedral of Li*more ; and inspector 
of the gaob of the county and citr of 
Witerford. 

In Dublin, the Ret. Hmt9 Ptni Holmu. 
of Corbeg. Reotor of Gallen^ Kinf's 
County. 

May m. At Doncaiter, aged 48, ibe 
Re?, Rofferi Offie Wfdfe^ Vicar of Bfrnith- 
well (1842). He was of Cl«« hilJ, Cam- 
~ ridge, B.A. lB3S. 

Map 24. At Derby, aged 76, tha Rer. 
JW/ton Bankt, B.A. Ute Hc<id Maater of 
Botterwlck Grammar School, Llncolnabiri. 
He was the author of maay astro no midl 
Mpers printed in the Derbfaliii^ Courier. 
* ! was of Qaeea^'s college, Oiford* B*A. 



▲I F«niiin AH SMota. SaAvUu ia Itk iHlL 
nwr. Mr. Jotm Hoteit Srowne, R.K Rtt.W 
fn the engageftktfnt at l^avtrtno, and ttcM^mm 
honorary (liilinctloo ftf hi* »cm<*» fttm B% 

Jan. ac. on tMir pastafft frqsn India^Chai' 
U«Uc Maryano, wife of the Rfi, It- B. Bamef, 
Awlsf Chajili^HEJ.C. 

Jtm^M. At N«««airU»-apon-TNrtie, J. B.OU- 
Ufidcr, ti«|. of Craigfortli and AritklqglaR. 

/V^. a. At Bueao* Attc*, after a rarideuoa at 
m6rc than 30 jean, ilanies Lepper, esq. fbmkeily 
of StralNina. eo. TVtoii©, n^rm mt}g$tm R.K. 

FH. 7 At Caicittt. - .-" walford WalftM, 
ouIt ittrvinnc mv ■ ^.rd, U-X of La- 

vinRton Cottage, nt.^ 

/^. ir In ArtiiK^i. ^M Huihury, tgad 40. 
Ificnkaa Pry«« aaq. MOcitor. P >L af th« R^ 
Oak Ladgtt of Fiaamason** and Smr««ii^ '^'^ 
Iliq»ctof-«anend of ' '" " ' 

33d degree , 



DEATHS, 

4UUJ<rOED IK OOllOfiOlAlOIOaL ORDOL 

P^. M. In Z«aiir Z«alao4« airatl a«,A«aea« wifc 
f Bolwrt Barlon Oaniioor, em^. lata af Tuateidj^e, 
bd atxth daa, of the latoThomaA Courthope, eaq 
fCimberwell. 
Wtm. .. Al Kaiidy, Osflao. aged »« aamval 
S^. Ift4a, of &tUief SuMei eoll^rf . 
, oideit toD of John Uitter, esq. of £lm- 
, Brunlert near Le«d». 
.4. In Hew SmiUi Wal«>. Richard F. 
, aaq. Iteoahrar af C3«jPtoiDa at Barabar, only 
tTTU^Q^ iioo of B. T. fiarra, aaqi. of Cbeitaiibaiii , 
' ' lie of Henford. 

. SO. On boafd the Mateaman, an hit re- 

dn Cailna, Gapt. Mkbohto F«awkik« td tile 

J Rtfle Itagtmant, Mwt U, ion of Uw IleT. 

Bvkli, of Brooke, L W. 

t. 16. At BnuMli, hij EaeeUency Philip 

I von Ntavmaim, EnTOry ■striordinary and 

ilir planipdtentlacy ait tliat ^an froui Ukt 

or of AoBtria. Ha (bmoerly filled thi< aama 

t in Great Britain. aflenrardA at Florenee^ 

I accreditfd to Brtuaeltt Jan, 19, liM. Ma 

Dae. ft, 1«44, Ladf Gl»rl«lia Al«QMa 

» 80in«net, eldest daujcluar of the pea- 

B of Baanfort ; who died Httle more than 

r toontlui belbre him < and he has left a lanm 

«• mt ChiiaL Wb. Oadrtngton, Bart. U^. 

» hnahand af th« late Darsaaif^ oast and only 

aaliiitv. 

L9T. At CMcbaster, aged 7ft, Ettgalleth, 
taf <lM Bar, <lolin IMtiaa, f^rnncrly Nacteref 
nea'k In llwc town. 
_ ^ V 39. Of tetanaa, la eoaaaquoaea a/ au ac^ 
adadt from hu ffon Ote wtak (Mftue, RJehard 
Alttflairarth SCreitftlld, aM|. af llta BaeU, Wk* 
fm4t a oaglaiFaca As Saaata. Ha waiabartfrof 

ii44i-6a Ba nwiad In li»W 

^ das. of JaitiM Broira, eaq. of 

,^ 6rat«. T<irki«hlre, and hat lefl her 1kti> 
t,^#llblhrte«feU4faii 



/Vft/lS, At •A'v 
Oap4. JaitUBf T' ' 
ComniliAarj - _ 

F4t^ '- • 
Walk' 
Paarv* 

nor, esq. H. f 
Jtar<A7. 



Lieiit..Oo1. 

>t. H. a; 



svta. Con- 
:ice. 



iMtfta. 
eooHJ 



M 



AMiatast- 
'.iiOantof 
^ lata Dr, 



dnraaoD 
airSiarlesN 
Andtr 
jVm. L-, of Daa- 

ktruu. ■ uf Great 

Ma' ai, wtte of 

Colt" i^iibaddli. 

of the UlC 1.T1 lit t-irr.u«-^, . v^ ^r, ni.kr«sii«atll«aP^ 

iira« matrtcd in UO^. 
JUt rfFp«n>imirf>>Ti , n»»f*twi, ^\^^ Huthof of minis* 

A izTvA. ' '.<n It ivii* |,iu[.>nijifij, fiarCksft- 

larif ( 

ira» i(1f>«Tw» - "WT - M«r. J. fL ||, 

Olfilvi. MulraA CIvU S«r- 

Tk-c, 1. •.;t. 

At N 'jpaldo (llmiul 

Prlnt.'e uT Miemo^ me aitik n uiicla. Ila iHMilWl, 
in 1(*16, Mana^Cianienttna'Praftaltca^Oi^ina. 
An-hdochrw fif AtuCrla, dan. of Fsranola I. aodkaa 
left a <taa, bom in l«3t. 

J/ar«ft Ih At Canuatati, naar Statttvd« labn 
Maekiatoah, btwlent of Dirlnt^ tftba Free 
Chuntb, jroani^t kiq of the late Wm, Haokto- 
t<>»h , eaq. of Oeddea, Nairn. 

On herpai^gefrom Calcatta, SophlarMartaima^ 
widow of Win V^^^M). C.&..and onlvdatt. tt 
the lat9 Dr. A, W«[<huian,fieBgal Med. Sarr« 

ifaircA 14. At Bercliein, near Antwarp,£ttt^ 
betli , wik of tietiert Wy Hit Sowerbjr, eaq. 

JfarcA 16. Al Floranea, Am^ «tii af i 
MorMttJ. f^ld#«t da«i. of tbe kla O. G. Bla 
0H|. ofit^ '' ' iTiiiue, near Xialroaa. 

}fw ' vonporc, Canada, aged St. 

BarrJ- 1 ,i.-CViJ. Well*. 

" ' ira Homo, e»q. 

' M]. Brltiab Viee4>»nMa m 
.iQs ware bronKbt over to QS^ 

rnuar, uii'J iim'rT>='t At the neutm} BTOOnd. 

MmtiAn. At Moutrot^in, a^vd I'k by aaol- 
dentally fnJUne <ivprlxj«rd frrun the OoroinandlA* 

r* -■'■■■r'' • - ■- t»^ ^ midshLpmaii, WDUaai 
I H. S. Povis e^q. 51-D. df 

« •.tc1eiih««d, and fortterl}' Of 

JVa' Cap« of Oood Hope, Bgaa.|J, 

iamt^ [ irlck, esq. second *on of Kl- 

elKi>1a> I'Tij^iiiriF-M,, CM), M.D. of Badfbfd. 

At Ml, oC Bio da Janeiro, «ad IT, 



I 



lest.] 



OttlTVAIlT* 



PliHTHift* Orei'u. MidihIjiinAn of Bet U^imtj** 
^^ -m of the Re^-. G, R. Qr«ea, 

ii 

li, Rob, W. St John, e^Mj. *x- 
Cdj}J!ul-t;!m£rtd at Lu^^tm4 «t Al^en. 

''^ - ■ t1 , A( CV>lamt>tJ. JoUii, ttitnJ ton of thr 

Hlmrplesf, fetq. of MllMim, H«nUon. 

^ Cobtentx, need 94, Clie Hon. Vft- 

:if)ll ioii of Hit E«rl of Blfi^xlMJwmMch. 

11^39 AdtenLnA, dAQ. «f Oie Jt«ir 

. Reetor of Tititmi, co. Wexford, by 

, rrilifax, y S ttie Hon. E:iii«b«tii 
MHcy llr Jobn 
it.-QoYfmm of 
iiioghtef of Gfi- 
flf^t Vbcuuut Liku, by Ltlziibedi, ool)' lUu. 
l< Idw. Bafter, esq. of St, <rali»o*t, Bert» ; uiA 
wft* mArrT<*'1 m TSOG. fo Sir J^lm RArve^, Mitjor 

hi i ■• tM'comfNuiJoJ 

lendc^ \n altiitol ev^iiy uuartcr of tlie flolMa, 
4Adf ^fth tke 4njifl« otcftpaon of Giiiiadii, Ltdy 



Apf-Uti^ At nniwlull, Vdif, «g«t Tl, Bod. 



I»te Tlinri,, 



L*(ty h 



Kova S' 



ADJerir.i 
Cr 



UotM la the BTlti«li North 



it'^, iifftd 70, Ifiu Mary Ann 
:. of John Crisp, o^. 
'1 ft«, OiiH. George FVid. Syme*. 
lut 3r^^ ortllWrjr. Ola dMdi ORsnad 

frouj f!..ri. u "(on of UiA br*in, canwd by tiMbnitml 
attack of m drunken man, whom he had tetiaralad 
9nm fi^tlnir, Tl^e ror<ra«r*« Jury ratutitad a 
firdict of wUfUl murder a<ain»t ThoniM Gaitand. 
Capt. lytnaa Ha» l^ft a widoir and daag1ii«r. 

Sprit lA. In Brofnpt««i-«q, nfted 6S, Mai Gun- 
lilag. roangeft dau. of thu late Rev. Jotcvph OoO' 
■]|||« tt«a«er of SpKihal], and vicar of Sutton. 

Jtahn Cnnla.eflQ. an etnlncnt'Biif'gcofi of Ban^ay. 

4pra 10. Henry Daniel Blaad, ei»q. whii for'n 
pariud of ffirty yearN held a rtwponnitila nppolnt- 
meitit la the shipping d<^j>ftrtTIlent of thr Y.n*\ Tiidka 
Boiaf« «tld onjoyerl, to hla dcecwM , hi 

mmiUmtlrom that tompany. WTtM y 

Thmi Brighton to ColcheotBrttrhan • . [ n. 

4<Mlt he became choked lif a piece of aianjgu en- 
tering hU throat, and in a wy Aorl tliM he W*» 
fteorpie. 

AprU 17, til London, Sarah, the onlydatiKbler 
of thu Uie CliafqBrusi iTOt, l«q. former Iv of Colli is- 
lytll HflJl, mr«i^k. 

rr l«. At Mildenhall, av«d M, Ifoi?, rallet 
P, J. Cowell, late of the Graminar r " " 



J|tfi« ly. At Barbado*. Emma - Sophia, the 
Witt of Cd 9tr Wtn. Colebroojte, B.A, G<yr«mor 
of the Windward Itlandi, The colfiaial papers 
chamctavlaa her «<• " Uie amiaUle, the elegimt, 
llM hotpitutili!), the RvneTTvuv-i-tcarrod, the r«l%i- 
on», and the benerofpnt Ladv C-tlebrooke." Her 
Uidy W9» tnterrM In th^ •^-atheilnil buriul )iTOnnd. 

Al Ejrham, M*. Wetion, blinker «.f iluit pbwe, 
He left hla htmtr lu ri --T'lr*' of mind that eauvd 

eat i3Tieaalne^> >> Ia ; tJ3« fttltawing day 

y r«Baivi»d a > rittittA ibat blAiody 

«o«1d be f'UTt ' lOftlietM. It wai 

gyo^ h t raysbury, TTwJnry 

fifiirofrl 'jry' Insanitv. 

Aphl'i itl« ^Oth ymr. John 

Phlllipt. txf-^i Into nl CfUTifM>rwellHfn>ve. 

MfHtn. Al Banlaey, Wilt*, S^Koa, wife of th*j 
Rev. G. A. Biedcmtmiii, Re< for <>f that pUce, 

4pHlS4. At Ban well Porvona^, ICnrfbtk, *t^t»i 
It, jjO rfaret~Re»*^e<>a. the Mfi^ of the K«v. W. r 

iphi 1&. Al riAuluaii. ntted St, Jatne* Fratt<!«4 
Jalkiiitaiie, <m\, Ueut. and Adj. of fbe Ird Kadrn^ 
Cavalty, 

4^f« S$. JLt Kofwicb , Mged Ut , OtPOllnei^phia , 
— p 6f tJ>« lite Mr. J. J, ]>ei8lit<m. o^ 



' , SMHex, tlie reRlAenoe of tle^pa^e 
I 1 P. aged Ifl, MarU, widmr eT JdiM 

Uarirup Wtfvt, eiq. of Poetern tark, Tonbrtdie, 
Slic wa* the youngest daa. of WilliaA irood^tf^ 
ca<l. ofSoinerhlll. 

^/>ri7 29. At Eye, In hia ftTIb year, Wtlltaai W4>^ 

wards, gent, ene of Hie aldermm of IImi borrmsh. 

At tontiilQwii, Giwi TanneaCh. o«ed 7S, Mttk- 

ard Slaoo, mn. fanmtly of Hampion, MIddSesex, 

IiiAurleal ea(Tiiver to Her Mejeaty, 

Apr0 90, At Ledniiiater, MaFtha-Loniia, dan 
of the late Rev. TlioiDaa Ailed, ^'ica^ of BriAtlMe, 
aitfalitMof Cbelttli Rer. J. T. Allen, Heeler of 
Sbobdon. 

Mfa^ I. At Pan, tn the Pyreneea, 4««d 9i, 
Ltaut.-CoL ttte Hon. Edward CaOoKan, broiber tn 
the Enrl of Cadogaa. He ter^*H1 w thv 7^Dia«Qlar 
cainpalin) of ltO-9, as Li< >th Re«t 

and received the war medn i ^^ip* Ibr 

me eerrice* at Vtnilera an ! He had 

b«en en the hnlf-pay liet a» a hU^ui kinct Ul€, 
and In l»a(7 received the breret rank of Lient.- 
ColotieL He married in MSI Ellen, dan. of Ism^ 
renoe Donovnn, esq. bnt had no children. 

In her 69th year, MeUwa, relict of Dipt. Tbonia* 
Withers, R.K. of North WaUham. Norf. 

May 3. At Klrton Lindsay, Line. Anna-Uettttn* 
Louisa, only dan. of thti late Capt. Albert Ftanton* 
H.E.'LC 

At Went Hackney « a«vd »3. Henry « 8d eon of tbe 
late Kllpin Wnmer, caq,. of Camberwdl-freon. 

J/dy t At Klngvlon -on -TbnmeSt «ired n, Jaine>» 
Bone. esq. of the SUvk Kuchanne, and Peckhaa. 
At CranlMmrne, Wind'ior, a^ 37, Diana, wlf* 
of the Hot. ConTOijiiam £llis. 
At Islibfirton, aged m, Robert Olderahaw, eaq. 
At C«ml>rid^, aged 11, Mr. Tlwinai NJekltfOn. 
Scholar of Corpus Cbrlatl college, and son of Jelia 
NlcklMon, fe*q. of Stone, Staff. HS» body w«| 
Allowed to the ^ave at OrHintchMter by the 
Heater and members of the colleRe. 

Al North Elroham. Norf, in hU 7«th year, 
Charle# AtMnaon, ftiq. 

Map ft. At Reading, Loniim, witt of Somnel 
Cbaee,eeq, 

Al Barten-tmder-Needwood, Mary •£ lien* Lo- 
ftoa, elder danghtwr of the Rer. John DnAhwood, 
lf.A. 

At lYedettar^eq. ii|[ed 33« Maria, wlfc of Jamei 
T. nnriuimr'K, <saq. 

s . iin, Janette, wife of Charle* Cret* 

In I \TmnffMt dan. of the late Wte 

V,i ' Cuttlehill, Fife. 

At LMrki!ti;, a^red fl4, Mint Staneer. 
At BroniHi^o^c, aged 6fi, Jabez Stanley, mn. 
At Lavenham r«*ctorY, Suflblk, a^ 31 » Richard 
Cnbitt Johnson, Scholar of Clare ilatl, Oambrldg*. 
eldwl ann of the Rev. A. Jobnion, Rector of 
Lax-onbam ; and on the l«th, it Chevtnetoo tec* 
torv, Suffolk, aged 30, Edmund Keble \¥hit«i of 
TiinttY tolleife, Cambridjre« Mcond «on of the 
Rev, John wiiitc Tlie**" two yottius men, wlio 



Apritlr. At I>yne« Hali, tn hi* U%kjwt, Jobn 
SperliQp, eev. Ileipatir*Ll«^nait for mmt^ 



both dtei 


at Cambrldfe. 


entered v 


ind*« wgotlmr 


atMldimn 


were fHen^i, 


and had been friio^v 


41e^t^ John- 


•on wa4 appointed to t 


t jtion In Jnnt- 


imn ; he: h.VJ nMi-lJtIf 1 


'i -Tmcttona Wl 




•ivwlaa 
umrken 


i»ii; 


r BiMJ 


«*"»i 


ni IHt'j tit went tfy 


Cr 


hiijltiofi ; he gsitocd 

-itT '«'ho!;irilnpt to 


tin 


Manli 1- 


T In tBe 


fpnitonl ' 


.^•s» 


on the ^^ 


-l^u^Mp^ 


Botbtfi*^ 


irimt'iL" in ihctr dia- 




hhed hy their talctttf 
1 lire*, and Ift tl|» 


*' Lo^el^ 


death?, ihev ^^^t* n.<i <\n 


inri," 


J#ovf> Iti Alpha-li 


He#ej|fN F^Urlt, niMMi 



100 



Obituary* 



[Jitly, 



Um<i1««u, a^, oik iK lier M.v OMiUiili«icmerm o( 
lolaod Revenue. 

In ber Mlh yowf* Murif. relic t of E<!wRf4 Lurk in, 
4MI. of QmywotA^ Nortblk . 

JTay T. At N«w York. *i{i») 3fp, Tlioitui* I>»y, 
Bftq. lAielyofUverpaoljjiierctkAiit, 

At Uanqwlcftd. itn, Ke<nrafiy. ^ lik»w of Cluirkrs 
Keirtiey. esq. anct sinter of the"l«ie Mi^Jw llohisoii. 

JVav D. At B«mAffTifw«ur4flar, ii««d 49, EinUy- 
Alojuidiana-Uiiiruton, wife of GMnrgs SocAt, aiq. 
tf,D. and diiti. of fhe l*ti< ltiiJ<iMj«D. tirabani* 
H.E.LC.S. 

A^iy 9. ApMl 4»3, Nminy, relict uf U<'nry Aipl* 
luill^ cnq. ctf HeodI«y licmM;, ii«f«r Burnley. 

I nictd m, lteb«!«», wSdow of Xr. 



-' k. ail IT^'li. iU'HT" 

+'11 hum *nA Art»tlfM-' 



At Sm:!- J, 

t,1 .... I , ^ , ., 

M: 
fj 

L 

WiiM ,. . I.- 

Vic.u ->1 Li^: 

Saflmel H«nr\ 

AjrcU IT. 1^ 
ScliooL 

if«|f U. At Ham««, b^vhI ft6, Jim|»li J 
IMKJ, of Kortolk-«t, Stmncl, t^rtcMHv'Ht ^n-^yy 
the Mwrk Lain ' . 

xloe. He tra- 

AtHucorat 

GbM'lott'Q, Wifi' oi liir tu'\ . I . I JiiiiJiifj> .'^Unrif 

jfap 13. At Chlpptuff On^Mir. akvU «*•;>. Urn. 
llirr Oldlum. 

Of ]i«nIyi4A, ChjiTl«4 Moit. omj. lavlftftr of the 
South Ijuiciuhtrc poor l»w difctriet. Mr. Molt luid 
pgflattd III) offlcUilcaracrcbLHitien>d *Hh mAitviMf^ 
ikmltlw. Hewaji&n oMlflAnt pi'. 
ikmrst Bolton, whav he nuule ■ i 
^«rr TeB)fl»»y tiAOdled by Dr. Bi»wi 
t'^ r ' - "-* borottgli. He m1«o tj«'i jius* 
i^ F'<sctl]ig Umd Kidgliley L'ui. 

I. ^: upon Sir Jaxdw Orabiun i ^ 

u,i u.t ^iMfiiv I>epttnineQt>, ft flerco aiui^iv uom 
Mr. FcmuMl. Mr, Mott waft r«iiun«d trom tm 
po5t« but toon ftlter HppcwriMl ■« mftnanger of tlu; 
iuiLfttiic ftsflum ftl Hftydodk LoAig^^ vherr be ilkl 
HOC \on^ continue. In liI* Uisi appnintjiMiiit of 
poor Iftw ftudilor lie had mlfeted much rexjiHoo 
nroin the deflilcatioim of tlie Ijite csoHoctcn- tar 
Uyieu Mr. Mott « «« tiie aathor of » work on tli« 
poor UwH, 

May 18. In Cecil-«t. MJiri*, relii-t of Boyle 
Arthur, esq. late of tVromptiiii* 

In Little Kni«[htfi()er-«t. ftfpcd IHk John FtUtiun 
Snrklftnrt,, ctqi. stirgi>on. 

Hie Deftnery, Baniior. llftT>'>Fliiliidelpht4i, 
^-^. dftn. of the lAtt? Vorv Iter. <•. Cotton, 
I of Cbe«t£r. 
p«^At Totttmhaxn, mgtd (j«\ John iMy, tftq. of 
I |r4iter<la/iu. CJitjr. 

At Ke« Hfttclwm^ ftged dS, Henry Olngvr, mq. 
Mftry, wiJb ofthe Rer. T. P. Uuttoo, incumbent 
' Ltiigfleld, Surrey, UM mnifing d«n. of the 
_^t Jfta. Dntmmond. ctq. of Stm«mtlit Perthih, 
In Siui«s-pl. Mftrift-lvUtjibe^* wife of T.Kajni, 
q. Ut« of Wnt BfttD. 
Aged IS, OftroUnA-An^her, ceeond dan. of JNin<« 

tond, esq. of aOdenlLftm HftlU CaniK 
fct BxlirbtQii, aited 27* Churlcs D«*bwoad Riu- 
^ J OM). fourth mn of the laic Jotm Riuinfi^ evi , 
p^cTBrnichley. 

At Mosbury. Devon, o^zed 70. Kr». Juititii fimitl< , 
' r of M^jor-Qen. SjrChftrl«» dmlih, K.C.It. 

Agnd 86, Sftmh. vidow of TIioiujib -J>U!Cfite, t^i. 
IT Appleby, Leic««terahit«. 
. In iomlen, Wm. winter, eM], late of BMibiin- 
M«y U. At Bedford, otfwl CO, M/. Dftnee. 
tfotlj«r-ln-lftw to G, p. Livlu*.. e*(|, 

AlI>abllQ, Mus ELiu ii-»vk UAtnUtoD, auUior 
fit ft n^Bme of potou, and tf «uvf r«l T>oetkftl oou* 



trf butloiw to BliifekwooJ and tiw Dublin Dnitenilty 
MftjPLtiue. 

At Plymonth, Aaom wills ot Lt. S^ockdaaA, 
R N- 

At Difil)op»i«i|riiton, Dr«oin, eged lfi,«lAiie E^t. 
Wlftt, eldest dan. of the l»io J. R, Wlac^ e*q. wr- 
flMdy Consul in Swodea. 

JfAf 1£. At Brlxloo, Sanib, rvlkt of TtiDiBM 
BeiiMni. iftq. of Upper Wobarn-pL «lau. of Ihe lAte 
Joaetkh Barker, «q. of Whitby. 

Mftifft, wife of \^TlUiiin Sliewi* e^i, of Weit- 
bourne, Sata«x. and ilao . of Uie late i^eorge SbotP^ 
eaq. ILP.ofBetlfbrd-*(i, 

At Clarendon, Jftmakea, John Thnni, e*q iftfld- 
turreyor, brother of the late Robert Tliom, tt^. 
R.B.M. C^vnml *t Wnrp«* 

AIBH.^ '' " - ' ' ^ Wattoo. 

o«l.of5 iiulilftu. 



.. ..i i4 

. John UindL', 
Muci^ lurthu county. 
IbomaJi ItuMty, •»). 

'^ lull, of ttic late 

Wklliiiiu Brook 



.:tHl lOA, Jottii Wottd.betiw knmru 

P^xor Grinder.'* He was «iuihle«l 

rrow ftoin Uytlie to Folkeatoiie and 

l>nw ttiw* a week when i»arly 100 

): iiPT , ft««Ml 5 1 , Hr. HiMtlicft, Of 

>i and Boglifta, aaeUoiMvrft, 

- iiifortafl-^. 

-M^raii-Sabi- =' - nf TMlMani 

>, esq. of the I nd. 

i.nie,irtte of u, e»q. of 

Al Chert>ey, Hcecl *»», Mi** ^S i^hrwiek. 

if«y it«. At Mllf<ml-Ui1l, tivar Sallsbuiy* Carf>- 
Hiie-Fnince*,e4de«t rtau. of tlio bite Joseph E»«. 
rett, <»q. 

At Jertiev, £aw. f^rollfirt, f<\. late of OthnlUr. 

At Am hem, HoTl- ' ' ^" <--»Hrrlne, *d|i? 
of Brian llod^rxon, ► > 

At M ftdeim. am^ri ' 'i . second 

*on of VV. J. I^efenviv, - -.| 'u •,.mii4mmuihou, 

At Eau FarlciKh.Kcrit.ABttfl «♦, tdwuTd Nor- 
ton, e«wi. wv1ir!»or. DIM, Nftrfolk. 

ifv'i ^- ^-^ •" ' — ' 4 1 , John Banrtog. 
ton.e-, >iarB an ftetlre 

. :u a 
vnd 

I, in the pariah of fit. 
ioh he then midectaa 

„ ,.v"»>-i M.u -]'i.ii MM'^ «,iitaiDerctia]it. 

At Bevcrkr , aijod OH, ProdoBoe, wflb of EAwund 
rni»j, «•«(. 

1. T' - M- »^*... •» - -r^fc (yf R. BSdiroU 
I 11 the aixl Light 

I <■ Johu MttlTif, 



At f 
of R. J 



it, «ldO«r 



At Crechton, ageU 73, Stephen dugo, ««4' 



1851-] 



Obituary. 



101 



I 



At Svruueii, iged 30, Mr. Wok JeDkiun, tlie 
kAfg^t shipowner In Soatli Wale^. 

£t Sonthampttm, Aged %. Mr. Johu PA«lcin«, ut 
officer In the Custtnni «et-cnt)'-fivc ycArs. 

At Stiii|>i)ert(m« i^al bi, WiUiiim Krad, wi.ot 
Torre^grore, CUplmm. 

At the Home, 3«)op« Msry^Vuifooleiif tildottr 
Uflo. of the Ute llicmuu Bojt«r«, eiq. of the Home. 

At ShifTbani* aged 36, Oi^ka, youu^Mt ma of 
J, Stjuirc. CMj. 

., 1 76, Williiim 

Ta ! liscominon. 

J/, ■ n.Li Hi'iililffirdj agert 

Ui the Uto 

Si rie, diiu. 

of ni*T to 

CU ' v^ros lelt 

hi- [•reicni 

EajI Hi I 'iiiuijh* 

ton. J[i It to ttiL< 

T^un n-f . . ' '',i. Her 

jrC'i 1 Mr. ivn-r^ml, th« 

Pi hti&tutnd'fi coiii>iin. 

kcod dH, Mr. KU'hob»-i 
M ' i> . nm riiic paj nter. 

-I'd Tftt JohA CtunmliLic, esq. 
! -»q. B^td 70, Mb« Ca^eHne Cluir- 

I n)ii-l)l, EuaUui-mi. ngcd SO, Dartid 

Nir]uhif«,p 11^ 
<i(i I 'umm. George 

M ! irrti»,ti«q.as^nt 

k.i A ui riyui.inttu 

irk, agtid Z'i, Hi>n rictlt, wife 

]»UUi» wifti of S. fi, Shep- 
Iv 

ill' or Leunai'd VitJ^AuiJlf esq, 
al I i-< , Old Sodbiury, CJUmc. 

1 ;v u^l 27, .rnIin-Jar*iB,iild«*st sou of 

f(i^ -.fori, c>q, r.K.C ^. 

Atc^i 72. M. ■ ' -!. 

Re«»it*k Pu-k. I' 

Allla liQUipa-prr.i , ii4^ 

CO'i!. I'.Uj' liv ipUt-Ing his in^ck ytTtv^'^ the 

riv HI was ftpproaohlng. lie w9a an 

In-i irth, nnd vms wtH known hi the 

jM«l-h of St I'u ,: flrequently t4ikOD ttn 

active p«irt in ]. 

Jta^^l. A I 11, Lric. A^tm^wtfe of 

C H. Bii't i;i«. Mrulra« Army. 

Al W , 1 i&. ileorge lllnclci>\ e>q. 

B,A. Trii i youDg«>«<l M)n of the Uta 

Robert Bbj^K;, t-^j of tbe Itoyj*! Mlnt» an«l 
HfghAm IM^\ Fmcx. 

At Clifton, Anne, wife o( ileorR© Btish, e*q, 

EliiMbeth, yriivt oi Jo'WpU Druoe, esq. of Nvr- 
huui Houx*. KynAluini, Oxon. 

At Thann*. ntfe^l 7^. Hcnjainiii field, rui 

At the rectf r ro, Ireland, itgwi 28, 

Jaine« HcHlEt, m of thr Hon. and 

Bev. John P. fi h pUew to Lord \ h- 

QOttAt LUTord. ii4j itMHiL'ti la t^iii FrunrcM, only 
dfta< of Cbft late F. B. Hutj^hluacn, c»i. meet* of the 
Enrl of Donoojehjiiore. 

At HBckney, «g«d ft3, Mary, wift uf WUUaid 
DMltrj' JackAoa^ etq. 

At ClJflon. ASStA n, Uetii, elder dun. of SuiDuel 
Low, esq. 

Al GlfltMMteT'^rfMd, Hyde Pinrk-tTurdL-u*, Edpfar 
MoQlagiu 04- bwrUter-at-lftw. He w(u the third 
•on <»f Gemrd Mootagu* eeq. descended (mm the 
tiilrd Earl of Uaochefter. He puuried in ia-17 
MajiAnne*Heartett&, jtratigest d«a. of tbe late 
Mi^ar George Mftckeoiie, and hid Li«ni«. 

AS^M(«r« aged ^i, Mary, relict of OeorigelCeed, 
laq. of Danvnra. 

As TofTC Abbey, Torqtiay, agttl 69. Mn, R. 



At €ompton,&ear Ooilid^nti, aged 77, Geco-gt 
SuuUpclce, esq. 

At Southampton, aged 67, Jolin AHIillt Woriop, 
esq. suniving his wife, sljter to Dr. Foord'-Bowea* 
of Cowlam, Vorkih. four inonthA. 

Mav ^3 A.t Harefield Uoiuie, Middleaex^ aged 
86, PtiUip Champion Cre^pigny. eoii. 

AgtA i^G, Franeb Earle, eiq. M J>. of Hipon. 

At €kYedoii« OeoQia Jane, irife of W. K, 
Ueaveu, esq. 

At Woolwich. C&l. Hugh M nd Col. 

CoinmAiidunt of the Woob« ' ( Hoyal 

3{Arine«. Hv entered as > i- uant in 

the Eoyal Murine-i on July 'J, l!iOJ. 

In Edward>at. Portroan-sq. Almerin, M^lfe of 
William PhiUlmorc. es<i. of Deacon'«-hUl, Ektree, 
Herts, imd yourr r r i i of the late Godfrey 
Thornton, enq Di^er, Eed44. 

In Boone couur. , k u'm ky.i^ed 116, ICr. John 
ibaver. 

At Clare liall, Cambridge, afed Tl, Heno, 
^Hosil '*,u i>r the Hev, Sfuatiel Sheen, Rector of 

St.. , ■■ :"ulk. 

n. Wilta, itged la, Nit^holiu Webb, 
c n 40 ami Al) yc<ir» land agent to Sir 

M, ]i. h. i^cucli, fiart. and his pr«dect:«scir». 

At Ry<k', L W. a«wl aa. S. B. WUlleliead, e»q. 

May 2.1. In Cumhrid^e-terr. Hydt* Park, agoil 
I "2, Mjirlu-FroTjees, only tlau. of F. M. Montpo' 
iiierie, esq. of Windsor, and Garlwldeftbam. Norf. 

At llHy(;r»!<ia llou>e, near Taunton, aged 641, 
John Bluett, csfj. 

At NurUi Urixton^ aged (ill , Jii«. Oolebrot^k, esq. 
furmi'rly for many years a resident of Godahninv. 

Aged 14 numtlii, Nm)i*Mnr>'. only child of Lord 

At Bedford, aged 92, Wm. Parker, e»q. 

At Uoxton, agisd 58, Sarah, irtfe of Jamea Put* 
tvek, esq, formerly of Epaom, aolictbor, 

Ma)t ^4. In SufllDlfc^. aged 39, Emtj Clunn* 
V*emo^Tie, e«q. of I>artlTt{rtnii flou*e, r>evon, Ua 
wtu) the son and hetr of Arthur Cl'uiinpcrnowmc, 
c*<l* MP. for Saltaab, who dted in HVJ, by Loai»«, 
da It. of .Tohu fiuUer, esq. of MurraL 

At Stoke, near fiuiJiUbrd. aiired 77, the wlfis of 
Henry C'Olqnhotin, v»q. 

At Godeibrlidge, Kerta, when on a visit to Sir 
Aattey P. Cooper, Bart, aged G, Mellleent-Anue, 
Mmngeit child of the Rer. Lorick Cooper, of 
KmplnghAm. She waa aectiletitMlly drowned l>y 
(kllint? into an old welt. 

At Hoy land, aged 46, EUxabeth, wife of tlie Ker. 
John Gordeaux, M.A. leaving a £amily of elo'ea 
children ; of wlioin Charlea, her Infimt ion, died 
tlu'^ days after hi» mother. 

At Torquay, aged 48, the Hon. Frands Jaiuc^ 
Carbon, banister-at-law. Ho was the youni;est 
mn of Nathaniel «cond Lord ScarMlale,and Lal»- 
bruther to the pren^nt Lord. Be waa of Brasen- 
no^e coll. Oxford, B.A. 1824 ; was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple iB May, l«3a ; and wt^nt 
the Midland circoit. 

At UUngton, aged hi, Cliarlea HiU, eaq. See, to 
the Bn;int of OrtHnt ClofTi.jwid 36 years In dif- 
L"! ' f the royal hoiuMhoId. 

I ton, aged 67,Marv« 
^i ivrg. Vicar of QeddiiUE 

tonK'uiTi-Ntnvtoii, 

JfOy 39. At Paris, Mary, wife of Alex, Cruik < 
shank, esq. of KeitJiock, Forfarshire. 

At Idun parsoioage. SuMeJL, Julia-Loiikat wife 
of tlie Kev. G. A, Lamb, D.D. 

At Brighton, Charles* Malcotra-BhtnfsM'CartJiy, 
eldest eon of C. W. Iteade, eitq. Madras Ciril Sere 

AtlTpper Tootinji^oged 30, WlUiatu Brew^iw 
Twi&log, esq. of the^and.S 

Mav 26. At LttUehampton, Aged 03 , Marian ne- 
Beadou, eldest dau. of tbe Ute Rer. E. Bamai d. 
Rector of Alverstoke, Hants. 

At fcbfl rasldeoce of ber aon*. CanJuUton, a^ed 
US, MftTf . wklovr of Willliun CharringtoQ, ««i| of 
Ealham, Sorrvy, 

A8«<1 Oi. Thomaa QrlbUle, eaq. of Stodcwell, 

fi. Hnl«, fiiq^ of £Dkombe. near DimiCer, Som. 



!0S 



OsrrvAity. 



[July. 



At Dvrtr. lEn. Cluvl^klto BotMrtMA, of Tover 
House. Can U'r bary » 
III BAy«mAt«r-tmr, af«d fa, Mt«i EUubetta 

Mirv, aau. of khe Ule Jatan Svordir, mq, «r 

May a?. A««l 94, Hjirv-AUhtiti, dm. of F. R. 
4ppt(n»y, ««}. «| Rofiiii 'V„rksi, Derb. 

' At lun«iaile, IfAO . I BuUttT, «iq. 

At ffteadini;, ««e4t ^'i i • HaII, mo. 

Al EsBtv, AfHl T>T Uit^^ I'urtirid^t viq. late 
#f Qma Aii]|»-«(u 
' JDTJtflebrium 0(Mirt» lent, Mtff, rrilet of 

t(;«(l 9.*^, Mr*. RnMll, ma4m of 

Mr ! iiind ■unrejnor, 

Aj:* I ti*!, Wulter Alesiuidei- Umuhiirl, ok}. »r 
Leyiun, Ettex. 

A( Biifli, iiLTttil 4ll,5optU>-Lrjmui.HvtirktU,ivik 
of ' \\ fVtkiiiK, of retmoyrc, M.P* Sha 

WA- I II. of Ui« iBte Sir Obotku Fooock, 

Btt»i I He, noeoful d«u. of Edward Long . 

e*Q. 01 Jamaica ; and wm mAni«d in \HM. 

Very 38, In Upper a»lt6r-st. nt^A Ho, U»}qt 
Thorniw Cn«>TnTi, Tiifo <if th*^ Roy«) Artttl^rr, 

At Mrtii! I I lui, fomwrJy Ambuh 

ttidnr 1*1 1 

Al rp; ^''Ti^ ttie*d 71, Joilii} 

IteivlBSl. e^i kLc oat u[ rbe cashier* in Vho BftDlt 

Atltaidinfr. iigvd 91, AAr«»i« rotici of Jobu 
Hooper, «!SQ. H.D. 

m Qfiaeti-«(i . atffd 9i, Sumh^Aiifio, niUct of Jobo 
DiTis QoodnsAn Jon»<, ««q. 

Al Barf St. EMmnnd^, ORed 71 , ll«ry Adik, r«* 
lict of the Rev, Poter l*thbnry, Rwtor of Urer- 
mom MikiiQA aM hra, ftuAiblx. 

At fUmmmimtth, aiied T«, Ann*, vliloiw of 
JoKpli Mm, c«i. of Arijiii»t»*»^armeB. 

At llc4ft»rA, M«d M, WlUtam Fftrfe«r, omi, 

ATof >9. At Waterloo, near Liverpool, tM T», 
E!Ua»eth, widow of U«Jar Bertlw, alUI Vba Uirt 
vurvfvlnv sister of th« Rot. Dr tToorO-Bowta, of 
Cowlam, Yorkfchiro, 

In Ol4l Burllnietmi-fll. a«tt(l Ti, Rurtliekiliiew 
FPfre, e*Q fjmitrly MinbHer P(<«ritpotcntiary al 
Conntaiiliooplf. He wa* tiu uf John 

fVa^, ew), F.R.S. And FS.A rwleh, 

W JaJMi. onlf child of JnliTt e^q. o( 

Mdtounan I and ws*yoiiiifler b^.nb^l' t<> the lali 
JUurtit Hoo. John Hr)okbaiD rref* 

AJPBA It, Lncy TlarHeT, etdeit Oan. of Jamo* 

At Nwnhevl, - 

Al PljTOOttth, 
Tbotnai Hare. R K 

At Ql« Royal Maral (It^tol, Flymotitli, Lieut 
John llMd)«, R.H. leaving a wtd«fw and 10 chil- 
dren, 

At the nsvldmre of hb nepbew, Retijamln Har- 
Hton, rvj BtnckhAlh Par¥. afMl M» rittiielf 

A, < V Hmue . Cualer , Mary^ Am, irlfB 

fifi ■ n 

AID' ^>tK, relict of Henry Safltory, 

Mm V' . mtwl »», EdwAfd Earber, 

«aq. 

.^ ; ' tt^^^ wn «f WtllUin Rar<l - 

piv ' stnltp NcwbigtoD-iriteea 

A "■ "f«n. **^. 

1 roll l>a Liala. atq 

In ' .n*».woQd, afad 19. 

Qmtgt (-'• '^ rteMmp, aqdl* 

fittoT^aii'i -nor Ibvlila 

B. Rolttrt Barmav, eBi|. 

it 17th Light DnfooM. 
,_ J,au]^«« D^aloa Letch, M^, MiMlH-, 
ry it, Idinnnd'i ilr. Lao^ ^^ "^'^ -*^ 

* fii4 adrockU U liberal 



T'i, Mr«, Anf> Gira1«y, 
i,ry, wtduw of Lieut 



:m 



Aired ST. .ToMpli, yiMUiigtat toa of BaiiJ. MRul, 
esq. of I'fckharo. 

In York~u. Portiuan-aq. Mra. RoUmoa, rallct 
of John Itobini^n, esq. of Bnlwell, Kotli. 

Aired &§. Mary, wif» of T. K, 8tav«liay,eiq» of 
Old SUninifford, new Ripoa. 

Durliiii a viirit to ber IkUier, Mr(ry-Ann*VtaaOe«, 
irlft of Banlaiaia Woixl, Rsq. of New Bamn^y.aiid 
eldeel daa. of C, M. Fnlloy. esq. Upper HotDorlDn 

J/aw 31 At Credlton, Ana, widow of Ur. Thm. 

I Uey-^iL itgod frl, WUBam Bormw 

Hii! ■ ^ .■•Mot. 

At Jiiati^ buU'*, R«3« Ooweft, aged tt, Mabd ara«e, 
■econd dau. of the Rev. U. (K lAoriuMtnti, fmlk. 
or LlnootD. 

At o^areley, Herta, Miu Mary Wel^iieiLhoni. 

At RriifhlMi, ImbeUa-Uniy, wife of E. W. WU- 
llamii, eM. a»d aooond duu, af (ha lata Rev. i. 1. 

At Deptford. agiM] 66, Caleh Martin Tayler.ei^. 

At Brampton, aised 73, Harriott, rolkt of Kdm 
Shnihiole. o^, iif SheemejH Doekyard. 

Jtum 1 . At Bath, at the residence of kier toiU 
tn-^law Mr. Jomea Keene, Jane-Orlflatha, it^liet of 
John Barne*. e^q. fiirff. Ibrm^rly of Heytochory. 

At MlUbrook, near Boathampion, aged 19, IDia 
fophla Diana Bode, oiw of the Aurvirlnf^ daua. of 
Chfr late A, W. BiMtt^. etq. of Daiatqn, MldtUoMK. 

Aged 77, Maij-Upton, relict of T1ioaua€ta«lciU, 
eiq. ineeriley Hall, Clm^hlre. 

Agvd 26, Robert Wm. Eiirdlnff, esq. ban1<M»« 
al-taw, eldest ion of Ltotttenant.-Cololel ilardl«g, 
of Exeter. 

At MoMiiia, aiced %f, Heiiry-Oore, yonngict loii 
of BIr Charlea Halae, Bful. 

Aged U, Mie. Fanny Hunt, iiHer Bo d. Boai, 
etM. of Wanalnatinr. 

At VantefkMi, FVsaib. aged 10, Orlttth John An- 
kina, etn. necand aoo of tba !■(• CMIBiB JaaUaa, 
eiQ. of ranturian. 

At If luley Bank, Dear MaJton, aged tl, iolin 
Key, eeq. 

At Upper TnlM Hill, Ann, wi«6 of J. Lakt, 11%. 

At Everereeoh, aged M, Henrtetta, wtta df BAw. 
Moore, esq. and dan. of the lain J»hn Clroea, H^, 
formerly of Bloomlleld Houm^ Bath. 

At Alltygog, OaraiartheniJitre. aoed 7^, Cliariii 
Mori^mn, neo. MJ>. one of Elcr MjOoty^i Juttleda 
Ibr Ganiiartbeiiiihlre, 

At Maida HOI, aged 7». John Vale. e«q. 

/*tm I. At FWnioath, John Boil, eag. teiraarly 
comniandar of Bar Mj|J«ity*i FootvoMco paoknl 
Meu-lTKiruuffb, long tho lealor OocBmdJider hi tftat 
ierrlce 

tn Wobnni-eq, al Bie howt of lier onde Mr, 
SMleunt Byiea, ii«d 1», Mary-EUto, leeefQd dnu 
of John K. Floater, eaq. of Blggleiwaidn. 

At Balh.aged A'l, Caroline, wiA of R«o«<]«d. 
frcy, esq. 

At flfnve^end, aged 36. Oeorge J. JohUng , eeo. 

At Chard, ojced A I , Mr, J, Malham, eon of Oc 
Rev. John Hal ham, lalo Vicar of B^Ron, Derail. 

At the Orango, Dilhain. near KorwIoB^affid §7. 
WmUm Norlbr, eio. 

Al OiflMtielinjvli, Hnnta, aged A9, BIdMid ihMf , 
eio. tolJeRor and efvonor Ibr the hnntked. 

/H»* I. At Batli, Christtan, relict of the B«v 
J. W. Ajtley. Rector of Queuington, Qloae. 

At Hythe, Capt. J N, Pramptoa, Inia of the 
RMe Brttfade. 

At Strettou St. Mkhael, Norf. aged ( 



AlLei«*t*r,aged«LMr.Saml,Harrt«,i _ 

Al the PHoryrBe«<wlek it. Jobn, JaAe-Barm, 
tdlet of JansM Foot, ewi. of MMmry, 

At dapliMi-eomiDns, aged M, Gatherlna, wlik 
of Joaanfa FiMtvleB, aoq. 

At Bromp^M, Klddlean, aged 11, M/iry, wi* df 
Capt. PrldlMHi, II JR. 

At Iha Beoae of k«r eeft TbaoMa Bodgvn, of 
Cmoq] aQd_of]Ciiig*«i. London, ei^. efed 77, r 



I 



At Hlghhury^pl. Sarah, wUis of S 



1851.] 



Ositt^ARY. 



103 



At hi»,mm%Vvm Lftei.ta«nt«ii, Joto- 
PhilllM, only son of Benij vie, esq. 

At Nice, iged 53, JoSMb lYtTers, esq. 

Jims 4. At LiacBrd, Emms, wife of C. F. Cox, 
mn. R.N. 

In t'pper Hollowiiy, aged ii&, John FostfeT, esq. 

At BUctLhentli, o^ 8i4, Cid. Tbomftis Frsncklin, 
tste Royal Art. 

At S<7irthiin]ij4cin, njged i»€, Martin Ifaddlaon, 
nf. buik^T. Hr wu! » ibKn af unblemished in- 
tegrity aDxt i;n't:at tKncvoleiKe. lib wife died UsI 
j'CAr, q.nd hUa odIjp child, An nuifQarriw daughter, 
a furtniifht \mfvrt him. 

InltiQ drciui^rrwd, St. Jahii^s Wi>od, ftgedۤ, 
Hits <jvTtnit1e S^Sbnt Smttfi, ilta. of the late 
■John ^tAffi^ird S^ltli„ cjh;^. of ClielA«i, 

Junta, At B^iftHoitntr-^Tiir-Stcr, !iurtden]7, seed 
Ta, Lieiit.-Cor, Hkhoi"«i Bajly, IStli R^gt. of Foot. 

At l^th, MsTf , ^fv of &«ijamlii Brown, esq. 
Ijitc of Ctapliorji^QfniagDL. 

In Leiwer Btrlcelej^ft Lcmdort ^ s^ 76, Vincent 
Eyfc, esq. fonaerlf of Highflelrt, ntar Chesterfield. 
His ijtuJi' wa* tmrcnrrt jiifiw^njr to the rite« of 
the Koniisti Clhari'li In tht* nufcnea cliflpel at New- 
Miri. ntff'iuii-ij hv tm4 i^fhn uni'i loit-^n-law as chief 
mourners. 

At Bath, Theiaas Piper, esq. 

At Fulham, aged 83, Samuel Baiter Rowland, 
esq. late snrgaon to the Boyal West India IfaU 
Steamer Tweed, wlim wrecked on the Alcranes 
reef of rocks, 1 1th Feb. 1847; and also to the 
Royal West India Mail Steamer Forth, which was 
wrecked on the same reef on the 14th Jan. 1849. 



At Si Allitti*8,a4r«& th Jeta tettel Storr, 
esq. clerk of the peace for the county of Hertford. 

Jum 6. In Oambridge-terr. Hyde Park, aged 
65, Lleut-Gol. W. T. Bdcer, of the Madras arnqT*. 

At Halford Bridge, Warw. aged 49, EdwaHl 
Brooks, esq. late of Spital-square. 

In Guildford-st. aged 76, Thomas Chawner, eS|. 
late of Guildford-street and Addlestone, Svtrtf', 

At dwafTham, Norfolk, i«ed V5, Lieut Cle«iMl 
Charles^y, R.N. fourth son of Henry F. Day, 
esq. of Swenhatn. 

AtCuckfleld, Susses^ Elizabetli-Gorlng, IMM 
dau. of the late Benjamin Vander Guclit, es^ Of 
Lower Brook-st. 

At ROTiey, Hants, aged 78, Jane, reUct of 
George Hetherfngton, esq. of Reading. 

Aged 29, Mr. Arthur Langhome, elerk |o 
Messrs. Puget, Bainbridges, and Co. St. Paid*s 
Churchyard. His death was occasioned by a tiittn 
running off the rail at FaUner, near Lewes, whan 
five other lires were also lost. 

At the residence of R. Walter, esq. Percombe- 
hfll, near Teorfl, Jas. Mark s Mas ey, esq, of Cliffon. 

At Sheffield, aged 8S, WiHbrd Mettam, esq. late 
of the firto of Wimam Gresires and Sons, Sieaf 
Works. Sheffield. 

Aged 54, Winiam Rogers, esq. ILR.C.S. 

At Croydon, aged 59, Elizabeth, relict of the 
Rev. John Ward, Rector of Compfon Greenfield, 
near Bristol. 

June 7. Aged 56, Grant Allan, esq. only sob of 
the late Grant Allan, esq. of Gower-st. 

At the viearage, Corshate, aged 19, Georgf&M 
Emily, third dau. of the Rev. Cemon Bennett. 



TABLE OP MORTALITY IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON. 
{Prom ike Returns ueued by the Regutrar-QeneraL) 



Deaths Rtigtetered 


Births 
Registered. 


Weekending , , 

Saturday, l Under 1 

15. 1 


15 to 
60. 


60 and 
upwards. 


1 Age not 
japeeified. 


Total. 1 

i 


Males. 


! Females. 


May SI . , 473 ? 

June 7.1 449 
.. 14 . 1 449 
M «1 . 479 


316 
329 
299 
809 


185 
183 
172 
164 


1 

22 

9 
16 


996 ' 
961 
929 i 
968 


510 
510 
515 
492 


1 4.6 
4Si 
414 
476 


1533 
1446 
1292 
1482 



AVERAGE PRICE OF CORN, Juiit 20. 



Wlitet. 
I. d. 
9^ 11 



Barley. 
i. i. 

u 6 



Oats, 
s. d. 
26 1 



Rye. 
s. d. 
26 I 



B^ins. 
i. d. 
30f 10 



Petis. 
«. d. 
28 6 



PRICE OF HOPS, JvNB 23. 
The reports ftona Kent aftd Sussex are very unfcrouraMe, in wiich doufeties the 
blight profaib U> a fisar fu l ettent. Tho Woroeatet plantations are not nnidl affected 
at preseai* 

PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD^ JuNt U. 
Htty, 31. Ov. to 4/. 4#.— Straw, 1/. U. to II. Sn-^Cloter, 3/. At. to 4/. lOs. 

SMlTHFIELD, Junb 23. To sink the Otfal— per stone of 81bs. 

Head ef Cattle at Market, juiri 23. 



Beef 2r. 

Mutton 2s. 

Veal 2t. 

Pork 2t 



BeasU 85ld Cal^s 441 

Sheep and Lambs 3l»080 Piga 385 



4c;. to 3r. 6d. 
6J. to 3s. lOd. 
Bd.toZ9. Bd. 
4d. to 3s. 8<f. 

COAL MARKET, Junk 20. 

WalU Ends, &o. lis. M. to 14#. U. per Ion. Otbrn* loffM, lU. Otf. 16 13s. Sd, 

TALLOW, pet cwf .^TWn lUNnr, SSt . Oif. Yellow Rnsfia, 39f. Qd. 



104 

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by W. GARY, Stramd. 
From May 26, to Jtme 25, 1851, boik inehuitfe. 
Fihreiibeit*8 Therm. 



ij 




Z, 


Uo'clock 

Nipht. 

Barom. 


Mmy 





«» 


" in.pts. 


26 


50 


55 


48 29,89 


27 


53 


59 


53 30.05 


28 


53 


66 


53 ; .22. 


29 63 


71 


54l ,32 


30 62 


68 


55 i ,38 


31 56 


63 


50 1 ,46 


J.l 57 


66 


57 , ,32 


2 61 


69 


66 ' ,16 


3 63 


71 


56 29, 77 


4 51 


59 


49 ,89 


5 54 


61 


51 ,81 


6 54 


64 


56 ,89 


7 58 


68 


58 ,96 


8 63 


71 


59 1 ,96 


9 56 


61 


57 , 91 


10 


52 


52 


49' 65 



Weather. 



sbowerg 
fine.cdy.shrs. 
do. do. 
do. do. 
do. do. 
do. do. do. 
do. do. do. 
do. do. do. 
do. do. raia 
cloady, rain 
do. do. 
fair, do. 
do. 

do. do. 
|do. do. 
do. do. 



raar 


ennei 


t'9 1 


nem 


1. 
S 


l|;ll 




1^^ 


2 


June *» 


" 


e 


in. pt». 


11 55 


62 


53 


29,96 


12 ' 57 


62 


57 


,74 


13 1 62 


65 


57 


»80 


14 j 60 


69 


55 


30,05 


15 1 57 


62 


55 


29,96 


16 1 60 


67 


54 


,96 


17 58 


62 


51 


30,27 


18 < 61 


60 


60 


.34 


19 


63 


60 


64 


. 14 


20 


67 


74 


63 


,06 


21 67 


82 


61 


29,83 


22 ' 60 


55 


53 


.86 


23 58 


65 


52 


3a 18 


24 57 


69 


50 


.2* 


25 


67 


63 


61 


.26 



Weather. 



fair, rain 

'cloady, do. 

do. do. 

'fine, do. 

do. do. 

,do. do. 

do. do. 

fair, do. 

do. 

da 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



S- 



1 1^1 

CQ CO 






282101 
2921U 

30 

31 
2 



211i 
212i 
2lli 



212i 



21 
23 
24 



4 

5 

6 

7 

212 
10212i 
11" 
12 
13 
14 
16 
17 
18 
19 



212 

2l2i 

212i 



212 

212i 

212i 



202124 



212i 
212) 
213 
2&213i 
26'212f 









H "O B I O W ,'-' C« ' 



o 

'5 



Ex. Billi. 
;gl000. 



97i BU m 

97i 97| I 9#i 




' 48&lpm, 

52 pra. 

2601 5249 pm. 

", 4fl pm* 

• 261 4@52pn]. 
'261 51 pro. , 
>261 53 pm* ' 

■ 5U 54 pmJ 

■' p2 56 pni. 

-5t> 53 ptQ.^ 

■ 56 pm. j 

-^ -S3 56 pm. 

.■— 53 52 pm. 

•| j 55 pro- 
ds 55 pm. 



42 32 pm. 

44 42 pm 

42 44 pm 

44 pm* 

II 44 pm, 

41 44 pm. 

42 44 pm. 
44 45 pm. 

43 46 pm, 
46 43 pro 
43 40 pro^ 
43 46 pm 

43 pm* 

46 42 pm 

42 pm. 

42 4L pm 

43 44 pro. 
41 " 
41 
42 
45 
42 



44 pm^ 

44 pm, 

45 pm. 
42 pro 
45 pm 



42 46 pm 

43 46 pm. 
43 46 pm. 
43 46 pro 



ARNULL and ALLENDER, Stock and Share Broken, 

3, Copthall Chamber!, Angel Court, 

Throgmorton Street, London. 

#• B. VICHOL8 AND SON, PRINTBR8, 25, PA&LIAMINT 8T&SIT. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MACtAZINE 



AND 



HISTORICAL REVIEW* 

AUGUST, 185L 



./^ CONTENTS. 

PAOX 

Minor Corkispokdincc— Portrait of Oliver Cromwell— Locality of HolydAV Yard— 
Busts of Cromwell— Armoriil B«Aj4nji^ of De Pan, &c.— Rev, Neville White* &€,— 
Late CtpuinCIiftrlc5 Gray...-,. , ,..,.....,.,. 106 

Memoirs of William WortJswortb, Poet -Laureate * 107 

Letter of Bosauet reipectitig the Death of Henrietta Dachesa of Orleftos 116 

Curiosities op thi Old Chi;rch Canons. No, U.— Canonistt and the Law of Mar- 
riage— Matrimonial Dlsahiltrieft— Slavery and Marriajfe— Marriaffe Festivities — Pre- 
valence of Slavery in EniR^liind and Spuin— Efforts nf the Church to difinini»h Slavery 
—The Church and the Jews— Horae-fleaji, Pa^ftnisiji, Snperstltion, and Sorcery- 
Sarti'sSauctoritm— An Kccentric Heretic-^Tbe I thacians— Ascetic isra.« ., .. „ 119 

Who were the Anglo-Saxon Kings who were crowned at Kingston 125 

Ruskin^s Stones of Venice ..,,... ..*....... « , , 130 

The Stortt of Nell Gvtyn, related by Peter Connmgham^ Chapter the Eighth 
and Last {with Engramn^t of Old St. Martin'^ Church, and Covent Garden, 

temp. Charles //.)'. ,.• VdS 

Hie Galleys of England and France • 143 

Parliamentary Robes for a Pnnce of Wales » MS 

Chrirtiak Icoxograpby ANn Lkgendary Aut : by J. G. Waller,— The 

Tetramorph (with Engravings) , , . 149 

Rniiis of Vaudey Abbey, co. Lincoln {with an Engraving) *••••• 1 ...,,•...« , 154 

Seal with a Merchant*a Mark {wifh Bngramngit) .,...♦, , 157 

CORRESPONDENCE OP STLVANUS URBAN. — St. Pcter*s '• supposed •» Chalr- 
•• MilitOfl** Works in Verae and Prtwe "—Horace Walpole and Janlus— §uj^«stion 
to The Trnstees of the Taylor Fund as to the ioiprovemeot of the Engllah language 

— Hospital of Sit, Mary Magdsleo at Lynn— Coventry Tokens ... .,,......,.,... isa 

NOTES OF TUB MOXl'li.— Mcmorisl to the Msjjterof the RoIU upon the subject of 
the Records— Li.Ht of Signatures— Sujr^e*tion from an Old Correspondent— Duke of 
Maninoutb'fi Note Hook— Csxtoti's ileniorial— Suggestion in reference to it — Sales 
of Pictures— Curio ii« stibieclof Antinuarian Inquiry lately proaecuted in Denmark— 
Sale of MS,S. of Mons. Doniiadieti— French gratis visits to London — Recent non- 

historic&i Publtcations * — **..,*..,..*,... l&S 

MISCELLANEOLS UEVJRWS.— Autobiography of Rev, Wm. Walford, 170j Catalogue 
of Thomas «nil Jolm Ikw ick'a works, 171 j A Treatise of Equivocation, IJl j Hard- 

wick*s History of the Art icles of KeUgion, &c* &c. ...*........,.._.,.._. 173 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE— Universities of Cambridge and 
Oxtord— Roysl Society— Meeting of the British Association at Ipswich, 175; The 

Ray Society .,,,. , 1T6 

ARCHITECTURE— Meeting of Yorkshire and Linrolnshire Societies at Ripoo 177 

ANTlQUARLiN RESEARCHES. -Society of Antiquarica- Meeting at Coventry.... ; 180 
HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. — Proceedings in Parllaroentt 181; Foreign News, 183 1 

Domestic Occurrences — ......... — li4 

Promotions and Preferments, 186 ; Births, 187; Marriages.,. 188 

OBITUAllV: with Memoirs of the Eari of Derby; Viscount Melvillf ; Right Hon. 
Wlllisni 8, S. Lttscellesj Adm. .^ir Etlwsni Codringlon, G.CB, -, Sir John Orahani 
Datyell, Burt. ; Sir John M. MacGrcffor, Bart. ; Lord iJondreonan] William Adams, 
Ea*j. LL-D. ; Lieut.-Colund C, C. Micbell | Mr. Dyce dombre; G. B, Thorneycrofl, 
Es'i ; CiorL.' Hush. Esq.; H. St. George Tucker. Esq.; Sir G. S. Gibbes. M.D.: 
Dr UrMncknfSij; Mrs. Forbes; Mrs. Sheridan ; .Mrs. AtthiU; Richard 

PI -. ; D> M. Moir, Esq. ; Thomas Moule. Esci. ; Rev. Jelinirer Symona; 

Rt ' Ipin ; C P. TIeck j John Hmhinjr ; Mr. J. 'hlfourd ??mytTi 190—214 

Clsroy Deck'iskd ^.... 114 

Draths, arranged in Chronological Order SIS 

Registrar-GeneraPs Returns of Mortality in tlie MetropoliN— Msrkots, 2Q3 i Meteoro- 

logiCAl Drnry— Daily Price of Stocks * - ..,....-......,....,..,.. 3I4 



Bt SYLYANUS URBAIf, Gkht. 



106 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Portrait of Olivkr Cromwell — 
The portrait inquired for in the Minor 
Correspondence ef our Uat Magazine, and 
which was formerly at Rose Hail, near 
Beccles, in the possession of Sir Robert 
Rich, is now in the British Maseum. The 
following inscription attached to the back 
of the picture explains its history troiA 
the time when it was seen by Mr. Say. 
" This original picture of Oliver Crom> 
well, presented by him to Nathaniel Rich, 
•i%. then serving under him as Colonel of 
a regiment of Horse in the Parliament 
4rmy» was bequeathed to the Trustees of 
the British Museum for the use of the 
public, by hit great grandson Lieutenant- 
General Sir Robert Rich, Bart by hit 
will dated 29th May, 1784.'* It is a good 
{winting by Walker on canyass, of course, 
ifed not on panel, as erroneously stated in 
the published Catalogue of the pictures at 
the British Museum. 

H. C. informs us, in reply to the ques- 
tion of S. J. inserted in last month's 
Minor Correspondence, that " Holyday 
iArd is situated on the west side of 
Greed Lauo, Ludgate Hill, near to Saint 
Paul's Cathedral. The name of this Yard 
l^tty clearly indicates its origin. Little 
^ther of holy day or holiday marks the 
|pQt now. It is a colony of workers, 
khd every room in every house is most 
likely a distinct domicile. Indeed the 
whole locality is a strange network of 
courts and sdleys, which your corres- 
pondent S. J. would find it rather diflScult 
to thread without a guide. That a spot 
so insignificant as Holiday Yard now is, 
should have escaped Mr. Cunningham's 
notice is not very wonderful. There can 
be little doubt, however, that had Dr. 
South's ownership of property there pre- 
sented itself to Mr. Cunningham's me- 
mory or research, Holiday Yard would 
have been duly gazetted in his most va- 
luable volume, for he has taken especial 
pains to identify those parts of London 
which are in any way connected with our 
Mterary celebrities. A glance at its index 
i|rill show that Dr. South has not been 
forgotten, as well as indicate the surpris- 
ing amount of labour which must have 
been undertone by Mr. Cunningham.** 

M. M. M. solicits information as to the 
existing busts or Cromwell. " None,** 
he remarks, "were executed during his 
life-time, nor, indeed, until after the Revo- 
lution of 1688, and then most probably 
ft'om the mask taken immediately after his 
death, and still extant. The best resem- 
blances to Cromwell are the busts by 
Rysbrach in 1698, one of which is in the 
gallery of the Marquess of Westminster ; 
another is in the possession of Mr. 



Wm.Tooke. Schemacher, Roubilliac, and 
Fearce also mide busts of Cromwell ; one 
by the latter is in the collection of the 
SUffht Hon. H. Labouchere.*' 

E. P. in reply to S. G. (Minor Cor- 
respondence for May 1851), assumes that 
the armorial bearings of Da Pau or De 
P«ye are, " Or, ten billets gu. four, three, 
two, and one." 

Db WsLLBa, " Or, a lion rampant 
double queued sa." 

Db Kbmbsbb or Kbmisbb, " Barry of 
nx, vair^ aud gu." 

Aymo OB Turekberd. " — on a 
chief three roundels. 

Db Sobam or Soamb, *'Gu. acbev. 
between three cross-staves (another ham- 
mers) or." 

Clericus inquires in reference to a 
statement in our memoir of Archdeacon 
Todd (voL XXV. N. S. p. 332), whether 
Sir Walter Scott's review of TonD*t 
Spenser was inserted in the Quarterly or 
£!dinburgh ? No doubt the writer in our 
Obituary was mistaken. The article was 

frinted in the Edinburgh Review in 1803. 
t is reprinted in Scott's Prose Works, 
xrii. 80. We shall endeavour to procure 
answers to the other questions sent by 
this correspondent as occasion serves, but 
the time for replying to many of them, as 
well as for inserting the answers he has 
sent to us, is eone by. 

tn explanation of a note in our Msga- 
aine for January last, p. 13, respecting 
the Rev. Neyillb White, one of 
8outhey*s correspondents, who is there 
Stated to have i' unfortunately met with 
death by his own hand,'* we have been re- 
quested to state (which we do most wil- 
lingly), that the Coroner*s jury returned 
a verdict of Accidental Death. It is not 
therefore to be inferred that the reverend 
gentleman committed suicide. 

The late Capt. Charles Gray (of 
whom a memoir was given at p. 96) died 
at his residence in Archibald Place, Edin- 
burgh, not at Glasgow. At the time of 
his death he was engaged in a new edition 
of his '* Lays and Lyrics," which was to 
have been highly illustrated in the style of 
Rogers's Italy. Some of the plates were 
already engraved. He was a member of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
and continued to take a lively interest in 
its proceedings to the last 

In our memoir of the late Earl op 
Albemarle (June, p. 661), it was stated 
that " he never sat in the House of Com- 
mons." This was incorrect, since, as 
Lord Bury, he was M.P. for Arundel in 
the parliament of 1820-6. 

Page 74, Una 6 from foot, read Mere 
personal interests h€ entirely disregarded. 




THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTOHICAL REVIEW. 



WILLIAM WORDSWOETH, 

Meoaolri of UllU&m Wordswortb» Poct-Uureate, D.C.L. By Chri8tO|}her Wordi- 
worth, D.D. 2toU. 8vo. Load. 1851. 



I 



THE stnicture of these volnmea 
would ftlone exempt them Irora any 
▼try rigid censorsliip, even if the bio- 
grapher had performed His part le«s 
efficiently. Vor, us respects their 
aubst^uce^ they may be reirtirded aa a 
teslamentary ai mutation upon Words- 
worth's poetry, and, as respects their 
ffpiritr they are^ in some measure^ the 
swan -song of the revei*ed bard whos€ 
Iffh and conveTsntioii they record » In 
hifl ** Letter to a Friend of Burns/* 
nubU&hed many years ago, Mr. Words - 
Worth, amonff otner jirofound observa* 
tious ujKjn ule duties of literary bio- 
graphy, maintained that *'^our Bole 
busings in relation to authors ia with 
theii bookj — to understand and enjoy 
them*" He deprecated »* Boswellbm ' 
in all its de^ees ; and were some 
chance to bring to up|>er air " Mctnoirs 
of Horace and his contemiwiraries bv 
& Gmmmarian of the Augustan age/* 
lie, for his parti would regret ratner 
tixk wdcoitie the waif from cla^sfiica) 
fnmies, as one likely " to di^ffi^re with 
Incongruous features the oeautiful 
ideal of those illustrious oersonages." 
fn the autumn oi' 1847, IVIr* WnrfJs- 
#orth seems to hare repeated these 
sentiments to hifi present biographer, 
aecotnpanyinz them with the de!»ire 
that he would prepare any personal 
noticejj reijuisite for the illustrationa 
of his poems. Upon thi;* request, as 
his guiding principle^ Br. Wordsworth 
hta acted in the composition of his 
ttncle*s memoirs, whicn are accord- 
fai^j to be viewed ns a record' of the 



poetic rather than of the personftl 
nistory of the deceased. 

A biographical commentary upon 
Wordsworth*B {K)ems differs indeed 
but littJe from an abstract and brief 
chronicle of his life. The author of 
the Lyrical Ballads did not present to 
the world, as so many poetd have donei 
a twofold aspect — one in their booki 
another in their actions and tem- 
perament. To comprehend Milton 
thoroughly, his prose writings and 
the tImeM in whicn he lived must be 
studied. Hyron and Gray are known 
better by their letters than by their 
verse. From the Seasons we should 
not guess Thomson to have been pro* 
foundly indolent : or from the Task^ 
Cow per to have been profoundly hu- 
morous. But in Wordsworth there it 
little or none of this Janus aspect. 
** He wrote," says bis biographer, "t« 
he lived, and he lived as he wrote. 
Hfs poetry had its heart in his life, and 
hi« life found a voice in his poetry/* 

We muH therefore presume, in the 
following notice of these Memoirs, 
upon our readers having some ae- 
quaiutance with Wordsworth*s poems, 
as well as some interest in their pro- 
duction and progress* The Memotiv 
and the Poetical Works should, in facst, 
be open at the same time : for then, 
and then only, will become completely 
apparent the consonance of the ma& 
and the poet. Sophocles indeed did 
not more entirely reflect in his cha- 
racter and genius the severity of thd 
ethnic artist, dwelling apart from all 



108 



Williatn Wordsworth. 



[Aug. 



disturbing forces in order that he might 
fully em£)dj the statuesaue pomp of 
ihe Hellenic legend, than Wordsworth 
abstracted himself from the rougher 
oontacts of society in order that he 
might plenarily discharge his functions 
as the interpreter and priest of ex- 
ternal nature. 

The principal documents employed 
in these memoirs are the poet*s own 
«««ubiographical dictations to an inti- 
mate female friend ; brief sketches of 
dates and facts for Dr. Wordsworth's 
instruction ; a few of his uncle's let- 
ters — strangely few indeed they would 
seem for a veteran in literature, did we 
not learn from more than one of them 
that Wordsworth regarded his pen and 
desk as scarcely preferable to an oar 
ana bench in uie galleys ; letters and 
memoranda contributed by his family 
and friends, among which those of 
Mr. Justice Coleridge are particularly 
graphic; and, fina&y, extracts from 
Miss Wordsworth's «}ournal, which for 

Sace, expression, and vivacity, are 
e prominent gem, as well as the prin- 
dpal nucleus, of these volumes. The 
poet's sister was indeed, in all respects, 
a most gif^d and admirable lady — 
worthy of the affectionate mention of 
her in her brother's letters and con- 
versation, worthy of the more perma- 
nent tribute of his verse, and worthy 
of being held by all to whom his verse 
is precious in reverent and grateful 
memory — a " clarum et venerabile 
nomen, wherever the English lan- 
guage ministers to the instruction, the 
consolation, or the ima^nation of man- 
kind. She was the sister of his in- 
tellect, whose native fervour and oc- 
casional ruggedness were tempered 
and r^ned by her superior sensibility ; 
she catered for his eye and ear at all 
seasons of travel or seclusion ; she was 
a counsellor well fitted to advise in 
either fortune ; she was assured of his 
coming renown when the name of 
Wordsworth was almost bandied about 
by the public as a bye- word ; and her 
earnest faith was at length rewarded 
by the increasing homage of his ad- 
mirers and by the certainty of his pre- 
sent and posthumous triumph. 

We have so recently, in our notice 
of the "Prelude," surveyed the earlier 
portions of Wordsworth's life, that, 
on this occasion, we shall merely refer 
bri^y to the favourable character of 



his education among mountains and 
a people of simple yet picturesque 
manners, to the slight restraints of nis 
school-days, to his own active and 
hardy habits in boyhood, to the un- 
favourable aspect which Cambridge 
poresented to him, to his residence m 
France, and to the absorbing interest 
he felt in the first French Revolution. 
All these circumstancesvindeed, are so 
fully and graphically dduneated in the 
"Prelude, that the reader, with that 
autobiographical poem and the Memoirs 
before him, would scarcely thank us 
for anticipating or abridging so in- 
teresting a narrative of the life poetic. 
For emphatically " ooeft'c," as regards 
its plan and details, Wordsworth s life 
deserves to be called. We doubt, if 
the ends and aims which he set before 
himself be kept in view, whether a 
more consistent life was ever led, or 
a happier or more honourable lot ever 
assigned to man. Chequered it doubt- 
less was by the ordinary accidents of 
mortality, by narrow means, by hope 
deferred, and by the visitations of 
death. But "against the ills which 
flesh is heir to," Wordsworth opposed 
a serene heroism of content which 
enabled hini to mate and master 
poverty, disappointment and bereave- 
ment. And m his devotion to poetry 
as his vocation, there was nothing 
masculate ; no merely selfish exalta- 
tion; no petty claims for exemption 
from ordinary duties and courtesies. 
Even a propensity to speak of himself 
and his writings was not in Words- 
worth an appetite for jtraise or a habit 
of self-complacency, so much as an 
unconscious betrayal of his efforts to 
realise his superb ideal of the life- 
poetic. 

From the moment when his poetic 
vocation became clear to himself, 
Wordsworth's days were as uniform 
in their features as it is possible for 
periods of time to be when environed 
by the accidents of mortality. His na- 
turally robust constitution was invigo- 
rated by rigid temperance : " strength 
from wine,' he says in one of his let- 
ters, " is good, but strength from water 
is better." He lived much in the open 
air ; and his daily feats as a pedestrian 
would probably surpass the endurance 
of most men in these days, when wheels 
would seem to have nearly supplanted 
the exercise of legs. For a complete 



1851. 



William Worditmurtk. 



109 



I 



I 



uiidera tan ding of all the mysteries and 
all the majesty of tbo beautiful Itind 
in which he dwelt, dtiily contemplatloD 
of nature under every aspect of tur- 
bulence and repose was essential to 
the poet. Hb h&bita of comjioaition 
more nearly resembled those of an 
andent Scald than of an English bard 
in the nineteenth century. He went 
'* booing" hia TerseSt as bis Cumbrian 
neighbours piirased it, under solstice 
and equinox inditTereotly, and through 
each intermediate change of the roll- 
ing seasons, over the monntaiu^lawns 
and beside the uiountuiu-toiTeiit'*, in 
the heart of mists and under the clear 
mirror of brumal frost, at earliest dawn 
when the sheep-fold wiis openings and 
when " Hesper isisued forth from the 
fulgent west/' One day a ^trauger, 
baring walked round the garden and 
grounds of Rydal Mount, asked one 
of the female servants, who happened 
to be at the door, permission to see 
her master 8 study, " This," said she^ 
leading him forward, " is my master's 
ft'Jrary, where he keeps his books ^ but 
his study ig out of doors/' Ailer long 
absences from home, his cottage-neigh- 
bours would say, " Well, there he h ; 
we are glad to hear him * booing' about 
jigain/* Long before the pen of the 
female inmates of his household wa^j 
called in requisition to transcribe, bis 
murmured verse had been poured forth, 
formed and polished ; and could it, 
like Retif de la Bretorme's novels, have 
been transferred at once to type, 
Wordsworth would probably have letlt 
10 few manuficripts as " bbnd Mele- 
fl^enes** lumself. Yet, in despite of 
his method of composition, be waB imy- 
thing rather than an imnroviser* At 
timie&i indeed, when forcibly impressed 
by new objectP, or by a iarailiai* scene 
under unusual irradiation, the '* divine 
afflatus" would seize him, and he would 
pour forth streams of unpremeditated 
verse. But these occasions were rare: 
and still more rarely were such im- 
promptus exposed to the public eye* 
As regarded harmony of sound, Words- 
worth describes himself as ** an Epi- 
curean/" We should not have ac- 
corded him this especial attribute, 
fitnce his blank verse wc think on the 
whole inferior to Cowper's^ and his 
lyrical poems occasionally display both 
laxity and roughness of cadence. In 
one so devoted to his art, however, 



such iuequaUties may have been m 
much the result of a theory as of haste 
or negligence ; and that they were not 
undesigned, but purposed breaks of 
smoothness, is the more probable from 
their recurring most frequently in the 
poems which he composed according 
to the doctrine of his critical prefaces. 
Jn Euglirsb poetry, Wordsworth was 
very deeply reatl. It was, perhaps, 
his only very profound learning ; and 
his "booing* was as often bestowed 
upon repetition of favourite passages 
as upon original composition. He had, 
however, studied critically the most 
artistic of the Latin poets, and his 
poems entitled ** Dion,' ** Laodamia," 
and " Lycorie," afford abundant proofs 
that whatever his scholarship may have 
been, be entered profoundly into the 
spirit of anticiuity. But no verse had he 
so deeply explored or would so willingly 
analyse in conversation as his own, 
Vamty, we believe, had little or no 
share in this introspection of his own 
productions, lie bad consciously 
aimed at, he had partially achieved, a 
great revolution in jioetic diction, and 
the purity of bis own idiom, or the 
truth and beauty of bis own images, 
were the documents and title-deeds of 
his claim to be accounted a reformer 
of poesy. 

