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Full text of "American gun makers including Supplement of AMerican gun makers"

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AMEMGAE! <SOT MAmm 










OTM MAHEM 




by 
ARCADI GLUCKMAN 

Colonel U. S. Army — Ret. 
and 

L. D. SATTERLEE 



THE BTACKFOhE CO. 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



R 



ESERVED 

FOR 

EFERENCI 

EADING 



NOT TO Bf TAKEN 
«=ROM THE LIBRARY 



Copyright 1953 by 
THE STACKPOLE COMPANY 

SECOND EDITION, REVISED 

Including 

SUPPLEMENT OF 

AMERICAN GUN MAKERS 







All Rights Reserved 
L. C. CATALOG CARD NO. 53-5668 



Printed in United States 

by 
THE TELEGRAPH PRESS 

Established 1831 
HARRISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 



F©HEWOHP 

Some thirteen years have passed since the first printing of 
American Gun Makers, and though the original work published 
by Ulbrich Company was brought up to 1949 by the issue of a 
Supplement, it is felt that since more of the mist surrounding 
the activities of our early arms makers has lifted, the time has 
come to correct and delete, to edit and add, and place in the 
hands of the gun-loving fraternity a revised volume incorporating 
old material brought to date within the knowledge available; the 
contents of the Supplement of American Gun Makers, and new 
material gathered or contributed in the past four years. 

It is perhaps appropriate here to quote from the Foreword 
of the original work. 

"It is regrettable that some of the historically most im- 
portant arms makers are dismissed with but a few lines; no 
reflection on their craftsmanship, or the volume of produc- 
tion. It is a hopeful sign that this situation is being slowly 
but surely corrected as new biographical and historical facts 
are uncovered, pertinent documents come to light, and col- 
lectors, students and historians interested in research and 
delving in old forgotten papers and tomes, contribute of their 
knowledge and finds. 

While it has been our purpose to include only the known 
producers of complete American small arms, or of their major 
parts, it is quite likely that many firearms makers of old, their 
names garnered from ancient directories and documents, are 
included, though no arms have been met with bearing their 
name. Mere repairs and maintenance would have yielded a 
precarious living in those days, and proud of their craft, 
practically all the old gunsmiths were firearms makers, though 
for natural reasons, many left the products of their handi- 
work unsigned during the Revolution, and even later. 

It is to be noted that single dates, or double dates indicat- 
ing a short period of activity, are indicative only of the general 
period of such activity, having been gleaned from old city 
directories, tax rolls, advertisements, local histories, etc." 
We might add here that no available source has been 
neglected in the compilation: documents, archives, directories, 
tax lists, local histories, tombstones, family and friendly remin- 
iscences, oral tradition, magazine articles, newspaper advertise- 
ments, letters to the undersigned, maker's marks and the arms 
themselves; —all have contributed their grist, and it is but natural 
that along with the meal much chaff is included. There are un- 
discovered "repeaters," due to varied spellings or changed loca- 
tions; some are included as gunsmiths who merely inscribed their 



name for pride or security of possession; some may be foreign and 
some may never have existed and have been brought in by "asso- 
ciation." To all these errors of fact or interpretation, we plead 
guilty and will be happy to make amends or correction when 
brought to our attention. 

Included in this edition are the available initials, names and 
other data of our early Ordnance personnel, civilian and military, 
as a matter of historical interest, and to facilitate the identifica- 
tion of inspectors of our early contract arms. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made to Messrs. Robert Bingham, 
Milton DeS. Clow, Miner J. Cooper, Roy E. Green, Calvin Hetrick, 
James L. Mitchell, L. C. Quick, J. W. Pittock Jr., and the late 
Richard D. Steuart for generous contribution of much original 
data and biographical sketches of the original edition, and to 
Messrs. Walter M. Cline, John G. W. Dillin, Robert Gardner, 
James E. Hicks, Dr. Paul B. Jenkins, Ned H. Roberts and Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, for their earlier works and research, and to Rhea 
Mansfield Knittle and Stuart M. Martin for their studies of early 
Ohio gunsmiths, all of which greatly facilitated the task of the 
undersigned. 

To all who contributed new material or brought attention to 
past errors and omissions, heartfelt THANKS. Sincere appreciation 
for important contributions of data is expressed to Messrs. Wm. 
C. Almquist, Don H. Berkebile, Frank Donham, W. R. Felton, 
C. Charter Harrison, Dr. J. T. Herron, W. H. Kelly, Wallace 
Mundell, Harold L. Peterson, J. P. Shaw, Sam E. Smith, Gerald 
Teesdale: to Harry Wandrus, Wes White and Robert C. Whiteman 
for generous contribution of material on early Pennsylvania gun- 
smiths; to William Abbot Jr., Jerry and Sue Hirtle, Frank E. Mar- 
tin, Deuel Richardson, Harry C. Rife, Russell Smith, M. J. Urner, 
William C. Weaver and David J. Weimer for indirect contribu- 
tions. Space limits acknowledgement to all. 

Again special acknowledgement of great indebtedness is 
made to Donald Baird of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University. Mr. Baird's critical and constructive com- 
ments and unselfish assistance in material, generous and valuable 
as to quantity and quality, have been of inestimable value. 

The unfortunate meagerness of many of the entries is self- 
evident. It is hoped that this inadequacy may be rectified in the 
future through the generosity and cooperation of the readers, 
whose additional and correctional material, sent in care of the 
publishers, will be carefully preserved and incorporated in future 
editions. 

Arcadi Gluckman 

Colonel U. S. Army — Ret. 

L. D. Satterlee 



American Gun Makers 



A. — Marking on an early flintlock rifle of crude workmanship. 

A. A. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle circa 1760. 

ABBEY, F. J. & Co.— 43 S. Clark St., Chicago, 111. 1870-74. Makers 
of muzzle and breech-loading rifles and shotguns. 

ABBEY, G. T.— Chicago, 111., 1858-1874. Maker of muzzle-loading, 
double barrel, percussion shotguns. 

ABENDSHEN, Jos.— 50 Wayne St., Pittsburgh, Pa., 1850-60. Makers 
of an iron mounted, six-groove, gain twist, plains rifle marked 
"J. ABENDSHEN, PITTSBURGH, CAST STEEL." 

ABERCROMBIE— Near Seneca, Oconer Co., S. C. Rifle maker. 

ACCELERATING FIRE ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y., 1857. 

ACCLES, George G. — Inventor of "Accles Feed" for Gatling Gun, 
Gatling Gun Co. 

ACKLEY, Luther — Sharon, O. Percussion rifles of premium quality, 
with elaborate sideplates of identical design. Did not mark his 
work. 

ACOBY, P. J. — Probably a misreading for P. Jacoby, q. v. 

A. C. S.— See Darling, B. & B. M. 

ADAM, Daniel — Unidentified. Flintlock period. 

A. D. — Adam Daniels — Lancaster, Pa. Late flintlock and early per- 
cussion Kentucky rifles. Initials "A. D." marked on a brass and 
silver mounted, boy's percussion Kentucky rifle. 

ADAMS, C. — 508 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Calif. Gunsmith. 
Listed in 1887. 

ADAMS REVOLVING ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y. Percussion re- 
volvers made for this firm in .31 pocket and .36 navy sizes by 
Mass. Arms Co. 

ADAMS, S. — Battle Creek, Mich. Percussion rifles. 

ADAMS, Samuel— Troy, N. Y. in 1840; Kentucky rifles. 

ADAMS, W.— Unlocated. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifle, Ketland lock, 
barrel round with flat rib. 

ADDICKS — Unidentified. Maker of a half stock, heavy barrelled, 
percussion slug gun. 

ADDICKS, D. C— Rome, Ga.; percussion rifles, died 1941. 

ADIRONDACK FIREARMS CO.— Plattsburg, N. Y. Early breech- 
loading and repeating sporting arms, somewhat similar to the 
Winchester but on a different mechanical principle, based on 
Patent 125,988 issued to O. M. Robinson, April 23, 1872. Plant 
bought out by Winchester Repeating Arms Co. in 1875 and 
manufacture discontinued. 

A.D.K. — Initials of A. D. King, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

ADKINS, Josiah — Connecticut gun-lock maker to Committee of 
Safety. Received payment for four locks June 26, 1777. 

AETNA ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y. Brass frame, tip-up, .22 cal. 

pocket revolvers. 
A. F. — Unidentified. Over-under percussion rifle. 
A. F.— -Unidentified. Heavy barrel, Kentucky type flintlock match 

rifle. (Same as A. F. above?) 



2 American Gun Makers 

AFFERBACH, Wm.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringer; Aston 
lock. 

AFFLEBAUGH, Henry— Gun Stocker, Germantown Road below 4th, 
Phila., Pa., 1819. 

AGER, A.— New Rumley, Ohio, 1856-61. 

AGNEW, Andrew— Orange, N. J., 1872-75. 

AGY— Pennsylvania, about 1780. A 62-inch early Kentucky flint- 
lock rifle, .45 calibre. 

A. H. — Initials of Asabel Hubbard, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1818-1833. Inspected arms in plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon 
North, Nathan Starr, Asa Waters, Lemuel Pomeroy and Eli 
Whitney. 

A. H. — Unidentified. Barrel marking of a fill curly maple stock, per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle with British lock. 

AHLES, W. — Unlocated. Marking on over-under, swivel-breech, 
flintlock rifle. 

AICHELE, C. G. — Unlocated. Full stock, octagon barrel percussion 

rifle. 
AILER, Lewis — Gunsmith. Germantown Road above front and 167 

N. Front, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

A. I. S.— See Darling, B. & B. M. 

A J — (Or AS). Unidentified. Curly maple, half stocked plains rifle 
with engraved brass hardware and Jas. Golcher lock. 

A. J. M. — Marking on Civil War period U. S. Army signal pistol. 

A. L. — Unidentified. Early Pennsylvania rifle maker. 

ALABAMA ARMS MANUFACTURING CO.— Montgomery, Alabama. 
Also known as Gilmer Gun Factory. Rifle contractors to the 
Confederacy. Signed a contract with the State of Alabama on 
March 20, 1862, to establish an armory for making Enfield type 
percussion rifles at $35.00 each, and were advanced $250,000 in 
8% State Bonds. The president of the firm was William B. 
Gilmer. The firm obtained the gun making machinery from 
Bujac & Bennett of New Orleans, whose machinery was shipped 
to Montgomery to escape capture and was offered to the Con- 
federate States. The offer was declined by Col. James H. Burton, 
Ord. Dept. C.SA., superintendent of the Macon Armory, as 
not being up to desirable standard. (See Bujac & Bennett.) The 
machinery was then purchased by the firm on June 3, 1862, 
and they commenced operations in the Winter Iron Works but 
were burned out and went into a warehouse. The firm was suc- 
ceeded by the Red-mountain Iron & Coal Company. Limited out- 
put, if any. In March 1864 excuses, explanations and reasons 
were given why they had not made any arms. On March Col. 
Burton came the second time to inspect the machinery with 
view to purchase. He found "nothing doing of any consequence; 
machinery set in place but not at work, most of it never having 
been tested or finally adjusted. But few fixtures to the machines, 
and they not well devised or adopted to the intended purposes. 
Very few of the necessary small tools, gauges etc. have been 
made and none of them of good construction. Barrel welding 
rolls badly constructed, and not satisfactorily tested. Stocking 
machines cheaply devised and constructed, and not tested. Forges 
of brick and of very temporary construction. Buildings not built 
for the purpose, and consequently not well adopted to it. Forg- 



American Gun Makers 3 

ing shop a mere open shed, also mere sheds for rough turning 
stock machinery barrel rolls, furnaces for annealing etc. Very- 
few attempts have been made in the forging of parts of arms. 
I saw few triggers, butt plate screws, hammers and lock swivels. 
The trip hammers for forging bayonets and ramrods are double 
and have never been tried . . . Decided not to purchase." 

ALB, J. — Pennsylvania, about 1800; possibly an abbreviation for 
Albright. Fine craftsman. 

ALB, L. — Unlocated. Marking on superposed, percussion Kentucky 
type rifle. 

ALBERTSON, DOUGLAS & CO.— New London, Conn., about 1840-60. 

ALBRECHT, Andrew— Warwick Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 
1779-82. 

ALBRIGHT, Henry — Gunsmith, Gnadenhutten, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 
1800. Made pistols. 

ALBRIGHT, J.— Near Wooster, Wayne Co. Ohio, 1840's. Half stock 
percussion rifle with ornate brass patchbox. 

ALBRIGHT, Mathias— Heidelburg Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 

ALBRIGHT, Peter— Heidelburg Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 

ALBRO, H. & Co. — Cincinnati, Ohio, 1847. Mahogany gunstocks. 

ALDEN, E. B.— Claremont, N. H., 1863-68. 

ALDENDERFER, Joel— Lancaster Co., Pa., 1815-1855. Flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle engraved "JOEL ALDENDERFER 1836." 

ALDENDERFER, Metschl— Lancaster Co., 1763-1817. 

ALEXANDER, C. W. — Inventor of a breech-loading rifle, Confederate 
Patent No. 163, April 18, 1863, a pattern of which has been made 
at the Confederate States Armory under supervision of Capt. 
Burton, (Richmond Dispatch Feb. 19, 1862). The arm was to have 
been manufactured by Thomas E. McNeill of Macon, Ga., who 
obtained a Confederate contract for 20,000 Alexander pattern 
carbines, to be made under Burton's supervision. The arm never 
materialized beyond the experimental stage. 

ALLBRIGHT, Henry — (Also Albright and Albrecht) Lancaster Co., 
Pa., before and after 1744. Employed at Durham Iron Works, 
made rifles and some very fine pistols. 

ALLBRIGHT, Israel — Pennsylvania; probably same as I. or J. Al- 
bright of Manheim, Pa. Early flintlock Kentucky rifles; a brass- 
mounted flintlock fowling piece half-stocked in curly maple, 
barrel marked "J. ALBRIGHT"; lock by W. Jacot. 

ALLBRIGHT, J.— Manheim, Pa., flintlock period. 

ALLEGHANY GUN WORKS— Alleghany City, Pa., 1831-77 and later. 
Makers of flintlock Kentucky rifles and later of sporting and 
target rifles. See Fleeger, John, who operated the works. 

ALLEN, Amasa— Walpole, N. H. Musket maker 1799-1801. Asso- 
ciated with Samuel Grant and Joseph Bernard in a contract 
under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,500 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 1,394 were recorded 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

ALLEN, BROWN & LUTHER— Frederick Allen, Andrew J. Brown 
and John Luther, makers of musket and rifle barrels in Wor- 
cester, Mass., 1852. Among their employees had been Horace 
Smith and Daniel B. Wesson. Alexander Stocking, maker of the 



4 American Gun Makers 

Stocking single-action, pepperbox pistol, had also been an em- 
ployee of the firm. 

ALLEN, C. B.— Springfield, Mass., 1836-41. One of the manufac- 
turers of the Elgin patent cutlass-pistol. Also made the Cochran 
"Monitor" 7-shot revolver. 

ALLEN, Elias — Shrewsbury, Mass., musket maker. Born 1775, active 
until 1843. 

ALLEN, Ethan — Massachusetts Arms manufacturer, 1832-63. See 
Allen & Wheelock. 

ALLEN, E. & CO.— Worcester, Mass., 1856-65. See Allen & Wheelock. 

ALLEN & FALLS— Springfield, Mass., 1837-40. 

ALLEN, G. F.— Utica, N. Y., 1852-55. 

ALLEN, Henry — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

ALLEN & HILLE— Gunsmiths, 79 Magazine, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

ALLEN, John— New York, N. Y., before and after 1878. 

ALLEN, Joseph — Gunsmith. New Orleans, La., 1861. 

ALLEN, Oliver — U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1817. Inspected 
arms (sabers) in plant of Nathan Starr. 

ALLEN, Oliver — Norwich, Conn., circa 1840. Inventor of one of the 
first practical whaling-bomb-lances which he patented on Sep- 
tember 19, 1846. Though it had some disadvantages it saw con- 
siderable use among whalers and was widely distributed. The 
invention of the Brand whaling-bomb-lance in 1852 somewhat 
curtailed its manufacture. 

ALLEN, Robert — Norwich, Conn., circa 1840. Inventor of a whaling- 
bomb-lance which he manufactured. Quite possibly related to 
Oliver Allen. 

ALLEN, Silas — Shrewsbury, Mass. Rifle maker. Bern 1750. Lived and 
was active on a farm on Crescent Street. Had served as captain 
of militia. Made Kentucky and New England type rifles. Arms 
marked by stamping, "S. ALLEN." Died April 6, 1834. 

ALLEN, Silas, Jr. — Son of Silas Allen. Lived and worked with his 
father at Shrewsbury, Mass. Born 1775. Flintlock and percussion 
rifles. Active until 1843. Died 1850. 

ALLEN, Thomas— New York, N. Y., 1768-75. Thomas Allen with John 
Woods, were the Colonial gunsmiths returned to England by 
Governor William Tryon in December, 1775, with the induce- 
ment of prepaid passage, 20 guineas in cash and employment at 
a government armory. 

ALLEN, THURBER & CO.— Grafton, Mass., 1838-42. Norwich, Conn., 
1842-47. See Allen & Wheelock. 

ALLEN & WHEELOCK— The firm was established by Ethan Allen. 
Massachusetts firearms maker born Sept. 2, 1806. Established 
himself in North Grafton about 1832, making Lambert cane- 
guns and rifled target pistols. In 1838 commenced manufacture 
of arms under his own patents, and incorporated with his 
brothers-in-law, Charles T. Thurber and Thomas P. Wheelock 
under the name Allen, Thurber & Co. The firm was well known 
for its pepperbox revolvers, made mostly double-action with 5 
and 6 barrels, though a few were made in a larger size with 3 
or 4 barrels. Also made a double-barrel pistol. 

In 1842 the firm moved to Norwich, Conn., and again in 1847 
to Worcester, Mass. In 1857 on Thurber's retirement from the 



American Gun Makers 5 

firm, the name was changed to Allen & Wheelock. Mr. Wheelock 
died in 1863, and in 1865, Allen's two sons-in-law, S. Forehand 
and H. C. Wadsworth, were admitted to the firm, which in 1866 
became known as Ethan Allen & Co. Mr. Allen died in January, 
1871, and the firm continued manufacture of firearms, especially 
revolvers, under the name Forehand and Wadsworth. During 
the Civil War, Allen & Wheelock employed about 200 hands. 

ALLEN, William— 108 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y., 1801. Flintlock 
rifles and double-barrel shotguns. Made arms into percussion 
period. 

ALLENBREN, John — Location unknown; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

ALLFATHER, John— Near Berlin, Penna. 

ALLIN, Erskine S.— Born at Enfield, Conn., Feb. 3, 1809. Appren- 
ticed at the Water Shop of the Springfield Armory in 1829. 
Master armorer at the arsenal from 1847-78. Perfected a system 
of conversion of muzzle-loading muskets known as the Model 
1865 alteration. Died, Sept. 11, 1879. 

ALLIS, Epaphriditus — Arms stocker, Springfield Armory, 1818. 

ALLISON, J. H. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

ALLISON, PETER & CO.— Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1825. 

ALLISON, T. — Pennsylvania, flintlock period. 

ALLOWAY, Elmer — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 23 
Green, in 1829. 

ALSOP, C. R. — Revolver manufacturer of Middletown, Conn., 1859- 
66. Made arms under Charles Alsop patents Nos. 29,213, 29,538 
and 32,333. 

ALTLAND, J.— York Co., Pa., about 1810. Rifle maker. 

ALTMIER, F. — Lewistown, Mifflin Co., Pa. A swivel-breech double 
percussion rifle with script marking "F. Altmier" on one barrel, 
"Lewistown" on the other; barrelmaker's stamp "Heberlig, 
Reading Pa." on breeches; Henry Parker lock. 

AMEN, John — Unlocated. Full stock, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

AMERICAN ARMS CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Made Smith carbines 
during the Civil War. 

AMERICAN ARMS CO.— Boston, Mass., about 1870-93; Milwaukee, 
Wis., 1893-1904. 

AMERICAN MACHINE WORKS— Established by Philos B. Tyler in 
1843 at Springfield, Mass. Manufactured Smith carbines on Civil 
War contract, in 1864. 

AMERICAN NUT & ARMS CO.— 47 Kingston St., Boston, Mass., 1868- 
70. Made Wheeler's patent, hand arms. 

AMERICAN REPEATING RIFLE CO.— Boston, Mass. Formerly 
Fogerty Rifle Co., of Boston. Sold out to Winchester in 1869. 

AMERICAN STANDARD TOOL CO.— Newark, N. J., 1870-72. Be- 
lieved to be successor to Manhattan Fire Arms Co. 

AMERICAN STEAM WORKS— 180-182 Center St., New York, N. Y. 
Manufacturers of Pecare & Smith percussion pepperboxes. 

AMES, David — First superintendent of the Springfield Armory. Ap- 
pointed by Washington, 1794. Served until 1802 when he became 
a paper manufacturer. Born at Bridgewater, Mass., Feb. 2, 1760. 
Manufacturer of shovels and guns. Died in Springfield, Mass., in 
August 1847. Ames had seen active service during the Revolu- 



6 American Gun Makers 

tionary War as a member of Capt. Reuben Dow's Company of 
Minute Men. 

AMES, John— Bridgewater, Mass., 1798. Advertised in the Columbian 
"Sentinel," Boston, June 2, 1798, offering 1,000 gun-locks for 
sale and offering to buy 500 or 600 gun-barrels. 

AMES, Nathaniel— Boston, Mass., 1800. 

AMES MANUFACTURING COMPANY— Cutlers, sword and arms 
manufacturers of Cabotsville and Chicopee, Mass. Established 
originally by N. P. Ames, Sr., at Chelmsford (now Lowell), 
Mass., and moved to Chicopee, Mass. in 1829. In 1831 the busi- 
ness was incorporated under the name of Ames Manufacturing 
Company with initial capital of $30,000. In the same year, 1831, 
the company undertook its first of sword contracts for the Gov- 
ernment, which were continued for thirty odd years, until the 
Ordnance Department began making its own swords. 

About 1834 the company moved to Cabotsville, Mass., where 
a sword manufacturing plant had been erected. In 1841 the 
Ames Mfg. Co., purchased the works of Chicopee Falls Company 
and in 1842 moved back to Chicopee. 

Specimen arms of the company are marked as follows: Foot 
Artillery (Roman type) sword dated 1833, "SPRINGFIELD"; 
Navy scale-hilt cutlass dated 1842, "CABOTSVILLE"; Dahlgren 
bowie-knife Navy bayonet for Whitney Navy rifle M.1861, (Ply- 
mouth), dated 1864, "CHICOPEE"; Navy brass half -basket cutlass 
dated 1864, "CHICOPEE" and Civil War officers' swords 
"CHICOPEE." It is possible that the Navy carbines and pistols 
marked "N.P.AMES" "SPRINGFIELD" were aso made at the 
Chicopee plant, a short distance from Chicopee Falls and a few 
miles north of Springfield. 

In addition to government swords the company made machin- 
ery, gun-stocking machines, bronze cannon, bronze statuary and 
swords for military associations and for societies and lodges. 
During the Franco-Prussian War the company received a con- 
tract from the French Government for about 100,000 sabers and 
from the Turkish Government an order for 236,000 sabres during 
the Russo-Turkish War. The company also manufactured the 
Lowell machine gun for the Lowell Machine Gun Company. See 
AMES N. P. and AMES Sword Co. 

AMES, N. P. — Operator of Ames Manufacturing Company, cutlers 
and sword manufacturers of Cabotsville and Chicopee, Mass., 
and N. P. AMES, makers of Jenks patent, mule-ear, side-hammer 
Navy percussion carbines of 1843-47, and of Navy percussion, 
single shot, box-lock pistols Model 1843, 1843-46, at Springfield, 
Mass. N. P. Ames (Jr.) was born near Lowell, Mass., in 1803, 
son of N. P. Ames (Sr.), a manufacturer of edged tools of 
Chelmsford (now Lowell) Mass. His practical experience gained 
in his father's shops was later supplemented by study of 
mechanical arts in Europe in 1840. Died in Spring of 1847. 
Nathan Peabody Ames was described as a "dignified, affable and 
generous man." See Ames Manufacturing Company. 

AMES, Oakes— Chicopee, Mass. Born Jan. 10, 1804; died May 8, 1873. 

AMES SWORD COMPANY— Established in 1881, at Chicopee, Mass., 
as a division of the Ames Manufacturing Company, a separate 
corporation, but with both plants under the same management. 
The sword making machinery was set up in the purchased plant 
of the Gay lord Mfg. Co., adjoining the Ames Manufacturing Co. 



American Gun Makers 7 

In addition to swords the company made the Protector, a seven 
shot revolver and Protector Palm Pistols for the Chicago Arms 
Company. At end of "sword era" Ames Company was merged 
into Lilley Ames Corporation of Columbus, Ohio. See Ames Man- 
ufacturing Co., and Ames, N. P. 

AMIDON, L. M. — Bellows Falls, Vt. Made telescopes for match rifles 
(e.g., those of Norman Brockway), also gain twist rifles. 

AMORY — Fond-du-Lac, Wis. Walnut half-stock, brass mounted, 
octagon barrel percussion plain rifle. 

AMOS, John— Bedford Borough, Bedford Co., Pa., 1840's (on 1843 tax 
list). Brother-in-law of W. Border. A long, slim, early percussion 
Kentucky rifle with applewood stock and hand-forged bar lock, 
marked "J. A." 

AMOSKEAG MFG. CO.— Manchester, N. H. Made 27,001 Springfield 
Model 1861 rifle muskets on government contracts during the 
Civil War:— 

Jan. 7, 1862, 10,000 muskets at $20.00 each. 10,001 delivered, 
Nov. 5, 1863, 15,000 muskets at $19.00 each. Contract completed. 
Jan. 6, 1865, 2,000 muskets at $19.00 each. Contract completed. 

AMSDEN, B. W.— Lake Ave. & Hodgman Sts., Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., about 1860-1880. Percussion target rifles, double rifles, and 
rifle-shotgun combinations; shaded front sight of pig bristle; 
silver eagle cheek-rest inlays. 

AMSDEN, J.— Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 1870-73. Maker of a double, 
side-by-side, combination percussion rifle-shotgun. Engraved locks 
and dolphin type hammers. Ornate patch box. Iron furniture. 
(Related to Amsden, B. W.?) 

AN, Jos.— Marking "JOS*AN" on barrel of Kentucky rifle. Probably 
abbreviation for one of the Pennsylvania Angstadt family. 

ANDERSON, James — Gunsmith to Committee of Safety, Virginia, 
1775-77. 

ANDREWS, Edward W.— 19 Ontario St., Cleveland, Ohio, 1825-55, 
then Oberlin to 1859. 

ANDREWS, Philip B.— Cleveland, Ohio, 1820-30. Brother of E. W. 
Andrews. Born at Whitestown, N. Y., 1796. 

ANDRUS & OSBORN— Canton, Conn. Under-hammer percussion 
pistols and Civil War arms. 

ANG, Jos. — On barrel of very early flintlock Kentucky rifle with in- 
cised Roman nose stock. 

ANGEL, John— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 97 Dillwyn, 
in 1829. 

ANGEL, N. — (Same as Angle, N.) Erieville, N. Y.; percussion match 
rifles. 

ANGELE, George— 42 Genesee St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1858-59. 

ANGLE, N.— Near Virgil, N. Y. 

ANGLIN, Phil— "Old Uncle Phil," Robertson County, Tenn., maker 
of flintlock and later percussion Kentucky rifles marked "P. A." 
Maker of a flintlock rifle with lock by John Kirkman, Ashville, 
Pa. Also made a tiger maple, full stock, .38 caliber, percussion 
rifle with set triggers and lock apparently of own manufacture. 

ANGSTADT, Adam — Pennsylvania rifle maker. Contractor for "rifle 
guns" in 1792. 



8 American Gun Makers 

ANGSTADT, Gideon — Unidentified. Inlaid and engraved flintlock 
Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship. 

ANGSTADT, Peter — Pennsylvania, flintlock period. 

ANGSTATT, Joseph — Penna. rifle maker probably related to the 
Angstadts and Ansteds. Used abbreviation "JOS*AN" as per 
marking on very early flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

ANGSTEAD, Peter (or Angstadt) — Pennsylvania. Fine flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

ANGUSH, Jas.— Earl Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771 and before. 

ANNELY, Edward— New Jersey, 1771, and before. 

ANNELY, John — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

ANNELY, Thomas— U. S. Inspector of Arms in Maryland, 1799-1801. 
Received payment for expenses incurred in connection with prov- 
ing muskets. 

ANNELY, Thomas — New Jersey, 1776, before and after. (Same as 
above?) 

ANSCHUTZ, E.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1860. 

ANSTADT, Jacob— Berks County, Pa., 1815-17. 

ANSTAT— Believed to be Peter Angstadt above. 

ANSTATT, A. — Marking on barrels of superposed, swivel-breech 
flintlock Penna. rifle, circa 1820. (Same as Adam Angstadt?) 

ANSTED, A. & J.— Contractors on April 22, 1808, with Tench Coxe, 
Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 50 pairs of pistols at $10.00 
each. Probably are Adam Angstadt and Jacob Anstadt, Penn- 
sylvania arms makers, whose names were spelled with a number 
of variations. 

ANTES, William — Mahoning Township, Northumberland Co., Pa., 
1781-82. 

ANTIS, R. — Canandaigua, N. Y., percussion period. 

ANTIS, William — Frederick Township, Pennsylvania, Revolutionary 
War. (Same as Antes?) 

APPLEBAY, Alexander— Born March 4, 1832; died March 4, 1906. 
Worked at Wellsburg, W. Va., and Steubenville and later Lowell, 
Ohio. 

APPLEBAY, H. D. & W. R.— Wellsburg, W. Va., and later Lowell, 
Ohio. 

ARCHER, John — Unidentified. Lock marking on a percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

ARMSTRONG— Philadelphia, Pa., maker of Kentucky rifles dating 
to about 1800. Possibly same as John Armstrong. 

ARMSTRONG, A. H.— Unlocated. Maker of a half stock, percussion 
rifle. 

ARMSTRONG, Allen— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1800. Kentucky flint- 
lock rifles; rifled flintlock Kentucky target pistol, lock marked 
"A. ARMSTRONG WARRANTED." 

ARMSTRONG, John— Emmetsburg, Md., later Pennsylvania, from 
about 1790; died 1827. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifle; raised carv- 
ing, silver inlays, lock handmade. 

ARMSTRONG, John, Jr. — Son of John Armstrong. Active at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., 1855, before and after. 

ARMSTRONG, R. H. — Hudson, Mich. Maker of plain percussion 
match rifles. 



American Gun Makers 9 

ARMSTRONG, S. F.— -Adamsville, Mich. 

ARMSTRONG & TAYLOR— Augusta, Ky., 1864. Rifle makers. 

AS — (Or AJ). Unidentified. Curly maple half stocked plains rifle with 
engraved brass hardware and Jas. Golcher lock. 

ASHEVILLE ARMORY— Asheville, N. C. Established in 1861 by Col. 
R. W. Pulliam, Ephraim Clayton and G. W. Whitson, at the 
corner of Valley and Eagle Streets, with one Riley, an English- 
man, as chief machinist. The plant was turned over to the Con- 
federate Government in 1863, and arms are believed to have been 
marked "Asheville Armory." The machinery and equipment were 
moved to Columbia, S. C, prior to April, 1864, and the plant re- 
established as the Columbia Armory in charge of Capt. C. C. 
McPhail, C. S. Ord. Dept. See Columbia Armory. A year later, 
in the latter part of April, 1865, the old armory buildings at 
Asheville were burned by Federal troops. 

ASHFIELD, J. — Buffalo, N. Y., percussion period. (Identical with J. 
Ashfield of Toronto, Canada, maker of a rifle with Goulcher 
lock?) 

ASHMORE— Unidentified. Maker of Kentucky rifles about 1800-08. 

ASHMORE, N. — Lockmaker, flint and percussion arms. Percussion 
shotgun locks marked "N. ASHMORE." 

ASHMORE, R. — Lockmaker, flint and percussion arms. Maker of a 
Kentucky rifle flint lock marked "R. ASHMORE WARRANTED" 
and of an original Kentucky rifle percussion lock marked "R.", 
and "ASHMORE" in two lines. 

ASHTON, P. H. — Unlocated. Percussion underhammer pistol. 

A.ST.B. — Unidentified marking of a curly maple, half-stock, octagon 
barrel, double set trigger percussion rifle numbered "No. 199." 

A. S. T. CO. — Unidentified "Hero" percussion pocket pistols. 

ASTOL, J. & W.— New Orleans, La., 1805-12. 

ASTON, H. — The firm of H. Aston was organized at Middletown, 
Conn., about 1843, by Henry Aston, who arrived in the United 
States from England in 1819, and as a skilled pistol maker readily 
found employment with Simeon North, pistol manufacturer, at 
Middletown, Conn. Subsequent to 1850 the firm was reorganized 
and from 1851 the famed Model 1842 Army pistols made by the 
Aston Company were marked "H. Aston & Co." The contract for 
30,000 pistols at $6.50 each was awarded Feb. 25, 1845. 

ASTON, H. & CO. — See H. Aston above. Henry Aston's partners 
were: Nelson Ashton, Peter Aston, John North, Sylvester C. 
Bailey and Ira N. Johnson. 

ASTON, H. & W.— Converted flint lock on halfstock plains rifle by R. 
Denslans. 

ASTON, J. & J. — Unlocated. Marking on the lock of a percussion 
over-under rifle. 

ASTON, J. & W— Converted flint lock with tumbler detent, late 
period, on a Kentucky rifle. Marked "J. & W. ASTON WAR- 
RANTED." 

ASTON, W. — William Aston, Middletown, Conn., maker of under- 
hammer, percussion saw-handle pistols about 1854, in the old 
S. North pistol and musket manufacturing shops. 

ATHERTON, C— Stamping on an old, flintlock, Kentucky rifle barrel. 

ATKINSON— Unidentified. Percussion rifle. 



10 American Gun Makers 

ATKINSON— Maker of a full maple stock, flintlock Kentucky rifle, 
with ornate patch box and with barrel octagonal at the breech. 

ATKINSON, Joel — Parkesburg, Ky., percussion Kentucky rifles. 

ATKINSON, Wyat^-Hidalgo, Ky. Born 1880 at Parkesburg, Ky., son 
of Joel Atkinson with whom he learned the trade. 

ATLANTA ARSENAL — Confederate Arsenal at northwest corner of 
Walton and Peachtree Streets. Acquired by Trenholm, Frazer & 
Co., government fiscal agents Aug. 6, 1863. In an ad in "Southern 
Confederacy" for Dec. 6, 1862, Major M. H. Wright, C. S. A., 
Commanding Arsenal, offers to exchange powder for lead at the 
Military Store House, corner Peachtree and Walton. 

ATLAS GUN CO.— Ilion, N. Y., 1893. Small caliber rifles. 

ATLEY, Conrad— Bedford Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1800. 

ATWATER, J. B.— Ripon, Wis. Probably during 1850's. 

A. T. W. — Unidentified. Bedford County, Pa., silver inlaid percussion 
Kentucky rifle. 

AUER, B. I. — Louisville, Ky. Reported maker of a heavy, 19 lb. walnut 
half stock, schuetzen rifle. 

AUER, X.— Gunsmith, New Orleans, La., 1861. 

AUGUSTA ARSENAL— Augusta, Ga. Manufactured equipment, field 
artillery, powder and repaired arms for the Confederacy. 

AUGUSTINE, S.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. . 

AUGUSTINE, Samuel— Athens County, Ohio, 1853-54. 

AULTLAND, H. G.— Penna. rifle maker. 

AUSTIN, Cornelius — New Jersey, 1776-78. Armorer to New Jersey. 

AUSTIN, Thomas — Charlestown, Mass. Gunsmith to Committee of 
Safety. Armorer to Massachusetts, 1775. 

AVERY, G.— Hamburg, Pa. 

AVERY, Willis — Salisbury, N. Y., percussion period. 

AVET, F.— Gunsmith, St. Laude, between St. Phillip and Ursulines, 
New Orleans, La., 1853. 

A. W. — Marking inside of lock of Model 1795 flintlock musket. 

AYRES, R. A.— Alexandria, Va., (?). Percussion Kentucky rifle with 
Remington barrel. 

B 

BABBITT, L. W.— Ohio, 1837. Flintlocks. 

BABCOCK, J. — Under hammer percussion pistol with ring hammer. 

BABCOCK, Moses — Charlestown, Mass. Listed in Directories from 
1838 to 1874. Was assistant to Abijah Monroe, gunsmith, then 
owner of a shop on Charlestown Square 1877-81. Died Aug. 27, 
1886. 

BACH, John— 52 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif., 1855; 72 Com- 
mercial 1858-65. 

BACHNER BROTHERS— 72 Hennepin, later 36 S. Washington Ave., 
Minneapolis, Minn., 1869-80. 

BACKHOUSE, Richard— Gun-barrel maker of Easton, Pa., 1774-81. 
Owner and operator of the Durham Iron Works. 

BACON ARMS CO.— Established at Norwich, Conn., by Thomas K. 
Bacon in 1852. Makers of Bacon percussion pepperboxes, single- 
shot pistols, and of Briggs and C. W. Hopkins type revolvers. 
Formerly had been Bacon & Co., then Bacon Mfg. Co. The firm 



American Gun Makers 11 

ceased operations in 1888. In 1892 the remaining inventory of 

the Company, amounting to only about $14,000, was taken over 

by the Crescent Fire Arms Co., of Norwich. 
BACON & CO. — Percussion pistols and pepperboxes. See Bacon Arms 

Co. 
BACON MFG. CO. — Bacon percussion and cartridge revolvers. See 

Bacon Arms Co. above. 
BAER, J.— Lancaster, Pa., 1810-1840. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 
BAGGETT, Elijah — Attleboro, Mass. Contractor under Act of 1798 for 

500 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. 
BAGLEY, Albert G. — Breech-loading, percussion rifle marked on bar- 
rel, "ALBERT G. BAGLEY MARCH 1852." 
BAHN, B. & BRO. — Cape Girardeau, Mo., makers of percussion sport- 
ing rifles. 
BAHRMANN, G. — Louisville, Ky. Percussion rifle. 
BAILEY, D. — New Orleans, La. Importer and dealer in firearms, 

English percussion revolvers known with this marking. 
BAILEY, George — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith on New Market near 

Green, in 1829. 
BAILEY, G. L. — Portland, Me. Maker of half stock, muzzle loading, 

percussion sporting rifle with Remington barrel. 
BAILEY, Goff— Kincheloe, W. Va. Percussion rifles. 
BAILEY, Nathan— Gunsmith of New London, Conn., 1776-79. Worked 

on repair of public arms for the State. Was paid 50 pounds in 

July, 1775. 
BAILEY, Thomas— Gunsmith, 160 Vz Chartres, New Orleans, La., 1853. 
BAILEY, W. A. — Unlocated. Under-hammer, percussion target pistol. 
BAIRD, C. — Vermont. Percussion target pistol with false muzzle and 

bird's-eye maple shoulder stock. 
BAIRD, S. S. — Chittenden, Vt, percussion period. 
BAKER, Andrew— Bedford, Pa., area (?). 
BAKER, C. — Unlocated, Marking on the lock of a percussion sporting 

rifle. 
BAKER, Clyde— 2100 East 59th St., Kansas City, Mo., modern. 
BAKER GUN & FORGING CO.— Batavia, N. Y. 1911-14. Cal. .22 auto 

rifles. 
BAKER, J.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifle dated "Nov. 28, 1843." Also 

made 3-barrel swivel breech guns. 
BAKER, Jacob S. — Listed as gunsmith at 386 North Front, Phila., 

Pa., in 1819. Operated a rifle factory at 916 Front St., in 1824. 

Again listed as gunsmith on No. Front, corner Otter in 1859. 

BAKER, James — Musket contractor. Contract of January 24, 1829. 
Was Administrator for Marine T. Wickham, deceased musket 
manufacturer 1829-1835. 

BAKER, James— Mill Creek, Pa., about 1825. 

BAKER, John — Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period. 

BAKER, John — Pennsylvania musket maker. Several references to 
John Baker making Provincial firearms for Pennsylvania in 1776. 
His farm and shop were on the south side of the Germantown Pike 
at the North Wales Road, which is at rear end of the State Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Norristown, Pa. Rev. Charles Collins in 



12 American Gun Makers 

1895 stated that "John Baker was an ingenious worker in iron, 
steel, and other metals. His father was a native of Germany; 
and a very early settler in the vicinity. During the Revolutionary 
War Mr. Baker rendered very efficient aid to the Whig cause, by 
his handicraft, in the work of repairing suitable fire-arms. 
Mr. Baker lived to a great old age; being nearly a centenarian; 
and died about 1820." A son Arnold died at the old homestead 
about 1858. The son kept Barley Sheaf tavern. 

BAKER, John— Providence Township, Pa., 1768-75 and after. 

BAKER, Melchior — Also Melchor. Fayette County, Pa., before and 
after 1781-1804. After participating in Col. Lochry's ill-fated ex- 
pedition of 1781, he came to Georges Township, Fayette Co., 
where he settled and established an arms factory in association 
with Albert Gallatin, who furnished most of the financial back- 
ing. The plant at times employed up to a hundred hands, and 
supplied the state as well as furnished arms to the national gov- 
ernment, making broadswords and long arms. After Gallatin 
joined Jefferson's Cabinet, he withdrew from the firm, disposing 
of his interest to Baker, who continued the operation of the 
plant with the assistance of his sons. The factory was in opera- 
tion in 1804, as is evidenced by a Pennsylvania State payment of 
$1,333.33 for arms furnished. The firm closed when the govern- 
ment armories went into large scale production, and Baker 
moved to Clarksburg, Va. (now W. Va.) 

BAKER, W. H.— Marathon, Courtland Co., N. Y., and Batavia, N. Y., 
heavy percussion sniper's and target rifles with patent muzzles 
and telescope sights. 

BALD, Fred— 91 Pennsylvania St., Baltimore, Md., 1860. 

BALDWIN, Elihu — Branford, Conn. Musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Made 17 good guns with bayonets. Recorded Nov. 18, 
1776. 

BALDWIN, Jacob — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Jacob Baldwin was one of the petitioners, representing 
Pennsylvania gun makers, complaining to Committee of Safety 
in November, 1776, against the high cost of materials and labor 
entering into arms making, and quoting advances in prices within 
one year, since 1775. 

BALL, Elisha— North Carolina before and after 1821; flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BALL & WILLIAMS— Worcester, Mass., 1861-66. Makers of Ballard's 
patent carbines and military and sporting rifles, under Charles H. 
Ballard patent of Nov. 5, 1861, No. 33,631. During the Civil War 
the government purchased 1,509 Ballard carbines. 

BALLARD ARMS CO.— Worcester, Mass. Civil War arms. 

BALLARD, C. H. & CO.— See Ballard & Fairbanks. 

BALLARD & FAIRBANKS— Worcester, Mass., 1870. Made Ballard 
cartridge derringers. 

BALLWEG, A.— 129 W. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind., 1868-72. 
BALSER, A. L. & CO.— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-59. 
BALSLEY, T.— Connellsville, Fayette Co., Pa. Half and full stock per- 
cussion Kentucky rifles of good workmanship. Name on barrel. 
BALTIMORE ARMS CO.— Modern. Shotguns. 
BAMES, S. or T— Marking on sideplate of circa 1840 Kentucky rifle. 



American Gun Makers 13 

BANDLE GUN CO.— J. Bandle, Cincinnati, Ohio. .22 Cal. percussion 
"saloon" rifles. 

BARBOUR, A. M.— Superintendent Harpers Ferry Armory, 1860. 

BARENT, Covert— Or Govert. New Amsterdam, N. Y., 1648. 

BARKER, Cyrus — Providence, R. I., percussion period. 

BARLOW, J.— Moscow, Ind., 1840-1859, probably before and after. A 
few flint rifles. A heavy, curly maple, halfstocked percussion 
rifle with H. E. Leman back-action lock. Barrel marked in script 
"J. BARLOW March the 12, 1859." 

BARNARD, Joseph— Musket maker 1799-1801. See Amasa Allen. 

BARNES, Thomas N. —North Brookfield, Mass. Born 1763, active to 
about 1800. Died at Bakersfield, Vt. 

BARNES, Thomas Washington— Born 1840 at Oakville, Ontario, Can- 
ada; died Aug. 28, 1909 at Vassar, Mich. Learned gunsmithing 
about 1856 from father Jacob Barnes and an old English smith. 
Set up shop at Vassar, fall of 1865. Various partners: Ab. Har- 
rington, Saul Green (as Barnes & Green); son George W. Barnes 
after about 1905. Made percussion over-under rifle-shotguns with 
side hammers, marked "T. W. BARNES" on lockplate (some un- 
marked). Inlays of German silver or other white metal; patch- 
boxes open downward. Also made some breechloaders. 

BARNES, W. H. — Boston, Mass. Back-action lock, percussion rifle. 

BARNHART, Geo. A.— New Rumley, Harrison Co., Ohio, 1841-1881. 
Descended from Hessian prisoners of war who settled in Bucks 
County, Pa., after Revolutionary War. 

BARNHART, George— Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born in 
Pennsylvania, 1798, died in Ohio, Feb. 17, 1844. Brother of Wil- 
liam Barnhart (elder). 

BARNHART, Nehemiah— Hallsville, Ross Co., Ohio. Born 1831, died 
1888. Son of William Barnhart (elder). 

BARNHART, William— (The elder). Brother of George Barnhart. 
Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born Aug. 12, 1802, died Oct. 6, 
1867. 

BARNHART, William— (The younger). Son of George Barnhart. 
Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born September, 1825, died 
February, 1891. 

BARNHART, Simon — Pennsylvania; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BARNHIZLE, Christopher— Musket maker 1799-1801. In association 
with Nicholas White, Thomas Craft and Jacob Metzger, con- 
tracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand, of which 235 were 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

BARR, Frederick— Gunsmith, New York, N. Y. 1801-02. 

BARR, R. — New York, N. Y. Reported marking on a Birmingham 
proofed percussion shotgun. Importer? 

BARRET — "Deacon" Samuel Barret, musket maker of Concord, 
Mass., after 1775. 

BARRETT, J. B.— Wytheville, Va. Civil War musket contractor to the 
Confederacy. So called "Hall muzzle-loading rifle" may have been 
made here as well as rifles patterned after Model 1855, but with- 
out patch box or primer. 

BARRETT, Thomas— "Deacon" Thomas Barrett and son Samuel, 
("Deacon" Samuel Barret?) Revolutionary War operators of a 



14 American Gun Makers 

gun factory at Concord, Mass., at the time of the battle of Con- 
cord. 

HARRINGTON, A. C. — Lebanon, N. Y. Percussion under-hammer 
rifle. 

BARROWS, E. — Unlocated. Curly maple full-stock, octagonal barrel, 
.36 cal. flintlock Kentucky squirrel rifle. 

BARSTOW, I. & C. C— Musket makers of Exeter, N. H. Contracted 
on Oct. 21, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets. Barstow musket 
lock plates are marked "J. & C. B. Exeter." In the early 19th 
Century letters J and I were interchanged rather freely in writ- 
ing. Probabilities are that the contract should have read J. 
Barstow. 

BARTLETT— Lancaster, Pa. Early Kentucky flintlock rifles of excel- 
lent workmanship. 

BARTLETT, A.— Ruxton Lane, Baltimore, Md., active in 1817. 

BARTLETT, A. & P. — Massachusetts musket makers. Contracted 
Oct. 31, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets. Of these 1,500 were 
delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

BARTLETT, Isak— Forged lock plates at Springfield Armory 1808. 

BARTLETT, Joseph, and Robert S.— Binghamton, N. Y., 1829-50. 
Sons of Capt. Isaac Bartlett, Connecticut blacksmith and wheel- 
right, who in 1813 established in Owego, N. Y., and thence in 
1829, settled at Chenango Point (now Binghamton). Joseph and 
Robert Bartlett opened a shop on Court Street where between 
1829 and 1834 they made flintlock Kentucky rifles at first, then 
percussion arms. In 1834 the site of their shop being taken over 
by the State for a canal project, they put up a larger new build- 
ing on Franklin (now Washington) Street, employing at times 
as many as 25 hands. From 1834, on change of name of the city 
to Binghamton, the Bartlett arms were marked with the new 
name, instead of Chenango Point. The plant discontinued about 
1850, unable to compete with cheaper, machine made arms made 
on production basis. 

BARTON, Samuel— Thorntown, Ind., 1885. 

BASLER, A. L. & CO.— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-59. 

BASSET, F. E.— Breech-loading, rim-fire target pistol. 

BATCHELOR, William R.— Gunmaker. Miller's Court (N.L.), Phila., 
Pa., 1819. 

BATES, Cord — Thornton, N. Y., percussion period. 

BATES, R.— North Carolina; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 1820. 

BATLEFELD, R.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BATON ROUGE ARSENAL.— Confederate Arsenal at Baton Rouge, 
La. Serviceable property removed by the State of Louisiana in 
May 1861, including 4,000 muskets, sabers, pistols, battery 
wagons, forges, etc. The gun machinery for making arms was 
removed to Columbus, Ga., in 1862. 

BATTLES, C. G.— Wellington, Lorain Co., Ohio. 

BATTLS, John— Whittier, N. C. Percussion rifles. 

BAUER, George — Lancaster, Pa., prior to 1783. 

BAUER, J.— Unlocated. Flintlock period. 

BAUER & KLEPZIG— 212 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 1855. 
See also KLEPZIG & CO. 

BAUM, C— Unlocated. "C. BAUM MAKER, POTTSVILLE," marking 
on barrel of superposed, swivel-breech percussion rifle, circa 1845. 



American Gun Makers 15 

BAUM, Samuel— New Berlin, Pa., 1789-1840. Flintlock and percussion 
Kentucky rifles. 

BAXTER, A. T.— Baltimore, Md., about 1830-41. 

B. & CO. — Unidentified. Brass barrel and frame pistol. 

BAY STATE ARMS CO.— Oxbridge, Mass., about 1870-75. Single-shot 
target rifles and pistols. 

B. B. — Unidentified. Marking on a Kentucky type pistol with silver 
inlays. 

BEACH, C. H. — Unlocated. Three barrel pepper-box type revolving 
rifle, each barrel with own sights. Same as Claudius H. Beach? 

BEACH, Claudius H.— Marshall, Michigan. Born at Bloomfield, On- 
tario Co., N. Y., and later apprenticed to a gunsmith. Moved 
West to Marshall, Mich. Married Mary McKay October 10, 1830. 
Three children. Hunting and target rifles usually using Reming- 
ton barrels and Geo. Golcher locks. Died Aug. 26, 1888. 

B. E. — Script Initials of Barney Engle, Greensboro, Greene Co., Pa., 
before and after 1870. Maker of a late percussion rifle, and a 
plains rifle, so marked. 

BEACH, J. J.— Celina, Ohio, 1835-1860. 

BEACH, T.— Perry Co., Pa., 1815, before and after. 

BEADLE— Indian Trail, Maumee Valley, Ohio, 1840-90. 

BEALE— Unidentified. 1858. 

BEAN, Baxter — Jonesboro, Tenn., 1812. Also Cherokee Creek and 
Nashville. Rifle made in 1834. Son of Russell Bean who was born 
in 1769 on Watauga River, Tenn., of William Bean. 

Russell Bean was the father of Baxter, Charles, Joseph (of 
Rock Creek, Tenn.) and Robert (Washington Co., about 1835). 
He had brothers Edmund, Jesse (company commander at Battle 
of Kings Mountain), John, Robert (served in War of Revolution) 
and William, Jr., all sons of Wm. Bean of Watauga River, Tenn. 

BEAN, Charles — Son of Russell Bean, Jonesboro, Tenn. Rifle made 
in 1831. Father of Charles Bean, Jr. 

BEAN, Charles, Jr. — Percussion rifles. Son of Charles Bean. Died 
near Erwin, Tenn., about 1920. 

BEAN, James — East Tennessee, flintlock period. 

BEAN, Russell— Jonesboro, Tenn. Born 1869. Rifle maker. His identifi- 
cation marks were stars at muzzle and on rear sight. 

BEARDSLEY MFG. CO.— Brooklyn, N. Y., about 1868. Rifled muskets. 

BEAUVAIS, R.— St. Louis, Mo., gunsmith. Born in 1817. Listed in 
the city directory from 1858 to 1875. Reported to have made a 
few revolvers of Colt type for the Confederacy. When Missouri 
"went Union," the Beauvais family are alleged to have supplied 
the Confederate members of "Order of American Knights" or 
"Knights of the Golden Circle," with arms. 

BEBOUT, William— Monroe Township, Belmont Co., Ohio, 1858-1876. 

BECHTLER, Christopher— Rutherford, N. C, 1829-47 and later. 

BECK, A. S.— Unidentified. Kentucky flintlock rifle. 

BECK, C— Lancaster Co., Penna. 1780-1820. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BECK, Christian— Indianapolis, Ind., 1871-74. 

BECK, D.— Unidentified, Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles. 

BECK, Gideon — Pennsylvania, about 1780-90. 



16 



American Gun Makers 



BECK, H.— Gunsmith, 27 St. Phillip, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

BECK, Isaac— Mifflinburg, Union Co., Pa., about 1835. Fine flintlock 
arms. 

BECK, John— Lancaster County, Pa. Active 1772-77, before and later. 

BECK, J. P.— Union County, Pa., flintlock period. 

BECK, John Philip— Dauphin County, Pa., before and after 1788-89. 

BECK, J. W.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

BECK, S. & SONS— Indianapolis, Ind. Makers and distributors of 
rifles and shotguns. Many of their products were made from 
standard rough parts furnished to sub-contractor gunsmiths in 
the vicinity, for boring, stocking and finishing. 

BECK, Samuel— Indianapolis, Ind., 1870-71. 

BECK, Wm. & Son — Portland, Ore. Dealers and gunsmiths, percus- 
sion period. 

BECKER, I. or J.— Lebanon, Pa., before 1800. Kentucky rifle. 

BECKLEY, Elias— Connecticut, flintlock period. Died in 1816. His 
son, Elias, Jr., carried on the business at Beckley Quarter, near 
Berlin, until his death in 1828. 

BEDDIE, George — Sugar Creek Township, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 

1815-1871. "Rifles and other firearms." 
BEEBE— Albany, N. Y., 1846-49. 
BEEBE, Richard— Springfield, Ohio, 1861-64. 

BEEMAN— Massachusetts. Gunsmith to Committee of Safety, 1775-76. 
BEEMAN, John— Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820. 
BEEMAN, Martin— Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1831. 
BEERSTECHERS, E.— Lewisburg, Pa. Same as Beerstecher, F.? 
BEERSTECHER, F.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

Also patentee of a two-shot, single barrel rifle, Sept. 25, 1855, 

Patent No. 13,592. 

BEERSTECHER, G. F.— Lewisburg, Pa. Percussion side-by-side dou- 
ble rifle. 

BEISEL, John and Simon — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmiths on 
Lilley Alley in 1829. 

BEKEART — San Francisco, Cal., percussion rifles. 

BELKNAP, Amaso — Cherry Valley, N. Y., rifle maker. Born in Elling- 
ton, Conn., Nov. 29, 1786. Moved to Cherry Valley, year un- 
known. The last house he lived in still stands but the brick 
gunshop was torn down about 1900. Fine muzzle loading, full- 
stock, pill-lock and percussion hunting and target rifles on the 
German styles, with cheek-piece and inlays. Died Sept. 21, 1878 
and is buried in Cherry Valley cemetery. 

BELL, Conder — Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

BELL, Elias — Pennsylvania; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 1818. 

BELL, H. P.— Cambridge, Ohio. 

BELL, John— Boston, Mass., 1745-54. 

BELLES, P. — Unlocated; possibly same as Bellis of Lancaster, Pa. 

Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles. 
BELLIS — Lancaster, Pa. Early flintlock period. 

BELLOWS, Josiah— Walpole, N. H. Musket maker, 1799, 1801. Asso- 
ciated with Gurdon Huntington, John Livinston and David Stone 



American Gun Makers 17 

in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 500 Charleville pat- 
tern (Model 1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 235 were 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

BELTON, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa., 1777. By direction of Congress 
of May 3, 1777, authorized to superintend the making or altering 
of one hundred muskets on a plan exhibited by him. These guns 
were to fire eight rounds "with once loading." 

BEMIS, Edmund— Boston, Mass. Born 1720. Active 1746-85. Died 1810. 

BENDER, J.— Pennsylvania, period of 1790. Fine Kentucky flintlock 
rifle. Late Kentucky rifles so marked are possibly by another 
maker. 

BENFER, Amos and Arnig — Beaverstown, Snyder Co., Pa. Flintlock 
period. 

BENFER, Amos — Troxelville, Pa. Over-under, full stock, percussion 
Kentucky type rifle marked on barrel, "AMOS BENFER TROX- 
ELVILLE, PA. MARCH 1883." Related to Benfer, Amos above? 

BENNETT— With Packson settled on Kent Island, Md., in 1631. Mary- 
land's first gun makers. Established three years before founding 
of the Province by Calvert. 

BENNETT, T. — Unlocated. Single-shot, percussion underhammer 
pistol of "hand forged" workmanship. 

BENNETT, William N.— Elgin, Iowa, 1854-84. Born February 14, 1834, 
at Middlebury, Addison Co., Vt. Came to California in his youth 
via Cape Horn, thence in the 1850's, after a three months over- 
land journey, to Iowa, where he located 3 miles from Elgin and 
worked for thirty-five years. Made muzzle loading, percussion, 
hunting and target rifles with gain twist rifling of noted accuracy. 
Bennett rifle, .45 caliber, 31 inch barrel known dated March 1, 
1884. William Bennett died in 1914 in Stowe, Vermont. 

BENSON, EZRA D.— Terra Alta (formerly Cranberry Summit), W. 
Va., and later Morgantown, W. Va., about 1870 and later. Ornate 
German silver inlaid, halfstock percussion rifles. 

BENSON, M. M.— Morgantown, W. Va., about 1870 and later. Brother 
of E. D. Benson above. Made same type of ornate, German silver 
mounted, half and fullstock percussion rifles. 

BENSON, Wm.— Rices Landing, Greene Co., Pa. 

BERG, Henry — Davenport, Iowa, 1860-70. Born in Schleswig-Holstein, 
Germany, about 1827; came to U. S. in 1850's after having served 
apprenticeship as gunsmith. Worked first in St. Louis, Mo., for 
two or three years, then came to Davenport where he first estab- 
lished his shop in a one-story building on the northeast corner 
of Third and Main. Later moved to northeast corner of Third and 
Harrison, where he built a three-story, brick building which still 
stands. Operated under own name for many years until joined 
by his sons, Frank and Emil (famous off-hand, scheutzen rifle 
shot), when the firm became H. Berg & Sons. Henry Berg made 
rifles, shotguns and pistols. Was active in the Davenport Schuet- 
zen Verein and his rifles were mostly of the schuetzen type. 
Berg ceased making arms about the time of the Civil War, to 
engage in the sale of commercial arms and supplies. In later 
years the firm was at 221 Harrison St. The business was sold in 
1926, to be operated as a sporting goods store. 

BERGER, Casper — Detroit gunsmith. Active in Detroit up to 1866. 
Several percussion rifles marked with his name are in existence, 

BERGER, W.— Aurora, Ind. Percussion rifle, 



18 American Gun Makers 

BERLIN, Abraham — Easton, Pa., before and after 1786. 

BERLIN, Isaac — Easton, Pa., before and after 1786. Born 1755, 
died 1831. 

BERLIN, Louis— 10 Court St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1854. 

BERNARD, Joseph— Walpole, N. H. Musket maker, 1799-1801. As- 
sociated with Amasa Allen and Samuel Grant in a contract for 
1,500 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per 
stand, of which 1,396 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

BERRY, A. P.— Unlocated, flintlock period. 

BERRY, B.— Painted Post, N. Y., about 1820. Late flintlock Kentucky 
rifles; an over-under double rifle. 

BERRY, R. B. — Unlocated, flintlock period. 

BERRY, S.— Pennsylvania, Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

BERRY, W. — Poughkeepsie, N. Y., before and after 1840. Later at 
Albany, N. Y. Percussion revolvers under Cochran's patent. 

BERSTRO, I. W.— Buffalo, N. Y. A German silver mounted, walnut 
halfstock percussion rifle with A. W. Spies lock. Probably related 
to J. H. Berstro. 

BERSTRO, J. H. — Buffalo, N. Y., 1835. Silver inlaid, brass mounted 
flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

BERY, P. — Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles with carving in relief. 

BEST — Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period. 

BEST, M. — Pennsylvania, late flintlock period. 

BETTLEY— Buffalo, N. Y., 1860. Sporting rifles and shotguns. 

BEUTTER BROS.— New Haven, Conn. Later Meriden, Conn., be- 
fore and after 1850. Match rifles. 

BEVANS, A. L. — Flushing, N. Y. Halfstock, octagon barrel percussion 
rifle. 

BE VIE R, James— Plymouth, Ohio, 1867-96. 

BEYER, N.— (Or Beyers). Lebanon, Pa., about 1780-1808. Fine heavy 
flintlock Kentucky rifles, scroll carved, without patchbox or with 
long-necked bird forming tip of patchbox. 

BEYERS, N.— Pennsylvania, about 1808. (See Beyer, N. same?) 

B. F. A. — Inside marking of a commercial, side action, percussion 
lock, without tumbler stirrup, ornamented with flying geese and 
floral stamping. Also lock marking of a percussion rifle by R. 
Haskell, Painesville, Ohio. 

B. F. S.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. Lock by Wilkes 
of London, 1810. 

BISCAISE, Benjamin— Charleston, S. C, 1867. 

BICKEL, Louis— Akron, Ohio, 1878-83. 

B. I. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 

BICKNELL, Thomas— Musket maker, active 1799-1801. Contracted 
under Act of July 5, 1798, for 2,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand, 1,300 of which were delivered 
by June 10, 1801. The name is spelled BRICKNESS in the list 
of contractors, and Bicknell in the list of payments made. 

SICKNESS, Thomas— See Bicknell, above. 

BIDDLE, Levi— Shanesville, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 1830. Half-stock, 
silver inlaid, percussion match rifle. 



American Gun Makers 19 

BIDDLE, T. & W. C. — Philadelphia, Pa., percussion period. 

BIDDLE, R. & W. C— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1840. Flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. Marking known on barrels and on locks. 

BIDDLE, W. C. & CO. — Marking on a lock of a percussion Plains 
rifle. 

BIDWELL, Oliver— Hartford, later Middletown, Conn. Born Dec. 13, 
1732, son of David and Mehetabell Bidwell. Active 1756-1810. 
Contracted Oct. 25, 1808, for 4,000 Model 1808 muskets. Of these 
750 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. Had been a gunsmith. 

BIEG, S. — Pennsylvania, 18th century. Splendid rotating double 
flintlock rifle. 

BIELRY & CO. — Unlocated. Late flintlock period pistol maker. 

BIGELOW, B. — Marysville, Cal. Revolving cylinder pill-lock rifles. 

BIGOT, Leon— 150 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Calif., 1859-61. 

BILHARZ, HULL & CO.— Pittsylvania Court House, Va. Confederate 
shoulder arms. Advertised for 25-30 gunsmiths, May 16, 1862. 

BILLINGHURST, William— 9 Stillson St., Rochester, N. Y. Born in 
Monroe, Co., N. Y., in 1807, died in Rochester March 4, 1880. Inter- 
nationally famous maker and match shooter. Established in 
Rochester about 1838; 43 Main St. in 1841. Advertised in 1853: 
". . . rifles, target rifles, repeating rifles, or seven-shooters, double 
barreled rifles, one-above-the-other, rifle and shot, double 
barreled guns, telescopic sights for rifles made to order. Repairing 
of all kinds . . ." 

BILLINGS & SPENCER— Hartford, Conn., 1869-76. Firm organized 
by Charles E. Billings, ex-employee of Colt's and Remington's. 
Made Roper sporting arms. 

BILLUPS & HASSELL — Mound Prairie (or Plenitude), Anderson 
Co., Tex. Consisting of John Billups and D. D. Hassell. Made 
650 Texas rifles for the Confederacy between December, 1862, 
and March, 1864. 

BINGHAM, Henry — Pennsylvania, Committee of Safety Flintlock. 

BIRCH — Maker of flint and percussion rifle locks. "BIRCH" stamped 
on a flint lock (with gooseneck hammer and frizzen-spring roller 
bearing), of a John Derr Kentucky pistol. Also marking on lock 
of a percussion Kentucky rifle. 

BIRCHER, C. — St. Louis, Mo. Schuetzen type, walnut stocked per- 
cussion rifle, iron furniture, target sights. 

BIRD, A. N.— Kenton, Hardin Co., Ohio, 1853-65. 

BIRD, C. & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1812-1820; lockmakers. 
Engraved flintlocks on Kentucky rifles and pistols. 

BIRD, John W. — Oscaloosa, Iowa. Active about 1860-1900. Born in 
1832; died October 13, 1917, in Des Moines; interred in Oscaloosa. 

BIRD, Mark— Birdsboro, Pa., before and after 1775-88. Son of William 
Bird and established the town. Cast cannon during Revolution 
and agreed on May 28, 1776, to make 100 muskets for Pennsyl- 
vania. 

BIRD, W. — Overton, Pa. Maker of an over-under, percussion rifle in 
1858 or 1859. Also marking on the lock of a percussion Kentucky 
rifle. 

BISBEE, D. H.— Norway, Maine, 1835-60. Silver mounted Kentucky 
rifle of fine workmanship. 



20 American Gun Makers 

BISBEE, J. — Kalamazoo, Mich., 3-barrel, swivel-breech, percussion 
rifle. 

BISBING — Pennsylvania, percussion period. 

BISBING, A. S. — Well made, fancy, percussion, swivel breech, over- 
under rifle of Kentucky style and lines, marked on barrel "A. S. 
BISBING (MAKER)." The lock plate engraved "L. M."; bridle 
plate marked "L. HETTINGER," possibly the owner. 

BISHOP, D. D. — Unidentified. Maker of over-under, combination per- 
cussion rifle. 

BISHOP, Henry H.— Boston, Mass., about 1847. 

BISHOP, J. — Eastern Pennsylvania, gun-lock maker after 1775. 

BISHOP, W. — Springfield, Illinois. Percussion rifle. 

BISHOP, William— Boston, Mass., 1818-60. 

BITTERLICH, Frank J.— No. 16, Deaderick St., Nashville, Tenn., 
1861. "Gun Manufacturer." Percussion derringers. Reputed to 
have made and repaired rifles at the beginning of the Civil War. 

BITTINGER, Peter— Orange Township, Ashland Co., Ohio, 1825. 

BITTLE, W. C— Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

BIXLER & IDDINGS— Lafayette, Ind., in 1874. Percussion lock on 
J. N. Brown, Dayton, O., rifle. 

BLACK — Springfield, Ohio. Percussion rifle. 

BLACKMAN, Anson — Osceola and Elkland, Pa., before and after 
1850. 

BLACKMAN, Elijah — In January, 1776, requested money to manu- 
facture arms for the Colony of Connecticut. Made musket locks 
for Titus Hosmer of the Arms Committee of the Committee of 
Safety at Middletown. 

BLACK & OWEN— Detroit, Mich. Cal. .32 chased frame pocket 
revolver. 

BLACKWOOD, Marmaduke— Philadelphia, Pa. Musket lock-maker 
to Committee of Safety, 1775-76. Contracted for 200 musket locks 
Dec. 5, 1775. 

BLAINE, William— Ligonier Township, Westmoreland Co., Pa., 1838. 

BLAIR, Andy— Gunsmith. Belmont Co., Ohio, 1802. Sent to Stockade 
and Fort in Richland Co., by the U. S. Government, 1812-17. 

BLAIR AND MORRILL— Amherst, Mass., Cutlass pistol. See Morrill, 
Mosman & Blair. 

BLAISDEL, Jonathan — Amesbury, Mass., 1775. Gunsmith to Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

BLAKE — Of the firm French, Blake and Kinsley, musket makers, 
contractors of Oct. 20, 1808, for 4,000 stand of arms. There were 
2,175 known to have been delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

BLAKE, John Henry — Maker of a bolt action, 7-shot, revolving 
magazine sporting rifle. Similar military type tested by an 
Ordnance Board of Governor's Island, N. Y., in July 1891. 

BLAKE, P. & E. W.— New Haven, Conn., musket makers of Model 
1821 muskets. Believed to have been the nephews of Eli Whitney. 
Sr., and to have been the trustees of the Whitney Armory from 
1823 until Eli Whitney (Jr.) coming of age in 1842. 

BLANCHARD, Thomas — Inventor of machinery for the mechanical 
completion of gun stocks and irregular turnings used at Spring- 
field Armory in the early 19th Century. Born at Sutton, Mass., 
June 24, 1788, died in Boston, April 16, 1864. 



American Gun Makers 21 

BLANKENSHIP, W. S.— Hot Springs, N. C, 19th-20th century. Fine 
handmade percussion rifles; a noted match shooter. 

BLASIRUS, Peter — Unlocated. Marking on Kentucky flintlock rifle. 

BLEWITT & JOHNSON— 507 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif., 
1864-65. 

BLICKENSDOERFER & SCHILLING— St. Louis, Mo., makers of 
rifles, particularly of schuetzen type, with false muzzles and set 
triggers, with fine workmanship as to rifling, stocking, and hand 
made actions. 

John Blickensdoerfer is listed at 12 South Third Street in the 
1868 St. Louis Directory. The 1873 Directory lists Blickensdoerfer 
& Schilling at the above address. The firm is listed as J. Schilling 
only in 1875. 

BLISS, Frank D.— 16 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn., about 1856- 
63. Cartridge revolvers. 

BLISS & GOODYEAR— 16 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn., 1859. 
Made F. D. Bliss percussion revolvers. 

BLOODGOOD— North Carolina, flintlock period. 

BLOODWORTH, Timothy— North Carolina musket maker, 1776-78. 
Authorized by the State of North Carolina on June 14, 1776, to 
be paid 5 pounds for each musket with bayonet to be delivered 
within the next four months, Bloodworth and his workmen to 
be exempt from military service during that period. 

BLOOM, Jacob — Pennsylvania, after about 1780. Flintlock and per- 
cussion rifles; one with turkey head patchbox, brass lockplate, 
signed on barrel and lock. 

BLUE GRASS — Marking on an ordinary percussion bar lock of a 
home made half stock rifle, crudely marked "JOAB HELTON 
MAKE." 

BLUNT, Orizon— 118 Ninth St, New York, N. Y. Offered Sept. 10, 
1861 to contract for 20,000 Enfield rifles "to be manufactured in 
this country." March 31, 1862 reported 200 ready for delivery 
and on May 13, 1862, had 500 muskets ready. 

BLUNT & SYMS— 44 Chatham St., New York City, 1837-65. Per- 
cussion pistols, pepperboxes rifles. (Orison Blunt). 
BLYMYER— See Clark & Blymyer. 

BLYMYRE, George— 12 miles north of York, Pa, in 1776. Flintlock 
Kentucky rifles. 

B. M. — Initials of Benjamin Moore, U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1810-15. 

BOALER, Joseph — Newark, N. J. Percussion duelling type pistols. 

BOARDLEAR, Samuel— Boston, Mass, 1796. 

BOBB, Anthony— Reading, Berks Co, Pa, 1778-81. 

BODENHEIMER, William— Came to Lancaster, Ohio, as wheelright 
in 1817. One flintlock Kentucky rifle known, period 1810, as well 
as percussion rifles made before and after 1837. Listed as gun- 
smith and gun manufacturer in 1859. 

BOENZLI, Andreas— Lancaster, Pa. Swiss by birth; made beautiful 
Kentucky flintlock rifles showing Swiss influence. 

BOGART BROS.— 112 Washington St, 1858-61. 

BOLEN, J. G. B.— New York, N. Y, 1857. Percussion pepperbox. 
Probably made by Allen. 

BOLRENIUS, Albert-Milwaukee, Wis. Born October 28, 1820, in 
Rhine, Prussia, where he learned the gunsmith trade. Came to 



22 American Gun Makers 

U. S. in 1847, and to Milwaukee in 1848, where he was active as 

rifle, gun and pistol maker for over 30 years. Located on Oneida 

Street from 1848 until after the Civil War, then at 501 East 

Water until his death in 1890. Noted for fine percussion target 

rifles, schuetzen type. 
BOLSER, Joseph — Philadelphia, Pa., in 1799; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 
BOLTON — Barrel marking of a flintlock Kentucky rifle of about 

1770-1790. 
BOLTON, Enoch— Charleston, S. C, 1665. 
BOLTON, Roberta-Georgia, 1770-73. Armorer to the Colony. 
BOMFORD, Geo.— Colonel Ordnance Dept. U. S. Army. Connected 

with procurement and technical improvement 1818-1841. 
BONEBRAKE, Tobias Miller— Kingman, 111., before 1885. Percussion 

rifles. 
BOND, Richard — Cecil County, Md. Contractor to Maryland Council 

of Safety for 1,000 gun barrels, on April 17, 1777. 
BONNET, A.— Clarion, Pa., 1875. Maker of full stock plains rifle 

marked "A. BONNET CLARION PA. 1875" and numbered. Barrel 

by James Bown, Pittsburgh (1862-1871), lock by J. H. Johnston, 

Pittsburgh, (1866-1916). 
BONTEMPS— Camden, N. J. Percussion rifles. 
BOONE, E.— Oley Valley, Pa., before and after 1818. Cousin to Daniel 

Boone. Long, plain but graceful flintlock Kentucky rifles, scroll 

carved but without patchbox; one dated 1817. 
BOONE, Samuel— Berks County, Pa., after 1768. Nephew to Daniel 

Boone. 
BOONE, Samuel — Frederickstown, Md. Musket lock-maker of Revolu- 
tionary War period. 
BOONE, Squire — Rowan County, N. C. Brother to Daniel Boone, 

before 1800. 
BOONE, Thomas — Oley Valley, Pa.; making flintlock Kentucky rifles 

in 1797. First cousin to Daniel Boone. 
BOOTH, R. W. — Cincinnati, Ohio. Maker of percussion rifle locks. 

Also made flintlock Kentucky rifle. 
BOOTH, William— Philadelphia, Pa., 85 S. Front St., in 1798, and 

on South Second St. from 1799 to 1816. Made pistols of martial 

type and manufactured and rented duelling pistols. 
BOOTH, William — Musket maker of Narberth, Pa., flintlock period. 

May have been the Wm. Booth who later married into the 

Nippes family, musket contractors. 
BORDER, Daniel and Enos — Bedford Borough and Township, Bedford 

Co., Pa., about 1843. 
BORDER, Gebald— Bedford, Pa., 1769. 
BORDER, John— Bedford Co., Pa. Son of William, brother of Daniel. 

Made mostly percussions. 
BORDER, Samuel— 1825-1865, flint and percussion periods. Bedford 

Co., about 1841, later Somerset Co. 
BORDER, William— Bedford, Pa. Son of Gebald, father of Daniel and 

John. Made rifles before 1800. 
BORDER, Wm.— New Paris, Bedford, Co., Pa. Maker of full stock 

percussion squirrel rifles. Lock marked "W. B." 
BORTREE, William— Gunsmith. Back of 433 N. Third, Phila., Pa., 

1819. 



American Gun Makers 23 

BOSTON ARMS COMPANY— Boston, Mass. Civil War. 

BOSWORTH— Also Bossworth, Lancaster County, Pa., 1800-1805. 

BOSWORTH, B. M.— Unidentified. Cased pair of all metal percus- 
sion "bootleg" pistols. Cap boxes on left side of grips. 

BOUCHETTE, John—Gunsmith. Cobb's Court, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

BOUDEREAUX, P.— N. Y. Maker of a massive, schuetzen type, 
octagon barrel, percussion target rifle with false muzzle and en- 
graved lock and breech. 

BOULON, W. S.— Kentucky, 1800-40. 

BOURNE, William — Savannah, Ga., Confederate imitation Colt 
Remington revolvers, marked "W.B. C.S.A." 

BOURON, P. — New Orleans, La., arms maker. Born at Nantes, France 
in 1835. Was apprenticed to the gunsmith trade under Armand 
Soubie in 1847, at the age of 12. Located at 259 Bayou Road in 
1853. Died in 1905. 

BOURON, Louis L.— New Orleans, La., 1861-1943. Son of P. Bouron. 
Learned the gunsmith trade in his father's shop and after father's 
death continued the firm's business at 534 Chartres as P. Bouron 
Sons. 

BOURON, Philipe George— New Orleans, La., 1859-1929. Son of P. 

Bouron. Learned the gunsmith trade at Evaeux, France, from 

1878 to 1881, when he returned to New Orleans to work in his 

father's shop. 
BOWMAN, William — Loudonville, Ohio. Percussion rifles. Active 

1865-1892. Worked with P. A. Reinhard of Loudonville, Ohio. 

BOWN, A. — Barrel marking of a muzzle-loading, percussion rifle. 

BOWN, James — Born in England, 1823; emigrated when ten years old 
and settled at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1843. With Tetley, established 
the Enterprise Gun Works, 136-138 Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Father of Wm. H. Bown. Member of firms Bown & Tetley (1848- 
1862), and James Bown & Son (1871 to 1879 and possibly later). 

BOWN, James & Son — (James and William H. Bown), Enterprise 
Gun Works 136-138 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa., from 1871; 121 
Wood St. in 1883; bought out by Brown & Hirth in or before 
1886. In 1883 advertised percussion fullstock rifles at $15, half- 
stocks at $12 and $20, double rifles at $35, and double rifle- 
shotguns at $30. "The only manufacturers of the CELEBRATED 
KENTUCKY RIFLES, which name was adopted by the senior 
member of this firm in 1848; ... all our Rifles have our name 
stamped on each barrel, and THIS STAMP." (KILL over, BUCK 
under, a buck facing left). 

BOWN, William H.— Son of James Bown, above. Born 1847 at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. See also Bown, James & Son, above. 

BOWN & TETLEY— Enterprise Gun Works, Pittsburgh, Pa., estab- 
lished 1848. James Bown became sole proprietor in 1862. Makers 
of a half stock, German silver mounted, percussion rifle of fine 
workmanship, with barrel and lock marked "BOWN & TETLEY 
PITTSBURGH" and barrel marked "KILL" over a buck and 
"ENTERPRISE GUN WORKS." 

BOYCE, T. — Unlocated. Percussion underhammer pistol. 

BOYD BREECH-LOADING ARMS CO.— 81 Washington St., and later 
205 Broadway, Boston, Mass. 1870-72. 

BOYD, Robert— New Windsor, Ulster Co., N. Y., before and after 
1772-76. Proposed to the Provincial Congress of New York (con- 



24 American Gun Makers 

sidered June 13, 1775), to furnish 1,000 muskets complete with 
steel ramrods, bayonets and scabbards at the price of 3 pounds, 
15 shillings per stand, New York currency. 
BOYER, D. (David)— Or wigsburg, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Maker of a 
flintlock (converted to percussion) Kentucky rifle, .47 caliber, 
barrel marked "D. BOYER," patchbox engraved in script 
"ORWIGSBURG DAVID BOYER"; related to, or possibly 
identical with D. (Daniel) Boyer? Lock marked "H. ELWELL 
WARRANTED." See also Elwell, Henry and Elwell, H. 

BOYER, D. (Daniel)— Orwigsburg, Pa. 1790-1810. Son of M. Boyer. 

BOYER, H.— Lehigh, District, Pa., flintlock period. 

BOYER, J. — Pennsylvania, Kentucky rifle. 

BOYER, M. — Lehigh District, Pa., flintlock period, Father of D. Boyer. 

BOYER, N.— Lehigh District, Pa., flintlock period. 

BOYINGTON, John S.— South Coventry, Conn., late flintlock to early 
percussion. Patent breech percussion rifle. 

BOZEMAN, David W.— See Davis & Bozeman. 

BRACKLOW, T. — Marking on percussion, walnut stocked, bronze 
furniture, percussion rifle with Remington barrel and G. Goulcher 
lock. 

BRADA, Conrad— Baltimore, Md., 1860. 

BRADLEY, R. — Unlocated. Possibly Georgia. Late flintlock period 
Kentucky rifle. 

BRADT, W. H.— Leadville, Col, 1877-80. 

BRAGG, Joseph C— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1841-42, in 
plant of Nathan Starr. 

BRAMMER, George L.— Chesapeake, Ohio. Died Feb. 16, 1947, aged 85. 

BRAND ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn., 1866-75. Whaling guns. See 
Brand, Christopher. 

BRAND, Christopher Crandall — Norwich, Conn, manufacturer of 
whaling guns and lance guns. Born Hopkinton, Rhode Island 
Nov. 20, 1813. Learned the ironworker's trade and in 1852 
patented his first invention, an explosive whale-bomb. Operator 
of Brand Firearms Company at Norwich, 1852-1875; plant located 
at 112 Franklin St, 1866-72, then at 124 Franklin. Residence 
variously at 24 and 26 Broad. Also made patented shoulder bomb 
guns for the whaling trade and invented many improvements 
for whaling devices and more conventional arms. After his death 
the factory was operated by Junius A. Brand until 1890. 
Christopher Brand was the original donor and incorporator of 
the Norwich Free Academy in 1854. 

BRANDAGEEZ — Grahamsville, N. Y. Several generations made Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BRANG, Peter— See Brong, Peter. 

BRANNAN, Luke— Paper Mill Street, Norwich, Conn, 1875. Pistol 
maker. 

BRANT, Jacob F.— Uniontown, Pa, gunsmith, 1820-1850. 

BRASIRUS, Joseph — Pennsylvania, flintlock period. 

BRASIRUS, Peter — Pennsylvania, flintlock period. Related to Joseph 
Brasirus? 

BREICK, Henry W.— Market St, (now No. 1008), San Francisco, 
Calif, 1847. Gunsmith shop back of hardware store. Died 1848. 



American Gun Makers 25 

BREIDENHART, Chris— Pennsylvania. Kentucky Rifles. 

BREIGLE, Jacob— Union Township, Bedford Co., Pa., about 1860. 

BRELSFORD, Jonathan — Zanesville, Muskigum Co. Ohio, 1814. 

BRELSFORD— Zanesville, Ohio, 1850-61. Son of Jonathan Brelsford. 

BRENNER, Martin— Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820-30. 

BREY, Elias— Pennsburg, Pa. Born Nov. 2, 1817, son of John Adam 
and Elizabeth Brey. Worked as a youth in Kraussdale machine 
shops. A bachelor, he later settled in Kraussdale with relatives 
until his death May 25, 1891. Made two styles of cane guns. 

BRIDESBURG MACHINE WORKS— Shops at Bridesburg, and Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Musket contractors for Springfield muskets during 
the Civil War. There were 98,464 stands delivered of the 100,000 
contracted for. Controlled by Alfred and Barton J. Jenks. See 
Jenks, A. & Son. 

BRIDGEWATER MFG. CO.— North Bridgewater, Mass., July 26, 
1813, Alpheus and Parmenas Brett "conveyed all rights, title and 
interest in and to the trip-hammer or water shop to the Bridge- 
water Mfg. Co." It is not certain that this firm made arms, 
though a flintlock musket is known with lockplate marked with 
an eagle, "U. S.," "BRIDGWATER" and dated "1812." James 
Perkins of Bridgewater, in association with Adam Kinsley had 
a musket contract in 1808, and it is believed that this lockplate 
was their product. 

BRIGGS, J. — Ithaca, N. Y., percussion period 

BRIGGS, N. A. — Norwich, Conn. Flobert action target pistol. 

