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Full text of "The Germans and Swiss settlements of colonial Pennsylvania: a study of the so-called Pennsylvania Dutch"

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Member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the 

Revolution, of the Pennsylvania-German Society, and of 

the Lancaster County Historical Society 





123 60 15 



It 1039 L 

Copyright, 1900, 









" Die Enkel gut thun an die Miihen 
ihrer Vorfahren zu denken." 

— Freytag. 



The object of this book is to give a complete 
yet concise view of a too-much-neglected phase 
of American origins. The author has especially 
tried to be impartial, avoiding as far as possible 
mere rhetoric, and allowing the facts to speak 
for themselves. As a book of this kind can have 
no real value unless it is reliable, authorities have 
been freely quoted, even at the risk of making 
the number of foot-notes larger than is perhaps 
suited to the taste of the general public. 

Bern, Switzerland, 
October i, 1900. 



Preface . . 

Chapter I 




The Historic Background i 

The Settling of the German Counties 

OF Pennsylvania 30 

Over Land and Sea 62 

Manners and Customs of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Farmer in the 

Eighteenth Century 83 

Language, Literature, and Education. 115 

The Religious Life 153 

In Peace and in War 193 

Conclusion 221 

Pennsylvania-German Family Names. . . . 230 

Bibliography 247 

Index 259 











Of all the great nations of Western Europe 
during the centuries immediately following the 
discovery of America, Germany alone took no 
official part in the colonization of the New World. 
Spain in Florida and South America, France in 
Canada and Louisiana, Holland in New York, 
England in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 
and even Sweden in New Jersey, took formal 
possession of the territory settled by their sub- 
jects. Previous to the American Revolution it 
is estimated that over 100,000 Germans and 
Swiss settled in Pennsylvania alone, to say noth- 
ing of New York, Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, 
and the Carolinas. And yet this, for the times, 
extremely large immigration was not officially 
recognized by the home country, and the settlers 


themselves, instead of founding a German em- 
pire in the West, became at once the subjects of 
a foreign power. 

Nor does it follow necessarily that the German 
character is not adapted to the work of coloniza- 
tion ; at the present time Germany is at least try- 
ing to take her place in this kind of expansion, 
and the not-distant future may show her to be, in 
this as in other respects, no inconsiderable rival 
of England.^ 

One highly important cause of this emigration 
" without a head," as it has been called, was un- 
doubtedly the demoralized condition of Germany 
in consequence of the terrible civil and religious 
wars that again and again swept over that coun- 
try. As a final result of these wars the Holy 
Roman Empire was broken into fragments ; one 
half of the German-speaking people were sepa- 
rated from their fellows and merged with Hun- 
gary and Bohemia to form Austria ; while the 

^ Riehl, the great German ethnologist, is convinced of the 
colonizing power of his fellow countrymen, — the peasant classes 
at least : " Seine Ausdauer und Zahigkeit macht den deutschen 
Bauer zum geborenen Kolonisten. sie liat ihn zu dem gross- 
artigen weltgeschichtlichen Bcruf geweiht, der Bannertriiger 
deutschen Geistcs, deutschcr Gcsittung an alien Weltenden zu 
werden." (Die Biirgerliche Gesellschaft. p. 63.) JohnFiske, 
however, gives as the only cause of England's supremacy in 
colonization the principle of self-government. (Dutch and 
Quaker Colonies, vol. i. p. 131.) 


other half was split up into little kingdoms and 
principalities, whose chief efforts for nearly two 
hundred years were directed to recovering from 
the blighting effects of the Thirty Years' War. 

But while the above-mentioned facts explain 
the lack of official German colonization, they also 
account for the enormous and almost spontane- 
ous movement of emigration to America, and 
especially to Pennsylvania, at the beginning of 
the last century. The Pennsylvania German of 
to-day, who seeks to know why his ancestors 
came to this country some two centuries ago, 
must cast his eyes backward to the Reformation 
and the century and a half following thereupon. 

The Thirty Years' War was one of the most 
destructive wars in history.^ Not only were city, 
town, and village devastated in turn by the armies 
of friends as well as of foes; not only did poverty, 
hardship, murder, and rapine follow in the wake 
of these strange armies, with their multitudes of 
camp-followers; but the whole intellectual, moral, 
and religious character of the German people re- 
ceived a shock that almost threatened it with 

^ Cf. Freytag : "Dieser dreissigjahrige Krieg, seit derVol- 
kerwanderung die argste Verwiistung eines menschenreichen 
Volkes." (Bilder aus der deutschen Vergangenheit, vol. iv. 


3 ' ' Man mag fragen, wie bei solchen Verlusten und so griind- 


Of all the classes which suffered the dire con- 
sequences of the Thirty Years' War, none suf- 
fered more completely than the peasants, or farm- 
ers. Before that event the yeomanry of Germany 
were in a state of great prosperity. Their houses 
were comfortable, their barns capacious, their 
stables well stocked with horses and cattle, their 
crops were plenteous, and many had considerable 
sums of money safely stored away against a 
rainy day ; ^ some even boasted of silver plate.^ 

The outbreak of the religious wars in Bohemia 
was like the first faint rumble of the coming 
tempest, and before long the full fury of the 
storm of war broke over Germany itself. The suf- 
ferings of the countr\' folk during the thirty years 
that followed are almost incredible. Freytag has 
furnished many details which are drawn from 
documentary sources, and yet which seem too 
heart-rending to be true. Not only were horses 
and cattle carried away by the various armies 
which shifted back and forth over the length and 

lichem Verderb der Uberlebenden iiberhaupt noch ein deut- 
sches Volk geblieben ist." (Freytag, vol. ni. p. 115.) Frey- 
tag says that three things, only, kept alive the German 
nationality: the love t>f the people for their own homes, the 
efforts of the magistrates, and especially the zeal of the clergy, 
(p. 116.) 

* See Freytag, tii. pp. 103 ff. 

^ Illustrirte Geschichte von Wiirtemberg, p. 473. 


breadth of the land ; not only were houses, barns, 
and even crops burned; but the master of the 
house was frequently subjected to fiendish tor- 
tures in order that he might thus be forced to 
discover the hiding-place of his gold ; or, as often 
happened, as a punishment for having nothing 
to give. At the approach of a hostile army the 
whole village would take to flight, and would live 
for weeks in the midst of forests and marshes, 
or in caves.^ The enemy having departed, the 
wretched survivors would return to their ruined 
homes, and carry on a painful existence with the 
few remains of their former property, until they 
were forced to fly again by new invasions^ 
Many were slain, many of the young were lured 
away to swell the ranks of the armies, many fled 
to the cities for safety and never returned to their 
native villages. The country which had shortly 
before been so prosperous was now a wilderness 

« For a vivid account of this life see W. O. von Horn, 
"Johannes Scherer, der Wanderpfarrer in der Unterpfalz." 
Of especial interest are the references to the sufferings of the 
times made by Yillis Cassel, who was the ancestor of the well- 
known Pennsylvania family of that name. Extracts are 
given in Cassel's Geschichte der Mennoniten, p. 431 ff. 

■f Johannes Heberle, a Swabian peasant, tells us in his diary 
that he was forced to fly thirty times: " Gott Lob und 
Dank wir sind diesmal noch gern geflohen, weil es die letzte 
Flucht war, die 29. oder ungefahr 30." (Wurtembergische 
Neujahrsblatter, sechstes Blatt, 1889.) 


of uncultivated land, marked here and there by 
the blackened ruins which designated the site of 
former farms and villages. 

Freytag gives some most astonishing figures 
of the losses incurred. Taking as a sample the 
county of Henneberg (which he says was more 
fortunate than the other parts of Germany), he 
states that in the course of the war over 75 per 
cent, of the inhabitants were destroyed; 66 per 
cent, of the houses, 85 per cent, of the horses, 
over 83 per cent, of the goats, and over 82 per 
cent, of the cattle. It is a bloody story, says 
Freytag, which these figures tell. Alore than 
three-quarters of the inhabitants, more than four- 
fifths of their worldly goods destroyed. So com- 
plete was the desolation that it took two hundred 
years to restore the same state of agricultural 

These facts are true to a still greater extent of 
other parts of Germany, and more especially of 
the Palatinate, which from its position was most 
exposed to the ravages of the contending armies. 

^ Following are some official statistics given by Freytag : 
In nineteen villages of Henneberg there were in the years 

1634 1649 1849 

Families 1773 316 1916 

Houses 1717 627 1558 

Similar statistics arc given in regard to horses, cattle, etc. 

(Vol. III. p. 2J4.) 


The Palatinate has a history at once interest- 
ing and important. Its inhabitants are the de- 
scendants of the group of German tribes called 
the Rheinfranken, with an admixture of the Ale- 
manni, the latter of whom had occupied the land 
until 496 A.D., when Chlodwig, king of the 
Franks, defeated them in a battle fought some- 
where on the Upper Rhine.^ They were and are 
still among the best farmers in the world, in 
many districts having cultivated the soil for thirty 
generations.! "^ Situated as they are along the 
great water highway of Europe, they are said, 
by those who know, to combine the best qualities 
of North and South, being distinguished for in- 
domitable industry, keen wit, independence, and 
a high degree of intelligence.^^ During the Mid- 

9 The Alemanni afterwards settled in Svvabia (Wiirtemberg) 
and Switzerland. 

10 u Kraft dieser angestammten Lebensklugheit hat sich der 
Franke in der Pfalz, am Mittelrhein iind Untermain den Boden 
dienstbar gemacht wie kein anderer deutscher Stamm." (Riehl, 
Die Pfalzer, p. iii.) 

" Cf. Riehl, Die Pfalzer, and Hausser, Geschichte der Rhei- 
nischen Pfalz. Fiske says : "In journeying through it [what 
he calls the Middle Kingdom] all the way from Strasburg to 
Rotterdam, one is perpetually struck with the general diffusion 
of intelligence and refinement, strength of character and per- 
sonal dignity ; and there is reason for believing that at any 
time within the past four or five centuries our impression would 
have been relatively very much the same." (Dutch and 
Quaker Colonies, I. p. 10.) 


die Ages the Palatinate had been among the 
most powerful and influential of the German 
states; it had rejoiced in great and enlightened 
rulers like Conrad von HohenstaufTen, Frederick 
the Wise (who recognized the Reformation), and 
the tolerant and broad-minded Karl Ludwig, the 
protector of the Swiss Mennonites. The country 
along the Rhine and the Neckar was known as 
the garden of Germany; the University of Hei- 
delberg was one of the oldest and most influen- 
tial seats of learning in Europe. 

The terrible disorders of the religious wars dealt 
a deadly blow at this prosperity and glory. It 
was the Elector Palatine Frederick V. himself 
who, by accepting the crown of Bohemia, pre- 
cipitated the Thirty Years' War, and thus at- 
tracted to his own country the full fury of that 
war. The horrors related above were repeated 
here on a still larger scale. Hausser tells how, at 
the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly in 1622, the 
soldiers, not content with fire, plunder, and 
rapine, pierced the feet of the wretched citizens 
with nails, burned them with hot irons, and com- 
mitted other similar barbarities.^^ 

" At this time occurred the plunder of the celebrated library 
of Heidelberg when the priceless manuscripts and lx)oks were 
carried off to enrich the treasures of the Vatican. Napoleon 
in his turn robbed the Vatican library, and in 1815 part of the 
books and manuscripts stolen were returned to Heidelberg. 


So again in 1634, after the defeat of the Swedes 
at Nordling-en, different bands of soldiers swept 
in their retreat over the Palatinate, utterly disre- 
garding all law, mishandling persons and de- 
stroying property. Hausser says that the de- 
vastation of the land, just recovering from its 
former destruction, was beyond imagination. 
The cavalry of Horn and Bernard of Weimar left 
behind them terrible traces of plunder, destruc- 
tion, and death; hunger, violence, and suffering 
were on all sides. The years 1635 and 1636 mark 
the period of the most terrible misery. In the 
years 1636-38 famine and pestilence came to add 
to the suffering. The people tried to satisfy 
hunger with roots, grass, and leaves ; even canni- 
balism became more or less frequent. The gal- 
lows and the graveyards had to be guarded; the 
bodies of children were not safe from their moth- 
ers. So great was the desolation that where 
once were flourishing farms and vineyards, now 
whole bands of wolves roamed unmolested. 

It might seem as if the above statements were ex- 
travagant or were mere rhetorical exaggerations. 
Yet these facts are given almost in the very words 
of a staid and judicious German historian.^^ For 
the North of Germany this state of affairs came 
practically to an end with the Peace of West- 

" Ludwig Hausser, Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz. 


phalia in 1649, by which the pohtical map of 
Europe was finally settled and a condition of 
toleration, at least, was agreed upon between the 
three confessions — Catholics, Lutherans, and Re- 
formed. For the Palatinate, however, the respite 
was of short duration. By the terms of the peace 
the Upper Palatinate was taken away and given 
to the Duke of Bavaria, who also received the 
title of Elector, while a new electoral title was 
created for Karl Ludwig. 

Under the wise administration of the latter 
prince the land began slowly to recover from its 
desolated condition ; the banks of the Neckar and 
the Rhine had become a desert; the vineyards 
were gone, the fields covered with thorns ; in- 
stead of the former flourishing villages a few 
wretched huts were found here and there. Yet 
so favored by Heaven is this fertile land that 
the improvement was rapid. Many who had fled 
returned ; lands were plenty, taxes were light. 
Other colonists came from Switzerland, Holland, 
France,^"* and even England. The town of 

'* Among the founders of Germantown were certain Dutch 
families from Kriet^shcim, near Worms. (See Pennypacker.) 
So also a number of the Huguenot settlers of both Pennsylvania 
and New York were from the Palatinate. The settlement of 
New Paltz in the latter State was so called by the Frencli in 
memory of the land which had been their home for many 
years. (See Bainl, The Huguenot Emigration to America.) 


Frankeiithal was almost entirely inhabited by 
these foreigners. Religion was free ; Karl Lud- 
wig was much more liberal than his predecessors 
had been. He was one of the first of German 
princes to discard the idea that in order 
to govern his subjects well they must all 
be of the same confession as himself. The 
Anabaptists, or Mennonites, who had lived 
for a number of years in the Palatinate, and 
had often been oppressed, now received from 
Karl Ludwig freedom of worship. Thus the 
country in a short time began to prosper anew. 
So great was the change that the French Field- 
marshal de Grammont, who in 1646 had passed 
through the devastated land, twelve years later 
was filled with amazement at the change, " as if 
no war had ever been there." 

In the years 1674-75 the war between France 
and Holland, into which the Elector of Branden- 
burg and the Emperor Leopold had been drawn, 
brought destruction once more to the Palatinate 
— lying as it did between the two contending 
countries — and the painful efforts of twenty 
years remained fruitless. It was the purpose of 
Louis XIV. to render the Palatinate useless to 
his enemies. Turenne, who had received definite 
orders from Versailles to devastate the Pala- 
tuiate, did his work thoroughly. Once more the 


monotonous tale of misery must be told : noble- 
man, citizen, peasant plundered; fields laid waste; 
cattle carried off; even the clothing torn from 
the backs of the wretched victims. What could 
not be carried away was destroyed; even the bells 
and organs were taken from the churches. At 
one time seven cities and nineteen villages were 
burning; starvation once more threatened the 
homeless peasant. This, however, was only the 
prelude to the famous, or rather infamous, de- 
struction of 1689. 

In 1685 the Simmern-Zweibriicken dynasty 
died out, and the Neuburg line, represented by 
Philip William, inherited the electoral title of the 
Palatinate. It was at this juncture that Louis 
XIV. made his utterly unjust and unrighteous 
claim to a large portion of the Palatinate in the 
name of the daughter ofthelate Elector, EHzabeth, 
who had married the Duke of Orleans, the disso- 
lute brother of the French king. All this in spite 
of the fact that Elizabeth had no legal right to the 
land, and did not herself claim it. At this ef- 
frontery on the part of Louis, all the princes of 
Northern Europe leagued themselves against 
him ; England, Holland, and Germany stood as a 
solid mass against the intrigues of France. 
Louis — feeling his inability to cope single-handed 


with this mighty coaHtion, and determined that 
'■ if the soil of the Palatinate was not to furnish 
supplies to the French it should be so wasted that 
it would at least furnish no supplies to the Ger- 
mans " — approved the famous order of his war- 
minister, Louvois, to " bruler le Palatinat." The 
scenes that followed surpassed even the hor- 
rors of the Thirty Years' War. The recapitula- 
tion of such scenes only becomes monotonous 
and finally loses its effect on the imagination. 
Macaulay's description, however, is so vivid that 
we give a few extracts from it in this place. "The 
commander announced to near half a million 
human beings that he granted them three days 
of grace, and that within that time they must 
shift for themselves. Soon the roads and fields, 
which then lay deep in snow, were blackened by 
innumerable multitudes of men, women, and 
children flying from their homes. . . . Meanwhile 
the work of destruction went on. The flames 
went up from every market-place, every parish- 
church, every country-seat, within the devoted 
province. The fields where the corn had been 
sowed were ploughed up. The orchards were 
hewn down. No promise of a harvest was left 
on the fertile plains near what had been Frank- 
enthal. Not a vine, not an almond-tree was to 


be seen on the slopes of the sunny hills round 
what had once been Heidelberg." ^^ 

During this trying period, the Reformed es- 
pecially suffered ; their churches were burned, or 
turned over to the Catholics ; on both sides of 
the Rhine Protestantism received a deadly blow. 
It was the desire of Louis not only to seize the 
country, but to crush out heresy there. The 
Elector Philip William, Catholic though he was, 
promised to help his oppressed people, but died 
before he could accomplish anything. He was 
even forced by the poverty of the land to dismiss 
many Protestant pastors, teachers, and officials, 
and to combine or to dissolve a number of 
churches and schools. 

And here for the first time the religious condi- 
tion of the Palatinate enters as an important 
factor in preparing the way for the movement of 
German emigration to Pennsylvania. Hitherto 
the province had enjoyed religious freedom. 
After the Lutheran Elector Otto Heinrich the 
land had a succession of Calvinist rulers, until 
the accession of the Neuburg line in the person 
of Philip William in 1685. It is true that Luther- 
ans and Reformed had had many a bitter discus- 
sion and the former had often sufifered injustice 
at the hands of their by far more numerous rivals. 

'^ History of England, vol. in. p. 112. 


But all this was trifling compared with the sys- 
tematic oppression begun by John William^ *5 and 
continued by his successors for nearly a century. 
Philip William, the first of the Catholic rulers 
of the Palatinate, was a kind-hearted, well-mean- 
ing man, by no means intolerant in matters of 
religion. His son and successor, however, was 
weak in character, and easily led by others. He 
had been educated by the Jesuits, and after be- 
coming the ruler of an almost completely Prot- 
estant land he still retained the Jesuits as his 
political counsellors. 

At the conclusion of hostilities between France 
and Germany, the Protestant church in the Pala- 
tinate was practically crushed. The French had 
everywhere supported the Catholics in their usur- 
pations ; the Reformed church-council was re- 
duced to two men, and the Jesuits held full sway. 
In one place the Protestant inhabitants were 
compelled to share their church property with 
the Catholics; in another they were deprived of 
everything; before the end of 1693 hundreds of 
Reformed and a number of Lutheran churches 
were in the hands of the Catholic orders, to say 
nothing of the parsonages and schoolhouses.^''' 

'* Son of Philip William, who died in 1690. 

" To add to their trouble a contest broke out at this time 
between the Reformed and the Lutherans, much to the satis- 
faction of the Catholics. (See Hausser.) 


The Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, by which was 
ended the war between France and Germany, 
was of Httle benefit to the Protestants of the Pa- 
latinate. They were compelled to accept the status 
quo of the Catholic usurpations. On the basis of 
the clause to this effect in the treaty, colossal 
claims were made by the Catholics. In 1699 the 
French diplomatist brought a list of 1922 places, 
mostly in the Palatinate, which he claimed for 
the Catholics; if he had succeeded in carrying 
through his demands, Protestantism in the Pa- 
latinate would have received its death-blow. 

It is very probable that John William had con- 
spired with France, Rome, and the Jesuits 
against his Protestant subjects, in introducing 
into the Treaty of Ryswick the clause concerning 
the condition of the Protestants in his dominions, 
and thus became, as Hausser puts it, " Landes- 
verrather " instead of " Landesvater." lience- 
forth in all that pertained to the Reformed 
Church he followed the tactics of his Jesuit coun- 
sellors. He seemed to care more to restore 
Catholicism than to restore the prosperity of the 
land. In 1697 he declared it as " an inconceivable 
mark of divine favor, which they must ever keep 
sacred, that the electorates of the Palatinate and 
of Saxony had again fallen into Catholic hands." 

When John William in 1698 came back to his 


dominion, the first time since its destruction, it 
was not to heal wounds, but to add new ones to 
the Reformed Church. The large majority of 
the inhabitants of the land were Reformed or 
Lutherans; 1^ there were but few Catholics. Yet 
the Elector, with a show of tolerance, issued a 
decree to the effect that all churches should be 
open to the three confessions. This tolerance, 
however, was only apparent, inasmuch as, while 
the Protestants were obliged to give up part of 
their churches, the Catholics remained in undis- 
turbed possession of their own. In this way 
alone two hundred and forty churches were 
opened to the Catholics. Other oppressive meas- 
ures were enforced. The Protestants were re- 
quired to bend the knee at the passing of the 
Host, and to furnish flowers for the church festi- 
vals of their rivals; while the work qf proselyting 
was carried on publicly by the Jesuits, who had 
been called in for that purpose. The Swiss Men- 
nonites, the Walloons, and the Huguenots, who 
for many years had found a refuge in the Pa- 
latinate, were now driven from the land; many 
went to Prussia, Holland, and America. 

While no great oppression was publicly made, 

^8 The Lutherans were not nearly so numerous, however ; 
hitherto they had about forty churches under the supervision of 
the Reformed Church. 


yet there was a constant system of nagging,— 
what would now be called a pin-pricking policy. 
Often they would be beaten for refusing to bend 
the knee in the presence of the Host, and for re- 
fusing to share in Catholic ceremonies. Their 
pastors w'ere driven away or thrown into prison. 
By one single decree seventy-five schoolmasters 
were rendered penniless. Hundreds of petty per- 
secutions on person and property were made. 

It is a subject of legitimate pride on the part 
of the descendants of these people to know that 
they could not be crushed. The Reformed 
Church of the Palatinate showed itself to be bold 
and self-sacrificing; the various congregations 
held firm and would not change in spite of vio- 
lence; the pastors were unyielding — there is not 
an example of one who was a coward or proved 
untrue to his office. Hausser pays the following 
tribute to the steadfastness of the Church in 
those days of trial : " Earnestness and modera- 
tion prevailed among the persecuted congrega- 
tions; the terrible sufferings of war, and the petty 
persecutions that followed the peace, were excel- 
lent means for purifying the morals, and since 
the days of Frederick IV., the Protestants of the 
Palatinate had not maintained so good a moral 
conduct as in the ' Leidenjahren ' of the Jesuit 
reaction." One eflfect of all this, however, was 


the spread of pietism and mysticism, which 
manifested themselves in rehgious emotion. A 
pastor of Heidelberg, Henry Horch, founded a 
sect which looked for the end of the world as a 
release out of all their sorrows.^^ The great body 
of the people, however, although undoubtedly 
deeply afifected by pietism, remained true to sound 
religion. These conditions prevailed throughout 
the whole of the eighteenth century. From time 
to time the Protestant rulers of Europe interfered, 
and promises would be made, only to be broken. 
It would be a tedious repetition to give further 
instances of this persecution; what has already 
been given may stand for what went on for 
nearly one hundred years. 

To the above historical and religious condi- 
tions which prepared the way for emigration to 
America we must add the corruption, the 
tyranny, the extravagance and heartlessness of 
the rulers of the Palatinate; all through the 
eighteenth century their chief efforts seemed to 
be directed to a base and slavish imitation of the 
life of the French court. While the country was 

'3 It was about this time that Kelpius came to Pennsylvania, 
there to await the coming of Christ. It was also only a short 
time later that Alexander Mack founded the sect of the Dun- 
kards. For other examples of the pietistic spirit see Chapter 


exhausted and on tlic verge of ruin, costly pal- 
aces were built, rivalling and even surpassing 
in luxury those of France; enormous retinues 
were maintained; while pastors and teachers 
were starving, hundreds of court officers lived 
in luxury and idleness. The burden of feudalism 
still lay heavy upon the peasants; the chasm be- 
tween them and the upper classes became more 
and more widened. Down to the French Revo- 
lution the peasant and his children were forced 
to render body-service, to pay taxes in case of 
sale or heritage, to suffer the inconveniences of 
hunting, and, above all, to see themselves de- 
prived of all justice.2o 

Such a state of things became intolerable. As 
Hausser says, " In this way a part of the riddle 
is explained which seemed so mysterious to the 
statisticians of that time, i.e., why precisely in 
these years of peace the population of the Palat- 
inate diminished so surprisingly. Schlozer was 
astonished at the fact that from no land in the 
world relatively so many people emigrated as 
from this paradise of Germany, the Palatinate. 
A glance at the fatherly government of this para- 
dise will give us the key to the riddle. Many 
hundreds allowed themselves to be lured to 
Spain (in 1768), where they were promised tol- 
" Cf. Freytag, vol. ni. pp. 427 ff. 


erance. By way of England so many were 
shipped to America that for a long time the name 
of Palatine was used as a general term for all 
German emigrants." 

In the above pages we have gone somewhat 
into detail in regard to the condition of afifairs 
in the Palatinate, inasmuch as that province fur- 
nished by far the largest contingent of the Ger- 
man emigration to Pennsylvania. Many of the 
statements made, however, apply equally to 
Wiirtemberg, Zweibriicken, and others of the 
petty principalities in the neighborhood of the 
Palatinate.-i The whole of South Germany 
had suffered from the Thirty Years' War, hence 
the same conditions which led to emigration — 
poverty, tyranny, and religious intolerance — ex- 
isted everywhere, each province having in addi- 
tion its local causes. 

There is one country, however, which fur- 
nished a very large contingent to the emigration 
to Pennsylvania, and which was free from the 

^^ One or two facts will illustrate the condition of Wiirtem- 
berg after the Thirty Years' War. Before that event Stuttgart 
had 8200 inhabitants ; in less than two years 5370 had died ; 
the total population of the land in 1634 was 414,536 ; in 1639 
there were not 100,000. (Illust. Geschichte von Wiirtemberg, 
p. 512.) For a graphic description of the destruction of Zwei- 
briicken see Heintz, Pfalz-Zweibriicken wahrend des dreissig- 
jahrigen Kricges. 


horrors of the Thirty Years' War. That is 
Switzerland. To a certain degree this war was 
for that country a blessing. Untouched them- 
selves, the Swiss received thousands of fugitives 
from the neighboring lands. This influx of people 
raised the price of land and brought about a veri- 
table " boom." The contrast between unhappy 
Germany and peaceful Switzerland is thus graphi- 
cally portrayed by a German traveller: " I then 
came to a land where there was no fear of enemies 
or of being plundered, no thought of losing life 
and property; where every one lived in peace 
and joy under his own vine and fig-tree; so 
that I looked upon this land, rough as it seemed, 
as an earthly paradise." 22 The devastation of 
war, then, did not prepare the way for later emi- 
gration in Switzerland as it had done in South 
Germany; and yet real and sufihcient causes for 
this emigration existed. While Switzerland has 
ever been regarded as the ideal land of freedom, 
it was, after all, up to the present century, but 
little more than an aristocracy. The emoluments 
of office in such cities as Berne and Zurich 
were in the hands of a few patrician families, 
which, generation after generation, held all 
of^ces.23 The lower classes, those who tilled 

2' Dandliker, Geschichte dcr Scliwciz, n. p. 694. 

" This was especially true of the eighteenth century ; cf. 


the soil and who labored with their hands, had 
no share in the government and but little real 
freedom. The feudal system, which had existed 
for a thousand years in Switzerland, was not 
abolished till the French Revolution swept it 
away with many other relics of the past. During 
the period which we are studying, tithes, land- 
tax, body-service, and all the other accompani- 
ments of the feudal relations between peasant 
and lord flourished apparently as vigorously as 
ever.2-* Add to this the traffic in soldiers which 
forms so deep a blot on the fair name of Switzer- 
land, and which was a constant source of dis- 
content among the people,^^ and we may have 
some idea of the secular causes of Swiss emigra- 
tion during the last century. 

Dandliker, n. pp. 632 and 710; HI. p. 30: "Von freiem 
Verfugungsrecht der Gemeinden, vonfreierWahl der Gemeinde- 
behorden war iioch keine Rede"; and again: "Allgemein 
war ferner jener Zeit eigen : der Zug zur Aristokratie. 
AUerorten haufte sich die Gewalt, tatsachlich oder Verfassungs- 
gemass, in den Handen Weniger." 

"Dandliker, ni. p. 33 : "Das Feudal- oder Lehenswesen, 
. . . voile tausend Jahre lang hatte es sich als Grundlage der 
Staats- und Gesellschaftsordnung erhalten konnen. . . . Es be- 
hauptete noch immer seine voile Herrschaft in wirtlischaft- 
lichen und socialen Verhaltnissen, zum Teil auch in der 
Staatsorganisation. " 

'5 At the end of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740) no 
fewer than seventy to eighty thousand Swiss soldiers were in 
foreign service; and the same number took part in the Seven 
Years' War (1756-63). (Dandliker, in. p. 19.) 


The chief cause, however, of the earhest Swiss 
emigration to Pennsylvania was of a re- 
ligious nature. We shall have occasion later 
to speak of the origin of the ]\Iennon- 
ites, who form so striking a feature of the 
religious life of the Pennsylvania of to-day. 
During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the 
annals of Berne and Zurich contain frequent 
references to the measures taken to root out 
this sect, many of whose doctrines were distaste- 
ful to the state churches founded by Zwingli, 
especially their refusal to bear arms.^^ From 
their first appearance in Switzerland in the early 
decades of the sixteenth century, the ]\Iennonites 
were the victims of systematic persecution on 
the part of their Reformed brethren; even the 
death-penalty being inflicted on a number, while 
others w-ere thrown into prison, exiled, or — in 
the case of a few — sold to the Turks as galley- 

From time to time single families and indi- 
viduals had fled across the frontiers and sought 

'" This is frequently given as the reason for Berne's severity 
against the Menonnites. Thus the Bernese ambassador or 
agent in Holland excused the persecution of the Mennonites on 
the ground that the only possibility of defending a state de- 
pended on the power of the sovereign to call the subjects to 
arms in case of need, etc. (Miiller, Geschichte der Bernischen 
Taufer, p. 260.) 


refuge in the Palatinate, where Mennonite com- 
munities had existed since 1527. In 1671 the 
first considerable emigration took place, when a 
party of seven hundred persons left their native 
land and settled on the banks of the Rhine. 
These were afterwards the supporters of their 
compatriots, who willingly or unwillingly left 
Switzerland in the following years. These Pala- 
tine Swiss had to suffer the same trials as their 
neighbors, but were treated with even more in- 
tolerance. Poverty, floods, failure of crops, the 
billeting of foreign soldiers, all contributed to 
make their lot intolerable, and finally induced 
large numbers of them to join their brethren in 
Switzerland in the movement which resulted in 
the settlement on the Pecjuea in Lancaster 

The above-mentioned causes, both secular 
and religious, produced a widespread discontent 
and fostered the prevalent desire for emigration 
in Switzerland.^''' That it reached important di- 
mensions may be inferred from the fact that 
Zurich passed decrees against it almost annually 

'■^ "Die Armut in manchen Gegenden und dazu die plotzlich 
eintretenden Notzeiten zwangen jetzt im achtzehnten Jahr- 
hundert zuerst die Schweizer zur Auswanderung. Vereinzelt 
war diese zwar sclion im siebzehnten Jahrhundert vorgekom- 
men, wurde aber erst jetzt haufiger und allgemeiner." (DUnd- 
liker, vol. Ul. p. 186.) 


from 1734 to 1744; even Berne, which had pre- 
viously sent Michel and Graffenricd to prepare 
the way for a Swiss colony in Georgia, changed 
its policy, and in 1736 and 1742 published decrees 
forbidding emigration.^*^ 

In the preceding pages we have endeavored to 
give the historical events and social conditions 
which form the background to German emigra- 
tion to Pennsylvania, and without which that 
emigration would never have taken place. Of 
course in addition to these there were many 
other direct and indirect causes, such as Pcnn's 
travels to Germany ,2^ and the pamphlets descrip- 
tive of his " Holy Experiment," which he after- 
wards caused to be published in English, Dutch, 
and German, and which were scattered broadcast 
over South Germany. So, too, the efforts of 
Queen Anne and her Golden Book, which 
brought that flood of Palatines to London, in 
1709, out of which were to come the settlements 
on the Schoharie and the Mohawk, and later 
those on the Tulpehocken, in Berks County, 

** See Good, The German Reformed Church in the United 
States, p. 172. Speaking of the party which left Ziirich in 
1732, Salomon Hess, one of tlie pastors of that city says : 
"There was no good reason at that time for them to leave 
their fatherland, but they were seized by an insane desire to 
go to America." (Dubbs, Ger. Ref. Ch. p. 253.) 

«» See Chapter II. 


Pa. George II. also published proposals aimed 
directly at the Mennonites in the Palatinate. 

As in all other affairs of life, so in this matter 
of emigration, personal work undoubtedly did 
much. We know that when the Mennonites set- 
tled in Lancaster County, their first care was to 
send one of their number back to the Old World, 
in order to bring over their friends and brethren. 
We read in Christopher Sauer's letter to Gov- 
ernor Denny in 1755: "And when I came to 
this province, and found everything to the con- 
trary from where I came from, I wrote largely 
to all my friends and acquaintances of the civil 
and religious liberty, privileges, etc., and of 
the goodness I have heard and seen, and my 
letters were printed and reprinted, and provoked 
many thousand people to come to this province, 
and many thanked the Lord for it and desired 
their friends also to come here." ^° 

Speculation, too, entered as a powerful stimu- 
lant to emigration. As soon as the ship-owners 
saw the large sources of profit in thus transport- 
ing emigrants, they employed every means of at- 
tracting them. Thence arose the vicious class of 
" Newlanders " described in Chapter III. 

Such are some of the leading causes of pre- 
30 Brumbaugh, A History of the Brethren, p. 377. 


Revolutionary German emigration to Pennsyl- 
vania, general and particular, direct and indi- 
rect. But even all these causes might not have 
been effective were it not for the innate propen- 
sity to emigration of the German character, that 
*' Wanderlust " (so strangely combined with 
love for home and country) that has been the dis- 
tinguishing trait of German character from the 
dawn of their history down to the present.^^ It 
was this trait which has ever led them to leave 
their native country when scarcity of land, 
social and religious conditions, famine and war 
have furnished the immediate occasion. It was 
this which led to the vast movement of the 
" Volkerwanderung " in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies, and to the colonization of Prussia and 
Silesia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centu- 
ries ; ^- it was this that in our own centur}' has 
sent successive waves of German immigrants to 
populate the Western States; it was this that in 
the eighteenth century sent the Palatines and 
Swiss to Pennsylvania, there to take root, and 
to build new homes for themselves and their 

^1 "Die Liebe zur Heimath und daneben dor unerhiJrte 
Wandertrieb." (Freytag, vol. i. p. 60.) 

""Seit in den Kreuzziigcn der alte Wandertrieb der 
Deutschen wieder erwacht war, und Ilunderttausande von 
Landleuten mit Weib und Kind, mit Karren und Hunden nach 
dem goldencn Osten zogen." (Ibid., vol. n. p. I57-) 


children and their children's children. How 
well they succeeded in this we shall try to show 
in the following chapters. 



It would be an interesting and certainly a 
valuable thing to study in detail all the facts con- 
cerning the whole subject of German innnigra- 
tion to America, or even such immigration in 
the eighteenth century. There were colonies in 
New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, 
Georgia, Louisiana, North and South Carolina, 
and even so far north as Maine and Nova 
Scotia.^ The German settlements in Pennsyl- 
vania, however, were more numerous and more 
important than those of all the other States com- 
bined. In the other States the Germans formed 
but a small percentage of the population, and 
have influenced but little the character of the 
State development; while those in Pennsylvania 
have from the beginning down to the present 
day formed at least one-third of the population, 
and have undoubtedly exercised a profound in- 

' For bcK)ks on this subject see Bibliography. 



fluence on the development of the Quaker Com- 
monwealth and of the neighboring States, es- 
pecially those to the south and west. Many of 
the facts cited in this book apply equally well, 
however, to the Germans of New York, Mary- 
land, Virginia, etc.^ 

In the present chapter an efifort is made to 
give a general view of the streams of immigra- 
tion which flowed into Pennsylvania between 
the years 1683 and' 1775. We may divide this 
period into three parts: first, from 1683 to 1710, 
or from the founding of Germantown to the 
coming of the Swiss Mennonites; second, from 
1 710 to 1727, the year when the immigration 
assumed large proportions and when official sta- 
tistics began to be published; the third period 
extends to the outbreak of the Revolution, 
which put an end to all immigration for a num- 
ber of years.^ During the first of the above 
periods the numbers were very small; the sec- 
ond period marks a considerable increase in 

'Indeed in common parlance the expression "Pennsylvania 
Dutch" includes the Germans of Maryland and Virginia. 
Those in New York are often confused with their Holland 
neighbors, both by themselves and others. 

' This book does not contemplate the discussion of German 
immigration after the Revolution ; for this phase of the subject 
see Loher, Geschichte und Zustande der Deutschen in Ame- 
rika, and Eckhoff, In der neuen Heimath. 


numbers, which during the tliird period swell to 
enormous size. 

The Pennsylvania Germans may be said to 
have a Mayflower, as well as the Puritans. In 
the year 1683 the good ship Concord (surely 
an appropriate name when we consider the prin- 
ciples of peace and harmony which marked 
Penn's "Holy Experiment"!) landed at Phila- 
delphia, — then a straggling village of some four- 
score houses and cottages,'* — having on board a 
small number of German and Dutch Mennonites 
from Crefeld and Kriegsheim. With this little 
group the story of the Pennsylvania Germans be- 
gins. In order to understand why they thus 
came to the Xcw World, we shall have to note 
some important religious movements which cliar- 
acterized the seventeenth century. 

The Reformation in England gave rise to as 
many sects and parties as it did on the Conti- 
nent. We may find an analogy between the 
Lutheran Church and the Church of England; 
betw^een the Reformed (or Calvinists) and the 
Puritans (or Presbyterians); and between the 
Anabaptists or Mennonites and the Quakers and 
Baptists. This analogy is no mere fancy; we 

"• Proud, I. 263. " Such as they are," adds Penn, who gives 
these figures in a letter to the Free Society of Traders in Lon- 


know the influence of Calvin on Puritanism; the 
Hanoverian kings of England were both Luth- 
erans and Churchmen (the former in their pri- 
vate, the latter in their official capacity); and 
modern Church historians have declared that 
it was from the Mennonites that the General 
Baptist Church in England sprang; while Bar- 
clay says of George Fox, the founder of the 
Quakers, " We are compelled to view him as 
the unconscious exponent of the doctrines, prac- 
tice, and discipline of the ancient and stricter 
party of the Dutch Mennonites." ^ Thus, in the 
words of Judge Pennypacker, " to the spread of 
Mennonite teachings in England we therefore 
owe the origin of the Quakers and the settlement 
of Pennsylvania." ® 

When William Penn became a Quaker he was 
filled with missionary fervor; among his other 
"labors in the field of missions he made two jour- 
neysto Holland and Germany. The second journey 
was made in 1677 and was fraught with moment- 
ous consequences for the subjectwhichwe are dis- 
cussing. On July 26th of the above year, Penn 
with several friends — among whom were the 
well-known George Fox, Robert Barclay, and 
George Keith — landed at Briel in Holland, hav- 

5 Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, p. 77. 
8 The Settlement of Germantown, p. 66. 


ing as their object " to extend tlie principles and 
organization of the Quakers in IIoHand and Ger- 
many."' It was not the first time that such efforts 
had been made; as far back as 1655 WilHam 
Ames had estabhshed a small Quaker commu- 
nity at Kriegsheim, near Worms, in the Palati- 
nate; and later \\'illiam Caton, George Rolf, 
Benjamin Furley," and others had visited the 

Penn's visit to Germany coincided with the 
great pietistic movement in that country.^ The 
causes of this movement are partly to be sought 
in the wretchedness and sufferings of the times, 
and partly in the stiff formalism into which the 
Church had fallen. The comfort and satisfac- 
tion that could not be found in Church and 
State were sought for in personal communion 
with the Holy Spirit. Men turned from the cold- 
ness of dogmatic theology to the ecstasies of re- 
ligious emotion. In the words of Spener, the 
great apostle of pietism, religion was brought 
" from the head to the heart." This movement 
spread in a great tidal wave of excitement over 

' Furley afterwards became Penn's agent and played an im- 
portant part in inducing German emigration to Pennsylvania. 

* Penn himself says: "And I must tell you that there is a 
breathing, hungering, seeking people, solitarily scattered up 
and down the great land of Germany, where the Lord hath 
sent me." (Works, I^ndon, 1726, vol. I. p. 69.) 


Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and 
even England. The " collegia pietatis," or the 
meetings for the study of the Bible, — 'One might 
call them adult Bible-classes, — were held every- 
where.^ It was to friends in the spirit, then, that 
Penn came. He was everywhere welcomed by 
kindred souls, and their meetings were deeply 
marked by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.^ *^ 

The places visited by Penn which are of in- 
terest to us in our present discussion are Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, Kriegsheim, near Worms, on 
the Upper Rhine, and Miilheim-on-the-Ruhr; 
I have not been able to find any evidence that 
he visited Crefeld, — a city not far from the fron- 
tiers of Holland, — from which, as well as from 
Miilheim, the earliest settlers of Germantown 

Penn reached Frankfort on August 20th, and 
there met a number of pietists, among whom 
were Dr. Wilhelm Petersen, his wife Johanna 

^ This was not a movement of secession from the established 
churches ; among the pietists were Lutherans, Reformed, and 
even Catholics. Spener was a Lutheran and opposed to sec- 
tarianism. For an interesting summary of pietism see Freytag. 
One of the well-known literary results of it is Jung-Stilling's 

^^ He tells how at Frankfort "people of considerable note, 
both of Calvinists and Lutherans," received them " with glad- 
ness of heart and embraced our testimony with a broken and 
reverent spirit. " (Works, vol. i. p. 64.) 


Eleonora von Morlau," Daniel Behagel, Caspar 
Merian, Johann Lorentz, Jacob van de Wall, and 
others, who afterwards became the founders of 
the Frankfort Company, and thus the fautors of 
German emigration to Pennsylvania. Their 
names certainly deserve to be remembered. 

After leaving Frankfort, Penn went to Kriegs- 
heim, where, as before stated, a little company 
of German Quakers had held together since the 
visit of Ames and Rolf, some twenty years be- 
fore. Here, as he tells us in his Journal,^- he 
found, to his great joy, a " meeting of tender 
and faithful people," and, after writing a letter to 
Karl Ludwig on the danger of religious intol- 
erance, he returned to Holland and England. 

In 1681 Penn received from Charles H., in 
payment of a debt of £16,000 sterling which the 
government owed his father. Admiral Penn, the 
grant of an immense tract of territory, situated 
between New Jersey and iMaryland,^^ to which 
the king — against Penn's own wishes, however 

" For interesting autobiographical extracts from the Lives 
of both Petersen and his wife see Frcytag, Bilder aus der 
deutschen Vergangenhcit, vol. iv. pp. 29 ff. 

" Works, vol. I. p. 72. 

'* The indefinite language in which this grant was couched 
led afterwards to long disputes between Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, and was the occasion of the contest known as 
Cresap's War. in wlii h thf Ciermans of the present county 01 
York took a prominent part. 