Of contemporary j>oet6, indeed, 
U'^ordsworth seems to have spoken 
with but cold approval, — always, in- 
deed, with the eatception of Coleridge, 
whom he appears to us to overrate. 
Coleridge was endowed with the me- 
trical faculty in a very unusual mea- 
sure, and, to speak in tripos- phrase, 
might be bracketed with I letcher for 
the sweetness and variety of his mo- 
dulations. In this respect Woi'daworth 
was by no means equal to the author 
of " Christabelj'' and accordingly by 
no unnatural inference ascribed to bim 
other poetic functions in proportion. 
Wordsworth thought that metaphy- 
sical speculations bad kept Coleridge 
from vei*se : but no poet was ever long 
tumetl aside from Ins vocation, if the 
" mens divinior" were really part of 
bis being* llie whole phalanx of school- 
men, banded with all the interminable 
squadrons of French and German me- 
taphysics, would not drive Tennyson 
from a single outposts Scott^ Sou they, 
and Crabbe, receive very slender praise 
firom the oracle of Ry dai Mount. 




110 



William Wordnoorth. 



[Aug. 



Southey he accuses justly enouffh of 
a want of sympathy with the deiuings 
aiid the passions of men ; yet, con- 
sidering the quarter from which it 
comes, the accusation is somewhat 
Strang. Scott he describes as un- 
veracious in his representations of na- 
ture, and terms hmi a poet only to 
the ear. Byron he could scarcely be 
expected to like, — for Wordsworth's* 
canons of composition had been fash- 
ioned in a very different school, and 
were fixed ere Childe Harold, like a 
strong fever-fit, seized upon the gene- 
ral mmd. Of Keats we find nothing 
recorded ; but we can imagine that the 
liberties he took in " Endymion** with 
idiom, metre, and even words, would 
offend so zealous a purist in style, as 
Mr. Wordsworth was, auite as much 
as. by his own confession, Mr. Car- 
lyfe's prose aggrievied him. We w«^ 
agreeablv surprised to find that Words- 
worth tnought Shelley *^one of the 
b^t artists of us all ; I mean in work- 
manship of style ;" and were equally 
amazea when we* read his depreciation 
of Goethe. But, on this point, the late 
Laureate was so pertinaciously here- 
Ucal, that we must leave the reader to 
wonder at his verdict, since we should 
speedily exhaust our remaining columns 
by any attempt to move for a new 
trial. 

To reviewers, and especially to those 
wte clothe their thoughts in blue and 
yellow, Mr. Wordsworth bore no good 
will. He certainly had received some 
itirewd thrusts from the crafl, and the 
late Lord Jeffrey did not hold his 
sword like a dancer. Nevertheless 
We cannot but think the poet " pauIo 
iniquior *' when he speaks of the Edin- 
burgh Aristarcbus as having taken " a 
perpetual retainer from his own inca- 
pacity to plead gainst my claims to 
public approbation." In 1816 this 
little bravura was confined to the 
poet*8 " Own Correspondent ; " but by 
printing it in 1851 the editor has yerj 
unnecessarily exposed it to public ^aze. 
We presume that the "mcapacity" 
^ken of is confined to a supposed 
insensibility in the critic to poetic sen- 
sations. In anjT other sense the impu- 
tation is incredible even from a victim 
under the scourge. But in his protest 
•gainst critical asperities Wordsworth 
overlooked more than one cause of 
the ''retainer.** He did not suffi- 



ciently take into account that if ho 
were not exactly a hardy exp(9rl*> 
mentalist he was at least commendng 
a very sweeping reform in poetry. 
Since the last chords of Milton s harp 
had sounded, poetry had been too 
much the creature of books and arti- 
ficial life. Among Wordsworth*s own 
contemporaries it had assumed new 
vigour and alacrity, but It wad a dra- 
matic energr with Which Ibr the most 
part he had little sympathy. In the 
aj^lause which he bestows upon his 
successor in the laureateship, he dis- 
closes unconsciously the secret of his 
own early unpopularity. " Tennvson," 
he writes in 1845, ''is decidedly the 
first of our living poets. You will 
be pleased to hear tnat he expressed 
in the strongest terms his gratitude to 
my writings. To this I was far from 
indifferent, though persuaded that he 
is not much in sympathy with what I 
should myself most value in my at- 
tempts, viz. the spirituality with which 
I have endeavoured to invest the mate- 
rial universe, and the moral relations 
under which I have wished to exhibit 
its most ordinary appearances.*' Now 
at once to " call upon the age to quit 
its clogs,** to withhold its admiration 
firom &ott and Campbell and Byron — 
for such, virtually, was Wordsworth's 
demand — ^was a kind of poetical "stand 
and deliver,** for which the said public 
was by no means prepared. And when 
this summons was followed by a re- 
quest to see with Wordsworth*8 eyes 
and to hear with his ears, if people 
aspired to any skill in the moral inti- 
mations of nature, it b not surprising 
that both critics and readers turned 
refractory and demanded their peremp- 
tory nionitor*s credentials. Dr. Words- 
worth makes heavy complaints of the 
wronffs inflicted upon his uncle by men 
who nad never studied his art with 
any earnestness, and who therefore 
had no right to dictate to him. And on 
the heel of his complaints he preaches 
a sermon to future critics, waminfr 
them, on the one hand, against rasa 
judgments, and the " pensive public,*' 
on the other, against following such 
false shepherds. This may be good 
counsel : but it is of the kind which 
will never be acted upon. For to the 
end of poetic time the genuine poet 
will not be welcomed with instanta- 
neous aoclaim, but must discipline hift 



18S10 



William Wordsworth* 



I 



a e to his teaching. His triiMopli over 
Ttrse days ana tongues is tfie very 
proof that his mission is authentic : ai, 
oa the contrary, the facility of his 
early progress is generally a token 
that he i« fashioned for the hour and 
Bot for the ages. For has not the 
reverend author of *^ Satan '' ptuaed 
through more editions than the ** Lyri- 
cal Bdlada," and in one fourth of the 
timef And does not "The Cliriatian 
Year,** from causes independent of 
poetry, number Impressions by tens> 
where "The Excursion*' counts them 
by units? 

Like §o many of his distinguished 
friends and contemporaries, Worda- 
irorth*s political opinions underwent 
in the course of years a considerable 
change, Ue entered manhood a re- 
publican, and in his senescence was a 
sirenuovis advocate of Church and 
State doctrines, greatly to the satis- 
faction of his neiKJtal biographer. We 
are however far from convinced that 
thin revolution in sentitnent was a* 
complete as the latter represents it. 
Wordsworth, indeed, was opposed to 
the concession of the Cathotic claims, 
to the Reform Bill, to any large amount 
6f popular education, and to the re- 
lease of the manufacturing interests 
from their peculiar burdens. But in 
what portions of his uncle'* writings 
can Dr. Wordsworth discover any ab- 
*^ract reverence for mere antiquity in 

istitutious, or any particular sym- 
pathy with the higher classes of so- 
ciety ? The ^itt^mpt indeed to prove 
the tnhd t oiivHrsiun of the poet to the 
faith of OitcM'd anil the Carlton Club 
is singularly lame and impotent, al* 
though to subs I an ti ate it the Doctor 
has burdened his volumes with long 
eictract^ from obsolete paninhlets by 
his uncle about Cintra, and the West- 
moreland elections, and the Catholic 
claims. Keith er these citations, how- 
ever, nor all the biographer^ sermon* 
laing, will iMrsuade the public that 
Wordswortns changes of opinion on 
politics^ education, and Church disci- 
pline, were uniformly improvements ; 
ihaif for example* his huter to Mr. 
Bo<« (in his second volume, p. 190) 
it ooaceived in a healthier and nobler 
rein than his letter to Mr* Fox (in 
his Hrst volume, p» 166) ; or that his 
; will extract the ating of 

I' liberal hopes for mankind 




out of the ** Prelude" and ** Sonnets 
to Liberty." Such changes pf eend- 
tnent ^re intelligible enough. Ardent 
minds begin " in joy and gladness " to 
speculate upon the improvement and 
elevation of their fellow -men. But 
when they set themselves earnestly to 
remove the " time's abuse,'* they are 
met, on the one hand, by apathy, or, 
on the other, by direct opposition* 
Some ruder plan of reform finds favour 
with the multitude, and the efl'ect upon 
spirits of nobler mould is too oil eh 
despondency, an enforced acquiescence 
in unamended institutions, or a grow- 
ing distaste for remedies proposed. 
Practical reformers too are mostly cut 
out of sterner stuff than that which 
goes to the composition of poets and 
philosophers. Even Mackintosh fal- 
tered before, while Burke recoiled 
from, the ** rushing mighty wind " that 
winnowed the institutions of the last 
and the present century. In Words- 
worth's circumstances there were other 
causes for indilTerence to progress and 
for acouiesceoce **in the things that 
be." Me was drinking deeply of the 
calm with which external nature and 
contemplation brood upon the spirit 
of the student. Systematically, and in 
tiuest of high and holy thought, Uo had 
almost secluded himself from the world. 
Its ruder sounds alone pierced the 
loop-holes of his retreat : the compen- 
sations which political change brings 
with it were not presented to his eyes ; 
and at the distance from which he 
sui'veyed the conflict between the past 
and the present, he may well have 
mistaken the steady breeze for a howl- 
ing tempest. In matters appertJiining 
to religion, again. Dr. Won! s worth is 
too much of the ritualist and the 
schoolman to enter very cordially into 
the poefs faith in the power of the 
human will and intelleci---nay, he once 
flpea very near to tax his relative with 
Felagianiim! In short, could their 
reEpectiveposittoDS have been reversed, 
ana the biographer have trained the 
poet in the way he would have had 
aim go, we mi^rht have rejoiced in the 
*• Ecclesiastical Sonne ta," but we must 
have lacked the "Lyrical Ballads,** 
and in place of the large and lofW 
" Excursion " have been favoured with 
a Church and State poem, which Ox* 
ford would ^have commended, and the 
rest of the world have shelved with 



112 



William Wordsworth, 



[Aug. 



"Tracts for the Times " and "Com- 
mentaries on the Apocalypse." 

We have now arrived at the plea- 
santer portion of our task. ' Most re- 
luctantly have we differed from many 
of the opinions which Dr. Wordsworth 
has thought fit to express in these Me- 
moirs of his illustrious relative. In 
despite of that difference however we 
thimk him for the volumes before us. 
He has piously, if not always dis- 
creetly, acted upon the poet^s wish to 
be known by his works alone, and has 
furnished the public with a very use- 
ful commentary upon those works. Of 
Wordsworth hunself it is scarcely pos- 
sible to speak with too much reve- 
rence. His integrity as a man, his 
sincerity as an artist, his exemption 
from the passions which so often de- 
form, and from the follies which so 
often degrade, men of genius, his ho- 
nourable poverty, his studious energy, 
his almost scriptural simplicity of nfe 
and demeanour, invest nim, perhaps 
beyond any poet of the present cen- 
tury, with claims to the homage of his 
countrymen. We have already re- 
marked that the proper employment 
of these Memoirs is to serve as a run- 
ning commentary upon Wordsworth's 
poems. We shall now accordingly 
avail ourselves of their contents to il- 
lustrate, so far as our remaining space 
permits, the character of the poet by 
extracts relating to his habits of life, 
of thought, and composition. 

The following passages from Words- 
worth's memoranda exemplify the 
structure of his poems. 

Speaking of the poem " We are 
Seven," he says : — 

" This was written at Alfoxden, in So- 
mersetshire, in the spring of 1798, under 
circamstances somewhat remarkable. The 
Uttle girl, who is the heroine, I met with 
in the area of Goderich Castle, in the year 
1793. 

" I composed it while walking in the 
grove at Alfozden. I composed the last 
stanza first, having begun with the last 
Une. When it was aS but finished I 
came in and recited it to Mr. Coleridge 
and my sister, and said, 'A prefatoij 
stanza must be added, and 1 should sit 
down to our little tea-meal with greater 
pleasure if my task was finished.' I 
mentioned in substance what I wished to 
be expressed, and Coleridge immediately 
threw off the stanza thus : 

A little child, dear brother Jem* 
I 



I objected to the rhyme 'dear brother 
Jem,' as being ludicrous ; but we all en- 
joyed the joke of hitching in our friend 
James Tobin's name, who was familiarly 
called Jem. He was the brother of the 
dramatist. The said Jem got a sight of 
the * Lyrical Ballads,' as it was going to 
press at Bristol, during which time I was 
redding in that city. One erening be 
came to me with a grave face, and said, 
•Wordsworth, I have seen the volume 
that Coleridge and you are about to pub- 
lish. There is one poem in it which I 
earnestly entreat you will cancel, for, if 
published, it will make you everlastingly 
ridiculous.' I answered that I felt much 
obliged by the interest he took in my 
good name as a writer, and begged to 
know what was the unfortunate piece he 
alluded to. He said ' It is called, We are 
Seven,' * Nay,' said I, ' that shaU Uke 
its chance, howerer ; ' and he left me in 
despair.'* 

The Idiot 5ay.— Alfoxden, 1798. 

" The last stanza, ' The cocks did crow, 
and the moon did shine so cold,' was the 
foundation of the whole. The words were 
reported to me by my dear friend Thomas 
Poole ; but I have since heard the same 
reported of other idiots. Let me add, 
that this long poem was composed in the 
groves of Alfoxden, almost extempore; 
not a word, I beliere, being corrected, 
though one stanza was omitted. I men- 
tion this in gratitude to those happy 
moments, for, in truth, I never wrote 
anything with so much glee.'* 

** Peter Bell was founded upon an 
anecdote which I had read in a newspaper, 
of an ass being found hanging his head 
over a canal, in a wretched posture. Upon 
examination a dead body was found in the 
water, and proved to be the body of its 
master. In the woods of Alfoxden I used 
to take great delight in noticing the habits, 
tricks, and physiognomy of asses ; and I 
hare no doubt that I was put upon writing 
the poem of * Peter Bell ' out of liking for 
the creature that is so often dreadfully 
abused. The countenance, gait, and figure 
of Peter were taken from a wild rover 
with whom I walked from Builth, on the 
river Wye, downwards, nearly as far as 
the town of Hay. He told me strange 
stories. It has always been a pleasure to 
me, through life, to catch at every oppor- 
tunity that has occurred in my rambles 
of becoming acquainted with this class of 
people. The number of Peter's wives was 
taken from the trespasses, in this way, of 
a lawless creature who lived in the county 
of Durham, and used to be attended by 
many women, sometimes not less than 
half a dozen, as disorderly as himself; 



185L] 



William Wordsworth, 



113 



and a story went iu the country, tbflt lie 
had li€en heard to say while they were 
quMrellin^, 'Why can't you be quiet, 
tbere^s none so many of you?* lienouiV or 
the child of sorrow, I knew when I was 
a Bchool-hoy. His mother had heen de* 
serted by a gcntleiuftn in the ncigbbour- 
hood, she herself being a gentlewoman by 
birth* The crescent moon, which makeB 
«uch a figure in the prologue, assumed 
this character one evening while 1 was 
watching its beauty in front of Alfoidea 
House. The worship of the Methodists 
or Ranters is often heard during the still- 
QCBS of the summer evening, in the country, 
with {ttfecting accompaniments of rural 
beauty. In both the psalmody and voice 
of the preacher there is, not un frequently, 
much solemnity likely to impress the 
feeling^a of the rudest characters under 
favourable circumstances.'* 

We have incutioned alreatly the sa- 
lutary influence which Miss Wonla- 
worth's genius exercised upon her 
brother's nilnrj. He was scarcely less 
fortunate in the character and sym- 
pathy of his brother John, a captaia 
in the East India Company';! service. 
John Wordsworth hatl been sent early 
to 6ea, and hia education had been the 
common training of nautical niuix Elly 
years ago. But he was a man of 
earnest aspirations for knowledge and 
of the most active and tender scnsibi- 
Uties. Like then* sister, he felt no 
misgivings as to his brother*B iuturc 
fam^, and contributed, as far as h\y in 
in hi* power, to secure f\j\: liini the 
exemptions from professional labour 
which hid devotion to the one object of 
poetry required, or was supposed to 
require, 

"It had been," says his nephew* 
'* Captain Wordswortli^s intention," 
after one more voyage to the East^ 
" to settle Qt Grasinere, and to devote 
the surplus of his fortune (for be was 
not married) to his brother' :< u«e ; so 
M to set bis mind entirely at rest, that 
lie might be able to pursue his poetical 
Libours with undivided attention." 
But in February 1805 this fair pros- 
pect was at once destroyed by the 
wreck of his ship, the Abergavenny 
Eftflt-Indiaraan, on the shambles of 
the Bill of Portland. " A few minutes 
before the ghii> went down Captain 
Wordfworth was seen talking with 
the first mate, with apparent cheer- 
Allneas ; and he was standing on the 
li^n-coop, which Is the munt from 
ainT. Mao* Vol., XXXYL 



which he could overlook the whok 
ship, the moment she went down, 
dymg, as he had lived, in the very 
place and point where hia duty sta- 
tioned him/* The elements of the 
character of *' Wordsworth's Happy 
Warrior " wei^ many of them taken 
from this excellent brother. In 1801 
Captain W'ordsworth thus wrote to a 
friend respecting hid brother's Lyricul 
Ballads. 

*• I do not thiuk that Wiliiam'* poetry 
will become popubr for some time to 
come ; it docs not suit the present taate. 
I was in company the other evening with 
a gentleman who had read the * Cumher- 
land Beggar.' * Why,' says he, * this i« 
very pretty ; but you may call it anything 
but poetry/ The truth is, few people 
rend poetry; they buy it for the name, 
read about tiieiity lines, the language is 
very fiue, and they are coDtent with prais- 
iog the whole. Most of \Villijtni/« poetry 
Improves upon thesecond^ rhirdp or fourth 
reading. Now, people in geaeral are not 
sufficiently interested to try a second 
readiog.*' 

In another letter, from which our 
limits will not permit us to extract, 
the same i»rediction is repeated in even 
iitronger terms, Cupyin\\'ordsworth'^ 
love of nature, ana his study, during 
his long voyages, of the elder English 
bards, had imparted to him a pre- 
science in whicn, at llic tinted he had 
few copartnery. 

From the following pasaage lu Miss 
Wordsworth's Journal we learn the 
origin of her brother s exquisite poem, 

Sweet highland girl, a very shower 
Of beauty is thy curthly dower I He. 

*■* When we were begiiming to descend 
the hill towardit Looh Lomond we over- 
tcM)k two giib, who told us we could not 
croas the ferry till evening, for the boat 
was gone with a number of people to 
church. One of the girla was exceedingly 
beautiful \ and the figures of both of them, 
in grey plaids falling to their feet, their 
faces only being uncovered, excited oar 
attention before we ^poke to them ; bat 
they answered ut bo sweetly that we were 
qnite delighted, at the same time that they 
stared at us with an innocent took of 
woudcr. I think I never beard the Eng- 
lish language ^oiind more itweetly than 
from the mouth of the elder of these girli?, 
while she *tood at the gate an&weriug our 
inquiries, her face flushed with the rain ; 
her pruQunciatioii wa:^ clear and distinct^ 
without difficulty^ yet stow, as if like a 



114 



Williafn fVordiworth. 



[Aogr. 



fdretgD speech. They told us that we 
aright sit in the ferry-house till the return 
of the boat, went in with us, and made a 
good fire as fast as possible to dry our wet 
clothes. We were glad to be housed with 
oijir feet upon a warm hearth-stone, and 
our attendants were so active and good 
humoured that it was pleasant to have 
to desire them to do anything. The elder 
made me think of Peter Bell's Highland 
girl:- 

As light and beauteous as a squirrel, 
As beauteous and as wild.*' 

In the next extract we find the ge- 
nesis of a very important portion of 
Wordsworth's poetry : — 

" In the cottage of Town End, one af- 
ternoon in 1801, my sister read to me the 
Sonnets of Milton. I had long been well 
acquainted with them, but I was particu- 
larly struck on that occasion with the dig- 
nified simplicity and majestic harmony 
that runs through most of them — in cha- 
racter so totally different from the Italian, 
•Bd still more so from Shakspeare's fine 
sonnets. I took fire, if I may be allowed 
to say so, and produced three sonnets the 
same afternoon, the first I ever wrote, ex- 
cept an irregular one at school. Of ^ese 
three the only one I distinctly remember 
is * I grieved for Bonaparte,' 9lc.; one of 
the oUiers was never written down ; the 
third, which was I believe preserved, I 
cannot particularise." 

And in a sentence or two from a 
letter of recollections of a Tour in 
Italy in 1837, addressed to the editor 
hf Wordsworth's accomplished friend 
Mr. H. C. Robinson, we have a glimpse 
of the manner in which objects of uni- 
versal interest brought to his mind 
absent objects dear to him : — 

" When we were on that noble spot, the 
amphitheatre at Nismes, I observed his 
eyes fixed in a direction where there was 
the least to be seen ; and, looking that 
way, I beheld two very young children at 
play with flowers ; and I overheard him 
say to himself, ' Oh ! you darlings, I wish 
I 0(nild put you in my pockety and carry 
yon to Rydal Mount.'* 

tVith one more specimen of Mr. 
Wordsworth's " studies " we must bring 
this portion of our extracts to a close — 

"I have been often asked,*' writes Mr. 
Robinson, in the letter from which we 
have just cited, "whether Mr. W. wrote 
anything on the journey, and toy answer 
has always been < Little or nothing.* Seeds 
were cast into the earth, and they took 
root slowly. This reminds me that I onoe 



was privy to the conception of a sonnet, 
with a distinctness which did not once 
occur on the longer Italian journey. This 
was when I accompanied him into the Isle 
of Man. We had been drinking tea with 
Mr. and Mrs. Cookson, and left them 
when the weather was dull. Very soon 
after leaving them we passed the church 
tower of Biala Sala. The upper part of 
the tower had a sort of friexe of yellow 
lichens. Mr. W. pointed it oat to me and 
said * It's a perpetual sunshine.' I thought 
no more of it till I read the beautiful 
sonnet, 

Broken in fortune, but in mind entire ; 
and then I exclaimed, I was present at 
the conception of this sonnet, at least of 
the combination of thought out of which 
it arose." 

We have already observed Words- 
worth's willingness to make his own 
writings the subject of discourse and 
even piercing disquisition. He was, 
however, a generous and even pro- 
found critic of the works of others ; 
and the following remarks are at once 
valuable in themselves and charac- 
teristic of their author. They are 
selected from many more of equal 
worth which the reader will find in 
the sixty-third chapter of the second 
volume. His observations upon Homer 
anticipate briefly some of^ the most 
genial paragraphs in Colonel Mure's 
recent history of Greek literature. 

" The first book of Homer appears to 
be independent of the rest. The character 
of Achilles seems to me one of the grandest 
ever conceived. There is something awful 
in it, particularly in the circumstance of 
his acting under an abiding foresight of 
his own death. One day, conversing with 
t'ayne Knight and Uvedale Price concern- 
ing Homer, I expressed my admiration of • 
Nestor's speech, as eminently natural, 
where he tells the Greek leaders that they 
are mere children in comparison with the 
heroes of oid whom he had known. ' But,* 
said Knight and Price, *that passage is 
spurious 1' However, I will not part with 
it, it is interesting to compare the same 
characters (Ajax, for instance) as treated 
by Homer, and then afterwards by the 
Greek dramatists, and to mark the dif- 
ference of handling. In the plays of 
Euripides, politics come in as a disturbing 
force ; Homer's characters act on physical 
impulse. 1 admire Virgil's high moral 
tone ; for instance, that sublime * Aude, 
hospes, contemnere opes,* &c. and ' His 
dantem jura Catonem ! ' What courage and 
independencd of spirit is there ! There is 



1851.] 



William IVordfworth, 



115 



I 



nothing moftt imaginatiTe and awful than 
the pns»g& 

Arcmdes ipium 
Crerftitit ie ridisie Jovcm," &c* 

'* In describing the weight of sorrow 
and fcAj- on Dido'a tnind, Virgil shews 
gT«AC knowledge of btimtLii nature, e«- 
peciotlv in chat exquisite touch of feelings 

Hoc naum otdU| no a ipd effatA ssorori/' 

** The ministry of confession is pro- 
vided to satisfy the natural desire for sotne 
relief from the load of grte^ Here, as in 
so many other respects, the Church of 
Rome adapts herself with consummate 
skill to our nature, and ii strong by our 
weakness/' 

'* 1 cannot account for Sbakspeore's 
low estimate of bis own writings, cicept 
from the sublimity, the super-humanityi 
of his genius, TUey were iufinitely below 
his conception of what tijcy might have 
been and ought to have heen." 

** The mind often does not think when 
it thinks that it h thinking. If we were 
to give our whole soul to anything, as the 
bee does to the flower, 1 conceive there 
would be liltle difficutty in any ititellectual 
employment Hence there is no excuse 
for obscarity in writing/' 

" One of the noblest ihinp in Milton is 
the dcjiTiptiou of that sweet t|uiet morn- 
ing in the * Paradiite Hegained/ after tliat 
terrible night of howling wind and storm. 
The contrast is divine/' 

•' The works of the old Englbh dra- 
matists are the gardens of oar language/' 

*'Tlie influence of Lookers Essay was 
not due to its own merits, which are con- 
■tderable ; but to external circa mstances. 
It came forth at a happy opjHirtunity, and 
coincided with the prevalent opinions of 
the time. The Jesuit doctrines concern- 
ii^ the Papal power in deposing kings, 
and absolving subject from their allegiance, 
had driven some Protectant theologians 
to take refuge in tlic theory of the divine 
right of kings* Thi^ theory was un- 
l^alatablr to the world at large, and others 
infented the more popular doctrine of a 
social contract in its place ; a doctrine 
which history refutes. But Locke did what 
he could to accommodate this principle to 
his owo system.'' 

** The Tragedy of Othello, Plato's re- 
cords of the last scenes of the career of 
Socrates* and Isaac Walton's Life of 
George Herbert, are the most pathetic of 
human compositions/' 

The biographical details of these 
Toltuues are so few in iiumher uiul so 
little Vivried lu character that we have 
oot attempted to abridge them« and in 
the foregoing reumrks haTe nearly 



confined uurMelye* to the coosidera- 
tioD of the memoir as a coiaaientary 
on the works of Wordsworth. A few 
changes of iibodei fre^jaetit wanderings 
in Grciit Britain^ occasional tours on 
the con tin en tt a ccaaeles^s round of 
study in the open air, and reading the 
beat books at home, family dutie;^ and 
pleasures, the cultivation and improve- 
ment of hta plot of ground at liydat 
Mount, and the society of wise and 
good men, compose the simple yet 
noble annals of the $elf*sustaincd and 
art-devoted poet. His honours ac* 
cumulated with increase of age ; and 
it was no oi-dinary addition to the 
claiinst of the late Sir liobert Peel to 
hiB country's gratitude that he was 
mainly inatrumental in procuring Ibr 
Sou they his second and larger pen- 
eion^ and for \\^ordA worth the laureate 
wreath as the visible crown and con- 



>ays m 
\r, Dr 



had already earned for himself, ur* 
Wordsworth's memoirs of Ins relative 
are sufHeient for iramediate purixiscs ; 
with some defcets^ which we liave 
fineely exposed, they pre^jcnt us with a 
faithful outline of their original. But 
the liveii of both Soutbey and Words- 
worth remain to be written, ami, per- 
haps, cannot l>e written satisfactorily 
until a generation or two shall have 
passed awaj. We will conclude our 
account of the volumes before us with 
Words w or th*s toucliing refleetion£^ in 
a letter to an American correspondent, 
upon his own isurvivorship among the 
|joets of hb generation. 

** My aliseoce from home was not of 
more than three weeks, t took thejonmey 
to London solely to pay my ri^ects to 
the Quern tipon my appointment to the 
laareateahip upon the decease of my fnend 
Mr. Soutbey. The weather was Terycold, 
and 1 caogl^ an inflammation in one of 
my eyes, whkh rendered my stay in the 
south very uncomfortable. I nevertheless 
did^ in respect to the ohjcct of my jooraey, 
all that vras rei|uired. The reception 
given me by tbe Queen at her ball was 
most gracious. Mrs. Everett, the wife of 
your minister^ amoog many otliers, was a 
witness to it, without knowing who I was. 
it moved her to tlio shedding of tears. 
ThiH effect WHS in part produced, I suppose, 
by America a babiU of feeling, as pertaining 
to a republican government. To see a 
gray-haired man of sefenty>five years of 
age kneeling down in a large assembly to 
ki6s the hand of a youag woutau is a 



ILmA. 



116 



Letter ofBossuet respecting the Death of [Aug. 



sight for which institutions essentially 
democratic do not prepare a spectator of 
either sex, and must naturally place the 
opinions upon which a republic is founded, 
and the sentiments which support it, in 
strong contrast with a government based 
and upheld as ours is. I am not, there- 
fore, surprised that Mrs. Eyerett was 
moved, as she herself described to persons 
of my acquaintance, among others to Mr. 
Rogers the poet. By the by, of this gentle- 
man, now, I believe, in his eighty -third 
year, 1 saw more than of any other person 
except my host, Mr. Moxon, while I was 
in London. He is singularly fresh and 
strong for his years, and his mental facul- 
ties (with the exception of his memory a 
little), not at all impaired. It is remark- 
able that he and the Rev. W. Bowles 
were both distinguished as poets when I 
was a school-boy, and they have survived 
almost all their eminent contemporaries. 



several of whom came into notice long 
after them. Since they became known 
Bums, Cowper, Mason, the author of 
*Car«ctacus* and friend of Gray, have 
died. Thomas Warton, laureate, then 
Byron, Shelley, Keats, and, a good deal 
later, Scott, Coleridge, Crabbe, Southey, 
Lamb, the Ettrick shepherd, Gary, the 
translator of Dante, Crowe, the author of 
Lewesdon Hill, and others of more or less 
distinction, have disappeared. And now, 
of English poets advanced in life, I cannot 
recall any but James Montgomery, Thomas 
Moore, and myself who are living, except 
the octogenarian with whom I began." 

The list of eminent departed con- 
temporary poets would have been com- 
Elete if the name of Felicia Hemans 
ad not escaped for the moment the 
recollection of the venerable survivor. 



LETTER OF BOSSUET RESPECTING THE DEATH OF HENRIETTA 
ANNE, DUCHESS OF ORLEANS, YOUNGEST DAUGHTER OF 
' • CHARLES I. 



HENRIETIA, Duchess of Orleans, 
equally illustrious for beauty, wit, and 
noble descent, died suddenly, and with 
terrible bodilj suffering, at the age of 
twentj-six, on the 30th June, 1670. 
She was born at Exeter on the 16th 
June, 1644. During the month of 
May, 1670, she visited England, and 
passed a fortnight with her brother 
Charles II. at Dover. By the in- 
fluence of her talent and her beauty, 
and perhaps even still more by that 
of the *' baby-face," as Evelyn terms 
it, of her attendant, Louise de Que- 
rouaille, afterwards Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, she linked her susceptible 
brother and his unfortunate kingdom 
to France and French interests, and, 
parting from him early in June, the 
admired of two great nations, was, in 
three weeks afterwards, suddenly num- 
bered with the dead. Well might 
Bossuet find in such a striking display 
of the uncertjiinty of life a theme for 
one of the noblest efforts of his elo- 
quence. 

All (Ik! world believed that she died 
by poiMni, adinlnistercd, as was siis- 
])C(^tL'<l, l»y (»nlor of her husbaiul, in a 
glass (if succory, or, as wo now lerni it, 
r!iicory-waUT. She herself believed 
that she was poisone<l. The English 



ambassador, Montagu, afterwards the 
Duke of that name, writing home to 
Charles II. says, " I asked her then if 
she believed herself poisoned. Her 
confessor that was by, understood that 
word, and told her, *• Madam, you must 
accuse nobody, but offer up your death 
to God as a sacrifice.* So she would 
never answer me that question, though 
I asked several times, but would only 
shrink up her shoulders.** What was 
thought and written upon the subject 
by John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, 
in a letter to his wife, may be read in 
our ^Magazine for July, 1773, pp. 324-5, 
and it appears from Burnet and his 
annotators, that the impression that 
she was murdered by her husband was 
universally entertained. 

Upon this subject a letter was dis- 
covered a few years ago in France, 
which, we believe, has not been made 
known to English historical readers. 
Written by no less a person than Bos- 
suet himself, and within a few days 
after her death, it contains a clear ac- 
count of what he saw of that melan- 
choly cvi'iit. The interest of the in- 
cident is as great in England [is in 
France, an<l we shall therefore publish 
the letter, subjoining a translation, as 
the French is partly obsolete. 



185 K] 



Ilmrietia Ann€f Duvhesi o/^ Or! earn- 



117 



I 



The Ducbcbj} whb seized with her 
liital ilhiess on tlii- evening of the *2i>tli 
June, 1670* Uuderstaodiiig her dau- 
ger, she requested that Bijssuet might 
be sent for. " Let him eonie instan tly,'' 
she exclaimed, " or it will be too lak?!' 
The result appear-i in the following 
letter : — 

'* JuilM^ 1670.— J e crols que vbus 
aurez s«jea que je fus tveille, k nuit tlu 
dimfmcbe au lundy, par onhe de Monaieiir, 
pour aller assister jMadame, qui estoit li 
Tcxtr^niite .\ Saint-CJoud, et qui me de- 
inaudoit &ven crapressemeut. Je la trouvai 
avec uue pleinc counoissancc, parlant et 
faisant (oules chores sails t rouble , sans 
ofitentatfon, sans effort ct aaus violence^ 
mais si Wen et si K propos^ avec tant de 
courage ct de pUt**, ipie j'en suts encore 
hors de mor. Elle avnit dejjl reccu toua 
lea sacrements, meme rexrr<5me-oricttoii, 
qu'elte avoit demand 6e au curt, qui luy 
avoit apport» le viatique, ct qu'ello pre€- 
aoit toujours, afin de Ics recevoir avec 
coDDOissance. Je fus une hture aupr^s 
d'elle, et lui tJs rendre les demiera soupira 
enbaltant le crucifix, qu'ellc tint k la maio, 
attach^ A sa houche, taut qu'il luy resta 
dc foree. EUe nc fut qu*un moment sans 
coQDolssaoce. Tout co qu'elle a dit au 
Roj, it Mon-^ieur et ?i tons ceujt qui l*en- 
vironnoicnt^ estoit court, pK-cis et d'uu 
ieotimeot Admirable. Jamais priiicesBC n'a 
^t^ plus regrettpe, ni plus admir^c ; et, ce 
qui est pins rr.crveilleuXtCst que, s<? sent- 
ant frapp^t-e^ d'abord, elle ne ])arla que dt 
Dieuj aans t^moigner le ojoiudre regret, 
quoiqu' elle i^exkMl que aa mort alhjit estre, 
assur^meut, tr^a-agr^ble a Dieu, commc 
ia vie avoJC ett^ trea-glorieuse, par ramiti£ 
et la confiauoe dc deux grands rois, Elle 
s'^da^ autaut (qu'elle put, en preoant tous 
les reoK^des avec eccur; mais elle n'a 
jamais dit un mot dc plain te de ce qu^iU 
n'op^roicot pas, disaut seulement qu*H 
falhit mourir dam Itsformet, 

*• On a otivert son corps, avec grand 
concottrs dc medicitis, de chirurgiens et dc 
toute sorte de gens, ^ caui^ qu'ayaot com- 
menc^ a sentir des douleurs extremes en 
bavatit troia gorg^e* d'eau de chicor^e, 
que lui d^nna la plu.s iutime e.i la plus 
eht^re de sea femuies, elle avoit dit, d'abord, 
qo^elle estoit empoisonn^e, M. rambas- 
ladeur d'Angleterre ct tous les Anglais 
qui sont iei, t'avoieut presquo crft ; raaij 
ronve^rture du coips fut uno nianifcate 
coaTiclion du contmire, puisque Ton n*y 
trouva rien de sain que I'eatoraac et le 
cceur. qui s^ont Ifis preuiitres porLics atla- 
qu<^cs psr le poison ; joint que Monsieur, 



qui avoLt donnc a boire a madamc la 
duehesse dc Meckclbourg, qui s'y trouva, 
nclicva de boire le reste de ta boiiteille, 
pour rasstirer Madame ; ce qui fut cause 
que son esprit se remit aussitoat^ et qu^elle 
ne paria plus de poison que pour dire 
qii'eth avfjit cru d^abord etdre empoison- 
itiepar mtpriae ; ce sont les propres mots 
qu'elle dit a M* Ic luar^chal de Gram moot. 
Jo fus porter la nouvelle de la mort dc 
Madnmc, a ^Monsieur, qn^on atoit con- 
duit dans son cabin«:t d'cn bas, malgre 
lui^ et je trouvai ce prince eoticrcment 
abattu et ne recevaut de consolation que 
sur les bonnes dispoi^itions qvie Madame 
avoit fait paroistre eu mourant. 

** Lc mesme jour, je fus ii Versailles, 
oil le roj, quoiqu'il east pris medicine, 
me eommanda d'entrer aupres de lui et Ini 
raconter ce que j*avois vn ; il avoit le 
coBfir serre et lalarme k I'oeil, et a trouv^ 
bon que, prenant rinstruction sur lui- 
m^^me, dans un si terrible accident, j'e lui 
fisse fflire dcs r<?flexianSt telles qu^nii 
bomme de mn profession les devoit pro- 
poser en cette conjoncture. M. le Prince 
pa rut fort content dc ce qae je dis, et il 
me dit que le roy en estoit touch^ et toute 
la cour Miffite. 

** L'on m'a apporto Fordre dc Sa Ma- 
jesty, pour I'oraifion fun^bre a Saint-Deuis, 
dans trots semaines. 

^* Avant bier, Roxe me dit que cette 
bonne princesse ne s'estoit suurcuue que 
de moi geul, et qu'elle avait commande 
qn'on me domitit une bogue. J'ai depuis 
s^eu qu*elle en avoit donn^ Pordre, du- 
ra at un moment de temps, que \t nac re- 
tirai d'aaprt's d'elle, ni'ayant demand^^ un 
pen de repo& ; elle mc rappcla aussitost, 
sans me parler d*iiulre cbose que de Dieu 
et me digant qu^cUe iilloit mourir, et, en 
cffet, elle mi on rut aussitost aprcs. 

'^ J. B. EvESttUK DE CoNUOM/' 
rKANSLATtON. 

** I believe you are aware that I vrai 
awoke in the nig bt betireen Sunday and 
Monday, by order of Monsieur,* tbat I 
might go to the assistance of Madame, 
who was dying at Saint Cloud and ear* 
neatly desired to see me. T found ber 
quite senijibte, speaking and doing all 
kinds of things without confusion, ostcn- 
tation, effort, or excitement, but all so 
calmly and properly, with such courage 
and piety, that even yet the rccolJection 
of it surprises me. She had already re- 
ceived oil tbe sacraments, even extreme 
unci ion, >vbi*:h she had requeattd from 
thtJ parish prieat, who bad bruught her 
tbe viaiicum. She had urged forward its 



• Philip Dttke of Orleans, brother of Iiouii XIV. 



118 



Lelttr of Bouuet. 



[Aug. 



reception that she might partake of it 
whilst entirely seosihlc. I remained bj 
her side an hour, and saw her yield her 
last breath, keeping the crucifix, which 
she held in her hand, resting upon her 
month, as long as any strength remained. 
She was insensible only for a single mo- 
mimt. All that she said to the King, to 
Monsieur, and to those who stood rovnd 
her couch was brief, to the point, and in 
excellent feeling. Never was princess 
more regretted or more admired, and it 
is most remarkable that when she felt her- 
self struck with death, from the first she 
spoke solely upon religions subjects, with- 
out expressing the least regret, knowing 
that her death would assuredly be most 
agreeable to God, as her life, distinguished 
by the friendship and confidence of two 

Sreat monarchs, had been moat glorious, 
he acquiesced in all the medical treat- 
ment, taking the prescribed medicines 
cheerfully, sind never uttering a word of 
complaint that they did not produce relief. 
She merely remarked that she must die 
in the same way as other people. 

'* Her body has been opened, in the 
presence of a large concourse of physi- 
cians, surgeons, and people of all kinds, 
because having first felt great agony im. 
mediately after drinking three mouthfuls 
of succory water, handed to her by the most 
iatimate and most attached of her ladies, 
she exclaimed, on the instant, that she was 
poisoned. The English ambassador, and all 
the English people who are here, almost 
believed that it was so, but the opening of 
the body gave clear proof to the contrary, 
for the stomach and heart, which are first 
affected by poison, were the only parts of 
the body in perfect henlth ; added to 
which, MoDsieur, who had poured out the 
drink for Madame, and the Duchess of 
Mecklenburgh, who was present, drank 
up what remained in the bottle, in order 
that Madame might be convinced. That 
circumstance changed her mind immedi- 
ately. She spoke no more of poison, ex- 
cept to remark, that at first she believed 
that she had been poisoned by mistake. 
These are the very words which she made 
use of to the Marshal de Grammont. 

*' I had to carry the news of Madame*s 
death to Monsieur, who, against his own 



inclination, had been persuaded to retire 
to hu study on the lower floor. I found 
the prince entirely overwhelmed, and in- 
capable of receiving any consolation, ex- 
cept from a consideration of the excellent 
state of mind in which Madame had died. 

** The same day T went to Versailles, 
where the king, although he had taken 
medicine, commanded that I should be 
admitted to his private chamber that I 
might tell him what I had seen. He was 
heart-broken, and his eyes were full of 
tears, and he was pleased that, taking 
upon me the office ^f instructor, I 
should give utterance to such reflections 
upon an incident so terrible as a man of 
my profession ought to make at such a 
time. Monsieur, the prince, seemed well 
pleased with what I said, and told me that 
the king was affected by it and the whole 
court edified. 

*' I have received his mijesty's com- 
mands to deliver the funerid oration at 
St. Denis three weeks hence. 

" The day before yesterday Eoze told 
me that this excellent princess had left 
no remembrance to any one save myself, 
having comipanded that I should have a 
ring. I have since learnt that she gave 
the order during an instant that 1 left her 
bedside, having requested permission to 
retire for a httle rest. She called me 
back again in a few moments, and, with- 
out uttering a word, exoept an appeal to 
the Almighty and telUng me that she was 
about to die, she expired immediately. 

'* J. B. Bishop db Condom." 

lliis letter occurs in the M^moires 
of Philibert de U Mare, a learned and 
eminent person, who died on the 16th 
May, 1687. Several of his works 
remain in MS. in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, and amongst them these 
Memoirs. The letter haviDg been 
referred to, although inaccurately, by 
the abb^ Papillon in his BibiiotMqtte 
dea Auteurs de Bourgogne (fol. 1727, i. 
68), it was searched for by Mons. A. 
Floquet, an eminent French antiquary, 
and by him communicated to the 
BibiioAeaue de TEcole dea Chartes, 
vol. I. 2na Series, p. 174. B. 



119 



I 



CURlOsrTIES OF THE OLD CHURCH CANONS. 

No. II. 

I And tb« Lftwof Marringe— Mfttrimonml J Hsubilities— Slavery mud &I ft rriatc^— Marriage 
FMtIriti(»^Prpvaknc« of Slavery la Engtand niid Spain— Efforts of tlic Church to dlminiih 
SlaTcry— Tbie Oiurch aod the Jews— Horseflesh, Pagaaiflm, SuperatUioin and Sorcery— 
Sortea Sauctoruui— An Ecccntrir Heretic— Tlie Itliacians— AsCbtiatn, 



A LARGE portinTi of the emion 
law as enacted by the Tarious caiincilsf 
relalcs, ns bod been obsenred, to the 
subject of riiarriage. It has always 
been a favourite topic with the canon - 
ifftfti wIk) hare treated it, for the moat 
pat% In a spirit that is ncithor credit* 
able to their sense of decency nor 
COD distent with their professions of 
morality. This criticising howevert is 
due rather to the ^los3 than the text, 
for the canons themselves are ob- 
noxious to no Buch abjectiana as their 
comment atora. 

It is curious to observe to what 
singular regulations t!ie policy of the 
Roman Church, in retjuinng strict 
celibacy of its ministers, gave riae. 
When a married mun— and the thing 
WB» Dot unfrequent in earlier times * — 
waa ordained priest, or deacon, or sub* 
deacon, or a^sume^l the habit and en- 
tared a house of one of the regular 
ortlers, he separated himself from hif» 
wile; the tonsure wa^ the iign and 
token of nn abfsolute divorcCi and to 
all intents and purpfi^e?* he forfeited 
hb marital rights. Hut his wife was 
forbidden to ninrry, although she had 
no longer a busban*], nor couhl she 
nuury even after his death. (CC. 
Borneo 721—744, vi. p. 14^5— lo4<i.)t 
A husband also who bad allow (^d \m 
wife to take the veil was in like uianiicr 
not suflered again to marry (C. Ver- 
beric, 753, vi. p. lf>56), although, in- 
deed^ it is not ijuite certain whether 
km deftth would not reUeve him from 
Ibis djMbtliijt A Council of Toledo 



(683, vi. p. 1253), prohibited queens 
consort to contract, after their hus* 
•bands' deaths a second marriage, even 
with persons of kingly birth ? and a 
subsequent council (Sarago^Ha, 691, 
vi* jj. 1311), enjoined them at once to 
enter a retigious order, anrl thereby 
protect themselves from the slights and 
the disrespect which their altered con- 
dition would otherwise entail on them* 
Perhaps it is not generally known 
thjit until the Council of Trent (1564), 
which iibuii/ihed many such matri- 
monial impediments, a godparent was 
prohibited to marry his or her god- 
child» or any pnrent of such ^od- 
ebLldi nor could a per^ijou baptising 
(the rite was not uii frequently ad- 
ministered by the laily)^ under any 
circumstances, marry the person so 
baptise^l. Our fair readers will re- 
joice that their lot ha.s l^een cast in 
the nineteenth rather than the ninth 
century, when they leurn that hjr the 
Council of Paris, hehl S29 (vii. p. 
1590), if was decreed that no woman 
should Jiiarrv until fhirtt/ dat/s after 
her hutjband^s death, nor until that 
time had elapsed could she even take 
the veil, llioy understand these afl'airs 
I letter in Paris now -a- days. They 
have shuffled ofi' the evil of middle- 
age ignorance, and released the widow 
from the operation of all such barbarous 
legislation. 

The ren.^unable causes of divorce, M 
enumerated in the Ckiuncil of Verberic 
(7*'>3), afford striking illustrations of 
the manners of the age.J If a man's 



* The BCTeatb Canon of the first council of Toledo, 400 (ij. p. 1225), aatbortses 
clerks whose wives do not lead (what they consider) de^roroua lives to bind them or 
•hut th«ni up and make them fast. Perpetual imprisonment was a somewhat heavy 
pooishment for a little innocent tlirtiog, or an irresiatihie iKclination to unlimited loo i 

t Tbe volume and page figures refer to the g^rent collection of the Canons edited by 
Labhe and Cossart. Parttt, 1671* 

I The Hungarian fathers were severe upon matrimonial tnfidelily. When a woinan 
had thrice deserted her huiband she was, if of noble birth, to he put tn penance and 
nerer again to be restored to him ; if of low origin slic was to be *old as a sJare. A like 
pantihrnent attached to a husband who falsely slandered hiJi wifc'i virtue or deserted 
her through mere dislike. In this htter (>aae the wife had Uben^ U» c^wMMt t^oXW^ 
Iwabaod, ' (C. mrigoaim or Gno, 1114.) 




120 



Curiosities of the Old Church Canons. 



[Aug. 



wife plots against his life he may put 
her away and marry another ; whoever 
shall marry a slave, under the im- 
pression that she is free, may also 
marry again ; married slaves who may 
chance to be sold to different masters, 
although there be no probability of 
their ever meeting again, are not 
thereby released from their marriage 
tie ; when a man from circumstances 
quits his home and settles elsewhere, 
and his wife, from affection to hei* 
country, kindred, or wealth, declines 
to accompany him in his migration, 
he is at liberty to take unto himself 
another wife, and his stay-behind 
madam must, as best she can, manage 
without a husband. How far this is 
equitable let the ladies judge. 

The Council of Vannes (465, iv. p. 
1054), absolutely forbids all persons 
in orders attendmg any marriage fes- 
tivities at which love songs were sung ;* 
but the fathers at Constantinople in 
691 (vi. p. 1124), are less severe in 
their prohibition, permitting spiritual 
persons to be present at such enter- 
tainments, but enjoining them "to rise 
and gaaway before anything ridiculous 
is introduced." What this may mean 
it is not easy to pronounce — it might 
have been slippmg crumbs of cake 
through the bndal ring— or a prosy 
epeech from the bride's father — or the 
giggling of black-eyed bridesmaids — 
or kissing the bride — or anything else. 
£n passant it may be observed that 
the popular music of the ^* marrow- 
bone and cleaver," which is still fa- 
miliar to London streets, was appa- 
rently not unknown in the fifleenth 
century, the council of Angers (1448, 
xiii. p. 1352) having distinctly de- 
nounced " the silly tumult and noise 
made in derision when any one mar- 
ries a second or third tune,t com- 
monly called Charivari.^'' This was the 
" marrow bone and cleaver," without 
a shadow of doubt. We do not recol- 



lect in the course of our canonist 
studies a piece of legislation conceived 
in a more considerate spirit than this 
canon of the wise conclave of " the 
black city " of the Loire. 

From the state of husband and wife 
we proceed to consider that of master 
and serf, as understood in mediaeval 
times. 

We learn from the Council of Water- 
ford (about 1158, X. p. 1183,) that the 
English were in the habit of selling 
their children as slaves to the Irish, 
and this not from the pressure of ex- 
treme want, but from sheer cupidity. 
The council directed that all the Eng- 
lish slaves throughout the country 
should be forthwith emancipated, in 
order to avert the expected manifesta- 
tion of the Divine wrath. The Coun- 
cil of Armagh (1171), which by some 
writers is supposed to be the same as 
the last mentioned, published a similar 
decree, and, moreover, acknowledged 
the political subordination of Ireland 
to England. In fact, in days of old, 
England seems to have been the hot- 
bed of slavery. No where did that 
atrocious vice tiourish with greater 
luxuriance. The Council of Lanham 
(Ensham, Oxon), held about 1009 (ix. 
789), forbade the selling of Christians 
into a foreign land ; Uie Council *of 
Westminster (1 102, Johnson Can.) de- 
nounced those who sell men like beasts, 
"as had hitherto been done in Eng- 
land ; " and the Council of Habam 
(1014, ix.p.807,) anathematizes all such 
as were guilty of so grievous a sin. Pur- 
suing the same policy, the Council of 
Valladolid (1322, xi. p. 1682,) excom- 
municated those who sold men and 
bartered them away as slaves to the 
Saracens. These enactments all be- 
speak the frequency of the practices 
against which they were directed, and 
the impossibility of restraining them 
by the provisions of mere temporal 
legislation. 



♦ There was perhaps some prudence in this proTision, as also in that of the CouDcil 
of Wyaco (1050, ix. p. 1063), which required that no priest should have any woman in 
his house except his mother or aunt or sister or some woman of approved character, 
and that even these should always be attired from top to toe only in black. It was, 
besides, considered that a participation in convivial entertainments was scarcely befitting 
the character of grave ecclesiatics, and accordingly in the Council of Westminster 
(1102) priests are forbidden to go to drinking bouts or to drink to pegs^* — an allusion 
to peg-tankards, now well understood. 

t It would appear from the first canon of the Council of Cashel (1171) that 
polygamy was general amongst the Irish in the latter part of the twelfth century. 
2 



1851. J 



Curios a ten nffke Old Chttrvh Canons* 



121 



In the age ofdaikiie^tiUJicl i^uoraiii-e 
it was the Churcli that nused licr 
voice, and not without success, ou be- 
half of suffering huumuity, and if she 
did not rise to the height of tJie great 
HTgumeDt which establishes innn's 
native right to personal freedom, she 
iki least Tightened the chains of hid 
bondii^o, and often opened for him 
the prison door of his thrtddom* It 
Wiis to the temples of religioQ that the 
scourged and laceratod aerf fled ibr 
j'efuge from the cruelty t>f an inhuman 
masst^ir. The Council of Orleana (oil, 
iv, p. 1403,) ordaine<l that whenever 
H slave sought sanctuary in a church 
he waij not to be surrenilered up to 
his master should a denTand for his 
exti*a*lition be madct unless this latter 
would solemnly pledge himself to do 
him no harm. Such of the clergy as 
ill-used their slaves that had sought 
on asylum in a church were to be 
deprived of their rank — this canon ts 
hat of the Council of Lorida in 524 
{iv, p, 1610) — until they had done 
''penance. Tlie priest must not minister 
at the altar of mercy who had been 
himself ministering to his own evil 
pfiMiona. The Church, it will be seen, 
Jnad slaves of its own, and it was not 
DOBual, when a master had traced 
\ fugitive serf to a church sanctuary, 
rhere protection, though of a limited 
kind, was aflbrded hira, out of revenge 
tiimseif to eieize the slaves of thatchurch 
a recompense for his own losSj and 
bis, although by so doing he incuiTeil 
Fthe jienalty of excommnnicQtion* (C* 
FOrange, 441, iii, p. 1446.) It may be 
ipresumed that tlie slaves owned by 
the Church were in their social con- 
dition more for tu mile timu tho=c that 
were the profierty of lay individuals, 
pndeed the prohibition to confer de- 
crees on them unless they had first 
een emancipated by the bishop (C: 
Toledo, B53j vi. p. 45 1 ,) invitei? the belief 
Jhey were not in all cases destitute of 
Riterarj acquirements— a belief fa- 



voured by the furtbci" prohibition to 
admit slaves of any kind to holy orders 
without the consent of their maaterti 
(C. Orleans, 54!}, v. p. 390,) which lat- 
ter prohibition was repeated by a much 
later council (C. Melfi, 1089, x. p. 476,) 
without however the qualifying ex- 
ception. In Ireland, in the middle of 
the tiftb century, the state of slavery 
was esteemed no ways incompatible 
with the duties of the priesthood, for 
there is a canon extant (456) requiring 
all clerks not being slaves to be pre- 
sent day and night at the holy office. 
It may here be remarked that, although 
the Council of Gangra (the metropolis 
of Papbhigoiiifl, between *V25 and 380, 
ii. p. 41;!,) in condemning the errom 
of Eustatbius of Sebasti, a pretende<l 
ascetic, anathematized those who taught 
that slaves might quit their masters 
under pretence of religion, yet to libe- 
nite slaves was always accounted by 
the Church an act pious and merito- 
rious*'* Thus it is directed by the 
Council of Cealchythe (perhaps Kel- 
cheth in Lancashire^ — 816, vL p. 18*31,) 
that, on the death of a bishop, all his 
English slaves should be set free, and 
that each of certain prelates and 
abbots should set free three slaves, 
and bestow on each of them three shil- 
lings. f 

\VIien we remember the jetdousy 
and dislike with which, during th« 
middleages, the Jews wei*e universally 
regarded by all Christian populations, 
and this, not simply for their i-cligious 
creed, or their presumed and indeed 
real usurious tendencies, we shall not 
be sui'prised to rend that at the end 
of the seventh century (a.i>. f>94) a 
council in Toledo (vi. i). 1361) directed 
that such Jews as had engaged in an 
insurrection against the royal autho- 
rity shonld be sold into slavery, and 
all their property confiscated. But the 
canonical legislation in reference to 
the Jews, if not conceived in an en- 
larged or liberal spirit, is much less 



• If a freeman gvft Ms iUrt meat to eat on a fast day, the ilave wm hel^ ipw^faeio 
emancipated. C. Berghamsted, vi. p. 1576. 

t It may be permiiteil here to rem ark, although the remark has no direct relefaney 

to the matter in the text, Hinl Sunday Schools, which are generally supposed to be 

iottitutioo* owing their origin wholly to Protestttnt benevolence, were ordered to be 

e«tUbli»hed by the Council of Malioea in 1570, (xv. p. 789) for die instruction, as it ia 

aited, of those who are hindered by their worldly av&catioD* firoai attending schools 

n any other day. It was permiUed to hold thera in churches ahouid no more fitting 

Splice be foaod. 

' Ge5t. Miio. Vol. XXXVl. K 



Curiosities of the Old Church Canons. 



122 



intolerant than one would be apt to 
suppose. For example, it is pleasing 
to learn that the Council or Tours 
(1236, xi. p. 503,) prohibited the Cru- 
saders ana other Christians killing, 
injuring, plundering, or in any way 
ill-using this persecuted race. The 
consideration of the humanity of this 
ptoYision — the very fact of its exist- 
ence discovers pretty plainly which way 
the current of popular feeling set at the 
time, and reconciles us to the injunction 
(C. Macon, 584, v. p. 960) that the 
Jews should stay in tneir houses from 
Maundy Thursday to Easter Monday 
— by the by, the Council of Avignon 
(1594, XV. p. 1434) limits their seclu- 
sion to Easter Eve and Easter Daj; — 
that they should keep no Christian 
servants (C. Strigonia, 1 1 14), nor act as 
judges between Christians. The Cotni- 
cil of Lateran (1215, xi. p. 117), afler 
a canon against their excessive usu- 
ries, enacted another canon excluding 
them, together with the Saracens, from 
all public offices, and directed that 
both should wear a peculiar and dis- 
tinffuishins; kind of aress, furthermore 
desirinff tnat princes would use all 
available means to prevent the utter- 
ance of blasphemies. The peculiar 
kind of dress enjoined included the 
figure of a wheel carried on the breast, 
and this symbol of their faith is re- 
quired by a variety of councils, one of 
which, in addition, forbids their work- 
ing on Sundays or festivals, and orders 
them yearly to pay at Easter a certain 
sum as an offering to the parish church. 
They were, moreover, forbidden to 
sing psalms whilst carrying their dead 
to the ffrave. (C. Narbonne, 589, v. 
p. 1027.) The fact that the Jews are 
not a proselytising people renders it 
difficult to attribute to any, except 
to the coarsest and vulgarest preju- 
dices, the canon (C. Pont-Andemar, 
1279, xi. p. 1144,) which prohibits 
Christians to dwell with Jews. 

It was not against Judaism but 
against Paganism, and the corruptions 
of Christianity, that the Church in the 
middle ages had really to wage war. 
Most of the superstitious usages which 



[An*. 



we find denounced in the canons origi- 
nated in these sources. Thtis we flnd, 
in the Council of Cealchythe M. p. 
1861), besides a general orohilnuon of 
all pagan rites, special allusion made 
to the wearing of Gentile (heaiben^ 
garments, the maiming of horses, the 
use of sorcery, and the eating of horse* 
flesh — this latter custom prevaUing, it 
is asserted, very extensively. Indeed, 
we suspect it still flourishes in con- 
siderable vigour, in the ctdsines of the 
restaurateurs of the /%r2ai> Roydle.^ The 
hostility which the canonists evinced 
towards it had, however, relation less to 
its peptical than its pagan tendencies, 
for horse and horsefl^ were intimately 
associated with the heathenism of Ger- 
many as well as of Persia. In both 
countries the horse was frequentiy 
sacrificed ; and Pope Zachary, writing 
to St. Boniface, who, as the most 
successful missionary in those parts, 
acquireil the title of the Apostie of 
Germany, advises him to put a stop 
as (luickly as lie could to the custom 
of devouring horseflesh. The prohi- 
bition to eat meat offered to idols 
under pain of exclusion fVom Christian 
communion (C. Orleans, 533, iv. p. 
1779), and under anv circumstances 
to eat of the blood of any animal (C. 
Constantinople, 691, vi. p. 1124), and 
another sentence of excommunication 
with which those were threatened who 
should swear afler the heathen fashion 
upon the head of beasts, or invoke the 
names of false gods, are all so many 
indications how long paganism lin- 

fered amongst the people* after it 
ad been formally (lisowned by go- 
vernments and the voice of the euu- 
cated classes. The Council of West- 
nxinster (1 102, Johnson's Can.) in for- 
bidding the ascription of sanctity or the 
payment of reverence to a dead body, 
or a fountain, &c. without the bishoi/s 
permission, seems to testify to the same 
fact; as does also that canon of the 
Council of Rouen, more than three 
hundred years after (1445,xiii. p. 308), 
which condemns the practice of address- 
ing prayers to images under particulai* 
tities, as "Our Lady of Recovery,*' 



• One of the canons of an Irish Council, which has been attributed to St Patrick, 
on what ground does not appear, but which probably was held about the middle of the 
fifth centary, ordains that the faithful shall not yet receive anything of the heathen 
(iniquorum) but food and clothing, and these only when absolutely necessary ; ** because 
a lamp ukes only the oil it needs to support it." (iii. p. 148 J.) 



19510 



CuriofiHes of the Old Church Canom* 



123 



I 



\ 



r 
I 



" OurLadvof Pity/' " of Consoktioor 
&o. from tie direct tendency of sadi 
practice to lead to idolatrous usnges 
snd convey idolatrous impressions. 
On a liJce principle, it waa ibrbidden 
10 observe (C* Worcester, l"i40t xi. 
p* ^72) any particuliir days or montha 
For marriage, or those superstitious 
customs which doubtless found tbeir 
origin in a yet unsubdued paganij^m. 
A few instances of such usages mixy 
be interesting. It was forbidden to 
make ofleriugs to devils (C* Berg- 
hamsted, ^9^, vl p. 576), all the 
heathen gods being so reputed ; they 
who invoke demons were to be pub* 
licly denounced und exposed, crowned 
witn a mock mitre (C. Rouen, 1445, 
xiii. p, 1303); bones were not to be 
hung up to drive away pestilence from 
cattle, nor were sorcery, divination, or 
other works of tiie devil to be practical 
(C. Lrondon, 1075, x. p. 346), By one 
council (Nar bonnet 589, v, p. 1027) 
excommunication was to be the puoiah- 
ment of those who kept conjurors in 
their houses ; these latter were to be 
publicly beaten and then sold, and their 
price given to iho jjoor. Another and 
earlier councilr with less severity (C. 
Ireland, 456, iii. p. 1478), awards ooe 
year of penance as the punishment for 
coDfulUpg wizards. A third (C. Val- 
ladolid, 1322, xi. p. 16b2) is as severe 
as the Hr&t, excommunicating dl 
Ifuards and enchanters jmd those who 
fdvise with them. The tirst Couucil 
of Favia (S50, viii. p. 61») condemns 
to a rigorous course of penance all 
ftich as deal in magical art«, prelend- 
ing to cause love or hatred by their* 
tocantations, and some of whom are 
suspected of having brought about 
death by their enchantments. The 
oflenders are not to be reconciled 
to the Church except upon tbeir 
de4th*bds. This last decree is ob- 
servable, because it plainly reveals 
the incredulity of its framers tis to the 
miraculous powers to wblrh the Mi- 
^colts of the firth century laid 
The Lombard divines seem to 
h^ive been inspired with sentiments 
such as those wliich Dry den expresses 



in his Essay on Dramatic Poetry ; 
*H>ur witches,** says he, "are justly 
hanged because they think themselves 
to be such, and suffer deservedly for 
believing they did mischief because 
they meant it. * 

I'he clergy, however, themselves, 
and in spite of all injunctions to the 
contrary^ favoured and promoted the 
superstitious feelings of their timest 
and probably shared in tbem» It was 
in vjiln that what were called the 
mrtes sanctorum were forbidden by 
council atlcr council — that the qv* 
fenders were reproved by bishopa and 
punished by synods — -the practice, as 
was said of bribery in ancient Rome,* 
flourished the more luxuriantly the 
m*eatcr the ellbrts made to subdue it. 
lu the Council of Vaniies (465, iv. 
p. 1054) it was decreed that every 
clerk should be excommunicated who 
engaged in divination and other su- 
perstitious proceedings, sucli as affect* 
ing to predict future events by chance 
readings of Holy Scripture, The 
Council of Toledtj (6i>4; iv, p* 1361) 
directs that all priests who, from a vile 
and wicked superstition, should say for 
ihe living the othce of the nui?s for the 
dead, in order therefjy to cause their 
death, should l)e excommunicated and 
perpetually imprisoned. The Council 
of Selingstad (1022, ix. ix 844,) or- 
dains that the gospel *' In principio 
erat verbum'* {fcs. John, i. 1), shall 
not be heard daily by lay people, es- 
pecially matrons, nor part ieuliir masses, 
such us the Mass of the Holy Trinity, 
or of St. Michael — an injunction, 
as a canonist remarks, which seems to 
imply that this hoxl been done, not out 
of devotion, but for purjMJsea of divi* 
nation- The Council of Trent (1564) 
is very severe on all such supersti- 
tions. In forbidding all profane use 
nf scriptural words and expressions, it 
directs that all such as make an evil 
use of them or employ them for super- 
stitious puriKises shall be punished as 
profane and impious person s.f 

Canoniciil legislation against heresy 
— real or presumed — would afford 
abundant materials for a paper in this 



• Nollo criinine tarn multnc, spud Romanoi, Istic legea, nee allie roiniw observat«. 

t Gibbon (vL 23§) gives an accoiiot of CJotis's metscngcri entering the church af 
Sit. Mftftiu of Toon, Had hearing chauntcd on thflir entrance m triumphal pialm— the 
prendre of victory to their master. The #orf^* Virgilianm imd the result of thf con- 
ittltifiiaii of them by Cliarles J. during awe of hi# vi<»it» to O^Um\ sre we|l jtnown, 




124 



CurioMes of the Old Church Canons. 



[Aug. 



series, but, for obvious reasons, we 
forbear availing ourselves of them. 
With one or two words on the subject 
we must needs rest content. 

One of the most singular heresies 
with which a council had ever to deal, 
was brought before the Ck)uncil of 
Rheims in 1184. In the form of 
Church exorcism these words occur, 
** Per eum qui venturus estjudicare vivos 
ei mortuoe (Bj him who shall come 
to judge the auick and dead); and the 
two firet words were not infrequently 
pronounced by the ignorant clergy 
**per eon!^ A fanatiod Englishman 
persuaded vast multitudes, and, as it 
would seem, himself, that it was he 
that was indicated by the word eon^ 
and would therefore become thejudge 
of the dead and the living. He ac- 
cordingly styled himself " Eon of the 
Star,** and for this heresy, which pal- 
pably originated in a mental delusion, 
ne was cast into prison, where he 
Portly died; whilst his followers 
rather than recant were in c^eat num- 
hen burnt at the stake. (C. Rheims, 
1148, X. p. 1 107.) It was at a period 
not much earlier (1114), that, appre- 
hensive of the sentence of the eccle- 
siastical tribunals being too lenient, 
the rabble burned a vast number of 
reputed heretics at Soissons. Indeed, 
there were some grounds for their ap- 
prehending the synods would be more 
merciful than themselves; for we 
often find these convocations pursuing 
the principles of an enlightened hu- 
manity in resistance to the blood- 
thirsty clamours of vulgar prejudice. 
Thus, when, at the Council of Bor- 
deaux (385, ii. p. 1304), held in con- 
sequence of the spread of the Pris- 
dliianists, an ascetic sect of modest 
exterior and pretensions, but which 
was accused of Manichseism by St. 
Augiistine, Friscillian appealed from 
the bishops to the emperor, they threw 
no obstacles in his way, but at once 
allowed the appeal. His enemies, 
however, pursued him to the very foot 
of the imperial throne, and the result 
was that, at the instance of Iducius 
and Ithacius, two of his most invete- 
rate foes, he was put to death b^ the 
emperor*s command. St. Martin of 
Tours, whose orthodoxy had never 
been questioned, and who was not 
only a priest, but a patriot and a states- 
man, refused afler this to have reli- 



gious communion with the followers 
of Ithacius. (Sulp. Sev. Vit. S. Martin 
ap. Scr. R. Fr. i. 573, Greg. Tour, 
x. 31.) His feelings of indisnation at 
the abominable murder of wnich their 
leader had been guilty, was shared in 
b^ St. Ambrose (Epist. 24-26), byPope 
^iricins, and by the Council of Turin, 
who in 398 (or 401), passed sentence 
of condemnation a^nst the Ithacians, 
on the ground that it was contrary to the 
duty of a bishop to be a party in any 
way to the death of heretics, as Itha- 
cius had been. In the synodal letter 
which the Council of Gangra (about 
379) addressed to the bishops of Ar- 
menia, and which was directed against 
the opinions of Eustathius of Sebaste, 
the practice of women cutting off the 
hair which God has siven them as a 
memorid of the obeaience due from 
them to their husbands is anathema- 
tized ; as also that of women, under 
pretence of religion, wearing men*8 
clothes, which seems to have been 
done under the impression they would 
thereby reach a higher state of per- 
fection. (C.VemeuiT, 844, vii. p. 1805.) 

The history of religious opinions is one 
of the most interestmg and instructive 
that could be written — interesting, be- 
cause it proves that there is no absurdity 
however great, no doctrine however 
atrocious, that has not had its preachers, 
its disciples, and its martyrs — instruc- 
tive, because it teaches the great les- 
sons of tolerance, forbearance, and 
charity ; because it rebukes the pride 
of human reason, and makes evident 
that no sins import more misery into 
•the world and conflict more directly 
with the happiness of mankind than 
presumptuous sins. It would seem to 
be through a consciousness of this that 
we find the earlier councils struggling 
so long and so strenuously against the 
ascetic principle to which so many 
sects alhed themselves. 

The story of Godefroi, bishop of 
Amiens, is to the point. This amiable 
and well-intentioned but weak-minded 
prelate, tormented with morbid scru- 
ples, quitted his diocese and retired to 
the Chartreuse, where he entered upon 
a severe course of penance and bodily 
mortification. When summoned to 
return to his episcopal duties he sent 
letters to the council (C. Beauvais, 
1114, X. p. 1097), declaring himself 
weak and wholly unfit for his office, 



1851.] Atigh'Sujeon Kings crowned ui Kingston. 



125 



I 



and ussuring them he felt that) although 
mdeed he nad taught his people in 
urtrdt hu hiid tloJie much to corrupt 
and rujD iheui by his example* Tbusc 
preaieut were much allected by this 
confcasiaUf and the mutter was ad* 
journed to another couuciL At this 
lutter (C. Sobsons, lllJ, x, ji. 801 X 
Henri, Abbot ol St* <iueiam, nnd 
Hubert, a monk belonging to the 
famous abbey ol' Clugny, were desired 
to go to the Chartreuse and bring 
back Godefroi with them. Having 
arrived at the uionnstery tbey begged 
the fugitive bishop to accompany tbeni 
on theu* return, but he cast himself at 
the feet of tlie sympathi fling Carthu- 



siims^ and eutreateil their proieetiou> 
These latter, however much disposed 
to accede to his re^iuest, held the power 
and authority (tf the king and bishops 
too greally in uwe ti> iutL'rfere, so they 
dismissed the bishop in peace. When 
brought UeJbre the council he could 
hardTy stand, bein^ worn out by the 
fastings and mortifications which he 
had voluntarily undergone* The legate 
who presided reprimanded hiui very 
sharply for hi^i dereltcttoii of duty in 
deserting bis see, Jind desired hini at 
once to return thither, and resume the 

Iierformance of duties from which he 
lad HO improperly attempted to escape. 



WHO WERE THE ANGLO-SAXON KINGS WHO W^ERE CROWNED 
AT KINGSTON? 



THE circumstances commemorated 
in your Magazine for October, 18.'>0, 
have brought before the public mind 
the fact that Kingston- upon-Thames 
claims to be the ancient place of coro- 
nation of our Anglo- Saxon Kin^a, but 
the real solid ground u])on which its 
claim unquestionably rest:* haa not 
been satisfactorily shown, nor has it 
been made to appear with aoytJung 
like accuracy or cert^iinty which of the 
Anfflo-Saxon Kings receive<l tlie regal 



and importance i — **that fmnous or 
distinguished place," as it is termed in 
Bcveral ancient documents, ** which is 
calle^l Cyningestun, in tlie county of 
Surrey** Upon this .subject we have 
the evidence of sLx char tern, aW of 
them of great interest, printed by Mr. 
Kemble in Ids Codex Diplomaticus, 
and ranging from the date of a.ik 838 
to that of A,D. 1020. 

The iirst charter i^ one of King 
Ecgberht of Wessex, granted a.d. 838 
at a council or assembly held ** in illo 



anointing on that ancient stone which famoso loco qui appellatur Cingestun, 
the people of Kingston have lately so in regione Suthreie."* 



I 



properly secured against ilestruction. 
I have, in the following pa* per, llirown 
together all the historical evidence 
With which I am acquainted upon 
the^e subjects, and beg permission 
now to submit it to your readertJ, 

1 shall, in the fir^t place, adduce the 
evidence which proves that at a period 
<jf vei'y remote antiquity Kingston 
was not merely a royal town, a diti- 
tlnction which it shared with many 
oUier less celebrated spots, but that 
]| WM a royal town of peculiar dignity 



The second charter was also granted 
at tlie same council of a.d. 838, de- 
scribed as held '' in ilia famosa loeo 
qufc appellatur Cyningestuuin regione 

butbregie anno dominic*e in- 

carnationis i>cccxxxviii." f 

The third charter, one of King 
jEtbelstan, dated a.u* 933, thus con- 
cludes, *^ Hoc vero con stitu turn fuit et 
confirraatum in regali villa quie Ariglice 
Kingestone voeatur ;" a statement 
sufficient] J curious if it indicates the 
ri«e of our English form of " King- 



♦ Kcoible'8 Codex, v. 91, 

t Ibid. i. 31B, 319. The memoranda of con^rmation ippended to tbeie fint and 
second charters ftx the date of the death of Eg^bcrt — a date giveo with great un- 
certainty by ulniost every writer. The meiuorAndutu in llif second charter in rather 
the more precise of the two, and thus concludes, ** Anno »b incmrnatiane Christ! 839, 
iodietiooe 2^ primo videlicet mmo rwgni Btheimnlfi reps pott ottitum puirit tiii.^' 




126 



Amglo'Saxon JlSng* crownmi at SimgiUm. 



[Auf. 



•ton*" M opposed to its Anglo-SftxoQ 
predecessor, " Cyningestune. * 

The fourth charter, one of J 
iSthelstan, Oct 6th, a.p. 943, is dat 
" 10 villa quae dicitur Kjngeston.** f 

The fiilh charter not only mentions 
the place, Kingston, but attests the 
&ct of a coronation there. It is a 
charter of Eadred, ^^Anno dominice 
incamationis 946, oontigit post obi- 
tum Eadmundi regis . . quod Eadred 
irater ejus uterinus, electione optiroa- 
tam subrogatus, pontifical! auctoritate 
eodem anno catholice est rex et rector, 
ad regna quadripertiti re^minis con- 
secratus, qui denique rex m villa quas 
dicitur regis, Cyneestun, ubi et eonse- 
cratio peracta est. 'J 

The sixth charter is an Anglo-Saxon 
charter of Canute granted between 
1016 and 1020. It begins— "Here is 
m%de known in this deed the agree- 
ment that Godwine made with Byrntric 
when he wooed his daughter,** which 
" wses gespecen set Cingestune beforan 



by prescriptive opinion and ieeling» 
that it rarely loses for a course of 
years its local influence. There seenia 
no doubt whatever that Kiiu;8ton is 
entitled to the distinction ot having 
been one of the royal towns appointeS 
for the latter purpose in the period 
comprised within our Anglo-Saxon 
annals. 

We will now consider what historical 
evidence there exists as regards tbe 
actual coronations of Anglo- Saxoii 
monarchs at Kingston. 

The first monarch claimed as having 
been crowned at Kingston is Edwa]u> 
THB Elder, son of King Alfred. He 
was chosen by the nobles, and crowned 
at the Whitsuntide after his father's 
death, 16tli May, a.d. 902. (William 
of Malmesbury, ed. T. D. Hardy, 
vol. i. p. 1 94.) According to the chro- 
nicle of Ralph de Diceto,U he was 
croicned at Kingston by rlegmund 
Archbishop of Canterbury; but the 
chronicle of Johannes Brompton as- 



Cnute Cincge on Lyfinges arcebiscopes serts that the ceremony was peiformed 
jiewitnesse (whicn was spoken, that by Ethulred tho Archbi8hop,Tf a.d. 901 



109 agreed upon viva voce, at Kinge 
stone, before Canute, the King, upon 
the witness of Archbishop Lyfinge).§ 

Now these authorities i-ihow the 
importance of Kingston, not merely 
fw a royal vill, but as a place for 
the holding of royal assemblies, and, 
what is specially to our present pur- 
pote, one of them marks it out as 
the scene of an actual coronation. 
However turbulent the times, or un- 
certain the custom, a place once set 
apart for royal sepulture or regal in 



If the Saxon Chronicle may be fol- 
lowed, there are two errors in this 
statement, for Ethelrcd is there stated 
to have died in a.d. 888 (Petrie's His- 
torians, p. 362), or according to Plo- 
rent. Wigorn. (Thorpe, vol. i. p. 108) 
in the following year. He was suc- 
ceeded by Plegmund, who died ajd. 
923. There are some curious lines 
by Peter Langtoft in his chronicle 
(Hearne, vol. i. p. 26), which would 
seem to imply that the crown was as- 
sumed by Kdward the Elder at St. 
Paul's: ' 



augurations is generally so hallowed 

After this Alfred King Edward tlie Olde, 
Fair man he was I wis, stalwarth and bolde ; 
At London at St. Poulea toke be the croune 
And purveied his parlement of Erie and Baron ne ; 
He seid unto them all, — " that purveied it should be 
That in all the land suld be no King but he.'" 