BRIGGS, William— Norristown, Pa., 1848-50. 

BRIGH, Samuel — Pennsylvania. Skilled maker of Kentucky rifles. 

BRISTOL FIRE ARMS CO.— Bristol, R. I., makers of Burnside car- 
bines. Organized by A. E. Burnside in 1855. The government 
purchased 200 breech-loading carbines from Burnside April 21, 
1856, at $30.00 each, and 709 from Bristol F. A. Co., Sept. 21, 
1858, at $35.00 each. Taken over by creditors in May, 1860, and 
reorganized. See Burnside Rifle Co. 

BROCKWAY, C, JR.— Elk Co., Pa. Reported maker of a curly maple, 
half stock rifle. 

BROCKWAY, Norman S.— Born March 13, 1841, in South Charles- 
town, N. H.; moved to Bellows Falls, Vt., in 1844. Worked at 
Springfield Armory during the Civil War; in February 1864 was 
put in charge of mainspring work at Norwich Arms Co., Nor- 
wich, Conn. In March 1865 he operated a turret lathe for Smith 
& Wesson. Returned to Bellows Falls in May 1866, set up shop, 
and began making rifles May 1, 1867. Made many fine heavy 
match rifles, both muzzle-loading and breech-muzzle-loading, 
regular or gain twist. Died at West Brookfield, Mass., July 25, 
1936. Noted as a match shooter. 

BRONG, Joseph — Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period. 

BRONG, Peter— Also Brang. 700 No. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 
musket maker. Contracted with the State of Pennsylvania on 
April 17, 1801, for 500 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets. 
On July 13, 1801, in association with Abraham Henry and Henry 
DeHuff, proposed to furnish the State of Virginia with 7,075 
stands of arms at $11.00 per stand, and 1,000 pair of pistols at 
$15.00 per pair delivery at Lancaster in three years. No record 
of contract being awarded. 



26 American Gun Makers 

BROOKE, J. J. & N.— Listed in contracts as I. I. & N. Brooke. Penn- 
sylvania musket makers. Contracted Nov. 1, 1808, for 4,000 Model 
1808 muskets. There were 1,257 known to have been delivered by 
Oct. 7, 1812. Quite likely that arms were made for the Brookes' 
by Owen Evans with whom the Brookes family was associated. 
The Brookes' were probably located at Guelph Mills, about six 
miles east of Valley Forge. It was at Guelph Mills that Washing- 
ton's army was encamped for about a week in December, 1777, 
just prior to going into winter quarters at Valley Forge. 

BROOKLYN FIRE ARMS CO.— Brooklyn, N. Y., about 1863-64. 
Makers of a front loading revolver with removable cylinder 
under Frank P. Slocum patent of April 15, 1863, No. 38,204. The 
arm was produced to avoid infringement of Smith & Wesson 
patents. 

BROOKS, J. — Marking in script on a Lancaster, Pa., carved stock 
rifle circa 1780. 

BROOKS, Richard— (Or Brookes) Boston, Mass., 1675. 

BROOKS, WM. F. MFG. CO.— -New York, N. Y., 1861-65. Makers of 
Gibbs patent carbines, 1,052 of which were purchased by the 
government from May 30 to June 24, 1863. 

BROWN, Andrew— Fremont, N. H., 1866-72. Son of John Brown. 

BROWN, Andrew J. — Worcester, Mass., in 1852. Barrelmaker, mem- 
ber of firm Allen, Brown, & Luther (q. v.). 

BROWN, C. E. — Unlocated. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun. 

BROWN, C. L. — See Morris & Brown. 

BROWN. C. W. — Unlocated. Over-under, mule ear, percussion rifle. 
(Same as C. E. Brown?) 

BROWN, Elisha— Providence, R. I. Musket maker, active 1799-1801. 
Contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern, 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 775 were 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

BROWN, F. P.— (Or F. B.) Lancaster, Pa., late flintlock and early 
percussion rifle. 

BROWN & HIRTH— Enterprise Gun Works, 520-522 Wood St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., 1886. "Proprietors of the Enterprise Gun and Machine 
Works, and the only dealers in Pittsburgh or Allegheny County 
who manufacture their own gun barrels, and being the only 
parties who make the Celebrated Kentucky Muzzle-Loading 
Rifle." Successors to James Bown & Son (q. v.). Offered a com- 
plete line of muzzle-loading and other arms, barrels, gunsmiths' 
tools and gun parts, ammunition, and sporting goods. See Enter- 
prise Gun Works; August Hirth, and James Bown & Son. 

BROWN, Ira— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1863-65. 

BROWN, James — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith on Front St., 
above Callowhill, in 1829. 

BROWN, J. F. — Haverhill, Mass.; percussion rifles. 

BROWN, John— Fremont, N. H., 1840-70. Fremont was known as 
Poplin until 1857. Percussion hunting and target rifles. 

BROWN, J. H. — Dayton, Ohio, percussion rifle. 

BROWN, J. H.— See Brown Mfg. Co. 

BROWN, J. N.— Dayton, Ohio. Percussion Kentucky type rifle with 
lock by Bixler & Iddings, Lafayette, Ind. 

BROWN, Jos. M. Co. — San Francisco, Calif. Importers and dealers. 



American Gun Makers 27 

Marking on a fullstock percussion "Bear Rifle" made by Leman, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

BROWN MFG. CO.— Newburyport, Mass., 1869-73. Incorporated Feb. 
18, 1869, and took over control of Merrimack Arms & Mfg. Co., 
makers of a bolt action rifle and arms under the Ballard patents. 
Operated by J. H. Brown. Also made "Southernor" cartridge 
derringer, manufactured with either brass or steel frames. The 
company went out of business July 23, 1873. 

BROWN, Reuben — Nicholville, N. Y.; percussion rifles. 

BROWN, W. H.— Percussion rifle with "T. & C. NEAVE EXTRA" 
lock. 

BROWN, W. H.— Unlocated. Percussion rifle with lock by J. V. Hoff- 
mann. 

BROWN, WM. & SONS— Pittsburgh, Pa., 1850-60. 

BROWNING, Abel S.— Terra Alta, W. Va. Fine late Kentucky per- 
cussion rifle, auburn maple stock German silver mounted; Joseph 
Golcher lock, H. E. Leman barrel. 

BROWNING, August — San Francisco, Calif., gunsmith and rifle 
maker. 1887 before and after. In partnership with one Heber 
made the Browning-Heber rifles. Member of Browning & Bremer. 

BROWNING & BREMER— 651 Clay St, San Francisco, Calif., before 
and after. Gunsmiths. Imported Clabrough & Bro., shotguns. 

BROWNING, Jonathan— Tennessee gunsmith, 1805-1879. In his youth 
moved to Kentucky where he learned the gunsmith trade and 
opened his own shop. Later joined the Mormons and established 
his shop at Nauvoo, Illinois. Designed and forged by hand his 
first repeating rifle as early as 1831. Later moved his shop to Iowa, 
on Musquito Creek, eight miles south of Kanesville (near Coun- 
cil Bluffs) and a half mile south of Trading Point. Here he 
located for two years. Advertised in the Kanesville "Frontier 
Guardian" Sept. 19, 1849, the manufacture of "revolving rifles 
and pistols, also slide-guns from five to 25 shooters." Made re- 
peating rifles on the side feed and on the revolving cylinder 
principles. Moved to Ogden, Utah where he opened his shop 
in 1851. Here his famous son, John Moses Browning, firearms 
inventor and designer was born in 1855. 

BROWNING JOHN M. — John Moses Browning, world famed arms 
inventor and designer. Born in Ogden, Utah, son of Jonathan 
Browning, arms inventor and maker. Designed and whittled 
breech mechanisms in wood at fourteen and made his own and 
his brother's rifles before he was twenty. At twenty-four ob- 
tained his first patent on a single-shot breech-loader. 

With his brother Matthew Sandefur Browning, organized 
Browning Brothers Company, the J. M. & M. S. Browning Com- 
pany and the Browning Arms Company. The brothers with the 
aid of their half brothers, J. Edmund and T. Samuel Browning 
made six hundred rifles as their initial stock. These along with 
the patents was acquired by Winchester Arms Company. Subse- 
quent Browning patents covered a wide field of repeating arms — 
the Winchester Models '86, '90, '92, '94, '95, '06, Remington 
Models 81 and 241; repeating shotguns, Winchester and Rem- 
ington as well as automatic pistols, machine guns and machine 
rifles names after the inventor. Browning arms were also made 
by Colt's and Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre of Liege, 
Belgium. 



28 American Gun Makers 

BROWNLOW'S ESTABLISHMENT— Knoxville, Term., steam-power 
printing plant seized by Confederates about Nov. 26, 1861 and 
converted to a shop for "alteration of arms." Parson Brownlow 
(Brownslow in some reports) editor of Knoxville Whig and Inde- 
pendent Journal, a strong Union man "left . . . and is abetting 
the enemy." 

BROWNOP, James— Philadelphia, Pa., 1779-80. 

BRUCE & DAVIS — Boston, Mass. Marking on double-barrel percus- 
sion pistols and Allen & Thurber type pistols. Believed to have 
been distributors who so marked arms which they handled for 
sale. 

BRUFF, R. P. — New York, N. Y., percussion derringers. 

BRUNKER, Peter— Ottawa, 111. Percussion rifles. 

BRUNSON, Peter— East Trumbull, O. 

BRUSH, John — Gunsmith and armorer in Colonial Williamsburg, Va., 
after 1729. Reportedly in London ca. 1700. Emigrated to Virginia 
with Governor Spotswood, 1729. Brush was the first keeper of 
the Colony's magazine and was employed to fire guns at the 
Governor's Palace in celebration of King's birthdays. An early 
inventory lists "1 bird piece by Brush, 1/00/00." His home is 
being rebuilt and furnished as it appeared in 1730's. 

BRYAN, Daniel— North Carolina, about 1800; made flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. Nephew to Daniel Boone. 

BRYAN, T.— Die stamped marking "T. BRYAN" under barrel breech 
of Pennsylvania made, smoothbore "Kentucky fowler" circa 
1770-80. 

BRYANT, Silas— Walnut St., bet. 5th and 6th, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
1818-29. 

BRYCE — Unidentified. Percussion revolver. Barrel swings up to re- 
move cylinder for loading. 

BRYCE & BUDD— Unlocated. 1881. Damascus barrels, early hammer- 
less, breechloading cartridge shotguns. 

B. T. — Unidentified marking on circa 1830 Kentucky rifle. 

BUCHALEW — South Rowlesburg, W. Va., percussion Kentucky rifle. 

BUCHANAN, L.— Unlocated. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BUCHMILLER, R.— N. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 1869-70. Made per- 
cussion rifles from late 1840 or so. 

BUCK, Daniel — Pennsylvania; early flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BUCK, H. A. & CO.— West Stafford, Conn., about 1883. Manufactured 
Buck's single-shot breech-loading rifle. 

BUCKINGHAM — Delhi, N. Y., high grade, decorated percussion rifles. 

BUCKLAND, E. H. & CO.— Springfield, Mass., 1866-68. 

BUCKLEY, Anton— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1860-64. 

BUCKNER— Maquoketa, Iowa. 

BUCKWALTER, Abraham and Henry — Lampeter Township, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., 1771-79. 

BUCKWALTER, David B.— Active at Antes Fort (later Jersey Shore) 
Lycoming Co., Pa., until about 1885, and later at Houtsdale until 
1895. Maker of rifles, shotguns and pistols. Born 1850, died Bell- 
wood, Pa., October, 1928. 

BUCKWALTER, John — Lampeter Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 
Brother of Abraham and Henry Buckwalter. 



American Gun Makers 29 

BUDDENHAGEN, John— Sandusky, Ohio, 1869-86. 

BUELL, Elisha — Hebron, Conn. Made forty muskets for Privateer 
Oliver Cromwell; Oct. 11, 1776. 

BUELL, Elisha — Musket maker of Marlborough, Conn., established 
1797. Made Model 1795 and Model 1808 muskets, the latter under 
contract of Nov. 13, 1808. Details unknown. 

BUELL, Enos — Son of Elisha above. Succeeded his father about 1825 
and active until about 1850. 

BUFFALO NEWTON RIFLE CORP'N— Organized by Charles Newton 
at Buffalo, N. Y., about 1923, and moved to New Haven, Conn., 
about 1925, where Newton arms were made until about 1932, 
when Charles Newton died and the company ceased operations. 

BUJAC & BENNETT — New Orleans, La., shoulder arms machinery 
contractors to the Confederacy. In 1861 B. K. T. Bennett and 
Francis Lurgess were proprietors of New Orleans Foundry and 
Ornamental Iron Works, corner Magnolia and Erato Streets, New 
Orleans, La. Bennett of the firm with Bujac were erecting works 
with view to the manufacture of small arms, and according to the 
testimony would not take contracts for heavy guns. About April 
25, 1862, in order to avoid capture by Union forces, the machin- 
ery was loaded on a ship and taken to Montgomery, Alabama, 
where it was sold to the Alabama Arms Manufacturing Company 
on June 3, 1862. It was inspected by Col. James H. Burton of the 
Confederate Ordnance Dept., on June 14, 1862 with view to pur- 
chase for C. S. A. Extract from Col. Burton's report: ". . . ex- 
amined the machinery. Found it all exposed to weather, without 
any protection whatsoever, and in very bad order in consequence 
of not having been packed and boxed. The gun machines are of 
very cheap construction and not such as it would be advisable 
to introduce into a permanent Govt, establishment. . . . Decided 
not to take it." See Alabama Arms Mfg. Co. 

It would appear that some contractors of those days were 
also not above making a "quick dollar," even if a Confederate 
one. 

BULL, Elijah — On Turkey Creek, Morristown, Tenn. Percussion 
rifles. 

BULL, Elisha— North Carolina before and after 1821; flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BURGEN, F. A. — Partner with George Schoyen, gunsmiths, Denver, 
Colo. 1887-1897. 

BULLARD REPEATING ARMS CO.— Springfield, Mass., about 1886- 
90. Makers of Bullard patent rifles. Bullard had been master 
mechanic for Smith & Wesson. 

BULOW, Charles— Lancaster, Pa., about 1797. 

BUNGE, C. — Geneva, N. Y. Pill-lock revolving rifles and air rifles. 

BURD, C— Philadelphia, Pa., flintlock period. 

BURDEN, Calvin— Gunsmith. Back of 110 Race, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

BURDICK, S.— Unlocated. About 1850-60. 

BURGESS GUN CO.— Buffalo, N. Y., 1892-99. Single barrel repeating 

shotguns. 
BURKETT, A. H.— Fairfield, Iowa, 1874. Double barrel rifle. 
BURKHARD, Wm. R.— St. Paul, Minn., about 1850. 
BURNET, William— Youngstown, Ohio, 1880-82. 



30 American Gun Makers 

BURNETT, F. L.— Unlocated, flintlock period. 
BURNETT, S. F.— Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

BURNHAM, Elisha — Cleaned and repaired public arms for Connecti- 
cut. Account rendered in 1781. 

BURNHAM, Elisha— Hartford, Conn., 1777-81. (Same as above?) 

BURNHAM, George — Connecticut gunsmith. Worked on repair of 
public arms for the State, 1777-79. 

BURNS, Charles — Bluffton, Ohio. Modern. Maker of heavy percussion 
match rifles. 

BURNS & CO. — Unlocated. Heavy barrel Kentucky type percussion 
rifle. 

BURNS, H. — Dayton, Ohio. Maker of a brass and sliver mounted, per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship. 

BURNS, Henry— Lewisburg, Ohio, 1873-75. 

BURNSIDE RIFLE CO.— Providence, R. I. Organized by the creditors 
of the defunct Bristol Firearms Co., in May, 1860. Furnished 55,- 
567 Burnside patent carbines to the government during the 
Civil War. The firm also made Spencer carbines, 30,496 of which 
were furnished to the government from April 15, 1865, to Oct. 31, 
1865, too late for use in the Civil War. These arms were used in 
Indian campaigns. 

BURR— See Spiller & Burr. 

BURT, A. M. — Civil War musket maker, New York, N. Y. Contract of 
Dec. 26, 1861, for 50,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets at 
$20.00 each. Of these there were 11,495 delivered. Marked 
"Trenton." 

BURTON, James H. — Colonel Confederate Ordnance Dept. Employed 
at Harpers Ferry Armory in 1844 to become master armorer in 
1854. Inventor of self-expanding bullet. Appointed Lieut. Colonel 
of Ordnance by Virginia in June 1861, and to same rank with 
title of Superintendent of Armories by the Confederate States 
in December of that year. Erected the captured Harpers Ferry 
Armory machinery at Virginia State Armory and went into 
production in ninety days. Died near Winchester, Va., Oct. 18, 
1894. 

BURTON, L.— Norwalk, Ohio, 1871-83. 

BUSCH, F. L.— Lancaster, Pa., about 1770-1776. Early Kentucky flint- 
lock rifles. 

BUSCH, Oscar — Union, Mo. Reported maker of a fine 15V2-lb. percus- 
sion, walnut halfstock German silver mounted rifle with back 
action lock. Bought in St. Louis in 1869. 

BUSLER, James — Lycoming Co., Pa. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

BUSWELL, J. — Glen's Falls, N. Y., Over-under, percussion rifle and 
shotgun. 

BUSWELL, M. L. — Unlocated. Percussion Plains rifle. Also super- 
posed rifle-shotgun. 

BUTLER, John— Lancaster, Pa., 1775-78. Musket maker to Pennsyl- 
vania. Committee of Safety. 

BUTLER, Joseph— 118 Randolph St., Chicago, 111., 1857-84. 

BUTLER, Thomas — Lancaster, Pa., about 1775. Succeeded as "public 
armourer" in April, 1778, by William Henry of Lancaster. 

BUTLER, William S.— Unlocated. 1857. Percussion pistols. 



American Gun Makers 31 

BUTT, D. W. — Partner of George Schoyen, gunsmiths, Denver, Colo., 
1885-87. 

BUTTERFIELD, Jesse S.— Philadelphia, Pa. Manufacturer of Butter- 
field patent revolvers during the Civil War. Patentee of the 
Butterfield mechanical disc primer used on the revolvers. The 
disc primers of the Butterfield system were also used in conver- 
sion of flintlock muskets to percussion. 

BUTTERFIELD, L. — Lynn, Mass.; percussion rifles. 

BUXTON, Alfred C. — Manufacturer of Buxton single-trigger over- 
and-under shot gun and rifle. Born Castleton, Mich., April 23, 
1843; died Nashville, Mich., Nov. 30, 1924. 

BYERS, N.— Pennsylvania, 1800. 

BYRKIT, A. H.— Fairfield, Iowa, about 1874. Two barrelled rifle. 



CADMAN, A.— Columbus, Ga., 1861. Advertised, "Gun and Lock- 
smith, Crawford St., one door west of Rankin's corner near the 
markets." 

CALDERWOOD, William— Germantown Road, Philadelphia, Pa., 
1807-19. Pistol and rifle maker. Contracted on April 21, 1808, with 
Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 60 pair of pistols. 

CALL, G. — Pennsylvania in 1780; made early Kentucky flintlock 
rifles. 

CALVERT, James— McKean, Pa. Emigrated from the Cheviot Hills, 
Scottish border; died about 1890. 

CALVERT, W. H. — Beloit, Wis. Mostly percussion hunting rifles. Made 
guns from 1857 until after the Civil War, but operated a sport- 
ing goods shop until 1909. 

CAMEL & CO.— Troy, N. Y., 1840; Kentucky rifles. 

CAMP, Ben — Mt. Pleasant, Pa. Plain, unmarked, percussion hunting 
rifles. Made his own barrels; used Leman locks. 

CAMPBELL— Gunsmith sent by Federal Government to Ft. Wash- 
ington, Ohio, in 1788. 

CAMPBELL, Abner— Hamilton, Butler Co., Ohio, 1862. 

CAMPBELL, Tristram— St. Louis, Mo., 1842-1860, "journeyman gun- 
smith and gunmaker." Was with Christian Hoffman (Hoffman & 
Co.) 1842-1855. Percussion walnut stocked rifle with iron mount- 
ings. 

CAMPBELL, William— Annapolis, Md. The Maryland Council of 
Safety agreed Dec. 11, 1780, to pay him 17 shillings 6 pence, for 
every musket stocked, finished and delivered. 

CANADY, Charles— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 20 Budd, 
in 1829. 

CAPRON, Lyman— Williamstown, Vt. Before 1875. 

CARBOTT, J. A.— Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

CARDIS, Thomas — Pennsylvania, flintlock period. 

CAREY, M.— Lexington, Ohio, 1866-69. 

CAREY, Wm. & Co. — New York, N. Y. Percussion shotgun of fine 
workmanship. 

CARGILL, Benjamin — Agreed with Elisha Childs and Nathan Frink 



32 American Gun Makers 

to make 100 muskets for the Committee of Safety at the cost 
of $15.00 each, he to procure the stocks. 

CARLETON, M. & CO.— Makers of Carleton under-hammer percus- 
sion pistols about 1860. 

CARLISLE, Henry— Carlisle, Pa. Extra long flintlock Kentucky rifle. 
8-lb. percussion Kentucky rifle with 39-inch barrel. 

CARPENTER, A. B.— Unlocated. Name stamped on halfstock per- 
cussion rifle with gain twist barrel. 

CARPENTER, John— Earl Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771-79. 

CARPENTER, Nicholas— Marietta, Ohio, 1788. First gunsmith to settle 
in Marietta. Killed by Indians in 1791. 

CARR, Samuel— Gunsmith. Lolar's Court, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

CARRINGTON, James— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1826-1830. 
Inspected arms in plants of P. & E. W. Blake and Nathan Starr. 

CARRUTH, Adam— Greenville, S. C, musket maker 1809-21. On Nov. 
14, 1816, took over Elias Earle's government contract of Feb. 16, 
1816, for 10,000 muskets. Of the contract Carruth delivered only 
2,240 stands before Sept. 20, 1820, thereafter failing on his con- 
tract. Also furnished arms to the State of South Carolina. 

CARTER, C. — Fitchburg, Mass. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

CARTER, Frank C— Concord, N. H. Died 1830. 

CARTWRIGHT, John— Ottowah, Ohio, before and after 1865. 

CARVER, James W.— Pawlet, Vt., before and after 1885. 

CASE, WILLARD & CO.— New Hartford, Conn. Makers of underham- 
mer percussion pistols. 

CASSEL, Lee — Celina, Ohio; percussion rifles. 

CASWELL & DODGE— Springfield, Mass., musket makers of 1806- 
1807. Made and offered for sale muskets made on the Charleville 
(Model 1795) pattern. 

CASWELL, E. E. — Albany, N. Y. Patent breech, percussion, set trig- 
ger, engraved, combination match-hunting rifle. 

CASWELL, John M. — Lansingburgh, Albany, and Lewisburg, N. Y. 
Son of Thomas Caswell; taught gunsmithing to Nelson Lewis; 
retired 1836. At 60 State St., Albany, in 1815. Made flintlock 
Kentucky rifles, 4-shot Ellis-type repeating flintlock pistol, 6-shot 
flintlock revolver, percussion holster pistol, understriker rifle, 
percussion Kentucky rifle. 

CASWELL, John M., Jr. — Lansingburgh, N. Y. Son of John M., grand- 
son of Thomas Caswell. Heavy halfstock percussion target rifle 
with double rest and telescope sight. 

CASWELL, Thomas — Musket maker of Lansingburgh, N. Y., and 
contractor to N. Y. State for Model 1808 muskets. Established 
about 1812 with three shops in Lansingburgh, employing about 
twenty-five workmen. One shop was on State Street (now Second 
Avenue) and the other two on Hoosick Street (now Thirteenth 
Avenue). The plants turned out between twenty-five and thirty 
muskets a week. After Thomas' death, his son John M. Caswell 
continued the business until 1836. 

CAUP, Levi— West Buffalo, Snyder Co., Pa. 

CAVE, Christopher— Dock Ward, Philadelphia, Pa., 1779. 

C. B. — Unidentified. Marking on a light, flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

C. D. — Long flintlock Kentucky rifle. Probably Christian Diirr. 



American Gun Makers 33 

C. G. — Unidentified. Curly maple full-stock, octagonal barrel, flint- 
lock Kentucky rifle. Double set-triggers; cut out patchbox. 

C. H.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

CHACON, Paul— Concord Street, Baltimore, Md., 1817. 

CHAIN, Bill — Near Scottsdale. Everson area. Pa. percussion period. 

CHAMBERLAIN, E. — Southridge, Mass. Underhammer percussion 

pistol. 
CHAMBERLAIN, Lyman — Ellisburg, N. Y.; percussion rifles. 

CHAMBERS, Joseph G. — Contracted with Committee of Defense of 
Philadelphia, in the War of 1812, to furnish "repeating guns." 

CHANDLER, J.— Unlocated; possibly Highland Co., Ohio. Fullstock 
Kentucky rifles .34 to .36 caliber with 5-groove barrels marked 
"J. CHANDLER WARRANTED." 

CHANDLER, Stephen — Musket maker to Committee of Safety, Con- 
necticut, 1776. 

CHAPIN, A. H. — Earlville, N. Y., percussion period. 

CHAPIN, E. R.— Earlville, N. Y., percussion rifles. 

CHAPMAN, C— Unlocated. Confederate arms. 

CHAPMAN, C. H.— Unlocated. Over-under, pill-lock, rifle and shot- 
gun. 

CHAPMAN, James—Bucks County, Pa., 1770-76. Musket maker to 
Committee of Safety. 

CHAPMAN, Josiah — Fredericktown, Md. Operator of a large gun 
factory during the Revolutionary War. 

CHAPPLE, Thomas — New York City. Percussion sporting rifles. 

CHARLOTTSVILLE RIFLE WORKS— Charlottsville, N. C. From 
1740 through to the Revolutionary War. Established by ex- 
employees of the Lemans of Lancaster, Pa. Made Committee of 
Safety muskets and pistols. 

CHARPIE, P. F. — Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Cannon-barrel, underhammer 
percussion pistol. 

CHARRIER, Jacques— 60 Market St., Baltimore, Md., 1812. Listed at 
35 Water Street in the 1817 Directory. 

CHASE, Anson— Enfield, Mass., before 1830. Hartford, Conn., 1830-34, 
later New London, Conn. 

CHASE, Anson — 44 Bank, New London, Conn., gunsmith, 1870-71. 

CHASE, William— Pandora, Ohio, before and after 1860. 

CHATENS, Charles— Primrose Alley, Baltimore, Md., 1810. 

C. H. D. — Marking under barrel breech of a long, flintlock, Kentucky 
rifle of about 1775-1800. Lock plate marked "T. D." 

CHERINGTON, A.— Penna., 1847. Percussion rifle. 

CHERINGTON, T. P., Sr.— Cattawissa, Pa., flintlock period. Father 
of Thomas P., Jr. 

CHERINGTON, Thomas P., Jr. — Pistol and rifle maker of Cattawissa, 
Pa., flintlock and percussion periods. Also associated with George 
Schalk at Pottsville, Pa. Manually operated, early revolving 
cylinder 7-shot percussion rifle. 

CHICAGO ARMS CO.— 637-8 Monadnock Building, 1894 Distributors 
of Protector Palm Pistols, made by Ames Sword Co. 

CHICHESTER RIFLE CO.— 31 Montgomery St., Jersey City, N. J., 



34 American Gun Makers 

1879. A promotion firm selling mail order revolver-rifles. Closed 
by action of postal authorities. 

CHICOPEE FALLS CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Percussion cadet 
musket with back-action lock. 

CHILCOTE, J. A.— Dry Run, Pa., percussion rifle. 

CHILCOTE, W. C. — Pennsylvania percussion rifle maker. 

CHILD, Elisha— With Nathan Frink agreed with the Committee of 
Safety, Connecticut, "for the manufacture of 100 arms, but can 
get only 50, and those are not yet ready"; January, 1778. 

CHILD & PRATT— St. Louis, Mo., dealers only. A fullstock percus- 
sion rifle made expressly for Child & Pratt by Brown & Tetley 
Enterprise Gun Works, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1848-62. 

CHILDS, E.— See Nichols & Childs. 

CHIPMAN, Darius— Rutland, Vt. Musket maker active 1799-1801. In 
association with Royal Crafts, Thomas Hooker and John Smith 
contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern 
(Model 1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 575 were 
delivered before June 10, 1801. 

Darius Chipman was born at Salisbury, Conn., in 1758. Was 
admitted to the Bar in 1781 and was state's attorney in 1785. 
In 1816 he moved to New York, where he died in 1820. 

CHIPMAN, Samuel — Associated with Thomas Towsey, musket maker, 

in the contract for 1,000 muskets under Act of July 5, 1798, at 

$13.40 per stand, of which 275 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

Samuel Chipman was the town clerk of Vergennes, Vt., in 1789. 

CHITTENDEN, Ebenezer— Connecticut gunsmith to Committee of 
Safety. Worked on repair of public arms in 1781. Died in 1783. 

CHITTLE, Frederick— Court Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1832. 

CHNADER, J.— Unidentified. Kentucky rifles. 

CHOATE, N. W.— Auburn, N. Y., 1850-75. Three-barrel guns. Experi- 
mented with small bore, high speed combination. 

CHRISKEY, Lewis— Philadelphia, Pa., 1815. Probably same as L. 
Chrisky or Ghriskey, q. v. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

CHRISKY, L.— Philadelphia, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

CHRIST— Lancaster, Pa., 1772. Kentucky rifle. 

CHRIST, Albert— Patentee and maker of Christ 18-shot rim fire 
cartridge revolver with two circles of chambers and superposed 
barrels. About 1860. 

CHRIST, D. — Marking on Kentucky barrels, usually bored smooth. 
Letter "s" is reversed in the die. Probabilities are that Christ 
was a barrel worker who specialized in smooth-boring worn 
rifle barrels. 

CHRIST, D. — Lancaster, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

CHRIST, Jacob — Lancaster Co., Pa., about 1800. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

CHRISTMAN, J. — Unlocated. Percussion target rifle, walnut fullstock 
with forestock projection for muzzle rest. 

CHURCH, J.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

CHURCHILL, Josiah— Belle Plaine, Scott Co., Minn., 1864-66. 

CHURCHILL, Otis— 9 Beaver St., Albany, N. Y., 1839-59. Last listed 
in 1859 directory at 78 State St. Percussion rifles. 

CLABROUGH & GOLCHER— 630 Montgomery St., San Francisco, 






American Gun Makers 35 

Calif. 1887, before and after. Gunsmiths. Imported Clabrough & 
Bro., English shotguns. 

CLAGETT, Alexander — Hagerstown, Md. Musket maker. Contracted 
for 1,000 muskets Charleville pattern (Model 1795), under Act 
of July 5, 1798, at $13.40 per stand. Of these 433 were delivered 
by June 10, 1801. 

CLALLCH, H. M.— Pennsylvania, period of 1780; flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

CLAPHAM, Josiah — Also Clapham Josiah & Co., musket makers 
1776-77. Contractors to the State of Virginia. 

CLARK — Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringers. 

CLARK, Alvan — Cambridge, Mass. Patentee of the false muzzle on 
April 24, 1840. Pat. No. 1565. 

CLARK & BLYMYER — Marking under barrel breech of a full stock 
Kentucky rifle, probably a percussion conversion from a flint 
lock. 

CLARK, C. C. — Percussion pistol. 

CLARK, Carlos C— Windsor, Vt, 1856-68. Telescopic rifle sights. 

CLARK, Charles D. — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

CLARK, Ezra — Hartford Co., Conn., rifle maker employing 19 work- 
ers in 1850. 

CLARK, F. H. & CO. — Memphis, Tenn. Made derringer type percus- 
sion pistols. 

CLARK, Frances — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 
Safety, 1776. Frances Clark was one of the petitioners, repre- 
senting Pennsylvania gun makers, complaining to the Commit- 
tee of Safety in November, 1776, against the high cost of ma- 
terials and labor entering into arms making, and quoting ad- 
vances in prices within one year, since 1775. 

CLARK, H. & CO. — Memphis, Tenn., makers of an engraved, silver 
mounted, short handled, percussion derringer. 

CLARK, James— Hopewell Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1821. 

CLARK, James— Cincinnatti, Ohio, 1807-1831. "Guns, pistols, daggers." 

CLARK, John— Canton, Stark Co., Ohio, 1821-36. 

CLARK, Joseph — Danbury, Conn. Musket maker. Contracted for 500 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795), muskets under Act of July 5, 
1798, at $13.40 per stand. Of these 325 were delivered by June 
10, 1801. 

CLARK, Joseph Andre dit — Detroit, Mich. Had a rifle shop on the 
southeast corner of Randolph and Lamed Streets. In 1814 was a 
member of a volunteer company raised by General Gass to drive 
off Indians who camped too close to town and stole cattle. The 
Detroit city map lists the property as the "Old Clark Claim." 

CLARK & LAMBE — Anderson Lambe. Deep River, near Jamestown, 
Guilford Co., N. C. Civil War period, possibly before. Employed 
12-15 hands. 

CLARK, L. — Unlocated. Halfstock percussion rifles. 

CLARK, N. — Pennsylvania, percussion period. 

CLARK, N. — Curly maple, brass mounted, full stock, octagon barrel, 
percussion Kentucky rifle. 

CLARK & RANKIN — Stamping under barrel breech of a Kentucky 
rifle barrel marked on top flat "C. & J. CRAIG PITTSBURGH." 
Truitt lock. Possibly Bedford County, Pa. James Clark? 



36 American Gun Makers 

CLARK, R. — Albany, N. Y., percussion period. 

CLARK, S.— Lancaster Co., Pa., 1810-1830. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

CLARK & SNEIDER— 214 Pratt St., Baltimore, Md., 1876-84. 

CLARK, T. H. — Lafayette, Iowa. Half stock, double set triggers, per- 
cussion rifle with iron furniture. Barrel marked "T. H. CLARK 
LAFAYETTE IOWA GAINTWIST." 

CLARK, W. — Unlocated. Full maple stock percussion rifle with 
patch-box. 

CLARK, William— Philadelphia, Pa., 1783. 

CLARKE, John — Columbia, Pa., flintlock period. 

CLARKE, N.— Columbia, Pa. 1830-1869. Flintlock and percussion 
rifles. 

CLARKE, R. S.— Unlocated. Brass barrel flintlock holster pistol. (Pos- 
sibly English. Uncertain.) 

CLASPILL, George W.— Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1831-1850. 

CLAUSE, Nathan — Pennsylvania. Early maker of flintlock Kentucky 
rifles, fine craftsman; handsome over-under flintlock rifle-shotgun. 

CLEMENT, John W. — Tennessee, pre-Civil War. Heavy percussion 
match rifles. 

CLEMENT ARMS CO.— Nickel-plated .22, "Baby Bulldog" revolver. 

CLEMENT, W. T.— Associated with S. Norris in the manufacture of 
Civil War rifle muskets marked "S.N. & W.T.C. FOR MASS." 

CLEVELAND, W. H.— Norwalk, Ohio, 1882-83. 

CLEWFLIN, W.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

CLINE, C— See Kline C. 

CLING— Spring Run, Pa. 

CLOSSON, Charles — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 6 York Court, 
in 1829. 

CLOUSE, George— Woodbury Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1855. 

CLOUSE, Henry — Broadtop Township, Bedford Co., Pa., in 1852. 

CLOUSE, Valentine— "Felty" Clouse. South Woodbury Township, 
Bedford Co., Pa., 1875. Died about 1927. 

CLOWE, Henry W. — Superintendent Harpers Ferry Armory, 1857. 

CLUTZ, Capt. J.— Massillon, Ohio, 1850-60. Halfstock, percussion 
target rifle. 

C. M. H. — Unidentified. Stamped on barrel of heavy halfstock Plains 
rifle with brass tube for ramrod socket. 

C. N. — Unidentified. Script initials on barrel of late Kentucky .28 
cal. rifle with brass mounted, curly maple full stock and single 
trigger, back-action lock. 

COATES, James— Philadelphia, Pa., 1810-14. Ex-employee of J. J. 
Henry. 

COBB, Nathan & Henry — Norwich, Conn. Musket makers. Contrac- 
tors under Act of July 5, 1798, for 200 Charleville pattern (Model 
1795), muskets. All 200 delivered by June 10, 1801. 

COCHRAN, John W.— New York, N. Y., percussion period. "Coch- 
ran's many chambered and non-recoil" firearms, called "turret 
repeating arms." Mostly made by C. B. Allen. 

COCKERAL, G. W.— Unlocated. Half stock percussion Kentucky 
rifle marked on barrel and lock. All engraved silver mountings. 



American Gun Makers 37 

COCKLER, P.— Lewisburg, Pa. Late percussion period Plains rifle. 
COCKLIN, Nicholas— 24 Catherine St., New York, N. Y. 1834-39. 
COESTEL, (?) C. — Unlocated. Indistinct stamping inside percussion 

hammers of converted flintlock shotgun by H. Turner, Albany; 

exquisite custom conversion work. 
COFER, Thomas W. — Portsmouth, Va., 1861. Maker of a brass frame, 

sheath trigger Confederate revolver patented in Richmond Aug. 

12, 1861. Operated on a small scale employing less than a dozen 

hands. Shop was closed with the capture of Norfolk, across the 

river, by Union forces. 
COFFERS, Augustus — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 
COGSWELL, S.— Albany, N. Y., musket maker. Established about 

1813 in the manufacture of Model 1808 muskets. 
COGSWELL, S.— Troy, Pa., about 1800. 

COLBURN, D. G.— Inventor of revolver, patented June 29, 1833. 
COLBY, C. D.— St. Peter, Nocolett Co., Minn., 1864-71. Associated 

with Frazer. See Frazer & Colby. 

COLE, C. W. — Unlocated. Marking on a heavy sporting rifle. 

COLDREN, Samuel— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

COLEMAN, Charles— About 1862. Maker of Coleman breech-loading 
rifle. 

COLEMAN, H.— Boston, Mass., before and after 1847. 

COLIMAN, J.— Cedar Falls, Iowa, 1866-68. 

COLLIER, Elisha— Boston, Mass., 1807-1812. Inventor, patentee and 
maker of the Collier 5-shot revolving flintlock pistol, manu- 
factured largely in England, whither he moved about 1813, and 
where the arm was patented in 1818. 

COLLINS, Lindsey — Unlocated; probably Indiana. Reported maker 
of curly maple, fullstock percussion Kentucky rifle, DST, with 
brass furniture and factory lock. 

COLLMAN, J. — Freeport, 111. Halfstock percussion target rifle with 
name and location stamped on barrel; DST; factory lock by 
Spies. Reported used by member of Buffalo Bill's meat supply 
crew for railroad construction through Hays, Kansas. Possibly 
identical with J. Coliman, Idaho Falls, Iowa, 1866-68. 

COLSON, D. H. — Eaton, N. Y. Underhammer, percussion pistol. 

COLT, Samuel — Inventor and manufacturer of the Colt revolver. 
Born Hartford, Conn., July 10, 1814; died Jan. 10, 1862. See Colt 
Patent Fire Arms Co. 

COLT PATENT FIREARMS CO.— Hartford, Conn. The first company 
organized by Samuel Colt for the manufacture of repeating fire- 
arms under the Colt patent of Feb. 25, 1836, was the Patent 
Arms Mfg. Co., located at Paterson, N. J. The firm was active 
from 1836-42, when the company failed due to lack of public and 
government support and sales, the patents reverting to Samuel 
Colt. The Mexican War created a demand for arms and obtaining 
a government contract for 1,000 army revolvers (Model 1847) 
Colt had them manufactured by Eli Whitney at Whitneyville, 
Conn. Upon receipt of additional contracts in 1847, Colt estab- 
lished the plants of the Colt Patent Fire Arms Mfg. Co., at its 
present location in Hartford, Conn. The manufacture of the early 
dragoons was followed by subsequent government contracts con- 
tinuing to the present day and too numerous to mention here, 



38 American Gun Makers 

the firm having supplied the government with all types of arms 
in peace and wars. It may be of historical interest, however, 
to mention that according to the firm's records, during the Civil 
War the Colt Armory furnished the Union forces with 386,417 
revolvers, about 7,000 revolving rifles and carbines, and 113,980 
muzzle-loading rifle muskets. 

COLTON, W. M. — Leominster, Mass. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

COLUMBIA ARMORY— Columbia, S. C, also known as McPhail's 
Armory. Established with machinery and equipment removed 
from the Asheville Armory at Asheville, N. C. The plant was 
located in a warehouse owned by Fred W. Green, on the south 
side of Gervais Street, opposite Gist, and probably produced 
muzzle-loading rifles, though it was said to have made breech- 
loaders "just like the Yankees had." The plant was operated 
as a unit of the Confederate arsenal located a few blocks away, 
which had been removed from Charleston, S. C, and was in 
charge of Major J. T. Trezevant, C. S., formerly of Memphis, 
Tenn. On Sherman's approach, the machinery was packed up 
and taken to the railroad depot but could not be removed for 
lack of cars. The armory was shelled by Federal batteries on 
Feb. 15, 1865, and destroyed. 

A Federal report by Lt. McCahill showed the capture of 
10,410 stands of arms and 6,000 unfinished arms at Columbia, 
S. C, in February, 1865. 

COLUMBUS FIRE ARMS MANUF. CO.— Columbus, Ga. Established 
by Louis and Elias Haiman, swordmakers and equipment manu- 
facturers in the plant of the Muscogee Iron Works at the north- 
east corner of 14th and Oglethorpe Streets, which works they 
had purchased April 1st, 1862. On Aug. 26, 1862, the firm con- 
tracted with the Confederate States for 10,000 navy pistols, 
$50,000.00 being advanced by the Confederacy on the contract. 
The plant employed some 385 hands in all departments, and 
had produced between 300 and 500, round barrel, iron frame 
revolvers of the Colt navy type, before the plant and machinery 
were destroyed by General Wilson's cavalrymen in a raid on 
Columbus. 

Louis Haiman, born at Colmar, Prussia, came to United States 
as a child with his family, who settled in Columbus. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War, Haiman, a tinsmith, opened a sword 
factory next to Dr. Ware's Drug Store, and with the purchase 
of the Muscogee Iron Works, expanded his facilities to include 
the manufacture of bayonets, saddlery, mess equipment, etc. 

After the Civil War, the Haimans, under the name of Phoenix 
Foundry & Machine Shop, and later the Southern Agricultural 
Works, engaged in the manufacture of agricultural and mill 
machinery. 

COLVIN, M. S.— Salamanca and Syracuse, N. Y., before and after 
1872. Fine percussion shotguns and target rifles with accessories. 

COMINS, Loren— 114 Washington St. and 73 Davis St., San Francisco, 
Calif., 1856. Lived with and related to P. B. Comins. 

COMINS, Paschal B.— 125 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif., 1852- 
53. 70 Front St., 1854, and 69 Jackson St., 1858-61. 

COMPTON, Phineas M.— Berlin, Somerset Co., Pa. Gunsmith and 
tinner. Born June 1, 1804, near Brunswick, N. J. Grandparents 
came from France. Father came to Berlin in 1813. Reared in 
Salisbury (Elk Lick), Pa. Died July 4, 1858. 

COMPTON, Samuel— Son of Phineas. Entered his father's shop at 
age of 13. Died Nov. 27, 1902. 



American Gun Makers 39 

CONDO— Milesburg, Pa.; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

CONDRY, W. P. — Portsmouth, Va. Back-action lock percussion rifle. 

CONE, Alfred Marion— Born in Panama, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1831; died 
April 1, 1903. A cooper by trade, took up gunsmithing at Co- 
lumbus, Pa.; later on North Centre St., Corry, Pa., and 331 Penn- 
sylvania Ave. West, Warren, Pa. Made very accurate, finely 
engraved hunting and match rifles, some side-hammers. 

CONE, D. D.— Washington, D. C, 1864-67. Inventor of a cartridge 
revolver under his name. Probably manufactured by Sharps 
and Hankins. 

CONE, R. M.— Corry, Pa. Percussion rifle. 

CONESTOGA RIFLE WORKS— Trademark of Henry E. Leman, Lan- 
caster, Pa., 1834-1887; used on inferior or flawed products. Mark- 
ing reported on flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles, rifle 
locks, trap gun. 

CONFEDERATE STATES ARMORY— Columbus, Ga. (next to Grant's 
factory). Arms as well as artillery harness, ordnance materiel 
and infantry accoutrements are believed to have been made 
and repaired at this armory, established with machinery removed 
from Baton Rouge, La., in spring of 1862 as well as from De- 
mopolis, Ala., in 1864 and Atlanta, Ga., when threatened by Sher- 
man. The armory operations were under Major F. C. Humphrey, 
C.A.S. Ord. Dept., who had been a lieutenant in charge of the 
Federal Arsenal at Augusta, Ga., and resigned his commission 
at the outbreak of the war. A contemporary letter states that 
"Jeff Davis has stopped the manufacture of arms at Columbus, 
Ga., for if they whip Grant they would have all the guns they 
wanted, and if they didn't, they would want no more made 
there." Though the manufacture of arms may have been dis- 
continued towards the end of the war, other ordnance activities 
continued for on Feb. 21, 1865, Gen. Gorgas placed the C. S. 
Armory at Columbus (as well as those of Macon, Ga., Athens, 
Ga., and Tallassee, Ala.) under jurisdiction of Col. James H. 
Burton, C.S. Ord. Dept., with directive that "all orders for the 
officer in immediate charge of the Columbus Armory must pass 
thro' Col. M. H. Wright." 

CONKLE, F. — Unlocated. Probably southwestern Pa. Percussion rifle 
with James Bown & Son lock. 

CONKLIN, H. M.— Unlocated. Percussion rifle with lock by G. 
Goulcher. 

CONNECTICUT ARMS CO.— Norfolk, Conn. About 1864. Made a .28 
caliber front loading, cartridge revolver. 

CONNECTICUT ARMS & MFG. CO.— Naubuc, Conn., 1866-68. Ham- 
mond carbines and Hammond Bull Dog pistols. See also Welch, 
W. W. 

CONRAD, Sam— Gunsmith, Berlin, Somerset Co., Pa., 1837. Plain 
rifles of good workmanship. 

CONRAD, T.— Barrel marking of a slim, early percussion period 
Kentucky rifle. 

CONSTABLE, R.— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 88 S. 2nd St., 
in 1829. 

CONSTABLE, Richard— 88 S. 2nd St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1817-51. 
Gunmaker. Flintlock and later percussion duelling pistols and 
derringers. Also imported many arms from England. 



40 



American Gun Makers 



CONTER — Unlocated. Walnut full-stock, octagonal barrel, percussion 
Kentucky rifle. 

CONTINENTAL ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn., 1866-67. Manufactured 
Converse 5-shot cartridge pepperboxes. 

CONVERSE, William H.— Colorado Springs, Col., 1875-80. 

COOK— Rhode Island, flintlock period. 

COOK, Ashabell — Clayton, N. Y. Ten-pound percussion hunting and 
target rifle. 

COOK & BRO.— New Orleans 1861-62, Athens, Ga., 1863-64. Makers 
of Confederate rifles, carbines, and military equipment. The firm 
was organized by Ferdinand W. C. Cook, engineer and architect, 
and his brother Francis, in June 1861, with plant at Novelty 
Works No. 1, Canal Street, New Orleans, La. Operations began 
with 27 men, with expected output of eight to ten rifles per day. 
By August 1861 two shifts of workmen were employed. April 
25, 1862, on approach of the Federal fleet, the machinery was 
loaded on S.S. NEWSBOY and left for Vicksburg, thence across 
country to Selma, Ala., and then to Athens, Ga. At Athens the 
firm acquired Hodgson's Grist Mill with 24 acres, purchased 249 
adjoining acres and erected a stone-and-brick armory with cas- 
tellated walls and flanking towers. The scant machinery brought 
from New Orleans was supplemented by boring and rifling 
machinery, drill presses, shapers, milling and other machines 
made by Athens Foundry & Machine Works. The plant employed 
a force of about 500 men producing rifles of Enfield pattern, artil- 
lery musketoons, cavalry carbines, triangular bayonets, bayonet 
scabbards and cartridge belts and boxes. Attempt was also made 
to manufacture sabers — "crude affairs with an iron hilt of Revo- 
lutionary War type." 

Colonel James H. Burton of Confederate Ordnance, on a visit 
to the Armory in April 1864, stated that it was the best fitted 
and operated armory he had inspected in the Confederate States. 
. . . "600 rifles and carbines were manufactured last month." 
Towards the end of the War manpower shortage being critical, 
the Cook Armory as well as the Athens Foundry & Machine 
Works were closed down and their personnel formed into a home 
defence force under Major Ferdinand Cook. The unit participated 
at the battle of Griswoldsville, near Macon, in June 1864. In Dec. 
1864 Major Cook was shot through the head and killed at Goose 
Pond, near Hardeeville, S. C. 

In January 1865 the plant was valued at $425,000 including 
land and buildings. After the War, Francis Cook, as a British 
subject, managed to obtain a pardon and retain the property 
which was sold to various foundries and shops, the land and 
buildings being purchased by Athens Mfg. Co., and converted 
into a cotton mill. 

COOK, E. W.— Lockport, N. Y., 1849. Percussion rifles. 

COOK, F. W. C. — Engineer and gunsmith, Calliope, between Benton 
and Hercules, New Orleans, La., 1853. (Of Cook & Bros., Con- 
federate armorers?) 

COOK, Roswell F. — West Potsdam, N. Y.; over-under percussion 
rifles. 

COOKE, Jacob— Also Cook. Contractor Dec. 9, 1807, with Tench 
Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 25 pair of pistols at $10.00 
the pair. On Feb. 1, 1808 was given an additional contract for 
50 pairs of pistols. 



American Gun Makers 41 

COOKSON, John— Boston, Mass., active 1727-62. Inventor and maker 
of the famous Cookson repeating flintlock arms. 

COOLEY, D.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles, before 1800. Fine work- 
manship. 

COON, D. — Ithaca, N. Y., son of Levi Coon. Percussion sporting rifles. 

COON, Levi (Sr.)— Ithaca, N. Y., 1821. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

COON, Levi, Jr. — Ithaca, N. Y. Son of Levi Coon. Percussion sport- 
ing rifles. 

COON, S. — Unidentified. Percussion alarm pistol patented Sept. 22, 
1857. 

COONS — Unidentified. Maker of early American shotguns. 

COONS, E.— Philadelphia, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

COONS, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa., after 1810. 

COOPER— Philadelphia, Pa., 1805. 

COOPER FIREARMS CO.— Located at Pittsburgh, Pa., about 1852- 
1860, and at Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa., 1860-1869. Made per- 
cussion revolvers at both places. 

COOPER, Henry T.— New York City, before and after 1845. Percus- 
sion pistols. "H. T. Cooper" is marked on the lock of a percussion 
match rifle by A. C. Stevens. 

COOPER & HEWITT— Trenton, N. J. Arms makers to the govern- 
ment during the Civil War. 

COOPER, J. — Flint, gooseneck hammer, lock with roller frizzen 
spring bearing, on a Kentucky rifle stamped "J. FORDNEY 
LANCASTER." Possibly connected with English firm B. & J. 
Cooper, 19 Partition St., New York City in post-Revolution 
period. 

COOPER, J. M.— Pittsburgh, Pa. Percussion locks on W. McCullough 
over-under rifle. Same as James Maslin Cooper Firearms Co.? 

COOPER, James Maslin — Patentee and manufacturer of the Cooper 
revolver. See Cooper Firearms Co. 

COOPER, J. R.— New York, N. Y., before and after 1849. Probably 
agent for British arms. 

COOPER, R. F.— West Potsdam, N. Y. Percussion over-and-under 
rifles. 

COOPER, Walter— Bozeman, Montana. Reported in 1892 as a "prac- 
tical rifle manufacturer." Gunsight inventor. Went west in 1858 
and for 18 years was almost constantly in camp. Established 
sporting-goods house at Bozeman in 1869. 

COPE, Jacob — Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

COPELAND, T.— Worcester, Mass., about 1860. Revolvers. 

CORNS, Abraham— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

CORMAN. H. — Unlocated. A 24-lb. percussion match rifle stamped 
"H. CORMAN on 48" barrel and "H. CORMAN for F. BAKER" 
on silver cheekpiece inlay. Iron mounted, curly maple halfstock, 
Leman bar lock. 

COSMOPOLITAN ARMS CO.— Hamilton, Ohio. Civil War Cosmo- 
politan carbines, and Gross Patent Arms. See Gwyn & Campbell. 

COSTER, Abram — Philadelphia, Pa. 1810-14. Gunsmith to Committee 
of Defence. 

COTTON, W. M. — Leominster, Mass. Half stock percussion rifle with 



42 American Gun Makers 

octagon barrel marked "W. M. COTTON LEOMINSTER MASS." 
Lock by Wm. Reid, Boston. 

COUCH, John D. — Middlesex Co., Conn., pistol maker employing 
three workmen in 1860. That year's output 800 pistols. (Re- 
volvers? ) 

COULANOY, J.— Armorer. Was paid $1,280, New Emission Currency 
(at rate of exchange four for one, equal to $320, specie) for 
cleaning and repairing 160 muskets and bayonets at Phila., 
June 13, 1781. 

COULTHARD, J.— Natchez, Miss. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

COUTTY, Samuel— Philadelphia, Pa., pistol maker, paid tax in Chest- 
nut Ward in 1779. Listed in the City Directories from 1785 to 
1794, as residing at 25 Spruce St., in '85, 82 Chestnut St., in '91, 
87 Front St., in '93, and 41 So. Water St., in '94. Made arms for 
private sale and worked on public arms for Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania. 

COWELL, Ebenezer — Allentown, Pa., musket maker to Committee 
of Safety in 1775. Made and repaired arms at the State Gun Fac- 
tory in 1778. Later located at Philadelphia, 1779-82. Was paid $280, 
New Emission Currency (at rate of exchange four for one, equal 
to $72, specie) for cleaning and repairing 60 rampart muskets 
at Phila., June 25, 1781. 

COWELL, Joseph— Boston, Mass., 1745. 

COWELL, P.— Pennsylvania, prior to 1783. 

COWLES & SMITH— Chicopee, Mass., 1868. Pistol manufacturers. 

COWLES, W. W. DEANE & CO.— Chicopee, Mass. Single-shot, .22 
cal. rim-fire cartridge pistols. 

COX & SON— Atlanta, Ga., 1847. 

COX, George — Mifflin County, Pa., late percussion period. 

COX, Martin— Gunsmith. Oak above Noble (N.L.), Phila, Pa., 1819. 

COX, R. C. GUN CO.— Milwaukee, Wis. 1894-95. Gunmakers at 326 
Grove. 

COXE, Tench— Purveyor of Public Supplies 1803-1812. Negotiated 
arms contracts until 1812. 

C. P. — Letters to denote ownership by Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

CRABB, Thomas— Frederick Town, Md. Musket maker, 1799-1801. 
Associate of Nicholas White, Jacob Metzger and Christopher 
Barnhizzle in a contract under Act of July 5. 1798, for 1,000 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand, 
of which 235 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

CRABTREE, Absalom— Buffalo Creek, Tenn., later migrated to Mc- 
Cracken Co., Ky. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

CRAFT, George W.— Craft Creek, Morris Township, Washington Co., 
Pa. About 1860-1875. Had served apprenticeship under Abe Wil- 
liams. Made unmarked, half stock percussion rifles. 

CRAFT, P. W. — Columbia, S. C, maker of percussion duelling pistols 
and of a half stock, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

CRAFTS, Royal— Rutland, Vt. Musket maker, active 1799-1801. In 
association with Darius Chipman, Thomas Hooker and John 
Smith, contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 muskets 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795) at $13.40 per stand, of which 
575 were delivered before June 10, 1801. 



American Gun Makers 43 

CRAIG, Andrew— Richland County, Ohio. Prior to 1812, with his 

brother David, had been gunsmith to the Indians in the "Indian 

Country." In the War of 1812 they were at stockade and fort 

at Mansfield. 
CRAIG, David — See Craig, Andrew. 
CRAIG, C. & J.— Pittsburgh, Pa. Top flat marking of an original 

percussion Kentucky rifle with barrel marked under breech 

"CLARK & RANKIN." Truitt lock. 
CRAIG, J.— Philadelphia, Pa. Fullstock percussion Kentucky rifle. 

(Probably J. Craig of C. & J. Craig.) 
CRAIG, J. W. — Unlocated. Percussion sporting rifle. 
CRAIG, Robert — Philadelphia, Pa. Gun-lock maker to Committee of 

Safety 1775-76. 
CRAIG, William— Pittsburgh and Alleghany, Pa., about 1850. 
CRAMER, Phillip — Pennsylvania, period of 1820; flintlock Kentucky 

rifles. 
CRANDALL, Jos. — Unlocated. Percussion period. 
CRANDALL, Marion F. — Towanda, N. Y., late flintlock and early 

percussion rifles. 
CRAVALTY & DUGAN— Maryland, Committee of Safety. 
CRAWFORD, Alexander— Lock filer at Springfield Armory. Filed the 

first musket lock in 1795 in 3 days labor. 
CREAMER, B.— Phila., Pa. Flintlock Kentucky rifles and flintlock 

duelling pistols. 
CREEDMORE ARMORY— Miles City, Mont. See A. D. McAusland. 
CRESCENT FIRE ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn. Modern. 
CRISSEY, Elias— Hooversville, Pa. 1835-1915. Lightweight flintlock 

squirrel rifles. Had been apprenticed to Samuel Border in 1854. 
CROCKETT, Thomas— Bath Co., Ky.; came from Virginia. Working 

in 1800. Made rifles for Gen. Harrison's troops in the Indian wars. 
CROFT, P. W.— Columbia, S. C. Percussion duelling pistols. 
CROMWELL, Levi— 265 Ann St., Baltimore, Md., 1860. 
CROMWELL, Oliver— 118 Thames St, Baltimore, Md, 1860. 
CRONER— Cross Creek Village, Washington Co, Pa. 
CROSBY, C— Massachusetts, 1867. Half-stock, percussion rifles. 
CROSBY, J.— Springfield Armory lockmaker, 1807-1818. Name 

stamped inside some Springfield Armory goose-neck hammer 

pistols dated 1818. Also lock on Springfield musket dated 1818. 
CROSBY, L.— Unlocated. Possibly N.Y.S. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 
CROSMAN ARMS CO.— 903 Monroe Ave, Rochester, N. Y. Crosman 

air rifles. Modern. 
CROSSLAND, I. M.— Kentucky rifle barrel marked "I. M. CROSS- 
LAND" and dated "1865." 
CROSSLAND, John— Uniontown, Pa. Made Bedford Co, style rifles. 
CROSSLAY, J. M.— Uniontown, Pa. Percussion rifle. 
CROW, C. A.— Lima, Ohio, before and after 1870. 
CROYSDALE, Thomas— Bond Street, Baltimore, Md, 1810. 
CRUM, D. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. Same as Crumm? 
CRUM, T. — Unlocated. Early Kentucky flintlock rifle, Roman nose 

butt, name acid-etched on barrel. 



44 American Gun Makers 

CRUMM — Huntingdon County, Pa., late percussion period. 

CRYTH, John — Lancaster, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

CULLEN, T.— 87 Battery, San Francisco, Calif., 1859-60. 

CULLMAN, G.— Cleveland, Ohio, 1840. 

CULLMANN, Charles — Columbus, Ohio, shotgun, rifle and pistol 
maker. Active about 1850 to 1894. 

CULLOUGHM, William— Brookville, Pa. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

CUMMINGS, Charles A.— Worcester, Mass., 1866-69. Later Cum- 
mings & Lane. 

CUMMINGS & LANE— Worcester, Mass., 1869-71. 

CUMMINGS, O. S.— Lowell, Mass. Top-up .22 revolver. 

CUMMINGS, William — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 45 Green, in 
1829. 

CUNKLE, L. G. — Unlocated. Revolutionary period. Early flintlock 
Kentucky pistol with hand-forged lock, name stamped on barrel. 

CUNKLE, George — Percussion period. 

CUNNINGHAM, John— Harford County, Md. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. With Isaac Thomas, agreed, March 4, 1776, 
"for making a parcel of musquets which they oblige themselves 
to do, agreeably to directions which they have and are to re- 
ceive from the Committee, as may be directed by the Council 
of Safety, at the price of Musquets are made for at Baltimore, 
to be complete with steel ramrod and bayonet ..." A company 
of riflemen was raised in Harford County during the War of 
Revolution. 

CUNNINGHAM, W. A.— Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 1857-59. 

CURRY, C. & CO.— San Francisco, Calif., 1852-1863. Succeeded by 
sons J. and N. Curry in 1863 as N. Curry & Bro. or N. Curry & 
Co. Agents for Colt, Remington, Deringer, and British arms. 

CURRY, N. — San Francisco, Cal. Maker of an all metal derringer 
type percussion pistol and a cartridge revolver. See C. Curry 
& Co. 

CURTIS, Jesse — Waterbury, Conn. Musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Received payment for sixteen muskets with bayonets, 
June 15, 1778. Later furnished seven more. On Jan. 22, 1779, 
in association with Thomas Fancher was paid for twenty-six 
muskets with bayonets. 

CURTIS, Russell— Arms stoker, Springfield Armory, 1818. 

CUSHING, Alvin D.— Troy, N. Y., 1829-1834. Kentucky rifles. Probably 
related to A. B. Cushing. 

CUSHING, A. B.— Troy, N. Y. About 1840-70. 

CUTCHALL, I. W.— Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

CYPHERS, M. B.— Skowhegan, Maine, 1866-69. 

C. W. — Initials of Charles Williams, U.S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1808-1814. Inspected arms (sabers) at plant of Nathan Starr. 

C. W. H.— Initials of C. W. Hartwell, U.S. Inspector of Arms within 
years 1831-1850. 

D 

DADE & REYNOLDS— Mobile, Ala. Flintlock match rifles. 
DALE — Marking inside lock of undated Springfield musket. (Made in 
1795-1798?) 



American Gun Makers 45 

DALE, Samuel — Armorer, Springfield Armory, 1817. (Same as 
above?) 

DALBY — Brothers Enoch, Alexander and James. Millsboro, Washing- 
ton Co., Pa. Percussion rifles with silver alloy sights. 

DALL, Joshua— Unidentified. Kentucky rifle dated 1840. 

DALLAM, Richard— Hartford Town, Md., 1775-76. Musket maker to 
Committee of Safety. 

DANA D. — Unlocated. Pin-fastened barrel, flintlock musket. 

DANA, I. — Or possibly J. Canton, Mass. Flintlock, Kentucky type, 
match rifle, full curly maple stock. Flintlock fowling piece. 

DANA & CO. — Marking on a fine quality, engraved percussion lock 
of a percussion match rifle by James & Ferris, Utica, N. Y. 

DANCE BROS. & PARKS— Makers of revolvers in imitation of Colts, 
for the Confederacy. The firm consisted of James, David and 
George Dance, of Nash County, North Carolina and later of Bells 
Landing, Texas. The arms were made in a shop on Brazos River, 
near Marion, in 1863-64, where the plant foundations and the 
Dance home are still to be seen. In 1864-65, the plant is reputed 
to have been moved to Anderson, Texas. 

Dance revolvers, identified by the absence of a recoil shield, 
were produced in .44 dragoon and .36 caliber Navy sizes. Number 
324 is the highest serial number known. 

The relationship of Parks to the firm is unknown. 

DANIELS, A. — Unlocated. Late flintlock and early percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles of North Central Penna. style, circa 1840-50. 

DANIELS, Adam— "A. D." Lancaster, Pa. Late flintlock and early per- 
cussion Kentucky rifles. Initials "A. D." marked on a boy's brass 
and silver mounted, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

DANINGERFIELD, L. H.— West Virginia; very heavy match Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

DANNE, John W.— Mobile, Ala., 1860-68. 

DANNER, Jacob— Canton, Stark Co., Ohio, 1818 or earlier. 

DANTZ, H. A.— New Haven, Conn., 1874-76. 

DARLING, Barton & Benjamin M. — Bellingham, Mass., and Woon- 
socket, R. I., Patentee, April 13, 1836, and makers of the Darling 
pepperbox percussion pistols. Markings: H, A.C.S., AIS, IEH, 
or JENGh. Also made single and double barrel pistols that closely 
resembled the pepperboxes. 

DARLING, W. K. & HARRIS, C. H.— Otsego, Mich. Percussion mule- 
ear, over-under rifle. 

DARROW, L. F. — Mayville, N. Y. Heavy halfstock percussion target 
rifle with Golcher lock. 

DAUB, J.— Berks County, Pa., flintlock period. 

DAVENPORT, W. H., FIRE ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn., about 
1880-1910. Single shot rifles. The Davenport Arms Co. was or- 
ganized in May, 1880, with a capital of $25,000, for the purpose 
of manufacturing firearms under patents owned by William H. 
Davenport. The officers were M. S. Taft, president, J. W. Coffin, 
treasurer, and W. H. Davenport, superintendent. Operations were 
begun at 79 and 81 Orange street, the company occupied four 
floor of a building 30 x 70 feet in size, and employed about 40 
men in the various departments of its work. 

DAVIDSON, T. & CO.— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1850-53. Made gunlocks. 
Operated by Tyler Davidson. 



46 American Gun Makers 

DAVIES, E.— Bouckville, N. Y., and Solsville, N. Y., percussion 
period. 

DAVIS, A. — Deposit, N. Y. Over-under, flintlock, swivel Kentucky 
rifle. 

DAVIS, A. R. — Deposit, N. Y., percussion period. Son of Davis A.? 

DAVIS & BOZEMAN— Henry J. Davis and David W. Bozeman, rifle 
contractors to the Confederacy. Located three miles west of 
Central and 12 miles north of Wetumpka, Alabama. Made for the 
State of Alabama between 1st October 1863 and 1st November 
1864, a total of 882 Mississippi rifles (M.1841) and 89 carbines. 
Specimen known marked "D and B Ala 1864." After the war 
the shop was used by Davis to manufacture machines to thrash 
grain and cotton gins. 

DAVIS, BRUCE & DAVIS— Webster, Mass., percussion rifle. 

DAVIS & COSAT— Perrysville, Ind., percussion rifle. 

DAVIS, C. A. — Holcollville, Pa., percussion period. 

DAVIS, E. L.— Hinckley, 111. Percussion rifles. 

DAVIS, Henry J. — See Davis & Bozeman. 

DAVIS, Isaac — Revolutionary War period gunsmith of Acton, Mass. 
Was Captain of the Acton Militia Company which led the 
American charge at Concord Bridge April 19, 1775. Davis, lead- 
ing the company, was killed by the first British volley. Believed 
to have been 30 or 32 years old at the time. 

DAVIS, John — Employed as musket barrel maker by O. & E. Evans 
in 1810. 

DAVIS, J. N. — New Paris, Pa. Percussion period. 

DAVIS, J. S. — Indiana. Percussion Kentucky rifle with full curly 
maple stock. 

DAVIS, N. R. & SONS— Assonet, Freetown, Mass., established 1853. 
Makers of percussion shotguns and rifles. 

DAVIS-WARNER ARMS CORPORATION— Assonet, Mass. "Infallible" 
hammerless .32 automatic pistols. Davis of the firm is probably 
R. N. Davis of Assonet. 

DAVIS, Zemp — Nevada City, Calif., about 1850; dealer and gunsmith. 

DAY — Unidentified. Percussion, under-hammer cane gun. 

DAY, James — Louisville, Ky. In 1843 at Joseph Griffith's shop, on 
Market between 5th and 6th. 1845-46 at 52 Fifth St. 18-? 8 ri 
Griffith's shop, 294 Green St. 1848-49, with J. Griffith, Walnut St., 
between Campbell and Wentzel. 1855-60, corner Brook and 
Market. 1865-67, Gun Store at 31 E. Market. 1869 and 1873, James 
Day & Co., guns, rifles, pistols. In sporting goods business until 
about 1890. 

DAY, J. C. — Unlocated. About 1855. Percussion breech-loading self- 
capping rifle. 

DAY, John— Boulder, Col., 1875-80. 

D. B. — Unidentified. Late period flintlock Kentucky rifle with lock by 
Henry Parker. 

DEBOLT, Henry— Established about 1852 at Boothsville, W. Va. Shop 
burned and he moved to Mt. Morris, Green Co., Pa. Later moved 
to Mapletown and became associated with Barney Engle, whose 
apprentice he may have been. Continued making fine rifles after 
Engle's death until the breech-loading era. 



American Gun Makers 47 

D. C. & CO. — Cincinnati, Ohio. Percussion rifle locks. 

DEASHNER — Ithaca, N. Y., percussion over-and-under rifles and 
mule-ear rifles. 

DEBERIERE, Henry — Also Debarrier. Mulberry Ward, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1769-74. 

DECHARD, Jacob — Also spelled Decherd, Dechert, Dickert, Deschard, 
Deckert and Digert. Philadelphia, 1732; Lancaster, Pa., before and 
after 1753, Lancaster County, 1777-82. 

DECKERT, Jacob — Kentucky rifles. Mentioned in History of Lan- 
caster, Pa., as gun-maker "with 40 years experience" in the year 
of 1795. Same as Dechard, Jacob or same family? Possibly 
identical with Dickert, Jacob, musket maker to State of Penn- 
sylvania. 

DEEDS, Henry — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Made finished 
rifle barrels. 

DEEDS, H. W. — Reading, Penna. Maker of heavy barrel .80 caliber 
flintlock goose gun. 

DEEDS, W. — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles and smooth-bores. 

DEFIBAUGH, Dave — Southern Bedford Co., Pa. Son of William, 
brother of Milton. 

DEFIBAUGH, L.— Bedford, Pa., 1871. 

DEFIBAUGH, Milton— Everett Borough, Bedford Co., Pa., 1860. Son 
of William, brother of Dave. 

DEFIBAUGH, William— Monroe Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1850. 

DeHAVEN, Hugh — Also Dehaven. Assistant to Peter De Haven, 
Superintendent of the State Gun Factory at French Creek, Pa., 
1776-77. 

DeHAVEN, Peter— Also Dehaven. Before and after 1769-79. With 
Benjamin Rittenhouse established the State Gun-lock Factory 
at Philadelphia for the State of Pennsylvania. Later the factory 
was expanded to include gun manufacture. About Dec. 12, 1776, 
on the approach of the British to Trenton, the shops were 
moved to French Creek, Chester Co., near Valley Forge, and 
later again to Hummelstown. The State Gun Factory was dis- 
continued in December, 1778, and Peter DeHaven applied for 
the position of Wagon Master in January, 1779, in view of the 
loss of his position at the factory. He was appointed Health 
Officer for the Port of Philadelphia on March 12, 1779. See 
Pennsylvania State Gun Factory. 

Four brothers of the DeHaven family, Jacob, Samuel, 
Edward and Peter, emigrated from France to America in the 
first part of the 18th Century, and settled in Pennsylvania, in 
Montgomery and Chester Counties, where they bought land 
for vineyards, tanneries and "plants for making muskets." 
Among the purchases was a tract of land on which the Village 
of Centre Square was laid out, which had been sold by Rees 
Thomas and Anthony Morris to Peter de Haven, in 1730. 

In view of the passage of years, probabilities are that Peter 
de Haven, the superintendent of the State Gun-lock Factory was 
the son of one of the DeHaven brothers. 

DEHUFF, Abraham — Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1779. 

DEHUFF, Henry — Also Dehulf. Lancaster, Pa., musket maker. Con- 
tracted with the State of Pennsylvania for 500 Charleville pat- 
tern muskets on April 17, 1801. Petitioner to the 7th Congress 



48 American Gun Makers 

on Jan. 28, 1803, for the non-removal of import duties on arms. 
In association with Peter Brong and Abraham Henry proposed 
July 13, 1801, to furnish the State of Virginia with 7,075 stands 
of arms at $11.00 per stand and 1,000 pair of pistols at $15.00 
per pair, delivery at Lancaster in three years. No record of the 
contract being awarded. 

On Dec. 9, 1807, DeHuff, in association with Jacob Dickert 
and Peter Gonter, contracted with Tench Coxe, Purveyor of 
Public Supplies for 600 rifles. 

DEISINGER— Phila., Pa. 

DELANEY — Sussex Co., N. J. Over-under percussion rifles. 

DELANEY, Nelson— Reading, Berks Co., Pa, about 1845-72. Half- 
stock percussion hunting rifle. 

DELLET, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

DELONG, Ebenezer — Parishville, N. Y.; percussion rifles. 

DELVEY, John — Gill, Mass. Heavy percussion match rifle. 

DEMING, H. — Unlocated. Cherry full-stock, octagonal barrel, flint- 
lock Kentucky rifle. 

DEMOPOLIS CONFEDERATE ARSENAL— Demopolis, Ala., 1863 
"an arsenal where they make a great many small-arms." Equip- 
ment reported Feb. 16, 1864, to have been moved to the Con- 
federate States Armory at Columbus, Ga. 

DEMSTER, B. — Zanesville, Muskegum Co, Ohio. 

DeMUTH, S. — Pennsylvania. Over-under, flintlock and percussion 
Kentucky type, swivel breech rifles of fine workmanship. Flint- 
lock rifle marked "DEMUTH*". 

DENNISON — Haverhill, Mass, percussion period. 

DENSLANS (or Denslars), R. — Unlocated. Half stock percussion 
Plains rifle, brass and German silver mounted; Remington barrel, 
converted H. & W. Aston lock. 

DENSLOW & CHASE— Hartford, Conn, about 1847. (Slate & Brown 
Shop.) Made 1,000 barrels and cylinders for Model 1847, Whitney- 
ville Colt revolvers on sub-contract. 

DEPREZ, J. M. & CO. — Unidentified 5-shot cartridge revolver. 

DeREINER, Michael— Lancaster, Pa, before and after 1773-77. Ken- 
tucky rifles and muskets to Committee of Safety. Excused by 
the Executive Council from performance of military duties Dec. 
5, 1777, for the making of arms for the State of Pennsylvania, 
in the employ and under direction of William Henry I. 

DERINGER, Henry, Sr.— Richmond, Va. 17— to 1806, then Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Colonial gunsmith of German descent, maker of 
Kentucky rifles. Father of Henry Deringer. Listed in Frankford 
Township, Philadelphia Co, in 1769. 

DERINGER, Henry — Son of Henry Deringer, Sr, Colonial gunsmith, 
maker of Kentucky rifles. Young Henry was born Oct. 26, 1786, 
at Easton, Pa, and as a youth was apprenticed to a firearm maker 
at Richmond, Va, where he made rifles and other firearms, until 
he settled in Philadelphia in 1806, and established an arms manu- 
facturing plant of his own. 

He is known to have made martial pistols of 1808 pattern 
and later obtained the following contracts in addition to a con- 
tract of July 23, 1819, the details of which are not available: 
March 17, 1814—? Model 1814 rifles. 



American Gun Makers 49 

April 3, 1821—2,000 rifles at $15.50 each 
Aug. 28, 1823—3,000 rifles at $14.50 each. 

December, 1828 — 600 "old pattern" rifles, ("common rifles," Model 
1817), later changed to 400 muskets. 
Nov. 7, 1837—2,500 rifles for Indians at $13.50 each. 
March 7, 1840 — 6,000 rifles at $14.50 each. Delivery over 5 years. 
The Deringer Armory also made Navy box-lock Model 1843 
pistols and later became well known for the small percussion 
pistols manufactured by the firm, one of which was used by 
Booth to assassinate Lincoln. 

The factory was located for many years on Front Street in 
Philadelphia. In 1819 Henry Deringer is listed at 370 N. Front. 

Deringer was content with the percussion system and stub- 
bornly refused to manufacture breech-loaders, which he despised. 
He died in 1868, and not many years after his death his factory 
went out of existence. 

DERINGER, J. — Phila., Pa. Imitation Deringer derringer pistols al- 
leged to have been made by former employees of Henry Deringer 
to order of A. J. Plate of San Francisco, Calif., Deringer agent, 
who was unable to receive adequate stocks of genuine Deringer 
arms. 

DERR, John— Lancaster and Oley Valley, Berks Co., Pa., 1810-1831. 
Extensive maker of flintlock and early percussion Kentucky rifles 
and rifled Kentucky pistols; a flintlock rifle dated 1831. 

DESVERNEYS— Charleston, S. C. Maker of a double barrel, flintlock 
shotgun of plain but fine workmanship. Top of left barrel marked 
in gold inlay "DESVERNEYS CHARLESTON." Under breech 
appears "AMERICA FRISE" . . . and fleur-de-lys; also 
"FEPEIOFF TORDU" and "P-I." The locks are marked outside 
"DESVERNEYS" in script and inside "P-I." Though American 
made, shows strong French influence. 

DETERER, Adam— Lancaster County, Pa., 1774-77. Musket maker 
to Committee of Safety. Excused by the Executive Council Dec. 
5, 1777, from military duties, for the making of arms for the 
State of Pennsylvania, in the employ and under direction of 
William Henry I. 

DETROIT RIFLE CO.— See Heal Rifle Co. 

DETWILER, Anthony— Woodbury Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1870. 

DETWILER, Chris— Bellville, Pa. Late Kentucky rifles. 

DEVANE, James— New Hanover County, N. C. Served the State as 
arms maker for one year from June, 1776, then re-entered the 
military service. Born Aug. 1, 1757, active until 1832. 

DEVANE, John— Also DeVane. With Richard Herring established 
a Public Gun Factory authorized by Act of April 24, 1776, in 
the Wilmington District, North Carolina. After production of 
some one hundred long arms the factory was destroyed by Tory 
sympathizers. 

DEVAUX, F. — Maker of a half stock plains or Indian rifle of in- 
different quality. Barrel stamped "F. DEVAUX" and held to stock 
only by the ramrod and a wood screw at tang. Lock marked 
"LEMAN LANCTR. PA." 

DEVENDORF, Louis— Cedarville, N. Y., percussion target rifles. 

DEWARSON, R.— Boston, Mass., 1847. 

DEWEY, Ebenezer — Amber, N. Y. Percussion rifles and rifle scopes, 
(Also made clocks and musical instruments.) 



50 American Gun Makers 

DEWEY, Samuel — Hebron, Conn., 1775-76, musket-barrel and bayonet 
maker to Committee of Safety. Petitioned for payment for 46 
gun barrels 21 bayonets made to May 15, 1776. 

DEWITT, D. G. — Elmira, N. Y. Maker of a half stock, brass trim per- 
cussion smooth bore, sporting gun. 

DEWITT, W. P. — Elmira, N. Y., percussion period. Over-under rifle- 
shotguns. 

D. G. — Barrel marking of a flintlock Kentucky rifle of about 1800. 

D. G. & CO. — Cincinnati, Ohio, percussion period. 

DICK, Major Charles — With Col. Fielding Lewis, operator of an 
Arsenal at Fredericksburg, Va., for the manufacture of small 
arms to equip Continental Line regiments raised in Virginia. 
Fielding Lewis and Charles Dick were appointed Commissioners 
to build and operate the Government Gun Factory of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia, by the Second Virginia Revolutionary 
Convention Commissioners, in July 1775. 

DICKENS, Fowler— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at Lilley Alley, in 
1829. 

DICKENS, John— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 31 New Market, 
in 1829. 

DICKENSON, John— Russell Co., Va. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. His 
slave succeeded him in business. 

DICKERMAN — Unknown, 1886. Hammerless single barrel shotgun. 

DICKERT, Jacob— Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1779-1803. 
Musket maker; in association with Mathew Llewellin, contracted 
on April 17, 1801, with the State of Pennsylvania for 1,000 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets. One of the petitioners 
to the 7th Congress, on Jan. 28, 1803, for non-removal of import 
duties on arms. 

Jacob Dickert in association with Peter Gonter and John 
Groff, contracted for "rifle guns" in 1792, $3,200.00 being paid 
on account. On Dec. 9, 1807, Jacob Dickert in association with 
Peter Gonter and Henry DeHuff, contracted with Tench Coxe, 
Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 600 rifles. 

DICKINSON— Erie, Pa., active as late as 1900; Negro gunsmith. 

DICKINSON, E. L.— Springfield, Mass. Rim fire revolvers. (Connected 
with J. & L. Dickinson?) 

DICKINSON, J. & L.— Springfield, Mass. Rim-fire pistols and Sterling 
Bull Dog revolvers. 

DICKSON, M. & GILMORE, J.— Louisville, Ky., 1840's and 1850's. 
Moses Dickson. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

DICKSON, NELSON & CO.— Makers of Confederate shoulder arms, 
1862-65. Made Mississippi type (Model 1841) rifles and muzzle 
loading carbines. Furnished the State of Alabama 645 Mississippi 
rifles between Oct. 1, 1863 and Nov. 1, 1864. Also known as 
Shakanoosa Arms Mfg. Co. The firm consisted of Owen O. Nelson, 
Tuscumbia, Ala., attorney, then Judge for Court of Common 
Pleas; William Dickson, planter and extensive land owner in 
Tennessee Valley, Ala., and Dr. Lewis Sadler of Leighton, Ala., 
an elderly physician who furnished considerable financial aid. 

The plant was originally located at west end of Tennessee 
Valley, at Dickson, Ala., about twenty miles west of Tuscumbria, 
on the Memphis, Charleston R.R. (now Southern). After fall of 
Ft. Henry and gain of control of Tennessee River by Union forces, 



American Gun Makers 51 

the plant was moved for greater safety to Rome, Ga., thence to 
Adairsville, Ga., and finally in 1863 to Dawson, Terrill County, 
Ga., where it operated until the end of the War. The shops, 
foundry and other buildings of the plant at Dawson occupied 
27 acres on the Central of Georgia R.R. Some work was done by 
sub-contractors, one of whom had a machine shop at Hopwell, 
Ark., opposite Memphis. 

After the War, in 1866, Judge Nelson and his associates 
acquired the properties of the firm and under the name of 
Dawson Manufacturing Company went into manufacture of 
builders supplies and passenger and freight railroad cars. In 1885 
the property was sold to Dawson Works. In 1929 one of the 
warehouses still had a good many of the unfinished walnut 
gun stocks, leftovers from arms manufacturing period. 

DICKSON, William— See Dickson, Nelson & Co. 

DIEMAR, R.— Taunton (Mass. or Minn.?). Horn inlaid, half stock, 

German style, target rifle marked "R. DIEMAR TAUNTON" on 

barrel and "R. DIEMAR" on lock. 

DIEMER, I. — Taunton, Mass. Maker of a light weight, muzzle load- 
ing, percussion, target rifle. Marked "I. DIEMER" on lock. 

DIESBOCK, John — (Probably same as Dieschbach or Disbock, prob- 
ably also Dresbach). Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

DIESINGER — Philadelphia, Pa. Full maple stock muzzle loading per- 
cussion rifle marked on barrel "DIESINGER PHILADA." Lock 
marked "SOWERS & SMITH WARRANTED." 

DIETS — Pennsylvania, Kentucky rifles. 

DIETTRICH, J. F.— St. Louis, Mo., 1840-60. Famous maker of Buffalo 
rifles. 

DIFFENDERFER, John and Michael— Earl Township, Lancaster Co., 
Pa., 1779. 

DIFFENDORF, Lewis— Cedarville, N. Y. Late Kentucky rifles. 

DIKE — Bridgewater, Mass., Revolutionary War period. 

DILLON, James— Bedford Borough, Bedford Co., Pa., 1844. 

DIMICK & FOLSOM— See H. E. Dimick. 

DIMICK, H. E.— Born in Vermont. Established in St. Louis, Mo., in 
1849, at 42 North Main Street. Became associated with H. Folsom, 
the firm becoming Dimick & Folsom. Later changed again to H. 
E. Dimick & Co. Active 1849-73, died in August, 1874. Percussion 
derringers. Percussion revolvers bearing his name were manu- 
factured for him. Probably by Manhattan Firearms Co. 