— gave the name of Pennsylvania. Penn imme- 
diately planned what he called a " Holy Experi- 
ment " in government, a State in which religious 
as well as political freedom should be granted to 
all. He went about at once to attract colonists 
to his new colony, and soon after the formal con- 
firmation of the king's grant there appeared in 
London a slender pamphlet entitled " Some 
Account of the Province of Pennsylvania in 
America," in which the advantages of the new 
State were set forth in a favorable light. Almost 
at the same time a German translation was pub- 
lished in Amsterdam, entitled " Eine Nachricht 
wegen der Landschaft Pennsylvania in Amer- 
ica." 14 

Francis Daniel Pastorius, who may be called 
the Bradford of the Germantown settlement, 
writes in an autobiographical memoir as follows: 
" Upon my return to Frankfort in 1682 " (he 
had been travelling extensively through Europe, 
chiefly for pleasure), " I was glad to enjoy the 
company of my former acquaintances and Chris- 
tian friends, Dr. Schiitz, Eleonora von Merlau, 
and others, who sometimes made mention of 
William Penn of Pennsylvania, and showed me 
letters from Benjamin Furley, also a printed re- 

1* The same translation was published in praiikfoi-t in 1683, 
as part of a larger work, " Diariuni Europaeum." 


lation concerning said province; finally the 
whole secret could not be withholden from mc 
that they had purchased twenty-five thousand 
acres of land in this remote part of the world. 
Some of them entirely resolved to transport 
themselves, families and all.^^ This begat such 
a desire in my soul to continue in the society, 
and with them to lead a quiet, godly, and honest 
life in a howling wilderness, that by several let- 
ters I requested of my father his consent." 

In the mean time the Quakers and Mennonites 
of Kriegsheim had heard of the wonderful pos- 
sessions of the quiet and gentle Englishman who 
had visited them a few years before, and had read 
how under his laws liberty of conscience was prom- 
ised to all who should settle in the new colony. 
Comparing this prospect with their own unhappy 
condition, they immediately resolved to seek re- 
lief in Penn's land.^*' By this time Pastorius 
had received the consent of his father (together 
with a sum of money), and thereupon went to 

** None of tliem, however, did this. 

'* Their motives were undoubtedly identical with those thus 
expressed by Pastorius : "After I had sufficiently seen the 
European provinces and countries and the threatening move- 
ments of war, and had taken to heart the dire ciiaiiges and 
disturbances of the Fatherland. I was impelled, through a spe- 
cial guidance from the Almighty, to go to Pennsylvania," etc. 
(Pennypacker, Settlement of Gcrmantown. p. 75.) 


Kriegsheim, where he saw the leaders of the 
intending settlers, Peter Schumacher, Gerhard 
Hendricks, and others, and with them discussed 
the preparations necessary for the long journey. 
He then descended the Rhine to Crefeld, where 
he conferred with Thones Kunders, Dirck Her- 
man, the Op den GraelT brothers, and others, who 
followed him across the ocean six weeks later. 

Pastorius thus became the agent of the Frank- 
fort Company, of the Kriegsheimers and of the 
Crefelders. He sailed ahead of the others, June 
6, 1683, and arrived in Philadelphia August 16, 
where he was heartily welcomed by Penn.^" 

'" Francis Daniel Pastorius was no ordinary man ; indeed it 
is probable that there were few men in America at that time 
equal to him in learning. He was born in Sommerhausen, 
Germany, Sept. 26, 165 1, studied at the Universities of Stras- 
burg, Basel, Erfurt, Jena, and Altdorf, taking a degree in law 
at the latter place in 1675. Soon after he travelled in Holland, 
England, France, and Switzerland, bringing up at Frankfort 
in 1682, as noted above. He was well acquainted with Greek, 
Latin, French, Dutch, English, Italian, and Spanish, as may 
be seen from his commonplace-book written macaronically in 
these various languages and entitled the "Beehive." Ex- 
tracts from this book have been published in the Americana 
Germanica. See also Pennypacker, pp. 109-114. Pastorius 
built for himself a small house, over the door of which he 
wrote: " Parva domus sed arnica bonis: procul este profani." 
Whereat, he says, " Unser Gouverneur, als er mich besuchte, 
einen Lachen aufschluge und mich ferner fortzubauen an- 
frischete." (Beschreibung von Pennsylvanien, ed. by Kapp. p. 


Pastorius was the advance courier of the pros- 
pective settlers of Germantown. July 24th thir- 
teen men together with their families sailed for 
the New World on board the Concord, reach- 
ing Philadelphia October 6, 1683, some two 
months after Pastorius himself.^** A short time 
thereafter all hands were busy getting settled for 
the winter in the new colony, then separated 
from Philadelphia by a stretch of primeval for- 
est broken only by a narrow bridle-path. 

23.) Whittier wrote what he considered his best poem, "The 
Pennsylvania Pilgrim," on Pastorius : 

" Simply, as fits my theme, in homely rhyme 
I sing the blue-eyed German Spener taught," etc. 

(Works, vol. I. pp. 322 flf.) 

*' One single American poet has devoted a few lines to the 
arrival of this band of German pilgrims. In Whittier's 
" Pennsylvania Hall " the following lines are found. 

" Meek-hearted Woolman and that brother-band. 
The sorrowing exiles from their " Fatherland." 
Leaving their home in Krieslieim's bowers of vine, 
And the blue beauty of their glorious Rhine, 
To seek amidst our solemn depths of wood 
Ereedom from man and holy peace with God ; 
Who first of all their testimonial gave 
Against tlie oppressor, for the outcast slave. 
Is it a dream that such as these look down 
And with their blessings our rejoicings crown ? " 

(Works, v..]. III. p. 58.) 

The reference in the eighth and niiitli lines is to the protest 
against slavery made to the monthly meeting of the Quakers, 
April 18, 1688, by Pastorius, Gerhard Hendricks, and the two 
Op den Graeff brothers. Pennypacker (p. 197) has rojirinted 
this must interesting document. 


Pastorius was no mere dreamer, but an active 
and able man. Under his supervision the land 
was soon cleared, houses built, and a prosperous 
community founded. That they had many hard- 
ships to suffer at first goes without saying. Ar- 
riving so late in the year, they had only time to 
build cellars and huts in which " they passed the 
year with much hardship." Pastorius says peo- 
ple made a pun on the name of the settlement, 
calling it " Armentown," because of lack of sup- 
plies. " It could not be described," he continues, 
" nor will it be believed by coming generations, 
in what want and need and with what Christian 
contentment and persistent industry the German 
township started." 

Yet this state of want soon gave way to one of 
comparative comfort. On October 22, 1684, 
William Streypers (who had written to his 
brother the year before for provisions), writes: 
" I have been busy and made a brave dwelling- 
house, and under it a cellar fit to live in ; and T 
have so much grain, such as Indian corn and 
buckwheat, that this winter I shall be better off 
than I was last year." October 12th of the same 
year Cornelius Bom wrote to Rotterdam : " I 
have here a shop of many kinds of goods and 
edibles. Sometimes I ride out with merchandise, 
and sometimes bring something back, mostly 


from the Indians, and deal with them in many 
ways. ... I have no rent or tax or excise to pay. 
I have a cow which gives plenty of milk, a horse 
to ride around ; my pigs increase rapidly, so that 
in the summer I had seventeen, where at first I 
had only two. I have many chickens and geese, 
and a garden, and shall next year have an 
orchard, if I remain well, so that my wife and I 
are in good spirits." 

We have dwelt thus in detail on the settlement 
of Germantown, on account of its importance as 
the pioneer of all German settlements in Amer- 
ica. Moreover, we are fortunately in condition, 
owing to the labors of Seidensticker and Penny- 
packer, to follow the movement, step by step, 
from its first inception in the old Kaiserstadt on 
the banks of the Main to the infant city of Broth- 
erly Love in the New World. The rest of this 
chapter must be given more briefly. 

Letters like the above undoubtedly influenced 
others to emigrate, for we read in the annals of 
the settlement of new arrivals every year. The 
only considerable addition, however, which we 
find in the last years of the century was in 1694, 
when an interesting band of mystics, forty in 
number, settled on the banks of the Wissahickon, 
under the superintendence of Johann Kclpius, a 


man of great learning, though full of vagaries. i'' 
Their object in coming to the New World was to 
await the coming of the Lord, which they firmly 
believed would occur at the turn of the century. 
In their hermitage on the banks of the Wissa- 
hickon they cultivated physical and spiritual per- 
fection, studied and taught; ^^ among other 

''Arnold (Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historie, vol. n. p. 1104), 
under the heading " Mehrere Zeugen der Wahrhcit," speaks 
as follows : '' Heinrich Bernard Coster, Daniel Falckner, Joh. 
Kclpius und M. Peter Schaffer samt andern die nach Pensyl- 
vanien gezogen, Briefe und Schrifften aus America zu uns 
iibergesandt samt ilirem tapffern Glaubens-Kampff, und wie 
sie sich durcli alle Secten herdurch geschlagen urn die Frey- 
heit in Clnisto zu erhalten." 

The real leader of this colony, however, was Joh. Jacoo 
Zimmermann, — "ein grundgelehrter Astrologus, Magus, Ca- 
balista und Prediger aus dem Wiirtembergerlande," who had 
resolved to forsake "das undankbare Europam " and with wife 
and family and forty companions to go to America, but who 
died at Rotterdam on the eve of his departure. (Arnold, 
vol. II. p. 1 105.) 

Whittier (in hi^ "Pennsylvania Pilgrim") speaks of 

" Paitifiil Kelpius from his hermit den 
By Wissaliickon, maddest of good men, 
Dreamed o'er the chiliast dreams of Petersen." 

20 ^Yg ggt a glimpse of the character and the ideals of these 
men in the following words written by (jne of them : "What 
pleases me here [Pennsjdvania] is that one can be peasant, 
scholar, priest, and nobleman at the same time," "To be a 
peasant and nothing else is a sort of cattle-life; to be a scholar 
and nnihing else, such as in Europe, is a morbid and self- 
indulgent existence." (Penn. Mag., vol. XI.) There is a singular 


things they built an astronomical tower, from 
which they kept constant watch for the signs of 
the coming of Christ.^i This community lasted 
only a few years, its logical successor being the 
Ephrata community.22 

The second period begins with the advent of 
the S^^•iss Mennonites in 1710. This movement 
without doubt is closely connected with the set- 
tlement of Germantown. The relations between 
the ^lennonites of Holland and Switzerland had 
always been very close. Twice had the former 
made formal protest to Berne and Zurich in re- 
gard to the persecution of their brethren; they 

resemblance between this community of scholars and the Panti- 
socracy dreamed of by Coleridge and Southey one hundred 
years later, according to which "on the banks of the Susque- 
hanna was to be founded a brotherly community, where 
selfishness was to be extinguished and the virtues were to reign 

*' Kclpius died before 1709. He believed that lie was to be 
taken up into heaven alive like Elijah, and was bitterly dis- 
appointed when he felt the approach of death, and the chariot 
of fire did not appear. At his fimeral, the body was buried 
as the sun was setting, and a snow-white dove was released 
Heavenward, while the Brethren, looking upward with up- 
lifted hands, repeated thrice, " Gott gebc ihm eine selige 
Auferstehung." (See Sachse, German Pietists, p. 248.) 

" It was Conrad Mutthai, one of the last survivors of the 
Hermitage on the Ridge, who advised Conrad Beissel to go to 
the Conestoga, tliere to live a life of contemplation and 


had subscribed large sums of money to alleviate 
the sufferings of the exiled Swiss in the Palat- 
inate, and a society had been formed for the 
purpose of affording systematic assistance to all 
their suffering fellow believers. It was through 
them, undoubtedly, that the stream of Swiss emi- 
gration was first turned to Pennsylvania, where 
the success of Germantown seemed to assure a 
similar prosperity to all.^^ 

We have seen above how widespread the Ana- 
baptist movement had been in Switzerland, es- 
pecially in the cantons of Zurich and Berne. Of 
all their doctrines, that of refusing to bear arms 
was the most obnoxious to the state, which de- 
pended on its citizens for defence in time of ag- 
gression. It must be confessed that the Swiss 
Mennonites were the most intractable of people. 
Exiled again and again, they persisted every 
time in returning to their native land.--* In 1710 

" As early as 1684 at least one of the inhabitants of German- 
town was a Swiss, Joris Wertmuller from Berne ; see letter 
from him to his brother-in-law Benedict Kuntz in Pennypacker, 
p. 152. In 1694 George Gottschalk came from Lindau on 
Lake Constance. 

** The condition and treatment of the Mennonites in Switzer- 
land were very much like that of the Quakers in New England. 
The doctrines of the two sects were the same, while the 
Calvinistic theocracy of Massachusetts, in its union of Church 
and State, closely resembled the government of Berne and 
Zurich. The Quakers, like the Mennonites, were fond 01 


the Canton of Berne itself made an effort to get 
rid of its troublesome sectaries by sending under 
escort a large number of them to Holland, hop- 
ing thence to deport them to America. This 
effort failed through the refusal of Holland and 
England to be a party to such enforced emigra- 

In 171 1, however, the Mennonites of Berne 
were offered free transportation down the Rhine, 
permission to sell their property, and to take 
their families with them — on condition, however, 
that they pledge themselves never to return to 
Switzerland. Their friends in Holland urged 
them to do this, and especially through the untir- 
ing efforts of the Dutch ambassador in Switzer- 
land, Johann Ludwig Runckel, the exportation 
finallv occurred.25 About this verv time be^an 
the settlement of Lancaster County by Swiss 
Mennonites, and undoubtedly many of the above 
were among them.2<5 In the archives of Amster- 

public discussion, and could not be out-argued. Both were at 
first treated mildly; both were exiled and insisted on return- 
ing; both were flogged, imprisoned, and finally killed. (See 
Fiske, Beginnings of New England, p. 187.) 

« Cf. p. 24. 

'* The names given by Miiller (pp. 307 ff. ) are identical 
witli tliose of the Lancaster County Swiss, among them being 
Gerber, Gaumann. Schiirch, Galli, llaldiman, Biirki, Rohrer, 
Schallenberger, Oberli, Jeggli, Wisler, Hauri, Graf, Wcnger, 


dam we find a letter of thanks to Holland written 
by Martin Kiindig, Hans Herr, Christian Herr, 
Martin Oberholtzer, Martin Meili and Jacob 
Miiller. This letter was dated June 27, 1710, and 
states that they were about to start for the New 
World. October 23d of the same year we find a 
patent for ten thousand acres of land on Pequea 
Creek, Conestogoe (later a part of Lancaster 
County, which was not organized till 1729), 
made out in the names of Hans Herr and Martin 
Kiindig, who acted as agents of their country- 
men, some of whom had already arrived, and 
others of whom were to come. No sooner had 
these first settlers become established than Mar- 
tin Kiindig was sent back to Germany and Swit- 
zerland to bring over those who wished to share 
their fortune in what was then an impenetrable 
forest, but is now known as the garden-spot of 
the United States, Lancaster County. Kiindig 
and Herr ^~ seem to have been the leaders of this 

Neukomm, Fliickiger, Rubeli, Riiegsegger, Kralienbiihl, 
Huber, Biihler, Kuenzi, Stahli, Rubi, Ziircher, Bucher, 
Strahm. Among those exiled in 17 10 were the names of 
Brechbiihl, Baumgartner, Rupp, Fahrni, Aeschlimann, Maurer, 
Ebersold, and others. All these names — which, more or less 
changed, are common throughout the State and country to-day 
— are of Bernese origin. The Landis, Brubacher, Meili, Egli, 
Ringer, Gut, Gochnauer, and Frick families came from 

2' Hans Herr, born in 1660, was the minister and pastor of 


cniigralion. From 1710 on, their names fre- 
quently occur in the pubhc land records of Penn- 
sylvania as talcing up choice bits of farming land 
and having them turned over to their country- 
men, whose interests they represented.^^ We 
have such records as late as 1730, when they took 
up 124 acres of land for Jacob Brubaker in the 
present township of East Hempfield.^^ 

In the next important colony of this second 
period the scene shifts from Lancaster to what is 
now Berks County. In order to understand the 
causes leading up to this settlement we must turn 
our attention for a moment to the exceedingly 
interesting facts connected with the early Ger- 
man immigration to New York. In the year 
1709 a very large influx of Palatines came to 
England with the expectation of being aided 
there to cross the Atlantic. The general causes 

the early Swiss settlers in Lancaster County; he had five sons, 
all of whom came over with him, and from whom is descended 
a large posterity. 

28 II Agreed with Martin Kundigg and Ilans Herr of 5000 
acres of land, to be taken up in severall parcells about Cones- 
togo and Pcquca Creeks at ^^lO p. Ct', to be paid at the Re- 
turns of the Surveys and usual quitrents, it being for settle- 
ments for severall of their Countrymen that are lately arrived 
here. The Warr't signed, dat. 22d gber. 1717." (Minute 
Book " H" of tlie Board of Property. Penn. Arch., 2d Sen, 
vol. XIX. p. 622.) 

" Ellis and Evans, Hist. Lane. Co., p. 868. 


of this emigration are those discussed in Chapter 
I ; the immediate occasion seems to have been 
the special efforts made by certain agents of 
Queen Anne to induce emigration to her Majes- 
ty's colonies in America. The presence of so 
large a number of foreigners was an embarrass- 
ing problem for the government, and various 
plans were proposed for their distribution ; three 
thousand eight hundred were sent to Ireland, 
where many of their descendants still live;^" 
others were sent to the Carolinas; and in 1709, 
at the suggestion of Governor Robert Hunter, 
about three thousand were shipped to New 
York, for the purpose of manufacturing ships' 
stores for the English Government. These set- 
tled at first on both banks of the Hudson not far 
from the present town of Saugerties, where they 
remained in a constant state of discontent until 
the winter of 1712-1713, when. Hunter's scheme 
having proved itself to be visionary, they set out 
for the valleys of the Schoharie and the Mohawk, 
which had all along been the goal of their desires, 
and which they reached after a two weeks' jour- 
ney through the trackless wilderness, after hav- 

^^ To this stock belonged Philip Embury and Barbara Heck, 
the founders of Methodism in America. For details concern- 
ing the Irish Palatines see Crook, "Ireland and the Centenary 
of American Methodism." 


ing suffered greatly from Ininger and cold. 
The descendants of these people now form a 
large proportion of the inhabitants of that dis- 

We have to do here, however, only with the 
small number who, in consequence of difficulties 
in regard to the titles of their land, were forced 
to leave the homes which they had built with the 
labor of many years, and who in 1723 painfully 
made their way through the wilderness of north- 
ern New York to the head-waters of the Susque- 
hanna and thence floated down that river, pass- 
ing the sites of the present cities of Bingham- 
ton, Pittston, and Wilkesbarre till they ar- 
rived at the mouth of the Swatara Creek, up 
which they made their way to the district now 
known as Tulpehocken.^^ jj-, ^\-^q Colonial Rec- 
ords of Pennsylvania we find a petition of these 
settlers, thirty-three families in all, in which we 

*' For further details of this exceedingly interesting story 
see Kapp, O'Callaghan, and Cobb. Among the well-known 
men of this st(jck may be mentioned Edwin F. Uhl, Ex-Am- 
bassador to Germany ; W. C. Bouck. governor of New York 
from 1843-45 ; and Surgeon-General Sternl>erg. 
'' " And that bold-hearted yeomanrj", honest and true, 
Wlio, haters of fraud, give to labor its due, 
Whose fathers of old sang in concert witli thine, 
On the banks of Swetara, the songs of the Rhine, — 
The German-born pilgrims who first dared to brave 
The scorn of the proud in the cause of the slave.'' 

(Whittier, vol. in. p. 47.) 


have, ill their own words, a brief sketch of tlie 
vicissitudes through which they were forced to 
pass in seeking a home in the New World : 

" This Petition Humbly Sheweth 

" That your petitioners being natives of Ger- 
many, about fifteen years agoe were by the great 
goodness and royal bounty of her late Majesty 
Queen Anne, relieved from the hardships which 
they then suffered in Europe and were trans- 
ported into the colony of New York, where they 
settled. But their families increasing, and being 
in that Government confined to the scant allow- 
ance of ten acres of land to each family, whereon 
they could not w^ell subsist. Your petitioners 
being informed of the kind reception which their 
countrymen usually met with in the Province of 
Pennsylvania, and hoping that they might with 
what substance they had acquire larger settle- 
ments in that Province, did last year leave their 
settlements in New York Government and came 
with their families into this Province," etc. ^^ 

The petition adds that fifty more families de- 
sired to come, if they received favorable condi- 

During the whole of this second period immi- 

*^ Colonial Records, vol. iii. p. 341. 

'* Many of these came in 1728 and 1729 ; among those who 
came in the latter year was the well-known Cunrad Weiser. 


gration into Pennsylvania went on ; the numbers, 
however, although far in excess of the first 
period, have been largely exaggerated. Reliable 
documents are wanting, and the statements made 
are usually guesswork. It has been recklessly 
estimated that as many as fifty thousand came 
before 1730. On March 16, 1731, the minutes of 
the Synodical Deputies of Holland state that the 
total baptized membership of the Reformed in 
Pennsylvania was thirty thousand.^^ That this 
could not be true we need only to refer to the 
figures concerning the whole population given by 
Proud.^^ As there was no census at that time, 

'* Rev. John B. Ritger, h<jwever, in a letter dated Novem- 
ber 22, 1731, estimates the number at less than three thousand, 
which is nearer the truth, as Boehm in his report of 1734 gives 
the actual number of communicants as 386. (See Dotterer, 
Hist. Notes, p. 133.) 

'* In 1731 he gives the numberof taxables atgooo or 10,000, 
" at most," which, according to his method of multiplying by 
seven, would give not more than 70,000 at the highest compu- 
tation. (Vol. ii. p. 275.) It is clear that nearly one-half of 
the total population could not have been German Reformed, 
and yet there are the documents ! This only shows that the 
historian must use contemporary documents with as much 
caution as any other documents. As further examples of these 
reckless statements we may take the following : Mittelberger 
declares tliat, in 1754, 22,000 Ciermans and Swiss arrived in 
Philadelphia alone ; yet a few pages later he says that there 
were in Pennsylvania some 100.000 Europeans in all. Again, 
Kalm says that, in 1749, 12,000 came, and this statement, re- 
produced by Proud, has been repeated by all writers since. A 


we can accept none of these statements as au- 
thoritative, and are reduced to making our own 
conclusions from the data at hand. We know 
that the increase up to 1710 was small, a few 
score at the most for every year. In 1708 Ger- 
mantown was still a weak and struggling com- 
munity. In 17 10 came the Swiss of Lancaster 
County, some hundreds, possibly thousands, in 
number. Between that date and 1717 there seem 
to have been no large arrivals of Germans at Phil- 
adelphia. In this latter year a considerable num- 
ber of Palatines and Swiss arrived. It was of 
these that John Dickenson spoke when he 'said : 
" We are daily expecting ships from London, 
which bring over Palatines in numbers about six 
or seven thousand. We had a parcel who came 
five years ago who purchased land about sixty 
miles west of Philadelphia, and proved quiet and 
industrious." These numbers were so great as 

reference to the tables will show the number in 1749 and 1754 
to have been respectively 7020 and 5 141. Still another example 
of how such statements come to be made is seen in Gordon. 
On p. 1S7 he says thatinone year from December, 1728, there 
were 6200 Germans and others imYioritA; the natural inference 
being that the Germans formed a large majority; on p. 208, 
however, he gives the statistics of this very year, and out of the 
6200 only 24J are Palatine passengers, the rest being chiefly 
Irish; by referring to the tables which I have drawn up it 
will be seen that the number of Germans who came in 1729 
is 304. 


to excite some alarm. In 1717 Governor Keith 
expressed the opinion that this immigration 
might prove dangerous, and tliought that the 
experience of England in ihc lime of the Anglo- 
Saxon invaders might be repeated. If these 
large numbers had been repeated every year, 
the sum total in 1727 would have been con- 
siderable; but I have been unable to find evi- 
dence to this efYect."" The fears of Dicken- 
son and Keith seem to find no repetition till 
1727, when the long-continued stream of im- 
migration began which makes up our third divi- 
sion. Furthermore, we are distinctly told by 
De Hoop Schefifer that the desire for emigration 
seemed to have lain dormant in Germany till 
1726.^® This authority based on documents in 
Holland, a country through wdiich all German 
and Swiss emigrants had to pass on their way to 
America, would seem to be conclusive. ^ly own 
opinion is that before 1727 the whole number of 

" Indeed there is evidence to sliovv that German emigration 
was actually hindered at this time. In 1722 the Pensionary 
of Holland informed the Assembly that again a great number 
of families from Germany had arrived in vessels for the pur- 
pose of being transported I'ia England to the colonies of that 
kingdom, but that no preparation had been made for them, 
and the king had advised his ambassador to Holland that 
an order had been issued to forbid their entrance to his col- 
onies. (Dotterer, Hist. Notes, p. 67.) 

'" Sec Penn. Mag., vol. Ti. pp. 117 ff. 


German and Swiss colonists in Pennsylvania 
amounted to not more than fifteen thousand, or 
at most twenty thousand, including the natural 
increase of the first comers. 

The third period, which we shall now discuss, 
is marked by the fact that we have an of^cial 
record of all those who entered at the port of 
Philadelphia. We have seen that in 1717 the 
large influx of foreigners excited serious alarm. 
This alarm was excited anew with the renewal of 
large arrivals, and on October 14, 1727, the 
Provincial Council adopted a resolution to the 
efifect that all masters of vessels importing Ger- 
mans and other foreigners should prepare a list 
of such persons, their occupations, and place 
whence they came, and further that the said 
foreigners should sign a declaration of allegiance 
and subjection to the king of Great Britain, and 
of fidelity to the Proprietary of Pennsylvania. 
The first oath was taken in the court-house at 
Philadelphia, September 21, 1727, by 109 Pala- 

The above-mentioned lists-'''' contain the names 
of the vessels and their captains, the port from 
which they last sailed, and the date of arrival in 

'^ These lists are given by Rupp in his "Tliirty Thousand 
Names," and may also be found in Penn. Archives, Second 
Series,^ vol. xvii. 


Philadelphia. They also give in many cases the 
native country of the voyagers, not. however, 
with much detail, or so constantly as we could 
wish. From 1727 to 1734 they are all classed as 
Palatines; on September 12, 1734, one ship's 
company of 263 is composed of Schwenck- 
felders. In 1735 we find Palatines and Switzers, 
and on August 26, Switzers from Berne. After 
1742 they are grouped together as foreigners 
simply, until 1749 (with two exceptions only). 
The lists for 1749 and 1754 are especially full in 
this respect, and under date of the arrival of each 
ship the fatherland of the new arrivals is given 
variously as Wiirtemberg, Erbach, Alsace, Zwei- 
briicken, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hanau, Darm- 
stadt, Basel, ]\Iannheim, Alentz, Westphalia, 
Hesse, Switzerland, and, once only, Hamburg, 
Hannover, and Saxony. About this time we find 
the number of Catholics and Protestants given, 
owing undoubtedly to the fears excited by the 
French and Indian War. After 1754 practically 
no information of the above sort is given. 

I have thought it of some interest and value 
to prepare a tabulated view of the annual immi- 
gration to Pennsylvania on the basis of these 

**• Sometimes the total number t>f passengers is given in the 
lists, sometimes only tlie males above the age of sixteen years. 


Date. Number. 
1727 I240' 

1728 390 

1729 304 

1730 448 

I73I 634 

1732 2168 

1733 1287 

1734 433 

1735 267 

1736 828 

1737 1736 

1738 3115 

1739 1663 

1740 1131 

1741 1946 

1742 1092 

1743 1794 

1744 1080 

1745 No lists 








1762 . 













, . 6189 
, . 5262 
, . 5141 
, . 226 

■• 157 
















In the latter case in order to obtain the total number of men, 
women, and children I have multiplied by three. By making 
careful computation of those cases where both data are given 
(amounting to over thirty thousand persons), I have found 
that the actual proportion of males above sixteen is somewhat 
more than one-third. Hence the figures given above are if any- 
thing slightly too large. This excess, however, maybe allowed 
to stand as counterbalancing whatever immigration came into 
Pennsylvania by way of New York, Maryland, or elsewhere. 
" These figures were at first computed from the data 


We see from the above figures that there were 
periods of ebb and flood in the tide of immigra- 
tion. The most important years are from 1749 
to 1754, when the numbers became enormous, 
amounting for these six years to 31,896, nearly 
one-half of the total figures. As to the whole 
number of Germans in Pennsylvania in 1775, 
many and divergent estimates have been given ; 
nearly all agree, however, in reckoning the pro- 
portion as about one-third of the total popula- 
tion, a proportion which seems to have kept 
itself unchanged down to the present day. If I 
were asked to give my estimate in regard to a 
matter concerning which authoritative data are 
wanting, I should reply, somewhat hesitatingly, as 
follows: Before 1727 let us assume the numbers 
to be 20,000, a liberal estimate; add to this the fig- 
given by Rupp, but discovering later that he was not in all 
cases reliable, I have carefully revised them from the lists 
given in the Pennsylvania Archives. Proud (vol. ii. p. 273) 
says that by an "exact account" of ships and passengers 
arriving at Philadelphia from nearly the first settlement of the 
province till about 1776, the number of Germans appear to be 
39,000, and their natural increase great. His ''account," 
however, cannot have been very exact, for two pages previously 
he declares that, during the summer of 1749, 12,000 Cicrnians 
came to Philadelphia, "and in several other years near the 
same number of these people arrived annually." Tiic two 
statements do not harmonize and tend to destroy our belief in 
Proud's accuracy. He may, however, in .speaking of the 
39,000, have in mind only the males over sixteen years. 


ures above, 68,872, making a total of 88,872; this 
added to the score or so of thousands due to the 
natural increase of the two generations since the 
earliest settlements would bring up the grand 
total to about 110,000.'*- 

One of the most interesting points of view 
from which to regard Pennsylvania in colonial 
days, says Mr. Fiske, is as the centre of distri- 
bution of foreign immigration, which from here 
as a starting-point spread out to all points South 
and West. The earliest arrivals of the people 
with whom we have to do in this book remained 
in Germantown, Philadelphia, or the immediate 
vicinity. Shortly after the beginning of the new 
century they began to penetrate the dense forests 
which then covered the present counties of Mont- 
gomery, Lancaster, and Berks. As the lands 
nearest to Philadelphia became gradually taken 
up, the settlers were forced to make their way 
further and further to the West. When no more 
lands remained on this side of the Susquehanna, 
the Germans crossed the river and founded the 
counties of York and Cumberland. Still later they 

^'^ These figures, which have been computed independently, 
agree substantially with those given by Proud, who gives the 
number of taxables in 1771 at between 39,000 and 40,000, 
which being multiplied by seven gives nearly 300,000, "one- 
third at least" being composed of Germans. (Vol. 11. p. 275.) 


spread over Northampton, Dauphin, Lehigh, 
Lebanon, and the other counties, while toward 
the end of the century the tide of colonization 
swept to the South and the newly opened West. 
One by one Monroe, Centre, Adams, and Cum- 
berland counties were taken up. As early as 1732 
a number of Pennsylvania Germans under Jost Hitc 
made their way along- the Shenandoah valley and 
settled Frederick, Rockingham, Shenandoah, and 
other counties of Virginia. In the central and 
western parts of North Carolina there were 
many communities formed by settlers from 
Berks and other counties in Pennsylvania. After 
the successful outcome of the French and Indian 
wars, when Ohio was thrown open to enterpris- 
ing settlers, Pennsylvania Germans were among 
the pioneers of that region, many parts of which 
are still distinctly marked by the peculiarities of 
the parent colony. Still later they were in the van 
of the movement which little by little conquered 
the vast territory of the West, and subdued it 
to the purposes of civilization; such distinct- 
ively Pennsylvania German names as Hoover, 
Garver, Landis, Brubaker, StaulTer, Bowman, 
Funk, Lick, and Yerkes. scattered all over the 
West, tell the story of the part played by their 
bearers in the early part of the century in the 
conquest of the West. 


Looking out upon this moving picture of the 
German pioneers, as they spread gradually over 
the vast territory of the New World, we are 
irresistibly reminded of our Alemannic ancestors 
in the far-off days of the Volkerwanderung^^ In 
the eighteenth as in the fourth century, the Ger- 
man colonist entered the unbroken wilderness, 
clearing first the lands in the valleys and along 
the river-courses, then, as the population in- 
creased and land became scarcer, advancing fur- 
ther and further, climbing the sides of the moun- 
tains, and everywhere changing the primeval 
forest into fields covered with grain and dotted 
here and there with the rude buildings of the 

^^"Gleich dem Hinterwaldler in Amerikas Wildnissen 
musste der Alemanne vor tausend Jahren im Schweisse seines 
Angesiclites Arbeiten wie ein Lasttier, bis die Gegend wohn- 
lich aussah." (Diindliker, vol. I. p. 92.) 

Cf. also Boos: "Es war ein barter Kampf mit der Natur. 
Um der wachsenden Bevolkerung Nahrung zu schafi'en, musste 
der Wald gerodet werden, und es entstand zahlreiche neue 
Dorfer," etc. (Geschichte der Rheinischen Stadtekultur, vol. I. 
p. 162.) 



There is no more attractive line of study than 
that which aims at reveaHng the daily struggles 
and trials, the manners and customs, the 
thoughts and feelings of our forefathers.^ Where 
facts are wanting, the imagination of the poet, 
the dramatist, and the novelist is called in to 
round out the picture. It is this desire on the 
part of mankind to penetrate the veil of the past 
which makes the wonderful success of the his- 
torical novel possible. 

Of course in a book like the present, the pur- 
pose of which is to give nothing but simple 
facts, all mere surmise and fancy must be rigor- 
ously excluded. And yet it ought certainly to be 
of interest to the descendants of the early Penn- 
sylvania Germans to obtain some glimpse, how- 
ever brief, of the daily life, the vicissitudes, the 

' "In der Erinnerung an die alte Zeit und die prossen 
Beispeile dcr Vorfahren liegt cine iinwiderstehliclic Gcwalt." 
(Ranke, quoted by Dandliker, n. 690.) 



sufferings, the hopes and joys of their ancestors. 
Fortunately we have more or less material still 
preserved in the shape of letters, diaries, narra- 
tives, etc., in which many valuable details are 
given of the journey from the Old to the New 
World. Two hundred years ago travelling, 
whether on land or sea, was no easy matter, nor 
one to be lightly undertaken. The prospective 
emigrant must first transport himself, his fam- 
ily, and his goods by wagon to the nearest river.^ 
This, of course, in the vast majority of cases was 
the Rhine, which was even more important as a 
great water-highway then than now. 

We have a number of contemporary descrip- 
tions of such a journey down the Rhine. That 
of the Bernese Mennonites who were exiled in 
171 1 is given in detail and with great vividness 
by Muller in his " Bernische Taufer." They were 
shipped on boats at Berne and at Neuchatel July 
13th; meeting at Wangen, they descended the 
Aar to Lauffenburg on the Rhine, and thence 
floated down-stream to Basel, which they reached 
on the i6th. Here the exiles were rearranged on 

' It is said of the Stauffer family that the sons dragged their 
mother in a wagon to the river and later from Philadelphia to 
their new home in Lancaster (see Brubacher Genealogy, p. 
157). This story or legend seems like a far-off echo of that 
old by Herodotus of Cleobis and Bito. 

04 O^^ER L/iND ^ND SE/1. 

three ships, in wliich they made the rest of the 
journey to Holland, wlience many afterward 
came to Pennsylvania. The flotilla was under 
the command of George Ritter and his two sub- 
ordinates, Gruner and Haller. In addition each 
boat had a skilled helmsman, the necessary crew 
being formed from among the Brethren — of 
whom twenty declared themselves capable of 
steering — and two general overseers.^ 

Another interesting picture of the Rhine jour- 
ney is given in the description of the party of 

' I cannot forbear quoting here the graphic description given 
by Miiller (p. 304) of the departure of this fleet, inasmuch as 
among the passengers were tlie ancestors of many prominent 
Pennsylvania families. '-It has been frequently described." 
says Miiller, "how the exiled Salzburger Protestants, laden 
with their scanty possessions, crossed the mountains of their 
native land. and. with tears in their eyes, looked back to Ihe 
valleys of their home; it has been described how the bands of 
French emigrants wandered over the frontiers of their nat've 
land singing psalms. Our friends from the Emmenthal and the 
Oberland found no sympathy among their fellow Swiss, as the 
lowers of the Cathedral of Basel and the wooded heights of 
the Jura faded in the distance. Sitting < n lioxes and bundles, 
which were piled high in the middle of the boat, could be seen 
gray-haired men and women, old and feeble; yonder stood the 
young gazing in wonder at the shores as they slipped by. At 
times they were hopeful, at others sad, and their glances would 
alternate, now to the north, now to the south toward their 
abandoned home, which had driven them out so unfeeling!}', 
and yet whose green hills and snow-capped mountains they 
caimot forget. Despite (he comforts of religion, their sadness 


four hundred Swiss Reformed led by Goetschi to 
Pennsylvania. They left Ziirich October 4, 1734. 
At Basel they had to wait a week to get passes 
through to Rotterdam. At that time France was 
at war with Austria, and the armies of both coun- 
tries were on either side of the river. This, of 
course, was fraught with more or less danger to 
the travellers, who literally had to sail between 
two fires. They were constantly hailed and or- 
dered to stop, were boarded, searched, forced to 
open their chests, and were allowed to proceed 
only after being fined, or rather robbed. All this 
in addition to the numerous stoppages caused by 
the various tariff-stations along the Rhine, of 
which Mittelberger counts thirty-six from Heil- 
bronn to Holland.'* 

As may be seen from the above, such travel 
.was extremely slow. The expedition from Berne, 

could not he overcome, and from time to time some one would 
begin to sing : 

" ' Ein Herzens Weh mir iiberkam 
Im Scheideu iiber d' Massen 
Als ich von euch mein Abschied nam 
Und dessmals miist verlassen. 

Mein Herz war bang 

Beharrlich lang : 
Es bleibt noch unvergessen 

Ob scheid ich gleich, 

Bleibt's Herz bei euch, 
Wie solt ich euch vergessen ? ' " 

* Journey to Pennsylvania, p. i8. 


described above, left that city July I3tli a"<l 
reached Utrecht August 2d. A similar expcdi 
tion the year previous left Berne March i8lh, and 
reached Nimwegen April 9th, while the Goctschi 
party spent a number of weeks in reaching Hol- 

Another interesting account of such river-jour- 
neys is that of the Schwenckfelders in 1733 from 
Herrnhut, Saxony, down the Elbe to Hamburg. 
From Berthelsdorf to Pirna, six German miles, 
it took them two days by wagon. Here they 
embarked on two boats and began the descent of 
the Elbe, making very slow progress ; the first 
day, from Pirna to Dresden, two miles j'^ the next 
four, the next five, then three, and so on, never 
making more than six or seven miles a day. 
Leaving Pirna April 22d, they reached Hamburg 
May 8th. Here they took passage for Amster- 
dam, thence to Rotterdam, where they finally em- 
barked for the New World, making, of course, 
the usual stop at England to take on new pro- 

An ocean journey in the eighteenth century 
meant far more than it does now. If many peo- 
ple to-day look on the trip with repugnance, in 
spite of all the conveniences of modern steamers, 

* Of course these are Gernuin miles ; the distance from 
Pirna to Dresden by railroad is loj English miles. 


what must have been the feelings of our fore- 
fathers? The whole journey was one continual 
series of discomforts, suffering, disease, and 
death. It is no wonder that many in despair 
cursed their folly in vnidertaking such a journey.^ 
Most of the vessels that came to Pennsylvania 
started from Rotterdam, where the emigrants 
were embarked together with their goods and 
provisions. What these latter were we get a 
glimpse of in the various publications made at 
that time for the information of intending pas- 
sengers. Thus in the document published by 
George I., the emigrant is told to present him- 
self to one or more of the well-known merchants 
of Frankfort, and to pay £3 each (children under 
ten, half rates); i.e., £2 for transportation," and 
£1 for 70 pounds of peas, a measure of oatmeal, 

s " For I can say with full truth that on six or seven ocean 
vessels I have heard of few people who did not repent their 
journey." (Letter of John Naas, Oct. 17, 1733, in Brum- 
baugh's History of the Brethren, p. 120.) Mittelberger paints 
the picture in still darker colors, but he is always inclined to 
exaggeration. See p. 21. 

' The fare over changed naturally from time to time; we 
may take as the two extremes the price given in the " Recueil 
de Diverses pieces," etc., that is, ^5 per head for man and 
wife with provisions ; for a child under ten the fare was 50 
shillings ; in 1773 it was £?> 8s. per head. (See the agree- 
ment made with Captain Osborne, of the Pennsyvania Packet, 
given in Penn. Mag., vol. xni. p. 485.) 


and the necessary beer ; they would then be sent 
in ships to Rotterdam, and thence carried to \'ir- 
ginia. First, however, in Holland one-half of the 
fare must be paid, and additional provisions se- 
cured : 24 pounds of dried beef, 15 pounds of 
cheese, 8^ pounds of butter. They were advised 
to provide themselves still more liberally with 
edibles, with garden-seeds, agricultural imple- 
ments, linen, bedding, table-goods, powder and 
lead, furniture, earthenw^are, stoves, and es- 
pecially money to buy " seeds, salt, horses, swine, 
and fowls." 

We may take this as a type of what was a full 
outfit for the intending settler at that time. In 
actual fact, however, the majority were far from 
being so well provided ; often they had to depend 
on the charity of others.^ Indeed, so great was 
the destitution of those who passed through 
Holland that the Mennonites of that country 

* Thus the Schwenckfelders tell us how a wealthy Dutch 
family generously gave them for ships' stores 16 loaves, 2 casks 
of 1 lollands, 2 pots of butter, 4 casks of beer, 2 roasts, a quan- 
tity of wheaten bread and biscuit, 2 cases French brandy. It 
is pleasing to add that the Schwenckfelders were not ungrate- 
ful, and that this "bread cast upon the waters " returned after 
many days ; for in 1790, hearing that business reverses had 
come upon the descendants of those who had helped their 
fathers, they sent over a large sum of money. (See Heebner, 
Gencul. Kec. of SchwciickfcliJers.) 



formed a committee on '' Foreign Needs," the 
purpose of which was to collect money for the 
assistance of their destitute brethren and others 
who were constantly arriving in Holland on their 
way to America. 

Even in the best of cases, however, the food 
was likely to give out or spoil,^ especially if the 
journey was unusually long. This in the days of 
sailing frequently happened. Sometimes the trip 
was made in a few weeks, while at other times as 
many months would pass. Thus when Muhlen- 
berg came over they were 102 days on board. In 
a letter written by Caspar Wistar December 4, 
1732, he says : " In the past year one ship among 
the others sailed about the sea 24 weeks, and of 
the 150 persons who were thereon, more than 100 
miserably languished and died of hunger; on ac- 
count of lack of food they caught rats and mice 
on the ship, and a mouse was sold for 30 kreu- 
zer." ^^ He mentions another ship which was 17 
weeks on the voyage, during which about 60 

^ '• Unser Tractament an Speis undTranck war fast schlecht, 
denn 10 Personen bekamen wochendlicli 3 pfund Butter, tag- 
lich 4 Kannten Biers und i Kanten Wassers. Alle Mittage 2 
Schusseln vol! Erbsen und in der Woclien 4 Mittage Fleisch, 
und 3 Mittage gesalzene Fisclie . . . und jedesmal von dem 
Mittagessen so viel aufsparen muss dass man zu Nacht zu 
essen liabe." (Pastorius, Beschrcibung, p. 36.) 

^^ Dotterer, Perkiomen Region, vol. n. p. 120. 


persons died. Many more similar details might 
be given. The discomforts of the journey were 
many; the boats were almost always over 
crowded. The Schwenckfelders relate that their 
ship of only 150 tons burden liad over 300 per- 
sons on board. Later, in the days of speculation, 
overcrowding was the rule. 

Often the ship had to w^ait days or even weeki 
for favorable winds or the necessary escort. Pas- 
tor Kunze, in his " Reise von England nach 
Amerika," tells how he came on board his vessel 
July 20, 1770, but it was the 6th of August before 
they passed Land's End ; and we learn from Pas- 
tor Handschuh that, although he embarked on 
his ship September 25, 1747, they did not finally 
sail till January 14, 1748; he arrived in Philadel- 
phia April 5.^^ Surely under such circumstances 
it was necessary to possess their souls in patience. 