This was probably asserted with the Elder died at Faringdon, a.d. 924, 



reference to the contest for the suc- 
c^ion by Ethelwold, who was ap- 
pointed by the Northumbrian Danes 
their sovereign at York over all other 
kings and chiefs. (Turnern Anglo- 
Saxon History, vol. ii. 167.) Edward 



according; to the authorities quoted by 
Sir F. ralgrave, English Common- 
wealth, vol. ii. p. 243, and the Saxon 
Chronicle, a.d. 92J (Petrie's His- 
torians, page 382). 

Upon his death, and that of Ethel- 



* KembU's Codex, ii. 194. f Ibid. v. 278. t Ibid. ii. 268. 

§ Ibid. iT. 10. II Twysden, vol. i. p. 452. 

t Post mortem vero dicti regis Aluredi Edwardus iiUus auus modo cogoomeDto 
Senior, regnum paterunm capieos, a.d. 901, cepit regnare. Hie consecratus est apud 
Kyngestun ab Ethnlredo. Twysden, toI. i. p. 831. 



IfiSL] Anglo-Saxon, Kingn cromntd at Kingston. 



Iff 



wftrd, tUe Anglo-Saxon sceptre was 
f^rea hr the witenagemot to Atn^i- 
STikif t who was crowned at Kingttton by 
Atheim, Arcbbbljop of Caiittrburj, In 



the year 925.* 



I 

I 

I 



The i olio wing extract 

froiu Sharpe's iranslatioii of AVilUam 

Ojf Maluiesburj* la an apt illuatration 

the coronation festival and the 

ral ^tate of public feeling towartb 

the new s^jvereign. 

The uobles nieet, the ctoivu pi'ea«iit« 
On TthtU prelate* nurses vent, 
The people light tLe festive 6 tea 
And show by turns thetr kind ilesiri?*, 
Their deeds their loyjilty declare, 
Though hopes tiid fears their bo^omft ^hArej 
With fcfttive tre»t the court abounds, 
Foam the brisk winej»| — the hall resounds, 
The piges run, the serraDti basic 
And food and tcfhc regale the taste, 
The minstrel sings^ the guests commeud. 
Whilst all in praise to Christ coutend ; 
The King with pleasure kU things aee« 
And all hi* kind attentions please. f 

AtheUttm dieil at Gloueestefi m ibe 
sUtcenlh vear of hia r«*ign, on the 
fith kalends of November [27 Oct.], 

Atbelslau was succteileil by his 
brother, Ehmcku Tiui EiajEiLj at the 
age of eighteen ; but hi:* ^succession 
was disputed by the Nortbunibriiiii.k., 
who chose Aniaf. The date of hi.s 
accession Is given by the following 
authority as a,d. 940 ;— ** EudiunJi4u,s 
Rex Anglorum conKecraltiw est ab 
Odone Dorobernensi Archiepiscopo 
apud KingfMyjie,*' ( Rad ulph de Diceto» 



Iwysdcn, vol. i. p. 454.) Thii state- 
ment of the coronation at Kingston, 
like the subi^equent isiinilar statement 
in reference to Edward the Alai'tyr, 
rebts solely upon the authority of Ralph 
de Diceto. The place of coronation 
is not mentioned in the Anglo- Sax oti 
Chrouiclet nor in the Chronicle of 
Florence of Worcester, lii William of 
Malmcabury, nor in the uulhoritie:! in 
the general eollections of Twysdeu and 
Gate. Still it may very well be true, 
Ralph de Diceto, who flourished be- 
tween lltiO and 1200, had no doubt 
the use of authorities which me u.n- 
known to U5. The death of Edmund 
by the hand oi' Leofa is variously re- 
ported : according to some authoriiiea 
it occurred 26 M«y, indict 4, A.h. 946, 
to others in a.jj. 948, but the place h 
uncertain. (See note, William of 
Malmeftbury, ed. llju'dy, vol. u p. 

EoaKi^, who succeeded, wjis the third 
son of Edward the Elder, and was less 
than twenty- three years of age at his 
elevation to the throne. He was con- 
aecratetl at Kingston by Odo, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, a.d. August 16, 
1J4G. Thii* fact is attested by the 
charter before quoted from Kemble's 
Codex Diplomaticuii^ vol. ii. p. 208, and 
the authorities cited below, § There h 
some discrepancy as to the date ol' the 
event. Simeon ofDuiham andEihel- 
weaid place the death of Edmund and 
the succession of Eadi*ed, a.d. 946. 
This should seem inacctirale. If we 



* Athelstanufl vcro in Cingeatune, id est in regia vilhi, in regem levatur et honorilioe 
ab Athetmo Dorubernensi archiepiscopo consecrAtur : Chron. Ftoreot. Wigorn., Thorpe, 
vol. i. p. 130. Rogeri de Wendoveri Coxe, vol. i. 385. Henrici Hun tin don. in SavUe, 
p, 3S4. Taroer'a Anglo-Saxons^ vol. 2, p. 1 70. Petrte's Hiatonans, p. 382. 

f A remarkably iateresting raeiuoriul of thiis ceremony still exists in the Britiih 
Musetim— l^c Coronaiiou Book of tht: KingB of England, upoti v^hich,* from the dayt 
of Atheiitaii, our Anglo-Saxon monarchy took thti oath at their iaaugtmitioQi An 
iilumiaated page in given by Mr. U. N. HuuiphreySi in his MSS, of die Middle Ages, 
and this book is most fully described by Mr* Holmes in the Gentleman's Magastne for 
May. 1638, p. 469. ''No one,'* says Mr. Holmes, ** can doubt the antiquity assigned 
to it ; that it did belong to Athelstan» tbe grandaon of Alfred the Great, and that it 
was presented by him to the charch of Dover i there it strong prim^ /aci§ evidence 
that iu the latter part of the hf tee nth century it was in the poasession of Margaret of 
York, Dncheai of Burgundy, sister of Edward the Fourth, and that it was believed by 
bar to have been ased at the coronation of former kings there is good proof ( and to 
tha fact that it was used at the coronation of Charles the First wc have the positive 
testimony of a contemporary, the well-known antiquary Sir Simonds D'Ewea/ Thii 
book was tlie property of Sir Robert Cotton, and it still forma part of hta Ubrar^. 
Mr. Sharon Turner conji;cturet) that it was a pre^nt from Otho Emperor of Germany, 
who flkarried Athelstan'a sister, aud from Mathilda the Empresa aad mother of Otho. 

I Florent Wigorn. Thorpe, yoL i. 132, Petrie's liistoriaas, p. 386. 

( Moxproximus heEresEdredujs fratri succcdeufi regnum naturalo suscepit et IT kal. 
"bria [16 Auifust] die Dominica in Cingestune a S* Odone DorobemeDsi Archie- 




128 



Anglo-Saxon Kingx crowned at Kingston* 



[Aug. 



follow the date of the charter it would 
be placed a.d. 946 — " Anno Dominicie 
Incamationis, post obi turn Eadmundi 
regis, &c. — Eaared frater ejus elcctione 
optimatum subrogatus, &c. &c. rex in 
Yilla quae dicitur regis Cyngestun, vibi 
et consecratio peracta est ' This fixes 
the date of the year. The authorities 
cited give 17 kalend. Septembris 
[16 August] as the day of the month. 
That Eared had been consecrated a.d. 
947 is clear from another charter, 
(Kemble, vol. ii. p. 274), where the text 
runs — " quamobrem ego Eadredus 
Rex An^lorum ceterarumque gentium 
in circuitu persistentium gubemator 
et rector," &c. The date of the month 
seems not fixed with equal accuracy. 
Eadred died at Frome on the 23rd 
November, a.d. 955, according to 
Florence of Worcester, a.d. 955, 956, 
Saxon Chronicle, and a.d. 957, accord- 
ing to the computation in iEthel- 
weard's Chronicle. (AVilliam of Mal- 
mesbury, ed. Hardy, vol. i. page 232, 
note.) Sir F. Palgrave's Anglo-Saxon 
Commonwealth gives the date thus — 
A.D. 955, Edred died on St. Clement's 
Day, which Lingard follows. 

Edwt or Edmtin succeeded to the 
throne upon the death of his uncle at 
the age of sixteen, at least it is so as- 
sumed, but his age is as uncertain as 
his name (Turner's Anglo-Saxons, 
vol. ii. p. 232.) That he was conse- 
crated at Kingston by Odo, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, there seems no doubt, 
as the authorities cited show,* with 
general agreement as to the date, a.d. 
955, which is confirmatory of that of 



the death of Eadred. Two years later 
the Northumbrians chose Edgar for 
their king, and Edwy retained the 
south. He died on the 1st of Oc- 
tober, a.d. 959. 

Edgar, King of Mercia, his brother, 
succeeded, bemg about fourteen or 
sixteen years of age, and has obtained 
the surname of the Peaceful. He is 
one of the monarchs whose corona- 
tion has been claimed for Kingston. 
In considering the validity of that 
claim it may be desirable to place be- 
fore the reader the following extract 
from Lingard*s History of England, 
vol. i. p. 269. "It will excite sur- 
prise," says Dr. Lingard, " that a prince 
of this character, living in an age 
which attached so much importance to 
the regal unction, should have per- 
mitted thirteen years of his reign to 
elapse before he was crowned ; nor is 
it less extraordinary that of the many 
historians who relate the circumstance, 
not one has thought proper to assign the 
reason. The ceremony was at length 
performed at Bath with the usual so- 
lemnity, and in the presence of an im- 
mense number of spectators. May 11, 
a.d. 973." All authorities concur in 
the fact that Edgar was crowned at 
Bath. There is not the slightest au- 
thority in any one. of them (if we 
except a doubtful statement in Foly- 
dore Vergil, which, in such a case, is 
no authority at all,) to warrant the 
claim of Kingston.f 

With reference to the delay of his 
coronation, it will have been seen that 
Dr. Lingard remarks, " of the many 



piscopo Rex est consecratus, a.d. 946. Fiorent. Wigoro. Thorpe, i. p. 134 ; Pal- 
grave's Anglo-Saxon Commonwealth, vol. ii. p. 249 ; Roger de Wendover, Coxe, vol. i. 
399 ; Radalphi de Diceto, Twysden, vol. i. 455 ; Ranulphi Higdensi Poljchron. 
Gale, vol. ii. p. 264. 

* A.D. 955. Regis autem corpus Wintoniam defertur, et ab ipso abbate Dunstano 
in veteri monasterio sepulturs honestissime traditur, cujus fratraus, clito Eadwios 
regis scilicet Eadmundi et sancts iElfgivK region filius monarchiam imperii suscepit 
et eodem anno in Cingestune ab Odone Dorobemiee Archiepiscopo rex coosecratus est. 
Chron. Fiorent Wigorn. Thorpe, vol. i. p. 136 ; Rogeri de Wendover Flores Hist. 
Coxe, voL i. p. 404 ; Roger de Hoveden, Savile, p. 425 ; Radalf de Diceto, Twysden, 
vol. i. 455 ; Chron. Jobannis Brompton, Twjsden, vol. i. p. 862 ; Ranulph Higden, 
Oale, vol. ii. p. 265. 

t A.D. 973. Rex Anglorum pacificas Eadgarus, suee setatis anno xxx<^, indictione 
prima, quinto idus Maii [11 Mali] die Pentecostes a beatis prfesulibus Dunstano et 
Oswaldo, eta ceteris totius Anglise antistidbus in civitate Acamanni benedicitur, et cum 
maximo honore et gloria consecratur et in regem ungitur. Cbron. Fiorent. Wigorn. 
Thorpe, vol. i. p. 142 ; Roger de Wendover, Coxe, vol. i. p. 414 ; Chronica de 
Mailros, Gale, i. p. 150 ; Ranulph Higden, Gale, vol. ii. 264 ; William of Malmes- 
bury, Hardy, vol. i. p. 255 ; Henrici Huntindon, Chron. Savile, 356 ; Simeon Danelm. 
Twysden, vol. i. 162. 
3 



185 1 •] Anglo'Suxon Kmgn crownrd rtt Kingston* 



129 



historians who relate the circuraatance 
not one has thought proper to assign 
the reason." How far sm b direct tes- 
timony may be wanting is ina! ter fi>r 
inquiry. ^Ir, Coxe, in a note lo his 
edition of Eower de Wendovcr, yoI. i, 
p. 414, aay«, " The writers of the life 
of St. DuiJStan tell us tliat Eadgar wa?; 
not crowned tintii the serettlh * year of 
hia reigUi because that until that time 
his peoance for an olfcnce upon the 
person of a nun was not complete/" 
oo that Bonie notice of the cause ap- 
penrg to have been t/iken. 

The cimse in fact was a brutal in- 
dulgence of lu8t, a characteristic of his 
life, which not even the favour or 
charity of hia niotiachal admirers can 
conceal. He violated a lady of noble 
birth, who had assumed the veil as an 
expected but insufficient protection. 
For this offence he was vehemently I'e- 
proved by St. Dun^tan, and underwent 
a seven years' penance, aubaiitting, 
though a king, to fast and to forego the 
wearing of his crown for that period* 
(Sharpe, Willi am of Malmesbury^ p. 
186 ; Hanly, vol. i. p. 254.) Edgar 
died on Thursday, 8th July, a.d. 97-5. 

£dwari> the Mabtyr succeeded, 
according to general testimony, in the 
same year. Radulf de Diceto uppear.H 
to be the authority for the fact of his 
being crowned at Kingstoriy which has 
macb of probability in its favour. He 
gives the date a.d. 977. f Edward was 
murdered at Corfe Castlct Marcb 1 8, 
AJ>. 978. Hia remains were burnt 
and his ashes buried at Wareham. 

ETBELUKn succeeded, and was 
iTOWtted at Kingston on the Sunday 
ne-xt uffeer Easter, 14th April, a.d. 
978. The follow ioe la the oath ad- 
cainistcred to the King by Archbishop 
Dunstan on that ocicasion : — "In the 
name of the most holy Trio it y I pro- 
mise first that the Church of God and 
all Christian people shall enjoy true 
peace under my ujovcrnment^ secondly, 
that I wdl prohibit all manner of ra- 



pine and injustice to men of every con- 
dition ; thirdly, that in all judgments 
I will cause equity to be united with 
mercy, that the luost cleuicnt God may, 
through his eternal mercy, forgive us 
all. Amen/' As all authorities agree 
genernJly in this statement, it will be 
only necessary to refer to those upon 
whom it y founded* Ethel red wat 
crowned by Archbishops Dur>stan and 
Oswald ;| there is some discrepancy 
as to the year. He died at London, 
on Monday, 23rd April, St. George*a 
day, A.n* 101 H (William of Malmes- 
bury, ed. Hardy, vol. i. p* 300), and 
was buried in theCathednd of St. Paul. 
He was succeded by Edmund InoN- 
siDK, who was immediately proclaimed 
king hy the citizens of London, and 
crowned at St. Paurs, and attbe same 
time Canute was acknowledged by the 
thanes of Wessex at Southampton. 
All authorities appear to concur in 
this. The claim of Kingston bos no 
support whatever. The Saxon Chro- 
nicle, Roger de^'^endover, and Flo- 
rence of Worcester, are silent as to the 
place ; but Brumpton (Twysden, vol. L 
p. 903) and Ralph de Diceto, assert 
the fact of Edmund Ironside's corona- 
tion at London, by Living, Archbishop 
of Canterbury* Edmund was mur- 
dered A.D, 101 G. 

With him closes the series of Anglo- 
Saxon kings claimed as having been 
crowned at ICingston. The reader has 
now before him the authority on which 
the ciaira of each of them rests, and 
can judge how far it is valid or the 
contrary. For my own part 1 feel in- 
clined to allow that there is sufficient 
evidence to raise a high degree of 
probability in favour of — 

Edward the Elder, a.i>. 9Q2, 

AthelHtaa, a.o. 925. 

Edmund the Elder, a.d. 940. 

Edred, ajj. &46. 

Edwy or Edwin, a.d, 955. 

Edward the Martyr, a.d» 977; and 

Ethelred, a.d. 978. 




• It not this the aeventh year of his peannce, since thirteen jean tJbtr Ms ftcocuion 
ii the gfoeral date assigned to his coronation? See note by Mr. Hardy« Will, of 
Milm. i. 248, and Sharpe p* 186. 

t ** Edwtrdus regis Edgari filiai, consecratus est h Dunstana Dorobernensi ct Of- 
WiJdo Eboracen&i Archiepiscopis, atp\id Kinp^eitone.'* — Chron. Twy?den, vol. i. p. 458. 
ThU possibly coincides with Oaborn, Vila UunstaMi, and Florence of Worcester. 

t R^jger «le Wendovcr, Coxe» toI. i. p. 421 ; Florent, Wigorn. Chron,, Thorpe, 
▼of i* p. 146; Hilt. Ingulphi, Gale, vol, i. p. 54 j Ctirooic* de Mailros, Gale, noX, i, 
p. 151 t Twysden^ vol. i. pp. IGO, 460. 877 ; Petrie'» Anglo-Saxon Chron. p. 3M. 

Gext. Mag, Vol. XXXVI. § 



ISO 



Ruskins Stones of Venice. 



[Aug. 



Within three quarters of a century 
the little town of Kingston was seven 
times made the scene of one of the most 
solemn of earthlj ceremonies. It would 
be curious to discover what tie of pro- 
perty or local attachment induced the 
immediate descendants of Alfred to 
fix upon this particular spot in pre- 
ference to Winchester, the acknow- 
ledged capital of their paternal king- 
dom. This is an inquiry which we 
have px^bably now no means of an- 
swering ; but whatever may have been 
the cause the result must for ever make 
Kingston venerable in the eyes of 
those who feel an interest in the trans- 
actions of far distant ages, and love to 
recognise in places otherwise perhaps 
of little interest or attractiveness spots 
consecrated by deeds of valour or ge- 
nerosity, b^ the triumphs of law or 
the solemnities of freedom. 

The stone commonly called the con- 
lecration-stone which has been lately 
inaugurated at Kingston is supported 
by tradition, and by the analogy of 
ike employment of stones for such 



purposes, both in the instance of the 
coronation seat of our sovereiffns to 
the present day, and possibly ubo in 
the instance of the Pope*s chair. 

In Manning and Bray's History of 
Surrey, vol. i. p. 370, there is an en- 
^ving of the Chapel of 8t. Mary lid- 
joining the south side of the parocliial 
church of Kingston, in whicn '• were 
formerly to be seen the portraits of 
divers of the Saxon kings that h&te 
been crowned here, and also that of 
King John, of whom the town re- 
ceived its first charter .** Hiis chapel fdl 
down on the 2nd March, a.d. 1729-30, 
and with it perished these interestii^ 
works of monumental art. It is mu(» 
to be regretted that no society exists 
with funds sufficient to obtain accu- 
rate copies of such of these ancient 
mural paintings as time and church- 
wardens have yet spared, important as 
they are historically, as symbols of re- 
ligious faith, and as materials for the 
history of British art. 

Athenneum, 
June 2, 1851. 



S.H. 



RUSKIN'S STONES OF VENICE. 

The Stones of Venii^. Volume the first The Foondations. 
London: Smith, Elder/ and Co. 1851. 



By John Rnakin. 



THE general, indeed well-nigh 
universal, prevalence of the study of 
architecture is no less remarkable as 
a distinctive feature in the present 
bent and tendency of the public 
mind, than the way in which this 
study is pursued is itself remarkable 
in its character and style. We speak 
with special reference to the equally 
singular and unsatisfactory fact, that 
the wide diffusion of this study has 
hitherto failed altogether to be ac- 
companied with a commensurate ad- 
vance in architectural science. This 
but t^o plainly indicates an unsound 
and defective system of study, which 
in its turn, with equal clearness, 
has to tell of guides, nnd aids, 
and instructors for the student, all 
wanting in soundness or in com- 
pleteness, or in both the one faculty 
and the other. Such assuredly is the 
case. We have architects in happy 
abundance, and architecturalists and 
architectural societies, and architec- 



tural books and engravings ; but these 
all, with rare exceptions, have substi- 
tuted architectural details for archi- 
tecture, and they accordingly have 
been content to work retrogressively 
towards the relics of the great medi8»- 
valists, as they yet remain more or 
less perfect, or more or less fallen to 
ruin. In our architectural publi- 
cations details are all and everything, 
while scarcely less manifold in boUi 
variety and number than the arches 
and windows and mouldings of which 
they treat are these publications them- 
selves. But where walks the spirit 
of this grand art evoked from its 
long deep slumber, and again en- 
dowed with its creative energy P WTiere 
are the volumes which have led and 
yet may lead students of architecture, 
whether professionals or only amateurs, 
upwards from the components and de- 
tails of edifices to the great principles 
whence those edifices emanated, and 
of which they are the exponents — 



1851,] 



Ru^kini Stones of Vetiice, 



1^1 



I 



Folumes whicli, tuJciug their stand viith 
mediieval arcbitecture wbeu as jet it- 
self undeveloi^edf have searched out 

^ their native depths the immu table 
aenti of UBeftitnuss and truth and 

auty, and have traced thein working 
together to produce the architecture 
which in the^e our days we admire and 
venerate^ aud fain would eompre- 
kcnd and practise ? Mr. Ruikin has 
rendered it no longer pt*sslble to reply 
with Echo to such inquiries. He has 
taken up the cause of architecture as 
gn art. Inverting the accepted usage, 
eommenc-lng with philosophical 
into those dee[), broad prin- 
y^jrhich to architecture are the 
J IXwicrete of lU fouridatiyn^j Mr. 
luflkin Ims at length o[>ened, as well 
to architectural writers as students, 
the only ehaimel along which their 
course can be conducted with pros- 
perity, and can teruiinate in success. 

We rejoice to record the tilling up 
of a void in architectural literature of 
A nature so seriouts as to restrict the 
onward progress of the study of archi- 
tecture itselJ'; aud it is to us a matter 
of special satisfaction to find the book 
we nave needed coming from a writer 
eminently distinguished alike for deep 
and searching observation and tor in- 
dependent and luasculine originality- 
one who is a master as well in elo- 
quence as in art. It was well that the 
pen i^hould be held bv a vigorous hand 
when it 5 othce should be to determine 
and set forth *' some law of right which 
we may apply to the architecture of 
the world and of all time, and by help 
of whichi and judgment according to 
which^ we may as easily pronounce 
whether a building is good or noble 
as^ by applyin" a plumb-line, whether 
it be perpendicular/' And strong is 
the hand with which Mr, Kuskiu has 
essayed his task and has achieved Jt. 
Xet his touch is delicate as hrm ; and 
the bre^idth and earnest expressiveness 
of his treatment do but rival its grace- 
fttlness^ wbUe his imagery is ever us 
ridilj imaginative as in application it 
is most felicitous. 

Mr* Ru skin's architectural works 
owe their origin to causes altogether 
iinlilce those which have led to the 
production of other treatises on the 
same subject, lie was studying art, 
not architecture : art as expressed in 
marble or on caoYas by the pointer or 



the sculptor. lie had ahcady written 
volumes L and II. of his '* Modi in 
Painters,*" and was now deeply engaged 
with the research e^j and the studies 
requisite ibr completing that remark- 
able work, when he discovered that 
without architecture art could not be 
completely mastcre*! or adequately 
treated. Thus wiis he led to this study 
as i'orydng an esscjitial component of 
art, !iud consequently hi.^ recognition 
of the true character of architecture 
was complete while yet it^ di.stiiictive 
peculiarities had to be explored and 
investigated, lie began, therefore, at 
the right end ; he was tlrst animated 
with the very spirit of architecture, 
and then set about tracing out its work* 
ings I be bad aiready felt the purpose 
of this great art, lis principles and its 
power, before he looked into their ap- 
plication in the details of its creations, 
tlence* in a grent measure, urises the 
peculiar origiuality of Mr. Uuskin'a 
architectural works, and not their ori- 
ginality only, but also vci^y much of 
Uieir importance and value. 

'* Since irst the dominiou of mnn waa 
asserttid o?er the oceflo, three thrones, of 
mark beyond all others, have been set 
ypon its sands : the thrones of Tyre, 
Venice, and England. Of the first of 
theac great powers only the memory re- 
mains : of the second^ the rain ; the third, 
which inherits their greatness, if it forget 
their example, may be led throQ^h prouder 
eminence to leea pitied deitractioa. 

•* Tbe exttltution, the Bin, and the 
puui^hmeot of Tyre have been recorded 
foi" us in perhaps the most touching words 
ever uttered by the prophet* of Israel 
again&t the cities of the stranger. But 
we read them as a lovely song ; and close 
our ears to the sternness of their warning : 
for the very depth of the fall of Tyre has 
blinded us to itfi reality, and we forget, as 
we watch tbe bleaching of the rocks be- 
tween the sunshine oud the Bea» that Ihey 
were once * aa in Edeut the garden of God/ 

** Her Hkicceasor, like her ia perfection 
of beauty, though less in eadurance of do< 
minion, is still left for our beholding In 
tbe final period of her decHne : a ghoit 
upoQ the sands of the sea, so weak* so 
quiet, so bereft of all bat her lovelmesi, 
thiit we might well doubt, aa we watched 
her faint reflection in tbe mirnge of the 
Ugooo, which was the city, and which the 
shadow, 

** I would endeavour to trace the lines 
of this image before it be for ever loat, 
aud to record, as far as I may, the warn- 




182 



RuMn*i Stones of Vemee. 



EAug- 



ing which seems to me to be uttered by 
erery one of the fast-gaintog waves that 
beat, like passing beUs, against the Stones 
OF Vbhice." (p. 2.) 

Having commenced the volume be- 
fore us with these eloquent words, our 
author proceeds to sh6w how in Venice 
architecture has passed throueh the 
most momentous conditions of its ex- 
istence, and has displayed the most 
expressive phases of its development, 
and also how inseparablj the history 
of Venetian architecture is associated 
with that of '* this stran«:e and mighty 
city" itself. Then follows an ad- 
mirable exposition of the necessary 
existence of some law of right and 
wrong in architecture, and of the im- 
portance of instituting such an inquiry 
as may lead to its establishment and 
recognition. To this inquiry, together 
with some account of the connection of 
Venetian architecture with the archi- 
tecture of other parts of Europe, Mr. 
Ruskin devotes his first volume, which 
he distinguishes with the characteristic 
title of " The Foundations ;" a second 
volume, he tells us, we may expect 
will contain all he has to say about 
Venice itself. 

The investigation of this law of right 
and wrong in architecture naturally 
resolves itself into two branches, which 
severally comprehend the construction 
of edifices and their ornament,, and the 
law itself is the unquestioned and un- 
questionable rule of architectural ex- 
cellence in these two capacities. This 
two-fold excellence Mr. Ruskin desig- 
nates as the ** two virtues of architec- 
ture," and of these virtues he asserts 
that they are "proper subjects of 
law," in other words, the manner in 
which buildings perform their "com- 
mon and necessary work, and their 
conformity with universal and divine 
canons of loveliness — respecting these 
there can be no doubt, no ambiguity ;" 
and in order to shake off all doubt 
and ambiguity upon this matter, and 
to substitute in their room a clear, 
decisive, absolutely intuitive faculty 
of distinguishing whatsoever is noble 
in architecture m>m all that is ignoble, 
wc have but to ** permit free play to 
our natural instincts, to remove from 
those instincts the artificial restraints 
which prevent their action, and to 
encourage them to an unaffected and 
unbiassed choice between right and 



wronp." Thus, at the very outset of 
our mauiry, we are encooraTOd to 
sweep from before our feet all uie ac- 
cumulated obstacles and restraints 
with which partiality, prejudice, im- 
perfect or mistaken apprehension, and 
artificial maxims of whatever kind 
have impeded free access to the truth. 
Architecture we are taught to regard 
as a great art. All true art we Imow 
to be the truthful reflection and ex- 
pression of nature, and so, from our 
own natural instincts — from them 
alone, free in impulse and healthful in 
action — we have to deduce the law of 
architectural excellence. Now a law 
so deduced must possess high authority 
— even that hignest and most com- 
manding of all authority which arises 
from a clear understandmg of its com- 
petence combined with an unqualified 
recognition of ita justice. Of thia law 
the enactments are matters of fact; 
they cannot be weakened by misap- 
prehension, or explained away through 
ambiguity; they tell us what excd- 
lence in architecture is, not what it 
may be considered to be. 

" We have, then, two qualities of build- 
ings for subjects of separate inqolry : their 
action and aspect, and the sources of 
virtue in both ; that is to say, strength 
and beauty, both of these being less ad- 
mired in themselves, than as testifying the 
intelligence or imagination of the bnilder. 

" For we have a worthier way of look- 
ing at human than at divine architecture : 
much of the value both of construction 
and decoration, in the edifices of men, de- 
pends upon our being led by the thing 
produced or adorned to some contempla- 
tion of the powers of mind concerned in 
its creation or adornment. We are not 
so led by divine work, but are content to 
rest in contemplation of the thing created. 
I wish the reader to note this especially ; 
we take pleasure, or ahould take pleasure, 
in architectural construction altogether as 
the manifestation of an admirable human 
intelligence ; it is not the strength, not 
the size, not the finish of the work which 
wo are to venerate : rocks are always 
stronger, mountains always larger, all 
natural objects more finished : but it is 
the intelligence and resolution of man in 
overcoming physical difficulty that are to 
be the source of our pleasure and the sub- 
ject of our praise. And again in decora- 
tion or beauty, it is less the actual loveli- 
ness of the thing produced, than the 
choice and invention concerned in the 
production, which are to delight us ; the 



16510 



Ruthin s Stones of Venice* 



138 



I 



I 
I 



I 



lovi} MSki the Ibougbte of the workman more 
thin hit work : hii work muit alwftji be 
imperfect, but his thoughts and affections 
mi J be true and deep.** (p. 38.) 

Iti the tantter of filrengtli or good 
construction, when we speak of a 
bluIdjDg as well built, we imply much 
more than the mere fact itself, however 
important, that it answers its purpose 
well, Ibr reiJly it h not well built 
unless it answers thi? purpose in the 
simplest and also tbu most effectual 
waj, and without any o ver-ex|>enditure 
of meati^* Here, thereibre, is made 
manifest the builder's mkUeL% aud this 
intellect, this* lueotal cner|ry, in the 
degree that it is display ed and dis- 
played suitably, in that degree doe^ it 
measure the true constructive virtue 
of the buddiog — its worth as actually 
and essentially well coustr acted > But 
intellect alone is insufficient to enduw 
a true architect, or to produce a truly 
noble edifice* The man reouirea more 
than powers of thought, retlection, in- 
vention, more than skill, presence of 
mind, perseverance, courage, and dex- 
terity, and in his works tokenj of other 
quail ties than these must be apparent. 
There is need of tliat virtue of building 
through which the builder may show 
his affections ami ikiights. The good 
construction which tbe intellect has 
given needs must be associated with* 
such decoration as the affections alone 
can give — we must Lave warmth as 
well a^ light. Observe, however, ** it 
is not that the signs of his aHectionn 
which man leaves upon his work are 
indeed more cnnobliog than the signs 
of his iotelligence," nor, on tbe other 
hand, that the expressions of bis in- 
telligence are more worthy, as elements 
of excellence, than the tokens of his 
affections ; " but it is the balance of 
both whose expression we need, sind 
the signs of the government of tlieui 
all bv conseience, and discretion^ the 
daughter of conscience. So theu> the 
intelligent part of man bemg emi- 
nently, if not chietly, displaye<l in the 
structure of his work, his aifeetionate 
part is to be shewn in its decoration ; 
and that decoration may l« indeed 
lovely two things are needed ; first, 
that the aflections be vivid and honestly 
shewn, secondly, that thoy be fixed on 
the right things." '* And the ri^ht 
Ihiog to be liked is God'n work, which 
He made for our delight and con- 




tentment in this world \ and ail noble 
atnameniaiion is the expres^n of marCe 
Might in God's work,'* Of the other 
quality of good decoration, that with 
all honesty it should indicate strong 
liking, we may be content to illustrate 
its true character through a single ex- 
ample, that of the architect of Bourges 
Cathedral T who " liked haw thorns ; so 
he has covered his porch with hawthorn, 
it is a perfect Niobe of Mat/, Kever 
was sucu hawthorn ; you would try to 
gather it forthwith but for fear of 
being pricked/' 

Thus far have we sought to lead 
our readers to a clear and full under* 
standing of the object with Avhich Mr. 
Kuskin has searched out and recorded 
the lessons which the " Stones of Ve- 
m*cet" though now loosened and decay- 
stricken, yet have power to teach, and 
of t!ie manner aUo in w^hlcb he has 
set about bis task ; and his own woixla 
M'e have preferred for a great part to 
use, because we desire to induce those 
whose eyes luay rest upon what we 
put for til themselves to turn to these 
pages of A^Ir* lluskin, and we know 
no means so effectual to attract them 
thither tiA the perusal of such pas- 
sages OS we have extracted from their 
copious abundance. We now must 
content ourselves to rest upon the 
hope that the case in the matter of 
architecture, whicii ^tr. Kuskin sub- 
mits to the judgment of our natural 
instincts, wiU be examined by our 
readers in tbe very wonls with which 
throughout he so suitably conducted 
it. They may, if they wiO, leave ar* 
chitecture altogether out of the qnes- 
tion, and nevertheless they will find 
themselves more than repaid by the 
excellence of the sentiments, the beauty 
and richness of the thoughts, and the 
noblenes^s of the language* But if ar- 
ch itectuie really be their purstiit, if 
they desire in very deed to possess the 
faculty of promptly recognising its 
jiower, and discerning its virtues, and 
would know tbcni well and feel them 
deeply, then to them this noble inn* 
guage, these thoughts so richly beau- 
tiful, these sentiments so excellent, 
will but serve to inulti]ily the attract- 
iveness, and to enhance tbe intrinsic 
value, of an Architectural Treatise 
which is as superior to any and every 
kindred production as it differs widely 
from theiu alL We can well imagine 



1S4 



Ruslcin'* Stone* of Vmice. 



[Aui- 



•ttch persons * passing on delightedly 
from chapter to chapter, and pausing 
for carelul refleotion, or sometimes 
ftudjing again what can scarcely be 
fully grasped at a single perusal. The 
general division of architecture into 
walls, roofs, and apertures, will at once 
introduce them to more full essays on 
the wall-base, the wall-Teil, or the 
mass or body of the structure, and the 
wall-cornice, its crowning member; 
the pier-base follows, then the shaft, 
then the capital; the next group of 
. chapters is formed by the arch-line, 
the arch-masonry, and the arck-load ; 
and these introduce other chapter on 
the roof; the roof-cornice, the buttress, 
the form of aperture, the filling of 
aperture, and the protection of aper- 
ture ; after which a chapter on super- 
imposition concludes the first division 
of the subject — on " good construc- 
tion/' Of each and all of these chap- 
ters we say, read them. Do you ask 
for an example of what they contain ? 
Hear the author upon towers : 

'* There must be no light-headedness in 
your noble tower: impregnable foanda- 
tk>ii» wrathful crest, miih the visor down, 
and. the dark vigilance seen through the 
clefts of it ; not the filigree crown or em- 
broidered cap. No towers are so grand 
as the square- browed ones, with massy 
oornices and rent battlements : next to 
ibese come the fimtastic towers, with their 
various forms of steep roof, the best, not 
the cone, bat the plain gable thrown very 
high ; last of all in my mind (of good 
towers), those with spires or crowns, 
though these, of coarse, are fittest for ec- 
deaiaatical purposes and capable of the 
richest ornament .... Bat in all of them 
^his I believe to be a point of chief neces- 
sity, — that they shall seem to stand, and 
verily shall stand, in their own strength ; 
not by help of buttresses nor artfal biuan- 
cings on this side and on that. Your noble 
tower must need no help, mast be sus- 
tained by no crutches, most give place to 
no suspicion of decrepitude. Its office 
may be to withstand war, look forth for 
tidings, or to point to heaven ; but it 
must have in its ovm walls strength to do 
this ; it is to be itself a bulwark, not to 
be sustained by other bulwarks ; to rise 



and look forth, * the tower of Lebanon 
that looketh toward Damascos,' like a 
stem sentinel, not like a child held up in 
its nurse's arms. A tower may, indeed, 
have a kind of buttress, a projection, or 
subordinate tower at each of^ angles : 
bat these are to its main body Uk^ the 
satellites to a shaft, joined with its strength, 
and associated in its npiightaess, part of 
the tovrer itself : exactly in the projportbn 
in which they lose their massive unity with 
its body, and assume the form of tme 
buttress-walls set on at its angles, the 
tower loses its dignity.'* (p. 2000 

The towers of LincoLa are nobly 
angle-turreted ; hence their vast su- 
periority over the buttressing tl 
York. Of towers, the work of our 
own times, Mr. Scott*s fine composi- 
tion for Hamburgh occupies the rorie- 
most rank; he has, however, unhajH 
pily set decided buttresses at its ancles; 
nad he expanded these angles mto 
turrets instead of flanUng them with 
buttresses, of spired towers this mijgHbit 
have claimed a proud place among the 
most perfect in existence. 

Of the second part of the volume, 
upon " Ornament, its material, treat- 
ment, and disposition,** our space ooij- 
strains us to speak in a single sen- 
tence ; we do so in pronouncing it i^ 
all respects admirable in itself, and k 
^ most worthy companion to the chap- 
* ters on "good construction** which pre- 
c^e it. A single extract likewise 
must suffice to exemplify this divinon 
of the volume ; its value in that capa- 
city needs no comment : 

'* The especial oondition of true orna- 
ment is that it be beautiful in its plaoa, 
and no where else, and that it aid, th^ 
effect of every portion of the building o:var 
which it has influence ; that it does npt, 
by its richness, make other parts bsld^ or, 
by its delicacy, make other parts coarse. 
£very one of its qualities has reference to 
its place and use ; and ii tr fitted /or iii 
terviee by what would be faulti and Mi- 
cienciet if it had no especial duty^ (fip- 
nament, the servant, is often formalt 
where sculpture, the master, would hase 
been free ; the servant is often silent, 
where the master would have been elo- 



* That with certain professional architects and their admirers and followers this 
work may find no favour, we are quite prepared to learn : its views differ far too 
widely to admit of its exciting in them any other sentiments than those of hostility, or 
perhaps of ridicule. Mr. Raskin can bear this : and since we must shrink from archi- 
tectural sympathy with these persons until they have become altered men, we can 
endure it also. 



J851.] 



Ruitkin\f Stones of Venice* 



135 



^taent ; or hurried, where the master would 
hftTo been Berctie.'' P. 232, 

And now in bringinfr to u close our 
notice of this truly importfint and va- 
luable work, we find that severul points 
upon which we had designed to gffer 
some remarkis must of necessity be 
tre&ted by us afler the same manner 
ag tfje chapters upon Om amenta —our 
observations, that is to say^ must be 
eompressed almost if not actually into 
so many single sentences. 

The architectural student will do 
well to learn from Mr. Ruskin to re- 
pudiate all the empty conventionalisms 
and heartless systems which hitherto 
have encompassed him like n mist^ and 
in their stead to make nattire his rule 
of excellence, and the works of nature 
his model for study : thus he may 
become a true artist, and, us such, a 
worthy architect also. Here lies Mr, 
Buakin rf strength, even in his love of 
nature, a love as discriminating as it 
i$ profound, and in hia no less fi&rvent 
or lew judicious love of art^ which 
latter oSection with him is at once 
purified and elevated, because be loved 
aature first, and because he still loves 
nature best. 

There is another twofold lesson 
taught by Mr. Ruskin after his own 
powerful manner, which all who love 
and who study architecture will do 
weU carefully to learn* It is, that 
there exists no necessary association 
whatsoever, nothing at all of inherent 
sympathy, between the de^aded and 
degrading Romanism of the twelfth 
ana thirteenth centuries and their do- 
Hons architecture; and, on the otlier 
hand, that the arts, and architecture 
§s a true arf^ are to Christianity in its 
ptirity, to *' the faith as once delivered 
to the saintSt" fiiithful and precious 
ministers, the loss of whose services no 
suhatitute can make good. A mis- 
chievous endeavour to insinuate popery 
through the prevailing leaning towards 
tnediasval arcliitecturo has found re- 
sponaive encouragement from a certain 
»ickly affectation of Romish phrases 
and usages and accessories; and the 
idea has hence prevailed, either that 
ecelenasticat architecture is itself iden- 
tified in spirit with Romanist super- 
Btition, or that in architecture the 
ChrifftiaQ essence is symbolised by cer- 
tain accessorial decorations. It is full 
thue to arise and open our eyej to 




the plain truth in these matters; it is 
full time to shake off what on the one 
hand would be^, but for the seriousness 
of the interests involved, the most fan- 
tastic folly, and on the other hand is 
assuredly an unhappy delusion. Ar* 
cbitecture owes to Komanbm its de- 
gradation only. To Chris tianitv ar- 
chitecture may be a potent auxihary. 

^' The corruption of alt architecture,'* 
■aye Mr. Rtiskin, '* especially ecclesiasti- 
cal, corresponded with and marked the 
state of reii|ioii over all Europe, the pe- 
culiar degradation of the Romaiiifit super- 
atitiemi, and of public morality in cooie- 
queadf , which brought about tlie Reforma- 
tion. Against the corrupted papacy there 
arose two great divisions of adversarieB, 
Protestants in Geroflany and England, Ra- 
tionalists in France and Italy ; Ihe one 
requiriog the ptirtfication of religion, the 
other its deStr?iction. The Protestant 
kept the religion, but ca&t aside the here- 
sies of Rome, sad with them her arti, by 
which last rejection he injared his own 
ehamcter, cramped his intellect in refus- 
ing to it one of its noblest exercises, and 
materially djminijshed his influence. It 
may he a serious queition how far the 
pausing of the Reformntion has been a 
coniequcnce of this error. The Ration- 
alist kept the arts, but cast aside the reli* 
gion« This rationalistic art is the art 
commonly called RenaissaDcei. ... In- 
stant degradation followed ia every direc- 
tion — a flood of folly and hypocriayJ* 
p. 23. 

In these times tt seeraa a positive 
duty to repeat one other passage, 
which is iieparated firom the foregoing 
by a few pages only» 

** I said the Protestant had despised 
the arts, and the Rationalist corriipted 
them. But what has the Romanist done 
meafiwhQe? He boasts that it was the 
papacy which raised the arts : why could 
it not support them when it was left to its 
own strength ? How came it to yield to 
the claasicdism which was based on io^- 
delity, and to oppose no harrier to inno- 
Tstions which Iwve redoced the once 
faithfully cooceifed imagery of its worship 
to stage decoration ? Shall we not rather 
tind that Romanism, instead of being a 
promoter of the arts, has never shewn it- 
self capable of a Bingle great conception 
since the separation of Protestantism from 
its side? So long as, corrupt though it 
might be, no clear witness had been borne 
against it, so that It stitl included in Iti 
ranks a vast number of faithful Christiafn, 
so long its arts were noble. Bat tba 
witness was borne — the error niiule app«- 



186 



rent ; and Rome, refusing to bear the tes- 
timony or forsake the falsehood, has been 
struck from that instant with an intellec- 
tual palsy, which has not only incapaci- 
tated her from any further use of the arts, 
which once were her ministers, but has 
made her worship the shame of its own 
shrines, and her worshippers their de- 
stroyers." P. 34. 

We must resolutely close the volume. 
We therefore merely admonish those 
wbose "weak sentmientalism ** en- 
dangers their "being lured into the 
Bomanist church by the glitter of it, 
like larks into a trap by broken glass" 
atuLi they omit not to read and to re- 
flect upon Mr. Ruskin's twelfth Ap- 
pendix, on " Romanist Modem Art. 

We rejoice to observe (see p. 215) 
that with respect to the use of paint 
in architecture Mr. Ruskin*s opinions 
closely resemble our own. He must 
pardon us if at the same time we ex- 
press our regret at his having bestowed 
upon the architecture of nis native 
land so limited a portion of his at- 
tention and regard. 

Mr. Ruskin has illustrated his vo- 
lume with numerous characteristic 



IThe Story of Nell Owyn. 



[Aug. 



examples, engraved in every instance 
from his own original drawings: a 
series of larger and more elaborate en- 
ffravings he is publishing in a separate 
form. The engravings which accom- 
pany or are incorporated with the text 
are unply sufficient to fulfil their pur- 
pose, lliey are clever, appropriate, 
expressive, and concerning their truth 
and accuracy there can be no question. 
To some it mav perhaps be objected 
that they add, without suffidentboiefit, 
to the costliness of the volume. This 
matter of costliness, indeed, forms the 
only serious drawback from our un- 
qualified satisfaction with the work. 
Not that the price is too high for such 
a volume, ana one so " got up,** but 
that such a price renders its ssle of 
necessity comparatively limited, and so 
very seriously impedes the realising 
that vast benefit which it is competent 
to produce. This is a book which 
ougnt to be in everybody*s hands; 
everybody, however, cannot pay two 
guineas for it. May we hope after a 
while to congratulate our readers on 
the appearance of an edition adapted 
to the very widest circulation f 



THE STORY OF NELL GWYN. 

RSLATKn BY PKTXR CUNMIMOHAM. 

Chap. VIIL 

Nelly in real moomingr, and outlawed for debt— Death of Otway, tutor to her son— James II. 
pays her debts— The King's kindness occasions a mmour that Nelly has gone to mass— 
The rumoar without foundation— Her intimacy with Dr. Tenison, then Vicar of St. Martin's 
in the Fields, and Dr. Lower the celebrated physician- She sends for Tenison in her last 
illness— Her death and contrite end— Her will and last request of her son— Her ftineral— 
Tenison preaches her ftmeral sermon— False account of the sermon cried by hawkers in the 
streets— The sermon used as an argument at court against Tenison's promotion to the see 
of Lincoln— Queen Mary's defence of Tenison and Nelly— Her son the Duke of St. Alban's— 
Eleanor Gwyn and Harriet Mellon not altogether unlike— Various portraits of Nelly— 
Further anecdotes of Nelly— Conclusion. 

called to mind Shirley*« noble song, 
which old Bowman used to sing to 
King Charles : 
The glories of onr blood and state 

Are shadows, not substantial things ; 
There is no armour against fate : 

Death lays his icy hands on Kings. 

Lely should have painted Nelly in 
her mourning ; but the delicate hand 
which drew with so much grace the 
Beauties of King Charles the Second*s 
Court, and Nelly withi her lamb 



IT was no fictitious mourning, for 
the Cham of Tartary or a Prince of 
France, which Nelly and the Duchess 
of Portsmouth were both wearing in the 
spring of 1685. Each had occasion, 
tikougn on very different grounds, to 
lament the merry and dissipated 
monarch so suddenly removed from 
his gorgeous chambers at Whitehall to 
the cold damp vaults of Westminster 
Abbey. It was at this period, if not on 
other occasions, that Nelly must have 
4 



185L] 



By Peter Cunningham. Chapter* VIII, 



187 



OQg theitif was l^og torpid in the 
I vault* of the cburcli ia Covcnt Garden, 
pftnd the pdilntierH who succeeded him, 
I Wlsi^ing. KaelleTi, and Verelati had little 
' iU in tninsferriug from life to canvass 
hose essential gnicu£ of exmesslon 
rhich Lcly caught so inimitiiblv in hi^ 
i Belle Hamilton and bis Mfidame 
m * 

^hile her grief was still fresh, Nelly 
. oconaion to remember the frieml 
be had lost. The King's mistresses, 
s Kellv herself informs us, were ac* 
punted but ill pajmastere, for the 
himself was often at a loss for 
D€y» and the ladtea were, wc may 
ieiy suppose, generally In advanee of 
be allowances assigned them. The 
*gold stuff" was indeed scarcer than 
irer with Nelly in the spring of the 
year in which tbe King died, and we 
know what became of at least some 
r her plate only a year before. '* The 
lU is very dear," she says, ** to boil 
he plate ; but necessity huih no law/* 
^ at was to be done ? tradesmen were 
ising with their bills, and the »p- 

{'srentiees who would at once have re- 
eased " Protestant Nelly '' from their 
own books had no control over those 
of their masters ; so Nelly, if not ac- 
tually arrested for debt in the spring 
of 1685, was certainly outlawed for 
the non-payment of certain bills, for 
which some of her tradespeople, since 
the death of the King, muf become 
perseveringly clamorous , 

Nelly's resources at this neriod were 
slenrfcT onmT^h. In the King's life- 
r e Rupert's death, 

■ highes the actress 
and her JiiugLtcr Kuperta, as much as 
4,520/. " for the great pearl necklace " 
which she wears in so many of her 
portrait«.t This would now probably 
paas to the neck of atmther mistress 
(such is the lottery of life and jewels,) 
perhaps to that of Katherine Sedley, 



Countess of Dorchester; but Nelly 
would not care much about this ; it 
went more to her heart to hear that 
during her own outlawry for debt her 
old friend Otway, the tutor to her son, 
the poet, whose writings she must have 
loved, hud died of starvation, without 
a sjrmpathizing Nelly near at hand to 
relieve the wants which she herself was 
now feeling in common with the greifct 
dramatist, f 

It was Nelly's good fortune, how- 
ever, never to be without a friend 
willing and able to assist her. The 
new King had not forgotten the 
dying request of bis only brother, 
*^ Don't let poor Nelly starve : " above 
all he had not formitten Nelly's eon- 
duct during that liard period of his 
life when the bill for excluding his 
succession to the Crown was pushed 
in both houses with a warmth and 
animosity which augured inditTerently 
for his obtaining the Crown to which he 
was entitled. James, though in trouble 
himself — Monmouth had landed at 
Lyme and the Buttle of Sedgemoor waa 
not yet fought— found time in the 
midst of his anxieties to remember 
the wants of *' pretty witty Nell ;" the 
secret service expenses of the King 
(only recently brought to light) ex- 
hibiting a payment to Richard Graham, 
Esq. of 7297. 2#. M, "to be by him 
pmd over to the several tradesmen, 
creditors of ^Irs. Fallen Gwyn^in satis- 
faction of their debt* for which the 
said Ellen stood outkwed/*§ 

But this was not the only way in 
which James exhibited his regard for 
Nelly, and his remembrance of a bro- 
ther to whom he was sincerely attached. 
In tbe same year in which he relieved 
Nelly from hei' outlawry, two addi- 
tional payments of 500/. each were made 
to her by way of royal bounty -, and 
two years a^erwards the same book 
of accounts records a payment to Sir 



• The view of Covent Garden, in the accompanyiog plate, bat been drawn under 
my directions from all tbe best enifraTings and pictures known. The garden wail of 
Bedford Home in the Strand exbibita the first (.'(ivent Garden Market— in the reign of 
Charles only a few stalls. 

-'■ Warbarton's Prince Rupert, iii. 558, 
I OtwAy died 14 April, 1685-- 

Then for that cub, ber ton and heir^ 
Let him remain in Otway'i care* 

Satire on NcUy, Hurl. MS. 7319, fol. 135. 

$ Secret Service Expenses of ChArleB 11. and JameB II. (printed for the Camden 
Society), p. 109. ^ 

G»T. Ma©. Vol. XXXVl. T 



The Stoiy of Nell Gwtfn. 



13S 



Stephen Fox of 1256/. 0$. 2d, for so 
much bj- him paid to Sir Robert Claj- 
ton, the aldemmn and great citj mer- 
chanlj in full of 8774/. 2«. 6/f. for re- 
deeming the mortgages to Sir John 
Musters, of BeskwoodTark, for settling 
the same for life upon Mrs. Ellen 
Gwrn, " and after her death upon the 
Dulce of St. Alban's, and his iasue 
male, with the reversion in the crown.*"* 
Beskwood Park is in the county of 
Nottingham, on the borders of merry 
Sherwood, and was long an appurte- 
nance to the crown, eagerly sought for 
by royal favourites. Whether it re- 
mains in the possession of the present 
Duke of St. Alban's, as the descendant 
of Nelly, I am not aware. 

James*s kindness to pretty witty 
Nell, and his known design of recon- 
ciling the nation to the Church of 
Rome, gave rise to a rumour, perpe- 
tuated by Evelyn in his Memoes, that 
Nelly at this time " was said to go to 
mass." Evelyn records her rumoured 
conversion in the same brief entry 
with that of Dryden. ** Such prose- 
lytes," he adds, " were of no great loss 
to the church." f I'he rumour, how- 
ever, was untrue. Nelly was firm to 
the Protestant religion, so firm indeed 
that her adherence to the faith of our 
fathers is one of the marked charac- 
teristics of her life. 

Some strict disciplinarians of the 
church will hear perhaps with a smile of 
incredulity that Nell Gwyn was trou- 
bled at any time with a thought about 
religion. But their smile would be 
at least uncharitable. Nelly doubtless 
had her days and moments of re- 
morse; and, though her warmth in 
the cause of Protestantism may in 
the first instance have been strength- 
ened by her haired to the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, known as the advocate of 
another religion, yet the friendship 
so good a man as Tenison is proved 
to have had for her is surely a suffi- 
cient answer to any accusation that 
her faith was infinu or her repent- 
ance insincere. 

It is much to be rcpretted that we 



[Aug. 



know so little of the life of Archbidiop 
Tenison. Ileseems to have risen into 
importance about the year 1680, when 
he was recommended by Tillotson to 
the vacant living of St. MardnViti- 
the-Fields, in London, then an exten- 
sive parish, where, as Baxter described 
it, " neighbours lived like American8» 
without hearing a sermon for many 
years." Tenison filled his cure at St. 
Martin s with so much courage, toler- 
ation, and discretion, in the worst days 
of the church, that few except ite ex- 
treme partisans of popery have been 
found to quarrel with his ministry .f 
It was as vicar of St. Martinis, in which 
parish Pall Mall is situated, that he be- 
came acquainted with Nell Gwyn, per- 
haps, as 1 suspect in the first instance, 
through the instrumentality of Lower, 
then uie most celebrated physician in 
London. § Dr. Lower was a sturdy 
Protestant, and one, as King James was 
known to observe, "that did him more 
mischief than a troop of horse." He was 
often with Nelly, and, as Kennet had 
heard from Tenison*s own lips, "would 
pick out of her all the intrigues of the 
Court of King Charles II." Nor was his 
faith insincere, evincing as he did his re- 
gard for his religion by the bequest of 
a thousand pounds to the French and 
Irish Protestants in or near London. | 
But the visits of Lower to Nelly 
were not for gossip only. She was 
now far from well, and her complaints 
were put into rhyme by the malicious 
pen of Sir George Etberege. There 
IS, however, little wit in this instance, 
and just as little truth in the malice of 
the author of " The Man of Mode." 
One line however deserves to be re- 
corded, — 

Send Dr. Burnet to me or I die. 

It was time indeed for Nelly to send 
for some one. Burnet had attended 
Rochester, and Mrs. Roberts, and the 
great Lord Russell. Tenison had 
attended Thynne, Sir Thomas Arm- 
strong, and the Duke of Monmouth. 
Tenison wus sent for and attended 
NeUy. 



* Secret Service Expenses, p, 167. 

t Evelyn, 19 January, 1685-6. 

t Compare Burnet in his History with Lord Dartmouth's Notes, and Burnet's own 
account of Tenison to King William in Romney's Diary, ii. 283. See also Evelyn's 
Memoirs for a high character of Tenisoq. 

$ Burnet, it. S84, ed. 1893. 

II Kennet's note in Wood's Ath. Ox. cd, Bliss, iv. 399. 



1851.] By Peter Cunn'mgham, Clmptei- VIIL 



139 



Sbo U0W uiade her will, and to the 
foUowbg effect : — 

Ja the nam^ of God, Amen. I« KUeii 
Owjrone, of the pnrish of St. Martin-iti- 
thcrfields, «nd countj nf Middlesex, jipiw- 
iter, this 9th day of iuly^ anno Domini 
1687^ do make this my luft will aod tcs- 
tatneati and do revoke all former wiIIf. 
Ptrst, in hope^ of a Joyful resurrection, I 
do rccoinmend myself whence I camCt my 
Boul into the hands of Almighty God, ftud 
my body unto the enrth, to be decently 
buried t at the discretion of ray eiectirors^ 
hereiaafter uimtid ; and as for all aiicU 
hou«e«i lADdfli teDemeDts, officei, places^ 
plosions, ariotiltkg, and huredilanunt! 
whatioover, in England, Ireland^ or else- 
where, wherein I, or my huira, or any to 
t!jc Qse of, or in trust for me or my heirs, 
hath, have, or may or ought to have, any 
estate, right, claim or demand irfiatsoevcr, 
of fee-airopk or freehold, I give and de- 
Tise the same all and wholly to my dear 
natural son, hi* Grace the Duke of St. 
Alban's, and to the beira of his body; 
and as for all and all manner of my j«M-da, 
plate, household stuff,* good^i, chattels, 
credittii and other estate whatsoever, 1 
give and bequeath the tsumi*, aud every 
part and parcel thereof, to my executors 
hereafter named, in, upon, and by way of 
tni5t for, my said denr son, his ejcecutors, 
adniintatrator«« and as^i^nSf and to aud 
for his and their own liole use and peculiar 
beilo^ and advantagt;^ in «uch tnanner aa 
i» hereafter expressed ; and 1 do hereby 
constitute the Right|Hon. Lawrence Earl 
of RocUe«ter, tha Riglvt Hon, Thoraai 
Earl of Pembroke, the Hon, Sir Robert 
Sawyer, Kni»ht, hia Majesty's Attorney 
General, and the Hon. Henry Sidney, 
Esq, to be my executorjs of thii my last 
will and testament, desiring them to please 
to accept and nodertake the execution 
hereof, in Imst as afore-mentioncd | and 
I do give and bequeath to the several per- 
sona in the schedule hercDuto annexed 
the several legacies and suuij of money 
therein expressed or inenUoued ; and my 
further will and mind, and unylhing above 
notwith^tarvding, U^ that it my said dear 
son happen to depart tliia natiirul life 
without issnc then living, or such issue 
die without issue, then nnd in such case, 
all and all manner of my estate above de- 
vised to him, aud in case my laid naturnl 
aon die before the age of on e-and- twenty 
years, then alao all my personal estate de- 
viled to my said executors not before 
then by my said dear son and his issue, 
and my said executors, and the executors 
or adniiaistnitors of the survivor of them^ 
or by some of them otherwise lawfully 
and lirmly devised or disposed of, shall 
remain, go, or be to my said executors, 




their hetrs, executors, and admintiftrator!! 
respectively, in trust of and for answering, 
paying and ^attiifying all and every aud 
all manners of my gifU, legaciea aud direc- 
tions that at any time hereafter, during 
my life, shall be by me anywise mentioned 
or given in or by any codicils or echedule 
to be hereto annexed. And lastly, that 
my said executors shall have, all and every 
of them. 100^. a-piece, of lawful money, 
in consideration of their care and trouble 
herein, and furthermore, all their several 
and reajkective expenses Hod cbargea in 
nnd about tlie execution of thii my will. 
In witness of all which, I hereunto set my 
hand and seal, the djiy and year first above 
written. E. G, 

Signed, »ealedt fjuMUhed end declared f 
in i/te prtKence of ««, v^/ici at tka taiTie 
fime inibscribe our nam^M^ atM9 in her 

Lucy Hamilton Sandyg, Edward W^y- 
borne, John Warner, William Scarlio rough, 
Janxe.<i Booth. 

To this, three months hiter, wua 
added a codicil and last ivnuest, written 
ou a tjeparate sheet uf papin% and 
called : — 

The la»i requeaf of Mrs. EUen^ Gvynn to 
hit Grace ike Duke of St. Athan*g^ made 
Ocio&er ike mk, 1687* 

1. I desire I may he buried in the 
church of St, Martin* s-tn-thc- fields. 

2, That Dr. Tenison may preach my 
funeral sermon. 

3* Timt there may be a decent pulpit* 
ctoth and cushion given to St.-MArttn's' 
in- the- fields. 

4. That he [the Dnkc] would give ooe 
hundred poundb for the use of thie poor 
of the said St. Martinis and St, Janaet's^ 
Westminister, to be given into the hands 
of the said Dr. Teniison, to he disposed of 
at hifl dijfcretioii, for taking any ijoor 
debtors of the said parish out of prison, 
and for doaths thiii winter, and other 
necessaries, as he Hball find most tit. 

5. That for fhowing my charity to 
those who differ from mc in religion, I 
desire that fifty pounds may be pat into 
the hands of Dr. Tentson and Mr. War- 
ner, who, taking to them any two persons 
of the Roman Religionj may dispoiie of it 
for the use of the poor of that religion 
inhabiting in the parish of St. James's 
aforesaid. 

6. That &f r^. Rose Forster may have 
two hundred pounds given to her, any 
time within a year after my decease. 

7. That Jo,, my porter, may have ten 
pounds given him* 

Hfy rtqutit /o M« Of*ac€ iMf /uriker — 

8. That my present nuric^ may have 



140 



The Stofy of Nell Owyn. 



[Aug. 



ten pounds each, and mourning, besides 
their wages due to them. 

9. Tliat my present serrants may have 
mourning each, and a year's wages, be- 
sides their wages due. 

10. That the Lady Fairbome may have 
tttj pounds given her to buy a ring. 

11. That my kinsman, Mr. Cholmley, 
may hare one hundred pounds given to 
him, within a year after this date. 

12. That his Grace would please to lay 
out twenty pounds yearly, for the releas- 
ing of poor debtors out of prison, every 
Christmas-day. 

13. That Mr. John Warner may have 
fifty pounds given him to buy a ring. 

14. That the Lady Hollyman may have 
the pension of ten shillings per week, 
continued to her during the said lady's 
life. 

Oct. 1 8, -87.— rAM request woe aiteeied 
amd acknowledged^ in the presence ofue, 
— John Hetherington, Hannah Grace, 
Daniel Dyer.* 

She died of apoplexy in Nov. 1687,t 
in her thirty-eighth year, but the day 
of her death is unknown. ^* Her re- 
pentance in her last hours, I have 
Deen unquestionably informed," writes 
Gibber, " appeared in all the contrite 
symptoms of a Christian sincerity.'* 
^ She is said to have died piously and 
penitently,*' writes Wigmore to Sir 
George Etherege, then Envoy at Ra- 
tisbon, ^ and, as she dispensed several 
charities in her lifetime, so she left 
several such legacies at her death." } 

On the night of the I7th Novem- 
ber, 1687, the orange girl in the play- 
house pit — the pretty witty Nelly of 
Pepys — and the Almahide of Dryden's 
plajr and King Charles's admiration, was 
puried, according to her own request, 
in the church of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Helds. There was no great osten- 
tation at the funeral, considering the 
charges at which funerals were then 
conducted ; and the expenses of her 



interment, 375/., were advanced by 
Sir Stephen Fox, and deducted from 
die next quarter's allowance of I50(W. 
a year, which King James had settled 
upon her, and afterwards continaed to 
her 8on.§ Grood Dr. Tenison too com- 

Elied with her request, and preached 
er funeral sermon; but what the 
Doctor said — ^beyond much to her 
praise — ^no one has told us. The church 
was doubtless crowded on the occa- 
sion — all the apprentices who could 
obtain leave from their masters for 
such a lesson were there, and perhaps 
many a wet eye was seen, for Ae then 
vicar of St. Martin's was an impres- 
sive preacher. 

It was bold in Tenison to preach 
such a sermon, and on such a person ; 
but the good Doctor knew the worth 
of Nelly and was not afraid. He 
was not however without censure for 
what he had done. Some mercenary 
people printed a sermon, said to have 
been preached by the excellent vicar, 
and employed hawkers to cry it in the 
streets, which the Doctor himself was 
obliged to denounce in print as a 
** forgery." || Others went further ; 
and when in 1691 the see of Lincoln 
was vacant, and Tenison was all but 
appointed to it, Viscount Villiers, af- 
terwards the first Earl of Jersey, in his 
zeal for the rector of the parish of St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, immediately ad- 
joining St. Martin's, made it a reason 
to Queen Mary for the exclusion of 
the good Doctor that he had preached 
'* a notable funeral sermon m praise 
of Ellen Gwyn." But the daughter 
of King James, and the wife of Kinff 
William, who had her own channefi 
of information, was not to be led aside 
from what she knew was right by so 
weak a complaint, though advanced 
by a highly-favoured servant of her 



• The wiU was proved, Dec. 7, at the Prerogatiyc Will Office m Doctors' Commons, 
and the original on the 18th of Febmary following delivered to Sir Robert Sawyer, 
one of the execntors. 

t Letter of 22 March, 1687, in Ellis's Correspondence, i. 264, « Mrs. NcUy is drin« 
of an apoplexy.'' ' ' ^ 

: Gibber's Apology, p. 451, ed. 1740. Letter of 18 Nov. 1687, printed in Seward's 
Anecdotes. Her wealth in the same letter is stated at a million ! 

f Secret Service Expenses of Charles II. and James II. p. 177. 

H Advertisement, 

Whereas there has beeen a paper cry'd by some hawkers, as a sermon preached by 
p. T. at the funeral of M. E. Gwynn, this may certify, that that paper is the 
fo^ery of some mercenary people.— 3fr. Pulton considered by 7%o. J^ison, D,D. i\ 
1687. 



1851.] 



By Peter CSinningham* Chapter VIIL 



I 
I 



(ywn. *^ I have heard as iDiicb/' &aid 
^e good Queen Mary to her Master 
of the Horse, ** and this is a sign that 
the poor unfortunate woman died 

Citent ; for, if I have read a man*8 
rt through his lookd, had she not 
made a tridj pious end, the Do<itor 
never could have been induced to 
speak well of her/* * I need hardly 
add that Tenison obtained the see^ 
and that be lived to fill with honour 
to himself and service to the Church 
the more important office of Arch- 
bishop of C^mterbury* It may how- 
ever be new to some that in his own 
will he strictly forbids cither funeral 
sermon or oration at his own inter- 
ment. There is satire in this. To 
bare praised even Tenison might by 
some courtier or imotber have been 
made a barrier to the promotion of an 
able and perhaps better deserving 
person. 

The son acceded to the dying re- 
quests of his mother by the following 
writing beneath the codicil : — 

Dec. 5, 1687. — I do« consent that tbia 
paper of request may be made a codicil to 
Mm. Gwinn*B will. 

St. Albai4^». 
He lived moreover to distinguish 
himself at the siege of Belgrade, to 
become a Knight of the Garter, and to 
die the father of eight sons by his wife 
Diana, daughter and heir of Aubrey 
de Vere, the twentieth and last Earl 
of Oxford — connnemoruted, as I have 
already observed, among the Kneller 
beauties in the collection at Hampton 
Court. He died intestate in 1726. 
His widow survived till 1742. The 
title still exists — and has of late years 
oddly enough been notoriously but 
honourably before the public from 
the enormous wealth ol the cele- 
brated Duchess of St, Alban's, widow 
of Coutta the banker, originally known, 
and favourably too, upon the stage as 
Miss Mellon. Not unlike in many 
points were Eleanor Gwyn and Har- 
riet Mellon. The fathers of both were 
in the army, and both never knew 
what it was to have a father. Both 



141 



rose by the stage, and both were 
charitable. Here, however, the paral- 
lel ceases. Harriet was not a Nelly. 

There are many portraits of Nell 
Gwyn — few heads of her time make a 
more profitable traffic among dealers. 
Yet very few are genuine, bhe sat to 
Leiy-, to Cooper, and to Gascar. An 
** unfinished portrait of her was sold 
St Sir Peter Lely's sale to Hugh ^lay, 
for 25/.t No. 306 of King James n?s 
pictures was ** Madam Gwyn's picture, 
naked, with a Cupid," done by Lely, 
and concealed by a *' sliding picc^" 
a copy by Danckers of the Countess of 
Dorset, by Van Dyck.J Among the 
pictures ** of Mr. Lely*s doing " which 
ilrs. Beale, the painter, saw at Bap. 
May*s lodgings at Whitehall, in Apnl 
1677, was "Mrs, Gwyn, with a Iamb, 
half-!ength,"§ " Some years since," 
says Tom Daviea, writing in 17S4, ** I 
saw at Tilr. Berenger*s house in the 
Mews a picture of Nell Gwyn, said to 
have been drawn by Sir Peter Lelj j 
anil she appeared to have been ex- 
treniely atti'active.*'|| 

With the single exception of a too 

frave and thoughtful picture in the 
*ely room at Hampton Court, tliere is 
not a single picture of Nelly in any of 
the royal collections- When Queen 
Charlotte was asked whether she re* 
collected a famous picture of Nell 
Gwyn, known to have existed in the 
Windaor galleryj and which the Queeik 
was suspected of having removed, she 
replied at once '* that most assuredly 
since she had resided at Windsor there 
had been no Nell Gwyn there.**^ 

A full-length of her, in a yellow and 
blue drcKs, and black-brown hair, was 
sold at the Stowc sale for 100 guineast 
and baa been engraved. At Good- 
wood is a full-length of her, neither 
clever nor like. . Other portraits of 
ber are to be seen at Elvaaton (Lord 
Harrington*s) ; at Welbeck, in water 
colours, with her two children; at 
Sudbury (Lord Vernon's) ; andatOak- 
ley Grove ^Lord Bathurst's). That cu- 
rious inquirer Sir William Musgrave 
had seen portraits of her at Smeton 



* Life of Tenison, p. 20. Lord Jersey fihotild have recollected thnt the fftther of 
his o^n wife was no le»s a person than the iDfamoua Will. Chi^nch. 

f AccQtmtA of Roger North, the executor of LeIy. Atldit. MS. id Bnt, Mus. 16,174. 

X HarK MS. li^S^U, compare WaJpole'a edit. Dailawaj, iii. h%. There is a 
priot of thin La the Baniey Collection in the British Muieum. 

i Walpoleby O&llaway, iii. HO. 

II Davies's Dramatic MifcelkDles, iii, 269. 

t Mrs. Junesan^s Preface to Beauties of the Court ot ¥AYk|^ Okas\jM \\. 



unique 



142 



The Stofy of Nell Gwyn. 



[Aug. 



and at Lord Portmore's at "VVeybridge. 
At the Garrick Club is a namby- 
pamby and pretty small portrait called 
Nell Gwyn, but surely not Nelly. 
Marshal Grosvenor had the fine por- 
trait with the lamb, once belonging to 
the St. Alban's family, and since so 
finely engraved for Mrs. Jameson*8 
Beauties. "The turn of the neck," 
says Mrs. Jameson, " and the air of 
ihe head are full of grace and charac- 
ter, and the whole picture, though a 
little iniured by time, is exquisitely 
painted. The portrait at Drayton 
Manor, bought by the late Sir Robert 
Peel, is the same as the Grosyenor pic- 
ture, except that the lamb is omitted.^ 
At Mr. BemaFs, in Eaton Sauare, is a 
cleyer copy of the time after Lely ; and 
amouff the miniatures of the Duke of 
Buccleuch is her head by Cooper, for 
which it is said the Exchequer papers 
record the price paid to that pamter. 

Of the engravings from her por- 
traits, the best are by Gerard Valck, 
the brother-in-law of Blooteling. Valck 
was a contemporary of Nell Gwyn, 
and fine impressions of his Lely en- 
graving realise high prices; but the 
print of her which collectors are most 
curious about is that after Gascar, 
evidently engraved abroad, it is thought 
bj Masson, in which she is represented, 
covered by the famous laced chemise, 
lying on a bed of roses, from which 
her two children, as cupids, are with- 
drawing the curtains — King Charles 
II. in the distance. She wears as well 
the famous Rupert necklace of pearls. 
The Stowe impression — the last sold 
— ^brought eight guineas. In all her 
pictures we have what Ben Jonson so 
much admires — 

Hair loosely flowing, robes as free. 

But few — the Lely with the lamb ex- 
cepted — render justice to those charms 
of face and figure which her contem- 

E}rarie8 loved to admire, and which 
dy alone had the skill to transfer 
even in part to canvas.f 

On looking back at what I have 
written of this Story in the chapters 



already printed, I see little to omit or 
add— unless I wander into the satires 
of the time, and poison my pages wit& 
the gross libels of that age of lampoons. 
Not to have occasioned one satire or 
even more was to say little for the re- 
putation (of any kind) of the lady who 
Jived within the atmosphere of White- 
haU:— 

Like her who missed her name in a lampoon 
And Bigh'd— to find herself decay 'd so soon. 

Nelly did not escape, and, though the 
subject of some very gross satires, she 
had this consolation, if she heeded 
them at all, that there were others who 
fared still worse, and ]>erhaps deserved 
better. Yet it would be wrong to 
close the story of her life without men- 
tioning the present of the large Bible 
which she made to Oliver Cromwell's 
porter, when a prisoner in Bedlam; 
often referred toby the writers of her 
age ; her paying the debt of a worthy 
clergyman whom, as she was going 
through the city, she saw bailifis hurry- 
ing to prison;! or her present to 
Pat O'Bryan, so characteristically re- 
lated in the following quotation : — 

" Afterwards Pat O' Bryan, scorning to 
rob on foot, he would become an absolute 
highway-man, by robbing on horseback. 
The first prey he met was Nell Gwjn ; and 
stopping her coach on the road to Win- 
chester, quoth he, ' Madam, I am, by my 
shalvashion, a fery good shentleman, and 
near relation to his Majesty's Crash the 
Duke of Ormond ; but being in want of 
money, and knowing you to be a sharita- 

ble w , I hope you will give me shome- 

thing after Pve took all you have away.' 
Honest Nell, seeing the simplicity of the 
fellow, and laughing heartily at his bull, 
gave him ten guineas, with which Teague 
rid away, without doing any fur&er 
damage.' '§ 

Stories of this nature, though per- 
haps only coloured with truth, are not 
to be made light of by biographers. 
They shew characteristics and the 
general appreciation at the time of the 
individuals to whom they relate. There 
is not a storv told of Nelly in the 
commonest chap book or jest book, 



* Mrs. Jameson's Private Picture Galleries, p. 375. 

t For her bust or effigy at Bagnigge Wells see Waldron's od. of Downes, p. 16, and 
Qent Mag. for June, 1835, p. 562. 1 do not believe in the straight-armed portrait 
engraved by Van Bleeck and now in Mr. Bemal's possession. 

% Granger, iv. 210 and 188. ** Like Oliver's porter, but not so devout," is a line 
In D'Urfey's Prologue to Sir Barnaby Whigg, 1681. 

I Capt. Alexander Smith's Lives of Highwaymen, London, 1719, vol. i. p. 260. 



185L] 



The Galleys of England and France. 



143 



I 
I 



publielied wliile her memory was yet 
cherished among the cbndreu to whol^o 
fathers and motherp she was known^ 
but what evinced either harailess hu- 
mour or a sjmpatJiJijiiig lie art. No 
wonder then that there is stiU an odd 
faacmation uhout her uaine» and that 
Grauger*s remark of '* \Mmtever she 
did became her,'* is at least as \rorlhy 
of belief as Burnet's callmg her "the 
indiscreetest and wildest creature that 
ever was in a court/* * 

The true apology for this t>tory and 
Neli Gwyn*g life is to be found in 
Gibber's defence of his own conduct, 
where, when Fpeaking of Nelly, he 
observe*^ : 

** If the common fame of her may he 
believed, whkh iti my memory was not 
doubted* fihe had less to be Uid to her 
charge than any other of those Indies 
who were ia the same state of prcfermeot. 
She never nteddkd in matters of any 
lerious moment* or was the tool of work- 
ing poliriciauR. Never broke into those 
amorous infidelities which others are ac- 



cused of I but was ei Tisibly distinguished 
by her particular perional luclmatioa for 
the king as her rivals were by their titles 
and grai]idear/''t 

1 doubt not, say a that great and 
good man Sir Thomas More, that 
some fib all thiuk this woman (he h 
writing of Jane Shore) too slight a 
thijig to be written of and set among 
the remembrances of great matter3. 
** But meaeemeth/* he adds-, '* the chance 
worthy to be remetubered — ^for, where 
the King took displeasure, she would 
mitigate aud appease his miud; where 
men were out of fuvour she would 
bring them in his grace ; for many that 
had highly offended she obtained 
pardon ; of great forfeitures she gat 
men remission; and finally in many 
weighty suits she stood more in great 
stead, either for money or very small 
rewards." Wise aud virtuous Thomas 
More, pious and mauly Thomas Te- 
ni^OD, pretty and witty — and surely 
with much that was good in her — 
Eleanor Gwts, 

Noie. — I have great pleasure in extracting the following defence of Nelly from the Pre- 
face to Douglas Jerrold*fl drama of" NcU Gwyn,or the Prologue," a capitally constructed 
■ piece, and one true throughout to its heroine and the manners of the age in which 
Nelly lived : — ** Whilst we may safely reject as unfounded gossip many of the stories 
Assoeiatfd with the name of NeE Gwyn, we canuot refuse belief to the various proofs 
of kind-heartedness, hbei-ality, and — taking into consideratioQ her subsequent power 
to do harm — absolute goodoess of a woman mingling (if wc may believe a passage in 
^m Pepys) from her earliest years In the most depraved scenes of a moat dissolute age. The 
^g life of Nell Gwyn, from the time of her connexion with Charles 11. to that of her death* 
proved that error had been forced upon her by circumstances, rather than indulged from 
choice. It was under this impression that the pr<7aent little comedy was undertaken ; 
uader this conviction an attempt has been made to shew some gbrapses of the * silver 
lining ' of a character, to whose infltieace over an unprincipled voluptuary we owe a 

^ national asylum for veteran soldiers, and whose brightness shines with the most amiable 
Lei 
edi 



THE GALLEYS OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE. 
LetBagues. Histoire, Types, Moears. Mysteres, Par Maurice Alhoy* Parii. Bro. 1845. 