DIMOND, Levi — South Fork, near Johnstown, Penna. Full stock per- 
cussion rifle. 

DINGLER, J.— Easton, Pa. Curly maple, fullstock, flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

DINSNION, John— Gunsmith. 404 No. Third, Phila., Pa. 1819. 

DISBOCK— Pennsylvania, Kentucky rifles. 

DISH, R. — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

DITTRICH, J. P.— Mobile, Ala. Lock marking of a Confederate 
musket. 

DIXIE WORKS— Canton, Miss. Said to have made rifles for the Con- 
federacy. On July 18, 1863 the Federals destroyed 5 locomotives, 
30 cars of all kinds, 2 turn-tables, 13 railroad buildings, includ- 



52 American Gun Makers 

ing engine-house for 7 engines, with repair shops filled with fine 
machinery attached; 1 machine-shop, depots, offices, &c, 300 feet 
of trestle and bridge work, and 2 miles of rails burned and bent. 

DIXON, C. M. — Unlocated. Silver inlaid, curly maple halfstocked 
percussion rifle with Truitt Bros. & Co. lock. 

DIXON, W. — Adams, N. Y., silver mounted over-under, percussion 
rifle. 

D. K. — Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle, stock finely inlaid with 
ivory, silver, and brass; forestock in two sections. 

D. L. G. — Initials of D. Le Gro, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

DODT, F. — Unlocated. Percussion rifle maker. 

DOELL, Frederick G. — 11 Dock square, Boston, Mass. Born in Duchy 
of Saxony, Germany, Sept. 9, 1842, where he was apprenticed to 
the gunsmith trade in 1856. Emigrated to U. S. in 1872 and after 
working for Wm. Schaefer, in Boston until 1884, opened his own 
shop making custom arms and gun stocks. Succeeded by son, 
Frederick H. 

DOHERTY & EVANS— Petersburg, Va. Makers of a walnut half 
stock, German silver trim, back action lock, double set triggers, 
percussion rifle. Also of half stock, percussion Kentucky rifle of 
good workmanship. 

DOHERTY, J. — Petersburg, Va. Maker of a half stock, Kentucky 
type, percussion rifle with double set triggers, and percussion 
shotgun. (Same as Doherty of Doherty & Evans above?) 

DOLBY — Vicinity of Morgantown, West Va. Percussion rifles. 

DOLL, Jacob — York, Pa., musket and rifle maker, associated with 
Henry Pickell and Conrad Welshanze in a contract of April 17, 
1801, with Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 Charleville 
pattern (Model 1795) muskets. 

Contractor of 1792 for .50 coliber, flintlock Kentucky rifles 
with 33% inch barrels with muzzles turned down to take a 
bayonet, at $10.00 each. 

DONACK, George — New York, N. Y. Percussion period. 

DONHAM, Lewis N.— "L. N. D." Greensboro, Greene Co., Pa.; also 
West Virginia. Born April 1, 1833, between Greensboro and 
Mapletown. Adopted initial N. after maturity. In early 1870's 
began apprenticeship under his uncle, Barney Engle, Greens- 
boro, along with E. L. Pancost. Moved to Bowlby (10 miles 
south of Morgantown), West Virginia. Made full and half stock 
guns; expert at engraving, especially in German silver. Bought 
most of his barrel blanks, locks and triggers in Pittsburgh, Pa., 
but made and case-hardened his own tubes. Moved to West 
Virginia in 1890; sold out and returned in 1900, then did some 
arms work until his death August 6, 1902. Two German silver 
mounted Kentuckies and a fine, silver mounted, superposed 
double barrel revolving rifle, known. Used script initials "L. N. 
D." Taught school for twenty-odd years. Had been married twice 
and fathered 14 children. 

DONN, James & Bro.— Canton, 111., 1880-84. 

DOOLEY — Scranton, Pa., percussion period. 

DOOLITTLE — Homerville, Ohio, percussion period. 

DOOLITTLE, Isaac — Worked on repair of public arms for Connecticut, 
1777. 



American Gun Makers 53 

DOOLITTLE, Milton— Homerville, Medina Co., gunsmith, 1857-1897. 
Born in Coatsville, N. Y. 1837. Came to Ohio in 1880. Died 1904. 

DOPLIER, Robert — Wheeling, W. Va., percussion period. 

DORAN, J. E.— Ashtabula, O.; working in 1910. 

DORCHESTER— Colonial period, 1633-37. 

DORLEY — Scranton, Pa. Percussion period. 

DORMAN, Robert — Belltown, Mifflin Co., Pa. Late Kentucky rifles. 

DORN— Huntington, Pa., 1830; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

DOUGLAS, D. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

DOUGLAS, J. — Huntington, Ky. Maker of an inlaid, curly maple 
stock, percussion rifle. 

DOUGLAS, J. — Tyrone, Pa. Late maker of fine Kentucky rifles; one 
numbered 28. 

DOUGLAS, Jacob— East Springfield, Jefferson Co., Ohio. 1830-40. 

DOUGLAS, John — Connecticut arms maker of Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary War period. Repaired arms for the Connecticut Commit- 
tee of Safety, 1777-78. Gooseneck hammer, three banded, .75 
caliber musket known, equipped with 42 Vs inch British Brown 
Bess type barrel (formerly pin fastened) marked on top 
"DOVGLAS." Iron furniture except brass butt plate. 

DOUGLAS, Robert— East Springfield, Jefferson Co., Ohio, 1830. 

DOUGLAS, Thomas — Maple full stock, brass patchbox, octagon barrel 
barrel percussion Kentucky rifle marked "THOMAS DOUGLAS" 
on barrel and "T. DOUGLAS" on engraved lock. Probably the 
same as Thomas Douglass. 

DOUGLAS, Thompson— East Springfield, Jefferson Co., Ohio, 1850. 

DOUGLASS, D. — Unlocated. Curly maple, full-stock percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles. (Same as D. Douglas?). 

DOUGLASS, John— Huntington, Pa., 1830. 

DOUGLASS, John — Jonesboro, Tenn. Percussion rifles. 

DOUGLASS, Thomas— Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle with 
silver inlays. 

DOULAR, John — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 174 Coates, 
in 1829. 

DOW, Eli S.— Dayton, Ohio, 1874-77. 

DOWLER, John — Gunsmith. N.W. corner Green and Rose Alley, 
Phila., Pa., 1819. 

DOWNEY, John— Jackson Co., Ohio, 1851-76. 

DOWNEY, Nathaniel— Jackson Co., Ohio, 1869-86. 

DOWNY, M. — Harrisonville, Ohio. Full curly maple stock, brass 
mounted, heavy octagon barrel percussion rifle. 

D. P.— Initials of Daniel Pettibone, U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1808- 
1809. 

D. P. — Initials stamped inside the lock plate and under barrel of a 

fine Penna. type, relief carved, flintlock Kentucky rifle circa 

1800. 
DOYLE, John — Lancaster, Pa., 1784. Plain, neat flintlock Kentucky 

rifles. 
DRAKE, Dolphus — Adolphus Drake, gunsmith of Everett, Bedford 

Co., Pa., celebrated his one hundredth birthday Aug. 18, 1952. 

He was born near Cumberland, Md., Aug. 18, 1852 and settled 



54 American Gun Makers 

in the Everett area in 1873. Had been miner, tanner carpenter 
and as a sideline repaired guns and made muzzle-loading per- 
cussion rifles. 

DRAKE, Malherd— 35 Water St., Baltimore, Md., 1817. 

DRASHER, S. — Unlocated. Over-under, swivel breech, percussion, 
Kentucky type rifle marked "S. DRASHER." Period about 1840- 
1850. 

DREPERT, H. — Same as Henry Dreppert, Drepperd or Drippard. In- 
side lock marking of a U. S. Model 1795 musket. Also lock mark- 
ing of a Model 1808 type flintlock pistol by I. Guest. 

DREPPARD, John— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1830. May be 
same as John Drepperd. 

DREPPERD, Andrew— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

DREPPERD, Henry — Also spelled Drepert, Dreppert and Drippard. 
Lancaster, Pa., 1775 and later. See Drepert. 

DREPPERD, John — South Mulberry and West King Streets, Lan- 
caster, Pa., 1857. Also listed as John Dreppard at the same ad- 
dress in 1869-70. Maker of cherry wood stock, long barreled, 
percussion Kentucky rifle with Jos. Golcher lock. 

DREPPERT, Henry — Also spelled Drepert, Drepperd or Drippard. 
Lancaster, Pa., 1775 and later. See Drepert. 

DRESBACH, John — Pennsylvania, flintlock Kentucky rifles. See Dies- 
bock. 

DRESBACH, John Jr.— Mifflinburg, Pa. Probably son of John Dres- 
bach above. 

DREYAC, A.— 36 Light St., Baltimore, Md., 1817. 

DRIGGS-SEABURY ORDNANCE CO.— Utica, N. Y., World War I 
arms. Associated with Savage Arms Co. 

DRIPPARD, Henry — Also spelled Dreppert and Drepperd. Lancaster, 
Pa., 1775. Kentucky rifles. 

DRIPPARD, F.— Lancaster, Pa., 1767-73. 

DRISBACH, G.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

DRICOLL— Unidentified. Kentucky rifles. 

DRISCOLL, J. B.— Springfield, Mass. Maker of single-shot, metallic 
cartridge pistols with ratchet ejector under barrel. 

D. T. — Initials of Lieut. Daniel Tyler, Ordnance Dept. U. S. Army, 
Chief Inspector of arms made at National Armories after 1831. 
Had been stock inspector in plant of Nathan Starr. 

DUDLEY, Geo.— 2002 Mission St., San Francisco, Calif. Gunsmith, 
1887. 

DUERR, Christian— Fine 18th century flintlock Kentucky rifle with 
Roman nose stock, gooseneck hammer. 

DUFF, Geo. J.— Pittsburgh, Pa. Member of firm Whitmore, Wolff & 
Co., later Whitmore, Wolff, Duff & Co. 

DUFORT, A.— Charleston, S. C, 1867. 

DUHART, A. — Gunsmith and lightning rod maker. Elysian Fields, 
New Orleans, La., 1853. 

DULL, Jacob— Lancaster, Pa., 1802. 

DUMOND — Unidentified. Half stock percussion rifle. 

DUNCAN & BROS.— Philadelphia, Penna. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

DUNGAN — East Tennessee. Kentucky flintlock rifles. 



American Gun Makers 55 

DUNHAM, A. C. — Under hammer percussion pistol. 

DUNKLE, William — Pennsylvania. Percussion rifles. 

DUNKLE, G.— Path Valley, Franklin Co., Pa., about 1790. Long, 
ornate Kentucky flintlock rifles. 

DUNLAP— Salisburg, N. H. 

DUNLAP, G. — Percussion period. Owner of Pennsylvania Rifle Works. 

DUNLAP, R. — Pittsburgh, Pa. Percussion rifles. Perhaps related to 
G. Dunlap of Penna. Rifle Works. 

DUNMEYER, Jonathan— Sipesville, Somerset Co., Pa. Early 19th 
Century. Light, half stock boy's rifle with silver inlays and brass 
patch box and Bedford Co. percussion lock. Also made plain, 
crude rifles. 

DUNMIER, J.— Penna. Fine, slow-twist rifles. 

DUNN, James— Swan Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1832-35. 

DUNSETH, A.— St. Louis, Mo.; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 
1806. 

DUNSETH, Andrew— Gunsmith sent to Fort Washington, Ohio, by 
the Federal Government prior to 1790. At Zanesville, Ohio, 1804. 
Was also a silversmith. 

DUNWICK, William— Also Dunwicke. Chester County, Pa., Musket 
maker to Committee of Safety. Forty firelocks made and de- 
livered Jan. 3, 1776. William Dunwick was one of the petitioners, 
representing Philadelphia gun makers, complaining to the Com- 
mittee of Safety in November, 1776, against the high cost of 
materials and labor entering into arms making, and quoting 
advances in prices within one year, since 1775. 

DURBEE, James— New Bedford, Mass. Active in period 1828-1868. 
Veteran lance maker (for whaling purposes) and during a forty 
year period made 58,517 of them by actual record. 

DURHAM IRON WORKS— Easton, Pa., prior to 1783. Owned and 
operated by Richard Backhouse. 

DURKEE, J. H. — Lebanon, N. H. Percussion sporting and heavy target 
rifles. 

DURKEL, G. F. S.— St. Louis, Mo. At No. 32 3rd St. in 1864. 

DURR, Christian — Penna. rifle maker. Arrived Phila., Sept. 27, 1752 
from Rotterdam, Holland. Served in Penna. rifle regiment in 
Revolution. Underside of one of his rifles stamped "CHD." 

DURST— Unidentified, 1885. 

DURYEA & HEYER— Makers of a Kentucky type, full curly maple 
stock, brass trim, light weight, single barrel, percussion fowling 
pieces, rifles; underhammer rifles. Employed W. W. Whitmore 
and Tarrington. 

DUTTON, John B. — Jaffey, New Hampshire, rifle maker well known 
locally for accuracy of his arms. Born at Dutton homestead, 
Jaffey, Jan. 16, 1820. Moved to East Jaffey Village in 1876. Died 
March 22, 1881. 

DWARA — Pennsylvania; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

DWIGHT, H. D.— Belchertown, Mass., 1847. 

DWIGHT, Spencer— West Hartford, Conn. 



56 American Gun Makers 

E 

EAGLE ARMS CO.— New York City. Incorporated Nov. 20, 1865, 
for the manufacture of the Eagle revolver made under patents 
of Willard C. Eliss, No. 24,726, July 12, 1859, and N. White, No. 
39,318, July 21, 1863, which were taken over by the Eagle Arms 
Company from the Plant Manufacturing Co., who had manu- 
factured the Plant revolver under the same patents. 

EAGLE MFG. CO.— Eagleville, Mansfield, Conn., Makers of Spring- 
field rifle muskets marked "U. S. Eagleville" during the Civil 
War. Contract of Dec. 26, 1861, for 25,000 at $20.00 each of which 
20,000 were delivered. 

EAGLE RIFLE WORKS— Percussion Kentucky rifle with name on 
barrel, H. Elwell lock, and name Jos. Golcher inside cast brass 
patch box cover. 

EALER, Lewis W.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

E. A. M. — Initials of E. A. May, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

EARL, Thomas— Leicester, Mass., 1770-76 

EARLE, Elias — Centerville, S. C. Contracted with government on 
Feb. 16, 1815, for 10,000 muskets at $15.00 per stand to be de- 
livered at Centerville, S. C. Earle having been elected to Con- 
gress, the contract was taken over by Adam Carruth on Nov. 14, 
1816. 

EARLY, Jacob — Atcheson, Kansas gunsmith and frontiersman. Born 
in Tennessee in 1816; trapped in Rocky Mountain area in 1839; 
served in Mexican War; was government employed gunsmith to 
Sac and Fox Indians in 1853-60 and opened his own shop in 1864. 
Died 1886. Flintlock rifle marked "J. EARLY." 

EARNEST, John & Peter— Gunsmiths, cousins, of Delmont, Pa., 19th 
Century. Rifles known marked "S. P. EARNEST." Peter may be 
Simon P. Earnest whose grave is so marked in the Delmont 
cemetery. John was born 1827, died 1904. 

EARNHEART, Wm.— Unlocated. Fine 18th century Kentucky rifle 
with 40 inch barrel, about .38 cal. Engraved, long brass patch- 
box incised butt carving, silver inlays. Name on barrel. Also 
pair of Penna. construction circa 1812, flintlock pistols marked 
on barrels "W*M*EARNHART." 

EARNEY, C— Unlocated. Flintlock rifled target pistol. 

EARPS & McMAIN— Walnut full stock, German silver inlaid, flint- 
lock (converted to percussion) sporting musket, Kentucky style. 

EASTERN ARMS COMPANY— Double action pocket revolvers. 

EASTMAN, A. G.— Rochester, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

EASTMAN, George — Concord, N. H. Percussion rifles. 

EASTMAN, J. I.— Jaffrey, N. H., 1863-1868. Underhammer arms, tele- 
scope-sight match rifles, long-barreled pistols. 

EATON, D. S.— Moravia, N. Y. 

EATON, E. E.— Chicago, 111. Double barrel, hammer, 10 g. shotgun. 

EATON, J.— Boston, Mass., 1847. 

EATON, J.— Concord, N. H., 1874-1916. 

EATON & KITTRIDGE— 236 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, before and 
after 1851. Percussion rifle makers. 



American Gun Makers 57 

E. B. — Unidentified. Script marking on superposed, percussian Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

EBBERT, D. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

EBERLE, A.— 545 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1861-63. 

EBERLE, Charles — Phila. cutler. Acted as inspector of sabers, con- 
tract of Dec. 9, 1807, for 2,000 horsemen's sabers, awarded to 
William Rose & Sons, Blockley Township, Phila., Pa., by Tench 
Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies. 

EBERLY, John— Lancaster, Pa., 1775-77. Excused by the Executive 
Council from military duty Dec. 5, 1777, for the making of arms 
for the State of Pennsylvania, in the employ and under direction 
of William Henry I of Lancaster. 

EBERSOLE, W. H. — Vicinity of Duncannon, Pa. Gunsmith. Born Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., 1846. Died 1920. 

EBNER, Ferdinand — Burlington, Iowa. Born in Baden, Germany, 
October 22, 1831, son of Joseph and Anna Zimmerman Ebner. In 
1853, having served apprenticeship in gunsmith trade, on death of 
father, emigrated with mother, three brothers and sister, to U. S. 
Lived for a short time in New York City, then Newburg-on-the- 
Hudson. Came to Burlington in 1855, to work for Mr. Ebersoll, 
gunsmith, whom he bought out a year later. Married locally in 
1857 and later took sons Charles and Rollie into business, the 
firm becoming F. Ebner & Sons. 

Ferdinand Ebner had reputation for fine work; octagon bar- 
rel, heavy, schuetzen butt target rifle with micrometer sights 
adjustable for elevation and windage. Reported by Mrs. Charles 
F. Ebner: "I have seen several of his guns but didn't pay much 
attention, they were single barrels (I think) & heavy with his 
initial on end of barrel." 

ECKHART, H., & FLOHR, Charles— Sacramento, Calif., after 1870. 
Schuetzen rifles. 

ECKEL, Charles— 518 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1840-1860. 

ECKENRODE, David— Upper Amberson, Pa. 

ECKHART, Henry and William— St. Joseph, Mo., 1863-69. 

ECKLES, H.— Pennsylvania, about 1820. A 53-inch flintlock Kentucky 
rifle. 

E. D. & CO. — Unlocated. Marking on a Model 1795 musket lockplate. 

EDDY, James— Philadelphia, Pa., 1812-14. 

EDGERTON, H. S.— German, N. Y. and Chenango, N. Y., percussion 
period. 

EDGINGTON, D.— Unlocated. Beautiful flintlock Kentucky rifle. The 
only Edgington family in the 1790 Pennsylvania census was in 
Washington County. 

EDMONDS, J.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

EDGAR & SMITH— Wm. Edgar and B. M. Smith, Mineral Point, Wis. 
Marking on a percussion "duckfoot" revolver firing three shots at 
a time. 

EDWARDS, A. G.— Corunna, Mich., 1869. Half stock percussion rifle. 

EDWARDS & GOODRICH— New Haven, Conn., musket makers. 
Executors and trustees for Eli Whitney, deceased. Musket con- 
tract of March 21, 1830, details unknown. Contract of Jan. 8, 
1840, for 7,500 muskets at $12.45 per stand. Duration five years, 
1,500 per annum. Edwards of the firm is believed to be ex- 



58 American Gun Makers 

governor Edwards, one of the Whitney trustees from 1835 to 
1842. 

EDWARDS, H. — Unlocated. Fancy inlaid and relief carved Kentucky 
rifle. 

EFFLEBACH — Philadelphia, Pa., percussion derringers. 

EGE, Frederick — Detroit, Mich. Percussion rifles. 

EGGERS, Samuel— New Bedford, Mass., about 1840-65. 

EHLERS— Unidentified. Kentucky rifles. 

EHRMON, H. — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

EICHOLTZ & BRO.— 31 Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period 
to 1888. 

EICHOLTZ, Robert L.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857 Lancaster Directory. 

EICHORN, Charles— Lock and gunsmith, Cleveland, Ohio, 1848. 

EISTER, J.— York County, Penna. Revolutionary War period. Skilled 
rifle maker of fine arms. Uncle of H. Aultland. 

E. L. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 

ELDREDGE, J. W. — Unidentified. Making on mule-ear percussion 
lock. 

ELLER. H. O. — Cairo, 111. Heavy percussion match rifle. 

ELLIOTT, Mathew and Nathan— Kent, Conn. Musket makers. Con- 
tractors under Act of July 5, 1798, for 500 Charleville pattern 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 235 were 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

ELLIS, J. A. — Canandiagua, N. Y., percussion over-under, mule-ear 
rifle-and-shotgun. 

ELLIS, Reuben— Albany, N. Y. Contracted July, 1829, for 500 Hall 
breech-loading flintlock rifles. Failed on his contract. Maker of 
flintlock repeating rifles on sliding lock principle using S. North, 
Model 1817 rifles. 

ELLIS, S.— Unlocated. 1855-60. 

ELLS, Josiah— Pittsburgh, Pa., about 1854-57. Maker of "Ells" patent 
pocket revolver, patents of 1854 and 1857. 

ELLSWORTH, Joseph— Present Richland Co., Ohio, 1800. 

ELWELL, H.— Seneca Co., Ohio, before 1812. Made gunlocks for 
Indians. 

ELWELL, H.— Pennsylvania. Though reported as maker of a flintlock 
Kentucky rifle, probably was a lock maker only, of late period 
flintlocks with reinforced hammers and roller frizzens spring 
bearings and of original percussion locks. Variously marked H. 
ELWELL WARRANTED. Probably identical with Henry Elwell 
and N. Elwell, (misread)? Handsome Kentucky pistols known 
marked "H. Elwell" on lock plates. 

ELWELL, Henry — Unidentified. Marking on the percussion lock of a 
rifle by G. W. Harvel & Bros. Elwell locks are also found on rifles 
by James Golcher. 

ELWELL, N. — Unidentified. Marking on lock of a percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

ELY, A. F.— Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 1830-56. 

ELY, Martin — Springfield, Mass., about 1770-75. Musket maker to 
Committee of Safety. 

EMERY, N.— Chatfield, Fillmore Co., Minn, 1864-65. 



American Gun Makers 59 

EMMES, Nathaniel — Washington Street, South End, Boston, Mass. 
1796-1825. Advertised "The Gunsmith's Business carried on in 
its various branches with neatness and dispatch." 

EMPIRE STATE ARMS COMPANY— -Revolvers. 

ENGLE, Barney — B. E. script initials. Greensboro, Greene Co., Pa. 
Before and after 1870. Maker of a late percussion Kentucky 
marked "B. E." with H. Elwell lock. Taught the trade to nephew 
Lewis N. Donham and E. L. Pancost. 

ENGLE, E. E.— Greensboro, Greene Co., Pa. Flintlock rifles. Reputed 
to have been the first gunsmith in Greene County. Father of 
Barney Engle. 

ENGLEHART, J.— Nazareth, Pa., about 1830-36. Rifle maker, also 
made Darling brass pepperbox pistols marked E. Engh. 

ENSLEY, M.— Unidentified. Percussion rifles. 

ENTERPRISE GUN WORKS— 136-138 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Established 1848 by Bown & Tetley. In 1862 James Bown be- 
came sole proprietor; in 1871 his son William H. Bown was ad- 
mitted to partnership and the firm became James Bown & Son, 
until at least 1879. Firm trade mark was "KILL" over a buck 
deer. Rifles bearing the Enterprise Gun Works marks are known 
marked "BROWN & HIRTH," successors to James Bown & Son. 
The following extracts from "Industries of Pittsburgh 1879." 
"For more than thirty years the name of Mr. Bown has been 
identified with the gun business in the Iron City, The Enterprise 
Gun Works having been established in 1848 by Bown & Tetley. 
In 1862, Mr. James Bown became the sole proprietor, and in 
1871, Mr. Wm. H. Bown, his son, was admitted and the firm be- 
came James Bown & Son, under which style it has continued to 
the present day. They occupy three floors of the large double 
store, 30x60, at Nos. 136 and 138 Wood street, employing twenty- 
six skilled workmen, and their weekly pay-roll amounts to about 
$275. Their stock, which is full and complete in every variety of 
Guns, Rifles, Revolvers, Fishing tackle, Sportsmen's articles in 
General . . . While they are large manufacturers of rifles, Rifle 
Barrels, Shot Guns, etc., they also deal extensively in the best 
articles of foreign and American make . . . Mr. James Bown was 
born in England in 1823 and at the age of ten years came to this 
country with his parents, and in 1843 became a resident of 
Pittsburgh. Mr. Wm. H. Bown was born in the Iron City and 
has never lived in any other place. 

ENTERS, Lewis — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as inn-keep and gun stock 
manufacturer at 54 Callowhill, in 1829. 

ERICHSON, H. — Houston, Texas. Percussion derringers. 

ERNST, Jacob— Frederick, Md. Working in 1770, probably until 1820. 
Carved, silver inlaid flintlock Kentucky rifle with engraved, 
hand-forged lock; one rifle numbered 125. 

ERRIES, Francois — Gunsmith, 175 Ursulines, New Orleans, La,, 1853. 

E. S. — Unidentified. Marking on an over-under, percussion rifle. 

E. S. A. — Initials of E. S. Allin, Master Armorer Springfield Armory. 

Inspected arms made at Springfield Armory in the 1850's — 60's. 

Inventor of the Allin breech-block as used on Springfield Models 

1865 to 1889. 

ESCHERICH, Anton, Ferdinand and Francis— Also Escherick. Balti- 
more gunsmiths, brothers, who came to Maryland from Pennsyl- 



60 American Gun Makers 

vania just before the Civil War. In addition to making and re- 
pairing long arms and pistols, Anton ran a restaurant as a side 
Line in his shop on Baltimore Street, near Greene. Mr. Hetrick 
reports an A. Escherich double barrel percussion pistol notable 
for its exquisite engraving and bas-relief work. 

ESPICH, Charles — Agersville, and New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas Co., 
Ohio., 1828. 

ESTABROOK, J. M. — Milford, Mass., early percussion rifles 

ESTABROOK, Wm. W.— Armada, Mich., maker of 2-barrel, super- 
posed percussion rifles. 

E. T. — Initials of Elisha Tobey, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1818-1830. Inspected arms in plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon 
North, Nathan Starr and Asa Waters. 

EVANS — Of Doherty & Evans, Petersburg, Va. Makers of a walnut 
half stock, German silver trim, back action lock, double set trig- 
gers, percussion rifle. 

EVANS — The Evans family, Pennsylvania gun makers of Evansburg, 
five miles north of Valley Forge, originally settled in Limerick 
Township, Pa. They intermarried into the Lane family of Lower 
Providence Township, who had settled in that locality in 1698. 

EVANS, Brooke— Hardware merchant of 120 High St., Philadelphia, 
Pa. In association with John Rogers (who owned the Valley 
Forge) on March 21, 1821, took over the defunct contract of 
July 28, 1817, for 10,000 muskets at $12.25 per stand, which had 
been awarded to Alexander McRae of Richmond, Va. Brooke 
Evans remodelled the old forge and iron works into a gun 
factory, and is known to have delivered 5,730 muskets by Dec. 
31, 1823. These arms are marked "B. Evans — Valley Forge" in 
two lines surrounding an eagle. It is believed that after the con- 
tract was fulfilled, the partnership was dissolved, as in 1825, 
Rogers alone obtained a contract for 5,000 muskets. 

EVANS, Edward — Musket maker of Evansburg, Pa. Associated with 
James Evans in a contract of May 2, 1801, with the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 Charleville pattern (Model 
1795) muskets at $11.00 per stand. See O. & E. Evans. 

EVANS, James — Musket maker of Evansburg, Pa. Associated with 
Edward Evans in a contract of May 2, 1801, with the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 Charleville pattern (Model 
1795) muskets at $11.00 per stand. 

EVANS, James E. — Philadelphia maker of percussion duelling and 
derringer type pistols and fine double shotguns. Listed at 25 
North 2nd St., in 1850, 86 South St., in 1855, and at 230 South 
St., in 1860-65. 

EVANS, Owen— Born in Limerick Township, Pa., July 12, 1758. Son 
of Thomas Evans. Resided and made arms at Perkiomen Bridge, 
Pa., (now Collegeville). The barrels for his arms were probably 
made at Pechin's Mill, about three-quarters of a mile south of 
Perkiomen Bridge. Had contract with Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania of Dec. 7, 1797, for 1,200 muskets made after the Charle- 
ville pattern, to be stamped "CP." Died in 1812. Evansville was 
named after him. See O. & E. Evans. 

EVANS, O. & E. — Pennsylvania musket makers Owen and Edward 
Evans, (see above) in partnership, contractors on Oct. 25, 1808, 
for 4,000 Model 1808 muskets, to be delivered in a period of five 
years. Of these 1,960 are recorded to have been delivered by 



American Gun Makers 61 

Oct. 7, 1812. The firm obtained an additional contract of Aug. 
14, 1815, for 25 muskets, probably to close the account of pre- 
vious contract. At this time the firm was managed by Edward 
Evans, Owen having died in 1812. Made French M.1805 type 
flintlock pistols of which a specimen was reported marked 1814 
on barrel. 

EVANS, Thomas— Lancaster County, Pa., before and after 1779. 

EVANS, William L. — Sixth child of Owen Evans, William L. Evans 
was born May 28, 1797, at Evansburg, Montgomery Co., Pa. In 
1825, he became associated with John Rogers, who had purchased 
Valley Forge in 1814. William L. Evans made pistols patterned 
after the Model 1826 North Navy arms, and on May 3, 1831, con- 
tracted for 1,500 muskets at $12.45 per stand, to be delivered in a 
period of two years from Jan. 1, 1832. It is believed that barrels 
mostly were made at Valley Forge, the rest of the arm being 
made at the factory at Evansburg. William L. Evans arms are 
known marked "W. L. Evans V. Forge" and "W. L. Evans E. 
Burg" on the lock-plates. William Evans died Aug. 6, 1861, and 
is buried in the family plot in the old church-yard of St. James 
Parkiomen Church at Evansburg. 

EVANS REPEATING RIFLE CO.— Mechanic Falls, Maine, about 
1871-80. Manufacturers of the Evans repeating sporting and mili- 
tary rifles and carbines using a spiral tube magazine extending 
through the stock. The plant, which was operated by Merwin & 
Hulbert, ceased operations in 1880. 

EVATT, Columbus— 56 Light St., Baltimore, Md., 1840. 

EVATT, Edward— 35 Light St., Baltimore, Md., 1804-1818. 

EVATT, Ellen, Mrs.— Baltimore, Md., 1842. 

EVATT, John— Baltimore, Md., 1831. 

EVERETT, Edward— 36 Ellicott Wharf, Baltimore, Md., 1804. 

EVERSON, L.— Unidentified. Maker of a curly maple full stock, 
muzzle-loading, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

EWBANK— See Strohecker & Ewbank. 



F. — Marking inside a Charleville type musket made without a lock 
strap, believed by historical association to have been made by 
Richard Falley under contract of 1798. 

FAHNESTOCK — Kentucky percussion target rifle. Hooded front, ad- 
justable open and peep rear sights; name on odd-shaped lock- 
plate. 

FAINOT, F. & J.— See Farnot, Frank and Jacob. 

FAIR, James— Dayton, Ohio, 1872-76. 

FAIRBANKS, A. B.— Boston, Mass., prior to 1841. All metal (brass 

frame) percussion pistols and derringers. 
F. A. M. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 

FALLEY, Richard — Montgomery, Mass., musket maker, active 1774- 
1801 and later. Contractor under act of July 5, 1798, for 1,600 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of 
these 750 were known delivered by June 10, 1801. Falley had 
served in the French and Indian War, and in the Revolutionary 
War, having been a company commander in the Battle of Bunker 



62 American Gun Makers 

Hill. After the War, was armorer to State of Massachusetts and 
later superintendent at Springfield Armory. Born in Maine, Jan. 
31, 1740; died at Westfield, Sept. 3, 1808. In addition to service 
with the armed forces, Falley is believed to have made arms at 
Montgomery, Mass., during the Revolutionary War. 

FANCHER, Thomas — Connecticut musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. In association with Jesse Curtis of Waterbury, furnished 
26 muskets with bayonets. Earlier delivery of three muskets with 
bayonets is recorded as having been paid for July 29, 1776. 

FARNOT, Frank— Also Fainot. Lancaster, Pa. Active 1779-83. 

FARNOT, Frederick — Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., before 
and after 1779. 

FARNOT, Jacob— Also Fainot. Lancaster, Pa., active 1779-83. 

FARQUET, E.— Gunsmith. New Orleans, La., 1861. 

FARRINGTON, William H.— Concord, N. H., percussion period. 

FARROW ARMS CO.— Holyoke, Mass., about 1885-90, then at Mason, 
Tenn. Target rifles. Operated by Wm. Milton Farrow. 

FARVER, W. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

FAULK, Adam — Or Foulk. Unidentified. Maker of Kentucky rifles 
about 1775. 

FAUST, Joseph H.— Alsace, Pa. Born about 1818. Active 1845 to about 
1880. Gun stocker and rifle maker. Learned his trade watching 
John Derr and Henry Schaner, Oley Valley gunsmiths. Bought 
his barrels from gun barrel makers on Wyomissing Creek, and 
gun-locks at Reading. Made all other parts by hand. 

FAUST, W. Ed. — La Fontaine, Ind. Percussion rifles. 

FAVIER, Peter A.— 67 West Pratt St., Baltimore, Md., 1845. 

FAY, E. — Albany, N. Y. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

FAY, Edwin — Hartford, Conn. Learned under Edwin Wesson; later 
president of J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass. 
A fine percussion buggy rifle with 12-inch barrel. 

FAY, George — 2120 Third Ave., Altoona, Pa. Listed as gunsmith in 
1890 directory. Late percussion, full-stock, Kentucky rifles, some 
Bedford Co. type, others with purchased locks. May have worked 
in Bedford Co., and later in Cambria, near Altoona. 

FAY, George W. — 1000 Green Ave., Altoona, Pa. Listed as gunsmith 
in 1890 Directory. (Related to George Fay?) 

FAYETTEVILLE ARSENAL— Fayetteville, N. C. Captured U. S. 
Arsenal established as Confederate armory in 1861, partly with 
machinery and material salvage from the burning of the Harpers 
Ferry Armory. Made Confederate rifle muskets similar in appear- 
ance to the Springfield Model 1861, but largely with brass furni- 
ture which was easier to machine than iron or steel. 

In March, 1865, with the end of the Civil War in sight, 
(April 1865), the arsenal machinery was loaded on flat cars of 
a coal company and taken to Egypt, Chatham Co., where it was 
hidden. Egypt was the site of extensive Confederate coal mines. 
In May, 1865, the government having heard of the secreted 
machinery, sent ninety-six six-mule wagons, repossessed it and 
removed it to Raleigh whence it was shipped by rail to Washing- 
ton. Among other equipment retaken was the musket lock-plate 
die from the Harpers Ferry Armory, in which the U.S. had been 
replaced by C. S. A. 



American Gun Makers 63 

FEDER, G. — Pennsylvania, about 1810. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

FEHR — Four members, three of them gunsmiths, at Easton, Filetown, 
Nazareth, and Allentown, Pa. Set triggers made at Filetown, also 
at Nazareth. 

FEHR, J. — Nazareth, Pa., 1835; Kentucky rifle so dated. Extensive 
maker of set triggers. 

FEHR, M. M. — Set triggers on N. Shennefelt, late percussion, Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

FELOUX, Peter— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 190 South, 
in 1829. 

FENNER, Thomas— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed on North Front, below 
Master, in 1829 and on Second Street in 1839. Gunsmith and pis- 
tol maker. 

FENSEL, Peter — After apprenticeship at Kenton, Ohio, returned to 
Union County, Ohio, where he was born (1842), and established 
himself in business in 1887. 

FERGUSON, Charles— Troy, N. Y., 1837; Kentucky rifles. 

FERREE, Jacob — Lancaster, Pa., powder manufacturer and gunsmith. 
Born August 8, 1750. Was twice married. In 1785, Jacob Ferree 
moved from Lancaster to the mouth of Peters Creek, Jefferson 
Township, Allegheny Co., where with his son Joel he erected a 
powder mill and gun shop. Later in 1800, he purchased 330 
acres of land where Coraopolis now stands, (Moon Township, 
west of Pittsburgh). The day after his arrival at his new home- 
stead, Jacob's brother, Joel, was killed by Indians while hunting 
deer. 

During the Revolutionary War, Jacob Ferree had charge 
of the French Creek Powder Mill at Kimberton, Pa. He died 
in 1807, at the age of 57. 

The Ferree family of Pennsylvania descended from Mary 
Ferree (nee Warimbere, or Warembiere) a Protestant of French 
Huguenot descent from Bittingheim, High Bailiwick of Germer- 
sheim, Bavarian Palatina, who emigrated to America by way of 
Holland and England in December, 1708. Though her original 
application for passport applied for emigration to the "Island 
of Pennsylvania," she first came to Esopus, (now Kingston) N. Y., 
then in 1712 settled on a grant of 2,300 acres along the Pequea, 
in Paradise Township, Lancaster, Co., Pa. With Mary Ferree 
(twice married widow of Daniel Ferree, then John Ferree, slain 
in France) came her six children, three sons and three daughters, 
among them Isaac Ferree, the father of Jacob of this entry. 

Jacob Ferree had three sons, Joel, Isaac and William P., 
the youngest. Of these, two elder sons followed their father's 
gunsmith trade. 

FERREE, Joel— Gunsmith. Son of Jacob Ferree and his first wife, 
Rachel. Worked with his father. Born Jan. 26, 1771; died in 
April, 1813. Was a colonel of militia in the War of 1812. 

FERREE, Isaac — Son of Jacob Ferree and his second wife (nee 
Alice Powell). Born Jan. 9, 1776. Active as gunsmith at Baton 
Rouge, La., from 1818 until his death in 1822. 

FERREE, Joel Thornton and George Spencer — Gunsmiths. Sons of 
Isaac Ferree. Active in Alleghany County before and until 1840. 

FERREE, Joel — Son of Philip Ferree (one of the three sons of Mary 
Ferree) and Leah Dubois of Esopus, (now Kingston) N. Y., where 
his parents were married May 10, 1712, and shortly after moved 



64 American Gun Makers 

to Leacock Township, Lancaster, Co., Pa. Joel Ferree was born 
in 1731, and more than likely learned the gunsmith trade to 
which he was apprenticed at the age of 14, from his relative, 
Philip Lefevre. In 1752, upon reaching his maturity, Joel re- 
ceived land from his father, set up a rifle making shop, and was 
active until 1778 and later. During the Revolutionary War, he 
was a musket and rifle maker to the Committee of Safety, for 
whom he produced 30 to 40 arms weekly. 

FERREE, Joel — Cumberland, Guernsey Co., Ohio, 1869-70. 

FERREE, Manuel— Lancaster County, Pa., 1779. 

FERRIS, Fred G.— Utica, N. Y., in 1859-60. Changed spelling to 
Ferriss; probably related to Geo. H. Ferris(s). Percussion rifles. 

FERRIS, Geo. H.— Utica, N. Y., 1848-1875; 40 Lansing St. in 1850. 
Apprenticed under Morgan James; associated as James & Ferris, 
making rifles and telescope sights until 1859. Awarded Utica 
Mechanics Association medal for prize rifles, 1859. Name spelled 
Ferriss after 1863; last listed in Utica Directory for 1866. Prob- 
ably related to Fred G. Ferris(s). 

FESIG, Conrad— Or Feasig. Reading, Berks Co., Pa., 1779-85. 

FETTER, William — Pennsylvania arms maker in the employ of Lewis 
Prahl, musket maker to Committee of Safety. On June 12, 1776, 
Fetter was ordered discharged or furloughed from the army in 
order to return to gun making under Prahl. 

FIDLER, Squire — Near Tunnelton, Ind. Curly maple, halfstock per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle (possibly originally fullstock), brass 
mounted with German silver bat wing escutcheons. Lock stamped 
"D.C.&CO.-Cinn.-O." 

FIEHL & WEEKS FIRE ARMS MFG. CO.— Phila., Pa., "Perfect" 
hammer less revolvers in imitation of Smith & Wesson. 

FIELD, I.— Philadelphia, Pa., flintlock rifles. 

FIFIELD & RICHARDSON— Boston, Mass. Double barrel percussion 
shotgun. 

FIGTHORN, Andrew— Reading, Berks, Co., Pa., 1779-85. 

FILLINGER, J.— On barrel of .68 calibre militia rifle-musket, OHIO 
burned into sycamore stock opposite lock and on wrist. 

FILLMAN, W. — Unlocated. Early percussion rifles of fine workman- 
ship. (Same as W. A. Filman?). 

FILMAN, W. A. — Unlocated. Maker of a full stock, curly maple, brass 
trim, Kentucky type percussion rifle. 

FINCH, Joseph— New York, N. Y., before 1828. 

FISCHER, George — Unidentified. Maker of a combination rifle and 
shotgun. 

FISCHER, Gustav— New York, N. Y., before and after 1860. Breech- 
loading sporting or target rifles. 

FISH— New York City, before and after 1845. 

FISHEL, Jacob— Hopewell Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1850. 

FISHER, D. — Unlocated. Percussion sporting rifle. 

FISHER, E. — Fostoria, Ohio. Back-action lock percussion rifle. 

FISHER, Elam J.— Detroit gunsmith. Member of firm of Fisher & 
Long. 

FISHER, F. G.— Greeley, Col., 1876-80. 

FISHER, H. — New York, N. Y. Percussion sporting rifle. 



American Gun Makers 65 

FISHER, J. H.— New York, N. Y. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

FISHER, Jacob — Canton, Ohio. Skilled riflesmith. Percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle halfstocked in burl walnut with browning mottled to 
match. Brass mountings, back-action lock. 

FISHER, James— 8 Calvert St., Baltimore, Md., 1817. 

FISHER & LONG— Detroit Gunsmiths from 1867. Took over William 
Wingert's gun shop and extended it to the main street, and sold 
sporting goods as well. A double percussion shot gun marked 
"FISHER & LONG" is in existence. 

FISHER, S.— New York. Maker of a walnut half stock, double set 
triggers, well made percussion sporting rifle. 

FISHER, Uriah — Rice's Landing, Greene Co., Pa. Learned the trade 
under Bruce Medeer, Brownville, Pa. Bought parts from J. H. 
Johnston, Pittsburgh. Son of a Civil War veteran. Still active in 
1948. 

FISHER, Wm. B. — Lynchburg, Va. Percussion Kentucky rifle with 
sun-shade tube sight. 

FISKE & TUTTLE— New Haven, Conn., 1874-75. 

FITCH, James P. — Unidentified. Maker of Jas. P. Fitch cartridge 
revolver. 

FITCH, John— Trenton, N. J., 1769-1776. Born in 1743; gun maker and 
metal worker on King St., Trenton, after 1769. Manufactured files 
at Trenton with steelmaker Stacy Potts. Gunsmith or armorer to 
Committee of Safety; contracted to repair arms and make metal 
buttons for the Army. His shop burned by the British in 1776, 
Fitch moved to Bucks Co., Pa. Inventor of first steamboat, which 
operated between Trenton and Philadelphia 1788-1790. Mapped 
the Northwest Territory; died 1798 at Bardstown, Ky. A flintlock 
militia musket marked "FITCH" and "S. P." (State Property). 

FITCH & WALDO— New York City. Makers of 5-shot percussion 
revolvers. 

FITZPATRICK— Maker of a half stock, octagonal barrel, flintlock 
plains rifie with double set triggers. 

FITZPATRICK, Reese — Natchez, Miss. Gunsmith to Bowie Brothers. 
Had been in their employ a number of years when the first famed 
Bowie knife was forged by James Bowie in the early 1820's. 

F. J. H. — Marking on a percussion Kentucky target rifle. 

FLAGG, B. & CO.— Millbury, Mass. Makers of Model 1842 percussion, 
smooth-bore muskets, marked on lock-plate, eagle, "US" and 
"B. FLAGG & CO., MILLBURY, 1849." No details as to contract. 

FLEEGER, John — In association with his son, Wm. A. Fleeger, op- 
erated the Alleghany Gun Works, Alleghany (now a suburb of 
Pittsburgh), Pa. The works were established in 1831, at Diamond 
Street, for over 30 years, whence they were moved to 49 Ohio 
St., in 1877. The firm made flintlock Kentucky rifles, and later 
sporting and target rifles to order. 

FLEEK— Barrville, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

FLEGEL, George— Armorer, U. S. Arsenal, Phila., Pa., 1815. Listed 
as "Fleegal," Master Armourer in 1819. Inspector of Contract 
Arms, 1823, at plant of Asa Waters. Probably the "GF," in- 
spector of arms at the Henry Deringer plant in 1814. 

FLEGEL, J. G.— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 221 St. John, 
in 1829. 



66 American Gun Makers 

FLEMING, I. W.— Unlocated, possibly Ohio. Plain fullstock percus- 
sion rifle, Joseph Manton lock. 

FLEMING, Silas M. — Exhibited a "fine rifle gun of his own manu- 
facture" at the county fair at Richmond, Indiana, 1852. 

FLOHR, A.— Sacramento, Calif., 1851-1870. Fine muzzle and breech- 
loaders, false-muzzle Schuetzen rifles. 

FLOHR, Charles — See Eckhart & Flohr. 

FLOHR & WENDLER — Sacramento, Calif. Muzzle-loading, needle- 
fire 14 gauge shotgun. 

FLOWERS, Charles — Harmony, Pa. Beautiful percussion Kentucky 
rifles; never made flintlocks. 

FOEHL, Chas. — Philadelphia, Pa. Maker of a schuetzen type, per- 
cussion target rifle. Swiss type butt cap with long under-arm 
projection. German silver furniture. 

FOGELSANG, John— Richland Co., Ohio. Early period of Ohio. 

FOGERTY REPEATING RIFLE CO.— Boston, Mass., about 1867. 
Renamed American Rifle Co. prior to 1869, when it sold out to 
Winchester. 

FOGG, Gilman E. — Manchester, N. H. Designed spade-shaped rear 
sight aperture. Sixteen-pound percussion match rifle; small under- 
hammer smoothbore. 

FOGLE, Heinrich— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

FOHRER, Ludwig— Pennsylvania, 1775-76. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

FOILKE, Adam— Also Foulke. Lehigh District, Pa., 1773-94. In 
association with John Young, supplied the Council of Safety 
with 130 rifles in 1776. Same as Faulk, Adam, maker of Ken- 
tucky rifles? See Foulke, Adam. 

FOLGER, W. H.— Barsville, Belmont Co., Ohio, 1834. Came from 
Winchester, Va. "Gunsmithing in the wintertime." 

FOLK, William— Brian. Williams Co., Ohio, 1880-90. Operator of 
Folk's Gun Works. 

FOLK'S GUN WORKS— Bryan, Ohio, before 1880-90 and after .22 
cal. target rifles. Shotguns. 

FOLLECK, John— Johnstown, N. Y., rifle makers, 1769-1775. One of 
four rifle makers induced by Sir William Johnson to come out 
and settle in New York State by grants of buildings and tools. 
By 1775 rifle making had become an enterprising industry with 
most of the settlers and Indians trading their smoothbores for 
rifled arms and New York was second only to Pennsylvania in 
their manufacture. By 1770 the population of Johnstown had 
grown to about five hundred people and the village comprized 
about one hundred dwellings, including stores, a gunsmith, a 
blacksmith shop, a carpenter's shop, two saw mills, a flour mill, 
a wagon shop, an Episcopal Church and a manor school. 

FOLLECT— Or Follecht. Lancaster, Pa. Kentucky rifles, about 1770. 

FOLSOM, H. & CO.— 620-622 North Main St., St. Louis, Mo., mid- 
19th century. Gunsmith and sporting goods dealer; for a time 
in partnership with H. E. Dimick as Dimick & Folsom. 

FONCANNON, M. B.— Columbus, Ohio, 1848. New Lexington, 1852-54. 

FONDERGRIFT— Pennsylvania. Prior to 1783. Possibly same as John 
Vondergrift, Bucks County, Pa. 

FONDERSMITH, John and Son— Lancaster, Pa., 1749, to about 1800. 



American Gun Makers 67 

Strasburg to about 1802. Made arms for the Pennsylvania troops 
during the Revolutionary War. Jan. 14, 1799, contracted with 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 500 Charleville pattern, 
(Model 1795) muskets. On April 16, 1801, John Fondersmith, 
listed as of Strasburg, Pa., contracted for additional 500 muskets. 

FONDERSMITH KENTUCKY TYPE— Marking on the barrel of a 
heavy percussion rifle with bullet starter and back-action lock. 

FONDERSMITH, Ludwig and Valentine — Strasburg Twp., Lancaster 
Co., Pa., 1771-79. Also Fundersmith. 

FONSHILL, John— Baltimore, Md., Union Street in 1816, North Street 
in 1819. 

FOOT, A. — Master Armorer Springfield Armory, 1818. 

FOOT, N.— Marking inside lock of Springfield musket dated 1810. 

FORBES, Gilbert— New York, N. Y., 1767-75. 

FORBES, Nathan— U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1799-1801. 

FORD — Unlocated. Barrel marking of a flintlock Kentucky rifle 
marked "F. LEAMING, PHILA. WARRANTED" on lock. 

FORD, D.— Abbeyville, Medina Co., Ohio, 1862-65. 

FORD, J. — Virginia, flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

FORD, P. J. — Torrington, Conn. Percussion rifle. 

FORD, R. E. L.— Great Smokey Mountains, Tenn. Fullstocked, per- 
cussion, octagonal barrel "hog rifle" marked "Yellow Jacket 
Poison to Crossmarks, R.E.L. Ford, 1905." 

FORDNEY, C— Cumberland, Md., about 1800-1830; flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

FORDNEY, I.— Unlocated, Kentucky rifles. 

FORDNEY, Jacob — Lancaster, Pa., gunsmith whose shop had been 
located at corner of Orange and Prince Streets. Born 1808, died 
at the age of 70. The family was of French, Huguenot, descent, 
from the Swiss-French border area. The name originally was 
Fortenieux, then Fortenee and finally became Fordney. Listed in 
Lancaster Directory in 1857. Had contracted with the govern- 
ment Nov. 7, 1837, for 250 rifles for Indians at $13.00 each. 

FORDNEY, JAMES— Unlocated. Flintlock and percussion Kentucky 
rifles. 

FORDNEY, Melchior— Lancaster, Pa., early 19th century. Taught 
Henry E. Leman (q.v.) 1828-1831. Fine silver-mounted, relief 
carved flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

FORESTER— Bristol, R. I. Maker of a "mule ear" lock, muzzle- 
loading, percussion rifle. 

FOREHAND ARMS CO.— Worcester, Mass., 1890-1900. Renamed from 
Forehand & Wadsworth. Makers of revolvers and sporting rifles. 
Sold out to Hopkins & Allen Mfg. Co., of Norwich, Conn. See 
Allen & Wheelock and Forehand & Wadsworth. 

FOREHAND & WADSWORTH— Worcester, Mass., 1871-November, 
1890. Sullivan Forehand and H. C. Wadsworth, sons-in-law of 
Ethan Allen of the old firm of Ethan Allen & Co., and Allen & 
Wheelock before that. Revolvers and sporting rifles. See Allen & 
Wheelock. 

Sullivan Forehand was born in Croyden, N. H., Oct. 10, 1831. 
He became connected with Allen & Wheelock in 1860, and was 
admitted into the firm in 1865 as a partner. Mr. Forehand died in 
Worcester, June 7, 1898. 



68 American Gun Makers 

Henry C. Wadsworth came to Worcester at the age of 21, 
entered the employ of Ethan Allen, and married his daughter, 
Laurette. Had served nine months during the Civil War in Co. 
"C," 51st Massachusetts Volunteers and was discharged as Ser- 
geant. With Forehand, was admitted to the firm as a partner in 
1865. Upon retirement from business was appointed vice-consul 
at Santos, Brazil, where he died of yellow fever in March, 1892. 

FORKER, J. — Mercer, Pa. Percussion plains rifle. 

FORKER, William — Meadville, Pa., late percussion period. 

FORKER, W. H. — Ohio. Maker of a percussion sporting rifle. 

FORREST, Casper— Lancaster, Pa. 1857. 

FORRKER, Samuel— Meadville, Crawford Co., Pa.; flintlock rifles. 
Father of Wm. Forker. 

FORTNEY, Peter— Chillicothe, Ross Co., Ohio, 1804. 

FORTUNE, Thomas L.— Mt. Pleasant, Kan.; 1850-60. Breech-loading 
shotgun. 

FOSDICK, S. J. — Laporte, Laporte Co., Indiana. Half stock plains rifle 
with Hunter lock, L. Warfield & Co. barrel, and J. Fehr, Naza- 
reth, Pa., triggers. Non-professional maker? 

FOSTER, George — Unlocated. Late period flintlock and percussion 
Kentucky rifles. 

FOSTER, George P. — Taunton, Mass., later Providence and Bristol, 
R. I. Made percussion Plains and Kentucky rifles for western 
trade, 1850- 1855; made Klein's Patent (1849) bolt-action needle 
gun, aided development of Volcanic rifle, and made Porter turret 
rifles. Employed Horace Smith, D. B. Wesson, and C. D. Schu- 
barth (q. v.) 

Failed in 1855 and went to Providence, there assembled and 
sold Porter rifles; Schubarth continued business for the assignees. 
Foster later was associated with Burnside at Bristol, making 
Klein rifles and Burnside carbines (patented 1856). Lacking 
capital they moved to Providence, and made Burnside carbines 
1856-1857. Foster manufactured Howard patent breech-loading 
carbines after 1865. 

FOSTER, John— York Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

FOSTER, Joseph— Pennsylvania, 1766-76. Musket maker to Committee 

of Safety. 
FOSTER, "White"— Columbia, Ohio, 1848-69. Limited production of 

rifles. 

FOTE, J.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

FOTTRELL, Patrick— Musket maker at the Pennsylvania State Gun 
Factory, 1776-78. 

FOULKE — Philadelphia, Pa. Marking on the lock of a Kentucky type 
flintlock pistol by J. Sees. "FOULKE PHILADELPHIA." May be 
Adam Foulke. 

FOULKE, Adam— Also Foilke. Lehigh District, Pa., 1773-94. In asso- 
ciation with John Young, supplied the Council of Safety with 
130 rifles in April, 1776. Located variously at Easton, Allentown 
and Philadelphia. May be the same as Faulk, Adam, maker of 
Kentucky rifles about 1775. 

FOULKS, Wm. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifle maker and scholar. 

FOWLER, J. S.— Unlocated. Plain, half-stock percussion rifle. 






American Gun Makers 69 

FOWLER, L. Jr.— Unlocated. Conn. 1835-1838. Percussion pistols 
made in Connecticut State Prison. 

FOWLER, STACY— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed at St. John, near Poplar 
in 1829. 

FOX, B. & CO. — Lancaster, Pa. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun. 

FOX, H. — Frewsburg, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

FOX, H. A.— 69 Jackson St., San Francisco, Calif., 1858, (with P. B. 
Comins?), 112 Washington St., 1859-60, (with Bogart Bros.?). 

FOX, Horace — Hydetown, Pa.; also Corry and Fredensburg, Pa. A. 
3-barrel revolving percussion arm. 

FOX, R. — Corry, Penna., making Kentucky rifles in 1837. Fine per- 
cussion target rifle. 

F. & P. — New Haven, (?) 1818. Musket makers. Believed to have as- 
sembled arms, using in part at least, units manufactured for them 
or purchased from others. Musket examined is of 1812 type with 
Whitney Model 1812 lock bearing the typical Whitney marking 
of "NEW HAVEN" within a ribbon scroll between hammer and 
frizzen spring. Other markings are "F. & P.," above the ribbon 
scroll and "US" and "1818" behind the hammer. 

FRAILEY, Andrew J*— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

FRAIZER, A. — Pennsylvania riflesmith, late 18th and early 19th cen- 
tury; believed to have spent the latter part of his life in Ohio. 
Fine Kentucky flintlock rifles. 

FRANCE, J. A. — Cobbleskill, N. Y., percussion period. 

FRANCK— Lancaster, Pa., Kentucky rifles about 1775. 

FRANK, I. — Unlocated. Marking on No. Penna. percussion Kentucky 
rifle. 

FRAVEL, J.— -Unlocated. Percussion rifle. 

FRAZIER & COLBY— St. Peter, Nicolett Co., Minn., 1864-65. 

FRAZIER, Henry— Gunsmith. Bronx Township, Knox Co., Ohio, 1840- 
50. 

FRAZIER, John — Gunsmith and licensed Indian trader of Scotch 
birth. A former resident of Lancaster County in 1750, he settled 
at Venango (now Franklin), Venango Co., Pa. In the spring of 
1753, he warned the traders of the French invasion and moved 
to the mouth of Turtle Creek at its confluence with the Monon- 
gahela. The Braddock massacre was within sight of his house. 

FREDERICK, John— Gouglarsville, Pa., 1859-1879. 

FREDERICKSBURG ARMORY— See Virginia Public Gun Factory. 

FREDERICKTOWN MANUFACTORY— Maryland. Also The Gun 
Lock Manufactory in Frederick Town. Believed to have been 
established as a gun lock factory late in 1775 or early in 1776. 
Reported to have been able to turn out rough gun lock forgings 
faster than it could put the finish on them. John Yost, musket 
and rifle contractor to Committee of Safety asked the Committee 
for authority to purchase from the Manufactory 300 rough locks 
to be finished in his own shops. 

FREDRIC, F. op J.— Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

FREEMAN, Austin H. — Patentee of percussion revolvers made at 
Hoard's Armory, Watertown, N. V. 

FREEMAN, Robert— Sequatchie Valley, Tenn. 20th century mountain 
gunsmith; expert gunstocker. 

FREEMAN, W. C— Worcester, Mass., maker of Joslyn patent per- 



70 American Gun Makers 

cussion revolvers marked "B. F. JOSLYN, WORCESTER, MASS." 
See Joslyn Fire Arms Co. 

FRENCH, BLAKE & KINSLEY— Thomas French, . . . Blake and 
Adam Kinsley, musket makers. Contractors of Oct. 20, 1808, for 
4,000 Model 1808 muskets. Duration five years. Of these 2,175 
were reported delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

FRENCH, THOMAS — Canton, Mass., 1778-1825. Musket and pistol 
maker. In association with . . . Blake and Adam Kinsley con- 
tracted for 4,000 muskets Model 1808 on Oct. 20, 1808. See French, 
Blake & Kinsley. Born 1778, died 1862. 

FRESH, J. — Altoona region, Pa. Curly maple, full stock, percussion 
rifle. 

FREUND, Frank W Jersey City, N. J., about 1880; later Cheyenne, 

Wyo., Denver and Durango, Colo., and (?) Casper, Wyo. Inventor 
of hammerless breech-loading sporting rifle with dummy ham- 
mer; remodeled Sharps rifles with patent breechlock. 

FREUND, George C. — Flintlock rifle with lock on left side and wood 
patch box. 

FRIAR NEWLIN & CO.— Unlocated. Full stock smoothbore Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

FRICKEY, Samuel— Charlotte St., New York, N. Y. 1801. 

FREE, Wm. H. & Son— Bellvue, Iowa, 1870-1923. 

FRISH, A. D.— Unlocated. Rifle maker, (or Frist?) 

FRONG, E. ML & TAYLOR — Cincinnati, Ohio. Breech-loading rifle 
with barrel turning left to load. 

FROCK, J. — Pennsylvania. Fine, highly decorated Kentucky rifles. 

FROST, Gideon — Committee of Safety musket maker of Massachu- 
setts, 1775-76. Employed eight hands in 1775. 

FRY, Francis — Doniphan County, Kan., 1855. 

FRY, George— Hopewell Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1840. 

FRY, John — Washington Furnace, Westmoreland Co., Pa. Rendered 
bills in 1853 for repairing guns and for a "smoth rifle" at $12.00. 
Same as John Fry of Ligonier? 

FRY, John — Ligonier, Westmoreland Co., Pa., gunsmith. Born in 
1820, east of Ligonier. Worked with his brother Joseph in 
Ligonier in rear of 301 E. Main Street. Later (about 1868-70) 
moved to Johnstown, Pa., where he worked at gunsmithing for 
several years, started pulling teeth and making dental instru- 
ments and eventually became a dentist. Preferred to make full- 
stock rifles, 7-groove, bar action locks. Made his own locks, 
triggers and mountings. Marked his rifles "J. FRY" in script on 
top of barrel. Died before the Johnstown flood of 1889. 

FRY, Joseph — Ligonier, Westmoreland Co., Pa. Brother of John Fry. 
Worked with his brother in rear of 301 E. Main St., sharing 
equipment. Preferred to make half stocked rifles rifled with 8 
grooves. Made his own locks and mountings. Bought English 
smooth bored barrel blanks from J. H. Johnston in Pittsburgh, 
at $3.00 each. Signed his barrels "JOS FRY" first in script, later 
in block letters. Eventually purchased a farm on hillside border- 
ing Ligonier and moved his equipment there, into building he 
had erected. Born 1825, died in the spring of 1891. 

FRY, Edward — Son of Joseph Fry born about 1870. Born July 16, 
1869. Still living on his father's farm. Does some gun work using 
his father's equipment. 



American Gun Makers 71 

FRY, M. — Probably Pennsylvania and believed related to John and 
Joseph Fry. Early flintlock rifle with bayonet stud. Also marked 
inside a "LETHER & CO," "CP" Penna contract of 1798, musket 
lock. Also marking on M.1808 contract pistol, "M.FRY." 

FRYE, Martin— Contractor with Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public 
Supplies for 54 horsemens pistols, 2nd quarter 1809. Probably 
identical with M.FRY. 

FULCHER, G. G.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifle. 

FULERTON, F. W.— St. Paul, Minn. 1920. .22 cal. Target pistol. 

FUNDERSMITH, Ludwig and Valentine— Strasburg Township, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., 1771-79. Also Fondersmith. 

FUNK, Jacob — Muskigum Co., Ohio, prior to 1812. Armorer, sword- 
smith. 

FUNK, M. — Cove, Pa. Over-under percussion rifle. 

FURNEY, William— Mahoning Co., Ohio, 1815. Repaired arms. 



G. A. — Unidentified. Late flintlock period. 

GABLE, H.— Unlocated. Early percussion Kentucky rifles. Probably 
Henry Gable. 

GABLE, Henry — Williamsport, Pa. Flintlock and early percussion 
rifles. Later Henry Gable and Son. 

GABLE, Henry and Son — Williamsport, Pa., 19th Century. Percussion 
Kentucky rifles. 

GABNECHT— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

GAFFORD, John— Cumberland Row, Baltimore, Md., 1816. 

GAGE, J. E.— Ontario, Wayne Co., N. Y., and Concord, N. H. Born 
Feb. 18, 1850, died 1924. Learned gunsmithing under Wm. Billing- 
hurst at Rochester; made buggy rifles, etc. Located 1900-1924 in 
Concord. 

GALBRAITH, JAMES & CO.— Phila., Pa., 1792. Bill for 24 pairs of 
pistols. 

GALBREATH, J. H.— Lancaster Co., Pa., 1840-1860. Percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

GALENBECK, J.— Lebanon, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

GALL, G.— Unlocated. About 1780 Kentucky rifles. 

GALL, John — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

GALLAHER, JOHN, S. & CO.— Gunmakers, 1861. 

GALLATIN, Albert — Fayette County. Contracted with the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, Feb. 5, 1799, for 2,000 Charleville pat- 
tern, (Model 1795) muskets. The Gallatin factory in Nicholson 
Township was quite extensive for that time, employing from 50 
to 100 men and making swords as well as muskets. With Gallatin 
was associated Melchior Baker. 

GAL YON — Sevier Co., Tenn. Made guns carried by the few Con- 
federates from Sevier County, "and every gun made by him 
bears his name." 

GANDER, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1782. 

GARCIA, A. D. E.— Gunsmith, State Arsenal, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

GARDNER, C— Lima, Allen Co., Ohio, 1855-61. 



I. 



72 American Gun Makers 

GARDNER, Charles L.— Rochester, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

GARDNER, G.— Geneva, N. Y. Flintlock Kentucky rifles of New 
England-New York style. 

GARDNER, G.— Lima, Ohio, 1855-61. 

GARDNER, John— Columbus, Ohio. Active 1866-88. Died 1892. 

GARDNER, J. N. — Scranton, Pa., percussion period. 

GARDNER, M. H. — Indiana. Reported maker of 17 pound, walnut 
half-stock, percussion bench rifle with Pfeiffer barrel and Leman 
lock. 

GARDNER, W.— Geneva, N. Y. Maker of a full stock, Kentucky type, 
"mule ear," engraved lock rifle. 

GARRET, Herman— Boston, Mass., 1650. 

GASPARD— Lancaster, Pa., about 1775. Kentucky rifles. 

GAULT, M. & BRO.— Washington, D. C. Makers of percussion der- 
ringers. 

GAUMER, Jacob— Saleto Township, Muskegum Co., Ohio, 1811-1823. 

GAUNY, Nicholas— Gunsmith. 174 So. Second, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

GAUYLER, George— Unlocated. Early flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

GAY, Calvin — Forged breech pins, Springfield Armory, 1818. 

G. B. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

G. C. B. — Unidentified. Script marking of a circa 1820 Penna. type 
Kentucky rifle. 

G. D. & CO. — Cincinnati, Ohio. Percussion rifle locks. 

GEARSON, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa. listed as gun lock filer at 85 
Dillwyn, in 1829. 

GEDDY, James — Williamsburg, Va., Colonial period. Died 1744. 

GEHRETT, J. F. — Huntingdon County, Pa., late percussion period. 
Kentucky rifles. 

GEHRETT, J. W.— Unlocated. Double barreled, swivel-breech, curly 
maple stock percussion rifle. 

GEHRETT, Jacob— Orbisonia, Pa.; Kentucky rifles. Family later op- 
erated in West Virginia. 

GEHRETT, James— Huntington, Pa., about 1810; flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

GEIGER, V.— Towanda, Pa., late flintlock period. 

GEMMEL, G. W. — Troy, N. Y., percussion period. Probably identical 
with G. Gemmill. 

GEMMER, John P. — St. Louis, Mo., rifle maker. Purchased and oper- 
ated the Hawken gun shop from 1862 until 1915, when the old 
establishment closed its doors. Mr. Gemmer was born in the 
village of Lolschied, Grand Duchy of Nassau, Germany, June 
21, 1838, and came to the United States with his father in 1855. 
They landed in New Orleans, and travelled up the Mississippi, 
locating at Boone ville, Mo., where they remained four years, 
during which time John Gemmer learned the gunsmith trade. In 
1860, after a year in the gun shop of Emanuel Kleinhenn, Gem- 
mer entered the employ of the Hawken shop, which was then 
under management of William Watt, in the absence of Samuel 
Hawken. In 1862, after some service in the Ordnance Depart- 
ment as armorer with grade of corporal, at the St. Louis Arsenal, 
Gemmer bought out the Hawken establishment on Washington 



American Gun Makers 73 

Avenue, where for a time he continued to make rifles of the 
Hawken type, stamped with the Hawken name. His later arms 
were marked Gemmer. A number of his rifles may be seen in the 
Jefferson Memorial, Forest Park, St. Louis, in custody of the 
Missouri Historical Society. 

In 1870 the (Hawken-) Gemmer shop moved from Wash- 
ington Avenue, to 600 N. 3rd St.; in 1876 was moved again to 
704 N. 3rd St.; moved again in 1880 to 700 N. 3rd, and in 1912 
was found at 817 8th St., where it remained until Mr. Gemmer 
closed his business in 1915. John P. Gemmer died in 1919, and 
is buried at the Bellefontaine Cemetery. 

GEMMILL, George— Troy, N. Y., percussion period. 

GEORG, I.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle dated 1809. Same 
as George, Jacob? Letters I and J. were interchanged rather 
freely at that period. 

GEORG, Jacob— (Towanda) Pa. Flintlock Kentucky rifles marked 
I. Georg, dated 1809, and J. Georg, dated 1826. 

GEORGE, J.— Flintlock Kentucky rifle dated 1809. Probably identical 
with Georg I. and Georg Jacob. 

GEORGE, J. S.— Monterey, Pa., 1832. Dated percussion rifle. 

GEORGIA ARMORY— Milledgeville, Ga. Confederate shoulder arms 
plant located in the old Penitentiary Buildings, of Milledgeville, 
the former state capital, on grounds now occupied by the Georgia 
Normal and Industrial College. The armory was established by 
Act of Dec. 12, 1861, with funds raised by sale of 8% bonds, and 
was operated by Peter Jones, former employee at Harpers Ferry 
Armory. The first rifle made was presented to the Governor in 
August, 1862, and production was from 150 to 300 rifles per month 
until November, 1864, when the plant was burned by Sherman. 

GERHART, Daniel— Reading, Berks Co., Pa., before and after 1873. 
Ex-employee of Nelson Delaney until about 1872. Established 
own business in 1873. Active to 1898 and later. 

GERMAN, Christian— Washington and Mohawk Streets, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 1836-38. Riflemaker. 

GERRISH, John— Boston, Mass., 1709. 

GERTEIS, L. G.— 520 Poydias St., New Orleans, La. 1912. Curly 
maple stock percussion rifles. 

GERY & BROS.— Philadelphia, Pa., lock makers for flintlock arms. 

GETTIG, H.— Williamsport, Pa. Kentucky flintlock rifles. 

GETZ — Philadlephia, Pa. Associated with George W. Tryon, to whom 
he was apprenticed and whose partner he became in 1811. 

GETZ, John— Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1773-82. 

GETZ, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., 1799-1805. Had been inspector of small 
arms for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on contract to 
Abraham Henry and John Graeff, for 2,000 muskets, of April 11, 
1798. Later was Inspector of Arms, from 1800 to 1806 on contracts 
of Jacob Lether and Conrad Welshance of York, and of Jacob 
Fondersmith of Strasburg. 

Peter Getz also acted as inspector of rifles made on govern- 
ment contracts about 1803-07 with Tench Coxe, Purveyor of 
Public Supplies. 

G. F. — Initials of George Flegel, Master Armorer U.S. Arsenal, 1815; 
U.S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1823 at plant of Asa Waters. 



74 American Gun Makers 

Probably the "GF" inspector of arms at the Henry Deringer plant 
in 1814. 
G. F. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

G. G. — Unidentified. Long, early Kentucky type flintlock smoothbore, 

Ashmore lock. 
GHRISKEY, Lewis— Philadelphia, Pa., rifle maker, before and after 

1815. Contractor of July 31, 1815, for 100 rifles at $17.00 to be 

delivered within one year. Listed as gun and blacksmith at 361 

No. Front St., Phila., Pa., 1819. 

GIBBINS, Jos.— Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa. Maker of a fine, Ger- 
man silver mounted, half stock, Kentucky style, percussion rifle 
of exceptionally good workmanship and engraving, with G. 
Goulcher lock. Probably the same as Joseph Gibbons. 

GIBBONS, Joseph — See Gibbons, Jos., above. 

GIBBONS. Thomas— St. Louis, Mo., 1859-1865; listed in directories as 
gun maker and locksmith. "T. GIBBONS" stamped inside the 
lock and on the trigger guard (integral with trigger plate) of an 
S. Hawken Plains rifle. 

GIBBS, Abraham— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

GIBBS G. — Bristol, Conn., percussion period. 

GIBBS, Henry— Lancaster, Pa., 1824; listed in 1857 directory and at 
W. Vine St. in 1869-70: died 1880. Fine late flintlock Kentucky 
rifles, one with German silver mountings by Tryon of Philadel- 
phia and barrel by Werter; also percussion rifles. 

GIBBS, John— Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820's. 

GIBBS, John— Honedale, Pa., 1824. 

GIBBS, TIFFANY & CO.— Sturbridge, Mass., about 1820-50. Makers 
of under-hammer percussion pistols. 

GIBSON, Stephen— Knoxville, Tenn., 1812-1860. Flintlock and per- 
cussion Kentucky rifles. 

GIBSON, Stephen — Tennessee mountain, flintlock rifle maker of 
Revolutionary War period. Fought at Kings Mountain and lived 
to be 107 years old. 

GIBSON, Wiley — Tennessee mountain, percussion rifle maker, mostly 
of "hog rifles." Last of three generations of mountain gunsmiths, 
William, the father, and Stephen, the grandfather, above. In 1946, 
at the age of 80, though no longer active, occasionally still 
worked at the anvil. 

GIBSON, William — Son of Stephen Gibson. Great Smokey Mountain, 
Tenn., rifle maker. "Took about four months in making a rifle to 
be sold at court week at county seat, to help pay taxes." Half- 
stock, percussion, octagonal barrel "hog rifle" marked in script. 

GIDDINGS— Louisa County, Va., about 1790. Musket maker. 

GIFFORD, Joseph— 70 Market St., Baltimore, Md., 1819. 

GILBERT & BALES— Perm Yan, N. Y. Percussion period. 

GILBERT, Daniel — North Brookfield, Mass., musket maker, born 
1729, died 1824, at the age of 96. During the Revolutionary War 
commanded a company which saw service at Bennington and 
Half Moon, July 13 to Sept. 2, 1777. In about 1782, established 
a forge and iron works on Five Mile River, Brookfield. Gilbert 
was a contractor under Act of July 5, 1798, for 2,000 Charleville 
pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 875 



American Gun Makers 75 

are known to have been delivered by June 10, 1801. On Oct. 13, 
1808, he contracted for 5,000 muskets for delivery within five 
years and 875 were reported delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

GILBERT, E.— Rochester, N. Y. 

GILBERT, S.— Rochester, N. Y. Maker of a full stock, "mule ear," pill 
lock, muzzle loading rifle, with side of barrel, at lock, equipped 
with a small cup to hold a fulminate pill. German silver furni- 
ture. 

GILBERT, W.— Rochester, N. Y., 1837. Mule-ear hammer, Kentucky 
style pill-lock rifle. 

GILES, RICHARDS & CO.— Boston, Mass., flintlock period. 

GILL, B. D. — Pennsylvania; late flintlock and early percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles. Heavy flintlock rifle stamped D. B. Gill with crossed 
arrow and tomahawk, given by Kit Carson to a Taos Indian in 
1848. 

GILL, John — Newburne, North Carolina, 1829, revolver? 

GILL, T. D.— Lancaster Co., Pa., about 1830-1840. Late flintlock and 
early percussion Kentucky rifles. 

GILL, Warren— Unlocated. Possibly Whitneyville, Conn. Undeham- 
mer percussion rifle marked "W.G. 1846." 

GILLEN, William— Jackson, Ohio. Active before and after 1842. Rifle 
maker. 

GILLESPIE — New York. Double-barrel, percussion shotguns. Per- 
cussion derringers. 

GILLESPIE, Mathew— North Carolina, period of 1825. Plain but beau- 
tifully made flintlock Kentucky rifle. Three generations were 
gunsmiths. 

GILMER GUN FACTORY— See Alabama Arms Manufacturing Co. 

GILMER, Martin— Fayette Co., Ohio. Born in Virginia 1827; moved 
to Fayette Co., with three brothers when a young man and 
established a blacksmith and gunsmith shop. Made half- and 
fullstock rifles, mostly 10 to 12-lbs. with 36" barrels; one over- 
under rifle-shotgun. A good workman. Made his last rifle when 
70, retired 1898, died 1905. 

GILMER, William B. — See Alabama Arms Manufacturing Co. 

GILMORE, Henry — Connelsville, Fayette Co., Pa. Percussion period. 

Related to Howard Gilmore. Signed his arms with his initials 

"H.G." in script. 

GILMORE, Howard — Dickerson Run, Fayette Co., Penna. Maker of 
hunting rifles of good workmanship, with curly maple stocks 
oval patch boxes. Barrels of own make stamped with his name 
on top: mostly Leman locks. Born about 1900 and "still works 
some at the trade." 

GINERICH, Henry— Lancaster, Pa., 1775-77. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. Excused by the Executive Council Dec. 5, 1777, 
from military duties for the making of arms for the State of 
Pennsylvania, in the employ and under direction of William 
Henry I. 

GINGER, L.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

GIRSCH, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at rear of 137 
Green St., in 1829. 

G. J. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 



76 American Gun Makers 

GJULCHER, G.— Defective die of G. Goulcher, lock maker. The "O" 
is deformed to resemble "J." Note there is no period after initial 
"G" of "G GJULCHER"; no serif on stamped "J." See Goulcher, 
George. 

GLASS, Daniel — Wyomissing Creek, Pa. Built two gun shops in 
1848, using the creek water power to bore and grind barrels. Sold 
his shops to Gouglar and Haberling about 1858. 

GLASS, John— Putnam, Muskigum Co., Ohio. War of 1812. 

GLASS, Peter— Ohio. No details. 

GLASS, Samuel — Putnam, Muskigum Co., Ohio. Made rifles in War 
of 1812. 

GLASSBRENNER, D.— Inlaid flintlock Kentucky rifle. Lock by Carter 
Tomlinson. 

GLASSBRENNER, G.— Pennsylvania. Flintlock Kentucky rifles, circa 
1820; one marked No. 207. 

GLASSBRENNER, H.— Unlocated. 

GLASSICK & CO. — Memphis, Tenn. Percussion derringers. Later 
Schneider & Glassick. 

GLATT, N.— Pennsylvania, about 1850. Walnut half-stock, octagon 
barrel, double set triggers percussion match rifle. 

GLAYSMAN, D.— Unlocated. Rifle maker. 

GLAZE — New Cumberland, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

GLAZE, WILLIAM & CO.— Operators of the "Palmetto Armory" at 
Columbia, S. C. Made Model 1842 percussion pistols in 1852, and 
muskets and swords for the State of South Carolina, with 
machinery purchased from the Waters Armory of Millbury, Mass. 
During the Civil War the firm made cannon, mine rifle balls and 
18 pdr. shells for the Confederacy. Probabilities are that flint- 
lock muskets were converted to percussion between 1861 and 
1865, but it is not believed that new arms were manufactured. The 
Palmetto Armory was burned by Sherman in 1865. Glaze's asso- 
ciate in the firm was Mr. Boatwright. In 1870, Mr. Glaze, at one 
time a jeweler, advertised his return to the jewelry business. 

GLAZIER, John— Belleville, Indiana. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

GLUYAS, T. — Charlotte, N. C. Heavy, octagonal barrel early per- 
cussion rifle. 

GOBRECHT, S.— Unlocated. Marking on barrel of a circa 1800, flint- 
lock Kentucky rifle. 

GODFREY & WELSH— Albany, N. Y. Made very fine shotguns. One 
specimen in existence today in a very heavy 4-gauge single 
barrel gun showing fine craftsmanship throughout. Percussion 
period. 

GOETZ, Frederick — Also Getz. Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith 
in the City Directory at 225 N. Second in 1805, 237 N. Second in 
1806-07, and on Sassafras Alley, 1809-11. In 1813-14-17, he is 
shown at 163 N. Second and 32 Sassafras Alley. Fred Goetz is 
also listed as gun maker at the Pennsylvania Arsenal, Juniper 
near High Street, in the directories 1816 to 1820. Was associated 
with George W. Try on in 1811, Try on having served his appren- 
ticeship under Goetz, and then becoming his partner. See Tryon, 
Geo. W. Probabilities are that he is the Goetz of Goetz & West- 
phall. 

GOETZ & TRYON— Philadelphia, Pa., 1811. Frederick Goetz and 



American Gun Makers 77 

George W. Tryon. See Goetz, Frederick above, and Tryon, George 
W. 

GOETZ & WESTPHALL — Pennsylvania musket makers. Charles 
W. Westphall and Frederick Goetz. Contractors of July 13, 1808, 
for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets, to be delivered within five years. 
Of these 1,019 were recorded delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

GODWIN, Thomas — Portsmouth, Va., 1861. "A revolver which fires 
9 times, each barrel discharging separately at intervals ... A 
bowie knife is also attached, which may be unshipped or re- 
tained in service, at pleasure." 

G. O. & CO. — Cincinnati, Ohio; percussion Indian rifles. 

GOLBER, H. — Unlocated. Marking on over-under percussion rifle. 

GOLCHER & BUTLER— Philadelphia, Pa. Back-action percussion 
lock with brass plate, on Plains rifle owned by Kit Carson. 

GOLCHER & CO.— Third Street, St. Paul, Minn., 1857-58. 

GOLCHER, George— Also often Goulcher. New York, N. Y. Late flint 
and percussion periods. See Goulcher, George. 

GOLCHER, James— Philadelphia, Pa., died in 1805. See James 
Goulcher. 

GOLCHER, James— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1833. A 20^- 
inch percussion pistol. 

GOLCHER, John — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

GOLCHER, John— Easton, Pa., 1775. Same as Goulcher, John? 

GOLCHER, Joseph— Also Goulcher, Philadelphia, Pa., later Pacific 
Coast. Late flint, early percussion periods. 

GOLCHER, Manuel— Also Goulcher. Philadelphia, Pa., 1824. 

GOLCHER, William— St. Paul, Minn., 1854 to about 1870. Maker of 
muzzle and breech-loading rifles and shotguns. See also Golcher 
& Co., and Golcher & Simpson, with which firms William 
Golcher was associated. 

GOLCHER & SIMPSON— St. Paul, Minn., 1855-56. 

GOMPF, A.— Lancaster, Pa., 1869-70. 

GOMPF, James— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1830. 

GONTER, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., 1770-78. Possibly as early as 1750. 

GONTER, Peter, Jr.— North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa.; son of Peter 
Gonter. Arms maker. Petitioner to 7th Congress on Jan. 28, 1803, 
for non-removal of import duties on arms. Died in 1818. 

In 1792, Peter Gonter in association with Jacob Dickert 
and John Groff contracted for "rifle guns," $3,200 being paid 
on account. On Dec. 9, 1807, Gonter in association with Jacob 
Dickert and Henry DeHuff contracted with Tench Coxe, Pur- 
veyor of Public Supplies, for 600 rifles. 

GOOD, P. — Pennsylvania, 19th century. Kentucky rifles, German 
silver mountings as specialty. 

GOODELL, J. — Olean, N. Y. Halfstock percussion rifle and over- 
under percussion rifle-shotgun. Perhaps related to Layton B. 
Goodell of Edinboro, Erie Co., Pa., and Albert B. Goodsell of 
Coudersport, Potter Co., Pa. 

GOODELL, Layton B. — Edinboro, Erie Co., Pa. Early percussion 
period riflesmith. 

GOODLING, P. — Unlocated. Early percussion Kentucky rifles. 






78 American Gun Makers 

GOODRICH, W. W.— Of the firm Hyde & Goodrich, 15 Chartres, New 
Orleans, La. 

GOODSELL, Albert B.— Coudersport, Potter Co., Pa. Advertised July 
17th, 1847; "Terms: half cash, balance in grain, staples, lumber, 
furs or hides." 

GOODWIN, G. — Unlocated. Late flintlock, double-barreled shotguns. 

GOODWIN, Jonathan — Lebanon, Conn., musket maker to Committee 
of Safety. Made 30 muskets; recorded April 13, 1778. 

GOODWIN, J. P. — Waterbury, Conn. Half stock, percussion match 
rifle. 

GOOSLEY, Ephraim— Yorktown, Va., 1738. 

GORDAN, T.— Or Gordan, J. Unidentified. About 1840-44. 

GORDON, Steven—Clinton, Iowa. 