The actual sea voyage was invariably fraught 
with fear if not with danger, although the latter 
was by no means seldom. Sickness did not fail 
to declare itself; the mortality was often exces- 
sively high. On the vessel in which Penn came 
over thirty-six people died of the small-pox; this 
was only an earnest of the terrible harvest of 
death in the following years. Of the three 

" Hall. Nacluichten, 1. p. 155. 


thousand who came to New York in 1709 nearly 
one-sixth had died on the voyage, and Sauer says 
that in one year more than two thousand had 
succumbed to hardship and disease. Indeed, 
later in the century when speculation had taken 
possession of ocean transportation, sickness was 
so unfailing a concomitant of the journey that 
ship-fever was generally known in Philadelphia 
as " Palatine fever." Children especially suf- 
fered, those from one to seven years rarely sur- 
viving the voyage.i2 There is a world of pathos 
in such simple statements as those which we find 
in the diary of Naas: "July 25th a little child 
died; the next day, about 8 o'clock, it was 
buried in the sea; August 7th a little child died, 
and in the same hour a little boy was born; 
August 23d again a child died, and was buried 
at sea that evening; on the nth again a little 
child died, without anybody having noticed it until 
it was nearly stiff; the 13th a young woman died 
in childbirth, and was buried at sea, with three 
children, two of them before and now the third, 
the one just born, so that the husband has no one 
left now." 13 

The danger of shipwreck was always at hand, 

" Mittelberger, p. 23. He says he himself saw no less than 
thirty two children thus die and thrown into the sea. 
1' Brumbaugh, pp. 112 ft'. 


and the legend of Palatine Light still preserves 
the memory of a vessel of German immigrants 
wrecked off Block Island, with the loss of al- 
most every one on board.^^ During nearly the 
whole of the eighteenth century England was at 
Avar with some one or other of her neighbors; 
this added, of course, to the dangers as well as 
the vexations of " them that went down to the 
sea in ships." In 1702 she joined the Grand 
Alliance against France; in 1740 she was at war 
with Spain; from 1743-1748 and from 1756- 
1763 with France again; while ever on the 
political horizon hovered the fear of the Turk.^'^ 
During the early part of the century the x\meri- 
can coast swarmed with pirates and added a new 
terror to ocean travel.^ ^ As soon as a strange 
vessel was discovered, all was excitement and 

'* See, for other examples of shipwreck, Mittelljerger. pp. 
34-36. Wliittier has a poem on the Palatine Light. 

" It was not mere rhetoric when the Mennonites of German- 
town, in their protest to the Quakers against sl.avery. wrote : 
" How fearful! and faintliearted are many on sea when they 
see a strange vessel. l)eing afraid it should be a Turck, and 
they should be tacken and sold for slaves in Turckey." Wat- 
son says that Pastorius was chased by Turks in 1683. (Annals, 
p. 61.) 

'6 Fiske says that never in the world's history was piracy so 
thriving as in the seventeenth and the first part of the eigh- 
teenth century ; he places its golden age from 1650-1720. 
(Old Virginia and her Neighbors, vol. II. p. 338.) 


fear on board, until it could be ascertained 
whether it was friend or foe. We have a vivid 
glimpse of this excitement at such a moment in 
Muhlenberg's Journal: Shortly after leaving 
Dover, " a two-masted vessel sailed directly 
toward them. The captain, stating that occa- 
sionally Spanish privateers had taken ships by 
pretending to be French fishing-vessels, made a 
display of both courage and strength, by com- 
manding the drummer to belabor his drum, the 
guns to be loaded, and everything to be made 
ready for defensive action; then asked the foe, 
through the speaking-trumpet, what they wanted, 
and received the comforting answer that they 
were Frenchmen engaged in fishing." In the ac- 
count given by a member of Kelpius's party in 
1694, shots were actually fired by the enemy, 
one of which broke a bottle which the ship's boy 
was carrying in his hand; fortunately, however, 
no further damage was done. Similar scenes 
are frequently related in contemporary docu- 
ments. i''' 

In general, however, the days passed much 
as they do now, in alternation of storm and calm, 
sunshine and rain. The ordinary events of hu- 

'^ Cf. Handschuh's Diarium, in Hall. Nach., i. p. 163; also 
Narrative of Journey of .Schwenckfelders, in Penn. Mag., vol. 
X. pp. 167 ff. 


man life went on in this little floating world, 
tossed about by the waves of the sea; the two 
poles of human existence, birth and death, were 
in close proximity; ^'^ and even amid the hard- 
ships and sadness there was still room for court- 
ship and marriagci** Various means were em- 
ployed to pass away the time, among those men- 
tioned by Muhlenberg and others being boxing 
(by the sailors), singing worldly songs, disputa- 
tions, mock-trials, etc. These were, however, 
the amusements chiefly of the English. In gen- 
eral the Germans had other means of passing the 
time. In practically every account we have they 
are shown to be deeply religious, holding divine 
service daily, and particularly fond of singing the 
grand old hymns of the Church.-"^ This piety 
did not desert them in times of danger, as many 
incidents which might be quoted show. Muhlen- 

1* On almost every voyage children were born at sea. 

^^ In the journey of Goetschi's party down the Rhine, he 
had appointed four marriage officials for his party. At 
Neuwied four couples went ashore to be married, among 
them Wirtz, who married Goetschi's daughter Anna. (Good, 
p. 176.) 

20 "These ptxjr people often long for consolation, and I 
often entertained and comforted them with singing, praying, 
and exhorting; and whenever it was pt)ssible, and the winds 
and waves permitted it, I kept daily prayer-meetings with 
tliem on deck." (Mittclljerger, p. 21. Cf. also Ilandscliuli, in 
Hallesche Nachrichtcii, vok I. pp. 156 fT. ) 


berg tells us that during the above-described ex- 
citement at the sight of what was feared might 
prove to be a Spanish war-vessel, he made in- 
quiry after a certain Salzburger family on board, 
and was pleased to find the mother with her chil- 
dren engaged in singing Luther's battle-hymn, 
" Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott." ^i Wesley 
describes a similar incident which occurred dur- 
ing his voyage to Georgia in 1736. A terrible 
storm had arisen; "In the midst of the psalm 
wherewith their service began, the sea broke over, 
split the mainsail in pieces, covered the ship, and 
poured in between the decks, as if the great deep 
had already swallowed us up. A terrible scream- 
ing began among the English. The Germans 
calmly sang on. I asked one of them afterward, 
'Was l^sic'] you not afraid?' He answered, 'I 
thank God, no.' I asked, ' But were not your 
women and children afraid? ' He replied mildly, 
' No ; our women and children are not afraid to 
die.' " 22 

The earliest groups of Germans came over un- 
der the auspices of special companies or or- 
ganizations, mostly religious, such as the Frank- 
fort Company, the party of mystics under Kel- 

21 Mann, Life and Times of II. M. Miiblenberg, p. 45. 
^^ John Wesley, Journal, vol. I. p. 17. 

76 OyER LyiiWD AND SEA. 

pius, the Schwenckfelders in 1733, and the 
Moravians in 1742; often a clergyman would 
personally conduct his flock across the ocean, 
as in the case of Goetschi. The Mennonites 
who came to Lancaster County in 1710 and the 
following years were helped by their brethren in 
Holland, where the Mennonites were not only 
tolerated, but had become wealthy and promi- 
nent. Not forgetful in their prosperity of the 
trials of their less fortunate brothers, they had 
formed a society for the aid of the Palatines and 
Swiss who were forced to leave their native 
lands; with the money thus collected they fur- 
nished the emigrants not only with passage- 
money to America, but with provisions, tools, 
seeds, etc.^^ 

During the greater part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, however, especially the latter half, the Ger- 
man and Swiss emigrants were the victims of 
fraud and oppression. The English ship-owners, 
seeing the profit of transporting the emigrants 
to be greater than carrying freight, employed 
every means to induce emigration, chief among 
these means being German adventurers who had 
themselves lived in Pennsylvania. They would 

*' See the interesting account of their services by Do Hoop 
SchcfTer, translated by Judge Pennypackor in Penn. Mag., vol. 
n, pp. 117 ff. 


travel luxuriously throughout Germany, induc- 
ing their countrymen, by the most exaggerated 
statements concerning the riches to be found in 
the New World, to try their fortunes beyond the 
sea. These agents, known as " Newlanders," 
were generally men of the most unscrupulous 

The best contemporaneous accounts of these 
abuses are given by Muhlenberg, Sauer, and 
Mittelberger.2^ According to the former the 
Newlanders received free passage and a certain 
fee for every family or single person whom they 
could persuade to go to Holland, there to make 
arrangements with the ship-owners for their 
transportation. Muhlenberg tells how they 
paraded in fine clothing, pulling out ostenta- 
tiously their watches, and in general acting as 
rich people do. They spoke of America as if it 
were the Elysian Fields, in which the crops 
grew without labor, as if the mountains were of 
gold and silver, and as if the rivers ran with milk 
and honey. The victims of these blandishments, 

^* Muhlenberg is the most temperate, Sauer the most in- 
dignant, and INIittelberger the most lurid. The book of the 
latter must be read with a great deal of allowance. He was 
evidently a disappoiiited man, and being forced to leave 
Pennsylvania and return home, he gives a picture of the suf- 
ferings and disillusions of his countrymen in that province 
which does not accord with what we learn frcjm other sources. 


on arriving in Holland, having often to wait a long 
time before leaving, were frequently obliged to 
borrow money from the contractors themselves, 
in order to buy provisions and pay their pas- 
sage. Before leaving they had to sign an agree- 
ment in English, which they did not under- 
stand.25 " If the parents died during the pas- 
sage, the captain and the Newlanders would act 
as guardians of the children, take possession of 
their property, and, on arrival in port, sell the 
children for their own and their dead parents' 
freight. On arriving at Philadelphia, the agree- 
ment signed by the emigrant in Holland, to- 
gether with the total amount of money loaned, 
passage and freight, is produced; those who 
have money enough to pay the exorbitant de- 
mands are set free, after being examined by the 
doctor, and taking the usual oath of allegiance 
at the court-house. All others are sold to pay 
the transportation charges." ^c So far Muhlen- 
berg, who gives an exceedingly clear and inter- 
esting account of this nefarious system. Chris- 
topher Sauer, at that time, through his news- 
paper and almanac, perhaps the most influential 
German in Pennsylvania, is moved to indigna- 

" One of these agreements is published in Ponn. Mag., vol. 
xni. p. 485. 

^* Hallesche Nachrichten, vol. 11. pp. 459 fi"., note. 


tion at the state of affairs. On March 15 and 
again May 12, 1755, he writes two letters to Gov- 
ernor Denny, remonstrating at the abuses. He 
tells how the emigrants are packed like herrings, 
how in consequence of improper care two thou- 
sand died in one year. " This murdering trade 
made my heart ache, especially when I heard 
that there was more profit by their death than 
by carrying them alive." " They filled the ves- 
sels with passengers and as much of the mer- 
chants' goods as they thought fit, and left the 
passengers' chests, etc., behind; and sometimes 
they loaded vessels with Palatines' chests. But 
the poor people depended upon their chests, 
wherein was some provision such as they were 
used to, as dried apples, pears, plums, mustard, 
medicines, vinegar, brandy, butter, clothing, 
shirts and other necessary linens, money, and 
whatever they brought with them; and when 
their chests were left behind, or shipped in some 
other vessel, they had lack of nourishment." 

Not all the victims of these unscrupulous ship- 
pers were poor and of humble rank. Sauer ex- 
pressly says that many had been wealthy people 
in Germany, and had lost hundreds and even 
thousands of pounds' worth by leaving their 
chests behind, or by being robbed, " and are 
obliged to live poor with grief." These state- 


ments are borne out by Mittelberger, who says 
that people of rank, " such as nobles, learned or 
skilled people," when they cannot pay their pas- 
sage and cannot give security are treated like or- 
dinary poor people, and obliged to remain on 
board till some one buys them.^'^ 

But enough has been said to show how great 
was the abuse, and to justify the indignation of 
]\Iuhlenberg and Sauer. These abuses contin- 
ued long afterwards, even down to the first de- 
cade of the nineteenth century; indeed, the worst 
cases occur after the Revolution, and hence 
after the period discussed in this book. After all 
there is no use dwelling on such details; they 
were undoubtedly, to a greater or less extent, the 
necessary accompaniments of a great, unsuper- 
vised movement of emigration; a movement 
which, although it had its dark side, was never- 
theless fraught with untold blessing to thousands. 

The custom referred to above, of selling the 

" Mittelberger, p. 39. He gives an example of this in the 
case of "a noble lady" who in 1753 came to Pliiladelphia 
with two half-grown daughters and a young son. She en- 
trusted all her fortune to a Newlander, who robbed her ; in 
consequence of which both she and her daughters were com- 
pelled to serve. J"hn Wesley in his Journal, under date March 
6, 1736, tells the story of John Rcinier from Vevay, Switzerland, 
who came to America "well provided with money, Inx^ks, and 
drugs," but, being robbed by the captain, was forced to sell 
himself for seven years. 


passengers to pay their charges, — a custom 
known as redemptionism, — was not confined to 
the Germans. In the previous century the cus- 
tom existed among the French of the West In- 
dies; the "engages," as they were called, sell- 
ing themselves to serve three years. Many of 
the Huguenots were thus disposed of.^s The 
system was also in vogue in all the English 
colonies except New England. Fenwick, in his 
Proposal of 1675, — intended to draw immigration 
to New Jersey, — urges it as a reasonable means 
of coming to the New World and obtaining a 
plantation; Furley, Penn's agent, also urges the 
same thing. In Pennsylvania it was entirely re- 
spectable, and many who afterwards grew to dis- 
tinction came over this way.^^ The Germans as 
servants seem not to have come over until well on 
in the eighteenth century; later, however, they 
became very numerous. 

The condition of the redemptioners was not in 
general very hard. They were usually well 

^* Baird, Huguenot Emigration to America. 

^^ Among them are said to have been Matthew Thornton, 
one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence; the 
parents of General Sullivan; the wife of the famous Sir Will- 
iam Johnson of Mohawk Valley; and Charles Thompson, sec- 
retary of the Continental Congress (see Watson, p. 544). Gor- 
don (p. 556) writes that many of the German and Irish settlers 
were of this class, " from whom have sprung some of the most 
reputable and wealthy inhabitants of the province." 


treated, protected 1\\' the law, and at the end of 
their service received a certain outfit.^^ Indeed, 
for a single man, or for children, it was often of de- 
cided advantage, being a sort of apprenticeship in 
which the customs of the new land were learned. 
It is said that some voluntarily sold themselves 
for the sake of the experience they would get.^^ 
The chief hardship was when a whole family be- 
came the victims of fraudulent merchants, and 
on arriving in a land of freedom, as they fondly 
hoped, saw themselves torn asunder, sold to dif- 
ferent parts of the country, parents and children 
being thus separated for years, perhaps forever.^s 

'" See Fenwick, Furley, Kalm, etc. 

'■ Kalm, vol. i. p. 304, says : "Many of the Germans who 
come liither bring money enough with them to pay their pas- 
sage, but rather suffer themselves to be sold, with a view that 
during their servitude they may get some knowledge of the 
language and quality of the countrj- and the like, that they 
may the better be able to consider what they shall do when 
they have got their liberty." Cf. also: "For many young 
people it is very good that they cannot pay their own freight. 
These will sooner be provided for than those who have paid 
theirs, and they can have their broad with others and soon 
learn the waj-s of the country." (Letter of John Naas ; see 
Brumbaugh, p. 123.) 

" See the pathetic account given by Muhlenberg, Hallesche 
Nachrichten, li. p. 461: "Weit und breit von einander, unter 
allerlei Nationen. Sprachen und Zungen zerstreuet, so dass sie 
selten ihre altcn Eltern, oder auch die Geschwister sich ein- 
ander im Leben wieder zu sehen bekommen." The story of 
Evangeline must have frequently repeated itself in those days. 



Although Christopher Saner says that many 
of the early Germans of Pennsylvania had been 
wealthy at home; although Mittelberger dis- 
tinctly tells us that " persons of rank, such as 
nobles, learned or skilled people," were often 
sold as redemptioners, yet the large majority of 
the eighteenth century settlers were poor. This 
of course was through no fault of their own ; the 
devastations of the Thirty Years' War, and es- 
pecially the wanton destruction ordered by Louis 
XIV. in the last decade of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, had reduced to poverty thousands who had 
been prosperous farmers and tradesmen; and 
not for two hundred years was this prosperity 
fully restored to those who remained in the 
Fatherland.i Whatever property they had been 
able to gather together was used up in the ex- 

• See p. 6. 



penses of descending the Rhine and crossing the 
ocean, or was stolen by the unprincipled ship- 
owners and their parasites, the Xewlanders. 

It was not long, however, before this poverty 
was transformed into prosperity and plenty. This 
was especially true of the JSIennonites, who came 
when the land was cheap, and who bought large 
quantities thereof. Later, property in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of Philadelphia and the ad- 
jacent counties became dearer and dearer, and 
finally not to be obtained at all. Those who came 
towards the middle of the century had to move 
further and further into the wilderness beyond the 
Blue Mountains or across the Susquehanna.^ 
After the Revolution, however, prosperity 
reigned throughout the whole of the farming re- 
gions of the State. 

This prosperity was not entirely due to the 
peculiar conditions of Pennsylvania at that time; 
others, both of those who came before and of those 
who afterwards followed the same kind of life, 
did not succeed.^ It was largely due to the in- 
domitable industry, the earnestness, the frugality, 

» Dahero gehen sie immer weiter fort in das wilde Ge- 
bllsche, . . . und aus Noth weiter fortgelien milssen in die 
noch unbebauten Einoden." (Muhlenberg, Hall. Nach., I. p. 


» Pastoriiis says of the Swedes and Dutch that they "are 
poor economists, have neither bams nor stalls. let their grain 


and the consummate agricultural skill of the Ger- 
mans.^ When, in the Palatinate, they had been 
bereft of all, houses, barns, cattle, and crops, one 
thing they had still kept: the skill inherited from 
thirty generations of land-cultivators, a skill that 
had made the Palatinate literally the " garden- 
spot " of Germany.^ 

This same skill, brought to Pennsylvania, 
soon changed the unbroken forest to an agricul- 
tural community as rich as any in the world. It 
is doubtful if ever any colony was so perfectly 
adapted to its settlers as Pennsylvania was to the 
Germans of one hundred and fifty years ago. The 
soil, though heavily timbered, was fertile and 
only needed the hand of the patient husbandman 
in order to blossom as the rose; when the Ger- 
mans arrived this condition was fulfilled. While 
their English and Scotch-Irish neighbors usually 
followed the course of rivers or larger streams, 
thus lessening the labor of clearing, the Ger- 
mans and Swiss would plunge boldly into an un- 

lie unthreshed," etc. (Pennypacker, p. 138.) The Scotch- 
Irish likewise were inferior in this respect to the Germans, wlio 
soon had possession of the best farming land in the State. 

* " The Germans seem more adapted for agriculture and the 
improvement of a wilderness, and the Irish for trade," etc. 
(Proud, II. p. 274.) Penn told Pastorius " dass ihm der Eyffer 
der Hoch-Teutschen im Bauen sehr wohl gefalle." 

5 So called by Schlozer one himdred and fifty years ago. 


broken wilderness, often fifty or sixty miles from 
the nearest habitation, knowing well that where 
the heaviest forest growth was, there the soil 
must be good.^ They could, in very truth, say 
with the Swiss in Schiller's " Wilhelm Tell ": 

" Wir haben diesen Boden uns erschaflen 
Durch unserer Haii'le Fleiss, den alten Wald, 
Der soust der Biiren wilder Wolinung war, 
Zu einem Sitz fur Menschen umgewandelt." ' 

The best soil in Pennsylvania for farming pur- 
poses is limestone, and it is a singular fact that 
almost every acre of this soil is in possession of 
German farmers.^ If we may make a distinction 
where all are excellent, the Mcnnonites may 
be said to illustrate to the highest degree the 
skill in agriculture; as Riehl says, " Wo der 
Pflug durch goldene Auen geht da schliigt audi 
der Mennonite sein Bethaus auf." ^ It is due to 
the fact that Lancaster County is especially rich 
in limestone soil and is largely inhabited by Men- 

* Penn says, "the back lands being generally three tu one 
richer than those that lie by navigable rivers." (Proud, I. p. 


' Schiller, "Wilhelm Tell," n. 2. 

* The late Eckley B. Coxe said not long ago that a letter from 
Bethlehem written to his grandfather asserts that in Pennsyl- 
vania, if you are on limestone soil, you can open your mouth 
in Pennsylvania Dutch and get a response every time. (Pro- 
cecdings of Penn. Ger. Soc, vol. v. p. 102.) 

» Die Pfiilzer, p. 374. 


nonites that it has become the richest farming 
county in the United States.^^ 

'" This is not mere rhetoric, but a sober statement of actual 
fact, as any one who will take the trouble to look up the agri- 
cultural statistics of the country may easily see. In the history 
of Lancaster County by Ellis and Evans we find the statement 
made that " within the memory of the oldest inhabitants there 
had been no entire failure of all its crops." Six-sevenths of 
the entire area, or 463,000 acres, are farm-lands. In 1890 
the value of agricultural products in Lancaster County was 
$7,657,790, while St. Lawrence County, N. Y., the next 
richest agricultural county had crops valued at $6,054,160, or 
$1,603,630 less than Lancaster. 

As an instance of the rapidity with which the new settlers 
became prosperous we may take the inventory of the ' ' goods 
and chattels " of Andrew Ferree of Lancaster County, who 
died in 1735, only twenty-five years after the first settlement in 
that county : 
" To wheat in the stack at ^8 — wheat and rye 

in the ground, £6 £^A- 0-0 

To great waggon, £12 — little waggon, ;^5... . 17- o-o 

To a plow and two pairs of irons i-io-o 

To two mauls and three iron wedges, 9s. — to 

four old weeding hoes, 4s 13-0 

To a spade and shovel, 8s. — to a matock and 

three dung forks, los 18-O 

To two broad-axes, 12s. — to joyner's axe and 

adze, 7s 19-0 

To sundry carpenter tools, ^i — sundry joiner's 

tools, ;^2-5s 3- S-o 

To seven duch sythes [sic'\ 12-0 

To four stock bands, two pair hinges, sundry 

old iron 14-0 

To a hand-saw, £2 — to five sickles and two old 

hooks I i-o 


It is surprising how rapidly agriculture pros- 
pered in Pennsylvania. In a letter on Brad- 
dock's campaign, written by William Johnston, 
September 23, 1755, we find the following re- 
marks: " Pennsylvania is much the best country 
oi any I have seen since I have been upon the 
continent, and much more plenty of provisions 

To a cutting-box, twf) knives, £i — to twenty- 

^aggs, ^2-ios 3-10-0 

To two pair chains, 14s. — two hackles, ^I-IO 

— to five bells, 12s 2-16-0 

To four smal chains and other horse geers at.. i- 4-0 
To other horse geers at _^i-ios. — to a man's 

saddle at ;i{^i-io 3- 0-0 

To three falling axes at los. — to two fowling 

pieces, £2 2-10-0 

To a large Byble 2- 0-0 

To twofether beds at £6 — to wearing cloaths, 

£7 13-0-0 

To sundry pewter, £2-% — to a box iron, 4s. . . 2-12-0 

To sundry iron ware, £2 — to a watering pot, 6s. 2- 6-0 
To sundry wooden ware at £1 — to two iron 

pot-racks, £1 2- 0-0 

To four working horses. ;^24 — to a mare and 

two colts, £11 35- 0-0 

To six grown cows at ,^15 — to ten head of 

young cattle. ;^i3-io 28-10-0 

To eleven sheep, £'i~ij — to swine, ^i-io. . . 5- 7-0 

T(j two chests, 15s. — to a spinning-wheel, Ss.. i- 3-0 

To sley, 6s. — to cash 2- 8-0 

To cash received for a servant girle's time. ... 3- 0-0 

7^2- 8-6- 


than Maryland or Virginia." ^^ Of Lancaster, 
the county town, Johnston says: " You will not 
see many inland towns in England so large as 
this, and none so regular; and yet this town, I 
am told, is not above twenty-five years' stand- 
ing,^ 2 and a most delightful country round it. It 
is mostly inhabited by Dutch people." 

That this prosperity was largely due to the 
Germans is acknowledged by the English them- 
selves. Thus Governor Thomas says in 1738: 
" This province has been for some years the 
asylum of the distressed Protestants of the Palat- 
inate and other parts of Germany, and I believe 
it may truthfully be said that the present flour- 
ishing condition of it is in great measure owing 
to the industry of these people." ^^ We have an 
interesting glimpse of the skill with which these 

'^ Penn. Mag., vol. xi. pp. 93 ff. It will be remembered 
that Pennsylvania was the youngest of all the colonies except 
Georgia, although at the time of the Revolution it was second 
in population. 

^' Lancaster was laid out by James Hamilton in 1730. 

^' In the preamble of the act passed by the General Assembly 
of Pennsylvania in 1787 to incorporate a college in Lancaster 
are the words : ''Whereas, the citizens of this State of Ger- 
man birth or extraction have eminently contributed by their 
industry, economy, and public virtues to raise the State to its 
present happiness and prosperity," etc. In recent times 
Bancroft has said that neither the Peimsylvania Germans nor 
others claim for them the credit due them. 


farms were worked in the description of a trip 
made b}' Governor Thomas Pownall in 1754. 
He visited Lancaster, " a pretty considerable 
town, encreasing fast and growing rich," and 
then goes on to say : " I saw some of the finest 
farms one can conceive, and in the highest state 
of culture, particularly one that was the estate 
of a Switzer. Here it was I first saw the method 
of watering a whole range of pastures and 
meadows on a hillside, by little troughs cut in the 
side of the hill, along which the water from 
springs was conducted, so as that when the outlets 
of these troughs were stopped at the end the 
water ran over the sides and watered all the 
ground between that and the other trough next 
below it. I dare say this method may be in use 
in England. I never saw it there, but saw it 
here first." 1* 

It is no wonder that, in view of such extraordi- 
nary prosperity on the part of many who a short 
time before had been destitute exiles from their 
native land, Benjamin Rush exclaims: "If it 
were possible to determine the amount of all the 
property brought into Pennsylvania by the pres- 
ent German inhabitants of the State and their an- 

^* Penn. Mag., vol. xviii. p. 215. This same skill in agri- 
culture is seen likewise in the German settlements in New 
York, Maryland, Virginia, and even Ireland. 


cestors, and then compare it with the present 
amount of their property, the contrast would 
form such a monument of human industry and 
economy as has seldom been contemplated in 
any age or country." ^^ " How different," he 
goes on to say, " is their situation here from 
what it was in Germany! Could the subjects of 
the princes of Germany, who now groan away 
their lives in slavery and unprofitable labor, view 
from an eminence in the month of June the Ger- 
man settlements of Strasburg or Mannheim in 
Lancaster County, or of Lebanon in Dauphin 
County, or of Bethlehem in Northampton 
County, — could they be accompanied on this 
eminence by a venerable German farmer and be 
told by him that many of these extensive fields 
of grain, full-fed herds, luxurious meadows, 
orchards promising loads of fruit, together with 
the spacious barns and commodious stone dwell- 
ing-houses which compose the prospects which 
have been mentioned, were all the product of a 
single family and of one generation, and were all 
secured to the owners of them by certain laws, I 
am persuaded that no chains would be able to 
deter them from sharing in the freedom of their 

^5 Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 
P- 55- 


Pennsylvania friends and former fellow sub- 
jects." i« 

Dr. Rush himself gives us many valuable hints 
as to the methods by which such striking results 
were obtained. His little pamphlet on "The Man- 
ners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania," 
written in 1789, is the most valuable of all the 
eighteenth-century sources which throw light on 
the subject we are discussing. He gives many de- 
tails as to the thoroughness, far-sightedness, and 
attention to little things which marked the Ger- 
man methods of farming. Thus at the very out- 
set, while the Scotch-Irish or English farmer 
would girdle or belt the trees, and leave them to 
rot in the ground, their more far-sighted neigh- 
bors would cut them down and burn them, the 
underwood and bushes being grubbed out of the 
ground.^ ^ By this means a field was as fit for 
cultivation the second year after it was cleared 

^* For further glinipst-s of tliis pro.^perity see the Travels of 
Weld (1795) and Saxe-Weimar (1825). An interesting detail 
in this connection is the appellation "King" applied to a rich 
landed proprietor. An old "Dutchman" once ?aid, speaking 
of a friend, " The people call mc tlie king of the manor [town- 
ship], and they call him the king of the Octorara." In the 
MS. genealogy of the llcrr family, one sheet is marked 
"King" Herr. 

" Und halten niaiichtn sauren Tag, den Wald 
Mit weitversclilungenen Wurzehi aus/.utoden." 

(Schiller, "Wilhclm Toll," ii. 2.) 


as it was twenty years afterwards. They con- 
tended that tlie expense of repairing a plough, 
which by the other method vvas often broken, 
was greater than the extra expense of grubbing 
the field in clearing. Their foresight and careful- 
ness were also shown in their treatment of horses 
and cattle. However economical they might be 
with themselves, they were never so towards their 
live stock. These were so well fed that the horses 
" performed twice the labor of those horses, and 
the cattle yielded twice the quantity of milk of 
those cows, that are less plentifully fed." The 
Pennsylvania German's horses were well known 
all over the State. Indeed, says Rush, " the 
horse seems to feel v.'ith his lord the pleasure and 
pride of his extraordinary size and fat."^^ Not 
only were the horses well fed, but they were kept 
warm in winter and spared all unnecessary labor, 
such as dragging heavy loads of wood for win- 
ter fires, or driving about the country for mere 
pleasure. In this way they were able to 
perform prodigious feats of strength when the 

^8 This love for animals is an inherited trait ; cf. Freytag, 
"Die grosste Freude des Landmanns war die Zucht seiner 
Rosse." (I. p. 307.) Meyer (Deutsche Volkskunde, p. 212) 
repeats a proverb still current near Heidelberg wliich in 
another form is applied to the Pennsylvania farmer : " Weiber 
sterbe isch ka Verderbe ! Aber Gaulverrecke, des isch e 


time came, dragging the immense loads of prod- 
uce over rough roads to Philadelphia, sixty 
miles or more away. 

The farmer's first care after getting his field 
well cleared was to build an immense barn, in 
which no expense was spared to make it com- 
fortable and ample. This was invariably done 
before any thought was taken of building a 
permanent home for himself. These great 
" Swisser " barns, as they are called,^^ are down 
to the present day one of the characteristic fea- 
tures of the landscape in the eastern counties of 
Pennsylvania, and have often attracted the atten- 
tion of travellers, not only in the past,-*^ but in 
these days of railroads, when the traveller is 
whirled through Lancaster and other counties 
on his way to the West. A detailed description 
of them may not be out of place here. " They 
are two stories high, with pitched roof, suffi- 
ciently large and strong to enable heavy farm- 
teams to drive into the upper story, to load or 
unload grain. During the first period they were 
built mostly of logs, afterwards of stone, frame, 

'* Either on account of the chalet-like projection of the 
upper stories, or because many of the farmers were Swiss. 

'" The Duke of Saxe-Weimar says he was particularly 
struck with these barns, many of tluia looking like large 
churches. (Travels, vol. ii. jip. 175 ami 177.) 


or brick, from 60 to 120 feet long, and from 50 
to 60 feet wide, the lower story, containing- the 
stables, with feeding-passages opening on the 
front. The upper story was made to project 8 or 
10 feet over the lower in front, or with a fore- 
bay attached, to shelter the entries to the stables 
and passageways. It contained the threshing- 
floors, mows, and lofts for the storing of hay and 
grain. The most complete barns of the present 
day have in addition a granary on the upper 
floor, a celler under the driving-way, a wagon- 
shed, with corn-crib and horse-power shed at- 
tached." 21 

The houses at first were temporary structures 
built of logs. The preparation for the permanent 
dwelling was the business of a number of years, 
before the actual building operations were begun. 
Stones had to be quarried, lumber sawed and al- 
lowed to season; frequently two generations 

*' Ellis and Evans, Hist. Lane. Co., p. 348. This same 
architectural pride of the farmer may be seen likewise in the 
Palatinate to-day; cf. Riehl, "Seine Oekonomiegebaude legt 
der reiche Gutsbesitzer mit einer fast monumentalen SchOn- 
heit und Dauerhaftigkeit an und schmUckt seinen Garten 
lieber als den Kirchhof." (Pfiilzer, p. 155.) Elsewhere he 
calls the stables "wahre Prachthallen, massiv aus Stein, mit 
Pfeilern und Kreuzgewolben." (Ibid., p. 190.) Cf. also 
Meyer (Deutsche Volkskunde, p. 33) : " Formliche Ehrfurcht 
empfindet man in Bayem vor einem stattlichen Einzelhof: 
' Vor einer Ainet (Einodhof) soil man den Hut herabthun.'" 


assisted in erecting the family homestead. 
" These houses were generally built of stone 
(some of them with dressed corners), two stories 
high, with pitched roof and with cornices run 
across the gables and aiound the first story. A 
large chimney in the middle, if modelled after the 
German pattern, or with a chimney at either 
gable-end, if built after the English or Scotch 
idea. Many were imposing structures having 
arched cellars underneath, spacious hallways 
with easy stairs, open fireplaces in most of the 
rooms, oak-panelled partitions, and windows 
hung in weights." 22 

One of the most interesting features of these 
old stone houses are the quaint inscriptions 
which adorn most of them, usually high up on 
the gable wall.2^ ]\Iany inscriptions consist simply 
of the initials or names of man and wife, with the 

" Weld, in 1795, says the houses were mostly built of stone 
and as good as those usually met with on an arable farm of 
50 acres in a well-cultivated part of England. (Travels, p. 
115.) For pictures and descriptions of some of these old 
houses see Croll, Ancient and Historic Landmarks in the 
Lebanon Valley. 

" This was a common custom in the Palatinate; the religious 
sentiments expressed are only seen on Protestant houses, and, 
significantly enough, date chiefly from the years of trial in tlie 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. One of the earliest of 
such inscriptions was made by the wife of the Count Palatine 
Johaim Kasimir of Zweibriicken, over the portal of tlie Castle 


date of building. Others, however, are proverbs 
or quotations from Bible and hymn-book, and 
thus throw a good deal of light on the practical 
and pious character of the builders. Thus on 
the Weidman house in Clay Township, Lancas- 
ter County, are the following words: 

''Wer will baueii an die Strassen 
Muss ein jeder reden lassen." ^* 

On Peter Bricker's house, in West Cocalico 
Township, in Lancaster County, built of sand- 
stone in 1759 and still as good as new, are writ- 
ten these words: 

"Gott gesegne dieses Haus, 
Und alle was da gehet ein und aus; 
Gott gesegne alle sampt, 
Und dazu das ganze Land." 

Still more pious is the inscription on a log-house 
in Albany Township, Berks County, built by 
Cornelius Frees in 1743. On a large iron plate 

Katharinenburg, consisting of her initials, the year (1622), 
and beneath, "Wer Gott vertraut, hat wohl gebaut." (Riehl, 
Die Pfalzer, p. 198.) Tn Switzerland, also, such inscriptions 
were common, as we may see from Schiller's "Wilhelm Tell" 
(i. 2), where, speaking of Stauffer's house, he says : 

" Mit bunten Wappenschildern ist's beraalt, 

Und weisen Spriichen, die der Wandersmann 
Verweileud liest und ihren Sinn bevvundert." 

2* Riehl (Die Familie, p. 199) gives the following variation 
of this verse : 

"Wer da bauet an Markt und Strassen, 
Muss Neider und Narren reden lassen." 


which had been walled in on the side of the build- 
ing are the following lines: 

"Was nicht zu Gottes Elir' 
Alls Glauben gelit ist Sunde; 
Merck auf, O theures Hertz, 
Verliere keine Stunde. 
Die iiberkluge Welt 
Versteht doch keine Waaren, 
Sie sucht und fiiidet Kotli 
Und last die Perle fahren." " 

Next to barn and dwelling-house the most im- 
portant architectural product of the Pennsylvania 
Germans is the great Conestoga wagon, which 
Rush called the " ship of inland commerce." Be- 
fore the advent of railroads these were the chief 
means of transport between the farms and 
towns of Pennsylvania. In them the wheat, 
vegetables, fruit, and. alas! whiskey, — which 
often formed a side industry of many a farmer, — 
were carried for miles to Philadelphia. Says 
Rush: " In this wagon, drawn by four or five 
horses of a peculiar breed, they convey to market, 
over the roughest roads, 2000 and 3000 pounds' 
weight of the produce of their farms. In the 
months of September and October it is no un- 
common thing on the Lancaster and Reading 
roads to meet in one day fifty or one hundred 
of these wagons on their way to Philadelphia, 

** Montgomery, Hist., of Berks Co. 


most of which belong- to German farmers." 
These teams were stately objects in those 
times; owner and driver alike took pride in 
them and kept them neat and trim. They con- 
sisted of five or six heavy horses, well fed and 
curried, wearing good harness, and sometimes 
adorned with bows of bells, fitted so as to form 
an arch above the collar. These bells were care- 
fully selected to harmonize or chime, from the 
small treble of the leaders to the larger bass upon 
the wheel-horses. The wagon-body was neces- 
sarily built stanch and strong, but by no means 
clumsy. Upon them the wheelwright and black- 
smith expended their utmost skill and good taste, 
and oftentimes produced masterpieces of work, 
both in shape and durability. The running-gear 
was invariably painted red, and the body blue. 
The cover was of stout white linen or hempen 
material, drawn tightly over, shapely, fitted to 
the body, lower near the middle and projecting 
like a bonnet in front and at the back, the whole 
having a graceful and sightly outline.^^ 

In addition to the labor in the fields and the 
larger interests of the farm, the cultivation of the 
garden, which was the invariable adjunct of each 

'5 Ellis and Evans, Hist. Lancaster Co., p. 350. The rail- 
roads put an end to these wagons. Tliey reappeared latter in 
the well-known "prairie schooners." 




lioiise, was of no small itiiportance. A love for 
ilowers has always been tlic characteristic of the 
natives of the I\-ilatinate,2' and this love is quite 
as noticeable in Pennsylvania as in the home- 
country; at the present day there is not a farm- 
house in the country, or even a small dwelling in 
town, that is not adorned with flowers of many 
kinds, often rare. They form the one bright 
touch of poetry in the otherwise hard routine of 

More important, however, from a practical 
point of view, was the cultivation of garden vege- 
tables, in which the Germans soon reached the 
foremost rank ; Rush says definitely that " Penn- 
sylvania is indebted to the Germans for the prin- 
cipal part of her knowledge in horticulture." ^9 
" Since the settlement," he says, " of a number 
of German gardeners in the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia, the tables of all classes of citizens 

*' "Im ubrigen Rheinland erfreut sich wohl auch der ge- 
meine Mann am Blumenschmuck seines Hauses, aber so all- 
gemein wie auf dem linken Ufer der Pfalz nirgends." (Riehl, 
Pfalzer, p. 192.) Richl traces this love for flowers back to the 
days of Roman occupation of the Rhine. 

*8 See Ritter's History of the MoravianChurch inPluladelpliia, 
for description of the garden of tlie parsonage ; in addition to 
peach, pear, and plum trees there were various kinds of roses, 
lilacs, heart's-ease, lilies, etc. 

" Rush, p. 23. 


have been covered with a variety of vegetables 
in every season of the year." 

Farming in those days was a profession and 
a hard and laborious one, although one sure of 
profitable returns. The whole life of the farmer, 
his labor, his thoughts, his hopes and fears, re- 
volved about this one thing.^^ Industry was the 
highest virtue, idleness and sin went hand in 
hand.21 " When a young man," says Rush, 
" asks the consent of his father to marry a girl of 
his choice, the latter does not so much inquire 
whether she be rich or poor, but whether she is 
industrious and acquainted with the duties of a 
good housewife." "^ 

Even the superstitions of the early Pennsyl- 
vania Germans largely clustered about their 
agricultural life. In the last century, and in some 

*** It is interesting to see how many of their proverbs had to 
do with farming life : 

" Im kleinsten Raum pflanz einen Baum 
Und pflege sein, er bringt dir's ein "; 

" Eine gute Kuh sucht man imStalle"; "Gut gewetzt ist 
halb gemaht"; "Ein kleines Schaf ist gleich geschoren"; 
" Futter macht die Giiule," etc. 


" Arbeite treu und glaub es fest 
Dass Faulheit iirger ist als Pest, 
Der Mussiggang viel Boses lehrt, 
Und alle Art von SUnden mehrt.' 

*' Hence the proverb, "Eine fleissige Hausfrau ist die beste 


places well on in the nineteenth, they had many 
strange belief? and curious practices. These 
superstitions which they brought from the 
Fatherland run back their roots to the early 
twilight of German history. It seems to be 
another phase of that deep touch of poetry so 
characteristic of German character and which 
has so powerfully influenced the pietistic move- 
ment in more recent times. Many of the customs 
of the eighteenth century, both in Germany and 
Pennsylvania, are survivals of heathen customs 
that have come floating down the centuries, the 
flotsam and jetsam of the religious beliefs of our 
pagan ancestors. 

One of the most widely spread of these be- 
liefs is the influence of the heavenly bodies. 
When Shakespeare makes Cassius say, 

"The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, 
But in ourselves, that we are underlings," 

he alludes to a belief that was well-nigh universal 
in the Middle Ages, that the peculiar juxtaposi- 
tion of the stars and planets at the birth of any 
individual will have a lasting influence on the 
life of the new-born child. Among the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans the signs of the heavens were 
always noted and recorded at the birth of the 
child,'3 and we are told that the hermits on the 

" This was an old German custom. Goethe begins his 


Wissahickon partly gained their living by the 
casting of horoscopes. In the old German alma- 
nacs certain days were marked as lucky or un- 
lucky ;2-* any one born on these days was doomed 
to poverty ; engagements or marriages con- 
tracted then were sure to be failures, and the 
wise man would begin no legal or other kind of 
business. On Ascension-day there should be no 
letting of blood.^5 Of especial interest to farmers 
was a knowledge of the times and seasons. The 
different phases of the moon had to be carefully 
observed from the almanac, for all cereals planted 
in the waxing of the moon grew more rapidly 
than in the waning. Things planted when the 

"Wahrheit und Dichtung " with these words : " Am 28. Au- 
gust 1749, Mittags mit dem Glockenschlage zwolf, kam ich in 
Frankfurt am Main auf die Welt. Die Constellation war gliick- 
lich : Die Sonne stand im Zeichen der Jungfrau, und culmi- 
nirte fijr den Tag," etc. 

'* These were Jan. i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12; Feb. i, 17, 18; 
March 14, 16; April 10, 17, 18; May 7, 8 ; June 17; July 17, 
21 ; Aug. 20, 21 ; Sept. 10, 18; Oct. 6 ; Nov. 6, 10 ; Dec. 6, 
10, 15. (See Owen, Folk-Lore from Buffalo Valley, Pa., Jour- 
nal of American Folk-Lore Society, vol. iv. ) 

'5 The custom of blood-letting, universal throughout the 
middle ages, was still in full sway in Pennsylvania a hundred 
years ago. In the Journal of Christopher Marshall, under the 
date May 13, 1780 (at Lancaster) we find this entry: "This 
was a remarkable day for the German men and women, 
bleeding at (Dr.) Chrisley Neff's. So many came that I 
presume he must work hard to bleed the whole. Strange in- 
fatuation." (Papers of Lane. Co. Hist. Soc, vol. ni. p. 156.) 


moon was in the sign of the Twins would be 
abundant. When the horns of the moon were 
down onions must be planted; beans, and early 
potatoes, however, when the horns were up. Ap- 
ples should be picked in the dark of the moon, 
else they would rot. Hogs should be slaughtered 
during the waxing of the moon, otherwise the 
meat would shrink and be poor. Even the thatch- 
ing of houses should be done when the horns of 
the moon were down, or the shingles would curl; 
and when fences were built, the first or lower rail 
should be laid when the horns were up, while the 
stakes should be put in and the fence finished 
when the horns were down. Such are a few of 
the affairs of life which were supposed to be 
done literally " by the book." ^e 

Omens were frequent. It was a sign of death 
if a bird entered the room, if a horse neighed or 
dog barked at night, or if a looking-glass were 
broken ; the same thing was supposed to be true 
of dreaming of having teeth pulled, or of see- 
ing some one dressed in black. 

As water was one of the most important things 
for every house, it is not surprising that super - 

" This view of the influence of the moon's phases is as old 
as German history itself: "Aus demselben Grund, aus wel- 
chem weise Frauen zu Ariovist's Zeit den Gernianen gclin'en, 
dass sie nicht vor Neumond die Schlacht Ijeginnen soUten," 
etc. (Riehl, Kulturstudien, p. 47.) 


natural means were employed to discover it. The 
following device of "smelling" for water was once 
common : " Hold a forked willow or peach limb 
with the prongs down, and move over the spot 
where water is desired. If water is present, the 
stick will turn down in spite of all you can do; it 
has been known to twist off the bark. The depth 
of water may be known by the number and 
strength of the dips made. Ore can be found the 
same way." 