IN the voJume of Egerton Papers, 
edited for the Camden Societj? by Mr, 
J, Payne Collier, there is a reminis- 
cence of Elizabeth which is of consi- 
derable interest. It refers to the d*> 
signed introduciiou into England by 
our Protestant Queen of a system of 
forced labour in galleys, stmihvr to 
that praotised in France and Italy* 




The queen had built a single galley, 
and had others in a state of prepara- 
tion* To nmn the former she !*elected 
a crew from the prisons; and, although 
the avowed intention of this new ar- 
rangement was to increase the severity 
of puuiahment, it seems scarcely pos- 
sible, considering what English prisons 
then werei that the objects so selected 



t Gibber's Apobgf , p. 450, cd. 1740. 



144 



7%tf GiUteys of England and Proi^ee. 



CA**. 



must not have hailed the decree wluch 
dragged them from dirt, from dark- 
ness, and from want, to free air, to 
chains warmed by the sun, and to the 
heavy oar, handled indeed bj slaves, 
but dipped into the freely-flowing 
waters. 

In England criminals had never be- 
fore been sentenced to the galleys, nor 
did that kind of punishment ever take 
rootamongst us. Exile, banishment, and 
finally transportation, superseded it. 
Transportation to our North Ameri- 
can colonies was the first kind of 
banishment, united to labour, which 
was extensively practised amongst us. 
When the colonies became independent 
confinement on board hulks was sub- 
stituted. But the number of convicts 
increased beyond the power of dealing 
with them, either by confinement or 
by forced labour at home, either in 
ships or dock-yartls. Society became 
alarmed, and maintained its feur till 
the Sirius and the Supply took from 
our shores their first chartered cargoes 
of living Ruilt, and fiung them almost 
uncared for on the shingle of Botany 
Bay. This was in 1788. 

Society at home felt relieved as soon 
as a flag-stafi* was erected at Port 
Jackson, and Governor Phillip repre- 
sented under it the Miyesty of Eng- 
land. Convicts were crammed into 
ships buUt nke slavers. Cruelty, pes- 
tilence, and death reigned on board, 
but our own hearths were by so much 
the less imperilled, and we had little 
scruple in planting profligacy at the 
antipodes. Our fathers thought they 
had done enough by providing profli- 
gacy with a chaplain. If he happened 
to be a good Christian missionary it 
was, as far as it went, in favour of the 
proscribed and heathenish men among 
whom he had to minister. But, un- 
fortunately, sixty years ago there were 
still too many chaplains whode ortho- 
doxy was built upon the model of 
Fielaing*8 Newgate Ordinary ; a gen- 
tleman, it will be remembered, who 
held that there was nothing so deceit- 
ful as the spirits given to us by wine, 
but who expressed his admiration of 
punch as a tiuuor ^ no where spoken 
against in Scripture.** 

That the nrst settlers were allowed 
a chaplain at oil was owing neither to 
the solicitude of the government nor 
6 



of the nation. Three indiindiials nutod 
their voices so loudly that tlie natSop 
took up the note, and the goyenunenl 
acquiesced. The indi^dnals alluded 
to were Bishop Porteua, WUberfbroek 
and Sir Joseph Bankes. The miimter 
selected was named Johnstone, tbe 
means employed, periiaps in spite of 
him, for the moral improvement of tho 
convicts were somewhat startling. For 
instance, they who infringed the oolo* 
nial rule of government were con- 
demned to work during the whole itf 
Sunday on the highways. He who 
offended Governor PhiUip was com- 
pelled also to oflend Heaven. The coa- 
vict who transgressed the human was 
forced to insult the divine law, and he 
who broke the eighth commandment 
was condemned, as a penalty, to break 
the fourth. If there were any logical 
rogues among them, they must nave 
been sadly puzzled to draw a satisfac- 
tory conclusion from such strangely 
constructed premises. 

With all this, however, our home- 
tarrying citizens troubled themselves 
nothing. Amused they sometimes were. 
They could criticise Governor Phillip, 
and speculate on the conduct of his 
successors Grose, Paterson, and Hun- 
ter. They smiled when the good chap- 
lain built a church out of his own 
scanty revenue. It was the first erected 
in Australia, and cost but 40/. The 
convicts burnt it down because at- 
tendance was enforced. There were 
few to sieh over the work of destruc- 
tion. Thejr rather laughed at a Field- 
ius-ian incident which oefel the chap- 
lam about the time he lost his little 
church. He had met amon^ the con- 
victs with an old schoolfellow. He 
had compassion upon him and took 
him into his service, but the ungrateful 
co'oLummut plundered his benefactor 
in the very exercise of his benevolence. 
And people smiled as they did in 
France when they heard at Toulon of 
what befel the Archbishop of Frejus, 
whose archiepiscopal ring was drawn 
ofi' his finger oy a convict upon whom 
he was in the act of giving his pastoral 
benediction. It seems as though all 
acts of fraud committed against those 
who should be least exposed to them 
were but lightly weighed by society. 
We are too apt to think little of 
crimes which are dexterously per- 



1851,] 



The GaUeys a f England and France. 



146 



brmed or wittilj accounted for* Wlio 
looks upon tbat Irish cliieftain as an 
incendiary, who apologrsed for setting 
fire to LinicTick cathedral on the 
ground that he thoufljlit the Brchbiahop 
was in it at the time? The firtst church 
budt and burnt in Australia might 
have had its destmction accounted for 
on the game principle. Perhaps for 
some similar reason the convicts ilred 
and destroyed the prisons at Sydney 
and Faraniatta; that is* be<'ause the 
incendiaries imagined that Governor 
Hunter was within them. However 
this may lie, the incendiary convicts 
made the colony too hot to hold hinu 
Tliey fairly burne<l him out, and Cap- 
tain King succeeded to the seat ere it 
was yet cool. The reign of the new 
govenior was marked by famine, 
drunkenness, and rel»ellion. King, in 
abandoning the agricultural experi- 
ment in Norfcilk Island, declared that- 
far ni era cuidd not be made out of 
pickpockets. The men became idle 
and hungry, and, being compelled to 
eat ** scrtthbitig-hriiskes^ as the course 
loaves of the island were called, they 
lent ear to some Iri*ih rebels, who 
urged them to strike for liberty and new 
bread. Blood was spilt, the rebellion 
was crushed, and Kmg wa.s recalled. 
There succeeded lo him no less a man 
than that child of ill-fortune Cap- 
tain Bligh, of the Bounty. Til-starred 
ashore as afloat, hia acts drove men 
into rebellion^ and, «fter an insurrec- 
tion, he wai* formally deposed. Tlie 
government at home sent out Mac* 
4Uiirr!c to su(!ceed him, a mock restor- 
ation of Bligh's authority for four-and- 
twenty hours having been proclaimed, 
just to save appearances. The f?o- 
vernmeot condemniHl the traitors, Itut 
the J legalised their treason. They 
made Captain Bligh a vlce-adniiral,but 
the J accepted the acts of the usurpers 
who drove him from nuthority. 

With Macquarrie fairly commcTiced 
the problem of transportation. It may 
be Bsid, upon the whole, to have suc- 
ceeded ; but, unfortunately, just as 
tills success has been, [>erbaps only 
parti.olly, achieved, up rise the anti- 
podean settlers in the land and declare 
tbatf Henceforth, no transported crimi- 
nal shall set foot upon their shore. To 
this declaration the home government 
has returned not the most agreeable 
of rejoinders. There is therefore a 

GbVt. Mag. Vol. XXXVI, 



crisis ; and at this critical moment we 
opened filonsicur Alhoy*a book with 
an Ciiger curio.Hity, founded on indi- 
vidual interest and the general im- 
portance of the question. 

We have been diaappointed. Not 
that the book on French Bagnes and 
French For^ts lacks interest in any 
one of its pages ; on the contrary, it 
is the most amusing of volumes after 
its fashion, which, we mucft confess, 
partakes something of the Newgate 
Calenihm But it is wanting in the 
information which we chiefly need, 
namely^, how can a country best main- 
tain its criminals when transportation 
as a penalty can no longer be effected? 
M. Alhoy prefers the gallet^Sj as the 
Convict discipline and labour at Brest^ 
Kocbefort, and Toulon are still called, 
to any other system. Both the disci* 
pline and labour as punishments are 
horribly severe ; both are abused, both 
are confessedly useless as correctives. 
They form a [lenalty and a vengeance, 
and never lead to reformation. Yet 
M, Alboj* sneers at and condemns the 
whole of our transported- convict pro- 
cess. In the face of its results, he 
claims preference for the mercllesg 
system practise*! in the French bagnes. 
Its cruelty is greater in degree, no 
doubt ; but then it does not move to 
repentance, or even to simple, honest, 
regret. It merely excites exaspera- 
tion and impclf^ to bloody vengeance. 
Something is to be allowed for the dif- 
ferences of national character. Among 
the convicts wearing green capa^ tic- 
noting that they were "for life/' the 
author counted one hundred and odd 
jtnrricides, and of these a quarter of a 
iiundred were tadors ! In this coun- 
try we happily could not find either 
the greater or the smaller number. 
Were our setlentary and bloodless 
brethren of the needle to be sou t ten 
wi( h a desire of slaying their sires, we 
perhaps might think t-oo that trans- 
|>ortation would hardly be cfjuivalent 
ai? a penalty to the outrageous horror 
of the olFence ; but France finds ex- 
tenuating circumstances in these caaes, 
and sends their quiet-looking, but 
sanguinary, perpetrators to the galleys 
for life. The shade of John Stowe 
need not blush ; the crime is uncom- 
mon among the tailors as among the 
men of England. 

In spite, or perhaps in consequence, 
L 



146 



The Oall$}f* of England and France. 



[A«g. 



of its severity, the forgot system has 
oflener been abused in France than 
our convict system in the colonies. 

The instances in M. Alhoy's book 
are multitudinous. We need only 
mention the case of a music and 
singing master condemned fur some 
terrible crime. Influence, aptly exer- 
cised, succeeded in procuring for the 
convict a continuous day rule. Every 
morning he left the cells of Brest, 
daintily attired, and proceeded to im- 
part the t^achin^ of sweet sounds to 
the daughters of the first families in 
the town. The only condition im- 
posed upon him was that he should 
wear round his ancle a light and 
polished iron ring. The perfumed 
convict beat time upcm it with his 
cane, as he issued to his daily work, 
humming some gay refrain. It is only 
a French convict so placed who, with- 
out suspecting or being troubled by 
the application of the words, could 
with unruffled complacency have taught 
his young pupil the beauties of the 
well-known air "Prendi; Tannel ti 
dono." 

The sum of the information afforded 
bj Monsieur Alhoy amounts briefly 
to this : the for9ats of France are 
numerous and ill-cared for. They are 
inhumanly worked, ill-fed (meat being 
seldom or never allowed them), and 
worse lodged. A series of inclined 
boards forms their beds, and they have 
no covering except the clothes in which 
they have slaved all day beneath 
the fiercest of suns, and in the most 
rainy of climates. There is no classi- 
fication, nor any attempt at it. The 
stripling of an honourable house, who 
in some unguarded moment has of- 
fended the Taw, and is condemned to 
expiate his ofience by a few years at 
the chain, this perhaps involuntary 
culprit who has smned but in a light 
degree, pale, weak, and trembling, has 
his fetters riveted to those of some 
Btalwart savage reeking with blood, 
whose lips never open but to blaspheme, 
and whose limbs never move but to 

S've torture to the companion of his 
lain. Tills ill-assorted couple, still 
in bonds, sleep together at night amid 



some hundreds of others equally ill 
and unjustly conjoined. Riots in the 
wards are not unfrequent^ but they 
are always summarily settled by the 
muskets of the troops thrust through 
the grated windows. In the case of 
the couple to whom we have referred, 
a mutinous expression is perhaps flung 
at the soldiery by the old and hardened 
offender; it is answered by a discharge 
of musketry, and a shot stretches dead, 
not the mutinous criminal, but the 
silent and terrified companion locked 
to his side. Such scenes and such 
terminations to them frequently occur. 
Chaplain after chaplain, missionary 
succeeding to missionary, has tiiken 
up his abode among these lawless and 
defiant savages, but with unsatisfactory 
results. One alone, the Abb6 Marini, 
has succeeded in interesting them in 
the dark but certain future. This 
success, however, was but illegitimately 
attained. The good Abb^ had ex- 
hausted all the usual appliances, he 
had run through the common routine, 
and he had not touched a heart. His 
appearance was hailed with derisive 
respect, his counsels answered by ob- 
scenity, filthy paraphrases were made 
of his bible-readings, and his sermons 
divided his congregation into the in- 
different Gallios who slept and the 
blaspheming rhymers who sang their 
verses aloud. A 11 was obdurate, hope- 
less, hellish. But the Abb^ was a 
Frenchman, and necessarily inventive. 
He hit upon a plan which none but a 
Frenchman could possibly have con- 
ceived ; he ceased to write sermons, 
and took to acting sacred vaudevilles. 
He distributed the parts among the 
best readers, always reserved the tri- 
umphant character for himself, and, 
without invitation, was honoured by 
crowded and attentive audiences who 
shook their chains in ecstacy as the 
denouement exhibited infidelity trodden 
down, and virtue and orthodoxy vic- 
torious! The idea, it is true, was 
adopted, and not original. Moore's 
young fViend, "Miss feddy Fudge," 
writing to her Kilrandy confidant on 
Paris amusements, says — 



•What folly 
To lay that the Frenoh are not pioiu, dear Dolly, 
When here one beholds so correctly and rifshily, 
The TestameDt turoed into melodrames nightly ; 



185 L] The GaU&ifs of England and Prance. 

And doubUe«s, aa faiid they're of scrii>tiirai facts, 
They will 8i>oii gvt iht PeoUiteiicb ap in five acU. 
Her^ Daniel io pantomime bid« boicl ileliatice 
Tel NifbucbiiJoczzjur ami alJ hi« JStuH'ed liotii;, 
J While pretty youug Israeli tea dance ruund the Praphrt, 

Wiib Ybry thin clotbiu^ and ^m/ bttk ijf it, ike. 



147 



IIowloQg the good [mpressimi luajle 
%y the Abbt?a dmuiatiu pieces histud 
we are not iufuniiiid. \]\Kn\ Uie po- 
pulation of the Btigne lew good im- 
pZH^sious have a. long endurance. The 
ccmvjct there is, for the moat part, a;* 
hard of heart as the quarry wherem 
he toils Hope does not come with 
freedom»be he never so welUdtspoaed. 
the gates of hi a cell leave ojieii tor 
Lim his way into the world, but it ia 
tts a marked man \ every chance of 
umeiiAbiicut is eut oil' by his being a5- 
sij»ned a place of residence where, 
fruni the uuifust maire down to the 
coinniuneat peiiijant, every one knt^ws, 
avoids, and repels the dreaded ex- 
/(?r*;at The law wdl not let him be 
hnnest even jf he would. The old ex- 
prcaslon touching a '* hell opdu earlli/* 
Wiis probably never rctilizcd in fullj 
save in the interior of a Freiieh Ba^^ne. 
The fleih erecps at the very memory 
of the picture drawn and the things 
told by Monsieur Alhoy, But even 
LD this hell may now and then be found 
a spirit oot entirely reprobate. In 
tlie parched waste we oeeiisionally 
come npon a green spot ; thicj arid 
valley of desolation baa Iti* springs; 
ibe desert U not without its omsh. 
Amid the general liiileoUH vice and the 
antagonising feroeiouM selfishness, we 
hail with gladness traits of heroic SiiU' 
denial and of virtue almost sublime. 
M'e may cite one^ in the case of a poor 
wretch who. after months of prepara- 
tion, having efT'ected bis escape, and 
lain hid till hunger impelled him to 
totter into a cottage to ask Ibr food^ 
found there a widowed liuher nnd 
weeping children as sorrow-striclien 
aud more hungry than hini:*eif 1 1 is 
decision was lustautaneously arrived 
at. He compelled the reluctant father 
to take him back to Toulon, where a 
heavy rew*ard was allotted to the in- 
voluntary captor and a cruel scourging 
mflicted on the I'ui^itive. But ihere 
was bidm for his woujids in the mercy 
of tbc King, and the pardon extended, 
we rejoice to add it, was well-deserved 
aud never abused. A seccmd instance 
we find in tbc case ol an erring and 



only son condemned for life to 
slavery at Toulon, and whose poor 
widowed mother at Paris did, witli the 
touching folly natural to mothenj, 
submit to every deprivation, even to 
hunger, that she might forward to her 
guilty boy the means of purchasing 
such indulgences as the prison rule 
allowed. The latter knew at what eofft 
these rich otlerjugs of maternal affec- 
tion were made, and the heart that 
had been tlint till now, bled ibr his 
poor old mother. The boy was an ac* 
complisbed forger^ and be Bucceeded 
in transmitting to the desolate occupier 
of his home an apparently well-attested 
certificate of his death* The su|>plie8 
ceased, and be knew that his parent 
was no longer depriving herself lor the 
sake of one who Wiis unworthy. Must 
it not have been a glad task for the 
recording angel when note was taken 
of this fact, and the echo of the mother ^ 
prayers pussed onward to theTuhoae, 
asking for mercy on the soul of her 
departed son? 

Ere we conclude, we may fittingly 
notice an historical fact that may con- 
trast with that with which this article 
0|}ens. Our readers have seen the 
origin of the galley system, in England, 
under Kiizabeth. It remains lor uu, 
very brieily, to lay before them the 
origin of the same system in France. 
In the latter country too the system 
had a monarch for its author, but the 
royal motives thereto differed in cha- 
racter and object. — In the reign of 
Charles VIL there nourished in France 
a wealthy financier who was useful to 
the King and government, and was 
initjuitously treated by them in return* 
The French financier was no other 
than the famous Jacques Coeur, whose 
wealth brought him so buundless a 
return of misfortune. The King was 
indebted to Jacques in a hundred 
thousand crowns. The latter gene- 
rously burned the bond, and trusted 
to the honour of belted knight and 
crowned king. The nmnarch was no 
sooner cognizant of the fact than 
false accusations were raised against 
Jacques, wbo wiis thrown int<j \icUq\v 



148 



Parliamentary Robes for a Prince of Wales. 



[Aug. 



and his property confiscated. Among 
the latter were four exquisite gal- 
leys, with gilded oars. Charles not 
only seized these but the rowers also, 
involving the innocent servants in the 
fate which had fallen on their equally 
innocent master. Their forced labour 
was devoted by compulsion to the mo- 
narches service, and thus was the galley- 
system founded. Subsequently cri- 
minals were not condemned, but wan- 
dering men were pressed into this par- 
ticular naval service. The gypsies 
were especial victims; they were seized 
on the highways, stripped, shaved, 
marked, and despatched to the oar. 
It is only with the reign of Charles IX. 
that we find a legislative mention of 
this department, and offenders against 
the law sentenced to toil therein. The 
bridge at Paris, still known as the 
Pont de la Tournelle, took its name 
from a tower which once stood at the 
southern extremity of it, and which 
was particularljr devoted to the re- 
ception of gypsies and criminals, who 
lay therein until their numbers were 
sufficiently large to allow of their 
being transmitted en chaine to the coast. 
This fact appears to have escaped 
M. Alhoy, whose early history of the 
^lleys is, nevertheless, not without 
mterest. The mass of misery collected 
in the Tournelle was characteristically 



cared for by both the Church and the 
8t*t8 of the time. The priests of the 
neighbouring chapel of St. Nicholas 
le Chardonnet loosed after the spiri- 
tual interests of the prisoners ; that is, 
they repaired thither only when sent 
for, a circumstance which never oc- 
curred. The State looked ailer the 
temporal interests of the captives by 
an especial officer, who sedulously 
visitea the prisoners, and plundered 
them of everything they possessed 
which bore the slightest value. Con- 
fiscation to the crown being duly made, 
the destitute children of sorrow were 
altogether left to the charity of passers- 
by and the public generally. The go- 
vernment made no provision for them, 
even of the commonest food. The 
consequences were necessarily so de- 
plorable that a good Christian, whose 
name is not recorded in the old his- 
tory by Grermain Brice, bequeathed 
[in 1689] 6000 livres annually for the 
support of the galley slaves of the 
State. This fund is still available, 
and thus, if the convicts of to-day re- 
flect tliat they are the victims of a 
system which originated with a felon 
king, they may remember that its 
rigours are, in some degree, alleviated 
by the Christian benevolence of a man 
of the people. 

J. D. 



PARLIAMENTARY ROBES FOR A PRINCE OF WALES. 



Mr. Urban, 
A TIME is rapidly approaching 
when our officials will need to consider 
about proper parliamentary robes for 
a Prince of Wales. Will not the an- 
nexed transcript of an order which 
exists in the Additional MS. 14,291, 
fo. 217, meet the case? Prince Charles 
was in his tenth year at the time of 
the meeting of the Short Parliament, 
which is the one here alluded to. The 
Earl of Newcastle, to whom this order 
was addressed, was at that time the 
Prince's governor or tutor. 

lours, &c. B. 

**^ Right trustie and right welbeloved 
cosen and coancellor, we greet yen well ; 
whereas we have determined that our moi t 
deare son Charles Prince of Wales shall 



accompany us in our royal proceeding to 
our parliament, to be holden at West- 
minster the thirteenth day of April next, 
our will and pleasure therefore is, and we 
do hereby will and command you, that 
you presently provide, or cause to be pro- 
vided and delivered, one parliamentary 
robe, with kyrtle, hood, and cappe of 
estate, all of crimson velvett, to be furred 
and made up as hath been formerly used, 
for our said dear sonnes use against our 
proceeding to our said parliament ; and 
this shall be your sufiGcient warrant. Given 
under our signet at Whitehall, the * 

day of April, in the sixteenth year of our 
reigne, anno domini, 1640. 

" To our right trusty and right welbeloved 
cousin and counsellor William Earl 
of Newcastle." 



I>€fl blank in the original. 



149 



:hristian iconography and legendary art* 

By J. G. Waller. 
The Tbtbamokph. 



TIIE figure calle^i Tetbamorph^ or 
foiir-hhLifiiJiil, derives its claiiii to tk 
(>1ace in Chnstian Iconogriiphy from 
the passage in the Prophet Exekiel *!e* 
smbiaghid vision by tlie river Chebur, 
chiip. L beginning at verse 4. 

"And 1 lookad, «iid behold a whirl- 
wind came out of the tiortht a great ctuud, 
And a Are unfolding irself, and a. brighlue ss 
wat about it and out of the midst theri^of 
at the colour of amber out of the midst of 
the fire. Also out of th© midst thereof 
came the tikcoeis of four Ji?ing creaturea. 
And thb waa Lheir appearance : thef had 
the likeneag of a man, and their feet were 
•trai^bt fcel^ the sole of their feet was 
lik« the sole of a calfs foot, afid they 
sparkled like the colour of htii-nishod brass. 
Aad they bad the hands of a maQ under 
their wini^ on their four iides, and they 
four had their facea and their win^s. 
Their wings were joined otie to another, 
they turned not when they went \ they 
went cilery one strnitiht forward. As for 
the likeness of thdr faces they fonr had 
the face of a man and the face of a lion 
on the right side ; and they four had the 
face of an ox on the left $ide ; they four 
also had the face of an eji^le. Thus were 
their facet ; and their wio^ were stretched 
upward ^ two win^ of every one were 
joined one to another, and two covered 
their bodies. And they went every one 
atraight forward; whither the spirit was 
to go, they went ; and they turned not 
when they went. As for the likeness of 
the living creatures ih. ir appearance waa 
like burning coals of fire, and like the ap- 
pearance of lamps : it went up and down 
araonj^ the living creatures : and the fire 
waa bright, and out oi the lire went forth 
lightning. And the liTing creatures ran 
and returned as the appearance of a ft&ah, 
of lightning. Now as I beheld the living 
crcatnres, behold one wheel upon the 
earth by the living creature with hljj four 
fiicea. The appearance of the wheels and 
their work was like onto the colour of a 
, and they turned not when 
A» for their wings ihcy were 
flo high that they were dreadful : and their 
wings were full of eyes round about them 
four.'" 

This iftnot tbe complete deaenption, 
but ifl suflicient for our purpose. It 



■ bafyl 
thej went. 




is repeated at chap. x. ver. 8j with 
some additions, as — ** their whole b<:«ly 
and their backs and their bands and 
their mugs and the wheels were full 
of eye^ round ubout, even the wheels 
that they tbtir hatl ; " also tbe foUow- 
io^F, at verae 21, b somewhat more 
precise : " Every one bad four faces a 
pieee, and every one had four wings, 
and tbe likeness of the hand of a man 
waa under the wings " In verse 14 
there is a discrepancy in tbe ilescrip- 
tiou with the foreji^oing, which seems 
as if an error had in some way crept 
into the original text. It says r "The 
first vfiis the face tif a clierub, tbe 
second face was tbe face of a man, and 
the third the fuce of a lion, and tbe 
fourth the face of an eagle.'* Here the 
ux is omitted altogether, and we find 
wbstt appears in some nieasure a repe- 
tition id' ii siuiiiar form, the face of a 
man and the face of a cherub. It may 
be sufBcient to stiite that this Iiitter 
description is never adopted in tbe 
Conventions of wliieb we are about to 
treat. 

In oonsiderinjT the foregoing pjw- 
Bage one is tint u rally directed to the 
occurreoce of Ibrms in ancient syni- 
bolistm having an apparent analogy ; 
and thus it is that many writers have 
directed their attention to tbe subject, 
&nd exerciseil a great deal of learned 
research u|»on it* Among these tbe 
Abb^ Chinrini f>tands foremost. There 
are also s«>me interesting remarks in 
Mr, Layard's work • which it will be 
necessary particularly to notice, as tbe 
sculptures he has exhumed were in all 
probability familiar to the Prophet, 
who, it must be remembered, was a 
captive in the land of Assyria, and 
lays the scene of his vision in the 
very neighbourhood of our country- 
man*9 enterprising researches — the 
river Chebar being doubtless the 
stream which at present, under the 
name Khabour^ waters a portioti of the 
plains of ancient Mesopotamia. The 
Abbe, in an essay published in the 
Notweile Jonrmd Asiatique^ torn. 6, bus 



■ Nincfeh and its Remains* 



150 



Christian Iconography and Legendary Art. C^^- 



endeavoured, with some success, to 
show a connection of ideas in the Pro- 
phet*8 vision with those of Chaldsean 
astronomj. He also quotes from the 
Talmud to show that the animals in 
the yision appear as the symbols or 
representatives of universal nature. 
Thus ; " The king of wild beasts is the 
lion, the king of cattle is the ox (bull), 
the king of flyin^^ creatures is the 
eagle; but man is raised above all 
anunals, and God above animals, man, 
and the whole world/* A homily by 
St. Macarius Egy ptiacus, a Greek 
writer of the fourth century, contains 
the same ideas similarly ex[>ressed. 
In the religious myths of the East 
these animals have at all times hud a 
sj^mbolic meaning ; and in the early 
mstory of Christianity, those heretics 
who preserved much of the oriental 
philosophy, such as the Gnostics, 
Ophites, and others, appear to have 
been extravagantly attached to the 
use of symbols, amongst which the 
ftbove*named had a prominent and 
conspicuous place. According to 
Origen, Michael, one of the seven infe- 
rior spirits of the Gnostic system, 
was represented under the form of a 
lion, or more probably lion-headed 
(Xcoyroffidijff). Suriel had the head 
of a bull, Gabriel was %ured by an 
eagle. In the Ophitic system the five 
mnii of the stars were the bull, dog. 
Eon, serpent, and eagle, which also 
appear as emblems in the more an- 
cieat religion of Mithras. With the 
occurrence of these symbols in re- 
mains of Egyptian and Assyrian art 
every visitor to the British Museum 
must now be ^rfectly familiar. But 
it is not only in the use of the actual 
iymbolic animals that an analogy sub- 
snts between the figures on the monu- 
ments of Assyria and the vision of the 
Prophet Ezekiel. The sculptures 
from Nineveh carry the similarit/ 
further by exhibiting symbolic forms 
with four wings.^ This is very striking 
in the eagle-headed example supposed 
by Mr. Layard to be Nisruch, one of 
the names of the Assyrian Baal. The 
deity in the winged disc or wheel 
presents us with another form, in 



close connection with the mysterious 
wheels, of which we shall presentlj 
venture to ofier some explanation. 
It has been su&fgested by more than 
one writer that Ezekicl in his poetical 
description found the motives for his 
ideas m the objects familiar to him in 
the land of his captivity and exile ; so 
the Abb<S Chiarini imagines him to use 
the language of ancient Chaldasan 
astronomy. In this view he supposes 
** the wheel within a wheel" to be sug- 
gested by a planetary sphere, and sup- 
ports his opmions by an appeal to the 
original text. The word ophQ% used 
in chap i. ver. 15, for wheel, signifying 
also zodiac, equator, &c. is in chap. x. 
ver. 20, changed for galgtd^ a circle, 
which, according to Maimonides, also 
means heaven, firmament, celestial 
sphere, and in this sense is used in 
many other parts of Scripture.* 

In considering Layard's two-winged 
figures alluded to, and in using the 
term winged, I by no means accept 
the correctness of the appellation, but, 
on the contrary, deem it to be erro- 
neous and ill founded. In thus setting 
up an opposition to the opinions oT 
Layard and others, one would act with 
diffidence and self-distrust, were it 
not that we have the examples of the 
figures, six times repeated, among the 
marbles of the Ninevite collection, 
open to the examination of every one. 
The idea has also led to other errors, 
and therefore it is necessary at least 
to combat it. 

There are two examples of this figure 
in the Nineveh collection, of which I 
have made careful drawings, and which 
I will now describe. The first I shall 
notice is that over the sacred tree. It 
consists of a bearded demi- figure, wear- 
ing a conical cap with projecting horns, 
and surrounded by an irradiated disc ; 
the lower part, from the waist, termi- 
nates in a fan, or tail-like expansion, 
which ajipears to pass through and 
project beyond the circumference ; the 
right hand of the figure is uplifted, 
and in the left it holds a ring. From 
each side of the disc also project those 
expansions which have been denomi- 
nated wings. Mr. Layurd, in a note 



* I remember having seen an engraving of the seventeenth century in which the 
wheel in the Prophet's ?iaion was represented in the form of the a^itrolabe, but I have 
no idea now where to be able to refer to it. 



Id^l.] ChrijiliaH Ic<in9gf*aph^ and Legendm^^f Art 



I 



I 



$Q,^liU book on Nioeveb,* quotes the 
opinion of M. Lajard tliat this cdmbi- 
natmn represents "the imi\^e ofBaal^ 
Willi the ivings and tail of a dorC) to 
sbow the A58oclatjon of ^lylittn, the 
Astyriiin Venus, &c," No\v a cunipa- 
rlsoa of the^e ao-calleO wings nnfl tjtil 
with the other winged %ure3 will at 
once prove a total dissimilarity of eon- 
Yentional treatment. Neither in the 
form, or, what h still more reinurk- 
ahle* in tlie treatment of the plumage, 
which Js very minute nixd characteristic 
iM the really winded fi;jure-s those for 
instance with the en^le*i* head, do the 
hitter in the least coincide with anj 
of the examples to the tt'higed disc. 
In the latter, which is nuke as renmrk- 
ahle for care and precision (especially 
in the instance referred to) as any 
^ure in the coUcctioOt the termina- 
tions are represented by a gnccession 
of wavy lines, which were douhtlesK 
intended to exprt*?s lambent irradia- 
tions of jfrf, of which many examples 
might be cited in analogy from other 
fiourc^a. So that if the term win;;s can 
be applied at oil, it ninst be metapliori- 
cally, as there us not the sli^hte?^t en- 
deavour to imlhitc the feathers of a 
bird> whieh is so laboriously attempted 
in the other figures. Respecting the 
irradiated disc which encircles the 
figure, may it not be intended for the 
aun ? At any rate it gives another 
analogy to the use of irradiation nn an 
indication of divinity, whi«'h, under 
the names of nureole and nimbus, are 
famUlar to u% and have been previ- 
oualj Ireatetl of in a former article* 
Perhaps we here see its origin ; and 
this instance is the more interest- 
iilg, BS showing an example of its 
practice going back to a more remote 
antiquity than we have been previ- 
ously aware of. The second example 
ia somewhat different to tlie former, 
but still nearer for our purpose of 
anah^gy. The figure here holds a bow 
In one hand, and appears m the God 
of Batttes» and instead of the irradi- 
ated, disc ia a whepf^ which is placed, 
as it were, behind the figure, and from 
which ihc gaming wtiigx proceed ; the 
tail-like terminations of the Hgure are 
as in the former instance. Respecting 
the latter, I con^^ider it as analogous to 




151 

that practice, noticed in a former ar- 
ticle, of representing angels by sup- 
pressing the lower part of the "figure, 
and sometimes the figure altogether, 
which obtained in the middle ages, 
and was intended to express the im* 
materiality of their essence, l^ere 
are examples extant of a fiery termi- 
nation which are yet more to the pur- 
po;5e. 

The wheel has spokes shapeii In the 
form of a. Maltese cross, and betw^n 
each spoke is a waved figure, mos»fc 
likely representing flame, and rctnind- 
Ing us very ford hi y of a common con- 
ventional form familiJir in fit^nres of 
the sun, retained in a marked manner 
in the badge of the Sim Fire Office. 
This fiery wheel, winged also with fire* 
is a powerful symbol of motion, and 
may well express eternity or the revo* 
Intions of time, Jind it will be found tn 
present us with a strtTng analogy with 
the representations of the feirtJnmrjih^ 
particularly to that example to which 
we shall fir.st refer for illu:*tration, and 
on which we shall now particulttrly 
enter. 

This figure h one which rarely apJ 
pear*! in the Iconography of the 
Western Church, but in the Eastern 
or Greek Church is very common ; and 
the following directions are given iti 
the *^ Manual or Guide " for its re pre-* 
sentation. ** They have six wings, the 
head nimbed, the face of an angel; 
they hold in their hands against the 
breast the gospel. Between the two 
wIngH which surmount the head there 
Is an eagle, on the wing of the right 
side a lion ; on the wings of the left 
side an ox. These three symbolic ani- 
mnl-4 look upwards and hold between 
their feet the gospels: such were the 
tetramorphs that the projihet Exekiei 
saw,*' In thi^ there are some import* 
ant oinis.<iions, which however do not 
take place in practice : the wheels and 
eifes are not mentioned ; another peca* 
liarity is that the gospels are held by 
each figure, wliich is not in aocordanoe 
with the general practice, but is chiefly 
confined to the symbols of the evan* 
gelfsts when iTpresented singly. 

The use of the Tetramorph com- 
mences very early, as well as the sepa^ 
rate symbols of the evaugeliifts. The 



^ ^-, t - 



* Kioef eh and its Remmiiii* iroL ii. p. 449. 



152 



Christian Iconography and Legendary Art. [Aug. 



latter are found in some of the earliest 
mosaics. Of the former, the earliest 
instanee I have seen is one of which 
Agincourt gives an engraying from a 
Sjriac MS. of the fourth century, and 
which is here copied on a somewhat 




reduced scale. It is a particularly 
interesting example, not only for its 
anti<]^uity, but for its treatment, and 
the circumstance of its being appended 
to the subject of the Ascension. The 
figure of the Saviour is standing in an 
aureole, and beneath his feet is the 
figure described in Ezekiel, very rudely 
composed, but nevertheless having 
many points worthy of particular 
notice. It is altogether formed on 
the symbolic principle which obtained 
in the early ages of Christianity, pre- 
vious to the second Council of Nice; 
the figure of the cherub is therefore 
undeveloped, but an angel*s head in 
the centre of the group, and a hand 



awkwardly appearing from beneath 
the lower pair of winss, is all that we 
find of this part of Uie combination. 
The wings are four in number, agree- 
ing in this particukr with the text of 
Ezekiel ; but in the Apocalypse, ch. iv. 
ver. 6, four beasts, of analogous signifi- 
cation, have six wings assigned to 
them, in this agreeing with the de- 
scription of the seraphim in Isaiah, 
ch. vi. ver. 2, which has been gene- 
rally adopted and applied to the Tetra- 
morph, as in the extract from the 
Greek Guide. On the right of the 
cherub*s head is that of the lion, on 
the left the eagle, and beneath the head 
of the bull, with its two fore feet, the 
hand of the cherub. On each side 
are the mysterious wheels, imperfectly 
represented, but nevertheless endeav- 
ouring to convey the idea of the 
*• wheel within a wheel ;" in other re- 
spects imitating the ancient chariot 
wheels of the time. The fiery appear- 
ance given in the text is also here at- 
tempted ; a rushine flame issues from 
the wheels, and is ^so indicated above 
the upper pair of wings, extended 
round the base of the aureole. Bude 
as this design is, it suggests to us the 
magnificent passage in Slilton's Para- 
dise Lost, evidently derived from Eze- 
kiel*s description : — 



Forth msh'd, with whirlwind soand, 
The chariot of paternal Deity, 
Flashing thick flames, wheel within wheel undrawn, 
Itself instinct with spirit 



This suggestion of the Abb6 carries 
out the first idea of a planetary sphere, 
and we are to this aay familiar with 
the symbolic forms of the constella- 
tions which took their origin in an- 
cient astronomy ; the cherub therefore 
becomes the mover of the celestial 
system. A prevailing notion that the 
movements of the planetary bodies 
were directed by heavenly spirits sub- 
sisted throughout the middle ages, and 
is frequently exemplified in its reli- 
gious art. The star of Bethlehem — 
the sun and moon in the crucifixion, 
or in the scenes of the Apocalj^pse — 
analogies among tne ancients, otwbich are frequently represented as in the 
that of Eschylus, who calls the moon hands of angels,')' particularly previous 
" Eldest of stars, the eye of night,*** to the thirteenth century ; after which 
is not the least beautifuf. period the onward progress of science 

* UptapisTov aoTptov wktos o<f>3€iKfios, 

f Vide sculptures in Lincoln Cathedral, engraTcd in Lincoln Book of the Archseo- 
logical Institute. 
6 



The only portion now undescribed 
are the eyes with which the win^ arc 
studded, but the Prophet*s description 
places them all over the figures ; this 
IS never represented in art, without 
doubt on account of the obvious diffi- 
culty; they are however frequently 
placed upon the wheels. On this point 
the Abbe Chiarini has also made some 
very pertinent observations in illus- 
tration of his theory, that astronomical 
ideas suggested the poetic description 
of the Prophet. His idea is that the 
eyes are put by metaphor for stars, 
such a metaphor having many fine 
analogies among the ancients, of which 



l8t5L] Christian leouog^ aphtf and Lt^^endurtf Art, 



153 




began to dtsiiipaie these ideas ; and, 
6tiallji bj the discovery of the Liws of 
the motions of tbc heavenly Ixidies, 
destroy ed for ever this r^uinant of 
•ncient populur philosophy. 

Hie ejEarnple which is given in the 
annexed enp-Mvin^* belongs to a (t^t 
kter period than the other, the twelAh 

f 

■ century, and gives ua the type gene- 
1 rally observed. It is taken from 
Wiilemiii*s Monumem Frangais ImdiU^ 
foruiifig part of a piece of eyaiiielled 
wc*rk, perhupu of Limoges manufacture. 
The artist has, however, been ignorant 
of the meaning of the figure, or ihrou|;h 
floiue mistake hm labelled it seraphin^ 
one of raan^' iristatiees that might be re- 
corded of smiihir errors^ and the second 
we have noticed in the present subject. 
In other respects this is a very fine 
example; here the cherub or angelic 
Ibrm is made most prouiinent, a pair 
of broad wings fold over the figure, 
(rom beneath whit-'h the hands appear 
on either side, which ikgreea with the 
deaeription in the vision ; the other 
two branch out from the shoulders. 
The head of the lion is above the head 
of the cherub on the right side, that 
of the ox on the left, the eagle between 
the two immediately above ; all tour 
heads have the nimbus, and the figure, 
which hiisbare feet, exhibits portions of 
drapei^y, and stands upon a wheel, of 
which only the half appears in the 
present dejiign. This wheel is winged, 
but in other respects has a most ma- 
terial form* The wheel within wheel 
is nnatiempted, and the type is of the 



I 




most common charjicter — a mere con' 
veotion. The addition of the wings* 
however, which appears also in an ex- 
ample given by M. Didron of the 
thirteenth century, from a mosaic of 
Byzantine workmanship in the convent 
ot^ Vatopedi, at Mimnt Athos, is worthy 
of particular inquiry. Wings have 
always been applied as a symbol of 
rapid uiotioQ ; thus the number of 
wings given to the i^uperior spirits 
cherubim,aud seraphim, as well aa to the 
tetramorph, typify the awiftnitsa of their 
flight. They have been used as meta- 
phors in poetry, and again transferred 
to art, toexpress the quality of rapidity ; 
winds have been so represented, time, 
8nd,aboTe all, lightning, in the thunder- 
bolt of Jove, Some fetich idea, without 
doubt, suggested the notion of applying 
winga to the wheels to typify that 
rapidity of moiiou which the text com- 
pares in chap, i. ver. 14, to "a tlash 
of lightning," the wheels having a life 
and instinctive motion with the "living 
creatures/' To this poetical idea VirgU 
furnishes a close analogy in the tbl* 
lowing lines from the ^^neid, vi. 727 : — 
Spiritta intuM atit, loUmqae infosft per hHmb 
Mens ftXttAt moletn et roagos secon^ore miscet. 
Again » we have a passai*e which il- 
lustrates this subject in Milton, who 
seems to have drawn the mutices of his 
in.Mpiration from so many sources, that 
it ia not unlikel;jr some such rude figures 
as our engraving exhibits may nave 
suggested the idea of 

*~ cbarioti winged 
From the sfinotiry of U«d*^ 
and further on, with the vision of 
Ezekiel clearly in his mind, he gives a 
passage of similar import to that above 
cited from Yirgil — 
C«le0tliJ rquipAge '. «nd now cime forth 
SpofitsneoQs* for withitt them spirit Uv*d. 

The material dilTerence between the 
figure given by Didrcm * from Vato- 
pedi and that in our engraving consists 
in the former having no indication of 
drapery, two of the wings being dis- 
played upwards and crossetl, as ia most 
usual in the cherubim and sersphim, 
all the wings being studded with eyes* 
two wheeb, but with one wing to 
each, the periphery oreriapping, in- 
tending perhaps to express the " wheel 
within wheel, and the indications of 



* IconogmphJe Chr^ticnne, p. 
Gkht. Ma«. Vol. X:XXVJ. 



464. 



154 



Rums of Vaudey Abbey^ co, Lincoln. 



[Aug. 



flame being within the orbit about the 
spokes, ^e combinations of which 
iUustrations hare been ffiven are suf- 
iiciently curious, but there are yet 
more singular instances to be noticed 
before this part of the subject can be 
concluded. Agincourt gives an en- 
graving from a Ruthenic painting in 
aistemi)er, represenUng the last Judg- 
ment,* in which Christ is represented as 
within a circular aureole, seated upon 
or borne i.p by a number of winged 
spirits of trie order of Thrones, and 
holding in his right hand a bird with 
the four heads which compose the 
mystic combination under considera- 
tion. This painting is of the four- 
teenth century, and was probably 
executed under the influence of the 
Greek church, in which such ex- 
travagant forms had always been fa- 
miliarised from their use in many 
oriental systems, and the practices of 
ancient heretics. 

M. Didron mentions another curious 
example in a MS. entitled "Hortus 
Deliciarum," in the library at Stras- 
burg, designed in a kindred spirit, and 
which the above-named writer con- 
siders may probably have been also 
executed under a Byzantine influence. 
This is a quadruped with four heads, 
upon which is seated a representation 
or the Christian religion. This beast, 
called animal ecdesufy has four heads 
of the attributes of the evangelists on 
the body of a horse. Each of its feet 
belongs also to one of the attributes. 
On the front, the right foot is that of a 
man, the left of an eagle ; behind, the 



right foot is that of an ox, the left of a 
lion. 

Accustomed as we are to wonder 
at the mysterious combinations that 
present ihemselyes in the mythology 
of Hindostan and ancient Egypt, we 
are scarcely aware of those abnost 
equally cnnous and singular that are 
to be found, with a little research, in 
Quristian mythology, and thus it is of 
so much interest to shew the obvious 
analogy that sometimes exists between 
them, m both cases deriving its origin 
from a spirit of materialization, re- 
ducing or endeavouring to reduce even 
the most abstract ideas into shapes and 
forms appreciable by the senses. 

Another singular and unusual mode 
of combination is given in Agincourt^s 
work, taken from a I^IS. of the ninth 
century, called the Bible of St. Paul, 
from its belongins to the church dedi- 
cated to that apostle without the walls of 
Rome. This MS. contains a miniature 
in which there is an ansel with the 
respective heads of the otner symbols, 
and holding a book of the Gospels — 
this is the common type. In another 
the eagle is the principal, and the rest 
of the symbols are combined by having 
the heads attached in the same way as 
in the figure of the angel ; and there 
is also the winged lion with the several 
symbolic heads. These, however, are 
rare examples, but not the less curious 
for being so. With them we will brins 
this part of the subject to a close, ana 
treat of the closely connected history 
of the evangelistic symbols in the suc- 
ceeding article. 



RUINS OF VAUDEY ABBEY, CO. LINCOLN. 



WITHIN the park of the princely 
domain at Grimsthorpe, formerly the 
■eat of the Dukes or Ancaster, and 
now of Lord Willoughby de Eresby, 
are situated the foundations, rather 
than the ruins, of the abbey of Vaudey, 
which was one of the principal monas- 
teries of Lincolnshire. 



This abbey is stated to have been 
originally founded in the year 1147, 
by William Earl of Albemarle, at 
Biham or Bytham, in the same neigh- 
bourhood. The society at first con- 
sisted of a colony from the Cistercian 
abbey of Fountains in Yorkshire,t 
which had itself been founded only 



* Histoire de I'Art par les MonumeDS. 

t The connection with Fountains was maintained in later times. Stephen de Eston, 
Abbat of Fountains, appears to have died when sojoaroing at Vandey, probably in a 
joomey from the south, in the year 1252, He was buried in the chapter-house of 
Vaudey, as stated in Barton's Monasticon Ebor. p. VI 0, though it would be supposed, 



. ^^ J 



:,^ 



U 



^t'^/ 



I 
I 



fifteen years before by ji siiuilur oflset 
frum the abbey of St. Mary at York. 
So prevalent was the spirit of mo- 
nachii^m at tbat period^ &nd so great 
the liberality of the laity, tbat the 
monks of Bytham aooti found them- 
itelTes endowed with ample territories, 
and they deterniined to build upon 
another site, which was relinfjuishud 
to them by one Geoffrey de Brachei^urtj 
or Brailbwaite,* in the parish of Ed^n- 
bam. The terms of Geoffrey^s charter 
are remarkable. It was given in the 
chapter-house of the canons of Brunne 
(aow Bourne)* and in the presence of 
his superior lord, Gilbert de Gant, 
£arl of Lincoln. Geoffrey surren- 
dered his whole resi<lence, with big 
garden, to the abbey, upon this con- 
dition, tbat the monks should provide 
himself and his wife in food and 
clothing, both linen and woollen, and 
their two servants in food only. The 
fare for him and hh wife was to be 
the same m for two monksi, and that 
for their servants as for servants of 
the monastery. This grant was con- 



firmed by Alan de Morton, the nephew 
(or grandson) and heir in ejtpectancy 
of Geoffrey ; but the monks had ano- 
ther charter of tlie same property 
from Earl Gilbert himself, which is not 
now extant. It appears, however, that 
the removal took place in the time of 
Pope Eugcnius, and therefore before 
1 i53. t The Earl appears also to 
have been the donor of various estates 
of greater value, as were others of his 
family, and at the time of the con- 
firmation charter, in 1 Ric.L(U89-90), 
the abbey was richly endowed. At 
the taxation of 1291 its possessions 
were valued at 23 H. 14*. 7d, ; but sub - 
seauently they appear to have dinii- 
nisned rather than increased : for at 
the valuation in the time of Henry 
VI 11, the gross revenue was only 
177/. 15ji, 7|«. from which the reprisals 
deducted 55L 9s. 84d 

The abbey assumed the Latin de- 
signation of VaiiU Z>fi, which was 
converted by vernacular speech into 
Vaudey. Such names were frequently 
given to monasteries on their founda* 



from that very imperfect work» the new edition of the Moaaaticoa ADglicsnmn, tbat he 
wBi buried in bis owd chapter- bouse. 

• In Geoffrey's rhirter the name of hiinsflf and his residence is written Braehecurti 
in the confirmfttion charter of Kins; Richard L it is Brafithwait. 

I — ad postulationem Eugeini epiacopi Roroani ct Bernardi abbatis ClarevaUenstt , 
— die superior of the Ciatefcian order* Topographer and Geoemlogist, vol, L p. 304, 
from Gervase UoU^'s Collections^ toL v. p. 526* 



IhG 



Rnins of Vautl*:^ Ahbt^^ to, Lincoln* 



[Aug. 



lioD( but tbdj^ only occau»ionaUy ad- 
bered to Lbem, as in the present caae 
unci in thjil of Godstow in Oxford- 
shire. The ID on artery of CarthusiAna 
which was in 1222 founded by Wil- 
liam £arl of Salisbury at Hatherop in 
GlouL'4?ster^hirc^ aud which he after- 
wards removed to liinton in Will- 
■hire, was caUed by bitn Locta Dei; 
and to the nunnery which Ela his 
widow founded at Lacock she gave the 
correspond ing name of lAtcta Beatig 
Maria. Another instance still more 
closely corresponding to the present 
was one in Normandy, Mans U^ei^ con- 
verted into Mondayc. But the monks 
more frequent iy kept to the valleys ; 
and they had a Vallis Crwns in Wales, 
a VaUU Saiutis in Ireland, and a ValliJi 
RegaltM in Cheshire* 

At the tjuppression there were an 
abbat and thirteen monks resident at 
Vaudcy, The site was granted in the 
30th of Henry VIII. to Charles Bran- 
don, Duke of SuHblk- Jt was in that 
very year that it was visited by Le- 
land, who thus describes it« appear- 
ance on coming from Coly Weston. 

'* From Coly Weston to Grimestborpe 
shout an % miles or 9* most by playn 
ground, good of corae aod pasture^ but 
liile woocK saving toward Vaatdey abbay 
and Ghmeithorpe ttelf. . . It appehth by 
the ruinei of Vauldey abbay* a good myle 
a^ thii Bide Grjmesthorpe, tbat it hath 
bene a great thyng. Tbere js yn the wood 
by Vauldey abbay i grete qtiarrey of a 
coarse marble* wherof much h^lykeUhod 
was oi^citpied in the abbsy. There Is a 
fsyre pirke betwiit Yauldey and Grimes- 
thorpe. 

** The place of Grimesthorpe was no 
great thing afore the new building of the 
•eeande court. Yet wa» al the old work 
of atone, and the gate-house wa^ fairc and 
atrongf and the wauUes of eche [lidej of 
it embatelid. Tbere it aUo a great dich 
about the hoase.* 

liVhat Lei and lerma *^ the old work" 
of Grimsthorpe is still remaining at 
the south-east comer of the present 
muuuon. It is a square tower, which 
bean the reputation of being as old 
OS the reign of Henry IIL The "new 
building*' was erected by the Duke of 
Suffolk, who probably employed the 



materials of Vaudey abbey for the 
purpose; although, as Leland remarks, 
there was a good quarry near at hand, 
from which we find in the Valor Eccl. 
that the monks derifed a vcarly farm 
of seven marks (41. 1^. 4eL) 

Fuller appears to have i^icked up 
an anecdote that the Duke of Suflblk s 
additions to Grimithorpe were raised 
in great haste,— built extempore^ in hia 
phrase, — to be ready for a visit of the 
King. That visit probably took place 
in 1532, when Henry VIII. is recorded 
to have been at Sttimford. He was 
certainly at Grimsthorpe in 1541, from 
the 5th to the 8th of Au^ust-f The 
mansion received its magnificent north 
front from the hands of Sir John Van- 
brugh, in the time of the ^cond Duke 
of Ancaster. 

The ruins of Vaudey abbey were 
included in the great park of sixteen 
miles circumference, and have latterly 
been almost forgotten. Though Huw- 
lett states4 in 1800, that the founda- 
tions hud then been recently traced 
by the Duke of Ancaster, the research 
was probably very superficial ; and 
Neale4 in 1820, tells us that "It ia 
now covered by a small wood ; not a 
single Widl of any part of the building 
remains, except three or four large 
sculptured stones/' 

Tne recent excavations made on the 
site of Vaudey abbey have already 
been briefly noticed in our Magiusine, 
in the report given in our June num- 
ber, p. 647, of the meeting held in that 
montn by the Archsological Institute. 
The site was again explored for build- 
ing materials, for the purpose of re* 
pairing the neighbourmg church of 
Swiiiestead. The excavations have 
since proceeded further, and we axe 
informed that eight loundaiions of piers 
or clustered columns have now been 
brought to light. 

The clustered pier represented in 
the engravinf^, from n drawing by Mr. 
Brownings architect^ of Stamford, is 
one of four which appear to have sup- 
ported the central tower. The dia- 
meter of each is eleven feet, and they 
stand twenty -five feet apart. The 
mouldings are remarkable for their 



• Itmerary^ tom. i. fob 26, 

+ Sec the narrative of Henry the Eighth's proj^ress of that year through Liticoln- 
kire, hj the Rev. Jotepti Hunter, in the Lincolo volume of the Arch wologictd ta«titute. 
Views to Liucoldshire. II Views of Seats. 



18510 



Seal with a Merchant's Mark. 



157 



extrfldrtlinary Haines.^. Tlie othtir piera 
which hftVL* been fuutid tire uf leaa di- 
inensions, and belong respectively to 
the cbancel, the nave, and the south 
trftDjiept TKe pavement -tiles found at 
the buse t>f tbe coiilral columns are 
chiefly of a dark tureen glaze ; though 
8ome appejir to have been figuretl, and 
the pattern of a rose, and of a bunch 
of grapeii with leaver have been either 
seen or imagined in some itietanoes. 
The south transept temiinat^'ji in a 



large wall The Rct. W. E. Chap- 
man. Vicar ofEdeiiham, has discovered 
among the debris the remains of what 
he considers to be a sancte bell. 

When Stamford flourished in the 
character which Peck oommemorated 
as the Tertia Academia AngliiB^ most 
of the neighbouring mauaBtertea had 
halia for their novices in that town ; 
and the name of Vaudey Hall Is stiJl 
remembered there, though its situation 
h now unknown* J.G»N, 



SEAL WITH A MERCHANrS MAKE, 






•tjry 



MJL 



MANY attempts have been made 
to elucidate the use of Merchaot's 
Marks ; but no one has hitherto been 
successful in proving that they were 
anything more than arbitrary symbols, 
which, when once adopted, were uni- 
formly adhered to by the parties who 
employed them, and which answere<l 
the purpose oftokens of proprietorship, 
pet'uliar in each case, and understood 
by the owners porters and servants, 
whose Bcholarsbip would have scarcely 
extended to any longer or more coni- 
plieateil inscriptions. 

There is so much uniformity of ciui- 
racter in the usual composition and 
design of these marks, that it seems 
wonderful that sufficient variety was 

froduced from such slight materiali. 
n most instances there is a general 
Tesemblance to mast- heads or vanes, 
frequently terminating with one or 
more lines drawn at acute angles and 
sometimes wavy or zig-zig, which evi- 
dently typified the small penons or 
pensels which used to adorn the heads 
of mere bant- vessels, and still do so. 
* With these lines are combined crosses 
and circles, and other simple variations 
of figure ; which, as in the case of the 
ordinaries of heraldry^ appeax to have 



provided a snificient variety of design 
for the purposes of identitication, 
though it might require a practised 
eye to discriminate their differences. 

We have observed another element 
which enters, perhaps in the majoritj 
of cases, into tne designs of Merchant 
Marks. This is the initial letters of 
their owner's names. Such letters are 
oflen fancifully combined with the 
other lines, and will not at once be 
perceived unless lot>ked for* 

In the Seal of which an engraving ts 
now given, the whole of the owner's 
name is expressed by the lines of his 
Murk. Firstj at the foot, is a G; 
towards the top an o; the black-letter 
M of the period upj^ears above the 
first letter ; and then, the same lines, 
turned sideways, form the mediasval 
E. It is probable that the cross- 
bar in the centre of the mark was in- 
tended to represent, in addition, the 
owner's christian name. It forms a 
T when the mark in viewed upright, 
and such was doubtless its intention, 
as the design would have contained an 
I in Its main stem, without this ad- 
ditional line. We thus arrive at the 
whole of his nome^ Thomas Gome, one 
which still exists under the modern 



Correspondence ofSyhanut Urban, 



158 

orthographies of Gomm and Gromme. 
The mark ia one of those which ter- 
minate in a cross instead of the pensels 
above alladed to. 

In the marginal legend the name is 
written Gtombs; this we take to be 
the genitiye case, as mach as to saj 
Oome*a mark. 

In the fourteenth century the term 
gome was in frequent use in the sense 
we now say chap or fellow. Several 
examples will be found in Todd*s 
Johnson, and in Richardson*s Dic- 
tionary. Archdeacon Nares giyes an 
instance from the old play of The 
Widow, and remarks, ''It has been 
found in Piers Ploughman, though 
not in Chaucer.** It occurs also more 
than once in the contemporary poem 
on the deposition of Richard II. printed 
by the Camden Society. 

As a surname we find it as early as 
the reign of Edward II. when John 
Gome foUnded a chantry at Tal- 
lagheme in Wales. (Calend. Inq. ad 
Quod Damn. p. 282.) 

Its continued existence as a name 
has been illustrated in modern times 
b^ the public seryices of the present 
Lieut-uen. Sir Wm. Maynard Gomm, 
K.C.B. Colonel of the 18th Foot. 

With an additional yowel the name 
is also well known as belonging to a 
flourishinff family connected with Duild- 
ing specumtions in theyicinity of Lon- 
don. The late Mr. James Gomme was 



[Aug. 



a Fellow of the Society of Antiauaries; 
and his kinsman, Mr. Stephen Gomme, 
b commemorated by his liberality in 
presenting the ground upon which the 
new church of St. Stephen, near 
Shepherd*s Bush, has been recently 
erected, chiefly at the expense of the 
Lord Bishop of London.* 

The seal was found in or near Mel- 
ford, in Suffolk, and is now in the pos- 
session of Richard Almack, £^. F.S.A. 

Its material is brass. The wori:- 
manship is so elegant that we haye 
giyen an engraying of the seal itself, 
as well as its impression. The star 
seen in perspectiye marks the top of 
the design, as a euide in making an 
impression perfecUy upright. 

From the legend m the circum- 
ference haying been misread Comss 
instead of Gtombs, some who have seen 
this seal haye imagined that it be- 
longed to an Earl, or to some office 
connected with the county of Essex, 
We need scarcely add that such a con- 
jecture was not yery consistent in con- 
nection with a " merchant*s mark,*' at 
least upon a seal; for, though these 
marks might sometimes be used by 
those who also had right to coat- 
armour, they generally occur, as per- 
sonal emblems, in substitution for '' the 
pride of heraldry,** among those classes 
to whom its honours did not descend. 
J. G. N. 



CORRESPONDENCE OP SYLVANUS URBAN. 

St. Filer's "sopposed " Chair—" Milton's Works in Verse and Prose *'— Horace Wslpole and 
Janias— Suggestion to the Trustees of the Taylor Fond as to the improvement of the English 
languffe— Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen at Lynn— Coventry Tokens. 



St. Peter's " supposed " Chair. 



Mr. Urban, — On my return from 
Rome, after an absence of some months, 
I And your Magazines for that period 
awaiting me, and in those for June and 
'Jnly I have read with interest the paper 
on " The Legend of St Peter's Chair,'' 
and the letter of Mr. James Roche, of 
Cork, in reference thereto. 

Mr. Roche, with his usual accuracy and 
tact, has taken adyantage of some inci- 
dental inaccuracies of Lady Morgan to 
damage her general testimony; but, as 



you justly observe, neither Mr. Roche's 
suggestions nor corrections can settle the 
point in dispute. A lady may make most 
slip-slop confusion of dates and facts, but 
her doing so does not authenticate the 
'* Legend of St. Peter's Chair.'* Had her 
ladyship been less fond of epigrammatic 
point she might haye argued her point, 
and escaped a mortifying exposure ; but 
her blundering leaves Uie original question 
quite as much at issue as before. 

Whilst at Rome I examined with much 



• See our Magazine for July 1850, p. 8'2. 



1851.] 



Oorre^pondence of S^lvanus Urban. 



159 



I 



ftntian the ponderout uid faaUstlc m«s9 
of bro&se mppot^ to eooUin the subject 
mutter of controversy between ** The Lady 
and The Cardinal.* * 1 viewed it more than 
ODrce both in front and rear* in order to 
discover if possible where ** French Curi- 
cicity ** might have formerly let daylight 
in upon the relic » but 1 could not perceive 
any tracei of such an operation ; none 
were visible from any point of view to 
which 1 could attain. 

tn reading Cardinal Wiseman' f accurate 
and frorro«re<f deicriptioo of the Enshrined 
Chair, comparmg it with the plate printed 
by yon from the desiga of ^ Maria 
l^irrigio/' and bringing my own freih 
recollectton of the lAir/ie and titt of the 
great broxize ease to bear on both, 1 own 
a very grave doubt occurs to me whether 
all parties may not be disputing about 
tomiething as nnreal as the problem which 
« merry king onoe proposed to a grave 
■oeiety \ in fact I raise the qnotioo 
whether the exoteric chair really contains 
any esoteric counterpart? The materials of 
a chair may be inclosed lying as a heap 
of disjointed sticks ; there may lie within 
(as in the golden case of St, Mark's Gos- 
pel at Veoice) a heap of fragments, " pulvis 
ei prsetcfe& nihil -/* but that a chair, in 
the sbspe of a chair, as descKbed by Dr. 
Wiseman, and depicted in your Migazinc, 
can be inclosed in the visible shrine of 
bronze, seems to be more than qoestioo- 
able, for the following reasons : 

The broiiBe Cathedra ctoccs the vista of 
the nave of St. Peter's, and as every one 
knows the gigantic scale of every orna- 
ment and component part of this vast 
edifice* it may be supposed tbat this chair 
is of proportionate lixe ; it is held up, as 
I venture to think, rather grotesquely 
than grandly, upon the tips of the fingers 
of four colossal doctors of the Greek and 
Latin church, at an elevatioo of seventy 
feet to the top ; it is in the shape of a large 
arm chair, and. as my recollection serves 
BiCt it ia a question more than puzsliag in 
wfaift ptrt of H tibe migmai chair of St. 
Betcr eaa be npp9t^ to be oontsined ?* 

The Cardinal is eery accurale, but he 
nowhere asserts that he writes at an eye- 
witness. His account has been traced 
9^&aiim to a writer in the middle of the 
iaat century, or one hundred years ago. 
Qseiy. did that writer fpeak as an eye- 
vitaeaa ? Or did be too write from tra- 
dlliott? Hins the question lies open — 
Who bass sf«n that to which so many are 
rc^y to give teitimony f 




The Cardinal is very accurate ; he des^ 
cribes the chair as consistuig of two parts, 
a body and a back ; the body he des- 
cribes as a cubf measarlog in Roman 
palms, what we should call three feet four 
inches broad, two feet one inch deep, sod 
about three feet high ; the dimensions ot 
the back he does not give ; but as he 
describes, and the drawing shews, tbat the 
back consisted of ^a series of pilasters 
fopporting arches, with a triangular pede- 
ment," it seems impossible to wt^pOM 
that the back can have been less than two 
feet high, probably more : here then upon 
the lowest suppoiition we have a body not 
less than five feet high, by three deep, in 
the form of a chair, t^ppond to be in- 
closed in another chair of totally different 
sixe and proportions ; and it is curio as to 
■peculate in what part of the gigantic 
case art we to tuppo§e it inch^td -, is it 
in the back ? is it in the seat ? is it in one 
of the legs } for asenredly it cannot fit tn 
its esse leg for leg, seat for seat, back for 
back. The so lotion for all these difficulties 
would be^ as you observe it is shortly and 
sensibly put by Lady Morgan, to ** pro- 
duce the chair.'' If this be not done, 
and if there be no otherwise satisfactory 
answer to these queries, this other ques- 
tion inevitably urges i(self~Is there any 
chair indased at all ? or is not the brooie 
case a deception somewhat similar to that 
which Mr. Carlyle pointedly de;^ cribes of 
a stuffed set of legt provided for an infirm 
pope which enabled him to appear in the 
bakofty ol St. Peter's, as if standing up to 
bless m mnltitode, while, in fact, be was 
seated at his ease behind '* the sham/' 

Apropos of ^' shams,*' and to turn ande 
from the ** sella geatatoria" for the pre- 
sent, it sppears both remarkable and sig* 
ttificant that the great altar of St. Peter*a 
should be as it were sentineled by four 
memon«ls of saints and miraclea, of which 
candid Roman Catholics themselves admit 
three to be doubtful, while to a Protestant 
Investigator there seems so little doubt 
in the case, tbat he may consider the chief 
altar of a *•* strong delusion ** could not be 
more appropriately garnished than by snch 
imaginary saints and such mock miracles. 
Mr* Eustace, a Roman Catholic, whoeeean* 
dour in some parts of his book renders it 
almost worthy of a place in the ** Index 
Prohibitorom Libromm,** openly oen» 
fures the judgment which has appro- 
priated three of the principal nichea ol the 
nave of St. Petcr^i to s^sta whoce rqpute 
wca merely loeal at best, and whose ««rf 



* A view of the chair, as described by our correspondent, may be seen in Boaamni'i 
BwraMmiii p9mt^emm t^mpH VmHtam /akriemm imdiemiUia, IbL Bom»« 
1715, p. IIL— Eo. 



IGO 



Corretptmdmice of Sytvanu* Urban, 



ci 



am*tmtt mAXt ** ^^ ouididlf oinu, ^« 

The post of boQour At th« right haod of 
the i^rcat altar it occupied by Saint Ve- 
roNica— a saint whose ideotity » absorbed 
in the vulgar error of & former age, which 
embodied atid persotiilied a &«ran ikon 
(a true likenefls) of Christ into a woman ^ 
tKuppoted to have wiped his face as he went 
lowtrdft Calvary^ and in doing so to have 
brought away hit IikeQe»« miraculously 
impreved upon her haadkerchief, which 
h«o4kerchier it tmppoted to bo preierved 
in the rcliquial treat ury overhead, and on 
high days is exhibited to the prottrated 
multitude below, aa one of the '* great 
reilca of St. Peter's.* * In the distance and 
darkness no one can poMibly distiaguitli 
whether the object held out to thetr adora- 
tion be a handkerchief or a hat. 

SL Helena balances St. Veronica on the 
opposite side, being, aii Eustace remarks, "a 
princess of great virtue and eminent piety;" 
hut her statoe, he thinks, might he more 
fitly placed in the vestibule, beside htv son 
Cooiftantjne. St. Helena however flankt 
the high altar of St Peter's, Her celebrity 
mainly rests upon the inwitum / (what a 
happy word) of tbat material cross of which 
it is said that more pieces are vcattered 
through the world than would suffice to 
build a firat-rate maij-of-war 

A third comer of the noble nave is ap- 
propriated to St. Longinus, ** whose very 
name/* tays candid Eustace, ** exists but 
in legendary tale,'* St. Longinuj is tmp- 
p9*td to be the soldier who pierced the 
Saviour*a side while on the cro»8 ; the very 
point of the spesr with which be did the 
deed is tuppottd to be preterved in the 
reliquarium overhead \ and Longioos, mMp^ 
posfd to be converted by the results of 
the crucifixion, takes rank as tbe third 
lentioel of the high altar of St Peter's. 

The fourth niche ia allocated to a oolot- 
sal statue of St Andrew, and in the gat- 
ierj overhead it wuppoted to rest the actual 
bnd of the apostle. Some time since this 
relic was stolen^ whether by a rcligiotit 
thief who valued tbe head itself, or by 
one who sought the caaket and its jewels, 
must be doubtful ; but in a little time the 



bead was recovered ; the robber in a fit of 
remorse, probably after having tilched tbe 
jewels* de|K>stted tbe venerable relic in a 
garden near Rome, giving indmation to 
its sleepy cuttodt* where it might be 
found. It would be impotsible to doubt 
the implicit faith of at least one individual 
in thegeouineoessof this relic. The disi rest 
of Pio Nono during its lost was extreme, 
and his joy on its recovery proportionate : 
it was restored to its place with every 
solemnity and honour be could give to 
the ceremony — which ended with public 
rejoicings at for tbe recovery of a palU- 
dtum. Indeed no one can behold the de- 
meanour of the present Pope in public 
ceremonies without being eonviikoed of his 
personal devotion to what he topposes to 
he the truth. Whatever opinion may be 
formed of tbe head or judgment of Pio 
Nono, it is impossible to doubt the eam- 
ettness of 1m piety, presenting, I must 
tay, a marked contrast to the indifferent 
formality of otbert officially engaged in 
these performancej>. 

The«^e with a host of minor relics are 
tbe selected ornaments of the high altar 
of St, Peter's; and, with tbe questionable 
chair which closes the perspective, It 
must be owned that the garnishing is not 
inappropriate to that which it embelliahea 

And now one word more as to tbe tup* 
poitd chair. The nave of this great temple 
seems tbe very fairy-land of supposition ; 
let us carry supposition a little further. 
Suppose the dt^mand to ** produce tbe 
chair-' complied with, the branie chair 
opened, andao actual chair found therein, 
what will it prove.' If Lady Morgan^t 
Cufic inscription is found, it settles the 
question at once. If Cardinal Wtsemam's 
arcades and pillared arches appear orna- 
menting a snppoaed reUc of an age when 
these ornaments were not yet invented, 
the discovery will be equally decisive. 
"Therefore/*' whether we fiod the Lady's 
iswcription or the Cardinars description 
to be correct, tbe chair it left tUeralif 
without ** a leg to stand upon,** as a genuine 
remain of St Peter. 

I am, Stc A. B. R. 



MiXTON'S WOftKS IN VVR8C AKD FmaSt. 



Mr* Urban,— In Mr. Pjckering^s very 
handsome edition of Milton's works in 
prose aod verse, the editor has very pro- 
perly adhered to the author's very peculiar 
system of spelling. He has made the 
edition much more valuable by doing .so 
But can any of your correspondents assure 
the less skilful reader that these variations 
in spelling ore accurately copied from the 
original edition* The numerous mis'- 
prints iti the life of Milton make the 
7 



reader doubtrnl how far he can trust the 
correctness of the text in the body of the 
work. I have not kept a list of the errata, 
but two that I notice in turning over the 
volume will serve os a sample. In p. xlv. 
note, for Bowles's life of Bishop Ken, read 
Bowie t In p. Ixxviil. tbe following 
quotation from the letters of Charles Lamb 
is thus primed: " Tbe Jutt Defence is 
tbe greatest work among them, beoauae it 
is uniformly great, and such as is befitting 



18510 



Correjtpondence of Stflvanua Urban* 



161 



the Very ihoughi of a great natutt^ Mpeaks 
fcr iUelf * iaitcdd or ** The First De- 

llbnce ** and *' the very mouih of a p-eat 

Ifta/ioit njttaking .' * 

Again in the nexl seiitenoe» " but the 

l'8ecQDd Defence, which U but a sacrifice of 



spleadid paaaage«^' instead of ** meeU' 

Surely such priuttng in a work of iuch 
p recension h culcutated to make the un- 
fortunate purchaser groan. 

YourSi &c. D. S. 



HoRACK WAtpotE AKn Junius. 



Mr. Urban, — Do the following ei- 
DreaaioDs make it at all probable that 
lorace Walpole was Jn»iu» / 

They refer to the treatment of General 
ConwaVf who bad been deprived of his 
prnployineut on account of voting against 
"he Ur/alit^ of general warrante. 

*' I hnve passed u night, for which 
iGeorge Gren^ille * and the Dake of Bed- 
("ford !«liall paiis many an uneasy one ! '' 

** My ongei" shall be a little more manly^ 
I mid the plan of my revenge a litde deeper 
I laid t than in pecriah bons-motis. Von 
Ithall judge i>f my indignation by its dura* 
on." 

'* Have I separated myself from you? 
\Mtc tkc. If they have dared to hint thif, 
|»fae pen that \& now writing to 7011 will 
"bitterly undeceive them." 

SuUGKSTtON TO THE TfttrsTKES OF THE 
OF THK EnglI 

Mil. Urban, — To those who have 
ttudiifd the internal puwcrs and capabili- 
ties of the Englibh Unguage, it ba)> often 
PlKren flL mutter of regret thiit io the com- 
Oiition of words to eipreiiB new ideas in 
ifts, sciences I &c. rrcourae shoiuld have 
en 80 often had to the uncongenial Inn- 
uitges of Greece and Rome, instead of to 
bur own nmthcr-tongue^ which poi^iiessea 
both a treasury of home- worils and a pliancy 
" nirably adopted to meet all our wants, 
at it ia altogether too late to remedy 
buch a state of thiogs cannot he allowed, 
permit me to propose therefore the for- 
nation of a New Society fur (he Improve' 
neiii of' (he English L€tnguage in respect 
bf the defects and evils now indicated. 
It h not I ight that because all connot be 
fdone, lb lit therefore we should stand stil! 
RTfth folded arm a and do nothing. German 
riters have not been blind to oiir i:arelesg- 
and supinc-nes« ; and it is chiefly in 
consequence of reading what one of tliem 
has very recently written on the subject that 
I now addiesB you. Query, would it not 
be a legitimate exercise of the power* de- 
'k^ted by the will of the founder of the 



«« I ^gii to command myself — hut that 
struggle shall he added to their bill/* — To 
General Conway, April 21 , 1 764. 

" Tho' not writing fo you> I have been 
employed o^ouf you, a« 1 have ever since 
the 21st of Apni — a day your enemiet 
xhati have some cause to remember.** — 
To General Conwoy, June 5» 176-1 » 

" 1 trust you will mind them (Dainisters) 
no more than I do, excepting the Jiaderg^ 
w^*' i shall noi forget ^ I protmst (hem*** 
—To General Conway, Sept. 1. 1764. 

If these extract* do not prove Uoraee 
Walpoie to be Junimst surely they must 
connect him with that myatcriouii per- 
sonage. If not^ what can he allude 
to?— 

CijericuSp 



Taylor Fund ais to thk twpROVEMBMT 

MEi LaNGUAG£. 

Taylor Institution at Oxford — ^to en- 
deavour to improre the English laiiguage 
in the way above stated } 

The following extract from the will of 
Sir Robert Taylor is printed in the regu- 
latbns for that Institution, agreed upon 
in convocation, April 10, 1845, and 
Mttrcb-1, 1847. 

'* to the Chancellor and Scholars 

of the University of Oxford and their suc- 
cessors for the purpose of applying the 
interest and produce thereof in purcbmie 
of freehold land within, or if possible to 
be made within, the jurisdiction of the 
said Universityr and for the erecting a 
proper edifice thereon, and for establishiog 
a foundation for the teaching and improre- 
in^ the European languages is such man- 
ner as should from time to time he ap- 
proved by the said Chancellor and Scholaii 
in Convocation assembled.'' 

1 beg to recommend the com^ide ration 
of this subject to the heads of that illus- 
trious University, now so Heaaonably en- 
gaged in improving and expanding it! 
course of instruction. 

Yours ^c. FiiiLOLOotrs. 



Hospital of St. Marv Magdalen at Lynn, 

The hospital to which Chaplain in the time of King Stephen, 



Mr* Urban 

the following letter alludes was that of St 
Mary Magdalen -on-the'Causeway between 
(ray wood and Lynn, founded by Peter the 



A.n. Il4i>. It consisted of a prior and 
twelve brethren and sisters, of whom ten 
(the prior being one) were eound^ and 



* George Grenvillc was a favourite of Junius* — Eo« 
Gent. Mag. Vol. XAXVL Y 



Corrpipondence of Syhamiui Urhat^. 



I6t 



tliree anaoimd, or leprous. Peter the 
Chaplain, their founder, died in 1174. 

It was in oonseqnence of the inqniry 
ioititated in this letter that the mayor and 
bargesses of Lynn purchased the king's 
letters patents granting the site of the 
hospital, and the lands and tenements 
thereto belonging, for the maintenance of 
poor people. 

Tanner, in his Notitia Monastica, speaks 
of it as re-founded by King James the 
First. 

Yours, &c H. E. 

[MS. Cotton. Vesp. F. xii. fol. 161.] 