GORGAS, Josiah— Brig. General, Chief of Ordnance to the Con- 
federate States. Born in Dauphin Co., Pa., July 1, 1818. Graduated 
from U. S. Military Academy in Class of 1841; assigned to 
Ordnance Dept. Served in Mexican War. Married a Southern 
girl while stationed in Alabama. Resigned April 1861 to become 
Chief of Ordnance to the Confederacy. After the War became 
superintendent of Briarfield iron works in Alabama. In 1877 
was president of University of Alabama. Died May 15, 1883. 

GORNING, Raymond P., M.D.— Detroit, Mich. Modern maker of per- 
cussion rifles; designed improved underhammer lock. 

GORRAGE, Thomas— Mt. Pleasant, Jefferson Co., Ohio. 

GORSAGE, Thomas— Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. 

GORSUCH, J. M.— Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. Silver inlaid half stock, per- 
cussion rifle. (Related to Thomas Gorsage?) 

GOUCHER, Thomas— Also Gouger. Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Musket barrel maker to Committee of Safety in 1776. Special- 
ized in boring and grinding barrels. Imported muskets in 1780. 
Had been associated with Wylie in cutlery business in 1774. 

GOUGLAR & HEBERLIG — Mohnton, Pa., about three miles south- 
west from Reading, on Wyomissing Creek. Late flintlock period. 

GOUGLER, John — Made finished rifle barrels on Wyomissing Creek, 
between Gouglersville and Mohn's Store, Berks Co., Pa. Possibly 
the "Gouglar" of Gouglar & Heberlig of Mohnton, Pa.? 

GOULCHER, George — Also often Golcher. New York, N. Y. Late 
flint and percussion periods. Very prolific maker. A late Ken- 
tucky, flint, rifle lock with reinforced hammer, roller frizzen- 
spring bearing and Manton-type waterproof pan, marked "G. 
GOULCHER" in a scroll. Original percussion G. Goulcher lock 
on a rifle with barrel marked in Gothic letters "J. FORDNEY 
LANCASTER, PA." 

GOULCHER, James— Also Golcher. Philadelphia, Pa., died in 1805. 
A flintlock Kentucky rifle with maker's name on lock and barrel; 
another with incised carving and 10 silver inlays, marked "JAS. 
GOLCHER" on barrel. 

GOULCHER, John — Easton, Pa., active before and after 1772-77. 
At one time employed in Philadelphia making gun barrels. 

GOULCHER, Joseph— Pennsylvania, 1841. Same as Golcher, Joseph? 

GOULD— Clinton, Pa. Rifle maker. 

GOVE, A. T. — 1871. Small half stock percussion rifle, German silver 






American Gun Makers 79 

mounted, lock by N. D. E. & Co., Memphis. Possibly same as 
Albert "Put" Gove, Lincoln, Vt. 

GOVE, Carlos— Born April 19, 1817 in Wentworth, N. H. Enlisted at 
16 in First U. S. Cavalry, serving through the Seminole Wars 
and in the West; an Indian agent for many years. Apprenticed to 
Hawken at St. Louis; in business there 1847-1854, then at Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, until 1858; also located in Cheyenne, Wyo., and 
Ogden, Utah. At Denver, Colo., 1861 until retirement in the 
1880's. Employed Geo. C. Schoyen after about 1862. In partner- 
ship with John P. Lower as C. Gove & Co., 21 Edmond St.. 
Denver, 1876-77; died in Denver, July, 1900. Made heavy match 
and bench rifles, telescope sight, also double-barreled mule-ear 
rifles. A noted match shooter. 

GOVE, C. & CO. — Carlos Gove, Council Bluffs, Iowa, 1854-58. 21 
Edmond St., Denver, Colo., 1874-77. 

GRAFF, H. C. — Unlocated. Kentucky flintlock rifle, wrist checkered 
in basket weave. 

GRAEFF, John — Lancaster, Pa., musket maker. Associated with 
Abraham Henry in a contract of April 11, 1798, with the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania for 2,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795), muskets. One of the petitioners to 7th Congress on Jan. 
28, 1803, for non-removal of import duties on arms. 

GRAEFF, William— Lancaster, Pa., 1751. 

GRAEFF, William— Reading, Pa., 1867-84. Kentucky rifles. 

GRAFF, Thomas — Musket maker associated with Nicholas White and 
Christopher Barnhizle in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, 
for 1,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 
per stand with 235 known delivered by June 10, 1801. 

GRAH, William & Son— Toledo, Ohio, 1877-83. 

GRAHAM, J. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

GRAINGER, John — Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Percussion rifles. 

GRANDSTADTT, J. (also Granstatt or Grandstatt)— Unlocated. 
Skilled maker of highly decorated flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

GRANT HAMMOND MANUFACTURING CORPORATION— New 

Haven, Conn., 1915, Manufacturers of an auto-pistol. 

GRANT, John — St. Patrick's Row, Baltimore, Md., 1810. 

GRANT, Samuel— Walpole, N. H. Musket maker 1799-1801. Asso- 
ciated with Amasa Allen and Joseph Bernard in a contract 
under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,500 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand and of these 1,396 were de- 
livered by June 10, 1801. 

GRANT, W. L. — Makers of W. L. Grant 6-shot rim-fire revolver. 

GRATIOT MFG. CO.— St. Louis, Mo., about 1860. Makers of a .44 
caliber percussion revolver. 

GRAVE, John — Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1773. 

GRAVES, J. — Bangor, Maine. Underhammer percussion rifle. 

GRAY, G. B.— Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 1867-70. 

GRAY, Sam — Ornate, German silver mounted, full walnut stock, 

percussion target rifle equipped with cap and patch boxes. 
GRAY, W. — Unlocated .Reported maker of a small, maple half stock, 

percussion ladies' rifle, inlaid in silver animal designs. 



80 American Gun Makers 

GRAYSON— Unidentified. Heavy 18th century flintlock Kentucky 
rifle, so marked on lock and barrel. 

GREAT WESTERN GUN WORKS— Pittsburgh, Pa., 1866-1916. Makers 
of 5-shot, rim-fire, cartridge revolvers and sporting guns. Founded 
in 1866, by James H. Johnston at Penn and Wayne Streets, Pitts- 
burgh. The plant burned down in 1868 and was reopened at 179 
Smithfield St. In 1874 the plant was moved into a 4-story building 
at 285 Liberty Street. Though 25 workmen were employed, some 
of the finer stock was imported from Europe. The following 
from "Manufacturers of Pennsylvania, 1875": 

"Great Western Gun Works, Pittsburg. This important in- 
dustry of western Penna. was founded by James H. Johnston, in 
1866, in a small building at the corner of Penn and Wayne 
Streets, Pittsburg. The founder being a practical gunmaker and 
possessing natural business qualifications, his venture proved a 
success from the start. Two years later, in 1868, his little estab- 
lishment was destroyed by fire, and the proprietors lost almost 
everything, having little or no insurance. However, with that 
energy born of a determination to make his way in the world, 
he recommenced operations at 179 Smithfield st. and soon re- 
covered from the shock. Here business so prospered with him 
that he was compelled to seek more commodious quarters, and 
he moved his manufactory to the 4-story building at 285 Liberty 
street in 1874. To give an idea of the rapid growth of the Great 
Western Gun Works, it may be stated that the first years busi- 
ness, in 1866, amounted to only $2500 in value; in 1874, it reached 
over $150,000. The proprietor finds his chief difficulty in obtain- 
ing skilled labor, and for this reason is compelled to have some 
of his finer stock manufactured in Europe. 

He employs on an average of 25 men, all skilled workmen, 
and obtained after careful selection. He attributes his success 
to his practical knowledge of gunmaking and strick attention to 
the wants of the trade, especially in sporting firearms, for which 
class of goods he has a constant demand in every State and 
Territory of the Union. This establishment is devoted exclusively 
to the manufacture and sale of firearms, and the proprietor 
gives his undivided attention to the business. He is the largest 
manufacturer and dealer in his line in the state west of the 
Alleghanies." 

GREEN— Red Clay, Ga. Making flintlock Kentucky rifles about 1800. 

GREEN, Charles— Rochester, N. Y., 1876-78. 

GREEN, Elisha — Great Smokey Mountains area. Heavy octagonal 
barrelled "hog rifle," percussion period. Name found on barrel 
along with the markings "EUR JA KI." 

GREEN, James Capt. — Connecticut musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Received from Titus Homer, one of the Arms Committee, 
a draft on the Treasurer, with instructions to pay "Green," a 
gunsmith employed in making guns for the Colony. 

GREEN, Saul — Vassar, Mich. Partner of Thomas W. Barnes, late 19th 
century, as Barnes & Green. Over-under rifle-shotguns; breech- 
loading side-by-side rifle-shotgun. 

GREENE, Jas. D. — In charge of production of the Greene under- 
hammer, oval bore, bolt action, percussion rifle made at Wor- 
cester, Mass., (in the old Waters shops) with machinery bought 
from Chas. W. Lancaster of London, England. The arm was 



American Gun Makers 81 

patented by Lt. Col. J. Durrell Greene, U. S. Army, Nov. 17, 
1857, patent No. 18,634. An advertisement published in Boston 
in 1862, mentions the Greene rifles being then in the process of 
manufacture by the Millbury Co., Worcester, Mass., Jas. D. 
Greene being in charge of the works. There were 900 Greene 
rifles purchased by the government during the Civil War, and 
some were used in the Battle of Antietam, the peculiar car- 
tridges, with the bullet rearmost, having been found on the 
battlefield. 

Two hundred Greene carbines, patented June 27, 1854, side- 
hammer, equipped with Maynard primer purchased from J. D. 
Greene by the government on May 24, 1855, at $30.00 each 
Ordnance report of Nov. 5, 1857, shows 170 Greene carbines 
were issued for use to the army. 

Probabilities are that Jas. D. Green, or J. D. Greene, the 
arms vendor, and J. Durrell Greene, the inventor were related, 
and not the same person. The government was not likely to 
purchase arms from an army officer. 

GREENE RIFLE WORKS— Worcester, Mass., 1864. Makers of Greene 
carbine. 

GREENLAND, E. M.— Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

GREENTREE, Alexander — Pennsylvania arms maker in the employ 
of Lewis Prahl, musket maker to Committee of Safety. On 
June 12, 1776, Greentree was ordered discharged or furloughed 
from the army in order to return to gun making under Prahl. 

GREENWOOD & GRAY— Columbus, Ga. Confederate rifle and sword 
factory established on City Lot No. 188, purchased Jan. 17, 1862, 
by Eldridge S. Greenwood and William C. Gray, cotton mer- 
chants, and Abraham H. DeWitt, sword maker, who had charge 
of the sword making operations of the firm. The rifle factory was 
operated by John P. Murray, and the arms stamped "J. P. 
MURRAY" 358 Mississippi rifles (M. 1841) and 153 carbines were 
furnished the State of Alabama between Oct. 1, 1863 and Nov. 
1, 1864. The plant is believed to have been burned by General 
Wilson in 1865, and a cotton mill later erected on the si+f\ was 
known in 1888 as the "Steam Cotton Mill," owned by J. Rhodes 
Browne. 

GREGORY, Richard— Boston, Mass., 1727. 

GRESHEIM— Lancaster, Pa., prior to 1783. Kentucky rifles. 

GRIEFF, William— Reading, Pa. 

GRIFFITH, Joseph— Louisville, Ky., in 1843 at Market St., between 
5th and 6th; in 1848 at 294 Green St.: 1848-49 on Walnut St., be- 
tween Campbell and Wentzel. In 1854 on an arms buying trip to 
England. Active also 1869-70. Employed James Day. 

GRIFFITHS, John— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1839, to about 1865. Contracted 
Dec. 6, 1842, for 5,000 rifles at $13.00 each to the delivered at 
1,000 per annum. The contract was taken over by E. Remington 
& Son due to Griffiths' inability to make deliveries. Associated 
with Henry L. Siebert in 1852-54. Rifles and shotguns. 

GRIFFITHS & SIEBERT— 729 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1852-54. 
See John Griffiths. 

GRIMES, Daniel — Sheridan, Lebanon, Co., Pa. Possibly made barrels 

only. 
GRIMM, Frederick — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 



82 American Gun Makers 

GRING, Reuben — Mohnton, Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Gun 

barrel maker. 

GRISWOLD, A. B. — New Orleans, La. Importer of arms for the con- 
federacy. The name appears on English made, Tranter percussion 
revolvers. 

GRISWOLD & GRIER— Giles H. Griswold and E. C. Grier, Griswold- 
ville, Ga., (near Macon), manufacturers of Confederate, brass 
frame, .36 caliber revolvers patterned after Colt's Model 1851, 
Navy. 

The undertaking originated as a factory for the manufacture 
of cotton gins founded at Clinton, (first called Albany), by 
Samuel Griswold and Daniel Pratt, who came to Clinton from 
Connecticut about 1807. Pratt later moved to Alabama to found 
Prattville. As the plant was not on the railroad, Griswold pur- 
chased 4,000 acres at Station 18, on Central Railroad, erected 
works about a mile from it, called Griswoldville. 

When the War started, Giles H. Griswold, successor to 
Samuel, obtained a loan from the Confederate Government to 
convert the plant to arms making. On his death the business 
was carried on by Griswold's brother-in-law, Col. E. C. Grier. 
In Confederate Ordnance records the plant is also called "Gris- 
wold & Gunnison." 

A total output of some 3,600 revolvers are believed to have 
been furnished to the Confederacy at fifty dollars each, from 
summer of 1862 to Nov. 20, 1864 when the plant was destroyed 
by the 10th Ohio Cavalry, during Sherman's march to the sea. 
Also destroyed were the soap factory, candle factory, shoe- 
blacking factory and every house in Griswoldville except Mr. 
Griswold's, Mr. Grier's and a few negro houses. The ruins of 
the smokestack are still standing. 

GROCE, H. — Pennsylvania. A fine over-under Kentucky rifle. 

GROFF, H. W. (or H. S.?)— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

GROFF, H. S. — Unlocated. Kentucky style halfstock percussion rifle, 
engraved silver inlays, name on brass barrel-inlay. 

GROFF, J.— Lancaster, Pa., early 1800's. Kentucky rifles. Same as 
John Groff?) 

GROFF, John — Lancaster, Pa., rifle maker. In association with Jacob 
Dickert and Peter Gonter, contracted in 1792 for "rifle guns"; 
$3,200.00 being paid them on account. 

GROOMS— West Union, Adams Co., Ohio. 

GROOT, Henry— Pittsfield, Mass., 1866-68. Also Minneapolis, Minn., 
1869-71. Same? Percussion rifle. 

GROSS ARMS CO.— Henry and Charles B. Gross, Tiffin, Ohio, 
1864-66. Makers of the Gross patent rim-fire 7-shot revolvers. 

GROSS, H. & C. B.— Henry and Charles Gross. See Gross Arms Co. 
Active together 1852 to about 1864. Henry Gross had been as- 
sociated with Gwyn & Campbell, and was active in the arms 
making industry from about 1849 to 1880. Charles B. is listed 
alone from 1880 to 1886. 

GROVE, L.— Lancaster, Co., Pa., 1815-1840. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

GROVE, S.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle circa 1815. 

GROVE, Samuel— York County, Pa., 1779-83, flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

GROVER & LOVELL— Boston, Mass., 1841-44. See John P. Lovell 
Arms Co, 



American Gun Makers 83 

GROVES, Isaac— Chillicothe, Ohio, 1804-1818. 

GRUBB, George — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

GRUBB, J. C. — Maple full stock, octagon, smoothbore percussion Ken- 
tucky with oval brass patchbox and set triggers. See also Grubb, 
Jos. C. & Co. 

GRUBB, Jos C. & Co.— 712 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa., from before 
1855 to 1886. 

GRUBB, Col. Peter — Lancaster, Pa., gun barrel maker to Lancaster 
Committee of Safety. Operated a forge for the manufacture of 
gun skelps for musket barrel. Marcus Nagle, Nicholas Scove, 
Thomas Nabury, Peter McMullen and John Jones (stocktaker), 
in his employ at the forge, were excused on Aug. 16, 1776, by 
the Lancaster Committee, to remain at work and not march 
with the militia. 

GRUBB, T.— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1820 and later. Beautiful, silver 
inlaid flintlock Kentucky rifle; ornate, finely made pair of flint- 
lock Kentucky duelling pistols; flintlock holster pistol. 

GRUDCHOS & EGGERS— New Bedford, Mass. A fine percussion 
target rifle beautifully carved and engraved. Samuel Eggers, 
working alone in New Bedford about 1840-1865, made a heavy 
100 caliber percussion whaling gun with wood forestock, half- 
octagon barrel and back-action lock. 

G. S. — Unidentified. Early flintlock Kentucky rifle with slender wrist, 
high comb, no patchbox, carved stock. Another, script marking, 
with patchbox and many inlays. 

GUEST, I. — Pennsylvania pistol maker. Had worked in the Warwick 
Iron Works which cast cannon during the War of Revolution. 

GUEST, John — In association with Peter Brong and Abraham Henry, 
had contracted with Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, 
for pistols and rifles. John Guest is probably identical with 
I. Guest, letters J and I being interchanged rather freely at that 
time. 

GUGER, P. — Muray, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

GUIGNARD— Columbia, S. C. See Radcliffe & Guignard. 

GUILLAM, Benjamin — Massachusetts, 1775-76. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

GUIN, James— Ohio. Early. 

GUIN, John— Ohio. Early. 

GUION, T. F. — New Orleans, La. Percussion derringer. 

GUMP, Jonathan— Upper Sandusky, Wyandotte Co., Ohio, 1852-82. 

GUMPF, A.— Lancaster, Pa., 1869-1870 and before. (Also Gompf, 
Gumph?) Related to, probably contemporaneous with Christopher 
Gumpf — used C. GUMPF die overstamped with initial A. Both 
made flintlock Kentucky rifles in the late 19th century. A German 
silver mounted halfstock percussion rifle, A. W. Spies back- 
action lock. 

GUMPF, Christopher (or Gumph) — Lancaster, Pa., before 1830-after 
1888. Very long Kentucky rifles; made a flintlock rifle as late as 
1888. 

GUMPF, J.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle, circa 1800. 

GUMPF, James— Lancaster, Pa., died about 1887. A rotating over- 
under flintlock rifle-shotgun; percussion Kentucky rifles. Three 
59-inch rifling guides, straight cut or rifled one turn in 48 inches. 



84 American Gun Makers 

GUMPH, Christopher— Or Gumpp. Lancaster, Pa., 1798. Musket 
maker. One of the petitioners to the 7th Congress on Jan. 28, 
1803, for the non-removal of import duties on arms. 

GURN, A. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

GUYER, J. P. — Muncie, Pa. Over-under percussion Kentucky rifle- 
shotgun with back-action locks. Probably same as John Guyer 
and J. P. Guyler, late percussion Kentucky rifles. 

GUYLER, J. P. — Unlocated. Late percussion Kentucky rifles. 

G. W. — Unidentified. Walnut halfstock percussion rifle of indifferent 
workmanship. Converted factory lock, mother-of-pearl star in 
cheekpiece. Large letters "G.W." on barrel. Reported first used 
in 1877 in Moravia, Iowa. 

G. W. C. — Script initials on barrel of halfstock rifle by George W. 
Craft, q.v. Most of his work was unmarked. 

G. W. S. — Unidentified. Script marking on barrel of circa 1820 No. 
Penna. type Kentucky rifle with carved Roman nose stock. 

GWINN, Alexander — McCoysville, Juniata Co., Pa. Maple full-stock, 
octagon barrel, flintlock Kentucky rifle with double set-triggers. 

GWYN & CAMPBELL— Hamilton, Ohio. Edward Gwynn and Abner 
C. Campbell. Established the Cosmopolitan Arms Co., or the 
Gwyn & Campbell "Arsenal and Gun Factory" at Hamilton, in 
the fall of 1860, for the manufacture of the Cosmopolitan breech- 
loading percussion carbine, patented Oct. 21, 1862. The arm was 
also known as the Union, or the Grapevine. The firm employed 
120 workmen during the Civil War, and furnished 9,342 carbines 
to the government, as well as quantities to military organizations 
and to the State of Kentucky. 

The Cosmopolitan carbine is sometimes also referred to as 
the Gross, after Henry Gross who was associated with Gwyn & 
Campbell in the development of the arm, and secured patents 
covering minor improvements in the action. 



H 

H.— See Darling, B. & B. M. 

H pierced by arrow — lockplate marking on locks marked "J. C. M. 

DAYTON;" also locks on two rifles by J. B. Hixson. May be 

Hixson's mark. 
HABERSTRO, Joseph— 147 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1832-44. Rifle 

maker, flintlock and percussion. 
HACKNEY, William W.— Dayton, Ohio, 1859-69. 
HADEN, James— Philadelphia, Pa., 1769. 
HAEFFER— Flintlock Kentucky rifle; lock by Brong. Probably by 

John or Jacob Haeffer. 
HAEFFER, Jacob — Lancaster, Pa., musket maker. Contractor to the 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on April 17, 1801, for 500 Charle- 

ville pattern, (Model 1795), muskets. 
HAEFFER, John — Lancaster, Pa. John and Jacob (see above) Haeffer 

were among the petitioners to the 7th Congress on Jan. 28, 1803, 

for non-removal of import duties on arms. 
HAEFFER, P. B.— (Haefner?), Flintlock Kentucky rifle, lock hand- 
made; raised carving and 16 silver inlays. 



American Gun Makers 85 

HAGA, Wolfgang— Reading Town, Berks Co., Pa., 1767-84. 

HAGEDORN, A. M.— Detroit, Mich. 

HAGER, Jonathan — Founder of Hagerstown, Washington Co., Md. 
Listed as gunsmith in Hager land-patent dated August 10, 1753. 

HAGI, J. — Early Pennsylvania gunsmith. 

HAHN— New York, N. Y., 1870. 

HAHN, Henry— Zanesville, Ohio, 1804. 

HAHN, W.— New York, N. Y., 1858. 

HAIMAN, Louis and Elias — See Columbus Fire Arms Mfg. Co. 

HAIMES, William— Harvey Towne, Md., 1688. It was ordered that 
all public arms at Mettapany be taken to "William Haimes, Gun 
Maker at Harvey Towne" to be fixed and made fit for service. 

HAIN, P. L. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

HAINES, G. — Pennsylvania; late Kentucky rifles. 

HAINES, Isaac — Pennsylvania, about 1730. Kentucky rifles. 

HALBACH & SONS — Listed in Baltimore and Washington directories 
as maker of firearms and cutlery. Produced characteristic Ameri- 
can pistols with U.S. eagle and shield and stars on butt cap. 1785 
and later. 

HALBURN, Casper — Lancaster, Pa., 1775. Musket maker to Commit- 
tee of Safety. Ex-employee of William Henry I. 

HALDEMAN, D.— Fayette Co., Pa. Late maker of Kentucky rifles. 

HALDEMAN, F.— Heidelburg, Berks Co., Pa., died about 1887. Fine 
rifled flintlock Kentucky target pistol, hand-made lock with F. 
Haldeman engraved on silver inlay. 

HALE, B. J. — Worcester, Mass., percussion period. 

HALE, E. & W. — New York, N. Y. Concealed trigger, percussion 
pocket pistol. 

HALE & FULLER — Hartford, Conn. Underhammer percussion pistol. 

HALE, J. H. — Worcester, Mass. Maker of J. H. Hale under-hammer, 
percussion pistol. 

HALE, Mathias— Gunsmith. Juniper Race, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

HALERSTROH, L.— Fremont, Ohio, 1866-68. 

HALK, I. or J. — Lancaster, Pa., about 1790; possibly same as J. Hoake. 
Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

HALL, Alexander— New York, N. Y., 1850. 

HALL, Charles— Lancaster, Pa., 1880. 

HALL, Charles, Jr. — Oquaga Lake, N. Y., to about 1897, then at 
McClure Settlement until 1927. Born 1872; died 1927. Black- 
smith, mechanic and repairman. Made few muzzle loading guns. 

HALL, Daniel— Present Richland Co., Ohio, 1800. Gunsmith to In- 
dians. 

HALL, E. L.— Springfield, Mass. 

HALL, George H. — Pittsylvania Courthouse, Va. Made and altered 
muskets. 

HALL, John — Armorer. Was paid $538 12/90, New Emission Currency, 
(at exchange four for one, equal to $134 48/90 in specie) for re- 
pairing 100 muskets, 1 pistol and 2 rifles at Phila., July 9, 1781. 

HALL, John H. — Yarmouth, Maine. In association with William 
Thornton of Washington, D. C, inventor of the Hall breech- 



86 American Gun Makers 

loading firelock (flintlock) patented Mar. 21, 1811. Between 
1811 and 1816, at Portland, Maine, Hall made a limited number 
of sporting arms and pistols embodying his system of breech- 
loading. 

About 1812, Hall adopted his system to the heavier charge 
of martial long arms, and for a time vainly attempted to have 
them accepted by the services. Finally in January, 1817, after 
successful tests of 1813 and 1816, Hall was given a contract for 
100 rifles at $25.00 each, for service trials and tests. As a 
result of favorable reports on his arms, the rifle was officially 
adopted, and after another period of two years spent at the 
Harpers Ferry Armory perfecting the mechanism, J. H. Hall 
received a contract for 1,000 breech-loading rifles bearing his 
name. In order to insure quantity production and proper con- 
struction, Hall entered government employ as assistant armorer 
at the Harpers Ferry Armory to supervise the manufacture of 
his arms, at a salary of $60.00 per month and a royalty of 
$1.00 per rifle. In connection with the production of these arms, 
Hall followed in the footsteps of Simeon North, pistol maker, 
and designed and constructed a number of machines used in the 
manufacture of his rifles in order to insure interchangeability 
of parts and facility of manufacture. This was the first in- 
stance of practical standardization of parts in a government arms 
plant. 

The necessary rifle making machinery for quantity pro- 
duction was completed between 1819 and 1823, and in the latter 
year the Harpers Ferry Armory went into production, com- 
pleting the first thousand in 1824, at the cost of $20.59 per 
rifle, complete with bayonet, flask, bullet mold, wiper, spring 
vise and screw driver, that amount also including packing and 
a fee of $1.00, Hall patent right. The second thousand was made 
in 1827, the cost declining to but $14.71 per stand. 

In all, 22,870 Hall rifles were made at the Harpers Ferry 
Armory between 1823 and 1844, on which Hall in addition to his 
salary and allowances, received $20,220 in royalties on his ma- 
chinery and "privilege of patent rights," to July, 1841. This 
sum includes $1,600.00 paid his son, after John H. Hall's death 
on Feb. 26, 1841. 

In addition to the Harpers Ferry Armory made Hall rifles, 
many thousands Hall system arms, especially carbines, were 
made on government contracts by the Simeon North Armory 
at Middletown, Conn. 

HALL, P. E. — Ashtabula, Ohio. Percussion, false muzzle target rifles. 

HALL, S.— New York, N. Y., 1846-50. 

HALL, Samuel — East Haddam, Conn. Musket maker to Committee 
of Safety, Connecticut. Contracted to make 400 muskets with 
bayonets at 3 pounds, 5 shillings. He completed and delivered 
153 stands, completed 70 more which he reported on hand, "also 
45 barrels that are bored and 79 that are not, and fit to bore, 
together with bayonets, loops, breech pins, mountings and 
stocks." 

HAMILTON, Joseph— North Carolina; making flintlock Kentucky 

rifles in 1821. 
HAMM, A. J.— 241 Edgewood Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. Modern flintlock 

and percussion rifles, authentic period reproductions; rebuilding, 

restoration, and repair. 



American Gun Makers 87 

HAMMOND, B. L.— Rim-fire carbine, about 1866-67. 

HAMPTON, J. N.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

HANCOCK, Ethan — Cut off pistol barrels to size, Springfield Armory, 
1808. 

HANDLIN, John — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 
Safety, 1776. Handlin was one of the petitioners, representing 
gun makers, complaining in November, 1776, to the Committee 
of Safety against the high cost of materials and labor entering 
into arms-making, and quoting advances in prices within one 
year, from 1775. 

HANKINS, Wm. — Philadelphia, Pa., 5-shot percussion revolver. 

HANKS, Uriah — Mansfield, Conn. Gun-lock maker to Committee of 
Safety. From June 10, 1776, made 87 double-bridled locks. In 
April, 1777, made 15 gun-locks. Payment recorded June, 1777. 

HANNIS, James— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1841-44. In- 
spected arms in the plant of Nathan Starr. 

HANNIS, Joseph — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 193 St. John in 
1929. 

HAPGOOD— Boston, Mass., 1872. 

HAPGOOD, H.— Percussion period. 

HAPGOOD, Joab— Shrewsbury, Mass. Born about 1800. Careful 
workman made all parts of his arms. Shop was located on Oak 
Street on top of a hill. His house, across from his shop, had been 
built in 1747. Later lived on Main Street, Shrewsbury. At one 
time had a sporting goods store in Boston. Died in 1890 and is 
buried in Mt. View Cemetery. 

HAPPOLD, J. H.— See J. M. Happold. 

HAPPOLD, J. M.— Charleston, S. C. Established in 1853 at the corner 
of Meeting and Cumberland Streets. Maker of duelling pistols, 
derringers, percussion rifles and shotguns. Business carried on by 
J. H. Happold, son, who made breech-loading arms in 1883. 

HAQUARD — Portsmouth, Lawrence Co., Ohio. 

HARA, Nicholas — Troy, N. Y., in 1840. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

HARDEN, G. W.— Moulton, Iowa, 1853. Came from Ohio in 1848 to 
build his shop at Moulton. The state at the time was a "hunter's 
paradise" and Harden specialized in plain stocked but well made, 
accurate hunting rifles, decorated only on special order. At times 
did not mark his barrels. Died in 1880. 

HARDER — Williamsport, Pa., late percussion period. 

HARDER, C. E. & CO.— Unlocated. Kentucky type flintlock pistols. 

HARDER, G. W.— Tyrone, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

HARDER, H. & T. CUSHMAN— Makers of half stock, "mule ear" 
lock, muzzle loading, percussion rifle. 

HARDER, J. E.— Clearfield, Pa. 1886-1890. Maker of Harder breech- 
loading rifles and shotguns. 

HARDER, Jacob— Lock Haven, Pa., active about 1846-60. Harder 
was born about 1820, and in 1838 began serving a six years' 
apprenticeship with Bartlett Brothers, in Binghamton, N. Y. 
Upon completion, he worked for two years as a journeyman, 
then opened his own shop in Athens, Pa. Harder moved to 
Lock Haven in 1860, where his plant, making muzzle loading 
percussion rifles employed eight gunsmiths. Harder also made 



88 American Gun Makers 

cased duelling pistols for Southern trade, as well as multi- 
barreled rifles. 

HARDER, Wm. H.— Clearfield, Pa., 3-barrel guns. 

HARDESTY, Charles— West Las Animas, Col., 1875. 

HARDIN, Enoch — Birchwood, later Soddy (near Chattanooga), Tenn., 
19th-20th century. Heavy percussion match rifles of fine accuracy. 

HARDING— Unidentified. Kentucky rifles. 

HARDY, C. E. & CO.— Marking on the lock of a flintlock Kentucky 



type pistol with barrel marked "H. B." 
HARKER, C. P. or G. P.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 



HARMON, Is.— Sulphur Springs, Ohio, 1851. Heavy bench rifle. 

HARMON, L. — Unlocated Southern riflesmith. A converted flintlock 
Kentucky rifle with strap-iron trigger guard, no buttplate; lock 
(perhaps converted before use) by Longstreet & Cook, Phila. 
Rifle came from Henry Co., Ky. 

HARPERS FERRY ARMORY— Established in 1796, by George Wash- 
ington, who attracted by the ample water power facilities at 
Harpers Ferry, Va., located at the confluence of the Potomac 
and Shenandoah Rivers, selected that locality for the site of 
one of two Federal armories and arsenals authorized by Congress 
in the Act of April 2, 1794. 

Harpers Ferry was named for Robert Harper, who settled 
there in 1747, and established a ferry across the Potomac. The 
site consisted of 125 acres of land purchased from the Harper 
family. Though the construction of buildings and shops was 
begun in 1796, the first output of arms is recorded in 1801, when 
293 muskets were made. During its existence the armory aver- 
aged over 10,000 muskets and rifles annually, and about 75,000 
small arms were kept in storage reserve. 

The armory gained considerable public attention in 1859, 
through its capture for a day by a rabid abolitionist, John 
Brown, who, with a party of nineteen others, unsuccessfully at- 
tempted to seize arms for the arming and revolt of Negro 
slaves. The abortive attempt cost John Brown his life by execu- 
tion. 

At the time of Virginia's secession, Harpers Ferry Armory 
was garrisoned by Lt. Roger Jones, U. S. Army, and a detach- 
ment of 45 enlisted men. On the night of April 18, 1861, con- 
fronted with the imminent capture of the armory by an assem- 
bling large body of Virginia militia, Lt. Jones set fire to the 
arsenal and the armory, destroying over 20,000 stored small 
arms, and as much public property as possible, and retreated 
across the Potomac. Some of the arms, equipment and ma- 
chinery were salvaged by the Confederates and were used by 
them later in the assembly and manufacture of Confederate 
arms. See Fayetteville Arsenal. 

HARRIC, Jason L. — Or Harris. Unidentified. Late flintlock period, 
before 1825. 

HARRINGTON— Sturbridge, Mass. Percussion pistol. 

HARRINGTON, Ab.— Vassar, Mich. Partner of Thomas W. Barnes, 
post-Civil War; together made two percussion over-under rifle- 
shotguns per week at $20 each. 

HARRINGTON, H. B.— Lebanon, N. H. 

HARRINGTON, Luke— Sutton, Mass., 1832. 



American Gun Makers 89 

HARRINGTON & RICHARDSON— Revolver and shotgun manufac- 
turers. The business was established in 1871, by Gilbert H. 
Harrington and Frank Wesson at 18 Manchester St., Worcester, 
Mass., in the shops where Wesson had made his rifles. Wesson 
sold out his interest in 1874, to Harrington, who taking William 
A. Richardson into partnership, renamed the firm Harrington & 
Richardson. The plant was moved to Hermon Street in 1876, and 
later, in 1894, to Park Avenue. In 1880 in addition to their 
revolver line, the firm obtained license to manufacture shotguns 
on the Anson & Deeley system. 

William A. Richardson was born Dec. 20, 1833. Came to Wor- 
cester in 1863 and made gun tools for the Ballard arms. Had 
worked for Frank Wesson in 1866. 

HARRIS, C. H. & DARLING, W. K.— Otsego, Mich., mule-ear, over- 
under rifle. 

HARRIS, Henry— Middletown, Paxton, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1779. 

HARRIS, Isaac— Savage Town, Md., before and after 1772-76. Musket 
and rifle maker to Committee of Safety. 

HARRIS, Jason L. — See Herric, Jason L. 

HARRIS, Luke— Sutton, Mass., 1832. 

HARRIS, William — Seneca Co., near "Fort Sandoski," Ohio, prior to 
1812. First white gunsmith to the Indians. Spoke fluent Seneca. 

HARRIS, William— Baltimore, Md., 1856. 

HARRIS, William— 208 Leidersdorff, San Francisco, Calif., 1861-65. 
(with F. Newhoff?). 

HART — Frewsburg, N. Y. A heavy halfstock percussion rifle. 

HART, B. F.— New York, N. Y., 1855-65. 

HART, B. J. & BRO.— New York, N. Y., 1857 and after. Makers of 
5-shot percussion revolvers and single-shot percussion pistols. 

HARTFORD ARMS CO.— Hartford, Conn. .22 cal. sheath trigger 
pocket revolvers. 

HARTIG, J.— Dubuque, Iowa, 1868. 

HARTMAN — Erie, Pa. Walnut half stock, percussion smooth rifle. 

HARTMAN, P. & J. HAHN— Erie, Pa. Percussion single-barrel shot- 
gun, so marked on barrel. 

HARVEL, G. W. & BROS.— Unlocated. Percussion rifle with lock by 
Henry Elwell. 

HARVEY, Thomas H.— Born 1795, died 1854. Rotating tumbler gun 
lock:— pat. 1849. 

HARWOOD, Nathaniel H.— Brookfield, Mass., about 1825-40. 

HASDELL, T. R.— 70 E. Madison Ave., Chicago, 111., 1881-84. 

HASKELL, R. — Painesville, Ohio, maker of rifles with Remington 
barrels. Born 1827, died June 24, 1882. 

HASLETT, James — Superintendent of Robert McCormick's musket 
factory. When McCormick failed on a contract with the State of 
Virginia for 4,000 muskets about 1797, Haslett took over the con- 
tract and completed deliveries. 

Haslett was born in Ireland and brought to the United States 
by McCormick of Philadelphia. He established his own place in 
Baltimore in 1803. Served as a Major in the War of 1812, and was 
in the Battle of North Point. Haslett was in business until 1824, 
and his duelling pistols are prized as works of art. He died in 
Calvert County in 1833. 






90 American Gun Makers 

HASLETT, John— Also Hazlett. Baltimore, Md., 1804-1824. Listed in 
the 1824 Baltimore Directory at 28 Water St. Pistol maker. 

HATCH, C. P.— Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

HATCH. W. — Burlington, Vt., early percussion period. 

HATCH, Warren— Plattsburg, N. Y., before and after 1850. Same as 
Hatch, W? 

HATCHER, P. P.— Belmont Co., O. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

HATCHER, P.— Maker of a full maple stock, brass patch box, 36" 
octagonal barrel, flintlock rifle. 

HATTERSLEY, Henry— Cleveland, Ohio, 1850-71. Gun manufactory. 

HAVEN, N.— Puts Corners, Ulster Co., N. Y., 1800. 

HAVER, George W.— 105 Hill Ave., Carnegie, Pa. Modern rebuilt 
flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles. Learned under Uriah 
Fisher at Rices Landing, Greene Co., Pa. 

HAWES & WAGGONER— Charleston, S. C. Percussion derringers. 

HAWK, Nicholas— Gilbert, Monroe Co., Pa. About 1840-45. Beautiful 
late Kentucky rifle. 

HAWKEN, D. T. — Springfield, Ohio. Plain, long-barreled percussion 
Kentucky rifles stamped with name and address; one reported 
bought second hand in 1852. 

HAWKEN, John — Hagerstown, Md., gunsmith. Father of Jacob and 
Samuel Hawken. Active about 1785-1808. The Hawken family, 
according to tradition, are believed to have been originally of 
Welsh ancestry. They are said to have left British Isles to escape 
some form of taxation. There was also a legend that the family 
had participated in ship raiding and wrecking off the rocky 
Welsh coast and left the country under Crown pressure. From 
Rose Abbey, Wales, they emigrated to Holland, thence to Amer- 
ica, eventually settling at Hagerstown, Md. By his wife, Julienne, 
of Dutch ancestry, he had many children, including at least five 
boys, of whom Jacob and Samuel migrated West, the other 
three remaining in Hagerstown to carry on their father's gun- 
smith trade. 

HAWKEN, Jacob and Samuel — Famed St. Louis, Mo., rifle makers. 
Hawken brothers were born at Hagerstown, Md., Jacob in 1786, 
Samuel on Oct. 26, 1792, of a gunsmith family of Welsh-Dutch 
Ancestry. In 1821, Jacob Hawken, the elder brother was listed 
at 214 N. Main St., in the St. Louis Directory. In 1822, Samuel 
arrived from Xenia, Ohio, where he had operated a gun shop. The 
brothers opened a new shop at 29 Washington Ave., (the present 
location of Eads Bridge). Jacob Hawken died of cholera May 9, 
1849, the shop being operated by Samuel until 1859, when Samuel 
Hawken went to Denver, Colo., with his son, also a gunsmith. 
The operation of the shop was left with William Watt, an old 
employe of the firm. 

The family records are meager. Little is known of Jacob 
Hawken except that he had married Catherine Allison of St. 
Louis, and that his arms were held in high esteem. His papers 
were burned during the cholera epidemic and his body was 
placed in the Mississippi River for burial, so no cemetery records 
are available. Samuel had been in the service in the War of 
1812, and was present at the Battle of Bladensburg. In 1861, 
Samuel Hawken and his son returned to St. Louis, and a year 
later sold the "Hawken" shop to John P. Gemmer, a former em- 
ployee, who continued the manufacture of the Hawken rifles, 



American Gun Makers 91 

under that name, for a number of years before changing the 
name. See Gemmer, John P. Samuel Hawken died in St. Louis, 
Mo., May 8, 1884, and is buried in the Bellefontaine Cemetery. 

HAWKEN, W. — St. Louis, Mo., maker of a full stock percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. William S. Hawken was the son of famed rifle maker 
Samuel Hawken. Was known to plainsmen trade as "Jake Haw- 
ken's nephew." 

HAWKINS, Henry-— Schenectady, N. Y., rifle maker 1769-1775. One 
of four rifle makers induced by Sir William Johnson to come out 
and settle in New York State by grants of buildings and tools. 
By 1775 rifle making had become an enterprising industry with 
most of the settlers and Indians trading their smoothbores for 
rifles, and New York was second only to Pennsylvania in their 
manufacture. 

HAWKINS, Hiram — Edinboro, Erie Co., Pa. Percussion rifles and 
shotguns. 

HAWKINS, John— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1840. Inspected 
arms in the plant of Nathan Starr. 

HAYDEN, Bemiah— Unlocated. Making Kentucky rifles in 1838. 

HAYNES, Joshua— Waltham, Mass. 

HAYNES, William B.— Chillicothe, Ohio. 

HAYWOOD, Wm. — Milwaukee, Wis., "Importer, dealer and manufac- 
turer of guns, pistols and maker of Improved Gain Twist Rifle," — 
"Shotguns made to Shoot Close." Located at 228 West Water 
Street 1847-49 and at 252 West Water 1851-61. 

HAZARD & BLAIR — Percussion pistols. 

H. B. — Unidentified. Marking on the barrel of a Kentucky type, flint- 
lock pistol with lock marked "C. E. Hardy & Co." 

*HB* — Unidentified. Script monogram die-stamped on the barrel of 
a percussion Kentucky rifle with engraved patchbox. Four dots 
in the crossbar of the H. 

H. D. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 
HEAL, John— See Heal Rifle Co. 

HEAL RIFLE COMPANY— 12-18 Atwater St., West, Detroit, Mich. 
Makers of boy's .22 rifles, lever action, loaded from underneath. 
John G. Heal was listed as laborer in 1893; in 1901 was secretary 
and treasurer of the Detroit Brass and Iron Novelty Co. In 
1904 the Heal Rifle Co. was at the same address. In 1905-06, 
called the Detroit Rifle Co., same address. Evidently the enter- 
prise had a limited life as in 1909 John G. Heal is listed as 
laborer again. The building is now the shipping department of 
Vernor's Ginger Ale. 

HEATON, A.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle with full curly 

maple stock. 
HEATON, Morgan— Putnam, Muskigum Co., Ohio. War of 1812. 
HEATONS, S. E.— Percussion rifle with Remington lock. 

HEBERLIG — Barrelmaker on Wyomissing Creek near Reading, Berks 
Co., Pa. Member of firm Gougler & Heberlig, Mohnton, Pa. 
Barrels of double percussion rifle by F. Altmier, both marked 
"HEBERLIG, READING, PA." 

HECK, K.— Unlocated. 

HECKENBACH, John A. — Milwaukee, Wis. Gun maker and designer 
located at 473 Third Street 1877-78. Patent for a breech-loading 



92 American Gun Makers 

firearm, Patent No. 91,624 was issued to John A. Hechenbach of 
Mayville, Wis., June 22, 1869. 

HECKERT, Philip— York County, Pa., 1799-1822. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

HECKMAN, John— Gun stocker. Back of 18 Cherry, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

HEDLEY, John— Phila., Pa. Listed as gun stock maker at 18 Cherry, 
in 1829. 

HEFNER, J.— Marion, Ohio. Plains type rifle numbered "254." 

HEFS, Thomas— West Penn Post Office, Penna. Fullstock flintlock 
Kentucky match rifle with lock by J. Roop. 

HEINZ, Charles — Atlanta, Ga., operator of a gun shop for the Con- 
federacy, at corner of Whitehall and Alabama Streets (now site 
of Atlanta National Bank). Employed 12 or 12 hands converting 
flintlock muskets to percussion "for the Confederate Government 
and making muskets and rifles for them." 

HEINZE, Richard— Baltimore, period of 1888, gunsmith. 

HELENA LEAD AND SHOT WORKS— Helena, Wisconsin, circa 1840- 
1870. Active manufacturers of lead for bullet making and of 
prepared lead shot for hunting purposes. Lead in pigs weighing 
75 pounds and bags of shot weighing 25 pounds were hauled by 
wagon to Milwaukee for distribution in the lake area. Other 
shipments were made by way of the Mississippi River to New 
Orleans and thence to New York. After the establishment of rail- 
way ties with the East the lead shot was shipped there directly, 
or to Chicago, as lead to be used in the Blatchford Shot Tower. 

HEISER, Lewis— Tiffin, Ohio, 1857-59. Shotguns and rifles. 

HELLER, J. — Carlisle, Pa. Double percussion rifle. 

HELLINGHAUS, F. — St. Louis, Mo. Maker of heavy percussion target 
rifles with Remington barrels. Listed in St. Louis City Directory 
1841 through 1847. 

HELTON, Joab— Primitive work, crudely marked "JOAB— HELTON 
MAKE" on top flat. Two crude, half stock, percussion rifles, one 
with wrought iron furniture and Joseph Golcher lock; the other 
without furniture, cheap "BLUE GRASS" lock not original. 

HEMENWAY, O.— Unlocated. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

HEMIWORTH, Richard— Troy, N. Y., 1833-34. Kentucky rifles. 

HENCH— Pottsville, Pa. 

HENCH, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., about 1740-50. Kentucky rifles. 

HENDERSON, L.— Andover, N. Y., precussion period. 

HENDRICKS, M. S.— Aurora, 111., 1869-75. 

HENKEL, Daniel— Mill Creek, Pa. Flintlock period. 

HENKELS, Daniel — Philadelphia, Pa., gunsmith and sword maker, 
listed in the 1814 Directory at 264 St. John St. Active 1808- 
1817. Henkels was of German birth and parentage and was 
naturalized at Philadelphia in 1810. He is reputed by the Penn- 
sylvania "Gazeteer" to have been the first in Philadelphia to use 
steam for manufacturing purposes. Contracted Feb. 14, 1815, for 
1,700 muskets at $14.25 per stand to be delivered by Feb. 1, 1816. 
Examination of a Henkels musket lock-plate dated 1814, shows a 
typical Model 1808 lock, with a tit-like rear end, and a flat, 
bevelled edge hammer, in spite of the late date of the contract. 
Henkels was connected with the Nippes family of gun 



American Gun Makers 93 

makers through a second marriage of his mother with Daniel 

Nippes. 

HENRICH, Alonzo— Bozrah, Conn., gunsmith, 1870-71. 

HENRY, George— Philadelphia, Pa., 1777-78. 

HENRY, William I — The Henry firm of arms makers was founded by 
William Henry (called here First, for facility in identification) of 
Lancaster, Pa.; son of John and Elizabeth De Vinne Henry, born 
May 9, 1729, on his father's plantation at West Cain Township, 
Chester Co., Pa. In 1744, young Henry was appenticed to Mathew 
Roeser, gunsmith of Lancaster. In 1751, having finished his ap- 
prenticeship, he started his own gunsmithy on Mill Creek in the 
same town, making Kentucky rifles and arms, principally for 
the Indian trade. In 1755, William Henry was armorer to the 
Colonial forces with the Braddock Expedition, and in 1578, saw 
more military service with the Forbes Expedition against Pitts- 
burgh. In 1758, Henry entered into partnership with Joseph 
Simons which is believed to have dissolved prior to 1775, though 
it is mentioned in early records (Journal of Continental Congress 
Proceedings) as of existence in 1775. 

William Henry I furnished arms to the Continental troops 
in 1776, and was authorized to make muskets for the State of 
Pennsylvania in 1777. He became a member of the Continental 
Congress in session in New York City in 1785, the year after, 
Dec. 15, 1786, William Henry I died at the age of 57. His gun 
making establishment was not mentioned in his will, it is quite 
likely that he turned it over to his son, William II, some time 
before his death. 

HENRY, Abraham — Lancaster, Pa. Son of William Henry I. In as- 
sociation with John Graeff contracted with the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania on April 11, 1798, for 2,000 muskets to be 
marked "CP." Mentioned by his brother, William Henry II, 
as being addicted to drink. Died Aug. 12, 1811, of "vomiting 
of the stomach." Was one of the petitioners to 7th Congress 
on Jan. 28, 1803, for non-removal of import duties on arms. 
July 13, 1801, in association with Peter Brong and Henry De- 
Huff had proposed to furnish arms to State of Virginia. No 
record of contract. See Brong, Peter. 

On Dec. 9, 1807, Abraham Henry contracted with Tench 
Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, to furnish 200 pair of pistols 
at $10.00 the pair, and 200 rifles at $10.00 each. 

HENRY, John Joseph — Lancaster, Pa., gunsmith. Son of William 
Henry I. Born at Lancaster, Nov. 4, 1758. With an uncle, (brother 
of William Henry I), John Henry, gunsmith, to whom he was 
apprenticed at the age of 14, moved to Detroit, where the uncle 
was in business about 1773-74. Young John made his way back 
to Lancaster in 1775, after a hazardous journey accompanied by a 
guide who died enroute. Probabilities are that back in Lancaster 
he worked in his father's shops. During the Revolutionary War 
he served in a rifle company and was captured at Quebec. He 
came back from the War crippled, studied law and was made a 
Federal judge. In 1810, he had dictated an account of his ex- 
perience at Quebec to his daughter, which account was later 
printed. He died April 5, 1811, after a long illness. 

HENRY, William II— Nazareth, Pa. Son of William Henry I. Born 
at Lancaster, March 1757, and apprenticed to Andrew Albright, 



94 American Gun Makers 

gunsmith of Lititz, Pt. He established himself as a rifle maker at 
Christian Spring in 1778, and at Nazareth, Northampton Co., in 
1780. There he trained his sons, John Joseph and William Henry 
III in the gun making trade. About 1792, in association with two 
others, he bought a large tract of land at Jacobsburg (in the 
vicinity) where he had a gun barrel mill since 1780. It is believed 
that the proof-testing of barrels was done at Jacobsburg, as the 
Moravian Fathers objected to the firing of guns in the village. 
The Jacobsburg property was further improved in 1798, by a 
boring mill (later turned into a grist mill) and about 1808, by a 
forge and iron works. The Jacobsburg shops were in charge of 
son Matthew S. Henry; sons William III and John Joseph, oper- 
ating the Boulton and Philadelphia plants, respectively. 

On Dec. 13, 1797, William Henry II contracted with the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania for 2,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795), muskets. He also had government contracts: — under Act 
of July 5, 1798, for 500 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795), muskets 
at $13.40 per stand, of which 235 are known to have been de- 
livered by June 10, 1801. Later, on June 30, 1808, with his son, 
John Joseph as associate, he obtained a contract for 10,000 mus- 
kets, Model 1808, of 5 years' duration. Of this contract 4.246 were 
delivered by Oct. 7, 1812, and presumably the entire contract was 
fulfilled in time. 

On Dec. 9, 1807, William Henry had been offered a contract 
for 150 pair of pistols by Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public Sup- 
plies, but declined the contract. 

William Henry II moved to Philadelphia in 1818, to be with 
his son, John Joseph, and died there in 1821. 

HENRY. J. J. — John Joseph Henry, (the second of that name, whose 
initials were often written I. I.), the third son of William Henry 
II, was born at Nazareth, Northampton Co., Pa., on June 17, 
1786. After learning the gun making trade under his father, in 
about 1808, he moved to Philadelphia, where he established a 
factory at the northwest corner of 3rd and Noble Streets, em- 
ploying 40 to 50 hands. On June 30, 1808, in association with his 
father, William Henry II, he contracted with the government for 
10,000 muskets, Model 1808, duration 5 years. Of these there are 
recorded to have been 4,246 delivered by June 10, 1801, and 
presumably the entire contract was fulfilled. On Feb. 9, 1815, 
he (alone) contracted for 2,277 muskets at $14.25 per stand, to 
be completed by Nov. 1, 1816. Other than martial arms, the 
principal outlet of his works was the North American Fur Com- 
pany — John Jacob Astor — and most of the output was shipped 
through agents in St. Louis to the Pacific Northwest. 

In addition to the Philadelphia plant, offices and salesrooms 
where the greater part of the firm's business was transacted, 
John Joseph Henry was part owner of the Boulton plant estab- 
lished by his brother, William Henry III. In 1822. John Joseph 
bought out his brother's interest and moved to Boulton, where 
he later took into partnership his son James, the lock plates 
thereupon being marked "J. J. HENRY & SON." In addition to 
long arms at the Boulton plant, John Joseph made Model 1826 
type martial pistols, marked "J. J. HENRY BOULTON." John 
Joseph Henry died in 1836, and the works passed to his son, 
James. The ruins of the old plant, on Bushkill Creek, near 
Belfast, are still standing. 

During the War of 1812, John Joseph Henry was active in 



American Gun Makers 95 

production and repair of public arms for the Committee of De- 
fense of Philadelphia. Associated with him in his work was a 
relative. Joseph Henry, a Philadelphia gunsmith. 

HENRY, William III— Younger son of William Henry II. Born at 
Nazareth, Pa., Aug. 16, 1796. Learned the gun making trade in 
his father's shops and while working a year or two for his elder 
brother, John Joseph, in Philadelphia. The Nazareth plant being 
inadequate to take care of the still unfulfilled portion of the 
large contract of 1808 for 10,000 muskets contracted for by his 
father and brother, as well as the additional demands caused by 
the War of 1812, William III was sent to Boulton three miles 
northeast of Nazareth, to build a dam, shops and workmen's 
houses on land owned by the Henry's on Bushkill Creek, and 
so established the Boulton Gun Works. In 1822, William Henry 
III sold out his interest in Boulton to his brother, John Joseph. 
The ruins of the old Boulton works on Bushkill Creek, in 
the vicinity of Belfast, are still standing. 

HENRY, James — Son of John Joseph Henry of Philadelphia and 
Boulton. Born in Philadelphia in 1809. After a partnership with 
his father at the Boulton works, during which some of the arms 
produced by the firm were marked "J. J. Henry & Son," James 
Henry succeeded to the business on his father's death in 1836. 
In turn, about 1860, he took his son Granville into partnership, 
the arms being marked "J. Henry & Son." In the interim be- 
tween 1836 and 1860 or so, the arms produced by James Henry 
were marked "J. Henry." James Henry died in 1894. 

HENRY, Granville — Of Boston and Philadelphia. Son of James Henry 
whom he succeeded in the firm. Born in 1835, became his father's 
partner in about 1860, and was active until 1880. Granville Henry 
died in 1912. 

HENRY, John— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1759-73. Brother of 
William Henry I. Had a gun shop just east of his brother's store 
on the southeast corner of Penn Square. 

HENRY, Charles— Boulton, Pa., living in 1921. Last of the Henry 
family of riflesmiths. 

HENRY, Joseph— Philadelphia arms before and after 1811-1814. 
Joseph Henry pistols are known marked "J. Henry Phila." 
Joseph Henry was associated with John Joseph Henry of N. 3rd 
& Noble Sts., Philadelphia, a relative, in the production and 
repair of public arms for the Committee of Defence of Phila- 
delphia in the War of 1812. 

Joseph Henry contracted Nov. 9, 1807, with Tench Coxe, 
Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 150 pair of pistols at $10.00 the 
pair, and 300 rifles at $10.00 each. On March 23, 1808, Joseph 
Henry contracted for an additional 600 pair of pistols and 600 
rifles on the same terms. 

HENRY, Moses— Present Ross Co., Ohio, 1769. 

HENRY REPEATING ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn. Formed July 
7, 1865, for the manufacture of Henry patent arms. Became Win- 
chester Repeating Arms Co., May 30, L866. 

HENRY, B. Tyler — Superintendent in charge of production of the 
Volcanic Repeating Arms Co., in 1855-57. Had previously worked 
for Smith & Wesson in the development of their magazine arm 
later known as the Volcanic. In 1860 was in charge of production 
of the Henry (his own) patent rifles for the New Haven Arms 



96 American Gun Makers 

Co., controlled by Oliver F. Winchester. The Henry Repeating 
Arms Company formed July 7, 1865, became the Winchester 
Repeating Arms Co., May 30, 1866. 

The War Department purchased 1,731 Henry rifles during 
the Civil War. In addition 10,000 or so were purchased by the 
states to arm state troops. See Smith & Wesson and New Haven 
Arms Co. 

B. Tyler Henry was born in Claremont, N. H., March 22, 
1821. He attended school at Claremont until about 16 years of 
age, when he began serving an apprenticeship in the gunsmith 
trade, working for a number of years for local gunsmiths. Later 
worked for Robbins & Lawrence at Windsor, Vt., where he be- 
came familiar with the mechanism of the Jennings rifle, which he 
later helped to improve into the mechanism of the Volcanic. 

Tyler Henry left the Winchester firm about 1867, and be- 
came associated with the Henry Spring -Co., of 20 Howard St., 
New Haven, listed in the City Directory in 1870-71. He died at 
his residence, 73 Audubon St., New Haven, Conn., June 8, 1898. 

HENSHAW, Joshua — Musket maker. Contractor under Act of Julv 
5, 1798, for Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 
per stand. Thirteen hundred dollars is recorded paid on account 
in 1800 and $2,100 in 1801. 

HENSZEY — See Moore, Henszey & Co., percussion bar lock. 

HEP, Philip, Jr. — Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle with gooseneck 
hammer, inlay in place of patchbox. 

HEPBURN, Lewis L.— Colton, N. Y. Inventor of the Hepburn back 
action locks. Maker of an over-under, muzzle loading, percussion 
sporting rifle. 

HERFURTH, August— Madison, Wis. 1866-1878, Webster Street near 
King. Made very fine percussion schuetzen rifles and some medio- 
cre hunting rifles and shotguns. 

HERGET, J.— 114 Pacific St., San Francisco, Calif., 1858-65. 

HERMAN, Peter— Lancaster, Ohio, before and after 1868-71. 

HERR— Canton, Stark Co., Ohio. Early. 

HERRING, Richard — In association with John Devane established a 
Public Gun Factory, authorized by Act of April 24, 1776, in the 
Wilmington District, North Carolina. After production of some 
one hundred long arms the factory was destroyed by Tory 
sympathizers. 

HERTIG, F. — Philadelphia, Pa. Marking on a barrel of what appears 
to have been a fullstock percussion rifle. 

HERTZOG, Andrew— York County, Pa., 1777-80. Payments recorded 
for repair of public arms. 

HESS, J. — Unidentified. Copper-mounted, flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

HESS, Philip, Jr. — Operator of a water power rifle factory erected 
by him at the foot of Blue Mountains in 1832, on the west 
branch of the road from Saegerstown to Lehighton, about one- 
half mile west of Balliet's Furnace, later known as the old 
Lehigh Furnace. 

HESS, Samuel — Matrick Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 

HESS, Solomon and Jonas — Gunsmiths who had worked in the Philip 
Hess rifle factory, and continued in the vicinity after the factory 
was dismantled. 

HETRICH, JOHN & CO.— Newark, Ohio, before and after 1866-70. 



American Gun Makers 97 

HETRICK, Jacob — Lima, Ohio, modern. 

HETRICK, John— Norwalk, Huron Co., Ohio, 1866-70. "Employed 
four hands." 

HETRICK, Levi— Lima, Ohio, before and after 1888-94. 

HEUSER, J.— Gunsmith, 25 St. Phillip, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

HEYER — Of the firm Duryea & Heyer, makers of Kentucky type, 
full curly maple stock, brass mounted, light weight barrel, per- 
cussion fowling piece. 

H. H. — Unidentified. Marking on a flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

H. H. P. — Initials of Henry H. Perkin, U.S. Inspector of Contract 
Arms, 1813-17. Inspected arms (sabers and N.C.O. swords) at the 
plant of Nathan Starr. 

HIDE, Elijah — Connecticut. Worked on repair of public arms in July, 
1777. 

HIGH STANDARD— 61 Foote St., New Haven, Conn. Modern. Small 
caliber automatic pistols. 

HILL, S. W. — Johnstown, N. Y. Stamped on barrel and inside patch- 
box lid of curly maple halfstocked percussion rifle. 

HILL, Thomas— Carlotta, Vt., 1790-1810. 

HILLEGAS, H. — Unlocated; Kentucky rifles. Perhaps related to J. 
Hillegas, flintlock pistol and rifle maker of Pottsville, Pa. 

HILLEGAS, J.— Pottsville, Pa., about 1810-1830. Maker of a full stock 
Kentucky rifle with altered lock marked "SHARPE." 

HILLIARD, D. H.— Cornish, N. H., about 1860-1880. Maker of an 
under-hammer, muzzle-loading, percussion sporting rifle. 

HILLS, Benoni — Goshen, Conn., 1753. Marking on a full stock, flint- 
lock fowling piece. 

HILLS, Medad — Goshen, Conn., rifle and musket maker. Born April 
22, 1729, died March 4, 1822. Flintlock musket dated 1758. Early 
New England 41 % inch octagonal, pinned barrel, flintlock rifle 
with goose neck hammer and curly maple stock. He also made 
and delivered 40 muskets, bayonets and belts to the Committee 
of Safety in 1776. 

HILLSBOROUGH GUN FACTORY— Establishment authorized by 
the State of North Carolina in April, 1776, for which purpose 
the sum of 1,000 pounds was advanced to Messrs, Nathaniel 
Rochester, William Johnson, Amrose Ramsey and Dr. Thomas 
Burke, commissioners for the construction. However, due to diffi- 
culty of securing workmen, tools and materials, the factory never 
passed beyond the planning stage, and the money was expended 
for the manufacture of 200 muskets on sub-contracts (for parts) 
awarded to local smiths, the locks being purchased in Philadel- 
phia. 

HINDS, John— Boston, Mass., 1745. 

HINE, John — Employed as musket barrel maker by Abraham Nippes 
in 1810. 

HINKLE, George J.— Lancaster District, Pa., 1857. 

HIRTH, August— Also Hirthe. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1855-1860. "Enterprise 
Rifles." See James Bown & Son, and Enterprise Gun Works. 

HITCHCOCK & MUZZY— Low Moor, New England. Barrelmakers 
chiefly, though reported as makers of percussion rifles and pistols, 
Made underhammer barrels for J. H. Durkee and H. B. Hamilton 



98 American Gun Makers 

of Lebanon, N. H.; also barrel (marked "LOW MOOR" of butt- 
stocked rifle by George P. Foster, Bristol, R. I. 

HIXSON, J. B. — Probably Ohio. Script marking on fancy engraved 
percussion Kentucky rifle, lock marking H pierced by arrow. 
Similar locks known on another Hixson rifle and one by J. C. M. 

H. K. — Marking inside Springfield musket lock of musket dated 1799. 

HOADLEY, Lemuel — Gun-lock maker to Committee of Safety, Con- 
necticut. 

HOAKE, J. — Lancaster, Pa. Received payment for 68 gunlocks Aug. 
25, 1778. Heavy flintlock Kentucky rifle with bone inlays; also 
made shotguns. 

HOARD'S ARMORY— Operated at Watertown, N. Y., by C. B. Hoard, 
Civil War contractor for Model 1861 Springfield Rifle muskets 
marked "Watertown" and dated: 

Dec. 24, 1861—50,000 at $20.00 each. 1,500 delivered. 
Dec. 1, 1863—20,000 at $19.00 each. 11,300 delivered. 

In addition to the 12,800 muskets, the armory made percus- 
sion revolvers after Austin T. Freeman patent of Dec. 9, 1862, 
Pat. No. 37,091 of which there is no record of government 
purchase. 

HOARD, C. B.— See Hoard's Armory. 

HOBBS, John—Putnam, Muskigum Co., Ohio. 

HOBBS, P.— Monterey, Mass. 

HOCKLEY, James— Chester County, Pa., 1769-71. 

HODGE, J. T.— New York, N. Y. Civil War contractor of Dec. 26, 
1861, for 50,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets at $20.00 
each of which 10,500 were delivered. 

HODGKINS & SONS— 507 Mulberry St, Macon, Georgia, 1862. D. C. 
Hodgkins and his three sons, N. M., Walter C. and T. G, oper- 
ators of a Confederate pistol and rifled carbine factory in a shop 
back of their store. Sold out to the Macon Armory in the early 
part of the Civil War. 

"In 1862 . . . they manufactured for the State of Georgia 
over $100,000 worth of munitions of war and altered over 2,000 
of the old flint and steel muskets into good percussion locks. 
They are now manufacturing for the Confederate Government 
rifled carbines. They forge the barrels by hand, which is very 
tedious and laborious work. We saw the various parts of the 
guns in process of manufacturing — tubes, locks, ramrods, wipers, 
plates, mountings, etc, all made by tools manufactured in the 
shop." 

HODGSON & THOMPSON— Baltimore, Md. Brass barrel, flintlock 
holster pistol. 

HOFFMAN & CAMPBELL— St. Louis, Mo. Fine walnut halfstocked 
percussion rifle with back action lock and engraved German 
silver mountings. Gold and silver bands at breech, name stamped 
on barrel. See Christian Hoffman. 

HOFFMAN, Christian — St. Louis, Mo. 1842-1855, "journeyman gun- 
smith." With Tristram Campbell as "Hoffman & Co," and "Hoff- 
man & Campbell." 
HOFFMAN & CO.— St. Louis, Mo, 1842-1855. See Christian Hoffman. 
HOFFMAN, Christian— Gunsmith. 14 Charlotte, Phila, Pa, 1819. 



American Gun Makers 99 

HOFFMAN, J.— Lancaster, Pa., also Saltillo (?), Civil War period. 
Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun, two hammers and ramrods. 

HOFFMAN, J .V. — Attica, Ind. Heavy percussion rifles. Used locks 
made by Tyler, Davidson & Co., and by Joseph Goulcher. Hoff- 
man may have sold assembled arms. One of his rifles with a 
Tyler, Davidson & Co. lock, bore the name "Postley, Nelson & 
Co." on the bottom of the barrel. 

HOFFMAN, Louis — Louis Ferdinand Alexander Hoffman, Vicksburg, 
Miss., gunsmith was born in Berlin, Prussia in 1823. After serving 
from age of 14, apprenticeship at the Borsig Machinery Shop, 
came to New York in 1852 and after a short stay in St. Louis 
settled in Vicksburg in the spring of 1853, working the shop and 
foundry of Zimmerman & Reading on Levee St. He opened a 
gunshop, was very successful and built the "Hoffman Block" on 
Clay St., above Washington, now occupied by O'Neill-McNamara 
Hardware Co., former employees and now carried on by their 
descendents. 

Louis Hoffman was in Vicksburg during the siege and later, 
at request of Liet. Burdick became master armourer for the 
Union forces. He made derringer pistols after the Henry Deringer 
type as well as percussion rifles. Died in 1814. 

HOGAN, J. B. — North Adams, Mass., percussion period. 

HOLBURN, Casper L.— Unidentified. 

HOLDEN, C. B.— Cyrus B. Holden, Worcester, Mass., about 1864-68 
and later. Maker of rim-fire cartridge rifles. Had been foreman 
in Frank Wesson's shop. 

HOLLAND, W. A.— Boston, Mass. Maker of Holland, saw handle, 
percussion pistols. 

HOLLENBECK, F. A.— Syracuse, N. Y. Invented 3-barrel breech- 
loading shotgun, 1911. Learned gunsmithing under R. R. Moore. 

HOLLINGSWORTH, Henry— Elkton, Md., 1773-80. Musket barrels 
and bayonets during the War of the Revolution. 

HOLLIESTER, Isaac & Son— Lichtfield Co., Conn., musket barrel 
manufacturer of early 1800's. Supplied Eli Whitney, Nathan 
Starr, Lemuel Pomeroy and Springfield Armory. 

HOLLOMON, William— Warrenton, N. C. Percussion halfstock rifle. 

HOLLY SPRING IRON WORKS— See Jones, McElwaine & Co. 

HOLMES, Charles— Colton, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

HOLMES, George H.— Defiance, Ohio, 1867-70. 

HOLMES, R. — Oswego, N. Y. Heavy barrel, halfstock percussion rifle. 

HOLT, P. M. — Ashtabula, Ohio. German silver and brass mounted 
percussion halfstock rifle. 

HOLT, Rudolph D Pikeville, Tenn., 19th-20th century. Percussion 

hunting and match rifles. 

HOLTRY, Joseph — Wyomissing Creek, Pa. In 1850 operated a gun 
shop, which had been built by some unknown gunsmith, and 
used the creek water power for the operation of the gun barrel 
boring and grinding machinery. The Holtry shop shut down 
about 1875. 

HOLZMAN, E. — Percussion match rifle. 

HOLTZWORTH, W. A.— Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

HOME & WHEELER— Stevensburg, Culpepper Co., Va. Musket 



100 American Gun Makers 

makers, 1799-1802. Proposed to manufacture 1,000 muskets for 
the State of Virginia, Sept. 24, 1799, at $15.00 per stand. Wheeler 
is believed to have been later associated with Morrison in a 
U. S. contract of 1808. See Wheeler & Morrison. 

HOME, S.— Kentucky flintlock rifle. Probably of Home & Wheeler. 

HOMER, B.— Unlocated. 1775-1806. Musket maker during the Revolu- 
tionary War. Also flintlock fowling pieces and cadet rifles. 

HONAKER, Jos. or James-— Pennsylvania. Kentucky turkey rifle. 

HOOD FIRE ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn. Makers of Freeman W. 
Hood 5-shot, rim-fire cartridge revolver patented Feb. 23, 1875, 
No. 160,192. See Norwich Lock Mfg. Co. 

HOOD & FONCANNON— See G. H. Hood. 

HOOD, Geo. H.— Columbus, Ohio, 1847-52. Associated with M. B. 
Foncannon in 1848-49 as Hood & Foncannon. 

HOOKER, Thomas— Rutland, Vt., musket maker 1798-1801. In associa- 
tion with Darius Chipman, Royal Crafts and John Smith, con- 
tracted under Act of July 5, 1798 for 1,000 Charleville pattern 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 575 were 
delivered before June 10, 1801. 

HOOPER, J.— Marking inside lock of Springfield musket dated 1804. 

HOPKINS & ALLEN— Norwich, Conn., 1868-1915. Makers of rifles 
and revolvers under the Hopkins & Allen patents and Merwin 
and Hulbert hand arms. Absorbed during the World War I by the 
Marlin-Rockwell Corporation. 

HOPKINS, R. — Unidentified. Percussion sporting rifle. 

HORN, Conrad— Hazleton, Pa., 1820-55. Brother of William Horn. 

HORN, Stephen— Lancaster and Easton, Pa., about 1770-80. 

HORN, John — Cumberland mountain gunsmith. Flintlock Kentucky 
match rifle with Kirkman & Ellis lock. 

HORN, William— Hazleton, Pa., before and after 1836. Brother of 
Conrad Horn. 

HORNBERGER, Cyrus— Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Made 
finished rifle barrels. 

HORR, Austin — Cape Vincent, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

HORTON, William— 30 Moore St., New York, N. Y. 1801-02. 

HOUGHTON, Richard W. — Norway, Me., percussion period. 

HOWARD BROS.— Whitneyville and New Haven, Conn., 1866-69. 
Hammerless, rim-fire cartridge sporting rifle and shotguns made 
under S. Howard patent of Oct. 28, 1862, No. 36,779, and C. 
Howard patents of Sept. 26, and Oct. 10, 1865, Nos. 50,125 and 
50,358 respectively, and of May 15, 1866. 

Though marked "Howard Bros. Whitneyville, Conn." the 
arms were most likely made for them by Whitney Arms Co., 
whose marking appears on similar models with stamping "Manfd. 
for Howard Bros." 

HOWARD, Henry — Chattanooga, Tenn.; 19th-20th century maker of 
muzzle-loading rifles. 

HOWE, B. — Cleveland, Ohio. Made rifles similar to those of John Vin- 
cent, Washington Co., Ohio, to whom he had been apprenticed. 

HOWE, E. — Percussion target rifle. 

HOWE, Harry — Lansing, N. Y., percussion period to 1880. 



American Gun Makers 101 

HOWELL, C. W. — Martin's Ferry, Ohio. Fullstock percussion squirrel 
rifle. 

HOWELL, T. — Philadelphia, Pa. Lock marking of a Kentucky type 
flintlock pistol by J. Fleeger. (Connected with W. T. Howell 
& Co.?) 

HOWELL, H. T. & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Flintlock rifle. 

HOWELL, W. T. & CO.— Lockmakers of engraved flintlocks for Ken- 
tucky rifles. Also makers of a full stock, brass inlay, Kentucky 
type flintlock rifle. 

HOWINGS, U. — Unlocated. Walnut half-stock, octagonal barrel per- 
cussion rifle. 

HOWLAND, Rufus— Binghamton, N. Y., 1840-70. Ex-employee of 
Bartlett Bros. Had a shop about eight miles down the Tiouhnioga 
River from Marathon. During the Civil War made long range 
sharpshooter rifles with telescopic sights for the government. In 
Binghamton boarded at 10 Shady Lane. 

HOWLETT, J. W.— Greensboro, N. C. Dec. 14, 1861. "Our fellow 
townsman, Dr. J. W. Howlett, has succeeded in bringing to per- 
fection the most beautiful speciman of workmanship which we 
have ever seen. The gun is well designed for cavalry use, being 
about 20 in. in length of barrel, having a very simple lock, which 
by means of a spring operates so as to easily introduce the cart- 
ridge, of which several kinds are made, some being loaded in 
cylinders, and others of a waterproof nature. We have seen this 
piece tested. It will throw a conical ball 200 yards with the 
utmost precision and the ease with which it can be loaded — 
say 20 or 30 times in a minute — must recommend it to all." 

H. T. — Initials of H. Tracy, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

HUBBARD, Asabel— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1818-1833. 
Inspected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. Johnson (and later 
Robert Johnson only), Simeon North, Nathan Starr, Asa Waters, 
Lemuel Pomeroy and Eli Whitney. 

HUBBELL, W. W.— Philadelphia, Pa., patentee (and maker?) of 
Hubbell breech-loading arms patented July 1, 1844, No. 3,649. 
Advertised in 1849. 

HUDSON, H. T.— Portland, Ore. Half stock percussion rifle. 

HUDSON, W. S.— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1852-64. Percussion pistols and 
percussion telescope sight Civil War sharpshooters rifle. 

HUEY, Abe — Root Hollow, Tunkhannock Co., Pa. Percussion period. 

HUELS, Frederick — Madison, Wis. Came to Madison about 1875. 
Worked for August Herfurth for three years and independently 
from 1878 until 1909. Made fine hunting and target rifles but 
rarely marked them. 

HUFF, Peter— Unlocated. Marking on the lock of a percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

HUGHES, Michael— Old Slip, N. Y. 1801. 

HUGHES & PHILLIPS— Newark, N. J., 1862-63. 

HULDRE, Hiram— Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Welded and 
finished rifle barrels. 

HULETT, Phineas— Shaftbury, Vt. 1840-65. Flintlock and percussion. 

HULL, Benjamin— Gunsmith. Sansome's Alley above Noble, Phila., 
Pa., 1819. 



102 American Gun Makers 

HULL, Isaac — U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, (boarding pikes and 

ship's cutlasses) in 1808 at plant of Nathan Starr. 
HUMASON, S. H. & BRO.— Rochester, Minn., 1868-70. 

HUMBERGER, Peter I.— Active in Pennsylvania from about 1774 
to 1791 when he moved to Perry County, Ohio. 

HUMBERGER, Peter H— Son of Peter I. Born in Pennsylvania Dec. 
1, 1775. Moved to Ohio with his father in 1791. Learned the 
trade under his father and set up own establishment in Perry 
County. Active until his death April 19, 1852. 

HUMBERGER, Peter III— Son of Peter II. Born in Perry County, 
Ohio, Oct. 8, 1826. Learned the gun making trade under his 
father. Active until his death, Feb. 11, 1899. 

HUMBERGER, Adam— Son of Peter Humberger II. Born in Perry 
County, Ohio, Dec. 21, 1806. Served in his father's shops and later 
established himself at Somerset, Ohio. Died in May, 1865. 

HUMBERGER, Henry— Son of Peter I. Born Aug. 29, 1811, in Perry 
County, Ohio. After following the gold rush to California, re- 
turned east and established himself in Whitley County, Ind. 

HUMBLE, Michael— Louisville, Ky., 1782. Maker of Kentucky rifles. 
Located near present 12th and Main Streets. 

HUME— Unidentified. Flintlock Plains rifle. 

HUMMELL, F. — Lebanon, Pa., peercussion period. 

HUMPHREY, Dan — Maker of a curly maple, half stock, back action 
G. Goulcher lock, .32 caliber percussion rifle. 

HUMPHREYS, Hosea— Pawtucket, R. I. Musket maker. Associated 
with Stephen Jenks in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 
1,500 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per 
stand. There were 1,050 delivered by June 10, 1801. 

HUNR, Edwin— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

HUNT, David S.— Cincinnati, Ohio, before and after 1860. 

HUNT, Jonathan— Richland Co., Ohio, gunsmith. 1806-1812. Traded 
with Delaware Indians. 

HUNTER — Lockmaker, percussion period. A commercial, side-action, 
percussion lock stamped "HUNTER" and three impressions of a 
floral die. Stirrup on tumbler. Lock on S. J. Fosdick, Laporte, 
Ind., half stock plains rifle. 

HUNTER ARMS CO.— Fulton, N. Y. Modern. Makers of L. C. Smith 
& Fulton shotguns. 

HUNTER, David — Berkley County, Va. In association with Peter 
Light contracted Sept. 28, 1776, to supply the State of Virginia 
with 200 muskets at £6 per stand. 

HUNTER'S IRON WORKS— See Hunter, James and Rappahannock 
Forge. 

HUNTER, James — Stafford County, Va. Musket and saber contractor 
to Virginia during the War of Revolution, owner and operator 
of Hunter Iron Works also known as Rappahannock Forge. From 
mention of difficulty of obtaining sufficient workmen and ability 
to turn out 1,000 cavalry sabers in three or four months, in 
addition to gun contracts, believed to have operated a fairly 
large establishment. See Rappahannock Forge. 

HUNTINGTON, Gurdon— Walpole, N. H. Musket maker. In associa- 
tion with John Livinston, Josiah Bellow and David Stone con- 



American Gun Makers 103 

tracted under the Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville 
pattern (Model 1795) muskets, at $13.40 per stand, of which 608 
were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

HUNTINGTON, Hezekiah— Windham, Conn. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety, Connecticut. Made 340 stands of arms between 
1775 and 1778. 

HUNTINGTON, Simon— Repaired public arms for Connecticut. Ac- 
count rendered in July, 1775. 

HUNTINGTON, V.— Allenville, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

HUNTOON, Harlee J.— Ludlow, Vt. In late 1880's formed partnership 
with Norman Brockway and continued making Brockway rifles 
for about 20 years. Heavy, super-accurate percussion and pellet- 
primer match rifles. 

HURD, Jacob— Boston, Mass., 1816-25. 

HUSE, R. P. — Manchester, N. H. Percussion pistol. 

HUSS, Florent — Gunsmith, Phillip corner Levee, fourth district, New 
Orleans, La., 1853. 

HUSTON, G.— Gunsmith, 177 Circus, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

HUTCHISON, E.— Unlocated. Percussion pistol. 

HUTCHINSON, R. J.— Williamsport, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

HUTZ, Benjamin — Lancaster, Pa. Petitioner to 7th Congress on Jan. 
23, 1803, for non-removal of import duties on arms. In 1823 
built a factory in Heidelburg Twp., Lehigh Co., Pa. 

HUYSLOP, R.— Also Hyslop. New York, N. Y., 1850. 

H V D — Unidentified. Stamping inside lock of early flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

H. V. F. — Unidentified. Marking inside the lock-plate of a Kentucky 
type flintlock pistol. 

HYAMS, F.— Charleston, S. C, 1867. 

HYDE & GOODRICH— New Orleans, La. Located at 15 Chartres in 
1853. Makers of Confederate shoulder arms and importers of 
arms for the Confederacy. Their name marked on British made 
Tranter percussion revolvers. 

HYDE & SHATTUCK— Hatfield, Mass., from about 1876 to April 1, 
1880, when it became C. S. Shattuck. Makers of "American" 
single shot, tip-up shotgun. 



I. A. A. M. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 

I. A. D. — Rothen Berg. Engraved on barrel of very early Kentucky 
(or German) rifle of Edward Marshall, who participated in the 
historic "Indian Walk" Pennsylvania land purchase of 1737. 

I. — A. M. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

ICKES, Jacob— Vicinity of Weyant, Bedford, Co., Pa., 1876. 

I. E. — Unidentified. Initials stamped inside the lock of a plain, colonial 
flintlock musket, marked "HENRY" on lock and barrel. Possibly 
John Eberly, gunsmith under William Henry I, Lancaster, Pa., 
1729-1786. In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries letters J and 
I were interchanged rather freely in writing. 






104 American Gun Makers 

I. G. — Possibly J. G. Full stock, flintlock Kentucky rifle with con- 
verted lock marked "W. T. HOWELL & CO." 

I. G. H.— Unidentified, period of 1810. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. Prob- 
ably same as J. G. H., percussion Kentucky rifles. 

I. H. — Initials of Isaac Hull, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
(boarding pikes and ship's cutlasses) in 1808, at plant of Nathan 
Starr. 

I. L. — Unidentified. Full stocked, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

INGALL, Brown — Portland, Andover, Blue Hill, and Bucksport, Me. 
Percussion rifles. 

INHOFF, Benedict— Heidelberg Township, Berks Co., Pa., 1781-82. 

I. P. — Unidentified. Middle flintlock period Kentucky rifles of fine 
workmanship. 

IRVINE, Callender— Commissary General, Military Stores, 1812-15. 
Negotiated arms contracts. This function taken over by Ordnance 
Dept. from 1816. 

IRVING, W.— 20 Cliff St., New York, N. Y., 1862-63 and after. Maker 
of Reid patent 6- and 7-shot rim fire cartridge revolvers. After 
1863 made 6-shot percussion revolvers because of infringement 
on Rollin White patents controlled by Smith & Wesson. 

ISAAC, George— Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1832. 

ISCH, Christian — Lancaster County, Pa., musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. Agreed to confine himself to the production of 
muskets and bayonets towards the fulfillment of the county 
quota, from Nov. 20, 1775, until March 1, 1776. 

ITHACA GUN CO.— Ithaca, N. Y., 1873 to present. 

IVER JOHNSON ARMS & CYCLE WORKS— Worcester, Mass., 1871- 
1891, Fitchburg, Mass., from 1891. Revolver and shotgun manu- 
facturers. 



J. A. — John Amos, Bedford Borough, Bedford Co., Pa. 

JACKEL, Christian F.— Goodell near Main, Buffalo, N. Y., 1852. 

JACKSON, Cyrus — Unlocated, period of 1800. Master craftsman of 
Kentucky flintlock rifles. 

JACKSON, David— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1831. 

JACKSON, H. W.— Unlocated, 19th century. Percussion Kentucky 
rifles. 

JACKSON, L.— "JOHN WALKER" and "L. JACKSON," reported 
markings on a fancy curly maple full stock, percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

JACKSON, S. — Palmyra, N. Y. On lock of a mule-ear hammer heavy 
sniper's rifle. 

JACOB, Jos. — Philadelphia, Pa., 1820-1850. Cased, percussion duelling 
pistols. 

JACOBS, Cornelius— Friend Street, Columbus, Ohio, 1842-43. Per- 
cussion rifles and pistols. 

