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Full text of "The Gospel in All Lands"

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I I 







OLGv^-O^ 




Bugeiie R» SnaitJa, D»0., 
Editor. 



JANUARY, 1891. 



FlflU Ave. A saoth SU, 

Naw York City. 




J3SD1AN ME1>1CIN£-ME>\ 



A CALL TO THE FRONT. 



^octriT anb Song. 



A Call to the Front. 



BY REV. A. S. HOUSTON. 



" A million a month ! thirty thousand a day ! ** 
So, they tell us, the heathen are passing away ; 
And what are you doing to stem this dark tide. 
Drifting down the broad way thro* the gate that is wide ? 

For ages on ages the cloud has hung dense. 
While up before God goes the cr}-, sharp, intense. 
From Africa, China, and dark Singapore, 
" Come, give us some light from eternity's shore. 

** Our lands are now open, the bars are let down. 
The stern opposition is melted and gone ; 
Three million adherents, in three hundred tongues. 
Are chanting the praises of Christ in their songs." 

In fifty short years the Fijis are won. 
And the land of Japan, " land of uprising sun," 
Is proving the " nation that's born in a day," 
With dark Madagascar fast pressing this way. 

" I will give thee the heathen," God said to his Son ; 
Then hasten, ye Christians, if earth must be won ! 
For the heathen are dying thirty thousand a day ; 
Haste ! ere they all pass to the great judgment-day. 

" All power is given to me," Jesus said ; 

And, " lo, I am with you, by my Spirit led ; 

Go, preach ye this Gospel to earth's farthest bound. 

Till in every dark dwelling my praises shall sound." 

In our land are thousands to tell the good news. 
Salvation is offered to all, if they choose ; 
While many may see the heathen's great need. 
Very few are now going where God seems to lead. 

A few earnest ones to the heathen have gone, 
A few souls are saved, but the millions pass on ; 
The fast-ticking clock measures off the life-roll. 
Let us lay aside pleasure to save a lost soul. 

Our lives are so short, th' work is so great ; 
The harvest is white, God says, •' Do not wait ; 
The reward, such as angels would joyfully own, 
A share in Christ's kingdom, a place on his throne." 

As the firmament's brightness the wise shall appear. 
The faithful the welcome of Jesus shall hear ; 
Then "our hope and our joy," our Radiant "crown," 
Will be many souls about the white throne. 

" A million a month ! thirty thousand a day ! " 
Then pray, give, and work, ere they all pass away ; 
Ere you meet these doomed millions in sin's helpless chains ; 
And you'll find earthly loss is infinite gain. 
Gtlman^ la. 

True Life. 

"We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial. 
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best. 
And he whose heart beats quickest lives the longest : 
Lives in one hour more than in years do some. 
Whose fat blood sleeps as it doth slip along their veins." 

— Bailey s " Festus" 



SMorlir, M0rk, 5tori). 



The Indians among whom the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church has Missions. 

BY REV. A. B. LEONARD, D.D., CORRESPONDING SECRK- 
TARY. 

[Extracts from a report made to the Board of Managers of 
the Missionary Society after a visit to the Indians in New 
York, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and correspondence with the 
missionaries in other States and Territories.] 

The Onondaga Reservation lies a short distance south 
of the city of Syracuse, N. Y., and is within the bounds 
of the Central New York Conference. The tribal rela- 
tion, which is a fatal barrier to even a fair civilization, 
is here maintained. The land is held in common, and 
its occupancy by a member of the tribe is subject to 
the decision of a council constituted of chiefs. This 
greatly obstructs any important improvements in the 
line of agriculture or buildings, such as dwelling-houses, 
barns, etc. No one knows how long he will be allowed 
to occupy the land he may improve or live in the house 
he may erect. This reservation system promotes idle- 
ness and roaming from one part of the reservation to 
another. 

There is uncertainty in the minds of the Indians as 
to what policy the State will pursue concerning these 
reservations. Reports are circulated among the tribe 
of a contemplated allotment of lands by the State. 
The man who improves a farm may find when allot- 
ment comes that in part or in whole his improvements 
become the property of another. There is, therefore, 
nothing to stimulate the Indian to industry and to a 
bettering of his temporal condition. He does not have 
the motive to labor which ordinarily inspires the white 
man, namely, that he will certainly reap the results of 
his industry. The tribal relation, moreover, promotes 
domestic and social immorality. Not being citizens, 
the Indians are not subject to State law except in fla- 
grantly criminal matters. For theft or murder they are 
tried and punished by the State, but of their social and 
domestic relations the State takes no notice. • The 
marriage relation is almost utterly disregarded among 
the pagan Indians, who constitute fully three fourths of 
the tribe. Indian marriages consist of simply living to- 
gether as husband and wife, and such relations continue 
only while both parties are satisfied. Separations are 
numerous, and often cause neighborhood disturbances 
and crimes. Family ties are very weak and uncertain. 
Lewdness and intemperance abound. The social and 
domestic relations and moral condition of these Indians 
do not admit of description. 

What is true of the Onondagas is true also of the 
other tribes within the State of New York. The Indian 
reservations of New York are like ulcers upon a fair 
and beautiful face. The very first step toward the ele- 
vation of these Indian tribes is the destruction of the 
tribal relation through allotment of their lands. It is 
said that there are serious difficulties in the way of 



THE INDIANS AMONG WHOM THE M. E, CHURCH HAS MISSIONS, 



8 



such allotment, but the State of New York should find 
some way to solve those difficulties and rid the .State of 
a condition of things that is simply a disgrace to the 
civilization of the age. 

The Onondagas number about four hundred. The 
State supports a school for their benefit, but as there 
is no law to compel attendance, and the parents either 
oppose or take little interest in educational matters, the 
attendance is small and irregular. The language of the 
Onondagas has not been written, and so they have no 
literature. A few of them have learned to read the 
Mohawk, and some of these have the Scriptures in that 
dialect. The hymns used by our Christian Indians are 
in the Mohawk language. We have here a comfortable, 
neatly kept house of worship and a modest little par- 
sonage, which is as bright and sweet as a Christian 
home can be ; made so by the excellent wife of the mis- 
sionary. Rev. Abraham Fancher, who gives all of his 
time to this work. The membership of the church is 
about sixty. There are a few more who claim to be 
Methodists, but they are of very uncertain character. 
The missionary receives $500 missionary money, which 
constitutes his entire support. The amount contrib- 
uted by the Indians no more than provides meagerly 
for current expenses. 

TAe Tonawanda Reservation^ in the bounds of the 
Genesee Conference, is occupied by the Senecas. The 
tribe numbers between six and seven hundred persons, 
and their moral condition is the same as that of the 
Onondagas. We have here a small chapel, built about 
two years ago. The membership is small, consisting of 
fourteen full members and four probationers. The at- 
tendance upon religious services is small, never reach- 
ing more than forty, and frequently a much smaller 
number. There is no Sunday-school. The missionary 
sometimes holds class-meeting in connection with his 
Friday evening service. There is a lodge of Good Tem- 
plars, numbering about forty. The only Sunday service 
is held by an Indian who is a Presbyterian, who is al- 
lowed to preach on Sabbath evenings, and receives for 
his services what the people choose to give. These 
Indians are sadly neglected. 

The Baptists have a commodious brick church near 
ours, in which an old Indian preaches on the Sabbath, 
but no missionary money is appropriated for his sup- 
port. The Presbyterians have a house of worship, but 
they do not sustain a regular service. It was reported 
that they were about to begin their work anew. The 
Christian Indians are about equally divided between 
the Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists. 

The Cattaraugus Reservation is also in the Genesee 
Conference, and is occupied by the Seneca Indians. 
The tribal relation and the social and moral conditions 
inseparably connected with that relation are found here 
as in the other cases. There are about fifteen hundred 
Indians on this reservation. We have a membership 
of thirty, with twenty probationers. There is no Sun- 
day-school, but prayer and class meetings are sustained 
somewhat irregularly. Our house of worship, built 



about fifty years ago, is in a dilapidated condition, and 
must be repaired if our work is continued. 

The Presbyterians have a good church and parsonage, 
and support a missionary. Their membership numbers 
eighty-six active and seventy-three nominal members. 
The State has built and sustains an asylum here for 
Indian orphans, children under sixteen years of age. 
It €^ow contains over one hundred orphans, is well 
managed, and is doing an excellent work. 

The St, Regis Reservation is on the St. Lawrence 
River, in the bounds of the Northern New York Con- 
ference. They number about three thousand, among 
whom there are about three hundred Protestants and 
seven hundred Roman Catholics, the balance being 
pagan or destitute of any relijiion. We have a church 
with a membership, including probationers, of about 
sixty persons, and a Sunday-school is sustained. 

MICHIGAN. 

In Michigan the condition of the Indians is some- 
what better than in the State of New York. Here the 
reservation, as such, has been abolished. The Indians, 
so far as they have lands at all, hold them in severalty. A 
great mistake was made by the government, when the al- 
lotment was made, in giving to the Indians titles for their 
lands without any restriction as to their right to sell. 

The tribal relation does not here exist. They are 
citizens and subject to the laws of the State. Their 
domestic and social relations, though shockingly bad 
sometimes, are better than in the State of New York. 
They are more industrious and enterprising, and, upon 
the whole, upon a higher plane of morality and civili- 
zation. 

The Isabella Mission is in Isabella County, in the 
Michigan Conference. The Indian population numbers 
about six hundred. We have about two hundred 
church members, including probationers. There are 
four congregations. Three of the houses of worship are 
made of logs, while the fourth is a frame structure. 
There are no Sunday-schools, and the work, as a whole, 
is very feebly sustained. 

In Mason and Oceana Counties there is an Indian pop- 
ulation of 1,400. We have one congregation in Mason 
County attached to Scottville Charge. There being no 
church building the services are held in a school-house. 
In Oceana County we have no work, and the Indians 
have no attention except from the Roman Catholics. 

Petoskey Mission^ bordering upon Lake Michigan on 
the west, is an important work. The Indians are a 
mixture of Chippewas and Ottawas. They are the best 
dressed and most civilized of any Indians I had the op- 
portunity of seeing in the State of Michigan. There are 
three congregations, Petoskey, Horton's Bay, and Susan 
I^ake. The aggregate membership is about ninety. 

The Roman Catholics are doing some work, but the 
difference between the Protestant Indians and the Cath- 
olics here, as elsewhere, is so marked that all who come 
in contact with them note at once the superiority of the 
former over the latter. 



THE INDIANS AMONG WHOM THE M, E, CHURCH HAS MISSIONS. 



The Kewawenon Mission is located on the east side of 
Kewena Bay, which extends southward from Lake Su- 
perior. The Mission property contains thirty acres of 
land, about fifteen acres of which is cultivated by the 
missionaries. The Indian population is about two 
hundred. Our church membership is eighty-five. A 
Sunday-school and prayer and class meetings are fairly 
sustained. The social and domestic relations of rtiese 
Indians are not what could be desired, but there is 
gradual improvement in these regards. 

We have several other Missions in this State. In Iosco 
and .\lcona Counties there are about eighty Indians of the 
Chippewa tribe, among whorti we have a membership 
numbering twenty-five. We have a neat church build- 
ing. They have no Sabbath-school, for the reason that 
there is no one competent to superintend one. A com- 
mon public school is taught six months in the year. 

In Saginaw County there are about two hundred In- 
dians of the Chippewa tribe, among whom we have two 
prosperous churches, with a membership of twenty-seven 
in one and eighteen in the other. 

In the western part of Antrim County there are one 
hundred and fifty Chippewa Indians, among whom we 
have a church of twenty-six members and four proba- 
tioners. 

At Northport, in the north-eastern part of Leelanaw 
County, there are about four hundred Indians, among 
whom we have fifty-nine church members and ten pro- 
bationers. There is a Sunday-school also, averaging an 
attendance of twenty-seven. Both the Presbyterians 
and the Roman Catholics are doing some work among 
these Indians, the latter having a school. In Calhoun, 
Allegan, and Ottawa Counties there are about one hun- 
dred and fifty-eight Indians of the Pottawottamie and 
Ottawa tribes, among whom we have a church of sixty- 
two members and ten probationers. 

Munissing Mission, Alger County, has an Indian pop- 
ulation of one hundred, among whom we have a society 
of forty worshiping in a log church. 

Bay Mills Mission, Chippewa County, has a popula- 
lation of one hundred and seventy-five Indians. Here 
we have a small frame church and parsonage, worth 
about $400. There are fifty members. 

Hannaville Mission, Menominee County, has a pop- 
ulation of about seventy-five Indians. Here we have a 
small log meeting-house and a membership of thirty-five. 

The Oneida Indian Mission^ in Wisconsin, is located 
twelve miles north-east of Appleton. The reservation 
is twelve by ten miles, and the Indian population is 
IJ75- These Indians are said to be increasing in num- 
bers. Their lands have been recently allotted. They 
cannot sell, mortgage, or give away their lands for 
twenty-five years. Here we have a valuable Mission 
property of 77 acres, 30 acres of which are under culti- 
vation and 47 are covered with a good growth of tim- 
ber. Of the 30 acres improved, 18 acres are planted 
and 12 acres used for pasture land. We have a good 
comfortable parsonage and a very poor house of worship, 
which was erected fifty years ago by the Missionary So- 



ciety. Our church has a membership of two hundred 
and sixty-five, with fifty-five probationers. A Sunday- 
school and prayer and class meetings are well sustained. 
The domestic and social relations of these Indians com- 
pare favorably with their white neighbors. 

The Navajo Indians occupy a reservation in north- 
eastern Arizona and north-western New Mexico, ninety 
miles long and sixty miles wide. They number 20,000, 
are wholly pagan, and without Christian missionaries. 
They are represented as peaceful, somewhat intelligent, 
and disposed to be industrious. They have herds of 
horses and cattle, and flocks of sheep and goats. Their 
wool-clip a year ago was over one million pounds. 

Their women manufacture excellent blankets and the 
men are skillful in the manufacture of trinkets for or- 
namental purposes. 

In November, 1889, the General Missionary Com- 
mittee decided to open a Mission to this tribe and made 
a contingent appropriation of $5,000 for that purpose. 
The Mission has been opened by Rev. T. G. Wiltsee, 
superintendent, and there is good prospect for success. 

Montana, — There are about twenty thousand Indians 
in Montana, but we have no organized work among them. 
The tribes are as follows : 

Bloods, Blackfeet, Piegans, Crows, Gros-Ventres, As- 
sinaboines, Sioux, Flat-Heads, Pend d'Oreilles, and Koo- 
tenais. Several years ago we had a contract-school at 
Fort Peck Agency under the supervision of the United 
States Indian Agency. In 1881 Rev. S. E. Snyder, now 
Presiding Elder of Helena District, Montana Conference, 
was sent out by this Board as superintendent of an in- 
dustrial boarding-school, and served successfully in that 
capacity until he was appointed Indian Agent by the 
government. After Brother Snyder's removal another 
superintendent was appointed, who remained a short 
time and was succeeded by still another, who occupied 
the position but a little while. We failed to find a suit- 
able person to fill the vacancy, and the contract with 
the government was not renewed. The school has since 
been under the supervision of the government ; the 
Sunday-school has been continued, and has been sup- 
plied with literature from our Sunday-School Union. 

Nooksack Mission is located on the Nooksack River, 
in Washington. Number of Indians, about 200 ; mem- 
bership, 150 ; with a Sunday-school of 30 pupils. This 
Mission is represented as being in a thriving condition. 
Rev. J. W. Patterson is the missionary. Brother Pat- 
terson says we should have a Mission at once among 
the Quillaiute Indians. He says : " I have preached 
among them, and they said to me again and again, 
* We want the white man to come and tell us about 
Jesus and how to be good.' We anxiously hoped last 
year that something could be done to give these thirst- 
ing people the water of life." 

Brother Patterson further says : " The Klamath In- 
dians are in the same needy state, and should have a 
missionary at once." The Lummi and Neah Bays 
greatly need missionaries. The Roman Church has a 
school among the Quillaiutes, and the government has 



THE INDIAN MEDICINE-MEN, BURIAL OF THE DEAD, ETC. 



a school at the Neah Bay and Lummis. No other 
work is done among the tribes except what is done by 
our Church. 

The Yakama Nation numbers 3,273 persons ; 1,572 
are on the reservation, and 1,701 are in the adjoining 
country. Our missionary, Brother Gascoigne, says: 
*' The condition of the church is prosperous. There is 
much true piety among our people. Seven hundred 
Indians are members of our congregation, and consider 
themselves Methodists ; 152 are members of our church, 
75 children are in the Sunday-school ; 700 of these 
Indians are pagans, and 172 are Romanists. There 
are fewer Romanists than in former years." 

These are the Indians among whom Father Wilbur, 
of precious memory, labored so long and so success- 
fully. Three churches and a parsonage were built on 
the reservation, for which no deeds were secured. Rev. 
G. W. Booth, presiding elder, has been trying to secure 
deeds, but at last advices has not succeeded. 

From a letter by Rev. B. C. Swartz, Superintendent 
of our Indian Mission Conference, I gather the follow- 
ing respecting our Missions in the Indian Territory : 

Osa^e Nation, — Saybrook Mission has twenty-two 
members, sixteen of whom are girls in Mrs. Gaddis's 
school at Pawhuska. There are thirty-two members, 
one half of whom are Indians. 

Cherokee Nation. — On Big Creek, among the Chero- 
kee freedmen, we have 150 members and probationers. 
Island Ford Mission has four preaching-places and 
thirty members, many of whom are colored Cherokee 
freedmen. Two small houses of worship are greatly 
needed. A primary school is in operation, supported 
mainly by the government. Catoosa Mission has two 
mixed societies, the Indians numbering twenty-five. 
Delaware has one society, with twenty members. Clar- 
imore has six Indian members. Ashton has sixteen 
members ; two churches are greatly needed, in which, 
when erected, schools would immediately be opened 
for both white and Indian pupils, and would be practi- 
cally self-supporting. Wyandotte Mission has three 
preaching-pl^es, one house of worship, and a parson- 
age. One more church is greatly needed. Talleguah 
has thirty-five members, all of whom are Indians ex- 
cept seven. There are six preaching-places ; four houses 
of worship are greatly needed, and there should be 
three primary schools opened. 

Choctaiu Nation. — Cameron Mission has eight preach- 
ing-places, with about one hundred members, two thirds 
of whom are Indians. Five churches are greatly needed 
and several schools should be opened. Cowlington has 
four preaching-i)laces, and two small churches are 
needed. Poteau has four preaching-places and needs 
two small churches. 

Creek Nation. — At Tulsa we have a society (number 
not given), about one third of the members being In- 
dians. A school has been kept here for more than two 
years by the daughters of our missionary, Rev. B. 
Mowbray, for which they have received but about $25. 
Unless support can be obtained the school will be 



closed. It will require about $100 per year to continue 
this school, and that sum should be appropriated. 

The Creek Nation is very favorably disposed toward 
our Church, and a little assistance now would establish 
our work among them on a permanent basis. There is 
probably no portion of the Indian Territory where we 
could accomplish a greater work. 

At Broken Arrow Mission there are four preaching- 
places, with about fifty members, all Indians, and a fulU 
blood Creek is pastor. A new church is needed. Salt 
Creek Mission has four appointments and fifty members, 
all Creek Indians. They have commenced to build 
two churches and need assistance. When these 
churches are finished, schools will be opened in them at 
once. 

Chickasaw Nation. — Here work has been opened at 
three or four points, and there is good prospect of suc- 
cess. Three schools should be opened at once. In 
the territory belonging to this nation there are about 
twenty-five thousand white people, many of whom are 
destitute of both school and church privileges. Pawnee 
and Ponco Mission is reported in a flourishing condi- 
tion, but no statistics are received. 

There are several tribes, as the Sac and Fox, Semi- 
noles, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, lowas, Wichitas, Kiowas, 
Comanches, Kickapoos, and Kaws, among whom we 
have no work, but where there are open doors to very 
needy peoples. The whole Indian Territory is a mis- 
sion-field which has been too long neglected, and to 
which the General Missionary Committee should give 
special attention. 

New Hope Seminary and McCabe Seminary, under 
the auspices of the Woman's Home Missionary Society, 
are doing excellent work. Our school work in the Ter- 
ritory needs to be increased many fold. 



The Indian Medicine-Men^ Burial of the Dead^ 

etc. 

The medicine-men among the Indians pretend to be 
the mediums of communication between the spirit world 
and the Indians, and in times of sickness will seek to 
charm and drive out the evil spirit from the invalid- 
When milder measures do not succeed, they will dance 
around the patient for hours, yelling and beating drums. 

If, notwithstanding the efforts of the medicine-man, 
death comes, they calmly submit to the inevitable. 

A recent writer gives the following account of burial 
of the dead among rtie North-west Indians and belief 
as to the destiny of the spirit : 

" In burial the body is interred in the ground with the 
head toward the west, and alongside the corpse are 
placed his former hunting and warlike implements. The 
grave is covered over with wicker-work or bark. Meat, 
soup, and other food is left upon the grave. Strips of 
folded birch bark are hung round the grave to scare off 
the spirits. 

** They believe that between this world and the next 
flows a deep, dark river, over which the souls of men 



6 



THE METHODIST COLLEGE IN INDIA. 



must pass on a pole. Good men have no trouble in 
this passage, but the wicked fall over and are carried 
by the swift current into the region of darkness. The 
Chippewas have a modification of this belief. They 
believe that the souls of men are ferriedxiown the dark 
river, which divides this world from the one beyond the 
;grave, in a stone canoe, which bears them to a lovely 
lake, in the midst of which is an isle of transcendent 
bliss, and here, in the sight of it, they receive their final 
judgment. If their good actions predominate, they land 
on the island to be happy forever ; but if the balance is 
borne down by their evil deeds, then the stone canoe 
sinks and leaves them up to their chins in water, to be- 
hold, with unavailing longing and struggling to reach 
it, the blissful land from which they are forever ex- 
cluded." 



The Methodist College in India. 

This college is situated at Lucknow, the intellectual 
city of northern India and the center of the Hindustani 
language. This institution, the only Methodist college 
in India, is at the front just now calling for aid for 
buildings. The government of India, recognizing the 
need, has given us a plot of land — just the plot we de- 
sired. They connect with their gift two conditions: (i) 
That the plans of buildings shall be such as the govern- 
ment approve, and (2) that the buildings be completed 
by May, 1892. The plans have been approved, and we 
now appeal to the Church for $20,000 for the buildings. 
This college is demanded by every argument that can 
be brought forward in favor of education. 

1. The institution will stand in the center of a popu- 
lation of quite 50,000,000 people, where the desire 
for a higher education is daily growing. 

2. There are more than 18,000 pupils in our own 
schools from which to draw, and in other schools around 
us there are nearly 300,000 more. 

3. Our Christian youth require a college. Their num- 
ber is daily increasing, and we already have some 6,000 
Christians and inquirers in our schools, being four times 
as many as all the other Missions together can show in 
these provinces. 

4. Our evangelistic work, which is doubling our Chris- 
tian community every two years, is very largely the fruit of 
our schools, and we dare not go forward with this un- 
less we can educate as we go. Our only safeguard 
against such a rush into the Church is careful, thorough 
Christian education, as good as the best and as high as 
the highest. 

For more facts concerning higher education in India, 
please read the following testimonies of well-known 
missionaries in India. These were called forth by cer- 
tain questions asked by the Missionary Committee of the 
Church of Scotland. 

I. From the Rev. John Newton, M.A., missionary of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States of Amer- 
ica at Lahore, North India [the oldest missionary in 
India] : 



Though my knowledge is mainly local, yet as all missionary 
schools and colleges are, I he'.ieve, conducted on substantially 
the same plan and with similar results, what is seen in 
the Punjab is, no doubt, seen in other parts of the country as 
well. 

Mission schools and colleges almost every-where stand in 
marked contrast with government institutions of the same 
class. There can be no doubt that the religious and moral in- 
fluence of government education is the reverse of what we 
could wish, and consequently its social influence too. It could 
not well be otherwise, since in this education God is systemat- 
ically ignored, and much of the teaching has a directly athe- 
istic tendency. The sad effect of such teaching often obtrudes 
itself on our notice. 

Mission students, on the contrary, though very few of them 
are actually converted, generally go out into the world with a 
conviction that Christianity is at least better than any other 
religion ; while many who are never baptized, and who, there- 
fore, are not publicly known as Christians, privately profess 
faith in Christ and tell us that their hope in salvation is through 
him. While government students often oppose the Gospel as 
preached by evangelists in public places, it is a rare thing for 
any one to do so who has been instructed in a mission school. 
For these reasons it does seem desirable not only to maintain 
the mission schools and colleges now in existence, but to mul- 
tiply them, and to increase their efficiency by securing the 
assistance of Christian instead of heathen teachers wherever 
such can be had. At the same time, I think that far more at- 
tention should be given than is usual in many of our Missions 
to the direct preaching of the Gospel to the people at large, 
especially to the villagers and to the poor every-where. Hith- 
erto the most abundant fruit in the form of conversions has 
been gathered in this way. And a high order of education is 
by no means essential to most of the men engaged in this kind 
of work, while yet some of the most successful preachers are 
men of high culture. 

I should say that evangelizing far and wide by godly men 
and women, some of whom may have no claim to learning, 
ought to be done by all means, and that the work of education 
ought not to be left undone. 

II. From the Rev. William Miller, C.T.E., LL.D., 
Principal of Christian College, Madras : 

It is a mere commonplace to one who knows any thing of 
real mission work in India, that but for the effect of Christian 
education the central Hindu people would be as untouched 
to-day as it was when the early Roman Catholic missionaries 
used to say that it was an absolute impossibility that a Brah- 
min should become a Christian. In present circumstances to 
give up mission schools would be simply to give up work 
among the real people of the country. . . . 

There is the possibility of institutions having a religious 
character becoming very widely influential, and largely direct- 
ing the tendency and general effect of education at large. The 
Jesuits, with their accustomed foresight, have seen this — not as 
yet any other Roman Catholics, so far as l.know. But in this 
Presidency and Bombay the Jesuits are now making the most 
determined bid for the foremost place in education. I do not 
know that they are quite so active in the north, but for every 
province of India it is a mere question of time. Here and in 
Bombay they are doing all that can be done by lavish outlay, 
by ingratiating themselves with the people, by yielding in the 
meantime to every popular impulse to make their colleges the 
dominating ones. They know that if they gain the youth they 
gain the land, and they can look forward and be patient. 

If '* Protestant Christian high-schools and colleges were 



THE METHODIST COLLEGE IN INDIA. 



aljolished/' Jesiait schools antl colleges would ccrtamly step into 
the place which govemnncnt is vacating, and even so far as 
government does not vacate it would give their own spiritual 
and moral impress to ever)- thing. Protestant schools and col- 
leges have still certain advaniages, but will, in any case, find 
it very hard lo maintain their place in front of the lavish ex- 
penditure, the patient determination, and organizing skill of the 
Jesuits. To abolish Protestant schools and colleges would 
lje simply to hand over the future of India to the Jesuits. They 
expect that through education the future will be theirs ; 
and with the narrowness of view characteristic of Protestant 
Missions^ I greatly fear that iheir expectation will be realized. 
Now» I would rather that India should become Jesuit than that 
It shoutd bfcome absolutely irreligious ; but it is not a prospect 
to which I look forward with pleasure. The Jesuits are at 
work toward their ends by other than direct means. I have 
reason to believe that I he attacks so often made by the secular 
and Anglo-Indian press upon Protestant Mission education arc 
made in the interest of the Jesuits. They are now immensely 
more active in education than any Protestant Mission, but their 
institutions are never attacked in I he ordinary secular press^ 
which tries so hard by ever)^ weapon of misrepresentation and 
abuse to induce Protestants to give up educational work. It 
would not surprise me if some of the papers at home which 
take the same hne were also laboring for the great Jesuit end^ 
but as to this I do not pretend to knosv any thing. 

. , . In glancing through my letter, I obser%T I have said 
nothing on the probable effect of Roman Catholic education 
on the religion and morals, etc. \ but I am very hurried, and I 
need not discuss this. You know at home, as well as we, what 
Jesuitism is, and can understand what effect its dominance would 
have. I am no fanatic about such matters, and have friends 
vrhom I value among Roman Cat hob cs \ but T may remind you 
that if the mind of India be molded by Jesuit influence, the 
effect will be in the highest degree adverse to all that Prot- 
estants value most tn religion and morals and culture gen- 
erally. 

III. From the Rev. F. H. Baring, M.A., Fellow Pun- 
, jab University : 

In reply to the questions in the circular you have kindly sent 
me, I would say: 

1. That in my opinion it is most important that there 
should be one thoroughly efficient Protestant missionary college 
in each part of India. I would urge this not only on account 
of the Christian influence the professors have on their pupils, 
but also because their influence on the universily, senates, and 
in other ways is invaluable. 

2. At the same time, it appears to me that it would be much 
the best plan if the various missionary societies would unite 
to make one strong college (.as in Madras), and not spend their 
strength on more than one college in each part of India. 

3. The Brahmos and others do a great deal by lectures to 
the educated classes in various places, a work which, it seems 
to me. has received scarcely sufRcieni attention from mission- 
ary societies. I hope your committee may see their way lo do 
something more than is being done at present in this direction. 

With regard to your paragraph five, I may mention that, so 
far as my experience goes, I do not know one missionary who 
would willingly employ a non-Christian teacher were a Christian 
available. 1 would, however, deprecate the home authorities 
making any hard-and-fast rules on the subject. The mission- 
aries are well worthy of confidence, and should be trusted to 
do what is best under the circumstances, 

IV. From the Rev, W^ Shoolkkku, I>.I)., nii^isionaiy 



of the United Presbyterian Church to Beawar, Rajpoo- 
tana, and ex-Moderator of U. P. Synod: 

As I have a very strong opinion on the necessity of keeping 
up your colleges and high -schools in India, I send you just a 
line to say so. 

Apart from the very important work which these institutions 
is doing in leavening the best young minds in India with 
Christian truth, and thus preparing the educated classes for 
receiving Christianity en masse when caste bonds are relaxed 
and broken, I regard them as serving a most important and 
valuable purpose in keeping the higher education in missionary 
rather than government ha mis. The education given in gov- 
ernment colleges is in most instances a curse rather than a 
blessing to the young Hindus, A great many of the profes- 
sors and teachers are, I am sorry to say, atheists, agnostics, or 
positivists. These make no scruple of violating the neutrality 
clause, and teach their hopeless and soul-destroying doctrines, 
sowing them broadcast among the pupils ; while the Christian 
teachers in government colleges who have a conscience arc 
obliged to respect the neutrality clause, and re/rain from teach- 
ing Christianity. The result of withdrawing the mission col- 
leges would simply be to throw the whole higher education of 
the country into the hands of these atheistic government teach- 
ers, with a most disastrous effect on ihe future moral and spir- 
itual state of the youth of India, 

I would, therefore, strongly deprecate the closing of your 
colleges, which have done and are doing a noble work, and 
which, if the higher castes in India are to be effectuany reached 
and acted on, must be maintained. 

V. From George Smith, Esq., C.T.E., LL.U,, Sec- 
retary of Free Church, Foreign Missions Committee : 

I am so hard driven that I see no chance of doing justice 
to the circular even shortly. I can only say that the lives and 
writings of Carey and Duffl John Wilson and Stephen Hislop, 
are unanimous in the conclusion that ihe best means of evan- 
gelizing the Brahman ical and educated natives of India is the 
Christian college taught by aggressively Christian men ever on 
the watch, and with leisure to seek for inquirers among the 
students. 

In any missionar)^ method all depends, under the Spirit of 
God, on the men whom you send oiit as missionaries, If full 
of /eal for souls, as well as cultured, they will use the method- 
educational, preaching, medical— best fitted to bring about 
conversions. If the Church at home does its duty to such men 
by prayer and means, the fruit will come, though not always 
in the way or at the time expected. 

YL From J, Murdoch, LL,D., Indian Agent Chris- 
tian Vernacular Education Society: 

I beg to acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of the copjr 
of your "Interim Report on Educational Missions in India." 
One good result of the inquiry is, that it has elicited such a 
valuable collection of letters on the subject. Brief replies to 
your circular will now be sufficient. 

It would be a great calamity if the higher education in India 
fell exclusively into the hands of government, the Jesuits, and 
Hindus, In each presidency there should be one thoroughly 
equipped Protestant college, directly evangelistic in its aim and 
course of instruction. It should be manned CKclusively by 
picked men, ordained missionaries, able to resist the secular- 
izing influence of university examination^ All connected with 
it should feel that they are missionaries and not simply pro- 
fessors. 

Dr. Millar says: "When the work of mission schools Ijegins 



8 



OUR DEBT TO THE HEATHEN, AND ITS PAYMENT. 



to be adequately followed up in India, which it has not even 
begun to be, it will be time enough to ask for any tangible 
evidence of what it has effected." (Interim Report, p. 50.) How 
is this to be done ? Principally by the appointment of mission- 
aries to labor among the educated classes, to deepen, if pos- 
sible, any impressions produced in schools and colleges. The 
number of missionaries employed .need not, perhaps, be greater 
than at present, for in some places educational work might be 
concentrated." 

With such facts before the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, will her one college in India be left uncared for 
when God is by baptisms filling this Church with chil- 
dren at the rate of 200 per month — children that must 
be educated? This is the first expensive building the 
India Mission has ever asked, and in comparison with 
other lands this is but little. Twenty thousand dollars 
will give us our buildings all complete. Last year the 
sum given in dollars was less, as the American silver 
bill had not then changed the money-markets of the 
world. 

Dr. Peck, at our Mission Rooms, 150 Fifth Avenue, 
New York, will give information and receive funds for 
this college, as will Dr. Baldwin, at same address. Dr. 
Johnson, who has lived many years in Lucknow, is also 
now in America, and can give full particulars. Address 
also at Mission Rooms. 

Signed, for Board of Trustees, 

E. W. Parker, President, 
B. H. Badlev, Secretary. 



Our Debt to the Heathen^ and Its Payment. 

BY REV. WILBUR F. COOKMAN. 

Text.— I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barba- 
rians ; both to the wise, and to the unwise. So, as much as in 
me is, I am ready to preach the Gospel to you which are at 
Rome also (Rom. i. 14, 15). 

The work of preaching the Gospel to every creature, 
of Christianizing the world, and of helping the Church 
in heathen lands to a self-supporting basis is a work of 
such magnitude and duration as to demand for our mis- 
sionary organizations broad and permanent foundations. 

The call of the Church for men and women to devote 
their lives to this work meets with a hearty response ; 
but the call for money to equip, send, and support them 
falls in a measure unheeded. This does not prove that 
the Church is poor in gold and silver ; the facts contra- 
dict that ; but it does prove that she is spiritually poor 
and heavy of hearing. This latter defect, which is large- 
ly responsible for the former, will be remedied in part, 
at least, when the pulpit sounds the true note with 
proper emphasis. 

The pulpit has been too well content in having reached 
the shallow landsprings of the emotion whose supply is 
only temporary; we must dig for the m*^untain currents 
of conscience and intelligence. When t\ese shall have 
been thoroughly probed we shall have ^undant and 
perpetual supplies. v 

The text reveals the relation and consequent obliga- 



tion of the Christian Church to the non-Christian world 
in a light that addresses itself at once to her intelligence^ 
her conscience, and her sense of honor. 

In declaring himself a debtor to the Greek and to the 
barbarian, St. Paul represents his fellow-apostles and 
the whole Church of all ages. This acknowledgment is 
not made on the ground of a special commission to the 
Gentiles exclusively. It is true that he was a chosen 
vessel to bear the Lord's name unto the Gentiles, but 
not to them exclusively, for he gave large place in his 
sermons, epistles, and the churches he established to the 
Jew. His commission to bear the Lord's name unto 
the Gentiles did not differ from the great commission 
given to the twelve other than in its breadth. It was a 
repetition of a part of the great commission ; a repeti- 
tion made necessary because the twelve had either failed 
to understand the universal character of their orders, or 
had willfully disobeyed through prejudice against the 
Gentiles. 

God gives no commissions, imposes no obligations, of- 
fers no privileges under the New Testament dispensa- 
tion that include or exclude any man or people on the 
ground of nationality. The death of the Son of man 
meant the breaking down of the middle wall of partition 
between man and man. In Christ Jesus there is neither 
Greek, nor Jew, nor Roman, circumcision nor uncircum- 
cision, but all are one in Christ Jesus. 

If there were any exclusive features about St. Paul's 
commission they were geographical. He was to give 
himself chiefly to Gentile localities. Such distinctions 
may yet be made in the divine call to labor in spiritual 
vineyards. Bishop Taylor and some of his heroic band 
believe in a special call to Africa, and we are not dis- 
posed to call in question their faith. 

Then St. Paul and his fellow-apostles were laboring 
under the same general and universal commission, " Go 
ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 
creature." Again, the great commission as given to the 
twelve applies to the Church. The twelve disciples 
represented, yea, constituted the Church. The pronoun 
ye of that commission was used in the same sense as 
previously in "ye are the salt of the earth," and **ye are 
the light of the world ;" no one would argue that the 
earth lost its salt with the death of the twelve, or that 
the light of the world went out with the lives of the 
apostles. 

The Church of God is one in all ages and in all 
climes. This is shown by the one foundation — Christ. 
If the foundation is one the superstructure must be one. 
He is the foundation of the apostles and prophets, and 
** other foundation can no man lay." This unity is 
shown also in the one head, ** and he [Christ Jesus] is 
the head of the body, the Church." If there is but one 
head there can be but one body. 

In his intercessory prayer Jesus prays not for his 
disciples alone, but for all who should believe on him 
through their word, that they might all be one. 

The Church being one in foundation, in head, in 
origin, and in privilege, is one also in duty. Hence, the 



OUR DEBT TO THE HEATHEN, AND ITS PAYMENT 



9 



obligations upon her in her early history are still binding, 
unless the occasion which imposed them has passed 
away. In this ease it has not, for there are hundreds of 
millions of human creatures who have not had the Gos- 
pel preached to them. Therefore, if Paul and his fel- 
low-apostles were debtors to the heathen, so are we who 
constitute the Church of to-day. 

Having, then, put the Church upon the ground occu- 
pied by St. Paul when he gave expression to the text, 
let us now survey the wide range of our obligation. 

The Epistle to the Romans was written in Corinth, 
and the writer adopted the Greek method of classifying 
the world's inhabitants. The Jew divided mankind into 
two classes — Jew and Gentile. The Greek divided them 
into two sets of classes, one based upon nationality — 
Greek and barbarian — and the other upon intellectual 
status — wise and foolish. 

These two sets of classes embraced all men, and Paul 
meant to admit that he was a debtor to all men ; and 
that the Romans might fully understand him, he vent- 
ures a degree of repetition by naming them specifically. 
If such was the sweep of his debt, and we stand in his 
room, ours is alike all inclusive ; no race, no nation, no 
locality, no intellectual status, no color is excluded from 
the realm of our obligation. 

But this is not merely a debt of the Church in its col- 
lective capacity. Paul did not say we are debtors ; but 
he speaks in the singular, and says, "/ am debtor;" and 
I would remind you. Christian mother or sister, that God 
stands you in Paul's footprints, and he would have you 
say in the same spirit in which these words were orig- 
inally uttered, as you look out and behold the vast mill- 
ions who sit in the regions of darkness, I am debtor to 
all these. A great debt ! do you say ? but not greater 
than are your resources, not wider than your possible 
influence. A stone dropped into a lake will displace 
every particle of water in that lake, so God designs that 
every Christian shall exert an influence that shall never 
cease, until from center to circumference the race shall 
be lifted a notch higher in the scale of spiritual, moral, 
social, and physical improvement. St. Paul is still pay- 
ing his debt, his influence is still living and widening, 
and will continue until the utmost bounds of the human 
race are reached. A great debt, indeed, is ours, but 
when we look godward our resources are unlimited. 
The philosophy of this debt is not to be found in the 
principle of value received. 

The poverty of heathenism is apparent in this, that it 
has nothing to give. It never contributed any thing to 
the world's progress, its course has been steadily down- 
ward. Heathenism to-day, untouched by Christianity, 
is worse than heathenism 2,500 years ago. It cannot 
reproduce the golden ages of Egypt, Babylon, Greece, 
or Rome. Its unaided production of great men is a 
thing of the past. Its most prominent intellectual pro- 
ductions are saturated with poison, and cannot benefit 
us only as Christianity has the power to neutralize their 
deadly influence and extract their sweetness ; the touch 
of its social system is paralyzing ; the breath of its morals 



is death ; it cannot break off" its own shackles or lift up 
itself from the accumulated debris of ages, much less 
can it help others. On the ground of value received we 
owe the heathen nothing, he has given us nothing. 

Neither is the philosophy of this debt to be found 
chiefly in the fact that the heathen is our fellow-man, 
our brother, though he has claims upon us on that 
ground that we cannot ignore. But it is in this, that 
God has given us something for the heathen, and God 
has made the Church the custodian of the Gospel for 
all the world, the executor of Christ's estate. Who are 
the legitimate heirs of this bequest? To whom does the 
Gospel belong ? 

It has already been said that the Church is a debtor 
to the whole world, but as this was only a deduction from 
the assumed relation between St. Paul and the Church 
of this age, and might be called in question, we desire 
to rest this important truth upon a broader basis. Let 
us hear then : 

1. The testimony of the prophets of the Old Testa- 
ment. Moses says: **In thee [Abraham] shall all the 
families of the earth be blessed." Also, " Rejoice, O ye na- 
tions, with his people." Why rejoice, but in the pros- 
pect of sharing with them the blessings of the Messiah's 
reign ? 

David in portraying the extent of Solomon's kingdom 
at the same time gives us a type of Christ's kingdom. 
He says : ** He shall have dominion also from sea to 
sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth. 
They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him ; 
and his enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tar- 
shish and of the isles shall bring presents : the kings of 
Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts. Yea, all kings shall 
fall down before him : all nations shall serve him." 

Isaiah says : " And in that day there shall be a root 
of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people ; 
to it shall the Gentiles seek." Also, " Behold my serv- 
ant, whom I uphold ; mine elect, in whom my soul de- 
lighteth ; I have put my Spirit upon him : he shall bring 
forth judgment to the Gentiles." 

Hear also the witness of Daniel : " There was given 
him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, 
nations, and languages, should serve him." 

These witnesses, though Jews, agree in their testimony 
that Christ's kingdom is an universal kingdom; hence, 
all his subjects are entitled to the blessings of his reign. 

2. Look again for light on this important question to 
Christ's human relations. Relationship is the chief 
ground on which heirship is determined. Jesus does 
not make prominent his Jewish origin. In both his 
public and private discourses he omits any reference to 
any special relation, by descent, to the Jew. St. Mat- 
thew traces his origin back to Abraham — does not stop 
with Isaac, in whom Abraham's seed was called, and 
thus relate him exclusively to the Jew; but goes back to 
Abraham, and makes him a brother to Ishmael as well as 
to Isaac. Luke traces his genealogy back to Adam, and 
thus makes him a brother to all of Adam's descendants. 

Again, Jesus does declare himself to be the " Son of 



10 



OUR DEBT TO THE HEATHEN, AND ITS PAYMENT, 



man," in a higher sense than he is the son of Mary, 
though she were both Jew and Gentile. He is the Son of 
man in its generic sense. He is focalized humanity. 
Just as a ray of sunlight is a combination of all the 
colors of the solar spectrum, and is equally related to 
each, so is Jesus a combination of all the elements of all 
the nations. He is perfect humanity and equally re- 
lated to all people. Then all people have a like claim 
upon him. Every son and daughter of Adam is his heir. 
At the same time that one angel Shouted to the Jewish 
shepherds, ** Unto you is born this day a Saviour," an- 
other whispered into the listening ear of the far off East, 
** Unto you a King is born," and we of the far West have 
taken up the strain and sing, 

" To us a child of hope is born, 
To us a son is given ;" 

and who dare deny our right to sing that sentiment? 
Then, if he is equally related to all men, and heirship is 
^determined on the basis of relationship, all men are alike 
his heirs ; and though the inheritance may have fallen 
into the hands of a few, it is not theirs exclusively. 

3. The invitations of Jesus show who are his heirs. 
These invitations are universal. An invitation always car- 
ries with it an implied promise to bestow the thing to 
which invited. Here, then, are invitations and promises, 
upon the same conditions, to all. 

4. The impartial character of Christ's personal minis- 
try shows that the benefits of his kingdom were designed 
alike for all ; his personal benefactions were conferred 
irrespective of nationality or social or intellectual con- 
dition. It is true that he confined himself to Palestine, 
and concentrated himself largely upon twelve men ; but 
it was a necessity that he should concentrate himself 
somewhere — a necessity that grew out of the obtuseness 
of men's minds to perceive, and the slowness of their 
hearts to believe the truth. If you would kindle a fire 
with the sun*s rays you must focalize and hold them 
steadily upon combustible material. However hard and 
obdurate, the Jewish people afforded the best soil to be 
found at that time for the reception of the truth ; and 
the simple yet strange-minded disciples were the most 
<iocile of that nation ; but it is a glorious fact that Jesus 
-did " eat with publicans and sinners," and conveyed his 
healing, forgiving, and happifying power without re- 
spect of persons. 

5. Again, Jesus died for all men; ** he tasted death for 
«very man," etc. Then all should be privileged with 
the benefits of his death, and they are deprived of their 
rights to whom these privileges have not come. Who is 
responsible for this deprivation ? 

6. The gift of tongues on the day of Pentecost and 
subsequently indicates God's design as to the spread 
of the Gospel and the universal heirship of man. In 
the light, then, of prophecy ; in view of the equal rela- 
tionship of Christ to all men; from the testimony of the 
universal character of his invitation, the impartial char- 
acter of his personal ministry, the unlimited applica- 
tion of his death, and the provision made in the gift of 
tongues for preaching the Gospel to all nations, who can 



deny that every man is an heir of Christ, or that all 
should enjoy the benefits he has provided, or that the 
Church to whom he has committed his estate should 
make an universal distribution of it ? Christ and the 
Gospel no more belong to us than they do to the blackest 
and veriest savage of the jungles of Africa, and God 
holds us under bond to give these riches to that savage. 
He is what he is because he has not them ; we fire what 
we are because we have ; reverse our possessions in this 
and you reverse our conditions. 

The Payment. 

It is of great importance that we have a right dispo- 
sition toward a debt, and specially toward one that God 
imposes ; for a mere outward service is not pleasing to 
him. " If there be first a willing mind it is accepted ac- 
cording to that a man hath." " The Lord loveth a cheer- 
ful giver." Paul showed his disposition toward his debt 
in two ways : 

1. He acknowledged it. This is what some professing 
Christians do not do. They regard missionary work as 
mere charity, and they can give or withhold; and the 
pulpit too often presents it as a charity, that which ap- 
peals to the sympathies. But it is more than that — it is a 
debt; it appeals to our sense of jiistice and honor, and 
no man can be just or honorable in the sight of heaven 
who, seeing this matter in its true light, does not ac- 
knowledge it as a debt. In asking for contributions to 
our missionary enterprises we are asking people to pay 
an honest debt, to be just and loyal to God and man ; 
and our request should be presented with more authority 
and assurance than that possessed by the tax-gatherer 
of a government that insures life, protects property, and 
fosters virtue ; for God is the great governor, and it is 
the benign influence of his government that has be- 
stowed upon men all their wealth, and given them the 
ability to extend his rule to earth's remotest bounds. 
We are not asking for what belongs to man, but for what 
belongs to God, and the most simple justice ought to 
prompt to a hearty response. We are asking for God's 
gold to transmute into redeemed souls. 

2. Again, Paul's disposition toward this debt is seen 
in his expressed purpose to do all in his might to pay 
it: "As much as in me is," etc. Paul was not partial 
toward the Romans ; his disposition toward them was the 
same as that toward the Greeks and all other barbarians. 
His whole life was one desperate effort to pay this debt 
in full to all men. Have we such a holy determination ? 
Have we such a zeal in this work as will enable us to 
say to the heathen when we meet him at the judgment, 
" I did what I could to save you ?" The facts and figures 
do not show a general consecration of the Church to 
the payment of this debt. If the Church were fully de- 
voted in purse and heart and brain to the accomplish- 
ment of this task, in one fourth of a century the most 
solitary places of the earth would be made to rejoice. 
O, for a Pauline missionary enthusiasm to seize the 
Church ! Then would she have $50,000,000 upon her 
altar for this work where now she has only $1,500,000. 



OUR DEBT TO THE HEATHEN, AND ITS PAYMENT, 



11 



The currency with which this debt must be paid is 
the Gospel of Christ. There can be no substitute for 
this. We are giving heathenism the material and intel- 
lectual products of our Christian civilization ; and that 
is well. But that is not the work of the Church as such, 
and these things are no substitute for the Gospel, 
though they help in its distribution. It is not the duty 
of the Church to educate in the arts, sciences, and litera- 
ture, only as they are needful in preparing the way for 
and helping in the distribution of the Gospel. To give 
the Gospel pure and simple is the duty of the- Church ; 
and this is the supreme and primary need of the heathen. 
It is the need of the soul ; without it the soul has no 
food, no drink, no clothes, no rest, no hope, no light, no 
life; and the soul is the man. The soul's need is the 
source of all need, and the soul's supply will culminate 
in supplies for the entire man — "Seek first the kingdom 
of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall 
be added unto you." Give the heathen the Gospjl and 
you give him in embryo all that the highest forms of 
civilization signify, save their vices. Mr. Gladstone 
says, " It can and will correct all that needs correcting ; 
leading statesmen, scholars, thinkers, and reformers de- 
pend upon it as the chief hope of humanity. There can 
be no substitute for the Gospel. There must be no fail- 
ure in giving this — the supreme, the all comprehensive 
thing." 

The Method of Paving this Debt. 

The method announced by Paul, as by Jesus, was that 
oi preaching the Gospel. 

In his Epistle to the Romans Paul writes the Gospel. 
It is presented in a strong light in almost every feature ; 
yet he does not regard his duty to the Romans done 
until he hdiS preached \o them this Gospel. Jesus com- 
manded his disciples to preach the Gospel to every 
creature. 

The Ethiopian eunuch had the prophecy of Isaiah, 
and was reading that portion of it where the Gospel is 
most concentrated. Indeed, the picture before his eyes 
was the cross with its bleeding victim, and the interpre- 
tation thereof; yet the Lord sends Philip \o preach that 
same Gospel to him that he was reading. A preached 
Gospel is just as necessary to the heathen to-day as it 
was then. It is a good thing to give the Bible, but that 
must be followed by the living preacher. The eunuch 
did not understand what he read, and many heathen 
have made long journeys to find a missionary to explain 
to them the Gospel that they have read. Then the liv- 
ing preacher is necessary to give a living demonstration 
of the word of God ; for in the track of the missionary, 
and ofttimes ahead of him, go men and women to prac- 
tice the vices that have grown up in the fertile soil of 
Christian lands; and often before the heathen sees the 
missionary he sees the rum-seller, the gambler, the sharp, 
unprincipled tradesman, and all those lewd fellows of 
the baser sort, who claim to represent our Christian 
civilization. A sad experience with this class drives the 
the heathen to say, " If these are the products of Chris- 
tianity we want none of it." The missionary is neces- 



sary to counteract this effect and give a true repre- 
sentation of the effect of the Gospel upon the lives of 
men. 

But while this debt is to be paid with a precuhed Gos- 
pel, it must not be inferred that the sole responsibility 
devolves upon the preacher. God means to equalize the 
burdens of life. He says, ** Bear ye one another's bur- 
dens." There are two factors in this work — the preacher 
and the sender : " How shall they preach except they be 
sent V When God calls a man to preach the Gospel, 
he calls the Church not only to hear that man, but to 
send him to preach. In the fact that hundreds of men 
and women are offering themselves for missionary work, 
God is calling loudly to the Church for the means with 
which to send them, and we must either go or send — 
preach in person or by proxy. When the drafts were 
made during the Civil War to replenish the army, the 
man who was drafted could do only one of two honor- 
able things — go or send a Substitute. God has issued 
a draft for the prosecution of this war between light and 
darkness out on the far frontier, and this draft has fallen 
upon the whole Church — not a member has escaped ; 
and we must go, send, or act the deserter's part and suf- 
fer his fate. 

The need of more soldiers is great. Those upon the 
field see that the enemy is demoralized, but they are 
too few to fully seize the golden opportunity, and are 
crying to us for help. Bishop Taylor wants scores of 
recruits in Africa. Bishop Thoburn thinks that the 
time has come in India for a nation to be born in a day. 
More helpers are needed both at home and abroad, in 
all parts of the world ; and hundreds of men and women 
equipped with an education, with a consecration to 
God, and with the baptism of the Holy Ghost, are say- 
ing, " here am I ; send me." O, for a consecration of the 
the sending power which God has bestowed upon the 
Church in great measure ! 

The measure of our individual obligation in the pay- 
ment of this debt is shown by the text — " as much as in 
me is." Paul meant to say that he was under obliga- 
tion to the extent of his ability to preach the Gospel to 
all classes here named, and we must measure our obli- 
gation by the same standard. The missionary must take 
as his motto — 

" 'Tis all my business here below 
To cry. Behold the Lamb ;" 

and they have a grand record in their devotion to the 
work to which the Church has sent them. Now, we 
who stay at home, and thus take upon ourselves the re- 
sponsibility of sending, must send to the extent of our 
ability in sending power, which consists chiefly in our 
money. It may be impossible for one to determine for 
another how much should be given ; but it is perfectly 
safe to say and easy to demonstrate that the Church as 
a whole is not doing her duty. 

The average member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church is worth about $800, and that wealth is increas- 
ing at the rate of $46 per year. The average contri- 
bution for distinctively missionary work, excluding local 



12 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK. 



city missions, for the year ending October 30, 1889, was 
70 cents per member. At least one seventh of this was 
given by non-members, leaving an average of 60 cents ; 
adding to our treasures on earth $40 per annum, and 
60 cents to our treasures in heaven through the payment 
of an honest debt. 

Again, see how this compares with the expenditures 
of the servants of the devil, to sustain and extend his 
kingdom. The whisky bill of this country is at least 
$1,000,000,000 per year. If one fourth of the whole 
population drink, the bill averages $66. Wicked men 
paying ^d to satisfy their thirst for strong drink, and 
good men expending 60 cents to satisfy their thirst for 
** souls away from home !" 

I submit to the judgment and conscience of the 
Church, that five cents per month does not represent 
our average ability to pay our debt to the heathen. The 
very moderate slave of tobacco will expend five cents 
per day for what he claims to be nothing more than a 
luxury. I ask. Is it right and just before God and man 
to expend $1 50 per month for a hurtful luxury, and 
only five cents to pay an honest debt that is due and 
pressing ? Business sense demands that we dispense 
with luxuries when debts are pressing and ability is 
limited ; how much more does it demand that we abstain 
from expensive poisons in order to meet our obligations 
and maintain our integrity. 

Finally, let us notice the necessity for a speedy pay- 
ment of this debt. A church no more than an individual 
can afford to be indifferent to a debt. A persistent 
refusal or an unnecessary tardiness in payment will 
sacrifice public confidence and favor. The condition 
upon which the Lord promised to be with his disciples 
was that they go into all the world and preach the Gos- 
pel ; and this is the condition upon which the Church 
is to maintain his presence and power. It is only when 
she has been active in missionary work that she has been 
prosperous. Her interests at home demand a consecra- 
tion to God for the salvation of the uttermost parts of 
the earth. Then the condition of the heathen makes 
• the demand for the payment of this debt supremely 
urgent. The heathen world is suffering indescribable 
poverty that the Gospel would relieve. 

Bishop Foster says : " The conspicuous feature of 
heathenism is poverty. You never saw poverty. It is 
a word of meaning you do not know. What you call 
poverty is wealth, luxury; think of it not as occasional, 
but as universal, continent-wide. Put into it hunger, 
nakedness, bestiality ; take out of it all expectation of 
something better to-morrow. Their poverty is so deep 
that they are not able to supply their merely brute wants. 
Many of them do not average for the subsistence of 
themselves and their families three cents per day or its 
equivalent." I have heard Bishop Thoburn say that 
in their tours he and his helper were under obligation 
to take their supplies with them because the people were 
too poor to feed them. A missionary tells us that the 
widows of India have to support themselves by the most 
menial and laborious toil; and that they only receive 



from six to nine cents per week. The antidote for this 
poverty is the Gospel. It opens up a thousand new 
lines of remunerative employment, and guarantees to 
the laborer his hire. What it has done for our land in 
this, it will do for others. 

Bishop Foster says : " These lands under the doom of 
such wretchedness might equal, and many of them sur- 
pass, the land in which we dwell, had they what we could 
give them." But it is the spiritual need of our creditors 
that makes the demand the most urgent. 

The heathen are without hope. A missionary says : 
** I have been in China for twenty years, and have never 
found a single man who has any hope beyond the grave. 
I have never seen any expression of hope written upon 
the tombs of the dead." Think of this you who see in 
the rainbow, of your tears the promise of departing 
clouds ; you who see in the faces of your dying loved 
ones the -dawn of a more glorious day; you who expect 
to have in your last hour the presence of One who *' can 
make a dying bed feel soft as downy pillows are." 
Think of the hundreds of millions who with bleeding 
hearts and famishing spirits are wandering on the desert 
road of life that ends in hopeless death. 

I think we can agree that there is no hope for man 
in the non-Christian world ; it has nothing to give, not a 
rag, not a crumb. 

Do you say the heathen are not asking for the Gos- 
pel ? A beggar sat by the side of the crowded thorough- 
fare in silence. A Christian man stopped and said to 
him, " My friend, you look to be in need; why don't you 
beg ?" His reply was, ** Sir, do you see these ragged 
clothes, these bony hands, these shrunken cheeks, these 
sightless eyes } These, sir, are begging with a thousand 
tongues !" This beggar is the heathen world ; stop a 
moment, look at him ; see his poverty written in most 
vivid colors on all his surroundings; see his oppressed, 
down-trodden condition ; see his extreme spiritual des- 
titution, his helplessness, and his hopelessness. These are 
begging with a thousand tongues, not for charity, but 
for the payment of a just debt that has been overdue 
for centuries. 

Awake, O thou Church of the living God, to the great 
necessity and the great responsibility, for ye are debtor 
both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, both to the 
wise and to the unwise, and it can only be paid in Gos- 
pel coin. 

The Missionary Outlook. 

BY REV. JUDSON SMITH, D.D. 

[^ Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American 
Board at Minneapolis, October 9, 1 890.] 

Two conditions at least are essential to successful 
warfare. In the first place, there must be courage, 
strength, address, and persistence, the qualities of the 
true and veteran soldier. There must also be foresight, 
a comprehensive view of the whole movement, skillful 
combination and quick generalization, the qualities of 
the captain and great commander. Neither avails much 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK, 



18 



without the other ; but together they are resistless and 
carry the day. 

The foreign missionary enterprise of our times is a 
campaign of most varied and complex character, on a 
colossal scale, that embraces the nations of the earth 
and sweeps the centuries in its sublime developments. 
It is wholly in place, therefore, to study it under the an- 
alogy of warfare, and to call attention, as the occasion 
may serve, to limited portions of the field, to particular 
agencies and methods, and again to cast the eye in a 
wider view over the salient features, the more command- 
ing aspects and main incidents of the movement as a 
whole. For the full enlistment of feeling and purpose 
both lines of study are needful. The examination of 
particular fields, methods, and agencies yields a vivid 
sense of reality, and kindles personal interest ; while the 
broader vieW deepens faith and braces the will and lifts 
up the soul to the vision and support of God's mighty 
thoughts which run through all the nations and move on 
to their completion, 

•' While the eternal ages watch and wait." 

At this time we take the wider view, and seek an out- 
look over the whole field at home and abroad. Much 
that is familiar will be found, some well-worn paths will 
be trod afresh; but doubtless something beyond the 
common view will also come to sight, some rare inspir- 
ing glimpse of that unseen, pervasive Spirit which moves 
through all, encompasses all, inspires and glorifies all. 
It will surely not be in vain if we come back from our 
Pisgah with deepened sense of the grandeur of this 
work, and with profounder joy that unto us is given a 
real share in this master-movement of the ages, the ad- 
vancing and triumphant kingdom of our God. 

I. We note first some of the signs which appear in the 
foreign field. 

I. Christianity is coming to be the dominant religion 
of the world. This is its character and destination, as 
the Scriptures every-where distinctly teach. No narrower 
view will satisfy our Master's precept or fill out his 
•promise. The history of the Church reveals a perpetual 
movement toward this end, the implicit recognition 
among the Christian generations that their faith and 
salvation are to overspread the earth and possess all 
nations. The practical accomplishment of this aim is 
the explicit purpose and animating motive of modern 
missions. 

But the peculiarity we now consider is the fact that 
already, in a degree unknown before, Christianity is at- 
taining its object and asserting its rightful place in the 
thoughts of men. Statistics disclose the fact that the ad- 
herents of Christianity already outnumber those of any 
other religious faith on the globe. The nominally Chris- 
tian peoples of the world are reckoned at 450,000,000, 
while the Buddhists, who come nearest in point of num- 
bers, are only 390,000,000. This alone is a most signifi- 
cant fact. 

But the supremacy of the Gospel of which we speak 
includes much more than mere numerical superiority. 



The leading powers of the world to-day are England, 
Germany, and the United States ; all of them Christian 
states, their life permeated with Christian thought and 
sentiment, their history and institutions and policy con- 
trolled by Christian ideas. Wherever their influence is 
felt, wherever their colonies or commerce or national 
life are found, there Christianity stands forth the ac- 
knowledged — I had almost said the embodied — religious 
faith. England's empire, girdling the world, is the won- 
der of the present age, and almost every year witnesses 
its enrichment and expansion. Bythe recent treaties 
with other powers some of the richest and most popu- 
lous parts of Africa, themselves the natural seats of 
empire, have been added to the already world-wide do- 
minions of the English crown. Germany is swiftly fol- 
lowing in the same steps, and within a decade has 
planted itself on the east and west coasts of Africa, 
among the islands of the Pacific, and is ever planning 
still further enlargement. The United States is the ac- 
knowledged leading power on the western continent, 
and is at this very time entering into closer and more 
influential relations with all the other American nations. 
The public opinion of the civilized world, the shaping 
of the future on all the continents and islands of the 
earth, in God's providence, is mainly committed to these 
peoples. The significance of this fact, and its bearings 
on the dominance of the Christian faith throughout the 
world, are too plain to be ignored. Let a single fact, 
the growing prevalence of the English tongue, illustrate 
what is here suggested. For the 6,000,000 who spoke 
English in Milton's day there are now at least 100,000,- 
000 to whom it is either the mother-tongue or the com- 
mon language of daily intercourse. No other tongue is 
known in so many parts of the globe, or is extending its 
area like this. 

Among the influences that are working the regener- 
ation of British India none is so deep or reaches so 
powerful a hand into the future as Christian truth and 
life. It is politicians and statesmen, native as well as 
foreign, who see and confess the fact. Christianity, and 
not Brahmanism or Hinduism, is the rising faith of the 
mighty empire. In Japan, under circumstances all its 
own, the same transformation is taking place with almost 
unexampled rapidity. Christ, and not Confucius or 
Buddha, sways the scepter of religious empire there. 
Southern Africa, under English colonial influence and 
missionary laborers from many lands, is as thoroughly 
Christian to-day as England was in the days of Alfred 
the Great. And, in spite of what is said of the rapid 
spread of Islam, it scarcely admits of question that the 
substantial gains of Christianity within the Congo Free 
State and the spheres of English and German influence 
fully equal those of Mohammedanism in those and other 
parts. Australia is under no other religious influence 
that for a moment compares with that which Christianity 
exerts. It is too much to say that the Gospel has yet 
taken any such possession of Chinese thought and life 
as to threaten the early displacement of Confucianism 
or Buddhism ; but it is speaking quite within bounds to 



14 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK. 



ssLy that Christianity is the only faith that is growing 
and aggressive within the empire, and that the process is 
already begun which in due time will lead to its uni- 
versal supremacy. The native converts have almost 
trebled within thirteen years. The Scriptures are widely 
circulated, and are speaking to the nation in their own 
tongue, wherein they were born, the wonderful works of 
God. 

It is inspiring to note the noble part which the nations 
of Europe are taking in opening and developing the 
mighty continent df Africa. And it is as significant as 
it is inspiring. There is nothing like it in all the previ- 
ous history of the world. The great powers of the world, 
which are great because they are Christian, arrange by 
treaty and conference and diplomacy the distribution of 
influence throughout that vast and populous domain. 
Such questions in past ages were submitted to the dread 
arbitrament of the sword. That peaceful conference 
now suffices is due to that subtle, choice fruit of the 
ages which we call civilization, whose only seat is in the 
Christian nations, and whose main source and strength 
are in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This fact is of far 
wider significance than is measured by its bearings on 
Africa alone; it denotes a new era in the development 
of mankind, the dawn of a nobler style of human life 
than has thus far appeared. Christianity is mounting to 
an unrivaled supremacy in the world's affairs, and the 
fact we here contemplate sets this forth as in a mirror, 
and compels the acknowledgment of every mind. The 
prophecy of Milton in his poem of the Nativity is grow- 
ing into solid fact before our very eyes: the gods of the 
nations and the false faiths of the earth shroud their 
faces and flee away at the glorious advent of the Son of 
God, the world's Redeemer and everlasting King. 

2. A second fact of wide reach and special signifi- 
cance is the growing ease of communication between all 
parts of the world. Time was when the remoter counties 
in England were as far apart in point of time as Europe 
and America are to-day ; when a voyage across the At- 
lantic was as formidable an undertaking as it is now to 
make the circuit of the globe. But with the introduc- 
tion of steam-ships and railways, and the constant im- 
provements in machinery; with the net-work of telegraph 
lines covering the great continents, and sunk beneath 
the seas, and binding all parts of the world into the cir- 
cuits of swift intelligence, space and time are almost 
annihilated, the continents are near neighbors, and even 
the islands of the sea have lost their isolation and form 
a part of the closely linked system of the world. The 
message of Queen Victoria upon the opening of a new 
Parliament appears in the daily press of Europe, Amer- 
ica, and Australia while its echoes still linger in the 
chamber of the peers. Every morning at the breakfast 
table we read of the movements of yesterday in the great 
capitals of the world ; of events at Zanzibar, Singapore, 
Hong Kong, and Sydney. Letters reach Boston from 
Turkey in eleven days, from India and Japan in 
twenty-five days, from China and South Africa in forty 
days. The ends of the earth are thus brought together ; 



the effect of near neighborhood is thus increasingly re- 
alized, in better acquaintance, truer appreciation, kind- 
lier sentiments, and a deepening sense of mutual duty 
among the nations. The world is one, its inhabitants 
are one race, its nations kindred, its hopes and fortunes 
one. Travel and commerce feel the impulse.vof this 
widening circle of human life ; the civilization of the 
foremost nations tends to spread itself far and near; 
common interests grow up to bind nations and peoples 
inio a living unity. The vision of England's great laure- 
ate is fulfilling itself in the events of the times : 

•* Till the war-drum throb no longer, and the battle-flags are 

furled, 
In the parliament of man, the federation of the world. 

And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapped in universal law." 

All this tells with direct and powerful effect upon the 
work of missions; the most precious treasure in the 
world's exchange is the word of God; the costliest gift 
is the life of Christian faith; the swiftest messenger is he 
** that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth 
salvation." There never was a day when a life of Chris- 
tian devotion could make itself felt so far and so power- 
fully -upon its own contemporaries. Think of the seven 
long months required by the first missionaries of the 
Board to reach India, and the five months' voyage of the 
pioneers to the Sandwich Islands, and the slow com- 
munication between them in those far-off regions and 
the missionary rooms at home; and consider what it 
means that in our day the life and thought of the Chris- 
tian world may flow almost without obstruction or delay 
through the most distant portions of the globe. What a 
challenge to our zeal ! What a mighty stimulus to our 
endeavor ! The prophetic cry leaps to our lips : " Arise, 
shine, for thy light is come; and the glory of the Lord 
is risen upon thee! " 

3. Closely connected with this striking fact is another^ 
often mentioned, but which cannot be too often com- 
mented on, namely, that, with only here and there an 
exception, the one thousand million unevangelized peo- 
ples of the world are accessible to the Gospel and its 
messengers. Corresponding to the quickening of com- 
munication by steam and electricity has come the break- 
ing down, on a grand scale, of internal barriers, of 
ihe hostility of princes and governments, of the preju- 
dice of peoples, the strength of foreign customs and 
alien faiths. Turkey, Persia, British India, China, Japan, 
the continent of Africa on all its coasts and in its deep 
interior, the islands of the sea, the nations of unevangel- 
ized America, all are accessible; the Gospel may be 
preached and the Church organized and a Christian 
civilization inaugurated without question and without 
delay. Even those regions which hitherto have seemed 
inaccessible, like the Soudan and Thibet, are steadily 
losing their isolation and drifting out into the open sea 
of human knowledge and unrestricted intercourse. 
Never before since the dispersion of the nations from 
the plains of Shinar have all the diverse elements of the 
human race come so near to each other or been acces- 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK. 



15 



sible as they now are to the truth and grace of the liv- 
ing God. The fact here stated is most impressive in 
itself. Taken in connection with other facts of the times, 
it seems almost to become articulate in the testimony it 
gives to the presence and gracious purposes of God. 
Such opportunities as are thus presented to the Christian 
world of to-day have never been known before, and they 
make an appeal for effort and devotion which is simply 
overwhelming and resistless. 

4. We next consider the success of modern missions. 
An enterprise like this, that aims at the conquest of the 
whole world to Jesus Christ, cannot be carried to com- 
pletion in one generation or in one country. The 
changes it proposes are too radical and sweeping ; the 
opposition it encounters is too deep and inveterate ; the 
field in which it operates is too vast to admit of any thing 
but a gradually increasing change and growth. But 
measured by any proper standards the success of mod- 
ern missions is simply amazing and wholly without a 
parallel in Christian history save in the apostolic age. 

For a single indirect proof look at the changed tone 
of secular remark and comment within the last fifty 
years. Then missions were almost totally ignored by 
the secular press; and if mentioned at all it was to point 
a sarcasm or emphasize a sneer. To-day it is no longer 
good form for the secular press either to overlook or to 
discredit the missionaries or their work. The fashion 
rather is to applaud their worth and the value of their 
work, and to draw from these sources the means of in- 
structing the general public in important facts and of 
enlarging the circle of human knowledge. Now, such a 
change denotes, not the regeneration of editors and re- 
porters, but the unanswerable success and dignity of the 
missionary work. Nothing but overpowering proofs of 
the success of this work could avail thus to change con- 
tempt to respect, and silence or sneers into open praise. 
Similar to this is the testimony repeatedly borne by 
men in civil life in India and China and Turkey to the 
wholesome influences accompanying the missionary 
work, the invaluable support thus given to law and order 
and thrift, to domestic and to public virtue. Additional 
weight is given to this testimony when we recall that, in 
not a few instances, it comes from men not predisposed 
to judge favorably of aggressive Christian work, not 
moving in circles accustomed to speak of missionaries 
with love or praise. Nothing but the plain undeniable 
facts in the case could work such conviction or call out 
such commendation. 

But we may well point to some of the facts which reveal 
the majestic power and precious fruits of the Gospel on 
heathen soil. At the World's Missionary Conference in 
London, of 1888, there stood up on one occasion a vet- 
eran of the Wesleyan Mission to the Fiji Islands, and 
in simple words told his marvelous story. Fifty years 
before he went to those islands to find the whole pop- 
ulation sunk in gross idolatry and barbarism, given over 
to cannibalism, the dread of all mariners, the despair of 
the human race. He came to London to speak of those 
same islands as Christianized, the people all recovered 



from their former vices and degradation, and now well 
clothed, well housed, thrifty, industrious, sober, attend- 
ing divine worship every Lord's day in greater pro- 
portion to their whole number than is true in the most 
favored localities in New England, giving of their sub- 
stance to religious objects beyond all precedents in 
Christian lands. What a transformation ! And it is 
due solely to Christian missions. It is an absolute refuta- 
tion of all that has ever been said about the failure of 
missions. If there were nothing to show for the hun- 
dred years of missions but this^ it would be an unan- 
swerable proof of their success. 

But there is much to show besides this. The Hawaiian 
Islands, every-where recognized now as a Christian na- 
tion, seventy years since were sunk to almost as low a 
pitch of degradation as the Fiji Islands. And it is not 
commerce nor diplomacy nor education that has 
wrought the change. It is the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
and the labors of the Christian missionary. The Society 
Islands tell the same tale. The Samoan Islands repeat 
the history and renew the wonder. Madagascar shines 
in the same light, revealing the power and reality of 
the Christian transformation. Japan is in the same 
moral furnace and discloses the same celestial power at 
work. And all through India and China, in Burma and 
Siam, in Persia and Turkey, in many parts of Africa, 
this re-creation of man, of domestic life, of the nation, 
and of human society, in the image of God, moves for- 
ward from its hopeful beginnings to its glorious and con- 
summate end. In all these regions the Christian Church 
is rising, the Bible is speaking its heavenly messages in 
the native tongues; mission-schools are training men 
and women for Christian life and work in homes and 
churches, and the silent leaven of the godly life of 
missionary and native believer is permeating society and 
preparing the elements of noble manners, purer laws, 
and a Christian civilization. Three million adherents 
distributed through all the great nations and at strategic 
points ; the Bible translated into 300 different languages 
or dialects ; 100,000 picked youths in the higher mission- 
schools ; 400,000 under Christian education — these are 
a few of the facts which suggest the steady and grand 
advance this work is recording. 

But even more impressive than all such statistics is 
the rate of growth from year to year. In some coun- 
tries converts and pupils are doubling every other year; in 
slow-moving China they are doubling every five years. 
The movement is already of grand proportions, but it 
is only at its beginning. It gathers strength and breadth 
and momentum every year. The blessing of God is 
upon the workmen and upon their work; no weapon that 
is formed against them can permanently prosper. 

What considerations could awaken a livelier hope or 
more robust enthusiasm than the simple record of this 
modern missionary work } Beginning in weakness, with- 
out observation, contending against tremendous obstacles 
at home and abroad, with no lure to ambition or pride, 
with no support from numbers or public opinion, steadily 
winning its way till its stations have been planted on 



16 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK, 



well-nigh every continent and island of the earth, till its 
achievements have rung recognition and applause from 
reluctant lips and pens the wide world over, there is no 
more fascinating story of real life during all the centuries 
since the Gospel first began to speak to men. It is the 
open record of God's presence in the earth, and of his 
unfailing purpose to give to his adorable Son " the hea- 
then for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the 
4earth for his possession." 

II. Thus far we have looked abroad for the signs of 
the times. But it is equally in place to survey the facts 
here at home. There the work is attempted, there the 
strenuous patient toil is rendered, there the advance is 
made and the victories are won. Here the work is planned, 
here it is supported by prayer and gifts and loyal hearts, 
here it is re-enforced and its aggressive power enlarged. 
Important as are the facts we have been considering, 
they do not stand alone, but are joined in a vital unity 
with other facts immediately ab<|pt us here in Christian 
lands. 

1. We first consider the question of means. The in- 
come of the several foreign missionary societies of the 
times increases steadily from year to year. Beginning 
with less than $i,ooo for its first yearly receipts the 
American Board now reports above $600,000. The 
total sum expended yearly upon the foreign field by 
Protestant Christendom amounts to about $11,000,000. 
This growth, however cheering, does by no means meas- 
ure the financial ability of the churches. The wealth 
that is so rapidly accumulating in our land comes in fair 
proportion to the members of Christian churches ; and 
were the necessity seen and felt the sums at command 
for this foreign work could be doubled or even quad- 
rupled at once. Doubtless this vast increase of wealth 
is a providential preparation for the sublime opportunity 
that greets us in every unevangelized portion of the 
globe. Many another noble end this wealth in Christian 
hands will serve, and its priceless fruits shall enhance 
the glory of our Christian civilization in many forms ; 
but its noblest use must be to spread Christ's Gospel to 
new regions and to build his kingdom in a thousand 
spots amid the ruins of Satan's power. Happily, we 
may already see these results in some degree ; great fort- 
unes bestowed to forward these grander movements of 
the age ; the great gifts of an Otis, a Swett, and a Hand 
are sure to be repeated ; while the privilege of bearing 
a personal share in the world's evangelization, even by 
the bestowment of the smallest sums, will be more widely 
appreciated and more heartily chosen. To have the 
power to make these gifts, and thus lift a struggling en- 
terprise to its feet, and preach the Gospel to thousands 
and millions now unreached — what an honor is it ! what 
a privilege to use it for the glory of God and the salva- 
tion of men ! 

2. We next consider the supply of laborers for the 
foreign field. This is a fundamental inquiry, since above 
all other human agencies concerned in the spread of the 
Gospel the living preacher and teacher is the most indis- 
pensable and precious. It is true that the number required 



can never be absolutely great. The very aim and method 
of missions forbid this. The foreign laborer seeks at 
the earliest possible date to render himself needless to 
the work by raising up a competent native force into 
whose hands the work, in all its departments, may pass. 
The missionary, in this sense, fulfills to the native pas- 
tor -the office of John the Baptist to our Lord : " He 
must increase, but I must decrease." Thus, of necessity, 
the demand for missionaries is a limited demand. But 
we hasten to say that the limit in every field is still far, 
far beyond any thing that has yet been reached. Scarcely 
six thousand laborers all told, men and women, repre- 
sent all the societies of Protestant Christendom on the 
foreign field to-day. Not a call that comes to the 
Foreign Boards for re-enforcements exceeds the need 
that is obvious and urgent. The force now employed 
might be doubled twice over without meeting the real 
need. The great Shanghai Conference, of May last, 
speaking in the name of all the evangelical missions now 
in China, and in view of the measureless opportunities 
of that field, deliberately appeals to the Christian na- 
tions to send 1,000 new men to that empire within the 
next five years. No man who knows the facts will ac- 
cuse them of exaggeration. Africa's need is to the full 
as great as that of China, and would be instantly voiced 
by the missionaries there if they could speak together. 

In view of such calls, and we have only begun the 
list, how striking is the fact, which every one must con- 
cede, that the Christian nations are able to send out a 
devoted and well-trained man in answer to every call, 
and still have thousands more to spare. Our colleges 
and higher seminaries for men and women, our theolog- 
ical schools, are multiplying year by year and are filled 
to overflowing with the choicest youth the sun ever 
shone upon. By the thousands they leave these schools 
every year to enter the paths of duty and service which 
God appoints. Never did such opportunities greet the 
educated and foremost youth of the world. Not when 
Plato taught in the Academy and made Greece strong 
with wise men and brave ; not when Julius Caesar an- 
nexed Gaul to Rome and Europe to civilization, and 
opened a splendid career to fame and power for thou- 
sands of Rome's noblest sons ; not even when Paul 
crossed the ^gean in obedience to the heavenly vision 
to add a continent to the Christian Church, and led 
young Timothy and Silas to those great exploits at Thes- 
salonica and Berea, at Corinth and at Athens. A grander 
service, on a wider arena, reaching on to vaster and more 
remote results, to-day awaits our noble youth in Turkey 
and India, in the mightiest empires of the Orient, in the 
vast continent of Africa. 

And the appeal is felt, the inspiration of a splendid 
service is caught, and the response of heroic devotion is 
not slow to follow. We are told that already more than 
five thousand youth have given their sacred pledge to 
enter this field of glorious service as Providence shall 
open the way ; and the hearts of other thousands are 
rising within them at the call of God. Few things are 
found more inspiring in Christian annals than this 



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK. 



Vt 



serious, deliberate espousal of the foreign missionary 
work by the young men and women of highest culture 
and promise in the length and breadth of the land. It 
gives us all the enthusiasm and glow of the mediaeval 
crusades, with no touch of their fanaticism, and with an 
aim lifted infinitely above that in scope and moral sig- 
nificance. Doubtless not all who are pledged will go. 
Doubtless, also, not all who will go are pledged. But, 
notwithstanding all, this movement is of God, and 
touches the deeper springs of character, and has its 
obvious significance as a providential preparation for the 
day of greater things which is dawning on every mission 
field around the globe. 

3. The Christian Church is committed to this work 
as it has never been before. At the London Confer- 
ence of 1888 141 societies were reported, representing 
nearly every Protestant communion in the world. No 
body of Christians deems itself fully abreast of its duty 
and opportunity that has not its representatives in the 
foreign field. To such a degree is this the fact that even 
those bodies which are less evangelical, the Universal- 
ists and the Unitarians, are beginning to awake to the 
privileges of this work and to send their men abroad. 
More and more is it seen and felt that the evangelization 
of the world is the supreme aim and highest achieve- 
ment of the Christian Church, and that a personal share 
in this service does not belong simply to the few men 
and women who are in the field but is a vital and in- 
dispensable part of all Christian life and service. The 
progress in this respect, since the work began, is most 
striking ; probably in no single feature has the century 
witnessed a more impressive transformation in the temper 
and aims of the Church. Certainly no single condition 
is so intimately connected with the growth and power 
of the missionary work of the age. More fundamental 
than all questions of money and of men is the spirit of 
the Church. 

If the tone of Christian life answers to the calls of the 
hour, and deepens throughout the churches and schools 
and homes of the land, and falls into closer harmony with 
the word and the Spirit of God, the last and supreme con- 
dition of success will be met and the future of this vast 
work will be assured. Missionaries share the life and senti- 
ments of their lands and times; the stream of gospel truth 
and influence which flows from them abroad can rise no 
higher than its fountain-head. There is no charm in 
missionary service itself to lift a man out of his times 
and surroundings. It is the piety of our homes and 
schools which the missionaries we send will take and 
exhibit upon the foreign field. It is the consecration 
which we possess that they will reveal. It is our habit- 
ual ideals which will shape their life and toils. It is in 
vain to look for results on mission ground greatly diff*er- 
ent from those which exist at home. If we wish to see 
a fervent, evangelical, self-denying, heroic, patient, and 
aggressive Christian life rising in China and India and 
Africa, there is no choice ; we must cherish such a life 
at home and make it the inspiring background of the 
missionaries' toil. Money, favoring providences, labor- 



ers, all other things are vain if the Christian spirit be 
worldly or weak. If heathenism be ever overcome and 
the Gospel made to take its place, the Christian world, 
as one organic whole, must do it. We who stay at home 
are as really concerned in the success of this work as 
they who go abroad ; and it will languish when we faint; 
it will fail when our faith fails ; it will grow when we 
bear it on our hearts ; it will move forward resistlessly 
to glorious success when we throw ourselves into it as 
we did into the war for the Union, reckless of cost, of 
strength, of time, and of life itself. 

When the hour drew near that our Lord was to be of- 
fered up, he went apart from the multitude, and from his 
disciples also, and in solitary communion with the Father 
gathered the strength with which he bore the insult and 
cruel wrongs and speechless agony of the betrayal, the 
desertion, the cross itself, through which a world's re- 
demption was won. In the secret places of prayer and 
heavenly communion the Church of our Lord must in 
like manner gather the spiritual power in which it shall 
go forth to win to his obedience the nations whom he 
has redeemed. 

[The Committee to whom the paper of Dr. Judson Smith was referred after 
it was read, reported as follows :] 

We agree most heartily with the paper as to the abundant 
reasons for thanksgiving and inspiration which the review 
furnishes, and desire to emphasize the appeal for the more 
zealous and effective prosecution of this great campaign. With 
reference to this a few suggestions offer themselves. 

First of all, let us caution ourselves as to expecting over- 
much from the leadership of Christian nations in the world's 
affairs. Undoubtedly they are becoming more and more the 
dominant forces in its civilization. But it is not to be forgot- 
ten that while they are thus opening the way for the incoming 
of Christianity among the nations, they are at the same time 
furnishing the most potent hindrances to its success. Behind 
the opium traffic, that awful curse whose withering touch is 
like a plague of death upon not less than 1 50,000,000 of Chinese, 
is Christian England ; and with no excuse whatever save the 
profits she wrings out of the bodies and souls she helps to 
destroy. Behind the infernal liquor traffic with which the 
Dark Continent is being scourged worse, even, than by the 
infamous slave-trade, are Christian Germany and Christian 
America, and with the profits of their rum and gin as their 
only excuse. Behind the flood of infidelity and rationalism 
pouring steadily into India and Japan, and counterworking 
powerfully the efforts of our missionaries, are all three of 
these Christian nations, and with avowed hostility to Christ 
and his Gospel as their inspiring cause. 

While, therefore, we rejoice in seeing these great Christian 
powers enlarging their sphere of influence over the nations, lei 
us not fail to pray, and to pray earnestly, and, as respects our 
own country, to vote as we pray, that these mighty domina- 
tors of national destiny may be led to wield their power in the 
fear of God and for the furtherance and not the hindrance of 
his Gospel. 

Then there is imperative need, in ihe judgment of the com- 
mittee, of a greatly deepened sense of our responsibility, as the 
followers of Christ, in respect to the missionary work. First 
of all, we need to remind ourselves that we are, as the paper 
states, conducting a grand campaign. We are under orders — 
orders that are peremptory and admit of neither excuse, de- 
bate, nor delay. We have no option. We cannot plead 




remember ih.it obedience to 
God's commands is now as 
ever a prime condition of his 
blessing. Red Seas and 
Amalekiies will evermore 
give way when the chosen 
people promptly and loyally 
follow the pillar of cloud and 
of fire* 

Springing out of such in- 
creased convictions of per- 
sonal duty will nalurally i\ow 
two results: the consccraiion 
of persons and the consecra- 
tion of properly* We must 
have mor^ laborers for the 
great field. True, there is a 
noble company of 5*000 youth 
now under pledge to enter 
the missionary service. Let 
us rejoice with full hearts for 
such a proof of increased in- 
terest in spreading: the Gos- 
pel. But what are these 
among- a thousand millions 
silting in the region and 
shadow of death, and on 
whose ears the name of 
Jesus has never fallen ? Sec- 
retary Sn)]th says the entire 

force of toilers now in the mission field, counting men and 
women, is only 6»ooo. And he says, further, that ih'rs force 
might be doubled twice over without meeting the real need. 
China alone needs a full thousand and Africa surely as many 
more. Whence, then, shall these so urgently needed re- 
enforcements come ? They must come chicfiy from our 
homes; from yours and from mine. We must consecrate 
our children, and we must do it not reluctantly, not nficr 
we have prayed to be excused, but gladly, and only wli^h- 
ing we had more to offer. Only when in every Christian 
home there is such a spirit shall we see the response there 
ought to be to this appealing cry from every quarter of the 
globe for helpers in the vast harvest -field. 



I 



Buenos Ay res and Moiitevirfeo, 

Dr. C. W. Drees sent from South America five elec- 
trotypes representing two scenes in Buenos Ay res, two 
in Montevideo, and one in Chili, to bt; used in the No- 
vember number of Gospel in All Lands with the 
reading matter which he furnished, but they did not ar- 
rive in time. They will be found in this number, and 
we also give some account of Buenos Ayres, the capital 
of the Argentine Republic, and of Montevideo, the capi- 
tal of Uruguay, taken from T/f^ Capihiis of Spanis/t 
A f Ulrica, 

Buenos Ayres* 

Buenos Ayres, with its 434,000 inhabitants, is the naost 
enterprising, prosperous, and wealthy city in South 
America — a regular Chicago— the only place on the 
continent where people seem to be in a hurry, and 
where every body you meet appears lobe trying to over- 



PLAZA DE LA VICTORIA IN BUENOS AYRES. 



take the man ahead of him. There are banks at Bue-" 
nos Ayres with capital greater than any in the United 
States, and occupying buildings finer than any banking- 
house in New York — palaces of marble and glass and 
iron. There are more daily papers in Buenos Ayres 
than in New York or London, It has parks and boule- 
vards, public libraries, two universities, art schools, hos- 
pitals, asylums, etc., and gas companies, and five street 
railways. 

The finest church btiilding is called the *' Church of 
the RecoUetta " (remembrance). It is of pure Roman 
architecture, in Italian marble, beautifully carved, and 
cost about §250,000. There are twenty-four churches 
belonging to the Roman Catholics, also a Church of 
England society, a Scotch Presbyterian, an American 
Presbyterian, a German Evangelical, three Methodist 
churches, and a Jewish synagogue. 

Montevideo. 

Montevideo, a city of 120,000 inhabitants, lies upon a 
tongue of land which stretches out into the river Plate, 
nearly the shape of Manhattan Island, on which New 
York city stands, except that it has the Atlantic Ocean 
on one side and a river sixty -five miles wide on the 
other. No city is more delightfully situated. The real 
name of Montevideo is San Felipe de Montevideo, which 
translated into English means, ** I see the hill of St. 
Philip." The hill which the discoverer saw used to be 
called after the apostle, but now is called the ** Cerro," 
It has a picturesque old fortress on its crest. It is 
claimed that Montevideo is the most healthy city in the 
world, and there is no reason why it should not be, as 



20 



WORSHIP IN RUSSIA. 



the natural drainage is perfect, and the climate is about 
like that of Tennessee, the cold weather of winter being 
moderated by the Gulf Stream from the ocean, and the 
heat of summer by the sea-breeze. 

Around the curve of the bay, fronting the water, are a 
series of beautiful villas, the suburban residences of 
wealthy men, built in the ancient Italian style with all 
the luxury and lavish display of modern extravagance. 
There are many beautiful residences and fine stores in 
Montevideo. The Hotel Oriental is built of Italian 
marble and luxuriously furnished. There are hospitals, 
asylums, fifty-five miles of street railways, boulevards 
and parks, gas and electric lights, and every thing you 
find in the most modern cities. 

In the center of the city are two large public squares. 
One, the Plaza Constitution, is a military parade ground, 
and upon it fronts the government buildings and mili- 
tary barracks. The other is Plaza Washington, named 
in honor of the Father of American Liberty. Standing 
on the Plaza Constitution one sees towering up the great 
cathedral. The city has twenty-three daily papers. 



Worship in Russia. 

Throughout Russia the devotion of the men is no- 
ticeable. Every-where else in Europe, in papal and 
Protestant churches alike, the women are in a large 
majority, but in Russia this is not so. 1 do not know 
the real reason for this peculiarity of Russian religious 
life. It cannot be due alone to that ignorance which is 
the mother of devotion, for the high as well as the low 
are constant in attendance on religious services. The 
extreme devotion of the czar may doubtless have some 
influence upon those who live but to obey him, and 
training from eiarly childhood is also a potent force in 
securing such observance. Whatever the explanation 
may be, the fact is every-where evident. 

On coming to the door of a Russian church one is 
confronted with a line of greasy and dirty old men or 
women in dingy black, with brass money-boxes in their 
hands, which they jingle at the visitor, at the same time 
courtesying and bowing like jumping-jacks. Having 
passed this barrier, there is next a candle-stand, where 
every devout Russian buys a candle, large or small, ac- 
cording to their piety or purse. Bearing this in one 
hand, the worshiper goes up to one of the shrines, drops 
on his knees, bows till his head touches the floor, and 
crosses his breast with the thumb and two forefingers 
of his right hand (the three fingers thus joined repre- 
senting his faith in the Trinity). He continues to bow 
and cross till he reaches the shrine at which his prayers 
and offerings are to be presented. There he lights his 
candle from the holy fire and puts it in a silver stand 
which has manifold sockets full of similar candles. 
This done, he retires a little way, and there stands and 
kneels and prostrates himself to the floor for a longer 
or shorter time. 

Irreverent foreigners who attend the services of the 



Greek Church in Russia are likely to be taught good 
manners. If they do not remove their hats promptly 
on entering the churches, it will be done for them with- 
out ceremony; if they talk and disturb the worshipers, 
no such leniency will be shown them as in Roman 
Catholic countries. There is no distinction of rank or 
place in the churches, no entrance fees, no pews, not a 
seat, and no reserved places. All the congregation 
stand or kneel or lie prostrate. The Church service is 
in the Slavonic tongue, but the people can usually fol- 
low it, and sometimes join fervently in the choral parts, 
the responses, and short prayers. 

The regular service begins with a call to worship, 
then hymns and psalms are sung, then prayers are in- 
toned for the Church and its priests, for peace and 
union of Christian Churches, and for every member of 
the imperial family separately. The Gospel is read and 
explained by a priest, there are more prayers, the com- 
munion is celebrated, after which come thanksgivings 
and a benediction. At the evening service the Old 
Testament is read, and this service is generally re- 
garded as a preparation for the more important and 
principal service of the day. While it is true that indi- 
viduals of a congregation sometimes join in the choral 
parts, they are not expected to make any responses, 
and the usual custom is for the priest, a deacon, a 
reader, and a double choir to perform the whole serv- 
ice. — Augustus, in N, V. Obsen^cr. 



Tlie Capital of Finland. 

Helsingfors, the capital of Finland, is the largest city 
of Finland. It has more than fifty thousand inhabitants, 
the noble fortress of Sveaborg to guard the entrance to 
its harbor, an immense Lutheran and an elegant Rus- 
sian church, a charming park, and the university which 
used to be at Abo. It is not an old town, for Gustavus 
Vasa founded it in the sixteenth century. War, plague, 
famine, and fire ravaged it, and after one hundred years 
it had only a population of 5,000 ; but since Finland 
became connected with Russia, and since the city be- 
came the capital of Finland, it has grown in population, 
importance, and elegance. 

Its harbor is extensive and thoroughly protected by 
the formidable fortress of Sveaborg. This fortress com- 
mands the entrance to the harbor so completely, and is 
so well manned, that it is entitled to be called the Gib- 
raltar of the North. During the Crimean War the En- 
glish and French squadrons bombarded the place with- 
out disturbing the equanimity of the garrison of 10,000 
men which was quartered here. Not one of the seven 
islands on which the fortress is built was taken, nor was 
one of the 900 cannon which bristled from the ramparts 
dismounted. 

There is a Lutheran church at Helsingfors capable of 
accommodating 3,000 persons. It is built upon a lofty 
rock, and can be seen far out on the Baltic. Twelve 
apostles stand in stone upon the roof, and Luther, 



PROTESTANTISM IN FINLAND AND ITS MISSIONS. 



21 



Melanchthon, and Agricola, the Bishop of Finland, stand 
inside. Here, also, we meet our first Russian church, an 
elegant and imposing building of stone, in the form of a 
Greek cross, with finely formed domes, which, with the 
roof, are painted a dazzling white. The interior is rich 
with massive stone columns and fine paintings, and gaudy 
with gold and silver picture-frames and ecclesiastical 
furniture. 

One does not think of Finland as a literary place, but 
many American colleges would add several pages to their 
annual catalogue if they possessed half the treasures in 
books and collections which are modestly reposing at 
Helsingfors in the Alexander University. There is a 
physical cabinet, and a Russian library of 52,000 volumes 
in the Russian and Polish languages, a fine collection 
of coins, and a natural history museum, especially rich 
in specimens of the zoology of Finland. Besides these 
there are three magnificent rooms which contain the reg- 
ular library of the university, which embraces 150,000 
volumes, and are adorned with colossal busts of Shakes- 
peare, Beethoven, and the Finnish poets Franzen and 
Runeberg ; in the center of one of the rooms is a fine 
marble group, and other sculptures enrich the library. 

There are two large laboratories and museums of 
anatomy, ornithology, minerals, and ethnography. This 
latter collection contains local antiquities, and has a 
very rich exhibit of stone, bronze, and iron weapons and 
implements of the prehistoric age of Finland and the 
Finnish race. In the center of the town is the students* 
house, with a reading-room where foreign journals and 
magazines are furnished in great variety, and a library 
of 30,000 volumes with a courteous librarian. There 
are other fine rooms, including a music hall where pub- 
lic and amateur concerts are given ; and besides all these 
accommodations for the students, Helsingfors has 
another library with capacious rooms and book-shelves 
established for the use of the working classes. 

With its fortress and churches, its university and li- 
brary, its observatory and botanical garden, its beauti- 
ful park and fine promenades, and clean streets entirely 
free from beggars, the capital of Finland is a place well 
worth a visit by the traveler in Scandinavia and Russia. 
— Augustus^ in New York Observer, 



Protestantism i:i Fiulaiul and Its Missions. 

IJY RKV. n. A. CARLSON. 

The different missionary unions in Finland are as 
follows : 

The Hedbergians^ calling themselves the Lutheran 
Gospel Union. In the year 1842 a division took place 
in the Pietistical movement then going on in this 
country. The Rev. F. Hedberg was the leader of the 
separation ists, and he is still, at least, the honorary 
head of the new movement then begun. The old Piet- 
istical revival is now almost at an end; not a few 
religious people having joined the movement, they have 
constituted themselves into the "Lutheran Gospel 



Union " as above mentioned. This union is publishing 
two religious periodicals, one in Finnish and one in 
Swedish ; they have quite a large circulation. Twelve 
preaching book-hawkers (called ** colporteurs ") are em- 
ployed by them, and many priests within the state 
Church show an interest in this work. 

Laestadianism^ or the " Hihhulites " (from their cry 
of " hih-hu " when in a state of rapture), may be said to 
have begun in 1845. These people consider themselves, 
and nobody else, as constituting the Church of God on 
earth ; and their chief characteristic is the importance 
which they attach to the confession of sins before the 
Church. As soon as sin has thus been confessed, abso- 
lution by the elders follows. Like the Gospel Union, 
they have not separated from the State Church, but re- 
1 ceive the sacraments there. The movement is spread- 
I ing among the ** lower classes '* in towns. Some of its 
I adherents are very fanatical. 

The Lutheran Missionary Society, formed within the 
State Church, is working for the foreign mission. It 
began in 1868, and has at present five missionaries in 
the Ovambo country, in Africa, and 282 natives bap- 
tized. The secretary of the society is pastor G. C. Tot- 
terman, who is also the superintendent of the mission 
school at Helsingfors. 

The Waldenstromians, who in this country have man- 
aged to gather a party calling themselves the Free 
Church People, of which, however, not all entertain the 
same rather rationalizing theological views with Walden- 
strom. They began here in 1880. Neither have these 
people withdrawn from the State Church. Still, they 
do not wish to have any thing to do with it. They 
have a kind of confession put down in a pamphlet. 
This writing they call their program. In it they make 
severe attacks on other professors, considering them- 
selves as being the only Christians that are entitled to 
existence in this country, working, as they profess them- 
selves to be, for the spiritual renovation of the estab- 
lished Church of Finland. Most of their societies 
stand in connection with the Mission Alliance (or Cov- 
enant) in Sweden, the secretary of which is Rev. E. 
J. Ekman, in Stockholm. They employ in this country 
eleven missionaries, who work in the following places : 
Helsingfors, Ekenas, Abo, the large island of Aland, the 
parish of Nerpes, Wasa, Tammarfors, Wiborg, Dahls- 
bruk iron-works, Tavastehus, and St. Petersburg. They 
form societies and Sunday-schools wherever they are 
able to, and build meeting-houses, which they call ** al- 
liance-houses." They issue a periodical called Evan- 
gelical Christianity. How large their membership is I 
do not know, no statistics having been published by 
them. 

The Baptists began their work in Finland in 1854, 
through a preacher from Sweden by the name of Mol- 
lersvard. The work is chiefly carried on in the coun- 
try among the Swedish-speaking population on the 
coast of the province of Ostro-Bothnia, this coast being 
the middle part of the western coast of Finland. They 
have also some small societies in Helsingfors, Nikalai- 



St ad, Nya Korlcby, Jakobstad, Kiiopio, and St. Peters- 
burg. As far as I know, there are no more ihan five 
tnissionnries working within the denomination. They 
are paid by friends of the same persuasion in America, 



Sunday-school scholars, and 65 Sunday-school teach en^ 
The leading person is the Rev. N. Janson, in Monsala. V 

The Salvation Army began in 1889. They have only 
two corps, one at Helsingfors and one at Borga. 




s 
§ 

o 



Methodism began, strictly speaking, to organize in 
1S84, though it was begun here some years earlier by 
preachers who came from Sweden, and a class was 
formed in Ostro- Bothnia. Its missions are placed in 
the towns of Helsingfors, Ekcnas, Abo, Bjorneborg, 




Kristinestad, Nerpes, Nikolaistad, Gamla Karleby, 
Wlborg, and St Petersburg. They have 2 chapels ; S 
missionaries, all ordained; 515 members on probation 
and in full connection; 11 Sunday-schools, with nearly 
700 children ; and they are also publishing a monthly 
paper, the Nya Budbararcn. 



The Natives of Alaska. 

ny WJLLIAM WELIA LL.D, 

The natives of Alaska arc a remarkable study in many 



^H Th 

^^bespects. Indians, in our understanding of the word, 
' they are not. Old navigators among the islands on the 
coast declare that ihcy have 
again and again seen Japanese 
junks wrecked on the coast, 
carried thither evidently from 
the Asiatic side h^ the famous 
Japanese warm current that 
makes all south-eastern Alaska 
so different from the interior * 

beyond the mountain rangc^ 
where every thing becomes Si- 
berian in character^ These peo- 
ple have also the features^ habits, 
and the peculiar skill of the 
Japanese; and, like them, when 
trained in the ways of civiliza- 
tion, are mostly kind and in- 
offensive. Like the Japanese 
and Chinese, they are extreme- 
ly fond of games of chance. As 
our gamblers have cards they 
have what are called ** gambling- 
sticks," These are small cylin- 
drical pieces of wood carved \x\ 
antique style, and the game con- 
sists in guessing which one of 
these sticks will come out first 

or last when shuffled and thrown down on the ground 
on a board. In this simple game they will, when excited, 
risk all they have in the worlds even to home and wife 
and children — for the father has limitless power over 
these, even to selling them into slavery for life. 

They have extremely strange ideas of a Supreme Be- 
ing and a future state. These are so involved with all 
sorts of superstitious notions that it is difficult to tell 
what they really believe. They believe in witches, how- 
ever, and fear them greatly. In this matter they are 
very cruel. They will accuse young girls of being 
witches, and scourge them till they sometimes die be- 
cause they are supposed to have caused the severe ill- 
ness or death of some one. They have what they call 
** medicinc-mcn/' who are mere impostors and use no 
remedies for the sick, but simply practice incantations. 
Failing in this they accuse some person of having inter- 
fered with and destroyed their influence by witchcraft. 
In their turn the medicine-men are frequently whipped 



to death when they fail to cure their patients by their 
incantations. It seems quite inconsistent that human 
beings so sensible in many respects should be so wrong- 
headed in this. 

They seem in many respects fatalists, and blindly 
wedded to their ways. They submit quietly to whatever 
comes, and their relatives pay no attention to them and 
let them die. When death comes the body is usually 
burned. Hence their cemeteries contain not their bodies, 
but their ashes, which they place in urns as the ancients 
did. The dead body is never taken out of the house 
by the door, as this would bring bad luck ; an opening 
is made for the occasion in the back part of the house 
or hut. l\\ many of these superstitions these people 




PLAZA CONSTITUTION IN MONTEVIDFO. 

resemble the Orientals — thus proving again that they are 
of a different origin from our own red-skinned and long- 
haired savages. 

Another peculiar custom is that of making a great 
feast and giving presents on the occasion of a funeral 
ceremony, and then raising great carved poles near the 
door as monuments. They will often leave all they are 
worth to be expended in this way at their death, instead 
of dividing it among relatives. The w^idow is treated 
very cruelly among them, and is often persecuted to 
death. At the funeral feast they use a great deal of an 
intoxicating liquor which they have learned from sailors 
how to make. It is made out of flour and molasses, fer- 
mented so as to be strongly intoxicating. It finally kills 
a great many of them. Our government is now trying 
to stop the manufacture of this stimulant by preventing 
the sale of these articles to the Indians ; for they never 
desire flour and molasses for any other purpose than to 
make this vile liquor. While we were in the maia 



I 



24 



ALASKA AND ITS MISSIONS, 



port of Alaska we saw seized and confiscated by the 
custom-house officers some dozen barrels of whisky 
that a dealer was trying to smuggle in to sell to the In- 
dians and the soldiers there on duty. A small flask of 
whisky will buy more from these poor creatures than 
almost any other article that can be off'ered to them. 

They are wonderfully stolid and indifferent to 
things that are going on around them. They sit all 
day by their wares and never say a word. You may 
buy or not buy, as you please ; and in one case, when 
we had not the right change, the woman would not 
take the least trouble to get it, nor would she accept 
gold or a bank-note ; it was the exact price in silver or 
no sale. Thus we were forced to run around and get 
change or do without the article. Sometimes the women 
who were selling would wrap their faces in their blankets 
and take no notice of anybody until nudged into activ- 
ity. One day we saw an Indian woman sitting in a 
squatting position perfectly immovable so long that we 
were absolutely undecided whether the figure was alive 
or dead, and only settled the doubt by going close to 
her. — Northern Christian Adiwcate, 



Alaska and Its Missions. 

The annual report of Governor Knapp, of Alaska, 
tells us that the population of Alaska is about 50,000, 
composed of 6,500 whites, 1,900 Creoles, 2,900 Aleuts, 
and 3,500 civilized and 35,000 uncivilized other natives. 

The outlook religiously for Alaska is more encouraging 
than it was ten or even ^\*^ years ago. 

The governor, Mr. Lyman E. Knapp, is a Christian, 
and teaches the adult Bible-class in the Presbyterian 
Mission at Siika. 

At Sitka is a Presbyterian church, with 300 native 
communicants, and an excellent Industrial Board School, 
with 170 pupils, of whom 106 are boys and 64 girls. 

The Presbyterians have Missions at Sitka, Juneau, 
Hoonah, Haines, Fort Wrangle, Klawack, and Howkan, 
with 20 teachers, 437 native church members, 450 pupils 
in mission-schools, and 537 pupils in Sunday-schools. 

The Swedes have three missionaries at Unalaklik and 
Yakutal. 

The Church Missionary Society of England has three 
missionaries at Nuklukahyet and Buxton. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church has a missionary at 
Auvik, on the Yukon River. 

The Moravians have nine missionaries at Bethel and 
Carmel. 

The Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church has two missionaries at Una- 
laslika. They are Professor and Mrs. John A. Yuck. 

The Friends' Yearly Meeting, of Kansas, is support- 
ing at Douglass City five missionaries. 

Mr. William Duncan is in charge of an independent 
Mission at Metlatkahla. 

The Roman Catholics have two Missions, one on the 
Yukon River and one at Juneau. The Russo-Greek 
Church reports seventeen parochial schools. 



How Africa Has Been Parceled Ont. 

When the representatives of European powers assem- 
bled at Brussels in 1876 Portugal possessed the largest 
amount of territory in Africa. Besides Madeira, the 
Cape Verde Islands, and the islands of St. Thomas and 
Prince, her dominions embraced 310,000 square miles 
in Angola and 300,000 in Mozambique. To most of 
this vast area, however, her claim was only nominal^ 
and her authority was recognized by the natives only 
on certain strips of the west and the east coast. If the 
Lisbon government accepts the partition treaty pro- 
posed by England, it will acquire more land than it 
actually possessed in 1876, though not so much as it. 
thinks it ought to have. Great Britain now offers t^ 
recognize the sovereignty of Portugal over 2,316 square 
miles in Guinea and the Bissagos Islands, and otct 
160,000 additional square miles in Angola, besides' 
leaving unimpaired the 300,000 miles previously in*^ 
eluded in Mozambique. This would raise the aggitH r 
gate extent of Portuguese territory in Africa frona 
612,217 ^o 774>993 square miles. 

In 1876 France had, next to Portugal, the largest 
fraction of the Dark Continent. She possessed at that- 
time Algeria, Senegambia, and Gaboon, together with;] 
the island of Reunion and some smaller islands, whil^i: 
formed a total of 283,450 square miles. Since then shd' 
has enlarged Algeria, immensely augmented Senegaiiipi 
bia and Gaboon, and has acquired Tunis, Madagas< 
Sahara, and a large part of the western Soudan, with 
strip of the Gold Coast. It is true that her boundai 
in the Sahara, the Soudan, and Senegambia are not 
actly marked out, and may eventually be somewhat cw 
tailed. But her claims, as provisionally recogni; 
amount to 2,300,248 square miles, and make her thi 
greatest European power in Africa in area, though Xi^^^ 
in quality of territory. 

Scarcely less remarkable is the growth of England*! 
African dominions, which in 1876 comprised only 
279,165 square miles, including the Cape Colony and 
its dependencies. Natal, the West Coast colonies, and 
Mauritius. Since that date Great Britain has expanded 
her West Coast colonies, has made great additions ta 
the dependencies of the Cape Colony, has created the 
Royal Niger Company and the South Africa Company^ 
and has acquired Zanzibar, Socotra, the Somali coast 
region, and British East Africa (technically so called), 
which itself embraces within its acknowledged sphere 
of influence 400,000 square miles. The aggregate area 
of the British possessions in Africa in the year 1890 is 
1,909,445 square miles, and this is independent of the 
British virtual protectorate over Egypt. The whole 
territory claimed by the khedive, including the former 
Egyptian Soudan, is estimated to cover 1,400,000 square 
miles. If this be added to England's African domin- 
ions, they will represent considerably more than a third 
of the whole continent. 

The third European power, as regards the extent of 
its African dependencies, is Germany, which in 1876 



• - 



HO IV AFRICA HAS UEEM PARCELED OUT. 



25 



had not an inch of ground in Atrica. The Germans 
now possess 1^035,720 square miles, which are thus 
distributed: In Togoland, 7,720; in the Cameroons, 
193,000; in South-west Africa, 385,000; and in East 
Africa, 450,000* All this territory was virtually ob- 
tained within a few months in 1S84-S5, and for it Ger- 
many is indebted to Bismarck. Next to Germany 
among African powers comes the Congo Free State, 
w*hose limits, as approximately fixed by the Berlin Con- 
gress, comprised Soo^ooo square miles, but if the annex- 



miles. There remains Spain, whose total claims in 
1876, including patches on the sea-coast of Morocco, 
the Canaries, Fernando Po and Annabon, Corisco and 
Elobey Islands, and Muni territory, amounted to only 
J, 660 square miles Now she claims the whole coast 
from Cape Blanco to Cape Bojador, besides an enlarge- 
ment of the Muni district, and has made treaties with 
the chiefs of Adrar and neighboring tracts, giving her 
an addition of 200^000 square miles, so that, if all her 
pretensions are admitted, she will own about 220,000 




A FORT m CHILL 



ation of Lunda be authorized they will be expanded to 
1,000,000. Italy is also one of the European powers 
whose claims to a share of Africa are of very recent 
date. She had indeed a station at Assab, on the Red 
Sea, in 1864, but even of this she did not officially take 
possession until i88o» Now she asserts sovereignty 
over about j6o,ooo square miles, of which 305,000 are 
comprehended in Abyssinia, Shoa, and Kaffa. As to 
the boundaries of Abyssinia, however, on the north and 
west, Italy has not yet come to an agreement with En- 
gland. The future extension of Italy's territory in 
Africa lies in another quarter. There seems to be a 
tacit understanding between the three central powers 
md England that Italy shall ultimately acquire Tripoli 
and its dependencies, of which Turkey is now suzerain, 
and which are computed to contain 580,000 square 



square miles on the Dark Continent. The Madrid gov- 
ernment also contends that if Morocco is to be con- 
quered and annexed by any European power, the prior 
right of Spain should be conceded. It is probable, 
however, that this claim will be dis]>uted by France, as 
regards, at all events, the eastern section of Morocco* 

Of the 11,900,000 square miles in Africa, the part 
already divided between France, Great Britain, Ger- 
many, the Congo Free State, Portugal, Italy, and Spain 
amounts to 7,590,406, If we deduct from the remainder 
the khedive*s nominal possessions, Tripoh, Morocco^ 
the Transvaal, and the Orange Free State, there are 
left for future partition only about 2,000,000 square 
miles, most of which are comprehended in the Central 
Soudan, In view of what has been done during the 
last fifteen years, it seems im[irobal>le that half a cent- 
ury hence a single independent native state will exist 
in j\ frica.^*V(7i' Ytnk Sun, 



26 



A TALK ABOUT A LETTER FROM INDIA, 



A Talk About a Letter from India. 

BY MISS SUE W. HETHERINGTON. 

"Come here, Carrie," said Mrs. Grey, to her daughter, 
**and see this letter." 

The young girl thus addressed was busy reading a 
very interesting book, and did not relish the inter- 
ruption, but when she reached her mother's side and 
looked over the letter, her curiosity was at once awak- 
ened, and she exclaimed : 

** O, mother, what queer writing, and one page is dif- 
ferent from the other. Can you read it .^ " 

** No, my dear ; but look at this," turning the leaf. 

"O, that is English, I can read that myself," said Cnrrie. 
'''But where did this come from, and who wrote \\.} " 

" It is from India, and this first page, which looks like 
short-hand, is written in Urdu, one of the dialects spoken 
by the natives of India; the second page is in Hindi, 
another dialect, and the third is in English, as you see, 
and expresses the same thoughts. 

** You have often heard us speak in the Ladies' Mis- 
sionary Society of the orphans whom we support and 
educate in one of our schools in India, and who bear 
the names of two of our ladies. This is a letter from 
one of them, written for her by one of the older schol- 
ars. Would you like to read it } " 

** O, very- much, indeed." 

^^Indiiif April 2^^ 1890. 
** My Loving Mem Sahiba : 

** I want to tell you I am here well and happy. I hope 
this will find you the same. I am only a little girl and 
cannot write letters yet, but another girl is writing for 
me. I am very happy staying here. I am reading in 
the tenth class ; I read English in the English primer, 
and also in Hindi and Urdu. 

*' Our vacation is in two months, then we go to our 
own homes. Just before vacation we have a great meet- 
ing at which the girls read essays. 

" Many, many salaams to you thrice over, from your 
affectionate Margam Latt." 

** Why does she learn three languages?" inquired Carrie. 

** The Urdu and Hindi are the languages used by the 
inhabitants of India, and the English is necessary to 
communicate with the English and Americans, of whom 
there are many thousands in that land, and also that she 
may learn something of our literature. 

"The ancient language of India, in which the sacred 
books of the Hindus were written, is called Sanskrit, 
and learned men have found that it is of the same family 
of languages as our own English tongue." 

" Why, mother, how can that be ? " 

"Many ages before Europe was populated a great 
mass of people left their homes in Central Asia and 
journeyed westward. When they reached the Caspian 
Sea they took possession of the country since known as 
Persia. After a time they began again to emigrate; this 
time they divided, and some, going south, followed the 
direction of the great river valleys and settled in Hin- 
dustan, and the rest pursued a westerly course and 
reached Europe. Other streams of people from the 



same source followed at various periods, and were the 
ancestors of the Greeks, Romans, Goths, and other 
European nations, which, with those who were left in 
Asia, constitute the Aryan race, to distinguish them from 
the Semitic, to which the Hebrews and Arabs belong, 
and the Turanian, of which our friends the Japanese and 
Chinese are members. The language spoken by the 
Aryan race before their dispersion was Sanskrit. And 
when it first became known to Europeans, less than a 
hundred years ago, its similarity to the Greek, Latin, 
and Teutonic tongues made them conclude that they 
all had a common origin, which is no doubt the case. 

"You cannot conceive of the changes through which 
a language passes in the course of centuries, especially 
among rude, barbarous, warlike peoples, and during ages 
when writing and printing were not practiced. You 
would, probably, have as much difficulty in reading our 
own English of the ninth century as this little Indian 
girl would the Sanskrit, to which her own familiar Hindi 
and Urdu owe their origin. 

" See if you can read this," and Mrs. Grey opened a 
book and handed it to Carrie. This is what she saw : 

" Faeder tire, thii the eart on heofenum, si thin wama 
gehalgod. To becume thin ure. Geweorthe thin willa 
on eorthan, swa swa on heofenum. Urne deagh — warn • 
lican hlaf syle us to deeg. And fargyf lis tire gyltas, 
swa swa we forgifath lirum gyltendum. And we gela^de 
thu us on costmunge, as alys us of yfle. Scfthlice." 

"That is the way good King Alfred, who reigned in 
England, as you know, in the ninth century, said the 
Lord's Prayer." 

"Is that *our Father?'" exclaimed Carrie. 

"Yes, in Anglo-Saxon, the language used by our 
forefathers, and made up from the dialects of the Jutes, 
Angles, and Saxons, the early conquerors of Britain, and 
themselves the offspring of some of these early Aryan 
emigrants from Asia, of whom I have already told you. 
And that brings me to what I wished you to learn, 
namely, this, that when we send the Gospel to India, we 
are really giving it to our own race." 

" Do they look like us? " inquired Carrie. 

"Their features are not unlike ours, straight noses, 
straight hair, well-formed lips, pleasing expression ; but 
their skin is dark but clear, owing, no doubt, to the 
great heat of that country. They are not so large, vig- 
orous, or hardy as the Europeans and Americans. They 
have keen, bright intellects, and learn readily. It is not 
many years since the Hindus would allow their women 
to be taught to read and write, and even now there are 
but few comparatively in any class who are educated. 

" These little girls, with hundreds ot others, who are 
being educated by English and American missionaries, 
will in a few years go forth to teach their people in the 
cities and villages of India, and, perhaps, as wives of 
native Christians, will have homes of their own, like the 
homes of this land, and teach their children as you are 
taught, and thus Christianity will spread till India will 
become a Christian nation. 

"You see now more clearly what your missionary 
money is helping to do, and, perhaps, you will give it 
with more interest and intelligence." 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS, 



27 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 

The statistical tables that follow were prepared on the mission field in October, 1890, and were forwarded 
for insertion in the next Annual Report of the Missionary Society. The others will be given next month : 



STATISTICS 


> 


OF 


AFRICA. 






















NAMK8 Of CHAHI1K9. 


i 

1 


1 


1 

i' 

u 

ii 

4 g 
i 8 

1, a 

i< 

2 e 
s 1 

4 4 


i 


j 

i 


i 

1 


1 


i 


11 

IL 


1 

il 

11 
£3 


1 


1 


1 
S 

41 


1 

1 

1 

4 


1 

1 

1 


1 

J 


1 


ii 


U 


Afonmpirt mAtk^L 
Rdb«ftstiort and Talla . 


m 

1 

4 

3 

i 

2 

a 
n 
2 

« 
e 
1 

^8 


m 
2m 

65 

47 
75 

m 

IflO 

•m 

i 
I 

30 

IfiO 
75 
Si 

es 

145 
308 


2 

n 
s 

8 
4 
4 

k 


m 
' ii 

17 

1 

4 




ft] STfl 




114 

■500^ 

500 
fiO 

'atio 

]C0 
fiO 

■56 

50 

m 
m 

t*,4l0 


PS 

14 

A 
5 

"m 
"40 


*'i5 

■ 50 
175 

^00 


•13 

6 

e 
10 

IQ 

13 
& 
5 

*"i6 

S5 

i8 
1« 
36 
IS 

10 
10 

m 

8 

so 

|«S7 


1^ 

m 
ft 
3 
10 
ifl 

ifl 
m 

15 

10 
9 
5 

1 

8 

m 

13 

4 

8 

4 
8 

ao 

8 
10 

4& 

«6 


125 

1375 
45 
Ifi 
65 

75 

ITS 

lie 
m 
m 

48 
14 
16 

m 

00 
m 

1? 

ie 

88 

160 
GO 
185 

S07 

t«t4 


148 


•5 


■ is 

60 
SB 
44 

..'.V. 

10 
80 
100 

15 
60 
40 
50 

00 

n 

50 


a 10 


Monrork....... -- 

New Gcorstii. . * . . * * - ^ . . ...«.« ^ ««<. 


50'.. 

400.. 

1,800.. 

3,auo-' 
5^000.. 

as' 

ISO.. 


JoboMinifiiieir, . .„»*.... ,.,, 




P*rii»?llk3 * .. ... .-.». 




Hj^fgliAlL ...... ... ...... .. 




Oldwell f MrfTiit ,..,.., » « , 


2 *iB 


Virg^lfiia uinl Brew^rvlUe . . . « » .^.,* ,,» . *■■♦. . 


4 Id 


Clmj* AjsbliiHd Cireait '„...!.,.'.... 


4 00 


Mdlerabunr and White PliJua. .**., .,.». 




Roberfavlllo _ ,. 




Aftblngton ... .... ,.,*.....,*,.,.. 


70 


Brown StattoQ. ,.,... **...**..,... i ... , 


GO 


Cku^jsbunfr and BenaoniriUe, * * * — »*.**,. 

Mount Olive. ,....,.**... 


t,4m 
m 

bOO 

coo 
100 
eoo 
50 
coo 

fioa 


J 


9;^ 

sen 


Edin* CtrcuiU 


4 1 1 


aoo 






Bexlev Circuit. , , . . . 


60 


Uppip^r RucEiiiDBn *..,.......,.., 




Lowtsr BuchtiUiUt. >.......'. ..» . ... 




Pif nestourr ... .1 * *...... , » . » 


i 

? 


41*1 




Glbboom 


i 

3 


1 
I 

R 




Cattersiown. . . * * , , * , 




SUwc Bfetrtet. 
Gr««nTl]Ie Ctreiill. , .. ..,,.,„ .,,.... * 


500 


IjftUfflgfalin - , , - . - ,„—--,,,,,. r T - . . 


? a 


1 70 


IvmilHlana sni niWnf f villp . . . , , . 7 ' , ] . ' . 


8 10 


£00 


HI. flooCA md TubmimtoWQ. 


e.085 


1 








GTUldtOtftl... 


2^1 


5fl 


«7 


7B 


ist 


ae 


•ai,4so 


S5t OS 



STATISTICS OF DENMARK. 



cnapuiT OR 

BTATIOIT. 



AurbUA ,.,..... 

IVjjwnhflfiiii .... 
Enkfiland . . . .. 

FoabofK 

FbedefHuluvii 
Ucttiujld .... 
Eonen* ...... 

Hftlttebm 

Luifelflod ...., 
LiAk*a 



I^Tvndborg . . 
Vrili , 



u 

Ill 



t 
i 

1 

1 5 



1\ 



.. i 



G, 15 
§' fl 



60 
lOft 
SIT 

5a 

80 
80& 

62 



I 

I 

u 



fi| 
16T ^ 

108 



to 

m 



1J64S80 
ljm^S4S 



IW 

\m 

as' 

I 

too! 

00; 

lao 

1(HJ, 

on 
4)i>it 
100 

300 



|!i| t i t 
*iE,f ^ a c 



ElO 



M 



70 1 



IW 11 . 

I 

160 00. 



500' 95^ 

; I 

200 A 

110^ 11'. 

I I 
50Ai 64. 

«!.'. 

aoo- lit , 
\ I 

I16 14, 

I I 

150 8 , 

150. n. 

525 Ts' 



TO 
450 



J . 

I 

17. 

4 

46. 



t,008 
■ School and building lot. 



8,965^1 1 



V 

9 

n.. 



V- 

i'.. 

I 

S.. 
6.. 

&a 1 

to! 1 



i 



1 

1! 40 

1, m 



I ss 

I 

5iTa 



78,. 

I 

500,, 

TOs' 1 

100. 1 



I 
SS . 

160 1 

....| 1 
WO 1 

45'.. 