My verie good lorde, I ha?e looked into 
the state of the hospitall, or poore house 
of Gay wood neere Lynne, and doe fynde it 
broken and spoyled, and full of confusion; 
neyerthelesse some lyttle thinge is lefte, 
and somewhat I suppose may be re- 
covered that is nowe w^'^houlden from yt. 
It seemes to me that the foundac*on is 
Terie auncient (for I can fynde neyther 
foundac'on nor founder), and did consist 
of a prior or master, and certen poore 
bretheren and sisters, w«*» in former tymes 
they saie weare aboute a dozen in nomber. 
And it may well be, for I suppose that the 
land y* aunciently belonged ynto them 
was some threscore poundes by yeare or 
better, to be improved at this daye. But 
this hospitall while it stoode was soe ill 
husbanded by the M" that they have 
made awaye the principall thinges, some in 
Henry theyghtes tyme some since, for 
fower skore or a hundred yeares at very 
smale rentes : one thinge nowe in the 
handes of one M' Thursbie worthe twentie 
poundes a yeare, at the rent of twentie 
ihillioges : one other made awaye to one of 
the Stranges, nowe comed to the hands of 
S' Phillipp Woodhouse at the rent of 
twentie three shillinges a yeare, that by 
likelieboode is worthe thirtie poundes a 
yeare; and yet these smale rents them- 
selves are deteyned and not paide, and 
the lands have runne soe longe myngled 
w*^ other lands of these great owners that 
tliere is lyttle hope w*i>out greate difficultie 
to finde them out. Besides this spoyle 
com'ytted by themselves, there are alsoe 
some coppie houldes of twoe manno^, one 
late Justice Grawdies the other M' Thurs- 
bies, w*** the lordes have taken awaye 
vppon p'tence that the hospitall was sap- 
p'ssed. Likewise certen consealers fell 
vppon them for theire whole state, as 
namelie one Baldvvyn, whoe claymed vnder 
S' George Howard, against whome they 
p^ayled, and proved the lande not to be 
concealed. After him one Adams gott a 
newe graunte, vppon tytle of conceal- 
ment, w*** the towne of Lynne bought of 
him and tooke slate thereof from him in 



[Aog. 



theire owne names, and therefore I shoulde 
muche have suspected theire purpose, but 
that they have cleared themselves by good 
eifectes, and yealde themselves to what I 
shall advise for the establishment of the 
house, and recoverie and restoreinge of 
the possessions. They saye that because 
they sawe the M*^ and the bretheren and 
sisters to make awaye theire possessions 
for soe longe termes, and for noethinge, 
they thought it good to buye in this estate 
to disable the Mr. to make sucbe spoyle, 
and to inhable themselves to maynteyne 
as manie poore as the lyveinge woulde 
beare, or rather more, and therefore 
the towne of Lynne doe at this daye 
stocke thirteene or fourteene acres of 
good pasture (p'cell of the landes of the 
hospitall) w*^ cowes, at the chardge of the 
towne of Lynne, whereof they give the 
whole p'ffett to the poore. There is alsoe 
twentie acres more w^^* the towne of Lynne 
have lett out, to the reasonable value, and 
imploye the rent, w**' some addic'on of 
theire owne, to the vse of the poore, soe 
that there are nowe maynteyned some sixe 
p'sons in the hospitall. 

Uppon coDsiderac'on of all this case I 
am of opynion y* this hospitall is and 
ought to be in beinge, and ought not to 
come to the crowne, ffor it was a meere 
lave hospitall erected for the 8ustentac*on 
of poore persons w'out anie mixture of 
sup stition. 

Nextlie, I can not finde by anie instru- 
ment or writeing whoe founded it nor 
whoe ought to place the M' and poore 
there. Onelie it seemes that the towne 
of Lynne have placed them as longe as 
men may remember. And accordinglye 
they clay me to be patrons of it, and have 
vppon the avoydaunce of the mastershipp 
placed others, and sent them to the house, 
and installed them. Neither doe I fynde 
that anie other have done soe besides 
themselves. 

Touchinge theire landes w''* are some of 
them wrongefuUie w^houlden, some of 
them houlden by longe leases to the 
vndoeing of the house, as I have said, 
there must be some course taken by lawe 
to recover what may be, and to sett out 
and distinguishe the rest that is houlden 
by lease, that at the least when the termes 
ezpyre it may be knowen what belonges 
vnto them. 

And that tytle and p'tended convey- 
aunce of the towne of Lynne must be 
taken in, w^^ they are content to yeald for 
the benefett of the house. And if they 
will alsoe be intreated to beare the chardge 
of the suite to reduce and settle the pos- 
sessions of the house, w<^*> p*happs I shall 
bringe them to, they shall well deserve to 
have the patronage confirmed vnto them, 



1851.] 



Coi^re^ondence of Sylmnw t/rhan. 



163 



to w*'* they shewc ulreddie the best tytle, 
^Ibr they have potsesiion, and though thfy 
Pl^All make noe proffitt Qf it, yet the name 
ttid rale of the hospitall (for w<^i* they are 
tested aptlie, for they are neighbors to it) 
will invite them to the chardge. 

And lastUe^ 1 wouide humhlie move yo' 
lordsbipp that yow wouide be pleaded to 
be a sptor to hU Ma*^* to give his gratious 
ayde in tuche course aa shalbe founde 
mo»t for theire good, for the better e»- 
tabliflhiuetit bothe of theire coporac^on 
ftiid posaession^. And then t wiU tende 
ItO the men of LynnCi and give direccion 

COTENTRT 



Mn- Urban, — ^Will the fctUowing ac- 

Leoont of tokens formerly issued by the 

^Corporation of Coventry and Tariona pri- 

lirate inhabitsots of that city he acceptable 

I to year readers ? 

This private coinage of tokens arose out 

[of the inconvenience i^ustained by ftbop- 

epers and the public in consequence of 

be acarcity of small change. The metals 

were tin, copper, and brass, and 

course every person who issued this 

ad of coin was obliged to take it again 

irben offered to him. Where many sorts 

Ijrere current tradesmen kept aortiog- 

Isoxea, into which they ptit the tokens of 

lotffereat persons, and at a suitable oppor- 

Itttnity sent them to be exchanged. It has 

IBeen stated that a penny-wortli of copper 

lor bra#s could be converted into nearly 

*lty tokeos. The Corporation prohibited 

lie issue of aU tokens but those bear> 

Dg the city's stamp, by the following 

Ibrder of council, dated lli(>9 : '' That the 

I tokens which have lately been issued 

||o this city be called in, under a penalty 

pf hL as many persons are obliged to 

^ve 13«f, of these tokens for I2d. in 

|ijlver ; and that none be suffered to re- 

iDain out except those which have the 

raty*s stamps and whatever profit there 

|fDay be the Sword-bearer to take it. After 

'be tCth of April the above tokens to be 

liilled in.*' In 1672 private tokens were 

uperseded by halfpeomes and farthings 

■u«d by authority of Charles IT. and 

cted to be current in all {Miymenta 

lender the value of 6d. The late Mr. 

Sharp had a private plate engraved of 

no*l of these tokcm. They are still oc- 

Icasionally to be met with in Coventryi 



in all thinges as I shall fjnde to be ^tteat 
for theire cnsCj and best for the state of 
the poore there, w^^ I knowe to be the 
cnde of the lordes oare and desiers in this 
charitable worke. Thus recommending the 
good of this poore hospitall to yo"" hooora- 
ble p'tecc*oo, I rest 

Yo' Lordshlppa most bouadeiii 
HaKsr AoAiftM. 

9"April» 1609, 
To the Right honorable my verie 

good iSrde the Lord Privie 

Seale. 

ToitENS* 

and a considerable number of them aie 
in my possession. 

L Obverse. " John Smith, in*'— ia the 
centre, a shield* €^ontaining3 cinquefoUs in 
chevron between 3 Hmbecks ; probably a 
variation of the Pewterers' arms. Reverse. 
•♦Coveotry, 16.S1/' —centre, ** L L. S.'* 
— The letter L. was probably the initial of 
his wife's Christian name. 

2. Obv. **Nftthaniel!Al8oppp''— centre, 
a Lacy knot. Rev. ** of Coventry, 1656," 
— centre, '*N. A.** — He was a Captain 
in the City Militia m 1659. 

3- Obv. '* Edward Lap worth," — centre, 
a bird- Rev. " in Coventry, 1659/* — 
centre, ** E. L." — He was a clothier, and 
Churchwarden of St. Michael's, lliGS ; 
Mayor, ll>76. Removed a^ Alderman by 
Charles 1 1, in 1684, bnt restored by James 
IL in 16B8, 

4. Obv. " lohn Lax, at the"^oeQtre, 
a star. Rev, "in Coventry, 1659," — 
centre, *'LM.L,'" 

5* Obv. '* Edward CrtiBsc," — centre, « 
pack-horse. Rev. ** of Corentry, 1663/' 
—centre, ** E. M. C/* 

(i, Obv. '*Iohn Woolrich. 1663," — 
centre, a double heraldic rose. Rev. *^ Mer* 
cer^ in Coventry," — centre, a teasel, and 
*'LW.'* beneath. — He was SbcriiT in 
165.V, and Mayor 1660. 

7* Obv, *' Merocr and Grocer," — 
centre, ** C. F/' Rev. "in Coventrey/* 
— Leutre, '* 1665." 

8. Obv. **WiUiam Rowney, senior/* 
—centre, an elephant and cattle. Rev, 
" in Coventry^ 1665," — centre, "his half- 
pen y." 

9. Obv. " William Rowney, in" — 
centre » an elephant and caatle. Rev. 
" Coventry, Mercer/' — centre, the Virgin 
Mary, crowned : the Mercers* arms — (a 
farthiuic). 

10. Obv. ** Sam veU Albopp/ '—centre, 
a stiield of arms, 3 wolves* heads erased, 
braoch in mouth. Rev. " in Coveotreyi 
1'666,"— centre, ** S. A/» 

IL Obv. " Robert Bedford, 1666/^— 
centre, a shield of armi| between 3 leo- 



Correspondence ofSyhanue Urban. 



164 



purds* faces, 3 rosei on a cberron. Rer. 
"in Coventrey,"--ccntre. " R. B." di- 
Tided by 3 dnqnefoils with atems inter- 
laced. — He was a clothier, and Sheriff in 
1643 ; Mayor, 1650. 

12. Obv. " Robert Bedford, in" — 
centre, an anchor, between the initials 
"R.B." Rev. "City of Coventry,"— 
centre, **R.A. B." 

13. Obv. "WiUiam SneU, Mercer "— 
centre, ** W. A. S." Rev. " in Coventrey, 
1665,"— centre, the Virgin Mary. — He 
was Churchwarden of St Michael's in 
1666; Sheriff. 1675; Mayor, 1688. Re- 
moved as Alderman by Charles II. 1685, 
and restored by James II. 1688. Arms : 
a chevron between 3 snails. 

14. Obv. ** In Coventry, 1666," — 
centre, " S. W." Rev. •* Woollsted, 
Weaver," — centre, a shuttle. 

15. Obv. *• In Coventry, 1667," — 
centre, ''E.O." Rev. " Feltmaker,"— 
centre, a hat and plume. — Edward Owen 
was Churchwarden of St. Michaers, 1 678 ; 
Mayor, 1680. Removed from situation 
of Alderman, 1685. 

16. Obv. "John Brookes, of Coventry," 
—centre, "his halfpeny." Rev. "Sta- 
tioner, 1668,"— centre, a Bible.— He left 
a rent-charge on a house to purchase Bibles 
to be given annually to poor children. 

17. Obv. "John Crichlowe, Drap''* 
—centre, "of Coventry, 1668." Rev. 
The same. — He was Sheriff, 1652 ; Mayor, 
1658 ; Captain in the City Militia, 1658. 

18. Obv. *'John Mvrdock, Baker, 
1668.»' Rev. "in Coventry, his half- 
penny." 

19. Obv. "Samvell Tissall, at" — 
centre, a thistle. Rev. " in Coventry, 
1668,"— centre, " his halfpeny." — He 
was Churchwarden of Trinity Church in 
1677. 

20. Obv. " William A vsten,'*— centre, 
3 tuns. — Probably part of the Vintners' 
or Brewers' arms. Rev. " in Coventrey," 
—centre, "W.A. A." 

21. Obv. " Nathanill Barnard," — 
centre, a globe. Rev. "in Coventrey, 
Mercer,"— centre, " N. B.»* — He was 
Sheriff in 1641. He was ordered to be 
taken into custody, in 1649, for refusing 
to be a Member of the Council House. 

22. Obv. "John Carpenter, of " — 
centre, a crescent and seven stars. Rev. 
" Coventry, his halfpeny," — centre, 
" I. E. C."— He was a Churchwarden of 
St. Michaers, 1666. 

23. Obv. "Michaell Earle, of" — 
centre, the Virgin Mary — a shield of the 
Mercers' arms. Rev. " Mercer, Coven- 
try,"— centre, " M. M. E." — He was 
Mayor in 1677 : in his year the procession 
of Lady Godiva was first established. 

24. Obv. " In Coventry, Mercer,"- 



[Aug. 



centre, "P.C." Rev. «at the Svgwr 
Lofb,*' — centre, a sugar-loaf. 

25. Obv. "Edward Fayerbrothcr,"— 
centre, a golden fleece. Rev. " Clothier, 
in Coventry,"— centre, "E. S.F."— He 
was Churchwarden of St. Michael's, 1656. 

26. Obv. " Abraham Lucas,"— centre. 
Grocers' arms, via. a chevron between 6 
doves in chief and 3 in base. Rev. " in 
Coventry, Grocer,"— centre, " A. E. L." 

27. Obv. " Samuell Peialey, at the"— 
centre, the sun. Rev. " Sonn, in Coven- 
trey," — centre, a tun. 

28. Obv. " Apothecarie," — centre, 
"T. P." Rev. " in Coventry,"— centre. 
Apothecary's arms: Apollo in his glory 
holding a bow and arrow, bestriding the 
serpent Python. 

29. Obv. "William Gilbert,"— centre, 
a wrinkled boot between two staves. Rev. 
"Mercer, in Coventry,"— centre, " W.G." 

30. Obv. "Bermingham, Hinkly."— 
centre, " E. A. C." Rev. " Coventry, 
Warwick," — centre, " his halfpeny." 

31. Obv. ** In Coventry, Sovtham,*'— 
centre, " H. E. W." Rev. " Rvgby, Lvt- 
terworth," — centre, " Dyer, 1666." 

Corporation To x ens. 

1. Obv. "A Coventry Halfe Penny, 
1669." Rev. The city arms, viz. the 
elephant and castle, with the cat o' moun- 
tain for crest, in a shield ; with " C. C." 
on each side. 

2. Obv. " The Citty of Coventry,"— 
centre, the city arms. Rev. " theyre 
Halfe Penny," — centre, crest, the cat 
o' mountain. — See the engraving. 

3. Obv. "A Coventry Farthing," — 
centre, above the initials " C. C." a cat 
o' mountain, and beneath ' ^ 1 669." Rev. 
" the Armcs of Coventry,*'— centre, the 
elephant and castle. 

1 have also the eight following tokens, 
several rather illegible, issued by persons 
in Warwickshire, but as there must be 
beyond doubt many more, perhaps a cor- 
respondent might be induced to complete 
the list 

1. Obv. " Thomas Stratford," — centre, 
a bell. Rev. "in Warwick, 1656,"— 
centre, " T. E. S." 

2. Obv. "Margery Hanslapp,"- centre, 
the Virgin crowned. Rev. " of Southam, 
1658/'— centre, " M. H." 

3. Obv. "Thomas Rimill," — centre, 
" his halfepenny." Rev. " of Brayles,"— 
centre " T. M. R. 1666." 

4. Obv. " Will. Cockbill, his halfpenny, 
1668." Rev. " of Barford, neare War- 
wick." 

5. Obv. " Sam. Wheeler, in Warwick," 
—centre, a man. Rev. "his halfpenny, 
1688,»— centre, " S. E. W." 



165L] 



Noh» of the Month* 



165 



6» Obif, "Samuel Bacon, Ifomnonger,*' 
— centre^ arms, chcTron between 3 steel 
gidi and 3 pair of shackles. Eer, ** in 
KentooiiTiWftrivirkshlre," — centre^ ** his 
tiatfepenny." 

7. ObT. " Wtlliam Cbeb«cy/* — centre, a 



sugar-loaf. Rev* *' in Rrgbey,** — centre, 

8. Obir. "Abmbam Harper,** — ^^entre, 
the Virgin Marjr* Rer* ** Mercer, m 
R¥gby,*'— centre,'* A, H." 

Yours^ &c. W. Reader. 



Letter or tbaxks faoh Charles IL to the Corporation op Ipswicb, for 

THEIR EIND RECEPTION OP THE FrENCH RePUGEES UPO>r THE REVOCATION 

or THE Edict op Nante»» 



Mr. Urban, — Tbe following copy of a 
letter of Charles 1 L is cleriTed from an 
old b<KJk of extracts from the records of 
the (!OrporBdon of Ipswich. As a graceful 
BiCt of royal authority, relating to an im- 
portant: fact, not only in our local history 
but in that also of a great branch of uur 
nnttonal manufacture;, you will perhaps 
tbmk it worthy of a place in your pages. 
Yours, &c. 

Iben. 

*' Charges REX.—Trusty and well- 
beloved, we greet you well. Your free 
and diuritable reception of the poor 
French linen-wearers ia so well pleasing 
unto ua, that we cannot bat return you 
our thanks for the same in a very special 
manner, and do further fissure you that as 



we hope that manufacture may prove to 
be a great and public advantage to that 
your town nm\ the whole nation when 
once established, so atc wilL upon all occa- 
sions readily give such encouragement as 
shall be thought fit and requisite for so 
good a nrork, no less tending to the benefit 
of cur own native subjects than to the 
relief and support of thosie distressed 
foreigners who for conicience' sake have 
taken their refuge in this our kingdoin ; 
so, not doubting but you will pcrsiat a* 
you have begun, we bid you farewell. 
Given at our court at Whitehall the I8tli 
day of November, 1GBI» in the thirty- 
third year of our reign. By his Majestie'a 
command, L. Jknkvns/* 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



EMetnorial to the Master of the Rolls upon the subject af the Records, List of Signatures— 
Suggestion from an Old Corrcsi>nndent— Duke of Monmonth's Nole Book— Caxton** 
Memorial— Sug^efttioji in reference to it— iimles of Pictures — Curious subject of Antiquartsn 
Inqttiry lately prosecuted in Denmark— Sale of MS3. of SIqus* Donnsdieu— French gratis 
^ visits to Loodon— Recent non-historicat rublications. 



The MEUORiAt to the Master of the 
Rolls ON THE SUBJECT OF the fees payable 
at THE Record Ofpicee waa transmit^ 
ted to Sir John Romilly early in the past 
month. No answer has yet been received. 
I tigned by the following peraoot ; — 

Mabon* 

Strangford. 

S, Oxon. 

Braybrooke. 

Loiideaborough . 

Tbibot de Malahide. 

R* C. NeviUe. 

Thomas Babiogton Macauby. 

Robert Harry Jnglis. 

Fortuoatuj Dwarris. 

Henry EUis. 

Frederick Madden. 

Lucy Aikio. 

Wdham Harriaoa Aiiuworih. 

John Yonge Akerman. 

John Ayre, 

Charlea Bailey. 

J. Brodripp Bergne. 



Samuel Birchn. 
W. H. Blaauw* 
Charlea BoutelL 
John Britton, 
John Bruce* 
Thomai Carlyle. 
F. A. Carriagton, 
John Payne Collier. 
Charles Purton Cooper* 
Bolton Corney, 
Thomas Corscr. 
George Lillie Craik. 
Thomas Crofton Croker. 
James Crossley. 
Peter Cunningham. 
F. H. Davii», 
Charleu Dickens. 
Charles Wentworlh Dilke. 
Hepworth Dixon. 
John Do ran. 
John Forster. 
Edward Fobs. 
Augustus W. Franks, 
Mary Aiine Everett Green. 
J. Hamilton Gray. 



166 



Nbti9 of the Mtmih. 



CAug. 



Henrf Hallam. 

James Orchmrd HaHiwell. 

I^ilip Hardwick. 

Edward Hawkins. 

T. K. Herrey. 

James Heywood. 

John Holmes. 

G. A. Hoskins. 

Donglas Jerrold. 

Charles Kuight. 

John Lee. 

Peter Levesqne. 

Samuel Roffey Maitland. 

Henry Hart Milman. 

Octavius A. S. Morgan. 

John Bowyer Nichols. 

John Gongh Nichols. 

Edward Oldfield. 

John Henry Parker. 

R. Parkinson. 

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew. 

James K. Planch^. 

James Prior. 

F. R. Raines. 

Edward F. Rimbaolt. 

George Poulett Scrope. 

Henry Shaw. 

Evelyn Philip Shirley. 

Edward Smirke. 

Charles Roach Smith. 

William Henry Smyth. 

James Spedding. 

Agnes Strickland. 

S. R. Solly. 

William John Thoms. 

Charles Tucker. 

William S. W. Vaux. 

Albert Way. 

Alfred White. 

Thomas Wright. 
An Old Correspondent writing to 
us upon this subject suggests, that *' if any 
difficulty exists in reference to the sraaU 
accommodation for readers in some of the 
existing Record Offices, it would be a 
great boon to literature if inquirers, until 
the new Record Office be completed, 
were permitted to have gratuitous in- 
spection of the Inqumtiones pott Mortem. 
Such a partial permission would evidence 
the good will of the authorities, and would 
enable them, by its results, to judge of the 
nnmber of persons who would be likely to 
take advantage of gratuitous access.'' The 
suggestion is a very good one. There is 
probably not room for many readers in 
the present offices, although there would 
be no difficulty in accommodating any 
number of persons who went with money 
in their hands ; but there is a great fallacy 
in the notion (if it exists) that free per- 
mission would occasion a large number of 
persons to flock immediately to the Re- 
cord Offices. How many persons can 
read records, understand them, apply 



them ? How many know even of what 
kind of documfints the great mass of the 
records consists? There ii nothing in 
this or any other difficulty that we oaTC 
heard alleged which a little good will and 
proper management in the keepers, wonld 
not easily overcome. Until the comple- 
tion of the New Record Office any poi- 
sible difficulty might be obviated by addi- 
tional control over the granting of permis- 
sions, or, as our Old Co&kbbpondknt 
suggests, by limiting the present gratuitous 
access to such classes of records as are 
likely to be the most generally useftil. 
We wait for the reply of the Master of the 
Rolls, in patient confidence that the ap- 
plication will receive from him the atten- 
tion which we are sure it deserves. Little 
sophistical difficulties, generated (if they 
exist) in unwilling minds, will never weigh 
with him. 

We learn from a letter of Sir Frederick 
Madden lately published in Notes and 
Queries, that one of the manuscript 
NOTE BOOKS fouud ou the person of the 
Duke of Monmouth, the same which 
was described about twelve months ago in 
Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, has been 
purchased for the British Museum from 
Dr. Anster. Sir Frederick gives a table 
of contents of the MS.; from which it 
would seem, that, apart from its curiosity 
as an historical relic, it is of little worth. 
The book is authenticated by a memoran- 
dum in the hand- writing of James II. and 
was deposited by him with other MSS. in 
the English College in Paris. How it got 
from thence does not exactly appear. In 
1827 it was purchased (as is said) by an 
Irish student at a book-stall in Paris. He 
gave it to a priest in the county of Kerry, 
on whose death it came into the possession 
of Dr. Anster. Two or three poems, some 
recipes, rules in astrology, charms, prayers, 
notes of distances, routes, and memoranda 
as to the value of money — such are its 
principal contents. This volume must 
not be confounded with the far more im- 
portant book mentioned by Dr. Welwood, 
from which he printed various memoranda 
in his Memoirs, and respecting which he 
said, *' A great many dark passages there 
are in it, and some clear enough, that 
shall be eternally buried for me. And 
perhaps it had been for king James's ho- 
nour to have committed them to the flames, 
as Julius Caesar is said to have done upon 
the like occasion.*' • 

* An inquiry is peodiog in Notes and 
Queries respecting the various editions of 
Dr. Welwood' s Memoirs. We possess 
the edition alluded to in a letter from Mr. 
Ross as having been printed by "one 
Baker ** some time before 1718. It pur- 



lafiiO 



Notes qftfie Month* 



167 



I 



Tbe Subscribers to tbe intended Ca)c- 
TOK Mbmorixl, bj^viog abandoned tbe 
proposal mide bj tbe Dean of SC. Paul's 
for & combioAtion of fountain and Ligbt, it 
is now designed to apply the money raised 
to tbe erection of an irorx Kttttue« provided 
the amount c&n be raised to a Kum suHi- 
cicnt for that purpose. Mr> Bolton Cor- 
iiey has written to Note^j and Queries, 
olyectiag to the proposed statue on the 
grouDd that we do not possess any like- 
ae8« of tbe celebrated printer^ those which 
ptsa for such being, firsts a portrait of BuT' 
chietlOf A Florentine barber, and, secondly, 
a likeness of a priest. To erect a statue, 
foanded upon either of these pretended 
resemblaacefir would be, as Mr. Corney 
justly thinks, to perpetuate a Miction, Mr. 
Comey further suggests, as a preferable 
memorial, tbe publication of an edition of 
Caxton^s works ; the proems^ notes, colo- 
pbonst &c. to the books printed and edited 
by him. Mr. Beriah Botfield objects to 
this suggestion on tbe score of expense, 
and suggests tbe adoption of Mr. Ma- 
dise*s likeness of Caxton in bis '* truth- 
ful ^* picture. This is a suggestion in 
which of course Mr, Corney cannot con- 
cur. But the discussion will do good. 
If neither proposal c«n be carried out we 
shall probably have a better suggestion 
than either. The money in hand is said 
to be far thorl of the sum necessary to 
erect a statue or to print the works ; if so, 
why not repair Chaucer's tomb with it ? 
Nothing would be more agreeable to Cax- 
ton himself. He not only printed Chau- 
cer's works, and reim printed them merely 
to get rid of errors, but, feeling that the 
great poet " ought eternally to be remem- 
1»ered " in the place where he lies buried, 
he hung up an epitaph to bis memory over 
that tomb which is miw mouldering to 
decay : 

Po«t objtura Caxton volait te vivere, cura 

VVin«lml, (Jhnucer clare poeta, tui, 
Nam tua, nun solum, cumpressit opuscula 

formls^ 
Has qaoqae sed laudes Juasit tile esse tuaa. 

Tbe epitaph, touching evidence of Cax- 
toD^s affection for the poet^ has disap* 
pcared. In a few years tbe tomb itself will 
have f abmitted to bievitable fate. What 
better mode of keeping alive the memory 
of both Chaucer and Caxton, or of doing 
honour to the pious printer, than by 
showing that even after the lapse of cen- 
turies his wishes for the preservation of 

parts to have been ** Pnnteci for a Society 
oC Stationers/' and to be "sold by J. 
B«ker, at the Black Boy in Pater. Nosier 
Row, 1710.*^ Is any thing known of 
this Society r or pretended Society, of 
Stationers 



^B Suti oners ' 



Chaucer 'i» memory in that place are not 
forgotten *' If tbe fund is more than suf- 
bcieut for the purpose, the surplus might 
be invested on trust to perform the wish 
of CaztoQ by keeping Chaucer's monu- 
ment in repair for ever. 

During tbe last month tbe pictobks of 
Mr. P»nn, of Stoke Pogeis, have been 
sold by Messrs. Christie and Manaon. 
The well-known picture by Benj. West 
of Pmn't Treaty wiih (Ae JndUau wa« 
sold for 44 1/. A large picture of ckiidrm 
of ih§ Pen» family, by Sir Joshua Rey* 
nolds^ was sold for 367/. 10#., and a view 
of Corfe CoMtle from the Sea, by J. Af. W. 
Turner, for 480/. 

At Sotheby and Wilkinson's the per* 
traii o/Thomat Camph€U tbe poet, painted 
by Sir T. Lawrence for the late Mr. Thom- 
son, of Clitberoe, has been lately sold to 
Mr. Gambart for 60 guineas, and a 6it«/ of 
the tome poci, by Baily, also executed for 
Mr. Thomson, was sold to Mr. Moxon, 
of Dover street, for 10/* At the same 
a»lc a bu*t of Martin Fb/iet, by Rou- 
biliac, realised 20/. 10#} and one of Lord 
Brougham, by Baily, <j/. 12#. 6d, 

The following extract from a letter 
written by Hcrr J. J. A. Worsaac to Mr. 
C. Roach Smith, dated Copeuhageo, July 
4th, 1851^ points attention to a novel and 
curious subject of si^tiquarian inquiry i — 
'"At Stockholm tbe naturalists Steensbruss, 
Forchhammer, and I are going to explain 
some very curious discoveries which we 
together have made here in Denmark. 
We have joined in a committee of archvo- 
logiats and naturalist* for the illustration 
of the oldest primeval period in particubir. 
We have been so fortunate as to find along 
tb« line of oar bays and rivers a coo- 
siderable number of places whirs thk 

A&Q&IGINIS BAVC BATRN THIIK FOOD, 

We have found enormous heaps of shells 
of the oyster and Cardium ednle, LH^rina 
litorea, MjfUiUi eduiis. Sec. mixed with 
fragments of pottery, charcoal, bones of 
birds and other animals, such as deer, 
auroxea, harts, wild swine, ^c, aU of 
which have been broken for extracting 
tbe interior ports, arrow-heads of bone 
and flint, hatchets of flint and atagsbom, 
pins, and other small implements in bone. 
We have found these traces ^ widely 
separated parti of the country, and always 
near the sea coaat. Hitherto no meUl 
has been discovered in any of these eating- 
places. Id England I am sure you would 
find similar remains,*' &c. 

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson are about 
to sell a valuable collection or auto- 
graph LBTTBRs and MSS. foumkd by 
M. Alcios DoNNADiKU. It comprises 
English royal autographs collected by Mr* 
Upcott, ranging from Henry V. to Her 



168 



Notes of the Month. 



[Aug. 



present Majesty, and a similar collection 
of French royal autographs from Charles 
Vll. to recent times. To these are added 
autographs of many highly distinruished 
men, including Bacon, BoUeau, Mazarin, 
Newton, Kepler, De Thou, Tasso, Vol- 
taire, Rubens, Rembrandt, Raffaelle, Sir 
Francis Drake, Essex, Monmouth (to 
Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, begging 
his interference to save his life), Raleigh, 
Yane, and many others. ** Put money in 
thy purse," is our advice to every collector, 
and wend thy way to Puttick and Simp- 
son's. 

A correspondent informs us that amongst 
the many ways which have been had re- 
course to in order to facilitate the access 
to London of that vast crowd of French 
visitors by whom the Exhibition and 
the metropolis have lately been honoured, 
Paris is placarded with bills announcing 
that persons undertaking to subscribe for 
one year to Mons. de I^artine's news- 
paper, called Le Paytf are treated with a 
VISIT TO London GRATIS, The journey 
is performed, we believe, from Paris to the 
coast in waggons, and thence, we suppose, 
by steam-boat to London. '* Voyage a 
Londres tans rien payer ; abonnez voua 
au Paytf par A. de Lamar tine :** such is 
the oifer of the placard. According to our 
notions it is a little infra dig, to solicit 
readers for a great poet, historian, and 
statesman , by methods so indirect, but such 
things are viewed differently by our con- 
tinental neighbours. One would like to 
have a minute account of a journey per- 
formed under such circumstances. 

Amongst non-historical books recently 
published which solicit our notice are the 
following : — 

The New Tettameni expounded and 
ittuttrated according to the umal mar- 
ginal rtferencet in the very worde of Holy 
Scripture. By Clement Moody, M.A. 
Part IT, ito, Longmans. 1851. — This con- 
cludes an edition of the New Testament, 
in which the passages alluded to in the or- 
dinary marginal references are printed in 
full at the bottom of the page as foot-notes. 
Every one who knows the importance of 
the marginal references, and the desirable- 
ness of facilitating in every possible way 
the stud]^ of the sacred Scriptures, will 
rqoice at such an addition to our Biblical 
Literature. 

The Doctrine of the Trinity, a Doctrine 
not of Divine origin: and the Duty of 
Christian men in relation thereto. By 
George Stuart Hawthorne, M,D, Svo. 
Lond. 1851. — A sad, sad book, respect- 
ing which the best thing we can wish Dr. 
Hawthorne is that he may live to be 
ashamed of it. 

Poems, Bstays, and Opinions ; being a 
8 



selection from wriHngs in the ** Mirror q/* 
Me Time'* from August 1th, 1850, iTo ike 
end qf February, 1851. By Alfred Bate 
JHehards, Esq. Barrister at Law, 3 vols, 
sm. 9vo. Aylott and Jones, 1851. — Dash- 
ing, impudent newspaper articles; yery 
honest, we doubt not, but altogether devoid 
of discretion or wisdom. 

The Botanical Looker-Out among ike 
Wild Flowers <if England and Wales, at 
all seasons and in the most interesting 
loealities. By Edwin Lees, Esq. F,L.S. 
2nd edition, revised. Svo, Hamilton. 
1851. — This is a new edition of a book 
the first edition of which greatly delighted 
us. We took it as our guide in the dis- 
covery of those wild flowers which make 
our lanes and commons, our hedge-rows 
and banks, so beautiful. Month by month 
we tested its information, and found it in 
a very high degree accurate and useful. 
The author is a complete master of his 
subject, and communicates his knowledge 
in a genial, pleasant, and most attractive 
way. The present edition is much en- 
larged, and every way improved. We re- 
commend the book heartily, and not from 
merely reading it, but from thorough 
knowledge of its contents, and experience 
of its general accuracy. 

The Oaf or d University Commission, 
A Letter addressed to Sir Robert Harry 
Inglis, Bart. M.P. being a short inquiry 
into the nature of the protection afforded 
by Legislative Incorporation in relation to 
the University and CbUeges qf Ojtford. 
By J, W. Pycrqft, Esq. F.S.A, Svo, 
Lond. 1851. — ^The writer is of opinion 
that the University Commissions are 
^ equally unconstitutional in character as 
profligate in principle.'' 

A Plea for the Rights and Liberties 
qf Women imprisoned for life under the 
potcer of Priests, in answer to Bishop 
Ullathome, By Henry Drummond. Svo. 
Bosworth. 1851. — Mr. Drummond par- 
sues his attack upon nunneries with 
vigour, stating facts which deserve univer- 
sal consideration. Amongst other things 
he prints translations of various curious 
extracts from a journal of a protector of 
convents, which has come into his posses- 
sion rather oddly. He should publish the 
original, with a translation, as a separate 
book, without comment He gives the 
following extract from the writings of 
Liguori, which we print on account of its 
curious similarity to the doctrine of the 
old Treatise of Equivocation noticed in 
another part of our present Magazine. 
'* Amphibology, or speaking in a double 
sense, may be used in three ways : — 1. 
When a word has a double meaning ; as 
in Latin volo signifies to will and also to 
/ly. 2. When a sentence has a double 



185L] 



NaUi of the Months 



169 



meaainip ; as, for exiimiile, * Xhh book i& 
Peter's,* may meim that Peter wrote the 
book, or that it beiongt to Pcler, .<. 
Allien the words have a double seDse, one 
literal and the other f-plritu»l. Thus if 
AQf one is asked about a thing which he 
wantj to conwal, be maj answer, * I say 
DO,* meaning *' I say Che word no.' Car- 
denas doubt« of thiR, but, with due r«epect 
for better judgmeotf it seem§ to me with- 
oat reason, for the word * I say,* really 
haa a double aeose, and means both to pro- 
ftou»c# and also to aii*eri s but izi our 
fitn^e ♦ / *fly ' i» the same aa * 1 pro- 
nounce.*^ To strengtheD the equivocation 
with an oath is not wron^ wheu there is 
•ufficient reason for it, and when the equi- 
vocation itself is lawful ; because where it 
is right to conceal the truth, and it is 
concealed without a lie, no irreverence h 
done to the oath. And even if the equi- 
vocation were without just cause, still 
there would be do perjury, since at least 
accordiu^ to one sense of the word, or ac- 
4:ording to the mental reservation, he will 
■wear truly.*' Mr, Drummoud prints the 
original Lniin of this pofsage. 

Can a Clergyman create an tquitahh 
Charge on Ai§ lowing under the Stat, I S{ 
2 Viet. cap. 110/ By John Darlinp, 
M,A*Sm. Stef}hen». ISaL— The point 
it in dispute, but the writer thinks a cler- 
gyman cannot. We are glad to lieam it, 
and qnite Bgree with him that *' it [» con- 
trary to public policy to allow an income 
which is received for the perfonnuoce of a 
public duty to be perverted to other ends 
than those for which it was intended/* 

Medical Combinations against Life /k* 
iturance Companies, Sco, Lond, 1831, — 
Many medical men refuse to answer qiies- 
tioQS as referees of patients effecting in- 
Kui«oces upon lives nitbout payment of a 
fee of one guinea. The present writer argues 
the case on behalf of those of the insurance 
companies who scruple as to paying the 
required fee. Considering that the clsss 
of medical practitioners who are ordinarily 
referred to is that of general practitioners, 
the fee is probably too much. Half a 
guinea, or in some ca*es even five shillings, 
would be enough ; but we certainly think 
it a ease for a fee, provided the medical 
man is asked to give his judgment as to 
whether the life is objectionable or not. 
Neither companies nor other people have 
a right to guide themselves in the conduct 
of their bu!>inesE^ by the jucigmcnt of any 
class of professional men without paying 
the usual fee for obtaining what they want. 
The question is of public:^ moment^ as in- 



• We have altered a few words of Mr. 
DnimmoDd's translation. 
Gknt. Mao. Vol, XXXVI, 




terfering with I be extension of life in- 
surance. 

Letters to John BuU» E»q, tfn Affairs 
connected with his Landed Properly, and 
the Persons who lite therein. By Sir 
Edward BtiiwerLyt (on, Bart, 8ro. Chap- 
maut 1B51. 

Letters to Mr, John Bull on Subjects 
connected with Agriculture and Fret 
Trade t with Remarks upon Sir E> Bui* 
wer Lytton^s Letters to John Bull, Esq, 
ByS, R 5*. 8P0. Saundem. 1851.— Free 
trade has scarcely yet become " historical," 
Until it has we must he excused for de- 
clining to interfere with it. 

Shall we keep the Crystal Palace, and 
have riding and walking in all weathers 
among Flowers^ Fuuntains, and Scnlplure? 
By Denarius* Svo. Murray^ 1851. — The 
proposal of Denarius is that the present 
Exhibition should close at an appoioted 
day. ' * The closing should be like a doom , 
whatever be the popolarity or demand for 
an extension of time/' But the building 
should be retained, " made a garden, and 
warmed with a summer temperature all 
the winter." We are not very favourable 
to this propoaali which certainly would 
not afford, as the writer supposes^ "a 
solace to the old and the sick," but it 
seems a pity to take down a handsome 
building applicable to many useful pur* 
poses, provided the pnhlic feeling which 
demanded a pledge for its removal is now 
satisfied that it should remain. 

Chorea Sancte Viti ,- or steps in the 
Journey of Prince Legion, Twetes de* 
signs, hy Willtam Belt Scott, sm, JoL 
Bsllf 1851.^ — Spirited outlines illustrative 
of the Life of a Maoimon- worshipper. 
Forcible and expressive, they tell a sad 
history with a vigorous reality. But is the 
series complete ? The body is committed 
to the dust : is the return of the spirit to 
Him who gave it — the great moral of the 
history— beyond the artist's power? 

Tiifo sad deaths on one Sabbath; «r, 
God's Judgrnettts on two very common 
fins ; and. 

Conviction not necessarily conversion. 
Sermons preached at Amesbury by the 
Ret!. F. FT. Fijwle^ prebendary qf Salis- 
bury, 8tJ0, Salisbury, 1851. — Worthy of 
notice on account of their extreme sim- 
plicity of djctioot and consequent perfect 
adaptation to the understandiog of a 
country congregation. 

The Morning Stars: a treatise (tn psr* 
manence) as suggested by the Grand Est' 
hibilion of the Works of Industry of All 
Nations. By the Rev. W, Pas h ley, \^mo* 
Hatchard, 1851. — With some oddities, 
as might be expected from the title-page, 
this is the be«t Attempt which has ema' 
nn»cd from the theological profession to 



170 



BtisceUaneous Reviews. 



CAt#. 



tvrn the Great Exhibition to a moral am. 
( facts have 
\ author. He 
and pub- 



Ilfhed in hatte. If hit work lEovAd eofie 
to a second edition, we abonld thinl^ Itil 
mighty npon revision, pat it into a fMs 
more worthy of permanence. 



MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



JMobiOfraphy of Me Rev. WiUiam 
fhffM, Edited, wUh a continuation, 
iff Jwhn Stooghton. 800. Lond, 1851. 
»Mr. Walford was born in Bath in Jan. 
1773. His early life was passed first at 
Kafltwich« and afterwards at Birmingham. 
ikt the Utter place, when twelve years ot 
Mpe, he was apprenticed to an engraver, 
mring the period of his apprenticeship 
hif mind was opened gradaaliy to the se- 
rloas reception of religious truth, and at 
itt dose be determined to devote himself 
te th)( ministry. He bad been brought up 
m the communion of the Church of Eng- 
Und, but, from an early period of his life, 
Clhtertaiiied objections to *' some parts of 
tte liturgy. " After conference with his 
dergyman, the difficulty of subscription 
t|ipeaVed insurmountable. *' If the neces- 
lary declaration had admitted,'' he says, 
"any licence of interpretation in a few 
lUttnces, I should joyfully have made it, 
ai no one could be affected with greater 
love and reverence for the much greater 
j^ of the book thsn I felt ; and it was 
with no ordinary pang of sorrow and grief 
I Was constrained to follow the course I 
•ddpted ;' ^ — that, namely, of uniting him- 
■df With the Independents. These cir- 
dnmstanties are probably not at all uooom- 
mttn. We think he came to a wrong 
#Mie1usion ; that his decision, although 
MHlcientious, was the mere rash judgment 
of an untutored boy ; and that he would 
have been a more efficient servant of the 
Rrdeemef if he had remained in the 
duirch; but his case brings before us 
■ome of the consequences of preliminary 
rabtcription in a way which should induce 
Vi to give the whole snt^ect a very careful 
ri>con8ideration. Under other circum- 
Manoes we make no doubt Mr. Walford 
wonld have remained firmly attached to 
the ehucch to the close of his life. Even 
vhttst fixtd amongst the Independents, 
h« was friendly to the introduction into 
thdr public religious services of some 
diort, simple, and pathetic forms, but of 
OTirie without relinquishing the use of 
•ttemporaneoiis prayer. 

The young Walford received his educa- 
tion for the Independent ministry at Ho- 
mtrton college, where the course of in- 
•Irtotion partook of the general character 
of the times, and was singularly imperfect. 



His eneigy enabled him to acquire privatdl^ 
a good deal of classical and theologjoU 
knowledge, but he left the college after all 
vei7 imperfectly furnished for the vvorl 
which he Was about to undertake. That 
imperfection threw a colour over his whole 
after life, which is sufficiently apparent 
even in the tone of this autobiography. 

His first ministerial engagement was as 
the pastor of a small congregation at Stow- 
market, the same which had been presided 
over by Godwin, the author of ** Political 
Justice." After two years he removed to 
a much larger chapel at Yarmouth, in 
Norfolk, and was enabled by au increased 
income to conclude a marriage which was 
for many years the source of his greatest 
earthly comfort. The only surviving issue 
of this marriage is the present very intelB* 
cent and respectable publisher in St. Paul*i 
Church -yard. 

From Yarmouth Mr. Walford returned 
to Homerton as resident and classical tu- 
tor, an office which he held for sixteen 
years. Driven from thence by illness, he 
resided for a time at Hackney, and after- 
wards at Uzbridge, where he ministered 
to a congregation for many years. He 
died on the 22nd June, 1850, snd was 
baried in the same grave with his wife, in 
Hillingdon churchyard. 

His character, as delineated with affec- 
tionate respect in the volume before us, it 
that of a clear-headed, energetic, worthy 
man, with some appearance of coldness 
and reserve, but with deep-seated affec- 
tions and strong conscientious feelings. 
But that which renders this volume the 
most valuable is the minuteness of its de- 
tails respecting certain mental illnesses 
with which Mr. Walford was afflicted at 
several periods of his life. These threw 
dark feelings of despondency and gloom 
over many years of his existence, and 
brought it at last to a melancholy close. 
Such cases are unfortunately far from on- 
common, but it is unusual for the poof- 
sufferers to register, on recovery, as In the 
book before us, the mental agonies through 
which they have struggled. Such a pecu- 
liarity gives great value to the present vo- 
lume, and it is highly imporUnt to find 
that a pott mortem examination of the 
brain clearly proved that Mr. Walford's 
sufferings had arisen ftom k phyded eattiH 



isdio 



Bfiscellaneou^ Reviewi, 



Inquirers into the n^Curt! of those netroiu 
di0orderf whicb occasion so much intser; 
throughout the world will ilmnk us Tor 
dtfectiiig their attentioa to this portion 
of the book before ua. Fefr men ever 
tafTereU tuore acutely from such a cause 
than Mr. Walford^ and few ever struggled 
OiOfe maufully a^aiaat au overraastenng 
melnricbply. Some of the* details ure gWeo 
with valu^tble precision » and the practical 
conclusion that »uoh cuse* ar<! iraceabtfi to 
ft ph|sicftl cau&e is dearly edtablii»bed. 



A Deteriptive and Critical CatalQ^U9 
qf Worku iHujftraied Iftj T/tomat an4 John 
Biicick^ Wood Hngrateri, of NcwcatiU- 
upaii'Ttfnc : with on AppendLr of (heir 
nti " ■'i engraving*^ briff noticti qf 

th id riQticeit if ih€ pupils tf 

r/r .. . ii%c*. {Joht Gray B^IL) 
imp. Kto.^Notwitlj standing the advances 
mide tn the beauty and deliciicy of wood- 
en^ravrng nim.e the sra of Thomas Ue- 
wick, and the vast range of its pre^ut 
tpplicabilityr his wurki^ will uever be 
without their admirers. They form a 
pecutijir lichool ; aad are^ and will cou- 
tiaue to be, objecbt of interesting re- 
search to coUectorii, to whom the pre- 
tent catalogue raisotmtW wili be not 
merely serviceable but in dispensable. 
Bewick 'i» htyle of eug raving h totally 
diffeirent from that now in use, in it» ge- 
neral deficiency of a defined outline, (See 
the review of Jacksorj's History of Wood- 
Euf^raving in our Magazine for August, 
1349.) The effect of thii^ U to our taate 
uiything but agreeable. Yet, in «ome 
tttbjects, luch as the plumage of birdfl^ 
this style of work is rather an advantage 
than otherwise^ and it is on his Birds that 
Bewick's fame as an artist must chit^fly 
rest, in the opinion of impartial judges. 
But he posMe»sed also this further merit, 
tbut in idl his transcripts of natural ob- 
re was the utmost truth and fidc- 
ied to which, he had n keen sense 
ut {iuinour and as a pictorial moralist par- 
io6k of the Uugarthian vein. The com- 
piler r.f riif pri;i»ent work has collected 
HI! Jrtia of high authority to 

B uitiir merits; not the least 

f which is that of the late 
i ornithologist Audubon, a 
»4inurtti >].int in his enthusiasm for the 
wprkfl of nature and bia Itiborious pro- 
aecuiion of imitative art. In connection 
with the literature of Newcastle and the 
North q( England, in the illustiaiion of 
which Bewick was widely employed — as 
he was occasionally by London publi&h- 
en — his n«me presents another focaii of 
interest : and for the large amount of bib- 
liographical information collected round 
|f^ subject in the present pages Mr 



John Gray Bell has earned (he sincere 
thanks of the literary world. The volump 
is introduced by a biographiciil memoir of 
Bewick, and a catalogue of his portruits^ 
tiiree of which are republished^ upoa 
which we may remark ihut the woodcut 
by Jackson, said to have been drawn by 
him upon the wood when Bewick's pupil, 
h obviously a copy from the picture by 
Jame^ Ramsay, Bewick's earliest por- 
trait, first publi^^bed in 1798» was inserted 
in our Mag^ixine for Jan. 1&29, as an ac- 
C()n)|taniment to the memoir given upon 
his death, aud which was fur o is bed by bi^ 
fellow townsman the late eminent London 
prmter, Mr. William Bulmer. 



A TVfflfiftf of Equivocation : wherein i> 
largely dikctisned the quettion. Whether a 
Cathoiicke vr any other per&on Refute a 
mayiktrate^ btting dtmau tided Uf/pon hit 
oath iDhether a Prtiitle were in vuch a 
place, may [nolmlhstanding hit perfect 
knowledge to the contrary) without pet i*try 
and securely in conscienceanswere^'* No,** 
with this tecreal meaning renemed in AtM 
myndtt Thai he was ml there fo that any 
man is liouade to delect it. Edited t^y 
David Jardine, esq. Lond, 8ro. 185L — 
This little volume is a kind of Appendix 
to the editor's valuable history of the GuQ'^ 
powder Treason contHioed in hi^ colleclion 
of Criminal Trials, (Lib, Entcrt. KuowL 
2 vols. 12 mo. 18"]^). We learn from the 
editor's preface that on the 5tb Dct-ember, 
1605, in the course of a search con- 
sequent upon the discovery of the Gun- 
powder Treason, Sir Edward Coke, ac- 
cording to his own words, found in a deak 
"in a chamber in the Inner Temple, where- 
in Sir Thomas Tresham used to lye« and 
which he obteyned for hi** two younger 
sotines,** the identical MS. volume which 
is here printed. The place of its finding 
gave it a probable connection with Francis 
Tresham, the eldest son of Sir Thomas, 
one o*f the actual Gunpowder conspiratorg, 
and the character of its contents seemed 
to establish that a ^in^ular d^^gree of 
moral perversion ujinn the subject of testi- 
mony was then prevalent in the hody of 
the English Roman Catholics. Coke at 
once sdw its legal and historical value, 
and identified the book by inscribing upon 
it a memorandum of the time and place of 
its tinding, which memorandum still ex- 
ists, in the handwriting of the oracle of 
the law, on the first fly-leaf of the present 
MS. The present MS. is a quarto. Fur- 
ther search brought to ligbt in the s ime 
chamber another MS. of the same treatise 
in folio, and evidence was subsequeotty 
obtained that the quarto MS. was copied 
about four or five years before, from the 
folio MS. by a servant of Sir Thomas 




172 



Miscellaneous Reviews. 



[Aug. 



Tresham, and on the request of Francis 
Tresham the conspirator. 

Bat Francis Tresham was not the only 
person acquainted with the conspiracy 
ihroagh whose hands this MS. had passed. 
¥atner Garnet had seen it, and had made 
Tery considerable alterations in it, evidently 
with a view to printing. Among other altera- 
nuus he had erased from the title-page the 
TfirJia ** of Equivocation,*' and made it 
ft«n> thus, " A Treatise against Lying and 
Fraudulent Dissimulation/' Blackwell, 
who then governed the English Roman 
Catholics with the title of Arch -priest 
and Apostolical Prothonotary,had also seen 
the book, and had fortified it with his 
written approval, and a recommendation 
LBBt it should be printed. Blackwell de- 
clared that the treatise was extremely 
learned, and very pious, and Catholic; 
that it established the propriety of equivo- 
cation upon the authority of the Holy 
Scriptures, and the Fathers, and Canon- 
ists, and deserved to be printed for the 
consolation of afflicted Catholics, and the 
instruction of the pious. 

The quarto MS. used for the present * 
publication has Garnet's alterations in it, 
in his own handwriting. The imprimatur 
of Blackwell attached to this MS. is a 
transcript in the handwriting of the person 
who copied the rest of the quarto MS. 
firom the MS. in folio. 

The identity of the MS. is thus clearly 
established, and it is shewn farther by the 
editor that it was lent out of the State Pa- 
per Office to Archbishop Abbott, by whose 
brother. Dr. Robert Abbott, subsequently 
Bishop of Salisbury, it was used in the 
composition of his Antilogia, Having 
been omitted to be returned by Abbott to 
the State Paper Office, it remained at 
Lambeth when Laud succeeded to the 
Archbishopric, and was given by him, with 
many other books, to the Bodleian. There 
it has remained buried for two centuries, 
until brought to light by an inquiry in 
our very useful contemporary Notes and 
Queries. 

Coke used the book on the trials of the 
principal conspirators, and also on that of 
Garnet, and an extract from his speech 
will well explain its character. '* For dis- 
simulation there is a Treatise of Equivo- 
oation, seen and allowed by Garnet, and 
by Blackwell the arch-priest ; wherein it 
ia maintained, under the pretext of a mixt 
proposition (that is, compounded of a natu- 
ral and vocal proposition) that it is lawful 
and justifiable to express one part of a 
man's mind and retain another. By this 
doctrine people are indeed taught not only 
simple lying, but fearful and damnable 
blasphemy. Garnet and the Jesuits also 
maintain that it is lawful to equivocate 



when examined by a judge who hath not 
lawftil authority to examine. But If m- 
swers are not to be made in animum Mer^ 
roganiii, God help us 1 for then shill all 
conversation, all trading, all trials by jnriea, 
be useless and mischievous. If this bad 
been lawful, neither our martyrs, Cran- 
mer, Ridley, and Latimer^no, nor tile 
first popes, needed to have suffered mar- 
tyrdom for Christianity." 

Of the several kinds of equivocation 
justified in this book, which, be it re- 
membered, is declared by Blackwell to 
be very pious and Catholic, the follow- 
ing will suffice as examples. If a man 
be asked whether John at Style be In 
such a place, he, knOwing that be is 
there, may reply, ** I know not," under- 
standing within himself" not to tell you.'* 
A man comes to Coventry at a time when 
the plague is thought to be in London. 
He is stopped at the gate, and asked upon 
oath if he came from London. He, know- 
ing that the air is not infectious in Lon- 
don, or that he only rode through some 
uninfected part of London, may safely swear 
that he came not from London. If a person 
examined on oath is asked, *' Was a cer- 
tain particular priest at your father's 
house ? " he should not answer " Yea," al- 
though he knows that to be the truth ; be- 
cause he thereby commits injustice by aid- 
ing an unjust law. If he answers ** No," 
without equivocation, '' it is but an officious 
lie, which is but a small venial ain ; " but 
if he equivocates, and answers *' No,^' 
with the mental reservation " not that I 
should tell you," he escapes all sin — the 
lie being avoided. This is what Garnet 
characteristically termed " A Treatise 
against Lying;" "Lying made Easy" 
will probably be thought a more appro- 
priate designation. 

Tl^e authorship of this precious treatise 
is shrouded in that night of concealment in 
which such works delight. Garnet, South- 
well, Francis Tresham, and Blackwell, 
have all been suspected, but not appa- 
rently upon any good ground. 

We unite with the editor in the assertion 
that " it is improbable that a doctrine so 
absurd as well as mischievous is enter- 
tained by any enlightened members of the 
Church of Rome,"'* although an averment 
imputed to a high functionary of that 
church in reference to a recent testa- 
mentary disposition of property near Lon- 
don savours strongly of the same immoral 
refinement of distinction.* Whether that 

* It was alleged (in substance) that the 
gentleman referred to had been persuaded 
to leave his property away from his family, 
and had made a death-bed disposition of 
his estate for Roman Catholic purposes. 



IM1*1 



MiiCMilaneous jRevietcs. 



!7a 



be the cane or uot, tbe Treatfee now pub- 
liihed IB A yoluablti bistorical docuiDcnt. 
It exploiofi fiillj what were those opinioos of 
Garnet, to which Dr. LLogard ascribe! hii 
exeeutioD, and e«tRblishea a ^ery impor- 
tant feature of the poaitioa in wkich the 
fOveiTuneDt waa thca placed towards its 
Romaii Catholic subjects. The highest 
authority of that church then in EDgland 
put ,hia stamp, be it remembered » upon 
th«»e optnionaaB " very pious and Citholic/' 
Tbe editor tiaa performed his task most 
aatiafaetorily* His preface is full, clear, 
aud able. The only addition which we 
should have felt inclined to make to his 
labour wou.1d have been to verify the re- 
ferooocs in the ori^niil treatise. He 
fiboald do thia in bis next edition^ and 
sboold discard hU coutract-types^ or em- 
ploy those only which are in common ii*c. 
Some of those he baa u.^d are mere arbi- 
trary marks* whiclu as placed by him, have 
no meaning whatever. 



I 



A Hiitiify qf tht Articlt* ((f ReUgiun ; 
to which i» added A Series of DacumentK 
from A, D. 1536" (o A,D, ltJ15; together 
with illwttraiioha from contemporary 
»QUrcet* By (he Rev, Charles Hardwick, 
M*A* @PQ. Cambridge and Lond, 1851* 
— Tbfl author's design is to contribute, 
" ia some measure, to tbe sfltisfBctiou of a 
want which b felt more especially by stu- 
dents iu tbe universities aud eiaewherc 
who are reading for Holy Orders.^' In 
eiecutiog bis pur|)ose he gives, first, a 
aketch of the general cry for a Reforraa- 
tion of the church which exhibited itself 
in the fifteenth and nixtcenth centnriejs, 
with a statement of the principle on wkich 
the English Reformation h thought to have 
proceeded ; — thiit, namely, of the inhereDt 
authority of every church to remove its 
own abu^s. Of the Augsburg Coufesdon 
of 1530 be gives a useful account, which 
would, howerert be rendered far more 
complete if he had added tbe Confession 
itaeif, and had given a notice of Melanc- 
thon's Apologia Confessionisp^" tbe se- 
Mud aymboUcaJ book ^' of the Lutheraa«. 
Ferbapi the latter doea not lie i|uite strictly 
wiCluD the author's designed course, but 
no more did the *' Confutation of the 
Augsburg Coofeasion/' As the effect of 
tbe Confutatioii is stated^ it would have 
been more satisfactory if the main points 
of the Apology had been set forth in like 

Tbe answer given was, that the public 
wonid be surprised to hear that bis 
cbildreu were in the enjoyment of their 
father's property* The fact turned out 
to be, that the children were in potaesaion 
only for their lives, the reversion having 
boen disposed of as alleged* 



manner. The brief word or two of notice 
of the Apology in the note at p. 37 is 
neither sufficient nor quite accurate. 

Mr. Hardwick next traces the history of 
tbe Ten Articles of 1536, of which be gives 
a copy in the Appendix* These had a 
brief existence, and have a very dtsbint (if 
any) connection with our present articles. 
The first c;:emi of our present articles is 
found by Mr. Hardwick, as be thinks, iu 
a paper of 13 Articles manifestly founded 
upon tbe Augsburg Confession, and drawn 
up at certain conferences between Cran- 
nacr and other Cnglbb diTiuet and some 
ambassadors from the Protestant princes 
of GermAny, held in London in 1538, with 
a view to brijig the church of England into 
closer union wtib the Lutheran churches 
on tbe continent. We cannot ourselves 
trace the similarity which Mr. Hardwick 
supposes, except so far as both §ets of ar- 
tides are derived from the Augsburg Con- 
fession. 

Tbe 43 Articles of 155^, which are sub- 
stantially the same as our present 39 Ar- 
ticles, were 'Hhe doing *^ of Cranroer. 
He prepared a draft of tliem, which was 
considered by the bishops and the council, 
and they were finally sent forth by royal 
mandate, on the 19tb June, 1553, with 
directions that they should be subscribed 
by the ckrgy. They were entitled, "Ar- 
ticles ... for tbe avoiding of contro- 
versy in opinions, and the establishment 
of a godly concord in certain matters of 
reli^on/* It seems very doubtful whether 
these articles were ever agreed to by any 
convocation or ecclcsiasticat synod, or 
were not circulated solely by the royal au- 
thority. Mr. Hardwick thinks they were 
sanctioned by convocation, but bis proof 
and conclusions do not establish muck 
more than bis own willingness to believe 
the fact. 

The 39 Articles were framed upon the 
12. The task of revision waa effected by 
Parker, Grindal, Horn, and Cox. Mr. 
Hardwick gives a very satisfactory account 
of their proceedings. The principal changes 
were introduced from the Confession of 
Wirtemberg. which we would recommend 
Mr. Hardwick to publish as an illus- 
trative document in his next edition. 
The draft, as settled by Parker and bis 
brethren, was laid before the Convo- 
cation which assembled 12 Jan. 1562-3, 
and, after some chaoges which arc well 
CTplaiued by Mr. Hardwick, the present 
articles were agreed upon. It was not 
until 1571 that they received their quali- 
fied legislative sanction under the Stat. 13 
Eli2. cap. 12, the delay having arisen not 
from any disinclination in tbe Parliament 
to sanction the doctrinal portion of the 
articles, but from the unwillingness of the 



m 



SfufelUmeoi^ fitpftm- 



£A«- 



fltojecD to flobolt her goY^rnonhip of the 
O^urch to PajrlinineaUry iotierferepce. Ay 
finally a«ree4 «pQD» the paryo^ of fhe 
furies was 4<ifioed 19 he V for th$ avoid- 
ix^f of the diversitieg of opinioQ, and for 
^Ubli^hioff of coDfient toachiog true relU 
ipoo.*' By the ScaL 13 Eliz. auhicription 
was rendered imperatir^ upon every person 
who ** pretended to be '' a priest or minis- 
ter. Mr. Hardwick closes this portion of 
his subject by citing the opinion of Water- 
}a^^ that, when the English version .of the 
•rtic^ is ambiguous, the sense is to be Qzed 
from the Latin ; and by himself concladiQg 
that the articles are not intended to be a 
mUitary standard of doctrine, but are to 
he taken in connection with the Liturgy 
and other formularies of our Church. 

Mr. Hardwick adds chapters on the 
l^ambeth Articles, the Irish Articles of 
1615, the Synod of Dort, the objections 
made to our Articles at different periods, 
and historical notices concerning sub- 
scription. 

The book is carefiilly and accurately 
^qipiled with all necessary research, and 
in a spirit of strong attachment to the 
Church of England. If, in future edi- 
ticins, the author were to moderate a little 
of his zeal against the Puritans, neither 
his book nor himself would lose anything 
in the estimation of people not infected 
by the odium thtologicum. 

The Print Miraclei qf Rome, A Mt- 
moirjor the present time. Lond, em. 890. 
185.1 . — A sketch of our early ecclesiasti- 
.cal history with memoirs of King Alfred 
f^d St. Dunstan, compiled from Turner's 
jjLnfflo-Saxons and other common books, 
ana coloured by the strong religious parti- 
sanship of the writer. It has been pat 
ipgether on account of the presumed ap- 
plicability of the facts to the circumstances 
of our present conflict with Rome. 

The Book qf Almanaa, with an Index 
of reference by which the almanac ma^ 
iejbund fur every year, whether in old 
Of new style f from any epoch, ancient or 
^notlern, up to A.D, 2000 ; with means qf 
Jlnding the day qf any new or full moon, 
from B.C. 2000 to A.D, 2000. Compiled 
hw Augustus de Morgan. 8vo. Taylor, 
IB^I. — This ingenious and useful book is 
bi^lt upon two different hints, *' one of 
,the late L. B. Francceur, the other from 
tbe well-known James Ferguson.'* The 
ifirst part of it, which is the most appli- 
cable to the ordinary purposes of his- 
torical investigation, is founded upon the 
circumstance that all the almanacs of all 
ihe years which have happened, or will 
happen, from the creation to A.D. SOOO, 
iu^ vedndble to thirty-Ave varieties. These 



thjfty-i&ve are here printed, with an ind^ 
talM0 ifhich slu^ws oi^^ir which ▼f^^ 
every year has fallen or wiU /all ; jm .tfipj^ 
in a moivent, anyone, without cflcaif.tifffff 
by simply turniqg to the index, and from 
thence to the particular variety of almaAM 
which it indicates, may place hefojre ^on.- 
self the ajUnanac for any past or fut^ 
year up to A.D. 30(M). Thus, in the cfM 
of the present year, it appears in the iodef • 
thist No. 30 is the almanac applicable tp 
it; for 1852, the abnfpsc will be No. 91 i 
for 1853 No. 6 ; and so forth. 

The other desip of the book, that of 
enabling an inquirer to find the day of 
apy new or full moon, is effected by a v^rj 
simple calculation, for which we refer to 
the book itself. 

The book has been got up with con- 
scientious care and pains, and is In 
every respect most satisfactory. It is by 
far the most useful auxiliary to the his- 
torian and man of business that has beem 
published for very many years, and must 
be introduced into every place of business 
or study in the kingdom. 

Jhe Ancient Britons, A tale qf pri' 
maval life. Lond. sm. 890. — ^The adren- 
ventures of Octavius Scapula, a Roman 
prisoner captured by the British tribe of 
the Catti in a skirmUh with Julius Csesar, 
form the narrative portion of this book. 
The death which he anticipated wi^ 
warded off from time to tipae by various 
fortunate circumstances, and, after long 
residence among hb captors, a serv^ 
which he performed on the request of Cas- 
sibelan, was rewarded with freedom and 
fidoption as a British chief. The narrative 
of his anxieties as a prisoner is diversified 
by accounts of the British manners and 
customs, civil and religious, of which he 
was an unwilling witness. Great care has 
been taken to make these details accurate. 
The learning of Davies, Higgins, Borlase, 
and Henry, has supplied the facts. Ossian 
has been the authority for language aid 
imagery, and the results of diligent reading 
among these and a few other antiqnari^ii 
authors are rendered attractive by beiiy 
interwoven into a story which is sia\p9 
and interesting.* 

An Account qf the present State tf 
Youghal Church ; including Memorials y* 

* As the author desires to be accurate, 
he should consider whether it is quite right 
to make England (without North Britaio) 
an bland, as he does in his frontispiece- 
map. There are many other mistages in 
the same map. And is it quite correct tp 
refer to Davies the author of the Celtic 
Researches, as " Dr. Davis ?*' 



IfSl.] 



Litetary and Scimiifte InMHgehee. 



I 



the B^iyUi, th€ CQtttffe, &nd Sir WaUwr 
HaUi^yM HoUM^. With tt Sirtch of the 
Bl^ck^fii^r from (heSea to LUmort, l2mo, 
-^This little handbook is foutiiled upon an 
irf^cTe which appeared ia the Topogfaplier 
tad Geoealo^isi in 1847 , having btea ccim- 
municated to that work by the Rpv. Pierse 
William Drew, the Rector of Yoagha!. 
Tbe present editfofi hns, been prepare J by 
the Reir. Stintiel Hay (nan, his brother 
minister, atid considerably amplified with 
new materiafst part ofwhicb^ consisting of 
reinarkf on the architecture of the church, 
and the cla^^sification of mannfiientir have 
6«en fupplied by Mr. Edward PitZj^erafd^ 
trchitect. Tbe curious g^eneilogical epl- 
t»ph of the great Eur I uf Cork ii (for the 
fint time) printed cntfr« — on a foldisd 



175 



•httt, AH the ipitsphs, of every de^crfp- 
tiop* are carcfnlly transcribed ; but the 
irriter is merely able to point rtnt the 
whereabonts of the grave of Hans Fran- 
cti eleventh Earl of Huntingdon, whose 
eAtablishmeot (it is added) of cJnim to that 
ancient ilignity, through the exertion a of 
Mr. Nngent BelU forms one of the mnit 
interesting episodes in the history of fhd 
Peerage. He dted at Grirn P*irk» the feat 
of his son in l«i«r, Captain Henry P^rkaf» 
R*N„ 9 Dec. 1828. and was buried m 
this rising grmtnd pn Yoti^hal church- 
yardj, but no stone marks his restinf- 
place/'^S/c tramit ffloria ! The de- 
scription of Sir Wattf^r Raleigh'* houso 
will be foand ioterestio^. 




LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



tJNlTEHSTTV Of CAMBEllDGl!. 

lane 26, The Members' Prizes to 
Itchelors of Arts for the encoar&gcment 
of Lttiii prdse comfiosition hive been ad- 
judged to H. C. A. Tayler, B A. Trinity 
coKege, and J* B. Mayor, B,A. St. John's 
college: Subject — " QuEcoam praecipue 
fueriQt in caosti cur Religio Reform ata 
i|«ue Tocattir fines quos in Europ/k intra 
ptticot atkQOi attifit nanquam ftupera- 
terjt ?*' 

"the Members' Prixea to Undergridoatea 
have been adjudged to E. W. Benson, 
Trir>='" -it^^^^ and John Chatabers, St. 
Ju r : Subject^ — *' Quoroodo di- 

ver , it ium indoles a d! verso earum 

iitu tixptiesri possit ?** 

The Buroey Prize hns beet! adjudg«d to 
6. F, Presuott, B.A. Trinity college. 



tbe cultivation of the Fine Arts ? " Mr, 
Charles Savile Correr, B.A. FcUow of 
Merton college. 

Laiin Bttay, — '* Demostheoui et Cice- 
roni s inter se com pa ratio, "" Mr. Henry 
E, Tweed, B.A, Trinity college. 

Bngluh Verte. "Nineveh." — Mr* Al- 
fred Wm, Hunt, CorpoA Cbristi college, 

Mrs. Denyer's theologicnl prizes have 
been awarded to the Rev* J. W. Burgoa, 
M.A, Fellow of Oriel (Newdigate, 1«I5 j 
Ellcrton Theological Priae, 1847,) and the 
Rcv.W.H. Davey, M.A. Lmcoln college. 

The Kcnnicott Hebrew Scholarship hat 
been awarded to Mr. W. Wright, B.A, 
St. John's, and the Po^ey and ElJerton 
Scholarahip to Mr. C. Mathison, Scholar 
of St. John's. 



O.VlVEHSfTT OF OXFORD. 

/tt/y 3, At the anoual Encneniaf or 
Commemoration of Fouuders aod Bene- 
factors, tbe Honorary Degree of Doctor 
of Civil Law was conferred on the Right 
Rev, Alexander Ewlng, D.D, Bishop of 
Argyle and the Isles i Sir William Page 
^' ' ^-' F.R.S. Her Miijcsty's Solici- 
M.P. for the city of Oifnrd j 
-i Cotlins Brodie. Bart. F.R.S.; 
Lieut. -Lioloael Francis Rawdon Cheaney, 
Royal Artillery; and the Ten, William 
Williams, of Mugdalene Hall, ArcbdeacoD 
of Wairipu, in New Zealand. 

The Creweinn Oration was delivered by 
the Public Orator, after which the Prixc 
Compo^itiitos were read as follows : — 

L' ?. " Parthcnonis Ruinac." — 

M Stuart Blayds, Balliol college. 

tnyiiih Enay, — '• What form of po- 
Ktical coiutlttitioo Is most favonrablc to 



ROYAI. SOCrETY, 

The follnwing geotlemen, having been 
selected by the coonctl, have been elected 
Fellows : Charles Cnrdale Babington, e*q. -, 
Thomas Snow Beck, M.D.- Charles Jsi. 
Fox Biinburr» esq.; George T. Doo, esq.; 
Edward B. Eastwick, c§q.; Capt, Charles 
M.Elliot; C«pt Robert Fitfroy, R N.; 
John Russell Hind, esq.*; Atigustas Wil- 
liam Hormnnn, esq.; Thomas Henry Hux- 
ley, esq.; William Edmond Logan, eftq.; 
James Paget^esq.; Geoi^ Gabriel Stokes, 
esq. ; William Thomson, esq, ; and Augtti- 
tuj V, Waller, M,D. 



BErTtAtt AASOCfATtON foa THE 
AnVANCKXieNT or SCtENXR. 

The twenty-firfEt meeting of (liis Atso- 
cifltion commenced at Ipswich on the 2nd 
of July, under the presidency of G. B. 
Airy, esq. the Aitrooomer Royal, who» io 
hit opening tddrea«, toot a review of tlNi 



176 



Literary and Sdeniific Intelligence. 



[Aug. 



progress of science daring the past year. 
He first stated that the progress of Astro- 
nomy has been rery great ; and, after de- 
tailing the experiments made with the in- 
stmments of the Earl of Rosse, and the 
improvements in object-glasses made by 
Mr. Simms and Mr. Ross, he mentioned 
as a matter of no small importance the 
jBrection of a large transit circle at the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, which 
had been manufactured by Messrs. Ran- 
tome and May, of Ipswich. In our own 
solar system, the most remarkable disco- 
very has been that of a dusky ring inte- 
rior to the well-known ring of &ttnm. 
Three additional planets have been disco- 
vered in the same planetary space — be- 
tween Mars and Jupiter — in which eleven 
others had been previously found. The 
last of these (Irene) was first discovered 
by Mr. Hind, observer in the private ob- 
servatory of Mr. Bishop, and is the fourth 
discovered by that gentleman. The Pre- 
sident next detailed the arrangements that 
had been made for observing the great 
eclipse of the sun which would take place 
on the 28th July : and proceeded to make 
some remarks on M. Foucault's experi- 
ment in proof of the rotation of the earth, 
by showing the rotation of the plane of a 
simple pendulum's vibration. Prof. Airy 
remarked that " it is certain that M. Fou- 
cault's theory is correct ; but careful ad- 
justments, or measures of defect of ad- 
justment, are necessary to justify the 
deduction of any valid inference." Hav- 
ing reviewed the progress of other depart- 
ments of science, and alluded in terms of 
approbation to the Great Exhibition of the 
Works of Industry of All Nations, the 
President concluded by declaring his opi- 
nion that there has been no slackness in 
the progress of science during the last 
year or the last few years, and that in 
this progress the British Association has 
taken a most active and efficient part. 

On the following day the business of 
the several sections commenced as usual : 
their arrangement being as follows : — 

A. Mathematical and Physical Science. 

B. Chemistry, including its application 
to Agriculture and the Arts. 

C. Geology and Physical Geography. 

D. Nat. History, including Physiology. 

E. Geography and Ethnology. 

F. Statistics. 

G. Mechanical Science. 

In the evening the Com Exchange was 
open for promenade and conversation, 
and for an exhibition of microscopic 
power. On Friday morning Prof. Owen 
delivered a discourse on the distinction 
between Phmts and Animals, and their 
changes of form. Saturday was devoted 
to excursions, the members distributing 
9 



themselves to Norwich, Bury, Colchester, 
and other places, the geologists taking a 
trip down the Orwell. On Monday even- 
ing the President delivered a discourse on 
the Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 
On Tuesday, in a meeting of the General 
Committee, the following grants were 
agreed to : — 300/. for the maintenance of 
the Observatory at Kew; 50/. as a re- 
newal of the former grant to Prof. J. D. 
Forbes, for experiments on the Radiation 
of Heat; 20/. to Mr. Robert Hunt, Dr. 
6. Wilson, and Dr. Gladstone, to continae 
their investigation on the Influence of the 
Solar Radiation on Chemical Combina- 
tions, Electric Phenomena, and the Vital 
Powers of Plants growing under different 
atmospheres; 15/. to Prof. Ramsay to pre- 
pare a large Geological Map of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland to accompany the Section 
and Association; 10/. to Prof. E. Forbes 
and Prof. T. Hall to assist Dr. Williams 
to draw up his Report on British Annelida; 
6/. to Hugh E. Strickland, esq., Dr. Dau- 
beny, Dr. Lindley, and Prof. Henslow to 
continue their Report on the Vitality of 
Seeds; 20/. to Lord Monteagle, Sir J. 
Boileau, Mr. G. R. Porter, Mr. Fletcher, 
Dr. Stark, and Prof. Hancock, to prepare 
a Report on the Census of the United 
Kingdom ; and 20/. to Mr. A. W. Fair- 
bairn, to make a series of Experiments on 
the Tensile Power of Wrought Iron Boiler 
Plates at various Temperatures. 

The following papers were agreed to be 
printed in the volume of the Society's 
Proceedings in addition to the Reports 
called for from individual members : — 
Dr. Drew's Tables of the Mean Results 
of Meteorological Observations at South- 
ampton ; Prof. Dumas' Statement on 
Atomic Volume, and his Reasons for con- 
sidering that certain Bodies now consi- 
dered as Elementary might be decom- 
posed ; and Dr. Daubeny's Statement on 
the Chemical Nomenclature of Organic 
Substances. 

On the same evening the President's 
dinner took place at the Com Exchange ; 
and on Tuesday morning the final Gene- 
ral Meeting took place, at which Prof. 
Phillips, one of the Secretaries, announced 
that 711 persons had taken part in the 
proceedings of the Association during the 
week, of whom 37 were foreign gentlemen 
of distinguished eminence. The money 
received was 620/. It is arranged that 
the meeting of 1852 shall take place at 
Belfast, under the presidency of Colonel 
Sabine. 



THE RAY SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of the Ray Society 
was held at Ipswich during the meeting of 
the British Association. Prof. Henslow 



idsi.] 