JACOBY, Peter — Uniontown, Fayette Co., Pa. Percussion period. 

JACOT, W. — Unlocated. Maker of a Kentucky type, muzzle-loading, 
percussion target rifle with full maple stock. 



American Gun Makers 105 

JAEHNE, F. W.— New York, N. Y. Schuetzen rifles. 

JAKOB, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa. Cased percussion duelling pistols. 

JAMES BOWN & SON— See Enterprise Gun Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

JAMES & FERRIS— Utica, N. Y. George H. Ferris and Morgan James 
under whom Geo. H. Ferris served his apprenticeship. Makers 
of a half stock, percussion match rifle with Dana & Co. lock 
and a Remington Cast Steel barrel, marked "JAMES & FERRIS 
UTICA." 

JAMES, G. — Pennsylvania; late Kentucky rifles. 

JAMES, M. — Pennsylvania. Expert workman; Kentucky rifle with 
wind gauge on muzzle. 

JAMES, Morgan— Litchfield, Conn.; Utica, N. Y., after about 1820; 
corner Fayette and Seneca Streets, 1859-1866. Associated with 
George H. Ferris until 1859, as James & Ferris. Fine heavy match 
rifles with telescope sights; Civil War sharpshooters' rifles, fine 
with internally adjusted telescope crosshairs. 

JAMES, Robert— 3 Thames St., Fells Point, Baltimore, Md., 1796. 

JAQUITH, E. — Revolver patentee of July 12, 1838, whose design was 
the basis for the later Springfield Arms Co., percussion revolvers. 

J. A. R. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

JARECKI, H. — Erie, Pa. Halfstock percussion rifle marked on octagon 
barrel. 

JARVIS, N. — Curly maple, full stock, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

J. C. — Initials of James Carrington, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1826-1830. Inspected arms in the plants of P. & E. W. Blake and 
Nathan Starr. 

J. C. — Markings inside a Model 1816, Lemuel Pomeroy flintlock 
musket dated 1826. 

J. C. B. — Initials of Joseph C. Bragg, U. S. Inspector of Contract 
Arms, 1841-42, at plant of Nathan Starr. 

J. C. M. — Dayton, Ohio. Unidentified. Percussion locks marked "J. 
C. M." "Dayton" and letter "H" pierced by an arrow. 

J. D. — Unidentified. Fancy flintlock Kentucky rifle with raised carv- 
ing, 45 silver inlays; engraved C. Bird & Co., Phila., lock. 

J. D. J. — Initials of John D. Johnson of Middletown, Conn., 1822. 
U. S. Inspector of gun barrels. See also Johnson. R. & J. D. 

JENGh— See B. & B. M. Darling. 

JENISON, C. E. — Percussion match rifle; percussion, saw handle 
pistol. 

JENISON & CO. — Southbridge, Mass. Makers of an under-hammer 

percussion pistol with a saw handle grip. J. Jenison. 
JENKS, A. & SON— Alfred and Barton H. Jenks, Civil War musket 
contractors with shops at Bridesburg and Philadelphia, Pa. Re- 
ceived the following contracts for Model 1861 Springfield rifle, 
muskets: 

July 13, 1861 for 25,000 at $20.00 each, 

Oct. 7, 1861 for 25,000 at $25.00 each, 

Dec. 15, 1863 for 50,000 at $20.00 each, 

Feb. 1, 1865 for 6,000 at $19.00 each. 
Of the 106,000 muskets contracted for, Jenks & Son delivered 
a total of 98,464 between Aug. 16, 1862, and May 17, 1865. The 
firm also produced Needham conversions. 



106 American Gun Makers 

JENKS, Stephen — North Providence and Pawtucket, R. I., musket 
maker active from about 1770 to 1814, and after. Stephen Jenks 
was associated with Hosea Humphreys in a contract under Act 
of July 5, 1798, for 1,500 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) 
muskets at $13.40 per stand of which 1,050 were delivered by 
June 10, 1801. On Oct. 25, 1808, Stephen Jenks in partnership 
with his son, (Stephen Jenks & Son) contracted for 4,000 Model 
1808 muskets at $10.75 per stand, duration five years, of which 
2,300 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812, and a total of only 2,875 
by March 16, 1818. In addition to the above contract, Jenks, in 
association with one Sweet, (Sweet, Jenks & Sons) under- 
took on Nov. 13, 1810, to supply the government with 3,000 
muskets within a period of five years. Of this contract 250 stands 
were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. See also Jewett, Jenks & Sons. 
Stephen Jenks' sons, Arnold, David, George, Nathan (who 
died young), Linden, Alvin and Jerathmael had been engaged 
with him in the manufacture of arms. 

JENKS, STEPHEN & SON— See Jenks, Stephen. 

JENKS, William — Columbia, S. C. Inventor and manufacturer of the 
Jenks breech-loading flintlock carbine, patented May 25, 1838, 
No. 747, and made at Chicopee Falls, Mass. Later, Jenks side- 
hammer percussion rifles and navy carbines were made by N. P. 
Ames at Springfield, Mass., and by Remingtons at Herkimer, 
N. Y. 

JENNINGS, J. — Elmira, N. Y. Late flintlock and early percussion 
rifles and "Kentucky" type pistols. 

JENNINGS, Lewis — Windsor, Vt. Inventor of a tubular magazine, 
lever operated rifle (forerunner of the Henry and the Win- 
chester) and a hollow base, charge carrying bullet, patent of 
Dec. 25, 1849, No. 6973. The Jennings rifle in turn was the devel- 
opment of an arm patented by Walter Hunt, Aug. 21, 1849, No. 
6663. Jennings single shot arms were distributed by C. P. Dixon, 
agent, in New York. The maker is unknown, but possibly was 
Jennings. Robbins & Lawrence made 5,000 Jennings repeating 
rifles in 1851. 

JENNINGS, Richard— 1 Broadway, Cleveland, Ohio, 1869-73. Half- 
stock percussion rifle. 

JENSON, J. or I. — New England. Fine straight-cut Kentucky rifle. 

JETTER, Jacob— 118 Genesee St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1862. 

JEWETT, JENKS & SONS— Reported in 1818 by Colonel Decius 
Wadsworth of the Ordnance Office to have been given a con- 
tract for 3,000 muskets at $13.48 per stand, of which 250 were 
delivered to the State of Rhode Island. 

It is believed that this firm is identical with Sweet, Jenks & 
Sons, of Rhode Island, who contracted on Nov. 13, 1810, for 3,000 
muskets of which only 250 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

J. F. B. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifle. 

J. G. B. — Unidentified. Half-stock Kentucky rifle with long ramrod 
tube. 

J. G. H. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

J. G. U. — Late flintlock period Kentucky rifles of fine workmanship. 

J. H. — Initials of John Hawkins, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1840, at plant of Nathan Starr. 



American Gun Makers 107 

J. H. — Initials of James Hannis, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 

1841 and 1843-44, at the plant of Nathan Starr. 
J. H.— Joseph Henry, Philadelphia, Pa., 1807-1814, before and after. 

Flint-lock Kentucky pistol, lock marked J. Henry, barrel marked 

J. H. 
J. H. H. — Unidentified. Late percussion Kentucky rifles. 
JICHA, John— 631 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. 
JIH — Unidentified. Initials stamped on barrel of German silver 

mounted half stock (originally fullstock?) percussion Kentucky 

rifle with back action lock by Moore, Henszey & Co. 
J. J. or I. I. (possibly S. S.) — Heavy percussion Kentucky rifle with 

H. Elwell lock, J. B. Reynolds barrel. 
J. J. — Unidentified. (Joseph Jacob?) Maple full-stock, octagonal 

barrel, percussion Kentucky rifle. 
J. J. S. — See Suter, John J. 
J. K. — Unidentified. Marking on an over-under, flintlock Kentucky 

rifle. This marking is also found on percussion Kentucky rifle. 
J. L. — Joe Long; marking on percussion Kentucky rifles. 
J. L. — Unidentified. (Joe Long?) Roman nose butt, flintlock Kentucky 

rifle. 
J. M. — Initials of Justin Murphy, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 

1818-1831. Inspected arms in plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon 

North, Lemuel Pomeroy, Nathan Starr and Asa Waters. 
J. M. — Job Marshall, Fairmont Twp., Luzerne Co., Pa. Flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle marked "J. M." 
J. M. — Unidentified. Markings on a full stock, percussion Kentucky 

rifle. 
J. N. — Initials of John Newbury, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 

1818-1825. Inspected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, 

Lemuel Pomeroy, Simeon North, Nathan Starr and Eli Whitney. 
J. N. — Initials of John Nicholson, U. S. Inspector of Arms 1800-07. 
J. N. M. — John Nicholas Medasie, Bedford Co., Pa. Maker of a full 

curly maple stock percussion rifle. 
J. N. S. — Initials of J. N. Solace, U. S. Inspector of Arms within 

years 1831-1850. 
JOHN MEUNIER GUN CO.— Milwaukee, Wis. See Meunier, John. 
JOHNS, Isaak — Armorer. Was paid $640 New Emission Currency (at 

rate of four to one, equal to $160, in specie) for cleaning and 

repairing 80 muskets, Phila., June 13, 1781. 

JOHNSON AUTOMATICS INC.— 84 State Street Boston 9, Mass. 
Modern. Manufacturers of Johnson Light Machine Gun and Semi- 
automatic rifle, the inventions of Captain Melvin M. Johnson. 
At present doing custom gun work. 

JOHNSON, BYE & CO.— 50 Central St., Worcester, Mass., 1873-75. 

JOHNSON, Evan — Reported barrel marking of an early percussion 
squirrel rifle. 

JOHNSON, Fred — Illinois; percussion rifles. 

JOHNSON, G. & BRO.— Gunder and Johannes Johnson. 238 Third 
St., St. Paul, Minn., 1856-70. 

JOHNSON, Henry— Genesee Street, near Washington, Buffalo, N. Y., 
1842. 



108 American Gun Makers 

JOHNSON, I. N.— Middletown, Conn. Contracted March 8, 1951, for 
10,000 Model 1842 percussion pistols at $6.75 each. Ira N. Johnson 
had been one of the partners of H. Aston & Co. of Middletown, 
Conn. When he obtained the contract Johnson severed his con- 
nection with the Aston Co. 

JOHNSON, Iver— Worcester, Mass., 1871-91. Fitchburg, Mass., 1891 
to date. Makers of cartridge revolvers and shotguns. 

JOHNSON, Jim— Mt. Union, Pa. 

JOHNSON, J. H. — Pittsburgh, Pa. Maker of a half stock, percussion 
squirrel rifle. 

JOHNSON, J. H. — Waynesboro, Pa., riflemaker. Misreading for Johns- 
ton, J. H., Waynesboro, Pa.? Father of J. H. Johnston of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.? 

JOHNSON, J. S.— Also Johnston. McConnelsville, Huntington Co., 
Pa. Maker of a curly maple, full stock, percussion Kentucky 
rifle. 

JOHNSON, John— Born in Straussburg, Germany, in 1768. Settled 
in Bucks Co., Pa., then moved to Listie, Somerset Co., Pa. Made 
flintlock muskets and hunting rifles of plain type; full curly 
maple or walnut stock without butt plate. Some of his rifles 
were engraved with his name on barrel. 

JOHNSON, R.— See R. & J. D. Johnson, below. 

JOHNSON, R. & J. D.— Robert and John D. Johnson, Middletown, 
Conn., rifle and pistol makers. Contracted Nov. 23, 1814, for 2,000 
full stock rifles at $17.00, to be made after a modified M.1803 
rifle pattern, as designed by Marine T. Wickham, U. S. Inspector 
of Arms. Few delivered before M.1817 was produced. Dec. 10, 
1823, contracted for 3,000 rifles Model 1817, to be delivered 
at the rate of 600 per year from July 1, 1824. In July, 1829, 
contract for 600 "old pattern rifles" (Model 1817) was changed 
to 600 muskets (Model 1816). 

On June 27, 1836, Robert Johnson (alone) contracted for 
3,000 flintlock pistols, Model 1836, at $9.00 each, duration June 1, 
1837. March 14, 1840, R. Johnson was awarded an additional con- 
tract for 15,000 of these Model 1836 pistols at $7.50 each to be 
delivered over a period of five years, at the rate of 3,000 per 
year. The firm was active from 1822 to 1854. The Johnson plant 
was located on Lower Pameacha Creek, Middletown, Conn. 

JOHNSON, S.— Connecticut, 1843. 

JOHNSON, Seth— Old Rutland, Mass., active 1773-77. Gunsmith to 
Committee of Safety. 

JOHNSON & SMITH— Middletown, Conn., 1866-68. 

JOHNSON, Wm. — Worcester, Mass. Fullstock brass mounted per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle. 

JOHNSON, William— Worcester, Mass., 1787. 

JOHNSON, William — Unlocated. Marking on barrel of a percussion 
period, Penna. made, Kentucky rifle. 

JOHNSTON, James H. — Owner and operator of the Great Western 
Gun Works at Pittsburgh, Pa. Son of John H. Johnston. Born 
1836; died about 1916. Learned the gunsmith trade under J. 
Senseny of Chambersburg, Pa. 

JOHNSTON, John H.— Waynesboro, Pa. Born 1811; died 1889. 

JOHNSTON, J. S.— See Johnson, J. S. 



American Gun Makers 109 

JOHNSTON, Richard — Pennsylvania musket maker; associated with 
Robert McCormick in a contract of May 4, 1801, with the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 Charleville pattern muskets. 

JONES, A.— Littleton, W. Va. 

JONES, Amos— Colchester, Conn., 1774-77. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. Supplied Connecticut with 10 muskets and 
bayonets in January, 1776, and completed and delivered 31 more 
in July of that year. Was paid £140, 3 sh., 4 p. in specie 
October, 1781. 

JONES, Charles — Lancaster, Pa., prior to 1783. 

JONES, Geo. — Unlocated. Penna. made Kentucky rifle circa 1820. 

JONES, John — Musket stock maker in the employ of Col. Peter 
Grubb, who operated a gun skelp forge for the Lancaster, Penna., 
Committee of Safety in 1776. 

JONES, John B. — Brookville, Pa. Born in Pine Creek Township, 
Jefferson Co., Pa., 1867. Percussion rifles. Active in 1919 in gun 
and watch repair. 

JONES, Joseph— Columbus, Ohio, 1843-48. 

JONES, McElwaine & Co. — Holly Springs, Miss. Confederate arms 
manufactory originally established by Wiley A. P. Jones, Wil- 
liam S. McElwaine and Capt. E. G. Barney in 1859 on a small 
site of one and one-half acres as an iron works and foundry. 
J. H. Atley joined the firm in 1860, buying one-half of Jones 
one-third interest. Of the firm, McElwaine had had arms manu- 
facturing experience in the North. With the outbreak of Civil 
War the firm obtained a contract from the State of Mississippi 
for 5,000 rifles and on July 13, 1861 a contract from the Con- 
federate Government for 20,000 rifles and 10,000 rifle muskets. 
A contract was made with Charles Jones of Memphis, Tenn., for 
the construction of rifle-making machinery. Nine acres were ac- 
quired for an enlarged new plant which by March, 1862 was 
making forty rifles a day. On the approach of Federal troops the 
plant and the rifle-machinery contract, were bought by the Con- 
federate Government about April, 1862, and machinery and 
equipment were moved to Macon, Ga., where it arrived about 
August, 1862. The site of the original plant was taken over and 
converted into a Federal Military hospital in November, 1862. 

The firm had also been known as Holly Springs Iron Works 
and by its corporate name of Marshall County Manufacturing 
Co. as chartered by the Miss, legislature in July 1861. 

JONES, Owen— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1877. Maker of a .44 caliber 
tip-up revolver. 

JONES, Robert— Lancaster, Pa., prior to 1783. 

JONES, W. E.— Great Smokey Mountains, Tenn. Fullstock octagonal 
barrel percussion "hog rifle." 

JONES, William— Bedford County, Pa., active 1777-83, in repair of 
public arms. 

JONES, William— "Bill" Jones, Lineville, Wayne Co., Iowa. Came to 
Iowa "about the time the Kentucky rifle was losing ground in 
favor of the breech loader; came from Indiana or Ohio, and it 
seems his gun making was done back there." Reputed fine 
craftsman with sales mostly to neighbors, and so limited output. 

JORDAN, J.— Unlocated. Before and after 1845. Plains rifles. 






110 American Gun Makers 

JORDAN, Jarmin— Chilicothe, Ohio, about 1830. Half stock flintlock 
rifle. 

JORDAN, Louis D. — New York, N. Y. and later New Haven, Conn. 
Skilled gunmaker with World Fair 1893 prizes. Had been Works 
Superintendent for Maxim Munitions Corp., and Westinghouse 
arms plant at Springfield, Mass. making rifles and machine guns 
in World War I. 

JORDAN, L. S.— Adams, Mass. 

JOS*AN — Marking on a very early flintlock Kentucky rifle. Ab- 
breviation for Joseph Angstatt, Penna. rifle maker. 

JOSLYN, B. F.— See Joslyn Firearms Co. below 

JOSLYN FIREARMS CO.— Stonington, Conn. Operated by Benjamin 
F. Joslyn of Worcester, Mass., in the manufacture of army per- 
cussion revolvers under the Joslyn patent of May 4, 1858, No. 
20,160 and Joslyn breech-loading percussion carbines, patented 
Aug. 28, 1855. Joslyn revolvers and carbines were also made by 
W. C. Freeman at Worcester, Mass., at the Tower Junction Shop. 
Joslyn carbines were also made by A. H. Waters and Co. at Mill- 
bury, Mass. 

The government purchased 1,100 Joslyn percussion revolvers 
during the Civil War for army and navy use, and a total of 
11,261 Joslyn carbines were obtained by the War Department 
from June, 1861, to Feb. 25, 1865. 

JOST— White Plains Township, Pa., 1775-76. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

JOUSTAN, Henry — Gunsmith, Levee, bet. Sixth and Seventh, New 
Orleans, La., 1853. 

JOY, A. S. — Maker of a full stock, curly maple, percussion Kentucky 
rifle with H. Elwell lock. 

J. P. — Initials of Jacob Perkins, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
in 1821, in the plant of Asa Waters. 

J. P. — South-central Pennsylvania, period of 1790. Possibly same as 
J. Puling. Three flintlock Kentucky rifles known. 

J. R. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles. Jacob Silvis? 

J. S. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifles. 

J. S.— Initials of Jacob Shough U. S. Inspector of Muskets 1809-11. 

J. S. — Initials of James Stubblefield, Superintendent of Harpers Ferry 
Armory 1809-1817. Inspected arms made at the Armory. 

J. S. — Initials of James Stillman, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

J. S. T. — Unidentified. Curly maple, full stock, brass trim, percussion 
Kentucky rifle engraved "J.S.T." in script on octagonal barrel. 

J. T. T. — Initials of Capt. John T. Thompson, Ord. Dept. Inspector 
1903. 

JUDD, C. W. — Marking of a swivel-breech double rifle. Walnut half 
stock, brass time, oval patch box, set triggers. 

JUDD, G. — Near Meadville, Pa., early 1870's. Percussion target rifle. 

JUDSON, Henry— Avery, Iowa, 1875-1900. Veteran of Civil War. 
Came from Moravia, Iowa, and made guns for at least twenty 
years at Smoky Hollow, Iowa, and at Hickory Grove. Maker of 
fine, engraved percussion target rifles inlaid with gold, silver and 
ivory, and equipped with false muzzle and telescopic sights. Also 



American Gun Makers 111 

made to order fine percussion hunting rifles, plain and fancy, 
and later, single shot cartridge rifles. His personal .58 caliber 
target rifle, of great accuracy, weighed 58 pounds. 

JUFORGUL, Pierre— Gunsmith, 24 St. Ann, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

JUGHARDT, C— Main Street, Fostoria, Ohio, 1865-69. 

JULCHER, G. G.— Marking on the lock of a Kentucky rifle. 

JUNE & REED — Boston, Mass. Makers of percussion sporting rifles. 

JUSTICE, Philip S.— Philadelphia, Pa. Civil War contractor for 400 
muzzle-loading, brass furniture, percussion muskets of the Enfield 
type. 

JUZAN, Louis — Gunsmith to P. Bouron, New Orleans, La., gunmaker. 

J. W. — Initials of Joseph Weatherhead, U. S. Inspector of Contract 
Arms, 1821-25. Inspected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. John- 
son, Simeon North, Lemuel Pomeroy, Nathan Starr and Asa 
Waters. 

J. W. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle with artificially striped 
stock. 

J. W. G. — Unidentified. Late percussion Kentucky rifle. 

J. W. R. — Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle with 2 patch boxes; 
one on each side of the stock. 



K 

K — Over a leaping animal (buck or rabbit), %" x 7/32" proof mark 

on a late percussion Kentucky rifle barrel bored out smooth to 

.69 caliber, with Jas. Golcher, Philadelphia, back action lock. 
KAIL, Wm. — Maker of half stock, curly maple, percussion rifle with 

oval patch box and brass furniture. 
KAMF, Henry— Collomsville, Pa. 
KANE, P. — Unlocated. Maple half-stock, .36 caliber octagon barrel 

percussion plains rifle. 
KANSTEINER, William— Hannibal, Mo. Born in Germany in 1829. 

Emigrated to U. S. to become apprentice with Henry W. Breick, 

in St. Louis, in 1847. 
KANTS, F. (or Kantz)— Unlocated. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifle with 

ornate patchbox, lock and hardware finely engraved. 
KANTZ, E. — Unlocated. Skilled maker of Kentucky rifles. Same as 

F. Kants or Kantz? 
KASCHELINE, Peter— Northampton County, Pa., 1775. Musket maker 

to Committee of Safety. 

KASSAN, William M.— Columbus, Ohio, 1835. 
KAUP, Eli — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 
KAUP, Levi — Union County, Pa. See Caup, Levi. 

KAUTZKY, Joe— Fort Dodge, Iowa, 1897-1939. Learned the trade 
working with his father in Austria. Later practiced in Vienna 
in an establishment making high grade, hand made guns. After 
coming to U. S. "made several complete guns." 

HEADING, C. H. V.— 418 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 1861. 

KEARLING, Samuel— Amity Township, Berks Co., Pa., 1779. 

KEEFER, J. C. — Early percussion Kentucky rifles. 

KEELEY, Matthias — Pennsylvania musket maker. Contracted March 



112 American Gun Makers 

2, 1776, with the Province of Pennsylvania for 100 firelocks. 
Thirty-one were delivered and ordered, proved by firing, March 
2, 1776. Forty-two more were delivered Nov. 8, 1776, and a lot 
of 36 on Feb. 27, 1777. 

KEELEY, Sebastian— Pennsylvania, 1775. Engaged to make 100 fire- 
locks according to pattern for the Province of Pennsylvania to be 
delivered at six per week until he "compleats 100." 

KEEN, WALKER & CO.— Danville, Va. Confederate arms manu- 
factory. Advertised for 20-30 gunsmiths June 26, 1862. Believed 
to have made the Read carbine, made under Confederate patent 
No. 154 of March 20, 1863. Probabilities are that Keen Walker 
& Co., were the backers, with Read in charge of shop operations. 

KEENER, Jacob— Baltimore, Md., 1802. 

KEENER, John and Peter— North Green St., Old Town, (now Exeter 
St.) Baltimore, Md., 1796-99. Name changed to Keener & Sons 
in the 1802 Directory. Firm active to 1831. 

KEENER, Samuel — Baltimore, Md., Revolutionary War period. 

KEENER & SONS— See John & Peter Keener. 

KEEPORTS, George P.— Keeper of Public Arms, Baltimore, Md., 
1776-79. 

KEERAN, L. — Maker of a walnut half stock, German silver trim, 
percussion sporting rifle. 

KEFFER, Jacob— Lancaster, Pa., 1802-1820. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

KEIM, John — Reading, Pa., gunsmith. Carried on the gunsmith busi- 
ness established by Worley on Wyomissing Creek, Pa., in 1811. 
Had been Worley's superintendent. The shops subsequently came 
in possession of Nicholas Yokum & Son, who had furnished the 
iron for the Keim shops, and in turn, later were sold to Franklin 
K. Schnader, who improved the buildings and erected a dam. 
The Schnader plant was still in operation in 1890, under the 
management of Nathaniel Schnader, son of Franklin K. 

KEIFFLER — (South-central Pa.?) Maker of a walnut stock, Kentucky 
type percussion rifle. 

KEITH — Philadelphia, Pa. Breech-loading Kentucky rifle. 

KEITH, H. — Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. Possibly same as Keith of 

Philadelphia. 
KELKER & BROS. — Harrisburg, Pa., gun-lock makers. 
KELLAR — Maryville, Tenn. Fullstock percussion Kentucky rifle. 
KELLER — Houstontown, Pa. 

KELLER, C. — Evansville, Ind. Percussion halfstock rifle. 
KELLER, I.— Cumberland Valley, Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

KELLER, I. or J.— Carlisle, Cumberland Co., Pa. Fine 15-lb. flintlock 
Kentucky match rifle, period of 1820; early percussion Kentucky 
rifles; later rifle with back-action lock. 

KELLER, J. W. — Casey, 111. Reported maker of plain, fullstock per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle. 

KELLER, Z.— Carlisle, Pa., rifle maker. 

KELLOGG BROS.— New Haven, Conn., 1850-90. 

KELLY, Samuel — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

KELTON— Unidentified. 

KEMMERER, David— Carbon County, Pa. 



American Gun Makers 113 

KEMMERER, David, Jr.-— Lehighton, Pa. Son of David Kemmerer, 
above. 

KEMP, Bennie — Unlocated. Maker of a long slim rifle. 

KEMP, W.— Unlocated. 

KEMPTON, Ephraim— Salem and Boston, Mass., 1677. 

KENDALL, N.— See Kendall, N. & Co., below. 

KENDALL, N. & CO.— Windsor, Vt., 1835-43. Makers of a 5-shot 
under-hammer, percussion rifle with a sliding breech block. 
Kendall's associates in the manufacture of this arm were Hub- 
bard and Smith. Originally the Kendall arms were made at the 
Windsor prison, using prison labor in addition to that of a num- 
ber of free mechanics who did the finer work. Probabilities are 
that the barrels for the Kendall rifles were made by Eliphalet 
Remington, at Ilion, N. Y. Kendall & Co. gave up the gun busi- 
ness in 1842, and in 1843 N. Kendall in association with Richard 
S. Lawrence established a gun shop, in which they were joined 
by S. E. Robbins in 1844. See Robbins, Kendall & Lawrence. 

KENDALL, Nicanor— Windsor, Vt., 1835-1843. See N. Kendall & Co. 
Underhammer percussion rifles with 5-chamber sliding breech- 
block, side-hammer hunting rifle, heavy target and Kentucky 
pistols, shotguns. 

KENNEDY— See Logan & Kennedy. 

KENNEDY, E. E. & CO.— Unidentified. Percussion rifle, apparently 
conversion from flintlock. 

KENNEDY, Martin F.— 163 Third St., St. Paul, Minn, 1867-69. 

KENNEDY, E. M.— Unidentified. 

KENT — Lock marking of a Model 1795, maple stocked musket be- 
lieved to have been made on contract by Mathew & Nathan 
Elliott, of Kent, Connecticut, under Act of July 5, 1798, for 500 
Charleville type muskets. 235 delivered by June 10, 1801. 

KENTON, G. S. — Unlocated. Percussion telescope pistol. 

KERKSZROEZER, F. & CO.— St. Louis, Mo, percussion Schuetzen 
rifles. 

KERLIN, John — Bucks County, Pa, musket maker to Committee 
of Safety. Contracted for 50 muskets and bayonets on July 18, 
1776, the arms to be made according to pattern, at 85 shillings 
each. John Kerlin is recorded in Chester County in 1766-68. 

KERLIN, John, Jr. — Bucks County, Pa, musket maker associated 
with Samuel Kerlin in a contract of May 2, 1801, with the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, for 500 Charleville pattern, 
(Model 1795), muskets. They obtained a contract for an addi- 
tional 500 on June 30, 1801. In February, 1811, John Kerlin as 
surety for John Miles, Jr., took over the defaulted Miles con- 
tract of July 20, 1808, for the balance of the undelivered arms. 
About 1826, when Congress authorized a refund for improve- 
ments and modifications made in contract muskets of 1808 in- 
volving deviation from pattern, the Estate of John Kerlin re- 
reived the reimbursement. Probabilities are that no changes 
were made in the Miles marking when Kerlin took over the 
contract. 

KERLIN, Samuel— Bucks County, Pa. Associate of John Kerlin, Jr., 
in contracts of May 2, 1801, and July 30, 1801, for 500 muskets 
each, with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 



114 American Gun Makers 

KERLING, John — Employed in 1810 as musket barrel maker by 
Joseph Henry and Abraham Nippes. 

KERN, Daniel — Pennsylvania; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 
1776. 

KERN, Frederick R.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

KERN, Reinhard— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

KERR, Michael— Philadelphia, Pa., 1790. 

KESSLER, John— Weston, Mo., about 1840-60. 

KETLAND, John and Thomas — Philadelphia, Pa. Contractors on 
Nov. 15, 1797, with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 
"ten thousand stands of arms ... of the fashion or pattern of 
the French Charleville Musquet ... to be stamped or marked 
near the breech with letters C. P. . . . the weight of the musquet 
and bayonet thus compleated not to exceed eleven pounds.'" 
This contract which the Ketlands expected to fill with British 
arms, was not fulfilled as the British government would not 
permit the export of arms. The Ketlands are known to have made 
locks for Kentucky rifles, and usually stamped their name inside 
the lock-plate. 

The Ketlands, residents of Philadelphia, were connected with 
the firm of Thomas Ketland, well known arms makers of London 
and Birmingham, England, 1750-1829. It is believed that the 
Philadelphia branch retailed imported gun parts, especially flint 
rifle and musket locks, European locks being less costly and on 
the whole well made. The Ketlands also stocked muskets as- 
sembled from imported parts, using walnut and curly maple 
stocks. A colonial flint musket is known, full stocked in curly 
maple with barrel marked "LONDON" and London Gunmakers 
proof, and lock plate, marked "KETLAND & CO." Another 
similar musket is known, walnut stocked, with like type of 
English, engraved brass furniture. 

It is possible that the Philadelphia branch secured and used 
on non-contract or commercial muskets a shipment of 1,551 im- 
ported, gooseneck hammer, Ketland locks marked "UNITED 
STATES," which had arrived at Philadelphia on or about 15th 
July 1800, on order of U. S. Government and are believed to have 
been rejected. Such a short musket, similar in general appear- 
ance and engraved furniture to the above arms, is known, 
equipped with a lock marked externally "KETLAND & CO." 
and "UNITED STATES," and stamped inside "T.K." for Thomas 
Ketland. 

It is not known, and doubtful, if any Ketland locks were 
made in Philadelphia. Imports, as mentioned above, were satis- 
factory from the procurement and manufacturing standpoints, 
and were less costly due to lower labor costs abroad. Evidence 
of Ketland locks originally marked, (not overstamped), "Phila- 
delphia," or made to original percussion system is lacking. 

KEY, R.— Central Pennsylvania. 

KHAN, W. T. C— Philadelphia, Pa., 1840. 

KIBLAR, Jacob — Marking on an early percussion rifle typical of the 
southern Kentucky mountain type, with iron hardware, no butt 
plate and grease-hole in lieu of a patch box. 

KILE, Nathan— Raccoon Creek, Jackson Co., Ohio, 1817-1824. 

KILES, N.— Unlocated. Halfstock, brass patchbox, late flintlock rifle. 
(Same as Kile, N.?) 



American Gun Makers 115 

KILLIAN, George — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

KILLOGG, A. A.— New Haven, Conn., 1874-76. 

KILPATRICK, D.— Philadelphia, Pa. Silver-mounted, short, percus- 
sion Buffalo rifle. 

KIMMERER, David— Carbon Co., Pa. 

KINCAID, J. or I. — Maker of a plain, southern style, flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle, (converted with lug in original gooseneck hammer), 
with a W. T. Howell & Co. lock. 

KINDER, Samuel — Philadelphia, Pa., gun-lock maker to Committee 
of Safety. With James Walsh in December, 1776, petitioned to 
Committee of Safety for redress (on contracted arms) due to 
high cost of tools, material and labor. Earlier, in November, 
1776, Kinder was one of the petitioners representing Philadel- 
phia gun makers, complaining to the Committee of Safety against 
the high and rising cost of materials entering into gun making 
and quoting advances in prices within one year. 

KING — New London, Huron Co., Ohio. 

KING, Frederick— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

KING, P. P.— Celina, Ohio, 1845-85. 

KINGSLAND, R. & CO.— Makers of flintlock Kentucky rifle locks. 

KINGSLEY, Henry B.— Breechloading pistol. Worked for Colt in 1865. 

KINSEY — Newark, N. J. Over under, swivel-breech, percussion 
double rifle with one barrel smooth bored. Walnut stock with 
patch box and cheek piece. 

KINSLEY, Adam — Bridgewater, Mass. Musket maker, in association 
with James Perkins contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 
2,000 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per 
stand. There were 1,550 delivered by June 10, 1801. 

On Oct. 20, 1808, Adam Kinsley in association with French 
and Blake, (French, Blake & Kinsley) contracted for 4,000 
Model 1808 muskets, duration 5 years. Of these 2,175 were 
delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

KINTNER, John Simon — Harrison County, Ind. Maker of rifles and 
shotguns late flintlock period. Born at Lancaster, Pa., about 
1800, of Dutch parents. 

KIRCHBERG, William M.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1840. Muzzle-loading, 
double-barrel, needle-fire, hammerless shotguns. 

KIRCHMAN, E.— Danville, Pa., 1835. 

KIRK— Unidentified, 1863. 

KIRKMAN BROS.— Nashville, Tenn., 1835-1857. (Connected with 
Kirkman & Ellis?) 

KIRKMAN & ELLIS— Nashville, Tenn. Flintlock holster pistol similar 
to English Dragoon; flint rifle locks; percussion rifle. 

KIRKMAN, John— Ashville, Pa. Marking on a lock of a flintlock 
Kentucky rifle by "P. A." 

KIRKWOOD, David— Boston, Mass., 1883-88. 

KIRSCHBAUM, E.— Danville, Pa., 1830. 

RISER, A. — Unlocated. Highly ornamented flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

KITCHEN, Wheeler— Luzerne County, Pa. 

KITTINGER, J.— Percussion rifles. 

KITTINGER, L.— Unlocated. Halfstock, half-octagon barrel percus- 



116 American Gun Makers 

sion rifle: "L. KITTINGER" engraved behind rear sight, on 
barrel. 

KITTRIDGE, B.— Main Street, Cincinnati, Ohio; active 1845-73. Listed 
as Eaton & Kittridge in 1851, and as B. Kittridge from 1859 to 
1873. Rifles and accessories. 

KITTRIDGE & CO.— See B. Kittridge. 

KLASE, Abner — Ringtown, Pa., in 1840; Quaker gunsmith. Long- 
barreled by Kentucky rifles, stocked by his wife. 

KLATTENHOFF, John— Colorado Springs, Col., 1878-80. 

KLEIN, George — New York, N. Y., 1800. Engraved flintlock on ornate 
Kentucky rifle. 

KLEIN, Philip H.— Ave. C at 9th St., New York, N. Y., 1847-1908. 
Percussion and needle-fire rifles. 

KLEIN & CARR— 819 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. Klein 
believed to have made high grade air guns. 

KLEINE, George— Philadelphia, Pa., 1808. 

KLEINHENN, Emanuel— St. Louis, Mo., before and after 1860. 

KLEIST, Daniel — Bethlehem Township, Easton Co., Pa., before and 
after 1785-86. Made arms for the Moravian Store, Bethlehem. 
Died in 1792. 

KLEPZIG & CO.— 212 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 1858-60; 
763 Washington, 1861-65. 

KLIEMEKEN, H.— Trinidad, Col., 1875. 

KLINE, C. — Pennsylvania pistol maker, flintlock period. 

KLING — Central Pennsylvania; percussion Kentucky rifles. 

KNAPP — Pennsylvania, period of 1820. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

KNIGHT, C. J. — Unlocated. Silver inlaid percussion Kentucky rifle 
with openwork patchbox. 

KNIGHT, S. A.— Unidentified. Flintlock rifle. 

KNOBLE, B. — Takoma, Wash. Experimental automatic pistols. One 
of cal. .45 tested by Army Board in 1907. 

KNOXVILLE ARSENAL— Knoxville, Tenn. A Confederate plant en- 
gaged prior to 1863 in the modification and rifling of miscel- 
laneous arms to .58 caliber, for the use of troops. 

KNUPP, C. Monroe — Bakersville, Somerset Co., Pa., gunsmith, about 
1910. 

KNUPP, Eli — Bakersville, Somerset Co., Pa., maker of percussion 
rifles. 

KOCH, H. — Pennsylvania, about 1810. Maple full-stock flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

KOCH, John— Rock Island, 111., 1851-1919. Born in Switzerland July 
17, 1829. Finished arms apprenticeship in 1850 and emigrated to 
U. S. in 1851, to settle at Rock Island. Made rifles and repaired. 
Still worked some at the bench at age of 91. 

KOCHLER, P. — Lewisburg, Pa. Superposed barrel percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

KOEHLER, Gus — See Hans F. Koehler. 

KOEHLER, Hans Frederick— 20 York St., Newport, Ky. Born in 
Duchy of Saxony, Germany, 1833, where he learned the trade. 
Emigrated to U. S. in 1860. After working for B. Kittridge and 
for Bandle Gun Co., in Cincinnati, Ohio, established his own 
business, which, after his death in 1880 was carried on by his 
son Gus. 






American Gun Makers 117 

KOEKLER — Cairo, 111. Heavy percussion target rifle. 

KOESLER— Unidentified. 

KOHL, Conrad — Wyomissing Creek, Pa. Built a gun shop in 1851. 
Retired about 1862, and the shop changed into a saw mill. 

KOLB, Henry M.— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1910. Maker 
of rim-fire 6-shot .22 cal. revolvers, "Baby Hammerless." Busi- 
ness taken over by R. F. Sedgeley about 1930. 

KOONS, Frank— Berks County, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

KOONS, Fred A.— Berks Co., Pa. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

KOONS, H.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles, circa 1775. 

KOONS, Isaia — Adamsburg or Adamstown, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

KOONTZ, A. — Pennsylvania. Good Kentucky rifles. See A. Kunts. 

KOONTZ, J. — Pennsylvania. Fine craftsman; Kentucky rifles. Per- 
haps same as J. Kunz or Kuntz, Philadelphia, Pa. Cf. also Joseph 
Coons, Philadelphia. 

KOPP, Andrew — York County, Penna. Maker of a relief carved per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship. 

KOPP, G.— Pennsylvania. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

KOPP, J. — Unlocated. Late percussion Kentucky rifles. 

KOPPICUS, Adolph— One of the first Sacramento, Calif., gunsmiths. 
Made fine, half stock, percussion rifles including heavy .45's and 
.50's. Also reputed to have worked in San Francisco and (?) 
Placerville. Listed in Sacramento City Directories 1853-54 to 
1875. Born in Germany in 1809. Died in San Francisco, Calif., 
June 28, 1882, at the age of 73. Buried in Sacramento City 
Cemetery, lot 435. The Directory of 1856 shows that he was mar- 
ried and had seven children. 

KOR, C. — Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

KORNMAN, A. D. — Central Pennsylvania. Early percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

KOUGHL, B. J. — Huntingdon County, Penna. Fullstock percussion 
Kentucky rifles. Fine workmanship, inlays and engraving. 

KRAFT, Jacob — Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1773-82. 

KRAFT, P. W.— Columbia, S. C, 1840. Cased pairs, duelling pistols. 
Also halfstock percussion rifles. 

KRAMMER — Pennsylvania. Percussion rifles. 

KRETZEL, A.— St. Louis, Mo., and Jerseyville, 111., 1857. Percussion 
fowling piece and percussion pistol. 

KREUTNER, Christian — Operator of a small gun factory employing 
ten or twelve men at 14 North Perry St., near Dexter (now site 
of Hotel Arlington), Montgomery, Alabama, from about 1848 
until 1884. 

Born Oct. 14, 1819, at Balingen, Grand Duchy of Baden, 
Germany. He lost his father at age of two, was raised by an 
uncle, and was apprenticed to the gun making trade. After 
finishing his apprenticeship, he went to Besancon, France to 
learn the finer points of the trade. There at 21, he was notified 
that he was up for draft for the German army and advised by 
his uncle to "go west." In 1840 he left France for U. S. via 
Marceilles to New Orleans and up to Cincinnati. There he met 
and married Katherine Herbst. In 1846 with his wife and two 
children he went south, via Memphis, where they stayed ten 



■I 



118 American Gun Makers 

months, to Montgomery, Alabama, where he settled and worked 
until his death Oct. 9, 1884. 

He gained a fine reputation for honesty and fine and hand- 
some arms, including a special three-barrel breech-loader made 
for David Crawford, State Treasurer. 

During the Civil War he served as captain at the Montgomery 
Arsenal with duty of making and repairing Confederate and 
captured arms in his shop. Between 1 October 1863 and 1 
November 1864 Christian Kreutner furnished 36 Mississippi rifles 
(M. 1841) to the State of Alabama. Probabilities are more were 
furnished, but no records available. 

KRICHBAUM, E.— Danville, Pa., 1830. 

KRICK, Isaac — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Made finished rifle 
barrels. 

KRIDER, John— Upper Salford Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., 1769. 

KRIDER, John H.— Second and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
in 1826. Active about 1820-70. Made brass mounted long arms 
similar to the Model 1841 rifles, and percussion derringers. 

KRINKLE— Philadelphia, Pa., 1810-14. Musket maker. (Same as 
Kunkle?) 

KRUEGER, H.— 10 South 2nd St., Minneapolis, Minn., 1877-80. 

KRUMM— Mt. Union, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

KRYTER, Charles A.— 115 Market St., Wheeling, W. Va., 1874-76. 

KUGLER, A.— Kingston, N. Y. Early air rifle. 

KUHN, Wm.- W. Main St., Mt. Joy Borough, Lancaster, Pa., 1869- 
1870. 

KUHNS, D. — On barrel of converted flintlock Kentucky rifle. Possibly 
same as Daniel Kuntz. 

KUNKLE— Philadelphia, Pa., musket maker, 1810-14. Offered to sup- 
ply the Committee of Defense of Philadelphia with 3,000 muskets, 
Aug. 30, 1814, at $14.50 each. 

KUNTS, A.— Straight-cut flintlock Kentucky rifle with barrel by J. 
Worly. Probably same as A. Koontz. 

KUNTZ, Daniel— Philadelphia, Pa.; Kentucky rifles. See D. Kuhns. 

KUNZ, J.— Also I. Kunz; also Kuntz. Philadelphia, Pa. Flintlock 
rifles and pistols. 

KUNZ, Jacob — Philadelphia, Pa. Also I. Kunz and Kuntz. Listed as 
gunsmith on Germantown Road above Green, in 1819-29. Flint- 
lock rifles and pistols. 

KUNZ, P. — Pennsylvania. Revolutionary War period. 

KUSSMAUL, William J.— Baltimore, Md., 1860. 

K W & A — Stamping inside a flint Kentucky rifle lock marked ex- 
ternally "KETLAND & CO." Probably Ketland, Walker & Adams, 
listed in Birmingham, England in 1818. Though not American 
gunmakers, listed as marking likely to be found on American 
made rifles. 

KYNOCH GUN FACTORY— Aston (?). Makers of a bolt action 
musket marked "Kynoch's patent." 






American Gun Makers 119 



L. A. B. — Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle of good workmanship. 

LACAVE, C— Canton, Ohio, 1880-83. 

LADD— 529 Kearney, San Francisco, Calif. Gunsmith, 1887. 

LAETHER, Jacob — Also Leather, Leathers, Lether or Letter. York 
Pa., musket maker associated with Kunrat Welhance in a con- 
tract of April 11, 1798, with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
for 1,200 Charleville pattern muskets. July 11, 1801, proposed to 
furnish the State of Virginia with 4,000 stands of arms at £5-0-6, 
Pennsylvania currency per stand. Sept. 14th modified his bid to 
"same price as others who have offered" ($11.00 by Peter Brong, 
Abraham Henry and Henry Defuff). See also Lether & Co. 

LAGOARGE, Bernard— 205 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 
1856-60; 730 Washington, 1861-65. "Makes and repairs all kinds of 
arms." Had shooting gallery. Advertised in French also. 

LAGUNBRA— Pennsylvania. Unidentified. 

LAMB, A. & CO.— Jamestown, Guilford Co., N. C, about 1875. 
Makers of percussion rifles. 

LAMB, A. & W. — Jamestown, Guilford County, N. C. Late flintlock 
period fullstock rifle without patchbox. 

LAMB & ARMFIELD— Jamestown, Guilford Co., N. C. Makers of 
Kentucky rifles sold in western part of North Carolina, in 
Tennessee and Kentucky. Joseph S. Armfield of the firm was 
born in 1823 and died in 1884. He was a strong and outspoken 
Union sympathizer and suffered considerable hardships during 
the Civil War. The Lamb Armory during the war was operated 
by John J. Armfield, son of Joseph S. The armory discontinued 
production about six months before the end of the Civil War, 
and John J. Armfield was conscripted. He was taken prisoner two 
days before Lee's surrender and died in the Union prison at 
Point Lookout, a few days after Lincoln's assassination. 

LAMB, H. C. & CO. — Two miles north of Jamestown, near Greens- 
boro, N. C. Makers of Confederate Model 1841 type rifles, made 
without a patchbox. Contract of 1861 for 10,000 rifles for State 
of North Carolina. Small output. 

LAMB & SON — Southern makers of Kentucky rifles. 

LAMB, William— Deep River, N. C. About 1860. 

LAMBE, Anderson — Bull Run Creek, N. C; also Deep River near 
Jamestown, Guilford Co., N. C, Civil War period and earlier. See 
A. Lambe & Co., Clark & Lambe. Percussion rifles. 

LAMBERT, George— Phila., Pa. Listed at 10 Green, in 1829. 

LAMEY, M. — Unlocated. Early percussion Kentucky rifles. 

LAMSON, E. G. & CO.— Windsor, Vt., about 1864-67. Manufacturers 
of Civil War arms, including Ball & Lamson carbines, 1,002 of 
which were purchased by the government, and of Palmer breech- 
loading, cartridge carbines, patented Dec. 22, 1863, No. 41,017, 
1,001 of which were bought by the War Department June 15, 
1865, too late to be used in the Civil War. See Robbins & 
Lawrence. 

LAMSON, GOODNOW & YALE— Windsor, Vt., 1855 to about 1864. 
Civil War contractors for Springfield Model 1861 rifle muskets; 
July 11, 1861, for 25,000 at $20.00 each, and Oct. 7, 1861, for an 
additional 25,000 at the same price. Both contracts completed by 
July 30, 1863. The lock-plates of these arms are marked "L.G.&Y." 



120 American Gun Makers 

The company were the successors of Robbins & Lawrence of 
Windsor, Vt., and were in turn succeeded by E. G. Lamson & Co. 
See Robbins & Lawrence. 

LAMSON, J.— Bennington, Vt., Civil War period. 

LAMSON, Thomas — Bennington, Vt. Heavy percussion match rifle. 

LANCASTER ARMS COMPANY—- Lancaster, Pa. Made a single 
trigger for double barreled shotguns. About 1910-11. 

LANCASTER RIFLE WORKS— Lancaster, Pa. 

LANDENSCHLAGER, H.— Muncie, Ind. 

LANDER, C. — Unlocated. Lock marking of flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

LANE & READ— Boston, Mass., 1826-36. Made muskets for Massa- 
chusetts, to equip the State militia. 

LANE, William— Lancaster County, Pa., before and after 1777-83. 
Gun stocker, sub-contractor to the Pennsylvania State Gun 
Factory at French Creek. Contracted with Peter De Haven, 
superintendent in July, 1777, to stock 30 muskets. Petitioned to 
Supreme Executive Council, June 25, 1780, for payment for 14 
stocked muskets requisitioned from him by an armed detail, 
for which he had to make good to Peter De Haven. 

LANG, J.— Unlocated. 

LANGDON, W. C.— Boston, Mass., 1857-63. 

LANGDON, W. G. — Boston, Mass. Maker of snipper (sniper) rifles 
during the Civil War. 

LANGSDORF, O.— Stamped in the stock of a fancy Schuetzen walnut 
stocked percussion rifle with dolphin hammer and silverplated 
brass mountings. 

LAQEUQUIST, Carl — Macon, Ga., designer, patentee and maker of 
a "Self-Capping Gun" carrying from "Ten to Fifty charges," 
patented by the Confederate States January 2nd, 1862. Trial 
fired April 29, 1862 and enthusiastically reported on my Macon 
Telegraph on April 30, as to speed, penetration and facile opera- 
tion. But, the specimen demonstrated apparently was the only 
one made. 

LARGE, William — R. D. 1, Ironton, Ohio. Modern; muzzle-loading 
rifles and gunsmithing. 

LARSON, W. H.— Harrisburg, Pa. Late flintlock period. 

LASH, J.— Marrsville, Ohio, 1817. Flintlock rifle. 

LATIL, L. A. — Baton Rouge, La. Percussion period. 

LATHROP, Samuel B. — Arms stocker, Springfield Armory, 1818. 

LAUCK, S. — Probably Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifle used by Con- 
federate soldier during Civil War. Another with tapered octagon 
barrel, name in script, long patchbox with secret release in the 
hinge, and pre-converted flintlock. 

LAUFMAN, P. H. — Pittsburgh, Pa. Fullstock percussion rifle. 

LAUTZ, BECKET & MINET— 15 Morton PL, Boston, Mass., 1868. 

LAWING, AMBROS.— Unlocated. Peculiar late flintlock Kentucky 
rifle with cartwheel-design inlays and incised carving; crude 
mountings, odd patchbox marked "PATENT SECURED"; factory 
lock. 

LAWLESS, P. I.— Unlocated. Percussion Plains rifle, walnut full- 
stock, date 1859 carved in butt. 






American Gun Makers 121 

LAWRENCE — Philadelphia, Pa. Maker of flintlock holster pistols. 
Listed in city directories from 1821 to 1829. 

LAWRENCE, J. F. — Maker of a back action lock, full maple stock, 
brass trim, Kentucky type, percussion rifle. (Lock maker only?) 

LAWRENCE, William — Laconia, N. H. Percussion target rifles and 
target pistols with extension stocks and bullet starters. 

LAWRENCE, Richard S.— Born at Chester, Vt., in 1817. Richard 
Lawrence moved to Jefferson County in his early childhood, 
spending his boyhood in the vicinity of Watertown. In 1838 
after completing a short tour of duty with the army, he went 
to Windsor, Vt., where he spent four years working for N. 
Kendall & Co., learning the arms manufacturing business, at 
the salary of $100.00 per annum. In 1842, the company gave up 
arms making, and in 1843 Lawrence became associated with N. 
Kendall as a partner in a gun making shop. They were joined 
by S. E. Robbins in 1844, establishing the firm of Robbins, 
Kendall & Lawrence. Kendall withdrew from the firm in about 
1847. In 1853 Lawrence went to Hartford to open a branch for 
the manufacture of Sharps and British Enfield carbines. The firm 
failed in 1855, and Lawrence took charge of the operation of the 
Sharps Co. plant at Hartford. See Robbins & Lawrence. 

LAWRENCE, Thomas— Armorer. Was paid $720 New Emission Cur- 
rency (at rate of exchange four for one, equal to $180, specie) 
for stocking and repairing 60 pairs of pistols, at Phila., June 26, 
1781. 

LAWRENCE, Thomas D.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

LAWRENCE, William— Laconia, N. H., 1841 and later. Detachable 
stock, pistol-carbines, percussion fowling pieces and breech- 
loading shotguns. 

LAWREY, David — Also Lowery. Wethersfield, Conn. Exempted in 
Connecticut from military duty, as a maker of gun-locks. Re- 
corded June 9, 1777. 

LAYENDECKER, George— Allentown, Pa., about 1774-83. At one 
time an employee of the State Gun Factory, prior to its removal 
from Allentown to Philadelphia. 

LEACH, Judson — Gouverneur, N. Y. No details. 
LEADER, Richard— Boston, Mass., 1646. 

LEAMING, F.— Philadelphia, Pa. Lock marking of a flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle marked "Ford" on barrel. 

LEAMY, Michael — Pennsylvania, period of 1812. Fine over-under 
flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

LEATH, John — Atchison, Kansas. No details. 

LEATHER, Jacob— See Laether, Jacob, and Lether & Co. 

LEATHERMAN, F.— Dayton, Ohio. 1822. 

LEATHERMAN, Fred— Dayton, Ohio, 1874-76. 

LEAVITT, Daniel — Springfield, Mass., early percussion revolvers, 
patented April 29, 1837, No. 182. Believed to have been manu- 
factured by Edwin Wesson. 

LEBAN, Valentine— Bedford Borough, Bedford Co., Pa., 1820. 

LECHILER— Philadelphia, Pa. Flintlock period. 

LECHLER— Lancaster, Pa., 1857, percussion Kentucky rifles. 



122 American Gun Makers 

LECHLER — Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion, Kentucky type duelling 

pistols. (Same as Lechiler above?) 
LECHLER* — Barrel marking of a flintlock Kentucky rifle of about 

1815. One of the Lechlers above? 
LECHLER, Harry — Superintendent, Springfield Armory, Sept. 1, 1813 

to January 15, 1815. 

LECHLER, H. Jr.— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 133 Front, in 
1829. 

LECHLER, Jacob— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at Lilley Alley, in 
1829. 

LEDUC, Theodore— Gunsmith, 38 Conde, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

LEE ARMS CO.— Bridgeport, Conn., 1879 to about 1880. Makers of 
the Lee navy magazine rifle, J. P. Lee patent of Nov. 4, 1879. 
The firm was connected with the Sharps Rifle Co., who were to 
produce the Lee magazine rifle for the Lee Arms Company. 
However, Sharps suspended business in 1880, and the arms were 
made by Remington under license, in Ilion, N. Y. 

LEE ARMS CO.— Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Makers of "Red Jacket" rim-fire 
revolvers. 

LEE FIREARMS CO.— Milwaukee, Wis., 1864-65. Operated by James 
Paris Lee, inventor and manufacturer of the Lee rim-fire carbine 
patented July 22, 1862, No. 35,941. One thousand Lee Carbines 
were ordered by the War Department, April 18, 1865. The arms 
were rejected due to a difference of .02 caliber between the 
specifications and the chambering. 

In 1874 Mr. Lee moved from Milwaukee to Springfield, 
Mass., to superintend the manufacture of the Lee single shot 
military rifles, 143 of which were made. Subsequently J. P. 
Lee is found at Hartford, Conn., superintending the manufacture 
of his later model arms. Various types of Lee arms were tested 
by the government in the trials of 1872, 1878, 1891 and 1895. 
Lee "straight pull" magazine rifle (made by Winchester) being 
adopted by the navy in the latter year. 

Mr. Lee was born in Scotland on Aug. 9, 1831, and after 
receiving his education in Canada, migrated to the United States. 
He died in Connecticut in 1904. 

LEE, G. — Unlocated. Late percussion Kentucky rifles. 

LEE, Roswell — Lt. Colonel Ordnance. Superintendent Springfield 
Armory June 1, 1815 to August 25, 1833, the year of his death. 

LEECH & RIGDON— Thomas S. Leech and Charles H. Rigdon, 
makers of Confederate, Colt-type revolvers at Greensboro, Ga., 
and later at Augusta, Ga. 

Thomas S. Leech, operator of the Memphis Novelty Works, 
was a manufacturer of military cutlery, swords, bayonets, spurs, 
etc., at 35 Front Row, Memphis, Tenn., about September 1861- 
May 1862. His association with Rigdon began about the early 
part of 1862, when Charles H. Rigdon, a practical machinist 
from Cincinnati and St. Louis, joined Leech in partnership. In 
May, 1862, the firm moved to Columbus, Miss., the location of 
the Briarsfield Arsenal. November 29, 1862, General Pemberton 
recommended the removal of the arsenal equipment and ordnance 
stores, which were moved to Selma, Ala. It appears that Leech 
& Rigdon also left Columbus about Jan. 1, 1863, and re-estab- 
lished at Greensboro, Ga. In December, 1863, the partnership 



American Gun Makers 123 

was dissolved, and Rigdon went to Augusta, Ga., where he be- 
came associated with Smith & Ansley in the manufacture of 
revolvers. See Rigdon, Ainslee & Co. 

Thomas S. Leech was listed in the Memphis City Directories 
1855-60 as clerk and cotton broker, and from 1866 to 1869 as 
cotton broker in the firm Leech & Carver. In 1874 he emigrated 
to Liverpool, England, where he lived until his death. 

LEFBETT, J. H. — Unlocated. Full maple stock percussion rifle with 
lock by Joseph Golcher. 

LEFEVER ARMS CO.— Ithaca, N. Y. Modern. 

LEFEVER, Dan— See Nichols & Lefever, Syracuse, N. Y. 

LEFEVER, D. M.— 78 E Water St., Syracuse, N. Y., 1880-82. 

LEFEVER, Samuel— Strasburg Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1770-01. 

LEFEVRE & BULLIS — Canandaigua, N. Y., percussion period. Heavy 
match rifles. 

LEFEVRE, Philip — Also Lefever. Rifle maker of Beaver Valley, 
Lancaster Co., Pa., 1731-66. Was connected with the Ferree 
family of gun makers, through the marriage of his father, 
Isaac Lefevre with Katherine Ferree. Isaac Lefevre had come 
to America in 1708 with the Ferree family. See Jacob Ferree. 
Philip Lefevre was born at Esopus, N. Y., March 16, 1710. 
Migrated with his family to Pequea Valley, Lancaster Co., in 
1712. 

LEGG, T. C. — Columbia, S. C. Percussion duelling pistols with Eng- 
lish barrels. 

LEGLER — Nashville, Tenn. Three generations made rifles. 

LEHMAN, George F.— Union County, Ohio, 1850-54. 

LEHMAN, Samuel — Armorer. Was paid $130 New Emission Currency 
(at rate of exchange 2Vz for one, equal to $52, specie) for stock- 
ing and repairing 12 muskets and cleaning and repairing 10, at 
Phila., 1781. 

LEHNERT, Julius — Louisville, Ky. Percussion Kentucky rifle lock. 

LEITNER, Adam— York County, Pa., 1779-1808. Contracted on May 
31, 1808, with Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 100 
pair of pistols at $10.00 the pair. 

LEITNER, Igmatius— York Co., Pa., 1784-1786. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles; worked on public arms. Also Lightener. 

LELAND— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

LELAND, L. M. — Augusta, Me. Percussion rifles. 

LeMATA. Dr.— 188 Dauphine, New Orleans, La. 1853. 

LEMAN, Heinrich — Unidentified. Kentucky rifles, about 1840. 

LEMAN, H. E.— Also Lehmann, Lancaster, Pa., about 1790-1825. 

LEMAN, Henry E.— Also Leaman. E. Walnut & N. Duke Sts., Lan- 
caster, Pa. Son of H. E. Leman. Born at Lancaster, March 8, 1812. 
Learned the gun making trade under Melchoir Fordney from 
about 1828 to 1831, from 1831 to 1834 was with Geo. W. Tryon, 
rifle maker of Philadelphia. Henry E. Leman established his own 
rifle making plant in Lancaster in 1834, manufacturing largely 
for the Indian trade. Obtained his first government contract on 
Nov. 7, 1837, for 500 rifles for Indians at $14.00 each. On Feb. 8, 
1842, Henry Leman undertook to make 500 Northwest guns for 
the Indian Department at $7.00 each, duration to May 1, 1843. 



124 American Gun Makers 

Leman also did considerable work altering arms from flint to 
percussion. Also later during the Civil War made sharpshooter 
telescope rifles. Henry E. Leman died in 1887. 

LEMAN, Heinrich — Kentucky rifles, circa 1740. Probably same as Le- 
. C i man, H. F. 

LEMAN, H. F.— Lancaster, Pa., about 1750. Kentucky rifles. 

LEMAN, Peter — Also Lehmann. Mount Joy Township, Lancaster 
County, Pa., about 1740-1782. 

LENDER, Ed.— 1859. No. details. 

LENNARD— Unidentified. 1772. Kentucky rifles. 

LENZ, Michael— Forest Street, Baltimore, Md., 1802. Listed at 36 
Light St., in the 1804 Directory. 

LENZHAUR & OTTO— St. Louis, Mo. at 4 No. 3rd in 1864. 

LEONARD, A. — Saxons River, Vt. Sharpshooter's percussion tele- 
scope sight rifle, lock by Warren & Steele, Albany; fine, heavy 
target rifles. 

LEONARD, A. & SON— Saxons River, Vt, about 1840-1860. Another 
son had a shop in Keene, N. H. Heavy match rifles; over-under 
percussion rifle-shotgun, German silver mounted. 

LEONARD, Eliphalet — Easton, Mass., musket maker for Committee 
of Safety, 1776. Reputed to be one of the first steel makers in the 
Colonies, Eliphalet Leonard was one of the very few Revolu- 
tionary War arms makers with sufficient courage and conviction 
of ultimate victory, to mark his arms with his name and location. 
A description of one of his muskets, made after the British, 
pinned-barrel model, records the marking of "E. Leonard in 
Easton 1776." 

LEONARD, George — Chariestown, Mass. Ring-trigger, pepperbox 
pistols. 

LEONARD, George R.— Keene, N. H., 1859-69. Gun-barrel maker. 

LEONARD, Geo. O. — Keene, N. H. Heavy barrel, percussion, sniper's 
rifle with telescope sight. 

LEONARD, Jonathan— Also called "Quaker." Son of Eliphalet Leon- 
ard. In association with Kinsley founded a gun forge at Stough- 
ton, Mass., in 1778. A part of Stoughton later became Canton, 
where Jonathan's son Charles, made arms on contract of 1808. 

LEONARD, Charles — Canton, Mass. Son of Jonathan Leonard. In 
association with R. Leonard, a relative, contracted for 5,000 
muskets on Oct. 29, 1808. Charles Leonard was a captain of Can- 
ton militia company from 1815 to 1823. Left Canton destitute in 
1826. 

LEONARD, R. & C. — Canton, Mass., musket makers. Contractors Oct. 
29, 1808, for 5,000 Model 1808 muskets, duration 5 years. Of these 
2,125 are recorded delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

LESCHER— Philadelphia, Pa., 1730. 

LESSIER, P.— See Suter, C. & Co. 

LESTER, L. M. & H. H.— 252 Broadway, New York, 1875. Makers of 

Lester safety locking pistol. 

LETHER, Jacob — York, Pa., musket contractor to State of Pennsyl- 
vania. See Lether & Co., and Laethers, Jacob. In addition to 
muskets made rifles and according to family tradition pistols 
also, but probably not military type. Family records note that 



American Gun Makers 125 

"Jacob Lether, gunsmith, petitioned for a tavern license in 1760, 
to be located on High Street, (now Market) in York, Pa. Estab- 
lished as gunsmith a few years prior." Son, Jacob Jr. also a gun- 
smith. 

LETHER & CO. — Jacob Laether and Kunrat Welhance, York, Pa., 
musket makers, contractors to Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
for 1,200 Charleville pattern muskets on April 11, 1798. Arms 
marked "LETHER & CO.," "CP" on rear of lockplate. 

LEWIS, A. W.— Unidentified. 1861. Double barreled rifle with con- 
cealed triggers and inside hammers. 

LEWIS, Charles— Perry, below Washington Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
1836-37. 

LEWIS, Col. Fielding — With Major Charles Dick, operator of an 
arsenal at Fredericksburg, Va., for the manufacture of small arms 
to equip Continental Line regiments raised in Virginia. Fielding 
Lewis and Charles Dick were appointed Commissioners to build 
and operate the Government Gun Factory of the Commonwealth 
of Virginia by the Second Virginia Revolutionary Convention 
Commissioners in July 1775. 

LEWIS, Jacob — Unlocated. Light percussion Kentucky rifle with 
Truitt lock and maple stock carved in relief. 

LEWIS, John— Upper Sandusky, Wyandot, Huntsville Co., Ohio, 1820. 
Repaired firearms for Indians. 

LEWIS, Joseph — Pike Co., Pa. Late Kentucky rifles, percussion 
period. 

LEWIS, Joseph — Groton, Conn. Repaired arms for the State in 1780. 

LEWIS, Morgan— 22 Market St., Youngstown, Ohio, 1881-83. 

LEWIS, Nelson — Troy, N. Y. Born 1811 near Speigletown, north of 
Troy. A market hunter, later apprenticed to J. M. Caswell at 
Lansingburg, N. Y. Set up shop at Congress & Church streets, 
Troy, in 1843; active there more than 40 years. Heavy flintlock 
duelling pistol, percussion single and double rifles, rifle-shotgun 
combinations, target rifles in many weights and calibers, Civil 
War sharpshooters' rifles; all rifled with gain twist. In 1870,'s 
experimented with 100-rod rifles. Made many fine-quality arms, 
and excelled at match shooting. Died in Troy, N. Y. Aug. 4, 1888. 

LEWIS, Warner— Tulip, Ohio. Born 1870 a descendant of Nelson 
Lewis. Accurate 12-lb. .36 caliber rifle made in 1843. Still living 
in 1947. 

LEY, Frederick — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at Rose, in 1829. 

L. G. & Y. — See Lamson, Goodnow & Yale. 

LIBEAU, V. C. W.— New Orleans, La., about 1835-47. Libeau revolver. 

UBEAU, Valentine— Gunsmith. In Columbus, Ohio in 1827; at 127 
Main, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1829. 

LIBEAU, Charles — Gunsmith. 127 Main, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1829. 

LIDDLE & READING— 538 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 
1874-76. 

LIDDLE, R. — San Francisco, Calif. Walnut half-stock, octagonal 
barrel percussion rifle turned at muzzle for starter. Liddle was a 
member of Liddle & Keading. In 1859-64 Robert Liddle is listed 
at 418 Washington and in 1865 at 538 Washington. 

LIGHT, Elmore— Shelby, Ohio; 81 in 1948. Gunsmith and gunstocker 
in curly maple and burl walnut. 



iV 



126 American Gun Makers 

LIGHT, Peter — Berkley County, Va. In association with David Hunter 
contracted with the State of Virginia, Sept. 28, 1776, for 200 
muskets, at £6 per stand. 

LIGHTENER, Ignatius— York County, Pa., 1784-86. Worked on public 
cci arms. 

LILLIE, P. T.— See Lilly, P. T. 

LILLY, P. T.— Or Lillie, "Pat." Carmichaels, Greene Co., Pa., 1850's. 
Southern sympathizer; left just after outbreak of Civil War, 
never returned. 

LINDBURG, C. — Unlocated. Percussion over-under rifle and shotgun. 

LINDE, A. — Memphis, Tenn. Had workerd for Schneider & Glassick 
before and probably during the Civil War. Later made imitation 
Deringer pistols. Moved to Little Rock, Ark., and died there 
about 1904. 

LINDE, J. — Unlocated. Percussion pistol. 

LINDNER, Edward — Percussion carbine patentee and maker. Patent 
March 29, 1859, No. 23,378. Lindner carbines (old model) were 
also made by the Amoskeag Mfg. Co., at Manchester, N. H. The 
government purchased 501 Lindner carbines in 1863, at $20.00 
each. 

LINDSAY, C. W. — Unidentified. Percussion, 2-shot, 2-hammer, single- 
barrel rifle. 

LINDSAY, J. P. MAN'F'G CO.— 208 Orange St., New Haven, Conn., 
1864-67, and 20 Howard Street, 1867-69. Makers of John P. Lind- 
say patent two-shot single barrel pistols, and two-shot, single 
barrel rifle muskets, patented Oct. 9, 1864. One thousand of these 
muskets, which were manufactured in New Haven, were pur- 
chased by the War Department, Aug. 16, 1864, on contract of 
Dec. 17, 1863, at $25.00 each. These arms were probably made for 
Lindsay on contract by Cyrus Manville, whose plant was at 208 
Orange Street, the site of the old Volcanic factory. 

LINDSAY, John Parker — Connected with the Lindsay Firearms Co. 
See above. Lindsay was a former employee of the Springfield 
Armory. Legend has it that Lindsay designed his 2-shot, single- 
barrel arm to surprise Indians, who had wiped out a command 
in which Lindsay's brother was a soldier. The Indians drew the 
fire of troops equipped with the usual single shot muskets, and 
then charged in overwhelming numbers, before the muzzle- 
loaders could be reloaded. 

LINDSEY, William— Porsmouth, Scioto Co., Ohio, 1829. 

LINS, A. Frederick — Philadelphia, Pa. Maker of percussion der- 
ringers. 

LIPEL, C. — Listed as maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles. Believed to 
be a misreading for script name of C. Sipel or Siple. See Siple, C. 

LIPLEY— Unidentified. Somerset Co., Pa. Silver inlaid rifle. 

LISTON, Perry — Born in Maryland or Pennsylvania in 1798. In 1800 
his family moved to Scioto Co., Ohio, on Brush Creek, two miles 
east of Otway. Made rifles 1822-1882, but apparently did not 
mark them. Died in 1882. 

LITTLE, Charlie— Ashtabula, Ohio. Percussion shotguns. 

LITTLE, D.— Bellefonte, Pa., 19th Century. 

LITTLE, Jv— Bellefonte, Pa. Member of firm J. & D. Little. Name 
stamped and copper inlaid under barrel of heavy percussion 



American Gun Makers 127 

Kentucky rifle with openwork patchbox and silver inlays. Tryon 
back-action lock. 

LITTLE, J. & D. — Bellefonte, Pa., mid-19th century. Gun and gun- 
barrel makers. Made percussion rifle barrels for J. D. McKahan; 
McKahan & Noble, and others. 

LITTLE, R.— 112 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 1859-60. (With 
Bogart Bros.?) (Same as Liddle, R.?). 

LIVERMORE, E. K. — New York, N. Y., percussion period. 

LIVINGSTON — Marathon, N. Y. Percussion rifles of fine workman- 
ship. 

LIVINGSTON, F.— Marathon, N. Y. Maker of percussion rifles of fine 
workmanship, and of over-under, walnut half stock, percussion, 
rifle-shotgun with double side-by-side locks and long nipple for 
firing the lower barrel. 

LIVINGSTON, John — Walpole, N. H. Musket maker. In association 
with Gurdon Huntington, Josiah Bellow and David Stone, con- 
tracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 608 were 
delivered by June 10, 1801. 

LIVINGSTON, J. W.— Syracuse, N. Y. Combination rifle-shotgun. 

LLEWLLIN, Mathew — Pennsylvania musket maker associated with 
Jacob Dickert in a contract with the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania of April 17, 1801, for 1,000 Charleville pattern muskets. 

LLOYD, William—Snyder County, Pa. No details. 

L. N. D. — Script initials of Lewis N. Donham. 

LOCKE, H. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. 

LOCKE, James — Born 1790 in New Hampshire or Vermont; moved 
to Wellsborough (now Wellsboro), Pa., before 1820, and soon 
made rifles; died ca. 1870. Made unique Miguelet-type percussion 
locks. A walnut halfstock with part-octagon barrel marked "J. 
Locke" in script; lock, marked "J. L." in script, has external 
mainstring and parts mounted in a boxlike brass casting. Also a 
fancy inlaid Kentucky rifle with identical but unmarked lock, 
marked "James Locke Wellsborough" in script on barrel. 

LODER — Lancaster, Pa., about 1770. Kentucky rifles. 

LODGE BROS.— Columbia Co., Pa., period of 1810; flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. See Jonathan Lodge. 

LODGE, Jonathan — Columbia Co., Pa.; came there with his parents in 
1768; there in 1810. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

LOGAN, G. S. — Unlocated. Artificially striped, maple full-stock per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle. 

LOGAN & KENNEDY— Pittsburgh, Pa. Makers of late flint(?) and 
percussion rifle locks. 

LOBTNER, C. — Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringer. 

LOMBARD, H. C. & CO.— Market Street, Springfield, Mass. 1860-1861 
and later. Makers of rim-fire cartridge pistol. 

LONDON PISTOL CO.— Newark, N. J. The forerunner of the Man- 
hattan Firearms Co., about 1859-60. Makers of percussion re- 
volvers patented Dec. 27, 1859 by Joseph Gruler and Augustus 
Rebetey of Norwich, Conn., patent No. 26,641, and assigned to 
Manhattan Firearms Co. of Newark, N. J. 

LONG, George — Unlocated. Penna. made, percussion Kentucky rifles. 

LONG, J.— Yeagerstown, Pa., 1865-1886. Percussion rifles. 

LONG, James — Beaver Springs, Snyder Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. 



128 American Gun Makers 

LONG, John — Pennsylvania, active about 1790. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

LONG, John E. — Detroit gunsmith. Member of firm of Fisher & Long. 

LONG, Jos. — Mendon, Westmoreland Co., Pa. Percussion period. 

LONG, Joseph— "J. L." Middle Creek, Snyder Co., Pa. Flintlock and 
early percussion, inlaid Kentucky rifles. 

LONG, Wm. J. — Jonathan Creek, near Thornville, Perry County, 
Ohio. Lived 29 August 1858-19 March 1948. Had been apprenticed 
to Peter Humbarger III. 

LONGSTRETH & COOK— Philadelphia, Pa. Inlaid flintlock Kentucky 
rifle. 

LOOMIS, E. — Hubbardsville, N. Y. Percussion sporting rifles. 

LOOMIS, Earl — Colchester (now East Hamilton), N. Y. Learned gun- 
smithing in New England, flintlock period; living in 1870's. Gun- 
mith son Alonzo, born 1824, died in 1900's. Late flintlock and 
percussion rifles, most German silver mounted. 

LOOMIS, F. — Unlocated. Double barrel, breech-loading hammer shot- 
gun. 

LOOMIS, J. D. & CO.— 1850. Kentucky rifle with lock by B. Samples. 

LOOS, F. — Albany, N. Y. Short, half -stock percussion rifle with lock 
marked "WARREN & STEELE, ALBANY." 

LORD, J. — Lancaster Co., Pa., 1830-1855. Master workman; flintlock 
and percussion Kentucky rifles. 

LORNEY, M.— Boalsburg, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

LOSEY. B. — Shop located near Ithaca, N. Y. Made fine shotgun and 
rifle barrels. Percussion period. 

LOSEY. B. — Syracuse, N. Y. Percussion over-under rifles. 

LOTZ, Peter— Lancaster, Pa. 1857. 

LOUDENSLAGER, H.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

LOUDENSLAGER, Simon — Mexico, Juniata Co., Pa. Percussion rifles, 
mostly stocked in plain maple with stained stripes or curls. 

LOVEL, James— Gunsmith. Green above Third, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

LOVELL ARMS CO.— Also J. P. Lovell Arms Co., Boston Mass. Suc- 
ceeded by Iver Johnson in 1868. 

LOVELL, John P.— Boston, Mass.; born 1820, died 1897. Fine per- 
cussion target pistol; breech-loading shotguns. See Lovell Arms 
Co. 

LOW, William— Ovid, Seneca Co., N. Y. Contracted April 18, 1818, 
with the State of New York to furnish 300 rifles and 250 swords 
for the frontier militia. 

LOWE, William V.— Massachusetts, about 1875-95. Active at Fitch- 
burg, Winchester and Woburn. 

LOWE, William V. — Of Warner & Lowe, Syracuse, N. Y., 1880. Born 
1820, died 1897. 

LOWELL ARMS CO.— Lowell, Mass., about 1864-68. Makers of 7-shot 
rim-fire revolvers. The firm's name had been Rollin White Arms 
Co., assumed without permission of Mr. White. On Rollin White's 
protest against the use of his name, it was changed to the Lowell 
Arms Co. 

LOWER, John P.— Philadelphia, Pa., and Denver, Colo. Born 1833; ap- 
prenticed at Philadelphia to Joseph C. Grubb; independent after 



American Gun Makers 129 

Aug. 4, 1850. Made halfstock rifles (used J. H. Johnston barrels, 
Geo. Golcher locks), percussion derringers. Made 6-shot, .32 rim- 
fire, sheathed-trigger revolvers marked with his name, "W. L. 
Grant," or "D. D. Cone, Washington, D. C." until 1855 when 
Smith & Wesson sued for patent infringement. Came to Colorado 
in 1868. Became a partner of Carlos Gove in Denver in 1873 
until 1876 when he opened his own shop, doing business at a 
number of successive locations: Blake Street, Larimer, Fifteenth 
and at Champa. Died in 1917, at age of 84. 

LOWERY, David— See Lawrey, David. 

LOWNDES, Edward— Greeley, Co., 1875. 

L. P.— Unidentified. Ornamented, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

L.S. — Initials of Luther Sage, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1818- 
1823. Inspected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Lemuel 
Pomeroy, Simeon North, Nathan Starr, Asa Waters and Eli 
Whitney. 

LUCAN — Bellefonte, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

LUDINGTON — Lancaster, Pa., Revolutionary War period. 

LUDRODA — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

LUDWIG, Paul— Pennsylvania, 1831. 

LULL & THOMAS— Ilion, N. Y., 1857. Double barrel, side-by-side, 
rifle-shotgun. 

LULL, M. P. & A. G. — Woodstock, Vt. Underhammer percussion 
rifle. 

LUMBARD, Joseph — Welded and forged pistol barrels at Springfield 
Armory in 1808. Also drew sword blades. 

LUPUS, A. — Dover, N. H. Percussion holster pistol. 

LURCH, David and Joseph— Grand St., New York, N. Y. 1869-75. 
Percussion target rifles. 

L. & W. — Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

LYDICK, Peter— Baltimore, Md., gun maker to Council of Safety. Be- 
lieved to be identical with Riddick who reported January 31, 
1778, that he had 70 guns ready to be proved. On January 31, 
1776, Keener, Messersmith and Riddick reported they were ready 
for an inspector. On February 7, 1776, an inspector was sent who 
proved the arms made by Sam Keener, Sam Messersmith and 
Peter Lydick. 

LYON, H. A. — Sioux City, Iowa. Stamped his name on barrels of 
arms assembled by purchase of component parts. His son manu- 
factured ammunition. 

LYONS — Of Soper & Lyons, Sioux City, Iowa. A .44 caliber plains 
rifle. 

M 

M — Unidentified. Possibly Ohio. Crude, homemade percussion (pos- 
sibly converted) fullstock rifle with strap-iron trigger guard. 
Marked "M" on barrel. 

MACK & MUNGER— Dubuque, Iowa. 

MACKEY, James J.— Gunsmith. Born at No. 6 Dutch St., New York, 
N. Y., date unknown. Was either superintendent in charge of op- 
erations or foreman of a department at State Rifle Works, Green- 



130 American Gun Makers 

ville, S. C, 1863-64. The plant was operated by George W. Morse. 
See Morse. 

MACON ARMORY — Macon, Ga. Confederate arms manufactory 
established by Col. James Burton, C. S., former Commandant of 
the Richmond Armory, who was relieved at Richmond May 27, 
1862, and the next day left with his family for Atlanta, Ga., 
where Spiller & Burr were already located. The riflestock making 
machinery in the Richmond Armory was also sent along. Due to 
high cost of real estate in Atlanta, Col. Burton was offered and 
accepted a free site in Macon, Ga., where he located about June 
28th, using the old Macon & Western Railroad shops temporarily. 
Brick buildings were started, and machinery purchased in Eng- 
land, Col. Burton making a trip there for that purpose May 6 to 
Oct. 14, 1863. At the end of the Civil War, the buildings were 
finished up to the roof, and one building that housed the Pistol 
Factory, which had formerly been Spiller & Burr's, had been 
completed. 

Although the machinery of Jones, McElwaine & Co., had 
arrived at Macon, Ga., there seems to be no record of any guns 
made there, outside of pistols. The stocking machinery from 
Richmond was set up in the railroad shops and stocks evidently 
made. The stocking machinery was later sent to Columbia, S. C. 
Part of the Macon Armory was in existence until a few years 
ago, at Elm and Jackson Streets being occupied by a carpet 
cleaning establishment. 

MADESIE, John— See Matthesiee, J. N. 

MAIZE, Henry — Uniontown, (Now Ashland), Ohio, 1828-30. 

MALBERT CARLISS & CO.— Probably New York, N. Y. Double ac- 
tion pocket revolvers patented in 1883. 

MALCOLM, John — Pennsylvania musket maker to the Committee of 
Safety, 1776. 

MALCOLM, Wm. — Syracuse, N. Y. Maker of a precussion target rifle 
with lock marked "A. SPIES." Also detachable stock target pistol 
marked "Wm. Malcolm, W. A. Sweet. Syracuse." 

MALITZ, Charles — Gunsmith, Melicerte, between Magazine and Con- 
stance, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

MALONE, M.— Gunsmith. New Orleans, 1861. 

MALTBY, Jasper Adalmont — Galena, Illinois gunmaker with shop 
and home at 184 (in 1854) and later 186 (1858-59) Main Street. 
Born in Astabula Co., Ohio, Nov 3, 1826. Served as a private in 
Mexican War and was wounded at Chapultepec. After discharge 
established himself as gunsmith in Galena, making and selling 
"rifles, sporting and target, pistols, revolvers" and doing general 
gunsmithing. Well made rifle known marked on barrel "J. A. 
MALTBY, GALENA No. 209." He served in Civil War with 
Illinois troops. Appointed Lt. Colonel March 5, 1863; Brig. Gen- 
eral of Volunteers Aug. 4, 1863; Mustered out Jan. 15, 1866. Died 
March 20, 1868. 

MALTBY, CORLISS & CO. New York, N. Y. Five shot double-action 
pocket revolvers, patents of 1878 and 1885, marked "Metropolitan 
Police." 

MALTBY, HENLY & CO.— New York, N. Y. Makers of rim-fire and 
center-fire cartridge revolvers under patents of John T. Smoth, 
Rockwell, Conn., of Jan. 24, 1888, No. 376,922 and Oct. 28, 1889, 
No. 413,975. 



American Gun Makers 131 

MANGE, H.— Unlocated. 

MANHATTAN FIREARMS CO.— Also Manhattan Firearms Mfg. Co., 
Newark, N. J., and New York, N. Y., 1864-69. Makers of per- 
cussion, pepperbox pistols and later of percussion and rim-fire 
cartridge revolvers. About 1870 reorganized as American Stand- 
ard Tool Co. 

MANN, M. D.— Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1817-19. 

MANNING, Richard— Ipswich, Mass., 1749. 

MANNY, Postman — Blairsville, Ga. Percussion rifles. 

MANVILLE, Cyrus— 208 Orange St., New Haven, Conn., 1866-67. 
Firearms maker. Probably made the Lindsay two-shot muskets 
for the J. P. Lindsay Mfg. Co. whose address was identical with 
that of Manville. Manville was also surety for Lindsay in his 
government contract. The site of the old Volcanic factory was 
208 Orange Street. 

MARBLE ARMS & MFG. CO.— Gladstone, Mich. Organized by W. 
L. Marble in 1908. Makers of the Game Getter Gun and producers 
of gun sights. 

MARBLE, Simeon — Sunderland, Vt. Flintlock and percussion rifles. 

MARCUM, J. E. — New York, N. Y. Halstock percussion target rifle. 

MARK. F. H.— Bellows Falls, Vt. Percussion arms. 

MARKER, Daniel— Pennsylvania, "D* MARKER" is stamped on a 
full stock, curly maple, brass trim, percussion Kentucky rifle 
with 43 inch octagonal barrel and lock by "R. NORRIS." Made 
highly decorated flintlock Kentucky rifles. Marker's son was also 
a gunsmith. 

MARKER, George— Gettysburg, Drake Co., Ohio, 1844. 