411 1 

« 1 

I 

S61 1 

S60' 1 

176 1 
3S i,T^ 10 



SI 



IL'i« 



1K5,0On 
l,fiO0 

16.0OI) 
5.000 
t6tO»0 

10,( 
IkOtn^ 

31,0(10 

iB,eoti; 

fi6,000. 



10 
8 

% 

5 
10 
4.. 

IS I 



-J |l 

lit 



1^ 



AOOO 
t ... 

la^Qoo 



4 1! *.OOo| 



1,100 



£90 
S,000 



V t 



•n 

1 'l 

I I 

8 1 18.51X1 



m 

11,800 

900 

S,75ii 



5. 

5]., 



+ ... 



400 . 

I 

KlO . 

I 

7,500 16^800 

....^ . 

150! . 



848.500 05 % 7»,600; IVm 86,739 

'1 I I 

80 a.7081Q' 84a 50<v ti l 8 7^.500 1118^ aOJfin 

t Crown— ««.? e»nu. 



J 



J* 

31 



Ckjwm 

100 

66 

866 

500 

ISO 

S4 
57 
S5 

'*! 
1 

SS5 

"1 

140 



8a| 006 

86| 4$7 

i6|' 1,' 

as' 4TS 

sal 4S5 

m 1J40 

18 168 



SI 
5 

S9 
%1 
720 
115 

20| 



435 
S6a 
80S 
SOI 

14BB 
SOI 



SO S.40D 



Ii 
Ii 



250 

ao 
8ii 

4M 

fiSO 



iTi 

149 
051 

\M^ 
4S 
14t 

l,34f 

4 

tT4 

^09 

S40 

fri 
its 

1,885 
]«5 
64 



8,144, 8,1)01 14,610 
Sjis' S,40§ la.S^'i 



£,0«2 
1,600 



8,011 



t Valne incloded In cburch value. 



28 



FOREIGN MISSION STATIS7VCS. 



STATISTICS OF ITALY. 



CIKCUIT 

06 
STATIOil, 




1 


1 


1 

ii 
II 


— 






1 


! 


J ■ 
1 


1 

1 


■ 

3 


1 
1 

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1 


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11 


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1 

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i 

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i 

1 


1 


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ll 


1 




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11 


Adrfi. 








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i 


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1 


SI 












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$3 00 






.. 




,. 








« 


1 


15 


§ 










,." 


./ 1 


2 














% 








Bo'*^*™^ 






»* 


H . 1 








48 


6 


lOij 


Til 




\ 






-» 






I 


ifl^oofl 






•2,«W 


17 24 


1 


23 S7 




TOO 


CaJM?ll! 






■ * 


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1 .. 




XI 


e 


m 


35 


fi 


t 










1 


& 












3 80 


i« m 






Tlov*il0j»..... 






_. 




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1« 




5W. 


2if 


a 


1 








^^ 


J 


5 




• 11, 








2^1 


£ 


4 4(1 




K W 


FiAIlM 


4 4 


n 


»» 


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1.-. 




1^ 


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'- 






. '.. 




, . 


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1^ 


^ 


*i 07 




1 30 


Firei™.....,. 


2 


I 








^ 




»i 


fti 


150 


110 


11 


N 




8 


8.. 




% 


40 


1 


7;o66 






S,thHf 


m m 


:; 


m &•* 


1^05 93 


AO %& 


IW*:;::::: 






,. 


n 1 




1 




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fi 


40 


40 


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4 








1 


an.. 














' ai 


d 


a^ 00 




%m 








1' a 


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7" 


sa 












* 


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la 












1 w 




4 75 






6i!oe^^Swlu. 








■^ 


] 




,, 




*1 


T 


S5 














-J 1 


80 












8 in 


12 ^ 




10(1 oil 


G¥n«...... ., 




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, , 


, , 


] 


' 




1 


IE 


2A 


fiO 




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. 1 - . 


4 iin 


g 


B50 




1 00 


Mi^lfl 


„ 




., 






i .. 




« 


e 


15 


S9 














. I 


87 


.. 










fis>« 


o 


11 0» 




1 «o 


Mllu 






■■ 


a 1 


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t ApartmeuU. 



STATISTICS OF NORWAY. 



CIB€niT OR aTATlOH, 


1 

5 = 

ij 




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470 
300 

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75 
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15 
70 


£00 
800 
250 

1,000 
150 
960 
500 
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150 

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240 
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400 
800 
100 

a,iiNjo 

500 

150 
250 

170 
140 

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lOO 
800 
400 

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son 


Cro«ru 

iso 

9^ 
24S 

1« 
810 

890 
542 


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£,01i 

243 


FftsitrikHtiMl. 


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im 30 . 
290 60 . , 
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800 60 , 
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600 <»0 \ . 
25 » 25 . 
35 > M» , 
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800 80 , . 
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850 25 . . 
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400 . . r> 
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12 ... 
60 .8 
40 ..2 
8:1 .. 1 
80 .. 1 
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H>o! .. 8 
90, ... 1 
so ..1 2 
44) ! 1 


°'l 4 


M15 
2.058 


UiuniLr ctnit Fumes. _ _ , . . . 


151' ft 
127 M 


IIm' 1 
130 1 
150 2 
130 2 

20 2 
44«1 1 
2«i5; 1 
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125 1 

96 1 
184 1 
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105 2 
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47 
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12: . . 

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110 1 
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10«» 

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140 1 
551 1 


Ifi.o^* .'.' .\ 

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7.0(H> .. ,. 

n>io, , ., 

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1 .. 

lo.5ttfi .. 11 

4,700i . 


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HtmeftHi jin'l H*ldBR(l ,...„,.., 


e::.: 


Et)D^bf^ and i^anileiVAr,. ... .. 

Itoti(?*vlnffor ind i>»lak*ii.. ....... 

ChriallanUi : Mrftt Cljiireli 


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178 
158 
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142 

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m 
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79 

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s 

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15 3 

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7,501^ 14^408 


2,463 


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400 1,062 

fill 808 


Mmks And Booel ................. 

FongTiiivil ►,.*.».,,♦*. 1 ...... . 




4^!*77 

1.810 

£70 

fl,4fiO 




a^ 1 A.M 


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6i$4G 


1,130 


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25 
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.... i,afi 

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770 


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.... 1 S.^Hhi 


1911 05- 








440 


2S4 

2,H84 
1.690 


KECAPITULATION BY 


DISTRIC 


rs. 

378^iro 




~2.97a 
1,75< 


1,027 

580 






ChriHtlanta District 


19 
12 

81 
20 


584 
7.. 

1135 


8.02S 


' 6,i>r»o 770 225 \ 


2 5188 


2.N62 
2,152 

5,014 
6,039 


12 

37 
86 


A 9i 14 430 


89,S6:i 
69,511 


9,196 
5,316 


7,454 80.46S 


Bergvn Difttrict 


1,890 274 

4,41S7I4 
4,1591601 


2,«H2 . .. S(»: .. 

S.0T2^ 770^0 225 
; 6.360 724:.. 210 


1 


163.455 6.. 
542,275 12' 2 




18.884 I1,S87 




'> 


5 59 
5,59 




Total 


14,420 
7,000 


149.874 
164,4«>6 


4,726 
4.3SS 


, 1.607 
1 2,727 


10,56( 
11,6TS 


21,28Si 42.805 


Last year 


1 2 


529.(HN) 


7 


1 


6.867 


144,063 



» T)i« crown w WMilh W.s cent*. 



FOREIGN MJSSION STATISTICS. 



29 







"~ 






STATISTICS OF 


SWEDEN 












ciBCurr OB 

STATION. 


1 




•^i 


11 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 

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1 

3 


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1 

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1 
1 

2 
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12 

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11 
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26 
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300 
100 
50 

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60 
20 
80 
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120 

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10 

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200 
30 
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800 
105 

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120 

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90 

20 

5i> 
41* 
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20 
100 

300 

a)o 

1 

» 

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DO 

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400 
800 
250 
350 
400 
],O0O 
150 
150 
100 
90O 
200 
450 
800 
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50 

300 

^m 

850 

arwi 

50(i 

1000 

«H. 

100 
4O0 
^) 

ia5 

350 
EOtI 
4O0 
4A0 

eoo 

250 
&00 
800 
125 
400 
SflO 
200 

500 
KM 
500 
4^ 

a&u 

250 
40U 

400 

TOO 
100 

im 

aire 

m 
475 

500 
4041 

aoo 
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500 
800 
SW) 
200 

soo 

250 
450 

aoo 

200 
480 
80O 
475 

SO 
IBO 
100 
800 
150 

m 

200 

iiio 


11 

IT 
59 
42 

m 

385 
15 
8T 
32 
lit 
15 
12 
2fi 

15 

& 
IS 




3 

i 

8 
ft 


1S« 




3 

3 


•Ktom*. 
14,000 
10,500 


1 


KTfO*. 


8,800 

i,aTO 

4J500 

14,000 

10,900 

10.500 

1.SM 

1,0«T 

600 

1,600 

t,2flB 

1^909 

8,000 

iiii 

^400 

2,184 

8.049 

§00 

81,T4# 

600 
8,100 

*385 
1,140 
9,950 
1,000 
8,580 
890 
840 

i;5a6 

'.'/.'. 

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1T4SS 
8,825 

5,ano 
i.eiM) 

' ^ 

4.26T 
1,622 
6,060 
2,T<10 
18,140 

ifm 

g,§s50 
1,000 
1,800 

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400 

i;ia9 

950 
1,010 

l',i60 

4^J 

«,820 

1,100 
28 

8^10 
81 

R.4i'0 
6TB 

8,800 


law 

218 

4m 

150 

1,000 

8T 

100 
50 
14 

m 

893 

190 
100 
50 

124 
151 
121 

414 
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2d0 

128 
1T4 
41 
66 
141 
209 
190 
191 
4G0 
148 
141 
ITT 
130 
200 
111 
164 

680 
4iJ 
910 
2.MP 
1U«I 

4^ 

95 

TS 

198 

ISO 

4^ 

480 

106 

149 

80 

in 

20 
150 

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30O 

10 
2U4& 
130 

m 

161 
146 
816 

4S 

m 

181 

ea 

800 

f 

16 

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28 

: 

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61 
84 
20 

180 

75 

1^1 

108 
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86 

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8 
181 
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110 
129 

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91 

670 

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m 

88 
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m 
m 
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1,826 
820 

a,lT5 
838 


... 1,110 
900 800 


A vMtft and FBc^reto 






150.. 

456,.. 
130.. 


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8 


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1 .. 


... J 801 


fiskilstuna 






8 

1 


40,050 
20.000 
45.0<J0 

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8,500 
4,000 
6,000 
0,600 
5.000 

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1 1 


DlIMIO 


1^! 1,491 
8,500 118t 


Falun. 






i 


0«fle 






900'.. 1 2 


3!.. 
9.. 

11.. 
1 1 

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tOOtt 


3,000' 1,864 
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300.. 

tT5l.. 

85., 

m,. 

no.. 
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80.. 
66,. 
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sso.. 

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138.. 

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470., 
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8111 . . 
145.. 
800.. 

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Hiigtbrs 






884 




450 


Karlholm (Gefle Ciroult) 

Kornnas 

Kungsor 






488 
411 
4T9 
883 
48T 
216 
529 

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419 
514 
401 
1,288 
1,191 
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559 
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816 
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491 

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18,495 
3,900 

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710 
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16 
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88 


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980 


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Mora and Orea (Lekaand) 
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115 
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1,9T0 

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:: 


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Sit 








191 ,.[ 1 6,000 

1001., 1 mm 

m,.. 1 0.844 
32t* . , 1 I 14,000 

8^L- ..! ;.-. 


ssa 


NurTkiii^lng dud eodor- 

»i*i|"lng -....,.. 

XxAsjii and 11 vetlaoda. . . 






9,T90 


Vi'flU'rtik ..._..... 






Nflj 400 T98 


Wi-TiUi an.! Delaiy 






2,. .... 
..1 1 flJlliO 


40h' j 1.460 


B*nrt*foni .............. 






1 

i 
1 

"i 
1 


4 

S 


<» 

10 
21 

B 

m 
m 
m 


4 

14 
13 
8 


47.. 

TO.. 
145.. 
24if.. 

85. 
550 
*I0.. 

SiO.. 
155 . . 

43 .. 

luu.. 

i«tV: 

801 .. 

911 . 

S5 . 
2«0.. 
125,, 

TO,.. 
122,. 

60 „, 
105.. 
&3ft . 
350.. 

«B.. 
130.. 
94.. 
«!,., 
90 .. 

850.. 

30 a 

00| 4 


1, 3,000 

8 11.5(HI 
r TJOO 
1' 4,000 

2, 8,500 
2' 4l,S*MI 

I, 12. WW 
8, 18,400 
1 4 mm 

1 2,500 

"2 10.400 

1' 2,500 

i 
*' 1 " '" 

i T^fHiO 
3; SwOiMi 

2 7,WM> 

2 6.tNj6 
3| 4,IiH» 
1! 18,000 

1' 8,000 
1| 1,600 
1 8,000 
8 4,100 
3< T,n00 

3 8,900 
1 i«J,l»0O 


81^ 12 84 


Botofi "•"■■""■"*"[" 




4S1I 080 456 






5aH. Lm li5 


FUlpstad../.' . . 1 ..... 




4ii@' 008 940 


OrmirM and I^^or 




1 I 


t^'MlO 


€8tl 185 815 


Bt^nioh.. .. .... "*l" 




*2:: 
.... 

IL. 

.. .. 


1,332 

t'ooo 

^6«0 

500 
50<) 

8,500 
IpOOO 


1,L^2« 668 1,»50 
Mi 1 1 ino 


HalAb^n? and Ltrbaek.-.L.!, , 


2«| 1 

n. e 

"1 1 

111 8 

25; 3 

t^^i 10 


447 

T41 
844 
4^ 
809 
900 
BTS 
4lt 
418 
48lt 

e&o 

491 
«21 
870 
8T1 
829 

819 
154 

010 
3«8 
98T 

IS 

40 
Wl 

48 
15 


5.71W1 500 
28B 219 


Karhtii. .7 '.!11... !;[..!.. 


.,, 1 500 
75' 130 


Karlanda. I.J., 

K.fifi'tin^baiiin , ' . . r . . 


....' 18T 
68a 496 


lAXrt and Harrlemo, . . . . j „ 
L^khvllan .. 1,. 


'■ 


22 
26 

17 
28 
11 
16 

n 

ft 
28 
It 

2 

? 

8 
25 

2S 

A 

20 
4 

28 
15 
11 
Is 
Ifl 


9 

3 

8 
3 

I 
1 

X 

3 
1 
3 

i 

'2 

^2 
I 


^•i! 869 
108 18S 


LldkiJtJlBjt .......... ' 




' '402 


M.»orJfiu*.::;;:...:::;::i:: 




i 616 


Banaai^r... . . . |. J-- 


ioiV 180 


B^n^ and Frctakog. - - 




f8B, 609 


SanMuni aarl LobeHtii.^ . . . 






1 
1 


;: 

i 
i 

1 

1 


1,400 489 
... 1 164 
306 4i)2 


SitoimiKad.. ........... 

Wotlda jLDd aiap.. 






A^nrp. ^ . ....... 






ISO' h'9 








405' $^70 


Biinrivvk and Wapilli^bo 






1,086 
800 


T8 

81 

16 

58 

852 

105 

1,166 

12^ 
969 
lilO 
8S9 
60 

«t6 

981 


FoUltiglio ...., ,... 






OvtM^rgaTn&knkUufbd. 

ToflA mid Trakomla, . . . . 
WUbv ,,,. 






., 


2 
2 

1 


160 

880 

16 

998 


SK;:^"*':::::;:::'-' 


*^ 




1 
1 


"i 


^ainta Karirbr. 


61 10 i! ti-Oiio 


•106 


HelaliurfiirH. 


iscis 
€011 

ioi' T 

15010 


"i "ioo 


KrlHMniv!it;ul and Nwp**. 

Nikouanad.. ............ 

Abr. ..„ 


.J 
iL. 












REt 


APITl 


[JLATION 


Bl 


r DISTRICTS. 




















3» 
IT 

« 

I! 

TO 
10 


m 

4' 
3 


is 


84 

ai4 

4ia 


2,»« 
*.«80 

i2,9aa 


1,^ 
44i 

199 
2,864 


1J75 
mi 

5,123 


1/>4*I 
2^2«ii 

moeo 


i,mi 

5fril 

431 

8T 

113 


1T5 

^1 

106 
13 
5 


88 

m 

19 
U 


6,001 
6.4S« 

a^ii 

Kit 




81 

m 

82 
10 
2 


482JMI0 
n9J44 

ii9.eoo 

41,800 

fl,ooo 


3T 6 1»,5(MJ 
IS 1 8.000 
9 5 10.5a2 

.. f %M^ 
fli I 8,0(10 


lHl,Ot« 
96,278 
50;l&5 
18,tM9 
5,748 


<klS8 

8,T50 

8,868 

9fy 

m 


4,408 

8,098 

5,981 

381 

15 


19 5T4 


fttHar 


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la^is 

1.908 

e.oao 


KMla1fei«i» " 


. 


" 


18;t^| "8^411 

lfl,|Ma 18,061 

S,8tT 3,813 

894 898 


FiiOaiid - ...... 


el 


1 

T 


885 


M 


TnUl :. 


00 

2Q 


M 


S18 
308 


18.189 
16J64T 


M 


95 


K89.&44 


do r» 4«.]t«»9 


267^19 14.948 
348,^1 14,0^ 


1M88 


49 202; ai *tf\A 


Sl.4*l 

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50 


8T 


miae 




*i. 


^jm 


9I^T 


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* 1 KrooA — 91 oenU. 



30 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 



STATISTICS OF GERMANY. 



CIRCUIT OK BTATION. 


II 


- ■ 

II 


^ 1 

act 


1 
t 

1 


i 

1 
1 


1 
i 


a 


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1 

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1 




1 


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1 

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1 


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ll 

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H^fkm. 


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ftLifk>. 


MMtki, 


Aqridl .,„......„..,.... 












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T 


5fi 


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ft 




a 


»0 


2 


miAO 




1 


a^TAO 


5 


n 


512 




3 


Btdefe1d.,,„„.. ....,; 




1 ...... 




m 


10 


411 


ISO 


10'.. 




a 


T« 






1 






4S 


T» 


t.l02 




8S 


Bremen......... 


. ^ 


S 




JM 


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m 


afMv 


lai.. 







m 




is».a(>& 


» 


1 


1«XK> 


1011 


xm 


2.S4S 




897 






X 






fla 


H 


J*! 


ISO 


ST.. 




4 


im 




4nOIM) 


1 


1 


a MOO 


77 


146 


a,42ft 




106 






\ 


.:,::i.. 


^ , 


isrt 


S4 


411 


gooJ 


tOi,. 




5 


m 




18.800 




1 


Clfi4S 


T5 


110 


1,4T2 




02 


Bornum ,. , 




] 


..I..'.. 




S8 


6 


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m 


U'^. 




3 


TO 




aaooo 




1 


s,soo 


85 


u 


Si* 




49 






1 






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Iji 


All 


m\ 


19,. 




6 


i§*f 




11.0SO 




1 


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8} 


ss 


9&4 




ST 


rknabiirir .... ... 




.. 


.. 






ttl 


n 


4(t 


ISO 


14.. 




^ 


son 






2 






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54 


1.484 




16 


Hmnbiiig^. ,.,.,... 




t 










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^ 


Sit 


sao 


fiU, 




4 


400 




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109 


172 


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BO 
<Jii 


100 


lOl.. 
5,. 




J 


fiO 






1 






19 


81 


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ST 

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Metl4*n ..„, 






'i 






■ * 


\m 




A 




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1 


1 


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13 


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^ 


ti 


l^J 


100 


It . , 




t 


no 




4,000 




1 




10 


m 


4T0 




m 


WfltiBehfKj ... y ..-»... 














1S4 


m 


^\ 


■jw 


lo;.. 




t 


80 




14,000 




1 


2,400 


69 


UB 


1,44? 




ft? 


g'dehb'i« 




i 




.. 






124 


It 


NJ 


2ai 


loL. 


4 


9 


100 




S 1,000 




1 




m 


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1,000 


.... 


92 


KliaEukTfeliii 




.. 










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l!fl 


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10l> 


ft .. 




a 


ta; 




^•m 


.. 


L 


1300 


so 


as 


80Sv 


.... 


11 


WlUidQisbiiTrii,.., 


^ ^ 


I 








^ 


31 





SO 


\m 


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1 


lis 






1 






16 


ttS 


7ia 




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Berlin i^iMrkL 


















































Berlin, ElJm 




1 










T» 


4A 


eo 


a.v)l 


suL- 




% 


SAO 




m.fm 


1 




AkOOo' 


64 


998 


535 


120 


1,15% 


Ifnmanuel 




I 










90 


m 


TJV 


SiS 


4,V., 




s 


musf 




fe,\lMi4> 






&i.oi«y 


Afl 


465 


A85 


160 


1,080 


Sdem...,,..... 


.. 


1 . 








IM 


SB 


Sit 


JiTIs: 


a,"!,. 




{^ 


fW 




'J.'-l.lilHh 


1 




i^.amt 


90 


084 


1.TT2 




1.489 


Chemnlia ..,..,„..,...... 


^ ^ 


1 ] 








in 


pa 


(kNI 


7(10, 


ae.. 




4^ 


140 




lS.i)m| 


n 




6,700 


m 


894 


, i^sas 


IJftft 


2JJlf 


CoiUn Udgard,..,. 


ji. 


.. 1.. 






49 


2ft 


SO 


140> 


7'-. 




2 


AO 






9 






19 


n 


265 




«5 


gnHM-^n?.... ... 




1 3.. 






110 


li 


\m 


400 


SS. 




a 


1«& 




18;4S0' 


a 




fi,Bao 


ftT 


412 


909 




m 


G»lu 


. . 


1 .. 








1M 


m 


Ifi 


iSD 


K&.. 




s 


ISO 




la^WKi; 


fl 






100 


»I4 


1,460 


109 


l.«S« 


Lftnf;i?i4 wi?Lvl]clorf.. . ,,...* 




Jl .. 








ISfl 


n 


\^\ 


1!T.^ 


10:=^ 




4' 


m 




14,000 


s 




s;ot6 


71 


908 


1.10T 


110 


649 


Keu-Kiipiiin 




1, .. 








4* 


14 


3i> 


xm 


8.. 




a 


m 






i.. 




m 


aes 


40? 




678 


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1 








131 


»* 


£00 


Am 

100 


»0.. 

s; . 




4 

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tft] 
so 




84,000 


1 


n,uo 


ISO 


467 


1,613 


1^ 


h4^ 

616 


Sttalfeld... ..„. 




V .. 








;* 


40 




« 




ao 


60 


8obl^li. .,,. ,.. 


J , 


.. 1 








tm 


15 


40 


ISO 


fi.. 




4 


im 




6,000 


1 




l.Tflti 


80 


84 


m 


T4 


4*1 




.. 


1: I 
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t 


III 

T9 


360 


AW 
3S0 


40,. 




4 
1 


190 
40 




fij,«6o 


s 

A 




6,9TO 


aio 

75 


279 
15JS 


1,160 
779 


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40 


1.428 
l.^& 


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1 .. 








W 


M 


w^ 


m 


as.. 




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407 


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noo 




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1,U4 


1.45# 




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Fr^iiUl^rUtfm-Matn IHri. 






1 










































Cm«jI, ,...., ........... 




V ,J.. 






13T 


m 


;o 


2no 


40.. 




4 


IStl 




mMz 


4 


1 


u.rs 


ino 


860 


82$ 


177 


IJ49 


DUIeobur^. 


^ , 


1 .. .. 






. ;i 


22 


70 


ISO 


ao.. 




4 


ISO 




10,500 


6 


1 


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4a 


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625 


3 Oil 


m;A 


Frankfkirt ftnj-M*Jo 




A .... 




l^ 


y«7 


4ft 


^m 


aijo 


40.. 




» 


S50 




lltO.OOO 


IB 


1 


HCfH) 


im 


661 


1.80B 


64 


aji^6 


HaDttn 




1 ..... 
1 .. ,, 




^_ 


1 s» 
1 m 


1? 


m 

S4I 


60 
1«0 


^ 


., 




3 


xm 




lioflb 


s 



"i 


.... 


iso^ 


71 
8^ 


m 


.... 


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Krpuittftcb find MtuiilHl . . . 


2IS 


Marburg.....,.., ,. 




I ::::i::l '. 




T 
8 


so 


so 

2flO 


s 






3 
7 


40 
1S6 




S,10O 


:l.: 


IfiO 


14 
BO 


1!9 

ast 


«8 

100 


.... 


216 


Llinmorn ................ 


ms 


Wpbonmi ,,.. .„,. 




1 


..'.... 10 


s« 


10 


40 


100 


1? 






8 


{« 






s 


\, 


1,435 


10 


65 






741 


Mnptui MJnafi^h IniiLltute... 






. » . 






.... 


































K'irlf^rtiht Pi^Hf^, 






► 1 




1 






































Alt*n»tafif. -,,......,, 






r.J.. 




f^ 


2S 


lOfl 


MO 


«0 






4 


BO 




1&,&T0 


1 1 


6,730 


40 


lOfl 


878 


105 


S6i 


BUdiwdk^...,,. , 




1 ..'..!.. 




ai 


A 


44 


ISOt 








S 


TO 




4.900 


4 




m 


m 


aT3 


461 


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19S 


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1 i; 








lao 

100 


400 


ao'.. 




ft 


SQO 
fl4.1 




26.at0 

afi,oao 



IS 


1 


6.167 


00 

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1.289 
1,0^ 


6i* 

805 


TIT 


Fp?qdCTa©i4t ....,., 


1 .... 




1.701 


KilrtertljuilerE ........... 




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1 113} 


ffi 


\m 


^.'iO 


s^i;.. 




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1T« 




A0,A40 


10 




1&.700 


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1,M9 


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% .... 






1 l*.t 


41 


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250 


at;. 




8 


350 




4i,n<> 


8 




2a,sio 


u 


41fl 


i,ai9 


7S0 


g.i02 






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, 188 


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ftao 


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7 


im 




x^9m 


& 




0.t(ni 


s?o 


246 


621 


SJJ5 


60S 


lAhr...r.. , . 




l' 






1 79 


7 


50 
ion 


JflO 

seo 


,S|:; 




1 
4 


a& 

160 




l4.tHH( 
18,450 


a 
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0.&KI 
fr,IMHI 


60 


268 
186 


28« 
4W 


tt2 


968 


KAgnld .... — , , 




1 .. 




6^6 


PforahpJin 




I 


1.. 




6 


SftI 


611 


2HW 


san 


ao.. 




« 


440 




staoo 


s 


1 


6,450 


nnt 


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1.R96 


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1 
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40 


so 
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lOO 


as,.. 




4 


165 
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84.460 
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1671 


1(>0 


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442 


i.iirt 
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9^9 
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1.668 


Spisyer-Mannhi'lm ,..,,...» 


3JW 


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1 




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1^ 


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100 


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el.: 




S 


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110.000 


i 




50,000 


75 


6+ii 


9m 


l,a4{i 


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1 ., 








as 


n 


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ino 


8 






ir 


fiS 




i,iao 


t 




.... 


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m 


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2ii 


256 


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ift 


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1 


, 




a 


80 






4 






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41 


75 


, 


m 




1, .J.: 






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<» 


StNi 


141 


p!.. 




4 


auQ 




isjaso 


lA 




1,000 


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Boa 


asa 


869 


BietJfffk^in 




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1 l-H 


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4 


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1U6i 


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1 


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122 


llf 


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BOO 


10 .. 




S 


lao 




S.H10 


6 




^ 


SO 


8)16 


l.OPT 




870 


lli^1ibh>iin.. 




1 








lia 


H-id 


m 


1110 


U1T0 


la.. 




10 


M4 




9«,54& 


10 




86,44^ 


160 


94fl 


2.0O[ 


492 


, 1.484 


llGkiifil'irJm 




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BA 


!^> 


fiai 


1 




9 


ao(k 




saass 


11 




7,M1 


TS 


am 


1.115 


1 m 


B70 


ll^rnjhbpi^,.. 






.. 








120 


S 


f.0 


SLO 


tt.. 




8 


100 




n.4do 


8 




S^SBS 


100 


an 


1,147 


xw 


444 


Ladwijwbiirg..... 




u .. 








1*4 


21 


so 


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14j.. 




4 


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1 




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113 


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1.T64 


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623 


M«b!iib.... 


» . 


1 ,. 






I'i 


1TH 


^1 


L*n 


BiM) 


18 ,. 




9 


8S& 




m&se 


10 




.... 


100 


IH 


1,420 


2IH 


S08 


I¥iirn(>eix ^,. 




1 ,. 








Tit 


tifl 


20 


IflO 


bL, 




a 


Sil 




7.164 


a 




.... 


60 


aia 


m 


I.OW 


1,265 


Oehrtnj^rn 




1 .. 








9§ 


43 


40 


so: 


«;, 




n 

s 


mi 
lao 




e2,&40 
10,SO0 


10 
T 




A^esft 

1,700 


S6 
40 


149 
9S 


47A 
654 


441 
275 


696 


Othiiarahdm 


844 


Schwi'lnfttrt.. ............. 












li 


a 


1U 


ft.> 


^1- 












1 






12 


ss 


131 




404 


Sbid*.Jeingt»ii.... 




1 








M 


as 


841 


gflii 


17.. 




^ 


ak 




1.040 


6 




.... 


m 


^ 


816 


146 


282 


fltattfart ,,., 


.. 


I .. 








1*M* 
IST 


SI 


till 
100 


2(» 
44)0 


6l.. 
15L. 




s 


21X1 

aofl 




4.»«10 


, 4 
IT 




im 


lf«J 
110 


406 
STP 


SOfl 
1,4^ 


, 1,100 
88* 


: 1.816 


ValJSw 


7T5 


W#toil»fff 


.. 


1 . .. 






T4 


n 


m 


»4« 


1S\.' 4 


? 


leti 




I^.IICHI 


' 01.. 


6,&0g 


m 


121 


8U 


1 13S 


TOT 



RECAPITULATION BY DISTRICTS. 



' lw i ffi iiil&tetytct..~ 
Berlin IHmtrleL.. ....!!.!:! 

KiHirubA iMAtHcL ........ 

Witrtflitbnrf IHstrlct , . . . . 

FnnlLfctn'ftm-MiiSi] Blat.. 



Totid,.... 
I^Pt year. 




6a, 56 


2,890 


89, 52 2.516 


8i 55 


2,601 


87 81 


2,S8a 


27 42 


1.026 


24S; 2.S6 


11,822 


287' '287 


9.400 



is; 4S\071 

15 5S9,,\'y) 

ISi 412,6j^0 

18 819.241 

S 1S2,9I3 

77,1.992,455 



a,«** ..i...,.-,^^ 845 8«1 
9.400 78! 1,794.1541 161 2S 



10 
49 
76 
152 
58 4 



96.29S 884 

268,877 1,542 

184.183 922 

76,658! 1,250 

1 18.898 635 

788,269 6,088; 

567.S18 6.183 



1.2571 
4.669 

4,550 
4,378 

2,1471 

16.996'i 
11,6671 



23,799 
16,219 
11,459 
14.882 
3,380 

69.789 
78.917 



...I 1,249 

4,814 21.183 

6.258' 16,165 

6.070, 10,888 

841 1 7,162 

16.9if8i 66.647 

26.498 40,068 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS, 



31 



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S 



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f 

.•§ 
:• & 

If 



it S S3 



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if 



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afl'mi'lipn m lAni 



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_g: 8ig;g_ .: §i* tS_iij : t : g: g iSS aaiSiSiiii: S 

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g: g: ggg ggg: gg: g: g : g: g: jgg: giggiiiiig: g 



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o 



MONTHLY MISSIONARY CONCERT, 



88 



SJant^lj ipjissionarg Conctrf. 



SUBJECTS FOR 1891. 

Iaiiuar>' Thb World. 

Icbniary China. 

March Mexico. 

April India and Burua. 

Nlay Malaysia. 

June Africa. 

July Unitbo States. 

August Italy and Bulgaria. 

September Japan and Korea. 

October Scandinavia, Germany, and 

Switzerland. 

November South America. 

December United States. 

•♦• 

COUNTRIB8 OF THE DTORLD, POP- 
ULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC. 

The figures giving the population of 
ihe principal countries of the world and 
of the colonies and territories under the 
control or protectorate of European na- 
tions are taken from the Statesman s Year- 
Book for 1890, issued in England, and are 
in most cases furnished by the officials of 
the countries represented. They are the 
most reliable obtainable, and the sum- 
mary furnishes totals much larger than 
those generally credited. 

North America. 

North America consists of the British 
Colonies of Canada, Newfoundland, and 
Honduras, of the republics of the United 
States and Mexico, and the five republics 
of Central America known as Costa Rica, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and 
Salvador. The population is estimated at 
over eighty-eight million. 

Greenland, a colony of Denmark, fias 
a population of 10,000, mostly Esquimaux. 

Canada, consisting of the provinces of 
Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, 
British Columbia, territories, and Arctic 
islands, reported by the census of April 
3, 1 88 1, a population of 4,324,810. An 
estimate for 1 889 makes the total popula- 
tion 5,000,000. In 1 88 1 the Roman 
Catholics numbered 1,791,982 ; Presby- 
terians, 676,165; Anglicans, 574,817; 
Methodists, 742,981 ; Baptists, 296,525 ; 
Lutherans, 46,350 ; Congregationalists, 
26,900. 

Newfoundland in 1884 had a pop- 
ulation of 193,623. Of these, 69,000 be- 
long to the Church of England, 75,254 
are Roman Catholics, 48,787 Methodists, 
and 1,495 Presbyterians. With Newfound- 
land is connected Labrador as a depend- 
ency, with a population of 4,211. 

The United States, exclusive of 
Alaska and the Indians, reported by the 
census of 1890 a population of 62,622,250. 
Alaska has about 50,000 inhabitants, and 
the Indian population is about 250,000. 

The names and population of the sev- 
eral States and Territories, and their rela- 
tive rank, are as follows : 



J, New York 5,i^i,9j4 

9. Pennsylvania 5^343^74 

3. IllinoU 3^11,536 

4. Ohio 3,666,719 

5. Missouri 11,677^080 

6. Massachusetts 9«)^3«|cr7 

7. Texas s^^ffSao 

8. Indiana ^^iIq^^jp 

Q.Michigan tjoSg^T^* 

xo. Iowa ] ,,^06,739 

II. Kentucky iJsSt41^ 

la. Georgia i,l34<3€6 

13. Tennessee li?^5^l7^3 

14. Wisconsin 1 ,6S3,69J 

15. Virginia 1,648,91 1 

16. North Carolina ^^t7i34^ 

17. Alabama 1,508,073 

18. New Jersey 1,441,017 

19. Kansas 1,49^.485 

ao. Minnesota 1.100,017 

91. Mississippi j ,3S4^S37 

99. California 1 ,fo4,o&a 

93. South Carolina 1,147,161 

94. Arkansas i^ i^Stl^S 

95. Louisiana i,ii6,laS 

a6. Nebraska 1 /is6,793 

37. Maryland 1,1^0,431 

28. West Virginia 7^^4H 

99. Connecticut 745«9^t 

30. Maine 66i:i^#6i 

31. Colorado 4>n,975 

39. Florida J9<^435 

33. New Hampshire 375,8^7 

34. Washington 349,516 

35. Rhode Island 345i34l 

36. Vermont .,.. 333,305 

37. South Dakota '^l^A^ 

38. Oregon 313.4130 

39. District of Columbia 339,796 

40. Utah 9c>€t498 

41. North Dakota iSit4'5 

4a. Delaware **?ii7i 

43. New Mexico 144,869 

44. Montana 111*769 

45. Idaho 14,3^79 

46. Oklahoma 61^701 

47. Wyoming ^^^^^ 

48. Arizona S9<69t 

49. Nevada 44*1^7 

We give the figures as furnished by The 
Independent, July 31. 1890, showing sta- 
tistics of Churches of the United States: 



Denominations. 


1 

X 

U 




1 
'f. J. 


ADVENTISTS. 

Evangelical Adventists 

Advent Christians 


100 
600 
943 
30 
50 
50 

'\^ 

1,613 
650 
^.250 
1,831 
75 
525 
no 

513 
270 

26 

663 
100 

1*423 
390 
X.557 
1,811 
a.730 


401 

■7 

" J^ 
40 

ai,t75 

■E 

3,600 

M17 

35 

49» 

itj 

a*i3P 

9S1 


5*«» 
^7.741 

'3,000 


Seventh Day Adventists 

Churches of God 


Life and Advent Union 

Age to Come Adventists 

BAPTISTS. 

Regular Baptists. 


5,000 
4dO«i 

3,^>70,O|7 

Mt»44 
750,000 
i»9t353 

iS,ooo 


Anti-Mission Baptists 

Free Baptists 


Other Free Baptists 

Disciples of Christ 


Christians, North 

Christians, South 


Church of God 


Seventh Day Baptists 

Dunkards, Conservative .... 

Dunkards, Old Order 

Six Principle Baptists. 

FRIENDS. 

Orthodox Friends 


33,1000 
9,000 

13,^100 

Jf450 

7».9Jo 
a3,ooo 

151*355 
3S'«5 

■64.':if 

365,6m 
»«9,7*J 


Non-affiliating Orthodox 

Hicksite Friends 


LUTHKRAN. 

General Synod 


United Synod, South 

General Council 

Svnodlcal Conference 

Independent Synods, 15 



Dknominations. 


i 

X 

u 

5 




15 


METHODISTS. 

Methodist Episcopal 

Methodist Episcopal, South. 
A frican Meth. Episcopal. . . . 
African Meth. Epis. Zion . . . 

United Brethren 

Colored Meth. Episcopal. . . 

Methodist Protestant 

(evangelical Association 

U nited Brethren, Old Con- 
fession 


22,103 

3.S00 
4,265 
2,100 
9,003 
1,958 

••& 

50 
952 

: 

300 

1 

6,727 

?^4^ 
186 
"5 

54 

5,"8 
109 

1,500 
4,689 
850 
101 
360 
732 
100 
407 
7,523 


I3,a79 
4,862 

3.«» 
3i«>o 
1.455 
1.800 
i,44« 
1,187 

623 
300 
100 
513 

112 

350 
150 
40 
90 
35 

5,936 
1,145 
1,595 
200 
753 
124 
99 
90 
32 

3.980 
120 

4,640 
665 
>M 

1,024 
685 
"3 

8.232 


400,000 
412,513 

199.709 
170,000 

147.604 
145,703 

50,58* 
28,000 
4.000 
19.998 
5.000 
5,50a 

3.500 
66,000 


American Wesleyans 

Cr*ngregational Methodists.. 
Free Methodists 


1 iidependent Methodists 

Primitive Methodists 

Union American Methodist 
Episcopal, Colored 

MENNONITBS. 

0]d Mennonites 


Amish Mennonites 


22,500 
3,000 

10,000 
1,171 

753,749 
161,7^2 
160,18s 

15,000 
101,858 

10,817 

io,6sa 
8,209 
6,800 

470.076 
10,100 


Reformed Mennonites 

New School Mennonites .... 
Klen*nite Brethren in Christ 

PRRSRYTBRIANS. 

Presbyterian, Northern 

Presbyterian, Southern 

J Yesbyterian, Cumberland. . . 
Presbyterian, " (colored). 

Presbyterian, United 

Presbyterian, Ref. (Synod).. 
Welsh Calvinistic 


Ass. Ref. Synod, South 

Reformed (General Synod) . . 

EPISCOPALIANS. 

Protestant Episcopal 

Reformed Episcopal 

REFORMED. 

Reformed ((ierman) 

Reformed (Dutch) 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Christian Union Churches.. 
Cnng^regationalists 


z 20,000 

491,985 

160,000 

11.358 

8,771 

42.952 

6,000 


German Evangelical .... 

Moravians 


Solvation Army 




New Jerusalem 


t: Tiitarians 




Roman Catholics 


8,277,039 



General Si'Mmary. 



Ailventists 

1 V^ptistts 

Christian Union 

Congregationalists 

Friends 

Gt::rman Evangelical Church 

1 eiitherans 

Mennonites 

Methodists 

\[oravians 

hi cw Jerusalem 

Presbyterians 

Episcopalians 

Reformed 

R oman Catholics 

Salvation Army 

Unitarians 

Universalists. 



Grand total 151,261 103,303 21,757,171 



1,773 


76s 


48,371 


32,343 


4,689 


4,640 


763 


1,017 


850 


665 


7,911 


4,612 


563 


665 


54,711 


31,765 


lot 


114 


100 


113 


13.619 


9.974 


5,227 


4,100 


3.081 


1,379 


7.5*3 


8.332 


360 


1,024 


407 


510 


732 


685 



58,742 
4,392,291 

iao,ooo 

491.985 

106,930 

160,000 

1,086,048 

103,671 

4,980,240 

",358 

6,000 

1,329,013 

480,176 

382,856 

♦8,277,039 

8,77« 

30,000 

4«.952 



* Catholic population. 

Since the above was issued the following changes in 
At.itistics have been reported : 

African Methodist Episcopal, 4,1^0 churches, 3,160 
nuinisters. 410,000 communicants ; Methodist Episco- 
p^il. South, 10.961 ministers, 1,166.019 communicants; 
Protestant Episcopal. 488,229 communicants ; Presby- 
Eerian, North, 6,894 churches, 6,158 ministers. 77SJ903 
Ciimmunicants; Presbyterian, South, 2,400 churches, 
1,179 ministers, 168,791 communicants. 

Their relative strength is as follows : 





Min. 


C0m, 


I. Roman Catholics 


8,332 


4,676,294 


3. Regular Baptists* 


81,175 


3,070^7 


3. Methodist Episcopal. . . . 


13.279 


2,236,463 


4. Meth. Episcopal, South. 


4,862 


1,161,666 


5. Presbyterian (Northern) 


5.936 


753.749 


6. Disciples of Christ 


3,600 


750,000 


7. Congregationalists. 


4,640 


491,985 


8. Protestant Episcopal.... 


3,980 


470,076 


9. Afriran M. F.. Zion 


3.™» 


412.513 



♦ Really three denominations. 



84 



COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, POPULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC. 



Mim* Ccm, 

siL ATricmn M. E.... ,,..... ^,osq ^ecsoDo 
II. Luth. Synodkal Conf , , . i,^< 3^5*^^ 

1 y United rethrcn i ^435 199^709 

i4« Rfiformtid (Germaii). c ^ iij igr4,o44 

t;. Colored MctK, Ei>{sco|tal i^Soa 170^00^ 

i€. Prcsbytermn (Soutb'n), i,i45 1^1*74* 

17, ** Cumberland, %^^% ifo,Tis 

iS. German Evangelical..,. 663 i6&,j(»o 

iQ. Luttieran Gen^ Kynod... 951 1^1,365 

CO. MethodUi Protect am... 1,441 t47«^ 

a I. Evangelkal AModmloti t,iS; i45,7&3 

I, MethodUt^.. ..,.,. 3r,7<^§ 4t9&!3,34a 

ff. Roman CalhoUra *.<,.«. . ^xjs^ ^^K^^ 

J. Bapiitti...^.,,.^....,... jt'«343 4t3Q3,^t 

4p Presbytenans 9,974 i.ss^^qvt 

5, Luthennn ..,-- 4,612 ivodShCHS 

6, CongregationaJuui. 4,640 491 ,985 

7, Epuccrpalians..,., ,..,,.. 4,100 4iiM76 

Mexico had in 1888 an esiimated pop- 
ulatioii of 11,490,830. Of ihe total pop- 
ulation 19 per cent* are of the pyre while 
race, 43 per cent, mixetl race, and 38 per 
cent- Indian race. The prevailing^ re* 
ligion is the Roman Catholic, 

Costa RtCA had, December 31, 1888, 
an estimated population of 305,730, chieRy 
Roman Catholics, 

Guatemala had, on January i, 1889, 
a population of 1,427,116, About 60 per 
cent, are pure Indians j most of the re- 
mainder are half-caste, there being but 
few descendants of Europeans. The 
Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion. 

Honduras had a population In 1889 
01431,917. Most of the inhabitants are 
Indians. The people are Roman Cath- 
ohcs, British Honduras has a populaiion 
of 37.452. 

Nicaragua has an esttmated popula- 
tion of 400,000, consisting chiefly of abo- 
riginal Indians, mulattoes, Negroes, and 
mixed races, 

Salvador had a population in 188S of 
664,513, Aboriginal and mixed races 
constitute the bulk of the population, 
among whom live about 10,000 whites or 
descendants of Europeans. The people 
are Roman Catholics. 

West Indies comprises the Island of 
Hayti with its two republics of Hayli and 
San Domingo, and a large number of 
other islands belonging 10 Great Britain, 
Denmark, France, Spain, and the Neth- 
erlands, with a population of 5,541,59a. 

The colonies of Great Britain are the 
Bahamas^ Barbadoes, Jamaica, Turk*s 
Island, Windward Islands, Leeward Isl- 
ands, Trinidad, and Tobago, with a pop- 
ulation in 1 88 1 of 1,213,144. 

The colonies of Denmark arc the islands 
of St, Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John, 
with a population in iSSo of 42,599, 

*We «tiiiiat« Ihe number of Catholii: comniunicants 
on th« bafiu. of 3,177^039 Catholic population, uiinjE ibe 
ralia wbich LulhcFUi ftatlftici^ bas ditabluhed be- 
twe«ii fiotik Mitd communicaiits in the Synodkal Con^ 
ference, noaielyt 1-77* 



The colonies of France are the islands 
of Guadeloupe and Martinique, with a 
population in 1887 of 357,573. 

The colonies of the Netherlands consist 
of the islands of Cura^oa, Bonaire, Aruba, 
St. Martin, St. Eustache, and Saba, with 
a population of 45.954. 

The colonies of Spain are Cuba, with a 
population of 1,521,684, and Porto Rico, 
with a population of 784,709. 

The island of Hayti contains two repub- 
lics. The republic of Hay ti had an esti- 
timated population in 18S7 of 960,000, and 
the republic of Santo Domingo a [x>puia- 
tion in 188S estimated at 610,000, 

Religions. 

Heathen, with a rude belief in the spirit 
world and the power of spirits over the 
living, may best represent the religious 
character of the scattered Esquimaux and 
Alaskans of the North, and some of the 
Indians living in western Canada, on res- 
ervations in the United Slates, among the 
mountains of Mexico, and in Central 
America, comprising, perhaps, 4,000,000 
people. 

Protestantism is the religious faith of 
three fifths of the people of the Canada 
Dominion and five sistths of the people of 
ihe United States, its adherents number- 
ing at least 60,000,000 people, 

Roman Catholicism is believed in by a 
^^rge part of the population of Mexico. 
Central America, and the West Indies, 
also by one sixth of the people of the 
United Slates and two fifths of the people 
of Canada, and probably numbers among 
its adherents 22,000,000 people, 

Protestant Missions, 

In l^reenland and Labrador, among the 
Esquimaux, are missions of the Moravians 
ofGrcat Britain and Europe. 

In Alaska are missionaries representing 
the Presbyterians, Moravians, Friends, 
Episcopalians, and the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church of the United States. 

In Canada, among the Indians and Es- 
quimaux of the north and west, are mis- 
sions of the Methodists, Presbyterians, and 
Baptists of Canada, and of the Church 
Missionary Society of England. 

In the United States, among the Indians 
of the West, among the poor freedmen 
of the South, and among the foreigners 
who have not yet learned to speak our lan- 
guage, are laboring missionaries from all 
the leading Protestant Churches, 

In Mexico the Friends, Presbyterians, 
Methodists, Baptists, and Congregation- 
al i sis, of the United States, are support- 
ing missionaries who are endeavoring to 
lead the people away from the superstitions 1 
of the Roman Catholics to faith in Jesus, 

In the republics of Central America are 
no Protestant missionaries, except a small 



mission of the Presl^^terian Church of the 
United States in Nicaragfua, 

In the West Indies are missions con- 
ducted chiefly by the missionary societies 
of Great Britain. There are small mis- 
sions of the Methodist Church of Canada. 
African Methodist Church, the Southern 
Baptist Con vent ion» and the Protestant 
Episcopal Church* 

South AmeHpn. 

South America embraces the three col- 
onies of British, Dutch, and French Gui- 
ana^ and the republics of Argentine, Bolivia^ 
Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Ecuador, Para- 
guay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, with a 
population of 35,142,000. 

Argentine Repltblic had a popula- 
tion in 18S7 of 4,046,654. The Constitu- 
tion recognizes the Roman Catholic religion 
as that of the state, but all other creeds 
are tolerated. 

Bolivia has an estimated population 
of 2,300,000. The aboriginal or Indian 
population is estimated at 1,100,000; the 
mestiisoes or mixed population, 600,000; 
and the whites at 600,000, The Roman 
Catholic is the recognized religion of the 
state, and the public exercise of any other 
form is not permitted. 

Brazil had a population in i8S8 of 
14,002,335. The Roman Catholic religion 
is supported, but alt other forms of relig- 
ion are tolerated. 

Chili had on January i, 1890, an es- 
timated population of 3,115,815. The 
Roman Catholic is the religion of the 
state, but the constitution protects all 
religions. 

Colombia reported in i88r a popula-^ 
tion of 3,878,600. Probably it has now 
4,000,000. The Roman Catholic is the 
state religion, and other forms of religion 
are permitted, "so long as their exercise 
is not contrary to Christian morals and 
the law,*' 

Ecuador had in 1885 a population of 
1,004,651. There is, besides, an unknown 
number of uncivilized Indians. The re- 
ligion is Roman Catholic to the exclusion 
of every other. 

Guiana has a population of 356,000. 
The three colonies are reported as fol- 
lows : British Guiana includes the settle- 
ments and provinces of Demerara, Esse- 
qui bo, and Bern ice, and had a population 
in 1889 of 278,477. largely Protestant, 
Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, had at the 
end of 1887 a population of 57.141, of 
whom 1 5,6 1 5 belonged to the Reformed 
and Lutheran Churches; 13,646 Mora- 
vians ; 8,938 Roman Catholics ; 1,409 
Jews ; 1 ,629 Mohammedans ; 4.731 Hin- 
dus ; 114 Buddhists. French Guiana, or 
Cayenne, reports 20,500 inhabitants. The 
majority arc Roman Catholics, The col* 



COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, POPULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC, 



35 



ony is used largely by France for crimi- 
nals, the convicts in and out of prison 
numbering 3,500. 

Paraguay had in 1887 a population 
of 329,645, besides 60,000 semi-civilized 
and 70,000 uncivilized Indians. The 
Roman Catholic is the state religion, and 
all other religions are permitted. 

Peru had at its last census, taken in 
1876, a population of 2,621,844. There 
are also 350,000 uncivilized Indians. The 
constitution prohibits the public exercise 
of any other than the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion. 

Uruguay had in 1887 an estimated 
population of 651,112. The Roman 
Catholic is the state religion, but there is 
complete toleration. 

Venezuela, in 1888, had a popula- 
tion of 2,234,385, with a native Indian 
population of 326,000. The Roman Cath- 
olic is the state religion, but there i£ tol- 
eration of all others, though they are not 
permitted any external manifestation. 

Religion. 
In the central portions of the continent 
and in the extreme south are, perhaps, 
4,000,000 heathen Indians whose religious 
belief is a mixture of the old Aztec faith 
and the superstitions of Roman Catholi- 
cism. Two millions may be considered- 
Protestants in name or in sympathy, 
found chiefly in the large cities that skirt 
the continent. The remaining 29,000,000 
are adherents of Roman Catholicism. 

Protestant Missions. 

The South American Missionary So- 
ciety, with its head-quarters in London, 
furnishes missionaries that are chiefly 
chaplains for the seamen and the Euro- 
pean residents in some of the cities, and 
is doing a little work among the natives. 

The Presbyterians of the United States 
have missions in Brazil, Colombia, and 
Chili. 

The Baptists, the Protestant Episcopa- 
lians, and the Southern Methodists of the 
United States have missions in Brazil. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has 
missions in Argentme Republic, Para- 
guay, Uruguay, Brazil, Chili, and Bolivia. 

These missions are important factors 
in elevating the moral character of the 
people and releasing them from the de- 
basing superstitions and practices of their 
religious faith. 

Eorope. 

Europe has a population of 349,5 14,000. 

The British Empire consists of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, India, the colonies, protectorates, 
and dependencies. Great Britain and 
Ireland at the census of 188 1 had a pop- 
ulation of 35,262,762. 



In the theory of English law every 
Englishman is a member of the Church 
of England, but it is estimated that the 
population of England and Wales actually 
claiming membership with the Established 
Church is about 13,500,000, leaving about 
12,500,000 to other creeds. 

There are many Protestant dissentient 
religious bodies, the most prominent 
being Methodists of various sects, the In- 
dependents or Congregationalists, the 
Baptists, and the English Presbyterians. 
The Methodist body in all its branches 
possesses about 760,000 members, the 
Congregationalists 360,000 members, the 
Baptists 300,000 members. 

The number of Roman Catholics in 
England and Wales was estimated in 
1887 at 1,354,000. 

In Scotland the established Church is 
Presbyterian, vviih a membership in 1888 
of 581,568. The Free Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland reports 333. 100 members ; the 
United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, 
182,963. The Episcopal Church in Scot- 
land claims the adherence of about 80,- 
000 of the population. The Roman 
Catholics of Scotland are estimated at 
326,000. 

In Ireland, by the census of 1881, the 
Roman Catholic population was returned 
at 3,960,891 ; the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Ireland, 620,000 members ; the 
Presbyterians, 470,734 ; the Methodists, 
48,839; Independents, 6,210; Baptists, 
4»879 J Quakers, 3,645 ; Jews, 472. 

Andorra, a republic between France 
and Spain, and under the joint suzerainty 
of France and the Spanish Bishop of 
Urgel, has an area of 175 square miles 
and a population of about 6,000. The 
inhabitants are Roman Catholics. 

Austria-Hungary had a population 
December 31, 1888, of 40,464,808. The 
great majority of the people are Roman 
Catholics. There are probably 3,200,000 
Protestants in Hungary. 

Belgium had a population in 1888 of 
6,030,043. The Roman Catholic religion 
is professed by nearly the entire popula- 
tion. Probably there are 1 5,000 Protest- 
ants. 

Bulgaria, including Eastern Rou- 
melia, has a population of 3,154,375. Of 
these, 2,432,154 belong to the Orthodox 
Greek Church, 668,173 are Mohamme- 
dans, 18,539 Roman Catholics, 24,352 
Jews. 

Denmark had in 1886 an estimated 
population of 2,108,000. The established 
religion is Lutheran. 

France had on May 30, 1886, a pop- 
ulation of 38.218,903. About 80 per cent, 
are Roman Catholics and about 700,000 
Protestants. 



Germany had a population December 
I, 1885, of 46,855,704; estimated in 1888 
at 48,020,000. In 1885 the Protestants 
numbered 29,369,847 ; the Roman Cath- 
olics, 16,788,979; the Jews, 563,172. 

Greece had a population in 1889 of 
2,187,208. The great majority of the peo- 
ple are adherents of the Greek Orthodox 
Church. 

Italy had in 1888 an estimated pop- 
ulation of 30,565,253. The Roman Cath- 
olic is nominally the ruling state religion 
of Italy. 

Monaco is a small principality between 
France and Italy, with a population in 
1888 of 13,304, chiefly Roman Catholics. 

Montenegro has a population of 
236,000. Of these, 222,000 are adherents 
of the Greek Church, 10,000 are Moham- 
medans, and 4,000 are Roman Catholics. 

Netherlands had a population De- 
cember 31, 1888, estimated at 4.505.932. 
The royal family and a majority of the in- 
habitants belong to the Reformed Church, 
which is Presbyterian in government. 

Norway had at the last census, taken 
December 31, 1875, a population of 
1,806,900. The evangelical Lutheran is 
the religion of the state. 

Portugal had in 1881 a population 
of 4,708,178. The Roman Catholic faith 
is the state religion. 

Roumania had in 1887 an estimated 
population of 5.500,000. Of these, 4.529.- 
000 belong to the Greek Church, 114,200 
are Roman Catholics, 13.800 Protestants, 
8,000 Armenians, 400,000 Jews, 2,000 
Mohammedans. 

Russia in Europe had in 1887 a pop- 
ulation of 95,870,810. The established 
religion is the Graeco- Russian, officially 
called the Orthodox Catholic Faith. Over 
two thirds of the people are adherents of 
the Greek Church, and there are over 
8,000,000 Roman Catholics, 3,000,000 
Protestants, 3,000,000 Jews, 2,600,000 Mo- 
hammedans. 

Servia had in 1888 a population of 
2,013,691. The census of 1884 gave to 
the Greek Orthodox 1,874,174 adherents; 
Roman Catholics, 8,092 ; Protestants, 
741 ; Jews, 4,160 ; Mohammedans, 14,- 
569. 

Spain had in 1887 a population of 
17,550,246. The Roman Catholic is the 
established Church, and nearly all the 
people are adherents. In 1887 there were 
reported 6,654 Protestants and 402 Jews. 

Sweden on December 31, 1888, had a 
population of 3,748,257. The mass of the 
population adhere to the Lutheran Prot- 
estant Church, which is recognized as 
the state religion. 

Switzerland had on December i, 
1888, a population of 2,917,819, divided as 



36 



COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, POPULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC, 



to religions into 1,724,257 Protestants, 
1,190,008 Roman Catholics, and 8,386 
Jews. 

Turkey has in Europe (not including 
Bulgaria) a population of 4,790,000. 
About one half of the people are Moham- 
medans. The others are Armenians, ad- 
herents of the Greek and Roman Cath- 
olic Churches, etc. 

Rellfirlons. 

The Roman Catholic religion still 
dominates a larger number of people in 
Europe (at least 165,000,000) than any 
other faith ; but its binding power is 
"weakening, and its claims are being chal- 
lenged as never before. 

Protestantism, with 90,000,000 adher- 
ents, is making steady progress, fettered 
to some extent by the rationalism of 
Germany and the control of the state. 
The Protestants of England and Scotland 
are liberal in gifts of men and women and 
money that the world may be brought to 
Christ. 

The Greek Church in eastern Europe 
is growing under the severe rulings of its 
professed head, which give religious liberty 
only to those who believe in its faith and 
conform to its worship. 

Mohammedanism still holds its little 
corner, protected by the jealousy of its 
Christian neighbors, and modifying its 
decrees at their command. 

The Austrian Director of Statistics, 
Dr. Brachelli, estimated in 1883 that in 
Europe there were 156,000,000 Roman 
Catholics, 81,000,000 members of Oriental 
Churches, 79,000,000 Protestants, 5,000,- 
000 Jews, 6,000,000 Moslems. 

The 5,000,000 Jews in Europe are dis- 
tributed as follows : 

Austria-Hungary 1,646,000 

Belgium 4,000 

Bulgaria 24,000 

Denmark. 4t500 

France 54.ooo 

Germany 564,000 

Greece 6,000 

Great Britain and Ireland 80,000 

Gibraltar 2,000 

Italy 38,000 

Netheriands 82,000 

Portugal 1,000 

Roumania 400,000 

Russia 3,000,000 

Servia 5fO«> 

Spain 500 

Sweden 3.000 

Switzerland 9,000 

Turkey 77.ooo 

Protestant Missions. 
The Greek Church is being reached 
and affected to some degree by the mis- 
sions in Bulgaria of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church and the American Board. 



Missions among the Roman Catholics 
of Italy, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portu- 
gal, France, and Belgium are conducted 
by missionaries from Great Britain and 
the United States. 

Even the Lutherans of Scandinavia and 
the Protestants of Germany and Switzer- 
land receive missionaries and missionary 
money from Great Britain and the United 
States to help on Protestant evangeliza- 
tion. 

The Mohammedans have some mis- 
sions among them conducted by the 
American Board. 

The Jews are not forgotten, but in all 
the larger cities where they can be 
reached missions for them are being 
conducted by missionaries sent from or 
supported by the Protestants of Great 
Britain. 

Asia. 

Asia embraces about one third of the 
whole of the dry land of the earth, and 
over one half of its population (846,775,- 
000). There are but six independent 
countries, over one half of the territory 
and nearly one half of the people being 
under the control of European nations. 
The independent countries are Afghanis- 
tan, China, Japan, Korea. Persia, Siam. 

Afghanistan has a population of 
about 4,000,000. In religion they are 
Mohammedans. 

China has a population of 404,180,000. 
The following shows the population of 
the different divisions : 

China proper 383,000,000 

Manchuria ^ 12,000,000 

Mongolia 2,000,000 

Thibet 6,000,000 

Jungaria 600,000 

East Turkestan 580,000 

The total number of foreigners resident 
in the open ports of China was 8,269 at 
the end of 1888, about one half of the 
total number residing at Shanghai. 

Three religions are acknowledged by 
the Chinese as indigenous or adopted, 
namely, Confucianism, Buddhism, and 
Taoism. Large numbers profess and 
practice all three religions. There are 
probably 30,000,000 Mohammedans. 

Japan reported in 1888 a population 
of 39,069,007. The chief forms of relig- 
ion are Shintoism and Buddhism. 

Korea has a population of 10,528,937. 
As in China, Confucianism, Buddhism, 
and Taoism are the religions generally 
believed in. 

Persia had a population in 1881 of 
7,653,600. Nearly all the people are 
Mohammedans. There are also 8,500 
Parsis. 19,000 Jews, 43,000 Armenians, 
and 23,000 Nestorians. 

Siam has a population of 6.000,000. 



Of these, 2,000,000 are Siamese, 1,000.000 
Chinese, 2,000,000 Laotians, 1,000.000 
Malays. The prevailing religion is Bud- 
dhism. 

THE BRITISH 
control countries in Asia comprising a 
population of about 285,000,000. The 
countries and islands are as follows : 

Aden, a peninsula on the Arabian 
coast, and Perim, a small island at the 
entrance to the Red Sea ; population, 
34,711 Mohammedans. 

Bahrein Islands in the Persian 
Gulf; population, about 20.000 Moham- 
medans. 

Ceylon has a population of about 
2,900,000. The census of 1881 returned 
the principal religious creeds, as follows : 

Buddhists 1,698,070 

Hindus 493.630 

Mohammedans 197,775 

Christians 147,977 

Cyprus, in the Mediterranean Sea, 
had a population in 1881 of 186,173, dis- 
tributed religiously as follows : 

Greek Church 137.631 

Mohammedans 45,458 

Others 3.084 

Hong Kong, at the mouth of the Can- 
ton River, is an island with an area of 
twenty-nine square miles. Connected 
with it is the peninsula of Kowloon, 
forming part of the main-land of China, 
but belonging to Hong Kong. The es- 
timated population, December 31, 1888, 
was 215,800. 

India and its dependencies had an es- 
timated population in 1888 of 269,477,728 
(British territory. 208,793.350, and native 
states. 60,684,378). The most prevalent 
religion in India is that of the Hindus, 
their number being three fourths of the 
total population. The Mohammedans 
number about 50,000,000. In Burma 
most of the people are Buddhists. 

Beloochistan is in part under British 
administration, and the rest of the coun« 
try is feudatory to India. It has a popu- 
lation of between 500,000 and 1,000,000 
Mohammedans. 

Si K KIM is another feudatory state in 
the Himalayas not embraced in India, 
and has a population of 8,000. The re- 
ligion is Buddhist. 

The Andaman, Nicobar, and Lac- 
CADiVE Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, 
have a population, of about 30,000, most 
of whom are Mohammedans. 

Labuan Island had in 1888 a popu- 
lation of 6,298, mostly Malays. 

North Borneo, Brunei, and Sar- 
awak, all in Borneo, have a population 
subject to Great Britain of 475.000, chief- 
ly Mohammedans. 



COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, POPULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC. 



37 



Nepaul, between Thibet and India, is 
nearly independent, but under some con- 
trol of India, with a population of 2,000,- 
000. Hinduism and Buddhism prevail. 

The Straits Settlements, compris- 
ing the islands of Singapore and Penang, 
and the peninsula of Malacca, have an 
estimated population of 900,000. About 
one half are Malays and one fourth 
Chinese. The others are natives of In- 
dia and Europeans. 

FRANCE 
controls in Asia a population of about 
18,000,000. 

In India are five separate towns, the 
chief of which is Pondicherry, which, with 
territory connected with them embracing 
200 square miles, have a population of 
282,723. 

Annam, since February 23, 1886, under 
a French protectorate, has a population of 
about $,000,000. There are about 420,000 
Roman Catholics. The rest of the people 
are Buddhists. 

Cambodia, under a French protecto- 
torate since 1863, has a population of 
1,800,000. 

Cochin China, since 1887 under 
French control, has a population of 
1 ,858,807. The Buddhists number i ,688,- 
270, and the Roman Catholics 5,800. 

TONQUIN, annexed to France in 1884. 
has a population estimated at 9,000,000. 
There are 400,000 Roman Catholics. 

RUSSIA has in Asia a population of 
17,483.839. Of this number Siberia is 
credited with 4.493,667; Turkestan, 3,282,- 
446. In addition to this the State of Bok- 
hara, with a population of 2,500,000, and 
the State of Khiva, with a population of 
700,000, are under the suzerainty of Rus- 
sia. A portion of the people in Siberia 
are adherents of the Greek Church. Most 
of the others in Russia in Asia are either 
heathen or Mohammedans. The people 
in Bokhara and Khiva are Mohamme- 
dans. 

THE NETHERLANDS in their col- 
onies in Asia, constituting what is known 
as Dutch East Indies, have a population of 
28,906,172. They comprise the islands of 
Java, Madura, Sumatra, Celebes, Rian- 
Lingga Archipelago. Banca, Billiton, 
Molucca. Bali, and Lombok, and parts of 
the islands of Borneo and New Guinea, 
and of the Timor Archipelago, embracing 
a territory altogether of 719,674 square 
miles. Most of the inhabitants are Mo- 
hammedans. 

PORTUGAL has in Asia a population 
of 847,503 under its control, as follows : 

In India : 

Goa 419.993 

Damao, I)iu, etc 6i,474 

Indian Archipelago (Timor, etc.) 3oo,(XX) 



In China: 

Macao, etc 66,036 

SPAIN has in Asia colonies with a pop- 
ulation of 7,619,665, as follows: 

Philippine Islands 7,500,000 

Tulu Islands 75,ooo 

Caroline Islands and Palaos. . 36,000 

Marianne Islands 8,665 

In the Philippine Islands are a large 
number of Chinese, but the native inhab- 
itants are mostly of the Malayan race and 
in religion Mohammedans. 

TURKEY has in Asia in Syria, Pales- 
tine, Asia Minor, and Arabia a population 
of 16,133,900. Of these about 12,000,000 
are Mohammedans and 4,000,000 are 
called Christians, belonging to the Arme- 
nian, Nestorian, and Maronite faiths. 

Summary of population of Asia : 

Afghanistan 4,000,000 

China 404, 180,000 

Japan 39,069,007 

Korea 10,528,937 

Persia 7,653,600 

Siam 6,000.000 

British control 285,000.000 

French control 18,000,000 

Dutch control 28,906, 1 72 

Russian control 19,683,839 

Spanish control 7,619,665 

Turkish control 16,133,900 

Total 846,775, 120 

Religions. 

Mohammedanism is very strong in Asia, 
controlling the inhabitants of Afghanistan 
and Persia, over 50,000,000 in India, 
30,000,000 in China, the large majority in 
Turkey, and in the large islands of Java, 
Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes, New Guinea, 
and the Philippines a total of 151,000,000. 

The Buddhists of China, Siam, Burma, 
Ceylon, India, Korea, and Japan, the 
Shintoists of Japan, the Hindus of India, 
the Taoists and Confucianists of China 
form the princip.1l part of that vast num- 
ber of 680,000.000 of heathen that find 
their homes in Asia, a multitude so great 
and a heathenism so dense that only a 
faith born of God can expect that it will 
ever yield to the preaching of the cross. 

Protestant Missions. 

More than one half of the population of 
the earth are in Asia waiting for the Gos- 
pel. They know not how much they need 
it. We know it. They are not calling 
for us. We are not told to wait until 
they call. Their need and our knowledge 
constitute God's call. 

The Protestant Churches of Great Brit- 
ain and the United States have missions 
in most of the countries of Asia. We are 
debarred from Thibet not by the govern- 
ment of China, but by the bitter oppo- 



sition of the Buddhists, who will destroy 
life if necessary to prevent the admission 
of Protestant missionaries. Siberia is- 
closed by the command of the Czar of 
Russia, who declares that the Holy Ortho- 
dox Greek Church is good enough for his 
people. The Presbyterian Church of the 
United States is alone in its work among 
the Nestorians of Persia, while the Amer- 
ican Board is laboring successfully among 
the Armenians of Turkey. India, China, 
and Japan are fruitful fields of missionary 

labor. 

Africa. 

Africa is in a transition state, nearly all 
of the country bordermg on the ocean and 
seas, and considerable of the country in- 
land being under the control of European 
countries. 

The independent nations are Morocco, 
with a population of 500,000 ; the Repub- 
lic of Liberia, with a population of 1,068,- 
000 ; Orange Free State republic, with a 
population in 1880 ot 72,000 natives and 
61,000 whites; South African republic, 
also known as the Transvaal, with a white 
population of 110,000 and a native pop- 
ulation of 500,000. 

Egypt, with a population of 7,000,000, 
and Tripoli, with a population 1,000,000, 
are claimed by Turkey. 

France controls Algeria, with its 3.910,- 
399 inhabitants ; Senegal, Gaboon, and 
territory bordering on the Congo, with a 
population of 900,000 ; and has established 
a protectorate over Tunis, population 
1,500,000; Madagascar, 1,500,000, and 
Dahomey. 

Germany controls large territories known 
as German South-west Africa, German 
East Africa, and German West Africa. 

Italy controls country along the Red 
Sea, and has established a protectorate 
over Abyssinia and Shoa. 

Spain claims in West Africa a stretch 
of 500 miles of sea-coast extending be- 
tween Capes Bojador and Blanco. 

Belgium directs the interests of the 
Congo Free State, with its 27,000,000 of 
people. 

England has extended a protectorate 
over Zanzibar and Uganda, and controls 
Basutaland, Bechualand, British Zambe- 
sia. Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Nyassa- 
land, Gold Coast, Lagos. Gambia, Sierra 
Leone, Zululand, Somaliland, Niger Dis- 
trict, and British East Africa. 

The Missionary Review for December, 
1890, says that "Africa is about three 
times the area of Europe, or 12,000,000 
square miles, and some writers estimate it 
to contain about an equal population— 
325,000.000 souls." Others give the pop- 
ulation at 300,000,000. We have no rea- 
son to believe it contains much over 200,- 
000,000. 



58 



COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, POPULATION, RELIGIONS, ETC, 



Religions. 

The Mohammedan religion controls at 
least 26,000,000 of people in North and 
North-east Africa, and is steadily increas- 
ing its followers. 

There are perhaps 170,000,000 heathen. 
Some of these hold to a mixture of Mo- 
hammedanism and Judaism. Many are 
degraded worshipers of fetishes. 

In Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia are 
adherents of a faith called Christian, which 
has enough of truth to prevent its follow- 
ers falling into the barbarities of heathen- 
ism, but not enough to produce a pure 
life. 

In South Africa are large settlements 
of Europeans, who have carried the Gos- 
pel with them, and have done something 
for the heathen in their vicinity. 

Protestant Missions. 
Africa has been skirted by Protestant 
missions, but little has been accomplished 
in the interior, and the many millions have 
been almost untouched. When William 
Taylor was made Bishop of Africa a new 
hope sprang up in the Christian Church. 
He has succeeded in laying the foundations 
of what he believes will be successful mis- 
sions for the evangelization of Central 
and West Central Africa. The American 
Board and the Baptist, Presbyterian, Meth- 
odist, and Lutheran Churches of the 
United States, and the Baptists, Wesley- 
ans, and Anglicans of England, have 
missions in West Africa ; the United Pres- 
byterians of America, in Egypt ; the Pres- 
byterians, Methodists, and Anglicans of 
England, in East Africa. The outlook 
begins to be encouraging. Much was 
hoped from the freedmen of the United 
States, but they have shown but little in- 
terest in the evangelization of their father- 

land. 

Australia^ etc. 

Australia, with its British colonies of 
New South Wales, Queensland, South 
Australia, Victoria, and Western Aus- 
tralia, has a population of 3.942,101. Of 
these about 750,000 are Roman Catholics 
and 2,500,000 are Protestants. 

New Zealand has a population of 
620,451, and Tasmania, 151,470. About 
1 00,000 a re Roman Catholics and 600,000 
Protestants. 

Summaries. 

According to Behm and Wagner the 
population of the world in 1880 was as 
follows : 

Europe 327,500,000 

Asia 795»59i.ooo 

Africa 205.823,200 

Australia 4,232,000 

America 100,415,400 

Polar regions 82, 500 

Total 1,433.644,100 



These were divided as follows : 

Protestants 135,000,000 

Roman Catholics 195,000,000 

Eastern Church 85,000,000 

Mohammedans 175.000,000 

Jews 8.000,000 

Pagans 835.000,000 

Total 1,433,000,000 

Recently the sixty-fourth edition of 
Lehrbuch der Geographie, edited by Dr. 
Volz, was issued in Germany. Many 
claim that this is the most accurate gen- 
eral statistical work published. It esti- 
mates the total number of inhabitants 
on the globe at 1,435,000,000, but it 
gives the number of Mohammedans as 
120,000,000; Protestants, 123,000,000; 
and the Roman Catholics, 208,000,000. 

Dr. George Smith, in his Short History 
of Christian Missions, published in Ed- 
inburgh, estimated that in the year 1886 
there were : 

Protestants. 165,000,000 

Greek and Eastern Chris- 
tians 90,000,CXX> 

Roman Catholics 195.000,000 

Jews 8,000.000 

Mohammedans 172,000,000 

Pagans and heathen 820,000,000 

Total 1,450,000,000 

Dr. Smith gives the population of 
Europe at 350,000,000; China, 250,000,- 
000; Africa, 300,000,000. He also says : 
"The whole race grows in number 75,- 
000,000 every ten years, and at the be- 
ginning of 1 891 the race will be about 
1,500,000,000 strong." 

Our estimates give the population of 
the world as follows : 

North America 88,000,000 

South America 35,000,000 

Europe 349,000,000 

Asia 846,000,000 

Africa 205,000.000 

Australia 4,000,000 

Total 1,527,000,000 

If the estimate of Behm and Wagner, 
made in 1880, was approximately correct, 
it will be seen that America has increased 
23,000,000; Europe, 22,000,000; Asia, 
51,000,000. The increase of America is 
not surprising. Russia in Europe reported 
in 1880 a population of 83,000,000, and 
now 95,000,000, so that in Europe in one 
nation there is an increase of 12,000,000, 
and the other 10,000,000 can easily be ac- 
counted for. In Asia, in 1880, China was 
credited with 380,000,000, now with 404,- 
000,000; India and Burma with 256,000,- 
000, now with 269,000,000 ; Japan with 
36,000,000, now with 39,000,000 ; these 
three countries giving us an increase of 
40,000,000, and the other 11,000,000 to be 
distributed over the other nations. If we 
were to give Africa the 300,000.000 claimed 
by some we would have a population in 



the worid of over 1,620,000,000. The 
Statesman s Year-Book gives the esti- 
mated population of the Congo Free State 
as 27,000,000, while the Missionary Re- 
view calls the number 40,000,000. Until 
some reliable data shall be furnished we 
will keep our estimate for Africa at 205,- 
000,000, not knowing but what even that 
is 20,000,000 beyond the true figure ; for 
the almost constant warfare in Central 
Africa must not only prevent the natural 
increase, but even decrease the popula- 
tion. 

North America is divided religiously: 

Protestants 61,000,000 

Roman Catholics 22,000,000 

] leathen 4,000,000 

Jews 1,000,000 

Total 88,000,000 

South America is divided religiously: 

Roman Catholics 29,000,000 

Protestants 2.000,000 

Heathen 4,000,000 

Total 35,000,000 

Europe is divided religiously : 

Roman Catholics 164,000,000 

Protestants 90,000,000 

Greek Church 85,000,000 

Mohammedans 5,000,000 

Jews 5,000,000 

Total 349,000,000 

Asia is divided religiously : 

Heathen 680,000,000 

Mohammedan 151,090,000 

Greek Church 6,000,000 

Armenians and Nestorians. . 4,000,000 

Jews 1,000,000 

Protestants 2,ooo,ooo 

Roman Catholics 2,000,000 

Total 846,000,000 

Africa is divided religiously : 

Heathen 170,000,000 

Mohammedans 26,000,000 

Copts and Abyssinians 4,000,000 

Protestants 3,000,000 

Roman Catholics 1 000,000 

Jews 1,000,000 

Total 205,000,000 

Australia is divided religiously : 

Protestants 3,000,000 

Roman Catholics 1,000,000 

Total 4,000,000 

The world is divided religiously : 

Protestants 161,000,000 

Roman Catholics 219,000,000 

Eastern Churches 99,000,000 

Jews 8,000,000 

Mohammedans 182,000,000 

Heathen 858,000,000 

Total 1,527,000,000 

If the estimate of Behm and Wagner 
in 1880 was correct, Protestants have in 
creased 26,000,000; Roman Catholicji 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES, 



24,ooo,oc»; htathen, 25,ooo,ocx>; Mo- 
hammedans, 7,000,000; Eastern Churches* 
including the Greek. Armenian, Neslorian, 
Copt, and Abyssinian, 14.000,000. The 
Jews maintain ihe same number, the nat- 
ural increase being lost in conversions to 
other faiths. 

It is frequently asserted that Protest- 
antism is advancing much faster than 
Roman Catholicism. The advance is 
greater relatively ; but the figures prijvre 
that the Church of Rome still maintains 
a strong hold upon the faith of the world. 
Yet we may believe that Protestantism is 
advancing ihe sphere of its influence and 
power faster than any other religion upon 
the earth. 

The adherents of Chrislianity. embrac- 
ing the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and 
Eastern Churches, number 479.000,000. 

The non-Christians, embracing Jews, 
Mohammedans, and heathen, number 
1 ,048,000,000. 

Over one third of the people of the 
earth know nothing of Christ, or, having 
heard of hin). reject him. 

The Protestants look out not only in 
pity upon the two thirds of the human 
race without Christ, but also look doubt- 
fully upon the saving power of the faith 
held by Roman Catholics and members 
of the Greek Church. 

The 160,000,000 Protestants do not 
represent Protestant Christians. Only 
about 30,000,000 of these have followed 
out I heir convictions and enrolled them- 
selves as members of the Church; and 
upon this 30,000,000 is resting in a pecul- 
iar degree the command to give the Gos- 
pel in its purity to the nearly 1,500,000,000 
of I heir fellow- beings. 



^iifiiiuary of Prote»taiit Forelsii 

IfltMNlotlM. 

The AmfriLtin B&ard Ahnamu for 
1891 gives the following as the summary 
of Protestant Foreign Missions ; 






United States* . . > > ^15^ 
CartjMijk. ....... \\\ 

Ot^ Britain Sl Ineljind 9,6^5 
Coflitincntjal Eurtin>e.| 646 



TotaJ T,-..i 5.994 



us 



380 '8,173 

a4'S»7, 348,081 
4^6' 89,063 



35*34 3 681,503 



$3.977. 7<*' 
165,303 

<i.457.43!5 
8»9,3+(» 

fi 1,429.388 



Til roil jrb ml PlijHlrl^ii^ti Spectael««. 

BV VV, W. MDkSE, M.D. 

1891. Listen! Our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ has a New Year*s greeting 
for us all : " Go ye into all ihe world and 
preach the Gosjiel to ever)' creature." Let 
us all be obedient. 

1890. And what of that year? Did 
wc» each and all of us. render our faith- 



ful obedience lo our Master in those past 
months? Did we "go" in person, in 
prayers, in uioney. in love? 

We arc writing some New Year reso- 
lutions in this morning-time. Suppose 
wc transcribe that good old one of Josh- 
ua's, " As for me and my house, we will 
serve the Lord.*' Sign that. 

If every Christian would resolve that in 
1891 he or she would do something, more 
or less, in direct obedience to the last 
coo\mand, the year would be the Christ- 
full of years. 

The by-gones. Well, there is much to 
regret. However well we may have done, 
there is no question but what we might 
have done more, and still more. It 
" might have been/* indeed. 

It is not a question of *' giving to mis- 
sions." That does not sound good. It 
is *' going/' not "giving/* We must ^^<? 
in one way or another. And there are 
several ways. Resolve, '* Tj^^/' 

Can you go yourself ? Ask that ques- 
tion as unto your heart. Remember, you 
are commanded. Will you obey the Re- 
deemer ? Can you look to him and tell 
him why you arc disobedient ? 

You can go. There is no man nor 
woman but can. There is no e.xcuse for 
disobedience. Do you ask, "Where?" 
Wherever there are those to whom should 
come heaven's gladest tidings. 

It is not altogether that which is arbi- 
trarily called "missions*' on which we 
can **go.'' But we can all go ** on mis* 
sions/* if not in person, at least, and at 
most, by proxy, 

*' Go *' in prayer. Pray for missions. 
"Go** in your prayers. Pray earnestly 
for those who labor; for others lo go 
forth ; for the work, the heathen, the 
field. 

I believe in praying for particular fields. 
Have you not found one in which is a 
pearl of hopes and price ? "For where 
your treasure is, there will your heart be 
also/' 

**Go" in money. It does not do lo 
simply give money. Put yourself in what 
you give. If you are small, a penny will 
hold you ; but try and accommodate your- 
self to sizable coins. 

" Go " in love. Give your love to the 
missionaries. Did you ever tr)- it ? Do 
you love missionaries? You should. For 
His sake who first loved you. love your 
work-fellows. 

" Love is the fulliUingof the law.'* Can 
we not use the indefinite article, and say 
"a law," with especicd reference to the 
last-given law of our blessed Redeemer? 

How is the world of missions at the 
opening of the year? What has been 
gained since the 31st of December. 1S89? 



It is a good time to cast up the accounts, 
to see how we stand. 

Home missions have prospered. A few 
lines have been written in answer to the 
Indian question. The work among the 
frtiedmen has gone on apace. Efforts in 
the great cities are strong. 

South American missions do not show 
as well as might be expected ; but then 
there are plants that bloom only after 
many years, and then with rare magnif- 
icence. We have discovered buds. 

African missions, as described a year 
ago, have changed grandly. Time has 
advanced. The Sun of Righteousness is 
shining through clouds into the Dark Con- 
tinent. To-morrow will be day. 

Fruits are ripening in India, but at the 
same hour there are opening blossoms. 
And — it is painfully true — there are 
showers of pink and white petals, and lit- 
tle fruit setting, 

Japan is hope-full. The hope is a 
precious metal, and now, with sharpened 
picks and iron bars, we have only to do 
the mining. And the gold ? No alloy. 
.A. nd the silver ? LIndimmed. 

China is comprehending light. No na- 
tion is learning Christ belter or more rap- 
idly. We have but to hear the lessons 
apd advance the classes. The marks on 
the roll-book stand 87 per cent. 

Turkey is getting to be like an old book. 
It reads just the same, and there are sev- 
eral new pages; but the binding is worn, 
the leaves are torn, and the stitching is 
quite loose. 

In Malaysia they are singing heartfelt 
praise. The voices need training* and 
the instruments are strange, but the breath 
from the Holy Spirit is there. Listen to 
the chorus, 

"Their force is not right." The Rom- 
anist force in Mexico. Nevertheless, it is 
strong, and the missionary's work is ardu- 
ous I here. After years, and not till then, 
time will change. 

There is good news from Italy. Wc 
know it by the fair, round-hand super- 
scriptions on the laborers" tetters, Wc 
open them and read, and vividly they tell 
of entertaining the Master. 

In European missions we have April 
weather. It looks like storm all the tune, 
and the sunlight is l^lful. Frost is in 
the air ; but, praise the Lord, every plant 
is growing. 

Several missionaries are coming home 
this year to enjoy a vacation. How differ- 
ent from ihe vacations that our pastors 
take. Yes; they "take" vacations, but 
missionaries '* enjoy *' them. 

According to the reports from Brazil 
there ts a chance for a Tutivillus there. 
The Roman Catholic Church has no 



J 



40 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



priests who are more given to mutilating 
their services. 

Let us look at some figures. Central 
Africa has one Christian missionary to 
each 5,000,000 people. China has one to 
each 733,000. India has one to each 
350,000. 

The Armenians are coming to this 
country by hundreds, but it is staled on 
what is assumed to be good authority 
that there will be little if any Armenian 
worship among them here. 

It is a significant fact that of the 300 
who have been elected to the Japanese 
Parliament ten are Christians. A mi- 
nority; or, "under the circumstances," a 
balance of power. 

I wish that we knew more about thpse 
Afghans in the Punjab who are of a He- 
braic cast of countenance, and call them- 
selves ** Bani- Israel." They must be in- 
teresting. 

Just think of it ! Of the 383,000,000 of 
China's population, not one in 10,000 have 
ever even heard the name of Christ. The 
field is ready for the sickle. 

The name applied to Northfield, Mass., 
"The New Herrnhut," promises to be 
singularly appropriate. And after this 
may we not ask, Where is the ** New 
lona ? " 

The Druzes believe that Jesus was 
merely a representative of the true Christ, 
who actually remained concealed in the 
person of Lazarus. And yet they reject 
the resurrection doctrine. 

Rev. J. W. Ford, for more than half a 
century a missionary in China, and founder 
of the first Chinese Christian church, says 
that fifty years have not availed to acquire 
the Chinese language. 

A hospital with fifty beds has been es- 
tablished at Bangala, in the upper Congo 
basin, about one thousand miles from the 
Atlantic. It is an outcome of mission 
work. 

The first Mohammedan woman to en- 
gage in the practice of medicine is Razie 
Koullairoff-Hanum, a Crimean, who has 
recently passed a creditable examination 
at Odessa. 

To evidence that its meaning is lost and 
its necessity gone, the Moslem is per- 
mitted to hold the Hebrew place of sacri- 
fice. At least it would seem so. 

The Moravian Church is distinctively 
the missionary Church*. Its ** Society for 
Propagating the Gospel " is virtually the 
Church itself, or rather the Church is the 
Society. 

It certainly seems so to us, but it may 
be questioned as to whether the Roman- 
ists who give their children the sacred 
name of " Jesus " are as irreverent as the 
name would imply. 



Dr. Barnardo, of London, has favored 
me with his annual report of his Homes 
for Orphans. In twenty-three years he 
has rescued 15.563 childrert. Our large 
cities might well adopt his purposes. 

It is refreshing to know that the Brah- 
mo Somaj, which has been rej)orted ttt 
articulo mortis, has much vitality. The 
Bombay Guardian says there is " a strong 
tendency " that way. 

The ideal sorosis — ^be sure you get the 
meaning of that word — would be a sister- 
hood of the g^eat ethnic religions. Grant 
this, and Christianity would have a freer 
course. 

That pastor is to be pitied who never 
has a monthly missionary concert. When 
I hear the expression, " He takes little in- 
terest in missions," it is natural to pity the 
man. 

A child should be expected to earn its 
missionary money. It teaches self-reliance, 
and in one way or another any child can 
earn it. " How much } " Apply the gauge 
and see. 

None can gainsay it — the Christian 
home and the Christian family are es- 
sential and indispensable factors in evan- 
gelization. That is the testimony from 
every mission field. 

Miss Ellen Arnold, missionary in Com- 
illa. Eastern Bengal, writing to an Amer- 
ican friend, uses this expression : ** God 
knows what he is about." Odd-sounding, 
but wonderfully tj-ue. 

Look out for the Ishmael character in 
the modern Jew. Get it out of him, and 
the chances for his conversion are in- 
creased. Let it remain, and he remains a 
bigoted Jew. 

I have noticed that there are few peo- 
ple more thrifty than the Jews, and in 
considering the number and healthfulness 
of a Jew's children, I get a live commen- 
tary on the Scripture. 

Actually and honestly, the McKinley 
Bill has an effect on missions. They say 
so, at least, and the appropriations of the 
societies are shaped by the fact as inter- 
preted. 

The Duke of Fife and his colleagues 
have acquired the grant of an immense 
territory on the Zambesi River. " Mission- 
ary work will be as free there as in India." 

See here ! There is one way to stop 
the rum traffic in Africa. Let Islam 
have full sway. On its banner is written 
Total Abstinence^ and it is an enforced 
doctrine. 

O, yes, missions need a head. That is 
true. But it must not be an empty head. 
A brain is indispensable. There is a need 
not only of a ** spirit of power and of love, 
hut of a strong mind." 

It is tiresome to read so frequently in 



current missionary literature that Charles 
Darwin had reason to change his ideas 
concerning Patagonian mission work. We 
all know it. 

The mantles that fall from some 
shoulders upon others are heavy, but 
rarely, if ever, are they too heavy to bear. 
Manus^ '*hand,"/r/tf, "cloth." What hands 
can lift, shoulders can bear. 

There is always some residuum when the 
innermost doctrines of heathen religions 
are analyzed; but it is of such little impor- 
tance that it scarcely pays to put it in any 
crucible. 

The Buddhist is quick to realize that a 
finite God is no God ; but it is difficult 
for him to know that the Christian's faith 
and the philosopher's " apprehension of 
God " are one^ 

Than the educated Chinaman no man 
is more taciturn, and because of this none 
is more gentle ; for is not a master of 
taciturnity lord of himself, indeed — a truly 
gentle man ? 

There is one thing that I admire in the 
Hindu, and that is, that he welcomes 
every new scheme of utilitarian ethics for 
controversy's sake. A good example for 
others than Hindus. 

I sometimes find that my spectacles 
are strangely blurred when, reading cur- 
rent missionary literature, I try to sustain 
an idea that Christianity is always adapted 
to human nature. 

Apparently — strongly apparently, and 
apparently only — there is a difference, a 
peculiar difference, between being a 
Christian and being merely Christianized. 

When a heathen acquires the knowl- 
edge of the foundations of Christian be- 
lief, he has in hand, if not in heart, the 
currency to expend in its practical appli- 
cations. 

A Moslem fanatic, who calls himself 
Shan Daulet, is preaching a *' holy war" 
in Afghanistan for the expulsion of the 
Russians from Central Asia. How dif- 
ferent from the historical " holy wars ! " 

If Mr. B. T. Washington is right, a 
considerable portion of our Southern 
Negroes are as ignorant of true Chris- 
tianity as their cousins in the wilds of the 
Dark Continent. 

If, as is asserted, the Negro preachers 
of the South are mentally and morally un- 
fit to preach the Gospel, should we seek 
to teach them, or to supply better material 
in their place .^ 

The "Protestant Bishop of Hong Kong" 
{sic) has issued a circular to hisT clergy, 
according to the daily press, in which he 
urges the substitution of tea for wine in 
the communion. 

Lord Wolseley, writing of the impend- 
ing universal Mongolization, urges that 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



41 



England keep on good terms with China. 
Well, what terms? It is for the Church 
to answer. 

Two hundred Jewish students of Odes- 
sa have "become Christians." And why? 
That they may not be expelled in accord- 
ance with the enforcement of the anti- 
Jewish law. " Religious trickery ! " 

Somewhere I caught this expression, 
** The missionary value of a railroad." 
There is the right ring to it, strange as it 
sounds. But values of railroads fluctuate. 

There are 104 hospitals and dispen- 
saries in China, at which between three 
and four hundred thousand patients re- 
ceive treatment each year. And these hos- 
pitals are missionary forces. 

Let us not forget that the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union has a mis- 
sionary in China in the person of Miss 
Ackerman. That "greatest moral force 
outside the churches" obeys two com- 
mandments at once. 

The American Missionary Association's 
educational and church work amount to 
the same thing, although Secretary 
Strieby does not put the two departments 
under a single head. 

In the East, where there is a heathen 
temple in every village, respectable houses 
of worship for Christians are a necessity. 
Without a church, is without the power of 
prestige. 

it is bad enough to war against poor 
whisky at home, but much worse in heathen 
lands. There, more than here, the curse 
of amylism prevails. The demand is for 
€thylism, if either. 

Superstition, the lack of sanitation, and 
the absence of a system of rational medicine 
render the opportunities of the medical 
missionary of the greatest moment and 
importance. 

Are you acquainted with your near 
neighbors? Are not the Christian's near 
neighbors those that are the neediest, 
with the news of salvation their greatest 
need? 

It may procure hatred, and work up 
more or less ill-feeling, but **Droit ct 
d droit e "is no mean motto for a laborer 
in a heathen acre of the Lord's vineyard. 

He who disbelieves his own faiih is a 
renegade, a mental suicide. The renega- 
tion may or may not be absolute, but it 
is the actual work of self-murder. Cer- 
tainty is objective ever. 

It seems to be the hardest kind of hard 
labor for a Mohammedan, especially if he 
is a Turk, to find in abstract principles 
the solution of current concrete problems. 

It is a good idea for the missionary to 
ask himself, '* Am I treating the science 
of human nature as I do the science of 
God?" The answer is worth listenmgf to. 



If one begins to doubt the exact 
sciences, how easy it becomes to awaken 
religious skepticism. How important, 
then, that there should be a fair treat- 
ment of science by missionaries. 

Shame on that man who regards the 
virtues of paganism as brilliant vices. 
There are men who do it. There is a 
light well-known as ignis faiuus, and it 
invariably misleads. 

Place no value on a philosophy that lacks 
the impregnation of general religi6us and 
scientific conceptions. A cowrie shell may 
represent a dgllar if both buyer and seller 
agree. 

The Buddhist may become an agnostic, 
but he understands with the greatest 
difficulty such a dictum as Flourens's 
" Hatred of God is the beginning of wis- 
dom." That passes his comprehension. 

The scholarly Hindu can teach the 
Christian a lesson when, with uplifted 
palms, he bears evidence that it is " ev- 
olutionism " and not evolution that is an- 
tipodal to all religions. 

When I hear any one speak of the 
Methodist Church as a " Missionary 
Church," I remember that my mother 
used to teach me to never " call names," 
and I feel like reproving the offender. 

It is stated that on an average, out of 
every one hundred conversions in India, 
fifty-seven are above twenty years of age, 
and forty-three are under that age. 

Cardinal Lavigerie is no doubt doing a 
notable work, but there are certain traits 
about the work and the man that it is not 
pleasurable to take into consideration. 

It does not pay to be critical, from a lay 
stand-point, but here is a question : " Why 
do not pastors pray as a rule as fervently 
for the missionary sacrifice as for the Holy 
Spirit ? " 

Miss Guinness calls attention to the fact 
that in China 1,400 persons die every hour 
without any knowledge of God. Figures 
are dry, but this is heart-moving. 

With one accord the Vedas, the Pu- 
ranas, the Koran, and the Zendavesta 
preach the doctrine of salvation by works, 
the very doctrine which our Bible so 
strongly protests against. 

It is remarkable that the ethnic religions 
are commonly reputed to be deficient in 
the missionary spirit. They surely have 
it, but it is not of the Christian sort. 

The Chinese make splendid latitudina- 
rians. Dr. Wentworth says, " They would 
neither seen or feel any thing incongruous 
in being members of every church on 
earth." 

Dr. Todd calls attention to the fact that 
paganism is almost absolutely songless. 
Their religions are so cheerless that they 
have really no heart to sing. 



The astute Jiji Shimpo advocates the 
adoption of Christianity by Japan on 
purely economic and political grounds, as 
" the best thing for the empire ethically 
and socially." 

Someone has said that all missionaries 
owe a debt of gratitude to those who call 
attention to the mistakes and failures of 
Missions. How deeply in debt some must 
be. 

•* Vex ilia Regis proderent 
Fulget crucis mysterium," 

" The banners of heaven's King ad- 
vance, 

The mystery of the cross shines forth." 

The missionary generally finds a Bertha 
to every Ethelbert ; but in our time the 
welcome of the Saxon princess but rarely 
gets beyond the heathen woman's lips. 

Christianity is indeed a foreign religion 
in Japan, but for that matter so is Bud- 
dhism. Buddhistic success there nay be 
taken as an encouragement lor Christian- 
ity. 

For a negative maxim, the so-called 
"Silver Rule" of Confucius is excellent: 
"Whatsoever ye would not that men 
should do to you, do not to them." The 
negative maxims are condimental. 

There are only 100 purely Chinese sur- 
names. This fact explains why we find 
so many Lee, Chang, and Sing laundry- 
men. The average Mongolian can repeat 
the entire 100 by rote. 

If there were no other reason, India 
needs the Christian religion for the sake 
of her 500,000 lepers. Give the lever of 
Christ, and there is earned the prophylac- 
tic of the disease. 

The Czar of Russia seems to be play- 
ing the part of antichrist wondrous well. 
The prohibition of Protestant missionary 
activity in his dominions is characteristic- 
ally antichristian. 

It seems somewhat suggestive that the 
Mormons have never succeeded in gain- 
ing Roman Catholic converts. With an 
open Bible in his hand, the Protestant is 
perverted, not converted. 

And so •• some French Roman Catholic 
savants," are adopting Buddhaistic ideas. 
Well, that is better than turning to athe- 
ism, though Romanism is certainly prefer- 
able to Buddhism. 

Chinese children recite with their backs 
turned to their teacher. Some Christians 
pray for missions with their backs toward 
the altar. ** A difference that differs not." 

Rev. E. S. Todd, D.D., has written, and 
Hunt & Eaton publish, a very valuable 
work entitled Christian Missions in the 
Nineteenth Century. It is not a book to 
be read, t)ut to be studied. 

Dr. Todd says, " Let those who doubt 
the possibility of modern missions look 



42 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



to the triumph of the Gospel over our 
Anglo-Saxon ancestors and take heart." 
A grand illustration. 

It seems that the Soudan missionaries 
were implicit believers in the " faith-cure." 
Wouldn't it be a good idea if missionaries 
left their crazes at home? 

The French word Christiansur ex- 
presses the character of true mission work 
wonderfully. It is a standing text, trite, 
but true ; and written on every heart it is 
a glorious motto. 

Never forget that the text of William 
Carey's memorable sermon of October 
2, 1792, was the third and fourth verses 
of the fifty-fourth chapter of Isaiah. Read 
it, study it, know it. 

Bishop Potter does not approve of the 
German government accepting China's 
invitation for a teacher of military tactics. 
He says, " Teach the Chinese the tactics 
^f Christianity instead." 

The American Tract Society has just 
issued two notable missionary works : H. 
C. Haydn's American Heroes on Mission 
\ Fields, and Basmajian's Social and Re- 
ligious Life in the Orient, 

The Roman Catholic Church has never 
translated the Scriptures into the Chinese 
tongue, although they have maintained 
missions in the Celestial Empire for about 
three centuries. 

It is interesting, and withal valuable, to 
enter upon a study of the analogy between 
disease and sin. The study discovers a 
strong argument for medical missions. 

My attention has been called to the fact 
that Thibet was entered upon as a mission 
field thirty-four years ago by the Moravians. 
The latest intelligence is "encouraging." 
A good word, certainly. 

In Burma when a person becomes 
delirious he is said to be " possessed by 
devils." When one is insane, he is described 
as " possessed by the devil." A difference 
with a difference plainly. 

The other day when James Monteath 
died, someone said that we have " out- 
grown " his geographies. Possibly. But 
think of it. in China the same text-books 
have been used 2,000 years. 

When we are studying Japan, let us re- 
member three salient " beginnings," facts. 
In 1854 the first Protestant missionary 
landed. First baptism in 1865. First 
church organized 1872. 

The Arya Somaj is worth attention. It 
aims to restore the Vedic faith, and to an- 
tagonize the Christian. But, not strangely, 
the " doctrines " are colored by Christian 
ethics. 

" We go," the Moravians are wont to 
say, *' to places where no one else is willing 
to go." Ah, what a commentary on the 
question of the worth of the human will ! 



I have been trying to make out what 
the religion of Java is. It is not heathen- 
ism, nor is it Mohammedanism. Possibly 
it is a mixture of both, and might be called 
" pig-headedism." 

If you want a true and interesting mis- 
sionary book, /// the Far East is the 
one. Written by Mary Geraldine Guin- 
ness, and published by F. H. Revell, New 
York. It fills one with sympathy. 

Dr. A. C. Thompson's lectures, deliv- 
ered last year before the Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary, are issued by Scribner, 
as Foreign Missions: Their Place in 
Pastorate, Prayer, and Conference. 

My dear brother, if you, the pastor of a 
live church, feel the need of being enthused 
on the subject of missions, it seems to 
me that that work of Dr. Thompson's hits 
your case. 

Speaking of missionary literature, the 
successful work of the day is fohn G. 
Paton : an Autobiography, Robert Car- 
ter & Brothers. Th»» second part, recently 
published, is delightful. 

King Mwanga, of Uguanda. is not par- 
tial in the least. His invitation to Chris- 
tian missionaries to return to their work 
in his kingdom was to both Protestants 
and Catholics. 

It is estimated that one person in every 
eight in the United States is a Roman 
Catholic. In England the proportion is 
one in twenty. In Ireland, population 
4,716,209, the number of Catholics is 
3,808,696. 

Nicodemus has his legitimate descend- 
ants in India. The Indian Witness says, 
that for every avowed convert there are 
hundreds who withhold confession for the 
old Nicodemian reasons. 

It is painful that the Royal Niger Com- 
pany is obstructing missionary work in 
the Soudan. But sweet is thrown into the 
bitter when we consider how admirably it 
fights the rum traffic. 

A good Scotch clergyman, whose inter- 
est in missionary work is large and prac- 
tical, and of whom we should knew very 
much more, is Rev. Dr. John Pagan. Sug- 
gestive name, if so received. 

There are 70,000 Jews in New York, 
and about the same number in Palestine. 
Of the New York Jews, less than 3,000 
are attached to the synagogues. How 
much better is the Eastern condition ! If 
these figures are indicative of the stand- 
ard of Semitic faith world-wide, it is to be 
estimated that there is retrogression or 
carelessness among fully 8,000,000 Jews. 

All information concerning the Mora- 
vian Missions is lodged with the indefatig- 
able Rev. Robert De Schweinitz, of Beth- 
lehem, Pa. The fund of knowledge held 
by him is remarkable. 



The Moslems say that the gulls which 
fly at the Golden Horn, and arc never seen 
to alight, are " lost souls." The expres- 
sion is figurative, but it holds an unmis- 
takably pagan idea. 

"Our schools," says a recent writer, 
•' are of little benefit to immigrants be- 
cause of the language difficulty." Can 
we not teach them in their own tongues ? 
It is a pity if we cannot. 

If Mr. Blaine really wants to " mind his 
own business," he should make a note of 
the fact that papistical Nicaragua threat- 
ens to devour the Moravian Missions in 
the Mosquito State. 

I like Miss Grace E. Wilder's "We must 
have new workers." " We want," " would 
like," "wish," "ask for," and even " pray 
for," do not begin to have the right " ring " 
for this late century. 

" Under a protectorate " means noth- 
ing. The African " protectorates " pro- 
tect from what } From the slave trade } 
From the liquor traffic ? From the rapa- 
city of other would be " protectors ? " 

No one wants to dispute the truth of 
the trite statement that Japan is eager for 
Christianity, but one wonders if it is not 
education that is the greater attraction. 

A European can learn to read the 
Korean language in a day, the simple 
phonetic alphabet being acquired as read- 
ily as a child can learn to count. 

The missionary is, or should be. a busi- 
ness man — a man of busy hands and busier 
hopes, those hands and hopes his inspira- 
tion. Let him remember, " The King's 
business requireth hasted 

Our fathers knew the " It can be " pe- 
riod of mission work. Yesterday we were 
in the " It ought to be" period. To-day 
and to-morrow is the " It must be " time. 

On the shelves of the Bible House in 
Constantinople are Bibles in more than 
30 languages and 400 styles of binding 
and printing. " Any Turk can have the 
holy word." 

Wherever the Mohammedan religion is 
supreme. Church and State are identical. 
Consequently, when a Mussulman is con- 
verted, he is accounted a heretic, with the 
distinction of a traitor. 

I spoke lately of the niggardly help 
given missionaries by foreign residents. 
Contrast this with the great help given in 
India by the civil and military authorities. 

Supposing that India were left alone to 
the British care, and the influence of the 
Christian life eliminated, where would be 
the boasted security of the English posi- 
tion there ? 

Every piece of ivory that is brought out 
of Africa has been steeped in the blood of 
slaves, and comes to our hands stained by 
the desecrating hands of the Arab trader. 



HlissioiKinj .So titties. 



1*]ie Anif«rtc*an Board, 

The American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions was organized in 
1810, and was for many years the agency 
through which the foreign mission work 
of the Congregation.ilisi, Preshyterian. 
and Dutch Reformed Churches was con- 
ducted. The Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches have now their own foreign 
mission organizations, while the Con- 
gTcgatlonalists still do their foreign work 
through the American Board. 

Rev. N. G. Clark, I>.D., Rev. E. K. 
Alden. DJh, Rev. Judson Smith, D.I)., 
Corresponding Secretaries ; Mr. Langdon 
S. Ward, Treasurer 

Head-quarters: Congregalional House, 
No, I Somerset Street, Boston, Mass. 

The District Secretaries are: Rev. 
Charles H. Daoieis, 121 Bible House, 
New York ; Rev, S. J. Humphrey, D.D., 
and Rev. A. N. Hitchcock. Ph.D., 151 
Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

The treasurer reported that for the 
year ending August 31, J890, the receipts 
were as follows : 

Donations,, $4r7,i>2i 74 

Legacies i(>g, 802 i r 

From Legfticy of Asa 

Oli*^ 61,482 16 

From Legacy of S, W. 

' Swell , 72,707 89 

Interest on Ferman*^nt 

Fund toji-jt 73 

Total $762,58563 

Balance, 8epL t, 18B9 848 44 

$763,434 07 

EXPENDITI'RFS. 
For the Missions.* . . . $707,046 25 
Administration, Agen- 
cies, PubUcations . . $55,900 73 

Total $762,946 98 

Balance^ Aug 3I, 1890 48709 

$763,434 07 

The Home Expenses are included under 
three items : 

Cost of Agencies. . , . . $19,780 92 
Cotil of Publications, , ii,oiS 66 
Cost of Administration 25,101 15 

Total $55,900 73 

The salaries of district and field secre- 
taries, their traveling expenses, and those 
of missionaries visiting the churches, and 
other like expenses, amount to $r9,78o 92, 

The Department of Correspondence 
costs $11,649 >^* hy which we undestand 
trte salaries and traveling expenses of the 
corresponding secretaries. 



The Treasurer's Department 

$6,575 77' 

There was expended for New York city 
$1,788 68, which, we understand, was for 
rent of rooms in the Bible House and 
clerk hire. 

Miscellaneous items cost $5,087 52 ; 
these include rent, care of Missionary 
Rooms, furniture and repairs, coal gas, 
postage* stationery* copying and printing, 
library, honorary members* certificates. 

The M/ssf'anary //era/ff cost the Board, 
above the amount of receipts from sub- 
scribers and advert isemcnls, $8,780 27, 
The cost, including salaries of editor and 
publishing agent, and copies sent gratu- 
itously, according to the rule of the Buard, 
to pastors, honorar)' members, doBors, 
etc., was $: 5,923 06* and the receipts 
from subscribers, $6,853 1 r ; from adver- 
lisements. $r.927 16. Other publications 
cost $4,014 38. There were received for 
•* Mission Stories'* $137 51, The total 
cost of publications above the receipts 
was $iT.oiS 66. 

The receipts of the year being $762,- 
585 63, and the Home Expenses $55»- 
900 73, a little over seven per cent, was 
expended in making the collections and in 
administration. 

The Congregationalists number 4.640 
ministers and 49r,985 communicants; 
total, 496,625. The donations from the 
churches amounted to $417,921 74, or 84 
cents per tne tuber. 

The following shows when the Missions 
were organized, number of missionaries, 
native laborers, communicants, etc. : 



East Ccnlral Africa.. 
Zutu Mission.. ... .. 

Wesi Centra] Africa , 

Euroiwan Turkey 

Wwitem Turkey , . . . 

Central Turkey 

Extern Turkey ..... 

MarathL... 

MAdura......... ..... 

Ceyli>n ^^ ►....,... ., 

HottK Kong 

FtKJchow. , 

NMrth China 

Shanu. - ,, , 

iEtpan .._...,,.... 
Torth Japai^.,.. 

Microne«iia. . ... >. 

Western Mexico,., . , , 
Nurthem Mexico . . . , 

Spain. ., ....,, 

Austria. .,......,,,.. 

H awaiian Islands^ . . . , 



Total., 



,8«, 




'X 


It 


i80 


10 


1819 


35 


l»47 




18,6 


>9 


18.3 


14 


lis 


'4 


,B«3 




1847 






33 


IH69 
1881 


\- 


I8S^ 




i«7» 




1H83 




iSta 




187. 




im 





Im 



t34 
3 
55 

x8i 

«S5 

»77; 

1»8 
Q 

9> 

5« 

I 

169 

86 



19 

3iti8 
5.055 

3»S6a 
1.477 

35 

484 

1^042 

10 

9.146 

4*475 
68 

ass 

349 
364 



**4»y' 3^.>56 



* Of whom If an fkymldMUU 

f CK' wbftn & «rv f»hj*kliifij, and Hi «n» uDiDMTlwt. 

The following shows in each Mission 
the addition dyring the past year, the 
amount expended by the Board dur- 
ing the year for the Missions, and the 
native contributions for all purposes in 
dollars ; 



Rasc Central Africa , 

Zulu Mis&MMi. 

Wesi Ccrttrol Africn. 
K UMJ pea n T u rkcy . . . 
WcKieni Turkey .... 
Central Turkey, . . , . 
Easicrn Turkey.,.,. 
Marathi., .......... 

Madura,.,..... 

Ceylon..,. «....,,,,, 

Hone Koilg ...♦. 

Foocnow . , ,...*,,.. 

North China 

ShanM. 

iapan 
forth Japan > .,..,,, 
Micriunci'iia. . . . ..... 

Western Mexico,..,. 
Nurthcm Mexico,,.. 

Sp.iir ,» 

Austria , 

Hawaiian Ulnnd».... 



8, 
»75 

»»7 
19a 

'U 

6 
88 
It? 



t6i5 

49«J 
iB 
74 
55 
9* 



Total....... 4 . 554 $707.546 J5 l"7*4<H 



$a.337 ( 
94^360 1 

ta.S^7 : 
96,760 I 

46^870 
65.6»7 
S«t<*»5 
i»,7Q9 

»5'5,1^ 

9'».57i 
«4.749 
30,78a 
7,336 
«6»535 
14,773 
10,663 
10, 941 



$Ui5t 

58 
4.533 

«>.337 
7ii50 
»*!54 
1.755 
6,191 
4iM 
B96 
tfOSr 
>67 

I ^ 

C S0.841 

*.7S3 

J»47» 
Sao 



The above Missions also report the 
number of stations as 96; oul-stalions, 
962 ; churches. 387 : schools of all grades, 
1.025, "w^^h 47.319 under instruction. 
Among the native laborers are 682 preach- 
ers. 

The Board issues monthly the Afisshm^ 
ary Herahi ^i %\ a year, and the Mission 
Day Spring at 20 cents a year. 

Connected with the Boartl are three 
women's btiards. They are : 

1. The Woman's Board of Missions, 
with its office at No. I Congregational 
House, Boston, Mass. The Secretaries 
are Mrs. S. B, Pratt and Miss Abbie B. 
Child. It has the New England and 
Middle Stales as its territory. It supports 
3 missionaries from ihe United States 
and 143 native lalKjrers, Under the care 
of its missionaries are 28 boarding- 
schools for girls and 228 day-schools, 
having together about io»ooo pupils. Its 
receipts last year were $104,147 24. 

2. The Woman's Hoard of Missions of 
the Interior has for iis lernlon^ the Stales 
of the interior and the North-west, with 
head-quarters in Chicago at No. 59 Dear- 
born Street ; Secretary, Miss M, D. Win- 
gate. It has 82 foreign missionaries, of 
whom 4 are physicians. It supports 30 
Bible- readers. Under its care are 15 
boartling-schools for girls and 73 village 
schools. Its receipts last year amounted 
10 $56,041 89. 

3. The Woman's Board of Missions of 
the Pacific coast has its head- quarters in 
California. The secretar)' is Mr^. J. H. 
Warren, 1,316 Mason Street, San Fran- 
cisco, CaL It supports 5 missionaries, 
and its appropriations for last year were 

•4.549- 

These three Boards have as their organ 
Lift and Light for Womtrn, published 
monthly at Congregational House, No. i 
Somerset Street. Boston. 

The following are tht- narnes and post- 
office addresses of the Missionaries of the 
Amt* ncan Board ; 



* 




44 



THE AMERICAN BOARD. 



Male missionaries not ordained are indicated by 
italics. 

A general post-office address for each Mission is 
given at the head of the Mission. 

The stations and postal addresses of the wives of 
missionaries being the same as their husband's, these 
are not here printed. 

Letter postage to Natal, South Africa, is fifteen 
cents per naif-ounce ; to all other lands here named, 
except Mexico, five cents per half-ounce. To Mexico, 
the same as in the United States. 

♦ Now in America. 

ZULU MISSION. 

[General postal address— A^/i/rt/, South A/rica.l 

Francis W. Bates, Amanzimtote, Durban. 

Laura H. Bates. 

Henr>' M. Bridgman, Umzumbe, Umtwalume. 

Laura B. Bridgman. 

♦Laura A. Day, Amanzimtote, Durb.in. 

Tames C. Dorward, Umzumbe. 

Florence A. Dorward. 

Mrs. Marv K. Edwards, Inanda, Duff's Road. 

Herbert D. Goodcnough, Umvoti, Durban. 

Caroline L. Goodenough 

Gertrude R. Hance, Esidumbini. 

David H. Harris, Ifumi, Durban. 

Kuphemia S. Harris. 

Charles W, Holbrook, Mapumulo. 

Sarah E. Holbrook. 

Kate Houseman, Umzumbe. 

Mpi. Oriana R. Ireland, Amanzimtote, Durban. 

Charles W. Kilbon, Amanzimtote, Durban. 

♦Mary B. Kilbon. 

Mary E. McCornack, Esidumbini. 

♦Fidelia Phelp, Inanda. 

Stephen C. Pixley, Lindley, Duff's Road. 

Ltuisa Pixlev. 

Martha H. Pixley, Amanzimtote. 

Martha E. Price, Inanda. 

Charles N. Ransom, Amanzimtote. 

Susan H. Ransom. 

♦George A. Wilder, Umtwalume. 

♦Alice C. Wilder. 

•Mrs. Abbie T. Wilder, Umtwalume. 

EAST CENTRAL AFRICAN MISSION. 
[General postal address — Inhambant^ East A/rica!\ 

iohn D. Bennett, Kambini. 
[attie F. Bennett. 
Nancy Jones, Kambini, Inhambane. 
♦Benjamin F. Ousley, Kambini, Inhambane. 
♦Henrietu B. Ousley. 

WEST CENTRAL AFRICAN MISSION. 

[General postal vA^cc^s—Amfrican Mission^ Ben- 
gueila {via Lisbon) ^ If^'est A/rica.\ 

Sarah Bell, Kamondonso. 

Minnehaha A. Clarke, Kamondongo. 

Charles F. Clowe, M.D., Kamondongo. 

Mary L. Clowe. 

Harry A. Cotton, Bailunda. 

(iertrude M. Cotton, M.D. 

Walter T. Currie, Chisamba. 

•William E. Fay, Kamondongo. 

♦Annie M. Fay. 

Wilberforcc Lee, Chisamba. 

William H. Sanders, Kamondongo. 

Mary J. Sanders. 

Wesley M. Stover, Bailundu. 

Bertha D. Stover. 

Mrs. Marion M. Webster, Bailundu. 

Thomas W. Woodside, Bailundu. 

Emma D. Woodside. 

EUROPEAN TURKEY MISSION. 
(Open mail, via London.) 

John W. Baird, Monastir, via Belgrade, Turkey in 
Europe. 

Ellen R* Baird. 

Lewis Bond, Jr., Monastir, via Belgrade, Turkey in 
Europe. 

Fannie G. Bond. 

James F. Clarke, Samokov, Bulgaria. 

Isabella G. Clarke. 

♦Harriet L. Cole, Monastir, via Belgrade, Turkey in 
Europe. 

Henry C. Haskell, D.D., Samokov, Bulgaria. 

Margaret B. Haskell. 

Mary M. Haskell, Samokov, Bulgaria. 

J. Henry House, D.D., Samokov, Bulgaria. 

Addie B. House. 

Frederick L. Kingsbury, M.D., Samokov, Bulgaria. 

Luella L. Kingsbury. 

William E. Lmrke, Philippopolis, East Rounielia. 

Zoe A. M. Locke. 

Esther T. Maltbie, Samokov, Bulgaria. 

George D. Marsh, Philippopolis, Kast Roumelia. 

Ursula C. Marsh. 

Mary.L. Matthews, Monastir, via Belgrade, Turkey 
in Europe. 

Elias R'ggs, D.D., LL.D., Constantinople, Bible 
House, Turkey. 

Ellen M. Stone, Pnilippopx)lis, East Roumelia. 

Robert Thomson, Constantinople, Bible House. Tur- 
key. 

Agneo C. Thomsfin. I 



WESTERN TURKEY MISSION. 
[General postal address — Turkey. 1 
(Open mail, via Uondon.) 
Theodore A. Baldwin, Broosa. 
Matilda J. Baldwin. 

Henry S. Bamum, Constantinople, Bible House. 
♦Helen P. Bamum. 
Lyman Bartlett, Smyrna. 
Cornelia C. Bartlett. 
Cornelia S. Bartlett, Snu'rna. 

Edwin E. Bliss, D.D.y (Constantinople, Bible House. 
Isabella H. Bliss. 
Mary E. Brewer, Sivas. 

Charles H. Brooks, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Fanny W. Brooks. 
♦Fannie E. Burrage. Cesarea. 
♦Laura B. ChamWlin, Sivas. 
Sarah A. Closson, Cesarea. 
Lyndon S. Crawford, Broosa. 
Olive N. Crawford. 
Phebc L. Cull, Broosa. 

Isabella F. Dodd, Constantinople, Bible House. 
William S. Dodd, M.D., Cesarea. 
Mary L. Dodd. 

Henry O. Dwight, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Isabella H. Dwight. 

Charles A. S. Dwight, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Wm. F. English, bivas. 
Janet M. English. 
Laura Farnham, Adabazar. 
Wilson A. Famsworth. D.iy.y Cesare? 
Caroline E. Famsworth. 

♦Flora A. Fensham, Constantinople, Bible House. 
James L. Fowle, Cesarea. 
Caroline P. Fowle. 
KHza Fritcher, Marsovan. 
Lydia A. Gile, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Joseph K. Greene, D.D., Constantinople, Bible House. 
Elizabeth A. Greene. 
George F. Herrick, D.D., Marsovan. 
♦Helen M. Herrick. 
Albert W. Hubbard, Sivas. 
Emma R. Hubbard. 

Anna B. Jones, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Lizzie E. Kirtland, Smyma. 
Clarissa D. Lawrence, Smyma. 
Agnes M. Lord, Smyrna. 
Emily McCallum, Smyrna. 
James P. McNaughton, Smyma. 
Rebecca G. McNaughton. 

Helen E. Melvin, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Mrs. Fannie M. Newell, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Susan H. Olmstead, Constantinople, Bible House. 
♦Mary L. Page, Smyma. 
Moses P. Parmelee, M.D., Trebizond. 
lulia F. Parmelee. 
Mrs. Catherine Parsons, Adabazar. 
Mary M. Patrick, Constantinople, Bible House. 
If'i/iiam W. Ptet^ Constantinople, Bible House. 
Martha H. Peet. 

I. F. Pettibone, D.D., Constantinople, Bible House. 
♦John Edwin Pierce, Bardezag, Ismid. 
♦Lizzie A. Pierce. 

Ida W. Prime, Constantinople, Bible House. 
Edward Ri^s, Marsovan. 
Sarah H. Riggs. 

♦James W. .Seelye, Constantinople, Bible House. 
♦Laura T. Seelye. 
Marion E. Sheldon, Adabazar. 
John F. Smith, Marsovan. 
Sarah E. Smith. 
Bertha Smith, Marsovan. 
Jane C. Smith, Marsovan. 
Charles C. Tracy, Marsovan. 
Myra P. Tracy. 
George E. White, Marsovan. 
Esther B. White. 
♦Mary P. Wright, Marsovan. 
Johanna Zimmer, Cesarea. 

CENTRAL TURKEY MISSION. 
[General postal address — Turkey.\ 
(Open mail, via London.) 
Lucien H. Adams, Kessab. 
Nancy D. Adams. 
Eula G. Bates, Hadjin, via Adana. 
Ellen M. Blakely, Marash. 
Thomas D. Christie, Marash. 
Carmelite B. Christie. 

Mrs. Josephine L. CofiinK< Hadjin, via Adana. 
Americus Fuller, D.D., Aintab. 
Amelia D. Fuller. 
Annie D. Graham, Aintab. 
Lucius O. Lee, Marash. 
Clara H. Lee. 
♦Etta C. Marden, Marash. 
Willis W. Mead, Adana, x'ia Mersin. 
Harriet N. Mead. 
Ida Mellinger, Oorfa. 

♦Emily R. Montgomer\', Adana, via Mersin. 
KUen M. Pierce, AintaD. 
Charles W. Riggs^ Aintab. 
Electa C. Riggs. 
Charles S. Sanders, Aintab. 
Corinna Shattuck, Marash. 

Mrs. Margaret R. Trowbridge, Aintab. (P.-O. ad- 
dress, Constantinople, Bible House.) 
Lizzie S. Webb, Adana, via Mersin. 
Mary G. Webb, Adana. 7'ia Mer>in. 
Henrietta West, Aintab. 



EASTERN TURKEY. 
[General postal address — via Constantinople^ Turhey.1 

(Open mail, via London.) 
John A. Ainslie, Mardin. 
Kllen D. Ainslie. 

Oreon P. Allen, Harpoot. (P.O. address, Van.) 
Caroline R. Allen. 
Alpheus N. Andms, Mardin. 
Olive L. Andrus. 

Herman N. Bamum, D.D., Harpoot. 
Mary E. Bamum. 
Emma M. Barnum. Harpoot. 
James L. Barton, Harpoot. 
Flora E. Barton. 
John K. Browne, Harpoot. 
I^ila Browne. 

Caroline E. Bush, Harpoot. 
♦Robert Chambers, Krzroom. 
♦Elizabeth L. Chambers, 
♦William N. Chamber>, Erzroom. 
♦Cornelia P. Chambeni. 
♦Roy.^1 M. Cole, Bitlis. 
♦F.izzie Cole. 