Arehiietlure, 



177 



took the cbair* Tlie Report ihowed an 
incrense of futidi^, but mdicnted a *H^hl 
derre»i« of memberi. Th<» worku broue:bt 
out laiit year were, the -' " ' lunw* of 
Agtssb's Zoological ai il Bib- 

Iiofnii>hy, «nd a fifth i\.,,, v ..tiini^ fif- 
teen illustrationfl, of the work of Aldtr 
and Hancock on the Nndibranchiate Mol- 
lasca. For tbe preKnc year the Council 
hnte already published the Rev* W. A, 
L ' vv'ork oa the British Angiocar- 
p t)8, with thirty i J] u miration* ; 
rn. . ,. ,;, -nortly issue the first Part of im 
illustrated work, by Mr. Charles Darwin, 
on the fttmily of Cirrhipidea* Ainongiit 
the illustrated works annoanced for fuitirt* 
pabltcfttioti nrej a Monogpiph of the Bri< 



ti*h Freshwater Zoophyte*, by Prof. AU- 
man, and a Monogrdpb on the British 
at>0ci«8 of the family of Spiders, by McAsra. 
BlackwaU and Templeton. The Chair- 
to an, in his addresi, stated that he hoped 
the beautiful drawings illu»tnitive of Dr. 
T» WUliams'ii Report oa the present itate 
of our knowledge of Annelida wouid be 
pttblifihed by the Ray Society with an «c^ 
tended description of the species. For 
this purpose the Society would require 
extra assiitaoce ; and he hoped not only 
that new members would join, but that 
special contributions would be made by 
naturaliatf, to enable it to publish these 
important contributions to British Natu- 
ral Hi8tor>% 



ARCHITECTURE. 



I 



MBBTIKO AT RIpON. 

The Architectural Societies of Yorkshire 
and Lincolnshire held a joint meetinf^ at 
Ripon on the 1 7th and I Bth J u ne. H aving 
inspected the cathedral » uudt^r the gui dunce 
of Mr. J, R. Walbran, architect, of Ripon, 
ihcy proceeded to the Town HalK where 
the chair was taken by the Very Re^?. the 
BeJin. The room wai adorned with im> 
pretsions from inanuinentBl brasses, dniw- 
logs, and prints in the poasession of the 
two societies, and there wiis alio exhibited 
a lithographic iriew of the magnificent east 
window intended to be placed in Ripon 
Cathedral, to commemorate the in&titQtion 
of the diocese of Ripon, and which Is esti- 
mated to cost, we believe, about 1,1^(10/. 
This will be exeeuted by Mr. Wai lea of 
Ncwcnatle, and a portion is now erected in 
the Great Exhibition at Hyde P<irk. 

Sir Charles Anderson, Bart, then read 
an interesting paper *' On the Local Peeu- 
liarttles of Church Architecture," showing 
that they depepid upon the geological strata 
prerale i ' ' lurhood, the facili- 

tSea of I materia^ and the 

iofliienc^ ^.i Lm^mx,^^. , ^.^iK^drals and monas- 
terirs and the rivalry between them. He 
niastrated this by various examples, and in 
speaking of the different qualitte* of stone, 
miggetted the formation of folleclions of 
the vadotii stones used for building, with 
the names of the quarriPs? from which they 
were taken and of the buildings known to 
havfl been built from them, to enable 
builders to test tbeir durability both as 
regards the inHuence of time, position, and 
atmosphere. 

J. W. Ilugall, esq, read a paiicr ** On 
saitie of the Churches in I he neighbour- 
hood of Wensleydttlc/* 

GfcNT. Mao. Vol. XXXVL 



Tlie Rev. George Atkinson read ft pftper 

on the restorations of the church of Stow, 
CO. Lincoln^ of which he is incumbent. 
These restoratiooii hive been in progress 
from the time of the visit of the Archao. 
logical Institute to the church in 1848, 
which was noticed in our voK xxx, p, 
206, On that occasion, it will be remem* 
bered, moht of those who had not seen it 
before came with a strong presentiment 
that they would find it to be nothing more 
than early Norman ; but they were satis- 
fied after careful examination, that the 
tramtept had formed a portion of the Saxon 
cathedral, which there existed before the 
removal of the see to Lincoln. This visit 
proved the happy ocx&sion o( giving prac- 
tical effect to the wish which had long been 
felt in many quartets that nn effort should 
be made to commettce the restoration of 
this venenible structure. Earl Browntow, 
the lord •lieutenant of the county, president 
that yeur of the Archieolugical Institute, 
in conjunction with the bishop of the dio- 
cese and other eminent |iersons, set on 
foot a subscription, the proceeds of which ^ 
together with the contributions of the tithe 
owners, are now being expended on the 
re«toration of ibe chancel, and it is to be 
hoped that the m»aas will eventually be 
found for putting the whole fabric into a 
sound state. Mr. Atkinson observed that 
the peculiar interest attaching to the tran- 
sept of Stow Church arises from ir^ being 
the only example now rcmainitig of what 
a Saxon church of the largest class was, 
and certainly it was calculated to give n 
mnch more exalted idea of the bandy-work 
of our Saxon foreffltherf than they com- 
monly had credit for. The grond feature' 
of the work now in progiie«» i ♦' " r^'-ro- 
2 A 



178 



ArehiUclure. 



[Aiijr. 



rftlon of the original itone yanltiDg, which 
it hr advaoced. The prosoect of seeing 
thf Taolting restored at all was no little 
thing ; bat to see again the very same de- 
sign in all respects, when neither memory 
nor tradition of what it had been, or indeed 
i^ether it had been, saryived, appeared 
qttite beyond all hope — and yet this was 
ietvally to be seen in the restoration. 
*'T1iere is one thing,'* tlie rev. Baronet 
remarked in conclusion, ** which this very 
indent structure has often brought to my 
mind most strongly, and it will not, I trust, 
ippear to you otherwise than as it does to 
me, well calculated to confirm us in our 
attachment to the Reformed Church of 
England — 1 mean the testimony which it 
affords to the simplicity of the ritual of 
our church in those early times, compared 
with what it had gradually become for 
some ages before the Reformation. We 
can admire the beauty of many of those 
features which were subsequently intro- 
dnced into our churches , but if any ob- 
ket to us as a defect that our present ritual 
does not require, scarcely admits of, the 
use of those things, we have in this struc- 
tnre a ready and surely an efficient answer 
that they were equally unknown to our 
fiazon and even to our eariy Norman pre- 
decessors in the Church of England." 

J. R. Walbran, esq. of Ripon, read the 
last paper, which was '* On the Recent 
Discoveries at Fountains Abbey." He 
stid that from risiting the whole of the 
ipartments of the abbey, an idea might be 
fbrmed of the nature, wants, and arrange- 
9ieBt of the most definite and perfect ex- 
ponent of the monastic system remaining 
m the kingdom. The recent excavation 
had, however, disclosed, in the ruin of the 
abbot's house, an equally interesting ex- 
ample of our eariy domestic architecture, 
which furnishes, also, additional evidence 
of the dignity, hospitality, and general 
social condition of the rulers of these in- 
iluential establishments. It should be ob- 
served by how great sacrifice of labour the 
site of the house has been obtained in ttiis 
particular and favourable locality ; for, as 
the valley is extremely contracted, and the 
Skell incapable of permanent diversion, 
the only expedient of the monks was to 
bnild above the river ; and four parallel 
tnnnels, each nearly 300 feet long, still 
attest their perseverance and skill. The 
chief or state approach to the house was 
by a spacious alley, from the east side of 
the cloister court, richly, but not con- 
tinously, decorated by a trefoil- headed ar- 
cade, supported by a double row of shafts, 
and so deeply recessed as, subsequently, 
to have required the insertion of solid 
masonry behind the foremost shaft. The 



hall to which this patssge led has be«i 
unquestionably one of the most spaeloni 
and magnificent apartments ever erected 
in the kingdom, and admirably adapted 
for the entertainment of those distin- 
guished persons and their hosts of gentili- 
tial retainers by whom the abbot was con- 
tinually visited. Its internal length is not 
less than 171 feet, and its width 70 feet t 
the bases, or foundations, of 18 cylindrical 
columns, shafted and banded with marble, 
indicating its division into a nave and two 
aisles, the latter having circulated round 
the extremities of the former. In the 
chapel the stone altar is still tolerably per- 
fect, but has lost its slab. On its north 
side has been a narrow staircase, leading 
either to the vestry or the apartments of 
the chaplain ; and, beyond, the long but 
narrow base of a work erected in the per- 
pendicular period, of which the use is 
uncertain. On the north side of the 
chapel is a picturesque apartment, partially 
vaulted, which, being below the general 
level of the other rooms, and, from the 
declivity of the ground, always accessible, 
has often been delineated as ** a crypt," 
but stoutly asserted by the country people 
to have been '* the place where the abbot's 
six white chariot horses were kept ? " 
Sex equi adhigam the abbot certainly had 
in his stable at the time of the dissolution, 
but, from the position and character of the 
place, it appears to have been the cellar 
and storehouse of the establishment. To 
the south of the chapel, but detached from 
it by the intervention of the scullery yard, 
has been the kitchen, an apartment cor- 
roborating, in its dimensions and appli- 
ances, the most romantic ideas of monastic 
hospitality. At the south side are the 
foundations of two great fire-places and a 
boiler, in a wall which has divided a nar- 
row •* back kitchen " from the chief apart- 
ment, and in the north east angle, a stone 
grate in the floor, which was covered by 
wooden doors, and communicates with the 
river below. This very singular object has 
probably been used as a ventilator, to miti- 
gate a temperature which must always have 
been sufficiently oppressive, but which, on 
festive occasions, would not only be in- 
creased by a subsidiary fire and boiler, but 
also by two huge ovens, the one at the 
west, and the other, and larger, at the 
east end of the apartment. Then there 
is the coal-yard, in which the last supply 
that the abbat needed remained undis- 
turbed until the recent excavation. There 
was found here, also, a large heap of ashes 
and cinders, just as they had been cast 
from the window above, the cill being 
worn down by the frequent attrition of the 
shovel. The removal of the mass dis- 



Antiquarian Researches* 



doifd ^bat every bousekeeper'sexperieace 
would have suggested. First, of course, 
there wss a lilver spooo , weiglung about 
an oQocc, with capaciout^ bowl, sleuder 
QCtajfonai stemt and a Lead like & plain in- 
verted Tudor bracket; theu, broken pot- 
tery of differtDt kinds and sizes — from the 
painted ware that had disappeared from 
the abbot's table, to the large coarse jugs 
thit bfid been broken in the kitchen ; u 
sdaJI silver ornament, resembling a lioD*s 
bead, and apparently detached from an 
article of table-plate ; a silver riog, a 
brass ring, several Nuremberg tokens, 
part of a leaden oruameut} designed like 
Tudor wiudow tracery ; with a number of 
venison and beef boneii, atul bushels of 
oyster^ mn&sel, and cockle sbellti, as fresb 
and pearly at when tbey left Abbai Brad- 
ley's table. The encaustic tile* found in 
excavating the Meverul apartments are nu- 
merous and singular* and the evidence ob* 
taiued on the subject of mediaeval brick- 
work important and interesting. The 



179 



tfoorii of the principal apartments Uavf 
been paved either with eu caustic or plain 
tikst hut the greater part of them had been 
torn up and removed before the boose wm 
pulled down, when the specimeos that rv* 
main were so much disturbed that it is dlf- 
ticult to determine to what particular apart- 
ment they belonged. 

The Company ofterriards proceeded to 
Fountains Abbey, the ruins of which, with 
the beautiful grounds surrounding themr 
were thrown open to their Inspection by 
the kind direction of Earl de Grey, Presi- 
dent of the Institute of British Architects; 
and on their re turn » the members of the 
societies and their friends dined at the 
Uuicorn Inn^ and at nine o'clock went to 
spend the remaining part of the evening at 
the Deanery. The next day a tour of ar- 
chitectural inspection was made [ and the 
cbnrches of West Tanfield, Musham, Jer- 
vaulx Abbey, Coverhaui Abbey, Middle* 
ham, Wensley, and Thornton Steward, 
were visited. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



B0C1KTY OP ANTIQUA1LIK9, 

Jmte 5. J. Payne Collier, esq. V.P. 

Richard Ellison, esq. of Sud brook 
Holme, CO, Lincoln^ and William Michael 
Wylie, esq. B.A. Oxon., of Fairford, co. 
Gloucetter, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. 

Archdeacon Tattam exhibited a model 
ID brass of a matchlock^ found ne-ar Chip- 
ping Ongar, in Essex, and similar to one 
exliibited Lately to the Society by Mr. 
Gooding, 

Mr. Price exhibited two terra*cotta 
lamps, bcarimg the name of the same 

potter^ '*' ^' * One was brought from 

Mayence some years since ^ the other was 
found in the river Thames. Mr. Roach 
Smithy in his Collectanea Antiqua, baa 
noticed the resemblance in potters' names 
and stamps in the museumB on the Rhine 
and those of this country, a circumstance 
which leads to the conclusion that Britain 
woj, in the dajs of the Roman occupalion, 
sap plied with fictile ware by the mano- 
!tones of Gmul and Germany* 
Mr. Gooding exhibited, by the bands of 
' the Treasurer, a drawing of pointings on 
the roof of the church of South wold, em- 
blematical of the Saviour's passion. 

Mr, Roach Smith exhibited a very 
beautiful coUeetioa of drawings of Roman 
y, dug up in the ground of Jobii 



Taylor, esq. of West Lodge, Cotchevter. 
Mr. Smith alao exhibited a collection of 
knives, arrow-heads, &€* the result of ez- 
cavattons in (he same town. Also a draw* 
ing of 8 very remarkable vase, by Mr. 
Dawson Turner ; and a hair pin of bronxe 
gilt, dug up near Sandwich. 

Mr. Porrett exhibited several specimens 
of ancient weapone in farther illustration 
of Mr. Akerman's memoir, read at the 
previous meeting of the society. These 
consisted of iron axe-heads, one of singular 
form, reaemhling the Lochabar axe, found 
near Dunvegan Castle, in the Isle of Skye* 
and two spear-heads from a tumulus at 
Marathon. 

A further communication from Mr. Col- 
lier on the ** Life and Services of Sir 
Walter Raleigh," was then read. Thi» 
paper comprises varions new matter illus- 
trative of the period from 1592 to 1598. 
It relates principally to Raleigh's intrigue 
with Elijtabcth, daughter of Sir N. Throck- 
morton, and their subsequent marriage ; 
the indignation of the Queen; the im- 
prisonment of the male offender ; pro- 
ceedings in Chancery to enforce the pay- 
ment of the bridc^s portion ; Raleigb'i 
property at Sherborne ; the expedition to 
Guiana; Raleigh's restoration to public 
service ; and his taking part with Essei 
in what was called the ** Inland Voyage." 

The Vice -President announced ihat th« 



180 



Antiguai^n Researches. 



[Aug. 



first part of the thirty-fourth Tulume of 
the ArcbKologia was ready for delivery; 
and that the society^s meetings were ad- 
joumed over Whitsuntide. 

Jtine 19. Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart. V.P. 

Edmund Waterton, esq. of Walton 
Hall, CO. York, was elected a Fellow of 
the Society. 

Mr. Tissiman, of Scarborough, exhibited 
drawings of some remains taken by him 
from Celtic tumuli on the moors near that 
town. They consisted of two slabs, en- 
graved with a number of circles, and a 
couple of boulder-stones, on which grooves 
hid been made. Mr. Tissiman con- 
jectured that these latter had been used as 
anchor-stones for the wicker coracles of 
the rude inhabitants of the district 

The Abb^ Cochet presented several ob- 
jects found by him in the Merovingian 
Cemetery at Envermeu, in Normandy. 
Among them were a small vase in black 
earth, a spear-head of iron, a buckle, a 
fibula of bronze, an ear-ring, and a pair of 
tweezers. Most of these objects closely 
resemble those found in the graves of the 
Anglo-Saxons, of which many examples 
have been recently exhibited to the society. 

Mr. Benjamin Williams exhibited some 
drawings of notaries' marks affixed to 
deeds, preserved in the chest of the 
church of Wymondham, on which he con- 
tributed some observations. 

Mr. Burkitt exhibited a small bronze 
lamp, the handle in the form of a crescent, 
recently found in Cannon-street, London. 
This symbol of Diana, Mr. Burkitt re- 
marked, had also been discovered on other 
objects found in London, belonging to 
the period of Roman occupation, which 
appeared to support the conjecture of Sir 
Christopher Wren that a temple of Diana 
once stood ou the site occupied by St. 
Paul's, and that this divinity was greatly 
honoured in the capital of Britain. 

Mr. Cole exhibited and read extracts 
from various deeds of the time of Queen 
EUizabeth, in illustration of a portion of 
Mr. Collier*s memoirs of Raleigh, read at 
the previous meeting of the society. 

Mr. Mackie exhibited through Mr. 
Wright, some fragments of Roman and 
Saxon pottery, recently dug up in the 
neigbourhood of the town of Folkstone. 
Mr. Wright made some observations ou 
the articles exhibited and on the places of 
discovery. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan exhibited the 
curious astrological clock, engraved«.and 



illustrated by Caplaiu Smyth in the re- 
cently published part of the Archseologia, 
and read a paper in illustration of astro- 
logical clocks and astrolabes. 

Mr. Bruce read '* Observations upon 
certain documents relating to William 
Earl of Gowrie and Patrick Ruthven his 
fifth and last surviving son.'' This paper 
was partly in continuation of one pub- 
lished in the Archseologia, vol. xxxiii. The 
Patrick Ruthven alluded to was confined 
in the Tower from 1603 to 1622, and was 
the father of Mary the wife of Vandyck, 
whom he survived. His pension of 500/. 
per annum having fallen into arrear after 
the breaking out of the Civil War in 1612, 
he practised as a physician in London, 
and died in 1656, or early in 1657, in- 
testate, and under circumstances which 
are as yet undiscovered, in the parish of 
St. George's, Southwark. Most of the 
papers commented upon by Mr. Bruce are 
in the possession of Colonel Stepney 
Cowell, who is descended from Patrick 
Ruthven and Vandyck. They have been 
principally derived from the Public Re- 
cords. 

The meetings of the society were then 
adjourned to Thursday Nov. 20. 



MEETING AT COVENTRY. 

May 21. A meeting of the Warwick- 
shire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society in conjunction with the Architec- 
tural Society of the Archdeaconry of 
Northampton, was held in St. Mary's 
Hall, Co?entry, Charles Holte Brace- 
bridge, esq. taking the chair. 

Several interesting papers were read, — 
on some ancient British, Roman, Romano- 
British, and early Saxon remains recently 
discovered in Warwickshire, by Mr. 
Bloxam ; brief notices of the Cathedral 
and Priory of Coventry, by the Rev. Wil- 
liam Staunton ; and architectural remarks 
on the churches of Coventry, by the Rev. 
G. A. Poole. The assemblage then pro- 
ceeded to visit the castles of Kenilworth 
and Warwick, at both of which they were 
favoured with an historical and architec- 
tural discourse from the Rev. C. H. 
Hartshome. The whole of Warwick 
Castle was thrown open to the inspection 
of the visitors by the Earl of Warwick, 
and all the expenses incurred at Coventry 
were liberally undertaken by the Mayor 
of that city. 



181 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT. 



I 



I 



HoirsE OF Commons. 

/unB 1J». Sir/. Dvke urg«d tbe Go- 
vemmeut to abaudoo the Smithfiklb 
Markrt R£MO%'al Bill for the present 
session, to afford the corparatioo of 
London on opportunity to enlarge the 
market awtt remove all exiitiiig gruuiids of 
coiupl&int I and moved that the Bill be 
committed that day six moetbs. This 
motion wsa tiega tired! by Hi against 26, 
and tbe Bill was con-sidiTed in committee. 

June 20. Tn Committee on the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill, Mr. 3Ionsetl 
moved tbe intertiofi of tbe following 
words ; — '* Provided always, tliat nothing 
in tbi« Act contained a ball be cods trued to 
interfere with or in any manner to restrict 
tbe free action of tbe Roman Catbolifi 
church in the United Kingdom in matters 
of a spiritual nature."— Lord J, Rutiefi 
aaid that the introduction of the words 
would take away from Parliament the 
right to decide what was spiritual and 
whit WM temporal, and kave that right 
80 to decide to the courts of law. — The 
Uouae divided-— For tbe proviso, 42 ; 
agoio^t it, 160. — Mr* ^* Crawford moved 
that this Bill sbonld not extend to Ireland. 
—Lord /. Rums fit fsid, it would he ab- 
surd to allow the prerojjiilivc of the Crown 
to be iuvaded in Ireland, while it waa not 
Allowed to he invaded m England.^— The 
Gimmittee divided — Against the motion, 
255 ; for it, 60.— Sir R. H. Ingiix then 
moved a ckuse whicb declared that the 
Queen was the fountain of all honour and 
and jurifdiction within this realm, that it 
be therefore enacted and declared, that, 
notwithstanding anything which appeared 
to tbe contrary in a certaiu local act enti- 
tled *' The Dublin Cemeteries Act/' or 
in a certain Act entitled " Tbe Act for 
Charitable Donatioosand Bequeata in Ire- 
land/" it shall not be dt^emcd lawful for 
any minister or servant of the Crown in 
tbe United Kbgdom, or for any governor 
or lubordinate officer in any of the domi- 
minious thereimto belonging, on occasion 
of any public state or ceremonial, or 
otherwise* to give or allow any rank or 
precedence, or to use in any public, legal, 
or official document any prefix of title or 
appellation of honour, in respect of any 
ecdeBiaatical order or dignity in tbe 
Church of Rome, to any person not hav- 
iuf Her Majeaty^a licence for such title. 
—Lord J. Rm»elt opposed the clause on 
the ground that its adoptioa would claeb 



with several colonial and local statutes* 
Tbe Committee divided^Agamst the mo* 
tion, IGG; for it, 121. 

June 23. In Committee on the Ec- 
QLBSIASTICAl^ TlTLES Bill, Mr. WalfioU 
moved a series of amendments in the pre- 
amble, by which the perfect independence 
of the Crown and Church of England 
from all foreign ecclesiastical domination 
was liet forth is positive terms ; and tbe 
late appointment of an episcopal hierarchy 
with territorial titles was declared to be an 
inv^ion and encroachment in manifest 
derogation of the Queen's authority. — The 
amendment was opposed by the Solicitor- 
Oeneratf who contended that the terms of 
the preamble as it stood were quite suffi- 
cient, more concise, and less offensive to 
the feelings of Roman Cathobca. The 
Committee divided — For the original pre- 
amble, 140 t for the amendment, 131.^- 
Mr. fFa/^ef/e proposed as a second amend- 
ment, the addition of certain words at the 
end of the preamble, explaining more de- 
finitely the reason for etiacting tbe Bill, 
This was negatived by 141 votes to 117. 
The Committee then divided on the pre- 
amble — ayes, '200; noed, 39. 

June 24. The third reading of the 
Smithfielu Makket Removal Bill 
having been movtid, Mr. Hume moved 
that it be read a third time that day iijc 
months. The third reading was carried 
by a majority of 81 to 32. The Bill was 
then passed. 

Sir G. Grey described tbe effect of tbe 
Church Building Act AwENnMiNT 
Bill, which was designed to accomplish a 
subdivieiou of large parisbeS in propor* 
tion to tbelr population, with the object of 
facilitating tbe erection of churches and 
providing increased accommodation. — B!r. 
Htime^ believing the Bill to involve many 
contiri derations of great impor lance, ob- 
jected to its being hurried through the 
House, and moved that it he read a second 
time that day six months. Tbe debate 
was adjournea. 

June 25. Mr. Cineam moved the second 
reading of the Universities (Scot- 
land) Bill. A variety of tests were still 
retained upon tbe university statuffe books. 
By this Bill, these obsolete contrivances 
for exclusion would be abrogated ^ and a 
large class admitted to the full rights and 
privileges awarded to their fellow-subjects. 
— ^Mr. Lockhari maintained that the Bill 
obliterated the distinctive protestantism so 



182 



Proceedings in Parliament. 



[Aug. 



long preserred in the Scotch Universities, 
was contrary to the provisions of the Act 
of Union, and invaded the privileges of 
the established Church in the northern 
section of the United Kingdom. — The 
Honse divided — For the second reading, 
65 ; against it, 66 ; majority, 1. 

The second reading of the Encum- 
bered Estates Leases (Ireland) Bill 
was moved by Mr. M^Cullaghj who ex- 
plained that the object of the measure 
was to empower the commissioners to 
•irord certain facilities to occupying te- 
nants, to prevent the ejection of some 
tenants, and to enable others to obtain a 
lease in perpetuity over the lands they 
held, on paying one-fourth of the esti- 
mated value in ready money, the remainder 
being commuted into a rent-charge. — Ne- 
gatived by 94 to 15. 

June 26. The third reading of the 
St. Alban's Bribery Commission Bill 
was carried by 37 to 16. 

Mr. Roebuck renewed the Danish 
Claims by moving to address the Crown 
praying that the claims of the merchants 
trading to Denmark whose property was 
seized in Copenhagen in 1807 should be 
examined and liquidated. The motion was 
negatived by 126 to 49. 

June 27. The report of the committee 
on the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill was 
brought up and considered. An amend- 
ment moved by Mr. Keoght declaring that 
the Bill was not to interfere with the Be- 
quests Act, was agreed to without a divi- 
sion. — Mr. Keogh moved another clause, 
providing that no proceedings should be 
taken under the Act, save and except by 
Her Majesty's Attorney-General for the 
time being in England and Ireland, or by 
the Lord Advocate in Scotland. The 
9ou8e divided— Ayes, 71 ; noes, 232.— Sir 
F. Thesiger moved an amendment in the 
preamble, changing the words ** brief and 
rescript** into " briefs and rescripts.'' His 
design was to make the bill effectual as a 
protection against future aggressions as 
well as a protest against the past. The 
House divided — For the amendment, 135 ; 
against, 100; majority, 35. Two follow- 
ing amendments, included in the first, 
were agreed to without division. A fourth 
amendment was then moved, by which the 
penalties were extended so as to include 
all persons who should procure from Rome, 
or publish in England any bull or rescript 
by which archbishops or bishops were 
constituted under the inhibited titles. — 
Although the ^o/ici/or- Genera/ contended 
that the Bill was better as it stood, and 
the vigour supposed to be added to it by 
Sir F. Thesiger's alterations was entirely 
delusive, this amendment was carried by 
165 to 109.— Lord /. Rm$hU then post- 
poned to the third readhig bis oppootioii 



to the fifth amendment, by which common 
informers were allowcNi to lay informa- 
tions for offences created under the BilL 

June 30. On the motion for going into 
Committee on the Customs Bill, Mr. T, 
Barina moved an amendment, that the 
committee be instructed to make provi- 
vision for preventing the admixture of 
Chicory with coffee by dealers in the 
latter article.—The Chancellor qfthe Ar- 
ekeauer distinguished between deleterious 
adulteration and the admixture of a harm- 
less ingredient which enabled the con- 
sumer to obtain coffee at a cheaper price, 
and, in the opinion of many, improved 
its flavour. — Mr. Wakleg pronounced tiie 
question to be simply whether the (Govern- 
ment were to sanction, and the House 
countenance, the practice of dishonesty ? 
The House divided — For the resolution, 
122 ; against, 199. 

Mr. Dieraeli, upon the motion for the 
committal of the Inhabited House Dutt 
Bill, moved as an amendment, ** tbMt, con- 
sidering the limited surplus of two millions 
announced by the Chancdlor qf die Ex- 
diequer on the national revenues; con- 
sidering that five and a half millions of 
income are drawn from the income and 
property tax, which has been renewed 
only for a year, and submitted to the con- 
sideration of a select committee ; and con- 
sidering the provisional state in which the 
revenue was thus left, it appears to the 
House more consistent with the mainte- 
nance of public credit and the interests of 
the public service, to abstain from making 
any serious sacrifice of revenue by effect- 
ing changes in other branches of taxation, 
wmch might otherwise have been con- 
sidered beneficial.*' Negatived by S43 to 
129. 

July 1. The Marquess of Blan^fttrd 
movea an address to the Queen, praying 
Her Majesty's gracious consideration to 
the Spiritual Destitution existing 
throughout England and Wales, with the 
view of finding means whereby the spiritual 
wants of the people could be supplied, 
and the parochial system be extended to 
a degree corresponding with the growdi 
of the population. — Sir O. Greg declared 
himself willing to assent to the motion, 
with the understanding that the Qovern- 
ment was not thereby pledged to introduce 
any legislative measure. — Agreed to. 

July 2. Mr. /. Bell moved the second 
reading of the Pharmacy Bill. This 
measure, as explained by the hon. mem- 
ber, was designed to organise a system of 
examination, to which all pharmaoeutieal 
chemists were to be subjected, so that no 
man miffht undertake, without proving 
himself «> be properly qualified, the re- 
sponsible business of preparing and dis- 
pensing chendeal prescriptions. — 8!r G. 



185L] 



Farsign News, 



18S 



h 



Qrwy allowed the BCl to be read a second 
time, on tbe tiaderstanding that it was not 
to be further proceeded with this year 

Jutj/ 3. Tbe third reading of the Oath 
or ABJciRATtow (Jew5^) Bill having been 
movedf Sir R. H. Ingtin reiiewed his pro- 
tett B^inat the BilJ. Mr. Netvdegate 
Mr. Nodgton, Mr. Plumpire, and Mr. 
Henley brielflj opposed the Bill, but it wag 
read a third tirae, and passed, without a 
ditrision. 

Lord /. Rnateil expUiued the features 
of the Woods and Foeests Bill. The 
Board of Public Works was to be made 
iltogether distinct from the office of 
Wood* and Forests. The House went 
into Committee on the Bill, and passed 
various clauses. 

July 4, The Ecclesiasticaj^ Titlb^ 
Bill waa read the third time without divi- 
sion. — Lord /. Ruimeit said it was not hit 
intention to propose any amendment in 
l3ie preanible as it now stood, or in the 
first cUoae. — The noble lord then moved 
an amendment by which the penalties 
introduced by Sir F. Thesiger were with- 
drawn from parties coocerued \n procu- 
ring from Komep or publishing in Eug- 
laodi papal bulls iind rescripts. The 
haiiae diTided — For Lord J* Rusaell's 
unendmeut, V29; against it, 208: ma. 
joritj in faronr of retaining Sir F, Theai- 
ger's clauses, 79, — Lord /. Ruvteli then 
moved the omisaion of the words by 
which the initiative of proceedings under 
the bill was placed within the power of 
common informers. On a di?Uion. this 
amendment was negatived by 175 votes 
Co IS4» — Another divuion followed ironae- 
diAtely on the question that the bill do 
pAsa. There appeared— Ayes, 263 ; noes, 
46: majority, 217.— On the ([uestion of 
tiUfl, Mr. Grattan moved as an amend- 
laeat that the bill be thus intituled : "An 
Ad to prevent the free exercise of the 
Roman Catholic Rdigion in Ireland.' ' 
Negatived with o at a division. 

Jttly S, Lord R. Gratvenor moved for 
leave to reintroduce the bill of last year 
to repeal the Attorkkys' ai^o So Lie i- 
TOftS' annual certificate duty, — The Chan- 
cttior qf the Ear chequer said it was his 
painful duty to resist the motion. It 
would be most unwise for the Hoose to 



pledge itself to sacrifice 220,000^ ft.year. 
Upon a division tbe motion was carriad 
Bgainst the government by IS2 to 131^ 
and leave wm given to bring in the bill. 

Mr* H, Berkeley moved for leave to 
bring in a bill for the protection of Par- 
liamentary electors by taking votes by 
BALLOT. He asked how a system could 
he said to work well which deterred one- 
third of the electors from recording theif 
votes; which gave to certain peers the 
power of returning 9B members of that 
House by direct Interference, and coerced 
agricultural voters into an electoral flock 
of sheep ? — The motion was carried by 8T 
to 50, 

Mr. Scully moved a resolution that, to 
tighten the poor rate in Ireland, it is ex- 
pedient to fsctlitate the employment of 
the inmates of WonitHorst!* in repro- 
ductive lahcur^ so as to make thoee esta- 
blishments sclf-jiuppcrtiog. — Negatived by 
U to 42. 

July 9. On the order for the second 
reading of the Home-made Spirits in 
Bond Bill, the Chancellor of the Bjcche- 
qucr stated that his objections to the Bill 
were insuperable. The efi'ect of changing 
the law would be loss to the revenue, a 
facility to fraud, and would give to Scotch 
and Irish spirits an unfair advantage over 
those of Engtanci — Mr. Bramsfon conal- 
dered that the Bill would violate the com- 
promise of 1848, and moved that it be 
read a second time that day three months. 
— The Hoii&e having divided, the second 
reading was negatived by 194 against 166 ; 
so the Bill is lost. 

July 10. Mr. Hume moved an addreit 
to the Crown, prajing for the appoint- 
ment of a Royal Commission to inquire 
into theproceediogsof Sir James Brookb 
on the north-western coast of Borneo, and 
especially into the attack made, under his 
advice and direction, upon the Sakarran 
and Sarebaa Dyaks on the 3 1 fit of July, 
1849 ; and further that Her Majesty 
would command that the opinion of the 
Judges be taken and laid before the Hoose 
touching the legality of the holding by 
Sir James at the same time of certain 
apparently incompatible offices. Nega- 
tived by S30to 19. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



RUitlA. 

The SLrms of the Czar have again ittffered 
d«l^t from the prowess of the wild tribes 
who defend tbe passes of the Caucasus. 
Mohamed Emir, tbe naib (or tieuteoant) 
of Sheik Chemll, at the bead of 2&,000 of 



the Abebjeks, and other independent tribes 
of the Western Caucasus, attacked the en- 
trenchments of the Chenis, and drove the 
Russian troops, under the commiind of 
General Cerebrianoff, beyond Theraer, 
The Ruisijmi safTere d so aever«ly that all 




184 



Domettic Occurrence. 



[Aug. 



the spare waggons of the army were barely 
guiBcient to carry their wounded away ; 
their loss is calculated at 5,000 in killed 
and prisoners. The mountaineers are 
well supplied with ammunition and arms, 
and ready to continue the war against the 
invaders of their homes throughout the 
fummer season. 

On the 29th May, O.S. (Uth June), 
an extensive conflagration occurred in the 
city of Archangel. The foreign merchants' 
quarter was almost entirely consumed, and 
150 houses, extending over a length of two 
Tersts (1^ miles), were destroyed. The 
habitations of the poor have this time been 
•pared. Their part of the town was burnt 
to the ground only three years ago. Arch- 
angel is built almost entirely of wood. Of 
the direction of the consumed streets not 
a vestige remains. No lives were lost. 

NAPLES. 

The Official Journal of the Two Sicilies 
publishes a statistical account of the po- 
pulation of Naples to the 1st Jan. 1851. 
The total number of inhabitants amounts 
to 416,475 souls, viz. — 203,483 males 
and 212,992 females. Naples contains 
514 coffee-houses, 71 sorbet-shops, 558 
liquorists, 416 inns, 243 furnished hotels, 
62 restaurants, 166 common eating-houses, 
793 wine-shops, 400 taverns and wine- 
shops, 22 diligences, 155 two-horse car- 
riages, 213 cabriolets, six sedan chairs, 
and 550 boats. 

SARDINIA. 

A commercial treaty between Sardinia 
and Great Britain has been published. 
It insures to all the subjects of both na- 
tions ** the benefits derived under two 
Iflgislative acts, the one adopted in Eng- 
land on the 26th of June, 1849> by a mo- 
dification of the Navigation Act ; and the 
other in the Sardinian States on the 6th 
of July, 1850, for the abolition of differ- 
ential duties.^' The treaty goes on to say 
that *• there shall be reciprocal liberty of 
commerce between the states of the high 
contracting parties; and the subjects of 
each, in all the extent of the possessions 



of either, shall enjoy the same rights, pri~ 
vileges, immunities, and exemptions in 
matters of commerce which the nations 
ei^joy, or may enjoy.'' A Sardinian loan 
of 3,600,000/. has been negociated in 
London by Messrs. C. J. Hambro and 
Son. The rate of interest is 5 per cent, 
and the subscription price 85. The inte- 
rest to commence from the 1st of June, 
1851. The loan is stated to be for the 
completion of the railway from Genoa to 
Turin, and from Genoa to the Lago Mag- 
giore towards Switzerland, now in course 
of construction, and which will be mort- 
gaged as a special security, in addition to 
the general revenues of the Government. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The Federal Council of Switzerland has 
drawn up a decree for the execution of 
the railways proposed by Mr. Stephenson. 
One line is to traverse the country from 
the Lake of Constance to Geneva, passing 
by Zurich. A branch line is to run from 
this trunk line to the Basle Railway to 
unite with the German and French lines. 
Another line is to proceed from the Lake 
of Constance to Coire, in the Grisons, to 
be prolonged afterwards across the Alps 
by Luckmanier into Lombardy. The to- 
tal length of these lines is to be 406^ 
English miles, and the expense 4,000,000/ 

CALirORNIA. 

A terrible fire has occurred in San Fran- 
cisco, laying in ashes property to the 
amount of from 12,000,000 dols. to 
16,000,000 dols. Among the buildhigs 
destroyed are the Custom-house and seven 
hotels. Several houses had been built of 
iron, but were found to afford no security, 
as they speedily became red-hot and ig- 
nited their contents. The fire also spread 
to the shipping, burning a large number of 
vessels lying at the wharves. Ten or 
twelve lives were lost. But so earnestly 
did the inhabitants commence rebuilding, 
that, within ten days after the fire, 680 
houses were set up. A great fire has also 
occurred at Stockton, the loss from which 
was estimated at over 1 ,000,000 dols. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



The depopulation of Ireland is very 
fully demonstrated by the census returns. 
She has not only lost the gain she counted 
in 1841, or even ten years before, but 
actually fallen below her position in 1821. 
In that year the population of Ireland 
was 6,800,000. In 1831 it had increased 
,14 per cent, and in the next decade 
the progress was still 5 per cent, and 
10 



the number of her children in 1841, 
8,175,000. Famine, distress, and conse- 
quent emigration, have reduced it to little 
more than six millions and a half. Ten 
years ago the inhabited houses in Ireland 
were more than 1,300,000; they are now 
little more than one million. 

The population of Birmingham is re- 
turned at 232,634, an increase of nearly 



!B5i.] 



Domestic Occurrenceii, 



IBS 



50,000 ioiiabitAuUf or 27 per cent.; that 
of Glasgow at 329, OJK^Mn crease 6!,6:«, 
9T t3 per cent. J that of Bradford at 
103,782, being aa increase of 37,064^ or 
1^6 per cent.; at York and at Lincoto the 
cfctsc is 30 per cent.; at Preatoii 36 per 
at*; at Salford and Portsmouth 28, 
Vi^oi 25, Hall 23, Sheffield, Newcastlc- 
•Tyne, and Bolton 22, Leicester SO, 
ceds 13, Nottingham 10. 
Juut 25, The Bishop of Exeter liaving 
evived the long-disused practice of liold- 
iog a synod of the clergy of his dioeeser it 
assembled this day in the Chapter House 
of Exeter, after divLiie serviee in the ca- 
theUral, aiifj a sermon by Mr, Prebendary 
Hole, from I Tira. i. 13, H. The pro- 
ceedings were opened with prayer and an 
address from the Bishop : after which a 
declaration on Uie doctrine of baplisna vras 
read, and its further considerstiou de- 
ferred to the next day. Two declararions 
were then adopted, 1. Against sccessioEir 
especially to Rome; 2. Against thep«ipal 
bishopric of Plymouth and Roouuiist ag* 
gression generally. On the second day 
the declaration oa the doiJtrine of haptisin 
was unanimously adoptedt after the ad- 
dresses of i^everal speakers hat] been beard* 
On the third day a committee was no- 
minated to consider the best means of 
continuing pastoral superintendence of 
the young who have left school. Uesolra- 
iions were further agreed to for the resto- 
ration of a permanent order of deacons, 
for the employment of the laity in the 
Chorch*s work, yet so as not to trans- 
gress the discipline of the Church ; for 
tbc observance of the Rubric which enjoins 
daily morining and evemng prayer, the ob- 
servance of holydayg, and the ndministra- 
tkm of the holy communion on Ascension 
Day. The proceedings were Ihso brought 
to a close. 

Jutjf 3, The town of Ipswich, being the 
scene ol the meeting of the Bi itish As* 
suciatioo for the Promotion of Science 
(of wblcH we hnvc given some account in 
another page,) was honoured with a visit 
from H.R.H. Priucc Albert. He was 
re^^ived iu a reception tent at the Ipswich 
terminus by the mayor and corporatioui 
and received an address read by the Re- 
corder : after which he was conducted iu 
procession to the Town Hall and snb- 
•equently visited the several sections of 
the Afiociation. He went to dtne at 
Skratkod Pork, the seat of Sir William 
Hiddleton, Bart. The next day, after 
Again visiting some of the sections H.R.fl. 
proi^eded to the Museum, — the success- 
fill formation of which has mainly con- 
tributed to bring the Assoc la tion to Ips- 
wich. An address was read by Professor 
Uenslow the President, and the Prince 
GfiST. Mao. Vol. XXXVI. 




consented to become the Patron of the 
institution. His Royal Highness at three 
oVfock proceeded to lay the foundation 
stone of one of the towers of the new 
grammar school of Ipswich. It bore the 
following inscription :-^'* Schola Regia 
Gipoviceosis, fundata regnante Etiaa, A.S. 
MDLXV. denuo extmcta, sub auspiciia 
Principis illustnsimi ALBERT!, de Saxe 
Coburg et Gotha, regnante Victoria, A«S. 
MDCCCLI/' His Royal HighneM re- 
turned by train to London before six 
o'clock. 

July 9. Her Majesty honoured with 
her presence a Ball given by the City of 
London at Guildhall, in celebralian of the 
Great Exhibition of the Industry of All 
Nations. The public buildings through- 
out the city were illviminated, as were a 
large proportion of the private houses in 
the Une of procession. The Royal Ex- 
change displayed In white lamps the in- 
scription it bears on its pediment : '* Tkk 

EAHTH IS THE Loai>'8 AND THK FUH*" 

NFss THEREOF.^* The Queen arrived at 
Guildhall shortly before ten. H.R.H. 
Prince Albert wore his uniform as Cap- 
toia-Gcneral and Colonel of the Hon.. 
Artillery Company. The ancient crypt 
was fitted up for the !»upper: and was 
lighted with gas proceeding from the 
spetr-hcada of figures arrayed in armour, 
brought from the Tower of London, The 
hall was adorned with mnch taste and 
elegance, for the hall- room and the other 
apartments were adorned with sculpture 
lent for the occasion by Me^rs. Flecd, 
Baily, and Lougb. The Lord Mayor haa 
since received a Baronetcy, and the two 
Sherilfs the honour of Knighthood. 

July 12. The Royal Commiasionera of 
the Great Exhibition, wiib the Executive 
Committee, and a large parly of dis- 
tinguished foreignen, were entertained 
ou board the American steamer Atlantic, 
at Licerpoolj at the expense of William 
Brown, esq. M.P. for South Lancashire. 

The Royal Agnenlturai Society of 
Great Britain has held its annual meeting 
at Windsor from the I4'tb to the 18th of 
July. The show-yard and pavilion were 
formed^ by the graciotts permission of her 
Majesty and Prince Albert, in the Home 
Park, immediately below the slopes and 
terraces of Windsor Castle. The show 
of cattle, HiC, numbering l,20§ entries, is 
said to have been superior to any former 
exhibition. The lutial show of imple. 
tnunts was omitteii, being already formed 
in the Crystal Palace. Two thousand 
guests met at the Grand PaviUou dinner. 
The Duke of Richmond presided^ and Lord 
Portman acted us Vice-President. His 
Royal Highness Prince Albert was present, 
and delivered a very excellent address, 
2B 



186 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS. &c. 



GaSBTTB P&BFBR1IBNT8. 

Jtmt 9S. John Cowan, esq. (Solidtor-Gen. 
tat Scotland.) to be one of the Lords of Session, 
and one of the Lords of Justiciary in Scotland. 

June 25. Lambert de Nieawerkerk, esq. to 
be Assistant Receiver-General of Berbice.— 
William Carman, esq. to be Clerk of the Pleas 
in the Supreme Court of New Brunswidk. 

June 27. 7th Drag. Gaards, Capt. A. C. 
Bentinck to be Major.— 6tb Foot, Major-Gen. 
H. J. RiddeU to be Colonel.— 21st Foot, Laeat.- 
Col. E. Thorp, from 44th Foot, to be Lieat.- 
Colonel.— 25th Foot, Lieut-Col. J. S. Scbons- 
war. from 5th Foot, to be Lieut.-Colonel.^ 
60th Foot, Assist.-Snrg^eon B. Nicholson, M.D.. 
from the Staff, to be Assistant Surgeon. — 
Staff, Lient.-Col. J. R. Younr , 25th Foot, to be 
Fort Major at Fort George, Inverness. 

June 28. George Deas, esq. Advocate, to be 
Solicitor-General for 8cotland.->Thomas Mac- 
kenaie. esq. Advocate, to be Sheriff of Ross 
and Cromarty, vice Deas. 

July 4. Charles Livio, esq. to be Consul at 
llViborg.— Alexander M*Crae, eaq. to be Chief 
Postmaster of Victoria. 

July 8. Royal ArtiUer>', M^or-Gen. R. J. J. 
Lacy to be Colonel-Commandant.— 35th Foot, 
Major J. Fraser to be Ueut.-Col. ; Capt. J. 
Tedlie to be Major. 

July 9. Edward Francis Maitland, esq. Ad- 
vocate, to be Sheriff of Argyll. 

JulyU, Charles Romilly, esq. to be Clerk 
of the Crown in Chancery, vice Charles-Ed- 
ward Earl of Cottenham, resigned.— 8th Foot, 
Sorgeon F. C Annesiey« from 21st Foot, to be 
Surgeon, vice Surgeon J. C. G. Tice, M.D. who 
exchanges.— 49th Foot, Mi^or J. R. Raines, 
from 95th Foot, to be Major, vice Mijor J. W. 
Smith, who exchanges.— 2d West India Regt. 
Capt. R. EllioU to be Major. 

July 12. The Right Hon. John Musgrore, 
of Speldhurst, Kent, and Roasell-square, Mid- 
dlesex, Lord Mayor of London, created a 
Baronet. 

July 15. Jane Marchioness of Ely to be 
one of the Ladies of the Bedchamber in Or- 
dinary to Her Majesty, vice Lady Portroan, 
resigned.— Emma Lady Portman to be Extra 
Lady of the Bedchamber to Her Mi^esty. 

July 16. Major Thomas Middleton Biddulph 
to be Master of Her Majesty's Household, v%ce 
Bowles, res. — Major-Qeu. George Bowles to 
be Lieutenant of Her Miyesty's Tower of 
Xx>ndon. 

July 17. Charles- William Earl of Sefton to 
be Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotuloram of 
the county palatine of Lancaster.— Knighted, 
Robert Walter Carden, esa. and George Ed- 
mund Hodgkinson, esq. Slierilb of London 
and Middlesex. 

July 18. aist Foot, SUff-Surgeon of the 
Second Class J. B. St. Croix Crosse to be 
Surgeon.— Unattached, Major C A. Arney, 
from 58th Foot, to be Lient.-Colonel. 

July 21. Royal Engineers, Lieut.-Col. T. 
Blanshard to be Colonel ; brevet Mi^or H. P. 
Wolff to be Lieut.-Colonel. 

July 22. Major-Gen. George Bowles, late 
Master of Her Majesty's Household, and now 
lieutenant of Her Majesty'a Tower of London, 
to be K.CB. 



pointed Colonial Secretary in V«n DiMntB^ 

Land ; H. Falconer, esq. is appointed Colonial 

' Secretary in Western Australia; Mr. J. BeD b 

appointed Crown Solicitor fbr Wenteni hJm- 

Robert Ball, esq. Treasurer to the Royal 
Irish Academy, has been appointed Secretary 
to the Queen's University in Ireland. 



Membtrt returned to eerve m PttrUtmmii, 
ilncmf «/.— Right Hon. Edward Stmtt. 
JBofA.— George Treweeke Scobell, esq. 
GretfiitmeA.— Mr. Alderman Salomons. 
£'Niire«6oroM^A.— Thomas Collins, esq. 
AearftoroicpA.— George Fred. Young, esq. 



The Earl of Mulgrave is appointed Comp- 
troller of H. M. Household. 

H. S. Chapman, esq. one of the Judges ot 
the Supreme Court of New ZeaUmd, is ap- 



NaYAL pRBFERlfSNTS. 

Vice-Adm. the Hon. Joceline Percy, C.B. to 
be Commander-in-Chief at Sheerness. 

Rear-Adm. William Willmott Henderson, 
C.B., K.H. to be Commander-in-Chief of the 
Sonth-East Coast of America. 

AppoimtwkentM : Commander W. F.Fead(1845), 
to command the Express, 6, at Devonport ; 
Commander Alan U. Gardner (1848), to the 
Waterwitch, 8, at Chatham ; Commander W. P. 
Burnett (1846), to the Queen, 116, flag-ship 
of Sir WilUam Parker, Bart. G.C.B. ; Com- 
mander G. H. Gardner, additionaL to Retri- 
bution; Commander W. H. Hall to Styx.— 
Commodore William Fanshawe Martin and 
Capt. Frederick William Beechey, F.R.S. (1827), 
to be Naval Aide-de-Camps to the Queen. 

To he Captain: Ck>mmodore Charles F. 
Schomberg (1844.) 

To be Commanders: Lieut. Rochford Maguire 
(1840) ; Augustus C. May (1838), late first lieu- 
tenant of the Wellesley, 72; Willoughby J. 
Lake (1840), late flag Lieutenant to Rear-Adm. 
Fanshawe, C.B. 

July 1. Adm. the Right Hon. Sir G. Cock- 
burn, G.C.B. to be Admiral of the Fleet.— 
Rear-Adms. Lord Radstock, C.B. and the Earl 
of Cadogan, C.B. to be Vice-Admirals of the 
Blue.— By the same gazette six Admirals, 
two Vice- Admirals, ana two Rear-Admirals are 
placed on reserved half-pay, with an addi- 
tional yearly pension of 150/., as provided by 
Order in Council of the 25th June last ; and 
fortv other flag oflicers are placed on the re- 
tired list ; so that the active list is now per- 
manently reduced to the following numbers: 
Admirals of the Fleet 2 : Admirals 27 (instead 
of SO) ; Vice- Admirals 27 (instead of 45) ; Rear- 
Admirals 51 (instead of 75). 

July 8. Vice-Adm. Richard Curry, C.B. to 
be Admiral on the reserved half-pay list ; Vice- 
Adm. Sir John Wentworth Loring, K.CB. 
K.C.H. to be Admiral of the Blue; Rear-Adm. 
Sir Edward Tucker, KCB. to be Vice-Adm. 
of the Blue; Capt. Sir John Ross, C.B. to be 
Rear-Adm. on the reserved half-pay list ; Capt. 
Sir James Stirling to be Rear-Admiral of the 
Blue.— To be retired Rear-Admirals on the 
terms proposed Sept. 1, 1846: Capt. B. Bar- 
nard, (^pt. W. B. Dashwood, Capt. M. White, 
Capt. J. Cookesley, Capt. C. G. R. Phillott, 
Capt. W. Wolrige. 

Ecclesiastical PRBrBB,if bntb. 

Hon. and Rev. L. Neville, Heydon R. and 

Little Chishall R. Essex. 
Rev. W. Allford, Tintinhull P.C. Somerset. 



1851.] 



SeehnasHcal Pr€f§nnents — Birtht* 



187 



B«v. ft. AUhiJUHiddieUAmOoUtffiftf ft Church. 

ftffv. W. Atthill, Horoeford V. Norfollu 

R«T. F. Bairot, Prebend of Holcomb* In WeU» 

CathedriJ. 
fter. S. M. B*rkwortb, St. John P.C. WaU 

thjUDStOWf Em«z. 

R«9. J. A Beftonioot, Pou^bill ft. Devon. 
ft«r. W. S> H. Br&h«in, Peldon R. Essex.* 
Act. G. Braithwaite. St, Peter th«*Oreat V. 

Chichester. 
R«v. ft. S, V. Brown, 9t, James P.C* Bcr- 

mondsey^ Surrejr. 
B#f- J, H, Carlwriirbt, Wint«rb©an>«^K»fl8 

f ^^•*te^, Muff P.C. DonepL 

I I r, Cosserstt Winfrith-Newbarjjfh 

' • Lii)worth C. »Dd Burton C Dors. 
[t . Eji*t. Stoke V. w, Coddinf ton C, 

, and Elston C Notts. 
U' M, I Mil iM*n'?on. Narrae;^jmore R. Kildtre. 
Rev. .J. Dix, All-JialloHrs, Uri-ad Street W. St, 

Johi»4Ii*-EvaDifeli«it il. Ltjinion. 
Rev. H, A. Dixon, iit, Arme V. Wandsworth, 

3urref.t 
R*v W, Pj^t^, Setmurthy P.C. Cumberland, 
P_ . ,. HsiwklnjfeR, Kent, 
i LeominstL'f V. Herefordsh. 

(. iavonV.w. BnjElan V.GIam, 

Hcv. J r.snn*,^ riL-kbowel R,(sinectire) Brecon, 
R*y, G, E¥ei*rd, St- Jsraes P.C St. llsry- 

lebonc. 
RftV. a, H. Fell J Goring: P.C. Oxfordshire. 
fter. T. B, Ferns, Corscombe R. DoTer. 
Rev. W. Fiti Gi?rsld. «t. Antsp V fViblin, 
R*v- ll.Gil<!' ■ " ' tu Kent. 

Rev,G. M I imerset. 

Rev L. ».<.! , lyrooath. 

Rev- J H«niii»(j:. insnoj^n*' in inifubay. 
Rev. W, Harlev, Steventon V. Berks. 
Rev. J Harrison, Horton P.C, Yorkshire, 
Rev. R. K. Haflleburst, Alrewas V. StaJfordsb. 
ftev, W. A. HIU. AftiTTioon Lectareffhip 9t. 

Barnabas, Soutb Keiininji^ton, Lambeth. 
Rev. J. Huirbes» UanvtbAni^erCwai du ft. 

(sinecure) Brecon. 
Rev. — Jenkins, Micbaelttone-y'Vedw R, 

Olamoritnshire and Motimoutbshire. 
Rev. C. F. Johnson, deavinj^ton ^t. Mary PC. 

Somerset. 
Rev. J. W. Knott, St. Saviour's V. Leeds. 
fter. H Knofrles» St. Marlui P C. Wilts. 
Rev. C. S. Lafrrence, A^b- Priors P.C. and 

Cothelstooe P.C. Soniyrset. 
Rev R, H. Ltiw, < Iran Prebend, illo. Elpbin. 
Rev. T M. Mftcdonald, Holy Trinity P.C, Not- 

tltiebsni. 
Rev. E, Mansfield, Holy Innocents P.C. High- 

nam, Gloucestershire. 
Rev. G. Martin. D D. St, Breward V.Cornwmll. 
Rev.C Maxwell, Lower- Badoney R, dio, Dcrry. 
Rev T, R Mayhew, DarshAm V, and Dunwich 

P.C. Sofoik. 
Rev. W. Meade, Bineear R. Somerset. 
Rev. J. HuDoy, Castle- Blakeney R. and V. 

dio. Elpbin. 
ftev. W. Nonral, Ickleford R. Herts. 
Rev. W. S, Parish. Cherry- H in ton V. Camb. 
Rev. S. Parry, SurAeel P.C. Lineotniihtre. 
Rev. O. W. Ptarse, Walton R. Hiickii. 
RiV. G. Phillimore, Ra*lni.c* R I^n^k*. 
RevJ-HPoUexfen iichei»ti»r 

Eev.C Rawlins, t l byshire. 

It<»v J. U»"fce. Braif irtv 

i; Racerfl^ Itegent ^^^imre P.C. St. 

liddlesei. 
K .0, St. L«ke P.C. Clifford, Yorksh. 

ilt\. 1. :5^d«er, Roiland P.C. Laficaahire. 



Rev. A. P. ScanU»y, Oaoonrr in Canterbury 

CathedraL 
Rev. R, Stanley, Barlinjrs PX. Lincolnshire. 
Rev. D, i>. Stewarti Croydon New Church 

P,C. Surrey, 
Rev, G. W. Stuart, Drumacbose ft. dio. Derry. 
Rev. R. Surlecs, St. AtipuMine V. Bristol. 
ftev. O. Thonia*. St, Pbilip PC. Ueda, 
Rev.A.H P.Trewman, Nortb PetbertonV. Som. 
Rev. J. Wrat, D.D. Archdeaconry of Dublin 

w. St. Peter V. Dublin, and St. Mary P.C. 

Don ny brook' 
Rev. O. WUIcock* West Merse* V. Basei. 

TT? Chaplainciei* 

R*v. C. U. Bell, H.M. ship Venjteance. 

Rev. V. Blake, Lord Hi^b Commissioiier of 
the Ionian Isle*. 

Rev. T. Btjiime. Hinckley Union, Lelc. 

Rev. T H. BushnelU E*rl of Romnev. 

Rev. J. W. HusselK H.M. ship Timfalgar. 

Rev. J. Ford, Maidntonc Gnol. 

Rev. H. J, Hatch. New County Gaol, Wands- 
worth, Surrey. 

Rev.R.S.Phet|xi, H. M. Dockyard. Fcrtsmouth. 

Rev, A. Watson, H.M. ship Britannia. 

ftev. W. H. Wreoford, Rojfpr Edwards' Alms^ 
houses, LUnsteview, Moiimcuth<>hire. 

Rev, R. Yerburgh, Carr'a Hoppitat, Sleaford« 
Lincolnshire. 

ColUgiate and Schoiaitie Appoinimvnti. 
R. Ball, LL.D. Secretary to the Board of 

Queen ^s CoUeres, Ireland. 
Rev. 1^1. Day, .second Mastership, Abin^on 

Grammar School, Berks. 
Rev< H. S. Faji^an. Head Mastership of Burton- 

upofi-Trent Grammar School. 
J. B, Farbrother, Mas tenth I p of Sheptoo-Mal- 

lett Grammar School. 
Rev, W. Hodgson, Mastership of Streathani 

Scboolr Streatham Comnion* Sarrey. 
Bev. J, Jackson, MaHiernbtp of Butterwick 

Grammar School Lincolnshire. 
J. O, Lees, B.A Maatersbip of St. Peter'a 

School, York. 
Rev. H. H . OWer. Second Mastership of Kiofa- 

bridge Grsmioar School, l»evon. 
Rev. M. H. Simpson, Mastership of Ledshun 

Grammar School, Yorkshire- 
Rev. E. J. Srnitb, Mastership of Wantlft 

Grammar School, Berks. 
Rev. M. Thomas, Secretary of the Ooloniat 

Church and School Society. 
Rev. W. G. Tucker* Miaaumary Sution al 

Toronto* Canada. 
Rev. W. P. Walsh, Viaitinf Secretary tot 

Iretand to the Church Biiaaloiiary Society, 



* Tile Rev. WiUiam Spencer Harris Brabam 
hAa elnoe aaanmed by royal licence the name 
eC Headows In lleo of Brabam 

t Darlnf the seqnntration of the Incnm* 



BIRTHS. 

May 17. At the Bishop's palace, Calcutta, 
the Wife of the Rev, John Bio mfleld, a son. 

Juntl. At AnMiv TodjK'^c, Northamptonshire, 

the wife of H' , f»aq. a son. 3. At 

E^ieter, the v>> . ^ub-dean Stephens, 

a son.~9. i^"!'s place, the wife of 

Ralph Neville, c*4. a «oa. 10. At Writtle, 

Essex, the wife of J, A. Hardcastle, esq. MP. 

a dan. At Sandgate, the wife of Francis 

Daniel Tyssen, e-^q. a dan. 13. At Bordef. 

ley park. Wore, the wife of Richard Hemmlng^, 

esq. a son and heir. 19. At Spondon* near 

Derby, the wife of F. Arkwdf^ht, esq. a dan. 
— —20, At Womersley park, Yorkshire, Lady 

Hawke, a dau. 31. At Lowndes sq. the 

C'tess of March, a dau. 2S, In Guild ford 

street. Lady Pollock, a son. Mrs. Yarde, of 

Trebridjfe honse, Devon, a dao.~ln Beau- 
mont-'it. the wife of Sir Geoqfe de ta Poer 

Beresford. Bart, a son.^ W. At Gloucester 

place, Hyde park, the wil^ of J. ft. Wirrmm, 
eM|, a son. li. At Piirlefi Bettt, Lady 



168 



Mai*riagts* 



[Aug. 



Hope, t ton. VI, At Dyrhiin park. Heria, 

tht Boa, Mri. Trotter, a son. »t>. At Kem- 

borton rrctoty, SkrojMhire, Mra. G. Whil* 

more. adau. Tbe wife of John llarct esq. 

of Clifton park, a son. — At Malahan^r, 
Hints, the vrifp of Wyndham Portal* eaq« a 
dao. 
Jw/y 1. Iq Grosv^Tior terrace, ViaeoutitMs 

Newry, a dau. At Brockton hall, SUIT, tbc 

wife of llajor Chetwynd, a son. 2. ITie 

Lady Xaas, a soq apd Uclr. ^3. In Arliti^ori 

iitr^t* llic Marchioness <jf :Sali*bury, a son, 

At Hams. Wnrw. tlie Hon. Mrs. AdiSerley, 

a daiu 4. In Wililam-^t. Lowndrs ^quare^ 

Lady Nirliol*^n, a dau, 3. At Kettoii liall, 

Deir ^tan^ford, the Lady Burghlejr. a soja. 

At the houae of her father Samuel Gtirnej', 
esq. the wife of Henry Ford Barclay, esq. of 

Leytonatone. a wu. Tbp wife of Henry 

Aildenbrooker eaq. of Hollyfierd, Warw. a dan. 

7* At Halkin-st, West. Udy Payne Gall- 

wefi a son. 9. At f»t real ham, the wife of 

Cli|)t, Drlnkwater Hethune, R,N, a dau. 

13, At Carlisle, Lady Mary Hope Wallace, a 
dau.— At Cation halU Dcrbytihire, the wife 

of tbe Hon.R.Curion, jun. a son and heir. 

U. At WeaveHofft Kent, Lady North, a son 
and heir. 



MARRIAGES, 

Jltf^ ao. At Enlield. Charles HandfieUI 
JoHti, B.M. Cantab. F.H.:;. YAUm of thi- 
Royal Collej^e of Physicians, to U^uisa, dau. 

of E. F. Holt, esq, ^At Newbury, Lierka, 

tbe Rev. Henry Towry Whitf^ B.A. oidv »t»n 
of the late Rev. Hu*h White, M.A. of Si. 
Mary's, DuUllfl, to Gertrude* fourth dau. yf 
Jert' Bunny* esi]. 

7\, At Huncay, the Rev. H, P. C^tf*e#/ey,of 
Wiroborne Minster, to Eleanor, fourth diu, of 
the late Rev, Thoiuass Ikwicke. — ^At Sandall 
Magna, the Uev. IL J. WHkinftiH^ Curate of 
Swaifhaia and Th rex ton, Norfolk, to Louisa- 
Aliee, eldeat aurvivin^ dou. of Rir-hard Diinn, 
eiq. of B<l)efield» Yorksb*— At Smelhwick, 
Stiff' John Henry DuAe* eao^ of Malls, eldest 
SOD of Richard Dukep eaq. of Beckenham, Kent, 
to Maria-Matbilde, eldest dau, of in.iim Hrnrv 

Muntz. esq. At AllUallowa Si k 

lane, lrederic*younji^e«t acfuof M > -\ 

Of Fenchurch st. to Marg^aret, i . i .— . uf 
Mr, zliamael Carroll, of South st. Finaburv *<j, 
—At Cranbouroe, near Wijjdaor, WilUaro 
Butler Liotfd^ esq. of tlie Wbitebal), Shrewa- 
bury. to Jane- Amelia, third dati. of the Rev. 
Geor^ Hunt, of Buck burst, Berk shire, and 
'Wadeohoe house, Northamptonshire, 

W. At 'I nnbridge Wells, Capt, David James 
Wnnt, H,C.S sou of the late Rev, Jaa, Ward« 
U.IX of Cottisball hall, Norfolk, to Anna-Maria, 
dau. of the late Rev, F.Uis Burrouffhes, of the 

Manor house, Lon^ Stratton. At Etinjr, 

Hanta, 8t. GeorK« Lv^ther, esq. late of Ogtli 
Rert. son of George LowLher, esq.uf Hamptun 
hall, near Balb, to MaryAnne-A^-F. GolJinir, 
dau. of the late Ed ward Gold in i^,e3<), of Maideii 

Erleg-h* Berlts. At Lophnm, tbc Uev. G. W. 

Darhf/t to Mary- Anne Lou bai,dnu, of the Rev. 
James Barrow^ Reclor of Lonkam, Norfolk. 

At Bath, the Rev . Charles M . Arnold, MA, 

Minister of ^ulh l^ukbclh Chapel, to Jaue, 
only ibiu. of the late Joseph Ha\ «.iiiL f^n. nf 
Bath.' — At Cpminstcr, the R< ' ,^ 

Vicar of Hijrh and Good FLasler, i 
rna-,Mary, eldest dau. of the l.i-_ ...... u 

Edward Bi^ntill, esq, of Upmin^u t hud. At 

St, Jamefl'* Weatmiii»ler, tbe licv, Henry John 
K«*A, t'Ulest son of the Rev. H. J, Hu^h,' Vicar 
or HoUiogtori, to Kliiabeth-MartindHte, second 
dsu. of the late William Vale, esq. of HatI 
court, Malhon. Woreeulersljire ,\i Marvle. 



boue, Henry Baker, esq. CoDim.R,N, to Louisa- 
Kathleen, third dau, of the late Yoyr Burres, 
esq. of tbe Beng^al Civil Service, and the tvil- 
derneas, Reii^ate, 

14. At St. Paul's Covent garden, Joseph 
Heury Hobing, esq. of Hampton Wick, to Hen- 
rietla-Hulme, only dau. of George lleaman, 

esq. of Kinp St. Covent prarden. A> Ivrii^^riel*, 

Heury William //fMnwrwor/A, einj 'i« 

hall, Norfolk, to Ellen youngest ^ > 

Francis Keiuble, eiiti- of Cheslersi 

36. At Dover, Jasper LwingMtonc, t>*4i, of tlie 
manor of Livingistone, state of New \ork^ to 
Matilda., youngest dau. of Sir John Morris, of 
Shelly park,— At Plymouth, Wm. G. Wot^d- 
forde, MB. of Bow, Middlesex, to Rosa, fourth 
dau. of tbe late Jonas Hidout, esq. of Moor* 
town honae. Whitchurch, Devon. 

37, At Burgh, Suffolk, tbe Rev, John Mou- 
tary Jiandaii, Vicar of Lanf;:ham, Norfolk, to 
Eleanor, youo^st dan. of the late Rev. Georje 

Francis Barlow, Rector of tiurrh. At St. 

George's Hanover so. Lieut.-CoK Townt^^jf, to 
AugTiata-Kliobeth, eldest flau. of R. Keate, 

esq. of Hertford .St. .May fair. At All SouJa' 

Marytcbone. Eiiward T. DanitU^ e«iq. of Little 
Eerkhnnistend, to Anne- tin i ma, second dau, 

of the Rinlit Hon Sir James Wij^rnnn At 

Clifton, Freke£efl«*, esq. J.P., A.llMiind B.L- 
son of F>re Evans, I'sq. of Asli Hill Towers* 
atid Miltown castle, Ireland, to Julia- Bruce, 
dau. and co-betref-sof the late Rev. D. Stewart 
MoncriefTe, AM. Rector of Lovton. i^ra,; at 
the s..inne lime* Henry Frederick £ea)w, e^q, 
1%?\i R.N.B. Ku»ilU'r», brother of the above, to 
Sarah-Ann Moncriiffe, sister of the precediuK- 
— At Chellenhatn, W, R. WiHiam*, esq- 4tU 
Dragoon Guard*), eldest son of liobert;Vaij|rhan 
Wyiine VVillrauis, esq. of Bedford-pl. to Kltia 
beth-Blsckivell-Camphcl!* eldest dau, of Richd, 

[jimbeii, estj, of Lyston hall, Essex, At St, 

Jamoi'a I'addinKtoD, Philip Wmiamu, esq. 
Fellow of New College, Oxford, to Affnea-Gor- 
don, youni^eat dau. of Robert Havifand, eaq. 
of Gloucester pi. 

2H. At Hem el Hempsted, Samuel, etdeM son 
of Thomas Frvrr^ esq. of Chatteris* to .\nne, 
eldest dau. of the late Daniel Rosier, esq. of 
Hemel Hetiipsted ; at the ^.ame time, Edwin, 
second son of Tliomaa frsftr, esq, to Eliaa, 

second dau of the same. At Quebec, Ed* 

ward D. ^Ae. e«iq. Lieut. RN. in cliarffe of 
t »bier>'atory, to Mnrcella, clde«f ^i^i* ..r the 
Rev. Gilbert Percy, Incumbent 1 -, 

Quebec. At St. Ives* WilU«ii i 

esq. of P'"' 'I*"-" t'^ Mary-Hichtu ... , -. ..^u. 

ofWsls. , tjf St, Ives, Corn vtaR 

At tittii i.^ni Henry GiUiat^ esq. of 

ClapLiLUj , — ,, ...L'y, eldest %*>rt >>( u iJiinni 
Gilliat«e>t|. ul liiirliani bouAe, Su- '.i, 

dau. of Adkin J.Gilliat,e*q,of ."^i 
- — At St. Ijfonard's-oci-Sea, 'lli„i„_. , . //, 
esq. barrister-at-lftw, to t^ura-Aune, fourth 
dau. of Capt, Pickering: Clarke, R.N.— At 
Manaj3eld, Hiomos Daniel St Georgie Smttk, 
esq. solicitor, of Derby, to Sarah, dau. of the 
late Francis Ellis, eaq. 

J9. At Lonic Mars ton, James Fenn clarktf, 
eaq. atiri(:eon, to .Sophia, eldest dan- of the In te 
Jamva ftforris, esq. of Magdalen bail, Oxford, 
^~At York, J, G, »S/ei"fM#oii, esq, of Skelliiijf- 
thorpe, near Lincoln, to Elixabetb, second tlau. 
of the late Michael Atkinson, esq. solicitor, 

* At Wyke Ref i», the Rev. Thomaji Mntekrt, 

Assist. Chaplain at Portland* son of Thomas 
Mawke-^K e*q. of Helper, to Ann-We*ton- 
Foviler, only survivinKdau. of the late John 

Flew, esq. tif Weymouth- At Waotloii, Lmc. 

Patte^on Arthur Holgate fjWw<v* e*U. of Bri^f , 
to linrriott*onlydaii. of J.G. St.ipyltociSniilli, 
e<^q. JudKe of the Lincolnshire Coouly Conrt, 
- — At Wentllebory, U.von, Ibe Rev. Henry 
Daiupier Phtif^, Vicar of Birlinj^', Kent, to 



I 




1^51.] 



MkFTiOgtt. 



im 



I 



FriB€c»^i 






lev. 



Lattlf. Atlte 






Joim Gibacf, 1 
Jtmet. All 
David 0«fT«i«^ cai. of ^ 
Aoac-Bokiiov, viiknr of 1 
E-L OtU Semee. *ai f 
Cb«tk, esq. of BM»eoo«afe 
Tort, tbe K^. Jobn JMte^ «r 1 

ctq.«#Ediab«fffc.- --— •— 



0^ S. 






riette-Ai 



Bar- 



t9 Ftortfficv, only dM. or lfe« RcT. J. H. BHgU:» 
IncDoibciit ^ htbtmmt. — -At -^-' ^ 



AfcliitwM Gar4am, en. M.II. o# 981^ R«t. I» 
MairdakMv tMoaA dwi. of tte late Ciafflw 

dav. of tte lata Waller Aakett VoMar* eaq. 

fiaegal Med. Serrke ^Ai Tofqaay^tlia Bcr. 

C?f«. CW««r, ftodar of ComptM Vmntbamp^ 
ficrtSf to CatbfiriBc, dan. of tha lata JUAt 
Hoa. Thos. P. CiENart««ar, — At Cbalil»cn«iDe« 
CormnlK tbe lUr GlaoriHa MmfSth of CMter- 
baaft, to Harhrt-Eliiabctb, oecocwl dan* of tte 
iUr W. Carwithen, D D. Rector of Sloke^ 

L At Stiraalloiiae. Edwin Godfrry 

Ba^ ^Ideat too of th« late Godfref 
_ J caq^ of Cluiqimtiin, co. Gslway^ lo 
Otii'Heiiriptta, frartli das. of Wm. HaraoD 
Bmy\j, e^.— At OiEfbrd« the Her. C&iopbelt 
W*4rk9vre, Aaoistmnt Cliaptem at Bomliar, 
tooDfett MQ of Edmond Wodehooae. esq. 
Ji^. to Martaeae Uord, meamd daa. or Ckas. 

1al» UfpA Biifaop a# QifcnL At St. lolio^i 

Paddincton. iout J lrwf cr, eaq. of Whitby, 
volicitor, only son of Sidkard weweter, esq. 
of GreatliftRit co. Dadtto!, to drmpia-Marf- 
Ann, eUlesr din. of tlie 1at« L. J. de la Cbau- 

Btette, rtQ. At Northfleet, Geonte, eon of 

tbe Late i«remiiifa Rt^ker* e«q« of Crete ball, 
Kant, to Marr-iUchel^ d«lc?tt dan, of John 

Brci>chley,^q. of Wf^mbwell hall At Hfffb 

Beadi, Essev, Major tl^^^arlh. C B Sfith Re^* 
to En«ti'V«nl0D, "foan^rest dau. of Tbomaa 
DawsoDf e*q. latt of Shtrn luiri, WaJthamatow. 

At 0»kley, SulTolk, FbiJip Henry Miekeli, 

eao. late Gipc^ftTtb' Rest, to Carolioe, widow 

of Rkianl Bacon FlrmnK, eaq. of Oampsatl. 

At Oiaafim, the tlon. Edraaod Geon^ Ptirft 
to MariaaDc-Jaiic, eldr^t dau. of Loraiae M. 

KflT, etOL At St, Jtnie&'» Westmioater, 

Hamaj) Ernest Galtom, e^q, of tbe 50tb Reft, 
third loa of J^ Howard Galtoa» esq. of Hadzor, 
Wort, to Uary-Cameron* eldest dau. of Arthur 
Aberrromby, e»q. of Glaaaan^rb. HanftMiire. 

At Freebay» near C%eadJe, ^ 

the Ber. Tboroaa ChmrUmv^d, 
nouHon, Kotts, toAnne-Rooansou s. 
of Reftr-Adra. Sneyd, of Huntley ball. LUoille. 
At Si. Micbiera Chester sq. Jeffery Grim- 
wood Grimtefi'ifi. tsi\, only iooof J. B^CoxenSf 



esq. of \' ^loTttiner lodge, Essci, to 

Zo«^ y* 1 of ibe iate Cbarle* Uer- 

bert-fH at-Jaw. 

u^vorlht ytafT. Richard Wiiriam 
J< of KoxlydUte house. Wore, to 

til J , eldfst dau. of John WJUiAmi, 

eaq. at vW Fnarj, Handswofth. At Sid- 

tnoutb* John, third son of John Mevbum, 
II [t. ,.r riiiiAda West, to Mary, eldo^r dau. of 
J i *q.— At Torquny, Atfred flfl/- 

loucester pi. Hydp park fsrdens. 
ti ...I. .-, >oQnsest dan. of the bite Georac 
\Vlt«#WaiJ, esq. of Babhicomb^. At m> 




Geort^a Ha m ai u aa. Ui 
CnaHaw K.H. Me oTlLM 

asd J-P. ttt ^if cova^ of BaaA^ , 

refiet af HevT %<Hn«r, coq.^ At IMw 

fteld,C^pt.a.B.€MaM»ort^ III r 11 I 
NX Ba«^.clihat snifi^ aoa a^lkTS 
Liest^-Gem. GcorfeCaokao^af RaicivdaRtf* 
Ba lava, HBajiit 6am^ m Jmm wbkjey^ 

eaq. af ^femSu. At SbnUaa. LaMp. tile 

Rev. F»bicRGeat«e JTIIi^wC atf tm^ta^ 
tfeiri aa« of tke late Rar. W«iis srOoaidl, 
CkDOB of IV l etla atistrt, to QKti»esla»e» «aitT 
daa, of t^ late JatoT^her* eaq,af M^ifciM. 
fievfeL- — ^At dt^Qeorr^ Hanomr a«^ ilM Rfv, 
Ri^ard Staaqier P&titit^ Ointe of ffainay 
to M arr-Chtftotte, Toa^vat «aa. of mdlmi 

TktteraiR, eaq. of HTde tttrk tatmtr- At 

BricMoD, the Rer. John Kf«cr<0f, Ree«or 
of MtieM, iuaex^to Gkrotis^ vaoMtat ilaB. 
of tte late Oal. 9awbridf«, of ZkaJA, Kmt. 
S. At Broadwater, Jamaa AtenAr Gm^ 
tfaa, eaq. 1I.D. of Borlbrd lodECb SBrrtT» lo 
EliBbdb-Catfcarioe. ddest dao. of *no«M 

Shmr Bnadieth, eaq. of Woity«ff . At SI. 

Iflebaera Fiiolioo, St Joto PmHi^tm, BaH. 
M.P. of Weatwood pailt, to Ao^iuta. dam. of 
tte late T. C. Do Ctvamnief , esq. and vidoir 
of CoL DoTiea* ILP. of Ebaley pork.^^ — ^At St. 
Mic^ael'a, Liverpool, WilHaaa Henry JUia- 
Mmge, eaq. of Liverpool and Woodwot, StaC 
to Kanaa-Ptaacea, fbortli du. of Joaepii 
BnKrita Yates, esq. of Weat INar>« boiiae» 
liverpooL— At Bedwortb« Warw. Besdaailn 
LmmtoMtert eaq. of Chester terr. RefHil^s pk, 
to Roaamtnu oan^ of the Rev. Henry Bellaua, 
Rector of Bedwortb.^At l>abUo, VFilliaoi 
Hm4§^ eaq. 96th Re^. M.N.I, to Maria- 
I^aisa, daii. of the late Rev. Richard Neville. 