Also curious in their way were the weather 
signs. If the ears of corn burst, a mild winter 
will follow; but it will be cold if they are plump. 
If the spleen of a hog be short and thick, the 
winter will be short, and vice versa. If on Feb- 
ruary 2d the ground-hog comes out and sees his 
shadow, he will retire to his hole and six weeks 
of cold weather will follow. So, when the snow 
is on the ground, if turkeys go to the field or the 
guinea-hens halloo, there will be a thaw. If 
cocks crow at 10 p.m., it will rain before morning. 

Witches were believed in to a more or less 
extent, and not only human beings, but cattle, 
inanimate objects, and even operations such 
as butter-making, were more or less sub- 
ject to their malign influence. Horseshoes or 
broomsticks laid across the door were supposed 
to keep them out. Silver bullets shot at a pic- 


ture of a supposed witch would bring about his 
or her death.-"'" 

The use of amulets and incantations was more 
or less common. By means of the former it was 
believed that one could make himself " kugel- 
fest," i.e., proof against bullets.^^ As was natu- 
ral when doctors were few and far between, su- 
perstition was largely predominant in medicine. 
Especially were old women endowed with cura- 
tive powers. Those who were born on Sunday 
were supposed to have power to cure headache. 
Among the strange methods of healing may be 
mentioned the following: To remove warts cut 
an apple, a turnip, or an onion into halves and 
rub the wart with the pieces and then bury them 
under the eaves of the house. A buckwheat cake 
placed on the head will remove pain; and breath- 
ing the breath of a fish will cure whooping 
cough. To cure " falling away " in a child make 
a bag of new muslin, fill with new things of any 

'' There was, however, none of the fanatic cruelty once so 
prevalent in Germany and which has given to Salem, Mass., 
such a baleful notorietj^ in American history. 

'* This superstition was once wide-spread in Germany ; 
Luther believed in it firmly. See Freytag, vol. ni. p. 73 : 
" Der Glaube, dass man den Leib gegen das Geschoss der 
Feinde verfesten . . . kOime, ist iilter als das geschichtliclic 
Lcben der germanischen Vrilker. " II was said of Captain 
Wettcrholt, in the French and Indian War, that he was " kugel- 


kind, and place it on the breast of the child, let- 
ting it remain there nine days. In the mean- 
while feed the child only with the milk of a 
young heifer. After nine days carry the bag by 
the little finger to a brook that flows towards the 
west and throw it over the shoulder. As the 
contents of the bag waste away the child will 
recover. Perhaps one of the strangest and yet 
most interesting of all these quaint customs was 
that of powwowing, or the use of magic formulas 
for the cure of certain diseases. It is very inter- 
esting to see this survival down to a short time 
ago in our own country, and still flourishing in 
certain parts of Germany, of a custom which is as 
old as the German language itself. Some of the 
earliest remains of Old High German and Old 
Saxon poetry are the so-called " Segensformen," 
not very different from powwowing.^^ The latter 
was once believed in by many of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. It was supposed to be especially 
efBcacious in nose-bleed or blood-flow; in re- 
moving pain from cuts, bruises, burns; and also 
in skin-diseases. Thus the goitre was cured by 
looking at the Avaxing moon, passing the hand 
over the diseased part, and saying, "What I sec 
must increase, what I feel must decrease." ^° 

^^ Cf. Braune, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, p. 81. 

♦" Cf. Meyer, Deutsche Volkskunde, p. 116: "Hat es [a 


Still more curious is the cure for snake-bite, 
described by Dr. W. J. Hoffman as formerly 
existing in Lehigh County. The following 
words were recited: 

" Gott hot alles arschaflfen und alles war gut ; 
Als du alle [alter] Schlang, bislit ferflucht, 
Fcrflucht solsht du sei' und dei' Gift." 

The speaker then with the index-finger made 
the sign of the cross three times over the wound, 
each time pronouncing the onomatope tsing.-^^ 

Even in religion these superstitions had their 
place, and the opening of the Bible at random and 
taking the verse which fell under the finger as 
the direct word of God — a custom which, more 
or less changed, has lasted for nearly fifteen hun- 
dred years "*- — was once employed by the Mora- 
vians in all the affairs of life, including marriage, 

child] ein Muttermal, so blickt die Mutter, das Kind im Arm, 
auf einem Kreuzweg in den zunehmenden Mond und spricht, 
indem sie das Mai mit der Hand bestreicht : Alles, was ich 
sehe, nimmt zu, Alles, was ich streiche, nimmt ab." 

*' Proceedings of Penn. Ger. Society, vol. v. p. 78. 

** "Der uralte Aberglaube, weklier schon im Jahre 506 auf 
dem Concilium von Agde den Christen verboten wurde, kam 
wieder in Aufnahme ; man schlug die Bibel oder das Gesang- 
buch auf, um aus zufiillis^eni Wortlaut die EntscheiduTig bei 
innerer Unsicherheit zu finden, — der Sprucli, auf welchen der 
rechte Daumen traf, war der Ijedeutsame ; ein Brauch, der 
noch heute fest in unserm Volke haftet, und von den Gegnern 
^le is speakinc; of the '' Stillen im Lande "] schon um 1700 als 
'Diiumehi' verhohnt wurde." (I'Veytag, vol. iv. p. 18.) 


and is actually used to-day by the Mennonites in 
choosing their bishops. 

The life of the Pennsylvania farmer was one of 
unremitting- toil ; few recreations came to break 
the monotony. Up before sunrise and to bed 
soon after sunset, such was the ordinary routine, 
day after day, year after year. Later in the cen- 
tury came more and more the usual rural festivi- 
ties, quilting and husking parties, country fairs, 
markets, and vctidus. Very common were the 
butcherings — when the friends of the family 
would help in the killing of hogs and the prepa- 
ration of the many kinds of sausages; and es- 
pecially common were the " frohcs " in which the 
various kinds of fruit-butters, of which the Penn- 
sylvania Germans were so fond, were boiled in 
huge ketdes, tended to and stirred by friends and 
neighbors invited for the purpose.^^ 

In general, however, life was uneventful, " one 
common round of daily task." The three great 
events in all lives — birth, marriage, and death — 
were the occasion of more or less celebration, the 
weddings and funerals being attended by large 
concourses of people, who came in wagons from 
far and near. The custom of providing food for 

*' Cf. Riehl (Pfjilzer, p. 267) for a description of a similar 
combination of business and pleasure in the preparation of 
Obstlatwerge in the Palatinate. 


visitors, due at first to the long distance many had 
to come, soon grew to be conventional and too 
often excessive. Muhlenberg frequently com- 
plains of this excess at both weddings and 

An interesting description of one of these 
funerals is given by Mittelberger: " In this man- 
ner such an invitation to a funeral is made 
known more than fifty Enghsh miles around in 
twenty-four hours. If it is possible, one or more 
persons from each house appear on horseback at 
the appointed time to attend the funeral. While 
the people are coming in, good cake cut into 
pieces is handed around on a large tin platter to 
those present; each person receives then, in a 
goblet, a hot West India rum punch, into which 
lemon, sugar, and juniper-berries are put, which 
give it a delicious taste. After this, hot and 
sweetened cider is served. . . . When the peo- 
ple have nearly all assembled and the time for 
the burial is come, the dead body is carried to 
the general burial-place, or, where that is too 
far away, the deceased is buried in his own 
field.'*-* The assembled people ride all in silence 

** Many of these old private graveyards are now utterly 
neirlected and overgrown with weeds ; Riehl's description of 
the neglected graveyards in the Palatinate is almost word for 
word true of many in Pennsylvania : "Eine verwilderte Ilccke 


and sometimes one can count from one hundred 
to five hundred persons on horseback. The 
coffins are ah made of fine walnut wood and 
stained brown with a shining varnish." ^^ 

It must not be inferred from the above refer- 
ences to rum and cider that the Pennsylvania 
Germans as a people were especially addicted to 
strong drink. One hundred years ago every one 
drank ; in New England the settlers " were a 
beer-drinking and ale-drinking race — as Shake- 
speare said, they were 'potent in potting' ;"^^ and 
no public ceremony, civil or religious, occurred 
in which great quantities of liquor were not 
drunk.^^ The custom of drinking at funerals, 

umzaunt sie. Regellose mit Gras und Gestriipp verwachsene 
Erhuhungen zeigen die Griiber an." (Pfalzer, p. 407.) He 
attributes this neglect to the traditional dislike of the Reformed 
people to all pomp and ceremony even in death ; it is still more 
true of the Mennonites, who seek the utmost simplicity in all 
things temporal or spiritual, — in life and death. "Ein Mit- 
glied der Gemeinschaft im Bemer Jura ausserte mir gelegen- 
tlich die Ansicht, man soUte nicht genotigt sein. die Toten auf 
den Friedhofen zu beerdigen ; ein jeder sollte dies auf seinem 
Grundbesitz thun diirfen." (Muller, p. 62.) 

^5 In making these coffins the carpenter was careful to gather 
up all the shavings and sawdust and place them in the coffin, 
fcr if any portion thereof should be brought into a house, 
death was sure to follow. 

*8 Alice Morse Earle, Customs and Fashions in Old New 
England, p. 163. 

*^ In the record of the ordination of Rev. Joseph McKean, 


which Muhlenberg reprehends so stoutly, was 
equally observed by the Scotch-Irish and the 
the Puritans of New England.*** Indeed we have 
the authority of Benjamin Rush, who has been 

in Beverly, Mass., in 1785, these items are found in the tavern- 
keeper's bill : 

30 Bowles of Punch before tlie people went to meet- 
ing /"3 

80 people eating in the morning at i6d 6 

10 liottles of wine before they went to meeting .... i 10 

68 dinners at 3s 10 4 

44 bowles of punch while at dinner 4 8 

18 bottles of wine 2 14 

8 bowles of brandy 1 2 

cherry Rum i 10 

6 people drank tea gd. 

^ Mrs. Earle gives the following bill for the mortuary ex- 
penses of David Porter of Hartford, who was drowned in 1678: 

By a pint of liquor for those who dived for him £0 is. 

By a (juart of liquor for those who bro't him home ... 2 
By two quarts of wine & i gallon of cyder to jury of 

inquest 5 

By 8 gallons & 3 qts. wine for funeral £1 15 

By barrel cyder for funeral 16 

I coffin 12 

Windeing sheet 18 

With this we may compare the bill for the double funeral- 
feast of Johannes Gunire and his wife of Germantown, in 

Bread & Cakes at sd Burialls £1 10 

Gamons Cheese & Butter 152 

Mol.\sses & Sugar .... i 143 


called the father of the Temperance movement 
in the United States, that the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans were not addicted to drunkenness.^^ 

In this chapter we have endeavored to give a 
brief sketch of the Pennsylvania farmer a hun- 
dred years ago. It would be of some value to go 
more into detail concerning the routine of daily 
life. The limits of this book, however, will not 
permit this, nor perhaps would these details of- 
fer the same interest as those which tell of ele- 
gant mansions, stately equipages, and all the 
pomp and circumstance of colonial Virginia and 
New England. The houses of the simple folk 
whom we are discussing, their furniture, cloth- 
ing,^^ food,^i and all the accessories of life were 
marked by plainness and comfort rather than by 
elegance. Hard work, good health, an easy con- 
science, independence begotten of possession of 
a comfortable home, and land enough to provide 

*^ This notwithstanding the fact that hard drinking has ever 
been and is to-day a national failing of the Germans. The 
deep religious movement in Pennsylvania one hundred years 
ago tended to keep the people moderate in drinking. 

5° This was at first homespun and very simple. The Mora- 
vians, Mennonites, Amish, and Ephrata Brethren had a spe- 
cial garb. 

^1 Typical Pennsylvania-German dishes are Sauerkraut, 
Nudels, Schnitz und Knep, many kinds of sausages, ' ' fruit- 
butters," '-Fasnachts" (a kind of cruller), coldslaw, Schmier- 
kas, etc. 


for all their wants — this was the life of our an- 
cestors, a life not altogether to be looked at with 
depreciation even from the present vantage- 
ground of modern comforts and conveniences. 



Among the many interesting phenomena con- 
nected with the Pennsylvania Germans none is 
more striking than their persistence in chnging 
to their dialect. Here we have a group of people 
living in the very heart of the United States, sur- 
rounded on all sides by English-speaking people, 
almost every family having some of its branches 
thoroughly mixed by intermarriage with these 
people, yet still after the lapse of nearly two hun- 
dred years retaining to a considerable degree the 
language of their ancestors. Even in large and 
flourishing cities like Allentown, Reading, and 
Bethlehem much of the intercourse in business 
and home-life is carried on in this patois. This 
persistence of language is one of the strongest 
evidences of the conservative spirit so character- 
istic of the Pennsylvania-German farmer. 

This love for their language, which to-day may 

be regarded as a really striking phenomenon, 

was only natural one hundred and fifty years ago. 



Tlic country was then new, the Germans formed 
a compact mass by themselves, the means of 
communication with their Enghsh neighbors 
were rare ; it would have been surprising- if they 
had not clung to the language of their fathers. It 
was precisely this same love for the mother 
tongue which led the Puritans to leave Holland, 
where they were in many respects comfortable 
enough. 1 

And yet this very natural desire was regarded 
by some at least as evidence of a stubborn and 
ignorant nature.^ The very efforts made by the 
English — the motives of many of whom were 
more or less mixed — to do away with the use of 

^ "They wished to preserve their English speech and 
English traditions," etc. (Fiske, Beginnings of New England, 
p. 74.) Winslow (in his Brief Narrative, quoted by Palfrey, 
Hist, of N. Eng. i. p. 147) says the Puritans did not like to 
tliink of losing their language and tlieir name of English," 
and longed that God might be pleased, "to discover some 
place unto them, though in America, . . . where they might 
live and comfortably subsist," and at the same time "keep 
their names and nation." "Jede Provinz," says Goethe. 
'• liebt ihren Dialekt, denn er ist doch eigentlich das Element, 
in welchem die Secle ihren Atem schopft." (Meyer, Volks- 
kunde, p. 279.) 

* In 1755 Samuel Wharton proposed, "in order to incline 
them to become English in education and feeling quicker," 
that the English language should ht used in all bonds and legal 
instruments, and that no newspaper should be circulated 
among them unless accompanied by an English translation. 


German only tended to strengthen the stubborn 
love for their language in which their Bible and 
hymn-books were written and in which their ser- 
vices were held. Indeed, the following prayer, 
which was introduced into the litany of the Lu- 
theran Church, in 1786, smacks of what many 
would now call real fanaticism : " And since it 
has pleased Thee chiefly, by means of the Ger- 
mans, to transform this State into a blooming 
garden, and the desert into a pleasant pasturage, 
help us not to deny our nation, but to endeavor 
that our youth may be so educated that German 
schools and churches may not only be sustained, 
but may attain a still more flourishing condi- 

The vernacular thus religiously preserved was 
not the literary language of Germany, but a dis- 
tinct dialect. We have seen that the vast ma- 
jority of emigrants to Pennsylvania during the 
last century came from the various States of 
South Germany ; the three principal ones which 
furnished settlers being the Palatinate, Wiirtem- 
berg, and Switzerland. The inhabitants of these 
three form two ethnical entities which are more 
or less closely allied, Wiirtemberg and Switzer- 
land being practically pure Alemannic, while the 
Palatinate is Prankish with a strong infusion of 


Alemannic blood in certain parts thereof.^ 
Hence it follows that the Pennsylvania-German 
dialect is a mixture of Prankish and Alemannic. 
Of course there are subdivisions in these dialects, 
the Swabian of Wiirtemberg being different from 
that of Switzerland, and the mixed speech of the 
Palatinate different from both.^ The Pennsyl- 
vania German, then, has as a basis certain char- 
acteristics derived from all these dialects, modi- 
fied and harmonized, many of the original dif- 
ferences having in course of time been so trans- 
formed that to-day the dialect is in general 

The accurate study of any dialect is one of 
great difficulty, and should only be undertaken 
by a specialist who has been thoroughly trained 
in the subject of phonetics and who has made a 
long and careful personal study of the facts on 
the spot. This is not the place, nor is the writer 
competent, to give a full treatment of this inter- 
esting dialect. There are some facts, however, 
which are easily understood and which at the 
same time form the most striking characteristics. 

* .See Riehl. p. 105 ff. 

* See Paul's Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie. vol. 
I. pp. 538-540 ; also Riehl, Pfalzer, p. 273 fT. The variations 
in the dialect of the Palatinate may be studied in the four 
" Volksdichter " Kobell, Nadler, Schandein, and Lennig. 


Such are the following : (more or less 
open) takes the place of the German a 
and aa, as in schlof (schlaf), frogc (frogcn), 
woge (waagen), jor (jahr), zvor (zsjahr); c is 
used for German ei and ciu, as del (thcil), 
hem (heiin), hem (bdiimc).^ As in all Germaji dia- 
lects, the mixed vowels are simplified, becom- 
ing e (here=hdrcn, Jie = hdhe, bes=bdse), and ii be- 
coming i (bichcr — biiclicr, brick = briickc, ivvcr = 
iibcr, etc.). The above vowel changes are exten- 
sively used; less frequent are the changes of 
en in a few words to ci (fcicr = fciicr, scheier= 
schcucr), and of ci and ai to oy (moy = inai, oy = ci, 
zvoy = weihe). A very interesting phenomenon is 
the influence of r on the preceding i or c {arve 
= erbc, zzvarch = zzvcrg, ::ay'kcl = zirkcJ, karch = 
kirche.) Even the vowel u in some words under- 
goes a similar change {dazvrsch — durst , fazvrch = 
furcht, kazvrz-=knr::). In some cases an inor- 
ganic vowel is developed between a liquid and 
the following consonant {milich = milch, marikt 
=markt, starick = stork, barik = berg). 

In regard to the consonant-system the follow- 
ing peculiarities may be noted: g between two 

6 In many words there is a wavering in this use of <-; thus 
we find both JHed and JHa'd; and especially are the s-iiifixes 
hei( and Irit heard more often than ^ei or kei. (Learned.) 
So also we find the umlaut of Mcius = Afeis, Haus — Heiser, 
etc. (Haldeman, p. 14.) 


vowels and after r becomes y {morye — morgcn, 
reye = rcgcn); b between vowels becomes v {gcve 
=gchcn, sck'er=selber); b and p, t and d, g and k 
are often interchanged {babicr= papier, del = thcil, 
klick = glitck); pf is simplified to p {pund=pfund, 
pluk=pfliig, schcppc = schopfcn); nn = nd (£n7ie= 
finden, gfiinnc=gcfundcn, mimier=hinuntcy); final 
n of inflections is lacking (giicke=giickc)i, rcchne 
= rcchncn). 

Syntax is freer than in German: as in the dia- 
lect of the Palatinate, the perfect tense is regu- 
larly used for the imperfect; nominative and ac- 
cusative are generally confused; the genitive is 
used only in compounds and adverbs, its place 
being taken in other constructions by von or by 
the article with the possessive pronoun. 

Such are some of the most striking character- 
istics of the Pennsylvania-German dialect, in re- 
gard to those features which it inherits from Ger- 
many and Switzerland. But that which stamps it 
with especial peculiarity are the changes it has un- 
dergone under the influence of English. It was 
only natural that, coming to a strange land, sur- 
rounded by people speaking another language, 
the Germans should borrow new words, espe- 
cially such as expressed things and ideas which 
were new to them. These words were either 
very familiar or technical, things they had to 


buy and sell, objects of the experiences of daily 
life, such as stohr, boggy, fens, endorse, etc. The 
newspapers abound in curious compounds like 
ciscnstovc, kiichenranges, parlor-oefen, carving-mes- 
scr, sattler-hartzvaaren, gduls-bldnkets (horse-blank- 
ets), frdhm-sommcrhaus, ilaner-bdrrcl,^ etc. Many 
of these importations are taken without much 
change, as oificc, operate, schquier, etc. Many, 
however, are hybrid words, some with German 
prefix and English root (a&.y^ar/(7 = start ofif, 
abseine = s,\gn away, anspicke= ■pick out, austeire 
= tire out, fcrboddcrc = bother) ; others with 
English root and German suffix {Jiiekerniss= 
hickory-nuts, ^nVA'/z = little creek); still more 
curious is the expression of the English idea in 
German (gut giicklich = good-looking, hemgemacht 

The interest — that is, the literary and philo- 

^ The last four words are taken from the Reading Adler^ 
Feb. 27, 1900. This paper has been in existence 104 years, 
and is still read by the Berks County farmer with something 
of the same feeling with which the London merchant reads his 

'' Further examples may be found in Haldeman and Learned. 
Interesting parallels to this curious mingling of English and 
German are presented in the law French of England of the 
sixteenth century, where we find such expressions as " walke 
in le lane," "il dig up un clod del terre," "I'owner del Park 
vient al gate del Park pur hunter," etc. See article in North 
Amer. Review, vol. Li. (written by Longfellow). 


logical interest — in dialects is something modern, 
showing itself not only in the investigations of 
philology, but also in the field of literature, and 
to-day any cleverly written piece of fiction is sure 
of at least temporary popularity if written in 
dialect. It is doubtless due to this impulse that 
there has arisen in the last thirty or forty years a 
small body of literature in the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man dialect. 

Dr. Philip Schafif is said to have been the first 
to encourage the publication of such dialect lit- 
erature; it was he who, among others, urged 
Harbaugh to publish his poems, and the first 
poem printed in the Pennsylvania-German dialect 
appeared in the Kirchcnfrciind, 1849, ^^ that time 
edited by Dr. Schafif.^ Since that time a consid- 
erable number of persons have tried their hands 
at this modest kind of composition. The Nes- 
tor of such persons to-day is Mr. E. H, Ranch, 
who, under the nom de plume of Pit Scliweflfel- 
brenner, for many years has written articles, 
mostly humorous, for the Carbon Democrat and 
other papers; and who in 1879 published his 
Pennsylvania Dutch Handbook, containing a 

* This was an " Abendlied," beginning -'Morgets scheent 
die Sun bO scho," by the Reverend Rondtlialer, a Moravian 
missionary. (See Life of Schaff, by his son, p. 142.) 


vocabulary with practical exercises and samples 
of dialect literature. 

In poetry much more of a higher sort has been 
Avritten, generally, however, in the form of trans- 
lations from English, and of " occasional " 
poetry, appearing for the most part in news- 
papers or recited on festive occasions. In gen- 
eral we notice that this poetry lacks something 
of the spontaneity that marks true " Volks- 
poesie," such as we find in the works of Hebel, 
Nadler, and Kobel. The life of the Palatine or 
Swiss farmer is more individual than that of the 
Pennsylvania German of to-day, and the poets 
of the Fatherland give full expression to this life 
in all its varied aspects, humorous as well as 
pathetic. Most of the poetry written in Penn- 
sylvania German has been written by men who 
have been educated in English schools and col- 
leges, — who are largely professional men, law- 
yers, teachers, ministers, and journalists, — and 
who are thoroughly identified with American 
ideals. Naturally, then, such poetry cannot be 
simple and naive as that written by the German 
" Volksdichter." 

The two most voluminous writers of verse are 
Henry Plarbaugh and H. L. Fisher. The latter, 
a lawyer of York, has published two volumes, 
'"S Alt Marik-Haus mittes in d'r Schtadt " 


and " Kurzweil und Zeitvertrieb," in wliich he 
gives a picture of the Hfc of the Pennsylvania 
German farmer fifty years ago, describing among 
other things old customs, superstitions, work in 
field and house, planting, harvesting, threshing, 
beating hemp and spinning flax; the joys, toils, 
and pleasures of the farmer's life, — butcherings, 
butter-boilings, huskings, and quilting-partics. 
Much of the contents of the volumes, however, 
consists of imitations of German originals, or 
translations from English and especially Amer- 
ican poetry. 

The most original of these writers, and one 
who possessed genuine poetic gift, was the Rev. 
Henry Harbaugh, a prominent clergyman in the 
Reformed Church, who was born October 28, 
181 7, near Waynesboro', Franklin County, Pa., 
and died December 28, 1867.^ He was an indus- 
trious writer in English, especially in the field of 
local church history. His Life of Michael Schlat- 
ter, and the series of Fathers of the Reformed 
Church projected by him, are standard works on 
those subjects. He also composed a number of 
hymns, some of which are sung by all Christian 
denominations.^^ For several years he had pub- 

• His life, written by his son, has recently been published. 
^° The best known is that beginning, 
" Jesus, I live to Thee, 
The loveliest and best." 


K Jied a number of dialect poems in the Guardian; 
lio had often been urged to gather them in a vol- 
ume, but died before this was done. In 1870 a 
collection of his Pennsylvania German poetry, 
including- English translations of several of the 
poems, was published by Rev. B. Bausman, un- 
der the title of " Harbaugh's Harfe." The best 
known of these poems is " Das Alt Schulhaus an 
der Krick," the first stanza of which is as follows: 

"Heit is 's 'xjlctly zwansig Johr, 
Dass ich bin owwe naus ; 
Nau bin ich widder lewig z'rick 
Un schteh am Schulhaus an d'r Krick, 
Juscht neekscht an's Dady's Haus." 

In " Der Alte Feierheerd " the charms of a 
wood-fire are thus expressed: 

"Nau wammer Owets sitzt un gukt 
Wie's doch dort in de Kohle schpukt ! 
Es glieht un schtrahlt — weiss, schwarz un roth — 
Nau gans lewendig, un nau dodt ; 
M'r gukt un denkt — m'r werd gans schtill, 
Un kann juscht sehne was m'r will." 

The following titles will indicate the character 
of Harbaugh's poetry in general : " Das Krisch- 
kindel," " Die Alt Miehl," " Busch un Schtedel " 
(Town and Country), " Der Kerchegang in 
Alter Zeit," "Will Widder Buwele Sei'," etc. 
The poem entitled " Heemweh " expresses the 
feeling of sadness that comes over the man of 


niidille life on returning after a long absence to 
the scenes of his youth. There is genuine poetic 
sentiment in such lines as the following: 

" Ich wees net, soil ich nei' in's liaus, 

Icli zitter an d"r Dheer ! 
Es is wol alles voll inseid 

Un doch is alles leer ! 
's net meh heem, wie's eemol war, 

Un kann's ah nimme sei'; 
Was naus mit unsere Eltere geht 

Kumnit ewig nimme nei' ! 
Die Freide hot der Dodt gearnt, 

Das Trauerdheel is mei'! " 

Most recent of the published volumes of Penn- 
sylvania-German verse is a little book, attract- 
ively printed, entitled " Drauss un Deheem," by 

Mr. Charles C. Ziegler, a Harvard graduate of 
1883. Here the homely and quaint dialect serves 
as a medium for college poetry in the form of 
rondeaus, sonnets, etc. Especially interesting is 
a poem, " Zum Denkmal," an imitation in sen- 
timent and metrical form of Tennyson's " In 
Memoriam."^^ Those who wish to see how a 

" The following lines will illustrate what is said above : 

" Dar Sud Wind bringt de Mensche Muth 
Un weckt die Aerd vum Winter-Schlof, 
Ar liaucht uf Barrick un Feld un Grofe 
'N warmer Duft, 'n siissi Glutli. 

" Die ganz Nadur fililt sei Gewalt, 

Juscht net die Dodte : schtumm un daab 
Un regies bleiwe sie im Graab, 
Sie bleiwe u'bewegt un kalt. 


quaint dialect can adapt itself to modern poetic 
themes should read this little book. 

This dialect literature, however, is of very re- 
cent origin; and as the present book aims chiefly 
at describing the Pennsylvania Germans as they 
were in the eighteenth century, the literary ac- 
tivity of our ancestors has more real connection 
with our theme. This activity, indeed, is more 
extensive than some would suppose. Of course 
it goes without saying that whatever was pub- 
lished then was not in dialect, but in literary Ger- 

At that time the intellectual interests of the 
Germans of Pennsylvania, as well as those in the 
Fatherland, were almost entirely of a theological 
nature; hence it happens that some of the earliest 
products of the Pennsylvania-German press were 
devotional and religious books or pamphlets, 
largely of a polemical character. Thus the first 
German book published in Pennsylvania was 
Conrad Beissel's " Biichlein vom Sabbath," 12 

" Los'vun de Eis-Kett laaft die Grick, 
Es blihe weiss die Eppelbleem, 
Die Veggel kumme widder heem — 
Alias geliebtes kummt zerick. 

" Juscht net die Dodte— un ich guck 

Iwwer dar Himmel 'naus,— die DrSne 
Beweise wen ich winsch ze sehne 
Weit liewer a's daer Frihlingsschmuck." 
1' Published by Andrew Bradford in 1728. See Seiden- 
sticker, *'The First Century of German Printing in America." 


which, in llio words nf llie Clironicon Ephra- 
tensc, " led to the [uibHc adoption of the seventh 
day for divine service." Tlie next year George 
Michael Weiss published through Bradford a 
polemic against the New-Born, a sect of sancti- 
ficationists which, under the leadership of Mat- 
thias Bauman, deeply stirred the Germans of 
Montgomery County. These books began the 
long series of theological literature in Pennsyl- 
vania which, receiving a new and strong impulse 
through the coming of Zinzendorf, has in one 
form or another, by Dunkard, Mennonite, Luth- 
eran, or Reformed, come down to our own day. 

Original composition in verse at that time was 
chiefly in the form of hynms.^^ of which a con- 
siderable number were written. ]\Iost of the 
brethren of the Ephrata Community turned their 
hand to this kind of poetry, the most voluminous 
being Beissel himself. As early as 1730, Ben- 
jamin Franklin published a book entitled " Gott- 
liche Liebes- und Lobesgethone," containing 62 
hymns, 31 by Beissel and the rest by his asso- 
ciates; while in 1739 Christopher Saner pub- 
lished a large hymn-book entitled " Zionitischer 

" This is likewise true of Germany at this time. What 
Scherer says of tlie hymns in tliat coxmtry applies equally well 
to early German-American hymnoloj^^y. (Sec Scherer, Ge- 
schichte dor deutschen Littcratur, p. 340 ff.) 


Weyrauchshiig'el," containing 654 hymns in 33 
divisions, " Each inscribed with a heading as fan- 
tastical as the general title." !■* 

The poetical talent of Beissel, as shown in 
these hymns, was of a low order, and probably 
not nearly so great as his musical talent; they 
are filled with fantastic ideas, and couched in 
mystical and often obscure language in which 
sensuous love is used to express spiritual experi- 
ence. They are quite in harmony, however, with 
the literary taste of the day in Germany and 

The most important of all the earliest literary 
men was Francis Daniel Pastorius, the founder 
of Germantown. We have already seen that he 
was a man of learning, writing fluently in a num- 
ber of languages. He was an industrious writer 
on a number of subjects both in prose and poetry. 
Only a few, however, of his writings have ap- 

^* This includes all the hymns written by Beissel and others 
and published by Franklin in 1730, 1732, 1736, together with 
a large amount of material obtained elsewhere, especially 
from the "Kleine Davidische Psalterspiel," the hymn-book of 
the Inspirationists in Germany and published by Sauer in 

^5 Among other writers of hymns in Pennsylvania were 
Peter Biihler, Zinzendorf, Spangenberg, Nitschman (all Mo- 
ravians), Helmuth, Muhlenberg, Kunze, Weiser (Lutherans). 
See, for a discussion of this subject, Haussmann, German- 
American Hymnology, 1683-1800. 


peared in print, and the couple of German books 
which he wrote were pubHshed abroad. He left 
a number of manuscripts, most of which are lost, 
but a list of whose titles is found in the " Bee- 
hive," a strange conglomeration compiled for his 
children, being a sort of cyclopaedia of history, 
biography, ethics, religion, and language. It also 
contains a collection of inscriptions, epitaphs, 
proverbs, poetry (original and selected), pithy 
sayings, acrostics, etc.^^ 

This native literary product, however, did not 
suffice to supply the demand for literature on the 
part of the early German settlers. Whatever else 
may be said about their education, they must 
have been great readers. This is seen in the num- 
ber of books imported as well as printed in the 
commonwealth itself. The hymn-books pre- 
pared by Beissel and others were used by the 
Dunkards, while the Mennonites had the ven- 
erable Ausbund, which was printed a number of 

'* The full title is " Alvearum Apiculre Germanopolitanum 

Anglicanum." The poetry of Pastorius was mostly doggerel, 

as the following sample will show: 

" This book seems tall and small, 
Of no esteem at all ; 
Yet I would ven' fain 
That any who doth find 
The same would be so kind 
To send it roe again." 


times by Sauer and is still in use by the Amish; ^"^ 
the Schwenckfelders likewise had their own 
book, containing a number of original hymns. 
For a long time the Lutherans and Reformed 
imported the Marburger hymn-book, which was 
later reprinted many times by Sauer. These 
books were not merely used in church, but were 
read and pored over and committed to memory 
almost as much as the Bible. 

We shall see later how eager the Germans 
were to obtain copies of the Bible; in the 
correspondence with Holland this subject con- 
stantly occurs, and it was only natural that as 
soon as Sauer had established his printing-press 
on a firm basis he should think of printing a 
German Bible, — not for gain, he says himself, 
but " to the honor of the German people." The 
glory of the German press in America is the 
quarto Bible of Sauer, the first one printed in 
the New World in any European language, and 
of which three editions were published before the 

" Ausbund, das ist : Etliche schone christliche Lieder wie 
sie in dem Gefiingnliss zu Bassau in dem Schloss von den 
Schweitzer-Briidern und von andern rechtglaubigen Christen 
hin und her gedichtet worden." Wackernagel dates this 
book from 1583 ; Egli in his Zliricher Wiedertaufer is inclined 
to give it an earlier origin. In the edition of Sauer valuable 
biographical details are given of the ancestors of many Lan- 
caster County families. 


first English Bible appeared in Philadelphia in 
1 782.1 8 

Of the many l)Ooks of devotional literature 
published in Pennsylvania,^ '^ the most interest- 
ing is the translation of Van Bragt's " Blutige 
Schauplatz oder Martyrer Spiegel " into Ger- 
man by members of the Ephrata Community and 
published by them in 1748.2^ It was really a re- 

'^ Sauer's third edition came out in 1776. For a detailed 
account of Sauer's Bible see John Wright, Early Bibles of 
America, p. 31. The activity of the German press is a strik- 
ing proof of the intelligence of the people and their interest in 
theological literature. Franklin says that in 1753 there were 
two German presses in Pennsylvania, two half-German, while 
only two were entirely English. (Works, II. p. 297.) 

^' Each denomination had its own especial books of devo- 
tion, — the Mennonites having Menno Simon's Fundament and 
Dirck Philip's Enchiridion in addition to the Martyr-lxjok 
described above; the Reformed had Stark's Gebet-Buch, while 
the Lutherans had Arndt's Wahres Christenthum and Para- 
dies-Gartlein. The latter was believed to be proof against 
fire, and Sachse gives an instance in proof thereof, which 
occurred near Womelsdorf, Berks Co. A similar super- 
stition is alluded to in a letter by Swedenborg's father, 
whose house burned down in 1712: " The fire broke out in my 
study, which was all ablaze when we got to it, with my library 
and MSS., but, strange to say, the Garden of Paradise by J. 
Arndt, and my own catechism, were found in the ashes with 
only their covers singed." (White's Life of Swedenborg, vol. 

I- P- 33-) 

'" Tins book gives the persecutions and sufferings of those 
Christians who were opposed to war, from the time of the 
apostles down to the Swiss Mennonitcsin the seventeenth cen- 


markable achievement for a small religious com- 
munity in the heart of a new colony to translate, 
print, and bind the largest book published in 
America. It took fifteen men three years to com- 
plete the task, the first part being published in 
1748, the second in 1749. The price was 20 

The inhabitants of the city in modern times 
can have no conception of the importance of the 
almanac for the farmer of a hundred years ago. 
In Germany it occupied a place beside the Bible 
and the hymn-book, and was constantly con- 
sulted before any of the important afifairs of life 
were undertaken. These old German almanacs 
were the repositories of all the superstitions 
which still flourished in the country and which, 
banished from regular literature, found a refuge 
here.22 Here were given the proper times for 
sowing, reaping, building fences, shingling the 
roof, and even hair-cutting and bleeding, to- 
gether with the materia mcdica of the Bauer, — 
the medicinal plants which, in the absence of 

^^ The cause of the translation at this time was the approach 
of the French and Indian War ; the Mennonites believeil that 
their principles against the bearing of arms would subject them 
once more to persecution, and desired to fortify themselves by- 
reading of the heroic deeds of their ancestors. For descrip- 
tion of this remarkable book see Penn. Mag., vol. v. 

« See Riehl, Kulturstudien, p. 43 ff. 


regular physicians, played so large a part in the 
treatment of ailments. These almanacs were 
very popular in Pennsylvania, especially those 
of Christopher Sauer, which, beginning in Au- 
gust, 1738 (the first book he published), lasted 
for forty years, and then were continued by other 
firms. For many years Sauer's almanacs were 
the only ones printed in German, and were used 
in South Carolina, Georgia, and other Southern 
States where German farmers then lived. Frank- 
lin published a German almanac for a short time, 
but it soon died a natural death; Armbriister, 
Miller, and others were more fortunate, but 
Sauer's was the most popular as long as it lasted. 
Newspapers were not so plentiful one hundred 
years ago as they are to-day; in 1775 there were 
only 2)7 i" the American Colonies. Of these 14 
were in New England, 4 in New York, and 9 in 
Pennsylvania. If we take the number of news- 
papers as an indication of the intelligence of the 
people, the Pennsylvania Germans do not suffer 
much in comparison with their English neigh- 
bors. According to McCrady ^3 the average 
number of inhabitants to support a newspaper in 
the above year was 64.000; now of the nine in 
Pennsylvania in 1775 two were German, which 

" History of South Carolina ; see Literature, Sept. 8. 1899. 


should give the German population at 128,000, 
which is not far from the real figures. Indeed 
the assumption that the Germans were great 
readers can alone account for the instant 
success of Sauer's newspaper, " Der Hoch- 
Deutsch Pennsylvanische Geschicht-Schreiber 
oder Sammlung wichtiger Nachrichten aus deni 
Natur- und Kirchenreich," the first number of 
which appeared August 20, 1739. This paper 
became very popular, having in its flourishing 
period four thousand subscribers.^^ Towards 
the end of the century the number of German 
newspapers rapidly increased, being published 
not only in Philadelphia, but in Lancaster, Read- 
ing, Allentown, and other cities. Many of them, 
still in German, exist to-day.^^ 

^* Wright says ten thousand. 

'^5 In this connection, a word or two, perhaps, ought to be 
said of that kind of literature which, like the common law of 
England, exists unwritten. Proverbs were very popular among 
the Pennsylvania Germans, and in certain districts are so still. 
Many of them are the same as we find in English, such as. 
"Out of the frying-pan into the fire," " The burnt child dreads 
the fire," etc. Some are, however, peculiar to themselves. 
Such are the following : "En blindti Sau, findt a alsamol 'n 
Echel"; "En fauler Esel shaft sich gschwinter dodt as 'n 
shmarder"; "Der Appel folt net weit fom Bom"; "Sauer- 
kraut und Speck dreebt alle Sorge week." 

" Wer sich nehia will mit Fisha und Yawga, 
Muss ferissene Husse drawga." 

For further examples see Mathews and Hungerford's Hist, 


It is a difficult thing for people of any age or 
country to give a just estimate of another nation, 
with whose language and customs they are un- 
acquainted. What always happens took place in 
Pennsylvania one hundred and fifty years ago. 
The Germans were misunderstood in many ways 
by their English-speaking neighbors. Owing 
to the fear on the part of the latter of being 
swamped by foreigners, to the suspicions 
aroused by Jesuit machinations, and to politi- 
cal prejudice and passion, they were accused, 
among other things, of stupidity, obstinacy, and 
ignorance. In regard to the latter accusation 
some light is afiforded by a letter written to Peter 
Collinson by Benjamin Franklin in 1753. From 
this letter it appears that in the mind of Frank- 
lin, at least, " ignorance " and " ignorance of the 
English language" are identical terms; for he 
goes on to say: "Few of their children in the 
country know English. They import many 
books from Germany, and of the six printing- 
houses in the province two are entirely German, 
two half German, half English, and but two are 
entirely English. They have one German news- 
paper and one half German." Surely a people 
which had as many printing-presses and news- 

I.eliigh Co., p. 25, and Dr. W. J. Iloflman in Journal of Amer. 
Folk-Lore, vol. II. p. 198. 


papers as the English, who outnumbered them 
two to one, were not ignorant in the proper sense 
of that term.26 

Careful study of the facts will show the true 
state of afifairs to have been something as follows. 
The mass of the early German settlers of Penn- 
sylvania, while not highly educated, were not 
ignorant or illiterate. The proportion of those 
who could read and write was probably as large 
as that in rural New England and New York, at 
least in the pioneer days of those colonies.^''' All 
had received at least the elements of education 
in the Fatherland, in accordance with the univer- 
sal custom in Protestant Germany of uniting 

"6 Franklin, Works (ed. Ford), vol. 11. The political bias is 
seen in the following words from the same letter : " For I re- 
member when they modestly declined intermeddling with our 
elections ; but now they come in droves and carry all before 
them, except in one or two counties." 

2^ ' ' The people of Colonial New England were not all well- 
educated, nor were all their country schools better than old 
field schools. The farmer's boy, who was taught for two 
winter months by a man and two summer months by a 
woman, seldom learned more in the district school than how 
to read, write, and cipher." (Fiske, Old Virginia and her 
Neighbors, vol. II. p. 251.) 

"There was often a disposition on the part of the town 
meetings to shirk the appropriation of a sum of money for 
school purposes. ... In those dark days of New England, 
there might now and then be found in rural communities men 
of substance who signed deeds and contracts with their 
mark." (Ibid.) 


education and religion.''^ In the early days of 
pioneer life in the wilderness of interior Pennsyl- 
vania, they lacked both schools and books, a 
condition of affairs, however, more and more 
remedied after the third decade of the eighteenth 
century. The early Philadelphia press was busy 
printing Bibles, hymn-books, the standard books 
of devotion, and even school-books.^^ The 
reading of these books, the committing to mem- 
ory of extended passages of Scripture and of the 
hymn-book, the rapid spread of the newspaper, 
which wc shall notice elsewhere, must presup- 
pose a certain degree of education — an education 
which, while not broad nor deep, was practical 
both in religious and secular affairs. 

There was, however, a comparatively large 
number of the German pioneers who seemed 
to possess what might be called learning. 
Even among unprofessional people we find 

*^ " Seit der Reformation waren wenigstens in alien Kirch- 
dorfern Schulen, die Lehrer oft Theologen." (Freytag, vol. 
in. p. 106.) 

'^ The first book on pedagogy published in America was 
by Christopher Dock, written in 1750, but printed by Sauer 
in 1770 after the death of the writer. Dock was an interest- 
ing character ; he advocated correspondence between the 
pupils of different schools as a means of education, thus an- 
ticipating the modern system of correspondence between the 
school-youth of France, Germany, England, and America. 
(See Pennypacker, Historical and Biographical Sketches.) 


traces of classical learning ; thus Johannes 
Kolb, a weaver of Germantown, had a copy of 
Erasmus in Latin,^*^ which he had bought from 
his brother; andaSchwenckfelder,namedSchultz, 
had a well-thumbed copy of a Latin grammar.^i 
The earliest settlers were under the direction 
of some of the most learned men of the time. 
We have seen that the Frankfort Company con- 
sisted of a number of well-educated and high- 
born people; their agent, Pastorius, we have al- 
ready spoken of. Of the company of mystics 
who came over in 1694 most were university men. 
Zimmermann, who had planned the colony, was 
called by Arnold " Ein grundgelehrter Astrolo- 
gus," etc. Johann Kelpius. his successor as 
leader of the colony, was the son of a clergy- 
man, and a Doctor of Philosophy of Tubingen; 
Henry Bernard Koster had studied at the gym- 
nasium of Bremen and at Frankfort; Daniel 
Falckner was the son and grandson of clergymen 
and was himself educated for the ministry; his 
brother had been a student in Halle and had left 
home in order to " escape the burden of the pas- 
torate." Finally, Peter Miller, at one time prior 

'" Pennypacker, Germantown, picture opp. p. 194. 