Mary L, Daniels. Harpoot. 
Willis C. Dewey, Mardin. 
Scraphina S. Dewey. 
Chariotte E. Ely, Bitlis. 
Mary A. C. Ely, Bitlis. 
♦C. Frank Gate>, Mardin. 
♦.Mary E. Gates. 
Frederic D. Greene, Van. 
Sarah A. Greene. 
Alice Heald, Harpoot. 
Lauraette E. Johnson, Vaii. 
♦Grace N. Kimball, Van. 
George C. Knapp, Bitlis. 
Alzina M. Knapp. 
George P. Knapp, Bitlis. 
Anna J. Knapp. 
Ellen R. Ladd, Van. 
Frederic W. Macallum, Erzroom. 
Henrietta M. Macallum.^ 
Maria G. Nutting, Mardin. 
Harriet G. Powers, Erzroom. 
Clarissa H. Pratt, Mardin. 
George C. Raynolds, M.D., Van. 
♦Martha W, Raynolds. 
David A. Richardson, Erzroom. 
Myra E. Richardson. 
Hattie Seymour, Harpoot. 
Daniel M. B. Thorn, M.D., Mardin. 
Helen L. Thom. 

Crosby H.Wheeler, D.D., Harpoot. 
Susan A. Wheeler. 
Emily C. Wheeler, Harpoot. 

MARATHI MISSION. 
[General postal address — IVvstern India!\ 
Anstice Abbott, Bombay, BycuIIa. 
Justin E. Abbott, Bombay, Byculla. 
William O. Ballantine, M.D., Kahuri, Ahmednagar. 
Josephine L. Ballantine. 
Lemuel Bissell, D.D., Ahmednagar. 
Mary E. Bissell. 
Emily R. Bissell, Ahmednagar. 
Harriet L, Bruce, Ahmednagar. 
Henry J. Bmce, Satara. 
Hepzibeth P. Bmce. 
Henry Fairbank, Ahmednagar. 
Ruby E. Fairbank. 

Samuel B. Fairbank, D.D., Ahmednagar (Wadale). 
Lorin S. Gates, Sholapur. 
Frances A. Gates. 
Jean P. Gordon, Satara. 
Charles Harding, Sholapur. 
Elizabeth I). Harding. 
Edward S. Hume, Bombay, Byculla. 
Charlotte E. Hume. 
Robert A. Hume, Ahmednagar. 
Katie F. Hume. 
Corliss W. Lay, Ahmednagar. 
Lilian B. Lay. 

Elizabeth M. Lyman, Bombay, Byculla. 
Robert McCullou^^ Ahmednagar. 
Anna L. Millard, Bombay, ByculLi. 
Belle Nugent, Ahmednagar. 
Mrs. Minnie C. Sibley, Satara. 
James Smith, Ahmednagar. 
Maud Smith. 

♦Richard Winsor, Simr, Poona District, 
♦Mary C. Winsor. 

MADURA MISSION. 
[General postal address— 3/a</«rrt District , Southern 

India.] 
Caroline S. Bell. Battalagundn. 
♦Gertmde A. Chandler, Battalaeunda. 
♦John E. Chandler, Battalagunda. 
♦Charlotte H. Chandler. 
John S. Chandler, Madura. 
Henrietta S. Chandler. 
Edward Chester, M.D., Dindignl. 
Sophia Chester. 
♦George H. Gutterson, Melur. 
♦Emma W. Gutterson. 
Hervey C. Hazen, Mana-madum. 
Hattie A. Hazen. 
Hattie A. Houston, Madura. ^ 
Robert Humphrey, Pasumalal. 



THE AMERICAN BOARD. 



45 



Olive A, Mumfihrt>. 
Fmnkltii E. Jctfcrj , MA<iur^ 

♦John P- Jones, Madurru 

♦jHAfab. A. lone*. 

foMrph T. N*iycs, Kodik^naL 

M Arthn J. Noyc>. 

B(&»ic B. Noye*. Mi%dur4< 

J,%mu> C, Perkins ArrupiikoUaL 

ChuirlDlic J. Perkins. 

l>enA.y T, M, Root, Madura. 

M^r^' M. RfVH, Madura, 

P^iutirve Roijt, M.D., Muditra. 

•Eva M, Swift, Madura. 

• Tiime<i E. Tracy, Tirnmangalam. 

•ratiitte S. I'rAcy* 

Frank V*n Allen, M JV, Madura. 

Harriet D. Van Allen. 

George T, Wathbum, P,D., PuumakL 

£l].ca £, Washburn. 

CEVLON MISSION, 
[General potttal address. — Jaj^^ity CfyUm,] 
Mr«. Anna C. Ha^tingi&« Manepy, 
Kjttc E. Hft^tings Mancpy, 
Richard C, Hastings, Oodfxtpiliy. 
Minnie B. Ha.siing!H. 
Samuel W, Howiand, D.D^ Dfetdcotta, 
Mary E, K. HowUnd. 
Su&an R, Howland, Oodoovil1e» 
WilUjim W. Howbnd, OodooviUe, 
Thonia5i S. Smith, J ilUpally* 
Emily &L Smith. 

HONG KONG MISSION. 
Chajr1e« R. Hager, Hong Kong, China. 

{ohn R. T*ylnr, Hong Kong. 
riUiaB L. Taylor. 

FUOCHUW MISSION. 
[General pustal address — CAtMa."] 
Caleb C. BaJdvi^in. O.D., FoocHow. 
Haimet F. Baldwin. 

Georpe M. Gardner, Shao-wu, Foochcrw, 
Mary I. (Gardner. 
Ehic Si, trarretson, Foochow, 
•Charles Hart well, Foachow, 
•Hannah U Hart well. 
•Emily S. HariwclL Foochow. 
Ocorge H. Hubbarcl, Foochow. 
Nellie L. Hubbard. 

Hitrdwam A. KtnmtAr^ M.D^ Foochow. 
Hannah J. Kinnear. 
•Ella J. >cwton, Foochow. 
1,.1'man P. Peet, roochow. 
Caroline K. Peel, 

JoKph E. Walker, Shao-wu, Foochow. 
•Adelaide C. W:ilker, 

Htnry 7\ IVkitHty^ M,D.^ Shao-i^u, Foochow. 
Luric Ann V^liiniey. 
HannAh C VV.hmJKuII, Foochow- 
K^te C. WoodhulU M.D., Fctochow. 
Simeon F» Wtvxliti, Fo«<how. 
Sarah L. Wood in. 

NORTH CHINA MISSION. 
[General |)o&ul addrea*— CA/i»«.J 
•Edward E. Aikcn, Peking. 
Williiuii S. A men I, Peking. 
Mary A. Ament* 

•Harlan P. BeacH, Tung-cho, Pekbg. 
•Lucy L. Beach. 
HeOH' Hlodget. D.D., Peking. 
Sarah F. R. BlodKct- 
Htmry 7. Baftuttck^ Tientsin. 
Amelia L. Bos t wick. 

•Franklin M. Chapin, Lin-Ching, Tientsin. 
•Flora M. Chapin, 
lane E. Chapin, Peking. 
Naomi Diamenij Kalg.711, Peking- 
Jane G- Evans, I'ung-cho, Peking, 
•Hugh W. Fraier, Paxj-ting-fa, Ttentsin, 
•Susan Fraser. 

Chauncey Goodrich, Tung^cho, Peking. 
Sarah B, Goodrich. 
Ada Haven, Peking, 

Tawr/ H. Imgram^ M.D.^ Tung-cho, Felcing. 
Sal lie V. Ingram. 
Henry Kitigin.-»n, Tientsin. 
Annie L. IGngman. 

Mrs. /. Lillian McBride, Kalgan, Peking, 
C /*. H\ Mfrritt, M.D.^ Pao-ting-fu,TlcntMn. 
AnnaC. Mcrriit, 
Ltiella Miner, Tung<cho, Peking. 
Mary 8. Morrill, Pao-tine-ly^ Tientsin. 
•Virgifiia C. Murdock, M.D., Kalgan, Peking. 
•A iter t P. Peck, Af.D., Pang4:huang, Tientsin, 
•Celia r Peck. 

Henry P. Pcrkiui. Lm-Ching, Tientsin, 
Ettetla A. Perkins M.D. 
'Isaac Pterson, PAtMing-fu, Tientsin, 
•Flora H. Pier^on. 

Heary D. Porter, M.D., PangjChuatig* Tientsin, 
EUiabcth C. Porter. 
James H. Roberta, Kmlgan, Peking. 
Grace L. Roberts. 
Kdlie N. Russell. Peking. 
•Devello Z. Shvflield, Tung^o, Peking, 
•Eleanor W. Sheffield. 
Arthur H. Smith, Pang-Chuang, Tientsin* 



Emma J. Smith. 

•William P. Spranuc, K^tlgan, Peking. 

•Margaret S. Sprague. 

Chitrlca A, Stanley, Tientsin. 

Ui^ul.1 Stanley. 

Mary E. Stanley, Tientsin. 

Klwofxl G. Tcwksbur>', Tung-cho, Peking. 

{"irace H. Tewk.sbnry. 

Edward /?. H'ngner^ jV,/?., Lin-Ching, Tientiin. 

Myriie C. W.igncr 

M.irk Williams, K.^lgan. Peking. 

Kubell.^ B. Willi;un.H. 

H.tinwe Wyckrrfl, Pang-Chuang. TienL-un. 

E. Gertrude WyckotT, Pang-Chuang, Tientsin. 

SHANSI MISSION. 
[General postal address— Carr i',S, Cemmiate^ Titn- 

/.ri'iv, Ckima.] 
Ireneiu. J. At wood, M^D., Fen-chow-fu. 
Annette W. Atwood. 
Rowcna Bird, Tai-kii, 
D wight H, Clapp, Tai-ku. 
Mary J[, Clapp. 
Frtincis W. Davis, Tat-ku. 
Lydia C. Davis, 

?'£ttnft Cold*6wry^ Jr,, Af.D.^ Tai-ku. 
!ar>' G. Goldi^bury. 
Finnic D. Hewitt, T^ii-kut 
Charlci. W. Price, Tai-ku. 
F.va J. Price- 

♦Fninris M. Price, Fen-chow-fu. 
♦Sarah T. Price. 
James B. Thompson, Fennchow-fu. 

JAPAN MISSION. 
[General postal address — ya/am.^ 
Geoi-ge E. Albrechi, Kyoto. 
Leonora B. Albreclii, 
George Allchin, Of-^aka. 
Nellie M. A Ik bin. 
John L. Aikiown, Kobe. 
Carrie E. Atkinson. 
MarttiA J. Barrows, Kobe. 
•Sttmuf/ r. Barihtt, Jr., Kyoto* 
7oAm C. Btrry^ M.D.^ Kyoto, 
Maria E. Bt'rr>'. 
Emily M. Brown, Kobe^ 
Edmund Bncklry, Kyoto*. 
Sara C. But kle\ , M.D. 
Chaunccy M. Cady, Kyoto. 
Virginia A. Cady, 
OtU Cary*. Osaka. 
Ellen M. Cary, 
Cynis A. Clark, Kumamato. 
Harriet M. Clark. 
Marth,-i j. Clark, Kumamoto, 
•Abbic M.Colby, liu. 
Mar)* B. Dflitiiels, Osaka, 
♦Anna V, Davis, Kube. 
Jemme O. Davis, D',D.., Kyoto. 
Frances H. Davis. 
Mary F. Dcnlcjn, Kyota 
Adelaide Drtughaday, Osaka. 
Julia F. Dud lev, Knbc. 
Fannie A. Gardner, T*u. 
Alm^ma Gill, Okayama. 
M, Lafayette Gordon, M.D., D.D,, Kyoto, 
Agnes H. Gordon. 
M^. I^uite Grave^i, Kobe, 
Fantiy F^ Griswold, Kumamoto. 
(ohn T, Gil lick J Oi^ka. 
Frances A. Gulick. 
Orramel H. Gulick, KumamotOi 
Ann E. Gulick. 

Julia A. E, (fulick, Kumamoto. 
Sidney L. GuHck, KumamDto>. 
Can* M, Gulick. 
Effie B. (fUnni.Min, Matsuyama* 
Arthur r. /////, Kobe. 
Louise E. Hill. 

Mary A. Holbrook, M.D., TotlcrL 
Annie L. Howe, Kobe. 
Cornelia ludson, Mat^uyama, 
Dwight W. Learned, Ph,D., Kyoto^ 
Florence H. Learned, 
Ida A. Mcl..ennan, Okayama* 
Jiunes. H. Pet tec, Okayama* 
lsabeU.1 W. Pet tee. 
Mary Potvle, O^aka, 
Cfeorge M. Rowland, Tottori. 
Helen A. Rowland. 
SuiAn A. Sc.irlc, Kobe. 
Claude M. Severance, Tottori, 
Ida V, Smith, Kyoio. 
Arthur W. Stanford, Kyoto. 

fene H. Stanfrjrd. 
ra A. Stone, Tottori. 
Eliia Talcoil, Kyoto. 
Wallace Taylor, M.D.» Osaka^ 
Mary F, Taylrm 
Caroline M. Telford, Osaka. 
Mary E. Wainright, Kyoto. 
Florence While, Kyoto. 
Frank N. WTriie, Tsu, 
Jennie A. White. 
Schuyler S. White, Okayama, 

NORTHERN JAPAN MISSION, 
[General postal address— 7a/a«i,| 

Annie H. Bradshaw, Scndai 
Clara L. Brown, Niigaia. 



GenniUe Cr.i;ad, Ntigata, 

William L, Curtis, SendaL 

itcrtrtide A. Cunih. 

Willfam W. Curti.*, Sendai, 

Lydia V. t'urti*. 

John ir, Dc Fr,rc*t, D.D., SendaL 

Sarah E. De Foreat. 

Daniel C. Greene, D.D., Tokyo, is Nako No cho 

Tchigaya, 
^f ar\f K Greene, * 

MathiJdc H. Meyer, SendaL 
Horatio B. Newell, Naj^aoka. 
Jane C, Newell. 
Hilton Pcdlcy, Niigatn. 
•Doremus ScuddcT, M,D,, Niigito. 
•EliJta C. Scudder. 
Elizabeth Toney, Nitgata. 

MJCRONESlAN MISSION, 
[General ^kk^IjiI address— C*»r/ Rttf, £7, P, SMfr^nt, 

Hornet Hi u^ /A /.J 
Hiram Bineham, Honolulu. 
Clara B, Bingham. 
Irving .M. Channon, Kusaie. 
Mary L. Chan n on. 
•E, Theodora Cro>by, Ku>aie. 
T. Estclla FIcichcr, Ponapc, 
Mrs, Rachel C- Fnrbe^, Kusaie* 
Ida C. FoNs, Ponape. 
Jessie R, Hop pin, Kusaie, 
Ro*c M. Kinney, Rnk. 
Alice C- Little, Kusaie. 
Mr*. Maiy E. Lngan, Ruk. 
Annette A. Palmer, Ponape. 
Edmund .M. Pea5.e, MTJ., Kusaie. 
Harriet A. Peas-c. 
Frank E. Rand, Ponape. 
Carrie T. Rand. 
Sarah L, Smith, Kuvaie. 
Alfred Snellin^t;, Hnk. 
ElijadMith M. Snelline. 
Alfred C. Walkup, Kusaie. 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 
Charle* M. Hyde, D.D., Honolulu, H. L 
Mary Knight Hyde, 
Wm. D. Wenterxch.Waikiku- 
Cbra L.Wc%tcrvelr, 

WESTERN MEXICO MISSION. 
[General postal address — Mtjeito^ vftt El Pat0 i 

Belle M, Haskins, Guadalajara. 
John Howland, Guadalajara. 
Sarah B. Howland. 

NORTHERN MEXICO MISSION. 
[General postal address — Aftxica,\ 
Henry M. Bis^ell, P.-»rral, via El Paso, Texat. 
Ella M. Hij,scl. 

Alden B. Case, Parrat, via El Pa'KJi Texas. 
Myra G. Ca.vc. 
Matthew A. Crawford, Hermo^lllo, Sonorck, via 

Niigale*, 
Harriet J. Crawford. 

Mary Dunning, Chihtiahua, vtn £1 Pa»o, Tevas. 
James D. Eaton, Chihuahua, via £1 Paso, Tek.aa. 
Gertrude C, Eaton, • 

Otis C. Olds, Ciudad Juarei. 

Ellen O. Prescott. Chihuahua, via El Paso, Tesaa. 
Alfred C. Weight, Ciudad Juarc*, — 

Annie C. Wright. 

MISSION TO SPAIN. 
[General postal address— ^-frvwrV/^ ^, SafI Sfimtiimm^ 

Catherine H. Barbour, San Sebaatian, 
Willi.im H. (.ulick. San Sebasctan, 
•Alice G<»rdoii Gulick. 

MISSION TO AUSTRIA. 
Albert W. Clark, Prague, Smichov, Schwartrcnberf 

Str, 63, Austria. 
Ruth E. Clark. 

FORMER MISSIONARIES RESIDENT AT THR 
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 
[General postal address — Huttmiian IiiamdSt\ 
Dwight Baldwin, M.D,, Honolulu. 
Eliajh Bond, Kohula, HawaiL 
Mrv, Sarah B. Lym.in, Hilo, Hawaii. 
I. D, Pari;., Kaawaloa. Hawaii. 
Mary C. Paris. 

Mra. Mar}!- E, Parker, Honolulu. 
LowcU Smith, D.D„ Honolulu. 
Mrs. Melicent K, Smith, Koloa, 



The Women's National Indian Asso- 
ciation met in annuai session in Boston 
last November. The receipts of the mrs* 
sionar)' department had been $8,762 72* 
Missions had been organized at sixteen 
different points among the Indians. The 
corresponding secretary' is Miss Helen R, 
Foote, 2,105 Spnice Street, Philadelphia. 



46 



NOTES AND COMMENTS, 



Botes ^nb Conrmtnts. 



Genem] J. F. Rusling, of Trenton, N. 
J.p has been elected a member of the 

Board of Managers of the Missionary So- 
ciety, in place of C C. North, deceased. 

h resolution was adopted last month 
by the Board of Managers of the Mission^ 

ary Society giving leave of absence to 
Recording Secretary Baldwin, lo enable 
him to accompany Bishop Foster on his 
visit to the Missions in China* Korea, and 
Japan. Dr, Baldwin was for many years 
a missioiiary in China, and it is believed 
that his going will be of considerable as- 
sistance to the Bishop, refresh and bless 
the missions, and help to itxspirc the home 
churches after his return by his represen- 
tations of the work in the foreij^n field. 
The Bishop and Dr, Baldwin will leave 
this month and probably be absent six 
months. 

Under the heading of " Missionary So- 
cieties " will be given each month an ac- 
count of different societies as full and 
complete as that of the American Board 
in this number, taking up all the societies 
as rapidly as possible. The magazine 
for 1 891 and 1892 will contain the fullcsi 
and most complete record of missionary 
societies and missionary work ever pub- 
lished, and can be used for several years 
thereafter for reference as a cyclopedia. 
As the matter will not be repeated in 
subsequent numbers, it is important that 
all our subscribers preserve their copies 
either for future reference for themselves, 
or to sell to others. 



The Indian Witness, October 25, con- 
tains an editorial and a symposium on the 
Division of the Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church into a For- 
eign and Domestic Board. All the writ- 
ers are in favor of such a division except 
one, J. H. Messmore, who believes that 
the home work would suffer by such a 
division. The editor of the Witness 
thinks that merely separating the funds, 
without a separation of the committee in 
control of the funds, would be a tempor- 
izing compromise, unworthy of the 
Church and insufficient to meet the press- 
ing needs of each field. Rev. E. F. 
Frease believes that the result of the di- 
vision would be a possible decrease in the 
amounts for the home work for perhaps 
a year or two, and then a rapid increase, 
while from the first the foreign work 
would be a decided gainer. 

The missionary apportionments for the 
year were referred by the General Com- 
mittee to the Board of Managers, with 



power to make them, and the latter, at its 
meeting last month, referred them to a 
committee. This committee, of which 
Dr- Goucher was chairman* held a meet- 
ing, but were not able to reach a conclu- 
sion in the time alloued, and so reported. 
They vvere then cbthed with power to fix 
the apportionments, and at a later meet* 
ing made the apportionments to the Con- 
ferences and also to the districts and 
churches. These have been forwarded to 
the presiding elders for their opinion, 
and when they report the Committee will 
hold another meeting and decide as lo the 
apportionments to the charges, and then 
this will be announced. It is hoped that 
in this way the objections that have been 
urged against the apportionments will be 

obviated. 

-♦*p ^ 

Sftl^bAtli Obii«rr«ti«r bj Itie Cvlumblftn 
Expunltton, 

The Board of Managers of our Mission- 
ary' Society, at their meeting on December 
16, unanimously adopted the folbwinii, ttr 
be sent to the Directors of the Columbian 
Exposition to be held in Chicago ; 

Gentlemen: In common with all 
good citizens we are greatly interested in 
the success of the Columbian Exposition, 
aiidanvious thai it he f^o conchutecl iis to 
reflect the highest honor upon American 
people, and show to the whole world 
what a free people can accomplish under 
the inspiration and guidance of the Chris- 
tian religion. 

We regret to learn that a great press- 
ure is being brought to bear upon you to 
keep the gates of the Exposition open on 
the Christian Sabbath. We are slow to 
believe that there is even a possibility that 
you will shock the Christian sentiment of 
the United States, and of the whole world 
as well, by yielding to the demands of 
antichristian influences at this important 
epoch in our national history. 

This Board of Managers of the Mis- 
sionary Society of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, having in charge great Chris- 
tian interests both in the United States 
and many foreign countries, and in the 
name of the 14,000 ministers and the 
2,250,000 of lay members it represents in 
missionary work, respectfully and earnestly 
protest against open gates on the Chris- 
tian Sabbath during the continuance of 
the Columbian Exposition. 



Thrilling: New* from India. 

BY SECRKTARY J. O. PECK, D.D. 

Rev. C. L. Bare. D.D.. Presiding Elder 
of Rohilcund District, North India Con- 
ference, sends the following thrilling news 
to the mission rooms. While cholera is 
raging around him and in his field, still 



with fine heroism he is pressing the bat* 
lie to glorious victory. Every indication 
points in the near future to such over- 
whelming numbers turning to Christ in 
India as will eclipse any thing that has 
ever occurred in foreign mission fields in 
the history of the work. 

Let every reader of this letter pray ear- 
nestly for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit 
on India and its workers, and let them 
consecrate their means to the work of the 
world's redemption with as generous a 
spirit of devotion to Christ as these work- 
ers show in the harvest-field of the Master. 
Send into the treasury great increase of 
your gifts to the Lord to buy the shining 
sickles to reap the golden harvests that 
are already white to the hand of the 
reapers. 

" Reports of great victories are coming 
in so thick and fast that I cannot keep 
still. The Lord is giving us the people. 
I hesitate to place the emphasis on 'us,' 
and yet 1 must, for it's the truth. I quote 
from letters just to hand from only two 
brethren. Brother Hasan Roza Khan 
writes that he has just baptized fifty per- 
sons in Soron, where the Church Mission 
(Church of England) have been at work 
for twenty-five years, but had no visible 
fruits of their labors. A Christian magis- 
trate in India gave me 300 rupees for vil- 
lage work in response to my appeal. I 
gave Brother Hasan Roza Khan 150 ru- 
pees of this for his work on the Kasgunge 
Circuit. That was two and a half months 
ago. 

"He now writes that he opened four 
schools with this money among Christians 
and inquirers, but after two months all 
the pupils and their parents had become 
Christians. Each of these four schools 
has now from thirty to forty boys and 
girls reading, all Christians. He has just 
returned from a tour through his circuit, 
during which he baptized thirty-five, four 
of whom are Mohammedans. 

" A very remarkable thing occurred to 
him on this tour. It was this: People 
hearing that he was in a neighboring vil- 
lage, baptizing the people, dispatched one 
of their number to urge him to visit their 
village and ' make them Christians,* as 
they termed it. This occurred several 
times. He has made a rough estimate of 
all villages and the number of their people 
ready for baptism, and he believes there 
are fifteen villages whose inquirers amount 
to 3,000. He says they ask for only a 
Christian teacher to teach their children. 
They themselves will furnish a house and 
all else. I am puzzled. I don't know 
what to do. He asks whether he shall go 
ahead and baptize these 3,000 people. 
They have heard that we furnish Chris- 



OUR MI SSI ON AH IBS A AD MISSIONS, 



tian teachers as far as we are able. These 
act as pastors as we!) as teach. He fears 
to baptize thenip and I am writing him to 
baptize no more than he can follow wp 
and care for. I am urging him to take 
care of all he has baptized and go no 
taster than he can conser\T« 

** Dr. Wilson, of Budaon, writes that he 
has just rctynietl from a lour on which he 
had baptized 180, more than half of whom 
live in Aligarh, where the Church Mission 
have been at work with little visible re- 
sults for more than twenty-five years. 

"' The work is opening in Agra, There 
have been over sixly baptisms there ihis 
year— an old mission field, I don't know 
what effect it will have upon our work, 
but cholera is raging fearfully in some 
parts of our field/' 



(^ur Pisstonnrits ml pissions. 

Rev, A. W. Greenman and wife left 
last month to re-enforce our South Amer- 
ican Mission. Brother Greenman was 
for several years a successful missionar)- 
in Mexico. 

Rev. Ira W. Cartwdght and wife leave 
this month for our Mission in Mexico, 

Rev. J. C. Floy. D.D., and wife will 
soon leave to strengthen our Malaysia 
Mission. The health of Dr. Oldham 
prevents his return, and Dr, Floy has been 
appointed the Superintendent of the Mis- 
sion. 

Rev. W. Ken sett writes from Singapore* 
October 20: " Yesterday two more Chinese 
were baptized^ and our first Chinese 
church was organized, consisting of nine 
members and ten probationers. At 
present we have no church and no money 
with which to build one ; but we know 
that 'the earth is the Lord's and the full- 
ness (money) thereof/ " 

Rev. Frederick Brown writes from 
Tientsin. China, October 171" Last night 
the members of our Wesley Chapel pre- 
sented ver>^ pretty banners to Dr. Gloss 
and Mrs, Jewell on their leaving for home. 
Both ladies have worked hard and suc- 
cessfully for years here, and their health 
has given out and they must seek rest in 
the ho me- land. We greatly regret the 
necessity of their leaving." 

Rev. Fawcclt N. Shaw wntcs from 
Nagpore^ India : "Almost every preacher 
thai has had charge of our English 
Church here has attempted a little work 
among the natives with more or less suc- 
cess ; but the few Christians were mostly 
drawn away from us by a Plymouth 
brother who arrived here a year ago. I 
found one vernacular school here w hen 1 



came in February last, and have since 
opened anolhen which has met with re- 
markable success. We have an earnest 
Christian Eurasian teacher. The Script* 
ures and our Church Catechism are 
taught daily, Our Sunday-schools are 
doing well, I am teaching a class in 
Hindustani." 

The Romhay Guardian of November 
22 contains a letter written from Madras. 
November 1 7, w hich says : " Wc are glad 
to report the conversion of two Hindu 
young mtn of high caste to Christianity. 
Messrs. Loganatha Moodelly and Raja- 
suthina Moodelly were, in the presence of 
the English congregation of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, Flroadway, baptised 
yesterday evening by the Rev. W. F. G. 
Curties, these having satisfactorily and 
courageously answered certain questions 
put to them at the rite of baptism. These 
new converts were for a long time seek- 
ers after truth, but it was only a few weeks 
ago that they thoroughly made up their 
minds to join God's people. They have 
given up all for Christ — ^even that mighty 
enslaver. €iisit\ which indicates how thor- 
oughly imbued they are with the Spirit of 
Christ — and determined to follow the 
path in all things w^hich that Spirit indi- 
c a t es. Raj asu t h i n a M o od e 1 1 y i s n o w cal led 
Paul Rajasulhina.'* 

Of Rev, A. J, Maxwell, of our India 
Missions, who died of cholera at Luck- 
now. October 20, Rev. Dr. B. H, Badley 
writes as follows ; " Brother Maxwell was 
educated at Allegheny College and Boston 
Theological Seminary, He came to India 
seven years ago and spent four years as 
pastor of the English (Methodist) Church 
at Cawnpore. During the past two years 
he has served as agent of the Lucknow 
Publishing House, which he raised to a 
high standard of efficiency, making it al- 
most self-sup[X)rt{ng. His health failed 
last May, and he spetit the summer at 
Almora ; he improved greatly and had 
made arrangements for going home. 
Bishop Thoburn wrote him to do nothing 
more in the publishing house. Dr. Waugh 
having been appointed agent. Had 
Brother Maxwell obeyed his life might 
have been spared. He returned to Luck- 
now a fortnight ago. and felt it his duty 
to finish the yearly balance-sheet \ he 
went to the press last Monday morning 
to work at this ; he was attacked by chol- 
era and taken home fainting. Every thmg 
was done that could be, but all \w vain ; 
he passed away at ten o'clock Monday 
night. He died at his post. Besides his 
regular work Brother Maxwell served two . 
years as Conference Treasurer and three 
years as editor of India s VoufJ^ Folks, a 
fortnightly publication, which he estab- 1 



lishcd. He loaves a wife and child. May 
this new-made grave in Lucknow lead 
some young man to offer himself for work 
in India! The soldiers are falling, but 
the flag must not fall y 



C«o4>d ^ew» nr0ni f lilna. 

BV REV. N. J. PLUMB. 

It affords me much pleasure to report 
the settlement of a troublesome niatter in 
the Hoh Chiang District, which for some 
time threatened to cause great harm to 
the work and the permanent alienation of 
the two churches in that district. 

During last winter some trouble arose 
between members of the Anglican church. 
The wife of one of them was a daughter 
of a member of the Methodist church. 
Her parents and friends interfered to pro- 
tect the daughter from insult and injury, 
which it was alleged she had suffered at 
their hands. 

This involved members of both churches, 
and the feeling and excitement became 
j vcr)' general. The pastors and others 
made strong efforts to adjust the difficulty, 
but without success, and prosecution be- 
fore the district magistrate was determined 
upon by the Anglican party. 

Finally matters became very serious, 
and a strong plea came up for the mission- 
aries to come ilown and attempt a private 
adjustment. There being no one else who 
could then go, I went down and spent 
some days in tr)'ing to get the case with- 
drawn from the magistrate, to whom it 
had by this time been carried, and get 
it settled by a mid die- man. My efibrts 
were, however, unavailing, as the Angli- 
can parly were averse to this course. 

The matter thus rested, with the pros* 
pect of great harm and disgrace to the 
churches from their going to law before 
the heathen. The prosecution did not, 
however, succeed as they expected, and at 
length lack of success, and, we may be- 
lieve, the Spirit of the Lord, brought about 
a better state of mind, and the litigants 
were willing to withdraw the case, and the 
whole matter was happily adjusted, as it 
might have been six months before. 
The pastor reports the conduct of the of- 
ficial in the case as most admirable. He 
urged ypon both parlies the importance 
of private arbitration^ and pointed out the 
great impropriety of Christians quarreling 
and going to law ; and in order to facilitate 
a settlement of the matter remitted the 
customary fees on both sides, and did all 
he could toward a complete and satisfac- 
tory a<ljustment. 

In reporting the case to me, Brother 
Sia Heng To said the Lord's hand was 
evidently in it, producing a result which 
no one had anticipated, and all are greatly 




43 



A CALL FOR HELP FROM LIBERIA, 



delighted at the satisfactory settlement of 
a matter which had given us much anx- 
iety, and about which much earnest prayer 
had been oflfered. Such manifest answers 
to our prayers should encourage to stronger 
faith in God's power. 

I am also happy to say that a ver>' in- 
teresting revival is in progress here in 
Tieng Ang Tong. This began some weeks 
ago, with an hour of prayer each evening 
by the theological students in their recita- 
tion-room. 

The young men were greatly revived, 
and the interest increased so that about a 
work ago meetings were commenced in 
the church. An earnest spirit of work is 
manifested by the students, resulting in 
the bringing in of many of the heathen 
neighbors who are now interested listeners 
to the truth. These meetings were com- 
menced and have thus far been carried 
on by the native brethren, and there seems 
to be an earnest desire for the salvation 
of souls. 

We are looking and praying for a thor- 
ough revival of the Lord's work and a 
great baptism of the Holy Spirit. 

Brother Wilcox is now in Ku Ching, 
where he expects very soon to move his 
family and occupy the new residence re- 
cently completed. Dr. Gregory has made 
a contract for a house to be built there, 
and is planning to move up there in a short 
time. 

Good reports come from* Hinghwa, 
where Dr. Lite and Brother Brewster are 
now. We are g^atly pleased at the trans- 
fer of Brother Brewster to our work from 
Singapore. He will soon be married to 
Miss Fisher, and they will make Hinghwa 
their residence and field of labor. 

The establishment of these mission sta- 
tions in the interior will, we believe, mark 
a new era in the history of our mission 
work, and be the means of great good to 
the native Church. We have been hoping 
for these for some years, and are glad of 
so speedy an accomplishment of our de- 
sires. Pray that they may more than ful- 
fill our most sanguine expectations. 

Foochow, China, October 4, 1890. 



A Call for Help fyom Ijiberla. 

BY REV. WILLIAM P. KENNEDY, JR. 

Permit me through one of your columns 
to say to our brethren in America, Come 
over and help us. Africa is considered by 
the civilized nations of the earth to be the 
dark continent. In the midst of its dark- 
ness and superstition there are millions of 
precious souls being dragged by the prince 
of darkness down to hell. God, in his in- 
finite mercy, has planted a colony of free 
Negroes in their fathers' land, and from 
this colony a light is bursting forth, and 



struggling through much opposition to 
illuminate this part of our dark land. To 
the Macedonian cry, Come over and help 
us, the inquiry is, 

" Shall you, whose souls are lighted 
With wisdom from on high. 

Shall you to men benighted 
The lamp of life deny ? " 

What a sacrifice Jesus made for your 
redemption, and for Africa's redemption ; 
nav, for the whole world. Shall not the 
Africans have a part in the first resurrec- 
tion when Christ comes again ? Though 
the skin of the race is black, is there not 
power in the blood of Jesus to wash their 
souls whiter than snow ? Is he not also 
able to save them unto the uttermost? 
Did he not stoop from heaven to earth to 
lift them from earth to heaven ? There is 
power in his blood to wash them white, 
for he washed me white though my skin 
is black ; he is able to save unto the utter- 
most because he saves me now. He did 
stoop to raise them up, for he raised me. 
Glory to his name ! 

To you, my race in America, I cry, 
Have you forsaken your fathers' land? 
Have you no love for Africa and your 
brethren here? Verily, you have had 
many evil and false reports from some of 
the race in America, who, no doubt, acted 
as spies sent here, who loved too well the 
flesh-pots of Egypt ; verily, you may have 
had many evil and false reports from white 
men who hate the race ; verily, your sur- 
roundings in America maybe too tempting 
unto you ; but are there not some Joshuas 
and Calebs among both whites and blacks 
that have said to you. Let us go up and 
possess Africa for Jesus, for we are fully 
able to overcome ? White brethren, the cry 
is to you. Come over and help us to save 
Africa. Are you afraid of the African 
malaria ? God is able to save in Africa 
as well as in Europe, Asia, and America. 
Try him ! 

Our venerable father. Bishop William 
Taylor, is doing a g^and work in Africa 
for Jesus. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Liberia, I believe, is assuming 
a new and lively future. I am thankful to 
almighty God for the spirit of activity on 
this district this year ; many precious souls 
have been saved from their sins, and 
added to the Christian Church. The out- 
look on this district is grand and encour- 
aging. The brethren are hard at work 
for their Lord and Master. 

Besides my pastoral labor in Greenville 
and my labor as Presiding Elder of the 
Sinoe District, I am trying to open a field, 
or a new station, in Blue Barrah. I am 
having erected a small thatch-house for the 
present, and occupy the field at once. The 
natives are very anxious to have a mission- 
ary among them. I have selected this place 
as my future field. I hope to be success- 
ful in raising here the standard of Christ, 
and unfolding his blood-stained banner, 
be instrumental in bringing many from 
darkness into light. The natives are 
poor and unable to do much. Who will 
help in this g^eat cause ? I hope the Com- 
mittee will remember this expected ad- 
vance next year in their next annual meet- 
ing, as it has the sanction of Bishop Will- 
iam Taylor. 



^rssbnarjj ^xitx'dAmu 



The American Board Almanac of MiS' 
sions for 1891 contains valuable informa- 
tion in regard to all foreign mission work, 
especially that of the American Board. 
Price, 10 cents. It is for sale by Charles 
E. Swett, I Somerset Street, Boston* 
Mass. 

Social and Religious Life in tki 
Orient is issued by the American Tract So- 
ciety, New York. Price, $1. It is written by 
K.H. Basmajian, an Armenian, and gives a 
very clear and satisfactory account of the 
customs and religious beliefs of the Ar- 
menians, Mohammedans, Russians, and 
Nestorians. This is especially true of that 
relating to the Armenians. 

Serpen Years in Ceylon, by Mary and 
Margaret W. Leitch. is published by the 
American Tract Society. Price, 75 cents. 
The illustrations are many, and the stories 
of mission life among the Singhalese in- 
teresting. We rejoice in the multiplica- 
tion of such books, and hope they will be 
placed in the hands of many of our young 
people. 

James Calvert; or. From Dark to 
Dawn in Fiji, is published by Fleming 
H. Revel), of New York and Chicago. 
Price, 75 cents. James Calvert still lives 
to tell the thrilling story of his fifty years* 
work in Fiji. The book is written by R. 
Vernon from matter furnished by Mr. Cal- 
vert, and should find a place in every 
Sunday-school library. 

Henry Martyn, By Jesse Page. Pub- 
lished by Fleming H. Revell. Price, 75 
cents. The labors of Henry Martyn in 
India and Persia were abundant, and the 
record should be enduring. The biogra- 
phy here given is stimulating as well as 
interesting. On the stone raised above 
the spot where he lies buried near Bag- 
dad are engraved the words, " One who 
was known in the East as a man of 
God." 

American Heroes on Mission Fields 
contains biographies of Mrs. C. G. Schauf- 
fler, Dr. H. S. West, Rev. D. T. Stoddard, 
Dr. A. Grant, Dr. William Goodsell, Rev. 
Titus Coan, Dr. H. G. O. Dwight, Dr. S. 
Wells Williims, Dr. E. C. Bridgman. 
Miss J. A. Rappleye, Rev. Adoniram 
Judson, Dr. W. G. Schauffler. Rev. John 
Eliot. These are written by different 
persons, and edited by Dr. H. C. Haydn, 
of Cleveland, O. They are inspiring 
records of faithful missionaries. Well 
written, we shall be glad to know that 
they are well read. They are published 
by the American Tract Society. Price, 
$1 25. 




Eugene R. Smith/D.D», 
Editor, 



FEBRUARY, iB9i. 



Fiah Ave, A 20th St., 
N«w York Crty, 



.i^Miip, -ftrii r.-'if I ni!tiii!5itim iiiiii \y,\n. \\.a,\\,. r.t'.i.rii.riiMrEiiiiiii inn »i< i:ii i.| .1 m 1 




4 



4 



A CHtNESK MANDARIN, 



60 



SERVING THE LORD, 



^0etri| anir Song. 



SerTing the Lord. 

BY F. J. STEVENS. 

The world around you lieth in guilt and sin, 
And daily some soul dieth that you might win. 
Be earnest and full service do, 
For Christ hath left this work with you. 

The world knows well your duty, and knowledge takes 
Of those who tread in beauty the path Christ makes. 
If you in winning souls would share, 
A zeal intense rich fruit will bear. 

Be like your Master, lowly, submissive, meek ; 
Of thoughts and actions holy let each day speak. 
In virtue, truth, the heart make sure ; 
God's brightest gifts await the pure. 

With wisdom time dividing improve the day. 
And not in ease abiding cast it away ; 
For soon the dzrrkening hour shall fall 
When ends for us his service call. 

To work his harvest calleth ; lo ! it is white. 
His word on your ear falleth ; work with thy might. 
His servants his commands obey. 
So be thou diligent to-day. 



Marib, Morh, Slarg. 



^^It Is the Will of God/' 

BY REV. ERNEST G. WESLEY. 

Could the hosts called together by the fiery eloquence 
of Peter the Hermit use these words as their rallying 
cry.? With much more truth and confidence in God 
can the hosts now called to the work of modern mis- 
sions throw out their skirmish lines, mass heavily to 
their support, and advance the banners of the Lord 
Christ far to the front with the glorious consciousness, 
'*It is the will of God. It is the will of God that the 
world shall be brought to the knowledge of Jesus 
Christ." 

The will of God holds the success of missions within 
its mighty grasp. He defends the van with all the 
strength of heaven ; he protects the rear with his own 
eternal power. Let the human fulfill the conditions of 
its own side, and without doubt the divine will is, ad- 
vance, encounter, conflict, victory, conquest, glory. 

Not quite a century has passed since the Church be- 
gan to awake to realize the meaning of what Wellington 
aptly called its ** marching orders" — namely, "Go ye 
into all the world," etc. Within these hundred years 
how wonderfully has the will of God worked out the 
design of Christ ! If such great results have followed 
such partial efforts on the human side (for thus far the 
Church, as a whole, has done little more than " play at 
missions "), what would have been the results had the 
efifort of the Church been a hundred-fold more earnest } 
What will not be the results just as soon as the Church 



of Christ really girds itself for the fray, keeps the Lord's 
treasury replenished and running over, keeps the ranks 
of the mission army filled with the best material, and 
devotes its whole energy, wealth, talents, prayer, time, 
health, opportunity to the conquest of the world for 
Christ? We are wholly unable to place the possible 
limit-mark anywhere short of the undisputed Lordship 
and Kingship of Christ over the whole earth ! 

Just a glance over the field will make most apparent 
the outworkings of the " will of God : " 

India : Seventy-eight or eighty years since mission- 
aries forbidden to land ; years of God's long-sufTering 
with the East India Company ; its fearful overthrow by 
the mutiny; India opened for missions with scarcely any 
restrictions (governmental); and to-day 6,200 male and 
female foreign workers, nearly 31,000 native laborers, 
with at least 1,000,000 adherents, more or less brought 
under the power of the Gospel of Christ, a large per- 
centage professed Christians. It is clearly the ** will of 
God" that India shall be Christ's! 

Japan : Thirty years since closed against missionaries; 
then the unlocking of her gates; to-day 274 churches, 
527 missionaries, over 31,000 native Christians, with 
nearly 22,000 Sunday-school scholars. Is it not the 
** will of God " that Japan is to be the Lord's ? 

China : In 1807 not one convert; in 1843 not twelve; 
now about 33,000, with little less than 250,000 adherents. 
Is it not clear that the "will of God " holds China for 
Christ } 

Madagascar : Entered about fifty years ago by our 
Lord's servants ; in 1857 2,000 martyrs from among the 
native Christians, as heroic and true as those of old ; 
to-day between 60,000 and 70,000 native converts, with 
little short of 250,000 adherents. The "will of God" 
claims Madagascar for Christ. 

Fiji Islands : Never trod by missionaries of the cross 
before the year 1835; to-day about eighty-three percent, 
of the population converted to Christ, worshiping him 
in over 800 churches. Already the "will of God" has 
conquered the " will of sin " in these islands ! 

Sandwich Islands: In 1820 little better than naked 
savages sunk in heathenism, polluted, ferocious ; to-day 
a Christian nation which has sent out nearly 100 mis- 
sionaries to evangelize the islands beyond. The **will 
of God " has here won a glorious victory ! 

Africa : Vast, unknown, densely populated ; but a 
few years since Moffat led the advance; but a few years 
since Livingstone pierced its forest heart ; to-day 400,- 
000 converts, within the last five years over 200 native 
martyrs; to-day a thin red line garrisoning about 500 
stations crossing and re-crossing the continent. True, the 
graves are mariy, but who can doubt what the *' will of 
God " designs to accomplish in the Dark Continent ? 

Mission work, enshrined within the " will of God," is 
not in any sense a " failure," and never can be a failure 
until God himself fails. In all this, however, the weak- 
ness and insufficiency of the human is so apparent— 
the human has been so small, so limited, so inadequate 
to the results— that but for the "will of God" the whole 



HANS EGEDE AND HIS WIFE, 



51 



line of missionary advance would have been hurled back 
in the confusion of overwhelming defeat ; but for the 
" will of God " mission effort would have been a dis- 
masted, shattered, helpless, water-logged hulk drifting 
on the rocks of disaster and death. 

From the low elevation on which the Church of Christ, 
as a whole, stands to-day, enough can be seen to con- 
firm every worker in the belief that .before long the 
" will of God " will sweep over the empire of heathen- 
dom — a broad, deep, resistless, overwhelming flood ; its 
force broadening, deepening, as the human more fully 
fulfills its part of the God-given commission. The 
possibilities of the ** latent power" slumbering in our 
Churches to-day are well-nigh boundless ; these pos- 
sibilities are boundless until the last unsaved child of 
man has been told the message of the cross, and, hear- 
ing, has heard to obey or to refuse. If upon the pin- 
ions of faith we rise above where we now stand, our 
horizon expands, it reaches far beyond the near-by hills 
of sight ; the opening glories of the ** beyond '* entrance 
our souls, and the view of what will be as soon as the 
" will of God '* finds no obstacle in the will of man far 
surpasses what may to-day seem the most extravagant 
hopes of the Church, which chiefly depend on the wiy 
of Jehovah as settled in the eternal counsels of heaven. 

Turn from the actual results, as to-day seen, of mis- 
sion work ; look deeper into facts, and clearer yet be- 
comes the intention of the "will of God." Time will 
not permit even the naming of the men and women 
chosen by the divine will to open the doors of India, 
Burma, China, Japan, Africa, Polynesia, Greenland, 
Persia, and the isles of the sea; but a study of their 
lives, of the difficulties overcome, of the privations en- 
dured, of the heroism, fortitude, faith, endurance, sub- 
mission, patience, yes, and — blessed be God — of their 
victories, will bring out even more vividly the power of 
the " will of God," working in and through them in the 
conquest of all opposition, for the onward sweep of the 
Gospel of Jesus our Lord and King. 

Study yet deeper, turn from the facts as seen in results, 
turn from the leaders in their lives, sufferings, toil, and 
reward; turn from these things to the ** plan of campaign ;" 
note the oneness of plan, the skillfully directed move- 
ments (under different leaders, in different fields, seem- 
ingly directed by different organizations), the throwing 
out of skirmish lines (apparently without support), the 
pushing forward of invading columns far from all human 
base of supplies, readiness to receive every attack, guard 
against surprises, no real retreats — constant advance, no 
real defeats — constant victory ; think of all this, and 
more evident than before becomes the workings of the 
**will of God" in the inspiration, direction, protection, 
and success. 

Surely, in view of what has been said, the Church of 
Christ has the right to rely upon the divine will as the 
morive power back of every effort put forth in the bring- 
ing of the world to Christ. Surely, the fact "It is the 
will of God " that the whole empire of heathendom 
should be vanquished by the armies of the Holy One 



should impel the Church to greater liberality, to more 
earnest labor, to more enthusiastic zeal, to grander self- 
denial, to more heroic endurance, to a more unswerving 
faith and trust, to a more whole-souled, united, imme- 
diate advance. 

" It is the will of God ! It is the will of God ! " Let 
this be our cry, and to us comes the answering shout of 
the Church triumphant, ** Alleluiah ! Alleluiah ! The 
Lord Jehovah has spoken, and the kingdoms of the 
world shall become the kingdoms of Christ." 



Hans Egede and His Wife. 

BY REV. A. T. PIERSON, D.D. 

Beyond the arctic circle, off the coast of Norway, 
lie the Loffoden Isles. At the northern hamlet of Vaa- 
gen Hans Egede, by birth a Dane, ministered to an hum- 
ble parish. 

To him and his wife Elizabeth was born a fourth 
child, whom, at the father's request, they called Paul, 
and of whom that father prophesied a career in sym- 
pathy with that of the great missionary to the Gentiles, 

As yet upon their happy home no shadow had fallen. 
But from this time an habitual sadness, or at least pen- 
siveness, characterized Hans Egede, and made his wife 
and even his people both curious and anxious to know 
what secret grief might be nursed in his heart, what sor- 
row or solicitude might oppress him. 

The severe but tender questioning of the wife extorted 
a confession that amid a happy home, devoted church, 
and fruitful ministry he heard a voice from the heathen 
that suffered him not to rest. 

Five hundred miles toward the sunset lay Iceland, 
and almost as much farther Greenland. This polar 
region had in the latter part of the tenth century (982 
A. D.) been discovered by Norwegians, and the Gospel 
had set up there its sacred standard. For about four 
centuries there had been communication with the natives 
of Greenland. But about the middle of the fifteenth cent- 
ury the ice blockade on that coast and the black pest in 
Europe interrupted the communication, and for three 
centuries the land of the pole was virtually abandoned, 
and the holy fires kindled on her humble altars grew 
dull and dim. 

Upon the mind of this simple village pastor the im- 
pression grew that upon him was laid the solemn duty 
of fanning into new ardor and fervor the slumbering 
fires of Greenland. 

His wife used every plea, urged every motive, selfish 
and unselfish, to keep him at home ; and his congrega- 
tion firmly but kindly protested against his throwing 
away a useful life upon the cold and cheerless coast of 
the frozen land. He agreed to wait a while ; and so 
four years more passed. 

Meanwhile, letters favoring his project came to him 
from the Bishops of Drontheim and Bergen, and certain 
merchants of Norway and Denmark, who offered to plant 
a colony and keep it in supplies. His wife objected. 



62 



O UR RESPONSIBILI TV, 



because his own letters urging the project had called forth 
these favorable replies, and that they furnished, there- 
fore, no clear token of the hand of God ; and again and 
more earnestly his parish joined his wife in protest and 
remonstrance. And again Hans Egede consented to 
wait. 

The third call came, however, through that wife her- 
self. In her soft nest God planted the thorn ; trouble 
with servants and neighbors began to wean her heart 
from her parish home, and became to her a sign from 
God. The husband and wife covenanted to spend three 
days in prayer for divine guidance. Before the first 
day was spent the wife came to a decision and an- 
nounced it : she would go to Greenland. 

Three years more of delay, and in 1721 the ship en- 
tered into the harbor ; and as they were about to step 
on board, sailors, leaving the vessel, warned them not to 
go to Greenland ; that those were cannibals who lived 
on its inhospitable shores, and had fallen upon and 
eaten some of their own party. The father and children 
shrank back, and the weeping villagers again pleaded ; 
but Elizabeth, crying, " O ye of little faith," first set foot 
upon the plank and, herself triumphant in God while all 
about her wept, walked firmly to the vessel followed by 
her husband. 

They found the land ice-bound and the people frigid 
and distant. The old colonists had gone, and the flame 
of the true faith had gone out ; the work of evangeliza- 
tion survived only in tradition. 

Trade was dull and slow ; the ship with the supplies 
failed to appear, and impending famine drove the col- 
onists to the verge of despair. They pulled down their 
own huts and almost compelled the missionary to get 
ready to return to Norway. Elizabeth asked three days* 
delay ; confidently prophesied that on the third day the 
vessel would arrive, and showed such faith in her own 
prophecy that she actually shared with the colonists all 
her own supplies, reserving for her family only enough 
for three days. 

The men swore that they would wait not one hour 
beyond the three days ; but on the third day the ship 
hove in sight. After various trials ten years more found 
Hans Egede deserted by the colonists ; and in 1735 ^^^ 
faithful Elizabeth left the land of snows for the gardens 
of paradise ; and the lonely pioneer returning, spent a 
score of blessed years in training young men for the 
arctic missions, himself succeeded by his son Paul. 

Such is the story of Hans Egede, who, when the fire 
of missionary zeal could neither be quenched nor pent 
up in his burning bosom, turned his back on home and 
parish, and penetrated the ice-fields of Greenland to set 
up the cross in the realms of the northern pole. 



" The church is both a rallying and a radiating 
point. We are to come there to be fed and go from 
there to feed others. Activity for souls prevents spir- 
itual dyspepsia. Let faithful working follow the eat- 
ing." — Pier son. 



Our Responsibility. 

(A composition written by Savagi Kuni, aged sixteen years, and 
read in the Kuwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki, Japan.) 

First, let us look for a moment at the condition of 
women in ancient times. We can see a great difference 
when we compare those times with the present Then 
women were regarded as something like beasts in the 
case of low-class people, or even in the high-class. They 
could neither read nor write ; the better class was taught 
to read a selection of poems or hiyakuninshu. This 
was the only learning in those times for women ; there 
were no schools, no kind of education, and the people 
thought women did not need to be educated. 

As to their treatment, it was very ridiculous. They 
could not leave their rooms, nor walk about in the street 
publicly even with their guard ; they always used to sit 
in their rooms with their dresses ornamented something 
like artificial things. Perhaps they did not even know 
whether the place where they were living was on this 
part of the globe or that, much less that it is turning every 
hour. They did not know any thing about the vast 
countries that we now hear about; they thought that this 
^country was the only one in the world. The women in 
the lowest class did not know any thing but how to suffer 
from their bad treatment, being treated as slaves even 
by their husbands. 

We cannot think about these things without shedding 
tears. But Christianity came with its Gospel of purity 
and light and education, and from that time forward 
schools have been established for girls especially, giving 
every means to elevate their position. God has been 
good to us to send us these blessings, but there is a 
work for us to do among our own people that no one 
else can do for us, and this, then, is our great responsibility. 
The only way to make our empire, Nippon, a civilized 
country is to elevate the position of women — for women, 
too, have rights in this human society ; rights to have 
respect, rights to lead a pure life, and wield an influence 
for good. 

The only way to do this is to make Christian homes, 
and this lies in the power of women alone. There is 
no one who can do our duty for us. For that reason, if 
we neglect our responsibility, there will be serious loss 
to the common good. It seems as though men's work 
is greater than ours, but the only reason for this seem- 
ing is because of the diff*erence between the direct work 
of men and the indirect work of women. This direct- 
ness and indirectness should not make any difference 
with our responsibilities, any more than the indirect rays 
of the sun should be cut off because not so powerful as 
the direct ones. 

Our responsibilities are greater than men's in some 
respects, for a famous writer has said, " The hand that 
rocks the cradle rules the world." When we think of 
the ])resent condition of our empire we do not yet re- 
alize what the work is, for we are now in school ; school- 
life is the happiest life for us, and it is our duty now not 
only to receive benefit for ourselves, but prepare for any 



THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD, 



hZ 



work that God may give us. We have the responsi- 
bility to give out our knowledge according to what we 
receive. 

Christ, the great Teacher, said, " To whom much is 
given, much will be required." We have received much, 
we have a great work to give unto others. Women have 
received the name, ** mothers of civilization." In this 
empire, then, we must try to do our duty as much as is 
in our power, so as not to be ashamed to receive this 
name. 

It is true that women are powerful for good when once 
they have made themselves equal to the doing of great 
things, not that their power goes beyond that of men, 
but it is great ; but, unfortunately, they are equally pow- 
erful in wickedness, going to great extremes. When we 
look at these two classes in our empire, which is in the 
majority ? Undoubtedly the latter. 

To speak plainly, there is a very practical question 
before us right here in Nagasaki. There are some peo- 
ple — I do not say all, but some of the worst — who make 
it their business to buy and sell their mun daughters as 
lifeless objects for immoral purposes. Do they feel 
ashamed of it ? No. On the contrary, they glory in it. 

With such awful conditions around us, is there not 
great responsibility resting upon us? Even though we 
have many schools in Japan, many of these are not 
Christian, and in them we do not see any practical re- 
sults in the line of elevating women. Mere education, 
then, is not enough ; we must learn of the lowly Jesus 
the blessedness of doing good to the lowliest of God's 
creatures. So all these duties come to us, the Christian 
young women of Japan, not only to try to make them 
proper women, but also to reform these bad customs 
which are now practiced so commonly. Do not all of 
you think so ? 

When we look at those poor women who work hard 
in the fields, knowing nothing but how to get a little bit 
of money for their daily food, and think they are the 
same human beings as we are, that they have precious 
human souls which Christ died to save, as he died for 
us, it makes us feel that this work is, indeed, great ; and 
the power to save them must come from God through 
us. " But they don't care for it," some will say. That 
is true ; they are like a boy we saw one day in the yard, 
who had been hurt. We wanted to wash the wound and 
bind it up carefully, and relieve the pain ; but he 
screamed and cried and fought so we could do nothing, 
because he was ignorant of what was good for him ; but 
God's power is as great as his love, and as he has chosen 
the weak things of the world to confound the mighty, 
so he has given us this great work to do ; and though 
many may be like the little boy, ignorant and fearful, 
we may reach them where others could not. 

Now this must be our great responsibility, to elevate 
the position of those around us; although this may not 
be done immediately, the work should begin, and the 
leaven of Christ may work silently until the whole is 
leavened. Then we ought not think simply of our pres- 
ent happy school-life, but we must form the determina- 



tion to go out from our school-house, and to work in 
this wonderful human society, and while in school pre- 
pare for it. 

Although in the midst of our work great billows and 
terrible winds may come, we ought not be discouraged, 
but remember the Master's presence is with us in the 
roughest seas, and though we may not see the results, 
we may give our influence and our lives or Jesus. 



Tho Obligation of the Church to Evangelize 
the World. 

'* The Devil's Masterpiece of Strategy." 

by rev. e. davies. 

The commission of the Lord Jesus is still in full force 
and binding upon all the followers of the Lamb. It 
stands out in bold relief, and will never be altered or 
repealed or even amended : " Go ye into all the world, 
and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that be- 
lieveth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believ- 
eth not shall be damned." "Go ye therefore, and teach 
all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and. of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Christ is looking down upon the whole Church to see 
if she is carrying on this great work for which he suf- 
fered and for which he died. Having tasted death for 
every man, and given command to the Church to preach 
his Gospel to all, we must conclude that a universal pro- 
vision has been made for the salvation of the entire race. 
All men do in some sense share the benefits of the atone- 
ment. They are all included in the covenant of mercy. 
They may all be cleansed and made whiter than snow 
in the blood of the Lamb that cleanses from all sin. 
Millions of heathen have heard and believed the word 
of God, the Gospel of his son Jesus Christ ; and mul- 
titudes of them have already passed the pearly gates and 
are singing, " Unto him that loved us and washed us 
from our sins in his own blood." They are crying out 
with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation to our God which 
sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb." And the 
adoring angels and elders that stand around the throne 
are swelling the chorus and saying, " Amen ! Blessing 
and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and 
power and might be unto our God for ever and ever. 
Amen." 

Meanwhile, the moral conflict is going on between the 
powers of darkness, the spiritual wickedness in high 
places, and the power of the glorious Gospel of the 
blessed (iod; and millions of heathen are crying out for 
the saving power of the Gospel. Shall they cry in vain ? 

•' From Greenland's icy mountains, 

From India's coral strand ; 
Where Afric 's sunny fountains 

Roll down their golden sand ; 
From many an ancient river, 

From many a palmy plain. 
They call us to deliver 

Their land from error's chain." 



64 



THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD, 



There is no substitute for this Gospel. Then, 

*• Waft, waft, ye winds, his stor)% 

And you, ye waters, roll. 
Till, like a sea of glory. 

It spreads from pole to pole: 
Till o'er our ransomed nature 

The Lamb for sinners slain, 
Redeemer, King, Creator, 

In bliss returns to reign." 

We have the glorious assurance that, "The kingdoms 
of this world shall become the kingdoms of our Lord, 
and of his Christ." Surely, 

'• Jesus shall reign where'er the sun 
Doth his successive journeys run ; 
His kingdom spread from shore to shore. 
Till moons shall wax and wane no more." 

God hath set his king upon his holy hill of Zion, and 
he says, " I will declare the decree : the Lord hath said 
unto me. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth 
for thy possessions." 

This wonderful work is going on in great power in al- 
most all parts of this redeemed world. Missionary enthu- 
siasm and the love of God are inspiring the rich and the 
poor to give not only their money and their prayers, but 
also their sons and their daughters, to help forward this 
great and glorious work. But in the midst of all this tri- 
umphant work of the world's redemption the prince of 
the powers of darkness, the old serpent of the garden 
of Eden, has introduced his great "masterpiece of 
strategy to keep the hosts of God within the walls of 
luxurious indolence, when they should march and move 
forward against the citadels of superstition and idolatry." 

I refer to what is called "the new theology," which 
plausibly says, " God is not so unjust as to allow the 
heathen, who never heard of Christ, to perish because 
they were not converted." Thus the responsibility to 
send the Gospel to all the world is rolled off; so that 
a man of wealth evaded an earnest appeal in behalf of 
Missions, declaring it "presumptuous to interfere with 
other people in the peaceable enjoyment of their re- 
ligion." 

This " new theology " is a death-like torpor. It makes 
a paralysis of action. But it is not true, and therefore 
it is to be abolished from the human mind and trodden 
under foot. It is contrary to the teachings of the Bible, 
and is, therefore, contrary to the will of God, and there- 
fore should be abandoned once and forever. 

God will render to every man according to the deeds 
done in the body, and according to his own deeds. " To 
them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek 
for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life : but 
unto them that are contentious, and do* not obey the 
truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, 
tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that 
doeth evil ; of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile. . . • 
For there is no respect of persons with God. For as 



many as have sinned without law shall also perish with- 
out law ; and as many as have sinned in the law shall 
be judged by the law; (for not the hearers of the law 
are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be 
justified. For when the Gentiles, which have not the 
law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, 
having not the law, are a law unto themselves: which 
show the work of the law written in their hearts, their 
conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the 
meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another.)" 

This is God's philosophy of salvation, and is as far 
above the new-fangled notions of the " new theology " 
as the heavens are above the earth. There is not a 
single hint or suggestion of a future probation. ^^ Now 
is the accepted time, and to-day is the day of salvation." 

The battle is raging. Heaven and hell are in conflict. 
The old dragon, the devil, is in battle array against the 
Son of God and those that follow him. There is no 
peace day or night. Millions are being led on to eternal 
destruction while Jesus is on the mercy-seat and the 
blood of the everlasting covenant speaks before the throne 
of God better things than the blood of Abel. 

Now is the time for thousands of our young men and 
women to offer themselves for the foreign fields, and 
also for the home fields, which are equally important. 
Now is the time for the rich and the poor to bring all 
their tithes into God's store-house, that God may open 
the windows of heaven and pour out his Spirit upon all 
flesh. The Lion of the tribe of Judah will break the 
powers of hell and lead captivity captive, and slay the 
dragon, the old serpent of perdition. He will bruise 
Satan under the feet of the saints of the Most High. 
Take courage, beloved of the Lord ! Greater is he that 
is for us than all that can be against us. Christ shall 
reign until he hath put all his enemies under his feet. 

Now let the offerings flow into the treasury of the 
Lord. Now let the great Methodist Church, with its 
millions of members and hundreds of millions of dol- 
lars, give the Missionary Society the $1,250,000 they ask ; 
yea, $1,500,000. Why not.? It can be done, li ought 
to be done. Then the new and opening fields could be 
entered both at home and in foreign lands. 

A little self-denial in every member, great or small, 
would soon swell up the needed increase. 

Why should our missionary secretaries have to wear 
themselves out to get the money that ought to flow into 
the treasury in the form of thank-offerings? The Lord 
loveth the cheerful giver. Then think of the blessed- 
ness of giving. " There is that scattereth, and yet in- 
creaseth; and there is that withholdeth more than is 
meet, but it tendeth to poverty." Who will trust and 
obey the Lord in this matter.? 

Reading, Mass., December 12. 



The widening fields and the fast increasing oppor- 
tunities for spreading the Gospel greatly increase the 
responsibility of every professed follower of Christ, and 
call for abundant gifts and devoted service. 



TIERRA DEL FUEGO, 



66 



Tierra del Fuego. 

BY HON. N. F. GRAVES. 

The Straits of Magellan separate Tierra del Fuego 
from Patagonia, leaving Tierra del Fuego the most 
southerly portion of land in South America. The 
straits are twenty miles broad on the Atlantic side and 
only about ten on the Pacific. They are very crooked, 
and in some places narrow and deep. The water enters 
the straits at high-tide with an impetuous rush, and in the 
narrow places dashes upon the rocks with great fury with 
a roar like a cataract, making navigation not only diffi- 
cult but dangerous to pass with sails only. It is so very 
difficult that very few sailing-vessels make the attempt. 
Magellan was thirty days in passing the straits, and now a 
strong steamer will pass in twenty-four hours. If it is dark 
even the steamers cannot venture on their journey, but 
must wait for the morning. The number of steamers 
making the passage has been greatly increased from year 
to year. A steamer is liable to be delayed on its passage, 
and many years ago it became a great necessity to have 
a place for supplies. 

As early as 1843 the place known as Punta Arenas 
was the location for the convicts of Chili. It was 
a group of shanties, where many convicts gathered and 
b^ame dangerous; but the Chilian government with- 
drew the convicts and issued grants of land to immi- 
grants, and soon it became a point of importance. It is 
the only stopping-place along the straits. When the con- 
victs were withdrawn the immigrants began to arrive. 

Good steam-boat coal was discovered near the village, 
and the miners worked to great advantage, taking the 
coal to the landing on a tramway. The mines have be- 
come a great source of profit. 

The town is well located, about midway of the straits. 
It now has a population of more than two thousand, and 
the people seem to have been gathered from all the na- 
tions of the earth. Most of the languages are spoken, 
but the English is the prevailing language. It is a 
unique town, strung along the water for a mile or more, 
with some fine streets and dwellings. Most of the 
dwellings are mere huts and shanties, mean in their 
outward appearance, but warm and comfortable inside. 
Many of the people would be glad to change their 
residence, but find no way to do so. Those in office 
and in charge are made comfortable and have no desire 
to leave. This town is said to be the most southerly 
city in the world. 

Tierra del Fuego is sometimes called the land of fire. 
It was so named when it was discovered, on account of 
the numerous fires that were burning along the coast. 

Tierra del Fuego is composed of several islands, ex- 
tending from the straits to Cape Horn. The Pacific is 
on the west and the Atlantic on the east. Three great 
oceans connect at Cape Horn. There are six islands in 
the group, and many smaller ones, of which Tierra del 
Fuego is the most important. Most of these islands are 
mountainous, some of the number being more than five 
thousand feet high ; and all such are covered with per- 



petual snow. They have not been explored. The view 
of them is very beautiful ; they look like white clouds. 
The climate is variable, and most of the year is subject 
to sudden gusts of snow and hail, and is bad enough ; 
but there is a summer as well as winter. The snow re- 
mains for a long time, but usually it is not deep. In sum- 
mer the grass is very green and abundant for the cattle. 
The rivers and lakes abound with fish of fine quality. 

The people are a smaller race than the Patagonians, 
though said to be of the same race ; but no one has ex- 
plained why they are so small south of the straits and so 
large to the north. The people are clothed in seal-skins, 
and generally live in miserable huts in sheltered places 
near the rivers or straits. The women catch the fish and 
do most of the work. They generally have an abun- 
dance of food. The people seem fond of each other, 
yet they are treacherous and passionate, and in their 
natural condition very revengeful. 

Mr. Charles Darwin was here in 1832, and said of the 
people that they were poor, stunted wretches, with hid- 
eous faces, filthy and greasy, with voices discordant, 
and that one could hardly believe they were human 
beings. Captain Cook gave no better account of them : 
they were cannibals in war, pirates at all times, and ex- 
ceedingly degraded. Such was their condition when 
the first missionaries visited them. They were savage 
almost beyond belief. 

In the year 1844 Allen Gardiner, with a catechist, 
landed at Gregory Bay with the intent to give instruc- 
tion; but they found the people so dishonest and savage 
that they were compelled to hasten to their little ship 
and sail away to save their lives. 

This Mr. Gardiner was used to the seas, and as brave 
as he was consecrated; and in 1848, with a large ship 
and sailors, carpenters, and others, landed and tried to 
erect a stone house, but could make no impression on 
the natives ; and such was their fury that they had to 
escape. 

They returned to England and told their story, and 
again Gardiner was fitted out with larger vessels and 
more men, with six months' provisions, and another 
vessel was to follow with supplies. Gardiner reached the 
island and found the natives exasperated and savage* 
The natives would not allow them to land, and sought to 
take their lives. They were compelled to flee to a little 
island, and, winter coming on, were confined to their 
boats. Their supplies soon became exhausted, and as 
they could not leave, they all perished with hunger and 
cold. 

The letters that they left showed how bravely they 
struggled and died. The vessel that followed them was 
not in time to save the lives of these brave men, but did 
find their letters and a description of their sufferings, the 
details of which caused a great sensation in England. 

In 1854 a schooner of 100 tons burden, called the 
Allen Gardiner^ with a crew, catechist, surgeon, and me- 
chanics, landed at Keppel Island, in West Falkland, and 
there built houses and cultivated some land. After- 
ward other missionaries joined them, one of whom was 



56 



SHARP-SHOO TING, 



the only son of Allen Gardiner. After making provision 
for the journey, they went to Tierra del Fuego and 
persuaded nine natives to return with them to Keppel 
for instruction. After remaining a year at Keppel two 
of the natives were improved a little, and they again went 
to Tierra del Fuego, and all but one went ashore to 
talk with the natives ; but as soon as they landed they 
were surrounded and beaten to death. Young Gardiner 
was among the slain. The young man Okokko, who 
had been to Keppel, returned, and was faithful, and after 
two years joined another party to Tierra del Fuego. This 
time he alone went on shore to talk to his friends, the 
natives. He was then able to explain the object of the 
missionaries. 

The natives were then persuaded to receive the 
teachings of the missionaries, and a greater number 
wished to go to Keppel for instruction than could be 
taken. The natives then for the first time seemed to 
understand the object of the missionaries, and received 
them, providing for their wants. The young man Okokko, 
with his wife, settled there and became a teacher. He 
was aided by others, and after a year or two the others 
that were educated at Keppel joined the Mission, and 
most of them labored faithfully. 

In 1869 the Mission was strengthened by the arrival of 
Mr. Sterling, now Bishop Sterling. In 1872 Bishop Ster- 
ling baptized thirty-six of the natives, and a church was 
organized. Faithful and earnest work was performed, 
and good results followed, with an increase of converts 
from year to year. Now there are more than two hun- 
dred leading Christian lives ; but that is not all, hundreds 
of children have been educated. The mission station at 
Ooshooia has become a Christian village, where the na- 
tives are clothed and live in comfortable houses, and 
have gardens with fruits and vegetables. The mission- 
aries and the improved condition of the natives in the 
mission village have influenced other tribes, and although 
they have not become Christians, they are somewhat civ- 
ilized and are not so bad as formerly. The climate is 
healthy and not as bad as represented. The land is 
covered with grass, giving food to the cattle. The land 
produces turnips, cabbages, potatoes, apples, and a great 
variety of flowers. A brighter and more hopeful day 
has dawned upon the ignorant and degraded people of 
Tierra del Fuego. 



8harp-8hooting. 

An Exercise for Mission-hands and SAiniATii- 

SCHOOLS. 
BY BELLE M. BRAIN. 

To make this exercise effective it should be literally '* sharp- 
shootinj;." It creates a pleasant interest to call the items 
" shot," and each one who takes part a " sharp-shooter." 

Distribute the " shot " several days before the meeting, and 
as some one is almost sure to be absent, keep a duplicate copy 
of each item, and the name of the one to whom it was given. 
Carry these duplicate copies and also the list of names to the 
meeting. If any one is absent, hand his shot to some one else 



to read. Call for the items by number in quick succession, 
and put into the exercise just as much "snap" and enthusi* 
asm as possible. 

Try to drive each shot home by a shorty pointed comment. 
This exercise is especially useful to leaders of bands whose 
members are afraid of the sound of their own voices and will 
not take part. Many members can be induced to read one 
item who would not be willing to prepare a paper or read a 
selection. 

1. When Garibaldi had been defeated at Rome he 
issued his immortal appeal : '* Soldiers, I have nothing 
to offer you but cold and hunger and rags and hard- 
ships. Let him who loves his country follow me." 

Thousands of the youth of Italy sprang to their feet ! 

The Captain of our salvation says, " Go ye into all the 
world, and preach the Gospel to every creature." *' Lo,. 
I am with you alway." "Be thou faithful unto deaths 
and I will give thee a crown of life." 

Shall not the youth of our land respond to such a 
call } 

2. An English preacher asked some British soldiers,. 
" If Queen Victoria were to issue a proclamation, and, 
placing it in the hands of her army and navy, were to- 
say, * Go ye into all the world and proclaim this to every 
creature,' how long do you think it would take to do it.^ '" 

One of these brave fellows, accustomed to obey or- 
ders without hesitation or delay, and at peril of life, 
answered, " Well, I think we could manage it in about 
eighteen months J " 

Eighteen hundred years have passed since our Mas- 
ter's command, ** Go ye," was given, and millions have 
not heard the good news yet. 

3. In Stanley's journey of 7,000 miles, from Zanzibar 
to Banana, he saw neither a Christian disciple nor a 
man who had ever heard the gospel message ! 

4. In round numbers we estimate the number of un- 
reached souls in all countries at 1,000,000,000. 

There are about 10,000 missionaries; each, therefore,, 
is responsible for 100,000 souls. 

The total sum spent on Missions in all Christendom 
is about $11,000,000 annually, an allowance of a little 
over one cent a year for each heathen soul. 

5. Dr. Duff said, " We are playing at Missions." 

6. Is there one in this meeting to-night who cannot 
answer "here" to the Master's roll-call of his workers?" 

7. " Will you go ? " " Where ? " " ^/n'where, some^ 
where, either at home or abroad, to carry on some work 
for the Lord Jesus Christ." 

8. A medical missionary student wrote from his col- 
lege : "How our ideas do change in this work for the 
Lord! Once I studied long whether I could give ufr 
my worldly prospects to enter the service. 

" The question now is, Will God be merciful enough to 
allow me to do this great work for him.*^ My whole 
heart, life, and thoughts are for medical missions. I 
don't think life will ever have ai> happy a moment for 
me as when I set sail for a foreign field." 

9. "We are both willing and desirous, God permit- 
ting, to be foreign missionaries." Such is the pledge 



THE PEOPLE OF THIBET, 



57 



that has been signed during the last three years by 
5,000 of America's brightest young men and women. 
These student volunteers, as they are called, finding 
that the idea was getting abroad that their zeal was 
diminishing, have changed their pledge to, '*I will go as 
a foreign missionary, unless God positively prohibits." 

10. Listen to the burning words of Dr. Asahel Grant, 
who did such glorious work in Persia : " I stand ready 
to go in the face of danger and death to any part of 
the world under the dominion of the prince of the 
power of darkness. 

** What though I tear away from all the endearments 
of home, wear out life amid toil and suffering, and find 
a grave among strangers ? Only let me be the means of 
salvation to some lost sinner who shall meet me in heaven^ 
and I shall bless God for it through all eternity,** 

11. On one occasion Miss Fidelia Fisk, the faithful 
and beloved missionary to Persia, had the joy of sitting 
down to the communion table with ninety-two persons 
whom she had been the instrument of leading to Christ! 

12. When Royal G. Wilder, missionary to India, 
graduated from college in 1839, he won high honors. 
He and a classmate, Foote, divided first honors, and, 
strange to say, they were exactly the same age, having 
been born on the same day. 

He turned from flattering prospects at home to give 
his life for Christ among the pagans of Asia. Foote, 
his twin honor man, said to him, " Wilder, why bury 
yourself among the heathen } ** 

Foote rose rapidly in his profession ; was very suc- 
cessful as a lawyer ; amassed wealth ; and married a 
woman of unusual beauty. But in the midst of his 
prosperity death smote both wife and daughter, and 
poor Foote blew out his own brains ! 

Wilder labored in India over thirty years, during 
which time he preached in more than 3,000 cities, 
towns, and villages ; scattered over 3,000,000 pages of 
tracts; and gathered into schools over 3,300 scholars. 

He died a few years ago, honored, respected, loved, 
and leaving his wife and a son and daughter all engaged 
in the same blessed work. 

Verily, "whosoever will save his life shall lose it: 
and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it." 

Springfield, O. 



The People of Thibet. 

BY W. W. ROCKHILL. 

The Thibetan people are well disposed and kind, but 
they are under the control of the lamas. They have all 
the riches of the country in their hands, so that no mat- 
ter how well people are disposed toward you, a word 
from the lamas is enough to set them against you. The 
objection of the lamas to the entry of foreigners was 
that they would seek the treasures of the country. The 
Chinese government, which exercises a nominal sov- 
ereignty over Thibet, will not issue passports to travel 
there because they cannot afford sufficient protection for 



foreigners. They say that the people are easily excited 
and they cannot be responsible for them. The Thibet- 
ans are very independent, and the few Chinese soldiers 
are widely scattered. There are localities where the 
Chinese cannot get any hold, although the province is 
nominally theirs. The soldiers are in fear and trem- 
bling themselves. They do not have their horses or their 
arms with them, but go up to Tsa Chin Lu once a year, 
when they are allowed to take their bows and arrows 
and practice with them. 

Lamaism is the prevailing religion. They have a 
tremendous literature, and reading prayers is their con- 
stant employment. They have prayer wheels, some run 
by water and some by wind, on the tops of the houses. 
These are filled with prayers, and the fact that they are 
turned from left to right is the same as reading them, for 
the words pass before the eyes. If they are turned the 
other way, however, the effect is bad. 

The people engage the lamas to come and read prayers 
for them. They pay about ten cents a day and give 
them tea and food. The rich people will give large 
sums of money for the reading of prayers. Asa matter 
of fact, under the cloak of sanctity the lamas are en- 
gaged in all kinds of trading at Tsa Chin Lu. There 
are no pawnbrokers' shops, which are such an institu- 
tion in China. The business is in the hands of the lamas^ 
and bands of them scour the country, collecting every 
thing they can. 

Thibet is, I believe, almost the only country where 
polyandry prevails ; that is, where one woman has 
several husbands, just the opposite from the Mormon 
system. The custom prevails in eastern Thibet in the 
agricultural regions. The explanation is that the arable 
land is very small in amount, and if the sons divided up 
the estate there would not be enough for them. Ac- 
cordingly, they share it, and several brothers are usually 
married to one woman. Being great traders, one or two 
of them are usually away. The children call one of the 
men father and the others they call uncle. 

A proof that it is the scarcity of arable lands that 
causes the practice is found'in the fact that it does not 
exist among the nomadic Thibetans. All the villages 
are perched upon some inaccessible rock simply because 
they do not wish to put the village on any ground that 
can be cultivated. The people live on the barley, which 
they call somba. They mix it with tea. They have no 
regular time for meals. Whenever they feel hungry the 
pot is ready and they make a little of this mixture. Now 
and then they have a sheep. It is a miserably poor 
country, and they do not kill much game because they 
have not the improved fire-arms. 

The people have rather clear-cut features, and thin, 
aquiline noses are quite common. I saw many uitli 
curly hair, although some of them wore a false cue. 
It is quite an item with the Chinese to sell them differ- 
ent colored silks to make these cues. 

The girls are extremely pretty, of good color, tolerably 
tall and straight, and well developed. They are gay, 
jolly, and laughing, and their dress is picturesque. Whea 




dressed with all their jewelry on they [jresent a very 
pleasing appearance. Many of ihem wear a sort of silver 
plaque on their heads. The I'hibetan woman invests 
her spare cash in jewelry. She will buy all the silver 
jewelry she can, and then when she can afford it ex- 
changes it for gold, — N'tw VarJf: Herald. 



The religion of the peo]jle of Thibet is a variation of 
Buddhism called Lamaism. As ancient Ihiddhism con- 
tains no worship of God, but merely an adoration of the 
saints, so is the latter the main feature of Lamaism, 




FNAYER-U'/IEELS, OK FKA YER-CYLINDEKS^ OF Til in FT. 



59 



The essence of ail ihat is sacred is comprised by this 
Teligion under the name of dKon, niChhog, gSsiim — the 
^' Buddha jewel/* the ** doctrine jewel/' and the ** priest- 
hood jewel/' The first person and the most important 
of this trinity is the Buddha, and to him the temijles are 
dedicated, each one usually enshrining a huge innage 
representing in a more or !ess hideous form the great 
founder of the Buddhist faiih. In one of the great tem- 
ples is the statue of Buddha, thirty feet in height. The 
posture is sitting, and the countenance is designed to 
express the complete abstraction which is the aim of the 
faithful Buddhist, On entering the tempk the lower 
part only of the image is visible, as the head and shoul- 
^4iers pass through a flooring, to which it is necessary to 
ascend in order to obtain a view of the face, Buddha 
is not looked upon as a deity who has had aught to do 
with the origin or creation of the universe ; he is merely 
the founder of the doctrine, the highest saint, though 
-endowed with all the qualities of supreme wisdom, power, 
virtue, and beauty, which raise him above all olhers who 
liave ever lived. 

One curious device which the Buddhist employs to 
assist him in his devotions is the celebrated ** prayer- 
cylinder/* In the ** Lamaseries/' or temples, they re- 
semble small painted barrels turning on vertical axles, 
and ranged along the wall in rows. Inside each cylinder 
is a roll of paper some hundred feet long, on which is 
repeated many thousand times ihe mystic sentence, 
**Aum Mani Fadrae Houm." The words are Sanskrit 
in origin, and the literal translation would be, ** O !— 
The jewel — lotus — Amen!" Each syllable is, however, 
supposed to contain a charm of mysterious power ; but 
although scholars learned in Sanskrit have made every 
effort to discover the occult meaning of the terms, con- 
vinced that, from the tenacity with w^hicli they have 
been preserved, and the faith that all Buddhists have in 
their potency, they must embody some truth of great 
significance, the mystical sentence has not yet been in- 
terpreted, and it is doubtful if it ever will be. The peo- 
ple carry small cylinders about with them, so as to have 
the paraphernalia of devotion accessible at any moment ; 
1>ut, as if this were not enough, larger cylinders are 
placed in the neighborhood of streams, and turned by 
water-power like the wheels of a mill. Outside the vil- 
lages are also series of long mounds covered with flat 
stones, and on these the mystic sentence again appears. 
On the road-side and even in uninhabited wastes these 
stones amaze the traveler by their frequency, A solu- 
tion of the problem may, however, be found in the fact 
that they are engraved by the lamas and sold to the 
people, who look upon the placing of such stones as an 
expression of devotion, or perhaps as a votive ofTertng 
to the saints they worship. 

The public services of Lamaism consist chiefly in the 
recitation of prayers and sacred texts, and the intona- 
tion of hymns accompanied by a kind of music which 
is a chaos of the most inharmonious and deafening 
sounds of horns, trumpets, and drums of various descrip- 
dons. During this worship, which takes place three 



limes a day, the lamas., summoucd by the tolling of a. 
little bell, are seated in two or more rows according to 
their rank, and on special occasions and holy-days the 
temples and altars are decorated with symbolical figures, 
while offerings of tea, Jlour, milk, butter, and others of 
a similar nature are made by the worshipers, animal sac- 
rifices or offerings entailing injury to life being forbid- 
den, as in Buddhism. Baptism and conflrmation are the 
two principal sacraments of Lamaism. The former is 
administered on the third or tenth day after birth, the 
latter generally w^hen the child can walk and speak. The 
marriage ceremony is not a religious but a civil act; 
nevertheless, the lamas know how to turn it to the best 
advantage, as it is from them that the bride and bride- 
groom have to learn the aus]>icious day when it should 
be performed; nor do they fail to complete the act with 
prayers and rites, which must be responded to with 
handsome presents. 

A similar observation applies to the funeral ceremo- 
nies. Properly speaking there are none, for Lamaism 
does not allow the interment of the dead. Persons dis- 
tinguished by rank, learning, or piety are burned after 
their death; but the general method of disposing of 
dead bodies is to expose them in the open air to be de- 
voured by birds and beasts of prey ; yet a lama must be 
present at the moment of death in order to superintend 
the separation of body and soul, to calm the departing 
spirit, and to enable it to be re-born into a happy exist- 
ence. He must determine the auspicious place where, 
and the auspicious day and hour when, the corpse shall 
be exposed. The most lucrative part of his business, 
however, is the masses which he has to perform until 
the soul is released from Yama, the infernal judge, and 
ready to re-enter into its new existence, the doctrine of 
metempsychosis being the same in Lamaism as in Bud- 
dhism. When so important a person as a lama dies there 
are various ways of disposing of his body. One is by 
burning, after which the ashes are collected and put into 
curiously shaped receptacles called ** chortens/' These 
are found in great clusters round the villages, and make 
ihera appear from a distance to be much larger than they 
really are. Should a lama of exceedingly great sanctity 
die, his ashes are gathered up and mixed with clay, out 
of which small images arc molded, and placed on shelves 
in some one of the many temples. The number of lamas 
is very great; there are three degrees, and the superiors 
possess immense power and influence both in temporal 
and spiritual matters. — Harpt-rs IVtekly. 



Prii,V(*r-WiKH»ls, or Pra) er-l\vUiMlers^ of Thihi't* 

i!V SIR MONIKR MONIKK-W ILLIAMS, 

The most common prayer used in Thibet is a mere 
formulary, the constant repetition of which is one of the 
most amazing instances of the tyranny of superstition to 
be found in any part of the world. 

It consists of the six-syllabled sentence, "Om mani 
padme Hum/' *' Om ! the jewel in the Lotus ! Hum \ " 




PRAYER WHEELS, OR PRAYER-CYLINDERS, OF THIBET. 



61 






This prayer, or rather mystical SLMUcnce, is supposed 
to have been composed by PadriTa-pani (Avalokitesvara) 
and to kave reference to his own manifestation as 
the patron saint of Thibet. It is sometimes called 
the Man i, or *' jewel" prayer ; and, if brevity is a val- 
uable quality, its excellence is undeniable^ since it 
consists of merely two Sanskrit words, between two 
mystical, untranslatable, auspicious ejaculations, Om and 
Hum* 

Whatever be its origin and meaning, no other prayer 
used by human beings in any quarter of the globe is re- 
peated so often. Every Thibetan believes it to be a 
panacea for all evil, a compendium of all knowledge, a 
treasury of all wisdom, a summary of all religion. If 
you ask northern Buddhists to give you the reason for 
this belief, very few are able to give an intelligible re- 
ply. But the oftener this mystical formula is repeated, 
the shorter, it is said, will be an individuars course 
(gati) through some of the six gatis or courses of being, 
•every one of which involves misery or evil. Or it may 
be that by repeating it he will be able to escape some of 
the six existences altogether. 

Strange indeed as it may appear to us, it is impossi- 
ble to shake the faith of a Lamistic Buddhist in the ab- 
solutely infallible efficacy of his six favorite mystic 
syllables. He repeats them, not at all as if he were 
praying in a Christian sense, but as if he were a farmer 
intent on planting the very best seed in the most pro- 
ductive soil and watering it incessantly according to the 
most scientific principles of irrigation. A bountiful 
harvest is absolutely certain to reward his efforts. 

It need not, therefore, surprise us if these six syllables 
are murmured morning, noon, and night by ^s^ry man, 
woman, and child wherever the Lamistic hierarchy has 
extended. And, if not repeated by the voice, an inces- 
sant stream of repetition, an incessant scattering of the 
six mystic seeds, is kept going by the hand. 

The words are WTilten or printed on roll within roll 
of paper and inscribed in cylinders, which, when made 
to revolve, either by educated monks or illiterate lay- 
en, have the same efficacy as if they were actually 
said or repeated. The revolutions are credited as so 
much prayer-merit, or, to speak more scientifically, as 
so much prayer-force, accumulated and stored up for 
the benefit of the person who revolves them. 

The cylinder is generally made of metal, the prayer 
being engraved on the outside, as well as ivritten on 
paper and inserted inside. It is held in the right hand 
and whirled round like a child's toy, by means of a 
handle in a particular direction (with the sun). If 
made to revolve the other way, its rotations will be set 
down to the debtor rather than the creditor side of the 
owner's account 

Ii sometimes happens that quarrels arise from rival 
claims in regard to the use of the prayer-cylinders. In 
illustration of this an amusing story is told by the 
French missionaries : 



• 0«fi U sometime* imn^lated by Hail \ Ham, by Amen I I prefer to treat 
the»« M tinrrmn&tatdblccjaculatioDi. 



*' One day when they happened to be passing a pray- 
ing-machine set up ntfar a monastery, they saw two 
lamas engaged in a violent quarrel; and, as it ap- 
peared, all on account of their zeal for their prayers. 
The fact was, that one lama had come, and, having set 
the barrel in motion for his own benefit, was retiring 
modestly and complacently to his own abode, when, 
happening to turn his head to enjoy the spectacle of 
the wheel's pious revolutions, he saw the other lama 
stop it, and set it whirling again for himself. Indig- 
nanty of course, at this unwarrantable interference with 
his own devotions, he ran back, and in his turn put a 
stop to his rival's piety ; and both of them continued 
this kind of demonstration for some time, till at last, 
losing patience, they proceeded to menaces, and then to 
blows, when an old lama came out of a neighboring 
cell and brought the difficulty to a peaceful lermination 
by himself twirling the prayer-barrel for the l>tn< fit of 
both parlies," 

On tlie occasion of my visiting iJarjiling, m 1884, I 
was desirous of judging for myself of the method of 
using these remarkable instruments of religion^ I 
therefore, soon after my arrival, walked to a Buddhist 
temple near the town. There I found several large 
barrel -like cylinders set up close together in a row at 
the entrance, so that no one might pass in without giv- 
ing them at least one twirl, or by a rapid sweep of his 
hand might set them all twirling at once. Inside the 
entrance portico a shriveled and exceptionally hideous 
old woman was seated on the ground. In her left hand 
she held a small portable prayer-cylinder, which she 
kept in perpetual revolution. In her right hand was a 
cord connected with a huge barrel-like cylinder, which 
with some exertion she made to rotate on its axis by 
help of a crank, while she kept muttering " Om mani 
pamme Hum ** (so she pronounced it) with amazing 
rapidity. In this way she completed at least sixty oral 
repetitions every minute, without reckoning the infinite 
number of rotatory repetitions accomplished simulta- 
neously by her two hands. And all this was done with 
an appearance of apathy and mental vacuity in her with- 
ered face which was so distressing and melancholy to 
behold that the spectacle will never be eflTaced from my 
memory. In truth, the venerable dame seemed to be 
sublimely unconscious that any effort of thought or 
concentration of either mind or heart was needed to 
make prayer of any value at all. 

And the men of Thibet are quite as much slaves to 
this superstition as the women, A friend of mine, when 
staying at Darjiling, had some conversation on serious 
subjects with an apparently sensible native, and ob- 
served with surprise that all the while he was engaged 
in talking with the Buddhist the latter continued dili* 
gently whirling a prayer-cylinder with great velocity. 
My friend, being unacquainted with Thibetan customs, 
came away from his colloquy under the impression that 
Buddhists regard Christians as dangerous lunatics pos- 
sessed with evil spirits, which require specially active 
measures in the way of exorcism. It did not occur to 




him that the Buddhist was merely intent on redeeming 
every instant of time for the storing up of merit by praver. 
And the hold which this extraordinary superstition 
has upon the population is still more forr.ibly Impressed 
on the traveler who penetrates into the regions beyond 
Darjiling, He may there see immense prayer-cylinders 




set up like mills, and kept in incessant revolution, not 
by the hand or will of man, but by the blind, uncon- 
scious force of wind and water. 

It is even said that great mechanical ingenuity is dis- 
played by the monks in some parts of Thibet, their in- 
ventive powers being stimulated by a burning desire to 




economize time and labor in the production of prayer- 
merit by machinery. 

An intricate arrangement of huge wheels and other 
wheels within ^vheels, like the works of a clock, is con- 
nected with rows of cylinders and made to revolve rapid- 
ly by means of heavy weights. An infinite number of 
prayers are repeated in this manner by a single monk, 
who takes a minute or two to wind up the complicated 
spiritual machinery, and then hastens to help his brothers 
in industrial occupations — the whole fraternity feeling 
that the ingenious contrivance of praying by clock-work 
enables them to promote the common weal by making 
the most of both worlds. The story goes that, in times 
of special need and emergency, additional w^eights are 
attached to the machinery, and» of course, increased 
cogency given to the rotary prayers. It is to be hoped 
that when European inventions find their way across the 
Himalayas, steam-power may not be pressed into the 
service of these gross superstitions. — Churchmath 

^^^^^^^^ ^ m^m » ■ 

^HrTlilbet— An riiocciiplod Fielil, 

^^^ l^V REV. J, STEWART HAPPEK, 

■ The publication of a series of articles on Thibet in 
one of the leading magazines revives interest in that 
land which is, to a great extent, terra incogniia^ and re- 
minds the Church that it is one of the few countries 
where the preaching of the Gospel is prohibited. 

Thibet is naturally isolated by its geograpical position 
and surroundings. This plateau in the heart of Asia, 
ten to twelve thousand feet above the sea, is surrounded 
by high ranges of mountains on the south, east, and 

' north, and on the west are the high table-lands of Pamir, 
It has thus been shut off from all intercourse with out- 
side nations, and only a very few travelers have visited 
the country and recorded the result of their researches. 
What is already known of the country and its people 
may be summed up in a very few words. The climate 
varies from regions of almost endless winter in the north, 
to the southern zone, where warm sunshine, sparkling 
brooks, and green grass form pleasant gra^^ing htnd for 
cattle* The people, who number, according to Russian 
authonties, 6,000,000, are of the Mongolian type, slen- 
der in build but strong, with brown hair, black, slightly 
oblique eyes, and that absence of beard which is char- 
acteristic of the Chinese. In temper they are mild, 
reliable in their dealings, kind and friendly, fond of 
singing and dancing, but intensely superstitious. Their 
social customs present a striking contrast to the almost 
universal polygamy of the East; here polyandry is the 
custom* and the wife is usually espoused by brothers. 
One of these much- married ladies, on being interviewed 
by an Indian lady, defended the practice, saying that 
she divided the love and property of the various broth- 

I ers with no one — it was all hers, and was not that a more 
enviable position than that of her sisters in India or 
China? On account of this custom, the position w^hich 



woman holds is sometimes so exalted as to rise to the 
height of the chieftainship in some of the northern 
provinces. 

The religion of Thibet consists of two kinds; the ol 
original religion, the Bon, of which nothing definite isj 
known, and Lamaism, which is a species of Buddhism, 
The bonzes, called lamas, hold not only all religious 
power, but civil power as well ; and Thibet can be called 
a nation of priests, as these lamas number half of the pop- 
ulation. The head of the lamas is supposed to be an 
incarnation of Buddha himself. The antiquity of the 
kingdom dates to 313 B. C, and Buddhism became 
dominant in the beginning of the tenth century. Al- 
though the government is really tributary to China, yet 
the power of the chief lama is virtually unlimited, and 
the policy of strict exclusion of foreigners is not op- 
posed but encouraged by the Chinese Empire. 

The Roman Catholic Church has made noble efforts 
to enter this forbidden territory. In 1330 the apostle 
of Tartar)', Odoric Forojuliensis, traveled in Thibet^ 
and found missionaries in the city of Lh*asa, who 
went there, it is supposed, early in the preceding cent- 
ury. In the seventeenth century a Mission was com- 
menced from India, and the reigning prince was favor- 
ably inclined to the new religion ; but this apostacy was 
made the jjretext for his overthrow. Various attempts 
at evangelization have been made since that time, but 
only one attempt is noteworthy, that of Fathers Hue and 
Gabet, in 1S45, They penetrated to Lh'asa after a 
journey of eighteen months, only to be arrested by the 
Chinese resident, who sent them as prisoners to Canton, 
The jealousy of the Chinese is excited, for they fear 
that the opening of Thibet will mean the subversion of 
the authority which they hold, even small as it is. 
From the time of the Mission of Father Hue, the So- 
civte Eiranglres has taken the field, and has made nu- 
merous attempts, both by way, of India and China, to 
enter the kingdom; but they have suffered persecutions 
and their priests have been massacred, and at present 
ihey occupy only the confines of Thibet, where Chinese 
and Thibetans live together. 

The Moravian missionaries have long been waiting to 
occupy this field. They, too, have stations on the con- 
fines of Thibet, and to them w^e are indebted for the 
various books in Thibetan which, few as they are, wnll 
suffice to equip the missionary for his work as soon as 
the wall is broken down and access is given. A Thib- 
etan English grammar, a New Testament in Thibetan, 
and a Thibetan grammar have already been published. 
The latest information from these missionaries is that a 
Prayer Union has been formed among the Moravians to 
pray for the opening of this country. 

The desired access will not be obtained until a new 
condition of things comes to pass in the government.i 
Buddhist power in civil affairs must be overturned; the 
opposition of the Chinese government must be over- 
come before the snow-capped mountains of Thibet will 
look down upon the preaching-places of the missionaries 
of the cross. — Intifpendeni, 



I 



I 



64 



THE CONFUCIAN SACRIFICE AT SOOCHOW, 



The Confucian Sacrifice at Soochow. 

BY REV. H. C. DUBOSE. 

The "first cock crowing*' is a poetic expression when 
read in the ritual beside a warm fire and under a bright 
lamp, but it is somewhat prosaic to rise at half-past two and 
take a long walk through the dark alleys of a native town. 
One is struck with the security of a Chinese city during 
the hours its inhabitants slumber and sleep. Every 
few hundred yards there is a gate, and a lantern is the 
passport required for opening. All the side streets are 
carefully closed and locked. There are watchmen with 
rattle, gong, and trumpet pacing their beat, and soldiers 
with their guard-rooms well lighted. A tramp of near 
two miles brings us to the " Dragon's Head," where the 
services are to be held. 

The central gate of the ** Temple of Literature " (as 
it is officially called) is never opened, for no mortal is 
worthy to walk in the middle avenue; so we entered the 
side gate and found the path between rows of cedars 
carpeted for the feet of the mandarins. At the door 
of the large entrance hall the traveling kitchen, with its 
hot soups, was plying a busy trade, and after the sacri- 
fice we noticed that the high officials were glad to avail 
themselves of its benefit. How much better than a cold 
sandwich ! An hour and a half does not pass quickly 
in the dark, but time is such a shifting commodity with 
the Chinese that it is well not to be late; and it afforded 
us abundant opportunity to inspect the halls and find 
out how the ceremonies were to be conducted. The 
day before we witnessed the rehearsal in an adjoining 
hall, where all of the sacrificial officers and the posture- 
makers practiced their parts. This was under the charge 
of a district magistrate. 

The Confucian ritual gives a most minute account of 
how the services should be conducted, not omitting the 
slightest detail. Every tap of bell or drum or note of 
steel or string instrument is prescribed most accurately, 
and any deviation would destroy the harmony which is 
an essential element in their ** divine worship." We were 
surprised at the time required for the services — over 
half an hour for the offerings to the ancestors of the 
sage and nearly one hour in the great sacrifice. Five 
generations of Confucius's forefathers who are honored 
with the title of " kings " are worshiped, and to them 
also animals are offered. This temple is in the rear of 
the main building, and into it we were permitted to go 
and watch the prefect and two other mandarins present 
the sacrifices. The services are precisely the same in 
both places. 

The contrast between Buddhism and Confucianism is 
most marked; the services of the one so noisy and of 
the other so quiet and reverent; the one holding creat- 
ure life so sacred and the other shedding blood ; the 
one driving a hard-cash bargain, the other voluntary; 
the one for the vulgar populace, the other for the learned 
book-men. 

The " Temple of Literature " has its host of worthies. 
On the right of Confucius are the four sages, among 



whom is Mencius, on the left the ten wise men, and be- 
fore their tablets sheep and hogs are placed; and also 
twelve animals, six on each side, placed two and two at 
some distance apart, are offered to the great men of the 
nation whose names are worthy to be enrolled in the 
Chinese Academy, and whose tablets are placed in the 
long halls which flank the court on the east and west 
Two of the mandarins bowed at their shrines and offered 
sacrifice to their manes. 

The Confucian temple, 70 by 100 feet, with its mass- 
ive double roof, is in appearance the most venerable 
building in Kiangsu. In front is a stone dais of about 
the same size, surrounded by a marble balustrade, and 
over this is erected an immense tent with a curving roof, 
the matting used from time immemorial now being dis- 
placed by zinc which is in movable sections — the first 
innovation. Under this are placed two large frames, on 
one of which hangs the bells, and on the other the tri- 
angular steel instruments. Long guitars lie on their 
tables, and on one side are a tiger and a drum and on 
the other a bushel measure and the dragon scroll. 
Within long red candles burn in front of the shrines 
and the animals are arranged in pairs, a sheep and a 
hog, clean and white, lying on high stands with their 
heads elevated and facing the tablets. In front of Con- 
fucius kneels a bull with his throat cut, his shaggy hair 
all besmeared with the mud he brought from the fields, 
and lying close beside on either side a sheep and a pig. 
The beef is afterward divided, the four quarters to the 
four high officials and the head and tail to the chief of 
police. 

The elephant drum, in which a tall man wearing a 
silk hat may stand, and which is pitched in the same 
key as the pigmy drum by its side, is struck, and imme- 
diately the attendants light the forty lanterns under- 
neath the pavilion. Bonfires are kindled on the stands, 
which consist of an iron tripod in which the bundles of 
wood are placed on their end, with resin and shavings 
to make them quickly ignite. At the dawn the grounds 
are lit up with the brilliancy of noonday. 

When the drum for the third time beats the governor 
and high provincial magnates take their places under 
tents which stand fifty yards in front of the temple, the 
civil rulers to the east and the military to the west. 
They wear the court dress, which consists of a red tas- 
seled cover for the hat, a shoulder cape of gold thread, 
and a heavily embroidered skirt. We saw the governor 
after the services take off his sacrificial robe; and though 
living at the head-quarters for embroidery, nothing so 
rich and elegant has fallen under our eyes, and the wish 
was expressed that there might be present some ladies 
to exclaim, " O! how lovely!" From the official tent 
Governor Kang, with the three highest mandarins, at 
the cry of the *' chief praise-leader," went into the temple, 
some entering by the right and returning by the left, and 
the others vice ifcrsa, and this for five times. Each was 
led by a " praise-leader" who directed the worshiper in 
all he was to do, they doing the talking and the man- 
darins keeping silent. This for the literary officials; 



the poor general and his staff of lieutenants might bow, 
but their martial feet could not disgrace the sacred 
courts of learning. 

Led before the shrine, the governor, the ** Sacrificial 
Lord," or ** True OflTerer/' in behalf of the 21,000,000 of 
the province, offered sacrifice to Confucius. At the call 
of the ** praise-leader," '* worship,*' he knelt; ** pros- 
trate the head," he bowed ; ** mount the incense,'* he 
raised his hands ; " rise," he stood ; ** return to your 
place/' he followed back to his tent The first time he 
entered the hall three sticks of lighted incense were 
passed by one attendant to the other before hira as he 
knelt and raised bis hands. The second time, the fruits 
and eatables were similarly offered. The third, libations 
of wine in the sacrificial cups were thus handed and 
then placed before the tablet. At the fourth, the rolls of 
white silk with the official stamp upon them were passed 
in long boxes and laid upon the shrine. The whole 
service was intoned, the musical professor by a word 
directing his attendants in every sound of the instru- 
ments and tap of the bells, which were arranged in per- 
fect order. The music was soft and sweet, and as the 
devout chant of the prayers was mingled with the gentle 
notes of the guitar the effect was very solemn indeed. 
The dancers^ or posture-makers, thirty-six in number, 
thoroughly trained, with long feathers in their hands, 
went through the ninety-two motions prescribed in the 
book of ceremonies. After each return from the temple, 
at the call of the ** chief praise-leader *' the two com- 
panies of mandarins would make nine or twelve devout 
prostrations, adoring the literary prince of ages past and 
to come, by whose kind aid they had risen to posts 
both honorable and lucrative. 

To Confucius they pray. First, the invocation when 
they invite the presence of his divine spirit, ** O Con- 
fucius, how great art thou, first in prescience, first in 
knowledge, the peer of heaven and earth, the teacher of 
ten thousand generations; the appearance of the unicorn 
foretold thy good fortune; with the harmony of music 
(we invite thee), the sun and moon so bright, and heaven 
and earth clear and still.** Afterward the ** sacrificial 
lord " takes his position in the center of the hall, and the 
** prayer of blessing,** corresponding to the ** long 
prayer *' of the kirk, is read. It is inscribed on a large 
square wooden tablet, and begins, *' In the sixteenth 
year of Kwangchi, the second moon and seventh day, to 
the Most Holy, the First Teacher, Confucius,** and con- 
tinues in the prescribed form. During the several en- 
trances of the governor three prayers are offered, and 
again a solemn address when the sacrificial vessels are 
removed. At the close his divine spirit, which is sup- 
posed to be omnipresent as far as China is concerned, 
is requested to return to its invisible and unknown rest- 
ing-place, the wording of this benediction being as vague 
as the Chinese language is capable of expressing un- 
certainty. 

Animal sacrifices are not often seen in this era of the 
world's history. Whether the fathers of the nation, go- 
ing back to near the Noahic period, were originally 



monotheistic we will not now inquire ; but it seems that 
the stream of theology^ so pure and crystal as it flowed 
from the foot of Ararat, has been diverted into the chan- 
nels of literature, and the religious effect is as disastrous 
as the overflow of the muddy waters of the Yellow River, 
At the spring and autumn sacrifices one bull, a flock of 
twenty-two sheep, and a herd of twenty-two swine are 
driven to each temple. There is one temple for each 
department and one for each county, or about 1,500 in 
all, making the total sum of animals slain each spring 
and fall about 67,500, or annually 135,000 offered to 
Confucius. There are 135 offered in Soochow at each 
sacrifice. The money paid for these, for the silk which 
is burned at the close, and for the two feasts to all the 
attendants is a drain on the national exchequer The 
ritual collects the ancient emblems of religion in the 
period of the "spring and autumn," and they are prac* 
ticed now in the worship of China's great sage. No one 
can witness the scene without being impressed how deep 
the roots of these venerable cults have penetrated into 
the national heart. As the Confucian law ** can never 
with those sacrifices which they offered year by year 
continually make the comers thereunto perfect,'* there 
remains but to tell of the one perfect Sacrifice which 
was ** once offered " and after which the shedding of the 
blood of bulls and lambs was to cease forever. — Central 
Preibyteriafh 



Br, Faher on Ancestor Worship. 

Dr. Faber thus analyzed ancestor worship in the dis- 
cussion in the Shanghai Conference : 

1. It presupposes the disembodied souls to be sub* 
ject to the same desires and wants as souls living in the 
body, 

2. It demands real sacrifices (even bloody), in the 
sense of ceremonial, for supplying the wants of the de- 
parted, propitiating them, removing calamities, and gain- 
ing special blessings. 

3. It presupposes the happiness of the dead depend- 
ing on the sacrifices from their living descendants. 

4. It presupposes that the human soul, at the moment^ 
of death, is divided into three portion-souls, one going 
to hades, one to remain at the grave, and one to reside 
in the tablet of the ancestral hall. 

5. It presupposes that these three souls are attracted 
by the sacrificial ceremonial, and partake of the ethereal 
parts of the sacrifices, 

6. It presupposes that all departed souls not favored 
with sacrifices turn into hungry ghosts, and cause all 
kinds of calamities to the living. 

7. It presupposes the welfare of the living to be caused 
by the blessing from the departed. 

8. It is not merely commemorative, but a pretended 
intercourse with the world of spirits, with the powers of 
hades or darkness forbidden by divine law. 

9. It is destructive of a belief in future retribution^ 
adjusted by God's righteousness. There are only dis- 
tinguished rich and poor, not good and bad. 




«6 



CHINKIANG—ITS PEOPLE AND ITS MISSIONS. 



10. It places the imperial ancestors on an equality 
with heaven and earth (deity), and the common gods 
or spirits (shen) are placed two degrees below. 

11. It is the source of geomancy, necromancy, and 
other abominable superstitions. 

12. It is the cause of polygamy, and of much unhap- 
piness in family life in China. 

13. It creates and fosters clannishness, as each clan 
has its own ancestral protectors. Frequent disastrous 
village wars are the results. 

14. It has developed an extreme view of paternal au- 
thority, which crushes individual liberty. 

15. It enchains millions of talented people by ancient 
institutions and prevents progress. 



Chinkiang— Its People and Its Missions. 

py REV. WILBUR C. LONGDEN, OF THE CENTRAL CHINA 
METHODIST EPISCOPAL MISSION. 

I am now in the United States, but as I look upon 
the picture accompanying this I am forcibly reminded 
of my own mission work in Chinkiang, and of the great 
possibilities before the mission workers in that part of 
China. The view in the upper picture is looking north- 
ward toward the Yang-tsze River, which flows just be- 
yond the hill. A little more than one third of the city 
18 included in the picture. 

The large building at the foot of the hill, a little to 
the right of the center, is the English consulate, and the 
white line at the top of the hill is a wall of masonry 
built for protection. In earlier days when a difference 
of opinion arose between the English official and the 
Chinese lewd fellows of the baser sort used to amuse 
themselves by rolling stones down the incline toward 
the consulate building. It proved easier to ascertain 
that a stone had arrived than to discover who started 
it. At length the Chinese magistrate suggested the 
building of this wall for protection. It has served its 
purpose very well. 

At the foot of the hill, about in the center of view 
No. I, stands the American consulate, and a little to the 
right of it is the building of our Mission, bought about 
six years ago and remodeled into a chapel. It was in 
this section of the city that the rioters of February 5, 
1889, did their work. The English consulate was 
burned, the American consulate looted, the consuls 
with their families being obliged to climb the rugged 
sides of that hill and break through the wall at the top 
to escape the clutches of the mob. 

The house next to the English consulate was the 
home of the Rev. Mr. Hunnex, of the American South- 
ern Baptist Society. It was burned and his wife was 
forced to spring from her bed, throw about herself and 
her six-days* old babe such wraps as she could secure, and 
flee for their lives. It is one of the miraculous provi- 
dences of God that she is still alive. 

The mission homes of our society, being in another 
quarter, were unmolested. Our pleasant chapel, how- 



ever, was looted, but the amount of damage was paid to 
us within three months. Perhaps there is no people in 
the world more ready to give you your rights when you 
are certain as to what they are, and demand them, than 
the Chinese people. 

The Methodist Episcopal, the Southern Presbyterian, 
and the Southern Baptist Societies have been doing 
work in Chinkiang about eight years. During that time 
our Mission has had sometimes two, but generally only 
one, representative, and that representative has often 
been in his first or second year in China, and necessa- 
rily obliged to devote much of his time to the study of 
the language and customs of the people. 

Six and a half years ago the Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of our Church sent a physician and a 
teacher to Chinkiang, and two years ago a third lady 
arrived. This fairly states the force which the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church has had at this place up to the 
present time. 

The city itself is not large, perhaps 130,000 is a fair 
estimate, but its situation at the junction of the Yang- 
tsze River, with the Grand Canal which extends from 
the capital southward about 600 miles through the best 
part of the empire, makes it one of the most important 
trade centers of China, to which merchants from every 
part of the country are continually coming. 

Then just across the river, so near that its pagoda is 
visible to the eye on a fair day, stands the great city 
of Yangchow. This place, containing a population of 
no less than 350,000 souls, ranks high in the empire as 
a wealthy literary center. Any results aflected in these 
two cities will be felt all through the outlying district 
which stretches away northward till it meets the bounds 
of our North China Mission, and is literally dotted with 
villages, towns, and cities. We wonder not that the men 
who opened Chinkiang felt that they ought to plan for 
great things, and we who have followed in the work 
there are waiting with longing hearts for the day when 
the Church shall feel able to put into this field a force 
which shall be somewhat adequate to the opportunities 
it offers. Our work for the present is limited to Chin- 
kiang. Our chapel location has been transferred from 
its old location to a point at the extreme right of the 
picture, and on the main street of the city. Here we 
have a plain, substantial building, 32x48 feet inside. 
Brother A. C. Wright, who is now in charge, sends 
word that at every service it is filled with attentive, 
well-behaved auditors. 

The corner-stone of this chapel, which was laid in 
September, 1889, contains among other things the 
names of about 27 Chinese members. There have been 
larger gatherings and greater displays at the laying of 
comer-stones, but I am doubtful if Christ's children 
have often assembled with a deeper sense of gratitude 
to God or with higher hopes for the future of his work 
than filled the hearts of the missionaries and the little 
company of Chinese Christians gathered there that day. 

A little farther to the right of our chapel would be 
seen the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society Hospitaly 



where Dr, Hoag annually administers remedies to sev- 
eral thousand sick ones, while Miss Peters endeavors to 
awaken their interest in spiritual things. The influence 
of this branch of the work in dispelling Chinese preju- 
dice cannot be overestimated. There is also the girls* 
boarding-school in charge of Miss Robinson, which is 
doing so much to revolutionize Chinese ideas concern- 
ing woman's mental capacity. 

Such a devout religious atmosphere pervades this 
school-room that the girls who enter it, though coming 
almost entirely from heathen homes, mostly become 
Christians. Of the 14 accessions to the church in 1889 
7 were from this school We have also a boys' day- 
school of 30 membersj who are receiving daily instruc- 
tions in the things that pertain to Christ. 

And what about ihe moral influence which the mis- 
sionaries of our own and other societies have wielded ? 
Let us see if any can be traced. If the picture ex- 
tended a little further to the left a temple would come 
into view, and adjoining it would be seen a round 
structure perhaps 6 feet in diameter and 10 feet high. 
In the wall of this structure, about 6 feet from the 
ground, are 4 circular openings, each about i foot in 
diameter. No other apertures. This is what is known 
in China as a baby tower ; that is, a place into which 
female infants may be cast and left to die. This tower 
stands there evincing the fact that the people of Chinki- 
ang once so far approved the destruction of girl ba- 
bies as to provide a place for their exposure. Though 
it is still there, yet, thanks be to God, it is now unused. 
There is good reason to believe that not a child has 
been exposed there for several years, nor can you find 
in all that section one who will not now condemn the 
practice. It is the influence of Christ's Gos|>el which 
has produced this change in public opinion. If time 
and space would permit facts could be brought to show 
that the same influence is gradually undermining all that 
is distinctively characteristic of heathenism in China. 

In the immediate foreground of view No, 1, in the 
angle formed by the whitewashed houses, are half a 
dozen or more huts, not so high as a man*s head. The 
general observer would not suspect that they were hu- 
man habitations. They are constructed by fixing in the 
ground both ends of a number of flexible poles, and 
covering the row of arches thus made with coarse mats 
and dry grass. Cost of one hut, exclusive of labor, 
perhaps 50 cents. The best that can be said for them 
is that they keep OMi part of the rain and snow. There 
are a large number of these in and about Chinkiang, 
It is no exaggeration to say that several thousand of the 
inhabitants of the city have no other homes. In these 
they sleep by night, and by day gain a precarious sub- 
sistence by begging, stealing, and turning their hands to 
occasional odd jobs of work. Many of them have seen 
better days. Sometimes profligacy, sometimes opium, 
is the cause of their destitution, but very often circum- 
stances over which they have had no control 

One I remember, a well-educated, gentlemanly ap* 
pcaring man, had been a captain in the Chinese army ] 



but, incurring the displeasure of his superior officers, 
his prospects for this world were ruined. Under the 
stress of oflicial displeasure he sank from comparative 
affluence to abject penury. During the year i88g he 
made a profession of faith, joined our Church on pro- 
bation, and before the period of his probation had ex- 
pired he passed — I trust to glory. This bit of history 
from the life of Mr. Chen furnishes a fair illustration of 
the actual relation which the Chinese people sustain to 
their rulers. 

In the dark days of Roman Catholic ascendency the 
people of Europe were never so thoroughly at the tnercy 
of the priesthood as are the people of China at the 
mercy of their ofllicials. Their government is little bet- 
ter than an organized system of rapine by which the 
masses are ** squeezed " (there is no better word) for the 
persona! benefit of their governors. Under such a sys- 
tem, how often one's earthly prosperity may be blighted 
through no fault of his own I Even among the favored 
few who are admitted to the benefits of official patron- 
age, as the Chinaman himself declares, every thing de- 
pends on luck. 

After the riot of February 5 it was reported that the 
higher officials had determined to compel the district 
magistrate of Chinkiang to make good the claims from 
his private fortune. Moreover, the death of the mag- 
istrate's mother occurred just at this time, and, accord- 
ing to the tenets of Confucianism, he was obliged to 
retire to private life for twenty-seven months. Here 
was a double calamity. Restitution of the claims 
would consume his entire fortune ; twenty-seven months' 
retirement from office would deprive him temporarily 
of the opportunity of reimbursing himself by mulcting 
the people. An impoverished official out of office gen- 
erally remains out. I remember hearing a Chinese gen- 
tleman of rank remark upon this case in a very matter- 
of-fact way : " He has had his luck and that is the end 
of the matter." 

There being so little that is assured in the prospects 
of China's most favored class, what is to be said of the 
toiling millions below them .> Taught as they are that 
the emperor is heaven's own and only representative on 
earth, and to disobey him or his official representatives 
is to incur the displeasure of the heavenly powers, the 
people, at least, have this assurance, that whatever the 
'* iuck " of those above them, their fate is to eke out a 
precarious, hopeless existence while they minister to the 
rapacity of their lords. 

Coming to our own land, they see a different order. 
Here are happy homes and intelligent, prosperous peo- 
ple, efforts being made on every hand to help the needy, 
but no place for the Chinaman ; and so with a cuff" here 
and a kick there, whether at home or abroad, all events 
conspire to teach them that every man*s hand is against 
the celestial. With no hope- inspiring heaven to look 
into, is it strange that we find them what they are ? 
Their squalor and filth, their cold exterior and unsym- 
pathetic bearing, their insufferable pride, above all 
their seeming lack of ambition to do or be belter j 




THE CHINESE CUE. 



m 



these things tend to excite our disgust. But examine 
closely the circumstances into which they are born and 
the feeling changes into one of sympathy, and the soul 
is filled with a consuming desire to help. 

What can help such helpless ones ? Nothing but the 
grace of Him who said, " To them who sat in the re- 
gion and shadow of death, to them did light spring up/* 
Among the 400,000,000 souls in that benighted land 
there are many thousands into whose lives the light of 
the Gospel has come, awakening new hope. Under the 
inspiration of this hope they are trying to overcome the 
tremendous obstacles of that pagan system into which 



Church may put forth \\^x whole strength in the support 
of these little Christian camps in the midst of paganism, 
and thus hasten the day when 

"Jesus shall reign where'er the sun 
Doth his successive journeys run ? " 



The Cliitiese Cue* 

BY CHESTER HOLCOMBE. 

One of the most marked and striking points of dif- 
ference Tietwecn the Oriental and Western races is 



,^I' 



liiilJV 



i.^^' 



r. li. 



m 






- A 



'I. J 



i\ 



V'i^l 



IN A CHINESE TEMI'LE. 



they have been Ijorn, This infant church, surrounded 
on every hand by a well-matured opposition, is stretch- 
ing out its hands toward the strong, prosperous churches 
of America and Europe and pleading for help. Will 
not the Chu;*ch strain every nerve to respond to this 
appeal and adequately sustain their cause ? The future 
of the Church at home is indissolubly bound up with 
the future of the Church there. Their fate will sooner 
or later be our fate. I am thinking just now of that 
last prayer of Christ, and the words,*' I pray not for the 
world, but for those whom thou hast given me," Were 
it possible for the Church to disclaim all responsibility 
concerning the heathen masses of China, yet it may not 
disclaim responsibility concerning those whom God has 
given us from among those masses. 

Brethren, sisters, they are pleading for our help; 
without it they will perish. The I.ord grant that the 




found in the hair. The hair of Eastern people is always 
coarse, straight, and a true jet black. That of the people 
of Europe and America is softer, silkier, and of such 
variety of coloring that a pure black head of hair is a 
rare exception. In many years of residence in the East I 
have never seen upon the head of a pure-blooded Chi- 
nese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Malay, or Indian 
any other shade of hair than jet black, excepting, of 
course, those heads on which age has bleached the cov- 
ering to gray or white. 

Another and equally marked point of dififercnce is 
found in the growth of hair upon the face. No amount 
of cultivation ever yet enabled an Asiatic to grow more 
than a most scanty beard or mustache. 

At the most, one may see a Chinese or native of Japan 
with a few straggling hairs upon his chin or upper lip, 
or, what is more common, three or four long hairs grow- 




70 



THE LUXURY OF WOE'' IN CHINA. 



ing from a mole on cheek or chin, and these three or 
four hairs are combed, fingered, and cultivated with the 
utmost pride and care, as precious, though scanty, signs 
of manhood. 

The foreigner's whiskers form the one mark of beauty 
which makes him an object of envy to his Oriental neigh- 
bors. They do not like the color of his hair, nor think 
that, short and bushy as it is, it compares with their 
glossy, straight braid. They vote his large nose ugly, 
dislike his pale complexion, criticise the color of his 
eyes, and object to the angle at which they are set, draw 
comparisons between his ears and those found on their 
donkeys ; but in the matter of whiskers they regard him 
as favored indeed. 

The cue is not only the badge or mark of a Chi- 
nese ; it is the sign of Chinese manhood. In infancy and 
childhood the head is either clean-shaven and kept as 
smooth and shining as a billiard-ball, or patches of hair 
are left to grow in circles helter-skelter upon its surface, 
and from each sticks up a little tuft of braid, as though 
the blood, in its excess of vitality, was sending out the 
sprouts of half a dozen cues. 

It is only when the boy reaches the age of thirteen or 
fourteen years that these " baby cues " are shaved off 
and he is formally invested with the sober cue of man- 
hood. 

But the cue, although the badge of a Chinese man, 
is not Chinese. It is a foreign importatipn, and, com- 
pared with other things in China, is a modern and re- 
cent fashion. It is Tartar, or Mongolian, and was 
brought into the empire only about three hundred years 
ago by the present rulers, who themselves are foreign- 
ers. 

Prior to that time the Chinese did not shave the head, 
but dressed their hair much as we do ours. But when 
the country was conquered by its present rulers a decree 
was issued that all good subjects of the new emperor 
should shave the head and wear a cue. This immedi- 
ately aroused an intense excitement and bitter opposition 
throughout the whole empire. 

To wear a cue was regarded as degrading and as a 
mark of slavery to a foreign tyrant. Mobs and riots oc- 
curred, and for a long time there was much trouble, and 
it seemed doubtful if the new fashion could be enforced. 

But the Tartar emperor met the difficulty with that 
shrewdness and tact which has made his name historical 
in China as the ablest and wisest of all her rulers, ancient 
or modem. 

He issued a further decree, in which he forbade per- 
sons convicted of serious crime to wear the cue, and 
in which he required his officers to cut off the cues of 
all such persons and not to allow them to shave their 
heads. 

Thus he made the cue a mark of respectability, and 
his new subjects were soon as anxious to adopt it as they 
had been determined in their opposition. To this day 
in China and among the Chinese a full head of hair and 
the absence of a cue is the badge of a criminal. 