Rector of Cktopriest, Cork. At Chiding- 

fold, Sorrey* Henry Yaldro KmrnltM, eaq. of 
Heath ball, Thorsley. to Emma, oaly dau. of 
Geon^ Otjier* e«q< of Unchakere* Sttaaex^-^-- 
At Blyth, W, Crtrrr. eso. of Braaxholni park* 
Roxb. to Sarah, widow of J. D'Arcy Ctark, eaq. 

Bamby rooor, Xotts. At St. Jamet*« Weat- 

minater, Frank* eldest son of Ftancia FTiiir, 
esq. of East Retford, to Saimb. eldest dau. of 
Joaepb Brooke Hoot, eaq^f Jo^ at. Bedford 

row. At Soutbaca* Westby-Hawkabaw, 

eldest aon of WettbT Prrrirof.cso. of Kniabts- 
brook, Heath, and erandson of Major^^eo. 
Ilawkshaw, to Sarah-Brook, roimfeat daa. of 
John Bailey, esq. M.D. of AroaklaadSf near 

Harwicb. At Worthiojr. Charles Henry 

Scott^ esq. M.D, to EUia-Catberine. relict of 
Major Anderson, of Clifton. 

*. At ii^t. James's Piccadilly, the Hon. Au* 

Itnstus IVraoa, to Lidy Harriet Anson. » 

At OUlon, Henry, voun^t son of the late 
Charlea Cooper^ esq. barrister at-1aw. to Mary. 
vonnrest daii. of the Ute Williain Palmer^ esq. 

of Bollitree, Heref. At Bradford^ York<ihire. 

WilUam Walter CoaaoM, e«q. of Bolton, Lsn- 
caabire, to Emma, third dau. of the Rev. D. 
Walton, 

10, At Fincbinrfeld, Ksaex, Lord dttpaak, 
to Cecilia-Suaan, oaa. of John Runles Bn»e, 
esq. of 3pain*s hall. Eaoex, and Careodisb, 

Snmklk. At Hampton, Matthew .^frwalrf, eaq. 

eldest son of tbe tate Dr. Arnold, of Hafby, to 
Fanoy-Liicy, third dan. of the Hon. .Mr. Jus- 
tice Wi|Ehloian. At Aberford. the Rev. 

Richard G. Ckatk, M.A. Rector of Wilden« 
Bedfordshire, to Julia, seventh dau. of tbe 
Rev. James Landon, B D- Lite Vicar of Aher- 



ford. At Umii. njii. 

say Slfieddtn. < 
of the lite < 
second dau. ' 

Dublin, ^■ 

Wm- Cot ML 1 
beth-Ann, eld 



^ilLcrion. Win. Linde* 

-I'siaoo 

Sophia, 

' I. esq. of 

JiaLI, WkU>, Jamea 

i^iimbav N I, Jo Elixa« 

8 the ilev. Eilw, W 



CaumeUI. Of tkHith Wianhall hon*r. 



190 



OBITUARY. 



The Eael or Dbrbt, K.G. 

JuJM SO. At Knowsley Park, Lanca- 
4lire, aged 76, the Right Hon. Edward 
Smith Stanley, 13th Earl of Derbj (1485), 
Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe (1832), and 
a Baronet (1627), K.G., Lord Lientenant, 
Cuftos Rotolorum, and Vice- Admiral of 
flM coait, of Lancashire, a Trustee of the 
British Maseum, President of the Zoolo- 
gical Society, and F.L.S. 

The late Earl of Derby was bom on the 
81st April, 1775, the eldest son of Edward 
the 12th Earl, and the only son by his 
first wife. Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, only 
daughter of James sixth Dnke of Hamil- 
ton. He was educated at Eton, and at 
Trinity college, Cambridge, where he re- 
oeiyed the degree of M.A. in 1795. 

At the general election of 1796, when 
he was just of age, he was returned to 
Psrliament for the borough of Preston, 
after a warm contest, in which he polled 
772 votes, Sir H. P. Hoghton 766, and 
John Horrocks, esq. 742. He was re- 
ehosen without opposition in 1803 and 
1806 ; and in 1807, by 1619 votes, Samuel 
Horrocks, esq. polling 1616, and Joseph 
Hanson, esq. lOOS. 

In 1813, on the resignation of Thomas 
Stanley, esq. of Cross Hall, Lord Stanley 
iras elected one of the members for Lan- 
cashire; which county he continued to re- 
present without a contest until after the 
enactment of Reform in 1832; and was 
then succeeded by his son. 

He was an efficient member of the 
House of Commons, and always a strenu- 
ous supporter of Whig principles. So 
early as 1797 we find lum dividiDg in fa- 
vour of parliamenUry reform. 

In 1832, (his father being then still 
living, at the advanced age of eighty,) in 
order to strengthen the Whig ministry in 
the House of Peers, Lord Stanley was 
odled up to that house, by the title of 
Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe, — a new 
creation, for the ancient baronies of Stan- 
ley and Strange of Knokyn had separated 
ttota the earldom on the death of the 5 th 
Earl in 1594, and have since remained in 
abeyance ; and that of Strange, by which 
fhe 7th Earl was first summoned to Par- 
liament rduring his father's lifetime) in 
1628, haoi idso separated from the earl- 
dom on the death of the 9th Earl in 1702, 
ahd is now vested in the Duke of AtholL 
From the year 1702 until 1832, the Earls 
of Derby had really no second title, though 
the son and heir apparent was usuaUy 
called Lord Stanley ; it is the same now 
with the Earl of Huntingdon and the Earl 
of Guilford. 



On the death of hia ftitber, Oct 91, 

1834, Lord Stanley became Earl of Dtahfi 
and he was elected a Knight of the Garter 
on the 17th of April, 1839. In 1844 hia 
son, then Secretary for the Colonies, waa 
called up to the House of Peers as EJaron 
Stanley of Bickerstaffe. 

The Earl was formerly Colonel of the 
Second Lancashire Militia, by commission 
dated in 1797. In 1828 he was elected 
President of the Linnnan Society in die 
room of Sir James Edward Smith, de- 
ceased ; he resigned the office in 1833« 
when he was succeeded by the Duke of 
Somerset. At a subsequent period he 
became President of the Zoological Society, 
which office he retained until his deatL 
So great was his attachment to zoology, 
that he had formed at Knowsley such col- 
lections of living animals and birds as far 
surpass any menagerie or aviary previously 
attempted by any private person in this 
country. 

Though neither a warrior nor a states- 
man, like so many of his noble progenitors, 
the late Earl of Derby was a most worthy 
representative of his illustrious house. 
His political career was noiseless and un- 
obtrusive, but his predilections were con- 
sistently in favour of the measures of the 
Liberal party of the state. His chief 
characteristics were hospitality and bene- 
volence, and throughout a long life he 
ever maintained most scrupulously in his 
own good acts and deeds the family motto 
'* sans changer.'' 

The Earl of Derby married, on the 30th 
June, 1798, Ms cousin Charlotte-Marga- 
ret, second daughter of the late Rev. 
(Geoffrey Hornby, by the Hon. Lucy Stan- 
lev, his father's sister: 'and by that lady, 
who died on the 16th June, 1817» he bad 
issue three sons and four daughters; of 
whom all the sons and two daughters sur- 
vive him. Their names are as follow : 1 . 
Edward-Geoffrey, now Earl of Derby ; 2. 
Lady Charlotte-Elizabeth, married in 1 823 
to Edward Penrhyn, esq. ; 3. the Hon. 
Henry Thomas Stanley, who married, in 

1835, Anne, daughter of Mr. Richard 
Woolhouse, and has issue ; 4. the Hon. 
Emily- Lucy, who died an infant ; 5. the 
Hon. Louisa-Emily, who was the first wife 
of Lieut ..-Colonel Samuel Long, nephew 
to the late Lord Farnborough, and died in 
1825; 6. Lady EUinor-Mary, married in 
1835 to the Rev. Frank George Hopwood, 
M.A. second son of Robert Gregge Hop- 
wood, esq. and grandson of John fifth 
Viscount Torrington ; and 7. the Hon. 
Charles James Fox Stanley, Colonel of the 
2nd Royal Lancashire Militia, who mar- 



F 



18*1.] Obituary-— 7^ Earl ofDerby^ Vitcount Melville. 191 

i« nowiblelor the unuAemcDt and tnitmcUoii 
of £li« ijij 



ried, in 1836t Fitnces-AagUfitA, daughter 
of Gen. Sir VLtnij F. Campbell, K.C.fi.t 
and haa if sue. 

Th« pre«eat Earl of Derby i» well 
kitovn as a statesman, and as the leader of 
the Protect to aiit party io the House of 
Lords. He married, in 1823, Kmina Cs* 
roltiie, second daugiiter of Edward Bootle 
Wilbnliun, eaq. noir Lord Skelmer^dalc, 
■nd ha« i^ue Edward- U(?nry» now Lord 
6<Uiiley of Bickerstatf^, M.P. for Kin^\ 
LgroQ, one other ion, and one daujyrhter. 

Tbe reiAaiiu of tbe late Earl were pri. 
cutely interred it tbe cbnpet of Ormskirk. 

He Ute Earl of Derby baa \tti hU 
•Qperb coUeetioQ of animals and birds to 
ttie Queen, if her Majesty will graciously 
please to accept them. In the event of 
her Mdjesty not desirin|^ to avail benelf 
of tbe bequest, they are to be ^ven to 
tbe Zoolog^ical Society, for the enrichment 
of their gardens la the Regent's Park. 
His very targe collection of stuffed animala 
and birds have hften bequeathed to the 
town of Liverpool. His wishes in this 
mnttcr have been communicated by the 
preaeot Earl to the Mayor of Liverpool 
in the Ibliowtng letter : — 

Knov*lfjf, Jvijf » 
6tR« — It was thi! anxiouA whh of my 'leaf 
aftd lamented lather, as it is niv onti, that tht 

bir i»UfOf 

bi' tth be 

di*t- . -i^M, vui ic.mUt. " .».- i«c »^ y^'n.tu.*; avail- 
able lo liie ajansemeni and ijistructiou of his 
eouatrj-men and neighbours- AmonjBp his pri- 
rate papers 1 fiud one upon this subject, em- 
bodyifif an arransTFinent upon which lie had 
commniucaied with me, which to clearly sets 
forth his VI Fws that 1 caDn-' '■' ^""^rthan 
transcribe his own words:— -kxious 

deftir*" that what I have* 'i^the 

lonr --''-'- 'Mhat has het^i* Kiiinr T, ,iie may 

be i i' particuUrly to tbe jp-atitica- 

tic Jd hope advautaget of tbe port 

Of L.M- 1 .M,.,i> with whtcb I have been more 
imnedisteljr conncctod, and in which I cannot 
boit leel a more din^ct Uitf^rest, 1 would desire 
that thi» nKtaeum sbould be placed in the care 
of * L»ody of trustees, after the model q( tbe 
Britihh MuAPUm, to hf plsred in the town or 
fxi-:'.' -- '■■:' 1--— r- ,' ''.^r^injr tbat tbe public 
ail A fit to erect some 

trti wbJcU miK^bt. per- 

h-i , Mii.i^r VM.: jilaccd iij c>.>ririt!\i'*ii 

w«i iCiati" InMituUon aJre.idy vMa- 

bli lowD. If this 5U{fyr*^'*'-ioiJ should 

Imt «u--iii-.j -f favourably reieived, I would 
propose that ihe Earl of l>rb> fur the time 
fteiiifr *nt\ ooe other nit'mb<?r of my family 
#b, •'• ► • :!^tee0i that my per»oiial friend 
B ahonid also be one daring his 

la he pleased to accept the trust ; 

a^ ■' rif Liverpool and the two 

|(r lor the time beiug i^^ball 

h< "io, nn the part of the* 

ti '"'■•'*■ ■■■' '- ' V and of 

EJ :»t the 

n ^» and 

tliai me-) iiuwjM.v.rt „.i i,.m i-j ^ s.. j, uumljer, 

to ftll up vacanaeTi as they shall occur, and to 
lay dovrn lulci and rcgulaltgiii fur tbe belter 



h» inbahitaots of the town and neighboor- 
hood in the first place, and nejLt, of the public 
iQ general. As it in my princip*! object by 
this arranicement to keep together in one body 
the coUcction which has been formed by m§, 
aod to dicvote it to the teiient of tbe rising 
generattOQ, I bave ventured to suggest m 
Being annexed to the Codegtate Institatlon, 
as by that means it would appear to be more 
directly available for the purposes of iusiniC' 
tion and reference ; and l would further udd 
my wiah that it should bear the name of it* 
original foouder, aa aome memorial of the 
intereft I have from boyhood felt in tbe study 
of natural history', and mv earneftl wish to 
make that which has formed a constant plea- 
sure during m\ own life as Car as possible 
conducive to the welfare and gratification of 
my fellow countrymen and ueighbouri." 

I bare only to request that you will have 
the kindness to bring this subject under the 
conaideralion of the council at tbe earliest 
period consiatent with your own couveniencer 
and Co express an earnest hope on my part 
that nothing in the conditions attached may 
interpose to prevent their acceptance of an 
offer which aeems to bold out no inconaider« 
able advantage to tbe population of Liverpool* 
aud which will place my father's extensive 
collection in a position ahke conducive to the 
rraliftcation m his frienda and neighbours,, 
honourable to himself* and en all accounts 

f ratifying to me at hij represenutive. I 
ave tne nonour to be yonr obedient servant, 
DEKBT. 

On receiving thii communicatioQ tbe 
Town CouncU recorded their grateful 
Bctitt for this mumfiocnC offer, and re- 
solved that the Library and Museum Coiu- 
mittee should confer with the Earl of 
Derby as to the best means of carrying 
into effect tbe wishes and InCentioiLB of 
tbe late earl. 



itokn^ement and preservation of tbe rauiwtum. "' ™*J ? ,7*^ T^r.^ » ■ ' 

SnSrthepnnxwsof makingitasbeaeflciai neraUy holding Ibc third pUce in 



ViacoDNT Mblvillv. 

June 10. At Melville Castle, aged 80, 
the Right Hon. Robert Dundas, second 
Viscount MelvillCr of Mdville, co. £din- 
burghr and Baron Duneira, of Duneira, co. 
Perth (1802); K. T, ; a Privy Councillor, 
Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, a 
Lieut. -General of tbe Royal Arcbera of 
Scotland, a Deputy Lieutenant of tbe comi- 
tiea ol Edinborgh and Linlithgow, Cban- 
oeUor of tbe University of St Andrew'*, 
Governor of tbe Bank of Scotland, a Com> 
mianotier of tbe Board of Tmsteec for 
Mannfacttirea in Scotland, a Commis- 
aioner for tbe Cnttody of the Regalia of 
Scotland, an Elder Brother of tbe Trinity 
House of London, a Vice- Preside ut of the 
Marine Society, F.R,S. and F.R.A.8. 

This nobleman was the only son of 
Henry firat Viscount Melville, formerly 
First Lord of the Admiralty, by bis irit 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of David Rainnie, 
esq. of Melville Castle. He vas born on 
the 14th of Marchi 1771 ; and educated 
at the High Sobool of Edinburgh, where 
he early gave promiae of great talent, gm~ 



192 



Obituary. — Viscount Melville. 



[Aug. 



rector's class, then taught by the learned 
and amiable Dr. Adam. The friendship 
which was then formed between Lord 
Melville and Sir Walter Scott, in these 
schoolboy days, was strengthened by their 
subsequent service together in the yeo- 
manry, and continued unbroken, save by 
one transient ripple, to the last. His 
lordship, in later years a welcome guest 
at Abbotsford, was with the poet at 
Ashiestiel in the autumn of 1808, when 
Mr. Murray came to consult Scott on the 
projected publication of The Quarterly 
Review. '* I mentioned it to Robert 
Dundas,** writes Sir Walter to Mr. George 
Ellis, ** who was here with his lady for 
two days, on a pilgrimage to Melrose, 
and he approved highly of it. Though 
no literary man, he is judicious, clair- 
voyant, and uncommonly sound-headed, 
like his father Lord Melville." 

The all-powerful influence of his father 
early opened the path of political honour 
to a son of such promise. In the year 
1803, he was returned to the House of 
Commons as member for the county of 
Edinburgh ; but he does not seem to have 
taken any prominent share in public busi- 
ness until he had been for some time in the 
House. The question of his father's im- 
peachment drew him frequently into de- 
bate in the vears 1805 and 1806. In the 
latter year ne was again chosen member 
for Mid- Lothian, at the general election. 
When the Grenville Ministry fell, in 
March 1807, the new premier, the Duke 
of Portland, bestowed the office of Pre- 
sident of the Board of Control upon the 
member for Edinburghshire. The ap- 
pointment necessarily vacated his seat, but 
ne was re-elected without difficulty. He 
now took a conspicuous part in the dis- 
cussions of the House of Commons, the 
subjects on which he spoke being chiefly 
those connected with Scotland, and with 
his own department of Indian affairs. In 
1809 the Duke of Wellington, then Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, was called from the 
Chief Secretaryship of Irdand to take the 
command of the British armies in Spain ; 
and Mr. Dundas was chosen to succeed 
him in Ireland. He did not, however, 
long retain the Irish Secretaryship; in 
Jan* 1810, soon after the formation of 
Mr. Spencer Perceval's administration, 
he returned to the Presidency of the 
Board of Control. The sudden death of 
his father, on the 29th of May 1811, 
called him unexpectedly to the Upper 
House. 

The melancholy death of Mr. Spencer 
Perceval led to the formation of a new 
ministry, with the Earl of Liverpool at 
its head, in the summer of 1812. Under 
this government, the First Lordship of 
11 



the Admiralty, with a seat in the Cabinet, 
was assigned to Viscount Melville; and 
his lordship continued to discharge the 
duties of that responsible and laborious 
office during the whole term of fifteen 
years that the Liverpool Ministry was in 
power. His lordship was possessed of 
high administrative talent, and his manage- 
ment at the Admiralty commanded gene- 
ral approbation. It was under his rule 
that the voyages for exploring the Arctic 
seas were undertaken and equipped, and 
the voyagers called more than one of their 
discoveries after his lordship's name. 

Viscount Melville retired from office on 
the accession of Mr. Canning, declining the 
seat in the cabinet which was urged upon 
him by that minister. Though standing 
aloof from the new premier, it was known 
that his lordship was at one with him on 
the great question of Roman Catholic 
Emancipation, inheriting on this point the 
well-known opinions of his father and Mr. 
Pitt. These opinions he had indicated as 
early as 1810. His lordship did not join 
the short-lived administration of Viscount 
Goderich ; but when the Duke of Wel- 
lington came into power in Jan. 1838, 
Viscount Melville resumed his place at 
the head of the Admiralty, and remained 
in office until the dissolution of the same 
Ministry in Nov. 1830. With that event 
—the precursor of a new order of things — 
his lordship's official career came to a 
close. He still, however, took an active 
interest in public affairs, and was of essen- 
tial service in the discussion or settlement 
of more than one important question. He 
was a member of the Royal Commission 
of 1826-30 for the Visitation of the Scot- 
ish Universities ; and, at a later period, of 
the Royal Commission for Inquiry into 
the Operation of the Poor-law in Scotland 
(1843-4) ; and of the PrUon Board for 
Scotland (1847). One of the last politi- 
cal questions on which he addressed the 
public was the Scotch Bank Acts of 1844 
and 1845. A considerable portion of the 
community had been seized with a panic 
terror that Sir Robert Peel was about to 
suppress the Scotch One Pound notes; 
and a speech delivered by Lord Melville 
at a meeting of the coun^ of Edinburgh, 
contributed not a little to the restoration 
of the public equanimity. The subject 
was one with which, both as a Cabinet 
Minister in the days of the Malachi Ma- 
lagrowther controversy in 1826, and as 
Governor of the Bank of Scotland (an 
office in which he succeeded his father), 
his Lordship was especially well acquainted. 
His feelings upon it were so keen as to oc- 
casion a temporary estrangement between 
him and Scott, but which was soon healed. 
Viscount Melville was not much distin- 



1S5L] Obituauy, — Right Hon. Wm, S, S. Lmcdka* 



19a 



gutfilied a^ a public speaker i what be bml 
to lay he faid briefly, but m a Vkhf tbat 
showed him to be fully miifikr of I he sub- 
\ jc«t under coDsideratiOD. In hia Jatler 
jtwn be ha« cbidly resided iu the county 
of Edinbargb, in the afikirs of wbich be 
evinced a deep interest, taking a leading 
jwrk in all that related to the management 
of the public road?, as well as in other 
local matters falling witbin the scope of 
his jurisdictioa as a Commisaioner of 
Supply and Justice of the Peace. In tbia 
humbler sphere he displayed in the dcclioc 
of life the same *]tiolitieH, useful rather 
than brilliant, by vvbicb be bad been dis- 
tinguished on a loftier Btage — ^justice afid 
iaiegritjr coasutomile skill and tJict in 
[ admioistratioti, perfect courtesy and tern- 
[.per J ^<!i't information, and that aeeyracy 
of obiervatioa and sound ocfiA of judgment 
\ wbich ire the issue of a ck^ar and well- 
^ Manccd intellect. He possessed a hale 
id figoroua constitution, and time ap. 
^ peared to hare sat very lightly upon bim. 
lie Wda attacked with bronebitis about 
ten days before his death, and the malady 
immediately assumed un abirming t^bape. 

Lord Melville was appoliitt*d Lord Privy 
Seal for Scotland in 1811. That office 
now empires with its salary of 2 7 J.'*/, as 
doe;* tbc annuity of lOOW. assigned to his 
Lordsbip as late Keeper of the 8ignets. 
He wa* elected a Ktiight of the Thistle in 
1821. He had held the office of a Go- 
Torncr of the Bank of Scollsiid from 181 1, 
I «nd that of Chrincellor of the University 
, of St, Andrew's from 1814. 

He married, on tbe 2yth Aug. 1796, 
[.Anne, daugbter and cobeir of Richard 
I Hack Saunders, M.D. sister to the tate 
^Countess of West morel arid, and grand- 
[ niece and co-beirpss to Adni. Sir Charles 
LSaundrrs, K.B., and bv tbat lady, who 
I died on tbe *Otb Sept. 1H4U he bad 
Ijaatie four sons and two daughters, id I of 
whom survive him : K Henry now Vis- 
count Melville I 2, the Hon. Richard 
k Saunders Dundii^t a CaptJiin R.N. and 
I C.B. ; a. tbe Hon. Robert Dundas, Store* 
J keeper-general of tbe Na?y ; \. the Hon. 
I Jftcie Dundnst unmarried ; 5. tbe Hon. and 
I Rev. Charles Dnndas, Rector of Ep worth 
I in Lincolnshire \ who married in 1B33 
i Louisa- Maria, eldest daughter of the late 
ISir William Boothby, Bart, and has a aa- 
linerous family ; and G. tbe Hon» Anne 
|Pandas, unmarried. 

The present Viscount is a Colonel in 

J the army and Lieut. -Colonel of tbe GOth 

lltiAes \ be hns been nominated a Knight 

IC^ommaQder of the Bath, for bis services 

lln tbe East, He ^a& born in 1801 ^ but is 

fmn married ; as arc bis two nejtt brothers. 

The bo<iy of the late Lord wus conveyed 

to the family vaults at the parish church 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XXXVL 



of Lasswndc, on the 17th of June. Tbe 
English service wa« read over tbc body io 
tbe afternoon, in tbc presence of the 
fnmily, tbe near relatives, and the house- 
hold, by the Hon. and Rev. Charles Dun- 
das ^ son of tbe deceased. The hearse was 
followed by tbe private carriage of the 
deceased, six mourning coaches, and the 
carriages of a number of the nobility and 
gentry. Among those present^ besides 
tbe present Lord Melville and bis bro- 
thers, were the Duke of Buccleuch, Lord 
John Scott, Lord Lauderdale, General Sir 
Anthony Maitlsnd, Lord Justice General, 
Lord Justice Clerk, Lord Murray, Lord 
Colonsay, Lord Dunfermline, Lord Bel- 
haven, Sir George Grant Suttie, Sir David 
Baird, of Ncwbytb, &c, Tbc shopkeepers 
and other mate inhabitants of Lass wade 
joined tbe procession, walking in pairs; 
and on reaching tbe churchyard they lined 
tbe avenue on both sides, from tbe gate 
to the funeral vault. 



Rtokt Hon. Wm. S. S. Lascellbs. 

Julif 2. At Camp den Hill, Kensington, 
in his 53d year, tbe Right Hon. William 
Saunders Sebright Lascelles, Comptroller 
of her Majesty's Household, a Privy 
CGuneillor, M.P. for Knare^borough, miA 
a deputy lieutenant of Yorkshire; next 
brother to the Earl of Harcwood. 

Mr. Lascelles wan born on the 29th 
Oct. 1798, the third son of Henry second 
Earl of lisrewoodf by Henrietta, eldest 
daughter of the late Sir John Sauoders 
Sebright, Bart. 

In LB20 he was returned to parliament 
for Northallerton, which borough had aU 
ways had a Lascelles for one of its mem- 
bers from the year 1745. in 1826 he re* 
signed his seat to his elder brother the 
pr^ent Earl. 

In 1835 he contested the borough of 
Wakefield in opposition to Its prerioaA 
(and Brst) mcttibcr, D&niel Gaskell, esq.; 
but Mr. Gaskell was successful by 273 
votes to 321. In 1837 he again opposed 
Mr. Gaskell, and defeated him by 307 
votes to ;^B1. Having sat for WakeAeld 
from 1837 to 1 84 1, Mr. I.»ascelleK was then 
opposed by Joseph Holdsworth, esq. who 
polled 3'?8 votes to his 300, and was con- 
sec|uent1y returned ; but, inasmuch as 
Mr. Holdsworth was bimseif tbe legal re- 
turning officer, Mr. Lascelles petitioned 
against him, and was restored to bis seat. 

He did not, however, renew bis preteo- 
ftioni at the last election in 1847 ; but 
was A candidate for Knaresborougb, and 
was returned after tbe following poll— 

Hon. Wm. S. Lascelles ... 158 

Josburt Proetor Wcsthead, esq. 128 

Andrew Law son, esq. , . . IH 
2C 



IM OsiTUARY^^-ile^. Sir Edward Codringtofh G.C.B. [Aug. 



Mr. Lascelles was appointed Comptroller 
of ber Majesty^s Household on the 24th 
July, 1847, having been sworn of the 
Priry Council two days before. 

He married, May 14, 1823, Lady Caro- 
line Greorgiana Howard, eldest daughter 
of George sixth Earl of Carlisle, K.G. ; 
and by that lady, who survives him, he 
has left issue four sons (besides three who 
died infants) and five daughters. His 
eldest son, Claude Lascelles, e8<). is an 
officer in the Royal Artillery. His second 
daughter, Henrietta- Frances, was married 
in 1849 to William George Cavendish, 
esq. M.P. for Peterborough, only son of 
tiie Hon. Charles Compton Cavendish, 
M.P. for Buckinghamshire. 

AoM . Sir Edw. Codrinoton, G.C.B. 

April 2S. In Eaton-square, aged 81, 
Admiral Sir Edward Codnngton, G.C.B., 
6.C.M.G., and F.R.S. 

Sir Edward Codrington was the third 
son of Edward Codrington, esq. (third son 
of Sir Edward Codrington, the first Ba- 
ronet, of Dodington, co. Gloucester,) by 
Anne, daughter of Miss Rebecca Le 
Sturgeon. 

He entered the navy the 18th July, 
1783, on board the Augusta jracht : and 
served j,in various ships until confirmed 
Lieutenant May 28, 1793. In 1794 he 
was Lieutenant of the Queen Charlotte, 
Lord Howe's flag-ship, in the action of 
the 98th and 29th May and 1st June, and 
waft entrusted with the duplicate dispatches 
of the victory. He was in consequence 
promoted on the 7th Oct. following to the 
Comet fire-ship and was posted into the 
Babel of 22 guns, on the 6th April, 1795. 
In June he bore a part in Lord Bridport's 
action with the French fleet ofi" lie de 
Croix ; and in July removed to the 
Druid 32, in which he cruised for some 
time off Lisbon, and waTln company with 
the Unicom and Doris frigates at the 
capture of the troop-ship La Ville de 
l^Orient on the 7th Jan. 1797. 

From that time he was not again em- 
ployed until 1805, when he was appointed 
ott the 24th May to the Orion 74, which 
wfts one of the ships engaged at Tirafalgar. 
For that victory he received a gold medal. 
He left the Orion in Dec. 1806. 

In Nov. 1808 he obtained the command 
of tiie Blake 74, in which he accompanied 
the expedition to Walcheren, with the flag 
of Lord Gardner, who acknowledged his 
assistance at the forcing of the Scheldt on 
the 14th Augast 1809. 

During 18l0andl81lCapt. Codrington 
was employed on the coast of Spain during 
the defence of Cadiz and Tarragona. In 
Jan. 1812 he was present on shore at the 
defeat of the French near Villa Lucca, and 



he continued to annoy the enemy along 
the coast of Catalonia, co-operating with 
the efforts of the Spanish patriots, durins 
the remainder of that year. He retumea 
home in Jan. 1813, and on the 4th Dec. 
following was appointed a Colonel of 
Marines. 

Soon afterwards he sailed to North 
America with his broad pendant in the 
Forth 40 ; and whilst there was promoted 
to the rank of Rear-Admiral, and ap- 
pointed, in the Tonnant 80, Captain of the 
Fleet under Sir Alex. Cochrane. Having 
hoisted his flag in the Havaonah 36, he 
took part in the attack on New Orleans, 
and at the conclusion of hostilities with 
the United States he returned to England 
with the official announcement of the 
capture of Fort Bowyer. He was nomi- 
nated a Knight Commander of the Bath 
on the remodelling of that Most Hon. 
Order Jan. 2, 1815 ; and was promoted to 
the rank of Vice- Admiral July 10, 1821. 

On the Ist Nov. 1836 Sir Edward Cod- 
rington was appointed Commander-in- 
Chief of the Mediterranean squadron, 
having his flag in the Asia 84. It was in 
this capacity that he took the leading part 
in the battle of Navarin on the 20th Oct. 
1827, when the fleet of the Pacha of 
Egypt was destroyed by the combined 
squadrons of Great Britain, Russia, and 
France. The Asia was hotly engaged in 
this' conflict. After having disposed of 
two Egyptian men-of-war, she became ex- 
posed to a severe raking fire, which carried 
away her mizen-mast and dismounted 
many of her guns. Sir Edward Codring- 
ton was himself struck, and his watch 
shattered in his pocket. The victory, 
however, was complete. Out of a fleet 
composed of eighty-one men-of-war, only 
one frigate and fifteen small vessels were 
in a state ever to be again put to sea. In 
reward for this distinguished service, Sir 
E. Codrington was advanced to the dignity 
of the Grand Cross of the Bath; while 
from the Emperor of Russia he received 
the Grand Cross of St. George (accom- 
panied by a very flattering letter), and 
from the King of France the Grand Cross 
of St. Louis. In consequence, however, 
of the divided opinions of politicians at 
home upon this occurrence, which was 
characterized by the Duke of Wellington 
as an *' untoward event," and in which 
Sir Edward was by some considered to 
have been instigated too far by his phil- 
Hellenic prepossessions, he was recalled 
from the Mediterranean in April 1828. 

He afterwards, with his flag in the Cale- 
donia, commanded a squadron of observa- 
tion in the Channel in 1831 ; and, having 
attained the full rank of Admiral in 1837, 
was appointed 22 Nov. 1839, Commander- 



185 L] 



Obituary- — Sir J, Graham Dal^ell, BarL 



105 



in-Chief ftt PorUmoutb, which Btatioa he 
occupied for the caatomary period of 
[ttree years. He unjoyed a good'Serricr 
I pcniion of 300/. 

In 1832 he became one of the first re- 
entatires of the Dew borough of 
^evonport, being returned with Sir George 
" ej aflcr & content which terminated m 
btlows : — 

Sir George Grey, Bart. . , 1178 

Sir Edwnrd Codringtoa , . 891 
George Leach ^ esq* . * • 575 
HjsparliiimentBry conduct wu so popa- 

r, thnt at the election of 1835 he was 
placed at the head of the poll, the numbers 

jing» for — 

Sir Edward Codriogton , , 11 U 
Sir Geiorge Grey, Bart. . . 956 
6. R» Dawsoni esq. ... 764 
tn 1837 be was re-cho»en without a 
onteit : and be resigned at the close of 
ltS9| upon taking the command at Porta- 
Qth. In Parliament he had aiwajs 
' supported the measures and proposltioni 
of the Liberal party. 

Sir Edward Codriugtou married Dec. 
27. 1802, Miss Jane Hall, of Old Wind- 
sor ; and by that lady, who died on the 
22d Jan. 183Tt he had issue a numerous 
familj. His eldest son, Edward, when 
a mtdflhipmon of the Cambrian frigate, 
was drowned off the island of Hydra. 
Hli eldest surriTing son is Lieut. -Colonel 
WHMam John Codrington, of the Cold- 
■faream Guards ; Henry John Codriugton, 
is a Post Captain R,N. He was severely 
wounded in the battle of NaTario, when 
with hia father as a midshipman of the 
Aiia^ and ajfterwards took a prominent 
ahare in the def truction of the batteries of 
Acre in l>!*40, on which occasion he was 
nominated a Companion of the Bath. Jane- 
Barbara, Sir Edward's eldest daughter, 
waa married in 1843 to Capt. Sir Thomas 
Bourohier, K.C.B., and left a widow 
in 1849; Caroline was married to Joseph 
Lyons Walrond, esq. of Antigua, and 
diad his widow in 1833; Elizabeth died 
unmArried. 

The body of Sir Edward Codriugton 
was interred on the 3d May, in the family 
rauit at St. Peter's, Eatoo-eqaare ; at- 
tended by his two sons, by his nephew 
Sir Christopher William Codriugton, B&rt. 
and his nephew (by marria4;e) the Hon. 
Arthur Tbellusson, 



Sia J. GnARAM Dalyrll, Bart. 

Jun§ 7. At Edinburgh, in bis 74th 

'^ar« Sir John Graham Da1yell» the sixth 

Bart, of Binna, co, Linlithgow, President 

of the Society for promoting Uteful Arts 

in Scotland, a Vice-PreaidAfit of the So- 



ciety of Antiquaries of Scotland, and of 
the African Society of Paris, &c« 

He was the second son of Sir Robert 
the fourth Baronet, by Eliiabeth, eldest 
daughter of Nicol Graham, esq. of Gort- 
more, and tlie Lady Margaret Conyngham 
hii$ wife, eldest daughter of William 
twelfth Earl of Gleocairn. In 1 797 he waa 
admitted an advocate at the Scottish bar. 

Devoting himself to letters with an en- 
thuTsiasm which animated him to the last, 
he immediately turned his attention to 
the maonscript treasures of the Advocates' 
Library, and within a year cr two after he 
was enrolled as a member of the faculty, 
produced hia first quarto — Fragments of 
Scottish History — containing, among 
other matter of interest or valoe, the 
characteristic Diary of Robert Birrell, 
bnreess of Edinburgh from 153*2 to 
1*)08. Thi« was followe<l in the year 
1801 by a collection of Scottish Poems 
of the Sixteenth Centnry, in two octavos, 
published, like ita predecessor, by the 
celebrated Archibald Constable, whose 
old- book shop at the Cross was already a 
favonrite resort of antiquaries and men of 
letters. In the preface to this work, Mr. 
Graham Dalyell stated that, in the course 
of his preparatory researches, he had 
eiamined ** about seven hundred volumes 
of manuscripts* '' In 1809 appeared a 
** Tract chiefly relrttive to Monastic An- 
tiquities, with some Account of a recent 
search for the Remains of the Scottish 
Kings interred in the Abbey of Dunferm- 
line "^ — the first of four or five thin oc- 
tavos in which Mr. Graham Dslyell called 
attention to those ecclesiastical records of 
the north, so many of which have since 
been printed by the Bannatyne, Maitland, 
and Spalding Clubs, under the editorial 
care of Mr. Cosmo Innes. The chartu- 
lariei which occupied the attention of Mr 
Graham Dalyell were those of the Bishop- 
rics of Aberdeen (16*20)^ and Murray 
(1826), the Abbey of Camhuskenneth, 
the Chapel Royal of Stirling, and the 
Preceptory of St. Anthony at Lcith (to- 
gether, in 1828). 

In the interval the author had given to 
the pubUc, editions of the Journal of 
Richard Bannatyne, the secretary of 
John Knox, and of the Scottish Chronicle 
of Lindsay of Pitscottie, Mr. Dalyell 's 
edition of tliis most pleasing of northern 
annalists is still the best, though it is pro- 
bably destined to be superseded by the 
more complete edition which Lord Lind- 
say has undertaken. 

Another of his prodncdons waa "Some 
Account of an Ancient Manuscript of 
Martial's Epigrams," illustrated by an 
engraving, and occasional anedlotea of the 
Manners of the Romans. 181 L 9vd. 



196 Sir J. A. B. M. MacGregOTy Bt.—Lord Dundrennan. [Aug. 



(Only thirty copies printed ; six on veU 
lam.) 

A later and more laborious work of Mr. 
Graham Dalyell was his Essay on the 
Darker Saparstitions of Scotland, 1834, 
8?o — a performance which embodies the 
fruit of much patient study in rare or 
little-read works, and affords many cu- 
rious glimpses of the popular mythology 
of the north. The long list of the histori- 
cal productions of Sir John Graham Dal- 
yell closes with his Musical Memoirs of 
Scotland, published little more than a 
twelvemonth ago, at the distance of fifty 
years from the date of his first book. He 
was devotedly fond of music, and in this 
handsome quarto he has condensed the 
fruit of researches on a favourite subject, 
assiduously cultivated through a long lite- 
rary life. It is illustrated by many inte- 
resting engravings, and its* pages preserve 
a few of those social anecdotes which its 
author was accustomed to relate with much 
vivacity. 

He was further distinguished by his 
acquaintance with mechanical science, and 
still more by his love of natural history. 
In this department of knowledge he pub- 
lished — 

Observations on some interesting phe- 
nomena in Animal Physiology, exhibited 
by several species of Planariae, 1814, 8vo. 

Rare and remarkable Animals of Soot- 
land, represented from living subjects: 
with practical observations on their na- 
ture. 1847, 4to. A handsome work, in 
two costly quartos, containing more than 
a hundred coloured plates drawn from the 
liring subjects. 

The number and extent of Sir John 
Graham Dalyell's works appear surprising 
to those who are acquainted with his fasti- 
dious habits of composition. Some of 
his performances he copied four or five 
times over, before he would commit them 
to the press. 

He was also the author of various arti- 
cles in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Sir John Dalyell received the honour of 
knighthood by patent under the great 
teal in the year 1836. He succeeded to 
the family title on the death of his elder 
brother, Sir James, Feb. 1, 1841. 

He was unmarried, and is succeeded in 
the baronetcy by his brother, now Sir 
William Cunningham Cavendish Dalyell, 
Commander R.N. of the Royal Hospital 
at Greenwich. This gentleman married, 
in 1830, a daughter of Mr. Sampayo, of 
Peterborough House, and has issue two 
sons and two daughters. 

Sir John A. B. M. MacGregor, Bart. 

May 11. At the Government House, 

Tortola, aged 40, Sir John AthoU Banna- 



tyne Murray MacGregor, the third Bart. 
(1795), of Lanrick, co. Perth, a deputy 
lieutenant of that county, and Governor 
of the Virgin Islands. 

He was the son and heir of MiQor- 
General Sir Evan John Murray Mac- 
Gregor the second Baronet, C.B. and 
K.C.H. formerly Governor-general of the 
British Windward and Leevrard Islands, by 
Lady Elixabeth Murray, youngest daugh- 
ter of John, fourth Duke of Atholl, K.T. 
He succeeded to the baronetcy on the 
death of his father, June 14, 1841 (see 
our voL XVI. p. 540) . His father had ob- 
tained licence, by royal sign-manual, dated 
6th Sept. 1822, to resume the ancient 
name of MacGregor, as the head of that 
clan, which had been obliged to suppress 
their surname during their proscription by 
the Campbells of Argyle. 

It was only at the close of last year that 
Sir John was appointed to administer the 
government of the Virgin Islands, where 
he had arrived only seven weeks before 
his death, and assumed the government on 
the 24th of March. 

He married, Nov. 14, 1833, Mary- 
Charlotte, youngest daughter and co-heir 
of Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 
Bart. ; who is left his widow, having had 
issue Sir Malcolm, his successor, bom in 
1834, and four other children. 

Lord Dundrennan. 

June 10. At the house of his brother, in 
Melville-st. Edinburgh, in his 59th year, 
Thomas Maitland, esq. Lord Dundrennan, 
one of the Lords of Session and Justiciary. 

He was the eldest son of the late Adam 
Maitland, esq. of Dundrennan abbey, co. 
Kirkcudbright ; and was born at that place 
on the 9th Oct. 1792. He was educated 
at Edinburgh, and was called to the Sco- 
tish bar in Dec. 1813. He had, for some 
years, a very extensive practice, particu- 
larly in jury cases. He is said to have 
been among the best " staters '' of a case, 
but less skilful in that fertility of resource 
which is deemed requisite for a successful 
pleader** in reply." On the promotion 
of Lord Ivory in 1840, he succeeded to 
the office of Solicitor-General, which he 
held until Sept. 1841, when the govern- 
ment of Lord J. Russell was supplanted 
by that of Sir R. Peel. On the death of 
Mr. Murray of Broughton, in 1845, he 
came forward as a candidate for the repre- 
sentation of the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, and was elected by a majority of 
142 votes over the Tory candidate Colonel 
M*DoualI, polling 486 votes against 434. 
When the Whigs returned to power in 
July 1846, he was again appointed Solici- 
tor-General, and elected without opposi- 
tion, as he was again at the general elec- 



1 8510 Obit u ary.— William Adams, Esq, LL.D. 



197 



I 



tloD of 1347. He held llie office of ScLi- 
citor-GeneraJ from 1846 until the begiu- 
oing of I8ri(l, when* oa the death of Lord 
Jeffrey, be waft raised to the heoch, nod 
niisunied the title of Lord Dundrenuan. 

Lord Duadrenriaa's judicitil career waa 
brief, but ibort a^ it was it more than ful- 
flUed the ejtpectatioos of liis frieiid^. He 
latterly bcatowfd much atteution on the 
management of his estate, and was an 
active and intelligent planter and agrii^nl- 
tund improper. At an earlier period he 
devoted himnelf to literary pursuits, the 
Uste for which J indeed, uever deserted 
him. He took pleaeare to tbo tast in 
adding to the storea of his 5ne library* 
The tlttdenti of Scoti*h literature have to 
thaok Mr. Maitland for a handsome re- 
print of Bellenden*« translation of Livy 
and Hector Boece, which he edited about 
tvrenty years ago ; and we may add, tlvat 
it waa mainly through his exertions, about 
two yeari ago, that the Bannalyne and 
Maitland Club^ undertook a reprint of 
that rare and valuable work, tlic Aberdeen 
Breviary » 

Mr. Mainland married, in July 1815, 
Uabella Grab am Macdowallr third daugh- 
ter of the late James Macdowall, esq. of 
Garthlaiid, and niece to thekte Lord Hcr- 
mand« By tlus kdy^ who survives him, 
he haa kft iissudfour sooa and two daugh- 
ter!. — MdmbuTjfk Courant. 

William Adams. Esa. LL.D. 

/lOK 11- At his residence, Thorpe, co. 
Surrey, in his 80th year, William Adam a, 
eiq. LL.D. of Thorpe aforesaid, and of 
Dummer Grange^ Hants, formerly an ad- 
vocate in Doctors* Commons. 

He wa* born Jaoy, 13, 1772, at bis 
fktber^a house, 39, Hatton Gsrden, being 
the youngest son of Fatieoce Thomas 
Adams, esq. of Bu^hey Grore, Herts, who 
was the second son of James Adams, of 
New Jenkins, co. Essex, esq. whose father 
M^jor Adams was the hrst who kft the 
coliDty of Pembroke (where the family had 
for many tenturiei* been of considerable 
local influence), his father having about the 
tiiae of the Restoration dissipated a large 
fortane and an estate in South Wales, 
which had been for many generations tn 
the family. Tlie present John Adams, 
esq. of Holyland, co. Pembroke, repre- 
sents the family of Adams of Paterdmrch 
in that txmuly, from which this branch de- 
rives. The estate of New Jenkins, co. 
Essex wa*, since A.D* 1592, in the family 
of Gill, keepers of the lions in the Tower 
of London (of whom there is a long ac- 
count in the Collectanea Topograph ica ct 
Genealogiea. vol. viit. p. 280), whence it 
came to the Spjcer family, by the marriage 
in A.D. 1(i8a» of Mary Gill, sister of the 



last proprietor, to John Spioer. esq. of 
Sinn don, co. Herts, b&rrister-at4aw, whose 
grand-daughter, Mury Spicer (daughter of 
Luke and sister of Ralph de Xjalo Spicer. 
esq. alsoof New Jenkins,) married the 28th 
of June, 1724 the abovc-mentioaed James 
Adiims, the first of that place. It is dow 
in the possession of the Rev. Charles Beau- 
champ Cooper, Rector of Morley, co. Nor- 
folk, grandson and heir of the Rev. James 
Adams, Rector of South Ockingdon, co. 
Essex, the eldest son and heir of the said 
James Adams, who first settled in that 
county. 

Dr. Adams was by his mother's side 
lineally descendeil from the parents of 
William of Wykeham, through the families 
of Cracroft, Barker, Daovers, and FienneSi^ 
Lords Say and Sele, in right of which de- 
scent his brother, the Rev, Jameii Adams, 
late Rector of Chastleton, co. Oxford, 
was admitted Fellow of New College, as 
founder's kin. Their mother 's name was 
Martha, only child of Thomas Marsh, of 
Loudon (son of Henry and Ann Marsh, 
and grandson of Thomas Marsh, of Stouy 
Stratford, co, Bucks), by Martha, only 
child of John Gerard, also of London, 
whose wife, another Martbii, was daughter 
of Charles Cracroft, of Louth, co. Liii« 
coin, esq. 

At an eorly age he wag sent to Tun* 
bridge school, then under the learned Ur, 
Yicesimus Knox, where he distinguished 
himself greatly by his steady application to 
books, and acquired the friendship of the 
late Edward Daniel Clarke, LL,D. the 
cekbrated traveller. He left Echool at 
the age of 16, matriculated at Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, 17th Dee. 1788, and subsc. 
quently became a Fellow of that society. 
He had been ioteuded by his father to 
succeed him in the office of Filazer of the 
Court of King's Bench ^ held by him for 
about .10 years, being then worth 2,000/. 
a year, (See London Gaaette, May 18 to 
21, A. D. 1 793) and a treaty for purchasing 
the reversion of it was pending, when his 
premature death in his ."iZth year, on May 
:2ud, 1793,athis house in Hatton Garden, 
put a stop to the transaction. Lord Ken- 
you conferred the office on the Hon, 
Lloyd Kenyon, his eldest son, then under 
17 yean of age, and subsequently on the 
Hon. Thomas Kcnyon, his third son, who 
now receives a pension of above 4,000/. a 
year, for consenting to its having been 
abolished. Scarcely two year? after hii 
father's death followed that of his mother, 
on Feb. 19, nO.'i, in her hM\i year, at her 
residence at Enfield, whither she had re- 
moved after her husband's death, htkti, the 
sale of the Hertfordahirc estate. (Gent. 
Mag. vol. Uv, p.p. 175. 253, and 345). 
By her death he inherited some property 




198 



Obituary. — WiUiam Adamt, Esq. LLJ). 



[Aug. 



at and near Attleborough, in Norfolk, of 
which, however, he inbseqnently ditposed. 

Dr. Adams commenced his le^^ edaca- 
tion by being more than two years in a spe- 
cial pleader*s office, applying himself to the 
study of common law, and attending the 
oonrts at Westminster Hall, until about 
the age of S5, when he began to attend 
the courts at Doctors' Commons. In 
1799 he took the degree of LL.D., and on 
Not. 4th of that year was admitted into 
die College of Advocates, where he resided 
for the next twelve years. In a short time 
his professional practice became very ex- 
tensive, and in 1805 he was offered the 
place of King's Advocate General, then 
worth about 6,000/. a year, which he de- 
dined, thinking, as afterwards indeed took 
place, that on the cessation of the war the 
income would be considerably reduced and 
the expenditure continue much the same. 
It was accepted by the late Sir Christopher 
Robinson, one of his most intimate friends. 

On Nov. 14, 1811, a commission issued 
from the Lords of the Admiralty to him 
and several other civiUans, to prepare 
tables of fees, and regulate the practice of 
the Vice-Admiralty Courts abroad. This 
they accomplished in about two years' time, 
entering very fully into subjects of a local 
nature connected with the diflferent coun- 
tries, and taking as a basis the practice of 
the High Court of Admiralty, excepting in 
the case of Sierra Leone, where an old 
table had been for some time in use, which 
herwever was then greatly modified. These 
tdi>leswere confirmed at Carlton H ouse, July 
15, 1813, (Lord Stowell expressing his 
great oonfidence in the ability and integrity 
of the Commissioners) and they were ac- 
cordingly used in the respective courts. 

His next public employment was on 
July 30, 1814, as a Commissioner, to- 

Sther with the late Lord Gambier and 
r. Goulburn, afterwards Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, to negociate and conclude 
a treaty of peace with the United States 
of America, shortly after the capture of 
Washington. (Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxiv. p. 
287). They arrived at Ghent in Flanders 
ton the6th of August following, and found 
he American Commissioners, one of whom 
was the celebrated John Quincy Adams, 
afterwards President of the United States, 
dready there. The proceedings commenced 
on the 8tfa, and, owing chiefly to the dispute 
about including the Indians in the pacifica- 
tion, eontinaed nearly five months. Dr. 
Adams undertook the sole preparation of the 
dispatches relating to maritime rights and 
subjects of that kind, which were the most 
important parts of the treaty, and it was 
his custom to prepare on the previous 
night a synopsis of the various turns the 
dtocnssion might take the next day^ and 



the answers most fitting to be made by 
himself and the two other Commissioners. 
At last a compromise was effected, and a 
treaty of peace and amity (given in full in 
the Annual Register, vol. 57, p. 353) was 
concluded, and the Commissioners shortly 
afterwards returned. (Gent. Mag. vol. 
Ixxxiv. p. 665). 

A few months subsequently a letter 
from Lord Stowell informed him that his 
diplomatic conduct at Ghent was highly 
approved of by Government, and that (on 
Lord Stowell's mention of his name to 
Lord Sidmouth) he had been named one of 
the Commissioners of Inquiry into the 
Duties, Salaries, &c. of the Courts ot Jus- 
tice in England (usuallv called the Fee 
Commission), with a salary of 1 ,S00/. a 
year. Accordingly on Feb. 9th, 1815, he, 
together with John Campbell, esq. then 
one of the Masters in Chancery, the late 
Lord Chief Baron Alexander, the late 
Judge Burrough, and Wm. Osgoode, esq. 
formerly Chief Justice in Canada, was so 
constituted. They proceeded to make 
reports on the Court of Chancery, King's 
Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, 
and subsequently on all the Ecclesiastical 
Courts. In preparing the table of fees 
Dr. Adams always steadily opposed too 
great a deduction being made, lest the dif- 
ferent offices should be rendered liable to 
be filled by persons unequal to perform 
their duties properly. This commission 
lasted for about nine years, and Dr. Adams 
continued all that time upon it It ap- 
pears that the number of days on which 
they met as a board were nearly 200 in 
each year, and that most of the business 
was transacted by the Commissioners sepa- 
rately. 

In June 1815, at the instigation of Lord 
Castlereagh, Dr. Adams, together with the 
present Earl of Ripon and Mr. Goulburn, 
were named Plenipotentiaries to treat of 
and conclude a convention of commerce 
between Great Britain and the United 
States, which was accordingly concluded, 
and signed in London, on July 3rd, in the 
same year. 

In Dec. 1815, by the death of Sir Wm. 
Wynne, the mastership of Trinity Hall 
became vacant. On his deathbed he had 
expressed his anxious wish that Dr. Adams 
should succeed him in that office, saying 
that he considered him the most eminent 
man at that time in the college. This was 
signified by Lord Stowell to Dr. Adams, 
who accordingly consented to be a candi- 
date, though he had some years since ceased 
to be a Fellow. Mr. Le Blanc however, 
who undertook to announce Dr. Adams' 
intentions to the other Fellows, having at 
first declined the honour for himself, sub- 
sequently changed his own mind, and was 



,] Obituary.^— F^tV/iam AdamSf Esq* LL*D. 



15*9 



I 



elected maiiter ; and, though on bb tem- 
porary resignatioQ in Dec. 1818 Dr. 
AdttDA w&fl stroogly urged a^am to come 
forward, be declined so to do, allej^iag 
that be could not now fulfil the dying wish 
of hblate eminent friend of being biAimme- 
mediatesuccefsor* and thereby prevent the 
interruptioD of tbe lineofcivilmnaas mostera 
which he bad deaired, both for the sake of 
the profcifllon to which be belonged, and 
from a beUef that all tbe modem benef ac- 
tion! to that aodety bad been from that 
branch of tbe profeanion. 

On July 5th, 1820, tbe bill for the 
dlTorcemeDt of Queen Caroline was read 
the first time in the House of Lords, and 
on the following day the couutcl for tbe 
Bill were called in. They consisted of the 
Attorney* General^ (Gi fiord] tbe Solicitor- 
General, (Copley) Sir C* Robinson, Dr. 
AdamSf and the pre»eDt Mr. Baron Parke. 
Of this trial there iti a famous picture by 
Sir George H ay ter^ often engraved, in which 
are the portraits of all the persons engaged 
therein. The perusal and preparation of 
the numerous papers relating to this affair, 
and his other professional busineaa, having 
increased to a very great degree, obliged 
Dr. Adams frei^uently to sit up tbe whole 
nighty and aQow himgi^lLf scarcely any re- 
lAiation. Very shortly after this bia health 
began to |^ve way, and at len|fth, in Sept. 
1825, he relinquished his profession, and 
retired finally from practice. 

On May ilat, IBI^O^ be gave evidence at 
some leogth before tbe £cclesiastic4l Com- 
missioners touching the practihe of those 
Courts, and again, on June 24tb, 1833, at 
a ftill greater length before the Select 
Committee on the Admiralty Courts, 
maintaining strongly tbe ueoeBsity of a 
separate bar for civilians^ to enable Lbem to 
cooline their attention to the laws of 
natioDS in maritime and other matten 
(which are always likely to arise suddenly 
on &e first break out of a war), and shew* 
iaf also that in the time of peace some 
other employment (such aa now exists) 
was absolutely neoeaaary for the purpose 
of keepuig tbem together as a body. (See 
the Reports of those dates.) 

For tbe l^^t fifteen years of his life Dr. 
Adams resided constAntly at Thorpe, in 
Sorrey, and he always shewed himself ac- 
tive to tbe interests of bis parish by his 
constant attendance at vestries, savings^ 
banks, and such like duties. His loss will 
be deeply felt by hi^ uelgbbourti, to whom 
hii perfect knowledge of ecclesiastical law 
was a frequent assistance; by the poor, to 
whom he was a constant and liberal beoC' 
£utor; and by all around him, on whom 
his example of continual tself. denial and 
consistent uprigbtneascan never be thrown 
away« 



He enjoyed, amon|^t that of m^ny 
others, the friendship in a particular degree 
of tbe late Lords Eldon and Stowell, Sir 
John Nicholl, Dean Miluer, Mr. Wol- 
laston, Admiral Sir John Borlase War- 
ren, Lord Gambler, Archdeacon Wrang- 
ham. Sir Alexander Croke, the learned 
Dr. Bennet, Bishop of Cloyne, &c. 

He married first, Aug, 31,1 803, at Kens- 
worth, Herts, Sarah, daughter and co- 
heiress of the Rev. Thomas Scott, Rector 
of King's Stan ley , co. G loncestcr, descended 
from tbe ancient families of Herbert, of 
Tiiitern Abbey, and that of Rokeby, of 
Rokeby (Gent. Mag. vol. lxxii.p. 880). She 
died, however, shortly afterwards on Feb. 
3rd, 1806, and was buried the 8th follow- 
ing at Chelsea, leaving no issue. (Gent. 
Mag. vol. Ixivi. p. 1 85). The death of her 
sister, Emma Anne Scott, which happened 
in Feb. lest, is recorded in Gent. Mag. 
voL xiiv. K.sj, p. 330. 

UJB second wifb, the Hon* Mary- Anne 
Adams» who surviTes him, was daughter 
and coheiress of the late Hon. William 
Cockayne, of Rushton Hall, co. North- 
ampton, and niece of Borlaae sixth Lord 
Viscount Cullen, after whose death, un- 
married, in 18 10, the title became ex- 
tinct. She was raised by patent, Sept. 4, 
183B, to the rank and precedence of a 
Vigcotmt's daughter. (Gent. Mag. vol. x. 
N.ti. p* 438J. Their marriage was per- 
formed April 6, 1ft 11, by the Lord Bishop 
of Cloy DC, at Marylcbonc Church, at the 
same time with that of her siAter to T. P. 
Maunsell, esq. of Thorpe Malsor, co. 
Northampton, now M.P. for North North- 
amptonshire. By her Dr. Adams had four 
sons and four daughters, all of whom sorrive 
him. Tbe eldest son, the Rev. William 
Cockayne Adams, M. A. Rector of Dummer, 
Hants, inherits bis father's estate at Dum- 
mer Grange and the advowson o{ Dum- 
mer ; while some property at Nutley, also 
in that county, is devised to his fecood 
bon, Borlase Hill Adame, esq. M.A. bar- 
rister •at-law, of Lincoln's Inn. The third 
son the Rev. Henry W' illoughby Adams, 
M.A, is now curate of Stbbertoft, co* 
Northampton \ and the youngest, George 
Edward Adams, B.A. ts a student- at-law, 
of Lincoln's Inn. 

The marriage of his second daoghteri 
Georgians- Cidbanne on June 4th, 1839, 
to her first cousin, the Rev. George Adams, 
B.D. of ChastletOD^ co. Oxon (which he 
inherited from his father^ the Rev. James 
Adams, Rector of Cbastletou, aforesaid) ^ 
and Rector of Famdon, co. Northampton, 
is in GenL Mag. vol. lii. n.s. p. 195; and 
that of his third daughter, Louisa- Anne, on 
May 6th, 1845, to Henry H. Gtbbs, of 
Clifton Hampden, co. Oion^aiidof Alden* 
bam House, Herttf oiq. ^eat-nephew of 




200 



Obitv AKY.—Lieul.'CoL C. C. Michelly KM. 



CAug.^ 



ihe late Lord Chief Jastioe Gibbs, is in 
Gent. Mag. vol. xxiv. n.s. p. 74.) His 
eldest and youngest daughters, Barbara- 
Margaretta Adams, and Eliza Adams, are 
both unmarried. 

The house and other property at Thorpe 
are devised to his widow, the Hon. Mary- 
Anne Adams. Dr. Adams continued in 
his usual health till Saturday June 7th, 
when he complained of a pain in his side, 
caused as afterwards appeared by in- 
flammation of the lungs, which in less than 
four days proved fatal to his existence. 
His remains were interred on the 17th in a 
TEult in the churchyard of Thorpe. 

LlEUT.-COL. C. C. MiCHELL, K.H. 

March 28. At Eltham, on the eve of 
completing his 58th year, Lieut. Col. 
Charles Comwallis MicheU, K.H., K.T.S. 
and K.StB.A., late Surveyor- general at 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

He was the second son of Admiral 
Sampson MicheU of the Brazilian navy, 
(eldest son of Thomas Michell, esq. of 
Croftwest, co. Cornwall), by Anne, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Shears, M.D. of Bristol ; 
and he was born at Exeter on the 29th 
March, 1793. He entered the R. Mil. 
Academy at Woolwich as a cadet in 1807, 
and obtained his commission as Second 
Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1809. 
In 1810 he embarked for Gibraltar ; and 
shortly after, by the interest of his cousin 
the late Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, he 
joined the army in Portugal, where, in 
command of a brigade of Portuguese artil- 
lery, he gained great credit at the siege 
and capture of Badajos, and in the battles 
of Vittoria and Toulouse. Towards the 
close of the field of Toulouse, he received 
a severe contusion from a spent ball, which 
kept him for some weeks on crutches. 
He received the silver medal for Badajos, 
and the gold medal and clasp for Vittoria 
and Toulouse. In March 1844, in regard 
to his own services and those of his father, 
the Queen of Portugal sent him the order 
of St. Bento d'Avis ; and in Sept. 1846, 
her Faithful Majesty nominated him also 
a Commander of the order of the Tower 
and Sword. 

On the return of the Portuguese army 
to Lisbon, he was attached to the staff of 
Field-Marshal Beresford ; whom in 18S0 
he accompanied to the Brazils, and thence 
retired to France. 

In 1823 he became a candidate for the 
situation of Military Drawing Master at 
the Royal Military College at Sandhurst; 
and with no further recommendation than 
a plan of the town of Passages, which he 
' had drawn and engraved, he was elected 
to the office on the 25th March, 1824. 
On the 27th Sept 1825, he was appointed 
12 



Professor of Fortification in the same in- 
stitution. 

In 1828 he received the appointment of 
Surveyor-general, Civil Engineer, and 
Superintendent of Works at the Cape of 
Good Hope, where he remained for nearly 
twenty years. His zealous exertions in 
the execution of his various duties began to 
affect his health in the twelfth year of his 
residence in the colony ; but his ardent 
desire to complete the great works in 
which he was engaged made him disre- 
gard the repeated warnings of his medical 
friends, until the increase of his malady 
induced an apoplectic fit, on the 23rd Dec. 
1847. He resigned his appointment in 
July 1848, and returned home in Nov. 
following, vrith a retiring allowance of 
350/. per annum. His salary had been 
700/. and the same was continued to his 
late assistant and successor as Surveyor, 
Charles Bell, esq. ; whilst the appointments 
of Civil Engineer and Superintendent of 
Works were conferred on Capt. Pilking- 
ton, with a salary of 1000/., a circumstance 
which seems to imply that Colonel Michell 
had been greatly underpaid. 

Nearly all the great public works which 
have changed the aspect of the colony 
were undertaken and accomplished in ac- 
cordance with Colonel Michell's plans, 
and under his immediate superintendence. 
Some of his roads across the gigantic 
mountains are unsurpassed in boldness of 
conception and beauty of execution, by 
any works of the kind in other parts of 
the worid; whilst in tracing and com- 
pleting lines of road through the sandy 
flats or downs he was not less successful 
in combating difficulties and obstacles 
more embarrassing than those presented 
to the engineer by rocks and mountains. 
The Cape is also indebted to him for two 
lighthouses, one in Table Bay, and the 
other in Cape Agathas. The latter was 
his favourite and laborious task, to the 
accomplishment of which, and to preparing 
the plans and estimates for a projected 
sea-wall in Rogge Bay, the future orna- 
ment of the city, he devoted lus last la- 
bours in the colony. 

Colonel Michell was an artist of no 
mean abilities. His engravings are studied 
and artistic ; his paintings in oil, the em- 
ployment of his few leisure hours at home, 
are highly esteelbed by his friends at the 
Cape, among whom they were distributed. 
He was besides a proficient in instrumental 
music, and spoke the principal European 
languages with fluency and ease. 

During the Kafir war in 1834, he acted 
as Assistant Quartermaster-general, and he 
received in acknowledgment the Hano- 
verian Guelphic Order from King Wil- 
Uam IV. 



1851.] 



Obituary.*— ilfr. D^ce Sombre. 



201 



He married, on tlie 17th Oct. 1844, 
AoQe^ only daughter of Jemi l^ierrc d'Ai- 
ragon, a retired officer of tlie army of Louis 
XVI ♦ and had issue four lUugUters.— 
Akridg§d from the United Seteire Mn- 

Mn. DvCK SOMBU-K. 

July }s \t bis apnrtmtiiitii io Dariea 
SUe^'t, David Ocyitci tony Dyte Sombre, 

Thaagh few namea have flcqmretl a 
greater degree of w^andalo us notoriety than 
that of lliid jwruoTi, there was little re- 
markable about hi 1)1 bfyotid \m pedigree 
and hit wealth. Ilia ptttemnl ^rnndfather 
wafi a Scotsman, a native of the town of 
Aherdeeo^ and his grnndfather on the 
tnotKerS side an Alsatian Frenchman, a 
native of the city of Strasburgk, Both 
l>.Tternal and maternal j^rnndmoLhers were 
Indian M&bomedan concubiucH of their 
refjiectiTe lords. The hiatory of the ma- 
ternal grandfather alone U remarkable. 

He was a French adventurer named 
Gaultier Rei^nard* originally a private in 
he company of Switzers in the British 

rtice at Culcotta, (from which he de- 

Ttcd to the Nabob of Oude,) who for 
his suUen look went with his countrymen 
under the name of Sombre, or '* the 
gloomy. " The nativeSf who could not 
make the two consonants at the end of 
the French word tt> coalesce, dropj>ed the 
b, and adding a vowel, the word became 
Semru, which our Enghsh orthography 
writes Sumroo. Such is the origin of the 
patronymic of the Sumroos, to which was 
prefaed the aurname of the Caledonian 
grandfather, Dyce. Reignard engaged in 
the service of Moer Caisaimf Nabob of 
Bengalf when he waa concerned in hostl- 
iitiea with the English. In revenge for 
the capture of one of hii fortreaaea, the 
Nabob reanlved on the moasacre of fata 
EngUah priaonerSf and accordingly put^ 
tt is auj) posed, about 200 to death. " He 
foQcd,*' saya one of our Indian hiiitonan^i, 
** a fit inalrtiment in a renegade French- 
man of the name of Sumroo." He ought 
tu have ailded that all the Indian chiefs 
had lefused to perfonn the part of cjecu- 
ti*juL"r-in -chief. Thia happened in Oct, 
1703: and a month later, Patrn, where 
the massacre took place, wai stormed and 
taken by the English. Reiguard of course 
Acdt to escape bdng hung or shot ; and 
being a man of courage and enterprise^ he,, 
in doe time, succeeded in establishing for 
hiuiAetf an independent principality in tlie 
north-wc*tern part of India, at Surdbana^ 
sott%c (birty miles from Delhi. This was 
not a dtf1i{:uU. ochirvement at the moment, 
which wiu thrit of the ili-solutiim of iJif 
\fogul empire. An Iri»h cabin-boy from 

GitetT. Mao, Vol, XXXVI, 



the fleet of Admiral Hughes » George Tho- 
mas by name, did the same thing, even on 
a hirgcr sci!e» not loag after. Rcjgnard 
ftdl in love with a Coahmerian dancing 
girl, married her, and made a Roman Ca- 
tholic of her. This was the celebrated 
Begum Sumroo^ the word begum meaning 
in the Persian language ** a woman of 
rank." The Begum had no children by 
Reignord or any one else, nor is it indeed 
very usual that (lersons of her early pro- 
fession should bear children* He had, 
however, by a Mahomedan concubine, a 
daughter, who was adopted by the Begum 
as her own child, according to the lawa 
and customs of the East. 

Thi:i daughter the Begum married to 
Mr* Dyce, the half-caate son of Captain 
Dyce of the Indian army, and the late 
Mr, Dyoe Sumroo or Sombre was the fruit 
of the marriage* The Begum succeeded 
her hmb&nd in the principality, and ad- 
ministered it with great skill for near half 
a century. In 1803» she fought against 
the Duke of Wellington at Assaye as an 
auxiliary of the Maliratta chief Scindiah, 
and, after the tlefeat, *be Hed to northern 
Hindustan, atid made her peace with the 
Marquess Wellesley, entering into a treaty 
with him by which her priocipnlity, on 
her demise, should lapse to the British 
Government, lier personal property to be 
at her own disposal. Mr. Dyce, her 
adopted ton, waa to have been her heir, 
and he commanded her army ; but in her 
extreme old age she detected him in an 
intrigue^ imprisoned and diHinbcrtted him, 
substituting his son m his room ; and thus 
the late Mr. Dyce Sumroo became the in- 
heritor of a French nickname and of Italf 
a million sterling, which was paid over to 
him from the Anglo»lndian Exchequer, 
where it bad been deposited. 

He appeared Ln this cotmtry about a 
dosen years ago, bringing with him a re- 
putation of almost fabulous wealth, and of 
being thoroughly Oriental in education, 
customs of life^ and manners of thought. 
His arrival attracted much notice. He 
became one of the f^ted lions of the sea- 
son, and ultimately married, in 1810, the 
Hon. Mary-Anae Jervis, daughter of the 
Viscount St. Vincent, A separation soon 
look place, and the legal proceedings eon- 
sdiuent upon this ill-starred marriage^ — 
followed by those adopted for the purpose 
of establishing Mr. Dyce So mb re's lu- 
nacy — were long matters of public taJk 
and universal notoriety. His attempt Io 
enter public lifu was seconded by the 
worthy und enlightened electors of Sud- 
bury, who tent him to Fitrlismint ; from 
whence, howevei» he was fpeedily ejected 
on petition, tie borough b^'in^ soon oAcr^ 
wirtls, mainly in conieqU'^nc*' of proceed- 
2D 



Obituary. — G. B. Thomeycrofty Esq. 



202 



ings at that election, dUfranchised. For 
the last few years Mr. Sombre has resided 
OQ the Continent, to escape the effects of 
the decision of the Court of Chancery in 
his case, a decision which he had come 
OTer to petition agamst when he was seized 
wiUi his fatal illness, in which he endured 
much pain with great fortitude. He was 
attended by Sir Benjamin Brodie, Dr. 
Holland, and Mr. Charles Hawkins. In 
consequence of his death in a state of 
lunacy, his money in the funds, railway 
shares, and other property, of the annual 
Talue of 11,000/., will become divisible 
between Captain Troup and General Sol- 
droli, the husbands of his two sisters, who 
are next of kin. An additional sum, pro- 
ducing 4000/. a year, will also fall to tiieir 
fkmilies on the death of the Hon. Mrs. 
Dyee Sombre. 

6. B. Thornetcroft, Esq. 

April 28. At Chapel House, near Wol- 
rerhsmpton, in his 60th year, George 
Benjamin Thomeycroft, esq. a magistrate 
for Staffordshire and Shropshire. 

Mr. Thomeycroft was the son of a 
working man, and himself educated to earn 
his bread by the sweat of his brow. He 
was born in the parish of Tipton, Stafford- 
•hire, August 20, 1791. In his childhood 
he removed with his parents to Kirkstall 
Forge, near Leeds, conducted by Messrs. 
Beecroft, Butler, and Co. and he was em- 
ployed there until about the 1 8th year of 
jbis age, when he returned with his father 
into Staffordshire. He entered the service 
of the Messrs. Addenbrook and Co. at 
the Moorcroft Ironworks, near Bilston, 
and resided with his brother for several 
Tears in a humble tenement at Moxley. 
He was, very shortly after his engagement, 
selected on account of his ability, probity, 
and skill as a workman, to superintend 
part of his employers' works, and in this 
confidential post he continued until he was 
about 26 years old ; he then commenced a 
small ironwork at Willenhall, where he re- 
mained until the year 1824, when, in part- 
nership with his twin brother, the late Mr. 
Edward Thomeycroft, he established the 
Shmbbery Ironworks, near Wolverhamp- 
ton. In its earlier years the " make " of 
this work was about ten tons per week ; 
its present produce is probably not less 
than 800 tons weekly. It was in this 
work that the energetic and eminently 
practical' character of Mr. Thomeycroft 
found scope. With his position, as an 
independent manufacturer, his views be- 
came enlarged : an opening market was 
before him, and he resolved to take in it a 
prominent place, by establishing a high 
character for the iron furnished at his 
works, combined with moderation in price. 



[Aug. 



By his diligence and practical knowledge 
in the manufacture of iron he made his in- 
tention a reality. His skilful and prac- 
tised eye often saw a fault where others, 
less experienced, saw none; his know- 
ledge, too, of the different qualities of the 
various ores, and of their necessary com- 
binations, was not exceeded by the most 
practised workman on the ground. The 
consequence was the realisation of a good 
fortune. But throughout Mr. Thomey- 
croft never forgot the interest of the work- 
men he employed, and higher vrages were 
generally given at the Shrubbery Iron- 
works than at most others. Himself 
sprang from the class for whom his spi- 
rited enterprise created extended means of 
employment, he was not more familiar 
with their trials, than considerate of their 
claims. 

The transition into public life was na- 
tural, almost inevitable. He was often 
invited to become a party in making re- 
presentations to Government on subjects 
connected with the trade, and the sound 
practical views which it became his duty 
to impress upon men in authority were 
presented with such plain straightforward 
arguments as to be irresistible. 

In politics, as in all other affairs, Mr. 
Thomeycroft was candid and straightfor- 
ward. His opinions were Conservative. 
He valued order; believing, and tmly, 
that order was the best friend of the in- 
dustrious working man, and believing also 
that order presented the only safe step- 
ping-stones for the humbler classes to 
comfort and eminence. To show the value 
attached to his personal character, we may 
mention that, although he took no active 
part in the incorporation of the town of 
Wolverhampton, he was selected to be its 
first Mayor, in the year 1849. His accession 
to the office was marked by a splendid ex- 
hibition of hospitality. He gave to the Cor- 
poration its silver-gilt mace ; and, better 
than this, he marked the period by devoting 
the interest of 1000/. to be given for ever, 
to provide blankets for the poor. Mr. 
Thomeycroft was also in the commission 
of the peace for the counties of Stafford 
and Salop, and, until recently, took an 
active part in the magisterial business of 
the town and district. From even the 
suspicion of partiality his decisions were 
uniformly exempt ; and they were always 
communicated in such clear though often 
homely terms, that even losing parties 
went away with a good-humoured convic- 
tion (after one of Mr. Thorneycroft's apt 
expositions of the merits and demerits of 
the case) that their case had failed, and 
that the judgment demanded their acqui- 
escence. In addressing a popular as- 
seqably, Mr. Thomeycroft was peculiarly 



l^ol.J 



TbitFary.^ — Georg^tmhy Eaq. 




|>owerfiil ttnd felicitous. Ilijs matter wag 
Weil selected and hu poiuts •* told/** while 
hu phraiieology \^as tboroughlj limple and 
fuutraioed. Ub appearauee at ao asaem- 
\Aj of hi£ felloW'towusmeQ was the enthu- 
sia>ttc sigQ^l for the proposal of some 
ptriifbtforward, iatetligihk, UhenU mea- 
sures; and bis influence, though uniformly 
aioiAd m the ri^^ht directiou, fieldom failed 
ia accomplishing iU object. 

From bis early year» Mr. Thorn ey croft 
bad been attached to the Wesley an per- 
fiuasioa ; yet the Established Church was 
an especial object of his reverence and re- 
gard; and hi!) ^fta to it, and hU exerUuns 
Id its behalf, often brought hlin promi- 
Dently before the pmbUc. Hifi appcaU 
at charitable loet^tingg were ever highly 
efTectiYe and succ«*aful. He waj& equalliy 
sensible of the abstract worthlessness of 
riches in all the great emergencies of hu- 
man nature, at id yet alive to the relative 
duties invoked lo theb- possession. The 
generous hospitalities that diiatingui^hed 
alike his official inaugurations, and his do- 
mestic hearth, were an exemplary model 
to the public, and to the private man of 
substance. But his munij^cent contribu- 
tioas were not devoted to the follies and 
expensive triflings of fashionable life, but 
to the religious institutes, to tlie charitable 
endowments, and the general ameliora- 
tions of our social system. Yet the itige- 
ouons fear of having damaged the Chris- 
tian character, and done mischief to his 
own soul, by suffering himself to be too 
much absorbed in the busioesst excite- 
ments, fiictioas» and Qi»sociations of the 
worldt led bim to fret^uent self-abasement 
and secret sorrow and confeesion before 
God. Under a naturally robust and em- 
phatic manner, he concealed a peculiar sen- 
ntiveness to sacred and devout impreBsions^ 

Four or five years ago Mr, Tboraey croft 
«a8 dreadfully scalded by the explosinii of 
a boiler at his works at WiUenhalL From 
the effects of the accident, which confined 
him to bis house for about nine months, 
be never completely recovered. Other- 
hhs constitution was vigorous, and in 
ton be exceeded the common aixe. 
is fuoeral was solemnly observed 
throughout the town of Wolverhampton. 
The procession to the cemetery was led by 
tlie corporation of the borough, the hoard 
of guardians, and many gentlemen of the 
Qcigbboorhood. The hearse was preceded 
by five coaches containing the ctergymeo^ 
the pall bearers and bearers; and followed 
by three others containing the mourners. 
1*be bearers of the pall were, John Barker, 
esq. shehfT of the county, Joieph Walker, 
eaq. the muyor of Wolverliampton, John 
Perks, eaq. Michael Graixebrook, esq. 
James Baird, esq. M.P* (a distinguished 



representative of the Scotch iroo trade), 
Thomas Ferry » esq. George Beecroft, esq. 
and J. A* Fallarton, esq. The principal 
mourners were, Thomas Thoruey croft, 
esq. (son of the deceased), John Hartley, 
esq. Charles Corser, esq. and Charlea 
Perry, esq. (hi« sons-in-law), T, T. Kea- 
teven, esq. atid Edward Thorney croft, esq. 
Then followed the private carriages of the 
deoettsed and his friends; and the whole 
cavalcade was closed by nearly a thousand 
of the deceased^s workmen, walking by 
three and three. '* As I looked (remarks 
Mr. Owen*) with the deepest interest on 
that multitiiile of workmen, clad in the 
decent garb of mourning — fine, sturdy, 
intelligcnt*lookiug set of men as they 
were— I could not help feeling that they 
were the hands and Hinews and muscles 
who had created the wealth of the master 
capitalist ; hut hU was the mind that, 
like an engineer, directed all that living 
machinery, and socially created its mighty 
powers of production r' 

The humbleness of his origin, con oected 
with the height of his ultimate elevation, 
spread the applicable value of his example 
over a larger surface of society than usually 
falls to the lot of many men to influence. 
He taught both " how to be abased and 
how to abound *' — the meclianic and the 
merchant alike learn from his precedent 
both how to earn and bow to spend the 
honourable wage of industry. Such a 
man's biography is an illustration of the 
commonwealth of which he was a cittxcn, 
that insists upon no caste except that of 
its citizens' choice, nor Imposes a check 
to individual progress except that of per- 
sonal fault or misfortune, 

Mr. Thoroeycroft has left a widow, one 
son (who is Captain of the Wolverhamp* 
ton troop of Yeomanry), and four daugh* 
ters, three of whom are married to the 
gentlemen above named* Mr. Hartley 
was his partner in business, as were alto 
Mr. Perks and Mr. Kesteveu. 