'1 Now in charge of Dr. C. D. Hartranft, president of Hart- 
ford Theological Seminary, who has been engaged for many 
years on a complete edition of the works of Schwenckfeld. 


of Ephrata, was a very learned man and often 
came to Philadelphia to attend the meetings of 
the Philosophical Society; he is said to have 
translated the Declaration of Independence into 
seven different languages.^- Of course the regu- 
larly ordained ministers of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed churches ^^ were men of education, as 
that was a necessary qualification in Germany for 
those who entered the ministry. 

The subject of education among the Germans 
was the cause of a great deal of acrimonious dis- 
cussion towards the middle of the last century, 
and, as usual in such cases, many false and in- 
accurate statements were made. Politics both of 
State and Church had much to do with this agi- 
tation. There seems to have been a genuine fear, 
however, on the part of the English inhabitants 
that the French were endeavoring to enlist the 
sympathies of the Germans in their efforts at 
supremacy over the whole of western America. 

'* Miller applied to the Scotch Sjiiod for ordination. " We 
gave him," says Andrews, ''a question to discuss al>out jus- 
tification, and he answered it in a whole sheet in a very 
notable manner. He speaks Latin as readily as we do our 
vernacular tongue." 

" The Synods of Holland sent Schlatter to Germany and 
Switzerland to seek ministers for Pennsylvania who should 
be "orthodox, learned, pious." (Harbaugh, Life of Schlatter, 
P- 232.) 


Indeed, we have documentary evidence that 
such attempts were made. In the examination 
of William Johnson in 1756 testimony was given 
to the effect that a certain priest, Neal, insinuated 
that it would be better to live under French gov- 
ernment, as religion would be free, and told them 
to get arms and be ready to join the French and 
Indians.^^ So, too, we read in an intercepted 
letter written from Canada in 1756 that the Mora- 
vians were true Roman Catholics [^sic'\ and that 
the writer was persuaded that " they would rather 
serve his royal Majesty." ^^ 

That there was no need for anxiety goes with- 
out saying; the Germans were, as they after- 
wards proved, too loyal to listen to any appeals 
on the part of the French. They could not have 
forgotten that France was chiefly responsible 
for the desolation of their own homes in Ger- 
many. Besides, the Lutherans and Reformed, 
who had come to America to escape the persecu- 
tion of a Catholic government, were not likely 
to put themselves in the same predicament by 
espousing the cause of a country whose revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes had driven all Prot- 

'* Penn. Arch., ist Ser., vol. iii. p. 16. 

'6 Amer. Hist. Assoc. Reports, vol. I. p. 663. The 1113^5- 
terious journeys of the Moravians to the wilderness, the 
strange practices of the Ephrata Community, all helped to 
spread this suspicion. 


estants from France and even from Canada. 
Such insinuations roused the indignation of all 
classes of Germans. The German Protestants of 
Philadelphia County made a vigorous protest 
against all attacks on their loyalty.^^ 

These suspicions are now seen by us to have 
been utterly unfounded, and yet it was perhaps 
not unnatural that the English should entertain 
such fears in regard to foreigners, of whose cus- 
toms and religion they were so little instructed. 
French rule in America meant not only political 
supremacy, but the extension of Catholicism 
wherever that rule extended. It had not been 
many years before that England had driven out 
the popish dynasty of the Stuarts; the " Scarlet 
Woman " had not lost her terrors, and the cry of 
" no popery " had not yet died out in the land.^' 

Owing to such fears utterly exaggerated state- 
ments were made regarding the number of 
Catholics among the Germans; the Moravians 
were accused of collusion with the French, and 
the monastery at Ephrata was declared to be 

'*Penn. Arch., 1st Ser., vol. n. p. 201 : •How, therefore, 
can any man of due Reason think, much less say, that this same 
people were anyways inclined to submit themselves again 
under a Romish slavery upheld by a French king ? " 

" •' The clamors against popery are as loud as ever." (Let- 
ter by Dan. Dulaney, Dec. 9, 1755, in Penn. Mag., vol. in. 
p. II.) 


ruled, if not directly by the pope, yet according 
to popish rules.^s William Smith in his '' Brief 
State of the Province of Pennsylvania " de- 
clared that one-fourth of the Germans were 
Catholics, while the rest were liable to be seduced 
by every enterprising Jesuit. As a matter of 
actual fact, out of the total population in 1757 
only 1365 were Catholics, of whom 923 were 

These were the facts, or rather the fears, that 
underlay the formation of the " Society for the 
Promotion of the Knowledge of God among the 
Germans." A pamphlet written by Dr. Smith 
set forth the object of the society, and a large 
sum of money was subscribed for the purpose of 
founding English schools in the various Ger- 
man settlements. The statements as to the 
ignorance of the Germans made in the 
above pamphlet were so false as to draw 
out indignant protests both from the Re- 
formed and the Lutherans.-**^ From the very 
beginning both these denominations had schools 

** These suspicions finally induced the government to send 
a committee to Ephrata, but Beissel and Miller easily showed 
how unfounded they were. 

'* Penn. Arch., 1st Sen. vol. ill. p. 144. 

^ There is no reason to suppose that these statements were 
deliberate falsehoods ; as usually happens in such cases, the 
English had but little accurate knowledge concerning their 


connected with the various churches, and no 
community held rehgious services without at the 
same time taking thought for the rehgious and 
secular instructions of their children.'* ^ In some 
places there were schoolmasters even before 
regular pastors, and one of their duties was to 
read the services on Sunday.'*- 

While of course in the early decades of the 
century schools were few and scattered, and 
while even in Aluhlenberg's time he could still 
complain of the want of good schools, yet the 
consideration of a few facts will show that in 
general the Germans were at least no worse off 
than their Quaker fellows, or than was natural 
in a new and wild country. As early as 1748 
Jacob Loeser was teacher of the Lutheran 
church in Lancaster, in summer teaching fifty or 
sixty pupils, in winter eighty or ninety. In fact 
we are told that the school grew so large that six- 
teen English children had to be dismissed.^-"^ As 

German neighbors. Moreover, the desire to make a success- 
ful appeal for funds almost necessarily led to exaggeration. 

*> Thus, in 1730, the settlers in Tulpehocken built log school- 
houses near the present Reed Church, with Caspar Leutbecker 
as schoolmaster. 

** See the agreement between IIofTman and the Reformed 
Church in Lancaster in 1747. in which he agrees to "serve 
as chorister, read sermons on Sunday, and to keep school every 
day in the year as is the usual custom." 

" Ilandschuh, in Hall. Nach. 


to the curriculum of these schools, we get a 
glimpse thereof in the records of the time. The 
teacher of the Reformed church in Philadelphia 
was to teach the children reading, writing, sing- 
ing, and to lead a godly life; he was to instruct 
them in the articles of the Reformed faith, in the 
Ten Commandments, and to make them commit 
to memory passages of Scripture.^^ 

That the Germans were not unprovided with 
schools for proper instruction in their own lan- 
guage the following unprejudiced witness may 
serve as proof: "The country for miles around 
this town is thick peopled, but few else than Ger- 
mans and Quakers, the former being computed 
at twelve to one of all other nations together, and 
seem to be abundantly well provided in teachers 
of one denomination or another. . . . They 
might be at no loss for English schoolmasters, 
yet they choose to send their children rather to 
German schools, which they have everywhere in 
great plenty." ^^ 

Although Muhlenberg and Schlatter were 
members of the committee, and although 
schools were established in Lancaster, Reading, 

** Wickersham, Hist, of Education in Penn. 

*^ Letter of Rev. Alexander Murray, Secretary of the So- 
ciety for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, dated at 
Reading, April 9, 1763. 


York, etc., the movement soon failed ignomin- 
iously. Christopher Sauer threw the whole 
weight of his personality against it, and his paper 
vigorously assailed the motives which he de- 
clared underlay the movement. According to 
him the motives were two: first, to draw the 
German vote away from the Quakers;"*** sec- 
ond, to attract the Lutherans to the Church of 
England.-*" After a few years the schools were 

** See Gordon, Hist, of Pennsylvania, pp. 328, 9. Sauer 
seems to have been right to a certain extent. Only polit- 
ical prejudice could make Smith utter such evident false- 
hoods as the following: "One-half the people are an unculti- 
vated race of Germans liable to be seduced by every enter- 
prising Jesuit, having almost no Protestant clergy among 
them to put them on their guard and warn them against 
popery." (A Brief State of the Province of Penn. (Sabin Re- 
print), p. 19.) And again: "The Germans, instead of being 
a peaceful and industrious people as before, now finding them- 
selves of such consequence, are grown self-willed and tur- 
bulent, . . . will soon be able to give us law and language or 
else, by joining with the French, to eject all English inhabit- 
ants." (p. 31.) 

*' This actually happened with many churches in New York, 
Maryland, and Virginia, as well as with the Swedish Lutherans 
in Pennsylvania. At that time both churches were closely 
connected. George I. was still in private a Luthenin. not be- 
ing willing to renounce his religion for a crown. In Penn- 
sylvania and New York they worked in harmony, and in 1797 
a resolution was passed under Dr. Kunze " that, on account of 
an intimate relation subsisting between the English Episco- 
palian and Lutheran churches, . . . this consistory will never 
acknowledge a newly erected Lutheran church in places where 


given up. Schlatter lost his influence among his 
countrymen largely through his connection with 
the matter. 

The gist of the much-mooted school question 
at that time was a question of language. The 
English not unnaturally looked upon this as an 
obstacle to the speedy and complete assimilation 
of the Germans to the English community, which 
in those days of suspicion of all things foreign 
was looked upon as a consummation devoutly 
to be wished. The Germans have been much 
blamed in this affair, and doubtless it would have 
been better for them if by means of these schools 
they had become Anglicized a generation or two 
earlier. Yet their feeling was a natural one : they 
did not want to give up their language; they had 
schools of their own which satisfied them. They 
saw no reason for the change, and hence were 
easily led to see wrong motives in what pur- 
ported to be, and in the case of many people 
really was, philanthropy. They were, more- 

the members may partake of the services of the said English 
Episcopal church." (Jacobs, Hist, of Lutherans, p. 318.) 
Muhlenberg was strongly attached to the Episcopalians and at 
one time disposed to unite with them. Cf. also letter of Thos. 
Barton in 1764.: "The Germans in general are well affected 
to the Church of England, and might easily be brought over 
to it. A law obliging them to give their children an English 
education . . . would soon have this effect." 


over, indignant at l)eing treated as ignorant 
boors, and were proud and independent enough 
to repudiate the idea that they should become 
the recipients of charity .^^ 

Nearly seventy-five years later a similar con- 
test arose in Pennsylvania over the introduction 
of the common-school system; and here again 
the Geniians largely opposed the movement and 
received their full share of obloquy as being op- 
posed to education. But the impartial stu- 
dent of the facts will find, not justification, 
yet at least some excuse for tlieir taking such a 
stand. Their opposition to the common-school 
law was due to the fact that it tended to with- 
draw education from the control of the parents 
and clergy. As the Hon. H. A. Muhlenberg 

*8 See Ilarbaugh, Life of Schlatter, p. 294. "One says: 
'I am conscientious in regard to having my children taught at 
the expense of public charity, because I do not stand in need 
of such aid, for I can pay myself. ' " Muhlenberg, Schlatter, 
and later Kunze were in favor of introducing the English 
language into school and church. At the very beginning of 
German immigration Pastorius wrote to his children, John, 
Samuel, and Henry: '-Though you are (Germano sanguine 
nati) of high Dutch [sic] parents, yet remember that your 
father was naturalized and ye l>orn in an English colony. 
Consequently each of you Anglicus natus, an English- 
man by birth. Therefore it would be a shame for you if 
you should l^e ignorant of the English tongue, the tongue 
of your countrymen." (Pennypacker, Penn. Mag., vol. iv. 
pp. I ff.) 


wrote in a letter to the workingmen of Philadel- 
phia, January 26, 1836: "The Germans of our 
State are not opposed to education as such, but 
only to any system that to them seems to trench 
on their parental and natural rights." They still 
retained the German theory of education, that 
the child belongs first to God, then to the par- 
ents, then to the State, the chief responsibility 
for their education resting on Church and par- 
ents. Their educational system was pre-eminently 
a religious one, which looked not only at the in- 
tellect but the soul, and had in mind not only 
the preparation for the life that now is, but for 
the life to come. An additional reason, of course, 
was their attachment to their own dialect, a 
subject which at this time was playing so im- 
portant a role in church affairs.**^ 

From the vantage-ground of the present day 
we believe them to have been wrong in opposing 
the common-school system, and they recognize 
it now, but it was not ignorance nor any un- 
worthy motive which led to their opposition. 
Nor must it be forgotten that it was a German 
governor, George Wolf, who finally succeeded 
in effecting the adoption of the new system. In 
regard to the whole question of their attitude 
towards education, the testimony of an expert 

*3 See p. 117. 


in education in Pennsylvania, and one not of 
German descent, may fitly close this part of our 
discussion. Wickersham in his History of Edu- 
cation in Pennsylvania says : " The above facts 
will be sufficient to make known the deep inter- 
est in education felt by a people whose history 
in this respect has either been badly learned or 
greatly misunderstood." ^° 

Hitherto we have been speaking of elementary 
education, in regard to which we have seen that 
the Germans were from the beginning anxious 
to provide for their children. When we come to 
higher education the case is different. During 
the eighteenth century there was little interest in 
colleges or universities among them. Many of 
the sects, especially the Dunkards and ]\Icn- 
nonites, were opposed to it on the same grounds 
as the Quakers; while the vast majority of the 
Lutherans and Reformed were farmers and saw 
no reason why their children should need to 
know more than they did. To read and write, to 
know something of arithmetic, to be able to read 
the Bible, hymn-book, and newspaper, seemed 
to them all that was necessary. It was owing to 
this lukewarmness that Franklin College, founded 
at Lancaster to show, as the charter declares, the 
public appreciation of the services of the Ger- 

^ p. 142. 


mans in the development of the State, fell to the 
ground in spite of the efforts of such men as 
Franklin, Rush, Muhlenberg, Hiester, Helmuth, 
and others. 

In recent years, however, this state of affairs 
has much changed. With the growth of towns 
and cities, with the progress of manufactures, 
with the intermarriage and mingling with their 
neighbors, the old conservative spirit has largely 
passed away. Though even now some look with 
disfavor on higher education,^i yet in general 
Pennsylvania is well provided with colleges. 
Such are the denominational colleges of Le- 
banon Valley, Ursinus, Franklin and Marshall, 
and many others. A large proportion of the 
faculty and students of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, State College, Jefferson Medical School, 
etc., are of Pennsylvania-German descent. Nor 
are such students and teachers confined to their 
own State; they may be found in nearly every 

51 ''Among the queries sent up in later years [i.e., to the 
Annual Meeting of the Dunkards] was one asking whether it 
was lawful for Brethren to establish or patronize high-schools. 
The reply was that Brethren should not mind /ngh things, but 
condescend to men of low estate. The Brethren, however, 
continued to maintain a high- school, and have even established 
colleges." (Carroll, Religious Forces of the United States, 
p. 130.) 


college of the South and West, and even of New 

As for secondary education, perhaps no State 
is more energetic than Pennsylvania; nowhere 
are the high-schools and normal schools more 
numerous or better attended. The Moravian 
schools at Lititz and Bethlehem have for over a 
century been regarded as among the best in the 
land, and are still flourishing.'^^ 

5' The interest of the Moravians in Education dates from 
early times. When Mr. Henry Dunster, president of Harvard 
College, who became ' ' entangled in the snares of Anabaptism 
and filled the Overseers with tmeasie fears," was forced to 
resign in 1654, "that brave old man Johannes Amos Com- 
enius . . . was invited to "come over to New England [and 
illuminate this Colledge in the quality of President. " (Cotton 
Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana, Book 4, Part I. ) 



In Chapter IV we have seen the Pennsylvania 
German engaged in the practical affairs of Hfe; 
in Chapter V we have endeavored to describe his 
intellectual condition. In the present chapter 
we shall attempt to round out the picture by dis- 
cussing his moral and religious nature. 

No one who has made a careful study of the hab- 
its and customs of the German and Swiss settlers of 
Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century can re- 
sist the conviction that they were essentially a 
deeply religious people.^ It is true that for the 
first two or three decades there was little or no 
regular religious organization, outside the vari- 
ous sects; it is true that many who lived far in 
the wilderness had lost the habit of church- 
going, and that many children were unbaptized 
and without proper religious instruction. But 
this was through no fault of their own, and as 

^ Even in olden times ''die Deutschen waren ein sehr from- 
mes und GottbedUrftiges Volk." (See Freytag, vol i. p. 212.) 



soon as the country became sufficiently settled 
spontaneous efforts were made on all sides to ob- 
tain the services of pastor and schoolmaster.^ 

The testimony of men like Falckner, Weiss, 
and others in this matter must be taken with 
some degree of reserve, and their description of 
the religious state of their countrymen refers 
very largely to the anarchy which reigned in 
church relations rather than to general demor- 
alization in actual living.^ At this time the 
Lutheran and Reformed churches were without 
any organization or regular pastors, and the only 
religious activity was to be found among the 
Mennonites and the Dunkards, both of which 
sects made many converts among the two regu- 
lar confessions. Even the testimony of Brunn- 
holtz and Muhlenberg, later on, must be taken 
with caution. In their pietistic ideas and their 

* See Ilarbaugli, Life of Schlatter, and Hall. Nachrichten. 
Schlatter tells how people would "with tears in their eyes" 
entreat him to assist them, etc. (p. 142.) 

' As a sample of the sentiments of the regular clergy, take 
the following extract from a letter by Boehm to the Classis of 
Amsterdam, Nov. 12, 1730: "By these dangerous sects an 
appalling number of people have been led astray. . . . The 
two main heretics [C. Beissel and Michael Wohlfahrt] live at 
Canastoka and Falknor-Schwam. Meanwhile it must be feared 
that if they are not opposed many poor people will be led 
astray by them." (Hinke, Early Hist, of Ref. Church in the 
Conestoga Valley, in the Reformed Church Record.) 


eagerness to see the fruits of their labors, they 
unconsciously darkened the picture, while the 
success of the Moravians roused their ire. 

We have ample evidence that, scattered as they 
were in the wilderness which then formed the in- 
terior counties of Pennsylvania, the people hun- 
gered and thirsted for the word of God. This is 
the natural explanation of the numerous re- 
vivals attending the labors of Wohlfahrt, Bau- 
man, and IMack, and likewise explains the ex- 
traordinary success of the Ephrata Community 
and the Moravians, and the rise of the Dunk- 
ards, — most of the converts to whom were taken 
directly from the Lutherans and Reformed. 
When IMuhlenberg came to Pennsylvania great 
crowds flocked to hear him,^ and this same love 
for religion continued down to the end of the 
century, when the efforts of Boehm, Otterbein, 
Albright, and Winebrenner resulted in the for- 
mation of several new evangelical denominations. 
In fact no people in America were so subject to 
religious excitements as the Germans of Penn- 
sylvania during the eighteenth century. 

We read in the Hallesche Nachrichten how 

* See Hall. IsdiCh. . passif?i; also Schlatter's Life. Handschuh 
writes on one occasion : "Das Volk war mit seiner besondern 
Aufmerksamkeit, Andacht im Singen, Ehrerbietung bei der 
offentlichen Beichte auf den Knien etc., ungemein erbaulich." 
(H. N., I. p. 165.) 


people came fifteen or twenty, nay even two hun- 
dred miles to hear sermons and receive sacra- 
ment. When Whitefield passed like a flaming 
comet through the colonies in 1740 he preached 
to thousands of Germans, who, though they 
could not understand English, flocked to hear 
the great evangelist.^ 

This deep religious nature is also shown in 
their reverence and love for the Bible. Those who 
had been able had brought with them Bibles 
from the Fatherland, and cherished them as the 
choicest of their possessions; ^ others, who were 
poorer or who had lost all their property in the 

* In a letter dated April lo, 1740, Wliitefield writes : "Some 
of the Germans in America are holy souls. They keep up a 
close walk with God and are remarkable for their sweetness 
and simplicity of behaviour. They talk little ; they think 
much." In the Journal of his travelling-companion, William 
Seward, under date of April 24th we read; "Came to Chris- 
topher Wigner's plantation in Skippack, where many Dutch 
people are settled. ... It was surprising to see such a multitude 
of people gathered together in such a wilderness country, etc. 
After he had done, our dear friend Peter Boehler preached in 
Dutch to those who could not understand English. . . . Came 
to Henry Anti's plantation, in Frederick Township, ten miles 
farther, where was also a multitude, etc. There were Germans 
where we dined and supped, and they pray'd and sung in 
Dutch as we did in English. . . . O Heavenly Musick I Hf>w 
sweet and delightful it is to a New-Born Soul!" (Dotterer, 
Hist. Notes, p. 84.) Of Antes Whitefield says he "seemed to 
have drunk deeply into the consnlations of the Holy Spirit." 

6 Among the rare bibliographical treasures in Pennsylvania 


confusion and dishonesty which so often ac- 
companied an ocean voyage then, made every 
efifort to get possession of the precious book. 
Muhlenberg tells us how even redemptioners 
saved their chance earnings to buy copies. One 
of the first things a man did on getting married 
was to buy a family Bible. It was to supply this 
universal demand that Sauer undertook to pub- 
lish his famous Quarto. Nor were these 
Bibles mere ornaments of the centre-table; they 
formed the daily food of those who possessed 
them. The people of those days were " Bibel- 
fest," their memories were stored with the best 
passages; and this is true not only of adults, but 
of little children as well. 

The same statements apply to the hymn-book, 
which was held in almost the same reverence as 
the Bible. It was not left in the pew at church, 
but shared with the Holy Book the honor of being 
read constantly and learned by heart.'^ They 

to-day are the copies of the Bible published by Froschauer of 
Zurich, and brought over by the early Swiss Mennonites. 

' Many examples are given by Muhlenberg in Hall. Nach. 
Take as a single instance the pathetic story of the death of a 
six-year-old boy. When too weak himself to sing the hymns, 
"deren er eine schone Anzahl gelemet, " he would ask his 
parents to sing. " Als sein Verlangen erfuUt war, gab er sei- 
nem Vater einen liebreichen Kuss zum Abschiede, begehrte 
hemach wieder auf sein Bette, und indeni beiderseits Eltern 
den Vers sungen: ' Breit aus die Flijgel beide, O Jesu meine 


were not only " Bibel-fest," but " Gesangbuch- 

fest," and in times of danger, sickness, and death 

comfort and strength were drawn from the grand 

old hymns of the Church. Many touching and 

inspiring stories might be told in this connection, 

like that of Barbara Hartman, who after many 

years' captivity among the Indians was restored 

to her mother, whom she only recognized when 

the latter sang to her the hymn, 

" Allein und doch nicht ganz allein, 
Bin ich in meiner Einsamkeit.'"^ 

with which she had often cradled her infant 
daughter to sleep; or that still more inspiring 
story of John Christian Schell and his wife and 
four sons, who kept at bay a band of sixty-four 
Indians and Tories all night long, shooting at 
them from the windows, and keeping up their 
courage by singing lustily Luther's old battle- 
hymn, " Ein feste Burg ist Unser Gott," em- 
phasizing, we well may believe, especially the 

" Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel wUr' 
Und woUt' uns gar verschlingen, 
So fiirchten wir uns nicht so sehr, 
Es muss uns doch gelingen."' 

Freude, Und nimm dein Kiichlein ein,' entschlief er sanft und 
stille in seinem Erlciser." (vol. 11. p. 468.) 

^ This interesting story is given in detail in Hall. Nach., 
vol. H. p. 479 ff. 

® Kapp, p. 262 ff. It is a satisfaction to know that this brave 
family was rescued on tlie following day. 


What has been stated above is perhaps only 
another way of saying that the whole religious 
life of the early Pennsylvania Germans was 
strongly marked by pietism. This movement, 
which we have spoken of before, was not a 
propagation of dogma or a new ecclesiastical 
polity, but the immediate application of the teach- 
ing of Christ to the heart and conduct, a revolt 
against the formalism of the orthodox church; 
it was to Germany what Methodism became later 
to England. 

It is interesting to note the development of 
pietism in Pennsylvania. Almost all those who 
came over in the early part of the century were 
afifected by it; nay, the Frankfort Company was 
formed by the members of one of the so- 
called Collegia Pietatis founded by Spener; hence 
Germantown owes its foundation to this move- 
ment. Zinzendorf and the Moravians, the 
Schwarzenau Baptists, the Schwenckfelders, 
Otterbein and Boehm, who founded the United 
Brethren, and Muhlenberg, who had been edu- 
cated at Halle, then the centre of the movement 
in Germany, — all were thoroughly imbued with 
the spirit of pietism. The same tendency, carried 
to excess and manifesting itself in mysticism, is 
seen in the Society of the Woman in the Wilder- 


ness founded by Kelpius, and in the Ephrata 

The stream of emotional religion, thus having 
its source in Germany, gained new strength in 
Pennsylvania, where all conditions were favor- 
able to its development. While in Germany it 
practically died out as a force before the end of 
the century, in the New World it flowed on in 
new channels, and finally culminated in the 
founding of several new denominations, which 
to-day are strong in numbers and influence. ^° 

The great majority of Germans in colonial 
Pennsylvania belonged to the two principal con- 
fessions, Lutheran and Reformed, the latter 
coming chiefly from Switzerland and the Palat- 
inate, the former from Wiirtemberg and other 
parts of Germany. Their numbers in the Quaker 
colony were nearly equal. 

One phenomenon which a centurv' ago at- 
tracted widespread attention was the perfect har- 
mony and good feeling which existed between 
the two.^i There had been a time in the Father- 

'" The United Brethren, the Evangelical Association, the 

n 'I Which fellowship has also been preserved sacred and in- 
violate, ... so that one may well desire that such traces of 
harmony mi^jht also be found in Germany." (Life of Schlatter, 
p. 139.) Rayiial, Burke, and others speak in hisjh terms of 
the harmony existing between all the sects and churches of 


land when jealousy had existed between them 
and when petty quarrels had divided them. The 
common sufferings and persecutions in more re- 
cent times had tended to smooth over their differ- 
ences.i2 From the moment they arrived in Penn- 
sylvania we see but little evidence of hostility. 
The members of both denominations being poor 
and dwelling in sparsely settled communities, 
they were unable to build separate churches, and 
in the majority of cases they founded Union 
churches, ^^ in which they worshipped on alter- 
nate Sundays. In some cases this arrangement 
has been continued down to the present day.^* 

In view of this community of interest, mem- 
bers of one congregation often worshipped with 
the other, Lutherans and Reformed frequently 
intermarried, baptisms, marriages, and funerals 

Pennsylvania, — overlooking, however, the numerous petty quar- 
rels. Between the Moravians on the one side and the Lutherans 
and Reformed on the other there was a very strong feeling. 

1' ' ' Bei aller Zerstiickelung der Glaubensparteien haben die 
Pfalzer nach langen Kampfen sich endlich vertragen gelernt." 
(Riehl, Pfalzer, p. 379.) 

1* Such a church had been built in the seventeenth century 
by Karl Ludwig in Mannheim, common to the three confes 
sions and dedicated " zur heiligen Eintracht." (Riehl. 
Pfalzer, p. 386.) 

^* Some of these union churches are common to other de- 
nominations also ; such is Mellinger's meeting-house, in West 
Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, in which worship 
Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, and Dimkards. 


were performed by ministers of either denomina- 
tion, and, in general, lines of demarcation were 
very loosely drawn. Indeed, it would probably 
have been difficult for many of the people to say 
what were the essential difTerences between the 
Lutheran and Reformed churches, and a story 
is told of a man who said that the only difiference 
was that the Lutherans said " Vater Unser," 
while the Reformed said " Unser Vater." All 
this dulled the edge of denominational feeling. 
It was easy to pass from one church to another, 
and throughout the eighteenth century Lutheran- 
ism was looked upon as closely allied to the 
Church of Englandj^-"^ while in a similar manner 
the Reformed Church was classed with the Pres- 

A crying need of both churches before the 
fourth decade of the last century was the supply 
of regular ministers, of whom there were scarcely 
any, while the number of church members 

^* See p. 146, note. 

'* Thus in the constitution of the new Presbyterian churcli 
into which the Reformed church of Frankford (Phila- 
delphia Co.) was merged we read: "And the said con- 
gregation being satisfied that the shade of difference be- 
tween tlie principles of the German Reformed Church and 
those of the Presbyterians of the United States are scarcely 
discernible and unimportant," etc. (Dotterer, Hist. Notes, 
p. 27.) In colonial documents the Reformed are frequently 
spoken of as Dutch Presbyterians, or Calvinists. 


amounted to many thousands. Often the school- 
master would read sermons and conduct ser- 
vices. There had been some distinguished men 
who in an unofficial way had tried to introduce 
some order; among the Reformed there were 
John Philip Boehm and George Michael Weiss, 
the former of whom founded the churches in 
Conestoga Valley and perhaps in Lancaster. The 
earliest Lutheran church was founded in Falk- 
ner's Swamp in 1720. The two Stoevers were 
especially active, and at every cross-road founded 
a Lutheran congregation and opened a church 
record; most of these churches still exist. ^'^ 

It was not, however, till the fourth decade that 
official and systematic efiforts were made to or- 

" One of the early churches with which the name of John 
Caspar Stoever is connected is the well-known Reed chur ch, in 
Tulpehocken, founded in 1727 by the settlers from Schoharie, 
N. Y. Like the cathedral of Durham, it was "half house of 
God, half castle" and served as a fort against the Indians. 
Mr. L. A. WoUenweber alludes to this double function in the 
following lines: 

" Do droben uf dem runde Berg, 
Do steht die alte Riethe- Kerch ; 
Drin hot der Parre Stoever schon 
Vor hunnert Jahr manch Predigt thun ; 
Gepredigt zu de arme, deitsche Leit 
In seller, ach ! so harten Zeit. 
Audi wor die Kerch 'n gute Fort 
Gegen der Indianer wilde Hort — 
Un schliefen drin gar manch Nacht, 
Die arme Settlers wo lien bewacht." 


ganize the scattered congregations of Lutherans 
and Reformed in Pennsylvania. Michael Schlat- 
ter, a native of St. Gall, Switzerland, came to 
America in 1746 for the purpose of studying the 
church situation, and of devising some means of 
help. Through the aid of the Reformed Synod 
of Holland, and the generous contribution of 
friends in Germany, Holland, Switzerland, and 
even England, he was enabled to bring over in 
1752 six young men, regularly ordained minis- 
ters, and settled them in Philadelphia, Falkner's 
Swamp, Lancaster, Reading, and other places. 
Until 1792 the German Reformed Church in 
Pennsylvania was under the general supervision 
of the Holland Synod; since that date its affairs 
have been administered by its own organiza- 

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg occupies the 
same relation to the Lutheran Church in Penn- 
sylvania as Schlatter does to the Reformed. He 
was a man of learning, energy, deep religious 
feeling, and administrative talent. It is doubtful 
if a better adapted man could have been found in 
all Germany to undertake the peculiarly difficult 
task he was called to do. The story of his life, 
his travels, his labors, his tact in dealing with the 

'8 At the end of the year 1899 there were 240, 130 members 
of the German Reformed Church in the United States. 


difficult problems connected with the loose rela- 
tions then prevailing among churches and sects, 
• — all these, as he relates them in his diary and in 
the Hallesche Nachrichten,i^ must inspire every 
reader with profound respect for this pioneer of 
the Lutheran Church in America, and the father 
of a distinguished line of preachers, warriors, 
statesmen, and patriots.^*^ 

Through his efforts order was soon introduced 
among the members of the Lutheran Church; 
new congregations were started, and those al- 
ready in existence were strengthened. The sub- 
sequent history of the Lutherans is different from 
that of the Reformed Church, which to-day is al- 
most entirely composed of the descendants of the 

early Pennsylvania Germans, whereas the Luth- 
erans have received exceedingly large additions 

from the vast immigration from Germany in our 

own century. In the country at large there are 

many separate bodies of Lutherans, — the Penn- 

'5 Muhlenberg came to Pennsylvania under the auspices of 
the Orphan House founded at Halle by August Hermann 
Francke, and for many years wrote back detailed accounts of 
his labors, which, with the reports of other ministers, have 
been published under the title of "Hallesche Nachrichten." 
They are of extreme value for the student of the manners and 
customs, the religious and social condition of the times. 

'"' Among his descendants were General Peter Muhlenberg ; 
Frederick Augustus, Speaker of the House of Representatives ; 
William Augustus, founder of St. Johnland. 


sylvania Germans being members of the " INIinis- 
terium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States." 

A problem of capital importance to both Re- 
formed and Lutherans came into prominence 
during the first decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury and gradually assumed wide significance. 
The question whether the services should be held 
exclusively in German began to be agitated at 
first in the larger cities, especially those where 
the English influence was strong. As early as 
1803, when the Rev. Henry A. ^Nluhlenberg^i 
was called to Trinity Church in Reading, it was 
understood that he should often preach in Eng- 
lish. Evidently the time was not ripe for so 
great a change, for we soon find the experiment 
abandoned and German exclusively used. The 
movement, however, could not be kept down; 
the natural order of things brought it more and 
more to the front, so that in many cases the re- 
sult was the splitting up of congregations, one 
part of which would continue to hold services 
in German, while the other would introduce Eng- 
lish.22 The change, however, came slowly and 
was stubbornly opposed by the conservative ele- 

'' Grandson of the patriarch Henry Melchior. 

*' Such was the origin of llie St. Paul's Reformed Churcli in 
Lancaster, built almost next dwjr to the First Church; English 
is used exclusively in both at the present time. 


ment. It was undoubtedly owing to this con- 
servatism that so many of the younger generation 
left and joined other churches. Feeling ran so 
high that the Reformed Synod of Frederick, Md., 
in 1826 publicly rebuked a young minister for 
giving an address in English.^^ 

It is claimed that the Moravians are the oldest 
Protestant denomination in the world, dating back 
to the days of Huss. After the death of the great 
reformer, many of his followers continued in 
secret the worship of God according to their 
own doctrines, while openly professing to be 
members of the Catholic Church. Their secret 
heresy being discovered, they were forced to flee 
from their native land, and in 1722 settled in 
Saxony on the estate of Count Zinzendorf, where 
they founded the now historic town of Herrnhut. 
Zinzendorf, who was a Lutheran, became much 
interested in their peculiar views, and finally 
joined them and was made bishop. Missions 
from the beginning were one of the chief func- 
tions of the Moravians, and they already had 
sent missionaries to Greenland and other places 
before coming to America. It was natural, then, 
that they should cast their eyes to the heathen 
across the Atlantic. In 1735 a number of mis- 
sionaries came to Georgia with the intention of 

2' Life of rhilip Schaff, p. 153. 


settling there and preaching the Gospel to the 
Indians; but the war with Spain interfered with 
their plans, and in 1740 they came to Pennsyl- 
vania, where they bought a large tract of land 
and founded Bethlehem. 

In 1 741 Zinzendorf came and took charge of 
the new settlement. He was inspired with the 
laudable desire to unite all the German Protest- 
ants in the colony, and organized, or rather took 
charge of, the movement already started, and 
which was known as the Pennsylvania Synod. 
John Gruber, Henry Antes, and John Bechtel 
had met in 1740 to talk over the unsettled condi- 
tion of religion in Pennsylvania, and Antes ad- 
vised a union of all German sects and denomina- 
tions. On December 26, 1741, he published a 
circular inviting representatives of the different 
communions to attend a general meeting at Ger- 
mantown, " not for the purpose of disputing, but 
in order to treat peaceably concerning the most 
important articles of faith and ascertain how far 
they might agree on the most essential points." 
A number of people met January 12, 1742, at the 
house of Theobald Endt, where the above-men- 
tioned Pennsylvania Synod was organized. Dur- 
ing the next ten months seven of these Synods 
were held in different places, at which Lutherans, 
Reformed, Schwenckfelders, Mennonites, Dunk- 


ards, and Separatists were present. The project 
failed through denominational jealousy. Bechtel, 
Antes, and others joined the Moravians, being 
attracted by Zinzendorf. It was the actions and 
success of the Moravians which hastened the 
coming of Schlatter and Muhlenberg, whose aim 
was to care for the long-neglected interests of the 
Reformed and Lutheran churches.^-* 

The missionary efforts of the Moravians 
among the Indians greatly prospered; many 
converts were made and the settlements of Gna- 
denhiitten, Friedenthal, and others were founded. 
The labors of such men as Post, Spangenberg, 
Nitschman, and Zeisberger, whom Thompson 
calls the " John Eliot of the West," present a 
picture of piety, self-denial, and patient endur- 
ance rarely equalled in the annals of missions. 
The French and Indian War wath its intensified 

'* At one time the existence of the Lutheran Church in 
Lancaster was threatened by Nyberg, its pastor, who himself 
went over to the Moravians and wished to carry the congre- 
gation with him. The gentle Muhlenberg frequently indulges 
in harsh language concerning what he calls the machinations 
of the Moravians. No doubt Zinzendorf was ambitious and 
imperious ; John Wesley, who ardently admired him at first, 
came to see this later. (See Tyerman's Life of Wesley, vol. I. 
p. 207.) Yet the Moravians in Pennsylvania were inspired by 
true evangelical zeal; Schaff calls them a "small but most 
lovely and thoroughly evangelical denomination." 


race-hatred interfered with and practically put 
an end to the mission-work on a large scale. 

The doctrines of the Moravians were not very 
different from those of the Lutherans; ^^ they 
were only marked by a greater depth of religious 
feeling and the spirit of self-sacrifice. Their 
manners and customs were peculiar to them- 
selves and are picturesque and interesting. At 
first the settlement at Bethlehem was communis- 
tic, but in 1760 a division of the prop- 
erty took place, the community retaining, 
however, a tavern and a tanyard, 2000 acres 
near Bethlehem and 5000 near Nazareth. The 
profits on the property sold were devoted to the 
cause of missions. In the olden times there was 
a sharp distinction made not only between the 
sexes, but between the different ages and condi- 
tions of the same sex. Each class had its own 
place in church, often lived together, and had 
its own peculiar festivals. The women were 
outwardly marked by means of ribbons, children 
wearing light-red, girls dark-red, the unmarried 
sisters pink, the married women blue, and widows 

'* The Moravians do not indulge in the habit of dogmatiz- 
ing, and refuse controversy. They have put forth no formu- 
lated creed of their own, yet on the Continent they declare 
their adhesion to the Augsburg Confession with its twenty-one 
doctrinal articles. The great theme of tlicir preaching is 
Jesus Christ. (See Thompson, Moravian Missions, p. 9. ) 


white.26 Even in death these distinctions were 
kept up, and in the graveyard at Lititz the bodies 
were buried according to age.^" There was and 
is still a deep touch of poetry over the religious 
life of the Moravians. Not only were head and 
heart cultivated in religion, but also the aesthetic 
nature. This was largely done by means of 
music, in which they excelled and which from 
the earliest times they have cultivated. Music, 
often very elaborate, marked all their services 
and added a refining influence to the emotions 
excited by religious worship. Bethlehem is still 
thoroughly Moravian in many of its features, and 
few towns in the United States ofifer more objects 
of interest to the traveller than are to be seen 
here in the way of schools, old buildings, church, 
and graveyard. 

The Roman Catholics had little influence in 
provincial Pennsylvania. Although toward the 
middle of last century their numbers were greatly 
exaggerated, yet they were actually very small, 
in 1757 being less than fourteen hundred in all. Of 

^6 Henry, Sketches of Moravian Life. For description of 
Moravian dress (with picture) see Ritter, p. 145. 

*' "No ornaments were allowed to disturb the simple uni- 
formity of the tokens of remembrance ; the marble slab was 
even limited in its length and breadth to 12 X 18 inches, and 
these all flat on the grave-mound." (Ritter.) As late as 
1820 an offer of $7500 for the privilege of a vault was refused. 


llie few German Catholics most afterwards became 
Protestants, and to-day it is rare to find a Catho- 
lic of Pennsylvania-German ancestry. 

There is no more interesting or picturesque 
sect in the countr)', or indeed in the world, than 
the Mennonites. As they played so large a part 
in the first settlements of Pennsylvania, and as 
so many thousands of Americans are descended 
from them, it is worth while to devote a little 
space to their history .^s To trace them to their 
origin we shall have to go back to the Waldenses 
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and 
through them to the days of the primitive 
church. While the connection between the 
Mennonites and Waldenses is not absolutely 
proved historically, yet there is a fair argument 
made out by the supporters cf this theory.20 It 
is proved that in those places where the Men- 
nonites, or Anabaptists, first arose there had been 
for long periods of time communities of Wal- 
denses and related sects. The doctrines were the 

*8 It is singular how little is known in this country of the 

Mennonites, — due undoubtedly to the desire and consistent 

effort on their part to be 

" little and iinkno\vn, 
Loved and prized by God alone." 

*' In recent years the arguments have been strongly summed 

up by Keller, Die Reformation und die alteren Reformpar- 



same: refusal to take oath, non-resistance, re- 
jection of a paid ministry and infant baptism, 
simplicity of dress and life and of religious wor- 
ship. In all these things the Mennonites are 
the logical if not the actual successors of the 

If this historical connection were capable of 
proof, it would indeed be an inspiring thought, 
and one fraught with profound belief in the on- 
working of Providence, that through the Dark 
and the Middle Ages, in the days of ignorance, 
corruption, sin, tyranny, and persecution, the true 
Church of God, composed of those who wor- 
shipped Him in spirit and in truth, should be car- 
ried along, first openly, then in secret for long 
centuries, then finally, at the outbreak of the Re- 
formation, once more boldly coming forth and 
proclaiming that true religion and undefiled con- 
sists not in form or ceremony, not in magnificent 
cathedrals built by man, but in the heart and in 
the life of the followers of the meek and lowly 
Jesus. The Mennonites, like the Waldenses, had 
no theology, cared not for intricate discussions 
of philosophy, but took the life of Christ and 
His teachings as their only rule of conduct. 
They did not believe in the union of Church and 
State, nor in putting pressure on any one in mat- 
ters of religious belief; " Believe and let believe " 


was their motto.^° If any one could persuade 
them out of the Bible, they were willing 
to hear him; but neither persecution, fire, 
sword, prison nor exile, could bend their wills, 
or make them recant what they believed to be 
the truth as it is in Christ Jesus. Not only were 
they steadfast in the faith, but they rejoiced in 
dying- the death of martyrs.^^ 

The Mennonites have often been confused 
with the Anabaptists of the Munster rebellion, 

*<* Their attitude in this respect was almost identical with 
that of J<jhn Wesley, who once made the remark, " As to all 
opinions that do not strike at the root of Christ we think and 
let think." 

^1 Salat in his "Chronika " says of the Mennonites : " Mit 
frohlicher, liichelnder Gebiirde heischten. wiinschten und be- 
gehrten sie den Tod, nahmen ihn ganz begierig an und gingen 
ihn ein mit Absii>gung deutscher Psalmen und anderer Ora- 
tionen." (Quoted by Nitsche, Gesch. der Wiedertaufer in der 
Schweiz, p. 35.) The death of Felix Manz, January 5, 1527, 
is so inspiring that I cannot forbear quoting the description of 
it given in Brons' Ursprung, etc., der Taufgesinnten oder Men- 
noniten (p. 40): " As he stood there [on the boat], beneath him 
the waters of Lake Ziirich, above him the blue %ky, and round 
about him the giant mountains with their snow-capped sum- 
mits lighted up by the sun, his soul, in the presence of death, 
rose above all these things. And as on one side a minister 
urged him to recant, he scarcely heard him ; but when, on the 
other side, he heard the voice of his motlier, and when his 
brothers besought him to remain steadfast, he sang, while his 
hands were being bound, with a loud voice, ' In manus tuas 
Domine commcndo spiritum meum,' and immediately after- 
wards he saixlc beneath the waves." 


yet Menno himself wrote a book against these 
fanatics, and the only connection between the 
two parties was that both were called Anabaptists, 
then a term of reproach. The vast majority 
of those who are now known as Mennonites ^^ 
were earnest, sensible, intelligent. God-fearing, in- 
dustrious, upright men and women. ^^ Many of 
their doctrines were simply two or three hundred 
years ahead of the times, and the last decade of 
the nineteenth century has seen their main doc- 
trines universally admitted. They believed war 
to be unchristian: the Peace Congress at the 
Hague shows at least how widespread is the de- 
sire to abolish armed conflicts. They believed 
in the separation of Church and State: the 
Constitution of our own country is based on that 
principle. They believed in freedom of con- 
science: to-day this is practised in all civilized 
countries. Although quaint and curious, and in 
some respects narrow even to-day, yet they de- 
serve the credit of being the torch-bearers of re- 
ligious liberty. 