This will explain to you the reason for the intense 



opposition among the Chinese in this country to any 
interference with their right to wear the cue, a right 
which they have defended in more than one instance in 
our courts of law. 

The cue has now become an object of almost super- 
stitious reverence among the Chinese. It is combed 
and dressed with the greatest care, enlarged and 
lengthened with horsehair or silk, wound about the head 
at times, and covered to keep it from the dust. In fact, 
it is generally treated as an object of dignity and honor. 

The Chinese boy longs for it, as the Yankee boy does 
for trousers with pockets in them. To pull it is an in- 
sult, and to cut it off is a grave crime severely punished 
by law. 

If a person, in traveling on a dusty road, has done up 
his cue to keep it clean, and meets a friend, before 
recognizing or addressing him he must sweep it down 
from its coil on the top of his head. In a similar man- 
ner, no servant may be allowed to remain in the presence 
of his master or mistress with his cue coiled up. It is 
even regarded as a mark of a rowdy to wear it loosely 
braided. The strands must be drawn tight and snug. — 
Youth's Companion, 



" The Luxury of Woe '^ in China. 

BY H. E. L. 

The deceased lady was the wife of an official, and in 
her life-time had often visited a Christian lady residing 
near her, but while admiring the pretty European house 
and furniture, the lady's conversation abput her God 
and Saviour seemed to have no influence on the T'ai- 
t*ai. Early one cold morning her foreign friend heard 
the sad wailing and sobbing which always accompanies 
Chinese mourniilg. On calling, she found the two 
young daughters and a daughter-in-law of the family 
sitting on the ground and wailing most piteously. Their 
embroidered silk robes were replaced by the coarsest 
white cotton garments, the borders of which were not 
even hemmed, and the usually elaborately dressed black 
hair was streaming in wild confusion over their shoul- 
ders. The wailing was continued early in the morning 
for some forty days, with an occasional few days* inter- 
mission. During this time the coffin, which in China is 
of very heavy wood and hermetically sealed, was kept 
in the house, and at vast expense constant relays of 
Buddhist and Taoist priests held various* services for 
the dead. 

A few of these services Mrs. Grey was invited to see; 
and, hoping to drop some words of truth and comfort, 
she accepted the invitations. On the first occasion she 
found a life-size sketch of the dead lady in colored chalks 
on the floor. Round this a priest was pouring a little 
stream of rice, which a second priest following him deftly 
worked out with his fingers into a frame-work of vine- 
leaves and grapes. This completed, the priests formed 
in procession, and with monotonous chants and sound- 
ing of cymbals and gongs moved in a kind of slow 



''THE LUXURY OF IVOM'' IN CHINA, 



71 



dance round and round the figure, crossing and re- 
crossing the rice pattern with their long flowing robes, 
and yet in some mysterious fashion never disarranging 
it. Between the times of wailing and the priests* serv- 
ices the three young girls were busy embroidering silk 
and satin shoes in their mother's favorite patterns, and 
having them n>ade up according to the size she used to 
wear. 

The second time Mrs. Grey was summoned this was 
explained to her. She was conducted to a large, hand- 
some-looking house, made of bamboo and paper, but 
painted and colordd to look exactly like a real dwelling, 
standing in an open space some distance from the home 



and excellent effigies of men and women servants were 
also there; then came the bedroom, with wardrobe and 
appropriate furnishings, the former containing numbers 
of costly silk and satin dresses and the etnbroiikred shoes. 
In ordinary cases the clotht-s and shoes are also made 
of paper, but it is understood that the better the mate- 
rials used on earth in these ceremonies the better will 
be the spiritual counterparts in the other world. Next 
came the box-room, containing piles of imitation Chinese 
trunks full of paper money, clothes, pu-kais (a kind of 
wadded quilt, often covered with silk), and many other 
necessary articles; outside this was the kitchen, with a 
Chinese cooking range and all its accompanying pots 



:N>i -^ 



>M 



£S. 



BUHWING A PAPER HOUSE IN CHINA. 



of the family. The coffin, after a long processional 
journey, was also there. The sedan-chairs of the lady 
mourners halted as Mrs* Grey arrived, and on being 
opened discovered the three girls, pale and worn with 
long wailing, clad in coarse white cotton garments and 
shoeSf and with sackcloth veils covering their heads. 
According to Chinese custom, they did not move them- 
selves, but were roughly dragged by Servian ts from their 
chairs and along the stony ground to the coffin, before 
which they prostrated themselves, 

^Irs- Grey was now invited to enter the house, as the 
relatives would be the last to inspect it, and no one else 
wouM then be allowed to enter. To her surprise, she 
found the structure consisted of nine rooms, each large 
enough to contain six persons comfortably. Loving 
thought had evidently been bestowed upon it, for in the 
guest-hall was a capital imitation of Mrs. Grey's own 
drawing-room grate, which had been a special object of 
imiration to the T ai-t*ai. Chinese chairs and tables 




and pans, among which was a foreign lamp and bottle 
of kerosene, all most ingenious imitations of the real 
things. 

After all the invited guests had left the house, the 
mourners entered, carefully inspected and re-arranged 
every thing in the different rooms, and then closed the 
doors and withdrew to a short distance. The priests 
now formed in procession, and having, amid the firing 
of crackers, set fire to the house, marched round and 
round it as the flames burned it up, chanting and beat- 
ing their gongs. One of them sprinkled something on 
the fire from a bowl held in his hand, and Mrs. Grey 
asked one of the gentlemen of the family to tell her 
what it was and explain the meaning. He replied, brief- 
ly, ** Fairy water,'* and turned away. Not satisfied, she 
appealed to a younger member of the family who had 
already manifested interest in the foreigner's religion ; 
he explained at once, as fully as he knew himself, that 
it was the blood of a cock, and that its being sprinkled 



M 



72 



CHILDREN OF CHINA, 



on the burning house in some way helped to transform 
it into a spirit-land habitation for the departed one ! 

So fully is it believed that the wants of the dead are 
thus supplied, that relatives will take advantage of an 
occasion such as the one just described to send boxes 
to their own friends. The one for whose special benefit 
the burning is taking place is supposed to pass on these 
boxes to their owners. In the sprinkling of the blood, 
can there be some vague notion of the need of a sacri- 
fice ? After the house and its contents had been con- 
sumed, the coffin was deposited in a temple near by. 
Not yet would the rapacious priests allow " the hope of 
their gains " to go, and so the coffin must remain un- 
buried for another year, or even years, with periodical 
expensive ceremonies performed, before a lucky site 
could be fixed upon for burial. 

Truly in this present life " Godliness would be profit- 
able " to these poor people, to say nothing of the com- 
fort and joy of a ** sure and certain hope " for the future. 
Let us think for a moment of our own "walking in the 
light " compared with their stumbling in darkness, and 
surely the contrast will lead us to pray earnestly that on 
them, too, the Sun of Righteousness may rise with heal- 
ing in his wings. — Casselfs Magazine, 



m m^m » 



ChUdren of China. 

BY FANNIE ROPER FEUDGE. 

In order, fully to understand the home life of a na- 
tion one needs to see the people as they live in the 
small towns and rural districts. In and around the large 
cities, amid the great, surging crowd of hungry humanity 
struggling for a living, individuality is, in a measure, 
lost ; while the old ** home " habits and personal tastes 
are necessarily set aside. This is especially true of 
China, where scores and hundreds of villages lie scat- 
tered over the broad plains and on the banks of the 
rivers, each village containing its cluster of farm-houses, 
and some, also, a temple and school, with an officiating 
priest and, perhaps, a pedagogue, though many have 
neither. 

Each hamlet covers only a few acres of ground, and 
is surrounded by the uninclosed fields of the peasants, 
while peeping out from a grove of willow or cypress 
trees may be seen here and there the white, semicircular 
graves of deceased relatives of these simple villagers, 
who quite probably have lived and died just where they 
were born. The villages are usually only a mile or two 
apart, and from the top of a grove sometimes as many 
as twenty or thirty may be counted. In every neighbor- 
hood of a few miles square there is a market-town, oc- 
casionally growing into the proportions of a city, larger 
or smaller, with business capacities proportioned by the 
wealth and enterprise of the neighboring farmers. 

The market- town, however small, has always one or 
more temples and schools and several ** tea-saloons,** 
besides a few stores containing all sorts of wares, where 
the people of the surrounding villages may purchase 



their ordinary supplies of food and clothing, making 
better bargains than in the little village bazaar. Occa- 
sional visits made by the wife and mother to the market- 
town are about the only holidays she ever gets ; and they 
come to her as a very agreeable variation in the ordinary 
hum-drum routine of a Chinese woman's life. The 
children usually accompany their mother ; and they 
greatly enjoy these shopping excursions, laughing and 
talking merrily with each other as they trudge along in 
the wake of their parents, each carrying his own little 
basket that will presently be filled with chau-chau sweet- 
meats or penny toys, bamboo whistles or miniature cook- 
ing sets. 

Chinese boys and girls — the latter especially — have, 
in many respects, a sad and lonely life, even when from 
the instincts of parental affection the mother amply sup- 
plies all the actual needs of her children. Like the 
juveniles of other Oriental lands, they are early trained 
to be quiet and unobtrusive in the presence of grown 
people, to repress every emotion of pain or pleasure, and 
act the role of demure little men and women " playing 
propriety." 

The little girl of ** upper tendom *' must, in infancy, 
have her feet ** bound ; '* and this for years inflicts the 
most excruciating torture, and deprives the little sufferer 
of all the active sports of childhood that render the lives 
of our dear children so joyous. Among the laboring 
class the little girl escapes the torture of "foot-binding;" 
but in every grade she finds out somehow, when scarcely 
out of infancy, that she is by no means a welcome mem- 
ber of the household, and that it is only by sufferance 
that she has been allowed to live at all. 

She learns, too, that her sex excludes her from many 
of the privileges enjoyed by her brothers, and that she 
must bear patiently, even from younger brothers, re- 
buke and contradiction, and be content, whether as 
child, sister, wife, or daughter-in-law, always to take a 
subordinate position. She knows that the birth of a 
girl-baby is heralded by bitter mournings ; her childhood 
almost ignored ; and, in most cases, education wholly 
denied her, so that her time must be spent either in 
idleness or servile labor, according to her position in 
life. The simplest literature is to her a sealed volume 
that she can never hope to look into, though she sees 
time and money lavishly expended in educating her 
brothers. 

Then, perhaps, in infancy, almost certainly before she 
has entered her " teens," she is, without her own 
knowledge or consent, betrothed to a man she has never 
seen — possibly an old, ill-tempered, or dissipated rowdy 
whom she can scarcely tolerate, and whom no pure- 
minded child or woman could possibly love. After the 
lapse of a few months or years the frightened child is 
separated from her own parents, brothers, and sisters, 
and borne away weeping to the strange new home into 
which she has been forced, and placed under the au- 
thority of a hard, unloving mother-in-law, who regards 
her only as a maid-of-all-work, to be tasked, scolded, 
and ill-treated ; sometimes beaten with cruel blows till 



CHILDREN OF CHINA. 



7S 



the poor little life, already so forlorn, is ** made bitter 
with hard bondage/' 

Such cases are by no means uncommon, even in well- 
to-do Chinese households, ** It is the custom for the 
mother to rule the wives of all her sons while she lives," is 
all the reason they give for the mothcr-in-iaw's tyranny ; 
and if the poor, grieved little child-wife should venture to 
complain to her husband he would, in nine cases out of 
ten, decline to interfere, because, forsooth, filial affection, 
the most deeply rooted principle of Chinese character, 
requires the son to yield implicit acquiescence in all his 
mother*s regulations, however contrary to his own views. 
For though in all other relations a slave, as mother, the 
Chinese woman reigns supreme. 

Professional fortune-tellers or soothsayers, a very nu- 
merous class in China, are largely responsible for the ill- 
advised and early bethrothals and child marriages now 
so fearfully common that the natives themselves begin 
to regard them with disapproval, I recall now the case 
of a Bible-reader, who is still living, that was sold by 
her parents when only two months old, because a blind 
fortune-teller persuaded her father that his dearly-loved 
son would certainly die if the infant daughter was not 
at once removed from the family. So the dear little 
baby-girl was given over to another woman to bring up 
as a wife for her youngest son, to whom the Httle girl 
was married when she was just ten years old. As such 
ver)^ small girls are worth less than the ^ost of bringing 
up, no money would have been demanded for this baby 
of two months old, except that Chinese usage requires a 
contract of marriage to be closed by the payment of a 
stipulated price. So the future mother-in-law paid two 
cents and the child became hers, and was shortly after 
regularly betrothed to the six-year-old boy. 

The two children grew up with a full understanding 
of their relations to each other; but neither was allowed 
any choice in the matter. The family belonged to the 
working class, and the little girl was taught to cook, spin, 
weave, plant rice, and help in watering the fields. There 
were no other children in the house, and the woman was 
kind to her X\\X\^ proikgh both before and after marriage. 
During the early years of her married life al! the family 
became Christians, and their humble home was peaceful 
and happy. But the majority of child marriages do not 
end so happily. 

At the birth of a boy a certain number of Chinese 
characters are written down by the father and handed 
over to a fortune-teller, who proceeds at once to draw up 
a ** Book of Fate," which is usually spoken of as the 
boy's pat-tsz^ or " eight characters.'* These represent, 
respectively, the hour, day, month, and year of the 
child^s birth ; and the soothsayer, pretending to draw his 
inferences from these, makes out a chart, specifying all 
the good and evil that are to come to the little one during 
his life-time, 

Th^ pa t'hs is always examined and consulted on every 
important occasion; and its oracles do undoubtedly exert 
considerable influence on the life and character, partly 
by working on the imagination, perhaps, but mainly by 




r- 



A 






ik i I ^ 

71 



*r/ 



causing the selection in boyhood of the future business- 
or profession and directing all the study, training, and 
discipline toward proficiency in that particular line. 

During the whole of the first month a bunch of the 
leaves of the artamesia is hung up over the front door of 
the house, for the double purpose of driving away de- 
mons and informing callers that no visits will be received 
during the month. 

On the third day the infani"i«., head receives its first^ 
washing, which is performed in llic presence of the god- 
dess of maternity, her image having been brought in for 
the purpose of giving the sanctity of her presence to so 
important a rite. A red cord with mystic charms at- 
tached is placed around the babe's neck, and another 
red cord some two feet long is fastened around his wrists^ 
one end on each. This last is designed and really be- 
lieved to be effective in keeping the hands through life 
from purloining the goods of others. Then ujjon a large 
sheet of red papera variety of small articles, including a 
pair of chop-sticks, are laid, and the paper is tied up and 
suspended by a red cord over the chamber door. These 
symbols are intended to invoke cleanliness, frugality^ 
industry, etc, as the boy^s future heritage; and a variety 
of other ceremonies, that are wholly omitted at the birth 
of a girl, go to show how highly the Chinese prize 
male offspring, and how carefully they would cherish and^ 
guard their little boys from future evil. 

As they grow older every possible advantage is given 
Ihem in the way of education as far as pecuniary means 
will allow ; and even before the little one has learned 
the meaning of the ceremony, the baby hands are clasped 
in adoration of the ** house god," and the little head 
bowed in worship before the ancestral tablets ; while 
almost the first conscious act of the little toddler is to 
take an offering to the temple and lay it, with joined 
hands and bowed head, before the idol he is thus early 
taught to reverence. 



74 



CHINESE SUPERSTITION, 



Chinese Superstition. 

BY REV. ARTHUR ELWIN. 

That the Chinese are superstitious we all know, but 
€^cept that they worship idols and their ancestors, very 
few would be able to give any intelligible account of 
their superstitious observances. In the present paper it 
is proposed to pursue the subject further, and to inquire 
in what Chinese superstitions really consist. And here 
it may be well to remark at the outset that Chinese su- 
perstitions are really endless ; there are superstitions 
connected with births, marriages, and deaths ; supersti- 
tions connected with eating, drinking, and sleeping. 
Indeed, the more one knows of the Chinese the more 
amazed one is at the number and variety of their super- 
stitions. On the present occasion it will be well not to 
follow any plan of our own in treating of this subject, 
but, if possible, to follow a guide, and such a guide we 
have in a certain Mr. Song Lo, who has written a small 
book to exhort his countrymen to avoid foolish notions 
and false superstitions. Mr. Song Lo in the preface of 
his book mentions that he has been a Christian for 
more than twenty years. His book is therefore, of 
course, written from a Christian point of view, and, in- 
deed, is addressed to those who have already embraced 
Christianity. He says : ** Every one who believes and 
follows it — that is, the true doctrine — must banish 
every thing that is false and embrace that which is 
true, and reverence and worship the only Creator — the 
true Lord — repenting of past sins and following that 
which is good." Mr. Song Lo goes on to say that he 
has noticed a great difference in Christians, some being 
wise but some very foolish. He says, speaking of the 
last mentioned : " If we examine their hearts, we find 
they are still inclined to old customs and are alto- 
gether without knowledge, not knowing true doctrine 
and right principle which proceeds from heaven and 
cannot be changed ; this, truly, is to be deeply lament- 
ed." Mr. Song Lo is very modest, as may be seen from 
another extract from his preface : ** Therefore I have 
taken the forbidden false customs, which injure the 
true doctrine, and have made a little book. Women 
and children can learn and read it, and they will know 
the strange and false sayings which those who do not 
"believe in the Lord follow, but which they ought thor- 
oughly to hate and detest" 

After the preface we have the introduction, written 
"by a Mr. P*in San, a personal friend of Mr. Song Lo. He 
"begins by saying : 

" We Chinamen are very much given to pursuing the 
-wind and grasping at shadowy things in which he who 
believes is only deceived thereby. From childhood to 
manhood the half of that which the ear hears and of 
that which the eye sees is full of deception, to which 
the ear and the eye having become accustomed, it is at 
last reckoned as if it ought so to be. Concerning doubt- 
ful things, one says in his heart, These things are not 
idolatry ; there is no offering incense to idols ; there is 
no burning paper to the spirits ; there is no following 



Buddhists and Taoists, becoming vegetarians and re- 
peating litanies. These things run on even lines with 
true doctrine and do not contradict it. Alas ! he says 
this because his unstable heart recognizes error." Mr. 
P*in San continues : ** Mr. Song Lo, being anxious to 
repel this immense wave of error, wrote this book of 
instruction, so we may say his heart was thoroughly in 
accordance with the Lord's doctrine ; this also it was 
that influenced me and made me happy to write this in- 
troduction." He concludes : ** That this excellent doc- 
trine may proceed from us complete, that that which is 
false may from this time be exterminated, that all may 
be perfect, thoroughly cleansed, without the least fault, 
and so obtain the Lord's approbation, truly this is my 
desire." 

No apology is needed for giving these extracts from 
the preface and introduction to this little book, which 
may certainly be read with profit, not only by women 
and children, but by others also. Indeed, it may be 
said at once that there are very few women and chil- 
dren who would be able to understand the strange 
Chinese characters in which it is written. 

It must be mentioned that only some of the super- 
stitions noticed by Mr. Song Lo can be alluded to here. 
Those referring to Chinese customs, which would take 
a long explanation to make intelligible to English read- 
ers, have been purposely omitted. The following selec- 
tion will, perhaps, prove interesting : 

The adorning the children with gods of longevity and 
images of Buddha, 

Chinese children on holiday occasions nearly always 
appear with their caps ornamented with little gilt im- 
ages of gods and saints. These images are supposed to 
protect the child and bring good luck. 

The piercing the ear of the child with a golden ringy lest 
it should be difficult to bring up. 

The golden ear-ring piercing the child's ear is sup- 
posed to give considerable assistance to those engaged 
in bringing him up. 

The collecting money from one hundred families to make 
a locked chain. 

In the country districts especially boys with rings 
round their necks are constantly met with. Sometimes 
it is a small silver chain fastened with a padlock, but 
more often only a silver wire. In either case the 
meaning is the same. It is a life-preserving ring, which 
will ward off sickness and disease of every kind. Such 
a ring, bought only by the father or mother, or pre- 
sented by a friend, would be of no avail. It must be 
bought with money collected from at least one hundred 
families. When once put on it is never removed day or 
night. Men may be seen who have worn the ring forty 
or fifty years. It is no slight test of a man's sincerity 
when he removes this ring preparatory to being re- 
ceived into the Christian Church by baptism. 

The placing a broom beside the bed of a sleeping child. 

Evil spirits are supposed very much to fear a broom, 
probably because the Chinese broom is not unlike a 
hatchet in /orm. 



CHINESE SUPERSTITION, 



75 



The pasting up T'ien-wang when a child cries at night. 

The Chinese say eight out of ten babies cry at night. 
How trying this is some of us know. The Chinese 
remedy is to write on a piece of paper the following 
sentence and to paste it upon the door or wall : ** TMen 
wang-wang, Di wang-wang, Ngo kya yiu yi k*oh siao r 
law. Ko-lu kytlin-ts doh ih pien, ih hoh kw*en-tao da 
t*ien-kwang." (King of heaven, king of earth, in my 
family there is a little child that cries all night. You 
respectable passers-by read this sentence, and my child 
will sleep without waking until broad daylight.) Re- 
spectable passers-by may read what is written and so 
help to bring sleep to the little one. 

The giving the name Tsao-nan (beckofiing a son) when 
there is no son. 

The Chinese long, above all things, for a son. They 
think that by giving the name, "Beckoning a son," or, 
** Beckoning a little brother," to a girl they will insure 
that the next child bom shall be a boy. 

The hanging a knife or mirror on the breast^ lest the 
spirits should cause injury. 

Little knives made of silver are made expressly for 
this purpose. Parents hang them on the breasts of 
their children. 

The pasting up ^^ Beware of small-pox " on the door or 
wall. 

This sentence is posted upon the house to keep 
strangers from entering. Not, as might be supposed, 
to warn strangers against the danger of infection, but 
to protect the children who have just been innoculated 
from the danger of being gazed upon by strange eyes. 
The eyes of strangers are said to exercise a very evil 
influence at such a time. 

The rubbing soot on the nose of the child going to the 
house of its mother's brother. 

This is only done on the first visit. It is not done 
when the child goes to the house of its father's brother. 
The origin of this strange custom is lost in obscurity. 

The causing the voice to be heard afar when calling 
hack the soul in the evening. 

The Chinese believe that every man has three souls. 
Sickness is sometimes caused by one soul being lost ; 
it is therefore necessary to go and find it. It is night. 
Our boatman, having fastened the boat to the bank of 
the canal, has retired to rest. Before following his ex- 
ample we are quietly reading in the little cabin set apart 
for passengers. Suddenly in the quiet evening air we 
hear a sound of calling. As the voice draws nearer 
along the canal bank we can distinguish the words, 
*' Ah-long, lai-lai ; Ah-long, lai lai." (Ah-long, come, 
come ; Ah-long, come, come.) As the man passes the 
boat we look out of the little hole that does duty for a 
window. There is the man, lighted lantern in hand, 
seeking the soul of his sick friend, while again and 
again he raises his voice in the mournful cry, "Ah-long, 
come, come ; Ah-long, come, come." Sometimes this 
man is followed by another who personates the lost 
soul. This man follows some distance behind the 
first one and cries from time to time, " I am coming ; I 



am coming." But the men pass on, their voices being 
gradually lost in the distance, while we retire to rest 
more convinced than ever of the necessity of bringing 
the truth to the knowledge of these poor blind, super- 
stitious people. 

The magpie proclaims happiness ^ the raven disaster. 

In the evening the cock crows^ fear Tsoh-Yong {the 
god of fire), 

A cock flying on to a house must be at once secured and 
killed 

The cock crowing in the evening and the cock flying 
on to the roof of the house are both signs that the house 
will be burned down, but it seems the threatened evil 
may be averted if the cock is immediately slain. 

By the bird chirping in the middle of the night you may 
suspect that evil spirits are near. 

If a mouse gnaws holes in your hat or coat you may ex- 
pect disaster. 

If a dog or a snake bite you it is on account of whmt 
happened in a previous state of existence. 

It will be noticed that most of these superstitious say- 
ings refer in a greater or lesser degree to Buddhism. 
The man in his previous life injured or killed a dog or 
snake, therefore in his present life he is injured by one 
of these animals. 

A dog sleeping with its head on the threshold of the door 
portends coming misfortune. 

The saying that a sick dog is weeping when it cries^ 
''E-ho, E-ho.** 

Weeping — that is, on account of misfortune coming 
to the hou§e. 

The saying that a dog scratching a hole in the earth is 
digging a grave. 

The saying that a dog or cat with a white tail coming 
to a house brings mourning. 

The giving salt in exchange for a caty and passing it 
round the legs of the table. 

These are common practices to keep the cat from 
running away. 

With a s/ieep comes the wearing of mourning clothes ; 
with a cat comes wealth. 

A Chinaman will not turn a stray cat out of his house 
— he might dismiss wealth. 

The friend who enters your house wearing mourning 
is not to be endured. 

For this reason a man for forty-nine days after the 
death of his parents cannot visit the houses of his 
friends. 

The saying that he who meets a monk or a nun will 
not grow rich. 

Upon meeting a coffin carried out of doors to say that 
riches are coming. 

This is a strange saying. The word for coffin in 
Chinese is a compound word, which in sound resembles 
two words which mean a magistrate and riches. The 
people do not think of the thing signified, but only of 
the sound of the word, the magistrate and the riches. 

The singeing the shoes upon returning home after a 
funeral. 



76 



THE LANGUAGE OF CHINA, 



A universal custom. A fire is lighted on the ground 
outside the door of the house and every one steps over 
it 

The filling the seven apertures of the dead with gold and 
gems. 

The custom has fallen into abeyance. The seven 
apertures are the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, and the 
mouth. 

The covering the feet of the dead ivith a cane measure^ 
lest they should move. 

The feet of the dead are always tied together and se- 
cured in some way. 

On the first day of the year not daring to throia any 
thing on the floor. 

Nutshell, for example. 

On the first day of the year fearing to use the knife or 
needle. 

These implements, b^ing made of iron, might do in- 
jury. The Chinese never touch them on New Year's 
day. 

On the first and fifteenth days of the month disliking 
any one to come and beg a light. 

One symbolical meaning attached to fire is prosperity. 
Giving a light on the morning of the above mentioned 
days would be like giving away prosperity. 

Not daring to cook beef in the kitchen. 

One of the most important of the Chinese divinities 
is the kitchen god, found in every Chinese kitchen. 
The Chinese say the kitchen god, being a vegetarian, 
would run away if he saw beef being cooked. 

Not daring to chop garlic or onions on the kitchen 
range. 

Vegetarians are not allowed to eat garlic or onions, 
therefore they must not be taken into the presence of 
the kitchen god, lest he should smell them and be of- 
fended. 

By a*^ thief " attached to the lamp-wick reckoning upon 
the arrival of a guest. 

It is not only in China that coming events are said to 
be foreshadowed in lamp-wicks. 

By the extitiction of the lamp guessing that trouble is 
near. 

Sometimes, owing to a flaw in the wick or to some 
other cause, a lamp will gradually go out. The Chinese 
think this a very bad sign. 

By twitching in the eyes expecting grief ami trouble in 
the heart. 

Upon the body suddenly becoming numb to balance a 
piece of fire -wood on the tip of the nose. 

This is certainly amusing, and one would think hard- 
ly superstitious. It would effectually prevent the body 
from becoming numb. 

By a sneeze^ a red face^ or a hot ear supposing that 
some one is slandering from behind your back. 

This superstition may also be heard of in other coun- 
tries besides China. 

In seasickness stealing a drop of water from the tip 
of the boat pole. 

Here is a new remedy for sea-sickness. It is most | 



important that no one should see the drop of water be- 
ing taken from the end of the boat pole. 

The placing an iron knife on the cover of the medicinal 
cooking-pot. 

The ingredients in a Chinese medical prescription, 
sometimes numbering as many as twenty, have to be 
placed in a pot over the fire and all boiled together. If 
the iron knife was not on the lid of the pot, the evil 
spirits might come and lift the lid and mix something 
injurious with the medicine. 

The obtaining good luck by pouring the dregs outside the 
gate to be trodden under foot. 

When out walking we suddenly come upon a dirty- 
looking mess of leaves, beans, and no one knows what, 
scattered on the path ; we know that some one has been 
ill and that what we see is what remained of his pre- 
scription after the liquid part had been strained ofd 
The idea is that as the passers-by step on or over this 
residue and then depart in different directions, so the 
disease of the sick man who took the medicine will also 
be dispersed abroad. 

The saying the sick man*s incoherent speech is caused by 
evil spirits. 

The begging a charm and hiding it in the hair to drive 
away ague. 

The charm is to be hidden, lest the evil spirits should 
see it and take it away. 

Mr. Song Lo concludes with the following words, 
with which we shall all agree : " All that has been said 
above is altogether false. Every place, village, and dis- 
trict has its own customs. Only truly follow the holy 
religion, obeying the Lord's instructions, and yours will 
be happiness without end." — Chinese Recorder, 



The Language of China. 

In Chinese the subject precedes the verb, the adjective 
precedes the substantive it modifies, and when two sub- 
stantives come together the first is in the possessive 
case. The written language is monosyllabic, but not 
so the colloquial, which has become diff*use in conse- 
quence of the necessity arising from the difficulty of 
making orally intelligible the single words which are 
sufficiently plain to the eye by aid of the ideographic 
characters. 

Like many other languages, Chinese has suffered loss 
through phonetic decay, and it is poverty-stricken in a 
grammatical sense. It is uninflected and only shows 
slight signs of agglutination. There is very little, there- 
fore, to mark the grammatical value of a word except 
its position in a sentence, since very few words belong 
absolutely to any one part of speech. The result is that 
the same word is often capable of playing the part of a 
substantive, an adjective, a verb, or an adverb. But 
when this is so it sometimes happens that the transition 
from one part of speech to another is indicated by a 
change of tone in the pronunciation. 

The tones are not fixed quantities. They vary con- 



APPEAL FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS, 



77 



siderably in different parts of the empire, from sixteen 
in sorae of the southern dialects to five in the Manda- 
rin; and words are further constantly being transferred 
from one tone to another in obedience to the laws of 
popular phoneticism. Whatever may have been the 
origin of these tones, they pKiy a very important part in 
making Chinese colloquially intelligible. In the Man- 
darin dialect, which is the most generally spoken dia- 
lect in China, there are only about 532 syllables, which 
are represented by the 12,000 or 15,000 characters com- 
monly found in the dictionaries. 

It is obvious that with so small a number of sounds to 
express vocally so large a number of words confusion 
must inevitably arise. And so it often does, though the 
introduction of the tones has served to mitigate the evil 
by giving generally each syllable five dififerent vocaliza- 
lions. Being an uninflected language, the cases of nouns 
and the tenses of verbs are either indicated by position in 
the sentence or by the addition of prefixes or sufiixes to 
the original words, which do not undergo any inherent 
change w*hatever. As in the Accadian, there is an ab- 
sence of any distinction between the masculine and fem- 
inine genders, and the plural is commonly only indirectly 
pointed out, 

C>n paper the language is represented by characters 
^^hich may be classed as hieroglyphics^ ideograms, and 
phonetics. The hieroglyphics are the primitive charac- 
ters of the language, and were originally drawings of the 
objects which they were intended to represent, though 
now, through the changes which have taken place in the 
form of the characters, it is often difficult to recognize 
the originals. It will easily be understood that these 
hieroglyphic characters soon proved insufficient for the 
literar>' needs of the people, and hence the practice grew 
up of combining two or more hieroglyphics to express an 
idea. Thus, for example, the character representing the 
sun placed above a straight line stands for the dawn, 
and one representing the sun shining through a tree 
for the east. Again, the characters for **a man" and 
*' words,*' associated together, represent the word mean- 
ing '* sincere," and the sun and moon, placed side by side, 
the word for ** brightness." But by far the largest 
number of characters are phonetics— *that is to say, cer- 
tain characters, about one thousand six hundred in all, 
are used as phonograms, with or without reference to 
their own particular meanings. 

According to Chinese records, the original characters 
numbered about five hundred and forty ; the Accadians 
are said to have had about the same number of primitives. 
These characters would at first represent so many words, 
but as time went on it would become necessary to asso- 
ciate derived meanings with these words, and to indicate 
on paper the particular sense in which the writer intended 
ihem to be understood. This would be done by the 
Idition of determinatives or classifiers as they are some* 

aes called. 

By means of their three classes of characters, the 
hieroglyphics, ideograms, and phone tics^ the Chinese 
have been able to express and preserve the thoughts and 



sayings of their greatest and wisest writers through a 
series of centuries which dwarfs into insignificance all 
Western ideas of antiquity. For thirty centuries China- 
men have been accumulating stores of literary wealth, 
which are of themselves sufficiently important to attract 
the attention of scholars, and to stir the literary ambition 
of students, and which do so in almost every country 
but England. But by the fresh discoveries of Messrs. 
de Lacoupcrieand Ball, not only is a new interest added 
to the language, but it is brought into close and intimate 
relation with the tongues spoken by the great civilizing 
nations of the world. — Professor Douglas. 



Appeal for Foreign Missions, 

BY BISHOP JOHN P. NEWSMAN, D.D, 

The Genera! Committee at its recent session appointed Bishop 
Newman to write an appeal for ForeigTi Missions, and Bishop 
Goodsell to write in behalf of Home Missions. The following 
is the one prepared by Bishop Newman, Let it he read in all 
Methodist Episcopal churches and Sunday-schools : 

The General Committee of the Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, which met in the city 
of Boston in November, 1S90, authorized an Appeal to 
all our churches in behalf of Foreign Missions, Of the 
personnel of that Committee it is difficult to speak in 
adequate terms of commendation. For the first time 
since 1872 all the Bishops of our Church were in America, 
and were present on that important occasion, and asso- 
ciated with them were our two Missionary Bishops, one 
representing the millions of India, and the other the vast 
continent of Africa. Personally acquainted with the 
history, condition, and outlook of all our mission fields, 
whether at home or abroad, these chief pastors of our 
Church were eminently competent to advise and act on 
all the great questions presented for consideration. 
Identified with them in spirit and purpose were our 
Missionary Secretaries, known and honored for their 
wisdom, energy, and enthusiasm, and who are the de- 
positories of all needful information, gathered from their 
extensive and thorough correspondence with all our mis- 
sion stations. As the custodians of the contributed 
funds of our people, the Treasurers of the Missionary 
Society were there, familiar with the financial condition 
of the Church and the country, and whose ceaseless 
vigilance is worthy of all praise. And to insure the 
minutest knowledge and the most complete inquiry 
touching th e needs of all our work in dom estic and foreign 
fields, there were also present twenty-eight ministerial 
and lay members of the General Committee, men of 
** honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom/' 
They represented every section of our Zion, and plead 
with holy eloquence for the districts committed to their 
care. Fourteen of these twenty-eight members came 
from the Board of Managers, where month after month 
they had considered in detail the administration of the 
Missionary Society as directed by the General Commit- 
tee» Conspicuous in all the debates were the lay 



78 



APPEAL FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS, 



members, whose exact business methods in commercial 
life tempered our zeal according to knowledge. 

They Acted for the Church. 

Representing as they did the best mind and heart of 
Methodism, the whole Church is confident that from 
such a body of Christian men would issue conclusions 
worthy the increased liberality of every Methodist in the 
world. What other body of devoted men ever assem- 
bled on the earth came more thoroughly equipped to 
meet the demands of the hour ? And they were there 
not for themselves, but as the duly and constitutionally 
appointed agents of every Methodist preacher and lay- 
man, of every man, woman, and child in all our congre- 
gations. They pledged the good faith of our great 
Church in the appropriations they made and in the ob- 
ligations they contracted, and henceforth these ate the 
obligations of the whole Church, and every principle of 
honor and honesty demands a full response to the last 
dollar appropriated. 

For seven days these faithful, earnest men of God con- 
sidered questions freighted with a solemnity and respon- 
sibility that taxed the brain to the utmost, and made the 
heart heavy with the consciousness of the inadequacy of 
the means to respond fully to the calls of a lost world. 
From all fends came entreaties for help, sustained by 
facts and figures which none dare dispute. All realized 
that the heathen world of a thousand million of human 
souls awaited our coming. By our previous efforts we 
have opened the doors of all lands, and have awakened 
expectations which we are bound to meet. Destiny is now 
upon us. We have invited the emergency of the hour, 
and created the conditions which impel us forward. 
Love for Christ, pity for humanity, loyalty to duty com- 
pel us to advance. Having informed the famine-stricken 
pagan world that in our Father's house there is ** bread 
enough and to spare," they turn their hungry eyes upon 
us, stretch out their empty hands toward us, and with 
their famished lips whisper, " we perish with hunger." 

Duty. 
We have gone too far to stop. The burden of respon- 
sibility is upon us. We cannot plead ignorance. We 
know our duty. We have made ourselves familiar with 
the sinful, wretched, sad condition of our pagan brethren; 
we have solicited missionary intelligence from all sources; 
and we are as accurately acquainted with their sinfulness, 
helplessness, and immeasurable woe as though eye-wit- 
nesses to their all pervading gloom and despair. We 
cannot say to God that we do not know that his human 
children, **bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh," are 
"sitting in the region of the shadow of death." In 
every life of thirty years a thous^d million of benighted 
heathen pass into the presence of Christ with the sad 
refrain, " No man cared for our souls." 

Ability. 
We cannot justify inaction in this glorious cause for 
which the Saviour bled and the apostles died by the plea 



of inability. Of all Christian denominations in this fair 
land of ours we are the richest in aggregated wealth. 
We give annually for all Church purposes $20,000,000, 
but of this magnificent sum less than $600,000 are yearly 
given for the conversion of a thousand millions of de- 
graded, weary pagans for whom the Lord died, while 
the balance is spent in a Christian country whose pop- 
ulation is a fraction over sixty millions. Our people 
live in comfort ; not a few spend thousands each year 
in luxury and in dalliance with the heartless fashions of 
life ; too many hoard their wealth by hundreds of thou- 
sands, and dare not give freely for missions because they 
lack trust in Christ, whose right it is to demand, whose 
prerogative it is to sustain. 

Such forget that their accumulated wealth is due to- 
Christianity. They would be paupers to-day, as are 
millions of heathen, had not the Gospel created the pos- 
sibilities of their wealth. Would they exchange their 
social and business and religious conditions with the 
heathen ? Would they exchange Christianity for Brah- 
manism or Buddhism, for Confucianism or Mohammedan- 
ism ? By that exchange they would receive idolatry 
and poverty, and part with Christianity and wealth. Do 
such decline to make the exchange ? Shall the eternal 
laws of God work the exchange ? The idolatry of sel- 
fishness will do it, as it made Spain a poor-house and 
Italy a land of beggars. America is the most thrifty, 
intelligent, virtuous, happy land beneath the sun, for 
here is practiced the purest form of Christianity known 
to man. 

Liberality. 

In all our States we have rich members who are in the 
" holy alliance with Christ " for the conversion of the 
world. Their annual gifts to missions are munificent; 
they esteem themselves " good stewards of the manifold 
grace of God ; " they regard their possessions as his 
possessions ; they give for him as one subscribes for an 
absent friend ; and they apply to themselves St. Paul's, 
principle of his ministry, "We are embassadors for Christ,, 
as though God did beseech you by us." Our cause for 
Foreign Missions is not embarrassed by our conscien- 
tious, systematic givers, but by those in all our congre- 
gations who fail to give as the Lord hath given them,, 
and who do not obey the law of proportions. How 
shall we reach the rich in our Zion whose liberality is- 
unknown to fame ? As a rule the poor give more than 
they. The widow's dime is more than their thousand 
dollars, for the law of the kingdom is that the Lord 
measures a man's gifts not by what is given, but by what, 
is retained. This is the significance of the widow's two* 
mites. 

Success. 

Of the success of Foreign Missions the proof is abun- 
dant and without reproach. Thousands of happy men 
and women in all our mission fields whose homes are 
heavens, and whose lives are redolent of joy and sanc- 
tity, can testify to the saving power of the Lord. And 
by the persistent efi'orts of the missionaries of the cross- 
those inhumanities that have made the pagan world the 



THE MISSIONARY PROBLEM IN CHINA, 



79 



scene of wretchedness and woe have been abolished. 
Womanhood has been rescued from a burning death, 
and girlhood from infanticide. Where disorder held 
sway law now reigns ; the arts flourish, trade thrives, 
knowledge is diffused ; the fields yield their fruits, kind- 
ness has taken the place of cruelty, and the beneficent 
worship of the Father Almighty has superseded a de- 
basing idolatry. 

They Call Us. 

To-day all lands invite us with our message of purity 
and love. From the cinnamon groves of Ceylon to the 
snows of the Himalayas India's three hundred millions 
of our race, with a common origin and destiny, await 
our coming. From Canton to Peking all China, with 



four hundred millions of our brethren created in the 
image of Gcd, is ready for the coming of the Lord. 
From Hakodate to Nagasaki all Japan, whose forty mill- 
ions are emerging from the seclusion of seven centuries 
into the immunities of our Western civilization, sends a , 
cordial welcome. And from ocean to ocean, from the 
Pyramids to the Mountains of the Moon, along the 
Niger and Congo, the untold millions of Africa, whose 
human hopes, joys, and sorrows are akin to our own^ 
send forth the bitter wail, " How long, O Lord, holy and 
true ? ** And what shall be the answer of the Church to 
all these pathetic calls 1 There can be but one reply. Let 
us give this year a million and a quarter of dollars for mis- 
sions, and send back the shout, " The morning cometh." 



The Missionary Problem in China. 

The dimensions and significance of the missionary problem in China grow upon the thought of the Christian 
world from year to year. All things considered, this is the field of supreme difficulty, and, at the same time, it is 
the field of supreme interest. The Chinese are manifestly the governing race of Eastern and Central Asia; their 
national qualities and their geographical position make them so ; they evidently hold the key to the future 
of almost one half the unevangelized peoples of the globe ; so long as they remain without the Gospel the great 
bulk of Asia will be pagan ; when they are evangelized, the continent will be Christian and the world will be 
won. — Judsan Smithy D,D, 



PROTESTANT MISSION STATISTICS FOR CHINA. 
Prei>ared by Bev. J. W. Davis, D.D., and presented to the General Conference, at Shanirliai, in May, 1800: 







4 

1 

i 

1 

1 


XtMIOlklilLLilt. 


HKLIrEkM, 


Cn^AaiH. 


HtMCAL. Woui. 


s 

1 


i 


i 


NAJIE OF SOCHTT. 




1 


1 

3 


J 


f 


P 


1 


i 
1 


Burr0KWW9t 


1 


i 


K 


1 ^ 

* 


• 


1 


i 


^ 




1 


Tj'iDdoa MtBSltiiiVT fiocfetr - . * 


190T 

isao 

18»4 
]^ 
ISSfi 
l^iS 
1841 

m* 

184& 

m7 

1»4T 
1S47 
3847 
184S 
1650 

imt 
tm 
imo 
im 

1665 

imr 

1K60 

itm 
lan 
im4 
im 
isrw 
imi 
imi 
less 
tmR 

ISSfl 

1^ 
im 
ims 
im 


IS 

it 

IS 

37 
30 
a? 

a 

14 

la 

5 
» 
1 

ir 
"?" 
"r 

181 
1^ 
3 
3 
4 
7 

1 

'a 
1 

4 

» 
1 
2 


ai 
u 

4 

4a 

7 
« 
1^1 
Ifl 
$6 
9 
IS 
14 

m 
i 



1 
11 

70 

3 
8 
4 

4 
S 
1 
4 

5 
1 

1 


14 

15 
T 

21 
2 

'2t' 
B 

'u 
s 

7 
1 
5 
3 

m 

7 

.... 
2 

a 

"i 

" 1 
1 

1 5 
2 
3 


65, 

m 
m 

132 

m 

IH 

m 
m 

99 

m 
m 

51 
7 

ai 

16 

am 
as 

1 s 

9 
15 

* 

11 
1 

14 
3 

n 
a 

A 
4 

4 


11 

4 
7 
19 
50 
ft 

*if 

1 

A 
S 
3 
4 


75 
70 
4B , 

IflO 

la 

138 


as 

e 


14 


80 






1 

4 

7 
1 


I 

4 

.... 

s i 


fi,438 

mooo 

40,000 
10,ffi8 


i,1S4 

1,183 

I,483e 

BIT 


4jm 

1»548 


tA«078 £9 


? 


A TIlf<r1l^Tl n^lAftl. . i.r-TTi . .n.T 


1 
1 


£ 


M19 l» 

714 01 


% 


Amcrlt'ati B&ciMstM^ North, . ... 


4 


4 merles R ProU^fttent KuJiKx^lNil *---.- 


647 5.^ 


5 


A merli'an I'mthyt^rlftn, North. * 

Amerjcau Rrftirrtuxl Dut^ti. .,..*. ,..,.. .^ .. . 

Biltl^li jirifl Fiirt*l*ru Btble Boclety. , 


£,&»& 00 


T 








» 
^ 


Chun?h MIsslriTmry Society 

I^nifli'^h HiiDtij^t . . , 


151 




19 




— 




a 


4 

■j- 


i.ono 
4o,ai* 

aoio 


s,ooJ 
m 

2,708 
33a 


U54 

aS 

BOg 


3,100 00 

aoo 00* 


1ft 


Mptibtidi^ Eiiilst'oml..... * 


101 
3 
15 
45 

110 

e 

15 

'"if 


09 

4 

17 
1 
1 
1 

17 
5 


T 
13 
38 
40 

i 









1 


7,S41 00 


It 






It 


ABierlcaii Baptist, BoutU.. „..,......, , 


7m QQ 


18 








a4e s^o«& 

32 lAfi 


1,287 5S 


14 


^uFlliib Pri'^bTii^riaa . . ..^ „* ► .... .... 


m 


7 

1 




7 

1 


■^f 


m«io 

4,46a 

10»4»7 


a,934 72 


IS 


Bhetn j««ri Mlft^hiii . - , 


Si 00- 


14 


Mt^tliodt^i EolM^ioaL Smith. * , . 


80 

5a4 

1«7 

ISO 


ai2 


S85 56 


IT 


BeiiLU PoiiciilllQiF HoiMfi 








Iff 


WfiAlef an Mislotiairv Sod^tv 


IB 








1 
1 


a 


7,000 


i,oJ 
1,^ 


1,300 00 


It 


Wotnan'i tJuloii HfAsltiii 






*.*. 


11 00 


«i 


If «4liddJst New Conm^tltiQ . ............ 




as 








}01 CO 


n 








.. ■ ■ 




I ■ .. 


. 1 . . 






P 


Uultea PR^bvTiTi-m i>i gwtland, 

Cbliiia Inlaii<] Mi-*"..]! sQ ^ 




14 

m 

4 
15 

m 

.■50 


i 


1 1 
8ft 5 


1 






18 
1 


30,000 

4/nQ 


07 
18S 
WO 

70 


i,o6<> 

a,037 

lot) 

448 


1&0 00 

fmoo 




AfuerlcvD Pr<"'ibvrf*rluTi. BifUlh. .... .... .......... 


7^ 80 




ttnltif^l ''MethirtlUt Free rtiiirrh 










inih l*patbirierlaQ , 


.. .. 


* 






1 


.... 


2,0110 


go 


IBO 

8,71B 

m 100 






OHwdlan Preabjterian 

ScH^tetT for ProiviiBnilciii Of Gosmt 




'""' 






&43 00 




■ 


1 


...» 












Amerlcjin Bihie tk>dety 

E^UiJ»] hlit^J Vh [irch of ScxiUand* 


"a 


81 

a 


.... 


..,.].... 


' ' * ' 




* " ■ 










11 


. . .. 


... T 








* 




80 
40 


SO 
4G2 




m 


Bt^rlln Mi^*lntl .. ... ...... .rf.-.,. 




...J 


*** 




t* p . 






IfiO (1) 


ts 


A Hem. Kv. lYotcstaot Mhisim QmiU* *....... 

Klbli^ Chrlf^ti&ai . . . . ... 


' ■ ■ 


....J..,. 






■ * ■" 


* *' 






M 








, 












IT 
40 






s 


Ftjrpiim Christ Inn M lasloiiiirr SoiflelT. 


.... 




.... 




... 




.... 


. .. 


11 


BOO 


!K 


Sixrtet'v for Dimisloti of Christian ondCNfo'l KaowItjORi? 
Sock'tv*i(f FrleDda .,.....,. 




m 




" ' * ' 




■•■■["'■ 






■ 


• . ■ 










m 












.... 
















1^ 


Churpli nf Kujz'tiiiid Zfoan^ MtRBtoo. 


k — 
























10 


t'nlt*^il Brtthr*"!! 1u Cfifi^ ...... ....... ........ 


i I i 


.... 






















41 


InrliirH^iifii^fit VV'orJu?ra . ........ «*.«. 


1 


.... 




****'■ 








' 


1. .# 




m 








Tcm -^*^ 




" " 




... . 


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I^^^^^^HPy" dm * ''ilP<WW^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^^hT^>^«'»' ^i^' '^^m^^m ^^^J 


80 FOKE/GN MISS ION STATIST/CS. ^ 




j METHOBIST EPISCOPAL FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 


The statistical tables that follow were prepared on the mission field in October, 1890, and were forward^U 


for insertion in the next Annual Report of the Missionary Society: ^| 


STATISTICS OF NORTH CHINA MISSION, 


1 

cmctriT OE 1 

STATIOI^, a 

1 


1 -11 
i ft ■ 

Ml 

4 iit 


liil 


III 


< 


< 


! J 

11 1 


:1 


} 


I 

1 
i 


s 

1 


1 


1 
i 


1 

J 
1 




t 

1 

1 


«8 ^ 


1 

i 


il 


1 

do 


1 




1 

if 


1 


f 

It 


ii 


PekSoff, Anbury Ch«poU. . . 10 
\ friutiitrii City ^ ..*t .. 
\ Yangko Chuttujf Circuit.. .. 

CbftQg-pIng Cbou " ,..,.. 


9 4. 


. 1 .. 6 
...18 
. .. 11 


.. iiao 

., i u 

.. 1 ^ 

,. 1^ 81 


8014 

H[.. 

j1'9 


900 81 
80 , 
10 . 
19 . 

^: 

190. 
80. 

105.. 
8U. 

100.. 
fio .. 

TO.. 
50.. 

981 ,. 


> 89 
9 
10 
18 
4 
4 
9 

10 

35 
1 

- 

11 

I 
9 

fi 

8 

18 
«T 


r 

e 

4 

S 

i 
I 

I 

19 
96 

IS 
T 


t 
i 


5 

;; 
1 


8 


9 
4 


10 

;; 

;; 
4 

14 
19 


908 


1 
8 
1 

1 
9 
1 

9 
9 

"1 
9 

1 
9 

i 

4 
4 


92 1 

•:' 

8 1 
15. 
8. 1 

40 1 
98 1 

7 i 

18 1 

10 1 

90 1 

., 1 
10.. 

8T I 
81 ., 

^12 


860 
80 

88 

i9 

190 
40 

95 
40 

100 
20 

80 

08 


9 8000 

1 4.001} 
1 900 

'i ^408 
9 TJ800 

'i 'iso 

1 HO 

1 9,1500 

9 000 

1 S;60O 
1 800 


'i 

'i 

9 

'i 

9 
I 

'8 

'8 

8 
1 


7 

1 

6 

9 

1 

5 


880,000 
8.000 

16,000 

900 
18.000 


\ 

88,800 1998 91 

.... tf 00 

4 69 

6 M 


$8599 
ffiOtt 

4il-" 

10 95 
994 

6511 

594 
6 44 

18 58 

6 06 


H<tD*t8Un ** ...... 

Tniif 'AH " ,...,. 

Hwuiff-tsuD ** ..... 
lUHmn Dhiriet. 
\ WenleyanrtE, GateChapols 8 

TtonlAln W|.«t City . . ...... . . 

[ "TMentsin tlrcutt ,, 


i s 


. .. 11 

. ^. .., 9 

...11 

9 1.. 9 
. 1 


.. ., 46 
.. 1 48 
.. 1 I» 

.- 8 6T 
.. .. 9T 
.. 8 1 


'it.. 

98 8 
18 7 

181 8 

45.. 

laL. 

90.. 

110 ., 
i».. 

9.. 

IT.. 
88.. 

88.. 

«.. 

157^84 
5.7... 


8,500 
%000 


4 95 

8 86 
948 

60 00 
900 

8'w; 

9 45 

880 

117 90 

465 

4 85 

98 00 
8 7& 


1 T8*ni^cht>ll *' ,. 

[ K&n-icung: " 

Sttan-iung DUtriet, 
\ An-uhfa ChaAng Circuit. 

Tfti ApFii ^ 

CW-niDjf Choii Clrcttlt.. .. ,, 





...11 
. 1.. 9 


., 9 88 
,. 9 8S 

.. 9192 
,. -. 1? 


Taiin-hna Cltjr Cbtpel. .... S 
Tflcin-hiiJi Ctrcuit 


8 9 


1 iL. .. 


1 9 48 
.. 1 81 


Uanit-tatu-ho and Pingan 

CdeH^f-ttii < Hrcult 

Yu-Uk>n Jind Feng-jen CIr'tJ.. 
Ltin-chim Diktriet. j 

I«-oJiim Ctfoult 

Slum-hal Kuad Circuit. ...... 


14'"^' 


. ., 1 .. 
. .. 1.. 

1.. ,, 4 

4 «' 8 2T 

4; (110 20 

1 1 


.. 8 n 

.. 8 44 

.. e ai 
,. 4 as 

188 979 
S 28 TBS 

J 


Total....... 


..16 


! 188 41 


988 91 
926 28 


9I1T 


14828.110 
11 19.R50 

1 


IS 
18 


91 
18 


|B8,90O 
62,800 


$98.8^ 
99,800 


$011 48 $804 11 
516 05 867 68 


L»atyeAr ...... 


4n> 4 


S04|10 TfiSf 




1 " 


ivptlriof. vd f 18.10 coainUtUd for oth«r local foryimm, ^^| 


^ STATISTICS OF CENTRAL CHINA MISSION, ^ 


CIROTJIT OE 
STATIOSI, 


1 




111; 


^ ' 1 

nil 


liii 


1 

a 


1 


B 

if 

1 


i 

It 
p 


1 

1 


I 


i 

£ 

I 


1 

-a 
1 


1 

=1 


\ 

.a 

1 


i 

^ 
^ 


1 




ii 


1 

i 


1 
1 


if 


1! 

u 




il 

If 


1 


1 

If 


A 

i 


If 


CAIfiiTMifv IHiirict, 




























































j cainklJiDc. 


t 


S 


8 9. 


1 t 


1 5 89 


8 


8( 


900 


5 8 


6 








1 


9 


94 


I 


18 


\ TB 


18 


9 


•4,800 




8 


819,000 


86,500 850 00 


$• 


. 876 01 


1 JTlMttofltf Z»<4eW4^. 


























































■ 


Hwutg Met UlTQUlt 

1 KlQklang City, 


1 
1 

1 

*i 


1 
1 
1 

"i 


'$ 'b . 


1 9 S. 
. .. 8 

« a 
1 .. 

. 4 S 


. 9 80 

. 9 eo 

. 4 ^ 

. .. la 

. 8 88 


98 

1 

19 
4 

68 


90( 
IOC 

68C 


990 
1!M} 

ITS 


L9 7 
b 8 
8 8 

18 *f 


m 

9 

"a 






:: 


'9 


19 


1J8 


8 
8 
8 

1 
8 


1191 
60, 
41) 
20 

190 


8119 
S200 

tl 40 
1 2S 
9 90 


18 


8 
2 
8 


1,000 

e^uoo 

8,S00 
800 




9 


»;66o 

14j000 


T^OOO 

"66 


SS 00 
80 00 
17 00 
.... 
91^ 


• 


7 64 61 

. 80iO 
. 85006 

. 158 00 


KluktftUif Circuit 

Nan-cliHug' OrciiU. » .... 
1 Sbul-cbaDg C ircult ...... 


KanMng DigtricL 
















































' 












* BoftpitAn.:ba|>e>t 

North Hanking and tJni- 

veratty Chape] ....... 

; South Nankitig and H&a- 

king CiTOuiL 


3 

1 


9 

9 
1 


9 9. 


. 1.. 
. .. 4 

. .. 1. 


. 4 10^ 

1 A 99' 


T 
8 
5 


9C 

10* 
9£ 


100 
190 
100 


4.. 
. 4 

4 8 


9 


1 


1 


9! 


1 
9 


8 
11 


10 

T5 


1 
1 


99 

99 


1100 
1 80 

* 




1 


1,800 


1 
1 


1 
9 

1 


8,000 
8,000 
9,600 


10,000 
10,000 


110 84 
7198 
IT 70 


► 


. 998 00 
19 81 
n 09 


FuAit Di^tHcU 


























































Hnspltal... ..........> 

Tai-n»i«*FuiiJiil Wtthu 

Circuit ■ 

Wubu 


9 


s 




I 19. 


. 4 IB 9 


oo 


100 


. 1 
14' 86 


92 
93 


1 


1 


1 

1 


8 


i 

98 




9 


40 


9 40 


29 
2^ 


2 


S,TOO 


9 


9 


8,000 


7,000 


38 00 




919^ 


Total,.. 


14 
11 


!t 


& 8 . 


I lOJBT 


a 8«8fl9 187 


lATlA 


800 !e 


993 


«R 


4^1 
4851 


9 745 
I5T0 


15 
18 


91.000 


«« 


14 


RAATlll 


4O.B50 
83,000 


B68U 




r 1899 10 
048 08 


lAst year 


^95,8d6|140|mo 


188 98| 


IWOO! 16' 14' 6R,466 


1 • H#ld In CPjan*clloa wUh HmpHftl. 
1 Tt« kUtJ*llei t.W» rwport |T^40 ca^lwjltd hw chwth bailJinf and rppairuig ; |tl&.eO ooUuiwl U r>lfaM UwaI pupoM* j SOL f«Liuiu« «ii I&S^IU IU«M prlnUd duriiif U>a ^Mf^ 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 



81 









•Uoddni 



%%% : :S : SS8SSSS8SSS SSS 



S : 









12 :S : : : : SSSSSSSSSSg S$S 

;2 '^ • • • • «f-lOOOOOOOOMO«OOr-i»-l S'*'^ 



ggSgggSSS :;::::: 8 : :S :: :S : : :g : :8g : : SggS 



•<«i^tOO«^Ok-<«<0«9k 



::::::: '^ : :S : : :; 









rggg : : :g : : : : : : : :g : gg 
:-^i3l :::-:: : : : : : :S : g| 



ggggggggg S^S^g^S ggggggggg : gggggg^g %%%^ 



''*^rrfi*0*<3 ^ 00 9* -^ « CO 9k o^<pOQO»«ei 



0« iO 09 GO l« 00 t- M ^TSfi** 



S3e 
SI 



3S 



IS 



j»ipo jqf p^MfloO 



3 : :Sggggg SSSgg 



g iggggtSgg : gg :g : :S : SS3$ 

00 ••Or? »-tT-t^ . 0« 'T-t • '00 • fXOOM 



•^•pos 



SgggggS l^gggggggggg igggggggggggg S^ggg^i^ ggggggsss : ^ggggggg ggg.<2 

;||<eaoOT«9OTee ^o^ooO'^ooioiOthmo i*^^ ^<^aoM09iogo<^oi «i o) oo o« o4 -<« ?« t» ^ o x so eo o« o ri • eo -<« m r^ a«i so ?-• oo loioioo) 



se 
11 



89 

Is 



ff'tMUOfl „ JO *Mj«aM 



ggg : : : : sSSgggggg^g S^gSgggSgggg^ 

• •^ .... 00 O*ei0ir^THO« OOr^O* r^ t-i r-t r^ t-< ©I t-^ ^ 



l^gg :g :g 



r-« r^ M 00 00 04 r 



-i9*e*Mr^<»( ©I r-l T- »-i Ol r 



■»^©<»* ••« -.-I 



»q|o pa» itwH Jo 'OK 



• « ■©• •»-» 






iiiii i i iiisiiiiiii igi 



|s||||8il : ;lill i nil ;i :§ i i :i ; : : Ji ill 






fl 



ss 



II 



pn Mqarai^ |o 'oM 



oOtdtMOSl 00 ®» f^ »-i ■* r^ ©• »i 00 ©* 9» r^ ©I 



.^^r-ii-i . O4r-iOI00 ■ »-< 



•r-n^ OTrlri 



-MM^diOJo-ON 



•«n«ps«n»q<i««i<»*o*i 






•V«>S'^VWW^io •ON 



,M f.. rH ri r-« O) «.4 Ot ri O 



i«a '«»R»* JO '"K 



9 O* f M -^r 91 00 f-i »-«*-< TiO T" «« WW 0» »-« T-t 00 T-« ri 1-1 r- .-I « O* 91 0« 00 0« O* 9« »« r^ M r- pH r^ f-i r^ r-n-ni 00 r-i 0» ^ 



SS5S :S8a 8:2:5:38355 :S5 :;5 5 :5 •'S :S :aSS :S 



•fl|00^»8 X«a M^|0|0 ON 



^riote* -lOei 91 T-i 00 00 M 09 i-i •«« -T-* ec 



•aQdii4jo-OK 



!ps 



r- lO •^OOMO*'- 






^MHoiawqMwxjo-oii 



■•P»V8 •!<« I* -ON 



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FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS, 



83 



STATISTICS OF BENGAL. 



ciRccnf M 



RuLfoon. Snalbh WDrk. . ^ 

TiHiU Wort 

T«tu?u Work...., 

Buniiefle Work.,.*, 

Toliu|roa,TaiDU Wcirlr,*^.. 



Aiaui«aL 

OkIeuU4^ Rndlflh Charoh 

D«iiv>l I Church.... 

" lIlndiwtJiijL . 

* OorTuCbcireh..^..* 

M AsaJTvpUT. ,..,.. 

CiJeutta C&Er« RooDu 

PskurK.,.. 



BurhKAtmr uiil Khandwib..* 



N»Uv*... 1 



Lahore, Kudlih Clktirch' . . h , . 
Illndn^mnl Miulon. 

* And lUlpur Minion; 

MuBmOkrnAni- Hbklon ; 

PslUljiHQon , 

Enrkt, Ensliih Church .-*>■( 

IgfH HIndtfttuil MlaLos. J 



TotAl ...., 







iiiii 



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fi' ft.. 

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330 

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50 eo 10 4 



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70 BOO 

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m 

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130 



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!l6i| 435 



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3 

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Tli« •tatktUt for Borma Diatrict m thoM of iMt year. Tb«f« wara collected for chureh building and repairing S9,f05 mpeee, and for other local parpoaea 6,114 mpaaa. 



STATISTICS OF SOUTH INDIA. 



C1RC3U1T oa 

STATION. 



i] 

if. 



SomiMiv IH*tri€t 



(^•Tkll HiSK 



*Maiwthl Ml». 



KaupU, 

Kftnehl (lodiidliif Se^iaeii'i 

ICl«f^),. ....,*........ 

Kjwpom 

twna ilMMiGwm Ent. Ch.. .. 

HMtmAl MliM.. 

Ibhop TvUm* HI«Ii eebMl, 

lanpfciflt* : RJehtoo&d Town, 
gi. J&hn'i mil.,.........,., 

H«ldwl]i SchDok .......... 

brllmrr ....................... 

<]>fl]tMir«i ^ 

Kjr^eraiiMid, ., . 

SopbaJ .11...... 

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51 
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drmsDlitriet., 



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RECAPITULATION BY DISTRICTS. 



.114111 
A b\ 6 



....12217 



2.y;36 i«t-H| 40 u»^ 



41 19, 11 8 411 2,29 3ri3I9l| 4741 1.1 A2 119Wr>6l 2M2 2^9:36 l«t-9 

8| 2l ll 2-32L!lJ'253| 72! 5K?] Hoi, «fi; 7 40 1|13 I3r)|;MI U|» 

7!"l?i'li io'7«l 2i&i Hi«i^'7.flw, wm.lna 90|9,»» ll?fi'.^7o! 20^57 

fii 24' 2II.3 '» 444 597:212 MW' l,;«««l 170k5'9sI 3.25 i!99'4:>_l.JWi 



331 12 VXS50\ 
m 9 7«»30 



fiiiS 3;650| 40JU51 ^ 
46,07a 80,7()0 15,240! 100 



lOH 7,719 (K^l 21,SQ&,3.'iO| 15 131 10R,O25 
92l7.l06!33l 22l202,2at>l 7* 13: 91,350 



isioj 



83.310^ 55.5«>d: 
3J,3.i0i 47r<^i 



85: 

610 



4<«9j 21,130 
89-i| IMll 



I.2iV6! 39,889 



I printed daring the year, 4»,3^4, at Vepery ; page*, 8.«a:?,3:i«— 4<»,(HH> at B«»mba.v, Bowrn Charrh ; 1,0«),000 at Oujaratl Sflulon ; V,599,339 at V<»pery. Volnmea jirinted lait year, S5,M5| 
page*, t,«7lJ,l5U • One Foreign Miwonary and one A»»li»tAnt Ml»»i'>nary on furlough to America, returning In Norember, IfW. iJHf ropeaa were collected 
lot chmcfi boilding and repairing, and 4,1M rupcea fi>r other parpoaea. Rapca worth aboat 40 eenta. 



84 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 



Z 

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m 

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h 
(/} 

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CO 






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: •■%% ggg S3 :g{3gS? 3S g :§gS :Sg g5§ : ggSSS cTg^gg^ :g : : :gS9 

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S*8 



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^ o5 r* 35 o6 65 «-< 



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goir-i cDscQOb* ^(/;~oiiaoi c9O»90 r- 



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?;ss$ *ss S9ss?253 § §§S5:5asgs ^5»^s giyjsg^ sssssg s^sssssss 



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pMnipio •*!»»« 






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FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 



85 









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86 



FOREIGN MISSION STATISTICS. 









STATISTICS OF 


SWITZERLAND 


• 
















TmCUlT OR »TATIO!*, 


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110 
106 
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119 
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400 
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450 
100 
850 
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4i»!^456 

9,»0 

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81,550 

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10,500 

5^400 

it2*,(W0 

T^OOO 

110,000 


2 


81,t00 
41.250 
10,800 

15,066 
Vo,79T 

ia.5eo 

1.050 
70,000 

"*b66 
BT,eoo 

40,ftT5 

2s,6o6 

11,900 
01,000 


190 
91B 
BO 

m 

155 

83 

141 
180 

m 

50 
00 

loci 

110 
100 

so 

120 
110 

iso 

SSI 
291 


S.940 
S8T 
S«5 
Ouft 

Its 

24S 
122 

i,on 

944 

114 
180 

84 

48 
107 
S05 
180 

90 
145 

00 
110 

Oft 
200 
811 
2TT 


8,150 

BTS 
1,900 
1,270 
I,T90 

T18 
10,300 

665 
10,T8T 

431 
1.0ST 

T&5 

\^ 

900 
I.«19 
1,900 

i.aot 

9,998 
500 
£00 

1,S7& 

m 

3,825 
9.T4ft 
8,08T 


l^TS 
988 
MO 
10ft 
997 
4 

9.9«I 

%m 

*^ 

ffT4 
708 
441 
117 
97S 
900 

e»8 

m 
m 

810 

tfoe 

l,9St 
&948 
1,408 


FmM*. 
8,281 


Bmim ....,, 


4,919 


Bi*i, ...„ 


6.. 
8\. 
2.. 

i.. 

8.. 
4.. 
4 1 

?:; 

1 

(J 

• J I 


m 


Geneva^* ,....,,,* - , » 


%m 




9^ 
flJI7 


lAnibunr. . . . ..».*...... 


9J84 


i^ii...., ., ,,, ,. 


fi,4S8 
IJiOl 


l»u«aburf , , . . . 


1.603 


&tlmler.. ,....,.. 

Zurich imtittfsi. 

ARbLtem-*-* Aa * 


^Too 


AusenlM.... ...,,.., ...,.*.. 


tm 


BttUeh.... ...„,,... ,,,...., 


1,018 


dinr , 


1.^ 




l,8iS 

9J40 


jriaferwlriwyL.., ..,. : 


1^ 


EbaloAdk.. 


4410 




9,940 


SLO»ll«fl, 


T,ffT4 


Teaf^n, Ct. Ap. . ..,.,... , . . 


W 


TllAlWrii..... 

Tiirbentliml... ...,....., 

UMter. ..,...,.,. 


4.&i« 

4,0H 


Wtntorthar ...... . ,,.. 


mi 


Enrtdi ...., , 


^ 


• 


IMI 


ToUJtbiiyaw,.., 

liut yflir t 


flO 


10 


4S S^IITI 
55 E^T79 


MO 


II,»5T 

5^010 


0,010 


§02 
8ST 


i8r> 

l!^4 


10^ 
216 


18,150 
10,080 


99 


901,485 

1,061,494 


-i 





437,832 j 

408,488 


8,4^ 19,189 
8.782^ B0;840 


W.:m 80.014 
40,808 85,807, 


Stf^lOi 







STATISTICS OF BULGARIA. 



CtBCOITOa 
BTATiO^, 



HotBDtZ*..... 

TjfifU^ha, ...... 

•Slatof ...,.., 
Fl«vfia .,.,.-. 
TintoriL ...... 

Bdrt . . . . . 

Vm-M . , . . 

BbuxnU. .,,.., 

Tuliciha.....,, 

ToUl..... 
La»t year. 



t I 



910 
2 



98 5 
0\. 

nu 

8A, 8. 
5',, 

Oji 
4.. 
10 ft, 

Itl 9 
19S 851821 

uooriii 

I I I 



05 8 
8S 1 

so; 4 

70|.. 

,Si:: 

121.. 

50.. 
90.. 
90 1 
90, I 



8ft0,10|l9 
880.19:17 






7 83 1 

42fi^ 9 
I 



t :§ ^ 
^1 



114 
lift 

I 41 

II S 



r I 



489 
8^50 



(V97 
4 71 



t 85 

1 28 

1 50 

1 50, 

1, ift 

1 16 



SI 
9 211 



•I 
II 



I* 
11 



1. 



It 600 



1,^00 



S,B50 



|7,1A0 
7,150 



1 

3:- 






\ 



iS.9W) 

2110 

8.500 

l,Si)0 



7*9; 






lO.OfW 



192 25 
41 
15 oy 
2?* 95 






II 90 
1 42 



80 St, 
9S 



|18T 00 



ll 
II 



tits Tl 



80 OO 



8 5tlL,4T2iU,a00|H2 02 §4 07 
9; 4; 10,772 14,500; 300 821 1 51 

I I i \ 



50 95 
97 22 



#216 17 
980 09 



1929 81 
235 89 



■S 

I! 



458 

90 00 



10 08 
84 T4 
'8 50 



190 OT 



* Voluin.'B priiil«(l Uuriii; the y^r, 1,600; paffea, 7U9,900. 



STATISTICS 


OF 


MALAYSIA MISSION 


. 




OR 
9TATI0IC, 


1 


i 

< 


1 

II 




1 

1 

s 


€ 
J 


^ 


< 


1 

1 


1 

1 


.1 
II 

3£ 


4 

i 

= 


1 


1 


1 

1 




1 


G g 

ha 

1! 


1 

|i 
as 


MLfl^ion \n (^tener*! 


i!i 




.. 


.. 1 


•4,200 




tntUth rhurdi 

■Ctiiyese MlsBloti.. .... 


It.. 


3 


,, 


.. 


m 


9 


m 


IH 


14 




fi 




^_ 


.< 


.. 




.. 




.... 


V 


1 

i 


1 
1 


i 


u 


A 


90 


30 


Ift 

u 


1 


i 


80 


t 


18 


1 
1 


■- 


.... 


i4,aoo 


TiimU MtMioti ............ 




TflMfcl 


■T- 




7 


^ 


.." 




., 




1 


i. 


a 


80 


1 




1 


Rented. 


'm 


ll* 


4U 


4 


«w 


,1.1 


1*^ 


lii 


y 


ii 


fl 


3 

1 


110 


1 


W- 


.= 


£ 


Ot,aOl^iia.tl» 


tut yciir.... ....... 


» 


s 


•1 


■.^ 






:: 


iL'n 


IS 


11 




,* 




-.., 



NoTC-mHlon in General : Pams Printed during the Year, 1S.200 ; 
Chnrehes and Chapels, 1 ; BBtbnated value of Churches and ChapeU, flo.OOO 

Sodetr, tSI, ChiMM MlMlon : No. of Hlsh-Mhooto, 1 ; No. of Teacheni t 

400 : Vahte of Orphanages, Schools, HoMtate, Book Rooms, etc., ftO.nOO. Tamil Miwtion : Native 
Ordained Preachers, 1. ^Voman's Foreign Mission: Foreign Mliwlonarie!*, ~" 
mrj iiocletgr, I ; No. of Orphans, 9. 



English Church: No. of 
. CoII«*ted for MUwIonarj 
In Hame, li : No. of PiipUn, 
1. Tamil Miwion: Native 
Wonmn'tt Ki»n*lgn Mitwlon- 



NOTE. 

Last month and this month we have given 
the tables of statistics of all our foreign 
missions as they will appear in the Annual 
Report, with the exception of Korea, No 
report has as yet been received from that 
field ; the statistics of a year ago reported 
9 members, 36 probationers, 16$ adherents, 
and 81 pupils in schools. 

Next month we shall give the summary of 
the Foreign and I^oniestic Missions, and the 
names and addresses of our foreign mission* 
aries. 



MONTHLY MISSIONARY CONCERT, 



87 



SJont^Ig gtissbimm Conmt. 



bUllJECTS FOR 1B91. 

JafiMjiry .The World, 

FebniJiry »«, China. 

March. ...<......„ M kxico. 

ApnL.,., ...«. I>n:>iA and Bltrma* 

May .MALAYisiA. 

Juoe ,,**«...... ArtttcA. 

July.» ♦Unitxu STA-nts. 

Au]{a»t...»«.,. lTAi.v and Bltlgakia. 

September. JAfAM j»nd Rokka. 

October ,....,....,,«.. .SCANDINAVIA, GRhMANV, and 

SWITZHRLAND. 

Kovembcr. ,,*..,.*..,, .Soith Amrhic a. 
X)eccmber ,,,,,,»„.»„, Unctkp States. 



The names and statistics of the mission- 
ary societies at work in China wiU be 
found on page 79, The tabic shows that 
in the number of missionaries and of 
communicants the Methodist Episcopal 
Church stands third, but first in the num- 
ber of native ordained preachers, organ- 
ized churches, pupils in schools, and 
contributions of native Christians. The 
lorty missionary societies report nearly 
1.300 foreign missionaries and over 37,000 
communicants. 

For full statistics of the Methodist 
Episcopal Missions in China, compiled last 
October by our missionaries, see page 80 
for those of North China and Central 
China, page 81 for Foochow, and page 
^ for West China, We have now con- 
nected with our four China Missions no 
foreign missionaries, 465 native helpers, 
including preachers, teachers, native 
workers of the Woman's Society, etc*, 
3,985 members, and 2,402 probationers. 
Over 700 conversions were reported in 
these Missions last year, there being in 
West China 28, North China 30. Central 
China 55* and in Foochow Conference 



r 



Bxtrmctfe frntti ttir Annua] ReiftorlB of 
MetliodlNt Kt»li<r«»piL] r?Il»»l«>ti- 

»art«« In €lilii«. 



FOOCHOW CONFERENCE. 

lev. N. J. Plumb, Presiding Elder of 
Foochow District, writes: •" I have 
never known so much poverty and distress 
AS has prevailed among all classes this 
year. Meanwhile, the doors are abun- 
dantly open, and the opportunities for 
preaching and work were never better. 
Tieng Ang Tong, the oldest and strongest 
charge, has had a good year, with an in- 
crease of twenty-one members and some 
probationers/* 

Rev, George B. Smyth, A.B., B.D., 
President of the Anglo-Chinese College, 
writes : *' The past year has been an in- 
teresting one in the history of our college 
— it saw our first graduate. His name is 
Ting Maing Ing. Ninety students have 
been in attendance and most of them have 
„ done good work, spending half the time 




in studying the Chinese classics and half 
in studying English and acquiring a 
knowledge of Western branches through 
the medium of English. The curriculum 
embraces most of the subjects usually in- 
cluded in an American college course. It 
is emphatically a Christian school. We 
have a fairly good supply of apparatus, 
but need more." 

Rev. William H, Lacy reports fur the 
Hok Chiang District ; **The work on the 
district is prospering. On ever)' circuit 
there have been some conversions, num- 
bering about 200 to date. Since January 
1 , 1 890, we have built four chapels and three 
parsonages on the district, toward which 
the Missionary Society granted $600 and 
the people themselves contributed about 
$1,000. 

Rev. N. Sites, D.D.. reports: *^The 
city of Hing Hwa, seventy-five miles from 
Foochow, is to be the home of a foreign 
missionar)% and Rev. W. N, Brewster is 
to study the dialect of the people and put 
it into written form." 

Dr. J. J. Gregory writes from Foochow 
that during seven months there had been 
3,500 visits made by patients to his dis- 
pensar)' and home, more than 4,000 pre- 
scriptions compounded, 500 visits made 
by him to patients in their homes, and 
1150 received in fees and donations. 

CENTRAL CHINA MISSION. 

Rev. Leslie Stevens, Superintendent of 
the Central China Mission, reports: ''Our 
statistics showamarked atlvance all along 
the line. We call atlenuon particularly 
to the financial showing — collections for 
Missionary* Society, self-support, etc. — as 
compared with previous years. Although 
we have a slight decrease in number of 
conversions and baptisms, we have a large 
gain in membership, which argues faith- 
ful labor on the part of the brethren in 
gathering in and caring for the many con- 
verts of the previous year.*' 

Rev. A. C. Wright reports for Chin- 
kiang that a new chapel has been erected 
and dedicated, and lar^e numbers attend 
the preaching ser\^ice on Sabbath morn- 
ings. The Sunday-school is an interest- 
ing and promising part of the work, and 
the attendance would be larger if there 
were more teachers to give them the 
proper instruction. 

Rev. John R. Hykes. presiding elder, 
reports that on the Kiukiang District all 
departments of the work have been vigor- 
ously pushed, and the success has been 
equal to that of other societies laboring in 
that part of China. Twenty adults have 
been received into full membership and a 
large number taken on probation. More 
than the apportionment for the district 
was raised for the Missionary Socieiv, 



$91.24 having been contributed for that 
purpose and $637 for self-support. The 
work in Nankangfu was broken up by a 
riot. Good work has been done in the 
Kiukiang Institute and the Girls* Board- 
ing-school of the Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. At Shui Chang seven 
adulti have been baptized, and here the 
preaching services have been well attend- 
ed and often marked by the presence and 
power of the Holy Spirit, 

Rev. J. J. Banbur)' reports that Sen 
Sung, a city of about 25,000 inhabitants, 
has been entered, a chapel rented, and a 
school opened with an excellent prospect 
of success. 

Rev. E. S. Little reports that in Kiuki- 
ang the work has been much interrupted 
by the injury to St. Paul's Church by the 
floods, which has prevented service there ; 
but in the chapel services have been held 
five nights in the week with large crowd* 1 
in attendance, A new chapel has been J 
opened at Sha Ho, and here is a self-sup- 
portingschool. Apriniing- press has been 
purchased and work commeiiced on it. 
Much good is expected from this source. 

Dr. Beebe reports that connected with 
the work at Nanking are three circuits. 
The first is the hospital and its evangel- 
istic work ; second, the university and 
North Nanking; third, work in the center 
of the city, and a count r}' circuit, includ- 
ing several preaching- pi aces. All of these 
are interesting and hopeful. The ladies 
of the Woman's Foreign Missionar)- So- 
ciety have done excellent work in their 
school and among the women. The uni- 
versity, with enlarged facilities, a chapel 
on one of our busiest streets, a fine 
country circuit of friendly hearers, and 
the hospital work w*ell established, pre- 
sents a field of the rarest opportunities. 

Rev. D. W. Nicliols reports for South 
Nanking and Nanking Circuits that the 
work of the year has been full of encour- 
agement, and there has been an unusual 
number of inquirers. He had in some 
instances preached the Gospel where they 
had never seen the face of a foreigner or 
heard of Jesus. One school of twenty -two 
boys had memorized the Catechism and 
Sunilay-school lessons, besides a number 
of Chinese books. He had sold over 12^ 
000 books and tracts and there is a grow- 
ing demand for Christian literature. The 
congregations are growing in numbers 
and in interest. 

Dr. Beebe reports of the Philander Smith 
Memorial Hospital that during the year 
9.326 visits were made by patients to ihc 
dispensary, 418 were received into the 
hospital as in-patients, 325 visits were 
paid to patients in their homes. 279 surgic- 
al operations were performed, #399.86 



88 



EXTRACTS FROM ANNUAL REPORTS OF M. E. MISSIONARIES IN CHINA. 



had been raised for the work. The relig- 
ious instruction given had been profitable. 

Rev. John C. Ferguson, President of 
Nanking University, reports that during 
the year there had been constant growth 
and expansion in the university, which 
has just closed its second year, the stu- 
dents increasing from fifteen to forty. The 
new building is well suited to the work and 
contains five class-rooms, a large chapel, 
and dormitory accommodations for about 
thirty boys. A new building for the theo- 
logical school is in course of erection, 
which will be a conspicuous ornament to 
the city. The campus includes eight 
acres. Special instruction is given to the 
pupils in Christian teachings. In addition to 
daily instruction under Christian teachers, 
in which a regular course of Bible-study is 
pursued, all pupils are required to attend 
daily prayers. A weekly prayer-meeting 
is conducted by one of the teachers. Two 
regular preaching services and a Sunday- 
school are held on Sunday, which all the 
students attend. A strong religious in- 
fluence pervades the school, and the ma- 
jority of the leading young men are either 
church members or inquirers. This influ- 
ence extends to the homes of the pupils, 
and many are thus led to attend religious 
services. During the year 1891 there will 
be in active operation three departments 
of the university — the college department, 
theological school, and medical school. 
Mrs. Philander Smith, of Oak Park, 111., 
furnished the money for the new building 
for the theological school. Twenty thou- 
sand dollars more could be well used by 
the university for additional buildings and 
equipments. 

Miss Ella C. Shaw reports that the 
women among whom she is laboring in 
Nanking are becoming more friendly, and 
the year has been one of seed-sowing 
without direct results in the line of con- 
versions. 

Miss Emma E. Mitchell reports that in 
the Nanking school during the past year 
the word has been planted in the hearts 
of over twenty-five girls. 

Dr. George A. Stuart reports for the 
Wuhu District that at the end of the pre- 
vious year there were in active operation 
4 chapels, 5 day-schools, and i boys* 
boarding-school. Necessity has closed 
2 chapels and 3 day-schools, and the 
boarding-school has been transferred to 
Nanking. The contraction of the work 
has been made necessary by a lack of 
workers and the expansion of the hospital 
work. The medical work has been very 
satisfactory. 

NORTH CHINA. 

Superintendent H. H. Lowry reports 
that serious persecution has attended the 



work in a number of places in the North 
China Mission and determined opposition 
has been felt in many quarters. Not- 
withstanding this there has been an in- 
crease of 349 in the membership, several 
stations have been visited with genuine 
revivals, new preaching-places have been 
opened, and clusters of inquirers collected 
in several new villages. From all the 
central stations come complaints that 
the chapels are too small to hold the regu- 
lar congregations. Self-support has made 
commendable progress. Three preachers 
are supported entirely by the contributions 
of the local churches, and several others 
are supported in part. Opportunities are 
presented every-where for advance and 
enlargement. 

Rev. W. T. Hobart writes that at As- 
bury Chapel, Peking, there has been a 
large number of clear conversions. During 
the year the Sunday congregations have 
greatly increased in size, and the attend- 
ance at Sabbath-school has at times 
reached nearly four hundred, of whom fully 
one third were heathen attracted by the 
ser\'ices and the personal influence of those 
engaged in the work. The congregation 
at Southern City Station, Peking, has in- 
creased from less than fifty at the begin- 
ning of the year to over eighty, and the 
Sabbath-school has been well attended. 

Rev. F. Brown reports that at Wesley 
Chapel, Tientsin, two preaching services 
and a Sunday-school have beem held each 
Sunday; five class-meetings and a prayer- 
meeting have also been held every week, 
and each day has been begun with a 
public prayer service in the chapel. Special 
religious services have also been held and 
the chapel has often been filled to excess. 

Rev. W. F. Walker reports for the 
East Gate Chapel, Tientsin, that the 
chapel doors have been open for public 
preaching services six days a week ; 
crowds have gathered and listened to the 
Gospel and some have accepted. A book- 
store has been opened for the sale of 
Christian literature, and several thousand 
volumes have been sold. On every circuit 
in the Tientsin District the colporteurs 
have been an active evangelizing agency. 

Rev. H. H. Lowry writes that the center 
of work on the Shan-tung District is about 
four hundred miles south of Peking, and the 
work is distributed around three central 
stations, and at two of these there has been 
considerable progress, an increase in 
membership in one of thirty-seven and in 
the other of thirty. 

Rev. G. R. Davis reports of Tsun-hua 
District, the center of which is 100 miles 
east of Peking : " The work moves slowly, 
but it is moving in the right direction. 
With hope, faith, patience, prayer, and 



work we must succeed. On the district 
there is now a membership of 202, besides 
78 probationers. There were contributed 
by the natives for self-support $20, and 
there were collected from other sources < 
$50.40 for the same purpose. For Mis- 
sions the Sabbath-schools gave $18.38; 
the native members, $20.66; others, 
$91.91, making a total of $130.9$ for 
Missions and $70.40 for self-support." 

Rev. J. H. Pyke reports that on the 
Lan Chou District during the previous 
seven and a half months there had been 
baptized 42 adults, 16 children, and 41 
received on probation. A large number 
of books and tracts were sold» and a 
greater number than ever before had heard 
the Gospel. 

Training-classes for women are organ- 
ized in Peking, Tientsin, and Tsun-hua» 
and are in successful operation under the 
care of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Sofciety. 

In Peking University departments of 
theology and medicine are in operation^ 
and a college of liberal arts is fully or- 
ganized. To prepare students for en- 
trance to the college a three years' course 
is prescribed. As feeders to this high- 
school, or preparatory department,, inter- 
mediate schools are or will soon be es. 
tablished in Peking, Tientsin, Tsun-hua, 
and Tai-an. The pupils for these interme- 
diate schools are secured by promotions 
from the day-schools established by the 
Mission in the villages throughout the dis- 
tricts. There were nine students in the theo- 
logical school, five in the medical schooU 
and the number in the college of liberal 
arts has been limited only by the capacity 
of the dormitories. An industrial depart- 
ment is in successful operation. An in- 
dustrial school has been carried on at 
Tsun-hua. With few exceptions the 
pupils in the schools are Christians. 

The girls' schools, under the charge of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
consist of two boarding-schools situated in 
Peking and Tsun-hua, the former with 84 
and the latter with 35 pupils. Six girls* 
day-schools are in operation — 3 in Peking, 
2 in Tientsin, and i in Tsun-hua — and 
from these there have been some ver)' en- 
couraging results. 

There are four centers of medical oper- 
ations in the North China Mission — the 
Peking Hospital, the Isabella Fisher Hos- 
pital at Tientsin, two hospitals at Tsun- 
hua, and the medical work at the Jeho 
silver-mines. An average of 3,600 patients 
per month are being prescribed for 
through these agencies, and many of them 
have thereby been brought under the in- 
fluence of the Gospel. 

Rev. H. H. Lowry, writing of the needs 



CHINA MISSION OF THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 



89 



of the North China Mission, says : '* [ am 
deeply impressed with the opporlunilies 
presented cvery-where for advance and 
enlargement if we had the means. More 
is the one word that should be empha- 
sized in connection with every agency in 
the Mission— more foreign lalxirers, more 
native preachers, more colporteurs, more 
teachers* more chapels, more schools," 
He also says: '*The chapels in Peking, 
Tientsin, and Tsun-hua, which a few years 
ago seemed so large, are now far too small 
to hold the congregations that frequently 
gather for worship. The same is true of 
many of the country chapels, while sev- 
eral places are in great need of chapel 
buildings in which to hold the Sabbath 
services. In all the boarding-schools the 
dormitories are too full to be healthful. 
What is true of these departments applies 
as well to hospital and dispensary work. 
Our very success is not devoid of embar- 
rassment, and, because of our inability to 
command the means for relief, becomes a 
real occasion for discouragement." 

WEST CHINA. 

Rev, Spencer Lewis, Superintendent of 
the West China Mission, reports that the 
results of ihe work are most encouraging. 
In Chungking the Sabbath scr^'ices have 
had an ever increasing att-ndance. and 
the street chapel has been well tilled daily 
and frequently crowded. The daily prayer- 
meetings, in which special attention is 
given to Bible-study, have had an average 
attendance during the year of over 30. 
Two men have been licensed as exhorters 
and one has served as a colporteur* The 
year began with r boys' school and 1 1 
pupils, and closed with 50 boys an<l 20 
girls under instruction. Some work has 
been performed outside the city, A 
good brick chapel is being built. The 
statistics are as follows: 

Foreign missionaries. 4 

A^istant misMonaries. ........ 2 

Native uimrdaine^* preachers, , . 2 

Native teachers 4 

Other helpers r 

Members , , , • .....,., 18 

robationers 27 

Conversions during the year. . . 23 

Day schools , 3 

Day scholars >,.,,,........... 70 

Halls and places of worship. * ,. 2 

Parsonages, or homes. 3 

Value of parsonages, or homcs.$5.500 cx> 

Value of other real estotc 8.500 00 

Collected for self-sttpport ...,., 20 00 
Contributed for other local pur* 

poses- 10 00 

V«4 

Ctalum ^ftiiilMii nf Iii«- inoilloiltnt 
Kplftf«>|JHl rliiiri'li, ^u II III* 

The Annual Conlercnt e of the Mission 

convened at Shanghai, Chin.% October 15, 



1890, Bishop Wilson presiding. On the 
evening of the lirst day of the Conference 
a double wedding among the missionaries 
took place. Rev. T, A. Hearn, of the 
China Mission, w^as married to Miss Kate 
R. Roberts, and Rev, C, B. Mosclcy, 
of the Japanese Mission, to Miss Ada 
Reagan. The ladies had been mi^ision- 
aries of the Woman's Society. 

The statistica] report was made as 
follows ; 

Missionaries, i t ; wives, 10; Woman's 
Board, 1 1 ; local preachers* 6 ; exhorters, 
5 ; colporteurs, i ; stations, 6 ; out^sta- 
tions, 9 ; foreign members, 25 ; native 
members, 345— increase, 33 ; probationers, 
134 — decrease, 22; infants baptized, 9 — 
increase i; adults baptized^ 33 — decrease 
22i Sunday-schools, 23— increase, 2; Sun- 
day-school teachers, 72 ; Sunday-school 
scholars — — ; pupils in A,-C. C, 146; 
A.-C, schools. 2 ; pupils, 25 ; boys* 
boarding-school, 1 ; pupils, 74 ; sittings, 
810; books sold, 6,205; girls* board- 
ing-schools, 3 ; puptlsp 64 ; day-schools. 
40— increase, 9; pupils, 692 — increase. 1 13; 
foreign teachers, 15; native teachers, 
54^ — increase, 9; churches, 8 ; sittings, 
t,6f 5 ; value, $2 1,1 91 ; foreign residences, 
9; value, $42,820; native parsonages. 
4; value, ^,090; ladies* homes, 4; 
value, $35,6cx>; male hospital, i ; value, 
$10,000; number of patients, 8,171 — ifi- 
crease, 88; female hospital, 1; value, 
$6,600; number of patients, 2.494 — in- 
crease, 1 50 ; school buildings, 7 ; value, 
$15,600; rented chapels, ig^ncrease, 8; 
contributed by foreign members. $618.30; 
contributed by native members, $165.33 ; 
an increase for natives of $29.75. 

ArPOlNTMENTS. 
Shanghai iyistriit,—'Sl. l\. Hill. P.E.; Sh^ghai 
station. M. tl. Hill, C. F. Rcid, otic to Ijc supplied (by 
Sj; Ti Kia); CoUcgc siAtion, V, J. Allen. G. R. Lcwjtir; 
Hong-keij, W. B. lionnelE, H. L. Gray; Sung-Kiang, 
W. B, Burke^ one tu be siipplicrd (by Zung Sau^tsungl; 
T'a-isong, Q, E* lirown, two to be siippVicd (Tiy Zung 
ZiJig'-^an,^ Sung Yon^-peh); T'sih-pau. one to be *vii»- 
pUed (by T'scu Ti-vung); A,-C. College. Y.J. Allen, 
President J W. B. Bonne It. G. R, L^jehr. H. L. Gray, 
Professors, 

StttAaw Distrt\4,--U, L. Andcriioini. P.E.; Suchow 
Elation, T. A. Heam. one to be »itpplie«J (by Zung 
YoOE-kUntig); Znng-jfc^ B. D, Lucas, Li Tii Niji; Nain 
King, J. L. Hcndi->% C, K, iVlarahall; K Ven-van, one to 
be supplied (by Doitg Moh^iian); Luh-chib, one to he 
supplied (Ttiy T'fta V«jgH»ang>; BufRngtan Iniiitute. 
A. P. Parker. 

ArFOI>tTMKKTS or LAD1KS lUCnieseXTIMG W. B, M. 

Skan^hsti Dtitrtct^—MiHi L. X, Haygocxl, Agent ; 
Clopttin School. day-kchiL>ol». McTycire Home and 
Scht»ol. Miss HayKtwtKi. Miinjiger; Mis.* L. U. Hugh«A^ 
Miss M. McClcHan. Miw Ricbiiravnii, AWtstants; 
Rading Auglo-Chincse School, Miss L. Riinkjn ; 
ICading day-ftchools, Mist, E. Kerr. 

Svi-Jkitw Dutrici,~^lS\ts. }, P* Camp^jell, Agent , 
Suthow Girls* Schoott Mrs. J. P. Campltcll. Mainager; 
Mks Smi{hey, A«i»iAtant: Suchow Hospital. Mr*. J; 
P. Camj>bell, Manager: I>r M M, Philip*. Phytician. 
Silt. how day^schooU, Mi** J, M* Atkinsoiu 



TliroiiKb A FhjttK'laii'* Spectacle*. 

BY W. H. MORSE. M.D. 

" China has become a hell since yoy 
foreigners came," This startling excla- 
mation of a Shashing Chinaman to Rev. 
G. L. Mason, of the American Baptist 
Union, is all loo true. 

We are accustomed to look with pride 
upon our mission work in the Celestial 
En^pire. We praise God for what he has 
done there. But, sad to say, the good 
work is terribly offset. 

One of Webster's definitions of ** Hell " 
is, **The abode of evil spirits,*' This is 
the appropriate definition in the present 
instance — the instance of the indictment. 

Do you know what that means, you 
who boast of tlie indwelling presence of 
the Holy Spirit in China } It is the truth, 
the terrible and death-full truth. 

Listen to it again \ '* China has become 
a hell."* China is the abode of evil spirits. 
The foreigners, the Christians — those who 
joy in the blessed Holy Spirit — ihey are 
responsible. 

•' And that dismal cry rose slowly 

And sank slowly through the air. 
Full of spirit's melancholy. 
And eternity's despair." 

The evil spirits which possess China arc 
those of opium^ — ^*'a stimulant narcotic 
poison, producing hallucinations, profound 
sleep, or death," All this has been pro- 
duced, and more. 

The foreigners are at fault because of 
this demoniac possession. "Not from 
choice do we have the opium traffic,'* says 
Li Hung Chang, *' but because China, 
submitted to decision of arms.*' 

For seventy years foreigners, shielded 
by British civil or military officials, smug* 
gled opium into China. After two wars 
and the tax #f vast indemnities the traf- 
fic was legalized. 

The Viceroy Li says; "China views the 
opium question from a moral stand-point; 
England, from a fiscal. My sovereign has 
never desired his empire to thrive on his 
subjects* infirmities." 

China does not countenance the traffic. 
Understand that. Ex- Minister Young is 
my authority for saytng that China is con- 
stantly appealing to the conscience (^/r) 
of England. 

But China ought to seek to convince 
the world that she is sincere in her 
repugnance, by controlling the consump- 
tion. The opportunity is, shall w^e sny^ 
hi^h license. 

Opium yields India an income of fifty 
millions a year. It increases a million a 
year. The question arises. Isn't there a 
way to govern India so as to save that 
revenue ? 

Public opinion should be supreme in 



90 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES, 



England. Awaken public opinion to the 
sin of the traffic, and a way will be found 
to get rid of it. The ** Opium Question '* 
demands settlement. 

The opium habit is easily acquired by 
the Chinaman. The curse of the habit 
falls with special severity on him. I doubt 
if there is another race which it more de- 
praves. 

The Chinaman is indeed cursed by the 
habit. It ruins his constitution, situation, 
and character, and. entails misery, beg- 
gary, thieving, and untold horrors. It is 
indeed a " habit." 

It is a source of wonder to me that with 
Christians responsible for this demoniac 
possession, the Chinese do not resent the 
preaching of Christ. It would be but 
natural. 

The Holy Spirit is there with blessings 
and the fulfilling of hope. Grand things 
liave been done in the walled kingdom. 
The cross is there — eloquent of the Cru- 
cified. 

Let our temperance workers take cour- 
age by China's story. If the preaching 
of Christ has availed there, it can avail 
where alcohol has its unholy power. 

" What hath God wrought ? " The his- 
tory of Christian missions, both Protest- 
ant and Roman Catholic, in China, shows 
that the hand that has wrought is divine. 

Answer skeptics by pointing to China. 
If our religion was not true there would 
have been no such g^and results as those 
there. Man alone could not have wrought 
thus nobly. 

The three religions of China — Confu- 
cianism, Buddhism, and Taoism — 
though mutually conflictive, are there tol- 
erated in the most perfect harmony. 

Chinamen find nothing incongruous 
in believing in and belonging to all three 
religions of their country, and when con- 
verted are quite willing to be " all things 
to all men." 

A Chinaman will lie. He likes to lie. 
It is a perfect form of enjoyment to him, 
and synonymous with cleverness. He can 
tell the truth, but he had rather not. 

The name "Oriental Yankees" has been 
given the Chinese ; but it is a misnomer, 
unless, perhaps, it refers to the very worst 
type of Yankee. The Scotch " Yankie " 
means *' sharp, unscrupulous." 

When a Chinaman deliberately rejects 
the Christian religion it is on principle. 
The treatment which China has received 
at the hands of Christian states procures 
this. 

Dr. Cyrus Hamlin is right. " It is time," 
he says, ** for the Church of God to arise 
and demand that Christian governments 
shall not antagonize Christian missions." 

^ Put your heart into the work and China 



will be converted," says a recent writer. 
Put your heart into China, rather, and its 
conversion must follow. See the difference } 

Americans can send rum to China, but 
there is a treaty restriction upon sending 
opium. India has the diabolical monop- 
oly, and holds it jealously against other 
countries. 

Read the story of Robert Morrison and 
of Griffith John, the Chinese pioneers. 
They are crowded with facts that both 
interest and inspire. And inspiration is 
in demand. 

The biographies of Morrison and John 
form two of the six volumes in Funk & 
Wagnall's Missionary Biographical Se- 
ries. Carey, Moffat, Patteson, and Chal- 
mers are the others biographized. 

It is not reprehensible in the least, if 
we look at it in the right light, for the 
Chinese Christians to adhere to native 
customs, only substituting Christian for 
heathen ceremonial. 

The Mongolian delights in the use of the 
word " appreciate." He ** appreciates " 
Christ on conversion. Consider it : ad, 
•* to ;" pretiare, " prize." Is he not quite 
right in saying so } 

The word " mandarin " is from the 
Portuguese mandartm, which is from the 
Malaysian mantrt, " minister of state." 
Mantri in turn is properly Hindu, from 
Sanskrit tnan, " to think." 

The intellectual aspiration may not be 
as strong and pronounced in China as in 
Japan, but the temperature of Chinese 
Christianity is as high as the Japanese, 
perhaps higher. 

Rev. H. Kingman writes : •* At present 
we are entering upon the most terrible 
famine that China has known for years. 
The misery is already great, and the 
death-rate large." 

We cannot understand what an Oriental 
famine really is. Think, if you can, of 
hundreds of thousands of deaths from 
starvation and exposure, with the utmost 
done for relief. 

Lieutenant Wood, U. S. N., says: "There 
is not a Chinese convert to Christianity of 
sound mind to-day within the entire ex- 
tent of China." The descendants of An- 
anias and Sapphira may not be unknown. 
To Canon Taylor : 

Dear Sir: We commend to your 
acquaintance Lieutenant Wood, U. S. N. 
In turn it might be advisable to add to 
your acquaintance that of Sir Lepel Griffin. 
A fine trio. 

It may not be profitable, but it is of in- 
terest, to read the works of Confucius and 
Mencius, as translated into English. It 
will repay a careful reading. 

Legge's translation of Confucius and 
Mencius is published by John B. Alden, of 



New York, in a small octavo volume, for 
seventy-five cents. It should be read un- 
derstandingly. 

As the Pilgrim Fathers first colonized 
America's most sterile shores, so Chris* 
tianity has first taken hold on China's 
most sterile territory. By and by the 
prairies and mines. 

Confucius is silent about a place of tor* 
ment after death. Taoism is quite as 
chary, but Buddhism presents its own pe* 
culiar ideas, and these serve to make up 
the deficiency. 

Here is a text for the month's consid- 
eration of China work : *• Let us go up at 
once and possess it ; for we are well able 
to overcome it," Is there a more appro- 
priate text ? 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor's China Inland 
Mission is distinctly non-sectarian. Mr. 
Radcliffe says : *• No difficulties from dif- 
ferent denominations working in one field 
have ever arisen." 

In China the manufacture of grape-wine 
is unknown. There \% however, a fer^ 
mented wine made from rice and millet. 
This is used in the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper. 

The pithy sayings of Confucius have 
had a great deal to do in forming Chinese 
character. Here is one : " A man can 
enlarge his principles ; but principles do 
not enlarge the man." 

Another sententious maxim of Confu- 
cius is commendable to Christians : "What 
the superior man seeks is in himself ; what 
the small man seeks is in others." Isn't 
that true ? 

A missionary in Tientsin says in a re- 
cent letter : ** The class-meetings are well 
sustained." Can you get any consolation 
out of that, dear brother, who ** tries to 
mend the classes ? " 

In speaking about our Chinese work, 
do not forget that the Methodist Church 
has a Chinese Mission in California, doing 
a grand work among both Chinese and 
Japanese in that State. 

In answer to the question, " Do the 
Chinese women who are rescued from 
slavery become Christians ? " I answer, 
from statistics, that on an average one in 
six are converted. 

The Chinese people must be converted 
by the Chinese converts. The native 
worker is of more value in China than in 
any other field. Of this I am confident* 
Who controverts } 

Some one asks : " Why do not the mis- 
sionaries try to reach the Chinese upper 
classes ? " W^hy, indeed ! Isn't it being 
done, and well done, too ? The ** upper 
classes " are not neglected. 

Now the fact is just this. You ask* 
" What is the special need of missions in 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



91 



China ? " Well, that question was an- 
swered before you asked it. By ? By 

St. Paul, of course. Go and read it. 

As to converting the local laundryman, 
opinions differ. It is one thing to Chris- 
tianize him, and another thing to civilize 
him. Be sure of what you want before 
you begm. 

The missionary does not ask much, if 
anything, of the foreign resident in China. 
An appeal to him would not be likely to 
do any good. Every hive has its drones. 

The foreign resident is quite sure that 
it is the missionary who procured the 
title of " foreign devil." The missionary 
charges the title to the resident. The 
choice can be made. 

If the Chinese language belongs to the 
fourth root-race, as seems probable, we 
may ask if Buddhism did not come into 
India from China. Positing this, is not 
our grround firmer ? 

There is nothing more disagreeable in a 
Chinaman than his self-complacency, dig- 
nified by the name of pride. In the 
native worker it has to be used, and can 
hardly be eliminated. 

Whatever his social standing, the China- 
man admires literary ability in others. It 
would not do to send any half-made min- 
isters there as missionaries. They would 
not succeed. 

k Taken as a whole — and, indeed, by pre- 
Icept upon precept— the subject of Bud- 
dhistic philosophy as revealed in China, is 
matter for very serious and edifying re- 
flection. 

The Buddhist doctrine of repeated in- 
carnations may not be inconsistent with 
Christianity altogether. Instead, its study 
may show a relation to the coming of the 
Christ. 

The Chinese " inquirer " is of a different 
caliber from the Hindu, in that he seeks 
from his heart, and neither out of curios- 
ity nor for controversy's sake. 

Did you ever call at the home of the 
*• Society of Chinese Christian Brethren " 
in New York ? It is on East 39th Street, 
near Second Avenue. There are about 
thirty members of the Society. 

Rev. M. C. White and Rev. R. S. Mac- 
lay, two of the first four missionaries sent to 
China by the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in 1S47-8, are still living — Dr. White in New 
Haven, Conn. ; Dr. Maclay in California. 

No one is more quick to detect the im- 
morality and godlessness of our great 
cities than the Chinaman. Having such 
•• detective ability," is it strange that he 
remains a heathen ? 

The Barnabas class of missionaries do 
not appear to be well adapted to the Chi- 
nese work, for reasons which are quite ob- 
vious. The Paul is the successful type. 



" The financial value of Christianity in 
China." Well, in 1851 China produced 
ninety-seven per cent, of the world's tea. 
Last year the production was forty-three 
per cent. 

The idea of attributing the complexion 
of China's budget to the extraneous •* ef- 
fect of Christianity." If it has leavening 
power, it surely is not leaven pure and 
simple. 

The Chinese theory of evolution traces 
man by degrees from the praying mantis, 
through the hairless apes, which, by eating 
warm victuals, grew large and were 
changed to men. 

The three sects of China are officially 
described as Joo keaou, " the scholars," 
Confucians ; Fuh keaou, the Buddhists ; 
and Taou keaou, the Taoists. Chris- 
tianity is not a keaou. 

Insanity is by no means uncommon in 
China, but there are no lunatic asylums. 
It is, perhaps, questionable as to whether 
their establishment by missionaries would 
be of signal advantage. 

As thore is no place in Confucianism 
for a personal God, obviously the preach- 
ing of Christ must be difficult where the 
cultured classes are especially concerned. 

" Is there any prospect of China being 
converted entirely to Christ ? " The phrase, 
*• any prospect," is expressive, brother. If 
it were not, the answer would be, •* No ; 
none." 

Kwei-chau and Kan-suh each has three 
missionaries for its 3,000,000 people ; Shen- 
Si has ten missionaries for 10,000,000; 
Yun-nan, four missionaries for 6,000,000. 

Think of it! Twenty-two millions of 
people with only twenty missionaries ! Im- 
agine only sixty ministers in the United 
States, and some idea of the great dispro- 
portion can be had. 

The appetite for reading among the Chi- 
nese is insatiable. They fight each other 
in their eagerness to seize the tracts distrib- 
uted by the missionaries among them. 

The native converts who are sent out 
as lay preachers to tell the wonderful 
story of Christ are singularly successful 
in their efforts, doing the noblest of work. 

Men and women are wanted in China 
who cannot preach. If they are willing 
to work they can teach, distribute tracts, 
translate, edit, print, or "even do manual 
labor, "in His name." 

Trained printers can do yeoman work 
I for the Master in the walled kingdom. 
There is a call for their ser\'ices more em- 
phatic than that from any other field. 

When we read of the " Universal Mon- 
golization," •'China menacing the world," 
and like matter, let us remember the leaven 
of Missions, and ask if General Wolseley 
is really of the prophets } 



The Chinese have a most exaggerated 
opinion of the professional abilities of the 
foreign physician, who is wont to find it a 
task to live up to his reputation altogether. 

Say what we will of " woman's place in 
the Oriental religions," undeniably the wife, 
mother, and daughter are important fac- 
tors to deal with in China. 

To show the worth of God to a nation, 
a teacher stated that it was God-fearing 
people who invented the locomotive. " Ah," 
replied a hearer, *• you do that ? What did 
God do ? " 

The hospital is described in China as a 
" healing court," by which is to be under- 
stood a court where the dispensing is of 
healing, in the same sense in which justice 
is " dispensed." 

" A number of Chinamen, members of 

Sunday-school, were arrested Sunday 

afternoon for playing fan-tan," But let 
not Christian workers be dismayed. After 
this, move on. 

From the professional visit of Miss 
Leonora Howard, M.D., to the wife of 
Viceroy Li, in 1879, the notable work in 
Tientsin has developed and is still going 
on grandly. 

The appropriation of the title ** Son of 
Heaven " by the Emperor of China nat- 
urally ought to gain appreciation of God's 
divine Son at court. But "what's in a 
name } " 

Our ideas of politeness do not gain favor 
in China. To lift the hat to man or woman 
is. for instance, regarded as the very height 
of insolence and contempt. 

Although the name has long since been 
obsolete in western Europe and the 
United States, Russia still persists in styl- 
ing China *• Cathay," using the mediaeval 
term. 

Peking University seems to be filling a 
"long-felt want." It might be a good 
idea if our charitably-disposed men of 
wealth should remember this institution 
in their wills. 

St. Paul's words of disapprobation of 
•* long hair," have need of elimination, or 
of being passed over without comment, 
when reached in teaching or Bible-study 
by the missionaries. 

China has great charms for the Chris- 
tian missionary, and when it comes to a 
question of choice, it is the field that is 
I preferred by the majority of candidates. 

No argument is needed to support the 

, idea that in many senses there is no field 

I where we can \\o\^ for more than from 

i China. Let us " be sober, and hope to the 

end." 

And just beyond is Thibet. Shall we 
till that field in this generation ? Consider 
i the horrible iniquity of Lamaism, and the 
I inspiration to effort cannot but ensue. 



92 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



iotta tinb Commtnts. 



Bishop Good sell left last month to pre- 
side over the Conferences and Missions in 
Japan, China, and Korea. 

We regret to note that Rev. F. Pen- 
zotti of our Chyrchr and an agent of the 
American Bible Society, who was im- 
prisoned in Calao, Peru, last J lily for 
preaching the Gospel, is still in prison. 

Wc call special attention to the Appeal 
for Forei^ Missions on pages 78 and 79, 
It was written by Bishop Newman at the 
request of the General Missionary Com- 
mittee, and is addressed to every pastor 
and member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 

World- Wide Misswns^ while having a 
large circulation, has been published at 
such a low price that the larger the circu- 
lation the greater the loss* It has been 
decided to raise the price on quantities from 
ten to fifteen cents a copy. It is edited by 
the Missionary Secretaries, printed at Chi- 
cago, and the offices of publication are 1 50 
Fifth Avenue, New York, and 334 Dear- 
bom Street, Chicago. 

Tkff Mi'sswnary Eeinimf of the IVarid 
for January reaches us with the name of 
Arthur T. Pierson as editor and J» T, 
Gracey and A, J. Gordon as associate ed- 
itors. We miss the familiar name and 
excellent work of Dr. Sherwood, who died 
in October last, and who for three years 
was associated with Dr. Pierson as editor- 
Dra* Pierson, Gracey, and Gordon, Pres- 
byterian, Methodist, and Baptist, will make 
a magazine of which we shall all be proud. 
Dr, Pierson is abundant in evangeHstic 
as well as in literar)-^ work. Wc are in- 
debted to him for the article on Hans 
Egede in this number of our magazine 
and for an article on Louis Harms that 
will appear next month. 

It is announced in the Chinese Recorder 
for December, 1S90, published in Sliang* 
hai, China, that Rev, L.N. Wheeler, D.D., 
fonnerly one of our missionaries in China, 
and lately appointed the Agent of the 
American Bible Society for China, will 
become the editor of the C/iinese Ret&rder 
commencing with ihe January number. 

Canon Scotl Robertson has just com- 
pleted his annual summary of British con- 
tributions to foreign missions. For the 
year 1889 the amount was j£ 1,301, 306, 
being a little less than for the year 1888. 
The Church of England contributed over 
one half of this, or about j£67o,ooo. The 
Church of England societies contributed 
^£523.226 ; Joint-Societies of Churchmen 
an d N on-co nf orm ist s, £z 1 7 ,963 ; E ngl ish 
and Welsh Non-conformist societies, 
^£364,652 ; Scottish and Irish Presbyte- 



rian societies, / 1 85,646 ; Roman Catholic 
societies, /9,8j9. 

We announced last month th,it Bishop 
Foster would leave in January for China, 
Japan, and Korea, and would be accom- 
panied by Dr S< L, Baldwin, the Record- 
ing Secretary of our Missionary Society. 
It has since been decided that the health 
of Bishop Foster will not permit his mak- 
ing the journey, and Dr. Baldwin will 
therefore remain at the mission rooms, 
A correspondent of Zions Herald, writ- 
ing of the proposed visit of Dr, Baldwin 
to China, says : " Only that it would take 
him away from the mission rooms in 
New York, where he is doing such a 
splendid work, he ought to be made Mis- 
sionary Bishop of China/' Those bestac- 
quaimed with him are in full accord with 
the sentiments here expressed. 



Re»p<inii«<« from Prealdtvis B]d«r»« 

The new table of missionary apportion- 
ments to the Conferences and districts 
that have been sent out to the presiding 
elders is meeting with general favor. 

The Rev, D, R. Lowrie, of the Jersey 
City District, Newark Conference, writes : 
** The new table gives our district $1,000 
more to raise. We welcome it. We will 
do our best to raise it." 

The Rev. J. A. B, Wilson, of Dover 
District, Wilmington Conference, writes : 
" The Dover District has come from $3,186 
in 1887, to $5*369 in 1S90. Our peach crop 
was a failure the past year. Nevertheless, 
we thank you for your vote of confidence 
which you have given us, and wc will use 
our best endeavor not to disappoint you. 
I will at once communicate with our breth- 
ren, the pastors, to whom the burden and 
the honor belongs. I will be disappointed 
if they do not say to you as I say 10 you i 
' Where you dare to lead i dare to follow.' '' 

The Rev. M. P. Blakeslee. of Ithaca 
District, Cemnd New York Conference, 
writes i '* You have done fur Ithaca Dis- 
trict just what I have desired the presiding 
elders of our Conference to do. I shall 
hope to raise the Apportionment. Shall 
work vigorously toward it, ami cannot see 
why we cannot reach it." 

The Res% J. T. Canheld, of Coming 
District, Genesee Conference, writes : " I 
approve your plan of apportionments most 
heartily. Have no criticisms to offer. 
Coming District will put forth an earnest 
effort to meet your highest figures. We 
have anticipated a little, and have .sent out 
a larger apportionment thin yours. We 
were in a hurry to get the matter before 
the people." 

The Rev. A. B. Tru^ix. of the Mont- 
pelier District, ^^rmont Conference, 
writes . *' You may count on Monipelier 



District for every doliar of the apportioiH 
ment. Wc do not propose to have any 
part in the responsibiiity of calling a hah 
and inaugurating the disastrous policy of 
retrenchment, which wc clearly see must 
come unless the whole Church rallies it 
the oill of the General Committee/' 

The Rev. W. A. Stevens^ of Williams- 
port District, Central Pennsylvania Con- 
ference, writes : " You can count on nif 
district for the advance indicated. If I 
were to offer a criticism^ I would say yoa 
have been too easy on the rear column. I 
^m pleased with the new depa.rture. The 
apportionments ought to show every Con- 
ference what it ought to do as nearly is 
possible. Let the * heart and willingness' 
show itself in the collections." 



Dr. Plervon^B I^ectureB on M l«s]ail«» 

The Hon. N. F. Graves, of Syracuse, 
N. Y., and a frequent contributor to this 
magazine, has generously provided for the 
expense of a course of lectures on missioia 
to be delivered each year to the student! 
of the Theological Seminary of the Re- 
formed Church, at New Brunswick, N. J, 
The course for the present year are heii^ 
delivered on each Monday for seven weeks, 
commencing \viih January 1 2, by Rev, A. 
T, Pierson, D.D< The subjects arc : 

I. The Thought or Conception of Mis^ 
sions. 

J. The Plan or Methotl of Missions. 

3* The Field or Territory of Missions, 

4. The Work or Prosecution of Mis* 
sions. 

5. The Spirit or Impulse of Missions. 

6. The Fruit or Seal of Missions. 

7. The Present Crisis of Missions. 
We have previously noted the fact that 

Dr. Pierson was to deliver the Duff 
lectures on missions in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, and stated that they were to be de* 
livered in the autumn of 1892- Wc un- 
derstood that these were delivered each 
year, but are informed that they are given 
only during one of four years. A note 
from Dr. Pierson sa\ s : 

"The lectureship la^ils during four 
years, from 1891 to JS94 inclusive, and 
the expectation i^ that ordinarily they will 
be delivered duringthe openingmonlhs 
of the second year. That would in this 
case be in Januar)' and Februar)\ 1892. 
It IS not by any means certain at what 
time they will be delivered. They maybe 
deferred until the auiumn of 1S92, because 
that is the time when the centenary oc- 
curs of William Carey's organization of 
the first foreign missionary society. The 
exact annivers.-ir)' occurs on October % 
1892* At the present lime I expect to g^ 
to London and Edinburgh not later than 
January, 1S92/' 



THE CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR SOCIETY AND MISSIONS, 



93 



Vhe riiilAtlmii endeavor S«cl«lr ftnd 
]fIl««loii«. 

BV REV. r. E, CLAftK, D.D., PRCSIOCWT. 

One of the most marked developments 
ctf the Christian Endeavor movement has 
been the grov^ing interest of the young 
people who belong to these societies in 
the niissionary cause. This is manifested 
in many ways, not only in the increased 
attendance at the missionary meetings, 
but in a disposition on the part of the so- 
cieties to form missionary committees and 
to arouse a new interest in the cause at 
borne and abroad. Every National Chris- 
tian Endeavor Convention and almost 
every State convention and many local 
conventions have set apart an hour for the 
consideration of missionary themes. The 
International Christian Endeavor Dav^ to 
be observed February 2, the day which 
will mark the tenth anniversary of the first 
society* will be celebrated chiefly by 
tnakiHg a ikank-^ffering^ i& sem£ mis* 
siamary caus£. Each society 'will give to 
lis imm dememiftati&nai missi&nary 
iftartis, and in that way alone ; and it is 
hoped and believed that this ''Christian 
Endeavor Day " wiU result not only in a 
large increase of interest in missionary 
themes, but also in substantial gifts for all 
the Boards. The United Society of Chris- 
tian Endeavor does not ask any thing for 
Itself, but it prays that on that day many 
fires of missionary interest may be kindled 
In the hearts of the young people all over 
the land, and that they may learn on their 
tenth anniversary something more of the 
blessedness of giving. 



®w Uissifliiatits ml Slisswns. 



The only child of Rev, C, H, Plomer, 

Lahore, India, died November 19. She 
was a little girl thirteen months old. 

On December 11 the oldest girl of 
Rev, W. W, Bniere died in Bombay, She 
was but two years and a half old. The 
parents had but lately relumed to India 
from their visit to the United Slates, 

Dr* D. E. Osborne, medical mission arj^ 
» at the Jeho silver-mines in China, was 
recalled by telegram to the United Slates 
on account of the serious illness of his 
parents, but they both died before his 
arrivals He is now at Chardon, O., 
but expects to return to China at an 
early date* His wife remains in China, 

Rev, J, C, Floyd, D,D„ of the Detroit 
Conference, has been appointed super- 
intendent of the Malaysia mission, and 
latled from New York January 14, 1891, 
for his field, accompanied by Mrs, Floyd, 
and by Mr. A» E, Breece and Mr. R. C. 
Ford, who are to be teachers in the school 
at Singapore. 



Rev, J, T. McMahon, of India, whose 
address is; Lima, N. Y., is glad to 
make all his Sabbaths available for the 
missionary cause ; and he wishes preach- 
ers to understand that he is quite as 
ready to help at small appointments as 
large ones. Let him be kept busy. 

Dr. T. J. Scott writes from Barcilly, 
India, December 2: "The India Theo- 
logical Seminary closed its year Novem- 
ber 29, A class of 15 preachers and 4 
Christian teachers was sent out. This 
makes 180 preachers and 42 teachers 
that have been trained in this institution. 
From all sides comes the cry, ' Send us 
preachers and teachers.' The next sen- 
ior class consists of twenty-five men. 
There is great need of $50,000 endow- 
ment f o r t he in st ti u t J on , Meth od Ism h as 
the means and India the opportunity." 

Rev, M. C, Wilcox writes from Ku- 
cheng, China, November 11 , that in the 
latter part of October he moved to that 
city, which is to be a new center of opera- 
tions for foreign work. He has been 
joined by Dr. J. J. Gregory and his 
family, and w*ork has been begun on 
Dr. Gregory's house. Brother Wilcox 
was in the midst of his fourth quarterly 
meetings, which were proving seasons of 
refreshing. His post-office address will 
continue to be Foochow. 

Rev, F, Brown writes from Tientsin: 
"Last year a barber named Chou 
united with the church, and getting into 
foreign erfiploy, disposed of his barber's 
kit. He soon, however, lost his place, 
and was persuaded to return to his for- 
mer occupation. With a little help he 
bought a new outfit, and now makes his 
living as a barber, and at the same time 
is doing the work of a self-supporting 
evangelist. He carries in his shaving- 
stool a good supply of Christian tracts, 
which he distributes, at the same time 
bearing faithful witness to alt who en- 
gage him. As a result of his efforts we 
have at least one whole family in the 
church." 

M>* — 

Tlie Kolftr MIimIoii tu Iii4J». 

A correspondent of the London Chris- 
tian writes from India, October 1 8, of the 
Kolar Mission lately transferred by Miss 
Anstey to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church : 

" On Tuesday Miss Anstey had to en- 
dure the anguish of parting with her chil- 
dren, and 1 shall be thankful if I am 
spared having to witness such another 
scene. From all I could see and learn I 
concluded that the result of Miss Anstey's 
thirteen to fourteen years* service was 
simply splendid, and that it has not been 
transferred one hour too soon. The work 



has clearly emerged quiie ouiof that state 
which required the fostering care of a 
mother into a church work capable of in- 
definite extension, and demanding, on 
Scripture grounds, such direction and 
oversight as qualified pastors alone can 
give. The friends of the work in England 
and Australia may rest assured that the 
work at Kolar (which has changed leader- 
ship by the willing consent of the whole 
community, and after full consideration) 
is as worthy of sympathy and help as it 
ever was. In one sense it b even more 
so ; because, as the American Methodist 
Episcopal Church has made Kolar the 
center of its work in South India, an act- 
ive aggression in the * regions beyond * 
will be carried out, which would have been 
wholly beyond Miss Anstey's power either 
to originate or control. A beginning in 
this direction was made while I was there, 
two young men being set apart to go, 
under the guidance of an experienced 
brother, into parts untouched by Christian 
effort. Miss Anstey's devoted service in 
that heathen center is beyond price or 
praise. Hence it was a grief to find an 
Indian Christian periodical stating that 
Miss Anstey had handed 'the Mission 
over, with its liabilities. ' She has handed 
it over, ar\d, as I have no doubt, under 
divine direction, and properties worth 
alone 30,000 rupees, but without liability. 
To her honor be it recorded she has paid 
the uttermost farthing." 