Gkoage Rusa, Esq. 
Maf/ 10. Aged 66, George Rush, e^. 
of Elsenham Hall, Essex, and Farthinghoe 
Lodge, Northamptonshire, a magistrate 
and Deputy Lieutenant of Essex. 

* A Sermon preached at the Collegiate 
Church of Wolverhampton, before the 
Mayor and Corporation, on Sunday, May 
1th, 1851, on the Death of the Iste G. B. 
Thorneycroft, esq. together with an Ad- 
dress to the Board of Guardians, and Me- 
moir of the deceased, by the Rev. J. B. 
Owen, M.A. Vicar of St. Mary*s, Bfltton, 
8vo. — The preaent article has been com- 
piled from the several portions of this 
pamphlet. 




204 



Obituary. — H, St, George Tucke)*^ Esq, 



[Aug. 



Mr. Rush was bora on the 29th April, 
1785; and was the only son of George 
Rush, esq. of Farthinghoc, (who died in 
1803,) by Kitty, daughter of William 
Heath, esq. of Stanstead Mountfitchet in 
Essex. He served the oflfice of Sheriff of 
Northamptonshire in 1813. 

Mr. Rush married in 1810 Clarissa, 
fourth daughter of his cousin-german Sir 
William Beaumaris Rush, of Wimbledon, 
CO. Surrey, Knt. and sister to the wives of 
Mr. Basil Montagu and of Dr. Clarke 
the traveller. By that lady he had issue 
three sons and five daughters : 1. George 
William Rush, esq. ; 2. Clarissa ; 3. Ar- 
thur-Heath ; 4. Angelica: 5. Maria-The- 
resa, married in 1843 to James Arthur 
Taylor, esq. M.P. for East Worcestershire; 
6. Alfred; 7. Ellen-Charlotte, married in 
1846 to the Hon. Edward Bennet Wrot- 
tesley, youngest son of the late Lord 
Wrottesley ; and 8. Emily. 

H. St. Georgr Tucker, Esq. 

Jnne 14. In Upper Portland Place, in 
his 80th year, Henry St George Tucker, 
esq. one of the Directors of the East 
India Company. 

Mr. Tucker was born in Feb. 1771, at 
Bermuda, in which ii»land his father was 
for a long time President of the Council 
and acting Governor. He proceeded to 
India at a very early age, as it appears 
from his own statement, before the com- 
mittee of the House of Commons-which 
sat in 1832, that he was in South Behar 
as early as 1787, when he was not more 
than 16 years of age. During the years 
1788 and 1789, he resided chiefly in the 
district of Rajashahy. In 1790 he be- 
came secretary to Sir William Jones, and 
soon afterwards he received an appoint- 
ment to the civil service of the East India 
Company, his rank as a writer bearing 
date June 24, 1791. From the period of 
his being first employed he passed through 
a variety of offices more or less important 
until, in 1799, he obtained that of secre- 
tary in the revenue and judicial depart- 
ment. In proposing Mr. Tucker for this 
appointment the Governor-General, the 
Marquess Wellesley, recorded his opinion 
that it was one '^ for which he was pecu- 
liarly qualified ; ** and the estimation in 
which he was held also appears from the 
fact of his having been selected to succeed 
Sir George Barlow, who had established 
a very high reputation in the department. 
Distinguished merit was admitted in this 
instance to supply the want of long stand- 
ing in the service ; for that of Mr. Tucker 
was not sufficient to allow of his drawing 
the full salary of the office to which he 
was appointed. 

In 1801 he was nominated to the very 



arduous and important post of Accountant- 
General, which, from a regard to the 
public interests, he was induced to accept 
at a sacrifice of nearly half his previous 
salary. 

In 1804 he became a partner in the 
house of Cockerell and Co. receiving on 
his relinquishment of the office of Ac- 
countant-General a high testimony of the 
sense entertained by the Governor-General 
in Council of his services during what is 
described in the record as ** a crisis of 
considerable difficulty.* ' After a very brief 
experience of commercial pursuits, he re- 
turned to the public service, with which 
he remained connected through the entire 
residue of his Indian career. As soon as 
he had determined to abandon the occupa- 
tion which for a short time had deprived 
the Government of his great financial 
abilities, he was restored to his former 
office of Accountant- General, the re-ap- 
pointment being recorded in very laudatory 
terms. Subsequently he was called to the 
discharge of many important duties, some 
in the regular course of official routine, 
some of special character. 

In 1807 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for introducing the per- 
manent settlement into the ceded and con- 
quered provinces. Though a warm advo- 
cate of the principles of that settlement, 
his observations convinced him that the 
provinces into which he and his colleagues 
were deputed to introduce it were not 
ripe for the purpose. These views of the 
commissioners were laid before the govern- 
ment. Some of the more distinguished 
members did not concur in them ; but the 
event attested the soundness of the judg- 
ment formed by Mr. Tucker. 

In 1811 Mr. Tucker arrived in England, 
being compelled to quit India by the state 
of his health. The government in an- 
nouncing his departure bore the strongest 
testimony to his merits, and recommended 
him in the warmest terms to the favour- 
able consideration of the Court of Di- 
rectors, who before the expiration of the 
year of his arrival resolved on presenting 
to him, as a token of their approbation, 
50,000 sicca rupees (about 5,000/.) which 
was ordered to be paid to his agents in 
Bengal . 

Mr. Tucker, in 1812, returned to India, 
but finally quitted it in 1815. His leisure 
was devoted to maturing and arranging 
the results of his long Indian experience, 
to the indulgence of the elegant pursuits 
of literature, and to preparation for the 
attainment of a place in the direction of 
the affairs of the East India Company, to 
which distinguished position his cultivated 
talents and widely extended information 
justly entitled him. 



I 



I 



185 L] Sir a. ;S\ Gihbts, 3LD James Kvnnedi/, E^ff. MM, 205 

III April 18'i6 he was elected a member 
of tbc Court, and tlienccforwan! his time 
flnd energy were entirely devoted to the 
diicliafge of the responsible dyties of that 
office. By his coUeaguea his opiaion on 
sll difficolt iohjccis was stadiously sought 
and highly resjiected ; while in the general 
courts of the company his addreftses were 
Ibtened to with deep attention, aud never 
failed of producing a powerful effect. His 
JjiforniatiOD on every branch of the ad* 
ministration of Indian Affairs waft most 
extensiTe, and on questions of revenue 
and finance he was regarded m a peculiarly 
high authority. He was ever the strenu- 
ous supporter of generous and liberal 
measures towards the princes and chiefs of 
India, and foremost in maintaining the 
rights and privileges of the native.^ gene- 
rally. In 1833 he was elected Deputy- 
Chaimiaot and in the following year 
Chairman of the East India Company. 
A few years later the honourable distinc- 
tion was repeated; he again lilled the 
office of Deputy-Chairman in the offiiciul 
year 184«j-47i and thot of Chairman in 
I847-4b. He returned to the active exer- 
cise of his dutits as a Director in Aprils 
1851, after the usual quadrennial year of 
absence. His health was then obviously 
dedmtng, but the vi^^our of bis faculties 
WHS in no degree imiiaired. In private life 
Mr. Tucker was beloved and respected by 
all who bad the happiness of knowing 
him : spotless integrity and unostentatious 
benetoleuce were the distingnifihitig fea- 
tures of bis character \ warm and ardent 
in bis feelings and kind and candid in his 
manner, be was the stanch friend of many 
— the enemy of none* — Tliweif. 



Having relinquiBhed his practice at Bath} 
ho latterly resided at Cheltenham. 

He was the author of a paper in the 
rhilosophical Transactions of 17dl» on the 
conversion of animal muscle into a sub- 
stance much resembling spermaceti^ also 
of" A few Observations on the component 
parts of Animal Matters^ and their con- 
versiofi into a substance resembling Sper- 
maceti/' published at Bath, 17%; A 
Treatise on the Bath Waters, IHOO; A 
Second Treatise on Bath Waters, lStJ3; 
and of some other papers in the Transac- 
tions of the Linn lean Society, in Nichol- 
son^Sf Tilloch's, and various medical 
journals. 

He married twice $ hts first wifCf « 
daughter of Edward Scale y, esq. of Bridg- 
water and Castlehill House, Nether Stowey, 
died in 1B22 ; and Sir George married se- 
condly, in 1836* Marianne, eldest daugh- 
ter of Capt. Thomas Chapman, of the 23d 
regiment. 




SirG. S. Gij^nss, M.D. 

June 93. At Sidmoutb, aged BO, Sir 
George Smith Gibbea, Knt. M.D. a Fel- 
low of the College of Physicians, and of 
the Royal and Linneean Societies, and a 
magistrate for Somersetshire. 

Dr. Gibbes was the sou of the Rev. 
George Gibbea, D.D. Rector of Woodbo- 
roucb» Wilts. He entered the university 
of Oxford as a member of Exeter college, 
and graduated B.A* Feb. 17t 179^2; having 
been elected a Fellow of Magdalene col- 
lege, he proceeded M.A. May 21, 1795; 
and alterwards determining for medicine, 
took the degree of M.U.April 6, UiKJ; 
MiA that of M.D. April II, 1799. 

He practised for many years in Bath, 
where he was Physician to the City Dis- 
pell sary» and a member of the corporation, 
from which he retired in Jan. 1H34. He 
was appointed Physician Extraordinary to 
Queeii Charlotte, and was knighted by 
King George the Fourth on the 1 0th of 
May, 18'iO. 



Jaues Kgnmkdy, Esq. M.Dr 
May 9. In Great Rnssell-street, Blooms- 
bury, aged 66, James Kennedy, esq. M.D, 
of the Grove, Wood house, near Lough- 
borough, Physioian to the Loughborough 
Dispensary. 

Dr. Kennedy was a native of Scotland, 
and a member of the university of Glas- 
gow, where ho graduated as M.D. in 
1813, Some years after lliis he was induced 
to settle at Aahhy de la Zouche, on the 
invitation of Mr. Mammatt, the agent of 
the Marquess of Hastings, who was then 
anxious to promote the success of the 
medichial baths at that place. la 1812 
he removed to W^oodhouse, where he lived 
retired from practice, except that he acted 
graty.itously as Uie visiting physician of the 
Loughborough Dispensary, and was al- 
ways ready to give bis assistance to hts 
poor neighbours. But he was chiefly 
occupied in the preparation of an extensive 
bibliographical work, no less tlian a cata- 
logue raisonnd of all the medical treatises 
published in thia country before the year 
1800 ; accompanied by concise biographies 
of their authors. He had recently made 
arrangements to edit this work nt the ex* 
pcuse of the Sydenham Society^ and it 
was proposed that it should occupy four 
octavo volumes. He was on a visit to 
London in order to complete his mann* 
script of the first volume by consnlting 
the library of the British Museum, and 
had just put tlic first sheet into the 
printer'!* hands, when he was attacked 
by his fatal illness. It is hoped that hia 
niatcriaU are in such a state that the 
Society will be able to complete the work 
under other editorship. 

Besides an essay on the waters of Aahhy 



;206 



Obituary. — James Mackness^ M,D. — Mrs, Forbes. [Aug. 



de la Zouche, and various practical and 
critical commuiiications to the Medical 
JoarnalB of the day, and others occasion- 
aUy to our own Magazine, Dr. Kennedy 
was the author of — 

A Dissertation on the Anatomy, Physi- 
ology, and Pathology, of the Human 
Tongue. 1813. 

A Lecture on Asiatic Cholera. 1822. 

A Treatise on the Management of Chil- 
dren in Health and Disease. 18S5. 

Examination of Waite's Anti-Phreno- 
logy. 1831. 

Dr. Kennedy was a very learned, skil- 
fol, and benevolent physician, and most 
honourable and exemplary in all his social 
relations. Extremely simple and unaf- 
fected in his manners, and retaining to the 
last, in a marked degree, " the accents of 
the mountain-tongue," he was a charmiDg 
companion as well as a most amiable man, 
and will be long remembered by his nu- 
merous friends with the kindliest feelings. 

Dr. Kennedy was twice married, first 
to Miss Thompson, sister to the secretary 
of the late Marquess of Hastings ; and 
secondly to Charlotte, eldest daughter of 
the late John Hawkes, esq. of Norton Hall, 
Staifordshire. This latter lady sunriyes 
him. He had no children by either 
marriage. 

He has left a large library, which con- 
tains many valuable foreign works on 
metficine and the kindred sciences, as well 
as a numeroiis collection of English 
writers: it will probably be brought to 
public auction in London. 



Jamxs Mackness, M.D. 

Ftb, 8. At Hastings, in his 47th year, 
James Mackness, M.D. Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians of London^ and 
Consulting Physician to the Hastings Dis- 
pensary. 

Dr. Mackness was a native of North- 
amptonshire, and graduated M.D. at St. 
Andrew's 1840, London 1843. 

He was formerly settled in Northampton, 
where he attained a considerable practice, 
and was an active promoter of the estab- 
lishment of the Mechanics' Institute, 
which has been remarkably successful in 
that town. He was obliged to leave North- 
ampton from the failure of his health ; 
and, having settled in Hastings about ten 
years ago, had gradually acquired a leading 
practice in that place, notwithstanding the 
physical infirmities against which he bad 
to contend. 

He published in 1842 an essay on the 
Climate of Hastings, with directions for 
the choice of residence, &c. of which there 
has been a second edition. 

In 1846 he published **The Moral 
Aspects of Medi(»l Life/' a work which is 



in every respect the moat elevated code of 
medical ethics extant It is founded upon 
the Akesios of Prof. K. F. H. Marx, first 
published in 1844 at Gottingen. The de- 
sign of this work was ** to discuss weightf 
points in the healing art as it now exists :*^ 
and it is arranged in twelve Itttert, ad- 
dressed to deceased members of the me- 
dical profession, the subject of each letter 
being selected with reference to certain 
passages in their character or history. Dr. 
Mackness prefixed to each letter a memoir 
of the person to whom it was addresaed, 
namely Stieglitz, Apono, Cheyne, HaDe, 
James Gregory, Thaer, Lettsom, Tnlpivs, 
Pinel, Mead, Desgenettes,andBoerhiLave; 
and appended his own remarks to eadi 
letter, so that the greater part of the book 
was his own. 

In 1848 he published an essay on the 
" Dysphonia Clericorum ; or, the Clergy- 
man's Sore-throat;" and he was also the 
author of an elaborate essay on Agri- 
cultural Chemistiy in Baxter's Library of 
Agriculture, published in 1846. 

The estimation in which Dr. Mackneaa 
was held by his professional brethren is 
recorded in the fact that, at the meetmg 
of the Provincial Medical Association, Sl 
Worcester, in August 1849, he was no- 
minated, with Dr. Ghreenhill, of Oxford, 
and other distinguished members of his 
profession, to prepare a code of Medical 
Ethics. In the following year, he was 
selected to write a Monograph of the Me* 
dical Topography and Geology of Sussex. 
Few were so well qualified as he for these 
tasks, — the non-completion of which are 
not the least of the losses that society and 
the faculty have to count by his untimely 
death. 

Dr. Mackness has left a widow, but no 
children. Two nephews and a niece whotn 
he had partially adopted, and wiUi whose 
education he bad charged himself, have 
great reason to deplore their irreparable 
loss. He is succeeded in his practice at 
Hastings by Dr. Greenhill, late of Ojcford. 

His body was interred in the burial- 
ground of St. Mary's at Hastings, attended 
by the Mayor and Town Council, and manV 
other friends. A number of friends and 
patients have subscribed to erect a hand- 
some tomb to his memory. 

We are informed that an extended 
memoir of Dr. Mackness is in preparation 
from the pen of his intimate friend MiM 
Howard, the author of ** Brampton Rec- 
tory *' and other valuable literary produc- 
tions ; and that it will appear very shortly. 

Mrs. Forbks. 
May 15. In Old Burlington-street, in 
her 65th year, Eliza-Mary, wife of John 
Forbes, M.D. F.R.S. 



185L] 



Obituary. — Mrs, Sheridan^ — Mrx, AtthilL 



207 



She was t b e daughter of the late William 
'Bargb* esq. of Culcutta, where she was 
bom in the year L7@6. Her immediate 
ADcestors were pos«e«sora of the famotii 
Hifod estate in Wales, and were a near 
branch of the Clanricarde family. Two 
of her brothers serred for many years in 
the Indian army, and died respectively 
of the rank of General and Major, several 
years before their sister. Two sisters 
•urviTC her. 

She was married to Dr. Forbea m the 
year \%\^\ and gave hirth to a aon» her 
only child, who, together with her hmband, 
aunnves her. The following loacription 
on a tablet erected to her memory in (he 
cemetery at Keniol Green gives, we be- 
lieve, a very juit character of this most 
bencvolenc woman: but her best record 
19 in the mourDful memories of the poor, 
to whose support, relief, and comfort, her 
best energies were ever devoted ; 

In the vnulta beneath are deposited the t»- 
noAiaa of Klixa Mary Forl^e*, wife of John 
Forbea, M.D. P.II.S. Physicifln to the Qiieen*8 
Household: After years of severe tmfferinjr, 
bom wit?i ntre fortitude and rejirififnation, sbe 
departt " i ,,i ihe 13th day of May* 1851, 

in tb' M.ar of her ajfe* Earneat, 

active, ; I : rharitable^ compa&slonate, 

Eioufl, lifltntually oxercising, to the extent of 
er power, even' Christian virtue, ahe lived 
and died a pattern of womanly excellence. 



MuB, Sheridan. 

June d. At the hoiiae of her daughter 
Lady Ehifferin and Claneboye, 39, Gros- 
venor-place, the wldow^ of Thomas Sheri- 
dan, esq. 

She was the second daughter of John 
Collaoder, can* of Craigforthr co, Stirling, 
and Ardktaglaj, co. Argyll i\u virtue of 
which latter property he took the addi- 
tional name of Campbell), by his third 
wife Lady Elizabeth Helena Macdonnell, 
daughter of Alexander fifth Earl of An- 
trim. Her younger sister is the wife of 
the Right Hon. Sir Jamea Graham, of 
Netherby, Bart. She was married in 1B06 
to Thomas Sheridan, esq. son of the 
Right Hod* Thomas Brini^ley Sheridan, the 
distinguisbed wit and statesman ; and was 
left a widow on the 1 2th Sept. 1817, Mr. 
Sheridan then dying at the Cape of Good 
Hope, where he was Colonial Paymaster 
(*ee Gent Mag. vol. lxxxvii. p. 471.) 

Mrs. Sheridan was the author of Car- 
weU, a very itriking story iilu&trating the 
ineqaalities of pumshment in the laws 
against forgery. In a Uter novel, Aims 
and Ends, the same feminine and truthful 
spirit showed itself in lighter scenes of 
social life, observing keenly, and satirising 
kindly. 

Mrs. Sherida^n wrote always fdth ease, 
unaJTeetedness, and good breeding, her 
books everywhere giving evidence of the 



place she might have taken in society, if 
she had not rather desired to refrain from 
mingling with it, and to keep herself com* 
paratively unknown. After her husband's 
early death she had devoted herself in re- 
tirement to the education of her orphan 
children ; when she re-appeared in society 
it seemed to be solely for the sake of her 
daughters, on whose marriages she again 
withdrew from it ; and to none of her 
writings did she ever attach her name. 
Into the private sphere where her virtues 
freely displayed themselves, and her 
patient yet energetic life was spent, it is 
tjot permitted ua to enter ; but we could 
not pass without this brief record what 
we know to have been a life as much 
marked by earnestness, energy, and self- 
sacrifice, as by those qualities of wit and 
g«nius which are for ever associated with 
the name of Shnridan, 

Mrs. Sheridan bad four sons, Richard 
firioaley Sheridan, esq. now M.P. for 
Shaftesbury ; Thomas- Berkeley, R»N. 
killed by an accidents fall on board 
U, M, S. Diamond in lM96 ; Francis- 
Cymrici Treasurer of the Mauritius, who 
died there in 1842 (having been previou&ly 
secretory to the Earl of Mulgrave in 
Jamaica) ; and Charles- Ktonaird, in the 
diplomatic service ; and three daughters, 
Helen- Sell na, married in 1825 to Lord 
Dufierin and Claneboye, and mother of the 
present Lord ; Caroline -Elizabeth -Sarah, 
married in 1827 to the Hon. George 
Chappie Nortont Recorder of Guildford, 
brother and heir presumptive to Lord 
Grantley ; and Jane- Geo rgiana, married 
in 1830 to Lord Seymour, son and heir 
apparent of the Duke of Somerset. As 
both the latter as well as their elder 
brother have numerous families, the blood 
of the great Richard Brinsley Sheridan 
bids fair J through vorioiLs channels, to be 
widely spread among our nobility. 



yii/yS, 1848. 'At Middleham, York- 
shire, Caroline- Amelia, wife of the Rev. 
William AtthiU, M.A. Sub-Dean of Mid- 
dlehom \ better known under her maiden 
name of Miss Hoisted. 

She was the daughter of the late George 
Halsted, esq. Capt. R.N. and niece to that 
distinguished naval officer the late Ada. 
Sir William Lawren4% Halsted, G.C.B, 

Mias Halsted was the author of two 
pleasing works for young persons : one of 
which was The Little Bfitani^t. 1335. 
16mo. In two parts; with illustrations 
drawn and engraved by J. D. Sowerbyi 
from sketches by the authoress. The 
other was entitled ** Investigation, or 
Travels in the Hoiidoir." 1837. 1 2 mo. 

In 1838 Miss HiiUted obtained the an- 



208 Obituary—/?. Phillips, F.R.S.'^D. M. Moir, Esq. [Aug. 



nual prize of ten guineas given by Mr. 
Alderman Copeland in connection with 
the restoration of the venerable hall of Sir 
John Crosby in the city of London, and 
the commemoration of Sir Thomas G re- 
sham. The subject was an historical me* 
moir of the life of Margaret Beaufort, 
Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother 
of King Henry the Seventh. She also 
gained the same prize in the following 
year, the subject being '* The Obligations 
of Literature to the Mothers of England.'' 
Both these essays were printed and pub- 
lished. (See our vols. x. p. 306, xii. 
p. 515) 

Miss Halsted afterwards devoted herself 
with much assiduity to the collection of 
materials on the history of King Ri- 
chard in. The results were published 
under the title of "The Life of King 
Richard the Third as Duke of Gloucester 
and King of England." 1844. 8vo. This 
work evinced considerable research; but, 
like those of our more celebrated female 
historian Miss Strickland, was sadly de- 
ficient in discrimination and a true appre- 
ciation of authorities (see it reviewed in 
our vol. xx.li. 273, 377). She also made 
several contributions to various periodi- 
cals. 

Miss Halsted's marriage took place in 
May, 1847, and her death ensued within 
thirteen months after. 



Richard Phillips, F.R.S. 

May 11. At Camberwell, in his 75th 
year, Richard Phillips, F.R.S. Curator of 
the Museum of Practical Geology. 

Mr. Phillips's career has been a busy 
one. He first attracted the attention of 
the scientific world by the publication, in 
1805, of '• Analyses of the Bath Waters ; " 
and this was followed by analyses of our 
mineral waters generally, and of minerals 
of a rare kind ; these were published in 
the "Annals of PhUosophy." In 1817 
he was appointed Lecturer on Chemistry 
at the London Hospital ; and he was en- 
gaged to deliver several courses of lectures 
at the London Institution. About this 
period he was also appointed, by Govern- 
ment, Professor of Chemistry at the 
Military College, Sandhurst ; and became 
Lecturer on Chemistry at Grainger's 
School of Medicine, in South wark. In 
1821 Mr. Phillips became sole editor of 
the " Annals of Philosophy," subsequently 
united to the *' Philosophical Magazine." 

In 1822 he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and published a paper in 
the " Philosophical Transactions," in 
which his name was honourably accociated 
with that of Dr. Faraday ; and he always 
felt much pride in having been the first 
13 



to introduce that distinguished philoso- 
pher to the Society. 

In 1824 Mr. Phillips published his 
first translation of the " Pharmacopoeia 
Londinensis ; " and from the celebrity 
which he gained as a pharmaceutical 
chemist, he was consulted by the Colkge 
of Physicians with respect to the chemical 
preparations of the edition issued by that 
body in 1836. From that time he has 
always aided in the fdhnation of this text- 
book of the medical world, and the im- 
provement in all its scientific parts is 
mainly due to the interest he took in the 
work. For the last twelve months he had 
been engaged in experiments for the Col- 
lege, and his final employment was that of 
a new translation to accompany the next 
issue of the Pharmacopeia, which may 
shortly be expected. 

In 1839 Mr. Phillips was appointed 
chemist and curator of the Museum of 
Practical Geology, then established in 
Craig's Court ; and within a few days of 
his death he was busily engaged in mak- 
ing arrangements for the public opening 
of the new Museum in Piccadilly. lUchard 
Phillips was one of the original founders 
of the Geological Society. He was for 
many years a member of the council of 
the Royal Society, and for the last two 
years President of the Chemical Society. 
Scattered through the "Transactions of 
the Royal Society," and the pages of the 
*' Philosophical Magazine," will be found 
his numerous contributions to science ; 
and all the chemical articles of the 
" Penny Cyclopaedia" are from his pen. 
He has departed after a long and ousy 
life, beloved and respected by all who 
knew him. His criticisms were often 
severe, but it was always the severity of 
truth. They were dictated by a desire to 
expose the pretentions of ignorance, and 
were an honour to superior genius. His 
body was interred in the cemetery at 
Norwood, followed by most of his scientific 
friends.— Xii/erory Gazette. 

D. M. MoiR, Esq. 

July 6. At Dumfries, aged 53, David 
Macbeth Moir, esq. surgeon at Mussel- 
burgh, the Delta of Blackwood's Maga- 
zine. 

Dr. Moir was bom at Musselburgh, in 
Jan. 1798. From the schools of his na- 
tive town, he passed to the University of 
Edinburgh, where he pursued his medical 
studies with diligence and success. Having 
received the diploma of a surgeon, he 
established himself in that capacity at 
Musselburgh, devoting himself to his pro- 
fession with a measure of assiduity that 
was in no long time crowned with ample 
success. He acquired a very extensive 



1851.] 



OBITUAav. — Z>* M. Moir, Esq. 



m 



I 



I 



practice, the limits of which continued to 
enUrge qnttl, the burden becoming too 
great for him, he latterly found an as- 
iociate in hit son-in-law, Dr. Thomas R. 
Scott. 

It seems to have been about the year 
1817 — when he waa a youth of niaeteen^ — 
that Dr, Moir committed bin lirst verses 
to the press, in the pa^es of Blackwood's 
Edinburgh Mag^aiine. We believe that 
they were without signature, so that it is 

foot easy now to identify them, or such 
other piece* ai he did not afterwards re- 
claim. The earlieit poem — that of Emmap 
subaequeDtty named Sir Etbelred —which 
bears the subscription of Delta appeared 
in tbe magazine for Jan. 1820 ; but a 
notice to correspondents in Nov* IBlfJ — 
infiting Delta to favour the editor with 
**a prose article" — shows that he had 
already made himself a welcome con- 
tributor. From Dr. Moir's neglect to 
distinguish his yoolhful compositions by 
any mark, some of them were assigned to 
other writers. The Jate Mrs, Bnmton, 
the author of Self- Control, was so much 
ftrack with his sianxaa} beginning, 

<* Wlien tliott at even-tide art roamlnf^ 
AJonsT tlie etm-o'erstaadowed walk. 
Where Ou»t the eddjring stream is foaming, 
And Iklling down— a catari^ "— 

published without note or name in Con- 
stable's Edinburgh Magazine towards the 
end of the year 181 7 — that she transcribed 
them with her own hand, and the tran- 
script beiDg found in her work-box after 
her dealh, they were published as her 
composition in the memoir prefixed to her 

»pos th u moua talc of E m m e J I ne. 
HAviDg once established his place in 
Blackwood, under the signature of Delta, 
Mr. Moir continued, during the long 
period of more than thirty years, to enrich 
its page* with a scries of poems, which 
would be remarkttbTe were it for nothing 
but the profusion with which they were 
poured forth. But they possessed many 
$nd high qualities— a great command of 
language and numbers, a delicate and 
graceful fancy, and a sweet, pure vein of 
tenderness and pathos. These character- 
istics are displayed, with scarcely one ci- 
oeptioD, through the whole series of his 
compositions— the last of which, The La- 
ment of Selim, left his hand little more 
Chan a fortnight before bis death. It is 
published in Blackwood's Magazine for 
this month ; and to some readers its me- 
lancholy r^rain may now sound pro- 
phetic — 

"And thou art not— I look around, 
But thou art nowhere to be found ! 
I listen Tsinly tot thy foot— 
I Usteii, but tby voice is mutel ** 
Omt. Mao. Vol. XXXTI. 




A selection of Delta's contributions 
to Blackwood may, probably, yet sec 
the light; altogether they would fill seve- 
ral volumes besides the two which were 
published during his lifetime^ — The Le- 
gend of Generi^ve, with other Tales and 
Poems, in 1825 ; and his Domestic 
Verses, in 1843. The first of these 
works hai been very happily characterised 
by the distinguiiihcd critic who was so 
long the presiding genius of the miscellany 
in which many of the poems were first 
given to the world. '* Delta,'' wrote Pro- 
fes«or Wilson, ** Ima produoed many ori- 
ginal pieces, which will posseis a perma- 
nent place tn the poetry of Scotland. 
Delicacy and grace characterise his happi- 
est composiiions; some of them are beau- 
tiful, in a cheerful spirit that ha^^ only to 
ItKik on nature to be happy ', and others 
breathe the simplest and purest pathos* 
His scenery, whether seSL-coast or inland, 
is always truly Scotish; and, at time§, hts 
pen drops touches of light on minute sub« 
jccts, that till then had slumbered in the 
shade, but now ' shine well where they 
stand ' or lie, as component and character- 
istic parts of oar lowland landscapes.*^ 
The Domestic Verses were not at first 
meant to meet the general eye, but a few 
copies having been printed fur circuktion 
amoDg friends, they called forth so much 
praise, that the author was prevailed upon 
to make them public. Among the emi- 
nent men of letters whose approbation 
was bestowed upon the volume in its un- 
published form, was the late Lord Jeffrey. 
" I cannot," he wrote to the author, ** re- 
sist the impulse of thanking you with all 
my heart, for the deep gratification you 
have afforded me, and the soothing and I 
hope 'bettering ■ emotions which you have 
excited. I am sure that what you have 
written is more genuine pathos than any- 
thing almost I have ever read in verset 
and is so tender and true, so sweet and 
natural, as to make all lower recommend- 
ations indifferent." It were easy to accu- 
mulate testimonies, not less cordial* from 
other contemporaries of mark. The fas- 
tidions taste of Dr. Butler, the late El»hop 
of Lichfield, singled out Delta's lines 
on Mount St. Bernard as worthy of a 
Latin version — one of the most felicitous 
things in Mr. Drury's collection of the 
Aruadines Camt. 

While the pathos of Delta was subdu- 
ing the hearts of all the readers of Black- 
wood, there suddenly appeared in the same 
page^ the first fragment of one of the most 
laughable embodiments of Scotisb humour 
— The Life of Mansie Waucb. Begun in 
October, IB24, four or five years elapsed 
before the autobiography of the Dalkeith 
tailor was completed in Blackwcxidf and 
2E 



^10 



Obituary. — Thomas Moule, Esq. 



[Aug. 



issued ia a Tolume by itself. It has since 
run through six or eight editions in this 
country, besides reprints in America and 
France, and the circulation of seyeral of 
its chapters in the guise of chap-books. 
The first whisper that went abroad that 
ik% touching Legend of Genevieve and the 
facetious history of Maosie Wauch were 
from one and the same pen, was received 
with astonishment and incredulity. The 
public had universally assigned the story 
to John Gait, then in the heyday of his 
fame, and undoubtedly it was pitched to 
a key-note which that writer had been the 
first to strike. But the execution was 
discriminated by so many peculiar touches 
as to make Mansie Wauch an original 
creation, suflSdent to have built up the 
fame of its author, even if it had stood 
alone ; and, in the circumstances, afford- 
ing a truly remarkable proof of the diver- 
sified gifts of the genius by which it was 
produced. 

In 1831, Dr. Moir published his Out- 
lines of the Ancient History of Medicine, 
being a View of the Progress of the Heal- 
ing Art among the Egyptians, Greeks, 
Romans, and Arabians — a work of great 
research and diversified erudition. The ca- 
talogue of his writings closes with Sketches 
of the Poetical Literature of the Past Half- 
Century, in Six Lectures, delivered at the 
Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, which 
appeared this present year. 

Mr. Moir was a zealous member of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. The 
Roman antiquities of his native place, 
Musselburgh, and of Inveresk, one of the 
most important Roman sites in Scotland 
apart from the Wall, early excited his 
liveliest interest. He supplied to the New 
Statistical Account the notice of Inveresk 

r'sh, an able communication, in which 
gives full play to his archsological 
predilections. 

The lineaments of Dr. Moir*s character 
are not unfaithfully reflected in his writ- 
ings. To know him was to love him. 
The sweetness of his disposition, the 
parity and simplicity, the manliness and 
sincerity of his mind, gained and secured 
for him universal affection and esteem. 
Such was the respect in which he was 
held in Musselburgh, that when the 
tidings of his death reached the town, a 
desire was expressed by all classes of die 
inhabitants tliat his funeral should be a 
public one. This general and earnest 
wish was acceded to, and every circum- 
stance of honour which his neighbours 
and fellow-citizens could bestow accom- 
panied the remains of Dr. Moir to their 
resting place in the churchyard of In- 
veresk, in the grave which holds the dust 
of three of his children. 



Dr. Moir married, in 1829, Miss Char- 
lotte E. Bell of Leith ; and by this lady, 
who survives him, he leaves issue eight 
children. The eldest daughter is the wife 
of Dr. Thomas R. Scott, who for some 
time was the partner, and is now the suc- 
cessor of the deceased poet in his extensive 
practice. In person Delta was somewhat 
above the middle stature, of fair com- 
plexion, with light blue eyes, and pleasant 
features. His health was robust until 
about five years ago, when the upsetting 
of a carriage gave a shock to his constitu- 
tion from which it would seem never to 
have wholly recovered. His political 
opinions may be inferred from those of the 
miscellany which be chose to be the chief 
channel of his publications. He was a 
steadfast Tory, and a zealous supporter 
of the Church of Scotland ; and the de- 
votion with which he adhered to his prin- 
ciples, both in Church and State, was 
characteristic of the simplicity and in- 
tegrity of the mn.n.—Edinbvrgh Courant. 

Thomas Moule, Esq. 

June 14. At his residence in the Sta- 
ble Yard, St. James's Palace, aged 67, 
Thomas Moule, esq. a well-known writer 
on topographical and heraldic antiquities. 

Mr. Moul^was born on the 14th Jan. 
1784, in the parish of St. Marylebone. 
He was for forty-four years a clerk in the 
General Post Office ; where he was In- 
spector of Blind Letters, his principal 
duty being to rectify those addresses in 
which the post town was either omitted or 
incorrectly given, and to decypher such 
addresses as were illegible to the ordi- 
nary clerks. He had retired from this 
employment in consequence of his de- 
clining health. Mr. Moule also held for 
many years the office of chamber-keeper 
in the Lord Chamberlain's department, 
which gave him an official residence in St. 
James's Palace. 

The first literary task in which he en- 
gaged was the letterpress to accompany 
Mr. J. P. Neale's Views of the SeaU of 
Noblemen and Gentlemen. This work 
was published periodically during the 
years 1818 — 1827, forming eleven volumes; 
and the articles which Mr. Moule either 
compiled or edited in it are more than 
seven hundred in number. 

During the same period he compiled, 
in 1820, a small book of Tables of Dates 
for the use of Genealogists and Anti- 
quaries ; and in 1822 his Bibliotheca 
Heraldica Magnse Britannise, an exceed- 
ingly useful bibliographical catalogue of 
all English works on heraldry and gene- 
alogy, and of some of the most important 
manuscripts. At this period, and for five 
or six years before, Mr. Moule was a 



185 L] Obituary. — Ret\ Jelinger St/mons, M.A, FX,S, 21 1 



ooksdler in DuVe-st. Grosvenor-sc^uore, 
but he rdinquiabed that businesB ahortly 
lifter. 

lo 1825 he wrote the descriptions to 
Mr. G» P. Hardijig'a Antiquities in Weat- 
mmster Abbeys and to Mr. J. llewetaou's 
Views of Noble Mansions in Hampshire. 
At the tame time he prepared those iu 
Neale and Le Keux's Views of tbe Colle- 
giate and Parochial Churcbea in Great 
Britain, completed in two votnmes 8vo. 
11826; and in 1B30 those in Great Britain 
lliluttratedf from drawiogB bj W, Westall, 
|J^.R.A,. ^to. In the last-named jcar 
I.Jle undertook a general topogrtipbical 
Ideaeription of England, onder the title 
of ** ITie English Counties Delineated," 
rThiB work was published io parts, and 
Iwaa completed in 1838, in two volumes 
louarto* Mr, Moule had c|ualijied himself 
|»r thi« task, not only by his previous 
liOcquaiQtaQce with topographical literature, 
~ at aUo bj persooal visits to every county 
I England, exceptini^ Devonshire and 
(ComwalL 

In 1833 Mr. Moul© published An Eh- 
Iflajr on the Roman Vtllaa of the Auguijtan 
k/kge, and on Remains of Roman Edifices 
|diacovered in Great Britain ^ in 8vo. 

In the same year be wrote the His- 
[tory of Hattield Houset in Robinson^s 
ITilaruvius Britamiicui ; in 1836 the dc- 
iptioDs of seven of the j>rincipBl cathe- 
l^ala which are included in the first 
Wolumeof Winklet's Cathedral Churches 
[of England and Wales; and the descrip- 
Itioni of the cathedrals of Amiens, Pariij 
Kind Chartrcsin the Continental Cathedrals 
of the same artist; and in ltS34 he con- 
tnbuted the following essays to Illustra- 
tioDi of the Poebeal Works of Sir Walter 
rtt : 1. Hall at Branxholm ; 2. Lord 
larmioQ^fl Annonr ; 3. EUcn Douglas 
ind Pitz-James I 4. The Knight of Snow- 
*ottn ; 5. The Tomb of Rokeby ; 6. The 
'Bier of De Argentine; 7. Ancient Furni- 
ture. 

In 1839 he wrote the letter-press ac- 

I companying Shaw's Det^iils of Elizabethan 

Architecture ; and in 1840 he described 

I the anus and iascriptioos in Ludlow 

^Castle, forming part of the volume en- 

^titled ** Documents connected with the 

History of Ludlow and the Lords Mar- 

' chera," collected and printed by the Hon. 

BotM^rt Henry Clive, M.P. for Shropshire. 

In 1842 he produced a very agreable 

lieraldic monograph entitled The Heraldry 

of Fish, illuiitrated from drawings made 

by his daughter. This was reviewed in 

our voL xvn* p. 607. He had formed 

a similar collection on the Heraldry of 

l^rees and Birds^ which remains in manii- 

^•cript. 

Mr. Monle'5 last literary task was tn 



provide the descriptions accompanying 
Mr, G, P. Harding's Ancient Historical 
Pictarejjy in contionaiiou of the series en- 
graved for the late Granger Society. He 
has al*iO given assistance to many other 
topographical and architectural works 
beaidoi those named ; and has made 
variotis contributions to our own Maga- 
zine, to tbe Literary Gazette, Brayley^s 
Graphic Illustrator, and otlier periodi- 
cals. He WS9 always ready to assist those 
who required information on tbe subjects 
with which he was conversant, and has 
frequently afforded valuable antiquarian 
information to artists. At various times 
he had himself made several drawings and 
designs, and he was one of those who sent 
in designs in competition for the Nelson 
Monument, 

He was a member of the Numismatic 
Society, and cotttributed some papers to 
the Numismatic Chronicle. His study of 
coins was chiefly directed to those of tbe 
mediEeval period^ in illustration of Eu- 
ropean history. 

He has left several MSS. of which the 
principal are : 1 . A Topographical Glos- 
sary, betpg collections on the etymology 
of names of places; 2. Church Antiquities; 
3. Uistoricai Pictures relative to Great 
Britain ; 4. The Gentleman's Heraldry, 
derived from the study of Guillim's 
Display ; 5. tieraldry of Trees and Birda 
(before mentioned) ; 6* Notes on Coins. 
He had also collected a valuable library. 

I^tr. Moulc has left a widow, aud an 
only daughter, who materially assisted 
him in his literary pursuits. 

Rev. Jklinokk Svmonb, M.A. F.L.S. 

Majf 20. In London, the Rev. Jelinger 
Symons, M.A. Rector of Radnage, Bucks, 
Vicar of Monklaud, Herefordshire, and 
F.L.S, 

Mr. Bymoos was descended from sn 
ancient Norman family settled originally 
in Cornwall, In tbe reign of Charles IT. 
one of his ancestors married Agnes, the 
daughter of the Rev. Christopher Jelinger, 
a refugee from tbe Palatinate, who was 
afterwards presented to the living of South 
Breot in Devonshire, which he resigned 
rather than sign tbe Act of Uniformity ; 
hence arose tbe adoption of tbe German 
name of Jelinger in tbe family of Mr. 
Symons, 

The subject of this memoir was born at 
Low Layton, Essex, in the year 17 78, aad 
graduated at St, John's college, Cam* 
bridge, in 1797- He shortly afterwards 
took holy orders, and first officiated u 
curate to bia father the Rev. Jelinger Sy- 
mons, then Rector of Whitburn, in the 
county of Durham. On his marriage in 
I80r> with Maria, fldcsl daughter of John 



212 ObituaKy.— i?w. iV; X ffalpin^^C. F. Tieck. [Aug. 

od of the church. It was attended by his 
son Mr. Jelinger Cookson Symons, bar* 
rister-at-law, (one of the inspectors of 
schools ander the Privy Council, proprietor 
and editor of the Law Magazine, and 
otherwise well known byhisUterarr work^ 
especially on statistics and education, and 
by his reports to Pftrliamept on the em- 
ployment of women and children in min^ 
and other subjects,) by bis only brother iht 
Rot. Dr. Symons, by his cousin Octintn 
Blewitt, esq. Secretary to the Royal Lite- 
rary Fund, a few other private friends, and 
by the entire body of his parishioners, by 
whom he was universally beloved. 



Airey, esq. of Northumberland, and niece 
olf Dr. Cookson, Canon of Windsor, he 
tdok the Curacy of West Ilsley, Berks, 
and in 1838 was presented by Uie Dean 
And Canons of Windsor to the endowed 
Ticarage of Monkland, Herefordshire, for 
Which county he was shortly afterwards 
ipiUced in the Commission of the Peace. 
In 1821 Mr. Symons's health required a 
complete change of air and scene, and he 
wtot to live at Bonlogne-sur-Mer, where 
be shortly afterwards succeeded the late 
Sir John Head, Bart, as Chaplain to the 
British residents, in which capacity he 
iimed the high esteem of all classes, and 
received, on the termination of his stay 
ti^ere» a handsome present of plate in ac- 
knowledgment of his services. In the 
year 1833 he was presented by Lord Chan- 
cellor Brougham to the living of Radnafe, 
ih the county of Buckingham, where he 
raided chiefly during the remainder of his 
bfb. On the 1st of last March, however 
(6n the recent presentation of his respected 
q^rate, the Rev. W. E. Evans, to the living 
of Madley), he went to reside at Monk- 
Iknd, and Was the first incumbent who has 
Mta known to reside in that parish. 

For half a century Mr. Symons has been, 
^th few exceptions, engaged in the active 
fischarge of his ministerial duties. His 
ftiiiuine fervour and eloquence in the pul- 
pit, and his high intellectual powers, were 
wdl known and appreciated; while the 

Skdness of his heart and his benevolent 
position endeared him to all who knew 
hink. 

Early in life Mr. Symons devoted his 
leisure hours to the study of botany, and 
0arly obtained such proficiency that in his 
|2nd year he published a work entitled 
Synopsis Plantarum Insulis Britannicis 
fakdigenanim. Latin and English. I^s 
work was long esteemed as one of authority 
iiiid general reference, and was character- 
ised by the remarkable precision and 
method of its classification of plants. Mr. 
Symons has left no other works, save iso- 
lated sermons preached on particular oc- 
C^ons, of which may be mentioned that 
^btitled ** Christ's perpetual Presence bis 
Church's Security;" preached in the 
pjirish church of High Wycombe, at the 
Visitation of Archdeacon Justly Hill, 26th 
May, 1835 ; and that entitled •• Spirituality 
the Duty and Test of Christ's Church ; " 
H lermon preached at All Saints' Church, 
Hereford, Sept. 34th, 1843, at the ordi- 
nation of candidates of the diocese of Lich- 
field, by the Lord Bishop of Hereford (now 
Archbishop of York). 

His funeral took place at Radnage, on 
the 25 th of May, where his body was placed 
hi the same grave in which that of his wife 
had b«en previously deposited, in the chan- 



The Rxv. N. J. Haxpiw. 

Nov. 22, 1850. At DubUn, aged 60, 
the Rev. Nicholas John Halpin, B.A. 
M.R.I.A. 

He was bom Oct 18, 1790, at Portar- 
lington. At the university of Dublin he 
exhibited remarkable literary talents, and 
often obtained the Vice-chancellor ^s prises 
and medals. Of his knowledge in several 
departments of literature the essays which 
he contributed to the publications of the 
Shakespeare Society and the meetings of 
the Royal Irish Academy may be ^ven 
as a proof. His published works were^ 

A University Prise Poem on his Ma- 
jesty King George IIL having completed 
the 50th year of his reign. Lond. 1811. 

Tithes no Tax. Dubl. 1823. 

The Impossibility of TransubitaBtllt- 
tion. DubL 

No Chimsera, or the Lay Refmnatioii 
in Ireland. DabL 1828. 

Oberon's Vision. Lond. 1843. 

Bridal Runaway, an Essay on Juliet's 
Soliloquy (Shakespeare Society's pspen). 
Lond. 1845. 

The Dramatic Unities of Shakespeare. 
Dubl. 1849. 

Obiervations on certain passages in the 
life of Edmund Spenser. Dubl. 1850. 

He married in 1817 Miss Ann Grehan, 
of Dublin, who is left his widow, with 
three sons and four daaghtera. 

C. F. TiECK. 

Lately. At Berlin, aged 75, Christian 
Frederick Tieck, Director of the Sculp- 
ture Gallery of the Royal Museum. 

This excellent sculptor, who was a 
brother of the celebrated poet, Ludwig 
Heck, was bom at Berlin. He wan first 
apprenticed to a stone-cutter ; subse- 
quently entered the Academy of Fine 
Arts, under Schadow, and, impelled by his 
(elder) brother, soon began to seek after 
the ideal and poetic in art Having ob- 
tained a grant from the Academy, he went 
to Paris, and studied in the atelier of 



1651.] Obituary. — Mr, S, nmnmg* — Mr, J, 71 Smtfth. SllJ 



DftTia, the painter, Bhowiag hb jast ap- 
prcctadon of the conneciion between de^ 
Agtk and scalpture* A reHevo, pablithed 
in the Annalu du Mu*4e (vol. i, p. 9), 
rcfp resenting; Priam asking Achtlles for the 
corpse of Hector, attracted great notice. 
Ttience Goethe called him in ISOl to 
Weimar, where he executed several re- 
lieros and biistn for the ducAl palace. 
AmoQgftt the latter that of Goethe hmi- 
■clf, and that of F* A. WoLf, the philolo- 

?'st» are of (yreat merit. In 1B08 C» F. 
icck visited Itiiljr, until Mdc. dc Stael 
aammoned hira to Copct to make the re- 
tievo» of the Necker family vault. Later he 
executed at Carrara the life-si7.e statae of 
M, Necker. Whea King Lad wig of Ba- 
Tarta had conceived the idea of the Wal. 
h^la, Tieck woa selected to make several 
of the bnst^ of the great men there to be 
exhibited. These were made lo the foil' 
ttidc of the little town of Carrara^ where 
Tieck and Ranch worked together^ the 
former at the fiue candelabrum with the 
daDciDg Horus, now placed in the Man- 
toleam of Charlottenburgh, near Berlin. 
From hiB return to Berlin in 1819, up to 
hii late demise, a vast number of sculp- 
tures have been executed, both by Tieck 
himself, as well as from hi» models, among 
which were the iculpturcs of the con cert - 
hill of the great theatre, and the targe 
relievQA of the pediment made after an- 
tique patterns : the calossal Angela before 
the Cathedral of Berlin ; the horae-t&mer 
on the projecture of the Royal Museum ; 
the bronxe door of the Werder churchy &c. 
Having been appointed in 1 830 director 
of the sculpture -gallery of the Royal Mu* 
seum, he continued the rcstoratiou of the 
antiquea of that establishment. He was 
one of the chief founders of the Society of 
Art- Friends of Pruiisi»| and exerted a 
large io^uetice over the whole artistic 
movement of his country. 

Mit« John HBNNTNCr. 

Lately. Mr. John Uenntug, the re- 

orer of the El^ Marblei. 

He was born at Paisley, on the ^nd of 
lfmy» 177 1 1 where the genius of art found 
bim St the carpenter's bench, and ** threw 
her inspiring mantle over hitn." FVom 
bis native towUf Hcnning was induced, m 
1B02^ to repair to Edinburgh, where be 
acquired, during otne years' residence » 
cousiderable distinction — a distinction all 
the more meritorious from having beeu 
fostered and encouraged by the patronage 
and frieudshlp of Jetfrey, Horner, Mur- 
ray, Brougham, J^cutt, and others who at 
that time adorned the Scotiih capital in 
tbe world of letters, und of vrhom he baa 
left the *' liTiof form and pressure *' in his 
medallions and busts. 



A visit to London, in Idll, brought 
the Scotish sculptor in contact with the 
Elgin Marbles. Paicinated with these 
noble fragments i>f Grecian sculpture^ he 
succeeded in obtaining, contrary to ac&« 
demic formula, permisaion from Lord 
El^n to draw from them. This circum- 
Btaoce fixed him in the metropolis, and, 
after twelve yean* of unremitting asstduity 
to their restoration, the Parthenon friezes 
sprung from hit baud, at once the glory 
of art and tbe admiration of the age. To 
his Elgin fntzz'i succeeded the carloous 
after Raffaelle, works of like transcendant 
merit, in which is faithfnlly preserved tbe 
tmth of the originals, and which elicited 
the encomiums of Flax man and Canoro, 
By these reproductions of Grecian aod 
Italian art, the fine arts have received an 
invaluable assistance. — The Builder. 



Mk. J. Talfodild Smyth. 

May 18. At Edinburgh, aged 32, Mr. 
J. Talfourd Smyth |^ engraver. 

Mr. Smyth was a native of Edinburgh, 
and showed at an early age a great en- 
thusiasm for art. He studied painting 
under the late Sir Wtliam Allan, at the 
Tmstecs* Academy of bis native city ; and 
with such eagerness that he was wont to 
leave his bed long before dawn^ set his 
palette, and wait Impatiently f<>r the ^nt 
glimpse of morning. 

In 1B35, however, be determined to 
adopt engraTing as his professloti. He 
was his own teacher ia the art— his only 
master dying during the first year of his 
pupilage. But the plates produced im- 
mediately subsequent to that period, A 
Child's Head, after Sir John Watson 
Gordon ; The Stirrup Cup, from the 
picture by SirWiUiam Allan ; and others, 
proved him already able to take the field 
alone. In 1838 he removed to Glasgow^ 
where some seven years were spent over 
works bettor calculated to fill bis pursei 
than to promote his artistic knowledgei 
or advance his reputation. This he felt 
strongly, and, relincjuiahing his engage* 
ments there, once more returned to Edin^ 
burgh, where, up to the time of hit 
decease, with assiduity seldom e()iua11edf 
he produced many works of great excel- 
lence, four of whichf The Consolator, 
John Knox dispensiog the Sacrament^ 
from Wilkie's sketch from the unfinished 
picture in the colkctioti of the Royal 
Scotish Academy, Mulready's School^ in 
the Vernon Gallery, and Sir W, Allan'i 
Tartar Robbers dividing their Spoil, in th« 
same collection, have appeared in the Art 
Journal. He was working upon a plate 
after Mr. Faed*s First Step, when attack- 
ed by his last fatal illness, and had under- 
taken another from Maclise's Hamlet. 



214 



Clergy Deceased. 



[Aug. 



The anxious and obscnre labonra of twenty 
years were about to be rewarded with suc- 
cess and reputation, when the over-taxed 
system gaye way, and a brief and seeming- 
ly unimportant indisposition terminated 
in softening of the brain. He was a man 
of much taste, and considerable reading ; 
of deep religious impressions, and blame- 
less Ufe. — Art Journal, 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

AprU 29. At Bishop's college, Calcutta, the Rev. 
ilMned WdOis Street, M.A. Senior Professor of the 
coUege. He was formerly of Kasdalene hall, and 
after^nurds of Pembroke coUefte, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. 1837, MA. 1839. He was elected 
Craven University scholar and appointed Junior 
Professor in Bishop's college, Calcutta, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts in 1839. ** The esteem and love of 
all acquainted wiUi the Professor (writes the 
Bishop) were deeply seated. His fine talent<«, his 
sound scholarship, his general knowledge, his 
kindness and tenderness of heart, his diligence, 
his disinterested character, and his benevolence, 
had attached all to him who were placed under 
his influence or ei^oyed his flriendtihlp. In the 
college, as well as in the mission, his zeal and in- 
de&agable labours were only too great even for 
his firm and vigorous firame. Mr. Street lias left 
a wife and tlu-ee children. In his generosity and 
disregard of self he had used up his little income, 
nor has he left so much as 100 rupees, exclusive 
of a very small Insurance on his life." Mr. Street 
was brother to the Rev. A. Street, late curate of 
St. James's Bristol. 

May 13. At Sudbury, Suffolk, aged 68, the Uev. 
Henry Watt* WiMtuon, M.A. Perpetual Curate of 
St Peter and St. Gregory, Sudbury, and Vicar of 
the united parishes of Walton and Fellxstow. He 
was the son of the Rev. Watts WUklnson, B.A. of 
Worcester college, Oxford, 1780, for sixtj'-one 
years Afternoon Lecturer of St. ilary Aldermary, 
and for thirty-seven >'earA Tuesday-morning Lec- 
turer of St. Bartholomew by the Exchange, in the 
dty of London (who is briefly noticed in our Ma- 
sazlne for March 1841, p. 324). He was himself 
formerly a Fellow of the same college, and gradu- 
ated B.A. 1804, M.A. 180G. He published, in 1814, 
being then Curate at Sudbury, a Sermon preached 
on the day of General Thanksgiving for the Peace. 
In 1816 he was presented to the perpetual curacy. 
In March 1841 he receive<l from hla pariMhioners 
a purse containing 78 sovereigns as a testimony 
of esteem. In 1842 he published a Memoir of the 
Life and Ministr>' of Iiis Father. In 1845 he was 
instituted to the vicarage of Walton with Felix- 
stow. His funeral took place on the 17th of May, 
when his body was deposited in the chancel of St. 
Peter's church, Sudbury. On the following Sunday 
a funeral sermon was preached there by the Rev. 
Joseph Fenn of Blackheath, and in the afternoon 
one was preached at St. Gregory's by the Rev. Mr, 
Patten the Curate. 

May 25. At Sheffield, aged 36, the Rev. John 
Sheldon, M.A. Perp. Curate of All Saints' in that 
town (1848). He was of Otharine hall, Cam- 
bridge, and was appohited Chirate of Rattlesden, 
Suffolk, In 1845. 

May 26. In London, the Rev. Thomas Alexander, 
of Calm Castle, co. Antrim. 

May 31. At Rochester, aged 88, the Rev. 
Robert Whitehead, M.A. Rector of Ormside. Westm. 
( 181 1 ), Perp. Curate of Hensingham, Cnmb.( 1831 ), 
and late Cfhaplabi of H. M. dockyard, Chatham. 
His wife died in 1842. 

Lately. At KUmore glebe, the residence of his 
brother the Rev. Robert King, the Rev, Ebenezer 
King, M.A. He was the third son of the late Sir 



Robert King, Bart, of Charleatown, co. Roscom- 
mon. 

Jutte 1 . In Milton-st. Dorset-aq. the Rev. Stewuri 
WiOiam Ilanna^ Incumbent of St, James's, Mary- 
lebone, to which he was nominated by the <)neeQ, 
Jan. 18, 1850, on the death of Archdeacon Jen- 
nings, He was formerly Island Curate of St. 
(jeorge's, Jamaica. 

June 2. At Staunton hall, aged 86, the Rev. 
John Staunton, LL.D. Rector of Staunton with 
Kilvlngton, and of Elton, Notts, official of the 
archdeaconry of Nottingham, and a Justice of the 
peace for the counties of Nottingham and Leices- 
ter. This genUeman's paternal name was Aapin- 
ahaw, under which he took his B.A. degree at 
Cambridge as a member of Emmanuel college. He 
proceeded MJL 1791, LL.D. 1804. For some yean 
he was curate of Stapleford near Nottingham, and 
afterwards Rector of St. Peter's in that town, 
which he held to 1814. He was presented to 
Elton super Montem in 1814 by Francis Sanders, 
esq. and instituted to Staunton cum Kilvington 
on his own presentation in 1826. He took the 
name of Staunton only, and the arms of Staunton, 
by royal sign-manual in 1807. He had married 
in May 1793, Elizabeth, daughter of Job Brough, 
esq. and granddaughter of Richard Brough, esq. 
of Thoroton, by Anne, daughter of Gilbert Charl- 
ton, esq. (son of Sir Job Charlton, Speaker of the 
Houjie of Commons,) by Anne, eldest daughter of 
Harvey Staunton, esq. the last of the very ancient 
fiunily of Staunton, of Staunton, co. Notts. Dr. 
Staunton assumed the name of his wife's fiunOy in 
179 . As lord of the manor of Staunton, and con- 
sequentiy hereditary keeper of the Staunton tower 
at Belvolr Castle, he performed the ancient custom 
of presenting Ito key to H. R. H. the Prince 
Regent on his visit in 18 14, and his son perfbrmed 
the same on the visit of H. R. H. the Duke of 
Gloucester In 1833. Dr. Staunton was for many 
years Chahrman of the county sessions at Newark, 
and was greatiy respected throughout the county 
and neighbourhood. He had one son, the Rev. 
William Job Charlton Staunton, who married in 
18 , Isabella, only daughter of the late Very Rev. 
George Gordon, D.D. Dean of Lincoln, and two 
daughters, Elizabeth-Catharine, married to the 
Rev. George Gordon, formerly Vicar of Edwln- 
stowe, eldest son of the Dean of Lincoln ; and 
Mary Anne, who died unmarried a few yean ago. 
June 3. At the vicarage, Down Amney, Glonc. 
aged nearly «8, the Rev. Eduard Henry Payne. 

June 4. At Eddington, the Rev. William Charles 
Loveless, many years Missionary at Madras. 

June 5, At the residence of his son-in-law S. 
F. Adair, esq. in Dublin, aged 72. the Rev. John 
Olphert, Rector of Drumachose, co. Londonderry. 
At Chelsea, the Rev, John Farrer Robittsom, 
M.A. Fellow and late Mathematical Lecturer of 
St. Peter's college, Cambridge. He graduated 
B.A. 1836, being then a member of St. John's col- 
lege, M.A. 1839. 

June 6. At Chester, the Rev. Joseph Hodgkinson, 
Vicar of Didcot, Herts. He was of Brazenose col- 
lege, Oxford. B.A. 1796, M.A. 1798, BJ>. 1811, and 
was presented to Didcot in 1817. 

June 7. At Deddington, Oxf. aged 54, the Rev. 
Hugh White HaU, M.A. He was of St. Peter's col- 
lege, Cambridge, B.A. 1823. 

At Britwell Salome, Oxfordshire, In his 97th year, 
the Rev. Andrew Price, Rector of that parish, and 
Vicar of Down Amney, Glouc. This gentleman 
was of American descent and was bom at Lee in 
Kent on the 23d July, 1754. His parento died 
whilst he was an Infant. Ho was a fellow colle- 
gian and contemporary of the venerable President 
of Magdalene, being first a member of that society ; 
he afterwards was appointed a Chaplain to Christ- 
church, and graduated B.A. 1775, M.A. 1778. He 
was onlalned deacon by John bishop of Sarum, 
Sept. 22, 1776, and priest by John bishop of Ox- 
ford, Dec. 20, 1778, He was presented to Bllt- 
well In 1782, and had consequentiy held that litlng 
for nearly seventy years. The advowson h«« been 



1851.] 



Cfergtf tIeCEased* 



215 



repeatedly wid flunn}^ bb incumbency. \n n*?H 
be WM «lao presented to rhe ^iciuragc uf Dawn 
^Vmney by tlw Dean ftinl Chapter orci»H'»t CIijutIi, 
and he hiid conscqaenily held that bencHcc fur 
aixf7*thr«2 year*. He mjWTiwl Mttrg%rettAf djioeli' 
ter of the Rer. Jiini«« Stopu, Rector tif Britwcll 
Salome : jihe died in i%M. 

Jumf 9. At Hampton Wick, the Rev. I/mrif 
5lkf|ii^k<rdf DX.L. formerly Senior Chaplum of St. 
Joluili cattwdrHit Ciilciitto, He wiu »on of the 
lute Dr. ItJchurd Shepherd, Arebdeacun of Red- 
ford, and Hector of Wetberden and Hehning^uim, 
SuffbUc. He wail created B.C.Lr by decree of e^n- 
roeation Nev. 4, IB24, ami D.C.L. M*rcb 2, 1835, 
a» a luember of St. Alban hull, Oxford. 

At N&rm^hmore rtHnory, KHdare^ m hia »3rd 
year, the Yen. /oftfl 7\)rfc/«, r».l». Archdencou of 
Dublin^ ftr 33 ytmr* Rector of the united parlnhes 
of St, P«er aod St. Kevin, in the city ©f Dublin, 
md tat 37 yean Bisctor of Narrtighjiiore, in the 
dioceie of KlMazv. He wu the loHt Kurvi\-iiig 
brother of &e late Sir Henry Torrent, 

Jun* IL At Alrewajp, StaflT. ftged 63, the Rev. 
Jofin Moor*!, Vicar of that place. He wm of 
FLseter college, OxftrnK B^. 1806, M^. l»(«, and 
wa* prewnted K* lili IMn^r Jn 183*2 by the Chan- 
cellor of Lichfield Ciithedral. 

Aged 73, tJie Re*', /'rf^ Pcrrinif, of Modbnry, 
DcAoniihlre. late Rector of North Hninh in that 
count1,^ He vtm a younger brother of Sir John 
Perrin^ tlMr fir»t Bart. Aldcmua of London, being 
the ftfElb and yonnire^t !K>n ef Philip Ferrinir. v^. 
tij tiSa eotuln Suaannati, dnup-htcr of lUctLord 
Lenaiiek^ eaq. He waa of St. Mar> imIL Oxford, 
B JL 1796, and t^Jc utirae year woa Instituted to the 
rectory of Nortli H uiah . 1 n 1 >i HO h e was in cciT\yo- 
rated of the Univi>n*iiy of Cttnihrid«e, oiS a mem- 
ber of Emmannul coUeac nnd proceeded M,A. 
Iq 19.. be resigned hiK Mrhii; lo lii.<« nrphen , thi: 
Rer. Philip Itrriiig, second wn ui the ^ydermun. 
At DmbUn, agc^l *i4, tiic Rev. Witiutfu .Staa- 
kous^^ late Curate of St. Luke's, London. He w jli 
of Wf.rce<tpr college, Oxfiml, B.A. I>?fll. 

\jfcd 37, tlie Rev. JJfttn* lint/ton, oi 
I I lite of Oakhrtru. RutlaiMt. He w»* 

iolL Camb, B,A. 1^*37, MA. lUO. 
Yir nuniii in 1H30 Mnry* elde^l d&ut^hter uf tlie 
Ber. Ciitlit*rl Johnson BaiacA^ >LA. Vicar of St. 
tTf'j, CO. Iliuitiaudon. 

Juthf 15, At Vcntry pariionaflc, co. Kerry, the 
Bev, I*tm:e Sralr, Ciirato of Dunurliii, in the 
diocese of Ardftu-t. 

Jam 19, Tlie Bev, £. 8. Irttemtl^ Curate of 
8jfooikeftby» Leieeaterihire. 
/WW 19. A^M <^t>, the fler. Jiwm A^evin, K.A. 
apwarda of fifty years Senltir Curate of St. 
W*, DubUn. 

rn ao. At Cheltenham, in Ids AGth year, the 
FreUerk CakUr, iitber of tJio Rev. Fred, 
er, head ouuitcr of Chesterfield Granunar 
hooL 

Jum 23, In Sackvlllc street^ PiccadlUy, in 
_ ft7th yenr, the Rev, (rftrard Thonuu Awlttvrt*^ 
ftTk-Tk tn onlftr* of St. Jame*'*, Weatmijwter. He 
-'r sou of tlie Verj' Rev. Gerrard 
A l>, Deau of Canterbury and Rector 

-. Weftminiler, {of whom a memoir 
w iuiimi in our Magazine for Jtdy, iHSTi), by 
abeth'Jtaria, dau. or the Kev. Tlioma» BaU, 
■ of Wymoudham, co. Leic. He wai edn- 
i^tsd at We«^uiiiAter ; firom whence lie iraii elected 
» Trinity coUege, CazDhridge« and graduated B.A. 
^'~, ILA. 119S0. In 181!) he wa« praMsntedtotho 
f of Allhollows, Bread Street, hi tJie city of 
tt^ a pcjculiar iif ihc di4>ceM^ of CantcrbiOT; 
in 1H21 he \iwi appciinted one of tiie rfx 
hers of Cauterburj- cathedral, irlilch prefer- 
I he afterwardA realj^ed. In Nov. li^9 he 
I appoltttod Chaplain to the House of Corn- 
it. fn Feb. in47, having been for some years 
ate of St. Jnmcji')! We«tmin,iter, 860 of the pa- 
rtfibionerN preM^nte*) to him a baadaome bookcase 
ind chair. Macklln's fiiMe, BoydeU'i Shakespeai«, 
I ft chronometerf the total cosl of which ira« 



Vio/. He married a dauglitef of the late Dr. 
lieberden. Hev<ra»a Uberal, consdcntlouA, and 
anmble roan, aod highly eateemed by many 
trieuds. 

At North Walflbam, Norfolk, aged »4, the Rev. 
WiUiant Farky WOkinion^ Rector of Saxlingham 
NetheTgale< 1853), and Vicar of North Walsham 
(18lfl>. Ho was of Trinity college, Cambridge, 
B.A, \1%% MJL t?M. 

At Boutogne-fiur-Mer, aged A% the Rev. Thoma* 
Hartrif, Minister of the Upper Town church. He 
waa tbe youngest 40ii of the late Thomas Harvey , 
c«q. of Hoon Uav, co. Derby. He wa» of Christ*** 
coUege, Cambridge, B.A. 1^24, In 1847 a public 
committee wan fonnetl " fur redrewliK? the griev- 
ances sustained by the Rev. ThomaA Harney at the 
k&nda of the Bishop of Lnadon,^' and he publiahed 
an Appeal to Lord John RusseU, 

Jnne 23. At Sm>bnr>', AQddlefiex, at the resi- 
dence of hia third son I>r. Joeepb Sfeaton, aged 
70, the Rev, WUHtm Beaton^ Eector of Lampeter 
Velvrey, co. Pemb. to which he waa ptreseDted by 
the Lord Chanc-eRor tn 1830. 

June 35. At Wniton-upon-Tliamei, aged 63, 
the Rev. Thomwt Hatch, M.A. Vicar of that pariah. 
He was formerly bellow of King's college, Cam* 
bridge, B.A. l*H3, M.A. 1817, and wa» presented 
to Widton in 1816 by the Lord Chancellor. 

At Cowley, near Uxbridge^ aged TO, the Rev. 
John ffiOiard^ Beetor of that parish. He was the 
mo of Edward Htniard» e«i. lord of the manor of 
Cowley ; wma of Worcester college, Oxford, B.C.L, 
1804, and wai initttutod to the rectory of Cowlcfy 
{which was lo hi« own patronage) in 1806. 

Jumtt. At Cambe Florey^ Soin. tlic Rev. ThomdJt 
ProKM L$thbrul'/f^ Rector of timt pdjytb, brother 
to Sir John Hcjikcth LcthbridK^'. Bnrt. Uewa« 
the thh^ and youngest ma of Sir Thos. Buckler 
Lcthbrld^c, the flint Bart, by hie second wife 
.\nne, 'id dau. of Ambrose Goddard^ of Swindon. 
ct). Wlltft, esq. He wa* of Christ church, Oxford, 
B.A. 1833; wiia preaented by ht^ fittUcr, in 1»37, 
to the rectory of Broad Nyinct, co. Devon i and in 
Ltll9 to the rectory of Bow, alliiH Nymot Tracr, in 
the laDH county^ on the prcsentatiion of H. S. 
Nortbeote, esq. and the Rev. H. B. Wthy* He re- 
signed thofic llvhi|r« in 1845, when be waa pre- 
Hebted to Cora be Florey by the Lonl Chancellor. 
He morriod in Ii<i34, Ijiabcila. youngest dau. of the 
Rev. Thonmn S»,eet Ejcolt, of llarti?ow, co. Som. 

At Clauffhton, Cheshire, aged 44, the Hev. W. 
HkhatdtoH. He recently kept a private tchool at 
Birkenhead. 

Julff 1. lu the l*recincts, Canterbury, aged 4§, 
the Rev. Frtderick Vernon lockv^ood^ Cuion of 
Canterbury and Vicar oi Min«rter in Thanet. He 
wft» the second son of Tliotiiiiit Lockwood, c«q. by 
Charlotte, dau. of Lord tjeoi'ge AIanner»-Satton, 
oi Kelbam, co. Nottingham. He wan of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, B.A. 1824, M.A. 1828. He waa 
appoTnted to the cunicy of Sturry, April S2. 1836, 
and collated to Herstham by his uncle, Archhiihop 
HanneT»>^utton , Harch 7, 18:29. Sub«equonUy he 
wn« some time Chaplain to the Hou»e of Com- 
mons, und tn acknowledgment of that wirriee wai 
fioniinated by the Queen to a prebendai jttall at 
Canterbury, Nov. 3, 1838. Ho wan coBated by Areh.^ 
bishop Bawley to the vicarage of Bihister lu 1839. 
He married July 21, 184Q^^ hie eotuin Ifary- 
l!«abella, clde«t carrivlng daaghter of the Hon, 
Hugh Percy, D.D. Lord Bishop df CarMe, and 
graoddaughter of the UxoA Kev. Charlcss Manners- 
Sutton, 1 > . D . Lord Archbhihop of Oantcrbur?-. By 
hii deatli the Church If deprived of one of her 
moat oiefa] iDembera, and society of one of her 
greatBist omamAnte. He caught the Infeetioii 
which haa terminated liLs labours while vlrilting 
one of his periahioiien aftttctad with the nuall-pox. 

Jui^ 3. At Twickenham, aged 44, the Rev. 
Thoina4 Bpwwi, Minifier of i 'f.ri*! . hnroh, Twick- 
enham. He wrt» the sccr: 1 ite Lieut. - 
Col. C^^arlc:* Bevao, of ti ' rj rcgt. of 
Foot. He waa of BalU^^l ^^ .^-, , v^otdf B,A, 
ISM ; UJi. 1933, 



216 



Obituary. 



[Aug. 



July 4. At the hoa.sc of liis brother-in-law, 
James Lee, esq. at We«t Retford, in Ua (57th ywur, 
ttre Re^'. WiSiam VfreU, Rector of Gr^jlngham, 
Line. This gentleman was tlic last descendant in 
the male lino of a family wliich first settled in 
England in the ITth centnr}-, when SIuhhi Verclat 
WW a i>*ery celebrated painter of flower» in the 
conrt of Charles II . Varloiu anecdote** of him are 
recorded by Vertuc and Walpolc. His brother 
Herman, hI»o u painter, was tho great-grand- 
flither of Harry Vcrebt, eaq. Governor of nencnl, 
who in 1771 purcluuied A<iton Hall and ouier 
estates in Yorkshire, of the Earl of Hulifiiz ; and 
Ij Anne, daughter and co-heir of Joslah Wordi^ 
worth, esq. of Wadworth, near Dtmco-itcr, had 
iMne fonr sons, Harry Ycrelst, o«|. of A-ton, 
Ui^or in the a3d Liffht Uortc ; Joslah, an officer 
in tho 4th Dmsouus ; the Rev. Arthur Charles 
Verclrt, Vicar of ^Tadworth and Rector of Wlthy- 
combe, Som. ; and tho gentleman now deceased. 
Tho last waA formerly a Fellow of Cattiurinc liaD, 
Cambridge, wliere he graduated B.A. 1S07, M.A. 
1810; an<i he was presented to the rectory of 
Qrayinghnm by Sir John Thorold. Bart, in IV20. 
His three brotlierA, though all married, died 
withoQt sunivtng iuuc ; nnd in 1843, on the death 
of the Rer. A. C. Vcrelst, he sncceedcd to the 
flimily estates ; hut lie continued to reside as a 
pariah pri««t at Grayingham, where he consci- 
entlouNly di!«chan^ hia dutie;*, and where bi^ 
bodr has been interred. He morric^l. In 1^*14, 
Sophia, second daughter of Wm. Loc, cm}, of 
Orore Uall. near Ferrybridge, but IumI] uo ls»ue. 
The widows t)f all ftmr brothers still survive them. 
They have alM left tRO tSstcr.t, Anne, widow of 
fidwsrd S}-ngo Cooper, esq. M.P. of Marletrou 
Castle, CO. Sligo, and AIar>', widow of Rolicrt 
Ereljii Sutton, esq. of Scoftun, an<l now the wife 
of James Lee, esq. uf We^t Retford. 

July*}. At Ingomillc, near Havre, tlie Rev. 
motnof nimfe, M.A. formerly of Winwick, co. 
LancuKter. He was of Jesus college, Cambridge, 
BJL 1822, M.A. ib'iti. 

At Winchester, in \\\> 95th year, the Rev. Uttwy 
Siumore, B.C.L. Vicar of WjTuerlng with ^Hdlcy, 
and tor fifty >-ears a Fellow of Winchester coDego. 
He graduatLSl as of New college, Oxford, in 1783. 
He w as father of the late Rev. Henry SI*smurc, 
tnrmerly Curate of ILimi>stca<I near Tendon, and 
latterly of Cliutc in Wilts, who <iied in 1»47, and 
la briefly noticed in our vol. xxviii. p. 662. 

July 8. Age«l «0, the Rev. Tkoutos Tref^tct, 
Rector of Chailey, Susnex, and a Prebendary of 
RIpon. lie wa« son of tlie Rev. J,imc<« Trcbeck, 
formerly Vicar of Chiswick, co. Middlcitex, whu 
died In 180S. He was of Christchurch, Oxford. 
B.A. 17«7, M.A. 1790. In 1793 he was presented 
bjr the iH'an and Cluipter of Christchurch to the 
▼Icaragc of Wath-npon-l)eame near I>oncajitcr. 
which he held until 1822. Ho was nominated a 
Prebendary of Ripon In IHW, and prcHented to the 
lectoxT of Challey in 1822. He married Dec. 2«, 
1794, Eloixa, third dau. of Jonathan Burwood,e.'<q. 
of Hfoodbridgo ; nho died at Wath, Nov. 18, 1798. 



DEATHS, 

ARRANUEO IN CBRONOLOUICAL OUDUl. 

Kcv. - . At 8t. Catharine's, Upper Canada, 
Wnilam