MARKER, James — (Son of Daniel Marker?) Percussion Kentucky 
rifle. 

MARKHAM, T.— Unlocated. Percussion rifle. 

MARLIN FIREARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn., 1881 to date. Op- 
erated by John Mahlon Marlin, maker of Ballard patent rifles. 
and rim-fire "OK." and "Victor" pistols, "XL" derringers and 
"XXX Standard" revolvers manufactured under the numerous 
John M. Marlin patents. 

In 1915 the Marlin family sold out to Marlin-Rockwell 
Corpn., arms makers during the World War I. The Company was 
turned back in 1920 and operated by receivers until 1926, when 
it was sold again and reorganized, resuming the name of Marlin 
Firearms Company. Its recent products include magazine and 
lever action rifles and over-under shotguns. 

MARLIN, J. M.— John Mahlon Marlin, New Haven, Conn., 1870-81. 
Inventor and arms maker. Incorporated in 1881. See Marlin Fire- 
arms Co. 

MARLIN, ROCKWELL & CO.— See Marlin Firearms Co. 

MARS, Andrew — Middle West. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

MARSH, J.— Binghamton, N. Y., 1850-70. 

MARSHALL, Job — Fairmount Township, Luzerne Co., Pa. 

MARSHALL, M. — A plain, southern percussion Kentucky rifle with 
barrel crudely marked "M. MARSHALL" in large letters. 

MARSHALL COUNTY MANUFACTURING CO— Holly Springs, 
Miss. The corporate name of Jones, McElwaine & Co., Confed- 
erate arms manufacturers. See Jones, McElwaine & Co. 



132 American Gun Makers 

MARSHALL MANUFACTURING CO.— See Jones, McElwaine & Co. 

MARSTON, David— Gunsmith. 179 No. Fourth, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

MARSTON, John— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 179 N. 4th, in 
1829. 

MARSTON & KNOX— New York, N. Y., 1864. Single-shot percussion 
pistols of same construction as the Sprague & Marston arms. 

MARSTON, W. P.— Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Percussion rifles. 

MARSTON, W. W. ARMORY— See Marston, W. W. 

MARSTON, W. W.— William W. Marston, 22nd St., and Second Ave., 
New York, N. Y., before and after 1866. Patentee and maker of 
the Marston single-shot, sliding breeck-block pistols, patented 
June 18, 1850, No. 7,443, pepperboxes, percussion revolvers and 
3-shot superposed barrel, rim-fire cartridge pistols. Plant also 
called "Phoenix Armory." 

MARTIN, George — Matinsville, is. Odd, breech-loading, cartridge 
rifle. 

MARTIN, Hacker — Current maker of Kentucky type, flintlock and 
percussion rifles and pistols. Born 1895. Lives about ten miles 
from Johnson City, Tenn. Operates a water-wheel grist mill and 
has his gun shop on the second floor of the mill. Great-grand- 
father, grandfather and father were all gunsmiths. Is a descend- 
ant of the Bean family of gunsmiths and water-wheel mill oper- 
ators, whose mill stood at the mouth of Boones Creek; and to 
whom is credited the birth of the first white child south of the 
Alleghanies. Hacker Martin still uses the Bean anvil. 

MARTIN, HACKER & SON— See Martin, Hacker. 

MARTIN, John — Charles County, Maryland. Was paid 4,180 pounds of 
tobacco in 1682, for "scowering Cleansing and fixing of Arms." 

MARTIN, M. — Unlocated. Fine silver-inlaid flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

MARTIN, Robert— 20 Frederick St., Baltimore, Md., 1808, and after. 

MARTIN & SMITH— 98 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. Marking on a 
Kentucky type percussion pistol. 

MARTIN, T.— Unlocated. 

MARTIN, William — Born 1810 in Kentucky. A cabinet maker and 
gunsmith, he moved to Jackson Co., one mile east of Leesville, 
Lawrence Co., Indiana, in 1840. In 1852 moved two miles east to 
near Weddleville; died 1902, aged 92. Made any type of gun in 
demand; specialized in match rifles with 14 grooves and lands. 
Bought barrel blanks from Cincinnati and St. Louis; stocked 
mostly with hard maple root. A heavy, curly maple halfstocked 
Plains rifle marked "W. Martin" in script. 

MARTIN, W. L.— New Haven, Conn., 1873-77. 

MARYLAND STATE GUN LOCK FACTORY— Frederick, Md. 1777- 
78. Operated by Chares Beatty, James Johnson and John Hanson, 
Commissioners. Manager of the factory was Samuel Boone, who 
June 17, 1777, was ordered to deliver to Nicholas White 110-gun- 
locks. 

MASLIN, M. M.— Unlocated. Maker of a flint Kentucky rifle lock 
with reinforced hammer, waterproof pan and roller frizzen- 
spring bearing; marked "M. M. MASLIN WARRANTED." 

MASON— Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1812. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

MASON, J. — Unlocated. Marking on Kentucky rifle. (Same as Mason 
of Ashtabula, Ohio?) 



American Gun Makers 133 

MASON, J. C. — Keene, N. H. Fowling pieces and halfstock percus- 
sion rifles. 

MASON, Wm. — William Mason, Taunton, Mass., Civil War con- 
tractor of Jan. 7, 1862, for 50,000 Springfield Model 1861 rifle 
muskets at $20.00 each. Of these 30,000 were delivered. 

MASS A, George— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

MASSACHUSETTS ARMS CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Incorporated 
under a special act of legislature of March 5, 1850, authorizing 
Timothy W. Carter, James T. Ames, Benjamin F. Warner and 
their associates, which included heirs and kin of Edwin Wesson, 
to manufacture firearms and machinery. The company was or- 
ganized primarily for the manufacture of percussion revolvers 
under the Wesson patents. Edwin Wesson, who died in 1850, 
had been previously associated with Daniel Leavitt in the manu- 
facture of the Leavitt revolver, made with a hand-turned cylinder 
under the Leavitt Patent No. 182, April 29, 1837. At the time of 
his death, Wesson had a patent pending for an improvement 
embodying mechanical operation, the patent rights to which 
formed a part of the Wesson inheritance. 

With the receipt of the patent right to mechanical opera- 
tion. Patent No. 6669, dated as of August 28, 1849, the Massa- 
chusetts Arms Company, which had been making the older 
hand-turned models, started the production of the new model 
revolver, which in addition to mechanical operation had several 
other desirable features, among them a frame that pivoted for- 
ward of the hammer, permitting easy and rapid removal of 
the cylinder. The new models were barely on the market, when 
the Company was faced with a suit brought by Colt Patent Fire 
Arms Company for the infringement of Colt patents. The Colt 
Company, represented by Edward S. Dickinson, foremost patent 
attorney «f the day, won the suit, though the Massachusetts 
Arms Company had retained Hon. Rufus Choate, one of the 
famous lawyers of the era, as its counsel. On August 4, 1851, 
the Massachusetts Arms Company had to cease the manufacture 
of revolvers under the Edwin Wesson patent until the expira- 
tion of the Colt patents, for a mechanically operated cylinder, 
in the fall of 1856. __ 

The firm also manufactured small revolvers using the May- 
nard tape lock priming system, Maynard, Greene and Smith 
carbines, and percussion revolvers made under the Robert 
Adams (British) U. S. patent No. 9694, of May 5, 1853. The 
government bought 20,202 Maynard carbines during the Civil 
War, in addition to 400 purchased in 1857. Government records 
indicate that 30,062 Smith carbines were also obtained during the 
war, but that most likely includes arms made by the American 
Machine Works, the American Arms Co. and by Poultney & 
Trimble. 

At the close of the Civil War, with the decreasing demand 
for firearms, the business of the company fell off, and the 
assets, stock and franchise were bought out and operated by 
T. W. Carter, who had been in charge of operations. 

On Feb. 1, 1876, the works were taken over by the Lamb 
Knitting Machine Mfg. Co., owners (since 1867) of the water 
power and shops in which the Massachusetts Arms Co., con- 
ducted its business. The firm continued the manufacture of 
arms under the Maynard patents, until about 1890, Wm. F. 






134 American Gun Makers 

McFarland, ex-employee of the Springfield Armory being the 
superintendent in charge of production. 

MASTER, Christopher — Employed as musket barrel maker by Hugh 
Shannon in 1810. 

MATHESON, Welcome— Rhode Island. Pre-Revolutionary period. 

MATHIS, B. — Maker of an early flintlock fowling piece. 

MATSON, Thomas— Boston, Mass., 1658-82. 

MATTHESIEE, John Nicholas— Union Township, Bedford County, 
Pa., 1876. "J. N. MATTHESIEE" marking on barrel of relief 
carved, fancy inlaid percussion rifle. Also used American deriva- 
tions "Medasia, J. Nicholas" and "Madesie, John." 

MATTOON, C. B. — Unlocated. Heavy percussion target rifle. 

MAUGER, H.— Unlocated, about 1780. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifles 
with carved curly maple fullstocks. 

MAUS, Jacob — Pennsylvania. Son of Philip Maus; Kentucky rifles. 

MAUS, Philip — Central Pennsylvania, making Kentucky rifles in 1798. 
Father of gunsmith Jacob Maus; family settled in Berks Co. 
before 1776. Fine flintlock target rifle. 

MAUSE, F. E.— Mausdale, Montour Co., Pa. 

MAXWELL, A. L., Jr. & CO. — Knoxville, Tenn., iron mongery and 
foundry at Broad and Southern R.R., which during the Civil 
War undertook the manufacture of Mississippi (Model 1841) rifles 
for the Confederacy. The arms manufacturing department, em- 
ploying about one hundred hands, was in charge of Thomas 
Riggins and was active until about October 21, 1863, when it 
was seized by the Federals, held two months and then destroyed 
to prevent recapture by Confederates. 

The plant originally was established in 1853, as Maxwell, 
Briggs & Co., by Anthony L. Maxwell, a New York engineer, 
as a machine shop for the manufacture of iron bridge materiel. 
In 1855 it became Knoxville Mfg. Co., making engines and 
boilers until the advent of Civil War, when it became an arms 
plant. Colonel Maxwell, though a native of Old Saratoga, New 
York, was commissioned in the Confederate Army. 

MAYDAT, V.— Pacific near Front St., San Francisco, Calif., 1855. 

MAYER, George — Lancaster, Pa., about 1810-20. 

MAYESCH— Unidentified, Kentucky rifles, about 1775. 

MAYNARD, Edward— Washington, D. C, and Chicopee Falls, Mass. 
Dental surgeon. Inventor and patentee of the Maynard breech- 
loading system, patented May 27, 1851, No. 8,126, and Dec. 6, 
1859, No. 26,364. Also invented the Maynard primer. On Dec. 25, 
1857, Dr. Maynard furnished the government 400 Maynard car- 
bines at $30.00 each, delivery from Chicopee Falls; presumably 
made by the Maynard Arms Company. The Maynard primer 
system was adopted and incorporated in the Model 1855 rifle 
musket, in addition to a large quantity installed in altered 
(flintlock) muskets. A total of $75,000.00 was paid Dr. Maynard 
for the government rights to his tape primer system. 

MAYNARD GUN CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Early Maynard car- 
bines. See Maynard, Edward. 

MAYNARD, John— 3 Beaver St., Albany, N. Y., in 1823. Evidently 
an employee of the master gunsmith Henry Turner. At 672 
Market St., in 1825; not listed in 1826 directory. 

MAYWEG, John— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 133 Dillwyn, in 
1829. 



American Gun Makers 135 

MAYWEG, John & Wm.— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmiths at Dillwyn 
near Green in 1829. 

MB — Letters directed to be stamped on musket barrels, near locks of 
arms made for the Massachusetts Committee of Safety by specifi- 
cations issued by Massachusetts House of Representatives Novem- 
ber 3, 1775, which also reads: 

". . . Resolved, That for every effective and substantial Fire- 
Arm which shall be manufactured in this Colony, with a barrel 
of three feet and nine inches in length that will carry an ounce 
ball, a good bayonet with a blade not less than eighteen inches 
in length, a steel ramrod with a spring to retain same, two loops 
for gun strings, and the makers name stamped or engraved on 
the lock . . . and resemble in construction, and, as nearly as 
may be, equal in goodness with King's new arms, there shall be 
allowed . . . the sum of three Pounds." 

MCALLISTER, Coll.— Pittsburgh, Pa. The only gunsmith listed in the 
Directory in 1815, "Gun and white smith, sw corner of Redoubt 
Alley and 3rd." 

McAUSLAND, Alexander D.— Born 1835. First listed in 1866 Omaha 
City, Nebraska, directory as gunsmith, machinist, and sporting 
goods dealer, corner Douglas and 14th. 1870 directory lists 
McAusland Bros. — A. D., John, and William (clerk), 242 Douglas 
corner 14th — dealers in firearms, guns, pistols, ammunition, and 
agents for Hazard Powder Co. A. D. McAusland last listed there 
in 1874-75. 

A. D. McAusland moved from Deadwood City, S. D. (where 
John is listed as a merchant, 1878-79) to Miles City, Mont., on 
Christmas 1878. The 1882 Miles City directory lists the "CREED- 
MORE ARMORY, A. D. McAusland prop., guns and ammunition." 
Main St., between 6th and 7th. Early in the 1900's the shop 
was moved to 16th and Main; McAusland sold out and returned 
to Omaha where he died Nov. 26, 1919, aged 84. He specialized 
in fitting Remington barrels to Sharps actions for the buffalo 
hunters; one brother was a Remington representative. A 40-90-370 
paper-patch Sharps rifle is known, marked "A. D. McAusland 
1880." 

McCARTNEY, Robert—Boston, Mass., 1805-15. 

McCARTNEY, William G.— 3Q0 Liberty St., Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1850; 

176 First Ave. in 1870-71. Curly maple fullstocked Kentucky 

rifles. 
M'CLALLEN, H.— Also McClalen. Auburn, N. Y. Maker of under- 

hammer percussion sporting rifles of fine workmanship. 
McCLALLEN, J. M. — Auburn, N. Y. Percussion sporting rifle. (Re- 
lated to H. M. McClallen?) 
McCLELLAN, Hugh-— 16 Beaver St., Albany, N. Y., 1819; 8 Beaver 

St. in 1820; not in 1821 directory. (Same as Hugh M'Clelland of 

Philadelphia, 1829?) 
M'CLELLAND, Hugh— Phila., Pa. Listed as gun stock maker at Julian 

near Green, in 1829. 

McCLELLAND, Wm. — Nappanee, Ind. A fine percussion rifle so 
marked in script on the barrel. 

McCLELLAND, Wm.— Uniontown, Pa., 1820-1850. Gunsmith. 

McCOMAS, Alexander— 51 South Calvert St., Baltimore, Md. Estab- 
lished in 1843. Born in Hartford County in 1821. For 50 years 
one of the best known gunsmiths of Baltimore. 



136 American Gun Makers 

McCOMAS, Nicholas — 44 Pratt St., Baltimore, Md., in 1853 listed 
as dealer and manufacturer. In 1860 at 44 West Pratt St 

McCONKLIN, G. & H.— Unlocated. Halstock, brass mounted per- 
cussion rifle. 

McCONNANT, J.— Unlocated. 

McCORMICK, Robert — Philadelphia musket maker and contractor 
under Act of July 5, 1798, for 3,000 Charleville pattern (Model 
1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. $4,000 recorded paid on 
account in 1799. Believed to have failed on this contract. 

On Nov. 5, 1799, McCormick contracted with the State of 
Virginia for 4,000 Charleville pattern muskets at $13.40 per 
stand. After delivering a few hundred stands McCormick failed 
in business in July, 1801, and was imprisoned for debt, and 
a part of his uncompleted contract was taken over by his shop 
superintendent, James Haslett. Prior to his failure in July, on 
May 4, 1801, McComick in association with Richard Johnson, 
contracted with the State of Pennsylvania for 1,000 Charleville 
pattern muskets. 

The McCormick muskets were made at Globe Mill, which 
stood on the west side of Germantown Road and St. John 
Street, Philadelphia. Originally Globe Mill was called Gov- 
ernor's Mill and was erected for William Penn in 1700. It 
was used in turn as a grist mill, mustard and chocolate mill, 
spinning mill and in about 1796 was known as the Globe Mill. 
It was leased by Mr. McCormick, an Irish immigrant, about 
1798-99. After the completion of Haslett's contract of 600 muskets 
of the uncompleted McCormick award, it is believed that the 
mill was leased to one Hewson, and was used for block calico 
printing. 

McCORY — Canton, Stark Co., Ohio. Came from Penna. 

McCOSH, S. — Full stock, percussion Kentucky rifles marked "S. 
McCOSH" in script on barrels. Possibly same as, more probably 
father of Sam McCosh, below. 

McCOSH, Sam — Gastonville, Union Township, Washington Co., Pa., 
1860-1880 at least. Half stock rifles stamped on barrels "S. 
McCOSH"; sometimes stamped also on purchased lock. Some 
known stamped "S. McCOSH PITTSBURGH." McCosh was an 
extensive maker. 

McCOY, Alexander—Dock Ward, Philadelphia, Pa., 1779. 

McCOY & BAKER — Princeton, Ky. Percussion combination rifle- 
shotgun. 

McCOY, Kester — Upper Paxton Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1770- 
1771. 

McCULLOUGH, George— Dromore Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 
1771-73. 

McCULLOUGH, N. G.— Muncie, Ind. Percussion rifle. 

McCULLOUGH, W.— Brookville, Pa. Over-under rifle with locks 
marked "J. M. COOPER WARRANTED PITTSBURGH." 

McDERMIT, A. P. — Unlocated. Heavy barrel curly maple half stock 
Kentucky rifle. 

McDANIELS— Mifflin Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

McELHANEY— Unlocated. Riflesmith, died 20 years after Civil War. 

McELROY, T — 38 Third St., San Francisco, Calif., 1861. 

McELWAIN, R. G. — Huntingdon, Pa., Over-under percussion rifle. 



American Gun Makers 137 

McELWAINE, W. S.— Holly Springs, Miss., 1859-62. Confederate 
rifles and rifled muskets. See Jones, McElwaine & Co. 

McGIRK, A. C. — Marietta, Ohio. Halfstock percussion Kentucky- 
style rifle. 

McGREGOR, Eli — Lebanon, O. Percussion rifles. 

McKAHAN, John D.— Washington, Pa. About 1840-April 20, 1861, 
gunmaker. Service in National Blues, 3rd Brigade, 17th Division, 
Pennsylvania Militia, Sept. 10, 1852 to July 4, 1856; then Wash- 
ington Blues to Jan. 8, 1859; April 20, 1861, with Co. "E", 
(Washington Blues), 12th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, for 
3 months enlistment. Later worked with Ordnance Department. 
On July 14, 1863 mustered into Co. "H", 46th Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry. Died July 25, 1864 of wounds received at 
the Battle of Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th. Buried in Atlanta, 
Ga. 

McKAHAN & GALL— Washington, Pa. John D. McKahan above. 

McKAHAN & NOBLE— Washington, Pa. See John D. McKahan. A 
curly maple halfstocked percussion rifle with brass rib and en- 
graved patchbox; barrel by J. D. Little, marked "McKahan & 
Noble 117." 

McKENNA — Unlocated. Cast in brass trigger plate of halfstock per- 
cussion target rifle, probably of Middle West origin. 

McILROY, J. W. — Unlocated. Percussion period. 

McK BROTHERS— Baltimore, Md. Probably McKim and Brother. 

Martial pistols. 
McKEE, Wm.— Gough Street, Baltimore, Md., 1817. 
McKENNY & BEAN— 166 Main St., Biddleford, Me., 1866-71. 
McKIM & BROTHER— Baltimore, Md., about 1800. Martial pistols. 
McLAIN, G. W. — Maker of a heavy, single shot percussion target 

rifle with double set triggers and curly maple stock. 
McLEISH, Charles— Williamsburg, Ohio. 

McMAHON, John — Lock and gunsmith, Tchoupitoulas, between 
Benjamin and Suzette, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

McMANT, John— Wellsburg, W. Va., 1837. Percussion sporting rifle. 

McMULLEN, Peter — Maker of gun skelps for musket barrels. In em- 
ploy of Col. Peter Grubb, who operated a gun skelp forge for 
the Lancaster Committee of Safety in 1776. 

McNAUGHT, James — Richmond, Va. Advertised in 1821 in Richmond 
Enquirer: "Fowling pieces, Pistols and Rifles with or without hair 
triggers: patent breeched, double and single twisted stubb and 
Damascus barrels of all lengths and sizes. Duelling Pistols, locks 
and mountings, dirks, hangers, flasks, etc." 

McNEILL, Thomas E.— Macon, Ga., 1861. Self styled "Acting Super- 
intendent" of a proposed "Southern Armory & Foundry" and 
enterprise to be subscribed for by the public, for the manufacture 
of "Artillery, Small Arms, Laboratory Stores and Projectiles." 
The project got only as far as proposals for construction. On 
July 29, 1862 McNeill entered into a contract with Capt. Burton 
of the Confederate Ordnance for services in connection with 
manufacture of 20,000 breech-loading carbines of C. W. Alex- 
ander's invention, but could not raise the $5,000 required for 
patterns, machinery, etc. and the arm of which a pilot model 



138 American Gun Makers 

had been made under supervision of Capt. Burton, never ma- 
terialized beyond the experimental stage. See C. W. Alexander. 

McNICHOLS, Joseph— Goshen Township, Belmont Co. Ohio, 1828- 
1854. 

McPHAIL'S ARMORY— See Columbia Armory. 

McRAE, Alexander — Richmond, Va. Contracted with United States 
on July 28, 1817, for 10,000 muskets at $14.00 per stand, to 
be delivered over a period of five years at 2,000 per annum. 
McRae failed on his contract and with the consent of the 
government, on March 21, 1821, John Rogers and Brooke 
Evans of Pennsylvania, took over the McRae contract, and 
by Dec. 31, 1823, delivered 5,730 stands. McRae is also men- 
tioned as M'Rea in some reports. Also marking on fullstock Ken- 
tucky rifle with name on barrel and "VIRGINIA 1811" on lock. 

MEACHAM, C. D., ARMS CO.— St. Louis, Mo., about 1880. Double- 
barrel hammerless shotguns. 

MEACHAM, I. & H.— Albany, N. Y. Makers of pinned-barrel, flint- 
lock muskets for the State of New York. 

MEACHAM & POND— Albany, N. Y. Flintlock pistols. 

MEAKIN, Ben— Cherry Hill, New Paltz, N. Y. German silver 
mounted, double barrel percussion shotgun. Had worked for John 
P. Moore. Born 1835: died 1907. 

MEALS, John — Unlocated. Late flintlock and early percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles and swivel-breech, double-barrel Kentucky rifles. 

MEDASIA, J. Nicholas— Union Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1876. 
See Matthesiee, J. N. 

MEDBERRY, Joseph — Rochester, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

MEDBURY, Thomas— New Berlin, Chenango Co., N. Y., after 1800. 
Moved to Erieville, N. Y., in 1818, and still active there in 1828, 
assisted by his son, Issac. Flintlock rifles and fowling pieces. 

MEDEER, Bruce — Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa. Post Civil War. 
Taught gun making to Uriah Fisher, Leather workers by trade, 
made percussion rifles as a hobby. 

MEEKIN, George — Pike Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. His old shop was 
standing in 1927. 

MEFFORD (or Miff ord?)— Mays ville, Ky., period of 1803. Flintlock 
Kentucky rifles. Father of T. Mifford? 

MEIER— Wooster, Wayne Co., Ohio. 1880, 1902. 

MEIER, Adolphus — St. Louis, Mo., 1845-50. Heavy barrel percussion 

target pistol. 

MEIGS— Unidentified. 1870. 

MEISGER, Henry — Ashland, Pa. Kentucky rifles, especially double- 
barrels. 

MEISSNER, Charles— Zanesville, Ohio, 1859. Maker of halfstock, pill 
lock, percussion Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship. See C. 
Meissner & Son. 

MEISSNER, C. & SON— 12 South 6th St., Zanesville, Ohio, 1880-1902. 
MELCHIOR, M.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

MELCHIOR, Nathaniel— Mercer at Grant Streets, Baltimore, Md., 
about 1830-40. Maker of handsome sporting rifles. 

MEMPHIS ARMORY— Memphis, Tenn. Confederate shoulder arms 



American Gun Makers 139 

plant. Remodelling and conversion of sporting arms to military 
use. Some arms marked with name. 

MEMPHIS ARMS CO.— Incorporated Jan. 1861, and on May 6th 
amended to include others, total number of 20 subscribers. 
Marcus J. Wright, Confederate Historian, and Wm. R. Hunt, 
who was in charge of the Memphis Armory were among the 
twenty. It is not believed that any guns were made by them. 

MENCH, J. — (Or S.) Unlocated. Revolutionary period flintlock rifle 
with name in crude script on lock; 1/3 octagon barrel, relief 
carved butt, long brass patchbox with secret release under brass 
side strip. 

MENDENHALL, A. R.— Unlocated. 1840-50. 

MENDENHALL, JONES & GARDNER— Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Col. 
E. P. Jones and Grafton Gardner, operators of the Deep River 
Armory, (formerly Oakdale Cotton Mills), at Old Jamestown, 
Guilford Co., N. C. Mendenhall, Jones & Gardner were Con- 
federate contractors to the State of North Carolina for 10,000 
Model 1841 type, sabre-bayonet rifles marked "M. J. & G." and 
"N. C." 

The partnership was dissolved Dec. 5, 1864, and the machin- 
ery of the Deep River Armory was sold at auction Dec. 15, 1864. 
The shops of the Deep River Armory were established at 
Old Jamestown, about six miles southwest of Greensboro, with 
Oakdale Cotton Mills machinery removed from Petersburg, Va., 
in 1862, and were operated by slave labor largely trained in 
industrial work by George C. Mendenhall, father of Cyrus P. 

MERCKLEY, Jacob— New Hanover Township, Philadelphia Co., Pa., 
1781. 

MEREDITH, Benjamin— Baltimore and Paca Streets, Baltimore, Md., 
1817. 

MERIDEN FIREARMS CO.— Meriden, Conn. Makers of 5-shot ham- 
merless, auto-ejecting revolvers (Fryburg type) and of Miller 
breech-block system for alteration of muzzle-loading arms. 

MERIDEN MFG. CO. — Meriden, Conn. Civil War arms. Makers of 
Triplett & Scott repeating, breech loading carbines, Louis Trip- 
lett's patent of Dec. 6, 1864, No. 45,361. Also of Miller conversion 
of rifles to breech-loading system. 

MERMAN, D.— Spring Mills, Pa. Set triggers Kentucky rifle with 
large brass patchbox and silver inlays. 

MERRILL FIREARMS CO.— Baltimore, Md., 1864-67. Operated by 
James H. Merrill. Manufacturers of carbines, rifle and sporting 
arms using the Merrill system of breech-loading by a lever type 
breech-block. Merrill was associated with Latrobe and Thomas 
in 1855 to about 1864, when the Merrill Firearms Company was 
formed. In addition to 170 Merrill, Latrobe & Thomas carbines 
purchased by the government July 26, 1855, at $35.00 each, 100 
each of Merrill carbines, muskets and rifles were bought in 1859. 
During the Civil War, 14,695 Merrill carbines and 583 rifles were 
purchased by the government. In addition many thousands of 
muzzle loading rifles Model 1841, and rifled muskets were 
changed to the Merrill system. The firm ceased operations in 
1869. While muzzle loading arms are known to have been altered 
to the Merrill system in Baltimore it is believed that the Merrill 
rifles and carbines were made for the firm by Remingtons. 






140 American Gun Makers 

MERRILL, James H.— Baltimore, Md., about 1852-64. Inventor, pat- 
entee and maker of Merrill breech-loading system carbines. 
Associated with Latrobe and Thomas, 1855-64. See Merrill Fire- 
arms Co. 

MERRILL, LATROBE & THOMAS— Baltimore, Md. Makers of 
breech-loading carbines on the early Merrill system. The govern- 
ment purchased 170 Merrill, Latrobe and Thomas carbines July 
26, 1855, at $35.00 each. See Merrill Firearms Co., above. 

MERRIMACK ARMS & MFG. CO.— Newburyport, Mass., 1867-69. 
Makers of military and sporting rifles and carbines under Ballard 
patents. Taken over by Brown Mfg. Co. 

MERRIMAN, Silas — Repaired public arms for the State of Connecti- 
cut, April, 1777. 

MERRITT, Allen— East Randolph, Mass., about 1855. 

MERRITT, John— Boston, Mass., about 1789-98 and after. 

MERWIN & BRAY FIREARMS CO.— Or Merwin & Bray, New York, 
N. Y. Though this firm's name appears on revolvers, they are 
not known to have manufactured arms, but have acted as sales 
agents or promoters of a number of arms companies. 

MERWIN HULBERT & CO.— New York, N. Y. Revolver patentees 
1874-77. Army type revolvers under their patents and bearing 
the firm's name were manufactured for them by Hopkins & 
Allen. 

MESSER, W. W. — Boston, Mass. Percussion period. 

MESSERSMITH, Jacob— Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 
1779-82. 

MESSERSMITH, John— Lancaster, Pa., gun-lock maker, 1776. Came 
from Maryland. 

MESSERSMITH, Samuel— Baltimore, Md. Contracted with Maryland 
Council for musket-locks at $3.00 each in 1776. In July of the 
same year was given a contract to repair public arms for the 
state. 

MESSMER, Casper— Manitowoc, Wis., 1843 and later. 

METLER, John E.— Easton, Pa. Died 1879. 

METROPOLITAN ARMS CO.— 97 Pearl St., New York, N. Y., 1859 
to about 1880. Makers of percussion revolvers similar to the 
Colt Model 1851, Colt Model 1862, and of rim-fire cartridge 
revolvers. 

METZEGER, J. or Metzger, J. — Penna. Maker of Kentucky rifles 
about 1778. 

METZGER, Jacob — Frederick Town, Md. Musket maker, associated 
with Nicholas White, Thomas Crabb and Christopher Barnhizzle 
in a contract under the Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville 
pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 235 
were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

METZGER, Jacob T.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857 to about 1870. 

METZGER, John— Fredericksburg, Md. 1790. 

MEUNIER, John— Milwaukee, Wis., 1855-1919. West Water Street. 
Maker of very fine percussion schuetzen rifles. Listed as John 
Meunier Gun Co. after 1893. After the general adoption of breech 
loading target rifle, Meunier built schuetzens on Ballard, Mar- 
tini and Patt-Martini actions. After Meunier's death in 1919, his 



American Gun Makers 141 

son Stephen, maintained the shop until 1940 doing repair work 
and selling guns and ammunition. Located at 254 W. Water in 
1862, West Water at Cedar in 1863, 293 West Water in 1865, West 
Water between Wells and Cedar in 1867-68 and at 272 W. Water 
1868-1932. In 1932 listed at 946 N. 5th St., in 1933 at 827 N. 
3rd St., and 1937-40 at 144 East Water Street. 

MEUNIER, Stephen — Brother and employee of John Meunier, Mil- 
waukee. Died in early 1930's. 

MEWHIRTER, S.— Unlocated. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles of good 
workmanship. 

MEYERS, Jacob— Somerset Co., Pa., 1830. (Same as J. Meyer and 
Jacob Mier?) 

MEYER, J. — Unlocated. Reported stamping on lock and barrel of a 
walnut half stock percussion rifle. 

MEYERS, D. — Unlocated. Marking on Penna. type Kentucky rifle 
circa 1825-35, with lock marked "DREPPERD, LANCASTER." 

MEYER, C. H. J.— 604 Pacific St., San Francisco, Calif., 1865. 

MEYERS, Jacob — Gunsmith, 99 Front Levee, third district, New 
Orleans, La., 1853. 

MEYLAN, Martin— Lancaster, Pa., 1719— about 1730; Reading, Pa., 
about 1760-1800 (two men?). Erected a barrel-boring mill in 1719. 
Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

M. H. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifles of fine workmanship. 

MICKSELL, Martin — Apprentice gunmaker to Christian Werger, 
Leacock Township, Pa., musket maker to Committee of Safety in 
1776. 

MIDDLETON, Edward — Unlocated. Maker of muzzle loading, percus- 
sion shotguns. 

MIDNIGHT, I. E.— -Unidentified. Percussion duelling pistols. 

MIER, I. or J. — Somerset Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. (See Mier, Jacob). 

MIER, Jacob — Near Salisbury, Somerset Co., Pa., early 19th century. 
Father of Samuel Mier. Kentucky rifles marked "J. MIER" in 
script. 

MIER, Samuel — Near Salisbury, Somerset Co., Pa., period of 1850- 
1870. Son of Jacob Mier. Long, elaborate percussion Kentucky 
rifles with German silver inlays or brass wire ornament and 
engraved fancy patchboxes, hand-made lockplates, and narrow- 
butt, light Somerset Co. stocks; name in script. 

MIFFORD, T.— Maysville, Ky. Born 1803, died 1890. Flintlock and 
percussion Kentucky rifles. 

MILES, John, Sr. — Philadelphia, Pa. John Miles, Sr., was born in 
London, England, in 1752, where also was born his son, John, 
Jr., in 1777. They came to United States about 1790 and settled 
in Philadelphia, where John Miles the elder, is listed as residing 
at 500 North Second St., from 1790 to 1798, and at 30 South 
3rd St., in 1805-08. He died May 1, 1808, and is buried in the All 
Saints Churchyard at Torresdale, Pa. 

John Miles, Sr., of Northern Liberties, near Philadelphia, had 
contracts with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania of Sept. 
3, 1798, for 2,000 muskets, Charleville pattern, and of April 16, 
1801, for 2,000 additional. Miles also had a U. S. contract under 
Act of July 5, 1798, for 400 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) 
muskets at $13.40 per stand, on which account he was paid 
$5,332.00 in 1800. 






142 American Gun Makers 

Records indicate that on July 23, 1801, Miles purchased the 
McCormick "instruments for gun making," and on Aug. 9th, 
1801, agreed to take over a part of the defaulted McCormick 
contract "to complete the work undertaken by McCormick" for 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The barrels of some of 
the early Miles muskets are proof marked with a "liberty cap" 
instead of the usual eagle head. 

Mary Miles, widow of John Miles, gunsmith is listed at 86 
Callowhill, Phila., Pa. in 1819. 

MILES, John, Jr. — Bordentown, N. J. Son of John Miles, Sr. Born 
in London, England, in 1777. Came to United States about 1790 
and lived with his father in Philadelphia, until about 1805, in 
which year he is listed at 43 Chestnut Street, while his father 
is shown at 30 S. 3rd Street. Upon his father's death in 1808, 
John Miles moved to Bordentown, N. J., where on July 30, 1808, 
he obtained a U. S. contract for 9,200 muskets at $10.75 per 
stand, of which 2,407 were recorded delivered before Oct. 7, 
1812. 

Of the arms delivered by Miles under the 1808 contract, 
many parts were obtained from sub-contractors in Philadelphia 
and vicinity, as was quite common in those days. Among the 
latter was John Kerlin who furnished Miles with 400 musket 
barrels. When Miles defaulted on the balance of his 1808 con- 
tract, it was completed by Miles' surety, or guarantor; the same 
John Kerlin, who on Feb. 12, 1811, entered into a new contract 
with the government for the unfinished balance of the Miles 
muskets. In all probability the marking was not changed. 

About 1826, when Congress authorized a refund for im- 
provements and modifications made in contract muskets, Model 
1808, involving deviation from pattern, the estate of John Kerlin 
received the refund. 

There is no record available of pistol contracts awarded to 
Miles, father or son. However, judging the existing specimens 
of Miles pistols, made in resemblance of the North Navy pistols 
of 1808, probabilities are that John Miles, Jr., had a pistol con- 
tract, and also made martial pistols for sale to states' militia, 
individual officers or to privateers. 

John Miles (Jr.) died in 1852, and is buried in the church- 
yard at Bordentown. 

MILES, Thomas — Pennsylvania rifle maker to Committee of Safety, 
1782-97. Payments recorded in August and September, 1776, 
for rifling of arms and furnishing rifles. Thomas Miles was one 
of the petitioners representing Pennsylvania arms makers to the 
Committee of Safety of Philadelphia, in November, 1776, com- 
plaining against the high cost of material and labor entering 
into gun making, and quoting the advances in prices in one year, 
since 1775. 

MILITARY LABORATORY— 34 Dock Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Ad- 
vertised in the Aurora "Advertiser," Jan. 1, 1800, as the place 
"where owners and commanders of armed vessels may be sup- 
plied with Muskets & Pistols." 

MILLARD, Seth P.— Lockport, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

MILLBENZ— 1825. Unidentified. 

MILLER — Resided six miles north of Ithaca, N. Y. Percussion period. 
Maker of 4- and 8-gauge shotguns for market hunting on Cayuga 
Lake. 



American Gun Makers 143 

MILLER — Washington, Mo. Percussion rifles. 

MILLER, Abner— Easton, Pa. Flintlock rifles circa 1810-20; over- 
under percussion rifle. 

MILLER, B. — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

MILLER, C. — Honeoye, N. Y., about 1850. Over-under, mule ear rifles. 

MILLER, C. A. — New Haven, Conn. Magazine sporting rifle. 

MILLER, Daniel — Unlocated. Curly maple full-stock, octagonal bar- 
rel Kentucky rifle converted from flintlock to percussion. Deeply 
curved butt; engraved patchbox. 

MILLER, David— 209 Market St., Springfield, Ohio, 1870-78. 

MILLER, Elmer E.— Millersburg, Pa. Died August 1952, aged 70. Gun- 
smith and inventor of a single trigger for double-barreled shot- 
guns, and the Miller set trigger. 

MILLER, Franklin — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa., near Reading. 
Built two shops, one 30 feet by 60, with three water wheels, on 
Wyomissing Creek between Mohn's Store and Gouglersville, in 
1821, using the creek water power to bore and grind gun barrels. 
Made 4,000 barrels a year. By 1854 had three factories on Wyo- 
missing and several in other parts of the state. Also conducted a 
hardware store at the corner of 4th and Penn Streets, in Reading, 
Pa. Later was forced to dispose of his gun shops as a result of 
unfortunate investments and they were transformed into other 
commercial plants. 

MILLER, G. C. — New Haven, Conn. Heavy, Civil War period percus- 
sion sharpshooter's rifle. 

MILLER, H. — Unlocated. Early percussion Kentucky rifles. 

MILLER, J. — Curly maple, full stock, brass mounted, flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle (converted to percussion). Made without patchbox. 

MILLER, J. — Rochester, N. Y. Percussion period, 1829. Inventor of 
pre-Colt percussion revolver and pill-lock revolving rifles. 

MILLER, John — Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1773-82. Pay- 
ments recorded for work on public arms in 1777. 

MILLER, John— Penfleld and Monroe, Mich., about 1830-75. 

MILLER, M.— Unlocated. About 1850. 

MILLER, Mathias — Strasburg County, Pa., in 1779, and at Easton, 
Northampton Co., Pa., in 1788. Famed for the excellent workman- 
ship of his gun-locks. 

MILLER, Samuel— Boston, Mass., 1730. Early, 42 inch half octagonal 
pinned barrel flintlock rifle with gooseneck hammer. Full cherry 
stock with deeply curved butt and brass butt plate, Marked "S. 
MILLER" on barrel flat. 

MILLER, S. C— New Haven, Conn., 1855. 

MILLER, Simon— Hamburg, Pa., about 1770-1820. Master riflesmith; 
long silver-inlaid flintlock Kentucky rifles with incised carving. 
Possibly same as "S. M.'\ maker of a pair of flintlock Kentucky 
pistols carried by Col. Nathan Dennison at Battle of Wyoming, 
Pa., July 3, 1778. 

MILLER, W. D.— Pittsfield, Mass., about 1850. 

MILLER, W. G. — Unlocated. Late period flintlock and percussion 
Kentucky rifles. 

MILLER, William H.— Patentee of Miller alteration of U. S. musket. 
In 1888 made a deposition that he had been in the cutlery busi- 



144 American Gun Makers 

ness since 1868, was now postmaster at Meriden, Conn. Age 66. 
Prior to 1868 manufactured firearms as supt. and contractor. Be- 
gan as apprentice in firearms in Paterson, N. J. Until 1868 con- 
tinually in that business. After leaving Paterson went to Chicopee 
manufacturing Jenks carbines, also at Mill Creek, Pa. manu- 
facturing muskets, at Cincinnati manufacturing rifles for the 
Government as contractor with John W. Griffith. Came back to 
Paterson, N. J. was in locomotive shops six months, thence to 
Chicopee Falls on firearms, thence into Springfield Armory. 
Made a gun previous to taking out his patent in 1865. 

MILLIRON, C. — Dayton, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

MILLS, B. — Benjamin Mills, a gunsmith of Charlottsville, N. C, 
who served with Morgan's Rifles in the War of Revolution, and 
settled in Harrodsburg, Ky., about 1790, and where he made 
arms until about 1815. The settlement of Harrodsburg was 
founded by Col. James Harrod. 

Benjamin Mills is reputed to have armed Colonel Richard 
M. Johnson's regiment of mounted Kentucky riflemen, who de- 
cisively defeated the British and their Indian allies under Gen- 
eral Proctor, in the battle of Thames River, near Moravian Town, 
Canada, on Oct. 5, 1813. Tecumseh was among the slain, and as a 
result of this defeat, his Indians deserted the British cause. 

MILLS, Benjamin — Harrodsburg, Ky., percussion rifle and pistol 
maker of the Civil War period. Had been assistant armorer at 
Harpers Ferry Armory and was one of the hostages held by 
John Brown and rescued by Col. Robert E. Lee. During the 
Civil War cast his lot with the South and was rumored to have 
been in charge of arms production at one of the Confederate 
arsenals. Was reputed to make very fine trigger systems and 
to have numbered Fremont and Kit Carson among his clients. 

MILLS, F. M.— Charlottesville, N. C. About 1790. Flintlock rifles. Ap- 
prenticed to Henry Leman. Later opened own shop at Harrods- 
burg, Ky. Succeeded by son Benjamin Mills. 

MILLS, Jason— Pittsfield, Mass. In 1806 Jason Mills, of Springfield, 
Mass. purchased the old Whitney forge, and established a small 
gun-shop for the manufacture of fowling-pieces and other 
custom-work for the surrounding country. In 1808 the representa- 
tives of Mills sold out to Lemuel Pomeroy. 

MILLS, Joseph — Colerain Township, Bedford Co., Pa. 
MILLS, O.— Burnham, Troy, N. Y., 1839. Kentucky rifles. 
MILNOR, Isaac— Philadelphia, Pa., in 1799; flintlock Kentucky rifles. 
MINN. FIREARMS CO.— Minneapolis, Minn. Makers of "The Pro- 
tector" palm pistols. 

MISSISSIPPI STATE ARMORY— Panola, Miss. Established prin- 
cipally for conversion of sporting arms to military caliber. 
Machinery and equipment moved to Brandon, Miss., then on 
May 10, 1863, moved again to Meridian, Miss., due to advance 
of Federal troops on Jackson. The armory had employed 34 
hands, boring, reaming, turning and rifling barrels, fitting locks 
and stocking arms. 

The "Daily Clarion," Meridian, Miss., June 6, 1864, states 
"The carbine factory is engaged in making carbines for the 
cavalry, chiefly of the Maynard patent and fully equal to the 
best product in Yankeedom." 



American Gun Makers 145 

MITCHELL, Joseph— Born in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 19, 1798. Was 
apprenticed at an early age to Joseph Coons, Philadelphia gun- 
smith, and after finishing his service worked for a time for 
Brooke Evans (Brook Ivins) at Valley Forge. After a while 
returned to Philadelphia to manufacture arms on own account. 
Turned to farming in 1841. 

M. J. & G. — Marking on Confederate rifles. See Mendehall, Jones 
& Gardner. 

MOCK, A. — New York. Early American air rifles. 

MOCK, G. S. — Unlocated. Marking on barrel of a half stock, heavy 
barrel, percussion match rifle of very good workmanship. Back 
action lock. 

MOHN, Benjamin — Wyomissing Creek, Pa., gun maker. Built a gun 
shop in 1835. Gave up the business before the Civil War, and 
moved to Reading. The plant was taken over by Henry Worley, 
Mohn's superintendent, who continued the operation until about 
1880. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

MOLAN & FINN— Contractors of Nov. 19, 1807, with Tench Coxe, 
Purveyor of Public Supplies, for 350 pair of pistols at $10.00 
the pair and 700 rifles at $10.00 each. It is doubtful if any 
deliveries were made as the firm failed. 

MOLL, F. L.— Franklin Co., Pa., Kentucky rifles. 

MOLL, William— Lehigh Co., Pa., before and after 1747. 

MOLL, John I— Allentown, Pa. Son of William Moll. Listed in 1772. 
Worked at the State Gun Factory with Ebenezer Cowell during 
the Revolutionary War. Established the Moll gun shop on 7th 
Street in Allentown. John Moll I died in 1794. 

MOLL, John H— Son of John Moll I. Born May 13, 1773. Succeeded 
his father in the business, on the latter's death in 1794. 

MOLL, John III — Rifle maker. Son and successor to John Moll II. 
Born at Allentown in 1796. In the later years of his life, and 
until his death in 1883, the business was managed by his son, 
William H. Moll. 

MOLL, William H.— Allentown, Pa. Son of John Moll III. The last 
of the Molls to operate the Moll shop on North 7th Street. The 
shop was demolished in 1883. 

MOLL, J. & W. H.— Allentown, Pa., until 1883. John Moll III and son 
Wm. H. High-class rifles and pistols. 

MOLL, N.— Allentown, Pa., about 1840. Very heavy flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle with German silver patchbox, Joseph Golcher lock. 

MOLL, Peter— Pennsylvania, about 1840. (Same as Peter Moll of 
Hellerstown, Pa.?) 

MOLL, P. & D.— Peter and David Moll, Hellerstown, Pa., 1812-1833, 
before and after. Fancy flintlock Kentucky rifle inlaid with 
silver, ivory, and brass; Taylor lock; barrel marked in gold inlay 
"PETER MOLL HELLERSTOWN, WARRANTED, MAY 26, 1826, 
NO. 40." Another dated Jan. 30, 1833. Rifled brass-barreled 
flintlock holster pistol with artificially striped stock, London lock, 
S in silver monogram plate— supposedly used by Sawken Light 
Horse Cavalry in War of 1812. 

The Molls specialized in brass-barrelled, rifled pistols, arti- 
ficially grained to produce "tiger striped" stocks. The effect was 
produced by burning a heavy, tarred twine wrapped around the 



146 American Gun Makers 

stock in the rough. On the finished stock, the heat-hardened 

welts produced the effect of curly maple in striped pattern. 

Legend has it that a sufficient number of brass-barrelled, rifled 

pistols was produced by the Moll brothers to equip a troop of 

cavalry in the War of 1812. 
MOLL, P. & John, Jr. — Circa 1815, Penna. type flintlock rifle marked 

"P. & JOHN MOLL JR." (Same as Peter Moll of Hellerstown, 

Pa.?) 
MOLL, P. & John S. — Circa 1815, flintlock swivel-breech, superposed 

rifle marked "P. & JOHN*MOLL S." (Same as Peter Moll of 

Hellerstown, Pa.?) 
MOLL, William— Lehigh Co., Pa., about 1747. 
MOLLER, Louis— 712 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. 
MONTAGNY, Thomas— Vermont. War of 1812. Holster pistol of fine 

workmanship. 
MONTGOMERY ARSENAL— Montgomery, Ala. Confederate plant 

engaged in arms repair and alteration of flintlock muskets to 

percussion. 
MOON, M. A.— Buffalo, N. Y„ 1828. 
MOORE, Abraham— Coventry Township, Chester Co., Pa., 1770-76. 

Arms maker to Committee of Safety. 
MOORE, Benjamine — U. S. Inspector of Arms 1810-15. 
MOORE & BAKER— Unlocated. Flintlock . . . lock makers only? 

"MOORE & BAKER" stamped with separate stamps on lock plate 

of a converted flintlock on an extremely long (7'-10"), Kentucky 

"rifle." Also marking reported on silver inlaid, flintlock Kentucky 

rifle. 
MOORE, D. & CO. — Operated by Daniel Moore at Brooklyn, N. Y., 

1862-63. Makers of single action revolvers under the Daniel 

Moore patents of Sept. 18, 1860, No. 30,079 and Jan. 7, 1862, No. 

34,067. In 1863 the arms in stock, 3,376 revolvers were turned 

over to Smith & Wesson due to an infringement of the S. & W. 

controlled Rollin White patent for "a cylinder bored end to 

end." See Moore's Pat. Firearms Co., below. 
MOORE, G. A. — Barrel marking on a curly maple stock, percussion 

Kentucky rifle with "HENRY PARKER WARRANTED" lock. 
MOORE, Geo. — Madison County, Illinois. 
MOORE, George— Mount Vernon, Ohio, 1886-94. 
MOORE, HENSZEY & CO.— Percussion bar lock marked "MOORE, 

HENSZEY & CO." 
MOORE, John— 96 Beaver St., Albany, N. Y., in 1820. At 8 Beaver 

St. in 1821 — apparently bought out Hugh McClellan's shop. At 

11 Beaver St. in 1834-35. 

MOORE, J. P.— Union, N. Y. Active 1844-46. 

MOORE, John P.— Established at 302 Broadway, New York, N. Y., 
in 1823. See John P. Moore's Sons. 

MOORE'S JOHN P., SONS— In 1885 the firm consisted of a son, George 
G. Moore, son of John P. Moore, and two grandsons, John P. M. 
Richards and Henry M. Richards. The firm was founded by John 
P. Moore "who started for himself in New York, in the year 1823, 
after serving a regular apprenticeship of several years at the 
vise. From a very small beginning, our House has been gradually 
built up by honest dealing and strict attention to business prin- 



American Gun Makers 147 

ciples . . .". In spite of which, the firm was bought out by 
Schoverling, Daly & Gales in 1888. 

MOORE'S PAT. FIREARMS CO.— Brooklyn, N. Y. Makers of teat 
primer cartridge revolvers under David Williamson's patent of 
Jan. 5, 1864, No. 41,184, put on the market to replace the D. 
Moore revolver, which was an infringement on Smith & Wesson 
controlled patents. The firm was identical with or succeeded by 
the National Arms Company of Brooklyn, N. Y. See D. Moore & 
Co., above. 

MOORE, R. A. — Cortland St., New York, N. Y. Percussion telescopic 
sight, Civil War, sharpshooters rifle. 

MOORE, R. R. — Seneca Falls, N. Y., 1865-67, then Cincinnatus, and 
later Cortland, N. Y. Apprentice of Billinghurst of Rochester. 
Made shotguns and sporting and match rifles. 

MOORE, S. — Unlocated, early 19th century. Flint rifle and pistol 
locks; one marked "S. MOORE WARRANTED" on a P. & D. 
Moll Kentucky pistol. 

MOORE, W.— Colerain Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1810. Flintlock 
Kentucky rifles marked "W. MOORE." Possibly father of William 
Moore. 

MOORE, William— Colerain Township, Bedford Co., Pa. 1850. 

MOORE, Wm. — Madison County, Illinois. (Related to George Moore?) 

MOORE, Wm.— Windsor, Conn., 1860. 

MOPIN, J. — Missouri. Percussion rifles. 

MOPIN, M. — New Haven, Mo. Percussion rifles. 

MORGAN & CLAPP— New Haven, Conn., 1864-66. Rim-fire pocket 
pistols using the L. Morgan side-swing loading system. 

MORGAN, G.— Galena, Ohio, active 1863-1867; Lansing, Mich., 1867- 
1874 or later; died 1895. According to his son be turned from 
blacksmithing to riflemaking about 1863. An overunder per- 
cussion rifle marked "G. MORGAN LANSING, MICH. 1874 326;" 
also a brass-mounted halfstock Indian rifle with Geo. Golcher 
lock. 

MORGAN, Joseph — Morristown, N. J., 1779. 

MORGAN, Joseph — Superintendent of Springfield Armory Nov. 1, 

1802 to October 31, 1805. Had been U. S. Inspector of Arms 1799- 

1801. 
MORGAN, Lucius— 2 Bridge St., New Haven, Conn., 1858-77. Maker 

of rim-fire, side-swing pocket pistols. Associated with Clapp, in 

the firm of Morgan & Clapp, in 1864-66. 
MORLITOR, Joseph— St. Anthony, Minn., 1858-65. 

MORR, A.— Lancaster Co., Pa., about 1830-1840. Percussion Kentucky 
rifles. 

MORRETT, L.— Friend Street, Columbus, Ohio, 1847-48. 

MORRILL, MOSMAN & BLAIR— East Amherst, Mass., 1836-38. 
Makers of Elgin cutlass-pistols. The firm was organized Aoril 
1, 1836, by Henry A. Morrill, Silas Mosman, Jr., and Charles 
Blair. 

The business panic of 1837, and the failure of the firm of 
Knowles & Thayer affected the enterprise, and the partnership 
was dissolved in July, 1838, the business being carried on by 
Mosman and Blair until February, 1839, when the firm failed, 



148 American Gun Makers 

and the machinery and effects were sold at assignee's sale. In 
1837 the firm employed four hands and produced bowie-knife 
pistols to the value of $2,000. The firm's advertisement in the 
Hampshire Gazette under date of March 8, 1837: 

"Wanted — Six or eight filers, who can do first-rate work, 
and who feel smart enough to do a day's work in ten hours, 
without raising higher pressure of steam than cold water will 
make, and can leave their long yarns until their day's work is 
done. Such will find good encouragement by applying imme- 



diately to 

MORRILL, MOSMAN & BLAIR" 

MORRIS & BROWN— Morris W. M. and C. L. Brown of New York. 
Conical Repeater, 6 chambers, caliber about .41 rim fire. Patent 
No. 26,919 Jan. 24, 1860. 

MORRIS, John — Armorer. Was paid $32 New Emission Currency (at 
rate of exchange 2Vz for one, equal to $12, specie) for cleaning 
and repairing 6 muskets, Phila., Sept. 28, 1781. 

MORRIS, H. M. — Kentucky rifle, the buttplate tang extends over 
the comb of the stock for its entire length. See Morris & Brown. 

MORRISON — Virginia musket maker associated with Wheeler in a 
contract of Oct. 21, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets, dura- 
tion five years. Only 125 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

MORRISON, S. — Milton, Pa. Late flintlock period and early percus- 
sion rifles. Also made mule-ear percussion rifles. 

MORROW, Abraham— Also Murrow. Philadelphia, Pa. With John 
Nicholson received warrants to repair the arms of the militia 
of Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Montgomery and Delaware Coun- 
ties, as well as of Berks and Northampton, in 1791. Had con- 
tracted with U. S. to furnish "rifle guns" in 1792, for which a 
payment of $312.00 was made on account. 

MORSE — Painesville, Ohio. Percussion rifles. 

MORSE ARMS CO.— Greenville, S. C. about 1863-65. Makers of Con- 
federate Morse breech-loading, brass frame carbines. Operated 
by Geo. W. Morse, partly with machinery which had been cap- 
tured at Harpers Ferry Armory. Sufficient arms made to equip 
a company of Confederate troops. See Morse, George W. 

MORSE ARMS MFG. CO.— See Morse, George W. 

MORSE, E., Jr. — Unlocated. Half-stock, brass trim, side-by-side 
double rifle. 

MORSE, George W. — Worcester, Mass. Inventor and maker of Morse 
patent carbines, patented Oct. 28, 1856, Pat. No. 15,995. On Mar. 5, 
1858, the Secretary of War directed the purchase of 100 Morse 
carbines at $40.00 each. The order was accepted by Mr. Morse, 
but no deliveries were ever made. 

On Sept. 13, 1858, Morse sold to the U. S. for $10,000 the 
rights to alter 2,000 muzzle-loading arms to his breech-loading 
system. However, only 60 muskets were completed, and parts 
were made for the alteration of 540 more, before the appropria- 
tions allotted for the purpose were exhausted. 

In 1875, the Chief of Ordnance reported that in the spring 
of 1861, Mr. Morse, leaving his family in Washington, went to 
Richmond until after the Battle of Manassas Gap, thence to 
Nashville, Tenn., where he was in charge of cartridge making 
machinery taken by the Confederates at Harpers Ferry. He 






American Gun Makers 149 

next took the machinery to Chattanooga, then to Atlanta, and 
lastly to Greenville, S. C, where he "actually made arms for a 
company of rebel soldiers, as he declared, 'for State use to keep 
the peace,' which probably meant to enforce Confederate con- 
script laws." 

In 1875, Mr. Morse ineffectually entered a claim against the 
government alleging infringement of his patents by every breech- 
loading arm made by the government since 1865, and claiming 
a royalty of $5.00 on each of the 130,000 arms made. George 
Woodward Morse died March 8, 1888, at age of 76. See also State 
Rifle Works. 

MORSE, Thomas— Lancaster, N. H., about 1866-90. 

MOSES, M. A.— Malone, N. Y. About 1860-65. Percussion muzzle 
and breech-loading rifles, the latter using a steel, reloadable 
chamber with a recessed base for taking the primer. 

MOSHELL, J. H.— Columbus, Ga. Advertised May 30, 1862 for "four 
or five No. 1 Blacksmiths to forge Gun Barrels by the piece. 
Good prices will be paid." 

MOSHER, S. & S.— Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

MOSS, Ebenezer— Maryland, 1753. 

MOSSBERG, C. F. & SONS— 200 Greene St., New Haven, Conn., 
1920 to date. Single-shot and repeating rifles and pocket pistols. 

MOSSER, D. E. — Danville, Pa. Superposed percussion rifles. 

MOSSY CREEK — Tennessee foundry or gun factory reputed to have 
made guns at Mossy Creek as early as 1812 (unverified). Mossy 
Creek bridge and road at points were destroyed by Col. W. P. 
Saunders column of 1,500 Federals about June 21, 1863. Col. 
Saunders states "near this place I also destroyed the machinery 
of a Gun Factory and a Saltpeter Factory. (Mossy Creek, now 
called Jefferson City, is next station east of New Market and 
29 miles east of Knoxville. 

MOSTER, George— Or Morter. Earl Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 
1771-79. 

MOTT, A. — Pennsylvania, early 1800's. Flintlock Kentucky rifles with 
silver- wire inlays. 

MOULTON, R. B. — Proctorsville, Vt. Halfstock percussion harmonica 
rifle. 

MOWER— Columbia Co., Pa. Late Kentucky rifles. 

MOWRY, J. D. — Jas. D. Mowry, Norwick, Conn., Civil War con- 
tractor for Springfield rifle muskets, Model 1861: — 
Dec. 26, 1861 for 30,000 at $20.00; 10,000 delivered. 
Nov. 27, 1863 for 20,000 at $20.00; 20,000 delivered. 
April 6, 1864 for 10,000 at $18.00; 10,000 delivered. 
The barrels for the Mowry arms were made by Cole & Walker 
on Franklin Street, on sub-contract; the locks by C. B. Rogers 
& Co., of West Chelsea, and the remaining parts at Mowry's 
own plant at Greeneville. 

M. S. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

M. T. W. — Initials of Marine T. Wickham, Master Armorer, Harpers 
Ferry Armory before 1811. U. S. Inspector of Arms 1811-1815. 
Inspector of arms (sabers) at plant of Nathan Starr in 1814. See 
Wickham, M. T. 

MUELLER, Hieronymus— Decatur, Illinois, maker of muzzle-loading, 
percussion and later of breech-loading, shotguns. German trained, 



150 American Gun Makers 

Mueller was also the town plumber and pioneered a water main 
tapping machine which from the founding of Mueller Co., 1857, 
grew into the present corporation. 

MUIR, W. & CO.— William Muir, Windsor Locks, Conn. Civil War 
contractor of Dec. 7, 1861, for 30,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle 
til muskets at $20.00 each. Contract completed. 

MULHOLLAND, James — Reading, Pa. Civil War contractor of Jan. 
7, 1862, for 50,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets at $20.00 
each. A total of 5,502 delivered on contract. 

MULL, John^ — Northampton Township, Northampton Co., Pa., 1788. 

MULLEN, Cyrus — Williamsburg, Ind. Percussion rifle. 

MULLER, J. H.— Gunsmith, Elysian Fields, New Orleans, La., 1853 

MULLIN, J. & P.— Fulton St. and 36 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. 
John and Patrick Mullin. Patrick Mullin immigrated from Ireland 
after gunsmithing in London and Dublin; on Fulton St. made 
custom percussion shotguns, later occupied shop in Maiden Lane 

iand made plain shotguns and expensive sporting breech-loaders. 
His brother John made percussion rifles in the same shop. 
MUNSON, Levi — Saybrook, Ohio, percussion period. 

MUNSON, MORSE & CO.— 63 Temple St., New Haven, Conn., 1856- 
1862. Listed as pistol as well as coach, saddlery and hardware 
manufactory. At 157 Temple St., in 1862. 

MUNSON, Theophilus— New Haven, Conn., about 1700. Doglock 
musket. 

MULLIN, Patrick— New York, N. Y., 1850. 

MULLOY, N. P.— Worcester, Mass., 1869-71. 

MURFREESBOROUGH ARMORY— Murfreesboro, Tenn. Confederate 
shoulder arms repair and reconditioning plant. 

MURPHY, Justin— U. S .Inspector of Contract Arms, 1818-1831. In- 
spected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon North, 
Lemuel Pomeroy, Nathan Starr, and Asa Waters. 

MURRAY, J. P.— Columbus, Ga., 1856-65. Confederate shoulder arms. 
Master armorer for Greenwood & Gray, of Columbus, Ga., 
makers of Murray carbines. 

J. P. Murray advertised June 8, 1860, as "J. P. Murray, suc- 
cessor to Happold & Murray, 46 Broad Street, Columbus, Ga., 
maker and dealer in Shotguns, Rifles, Pistols . . . Restocking and 
repairing done with neatness and dispatch." July 6, 1861, he 
advertised for persons who had arms on repair to call for same. 
August 28th, 1861, Murray received 200 flintlock Confederate 
muskets to convert to percussion. March 29, 1862, J. P. Murray 
was reported by the Macon Telegraph to be making Mississippi 
rifles at Columbus, Ga. See Greenwood & Gray. 

MURROW, Abraham— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1783-91. 
Worked on repair of public arms in 1788-91. See Morrow, 
Abraham. 

MUSGROVE, S. — Ironton, Ohio, percussion period. 

MUSSER, H.— Mulheim, Pa. 

MYER, Henry — Lancaster, Pa., arms maker for the Committee of 
Safety. Excused by the Executive Council from military duties 
Dec. 5, 1777, for the making of arms for the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, in the employ and under direction of William Henry I of 
Lancaster. 



American Gun Makers 151 

N 

N. — Unidentified. Marking on a Kentucky type pistol. 

NABURY, Thomas — Maker of gun skelps for musket barrels. In em- 
ploy of Col. Peter Grubb, who operated a gun skelp forge for 
the Lancaster, Pa., Committee of Safety in 1776. 

NAGEBAUER, Jean — Gunsmith, Moreau corner Mandeville, New 
Orleans, La., 1853. 

NAGLE, Marcus — Maker of gun skelps for musket barrels. In employ 
of Col. Peter Grubb, who operated a gun skelp forge for the 
Lancaster, Pa., Committee of Safety in 1776. 

NASH, John — New Haven, Conn., 1645. Listed as gunsmith. 

NASH, Thomas— New Haven, Conn. Early gunsmith. (1638?) 

NASHVILLE ARMORY— Confederate arms plant believed to have 
been located in the basement of the Capitol building. Arms 
were made from parts furnished by local gunsmiths. 

NASHVILLE GUN FACTORY— Nashville, Tenn. Organized as a 
stock company in 1861 to manufacture arms for the Confed- 
eracy. The buildings were located on the site called "Gun Fac- 
tory Playground," South 3rd, opposite Lindsley Street. The 
plant made Model 1841, Mississippi, type rifles until 1862, when 
it closed on the arrival of Federal troops. The buildings were 
used as a school for negroes in 1867-71, and then were occupied 
by the Weakley & Warren Furniture Manufactory until 1885, 
when the entire plant burned down. 

NASON, C. F.— Auburn and Lewisburg, Me., 1863-68. 

NATIONAL ARMS CO.— Brooklyn, N. Y. After 1863. Makers of 
National cartridge derringers, rifles and teat-primer cartridge 
revolvers made under David Williamson patent of Jan. 5, 1864, 
No. 41,184, manufactured to avoid infringement of Smith & 
Wesson controlled, Rollin White patent for a "cylinder bored 
end to end." 

The National Arms Company is believed to be identical 
with, or successor to, Moore's Patent Firearms Co., of Brooklyn, 
both firms producing identical derringers and revolvers. 

NEAL, Wm. — Bangor, Me. Percussion under-hammer pistols without 
trigger guard. 

NEAL, John — Bangor, Me. Son and successor to Wm. Neal. In partner- 
ship with Charles V. Ramsdell as Ramsdell & Neal, Harlow St., 
post-Civil War. The partnership dissolved, Neal's shop stood 
at State and Harlow Streets. 

NEAVE, T. & C. — Cincinnati, Ohio, percussion period. 

NEFF, Peter & Sons — Cincinnati, Ohio. Makers of percussion rifle 
locks; one with brass lockplate, stamped with squirrel, dog, etc. 

NEIHARD, Peter— See Neuhard, Peter. 

NELSON, Alexander— Philadelphia, Pa. On March 25, 1776, con- 
tracted with the Colony of Virginia to furnish 600 stands of 
arms similar to the British pattern to be delivered at the Pub- 
lic Gun Factory at Fredericksburg, Va., at 4 pounds, 5 shillings, 
Virginia currency per stand, payable at Williamsburg, delivery 
to be completed before June 15, 1777. Bond with security fur- 
nished under penalty of £1,000. 

Each stand is described "to consist of a good musquet, 3 



152 American Gun Makers 

feet, 8 inches in the barrel, %-inch bore, steel rammers, the 
upper thimble trumpet-mouthed, the lower thimble with spring 
to retain the ramrod, bridle-lock, brass mounted; a bayonet 18 
inches blade, with a scabbard; one pair bullet molds, to mould 
16 bullets to every 40 guns; a priming wire and brush to each 
musquet; the stand compleat, well fixed and properly proved." 

NELSON & CO,— Unlocated. 

NELSON, Francis — Advertised for sale "gun stocks well seasoned 
by the large or small quantity," at his place of business opposite 
the Bull's Head (tavern), Strawberry Alley, Philadelphia. Ad- 
vertisement in the Pennsylvania Evening Post, Aug. 31, 1776. 

NELSON, Owen O.— See Dickson, Nelson Co. 

NELSON, Roger— Medina-Town, Ohio, 1825. 

NELSON, Roger— Medina, Ohio, 1858-60. (Same, or related to Roger 
Nelson above?) 

NEPPERHAN FIREARMS CO.— Yonkers, N. Y., about 1859. Makers 
of 5-shot, percussion, pocket revolvers. 

NESBITT, Robert— McLane, 3 miles south of McKean, Pa., 19th 
century. Farmer, surveyor, sailor, blacksmith, gunsmith. Beauti- 
ful fowling piece. 

NESTLE, Frederick— Baltimore, Md., 1850-70. 

NETTER, Solomon — Huntingdon Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

NEUHARD, Peter— Also Neihard. Whitehall Township, Northampton 
Co., Pa., 1786-88. 

NEWBAKER — Pennsylvania, making Kentucky rifles of excellent 
workmanship in 1831. 

NEWBERN, D.— Linn County, Iowa, 1878. 

NEWBERN, J. C— "Jimmy" and "Old Danny" Newbern, Mount 
Vernon, Iowa, rifle maker; 1870-1900. After his death his tools 
and equipment reported to have been purchased by Mr. Ralph 
Williams of Lisbon, Iowa, his former apprentice and shop worker. 

NEWBURY ARMS CO.— Albany and Catskill, N. Y., 1855-60. SmaU 
caliber rimfire deringers and percussion revolvers based on 
patents of Frederick D. Newbury of Albany, N. Y. 

NEWBURY, John— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1818-1825. In- 
spected arms in the plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon North, 
Lemuel Pomeroy, Nathan Starr and Eli Whitney. 

NEWCOMB, H. W.— Eastport, Me., 1866-68. 

NEWCOMER, John— Hempfield Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 

NEWHARDT, Jacob and Peter— Allentown, Pa., before and after 
1774-76. 

NEW HAVEN ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn., 1857-66. The firm 
was organized by Oliver F. Winchester, one of the principal 
stockholders of the Volcanic Repeating Arms Co., which had 
been organized by Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson to 
manufacture a repeating pistol in 1854, and was incorporated 
in July, 1855, as the Volcanic. In February, 1856, the Volcanic 
moved to New Haven, Conn. The Volcanic failed and had to 
reorganize, and May 1, 1857, became the New Haven Arms 
Company, with Mr. Winchester as President and principal 
owner, and B. Tyler Henry remaining as the superintendent in 
charge of production. 



American Gun Makers 153 

Mr. Henry obtained a patent on an extractor feature in 
an improved magazine arm using rim-fire cartridges, (No. 
30,446, of Oct. 16, I860,) and assigned the patent to Mr. Win- 
chester. The firm abandoned the manufacture of the older Vol- 
canic type arms, and began the production of the new Henry 
rifles, named in honor of the inventor, whose initial "H" was 
also stamped on the base of the shells, a practice followed to 
this date by the Winchester Company. 

About 10,000 Henry repeating rifles were acquired and 
used by the Union forces during the Civil War, the arm being 
known to the Confederates as "that damned Yankee rifle that 
can be loaded on Sunday and fired all week." Of the above 
number, 1,731 Henry rifles were purchased by the War Depart- 
ment from July 23, 1863, to Nov. 7, 1865. 

In 1866, the New Haven Arms Company was reorganized, 
and reappeared as the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, 
making the Winchester rifle, which was the old Henry with 
certain improvements, principal of which was the Nelson King 
side-loading gate. 

NEW HAVEN ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn. Modern. Makers of 
Reising automatic target pistols. 

NEWHIRTER, J.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

NEWHOFF, F. B.— Leidersdorff near Sansome, San Francisco, Calif., 
1858-60. F. Newhoff is listed at 208 Leidersdorff in 1865. (with 
William Harris?). 

NEWLING, Price — Unlocated. Reported lock marking on a flintlock 
Kentucky rifle by A. Gompf, Lancaster, Pa. 

NEWTON ARMS CO.— Buffalo, N. Y. Organized by Charles New- 
ton, a lawyer, in 1914, with himself as President and John F. 
Nagle, brewing equipment manufacturer as Secretary, for the 
manufacture of Newton high power sporting rifles. The offices 
were at 506 Mutual Life Building, and the works at 442 Niagara 
Street. The firm went into receivership in 1916, and failed in 
1918. About 2,400 rifles had been made by the Company before 
they went into receivership, and some 1,600 during the later 
period. 

NEWTON, CHARLES, RIFLE CORP'N— 1083 Ellicott Square Build- 
ing, Buffalo, N. Y. Organized by Charles Newton about 1918, 
in competition to the Newton Arms Co., of which Mr. Newton 
had lost control, and which was operated by receivers. This 
firm had 100 Newton-Mauser rifles made for it in Germany, 
and never went much beyond the promotion stage, insofar as 
the domestic production of arms was concerned. The Company 
went out of existence about 1932. See Newton Arms Co., and 
Buffalo Newton Rifle Corp'n. 

NEWTON, Moses— Connecticut, 1776. Made and sold to Connecticut 
and Massachusetts Committees of Safety six guns and locks: 
Nov. 15, 1776. 

NEW YORK ARMS CO.— Double action, rim-fire pocket revolvers. 

NICHOLS and CHILDS— R. Nichols and E. Childs. Patentees of a 
7 shot revolving cylinder rifle, made in Conway, Mass. Patent 
No. 707 April 24, 1838. Caliber .36, 39 inches long. 

NICHOLS, John— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1776-89. 

NICHOLS, Jonathan, Jr.— Vergennes, Vt. Contractor under Act of 
July 5, 1798, for 1,000 (Model 1795) Charleville pattern muskets 
at $13.40 per stand. No deliveries recorded. Probably failed in 
his contract. 






154 American Gun Makers 

NICHOLS & LEFEVER— Syracuse, N. Y., 1876-79. 

NICHOLS, R.— See Nichols & Childs. 

N. I. J. — Unidentified. Script initials on a fine, silver-inlaid percus- 
sion Kentucky rifle. 

NICHOLSON, John — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 
Safety, 1775-76. Payment recorded for making eleven pattern 
guns. Listed as having paid tax in Dock Ward, Philadelphia, 
in 1774. John Nicholson was one of the petitioners represent- 
ing Pennsylvania gun makers, complaining to the Committee 
of Safety against the high cost of material and labor entering 
into arms making and quoting advances in prices within one 
year, ince 1775. With Abraham Morrow he had been awarded 
warrants for the repair of arms of militia of Bucks, Chester, 
Lancaster, Montgomery and Delaware Counties, as well as of 
Berks and Northampton, in 1791. Contracted for "rifle guns" 
in 1792, for which payments of $588.00 is noted. U. S. Inspector 
of Arms at Phila., Pa. 1800-06. 

NICHOLSON, L. — Unlocated. Fancy curly maple halfstocked per- 
cussion rifle marked in script on silver inlay. Back action lock; 
round lid cabox and numerous small brass inlays of animals, etc. 

NIPPES, Daniel— Mill Creek, Pa. Musket contractor of July 16, 
1842, for 4,000 flintlock muskets, Model 1840, at $14.75 per 
stand, to be delivered at the rate of 800 per annum to Jan. 1, 
1846. On March 3, 1846, Nippes obtained an additional con- 
tract for 1,600 muskets, also at $14.75 each. It it interesting 
to note that these last Nippes flintlock muskets were still 
being made on contract, three years after the manufacture of 
flintlock arms was discontinued at the Springfield Armory. In 
1848, Nippes contracted to alter 2,000 muskets to the Maynard 
priming system, 1,000 on Feb. 9, at $4.00 each, and another 1,000 
on Nov. 22, 1848, at $3.00 each. 

The earliest record of the Nippes family is found in the 
passenger list of the ship George of Portland, Francis White, 
Master, which arrived from Rotterdam, Holland, Oct. 26, 1796. 
Among the passengers are mentioned Abram, Daniel and Wil- 
helm Nippes, as well as Anna Christiana and Anna Catharina 
Nippes. 

The first record of the Nippes family, arms makers, is 
found in a contract awarded to Nippes in association with 
Winner and Steinman, on July 20, 1808, for 9,000 Model 1808 
muskets, five years duration, of which 3,900 are recorded to have 
been delivered by Oct. 7, 1812, and presumably in time the con- 
tract was completed. There are known Model 1808 muskets with 
lock-plates marked "W. N. & S." This stands for Winner, Nippes 
& Steinman 

The Philadelphia City Directory lists Abraham Nippes as re- 
siding at 262 St. John Street in 1813, and William at the same 
address in 1813, and at 254 St. John Street in 1819-20. In 1829 
Abraham Nippes is listed at 111 Dillwyn and William Nippes 
at 127 Dillwyn. Daniel Nippes is not shown, and may have been 
at the Nippes Mill, at Mill Creek, where the Model 1840 Nippes 
muskets were made later. Daniel's son, Albert S. Nippes, was the 
superintendent of the Nippes works, and Sharps early rifles are 
known made about 1848, marked A. S. Nippes. 

NIXON, Austin— Washington Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1832. 



American Gun Makers 155 

NOBLE & LITTLE— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

NOLL, J.— Maryland? 1803. Relief carved fullstock Kentucky rifles of 
fine workmanship. One known dated 1803. 

NORCROSS & ALLEN — Unlocated. Underhammer percussion pistol. 

NORDHEIM, G. A. — Yreka, Calif., maker of percussion sporting rifles 
and target rifles with burl walnut half stock, double set triggers, 
brass cap boxes and iron mounts. 

NORMAN, John— U. S. Inspector of Arms, in year 1830. 

NORRIS, A.— Unlocated. Reported flint lock on a D. Marker, Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

NORRIS, S. & W. T. CLEMENT— Springfield, Mass. Civil War con- 
tractors to the State of Massachusetts in 1863, for 2,000 Model 
1863 Springfield rifle muskets. Contract extended in 1864 for 
an additional 1,000. These arms were marked "S. N. & W. T. C. 
for Mass." 

NORRIS, W.— Unlocated, 1833 (or 1838). Percussion Plains rifle, 
back-action lock marked Williams Warranted. 

NORTH CAROLINA GUN FACTORY— Established at Halifax in 
1776, James Ransome, Esq., superintendent. Records indicate 
manufacture and delivery of arms in 1777. In 1778 the factory 
was ordered dismantled and equipment sold, except for 36 com- 
pleted muskets, which were to be turned over to the Command- 
ing Officer of the Guard at Halifax. 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE ARMORY— Florence, N. C. Confederate 
small arms plant operated by Capt. Zimri S. Coffin, Confederate 
Ordnance Agent, and employing 30 to 40 hands. 

NORTH & COUCH— Middletown, Conn., about 1860. Makers of a 
six-barrel trap pistol. 

NORTH, H. S.— Middletown, Conn. Maker of North & Skinner re- 
volving rifles and shotguns, patented June 1, 1852, No. 8982. 

NORTH & SAVAGE— Henry S. North and Edward Savage of Middle- 
town, Conn., 1856-59, makers of the Savage-North figure-8 trigger, 
6-shot, sliding cylinder revolvers made under the Henry S. North 
patent of June 17, 1856, No. 15,164. 

One hundred revolving pistols were purchased by the gov- 
ernment from North & Savage May 23, 1857, at $20.00 each, 
and an additional 500 were contracted for July 10, 1858. Ninety- 
nine were issued to the army in 1858. 

The firm was succeeded in 1860 by the Savage Revolving 
Firearms Company, manufacturing the improved Savage re- 
volvers. See Savage Revolving Arms Co. 

NORTH & SKINNER— See H. S. North. 

NORTH, Selah— Stow's Corners, Summit Co., Ohio, 1835. 

NORTH, Simeon — Middletown, Conn. Active 1799-1852. A descendant 
of an old New England family, Simeon North was born at 
Berlin, Conn., July 13, 1765, and according to family history 
began earning his livelihood as a farmer. In 1795 he purchased 
a water power mill adjoining his farm, and started the manu- 
facture of scythes. It was probably this training as a metal 
worker and machinist, as well as a natural mechanical bent, 
that prompted him to secure a government contract on March 
9, 1799, for the manufacture of 500 horse pistols at $6.50 each, 
to be delivered in one year. Possibilities are that he learned the 



156 American Gun Makers 

rudiments of arms manufacture from a neighbor, Elias Beckley 
whose gunsmith shop was but a mile away from North's birth- 
place at Berlin. 

The first North pistols, Model 1799, patterned after the 
French Model 1777 army pistols, were satisfactory, and ever 
prior to the completion and delivery of the first lot of 500 
North was awarded on Feb. 6, 1800, another contract by James 
Henry, Secretary of the Department of War, for 1,500 additiona 
pistols at $6.00 each to be completed by Feb. 6, 1802. These 
earliest North pistols of the French, brass frame type, are markec 
with Cheney's name as well as North's, though all North con 
tracts known, are signed by Simeon North alone. According t( 
the North family history, Elisha Cheney, a brother-in-law anc 
clock manufacturer by trade, had a working agreement witl 
North, about 1811, to make screws and pins for North pistols 
but partnership is denied. 

After the completion of the first contracts, North resumec 
the manufacture of farm implements until June 30, 1808, whei 
he obtained a contract for 1,000 pair of navy boarding pistols a 
$11.75 a pair, to be made according to Navy Department patterns 
but with certain North improvements. To fulfill this contrac 
North enlarged his factory and applied his mechanical abilit: 
and inventive genius to the development of labor saving ma 
chinery and the modern principle of standardization of parts, b: 
assigning the production of identical parts to individual work 
men, until a large number were finished. This method, far ahea< 
of those times of individual craftsmanship, not only saved tim 
and labor, but resulted in giving North arms a reputation fo 
a more uniform and better product. 

The pistols of the contract for Model 1808 having been "mud 
approved," the contract was extended, and on Dec. 4, 1810, th 
navy contracted for an additional 500 pairs at $12.00 the pair. 

In the meantime, in 1808, Congress passed an act for th 
arming and equipping the whole body of the militia of th 
several states by the Federal Government, and in 1810, Simeoj 
North contracted under the provisions of this act, with Tend 
Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies, to manufacture horse pistol 
for the army (Model 1810). It is at about this time that Nort] 
was commissioned as Lt. Colonel in the 6th Connecticut Regi 
ment. 

Shortly before the declaration of War of 1812, North a 
the instance of the Secretary of War, backed by promise o 
further contracts, enlarged the capacity of his Berlin shops 
and when on April 16, 1813, he was given a contract for 20,00 
pistols (Model 1813), he erected a new, large factory at Middle 
town, Conn., six miles from Berlin. The Berlin shops were con 
tinued in operation under supervision of North's eldest sor 
Reuben, making forgings for the Middletown factory, unti 
1843, when they were closed, and in 1857, the buildings wer 
destroyed by a flood. 

In the pistols made at Middletown factory, which wa 
built according to the most advanced ideas of the time, Co 
North successfully embodied the principle of standardizatio: 
and inter changeability of parts, then a project open to skeptics 
criticism. 

The delivery of pistols under the contract of 1813, whic 
was to be completed in five years, was delayed by a year, du 



American Gun Makers 157 

to modifications introduced in 1816. On July 1, 1819, before 
completing the delivery under the old contract, North entered 
into a new contract for 20,000 horse pistols (Model 1819), which 
he completed in 1823, well in advance of specifications. 

On November 16, 1826, Colonel North undertook a contract 
for 1,000 navy pistols (Model 1826) at $7.00 each. This contract 
was repeated by another for the same model and same number 
on Dec. 12, 1827, and again for an additional 1,000 on Aug. 12, 
1828. These 3,000 pistols (Model 1826), were the last of the 
North pistol contracts. 

Simeon North had entered into the manufacture of rifles 
in 1823, and in 1828, with the expiration of the last of the 
pistol contracts, he turned his entire attention to the manu- 
facture of rifles, both the standard muzzle-loading types, and 
the Hall breech-loaders. Between 1799 and 1828, Simeon North 
had manufactured and delivered some 50,000 pistols to the 
United States Government. 

The following are the North long arms contracts, known 
and recorded at the date of publication: 

Dec. 10, 1823—6,000 Model 1817, standard flintlock rifles 
at $14.00 each, duration five years, at 1,200 per year from July 1, 
1823. 

July 22, 1828—1,200 Model 1817, standard flintlock rifles 
at $14.50 each, delivery within one year. 

Dec. 15, 1828—5,000 Hall breech-loading flintlock rifles at 
$17.50 each, delivery 1,000 per year from July 1, 1829. 

July, 1829—1,200 Hall rifles. 

June, 1833—1,000 carbines for Dragoons at $20.00 each, de- 
livery between January and May, 1834. 

Jan. 27, 1835—4,000 Hall rifles. 

June 20, 1836—2,500 Hall carbines at $18.00 each, duration to 
Dec. 31, 1837. 

May 2, 1839—10,000 Hall carbines at $18.00 each, duration 
five years, at 2,000 per year from Jan. 1, 1840. 

Dec. 30, 1845—2,000 Hall carbines at $17.50 each. 

Feb. 4, 1848—1,000 Hall carbines at $17.50 each. 

Feb. 5, 1850—3,000 Hall carbines at $17.50 each. 

Simeon North is reported to have had two other orders of 
Nov. 23, 1835, and Jan. 6, 1836, both for Hall carbines, details 
unknown at this time. Colonel North died in 1852, after more 
than half-century of providing arms to the government. 
NORTON, Lyman — Susquehanna District, Pa. Percussion sporting 
rifle. 