Iff I Md on Work In MKlmiiee, Sontli €fl]i« 
tral ArrlcM, 

BY REY. SAMVELJ. MEAD, 

Thanks for the GospEL iN All Lands, 
which reaches us monthly, cheering our 
hearts and giving us good courage to press 
on to make our calling and election sure. 

When I read of the heroic souls who 
have gone forth into the Master's fields, 
counting all worldly honor as nothingi I 
feel humbled when I see my name among 
this list, but rejoice and praise my God 
that I am here. I cannot speak of trials 
or self-denial. By faith I see my Mas- 
ter's smile, and my soul is filled with love 
and praise. 

1 cannot tell how, but the work is still 
advancing at this station, and souls are 
coming into the Master*s fold. The Lord 
supplieth all our needs, and goeth before us. 
The sweet promise* " Lo, I am with you al- 
way, even unto the end of the world," an- 
swereih al! questions in our souls, giving 
heavenly rest. The dear ones who were 
taken in on probation when our Bishop 
was with us, and that have remained in 
this place, have held out well with the ex- 
ception of one or two. Some are doing 
effectual missionary work. Several more 



94 



PREACHING-TOUR INTO THE INTERIOR OF JAPAN. 



arc ready lo be examined for baptism and 
admission. 

This is a most excellent field to develop 
ihe Pauline plan of missionar^^ work, I here 
being an abundant supply of every thing 
and only a little tact needed io bring it to 
hand. Perhaps a diary of our work here 
would be of interest. 

We have fourteen good healthy bodies 
to be fed and cared for, mission property 
to be kept up, etc., and a little supply laid 
by in case of a rainy day or fever. On 
the Lord's day in the morning we open 
our chapel for worship and continue until 
twelve. T he Sabba t h-sc h ool and ch ild ren *s 
meeting, conducted by my dear wife, are 
held in the afternoon, commencing at four 
o'clock. This brings us around to the 
close of the day. We retire early, 

Monday morning we have two pit-saws 
I o set ru nnin g. We have a n ati v e boy who 
squares up the log. He has been with us 
since we first came to Malange, and can 
swing the broad-ax to perfection for one 
of this country. On the mission-farm we 
have a herd of cattle and four milch cows. 
One of our native Christian boys, after 
prayers, docs the milking. A good pail 
of milk is not an unpleasant sight* W^e 
have an acre of corn already planted. 

In the morning at half-past eight there 
is a drill for the Httle children in their 
Bible lessons, singing, and prayer, led by 
my dear wife. At one o'clock they all go 
into the chapel to be instructed in their 
books by Sister Susan Collins, who is a 
good instructor. 

Our children have their days for sewing, 
and hours in each day for various kinds of 
work. We have our last meal about six 
o'clock ; after this, until bed*time, we de- 
vote our time to the study of the Bible 
and reading, etc. 

This routine is followed out each day 
of the week, varied according to circum- 
stances. Tuesday evening we have a 
pray er*mee ting at the home of one of our 
native Christians, Thursday evening our 
regular mission prayer-meeting. One or 
two days in the week we go to the woods 
lo draw up our logs for the saw. 

Around the Mission there has been 
built 200 feet of good hard wood picket- 
fence and 200 feet of good adobe wall. 
An adobe cook-house has been built, with 
a good fire-place and chimney and a brick 
oven. We have covered and finished off 
a mil king-shed, where we can stanchion 
fourteen head of cattle, and a shed for 
carts. 

The heaUh of my family never was bet- 
ter. Our debts all being paid, we have a 
surplus of J50, which I hardly know 
whether to send to America for paint to 
prcser\*e our buildings, or to lay it out for 



the advancing of the work here. Per- 
haps the suggestion of some good brother 
in America will settle this point. All 
praise and glory to our Father! Pray 
for us. 



Preiiclilii|E"1*<our lato tliC' InleFtor of 

BV HEV. JUUUS SOPER, 

On October 16 1 left Tokyo on a preach* 
jng*tour for the provinces of Shomosa 
and Hitachi. The work in these two 
provinces (mostly in the former) is carried 
on under the name of Jo-so Circuit— these 
two syllables standing for the names of 
these two pro\^inces. There are three cen- 
ters of work on this circuit — namely, 
Ajiki, Sawara, and Mid^eu-kaido. These 
places are respectively 35, 5o»and 30 miles 
from Tokyo. Sawara has about 10,000 
inhabitants, Midzu-kaido 4,000, ami Aj- 
iki 2,500. Rev. C. Nagano is the preacher 
in charge of the circuit and lives at Sa- 
wara, A Mr. Kusama, a local preacher 
and acting as a supply; lives at Ajiki. 
Midzu-kaido is visited once a month, there 
being no resident local preacher or supply, 
A young man of the place, however, was 
made an e shorter during our late visit 
there. 

The work on the circuit was found quite 
interesting and encouraging. \V^e found 
anumberof firm and earnest believers at 
Sawara, and at Ajiki and Midzu-kaido we 
found considerable religious interest and 
work among the young people. At Ajiki 
the principal of the primary and interme- 
diate school, who had become deeply in- 
terested in Christianity from reading the 
Bible and the preaching o( gospel mes- 
sengersi was baptized last spring by Rev. 
K. Miyama, during his visit to that place 
— a visit he made in behalf of the pre- 
siding elder. This man has turned out ' 
to be a tine worker. He also is a man of 
considerable influence in the town. He, 
with the help of the local preacher there, 
has oi^anized a** Young People's Army' 
in connection with the church and under 
the auspices of the church. They hold 
regular and frequent meetings for the 
young. Already there is great enthusiasm 
among the young men of the place. While 
1 was [here we held several special meet- 
ings for the young, and every time the 
chapel was well filled. On Saturday, Oc- 
tober 19, we baptized thirteen adults and 
nine children. 

Ajiki is the oldest country appointment 
in the Tokyo District. Work was first 
begun tiiere over twelve years ago. Never 
did the work seem so encouraging and so 
hopeful. The fire is burning, and the later 
converts are much more earnest and intel- 
ligent (at least, in the reception of the 



truth) than I hose who accepted the Chris- 
tian religion in previous years. It was \ 
grand and inspiring sight to see gi^j-- 
h aired fathers and mothers, middle-aged 
men and women, and young men and 
maidens surrounding the Lor<rs table on 
the Sunday of our visit. Whole families 
are coming into the Church, and the Sab- 
bath is appreciated and kept as never be- 
fore. May the good work go on ! 

The work at Midzu-kaido is also qyite 
encouraging. Had we a good preacher 
to put down there I am sure the w&rk 
would go on prosjjerously. The field is 
ripening for the harvest. The exhorter at 
this place is carrying on a Sunday-school 
which is verv-^ hopeful On Monday night 
(October if), just before we began preach- 
ing-servicesr the Sunday-school boys, who 
have been organised into a " Children's 
Band , " ' gave an ex hi bi t i o n — sh ort ad d rrsses 
quite carefully prepared. These little id- 
lows, ranging from ten to fifteen years of 
age (about twelve in all), did remarkably 
well. I was really agreeably surprised. 
Their topics were about as follo^^s: 
"Love/* *'Hope.'* '* Patience,'' *'Ouf 
Count r>''s Good," "Civilization/* etc., etc. 
Each one closed with an exhortation (ia 
regular Methodist style) » urging all to ac- 
cept Christianity as the hope of the natiorv. 
and as the sure foundation of personal, 
social, and national blessing \ Could airy 
thing be more encouraging and enjoyabk? 
1 reached home safely October 28, The 
work in Tokyo is also giving signs of re- 
newec! life and prosperity. On Sunday 
last, November 3, we baptised eleven aduUs 
in the Tsukiji church* God is with us 1 



BV rev; t. k. y\ mortox- 

Gadawara is a part of my_ circuit and 
lies J 20 miles from Hurda, my head-quar- 
ters, in the direction of Jtibalpuri on 
the main line of the (;. I. I\ Railway. 
There is a branch line of twelve miles 
from the station to Moharpani coal-mines 
worked by the compan)-, the agent of which 
is Mr. ^Simpson, and the engineer, Mr. f 
Tires, In connection with the works there 
is a colony of 1,500 natives. The only 
Europeans at Gadawara are the station- 
master and the permanent way inspector 
and their families. The native city is about 
two and one half miles from the railway 
station. 

Dr. Hunter, a great authority on the 
Central Provinces^ states that the Gada- 
wara Tahsil has a population of 190,000 
in 148 villages. This was the census ia 
iSSi J but what must he the numerical 
strength at the present? It has 311 in- 
habitants to the square mile in contmst 




METIWDISAf /A' DEXMAJ^K. 



to Narsing^pore Tahsil, i6S; Hurtla, 75; 
Khandwa, 70; and Burhanpur, 102. Ii 
is the most dense part of the Central 
Provinces, Gadawara itself will, probably, 
in the January census show a population 
of 9.000 to 10,000. It is a beautiful high- 
land, a literary and civil center, and is 
in quick communication with Jubalpur. 
It is said that it is the larger half of the 
Karsingpore District under the adminis- 
tration of the deputy commissioner. 

Mr, H, N, Hawkins, District Traffic Su- 
perintendent of the Indian Midland Rail- 
way, Bhopal, while in the capacity of traffic 
inspector on theG. 1* P. Railway, and resid- 
ing at Sohagpore, which is only a short 
distance from Gadawara, after surveying 
the field under report, called the attention 
of Presiding Elder Hard to it and advised 
its occupation. Mr. Hawkins is a IcKal 
preacher in our church at Jubalpur. 

The Bengal Conference appointed Jacob 
Samuel, one of its probationary members, 
to that field in 1889; but owing to severe 
illness he could not fill his appointment 
till January of the current year. 

In the center of the native city stands 
the musjid of the false prophet, and right 
by its side is the home of Samuel and his 
son Solomon, a graduate of the Bareilly 
Theological Seminary, Gadawara has this 
advantage over many other points in the 
bounds of our Conference, that it has 
scarcely any of that corrupt form of Chris- 
tianity which so greatly curses this beau- 
tiful land. 

The whole city is divided into mohallas 
by reason of the reign of caste, antl also 
because birds of one feather flock together. 
There are thirty-seven points in the city 
which are visited by our workers, and 
where the children are drilled in the truths 
of God, Over eight hundred children 
meet in our Bible and Sunday-schools. 
Deep impressions have already been made 
in the city. Children sing the favorite 
bhajan, "Yasu Masih mera prana bach- 
aiya." The name of Christ is already on 
many a lip. Bishop Thobum s sermon- 
cites in the vernacular are scattered far 
and wide, and are accomplishing good in 
many directions. I 

During this and the last month we had 
the pleasure of baptizing eleven adults. 

It is a wonder to me that that most in- 
teresting field had not ere this been occu- 
pied. Certainly, it is worthy the residence 
of a European missionary, and I think the 
Bengal Conference should lose no time in 
strengthening its stakes at that point. We 
have just worked exclusively during the 
past ten months in the native city I but the 
44S surrounding villages and the native 
colony at the coal-mines have not as yet 

en touched. 




metliodtMin la Denitiftrk, 

DV KEV. J. J. CHRlSTENStN. 

Methodism conlinues to progress in Den- 
mark ; hut progress cannot be reckoned 
simply by the number of our members. 
We have, however, 2,000 members and 
probationers, and besides these 2,380 per- 
sons are regular attendants at our ser\'ices. 
But the inlluence of Methodism has been, 
and is, much greater than shown by these 
figures. In 1864 the writer was a worker 
in the Methodist Sunday-school in A'eile. 
which at that time was the only one in all 
Jutland. In 1S66 I taught in our Sunday- 
school in Copenhagen, which was then 
the only Sunday-school for children in that 
city^ but belore long the Lutherans recog- 
nized the necessity for such schools, and 
there are now about fifty in Copenhagen, 
and one or more in almost every town in 
Denmark, 

We have 28 schools. 301 teachers, and 
about 3,000 scholars. We are not now 
the only people who have public prayer- 
meetings, such as are now held in the 
state churches all over the country. Even 
class-meetings have been introduced into 
Lutheran churches, and are called con- 
versation'meetings. All this gladdens us. 
and w*e pray that the Spirit of the Lord 
may be permitted to direct these meetings, 

A well-known Lutheran minister, Ble- 
del, has styled John Wesley " The Father 
of Home Missions.'* and the fact that the 
means used by him for the building up of 
the kingdom of God have been adopted 
by so many Lutheran friends should be of 
great encouragement to us, W^e trust that 
the day is at hand when Lutherans and 
Wesleyans will go hand in hand in con- 
fiict against Denmark's enemy, 5///, which 
is the bane of our country, and against 
which foe the energies of Methodism are 
directed. 

W'C receive invitations from various 
parts of the counlr)\ asking us to come 
and preach the word, and I trust that we 
shall soon be able to open several new 
preaching- pi aces. 

The opening of our theological school 
in Copenhagen has been one of the most 
progressive steps which we have taken; 
a step which we thank God that we have 
been allowed to take. Six young men are 
at present studying in the school. We are 
compelled to instruct and board them free 
of charge; btitlhe Lord provides wonder- 
fully for this school, and we have not yet 
lacked any thing for its support, voluntary 
gifts having provided for all necessities. 

We held a preachers* meeting here in 
Copenhagen from November 17 to 21. 
All our prcacherSj nineteen in number^ 
were present. The meeting was in every 
respect a blessed one, and the brethren 



were out every evening at our three preach- 
ing-places, where they witnessed power* 
fully before large gatherings. Our large 
church, St. Paul's, was well attended, and 
the aliar thronged each evening by seeking 
souls, several of whom found peace in God. 

W^e expect a good time of progress in 
the work, and trust that this year will 
witness the conversion of many souls. 
Pray for us ! 

Copenhagin, 



||lissioitHT|| Sorittus, 



The General Board of the Woman's 
Missionar)^ Society of the ^tcthodist 
Church in Can.ida met in annual session 
in London, in October, 1890. and reported 
that the receipts for the year had been 
$25,56076. Mrs. E. S.Strachan, of Ham- 
ilton, w^as re-elected corresponding sec- 
retary. 

The Free Baptist Woman's Missionary 
Society of the United States received for 
the year ending August 31, 1890, $7,409. 2o» 
Most of the money is expended for the 
benefit of the India Mission, the ap- 
propriations for 1891 being S4.573 for 
India, $1,500 for school at Harper's Ferr>% 
W, Va,, and ft 00 for home missions in 
the West. The treasurer is Miss L- A, 
De Meritte. Dover, N. H. The corre- 
sponding secretary is Mrs, J. A, Lowell, 
Danville, N. H. The society's organ is 
The Missiimary Jfeiper, published 
monthly, at 50 cents a year, by Mrs. Ella 
H. Andrews, 453 Washington Street, 
Providence. R. L 



Forela^n :Viliiiiloiiii ^f ifae Frve Bnpflvf 
Ctturcli. 

The Free Baptists, sometimes called 
Freewill Baptists, report in the LTnitcd 
Slates 1,630 churches, 1,398 ordained 
ministers, 218 licensed preachers, and 
86,405 members. 

The Foreign Mission Society, of which 
Rev. T. H. Stacy, Auburn, Me., is ihe Cor- 
responding Secretary, and Rev. Arthur 
Given, 457 Shawmut Avenue, Boston, 
Mass., is Treasurer, received for the year 
ending August 31, 1890, $17,503.59. 
There were in the treasury September 1, 
1S89, $4,146.61, so that the treasurer re- 
ported a total of §21.642.20. The dis- 
bursements were $19,81074, leaving a bal- 
ance of $1,831.46. rhc expense account 
for salaries of secretary, treasurer, execu- 
tive committee, printing, etc., amounted to 
$1,058.31. or about 6 i>er cent, of the re- 
ceipts. 

Of the amount of receipts for the year 
$3,056.10 were from bequests, leaving 
$13,447.49, 



«6 



FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE AMERICAN CHRISTIAN CONVENTION. 



The receipts of the Woman's Mission- 
ary Society were $7,409.20, of which 
$2,000 came from bequests, leaving $5,- 
409.20. Of this amount about $4,000 
were for foreign missions ; which, added 
to $1344749, gives $17,44749 as the 
amount contributed by donors during the 
year for foreign missions. The member- 
ship of the Church, including the preachers, 
is 88,121 ; and they gave for foreign mis- 
sions an average of 20 cents per member ; 
or, if bequests are included, an average 
of 28 cents per member. The only for- 
eign mission is in India, which reports 
699 communicants, 2,721 Sunday-school 
scholars, 3,520 day-school scholars. The 
natives contributed last year 729 rupees. 

The foreign missionaries and their ad- 
dresses in India are as follows : 

Midnapore, Dr. O. R. Bacheler and 
wife. Rev. E. B. Stiles and wife, Rey. M. 
C. Miner and wife. Miss L. C. Coombs, 
Miss £. M. Butts. 

Jellasore^ Dr. H. M. Bacheler* and wife. 

Balasore, Rev. A. B. Boyer and wife. 
Rev. Z. F. Griffin and wife, Mrs. H. C. 
Phillips, Mrs. D. F. Smith, Miss J. B. 
Hooper, Miss N. M. Phillips, M.D. 

Bhudruck, Rev. George Ager and wife. 

Chandbali, Rev. F. W. Brown. 

The Rev. T. W. Burkholder and wife 
and Rev. M. J. Coldren and wife are in 
the United States. 

The missionaries are aided by sixteen 
native and lay preachers. For the year 
ending March 31, 1890 there were added 
to the membership in India 75 persons. 
Of these 52 were added by baptism and 
23 by letter. 

Dr. J. L. Phillips, who was a mission- 
ary in the India Mission for many years, is 
now the General Secretary of the India 
Sunday-school Union. 



Forelcn IHlsaloiui of tlie Amertean 
Cbristlan Convention. 

The American Christian Convention, 
through its Secretary, Rev. J. J. Summer- 
l)ell, 2120 West Norris Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., reports as follows : 

" The number of ordained ministers 
among us is 1,427 ; communicants, 129,- 
353. The exact name of our Church is 
" Christians." If you speak of us as a 
Church we are the Christian Church. If 
you speak of us as individuals we are 
Christians. We are Christians, simply. 
Nothing more, nothing less. I wish we 
were entitled fully to the title as to char- 
acter." 

The Secretary of the Missionary Society 
is Rev. J. G. Bishop. Dayton, O., who has 

* The above list of missionaries is taken from the 
last annual report. Dr. H. M. Bacheler died iu India 
Ifov. 34. 



become the successor of Rev. J. P. Wat- 
son. 

The only work is in Japan. The first 
missionaries. Rev. D. F. Jones and wife, 
reached Japan in May, 1887. They are 
still in the field and were re-enforced in 
August, 1889, by Rev. H. J. Rhodes and 
wife. These four missionaries are assisted 
by seven native workers. The address of 
the missionaries is Tokyo, Japan. 

There are three centers of work, Iskin- 
omaki, Ichinosaki, and Tokyo, with a 
present membership of ninety-two. 

Mr. Jones commenced work at Iskin- 
omaki, a town of about 17,000 population, 
and located northward from Tokyo about 
240 miles. Here a meeting-house and a 
parsonage have been built and a total of 
fifty seven members received. 

In 1888 the church at Ichinosaki was 
organized. It lies north-west of Iskin- 
omaki about forty-five miles. A total of 
thirty-two members have been received 
here. 

In 1889 a church was organized in 
Tokyo, and here thirty-nine members have 
been received. 

Some twenty different students have 
been taught, and there are now four stu- 
dents in uieology. 

About $3,000 are raised and expended 
annually in support of the Japan Mission, 
being an aversige of about four cents per 
member. 

The home expense of the foreign work 
during 1890 was but $38.46, the secretar)' 
receiving no salary. Information concern- 
ing the mission work is published in the 
Herald of Gospel Lib)erty, issued weekly 
at Dajrton, O. 



Foreign IHlMdlon of tbe Reformed 
(German) Cbnrcb. 

The Reformed Church in the United 
States, generally known as the German 
Reformed, reports 815 ministers and 
200,000 members. 

A Foreign Mission Board was organ- 
ized in 1838, and from 1840 to 1865 the 
contributions were sent to the American 
Board for the support of Rev. Benjamin 
Schneider, one of^its missionaries in Cen- 
tral Turkey, and for the church in Aintab, 
the Board giving for this purpose during 
twenty-five years $27,775.60. Dr. Schnei- 
der was a minister of the Reformed 
Church. In 1865 the Board decided to 
establish a Mi.ssion of its own, and to 
cease contributing to the American Board. 

The historian says : •* The period from 
1865 to 1878 is the Sahara in our foreign 
missionaiy work. No special interest 
was manifested in and very little money* 
given for the spread of the Gospel among 
the heathen. We may account for this 
sad state of things in three ways : (i) We 
had no foreign missionary of our own ; 
(2) the Home Mission worlc had increased 
in our hands ; (3) we were consuming 
our strength in an unhappy theological 
controversy." 

From 1872 to 1875 the Board paid to 
the German Evangelical Missionary So- 
ciety in the United States $979.81, which 
was applied to the support of Rev. Oscar 



Lohr and Rev. Jacob Hanser, muuiters 
of the Reformed Church, who were doii^ 
mission work at Bisrampore, India. 

The Board also paid for the benefit of 
a Mission among the Winnebago Indiaos 
in Wisconsin, in 1878, $200, and from May 
4, 1881, to March 12. 1886, $i,3oa 

In 1878 it was decided to commence a 
Mission in Japan, and Rev. Ambrose D. 
Gring and wife were the first missionaries, 
arriving in Japan June i, 1879. 

The Board of Foreign Missions has for 
its secretary Rev. Samuel N. CoUender, 
D.D., Mount Crawford, Va., and for its 
treasurer Mr. Joseph L. Lemberger, Leb- 
anon, Pa. 

The secretary for three years, Rev. A. 
R. Bartholomew, and the treasurer for 
many years, Hon. R. F. Kelker, resigned 
in October last. 

The Board makes a report once in three 
years. The financial report for the time 
from May 3. 1887, to May 6, 1890, inclusive, 
was as follows : 

BALANXE AND RECEIPTS. 

Balance, May 3, 1887. . $5,766 24 

Contributions 47.23384 

Interest 28159 

Loan repaid 500 00 

Legacies 927 97 

Loans 4.500 00 



Total $59,204 64 

EXPENDITURES. 

Printing, postage, tele- 
grams, eic $1,88391 

Interest 131 17 

Salaries and traveling 

expenses 3,10924 

Loans returned 2,500 00 

Expenditure for missions 50,78486 



Total $58,409 18 

Leaving a balance of . . . $800 46 

The expenditures for salaries and travel- 
ing expenses were: $926.61 for traveling 
expenses of the Board and Executive 
Committee, $1,583.63 for salary and trav- 
elin|; expenses of secretary, and $600 for 
clerical help to treasurer. 

The receipts averaged $16,000 a year, 
and the home expenses $1,600 a year, or 
ten per cent. 

Tne members gave on an average eight 
cents a member for missions. 

The missionaries are : Rev. J. P. Moore 
and wife. Rev. W. E. Hoy and wife. Rev. 
D. B. Schneider and wife. Miss Lizzie R. 
Poorbaugh, Miss Emma F. Poorbaugh. 

The head-quarters of the Mission are at 
Sendai, Japan. 

The last report furnishes the following 
statistics for the Japan Mission : 

Organized congregations,... 12 

Communicants 1.656 

Sunday-schools 19 

Sunday-school scholars 915 

Male missionaries 3 

Female missionaries 5 

Japanese preachers 17 

Colporteurs 3 

Bible- women 2 

The Board uses ten pages of the thirty- 
two pages of The Missionary Guardian^ 
published monthly by the Reformed 
Church Publication House, at 907 Arch 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa., price, fifty cents 
a year. 




Eugene H. Smith, D.D.« 
Editor. 



MARCH, i891 




I 

I 

I 



MOUNT IXirOCATEPETL, MEXIOX 



L 



^ij 



98 



MISSIONARY HYMN. 



Ipoetrg anir .Song. 



Missionary Hymn. 

BY REV. ERNEST G. WESLEY. 
Souls by Christ purchased in darkness are dwelling, 

Shrouded by error's deep mantle of night ; 
Moment by moment their numbers are swelling 

Ranks of sin's captives, fast bound in our sight 1 

Jesus' voice calls us, and with his entreating 
Comes cry of vanquished — a sad, piercing wail ; 

Rescue the helpless ones ! Satan defeating — 
Forward, ye hosts of God ; charge and prevail ! 

Raise now your battle-cry, name all victorious — 
•* Jesus, Redeemer, all-conquering King ! " 

Heart brave and weapon bare, conquest so glorious 
Waiteth the Church of Christ^ubilant sing. 

Back rush the hordes of sin, trembling and fearing ; 

Back from the crimsoned plain, back to their grave ! 
See now the radiance bright, Jesus appearing 

Leads on the Church redeemed, mighty to save. 

Onward with banner bright, fearless, exultant ; 

Forward, true Church of God, trusting your Lord. 
Lift high your flag of light, charge ! then, triumphant. 

Gain thus the victor's crown, then sheathe the sword. 



Gulielmus Conquestor. 

BY REV. E. STUART BEST. 
{A Tribute to William Butler, D.D:) 
Brother, thou hast bravely borne 

The banner of thy King, 
And still it waves unsoiled, untorn, 

A fair and holy thing ; 
Though other hands are holding high 

That battle-flag of thine. 
They feel thy spirit ever nigh. 

They march in strength divine. 

Pursuing still, with footsteps faint. 

On toward the glowing west ; 
*Tis eventide, O ! soldier saint. 

Lay down thy shield and rest. 
No more the bugle's brazen voice 

Resounds " the foe is near," 
But loud it rings " rejoice, rejoice. 

Thy victory is here." 

Where Jumna's flashing fountain falls, 

From Ganges' turbid tide. 
To Montezuma's marble halls, 

Thou hast wandered far and wide ; 
Thy weary feet have reached the shore. 

And o'er the sunlit sea 
A voice that thou hast heard before 

Whispers, " I come for thee." 

Well hast thou won a lofty name. 

Men joy to tell thy worth ; 
But few can show a fairer fame 

'Midst great ones of the earth. 
Great through the gentleness of God, 

Thy highest hopes complete, 
With Jesus journey life's rough road. 

Or sit low at his feet. 



Thy head the Sepoy sought to fling 

Dishonored in the dust ; 
Close covered 'neath his sheltering wing, 

Jesus was all thy trust. 
He'll place upon thy noble brow 

A crown bejeweled bright ; 
In his right hand he holds it now. 

It flashes on our sight. 

See yonder glorious conquering band 

Upon the other shore ; 
See each one wave a welcome hand, 

They cry, *' Come o'er, come o'er.*" 
O ! no, not yet, we need thee here. 

Thy counsel and thy care ; 
We need thy burning words of cheer. 

Thy presence and thy prayer. 
Whitinsi'ille, Mass. 



Morib, Morh, ^tonr. 



The City of Tlaxcala, Mexico. 

BY REV. WILLIAM GRKEN. 

I have just found a few hours to ])ut in shape a trip 
to one of the most historic cities in Mexico, the city of 
Tlaxcala; which, being interpreted, is, "the land of 
bread." There is one thing that strikes the foreigner 
as soon as he begin's to understand the language of this 
country, and that is the appositeness of the names of 
mountains and towns. They are long and formidable to 
the unaccustomed eye, but this soon passes away as one 
becomes familiar with them. For example, one learns 
that the termination " tlan " means a place or town. 
This gives him the key to endless perplexities. If he is 
at all inquisitive he wants to know what is the meaning 
of the names of the different towns he passes through. 
The names strike him as half familiar, but there is some- 
thing after all that makes them unfamiliar. But if he 
knows that " tlan " means town he can soon make out 
the meaning of the rest of the word. Ojotlan, for in- 
stance, is quite a common name. Ojote is " the pine- 
tree," Ojotlan is therefore " pine-tree town." Zapotetlan 
is familiar — the town of zapotes, a splendid fruit. Zaca- 
tlan, the place where grows zacate, green fodder for 
cattle ; and so it goes to the end of the chapter. 

The city of which we are to write has the same mean- 
ing as Bethlehem, ** the land of bread." 

We reach the city early in the morning, and go to pay 
our respects to the governor the very first thing. He 
lives in the municipal palace, an old and interesting 
building. We find him a very gentlemanly man, an In- 
dian of pure Tlaxcalan blood. He is the only pure 
blooded Indian in the whole Republic of Mexico that 
occupies the chair of governor. His name is Don Pros- 
per© Cahuantzi. Please remember, when you look at 
him, that the ghosts of Mexico's most illustrious heroes 
loom up before you. In his veins the blood of the brav- 
est, the most patriotic, the grandest of the aboriginals of 
this continent flows. Without this man's ancestors Cor- 
tez could not have conquered Montezuma and his brave 



Aztecs. And I don't know but that it would have been 
a good thing if they had been unconquered to this day. 

It was from this city that Cortez started to take Ten- 
ochtitlan (Mexico). From these same forests that clothe 
the hills that sweep around us he obtained the lumber 
to construct his brigantines that floated on Lake Tex- 
coco. This city was the source of his supplies and 
his rallying-place in disaster. It has no such [jopula- 
tion now as it had then. A few years ago, at the un- 
veiling of the statue of Cuatimoc, the last o( the Aztec 
kings^ the present governor said in his speech that at the 
conquest Tlaxrala could put in the field 200,000 war- 
riors, but now they could not put in the field more 
than 2,000. 

The city lies in a beautiful valley and contains^ per- 
haps, ten thousand souls. Under an escort we start out 
10 see the sights. The State Senate chamber is in the 
municipal palace. Here we went first. On the walls 
are four pictures, very old and evidently the work of 
native artists. They represent the four rulers of Tlax* 
cala at the lime that Cortez entered the city as cou' 
queror* The first that we see is Vicente Xicotencath 
the elder (pronounced she-ko-ten-cattle); the next is 
Loreno Mnzicatzin (maw-se-cawt-sin); the next Gon- 
za\o Tlahuexolotzin(tla-wakes-o-lots-sin)^ and Bartolone 
Zttlalpopoca (sit-]al-po-po-caw). As will be observed, 
the Christian names of all are Spanish, and were given 
to them after the conquest; the surnames only are Aztec. 
These four pictures represent them as they appeared to 
Cortez, dressed in the full dress of their tribes. Their 
dress consists of a quilted cotton tunic^ fitting close to 
the body, over which is worn a gold cuirass, llieir 
legs are defended by leather boots trimmed with gokh 
On the shoulders of each there is a rich mantle of feather 
work embroidered with curious art and trimmed with 
gold. On their heads are fantastic head -pieces repre- 
senting some wild animal, and looking as formidable 
and hideous as possible. These four pictures are by the 
city fathers said to be ** true and faithful pictures " of 
the four greatest men in Tlaxcalan history. In a con- 
versation which I had with the governor he gave ine 
some points of interest that do not appear in any history 
so far as I know. Some things were famili.ir, but some 
were not. I will give yon those that interested me the 
most. The governor took out of a case a musty old 
manuscript in Aztec and showed me that Tlaxcala had 
twice been a kingdom before it became a republic. 

The first name by which it is known in history is 
Quiahuixtlan (key-a-wix-tlan), and the most famous king 
of that dynasty was Ityacatzin Teohnaiecutli (e-ti-aw- 
cat-sin ti-o-waw*te-que-tlee). The second kingdom is 
known by the name of TLipitzahuacan (tla-pits-aw-waw- 
can), and the most famous king is Cacabuaxochil (pro- 
nounced cawcaw-what-so-chill, and signifying ** the 
flower of the peanut "— cacahuate is peanut ; xochia, 
flower.) VVhen Cortez found it it was a republic, with 
four heads, each under the direction of the four men 
whose pictures we have described. But these four names 
are not equally honored in the history of these people. 



That of Xicotencatl is the most btf loved. He was a 
natural-born soldier^ and spent nearly the whole of his 
life in the army in defense of his country. He was a 
brave and fearless man, the father of more than a hun- 
dred children, and the greatest name in Tlaxcala when 
the Spaniards arrived. He gave one of his daughters to 
Alvarado, one of the officers in the army of invasion, 
from whom have descended a large and influential fam- 
ily* The old warrior died, it is said, broken-hearted at 
the age of one hundred and four years at the treachery 
of the conqueror, who hung upon the felon's gallows 
his brave and beloved son. Mazicatzin was a great 
fanatic and exceedingly superstitious. It was this that 
led him to lean toward the Spaniards in all the councils 
of the Senate. 

Wherever you go in Mexico you will find the rem- 
nants of the old superstition that did so much to give 
Mexico into the hands of the Spaniards. They believed, 
and in some quarters still believe, that there will come 
a white tribe from the east that will conquer the coun- 
try, and the funny thmg is that this tradition is hun- 
dreds of years old» but it is as lively as ever in the re- 
moter Indian districts. It was this tradition that blinded 
the mind of this chief, and has made his name a by- 
word among his people to this day. They regard him 
as the most servile of his race. His name and that of 
his general, Atlxoticatl Cocomitzi» are held up as we 
hold up the name of Benedict Arnold. Xicotencatl 
(the younger) was gaining the decisive battle that would 
forever have destroyed the hopes of Spain — the critical 
point was passed — when the army of the two traitors and 
a friend whom they influenced drew off their warriors to 
the number of 20,000. The wily Spaniard took advan- 
tage of this treason, and, rallying his scattered forces, 
drove the enemy from the almost victorious field. 

From first to last Mazicatzin was the friend of Cortez 
and the enemy of his country. At his death he made 
the Spaniards the heirs to all his wealth and honors, and 
advised all to submit to the white men; for, he said, 
'' they were the supernatural men whom the oracles said 
should come from the east to reign over them,'' It is a 
strange thing that after so many centuries the names of 
these men are the synonym for a traitor I asked one of 
the oflBcers of the government about how history re- 
garded tliem, and he said, '*Estos hombres eran odiosos 
en nuestra historia" (these men were odious in our his- 
tory). 

Of Tlahuexolotzin nothing is known, except that he 
was one of the governors of the republic. 

Of Zitlalpopoca many remarkable legends are still told. 
At his birth, it is said, a great comet appeared that 
greatly alarmed the people. It was this circumstance, 
so the governor told me, that gave him this name, for 
being interpreted Zitlalpopoca means "the watery star." 
He was descended from the royal line of Tlaxcalan 
kings, and was a man highly honored and much beloved. 
He was among the first of the great men to accept the 
Christian faith, and was baptized by Juan Diaz. He 
became a zealous defender of Christianity. There is a 



100 



THE CITY OF TLAXCALA, MEXICO. 



legend still in Tlaxcala that his posterity are especially 
cared for by a kind providence, on account of their 
father's faith and piety ; they certainly are among the 
most respected and honored citizens of the present com- 
monwealth. So much for these great men, whose pict- 
ures on the wall have called out these remarks. 

In a glass case in an inner room we found a number 
of old stone idols, very ancient, no doubt, but of little 
value. We were also shown a number of very curious 
relics. There we saw the old war-worn banner that 
floated at the head of the Spanish troops when they first 
encountered the fury of the Tlaxcalans. After the con- 
quest it was presented to the Tlaxcalans, and has been in 
their keeping ever since. It is a tea-colored silk, much 
worn and faded from the vicissitudes of nearly four hun- 
dred years. The arms of Spain are on the upper right- 
hand corner; the staff is gone, but the steel pike-head 
that once glittered in the sunlight, and flashed terror 
into the hearts of those brave but superstitious men, 
still remains, and as a great favor may be taken into the 
hand. Here also is the vellum scroll that the King of 
Spain exchanged with those men for their liberty ; it is 
called " El Titulo " (the title), and is the title of freedom 
to the city. In fact, it was the mortgage that his im- 
perial majesty held of all that those brave people had 
been robbed. Then there is the " capote " or gown that 
Xicotencatl was baptized in. As a relic it is valuable, 
but as any thing else it would be dear as a gift. There 
are several other relics, but we shall have to pass 
them by. 

To the west of the town, on a hill, is the old con- 
vent of San Francisco, one of the first four erected in 
Mexico. It dates back to 1524, five years after the con- 
querors first entered upon the soil of Tlaxcala. Its roof 
is sustained by rafters cut from the forests of Tlaxcala, 
but now they are studded with stars of gold. Its walls 
are ornamented with about one hundred oil paintings, 
one of which is dated in the year 1677, and the best of 
all is a portrait of one of the Spanish queens. In a large 
glass case are the fragments of the bones of three holy 
men, said to have been sent from Rome in 1754. The 
old bell in the tower bears the date of 1587, and has on 
it the figure of one of the conquerors firing his arque- 
buse into a tree, at the foot of which sits a frightened 
Indian. Every thing indicates the age of these curi- 
osities and the loyalty of these people to the King of 
Spain. 

Here is the first pulpit ever erected in Mexico. It 
bears the inscription : ** El primer pulpito de Nueva Es- 
pana." It is of stone, but now plastered over to imitate 
marble, with gilt and red stripes. The inscription is 
worth copying: "Aqui tuvo Principio el santo Evan- 
gelico en este Nuevo Mundo; '* in English, " Here com- 
menced the first work of the holy Gospel in this new 
world." In a recess in front of the pulpit is the font in 
which the senators of Tlaxcala were baptized. It is a 
large hollow stone four or five feet in diameter, three 
feet high, and nearly two feet deep. It is called the 
" Fuente de Maxicatzin " (the font of Mexicatzin). 



So great was the loyalty of the Tlaxcalans that after 
the defeat of Cortez and the disaster of the ** sorrowful 
night," in which thousands of the bravest Tlaxcalans 
perished at the hands of the brave Aztecs, who drove 
them from Tenochtitlan, these old warriors received him 
with open arms; and, as a pledge of their aff*ection, all the 
chief men were baptized and received the religion of the 
Spaniards. There can be no doubt of this, for this font 
bears this inscription : ** Este monumento, cuya autenti 
cidad conserva la tradicion, fue la fuente bautismal de 
los ultimos Cacsques o Senadores de la Antigua Re- 
publica de Tlaxcala; el ano de 1520." Translated it 
says: " This monument preserves the tradition that the 
Presidents and Senators of the ancient republic of Tlax- 
cala were baptized in the year 1520." 

On the hill overlooking the city is a large and im- 
posing church. It has two square towers, rising, per- 
haps, two hundred feet high, with a fagade of stucco- 
work that was intended to be a beautiful thing no doubt, 
but it is a very paltry affair nevertheless. The church 
is said to be three hundred years old, but though I was 
not there when it was built I will venture the asser- 
tion that it is like a great many things in Mexico — a 
fraud. It is altogether too modem for a thing of that 
age. Nevertheless, it is a very beautiful church, and 
contains some very curious and beautiful things. All 
the carpets in the church are hand-made, and no doubt 
are the gifts of the pious poor. There are a large num- 
ber of silver and gold ornaments, some of the most ex- 
quisite workmanship. There are also some of the finest 
specimens of embroidery that I have ever seen. They 
are worked in gold and silver and silk thread, and are 
rich and elegant beyond my powers of description. All 
kinds of native birds and fruit are worked in their 
natural colors, and the effects are gorgeous. Here is 
pottery and old furniture, some of it bearing dates close 
up to the time of the conquest. 

On the hill-side, but in a ravine, is a holy well. The 
legend is that here in this spot the " ever blessed Vir- 
gin " appeared, stamped her foot upon the ground, and 
forthwith this water sprang from the earth. There is a 
large dome built over it of a very uncertain age. I 
asked my guide what dome that was and he answered, 
" El poso de agua santa de Nuestra Senora de Ocotlan " 
(the well of holy water of our Lady of Ocotlan). I asked 
him what it was good for, and he told me it would 
cure all diseases, and that people came from all parts to 
drink its water. After such an assurance as that, and 
given by an intelligent officer of the government, what 
could we do but satisfy our thirst? Now, if it should 
prove to be true that this water is a universal panacea 
for all the ills that afflict mortals, how happy and blessed 
are we ; for then, when the rest of mortals are paying 
the penalty of their folly, we shall be proof against all 
the ills that flesh is heir to. 

But in sober earnest it is a well of pure water such as 
is often found on a hill-side. There is nothing partic- 
ular about it in any way. While we were there, about 
five minutes, a dozen or more people came to drink, and 



to notice their actions was rather interesting. Some of 
them would make the sign of the cross upon their fore- 
head, others would engage in a silent prayer to the Vir- 
gin to bless them» and still others would go down on 
their knees and take it in that position. 

After we returned to the town we were shown the first 
bell ever brought to this continent. It is a very good bell 
yet, weighs about a thousand pounds, but now lies cast 
off in the dirt and rubbish of an old and half destroyed 
church. Several old relics that we had missed whenwx 
first arrived were now revealed. On a peculiar paper, 
the like of which I had never seen before, were shown 
the title deeds by which the old families held iheir prop- 
erty. They were remarkable documents. They con- 
sisted of a genealogical tree, in which the owners and 
heirs were etched in profiles, and colored in vegetable 
colors that are indelible. Their age is unknown, but 
they are as perfect to-day as they ever were. A descrip- 
tion of the lands is also given in colors, as also the class 
of produce that each produced. Some were used for 
raising grains, others for cattle, and still others for ducks 
and poultry. The family history was traced in a similar 
manner. This city is the head of one of our circuits. 
The family tree of the Xicotecatl family is preserved in 
perfect condition down to the conquest. 



^K RomaiilBm in Mexico. 

^^* BV REV. A. j. STEELMAN, 

I Whatever Canon Wiseacre may say to the contrary, 
Roman Catholics pay divine honors to the Virgin Mary, 
and worship images of wood and pasteboard. They not 
only offer prayer and burn candles before these counter- 
feit presentments, but many believe that the image iiseif 
seeSy hears^ and inUrcohs^ and that every good ihey 
have is due to the powerful aid of their patron saint. 
The Roman Jupiter surrounded by inferior deities is 
not unlike the Catholic paintings. Votive tablets 
are hung up in their temples to commemorate similar 
miracles. 

The Virgin of Guadalupe is preached instead of 
Christ as ** the only refuge and protector of Mexicans/* 
All the conquered tribes make annual pilgrimages to her 
shrine, bringing gold and silver and needle-work, present 
iheir offerings, and dance strange figures before her im- 
age, said to have been miraculously printed in colors on 
an Indian's mantle in 1551. 

This sacred relic is more worshiped than was ever 
the image of Diana that fell down from Zeus. The con- 
secrated wafer, the god of dough, can be made anew by 
any priest. But the Virgin's picture ? Copies of it are 
found in almost every house, hut, temple, store, saloon, 
or den of robbers. 

Why not love the Virgin ? In her gilded chapel near 
Zacatccas an expensive painting shows her protecting 
the people from the wrath of Christ. 

Not all Catholic temples are gilded^norall their paint- 
ings expensive. 




A distinguished bishop once called the attention of 
his diocese to the architecture of a Baptist chapel to 
prove the badness of Protestantism. But what shall be 
said of the tin tablets and wooden images, clothed in 
paper cambric, which adorn so many churches ? Rome 
has many saints and many churches all, with traditions 
of iheir own. Santa Apolonia cures toothache, St, 
Joseph cures headache, St, George cures bites and stings 
of animals and insects, St. Camile guides souls on the 
road to heaven. The holy men (who took Christ's body 
from the cross) give work to the unemployed, and soon 
to the end of the list. 

One church has a miracle-working image of a saint 
which is operated with screws. It suddenly develops 
long hair and nails. 

Another church contains an image that weeps one 
day in holy week. The tears are caught in bits of cotton, 
sold for twenty-five cents each, and worn as charms. 

There are different names and images representing 
different virtues of the Virgin ; and separate churches 
are consecrated to the various worship. Harlots and 
robbers prefer the church of the Virgin of Solitude* 
They burn candles in her honor, while they commend 
beforehand their business to her care, asking protection 
from the police and success in their enterprise. Seven- 
teen crutches and 226 tablets hang on the walls to com- 
memorate the miracles of this virgin. 

The tablets are pieces of tin ranging in size from four 
inches by six to fourteen by eighteen. They are 
painted in oil colors, and should cost about fifty cents 
each. They contain, when possible, a view of the im- 
pending calamity on account of w^hich help is sought, 
and a picture of the person engaged in prayer to some 
saint, a miniature of whom also appears in a corner of 
the painting. If a child fell from the roof, the creature 
is pictured in mid-air, pitching head first toward the 
pavement. If a mule wandered from home, the animal 
is painted in the wilderness. The beast was found and 
a tablet put up. 

A bull-fighter is knocked down and gored three times. 
He shows his gratitude for recovery by placing the har- 
rowing scene in the church of his saint. 

The following inscription goes with another scene : 
*' In the month of November, 1S89, a man being asleep 
and drunk on the horse-car track, when the car was 
about to run rapidly over him, committed himself to the 
most holy Mary of Solitude of the Holy Cross, and was 
saved by a policeman who lifted him off the track." 
These tablets show the degree of religious enlightenment 
in which the priests of Mexico are pleased to have the 
people remain. 

The cathedral also has some of these oil-painted 
tablets; two inscriptions read as follows : 

"'Patricia \ , being ill with a violent throbbing 

headache, after fifteen days invoked the help of the 
Sarjto Nino de Atoeha^ the 4th of March, 1887, and in a 
few days was entirely relieved. For which reason she 
presents this tablet as an expression of her thanks to 
the Holy Child of Atocha, Mexico, March 8, 1887." 



d 



102 



ROMANISM IN MEXICO, 



** This man and wife dedfcate this grateful memorial 
of their happy marriage." [No name or date.] 

Near the crayon sketch of the saint stands a money- 
box *' for the worship of the Holy Child of Atocha." 

The cathedral also contains, among other objects of 
interest, a life-size figure of St. Anthony, with a good 
sized black pig mounted on the same pedestal by his feet. 
A well-dressed lady told me the legend. This animal wore 
a bell, and by shaking his head warned the saint of ap- 
proaching devils, so he could address himself to prayer. 

Some of the people laugh at these things. But in the 
hour of affliction they all trust the images. 

What must One do to be Saved ? 

This question will be answered twenty ways by twenty 
people : 

"Confess and commune at least once a year." 

'* Pray the saints to intercede with God for you." 

" Confess, commune, and believe what the doctors of 
the Church tell you." 

**Hear mass, or send your money; mass is for those 
who pay." 

"Venial sin is pardoned by one of nine things : hear 
mass with devotion, commune worthily, hear the word 
of God, episcopal benediction, say the Lord's Prayer, 
make general confession, use holy water, by blessed 
bread, by striking breast." 

The sister of a church canon replies : 

" I know I need the pardon of God ; but I must kneel 
before a priest to get it, because the Holy Mother 
Church has so ordained. Many think that the priest's 
pardon is all they need ; but I know better. The priest 
says in Latin : * I absolve thee. If thou hast spoken the 
truth, God will pardon thee ; and if thou hast not spoken 
the truth, God will punish thee.' " 

If you ask who is the mediator between God and 
man, they likewise give you many answers : ** The Most 
Holy Virgin," ** The Apostles," "The Saints," "The 
Angels," **St. Michael," etc. 

Preparing People for Death. 

Two members of our church heard that an old man 
in a poor tenement-house had been taken suddenly ill. 
They sent for a doctor, while others sent for a priest. 

The doctor arrived first, wrote a prescription, and re- 
tired. Then the priest came with his prayer-book, a jar 
of holy water, and a whisk of palm leaves. He accent- 
uated his recitative with copious showers of holy water 
over the man and the room. The people looked on in 
amazement, not knowing what was said, but said " amen " 
when the padre ordered it, and tried to repeat with him 
the responses in the Litany, ** Sancta Maria " — " ora pro 
CO." But they were not acquainted with the Latin, and 
only received sharp rebukes for their trouble. The poor 
man tried to say something in the priest's ear, but he 
only showered him with water, saying : ** Commend 
your soul to the most holy Virgin, eh ? [more water]. 
Commend yourself to the sweet names of Joseph, Mary, 
Jesus, eh ? " When the doctor returned he said 



" That without doubt the well-meant barbarity of the 
priest had hastened the unhappy man's decease." 

A Dominican lay dying at Tlalpam. A brother of the 
order comes uninvited to confess him, makes no inquiry 
after the state of his soul, but insists that the dying man 
shall *' confess with all his might, tongue, and wind- 
pipe." 

The only question is about his property. 

" How much money have you 1 You must give most 
of it to the Holy Mother Church." 

The dying priest lied about the amount, but before 
his body was cold his brethren in the ministry had taken 
all they could get of his worldly goods. 

The Priest and the Confessional. 

It is fair to suppose that many of the priests are sin- 
cere. It is certain that many of them abuse the confi- 
dences of the confessional. The santa madre iglesia 
does not permit them to marry. So they cannot have 
respectable wives ; but they keep inferior women and 
have children enough. The father of one church near 
us has a large family all grown up and all drunkards. 
The people know these things. But it is wicked to 
condemn the priest. Such a priest is called at midnight 
to see a dying man who has lived, like his spiritual guide, 
without being married to the mother of his children. 
The old priest is angry because they have called him at 
midnight. So he asks, gruffly: "Are you married?" 
"No." "Then I will not confess you" (starts to 
leave). *' Wait, padre, are you married ? " ** That is 
none of your business. God will judge me." The dy- 
ing man replies with spirit: "Go home, then. God shall 
judge tne also." 

Many men do not allow their wives and daughters to 
confess. 

Who ever saw a man confess ? 

But some mothers prepare their young daughters to 
confess by telling them that the good angel always 
stands on the right at the confession box, saying, "Tell 
your sins, tell your sins." While on the left stands the 
evil angel, saying, "Don't you tell, don't you tell." 

The confession boxes are not closed as in our cities; 
and the people can see the color come and go as the 
girls are questioned by callous confessors 

Escape from Purgatory, 

Romanists have a cheerless religion. Their hope is 
postponed to the indefinite future. They believe more 
in purgatory than in pardon. I once asked the congre- 
gation if they had ever known of a Romanist who was 
happy in his religion. None of them had known one. 

Ever since the doctrine of purgatory was sanctioned 
prayers for the dead and money for indulgences have 
been in order. On All Souls' Day a grand raffle is held 
in the Church of St. Hippolytus, the prize being the 
release of one soul from purgatory. 

A ranch owner in the State of Mexico once ap- 
proached the parish priest, and said : *' It is eighteen* 
years since my father's death, and we have paid a good 



ROMANISM IN MEXICO, 



108 



deal every year to have him released from purgatory. It 
grieves us much to think that the old man still suffers there. 
What will you take to make sure of his release to-day/' 

The padre stroked his smooth chin thoughtfully, and 
replied, ** that for a sack of i»ooo silver dollars he would 
do it/* The ranchero persuaded the good man to begin 
at once, and kneeled^ bathed in tears, while priest and 
choir chanted responses for long hours. Finally^ the 
reverend father came and said : ** Rejoice I for your 
father is released, and is now among the blessed/* The 
ranchero asked, anxiously, ** If it was really true that his 
father was in heaven ? " Being reassured, he rose and 
embraced the priest, saying, with much fervor: '* I am 
a thousand times obliged, God will rtpay you for your 
kindness to the old man. Good-bye, /^adrm/o. If my 
father is really in heaven he will never be fool enough 
to go back to purgatory. Good-bye, arnica,*' 

Roman Catholics and Education* 

The Roman Catholics never educate the people, if 
they can help it ; and seem to think the chances of sal- 
vation are better with the ignorant. In this capital 
(Mexico city) there is not a Catholic preacher of note 
who stands up every week to instruct the people. 

The schools are not supposed to be in the hands of 
the Church. But they were once. Mexicans do not so 
much object to Catholic doctrines. Most of them have 
no other creed. They will be buried in the sepulcher 
of their fathers. But the leaders in Mexican life and 
thought have revolted from the intellectual and political 
tyranny of Romanism, and despise its traitorous spirit. 
The Church has itself to thank for this, as also for its 
inmates of jails and asylums. When the Church loses 
the savor of the Gospel, wherewith shall it be salted ? 

A Mexican lady has told me how she was sent twenty 
years ago to a large school kept by the Mothers of 
Charity. The children spent the morning attending mass 
in one of the churches. After dinner they studied a 
little* then passed the rest of the day singing the praises 
of Mary and reciting prayers to different saints. 

Monday they all carried a penny for one saint ; Tues- 
day, a penny and a penny's worth of Howers for another 
faint ; Wednesday, three cents for the Virgin of Light ; 
Thursday, another penny; Friday, three cents for the 
sacred heart of Jesus. Every day a priest came to hear 
their prayers and sprinkle holy water. This child was 
afraid of their queer clothes. A ** mother " asked when 
she would confess. ** Never." ** But the padre likes you." 
** But I don't like him.** '' When you confess, you will 
receive one of those little wafers, and that is Christ." ^ 
** Can he get into one of those ? *' " Yes ; and then you 
will have him in your heart/' ** When you eat the wafer, 
don't it go into your stomach?" *'No; it goes by a 
separate passage to the heart." Through fear she re- 
fused to kiss the padre's hand. So the Mothers of 
Charity tied the child's hands behind her, and fastened 
a long piece of red flannel to hang down like a tongue 
flora her nioiitb and put pasteboard horns on her head, 
so she would look as much as possible like a child of his 



majesty the devil. The last day the child attended the 
school these Mothers of Charity shut her in the yard 
with the pigs. The brutes pushed her down in the mud, 
where her mother found her, scarcely recognizable and 
nearly dead from fright. 

The mother was an ardent Catholic, but she could not 
stand that* 

Is it not noteworthy that holy orders are less thought 
of the better they are known ? 

The Bible. 

This book is greatly feared and but little known. The 
man who reads it may tremble to be considered % heretic^ 
but he cannot remain a Catholic. 

The book emphatically teaches doctrines which Ro- 
manism condemns, and condemns every distinctive 
dogma and nearly every practice which that Church en- 
forces. 

Archbishop Wood had an expensive edition of Amat'« 
Bible prepared, and heartily recommended that it be 
bought and read by every family. The hypocrites! Wha 
hinders the people from reading the Bible in these coun- 
tries } The clergy, who have orders from their chiefs. 

Some time ago Vaughan, an English Catholic, tried 
to circulate the authorized Testament of Scio de San 
Miguel. This edition contains a letter of Pius VI, to 
the Archbishop of Florence, in which he says that the 
sacred Scriptures ought to be open to all and within the 
reach of every one. He also declares **that this is io 
keeping with the laws of the Congregation of the Index, 
and with the Constitution on this subject published by 
Benedict XIV." 

The Testament and Notes passed the secretary of the 
Archbishop of Santiago, December 27, 1873, and bears 
the **Imprimateur " of Cardinal Manning. Does any 
one suppose that these books went into immediate cir- 
culation ? Impossible! They were displayed in store 
windows till Mr. Vaughan left the city. No more. The 
polite salesman in the principal book-store said : ** Yes, 
we keep many religious books, but we have no Bibles/* 
He took up my samples of the New Testament, exam- 
ined reverently the signs of genuineness, and added: 
" Many persons come here asking for it, but I never 
knew to this moment what it was." 

Here is another young man» agent of a Catholic papcr^ 
who does not know what the Bible is. He pronounces 
confidently the shibboleth, ** Mary is the mother of God.*' 
**Wlio was Mary's mother?" **St. Anna," "Where 
w^as God before Mary became his mother.^" ** Quien 
sabe/' That means, *' I never thought of that before." 

A bookseller in South America, who took two boxes 
of the Testaments, sold half of them and burned the 
other half He complained that ** the people were all 
turning Protestants, They stopped talking about Mary 
and Joseph and talked all the time about Jesus and 
God," 

"Fensamientos," 

If you ask the people about their religion they answer 
with pride, *^^ C^tdlicas ApostMicus Romanos,** Certainly, 



they know Christ's name and worship his image; but 
they do not kno\%' his doctrines. The only Christ many 
of them know is the ** host/' which is displayed frora 
the altar and guarded in the tabernacle. 

What shall be done ? Will good people continue to 
think that Mexico is one of the ends of the earth, re- 
mote and barbarous, blessed only with the form of re- 
ligion which is suited to its condition? 

Mexico is not remote. It is conveniently located, 
easy of access by land or by sea. It is salubrious in 
climate, rich in products, and belongs to the best belt 
of power in the world. 

Mexico is not so barbarous. Although little known in 
the United States, it is closely connected with the com- 
mercial centers of Europe, and has always been. 
Mexico surprises all comers by its lights, roads, build* 
ings, schools, arts, and general advancement. Eight 
millions of the people have European blood in their 
veins ; and many Indian tribes aspire to the dignity 
and civilization of the white man. Mexico is not so 
barbarous as our friends think. 

The Roman Catholic religion is suited to no condition 
of mankind, and can make no one happy. It discourages 
individual thought, and seeks to perpetuate the Middle 
Ages. The men of the republic have outgrown the 
system, and only keep it for want of something better 
against the hour of death. The streams of progress 
have overflowed the dikes cast up by the Church, and 
refuse to return to their old channels. 

Mexicans of to-day are a rising, hopeful people. Why 
not preach to them the doctrine of the resurrection, the 
Gospel of hope ? — Home Mission Monthly, 



Moremeiit to Expel BamiBti Priests from 
Mexii'O. 

BY REV. S. W. SIBERTS, D.D. 

Mexico is now passing through a crisis which will in 
aU probability make this a memorable period in the his- 
tory of this republic. For years the Church party has 
been plotting against the free institutions which have 
cost the Mexican people so much blood and treasure^ 
and of late their attempts to regain their former ascend- 
ency have been so bold and defiant that the government 
has been obliged to take steps to repress the ultramon- 
tanism and quell the rebellious spirit of the Roman 
Catholic priests in this country. There is scarcely a 
week passes in which the press does not report some 
violation of law committed by the priests, who refuse 
to submit to the authority of the government, which 
limits the Church's power and restricts all acts of wor- 
ship to the interior of church buildings. The greatest 
trouble comes from foreign priests who have been im- 
ported by the Archbishop of Mexico to aid him in his 
crusade against the liberal government which is headed 
by General Diaz, Presidt-nt of Mexico. 

The whole country is just now in great alarm owing 
to a bill which has been presented to the Mexican Con* 



gress, and which, if passed, will expel all foreign priests 
from Mexico. It is bitterly attacked by the Catholic 
press and the excitement runs high. It is generally be- 
lieved that President Diaz favors the bill. The follow- 
ing are extracts from a speech made in the Mexican l 
Congress by Sefior Juan Mateos when he presented the 
bill : 

^^ Mr. President and Genihmen * Before beginning 
my speech I owe an explanation to this honorable body. 
I do not come here to take revenge on the clerical presi 
for the insults they have heaped upon me during these 
last days, on account of an oration I pronounced the 
1 6th of September, when the State of Hidalgo placed 
the statues of VilLigran and San Vicente in the Pasta 
de la Elf or ma. I answer their insults with silence. I 
feel profound compassion for those unfortunate beings 
who, in their fight for existence, depend upon the mis- 
erable cent from the worshipers of the Virgin of Guad- 
alupe, the rapine of the masses and prayers for the dead, 
and the subvention with which the Archbishop of Mex- 
ico protects the jugglers of the Catholic press, 

** Under the protection of a constitution which has 
glorified the rights of man, which has taken God from 
the altar where the priests had tied him and converted 
him into a monster, and has placed him upon a pedestal 
before which pass the generations of men representing 
all forms of worship; under the folds of that flag which 
has given refuge to the oppressed and proclaimed the 
resurrection of ancient rights lost amidst the revolutions 
of history and that flood of barbarism and brutality 
called Catholicism, I come into this forum where great 
men have glorified the principles of democracy, and 
whose shades can be felt in this place to-day. 

** We have extended our hand to the inhabitants of 
the Old World, we have offered them the fertility of our 
soil, the gold of our mountains, and the commerce of 
our markets ; and, more than that, we have offered them 
the boon of naturalization, which includes the right of 
taking their places in the seats of this Congress. With 
good will they have accepted our invitation, and day after 
day, over the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, which 
bathe our coasts, we see innumerable vessels, like those 
of ancient Carthage, laden with men and merchandise 
reach our shores ; while from the North, like an immense 
irruption, comes Amtrican commerce to meet the ex- 
igencies of our advancing civilization. We are pleased 
to see foreigners the owners of banks, of public credit, 
of the electric light, of the telegraph, of the railroads, 
and of every thing which means culture and progress 
for Mexico. With what pleasure we have voted the sums 
necessary for our colonies— those hives of industry, those 
working bees — to-day villages, to-morrow towns, later 
on large cities, like those which are rising on the frontiers 
of Sonora and along the Gulf of California. ■■ 

** But, gentlemen, in the midst of this universal joy 

that comes to our nation as we see the realization of the 

dreams of our fathers, the framers of our constitution, 

there is one black * spot — the Catholic priest Every thing 

* The priesU in Mexico alt dress in biacJk. 




J TRIP TO THE LAND OF MIZTECOS. 



10& 



noxious which the liberal movement has thrown out of 
the country of Castelar and Sagaste, every thing that 
the land of Cavour and Crispi has cursed, every thing 
that has been expelled from the bosom of the France 
of Garabetta and Camot, is condemned into a pestilential 
miasma which reaches our shores and concentrates in 
the court of the fu tUious empire oi Monsieur Labastida.* 

** The Spanish, French, and Italian priests come to 
our fair land» receive the apostolic benediction and the 
most productive ecclesiastical offices, and then com- 
mences the iniquitous farming of tithes, alms, baptisms, 
and burials, the orgies of priests in their homes, the 
corruption of the virtuous wife in the confessional, the 
seduction of fair young girls, and other still more abom- 
inable vices, to which 1 will not turn my gaze for fear of 
being converted, like Lot's wife, into a statue of salt. All 
Catholic priests are enemies of our free institutions/* 
Here for several minutes the orator spoke of the pov- 
erty of the Mexican priests who have been pushed aside 
to make room for foreign priests and Jesuits, and then 
said : 

**This poor clergy has among us a glorious tradition. 
From the lips of an humble and proscribed Mexican 
priest came the words of Mexican independence, while 
in the archiepiscopal palace was signed the sentence of 
death against our liberators. The Carlist priest preaches 
against our free institutions, protests against our inde- 
pendence, spits upon our national banner, and like a 
bird of prey pounces upon his flock for the sole purpose 
of building up a rapid fortune. Gentlemen, one single 
Spanish house during ihis year has sent to Spain for 
Carlist priests over $200,000 — the fruit of the tears and 
desperation of our people/' (A voice — **and of our 
misery/') f 

**We are on the eve of a reactionary conspiracy. In 
order to confirm the fanaticism of our republic and en- 
slave our people, the clerical party and SefSor Labastida 
desire the pope to invest him with the ensigns of cardinal. 
They seek the aid of foreign Jesuits, who interpose thetr 
influence with the pope on behalf of the archbishop. 
But Leo XIII, has declared that he will never agree to 
this move until Mexico re-establishes her severed rela- 
tions with the Vatican/' This he declared would never 
be done, and then added : 

** General Diaz with a true philosophic spirit, and 
knowing the situation, said : * The Catholic clergy is an 
institution of the past and condemned by history, while 
the Roman pontiff has no other prestige than that given 
to him by the ruins of the Eternal City/ But let us 
begin with Italy. We do not want Italian priests, for 
they are the descendants of those who always oppressed 
the people, and have invoked the aid of foreigners to 
enslave Italy since the time of Charlemagne to Napoleon 
II L Napoleon III, replaced Pius IX. in the See of 
Rome after he had fled from the city disguised as an 
old woman; and the pope, to avenge his defeat, pro- 

* LabAstJda was once Regent of Maximilian's Empire. He sold Mexico 
lo forei^ers* and U now the swom enemy of the Mexican republic, 
t Prieto, one of the popular writers and statesmen of Mexico. 



claimed the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin con- 
trary to every principle of science ; and, not content with 
that, he convened the Vatican Council, proclaimed the 
absurd dogma of his own infallibility, founded Alary- 
&iair}\ and became an idolater, 

** We do not want the French Catholic priests, because 
in history we find them in conspiracy with Catherine de 
Medici, plotting the bloody saturnalia of St, Bartholo- 
mew and counseling Louis XIV. to revoke ihe Edict of 
Nantes, thus giving origin to scenes of blood before 
which the bloodiest spectacles of the French Revolu- 
tion pale into insignificance. That same clergy provoked 
the dragonades and combatted the French Revolution, 
sust:Ained the restoration of Charles X., fought against 
the Revolution of 1848, and aided Napoleon III. in his 
coup d*efatj they fled from danger during the siege 
of Paris, applauded the commune^ and cast reproach 
upon the republic; they laughed over the grave of Gam- 
beUa, and aided Boulanger^ who robbed a certain count- 
ess of $600,000, making her believe that he was going 
to place the family of Orleans on the throne of France, 

**We do not want the Spanish priests. They increased 
the horrors of the Inquisition in the time of Phillip 
11. , and at the resiauradan of Ferdinand VII. decreed 
the death of all liberals, building themselves the scaf- 
fold of Arco Aguero ; they declared against the Revolu- 
tion of September, and conspired with the Duque de La 
Torre to overthrow the republic ; they are the same that 
a short time ago created a panic in the Spanish regency 
on account of the republican movements in Brazil, in 
order to wrest the power from the liberal hands of Sa- 
gaste and put it in the hands of Canovas del Castillo." 

The extracts we have made are about one third of 
the speech referred to. In conclusion Seflor Mateos 
claimed that Mexico had the same right to expel foreign 
priests from the country that the United States have to 
restrict emigration* or that Guatemala had to drive from 
her territory the Jesuits who '*are leeches on the body 
politic^ sucking its blood like certain omnivorous plants 
that grow in the bogs and swamps of the wild forests of 
Malabar." 

This move on the part of the liberals in Mexico has 
convulsed the whole country. No one can tell where 
the struggle will end, but there are Mexican statesmen 
who believe that Mexico is on the eve of a revoluiiout. 
which ihe ultramontanists hope will bring them again 
into power. This would be disastrous for Mexico, but it 
does not seem probable at present. — Central Christian 
Advocate, 



A Trip to the Land of the Miztecos. 

BY REV. WILLIAM GREEN. 

In that most brilliant romance of the nineteenth cent- 
ury, Prescotfs Conquest of Mexico^ we read that Cortez, 
the Spanish conqueror, was made by order of Charles 
V, of Spain Marquis of the valley of Oaxaca* This 
honor was conferred as stated in the instrument for the 
** good service rendered by Cortez in the conquest^ and 



106 



A TRIP TO THE LAND OF MIZTECOS, 



the great benefits resulting therefrom." After more 
than three years' sojourn among these people, and the 
lapse of nearly four centuries, the ** great benefits result- 
ing " to this nation do not appear. Whatever benefit it 
might have been to others it certainly was no benefit to 
Mexico. The superstitions of the original population, 
making all allowances for exaggerations of history, were 
not much worse than those which confront the traveler 
of to-day. Nor could it be conceivable that the morals 
of those times were worse than they are to-day. 

This is not only the opinion of a foreigner, but is the 
opinion of a large majority of educated Mexicans. 
They have repeatedly said to me that if the Pilgrim 
fathers had landed at Vera Cruz instead of on Plymouth 
Rock they would have been as far advanced to-day as 
their sister republic of the north. 

The State of Oaxaca (pronounced wha-hak-caw) is 
part of the coast district and is under my jurisdiction. 
We leave Pueblo at eight o clock A.M. for Esperanza, 
on the Mexico and Vera Cruz Railroad. But for the 
dust this ride is very enjoyable, as you pass through 
magnificent scenery and historic ground is all around 
you. To the right hand is the famous Malinche, the 
fourth highest mountain in Mexico, and named after the 
Indian woman who interpreted for Cortez. 

You pass through the State of Tlaxcala, by whose aid 
Cortez conquered the Aztecs. At Esperanza we take a 
branch, thirty-six miles, to Tehuacan, reaching that 
point at six P. M. Here we have a society and a pastor. 

The circuit has eleven appointments, and is known as 
the Tehuacan Circuit. Most of our work here is among 
the Miztec Indians, in the early years of Mexico a brave 
and warlike race. Before the conquest Tehuacan was 
one of the most sacred and frequented sanctuaries of 
the tribe. The Miztecs and Aztecs were mortal ene- 
mies, and slew each other at sight. The town is situ- 
ated on a large plain, and has taken its part in all the 
wars of the country, both civil and foreign, for centuries. 
About three miles away is a range of red hills called 
Cerro Colorado. Here in these mountains the famous 
revolutionary general Teran held his troops for three 
years against the Spanish forces. Here also the Com- 
mission appointed by the United States to inquire into 
the causes of the revolution of 1810 had head-quarters. 

We preached on Sunday to a small company and dis- 
charged the various duties of our office, and were now 
ready for our long ride to Oaxaca. 

At twelve o'clock on Sunday night the stage-driver 
rapped at our door and cried out, ** Ya esta, sefior ; " 
that is, "we are ready, sir," and so was I ; for I knew 
that I should be called at that early hour, and I had 
lain down on the board that did duty for a bed without 
undressing. 

In the center of \\it paiio (yard) stood a big, lumber- 
some coach, to which were hitched eight mules. The in- 
evitable " whipper" (a fellow who goes along with every 
Mexican coach to apply the whip and pelt the mules 
with stones to keep their courag;e up) stood at the side 
of the coach with the flaming torch of tarred rope, held 



high above his head, to light us into the stage. Soon 
the big doors of the hotel were unbarred (for we were 
not in the stable-yard, but in the very heart of the hotel), 
and we were out in the street. My only companion was 
a young man returning to Oaxaca from Mexico, where 
he had been to pass his examinations for the bar. We 
were companions all the way. 

He was a full-blood Zapoteco Indian and a very in- 
telligent young man. He spoke no English, but was 
very anxious to learn. His chief reason was that he 
wanted to go to New York and marry an American girL 
He said the Mexican girls were all under the influence 
of the priests; that the majority of them were impure; 
and if by chance one could be found who was pure the 
system of Romanism and the confessional, at which the 
priest found out all the secrets of the family, made it 
impossible for a decent man to marry them. 

He put to me a very sensible and pertinent question. 
He said : ** You are a minister, but you are a married 
man. Now, who do you think should be the master of 
the house, the man who supports it, or a stranger who, 
because he is a priest, takes advantage of the women to 
find out every thing done in the family, and uses all the 
information he gets to help or hinder those whom he 
likes or dislikes ? " I answered : ** I believe all family 
affairs should be sacred from either priest or king." 
**That is what I believe," he replied, "and therefore I 
cannot marry a Catholic." 

Our stage rolled on over an immense plain, dry and 
barren, hour after hour, lighted by the rope torch. At six 
o'clock in the morning we reached a place called Nopala. 

Here we changed mules and got breakfast. It con- 
sisted of black coffee, without milk or sugar, and ** tor- 
tillas.** An old woman was in charge of the eating de- 
partment. When I asked her if she had milk for the 
coffee she said she had never seen any. This aroused 
my suspicion, for I thought she was indulging in a com- 
mon habit of her country and telling me a lie. But a 
few questions convinced me that she was in earnest. 
She told me that she was born in a little adobe house 
that stood near by many years ago. but how many she 
did not know ; that she had never been away from that 
l)lace; that she had never seen a cow; and from all this 
I gathered that when she said she did not know what 
milk for coffee was she told me the truth. 

After half an hour's waiting we started on our journey. 
The dust in the road was from six to eight inches deep, 
and our eight mules and four wheels stirred up all we 
needed. There were times when the front mules could 
not be seen through it. Barren as this plain is, it has 
been the theater of many a bloody battle. Here Miz- 
tecs and Aztecs fought in the ancient time; and it is 
said that in some battles so resolute were these foes that 
not a man escaped to tell upon whose banner the vic- 
tory should rest. In later times Don Porfiro Diaz mar- 
shaled his forces here against the French (in 1863), 
only to be defeated with great slaughter. One little 
village after another is passed, in which he rallied his 
brave Miztecs, only to be driven back at every point. 



At noon k is fearfully hot. The sun pours down re- 
lentlessly* At the side of our coach, trailing in the dust 
like a wiggling reptile, is the cruel whip, twenty feet 
long, which every few minutes leaps forward to sting 
the weary mules to further effort Hills and valleys are 
covered with cactus of every kind, and this is about all 
the vegetation in sight 

A few miles further on we came to San Antonio, a 
place fairly alive with war stories ; but we must not stop 
to notice them. 

Our stage now begins to go down into valleys and climb 
mountains, then it goes down into a river-bed ; but as 
it is the dry season there is no fear of being washed 
away, as some travelers have been. At about four 
o'clock we reached Tecomavaca, a rather formidable 
namtt for being interpreted it means, *' The cow will eat 
you/* TV is our English thee ; cefma^ eat ; i^aca^ cow. 

At Tecomavaca my Indian guide, with two horses 
which he had brought from Oaxaca, awaited me. As 
the stage rolled up to the adobe hut which did duty 
for a hotel a tall, swarthy^ good-natured Indian came 
up to the side and said, '* Hay aqui el Sefior Green ? *' 1 
said, *' Si, seftor." I had never seen him before, and 
consequently we were strangers. I handed him my 
baggage and he took it to a room as innocent of the 
comforts of life as any place in this world, but as I did 
not intend to stay here many hours it mattered little. It 
was so fearfully hot, the fieas were so numerous, and the 
room smelted so badly that sleep was impossible. I 
tried it on ihe room floor, under the wall outside, every- 
where that I could get, and at last gave it up. I had 
made seventy-five miles in the stage that day, I had a 
long horseback ride before me, but I could not slet^p. 
At one o'clock in the morning we were mounted and off 
for Dominguilloi distant forty to forty-five miles. 

The road led through a turbulent river, and in its bed 
nearly all the way. Toward midday we crossed a ridge 
of mountains and went down into a valley, through 
which swept the Rio Grande (ihe big river). It was 
fearfylly hot. Following trails, working our way under 
stupendous cli(Ts, crossing rivers and ridges, we at last 
saw Dominguillo in the distance. 

My Indian guide told me that the people of Oaxaca 
have a saying, ** That it is better to go through purga- 
tory than the vale of Guendolatn/' and I partly agreed 
with them when I got safely through it. Here we rested 
seven hours, so far as we could for heat and fleas. At 
eight o'clock that night we were again in the saddle. 
Our road led up to the Cordilleras, the range of mount- 
ains that run through Central America and form the 
back -bone of the country between the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Pacific Ocean. 

Up we toiled all night long. By midnight we had 
changed torrid heat for bitter cold ; but there was no- 
where to halt. A few little bamboo huts were here and 
there along the way, but we were not allowed to enter ; 
and indeed it is doubtful, with the occupants they already 
had, if there would have been room enough for anoiher 
one. About two o'clock in the morning my guide said 




he was very cold and tired. The poor fellow's teeth 
fairly chattered in his mouth from cold. We at last de- 
cided to turn from the trail, tie our horses to a tree, 
wrap our blankets around us, and go to sleep. 

A few minutes after we had lain down I heard stealthy 
steps in the dead leaves. I rose to a sitting posture, 
and not ten yards away were four pairs of the most brill- 
iant eyes I ever saw. I aroused my companion, for I 
did not know to whom they belonged. In these mount- 
ains are lions, leopards, wildcats, tigers, wolves, and 
large numbers of other dangerous animals. We were 
both well armed. He wanted to fire, but I thought we 
had better not, as we might frighten our horses and they 
would break loose and leave us ; and, moreover, we did 
not know what the inhabitants might fear, if any should 
be near enough to hear the report of pistols in the night. 
But we were ready in case of emergency. We sat and 
watched them for several minutes; at last his Indian in- 
stinct told him they were coyotes, and we knew they 
were not dangerous unless very hard pressed with 
hunger. To test their courage he threw a stone among 
them, and they trotted off as unconcerned as could be. 
But I thought I would not try to sleep any more, ex- 
posed as we were. I spent the balance of the night in 
meditation on the happy times now passed and calculat- 
ing the probable distance to Oaxaca and whether we 
would ever get there. 

Long before daylight we were in the saddle and push- 
ing on for San Francisco Huizo» our next halting-place. 
About seven o'clock we got some tortillas and beans, 
and I left the man of the house some tracts and a Tes- 
tament. On we went uphill and down, until we reached 
the highest jioint of our journey. We looked back over 
the way we had come, three days* journey over a most 
tortuous road, and there, like a king among his subjects, 
stood the magnificent, snow-capped volcano of Orizaba, 
a perfect cone of snow, sparkling in the sunshine, 
Every-where, as far as the eye could reach, was an 
ocean of waving mountains flecked with sunshine and 
shade. It was truly a magnificent sight, and looked as I 
supposed the ocean to look when lashed into fury by the 
breath of the storm. 

But we were in search of Huiro, and every man you 
ask makes the distance further. It w*as only eight 
leagues away two hours ago ; we have made three or 
four, but it is still twelve leagues away we are told. It 
is noon, man and horse are weary; but we must reach it, 
so on we go. My Indian begs to stop and rest^ but I 
urge him on. He sulks, but still follows away behind. 
It is afternoon ; my guide is nowhere to be found. I 
wait an hour, but he does not come. Here I am ; I 
don't know a single foot ahead ; the road is uncertain, as 
it is crossed by scores leading every way» Again I wait 
and call to him, but he does not answer. The question 
now is, ** Where is San Francisco Huizo?" A man says 
it is ** myy lejos *' (a long way). But I have got to reach 
it, and away I go. 

Two or three hours pass, and I rise a hill, and away 
out yonder is the plain of Oaxaca; but fifty miles away, 



108 



A TRIP TO THE LAND OF M/ZTECOS, 



and nestled at this end, right at the foot of the mountain 
I am on» is the place I seek. About six o'clock I 
reach it About eight o'clock my guide came in. I 
demand an explanation^ but he has none to offer. 
After a little trouble I found another guide who was 
well recommended^ and I thought of engagitig him ; but 
my old one now repents and promises to do better in 
the future. The fact is, we had ridden in three days 
what usually takes six, and he was tired out. My 
knowledge of this fact tempered justice with mercy. 

At Huizo the old man who kept the '* meson/' or stop- 
ping-place for travelers, was named Hernando Cortez, 
and claimed to be a lineal descendant of the conqueror. 
He w^as an intelligent and chatty old fellow. I at once 
engaged him in conversation. He told me that the 
meaning of the word Oaxaca was a Spanish corruption of 
the Indian word **guqje " (pronounced gw\ike), a species 
of vanilla vine. This, by the way, is the most sensible 
definition of the word that I had so far met with. This 
vine grows here now in great profusion, and still bears 
the same name, 

The present city of Oaxaca was founded in 1496 
under the name of Huaxgacac, but when it fell into the 
hands of the Spaniards it was called Antequera (the 
Beautiful). In the town of Huizo I met a company of 
genuine Mexican soldiers. They were en route for the city 
of Mexico. They were the dirtiest, most ragged soldiers 
I ever saw. They had traveled over a hundred miles on 
foot, and expected to make several hundred more the 
same way. The officer in charge said, in reply to some 
questions I asked him, that the Mexican soldiers were 
the poorest paid in the world. He got a dollar a day ; 
the common soldiers receive only twenty-five cents. How 
the people on the road I had traveled could ever find 
food for 175 men I did not see ; but they had taken the 
precaution of sending two men ahead to make the nec- 
essary arrangements. 

At two o'clock in the morning we started forward. 
For a time we crossed and re-crossed the river that runs 
through the valley. The night was still and beautiful. 
Narrow lanes of organ cactus soon began more clearly 
to mark our w^ay. In the trees over our heads sounds of 
distress were heard. Now one could hear the cry of 
chickens in distress, then the mother would call, as 
natural as life, the little ones to the shelter of her wings. 
Then we heard the crowing of the rooster, perfectly 
imitated, but lacking the volume of sound. I asked vsiy 
guide what bird it was in the trees. He replied, *' Zin- 
2ontle ; *' that is, the mocking-bird. As we rode on 
the night seemed filled with the sounds ot barking dogs, 
mewing cats, crowing roosters, and a multitude of sounds 
made by these mocking-birds. 

From the earliest times Oaxaca has been regarded as 
the Eldorado— the land of gold. The valley we are 
now traversing is certainly a beautiful one. The fabu- 
lous stories of its wealth in gold did not interest us. On 
every side were fields of waving corn, sugar-cane, and 
numerous other crops. Fruit grows every- where in be- 
wildering variety. The morning sun chased away the 




darkness and the whole beautiful landscape was before 
us. Away in the distance we could see the city at the 
head of the valley, and we thanked God and took 
courage. 

Before noon we reached it and rode up to the only 
hotel in the place. I dismounted, but found my guidt 
so completely tired out that he could not. I stood a 
few moments and laughed at him j the only reply to niy 
jests was that he never saw any one who rode so far in 
so short a time. 1 hired an Indian to take care of the 
horses, and told him to go to my room and go to sleep, 
which he did, about the happiest man I ever saw, 

I was not a little surprised to hear a man behind me I 
say in broken English, *'Good morning, sir." I turned | 
round to face my unknown interlocutor, and found him ; 
to be the proprietor of the hotel. I learned that he had 
spent four years in the States traveling with Barnum's 
show^ and there he had learned to speak English and to 
love the American flag, for he had an immense one hang- 
ing in his private room. 

Oaxaca is a very beautiful city of 30,000 souls. It 
has a climate unsurpassed in all the world. It has 
street-cars, electric lights, baths, and all modern con- 
veniences. It was not ranked as a city until April 
^5» ^535- ^t was made a bishopric by Pope Paul III, 
June I, 1532. It is 5,672 feet above the sea-level, and 
is one of the cleanest, healthiest cities in the world. 
The inhabitants boast that it has never been taken by 
an enemy. It is situated in a triple vale, trefoil in shape, 
with the city at the stem. On the surrounding mount- 
ains, facing every way, fortresses frown. I have an idea, 
however, that before modern implements of war they 
would be about as serviceable as so many paper boxes. 
Its principal buildings are the government palace, court- 
house, Institute of Sciences and Art, Its churches are 
very fine. They include the Cathedral, Santo Do- 
mingo, La Compania, San Augustin, Soleded, and nu- 
merous others. It is stated on oflficial authority that the 
records of the city show that $40,000,000 in gold were 
expended on ecclesiastical property in the city alone. 
Most of this is now useless. Santo Domingo, by all odds 
the most magnificent and costly, covering about eight 
acres of land, is used as the military barracks. Num- 
bers of others are used for secular purposes ; perhaps 
not more than five or six out of nearly forty are used for 
religious purposes. One hundred people is a large aver- 
age attendance at any mass. I was very anxious to find 
this out 

On Sunday morning I went to several of the churches 
on a tour of inspection, including the Cathedral, as I 
wanted to see for myself how matters stood. The con- 
gregations I counted were as follows : 15, 18, 75, 24, 
and 31. The largest number was at a little church called 
La Iglesia de la Sangre de Cristo (the Church of the 
Blood of Christ). It was about two squares from the 
center of the city. But I never saw a penny show make 
a greater effort to draw a crowd than this church did. 

Fire- works were displayed in the street in front of the 
church and a crowd of hundreds were there to witness 




them. In a yard in front of the chyrch, but inside the 
gate, were other attractions in the shape of a fire-wheel, 
an Indian band playing the rudest kind of instruments, 
and saints and images galore. Within the church there 
was a |>iano» borrowed for the occasion, a violin, and a 
special choir brought from a distant city for the purpose 
of drawing them in. It was the veriest claptrap you ever 
saw, but with all they could only get in seventy-five 
persons. 

Now let me briefly ask your attention to our work, 
started here less than a year ago. We rent a house two 
squares from the center and well located. We have a 
<iay-schooI of forty scholars, a prayer-meeting, Sunday- 
school, and preaching service. On Thursday night I 
preached to 40 people, on Sunday morning 65 people 
were present, and at night 105. Thus in our little 
chapel we had more people than any Catholic church in 
the city that day. While I was preaching some one 
threw a large stone through the window next the pulpit, 
no doubt intended for me, but it missed the mark ; 
nevertheless, it came near breaking up the service by a 
panic, which I was fortunately able to control. X bap- 
tized a number of children and adults^ and we closed in 
**due form and harmony." 

As far back as 1871 an "Evangelical Society " was 
formed here. Its history is rather interesting. The 
movement was originated in the first place by one of the 
members buying a Bible of Brother John Petherick, now 
of Los Angeles, Cal. When I was there every living 
member of that society was a member of the society 
under our control. 

On Monday morning an old Indian came to my hotel 
and presented me with three Zapoteco gods. He said 
they had been in his family for generations^ but that he 
had no further use for them and desired me to take 
them, I offered to buy them, as they were great curi- 
osities, but he would accept no money for them. 

After we reached Oaxaca my guide stayed by me like 
a brother, I treated him as he had never been treated 
before. I even let him sit at the table and eat with me, 
thus making him my equal. This surprised him, and 
was the cause of considerable unfavorable comment by 
the guests of the hotel One man said, '*WelI, if he 
wants to eat with Indians it is his own business." But 
I was unmoved and insisted upon it until I left. The poor 
fellow had no idea how to use his knife and fork. No 
matter how he tried, the fork would not cut the meat, 
and the back of the knife would not do as he wanted it. 
Nevertheless, by sticking the fork into the meat he man- 
aged to bite off small pieces and got through with a full 
stomach. I tried to engage him to return \vith me to 
Tecomavac so as to return the horses to Oaxaca, but he 
said I rode so fast and so far at a time that he could 
not stand it, and I finally lost him before I was ready to 
return. It was the long ride that he dreaded. 

The miserable food I had been compelled to eat was 
now beginning to make me sick, and as I had lost my 
guide I decided to take a litter for the return journey. 
This litter is a sort of double wheelbarrow. Two mules 




are put in the shafts, one in front and one behind, and 
the passenger lies down between them. It requires seven 
mules to complete the outfit : two to carry it, twO to 
go along to change at the half-way stopping-places, two j 
to carry the men who have charge of it, and one a pack* 
mule. It is about the most barbarous way of traveling 
yet invented, I believe. There are two motions: one a 
swinging side motion, and one an endwise motion caused 
by the steps of the animals that carry it. The front 
mule is led by one of the men in charge of the litter, as 
the passenger is in danger of being thrown out on the 
steep mountain passes and kilted if the mules are left 
to themselves. 

On the way back I called at several villages and found 
many people in nearly all who were anxious for me to 
open service among them. Through the kindness of a 
friend in Massachusetts, who placed at my disposal the 
necessary funds, I have been able to send a new man to 
work in this magnificent field. Oaxaca opens a more 
promising field than perhaps any other state in this re- 
public. Its people are liberal. Some of the greatest 
men the republic has produced are natives of this state ; 
as, for example, Benito Juarez, familiarly known as the 
Lincoln of Mexico, and Porfirio Diax, the present pres- 
ident and foremost man of the nation to-day. 

The resources of the state are wonderful. Every 
kind of vegetable exists. Wherever there is a chance 
to use a hoe there is some cultivated crop. From time 
immemorial this valley has been thickly inhabited. At 
the time of the conquest these people were a thrifty and 
happy people, 

I shall never forget the kindness of the mayor, ** Jefe 
Politico," of Cucatlan. I had been suffering with inflam- 
mation of the bowels. In this condition I thought best 
to cat no more tortillas and beans. When I reached the 
town above named the men in charge of my litter told 
him that I was sick, as I had eaten nothing since I left 
Oaxaca, now three days. He came to the side of my 
litter, raised the curtain, and inquired as to my condi- 
tion, 1 told him I was not well, but 1 thought if I could 
get home I would be all right. He offered me the hos- 
pitality of his home, which I gratefully declined. He 
then ordered his horse saddled, with one for his servant, 
and accompanied me for three days on horseback. Noth- 
ing that a kind heart could suggest for my comfort was 
left undone. He attended me like a father, paid all my 
bills, and did every thing possible for me. 

When we reached Tehuacan I offered to pay him for 
all his trouble. This he refused, and said all he asked 
was, if I ever found a countryman of his in a similar 
condition, that I would repay him by a similar kindness. 
Nor was this all. He sent his servant with me to Puebla, 
and gave him instructions not to leave me until he saw 
me safely at my home. I offered to pay the servant*s 
expenses when we reached Puebla, but he said he was 
told not to take any money for any thing. 

Such kindness as this is rarely met with in any land. 
It must have cost him at least $50, and eight days of his 
time were taken from the important work of his office. I 



can ntjver forget that man nor that journey. For seven 
days 1 had eaten nothing, and had ridden in misery nearly 
five hundred miles. But I was home again, and after a 
day or two of delirium, in which I frightened my wife, 
who said I should never go again, I was all right. 



The First Metliodist Episcopal Church of 
Buenos Ayres— A Year's Retrospect, 

BY REV, T. H. STOCKTON. 

The year just closing (1890) has been one of increas- 
ing activity, with many cares and much comfort inter- 
mingled. The Lord has not been far away, and he has 
made his grace to abound in my behalf, so that not only 
has my own life been spared, but that also of those who 
are dearer to me than life. Meantime he has caused me 
to feel that my labors, however imperfect and unworthy, 
have not been in vain. 

Our congregations — especially those of the morning 
hour — are not only sustained, but are continually in- 
creasing in point of numbers. I rejoice also to bear 
testimony to the fact that our services are all of a genu- 
inely spiritual character, affording good ground for the 
hope that they are helpful to ihe people in their daily 
life. The niglit meetings — Sunday and during the 
week — ^are small» owing to the great distance at which 
the members live from the church, ranging from two to 
fifteen miles. Still they are maintained regularly and 
are not without good result. 

In the latter part of the month of August the Lord, 
by his Spirit and by his providences called us aside 
from customary duties to engage in special services, 
which continued nightly for two weeks, resulting in 
special manifestations of his presence and power. The 
meetings were well attended, in view of all the circum- 
stances, and our hearts were richly blessed of God. We 
were permitted also to gather some souls for Christ 
during the meetings. 

One conversion that occurred was of such a character 
as to justify reference to it here. It is the case of a 
young man, the son of a good Christian mother and the 
subject of much solicitude and many prayers. Cursed 
by the vice of intemperance, and vainly struggling to 
save himself from it, he was induced by the kindly per- 
suasions of one of our Christian families to come to the 
meetings. There he publicly confessed his sinfulness, 
stating plainly his special beset men t, and giving himself 
to God, asked for the prayers of all present, that he 
might be thoroughly saved. At subsequent meetings 
he also spoke in a similar manner. At one of these 
times he confessed to a feeling that this series of 
meetings might be the last opportunity that he would 
ever have of coming to Christ, And so, indeed, it 
turned out. A few days afterward he was found dead in 
his room, all the facts showing that he had died sud- 
denly, and probably from ^.ome abnormal condition of 
the heart. It seemed to u.^ that the Lord had mercifully 
called him to Christ and given him some encouraging 




=1 



tokens* and then removed him from the struggle that he 
would undoubtedly have had to go through. 

During the year the church building has been greatly 
improved inside and out by a ne^v coat of paint, and is 
now one of the most beautiful and attractive places of 
worship in the Argentine Republic. 

The financial condition of the church is good, not^J 
withstanding the crisis, and notwithstanding the fac 
that our people have suffered in common with all others,^ 
The amount of money actually raised for all purposes, 
including $4,000 for church repairs, $2,000 for current 
expenses, $t,ooo for Sunday-schooh besides pastoral 
support and benevolent causes, reaches the grand total 
of $15,000 Argentine legal currency. 

We have much reason for gratitude to God because 
of the number of young people whom he is bringing into 
the church ; and for the fact that these young people 
are living lives of consecrated activity. They sing and 
pray and speak for Jesus ; they accept cheerfully any 
work assigned them by the church ; and when this is 
not enough to satisfy their desire for usefulness they 
seek more of their own accord. These young people 
love God and Methodism, and strengthen the hands and 
cheer the heart of their pastor. Meantime they stand 
true to I heir convictions of right in the midst of many 
and sore temptations. What with wine-driuking, card- 
playing, theater-going, horse-racing. Sabbath desecra- 
tion, and the general letting down of the moral tone of 
society, the enemies of the young are legion. When to 
these is added the reckless advice and example of many 
professed Christians, including some even who are rain-^ 
isters of the Gospel, it will be seen at once that the war-^B 
fare is of a very serious kind. Nothing but the grace of 
almighty God can save them. But then, thanks be to 
God, '*his grace is sufficient." And I rejoice to be able 
to testify that they do stand fast, and are not ashamed 
of their convictions. As an illustration of what I mean 
I give this case : At one of the large business houses a 
cricket club was in process of formation among the 
clerks, of whom there were about forty. Let it be re- 
membered that the fashion has set in and is growing 
into a habit to take Sunday for a field-day. Consider, 
also, the ridicule that a young man exposes himself to 
in criticising this fashion, and it will be seen that genu- 
ine moral courage is required to save one from yielding 
to the temptation. In the meeting of clerks referred to 
were two at least of our young men, and both of them 
declined to join the club, stating plainly as their reason 
their unwillingness to play on the Lord's day. Several 
instances of this kind have recently come to my knowl- 
edge and cause me to rejoice greatly. Another instance 
relates to one of our young local preachers. He is in 
an office among many clerks, some of whom, as soon 
as they discovered that he was a Christian, began a sys- 
tematic persecution. Recently this young brother was 
advertised to preach on the following Sunday, And, 
seeing the advertisement, ihey planned to go together 
in a group to his service. Meantime he prepared him- 
self carefully, asking God to help him. On reaching 




REPORT OF CENTRAL URUGUAY CIRCUIT FOR 1889 AND 1890. 



HI 



the place appointed for service he found only one of his 
tormentors presenti but this one was the ring-leader of 
them all, an avowed atheist. He was prepared with 
.paper and pencil to take notes of the proceedings, but 
lafter the opening prayer he put these back in his pocket 
and became an attentive hearer. After service he came 
forward and shook hands with the young preacher and 
I passed out The next day the entire group of clerks 
gathered about their leader for a report of the service, 
anticipating rare fun. To their surprise, however, the 
leader simply announced that he had been present and 
heard the sermon, and commended both it and the 
preacher. Evidently an impression was made upon hts 
mind which subdued him, and may yet result in his con- 
aversion. 

These may seem like little things, but in view of the 
peculiar conditions that obtain in Buenos Ayres, and the 
ease w^ith which young men are drawn away from the 
old moorings into ways of indifference and sin, they be- 
come important indications of a power that is present 
in opposition to the general trend, and w^hich is ready 
and willing to do battle for the Lord. Their importance 
is greatly enhanced when we remember that these young 
people constitute the hope of the Church when the 
fathers shall have passed aw^ay. 

In addition to the work of the church proper we have 
' two mission-halls, one in the Boca and the other in Bel- 
I grano. The first of these is located in a district adjacent 
to the Riachuelo River, and while primarily intended to 
meet the wants of the permanent residents, it is yet near 
enough to exert some influence on the shipping com- 
munity also. The congregations are, therefore, mixed 
in character^ wliich rather adds to the interest than 
otherwise. The preaching service is held on the even- 
ing of Sunday, and the attendance ranges in point of 
numbers from 40 to 100 persons. There is a Sunday- 
school of about fifty young people and a week-night 
meeting also. The expenses of this hall are heavy, 
averaging about $125 a month. Of this amount a por- 
tion is provided from the funds of the Missionary Society, 
and the remainder^ nearly $100, is raised by subscrip- 
tion, Brother Morris has had the Boca Mission under 
his direction from the beginning, and has given of his 
time and labor and money for its support most liberally 
— preaching, visiting the homes of the people, visiting the 
ships, collecting moneys, keeping bills paid, watching and 
praying over all its interests with a devotion truly com- 
mendable. He is now planning the establishment of 
services in Spanish, encouraged by the fact that it is no 
uncommon thing for the Spanish passers-by to halt and 
enter the hall during the singing of English hymns, 
' sometimes as many as thirty or forty of them in one 
evening, 

Belgrano Mission is in a rural district, and is intended 
to meet the wants of residents who, because of distance 
from the city, are unable to attend the church. Here we 
have both a Sunday-school and preaching service, and 
a week-night meeting also. It has been found desirable 
and wise to share this work with the Scotch Church, and 



up to the present time the union proceeds harmoniously. 
Arrangements are now in progress for beginning Span- 
ish services here also. 

We are planning to open additional mission-halls 
in different parts of the city and suburbs. In prepara- 
tion for this the Quarterly Conference of the church 
has recommended a number of young men to this Con- 
ference for license as local preachers, all of whom possess 
gifts and grace enough to make them useful in a high 
degree. Burdened as I am with the English work, 
which I came here purposely to do, and which \% 
enough for two or three men, I have not been able to- 
take active part in the Spanish work as I would have 
been glad to do. But I am possessed with an ambition 
10 call into service as many young men as I can, and to 
inspire and encourage them to qualify for this branch of 
work. God helping me, this will I do. 

There remains yet one matter more of which I feel 
drawn to speak. I refer to the North American Normal 
School. This enterprise has been under my personal 
direction, and is a personal enterprise. I am happy to 
be able to report that the school is a proved success, hav- 
ing established itself in the confidence of the general 
public, and being generously patronized by both Spanish 
and English families. It has been visited frequently by 
the government officers representing educational inter- 
ests, and has been most kindly reported by them to their 
superiors. During the two years that it has been in 
existence many applications have been received from 
parents desiring to place their children as boarders in 
the school. These have had to be turned aside for want 
of suitable accommodations. Nearly or quite one hun- 
dred such applications have been refused. Arrange- 
ments are now being entered into which, it is hoped, will 
enable us to secure larger buildings, and in this way to 
enlarge the scope of our usefulness. In February next, 
at the opening of the new school year, we hope to be 
able to receive this class of pupils. 




Bepart of Central Uriie:uay Circuit (Methodist 
Episcopal) for 1889 and 18«). 

BY REV. WILLIAM TALLON* 

The Central Uruguay Circuit was founded in 1S85, 
and the writer was appointed pastor in charge of it. 

It extends over a territory of more than 4,000 square 
miles, with a population of about 120,000 souls, whose 
nominal religion is Romanism ; but the greater part of 
the people know nothing of personal religion, and, in- 
deed, very little of any form of religion. The circuit 
comprises the towns of Florida, Durazno, San Jos6, 
Mercedes, and Trinidad (Parongos), with the center of 
operations and missionary's residence at the latter. 

The climate of this portion of Uruguay is most pleas- 
ant ; its sky is for the greater part of the year cloudless, 
and its atmosphere is far less damp than that of the 
valley of La Plata. 

The country is a rolling plain, covered with an ever- 



green coat of grass, over which wander immense herds 
of cattle and flocks of sheep. The people are hospitable, 
frank, and easy of access, more so, perhaps than those 
of the neighboring States. A more hopeful field for 
missionary labor could not easily be found; the very 
lack of religious knowledge of its people, the non-oppo- 
sition of those in power to the preaching of ihe Gospel, 
and the still happier circumstance of the people's eager- 
ness to hear it, as is proven by the large congregations 
that come out to our meetingSi are clear indications of 
its grand possibilities. 

As will easily be conceived, so vast a field demands 
more labor and time than one man can possibly give it, 
hence the reason why it has not developed in propor- 
tion to its possibilities. Five men could be engaged in 
it and have their hands full. 

I have during the year visited and held meetings at 
the different stations as often as circumstances would 
allow, and have every-where found an increasing inter- 
est taken in our work by the people. Several times I 
have been asked to go and preach at places that might 
be said to be outside the bounds of my circuit, but the 
conviction of my insufficiency to meet the demands of 
the field more properly confided to my care has often 
induced me, with a heavy heart, to refuse to go. Not* 
withstanding, I have visited Sarandi, Dolores, and Fray 
Bentos, the two former situated in the interior of the re- 
public and the latter on the river Urugiiay. At these 
places the preacher is always welcomed, and when leav- 
ing pressed to stay longer by the people. 

But these meetings held away from Trinidad are not 
so formal as Methodists at home are accustomed to ; 
they are, in fact, informal; but as they are the only 
means we now have of reaching the people, they, with 
the grace of God, may become a powerful means to 
fiirtber Christ's kingdom and to save souls. Indeed, I 
have some happy proofs they have not been inefficaciotis; 
some have manifested a desire to know more of God's 
will toward man, others have shown true signs of con- 
version by a change of life and a wish to identify theni- 
selves with us. One man, in particular, who attended 
our meetings at Mercedes was so much impressed with 
the necessity of bringing up his children in a knowledge 
of the truth as it is in Christ that he actually went to 
the United States in order that his children might have 
the advantage of a thorough religious education. I 
gave this person a letter of introduction to the secre- 
taries of the Missionary Society when he was leaving 
here. 

A few remarks as to the manner I make use of to se- 
cure halls to hold meetings in at the different places may 
not be out of place here. At Durazno and Florida a 
committee was organized to look after the local inter- 
ests of the work. It was their duty to provide halls free 
of charge to the Mission and to get their friends to- 
gether when a meeting was announced. So far these 
committees have worked well and faithfully. 

At Mercedes, owing to certain circumstances peculiar 
to that town, there was no need of forming a similar 



committee. There exists there a literary and musical 
club, " El Club Progreso/' which has a very elegant hall 
of its own. This hall is always at our disposal One of 
the most striking features in connection with our work 
at Mercedes is that this club, being a fashionable one, 
w^e reach through it those who occupy the highest social 
positions — that is, a class of people that, as a rule, I be* 
lieve we do not reach in so general a manner in any 
other part of our work. 

At Durazno we opened a day-school early In the year 
under very promising auspices ; but, unfortunately, our 
teacher, Mr. Gaydon, who was appointed to take charge 
of it, lost his health shortly after it had begun work and 
had to abandon his post. It was some time before an- 
other master's services could be secured. Brother Bai- 
biere was finally engaged, but before things were set 
right again most of the boys had left the school, aiid it 
will take some time — ^longer a great deal than if it had 
not suffered any drawback — ere it will be self-supporting. 
Our principal station is at Trinidad, where we have a 
regular congregation and a Sunday-school, as well as a 
day-school. Here we have the nucleus of what prom- 
ises to develop into a powerful church. Up to the pres- 
ent year the Lord's Supper was not administered, Wc 
began on New Year's day and had a grand time of it. 
Thirty-four persons partook of it. Since then we have 
had the communion service twice, with equally encour- 
aging results. 

Last year we began to build a church, which is now 
ready to be roofed. The funds for this purpose we col- 
lected partly among our people znd friends here, and 
$1,684.80 were contributed by the Mission. We still 
lack about $j,ooo to finish it. The building is a most 
solid onCj and measures inside 65 by 30 feet. Though, 
perhaps, too large for our present wants, the local com- 
raittee judged it prudent to build one large enough to 
meet the needs of our people for years to come. 

Brother Juan Rivas, a member in full and president 
of the local committee, died shortly after the laying uf 
the foundation-stone. To the last he had the entire use 
of his faculties, and passed away professin^^ saving faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ. The needs of this interesting 
and vast field are so many that I fear they cannot be 
met for the present by the means we have at our com 
mand, but I think we should hold Trinidad as 'we hav** 
hitherto- done. Once the church building is finished, 
the work will develop vastly. 

As for Florida and Mercedes, we should, if possible* 
open schools in them. 

The latter of these towns is quite a city, and is so 
situated that it might be the center of a new circuit, 
which should take in Fray Bentos, Dolores, and even 
Gauleguachu, in the province of Entre Rios, Argentina. 

To meet the wants of this vast field, ready to harvest, 
there is but one man 1 It's people are as sheep without 
a shepherd. Should this not engage the attention of 
the Church, and arouse her to make, if necessary, an 
extraordinary effort to gather in the precious souls thua 
providentially placed within her reach ? 




LOUIS HARMS. 



\\Z 



Louis Harms. 

BY A, T, PIERSON, D.D. 

Louis Harms was born in Hanover in 1808. From 
childhood he was marked by great memory, self-reli- 
ance, industry, and perseverance ; by a high sense of 
honor, truth, and purity. 

Around him the very air seemed tainted with ritual- 
ism and rationalism* Two millions of nominal Chris- 
tians cared neither for the word nor the house of God, 
He was converted by reading our Lord's intercessory 
prayer (John 17). 

At forty he followed his father in the parish of Her- 
inansburgh, refusing many tempting offers^ choosingthe 
quiet village to which he had always looked longingly 
back, and setting his heart upon developing in this 
parish the highest type of a useful ministry and church. 
And to this work he gave his whole souL 

Ti>e attendance at church increased, reverence for 
the Bible grew ; there was more conversation on sacred 
things, more order and neatness in the village, and the 
*'Hermansburghers " became a proverbial people. The 
noon-bell was sounded and every head was bared in 
prayer. Nowhere else in Hanover was a parish to be 
found where apostolic piety seemed revived as here, in 
the consciousness of a pi*esent Christ and a present 
Spirit and in the effectiveness of the means of grace, 

Fastor Harms, however, had a thorn in his pillow. One 
verse in the Bible (Acts 4, 12) took sleep away, and his 
mind went out to the millions of heathen who have not 
heard that saving name. 

A poor disabled Candidal coming into Hermansburgh 
told his story of the heathen, and enkindled missionary 
interest in the parish. 

The first donations were from a widow — six shillings; 
froin a laborer, sixpence; and from a child, one silver 
penny. Yet from these trifling sparks there came a soar- 
ing pillar of fire that has led all Christendom in the 
paths of mission work. Harms began to preach, to talk 
from house to house on Missions, and at last boldly 
tirged his humble people to take hold of the heathen 
world— even to attempt independently the work of con- 
verting the pagan, set up their own stations, and supply 
their own missionaries \ Think of his courage and 
faith amid general apathy toward missions to dare such 
it proposal to peasants and farmers! 

Twelve men offered to go, and one of the twelve gave 
his farm as well as himself. Harms used the gift to es- 
tablish a training-school, 

Africa was chosen. They actually built their own ship, 
and in 1S53, only five years after Pastor Harms settled 
in Hermansburg, sixteen colonists sailed for Natal, in 
south-eastern Africa — eight missionaries, two smiths, 
three laborers, a tailor, a butcher, and a dyer. 

Let us take in the grand scope of this enterprise. 
Here was one poor parish transporting into the heart of 
pagandom a Christian community, and actually project- 
ing a chain of mission stations along the dark coast of 
the unexplored continent. And this whole work assumed 



by one parish of Hanover was inspired by one humble 
pastor ! 

More than forty sailed at one time to re-enforce the 
missionary band, and there were always forty-eight in 
training. In 1863, only ten years after the work began, 
one hundred offered at one time. 

Not content witli foreign missions, behold this humble 
people equally zealous in home work, establishing a 
refuge for discharged convicts, about whom there hung 
the taint of disgrace, whose sympathies were perverted, 
and whose sensibilities were perverted and hardened by 
crime, and who were lost to common confidence. Her- 
mansburgh buys a farm and rears an asylum on it, which 
is to-day a home for the helpless and hopeless soul. 

A missionary magazine was needed as a link and 
channel of communication between the parish and its 
pioneers, and to render those who were in training fa- 
miliar with type. Beginning with this simple aim the 
original idea was expanded, and there grew up a parish 
publishing-house issuing catechisms, tracts, and the lit- 
erature of the Gospel, yielding an annual profit of £600 1 

Meanwhile let us glance at the African Missions. In 
1864 they had been ten years in operation, counting this 
first decade from the arrival of the first missionary col* 
onists* Twenty-four missions are established and two 
more are started. One hundred and ninety natives are 
baptized converts. The pioneers had endured trials and 
braved misreprest^ntation and malice, and God'blessei 
their work. In 1867 alone they bapti/x 120 converts. 

But Hermansburgh mustscatter still wider her blessed 
endeavors. Six missionaries are sent to America, one 
to India, one to Australia. 

From 1854 to 1865 inclusive there flows into that 
parish mission treasury more than |»26o,ooo, and there 
goes out from it to save the world more than $250,000* 
Of this income the press alone yields about $25,000. 

In 1S68 there are two mission-houses and farms with 
70 inmates, 48 in training for missions ; on the refuge 
farm 20 find a house of shelter ; there are 160 settlers 
in Africa in 30 stations, and these colonists own their 
ship and build their dwellings and churches. They con- 
trol 50,000 acres on the Dark Continent, and have their 
own printing-presses. 

Pastor Harms died in 1865 (November 17), having 
conducted his whole mission work as a work of faith, 
asking God for every needed help, and finding that as 
his work grew the means to carry it on grew in propor- 
tion ; and setting an example which to this day chal- 
lenges the admiration and imitation of the whole Chris- 
tian world. 

'• The air we breathe has much to do with the health and 
vigor of our bodies. So the home influence which surrounds 
us has much to do in molding character, and 10 shaping our 
course of life. This was certainly so in the case of I he late Dr, 
Alexander Duff, for maay years a missionary in India, whose 
name is a househcdd word in many a Christian family. He 
tells us that his father w^as a man of profound missionary spiiit 
— a man with whom love for Christ's kingdom was a passion. 
The cause of missions was much upon his heart and lips." 





REV. FRANCIS PENZOTTI IN FKC-ON IN CALf AO. PERU. 



A Methodist Minister in JalL 

BY REV. E. W, GILMAN, D,D,, SECRETARY OF THE AMER- 
ICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

WAat dots the above picture represent f The door 
and grated window oT a prison in Callao, Peru, prison- 
ers, and guard. 

What is the popular name of (he prison f It is some- 

[We ate indebted to the CArtj/tam Mtrald^ Bible Houm, Neir York^ for the 
iwo cuts that iUu&tra!e this artic)e»J 



times called Casa mata^ because it was the casement o* 
an old fort^ but the popular name is Death House^ be- 
cause it was formerly used for the confinement of pns^^ 
oners sentenced to death. ^^ 

Afui who are ike men behind the bars f Prisoners ; 
and the one whose face appears most distinctly is naoied 
Penzotti; 

Is he a Peruvian f No; he is an Italian^ 

I/as hi committed any crinif t No, 




A METHODIST MIXISTER IX I AIL, 



115 



Why is he, thcn^ in prison t Because he is accused 
of violating the law of Peru respecting public worship. 

What is the law in Peru about public worship ? The 
constitution provides that the religion of the State shall 
be the Roman Catholic, and that no other public wor- 
ship shall be allowed. 

Is this law rigidly enforced? No ; for English resi- 
dents have been allowed to hold worship in their way 
for twenty years or more. 

Js any other religion tolerated in the same way f Yes ; 
the Chinese have their joss-house ia which they prac- 
tice their pagan rites, and the law takes no notice 
of it. 

Has Mr, Penzoiti broken this law ? lie has not 
^- IVhy^ then^ has he been imprir* 
^ffkudt Because he is accused ot 
tiaving broken it. 

Who says he has broken itf Some 
of the Roman Catholic authorities 
have brought this complaint against 
him. 

But if he was innocent^ why did 
he not give bail to appear when he 
was required to be present for trial 1 
The complainants would not con- 
sent to his release on bail because 
he was charged with an offense 
against the ** Catholic, Apostolic, 
and Roman Church/' 

What had he done^ anyitmy f He 
had baptized some persons ; he had 
married a man and woman ; he had 
held religious services in which he 
told the people about the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ, 

Had he compelled the couple to be 
married against their will f No. 

Had he forced baptism upon un- 
willing candidates? No, 

Had he attacked the dogmas of the 
Roman Catholic Church ? No. 

Had he preached the Gospel in pub- 
lic and to unwilling ears f No ; his 
services have all been held in pri* 
vate, with the doors locked and with no one present 
except those who had been admitted by ticket. 

Did lu keep the doors closed because he was ufmnlling to 
Ukarc his message with outsiders ? He did so simply to 
comply with the requirements of the law, which said 
that his worship must be private. 

HoTV do you kno^if thai he was innocent of the thing al- 
leged against him? Because, when the evidence had 
been laid before the court, the officer in charge decided 
that the complaint was unfounded. 

Was he then set free ? No, 

Why not? Because, according to Peruvian law, he 
was not entitled to his liberty until the whole ease had 
been reviewed by a higher court and its decision given 
in his favor. 



And what did the Superior Court sayf They affirmed 
the judgment in his favor. 

And what then? He was sent back to prison. 

Why? Because his enemies appealed to the Supreme 
Court. 

Is he kindly treated in prison? He does not complain 
of the treatment by day^ for his friends are allowed to 
visit him and brin^ him food, without which he would 
starve on prison fare ; but the nights are horrible. 

Why ? Because he has to sleep in an underground 
dungeon, in which the sun never shines, to wiiich air 
and light are admitted only through a grated door, with 
t hilly-five companions who sleep on ihe ground, and in 
the midst of filth indescribable. 



I lii'ndlliminrirn¥M<3 



''-^*I.^1R> 



1 [['iiULlA^r^ '^ 



Wl^ 



RFV, F. PENZOTll'S CHAPKl. IN CALL\n. 

H(mf long has he been in prison? Since July :?5, 1890* 

When will he be released? No one can tell 

What Church does he belong to? He is a traveling 
preacher of the South American Mission of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, employed as an agent of the 
American Bible Society for Peru. 

Has he a family ? Yes; he has a wife and seven 
children. 

Where are they ? All are in Callao, except two daugh- 
ters of sixteen and eighteen years of age. 

And jvhere are they ? He did not dare to have them 
remain in Peru, exposed to insult and peril, and for 
security's sake he sent them away to Mr, La Fetra** 
school in Santiago, Chili. 

Hottf does he bear up under this tertibU load of perse* 



116 



REPORT OF THE M. E. MISSION IN MEXICO FOR YEAR 1890. 



cuiion f In the last letter received from him he says, 
most touchingly, "I am yet in prison, and cannot tell 
how long I shall be here. The decision is long de- 
layed. My family are greatly afflicted by my prolonged 
imprisonment. I remember frequently what the Psalm- 
ist says, * Weeping may endure for a night, but joy 
Cometh in the morning.' " 



Report of the Methodist Episcopal Mission In 
Mexico for Year 1890. 

The Mission Conference in Mexico is divided into 
four districts. We give here extracts from the reports 
of the presiding elders of these districts, sent to our 
Mission Rooms for insertion in the Annual Report, 
prefaced by a summary of the work as given by Rev. 
Dr. J. W. Butler, who says : 

During the year we have gained twenty-eight congre- 
gations. Net increase in members and probationers, 
over and above all losses by death and removals, 394. 

Three hundred and forty-nine conversions are re- 
ported, against 120 the year before. 

Six day-schools have been added to our list, giving 
an increase of 526 scholars. 

We have three more Sabbath -schools, and 274 more 
Sabbath-school scholars. 

Three new churches have been built, and our proper- 
ties are worth $7,600 more than last year most of which 
was raised in this country. 

For self-support we have collected $9,146, as against 
$6,708 last year. 

Northern District. — Rev. S. W. Siberts, D.D., Pre- 
siding Elder. 

Guanajuato^ with two preaching-places and a number 
of other points which are visited, has continued under 
the direction of L. C. Smith. The old congregation has 
increased in numbers, while in San Fernando hundreds 
have heard the Gospel for the first time. San Fernando 
is a large market-place, and as we preach with the doors 
of our chapel open, the hundreds of people who come 
to market from all the surrounding towns hear and see 
Protestant services. Brother Perez, assistant pastor, 
has done most of the preaching, leaving Brother Smith 
comparatively free for evangelistic work. One long 
trip of two months to Tuxpan, and others of shorter 
duration in the State of Guanajuato, made by Brother 
Smith, have been very fruitful. 

Our school has had a good year, and is prosperous 
and successful. 

The school of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety, under the direction of Miss A. M. Rogers, has 
grown until it was necessary to secure a larger house. 
Fifty-nine pupils have been received during the year, 
and the school has a good reputation throughout the city. 

Quereiaro, S. I. Lopez has charge, and also manages 
a school of eleven boys that live under his immediate 
care. Bishop Mallalieu, seeing the extent of our prop- 



erty and its desirable location, authorized us to open a 
school here, which we trust will grow to be a- power in 
the city. The object is to make the school a prepara- 
tory department for the theological seminary in Puebla, 
which is crowded to overflowing. We have had terrible 
persecution here this year. 

In San Juan del Rio^ under the charge of M. Lina- 
res, we have one of the most faithful, devoted, and spir- 
itual congregations in the entire district. 

Ceiaya, For nearly a year the sleepless Roman Cath- 
olics have thwarted all our plans to rent a house here. 
We have finally secured a part of an old convent and 
will open work in Ceiaya soon. Ceiaya is a city of 
32,000 inhabitants. 

Salamanca^ including £1 Valle de Santiago and in- 
cipient work in Irapuato, has had a good year. A. Ri- 
vero has upheld the good name of the Mission, and 
attracted the friendship and sympathy of many who 
before were our enemies or indifferent to all religion. 

Cortazar. Owing to the death of E. Castillo, in 
March, of this year, the congregation of Cortazar has 
been without a regular pastor. 

Silao, The congregation and school are under the 
direction of Doroteo Garcia. Forty-one pupils have 
been enrolled. The opposition is continuous, and our 
enemies never sleep ; still our congregation grows a 
little and our school is in a prosperous condition. 

Cueramero has four preaching-places. Services have 
been held by Brother J. Patino in Cuitzeo, El Capulin, 
and in El Paso del Leon. By tracts, books, and per- 
sonal work our influence has been extended over a wide 
region. 

El Abogado Christiano^ the official organ of our 
Church in Mexico, and of which the presiding elder of 
the Northern District is editor, has been published reg- 
ularly during the year, and has been doing a good 
work. Its influence is wide-spread. Our paper is re- 
moving ignorance and prejudice, creating Christian sen- 
timent, and preparing the way for regularly organized 
evangelistic work. 

Puebla District. — Rev. S. P. Craver, D.D., Presiding 

Elder. 

The present year has not been characterized by any 
marked change in the condition or character of the work 
reported last year. 

At the last Conference the presiding elder of this dis- 
trict was appointed President of the Theological Sem- 
inary and Preparatory School, and in view of the in- 
crease of work the district was reduced in size by the 
addition of the Sierra Circuit to the Coast District. This 
left only six pastoral charges on the Puebla District. 

Apizaco has remained under the pastoral charge of 
V. D. Baez, who has been assisted in the school work 
by Pilar Baez. There has been no visible change. in 
the state of the work. The congregation is composed 
principally of persons from the neighboring village of 
Santa Anita, who come only to the Sunday morning serv- 
ice and Sunday-school. 



> M. E. MISSIOJsr IN MEXICO FOR YEAR 1800, 



117 



^ ^■^::;>i.,,*«#ms m Apizaco continue to do good work. 

Auacco has been under the pastoral care of Sixto 
Bernal» a supply, and has made no progress, not by reason 
of inefficiency on the part of the pastor, but because the 
circumstances of the place are unfavorable to evangel- 
ical growth there, 

Attala is served by Miguel Arrieta, a local preacher, 
both as pastor and teacher* He has established a 
school which is exerting quite an influence in the village, 
and is highly prized by parents and pupils. 

Choiula has been visited during most of the year by 
Marcelino Avila, of the Theological Seminary; but re- 
cently the exigencies of the work and the necessity of 
a change for him on account of health have taken him 
to Guanajuato. The small flock in Choiula is now cared 
for by Gorgonio Cora, also a student No advance has 
been m.ide over last year. 

PuMa is under the pastoral care of F. D. Tubbs, 
with Plutarco Bernal as assistant pastor. On account 
of excessive work in the seminary Brother Tubbs has 
not been able to give much attention to the general work 
of the pastorate, so that this has devolved quite largely 
upon the assistant. 

The statistics this year show a large decrease in the 
membership of the church, but it is apparent and not 
real The chtirch register has been imperfectly kept, 
and through some oversight last year a large number of 
names were counted both in the list of full members 
and in that of probationers. 

Tlaxcaia Circuit has continued to be served by Ga- 
briel Rumbia, a student in the seminary. This year we 
have started a school in Panotla, which has been very 
successful and is exerting a wholesome influence in all 
that region. The regular weekly services are well at 
tended in Panotla, while some progress is being made in 
Tlaxcaia, the capital of the state. We have not yet 
opened public services there. The congregation in 
Panotla is enthusiastic and the brethren propose, with a 
little help from the Missionary Society, to build a com- 
modious little church. They pledge themselves to give 
in material and labor $600 toward a §1,000 chapel. 

San Ft lip £ Teotlahingo is a new work startedlast year 
by Brother Rumbia, but carried on this year by Mariano 
Fcrmoso, another student, who has developed a good 
congregation at the point named and begun work in San 
Cristobal Tcpatlaxco. Like almost every new work in 
this country, this has had to pass through persecution. 

Theological Seminary and Preparatory Scliool. S. P. 
Graver is president. The faculty has been strengthened 
this year by the addition of F. D. Tubbs and Mrs. Tubbs 
to the corps of teachers reported last year. The new course 
of study adopted by the Annual Conference and ap- 
proved by the Missionary Board was introduced at the 
beginning of the year, together with a normal course of 
five years. 

There have been matriculated as students this year in 
the various departments the following numbers: The- 
ological, 5 ; preparatory, 11 ; normal, 7 ; secondary, 22 ; 
primary, 73 ; making a total of 118 — a loss of 1. 



The self-support realized this year is quite encourag- 
ing. From local sources— that is, from students directly 
—we have received $2,428.15, and from friends in the" 
United States for the support of specified pupils, includ* 
ing $264.50 from the Board of Education of our Church, 
$1,121.78, making a total of $J*549 93 received in addi^ 
tion to the appropriation from the Missionary Society, 

The Schools of the Woman s Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety, There are but two on this district at present, 

Apisaco, This school has continued as last year un- 
der the direction of Miss Concepcion Xochihua. She 
has been assisted this year by Miss Elisa Guerrero, also 
a graduate of the Fuebla school. Good work is being 
done. 

Puebla. Some changes have occurred this year. 
Miss Ogden retired from the work near the close of 
1889, and Miss Parker entered about the same time. 
Miss Warner has gone home this year on furlough to 
take a w^ell-merited and greatly needed rest. The entire 
responsibility has, therefore, fallen on Miss Parker, who 
was new in the work. However, she has managed wisely 
and the school continues to flourish. 

Central District.— Rev. J. W. Btitler, D.D., Presid- 
ing Elder. 

Statistics. The statistical table will show a healthy 
growth all along the line. This is especially true with 
regard to the number of congregations, which is now 
forty-one, as against thirty last year. Special attention has 
been given to church records all over the district, and a 
great deal of pruning done. We found that some of the 
native preachers did not understand the necessity for 
cutting off the names of all who had died, removed, or 
been lost sight of. In one circuit these amounted to 
over 40, and in another to about 20 ; yet, after all, our 
net increase in members and probationers is 244. There 
is a slight increase in missionary collections, and $1,036 
increase in self-support, while the properties on the dis- 
trict are now worth $5,800 more than last year. 

Day-schools. The large increase reported last year in 
our day-schools has been maintained this year. The 
Bible is read daily in all our schools, prayer offered, and 
the Catechism taught. 