The first colony of Mennonites in Pennsyl- 

^^ So called from Menno, Simon born in Witmarsum, Fries- 
land, in 1492. He was to the moderate part of the Ana- 
baptists what Luther and Zwingli were to the churches founded 
by them. 

8' See the testimonies to this effect collected by Arnold, Kir- 
chen- und Ketzergeschichte. 


vania was that at Germantown; the great re- 
semblance between them and the Quakers made 
the latter welcome them and they often wor- 
shipped together. It was to the monthly meet- 
ing at Rigert Worrell's that Pastorius, Hend- 
ricks, and the Op den Graeff brothers presented 
the famous petition against slavery in 1688, the 
first instance of the kind in America. It is an in- 
teresting fact that the Dutch INIennonites (like 
the Huguenots) were in the main artisans, and 
especially weavers; and no sooner had German- 
town been settled than they began to make 
cloth and linen, which almost immediately won 
for itself a widespread reputation. 

While there were Mennonites settled in other 
parts of Pennsylvania, Lancaster County was 
and is still their chief centre. They were expert 
farmers and soon prospered; to-day the best 
farms, the stateliest barns, and the sleekest cat- 
tle belong to them. In general they have re- 
tained the manners and customs of their fathers; 
many still dress in quaint garb, the women wear- 
ing caps even in their housework.^-* They wor- 

'* We have an interesting glimpse of the appearance of the 
Swiss Mennonites shortly before coming to Pennsylvania : '• Es 
war ein ganz hartes Volk von Natur, das Ungemach crtragen 
konnte, mit langen, imgeschorenen Barten, mit unordentlicher 
Kleidung, schweren Schuhen, die mit Hufeisen und grossen 


ship in plain meeting-houses, choose their minis- 
ters by lot, will not take oath, nor bear arms. In 
certain localities, such as Strasburg and Landis- 
ville, they outnumber all other denominations. 

Yet while all this is true, those families which 
have moved to the city or gone to other States 
have gradually left the old-fashioned faith of 
their fathers and become worldly. Some inter- 
esting facts in this connection could be given.^^ 
Yet the sect is still large; in 1883 they had in 
Lancaster County 3500 members, 41 meeting- 
houses, and 47 ministers, 8 of whom were 

Like all denominations, large or small, the 

Nagelii sehr schwer beschlagen waren. Sie waren sehr eifrig 
Gott zu dienen mit Gebet, Lesen und Anderem, waren sehr 
einfach in all ihrem Thun wie Lammer und Tauben. . . . Denn 
davon, dass sie in der Schweiz auf dem Gebirge gewohnt hat- 
ten, feme von Dtirfern und Stadten, und wenig mit andern 
Menschen Umgang gehabt batten, ist ihre Sprache ganz plump 
und ungebildet." (Miiller, p. 271.) 

'^ Take the family of Heinrich Pannebecker, one of the Men- 
nonite settlers of Germantown. In spite of his own principles 
of non-resistance, 125 of his descendants took part in the Civil 
War. When, a short time ago, Judge Brubaker of Lancaster 
died, his place was immediately occupied by Judge Landis; both 
were descendants of the Swiss Mennonites of Lancaster County, 
one of whose principles was not to take oath. It may be of 
interest to add that H. C. Frick, Mr. Carnegie's partner, is 
also a descendant of the Swiss Mennonites. 

'^ The latest statistics give 57,948 as the total membership 
of all branches of the Mennonites in the country. 


Mennonites had their schisms; even in the Hfe- 
time of Alenno Simon a council was held at 
Dort in 1632 to settle on terms of agreement. 
One of the most important divisions occurred in 
Switzerland, and resulted in the formation of a 
sub-sect, which later was transferred to the Palat- 
inate (where it still exists), and thence to Penn- 
sylvania. This was the branch known as the 
Amish, founded by Jacob Ammen of Canton 
Berne, his purpose being to preserve more se- 
verity and simplicity of doctrine and dress. The 
use of buttons was considered worldly vanity, 
and only hooks and eyes were allowed on the 
clothing."' The Amish still exist in Pennsyl- 
vania, where they worship in private houses, hav- 
ing no regular minister, and adhering rigidly to 
the confession adopted by the Synod of Dort in 

But even in the Xew World the tendency to 
schism showed itself. The Reformed Mennonites 
were founded by Francis Herr toward the end of 
the eighteenth century. Having withdrawn from 
the regular body, he held meetings in his own 
house, and drew many people to him. His son, 

" Hence called " Haftler or H(X)kers." (See Miiller, Ber- 
nische Tiiufer. p. 314 ff. ) 

" There are to-day 12,876 Amish and 2,438 Old Amish in 
the United States, making a total of 15,314. 


John Herr, carried on the work and became 
bishop of the little sect, together with Abraham 
Landis and Abraham Groff.^^ 

The River Brethren were founded by Jacob 
Engel, who came in his childhood from Switzer- 
land, and lived in Conestoga Township. He was 
a Mennonite and became convinced that this 
sect as it then was lacked religious vitality; and 
in connection with his brother John and several 
others he established a system of stated prayer- 
meetings. The little flock soon increased, min- 
isters were appointed, and meetings held in 
Engel's house. They had no design at first to 
found a separate sect^ but, as almost always hap- 
pens, the logic of circumstances forced them to 
this, and in 1776 a religious organization was 
made. They are commonly supposed to be a 
branch of the Dunkards, but are rather an ofif- 
shoot of the Mennonites. They took their name 
from the fact that they originated near the Sus- 
quehanna. They are strictly non-resistant and 
elect their bishop by general vote. 

The Dunkards, now a flourishing denomina- 
tion, were founded by Alexander Mack of 
Schwarzenau in Westphalia in 1708, though 
their real origin dates from 1719, when about 

** See Musser's Reformed Mennonite Church. 


twenty families came to Pennsylvania and settled 
in Germantown, Skippack (Montgomery Co.), 
Oley (Berks), and on the Conestoga Creek 
(Lancaster Co.). Their leader was Peter Baker, 
who had been a minister under Mack in Schwar- 
zenau. In 1723 Baker made a missionary tour 
through the German settlements and established 
a church at Conestoga,^** consisting of thirty-six 
members. In 1724 Conrad Beissel was chosen 
assistant to Baker, " but Beissel, being wise in 
his own conceit, soon caused trouble in tjie 
church in regard to the Sabbath," he declaring 
that this should be celebrated on the seventh day. 
The result was that when in 1729 Alexander 
Mack himself came to Pennsylvania, the ques- 
tion was put to the Conestoga church, and being 
decided against Beissel by a large majority, he 
with a few others withdrew and organized at 
Ephrata a society of Seventh-Day Baptists. 
The Conestoga church at its organization had 
settlements in the present counties of Lancaster, 
Berks, Dauphin, and Lebanon, over which 
Baker had charge till the arrival of Mack, who 
then assumed the ofifice of bishop, with Baker as 
assistant. The latter died in 1734, Mack in 1735. 

**> Lancaster County was not formed till 1729 ; till that year 
it was known as Conestoga. 


Settlements were made later in Virginia and es- 
pecially in Ohio, where the Dunkards are still 
numeroLis.^i Their doctrines are not very dif- 
ferent from those of the Mennonites; like them 
they disbelieve in infant baptism, refuse to take 
oath or to bear arms. They differ from them 
in the mode of baptizing, which they perform by 
dipping (tunkcn), hence the name of Tunker or 

Perhaps the most interesting phenomenon of 
religious life in early Pennsylvania was the rise 
and progress of the German Seventh-Day Bap- 
tists and the establishment of the monastic com- 
munity at Ephrata, in Lancaster County. 

We have seen that Beissel with a few others 
left the Conestoga church and came to Cocalico 
Creek, where they settled down. Beissel was a 
man of unusual abilities, though of only limited 
education. He was born in 1690 at Eberbach in 
the Palatinate, where his father was a baker, a 
trade which he followed himself. Being con- 
verted to pietism, however, he came to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1720, intending to spend his life in soli- 
tary communion with God. After leaving the 
Conestoga church he lived for a time the life of 

*^ There are in all 108,694 Dunkards, divided into Con- 
servatives, Old Order, Progressive, and German Seventh-Day 
Baptists, the latter of whom amount to only 194. 


a hermit on the Cocalico, surrounded by many 
who built themselves cottages and imitated his 
ascetic life. Among those whom he thus at- 
tracted was a German Reformed minister of Tul- 
pehocken, John Peter Miller, and Conrad Wei- 
ser, a Lutheran (who afterwards left), and later 
some of the leaders of the Dunkards, Kalkloser, 
Valentine Mack, and John Hildebrand. 

As the numbers increased it became necessary 
to provide accommodations for them, and in 
1735 a convent for sisters was erected called Kedar; 
in 1738 a corresponding monastery for the breth- 
ren, and later many other buildings were built. ^- 
In 1740 there were thirty-six single brethren and 
thirty-five sisters. At one time the society, in- 
cluding the married members, amounted to nearly 
three hundred. The ruler or prior of this com- 
munity, Conrad Beissel, — called by his followers 
Gottrecht Friedsam, — seems to have been a 
man of great personal magnetism and drew the 
loyal affection of all who met him. He was 
looked on with mystic affection and even wor- 

*^ A number of these old buildings are still standing, and 
the curious visitor can see the rotjms in which the inmates 
lived, the chapel in which they worshipped, and even the 
very sacramental utensils which they used one hundred and 
fifty years ago. Interesting descriptions of Eiihrata have been 
given by Seidensticker and Sachse. 


ship, some going so far as to regard him as a 
second Christ.-*-^ 

It would be a pleasant task to give a detailed 
account of this strange community, its poetic 
customs, its midnight religious services, often 
lasting till daybreak, its weird music, its exag- 
gerated mystic piety, its monastic garb and clois- 
ter names; ■*■* but all this would lead us too far. 
The community gradually died out, until at pres- 
ent only a small remnant remains, who still meet 
however, from time to time, and worship in the 
manner of their ancestors. 

Still another interesting sect is that of the 
Schwenckfelders, so named after Casper von 
Schwenckfeld of Ossing in Silesia, who was a 

*' This was the evident meaning of a verse in one of the 

hymns v^^hich Sauer published for Beissel : 

" Sehet, seliet, sehet an, 
Sehet, sehet an den Mann ! 
Der von Gott erhiihet ist, 
Der ist unser Herr und Christ," 

and which was the cause of a quarrel between the two. (See 
Penn. Mag., vol. XU.) 

** Some of these names were genuinely poetical, such as 
Sisters Genoveva, Eusebia, Petronella, Blandina, Euphrosina, 
Zenobia. Whittier, who alone of American poets has felt the 
poetry of Pennsylvania-German life, has a Hymn of the Dunk- 
ards, beginning ; 

" Wake, sisters, wake, the day-star shines ; 
Above Ephrata's eastern pines 
The day is breaking cool and calm. 
Wake, sisters, wake to prayer and psalm." 


contemporary of Liilher, and who incurred the 
wrath of the latter, because of his pecuHar tenets, 
chiefly concerning the Eucharist, the efficacy of 
the divine Word, the human nature of Christ, 
and infant ]:)aptism. On account of the latter his 
followers were frequently confused with the 
Anabaptists. Many clergymen and nobles in 
Silesia and elsewhere espoused his doctrines, es- 
pecially in Licgnitz and Jauer, where almost the 
whole population were his adherents. Later 
they were persecuted first by the Lutherans, then 
by the Jesuit missionaries sent to convert them in 
1 719. In these troubles only one thing was left 
them — flight. In 1726 more than one hundred 
and seventy families escaped from Harpersdorf, 
Armenruh, and Hockenau, and making their 
way on foot to L^pper Lusatia, then a part of 
Saxony, found shelter near Greisenberg, Gorlitz, 
Hennersdorf, Berthelsdorf, and Hcrrnhut, where 
they were hospitably received by Zinzendorf 
and the Senate of Gorlitz. They lived in Saxony 
eight years, but in 1734 were forced once more 
to take up the life of exiles. In 1732 two 
families went to Pennsylvania, and their report 
and the advice of certain benefactors in Holland 
induced forty families to follow. They arrived Sep- 
tember 24, 1734, in I'hiladclphia, where some 
settled, while others went to Montgomery, Berks, 


and Lehigh counties. They now form two con- 
gregations, with three hundred famihes and five 
churches or schoolhouses.'*'^ 

We have already discussed the strong pietistic 
tendency in Pennsylvania, and how it manifested 
itself not only in the sects, but among the regular 
confessions. This deep, personal religion was 
especially cultivated by the Moravians. It is 
well known that John Wesley was first brought 
to a sense of the defects of a mere formal or- 
thodoxy and the need of a heart-religion through 
the Moravians. On his journey to Georgia, he 
came into close contact with David Nitschman, 
and, after landing, with Spangenberg, and learnt 
from them the power of God as manifested in the 
heart. It was through Peter Boehler in London 
that he finally became convinced of the possi- 
bility of a saving faith, instant conversion, and the 
joy and peace of believing.'*^ This early connec- 
tion with German emotional religion had far- 
reaching consequences. It is a singular fact 
that Methodism in America was founded by Ger- 

*5 Among the well-known Scliwenckfelder names are Wieg- 
ner, Kriebel, Jiickel (Yeakel), Hiibner, Heydrich, Anders. 
Hartranft, Schultze, Weiss, Meschter. 

*6 See Tyerman's Life of Wesley; also Wesley's Journal. In 
1738 he spent nearly two weeks in Herrnhut. He writes: ''I 
would gladly spend my life here. Oh, when shall this Chris- 
tianity cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea ? " 


mans who had been converted by Wesley, who 
himself had received from the Moravians some of 
his peculiar doctrines — doctrines which he in 
turn passed on to his fellow countrymen and 
which were destined to exert so extraordinary an 
influence on the religious life of the New World. 

W'e have seen that of the Palatines who over- 
ran London in 1709, some three thousand were 
sent to Ireland. In 1756 Wesley visited the town 
of Ballygarrane and preached to the Germans, 
of whom lie says in his Journal:'*" "They re- 
tain much of the temper and manners of their 
own country, having no resemblance to those 
among whom they live. I found much life 
among this plain, artless, serious people. The 
whole town came together in the evening, and 
praised God for the consolation." Of this num- 
ber were Barbara Heck and Philip Embury, who, 
on account of difficulties in the way of getting 
a living in Ireland, with many others came to 
New York. This was in 1760, and six years later 
Philip Embury held the first Methodist meeting 
in this country, in the historic sail-loft in John 

Methodism was introduced into Pennsylvania 
a little later by Captain Webb, one of Embury's 

*' June 16, 1756. 

*8 Buckley, Mist, of Methodists in the United States, p. loi. 


assistants.'*^ Among those who welcomed it was 
Martin Boehm of Lancaster County, who had 
been a Mennonite and later was one of the 
founders of the United Brethren. The Boehm 
homestead became a centre of Methodist in- 
fluence in Pennsylvania. Asbury frequently 
stopped here, many powerful revivals were held, 
numbers of the German and Swiss farmers in the 
neighborhood were converted, most famous of 
all being Father Henry Boehm, — son of Mar- 
tin, — who was Asbury's travelling-companion 
for many years. Methodism spread more slowly 
through the cities, and it was only after the be- 
ginning of the present century that churches 
were founded in Lancaster, Reading, and other 
cities. To-day a large proportion of the members 
and ministers in the State are of Pennsylvania- 
German descent. ^° 

This, however, is not the only way in which 
Methodism has influenced the German inhabi- 
tants of the commonwealth. Although it is de- 
nied that the United Brethren Church was 

*'•' See Penn. Mag., vol. xii. It is a little curious that in 
Philadelphia as well as in New York the first Methodist meet- 
ing was held in a sail-loft. 

'•'^ Among the bishops are Bowman, Hartzell. and Keener 
(Church South). A glance at tlie minutes of tlie Pennsylvania 
conferences will show how large a percentage of the ministers 
ai-e of Pennsylvania-German descent. 


founded in imitation of Methodism, yet the latter 
certainly exerted a vast deal of influence on the 
former. The two founders of this denomination 
were Martin Boehm and Philip William Otter- 
bein, the former a Alennonite, the latter a pecu- 
liarly spiritually-minded Reformed minister. 
Both Boehm and Otterbein experienced conver- 
sion, in the genuine Methodistic sense of that 
word, and both, moved by the Spirit, began to 
preach a heart-religion. Great success attended 
their efiforts, and thousands crowded their re- 
vival services. In 1768,^^ at one of these meet- 
ings, they met for the first time, and falling on 
each other's neck cried out, '" Wir sind Briider." 
Some years after a regular church organization 
was formed, and received from the above inci- 
dent the name of United Brethren. For many 
years there was a close fraternal relation between 
the newly founded church and the ]\Icthodists; 
they adopted many features of the Discipline, 
had class- and prayer-meetings, the itinerant 
system, annual and general conferences, and 
other details. For many years fraternal delegates 
were sent to the respective conferences, and letters 
were written bearing friendly greetings. Otter- 
bein was the intimate friend of Asbury, and it 

*' The date is not sure. See Berger, Hist, of the United 
Brethren, p. 78. 


was on the advice of the latter that he went to 
Bahimore, to the German Reformed Church, 
which later became the first church of the United 

It seemed to be the policy of Methodism in its 
early years in America to discourage all evan- 
gelical work carried on in other languages than 
English, — apparently because the authorities 
were convinced that all others would soon die 
out. Hence they welcomed the efforts made by 
the United Brethren in evangelistic work among 
the Germans, and consequently both were on 
friendly terms and without denominational 
jealousy. Some indeed did desire a union and 
propositions were made looking toward this end. 
Nothing came of them, however, and after some 
years both denominations ceased sending dele- 
gates and friendly messages to the respective 

The United Brethren Church was originally 
almost exclusively composed of Pennsylvania 
Germans and is now largely made up of their 

Still more closely connected with Methodism 
is the Evangelical Association, founded by Jacob 
Albright, who had been brought up a Lutheran, 

" 264,980 members in all. 


and who in 1796, "yearning for the salvation 
of his spiritually neglected Gemian-speaking 
brethren, started out as a humble layman to 
preach to them the Gospel of Christ. His labors 
extended over large portions of Pennsylvania 
and into parts of Maryland and Virginia and re- 
sulted in the saving of many souls." ^^ Albright 
had originally no thought of founding a new re- 
ligious organization, but finally, in 1800, he 
yielded to the oft-repeated and urgent requests of 
those whom he had led to the Lord and began 
the work of organization. Their Discipline, 
largely taken from that of the Methodists, was 
published in 1809. A glance therein will show 
how thorough the influence of the latter Church 
was: — they have quarterly, annual, and general 
conferences; bishops, presiding elders, the itine- 
rancy, class-meetings, and other Methodist char- 

*^ See Discipline of the United Evangelical Church. 

** Albright had little knowledge of English and preached in 
German to the people of Eastern Pennsylvania. If Asbury 
had cared to form a German ministry within Methodism, this 
separate body of German Methodists probably would not have 
been formed. The original conference in 1807 called itself 
the 'Newly formed Methodist Conference.' Albright had 
l)een a Methodist, and was such still in his heart, faitli, and 
practice. (See Berger, Hist, of the United Brethren in Christ, 
p. 193.) In 1899 there were 117,613 members in the Evan- 
gelical Association. 


The spirit of schism which seems ever present 
in reHgious bodies, manifested itself in the Evan- 
geHcal Association. Some dozen or fifteen years 
ago, certain questions arose concerning the 
General Conference and especially the episco- 
pacy, and gradually the differences of opinion 
grew so widespread, that in 1891 two General 
Conferences were held each claiming to be the 
legal representative of the Church. Hence arose 
the body known as the United Evangelical 
Church, the first General Conference of which 
was held in 1894. In their Discipline no changes 
were made in the accepted doctrines of the 
Church, but several new articles were added and 
the language of all was changed.^^ 

Another body of Christians widely spread in 
Pennsylvania is the Church of God, sometimes 
called Winebrennerians from the founder, John 
Winebrenner. He was a minister of the Re- 
formed Church, and settled in Harrisburg in 
1820, where a revival soon broke out under his 
preaching. This being regarded as an innova- 
tion in the customs of the Reformed Church, 
Winebrenner met so strong an opposition that 
the doors of his church were closed against him, 
and about the year 1825 he was forced to sepa- 

'* The United Evangelical Church now has 59,830 members. 


rate from his denomination. His preaching was 
heard by great numbers of Germans, and in 1829 
a regular organization was established. Owing 
to their doctrine of immersion they are classed 
with the Baptists. The polity of the Church of 
God, however, is Methodistic in some respects; 
the Annual Eldership corresponds to the Annual 
Conference, and the General Eldership to the 
General Conference.^^ 

We have only space here for a word or two on 
the influence of other English denominations on 
the Pennsylvania Germans. In many cases the 
Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, and Sweden- 
borgian churches, especially in large cities, are 
swelled in numbers by the descendants of these 

^^ The membership amounts at present to 38,000. 



Mr. Fiske has estimated that the 20,000 Eng-- 
lish who settled in New England before 1640 
have increased to fifteen millions. Considering 
the large families of the old-fashioned Pennsyl- 
vania Germans it would seem probable that the 
100,000 or more who came over before 1775 have 
multiplied at least as rapidly as their Puritan 
neighbors. It would be a moderate statement, 
then, to say that to-day there are between four 
and five million people in the United States who 
in some line or other can trace their ancestry to 
the early German and Swiss settlers of Pennsyl- 
vania. Of these not far from two million still 
inhabit the State founded by their ancestors. This 
mass of people must have had more or less in- 
fluence on the development of the United States, 
and they themselves must have been largely 
moulded by their new surroundings. As Frey- 
tag says, " In dem unaufhorlichen Einwirken 
des Einzelnen auf das Volk und des Volkes auf 



den Einzelnen liiuft das Leben ciner Nation." * 
In the present chapter we shall endeavor to 
show some of the ways in which this mutual in- 
fluence manifests itself; how the people have met 
the new conditions in which they were placed; 
what has been their attitude to the State in poli- 
tics and in the various wars through which the 
country has passed since they came; in short, to 
tell, in brief outline, the share that the Germans 
have had in the development of Pennsylvania in 
particular and the United States in general. 

In regard to politics we are struck by the fact 
that the Pennsylvania Germans have not stamped 
themselves so strongly on the country as their 
numbers would warrant. Great statesmen and 
men of national reputation are not numerous — 
not so much so proportionately, for instance, 
as in the case of Huguenots and Scotch-Irish. 
In Pennsylvania down to the middle of the 
eighteenth century the public offices were almost 
entirely in the hands of English-speaking people, 
In'the city of Lancaster the office of burgess had 
always been held by an Englishman till 1750, 

^ Freytag, vol. iv. p. i. Cf. also, "von solchem Stand- 
punkte verlauft das Lebcn cincr Nation in einer unauflx'ir- 
lichen Wechselwirkung des Ganzen auf den Einzelnen und des 
Manues auf das Ganze. Jedcs Menschenleben, auch das 
Kleine, giebt einen Thcil seines Inhalts ab an die Nation." 
{^lOiJ., vol 1, p. 24.) 


when Dr. Adam S. Kuhn was elected.^ From 
that time, however, the German element is more 
and more represented, and since the Revolution 
their proportion of local officers in the towns and 
cities of Berks, Lancaster, and the other counties 
has been very large.^ Up to the Revolution, 
however, the political activity of the Germans 
was largely confined to local affairs. Nor is this 
to be wondered at. Hitherto they had formed a 
compact body of their own, pre-eminently a rural 
population, whose chief occupation was to found 
homes for themselves and children in the New 
World. Then, too, they had come from a land 
where there was little chance for political ac- 
tivity, where the government was despotic, and 
where the country-folk had little or no voice in 
the affairs of state. This is true not only of the 

^ The Lutheran pastor in Lancaster, Rev. Joh. Fr. Hand- 
schuh, gives expression to his joy over this event in his diary ; 
"Den 20. Sept. kamen einige Kirchenrathe und erzalilten mir 
mit Bewegung und Freude ihres Herzens, wie . . . unsern 
Kirchenrath Dr. Adam Kuhn hiitte man zum Oberbiirger- 
meister . . . erv/ahlet." (Hall. Nach., I. p. 542.) At the 
same time Jacob Schlauch, also a Lutheran, was elected 
Unterbiirgermeister, while of four other Lutherans elected one 
was High Constable, and three others were assessors. 

' For instance, in Reading all the chief burgesses (ten in 
number) and twelve of the seventeen mayors have been Ger- 
man (1883); a similar proportion prevails for justices of peace, 
aldermen, etc. \i\ the borough of Kutztown all the burgesses 
except one have been German. 

1 9^ IN PE/ICB ^ND IN H^AR. 

Palatinate and W'iirtemberg-, but also of Switzer- 
land, for even in that land of freedom, the proto- 
type of our own land, the peasantry had no 
political rights whatever until nearly one hundred 
years after the emigration to Pennsylvania be- 
gan.^ It must also be remembered that a con- 
siderable number of the people, Dunkards, Men- 
nonites, and Moravians, refused on religious 
grounds to hold political ofifice.^ 

Can we wonder then that the Germans of 
Pennsylvania were a long time in coming to an 
active and enthusiastic exercise of their privileges 
in the matter of political intrigues and ofifice- 
hokling? We do not mean to say that they were 
all indifferent to the political questions of the 
day, or that they had no interest in public afifairs, 
but only that in the eighteenth century, at least, 

* "Die Bewohner der Landschaften waren bis Ende des 
achtzehnten Jahrhunderts thatsachlich von der Staatsleitung 
ausgeschlossen." (Dandliker, n. p. 632.) Freytag, speaking 
of the Thirty Years' Wan says: "Noch hundert Jahre Sf)llten 
die Nachkommen der Uberlebenden die mannlichste Empfin- 
dung entbehren, politische Begeisterung." (Vol. lu. p. 13.) 

* Germantown was incorporated as a borough town in 1689, 
but about 1704 lost its charter because no one was willincj to 
accept the various offices. The records of this short-lived 
municipality read like an extract from "Diedrich Knicker- 
bocker." In 1795 the Moravian Bishop Ettwein deplored the 
dereliction of "some of the bretliren in Lancaster who had 
joined a political body called the Democrats and even accepted 
office therein." (Ritter, p. 98.) 


eagerness for office was not a marked trait of 
their character. 

Since the Revolution, however, they have been 
more and more prominent in State and county 
poHtics. Dr. Egle says that in tlie Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1789-90 it was their votes 
that insured the passage of the new Constitution. 
Not only was the local magistracy largely drav/n 
from their ranks/' but in the larger field of State 
politics they have furnished a number of distin- 
guished men. The names of Kuhl, Antes, Muh- 
lenberg, Hiester, Graff, etc., are familiar to the 
student of early Pennsylvania history, while no 
fewer than nme of the governors of the common- 
wealth were of German descent." It was Gov- 
ernor George Wolf who finally introduced the 
public-school system, and Joseph Ritner's manly 
protest against the usurpations of the slave 
States called forth from Whittier a tribute to the 
sturdiness of Pennsylvania-German character.^ 

^ In 1777 all but one of the officers of Lancaster were Ger- 

■^ Snyder, Hiester, Schulze, Wolf, Ritner, Shunk, Hartranft, 
Bigler, Beaver. In this connection may be mentioned Gov- 
ernors Bouck of New York, Ramsey of Minnesota, — Lebanon 
County German on the maternal side, — Schley of Georgia, 
John Bigler of California, and Geo. L. Shoup of Idaho. 

" Thank God for the token I one lip is still free, 
One spirit untrammelled, unbending one knee," etc. 

(Works, vol. III. p. 47.) 


In national politics their prominence is not so 
apparent, since here they come in competition 
with all the rest of the country. Yet we must 
record the names of Frederick A. Muhlenberg, 
president of the convention which ratified the 
Constitution of the United States,^ i\Iichael 
Hillegass, Treasurer of the Continental Con- 
gress, and such men as Simon Cameron, Colonel 
John W. Forney, John Wanamaker, and others. 
Of course it would be inappropriate here to give 
a catalogue of men in public life, or even a statis- 
tical view of the same. Yet I have carefully gone 
over the files of the Congressional Record from its 
first issue down to the present, and find in every 
Congress from five to ten typical Pennsylvania- 
German names, representing the Keystone State 
at Washington; ^^ other States, especially in th.c 
West, have often been represented by men who 
trace their origin to the early German settlements 
of Pennsylvania. 

Mie was also first Speaker of the House of Representatives 
under Washington's administration. 

1" Among these names arc Hiester, Muhlenberg, Krebs, Wolf, 
Bucher, Wagener, Fry, Uublcy, Sheffer. Kcim, Yost, Ritter, 
Frick, Erdman, Leib, Strohm, Everhart, Kuhns, Trout. Kurtz, 
Kunkel, Leidy, Longnecker, Lehman, Coftroth, Glassbrenner, 
Koontz, Hakleman, Albright, Neglej-, Shoemaker. Shellen- 
berger, Yocum, Klutz. Beltzhoover, Ermentrout. In Berks 
County out of twenty United States congressmen from 1789- 
1885, fifteen were of German descent. 


Such is a brief glance at the pubHc Hfe of Penn- 
sylvania Germans in politics and in times of 
peace. It remains to give a similar brief view of 
their services in the various wars through which 
the country has passed during the last two cen- 
turies. Here it may be stated without fear of 
contradiction that they have shown themselves as 
ready as any of their fellow countrymen to sac- 
rifice life and fortune for their country's good. 

When the Germans began to come to Pennsyl- 
vania the troubles with the Indians in New Eng- 
land and New York were over. In the former 
colony the terrible prowess of the Puritan war- 
riors had crushed the Pequots and Narragansetts ; 
in New York the wise conduct of the Dutch and 
English had permanently attached the Five Na- 
tions to the interests of England, in spite of all 
the intrigues of the French to win them over. 

The attitude of Pennsylvania toward the In- 
dians from the first had been one of conciliation 
and kindness; the example set by Penn, of deal- 
ing with them with strict honesty, had been in 
general followed by his successors. The rela- 
tions between the Germans and the Indians had 
always been friendly, and the former had shown 
a deep Interest in the spiritual welfare of the lat- 
ter. As early as 1694 Kelpius declared his de- 
sire to preach the Gospel to them, while the 


Indian missions of the Moravians form one of 
the noblest chapters of State history. 

For man}' years Pennsylvania was entirely 
free from the dread and terror that had been the 
inseparable companion of the early settlers of 
New England. The Delawares, who occupied 
that part of the country before the coming of 
Penn, gradually and peaceably receded before 
the onward march of white settlers, till about 
the middle of the century they had retired be- 
yond the Blue Mountains and left practically all 
the territory to the east and south to the whites. 

Soon after, however, this state of affairs came 
to an end. Dissatisfaction and discontent, — 
largely on account of the famous " Walking 
Purchase," — the intrigues of the French, and es- 
pecially the disastrous defeat of Braddock in 
I755> let loose upon the frontier settlements of 
Pennsylvania all the horrors of Indian warfare. 
Among the greatest sufferers were the German 
settlers, especially in Berks and Northampton 
counties. Hundreds were slain and scalped, 
houses, barns, and crops went up in flames, chil- 
dren and women were carried into captivity. The 
letters of Conrad ^^'"eiser, Muhlenberg, and 
others give many harrowing details of scenes 
which were then of almost daily occurrence.^ ^ 

^* Some of these descriptions are very dramatic, — sucli as 


The attitude of the Germans was at first some- 
what indifferent, owing chiefly to the non-com- 
batant doctrines of Mennonites and Moravians, 
and to the fact that in poHtics they in general fol- 
lowed the lead of the Quakers. Yet when the dan- 
ger became more acute many ofrered their lives 
in the service of the commonwealth. Franklin 
says: "Much unanimity prevailed in all ranks; 
eight hundred persons signed at the outset. The 
Dutch were as hearty m this measure as the Eng- 
lish, and one entire company was formed of 
Dutch." 12 

that of the man with his two daughters, who had loaded their 
wagon and were prepared to escape the next day, and the pre- 
ceding night the girls, being '-angst und bange urns Herz, 
sie sagten zum Vater es ware ihnen so traurig zu Muthe, als 
ob sie bald sterben sollten, und verlangten das Lied zu singen: 
' Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende,' etc., sungen es audi 
mit einandor vom Anfange bis ans Ende, thaten ihr Abend- 
gebet, und legten sich zur Ruhe." The next day the Indians 
came and both the girls were killed. (See Muhlenberg, in 
Hall. Nach., vol. n. p. 465.) 

12 Watson, p. 273. Cf. also letter of Daniel Dulaney 
(Penn. Mag., vol. in. p. 11 ff.) : '-The Germans complained 
that no measures had been taken to avert the calamity, . . . 
demanded arms, . . . and signed an application for a militia 
law." It was not strange that they should be willing thus to 
fight to save their homes. Many had been soldiers in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. In the forces mustered in Albany in 
17H to be sent to Canada, one thousand were Palatines. (Gor- 
don, p. 163.) Out of a whole population of 356 Palatines in 
Queensbury, N. Y., 40 men joined the expedition against 


As to actual numbers engaged in hostilities it 
is hard to give complete figures. In the Penn- 
sylvania Archives we find a list of provincial offi- 
cers in 1754; out of 33, 8 are German. In 1756, 
in Conrad Weiser's battalion, 22 out of 38 are 
German. The rolls of privates are not given, but 
we have other reasons for believing that they 
were practically all of the same nationality. Thus 
a German chaplain was appointed; Gordon says 
(p. 342) that Weiser's battalion consisted of Ger- 
mans, and in the list of Captain Nicholas Wetter- 
holt's regiment every name is German. Even in 
the other two battalions many Germans were 

So much for actual warfare. The services of 
the Germans in other respects are just as im- 
portant. Most distinguished of all was Conrad 
Weiser, who for many years was the official In- 
dian interpreter and agent of Pennsylvania. Be- 
fore the war he did all he could to pacify the In- 
dians; he was frequently sent by the govern- 
ment to them, and successfully carried out many 
dangerous missions. When war broke t)ut he 
raised a battalion and was everywhere active. 
His name occurs in these events more frequently 

Canada; ami in Amesliury 52 volunteered out of a total popu- 
lation of 250. (See O'Callaghan, Doc. Ilist. ofN. V., vol. ni. 

pp. 571, 2.) 


than that of ahiiost any other at this time, — he was 
constantly making reports, indorsing petitions, ex- 
plaining the condition of the inhabitants, giving 
orders and suggestions. It was he more than 
any other man who kept the Five Nations faith- 
ful to the English at that time. The value of that 
service can hardly be overestimated.^^ The spirit 
of this heroic man may be seen in the following 
words written by him to Richard Peters, October 
4, 1757: " I think meselfe unhappy; to fly with 
my family I can't do. I must stay if they all 

In the very forefront of the French and Indian 
War were the Moravians. No group of people 
suffered more, did more service, or showed more 
heroism than these messengers of the gospel of 
peace. At the first mutterings of war they be- 
came objects of suspicion to their fellow country- 
men. Their intimate relations with the Indians, 
their settlements at Gnadenhiitten and elsewhere, 
their frequent journeys through the wilderness, 
often extending as far as New York, — all this 
tended to raise suspicions. Then, too, their 
peculiar customs, their early communistic life, 

1^ Weiser says liimself that the council of the Six Nations 
always looked on him as a friend and as one of their own na- 
tion, (See Penn. Arch., ist Series, vol. I. p. 672.) 

1* Penn. Arch., ist Sen, vol. in. p. 283. 


elaborate ritual, and peculiar dress seemed es- 
pecially to the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians to 
smack of Romanism. \\q have already seen 
how the fear of the Catholics, together with poli- 
tics, had led to the establishment of English 
schools for the Germans. The suspicion of the 
Moravians is only another symptom of the same 
fear. Even the French themselves seemed to be- 
lieve that the Moravians would go over to their 
side whenever they should approach. This sus- 
picion was unfounded, and the whole country' 
awoke from their error when, on November 24, 
1756, the massacre of Gnadenhiitten occurred, in 
which not only the Indian converts, but Martin 
Nitschman, his wife, and several other Moravians 

Although non-combatants, the Moravians 
were reasonable; they fortified Bethlehem, 
brought together a large quantity of provisions, 
and even armed themselves in case of last ex- 
tremity; in many ways they Vv'ere of invaluable 
assistance to the cause. ^^ Their heroism was 
manifest in wnv^X and deed. "The country," 

'^ In 1755 Timfjthy Ilorsfield writes: "At moderate com- 
putation the Brethren liave lost ^1500. and tlie expense they 
are daily at in victualling the people, witli their horses, who 
pass and repass through Bethlehem, and supply them with 
powder and ball." (renn. Arch., 1st Series, vol. n. p. 523.) 


wrote Spangenberg to Zinzendorf, " is full of 
fear and tribulation. In our churches there is 
light. We live in peace and feel the presence of 
the Saviour." The 8th of September, 1755, which 
witnessed the defeat of Count Dieskau, was dis- 
tinguished at Bethlehem "by an enthusiastic mis- 
sionary conference, composed of four bishops, 
sixteen missionaries, and eighteen female assist- 
ants, who covenanted anew to be faithful to the 
Lord, and to press forward into the Indian coun- 
try as long as it was possible, in spite of wars and 
rumors of wars." ^^ 

The services in general of the Moravians to 
the country were great. Missionaries like Span- 
genberg and Post were of the utmost value in 
keeping the Indians quiet for many years, and 
many important embassies were intrusted to 
their care.^" 

^® De Schweinitz, Life of Zeisberger, p. 222. 

" "During the late bloody war, all commerce between the 
white people and Indians being suspended, he [Post] was in- 
trusted first by this government, and then by Brig. -Gen. 
Forbes, with negotiations to secure the Indian nations ; and 
although such commission might seem out of the way of a 
minister of the Gospel, yet he yielded thereto on its being 
argued that the bringing of peace with the Indians would open 
the way for future harvests," etc. (Penn. Arch., 1st Series, 
vol. III. p. 579.) Although a large price was set on the head 
of Post, he was fearless. "I am not afraid," he wrote, '-of 
the Indians nor the devil himself; I fear my great Creator 
God." {/dici., p. 542.) 


However active the Germans may have been 
in the French and Indian War, there can be no 
doubt about their enthusiasm and patriotism 
during the Revolution. Those who have traced 
their history to the banks of the Rhine and the 
mountains of Switzerland will not be surprised 
at their patriotism during these trying times, A 
love for independence and a hatred of tyranny 
has ever been a distinguishing trait of Palatine 
and Swiss.i^ Although faithful to the English 
crown before the war, they had no reason to be 
particularly attached to it. As far back as 1748 
the Swedish traveller Professor Kalm distinctly 
states that they had no particular feeling for 
England, and tells, in words that seem to be 
prophetic in the light of subsequent events, how 
one of them declared that the colonies would be 
in condition within thirty or fifty years to make 
a state for itself independent of England.^ '^ When 

*8 " Die Freiheit ist die Luft in dcr Ihr geboren, das Ele- 
ment in dem Ihr erwachsen, der Lebensgeist der den Ilelve- 
tischen Kiirper uiiterhalt." (Dandliker, vol. I. p. i8.) The 
same "Drang nach personlicher Unabhangiglceit " is charac- 
teristic of the Palatinate ; Riehl says that the words. •' Eines 
andem Knecht soil Niemand sein, der fur sich selbst kann 
bleiben allein," is the motto of every native in whom is Ale. 
mannic blood. 

" Montcalm is said to have made a similar prophecy in a 
letter to a "cousin in France." (See Eng. Hist. Review, vol. 
XV. p. 128.) 


the Strain on the relations between the colonies 
and the mother country came, none were more 
ardent in expressing their sympathies than the 
Germans. On February 25, 1775, Pastor Hel- 
muth, of the Lutheran church in Lancaster, 
writes that the whole land was preparing for war, 
nearly every man was armed, and the enthusiasm 
was indescribable. If one hundred men were 
asked for, he says, far more offered themselves 
and were angry if they were not taken. Even the 
Quakers and Mennonites took part in the exer- 
cises, and in large numbers renounced their re- 
ligious principles.-^ 

The importance of this testimony for our pres- 
ent discussion lies, of course, in the fact that Lan- 
caster County was almost entirely inhabited by 
Germans. The same spirit manifested itself in 
Berks County, where practically the entire popu- 
lation was German. When news of the Tea Duty 
came to Reading there was great excitement, and 
meetings were held condemning the English. 
After the battle of Lexington in 1775, every 
township resolved to raise and drill a company.21 

''° A Mennonite preacher, Henry Funck, took oath to the 
State and did good military service ; in consequence of which 
he was read out of the Church. (Penn. Arch., 2d Ser., vol. 
ni. p. 463.) 

" Montgomery says that by July, 1775, at least forty com- 
panies were ready for active warfare. In a letter from a 


At the various conventions held in Philadelphia 
from 1775 on, a large proportion of delegates 
from Berks, Lancaster, York, Northampton, and 
other counties were Germans. We may take as 
a single example the convention of 1776, of 
which Franklin was president. Out of 96 dele- 
gates 22 were Germans ; 4 of the 8 sent by Lan- 
caster and 3 of the 8 sent by Berks were Ger- 
mans. Northampton sent 6.^2 

Such was the spirit among tliem. With the 
exception of the Mennonites and Moravians, who 
were opposed to war on religious grounds, the 
patriotic feeling was practically unanimous. 
Even the sects rendered assistance; the Men- 
nonites gladly furnished money and provisions, 
while the Moravians were of service in many 

member of Congress to Gen. Lee, dated July 23, 1776, we 
read : "The militia of Pennsylvania seem to be actuated with 
a spirit more than Roman,'' and again, "the Spirit of lilierty 
reigns triumphant in Pennsylvania. (Force's Amor. Arch., 
5th Ser.. I. p. 532.) 

In Richard Penn's Examination before the House of Com- 
mons, Nov. 10, 1775, he said that there were 60,000 men fit 
to bear arms in Pennsylvania, and that he believed all would 
willingly take part in the present contest, {/bid., 4th Sen, 
VI. p. 126.) 

" Among them were Muhlenberg, Ilillegass, Slagle, Hub- 
ley. Kuhn, Arndt. Hartzell. Levan. Hiestand, etc. 

" The lion. William Ellery of Rhode Island writes in his 


These facts tend to show the spirit of the Ger- 
mans, who were equahy earnest in putting their 
patriotism in operation. We have seen above 
how companies of mihtia were formed at the 
news from Lexington. It is a significant fact that 
the first force to arrive at Cambridge in 1775 was 
a company from York County, under Lieut. 
Henry Miller,"-* which had marched five hundred 
miles to reach its destination. Colonel Wil- 
liam Thompson's battalion of rifiemen, so styled 
in Washington's general orders, was enlisted in 
the latter part of June, 1775 ; eight of these com- 
panies of expert riflemen were raised in Pennsyl- 
vania. Among the captains were Michael Dou- 

Diary in 1777 that the Moravians, "like the Quakers, are 
principled against bearing arms ; but are unlike them in this 
respect, they are not against paying such taxes as the Gov- 
ernment may order them to pay toward carrying on the 
war," etc. (Penn. Mag., vol. xi. p. 318 ff.) 

In a petition to Congress the Moravians themselves say: 
('We hold no principle anyway dangerous or inconsistent 
witli good government. . . . We willingly help and assist to 
bear public burdens and never had any distress made for 
taxes," etc. 

President Reed of Philadelphia in a letter to Zeisberger 
thanked him, in the name of tlie whole country, for his ser- 
vices among the Indians, and particularly for his Christian 
humanity in turning back so many war parties on their way 
to rapine and massacre. (De Schweinitz, Life of Zeisberger, 
p. 481.) 

2* Judge Pennypacker, in Penn. Mag., vol. xxil. 


del of York County, George Nagel of Berks, and 
Abraham ]\Iiller of Northampton; the com- 
panies of Captains Ross and Smith of Lancaster 
were also largely made up of Germans. As the 
editors of the Pennsylvania Archives say, " The 
patriotism of Pennsylvania was evinced in the 
haste with which the companies of Colonel 
Thompson's battalion were filled to overflowing, 
and the promptitude with which they took uj) 
tlieir march for Boston." ^^' 

All three companies of Baron von Ottendorf's 
corps were raised in Pennsylvania; of the Ger- 
man Regiment formed in 1776 — which took part 
in Sullivan's campaign against the Indians — 
five companies were raised in the same State; 
among the captains were George and Bernard 
Hubley ^^ of Lancaster. In all other regiments 
enlisted in Lancaster, Berks, York, and other 
counties the Germans formed a good proportion. 