NORWICH ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn. About 1875. See Norwich 
Lock Mfg. Co. 

NORWICH ARMS CO.— Norwick, Conn., Civil War contractors for 
Springfield rifle muskets: April 1, 1864, for 10,000 at $18.00 each, 
and Oct. 16, 1864, for 15,000 at $19.00 each. Both contracts ful- 
filled. 

The firm also had produced a few Armstrong & Taylor rifles. 

The Norwich Arms Company had two plants; barrels and 

bayonets were made at the Franklin Street shop, the stocks 

and locks in a plant near Shetucket. The firm failed at the 

end of the Civil War, and the assets were sold at auction. 

NORWICH LOCK MFG. CO.— Also Norwich Arms Co., Norwich, 
Conn., about 1873-77 and later. Makers of Union Jack, Inter- 



158 American Gun Makers 

national, and other cartridge revolvers. It is believed that the 
firm is identical with the Hood Fire Arms Co., of Norwich, 
Conn. 

NULL, G. — Penna. Rifle of indifferent workmanship. 

NUNNEMACHER, A.— Andrew, Abraham or Abram. New York 
County, Pa., 1779-83. 

NUTTING, Ebenezer— Falmouth, Maine, 1724-25. Active in the trade 
about 1725-45. Early, 43 inch, part octagonal, pinned barrel flint- 
lock rifle with full cherry stock. Marked "E. NUTTING" on barrel 
flat. 

NOWLIN, Abram Cephus— Born in Patrick Co., Va., 1825; died 1913. 
Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles. Wounded in Confeder- 
ate Army; after Civil War moved to Stark Creek near Cross 
Timbers, Hickory Co., Mo. Complete gunmaking; made one lock. 
Father of Tom Newlin. 

NOWLIN, Tom — Stark Creek near Cross Timbers, Hickory Co., Mo. 
Born 1879, son of Abram C. Nowlin. Percussion rifles. Moved 
to Kansas City before World War II; machinist, does restoring 
and reconditioning. 

N. W. P.— Initials of N. W. Patch, U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 
1834-1840 at plant of Nathan Starr. 

o 

OAKE, C. & SON — Jacksonville, Florida. Side-by-side, combination 
percussion rifle-and-shotgun equipped with back-action locks. 

OAKES, Samuel— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1800. 

OBERHOLTZER, Christian— Lancaster, Pa., arms maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety, 1775-77. Excused by the Executive Council 
from military duties on Dec. 5, 1777, for the making of arms for 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the employ and under 
direction of William Henry I of Lancaster. 

OBERTEUFFER, C. A.— Phila., Pa. Brass barrel flintlock pistol with 
lock probably by Spang & Wallace. 

OBLINGER, David and Walter— Piqua, Ohio, 1870-88. 

OBLINGER, S.— Troy, Ohio, 1869-78. 

ODELL, S.— Natchez, Miss. Kentucky rifles. 

ODLIN, John— Boston, Mass. 1671-82. 

OFFREY, P.— Gunsmith, 173 Chartres, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

OGDEN, C. — Owego, N. Y. Three-barrel percussion gun. 

OGDEN, J.— Owego, N. Y. (Related to C. Ogden?) 

OGDEN, W. & C. — Owego, N. Y. Percussion period. Prolific workmen. 

OHLENHAUSEN— Wooster, Wayne Co., Ohio. 

OLDHAM, Thomas— East St. Clair Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1850. 
Maker of Kentucky rifles. 

OLIVIER, John— 37 George St., Baltimore, Md., 1810. 

OLMSTEAD, Morgan L.— Auburn, N. Y. 

O. M. — Heavy, home-made buffalo rifle, oak half stock with sowbelly 
butt. Remington Cast Steel barrel. Initials "O.M.", cut in pewter 
fore-end tip, both sides. 

O'MARA BROTHERS— Detroit, Mich., 1865-70? A three barrel gun, 
two rifles side by side with shotgun barrel underneath. 



American Gun Makers 159 

O. N.— Initials of Noble Orr, U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1799-1801. 

O'NEAL — Unlocated. Rifle maker. 

O'NEAL, David— Geary near Kearny, San Francisco, Calif., 1858. 

ONG, E.— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1773-77. Had worked 
at the State Gun Factory, at Philadelphia, under Peter Dehaven. 

ORAHOOD, J.— Bellefontaine, Ohio, 1858. Percussion rifles. 

ORGILL BROS. & CO.— Memphis, Tenn., 1860. 

ORMSBY, E. S.— Unlocated. Pill-lock revolving rifle. 

ORR, Hugh — Came to America from Scotland and established at 
Bridgewater, Mass., in 1737. Is known to have made 500 stands 
of muskets for the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1748, which 
arms were subsequently removed by the British on their evacua- 
tion of Boston in 1776. Orr was active as an arms maker during 
the Revolutionary War. Born at Lochinwinioch in January, 1717; 
died in December, 1798. 

ORR, Noble— U. S. Inspector of Arms 1799-1801. His initial "ON" 

are found on Whitney contract musket stocks. 
ORR, Robert — Son of Hugh Orr. Appointed Master Armorer at 

Springfield Armory in 1795. 
OSBORN, Lot— Waterbury, Conn., 1776-77. Musket maker to the 

state. Arms marked with name or initials and "S. C." for State 

of Connecticut. Received payment for thirty-seven guns without 

bayonets and thirty-seven with bayonets; Jan. 14, 1779. 
OSBORNE, H. — Springfield, Mass., musket maker before and after 

1812-21. 
OSGOOD GUN WORKS— Norwich, Conn., about 1880. Rim-fire 

"Duplex" and "Monarch" revolvers. 
OSHKOSH TRAP GUN CO.— Oshkosh, Wis. About 1910. Cheap, single 

barrel shotguns. 
OVERBAUGH, C. E.— 300 Broadway, New York, N. Y., before and 

after 1879-87. Top action target rifles. 
OVERLY, Peter— Kentucky. About 1812. 
OVERTON, J. — Arkadelphia, Ark., percussion period. 
O. W. A. — Initials of O. W. Ainsworth, U. S. Inspector of Arms 

within years 1831-1850. 
OWENS, E. G.— Denver, Col., 1879-80. 
OWENS, Lemuel— Zanesville, Muskigum Co., Ohio, 1810-20. 



P — See Pennsylvania State Gun Factory. 

P.A.— Phil Anglin, ("Old Uncle Phil"), Robertson Co., Tenn., maker 
of flintlock and later percussion, Kentucky rifles. Maker of a 61" 
flintlock rifle marked "P.A.", with lock by John Kirkman, Ash- 
ville, Pa. Also made tiger maple, full stock, .38 caliber, percus- 
sion rifle with set triggers and lock apparently of own manu- 
facture. 

PACHARD, William— Elyria, Ohio, 1859-60. 

PACHMEYER, A. M.— Los Angeles, Calif. Modern. 

PACKARD, Charles— Arms stocker, Springfield Armory, 1795. 

PACKARD, William— Elyria, Lorain Co., Ohio, 1859-60. Half-stock, 
percussion, octagonal barrel rifle. 



160 American Gun Makers 

PACKSON— With Bennett settled on Kent Island, Md., in 1631. 
Maryland's first gun makers. Established three years before the 
founding of the Province by Calvert. 

PAGE, Allen W.— 108 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y., 1801. 

PAGE, John — Preston, Conn., Gun-lock maker to Committee of 
Safety. Delivery recorded of twenty-four bridled gun-locks, and 
payment made in August, 1777. 

PAGE, John — Norwich, Conn., gunsmith, 1780. Originally from 
Preston, England. (Same as John Page, gun-lock maker to C. of 
S. above?) 

PAGE, LEWIS ARMS CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Small caliber rim- 
fire cartridge rifles. 

PAINE, KNOX & CO.— Kentucky. About 1860. Squirrel rifles. Elihu 
Paine. 

PAINE, S. T.— Unlocated. Half stock target rifles. 

PALM, Isaac — Pennsylvania. 

PALM, Frederick-— Ulster County, New York, rifle maker, 1769-1775. 
One of four rifle makers induced by Sir William Johnson to come 
out from Pennsylvania and settle in New York State by grants 
of buildings and tools. By 1775 rifle making became an enter- 
prising industry with most of the settlers and Indians trading 
their smoothbores for rifled arms, and New York was second 
only to Pennsylvania in their manufacture. 

PALM, Jacob — Pennsylvania about 1764-68 and Ulster County, New 
York 1769-1775, rifle maker. One of four rifle makers induced 
by Sir William Johnson to come out and settle in New York 
State by grants of buildings and tools. Flintlock Kentucky type 
target and hunting rifles, numbered. Heavy flintlock match rifle, 
silver-inlaid stock, marked No. 4; numbers 109 and 206 known. 
Related to Frederick Palm? 

PALM, John — Lancaster, Pa. 

PALMATEER & WRIGHT— Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1835-46. 

PALMER, Amasa — Connecticut. Musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. May 3, 1776, with Hezekiah Huntington applied for pay- 
ment for 27 muskets and 25 gun-locks made by them. 

PALMER, Thomas— North Ward, Philadelphia, Pa., 1773-76, before 
and after. Musket maker to Committee of Safety of Philadelphia 
in 1776. President of the committee of petitioners, representing 
gun makers, complaining to the Committee of Safety in Novem- 
ber, 1776, against the high and rising cost of materials and labor 
entering into gun making, and quoting advances in prices within 
one year, since 1775. 

He advertised in the Pennsylvania "Gazette," March 31, 1773: 
"Tho: Palmer, Gun Smith, at his shop: the north side of Market- 
street, between Fourth and Fifth-streets . . . well made Rifles, 
of different lengths and Sizes of Bores, which he will insure to 
the Purchasers, to be as good and as handsomely fitted up as any 
made in America; he likewise makes Fowling Pieces, of different 
Sizes, such as have been approved of by Gentlemen of this City. 
All persons that will please to favour him with their Custom, 
shall be served with great Dispatch and care." 

PALMER, Thomas — Inspector of Arms for U. S. in Philadelphia, 
1808-10. 

PALMER, W. R.— New York City, 1848-51. 



American Gun Makers 161 

PALMETTO ARMORY— Established at Columbia, S. C, by Messrs. 
Glaze & Boatwright in 1852, with machinery bought from the 
Waters Armory of Millbury, Mass., to manufacture arms for 
South Carolina, when and if the state were to secede from the 
Union. In 1852-53, the armory produced Model 1842 percussion 
pistols, Model 1842 muskets, and a few Model 1841 percussion 
rifles. From 1861 until February, 1865, when the armory was 
burned by Sherman's troops, the plant manufactured cannon, 
minie rifle balls and 18 pdr. shells for the Confederacy. Proba- 
bilities are that flintlock muskets were altered to percussion at 
the armory during the Civil War, but no new arms manufac- 
tured. The plant was rebuilt later, and was known as the 
Palmetto Iron Works, or Shields' Foundry. The firm was in 
existence until several years ago, and the building still standing, 
although in rather delapidated condition, at the northeast corner 
of Lincoln and Laurel Streets. 

PALMETEER, Peter— Or Polmateer. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1835-60. 

PALMETEER & WRIGHT— Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1835-1846. 

PANCOAST, A. R. — Vicinity of Morganstown, W. Va. Rifle maker. 

PANCOST, E. L.— Greensboro, Greene Co.; later at Elizabeth, Alleg- 
heny Co., Pa. Trained under Barney Engle at Greensboro in the 
early 1870's. Made gain-twist rifles. Maker of a fine, curly maple, 
full stock .33 caliber percussion rifle with lock marked "G. 
GJULCHER," (G. Goulcher). 

PANNABECKER, Daniel— Employed as musket barrel maker by 
Joseph Henry in 1810. 

PANNABECKER, Jefferson — Hopeland, Lancaster Co., Pa., about 
1790-1810. According to Mr. R. E. Gardner, the family of Panne- 
beker, (including variations in spelling), Pennsylvania gun- 
smiths, are descended from a Dirck Clasen, a "panne backer" 
or tile baker, an early (1640) Manhattan settler, whose descend- 
ants migrated to Pennsylvania, and founded the line. One of the 
descendants was the late governor of that state, Samuel Penne- 
packer. 

PANNABECKER, Jess— Adamstown, Lancaster Co., Pa., about 1820- 
1840. 

PANNABECKER, Samuel — Muddy Run, Lancaster Co., Pa., about 
1780. Heavy flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

PANNEBECKER, Jess— Or Pennypacker. Elizabeth Township, Pa., 
about 1820-40. (Same as Jess Pannabecker of Adamstown, Pa.?) 

PANNEBECKER, John— Adamstown, Lancaster Co., Pa., before and 
after 1863-66. 

PANNEBECKER, L.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky Rifle. 

PANNEBECKER, Wm., Sr. (or Pannabecker)— Mohnton, Berks Co., 
Pa., about 1800-1818 and later. Made flintlock Kentucky rifles, 
also locks and barrels for shotguns. Thirteen-pound Kentucky 
match rifle with carved curly maple fullstock, globe and peep 
sights. 

PANNEBECKER, William, Jr.— Son of William, above. Born 1818 
and associated with his father, whom he succeeded. At Trenton, 
N. J., 1860-65, then back at Mohnton, where he died in 1880. 

PANNET, W.— Unlocated. Marking on barrel of circa 1845 rifle. 

PARK, John— Williamsburg, Clermont Co., Ohio, 1878-82. 



162 American Gun Makers 

PARKE, Henry — Maker of a curly maple, full stock, brass trimmed, 
percussion, smoothbore sporting gun. 

PARKER, A. — DeSoto, Iowa. Set trigger percussion rifle of fine work- 
manship. Name of town obsolete, having been changed in the 
1850's. 

PARKER, A. B.— Three Mile Bay, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

PARKER, Charles— Meriden, Mass., before and after 1868. Double 
barrel percussion hammer, later hammerless, shotguns. 

PARKER, FIELD & SON— Makers of flint locks for sporting rifles. 

PARKER, Henry — Unlocated. Probably lock maker only. Late flint 
and early percussion locks marked "HENRY PARKER WAR- 
RANTED," in old English letters. Flint lock on Jason L. Harris 
Kentucky rifle; percussion lock on J.L. (Joe Long) Kentucky 
rifle. 

PARKER, Henry— Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

PARKER, H. & CO.— Trenton, N. J. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

PARKER, H. & CO.— Trenton, N. J. Modern. 

PARKER, J. or I.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

PARKER, Samuel — Philadelphia, Pa., musket maker to Committee 
of Safety, 1776. One of the petitioners, representing the gun 
makers, to the Committee of Safety at Philadelphia, November, 
1776, complaining against the high cost of materials and labor 
entering into gun making, and quoting advances in prices within 
one year, from 1775. 

PARKERS, SNOW & CO.— Meriden, Conn. Civil War contractors 
of Sept. 28, 1863, for 15,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets 
at $19.00 each. Contract fulfilled. 

PARKER, W.— Unlocated. Percussion rifle marked "W. PARKER 
1876." 

PARKESON, B. L.— W. Va. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

PARKHILL, Andrew— Dock Ward, Philadelphia, Pa., 1779. 

PARKHURST, Wm. (or Henry?)— Amherst, N. H. Percussion rifles. 

PARKS, Horace — Columbus, Ohio, 1873-93. Associated with Charles 
McLeish, 1878-80; with W. L. Garber, 1886-88, and with Irwin 
1888-93. 

PARMALEE, Phineas — Armorer to the Continental forces in 1775. 

PARRISS, W. A. — Pensylvania; very early flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

PARSON— Plattsburg, N. Y., 1857-60. 

PARSONS, Hiram— Baltimore, Md., 1819. 

PARTRIDGE, W. — Unlocated. Marking on the lock of a percussion 
sporting rifle. 

PASSAGE, C. — Rochester, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

PATCH, N. W.— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1834-40. Inspected 
arms at the Nathan Starr plant 1834-40. 

PATCHEN, I. — Unlocated. Percussion over-under rifle-and-shotgun. 

PATENT ARMS MFG. CO.— Paterson, N. J., 1836-42. Manufacturers 
of revolving arms under Colt's patents of Feb. 26, 1836, and 
Aug. 29, 1839. See Colt Patent Arms Mfg. Co. 

PATERSON — Unlocated. Marking on silver inlaid, artificially striped, 
fullstock Kentucky rifle. 

PATT, Christopher — Alma, Wis. Made Martini-style rifle actions 



American Gun Makers 163 

(some of which were used by John Meunier.) Is believed to have 
made complete rifles also. 

PATTERSON — Juniata Co., Pa. Father and son made Kentucky rifles. 

PATTERSON, R.— Unlocated. Kentucky flintlock rifle with N. Beyer 
barrel, Golcher lock. Possibly one of the Pattersons of Juniata 
Co., Pa. 

PATTON, William— Springfield, Ohio, 1850-68. 

PAUL, Andrew — Pennsylvania, 1831. 

PAUL, C. — Syracuse, N. Y. Percussion, Schuetzen type rifle. 

PAUL, I. — Unlocated. A half stock, .52 caliber percussion rifle. 

PAUL, Wm.— Bedford Co., Pa. 

PAULI, C. — Syracuse, N. Y. Percussion target rifles. 

PAULMER, Jacob S. — Unlocated. Script marking on half stock per- 
cussion rifle. 

PAXSON, W. & J. R.~ Philadelphia, Pa. Flintlock on early Kentucky 
rifle. 

PAYNE, S. L.— Erie, Pa., 1850. 

PAYSON & NURSE— Boston, Mass. Late flint sporting rifle with 33" 
octagonal barrel and full cherry stock with cheekpiece and 
patchbox. Also of a heavy barrel, muzzle-loading percussion rifle. 

P. B. — Unidentified. Marking on Kentucky rifles. 

P. C. V. R. — Unidentified. Stamped inside hand-forged lock of early 
flintlock Kentucky rifle by I. P. Beck. 

PEACOCK, J. & THATCHER, H. C— Chicago, 111. Percussion match 
rifle of fine workmanship, with back action lock and barrel 
marked (in separate stamps), "J. PEACOCK & H. C. THATCH- 
ER," "CHICAGO, ILL." 

PEARSON, James — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 

Safety, 1775-76. 
PEAVEY, A. J.— South Montville, Me. Maker of a .22 cal. knife-pistol 

patented in September, 1865, and March 27, 1866. 

PECARE & SMITH— 180-182 Center St., New York, N. Y., 1849. 

Makers of 10-shot and 4-shot percussion pepperbox pistols. Jacob 

Pecare and Josiah Smith. 
PECK, Abijah — Hartford, Conn. Contractor to U. S. under Act of 

July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern (Model 1795), muskets 

at $13.40 per stand. Of these 775 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 
PECK, Eli— Gunsmith. 139 Green., Phila., Pa., 1819. 

PECK, John C. — Atlanta, Ga., 1861. Maker of a percussion rampart 
rifle listed as "rifled wall piece" on p. 85, Catalog of Arms and 
Accoutrements of Springfield Armory. John C. Peck, Atlanta 
business man had been owner of a planning mill. With Francis 
Day owned a building on south side of Decatur St., at Pratt 
where "Joe Brown Pikes" used to arm the Georgia militia are 
reputed to have been made. (J. C. Peck is not in the list of 
pikes furnished, nor is Francis Day.) 

The property was sold July 1, 1863 to G. A. Trenholm of Tren- 
holm, Frazer & Co., fiscal agents for the Confederacy. Reputed 
to have been used as a Confederate Armory, but this lacks 
authentication. 

PECK, Levi— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 137 Green, in 1829. 









164 American Gun Makers 

PECKHAM & BARKER — Providence, R. I. Half-stock, curly maple, 
brass trim, flintlock sporting gun. 

PEDEN, D. T.— Greenville Co., S. C. Percussion rifle. 

PELAUX, Peter—Skilled armorer employed at U. S. Arsenal at 
Schuylkill, Phila. Same as Peter Peloux? 

PELOUX Peter— Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith in Philadelphia Di- 
rectory in 1816, back of 190 Cedar St., as Peter Palaix. In 1819 and 
1829 he is listed as Peter Peloux. His name "Peloux," obliterated, 
is marked on locks of a pair of "Roman candle 3-shot?" or 
Chambers system?" type of flintlock pistols with external main 
springs. 

PENCE, Jacob— Earl Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. 

PENNABECKER, James & Jesse — Clay Township, Lancaster Co., Pa. 
Erected a rifle-barrel factory on the site of an old grist and saw 
mill which had been erected on Middle Creek in 1755. Rebuilt 
into a grist mill in 1861 by Jesse Pennabecker. 

PENNEL, Joshua— Southampton Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1844. 

PENNSYLVANIA RIFLE WORKS— G. Dunlap, operator. Percussion 
period. Makers of "hardware store" guns. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE GUN FACTORY— Established by the state 
at Philadelphia in February, 1776, as a gun-lock factory under 
the direction of Peter De Haven and Benjamin Rittenhouse, Major 
Meredith, Captain Wilcocks and Captain Peters are also men- 
tioned on the Board. Later the activities of the factory were ex- 
panded to include gun manufacturing. About Dec. 13, 1776, on 
the approach of the British to Trenton, the stock and equipment 
were hastily moved to French Creek, a little west of Valley 
Forge, where the factory was re-established on the grounds of 
the Continental Powder Mills erected by the state in 1776. The 
factory was moved again to Hummelstown, east of Reading, 
Lancaster Co., about the 12th of September, 1777, on the approach 
of the British under General Wm. Howe; Peter De Haven being 
furnished a warrant to "impress wagons to carry off Gunpowder 
and Stores from French Creek and raise a guard . . ." 

Dec. 17, 1778, the factory was ordered dismantled by the 
Supreme Council of Philadelphia, and the equipment and stock 
sold at auction by George Henry, who on May 3, 1779, accounted 
for the sale to the Council. 

Robert Towers, later an employee of the factory, had been 
ordered as early as Oct. 27th, 1775, to mark muskets made and 
proved in Philadelphia with the letter "P," (probably for 
"proved" rather than "Philadelphia" or the state initial), and 
probabilities are that this letter "P" was marked on all arms 
made at the factory. 

While the gun factory was at Hummelstown, a petition re- 
garding prices, signed Oct. 30, 1777, shows the following to have 
been employed as gun stockers at the plant: Joseph DeLaven, 
William Atkinson, Conrad Switzer, Conrad Bartling, William 
Faries, Archibald Curry, Frederick Wharton, Joseph Weaver, 
Joseph Eastburn and Isaac Johns. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE GUN REPAIR SHOP— Allentown, (old 
name was Northampton), Pa. Probably established about Sep- 
tember, 1777, when the British took Philadelphia. The shop also 
served as an arsenal or depot, where on May 11, 1778, were 
stored 800 complete stands of arms and 150 in assembly, as well 



American Gun Makers 165 

as other field equipment. James Walsh was Superintendent of 
Arms. 

PENNYPACKER, Daniel and William—Daniel, a German gunsmith, 
located in Cumru Township on Wyomissing Creek, Pa., in 1773. 
Employed five hands by 1776, disposing of his arms in Philadel- 
phia during the Revolutionary War. Made locks and stocks by 
hand, using Wyomissing Creek water power to bore and grind 
barrels. His son William took over the shop in 1808. William 
retired from the trade about 1858, when the gun making busi- 
ness on the Wyomissing went into a decline. 

PENSHALLOW, Capt. John— Boston, Mass., 1726. 

PERKIN — Probably same as Joseph Perkin(s), Philadelphia, and I. 
Perkin. Born in England; first master armorer at Harpers Ferry 
Armory, Va. A long goose gun marked PERKIN PHILADA., 
about 1785. Brass-barreled flintlock pistols; brass-mounted flint- 
lock holster pistol. 

PERKIN, Henry H.— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms 1813 to Jan. 
1817. Inspected arms (sabers and N.C.O. swords) at plant of 
Nathan Starr. 

PERKIN, Joseph — First Superintendent Harpers Ferry Armory 
(1803). Inspector of Arm for New England District, 1813. Prob- 
ably identical with Joseph Perkins. 

PERKINS, Jacob— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms at Asa Waters 
plant in 1821. 

PERKINS, James — Bridgewater, Mass., musket maker associated with 
Adam Kinsley in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 2,000 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. 
There were 1,550 reported delivered by June 10, 1801. 

PERKINS, Joseph— Philadelphia, Pa., 1783-89. Worked on public 
arms, with five payments recorded in 1788, totalling 1078 pounds, 
14 shilling, 5 pence. 

PERKINS, Luke— Bridgewater, Mass., before and after 1800. 

PERKINS, Rufus — North Bridgewater, Mass., musket contractor on 
Oct. 31, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets; duration five years. 
Of these 200 were reported delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

PERRY, A. D.— Alonzo D. Perry of Newark, N. J. 1855-58. Maker of 
Perry breech-loading, percussion, mechanically primed pistols, 
carbines and sporting rifles under patent of Jan. 16, 1855, No. 
12,244. Two hundred carbines were ordered from A. D. Perry by 
the War Department April 12, 1855, at $25.00 each. Some Perry 
carbines were also purchased and used by the navy. 

PERRY & GODDARD— 1868. Makers of double-derringers. 

PERRY, H. V.— Fredonia, N. Y., from about 1840; 3-barrel rifles. 
Moved to Jamestown, N. Y., in 1850; percussion hunting rifles, 
mule-ear shotguns, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-shot revolving rifles. After 
about 1875 specialized in heavy match and 40-rod rifles an ex- 
pert match shooter. Died May 7, 1897. 

PERRY & JARRELL— Seborn Perry and Manlief Jarrell. W. Green 
St., High Point, N. C. Operators of a gun stock factory under 
the supervision of the Confederate Government. 

PERRY PATENT ARMS CO.— Operated at Newark, N. J., by A. D. 

Perry, as above. The firm made Perry percussion, breech-loading, 
automatic capping pistols, which were offered to the government, 






166 American Gun Makers 

but were rejected. The Company became involved in financial 
difficulties about 1855, and failed. 

PERSONS, H.— Plattsburg, N. Y. Reported maker of superposed rifle- 
shotgun. 

PETERMAN, A— 131 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1852-60. Breech 
and muzzle-loading arms. 

PETERS, Sell— Two miles north of Getaway, Lawrence Co., Ohio. 
Learned the trade at Harpers Ferry Armory before Civil War. 
In his 90's at time of death. 

PETERSON, A. W. & SON— Axel W. Peterson, Larimer Street, 
Denver, gun maker, former partner of George Schoyen. Of Scan- 
dinavian origin, Peterson came to U. S. as a boy. He came to 
Denver after working briefly in Chicago, in 1879 and became 
associated with George Schoyen in 1904. Continued the business 
of making fine arms and accurate barrels after Schoyen's death 
in 1916, being joined by his son Roy Peterson who now operates 
the shop. 

PETTENGILL, C. S.— Patentee with Raymond & Robitaille, in 1856 
of hammerless percussion revolvers made in belt, navy and army 
sizes by Rogers & Spencer. 

PETTIBONE, Daniel— U. S. Inspector of Arms 1808-1809. Inspected 
sabers of contract of Dec. 9, 1807 for 2,000 horsemen's swords, 
awarded to Rose & Sons, Blockley Township, Phila., Pa., by 
Tench Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies. 

PETTIT, A.— Pennsylvania? Kentucky rifles. A highly decorated half 
stock percussion rifle. Same as Pettit, Andrew? 

PETTIT, Andrew— Salem, Columbiana Co., Ohio, 1835. 

P. F, — Unidentified. Marking on Kentucky rifle. 

PFEIFER, Charles — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

PFEIFFER, George— 160 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1859-60. 

PFLOEGER, John and Wm. A. — See John Fleeger. 

P. G. — Unidentified; Kentucky rifles. 

P. G. F. — Unidentified. Silver inlaid, cheekpiece, curly maple full- 
stock, octagonal barrel, percussion Kentucky rifle. 

PHEATT, G. K.— Toledo, Ohio, 1882-83. 

PHELPS, Jedediah — Lebanon, Conn. Gun-lock maker to Committee 
of Safety. Thirty-six double-bridled gun-locks delivered to 
Hezekiah Huntington, musket maker to the Committee, Jan. 14, 
1777. 

PHELPS, Silas — Lebanon, Conn., 1770-77. Gun-lock maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. Petitioned for payment for fifty-five gun-locks 
made for the army, on which he could not collect premium on 
account of design. Three shillings allowed for each lock in No- 
vember, 1776. Additional payment for gun-locks made in August, 
1777. 

PHILADELPHIA ARMS CO.— Incorporated in 1903 with capital stock 
of $200,000 to manufacture firearms. Principal office was in the 
Guaranty and Trust Building, 419 Market St., Camden, N. J. 
Incorporators were Alfred P. Shannon, C. William Haywood, 
Isaac Elwall, Ansley H. Fox and Henry J. Kingsbury 

PHILIPPI, Samuel and Solon C— Easton, Pa. Samuel Philippi, born 
1801, died 1877. Succeeded by son Solon C, born in 1841, appren- 
ticed in 1855. 



American Gun Makers 167 

PHILLIPS — Prosperity Co., Pa. Late percussion period. Made a few 
very good rifles as a hobby. 

PHILLIPS, A.— Geneva, N. Y. Maker of slim, full stock, mule-ear 
rifles. 

PHILLIPS, E. — New York, N. Y. Maker of a percussion sharp-shoot- 
er's rifle with heavy barrel and telescope sight 

PHILPY, J.— Unlocated; buried in northern Ohio. Oddly designed 
flintlock Kentucky rifle with incised carving. 

PHIPS, James — Kennebec River, Mass., before and after 1643-51. 
(Father of Sir William Phips, Governor of Massachusetts.) 

PHOENIX ARMORY— See W. W. Marston. 

PHOENIX CO.— Makers of breech-loading, 12 gauge shotguns pat- 
ented in 1874. 

P*I — Part marking on locks and barrels by Desverneys, Charleston, 
S. C. 

PIATT — Portsmouth, Lawrence Co., Ohio. 

PICKELL, Henry — Also Pickel, York, Pa., musket maker. In asso- 
ciation with Jacob Doll and Conrad Welshanze, contractor on 
April 17, 1801, with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 
Charleville pattern muskets. Contracted with Tench Coxe, Pur- 
veyor of Public Supplies on Dec. 9, 1807, for 100 rifles. 

PICKETT — Tennessee. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

PICKETT, R. M. — Ionia, Mich. Over-under and three barrel rifles. 

PICKLE, Henry— Lancaster, Pa., 1800. 

PIEPER, Abraham — Lancaster, Pa., gun maker. Petitioner to the 7th 
Congress on June 28, 1803, for the non-removal of import duties 
on arms. 

PIEPER, H. — Maker of Flobert type cartridge rifle and Pieper target 
rifles. 

PIERCE, H. — Liverpool, Ohio. Maker of a double barrel, side-by- 
side, muzzle-loading, percussion rifle. 

PIERCE, J. J.— Liverpool, Ohio. Flintlock rifles. 

PIKE, Samuel— Troy, N. Y., in 1834; Kentucky rifles. 

PIM — Boston, Mass., 1722. Reputed to have made an 11-shot flintlock 
repeater. 

PIPER, C. Y. — Natchez, Miss. Unique brass-halfstock percussion rifle, 
with patent breech and breechplate hook. Six gold bands at 
breech one at muzzle, one in muzzle. Cast brass skeleton half- 
stock with engraved silver inlays in the brass. Burl walnut 
insert with silver patchbox and cheekpiece inlay engraved with 
13 stars, eagle, "E PLURIBUS UNUM," flowers and scroll wire 
inlay. 

PIPER, S. — Oswego, N. Y. Percussion period. 

PIPINO, Jacob— 18 Ensor St., Baltimore, Md., 1853. 

PIPPERT, Carl— Bladensburg, Md. Fine, modern, flintlock Kentucky 
rifles and restorations of old. Made his first gun in 1940. 

PISTOR, G. & W. — Unlocated. Twenty gauge percussion double- 
barrel shotgun. 

PITCHER AUTOMATIC REPEATING FIREARMS CO.— Neilsville 
Wis. Formed in 1889, to make gas-operated, semi-automatic rifles 
invented by Henry A. Pitcher, dentist of Neilsville. At least two 



168 American Gun Makers 

or three specimens are believed to have been made and one was 
tested by the Army in 1891. It is believed to the first semi-auto- 
matic rifle tested by the Army. 

PITTINGER, J. S. — Unlocated. Half stock percussion target rifle. 

PITTSBURGH FIRE ARMS CO.— Pittsburgh, Pa., period of 1860. 
Barrel stamping on walnut halfstocked, brass-mounted smooth 
rifle with Leman lock. 

P. K. — Unidentified, Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

PLANTS, Christian— East Finley Township, Washnigton Co., Pa. Post 
Civil War. A very ornate gun dated "1873" on the barrel. 

PLANT'S & HOTCHKISS— New Haven, Conn. See Plant's Mfg. Co. 

PLANT'S MFG. CO— New Haven, Conn., about 1863. Makers of re- 
volvers under Willard C. Ellis and N. White's patents of July 
12, 1859, No. 24,476 and July 21, 1863, No. 39,318, assigned to 
Ebenezer H. Plant, Henry Reynolds, Amzi H. Plant and Alfred 
Hotchkiss. The Plant revolver was sold by Merwin & Bray, 
agents and distributors to supercede the Prescott, which was an 
infringement on the Rollin White patent of a "cylinder bored 
end to end," controlled by Smith & Wesson. 

PLATE, A. J.— San Francisco, Calif., 1849-1875. Dealer and importer; 
marked rifles made by Slotter & Co., Philadelphia. Agent for 
Henry Deringer; induced Deringer employees to quit and make 
thousands of imitation Deringer pistols marked "J. DERINGER." 
Listed at 103 Commercial St., 1859-60, at 507 Commercial in 1861 
and at 411 Sansome in 1864-65. 

PLATH, C. — New York, N. Y. Maker of a plain, serviceable, half 
stock percussion rifle with brass furniture. 

PLEASANTS' — Philadelphia, Pa. Single-barrel, percussion goose gun. 

P. L. H.— Unidentified; Kentucky rifles. Possibly P. L. Hain of Pa. 

PLUSHEL, F.— Cedar Falls, Iowa, 1868. 

POEL, Van der— Albany, N. Y., 1740. 

POINT OF FORK (VA.) STATE ARSENAL— Point of Fork, Va., at 
the confluence of the Rivanna and James Rivers, on the land of 
David Ross. Virginia State Arsenal in which equipment and 
clothing were manufactured, arms repaired and restocked, bay- 
onets forged and filed, ramrods fitted and locks made. It is not 
known when the arsenal was established, but probabilities are 
that it was set up in January, 1781, for the storage of supplies 
partially evacuated from Richmond, Va., when Benedict Arnold 
attacked it Jan. 5-6th, 1781, in the course of which 2,200 small 
arms, and two large casks containing 2,000 new French musket 
locks (used for repair and replacement) were destroyed by 
Arnold. At the same time another raiding column of Lt. Col. 
Simcoe's dragoons destroyed at Westham 1,800 cartridge boxes 
and bayonets, 330 barrels of powder, 19 chests of musquet cart- 
ridges, 3 chests of flints, a foundry for casting iron cannon, a 
magazine, etc., etc. 

The arsenal was raided by Col. Simcoe about June 5, 1781, 
buildings were burned and some supplies and arms destroyed; 
however a portion of the latter had been evacuated and saved 
on warning of the approach of the British. The arsenal was re- 
occupied by State troops after the raid, but the machinery and 
equipment for repair of arms had not been replaced by Sept. 24, 
1782, (report of Capt. John Peyton, in charge), though a limited 
amount of clothing and shoes had been produced that year. A 
shortage of thread, tools and materials is mentioned in May of 
that year. 



American Gun Makers 169 

In 1784, the machinery, equipment, tools and supplies of the 
discontinued Public Gun Factory at Fredericksburg, Va., were 
moved to Point of Fork Arsenal, and three new, large, stone 
buildings were ordered erected for the storage of powder, small 
arms and artillery. Gunsmiths were hired, and the arsenal re- 
sumed its functions of repair of arms. It was intended for the 
state to accumulate and recondition a reserve of 10,000 service- 
able arms, which was accomplished by October, 1791, including 
about 3,000 French arms purchased by the State of Virginia in 
1786. 

From 1802, with the establishment of a state manufacturing 
armory at Richmond, the business of the arsenal fell off, and 
it was absorbed in the Virginia Manufactory, the new State 
Armory, about 1802. 

POLE & CUTTER — Silver mounted percussion rifle. 

POLLARD, John — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of 
Safety in 1776. John Pollard was one of the petitioners, repre- 
senting the gun makers, complaining to the Committee of Safety 
of Philadelphia, in November, 1776, against the high cost of labor 
and materials entering into gun-making, and quoting advances 
in prices within one year, since 1775. 

POLLARD, Robert — Arms contractor to the State of Virginia, 1799- 
1800. 

POLLOCK, B.(?) — Unlocated, probably southwestern Pa., period of 
1800-1820. Flintlock Kentucky rifles marked in script. Perhaps 
related to S. Pollock, New Castle, Pa., 1841. 

POMEROY— Canton, Stark Co., Ohio. 

POMEROY, Elty— Also Pumery, Eltweed, Eltwud, or Eltwood. Ar- 
rived at Boston, Mass., from England in 1630. In Dorchester, 
1633-37, and later at Hartford and Windsor, Conn. Living with 
his son Medad, in Northampton, Mass., 1670-71. 

POMEROY, Eldad— Son of Elty Pomeroy. Active from 1630 at Boston, 
Northampton and Hampshire until his death May 22, 1662. 

POMEROY, Medad — Son of Elty Pomeroy. Northampton, Mass. Born 
about 1637; died Dec. 30, 1716. 

POMEROY, Ebenezer — Son of Medad Pomeroy. Northampton, Mass. 
Born May 30, 1669; died Jan. 27, 1754. 

POMEROY, Seth— General. Son of Ebenezer Pomeroy, Born May 20, 
1706; died in the military service, at Peeks-kill, N. Y., Feb. 19, 
1777. 

POMEROY, Lemuel— Pittsfield, Mass., musket maker. Contracted 
with United States May 17, 1823, for 10,000 muskets Model 1816 
to be delivered over a period of five years, 2,000 per annum. 
Contract of Jan. 26, 1829, details unknown. On Feb. 26, 1840, 
Lemuel Pomeroy contracted for 6,000 flintlock muskets, Model 
1835, at $12.75 per stand, duration five years, at 1,200 per an- 
num. On March 18, 1842, be obtained an additional contract for 
1,000 of the same arms at $14.50 each, duration to Jan. 1, 1845. 

Lemuel Pomeroy, grandson of Gen. Seth Pomeroy of French, 
Indian and Revolutionary Wars, was born in Northampton, 
Hampshire Co., Mass., in 1778. In 1799 he moved to Pittsfield, 
Mass., and started the manufacture of plows, sleighs and wagons. 
The plant burned down in 1805, and was rebuilt, apparently 
with some provision for arms manufacture, for though not listed 



170 American Gun Makers 

among the eighteen government contractors of 1808, he reputedly 
started musket manufacture that year, making arms for the 
states' militia and the Federal Government. The Pomeroy (priv- 
ate) Armory became one of the six accorded national recognition 
and subsidies, at one time employing thirty expert gunsmiths. 
Pomeroy continued musket manufacture until about 1846, 
when the portion of his plant containing arms manufacturing 
facilities burned down and was not rebulit, for the output of 
Government Armories at Springfield and Harpers Ferry became 
adequate io supply the military establishment, and the award of 
musket contracts to private manufacturers was curtailed. Lemuel 
Pomeroy died at Pittsfield August 25, 1849, after a protracted 
illness. 

The following advertisement in PITTSFIELD SUN, Pittsfield, 
Mass., of Jan. 27, 1809, is of interest:— 

Lemuel Pomeroy wishes to purchase a quantity of good hard 
and chestnut coal, 2 or 3 tons of good horse hay and 3 or 4 well 
fatted hogs: for which good pay will be made. He has now on 
hand and is constantly making a large quantity of military 
musquets of the English and French initiation. Likewise some 
first rate fowling pieces . . . articles which may soon be sub- 
stituted for our blessed embargo. He also has all kinds of Black- 
smith and Harness work executed at his shop by the best of 
workmen. 

The patronage of his friends is once more solicited." 

POND & CO.— Albany, N. Y. Flintlock pistols. 

POND, L. W.— Lucius W. Pond, Worcester, Mass., before 1863 to about 
1870. Maker of a top-break cartridge revolver, infringement on 
the Smith & Wesson patents. There were 4,486 Pond revolvers 
turned over to the S. & W. Co. in settlement, in March, 1863. To 
avoid infringement, from 1863 manufactured a front-loading 
revolver with removable steel shells. 

POOL, Lemon—Springfield, Ohio, 1874-76. 

POOLEY, James— Memphis, Tenn., 1860. 

POPE, Harry M.— Hartford, Conn., active to 1901. 

PORTER & PRICHITT— Phila., Pa. Makers of a full stocked, brass 
mounted, side-hammer percussion pistol. 

PORTER, P. W.— Patrick W. Porter of Memphis, Tenn., and later New 
York, N. Y. Manufacturer of percussion revolvers and inventor 
and maker of 9-shot, pill-lock, turret type, revolving-breech 
rifles, patented July 8, 1851, No. 8,210. Mr. Porter was killed 
while demonstrating one of his rifles to Col. Colt. 

PORTS, J. A.— Or J. E., Sunbury, Ohio, 1877-82. 

POST, J. — Newark, N. J. Maker of a hammerless, ring-trigger, per- 
cussion pepperbox pistol patented May 15, 1849, patent No. 6453. 

POST Samuel B. — Washington Co., Pa. Learned the trade under 
George W. Craft, on Craft Creek, Morris Township, about 1880; 
in business at England (now Pleasant Grove) Pa. Made about 
100 guns before 1900, largely half stock, with locks and barrels 
mostly purchased in Pittsburgh. Did his own rifling and marked 
barrels "S. POST," in script. Died in 1947. 

POSTLEY, NELSON & CO.— Unlocated (Pittsburgh, Pa.?) before 
about 1880; barrelmakers. Brown & Hirth of Pittsburgh adver- 
tised in 1886 that "the hands we employ have been making Rifle 
Barrels for over thirty years, with the late firm of Messrs. Post- 



American Gun Makers 171 

ley, Nelson & Co., who carried on the Gun Barrel business for 
a period of twenty-five years." Barrel of a rifle by J. V. Hoff- 
man, Attica, Ind. 

POTTER, Daniel— Hartford, Conn., 1867. Percussion rifles, full-length 
telescope sights. 

POTTER, H. & CO.— New York State. Percussion rifles. 

POTTER, N. — Unlocated. Percussion sporting rifle. 

POTTS, William— Columbus, Ohio, 1883-84. 

POULTNEY & TRIMBLE— 200 West Balto St., Baltimore, Md., 1860 
and later. Makers of Smith carbines, patented by Gilbert Smith 
June 23, 1857. There were 300 Smith carbines bought by the 
War Department in 1860, and 30,062 during the Civil War. The 
carbines were also manufactured for Poultney & Trimble by the 
American Machine Works at Springfield, Mass.; the American 
Arms Company of Chicopee Falls, Mass., and Massachusetts Arms 
Company of the same city. It is uncertain whether any Smith 
carbines were actually manufactured by Poultney & Trimble in 
Baltimore. 

POUNDS, I. D.— Columbus, Ohio, 1834-55. Rifle, pistol and shotgun 
maker. 

POWELL & BROWN— See Powell Palemon. 

POWELL & CLEMENT— Cincinnati, Ohio, before and after 1890-92. 

POWELL, Jacob— Logan Co, "The Indian Country" (now Richland 
Co.) Ashland Co., and Bowling Green, 1825. Made and repaired 
rifles for Indians 1808. 

POWELL, Palemon— Cincinnati, Ohio, active about 1839-73. Asso- 
ciated with Brown, 1856-58. Firm changed to Powell & Son in 
1871 to 1873 and later. 

POWELL & SON— See Powell, Palemon. 

POYAS, F. D.— Charleston, S. C. Percussion duelling pistols. 

P. R. — Unidentified. Maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles. Lock by R. & 
W. C. Biddle. 

PRAHL, Lewis — Philadelphia, Pa., musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Contracted Oct. 23, 1775, for 150 stands. Made the pattern 
musket for the Sebastian Keeley contract for 100 fire-locks. 

PRAILISH, Charles— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

PRATT — New Harmony, Ind. Percussion rifle. 

PRATT, Alvan — Concord, Mass., gun maker, was born at Sherborn, 
Mass., Nov. 23, 1790, and served his apprenticeship at the Whitte- 
more gun factory in Sutton, Mass. After serving full time as 
apprentice and some months as journeyman, went into business 
with his brother Nathaniel, also a gunsmith, in Water town; how- 
ever, they failed and Alvan returned to Sutton. His establish- 
ment prospered for a while, then was burned out, after which he 
returned to Concord, his birthplace, where he remained until his 
death Jan. 20, 1877. 

Pratt was well known for the accuracy of his rifles and excel- 
lent quality of his products. However, being over-conservative, 
if not actually old fashioned, he was opposed to improvements 
and new machinery, and gradually his custom fell off and the 
last ten years of his life were spent in repair work. 

A musket lock-plate marked "A. PRATT" is described by 
Mr. Walter White, which though converted to percussion shows 



172 American Gun Makers 

the characteristics of a Model 1795 musket. Certainly the arm is 
of not later than 1808 vintage. In view of Alvan Pratt's birth 
in 1790, it is not likely that he is the maker. An Asa Pratts 
blacksmith, was located in Essex County, Mass., in 1756-1811. 
There is no record known to date of Pratt contract. 

PRATT, AZARIAH— Settled at Marietta, Ohio, in 1788. Silversmith, 
locksmith and gunsmith; made the lock for the first jail in the 
Northwest Territory. 

PRATT, G. D.— Attica, N. Y. Cased percussion target rifles. 

PRATT, Henry— Roxbury, Mass. Born 1790; died 1880. New England 
type flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

PRESCOTT, E. A.— Worcester, Mass., 1860-74. Ex-employee of Ethan 
Allen. Maker of a rim-fire cartridge revolver distributed by 
Merwin & Bray. The arm was an infringement on the Rollin 
White patent controlled by Smith & Wesson, and production was 
discontinued in 1863. 

PRESCOTT, Benjamin — Superintendent Springfield Armory from 
November 1, 1805 to August 31, 1813, and from January 16, 1815 
to May 31, 1815. 

PRETCHEL, J. A.— Cleveland, Ohio. 

PRETZSCH, Charles — Unlocated. Percussion sporting rifle. 

PRICE, Cal — Orange, Texas. Modern. Percussion, small-bore hunting 
rifles. 

PRICE, J. — New York, N. Y. Maker of a late Colonial period, brass 
mounted, sling swivel equipped, sporting flintlock musket of large 
caliber, with engraved lock, goose-neck hammer, and frizzen 
separated from the pan. Marked on barrel "J. PRICE N. YORK," 
in rounded, engraved type lettering. Inside of trigger guard 
marked "ANNELY." Probably Edward Annely, New Jersey gun 
maker active 1771 and before. 

PRICHITT— See Porter & Prichitt. 

PRIEST, Josiah— Marietta, Ohio, 1840. 

PRINDLE, A. — Unlocated. Script marking on halfstock percussion 
rifle. 

PRINGLE, John — Pennsylvania gun-lock maker to Committee of 
Safety, 1775-76. 

PRISSEY, Elias— Hooversville, Pa., active about 1855 and after. 

PROTECTOR ARMS CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Makers of .22 caliber 
7-shot rim-fire cartridge revolvers. 

PROVIDENCE TOOL CO.— Providence, R. I. Civil War contractors 
for Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets: 

July 13, 1861—25,000 at $20.00 each. 25,000 delivered. 
Nov. 26, 1861—25,000 at $20.00 each. 13,000 delivered. 
May 1, 1864—32,000 at $18.00 each. 32,000 delivered. 
The firm also made Robert's breech-loading military rifles 
and Peabody breech-loading cartridge carbines, rifles and sport- 
ing arms patented July 22, 1862, No. 35,947. The Peabody arms 
were tested by an Ordnance Board in January, 1865, and though 
favorably reported on, were not adopted due to termination 
of hostilities during the session of the Board. Peabody arms 
were however, adopted and purchased by the State of Connecti- 
cut. Providence Tool Company also was active in the alteration 
of muzzle-loading arms to the Peabody system, and also made 
the Peabody-Martini carbines and rifles for foreign governments. 



American Gun Makers 173 

P. S. J. & CO.— (P. S. Justice?) Percussion Kentucky type pistol. 

PUBLIC GUN FACTORY— Also Public Arms Factory and Fred- 
ericksburg Armory. Established by Col. Fielding Lewis and 
Charles Dick at Fredericksburg, Va., to make arms for the 
Continental Line Regiments. See Virginia Public Gun Factory, 
rifle. 

PULASKI GUN FACTORY— Pulaski, Tenn. Confederate arms plant 
authorized by Act of General Assembly of Tennessee, June 28, 
1861. Operated by Major Joseph Stacy and James McCullum, 
Esq. The plant repaired, overhauled and rebored arms for use 
of Confederate forces, with N. B. Zuccarello and James McLean 
as chief mechanics. 

The plant, erected on a site leased from Thomas Davis, had 
been the property of Mr. Zuccarello, who owned the building, 
iron works and foundry, prior to their conversion to war uses. 
The factory was destroyed by Federal troops shortly after opera- 
tions had begun. The total output is believed to have been under 
500 rifles. 

PULING, J.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. See J. P. 

PULLIAM, T. — Crudely done overstamp on a repaired, percussion, 
G. Goulcher lock of a brass and silver mounted, maple half stock, 
heavy, half-octagon, .45 caliber, smoothbore barrel, long gun. 

PURDY, C. K.— Unlocated. Percussion target rifle. 

PURMONT, T. B.— Heuvelton, N. Y., percussion period; riflesmith. 

PUTNAM, Enoch — Granby, Mass., gunsmith to Committee of Safety. 
Recommended for appointment as Armorer to the Colony, July 
13, 1775. 

P. Y. — Maker of a full curly maple stock, brass mounted, double set 
trigger, Kentucky type percussion rifle. 

Q 

QUAKENBUSH, H. M.— Ilion and Herkimer, N. Y., 1871-76 and after. 

Maker of air rifles and .22 caliber rim-fire cartridge rifles. 
QUINBY, Dennis— Northfield, Vt., 1864-68. 
QUINNEBAUG RIFLE MFG. CO.— Southbridge, Mass. Makers of 

under-hammer, percussion pistols. 

R 

RADCLIFFE & GLAZE— Columbia, S. C, after 1865 and before 
1870. T. W. Radcliffe and William Glaze (q.v.). Sporting goods; 
name stamped on percussion double-barreled shotguns made else- 
where. 

RADCLIFFE & GUIGNARD— Columbia, S. C. Marking on long per- 
cussion fowling piece, probably imported. See T. W. Radcliffe. 

RADCLIFFE, T. W.— Columbia, S. C, 1856-64. Importer of shoulder 
arms and hand arms for the Confederacy. English Tranter revol- 
vers known marked with Radcliffe's name. Reputed to have made 
shoulder arms: doubtful. 

RADFONG, Frederick — Conestoga Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 
1770-72. 

RADFONG, George— See Redfang, George. 






174 American Gun Makers 

RAFFSNYDER, John—Or Reiffsnyder. Reading, Berks Co., Pa., 
1779-85. 

RAIKE, Levi — Lincoln Co., Ky. Reported percussion half stock rifle. 

RALPH, N. H. — Unlocated. Percussion rifle that came from West 
Virginia. 

RAMAGE & CARRIER— Trinidad, Col., 1877-81. 

RAMSDELL, Charles V. — In partnership with John Neal as Ramsdell 
& Neal, Harlow St., Bangor, Me., post-Civil War. The parner- 
ship dissolved, Ramsdell opened a shop on State St.; later sold 
to James Holt and committed suicide. Fine heavy percussion 
target rifles; Snider-action breechloaders. Heavy telescope-sight 
match rifle, lock marked "C. V. & J. W. RAMSDELL, BANGOR, 
ME." 

RAMSDELL, V. G.— Buckport, Me. 

RANDALL, Joseph C. — Unlocated. Marking on the lock of a per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle. 

RANDALL, Myron — Waupaca, Wis. Made .44 caliber muzzle-loading 
percussion rifles as late as 1935. Also invented and made spring- 
operated air guns. Born 1878, died 1944. 

RANKIN— See Clark & Rankin. 

RANKIN, John— York Co., Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

RANKIN & WERTER— Unlocated. (Probably Pennsylvania). Barrel- 
maker's stamp under breech of late Kentucky percussion rifle 
from Maryland. 

RANSOME, James — Or Ransom. Superintendent of the State Gun 
Factory at Halifax, N. C, 1776-78. See North Carolina Gun 
Factory. 

RAPPAHANNOCK FORGE— Falmouth, Va., on the north side of 
Rappahannock River. Rappahannock Forge was the alternate 
name of the Hunter Iron Works established by James Hunter 
at Falmouth, Va., some time before the Revolution. At the 
outbreak of the war, the works were considerably enlarged; a 
manufactory of small arms was added, slitting mills were con- 
structed, and anchors and war material manufactured. 

The factory was dismantled on May 30, 1781, due to the 
approach of a British raiding party under Tarleton, who was 
operating from Cornwall's force, which had arrived at Peters- 
burg, about seven miles south of Richmond on May 20, 1781. 
The removal of the equipment and machinery was supervised 
by General Weedon, a laid-on* Continental officer. Later the 
workmen were recalled and the works enlarged, but failing to 
receive financial support from the State of Virginia, James 
Hunter dismissed the remaining workmen and closed the fac- 
tory Dec. 1, 1781. Doubtless the threat of a possible raid and 
destruction of the works by a raiding party from the British 
fleet was a contributing factor in permitting the closing of 
Rappahannock Forge. See Hunter, James. 

RASH, B. — Unlocated. Percussion rifle with lock by G. Goulcher. 

RAUB, William— New York, N. Y., at 3rd Ave., and 67th St., and 
later 629 Union Ave., Bronx. Born in Germany in 1810. Emigrated 
to U. S. in boyhood. Claimed to have made guns for Buffalo Bill 
Shows; repaired arms for Union forces stationed around New 
York City during Civil War. Died Jan. 9, 1921. 

RAUBER, Feder— Berks County, Pa., 1730. 



American Gun Makers 175 

RAURMAN, G. — Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

RAYMOND, William— Winona, Minn., 1864-65. 

RAYNES— New York, N. Y. Percussion target rifle. 

RJ5. — Lock marking of a maple half stock, octagon barrel, late per- 
cussion Kentucky rifle with two patch boxes and set triggers. 

R.C. — Initials of R. Chandler, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

READ, N. T. — Danville, Va. Inventor of the Read breech-loading 
carbine, Confederate patent No. 154 of March 20, 1863. The 
arm is believed to have been made by Keen Walker & Co., of 
Danville, with Read in charge of operations. 

READ, Robert — Chesterton, Md., arms maker to Committee of Safety, 
1775. 

READ, William— 11 Water St., Baltimore, Md., 1802-04. 

READ, William — Boston, Mass. Apparently dealer and importer. Sold 
a quantity of .44 Allen & Wheelock revolvers to the Government 
during the Civil War. 

READING— Pennsylvania, period of 1780. Flintlock Kentucky rifles, 
also an original "smooth bore rifle." 

READING'S FACTORY— Vicksburg, Miss. Said to have made fire- 
arms for the Confederacy. Machinery shipped to Atlanta, Ga. 
in 1862. On Sept. 11, 1862 Col. James H. Burton with Capt. M. 
M. Wright and Maj. Cuyler made a selection of machinery 
from it. 

READY, L.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles of about 1780-1800 
period. 

REASON, Jacob — (Also Reagon?) Frederickstown, Md., Revolutionary 
War rifle and musket maker to Councils of Safety in both 
Virginia and Maryland. Financed by Josiah Chapman who rented 
his shop, and hired him and his men on a wage basis. Procured 
many of his parts, if not most, by purchase all over Maryland 
area, to be used in assembly of arms. 

REASOR, David— Lancaster, Pa., 1749. 

REASOR, David— Lancaster, Pa., 1770-80. (Same as above?) 

RECTOR, C. A. & J. H.— Syracuse, N. Y. J. H. Rector (also Rocketer), 
Syracuse, 1845-55. Halfstock percussion Plains rifles. 

RECTOR, J. H. & J. O. ROBSON— 109 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y., 
1850-53. Percussion sporting rifles, marked "J. H. Rector and 
J. O. Robson, Buffalo." 

RECTOR, J. H. & L. W. ROBINSON— Syracuse, N. Y. Percussion 
sporting rifles. 

REDFANG, George — Also Redfan, Radfong, Raddfong, or Rathfong. 
Pennsylvania arms maker. Excused by the Executive Council, 
Dec. 5, 1777, from military duties for the making of arms for 
the State of Pennsylvania, in the employ, and under supervision 
of William Henry I of Lancaster. 

REDFORD, Arter— Near Jefferson City, Mo. Percussion Kentucky 
rifles. 

REED— Seville, Ohio, about 1850. Patent breech half-stock percus- 
sion rifle. 
REED, E. M.— Unlocated. Percussion pistol. 
REED, John— Troy, N. Y., in 1836; Kentucky rifles. 



176 American Gun Makers 

REED, Joseph — Lancaster, Pa. About 1800 and after. 

REED, J. P. — Unlocated. Marking on light, walnut halfstock, Penna. 
squirrel rifle. 

REED, Robert — Chestertown, Md., Revolutionary War musket con- 
tractor. 

REED, William— 11 Water St., Baltimore, Md., 1802. 

REEDY, L.— "KRATZTOWN" (Pa.?) Marking on barrels of a curved 
stock, swivel-breech, superposed Penna. rifle, circa 1820. 

REID, James— New York, N. Y. At 167 E. 26th St., in 1862 and at 
171 E. 26th St., in 1863-64. Maker of Reid cartridge revolvers. 
These were infringements on the Smith & Wesson controlled 
patents, and in 1865, Reid started the manufacture of "My 
Friend" knuckle-duster revolvers, believed to have been made 
by Reid at Catskill, N. Y. 

REID, Samuel — Phila., Pa. Listed as gun stocker at 91 Dillwyn in 
1829. 

REID, William— Spartanburg Co., S. C. Early gunsmith. 

REID, Templeton— Milledgeville, Ga., 1824. 

REIGART, Peter — Lancaster, Pa., musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. "Agreed to set to work Monday, Nov. 20, 1775, to make 
muskets and bayonets." 

REIN — New York, N. Y., on the Bowery. Fancy Schuetzen rifle. 
Died 1914. 

REINHARD, J. C— Also Reihart. Ohio. 

REINHARD, P. A.— Also Reinhart. Rifle maker known for fine work- 
manship and accuracy of his arms. Arrived from Germany at the 
age of six, and lived with his parents at Columbus, Ohio, until 22 
years old, when he was apprenticed to one Sprague, a gunsmith of 
Loudonville, Ohio. In about 1850, Reinhard worked under Billing- 
hurst at Rochester, N. Y., thence went back to Loudonville, on his 
own. Reinhard died about 1899, at Dayton, Ohio, where he had 
moved in 1896. Rifles usually marked with name, address and 
masonic emblems. 

REINHART, J.— Maddensville, Pa. 

REINHART, P. A.— See Reinhard, P. A. 

REISS, A. — Utica, N. Y., percussion telescope rifle. 

REMINGTON ARMS CO., INC.— Established by Eliphalet Reming- 
ton and his son, Eliphalet, Jr., makers of rifle barrels, in Ilion 
Gorge, N. Y., in 1816, when young Remington turned to the 
manufacture of complete firearms. In 1825, the plant was 
moved to Ilion, to take advantage of the transportation facil- 
ities afforded by the Erie Canal. Eliphalet, Sr. died three years 
later, in 1828. In 1844, Eliphalet (Jr.) took his son Philo into 
the firm, the name being changed to E. Remington & Son. 
In 1845, Remington took over a contract of John Griffiths of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, of Dec. 6, 1842, for 5,000 Model 1841 rifles 
at $13.00 each, on which Griffiths had been unable to make 
deliveries. The Remingtons made good on the contract, and it was 
followed by another for an additional 7,500. In the meantime, 
in 1846-47, the Remingtons took over an uncompleted N. P. 
Ames contract for side-hammer, percussion navy carbines made 
on the Jenks patent breech-loading system. These arms were 
made at the Remington's Herkimer plant, and differ from the 
N. P. Ames arms in having tape-primer locks. Sept. 9, 1854, 



American Gun Makers 177 

Remingtons obtained a contract for 20,000 Maynard tape-primer 
locks for the modification of muskets for the army, largely 
Model 1821 arms, the work being done at the Bridesburg Armory. 
In 1856, two other sons, Samuel and Eliphalet (3rd) were taken 
into partnership, the name changing to E. Remington & Sons. 

About 1859, Remingtons brought out their first martial 
percussion revolvers made on Beal's patent of Sept. 14, 1858. 
This was followed by the Remington Model 1861, and in turn 
by the famous New Model. 

During the Civil War, the Remingtons furnished the govern- 
ment with 10,000 modified Model 1841, saber-bayonet rifles on 
contract of Aug. 11, 1862, at $17.00 each, and an additional lot 
of 2,500 at the same price, was contracted for Dec. 13, 1863. 
On Dec. 14, 1863, Remingtons contracted to furnish 40,000 Spring- 
field rifle muskets Model 1863, at $18.00, the deliveries on which 
began May 31, 1864, and were completed March 24, 1866. 

An earlier rifle contract for 10,000 arms of July 30, 1861, 
has been mentioned, in connection with Remington Civil War 
contracts; it is believed however, that if such was the case, 
that it was cancelled or made a part of a later contract, as no 
deliveries have been recorded. 

Remingtons also furnished 2,814 Beals revolvers and 125,314 
Remington percussion revolvers. 

In 1865, the Company was incorporated and secured the 
services of Joseph Rider, the famous arms inventor, and en- 
joyed a period of prosperity until 1886, when it failed and was 
reorganized as the Remington Arms Company. The control of 
the business passed from the Remington family to Hartley & 
Graham of New York. The Company was merged in 1902 with 
the Union Metallic Cartridge Company and became known as 
Remington-UMC. Later the name was changed again to Rem- 
ington Arms Company, Inc. Between the Civil and World Wars 
the Company produced a wide variety of military arms for our 
own and many other governments as well as sporting arms of 
all types. Its efforts in the service of the United States reached 
a climax with the production of 545,541 rifles, Model 1917, 
(Enfield) between Aug. 1, 1917, and Nov. 9, 1918. 

REMINGTON ARMS CO. OF DELAWARE— Eddystone, Pa. World 
War arms manufacturers, later a part of the Midvale Steel & 
Ordnance Company. Produced 1,181,908 Model 1917 rifles (Enfield) 
for the U. S. government from Aug. 1, 1917, to Nov. 9, 1918. 

REMINGTON, Samuel— Ilion, N. Y. Second son of Eliphalet Reming- 
ton II, born April 12, 1819. In the 1850's he set up a manufactur- 
ing plant within his father's factory buildings, making Merrill 
Spigot rifles, barrels and brooms. Admitted to partnership in 
1856, and became president of E. Remington Sons Co., after 
his father's death in 1861. Died Dec. 1, 1882. A back-action per- 
cussion lock on a heavy whale gun, marked "S. REMINGTON- 
ILION, N. Y." 

REMLEY, John H.— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

REMMERER, David— Unlocated. 

RENDYLES, Bernard— Steubenville, Ohio, 1852-54. Gun barrel maker. 

RENKER, Rudolph— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

RENKIN — Iron mounted, over-under, rifle-shotgun with right and 
left. 






178 American Gun Makers 

RENWICK, Edward S*— New York, N. Y. Maker of "Double Header" 
2-shot cartridge pistols. 

RESOR, J. — Unlocated. An early flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

RESSER, Peter— Lancaster Borough, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1779-1802 

REUTHE, F.— Unlocated. Trap pistol patented May 12, 1857. 

REVOL, J. B. — New Orleans, La., gunsmith listed in the City Di- 
rectory from 1842 through 1885. Located at 346 Royal in 1853. 
Stock bought out by P. Bouron when business was discontinued. 

REXER— Canton, Stark Co., Ohio. Early. 

REYNALL, Richard— -56 Water St., Baltimore, Md., 1802. 

REYNOLDS— Lancaster, Pa., about 1800. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

REYNOLDS, F.— New York, N. Y., 1866. 8 ga. Percussion shotgun. 

REYNOLDS, Francis— Troy, N. Y., in 1835. Kentucky rifles. 

REYNOLDS, J. A.— Unlocated. Gun barrel maker. 

REYNOLDS, PLANT & HOTCHKISS— New Haven, Conn. See Plant's 
Mfg. Co. 

REYNOLDS, Thomas— Troy, N. Y., in 1835. Kentucky rifles. 

R. F. — Unidentified. Bedford County, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

R. F. S. — Unidentified. Plain percussion Kentucky rifle, brass mounted 
without patchbox. 

R. H. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

R. H. P. — Unidentified. Percussion rifle. 

RHEINHARL, P. A.— Misreading for Reinhard, P. A. 

RHINEHART, J. C— Ohio, 1840-60. 

RHINEHART, Rudolph— Bear wallow Hollow, Va., 1785. Flintlock 
Kentucky rifle. 

RHODES, William — Providence, R. I. Musket maker associated with 
William Tyler in a U. S. contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 
2,000 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per 
stand. Of these 950 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

RICE, Ralsa C— Ohio. Born 1838; died 1911. 

RICE, Samuel F. — See Wallis & Rice. 

RICH, Henry — Canton, N. Y., percussion period; riflesmith. 

RICHARD — N. Y. Three barrel percussion gun — one barrel rifled. 

RICHARDS, C. B.— Unlocated, 1874. 

RICHARDSON, C. Y. & BRO.— Charleston, S. C, 1867. 

RICHARDSON, Joel— Boston, Mass., 1816-25. 

RICHARDSON, O. A. — Lowell, Mass. Heavy, percussion telescopic 
Civil War sharpshooter's rifles. 

RICHARDSON & OVERMAN— Philadelphia, Pa. Civil War makers 
of Gallager breech-loading percussion carbines of which 17,728 
were bought between 1861-64. An additional 5,000 Gallager car- 
tridge carbines were purchased between May 4, and June 3, 1865. 

RICHARDSON, Wm. A. — Worcester, Mass., arms manufacturer. Born 
1833. Worked for Ball & Williams and for Frank Wesson, With 
Gilbert H. Harrington organized the firm of Harrington & 
Richardson in 1874. See the latter firm. 

RICHMOND ARMORY— Richmond, Va. See Virginia Manufactory. 

RICHMOND, S.— Unlocated. Maker of over-under, "mule ear" lock 
percussion rifle. 



American Gun Makers 179 

RICHWINE, C.— Reading, Pa., gun barrel maker, late flintlock, early 
percussion periods. Richwine rifles are known stocked in curly- 
maple, with locks by Joseph Golcher. 

RICKARD ARMS CO. — Cheap double barrel, hammer breech-loading 
shotguns. 

RICKS, Thomas— Boston, Mass., 1677 

RICKETS, John— Mansfield, Ohio, 1859-74. Half-stock perc. target 
rifle. 

RICKETS, T.— Mansfield, Ohio. 

RIDDEL— Lancaster, Pa., 1770. Kentucky rifles. 

RIDDLE — North Carolina maker of a percussion lock pistol generally 
patterned after U. S. 1842 Model. 

RIDDLE — Low and medium quality commercial percussion locks, 
variously decorated and marked "Riddle" in ribbon scroll or 
oblong cartouche. 

RIDDLE, W. G. & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Kentucky type, full stock, 
flintlock smoothbores. 

RIDEOUT, J. — Unlocated. Reported full stock, sporting-military flint- 
lock rifle. 

RIDER, NATHANIEL & CO.— Southbridge, Mass., 1857. Saw-handle, 
under-hammer percussion pistols. 

RIFE, Charles— Cadiz, Harrison Co., Ohio, 1800-12. 

RIFE, Charles— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1855-56. 

RIFE, Harry C— R. F. D. No. 2, Leesburg, Ohio. Born Feb. 14, 1907, 
in Ross Co., O.; learned gunsmithing under Win Woods of 
Peebles, Ohio. Makes rifles from old parts; specializes in barrel 
work. 

RIGDON, ANSLEY & CO.— Augusta, Georgia. Revolver manufac- 
turers to the Confederacy. Arms patterned after the Colt Navy 
1851. Charles H. Rigdon, mechanic and machinist, was a mem- 
ber of firm of Rigdon & Harmsted, scale manufactures of St. 
Louis, Mo., about 1854. In 1860, Rigdon was in Memphis, Tenn., 
operating a scale shop. Early in 1862, in partnership with Thomas 
Leech, he organized the Memphis Novelty Works, at Main & 
McCall Streets, for the manufacture and repair of swords. 
May 9, 1862, on approach of Union forces, Leech and Rigdon 
moved to Columbus, Miss., where some revolvers were made, 
thence on orders to move the plant to safer area, they went to 
Greensboro, Ga., about 15 Dec. 1862. March 6, 1863, the firm 
received a Confederate contract for revolvers, manufacture of 
which began in the purchased plant of the Greensboro Steam 
Factory, also known as Greensboro Mills. In December 1863 
the partnership was dissolved and Rigdon moved to Augusta, 
Ga., probably taking the machinery and contract with him. In 
January 1864 he organized the firm of Rigdon, Ansley & Com- 
pany, his partners being Jesse A. Ansley, C. R. Keen and A. J. 
Smythe. The company plant was on Mallory Street, where their 
iron frame, 12 cylinder stop Confederate Colts were made until 
Ansley was drafted and the mechanics conscripted into a de- 
fence battalion which participated in the fight at Griswoldville 
in Nov. 1864. The plant operations ceased about Jan. 1865, at 
which time Ansley offered his one-fourth interest for sale in a 
newspaper ad. See also Leech & Rigdon. 

RIGGINS, THOMAS— Knoxville, Tenn., 1862-63. "Armorer to the 



180 American Gun Makers 

Confederacy." Riggins was born in McMinn County, Tenn., in 
1821 and was apprenticed at the age of ten to a gunsmith 
relative. By 1845 his sporting rifles gained a reputation in old- 
time shooting matches and were said to "get the beef." 

At the outbreak of Civil War he contracted to make rifles 
for arming the "East Tennessee Squirrel Shooters," a State 
volunteer cavalry unit. Volunteering in '61 for Col. Vaughn's 
Third Tennessee Regiment, he was detached to Knoxville to 
supervise the instruction and labor of sixty mechanics in con- 
version of percussion and flintlock sporting arms into short, 
percussion, large-bore cavalry carbines, until the shop was 
destroyed by Union forces. See A. L. Maxwell, Jr. & Co. 

RIGHTER, J.— Cadiz, Harrison Co., Ohio, 1800-1812. 

RIGHTER, J. G.— -Cadiz, Ohio. Percussion Kentucky rifles, possibly 
a few flintlocks. Related to J. Righter? 

RIGGS, B.— Bellows Falls, Vt, 1850. 

RIGGS, Joseph, Jr. — Derby, Conn. Repaired arms for the Committee 

iof Safety. Account submitted for repairing guns taken from 
"inimical persons"; June 1776. 
RILEY, Edward— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1816-18. 

RILEY, William L.— Watertown, Washington Co., Ohio, 1850-54. 
RILING, John — Juanista Valley, Pa. Percussion period. 
RILING, John — Unlocated. Maple full stock, brass trim, octagon 

barrel, percussion Kentucky rifle. 
RINER, Michael— Lancaster, Pa. 
RINGLE— Pennsylvania. 

RINGLE, A. — Unlocated, possibly Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 
RINGLE, M. — Bellefonte, Center Co., Pa. Late percussion period. 

Curly maple, silver inlaid, full stock rifle with stock marked 

"M. RINGLE" and "BELLEFONTE," in two lines. Another curly 

maple full stock rifle with oval patchbox, twice marked "M. 

RINGLE" on top flat; back action lock marked "WHITMORE 

WOLFF DUFF & CO. PITTSBURGH, PA." 
RIPLEY (RAIBLE)— Warren, Ohio, about 1850; 24-lb. percussion 

match rifle. 
RIPLEY BROS.— Windsor, Vt., 1835. 
RIPLEY, E. K.— 1401 Alaska St., Seattle, Wash. Born in 1846; retired 

1918. 
RIPLEY, J. W. — Major Ordnance Superintendent Springfield Armory 

from April 16, 1841 to August 16, 1854. 

RISHER, D'N'L — Daniel Risher, unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

RISLEY, Hiram— Saquoit, N. Y. Born 1804; died in the Seventies. 

RISLEY, M. Shirley— North Brookfield, N. Y. Still active. Worked with 
N. H. Roberts in the development of the .257 Roberts cartridge. 

RITTENHOUSE, Benjamin— Worcester Township, Montgomery Co., 
Pa. Active before and after 1776-78. Musket maker to Committee 
of Safety for 200 stands at 4 pounds, 5 shillings each. With 
Peter De Haven established the State Gun-lock Factory at 
Philadelphia in March, 1776. Later the factory was expanded 
to include manufacture of arms. See Pennsylvania State Gun 
Factory. 

The proposal that Rittenhouse take charge of the "Pro- 



American Gun Makers 181 

vincial Gun-lock Factory" was made to him by the Committee 
of Safety on Feb. 9, 1776. On the 16th, Rittenhouse accepted 
the post at a salary of £250 per annum, and was directed to 
come to Philadelphia on Feb. 26, 1776. 

RITTER, Jacob— Philadelphia, Pa., 1775-83. 

RITZEL— Canton, Starke Co., Ohio, 1816-1840. (Father of P. M. 
Ritzel?) 

RITZEL, P. M.— Starke County, Ohio, active before and after 1840- 
53. Rifle maker prior to 1850, after which specialized in manu- 
facture of gun-barrels. 

ROBB, John — Superintendent Springfield Armory from November 
1, 1833 to April 15, 1841. 

ROBBINS, C— Tioga, Pa. Flintlock maker. 

ROBBINS— Scott Co., Tenn. Kentucky rifles. 

ROBBINS, C. — Pennsylvania? Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

ROBBINS, KENDALL & LAWRENCE— Windsor, Vt., 1844 to about 
1847. Contractors of Feb. 18, 1845, for 10,000 Model 1841 per- 
cussion rifles at $11.90 each, duration five years, delivery to be 
made at Springfield, Mass. This contract was completed eighteen 
months ahead of time. Shortly after completion of this contract, 
Robbins & Lawrence bought out Kendall's interest in the firm 
and continued the business under the name of Robbins & 
Lawrence. See below. Also see Kendall, N. & Co. 

ROBBINS & LAWRENCE— Windsor, Vt., about 1847-55. The firm 
began with the association of Richard S. Lawrence with N. 
Kendall at Windsor, Vt., in 1843. In 1844 they were joined by 
S. E. Robbins, and secured a government contract for 10,000 
Model 1841 rifles. (See Robbins, Kendall & Lawrence, above.) 
About 1847, Robbins and Lawrence bought out Kendall's inter- 
est, the firm continuing as Robbins & Lawrence. January 5, 1848, 
they contracted for 15,000 Model 1841 percussion rifles at $12.87 % 
each, delivery at Springfield, Mass. It is reported that though 
some of the output of arms made for the government were 
rejected, the firm prospered because of the demand for arms 
created by the California gold rush. About 1850 the firm under- 
took the manufacture of 5,000 Jennings rifles incorporating the 
Horace Smith improvements of Patent No. 8,317, of Aug. 26, 
1851. At about this time they were also making 5-shot per- 
cussion pepperbox pistols, and undertook the construction of 
railroad cars, but failure to obtain expected contract resulted in 
a heavy loss. 

In 1851, the firm exhibited their arms in London, which 
resulted in a contract for Enfield rifles. Encouraged, they con- 
tracted to make 5,000 Sharps rifles at Windsor, and 15,000 
Sharps rifles and carbines at a plant they were to erect at 
Hartford, Conn. The Sharps Co. Hartford plant was completed 
in 1853 under supervision of Mr. Lawrence, and the firm under- 
took a contract of 25,000 Enfield rifles with a promise of 300,000 
more. However, this did not materialize, and Robbins & 
Lawrence, heavily involved in preparations for the order, failed. 
The auctioned plant was acquired by E. G. Lamson, A. F. 
Goodnow and B. B. Yale, under the name of Lamson, Goodnow 
& Yale of Windsor, Vt., which in turn was succeeded by E. G. 
Lamson & Co., then Windsor Mfg. Co. In 1869 Mr. R. L. Jones 
joined the Company; in 1879 Jones & Lamson was organized to 



182 American Gun Makers 

take over the machine business, which had been one of the 
side lines of the Windsor Company. Jones & Lamson are still 
active in Springfield, Vt., where they had moved from Windsor 
in 1889. 

When the Robbins & Lawrence firm failed, Mr. Lawrence 
took charge of the operations at the Sharps plant at Hartford, 
which remained under the Sharps Rifle Co. stockholders' control. 

ROBBINS, W. E. — Manesburg, Pa. Maker of percussion rifles. 

ROBBINS, W. G.— Windsor, Vt. Percussion rifles. 

ROBERTS BREECH-LOADING ARMS CO.— 39 Broadway, N. Y., 
1865-74. Controlled by Gen. Benjamin S. Roberts, inventor of 
the Roberts army rifles and carbines, and of the Roberts system 
of alteration to breech-loaders, patented Feb. 27, 1866. The 
Roberts arms were manufactured by the Providence Tool Co. 
The Roberts conversion system was adopted by the State of 
New York in 1867. 

ROBERTS, W.— Dansville, N. Y., 1850. Four shot, "pepperbox" type, 
percussion rifle. 

ROBERTSON, Wm. — Well known Philadelphia gunsmith, maker of 
duelling pistols. Listed as gunsmith at 102 Carpenter in 1829. In 
the 1841-44-45 McElroy's Philadelphia Directors, Wm. Robinson, 
gunsmith is listed at 90 S. 2nd. He is believed to be identical 
with Robertson, for William Robertson, gunsmith is shown re- 
siding at 90 S 2nd in 1846-47-48-49. His subsequent addresses 
(under Robertson) are shown at SW 2nd and Walnut in 
1851-52-53; SE 2nd and Dock in 1854-55; 47 Walnut below 2nd in 
1856-57 and at 131 Walnut in 1859, last entry. 

ROBINSON— Philadelphia, Pa., 1830-1855. Kentucky rifles. 

ROBINSON, E.— New York, N. Y. Edward Robinson, Civil War con- 
tractor for Springfield muskets, Model 1861: — 

June 10, 1863—20,000 at $20.00; 12,000 delivered. 
Dec. 29, 1863—5,000 at $18.00; 4,000 delivered. 
Feb. 23, 1864—15,000 at $18.00; 8,000 delivered. 
Oct. 4, 1864—7,000 at $18.00; 6,000 delivered. 

ROBINSON, S. C. ARMS COMPANY— Richmond, Va., 1862-63. 
Located on canal near Petersburg railroad bridge. Makers of 
Confederate Sharps carbines. Revolvers on the Whitney pattern 
were also to be made, but proposals were withdrawn in 1861. 
Operated by Samuel C. Robinson, owner of the Belvidere 
Planing Mills of Richmond, who furnished the capital and 
Lester, the foreman in charge of works. Taken over by the Con- 
federate Government in 1863 and removed to Tallassie, Ala., 
in 1864. 

ROBINSON, S. C. — Richmond, Va., Confederate arms manufacturer, 
operator of S. C. Robinson Arms Company. Had a contract for 
manufacturing shells for U. S. in 1860. 

ROBINSON, Wm.— Philadelphia, 1841-1845. See Robertson, Wm. 

ROBSON, James O.— Ill Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 1854-7. 

ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL— Rock Island, 111., 1843 to date. Facilities 
for manufacture and repair of U. S. rifles, Model 1903. The 
arsenal produced 47,251 Model 1903 rifles during the World War. 

ROCKETER, J. H.— Also Rector, Syracuse, N. Y., 1845-55. 

RODGERS, John— See Rogers, John. 

ROEMER, O. E — Unidentified. Percussion rifles. 



American Gun Makers 183 

ROESCHEN, C. A.— Unlocated. Half stock percussion rifle with 
patent breech. 

ROESSLER, C.— Charleston, S. C., 1867. 

ROESSER, Matteas — Also Roeser, Matthew, Mathias or Mathew. 
Lancaster County, Pa., before and after 1740-51. Kentucky rifles. 
William Henry I, served his apprenticeship under Roesser. 

ROESSER, Peter— (or Roeser), Lancaster, Pa., 1741-1755 and probably 
after 1780. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

ROGER, J.— Highland, 111. 

ROGERS & BROS.— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1820. Pistol makers. 

ROGERS, H. — Unidentified. Lock marking on a flintlock Kentucky 
rifle. 

ROGERS, H. D. — Unlocated. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun. 

ROGERS & HEART— Utica, N. Y. Percussion pistol. 

ROGERS, John — Philadelphia, Pa., ironmonger listed (with Charles 
Rogers) in the City Directories at 7 N. 2nd Street, in 1809, and 
at 52 High Street, from 1810 to 1824. Then Rogers Brothers & 
Co., are listed at 52 High Street, until 1846. 

John Rogers (sometimes also spelled Rodgers) bought the 
Valley Forge in 1814. On March 21, 1821, in association with 
Brooke Evans of 120 High St., Philadelphia, Rogers took over 
the refunct contract of Alexander McRae of Richmond, Va., 
of July 28, 1817, for 10,000 muskets at $12.75 per stand. Brooke 
Evans remodelled the old forge and iron works into a gun 
factory, and by Dec. 31, 1823, John Rogers and Brooke Evans 
are recorded to have delivered 5,730 muskets on the contract. 

On Jan. 1, 1825, John Rogers (alone) contracted for 5,000 
Model 1816 muskets at $12.25 per stand, to be delivered at the 
rate of 1,000 per annum. This contract was probably shared 
with Wm. L. Evans, a practical gun-maker who managed the 
Evansburg arms works. 

The Valley Forge descended to a nephew, Charles H. Rogers, 
then to female descendants, until bought by Pennsylvania for 
a park. 

ROGERS, R.— California. Brass mounted, pill-lock rifle. 

ROGERS & SPENCER— Willowdale, N. Y., about seven miles south 
of Utica. Civil War makers of Pettengill percussion hammerless 
revolvers under the Raymond & Robitaille patent of Nov. 15, 
1856, of which 2,001 were bought from Rogers & Spencer by 
the War Department between Oct. 20, 1862, and Jan. 17, 1863. 
Later the firm manufactured the Rogers & Spencer percussion 
revolver made under the H. S. Rogers patent of Nov. 4, 1862, 
No. 36,861. There were 500 of these well made arms bought 
from Jan. 30, 1865, to Sept. 26, 1865, too late for use in the Civil 
War. The Rogers & Spencer revolvers were really a develop- 
ment of the Freeman revolver. The firm acquired the Freeman 
patents and improved and refined the arm, producing a sturdy, 
handsome and well balanced weapon. 

ROGERS, Wm.— Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 30 Brown, in 
1829. 

ROGERS, Wm. — Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gun powder manufac- 
turer at 3 Minor, in 1829. 

ROHRER, Leopold— New Castle, Pa., 1873-1939. Born in St. Peter, 
Baden, Germany, Nov. 13, 1851; came to America in 1871. With 



184 American Gun Makers 

Great Western Gun Works, Smithfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa., then 
in Chicago. Established gun shop in New Castle in 1873; active 
until 1939. 