Sunday-schools. Three new Sunday-schools have been 
started during the year, and some of the older ones 
have been better organized. The increase in member- 
ship is seventy-six. 

I, The Santa Ana Circuit was cut off from the Te- 
zontepec Circuit at the last Conference, and is supplied 
by a local preacher. There has been growth. 2, The 
Huejuetla Circuit is entirely new, and consists of three 
preaching appointments two days* horseback ride be- 
yond Tulancingo. 3. The church in Zacualtipan wa» ' 
organized October 19, with 37 members and 130 proba- 
tioners. This work has grown during the year from three 
appointments to nine. 4. Notwithstanding the division 
of the Tezontepec Circuit at the last Conference it now 
has nine appointments. Brother Velasco, our pastor here, 
teaches school all the week, and holds from eight to len 




118 



REPORT OF THE M. E, MISSION IN MEXICO FOR 




services besides. Not only are the children of Tezonte- 
pec found in our school,' but from some of the surrounding 
towns children have been brought and left with friends, 
so that they might be placed under our care, and the 
school has grown from about 40 to no during the year. 
5. In the spring, and in connection with the presiding 
elder of the Coast District, we arranged with Brother 
Smith to make an extensive preaching tour through the 
State of Hidalgo and down to the coast, visiting Tux- 
pan. Many of the towns in the State of Hidalgo which 
he visited are ready for the Gospel, and from fifteen 
to twenty new congregations might be established at 
once if we had the men and means. 

The English graded school in Mexico city is no longer 
an experiment. During the year eighty-five scholars have 
been matriculated, and if the school had a permanent 
home it would not only pay its way, but leave a hand- 
some profit, which might be used in the education of 
orphan children, or as otherwise directed. Miss Hart- 
zell and her faithful associates earnestly desire that this 
work should tell in every way for the cause. Already 
many children have been led from the day-school to the 
Sunday-school, among whom are noted at least three 
Catholic children. Our English congregation and Sab- 
bath-school have continued to grow during the year, and 
are certainly on a more permanent basis than ever before. 
Brother McLennan, the pastor, is holding a series of 
special services at the time this report is being written. 
Owing to the continued illness of the man appointed at 
the Conference last January, the English work in Pa- 
chuca has had no pastor during the entire year. The 
English local preachers have, however, cordially co-oper- 
ated with the presiding elder, and in that way have sup- 
plied two Sundays out of every three. About the mid- 
dle of the year work was started at Real del Monte, and 
the means of grace have been regularly sustained ever 
since with promise of excellent results in the future. 

Bible-women are supported by the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society in Mexico, Miraflores, Ayapongo, and 
San Vincente, while special tract work, under the lady 
teachers, is carried out in Pachuca, Tezontepec, and 
other places. The orphanage and day-school in Mexico 
city is still under the charge of Misses Lloyd and Ayres. 
Every year only proves the wisdom of the purchase 
made by the Society of its permanent home. Miss Hast- 
ings has carried on faithful work in Pachuca for about 
seventeen years, teaching and sowing ** the seed of the 
kingdom " with tracts and visitations to the homes of 
the poor. It would seem, however, that she had almost 
reached the limit of her usefulness if the Society fails 
to provide larger accommodations. Over 300 children 
have been matriculated during the year. 

El Abogado Cristiano Ilustrado, the organ of Method- 
ism in Mexico, has been published without interruption 
during the year. Each issue has consisted of from 2,750 
to 3,000 copies. The Berean Lesson Leaves have reached 
a circulation of 2,850. A few are paid for, but the ex- 
pense is mostly met by an appropriation from our Sun- 
day-School Union. Much other matter has also been 



te(^C^^t4 



printed, and 2,637,000 pages of religious litei 
out the past year. Since 1876 its support has largdy 
depended upon such resources as we couid command 
here. But the time has come when we need substantial 
aid from our friends at home. Our plant should be en* 
larged and improved. Our paper and other supplies are 
bought in the United States, and consequently must be 
ordered in quantities. For such purpose we need a small 
capital to avoid, if possible, the necessity of borrowing 
and paying interest. 

Coast District. — Rev. William Green, Presiding Elder. 

As at its formation the Coast District continues to 
embrace the States of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, with the 
greater part of Puebla. At the last session of the Con- 
ference the necessities of the work required the bishop 
to still further enlarge the bounds of the district, so that 
it now includes all the work in the " Sierras de Puebla," 
consisting of three large circuits among the Aztecs. 

According to the most reliable figures at hand the dis- 
trict covers a territory equal to the whole of New En- 
gland, with the State of New York added. There arc 
many long and wearisome journeys to be made. For 
the most part there are no railroads, and the means of 
traveling are the most primitive. Some journeys require 
from ten to twenty days on horse or bull back ; others 
are made in Indian canoes; others in a litter ; and still 
others have to be made in part on foot. To these dis- 
advantages must be added the almost entire lack of 
hotels on the way. The accommodations are no better 
than a farmer provides for his cattle ; but the oppor- 
tunities to work for Christ are unsurpassed in all the 
world. 

Cordova Circuity under the direction of Brother Romero, 
has had a very prosperous year. The congregations are 
more than three times larger than last year. The circuit 
has three regular appointments, namely : Cordova, Am- 
atlan, and Huatusco. 

Oaxaca Circuit is at present in the care of Brother 
Pedro Lopez, with Santiago Lopez as assistant and 
teacher. Internal disturbances for a time promised to 
greatly interfere with the work in the city of Oaxaca, 
but I am able to report that all the unrest has quieted 
down, and now we have peace and more than the usual 
prosperity. The circuit has the following preaching- 
places: the city of Oaxaca, Cuicatlan, Jacatlan, Cuila- 
pam, Zachila, Etla, Santiago el Mayor, and Tlacalula; 
and in addition to this a large state to evangelize. We 
have two schools — one in Oaxaca, and one in Santiago. 

Orizaba Circuit is growing in the hands of Brother 
Valderrama. A new appointment has been opened this 
year, making three in all. Our congregation in Atzacan 
is made up of pure Aztecs, and they are devout and ear- 
nest Christians. They are planning for self-support in 
the near future. They have already set out a coffee plan- 
tation, from the proceeds of which they hope to build a 
church and support it. We have a day-school in which 
their children are being taught, and a regular preaching 
service and prayer-meeting. 



THE RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE JEWS OF TO-DAY. 



\\9 



San Andres Tuxtla still remains in the hands of 
Brother Jose Rumbia. Splendid work has been done 
this year. We have the second largest school in the 
^canton" (like our county), and in many respects the 
best. Our people there are full of enthusiasm and hope. 
The circuit has four appointments, namely : San Andres 
Tuxtla, Santiago Tuxtla, Ojo de Agua, and Catemaco. 
Many of our people travel for ten or twelve miles afoot, 
and rarely ever miss a service on any account. 

Tehuacan continues a barren field, and yet Brother 
Monjaras has done hard work this year. We have made 
some progress, but more particularly in our school work. 

Tuxpan is in a very thriving condition. Brother Fran- 
cisco Diaz is pastor. We use the house we have for 
both church and school-house. For most of our services 
it is insufficient and causes us some inconvenience. We 
are hoping in the near future to be able to build to suit 
our needs. 

What is known as **The Sierra Circuit " is practically 
three circuits, including Tetela, Xochiapulco, and Te- 
zuitlan. This year they have been so operated. We have 
deemed it best to leave one man in charge of the whole, 
but each place has had a pastor subject to the general 
direction of the preacher in charge. 

In Tetela Brother Gabriel Vasquez is assistant pastor. 
He is a very earnest and devout young man, and has 
done excellent work. We have regular services in 
Tetela. 

Xochiapuko has: members, 29; probationers, 17 ; reg- 
ular attendance, 90. Ours is the only church in the town, 
and all the people are our friends and followers. Chil- 
dren baptized, 17; adults, 2. We have two Sunday- 
schools, one in Xochiapuko and one in Jilotepec, with 
133 scholars. In Jilotepec we also have a day-school 
of 39 scholars. We have just built a nice little church 
in Jilotepec, 9 by 16 yards in dimension, at a cost of 
^^800. Our church in Xochiapulco is nearly ready for 
occupation, and will be before this is in print. 

Tezuitlan has not advanced as we hoped. Many of 
our friends have left in search of work and the congre- 
gation languishes. We have opened a school here and 
kave ten scholars. 

At the request of Bishop Mallalieu Brother L. C. Smith 
▼isited Tuxpan this year iq the place of the presiding 
dder. He had a most wonderful time, preaching the 
Gospel along the way to thousands who had never be- 
fore' heard it from the lips of a Protestant minister. In 
Tuxpan the crowds that came to hear him could not be 
jiccommodated, and the house and the streets were full. 



The Beliglous Condition of the Jews of To- 
day. 

|The following are extracts from an address made by Rabbi E. G. HirKh in the 
e of Israelites and Christians, held in Chicago, 111., November as, i8go.] 



Let me ask you to disabuse your minds of the notion 
that the modern Jew belongs to a race distinct and dif- 
ferent from the race to which you belong. I emphasize 
the word Jew. We are Jews and wish to be known as 



such. We are not Hebrews ; at least we have no cer- 
tainty that we are. " Hebrew " is the race term, and 
you, my friends at the reporters* table, take this lesson 
with you to-night : that whenever you speak of me or 
my co-religionists you use the name which is our relig- 
ious name — " Jew " — and leave the " Hebrew " name to 
the archaeologist. 

We are not Hebrews. From the beginning of our 
history down to the present time elements that are not 
Hebrew have been mingled with our blood. If you 
read the account of the exodus from Egypt in the bibli- 
cal description you find that many non- Hebrews ac- 
companied the Jews out into the desert, and all through- 
out the biblical period many non-Hebrews were ab- 
sorbed by both the Judaic and the Israelitish national- 
ity. And later, in our dispersion, we have authority for 
the statement that very many proselytes were admitted; 
and thus again the pure racial character of the Jews 
was rendered less pure than it is generally supposed to 
be. At least, we do not desire to be known as a race. 
The racial affinity does not constitute a bond which 
binds the Jew to his fellow Jew throughout the world. 
Nor are we a political nation. A large portion of the 
Jews that live in western Europe and in America have 
entirely given up the belief and the hope of an ultimate 
national restoration. We are members of the nation 
where our cradle stood, or whither we have come from 
freedom of choice. My nationality is the American • 
nationality. [Applause.] Politically I owe allegiance 
to no other flag than the banner of liberty, the beau- 
teous flag reminding me of the stars of the heavens, the 
light of the sun, and the white palm of peace and of 
freedom. 

We Jews are 

A Religious Community, 
and the bond that unites the Jew to the Jew is a re- 
ligious tie. Being a religious community, we have not 
escaped the fate of other religious communities. We 
are divided, not into sects — for all of us have been careful 
to protest that the divisions are not so strong as to con- 
stitute lines which would separate us into different sects 
— but we are divided into parties, and, neglecting minor 
differences, we may be grouped into three grand divis- 
ions : First, the Orthodox Jews ; secondly, the Conserv- 
ative Jews ; thirdly, what we call Reformed Jews, or, as 
the Conservative and Orthodox call us, the Radical 
Jews. 

Orthodox Judaism is not distinct from radical Judaism 
in matter of creed. There is no Jewish creed that has 
authority the world all over. Never was a Jewish creed 
written, either by prophet or priest, by synod or by 
council, that the Jew being a Jew must blindly accept. 
In the early ages some philosophers have attempted to 
write creeds. Some of those creeds have found entrance 
into the prayer-book of the Jew, and are recited by the 
Jews to-day. But other philosophers, differing from 
those who wrote those creeds, summarized their tenets 
of belief in different form, and in fact every Jew has the 



120 



THE RELIGIOUS CONDITION Ol'" THE JEWS TODAY. 



private right of judgment and formulates his principles 
in language best suitable to himself and according to the 
light which he has. 

There are certain fundamental principles in which all 
Jews believe. We believe that the universe is the work 
of all-wise and all-governing and all-directing God. We 
believe that the world's history is guided by a purpose 
divine. We believe that righteousness and justice are 
the grand principles which should control men's actions, 
and we believe that every man is responsible to his con- 
science, and through his conscience to his God, for his 
actions. Those are the fundamental principles of 
[udaism the world all over. 

We believe that every man is created, to use a bib- 
lical phrase, ** in the image of God ; " that all men are 
** children unto God." Before the God whom Israel 
worships the world over there is no distinction between 
Jew and gentile ; between freeman and bondman ; be- 
tween strong and weak. They are all children unto one 
and the same Father. One God means, for the Jew, one 
humanity. We are not, then, divided on matters of be- 
lief. We are divided in matters of ])ractice. 

The Orthodox Jew 
believes that on Mount Sinai Moses received two rev- 
elations ; that one found body in the written law, and 
the other was handed down orally from generation to 
generation. The oral tradition was finally reduced to 
writing, and constitutes what is known as the Talmud, 
and the law derived from Talmudical discussions and Tal- 
mudical amplifications. While, for the orthodox Jew, 
God is the Father of all mankind, he has chosen Israel 
not to enjoy prerogatives, but to bear heavier bur- 
dens. He gave to the Jew his law That law is bind- 
ing upon the Jew alone. The Jew asks not why or what 
the reason is for his responsibility to these divine laws, 
but he knows that God gave these laws, and because 
God gave them, therefore he performs them. But the 
most orthodox Jew knows that if he be faithful to what 
the law demands, and therefore is entitled to enter the 
portals of immortality, the same right and the same glory 
is in store for the non-Jew who lives a righteous life. 
The eternal principles of morality, the life lived by 
Noah and in his family, are given to all mankind to 
practice and to live up to ; and the non-Jew, the right- 
eous man of non-Jewish birth and non-Jewish belief, 
will enter the portals of immortality and enjoy the felic- 
ity of the hereafter in as extended a degree as will the 
faithful Jew. 

This is distinct from the announcement of the Church 
fathers — that outside of the Church there is no salva- 
tion. The orthodox Jew practices his law and obeys 
the commandments of the law, but he knows he does 
not thereby earn a crown of higher glory than is in store 
for the non-Jew who practices the eternal principles of 
justice and of righteousness. [Applause.] 

The orthodox Jew, furthermore, believes that ulti- 
mately he will return to the land of his ancestors. Far 
away from Jerusalem, while the temple is in ruins, he 



cannot practice the whole law. Sacrifices and other 
priestly ordinances cannot be Carried out away from Jeru- 
salem. He bewails this fact. He is sorry for it, and 
he explains the dispersion of the Jews throughout the 
world as a punishment upon them for the sins of ibe* 
fathers. 

But he has a hope that one day a scion ofthc house of 
David will come, will gather the dispersed of Israel, and 
will take them back to their own country. There will be 
re-established the temple and re-founded the independent 
Jewish nationality. In other words, the orthodox Jew- 
expects and prays for the coming of a ** Messiah." But 
bear in mind that to the Jew, orthodox or not orthodox, 
the word " Messiah " never stands for a redeemer from 
original sin. In the old Bible the Messiah was- always 
a political ruler. To the orthodox Jew the Son of 
David that is prayed for and hoped for is the King who- 
will bring back the Jews to Jerusalem. That is the con- 
fident hope of the orthodox Jews; and when he comes,, 
then will be established, not merely in Jerusalem, but 
throughout the world, a reign of peace and a kingdom^ 
of love and of justice. That is, in brief description, the 
religious stand-point of the orthodox Jews. With thif,. 
what we call ** legalism," is bound up for the orthodox 
Jew the highest morality. The moral laws for him arc- 
sacred ; and while he prays for the coming of the time- 
when he can go home to his own land, he is, while stay- 
ing among the nations of the earth — wherever allowed 
by law — as faithful a citizen as citizen can be, and as 
devoted an inhabitant of the city where he dwells as an 
inhabitant of the city should and can be. No one ca^ 
deny this. 

That the orthodox Jews in the Middle .Ages cher- 
ished the belief of ultimate restoration is no reason for 
astonishment. They had no land that they cuuld call 
their own. They had no city where they were citizens. 
The poor Russian Jew to-day cannot claim that country 
as his own where his cradle stood. The past thus as- 
sumes glory for him, and he looks back to the destroyed 
temple as a light in the night, and to the land of the 
fathers as the central focus of his hope. There he will- 
be again a free man. There he will be allowed to ex- 
ercise all his faculties in behalf of his own and in behalf 
of all humanity. Russia denies him this right, and io 
the Middle Ages we were denied that right all over the 
world. Did not Isabella — to whom they will soon erect 
a statue in this city—did she not cast out 300,000 Jews- 
for no other reason than that they were Jews. Those 
Jews had no country that they could call their own ; 
and therefore they looked back longingly to the past, to- 
the land rendered sacred to them by the dust of their 
prophets and by the graves of their remote ancestors. 
[Applause.] 

The Russian Jew to-day, therefore, is orthodox as- 
yet, because to him the coming of the Messiah means 
freedom and opportunity ; the freedom of untrammeled 
manhood and the opportunity of full enjoyment of all 
the duties and the rights that go with manhood. [Ap* 
plause.] 



THE RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE JEWS TO-DAY. 



121 



On the other pole stand what we call 
The Reformed Jews, 
or the radical Jews. Born in Germany about fifty years 
ago, this movement is not distinct from orthodox Juda- 
ism in regard to the belief in God, or Providence, and 
in regard to the obligation to lead righteous lives, to 
follow the principles of morality. It is not distinct from 
orthodox Juadaism in its love for all mankind. Fanat- 
icism is never an attribute of the Jew. The Jew is tol- 
erant always as regards another race, and whatever in- 
tolerance he has is always exercised against those of his 
own creed or of his own religion. We are different 
merely from our orthodox brethren in regard to the 
question whether the law — the ceremonial law — is still 
obligatory upon us or not. We say it is not obligatory 
upon us. Some of the great reformers have drawn a dis- 
tinction between the ceremonial law and the moral law, 
and they saw that for the modern Jew the ceremonial 
law is no longer binding. Other reformers have drawn 
attention to the fact that what is called ** ceremonial 
law " is symbolism — that all these actions stand for ideas, 
and that what is symbolized in the law should now, 
without the symbol, be practiced as ideals and ideas by 
the Jews. We, the modem Jews, say that we do not wish 
to be restored to Palestine. We have given up the hope 
in the coming of a political, personal Messiah. We say 
** the country wherein we live is our Palestine, and the 
city wherein we dwell is our Jerusalem. [Applause.] 
We will not go back. We do not expect to go back to 
Palestine to again form a nationality of our own." 
Therefore we say : ** Not wishing this, our service should 
lose its Eastern character. Our religious life should be 
visible in the symbols and signs taken from our Western 
surroundings." 

The orthodox Jew is reminded constantly of a dis- 
tant home in the East. Every rite that he practices 
links him to Jerusalem or to Palestine. We, not wish- 
ing to go back to Jerusalem ; we, who have given up the 
belief in the coming of a personal Messiah, we say : 
** Let our religious life be clothed in the symbols of the 
life we see living round about us. Let our synagogues 
speak the language of our cities in which we dwell. Let 
our ceremonial be so constituted as to be in harmony 
with the culture and the flow of life by which*we are 
surrounded. We hope for the coming of the Messianic 
age. We hope for the dawn of that day when justice 
will reign supreme, and love will bind man unto man. 
That is the hope that we cherish. On that day the 
Lord God will be one and his name will be one." 

We lay stress on a life devoted to high principles of 
virtue and of righteousness. We say the Jew is here to 
exemplify the possibility and the beauty of a life devoted 
to righteousness. This is, according to our conception, 
the mission, or rather the message, of the Jew: to preach 
to the world the efficacy of righteousness and the beauty 
of a life devoted to duty; a life which knows higher prin- 
ciples than competition and selfishness ; a life which 
recognizes humanity as a band of fellows, working, co- 
operating one with the other, and who should share the 



fruitage of the common work one with the other; a life 
that knows no distinction of creed or of class ; a life that 
knows no distinction between the cultured and the un- 
cultured, a life of humanity, pure and simple. This, to 
illustrate, is our conception. The message that Judaism 
is to deliver to the world is the mission with which the 
Jew has been charged through his wonderful history by 
Him whose spirit governs history and guides the nations 
and the individuals according to his purposes, though in 
our blindness we may sometimes presume to thwart his 
ends ; and in our blindness sometimes we think we can 
direct our affairs in spite of the eternal laws according to 
which the worlds are built and the worlds are destroyed ; 
according to which empires come and empires go. 

Man in the service of God and in the service of hu- 
manity — that is the concept and precept of the religioi* 
that we call modern or radical Judaism. [Applause.} 

Between these two now stand the body called 

" Conservative Judaism." 

They share with us of the radical wing the belief in the 
ultimate triumph of righteousness, and they fail to ac- 
centuate in their liturgies and sacrifices, and have given 
up with us a belief in the coming of a personal redeemer 
as a political redeemer. But in their synagogues, if not 
in their lives, they still preserve certain ceremonies dear 
to them and dear to us as well, though we have given 
them to that decay which time brings with it. They 
still read more largely than we do their services in the 
language of the prophets and of the sages. They still 
keep the old festivals, and are especially urgent in main- 
taining as far as possible the Sabbath day on the seventh 
day of the week. We of the modern school, saying we 
live in the Western world, have taken a bold step — at 
least a few congregations have done so — and adopt, not 
officially, but at least by tacit consent, as the day for 
our religious meetings, the day which is sacred to you 
as the Lord's day. We have done this, however, not as 
a concession to Christianity, for we, just as little as our 
orthodox or conservative brethren, will concede the 
point that Western civilization is distinctively Christian, 
In one sense it is Christian, if ** Christian " stands for 
morality, stands for enlightenment, stands for love. But 
we say that the elements that are called Christian were 
with the Jews 700 years before Christianity was. As a 
Christian has said : ** Christ did not come when he 
came, but he came when , Isaiah preached, when Jer- 
emiah wrote his books, when the great prophets called 
out in tongues of fire to their people to do righteousness 
and to serve God in the spirit." 

All the elements that make civilization we claim we 
have, and the others have them, too. Therefore, if we 
concede the point to Western civilization, that living 
among you we observe with you a common day of rest, 
and consecrate it with religious services, we do not do 
this with an approaching to Christianity as a dogmatic 
religion. We merely accept the institution of the West- 
ern world as we find it, and Judaize it for us by coming 
together in our religious homes and by attempting to 



122 



AN APPEAL FOR HOME MISSIONS. 



study there the vast problems of our life and of the life 
of humanity. [Applause.] The conservative brethren 
do not go thus far. They lay stress upon their old Sab- 
bath, and they accentuate the old ritual a little more 
than we do. That is the extent of their conservatism. 

This, then, is the religious condition of modern Juda- 
ism. On the one pole, the so-called orthodox Jews be- 
lieve in the obligation to practice the law, hoping for the 
coming of a redeemer from political bondage. Next to 
them are the vast numbers of the conservatives, who 
have yielded theoretically all the points of difference be- 
tween us and the orthodox, but practically still accentu- 
ate the old ceremonies and the old language and the old 
festal days in their services. Finally, we of the radical 
school have yielded entirely to the destruction of time 
the ceremonial of the old synagogue, but cling with the 
old enthusiasm to the principles of righteousness, to the 
principles of an ethical Nonotheism — a belief in God as 
the Creator and Father — and in the essential unity of all 
mankind, preserving for the Jew merely this position : 
that he by his history is called to exemplify that which 
he teaches by the individual and by the organized life 
of the Jew and of Judaism. 

Now, what is our 

Attitude Toward Christianity? 
Believe not that the attitude is one of hostility. The 
orthodox Jew, believing Providence, will concede will- 
ingly that such a movement as Christianity came with 
the blessing of Providence, and blessed the world. Or- 
thodox writers of the Middle Ages have written this. 
They have recognized that Christianity is a daughter of 
Judaism, and that she carried out many a seed germ of 
truth into the world, and that the world was reclaimed 
through that which the daughter brought from the mother 
— ^a higher conception of life and abetter humanity than 
that is where Christianity has not come. And if the 
orthodox Jew recognizes this, the modern Jew is not less 
loth to acknowledge a great service to humanity by 
Christianity. We are in fact in the closest sympathy 
with that form of Christianity known as Unitarianism. 
With the Christianity of Jesus, in other words, we have 
strong points of affinity, but we cannot have and have 
not understanding, in the first place, of what is known as 
the Christianity of St Paul. We are not hostile to 
Christianity of the Paulinian kind and character, but 
we simply do not understand it, and never will under- 
stand it 

Ad Appeal for Home Missions. 

BY BISHOP D. A. GOODSELL, D.D. 
The General Missionary Committee at its recent session ap- 
pointed Bishop Newman to write an appeal for Foreign Mis- 
sion, and Bishop Goodsell to write in behalf of Home Mis- 
sions. Last month we printed the appeal for Foreign Mis- 
sions. Now that for Home Missions. Let these papers be 
read in all the churches and in all the Sabbath-schools every- 
where. 

To make the United States truly Christian is to give 



Jesus Christ the headship of the world. By a law man- 
ifest for centuries the leadership of the race moves 
westward. American ideas penetrate and control in 
rapidly increasing proportion the civilized peoples. No 
backward glance is to be seen among them. Our ex- 
periments guide and modify society. The Hebrew on 
our soil must be something more than a Jew. Rome 
herself cannot be here wholly Roman. All the nations 
are in our school, and so are being made ready to 
teach. 

A tolerant Christianity is a universal solvent. An op- 
portunity to speak it is the death of a half truth. Here 
the German is taught the difference between his war 
lord and the sovereignty of the people. Though the 
It.ilian may be without faith at home, he often returns 
to belief in a land where service and not mastery is the 
law of church life. The Scandinavian who has been 
given by his education a Protestantism more spiritually 
dead than Romanism itself here often learns that 
Christ's words are ** spirit and life," and blesses his an- 
cestral Church by repeating his lesson in his father- 
land. Touching the world as we do by receiving^ 
training, and assimilating the incoming millions, not too 
much is said in saying, " To make the United States 
truly Christian is to give Christ the headship of the 
world." 

To this end we, as our fathers, seek a league offensive 
and defensive with all who love Christ. Endowed with 
truths no Ignger only ours, and with a polity fruitful in 
initial impulse, and keeping at the front, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church has been, is, and must be a leader in 
home mission work. We must hear the Master saj 
** Go," but we must also hear him say, *' Occupy till I 
come." As our old frontiers are Christianized the for- 
eign populations create for us a new field. The Cana- 
dian, the Italian, the Scandinavian, the Russian and 
Polish Jew, the Chinese and Japanese, and a score 
of other peoples scattered every-where are to be made 
Americans. Rome can only make half-hearted Amer- 
icans. Protestantism gives its whole heart to the na- 
tion. Whether these immigrants, whose hatred of old 
restraints brings all government into contempt, shall 
become ulcers or organs, we determine. Our own 
Churcif can say whether the ferment of our national life 
shall be nihilist or Christian. We touch the masses, 
we lead reforms, we have suffered division for freedom's 
sake. We have a great message to those who fly away 
from poverty, oppression, and error. 

But our work is by no means done among our people 
of foreign birth. The restlessness of our American 
blood gives us two frontiers: one moving from the east 
westward; the other, from the west eastward. A wide 
strip, yet to be peopled, where the winter torrents are 
checked and pass out over the summer-scorched plains, 
lies open before the workers of the next generation. 
But we have to do to-day with Utah, with its mongrel 
religion and alien people; with Arizona, where nature 
holds precious secrets of soil and history. Here scen- 
ery, climatic conditions, social customs, nomadic life. 



strangely mimic the ancient Holy Land, while the pagan- 
ism of the Apache, the Pima, the Pah-Ute, the Navajo 
is made more accursed by the godlessness of the gambler 
and desperado — an appalling mixture, oniy imperfectly 
under the eye, even of a pure Christianity. We have to- 
day to do also with New Mexico, where scores of thou- 
sands of citizens of the United States are little changed 
in speech or way of life or thinking from the days of 
their Spanish allegiance. For the most part they are 
peculiarly dominated by a priesthood which does not 
hesitate to be ** of this world ** whenever a blow can be 
struck against free schools or the assimilation of Amer- 
ican ideas. The history of New Mexico shows that 
education has been given the New Mexicans by the 
Roman Church only as the stimulus of fear was sup- 
plied by the schools and the preaching of the Protestant 
missionary. Here thirty Spanish-speaking preachers of 
Mexican ancestry have gathered 1,400 communicants 
whose churches stand for the headship of Christ and 
the sovereignty of the nation. They labor in an atmos- 
phere as thick with bigotry as that of old Spain. Old 
Mexico knows more of hope and progress than this ter- 
ritory soon to be a State of the Union. Nowhere can 
the call be louder than here in our own land, in Terri- 
tories over which a wave of Spanish Catholicism passed 
three centuries ago, leaving a more bigoted reactionary 
Romanism behind than elsewhere on the continent, 
Rome in Mexico feels the repressive forces of the gov- 
ernment. Our freedom nourishes those whose use of 
liberty is against its life. 

Nor may we forget the needs of those brethren who 
push northward from Oregon and westward from all 
the States into Washington. There towns spring up in 
a day, and people outstrip the itinerant. This new 
soil promises rich rewards to the laborer of the future; 
but to-day it is chiefly a missionary field where the lone- 
ly rider and the saddle-bags repeat the history of our 
ancient victories. ** More men, more bread/* these are 
the cries heard across the breadth of the continent. 

The mining States, Colorado^ Montana, Idaho, Neva- 
da, are fecund fields for our home work. Here, with a 
severe climate, some of our pastors* families smilingly 
live in tents and dug-outs until the husband and father 
preaches, prays, and sings his way into church and par- 
sonage. More than one have the Bishops sent to $250 
per annum and a chance to save souls. I have one in 
mind now whose circuit was well named ** Hope," for 
there was neither salary, parsonage, church, nor congre- 
gation but where all these were the fruition of a year's 
toil. All that the fathers knew of loneliness, poverty, 
way-side hospitality, fording rivers, separation from 
family life, our laborers here know. At a recent Con- 
ference in Arizona one pastor, with his wife and babe, 
rode 350 miles to Conference. Three weeks they slept 
beneath the stars, and three days they waited for their 
horse 10 recover from the bite of a rattle-snake. And 
another pastor and his bride have gone up and down 
the Gila River, without home or church, giving the 
b^ead of life to the poor new-comer in that land of 




cactus and papago, and wept glad tears as they told how 
Christ had given them victory. Shall our brethren of 
Oklahoma be forgotten, whose great successes are be- 
yond all prophecy* and where in a quadrennium a Con- 
ference may be born on soil only just released from In* 
dian control? 

Our Church has sinned, I fear, in doing so little for 
our Indian population. This time of quickened inter- 
est ought to set the Church to larger effort to prepare 
these for the inevitable incorporation into the mass of 
American citizenship of these ancient owners of the 
soil The central idea of Christianity — a Divine Deliv- 
erer — has so far entered their thought that in their de* 
spair they invoke in ghost-dances the succor of the 
Great Spirit i Let us give them the real Christ of 
peace, love* and brotherhood. This alone can give 
permanent success to our efforts to make them worthy 
of ownership and civil rights. We have reached the 
point where the final choice must be made between the 
Gospel and the Gatling gun. 

And what of the work among the whites of the South, 
who invited us to come and beg us to remain because 
the old Church gives them, ai they believe, a wider 
brotherhood and a true interpretation of the meaning 
of the words, *■ God hath made of one blood all the na- 
tions of the earth?" And what of our obligations to 
the negro race on our own soil ? Suddenly clothed 
with citizenship, inebriated with freedom, cursed with 
slavery's morals, slavery's ignorance, and slavery's cring- 
ing, blood -guiltiness would be ours if we were not help- 
fully close to these who were freed at a moment when 
there was little ability, and in some localities disposi- 
tion, to help them in the States of their birth. Not- 
withstanding all the quickened conscience and pro- 
gressive legislation of the South, there will be need for 
twenty years yet for all we can do in education or 
church work before the best results can be seen among 
those who are and will continue to be American citizens. 
The victims of the avarice of the white race, they must 
be blessed by the Christian love of those who accepted 
the labors of their bondage. In these the whole nation 
had part, and the work of lifting them to full manhood 
deserves the sympathy of all people. 

May the Church know to its utmost bounds what all 
unprejudiced observers admit, that no labors are more 
richly repaid than those for the education and religious 
training of our native-born citizens of African descent, 
A quarter of a century has raised up Conferences which 
hardly need the touch of a guiding hand in the conduct 
of their business. The same years have seen the devel- 
opment of a people who see the wrong of the color-line, 
whether drawn from one side or the other, and who 
show increasingly high moral results in conformity to 
the whole law of God. 

I write these words while speeding across the conti- 
nent toward **Far Cathay/* I go from the newest to 
the oldest ; from all that is progressive to all that is 
stationary. 1 know my heart will be strangely warmed 
toward those whose heaven is Nirvana atid whose Christ 



124 



ROMAN CATHOLIC STATISTICS, 



is Buddha. I know God will give me tears for those 
who sit in darkness. I will surely bring home a large 
store of deepened interest in those who need only the 
ferment of the Gospel to stir themselves and their great 
land from the sleep of ages. When I stand by Wiley's 
grave and walk in the footsteps of Maclay and greet the 
holy band who for love of the Lord are shining forth the 
Christ-light in China's darkness, I know I shall feel the 
thrill of a broader life. A strange joy will fill my heart 
as I hear the hymns of my childhood ringing out in 
Foochow, Peking, Tokyo, Seoul. In speech I may not 
understand, but with a spirit I shall surely interpret; 
and I hope to plead the better for these lands for what 
God may teach me among my Christian kin beyond the 
seas. 

But I shall not forget there or in time or eternity the 
many who suffer for Christ at home in poverty, loneli- 
ness, and danger ; or others whose Christian self-sacri- 
fice calls out the gifts of a Church developed and con- 
served by a faithful home ministry. Their Christian 
liberality makes foreign missions possible. Their la- 
bors magnify the Church which sent forth the laborers 
I go to cheer. **The earth is the Lord's, and the full- 
ness thereof." 



Roman Catholic Statistics. 

The sacred congregation of the propaganda, Rome, 
has issued its annual report, giving the statistics of the 
Roman Catholic Church throughout the world. The fol- 
lowing are the figures for the United States, Great Brit- 
ain, and Ireland : United States, Catholics, 8,168,668 ; 
priests, 7,657; churches, 7,072 ; chapels, 1,658; paro- 
chial schools, 3,600 ; scholars, 543,197 ; charitable insti- 
tutions, 514. Ireland has 3,808,696 Catholics, 2,558 
churches and chapels, 1,097 parish churches, 3,290 
priests, 5,394 schools, and 18 seminaries. England has, 
Catholics, 1,352,278; priests, 2,447 ; churches, 1,324. 
In Scotland there are 336,643 Catholics, of whom nearly 
two thirds are in the archdiocese of Glasgow, 304 
churches, 348 priests, 310 schools, and 2 seminaries. 

In Australia and Tasmania there are 770,260 Catholics. 
There are 1,387 churches and chapels, 594 priests, 707 
schools, 74,734 scholars, and 3 seminaries. In Oceanica 
there are 164,120 members of the Church of Rome. 
They have 638 churches and chapels, 243 priests, 314 
educational institutions, and 18 charitable institutions. 
British America has 2,070,531 Catholics, 2,155 churches 
and chapels, 2,361 priests, 4,940 educational institutions, 
112 charitable institutions, and 19 seminaries. The 
Catholics of Korea and Japan number 40,930, the 
churches are 114, and the stations — churches without 
resident pastors-7-499. The Chinese Empire has 549,246 
Catholics, 2,838 churches and chapels, 638 European 
missionaries, 342 native priests, 2,512 schools, 43,841 
scholars, and 43 seminaries, which have 960 students. 
Catechumens, or those in preparation for admission into 
the Catholic Church, are not included in these figures. 
The number of Catholics in the East Indies is 1,030,252; 



primary stations, 544 ; churches and chapels, 3,891 ; 
educational institutions, 1,282, attended by 74,200 pu- 
pils ; 15 seminaries, with 585 students; 636 European 
missionaries, 235 native priests, and 115 orphan asylums. 

The Mission of Cimbebasia, Africa, was established 
in 1879. In 1886 the French Congo Mission was estab- 
lished. It has only 500 Catholics, but the report says 
there are no heretics. The fathers of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary direct the Belgian Congo Mission, which 
was founded in 1888. There are about 60 native Cath- 
olics. The viscomte-apostolic of Upper Congo, which 
is served by the Algerian missionaries, was established 
ten years ago; but that of Lower Congo dates from 
June 27, 1640. All of Africa that is dependent on the 
propaganda has 377,400 Catholics, 274 stations, 709 
churches and chapels, 743 priests, 966 educational in- 
stitutions, and 128 charitable institutions* 

Another department of the report shows how the 
world is supplied with missionaries. There are numer- 
ous colleges especially for this purpose. St. Peter's and 
St. Paul's, established in Rome 1867, has 3 students in 
the seminary and 18 in the missions; the English col- 
lege, 24 ; the Scots college, 24 ; the Irish college, 36 ; 
the American college, 65; the Canadian college, 18. 
Of the colleges outside of Rome the Lyons Seminary 
for African Missions has 68 students ; the Milan Semi- 
nary for foreign missions, 17 ; the Verona Seminary, 13; 
the Albanese College, 27 ; the American College, Lou- 
vain, 65 students in the seminary and 398 in the mis- 
sions, of whom 10 are bishops ; and the Irish College, 
Paris, 100. There are many other colleges from which 
priests are sent to perform missionary labors. 



Swearing Friendship in Upper Burma. 

The Illustrated London News gave last year an ac- 
count of the British military expedition up the highlands 
of the Lushai country to bring into subjection some hos- 
tile tribes. The expedition was successful, and an 
illustration is given of a curious and interesting cere- 
mony performed on the Banks of the Klang River. One 
of the Lushai chiefs, by name Mompunga, came down 
to take an oath of friendship with Mr. Murray, the polit- 
ical officer. A clear space was made in the jungle, and 
plantain- leaves strewn on the ground. The chief, his 
brother, and attendants seated themselves in a row, 
facing a young pig and a gyal or tame bison, which were 
tied to a tree. After a short parley the chief rose and, 
taking a spear, handed it to Mr. Murray, and they both 
plunged it into the pig. The chief then smeared some 
of the pig's blood on Mr. Murray's forehead, and Mr. 
Murray returned the compliment. A similar ceremony 
was performed with the gyal. The chief then said : 
** Until the sun ceases to shine in the heavens, and until 
yonder stream runs backward, I will be your true and 
faithful friend." Potations of rice, beer, and rum con- 
cluded the ceremony. An oath taken in this manner is 
considered by the Lushais most binding, and they are 
seldom known to break it. 



126 



THE CENSUS OF RELIGIOUS BODIES. 



\mt\i% atib Sorittus* 



Tile €cti«ii» omeUifloUfi Bodlea. 

The following is an abstract from the 
first mst aliment of statistics of religious 
bodies ill the United States, issued from 

the Census Office at Washington. They 

were gathered under the direction of Dr. 
H. K. CarroH, They give the summary 
by States and Territories. 

1. —United Prerbyterian Church 
OF North America. 

California. lO i,ao3 

Colorado,.,,.,.-. ».,.. 4I S37 

Connecticut ...**..<i I 1^4 

lUiaois, , . , .P 61 6,529 

Indiana 29 3iS4^ 

'Iowa * , ,, 9B 7.769 

Kansas -....*, 4® ^M^ 

Maryland.... t 171 

Massachusetts. ,.*..,. , 7 Xi^55 

Michigan. ...,,,* ii 646 

Minnesota.*.*...!.*. ♦. 13 

Missouri,***.. »..*.-. ...-. 14 I,06S 

Nebraska. * 25 2,173 

New Jersey. . * . . 6 685 

New York 62 9,719 

North Dakota .....*,. i 8 

Ohio ..*.,............ 136 14,710 

Oregon «,,..,.... 5 412 

Pennsylvania,,* ,*.,.... »... 283 39*204 

Rhode Island. ...... ... I 320 

South Dakota. 2 59 

Tennessee. ♦•,,,,»... 6 465 

Vermont,,*. 3 219 

Washington.,. 3 103 

West Virginia, 6 530 

WiscoR&ui.... .....,«*... ,,« 8 432 

Total %y%\ 94,402 

IL— Church of thf. Nfw Jerusalem 

{SWKDKNmjRGIAM). 

Arkansas, ..^,,... *.- i 3 

California ... ^ ,..,*,,,.«,,. . 3 347 

Colorado.,, ,,. i 41 

Conn^qMCUt. * . _ ♦ , ., . . * 2i 

Delaware ........ ....... I 50 

District of Col tini I Mn ,..«.. ^ ... 93 

Florida.. .,«.....,..., -./ 30 

Georgia I 4S 

Illinois. , 10 541 

Indiana. ....... 4 104 

Iowa...*.. ..,,...,**. 3) 13& 

Kansas, . ^ .,*«,, , , « „ 1 62 

Kentucky ,,,.*...,*......, ^ , , 61 

Maine,,., 3 sSg 

Maryland..,,...,..,....... 41^ 344 

Massachusetts. . . , , . . , \% 1,684 

Michigan . , * ... . , 4 163 

Minnesota.,,......,.,,.,.. a So 

Missouri,.,.,, 4 309 

New Hampshire .,*..*.,.,., . , _ 42 

New Jersey. » 4 335 

New York. ...«»,*.*..,.* ^. 5 560 

Ohio,...*.,..*,*,.,, *,.. . 8 657 



Oregon ...».*.*.*.,,,**,»., i 45 

Pennsylvania. * «*••-< 4 774 

Rhode IsLind* •.,*..,,,*,., 3 I30 

Tennessee * , , , , i 64 

Texas. .,*.«,.««*,., «^ ..... i 40 

Virginia. ,*«... ] 64 

Wisconsin^ >».............. **y 43 

Tolal 87f 7,095 

III.— Cathouc Apostolic Churck. 

Califomta,,., . ^« ,,.,.,. , SB 

Connect! cut *,•♦,» „ i 186 

Illinois. .,.,..«,....,.,« »,, ... 155 

Massachusetts . ..,....,* 70 

New York, . , ..,.,,„ 2 S22 

Pennsylvania. .-.,*. ... 73 

Total, ..^.,^*, ,,. ,««,« 3 1 .394 

rv.— The Salvation Army. 

California * ^ 3 310 

Colorado. .,,#,,* £ 214 

Connecticut.,.,,.,,* , 3 303 

Delaware 153 

District of Columbia , 33 

Illinois ,„ I 922 

Indiana, ,*,.,*,,,.,,,,,«« , .«, 104 

Iowa. ,,...,...*-,-*,,,,,, . „ 3S7 

Kansas* .,..,.,,.., , 307 

Maine,,,,,*. ,,<.,,,, .p., p., ,,, 265 

Maryland, ,*,.,*,.,., ,,.,.., 4 213 

Massachui^etts. .,......,,,. i 656 

Michigan. ..,,, 5 1,099 

Minnesota. .**,,,....,.,.., 3 450 

Missouri, ,.*...,,, , , , , 340 

Montana., , ,,, 30 

Nebraska, ,,.,«.,.,,, , , * 19 

New Hampshire. , , , , 36 

New Jersey, , , , 156 

New York .....,,.,,.,,,,,. , , , 615 

North Carolina. , ,..,***.,,, 3 59 

Ohio »..,^,,*,., I 65s 

O^fion ,.,,*.* .,p 44 

Pennsylvania . .,,,,,. 3 772 

Fthode I sland ,,,,...,_.*,,, ,,, 31; 

South Dakota . ,.,....,,.,,, ... 41 

Texas.,. ,.,,.,,..,*. .,. 15 

Utah. - 4 

Virginia., ....,„ r 54 

Washington, .,,...,. , , , , 156 

West Virginia. .«.«.,....,,. , , , 7 

Wisconsin, h, ...,»,, .... „, 323 

Total,,... 37 S,663 

V,— Advent CHRrSTJAN Church. 

Alalmma. ,,*,,.* , * . ^ , , . . . . 13J 68S 

Arkansas. ,,..*.,. 6 671 

California *.,,..,,,, ,,*,.,, 8 558 

Connecticut ,,,. 21 1,358 

Florida ,....,. 1 60 

Georgia. ...,...-. 5 S73 

Illinois . ,,,,,,,.,.. 14 1,019 

Indiana. .*,....,,.,.,,,,„., 7 455 

towa , 14 1,272 

Kansas. .,.,,,.,,,...,..,.., 3 990 

Lotii.siana. ...,.*.. — i 51 

Maine,,., ,,., 38^ 2.317 

Massaclm^t'tis. ,..,,..,,-.,, 31 3,6f I 



Michigan ... .......... 7 591 

Minnesota..,.,,, ...». 9 710 

M ississippi. . ....,.,.,,•.,. . . , • 30 

Missopri.,. ,.,,*.,.,,., ..,, § 330 

Nebraska,.,. ,,,,*,, **« 9S 

New Hampshire. * . .* 36 i»978 

New York. , - , 10 1,04b 

North Carolina .....,.,*,..* 15 1,549 

Ohio..,,.,.,..,, »,, 17 953 

Oregon .,.,..*, i^^ 133 

Pennsylvania ,.,,*,* S ] 469 

Rhode Island . ,...,,....,.. lO 950 

South Carolina .. . . , 6^ Bit 

South Dakota. i 163 

Tennessee. ................ 3 185 

Texas.* ..* ...„ I 331 

Utah,.,.,..,,.,,, a 

Vermont I4f 1,079 

Virginia ..,* 2 165 

Washington. .,.., i 129 

West Virginia, 6 6B1 

Wisconsin. .,.,., 13 613 

Total, ,,,,,..,*. 294+ 25,816 

VI,— Eyancelical ADVENTISTS, 

Massachusetts. .,,,,,« 3 lyb 

Penn?;yWanJa , 15 J 509 

Rhode Island, ..,.,,,,..... 3 323 

Vermont. , , ,. 3 163 



Total, 



32l 1,147 



VIL— Life and Advent Union (Ad- 

VENHSTS). 

Connecticut . , , . ,.,.»,« ^ 1 343 

Delaware* ,.,.«..., ^ ,...., . , . . 75 

Iowa.,.*,,,.. , 30 

Maine...,,.,. 3 ]&8 

Massachusetts 3 177 

New Jersey. ..,.,,,,,,.. .,. i 56 

New York , , ,* i 140 

Rhode Island , , . . . , , 75 

Virginia ,.....,* ^ .* , , . 44 



Total. 



7+ t,oiS 



VIII.— Seventh-Day Baptists, 



Alabama 

Arkansas ,.•.....« 1, , « 

Connecticut .. 1. , ^ ....,».» . 
Florida, .,,.,.«,.,. .«..*. 

Idaho. ....,,, ^,... .. „ 

Illinois. .,*..,,.......,... 

Iowa, ,,.,«,. ,,. 

Kansas. .« , 

Kentucky *,.,,., ... 

Louisiana ..,,., , 

Minnesota, ... ,,...«, 

Mississippi *....... ... 

M insouri ,........,,, i 

Nebraska *,.,..,...,,. 3 

New Jersey, .,,,... , , ,. 5 

New York ,., ,,.,, a4j 

North Carolina * , , 

Ohio , 1 

Pennsylvania. . . , *,,,,., 4 

Rhode Island , , . . 7 

South Dakota. i 



3 



II 
60 

103 

14 

38 

330 
169 

329 

6 

36 
346 

33 

13 

267 

745 

3i274 

10 

131 

234 

1*271 

38 



FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. 



127 



Cbnrek Mats or 
•difioM. iDMOban. 

Texas 50 

West Virginia 8 767 

Wisconsin 9 1,078 

Total 78J 9,123 

IX.— Seventh-Day Baptists (Ger- 
man). 
Pennsylvania 3| 194 

X.— General Six Principle Bap- 
tists. 

Massachusetts 4 

Pennsylvania 3 218 

Rhode Island io| 715 

Total 13J 937 

XL— Christian Church, South. 

Alabama 9 687 

Georgia ...• i 97 

North Carolina 89 7.840 

Virginia 36 4,380 

Total 135 13,004 

XII.— SCHWENKFELDIANS. 
Pennsylvania 6 306 

XIII.— Theosophical Society. 

California x 216 

Connecticut 13 

District of Columbia 9 

Illinois. 68 

Indiana 5 

Iowa 48 

Louisiana • 10 

Maryland 5 

Massachusetts 57 

Michigan 8 

Minnesota 10 

Missouri 13 

Nebraska 41 

NewYork 97 

Ohk) 52 

Pennsylvania 25 

^whington 9 

Wisconsin 9 

Total I 695 

XIV.— Brethren in Christ (River 
Brethren). 

IDinois 6 181 

^»<Ji»na If 130 

^o*» 40 

Kansas 5 588 

Michipm 2 52 

New York x 32 

^ 9i 410 

^eansylrania 9 647 

Total 34 2,080 

'•v«IC]i niMloiui of tlie Disciples of 
cnarlst. 

The Disciples of Christ, constituting 
"The Church of Christ," report 3.600 
"ministers, 7,250 churches, and 750,000 
Communicants in the Independent of July, 
^^ Rev. Dr. A. McLean, Secretary 
^f their Missionary Society, writes, Sep- 



tember 1, 1890 : •• It is not easy to give ex- 
act statistics. The best I can do is as 
follows : 

Number of ministers StSM 

Number of churches. ....... 6,859 

Number of communicants... .654,771 " 

The Church does its home missionary 
work through the General Christian Mis- 
sionary Convention, Rev. R. Moffett, Cor- 
responding Secretary, 715 Logan Avenue, 
Cleveland, O. 

The foreign work is under the direction 
of the Foreign Christian Missionary So- 
ciety, Rev. A. McLean, Corresponding 
Secretary, room 55, Johnson Building, cor- 
ner Fifth and Walnut Streets. Cincin- 
nati, O. 

Intelligence concerning the mission 
work is published in the Missionary In- 
telligencer, issued monthly at Cincinnati, 
O. ; price, 50 cents. 

The treasurer of the foreign society 
reported, October 18, 1890, that the re- 
ceipts for the year then closing had been 
$67,750.49 ; which, united with the bal- 
ance in hand at the commencement of 
the year of $4,997.61, gave a fund of 
$72,748.10. The disbursements were 
$63,050.57 ; leaving a balance of $9,- 

697.53. 

The home expense account was for 

Missiotiary Intelligencer. . .$421.14 

Annual Report. 125.00 

Rent of mission-room 200.00 

Salary of secretary 1,500.00 

Travel 326.II 

Printing, postage, station- 
ery, telegraph 794-76 

Total $3,367.01 

The home expenses were about five 
per cent of the receipts for the year. The 
membership of the Church gave an aver- 
age of ten cents per member for foreign 
missions. 

Statistics of Foreign Missions. 

Buaday-fleliool Dar-aolieol 
MiMtoa. OommontoaBta. SehoUn. Scnolut. 

India.... 47 683 172 

Japan.... 179 633 144 

China.... 16 92 56 

Turkey.. 646 655 445 

Denmark. 131 120 120 

England . 1,400 1.5 11 862 

The Mission in England raised $4,146 
toward self-support ; Denmark, $256 ; 
Turkey, $50; Japan, $87; India, $45. 
During the year new members were re- 
ceived as follows : India, 28 ; Japan, 42 ; 
China, 13; Turkey, 75; Denmark, 12; 
England, 207. 

The following are the names and ad- 
dresses of the foreign missionaries : 

Central Provinces, India. 
G. L. Wharton and wife (home on fur- 
lough) ; Dr. C. S. Durand and wife, Hur- 



da ; Miss Helen Levermore, Hurda ; Miss 
Sue A. Robinson, Hurda ; six native help- 
ers, Hurda ; M. D. Adams and wife, Bil- 
aspur; one native helper, Bilaspur; G. 
W. Jackson and wife, Mungeli. 

Japan. 
G. T. Smith and wife, Tokyo; Miss 
Kate V. Johnson, Tokyo; Miss Calla 
Harrison, Tokyo; two helpers; C. E. 
Garst and wife, Shonai, Yamagata Ken ; 
Eugene Snodgrass and wife, Tokyo. 

China. 
W. E. Maclin, M.D., Nanking, care local 
post, Shanghai ; E. T. Williams and wife, 
Nanking, care local post, Shanghai ; F. E. 
Meigs and wife, Nanking, care local post, 
Shanghai ; E. P. Heamden, Nanking, 
care local post, Shanghai ; A. F. H. Saw, 
Nanking, care local post, Shanghai ; 
Thomas Arnold, Nanking, care local post, 
Shanghai; W. R. Hunt, Nanking, care 
local post, Shanghai ; C. E. Molland and 
wife, Wuhu; James Ware, No. 3 Soo- 
chow Road, Shanghai; W. P. Bentley 
and wife, Nanking, care local post, Shang- 
hai; Miss Rose Sickler, Nanking, care 
local post, Shanghai ; two helpers. 

Turkey. 
G. N. Shishmanian. care German Inv- 
perial Post-office, Constantinople ; Gara- 
bed Kevorkian, Marsivan; Hohannes 
Karagiozian, Marash, Cilicia; eleven 
helpers. 

Denmark. 

A. Hoick, Sophievej, No. 5, Copen- 
hagen ; O. C. Mikkelsen, Slotgade 20, 4 
Sal., Copenhagen. 



Norway, 



Four helpers. 

England. 

W. T. Moore, 102 Cambridge Gardens, 
North Kensington, London; H. S. Earl, 6 
Devonshire Road, Princes Park. Liverpool; 
W. Durban, 16 Holcroft Pavement, Ful- 
ham, London, S. W. ; J. E. Powell, Denby 
Dale, The Polygon, Southampton; J. J, 
Haley, No. 12 Park Road South, Birken- 
head; F. W. Troy, No. 7 Montpelicr 
Grove, Cheltenham ; John Maxted, 4 Pel- 
latt Villas, Pellatt Grove, Wood Greenl 
London, N. ; A. J. L. Gliddon, 5 Imperia, 
Square, Cheltenham ; one helper 



BiMCUsli Strict Baptist Foreign IHls- 
•lon. 

The Strict Baptist Church, of England, 
commenced its foreign mission work in 
1861, when it sent its first missionary to 
India. Its foreign work is now supported 
by upward of sixty churches at home be- 
sides those in Australia. 

Secretary, Mr. Josiah Bris 



128 



FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH. 



vernor Road, Highbury Park, London, N., 
England. 

The receipts of the Foreign Board for 
ihe year 1889 were /912 13J. %d. ; the ex- 
penditures were ^596 145. \od., leaving a 
balance of £,yil i8j. \od, in the treasurer's 
iiands* 

No official expenses are incurred at home 
beyond the items of printing, postage, ad- 
vertisements, and committee-room. The 
printing account was £p,\ ^s. id., and the 
others /lo 05, lod., a total of ^34 9J. i id,, 
being about three and three quarters per 
cent, of the amount of the receipts. 

The Olive Branch is the organ of the 
Missionary Society, and is intended chiefly 
for the children. 

The only foreign missions are in India 
and Ceylon. 

The superintendent is Mr. H. F. Doll, 
Madras. The missionaries are : 

Mr. H. F. Doll and wife, Madras. 

Mr. Walter Doll and wife. North Tin- 
nerelly. 

Mr. Noble and wife, Colombo. 

In the India Mission arc reported 17 
stations, 31 workers, 379 church members, 
15 schools, with 431 scholars. 

In the Ceylon Mission are 6 stations. 1 1 
workers, 41 members, 7 schools, with 205 
scholars. 

The foreign work is in charge of *' The 
Strict Baptist Mission." It is conducted 
by a committee composed of members of 
Particular and Strict Baptist Churches, 
and the following is the doctrinal basis by 
which it is governed : 

1. The equality and distinct personality 
of the Father, the Word, and the Holy 
Ghost, in the unity of the Godhead. 

2. Eternal and personal election unto 
salvation. 

3. The fall of mankind in Adam — their 
guilt and condemnation — together with 
their entire and universal depravity, by 
which they were utterly alienated from 
God, and are unable, in and of themselves, 
to turn to him. 

4. Particular redemption by the vica- 
rious sacrifice of Christ. 

5. Justification by grace, through faith, 
by the imputed righteousness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

6. Regeneration and sanctification by the 
direct agency of the Holy Spirit, through 
the instrumentality of divine truth; and 
that saving faith is not a legal duty, but 
the sovereign and gracious gift of God. 

7. The absolute necessity for a holy life, 
as the result of true faith and the evidence 
of regeneration. 

8. The final perseverance of true be- 
lievers. 

9. The resurrection of the dead, and 
the universal judgment. 



10. The everlasting punishment of the 
wicked, and the everlasting happiness of 
the righteous. 

11. The duty of preaching the Gospel 
to every creature of the fallen race of 
Adam. 

12. The necessity of baptism by immer- 
sion, on a profession of repentance and 
faith, in order to church fellowship and 
admission to the Lord's table. 

13. The congregational order of the 
churches. 



Forelcn IVImloiM of tlie IVetlioAlst 
Protestant Cliarch. 

The Methodist Protestant Church com- 
menced its foreign mission work under its 
Board of Missions in 1880. The Board 
of Missions was divided in 1888 into a 
Foreign and a Domestic Board. The 
Secretary of the Foreign Board is Rev. 
F. T. Tagg, Easton, Md. The foreign 
missions are in Yokohama and Nagoya, 
Japan. 

The report of the Japan mission shows : 

Church Members 210 

Sunday-school Scholars 200 

Mission-school Scholars 40 ' 

Value of Properly $16,000 

The Missionaries are : 

Rev. T. H. Colhouer, D.D., and wife, 
Yokohama. 

Rev A. R. Morgan and wife, Yokohama. 

Rev. F. C. Klein and wife, Nagoya. 

Rev. L. L. Albright and wife, Nagoya. 

Rev. E. H. Vandyke and wife, Nagoya. 

The treasurer reported May i, 1890, 
that the receipts for the year had been 
$14,711.82, which with the cash balance 
of $2,058.76 on hand May i, 1889, gave a 
total of $16,770.58. The disbursements 
had been $15,620.14. leaving a balance of 
$1,150.44. The receipts for foreign Mis- 
sions averaged ten cents per member. 

The Board publishes a paper monthly, 
called The Missionary Bulletin, price, 
twenty-five cents. It is published at 
Easton, Md., and edited by the Corre- 
sponding Secretary. 

The Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society, Mrs. J. J. Murray, Secretary. 1 1 5 
North Liberty Street, Baltimore, Md.. 
reports in Japan tour missionaries : 

Miss J. R. Whetstone, Nagoya. 

Miss Anna L. Forest, Nagoya. 

Miss M. M. Bonnett. Yokohama. 

Mrs. J. Kimball, Yokohama. 

These missionaries report in the Yoko- 
hama school 90 scholars, and in the Na- 
goya school 20 scholars. 

The Society publishes the Woman s 
Missionary Record, Mrs. M. A. Miller. 
editor. Pittsburg, Pa. It is a monthly^ 
price fifty cents a year. 



Tlie American Baptist BIlMiloBarf 
tTnloii. 

The American Baptist Missionary 
Union has its head-quarters at Tremont 
Temple, Boston, Mass., with Mr. E. P. 
Coleman as Treasurer and Rev. John N. 
Murdock, D.D., and Rev. Henry C. Mabie, 
D.D.. as Corresponding Secretaries. It 
is a Foreign Missionary Society. 

The District Secretaries are as follows: 

Rev. W. S. McKenzie, D.D., Trexnoot Taoffli, 
Boston, Mass. 

Rev. A. H. BurliDgham, D.D., Times BoiUbi, 
New York, N. Y. 

Rev. George H. Brigham, Cortland, N. Y. 

Rev. R. M. Luther, D.D., 1430 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. T. G. Field, 926 North i8th Street, Columbos, 
O. 

Rer. S. M. Stimson, D.D., Gffeensburg, Ind. 

Rer. C. F. Tolman, D.D., laa Wabash Avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 

Rev. I. N. Clark, D.D., Z334 Olive Street, Kansv 
City, Mo. 

Rev. Frank Peterson, zgoz Fifteenth Avenue, South, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society has Mrs. O. W. Gatei^ 
Foreign Secretary, Newton Center, Mass ; 
Miss Mary E. Clarke. Treasurer, Tre- 
mont Temple, Boston. Mass. ; Mrs. N. M. 
Waterbury, Home Secretary, Tremont 
Temple. Boston, Mass. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Ms- 
sionary Society of the West reports ki 
Corresponding Secretaries as Mrs. A. M. 
Bacon. 3032 South Park Avenue, Chicago^ 
III. ; Mrs. S. C. White. 2978 Vernon Ave- 
nue. Chicago. 111. ; Treasurer, Miss Mary 
W. Ranney, 122 Wabash Avenue, Chi- 
cago. 111. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Mission- 
ary Society of California has Mrs. L. P. 
Huntsman. Secretary, 1264 Eleventh 
Avenue, East Oakland. Cal. ; Mrs. B. C 
Wright, Treasurer, 1703 Gough Street. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Mission- 
ary Society of Oregon reports Mrs. E. S. 
Latourette, Secretary, Oregon City, Ore. ; 
Mrs. Henry Warren. Treasurer, Oregon 
City, Ore. 

There are four missionary periodicals 
published in the interests of the societies 
by W. G. Corthell, Tremont Temple, 
Boston, Mass. 

The Baptist Missionary Mc^aMitu, 
monthly, at $1 a year. It was commenced 
in September, 1803. 

The King*s Messengers, for young peo- 
ple ; monthly, at 25 cents a year. 

Tht Kingdom, monthly, at lo cents a 
year. It gives the missionary news of the 
month in a condensed form. 

The Helping Hcmd, monthly, repre- 
senting the woman's societies, at 35 cents 
a year. 

The treasurer reported for the year end- 
ing March 31, 1890, the following: 



THE AMERICAN BAPTIST AflSSfONARY UNION. 



12tf 



Receipts. 
Doomtions reported m id agazine^f^i 12,962 Q4 

Lcfacies , . . . 91.935 49 

Woman's Missionary Societies. . , 93i949 22 

Bible Day Collection S, 167 33 

American Baptist Publication 

Society 3.832 67 

Magaxine account *•••• 25S 74 

Children's Day collection 407 57 

Judson Centennial Fund 4,000 00 

Interest account, , » , 1*364 76 

Yearly and life members of Hen- 
ry Reed Steam -boat Com |>any. 195 37 

Income of fundii. ...♦,* 14.57^ <^ 

Income sundry annuity bond ac- 
counts .., , 7,226 45 

Government grants-in-aid : 

Burma Mission , 2.820 74 

Assam Nfission 1. 684 26 

Tclugu Mission. 3,082 47 

Chinese Mi&sion, .......<*. *. 43000 

TotaL .,,.,., $440,788 07 

DlSRURSEME^fTS. 

Debt on April i, 1S89 I8.173 56 

Mission!) in Burma.,.*......... 151,290 85 

Missions in India .,,, 87,090 

Missions in Siam to Chinese Ii373 95 

Missions in China 31 ,605 25 

Missions in Japan 39»i32 73 

Missions in Africa. 43^780 42 

Missions in France 12,938 38 

Missions in Germany. .......... 7,400 00 

Missions in Sweden. ...*..*.... 6.370 00 

Missions in Spain 2,776 I9 

Missions in Russia 2,500 00 

Missions in Denmark. i, 000 00 

Publications 1,671 40 

Annuities. ,-,,•... 11,922 58 

Salaries of corresponding secre- 
taries, treasurer^ and clerks,.. 13,484 95 
Salaries of district secretaries and 

agencies 20,428 15 

Expense of rent, postage, station- 
ery, etc. 5.025 53 

Traveling expenses of executive 

officers and others. 775 24 

Total $448,730 13 

Leaving the debt of the Union. 

April I, 1890 $7.94206 

From the above it is seen that the re- 
ceipts can be divided as follows \ 

From donations $3^3,487 16 

From legacies. 91,935 49 

From other sources 35»365 42 

The Rev. E. F. Merriam, Recording 
Secretary of the Union, writes from Bos* 
ton January 19, 1891 : 

'*Th« Baptist Church inembcrsihip tn the States 
ttad Territtiries which are regarded as belonging to 
(he home field: of thit Society now numbers about 
750,000 ti4 thii we count aU the Northem 5ut«i and 
Terriiorie*. one thifd at the church rocinbenlup in 
MATf^laiid, three fourths tn the Dmrict of Columbia, 
Cvo thintc in West Virsinia^ one fourth ta MtSAOuti, 
0(De half in Indian Territory, How JTiHuy of these ixt^ 
vhlte aod how many axe colored I am unable to say ; 
1»ut, of course, in the Northern Staiei the colored 



churches are very small. All the money raised by our 
Baptist Woman's Foreign Mis&lonary Societies, except 
that used for home expen<.eft« is paid through the 
treasury of the MiaMonary Union/'' 

With a Baptisi constituency of 750.0CX), 
if we take the receipts from donations, 
they give an average of forty cents per 
member for foreign missions; or» if we 
take the entire amount of receipts, they 
show an average of about sixty cents per 
member. • 

The annuities, amounting to $11,922. 58. 
were moneys paid sundry persons who 
gave money on conditioti that a specified 
amount shot»id be paid them during their 
lives or the lives of others. 

The home expenses, consisting of sal- 
aries of executive officers, district secre- 
taries* traveling expenses, rent. etc.. 
amounted to $41,385.27, or about nine and 
one half per cent, on the entire receipts of 
the year. 

The reports of the European Missions 
show: 

Preacher*, Members. 

Sweden 470 33-521 

Germany,,.. 306 20,990 

Russia....... 69 11,832 

Dentnark.,,, 54 3, 710 

France. 13 800 

Spain 5 100 

Total.. 917 70.003 

In these Missions iit 1^89 there were 
baptized 5,638 persons, and the Missions 
contributed $169,425. They also report 
1,361 churches and 59*509 Sunday-school 
scholars. 

The statistics of the Missions 10 heathen 
lands, as reported last May, showed : 

Burma 132 521 116 

India 72 226 271 

Siam % I \ 

China .... 39 37 24 

Japan 4t 29 17 

Africa .... 39 to 8 

Total . , . 325 B24 437 

Burma 520 29,689 

India.. 102 35.775 

Siam , I 13 

China.. 16 I»522 

Japan lo 905 

Africa 5 386 

Total 654 68,290 

These Missions report 399 self-support- 
ing churches* 9.072 pupils in Suiulay- 
schools. In 1889 the baptisms were 5.939 
and the native contributions $54,844. 

The following list of missionaries ap- 
peared in The Baptist Missionary Mag- 
agine for January, 1891. and shows who 
are missionaries at the beginning of this 
year : 



Missionaries and Their Addresses. 

* Supported hy the Woman'& Bapmt Forrlgn Mi»* 
tiooary Society (Bo»ion). f Supported by the W«inan'ii 
Bapti&t Foreign Miuionary Society^ of ihe Weit(Chl» 
c:)go}. Mks BuzieU Uiupported by the Oregon WofO* 
an's I^aptut Missionary Society, and Rey. J. S. Norvdl 
»Ticl wife and Ml** Phillip* by the Woman** Society of 
California, | In co-operation with the Baptist General 
Assciciation of the W'eittern .States and Territorie*. 

( Thf firti date f^ tack mam* h tke date «/ mp* 
p^inimtnt, TJk* mddrtMX /# C9$igo sfuuid ^€ ** vim 

Rev-. J. S. Adams and wife, Kinwha-fu^VM Ningptf* 
China, t&77, 

* Mi<^ MdiMA Aldnch, SAndovay, Baraia^ iSBB. 

f Mi^a Emma 0« Ambrose, Tounfoo, Burma, ^h^%» 

t MiAs l^ura A. Amy, Nowgong, Assam, Indifly 
t3<)o. 

f MUs Johanna AnderNon. Toungoo, Burma, 188S. 

Rev, W, F. Armstrong, Maulmein. Burma, 18S4. 

Mr*. W. F. Armstrong, Bnf(hton, England. 

Rev. William Aihmore, D.D., and wife, SwaCow« 
China, 1850. 

Rev. William A^hmOFe, Jr., and wife, tjD| Nortb 
Emei^on Avenue, Minneapolis, Minn., \'t^% 

* Mn. Anna M. BaiJey, Rangoon, Burma, iftS?* 
Rev. C B. Banki and wife, Equator Station, Congo^ 

Wc4t Africa, iS8a. 
5. P. Barchet, M,D.^ and wife, St. Maffareu, Mdi# 

1875. 

* Mis« Sarah B> Barrowi, Maulmem, By rasa, liTflW 
1887. 

* Mis^ C. M. Battenon (under apfxiintroent), 1899. 
Rev. A. A. Bennett, Yokohama, Japan, iSt^. 
Mrs, A. A, Bennett, Newton Centre, Mass. 
*Mht. C, Bennett, Rangoon, Burma, iSat;^. 

Rev. Philipp Bitkel, D.D., g« Mittelwcg Eargfekl«^ 
Hamburg, Germany. 

Rev. A. BiUington, Bwenba, Congo, Wett Africa^ 
1881. 

t Mi«» Olive M. Blunt, Shimonofteki, Japan, iBgor 

Rev. W. B4 Bogg* and wife, Rjim.ipatam, India* 
1878. 

Profcuor WUliani E. Boggs and wife, RaniapaiaiVt 
India, iSgo. 

' MUa Ella C Bond. Tura, Assam, India, 1885. 

Rev. J. C- Brand and wife, 3a Taukiji^ Tokyo, J»» 
pan, 1800 

Rev. D. L. Bray ton and wlfe» Rangoon, Bursn^ 
1837^ 

Rev. K. O. Broady, D.D., Bethel Seminary, Stocks 
holm, Sweden. 

Rev. Aug. Broholm, Copenhagen. Denmark. 

Rev. J. E- Broholm, Kinjtll, Congo, West AfricBt 
t88a. 

Mrs. M. R. BroQsora, 39 Irving Street^ Detroit, Mick* 
1873. 

t Miss H. M. Browne, ShimoncAeki, Japan, tSBl 

Rev. J. L. Bulklcy and wife, Maulmeiu, Bui 
1884. 

Rev, Edwin BuUard and wtfcBapaila^ India, ^870^ 

Rev, Alanzo Bunker, D.D., and wife, Toungoai» 
Burma, 1865. 

Mr<i. A. Bunker, 40 Willow Street, Providence, R. \m 

*MissZillah A. Bunn, Frome, Burma, i88a. 

Rev. C. £. Burdeiie and wife, Gauhaii, Assaoit 
India, tSSj. 

Rev. J. F. Btirditt and wife, Udayagiri, India, i88t< 

Rev/Walter Bujdhenand wife, Mauhin, Burma, iS^I* 

Mi» M. A. Buuell, Oregon City, Ore,, care Vi.t%, %» 
S. Laiouretie, 1884. 

Rev, William Carey Calder, Tharrawaddy, Burma, 
t886. 

Mr. J. H. Camp, Leopold ville, Congo, West AfrkA* 
tSSy. 

* Miss Klla Campbell, Swatow, China, 1890. 

Rev. Geotge Campbell and vife, Swatow, China, 
1887. 

Rev. W. W. Campbell and wife, Wavcrly, !a., 187J, 

Rev. J. W. Carlin, D.D.. and wife, i)watow, Chinat 
tS89. 

Mrs. C H. Carpenter, Ncmuro, Hokkaido, Japa^ 
t86a. 

* Mi.^s Meliiisa Carr, Sandoway, Burma, tS^ct. 
*MLs;i M. EUxabeth Carr, Maulmcln, Burma, iltf* 



THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY 



Rev. A«£, Csurioo and wife, TluiyetiiLyo, Burma^ 
1186. 

Rev. John E. Cwc »nd wife, Myincyaa, Burma, 

*Mbs C. 6. CKApnum {under appoinemeDt), 1890, 

* MUi Elli R. Church, Tokyo, Japan, iBM. 

R«T. Elbert Chute and wife, Falmur, Jonumpctt 
F.-0*, Dw&Ut India, iftfia. 

* Mi«i Lecni Chute, P«lcnar, Januinpeu P.-O., Deo 
can, India, 1S87. 

* Mr(, Bella Clad in (under ap{>ointnieiiOi t^^oo 

* Mi»s Annie M. Claggett, Tokyo* Japan, 1887^ 
Rev. E, W, Clark and wifc^ Amgun", A«sajn, India, 

f«M. 

Rev. Joseph Clark and wife, Palaltala, Congo, West 
Africa, 1S80. 

* Mu« Gertrude P, Clinton, Rangoon, Buram, >8Qe. 
Rev. J. E. Clough, D.D^Ongoie, India, 1H64. 
Mn. J. K. Clough, Kalamazoo, Mkh., 1H64. 

Rev» H. P. Cochrane and wife, Tcun^oo, Bunna,. 
tlt9* 
Rev. W. W. Cochrane and wife, BKamo, Burma, 

ilfO. 

*MiAa Clan A. Convene, 67 BIuflT, Yokohama, Ja^ 
fkan, 1889. 

f Mils U. L. Corbin, Nmgpo, China, 1888. 

Rev. W. H. Cossum and wife (under appointment), 
1890. 

t Miss Marie M« CAtd, M.D., Rangoon, Burma, iSSB. 

Rev. J. B. Cretia, La Fftre, France, 

Rev, L. W, Cronkbite, BsL&scin, Burma, 1S81, 

Mrs. L. W. Cronkhiie, Greenwich, N. V. 

Rev. B. P. Cro&« and wife, Rangoon, Burma. iSja* 

Rev. E. B. Crou, D.D., and wife, Tounj^oo, Burma, 
1I44. 

Rev. A. V. B. Crumb and wife, Toungoo, Burma, 

*MIss Emffia J. Cummin^it M«D., Ramapatam, 
India, 18S6. 

Mis<» Louisa Cnmmings, Kemuro, Hokkaido, J^ipan, 
1889. 

Rev, J. E. Cuininlng» and wile, Henjtada, Burma, 
1I87. 

Rev. J. H. Cu^blns, D.D., Rangoon. Burma, i8£6, 
a8S6, 

Mrii. J. N, Cmhing, 1410 Chestnut Street, Phila^ 
delphia. Pa. 

* Mi»s Mury M. Day, care of A. L. Kinney, E»q,, 
Truxton, N. Y., 1878. 

Rev. J. L. Bearing, Yokohama, Japan, i86q. 
Rev, L. J. Denchilcid, Rangoon, Burma, 1884. 
Mra. L. J. Dench field, care Mr. John Wood»uin, 
Smerald Sircct. North Hamilton, Ont, 

Rev. Alexandre De/, 48 Rue de Lille. Paris, France. 
Rev. Davi^^ Downic, D.D., Nellore, India, 1873. 
Mra. I), Bo'A^nie, ReadviUe, Mass. 
ReT. A. Drake, Bethel Seminary, Siockbelm, Swe- 

Rev. D. H. Drake and wife, 1 Cook\ Road, Peram- 
Imr, India, t374. 

Mr. William Dring and wife, Tura, Assam, India, 
■•go. 

t Miss Mary Dun uriddie^ Swatow, Cbina, 1B90. 

f Miss H. N. Ea&tmaii, Grigg^iville, ill., iB7a. 

Rev. L. A. Eaton and wife, Bangkok, Slam, i88a. 

*Mi9«L. M. Eaton, 40 Highland Avenue, Scmer'^ 
viUe, Mass., i883. 

* Mi** A. M, Edmujidi, Mantblay, Burnia, 1889, 
•Mrs.C. H, R. Elwell, Maulincin, Burma, iIti. 
*Mi&a Julia M. Elwin, 904 East Geneaee Street, 

Syncu&e, N. Y., t8Bt. 

* Miss Kate F. Ev^^ns, Thongxc, Burma, 1871. 
Rev. F. H. Eveleih, S^mdoway, Burma, 1873. 

Mr*. F, H. Evclcih, Thorpe Place, SomerviUe, Mas^s- 
*Miia Lina Faulkner, Lukunga, Congo, We^t Africa, 
fit?. 
*Mias Ellen E, Fay, Mandatay, Burma, iB8^ 
'Miss Ida Faye (under appoint men t), iBgo. 
Rev. J. G. Feuer, Mittelscra&se, 7 IL Horn, Ham- 
burg, Germany. 

Mi» Adek M. Fielde, 1865, 

tMii& Nellie E. Fife, 46 Tcrakoji, Sendal, Japan, 
1887. 
R«v. C. H. D. Fisher and wife. Tokyo, Japan, t88*, 
4 lfi» L. C. Fleming, Pabbab, Congo, West Africa, 

mv 

Rev. John M. Foster and wife, Swa low, China, t8B^ 




♦ Mis» Mary C. Fowkr, M.D. {'under appoiniment}, 

I0QO, 

Rev. P. Frederickaon and wife, ChrittiaAa, Norway » 
1881. 

Rev. A. Frie^en and wife, Kalgonda, Deecan, tsHHa, 
1889- 

t Mba Naomi Garton, %%^ Grand Avenue, Eaai De* 
Moines, la., 1B81. 

Mrs. O. L, George,. N«wton Cenb^ MaM., 1870. 

Professor D. C. GilmoR, Baptist College, Rangoon, 
Burma, 1890. 

Rev. F, C. Gleichmao nod wife^ Leopoldville, Con- 
go, West Afrka, 1B90. 

Mr. C. B. Glenetk and wife, Bwemba, Coogo, Weit 
Africa, 1884. 

Rev. J. R. Goddaid, Ningpe, China, 1867. 

Mr*. J. R. Goddard, Providence, R. I. 

t Miss N. A. Gordon, Paiabala, Coiigo, Watt Africa, 
1888. 

Rev. Lj A. Could and wife, ShaohingP.'O., Ningpo, 
China, 1S87. 

J. S. Grant, M.D^ and wife, Ningpo, China, 18B9. 

• Mi*s Sarah L. GKffith, Prome, Burma, 1890. 
William C. Griggs, M. D., and wife, Toungoo, Bur- 
ma, 1890. 

Rev. A. K* Gunuey aad wife, Sibiacor, Asuua, Iik 
dia, 1874. 

Rev. Charles Hadley and wife, Madras, India, 1890. 

Rev. H. W. Hale and wife, Schwegy in, Burma, 1874, 
>6Sa. 

Rev. WiUiam A. HaU, Paiabala, Congoi West Africa, 
>BS8. 

Rev. R. L. Halaey and wif«, SMmttnoiteki, Japan, 
1887. 

Rev. S. W, Hamblen and wife, Seadai, Japan, 1889. 

*Mis* Leonore Hamilton, Lukungm, Congo, Wwt 
Africa, 1887, 

f Mr«. H. W. Hancock, Mandalay, Burma, 1874- 

Rev. OU Hanwn and wife, Bhama, Burma, 1890. 

Rev, C. K. Harringtoa at>d wifc,Yakohama, Japstn, 
tS86. 

Rev. F. G. Harrington and wife,3oTesukyi,ToliyQ^ 
Japan, 1887. 

t Miu A, B. Harris, IlasBcIn, Burma, 1887. 

Mni. N. Harris, Siotix Falls S, Dak. 1B58. 

Rev. C. G. Hart&ock, Ircbo, Congo, West Africa, 
1B89. 

Rev. W. M. S. Ha«call and wife, 149 Notth Main 
Sireet, Fall River, Mass., 187s. 

Mrs. L, M. Haswell, Hamilton, N. Y., 1859. 

Miss Susie E. Harwell, Amhenit, Burma, 1667. 

♦ Miis U. E. Hawke?, Bas*cio, Bitrma, t888. 
Rev. J. Hcinnchs and wife, NcIIope, India, iS8^ 
t Miss S. J. Hieby, Bax&cln, Burmfti^ J876. 

Rev. T. H. Hoite, Lukunga. Coago, West Africa, 
1884. 

* Miss Annie Hopkins (under appointment), 1890. 
*'Miss Clara A, Howard, Lukuaga, Congo, West 

Africa, 1889. 

Rev. J. C. Hyde, Paiabala, Congo, West Aliica, 
1889. 

Mrs. M. B. IngaII». Thongic, Burma, iSsik 

Mr. C. v., Ipgbamand wife, Banaa Manieke, Congo, 
We»i Africa, i88i. 

f Mtis Emma Invecn, Ningpo, China, 1879- 

Rev. Melvin Jameson, D.D., and wife, Alton, Ml., 
1869, 

Rev. E, Janssou, Wasta, Fetalax, Finland, 

Rev. H. Jen kins and wife, Shaohing P,-0., Ningpo, 
China, 1859. 

Rev. Lyman Jewett, DJ>^ and wife, Needham, 
Ma^., 1848. 

Rev. P. M. Johnson ai>d wi^, Ongole, India, 1890. 

Rev. Truman Johnson, M.D,, and wife, Toungoo, 
Burma, i886, 

Rev. £. H. Joott and wife, Seadai, Japan, 1884. 

Mr. R, D. JoDCs, Mukimvika, Cong^t West Africa, 
i8qo, 

t Mrv Ellen Kelly, Ongole, India, 1887. 

-f Miss Sarah Kelly, Ongote, India, iSge. 

Rev. E. W. Kelly and wife, Mandalay, Bttrnn. 

• Miss Anna H. Kidder, Tokyo, Japan, 1875. 
Rev. M. B. IC irk pal rick, M.D., and wile, Tounfoo, 

Burnia^ 1888. 

Rev. P.^ W, Kleia and wife, Amguri, Assam, India, 
1B90. 



*Mrs. L. A. Knowlton. 2139 North 13th Street, FbUfr 
delphia. Pa,, 1853, 
*Mia» Elizabeth Lawrence, Maulmein, Bunas, 

Rev, Jotcrph Lehmaan, Horn Seminary* Kacnbucf, 
Germany. 

Rev. S. Lchmann, G«uv, Wohlynicn, Kreia. Shito- 
tnir, Post Faasowka, Solodioow, Russia. 

* Mias Rachel Leidy, Newton Centre, Maat., 1890, 
Mr. J. M. Lewis, Mukimvika, Congo, West Africa, 

1887. J 

R«v. E. Lund, Barr«ioaa^ Spain* I 

Rev, W, R, Man ley aad wife, Udayafiri, Indii,^ 

1879. 

* Miss F. D. Manning, Bbamo, Burma, t8S8. 

Rev. R. Maplcsden and wife, Secunderabad, Deceit 
India, i88t. 

Rev. M. C. Marin, 17 San Ignaoo, San GervMiai 
Barcelona, Spain. 

Mr, Owries Markham awl wife, Mnkimvika. Congii^ 
West Africa, 1190. 

Mr. Lk E^ Martin (u«ideT appointment), Japan, 1890^ 

Rev. G. L. Mason and wife, GranviHe, O., t8Bo. 

Rev. M. G. Mason and wife, Tura, AacaA, Indk* 
1874. 

^ Miss Stella H. Ma»on, Tura. Assam, Isdia. 1S88. 

* Miss E. F. MeAllister, Mission Roon», Tf«B««i 
Temple, Boston, Mass., 1S77, 

Rev. O. R. McKay (under appoin^ment), (890. 
tMiss Lavioia Mead, 46 Terakoji, Sendai, Japan*, 
1887. 
Rev. E.J. Miller, Rangoon, Burma, 18SI. ^ 

Mrs. E. J. Miller, Albion, N. Y. ( 

* Mi» F.llen E. Mitchell, M.D., Maulmein, Buma,. 
1879. 

* Mr. H. W, Mix, Osborne HoUow, K. Y., 1879. 
Rev. Thomas Moody, Leopold viUe, Congo, West 

Africa, 1890. 

Mrs. Thomas Moody, Bo Charlotte Street, Roches> 
ter, N, Y. 

Rev. P. H, Moore and wife, Nowgong. A^sam, 
India, 1879. 

Rev. P, E. Moore, Nowgoog, Assam, India, 1890. 

Rev. Horatio Morrow and wife, Tavoy, Burma, 1876^ 

Rev. L, H. Mo^ier, Mandaiay, Burma, 1890. 

Mr. J. B. Myrphy, Eolcngi, Congo, West Africa, 
iB96. 

Mr. John Kewcomb and wile, Cumbum, India, 

Rev. A. A^ Newhall and wife, Rochester, N 

1875* 

Rev. C At NicboU, Bassein, B«rm,a, v979. 

Mrs. C A, Nichols, 174 Spiingfield Road, Brighton,, 
England. 

Rev, J. % Norvell and wife, Swatow, China. iSSI. 

Rev. John Packer, D,D., and wife, MeiktiJa, Bunna* 
187a, 

t Miss F. E. Palmer, Spencer|»ort, N. Y., t88o, 

+ Miss Emily A. Parker, Ningpo, China, 1890. 

Rev. W. E. Parshley and wife, Nemuro, HokkaidM- 
Japan, 1890^ 

Rev. S. B. Partridge, and wife, ReadviUe, M^k, 
1 868. 

• Miss E. H. Payne, Pegu, Bursa, 1876. 

t Mrs. L. P. Pearce, Tondiarpetta, Madras, India^ 
i87t. 

Rev. E. Petriok and wife, Slbftacor, Assam, Indi*,, 
1889. 

Rev. E. G. Phillips and wife, Tura, Aaaam. India, 
1874- 

Miss L. A. Phillips, 46 Terakoji, Sendal, Japan, 
1889. 

.Mr. F. D. Phinney, 8 Brighton Avenue, Rochester^ 
N. Y., i88a. 

♦MissHaltie PKinney, Rangoon, Burma, 1885. 

Rev. T. P. Poate and wife, Morioka, Japtan, 1879. 

Rev. William Powell and wife, Nursaravapetia,. 
India, 1886. 

Rev. W, t Price and will, Henxada, Burma, 1879. 

t Miss C. £. PynseU, Nowgong, Assam. India. 1B87. 

• Miss Carrie E. Putnam, Maubiu, Burma, 1866. 
Rev. C. F. Raine, Leopold ville, Congo, West Afrioi,. 

]8a». j 

• Mi<.v Ruth W. Ranney, Rangoon, Burma, 1SI4, 

t Miss Emma Raiischenbusch, care Bywatcr, Tan*- 
queray ft Co., 79 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.^, 
England, 1881, 

Rev, H. H. Rbeeaand wile, Mount Holly, N, J ,i8yt«' 



'% 




BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



131 



Rer. H. Richards and wife, Banza Manteke, Congo, 
West Africa, 1879. 

S Mr. J. £. Ricketts and wife, Lukunga, Congo, West 
Africa, 1885. 

*MasB C E. Righter, Kinhwa-fu, via Ningpo, China, 
S88S. 

Rer. S. W. Rivenburg and wife, Kohima, Assar ^ 
India, 1883. 

Profesaor £. B. Roach and wife, Rangoon, Burma, 
1887. 

RcT. W. H. Roberts and wife, 143 Alexander Street, 
Rochester, N. Y., 1878. 

*Mis8 Eva L. Rolman, Clifton Springs, N. Y., 

Rev. A. T. Rose, D.D., and wife, Rangoon, Burma, 

* Miss Bemice Royal, Hogdon, Me., 2889. 

Rev. R. Saillens, 30 Boulevard Exelmans, Paris, 
Francs. 

Rev. B. J. Savage and wife, 1889. 

S Rev. T. £. S. Scholes, M.D., Mukimvika, Congo, 
West Africa, 1885. 

*Miss Johanna Schuff, Tondiarpetta, Madras, India, 
1887. 

^ Mrs. A. K. Scott, M J>., Swatow, China, 1869. 

t Miss Mary R. Scott, Swatow, China, 1890. 

Rev. A. E. Seagrava and wife, Rangoon, Burma, 
J889. 

> Mrs. Ellen Sharland, Shimonoseki, Japan, 1890. 

*Miss Martha Sheldon, 10 High Street, Lynn, Mass., 
1876. 

Rev. T. E. Shoemaker and wife, Shimonoseki, 
Japan, 1889. 

^ Miss £. R. Simons, Toungoo, Burma, 1887. 

Rev. A. Sims, M.D., Leopoldville, Congo, West 
Africa, z88a. 

* Miss Beatrice L. Slade (under appointment), 1890. 

* Miss Sarah R. Slater, Maulmein, Burma, 1889. 
Rev. Edwin Small, M.D., Palabala, Congo, West 

Africa, 1886. 

Mis. Edwin Small (in England). 

Rev. D. A. W. Smith, D.D., and wife, Rangoon, 
Burma, 1863. 
' * Mrs. Lenna A. Smith (under appointment), 1890. 

* Miss Eva Squires, Henzada, Burma, 1890. 

* Mi» E. C. Stark, Bhamo, Burma, 1884. 
MiB. E. L. Stevens, Rangoon, Burma, 1837. 

Rev. E. O. Stevens and wife, Maulmein, Burma, 

tMiss Elizabeth Stewart, Ningpo, China,' 1886. 

* Miss Jennie F. Stewart, Prome, Burma, 1889. 
Rev. F. P. Sutherland and wife, Sagaing, Burma, 

X886. 
Rev. G. W. Taft, Tokyo, Japan, 1889. 

* MiM E. J. Taylor, Maulmein, Burma, 1888. 

* Mrs. C. B. Thomas, xo6 Chapin Avenue, Provi- 
dence, R. I., 1850. 

Rev. W. F. Thomas and wife, Sandoway, Burma, 
1880. 
Rev. R. A. Thomas and wife, Kobe, Japan, 1888. 
Rev. G. N. Thomasen, Kumool, India, z88z. 
Rev. H. H. Tilbe and wife, Prome, Burma, 1887. 

* Miss Fanny Tiptaft, Bolengi, Congo, West Africa, 
189a. 

Rev. E. Tribolet, Tavoy, Burma, 1888. 

Rev. T. Truvi, Gothenburg, Sweden. 

f Miss Louise E. Tschirch, Bassein, Burma, 1884. 

* Miss Inez A. Ulery, Mandalay, Burma, 1889. 
Rev. William M. Upcraft, care of the local post, 

Hankow, China, 1889. 

Rev. J. Vincent, Denab (Nord), France. 

Rev. Ph. Vincent, 104 Boulevard de Vangirards, 
Paris, France. 

Mrs. J. H. Vinton, Rangoon, Burma, z86z. 

Mr. Geoige Warner, care of the local post, Hankow, 
China, Z889. 

•Miss Isabel Watson, care Mrs. James Watson, 
Suspension Bridge, N. Y., 1867. 

* Mks J. E. Wayte, Nellore, India, Z884. 

t Miss Bithia Wepf, Henxada, Burma, 1887. 
•Mrs. Marion A. White, Lukunga, Congo, West 
Africa, 1883. 

* MIm Agnes Whitehead, Maulmein, Burma, 1884. 
Rev. B. L. Whitman and wife (under appointment), 

X889. 

* Miss M. A. Whitman, Tokyo, Japan, 1883. 



*Miss Mary E. Williams, Mission Rooms, Tremont 
Temple, Boston, Mass., 1884. 

*Miss N. J. Wilson, Yokohama, Japan, 1887. 

Rev. W. E. Witter, M.D., and wife, Clifton Springs, 
N. Y., X883. 

* Mia A. S. Young, Kinwha-fu, via Ningpo, China, 



The above list gives 378 missionaries. 
Of these 153 are male and 224 female. 
Of the male missionaries 134 are ordained 
and 9 are physicians, 6 of the 9 being or- 
dained. Of the female missionaries 11 1 
are wives and 1 14 are unmarried, of whom 
22 arc widows. Four of the female mis- 
sionaries are physicians. 

While there are reported 917 preachers 
in the European Missions, the above list 
only calls 16 of them foreign mi.ssionaries, 
there being 3 in Germany, 3 in Sweden, i 
in Denmark, 5 in France, i in Norway, i 
in Russia, i in Finland, and i in Spain ; 
and of these only one is reported as mar- 
ried — the one in Norway. 

•»• 

Board of Foreign missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church. 

The Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United Stales 
of America has its head-quarters at 53 
Fifth Avenue, New York. 

p.ev. John C. Lowrie, D.D., 

Rev. Frank F. Ellenwood. D.D., 

Rev. Arthur Mitchell, D.D., 

Rev. John Gillespie, D.D., 

Corresponding Secretaries. 

Rev. Thomas Marshall, 

Field Secretary. 

Mr. William Dulles, Jr., Treasurer, 

The Board has no separate missionary 
periodical, but uses a part of the monthly 
magazine that represents all the benev- 
olences of the Church, The Church at 
Home and Abroad, issued by the Presbyte- 
rian Board of Publication in Philadelphia. 
Price, $1 a year. 

The Church reported in 1890 that it had 
775,903 communicants and 867,463 Sab- 
bath-school scholars. 

The total receipts of the Board for the 
year ending April 30. 1890, as per report 
of the treasurer, were : 

From churches $291,719 86 

From Woman's Boards..... 280,285 5i 

From Sabbath-schools 36,062 56 

From legacies 112,877 68 

From miscellaneous sources. 73,120 83 

Total $794,066 44 

The receipts give an average of $1.02 
per member, or if legacies are omitted, an 
average of 87 cents per member. The 
receipts were $57,749.41 less than that of 
the previous year. 

From the report of the treasurer as 
printed in the annual report of the Board 
we gather the following : 



The appropriations for the Missions for 
the year were $855,972 ; for home depart- 
ment, $52,000. 

The Board, however, made the fiscal 
year of the Missions to accord with its 
own, so that they would end with May i ; 
and as the year in some of the Missions 
ended much later than May i, $50,000 was 
withheld on this account. In addition to 
this, $48,326.25 balance in the hands of 
mission treasurers was called in, giving 
$98,326.25 to be deducted from $855,972, 
making the actual expenditure for the 
Missions $757,645.75. The report says 
that the expenditure for the full twelve 
months would have equaled the amount 
appropriated. The appropriations for the 
present year aggregate $943,247.64, all of 
which will be expended. This, with the 
$60,275.93 debt of May i, 1890, makes 
$1,003,523.57 needed by the treasury to 
free the Board from debt next May. 

The expenditures for the home depart- 
ment as reported amount to $48,262.88, 
or $3,737-12 less than the amount appro- 
priated. 

The receipts being $794,066.44, and the 
expenditures $805,908.63, the deficit 
amounts to $11,842.19. Add to this the 
indebtedness at the commencement of the 
year ($44,696.62), and the deficit at the 
close of the year is $56,538.81. 

The treasurer reports the indebtedness 
as being $60,275.93. If we add the un- 
expended balance of the appropriation 10 
the home department ($3,737.12) to the 
$56,538.81 we have the $60,275.93. 

We presume the $52,000 is considered 
as expended because appropriated, and 
that the home department has to its credit 
at the commencement of this fiscal year 
$3737.12. 

The expenditures of the home depart- 
ment were divided as follows : 

Salaries $36,385 21 

Traveling expenses 1,833 51 

Postage 921 92 

Stationery 50727 

Candidates 149 50 

Library 16945 

Book and map account 153 34 

Expense account (janitor, 

coal, cleanii)g, etc.) 2,770 03 

Printing (including^, annual 

report) 2,895 26 

Church at Home and Abroad, 2,50739 

Total $48,262 88 

The home expenses were about six per 
cent, of the receipts. 

The Missions supported are among the 
Indians, Chinese, and Japanese of the 
United States, and in foreign lands. The 
Missions among the more civilized Indians 
have been transferred to the Home Mis- 
sionary Society, and it is expected that all 



182 



BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 



of them will finally be placed in charge of 
that Society, 

The Missions among the Chinese in this 
country are in New York city, San Fran- 
cisco, Los Angeles, and Oakland, in Cal- 
ifornia, and in Portland, Ore. 

The Mission among the Japanese in 
this country is in San Francisco, where 
there are one native superintendent and 
two native helpers. 

The Missions among the Indians are in 
South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, and New 
York. 

The Missions among the Indians in the 

United States report : 

American ministers 

Native ministers 

American female missionaries 

Native lay missionaries 

Students for ministry 

Communicants 1,630 

Boarding and day scholars 320 

Sabbath-school scholars 703 

Contributions $2,986 

Missions to Chinese and Japanese in 
the United States report : 

American ministers 

American female missionaries... 

Native lay missionaries 

Students for the ministry 

Communicants 

Boarding and day scholars 

Sabbath-school scholars 

Contributions $3«7ii 

The report of the Missions beyond the 
United States is as follows : 



5 

14 
8 

21 
9 



4 

7 

10 

5 

344 

1,115 

717 



Mtssrow. 




is 

II 

<_2 


B 

n 


U 


Mexico,... *...„..., 


1 

3 

9 

Bt 

14 

14 


4 

4 

m 

3 

a 
5 

J 


4 

10 

31 

6S 

47 

s: 
33 
34 


5,l€j 




4 1^4 


Stiuth Arn€f*iCA <..««*<•>. 


AfKd.... ..., 

India 


Sbfn,.... *.*... ... 


Ch in* -t r 




4,Q75 


Korea.....* 

J*ix,ia...„. .*,.. 

Syria. , 






Tntal 


"S 


4" 


IS 
^3« 


1,074 


Uiilied States MUsioM..., 


Grand ist^L... .i 


■9< 


41 


Sfi,^q4 



Total A mencan mis&ionmria 573 



MtS&IQICi 



Mexico. ....... 

GimtemAU...... 

South Ameifca., 

AfHcsL. 

India,..,,,..... 
Sisini .......... 

China 

Jipwi.... ...... 

Korea...,, 

PersiA.. ,,. 

Syria........... 



Total..... 

XJalied Statu ML^isioRi . 



Grand lotiiL 



345 



i 

^ B 

■c 

If ti 



53 
I 

174 



Ifa 



91a 
3" 



352^ 9ii 



Is 



15 



Mission. 



Mexico 

Guatemala 

South America 

Africa 

India 

Siam 

China 

Japan 

Korea 

Persia 

Syria 

Total 

United States Missions... 



"I 

MO 
CM 



«,358 

579 
8,016 

641 
3,687 
1.409 



Grand total 36^48 



3.069 
5.853 



24»9»3 
M35 



8 

I. 
II 



«,795 

50 

947 

4t59o 

676 

9,969 



5,310 
4,966 



33,5«5 

1,420 



'3^935 



$3,637 

13,603 

8a 

3,8og 
6,750 



3,300 
7.767 



6,697 



$44.357 



Comparison. 

z88o 1890 
American missionaries. 494 573 

Native ministers 346 359 

Native lay helpers.... 863 943 

Students for ministry. 123 106 

Day scholars ^27,394 26,348 

Sunday-school schol's. 24,415 23,935 

Communicants 25,346 26,704 



106 



Total Qntivc helper*. .,,....,.. liSoa 



Native contributions . $38,741 $44,357 

The women of the Presbyterian Church 
arc very active and successful in collecting 
money for Missions. The following are 
societies auxiliary to the Board of Foreign 
Missions : 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Presbyterian Church, 1334 Chest- 
nut Street, Philadelphia. 

Woman's Presbyterian Board of Mis- 
sions of the North-west, 48 McCormick 
Block, Chicago, 111. 

Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of 
the Presbyterian Church, 53 Fifth Avenue, 
New York. 

Woman's Presbyterian Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of Northern New York, 
232 State Street, Albany, N. Y. 

Woman's Presbyterian Board of Mis- 
sions of the South-west, 1107 Olive Street, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Woman's Occidental Board of Foreign 
Missions, 933 Sacramento Street, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

These societies send out monthly their 
magazine. Woman's Work for Women, 
from 53 Fifth Avenue, New York. Price, 
60 cents a year. 

Missionaries of the Foreign Field, 
February, 1891. 

* In this country at present. 

Alexander, Rev. Thomas T., and wife, Osaka, 
Japan. 

Alexander, Miss Carrie T., Tokyo, Japan. 

Alexander, Rev. Jam« M., and wife, Allahabad, 
India. 

Al-xander, E. W. (M.D.), and wife, Hamadan, 
Persia. 

* Allis, Rev. J. M., and wife, Santiago, Chili. 

Andervon, Miss Emma (Wei Hien), Chefoo, China. 

Andrews, Rev. H. M., and wife, Futtehgurh, India. 

Atterbury, B. C. (M.D.), and wife, Peking, China. 

Ayres, Rev. J. B., and wife, Yamaguchie, Japan. 

Babbitt, Miss Bessie, Allahabad, India. 

Bailey, Miss Mary E. (Woodstock), Landour, India. 

Bailie, Rev. Joseph, Sotichow, China. 



Baird, Rev. W. M., and wife, Seoul, Korea. 
Ballagh, Miss Annie P., Tokyo, Japan. 
Ballagh, Professor J. C, and wife, Tokyo, Japaa. 
Bannerman, Rer. W. S., and wife (AngonO, fiihwii^ 
West Africa. 
Barber, Miss Alice S., Beirut, Syria. 
Bartlett, Miss Cora, Teheran, Penia. 
Bartlett, Miss A. M., Mexico city, Meadeo. 
Beall, Rev. M. E., and wife, San Luis PotoM, Medcoi 
Beattie, Rev. Andrew, Canton, China. 
Belx, Miss Christine, Etawah, N. W. P., India. 

* Bergen, Rev. G. S., and wife, Lodiana, India. 
Bergen, Rev. Paul D., and wife, Chinanfioo, China. 
Bigelow, Miss Gertrude C, Tokyo, Japan. 

Bird, Miss Emily G., Abeih, Syria. 

Bird, Rev. William, and wife, Abeih, Syria. 

Boomer, Rev. W. B., and wife, Concepcion, ChiB. 

Boughton, Mi« Emma F. (Wei Hien), ChelBa^ 
China. 

Boyce, Rev. Isaac, and wife, Saltillo, Mexico. 

Bradford, Miss M. E. (M.D.), Tabriz, Persia. 

Brashear, Rev. Turner G., and wife, Tabriz, Perria. 

Briggs, W. A. (M.D.), and wife, Lakawn Tampang, 
Siam, via Moulmein and Pahpoon, Burma. 

Brown, Miss Mary (M.D.) O^ei Hien), Chefoo, 
China. 

Brown, Rev. Hubert W., and %rife, Mexico dty, 
Mexico. 

Brown, Miss Rebecca M., Sidon, Syria. 

Brown, Miss Charlotte H., Sidon, Syria. 

•Bryan, Rev. Arthur V., and wife, Hiroshima, Japan. 

Butler, Miss E. M., Canton, China. 

Butler, Mrs. John, Ningpo, China. 

Cahill, Miss Elizabeth, Bogota, Republic of Coloa- 
bia. 

Calderwood, Mrs. William. Dehra, India. 

Caldwell, Rev. M. E., and wife, Bogota, Republic of 
Colombia. 

Candor, Rev. T. H., and wife, BarranquiUa, Re- 
public of Colombia. 

Carrington, Rev. W. A., and wife, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Carieton, Miss J. R. (M.D.), Ambala, India. 

Carleton, Rev. Marcus M., and wife, Ambala, India. 

Carieton, Marcus B. (M.D.), Ambala, India. 

Case, Miss Etta W., Yokohama, Japan. 

Chalfant, Rev. F. H., and wife (Wei Hien), Chefoo, 
China. 

Chalfant, Rev. W. P., and wife (Ichowfu), Chefoo, 
China. 

* Chamberlain, Rev. George W., and wife, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. 

Christen, Rev. S. J., and wife, Santiago, Chili. 

Coan, Rev. F. G., and wife, Oroomiah, Persia 

Cochran, Mrs. D. P., Oroomiah, Persia. 

Cochran, J. P. (M.D.), and wife, Oroomiah, Perna. 

Cole. Miss Edna S., Bangkok, Siam. 

Collins, Rev. D. G., and wife, Cheung-Mai, Siam, vim 
Moulmein and Pahpoon, Burma. 

Colman, Miss Jennie L., Allahabad, India. 

Coltman, Robert, Jr. (M.D.), and wife, Tungdunr, 
China. 

Corbett, Rev. Hunter (D.D.), and wife, Chefoo^ 
China. 

Cranshaw, Mrs. J. D. (Wamey), Greenville, Liberia. 

Crosette, Mrs. M. M. (Cheningchow), Chefoo» 
China. 

Cogdal, Miss Mary E., Shanghai, China. 

Cooper, Rev. A. W., Ratburee, Siam. 

Cooper, Miss Larissa J., Ratburee, Siam. 

Cunningham, Rev. A. M., Peking, China. 

Curtis, Rev. F. S., and wife, Hiroshima, Japai^ 

Cuihbert, Miss M. Nellie, Hiroshima, Japan. 

Dagama, Rev. J. F., and wife, Rio Claro, BndL 

Dagama, Miss Eva, Rio Claro, BraziL 

Dale, Mrs. Gerald F., Beirut, Syria. 

Dale, Miss A. G., Teheran, Persia. 

Dascomb, Miss Mary P., Botucatu, BradL 

♦Davis, Miss Anna K., Tokyo, Japan. 

Dean, Miss N. J., Oroomiah, Persia. 

Dc R.iun, Miss Ella, Mexico city, Mexico. 

De Heer, Mrs. C. (Benita), Gaboon, West Africa. 

Dennis, Rev. James S. (D.D.), and wife, Beirut, 
Syria. 

Deputie, Rev. Robert A. M. (Carejrsburgh), Mo»« 
sovia, Liberia. 

Deputie, Mr. John H. (Grassdale), Monrovia, Li- 
beria. 



BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



liil 



« 



Dickion, Miis \Udge tM.D.J, tWci Hien) Cbcfoo, 
Chin*, 

Oo<)d, Rev, W. C.^ And wife, Cheung- Mai, Situii^ v/a 
Moulmeto Ai»d Pjihpooo, Burmii. 

• Dodge, Rev. W, £.« and wife, ValparAJAO, CliUi. 
DonaJtdson, Mils Elina, Dehn.^ India^ 

Doty, Mm S, A., $couJ, Korea. 
Doughty, Rev. J. W„ suid wife, Osaka, JapAH. 
Dowai, Mist Cuoline C, Jalandh^r^ India. 
DruEiireoiMl, Rev. W, J., Nanking, Chinas 
DunUp, Mis* Jessie, JjJandhar, IndLi. 
DunUp, Rev. J. P., and wife, Bangkok, Siam. 

♦ DiittUp. Rev. E. P., and wife, Fetchaburee, Siani, 
Eakin, Rev. J. A., and wife, Bangkok, Siam, 
Kckels, Rev. Charles E., Petchabuiee, Siam^ 
Eddy, Rev. William K,, and wifcSidon, Syria. 

>EcJdy,*R«v. William W, tI>.D.>, aad wife, Beirut, 

fia. 

Ellioir, Mi» Mabel, Saltiilo, Meaico. 

Elterich, Rev, W. O., and wife, ^Ichowfu) Chefoo, 
China. 

EascUtyn, Rev. LewiA F.,and wife, Teheran, Penia. 

Everett, Miss E, D., Beirut, Syria, 

Ewait, MiM Margaret L., IColhapur, Bombay Prcni- 
dency. India. 

Ewing, Rev. A. H., and inHfe, Lodiana, India. 

E wing. Rev, J, C, Rhea (D.D.), and wrifc, Lahore, 
India. 

Farics, W. R. <M.D.), and wife (Wd Hien), Chefoo, 
China. 

Famham, Rev. J. Kl. W. (D.D.), and wife, Shang- 
hai, China. 

Fenifl, Rev, George H., and wife, Panhala, Bombay 
Ptesldcncy, India. 

Finley, Rev. Woodward £,, Bahia^ BraxU. 

Fisher, Rev. Howard, Rawal Findi, India. 

Fitch, Rev. J. A,^ and wifc« (Cheningchow) Cbelbo, 
China, 

Filch, Rev. George F., and wife, Shanghai, China. 

Floumoy, Rev. Philip F.» (Brewervillc) Monrovia, 
Liberia. 

Fleeson, Miss Kate N., Lakawn, Lain pang, Siam, 
vim Moulmein and Pahpoon^ Burma. 

Fonl, Rev. George A., Sidon, Syria. 

FonI, Miss Mary T. Maxwell, Tripoli, Syria. 

Forman, Kev. Charles W. (D.DJ, and Vkik, Lahore, 
India. 

Formao, C. W., Jr. (M.D,), and wile, Jalandhar, 
India. 

Forman, Rev. John N., and wife, Futtehgurh, 
I ndia. 

Forman, Mis» Mary P,^ Futtehgurh, India. 

•Fontian* Rev. Henry and wife, SaharAnpur^ India. 

Fraxier, Rev. David (Sinoe), Greenville, Liberia. 

* Fuiiou, Rev. A. A., and wife (Sam Kong), Canton, 



Fulton, Rev. G. W,, and wife, Kanaiawa, Japan. 

Fulton. Mis* M. H. (M.D.), Canton, China. 

•FuliertMn, Miss Mary, India. 

Gardner, Mi<>s Sarah, Tokyo, JapaiFi. 

Garriit, Rev. J. C, Hangchow, China. 

Garvin, Mi»» Ann Elba, U&aka, Japan. 

Garvin, Rev, J. F*, and wife, Valparai&o, Chili. 

Gault, Rev, W. C., and wife, (BarakaJ, Gaboon, West 
Africa. 

^Geisinger, Miss Annie S,, Dehra, India, 

Giddingk, Mi«a Clara C {Woodstock), Landotir, 
India. 

Gihnan, Rev. F. P., and wife, Kiung Chow^ Hainajt, 



Gffcenc, Mm M. W„ Orooralah, Petiia. 

Gffccoe, Rev. J. Milton (D.D.), and wife^ Mexico 
^ty, Mexico. 

Griflin, Mtss t»uibel1a A., Cheung-Mai, Slam, ttia 
Moulmein and Pahptjon, Burma, 

Gi£[ord, Rev. D. L., and wife, Seoul, Korea. 

Gtlbertson, Professor J. C., and wife, Lahore, India. 

Given, Miss Maigaret C, Jalandhar, India, 

Godduhn, Rev. G. A., and wife, {Batanga) Gaboon, 
West Africa. 

Goheen, Rev. James M , and wife, Kolhapur, India. 

Good, Rev. A. C, and wife, ^Kangwc) Gaboi.in, W^cst 
Africa. 

*OrahaRi. Rev. J> P,,and wife,Sa]ig]li, Bombay Presi- 
tlcBcy, India, 

Griiwoid, Rev. H. D., and wife, Jh.nn*i, India. 

Hamilton. Rev. W. B., Cbinanfuo. China. 



Hammond, Miss M» L., Guatemala, City, Guate- 
mala, C, A. 

Hannum, Rev. W. H.,and wife, Ratnagtri, Bombay 
Presidency, India. 

Hardin, Rev. O. J,, and wife, Suk el Ghurb,Syn«. 

Harris, Ira (M.D.), and wife, Tripoli, Syria, 

Haworth, Mis& Alice R., Osiaka, Japan. 

^ Hawkes, Rev, James W., and wife, Hamadan, 
Persia. 

Ha worth. Rev. B. C, and wife. Kobe, Japan. 

Haymaker, Rev, R. M,, and wife, Guatemala City, 
Guatemala, S. A. 

Hays. Rev. George S,, and wife, Chcfo*^, China. 

Hays. T, H. (M.D,), and wife, Bangkok, Si am. 

*Hayes, Rev. J. N., and wife, Suochow, China. 

Hayes, Rev. W. M,, and wife. Tungchow, China. 

Hayes, Rev. Marshall C.« and wife, Kanaaawa, 
Jap*n. 

Hayes, Miss Emma. Tokyo, Japan. 

Hearst. Rev, John P.< Ph.D.) ,and wife, Kyoto, Japan, 

Henry, Rev. B. C (!> D.). and wife, Canton, China. 

Hepburn, James C. (M.D.), and wife, Yokohama, 
Japan. 

Heron, Mrs. J. W., Seout, Korea. 

Herndon, Jam» P., (LiUle Bassa) Monrovia, Li- 
beria. 

Hcs»er, Mis» Mary K., Kanaxawa, Japan. 

Hikon, Joseph W. K., (Johnsonville) Monrovia, 
Liberia. 

Holcomb, Rev. James F., and wife, Jhansi, India, 

Holliday, MissG. V., Tjibriz, Persia. 

Holmes, VkxiA M. CV, Tripoli, Syria. 

Holmes, G. W. (M.D J, Tabriz, Pemia. 

Ho!ikiits, Rev. F. E , and wife, 7ahleh, .Syria. 

Hough, Miu Clara E., San Paulo, Brazil. 

Hull, Mriu. J. J., Kolhapur, Bombay Presidency, 
India. 

Hunter, Mts» Adeline, Hamadan, Persia. 

Hutchison, Miss Susan A., Allahabad, India, 

Hunter, Rev, S. A, (M.D), and wife, (Chcningchow) 
Chefoo, China. 

Iddings, Rev, D, Y., and wife, Guatemala City. 
Guatemala. C. A. 

Imbric, Rev, William (D»D.), and wife, Tokyo, 
Japan. 

Ingli«, Rev. T. Edward^ and wife, Mynpuric, India. 

Irwin, Rev. Robert, Cheung Mai^ Siam, v/« Moul« 
mein and Pahpoon, Burma. 

Irwin, Rev. J. M., Kolhapur, Bombay Presidency, 
India. 

Irwin, Miss Rachel, Kolhapur, Bombay Presidency, 
India. 

Jacot, Rev, Herman, aad wife, (Kangwe) Gaboon, 
West Africa. 

Janvier, Rev. C. A. Rodney, and wife, Futtehgurh, 
India, 

Jerimiassen, Mr. C. C, KiuagChow, Hainan, China. 

♦ Jcsjiup, Rev. Samuel, and wife, Bcirni, Syria, 
JeiJiup, Rev. H. H. (D.D.J, and wife. Beirut, Syria. 
Je^up, Rev. William, and wife, Zddhleh, Syria. 
Jeweit, Miss Mary, Tabriz, Persia. 

•Johnson, Rev. William F. (D.D.), India. 
John&on, C. F. (M,D.), and wife, (Ichowfki) Chefoo, 
China. 

Johnston, Miss LouLse, Canton, China. 
Jones, Rev. U. S. Grant, Perazeporc, India. 

• Judson, Rev, J. H., and wife, Hangchow, China. | 
Kel^. Rev. Alejiander P., and wife, Saharanpur, 

India. 

Kerr, John G, (M.D.). and wife. Canton. China. 

Killie, Rev, C, A,, and wife H^howfu), Chefoo, 
China. 

King, Professor Alfred B., CBrewervitle) Monrovia, 
Liberia. 

Knax, Rev. Geo. W. (D.D.). and wife, Tokyo, 
Japan. 

Kolb, Kev. J, B., and wife, Larangeiras, Brazil. 

Kuhl, Miss Ella, Sao Paulo, Brajil. 

^ Kyle, Rev. John M., and wife, Rio dc Janeim, 
Brazil . 

Labaree, R. M., Oroomtah. Pemia. 

Labaree, Rev. B.(D LJ.),aiid wife, Or«»omi«b, Persia. 

Ladd, Mn. £d. H., Eartatiquilla, Republic of Co- 
lombia^ 

I .a Grange, Miss Harriet, Tripoli, Syria. 

l.andes. Rev, G. A,, and wife, Curityba, Brazil. 

ranili*^. Rev. H, M., and wife, Tokycii, Japan. 



Liuie, Rev, Willium, and wife, (Cbeningchow) Cba- 
foo, China. 

Lane, H. M. (M^DJ, Sao Paulo, BraxU. 

Lane, MiasEmma F., Nanking, China. 

LongdoQ, Rev. W. M., Peking, China, 

Lattimore, Miss Mary, Nanking, China. 

Laugblin, Rev. J. H., and wife, iWei Hien) Chefoo, 
China. 

Leaman, Rev. Charles, and wife. Nanking, China. 

Lw, W. R. (M.D.), and wife, Pctchabvifee,Siam. 

Leete, Miss Isabella A., Tokyo, Japan. 

Leonard, Rev, J. M., and wife, Kauazawa. Japan. 

Lesage, M. (French teacher), (Angom) Gaboon, 
West Africa, 

Lester. Rev. W. H.^ Jr., and wife, Santiago, Chili. 

Leyenberger, Rev. J. A., and wife, (Wei Hien) Cbfr* 
foo, China. 

Lew ill. Miss Hattie, Canton, China. 

LIngle, Rev, W. H„ Canton. China, 

Lowric, Mrs. Reuben, Pokbgt China. 

Lowrie, Rev. J. Walter, Peking. China. 

Loveland, Miss H. S., Kanazawa, Japan. 

Ltkcaa, Rev. James J. 0.D.), and wife, Allahabad, 
India, 

Lyon, Rev, D. N., and wife, Soochow, China. 

Machle, E. C. (M.D,), and wife, (Sam Kong) Canton, 
China. 

• March, Rev. F, W., and wife, Tripoli, Syria. 
Mechlin. Rev. J. C,, and wife, Salman. Persia. 
Marling, Rev. and Mrs. Arthur W., (Angoin) Ofr 

boon, W*est Africa. 

Mateer, Rev. C. W. <D.D.), and wife, Tungf:how, 
China. 

Mateer, Rev. R. M„ fWei Hien) Cheftio, China. 

McCartee, D. B. fM.DJ, and wife, Tokyo, Japan. 

McCandlIss, H. M. iM.D,), and wife Ktung Chow, 
Hainan, China. 

McCauley, Rev. James M., and wife, Tokyo, Japan. 

McClure, Rev. W. (i., and wife, Petchaburee, Siam. 

♦McComb, Rev. J, M.. and wife, India. 

♦McCoy, Rev. D. C, and wife, Peking, China. 

McDowell, Rev. E. W., and wife, Mosul, Turkey. 

McGilvary, Rev. Daniel (D.D.I, and wife, Cheung- 
Mai, Siam, via Moulmein and Pahpoon, Burma, 

Mc<jilvajry, Mi.Ur Nellie H,. Cheung-Mai, Siam, wim 
Moulmein and Pahpoon, Burma. 

McGuire, Miss M. E., O^^aka, Japan. 

McKce, Rev. W. J., and wife, Ningpo, China. 

McKean, Dr. James W.,and wife, Cheung-Mai, SiaB, 
V'ia Muiilmein and Pahpoon, Burma, 

McKilHcan, Miu Jennie, Peking, China. 

McMillan, Rev. John (M.D.), and wife (Benlla)f 
Gaboon, West Africa. 

McNair, Rev. Theodore M„ Tokyo, Japan* 

Melton, Mis!> Anna, Oroomiah^ Persia. 

Menkel, Mr. Peter, and wife, ( Barmka) Gaboon, Wat 
Africa, 

Melrose, Rev. J. C, aad wife, KiungCbow, Hainan, 
China, 

Miles, Rev. A, R,, and wife, Bogota, Republic of 
Colombia, 

Milliken, Miss Bessie P,, Tokyo, Japan. 

MilU, Rev. Charles R. (D.D,), and wife, Tungchow, 
China. 

• MilU, Rev, F. v., Hangchow, China. 
Moffctt, Rev. S. A, Seoul, Korea. 
Montgomery. Mis^ Charlotte, Hamadan, Peialtp 
Montgomer>', Mix* .i\nnic, Hamadan, Persia* 

• Morgan, Mi*^ Maria, Oroomiah, Persia. 
Morrison, Rev. Robert, and wife, RawaJ Piodlr 

India. 

Morrison. Rev. William J. P., Ambala, India. 

Murray, Rev. John, and wife, Chtnanfoo, Chisft, 

Murray, Wxt^ Lily* Tokyo, Japan, 

Morrow, Miss Margaret J., Allahabad, India. 

Morton, Miss Annie, Ningpo, China. 

NasMu, Rev. Robert H. (M.D.), fPalaguga) G»* 
boon. West Africa. 

• Navsau, Miss Isabella A., (Talagvfajl Gaboci^, 
W^t Africa. 

Kay tor, Mrs. L. M., Kanarawa, Japan. 
Neal, J, B. (M.D,), and wife, Chtnanfoo, China, 
Nelson, Rev. William S., and wife, 1 ripoli, Syria. 
•Nevius, Rev. J. L, (D.D,), and wife, Chefoo. China. 
Newton, Rev. John (D.D.), and wife, Lahore. India. 

• Newton, Rev. F. J. IM D,), India. 

Newton, Rev. Edward P., and wifie, Lodiafta, India. 




Newion^ Rev. Charles 6. (D.D.), and wife, Ambttla, 
India. 
Ncwion» Mrs. John, Jr. , Allnhiibftd^ India* 
Newton, Mis* Graw, Peking, China* 

• Niks, Mis* M. W, (M.D.>, Camoji, China. 
Noyc*, Rev. H. V., and wi/c. Canton, Chmsu 
Noycs^ MU» Hattie, Canton. China. 
Nurse, Mrt. S. E.. SchiefTclin, Liberia. 

Ogdcn, Mr*. T. Spencer (Angomli Gaboon, West 
Africa. 

• Old father, Rev, J, M,, and wife, Tabriz, Pema. 
Orbison, Rev, J. Harris (M»D-), and wife, Lahore, 

India. 

Orbison, Miss Agne^ L., Rawal Pindi, India, 

Parker, Mu* S« E., Bangkok, Slam. 

Partch, Rev. V. F., Ningpo, China. 

Palton, Mi^ £»thcr, Panhala, Bombay Presidency, 
India, 

Perry, Rev, Frank B., Monrovia, Liberia* 

People*, Rev. S. C (M.D.I, and wife, Lakawn, 
Lampang, Siam, via Moulme'in and Pahpoon, Bur- 
ma, 

Phraner. Rev. Stanley K„ and wife, Cheung>Mai, 
Slam, rrta Moiilmein and Pahpoon, Ilurma. 

Pierwjn, Rev. George P., Tokyo. Japan. 

•Pollock, Rev. George W., and wife, India. 

Pond, Rev. T. S„ Barraaqnilla, Republic of Co- 
lombia. 

• Porter, Miu F. E., Kanaeawa, Japan* 
Porter, Rev. J. B..and wife, Kyoto, Japan. 
Porter, Rev. Theodore J., and wife, Curityba, BnuiL 
Posey, MiM Mar>', Shanghai, China* 

Potter, Rev. J. L-, and wife, Tehenm, Per&ia. 

• Pratt, Mis* Mary E,, India. 

Prcssei, M. E. Ucacher)^ (Baraka), Gaboon, West 
Africa. 

Reid, Rev. Gilbert, Chtnanfoo^, China. 

Reuilinger, Mrs, Louis« (Bemia), Gaboon, West 
Africa. 

Robinion, Rev, W, H., and wilc^ Copiapo, Chil*. 

Rodgera, Rev. Jamc* B., and wife, Rio de Jaodrtt, 
Braxil. 

Roae, Miss C. H,, Tokyo, Japan. 

Sftvaget Miss H.miet A., Dehra, India. 

Bd n sffiflg, Misa Ann J,, Teheran, Pcr&la. 

Scott, Mi!M Anna E. (Woodstock), UmElour, India. 

Scott, Mr*. James L. (Woodstock), I-andour, India. 

♦Seeley, Rev. Ger>rge A., and wife, India, 

♦Seeley, Mks E. J., India, 

Seller, Rev, Galen W,* and wife, Kolhapur, Bombay 
Presidency, India, 

Shedd, Rev. J. H. ^D.D.), and wife, Oroomiah, 
Fer&ta. 