'^ These companies attracted much attention in the country 
througli which they passed. Thacher in his "Military Jour- 
nal of the Revolution," under date of August, 1775, ^ays : 
" They are remarkably stout and hardy men ; many of them 
exceeding six feet in height. They are dressed in white frocks 
or rifle-shirts and round hats. These men are remarkable for 
the accuracy of their aim ; striking a mark with great cer- 
tainty at two hundred yards' distance." (Penn. Arch., 2d 
Ser., vol. X. p. 5.) 

" Author of one of the earliest histories t>f the Revolution. 


Even in the city of Philadelphia the oldest Ger- 
man colonists formed a company of armed vet- 
erans, whose commander was over one hundred 
years old.^'^ Unfortunately many of the rolls of 
Pennsylvania in the Revolution have been lost, 
and it is impossible to give complete statistics. 
We know, however, that the Quaker colony oc- 
cupied a front rank in all that pertains to the 
v/ar.28 Any one who carefully goes over the ex- 
tant records as recorded in the Pennsylvania 
Archives will convince himself that the Germans 
contributed their fair share of soldiers to the 
War of Independence. 

Naturally enough we find a smaller proportion 
of German ofificers than men, especially in the 
higher ranks. ]\Iost of the officers from captain 
down in the companies formed of Germans were 

27 Graham, Hist, of the United States, vol. n. p. 531. 

28 In 1779 President Reed wrote to Washington : '• We . . . 
hold a respectable place in the military line. We have twelve 
regiments equally filled with any other State and much superior 
to some ; we have a greater proportion raised for the war than 
any other . . . have been by far the greatest sufferers on the 
frontiers, have had more killed, more country desolated," etc. 
(Penn. Arch., 1st Sen, vol. VII. p. 378.) Alexander Graydon 
(Memoirs of a Life Chiefly Passed in Pennsylvania, p. 128) 
says: "Against the expected hostilities Pennsylvania had 
made immense exertions. . . . Had all the other provinces done 
as much in proportion to their ability, and the men been 
enlisted for the war. we might have avoided the hairbreadth 
escapes which ensued." 


of course of the same nalionalily, many of them 
rising afterwards in the ranks.-'^ This is true, for 
instance, of thefour Hiester brothers, their cousin 
]\Iajor-General Joseph Hiester, Colonels Lutz, 
Kichlein, Hubley, Spyker, Nagle, Eckert, Glo- 
ningcr, Antes, Weitzel, Zantzinger, and many 
others. l"hc most distinguished of all, and 
the only two great generals furnished by 
the Germans, were Gen. Nicholas Herkimer ^^ 
and Gen. Peter Muhlenberg, the friend of Wash- 
ington. y\t tlie outbreak of the war the latter 
was pastor of the German church at Blue Ridge, 
Va., and the story is well known how one Sun- 
day he preached on the wrongs of the colonies, 
then putting off his gown, showing his uniform 
beneath, ordered the drums beat at the church 
door for recruits.^^ 

" According to the Troceedings of the Penn. Ger. Soc, vol. 
V. p. i8, in Northampton County 26 c:ipt.iins and 26 lieuten- 
ants were German ; out of 2357 volunteers 2000 were Ger- 

so The hero of Oriskany was a descendant of the New York 
Palatines, a number of whom went to Tulpehocken. Berks 
County, in 1723. Of course no mention is made here of De 
Kalb and Steuben, who do not come under the rubric ot Penn- 
sylvania Germans. 

^' This stf)ry has been rendered into verse by Thomas Buch- 
arian Read : 

" Then from his patriot tongue of flame 
The startling words of freedom came," etc. 


Not only in actual fighting did the Germans 
help the cause, but likewise in furnishing the 
necessary material of war, provisions, horses, 
wagons, etc. Lancaster, Berks, and other coun- 
ties were at that time the most prosperous agri- 
cultural districts in the country. Travellers who 
passed through them all speak of the comfortable 
houses, the stately barns, and the rich fields of 
grain. It would be difficult to conceive what the 
starving army of Washington would have done 
had it not been for these flourishing farms. It 
was especially here that the non-combatant 
Mennonites proved their loyalty; they never de- 
nied requests for provisions. It is interesting to 
note how uniformly the committees appointed by 
Congress to look after these things were com- 
posed largely of Germans. Lancaster County 
seems to have done the most in this respect, then 
York, Berks, Northampton, and finally the Eng- 
lish counties of Chester and Bucks.-^^ \Ye find 

'- We give one extract out of many which could be given 
from the Penn. Archives. In the call for troops on August i, 
1780, York furnished 500, Lancaster 1200, Berks 600, North- 
ampton 500, Chester 800, Bucks 500, Philadelphia County 200, 
and City 300 ; of wagons Cumberland furnished 25, York 25, 
Lancaster 50, Berks 20, Northampton 15, Bucks 15, Philadel- 
phia County 20, and Chester 45. (See Penn. Arch., 2d Ser., 
vol. in. p. 371. Cf. also Archives, ist Ser., vol. v. pp. 301, 
317, 605; vol VI. p. 327; vol. VII. p. 567.) 


ample recognition of these services in the records 
of the time. In Morse's American Geography 
pubHshed at Elizabethtown, N. J., in 1789,23 we 
read : " It was from farms cultivated by these 
men that the American and French armies were 
chiefly fed with bread during the late rebellion, 
and it was from the produce of these farms that 
those millions of dollars were obtained which 
laid the foundation of the Bank of North Amer- 
ica, and which fed and clothed the x^merican 
army till the glorious Peace of Paris." ^^ 

'^ Quoted by Barber, History of New England, New York, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, p. 551. 

^* Cf. also Letter of Prcs. Reed to Col. Brodhead in 1779 : 
"The gratitude of the officers of Pennsylvania for the gen- 
erous supplies afforded by the State does themselves and 
State great honor." (Penn. Arch., ist Sen, vol. vn. p. 570.) 
One of the well-known characters of Philadelphia during the 
Revolution was Christopher Ludwig, Baker-General of the 
Continental army. At one of the provincial conventions to 
which he was delegate. General Mifflin proposed to open pri- 
vate subscriptions for the purchase of firearms. There was 
much opposition to this, when Ludwig thus addressed the 
chair: "Mr. President, I am but a poor gingerbread-baker, 
but you may put my name down for 200 pounds." When 
in 1777 l;e was appointed by Congress Baker-General of the 
army, the proposition was that he should furnish a pound 
of bread for a pound of flour. "No, gentlemen," he said, 
"I do not wish to grow rich by the war; I have money 
enough. I will furnish 135 pounds of bread for every 100 
pounds of flour you put into my hands." (See Penn. Mag., vol. 
XVI. pp. 343 ff.) 


Such is a meagre outline of the part played by 
the Pennsylvania Germans in the Revolution. 
The same spirit manifests itself in all subsequent 
wars down to the last great rebellion. As the 
main discussion of this book is confined to the 
eighteenth century, we must content ourselves 
here with a few brief remarks. It is an interest- 
ing fact that just as we have already said, the first 
company to reach Washington at Cambridge 
was from York County, Pennsylvania, so, 
nearly one hundred years later, the first force to 
reach Lincoln at Washington in 1861 was a regi- 
ment composed of five companies from Reading, 
Allentown, Pottsville, and Lewiston, — almost 
entirely composed of the descendants of the Ger- 
man patriots of Revolutionary days. 

As to the numbers engaged in the Civil War, 
it is not necessary here to go into details. A few 
facts will suffice. The population of Berks 
County in the sixties was about nine-tenths Ger- 
man; the rolls of the eight thousand soldiers fur- 
nished by this county to the Rebellion show by 
actual calculation about the same proportion, or, 
more accurately, 80 per cent of German names; 
this leaves out of account English names, many 
of which are variations of a German original. A 
similar computation of the rolls given in Evans' 
History of Lancaster County show the proportion 


to be somewhat less, about 60 per cent; the ex- 
planation of which, of course, lies in the fact that 
a larger proportion of English-speaking people 
inhabit that county. Although I have not ex- 
tended this somewhat laborious method of ascer- 
taining such facts to Lehigh, York, and other 
counties, a casual inspection of the rolls given in 
the various county histories leads me to believe 
a similar percentage would be found there.^'^" 

When we turn from the scenes of war and ask 
what have the Pennsylvania Germans done for 
the business, artistic, scientific, and literary de- 
velopment of the country, we find ourselves con- 

^' Following are some of the officers above the rank of 
captain in the Civil War who were descendants of the early- 
German and .Swiss settlers of Pennsylvania and, in a few 
cases, of Marjland and Virginia : Generals Beaver, Dechert, 
Gobin, Halderman, Hartranft, Heckman, Heintzelman, Kei- 
fer, Pennypacker, Raum, Wister, Zook, Custer, Rodenbough, 
Small, Sweitzer, Zeilin ; Colonels Frederick, Ilaiipt. Levering, 
Shoup, Spangler, Barnitz, Runkle, Schwenk ; Majors Appel, 
Diller, Reinoehl, Yoder, Kress. Wilhelm, Rittenhouse ; Sur- 
geons Egle, Kemper. Foltz, Oberly, Sternberg; Rear- Admirals 
Ammen, Schley ; Chaplain Ritner ; Chief Engineer Schock. 
For short biographies of the above see " Officers of the Army 
and Navy who served in the Civil War," ed. by Powell and 
Sliijipen. Mention ought perhaps to bo made here of Barbara 
Frietchic, — the heroine of Whittier's legendary poem, — who 
was born at Lancaster, Pa., Dec. 3, 1766, and died at Frede- 
rick, Md., Dec. 18, 1862. lor the true facts concerning her, 
see White's National Cyclopedia (if American Biography. 


fronted with a far more difficult task. In the 
case of poHtics and war we have more or less 
complete statistics as to the men engaged therein, 
and the difficulty is chiefly that of selecting such 
facts as will give a fair picture of the truth. In 
the present case we can only note the names of 
those who have made a national reputation in 
the various departments of life, leaving out of 
account the vast body of the middle class, which 
after all makes up the national life. 

We have seen that the Germans were chiefly iofj^ ^k>iuJcmJ{' 
fji '3 farmers, and their skill, thoroughness, and in- 
dustry have made them pre-eminent in this line. 
Yet even in the eighteenth century there was a 
certain number of mechanics among them, and 
these carried on their trade after reaching the 
New World; living for the most part in the 
country, — for there were few towns and villages 
before 1750, — and carrying on farming at the 
same time Benjamin Rush says that the first 
object of the German mechanic was to become a 
freeholder, and that few Hved in rented houses. 
He also says that they soon acquired the knowl- 
edge of mechanical arts which were more im- 
mediately necessary and useful to a new coun- 
try.^^ This adaptability has shown itself in the 

S6 Cf. also Mittelberger : "It is a surprising fact that young 
people who were born in this land are very clever, docile, and 


development of those manufactures and inven- 
tions which have made Pennsylvania so famous. 
One hundred and fifty years ago a glass-foundry 
was established by the eccentric Baron Stiegel, 
who also manufactured the once almost univer- 
sally used ten-plate stoves; 3" the first paper- 
mill in the United States was built in 1690 by 
William Rittenhouse, a Mennonite preacher; and 
we already have seen how early the Germantown 
weavers became famous. At the present time 
many of the vast iron-foundries and steel plants 
which are found in Reading, Bedilchem, Allen- 
town, and elsewhere have been established and 
arc to-day owned and operated largely by men 
of Swiss-German descent.^^ 

The Germans in the last century and up to 
comparatively recent times seem to have had 
little interest in trade; ^^ yet they have given to 

skilful; for many a one looks at a work of skill or art only a 
few times and imitates it immediately," etc. 

^' The first stoves were jamb-stoves, walled into the jamb of 
the kitchen fireplace, with the back projecting into the adjoin- 
ing room. They bore the naive inscription : 

" Baron Stiegel ist der Mann, 
Der die Ofengiessen kann." 

'^ Among these ''iron kings " may be mentioned II. C. Frick, 
Hon. John Fritz of Bethlehem, Hon. C. C. Kauft'maa of Lan- 
caster Co. 

'* Proud says : " The Germans seem more adapted for agri- 


the world one who is the most widely known 
merchant-prince in the country to-day. 

In the field of learning, the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans have produced a number of men of wide- 
spread reputation, and the names of David Rit- 
tenhouse in astronomy, Joseph Leidy and Caspar 
Wistar in medicine, Muhlenberg in botany, Hal- 
deman in philology and zoology, show that they 
have not been entirely unfruitful in the domain 
of scientific investigation.^^ ]^qj- jg jj- perhaps 
inappropriate to mention here the fact that the 
two largest telescopes in the world were given by 
James Lick, of a prominent family of Lebanon 
County, and Charles Yerkes, whose ancestors 
were among the first German settlers of Mont- 
gomery County. 

In the fine arts we have not much to chronicle ; 
in recent times we note a number of Pennsyl- 
vania names among well-known book-illustra- 
tors, but no one great name. So, too, in what 
may be called national literature, — in contradis- 
tinction to that of a purely local nature, discussed 
elsewhere, — in recent times the names of several 

culture and the improvement of a wilderness, and the Irish for 
trade," etc. (Vol. II. p. 274.) 

*" The well-known naturalist and secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, the late Spencer F. Baird, who was born in Read- 
ing, Berks Co., was of English. Scotch, and German descent. 


of the younger American writers should find a 
place in the present discussion.-*^ In poetry, 
however, Bayard Taylor may be at least partly 
claimed, being in two lines of Pennsylvania- 
German blood. 

*' About tlie only writer who has touched the field for fic- 
tion presented by life among the Pennsylvania farmers is John 
Luther Long, who, in the Century Magazine for March, 1898, 
published a short story entitled "Ein Nix-Nutz." The young 
Canadian poet. Archibald Lampman, who recently died, was 
of Pennsylvania German ancestry. 



The Pennsylvania Germans and their de- 
scendants have in round numbers been in Amer- 
ica for two hundred years; they have shared in 
its prosperity, have borne their part in peace and 
war, and have contributed in no shght degree to 
its success. They are thoroughly American in 
thought, word, and deed. Most of them are com- 
pletely assimilated to the Anglo-Saxon element 
of the American stock, and are scattered far and 
wide over the whole country. And yet in those 
communities where they are massed together they 
still form a more or less distinct ethnical entity, — 
a wedge, so to speak, thrust into the very heart of 
the United States, having their own language, 
their own peculiar religious forms, — in some 
cases, like the Dunkards, not to be found else- 
where in the world, — their own customs, and 
even their own type of figure and countenance.^ 

^ In reading the present chapter we must bear in mind that 
the descendants of the early Swiss and German settlers of 



Of course the German traits are not so striking 
to-day as they were one hundred years ago; 
most of the superstitions and unfortunately 
some of the earnest piety of our grandfathers 
have passed away, while in their place have come 
various traits of American character, some good, 
some bad. Yet even to-day the type is a distinct 
one and strikes at once every observant traveller 
who visits the State. 

When we come to analyze the origin of these 
people, we find that they are composed of two 
great ethnical stems. As we have already seen, 
they came almost entirely from South Germany, 
especially from the Palatinate, Wiirtemberg, 
and Switzerland. The two latter countries are 
purely Alcmannic, while the Palatinate is of 
Prankish basis with a more or less strong ad- 
mixture of Alemannic, especially in those parts 
nearest the French frontiers. The Pennsylvania 
Germans, then, are composed of almost equal 
parts of both these great stems. Many of the 

Pennsylvania form two distinct groups, — those who have re- 
mained on the ancestral farms, and those who have gone to 
the larger cities and to the States to the South and West ; the 
two groups are probably equal in numbers. The latter group 
has been far more completely assimilated by tlieir English 
neighbors, they have intermarried, Anglicized their names, 
and there are probably thousands who are unaware of their 
Pennsylvania-German descent. 


traits given by Riehl and Dandliker, — the 
Prankish spirit of independence, the Schwaben- 
trotz of the Alemanni, the indomitable industry 
of both and their joy in labor, their extraordi- 
nary skill in agriculture, their frugality, honesty, 
and serious view of the responsibilities of life, — 
all these are not only cited in the works of men 
like Rush, Muhlenberg, and others, but are ob- 
servable even to this day in the rural districts of 

It is interesting to compare the character, 
traits, habits, customs, and ideals of the early set- 
tlers of Pennsylvania as they were in the Father- 
land with those of their descendants in the years 
that have elapsed since their coming. Indeed in 
no other way can we get a true conception of the 
real genius of a people. No one would think of 
studying the character of New-Englanders with- 
out some knowledge of their Puritan ancestors 
as they were in England. Such a comparative 
study as this shows us the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans not as an isolated phenomenon in the midst 
of English settlements, but the bearers to the 
New World of another civilization, marked 
with their own character and customs brought 
from the Fatherland. We have given above 
some of the common traits of character; still 
more striking is the resemblance in customs. 


such as methods of farming, style of houses, love 
for flowers and music, affection and care for 
horses and cattle, religious toleration, and, per- 
haps more than anything else, the identity of 
superstitious customs and beUefs. 

One trait has persisted down to the present — 
the strong spirit of conservatism. This has from 
the very beginning been blamed by their Eng- 
lish-speaking neighbors, who a century and a 
half ago called them stubborn and headstrong; 
and even to-day the State historian is apt to call 
attention to the fact that the Germans are slow 
to move along those lines in which the Anglo- 
Saxon is rushing forward. This conservatism 
has its good and its bad sides. No doubt it 
would be better for some village communities to 
have more of the " hustle " of the West, or of 
the education and refinement of certain aristo- 
cratic communities of New England. On the 
other hand, it is certain that lack of repose is a 
great weakness in our national life; " Ohne Hast, 
ohne Rast " is an excellent motto, but Americans 
in general have cut theGoethean proverb into two 
parts, and thrown away the first. Students of eth- 
nology like Riehl and Freytag have constantly 
emphasized the enormous value to a nation of a 
strong body of farmers.^ 
' Thus the former says (Biirgerliche Gesellschaft, p. 41): 


It is not meant here that it is better for any 
particular individual to be a farmer, although it 
would seem that an independent life of comfort, 
even though one of toil, such as the Pennsyl- 
vania farmer enjoys, would be preferable to the 
half-slavery of shop, factory, or counting-house 
which, for the majority of city people, is the only 
prospect in life. It certainly is, however, good 
for a country to have a substantial, prosperous 
substratum of farmers, for to-day, even as yester- 
day and forever, the basis of national prosperity 
is and must remain in the tilling of the soil. I for 
one do not wish to see the day when the sons of 
the old Pennsylvania-German stock shall, like 
those of the Puritans of New England, be fired 
with ambition to migrate en masse to the city 
and to desert the homesteads of their ancestors, 
and especially to throw away as useless the ex- 
traordinary skill in farming which has come 

''Es ruht eine unliberwindliche konservative Macht in der 
deutschen Nation, ein fester, trotz allem Wechsel beharrender 
Kern — und das sind unsere Bauern. . . . Der Bauer ist die 
Zukunft der deutschen Nation. Unser Volksleben erfrischt 
und verjlingt sich fort und fort durch die Bauern." Freytag 
(vol. II., 2. Abth., p. 170) says: '-Audi deshalb liegt die 
letzte Grundlage fur das Gedeihen der Volker in der einfachen 
Thatigkeit des Landmannes,"etc. ; and again: "Je reichlicher 
und ungehinderter neue Kraft aus den untem Schichten in die 
anspruchsvolleren Kreise aufsteigt, desto kriiftiger und ener- 
gischer wird das politische Leben des Volkes sein kcinnen." 


down to them as the inheritance of thirty genera- 
tions of ancestors, who have made Eastern Penn- 
sylvania — and before that the banks of the Upper 
Rhine — a veritable garden. 

Not that no changes should be welcomed by 
them. The farmer should share in whatever is 
of service in the improvements of modern life. 
Books and pictures and music and flowers char- 
acterize the homes of many of our farmers to- 
day; may they increase more and more! Those 
who have had an opportunity of observing the 
conditions of life in the rural districts for the 
last twenty-five years, cannot help noticing great 
changes. In some parts of Lancaster County 
German is being rapidly replaced by English, 
even in the home life, and in the most remote 
communities. This is not so true of Lehigh, 
Berks, and Northampton counties, but it seems 
hardly to be doubted that the time is not far dis- 
tant when the Pennsylvania-German dialect will 
be a thing of the past. 

Railroads, telegraphs, and trolley-cars are con- 
stantly levelling the differences between town 
and country, and making the inhabitants of 
Eastern Pennsylvania a more and more homo- 
genous mass. A potent factor of this process is 
the constant intermarrying between Germans 
and their English-speaking neighbors. In no 


State in the Union is there a more thorough 
minghng of nationahties than here. There is 
hardly one of the old families of Philadelphia, for 
instance, in which does not run English, Welsh, 
Scotch-Irish, Dutch, French, and German blood. 
This fact constantly meets the student of Penn- 
sylvania genealogy. Away back in the eigh- 
teenth century Muhlenberg frequently speaks of 
the mixed marriages which he was called on 
to perform, and from that time down to the pres- 
ent the process has gone on, until to-day it is not 
too much to say that nearly every old family with 
an English or Scotch-Irish name has some strain 
of German blood in it, and vice versa? 
There are some who are impatient at the sug- 

' This is true of the Morris, Shoemaker, Levering, Keen, 
Wistar, Keim, Ross, Evans, and many other v/ell-known 
Pennsylvania families. As being of more than mere genealog- 
ical interest, a few individual examples are here given. The 
mother of Senator Simon Cameron was a Pfautz, his wife was 
a Brua; Judge Jeremiah Black, who has been called "in some 
respects the ablest man Pennsylvania has produced since the 
Revolution," was partly of German descent; we have already 
mentioned in other connections Spencer F. Baird, Bayard 
Taylor, and Archibald Lampman. The late Governor Russell 
of Massachusetts is said to have been a descendant of Abra- 
ham Witmer, who built in 1799 the fine old stone bridge over 
the Conestoga near Lancaster (see Papers of Lane. Co. Hist. 
Soc, Oct. 1898). Finally, the wife of Lord Curzon, viceroy of 
India, belongs to the Maryland branch of Pennsylvania- 
German stock. 


gestion that an infusion of English blood can add 
anything to the old-fashioned Pennsylvania- 
German stock; and yet, perhaps, there is no rea- 
son for this feeling. Each nation has its own 
characteristic features, its own strength and 
weakness. It seems to be universally acknowl- 
edged that the German character is marked by 
honesty, industry, deep religious spirit, and many 
other minor yet noble traits. It is this deep in- 
wardness, as Dr. Schaflf calls it, that has made the 
German race the founders of Protestantism, and 
that has produced in their midst deep thinkers 
and great scholars. The Anglo-Saxons have 
other attributes in greater measure, perhaps, — 
energy, individual initiative, power of self-gov- 
ernment, — attributes which have made them the 
empire-builders of the world. Surely the Penn- 
sylvania Germans should be glad to see these 
peculiarly English traits engrafted on their own 
stock; and the Anglo-Saxon American may on 
his side be glad to see the elements of steadiness, 
probity, and even conservatism mingle with the 
ever-increasing forward movement of American 
civilization. Some fifty years ago a wise German 
observer of American life ^ saw the advantage 
to be derived from this union. He says: "Could 

* Francis Lieber, The Stranger in America, p. 199. 


but a little of this quickness in practical percep- 
tion and boldness in embarking in the most dar- 
ing enterprises be engrafted on German steadi- 
ness and thoroughness, it would produce fine 
fruit indeed." And we cannot close this brief 
survey of an interesting subject more appro- 
priately than Vv'ith the words of Dr. Philip Schafif, 
who, speaking of the great mission of Germans 
in America, declares that they should " energet- 
ically appropriate the Anglo-Saxon American 
nature and its excellencies, and as far as possible 
penetrate it with the wealth of their own German 
temper and life." 




A KNOWLEDGE of family names is often of 
great value for the genealogist and even for the 
historian. This is especially true when, owing 
to change in environment, such names have un- 
dergone great variations of form. For this rea- 
son a brief outline of the subject is given here, 
so far as it concerns the group of people dis- 
cussed in this book. Pennsylvania-German 
family names, like all other German names, may 
be divided into three distinct classes: first, those 
derived from personal names; second, those de- 
rived from occupation; and third, those derived 
from the place where the individual lived (includ- 
ing house-signs) or whence he came. In this 
last class may likewise be properly included 
nicknames, or those due to personal peculiarities, 
physical or mental. 

The names forming the first class are by far 

the oldest, often running back to the early cen- 



turies of the Christian era, and in every 
case arc of noble and dignified meaning, in 
which the old German love for war, belief in 
the northern mythology, and ideals of life, are 
clearly seen.^ These personal names exist to- 
day in Pennsylvania, some of them but little 
changed; such are Albrecht = of distinguished 
race (P. G. Albright); Arnwald = one who rules 
as the eagle; Bernhard — strong as a bear; Con- 
rad = bold in council; Dietrich = ruler of peo- 
ple; Eberhart = strong as a boar; Eckert = 
strong sword; Garman = spearman; Gebhard = 
generous giver (P. G. Kephart); Gerhard 
= strong spear; Gottschalk = servant of God; 
Hartman = strong man; Heidrich = of noble 
rank; Hildebrandt=battle-sword; Hubert=bright 
of intellect; Irmintraut= friend of the Walkyrie 
Thrudr (P. G. Ermentrout); Luhr = war-peo- 
ple; Reinhard = strong in counsel; Reinhold = 
ruler of council; Trautman = follower of the 
Walkyrie Thrudr. 

In most cases, however, these double-stem 
names were shortened by dropping the second 
stem, whence such names as Kuhn (from Kun- 

' For the meaning of German names see Heintze, Die 
Deutschen Familicnnamen; Tobler-Meyer, Deutsche Familicn- 
namen (Swiss); Steiib, Oberdeutsche Familiennamen. In the 
above list of names P. G. = Pennsylvania German. 


rat), Hein (from Heinrich), Ott (from Ottmann), 
Traut (from Trautmann), Bar, Barr (from Ber- 
liard). To these stems diminutive sufifixes were 
added; thus from / we have the forms Biirki 
(from Burkhard), Ebi (from Ebarhard), EgH 
(from Agilbrecht), Hagi (from Haginbert), 
Lichti (from Ludger: P. G. Light), StaheH (from 
Stahal), Wehi (from Wahher), Geissle (from 
Gisalhart : P. G. Yeissley) ; from izo we get Boss 
and Blitz (from Bodomar), Dietz (from Dietrich), 
Fritz and Fritschi (from Friedrich: cf. Barbara 
Frietchie), Heintz (from Heinrich), Kuntz (from 
Kunrat: P. G. Koons and Kuhns), Landis, Lentz, 
and Lantz (from Landfrid), Liitz (from Ludwig), 
Seitz (fromSiegfrid: P. G. Sides), Tietz (from Diet- 
rich), Waltz (fromWalther) ; from iko we get Frick 
(from Friedrich), lUig and the genitive Hilleges 
(from Hildebrand), Kiindig (from Gundobert), 
Leidig (from Luithart) ; from ilo we get Ebli and 
Eberh (from Ebarhard), Bechtel (from Berch- 
told), Bickel (from Botger), Diehl (from Diet- 
rich), Hirzel (from Hinizleip: P. G. Hartzell), 
Hubeli (from Hugiibert), Markel and MarkH 
(from Markwald), Meih (from Maganhard), 
NageH (from Nagalrich), Rubli (from Hrode- 
bert = Robert), Schnabeli (from root Sneo = 
snow: P. G. Snavely) ; from s plus / we get Kiinzel 


(from Kunrat), Reitzcl (from Ricohard = Rich- 
ard), and Tietzcl (from Dietrich). 

From all the above forms patronymics in 
mann, inger, and Icr are formed: Bailsman, 
Beidleman, Denlinger, Dietzinger, Gehringer, 
Grissinger, Heintzelman, Hirtzler, Hollinger. 

In addition to the purely German personal 
names we have also many names taken from 
Biblical characters and from the lives of 
saints: Bartel (from Bartholomaeus), Klause 
(Nicholas), Martin, Theiss, and Theissen (I\Iat- 
thias), Peters, Hensel (Johannes), Jiiggi and 
Jackli (Jacobus: P. G. Yeagy and Yackley), 
Jorg, Jorges (George: P. G. Yerrick and 
Yerkes), Brosius (Ambrosius), Bastian (Sebas- 
tian), Flory (Florus), Johst (Justus: P. G. Yost), 

The second class of Pennsylvania-German 
family names are derived from the occupation of 
the individual; among the best known are Becker 
(baker), Baumgartner (orchard-grower), Brennei- 
sen (blacksmith), Brunncr (well-digger), Drcher, 
Trachsel,Trechsler (turner), Fischer, Gerber (tan- 
ner, currier: P. G. Garver), Glockner (bell-ringer: 
P. G. Klackner), Heilman (doctor), Huber (one 
who owns a /nr&^ = small farm), Jager (hunter), 
Karcher (carter), Kohler, Koehler (coal-burner: 
P. G. Kaler, Cayler), Kaufman (merchant), 
Kiifer, Kiifner (cooper), Kiister (sexton), Maurer 


(mason), Metzger (butcher), Lehmann (one un- 
der feudal tenure), Leineweber (linen-weaver), 
Miiller, Probst (provost), Reifschneider, Rie- 
menschneider (harness-maker), Sauter, Suter 
(shoemaker), Schaffner (steward), Schenck (cup- 
bearer), Scherer (barber), Schlegel (one who ham- 
mers), Schmidt (smith), Schneider (tailor), Schrei- 
ber (writer), Schreiner (joiner), Schiitz (shooter, 
archer: P. G. Sheets), Schultz (mayor), Siegrist 
(sexton), Spengler (tin-smith), Steinmetz (stone- 
cutter), Tschudi (judge: Swiss), Vogt (bailiff), 
Wagner (wagoner), Wannemaker (basket-maker), 
Weber (weaver), Wirtz (landlord), Widmeyer 
Widmer (one who has land from church or mon- 
astery), Ziegler (brick-maker), Zimmerman (car- 

The first subdivision of names in the third class 
comprises those which denote the place where 
one lives or whence one comes; such are Al- 
gauer (from the Allgau in Switzerland), Alten- 
dorfer (from village in St. Gall, Switz.), Amweg 
(beside the road), Amend (at end of village), 
Bach, Bacher, Bachman (who live near a brook), 
Berner (from Berne, Switz.), Basler (from Basel), 
Berger (lives on mountain), Beyer (a Bavarian), 
Biemensdorfer, Blickensdorfer (from village in 
Canton Zurich), Boehm (a Bohemian), Brech- 
biihl (unploughed hill: P. G. Brightbill and 


Brackbill), Breitenbach (village in Solothurn, 
Switz.), Brubacher (village in Zurich), Biittig- 
kofifer (from village Biittikofen, Berne), Det- 
weiler (village in Canton Zurich), Diefenbach 
(Tiefenbach, in Canton Uri, Switz.), Diffen- 
dorfer (from Tiefendorf), Fliickiger (village in 
Canton Berne), Fahrni (village in Berne), Prick 
(in Aargau, Switz.), Haldi, Haldeman (from 
Halden, common name for village in Switzer- 
land), Hofstetter (name of several villages in 
Zurich, St. Gall, and Berne), Eschelman (from 
Aeschi, village in Canton Berne), Imgrund (in 
hollow land), Imboden (in bottom-lands), Imhof 
(in farm-yard), Kollicker (village in Aargau), 
Longenecker (village in Berne), Mellinger (vil- 
lage in Aargau), Neuenschwander (village in 
Berne), Oberholtzer (sever?! villages in Berne), 
Riiegsegger (Berne: P. G. Ricksecker), Schollen- 
berger (castle and village, Zurich), Schwab (a 
Swabian: P. G. Swope), Urner (from Canton 
Uri), Zug (Canton Zug), Ziircher (from ZiJrich).^ 
During the Middle Ages the houses were not 
numbered as now, but had signs painted on 
them, something after the manner of hotels at 
the present time. From these many names 

' Some of these names may come from homonymous places 
in the Palatinate ; almost all the Lancaster County family- 
names, however, which are derived from places, are of Swiss 


were derived: Bar (bear), Baum (tree), Bieber 
(beaver), Bischof (bishop), Engel (angel), Fas- 
nacht (Slirove-Tuesday), Faust (fist), Fuchs(fox), 
Fiinfrock (five-coats), Haas (hare), Hahn (rooster), 
Hehii (helmet), Hertzog (duke: P. G. Hartsook), 
Holtzapfel (wild-apple), Kalb (calf: P. G. Kulp, 
Gulp), Kaiser (emperor), Konig (king), Krebs 
(crab), Miinch (monk), Oechsli (little ox: P. G. 
Exley), Pfaff (priest), Ritter (knight), Vogel 
(bird), Voegli (little bird: P. G. Feagley), Wiir- 
fel (die, cube). Wolf. 

Finally we have names given from personal 
peculiarities. Such are: Braun, Diirr (dry, thin), 
Frohlich (cheerful: P. G. Frailey), Frei (free), 
Freytag (Friday), Gut (good), Hiibschmann 
(handsome), Hoch (tall), Jiing (young), Kahl 
(bald), Klein (small), Kleindienst (small ser- 
vice), Krause (curly), Krumbein (crooked legs), 
Kurtz (short), Lang (long), Lebengut (good- 
liver: P. G. Livingood), Rau, Ranch (rough), 
Reich (rich), Roth (red), Rothrock (red-coat), 
Rothaermel (red-sleeve), Schwartz (black), Sel- 
tenreich (seldom rich), Weiss (white) .^ 

Such were some of the names brought by the 
Pennsylvania Germans from the Palatinate and 
Switzerland to the New World. It was but nat- 

' The author has written an extended treatment of this sub- 
ject, which is soon to appear in the Americana Germanica. 


ural that these names should undergo certain 
changes in their new environments — changes 
which took place from the very beginning. 

An interesting illustration of the way in which 
many names received an English form is seen in 
the Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, vol, 
XVII., which contains a list of the German and 
Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania during the eigh- 
teenth century, the names of the vessels in which 
they came, and the dates of their naturalization. 
Often there are two lists given, one called the 
" original list," which apparently was made by 
an English-speaking person, who took down the 
names as they were given to him orally, and who 
spelt them phonetically. These duplicate lists 
throw a great deal of light on the pronunciation 
of the names by the immigrants themselves. We 
find the same person's name spelled Kuntz and 
Coones, Kuhle and Keeley, Ruber and Hufifer, 
Gaul and Kool, Vogelin and Fagley, Krautz and 
Grauce, Froehlich and Frailick. Often there are 
some marvellous examples of phonetic spelling. 
Thus, Albrecht Graf^ is written Albrake Grove, 
Georg Heinrich Mertz is called Jurig Henrich 
March, and Georg Born is metamorphosed into 
Yerrick Burry. Thus even before the immigrant 
landed the impulse toward a change of name was 


Sometimes the change was gradual, and we 
may trace many intermediate steps between the 
original name and its present form. Thus, for 
Krehbiel we have Krehbill, Grebill, Grabill, and 
finally Graybill. So Krumbein gives us Krum- 
bine, Grumbein, and Grumbine, and Kuehbortz 
gives Kieportz and Keeports. Often members 
of the same family spelled their names differently. 
In Lancaster there once lived two brothers, one 
named Carpenter, the other Zimmermann, and 
we are told by Francis Lieber (The Stranger in 
America), that one family in Pennsylvania had 
the three forms, — Klein, Small and Little. 

In some cases the changes were slight, owing 
to the similarity between the English and the 
German, as in Baker (Becker), Miller (Mueller), 
Brown (Braun), Weaver (Weber), Beaver (Bie- 
ber), Pepper (Pfeffer); of course Schmidt be- 
came almost at once Smith. In other cases the 
differences are so great that it is difficult to dis- 
cover the original German form, and it is only by 
searching public documents and church records 
that the truth is found. Who, for instance, could 
see any connection between Seldomridge and 
Seltenreich, or between Rhoades and Roth? Yet 
nothing is surer than that in many cases these 
names are one and the same. It is undoubtedly 
true that most Pennsylvania Germans of modern 


times have no conception of the changes that 
have taken place. The remark of a farmer who 
spelled his name Minich (with the guttural pro- 
nounced), " Oh, that INIinnick is an Irishman; he 
spells his name with a A'," illustrates the igno- 
rance of the people in regard to their own names; 
for Minich arid Minnick both come from the 
original Muench. 

In the present discussion we must bear in 
mind that we are speaking of the names of those 
Germans who came to America before the Revo- 
lution, and who were subject to an entirely dif- 
ferent set of influences from the German of re- 
cent times, who changes his name consciously 
and bodily into English. The names of the early 
Pennsylvania Germans were changed uncon- 
sciously and according to forces with which they 
had little to do. The difference between the two 
is like that between the mots savants and the mots 
populaircs of French philology. 

These German names almost all came from the 
Palatinate and Switzerland. Even to-day we can 
trace the Swiss origin of many, as, for instance, 
Urner (from Uri), Johns (Tschantz), Neagley 
(Naegeli), Bossier (Baseler). Some are of French 
Huguenot origin, which by combined German 
arid English influence have often received a not 
very elegant or euphonious forfii: examples are 


Lemon (Le Mon), Bushong (Beauchamp), and 
Shunk (Jean); the original Fierre was changed 
to German Faehre, and later became anglicized 
into Ferree.* 

The number of different ways of spelling even 
the simplest names is often surprisingly large: 
thus, for the original Graf we find to-day Graaf, 
Graff, Groff, Groft, Graft, and Grove. So Baer 
gives us Bear, Bare, Bair. Of course the vagaries 
of English orthography are largely responsible 
for this. An interesting fact to note in this connec- 
tion is the difference yet to be seen between the 
same names in town and country. The farmers 
of Pennsylvania are a conservative people, and 
even to-day, after nearly two hundred years of 
settlement in America, the people still speak their 
dialect. Naturally the cities were most subject 
to English influence, and it is there that we find 
the greatest changes in names. Take as an exam- 
ple of this the name of Kuntz (with the later forms 
of Kuhns and Koons) in the town and environs 
of Allentown. In the town proper there are 
recorded in the directory twenty-two Koonses, 

* Other Huguenot names in Pennsylvania are Fortune (Ford- 
ney), Correll, Flory, De Frehn, Farny, Ruby, Salade, Bene- 
tum, Bevier, Bertalot, Broe (Brua), Lefevre, Levan, Erny 
(this name may be Swiss), Gobain, Hubert. (See Keiper, 
Franzosische Familiennamen in der Pfalz, and Geschichts- 
blatter des deutschen Huguenotten-Vereins.) 


twelve Kuntzes, and fourteen Kuhnses; while in 
the smaller villages around Allentown we find 
sixty-two Kuhnses, a few Kuntzes, and no 

There were three ways in which the change of 
names took place: first, by translation; second, 
by spelling German sounds according to English 
methods; and third, ])y analogy. The former is 
the most natural in cases where English equiva- 
lents exist for the German; hence for Zimmer- 
mann we have Carpenter; for Steinbrenner, 
Stoneburner; for Schumacher, Shoemaker; for 
Seidensticker, Silkknitter; for Lebengut, Livin- 
good; for Fuchs, Fox; for Hoch, High; and so 
forth. Often only half the name is translated, 
while the other half is changed phonetically, as 
in Slaymaker (for Schleiermacher), Wanamaker 
(for Wannemacher). 

But the true field for the philologist is found 
in the second class, that of English spelling of 
German sounds. 

The a in Pennsylvania German was pro- 
nounced broadly, like English aic, and this 
sound is represented in such names as Groflf and 
Grove (from Graff), Swope (Schwab), Ault (Alt), 
Aughey (Ache), and Rawn (Rahn). E was pro- 
nounced like English a. and this gives us the 
names Staley (Stehli), Gable (Gebel), Amwake 


(Amweg). /, pronounced ce, gives Reed (Rith), 
Sheeleigh (Schillig), also written Shelley. U in 
German has two sounds, one long and one short. 
The long sound is represented by 00 in the names 
Hoon (Huhn), Fooks (Fuchs), Booker (Bucher), 
Hoover (Huber). The short sound, being un- 
familiar to English ears, was lengthened, as 
Kootz (Kutz), Zook (Zug). Sometimes an h 
was added to indicate the lengthening of the 
vowel, as in Johns (Tschantz), Kuhns (Kuntz). 
is usually retained, although sometimes spelled 
oa, as in Hoak (Hoch), Boats (Botz). 

Of the diphthongs, an naturally is spelled otv 
or on, as in Bowman (Bauman), Foust (Faust), 
Mowrer (Maurer). 

More interesting and complicated than, the 
above is the change in the diphthong ci. The reg- 
ular German pronunciation of this is repre- 
sented by English i or y: hence such names as 
Hines (Heinz), Smyser (Schmeiser), Whitesel 
(Weitzel), Snyder (Schneider), Tice (Theiss), 
Rice (Reis), Knipe (Kneipe). In the names Heil- 
man, Weiser, and Beiler the German spelling and 
sound are both retained. The Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, however, pronounced ci as English a, and 
thus we find the names Sailor (Seller), Graty 
(Kreidig), Hailman (Heilman), Espenshade (Es- 


The mixed vowels were simplified, o becom- 
ing c in Derr (Doerr), Sener (Soehner), Kelker 
(Koellicker), Mellick (Moehlich), ca in Early 
(Oehrle), Beam (Boehm), and a in Hake 
(Hoeck). Ue is long and short in German. The 
former gives ce, as in Keeney (Kuehne), Keeley 
(Kuehle); the latter usually gives i, as in Bitner 
(Buettner), Kindig (Kuendig), Bixler (Buechs- 
ler), Tliss (Huess), Miller (Mueller). In Sheets 
(Schuetz), however, short ue is lengthened to ee. 

In the following names the umlaut is ignored: 
Stover (Stoever), Shroder (Schroeder), Shober 

Of course the changes undergone by con- 
sonants are not so great as in the case of vowels, 
yet we have some interesting phenomena. / is 
naturally changed to 3-; hence Young (Jung), 
Yost (Johst). Z becomes .y in many names, as 
Curts (Kurtz), Butts (Butz). K and c, and often 
g, are interchangeable, as in Cofifman (Kauff- 
man), Cline (Kline), Capehart (Kephart = Geb- 
hard), Grider (Kreider), Givler (Kubler). At the 
end of a word, ig usually becomes y, as in Leiby 
(Leibig), Leidy (Leidig). T is changed to d in 
Sides (Seitz), Road (Roth), Widmayer (Wit- 


H is omitted in Sener (Soehner), Cole (Kohl), 
Fraley (Froehlich), Lcman (Lehman). Pf be- 


comes simplified to /" in Foutz (Pfautz), or to p 
in Kopp (Kopf). B was often pronounced by the 
Pennsylvania Germans like v, and this gives rise 
to a large number of new names, among them 
being the following: Everly (Eberle), Hoover 
(Huber), Garver (Gerber), — also written Carver, 
— Whitescarver (Weissgerber), Lively (Leibly), 
Suavely (Schnaebele), Beaver (Bieber). 

The change of cli into gli has also brought in a 
large number of names, as in Light (Licht), Al- 
bright (Albrecht), Hambright (Hambrecht), 
Slaughter (Schlachter), and the numerous class 
of names in baugh (bach), as Baugher (Bacher), 
Harbaugh (Herbach), Brightenbaugh (Breiten- 
bach), Rodenbough (Rothenbach). Cli usually 
becomes k in the suffix maker; probably this is 
largely due to translation. Of course sch is sim- 
plified to sh or .y in the names Slagle (Schlegel), 
Slatter (Schlatter), Shriner (Schreiner). 

One of the most interesting of all these 
changes is that of cr to ar, thus illustrating a 
phenomenon common to all languages. As the 
Latin mercantein becomes French marcJiand, as 
the English Derby is pronounced Darby, Clerk 
Clark, and so forth, so the German Gerber be- 
comes Garver, Herbach becomes Harbaugh, 
Berger becomes Barger, Werfel becomes Warfel, 
Merkley becomes Markley, Hertzell becomes 


Hartzell, and Herzog becomes Hartsook. Simi- 
lar to this is the change of Spengler to Spangler. 