Sherman, Miss Jennie, Ramagiri, Bombay Presi- 
dency, India, 

Seward. \!i*s Sarah C, (M.D.), Allahabad, India- 
Shaw, Mw^s Kate, Kanazawa, Japan. 

Sikby. Rev, John A., and wife, Shanghai, China, 

Sinclair, Miss Marion E> (M.D.), Peking. China. 

SmaU.^Miu Jonnie M., Petcbabiiree, Siam. 

Smith, Mary J, (M.D.), Teheran, Pertia. 

Smith, Miss Sarah C, Tokyo, Japan. 

♦Smith, Rev. J. N, B., and wife, Shanghai, China. 

Snyder, Rev, F. L,, and wile, Bangkok, Siam, 

Stewart, Rev. David J., and wife, San Miguel Del 
Metqultal, Mexico. 

Stsmers, Miss Imogene, Guatemala City, Guatemala, 

St. Pierre, Rev. E, W., and wife, Oroomtah, Persia. 

Swan, J. M, fM.D,), and wife. Can ten, China. 

Byrnes, Miss Mary L., Allahabad, India. 

Taylor, Rev. Hugh, and wife, Lakawn, Lampang, 
Siam, via Moulmcin and Pahpoon, Burma. 

Taylor, Rev. A. G.,and wife, Kanancawa. Japan, 

Taylor, G, Y. {M,D.), Peking, China. 

Tedfofd, Rev, L. B.,and wife,Sangli, Bombay Presi- 
dency, India. 

ThackwcU, Rev. Reese, and wife, Dchra, India. 

*Thiede, Miss Clara, India, 

Thomson, Miss Emilia, Beirut, Syria. 

Tliomscin, Rev, J. C (M.D.), *nd wife, Macao, 
China. 

Thomson, Rev. Henry C, and wife, Tlalpam, Mex- 
ico. 

Tliompson, James B. (M.D,), and wife, Ratburee, 
Siam. 

Thompson, Rev, David (D.D,), and wife, Tokyo, 
Japan. 



Torrenee, W. W. fM.D,), and wife, Teheran, Peniia. 

Toujeau, Kev, and Mf». J. G., Medcllin, Republic 
of Colombia. 

Tracy, Rev, Thomas, and wife, Allahabad, India. 

True, Mr*. Maria T.. Tokyo, Japan. 

UUman, Rev, J, F., Rawal Pindi, India. 

Underwood, Rev. H, G., ^nd wife, Seoul, Korea. 

Van Duiec, TSli« C. O.. Salmas, Persia, 

Van Duree, Mi%s M, K,,Oroomiah, Persia, 

Van Dyck, Rev. C. V. A. (D^D., M,DJ, and wife, 
Beirut, Syria^ 

Van Hook, Mra. L. C. Tabri*, Persia- 

Vanneman, WiUiam S, (M.D,), and wife, Tabrii, 
PcTBia, 

Van Schoick, J. L. {M.D,}, and wife, fCbeningcliow) 
Chefoo, China, 

Velic, Rev. Henry C„ and wife, Lahore,! ndia. 

Vinton, C.C. (M.D,), and wife, Seoul, Kore^ 

♦ Wachtcr, Rev. E., and wife, Bangkok, SiaiBU 
Waddell, Rev, W. A., Sao Paulo. Braril. 
Wallace, Rev. Thomas F,, and wife, Zacatecas, 

Mexico. 
Wallace, Rev, W., Zacatecas, Mexico, 
Wanlcss, W. J. (M.D.), and wife, Sangli, Bombay 

Presidency, India, 
Ward. Rev. S. Lawrence, and wife, Teheran, Penia. 

♦ Warner, Misa Sara 0., Ningpo, China. 
Warren, Mrs. Joseph, Gwaliar, India. 
Watson, Rev. J, G., and wife, Hamadaa^ Pecsia. 
Watson, Rev. W. Scott, and wife, Sidon, Syria. 
West, Miss Antiie R,, Tokyo, J.Tpan. 
Wesicrvdt, Miss Eliza P„ Cheung-.Mai, Siam, via 

Motilmein and Pahpoon, Burma. 
Wheeler, Miss Jennie, Saltillo, Mexico, 
•Wherry. Rev, E, M. (D.D J, and wife, India, 
Wherry, Misa Sarah M., Dehra, India, 
Wherry J Rev, John, and wife, Peking, China« 
Whiting, Rev. J. L., and wife, Peking^ ChlaiL 
•White, Rev, W. J,, and wife, China. 
Wight, Miss Fannie, (Wei Hien) Chefoo, China. 
Wilder, Mis* Grace E,, Sangli, Bombay Presidency, 
India, 

Wilder, Mrs. R. G,, Ratnagiri, Bombay Presi- 
dency. India. 

Wtlliamson, Miss Clam G,. (Woodstock) Landour, 
India. 
Williamson, Mis* E, R., Sao Paulo. Bradl, 
Wilson, Rev, Jesse C, Santiago, Chili, 
Wilson, Rev. S. G., and wife, Tabrij;, Persia. 
Wilson, Rev. Jonathan, Lakawn, Lampang, Siam, 
mm Moulmein and Pahpoon, Burma. 
Winn, Rev. Tliomx<( C, and wiic. Kanatawa, Japan. 
Wishard, J. G. (M.DJ, MoFtnl. Turkey, 
Wisner, Rev, O. l*'., jind wife. Canton, China, 
Wood hull. Rev. George E., and wife, Osaka, Japan. 
Woodside, Rev. John S., and wife, Flawah, India. 
Worley, Mi*s Effie D. CM.D), S.x)thow, China. 
Wright, Rev, J. N., Salmas, Persia. 
Wyckoff, Rev, Benjamia D.» and wife^ Ambala, 
Indian, 
Youngman, Miss Kate Ct, Tokyo, Japan. 

MiasiONARiBS Among the Indians ik the UNmi> 
States. 

Dickson, Miss Jennie B., Pine Kidgp, S. Dak. 

Hall, Rev. William, West Salamanca, N. Y. 

Lindsey, Rev. E. J., and wife, Popkir Creek, Mont 

McBeth, Mis'^ Kate, Lapwaj, Idaho. 

McBeth, Mliis Sue, Mount Ida, Idaho. 

McCreight, Mi.-is Charlotte C, Pine Ridge, S. Dak. 

Runciman, Rev, George, and wife, Vei^ailles, N, Y. 

Sterling, Rev. C. G., and wife. Pine Ridge, S, Dak. 

Trippe, Rev, M. F,, and wife, SalamaJica, N. Y. 

Wittiamson, Rev. John P., and wife. Greenwood, 
S Dak. 

MisstoHAiuis Amokg Chinese ln the United 
States. 

Butskin. Miss M, M., San Francisco, CaL 

Cable, Miss E. R., San Francisco, CaL 

Condit, Rev. I. M., and wife, Oakland, CaL 

Cuibenson, Miii Maggie, San Francisco, CaL 

Holt, Rev. W. S.| and wife, Portland, Ore, 

Kerr, Rev. A. J., afid wife, San Francisco, Cal. 

Loomis, Rev. A. W. (D.D.), and wife, San Fran- 
dsjro, Cal. 

Sturge, Rev. E, A. (D.DJ, and wife, San Francisco, 
Cal, 



€ o lit rl but Ions of tbe Froleataut Bp 1*> 
coital Ctiiireli. 

For missions ihrougb Mission- 
ary Society $44<^6S6 

Diocesan missions • 540,000 

Other benevolcocci 908,715 

Total benevolences $1,689,401 

ChiiTch expenses and rectori' 

salaries ,.«• $11,200,366 

$12,754,767 

The Living Church Almanac for l^l 
gives the total contributions as * $12754,- 
767. We add tip in the Almaruu ihe 
amounts of the "Extra Parochial Con- 
tributions Diocesan and General " of each 
diocese so far as reported, and we have 
$t,5S4 4^c>* Add to this $135,000, whicb 
is about the amount given for bencvo- 
lences by the unreported dioceses, and we 
have a total of $1 ,689,401 • Subtract from 
this the amount received by the Mission* 
ary Society and the amount expended in 
diocesan nnissions, and the balance, $908.- 
715.15 the amount given for education, 
hospitals, church extensioiip needy clergy- 
men, widows' and orphans' fund, church 
homes, Bible Society, etc. 



Conlrlbutlotiii of the Methodist Eplf 
copal Oliarcli, Soutli* 

The pamphlet issued in 1890 by the 
publishing house of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, containing the An- 
nual Minutes of all the ConferenceSi re- 
ports as foliows the benevolent contribu- 
tions: 

Foreign missions * $227. I87 96 

Domestic missions .•, 113,896 13 

Church Exten'iion .,,,,, 56,561 37 

Co?i fere nee claimants. ........ 132,952 90 

Woman's Missionary Society, . . 7S1846 44 

Total $606, 384 10 

The contributions for pastors* salaries 
and church expenses are not reported. 
»*» 

ConlrtlintlODa of the Pre»byteriaii 
€Iiureli« Soutli. 

(Aa given by Rev. j-iseph R, WiUori, D.D., itated 
Clerk of the General AiMmbly^ July t, 1890,) 

Foreign missions $89,659 

Home missions (evangelistic) 54*445 

Sustentation 65,036 

Invalid Fund , 13.904 

Education. 3^*991 

Publication 9,016 

Tuskaloosa Institulc. . . .. ., 6,590 

Church erection 5.900 

Presbylerial...., ,. I4t622 

Miscellaneous... 126,963 

Total bent voleni contributions,, $425,135 
Conjjrcgational expenses and pas- 

tora' salaries ....,, $1,303,158 

Total contributions., ....,,... $1,727,263 




CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NORTH. 



lar. 



Coiili'Ibutlotiii of 1li<^ Presbyterian 
Chiireli, ^orth, 

iA* given by Rev. Willi am K- Roberti, D.D., Stated 
Clerk of iKe Central Awerably, July i, iSgck) 

Foreign misMon^ »,,..,,,,»-,♦,.. $722,305 

Home missions .*,.«. SB9,S5G 

Ectucatian , , 470,356 

SiLnd ay- school work .,•.*. 108,045 

Church erection ».,,» 313.119 

Relief Fund ,, . 126,762 

Freedmen 133,338 

Aid for colleges 248, 107 

SustenlAtion , 55i355 

<^nerai Assembly..., 72t352 

Miscellaneous 1,213,387 

TotJil benevolent contnbuUons, $4,358,532 
Congregational expenses and paj>- 

lors' s^ilaries. ,^ , 10,009,599 

Total conlribulions .... 114,368, 1 3 1 



C^ntrlbiitlotifl of tbd Baptists (Beie* 
111 ft r). 

The Bapiisi Year-Book, issued in 
1S90, gave the nymber of Baptists in the 
United States as 3.070.047, and their con- 
trjbulions as follows ; 

MUsions $i,og2«57i 56 

Educalinn 228^469 90 

Miscellaneous 1 ,977-95 1 SS 

Salaries and church expenses. 6,90011,266 27 

Total 110,199,259 61 

The Minutes of the session of ihe 
Southern Baptist Convention, held in 
May, 1890, reports the number of IVhiie 
Sautkern Baptists connected with it — 
1,194.520 — and their contributions ; 

Foreign Mission Board $109, 174 20 

Home Mission Board 67,368 81 

State Mission work 17^,973 54 

Total ^$353,516 55 

The total contributions as rtrported 
amount lo $2,571,593*70, and this would 
imply that, by deducting $353-5 '6- 5 S* 
the balance would gi^'e amount expended 
lor church expenses and salaries, namely, 

|3.2t8,o77.i5. 

The Cohred Baptists of the Souths 
numbering 1,129.574. work through Siaie 
organizations and the '* Baptist Foreign 
Mission Convention of the Urnled States," 
but publish no report of their contribu- 
tions. 

The C&iored Baptists of th€ North 
work through the "Baptist American 
Mission ar)* Convention of the Western 
States and Territories." the **Consoli* 
dated American Baptist Missionary Con- 
veniion,'* and the " New England Baptist 
Missionary Convention,*" but their pub- 
lished reports do not show their contribu- 
tions. 

The WMiii Baptists of ike North oper- 



ate in their foreign mission work through 
the "American Baptist Missionar)' Union/' 
and in their home missionary work through 
the "American Home Missionary Soci- 
ety/' and the reports of these societies is- 
sued in (890 give their receipts as follows: 

Foreign missions. $559,527 75 

Home mt&sions 449.444 94 

Total $1,008,972 69 

In the receipts for foreign missions 
are included $91,935.49 from legacies, 
and in the receipts for home missions 
are included $153*975.83 from legacies. 

-. •«« — — - 

Contrlbutloim of tlie Congresatlonal 
Cliiirctiea. 

The Congregational Year-Book, issued 
in the fall of 1890, gave the following as 
the summary of the strength of the Con- 
gregational churches and their contribu- 
tions 1 

Churches «•••••*.... 4^689 

M inisters 4,640 

Church members. 491,985 

Sunday-school scholars. ... - 596.504 

Benevolent contributions... $2,398,037 
Home expenditures.. ...... 6,046,962 

Total contributions, $8,444^999 

There are seven benevolent societies 
for which contributions are asked. We 
have taken the following from ihe reports 
of the societies: 

Benevolent Societies. 

A. H, M. S.— Th£ American Home 
Afissionary Society. This Society helps 
support '* home missionaries " in the West 
and in other needy parts of our land. 
The office is in the Bible House, New 
York city. Rev. J, B, Clark. D.D., and 
Rev. William Kincaid. D.D., secretaries. 

A. B. C. F. U.— The American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 
This Society sends missionaries to other 
lands. Its office is in the Congregational 
House. Boston. Rev. N. G. Clark, D.D., 
Rev. E. K. Alden. D.D., Rev. Judson 
Smith, D.D„ secretaries. 

A, C. U* — The American Congrega- 
tional Union. This Society helps build 
churches and parsonages. Its office is in 
the Bible House, New York city. Rev, 
L. H. Cobbi D.D., secretary. 

A. M. K.—^The American Missionary 
Association. This Society helps support 
churches and schools among the Negroes, 
Chinese, and Indians in our land. Its 
office is in the Dible House. New York 
city. Rev, M. E, Strieby, D.Dh Rev. A. 
F. Beard. D.D., Rev. F. P. W^oodljury, 
D.D., secretaries, 

C. S. S. and F. S.— The Congregation- 
al Sunday-School and Publishing Soci- 



ety. This Society organizes and aids 
Sunday-schools, and publishes lesson 
helps and other literature. Its office is 
in the Congregational House, Boston, Rev. 
George M, Boy n Ion. D.D.. Secretary. 

N. W. E. C.— The New West Educa- 
iion Commission. This Society supports 
Christian day-schools in Utah and adja- 
cent Territories. Its ofice is 151 Wash- 
ington Street, Chicago, Rev. Charles R, 
Bliss, secretar)'. 

A. C. and E. S.^ — The American C&i- 
lege and Education Society. This Soci- 
ety collects money for colleges, and also 
helps young men who arc studying for the 
ministry. Its office is in the Congrega- 
tional House. Boston. Rev. John A. 
Hamilton, D.D,, secretary. 

Receipts of Societies in 1890, 

American Board $762,585 65 

American Home Missionary 

Society 671,171 39 

American Congregational Un* 

ion 155.530 36 

American Missionary Associa- 
tion 442,735 71 

Congregational Sunday-School 

and Publi'ihiiig Society... .^ 57fl84 8$ 

New West Education Conimis* 

sion ...... 75*301 08 

American College and Educv 

tion Society . 101,425 45 

Total $2,265,924 39 

» *> 

Pumit llnnie and Fore I if 11 IfIi«ii1oi]' 
ikry Sf>4-I«'ly aT tJjo ATrlcan UlelllodlKC 
lS|»l»eopal c:iiurcti. 

The head-quarters of the Society are aC 
61 Bible House, New York, Rev, W. B. 
Derrick, D.D.. Secretary. 

Fourteen thousand dollars were ex- 
pended in the home mission work, and 
$5,300 in the foreign mission work last 
year. It depends largely on its Easter 
Day returns, which in 1890 were $6, 267, 5a 

In the foreign missions $1,000 was used 
in the Sierra Leone Missions, $2,300 in 
the Liberia Missions, $1,300 in the Hayti 
Missions, and $500 in the San Domingo 
Missions. In the Sierra Leone Mtssionf 
are 400 members ; Liberia, 260 ; Hayti, 
130; San Domii^o, 75. Total members, 
865. 

The home expenses for salary of secre- 
tary, rent, print ing, clerk, etc.. is about 
$3,000. 

The foreign missionaries are : 

Rev. y R. Frederick, Freetown, Sierra Leooe^ Africa. 
Rtv. Mr. Baker. Scarde* River. ^ . . " 

Re^ Ja.me» Wil?>on, Roysville Mi*Mon, LilKcria, ** 
Rev. AJlcn BHsboii. Rrewerivtlle MiM'n.Liberia, " 
Rev, Scott Bailey, Arthington Mi«»ioii.. LtbcriA, ** 
Rev. Clemem 1ron&, Pleaunt Valley, Lit>eria, " 
Rev. T.P. Lind»<y.Grand Bas&aMbii'ii, IJberia, ** 
Rev. S. r Campbcn, Rtl., Monrovia. Liberia, " 
Rev. S. P. Hood, Rev. Thomas Day, 

Rev, Charlet Donee, Rev. Joseph Day, 

Port-Au -Prince. Hayti 
Rev. H. C. C. A*lwood, P. E., Rev. C. E. Gordln, 
Rev. Adam Rogers, Rev. Simon Hall, 

Svn Domiitgo. 
Rev. Charles H. Willi.inu^ San Pedro de M.\ccorb, 
San Dumjiig«^. 




THli ANNUAL REPORT. 



187 



Tbft Annual Report* 

The Annual Report of the Missionary 
Socicry of ihe Methodist Episcopal Church 
for 1S90 has just been issued, it was 
edited by Dr. S. L. Baldwin, and gives a 
great amount of informaiion respecting 
our missions. In our January and Feb- 
ruary numbers we gave the tables of the 
statistics of our foreign fields prepared in 
the missions for the report, and on the 
opposite page is the summary as given in 
the report* 

The summary gives the footings of the 
tables* except the columns showing the 
number of foreign missionaries, assistant 
foreign missionaries, and missionaries of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
^hich are changed to correspond with 
the names we have on record in this of- 
ficc^ and which^ corrected to February 15, 
arc given on pages 137 and 138. 

In Africa no foreign missionaries are 
reported, as there are none in Africa sent 
there by the Missionary Society. The 
statistics are those of the old Liberia 
work reported at the Conference of Jan- 
uary, 1890. In addition to these, in the 
missions established by Bishop Taylor in 
Liberia, Angola, and Congo Free Slate 
were reported last year 20 full members 
and 248 probationers. 

In the statistical table for Sweden the 
Rev. B. A. Carlson reported six foreign 
missionaries in the Finland District* Be- 
cause they went from Sweden into Fin- 
land IS not a good reason for calling them 
foreign missionaries. Wc have bot two 
foreign missionaries in the Swedish Con- 
ference. They are the Rev. B. A. Carlson, 
presiding elder of the Finland D is it id. 
who went as a missionary from the United 
Stales in 1869, and the Rev, J. F. Larsson, 
pastor at Motala, Sweden, who went as a 
missionary from the United States in 1855. 

In Norway and Denmark and Switzer- 
land we have no foreign missionaries, and 
in Germany hut one, and he is a professor 
in the theological school of Martin Mis- 
sion Institute. 

Combining the members and proba- 
tioners, the total increase has been 5,876, 
and the following luisslons show an 

iNCHKASE: 

North Iiulia ..t*-» *3»592 

Bengal 590 

Me»co • 394 

Norway 372 

Foochow. 356 

North China. , * . ♦ 345 

Souh AmeriCA. 295 

Germany 2BS 

Denmark 271 

Africa 180 

South India 70 

Central China. 57 

>Veiit China 24 

Mdayftia. » 13 

Italy 3 

Korea ................. .no report. 



Decrease. 
Bulgaria^. ...... *.*.......... .•.4 

Sweden , 6 

Japan 288 

Switzerland. 667 

The decrease in Sweden and Switzer- 
land has been caused by emigration to 
the United States and by mistakes in the 
reports of the previous year. In an ar- 
ticle that appeared in Gospel in All 
Lands for November, 1890. the Rev. D. 
S. Spencer states that the decrease in 
Japan arises from mistakes made in the 
previous reports, and that the statistical 
blanks are not clearly understood by 
some of the Japanese preachers. Notice, 
however, that in the missions reporting a 
decrease there were conversions last 
year in Bulgaria, 10; Sweden. 2.387; Japan. 
492; Switzerland. 852. 

The reports of our foreign missions are 
encouraging. North India still stantis at 
the head. Dr. Curry called it *'the pearl 
of our missions." The table shows that 
in our foreign missions last year there 
were 11,189 conversions, an increase of 
over 2,000. Of these 3.661 were in India 
and 710 in China. 

Domestic MtssiONS, 
An increase or decreiise of members 
and probationers in the domestic missions 
does not indicate the prosperity of the 
missions. The summary here given shows 
a decrease of 2.369. As soon as the mis- 
sions become self-supporting they arc no 
longer reported as missions, and a large 
decrease in the summary would result 
from such an increased strength of 
charges that would enable them to dis- 
pense with help from our Society. This 
is especially true of appointments 
in the English-speaking. German, and 
Scandinavian Conferences. We rejoice 
in seeing in Ihe report that while in 1889 
Scandina\'ian charges with 16,249 mem- 
bers and probationers were aided by mis- 
sionary money, in 1890 charges with 
10.893 ni embers and probationers were 
aided, which implies that charges with 
5.356 members and probationers became 
self-supporting, 

♦♦• — 

For«leii .TiliMioiiarleiiof ibe r?Ietiio4ll«t 
K|*l»copal Cliurrli, 

(These include the mission a rie» of the Parem So- 
ciety And the Woman'* Foreign Mu»jodAty Society.) 

INDIA. 

B»hGp f. M. TM081JRN, D.D. -..,.,. CiicnHa 

Mrs* J. M* THoui'ttK, M.D.._... Calcutta 

Korih India Conference- 

Rev. B. H, Badley, D.D Lucknow 

Mr5. Mary Badlcy. . , ^Lucknow 

Rev C. L. Bare..... BarciUy 

Mi*. C. L. Bare...* BarciIIy 

Rev, John Blackstock » ..Shahjeharkpur 

Mr%. John BlaclcAioclc. Shmhjch.^npur 

Rev. J. C, Buichcr. M.D..... Bijnour 

Mrs. Ada Butcher, , Bijnour 

Rev. U A, Core .AllahaWd 

Rev. T. Craven , , , , Nami TaJ 

Mrt. Jennie Craven , CEvaonusn, III J 



Rev, S. S. Dcaie, M,D ,Dwarahat, N. W, P, 

Mi%. S, S. Defl»e .....Dwarthat, N. W. P, 

Rcv.F. W. Foote.,, Nai«i Tal 

Mr». Laura H. Footc. ,... .Naini Tal 

Rev. r. H. Gill ,.....Pauri,N. W, P, 

Mr*. Maij' Gill ,, Pauri, N. W. P. 

Rev. G. ¥. Hcipltin*..., «•..«***, ..,.«. Lucknow 

** R. Hosikiii*. ..,.......,,,»,,.,,.,. ...Cawnpope 

Mr*. Chiirloiie Hoakini. Cawnpore 

Rev, T. S, Johnson, M.D_ fCampben, la.) 

Mn. Amanda R. Johnson (C&mpbclK la.V 

Rev. S. Knowie*..,,... ^. , Gond* 

Mr*. Isabella Knowlei *»,g**,..,.,«,..Gonda 

Rev. J. C. Lawwn. ......,..«,.•......•• Sitapnr 

Mrs. rlllen I. Law&on ,« Siupuf 

Rev. A, T. Leonard •♦Roy Bareilly 

Mrs. A. T. Leonard ...,»...,•... Roy Bareilly 

Rev. 1. T. McMahon (Lima. N. YJ 

Mri, t T. McMahon.... .(Lima. N. Y.> 

Rev. H. MnnM;ll. D.D,,,. ».. Lucknow 

Mrs. Nannie Mjuikell, M.D Lucknow 

Rev. W, A. Maj|4«ll , Lucknow 

Rev. J. H. Mc5soiore Naini Tal 

Mr», Elizabeth Mes^mort:.. , •». .Naini Tal 

Rev. D. C; M'jnro .Lucknow 

Mrs. Hettie V, Monro. .....Lucknow 

Rev. F, L, NeeJd. Barei% 

Mr». Kmma L. Necld. (Meiuchen. N. J) 

Rev. F, H. Nonhrup., , Aura 

Mrv F. H. Northrop .........*.,.. ..Agra 

Rev, E. W. Parker, D.D Motadabad 

Mnt Lais Parker,... ..«.....,,. «,... ^Moradabid 

Rev- N. L. Rockey, .......,,,,. Shahiehajipur 

Mr». N. L. Rockev Shahjchanpur 

Rev. T, J. Scoit, tJD ,„....,,.,,,... Bareilly 

Mr*. Mary E. Scott.... , , Bareilly 

Rev. J. B. Thomai *.*,.,..«.,,,.,»CAwnp<j>rct 

Mrs, J. B. Tlioaiai »....•**«■•• Ca«i»pior» 

Rev, J. W, Waujsh. DJ) ...Allahabad 

Mr*. Jennie Waiigh A1bhj«bad 

Rev. Peach V T, VVilton, M.D Budaon, N. W. P. 

Mm P. T. WiUon . , . .... Buda«a 

Misa Annte N. Buddcn Pithoracartk 

** . Mary ChriitiAncy, M.D.. ♦«,.,, . .. BareiUy 

** Rebecca Daily. , Um roMt9\ 

" Esther J. DeVine.... ...Lucknow 

" Clam A. Downey (South Colton, N. V.> 

" S. A. Ea»ton Naini TaL 

" Fannie M, Eiijlwh, ...♦»»♦.,,,, Bareilly 

" Delia A. Fuller.. #**,» ,,t,...Sitapur 

*^ Annie Oallimore... .»••«.....».. . .. .Oonda 

" Emily L. Harvey *».,.,.. Cawnpore 

** Theresa J. Kyle *,.»,». **•... ...Cawnpore 

»* Anna E. Lawfon Bareilly 

'* Susan McBurnie.. ......Cawnpore 

" Florence Perrine..., ....Lucknow 

** Mary Reed,,....* «. (Beckett** Station. O.) 

** Phccbe Rowe Lucknow 

** Ruth Sellers.,... , Naini Tal 

" Martha A. Sheldon, M.D....,.-....Moradabad 

** l^ucy W. Sullivan.,. Lucknow 

** Isabella Thobum .-.,.. Luckaow 

South India Conreir«noe. 

Rev. A. H. Baker........... Kolar 

Mre. A. H. Baker... Kolar 

Rev, James Baume,.. ..«•*••. Poona 

Mrs, L Raume.... .Poona 

Rev. J. B, Buttrick. .,.«,«*. .*•«.••.»•..... Bangalora 

Mrs. J. B. Buttrick Bangalore 

Rev.W. W. Bruere Bombay 

Mrs. Carrie P, Bruere,.,... ««,..# Bombay 

Rev. W. E, L. Clarke .Secundembad 

Mn. W. E. L. Clarke.. Secunderabad 

Rev. W. F. G. Curtiea..,. Black town, Madras 

Mrs. W. F. G. Curiie* .Bb.ki own, Madras 

Rev. C. E. Delamaier Bombay 

'* J. O. Denning. ,..,.,»...„.,,,,,,. ..(i-n r^uth 

Mnt, J. O. Denning ..,,, (rw *-««r/#> 

Rev. C. G. E.Lsam. . . .....*,*.,....,»,,.. . ., Igatpuri 

'" D. O. Ernabcr*er Gulbarpi 

Rev. D. O, Fojc ,. . .„ .Poona 

Mrs. Ellen H. Fox ,^ Poona 

Rev. E. F. Frease....,., ...,.,... Baroda 

Mrs. E. F. Freaae .,.*, .Baroda 

Rev. J. H. Garden ..*..Vepery. Madraa 

Mre. J, H. Garden. (Stratfofd, Ont., Can.) 

Rcv.G. K, Gilder Hyderat»ad 

Mrs. G. K. Gilder , Hydembad 

Rev. W. H. HoUi tci- ,. Banijaloi* 

Mr*. W. H. Holli.icr , . Bancalof* 

Rev. W. L. King ......Vepery* Madras 

Mrs. W. L. King , ...Vepcry, Madras 

Rev. A. W. Trauich. , .Bombay 

Mrs. A. W. Prantirh .».....,*,»,... . .Bombay 

Rev. [ra A. Rich.ird* ,,... ...Poona 

Mrs. \. A. Richards... ..Poona 

Rev. W. E. Rotvbin»....„,» ....Bombay 

Mrs. Alice Robbins Bombay- 
Rev. J, E. Robinson....... Bombay 

Mr*. J. E. Robinson. . .(la; S. isih St., Newark. N. J"> 

Rev. F. N. Shaw..... u.*.... .,Nagpore 

Mn. F.N. Shaw •......* Nagp'jfe 

Rev. R. Sorbey ..t..»., Rancalore 

** W. H. Stephens ,,*,»»..,..,.»,.... Karapti 

Mrs. W. H. Stephens,. •...,,,.,,.,.. Kampti 

Rev. George I . .Stone Karachi 

M rs. Mariiia Stone ,.**,...,.»*,* Karachi 

Rev. Juliu* Smith .....».,,,... RangotJO 

Mrs. J. Ssnitk .i..»#r*^.,.. *» Rangoon 



i 



Woman' t FmiigH Misnvmarjf Society. 

lfi$S Minnie F. AbtTim« Bombay 

*' Louise E. Bbckm^r Hyderabad 

*• Man' C Carroll ...Bombay 

** S»raS M. D«Lirte.,.,.. ..(Muhne, 111.) 

•* IxilU ErnsbcrRcr, M.D. Baroda 

** Mary A. Hughes ,...Madrai 

" Hcnnetia Mat&oD , .*..♦.. Bangalore 

" Anna Thompsoti.« * ...Baroda 

Bangftl Conference* 

Rev. F. J. Blcwiu.. ...Rajpur 

Mr*. Rmti C, BlcwUt ...Rajpur 

Rev. P. M . Buck Muwoonc 

Mrs. Carrie Btick Mnisoone 

Eev. E. S. Busby *.»*« Lahore 

Mrs. M. Busby Lahore 

Rev. Winiatn P, Byera, .,.,,,,, ....A*amc* 

Mrs. W, P. Bycrs Asansol 

Rev, C. G. Conkliii. ,..*„. *,,... ^„,,Xalciitta 

Mr*. Mary CoukUo Calcutta 

Rev. C. W. De Souaa. Roorki, N . W. P, 

Mn. Helen De Sou« Roorki. N. W, P. 

Rev. A, (iilruth * < Haverhill. OJ 

Mn. A. Gilruih (Haverhill. O.) 

Hev. H, Girahom • .Rangoon 

Mn. H.Gmhom , Rangoon 

aiev. C. P. Hard.. ., Tabitlpur 

Mrm. Lydia Hard Jabalpur 

Hev. H. Jackion .,.».. Mu*afT.irpur 

Mr*. H. Jackson. Muiaffarpnr 

•Rev. S. P. l^ng „•,... (Union City, Pa ) 

yiT%. S, p. Long ..{UmonCitv, Pa.) 

Rev. r, Lyon, , Aimere 

3in. I. Lyon....,,..,,.. Aimere 

Rev. N. Madnen. Pakur 

Miss Kate McDowelK M.D... Muttra 

Rev. T, E. F. Morton .* Hardwa 

Mr*.T. H. F. Morton Hardwa 

^cv. J. E. Ncwsom * ...A€nrfiuU\ 

Mrs. f. E. New*om ,^ . .{^n route) 

Rev. DenniH Osborne. , Mua*oorie 

MrK. D. Osborne •, Muasoone 

Rev. C. H-Plomcr Lahore 

Mr». Ellen G, Plomer ,,-.... ..Lahore 

^ev. J. E. Scott, Ph.0 Mtittra, N.W. P. 

ilrvEmmaM.ScoU.., ...Muiira, K. W. P. 

Mi« ?. J. Sparkea ,, ..CRclurning) 

Rev- H. C. Stunti Calcutta 

Mrs. H. C Stuntj ..,, ....Cakuua 

Rev, M. Tiiidak.... JaU^lpur 

Mrs, M.Tindale Jabatpur 

Hev. A. S, E. Vardon Biirhanpur 

Mf».A. S. E- Viirdon.... Burhanpur 

Rev. F, W. Warne Calcutta 

Mrs. F\ VV. Warne Cakutta 

Rev. F. E. W.^rner,... R.itigoon 

Mrs. Alice Warner.... ..Rangoon 

nev John I>. Webb........ Maacafamager 

Wn. J, D. Webb Matafftroagcr 

iVot*tam*s Foreign Mfxiitmarjf S^iety. 

>fis« Kate A. Blair., Calcutu 

*' Martha E, Day.. ., ....Calaitta 

" M. Estelle File*.. Rangoon 

'* Margaret Hed rick... CAJbion. Mich.j 

" Emma L- Knowle*. ..•♦.*.* Xulciuta 

" ElUabeih Maxey Calcutta 

** Fanny A. Pcrkin* , Rangoon 

" Fatinic A. Scott ,,., .Rangoon 

»* Julia E, Wisncr...... .<B<rea, Oj 

STRAITS SETTI-EMENTS. MAUAY- 
StA. 

8Uv. J. C. Floyd, D.D., Superintendent Singapore 

Mr*. Myrtle J. Floyd Singapore 

Rev. B. H. Haldersione,... Stngapore 

** W. F. Olah.im. D.D (Albion, Mich) 

Mj%. Mary A. Oldh.im (Albion, MicbJ 

Rev. W. T. Kensett, Singapore 

•* D. Davies Moore,.,.. ...Singapore 

" W. G. Shellahcare Singapore 

M». Fanny Shelbbcare.. ..Singapore 

Rev. H. Emile Lucrinu, Ph.D.. Singapore 

'* R. W. Munson,, ,.,,,.. ..Singapore 

Mn Came L. Munaon ..Singapore 

Hev. B. F, West, M.D... Singapore 

Mn. LeiryWest Singapore 

iVomAn't Fereign Mifihmtry Society. 
Hiis Sophie Bbckmote ^ ■ < Sings pore 

CHINA. 
Foochow Conioronco. 

fRev* W, N, Bfewiiter. Foochow 

-Mn Elizabeth M. Brcwstei*... ........FcNSchow 

i. J. Gregory, M.D • Foochow 
Ir*. J. J Gregory... FoocW 

Rev. W. H. L*cy...., l-oocbow 

Mr». W. H. Lacy..* , .....FoocW 

Rev. N. 1. Plumb ».... toochow 

Mrs. Julia W . Plumb (Columbus, 0.> 

Rev. Nathan Site*, D.D,., .....Foochow 

Mrs, S. Moore Site*. Foochow 

Rev, Geo. B. Smyth. ..» ..♦..., ..Foochow 

Mn. Alice Smyth .*„,...... .Foochow 

Rev, M. C, Wilcox... Foochow 

Mrs, Hattic S. %Vilcox ,....., ,Fotx:h(>w 

iUv. J. H. Worlcy (L^pcotn. Ncb.l 

ftCn, J. H. Worley (Linccln. Neb.) 



tFif mart's Fifriign MittioHAry Society. 

Mis! Julia Bonaficld Foochow 

" M.iry E. Carlton, M.D Foochow 

" Mabel C. Hartforti ,....,,..,,... Foochow 

'* Carrie 1. Jewell.,.,.-,... Foochow 

" Elk Johnion.,,.,,, ....Foochow 

" Ella Lyon, M,D Foocb^w 

*• Ruth M. Sites...... ,,. .Foochow 

" Lydia A. Trimble. Foochow 

Central China Mission, 

Le<^Iie Stevens, Superintendent Nanking 

L. Sievens Nanking 

Banbury ....Kiukiang 

Banbury... Kiukiang 

.„ C. Beebc. M.D. ..». ..Nanking 

Harriet L- Beebe Nanking 



Rev. 

M«. 
Rev, 
Mr*. 
Rev, 
Mre. 

Mi!>i« 

Rev. 
Mt*. 

Miu 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev, 
Mrs, 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev. 
Mrs, 
Rev. 
Mr». 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev. 
Mn. 
kcv. 
Mrs, 



1^. 1.^1 



Misis 



Clira r. Collier Nanking 

iohn C. Ferguion... , .Nanking 
tinnie E. Ferguson Nankinit 

Laura C. HanaUk .,,...,.... ....Nanking 

J. R. Hykes {Shippensburg, Pa.) 

Rebbie S. Hykea (Shippensburg, Pa J 

J . Jackson K lu kiang 

I. Jackson .Kiukiang 

^. R. Icllison, M.D Nanking 

E. R. Jellis^on.. Nanking 

C. F. kupfer , VangcHow 

Lydia E. kupfer......... Yangcbow 

Edward S. Lutle Kiukiang 

Carrie Little - Kiukiang 

W. C LonKden { Fredonia, N. Y.J 

Gertrude K. Longden .......( Fredonia.N. Y.) 

D. W.Nichols.... Nanking 

D. W. KichoU Nanking 

Geo. A. Stuart, M.D Wuhu 

Aniiii G. Stuart Wuhu 

J. Walley Wuhu 

J.Walley Wiibu 

A. C. Wright Chinkian>! 

A. C. Wright Cbitikiang 

IVfmam's FffreigM Miiriomary Society. 

Lucy H.Hoag, M.D.... Chinkiang 

Gertrude Howe... ,.....,.,,-- Kiukiang 

Emma L. Mitchell.. ..,......,.* Nanking 

Sarah Peteni ........,*.. Chinkiang 

Mary C Robinson.. .,,.. Chinkiang 

FJlaC. Shaw .Nanking 

Fnmce» L Wheeler . . ,v Kiukiang 



North Chi no Mission. 

Rev. H. H. Lowry, Superintendent Peking 

Mni. Panbie E. Lowry »•-,. .Peking 

Rev, Frederick Brown.. ...Tientsin 

Mr». Agnes B, Brown .Ticnt-%in 

Ceo. B. Crew^M.D ( Denver. Col.} 

Mr». Kate V. Crews,... (Denver, Col V 

Rev. W. H. Ctirti», M.D Peking 

Mr*. Florence G. Curtis* Peking 

Rev. G. R. Davis, ...Peking 

Mr*. Maria B. Davis ......i. Peking 

Miss Hattie E. Davis Peking 

Rev. F. D, Gamewell.... Peking 

Mr«. Mary P. Gamewdl .....PekmR 

Miss Vc*ia O- i freer (Liricoln, Neb. > 

Rev. U:tac T. Headland. . . - Peking 

Rev. W, 1\ Hoban. Peking 

Mr*, Emily M.Hobart Peking 

Rev. N. S. Hopkins, M.D Tientsin 

Mrs. Fannie H. Hopkin* Ticnitin 

Thomas R. Jones M, l> , Peking 



Mrs. Stella B. Jones, M,D 

D. E. Ojvhorne, M.D 

Mrs. iJ. E. t>*bome 

Rev. L W. Pilcher, D.D.. 
Mrs- M^rv H, Pilcher..... 

Rev. J. H. Pyke 

Mr*. Belle G. Pyke.. 



.Pekinj{ 

(Chardon.Oj 

Tientsin 

Peking 

Peking 

........Peking 

..Peking 



Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev, 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev. 
Mn. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mr*. 
Rev. 

Mrt. 
Rev. 

Mr*. 
Rev. 
Mj». 
Rev. 
Mn. 
Rev. 
Mn. 
.Miss 
Rev. 
Mt*. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 
Rev. 
Mrs. 



Charles Bi%.hnp, ... 
Olive W. Bivhop... 
B. Cbappell.,.,..., 
M. J. Chappell..... 

J. G. Cleveland 

J. G.Cleveland..... 

1. H. CorreU....... 

Jennie L. ComjlL.. 

J. C. Davison 

iaric S. Davison.. 



.....NagasiH 

........ ...^«jpsaki 

I..... ....... .Tolc|v 

Tokw 

, HiroMkT 

, Hirouki 

.(William^port, Pa-I 
.(WUUatnsport, Pa.) 

Nagasaki 

.Nagasaki 



Mr*, 
MU» 



Rev. Marcu* L. laft - ?«|'J'*K 

Mr*. I^ouim: K. Taft , Peking 

Rev. W.F. Walker. D.D ..........Tientsin 

Mr*, Flora M. Walker.... .Tientsin 

Womnm's Foreign Miaiome^ry Spciety, 

Miss Rachel R. Benn, M.D . .Tientsin 

** Clara M. Cii»h man .(i Laurel St,. Lynn, Maf^n.) 

** Anna D, Glow, M ,D .(Evanston. IIL) 

** Nellie K. Green ,.,.. ..Peking 

** Lillian G. Hale... ....Peking 

Charlotte M. Jewell (Etna Mill*, C:al.l 

Mary Ketrlng,.... .Peking 

Annie B. Sear** Peking 

" Anna E. Stcerc Peking 

** Ida B. Slcvcn^on. M.D Tientsin 

** EdnaG. Terry. M,D...... .....,., Peking 

*" Frances O. W ilson Peking 

Weat China Mission. 

Rev, Spencer Lewis, Superintcndcni. Chungking 

Mrs. Esther B Lewi*.,. Chungking 

Rev. H Olin Cady,,... .Cbtingktng 

J. H. McCartney. M.D...., Chungking 

Mr*, J. H. McCartney Chungking 

Rev. S, A. Smith.... Cbungking 

JAPAN. 

MiwHS. Ailing 

Rev. J. F. Belknap *,. 

.Mr*. Mary A. Belkna|k..... 



...Tokyo 
...Tokyo 
...Tokyo 



M 



G. F. Draper..... Vokoban 

M, E. Draper... Yokohama 

E, R. Fulkerson..... ,,,.. Nagasaki 

E. R. Fulkenon. Nagasaki ' 

C.W. Green (Dover, pcL|| 

Sallie Q. Green. (Dover. 

H. B. Johnson Na 

Clara E. Johnson..*. ,. Na, 

G. B- Norton Toky»^ 

Julius Soper .Tokyo 

F. D. .Soper..... vv-'^**^ 

D, S, Spencer Nagasaki 

Mary E. Spencer , Nacasab 

J. O.Spencer. ......Tokyo 

A, R. Spencer Tokvo 

H. W. Swarti, M.D Hirosdd 

Lola M. Swam .....Hiroaaki 

M. S. Vail.... Tokyo 

M. S. Vail Tokyo 

Jennie S. Vail.... .,,, ...Toikyo 

i. W. Wadman.. ...Tojqro 
, W. Wadman - Tokyo 
ohn Wier.. .H»kodal« 

I. Wier Hakodate 

W, .«. Worden.M.D Nagoya 

W. S, W^ordcn , Nagoy« 

Woman* t Foreign Mitsianary Society . 

Belle L Allen ^'W^ 

Annie P. Atkinsovu Tokyo 

Mary Atkinson, »... ..Voneiawm 

Oeorgiana baucu« ,Hako<laie 

Liiiic R. Bender Tokvo 

Anna L. Bing ,,.... NjUEasaU 

Ella Blacksiock Tokyo 

Mary A. Danforth Nagoyi 

Augusta Dickerson Hakodai* . 

Minnie J. Elliott (Gusiavus, O *-* 

Emma J. Everding .(Syracuse, N. ' 

Ella R. Forbes......,,,,.. ..Kagosbii 

Anna S, French ,.,.,..,.... Ycikohai 

Jennie M, Gbeer.. NagaaaklJ 

Mary B. Griffith*. ...Yoncrawa 

Minnie S. Hampton Hirosaki 

E, J. Hcwctt..... CG Head, Mich.) 

Louise Imhof Nagasaki 

Mary E. Pardoe. ......Tokyo 

France* E. Phclt».. Tokyo 

Elitabcth Russell. ,. Nagasdu 

Leonora Seed* Nagiaaki 

Maude E. Simotia,... ...Naicasaki 

Lida B. Smith..,. (Syracuse, N. Y.) ^j, 

Matilda A. Spcnc«r ,- Toky««|j 

Martha E. Taylor -Fukuotaa| 

G race T uckcr. KagoshuMI •^ 

Carrie W. Van Petten YokohaBm 

Rebecca J. Watson cBellwood. Neb.) 

E. Wihon N« 



i,Ojfl 

biitt^H 
ham«.M 
»aklM 



Man^ 



>«ato]ra 



KOREA, 

Rev. H. G. Appenaeller, Superintcndeat Seoul 

Mn EOa D. Appenieller...r*... S««<l 

Rev G. H. Jones .....SbouI 

W. B. McGill.M.D Seoul 

Mr». L. xM, MlGIU.. ,•. .Seoul 

Rev. F, Oblinger. Seoul 

Mrs. Bertha Ohlinger. ..Seoul 

Rev. W. H, Scranton, M.D. .Seoul 

Mr*. Loulie A. Scranton Seoul 

Wamans Fvreign Miuionnry Society, 

Miss Margaret Bcngel.. Seoyl 

" Mela Howard, M.D.. ...(AlbroB, Mich.) 

" Loui*a C. RtJihweiler Seoul 

Mr*. M. F. Scranton .,,....,. Seoul 

Mis* Rosetta Sherwood, M.D..... ............. Seoul 

BULGARIA. 

Rev. Dewitt C. Challii,. 
Mrs. Irene L, Challis.... 
Rev. T. Con*tantine. ... 
Mr*. Dora Conitantine 



......Sutof 

...........Ststof 

,.....,•,.... ...Varna 

i„»it.......^.. .................. ....Vftrna 

Rev. John S. Ladd...C4« Somcr St,. Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Mr*. Rosa D. Ladd {Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Rev. E, F. Lounithury ..Rustchuk 

Wn. Adelia S. Lounsbury ^ Rustchuk 

Woman^M Foreign Minionary Society, 

Mi«EllaB. Fincham. Loftcha 

" LinnaA. Schenck.. (Fulton, N. Y.) 

ITALY. 

Rev. William Burt, D.D 57 via Cavour, Rome 

Mrs. William Burt........ 57 via Cavoor, Rome 

Rev. Elmer E. Count... 57 via Cavouf . Rome 

Rev. E. E. Powell... .Floreace 

*' E. S. Stackpole, D.D., 4a via Lorenio il Mag- 
ntfico, Florenotr 
M». E. S, Stackpote , ..Florence 

Woman's Foreign Missiomesry Society, 
MksEmmaM. Mall , Roiaa 



L 




MECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF THE MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 



139 



MEXICO, 
Rev. J. W, Builcr, D.D.. . . . . Box agi, City of Mttrico 

Mr», y W. Butter, , Box 3s>i» City of Mexico 

R<¥. Ira C. Cartwrighu ♦ » . .PacHuca 

Mrs, Maqpjcntc Q, Csutwright^ M.D.. *,.... Pachucj, 

Rev, S. P. Cravcr, D,D *.,,PuehIa 

Mf». S. P.Cravcr PueUa 

Rev. WUtiam Greco, .........»««.»«..... ....,Pueb1a 

Mr». W. Green.,.. .......,....Puebla 

MtM Ada M. C. HarteelL .City of Mexico 

Rev, H. G, Limric Puebln 

Mf». H. G. Limric... ,. , .Puebl 

MisA Helen M. Low ,»., Ciiy of Mexico 

R*v. W. E. McLennan City of Nfexico 

Mm. W. E, McLennan. r ..City of Mexico 

Rev. L, B. Salmatu (TDdlaDapolU, Ind.) 

Mn* L, B. Salmans ,,,. (Indianapoliift, lnd.> 

Rev. S, W. Siberts, D.D City of Mexico 

Mr». S, W. Sibertfl,..,. , .City of Mexico 

Rev. U C. Smith City of Mexico 

Miv L. C, Smith ..,•• City of Mexico 

Rev. F. D. Tobbs Puebla 

lira. F.D. Tubba Puebla 

tVffntam*! Foreign MfittottAry St^cifijr, 

lli«a Hattie L. Ayres. .City of Mexico 

** Mary Ha^tingi., ««..., Pachuca 

**• Lu»e Mewett Tetda de Ocampo 

'* Mary DeF. Loyd City of Mexico 

** Annie R. Limberger ....,•,,,• ....Puebla 

*' Theda A. Parker PucbU 

** Anna M. Rogers .Guaiimjuato 

*^ Amelia Van Donten .Tetela de Ocampo 

•* Ada M. Walton. Guanajuato 

•• SittanM. Warner , (Neenah, WljiJ 

AHOENTINE REPUBLIC, SOUTH 
AMERICA. 

Rev. C. W. Dreesi. D.D,...,. .,..< Buenos Ayres 

Mrv C, W. Dree* ,,..,., Buenos Ayres 

Rev. C. W. MilkF Mendo/a 

Mr* C, W. Miller .McndoKi 

Re^'. A. M. Milne Buenos Ayr» 

Mr«. A. M. Mitne.. Buenctt Ayrei 

Rcf. W. T. Robinson..*,,, Buenos Ay re> 

Mrs.. W, T. Robin»on**« *.,•« Buenos Ayrcft 

Rev. L M. Spangler. ....«•••,• Rosario 

Mrs. J. M. Spangler ,..*,.. R(>sario 

Rev, Thomas H Stockton. ......Buenm Ayres 

Mrs. T. H. Stockton , Buenos Ayres 

Rev. John F. Thomson, D,I> ..Buetio* Ayres 

Mrs. J, F. Thomson., ..... ..........Buenos Ayres 

Rev. Thocnas B. Wood, D.D. , Buenos Ayres 

Mra. T. B, Wood Buenos Ayres 

Wtman't F^reiin Mhsi^narf Satitiy. 

tMi^ Maty £. Bowen . Rosjirio 

\ " Mis* Jentiie M- Chapin (Hyde Park, Mass. J 

•* l,ou fl. Denning ..{Normal^ lUj 

" Elean<>ra l.cHuray •.... Buenos Ayres 

^ Mary F. Swaney. ...... ...*...« ,Rosano 

"^ Elsie Wood «. ,, Rosano 

UROGOAY, SOUTH AMERICA. 

Rev. A. W. Greenman Montevideo 

Mrs. A. W. Grcenman .......Montevideo 

Rev. George P. Howard. Montevideo 

Mrs, G. P. Howard Montevideo 

Rev. William Talo*. ...,.., ...Montevideo 

Hi^ William Talloa Montevideo 

W0man's Foreign Mittionary Society* 
iCat Mlimie 2. Hyde.. » ....Montevideo 

GERMANY. 

Rev. N. W. Clark ..Martin Mission Institute, 

F rank f art-on-M j in 

His. K. W. Clark....... Martin Mi'ision Ini&utute. 

Frankfon*on-Main 

SWEDEN. 

Rev. T. P. LarsAon.... ,...3fot;)k 

Mrs. J. F. Lafwon,. ...Motab 

FINLAND. 
Rev. B, A. Carbon. ....*.............,... Helsingfors 



niexlco Confrere nee. 

We understand that at the Mexico Con- 
ference held in January the following 
appointments were made : 

^iOVTHKKM District.— S. W. Sibcrts, P. E. 
Queretaro. L. B. Salmans . 

CttwmAL DivTKiCT*— L, C. Smith, P, F. 
Mexico English work, W. E. McLennan. Miss A. M. 
C. HarUeJl. 

HiPAl.00 Di^cTiriCT.— |. W. Butler, P. E. 
Pacfauca, IraC. Cartwright. 

PtfenLA District.— S. P. Cravcr, P. E. 
H. G. Limric and F. D. Tubbs» professors in the 
Tt^olOfgical ScHooL 

Coast District.— WHltam Green, P. E.^ 
W. E. McLennan, publishing agent ; S. W. Siberts. 
editor ; S. P, C raver, pntsideni oT Theological Semi- 
■miy ; /. W. Butler^ treasurer. 



Receipts and Ezpendlfnrea of tlte 

odlttt lilplBccipml Ctiurels. 

The receipts of the Missionary Society 
for the year closing October 31. 1890, 
were $1,135,271.82. There are 2,283.967 
members and probationers in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and the receipts 
of the Society were an average of fifty 
cents per member. 

The disbursements were : 

Foreign mistiions $613,309 76 

Missions in the Uniieil Stales, 477.492 90 
Office and other expenses... 77»I36 26 

Total. $1, 167.938 92 

The office and othej' expenses were as 
follows : 

Office expenses.. • - $25*739 7° 

Prin Ling and pulilicattons 8.8S9 22 

Traveling expenses ^ 9,438 35 

Improvement of Mission property 4*893 19 

Taxes and legal expenses 759 It 

General Mi^^ionary Committee 

expenses ..., %1$^ 94 

Interest 16,097 91 

Exchange 4,000 00 

Postage, telegramH, express, gas, 

freight, etc . . * 4*529 84 

Woman*s Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety , 50 00 

Total •. *... $77>i36 26 

The office expenses are for salaries, 
traveling expenses of the secretaries, 
stationery, etc. of ihe office. 

The printing and publication expenses 
are for printing Annual Report, tracts, 
pamphlets, pertodicals sent free, etc. 

Travehng expenses arc for Bishops 
traveling to and from missions, and out- 
going and return traveling expenses of 
missionaries not otherwise provided for, 

JmprovcmenJt of mission property ex- 
penses are expenses ordered by the Board 
for repairs and fixtures. 

A large amount of interest is paid on 
money borrowed at different porlions of 
the year to meet the necessary expenses 
of the missions. 

The expenditures for the direct work of 
the missions amount to over ninety-three 
per cetit., and the office and other ex- 
penses to six and eight tenths per cent., 
only a part of which is chargeable as cost 
of a [I ministration. 

How every dollar was expended last 
year may be seen by the following esti- 
mate of 

PERCENTAGE EXPENDITURES. 

CKKTS. MILLS. 

Foreign mi^^sions 52 4.1 

Missions in United States. 40 7.9 

Office expenses, 2 2.7 

Interest and exchange i 7.7 

Travehng of missionaries, 

etc.* ., 8.3 

Publicalions and printing, ,, 7.8 
Improvement of property, 

taxes, and legal expenses .• 4.6 
Postage, telegrams, and 

other expenses 6,9 

$1.00 0*0 



€auf rltiutlon* of Itio IfI«tbodJ»t Bpltt- 
eopft] €tkarelie«. 

The constituency of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church is as follows: 

Ministers in full connection and 

on trial.,.. • 14,811 

Local preachers .,•-,,, 14.0S7 

Lay members and probationers. 2,283,967 

Sunday-school scholars. 2, 264,852 

RECEIPTS OF BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES AS 
REPORTED IN I89O. 

Parent Missionary Society.,.. $1,135,271 82 

Church Extension 185,992 82 

Freedmen's Aid and Southern 

Education Society 266,648 48 

Sunday-School Union.,.,.... 25,206 00 

Tract Society 23,125 00 

Board of Education 69,368 21 

Worn an '3* Foreign Missionary 
Society. , . . 220,339 96 

Woman's Home Missionary 

Society 112,970 20 

Bishop Taylor's African Mil- 
lions 30,237 75 

Bishop Taylor's Transit and 
Building Fund, less amount 
expended for Africa. 20,913 49 

New York City Missionary So- 
ciety,. 37J49 43 

Paid American Bible Society*. 34.965 o<> 

$2,162,788 31 

EXPENDED FOR HOME SUPPORT. 
Ministerial support. $9,597,602 
Current expenses.. i*,449,25i 
Church property... 6|8 17,010 

18,863,863 00 

Total contributions. . . $21,036,651 21 

Methodist Episcopal Contributions for 

Home Missions. 

Parent Missionary Society* ... $477,492 90 
Woman's Home Missionary So* 

cicty ,,.......«....., 112,970 20 

Church Extension Society..... 185.992 82 

Freedmen's Aid Society 266,64848 

Sunday<School Union,,.. 22,001 00 

Tract Society. , 18,700 00 

Board of Education, 67,200 73 

Bi-shop Taylor's New York City 

Missions ., 4*985 44 

New York City Church Exten- 
sion and Missionary Society 37.749 48 

$1,193,741 05 

Methodist Episcopal Contributions for 
Foreign Missions. 

Parent Missionary Society* $613,309 76 

Woman's Foreign Missionary 

Society 220,339 9^ 

Sunday-School Union*. 3»205 00 

Tract Society* 4,425 c>0 

Board of Education*. , 2,167 48 

Bishop Taylor's African Mis- 
sions 30,237 75 

Bi!^hop Taylor s South American 

Missions. , . . . 13,428 05 

Bishop Taylor's India Missions 2,500 00 

$689,613 00 

•Amount «xpended«^ Where the r«ceipt& are for 
hoi\\ the hoin« and foreijni work we give the amounc 
expoiidcd. Report of liHhop Taylor'i MUMOkiu ar« 
for ye^ closing October 31, 1890W 



140 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



Plont^Ip pibsionarg Concert. 



SUBJECTS FOR 1B91. 

MArch«. • r *...». M Bxico. 

A{jril .India and BllllMA. 

M ay. ....*.«...*, M ALAYSiA, 

June ArRfCA. 

July , , Unitso States. 

August . < . , Italy and Bulcajua. 

September. Japan and Korba. 

October ...,,«.. bCANDiNAVi A» Gbrmajty, aad 

SwiTZBKl^ND* 

November South Amskica. 

December * .Unctkb States. 

*♦« 

Tli^roD^li A Plijalclan's Spectaclea* 

\ BV W. H. MOHSe, M.D. 

Mexico is certainly an appropriate topic 
for March. There is a good (leal ihat is 
bleak ahout mission work in our sister 
republic* and its discussion Jits the bleak 
month. 

There arc churches that are short in 
their accounts in obeying the Last Com- 
iti.^nd beyond the Rio Ctrande. ll doesn't 
soiind well, but the truth is not amenable 
to sounds. 

** How about the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Mexico? " Well,th;^t is a scif- 
ish question. Ask, instead, " What hath 
God wrought ? '* •' What of the night ? ** 
But is it night there? 

It is to be admitted thai eighteen years 
have availed more on some other fields, 
but manifestly much has been done since 
ihe 6lh day of February, 1 873. 

They lell me that last year the Inter- 
national Sunday-school Lessons were 
studied from a Gospel of St. Luke pub- 
lished in the Nahuatl or Mexican lan- 
guage. There is an eloquent fact. 

If I am not mistaken, this Gospel of Si. 
Luke is the first book ever published by a 
Protestant press in any of the native dia- 
lecls of the country. The word " grows " 
and *' prevails." 

Think ot a Mexican Methodist. Im- 
agine him* There are more than 2400 of 
them in the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
and in I hem one sees a veritable triumph 
of the spirit of missions. Of course they 
are crude. 

The perennial "Indian question" per- 
sists in confronting the missionary in Mex- 
ico with a persistency peculiar to Ihe 
country, and suggestions to our students 
of the question's bearings. 

In writing of Mexican missionary work 
one feels strongly disposed to frequently 
employ a parenthesized interrogation 
point. Yet precious is the truth tnai is 
hard to receive. 

Vaya can Diosf {** God be with you \ ") 
may have a sincere meaning from one 
tongue, and the most insincere and hypo- 
critical meaning from another, A benison 
by one, a curse by the other. 

With " The entrance of ihy word giv- 
eth light " as a text, one may point to the 
work in Mexico as a singularly eloquent 
sermon. Where, in all the world, has that 
text been more apprehended? 

Caste in Mexico is pronounced, "Genie 
dc razon " (people wiih reason), and 
•♦Gente sin razon '" (people without rea- 
son) being recognized. Philosophically* 
the missionaries are '* de razon." 

They want a man named Mac Ad;mi 
or missionary beyond the Rio Grande. 




Never were there more abominable roads. 
Macadamize them and a long stride to- 
ward abstract good will be taken* 

There is no country where gambling is 
more common or more disgraceful The 
very priests practice it, placing their stakes 
"in the name of Ihe Holy Virgin/' 

The Mexicafis are "good Catholics," 
but they do most cordially hate the priests. 
Naturally enough, when almost nny day 
ihey can be seen on the streets as drunk 
as can be. 

Many chui*chcs and convents of thirty 
vears ago are now used as stores, ware- 
nouses, public buildings, and even stables. 
Sequestration has shown many insane 
features since i860. 

The Roman Catholic hierarchy, as at 
present constituted, consists of the three 
Archbishops of Mexico, Morelia, and 
Guadalajara and twelve bishops. 

It is no wonder th.jt Vera Cruz should 
be visited by the yellow fever, for there the 
laws of sanitation are not onfv broken, but 
actually abrogated by the pf>pulace. 

The great majority of the Indiosfidehs 
are nominal RoriTcinists, but the Indioi 
i>ratf0s every-whcrc follow the old spirit 
worship. In essentials one is as much pa- 
gan as the other. 

It is doubtful if more superstitious 
creatures than the Indios havos exist. 
Their pagan rites are, however, deserving 
of study and comparison with ethnic re- 
ligions. 

There is nothing new about the so- 
called ■* Church of Jesus" in its work 
among the Indians on the Anahuac table- 
land. The boasted '* success " is at least 
questionable. 

The mountain circuits of the Mexican 
itinerant are simply immense, and to travel 
them is a lest of courage and good- will, 
which is both arduous and discouraging. 

The frequently expressed Vaya con 
Dios ( " God be with you ] ") of the natives 
is calculated to impress one as being very 
much like the essence of profanity. 

Drunkenness in Mexico is simply abom- 
inable. After pulque, gin seems to be the 
favorite liquor, and its stench is execrable, 
its effects those of some soul-searing 
poison. 

A Mexican woman doe-* not wear a bon- 
net or hat, but instead the long-fringed 
scarf known as a roSosa. Its effect is 
beautifully picturesque, especially in the 
churches. 

They sometimes speak of the unfortu- 
nate Carlotta in Mexico, and almost in- 
variably it is with a peculiar shrug of the 
shoulders, characteristically Spanish. 

The street beggars are accustomed to 
urge that if God so loved the world as to 
give his Son, the rich people should be 
willing to give them their pennies. Pro- 
fanity, almost I 

Tlie Catholic Church is strongly Jesuit- 
ical in Mexico, perhaps more so than in 
any other country. And it isn't hidden ! 
Not one bit of it \ Both priest and people 
delight in n. 

M. Romero, who boasts that *' few 
Mexicans, if any, know Mexico better 
than he," says that his country has been 
changed from a bigoted to a liberal pro- 
gressive nation. Well I 

Railroads may Christianize China, In- 
dia, and Turkey, but their missionary 



factorship in our sister republic is to be 
estimated, if at all, at an altogether differ- 
ent valuation. 

There is a large amount of American 
money invested in Mexico, which, if 
placed in China, would be an active force 
in winning for Christ. In Mexico it is 
forceless. 

They ought to have some good Ameri- 
can farmers to introduce Chnslian leaven 
below the Rio Grande, Public lands in 
Sonora, rich and fertile, can be had at 
twelve and one-half cents for two and five- 
eighths acres. 

h must be admitted that there are good 
noble Indian Catholics. Men like Juarei 
and Morelos have been such. Bui the 
majority arc far from being creditable 
Catholics or citizens. 

The subtle Jesuit — swift as the wind, 
quiet as night, and remarkably delicate of 
touch — is the man who is alive in Mexico. 
His work is that which Protestantism 
feels and knows. 

If you enter a Roman Catholic church 
in Mexico, even on a " popular " saint's 
day, the absence of men is noticeable. It 
is the women who " go to church " as a 
rule. 

They tell me that "It is nothing for a 
Mexican to live to be too years old, as at- 
tested by Church records," Well, babies 
bom in 1871 will be registered this year 
or next. 

*' When they get lime," the priests at- 
tend to things. Procrastination is the 
rule of action, the ecclesiastics interpret- 
ing it, however, as the rule of inaction, 

A well-circulated and leavening tract, 
published by the Presbyterians, rs entitled 
Juan I/I.t J 6. It is to be found in hun- 
dreds of homesi and is of worth and grow- 
ing force. 

Some of the Mexican Indians—but not 
all, by any means — are actively engaged 
in stock-raising. They are not much dis- 
posed to do any farming, although in this 
respect they improve. 

The Indian will accept no money bat 
silver, having no appreciation for gold, 
which he reckons in the same category 
with copper and brass, '^all yellow metals." 

The favorite decoration of the Mexican 
is silver, the ideal ol splendor being the 
vaquero in gala attire, horse and rider 
heavily decorated with silver trappings. 

Descent is traced only through the 
mother by the Indians. Each gens, or 
clan, is named of the mater familias, re- 
mote collateral kin being included in a 
general cousinship. 

If the United States bordered upon 
some of the Asiatic States, as it does upon 
Mexico, would that fact — the mere fact — 
conduce to the advantage of missionary 
work there ? 

If Mexico was as distant from us as Korea 
or Bulgaria, would not missionary efforts 
avail more expeditiously and more to the 
purpose than they are doing at present? 

One can easily get pessimistic over our 
southern neighbor. The sky is intensely 
cerulean there, but there is a good strong 
light shining upon the blue. 

If there is such a thing as "naked faith,'* 
it is a hateful expression ; but if it is a fact, 
then it is realized in Mexico. It is to be 
a<lmitted that something like it obtains 
there. 



THROUGH A PHYSICIAN'S SPECTACLES. 



141 



The time has passed when Protestant- 
ism is treated with mdifference in Spanish 
America. It is received as a factor of 
progress and is w^elcomed as such, though 
otherwise antagonized. 

The Protestant press can do a noble 
work in some Catholic countries, but not 
in Mexico, where the chances of its being 
read by Romanists are but few. 

The missionary has to deal with pu!que» 
than which there is no more demorahiing 
beverage. If we can value the phrase, it 
intoxicates the morals. Go to Mexico to 
leairn what that means ! 

The periodical raids of the Apaches and 
other American Indians into Sonora and 
other northern states make the mission- 
aries' lot any thing but pleasant there. 

There are "' probabilities of progress " 
for 1891, but the probabilities are not pro- 
gressive. Things move slowly, an with- 
out any regard to either rule or routine. 

The cactus blooms unexpectedly. Where 
to-day there is a prickly nodule, there will 
be a lovely flower to-morrow. In this 
characteristic the missionary gets hopeful 
encouragement. 

Citizens of the Umtcd States are de- 
barred from owning land in Mexico within 
twenty leagues of the border, or within 
five leagues of the sea. This law 'nies 
the hands " tightly. 

The last census of the city of Mexico 
shows the •* religious state " to be as foU 
lows: Catholics, 437. S60; Protestants. 
3,283; Greeks, 19; *' various/* 516; •* with- 
out religion/' 1,503. 

There arc 223 Roman Catholic clergy- 
men in the city of Mexico^ and 26 clergy- 
men of other denominations (Protestants 
and Greeks). 

The question which is asked as to the 
comparative health of Mexico, may be an- 
swered from the statement that in ihc cap- 
ital only about one tenth of the people are 
above the age of fifty. 

** Mexico is a Christian country. Wliy 
send missionaries there ? " Yonder is a 
field which is good wheat -land. Why 
should we plow and sow it ? Its soil is 
good, but it grows weeds. 

Just think of it! There are at least 
S,ooo.ooo people in the United Stales of 
Mexico who have never seen a copy of the 
Holy Scriptures, Is there not need of 
missionary effort } 

There are four Mexican evangelical 
paj>ers : El Abogado Christians (Meth- 
odist Episcopal). El Favo (Northern Pres- 
byterian), La Luz (Baptist), and Eiftin- 
geliita (Southern Methodist). They are 
all well sustained, 

That school work should be on a self- 
supporting basis is the general opinion. 
Much mission money has been wasted 
because the schools nre far too dependent. 

The Methotlisi Episcopal Missions arc 
alt improving in self-support. This is also 
the case with the other denominations, 
most of which can ** stand alone " with 
case. 

The issues before the missionaries have 
to be squarely met. Hedging may do — 
perhaps must do — in Asiatic states, hut 
let It be attempted in Mexico and it wounds 
progress. 

Theological institutes are held by several 
— perhaps all — of the denominations at 
Icstst once a year. They arc for the native 



preachers, and are reported as sources of 
much good. 

The missionary needs a printing-press 
in every district, and every press shoukl 
be a nucleus — *' nucleus " is the proper 
word— for a tract society. Tracts arc 
effective, wonderfully. 

The new school laws, which oblige all 
children over six to attend school, advan- 
tage the Protestants, but are not relished 
by the Catholics, to whom they arc a heavy 
blow. 

" Spanish people cannot appreciate the 
English translation of the Bible as they 
do the Douay/' I doubt this ; but if it is 
true, what of it? It is not a question of 
translations. 

Did you ever unlock a door and not be 
able to open it ? That is the case with 
some of the Mexican doors* There is no 
sign that entrance can be gained because 
the key is turned. 

Polygamy is very general among the 
Indians, some men having four or five 
wives, quite a number having three each; 
but two wives each being the ordinary 
polygamous custom. 

A taboo exists between the bride's 
mother and her son-in-law, and after the 
marriage night they are never allowed to 
look upon each other again. *' Moihcr- 
in-lawism " does not obtain. 

The Indians need enlightenment, were 
there no other reason, for the sake of ad* 
vancing the work of civilization. They 
are not Christianized until enlightened. 

There is very little respect shown cler- 
gymen, Catholic or Protestant, the thiev- 
mg element seeming to prefer to prey 
upon them. They arc esteemed **easy, ' 
in popular phrase. 

The Indians abominate pork, deem it 
fatal to plant a tree, never tell their names 
in public, never kill a bear or snake, never 
enter a house where a person has died. 

There will be no objection to the colo- 
nization by the Mormons. Mexicans have 
absolutely no bias, and would extend hos- 
pitalities to Brahma ns, Buddhists, Par- 
sees, any one. 

Yes, I actually believe that they would 
welcome Parsees. There is something 
Zoroasterian about those neighbors of 
ours, and they would not scruple 10 greet 
fire-worshipers. 

It is rare to meet a Mexican who can- 
not dilate upon the merits and valor of 
General Grant, who is invariably men- 
tioned as a hero. '*a very particular friend 
of the family." 

** Peter's pence " has not fallen off so 
much there as in the United States and 
Europe, The priests may be " lacking in 
power.'* but superstition is strong, and 
'*just debts" are paid. 

The Mexican Protestants arc liberal in 
supporting their mmistry, but although 
they like to appear lavish, they are very 
farYrom being so. Their extravagance is 
liberality- 

In many respects the ** greasers " are 
to be compared to the Eastern " cool- 
ies." They are quite as low in the social 
scale, and quite as difficult 10 reach by di- 
rected effort. 

Mexico has a population of about 
11,000.000 on an area ol about 750,000 
square miles. There are 30 states in the 
Union, but there are only 23 large towns. 




"Directed effort," indeed J It looks 
very much as though that is not the kind 
of instrumentality that is most efficacious 
in dealing with the Romanist clement, 
Out why ? 

1 wonder why the Roman Catholics of 
the United States do not establish mis- 
sions in Mexico. If the ** prestige of a 
glorious name " signifies any thing, they 
would succeed. 

Apiarists '* refresh '* a hive of bees 
by importing a new queen, it may be a 
naijvc, of the same kind as the swarm, 
or an Italian or Camiolian, They prefer 
the latter. 

An English-speaking Catholic in Mex- 
ico may be compared to a brown queen 
in a hive. Probably he would do good ; 
but a Protestant is like a black queen— he 
is bound to succeed. 

The Friends have a Mission at Mata- 
moras, which is flourishing nrjost remark- 
ably in the fact that its membership are 
active workers. The average Mexican 
Protestant will not work. 

Discouragement ? Well, in that popu- 
lation of 1 1,000,000 there are just about 
400 Protestant work-rs. What parishes \ 
Every worker caring for some 28.000 
souls 1 

Marriage is a civil contract in Mexico, 
and after fourteen years of trial it is re- 
ported as being "just about the same as 
it is in France/' Appreciate the meaning 
of that \ 

Do not talk too loudly about Mexican 
" ignorance and superstition.*' The gov- 
ernmenl grant for educational purposes 
amounts to about $4,000,000 a year. 

There are surely no more immoral 
people in the world than those Mexicans, 
and what is the worst, they delight in 
their wickedness, and at the same lime are 
loud in preaching morality. 

I have been asked as to how much 
pulque has to do with this complexion of 
things. The question is difficult to an- 
swer, but beyond a doubt the account- 
ability obtains. 

The better features of Catholicism arc 
absolutely unrepresented in Mexico. 
** Nominally Roman Catholic" is a phrase 
that has a singularly hollow ring, an 
empty sound. 

What of the religious future of the 
country' ? There is the greatest danger 
that it will slip from its moorings — " nom- 
inal " moorings^ — and drift— whither ? 

Yes, whither? Will it not be its fate 
to plunge, like France, in 1789, into the 
maelstrom of the revolution of atheism .' 
It, indeed, looks so. The probabihties are 
strong. 

But — . But not yet. Not so long as 
the letters *' N. S. J. C." remain inscribed 
on the banners of the Church. Lei the 
•* S." stand for Seigneur instead of Sal- 
valor ^ and the end cometh- 

Now is the time to press forward with 
the Gospel in hand. Never mind the Fi- 
fiii cammissum, U will not come. The 
time is that of war. Onward ! Let us 
take Mexico ! 

We cannot afford to have a Christless 
and churchless neighbor. Let us visit her. 
and with us carry Christ. Is she not of 
'•the least of these?" Is there not a re* 
ward in view? 

WeUpid.NJ. 




I 



Bishop Hurst is to lecture before the 
Theological Seminary at Andover, Mass., 
on "Mission Epochs in India.'* 

Bishop Taylor is seeking for funds to 
purchase a steamer for the Upper Congo, 
It will cost 1 11,000. Mr. George Fowler, 
of Liverpool, has given $2425 toward it. 
The steamer Ann^ Taylor is lo run on 
the Lower Congo. 



Rev, A. T. Pierson, D.D., proposes that 
there shall be in 1892 another *' Worlds 
Convenlion of Missions/* as that year 
marks the centenary of the formation of 
the first ^reat Foreign Missionary Society 
in England, and the close of ihe first cent- 
ury of the awakened missionary spirit. 
We heartily second the suggestion* 



The Rev. Dr. S. L. Baldwin has re- 
ccfitly delivered a series of three lectures 
on missions to the students of Drew 
Theological Seminary, The subjects were : 
'* The Nalure and Scope of Christian Mis- 
sions," " False and True Concepiio?i3 of 
Missionary Work," and "The Call and 
Quahtications of Missionaries." 



An assertion was lately made in Wash- 
ington city that **only two per cent, of 
the amonnt coUectttl by the Mi^ssionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church is actually expended in foreign 
countries." The statement is within fifty 
per cent, of the truth. The amount thus 
expended Is Jipy-two per cent. 



ITIlckloii Aiid Itluckleii. 

"Many a mickle make a muckle.** The 
collectors for benevolent objects do not 
always have the patience and persistence 
necessary to the calling upon every person 
in the church and congregation for a con- 
tribution, but pass those whose gifts will 
be small if any. 

A servant-girl makes the following 
complaint : '* I have been a member of the 
Church for several years, and have never 
been asked to give any thing for Missions. 
1 love the Lord and w ish to see his kingdom 
advanced. I have not much to give, bat I 
should like to have a share in the blessed 
work of giving the Gospel to the heathen," 

All honor to those pastors whose watch* 
word is, ** A collection for Missions from 
every man, woman, and child in the con- 
gregation or a personal refusal/* Ten 
cents from ever>' member of the Church 
who the past year gave nothing for mis- 
sions would probably increase the total of 
our collections ft 00,000, 



Resolutions of the General Missionary 
Committee of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church : 

Resolved, That on account of the Mace- 
donian cries that come lo us from many 
lands to which we cannot respond for the 
lack of funds, and the indescribable neces- 
sities of our own country far beyond the 
limits of our existing work, we ask the 
Church to come lo our help with free- 
will offerings for the supreme cause of 
Missions, and give us Twelve Hundred 
and Ftfiy Thousand Dollars as the least 
sum with which \vc can meet the respon- 
sibilities of 1891. And we earnestly ap- 
peal to all the presiding elders, pastors. 
Sabbath-school superintendents, laymen, 
and friends of the Church to so increase 
their collections and persotial contribu- 
lions as to make success a certainty. 

Resolved^ That we request that Easter 
Missionary Services be held in all our 
Sabbath-schools throughout the world, 
and that special collections be taken upon 
that day which shall be counted upon the 
One Hundred and Fifteen Thousand 
Dollars increase for which we ask in order 
to make the sum of One Million and a 
Quarter for the year 189 1. 

Some excellent programmes and Easter 
exercises have been prepared by Rev. W, 
T. Smith. D.D., of Corning. Iowa, and 
are for sale by Hunt & Eaion and Cran- 
ston & Stowe. Send five cents for speci- 
men copies. 



CantHbiittanii af ttie r(»n«:rr£nl]oiiat, 
Proto»iaiit 1^jiliico|>fi^ and ""Rcji:!!- 
lur^? Presbyter I ail, BaittUI, aiid 
Idctliodlfti £pi»c:a|ittl Church en. 

The Christian Union, in its issue of 
January 8, i89r, under the heading of 
*' Inquiring Friends," gave a question and 
answer as follows : 

What are the benevolent contnbu.tion'? of ihe Bap- 
list Churcliea (rc^Iar) j the Methodiiit Epi«:opat 
Chitrch (regular, Northjf ; the Proie^stant Epiicopat 
Church (United States) ; ihe Preshy lerian Church 
(regular, North) ; the Congregational Church, for Utt 
year t 

Anrwtr. No available return* furnish a saiijifac^ 
tory answer. BapiLat statij.tic<, incomplete, give 
$5,398,991 ; Methndiit Episcopal, partial returns, 
$1,^5,813; ProiMiaiii EUpiscopal, 117,840,^73, but this 
includes comributloiis far home expctuCi., and there is 
no separatioo of the two accounrs; Presbyterian, 
I4. 358.53a ; Congregational, 13,398,037. 

Is the question asked with a view to a 
comparison ? If so it is misleading- 
Omitting the colored churches having or- 
ganizations of their own* there is a Bap- 
tist Church, North, and a Baptist Church, 
South, as much as a Presbyterian Church, 
North, and a Presbyterian Church, South, 
or a Melhothsl Episcopal Church, North, 
and a Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

Let the question be : 

iV/fai are the contributions of the two 
leading regular Baptist Churches, the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and Meth' 



odist Episcopal Churchy South, ike regu^ 
liir Presbyterian Churches, North and 
South, the Protestant Episcopal Churchy 
and the Congregational Churches f 

In the explanation of this question and 
in the answer will be answered the ques- 
tion of " Inquiring Friend." 

THE CHURCHES. 

*• Regular " Baptist Churches. 

White. 

Baptists, North and West 750.000 

Baptists. South ...,,.. • 1,194.530 

Ci>lffred* 
Baptists, North and West,,.,. 269,751 

Baptists, South, 1,129.147 

Total membership. .,,.•., 3,343,81$ 

The above figures are furnished us by 
the printed reports or representative 
members of the Churches. All four divis- 
ions carry on their benevolent work 
through different organkations, and, while 
holding the same doctrines, are different 
denominations. 

The white Baptists of the North con- 
duct their foreign mission work through 
the ''American Baptist Missionary Un- 
ion/* with its head-quarters in Boston, 
and their home mission work through the 
"American Baptist Home Mission Soci- 
ety/' with its head-quarters in New York, 

The white Baptists of the South con- 
duct their benevolent operations under 
the " Southern Baptist Convention/' with 
a Foreign Mission Board at Richmond, 
Va„ and a Home Mission Board at Atlan- 
ta. Ga. 

The colored Baptists work under four 
or more separate organizations of their 
own. 

" Regular " Methodist Episcopal 

Churches, 

Methodist Episcopal CImrch..,.. 2,283,967 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 1, 161.666 

Qflffred. 

Colored Methodist Epiftcopal 

Church.. 170,000 

African Methodist Episcopal 

Church 410,000 

Zion Methodist Episcopal Church 412,513 

Union Anifrican Methodist Epis- 
copal Church,,,,. 3r50D 

Total membership « • . 4.441.646 

There is no "Methodist Episcopal 
Church, North/' Our Church is some- 
times called that because its principal 
publishing^ houses and the head-quarters of^ 
its benevolent societies are in New York,™ 
Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and Chicago, 
and not because its membership is con- 
fined to the North, for in 1889 its 16 col- 
ored Conferences in the South reported 
231,239 communicants ; its white Confer- 
ences south of the Baltimore and Wil- 
mington Conferences, 172.525 communi- 
cants; a total of 403,764 gathered since 



k 



A VALUABLE MISSJONAA'V FACTOJi. 



U^ 



1865, These, unilecl with the 77,060 
comnmnicanls in the Bahimore and VViU 
mington Conferences, gave in the South 
480,824 comnnunicants in 18S9, which 
have now grown to ahout 500,000, 

The ** Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South/* is the legal name of the Method- 
ist Church which has the head-quarters 
of its publishing interests and benevolent 
societies at Nashville, Tenn., but its mem- 
bership, while chiefly in ihe South, may 
also be found in Indiana^ Illinois, Penn- 
sylvania^ and California, 

Presbyterian Churches, 

Presbyterian Church, North 775.9<>3 

PrcsbytcTian Church. South 168,791 

Total membership 944*^94 

There is no ** Presbyterian Church, 
North/* its legal name being "The Pres- 
byterian Church in the United Slates of 
Amenca/' The word '* North *' designates 
that its chief membership is in the North, 
and the head-quarters of its publishing 
and benevolent societies in Philadelphia 
and New York, although it has members 
in the South. The Southern Presbyterian 
Church ischiefiy in the South, but its legal 
ntme is "The Presbyterian Church in the 
Umtcd Stales." The head-quarters of its 
publishing interests are in Richmond, Va. ; 
ol its Foreign Mission Board at Nashville, 
Tend.; of its Home Mission Board at At- 
lanta, Ga. 

Omiiling the colored Churches we have 
the communicants of the Churches referred 
to in the question, as follows : 

Presbyterian Church, South i6S,7gr 

Cangrcgational ChurchciS 491,985 

Ptotcstant Episcopal Church 509149 

Bipfist Church, North, 750.000 

Presbyterian Church, North 775.903 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South. i,i6i,66G 

Baptwl Church, South 1,194,520 

Mcihodist Episcopal Church 21283,967 

There are no separate organizations for 
colored people among the Presbyterian, 
Congregational^ and Protestant Episcopal 
Churches, and the above figures include 
the colored members. The Baptist fig- 
ures include no colored membership. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
figxires include a few colored members, 
but nearly all the colored members for- 
merly belonging to this Church have been 
organized into the *' Colored Methodist 
Episcopal Church/' The Methodist Epis- 
copal Church figures include over 230,000 
colored members, 

THE ANSWER, 

B&NEVOLENT Contributions. 

Baptists, South., . . , $353»5i6 

PrMbytcriws, South 425.125 

Methodist Episcopalians, South., 606^384 

BiptisU, North 1,008,972 

Pmteslaiu Episcopalians, 1,689,401 

Meihodbi Episcopalians 2,162,788 

Conuictjationalists 2,398,037 

frobyterians. North 4t 358*532 

(See page^ 1 34, 135, tind 139 for particulars.) 



Unite the Baptists. Methodists, and 
Presbyterians, and we have : 

Baptists $1,362,488 

Protectant Episcopalians. * . i ,689401 

Congregationalists 2,398,037 

Methodist Episcopalians, ,...,*, 2,769,172 

Presbyterians. 41783,657 

In the benevolent contributions are in- 
cluded legacies received by the Missionary 
Societies. In some cases the reports do 
not separate them, but ihey are not likely 
to change the relative position of the 
Churches. The contributions of the Bap- 
tists. North, only include the receipts of 
the Home and Foreign Missionary Socie- 
ties, and it is probable that its contributions 
for other benevolent objects are $500,000. 

Total Contributions, 
These include benevolent contributions, 
salaries of pastors, and church expenses : 

Presbyterians, So\ith $1,727,263 

Baptif^ts, South,, 2,571,593 

Methodist Episcopalians,South. (not reported) 

Baptists, North , , (not reported) 

Congregational is ts ,. , , 6,444,999 

Protestant Episcopalians 12,754.767 

Presbyterians. North 14,368 ,131 

Methodi-st Episcopalians, * • , , 21.026^65 1 

The two not reported would probably 
occupy the position given, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, raising probably 
$3,000,000, and the Baptist Church, North, 
probably $6,000,000, 

— — • »* 

A Vftluablp muslan&rjr Fmctor. 

Great as is the value of the printing- 
press as an agent in the hands of the nfiis* 
sionary, its utility is largely limited, from' 
the fact that type cannot fully or perfectly 
imitate native styles of writing, Added 
10 this is the first cost, the freightage, and 
the difficulty in obtaining practical print- 
ers^al together rendering the press a 
costly and insufficient intrumentalily. The 
common sentiment has been admirably 
expressed by one of our workers, who 
writes: "'We need a press. It will cost 
$— ; and while it will not reproduce the 
vernacular perfectly, owing to the neces- 
sary omission of several characters, we 
must have it for what it will do. Our lime 
is too precious to write our circulars, tracts, 
notices, etc., though it is the preferable 
methotl," 

Upon reading this letter, together with 
another just received from India on the 
same subject, it occurred to us that pos- 
sibly some of the various instruments used 
for the purpose of reduplicatitig letters, 
etc., might serve the purpose excellently. 
Investigating the subject, we found that 
although there are several such instru- 
ments, the majority occupy only a very 
limited field, reproducing not more than 
fifty copies, and that imperfectly, by sticky, 
dauby, and expensive methods. Mr. Ed- 



ison's mimeograph alone is the only ap- 
paratus which can be used as a substitute 
for the printing-press, and as supplying that 
which the press lacks. By its use abso- 
soiute copies can be made of any writing 
in almost unlimited numbers, the original 
being made as easily as one can write with 
a pencil, and no practice being required to 
produce excellent work. Nothing is more 
simple than the process, and it already has 
more than 60.000 users, 

We would suggest that the mimeograpt* 
should be placed in ever)- mission station — 
instead of the printing-press in the smaller 
stations, and auxilliary to it in the larger. 
U costs from ti2 to $23, and there is no 
more sensible present to send out. The 
average heathen are like our children, in 
that they '*]ike to gel letters," written, 
rather than printed. A WTitten tract or 
chapterof Scripture will be better received 
than one thai is printed. It is ihe same with 
announcements, notices, etc., all of which 
gain in value and appreciation if coming 
from the pen instead of from the press. The 
manufacturers. A, B. Dick Co., of Chica;;o» 
give full particulars concerning the ap- 
paratus in their circulars, but the apparatus 
when once seen " speaks for itself," M. 



Imprltionaieiot «f F, PenjEOlll. 

On pages 1 14 and 115 Dr. Gilman, Sec- 
retary of the American Bible Society, 
gives particulars respecting the imprisoi^- 
ment of Rev. F, Penzotli. in Callao. Peru. 
The Board of Managers of our Mission- 
ary Society at their meeting in January 
adopted the following ' 

'* Whereas, It appears on indisputable 
testimony that the Rev, Francis Penzotli, 
the Assistant Agent of the American Bible 
Society for the western coast of South 
America, and an honored minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was arrested 
m Callao, Peru, on the 25th of Jyly last, an 
the alleged charge of having violated the 
laws of the country in publicly conduct- 
ing religious services after the methods of 
his Church, and that he has been kept in 
prison until now, although his innocence of 
the charge was established in November 
last to the satisfaction of the court by 
which the case w^as tried, while the pros- 
ecution have appealed from the decision of 
that tribunal and from the Superior Court, 
which sustained the verdict of acquittal, 
to the Supreme Court of the land, which 
now has the case under advisement, there- 
fore, be it 

*' M^sohfed, That our Brother Pcnxolti 
and his family be assured of our profound 
sympathy with them in this severe trial of 
their faith, and of our earnest desire that 
the imprisonment may come to a speedy 
end ; and that they may be sustained and 
comforted by the conviction that God's 
overruling providence will bring good 
results out of their bitter trial. 

** Resolved, Thai the thanks of this 
Board be communicated to the Secretary 




of State of the United Stales, for his kind 
intervention in seeking to lighten this load 
<i( persecution and to bring the case to a 
termination. 

*■ Resolved, That the Secretaries are di- 
rected to communicate with Sctlor Don 
Felix Zcgarra, the Peruvian Minister to 
the United Stales^ with a view of learning 
irom him what amount of religious toler- 
ance and liberty of worship may be ex- 
pected by any colonists or missionaries 
who may lake up iheir residence in Peru 
under the direction or patronage of this 
Board of Missions/* 



The Swedish and Italian Missions in 
Philadelphia are reported as being in ex- 
cellent condition. 

The Mexico Conference was held at 
Pachuca In January. A new district was 
organised and five presiding elders ap- 
pointed. 

The Rev. T. L, Wiltsee. formerly the Su- 
perintendent of our New Mexico English 
Mission, is now in charge of the Mission 
Among the Navajos. His address is Fort 
Defiance, Arizona. He writes : " At 
last the ambition of many years is grat- 
ified, and the writer is a real missionary 
among real heathen." 

At Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan, on Wednes- 
day evening, December 25, 1890, John F* 
Belknap. B.D., Professor of Apologetics 
and Philosophy in Philander Smith Biblical 
Institute, Tokyo, Japan, and Miss Marj^ 
A. Vance, Instructor in Music and Art 
in the Aoyama Ladies' Seminary, were 
united in matrimony, The ceremony was 
performed by the Rev, Miiton S. Vail, Dean 
of the Theological Department of the 
Tokyo Anglo- Japanese College, assisted 
by the Rev. Y. Honda and ihe Rev. Julius 
Sopcr. 

Rev. Thomas Harwood, D.D.. of New 
Mexico, has taken the superintend ency of 
the English work, in addition to the Span- 
ish, which has been under his care for 
twenty years. At present there are 10 
English and 30 Spanish charges. The 
English Missions have 400 members, the 
Spanish, 1,400, with 300 conversions last 
year. 

Mrs. A. A. Headland, wife of Rev. I. 
T. Headland, of our North China Mission, 
died in Peking, China, December 12. 
Brother Headland and his wife left for 
China last September. Mrs. Headland 
caught a severe cold which resulted in 
typhoid fever, and terminated fatally in two 
weeks. 

The second session of the India Mis- 
sion Conference closed on Monday, Jan- 
uar)^ 19* The work has so grown that it 
was found necessary to divide it into four 



presiding elder districts. Rev. B. C. Swarts 
remains the superintendent, his address 
being 615 North Second Street, Arkansas 
City, Kan. 

Rev. Thomas Harwood, D.D., writes 
that on the last Sunday of December he 
dedicated the eighteenth Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in the New Mexico Spanish 
Mission. It is at E scon dido, three miles 
north of Socorro, and is called Pitra Pina 
Bacca, from the good old Mexican man 
and his wife who donated the site. 

The Rev. G. G. Froggatt writes from 
Buenos Ayres : ** The last Annual Meet- 
ing of our South American Mission met 
in the city of Rosario on October 9, 1890, 
The statistics reported: members, 9S5 ; 
probationers, Z%o; local preachers, 24; 
itinerant preachers, 22; children baptized, 
301 ; adults baptized, 21 ; number of 
churches, 11 ; nuniher of Sunday-schools, 
37; officers and teachers, 201; Sunday* 
school scholars, 2,113. Our work in South 
America is slowly but steadily advancing 
along the whole line, and I am of the opin- 
ion that it ought to be made the object of 
far more prayers, practical sympathy, and 
heartfelt interest than it is. Ours is as 
undoubtedly God's work as any missionary 
efforts being carried on in China or Japan. 
Christian people in America must not de- 
lude themselves. Roman Catholicism in 
these South American republics is not the 
liberal and in not a few respects even en- 
lightened form of faith it is in England, 
and still more markedly in the United 
Slates. Romanism in South America is a 
rotten, sapless creed ; in some parts of this 
great continent, such as Peru, Bolivia, and 
Ecuador, where it still enjoys undisputed 
ascendency, it has barely retained as much 
as the outward form of godliness. Deceive 
not yourselves. Romanism in these favored 
countries is as pernicious and powerless 
for righteousness as Shintoism is in Japan 
or Confucianism in China. Talk more fre- 
quently, thmk more earnestly, about South 
.America in your missionary conventions 
and international gatherings. A little 
more talk about truly heathenish, idola- 
trous South America and Mexico would. 
I think, simply be in harmony with the 
claims of strict justice. These people in 
overwhelming majority know nothing oi 
a living, abiding Christ, " the power of 
God to salvation/* though zealous nom- 
inal adherents of one of the most widely 
known forms of faith in the civilized 

wo rid/' 

»♦« 

ifllkvtoii IVolaii, 

A society has been formed in New 
York having for its object a better ac- 
quaintance with Africa. It is called the 
** Stanley Society/' and its secretary is 



Mr. Ernest T. Zeltner, Martha Institute^ 
Hoboken, N. J. 

The Lahore Brahmans* Journal says 
" We are convinced that the days of idoli* 
try and caste are numbered." 

Father Chiniquy affirms that during 
the last twelve months at least Looo 
Roman Catholics in Canada and the 
United States have left the Church of 
Rome. 

Rabbi Lichlenstein, of Tapio-Szelc, m 
Hungary, has been for several years a 
believer in Jesus, and while holding his 
position as a rabbi among an attached 
and devoted community of Jews, still 
continues to preach Jesus as the Christ. 

In Uganda, in Africa, arc Protestants 
and Roman Catholics. The native Ro- 
manists call their party, *' Those who read 
the Catholic religion." The native Prot- 
estants call theirs, "Those who read the 
religion of Jesus Christ and the Tea 
C om m an d m en ts, ' ' 



i 



UiBsbnartj literature* 

The Laifara. Count Campello s papcrj 
announces the opening in Rome of 
theological college for the training 
young men who desire to consecrate thera*^ 
selves to the ministry in the "Catholic 
Italian Church/' The college will bear 
the name of Savonarola. 

T/te IHustrated Magasine and Chil* 
drens Record \^ the title of a new magazine 
published monthly for the Presbyterian 
children of Canada by Rev. W, R. Cruik- 
shank, 198 St. James Street, Montreal* 
Canada. Price. 2$ cents. 

Two Th&usand Miles Through tk 
Heart of Mexico, by Rev, J. H. McCar 
D.D.. is published by Hunl& Eaton, Nen 
York, at |i. It is a very readable ac 
count of an extended tour through th 
country, and contains much valuable in^ 
formation for those who wish to become 
acquainted with the customs and habits! 
of the people. It would be well for any 
one intending to visit Mexico to first 
read this book. 

Jen* and Gentile is the tiile of the book 
containing a report of a conference of 
Israelites and Christians regarding their 
mutual relations and welfare held in Chi- 
cago in November, 1890. The papers 
prepared by Rabbis Felsenthal, Hirsch, 
and Stolz, and Drs, Goodwin, Barrows, 
Cnklwell, Marquis, and Scott are able and 
interesting. We hxive transferred to our 
columns a part of one of them. (See 
page 1 19.) Our readers will do well to 
obtain a copy of the book. Price. 75 
cents. Published by Fleming H. Revell, 
New York and Chicago. 




146 



''GO YE AND TEACH ALL NATION Sr 



^oclrg anb Song. 



^^Go Ye, and Teach All Nations.' 

BY MRS. MINNIE GLENS, 

Hear the cry from heathen nations, 
Come and help while yet you may ; 

Bring the blessed invitations, 
Turn this darkness into day. 

Swiftly come, the glad news bringing 

Of salvation full and free, 
And the joy through heaven ringing 

Surely '11 be reward for thee. 

Bring, O bring, to millions waiting 
Living water sweet and clear ; 

We are hungering and thirsting 
Of the " bread of life " to hear. 

O thou who canst read the story. 
Tell us of a Saviour's love ; 

That we, too, may know the glory 
Of that home prepared above. 

Come, O come ! enlightened brother, 
Listen to our pleading cry ; 

Brother, heed the cry of brother 
Ere in darkness we may die. 

Go and tell to every nation — 
Hark I 'tis yet our Master's call : 

Go and tell of full salvation. 
Flowing rich and free for all. 
Scarcoxie, Mo. 



The Message. 

BY REV. C. A. VINCENT. 
(Written upon the departure of a missionary to India.) 

*• Go into all the world ! " This is the message, 
The climax of Christ's word upon the earth ; 

And to fulfill this royal proclamation 

The Church of Christ had its prophetic birth. 

"The world ? " "Yes ; wide and dark and sinful ; 

Without our God, a hopeless, dying world ; 
Go ye to this, and let my stately banner 

In busy mart and by-place be unfurled." 

" Ah, no I ' Tis vain ; we cannot conquer 
The hardened world — this little band t 

We cannot cross the dark and frowning ocean. 
Or make a garden of each desert land. 

^* But go we must, for Christ our Lord has said it ; 

The work is his, not ours ; he will defend ; 
And did he not declare, when last we met him, 

• Lo, I am with you till the world shall end ? *." 

And stepping swiftly, surely, down the ages. 
The Church has sped, with faith, its onward way ; 

Till seas and lands, with wistful upturned faces. 
Are hailing now the new, the breaking day. 

But lands are waiting, waiting yet the sowing ; 

And there are angry seas which must be stilled ; 
And Christ is saying, " Go ye, go ye," 

The world with warmth and sunshine must be filled. 



To-day, in answer to the Master's summons. 
We send the seed to India's waiting soil ; 

To-day we turn our light across the ocean, 
For sailors weary with life's storm and toil 

O Lord and Master, who art with us alway. 
Whose last command we would obey. 

Guide thou our feet ; bless thou this gospel herald 
We gladly send to distant lands to-day. 
Buffalo, N. y. 



India in 1890. 

The following lines, from a recent Madras /Minfa/, show 
what some of the best Hindu minds are thinking at the pres- 
sent time : 

Weary are we of empty creeds. 

Of deafening calls to fruitless deeds; 

Weary of priests who cannot pray. 

Of guides who show no man the way; 

Weary of rites wise men condemn. 

Of worship linked with lust and shame ; 

Weary of custom, blind, enthroned. 

Of conscience trampled, God disowned; 

Weary of men in sections cleft. 

And Hindu life of love bereft. 

Woman debased, no more a queen. 

Nor knowing what she once hath been ; 

Weary of babbling about birth, 

And of the mockery men call mirth; 

Weary of life not understood, 

A battle, not a brotherhood ; 

Weary of /CaU yuga years. 

Frighted with chaos, darkness, fears; 

Life is an ill, the sea of births is wide. 

And we are weary ; who shall be our g^de ? 

—Friend of Missions, 



WLtitXb, Mcrh, Stcrg. 



British India. 

BY R. S. DIX. 

About in the center of the Eastern Hemisphere, 
sheltered from the north winds by the lofty Himalaya^ 
Mountains, surrounded on the east, the west, and the 
south by the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the 
Indian Ocean, drained and fertilized by some of the 
grandest rivers in the world, reaching from China on the 
one hand to Afghanistan on the other, and embracing a 
climate ranging from the heat of a torrid zone in the 
south to the chill of eternal snows in the Himalayas, 
lies the land of caste and prejudice, of sahibsf and 
salaams, of turbaned heads and naked bodies ; the land 
of ignorance and education, of high and low, of rich 
and poor, of bond and free, of beauty and misery, of 
civilization and barbarism, of cultivation and degrada- 
tion, of peace and discontent, of plenty and famine, of 
mighty cities and trackless forests, of fertile fields and 

* Whenever the Hindus use this word, which belongs to their language, tlicjr 
•imply say the abode of the snow, hima, meaning snow, and Uaya^ abode. 

tA respectful title given by the Hindus to Europeans of rank. Salaam is d» 
name of thdr ceremonious salutation. 



J^RITlSir IXDfA. 



147 



sterile deserts, of many rjt ts and many lunguc-i ; ihc 
land of Mohammedan and Jain * of- Buddhist and the 
Sikh, of Jew and Gentile, the home of the brown- 
skinned Hindu— ^England's Indian. 

In t6oo Britain reached forth her mighty arm and 
laid a greedy hand upon the heart of this great nation. 
Firmer and firmer grew her hold until now this land, 
which stretches 1,900 miles from east to west and 2,000 
miles from north to south ; which rovers 1,500,000 sfjuare 
miles, and nurtures 260^000,000 inhabitants ; which im- 
ports to the value of 830,000,000 rupees, and exports to 
the value of 985,000,000 rupees \ per annum ; which has 



looms up ju^t behind, setting the t tty in bold relief and 
cutting oft* the view of the remarkable plains beyond, 
known as the Dcccan. They arc situated from 2,000 to 
3,000 feet above the level of the sea, and are interlined 
throughout as with the veins of a leaf by the mighty 
rivers, which, rising in the Western Ghauts, flow east- 
ward over the sloping table-lands, through the Eastern 
(Ihauis, and across the narrow fertile strip on the east- 
ern shore, to potir their waters into the Bay of Bengal, 
They stretch away thus east to Calcutta,and south to Cape 
Comorin, dotted here and there with mountains which 
spring suddenly out of the [ilains like defacing excres* 



TfTifW 






m 



*^^-^Im 



!?^.^^ 



^^T^^-:^^ 



■lu 



:.V^ 



'.iV'-^3 



y^. 



r^- 



m^ 



r^4^?r"^' 



N>-i' 



■^ . -x^ 



1. 



^ 



t1 €.^' 



i*^^ 






OPIUM DEN AT LUCK NOW. 



iL-i^l 



17.500 miles of railroad and 7. 15 telegraph offices ; which 
has 18 cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants and 4,000 
miles of sea-coast; which includes the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, the J.accadive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea, and Aden at the mouth of 
the Red Sea; which, in 18S6, extended her boundaries 
to include 270,000 square miles in Farther India — this 
mighty empire bows her head in subjection to England's 
queen, Em[>ress of India. 

The traveler approaching Bombay from the Arabian 
Sea is struck with the peculiarity of the Indian coast. 
Alow-lying narrow strip of shore rises abruptly in great 
steps to meet the Ghauts J — a range of mountains which 

* \7*^*\ ^ religjowis *cct wHo«c doctrines tn many point* agree with the 
0adldhiM4>. They deny the dlvtne nrigin of the Vc()a&, the a^^icrcd book of the 

* V rupiffj, th<s unit of Indian money, t* nominally two ^hi!l1ing«. — R. S, D, 
I Alcaniiig »tetM, h«n^c ihc nAme Ghauts, — /?. S. D^ 




cences* upon the surface of a leaf; while fn the north 
they are cut off from the valleys beyond by the Vindhya 
Mountains^ which run east and w^est across the center of 
the country. Literally surrounded thus by three ranges 
of mountains, this Deccan i)rcscnts on^^ of the most pe- 
culiar geographical formations in the world. 

But before >ve cross these plains we will look upon 
Bombay, the second largest city in the British Empire. f 
Here are endless streets, bordered with palm and ban- 
yan trees. Here are beautiful homes erected by En- 
glishman and native. Here arc markets and bazaars.J 
and here are horse-cars (introduced by an American) 

* Latin crtxc^rt^ to grow, iJc^ out, from. Art unnatural growth tipon any thing. 

^ Hombajr ha* more than 615^000 inhabttantj>, Caktitta more than 75o»ooo» and 
M.idras more than 405,cx». The two fortncr are laqjer than any city in Great 
tiritain Mive London. — R. S, D, 

JThe word l* iran^plantcd from the Persian language, and naeaiu tnourket. A 
place of exchange, or of display of good« } a fair« 



3 



148 



BRfTISH INDIA. 



»* 






^^ 



/r/A^*^ 



:v\y 



A PARSEE MERCHANT OF BOMBAY, 

and well-paved, well-policeti, well-lighted thoroughfares; 
a post-office, a telegraph building, a university — in shorty 
a veritable London set down in this tropical country, 
but apparently inhabited entirely by lialf- naked Hindus, 
Most noticeable among the natives are the Parsees, 
found only in Bombay. They are descendants of the 
Persians, who were driven into India by the Moham- 
medans centuries ago, and, having intermarried, have 
preserved their ancient charactenstics. They are edu- 
cated, intelligent, and refined to a degree superior to 
the Hindus, are prosperous and wealthy, and are fire- 
worshipers. (See page 152.) 

Bombay is an imposing city, as well as a remarkable 
one, and might well take all our time in India. But we 
must leave it with its pagan temples and their hideous 
gods, its sacred baths, its tropical beauties, its charming 
suburbs, its busy wharves and crowded harbor, its hum 
and stir, so like the land of the white man and the Chris- 
tian, and with a jump of 2,000 miles find ourselves in 
Calcutta* (the city of palaces), the heart of India's 
prosperity. 

It is a beautiful city with its magnificent public halls, 
its sumptuous residences, its hotels, its parks its mili- 
tary quarter, its chib-houses, its soft greens and brilliant 
reds blooming under the shade of tropical trees — a 
beautiful city, built in the midst of a great flat formed 

* Ca3cutts-^Kali OhAtU, the ghiiut (step) or dwell ing-pikcc of the Roddesi 
Kali- This goddess was the wife of Siva, the destroyer^ one of the Hindu trinity 
ofgod^^ A cclcbraicd leuiplc is crect«J to her juii south of the city, whirh, :vt 
the time of the ajinusil worships li crowded with devotees from all p,irt% of the 
country. 



iin ^\ 



through the ages from the silt of mighty rivers ; and it 
throbs and pulses with the busy life which quickens 
Hindu -land from north to souths from east to west, and 
brings her whatever of good or ill may be her lot 
Here is the seat of her government, here are her open 
marts, and here we may study her institutions. If the 
reader will take a map of India he will note how effect* 
ually the Himalayas cut it off from Central Asia, a 
how the rivers Indus, Brahma|)utra, and Ganges drain 
from the mountains to the lowlands,* The Indus and 
Brahamaputra drain the northern slope of the mount- 
ains, both rising at the western end — the one to flow 
south through ihc western gap into the Arabian Sea, 
the other to flow due east until it reaches the gap at the 
eastern end of the range, and thence west and south into 
the river Ganges, The Ganges rises upon and drains the 
southern slope of the mountains and flows through its 
many mouths.which form the famous Delta of the Ganges, 
into the Bay of Bengal. The lowlands through which 
these rivers flow are called ** The Plains of the Indus and 
Ganges," and are separated by the Aravulli Mountains, 
between which and the river Indus lies the Thur, the 
great Indian desert. 

In 1858, after the mutiny,! the present form of gov- 
ernment was established. All territories formerly under 
the control of the East India Company were then 
vested in Queen Victoria, and all taxes are now re- 
ceived in her name and reserved for the sole use of the 
Indian government. The Secretary of State for India in 
England is (subject to the supremacy of Parliament) 
law-giver for British India, and is assisted by a council 
of fifteen members, called the Indian council. The 
supreme executive authority is vested in the Viceroy, | 
or Governor-general,! of India. This viceroy, living at 
the capital, Calcutta, has a legislative council called 
the Council of the Governor-General, consisting of six 
ordinary members (appointed by the crown) and a com- 
mander-in-chief. He is also assisted by the Governors 
of Madras and Bombay (appointed by the crown), by 
the Lieutenant-Governors of Bengal, North-west Prov- 
inces, and Punjab, and the Chief Commissioners of 
Oudh, Assam, Central Provinces, and Burma (appointed 
by the viceroy), who are in turn assisted by commission- 
ers. The Governors of Bombay and Madras have two 
legislative councils, and the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal has one ; but the other lieutenant-governors 
and commissioners have no councils and no legislative 
powers. For convenience to the government, India is 
divided into British and native States — ^the former in- 
cluding Bengal, North-west Provinces, Oudh, Punjab, 
Central Provinces, Burma, Upper Burma, Assam, Mad- 
ras, and Bombay ; the latter including Baroda, Central 
India, Hyderabad, Mysore, Rajputana, and parts of Ben- 
gal, North-west Provinces, Punjab, Central Provinces, 

* The Himalaysui lie ia two ranget, the Upper aad Lower HinuJaytt, «ai 
Ibrm a wall absohitely imp regti able-— ^. S, D* 

i See Omtiint Hixtory 9/ England^ p. 301. 

\ The word is formed from vire^ Laiiin instead of, and ri^^ the French word 1 
king, • 

I Present Eovernor-gcneral^ MarquU of Lan»dc»wiie, G.CM.G.— Jf. J. i?. 




BR/T/S/I INDIA. 



149 



Madras, and Bombay. The British Slates are governed 
directly by ihe British, and the native States by native 
princes aided by the advice and counsel of an English 
agent, or resident, placed at each court by the viceroy. 
The power of these native princes is, perha[>s, merely 
nominal in most instances, but the British administralion 
has found it wisest thus to consider the prejudices of 
the people,* 

So much has been said for and against the English 
policy in this country, that it is needless to discuss the 
question in so btief an article ; but careful study of her 
policy in later years would seem to show an earnest de- 
sire on her part to do 
wisely for these sub- 
jects. If in her desire 
for justice she has 
given them home rule 
so rapidly as to have 
overshot her mark, and 
done theiB barm rather 
than good by forcing 
her brown-skinned 
sons into positions 
they were totally un- 
able to fill — if she has 
so done she has thus 
brought to her own 
a I r e n t i on the w ro n gs 
permitted in the past» 
and driven herself into 
greater eflbrts fur the 
education and eleva- 
tion of one seventh of 
the population of the 
entire globe. The 
government, with the 
important aid of mis- 
sionaries, has estab- 
lished three universi- 
ties (in Calcutta, 
Bombay, and Madras 
respectively)^ and col- 
leges and schools \n 
almost every district. 
It was and is almost impossible to reach the native 
girls with educational advantages, for Hindu prejudice 
is strong against the education of women, but in a 
few districts where the influence of the missionaries 
is very great girls' schools have been established. The 
missionaries always have been the prime movers in edu- 
cational matters, and it was by them that the first 
printing in the native tongues was done, and the Baptist 

* ITppcr Burma was annexed in t8d<S. BiirniA conaistj of Aracan, Fcgii^ Irrit' 
■Bddly , and Tenaf^crim. The native States pay an annual tribute to Great Drit- 
alo and support an army of 350,000 men, while the English army k only 3to,cx>:> 
■■•en. European and native combined. The States of Berar^ lit anipur^ Kn^litutr^ 
Keluchisi:tn, and Sikkim are provisionally under British control, 'J he French 
break the unity of the British possessions liy holding Pondlcherry, Karik.il, anil 
Vanaon on the eutem Mulabar coast, Mahe on the western Malabar coa^t^ also 
Chandcmagar On the Ganges just above Calcutta ; and the Fortnj^icse hold Coa 
I a tmall ct.Min^r> thereabouts on the western Malabar coast. — R. S, 0, 




BOM I 




Mission Issued the first vernacular* newspaper in 1835, 
For many years the press continued purely religious^ 
but within the last twenty*five years there have also de- 
veloped secular sheets. 

The Brahman s, or high-priests, have, however, kept 
alive through all ages oral traditions of the Hindu race^ 
and the Mohammedans introduced the custom of histor- 
ical records, so that a certain amount of learning basal- 
ways prevailed among all classes. These Brahmans have 
ever been the controlling influence in Hindustan, and 
all efforts to overthrow their power seem almost use- 
less.f That the Christians have made long strides in 
indirectly influencing the barbaric customs is, however, 
unquestionable. Horrible religious usages have been 
abolished, such as the burning of widows, suicide from 
reh'gious fanaticism, human sacrifice, the drowning of 
babies, and burying alive of lepers, but more, far more, 
remains to be done. The girls still marry when mere 
infants, and are mothers before they are twelve years 
old. They consequently bear children that are weak in 
body and brain, and thus rob India of her greatest 
chance for improvement. The widows, be they one 
year old or fifty years old, can never marry again, can 
never be received as equals, ^nd nwvA live the life of 
slaves to their own flesh and blood, or the life of pros- 
titutes. Thus suicide is far preferable to many an un- 
fortunate than such a life of misery or shame. The 
crying evil of Brahmanism, which lifts its wail to heavea 
for remedy, is the slavery of its women. 

The Brahmans pervade India in all districts in the 
proportion of fourteen out of every twenty, the other 
four being Mohammedans, who ore confined mostly to 
Punjab and the North-west Provinces, hovering lovingly 
about their holy city, Delhi, where once reigned tlie 
Great Mogul. They are a disturbing element in the 
British system, for» in contr.idistinction to the Hindus, 
who have been conquered for ages and are consequent- 
ly as contented as ever under the present rule, the 
Mohammedans have been conquerors, and their sense 
of humiliation, added to their religious detestation of a 
"dog of a Christian," makes them discontented and 
dangerous subjects. England has by her educational 
methods given the better class of Mohammed:ins or 
Brahmans opportunities to absorb a knowledge of cus- 
toms and theories which are the result of ages of evolu- 
tion and experience. She has suddenly lifted them 
from the position of indifferent recipients of the ills or 
blessings of life into an attitude of famiiiarity with the 
most advanced modes of thought, promising them that 
when they have fitted themselves for positions of power 
they shall hold them. And now she is confronted with 
the fact that her word has been heard and remembered, 
and to-day her empire is divided into two great classes. 
On the one hand, the educated i^\x who demand their 



* A slave bem in hia maiiter'ft home wa» called by the Romans tptfrM«. From 
this they formed their adjective fftrnacuitu^ belrtnging lo home-bom tlaves, Wc 
have borrowed the word, which with %i& meatu beionjsnng to the country of one^i 
birth, a& vernacular Unjttiage. 

t Out of the tciiat Chrwtiaitiey can clAim but 47 per ceal. of one per cent,, 
while BrahmauiMn has 7i'2P1 per cent, and Mohattunedanlftm has »t.45 per cent. 
—R. S, D. 



150 



BRITISH INDIA. 



■ 



tproinised rights; on the other, the masses, indifferent 
with the absolute inditTerence of the East, who neither 
understand nor care for the qwesttons at issue* and only 
know they do not trust the native official. And her 
great dilemma at present is how best to affiliate these 
two classes with eacli other and each with herself; for 
the Hindu's principal characteristic is his h;Ured of all 
families, castes, tribes, or sects other than his own ; 
hence he is always suspicious of, and at variance with, 
the native element in the English governtnent. 

In considering the occupations of this puople we are 
brought face to face with the problems which have agi- 
tated the whole civilized world for more than a century. 




A SHOP IK ALLAHABAD. 

Has England done her best for India ? If not, how 
can she improve upon her ]iresent system ? It is not 
the object of this article^ however, to discuss these prob- 
lems, but to state clearly the existing circumstances, 
and let the reader draw his own conclusions. 

Agriculture is, relatively, the sole occupation of the 
Hindu. Therefore the land tax is the principal source 
of revenue to Great Britain (more than one third of the 
total). This system of taxation is called ** Land Settle- 
ment," and is in the main a modification of the system 
in vogue in India for centuries, the principle of which is 
that the revenue is not due from individuals, but from 
communities. The aggregate harvest is thrown into a 
common fund, and before division the State's share ts set 
aside by the headman, or overseer, of each community, 
who has withal no personal control over the individual 
farmer, save in the collection of tax. Thus this system 
resembles a sort of '* subletting" which is often very 
hard on the poor, but is not directly the fault of the 
government. The government makes a survey of each 



village or estate or field, as the case may be, and taxes 
it in accordance with its value and state of cultivation. 
In Madras each individual grower is under contract 
with the government, and is held by it personally re- 
sponsible for ihe tax upon the land he cultivates. The 
great complaint against England in this matter is that 
whereas in the days of native rule the tax could be paid 
either all Or part in products, under English rule it 
must be paid entirely in cash, with no allowance made 
for poor years. 

The country is by climate divided into districts pecul- 
iarly adapted to the growth of certain crops. Thus 
rice is grown mostly in Burma, Bengal, and the low- 
lands of Madras; wheat in Punjab, 
Bombay^ and North-west Provinces; 
millet in Madras, Bombay, and Pun- 
jab ; sugar in North-west Provinces; 
cotton in Bombay and the Deccan; 
jute* in northern and eastern Bengal; 
indigo in Bengal and Madras ; coffee 
in the south ; vegetables, fruits, to- 
bacco, oil-seeds, and tea generally 
over the country ; and opium, under 
the supervision and restriction of the 
govern m en t» only in the country about 
Patna and Benares (the holy city of 
the Hindus), and in the fertile Dec- 
can. Opium is the great government 
monopoly, and it can be sold only to 
the government at a price set upon it 
by the government ; and the farmers 
within this district are required to 
plant all or a part of their land with 
poppy, as the government may dic- 
tate. All opium is purified and 
packed at the government factories 
at Patna and Ghazipore, and then 
brought to Calcutta, where it is sold 
by the government at auction in 
open market. Thus England taxes the native peas- 
ant for the raising of a drug, the sale of which producei 
a large proportion of her revenue from the empire ; an 
income which the Hindu claims is forever lost to him 
and his country. Of the uses which Great Britain 
makes of this money for his benefit, we shall learn 
later. 

Salt, made by the evaporation of sea-water and also 
found in solid salt-hills in the north*east of Punjab, the 
extent and purity of which are unrivaled^ is the third 
great source of income from India. As salt is absolute- 
ly necessary to this grain-eating people (they eat no 
meat) this tax which is levied upon each individual falls 
very heavily upon the poor (about seven pence a head 
per annum), and represents an enormous profit to Great 
Britain. It is estimated that fifty shillings, at the out- 
side, is the average income of the HindUi thus the com- 
plaint against this tax, which is so high that many of 
the poor are entirely deprived of salt, which lays thera 

* A sub»Unce rescjnbling hemp, bclog the fiber of a plant of the iiaiae 




BRITISH INDIA. 



151 



open to disease, is probably the best founded of all the 
numerous charges against the administration. The 
tax upon the distillation of Hqiior* is yet another 
source of revenue. This branch of the excise f is 
farmed upon the same principk as the other branches, 
-and is under restrictions as strong as those about 
-opium. Great is the cry against this tax, and it is 
claimed that, in order to increase her treasure, Britain 
levies a tax upon the Hindu people for a product 
which, when sold to them again» brings death and dis- 
aster in its wake. The stamp tax, levied upon judicial 
And commercial documents, is the last of the great 
causes of contention between political factions, for it 
is claimed that this is a tax even upon justice itself in 
a conquered land. The same general system runs 
through all Indian indusirits, and tax is levied upon 
manufactures as well. 

In no sense a manufacturing country, India can still 
claim not a little commerce in that line. Her manu- 
facture of cotton goods has been on the increase for 
many years, until now it is the principal industry of 
the Island of Bombay, and these goods, in the form of 
yarn or cloth, are becoming one of the principal exports 
of the country, as well as supplying native demand. But 
AS yet it can bear no comparison with the import trade 
of cotton goods, which amounts to one third of the total 
importation from Great Britain per annum. Grain, raw 
cotton, opium, seeds, raw jute, and tea take precedence 
in export ; but in the days before the British conquest 
cotton manufacture was the principal industry. Unfort- 
unately, until lattrly it has been almost entirely crushed 

^ cut of existence by the hand of the master, in order to 
leave the market open for English goods. The jute- 
mills are clustered about Calcutta, and are the second 
important Indian manufactories. The native arts, such 
as silk-weaving, pottery, embroidery, rug-weaving, gold- 
smith, brass^ and copper work, wood-carving, and cut- 
lery are still encouraged, and England reaps her harvest 
of duty from them also. l*he mining industries have a 
wide field for operation here, and in turn bring their 
share of profit to the State. 

These goods are exported under four heads, so to 
speak — the foreign, the coasting, the frontier, and the 
internal trade — and represent 988,446,20a rupees per 
annum. The import trade amounts to 832,826,780 ru- 
pees per annum, mostly from Great Britain, and consists 
of cotton goods, silver (money), iron, railway stock, 
sugar, woolen goods, coal, and liquor.J The currency 
■of the country is generally silver, though since 186 1 
paper currency, issued by the government, has been in 
circulation. 

Standing thus at Calcutta and looking out mentally 

over this glorious country, realizing in one glance, as it 

* DUcilled frofii rice and culled arrack.—/?, S, D, 

t Excise taxes are thcv^e pbccd u{xin articles of home manufacture, or doimettic 
■nici— , In disUQCtJon from cuitiom^, which are taxes placied upon exported 
^f iaaportjed good^. The I aiin txihu^ tncant cut o0; and it was choisea u Ibe 
^uni of this lax, probably to indicate that n slice was cut d9 the money value of 
idMirtides to taxed for the public pupie. '^To farm taxe*" was to let out, to 
Imk, twie» for a stated rental. 

ICalcultaL, Bombay. Karachec, and RanKOon are the Tour principal ports of In* 
dli,aad Uicrc is doI one tafc port oii the whole eastern !ll4abar coa^t.-^/T, S, D^ 




A FAKIR OF INDIA. 

were, its richness and beauty, its misery and destitu- 
tion, we are almost stunned with the thought of what 
its possession must mean to Great Britain ; how much 
of importance in finance ; how much of responsibility in 
conscience ; representing such an enormous income, 
what wonder she is dear to the heart of the English- 
man and that he holds her with a tenacious grip. She 
mourns under the heel of an oppressor, but if he absorbf 
many million rupees of her products per annum, he 
nourishes her in the days of famine. If he has quad- 
rupled her army since the mutiny of 1S57, he has built 
railroads and canals from shore line to shore line, from 
mountain to cape, to open her inland centers. If he 
has robbed the native prince of his birthright, he has 
given to the people peace and order. If he has abol- 
ished many sacred but barbaric rites, he has contributed 
moneys to uphold the religion dear to her. If he has 
taxed her pitilessly and needlessly, he has endeavored 
to educate and uplift her ; and if he has erred from first 
to last, he has erred in his endeavor to deal wisely, and 
erred no more than others err if victors- 

There are wrongs that must be righted. There arc 
injustices so flagrant as to wring the heart of man. 
There are miseries beyond the power of pen 10 picture ; 
but there are remedies. Time, so short to the reformer, 
so long to the sufferer, is the first. Patience, with the 
clumsiness of the master, with the stupidity of the slave, 
is the second. Sincerity, in the effort to help, in the 
endeavor to learn, is the third ; and these are not the 
result of legislation altogether, nor of the Church alto- 
gether, but of humanity. 