Interesting also is the tendency to introduce 
an extra syllable between certain consonants, as 
Minich for Muench, Sherrick for Sherk, Widener 
for Waidner, Keneagy for Gnege, Yerrick for 

As in all language-changes, so here, analogy 
exerted more or less influence. When the simple 
spelling of foreign sounds did not produce an 
English-looking name, often a name which re- 
sembled the German in sound or appearance was 
substrtuted, as, for example, Rush for Roesch. 
This is probably the explanation of the inorganic 
^ in Rhoades (for Roth), Richards (for Reichert). 
Probably the spelling baugh for hack may be 
more or less influenced by such names as Laugh- 
lin, Gough, or by American names of Dutch 


The following list contains the chief works which 
treat of the various topics discussed in this book. It is 
here given as a guide to those who wish to pursue the 
subject further. 


The Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania Archives, Phila. and Harrisburg, 1852-1900. 

Three Series. 
The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, vols. 2-5. 1896- 

Americana Germanica. Pub. by M. D. Learned of the 

University of Pennsylvania. 
American Historical Association, Annual Reports of, 

Washington, 1889-1899. 
Hazard, Samuel. The Register of Pennsylvania. Phila. 

Hallesche Nachrichten. Ed. by W. J. Mann and B. M. 

Schmucker. Allentown and Philadelphia, 1886, 1895. 
Notes and Queries, Historical and Genealogical. Chiefly 

relating to interior Pennsylvania. Ed. by W. H. Egle. 

Harrisburg. From 1879 on. 
The Pennsylvania German. Issued quarterly, Ed. by 

Rev. P. C. Croll. Lebanon, Pa., 1900. 

* This Bibliography contains only part of the sources used in the 
preparation of this book, sources which include not only printed 
material, but church and town records, traditions, and personal obser- 



The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 
Pub. by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Phil- 
adelphia. Vols. 1-22. 

The Perkiomen Region, Past and Present. Ed. by H. 
S. Dotterer. Issued periodically. Vols, i and 2 have 
appeared. Philadelphia. 

Eckhoff, A. In der neuen Heimath. 2. Ausgabe. New 
York, 1885. 

Loher, Franz. Geschichte und Zusiiinde der Deutschen in 
Amcrika. 2. Ausgabe. Gottingen, 1885. 

Baer, Geo. F. The Pennsylvania Germans. Myerstown, 

Beidelman, William. The Story of the Pennsylvania 

Germans. Easton, 1898. 

Seidensticker, Oswald. Bilder aus der Deutsch-Pennsyl- 
vanischen Geschichte. New York, 1886. 

Barber, J. W. The History and Antiquities of New Eng- 
land, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 3d ed. 
Hartford, 1S56. 

Fiske, John. The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. 
Boston and New York, 1899. 

Bolles, A. S. Pennsylvania, Province and State: a history 
from 1690 to 1790. Philadelphia and New York, 1899. 

Bowen, Eli. The Pictorial Sketch-book of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia, 1852. 

Burrowes, T. H. State Book of Pennsylvania. 2d ed. 
Philadelphia, 1847. 

Egle, \V. H. History of the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania. 3d ed. Philadelphia, 1883. 

Fisher, S. L. The Making of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 

The True William Penn. Philadelphia, 1900. 

Franklin, Benjamin. An Historical Review of Pennsyl- 
vania from its Origin. Philadelphia, 1812. 

Gordon, T. F. The History of Pennsylvania from its 
Discovery by Europeans to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence in 1776. Philadelphia, 1829. 


Histoire Naturelle et Politique de la Pensylvanie et de 
rEtablissement des Quakers. Paris, 1768. 

Proud, Robert. The History of Pennsylvania in North 

America. Philadelphia, 1797. 
Sharpless, Isaac. A Quaker Experiment in Government. 
Philadelphia, 1898. 

Egle. W. H. Pennsylvania Genealogies, chiefly Scotch- 
Irish and German. Harrisburg, 1896. 

Weiser, C. Z. The Life of Conrad Weiser, the German 
Pioneer, Patriot, and Patron of Two Races. 2d ed. 
Reading, 1899. 

Bean, T. W. History of Montgomery County. Philadel- 
phia, 1884. 

Diffenderffer, F. R. -The Three Earls: an Historical Sketch. 
New Holland, Pa., 1876. 

Egle, W. H. History of the Counties of Dauphin and 
Lebanon. Philadelphia, 1883. 

Ellis, Franklin, and Evans, Samuel. History of Lancaster 
County. Philadelphia, 1883. 

Harris, Alexander. A Biographical History of Lancaster 
County. Lancaster, 1872. 

Mombert, J. I. An Authentic History of Lancaster County. 
Lancaster, 1869. 

Rupp, I. D. History of Lancaster County. Lancaster, 

History of Northampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Carbon, 

and Schuylkill Counties. Harrisburg, 1845. 

History of Berks County. 

Montgomery, M. L. History of Berks County. Philadel- 
phia, 1886. 

Gibson, John. History of York County. Chicago, 1886. 

Mathews, Alfred, and Hungerford, A. N. History of the 
Counties of Lehigh and Carbon. Philadelphia, 1884. 

Walton, J. S., and Brumbaugh, M. G. Stories of Pennsyl- 
vania, or School Readings from Pennsylvania History. 
New York, 1897. 


Scharf, J. T., and Wesicoit, T. History of Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia, 1884. 
Watson, John F. Annals of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, 

Bernheim, G. D. History of German Settlements in North 

and South Carolina. Philadelphia, 1872. 
Chambers, T. F. The Early Germans of New Jersey. 

Dover, 1895. 
Mellick, A. D. The Story of an Old Farm. Somerville, 

N. J.. 1889. 
Cobb, S. H. The Story of the Palatines : an Episode in 

Colonial History. New York, 1897. 
Kapp, Friedrich. Geschichte der Deutschen Einwanderung 

in Amerika. Erster Band. Die Deutschen im Staate 

New York bis zum Anfang des neunzehten Jahrhun- 

derts. Leipzig, 1868. (An abridgment of the same 

was published in New York, 1S84.) 
O'Callaghan, E. B. The Documentary History of the 

State of New York. Albany, 1S50. 
Schultz, Edward T. First Settlements of Germans in 

Maryland. Frederick, Md., 1896. 
Strobel, P. A. The Salzburgers and their Descendants. 

Baltimore, 1855. 


Freytag, Gustav. Bilder aus der deutschen Vergangenheit 

5. Aufiage. Leipzig, 1867. 
Hausser, Ludwig. Geschichte der Rheinischen Pfalz 

Heidelberg, 1856. 
Heintz, P. K. Das ehemalige Fiirstentum Pfalz-Zwei 

brUcken wahrend des dreissigjahrigen Krieges. 3 

Ausflage. Kaiserslautern, n.d. 
Horn, W. D. von. Johannes Scherer, oder Tonsor der Wan 

derpfarrer in der Unterpfalz. 2. Auflage. Wiesbaden, 

lUustrirte Geschichte von Wiirtemberg. Stuttgart, 1886. 


Dandliker, Karl. Geschichte der Schweiz, in drei Banden. 

Zurich, 1893-95. 
Wurtembergische Neujahrsblatter. Published annually. 

Geschichtsblattef des Deutschen Huguenotten-Vereins. 

Published at intervals. Magdeburg. 
Robbiano, L. v. Die Rose von Heidelberg. Leipzig, 1872. 

(Historical novel.) 


Diffenderffer, F. R. The German Exodus to England, in 
1709. Lancaster, 1897. (Proceedings of Pennsylvania- 
German Society, vol. 7.) 

Jacobs, Henry E. The German Emigration to America, 
1709-1740. Lancaster, 1898. ■ (Proceedings of Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society, vol. 8.) 

Pastorius, F. D. Beschreibung von Pennsylvanien. Her- 
ausgegeben von Friedrich Kapp. Crefeld, 18S4. 
(Partly translated in Old South Leaflets, No. 95.) 

Penn, William. A Collection of the Works of. In two vol- 
umes. London, 1726. 

Penny-packer, S. W. Historical and Biographical Sketches. 

The Settlement of Germantown, Pennsylvania, and 

the Beginning of German Immigration to North Amer- 
ica. Lancaster, 1899. (Proceedings of Pennsylvania- 
German Society, vol. 9.) 

Richards, M. H. The German Emigration from New 
York Province into Pennsylvania. Lancaster, 1899. 
(Proceedings of Pennsylvania German Society, vol 9.) 

Rupp, I. D. A collection of upwards of 30,000 names of 
German, Swiss, Dutch, French, and other immigrants 
to Pennsylvania from 1727-1776. 2d ed. Philadelphia, 

(The same lists are contained in Pennsylvania Arch., 
2d Series, vol. xvii.) 


Sachse, J. F. The Fatherland (1450-1700). Philadelphia. 
1897. (Proceedings of Pennsylvania-German Society, 

vol. 7.) 
Seidensticker, Oswald. Geschichte der Deutschen Gesell- 
schaft von Pennsylvanien, 1764-1876. Philadelphia, 


Riehl, W. H. Die Pfalzer, ein Rheinisches Volksbild. 

Stuttgart and Augsburg, 1857. 

Land und Leute. 9. Auflage. Stuttgart, 1894. 

Wanderbuch als zweiter Teil i\x " Land und Leute." 

3. Auflage. Stuttgart, 1892. 
Culturstudien aus drei Jahrhunderten. 5. Auflage. 

Stuttgart, 1896. 
Meyer, E. H. Deutsche Volkskunde. Strassburg, 1898. 
Hofler, M. Volksmedezin und Aberglaube in Oberbayerns 

Gegenwart und Vergangenhcit. Neue Ausgabe. 

Miinchen, 1893. 
Raynal, G. T. Histoire philosophique et politique des 

Etablissementset du Commerce des Europeens dans les 

deux Indes. Paris, 1778. 
Journal of American Folk-lore. Boston, 1888-1899. 
Gibson, P. E. " Pennsylvania Dutch" and Other Essays. 

2d ed. Phila., 1S74. 
Rush, Benj. An Account of the Manners of the German 
Inhabitants of Pennsylvania written in 1789. Phila., 

Mann, W. J. Die gute alte Zeit in Pennsylvania. 
Kalm, Peter. Travels in North America. London, 1812. 

(Vol. 13 of Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels). 
Lettre d'un Cullivateur Am6ricain. Paris, 1784. 
Lieber, Francis. The Stranger in America. Phila., 1S35. 
Mittelberger, Gottlieb, Journey to Pennsylvania in the 

Year 1750, and Return to Germany in the Year 1754. 

Translated by C. T. Eben. Phila., 1898. 


La Rochefoucault-Liancourt. Voyage dans les fitats- 

Unis d'Amerique fait en i7<)S-'i797' Paris, I'an VII. 
Saxe-Weimar, Bernhard, Duke of. Travels through 

North America during the years 1825 and 1826. Phila., 

Voyage dans la Haute Pensylvanie et dans I'^tat de New 

York (Chevalier St. Jean de Crevecoeur). Paris, 1801. 
Weld, I. J. Travels through the States of North America 

and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada during 

the years 1795-1797. London, 1800. 
Croll, P. C. Ancient and Historical Landmarks in the 

Lebanon Valley. Phila., 1895. 


Wickersham, J. P. History of Education in Pennsylvania, 

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Seidensticker, O. The First Century of German Printing 

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Wright, John. Early Bibles of America. N. Y., 1892. 
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Stadler, Franz J. Die Landessprachen der Schweiz oder 

Schweizerische Dialektologie. Aarau, 1819. 
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Fisher, H. L. 'S Alt Marik Haus Mittes in d'r Stadt. 

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Harbaugh, H. Harbaugh's Harfe, Gedichte in Pennsyl- 
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Home, A. R. 'Em Horn sei' Pennsylvanisch Deitsch Buch. 

Pennsylvania-German Manual for Pronouncing, Read- 
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Wollenweber, L. A. Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvanischen 
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Arnold, Gottfried. Unpartheyische Kirchen- und Keizer- 
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Bloesch, E. Geschichte der Schweizerisch-Reformirten 
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Gumbel, H. Die Geschichte der Protest. Kirche der Pfalz. 
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Carroll, H. K. The Religious Forces of the United States. 
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Rupp, L D. An Original History of the Religious De- 
nominations at present existing in the United States. 
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Dubbs, J. H. Historical Manual of the German Re- 
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History of Reformed Church, German, in the United 

States. New York, 1895. 


Good, J. I. History of the Reformed Church in the United 
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Harbaugh, H. The Life of Rev. Michael Schlatter. 
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The Fathers of the German Reformed Church in 

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Dotterer, H. S. Historical Notes relating to the Penn- 
sylvania Reformed Church. Vol. 1, Phila., 1899. 

Schaff, D. S. The life of Philip Schaff. New York, 1897. 

Jacobs, H, E. A History of the Evangelical Lutheran 
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Documentary History of the Evangelical Ministerium of 
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Mann, W. J. Life and Times of Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
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Cranz, David. The Ancient and Modern History of the 
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Reichel, L. T. The Early History of the Church of the 
United Brethren (Unitas Fratrum), commonly called 
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Henry, James. Sketches of Moravian Life and Character. 
Phila., 1859. 

Ritter, Abr. History of the Moravian Church in Phila- 
delphia. Phila., 1857. 

Schweinitz, Edward de. The Life of David Zeisberger. 
Phila., 1870. 

Thompson, A. C. Moravian Missions. London, 1883. 

Brons, A. Ursprung, Entwickelung und Schicksale der 
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Egli, Emil. Die Ziiricher Wiedertaufer zur Reforma- 
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Die St. Caller Taufer. Zurich, 1887. 

Keller, Ludwig. Die Reformation und die alteren Re- 
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Ein Apostel der Wiedertaufer. Leipzig, 1882. 


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Chronicon Ephratense. A History of the Community of 
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Rev. Henry Boehm. New York, 1875. 


Adams County, 60 

Adler, The Reading, 12 1 

Agriculture, 85 ff. 

Albright, Jacob, 155, 189-190 

Alemanni, 7, 61, 222 

Alemannic dialect, 117, 118 

Almanacs, 103, 133 

Alsace, 56 

Ames, William, 34 

Amish, 113, 131, 178 

Ammen, Jacob, 178 

Rear-Admiral, 216 
Amsterdam, 66 
Anabaptists, 32, 172, 175 
Andrews, 140 
Anglo-Saxons, 228 
Anne, Queen, 26, 49, 51 
Antes, Henry, 156, 168, 197, 

Appel, Major, 216 
Armbriister, 134 
" Armentown," 41 
Arndt's Waki-es Christenthum, 

Arnold, Gottfried, 43, 175 
Art, 219 
Asbury, Francis, 187, 189, 

Ascension Day, 103 
Ausbiind, 130 
Austria, 65 
Baird, Huguenot Emigration 

to America, 10, 81 
Baird, Spencer F., 219, 227 
Baker, Peter, 180 
Ballygarrane, 186 

I Baptists, 32, 159, 192 
Barber, 214 
Barclay, Robert, 33 
Barnitz, Colonel, 216 
Barns, " Swisser," 94 
Barton, Thomas, 147 
Basel, 56, 63, 65 
Bauman, Matthias, 128, 155 
Bausman, Rev. B., 125 
Beaver, 197, 216 
Bechtel, John, 168 
Beehiz'e, 130 
Behagel, Daniel, 36 
Beissel, Conrad, 44, 127, 129, 

130, 154, 180, 181, 182 
Berger, 188, 190 
Berks County, 48 ff., 59, 207, 


Bernard of Weimar, 9 

Berne, 22, 24, 26, 44, 45, 63, 

Bernese Oberland, 64 

Bethlehem, 91, 152, 168, 171, 

Bible, 108, 131 ff., 156, 157 

Bigler, Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, 197 

Bigler, John, Governor of 
California, 197 

Binghamton, N. Y., 50 

Black, Jeremiah, 227 

Block Island, 72 

Blood-letting, 103 

Blue Mountains, 84, 200 

Blue Ridge, Va., 

Boehm, Henry, 187 




Boehm, John Philip, 52, 163 
Martin, 154, 155, 159, 

187, 188 
Bohemia, 4, 8 

Bohler, Peter, 129, 156, 185 
B(jm, Cornelius, 41 
Boos, 61 

Bouck, Governor, 50, 197 
Bowman, Bishop, 187 
Braddock, General, 88, 200 
Bradford, Andrew, 127 
Brandenburg, Elector of, 1 1 
Braune, 107 

Bricker, Peter, House of, 97 
Brodhead, Colonel, 214 
Brons, 174 
Brua, 227 

Brubacher Genealogy, 63 
Brubaker, Jacob, 48 

Judge, 177 
Brumbaugh, M. G., 27, 67, 

71, 82 
Brnnnholtz, 154 
Buckley, J. M.. 186 
Burke, Edmund, 160 
Calvin, 33 
Calvinists, 32 
Cameron, Simon, 198, 227 
Canada, 141, 142, 201 
Carroll, H. K... 151 
Cassel, 5 
Catholics, 14 ff., 56, 141, 142, 

I43» 171 
Caton, William, 34 
Cattle, 93 
Centre County, 60 
Charles II., 36 
Chlodowig, 7 

Chronicoti Ephratense, 128 
Church of England, 32, 146 
Church of God, 191 
Civil War, 215, 216 
Cobb, 50 

Coster, see Koster 
Coleridge, 44 
Colleges, 151 

Collegia Pi et at is, 35, 159 
Collinson, Peter, 136 
Comenius, 152 
" Concord," 32, 40 
Conestoga, 44, 163, 180 
Conestoga Wagons, 98, 99 
Conestogoe, 47 
Congress, Members of, 198 
Conrad von Hohenstaufen, 8 
Coxe, E. B., 86 
Crefeld, 32. 35, 39 
Cresap's War, 36 
Croll, P. C, 96 
Crook, 49 

Cumberland County, 59 
Curzon, Lord, 227 
Custer, General, 216 
Dandliker, 22, 23, 25, 61, 196, 

206, 223 
Darmstadt, 56 
Dauphin Count}', 60 
Dechert, General, 216 
De Hoop Schefter, see Schef- 

De Kalb, 212 
Delaware Indians, 200 
Denny, Governor, 27, 79 
Dialect, I17 ff. 
Dickenson, John, 53 
Dieskau, Count, 205 
Diller, Major, 216 
Dock, Christopher, 138 
Dort, Synod of, 178 
Dotterer, H. S., 52, 54, 69, 

156, 162 
Doudel, Michael, 209 
Dresden, 66 
Dress, 113 
Drinking, ill ff. 
Dubbs, J. H.. 26 
Dulaney, Daniel, 142, 201 
Dunkards, 19, 150, 151, 152, 

154, 160, 179, 180, 196 
Dutch, 84 

Earle, A. M., iii, 112 
Eckert, Colonel, 212 



Eckhoff, 31 

Education, 136 ff. 

Egle, Dr. W. H., 197, 216 

Egli, 131 

Elbe, 66 

Eliot, John, 169 

Elizabeth, Duchess of Or- 
leans, 12 

Ellery, William, 208 

Ellis and Evans, History of 
Lancaster County, 48, 87, 

95- 99 
Embury, Philip, 49, 186 
Emmenthal, 64 
Endt, Theobald, 168 
" Engages," 81 
Engel, Jacob, 179 
England, Wars of, 72 
Ephrata Brethren, 113 
Ephrata Community, 44, 128, 

132, 143. 15s. 160, 181-3 
Episcopalians, 192 
Erasmus, 139 
Erbach, 56 
Ettv/ein, Bishop, 196 
Evangelical Association, 160, 

189, 190 
Evangeline, 82 
Evans Family, 227 
Evans, History of Lancaster 

County, 215 
Falckner, Daniel, 43. 139, 154 
Falkner's Swamp, 163 
Fenwick, 81, 82 
Ferree, Andrew, 87 
Feudalism, 20, 23 
Fisher, H. L., 123, 124 
Fiske, John, 2, 7, 46, 72, 116, 

137. 193 
Five Nations, 199, 203 

Flowers, 100 
Foltz, Surgeon, 216 
Food, 113 

Forbes, General, 205 
Force's American Archives, 

" Foreign Needs," Committee 

on, 69 
Forney, J. W., 198 
Fox, George, 33 
France, II, 65, 72 
Francke, August Hermann, 165 
Frankenthal, li, 13 
Frankfort Company, 75, 139 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 35, 36, 

Frankish Dialect, 1 17, 118 

Franklin, Benjamin, 128, 129, 

132, 134, 136, 137, 150, 
151, 201 

Franks, 7, 222 
Frederick, Colonel, 216 
Frederick IV., 18 

v., 8 

the Wise, 8 
Frees, Cornelius, 98 
French and Indian War, 56, 

133, 169, 203 ff. 

French Language in English 

Law, 121 
French Revolution, 20, 23 
Freytag, Gustav, 3, 4. 6, 20, 

28, 36, 93, 106, 108, 138, 

^53- ^94. 195. 196, 224 

Frick, H. C, 177, 218 

Friedenthal, 169 

Frietchie, Barbara, 216 

Fritz, Hon. John, 218 

" Frolics," 109 

Froschauer, 157 

Funck, Henry, 207 

Funerals, 1 10 

Furley, Benjamin, 34, 81, 82 

Genealogy. 227 

German Reformed, see Re- 

German Regiment, 210 

Germantown, 40 ff., 53, 159, 
176, 196 

Germany, 2 

George I., 67, 146 
IL, 27 



Georgia, 26. 167, 185 
Gloiiinger, Colonel, 212 
Gnadcnhutten, 169, 203, 204 
Gohin, General, 216 
Goethe, 102, 116 
Goetschi, 65, 66, 74, 76 
Golden Book, 26 
Good, J. I., 26, 74 
Gordon, 53, 81, 146, 201 
Gottschalk, George, 45 
GraTf, 197 
GraflenriL-d, 26 
Grail. im, 211 
Grammont, Field-Marshal de, 

Graveyards, no, 175 
Graydon, Alexander, 211 
Greenland, 167 
GrofT, Abraham, 179 
Gruber, John, 168 
Gruner, 64 

Gumrc, Johannes, 112 
Ilaldeman, S. S., I19, 121, 219 
Ilalderman, General. 2x6 
Ilalle, Orphan House, 165 
Ilaller, 64 
llallesche Nachrichtcn, 70, 73, 

74, 78, 144, 154, 155, 157, 

158, 165 
Hamburg, 56, 66 
Hamilton, James, 89 
Hanau, 56 
Handschuh, Pastor, 70, 73, 

74, 144, 155, 195 
Hannover, 56 
Harbaugh, Henry, 122, 123- 

126, 148, 154 
Harlman, Barbara, 158 
Harlranft, C. D., 139 

Governor, 197, 216 
Hartzell, Bishop, 187 
Harvard College, 152 
Haupt, Colonel, 216 
Hiiusser, Ludwig, 7, 8, 9, 15, 

16, 18, 20 
Haussmann, 129 

Hcbcl. 123 
Heberle, Johannes, 5 
Heck, Barbara, 49, 186 
Heckman, General, 216 
Ileebner, 68 
Heidelberg, 8, 14 
Heintz, 21 
Heintze, 232 

Ileiiitzelman, General, 216 
Helmuth, 129, 15 1, 207 
Hendricks, Gerhard, 39, 176 
Ilenneberg, County of, 6 
Henry, James, 171 
Herkimer, General, 212 
Herman, Dirck, 39 
Herodotus, 63 
Herr Family, 92 

Christian, 47 

Francis, 178 

Hans, 47, 48 

John, 179 
Hess, Salomon, 26 
Hesse, 56 

Herrnhut, 66, 167, 185 
Hiester, 151, 197, 212 
Hildebrand, John, 182 
Hillegass, Michael, 198 
Hinke, Rev. W. J., 154 
I lite, Jost. 60 
HolTman, 144 

Dr. W. J., 108, 136 
Holland, II 

" Holy Experiment," 37 
Ilorch, Henry, 19 
H(jrn, General, 9 

W. O. von. 5 
Ilorslield, Timothy, 204 
Horticultm-e, 100 
Houses, 95 

Hubley, Bernard, 210 
Colonel, 212 
George, 210 
Huguenots, lo, 17, 81, 176 
HunUr, Robert, 49 
Hynm-books, 130, 131, 157, 




Hymns, 128, 129 

I/liistrirte Geschichte von 

Wtirtemberg, 4, 21 
Immigration, 31 
Incantations, 106 
Indians, 169, 199 ff. 
Inscriptions on Houses, 96 
Inspirationists, 129 
Iron Foundries, 218 
Jacobs, H. E., 147 
Jefferson Medical School, 151 
Jesuits, 15, 16, 17, 136, 143 
Johann Kasimir, 96 
John William, 15, 16 
Johnson, William, 141 

Sir William, 81 
Johnston, William, 88 
Jung-Stilling, 35 
Kalkloser, 182 
Kalm, Peter, 52, 82, 206 
Kapp, Friedrich, 39, 50, 158 
Karl Ludwig, 8, 10, 11, 36, 

Kauffman, Hon. C. C, 218 
Keen Family, 227 
Keener, Bishop, 187 
Keifer, General, 216 
Keim Family, 227 
Keith, George, 33 

Governor, 54 
Keller, 172 
Kelpius, Johann, 19, 42, 43, 

44> 73> 75. 139, 160, 199 
Kemper, Surgeon, 216 
Kichlein, Colonel, 212 
Kobel, 118, 123 
Kolb, Johannes, 139 
Koster, H. B., 43, 139 
Kress, Major, 216 
Kriegsheim, 10, 32, 34, 35, 

36, 38, 39 
Kuhl, 197 
Kuhn, A. S., 195 
Kunders, Thones, 39 
Kiindig, Martin, 47, 48 
Kuntz, Benedict, 45 

Kunze, Pastor, 70, 146 

Kutztown, 195 

Lampman, Archibald, 220, 

Lancaster, 89, 90, 163, 176, 

194, 207 
Lancaster County, 25, 46 ff., 

53. 59> 86, 87, 215 
Landis, Abraham, 179 

Judge, 177 
Landisville, 177 
Language, 115-117, I47. 166, 

Lauffenburg, 63 
Learned, M. D., 121 
Lebanon County, 60, 91 
Lebanon Valley College, 151 
Lee, General, 208 
Lehigh County, 60, 108 
Leidy, Joseph, 219 
Lennig, I 18 
Leopold, Emperor, 144 
Leutbecker, Caspar, 144 
Levering Colonel, 216 
Family, 227 
Lexington, 207 
Lick, James, 219 
Lieber, Francis, 228 
Limestone Soil, 86 
Lincoln, Abraham, 215 
Literature, 122 ff. 
Lititz, 152, 171 
Loher, 31 
Loeser, Jacob, 144 
Long, J. L., 220 
Longfellow, 12 1 
Lorentz, Johann, 36 
Lot, 108 

Louis XIV., II, 12, 83 
Louvois, 13 

Ludwig, Christopher, 214 
Lutherans, 14 ff., 32, 106, 146, 

150, 154, 160 ff., 175 
Lutz, Colonel, 212 
Macaulay, 13 
McCrady, 134 



Mack, Alexander, 19, 155, 179 

Valentine. 182 
McKean, Rev. Joseph, iii 
Mann, 75 
Mannheim, 56, 91 
Manz, Felix, 174 
Marbiirger Hymn-book, 131 
Marsliall, Christopher, 103 
Mather, Cotton, 152 
Mathews and Hungerford, 

History of Lehigh County, 135 
Matthai, Conrad, 44 
"Mayflower," 32 
Medicine, 106 
Meili, Martin, 47 
Mellinger Meeting House, 161 
Menno, see Simon 
Mennonites, 11, 17, 24, 25, 32, 

44 ff. . 76, 84, 86, 87, 109, III, 

113. 132, 133- 150. 154, 172 
ff., 196, 201, 207, 208, 213 

Mentz, 56 

Merian, Caspar, 36 

Merlau. Eleonora von, 36 

Methodism, 49, 185 fT. 

Meyer, 93, 95, 107, 116 

Michel, 26 

Mifflin, General, 214 

Miller, 134 

Abraham, 210 

Henry, 209 

John Peter, 139, 182 

Missions, Moravian, 167, 169 

Mittelberger, 52, 65, 67, 71, 
74. 77, 79, ^o» 83, no, 217 

Mohawk Valley, 26, 49 

Monroe County, 60 

Montcalm, 206 

Montgomery, M. L., 98, 207 

Montgomery Coimty, 59 

Moon, influence of, 103, 104 

Moravians, 76, 108, 113. 141, 
152, 155, 159, 167 ft-., 170, 
171, 185, 196, 200, 201, 
203 ff., 208, 209 

Morris Family, 227 

Morse. 214 

Muhlenberg, F. A.. 165, 198 
H. A., 148, 166 
H.M.,67, 73, 74, 
77, 78, 79, 82, 84, no, 112, 
129, 144, 147, 151, 154, 
155, 157, 159, 164, 165, 
166, 169, 197, 200, 201, 
219. 223. 227 

Mulilenberg, Peter, 165, 212 
Wm. A., 165 

Miilheim-on-the-Ruhr, 35 

Mailer, 24, 46, 47, 63, 64, 
III, 177. 178 

Miinster Rebellion, 174 

Murray, Alexander, 145 

Musser, Daniel, 179 

Mysticism, 19, 159 

Naas, John, 67, 71, 82 

Nadler, 118, 123 

Nagel, George, 210 

Nagle, Colonel, 212 

Names. 230 fT. 

Nantes, Edict of, 142 

Narragansetts, 199 

Nassau. 56 

Neal. 141 

Neff". Dr. Chrisley, 103 

Neuburg. 12 

Neuchatel, 63 

Neuwied, 74 

"New-Born, The," 128 

" Newlanders," 27, 77 fT., 193 

New Paltz, N. Y., 10 

Newspapers, 134, 135 

New York, 48, 49, 137 

Nimwegen, 66 

Nitsche, 174 

Nitschman, David, 129, 169, 

Martin, 204 

Nordlingen, 8 

Northampton County, 60, 208, 


North Carolina, 60 

Nyberg, 169 



Oberholtzer, Martin, 47 

Oberly, Surgeon, 216 

O'Callaghan, 50, 202 

Ocean Voyage, 67 ff., 77 ff. 

Ohio, 60 

Omens, 104 

Op den Graeff, 39, 176 

Ottendorf, Baron von, 210 

Otterbein, 155, 159, 188 

Otto Heinrich, 14 

Orleans, Duke of, 12 

Owen, 103 

Palatines, 21, 48, 49, 53, 56, 
186, 206 

"Palatine Fever," 71 

"Palatine Light," 72 

Palatinate, 7, 8 ff., 56, 85, 117, 
118, 160, 196, 222 

Palfrey, 116 

Pannebecker, Heinrich, 177 

Pantisocracy, 44 

Pastorius. F. D., 37 ff.. 69, 72, 
84, 85, 129, 139, 148, 176 

Paul, 118 

Peasants, 4 ff. 

Penn, Richard, 208 

William, 26, 32, 33 ff., 
36, 70, 85, 86 

"Pennsylvania Dutch," 31 

Pennsylvania Germans, 52 
(numbers), 84 (farmers), 85 
ff. (customs), 106 ff. (super- 
stitions), 109 (amusements), 
no (funerals), in (drink- 
ing), 113 (food and dress), 
117 (dialect), 122 ff. (litera- 
ture), 136 ff. (education), 
153 ff. (piety), 193 (in- 
crease), 194 ff. ( politics), 
203 ff. (in French and In- 
dian War), 206 ff. (in Rev- 
olution), 218 (in science) 

"Pennsylvania Synod," 168 

Pennypacker, S. W., 10, 33, 
38, 39, 41, 42, 45, 76, 85, 
138, 139, 148, 209 

Pennypaclcer, General, 216 

Pequea, 25, 47 

Pequots, 199 

Peters, Richard, 203 

Petersen, Dr. Wm., 35 

Pfautz, 221 

Philadelphia, 32, 211, 227 

Philip, Dirck, 132 

Philip William, 12, 14, 15 

Pietism, 19, 34 ff., 159 

Pirates, 72 

Pittston, 50 

Poetry, 123-126 

Politics, 194 ff. 

Porter, David, 112 

Post, Frederick, 169, 205 

Powell and Shippen, 216 

Pownall, Thomas, 90 

Powwowing, 107 

Presbyterians, 32, 162, 192 

Printing, 131 ff. 

Protestants, 14 ff., 56 

Proud, 32, 52, 58, 59, 85, 86, 

Proverbs, 10 1, 135 
Prussia, 28 

Puritans, 32, 112, 1 16 
Quakers, 32, 34, 45, 150, 176, 

201, 207, 209 
Ramsey, Governor, 197 
Ranke, 62 
Ranch, E. H., 122 
Raum, General, 216 
Raynal, 160 
Read, T. B., 212 
Reading, 166, 195 
Redemptionism, 81, 82 
Reed, President, 209, 211, 214 
Reed Church, 144, 163 
i Reformation, 32 
Reformed, I4ff.,32, in, 150, 

154, 160 ff. 
Reformed Mennonites, 178 
Reinier, John, 80 
Reinoehl, Major, 2i6 
Religion, 153 ff. 



Rhine, 63 fT. 

Rieger, Rev. J. B., 52 

Richl, 2, 7, 86, 95, 97, 100, 

104, 109, no. 118, 133, 

161, 206, 223, 224 
Ritner, Chaplain, 216 
Governor, 197 
Rittenhouse, David, 219 
Major, 216 
William, 218 
Ritter, 100, 171, 196 

George, 64 
River Brethren, 179 
Rodenbough, General, 216 
Rolf, George, 34 
Roiulthalcr, Rev., 122 
Ross, Captain, 210 

Family, 227 
Rotterdam, 65, 66, 67, 68 
Rmickcl, J. L., 46 
Runkle, Colonel, 216 
Rupp, 58 
Rush, Benjamin, 90, 92, 93, 

98, 100, loi, 112, 151, 217, 

Russell. Governor, 227 
Ryswick, Treaty of, 16 
Sachse, J. F., 44, 132 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y.,S7 
Salat, 174 
Salem, ^Iass., 106 
Salzburgers, 64, 75 
Sauer, Christopher, 27, 71, 77, 

78, 79, 80, 83, 128, 131, 

132, 134, 138, 146, 157, 183 
Saxe-Wcimar, Duke of, 92, 94 
Saxony, 56 
Schaff, Dr. Philip, 123, 167, 

169, 228, 229 
Schaffer, Peter, 43 
SchefTer, De PIoop, 54, 76 
Schcll. J. C, 158 
Schercr, 128 
Schlatter, Michael, 124, 140, 

160, 164, 169 
Schiller, 86, 92, 97 

Schlauch, Jacob, 195 
Schle\', Governor, 197 

Rear-Admiral, 216 
Schlozer, 20. 85 
Schiick, Chief Engineer, 216 
Schoharie \'alley, 26, 49 
Schoolmasters, 163 
Schools. 143 ff. 
Schultz, 139 
Schulze, Governor, 197 
Schiitz, Dr., 37 
Schumacher, Peter, 39 
Schvvarzenau, 179 
Schweinitz, de, 205 
Sell wenckf eld, Caspar von, 73, 

131, 183, 184 
Schwenckfeldcrs, 56, 66, 68, 

70, 76, 159, 183-185 
Schwenk, Colonel, 216 
Science, 218 
Scotch-Irish, 85, 92, 112, 194, 

204, 227 
Seidensticker, 42, 127 
Seventh - Day Baptists, 180, 

Seward. Wm., 156 
Shakspere, 102, in 
Shenandoah Valley, 60 
Shipwrecks. 75 
Shoemaker Family, 227 
Shoup, Colonel, 197 

Governor, 216 
Shunk, Governor, 197 
Silesia, 28 

Simmern-Zweibriicken, 12 
Simon, Menno, 132, 175, 178 
Slavery. 40, 176 
Small. General, 216 
Smith, Wm., 143, 146, 210 
Snyder, Governor, 197 
Southey, 44 
Spain, 20, 72 
Spangenberg, 129, 169, 185, 

Spangler, Colonel, 216 
Spener, 34, 35, 159 



Spyker, Colonel, 212 
Stark's Gchdbiuh, 132 
Stars, influence of, 102 
Stauffer Family, 63 
Sternberg, Surgeon - General, 

50, 216 
Steub, 232 
Steuben, 212 
Stiegel, Baron, 218 
Stoever, Rev. J. C, 163 
Strasburg, 91, 177 
Stray pers, Wm., 41 
Sullivan, General, 81, 210 
Superstitions, 101 ff. 
Swabian Dialect, 118 
Swatara Creek, 50 
Swedenborg, 132 
Swedenborgians, 192 
Swedes, 84 

Sweitzer, General, 216 
Swiss, 46-48,55,56, 85 ff., 176, 

Switzerland, 22 ff., 56, 117, 

118, 160, 196, 222 
Taylor, Bayard, 220, 227 
Tennyson, 126 
Thacher, 210 
Thirty Years' War, 3 ff., 

Thomas, Governor, 89 
Thompson, Charles, 81 

Colonel Wm., 209 
Thornton, Matthew, 81 
Tilly, 8 

Tobler-Meyer, 232 
Trade, 218 

Tulpehocken, 26, 50, 154, 212 
Turenne, il 
Turks, 72 
Tyerman, 169, 185 
Uhl, Hon. E. F., 50 
Union Churches, 161 
United Brethren, 159, 160, 

United Evangelical Church, 


University of Pennsylvania, 

Ursinus College, 151 

Utrecht, 66 

Van Braght, 132 

Virginia, 68, 1 13 

Wackernagel, 131 

Waldenses, 172 

Walloons, 17 

Wanamaker, John, 198 

Wangen, 63 

Washington, George, 211, 212, 

213, 214 
Water, 104 
Watson, 72, 81, 201 
Weather Signs, 105 
Weddings, 109 
Weidman House, 97 
Weiser, Conrad, 51, 129, 182, 

200, 202, 203 
Weiss, G. M., 128, 154, 163 
Weitzel, Colonel, 212 
Weld, 92, 96 
Wertmiiller, Joris, 45 
Wesley, John, 75, 80, 169, 174, 

Westphalia, Peace of, 10, 56 
Wetterholt, Captain Nicholas, 

106, 202 
Whitefield, 156 
Whittier, 40, 43, 50, 72, 183, 

197, 216 
Wickersham, 145, 150 
Wigner, Christopher, 156 
Wilhelm, Major, 216 
Wilhelm Tell, 86, 92, 97 
Wilkesbarre, 50 
Winebrenner, John, 155, 191 
Winslow, 116 
Wirtz, 74 

Wissahickon, 42, 43, 103 
Wistar, Caspar, 69, 219 

Family, 227 
Wister, General, 216 
Witches, 105 
Witmer, Abraham, 227 



Wohlfahrt, Michael, 154, 155 
Wolf, Governor, 149, 197 
Wollenweber, L. A., 163 
" Woman in the Wilderness," 

Worrell, Rigert, 176 
Wright, 132, 135 
Wlirtemberg. 21. 56, 117,118, 

160, 196, 222 
Yerkes, Charles, 219 
Yoder, Major, 216 
York County, 59 

Zantzinger, Colonel, 212 
Zeilin, General, 216 
Zeisberger, 169, 209 
Ziegler, C. C, 126 
Zimmermann. J. J., 43, 139 
Zinzendorf, 128, 129, 159, 

167 ff., 184, 205 
Z(X)k. General, 216 
Zurich, 22, 24. 25, 44, 45, 65 
Zweibriicken, 21, 56 96 
Zwingli, 175 



Edited by Paul Leicester Ford, editor of the writings of 
Jefferson; Bibliography of the Constitution of the United 
States, 1787-1788 ; Pamphlets on the Constitution of the 
United States. Ixxvii + 793 pp. Large lamo. $i.75, net. 

The present edition is the first in which any attempt has been made to 
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of every teacher of American constitutional history." 

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Edited by Professor Davis R. Dewey. 

With portrait. 454 + 481 PP- 2 vols. 8vo. %^.oo net. 

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could have been no more fitting monument to his memory than these 
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or wide scope of subjects covered by these shorter articles .... one 
can almost hear the spoken word in some of the adresses . ... an 
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Edited by James Phinxey Munroe. 342 pp. 8vo. $^.00 net. 

The author had hoped to collect these papers in a volume himself. 

TV/f' /3/(7/ .•" A fitting memorial to its author. . . . The breadth of his 
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the attention for what are commonly supposed to be dry and diflicult 
subjects, and the capacity he had for controversy, sharp and incisive, 
but so candid and generous that it left no festering wound." 

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il 1900 



Edited by ERNEST F. Henderson, author of "The History 
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An elaborate effort towards vitalizing the study of English 
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of extracts from contemporary records, all arranged to give 
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Edited by Dr. Guy Carleton Lee of Johns Hopkins. 600 
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The texts of the most important legal and constitutional 
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A brilliant epitome and criticism of the chief works of the 
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Selections, with introduction and notes, by Ralph C. Ring- 
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Contains Schurz's General Amnesty, Jeremiah S, Black's 
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Edited by Leopold Wagner, xv + 344 pp. i2mo. $1.00, net. 

A collection of some of the most notable examples of the po- 
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The Memoirs of the Baroness Cecile de Courtot, Lady- 
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MoRiTZ VON Kaisenberg. Translated by Miss Jessie 
Haynes. 298 pp. 8vo. $2.00. 

This notable narrative of the love and adventures of 
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JV V. Times Saturday Revietv : " It has all the charm of a 
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Pall Mall Gazette {London): "We are admitted behind the 
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**WIII Interest the old hardly less than the young** 

— Chicago Evining Put 


Over aoo poems, representinfr some 80 authors. Compiled by 
Edward Vkrrall Lucas. With title-page and cover-lining pic- 
tures in color by F. D. Bedford, two other illustrations, and white 
cloth cover in three colors and gilt. Revised edition, ismo. $2.00. 

Prof. Edward Everett Hale, Jr.: " David Copperfield remembered 
learning to walk, and Pierre Loti remembers the tirst time he jumped, 
r think. My earliest recollections are of being sung to sleep by my 
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piled by Edward Verrall Lucas I discovered not onlv these three 
classics but many another lovely thing by Ann and Jane Taylor, Eliza- 
beth Turner, and others, as well as more modern poems by Stevenson 
and Lewis Carroll. ' Can it be,' thought I, 'that children nowadays 
will stand Ann and Jane Taylor?' An opportunity of experiment 
came very soon. 1 happened to have the book under my arm the next 
day as I stopped to see some friends. They were out, so I asked for 
the children and had afternoon tea with real tea-things in company 
with a large and very beautiful doll, and afterward skated about the 
hall on what had originally been toy freight-cars. At last I asked if 
poems would be acceptable. The proposal was received with favor, 
and I was soon seated on a large trunk with Miss Geraldine on one side 
and Mr. Bartlett on the other. I began with a safe one, ' The Walrus 
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book to take note of against Christmas and all the birthday gift times 
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last year of the American Revolution. 12 mo. fi.25. 

The scene is laid mainly in New York City during 
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The life in the headquarters of the two armies is 
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The book is decidedly one that will entertain." 


Uniform with the author's " Poor Human Nature." 
i2mo. $1.50. 

An intensely human story of an episode in the life 
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A little book for wayfarers, bicycle-wise and other- 
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1814-96. 'Irnnslaiion edited by Prof. Silas M. Macvanu, of 

Harvard. 860 pp. 8vo. ?3.oo, net. 
Prof. Macvane has added to and strengthened the chapters on 

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adding new titles in tlie bibliographies and an index. 

The Nation: "Of tlie political development of each European 
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is clear and synchronous. . . . He states with unfailing impartiality 
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and its insight, an important work on what must be to all of us the 
most important period of recorded time." 


By the late General Francis A. Walker. Edited by Prof. 

Davis R. Dewkv. With portrait. 2 vols. Svo. %6.oo, net special. 

Important papers on Finance, Taxation, Money, Bimetallism, 

Economic Theory, Statistics, National Growth, Social Economics, 

etc. The author's untimely death prevented him from carrying out 

his intention of himself bringing them together in book form. 

Uniform with th' above. Walker's Discussions in Education. 
Svo. $3.00, 7tet special. 

Circular of others of General Walker's works on application. 


By HiiNRY L. TiioiirsoN, Vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, Illus- 
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A biography of the great lexicographer of Liddell & Scott's Dic- 
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A biography, by W. Eraser Rae. With an introduction by 

Sheridan's great-grandson, the Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. 

With portraits, etc. 2 vols. Svo. $7.00 

The Dial : " His book at once takes its as the standard one 
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Review of Reviexus : "The best biography of Sheridan in ex- 

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JAN 3