The Brahman is unhappy yet indolentt and sobs and 
cries beneath his burden of tax and subjugation. With 
neither intellect nor force enough to rebel, he cringes 
and whimpers beneath the rod of the master. But let 
western capital and western will strike first at the very 
root of Indian evils, and prepare a day when the 



Hindu shall lift his head in equality and content ; rear 
strong women that they may bear strong sons ; teach 
the son to esteem his mother as an equal and a free 
woman, and not as a household necessity to be hidden 
from the light of progress and education ; teach him to 
honor her a widow as a wife, and not to treat her as a 
menial with no choice left save between slavery and 
shame ; teach him to care for his baby daughter in ten- 
derness and love until she is a woman grown, and not to 
marry her for custom's sake to an infant husband, 
while yet she can scarcely speak ; teach him, that he 
mav teach his sons» and his sons their sons ; lift the 



curse of their wifehood and widowhood from the In- 
dian women, and then shall gleam the first faint ray of 
that light which betokens the dawn of a day w^hen In- 
dia shall bring forth children mentally and physically 
strong. Then shall her sons be capable as well as 
brave, united as well as faithful. Then shall the native 
take his just place in the administration, and, in the might 
of right, put a curb upon rapacity and greed. Then 
shall he walk proudly in the land of his forefathers, 
and walk in full understanding of his western brother's 
ways. And then, and not until then, will the Hindii 
cry, We forgive the Englishman. — The C/iautau^uan, 





SCENE ON THE DARJiLING RAILWAV. INDIA. 



Some Cities atid Pniple uf Iiiilia. 

Picturesque Jndla is the title of a 
book written by W. S. Caine, M.P., of 
London, and issued in 1890. It is 
called a hand-book for travelers, an- 
is the result of the travels of two win' 
ters spent in India by the writer. Wi 
are indebted to this book for soi 
of our illustrations and the expJanati 
given of them. Mr. Caine is responsi 
ble for the descriptions that follow 

Bombay is the largest, most popi 
lous» and enterprising city in the em- 
pire. It is, without exception, the 
finest modern cily in Asia and the 
noble«it monument of Britisli enter- 
prise in the world. After New Orleans, 
it is the greatest cotton port in the 
world. 

The Par sees in Bombay number 
probably 50,000, Their fire temples 
are all severely plain buildings into 
which none but Parsees are admitted. 
They repudiate the term of fire- 
worshipers. God, according lo the 
Parsee faiih, is the emblem of glory, 
refulgence, and spiritual life, and there- 
fore the Parsee, when praying, either 
faces the sun or stands before fire, as 
the most fitting symbol of the Deity. 
The interior of their temples is entirely 
empty, except for the sacred fire in a 
small recess, which is never allowed ti 
expire. They are noted for their ch 
ties and benevolences. 

The population of Bombay city 
officially classified thus : European 
10,451; Eurasians^ 1,168 ; native Ch 
tians and Goanese, 30,708; Hindus^ 
503,851; Jains, 17,218; Mohammedans, 
158,024; Parsees, 48,597; Jews, 3,321; 
Negroes, 6S9; Chinese, 169, Added to 
these will be seen in the streets Ara 
from Muscat and Zanzibar, Afghan 
BeUichis, Malagasis, Malays, Rajput^ 







SOME CITIES AND PEOPLE OF INDIA. 



Sikhs» Moorsi Tamils, and many others, all wearing dis- 
tinctive clothiog and turbans. 

(Mr. Caine describes several of the Protestant missions 
in Bombay, but does not seem to know the large Meth- 
odist Episcopal mission work in the city.) 

Ahmadabad is a beautiful and picturesque city on the 
left bank of the Sabarmati River. Here are several large 
and beautiful mosques. The river is about one hundred 
yards wide and generally fordable for carnages. Hun- 
dreds of gayly dressed men and women may be seen 
washing themselves or their clothing in the river, or bal- 
ing water into great earthenware pots on bullock-carts. 



all drunkards. Wife, children, home, health, and life 
itself at last are all sacrificed to his degrading passion. 

The seven sacred cities of Hindustan are Ajodhya, 
the city of Rama ; M ultra, the city of Krishna j Buddh 
Gaya, the city of illusion j Benares, the city of Siva; 
Conjeveram, Avani, and Bwarka, in Kathiawar. 

Benares is a city of great wealthy fuH of noble man- 
sions and palaces of pious Hindu princes, rajahs, and 
bankers. It is probably the most ancient city in India, 
and is the metropolis of the Hindu faith. The longing 
of every Hindu is to visit this place of spotless holi- 
ness and wash away his blackest sins in the sacred 







„^ f^U^ S*.'5^> 



'^mis, 






WASHt.kWuMLN AT IHh: SArVARMATI RIVER, NEAR AHMADABAD, 



Simla is the summer capital of India. In winter the 
population is about fifteen thousand; but the number is 
greatly increased on the arrival of the government of- 
ficials and others who come up from Calcutta. 

Cawnpore has a population of 150,000. The city is 
built on a series of ravines running down to the bank 
of the river Jumna. Its chief interest is connected with 
the memorials of the massacre hy the mutineers in 1857. 
The city is famous for its conjurers and snake-charmers. 

Lucknow, after Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, is the 
most populous city in India, having a population of 
500,000, of whom one half are Mohammedans. It is 
wealthy and prosperous. The native part of the city 
affords ample opportunity for studying all the handi- 
crafts of India. The opium-dens are fearful places. At 
night they are crowded, and it is estimated that there are 
upward of twelve thousand persons in Lucknow enslaved 
by this hideous vice. An opium sot is the most helpless of 



Ganges before he dies. It is equally revered by the 
Buddhist, Benares is wholly given to idolatry. It is 
the most picturesque city in India, and lies on a bend of 
the Ganges along the crest of a hill about one hundred 
feet above the water. Viewed from the river it presents a 
panorama of palaces, temples, and mosques, surmounted 
by domes, pinnacles, and minarets, stretching three 
miles along the top of the bank. 

Nothing in all their religion is so dear to the devout 
Hindu as their beloved mother Ganges. For ^6oo 
miles her gracious course is hallowed by the haunts 
of gods and heroes. The most pious act a Hindu can 
perform is the six years' pilgrimage from source to mouth 
and back again. Pilgrims to her banks carry back bottles 
of the precious water to their kindred in far- o AT prov- 
inces. To die and be burnt on her sacred margin, and 
have their ashes borne away to the ocean on her loving 
bosom, is the last wish of millions of Hindus. 




SOME 



AND 



INDIA, 



Calcutta takes its name from the ancient shrine of the 
goddess Kali. It has a population of 700,000. The 
government buildings are large and imposing. 

The Burning Ghat on ihe banks of the Hoogli at Cal- 
cutta is where the Hindus cremate their dead. The 
funeral pyre is laid in dry wood» mingled with sandal- 
wood for the sake of its fragrance. The corpse is placed 
at full length on the pile and then covered over with 
more wood, the head and feet only being visible. Pas- 
sages suitable to the occasion are read by the officiating 
priest from the sacred books. The eldest son, or nearest 
living relative, having walked three times round the 
pyre, kindles it, and in about two hours the corpse is 



agate, coral, or big coarse turquoises, and a massive 
silver girdle. 

Allahabad is built on the tongue of land formed by 
the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna, Its popu- 
lation is 150,000, of whom 100,000 are Hindus, 44,000 
Mohammedans, and 6,000 Christians, Here is published 
The Pioneer^ the most important and influential paper in 
India, 

Jabalpur is laid out in wide and regular streets, in the 
center of which is a beautiful tank surrounded by tem- 
ples. The suburbs of the city are remarkably beautiful 

The native state of Bhopal has a population of 950,* 
000, of which more than three fourths are Hindus, one 




reduced to ashes, which are cast into the river. After 
the cremation is over the relatives who have taken part 
bathe in the Hoogli to wash away all impurity resulting 
from contact with the dead. 

Darjiling is 246 miles from Calcutta. It is in the heart 
of the great Himalayan range. The population of the 
town and district is 160,000, and is very mixed, Nepa- 
Icse predominate, but there are also great numbers of 
Bhutias, Thibetans, Bengalis^ and the Lepcha aborigines. 
About forty thousand laborers of these different nation- 
alities find employment on about two hundred tea plan- 
tations, which is the flourishing industry of the district. 

The Bhutia women are frequently noble-looking. 
Those who are well-to-do and who come into market 
are five feet six inches high, and about three feet broad, 
with great good-humored faces, beaming like I he rising 
«un through the brown varnish with which ihey paint 
themselves. They wear several necklaces of amber, 



eighth aboriginal tribes, and one tenth Mussulmans. Th^ 
ruler is a woman, and the throne descends in the female 
line. The Begum is the only female potentate in India. 
She is an able and vigorous lady, and has an army of 
3,000 strong. She has powder of life and death in judi- 
cial matters, and her territories are not under the juris- 
diction of British courts. ^^ 

Thirty-one miles from the city of Bhopal is Sancht, E 
small village^ round which are scattered some of the 
finest Buddhist remains in India, including eleven topes. 
These topes are solid mounds or domes of brick, erected 
to celebrate some important event or to enshrine a relic 
to the great Buddha, or of some notable Buddhist teacher 
or saint. They date from 250 B. C. to 300 A. D. The 
great tope is well preserved. It is a huge dome of bricks 
laid in mud, placed on a sloping circular platform 120 
feet in diameter and 14 feet high. The dome is 106 feet 
in diameter and 42 feet high. 




SOME CITIES AND PEOPLE OF INDIA. 



155 



Nasik is the Benares of the west, and 
plays the same part to the Godavery River 
as Benares does to the Ganges. The 
population, including the cantonment, is 
2 7»ooo. The greater portion of the popu- 
lation is Hindu, and there are 1,300 
families of Brahman priests making a 
good living out of ihe temples and pil- 
grims. The city is built on both sides of 
the river, and the banks are lined with 
temples, shrines, cupolas, and platforms. 

Poona is a handsome city of 130,000 
population. The European side is laid 
out in fine rectangular roads, wide and 
well made, shaded by avenues of trees. 
The native city has all the characteristics 
of a prosperous Hindu community. It is 
a great center of Brahmaoic influence. 

Madras, the capital of the oldest presi- 
dency in India, straggles for nine or ten 
miles along the coast» covering an area of 
about thirty square miles. The popula- 
tion is about 430,000. The Hindus num- 
ber 320,000; Mussulmen, 55,000; Chris- 
tians, 45,000, There are some 3*500 
Europeans and 15,000 Eurasians. The 
proportion of Christians is higher in Mad- 
ras city than anywhere else in British 
India. Tamil is the language chiefly 
spoken, though quite a fourth of the popu- 
lation is Telugu. English is widely un- 
derstood, and all the well-to-do people 
«peak it with ease. The European quar- 
ter is prettily laid out and richly timbered. 
There are thirty-one Protestant churches 
and chapels and fifteen Roman Catholic churches in 
Madras, 

Bangalore is one of the pleasantest and most attractive 
cities in India, Its climate is noted for its healthful- 
uess and suitability to European constitutions. The old 
native city, ox pet^ covers an area of two and one third 
square miles, with a population of 65^000. The bazaars 
are narrow and irregular, with many handsome houses 
^f prosperous merchants. There is much stir and bustle, 
ifith plenty of lively trade. Some of the leading handi- 
<nh% of a large Indian city are to be seen in the Ban- 
galore bazaars. Silks of durable texture and brilliant pat- 
terns are sold by weight. 

The Todas are the most attractive of all the hill tribes 
'n the Mysore presidency. They are tall, well-propor- 
honed, and athletic, withhold, independent carriage and 
finely molded, sinewy limbs which show they are sprung 
hom no effeminate race. Their aquiline nose, receding 
forehead, and rounded profile, with their black bushy 
i>^rd and eyebrows, give them a decidedly Jewish ap- 
pearance. Their dress consists of a single cloth, worn 
^^ a manner which sets off their muscular forms, some- 
thing in the fashion in which the Highlander wears his 
plaid. The costume of the women is much the same as 



W-^^^ 



^"^^A 



\ 



Lii*^- 



X 



A BHUTIA WOMAN OF INDIA. 

the men, the toga being wrapped round them to cover 
the entire person from shoulder to ankle. The men 
average five feet eight inches and the women five feet 
one inch. They are copper colored, and the men are 
very hairy. They are lazy and dirty and practice 
polyandry, a woman marrying all the brothers in one 
family. Their sole occupation is cattle herding and 
dairy work. They live in huts^ twelve or fifteen feet 
square, built of bamboo closely laid together, fastened 
with rattans and thatched. They sleep on a raised clay 
platform covered with the skins of deer orbufl'alo. The 
dairy is also their temple, for they worship the cow. 
Their religion is extremely primitive, with a good deal of 
demonolatry introduced. 

Tanjore is a city of 60,000 inhabitants, and is situated 
in what has been justly termed the ** Garden of South 
India.'* It is on the vast delta of the Kaveri, a highly 
cultivated and populous district* irrigated by a net-work 
of canals, and dotted with magnificent groves of cocoa- 
nut trees. There are more than 3,000 Hindu temples in 
this wealthy district, that in Tanjore city being the 
finest in India. Tanjore was the capital of the Chola 
dynasty, one of the greatest of the ancient Hindu mon- 
archies, from the tenth to the fourteenth century. 



BY REV, ALBERT B, NORTON, B,D. 

One of the most devoted missionaries which I had the 
privilege of being acquainted with during my res- 
idence in India was Miss Louisa Ranf, On Sunday 
evening the i6th of last November, as |he was attend- 
ing the service of the English church at Ellichpur, in 
Central India, a kerosene lamp exploded, throwing the 
oil over her clothes, which immediately ignited. She 
was burned so badly that she died in five and one half 
hours* My friend, Rev. E. F. Ward» writes ; 

" She died as she had lived, greatly beloved by the 
natives, both Hindus and Mohammedans. I have not 
words to express our grief. Of late her soul seemed to 
be continually filled with God. Only two hours previ- 
ous to the terrible accident she had been remarkably 



This performance lasted for hours, and I don't know 
but the whole night. While I was at Bhaisdehi a man 
who very much wanted a son went through a wild form 
of idol worship, at the same lime pushing needles into 
his body, hoping in this way to gain the good-will of the 
gods and get the desire of his heart. 

*' About two years ago» in the direction of Burhanpur, 
where we formerly lived, a human being was offered jts 
a sacrifice to a demon. I insert this clipping from an 
Indian paper: 

***Acase of horrible cruelty and revolting brutality 
has been reported to us by two gentlemen who were eye- 
witnesses of the scenes they related. As they were driv- 
ing along the Husain Sagurbund^on Monday, they came 
upon a closely packed crowd, dancing, gesticulating, and 
wildly howling, in front of the little stone image and 
temple midway between Chudderghaut and Secunder- 




THE GREAT BUDDHIST TOPE AT SANCHL INDIA. 



drawn out in prayer for the work. Among others she 
prayed especially for the workers who are called to India. 
Then, taking a general view of the wants of the heatbeUj 
she cried, * Now, Lord, glorify thyself in mc. No mat- 
ter what it means, glorify thyself in me.*" 

Only a few days before her tragic and unexpected 
death, she wrote the following earnest appeal for the 
** millions dying: *' 

** Millions of people in India are to-day with no knowl- 
edge of the Gospel, fast bound in the cruel chains of 
idolatry and superstition, bowing down to stocks and 
stones, worshiping almost every imaginable things con- 
tinually trying to appease the wrath of evil and mali- 
cious deities— not only by sacrifices and worship, but 
also by inflicting pain upon their bodies in various 
ways. 

** While Brother and Sister Ward were laboring in 
Simbado for a few weeks they witnessed a scene about 
like this : men were thrusting sharp steels through their 
flesh and throwing themselves into all sorts of bodily 
contortions, while one poor woman was made to dance 
before them until her strength was utterly exhausted. 




al)ad, Tlie crowd extended for a hundred yards ott 
either side, blocking up all traffic, and kindly protected 
in their cannibal ian orgies by policemen stationed on 
either flank, who obstructed and detained passengers. 
As ihe scene almost baflles description, so the cruelty 
was almost inconceivably beastly. Three buffaloes, 
hacked and hewn into many parts, were strewn all ovw 
the road, and the people in the immediate vicinity of 
the lacerated animals were dabbling and dancing about 
in their blood, while others holding the yet bleeding 
legs and joints were whirling them round about their 
he.ids and gesticulating furiously. A fourth animal being 
then cut up or wounded was still alive, and added his 
painful bellowings to the horrible din. 

*' * But a little farther on was the most barbarous and 
revolting scene of all. Some two or three men with bod- 
ies naked and painted held a goat by the legs, while 
from the still living and quivering body they w^ere tear- 
ing away with their teeth, mouthful by mouthful, the 
blt-eding flfsh» squirting and sprinkling it over the adja- 
cent crowd. Other goats and buffaloes were close at 
hand waiting their turn to supply the horrid sacrifice. 




SANTAL MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 



and the orgies continut^d, 
we believe, till two oVlock 
in the afiernoon, Thest:, 
we arc informed, were the 
superstitious means of ap- 
peasing the Hindu god- 
dess who holds in her 
hand the scourges of 
smali-pox !' 

** I am told that pilgrim- 
ages to sacred shrines are 
made in the most tortur- 
ing manner. Women and 
children often die on the 
journey. It has been es- 
timated that about fifty 
or sixty thousand people 
gather at the yearly By- 
ram fair, a Hindu festival 
held ten miles north of 
EUichpur, and at that 
time no more than five 
thousand arc in any way 
reached with the Gospel 
by word of mouth or the 
distribution of tracts. 
Two years ago we saw a 
man at that fair, who» we 

were told, had held his right arm up for twelve years. 
It had become perfectly stilT and he had no power to 
move it. The finger nails were like bird's claws and had 
grown into the palm of the hand. 

** Some of the vilest things are done in connection 
with their worship. In view of these appalling facts in 
this nineteenth century, does not the last commission of 
our Lord, *Go ye into all the world and preach the 
Gospel to every creature/ ring through your soul? Some 
who live in America and will die there are practically 
fulfilling this injunction* Are you one of them? It 
means so much to be able to say with Paul, * I am free 
from the blood of all men.' The question with us as 
followers of Jesus Christ should not be, What can I 
afford to do? but what can I not afford to do that these 
precious souls may be delivered from the awful jjower 
of the devil ? ' The earth is the Lord's, and ihe fullness 
thereof.' * The cattle on a thousand hills ' belong to 
him. His great heart of love yearns with compassion 
over this people, and his word to us is, * Bring ye all the 
tithes into the store-house, that there may be meat in mine 
house/ Let us give him the very best we have- — *the 
iirst-fruils of all our increase.* Let us not withhold the 
thing which is nearest our hearts. 

"One hundred missionaries in this province of Berar 
would only make a ratio of one missionary to 25,000 hea- 
then. We are only ten in all» and some of ihe number are 
new and have not the language yet. * Much will be lost 
should the harvest wait/ ' Cast thy bread upon the waters: 
for thou shalt find it after many days,* 

**Wc have no time to lose. Souls are perishing. 




HlfXMEN m CENTRAL INDIA. 



Precious opportunities. are ours to-day. We shall soon 
be gone, and what wc do must be done quickly/' 



S a n t a I Marring •* V ms t o ni g, 

BY THE HKV, J. P. BUKKH<M.I»RR. 

It is interesting to study the habits nf any people, as 
well of the untutored as of the highly cultured. These 
sons of the forests are no exception to the rule. Some 
of their marriage customs are quite in keeping with those 
of Bible times. One wonders if there could have lieen 
any connection between these ancient peopjle living 
hundreds of years before the Christian era and the tribes 
who now inhabit this country. 

There are several legitimate ways \\i which a Santal 
can secure a wife. The one most in favor and adopted 
by the more respectable portion of the community is for 
the parents who have a son or daughter to be married 
to send two or three elderly women in search of a suit* 
able companion. When one has been found, the mem- 
bers of the two families interchange visits to see if a 
proper person has been selected. The parties most con- 
cerned have ftif voice in the matter. When the friends 
on both sides are satisfied, a village council is called to 
fix the price of the bride. If she belongs to a good fam- 
ily and is fine looking, her parents can demand a cow 
to be given to her brother, a cloth for her mother ; also 
money ranging from three to twenty rupees (one to six 
dollars). The mondal, or head man, of the village 
also claims a share in the price. When all has been 




168 



CHILD^LIFE IN INDIA. 



arranged the invitations are sent to the wedding. These 
consist of bits of knotted cotton thread, smeared with 
turmeric. The knots indicate the number of days to 
elapse before the bride is to be brought to her father- 
in-law's house. The day before she is expected the 
bridegroom is properly anointed from head to foot with 
oil and turmeric by his female friends, and dressed in a 
new cloth which has been made more or less yellow by 
being dipped in turmeric water. 

Just before leaving home to bring his bride, surrounded 
by the whole village, he is taken to a mango-tree. A 
mat is spread on the ground on which his mother seats 
herself. She then takes her son in her lap and feeds 
him dried pounded rice and molasses. He is then mar- 
ried to the tree, which he embraces twice, a leaf of which 
is tied to one of his wrists, that he may be as prolific as 
is the mango-tree. He then mounts the shoulders of 
some man selected for, the purpose, and is carried a 
short distance out of the village. They are accompanied 
by torch-bearers and persons taking rice, etc., to the 
bride's family. One day is spent at her house in feast- 
ing and drinking. The following night the party returns 
with the bride, three or four elderly female relatives 
keeping her company. 

The young women and girls of the village (the virgins 
of old), after having been duly anointed with the tur- 
meric and oil, their hair neatly combed and ornamented 
with flowers, at the bridegroom's house await the arrival 
of the bridal party. About midnight the drummers and 
fifers who lead the torch-light procession announce the 
approach of the party. The remainder of the night and 
the following day are spent in feasting and dancing. The 
sound of the drums makes every one well-nigh wild with 
excitement. A large crowd gather about the house. 
The women and girls, taking hold of hands, form a semi- 
circle, at the head of which stand the gray-headed 
women, at the foot little girls of ^y^ or six years of age. 
Some strong-voiced young woman starts a weird song, 
others join her, then the line begins to move. In uniform 
step and in perfect time round and round they sweep. 
It is really a very interesting sight. Their festivities are 
all out of doors in front of the bridegroom's house. If 
any distinguished or elderly person calls, the young pair 
are led out by the eldest daughter-in-law, if there be one, 
or some other female relative, each making a very pecul- 
iar low bow to the callers. They in turn are expected 
to give the bride some present. During the afternoon 
the bride's friends return home, leaving her to the tender 
mercies of her new relatives. Before she becomes ac- 
quainted with her husband and his parents, with whom 
she must live and whom she must serve, she usually runs 
hack to her father's time after time. She has to be 
brought back again amid tears, scoldings, and beatings. 
If she utterly refuses " to make his house," her parents 
return what they received for her. This is considered 
a legal divorce, after which both parties are free to make 
other marriage connections. 

Laban's plan for securing husbands for his daughters 
is quite in vogue among the Santals. A young man 



may not be able to pay the full price of the bride he 
wishes, or her parents may wish a servant, so they give 
their daughter to him on condition he will live with and 
serve them five or seven years, after which he can take 
his wife and go where he pleases. Such a marriage is 
called ** taking a house son-in-law." 

The plan adopted by the Israelites of old for securing 
wives for the tribe of Benjamin is still another mode. A 
secret arrangement usually is entered into between the 
young man and the girl of his choice. They wait until 
one of their great festivals occurs. When all are inter- 
ested in the drinking and dancing he feignedly by foree 
and against her will drags her away and rubs the red 
powder on to her forehead, which is the sign of marriage. 
For two or three days they hide themselves in the day- 
time in the woods and at some friend's house at night 
Meanwhile the parents search for the young people, pre- 
tending to suffer great mental agony caused by the shame- 
ful conduct of their children. When all has become quiet 
a village council is called at the young man's house, and 
the price for the bride is fixed. A goat is killed, a feast 
is made, the price is paid, and then all is settled. 

Aside from these three modes of marriage, it is the 
easiest and a most common practice for husbands and 
wives to interchange. A man for some slight cause sud- 
denly leaves a large family of little ones for his wife to 
support, while he takes a younger woman ; and as easy 
is it for a woman to forget all her motherly instincts and 
forsake a nursing babe, running away with the husband 
of some other woman. 

One of our Christian young men, when talking to us 
about these matters, said : " You can have no conception 
of how much of the animal still clings to the best of us." 

There used to be a custom among them of this kind, 
namely, during their yearly hunt, which occurs in the 
month of April and continues for ten or fifteen days, a 
general council is held at night, where all engaged in the 
hunt camp out on an open plain. At this great gather- 
ing questions of general interest are brought up for de- 
cision. If a man has during the year eloped with 
another man's wife, the guilty party is summoned to ap- 
pear, notice having been sent him of the day of the 
meeting by means of the knotted string. During the 
excitement of the hunt the injured man avenges himself 
by killing his adversary if possible. — Missionary Helper. 



Child-Life in India. 

BY MRS. J. L. PHILLIPS. 

Come with me to my dear old Indian veranda. Here 
are ** Jack and Jill," two stout oxen who have been 
trained to trot, adorned with bells, and fastened to a 
rattan carriage ; and they won't mind if we have a large 
load. Off we go over the brick-red roads running like 
bright ribbons through green fields. Here, at the first 
turn, we come to the old court-house, standing in the 
dense shade of the magnificent banyan-trees. Over 
there to the right is the grand residence of a native 



CHILD-LIFE IN INDIA. 



15^ 



prince, who has several wives, fine elephants, camels, 
Arabian horses, birds-of- paradise, and a caged Bengal 
tiger at his gate. Now we will turn down this street, 
lined with dark mango-trees laden with delicious fruit. 
There sits the poor old leper under the same tree he has 
been under for months. Let us each toss him a penny. 
See the sore stumps where his fingers used to be ! and 
his toes are all gone, too. Long ago his last friend 
turned him out of doors; and rain or shine, there he 
sits begging for a morsel. And all through this rich, 
beautiful country hundreds of just such lepers are dying 
without a home. 

Here we enter the bazaar, a trading street filled with 
low mud shops. See these long-bearded, long-tailed 
baboons, leaping from roof to roof, then up, up into the 
highest branches o( the grand old trees, then down into 
the gardens to steal bananas and cucumbers I Hark ! 

" I want to be an angel. 
And with the angels stand." 

They are singing the first hymn, and we are at the 
very door of the first Sunday-school we shall visit to- 
day. Fifty little hands are waving graceful salaams to 
you, and a hundred bright eyes, that never tire looking 
at white children, are welcoming you. Sit down, tailor- 
fashion, on the nice mats the kind teacher is bringing 
you. A few years ago she was rescued from a terrible 
famine, and now she is a most .earnest teacher. 

That group of boys are orphans, or worse, their par- 
ents are so bad. They run on errands and earn a few 
cents ; and frequently they creep into some old hut or 
fall asleep under a tree without any supper. That little 
girl carrying a baby on her hip almost as large as her- 
self lost her mother the other day. Now she cooks the 
rice, when her drunken father brings her any, carries 
the baby around with her wherever she goes, and begs 
a few kernels of parched rice "when it cries too hard." 

The girl next to her hasn't a friend, and she has worn 
that one little piece of cloth until it is threadbare. She 
is always hungry and always sad. Indeed, not one of 
these fifty children has ever had a "home." A miser- 
able mud hut, crowded frequently with drunken men 
and women, and sore, half-starved dogs, has been their 
only shelter ; and they had never heard of the one great 
God and the way to heaven before this Sunday-school 
teacher went to them. But from their babyhood their 
tiny hands had often been clasped in prayer to a huge 
idol, around which serpents coiled. In their own lan- 
guage, so strange to you, they are reciting the same 
Sunday-school lessons as yours and singing the same 
sweet hymns. At the close of the school they will each 
receive a beautiful Scripture-card, sent to them by 
American children ii,ooo miles away. These they read 
to their mothers. 

But we must make our salaams to this school and 
drop into one half a mile farther on, where low-caste 
children and beautiful little girls from high-caste fam- 
ilies are learning together that there is a land where 
there is no caste, and where none are hungry or sad. 



You will remember that there are four great castes in 
India, and that the Brahman, or highest caste, consider 
the others very inferior beings. When little Brahman 
girls first came to our day-schools they used to wrap 
their little dainty dresses very closely about them, and 
then sit on mats alone; but when the class began to- 
spell for prizes they forgot all about their caste, and now 
they sit side by side. 

They will soon leave school to be married. The oldest 
one here is only nine years old. Many in this country are 
being married every day who are younger than that ; and 
then childhood, with all its sweet joys, is gone forever. 
Henceforth they are prisoners in their own zenanas — the 
most secluded rooms in a high-caste or Brahman house 
are called zenanas ; and here these little wives spend 
their lives, leaving them only in covered palankeens. 
They seldom get a peep of the green fields even, or 
any thing beyond their own homes. If a husband dies 
the little widow knows there is such a life of suffering 
before her that she begs to be burned alive with the 
dead body of her husband. O, the horrors of child- 
marriage ! Of all the terrible sufferings that women and 
children have ever known this is the worst. 

Yes, that beautiful little girl, only seven years old^ 
with a face almost as white as yours, will be taken away 
day after to-morrow by a strange man twenty-five years 
old, to live at his own home with his parents. Yester- 
day, while teaching in a zenana, one of the brightest 
girls of this school, who has just been married, crept up 
to me, sobbing as though her heart would break. She 
said, "O teacher! my husband took my little Testament 
and reader and tore them all to pieces ; and then he 
dashed my slate on a stone, and told me he wouldn't 
have any more such nonsense in his house — men must 
read, and women must cook ! O, I can never go to 
Sunday-school again ! But there's one thing he can't 
stop, and that's my little prayers. I say them over and 
over when nobody but God can hear me ; and when 
I'm alone, and can forget for a little while how my heart 
aches for my dear mamma and teachers, I sing about 
that * happy land, far, far away,' and it seems as though 
I couldn't wait to get there." 

I tried to comfort her, and told her I would visit her 
often. But although hundreds of these dear little girls 
have learned to look to Christ for comfort, there are 
millions who have never heard of him. Think of them> 
pray for them, send them Bibles, and help to send good 
men who will induce the rulers of the land to make a 
new marriage law that will save these children from so 
much misery. — Sunday -School Times. 



" The impression deepens among the most thoughtful 
students of missionary problems in India, that the soil in 
which the infant Church is growing up will be fertilized 
with martyr blood before it yields its richest harvest. The 
feverish unrest of the Hindu mind is apparent to any one 
who keeps his finger on the native press. Desperate 
schemes are proposed to oppose the influence of Chris- 
tianity."^ 



160 



THE PEOPLE OF RANGOON AND THEIR RELIGION, 



The People of Rangoon and Their Religion. 

Far away out to sea, long before any thing else can 
be seen by the steamer approaching Rangoon, the pin- 
nacle and dome of the great golden Shoay Da'gdn Pa- 
goda shines up through the mist. The Shoay Da'gdn 
Pagoda is one of the largest and richest temples in the 
world. Its vast dome and base is covered with lacs of 
rupees worth of gold-leaf, and surmounted by a golden 
jeweled structure of immense value. At its base are 
numbers of colossal sculptured lions, and around it are 
smaller pagodas of all shapes and sizes, containing 
statues of Buddha in different attitudes. Each of these 
minor temples represents some quarter of the town of 
Rangoon, and is kept up by the Burmans of that quar- 
ter. The whole is situated on the top of the highest 
elevation of the town. 

All the town of Rangoon (as far as the Buddhists are 
concerned) go up to worship twice a year, and individ- 
ual worshipers oftener. 

That Buddhism is a reformation on Hinduism, and a 
marvelous reformation too, no one can deny. It is idol- 
atry refined to its utmost possible extent. Oscar Wilde 
would have been ** thrilled" with a sight I saw the 
other day. A Burmese lady, dressed in artistic colored 
silks, was offering a beautifully tinted yellow lily to a 
dignified marble figure of the Buddha. It is no wonder 
that ** the fleshly mind " of some unconverted Europeans 
is fascinated by the artistic surroundings of Buddhism. 
To human eyes there is an enormous difference between 
the hideous monstrosities worshiped at Bombay, or the 
shameless nudities bowed down to at Calcutta, and the 
thoughtful, dignified Buddhas which are the object of 
the worship of the Burman. But the divine eyes see no 
difference between refined and unrefined sin Refined 
idolatry is no more grateful in his eyes than refined im- 
purity. 

The Burmans spend all their savings on their idols, 
their temples, and their priests. They do it from busi- 
ness motives, as the finest investment they can make, 
that of laying up treasure in heaven. At the Shoay 
Da'gdn Pagoda I was shown an immense collection 
box, five feet long by two and a half feet broad, and 
two and a half feet deep, into which the people throw 
their jewels, their gold, and their silver, every particle 
of which goes, according to their doctrine, toward buy- 
ing so much extra heaven for them. 

The Buddhists rejoice at a funeral, and take the 
corpse with dancing to the grave. The bier on which 
the coffin is carried is a magnificent structure, decked 
out in the gayest possible colors and ornamented with 
flying flags. Large presents are given to the priests, all 
with the view of buying so much more heaven. One 
funeral that I saw was preceded by eight cart-loads of 
food and a first-class rose- wood bedstead, decked out 
with rosetted mosquito-curtains complete, all for the 
priests. It started from quite a poor house, so that the 
deceased had evidently invested all that he had left in 
buying all the heaven he could. 



I was very much struck with the expression on the 
faces of two plaster statuettes on the bier of this partic- 
ular funeral. They were supposed to be in the act of 
beholding the entrance of the deceased into heaven. 
With one hand outstretched, with fingers half opened, 
they were looking up to heaven with a marvelous look 
of rapturous wonder. Doubtless the coloring on the 
plaster helped the effect, but I have never seen any 
thing in Greek sculpture to equal it. 

The Buddhist heaven is not an eternal heaven, and 
the Christian preacher has an immense advantage here, 
as well as from the fact that the Christian heaven is 
already bought and paid for by the blood of Christ, and 
is now to be had "without money and without price." 

The Buddhist heaven is a building without founda- 
dation and lamentably collapses in the time of need, as 
half an hour at a Buddhist cemetery will soon prove. 
In the midst of the joyful music and the dancing and 
the feasting, heart-rending scenes are to be witnessed. 
I saw a mother stretched over the grave of her little 
baby, fairly shrieking with agony. I saw another mother 
kissing and fondling the waxen form of her two-year- 
old, with her heart breaking with grief. A little further 
off was a little daughter screaming and crying to her 
dead mother, as they took her coffin with dances to the 
grave. At a fourth place was the poor old widow kneel- 
ing heart-broken beside the coffin of the grand funeral 
already described. The eight cart-loads of food for the 
priests gave no comfort to her heart. The rapturous 
smile on the plaster figures of the bier was not to be 
seen on her face. I could not help exclaiming to my 
companion that, refined though it were, Buddhism, like 
every other false religion, is a devilish religion. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has a mission hall 
right down in the midst of the " Karsetji Suklaji 
Street" and "Falkland Road" quarters of Rangoon. 
Miss Steer's mission, in a similar quarter in London, 
has worked marvels for the neighborhood. Why not 
have similar " lights in a dark place " in every town of 
the Indian Empire } 

The Methodist Episcopal Church is also doing a good 
work among the sailors at the ** Sailors* Rest," and the 
American Baptist Mission has a first-class coffee-room 
at which gospel meetings are held, largely attended by 
soldiers. 

One of the sights of Rangoon are the "wise ele- 
phants " at the great steam saw-mills. Rafts of huge 
trunks of teak-wood are floated down the Irrawaddy 
from the primeval forests of upper Burma, and landed 
by the rising tide on the river-banks at Rangoon. From 
there they have to be taken and laid out on the marshes 
until ready for the saw-mill. Were it not for the intel- 
ligence and strength of the elephant this work would 
be an immensely costly one, necessitating the employ- 
ment of hundreds of men and horses, and quantities of 
lifting and carrying machinery. As it is, the elephants 
employed will, at the command of their drivers, shift 
the huge logs with their tusks, push them with their 
fore-feet, lift them right up and deposit them in pre- 



THE DHURRUMTOLLAH M. E. CHURCH OF CALCUTTA. 



\^l 



cisely the required spot. It is *itriking to mark the in- 
telli^^cnce with which they will unhitch a chain thai is 
in the way, or lever out a log that is styck. Strange to 
say, they are very delicate animals. They sometimes 
take sick and die in half an hour, and are never worked 
after the sun grows hot. Their medicine is given them 
in huge pills about as big as a quartern loaf, rolled in 
sugar. 

There are a great many Chinese in Rangoon. Their 
colony has a large Confucian temple, and a number of 
idolatrous ** Joss *' houses. There are also two club- 
houses of the great Chinese secret societies, the ** short 
sleeves " and the " long sleeves," These two factions 
often have serious fights. — M, G., in Bombay Guardian. 



The Dliiirnimtollah Methodist Episcopal 
( inireli of Calcutta. 

A writer in the Bomkiy Guardian^ of India, for De- 
cember 6, 1890, calls the English Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Calcutta ** The Cathedral of American 
Methodism in India/' and writes as follows of the 
church and his visit to it : 

The Dhurrumtollah Church in Calcutta will hold i»5oo 
people, and it is usually moderately filled at both morn- 
ing and evening services. This is a large congregation 
for India, and it is interesting to note how such a con- 
gregation has been built up. First, by the direct 
preaching of a present, immediate, and full salvation ; 
secondly, by dcp^mding upon prayer-meetings and a 
number of weekly services for success, instead of con- 
certs and ** worldly *' methods of attraction ; and, thirdly, 
by the geniality of the pastor and his chief members, 
who meet strangers at the door at the beginning of the 
services, and make them feel that it is not only a 
church but a home that they are coming to. 

I attended both services on the 23d instant, and was 
exceedingly pleased with what I saw and heard. That 
such a large spiritual congregation should be built up in 
the midst of European .society such as exists in Calcutta 
is a matter for great rejoicing. Arriving somewhat early 
for the morning service, the Sunday-schoolj which is held 
in the church, was not yet closed. There were nearly 
two hundred and fifty children present. Prominent in 
the forefront of the meeting was a splendidly executed 
design in colored chalks on a large blackboard, giving the 
subject of the morning's lesson, ** Gethsemane." The 
earth was represented with the shadow of the cross 
athwart it, and the words over and beneath, "Geth- 
semane, The Shadow of the Cross, The Agony of Christ 
for a World's Salvation." 

The radical conversion of the children is expected, 
and in many cases obtained. I was told that there had 
been thirty conversions among the Sunday-school 
scholars during the past few weeks. The collection 
taken up was rather small for such a large school^ and 
I would suggest a plan which has been very successful 
elsewhere, namely, the forming of definite objects to 
which the children can give. At ilie smaller Snnd.>y- 



school at Grant Road Church, Bombay, the children sup- 
port by one Sunday collect ion per month a mission-school 
for native children. 1 know large Sunday-schools in 
England, attended by children of quite poor parents, 
who support one, two, and even three catechists in for- 
eign mission work. Regular reports, with names and 
all, are given to the scholars of the work of ** their very 
own " missionaries, and the con.sequence is that a very 
deep and practical interest is created and sustained in 
mission work. 

The platform at the Dhurrumtollah church is well ar- 
ranged. To the right and left of the speaker are the 
singing-leaders, and behind him some of the leading 
church-workers. Every one who knows Spurgeon's 
Tabernacle knows the sense of *' support ** that such an 
arrangement gives the minister, and its value in helping 
to counteract the evils which sometimes proceed out of 
a ** one-man " ministry. The front of the platform was 
neatly decorated with small palms and shrubs. The 
lively, yet spiritual Ep worth Hymnal was used. 

The address in the morning was given by a layman, a 
leading Calcutta journalist, Mr. Benjamin .\iiken, the 
subject being " Sabbath Observance." He has a pecul- 
iar right to speak upon the subject, for, though holding 
an important position on the editorial staff of one of 
the largest |>apers in India, the office does not see him 
from twelve o clock Saturday night till twelve o'clock 
Sunday night. He does not judge others in this matter, 
but as far as he is concerned, he refuses to work in a 
newspaper office on any other lines. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stebbins, who are accompanying Dr. 
Pentecost in his tour in India, sang at both the morn- 
ing and the evening services. They clearly enunciate 
each word in their duets, and their rendering in the 
morning of '* I shall be satisfied when I awake in His 
likeness *' was therefore a sermon in itself. 

The evening meeting was addressed by the Rev. F. 
W. Warne, the pastor, from the words, " If any man 
will do his wnll, he shall know of the doctrine." This 
was followed by a lively consecration meeting in view 
of the approaching services of Dr. Pentecost in Cal- 
cutta, that all might give themselves into God*s hand* 
to be used as he willed in the work. 



ReHiarioiis TeiHhMirieH uf India. 

BY S. SATTHIANATHAN, M.A., LL.B., UK INDIA. 

In discussing the rehgious tendencies of India^ we 
should be careful to take into consideration not only 
the different phases of religious thought that are pre- 
sented to us in Hinduism, but also the conditions under 
which Indian thought and activity are being molded. 
I do not pretend to be in any way well versed in the 
ancient religious systems of India, but from the ex- 
tensive literature that is now available in English oa 
the subject, as well as from what Hindu thinkers them- 
selves have written^ it is easy to form an accurate idea 
of ihe main fcaturt-s of Hinduism, 11ir first thing tluit 



162 



RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES OF INDIA. 



gtrikes one in the systems of ancient Hinduism is its 
eclecticism, its want of definiteness, or, in other words, 
its want of straightforwardness. It is particularly note- 
worthy that a defect which characterizes Hinduism as a 
religion is also said to form one of the most conspicuous 
features of the Indian character, and the extent to which 
the indefinite nature of the religious systems of the coun- 
try has been instrumental in producing the typical In- 
dian character is a painful but interesting problem 
requiring yet to be solved. But this by the way. 

Hinduism, as I said, is not a single definite system of 
faith, but is made up of several systems of faith, allied 
with every prin'ciple congenial to man and suited to 
every variety, temperament, and condition of life. Dr. 
Wilson says : 

** Hinduism is at once physiolatrous in its main 
aspects, and fetich in its individual recognitions of par- 
ticular aspects of power for good or evil ; polytheistic 
and pantheistic ; idolatrous and ceremonious, yet spirit- 
ual ; authoritative and traditional. The lower classes of 
society it leaves in the depths of ignorance and dark- 
ness, without making any attempt to promote their 
elevation. To the curious and inquisitive it furnishes 
in its remarkable schools of philosophy, systems of com- 
bined physics and metaphysics at once empirical and 
deductive, and which exercise and yet weaken and per- 
vert the intellectual faculties, and that without any clear 
recognition of moral obligation and duty to God or man. 
To the lovers of excitement and amusement it furnishes 
a boundless store of myths, fables, and fictions. To the 
active and superstitious it affords a never ending round 
of foolish and frivolous ceremonies, which engross most 
of their time and energies. Those who love to rove it 
gends away on distant journeys and pilgrimages. Those 
who are morbid and melancholy it settles on the hill of 
ashes. Those who are disgusted with the world it 
points to the wilderness. Those who are tired of life 
it directs to the funeral pile, the idol car, or the lofty 
precipice. To those who are afraid of sin it prescribes 
easy and frivolous penances, or directs to the sacred lake 
or river in which they may be cleansed from all pollu- 
tion. Those who need a mediator it commends to the 
guru, who will supply all deficiencies and answer all de- 
mands. To those who are afraid of death it gives the 
hope of future births, which may either be in a rising or 
in a descending scale. Those who shrink from the view 
of these repeated births in human and infra-human 
forms it directs to the absorption of the Vedantist, or 
the Nirvana, the totally unconscious existence or abso- 
lute extinction of the soul of the Buddhist or the Jaina. 
Need we wonder that Hinduism has had its millions of 
votaries, and that, with some conspicuous losses, it has 
retained them for thousands of years, up to the present 
day?" 

Hinduism has many sides, but the philosophic and 
the popular sides claim our especial attention. On the 
philosophic side Hinduism is nothing but spiritual pan- 
theism, that is, a belief in the universal diffusion of an 
impersonal spirit as the only real existing essence, and 



in its manifestation in mind, and in countless material 
forces and forms which, after fulfilling their course, 
must ultimately be re-absorbed into the one impersonal 
essence, only to be again involved in endless evolution 
or dissolution. If there is one thing which the Hindu mind 
instinctively clings to it is to pantheism. It can never 
do without a' God, but it is a God without power, with- 
out intelligence, without spiritual attributes; a blind 
self-evolving principle, acting under an iron necessity 
and without any definite relation to man. It is strange 
to notice how this pantheism is thrust into prominence 
in almost all religious movements in this country. Take, 
for instance, Buddhism. What is the doctrine of Nir- 
vana but an application of the pantheistic doctrine of 
Hinduism .> Professor Monier Williams says that the 
very term Nirvana is borrowed from Brahmanism, and 
quotes the following passages from the Bhagavad-gita 
where the term Brahma-nirmamam occurs : 

"That Yogi who is internally happy, internally satis-, 
fied, and internally illumined attains extinction in the 
supreme Being, and becomes that Being." 

The alliance of Buddhism with pantheism naturally 
lays it open to the charge of indefiniteness. "Bud- 
dhistic teaching has become both negative and positive, 
agnostic and gnostic. It passes from apparent atheism 
and materialism to theism, polytheism, and spiritualism. 
It is under one aspect mere pessimism ; under another, 
pure philanthropy; under another, simple deraonology." 
The theosophical movement, of which we not long ago 
heard a great deal, professes to be a revival of Bud- 
dhism. But as Buddhism, in its earliest and truest form, 
is no religion at all, but a mere system of morality and 
philosophy based on a pessimistic theory of life, no 
movement which is a revival of Buddhism can lay claim 
to be a religious movement. It is not necessary for me 
to dwell on theosophy, for it is not only not religious, 
it is purely a foreign movement. In passing, however, 
I may notice the latest development of the theosophical 
movement. The apostle of theosophy. Colonel Olcott, is 
reported to have announced that even Christians can 
consistently be theosophists. But I am afraid that 
this latest development of theosophy will not commend 
itself to Hindu theosophists who look upon their creed 
as giving a death-blow to Christianity. 

I shall not dwell on Jainism, which is regarded by 
some as an offshoot of Buddhism, but shall only draw 
attention to the fact that in spite of the incoherent con- 
flicting accounts that are given of the Jaina system of 
faith, there is conspicuous the influence of Brahman- 
ism in the movement. One of the greatest authorities 
on the subject has said that both Jainism and Bud- 
dhism owed to the Brahmans, specially the Sanyasis, the 
ground-work of their philosophy, ethics, and cosmog- 
ony. 

The greatest champion of Hindu pantheism was 
Sankracharia. It was he who reduced pantheism to a 
system of philosophy, and had it not been for his mighty 
advocacy the Vedantic philosophy would not have be- 
come so very popular. What was the conclusion that 




RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES OF INDIA. 



163 



SecSmeio? Nothing exists but God. And the varie- 
ties of objects we see around us, or rather which make 
impressions on the senses, are all illusory. The objects 
of creation deceive us, our minds deceive us, and God 
deceives us. The outcome of such a system of philoso- 
phy is clear Under this belief such a thing as moral 
responsibility ceases lo exist; moral distinctions vanish, 
and our actions themselves become illusory. But is not 
God real? No! God is without quality, power, and 
relation. 

Sankracharia carried pantheism to its logical conclu* 
sion and has left behind a system of philosophy which 
can only be appropriately called Nihilism, No doubt a 
reaction did take place, a reaction toward a more 
rational form of belief. It has been said that both 
Saivisni and Valshnavism constitute the theism of re- 
action, but nothing more shows the utter futility of all 
efforts to evolve theism out of ancient Hinduism than 
the history of Saivism and Vaishnavism. These two 
systems, it is well known, are any thing but theistic at 
the present moment. 

This leads me to say a few words about the popular 
side of Hinduism. Pantheism, if it is to be called a 
creed at all, can only be the creed of the few ; it is 
utterly incomprehensible to ordinary human beings, and 
the consequence is that on the popular side Hinduism 
became idolatrous. It is very significant that Hindu- 
ism at all ages has been presented in two different 
phases> which, if carefully examined, are antagonistic to 
each other; the one phase to suit the easy-going tern* 
perament of the philusophers, the thinking minority, 
and the other to suit the depraved condition of the 
illiterate. 

There is much talk in these days about the revival of 
ancient Hinduism, and it must be admitted tnal there are 
a few earnest men who are intensely devout and anxious 
to see the excrescences of idolatry and superstition re- 
moved from their reh'gion. But if such a thing is pos- 
sible there will only be left a subtle and philosophic 
form of pantheism which is the very last thing that is 
likely to regenerate India. A glance at some of the 
modern movements of the kind that are being nobly 
advociied in this presidency by Devvan Bahadur Rag- 
unaiha Rao reveals a very interesting fact. As far back 
as the fifteenth century Kabir, one of the disciples of 
Ramanada, attempted to purify Hinduism. ** He repudi- 
ated idolatry and caste, and founded a spiritual bond of 
brotherhood based on a common love of God and the 
practice of good works." But as the movement had 
siill a leaning toward Hinduism the pantheistic and 
polytheistic elements were never altogether eliminated, 
and the new movement after a time subsided into a 
form of Hinduism, Take again the movement set on 
foot by Pandit Dayananda Sarasoati. known as the Arya 
Samaj. Here there was a tenacious clinging to Hindu- 
ism. The Vedas constituted the only revelation. But 
what is the result ? Instead of the movement establish- 
ing a monotheistic belief, it has become, so far as I 
know, absorbed in theosophy, whicli is in fact entirely 



opposed to the belief in a personal God. All the at- 
tempts, therefore, that have been made to establish a 
purely monotheistic creed in India by going back to 
ancient Hinduism have completely failed, and only 
those movements have succeeded that have borrowed 
from Christianity some of its essential doctrines. 

This is the case with that remarkable movement set 
on foQt by Rajah Ram Mohun Roy. Nothing is so 
very instructive to the student of Indian religious 
thought as the history of the Brahmo Samaj raove- 
nienls. Raja Ram Mohun Roy tried to evolve a form 
of theism out of orthodox Hinduism. But he found 
the task utterly impossilile, and was driven at last to 
borrow some of the cardinal doctrines of his belief from 
Christianity. Rajah Ram Mohun Roy's acquaintance 
with Christianity influenced him more in his beliefs 
than any other religion he had come in contact with. 
He preferred Christian morals and Christian doctrines 
to those of Hinduism. In one of his works he says : 
'* The consequence of my long and uninterrupted re- 
searches into religious truths has been that I have 
found the doctrines of Christ more conducive to moral 
principles, and better adapted for the use of rational 
beings, than any other which have come to my knowl- 
edge.'* He even went so far as to publish in English, 
Sanskrit, and Bengali a series of selections, principally 
from the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, which 
he entitled, ** The precepts of Jesus the guide to peace 
and happiness." ** This simple code of religion and mc 
rality," he says at the close of the preface,** is so admirably 
calculated to elevate men's ideas to high and liber;d 
notions of one God, so well fitted to regulate the con- 
duct of the human race in the discharge of their va- 
rious duties to God, to themselves, and to society, that I 
cannot but hope the best effects from its promulgation 
in the present form.*' 

For my own part I cannot help looking upon Brah- 
manism as one of the most impressive testimonies to the 
living influence of Christian ideas and to the irresistible 
and growing power of the personality of Christ in the 
mind and heart of the world. The so-called Brahman 
theology is saturated with Christian ideas, and a tbrmer 
Bishop of Bombay was not far wrong when he said that 
Brahmanism was a half-way house to Christianity. What 
better evidence is needed of the close relationship ex* 
isting between Brahmanism and Christianity than is to be 
found in the writings and utterances of Babu Keshub 
Chunder Sen : 

**The Brahmo Samaj is the legitimate offspring of the 
wedlock of Christianity with the faith of Hindu Aryans. 
Christianity came and moved with our old Oriental 
faith ; and from that time we grew. Gradually piety 
and spirituality laid deeper hold upon us . . , if we 
were not to be false to the teachings of our own fore- 
fathers, could we be false to the teachings of that great 
prophet of the East, Christ Jesus, and his disciples? 
They have come and are changing the face of the coun- 
try, revolutionizing onr manners and institutions, our 
households, our souls. Jesus has conquered India." 



164 



THE RELIGIOUS CITY OE BENARES. 



Mr. H. J. S. Cotton, who is under the pleasant delu- 
sion that one day the '* religion of humanity " will be 
the creed of India, speaking of Brahnianism, says : " In 
its present attitude it will never even form a transitional 
religion enabling the nation to pass through its present 
crisis ; much less will it ever prove a formidable rival to 
any of the older creeds." I do not think that Mr. 
Cotton does full justice to Brahmanism. There is a great 
deal of vitality in the movement. The Brahmans have 
been awakened to the necessity of creating around them 
a social atmosphere morally invigorating, religiously 
healthful, intellectually enlightening, that gives due 
exercise and nourishment to the feelings and instincts 
of the human mind in a state of transition and progress. 
Not only this, but we may also notice in the movement 
led by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen a prominent develop- 
ment of what may be termed the Augustinian side of 
religion, namely, the strong sense of sin, the need of 
regenerate life, and the passionate thirst for God as 
Saviour and Comforter. Of course I do not regard the 
Brahmo movement as any thing more than a tendency. 
But I feel convinced that it is a tendency which, if 
rightly developed and honestlj' worked out, will termi- 
nate in Christianity. In my opinion, however, the chief 
defect in Brahmoism is its want of definiteness, consist- 
ency, and straightforwardness. But this is a defect, as 
1 said at the very commencement, which is peculiarly 
national in its character. 

A very important question which often puzzles the 
student of Indian religious thought of the present day 
is this: Why should not those reformers who wish to 
purify Hinduism, and present its monotheistic aspect, 
ally themselves with the Brahmos and work together 
for a common purpose ? Or we may put the question 
in another way : Why do not the Brahmos ally them- 
selves with reformers like Dewan Bahadur Ragunatha 
Rao? The answer, I think, is simple. The Brahmos 
did try the experiment ; they started by taking their 
stand upon the Vedas alone as their sole authority; but 
they found that they were not able to accomplish what 
they wanted, for the simple reason that between Hindu- 
ism and monotheism there is hardly any affinity. The 
consequence was that the Brahmos had to cut them- 
selves away from their traditional faith. In fact, there 
is greater affinity between Christianity and Brahmoism 
than there is between Brahmoism and Hinduism. This 
is a fact that is well worth the consideration of those 
who are watching the drift of Hindu religious thought. 

I have now glanced rapidly over some of the religious 
movements of India, and I have, in conclusion, a word 
to say on the religious activity of the present day. We 
notice on all sides young men rising in defense of an- 
cient Hinduism, Hindu preachers going about deter- 
mined to stamp out Christianity from their country, and 
Hindu societies formed every-where. All these are 
healthy signs. It shows that my countrymen have 
passed that stage of apathy and indifference in matters 
concerning religion which is akin to death itself ; but if I 
am not mistaken the motive that prompts all this activity 



is a spirit of patriotism. Patri6tism is a very good 
thing, but it must be consistent with truth ; and, more- 
over, it must be remembered that real life-giving religion 
can never be bolstered by a feeling of nationality. Re- 
ligion may develop a feeling of nationality, but a feeling 
of nationality cannot revive a religion. Nothing is more 
futile than the attempt now made to develop a religion 
by appealing to patriotism — a religion which is wanting 
in consistency and coherence, a religion which is at best 
a loose compromise between several different, and even 
antagonistic, phases of thought, and which is utterly in- 
capable of serving as a uniting principle. 

What about the prospects of Christianity in India.? 
This is a question which has often been asked. It has 
been said that modern India is opposed to Christianity; 
this may be so, but when I remember how rapidly the 
small band of Christians is increasing, when I find that 
thousands and thousands of my countrymen who had 
been despised, trampled down, and looked upon as 
utterly incapable of improvement of any kind are now, 
with the enlightening influence of Christianity, compet- 
ing successfully with the highest castes and classes in 
every direction ; when I know from my own experience 
the inward peace and joy that have resulted from all my 
hopes, my very life being centered in Christ, no amount 
of opposition to Christ makes me take a despondent 
view of the future of Christianity. Is the opposition of 
modern India to Christ in any way stronger or more intel- 
ligent than that of Rome when the apostles first preached 
Christ crucified ? And yet did not Rome succumb to 
Christian influence ? I have not the shadow of a doubt 
that Christianity will ultimately triumph in my country. 
— Madras Harvest Field, 



The Religious City of Benares. 

The ancient city of Benares appears on the west side of 
the Ganges, that most sacred and filthiest of all rivers. 
The one turned through the Augean stables was of 
crystal clearness and cleanness compared to it. It 
serves the purpose in India of the scape-goat in Syria, 
which bore away the sins of the people. The Ganges 
is the goat that carries away some portion of their inde- 
scribable dirt into the sea. It looks very much like the 
Missouri River at this time, but in the rainy season it is 
larger and more turbid. 

Benares is the brain of Indian idolatry and one of the 
oldest cities in the world. It has not much recorded 
history, for it has only been ambitious in "upholding 
that idolatry which has wrought its degradation. Its 
glory is that it is a city " wholly given to idolatry." Its 
original name was Kasshi, and first appears B. C. 1200, 
or, to attach the date to what is more familiar, it was 
the period of the Judges in the Old Testament, and of 
the elopement of Helen of Troy in the history of the 
Greeks. It was not until the sixth century B. C. that 
the history of this city became definite. Then an event 
occurred which not only glorified Benares as a religious 
center, but became a moving impulse through all the 



East, the results of which we survey to-day. That 
event was the birth of Sakya Muni and the rise of 
Buddhism, 

Benares is considered the most sacred of all the holy 
places in India, and whoever dies within its hallowed 
area, be he Hindu, Mohammedan, or Christian, pure in 
heart or foul in life, is sure of a blessed hereafter. 
Men spend their lives in oppression and crime and 
then come to die at Benares, comforted with the thought 
that all sins can be washed away by its sacred stream. 
It contains 1,480 places of idolatrous worship. Their 
architectural characteristics and the fine carvings and 
tracery upon them will command attention, and in some 
special cases admiration, even when one stands amid 
the sickening degradations within and about them, 

Siva is the tutelary god of the city, and his trident is 
seen on many spires and domes. Siva worship orig- 
inated in the conception of man*s ability to raise him- 
self by his own austerities to an equality with the gods. 
It considered the human soul as an emanation from the 
divine, and urges its adherents to realize renewed union 
by subduing the passions and mortifying the desires. 
The popular idea of him is that he is a inendicant who 
gained and who keeps his place by his austerities ; morals 
he had none; he was drunken and licentious. In his life- 
time he rode a bull from city to city craving alms and 
indulging in vices that decency dare not name. This 
is the reason why the bull is sacred to him and used as 
one of his disgusting symbols. His aspect is frightful 
in the extreme. A third eye in his forehead is sup- 
posed to reduce to ashes any one bold enough to in- 
terrupt his devotions. A necklace of human skulls 
dangles about his neck, while slimy serpents mingle 
with his hair and crawl over his person. 

There is also Vishnu worship, w^hich is essentially 
different from Sivaism. It starts from the idea of God 
condescending to men and revealing himself in a series 
of avatars. The name of the supreme being is Brahm, 
and from him gods and all existing things have sprung. 
The first person in the Hindu triad is Brahma, the cre- 
ator ; the second is Vishnu, who had nine avatars, or 
incamalions ; the thirdt Siva. Vishnu is represented as 
of a black or blue color, and as in a state of repose 
resting on the face of the floods by which the former 
world was destroyed. The lotus flower is his throne, 
which is supported on the waters by the great serpent 
Ananta, and upon which he reclines, oblivious to all ob- 
jects end indifferent to the affairs of men. 

This worship was far loo refined for the common 
mind, and to make it popular avatars, or second incar- 
nations, were invented, nine in number, among which 
are the fish, tortoise, boar, man* lion, dwarf. But they 
are of no consequence further than to show the essen- 
tial beastliness of this form of heathenism. It is the 
sixth avatar that brings us on historical ground, which is 
that of Rama, the popular hero of the B rah mans, and of 
these only. The seventh avatar was the great warrior 
hero, Rama Chandra, with Sita, his wife, and his brother 
Lachman. This incarnation is next to that of Krishna 




tlie most popular in northern India. Their deeds are 
celebrated in that magnificent epic, the *' Ramayan,'*of 
which there is a first-rate translation in English. Ran> 
is the lip god, for he dwells on the lips of the mulii- 
tildes. Their morning salutation is ** Ram; " the funer- 
al cry is " Ram sat pai " — ** He is self-existent/' The 
pilgrim hurries on crying, **Siti Ram, Siti Ram." 

Ram was assisted by the monkeys under their great 
leader, Hanuman, in his victory over Ravana, the de- 
mon god of Ceylon, who had carried off his beautiful 
Sita. This victory is celebrated every October in a fes- 
tival which occupies I he place of honor in the Hindu 
calendar. The eighth avatar was Krishna, the most 
popular of the present day. He was born in Muttra 
some centuries before our era. His parents belonged 
to a nomadic tribe called Yadavas. He was famous 
for his skill as a musician, and for his coarse gallantries 
among the milk-maids of Brindabun. He occupies his 
high niche in the temple of fame on account of the as- 
sistance which he rendered to the Pandav brothers in 
their long struggle of supremacy over their formidable 
rivals, the Kanravs. He died at Muttra in obscurity, 
but his name and memory are imperishable. 

This story excites the Hindu of the present day as do 
the events celebrated during the Muharram the Moham- 
medan. Krishna is generally represented as a shepherd 
with bis flute, or holding a huge snake, on the head of 
which he is standing. The ninth avatar is said by the 
Brahmans to have been Buddha. Recognizing Buddha 
as an avatar and incorporating his theories, the Brahmans 
gained his adherents and did away with the necessity 
of a separate sect in India, 

The tenth avatar, or incarnation, is yet to come. But 
many assert that it has come in the English rule, which 
explains the hold that the English have on some of these 
people, w*ho believe that they will prepare the way for 
greater future revelation and consummation. There is 
among the many idol representations of Benares one of 
a monkey wearing a crown and holding a huge mace in 
his hand. This is the monkey General Hanuman, who 
with his legions helped Ram to conquer Ravana and 
deliver Sita, to which reference has been made. 

The Golden Temple of Bisheshwar Nath is reached 
by a narrow street reeking with filth. One does not 
know what 10 do with his feet, and his nose is in open 
rebellion. He is elbowed by and jammed between dirty 
wretches, quarreling among themselves, and agreeing 
only on the one purpose, to devour, if possible, the meek 
and unfortunate European. The first building that ar- 
rests the attention is a large, white mosque, which stands 
on the site of the old temple Bisheshwar, destroyed dur- 
ing the persecutions of the Hindus by Aurungexebe, and 
was designed to be a standing insult to the Hindus. Its 
ofTcnsive proximity to their most sacred center in Benares 
has led to many a ba:tle between Hindus and Moham- 
medans, in which the former are usually worsted, for 
the Mohammedans have about all the courage shown in 
such emergencies, and are never averse to a fracas in 
which I hey can exercise it. The old temple wan thrown 



down by ihemjjtit this did not satisfy their rancor; they 
iTiusl add insult to injury, so the images were used as 
steps for the faithful to tread upon. They are an inso* 
lent set of wretches, but further than this they ought 
not to be accused of moral obliquity. 

It is a pity I hey did not lift the ground on which these 
abominations stand, for if Hindu life is worth preserv- 
ing it would have been a great blessing. In such places 
cholera is bred and will ever exist, for no cleaner dis- 
ease could live and preserve its self-respect in such an 
atmosphere. There is an old FiVus religiosa^ the trunk of 
which is overlaid with idols. A little further on is a 
stone bull, six feet and a half high, sacred to Mahadeo, by 
whose name it is known. The Mahadeo*s image is said 
to be at the bottom. The faithful believe that at tTie 
approach of the Moslems he got up on his stone '*pins" 
and cast himself down into the well. The well, of course^ 
is honored ; so around it is a carved stone wall covered 
by a large cloth to prevent the flowers and other offer- 
ings from dropping into decay in its sacred waters ; but 
for all that a considerable part goes down and the stench 
is insufferable. 

Two wells at Benares are considered supremely holy. 
One is called ** the well of knowledge/' in which a no 
less dignitary than the god Siva is supposed to reside. 
Its waters are in a state of constant putrefaction from the 
flowers and offerings dropped into it. The Manikarnaka 
is believed to have been dug by Vishnu with his discus 
and filled with the perspiration of his own body. Stone 
steps lead down to the water, which is only three or four 
feet deep. These steps are thronged with bathing pil- 
grims^ many of whom are filthy and covered with sores, 
the stench of which fills the air around. These reeking 
waters are believed to be infallible in washing away the 
sins of the soul. 

But all dirt seems to be holy in the eyes of heathen- 
ism. The divergence of Christianity appears in clearest 
contrast with this. There is no*namable filthy thing 
that is not either drunken or eaten by these peoples at 
some time or other as a sacred act. This water, so fetid* 
is tasted by every worshiper, and some glut themselves 
with this liquid nastiness. A Brahman, seated at the 
weirs side, serves it out to the thirsty crowd, who smack 
their lips with an absolute relish. As every spoonful lines 
the pockets of the priests, it need not be said that the 
owners are men of vast wealth, but this does not stop 
the clamor for ** backshish,** and Christians might as 
well know that the priests regard ** backshish ** from 
Europeans as their offerings to idols. These dumb 
stone and metal man-made idols are constantly drenched 
with water, votive offerings from the Ganges^ for its 
waters furnish a part of every offering ; the result is pro- 
longed and disagreeable filth. 

Near by is a small but exceedingly artistic building 
of white marble, and a peep can be taken through the 
wall at the east end of the Golden Temple into the in- 
terior, which is crammed with idols of every form, siae, 
and ugliness. Emerging from this passage of stifling air 
and disgusting humanity a shop is reached, the floor of 




which is covered with marigolds and other garish flowers 
sold to the worshipers for offerings. 

From here an ascent may be made to the Naubal 
Khana, from which a soul-sickening view may be had 
of heathenism in its most degrading manifestations. 
Crowds in intermingling confusion move by each other, 
going to and fro; those coming with holy water from 
the Ganges suffusing each of the idols, at the same time 
touching with their foreheads some sacred stone in the 
floor. But the most indescribable part is the rubbing 
of their faces with the tails of the sacred bulls until 
they were smeared ; then going to their heads they kiss 
them on their lips, and the most devout did the same at 
the roots of their tails. This temple is full of sleek 
bulls and cows, which are objects of devotion to the 
multitudes, and eat the garlands of marigolds and other 
iJowers offered by the degraded devotees. 

The Golden Temple has three towers,^ two of which 
at eventime flash with the glory of the setting sun. The 
covering is of the same material a8 that at Amritsur, 
copper plated with gold. The eflect, if separated from 
the indescribable loathsomeness of all about, would be 
splendid, and something which one would instinctively 
pause and admire. The expense of this temple was 
borne by Maharajah Runjit Singh. We beg our readers 
to bear with this distasteful description ; it is all we 
shall ever attempt to give, and we are sure that it is 
more than enough were it not for the fact that it is be- 
coming the rage to glorify heathenism in efforts at com- 
parative religion. Were it not for this there would be 
no need for the wearisome sacrifice of time and delicacy 
of feeling necessary to describe any part of the disgust- 
ing affair. 

But we will have to go through lower depths in a 
visit to the Annapurna, or the cow temple. The others 
described were in the positive degree of comparison ; 
this is comparative, for there is still another. Its court 
was crowded with worshipers and Brah manic bulls that 
stuff themselves all day long on the heaps of garlands 
cast before them by the crowds of worshipers. The 
offal of these sacred beasts is received in human hands 
with delight at the honor of the service. This place of 
animal abomination is reached by a passage just at the 
door of which is deposited the offal of these beasts. 
This temple was built about 1721 by the Peshwa Baji 
Rao, who was deprived of his territory, thank heaven! 
by Lord Warren Hastings. 

The superlative in degradation is Durga Kund, or 
monkey temple. We have said before that the monkey 
is a sacred being. This temple is dedicated to Durga, 
or Kali (the authoress of all ills, sufferings, and death), 
in order to appease her wrath and avert danger. She 
is worshiped not only with the ordinary offerings, but 
with higher forms of life, such as he goats, rams, and 
sometimes buffaloes. In front of the temple is an altar 
about two and a half feet high, with a pan-shaped, shal- 
low cut in the upper end to catch the blood when the 
head of the sacrificial victim is severed. There is a 
post cut in the center like a two pronged fork ; in this 




^^ 



fork is pressed the neck of the animal, which is held in 
position by a firm fixture passed through tht; prongs of 
the fork over the animal's neck. The priest holds a 
long, heavy knife and faces the temple in the sacrificial 
act. When ready an attendant seizes the legs of the 
victim and pulls his neck to enable the priest with one 
blow to sever the head from Ihe body, for if the head is 
not clean cut frotn the body evil will betide the offerer 
of the sacrifice. 

The temple stands in a quadrangle surrounded by 
massive walls. Within are even more shocking per- 
formances than without. Deified monkeys with their 
well-known habits command adoration, and they behave 
as if conscious of the fact. Hundreds of these creat- 
ures scamper and chatter ; nothing escapes their detec- 
tioii. They became so numerous and pestiferous that 
the citizens had to request the magistrates to remove 
them. Several car-loads were carried north and 
dumped out to continue their torments in anotht^r 
place, on the principle that **turn about *' in the endur- 
ance of religious pests "is fair play." We have always 
had a sense of disgust at the monkey cosmogony ad* 
vanced by our modern materialists, but confess that it 
has lost much of its loathsomeness and has gained prob- 
ability in the worship heathenism gives. The differ* 
ence, however, is in favor of the monkeys, who, so far 
as known, have never lowered themselves to the worship 
of roan, while man has forced his homage on them. 

At the south side of the temple is an immense tama- 
rind-tree, the body of which looks as if formed out of 
monkeys grouped lengthwise. It has within its trunk a 
hollow of about two feet in diameter, and has been the 
lying-iD hospital for centuries. No monkey of all the 
temple multitudes is said to have been born out of this 
place. This temple stands on an elevated platform and 
has several fine architectural effects. In front of it 
there is a porch supported by twelve carved pillars ; 
from the roof, which is dome-shaped, are suspended 
two be!ls. The temple was built by the Rani of Nagpur 
in the last century. It has brazen doors, and on a plat- 
form is the idol temple in a small building, to which the 
visitor may approach so near as to see the idol, which 
has a face of silver, and also the priest officiating. It is 
magnificently dressed and adorned with numerous gar- 
lands. A priest, or some other dignitary, throws over 
the pilgrim's hat two garlands, one of marigolds and the 
other of jessamine, which part of the performance was 
not understood technically, but the ultimate tkule^ 
** backshish," was comprehended. 

On the way from the temple to the Ghats may be 
seen one of those wheeled monsters, the pictures of 
which every boy and girl has regarded with terrified 
wonder, the Car of Juggernaut, which means *Mord of 
the world," the Moloch of India. It has twelve wheels; 
on the platform over them is a series of columns about 
two and a half feet high and two and a half inches in 
diameter, octagonal in shape, with Ionic capitals. 
There are about fifty of these sustaining the second 

atform, on which is the throne, an affair inclosed nil 



round except in front. It is octagonal and has eight 
columns sustaining the dome, which is elongated and 
also octagonal. In this place, painted and ornamented 
in fantastic colors, the priest sits, while the car con- 
taining the idol is being drawn at frightful speed and 
regardless of consequences. This car was an old one, 
and looked as if it had crushed many a devotee. It is 
now only taken out once a year, on anniversary days of 
the car festival, when the great car at Puri is dragged 
out. — Dr, Mutchmore^ in the Presbyterian, 



Wimling Up a Horse iti Iiulia. 

BY REV. JACOB CHAMBERLAIN, V^,X^, 

Nineteen years ago I bought in Madras a peculiar 
kind of horse. He had to be wound up to make him go. 

It w^as not a machine, but a veritable live horse. 
When breaking him to go in the carriage he had been 
injured. An accident occurred in starting him the first 
tirae» and he was thrown and hurt and frightenedl It 
made htm timid ; afraid to start. After he had once 
started he would never balk until taken out of the car- 
riage. He would start and stop and go on as many 
limes as you pleased, but it was very difficult to get him 
started at first, each time he was harnessed to the car- 
riage. 

He was alt right under the saddle, an excellent riding 
horse, and would carry me long distances in my district 
work, so that I did not wish to dispose of him, but I 
could not afford to keep two. Whatever 1 had must go 
in carriage as well as ride, and I determined that I would 
conquer. 

How I have worked over that horse. At first it 
sometimes took me an hour to get him started from my 
door. At last, after trying everything 1 had ever heard 
of, I hit upon an expedient that worked. 

I took a strong bamboo stick two feet long and over 
an inch thick. A stout cord loop was passed through a 
hole two inches from its end. This loop we would slip 
over his left ear down to the roots and turn the stick 
round and round and twist it up. 

It is said that a horse can retain but one idea at a 
time in its small brain. Soon the twisting would begin 
to hurt. His attention w'ould be abstracted to the pain 
in his ear. He would forget all about a carriage being 
hitched to him, bend down his head, and w^alk ofif as 
quiet as a lamb. When he had gone a rod the horse- 
boy would begin to untwist ; soon off would come the 
cord, and the horse would be all right for the day. The 
remedy never failed. 

After having it on tw^o or three times he objected to 
Xh^ operation, and would swing about and rear and 
twitch and back, any thing but start ahead^ to keep it 
from being applied. We would have, two of us, to be- 
gin to pat and rub about his neck and head. He would 
not know which had the key. All at once it would be 
on his ear and winding up. The moment it began to 
tighten he would be quiet, stand and bear it as long as 



168 



WINDING UP A HORSE IN INDIA, 



he could, and then off he would go. It never took thirty 
seconds to get him off with the key. It would take an 
hour without. After a little he ceased objecting to have it 
put on. He seemed to say to himself, " I have got to give 
in, and may as well do it at once," but he would not start 
without the key. In a few months he got so that, as 
soon as we got into the carriage, he would bend down his 
head to have the key put on, and one or two turns of the 
key would be enough. 

Then the key became unnecessary. He would bend 
down his head, tipping his left ear to the horse-boy, who 
would take it in his hand and twist it, and off he 
would go. 

My native neighbors said, " That horse must be wound 
up or he cannot run." And it did seem to be so. 

When he got so that the ** winding up " was nothing 
but a form I tried to break him of that, but could not 
succeed. I would pat him and talk to him and give him 
a little salt or sugar or bread, and then step quietly into 
the carriage and tell him to go. " No." Coax him. 
" No." Whip him. " No." Legs braced, every muscle 
tense for resistance. A genuine balk. Stop and keep 
quiet for an instant, and he would hold down his head, 
bend over his ear, and look around for the horse-boy 
appealingly, saying very earnestly by his actions, " Do 
please wind me up. I can*t go without, but I'll go gladly 
if you will." The moment his ear was touched and one 
twist given off he would go as happy and contented as 
ever horse could be. 

Many hearty laughs have we and our friends had over 
the winding up of that horse. If I were out on a tour 
for a month or two and he were not hitched to the car- 
riage, or if he stood in the stable with no work for a 
week or two during the monsoon, a real winding up had 
to take place the first time he was put in. We kept him 
six years. The last week I owned him I had to wind 
him up. I sold the patent to the man that bought the 
horse, and learned from him that he had to use it as long 
as the horse lived. 

I was thinking about that horse the other night when 
it was too hot to sleep, and I suddenly burst into a laugh 
as I said to myself, " I have again and again, in the 
membership of our churches at home, seen that horse 
that had to be wound up, in all matters of benevo- 
lence." 

I had often thought of that horse as I went through 
our churches at home, and imagined that I recognized 
him, but the whole thing came upon me with such pecul- 
iar force the other night that I must write out my 
thoughts. 

There are some Christians (yes, I believe they are 
Christians) who have to be wound up by some external 
pressure before they will start off in any work of benev- 
olence. Others will engage in some kinds of benevo- 
lence spontaneously, but will not touch other benevolent 
efforts unless specially wound up — free under the saddle, 
but balky in carriage. 

I knew of one good member of our church who would 
never give a cent to our Domestic Missionary Board 



unless he happened to hear of some missionary in the 
West who was actually without the necessaries of life, 
and then he would send in liberally. It took that to 
wind him up. 

Another would never give to the board for educating 
young men for the ministry unless he happened to be- 
come acquainted with some candidate who was being 
aided. Then his gifts would come in for helping that 
man. 

Another would never give to the Bible Society unless 
he chanced to hear of some particular town out West 
where but two Bibles could be found in a population of 
five hundred, although he knew perfectly well that there 
were hundreds of such communities among whom the 
American Bible Society was daily endeavoring to intro- 
duce the divine word. He must be wound up by a 
special case. 

But it was especially of my visits through the churches 
in connection with our foreign missionary work that I 
was thinking when I said that I had so often recognized 
my horse that had to be wound up in all the different 
stages of his training. 

Thank God, I found hosts of noble-hearted men and 
women all through the Church that needed no winding 
up; whose conversion and consecration had extended 
down to their pockets; who were always to the forefront 
in every good work; who required no spasmodic appeals. 
They give from a deep-set principle and an intelligent 
love for Christ and his cause, some even pinching them- 
selves in the necessaries of life, as I know, to be able to 
give. It is on such that the security and continuance 
of our missions depend. We know that we can rely on 
them. They never fail us. 

But there are others that have to be '* wound up," 
willingly or unwillingly, before they will do any thing in 
the missionary work. Some are very willing to be 
wound up. 

*' Dominie," said a good elder who had just intro- 
duced himself to me one day, " I have come in on be- 
half of our church at to see if you would not come 

out and give us a missionary talk. We ought to have 
sent in a collection to the Foreign Board months ago, 
but we neglected it, and now we have made up our 
minds to do something handsome if you will come out 
there and give us a talk." 

'* Well," said I, ** I shall be very glad to come and 
tell you something of our work, just as soon as I can 
edge a day in between other engagements. But if you 
have made up your minds to do something handsome 
for the Board, why not do it at once, and relieve their 
present pressing need, and I will come as soon as I can 
and give you a talk all the same." 

" O, no, " said he ; " we can't do that. We have made 
up our minds that we must give liberally, but we can 
start it easier if you come there and give us a talk first. 
You need not fear. We will give a good sum. That is 
settled and it is mostly pledged. But you must come 
and talk to us first." 

I smiled and said to myself, ** There is my horse in 



WINDING UP A HORSE IN INDIA. 



16» 



the third stage of training. That church is bending 
down its ear and emreating me to twist it, for it has 
made ixp its mind to go, only it requires to be wound up 
first" 

** Dominie," said one of our earnest ministers to me 
one Wednesday, " we raised $1,000 for the Board last 
Sunday morning- It is more than usual, and we are all 
happy over it. Now we want you to come over the first 
Sunday in next month and give us a missionary ad- 
dress/* 

'* Good/* said I. **That chtirch has got one stage 
farther than my horse ever did in his training, for they 
start and do the work first and bend the ear to be twisted 
afterward.*' Did it not give me an earnest joy to go 
and tell that church what the Lord's war in India was, 
and how much they had helped it? 

A Sunday-school superintendent came to me one day 
with smiling countenance, saying, ** Our Sunday-school 
has raised $175 during the past year for missions, and 
we have determined to give it to tiie work in India. The 
year closed ihree months ago, and it is all in the hands 
of the treasurer, but we want you to come and give us a 
speech, and then it will be formally voted and sent at 
once lo the Board. We have been waiting all this time 
because they told us at the rooms that you were engaged 
up till now. When can you come? The money is lying 
idle and we are waiting, and we know the Board needs 
the funds. So come as soon as you can." 

**Ah/* said I, ** every thing is ready, and the family 
are in the carriage, but they have to sit there half an 
houT» because the horse-boy is busy elsewhere, and the 
horse is holding down his ear all this time waiting for 
that particular horse-boy to come and iwist it.** 

I was both pained and irresistibly amused by an inci- 
dent that occurred not two hundred miles from New 
York, when the horse was in the first stage of train ing» 
and stoutly resisting allowing its ear to be touched. 

The missionary was announced to speak in the church 
on a given Sunday, when the annual collection would be 
taken up. A good member of the church — the pastor 
says a sincere Christian — was very much put out about 
it; had heard enough of these old missionaries, and was 
not going to hear any more; did not believe in foreign 
missions; we had heathen enough at home. 

The appointed Sunday came. Mr. A and his 

family stayed away from church because they would not 
countenance the missionary address. They therefore 
missed the announcement which the pastor made, 
namely, that a telegram had been received that it was 
impossible for the missionary to be there. He would 
come next Sunday^ and the annual collection would be 
deferred until then. 

The following Sunday Mr, A^ and family all filed 

into their pew, serene and happy in the thought that 
they had avoided the old missionary. As the organ was 
playing the voluntary the pastor entered the pulpit from 
the vestry and a stranger with him. The pastor took 
the opening exercises and the second hymn was sung^ 
when the pastor arose and said that Mr. , the mls- 



sionar>% as announced last Sunday^ would now address 
them. 

Mr. A- — - was thunderstruck. He did not like to go 
out in the middle of service, and so determined to sit 
it through. The missionary told his simple tale. The 
plates came in. The collection was unprecedentedly 

large. Mr. A 's plethoric pocket-book had disgorged 

itself upon the plates, and no heartier worker for foreign 

missions is found now in that church, Mr. A had 

tried his best to keep his ear from being twisted. Now it 
needs no twisting. He has learned to go, and loves to go. 

There was a church in our fold at home whose pastor 
was determined that it should not be wound up for for- 
eign missions. He had succeeded, as he himself told 
me, in keeping all missionaries and secretaries and 
agents out of his pulpit during all the years of his pastor- 
ate. When the day came for collections for any of our 
Boards the fact was stated, the plates were passed, and 
those gave who wished. The collection, as a matter of 
course under such a chill, was a minimum. 

It required some of the very best and most wary and 
skillful maneuvering lo get hold of the ear of that 
church ; but it was obtained and twisted, and off it 
started on the trot in the missionary work, and since 
then it has annually held down its ear and begged to- 
have it twisted, as it wanted to go more. 

Scores of incidents which occurred in my own ex peri- 
ences among the churches in America, and which re- 
called my ** horse-winding," come crowding into my 
mind, but I forbear. 

For I remember the phalanx of noble churches that 
needed no such winding up, who were all alive and 
always on the alert; who gave regularly, generously^ 
nobly; who, from the pastor, the head, to the humblest 
member, prayed from the lips, from the heart, from tiu 
pocktt, ** Thy kingdom come.'* They are always glad to* 
get hold of the recruidng watchman and ask him, 
** Watchman, what of the night?" but they never have 
to be wound up to start them giving, 

God give us more and more of such churches and* 
more such Christians and church members, so that na 
missionary or secretary need come lo A^^, but can come 
with radiant countenance and say, ** Brethren, with the 
funds you are continually sending us for the work, we 
have done for the Master thus and thus." Then, in 
looking over our churches and our benevolent work, we 
shall no longer have occasion to remember "the horse 
that had to be wound up.** — Chrisiian IniclH^encer, 



Rev. Dr* Scudder writes from Vcllore, India : *' What we 
mourn over chiefly is the apparent indifference, not to say open 
opposition, of the heathen toward our holy religion. U is not 
that they are unconcerned about religion in general. Never 
have they been more wide-awake on ihe subject than now. 
Western light has thoroughly roused the educated among ihem 
from the apathetic sleep of ages, and ihty are busily looking 
up long- forgot ten claims upon them of God and conscience- 
Bul Christianity they w-ill have none of. It is too holy, loo ex- 
acting in its requirements, too humbling in its conditions." 






170 



OBSTACLES TO FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



Obstacles to Foreign Missions. 

BY G. A. CONIBEAR. 

There are some Christians who are decidedly op- 
posed to foreign mission efforts, and a far larger num- 
ber who are simply indifferent concerning the matter ; 
but the weakness manifest by the struggle of missionary 
societies for existence can be explained in part by the 
methods and life of the home Church. 

1. An excess of churches. There are some com- 
munities where there can be no reasonable expectations 
that the existing church edifices can be filled, even if 
all the persons living in the community had a desire to 
attend. Yet in many such cases each church has its 
own pastor, with all the burden of expense involved — 
namely, in addition to the support of the pastor the 
building must be kept in repairs, heated and lighted, 
and the numerous incidentals paid for. When the cause 
of foreign missions is presented the complaint is often 
given, **We have enough to do at home," and the few 
who have the burden to bear have some justice in their 
complaint. The remedy here is, cut down home ex- 
penses, shut up some of the churches. Let Christians 
sink their differences, worship together, and thus save 
money to spend for Missions. 

2. Closely allied to the first is a surplus of privileges y 
as afforded by modern religious activities in the home 
field. To illustrate : Very few in the average American 
community have any excuse for not becoming acquainted 
with Christianity. There are not only the stated means 
of open churches inviting men to hear the Gospel, mis- 
sion stations, Sunday-schools, young people's societies, 
the Young Men's Christian Associations, and other or- 
ganizations too numerous to mention, but there are 
special evangelistic efforts, systematic visitation, relig- 
ious literature, and means to reach every class of society, 
churches and societies, pastors and laymen vying and 
even competing with each other in pressing upon men 
the truths of Christianity, multitudes having again and 
again had the Gospel presented to them until it has be- 
come to them an idle tale. 

This is inimical to foreign missions, in that it draws 
away from it energies which are being expended upon 
those who have repeatedly refused the Gospel, and thus 
depriving millions who have not had the opportunity of 
refusing it once. Dollars spent on hardened sinners 
in Christian lands might be profitably spent in less fa- 
vored fields. Ministers preaching to empty seats might 
preach to precious souls hungry for the bread of life. 
Our method in the home field of multiplying privileges 
for the hardened sinner and aged saint is unfair to our 
brothers in Africa, India, and China, who have never 
heard the Gospel. Fancy men acquainted with the word 
of God and Christ for twenty, thirty, and fifty years, 
needing preachers to instruct and feed them ! When 
will they grow strong enough to feed themselves ? What 
are deacons and elders for.? When would the Gospel 
have been carried into the " regions beyond " if the 
apostles had stayed and looked after the fold in Jerusa- 



lem and Judea? Let there be a consolidation of churches; 
let the ministers go in large numbers and preach the Gos- 
pel to other lands ; let the expenses at home be curtailed. 
Give the heathen a chance. Some such movement— a 
general reconstruction of church life — would indicate 
that the Church is a missionary organization. 

3. Extravagance in church worship. This does not 
include the luxury of Christians in social and home life. 
Nor would we mention the large salaries paid to popular 
pastors. No doubt ministers prove themselves as good 
stewards as laymen, and what would missions be with- 
out the pastors ? The extravagancies in church worship 
we would mention are the stately structures, the elegant 
decorations, the splendid music, etc., which one finds in 
our large cities. Solomon's temple was beautiful, but 
the Master and apostles worshiped in plain synagogues 
— rather in the presence of human souls, pointing them 
to God. Doubtless something would be lost to art, but 
the Church has something more to do than cultivate art 
Much of our church fabric is based upon selfishness, 
love of ease, love of self, and the gratification of human 
vanity. This is not pessimism. Pessimism is incon- 
sistent with Christianity, but optimism is not shutting 
the eyes to evil, nor sitting at ease in Zion. A recon- 
struction in modem church life is necessary, and the 
cause of Foreign Missions is one of the pressing demands 
for this change. — Herald of Gospel Liberty. 



A New Departure In Persia. 

BY REV. P. T. Z. EASTON, OF TABRIZ, PERSIA, 

During the latter half of 1889 a systematic effort was 
made to put a stop to work among Mussulmans in 
Tabriz. Not only those attending Christian services 
were arrested and fined or imprisoned, but Mussulman 
callers, peddlers, and others were treated in the same 
way. Obr way seemed completely hedged up. No one 
could come to us, and to go to others would only serve 
to make them objects of suspicion to the authorities. 
Under these circumstances I determined to begin the 
new year with a new plan of work. 

As is well known, Islam, as its name signifies, contains 
truths of vital importance ; truths which lie at the very 
foundation of Christianity as well as of Mohammedan- 
ism. Although Persian Mohammedanism to-day shows 
little of the practical influence of these great truths, al- 
though form has taken the place of substance, and ritual 
that of life, yet, nevertheless, they are still embodied in 
its faith and worship ; and, so far as the latter is con- 
cerned, are still held with something of the fanatical 
zeal of the olden time. If, now, separating the truth 
from the error with which it has been associated, it 
were possible to revive the influence of those truths 
which are no less Christian because they are Moham- 
medan, would this not be a work acceptable to that God 
who looks upon all who fear him and work righteous- 
ness with very different aspect from that with which he 
beholds the workers of iniquity, and in whose sight the 



pious Corneliuses of every nation are a fit soil for the 
reception of his most precious truths? 

There lies before me a pamphlet containing seven 
small tracts which I have given out. In the Turkish, 
the common language of this province of Persia^ they 
are thrown into a sort of rude rhyme. The motto is : 
** God is my God ; the Devil is my Enemy/' The title : 
** Seven Arrows Against the Devil and his Works." 

The first arrow is headed with Allah akitar, "God is 
great,*' or rather, ** God alone is great,*' the famous bat- 
tle-cry of the early Moslems to the Moslem hosts, which 
to them was all, and more than all, that the Marseillaise 
was to the French soldiers of the Revolution, and is 
still to-day one of the most sacred of the sacred things 
of Islam. Underneath are four lines : 

God, not the devil, is great ; 

Truth, noi falsehood, is great. 

Praise God. 

As for the devil, may he be accursed. (Gal. r. 8. 9.^ 



The second arrow has for its heading, Metlai^ 
pose, intention : " 

What do you mean ? the people say. 

The meaning is this, give ear I pray: 

Walk \x\ the ways of God \ 

Flee from the devil's road ; 

Not words nor promises docs God receive. 

But from you he desires deeds. 

God, who alone is great, saves him 

Who finds the way of truth. 

Who loves righteousness, 

And abhors all lying \ 

But destroys thai one 

Who walks far off from God, 

And drinks up iniquity hke water. 

The third arrow is Wemd^ " praise ; *" 

Praise be to the Lord God, 
Higher than the highest heavens! 
Praise be to his holy name. 
Now, and forever more. 
He is the creator of the earth ; 
He is the preserver of his people ; 
He is the bestovver of blessings: 
He is ihe redeemer from destruction 

How shall we praise? 
How shall we enter 
Into the presence of God. 
That he may receive us ? 
Let your hands be clean 
From your neighbors goods ; 
Let your mouth be clean 
From all fool words ; 
Let your eyes be clean 
From all lustful looks ; 
Let your heart be clean 
From ail impurity. 

The fourth arrow is headed Serpent \ 

The devil is that old serpent 
Who deceives the whole world ; 
Who hates all that is good. 
Loves all that is evil. 



pur- 



Woe unto u^ thai the poison of sin 
Is found m every place and in every house ; 
Woe unto us that its end 
Is death, temporal and eternal. 
So long as we return not to God, 
So long as from the heart we repent not, 
There is no peace, there is no remedy ; 
There is no salvation, there is no joy. 
So long as we remain in sin, 
We fall from one depth to another; 
Curse on curse we heap upon us ; 
Woe unto us if the time for repentance 
pass away. 

The fifth is headed Blessing and Cursing, and invoke! 
God's judgment upon the devil, falsehood^ fraud, op* 
pression, injustice, and impurity; his blessing upon truth, 
righteousness, faithfulness, and purity; and ends with 
the prayer that God will hasten the day when the earth 
shall be like paradise. 

The sixth is headed VicUryi 

God alone is great, hear this word ; 

God alone is great, forsake the dcvirs road* 

When the devil hears this word he trembles; 

When the righteous hears it he rejoices. >X , 

Rejoice, the lime of rest and peace comes; ' f *■ 

Rejoice, the arms of the wicked will be broken. \ 

God, who alone is great, will tread down the devil under foot ; 

God, who alone is great, will destroy falsehood. 

Whatsoever evil and wicked men may do 

Is entirely in vain, because God only is great. 

The seventh arrow is headed C/wosin^, 

Who is on the Lord's side, who on the devils? 

W^ho loves truth* who falsehood? 

To serve iwo masters 

Is entirely impossible, as we know. 

If we are not on the side of God, 

We are on the side of the devil ; 

If we are not working for God, 

We arc working for the devil. 

It is now seventeen years since I first came to Tabriz^ 
and no effort which has been put forth in all that time 
has made so wide- spread an impression as the first giv- 
ing out of these tracts. The people received them 
with enthusiasm and expressed their gratitude heartily. 
Crowds followed me in the bazaar, and sometimes I had 
no little difficulty in getting away from them. Not sat- 
isfied with copies for themselves, they begged for friends 
and relatives, and in some cases offered to send or carry 
them to surrounding villages. Not only among the peo- 
ple and ecclesiastics, but in the court of justice and in 
the palaces of the crown*prince and the governor-gen- 
eral^ were they the common talk. 

Part of this impression is to be credited to the fact 
that this was something new, for the Persians, like the 
Athenians of old, are very curious about any new thing; 
but, as the result has shown, there was more than this — 
a conviction that w*hat was said was a true presentation 
of old truths in a new light, which came home to the 
hearts and consciences of men. 

The Persian is always ready lo discuss religious themes, 




172 



CHILDREN OF BULGARIA, 



but such discussion is rarely profitable. It is a purely in- 
tellectual exercise carried on for the sake of the argument, 
and without the least influence upon the moral and re- 
ligious life and character. Some of the wickedest men 
in this city are men whose professions of regard for 
Christianity would deceive any one who did not know 
what manner of men they are. 

The period of enthusiasm passed away, but the de- 
mand still continues. At first it was my custom, going 
about in the bazaars, to offer the tracts here and there 
to shop-keepers. Now this is rarely necessary, the peo- 
ple themselves coming to me and asking for them. Of 
the first two tracts I got i,ooo copies printed of each. 
When I presented the third for printing I was met with 
a refusal on the part of the authorities, and not having 
a hektograph or other mode of multiplying copies, I have 
been obliged to get them written out by hand, which 
makes it much more expensive. 

Objections have been made to the tracts from two 
sides. Christians have said, **This is not preaching the 
Gospel." To this I reply, that if it be not the Gospel, it 
is that without which all preaching of the Gospel is 
worse than useless. So long as religion is looked upon 
as a mere external form which has no effect upon the 
heart and life, so long as a man may be a good Mussul- 
man or Armenian and yet a bad man, what difference 
does it make what name he bears ? Here is a man who 
as a Mussulman was a liar, thief, or adulterer. He list- 
ened to the preaching of the Gospel, professed Christian- 
ity, and is to-day a liar, thief, or adulterer. There have 
been too many such cases. The seed of the Gospel can 
only be sown in the moral nature of man, and he only 
who is alive to his moral needs is fitted to receive it. 
'*With the heart man believeth unto righteousness." 
Not salvation in sin-, but salvation from sin, is what is 
set before us in the Scriptures. 

In this connection there is another point to be borne 
in view, and that is that Mohammedanism is essentially 
a Jewish, not a Christian, heresy, and as such is to be 
approached from the side of the Old Testament, not 
the New. There, too, the law must be the school-mas- 
ter to bring us to Christ. 

In answering, however, the objection on the side of 
Christians, perhaps I can do no better than to bring up 
the objection on the opposite side. One day Kasha 
Mosby, a native evangelist, was summoned by one of 
the leading officials — a man so wicked that even among 
his countrymen his name has become a synonym for 
wickedness — to come before him. When he arrived he 
found the official holding in his hand number six of the 
above-mentioned tracts, setting forth the triumph of 
righteousness and the downfall of iniquity: "What is 
this," he exclaimed, "that Mr. Easton is doing. ^ We for- 
bade the printing of these tracts, and still he keeps at it. 
Why doesn't he preach the Gospel ? If he doesn't stop 
giving out these tracts I shall complain of him to Tehe- 
ran. Why doesn't he preach the Gospel } " This man, 
you see, has no objection to the preaching of the Gospel, 
so-called, but he very decidedly objects to the preach- 



ing of ** righteousness, temperance, and the judgment 
to come." That is something he can by no means en- 
dure. Sure enough he carried out his threat, and a few 
weeks ago I received word that 1 was accused of stir- 
ring up sedition among the people. What the end of 
the matter will be we shall see further on. 
December 2, 1890. 

Children of Bulgaria* 

BY FANNIE ROPER FEUDGE. 

The national home of Bulgarian children is found in 
that lovely region where for so many centuries civiliza- 
tion took refuge from the prevailing barbarism of the 
surrounding nations. Nearly every locality has con- 
nected with it some romantic legend or story of war ad- 
venture ; and with such associations clustering about 
their earliest memories, it is not strange that this people 
are developing into a brave, independent, self-reliant 
nation of men and women, boys and girls, who all know 
how to appreciate and to profit by their newly acquired 
opportunities. 

Despite the drawbacks of poverty, ignorance, and old 
habits of superstition, even the lower classes begin to 
show signs of improvement so marked that from the chil- 
dren of the present generation we may look for cultured, 
dignified, and Christian men and women of the next. 

Nor will it be a new chapter in history for the Bulga- 
rians, since they are descended from a great nation, who 
come lawfully by the many noble traits they are now de- 
veloping. 

Sir Frank La Salle, in his reception of the Bulgarian 
representatives during the late war of independence, 
said to them: "I expect more of the Bulgarians than of 
others, because you are calmer and have more common 
sense than any nation I know of. Seven years ago I had 
less confidence, but you have changed my opinion. Bul- 
garia is now passing through the most critical period of 
her history ; but I know she will weather the storm." 

Nor was his confidence misplaced ; for when all 
Europe was armed to the teeth, expecting war on ac- 
count of Bulgaria, the National Assembly met and 
transacted their businesss as calmly as a disinterested 
party could have done ; and their calm prudence averted 
the threatened danger. This is the stuff of which Bul- 
garians are made; and these the fathers of the present 
generation of boys and girls in this fair land. 

There are yet many obstacles to be surmounted, many 
difficulties to overcome, but, with the blessing of God, they 
will conquer the future as they have the past ; and we 
may hope the children of this generation will be the mis- 
sionaries of the next to carry the Gospel to other peoples, 
as did their ancestors of the ninth century. For it was 
in the ninth century that Christianity was brought into 
Bulgaria by two brothers, Cyril and Methodius ; but 
corruptions crept in at an early day followed by a " ref- 
ormation " in the eleventh century, which lasted till the 
subjugation of the country by the Turks in the fourteenth. 

Later, at the instigation of the patriarch of the Greek 



Churchy their schools were closed, their books burned, 
their educated men killed, and instead of the spoken 
language the Greek was used in all religious services, 
till their worship became simply a " baptized heathen- 
ism " — alike hateful to the people and powerless to in- 
struct or edify. But despite the Turkish misrule and 
the Greek Church oppressions, Bulgaria^ phoenix-like, is 
arising from the ashes of the past into a grander and 
more vigorous future ; while whatever of a nobler and 
better life is found among the Bulgarians of to-day is 
<iuc, after all, to the blessing of God on the labors of 
faithful Christian missionaries during the last quarter of 
a century. By their earnest devotion, so blessed of God, 
they have a large following among the people, very many 
of whom are educated young men who occupy places 
of importance under the government, and wield a mighty 
influence for good all over the country. 

Robert College, during the sixteen years of its exist- 
ence, has graduated more than six hundred young men, 
who are now in Bulgaria working in various ways for the 
good of the people. Schools of various grades have 
been established for the education of the children and 
youth; and most earnest pupils these Bulgarian boys 
and girls make. The bitter experiences of the past 
years of ignorance have given them a zest for education; 
and they are nearly all exceptionally studious and apt in 
learning* They seem, too, to have a dignity and strength 
of character strikingly in contrast with the children of 
other nationalities around them ; inherited, tt may be, 
from ancestors who for more than five centuries have 
so bravely withstood the tyranny of Turkish rule, and 
come out of the conflict better and stronger than when 
first conquered by the Turks. 

The children, like their parents, are small and del- 
icately formed, with pleasing manners and musical 
voices. In disposition they at first seem somewhat re- 
served, but are found grateful and kindly affectioned 
when treated with kindness. 

Many of the people are extremely poor and ignorant, 
and among these the children are often found in a sad 
state of destitution, 

I remember hearing of one little orphan girl who was 
poor, friendless, and of such unpromising appearance 
every way that even the good missionary hesitated a mo- 
ment about bringing such a child into companionship with 
her other pupils. But pity for the forlorn little waif, 
and, above all, the recollection of the tender compas- 
sion of Him who came to our earth "to seek and to save 
that which is lost," moved the kind teacher to hold out 
her Ijand to the trembling child^ who stood with down- 
cast eyes and frightened look near the door. Her clothes 
were hanging in rags and filth about the squalid little 
form, that seemed never to have known the touch of 
water ; her uncombed hair was matted into snaky locks; 
and her eyelids so swollen and ulcerated that they could 
scarcely be opened. 

The child was so disgustingly filthy that the native 
woman whose business it was to bathe and dress the 
younger pupils positively refused to touch this one, and 



the unwelcome task had to be performed by the mis- 
sionary luTself, When the long soft hair had been 
washed and combed out, the swollen eyes bathed, and 
the filth and rags exchanged for a thoroughly washed 
body and clean apparel, there seemed a wonderful trans- 
formation ; but it reiiuired weeks of patient care before 
the beautiful dark eyes were healed, and many months 
of unwearying toil ere the stolid mind and dull, vacant 
countenance were exchanged for the intelligence she 
afterward manifested. Gradually the body grew strong 
and healthy, and the manners graceful and refined ; and, 
better than all, the poor, suffering, sad-hearted little cast- 
away became an earnest, loving disciple of Jesus, and a 
co-worker with him in winning others among her country- 
men to his blessed service. 

Later, she married one of the native Bible-readers 
employed by the Mission, and wherever they traveled, 
while the husband spoke to the raen» the young wife 
would gather about her a group of women and children 
and tell them gently and lovingly of the dear Saviour 
who had made her own life one of brightness and joy. 



Oar Sticeessful Germatij Mission. 

BY REV. EVERETT S. STACKPOLE, D,D. 

A juster conception of any work can be gained by 
viewing it from various stand-points. So it is well for 
the Methodist Episcopal Church to see its foreign mis- 
sions through the eyes of other than official representa- 
tives, who are expected to publish chiefly the bright side 
of the work. This is welL The good is permanent ; 
the bad must soon pass away. Any work of the Lord is 
bright with promise, and he lacks faith who speaks 
gloomily of mission work. 

It was my privilege during the past summer to visit 
several stations of our work in Germany, and especially 
our theological school at Frankfort-on-the-Matn. My 
purpose was to profit by their experience, having learned 
the secret of their success. The secret is an open one. 
I found no novelties, nothing more than old-fashioned 
Methodism plus the homes of the deaconesses. 

I visited first the quaint old city of Nuremberg. Here 
was spent a Sabbath, and, of course, we found our way 
to the Methodist church in Tetzel Street. Strange that 
our service is now in the same building where Tetzel 
sold his indulgences. Now the people receive the offer 
of salvation ** without money and without price/* About 
seventy-five attentive hearers were present, and the 
preacher talked about the ** greatest thing in the world,** 
the love described in the thirteenth chapter of the first 
Epistle 10 the Corinthians. 

The Germans sing better than the Italians. They 
have better music and a real Methodist hymn-book, one 
of the things most needed in our Italian Mission. The 
people are social and happy after the service. They are 
poor, but contribute $too per year toward self-support. 
The preacher has two other preaching-places within two 
milesof the churchy and preaches four times every Sunday. 



174 



OUR SUCCESSFUL GERMANY MISSION. 



In Berlin we have a good large church and parson- 
age and two hired halls. The church is self-supporting. 
The preacher, one of the ablest men of the Conference, 
is married and receives a salary of about $400 per year. 
The highest possible salary in the Conference is $800, 
no matter how large the family or how many years of 
service. Here is evidently self-denial for the cause of 
Christ. 

The preacher kindly introduced us to the home of 
the deaconesses. They have a good house bought by 
faith. They expect to pay for it by their own earnings. 
There are twenty-five of them. They nurse the sick, 
visit the poor, teach in the Sunday-school, and assist the 
pastor in all possible ways. From the rich they receive 
wages ; from the poor, nothing. Their piety makes them 
preferred to other professional nurses and to the sisters 
of the Roman Catholic Church. There are eight of these 
homes in the German Conference, and they are a power 
for good. At Frankfort there is also a hospital con- 
nected with the home, and at Hamburg a rich man, who 
had been nursed by one of the deaconesses, has given 
$10,000 to found another. 

Frankfort has a flourishing church, the training-school 
for the deaconesses, and the theological school. Here 
we were kindly entertained by Professor Clark, and 
made the acquaintance of the family of Dr. Buttz, an ac- 
quaintance afterward happily renewed at Florence. 
Professor Clark with Drs. Mann and Sulzberger are the 
right men for the training of the twenty-seven theolog- 
ical students under their care. Each student must con- 
tribute something toward his own support, and also la- 
bor in the large and beautiful garden as there may be 
opportunity. The fourteen appointments connected 
with the church at Frankfort furnish opportunity for 
the students \o preach what they practice. 

No student is admitted to the school till he has served 
gratuitously at least one year as local preacher, and 
has been recommended by the proper authorities. After 
spending three years in the school he serves at least two 
years for a little more than %\o per month. Nearly all 
the present members of the German and Swiss Confer- 
ences have been educated at this school. 

The church at Frankfort is in good condition. The 
edifice is new, spacious, and inviting. The congrega- 
tion was large. We had the privilege of speaking to the 
people about our work in Italy, Dr. Mann acting as in- 
terpreter. Dr. Stevenson, of the Kentucky Conference, 
and his son, of the Ohio Conference, old friends at Bos- 
ton, also addressed the meeting. At the close we sang 
in German and English, and heard many a good Meth- 
odist " Amen ! " 

We made hundreds of inquiries about all our work 
in Germany and Switzerland and visited still other 
churches. These missions are prospering wonderfully, 
and among the causes of their prosperity the following 
may be named as the principal : 

I. Nearly four centuries of Protestantism, which has 
left its impress upon the national character. It is dif- 
ficult to compare Italy, Mexico, and South America with 



Germany. In those countries the national conscience 
has been cauterized by the doctrines and practices of 
the Roman Catholic Church ; hence it is difficult to pro- 
duce profound conviction of sin. In Germany, especially 
among the poor, who are not much influenced by ration- 
alism, the case is diflerent. 

2. The ability, consecratign, and self-denial of the 
founders of the work and of their successors — Drs. 
Nast, Jacoby, Nippert, Doering, Warren, and Hurst— 
these were the men who have made the German and 
Swiss Conferences what they are, and Drs. Mann and 
Sulzberger are their not unworthy successors. If the 
Church wants successful missions she must send her 
strongest men into the fields. A preacher that cannot be 
a leader of men in America will not be a success in 
Europe or Africa. This point cannot be too much em- 
phasized. 

3. The theological school. From the beginning of the 
Mission no ex-priest of the Church of Rome or ex- 
preacher of the Lutheran Church has ever been em- 
ployed. Our preachers have been trained in the doc- 
trines, spirit, and modes of evangelization of Methodism. 
If Italy had adopted the same policy from the beginning 
we should now be able to write of more encouraging re- 
sults. 

4. The old circuit system. Every central church has 
from six to sixteen appointments in the country villages 
that surround it. In Germany there are 72 stations and 
506 appointments ; in Switzerland, 28 stations and 206 
appointments. Thus local preachers are utilized and 
the preacher in charge has enough to do. His business 
is to preach the Gospel every day, and not simply to 
preach twice every Sunday, and then give himself no 
anxiety about the work. 

5. The class-meetings. Every Methodist in Germany 
must frequent these meetings and give his testimony. If 
he has nothing to say for his Saviour he is dismissed 
from the Church. In the class- meetings the weekly col- 
lection is taken by the leaders, and every member con- 
tributes " according to his ability." 

6. The co-operation of the laity, especially of the class- 
leaders, local preachers, associations of young men and 
of young women, and of the deaconesses. 

7. The desire and the earnest effort made by all to 
become self-supporting as soon as possible. They are 
poor, many of them very poor. Wages are small, from 
fifty cents to a dollar per day, but they save conscien- 
tiously in order to support their preacher and their 
church. In this work of self-denial the preachers set a 
good example. • 

We have now revealed the secret of the success of 
our missions in Germany and Switzerland, and we believe 
that similar principles and methods put into practice in 
any of our mission fields will in a few years show a 
marked success. The founder of Martin Mission Insti- 
tute did a great thing for German Methodism, and if he 
would now enlarge the building he might double its 
usefulness. 

Florence, Italy, 



m 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL MISSIONARY CONCERTS. 



lib 



M 



Siioday-Scluml MiKsioiiary Concerts* 

Three "Don'ts" and Three **Dos," 

First : Don*t kill with reading. Don't let Doctor A, 
or Deacon B, or even Pastor C» read a twenty minutes 
article from the best missionary magazines in the world. 
Long ago, when missionary intelligence was scanty, its 
reader might hope for listeners; but not to*day, when tel- 
egraphs are flashing over their wires news from the dark- 
est heathen nations, and when even the daily newspaper 
has often a column of missionary news. 

The public reader who amuses or entertains will ob- 
tain an audience of children, and some invalids may like 
to be read ** to sleeps" but you may no more hope to en- 
thuse your listeners with missionary zeal by reading 
lengthy articles than the reformer or the political lect* 
urer could expect to electrify his audience by sitiing 
during the evening and reading from the most valuable 
sources of information. 

Second : Don't let your most fascinating speakers 
talk them to death, A glowing address from some soul- 
stiired worker who can forget himself while he presents 
the field is invaluable ; but it can never fill the place 
belonging to the concert, A large number of persons 
should glean intelligence, and so make it their own that 
ihey can contribute to the value of the hour. Remem- 
ber that the human mind is not like the sponge, it will 
not absorb indefinitely. More is it like the sieve, and 
much of what is poured out is lost. 

Third : Don't kill them with poetry. One or two well- 
chosen selections so given as to enforce a point are 
most serviceable ; but don't fill three quarters of your 
hour with recitations (even though they are about giving, 
or sacrifice), and call it a missionary concert Banish the 
idea that missionary intelligence is of itself so intrin- 
sically dry *as-dust that it must be dealt in infinitesimally 
small doses triply coated with poetry to make it palatable. 
Rightly told, the missionary story possesses a power to 
interest belonging to few other topics. 

Now for the **dos." 

First ; Do give your concert, in all the steps of its prep- 
aration, to the Lord Jesus, to be made of real service in ad- 
vancing the missionary cause. Having done this, while you 
give to it your choicest energies, remember that regarded 
as a work of art it w ill not be likely to be perfect Few 
useful things are. Doubtless it will be marred by blem- 
ishes, failures, blunders, perhaps ; but He to whom you 
gave it can nse the mispronounced word or other error 
to fix a fact in many minds. 

Second : Do make sure that the field considered is 
thoroughly scanned and its important features presented, 
especially the recent events — those that have occurred 
since your school last studied the field. Has a laborer 
fallen } Let some one briefly sketch that life, and trace 
its power in the darkness it sought to lighten. Has a 
new laborer entered the field ? Make his acquaintance 
at the outset, and let his name be a definite center about 
which to fasten every event of importance in his field of 

,bor. Have political events opened new avenues of 



approach, new points of attack ? Let some able mind 
trace the steps that have led to it, showing God's hand 
therein. 

Let your business men present statistics and facts in 
the clear practical light in which they will view them. 

Thus let the hour be one in which from the watch- 
tower you scan with keen accuracy the mighty opposing 
force, noting also every inch gained by the force of 
Christ's soldiers. 

Third: Do see to it that the varied talents of your 
school contribute to the value of the exercise. Among 
those gifts do not forget childish grace. Let the chil- 
dren, even the tiny ones who can say but a few words, 
tell of the flowers, the birds, the children, the strange 
customs, the sad ways of childhood, and the joy that 
Jesus's love has brought to some of those dark minds. 
Choose your facts suitably ; dress them in simple words 
that the youngest can understand — no parrot-like repeti- 
tion — and a charm Avill be lent to your concert that older 
lips cannot impart. 

Do you ask how they shall be taught ? Place your 
selections in the hands of the mother, or the elder sis- 
ter, or perhaps the Sunday-school teacher, to see that 
they are learned. Many a busy mother will not only 
teach her little ones, but will tell herself some touching 
story of need or of heroic faith. In many homes other- 
wise unreached will thus come a knowledge and love 
for the missionary and his work. 

Let your young men and maidens bring their trained 
elocutionary powers to aid in the concert's efficiency* 
Let the voices of your sweet singers often lend their help 
with short impressive solos and stirring choruses. 

Let clear voices recite the Master*s plain commands. 
People are so ready to think they may do as they please 
about aiding in missionary service. And let others repeat 
his promises, and let all the congregation join their 
voices in praise of him whose name shall be known 
*^ among all nations." 

Let those strong in faith bear the hearts of all in pre- 
senting the sore need or voicing the thanksgiving for a 
victory won. 

Thus let the concert be the place whither are brought 
** willing offerings *' from all. Then will it be the " tent 
of meeting," whence we shall go forth from a new bap- 
tism into the spirit of Him who came even '* to seek and 
to save the lost" — By Simanthe C. Merrill^ in S. S, Times, 



A True Conversation between a Bible Colporteur 
and a Heathen in Cliiiia. 

(Written, out by the Colporteur and forwarded by Dr. L. N. Whed«rJ 

Colporteur.— Will you buy some of our books? 

Heathen,— What books have yoti for sale? 

Colporteur. — ^The Holy Scriptures of the only true and 
living God, 

Heathen, — ! you are selling foreign books \ We don't 
want them. These (pointing to the books) may be good for 
foreigners, but not for Chinese. 

Colporteur. — •* There is but one sun in heaven," says Con- 
fucius, Can there be two Creators of heaven and earth? No, 



i 



history lells us it is akogeLher impossilite lo have two kings in 
the same country at the same lime. For instance, more than 
a score years ago China had two sovereigns at the same 
time ; and on account of this fact China experienced one of the 
bitterest times in her history. And the bitterness coukl not be 
removed until one of the sovereigns was done away with. So 
there can be but one Creator in heaven, who is the Father and 
preserver of all men. He is God of the Chinese as well as of 
(ureigners ; therefore we arc under obhgation to obey and wor- 
ship him as any other nation under the sun* 

Heathen.— Con fucius's books are sufficient to meet all our 
wants. And we don*t want any thing that is made by for- 
eigners. 

Colporteur, — My friend, the steamer which you are on was 
made by fureigners; the opium which you are smoking was 
made by loveigners; and some of the clothes thai you have on 
are made of foreign goods. 

Heathen. — Well, we are followers of Confucius and should 
adhere to all his teachings. So we will not buy your books and 
cat your religion. 

Colporteur. — You do well if you adhere to all his teachings. 
But remember, Confucius did not profess to teach any thing 
else than the five relations. He did not profess to know any 
thing about the beginning and the end of human being. You 
remember when one of his disciples asked him how to serve 
the spirits, he replied. '* If one does not know to serve a person 
in this life, how could he serve the spirits?" A^ain the disci- 
ple asked about the transaction after death ; again he 
rephed by saying, *' If one does not know all that concerns this 
life, how could he know the world that is to come ? '* These 
are the sage's own words thai he didn't profess lo know any 
thing after death. But Jesus does ; he came from Cod, and 
knew us better than we know^ ourselves. 

Heathen. — But the Jesus whom you worship Is a foreign 
saint. We don*t care any thing about a foreign saint, or to 
worship him r neither ought you to do so. 

Colporteur. — ^Jcsws is no more a foreign saint than the sun 
which we see daily is a foreign sun. There is but one sun 
which we see every day, and the same sun is the sun of 
Chinese as well as of foreigners. Even so there is but one 
Jesus, the Saviour of the world, through whom and hy whom 
alone we could be saved ; for there is no other name given 
among men whereby the world could be rescued from eternal 
ruin. This book says, ** God s& loved the world, that he gave 
his only begotten Son, thai whosoever beheveth in him should 
not perish, but have everlasting hfe." 

Heathen.— It is so strange. If it be irue, Confucitts would 
have said something about him and his teachings. But where- 
as Confucius said not a word of him, we are not obliged to 
believe on him or accept his teachings. 

Colporteur.— Yes, Confucius did say something of Jestis in 
the tWTnty-sixth chapter ol the Doctrine of Means, which is no 
less than a prophecy of the same Jesus whom I affirm to be 
the Saviour of the world. Here is the prophecy : *' Great is the 
doctrine of the holy man ; it extends to all creatures; it is as 
lofty as heaven, and it is full of principle and dijjnity*" Again* 
at the closing of the thirtieth chapter, he says : '* Therefore his 
fame shall till the Middle Kingdom ; it shall reach foreign 
lands ; and not only so» but wherever boats and vehicles can 
reach, wherever the strength of man can penetrate, wherever 
is covered by he.^ven, wherever is held up by the earth, wherever 
dew drops, and wherever flesh and blood is found, his name 
shall be honored and loved. Hence, 1 say, he is in equality 
with heaven — God.*' Who could have been or is in equality 
with the Creator? None. 



rc^^ 



s to 

I 



Heathen, — Can you show where the name Jesus can 
found in Chinese literature? 

CoLPORTEL'R. — Yes. Vuft^^ See Tung Kan has this expi 
sion : "When Mayo went west lo subdue barbarians, upon his 
arrival there he met a man who told him there was a Saviour 
bom in the west, whose name was called Jesus." After Mayo 
returned to China he had these words engraved on a pillar of a 
building. 

Heathen. ^ — I can't believe any thing about Jesus unless I 
get a sight of him. Did you ever see him yourself? 

Colporteur. — Not with natural eyes. We see Jesus when 
we pray. Have you ever seen Confucius or the founder of 
Buddhism ? 

Heathen. — No; but we have innumerable evidences to 
show that Confucius did live and has done good in 
world. 

Colporteur. — ^Yes ; the same evidences which go to shi 
that Confucius did live and has done good in the world 
prove that Jesus did come from heaven, made his home among 
men, and did the work which no mortal could have done. He 
came to call sinners to repent from their evil way. and to re- 
turn unto God for the salvation of their own souls. 



Siipponeil Dialo!;ii« in a Mi^ssioii Buiigalaw. 

BY A. L. O. E. 

Clara, a Ymmg Missionary, ai her desk. 

Clara {laying down her pen\ — I cannot write the repoi 
to-day ; my head aches as if it would burst, and my heart — 
my burdened heart— [ AV/^r MiSS Z.. an elder missionary]. 

Miss Z. — What, dear one, in tears ! Has any thing occurred 
to distress you ? 

Clara. — I think that something is always coming to distress 
one. 1 was just trying to write my report home, as the mall 
goes to-morrow, but it is no use trying. How can I give a 
bright, rosy account when — [she is too much agitated to g9 
on\ 

Miss Z, — ^Shut up your desk ; you are not well ; nay. do not 
look so wistfully at the dictionary, you have been quiie long 
enough at lessons to-day. Come and sit beside mc» dear 
Clara, and tell me all your troubles. You have over-worked, 
and this has an effect on your spirits. 

Clara [seating herself besiiie her friend}. — It is not work 
that 1 mind. 1 like it. But — but every thing seems against mc ; 
I am just in a sea of troubles. 

Miss Z.— Tell me your dithcuhies. dear; perhaps God may 
enable me lo speak a word of comfort, 

Clara. — The worst is — you know all about it — that dread- 
ful conduct of Amt Ullah. 

Miss Z. — It has been a trial to us all. 

Clara.— But to me w^orse — far worse— than to any oneelseT 
1 had been so fond, so proud of that woman, and thought her 
the first-fruits of my labors. I had written home such glow* 
ing accounts of her conversion. O ! how 1 wish I had burned 
every one of those letters. They came back to me in print by 
last mail. It hatf broke my heart to read them. [ IVeeps,] 

Miss Z.^Nay. love, you must not give way thus. You have 
been deceived ; we all are sometimes deceived ; it teaches us 
more earnestly to pray for wisilom. 

Clara, — You warned me not to trust so implicitly in one 
whose motives you doubted ; but I was so proud, so self- 
willed I 

Miss Z. — I had bought my experience, and bought it dear. 
But even as regards that woman, hypocrite though she appear. 



J- 

14 




SUPPOSED DIALOGUE IN A MISSION BUNGALOW. 



m 



we must not give away to despair. She may yet be given to 
our prayers. 

Clara. — Then 1 have just had such a worrying visit from 
that (so-called) Christian widow, Deborah. I am supporting 
all her three children at school, and really I do not know which 
way to turn for the means to do it, for of course I do not 
charge this expense to the Mission. 

Miss Z. — Deborah's are promising children ; they always 
seem nice and good. 

Clara. — 1 wish that I could say as much for their mother; 
but she's the most ungrateful creature that ever I knew. Here 
am I putting myself into real difficulties about her children. 
and she comes to me with a grumble because they are not so 
well dressed as Zainat's. Then she asked me for clothes for 
herself, though I knew that you had supplied her. There 
was not a word of gratitude, only the perpetual " g^ve, give, 
give ! " 

Miss Z. — We must not seek for gratitude, Clara, what we 
do we do to the Lord. You are supporting those fatherless 
children for Christ's sake, taking them from the influence of a 
mother who would not lead them in a heavenward path. Be 
happy in the thought that the Saviour will say, " Inasmuch as 
ye did it, ye did it unto me." Have you any more troubles to 
tell } 

Clara. — I am so discouraged about the language. I often 
think that " wilds immeasurably spread, seem lengthening as I 

go" 

Miss Z. — You have passed your examination, and won credit 
for doing this so soon. 

Clara. — But to-day in the mohalla near the gate (I need 
not mind telling you), the women spoke such a jargon that I 
could no more understand it than if it had been Chinese. All 
their jabber had but the effect of giving me a splitting head- 
ache, and I came back feeling that I was utterly exhausted, 
and no work done. 

Miss Z. — These Cashmiris do puzzle one sadly. You must 
not be disheartened because you are sometimes employed in 
what appears to be but digging out stones. The sowing will 
come in time — ^aye, thank God, and the reaping, too ! 

Clara. — I do not think that/ ever shall reap. I sometimes 
fear that I an^ not fit to be a missionary at all ! [Bursts into 
tears.] 

Miss Z. \cheerfully\, — Have a care, Clara dear, the wolf- 
dogs are on your track. 

Clara \raising her head], — The wolf-dogs ! what do you 
mean? 

Miss Z. — I have often thought that Satan may be said to 
keep a pack of wolf-dogs, with which he hunts by night. By 
daylight we see and hear them not ; our good steeds of Zeal 
and Hope bear our chariot lightly forward. But when dusk 
Calls, and we are belated, then sometimes we hear the wolves 
yell in the distance ; nay, at times we see their dread forms ap- 
proaching in the twilight. 

Clara. — ^You arc so fond of allegory ! What do you mean 
by wolves ? 

Miss Z. — Discouragement, Depression, Distrust, and — ^but I 
scarcely like to name the monster — Despair. 

Clara. — ^Do you look upon these as temptations from 
Satan ? I thought them but natural human weakness. 

Miss Z. — Nay, Clara, i