ROLL, F. X. — Liberty, Mo., French gunsmith. Established early in 
frontier days about 1822. Made and repaired arms for about 
fifty years. 

ROME REVOLVER & NOVELTY CO.— Nickel-plated revolvers. 

ROOD, M. L.— Denver, Col., before and after 1860-81. Listed at 202 
15th Street, 1873-81. 

ROOP, J.— Bellefonte, Pa., about 1850-1860. Percussion rifles. 

ROOP, John— Allentown, Pa., 1768-1775, before and after. Extensive 
maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles, Masonic emblem characteristic. 
Flintlock rifle dated 1768, silver Masonic emblem in cheekpiece. 
Another, silver inlaid, with emblem on patchbox. 

ROPER REPEATING RIFLE CO.— Amherst, Mass., about 1867-1876., 
makers of multi-shot repeating rifles and shotguns under the 
H. S. Roper patent of April 10, 1866, No. 53881. 

The corporation consisted of H. S. Roper of Roxbury, Mass., 
the inventor, Christopher M. Spencer of Spencer repeating arms 
fame, H. D. Fearing, Leonard M. Hills and his son Henry F. 
Hills and had been organized with capital stock of $100,000. 

From 1869 to 1876 the Roper arms were made for the com- 
pany, renamed Roper Sporting Arms Co., of Hartford, Conn., 
by the Billings & Spencer Co. of Hartford. 

ROPER SPORTING ARMS CO.— Hartford, Conn., 1869-1876. Suc- 
cessors to Roper Repeating Rifle Co. of Amherst, Mass. Pro- 
moters of combination revolving rifle-shotgun, using interchange- 
able barrels, made for the Company by Billings & Spencer, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

ROPP, Adam— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

ROSS, A. C— Zanesville, Muskigum Co., Ohio, 1810-20. Rifle and 
pistol maker. Son of Elija Ross. 

ROSS, Boone — Terre Haute, Ind. Heavy, percussion, match rifles. 

ROSS, Elija— Zanesville, Muskigum Co., Ohio., 1804-1864. Born in 
Brownsville, Penna., 1786. Fine gun and swordsmith. 

ROTH, Charles— Wilkes Barre, Pa., about 1840. 

ROTH, Henry — Wilkes Barre, Pa. Percussion period. 

ROTHROCK, Edward— Middle Creek, Snyder Co., Pa. Late per- 
cussion period. Active until death Jan. 1, 1934. 

ROUP— Mifflinburg, Pa. Kenucky rifles. 

ROW, Nathaniel — Penna. Had served apprenticeship under John 
Armstrong. Handsome, relief carved rifle. 

ROWE, A. H.— Hartford, Conn., 1864. Maker of a rifle under A. H. 
Rowe patent of April 5, 1864, No. 42,227. Proved to be an in- 
fringement on R. S. Lawrence patent of Jan. 6, 1852, No. 8,637. 

ROWE, E. P.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

ROWELL, Harry— Columbus, Wis., 1870's. Inventor of a breech- 
loading action somewhat of the Remington-Hepburn type. Few 
heavy barrel known of rather crude workmanship, probably 
specimen pieces to demonstrate the action. 

ROWELL, H. H.— Sonora, Calif., before and after 1876. Riflesmith 
and match shooter. 



American Gun Makers 185 

ROYDEN, Jesse — Fentress Co., Term. Kentucky rifles. 

ROYET, Louis — Reading, Pa., 1867 and later. Came from France in 
1858. Percussion and breech-loading arms. 

ROZZEL, Thomas — Granville Hollow, Washington Co., Pa. Percus- 
sion period. Fancy, silver-mounted rifles. 

RLDD & SPENCER— Canon City, Col., 1877-80. 

RUDOLPH, A. E.— Canon City, Colo., 1870-80. Maker of muzzle- 
loading and breech-loading rifles. Had worked in Confederate 
Armory during the Civil War. Came to Canon City in 1870. 

RUDOLPH & CO.— Successors to H. E. Dimick, St. Louis, Mo., 1874. 

RUDOLPH, Victor— St. Joseph, Mo., 1867-79 and later. Associated 
with Rudolph & Co. 

RUDOLPH, W.— Jackson near Davis, San Francisco, Calif., 1859-60. 
At 216 Pacific, 1861-65. 

RUDOLPH, W. S.— Canon City, Colo., 1875. Heavy, curly maple half- 
stocked plains rifle with back action lock stamped with de- 
fective die of G. Goulcher. Barrel stamped with name, location, 
date and "No. 7." Evidently related to A. E. Rudolph, Canon City, 
Colo., 1875-80. 

RUETSCHNER, A.— Pueblo, Col., 1880. 

RUFNER, Bennivel — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Gun barrel 

grinder. 
RUGGLES, A. — Stafford, Conn. Under-hammer percussion pistols. 
RUGH, G. — Unlocated. Percussion rifle. 
RUPERTUS PAT'D PISTOL MFG. CO.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1860-88. 

Makers of single-shot percussion and cartridge pistols, 4-shot 

rim fire cartridge pistols, 8-shot. 22 cal. pepperboxes and of 

J. Rupertus revolvers and sporting rifles. 
RUPP, Herman — Pennsylvania rifle maker, 1784. 
RUPP, John— Pennsylvania, about 1740. Kentucky rifles. 
RUPP, John— Ruppville, Pa., near Allentown, about 1780. Pistol 

maker. 

RUPPERT, William— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1776. 

RUSH, John — Byberry Township, Pa., gunsmith, blacksmith and 

farmer, 1745, before and after? A John Rush had settled at 

Byberry (twelve miles up Delaware River from Philadelphia) in 

1683. In the fourth generation of Rushes was Dr. Benjamin Rush, 

signer of Declaration of Independence. 
RUSILY, Jacob— Lancaster, Pa., Flintlock Kentucky rifles. Died 1822. 

Maker of a very handsome, carved and inlaid Kentucky rifle 

circa 1830, with "S. SPAGLER" lock. 
RUSLIN, Jacob— Unlocated. Flintlock rifles. (Same as Rusily?) 
RUSSOM & CO. — Unlocated. Flintlock and percussion Kentucky 

rifles. 
RUTH, John — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. Made finished rifle 

barrels. 
R. & W. C. B. CO.— See R. & W. C. Biddle. 
RYAN, T. E. — Norwich, Conn. "Retriever" pocket revolvers. 
RYAN, THOS J. PISTOL MFG. CO.— Franklin St., N. Y., 1874 and 

after. Maker of "Napoleon" revolvers. 
RYNES, Michael — Pequa Creek, Lancaster Co., Pa. Revolutionary 

period. 



186 American Gun Makers 



SACKET, J.— See Sackett, Jacob. 

SACKETT, D. S.— Westfield, Mass. Underhammer, brass-frame per- 
cussion pistol. 

SACKETT, Jacob— (Also Sacket, J.) Saegertown, Crawford Co., Pa. 
Heavy over-under swivel rifle-shotgun; single and over-under 
percussion rifles. 

SACRISTE, L. C— Gunsmith, 1 Victory, New Orleans, La., 1853. 

SAGE, Luther— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1817-1838. In- 
spected arms in plants R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon North, Lemuel 
Pomeroy, Nathan Starr, Asa Waters and Eli Whitney. 



SAGET, Julian — New Orleans, La., gunmaker listed in the City Direc- 
tory 1841 to 1886; to 1865, at 80 St. Philip and from 1866, at 
198 Chartres. Arthur E. Saget listed as gunsmith at the Chartres 
address from 1881 to 1896. Stocks bought out by P. Bouron when 
business was discountinued. 

SALOLA— "The Squirrel." Qualla Town, Haywood Co., N. C, in 1843- 
1848. Blacksmith and gunmaker of the Cherokee Nation. Rifles 
and pistols made lock stock, and barrel. An underhammer, rifled 
percussion bootleg pistol, barrel inscribed in Cherokee alphabet. 

SALTER or SOLTER, Wm. J.— Short Creek, Jefferson Co., Ala. Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SALTERSWAITH, Barclay — New Lisbon, (now Lisbon) Columbiana 
County, Ohio. Active in the early part of the 19th Century. 

SALTONSTALL, Gordon— Paid in August 1775, by Connecticut, for 
receiving, storing and repairing arms after the "1762 war." 

SAMPLES, B. — Urbana, Champaign Co., Ohio, active before and after 
1848-54. Fullstock Kentucky rifle dated 1852. Also lock on a Ken- 
tucky rifle by J. D. Loomis Co. 

SANDERS, William— Gunsmith .44 Cedar, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

SANDERSON, B. — Vermont. Maker of heavy barrel, under hammer, 
birdseye maple stock target rifle. 

SANDERSON, M. F.— Proctorsville, Vt., 1857. Underhammer percus- 
sion rifle, and "harmonica" rifle. 

SARGENT & SMITH— Newburyport, Mass. 

S ARSON & ROBERTS— J. B. Sarson and William S. Roberts, 11 Piatt 
St., New York, N. Y. Civil War Contractors of Dec. 26, 1861, for 
25,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets at $20.00 each. Of 
these 5,140 were delivered on contract. 

SATTERTHWAIT, B. A.— Unlocated. Silver inlaid percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

SAUP, Andrew— Bedford Borough, Bedford Co., 1841. 

SAVAGE ARMS CO.— See Savage Repeating Arms Co., of Utica N. Y. 

SAVAGE ARMS CORPORATION— See Savage Repeating Arms Co., 
of Utica, N. Y. 

SAVAGE, E.— Edward Savage, Midddletown, Conn., maker in 1856- 
59 of the H. S. North patent, figure-8 trigger revolver, patented 
June 17, 1856, No. 15,164. See North & Savage. 

SAVAGE, James— 37 George St., Baltimore, Md., 1810. 

SAVAGE REPEATING ARMS CORPORATION— Utica, N. Y. 
Founded in 1895 as the Savage Repeating Arms Co., by Arthur 



American Gun Makers 187 

W. Savage, who was born in Kingston, Jamaica, came to United 
States as a boy and attended school in Baltimore, later com- 
pleting his education in England. After an adventurous life in 
Australia, East Indies, Egypt and back to his native West Indies, 
he returned to the United States to take up residence in Utica, 
N. Y., where for a time he was the manager of the Utica Belt 
Line Railroad. 

Though the Savage Repeating Arms Company was organ- 
ized in 1895, to manufacture arms of Mr. Savage's design, the 
first firearms introduced by the Company were made by the 
Marlin Firearms Co., of New Haven, Conn., as the Savage manu- 
facturing plant was not established until 1898, three years or so 
after the organization of the Company. 

In 1899, the firm was renamed Savage Arms Co., and in 
1917, became the present Savage Arms Corporation controlled 
by J. Stevens Arms Co., manufacturing a wide variety of sport- 
ing arms and the A. H. Fox shotguns. 

Arthur W. Savage was found dead in San Diego, Cal., Sept. 
22, 1938, from a bullet wound; a pistol was by his side. 

SAVAGE REVOLVING FIREARMS COMPANY— Middletown, Conn. 
Organized in 1860, by Henry S. North and Edward Savage 
(previously North & Savage) for the manufacture of their navy 
revolver (North patent of 1856) as improved by North and 
Savage patents of Jan. 8, 1859, No. 22,666, and of May 15, 1860, 
No. 28,331. The government purchased 11,284 Savage navy re- 
volvers during the Civil War. See also North & Savage. The 
Company is believed to have made some Starr revolvers in 
their plant. 

The Company also contracted during the Civil War for 
Model 1861 rifle muskets; on Sept. 9, 1862, for 25,000 at $18.00 
each; 13,520 delivered, and Feb. 25, 1864, for 12,000 at the same 
price; contract completed. These contracts were signed by James 
A. Wneelock, Secretary of the firm. Edward Savage was one of 
the sureties. 

SAWYER, Phinelias — An English type sporting flintlock musket, 
with this name on lock. May be a Committe of Safety musket. 

SAXONIA GUN WORKS— Eugene, Oregon. Limited production of 
16 gauge hammer less shotguns. 

SAYLOR, Jacob— Bedford Borough, Bedford County, Pa., about 1776. 
Reputed to have made muskets for Committee of Safety and 
worked on public arms 1779-83. To date not found mentioned 
in contemporary records. 

S. B. — Unidentified. Barrel marking of an circa 1820, flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles of north-central Penna. provenance. On one spesimen 
the patchbox lid is engraved "BERLIN" in script. 

S B in oval — Unidentified barrelmaker. Stamped under breech of 
A. Gumpf halfstock percussion rifle. 

S. C. — Initials to denote ownership by State of Connecticut. 

SCHAEFER, William R.— Boston, Mass., 1853 to 1916 and after. As- 
sociated with Warner in 1860-70. 

SCHAEFFER— Unidentified. Flintlock rifles. 

SCHAFFER, J. A. — Vicksburg, Miss. Large bore muzzle loading per- 
cussion rifle marked "J. A. SCHAFFER VICKSBURG MISS." 

SCHAEFER & WARNER— Boston, Mass. 1860-70. 

SCHAIRER— Back action lock marked "SCHAIRER I. G." on a curly 



188 American Gun Makers 

maple, half stock, single shot, percussion rifled pistol, and double 
set triggers, percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SCHALK, Andrew — Pottsville, Pa., Percussion period. Had been as- 
sociated with T. P. Cherington. 

SCHALK, Chris— Williamsport, Pa., about 1825-75. 

SCHALCK, George — (also Schalk) Born in Wils Baden, Germany, 
1821; emigrated to Pottsville, Pa., in 1854. Famous maker and 
shooter of Schuetzen rifles; inventor of Schalck rifling system for 
unpatched, grooved and lubricated bullet. Retired about 1891, 
died Nov. 2, 1893. 

SCHANER, Henry— Oley Valley, Pa.; early 19th century riflesmith. 

SCHARP, S.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

SCHEANER, William— Also Shener. Reading, Berks Co., Pa., 1779-85. 

SCHEETZ, F.— Virginia. Kentucky rifles. Related to M. Sheets, Vir- 
ginia? 

SCHELL, John — Pennsylvania. Late flintlock and early percussion 
periods. 

SCHENKL, J. P.— Boston, Mass., 1850-54. A carbine made by J. P. 
Schenkl was tested by the West Point Board in 1857. 

SCHILLING, Frederick— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

SCHILLING, Peter— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

SCHLEGELMILCH, Herman — Born in Suhl, Germany. Came to the 
United States in 1853. Worked at the gunmaking trade in New 
York City, Bethlehem, Pa., and Chicago, before settling in Beaver 
Dam, Wis., in 1855. In 1860 moved to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and 
then to Eau Claire, Wis., in the same year, where he remained 
until his death in 1903. Made percussion hunting and target rifles 
including over-under double barrel rifles and rifle-shotgun com- 
binations — a popular type of gun in Wisconsin in the percussion 
era. 

SCHLEY, Jacob — Fredericktown, Md., Revolutionary War rifle maker. 
Contracted April 19, 1776, with the Maryland Council of Defense 
for heavy, brass-mounted, black walnut stocked rifles carrying 
a four ounce ball. A specimen was shown to Washington and was 
highly praised by him. 

SCHLOTTERBECK, C.— 103 Commercial, San Francisco, Calif., 1859- 
60. (With A. J. Plate?). 

SCHMELZER, J. H.— Leavenworth, Kan. 

SCHMIDT, Hernrich— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

SCHMIDT, William— New York, N. Y. Accepted a contract July 15, 
1857, for ten Schroeder patent carbines at $30.00 each. 

SCHNADER, Franklin K. — Gun barrel maker on Wyomissing Creek, 
between Mohn's Store and Gouglersville, near Reading, Berks 
Co., Pa. Made 2,500-3,000 barrels a year. Made 1,700 rifle musket 
barrels during the Civil War. Made barrels for J. H. Johnston of 
Pittsburgh, and Henry Leman of Lancaster. Bought John Keim 
(formerly Worley), shops from Nicholas Yokum & Son; improved 
buildings and built a dam. Father of Nathaniel Schnader. 

SCHNADER, Nathaniel— Son of Franklin K. above. Managed Schna- 
der works on Wyomissing Creek until 1890 or later. 

SCHNAUT, T. G.— Monmouth, N. J. Died 1838. 

SCHNEELOCH, Otto— Brooklyn, N. Y., 1868-75. Percussion rifle. 

SCHNEIDER— 622 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. Made rifles 
called "Native Son Guns." 



American Gun Makers 189 

SCHNEIDER— Unidentified. Kentucky rifles, circa 1860. 

SCHNEIDER, A.— Unlocated. Plains rifles, late flintlock period. 

SCHNEIDER, F. A.— Canton, Ohio, 1853-57. Maker of gun barrels. 

SCHNEIDER, F. A.— Columbia, S. C. Advertised in the "Daily 
Phoenix" on Dec. 5, 1868 ". . . making to order all kinds of Pistols, 
Guns, Locks, etc . . ." 

SCHNEIDER, John— Unlocated. "MAR. 19, 1776" engraved on patch 
of very early Penna. type Kentucky rifle with lock engraved in 
script "J.S." 

SCHNEIDER, M.— Dayton, Ohio, 1859-65. Listed as M. Schneider & 
Son from 1866-71. 

SCHNEIDER & CO. — Memphis, Tenn., makers of percussion der- 
ringers. 

SCHNEIDER & GL AS SICK— 20 Jefferson St., Memphis, Tenn. Wil- 
liam S. Schnieder and Frederick G. Glassick, arms makers for 
the Confederacy. Manufacturers of percussion derringers. 

SCHOB, J.— Pennsylvania, 1780-1815. 

SCHOEB, I.— (of J. Unidentified. Die marked on barrel of Penna. 
rifle. May be barrel maker only. (Same as J. Schob?) 

SCHOENER, Henry—Reading, Pa., 1850-63 and after. 

SCHOENMEN, Frederick— 517 Kearny St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. 

SCHONTZ, P. H.— Canal Fulton, Stark Co., Ohio, 1855-65. 

SCHORER, Andrew— Bethlehem Township, Pa., Revolutionary War 
period. 

SCHOYEN, George — Denver, Colo., gunsmith, native of Norway. 
Came to U. S. shortly after the Civil War and found employment 
with Carlos Gove, Denver gun maker, in 1873. In 1885 Shoyen 
established his own shop with D. W. Butt as partner. This dis- 
solved in 1887, he took in F. A. Burgen, the partnership lasting 
until 1897. In 1904 Axel W. Peterson became his partner with 
shop at 1417 Lawrence St. Later directories give shop locations 
at Blake, Fifteenth, Arapahoe and Lawrence Streets. Shoyen 
died in 1916, the business being carried on by A. W. Peterson. 

SCHRAPEL, Louis— Georgetown, Colo., 1877-80. 

SCHRAYER, George— Also Schryer. Franklin & Greene Sts., Balti- 
more, Md., 1810. 

SCHREIDT, John— Reading, Pa., 1858-68. Kentucky rifles. 

SCHRECKENGOST, Wm. and L. G.— See Shreckengost, William and 

son, L. G. 

SCHREYER, George— Also Schroyer. Had worked in Abbotstown, Pa. 
Circa 1800 carved stock, flintlock Kentucky rifle of fine work- 
manship. Reported not to have used curly grain in his carved 
maple stock rifles. 

SCHRIVENER, James A.— Auburn, N. Y. 

SCHRIVER, G. B.— The Camden, S. C. "Journal," May 31, 1861 
"G. B. Schriver, gunsmith, has built a breechloading rifle upon 
the same principle as the Maynard but is an improvement 
thereon." 

SCHRIVER, J — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

SCHROCK, Jacob D.— Five miles east of Goshen, Ind. Born Dec. 5, 
1823, died Jan. 13, 1918 at the age of 94. With his wife, migrated 



190 American Gun Makers 

from Holmes Co., Ohio, to Indiana in 1847. Active about 1852- 
1890. Maker of fine superposed rifle-shotguns with Remington 
barrels and purchased locks. 

SCHROEDER, H.— With L. Salewski and William Schmidt of Bloom- 
ington, Ind., associates, patentee and maker of a single-shot car- 
bine, patented Dec. 23, 1856, No. 15,288. Purchase of ten Schroeder 
carbines reported by an ordnance report of Nov. 1, 1858. 

SCHROYER, George — Probably same as George Schryer, Reading, Pa. 
Huge, early Kentucky style match rifle with half-octagon barrel. 

SCHROYER, Mathias — Taney Town, Md., musket maker, contractor 
under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern (Model 
1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand. There were 150 recorded de- 
livered by June 10, 1801. 

SCHRYER, George— Also Schrayer, Franklin and Greene Sts., Balti- 
more, Md., 1810. 

SCHRYER, George— Reading, Pa., 1758-1768. See Schroyer, George. 

SCHUBARTH, C. D.— Casper D. Schubarth, Providence, R. I., Civil 
War Contractor of Oct. 11, 1861, for 20,000 Springfield rifle mus- 
kets, Model 1861, at $20.00 each. Of these 9,500 were delivered. 
The contract was extended by another 30,000 on Nov. 26, 1861, 
but no deliveries were made on the second lot. 

SCHULER, H. J. — Curly maple stock, swivel breech, percussion, 
over-under Kentucky type rifle. See Shuler. 

SCHULL, M.— Lancaster Co. Pa., 1800-1838. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

SCHULTZ— Unidentified. Flintlock rifles. 

SCHUMANN, Louis— Memphis, Tenn., 1860. 

SCHUSLER, Nicholas— Morgantown, W. Va. No details. 

SCHWEITZER, A.— Unlocated, possibly Pa. Early flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. Rifled flintlock Kentucky pistol, carved curly maple full- 
stock with coin silver mountings; lock and barrel stamped. 
A. Schweitzer. 

SCOTT— Washington Co., Pa., period of 1800. Fine flintlock Kentucky 
rifle. 

SCOTT, E. — Albany, N. Y., maker of a fine percussion target rifle 
with back action lock, double-set triggers, German silver patch- 
box and octagon barrel by Remington. 

SCOTT, GRANT— Zanesville, Muskigum Co., Ohio, 1804-1820. 

SCOTT, J. N.— Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SCOTT, W. J. and R. H.— Albany, N. Y., 1848-50. Percussion rifles. 

SCOVE, Nicholas — Maker of gun skelps for musket barrels. In em- 
ploy of Col. Peter Grubb, who operated a gun skelp forge for 
the Lancaster, Pa., Committee of Safety in 1776. 

SCOVILLE, Hezekiah — Haddam, Conn., musket barrel manufacturer 
of early 1800's. Supplied Eli Whitney and Nathan Starr. 

SCOUT, Jacobus (or James)— 1736-1829. Warminster Twp., Bucks Co., 
Pa. Learned silversmithing from John Fitch, presumably worked 
on the first commercial steamboat. In 1776 an armorer with the 
Continental Army near Trenton. A slim converted flintlock 
Kentucky rifle with silver eagle inlay under forearm, large 
script initials "J. S." on patchbox. 

S. D. — Unidentified. Good Kentucky rifles. 

SEABURY, J. & CO.— Southbridge, Mass., 1861. 



American Gun Makers 191 

SEAVER— Vergennes, Vt. 

SECHREST — Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

SEDGLEY, R. F., Inc. — Philadelphia, Pa. Modern. Makers of sporting 
and military arms. 

SEELEY, Austin— Reedsburg, Wis., 1849 until after the Civil War. 
Seeley was born in Medina County, Ohio, in 1820, and moved to 
Wisconsin in 1845. Made percussion hunting and target rifles. 

SEELEY, D. N. — Western N. Y. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SEELEY, T. B. — (Also Sieley?) Dunkirk, N. Y. Over-under percus- 
sion rifle-shotgun. 

SEES, J. — Unlocated. Flintlock, Kentucky type pistol with lock 
marked "Foulke Philadelphia." 

SEEWALD, Valentine— Tiffin, Seneca Co., Ohio, 1830. 

SEIBERT, Charles and Christian — See Siebert. 

SEIDNER, J. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SEIGLING, W. C— Sandusky, Ohio, 1866-69. Rifles and shotguns. 

SEIPEL, Conrad — Also Siple or Sipel. Philadelphia region, about 
1750. See Siple C. 

SEIPEL, J. — Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SELDEN, A.— Whitehall, N. Y. Side-by-side percussion rifle-shotgun. 

SEITS, Colonel George — Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820's. 

SELL, Frederick — Unlocated. Early, carved flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

SELLS, Jacob — Believed to have worked in Linglestown, Pa. Made 
relief carved stock, flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

SELLS, Benjamin — Georgetown, Ohio, 1835-1865. "Curly maple or 
Sugartree gunstocks." 

SELLS, James — Ohio. 

SELLS, M. — Unlocated. Curly maple fullstock percussion Kentucky 
rifle. "W. W. TWEED" on stock, "M. SELLS" in script on barrel. 

SELLS, M. B. — Georgetown, Brown Co., Ohio, 1839. 

SELLS, N. F.— Laurelville, Hocking Co., Ohio, 1877-82. 

SELMA ARSENAL — Selma, Ala. Confederate armory. According to 
Benjamin Franklin Barnes, a resident, the arsenal manufactured 
rifles, muskets, pistols, swords and bayonets, with Captain N. D. 
Cross, C. A., in charge of operations. The plant which consisted 
of twenty-four buildings, was destroyed by General Wilson's 
cavalry. It is said that brass-frame revolvers were made at Selma 
towards the end of the Civil War, and it is possible that these 
were made by Charles H. Rigdon, who had come to Selma from 
Augusta, Ga. 

SELVIDGE, John— Harris Creek, Bradley Co., Tenn., 1800-1845 and 
after; learned trade from a smith named Wright who had learned 
under the Yeomens at Charlotte, N. C. Selvidge went to Tenn- 
essee in 1800, was active at age 91. Meredith Wolfe became his 
apprentice in 1845, later married his daughter Elizabeth. 

SEMMENCE, Ed.— Erie, Pa., working in 1900. Riflesmith. 

SEMPLE, A. B. & BROTHERS— Louisville, Ky. Late flint Kentucky 
rifle locks marked "A. B. SEMPLE & BROTHERS LOUIS- 
VILLE." 

SENSENY, J.— Chambersburg, Pa., 1850's. Taught the trade to James 
H. Johnston, later of the Great Western Gun Works, Pittsburgh. 



192 American Gun Makers 

SERLES, D.— Post-Civil War riflesmith; learned under J. H. Johns- 
ton of Pittsburgh. 

SETTLE, Felix— Barren Co., Ky. Son of Wm. Settle, born 1792. Ex- 
tensive maker of flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles — one 
numbered 1020. Father of Simon Settle. 

SETTLE, John — Pennsylvania. Early flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

SETTLE, Simon— Greensburg, Green Co., Ky., 19th century. Son of 
Felix Settle. Kentucky rifles. 

SETTLE, William— Barren Co., Ky. Born in Virginia, 1770, of Scot- 
tish ancestry; died 1808. Father of Felix Settle. Fine flintlock 
Kentucky rifles. 

SETTLE, Wm.— Russelville, Logan Co., Ky., 1863. Probably related 
to the Settle family: William Settle (1770-1808), and son Felix, 
(born 1792), of Barren Co., Ky., and grandson Simon of Greens- 
burg, Green Co., Ky. 

SETTLE, W. F.— Unlocated. Walnut halfstoked percussion rifle with 
Riddle lock. Name and number XXVI stamped on barrel. 

SEVERIN, T.— 524 Kearny, San Francisco, Calif., 1861-64. 

SEVER, Joseph and Shubabel — Armorers to the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts as of June 12, 1775. Gunsmiths to Committee of Safety, 
Framingham, 1775-76. 

SEWARD, Benjamin— Boston, Mass., 1796-1803. 

SEYMOUR — Unlocated. Over-under, swivel-breech, percussion double 
rifle with one barrel bored smooth. Back action lock. Burl wal- 
nut stock with cheekpiece. 

S. G. B.— (Samuel Border of Bedford Co., later Somerset Co., Pa.?) 
Maker of a full curly maple stock percussion rifle. 

SCHAEFER, Joseph — Unlocated. Maker of early percussion Kentucky 
rifles of Snyder Co., Pa., style and fine workmanship. Graceful 
Roman nose, inlaid stocks with brass furniture. 

SHAFER, Joseph (also Shaefer)— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles c. 1760- 
1800. Possibly same as Schaeffer. 

SHAKANOOSA ARMS MFG. CO.— Confederate shoulder arms mak- 
ers. See Dixon, Nelson & Co. 

SHANE, B. F.— Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

SHANNON, W. & H.— William and Hugh Shannon, gunsmiths and 
cutlers are listed in the Philadelphia, Pa., City Directories as 
follow: Hugh Shannon, (alone) at 47 Sassafras in 1805-07. Wil- 
liam and Hugh at 24 Passyunk, near 5th in 1809-11, and at 21 
Passyunk in 1813-16. William is listed alone at 224 Shippen in 
1817-20, while in 1819-20 Hugh is shown at 57 Mead. 

W. & H. Shannon contracted Nov. 9, 1808, with the govern- 
ment for 4,000 Model 1808 muskets, to be delivered over a period 
of five years, of which, 1,001 are recorded delivered by Oct. 7, 
1812. 

William Shannon, son of John Shannon of Norristown, was 
a Deputy Commissary of Hides in 1779, of which department 
William Henry I had been appointed Chief Commissary. The 
Shannon clan became related to the Henrys by marriage of 
Joseph Henry in February, 1799, to Mary Shannon, daughter 
of James (brother of William) and Elizabeth (Lane) Shannon. 
William Shannon was born in 1745, died Aug. 6, 1823, at the 
age of 78, and is buried at the St. James Perkiomen Churchyard 
at Evansburg. The relation of Hugh Shannon to William is un- 



American Gun Makers 193 

certain, most likely son, as William's brothers were named Robert 
and James. 
SHARP, John — Shelby County, Ohio. Pioneer gunsmith well known 

in the county for fine workmanship. 
SHARP, Noah A. — Unlocated. Curly maple, silver-inlaid, full-stock, 

percussion Kentucky rifle. 
SHARPS, C. & CO.— West side of 30th Street, south of Bridge 
Street, Fairmount, (West) Philadelphia, Pa., about 1857-63. 
The firm was established by Christian Sharps, who was born in 
New Jersey in 1811. After a common school education he was 
apprenticed in the machinist's trade and is believed to have 
worked out his invention of a breech-loading arm in the Daniel 
Nippes Armory on Mill Creek, about six miles from Philadel- 
phia. The fact that one of his earliest arms is marked A. S. 
Nippes, supports this belief. Considering that the name Sharps, 
in rifles, is almost synonymous with Colt in revolvers, but 
little is known of the inventor's life. 

It is known that prior to 1852, Sharps arms were made in 
small numbers by several firms, such as Massachusetts Arms 
Co., Robbins & Lawrence at Windsor, Vt. 

In 1857, it is recorded that C. Sharps & Co. consisted of 
Christian Sharps in association with Nathan H. Bolles and 
Ira B. Eddy. They erected "a very extensive establishment 
(140 ft. x 40 ft., brick) in which were housed machinery of 
most beautiful and accurate description ... a high pressure 
engine of 75 horsepower which forms the motive power of the 
establishment." The firm made Sharps breech-loading, self- 
priming pistols and Sharps rifles. 

In 1863, the Company combined with Wm. C. Hankins, 
rifle manufacturer, to form Sharps & Hankins rifle and pistol 
manufacturing establishment. After the Civil War the firm 
moved to the northeast corner of 24th & Springgarden Streets. 
Sharps and Hankins are listed as residing at 2216 Green Street, 
in 1868-71. 

Christian Sharps died at Vernon, Conn., March 13, 1874. 

SHARPS & HANKINS— Philadelphia, Pa., 1863-72. Rifle manufac- 
turers. See Sharps, C. & Co. above. 

SHARPS PATENT ARMS M'FED— Fair Mount, Philadelphia, Pa. 

See Sharps, C. & Co. above. 

SHARPS RIFLE MANUFG CO.— Hartford, Conn., 1851-74. Estab- 
lished about 1851, at Hartford, Conn. In 1853, R. S. Lawrence 
of Robbins & Lawrence, Windsor, Vt., arrived at Hartford to 
erect and manage an arms manufacturing plant for Sharps 
stockholders, which plant was to be operated by Robbins & 
Lawrence for the manufacture of arms based on the Sharps 
patents. Christian Sharps received a royalty of $1.00 for each 
arm made. There is no evidence that Mr. Christian Sharps was 
directly connected with the operations of the firm, though his 
brother-in-law, Robert Chadwick, is reported to have taken 
charge of the Sharps cartridge factory in 1851. After the failure 
of Robbins & Lawrence, the Sharps Company resumed control, 
with R. S. Lawrence in operation of the plant. 

The government purchased 3,040 Sharps carbines in July, 
1858, at $30.00 each. The Company supplied 80,512 Sharps 
carbines and 9,141 rifles during the Civil War to June 30, 1866, 



194 American Gun Makers 

and over 31,000 percussion carbines and 2,400 rifles were altered 
to the Sharps system in 1868-69. 

In 1871, the firm sold their plant to Weed Sewing Machine 
Co., except for a small portion reserved for the manufacture of 
Sharps Arms. Aug. 31, 1874, the Company was reorganized as 
the Sharps Rifle Company. See below. 

SHARPS RIFLE CO.— -Bridgeport, Conn., 1876-81. Formed by the 
sale and reorganization of the Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Co., 
of Hartford, on Aug. 31, 1874. With the expiration of the lease 
at the Weed Sewing Machine Co., on Feb. 1, 1876, the Sharps 
Rifle Company moved to Bridgeport, Conn., where a new plant 
was erected for them by a group of Bridgeport citizens. The 
firm made Sharps sporting and Creedmoor models, and Sharps 
Borchard martial arms. The firm discontinued production in 
October, 1881. 

SHATTUCK, C. S. ARMS CO.— Also C. S. Shattuck, Hatfield, Mass., 
about 1880-90. Makers of Unique palm pistol and Shattuck cart- 
ridge revolvers and shotguns. 

Prior to April 1, 1880, the firm was Hyde & Shattuck. 

SHAUB, Adam— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

SHAW — Massachusetts. Musket maker to Committee of Safety 
1775-76. 

SHAW, Albert S.— Morrow County, Ohio, 1840. 

SHAW, John — Annapolis, Md. State Armorer to Maryland, 1780. 

SHAW, Joshua — Lincolnshire, England; Bordentown, N. J., later 
Philadelphia, Pa. Artist and inventor; invented steel disc per- 
cussion cap about 1813. Emigrated to America about 1814; was 
refused patent as an alien. Improved and manufactured first 
copper caps. Awarded government honorarium of $25,000 for his 
invention in 1846. 

SHAW & LEDOYT — Stafford, Conn. Makers of under-hammer per- 
cussion pistols. 

SHAW, S. & J. — Unlocated. Southern style percussion Kentucky rifle 
without buttplate or forend cap. 

SHAWK & McLANAHAN— Carondelet (St. Louis suburb), Missouri, 
1858. Makers of .36 cal. Navy percussion revolvers, 6 shot, brass 
frame. Abel Shawk of Pennsylvania, mechanic and inventor of 
steam fire engines, with J. K. McLanahan of Cincinnati, estab- 
lished a factory in Carondelet for the manufacture of locks and 
fire engines. On Shawk's invention of a rifling machine the firm 
turned to manufacture of brass frame, .36 cal. six shot revolvers, 
rifled with seven right twist grooves. 

SHEAFF, Henry— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 
SHEE, John— Musket maker to State of Virginia, 1800. 
SHEESLEY, George— Hartley Township, Union Co., Pa. 
SHEETS, A.— Dayton, Ohio. Percussion rifles. 

SHEETS, Adam — Shepherdstown, Va., gunsmith active after the 
Revolutionary War. The Sheets family came to Shepherdstown 
from York, Pa., about 1762. Adam had enlisted in Capt. Stephen- 
son's Rifle Company; transferred to Capt. Shepherd's Company. 
Was taken prisoner, exchanged; drafted out of Capt. Shepherd's 
into another rifle company Jan. 1, 1777, and transferred in Decem- 
ber, 1778, into Co. No. 4, Capt. Charles Porterfield Commanding, 



American Gun Makers 195 

of Morgan's Riflemen. After the Revolution established his gun 
shop in the house built by his father, in which house the descend- 
ents of the family still lived about 1900. 

SHEETS, Philip & Henry— Shepherdstown, Berkley Co., Va. Rifle 
makers 1775-76. Furnished rifles to the Continental forces. Pay- 
ment of £29-9-6, 78 6/10 dollars noted to Henry Sheets for rifles 
furnished to Capt. Stevenson's Company, (Feb. 23, 1776). 

Sheets Brothers advertised in Dunlop's Pennsylvania Packet 
or General Advertiser, Dec. 25, 1775: "Philip and Henry Sheets, 
Gunsmiths. In Shepherds Town, Berkley Co., Virginia. Intend 
carrying on their business extensively; and as they are in want 
of hands that understand the said business, they will give great 
wages either by the week, month, year, or otherwise as they 
may desire it, to any such that would choose to be employed, by 
applying speedily at their place of residence as above mentioned." 

SHEETS, M. — Virginia. Brass frame, sheath trigger, 6 shot percussion 
revolver. 

SHEETZ— Hartsville, Stark Co., Ohio. 

SHEETZ, D. — Southern maker of fine Kentucky rifles. 

SHEETZ, I. or J. (or Scheetz) — Pennsylvania. Percussion halfstock 
rifle, finely silver mounted throughout, with cap and patch boxes. 

SHEFFIELD, Jeremiah — Rhode Island musket maker to Committee 
of Safety, 1775-76. 

SHELL & EARLY— Pennsylvania. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

SHELL, John — Shellsville, Pa. Born Dec. 20, 1790, son of Martin 
Shell, Jr.; died Mar. 27, 1875. Founded Shellsville, Dauphin Co., 
Pa.; commissioned a major, 2d Bn. 98th Regt. of Pa. Militia, in 
1814. Made many flintlock and percussion rifles marked John 
Shell or J. Shell; one numbered 421. 

SHELL, John — Greasy Creek, Leslie Co., Ky. Son of Samuel Shell, 
a gunsmith, John Shell claimed to have been born in Tennessee 
in 1788, which considered that he died in 1922, would have 
meant that he attained the age of 134 years. 

SHELL, M.— Allentown, Pa., about 1780-1820. Fine flintlock Kentucky 
rifle, curly maple fullstock with raised carving, silver inlays 
and brass wire scrollwork. 

SHELL, Martin, Sr. — Lebanon County, Penna. Rifle maker. Born 1737. 
Died 1771. 

SHELL, Martin, Jr. — Pennsylvania rifle maker, son of Martin Shell, 
Sr. Born October 16, 1763. Died September 9, 18(?). Father of 
Jacob, Martin, John and Daniel Shell, rifle makers and gun- 
smiths. 

SHELL, N. — Pennsylvania. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

SHELL, Samuel— Tennessee, before and after 1787. Father of John 
Shell. 

SHENER, William— Also Scheaner. Reading, Berks Co., Pa., 1779-85. 

SHENNEFELT, N.— (Or Shennefeldt) Clarion, Pa. Percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle with oval patchbox; back action lock by Whitmore, 
Wolff, Duff Co. 

SHEPHERD, John— Phila., Pa. Listed as gun lock filer at 135 Green, 
in 1829. 

SHEPLER, H.— Unlocated. Plains rifle, flintlock period. 



196 American Gun Makers 

SHERIDAN PRODUCTS, INC.— Racine, Wis. In 1947 began making 
high grade pneumatic rifles. 

SHERMAN, A. P. — Portsmouth, Ohio. Heavy percussion Kentucky 
rifles; one acid-etched on barrel, "Fool Killer, I Am Looking for 
You." 

SHERMAN, B. & W. H.— Woodstock, Illinois, 1861-65. Fine, walnut 
stocked muzzle loading percussion rifle with German silver 
mountings. 

SHERMAN, Nathaniel— Boston, Mass., 1692. 

SHERRY, John — Born in 1797, in Lancaster County, Pa. Served his 
apprenticeship and learned the trade of rifle-making in the 
Leman rifle shop, which he entered at the age of 17 and remained 
for 12 years. Established himself in 1830 in Beaver Township, 
Clarion Co., Pa., as a maker of early percussion Kentucky rifles. 
Inventor of the segmental rifle groove and one of the first to 
use gain twist rifling. John Sherry died in 1889. 

SHERWOOD, Samuel Todd— Between Smithburn and Blandville, 
W. Va. Born July 7, 1828; died Dec. 14, 1900. Extensive rifle- 
maker; hand- welded barrels, later used Remington barrels and 
Leman locks. Used brass flash-guard under hammers, mark 
"S. T. S." on barrels. 

SHIELDS, D. — Unlocated. Percussion rifles, single and double. 

SHILLITO, Samuel— McConnelsburg Boro, Fulton Co., Pa., 1826. 
(Prior to 1850 Fulton Co., was a part of Bedford County). Late 
flint and early percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SHILLITS, J. — Vicinity of Chambersburg, Pa. Had apprenticed under 
J. N. Johnson, Sr. 

SHIRK, S. — Pennsylvania, about 1800. Silver inlaid flintlock period 
Kentucky rifle. 

SHIRLEY, Jeremiah— Clover dale, Ohio, 1870. Percussion sporting and 
target rifles. 

SHISLER, D.— Flintlock Kentucky rifle, period 1820, caliber .45, with 
ornate brass furniture and 24 silver inlays; converted by re- 
breeching. Marked "D* SHISLER," in script, on barrel. Lock 
marked externally "T. KETLAND & CO."; and inside "K W & 
A," (Ketland, Walker & Adams, listed in Birmingham, England, 
Directory in 1818). 

SHOENEN, Daniel — Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa., rifle barrel 
welder. 

SHOLF, I.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

SHOLL, John — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

SHORER, John— Liverpool, Pa., about 1850-60. 

SHORT, BISCOE & CO.— Tyler, Texas, Confederate Contractors of 
Nov. 5, 1862, for 5,000 Model 1841, Mississippi type rifles. The 
firm consisted of J. C. Short, a practical gunsmith, Wm. L. N. 
Biscoe and George Yarborough. A site on the outskirts of Tyler, 
Texas, was purchased and a factory erected which was destroyed 
at the end of the war. It had been turned over to the Confederate 
States in 1863, and was in charge of Lieut. Col. G. H. Hill, and 
the rifles sometimes marked "HILL RIFLE TYLER C. S." 

SHREYER, G.— Flintlock Kentucky rifle. See also Schreyer, George. 
(Same?) 

SHRINER — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 



American Gun Makers 197 

SHRIVER, Jno — Hanover, Pa. Shop still stands. Name on barrel of 
handsome, relief carved flintlock rifle also marked "ADAMS 
COUNTY PENNSYLVANIA, 1801." 

SHOUGH, Jacob— U. S. Inspector of Muskets 1809. Refused to accept 
blades of sabers made on contract of June 8, 1810, with James 
Winner of Phila., for 500 horsemen's swords. Relieved from duty 
in 1811. 

SHOWALTER, J. — Brookville, Pa. Over-under percussion rifle. 

SHRECKENGOST, Wm.— (Or Schreckengost). Putney ville, Pa. Half 
stock, percussion rifle with very small butt plate and pronounced 
crescent drop to stock, finely engraved brass and German silver 
furniture, openwork patchbox with oval lid, artificially striped 
stock; with lock marked "RIDDLE." Father of L. G. Shrecken- 
gost. Learned the trade under Alonzo Bonnett. Name cut in rough 
script on barrel. 

SHRECKENGOST, L. G.— (Or Schreckengost). Putney ville, Pa.; son 
of Wm. Shreckengost. A rifle similar to his father's, but with 
natural grain stock and plain furniture; J. Golcher lock. Name 
cut in rough script on barrel. Both made distinctive arms of fine 
workmanship. 

SHUE AIR RIFLE CO.— Milwaukee, Wis. In 1914 made inexpensive, 
spring-operated air guns. 

SHULER, John— Also Schuler. Liverpool, Pa., about 1808-15. Maker 
of flintlock pistols and Kentucky rifles. Contracted with Tench 
Coxe, Purveyor of Public Supplies on June 4, 1808, for 150 pair 
of pistols. 

SHULER, John R. — Also Shuler, John. Liverpool, Pa., about 1850- 
1860. Maker of over-under, swivel-breech, muzzle-loading, per- 
cussion double rifle with double-set triggers. Also brass trim, 
striped maple half stock, over-under, revolving barrel, percus- 
sion rifle-shotgun. 

SHULER, S.— Liverpool, Perry Co., Pa. About 1820. Percussion, 
over-under, rotating, double Kentucky style rifle, top flat marked 
"S SHULER TWIST" and "LIVERPOOL, PA," in separate lines. 
James Golcher lock. 

SHULER, V. — Tuscarawas or Carroll Co., Ohio. Rifles and laminated 
double-barrel shotguns. 

SHULTZ, H.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

SIBERT, G.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

SIDES, Henry— Bedford Township, Bedford Co., Pa., about 1776. 

SIEBERT, Charles M.— Columbus, Ohio, active 1851-1915. He was 
born at Columbus, Sept. 25, 1839, and entered his brother Chris- 
tian's shop as an apprentice at the age of 12. Known for well 
made duelling pistols. Died at Columbus in 1915. 

SIEBERT, Christian— Elder brother of Charles M. Siebert above. 
Born Nov. 9, 1822, at Frankfort, Germany, whence his family 
sailed for U. S., in October, 1832, and settled in Columbus, Ohio. 
Christian Siebert set up his rifle-making establishment at 253 
South High Street, in 1851, where he remained until 1872, when 
he moved to 217 South High. Died Sept. 18, 1886. 

SIEBERT, Henry L.— 279 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, before and after 
1852-58. Was associated with John Griffiths as Griffiths & Siebert 
from 1852 to 1854. 



198 American Gun Makers 

SIEBERT, J.— Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

SIEBERT'S REPEATING RIFLE— On March 11, 1861, Colonel James 
H. Burton, C. S. Army made an estimate for machinery, tools, 
etc. for making 3,000 Sibert's patent repeating rifles per annum, 
prepared at request of Col. McCue of Staunton, Va., and amount- 
ing to $41,405. 

SIEGFRIED, D. B.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

SIEGFRIED, S.— Half stock, late percussion Kentucky rifle with back- 
action lock marked with initials "G.R." and "S. SIEGFRIED." 

SIEGLING, W. C— Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio, 1866-69. 
Maker of rifles and double-barrel shotguns. 

SIEVER, Charles — St. Louis, Mo. Lockmaker for Hawken firm; still 
living in 1890's. 

SIFE, C. — Early Pennsylvania maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles. Pos- 
sibly a misreading for C. Sipel or Siple, Philadelphia region 
about 1750? 

SIGLER, Amos— Gunsmith. Irish Lane, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

SILL, A. V. — Operated a gun factory on Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y., 
1828-35. 

SILVIS, Jacob — Delmont, Pa., gunsmith. Born in 1801 near Bushy 
Run Battlefield (near Jeanette, Pa.). In addition to gunsmi thing, 
farmed and did blacksmithing, his father's trade. Forged his own 
barrels and made flint locks and other fittings. Later, in the per- 
cussion period, bought barrel blanks and other supplies from 
James H. Johnston. Made guns in his Delmont house before his 
shop was built. Signed his arms "J.S." Died in 1891. 

SIMPSON, J. — New Britain, Conn. Percussion under-hammer pistols. 

SIMPSON, R. J. — New York, N. Y. Percussion derringers. 

SIMS-DUDLEY— "Dynamite Gun"— Pat. July 23, 1889. 

SIPE, C. — Unlocated. Script marking on maple stripe, fullstock, flint- 
lock Kentucky rifle. Probably C. Sipel. 

SIPEL, Conrad — Also Siple or Seipel. Philadelphia region, about 1750. 
See Siple, C. 

SIPLE, C— Probably Conrad Siple, also Seipel or Sipel. Philadelphia 
region about 1750. Flintlock Kentucky rifle with lock by Drepert. 

SITES, J. — Boonville, Mo. Full length maple stock percussion rifle of 
small caliber. Brass or bronze furniture. Marked on barrel "J. 
SITES BOONVILLE MO." 

SITES, J. P. — Settled at Arrow Rock, Mo., in 1844. Percussion Ken- 
tucky squirrel rifle, brass-mounted plain walnut fullstock with- 
out patchbox. Name stamped on barrel. Probably related to J. 
Sites of Boonville, Mo. 

SITES, W.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle marked "W * SITES" 
on barrel, "Warranted" on lock. Probably related to J. P. Sites 
of Arrow rock and J. Sites of Boonville, Mo. 

SIZER, A. S. — Unidentified. Maker of high grade percussion rifles. 
A revolving cylinder percussion rifle also known by this maker. 

S. L. — Unidentified. Marking in script on Penna. made Kentucky rifle. 

SLACK & SON— Peter Slack and son, A. J., 61 East Main St., Spring- 
field, Ohio. The firm was established by Peter Slack in 1859, 
under his name, and was changed to Slack & Son in 1874, when 
the son was taken into partnership. Active until 1891 and after. 



American Gun Makers 199 

SLARET— Chillicothe, Ohio. 

SLAYMAN, G.— Late flintlock period, about 1800-1830, Kentucky rifle. 

SLAZMAN & SON, Charles — Punxutawney, Pa. Percussion Kentucky 

rifles. 
SLITERMAN, Jeremiah — Musket maker and armorer to Colony of 

Georgia, 1766-68. 
SLOAN, Robert — Connecticut. Repaired arms for the Committee of 

Safety. Account submitted for work from May to August, 1775. 
SLOAT'S RIFLE FACTORY— Richmond, Va., 1861. Confederate 

shoulder arms. 
SLOCOMB, Harding— Worcester, Mass., 1820 and later. Flintlock 

rifles, pistols and fowling pieces. 
SLOCUMB, Samuel D.— New Orleans, La. Kentucky rifles. 
SLOCUMB, Wm. B. & Co.— New Orleans, La. 
SLONAKER, G.— Probably near New Paris, Bedford County, Pa. A 

heavy, percussion Kentucky rifle. Said to have made over-under 

rifles. 
SLOTTER & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringers; heavy, 

false muzzle percussion match rifle. 
SLOTTERBAK & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Halfstock percussion rifle. 
SLOTTERBECK, Charles — San Francisco, Cal. Late percussion and 

cartridge arms. 
SLOTTERBECK, H.— Los Angeles, Cal. Cartridge arms. 
SLOWCOMB, H.— Homer, N. Y., before and after 1853. 
S. M. — Marking on a pair of flintlock Kentucky type pistols carried 

by Col. Nathan Dennison at Battle of Wyoming, Pa., July 3, 1778. 
SMALL, John — New Lisbon (now Lisbon), Columbiana Co., Ohio, 

gunmaker established in 1806. Succeeded by his son David. 
SMALL, David — New Lisbon, Ohio, gunmaker. Son of John Small. 
SMALL, Samuel — New Lisbon, Ohio. Son of David Small. Member 

of the third generation of Small family of gunsmiths. Reported 

still active in the trade in 1879, in the "History of Columbiana 

County." 
SMART, Eugene— Dover, N. H., about 1865-90. Breech-loading rifle. 
SMITH— See Sowers & Smith. 

SMITH— Chatham Street, New York, N. Y. Percussion period. 
SMITH, Anthony— Bethlehem Township, Pa., before 1783. 
SMITH, A. B. — Pennsylvania. Heavy 2-groove flintlock Kentucky 

rifle with cherry fullstock. 
SMITH, Adam — Cincinnati, Ohio, in early days of settlement. Hand- 
some, unsigned flintlock Kentucky rifles. Relief-carved rifle, 

period 1760, deep-rifled for buckskin patches. 
SMITH, Argulus (or Anglus?)— Buffalo, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 
SMITH, B. M.— Of William Edgar & B. M. Smith, Mineral Point, Wis. 

Marking on a percussion "duckfoot" revolver firing three shots 

at a time. 
SMITH, Charles W.— Cherry Creek, N. Y. Originally from Silver 

Creek, N. Y., moved to Cherry Creek in 1832. Maker of percus- 
sion rifles. 
SMITH, Dexter— Springfield, Mass., about 1872. Breech-loading shot- 
gun. 



200 American Gun Maker^ 

SMITH, E.— Cape, Jefferson Co., Ala. Died in 1900. Percussion Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SMITH, George— New York, N. Y. Early air rifle. 

SMITH, Geo. & Co.— New York, N. Y., 1864. 3-shot trap pistol. 

SMITH, Gilbert— Unlocated. About 1830-35. 

SMITH, Horace— Springfield, Mass. See Smith & Wesson. 

SMITH & HYSLOP— New York, N. Y. Maker of flintlock holster 
pistols. 

SMITH, Ira W.— Onaquaga, N. Y. Born 1825; died 1897. 

SMITH, Jeremiah— Lime Rock, R. I., 1770. 

SMITH, J. F.— Huntingdon, Pa., late flintlock period. 

SMITH, John — Rutland, Vt, musket maker 1798-1801. In association 
with Darius Chipman, Royal Crafts and Thomas Hooker, con- 
tracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern, 
(Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 575 were 
delivered before June 10, 1801. 

SMITH, John— Hessville, Black Swamp, Ohio, 1868-69. 

SMITH, John — Exeter, N. H. Percussion period. 

SMITH, John 2d— Millroy and Reedsville, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

SMITH, John — Sacramento, Calif., 1860-1875. Fine percussion rifles 
with Remington barrels. 

SMITH, Johnston — Pennsylvania musket and rifle maker. In asso- 
ciation with John Young of Northampton County, Pa., contracted 
in February, 1776, to furnish arms to the State of Virginia. 

SMITH, J. & P.— Saltillo, Pa. 

SMITH, L. — Unlocated. Patent breech percussion shotgun. 

SMITH, L. C— Syracuse and Fulton, N. Y. Modern. 

SMITH, Levi— Church Street, Clyde, Ohio, 1866-69. 

SMITH, Lewis— Tiffin, Ohio, 1858-59. 

SMITH, M.— Pennsylvania. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

SMITH, M. — Unlocated. Under-hammer percussion pistol, curly maple 
stock. 

SMITH, Major & Son— Westville, New Haven, Conn., 1866-68. 

SMITH, Martin— Greenfield, Mass. Listed as gun maker in 1827, 1829, 
and 1836, when his shop was sold. Was commissioned paymaster 
2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 4th Division of Massachusetts Militia 
in 1823. Discharged in 1830. Maker of a full cherry stock, Ken- 
tucky type, flintlock rifle of fine workmanship. The octagon 
barrel is marked on left side near breech "M. SMITH GREEN- 
FIELD, MASS." in two lines. The English, gooseneck hammer 
lock is marked "R. NORRIS." 

SMITH, Obadiah— Brunswick County, Va., 1810. 

SMITH, Otis A.— Rock Falls, Conn., about 1873-84. Maker of Smith 
revolvers under patent of April 15, 1873, No. 137,968. 

SMITH, Patrick— 189 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1835-70. Percussion 
cadet rifles. Revolving pill-lock rifle. 

SMITH & PECARE— New York, N. Y., 1851. 

SMITH, P. — Unlocated. Script marking of a handsome, well-made, 

swivel-breech, superposed barrels, flintlock rifle, circa 1830. 
SMITH, Pete— Huntingdon, Pa., about 1880. Fine craftsman. 



American Gun Makers 201 

SMITH, P. F.— Saltillo, Pa. 

SMITH, S. — Maker of a curly maple, full stock, percussion Kentucky 
rifle with long, engraved patchbox, silver inlays and set trigger. 

SMITH & SAVAGE— Middletown, Conn., about 1876. Makers of 
cartridge revolvers in the old S. North factory building. 

SMITH, Seth— Council Bluffs, Iowa, 1803-1865, and possibly later. 
Born in New Hampshire in 1803. Family moved to Lorain, Ohio, 
in his childhood. Came to Council Bluffs, in 1852, and in 1853 
"took up" land and built the first house in Grant Township, 
Monona Co., Iowa. Was local blacksmith and gunsmith, using 
his natural mechanical bent. Did much work for the Indians 
who hunted in the Sioux Valley. Had been appointed govern- 
ment blacksmith on the Omaha Indian Reservation 1858-62. 
Made percussion rifles and shotguns. Rifle reported marked 
"SETH SMITH SMITHLAND" on barrel. 

SMITH, Stoeffel— Pennsylvania, about 1790-1800. Marked his name 
on barrels in silver inlay. 

SMITH, Thomas — North Carolina arms maker. Authorized March 4, 
1777, by the State to repair arms of the Continental troops raised 
in the state. 

SMITH, Thomas— 118 Broad St., New York, N. Y., 1801. 

SMITH, W. H. — New York. Marking on a percussion pistol. Possibly 
dealer only. 

SMITH, William — Elizabethtown, Ky. Percussion rifles. 

SMITH, W. W.— Saltillo, Pa. 

SMITH & WESSON— The arms manufacturing firm of Smith & 
Wesson of Springfield, Mass., had its origin in the partnership 
of Horace Smith with Daniel B. Wesson, the younger brother 
of Edwin Wesson, co -inventor of the Wesson & Leavitt revolver. 
Courtland Palmer, who had the rights to the Jennings mechan- 
ism, was also an associate in the firm. The association of Smith 
and Wesson had begun while both were in the employ of Allen, 
Brown & Luther, rifle makers of Worcester, Mass., in 1852. 

Smith & Wesson began with the manufacture of a magazine 
firearm based on the Horace Smith patent of Aug. 23, 1851, 
No. 8,317, with improvements which they bought from B. Tyler 
Henry, and incorporated in a repeating pistol, patented under 
the Smith & Wesson name on Feb. 14, 1854, No. 10,535. In order 
to attract working capital to the firm, the Volcanic Repeating 
Arms Company was incorporated in July, 1855, to which Smith 
& Wesson turned over their patent of 1851, as well as new 
patent of Aug. 8, 1854, No. 11,496, for an improved cartridge. 

Shortly after the incorporation, Horace Smith withdrew from 
the firm and went to Springfield, Mass., where he engaged in 
gunsmith trade with his brother-in-law, Collins. Wesson re- 
mained with the Volcanic. 

Among the larger stockholders of the Volcanic Company 
was Oliver F. Winchester, a shirt manufacturer of New Haven, 
Conn. Doubtless under his influence, the Volcanic Repeating 
Arms Company moved from Norwich to New Haven in February, 
1856. On the 11th of the same month Daniel B. Wesson resigned 
from the firm to devote his time to the development of a car- 
tridge revolver. 

His experiments were successful. On Nov. 17, 1856, Wesson 
bought from Rollin White the exclusive right to the White 



202 American Gun Makers 

patent of a "cylinder bored end to end." After looking about 
unsuccessfully for a building in which to manufacture the arm 
in New Haven, about May 1, 1857, Wesson rejoined his former 
partner, Horace Smith in Springfield, where they leased a build- 
ing on Market Street, and started the production of parts. By 
October of 1857, they were ready to put their arms on the 
market, upon the expiration of the Colt patents in the fall of 
1856. 

The first Smith & Wesson revolver was a small, caliber 
.22 arm, using a metallic shell cartridge. With the development 
of better methods of production and annealing of copper shells, 
resulting in greater tensile strengths, and solving problems 
arising from lack of outside support in the early revolver 
cartridges, Smith & Wesson brought out larger calibers, result- 
ing later, through improvements in the actions as well, in 
such famous arms as the American, Schofield, and lastly the 
famous side-swing model of 1917, 153,311 of which were pur- 
chased by the U. S. government between April 6, 1917, and 
December, 1918, for the use of the American armed forces dur- 
ing the World War. 

It is interesting to note that in the early days of the cart- 
ridge revolvers, through their control of the Rollin White patent 
for a "cylinder bored end to end," Smith & Wesson had a virtual 
monopoly of the manufacture of cartridge revolving arms, and 
until 1869, when the Rolling White patent expired, the firm suc- 
cessfully prevented competitive manufacture of cartridge re- 
volvers which infringed on their patents, by promise of infringe- 
ment suits and actual court action, which in a number of in- 
stances resulted in the confiscation of the competitors' stock of 
manufactured arms. 

SMUTS— Piqua, Miami Co., Ohio. 

SMYTH, Thomas— Chester Town, Md. Notified the Council of Safety 
on July 2, 1776, that he had 50 guns ready to be proved. 

SNEIDER— Of Clark & Sneider, 214 Pratt St., Baltimore, Md. 1876- 
84. Inventor and maker of Sneider rotating bolt shotguns. Had 
worked in Europe. As early as 1846 had choke-bored large bore 
wildfowl guns "the guns being so choked that a cut wad could 
not be used." 

SNEIDER — Lancaster, Pa., before 1775. 

SNEIDER, Anthony— Lancaster, Pa. 

SNEIDER, Chas.— Boonville, Ind., 1875. 

SNEIDER, Charles A — Baltimore, Md. About 1862. 14-shot brass 
frame .22 revolver with two 7-shot cylinders on same shaft. 

SNEIDER, T.— Unlocated. 

SNELL, Chauncey— Auburn, N. Y., about 1830-60. Son of Elijah Snell. 

SNELL, Elijah— Auburn, N. Y. Active about 1820, until his death 
in 1834. 

SNEVELY, Jacob (also Sneveley, Snevley)— Harrisburg, Pa., in 1817. 
A flintlock Kentucky rifle, .53 calibre, 8-groove. 

SNTVELY, William— Flint's Mills, Washington Co., Ohio. 1854-65. 

SNOW & COE— New Haven, Conn. Makers of "Kalamazoo" air pistols 
under Hawley patent of 1869. 

S. N. & W. T. C— See Norris, S. & W. T. Clement. 



American Gun Makers 203 

SNYDER, Adam, George, Henry, John — Providence Township, Lan- 
caster Co., Pa., representing several generations of gunsmiths. 

SNYDER, Ira — Woodward, Union Co., Pa., percussion period. 

SNYDER, Ira E. — Unlocated. Percussion over-under Kentucky rifle. 
May be same as Ira Snyder, above. 

SNYDER, I. or J. — Unlocated. Superbly ornamented percussion Ken- 
tucky rifle with German silver inlays of Lion & Union Jack 
facing Eagle & Stars and Stripes; name in script on lock and 
barrel. 

SNYDER, Jacon— Liberty Township, Bedford Co., 1860. Possibly the 
same as I. or J. Snyder above. I. and J. were used interchange- 
ably. 

SNYDER, Tobias— Liberty Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1857. 

SOLEIL, Francis — New Amsterdam, 1656. 

SOMERS, H.— -Barnett, Vt. Heavy barrel, double-set trigger, Ger- 
man silver trim, percussion match rifle. 

SOPER, Loren — Theresa, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

SOPER & LYONS — Sioux City, Iowa. Half stock, .44 caliber, per- 
cussion, plains rifle. 

SOPER, P. — Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

SOREY, E. N. — Danville, Va., 1862. Engaged in arms repair for the 
Confederacy. 

SOUBIE, Armand — New Orleans, La., gunsmith and arms importer 
listed in Michel's New Orleans Annual and Commercial Register 
at 24 Toulouse Street, in the 1834 issue published in December 
1833. Listed in the City Directory from 1835 to 1861. Located at 
160 Chartres in 1853. Returned to France during the Civil War. 

SOUTHERLAND, C— Geneva, N. Y. Percussion holster pistol with 
"Golcher" lock. 

SOUTHGATE, R. — Madison, Tenn. Modern authentic reproductions, 
restorations, and repair. 

SOWERS— Philadelphia, Pa. Flintlock Kentucky rifle (lock only?). 
A percussion lock marked "SOWERS" on a Wm. Bodenheimer 
rifle is reported. 

SOWERS & SMITH— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion lock marked 
"SOWERS & SMITH," on a full maple stock rifle by Diesinger, 
Philadelphia. 

S. P. — State of New Jersey marking for "State Property." 

SPANG & WALLACE— Philadelphia, Pa. Makers of full maple stock, 
ornate brass trim, flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SPANGLE, P. — Unlocated. Halfstock, double-set trigger, percussion 
hunting rifle. 

SPANGLER, G.— "LIVERPOOL." Marking on barrel of fine, circa 
1830, Kentucky rifle of northern Penna. style. 

SPANGLER, George— Monroe, Wis., 1846-1914. Percussion shotguns, 
target rifles, and single and double barrel hunting rifles includ- 
ing the over-under type. Dealer only after about 1870. Son of 
Samuel Spangler. 

SPANGLER, Samuel — Located in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
before 1846. Made flintlock Kentucky rifles in Pennsylvania. In 
1844 left the state with wife and son, George, and moved to 



204 American Gun Makers 

Wisconsin, settling in Monroe in 1846. Probably died before 1856. 

Flintlock rifle with brass sideplate engraved "STOYSTOWN 

1830." Stoystown is in Somerset County, Pa. 
SPARKS, Thomas— Shot manufacturer. 476 South Front, Phila., Pa., 

1819. 
SPARLING, Lewis D. — Pennsylvania and New York. Learned under 

the Lemans at Lancaster, Pa.; migrated to Fallsburg, N. Y., 

where he made flintlock rifles until the Civil War. Son Leslie 

M. Sparling was working in Montour Co., Pa., in 1930. 
SPAULDING, Abel— North Buckfield, Me. Percussion rifles. 
SPAULDING— Hartland, Vt. Percussion period. Same as Abel Spaul- 

ding? 
SPEAR, L. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifles and rifled pocket 

pistols. 
SPECHT, A.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 
SPECHT, Eley— (Also Elias Spect) Beavertown, Snyder Co., Pa. Late 

percussion period; over-under rifle-shotguns. 
SPECHT, M. — Unlocated. Percussion, swivel-breech percussion rifles. 
SPECT, Adam (or Specht) — Bevertown, Snyder Co., Pa. Kentucky 

rifles. 
SPECT, Moah — Bellville, Pa. Probably same as M. Specht, maker of 

swivel-breech, over-under percussion rifles. 
SPEED, Robert— Boston, Mass., 1820-40. 
SPELTER, John — Joliet, 111., in 1889. Born 1853; gunsmith and 

Schuetzen match shooter. 
SPENCE, P. I. — Marietta, Ohio. Recent percussion rifles. 
SPENCER, A. F.— Winsted, Conn. Percussion target rifle. 
SPENCER ARMS CO.— Windsor, Conn., about 1885-93. Makers of 

repeating shotguns of all grades under Spencer patent of Feb. 

26, 1885. The shotgun mechanism was the joint invention of 

Christopher M. Spencer, of Spencer repeating carbine fame, and 

of Sylvester M. Roper. In 1902, the Company was controlled by 

Francis Bannerman and his associates. 
SPENCER, DwighWWest Hartford, Conn., 1868. Percussion telescope 

target rifle. 
SPENCER, Dwight W.— Hartford, Conn., about 1860. 

SPENCER, J. — Unlocated. Half stock, brass mounted, percussion 
rifle with lock by Joseph Griffith, Louisville, Ky. 

SPENCER REPEATING-RIFLE CO.— Chickering Building, Tremont 
St., Boston, Mass., about 1861-69. Makers of 7-shot, tube maga- 
zine, cartridge carbines and rifles based on the Christopher M. 
Spencer patent of March 6, 1860, No. 27,393. During the Civil 
War and up to Jan. 1, 1866, 12,471 Spencer rifles and 64,685 
carbines were procured by the Ordnance Department. In addition 
30,496 Spencer carbines were obtained from the Burnside Rifle 
Co. Spencer arms were also purchased with private funds to 
equip state troops. 

The Company went out of business Sept. 12, 1869, when the 
plant was sold at auction and was absorbed by the Winchester 
Repeating Arms Co. 

SPERL, H. — Or Speerl, Susquehanna Depot, Pa. Percussion Sport- 
ing rifles. 



American Gun Makers 205 

SPICKER, G. & F. — Cincinnati, Ohio. Double percussion shotgun. 

SPIES, A. W.— New York, N. Y., 1820-1851. Died 1860. Maker of six- 
shot, percussion, pepperbox pistols, and octagonal barrel, keyed 
half stock target rifle with double set triggers and engraved lock 
marked "A. W. SPIES WARENTED." 

SPIES, KISSAN & CO.— New York, N. Y., 1873-76. 

SPILLER & BURR— Edward N. Spiller and David J. Burr, Atlanta, 
Ga., June 12, 1862 to February 1864, when the firm moved to 
Macon, Ga. Makers of .36 caliber, Confederate revolvers on the 
Whitney Navy Model, but with brass frame. These were usually 
marked on the barrel, "SPILLER & BURR," bore a serial num- 
ber and sometimes "CS" on the right side of the frame. Due to 
lagging deliveries after initial production of some six hundred 
revolvers, the firm was bought out by the Confederate Govern- 
ment February 7th, 1864, and the firms name omitted on arms 
made under government ownership, only the continued serial 
number and "CS" being retained on the next six or seven hun- 
dred made prior to the end of the Civil War. 

SPITZER — Father and son, musket makers to Virginia Committee 
of Safety 1775-76. Location unknown during the War of Revolu- 
tion, but subsequently, the son moved to Newmarket, Va., where 
he was active until 1825. 

SPITZER, W.— Reported maker of heavy, Kentucky type, flintlock 
match rifle. 

SPORLEDER, Louis— Walsenburgh, Col., 1867-75. 

SPRAGUE— Louden, Ohio, before and after 1846. P. A. Reinhard 
had been apprenticed to Sprague. 

SPRAGUE & LATHROP— Stevens Point, Wis. Percussion period. 
Double Barrel side-by-side, high grade hunting rifle. 

SPRAGUE & MARSTON— New York, N. Y. Makers of 6-shot per- 
cussion pepperbox and single-shot pistols of the same construc- 
tion as the Marston & Knox. 

SPRATLEY, W. C— Norfolk, Vt. Flintlock fowling piece. 

SPRINGFIELD ARMORY— Springfield, Mass., 1795 to date. U. S. 
Government manufactory of arms which developed gradually 
out of an arsenal and powder magazine established on Washing- 
ton's approval in 1777. Begun at first as a depot for the manu- 
facture of musket cartridges and gun carriages, the depot soon 
broadened its activities to the repair of small arms and the 
preparation and supply of munitions of war and ordnance of 
of all kinds to the Continental armies. When in 1792, Congress 
authorized the establishment of two national arsenals, and on 
April 12, 1794, directed the construction of two Federal armories, 
President Washington combined the storage and manufacturing 
authorizations, and selected for the combined purposes, Spring- 
field in the North, and Harpers Ferry in the South. The manu- 
facture of arms at the Springfield Armory began in 1795, in 
which year 245 muskets were laboriously produced, mostly by 
hand. Production facilities were rapidlv increased, until by 1825, 
the armory reached an annual output of 15,000 muskets. In 
addition to muskets and pattern arms, as well as 250 rifles re- 
corded in 1819, the armory produced 1,000 horse pistols in 1818, 
and 4,021 pistol-carbines in 1856-57. 

Subsequently, under the able management of the U. S. 



206 American Gun Makers 

Ordnance Department, the Springfield Armory maintained a 
splendid record of service in all national emergencies. It reached 
its peak production of small arms in October, 1918, with a daily- 
output of well over one thousand Model 1903 (Springfield) rifles. 

SPRINGFIELD ARMS CO.— Springfield, Mass., 1850-69. Operated by 
James Warner as an arms manufactory, and later under his own 
name. Made Jacquith percussion revolvers under patent of July 
12, 1838, No. 832, and James Warner patent percussion revolvers 
under patents of Jan. 7, 1851, No. 7,894 and July 15, 1851, No. 
8,229. Cartridge revolvers made by the firm about 1863, in- 
fringed on the Smith & Wesson controlled patents, and 1,513 
were turned over to S. & W. in 1863. See Warner, James. 

SPRINGFIELD MANUFACTURING CO.— Ludlow, Mass. Sub-con- 
tractor to Springfield Armory for musket barrels in early 1800's. 

SQUIRE & ROGERS— Unidentified. Makers of flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

S. R. F. — Unidentified. Waynesboro, Pa. Kentucky rifle. 

S. S.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

STACY & ANGEL— Knoxville, Tenn. Advertised in 1871 as "manu- 
facturers of rifles," and "rifles made to order." 

STAEGE, William — Omro, Wis. Modern. Mostly maker of rifle barrels 
for target rifles, but has made several .22 caliber bolt action 
rifles of his own design. 

STAFFORD — Unlocated, possibly British. Front-action percussion 
lock on Kentucky smooth rifle by Waggoner, Schenectady, N. Y. 

STAFFORD, T. J.— New Haven, Conn., 1860-61. Maker of small gold- 
plated, pearl handled "Lady's Pistols." Stafford was a printer at 
88 State Street, in 1854. After a brief fling at arms-making, he 
went back to printing business in 1865-66. He is listed as a 
cartridge maker in 1877. 

STAHL, C— Lancaster, Pa., 1810-20. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

STAHL, C. T. — Pennsylvania. Curly maple, half stock, brass mounted, 
flintlock, 8-groove rifle with 30 inlays and German silver patch- 
box. Same as Stahl, C? 

STALTER, William — Logan, Ohio. Percussion sporting rifles. 

STAMM, P. H. — Maker of a brass trim, half stock, percussion, Ken- 
tucky type rifle with double set triggers. 

STANBER— Houstontown, Pa., 1850. 

STANDARD ARM CO.— Wilmington, Del. Modern Makers of gas 
operated automatic rifles and slide-action repeating rifles. 

STANDARD TOOL CO.— Unlocated. Makers of a .22 cal. revolver. 

STANNARD, F. P. GUN CO.— Milwaukee, Wis., gunmakers located 
at 414 E. Water, in 1891 and at 13 Grand Ave., in 1893. 

STAPLETON, James— Todd, Huntingdon Co., Pa. Late percussion 
period over-under rifles and fancy percussion Kentucky rifles. 
Fine craftsman. 

STAPLETON, Joseph— Orbisonia, Huntingdon Co., Pa. Skilled maker 
of Kentucky rifles. (Related to or same as Stapleton, James?) 

STARR— Lancaster, Pa., about 1750-1760. Flintlock Kentucky rifle 
with carved high-comb fullstock and slender wrist. 

STARR— Lancaster, Pa., before and after 1800. 

STARR ARMS CO.— Store and office 267 Broadway, New York and 






American Gun Makers 207 

plants at Yonkers, Binghamton and Morrisania, N. Y., about 
1858-67. Makers of revolvers under the Eben T. Starr patent 
of Jan. 15, 1856, No. 14,118. There were 5,000 Starr revolving 
pistols contracted for by the government Nov. 24, 1858, and a 
total of 47,952 Starr revolvers of all types purchased during the 
Civil War. The firm also made single-shot and 4-shot Derringer 
pistols. 

The firm also made Starr breech-loading percussion car- 
bines patented Sept. 14, 1858, No. 21,523, of which 20,601 were 
delivered during the Civil War. An additional 5,001 Starr rim- 
fire cartridge carbines were purchased in 1865. 

The Starr plant located in Binghamton, was later sold to 
"Jones of Binghamton — He Pays the Freight," who made scales 
for many years. He was Gen. Edward F. Jones, who commanded 
the Massachusetts regiment that was fired on while marching 
through Baltimore, early in the Civil War. The Binghamton 
street leading to the former location of the plant, is still called 
Starr Avenue. The site is now occupied by the Daniel S. Dick- 
inson School. 

The president of the Starr Arms Co., was H. H. Wolcott, 
inventor of the Wolcott carbine, patented Nov. 27, 1866, No. 
60,106. Probabilities are that the Wolcott carbine (specimen 
in the National Museum) was made in the Starr shops. 

STARR, N. & SON — Middletown, Conn., active as riflemakers from 
about 1823 to 1845. The firm was originated as sword makers 
about 1798, by Nathan Starr (Sr.) who received a large govern- 
ment saber and sword contract. His son, Nathan, Jr., entered 
the firm about 1798, the name being later changed to N. Starr 
& Son. The Starrs contracted on Dec. 9, 1823, for 4,000 Model 
1817 rifles at $14.50 each, to be delivered at the rate of 800 per 
annum from July 1, 1823. Contract of Oct. 28, 1830, details 
unknown. March 17, 1840, the firm obtained an additional con- 
tract for 6,000 flintlock rifles at $14.50 each, duration five years, 
at 12,000 per year. Nathan Starr, Jr., died at Middletown, on 
Aug. 31, 1852. 

STATE RIFLE WORKS— Greenville, S. C, 1863-64. Operated by 
George W. Morse. Makers of breech-loading carbines and muskets 
with "inside" locks. See also Morse, George W. 

STATES, S.— Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifles. 

STATLER, William— Main Street, Logan, Ohio, 1868-74. 

ST. CLAIR, S. H. — Pennsylvania. Early maker of a very fine flintlock 
Kentucky rifle. About 1800 or earlier. Lock by Southerland 
(Revolutionary period British lock maker), but may be a replace- 
ment. 

STEADMAN, F.— Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

STEADMAN, J. — Lock marking of an over-under, combination, per- 
cussion rifle-shotgun. 

STEDMOND & SON— Lancaster, Pa. No details. 

STEEL, Archibald— Military Storekeeper. U. S. Arsenal, Phila., Pa. 
1819. 

STEEL, John — The family of John Steel and two sons, gunsmiths all, 
active from about 1771-87. All had been appointed Armorers to 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, July 7, 1775. 

STEELE & LATHROP— Albany, N. Y., about 1860. Makers of per- 
cussion pistols. 



208 American Gun Makers 

STEELE, WARREN & CO.— Albany, N. Y. A percussion Kentucky 
rifle lock. See Warren & Steele. 

STEIN, Mathias — (Or Mathew) Milwaukee, Wis. Came to Milwaukee 
from. Detroit in 1837. Located at 25 Market Square until 1865, 
after that at 460 Market Square. Percussion hunting and target 
rifles. 

STEINMAN— "LANCASTER." Marking on a flint lockplate of a 
Penna. rifle signed "A. GUMPH" on barrel. 

STEINMAN, Frederick— 31 Green Street, Philadelphia, Pa., at 31 
Green in 1825-33, and on Elizabeth Street in 1835-36. (Son of 
John Steinman?) 

STEINMAN, John— Philadelphia, Pa., gunsmith listed at 442 North 
3rd Street in 1810-11, then at 17 Green Street in 1818-19, 51 
Green in 1820-22, 59 Green in 1825, 31 Green in 1828 and 22 
Green 1829-36. Moved to Germantown Road about Fifth in 1842 
and is last shown at Clymer above Mud Lane in 1845. 

Steinman is believed to have been a member of the firm 
Winner, Nippes & Co., musket contractors for Model 1808 arms, 
whose lock-plates were marked "W. N. & S." 

STENGEL — Lancaster, Pa., 1719. Reputed to have been the first 
German immigrant (Pennsylvania Deutch) to make the Ken- 
tucky rifle by modification of the German hunting rifle. 

STENGER, T. S.— Waterloo, Iowa, 1866-68. 

STENZER — Lancaster, Pa., Revolutionary War period. 

STEPHENS, Ebenezer — Oshkosh, Wis., percussion period. 

STEREWITH— Maryland, 1775-76. Musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. 

STERLING, H. G.— Unlocated. 

STEUCK, P. E.— Leadville, Col., 1879-81 

STEVENS, A. C. — Hudson, N. Y. False muzzle, percussion match rifle 
with lock by H. T. Cooper, N. Y. Also a plains rifle, 1856, with 
C. Baker lock. 

STEVENS, H.— Watertown, N. Y. Heavy, false muzzle, match rifle 
and superposed, percussion rifle-shotguns. 

STEVENS, J. & CO. — Chicopee Falls, Mass. The business was estab- 
lished by Joshua Stevens, who was born in Chester, Hampton 
Co., Mass., Sept. 10, 1814. In 1837, after serving a four-year 
apprenticeship in a machine shop in Chester, he secured em- 
ployment with C. B. Allen, arms manufacturer at Springfield. 
Later he worked with other firearms firms, until 1864, when 
with the invention of a small pocket pistol, Stevens in associa- 
tion with James E. Taylor and William B., established J. Stevens 
& Co. 

In 1888 the firm was incorporated as the J. Stevens Arms 
& Tool Co., and after the World War became the J. Stevens 
Arms Co., controlled by the Savage Arms Corporation. 

STEVENS, J. ARMS & TOOL CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. See J. 

Stevens & Co., above. 
STEVENTS, J. ARMS CO.— Chicopee Falls, Mass. Modern. Makers 

of the Stevens line of rifles, pistols and shotguns. See J. Stevens 

& Co., above. 

STEVENS, JOHN & CO.— Musket makers to the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania. There is recorded 160 pounds paid on account, 



American Gun Makers 209 

on April 9, 1777, and 27 muskets delivered to the state that 
day. 

STEVENS, Thos. H.— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms (ship's cut- 
lasses) in 1816 at the plant of Nathan Starr. 

STEWART— Bucyrus, Ohio. Rifles and revolvers. 

STEWART — Lewistown, Pa. Kentucky rifles. 

STEWART, John— 6 Light St., Baltimore, Md., 1810. 

STICKLER— Dayton, Ohio, 1837. Worked with J. Wilt. Made rifle 
and shotgun barrels. 

STILDENBAUER, Asa— Winesburg, Holmes Co., Ohio. Half-stock 
percussion rifle marked "A. S." on barrel. 

STILGENBAUER, A.— Unlocated. Reported maker of a fancy, silver- 
inlaid halfstock percussion squirrel rifle with squirrel engraved 
on patchbox lid. Probably misreading for Stildenbauer. 

STILLMAN, AMOS & CO.— Farmington, Conn. Amos and Ethan 
Stillman, contractors under Act of July 5, 1798, for 500 muskets 
at $13.40 per stand, of which 525 (excess of 25) were delivered 
by June 10, 1801. 

Amos Stillman & Co., are recorded to have been paid in 
full a total of $7,035, as follows: in 1799— $978.20; in 1800— 
$1,701.80 and in 1801 the balance of $4,355.00, completing the 
payment for 525 stands of arms. See Ethan Stillman. 

STILLMAN, Ethan — Burlington, Conn., musket maker. In associa- 
tion with his brother Amos of Farmington, contracted for 500 
muskets under Act of July 5, 1798. Completed deliveries with 
25 stands excess by June 10, 1801. 

On Sept. 14, 1808, Ethan Stillman (alone) contracted for 
2,200 muskets to be delivered over a period of five years. Of 
these 825 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

Ethan Stillman was born at Westerly, R. I., in 1768. After 
working as a youth in the New York Iron Works at Stoning- 
ton, he worked for a while as a shoemaker. In 1798 he moved 
to Farmington where with his brother he obtained and com- 
pleted the contract of 1798, on which he cleared a profit of 
$1,000. In 1803 he moved to Burlington, where he established 
a gunsmith shop. It was here that he undertook the 1808 con- 
tract which he apparently fulfilled after considerable difficulties 
with the government. Upon completion of the contract he moved 
to Brookfield, N. Y. 

STING— Tiffin, Seneca Co., Ohio. 

STINGER, Thomas — Lycoming County and Jersey Shore, Pa., about 
1840. 

STITZELL, Adam— Employed as musket barrel maker by Joseph 
Henry in 1810. 

STOCKING, Alexander— Operator of Stocking & Co. Had been em- 
ployee of Allen, Brown & Luther. 

STOCKING & CO.— Worcester, Mass., 1849-52. Operated by Alex- 
ander Stocking. Makers of percussion single-shot and 6-shot 
pepperbox pistols. 

STOEHR, I.— Maker of full stock, flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

STOEY, Gustavus— Lancaster, Pa. Appointed and commissioned In- 
spector of Arms by the Governor of Pennsylvania, Jan. 7, 1806, 
vice Peter Getz, resigned. Stoey was authorized on July 10, 1810, 



210 American Gun Makers 

to receive from the widow of Peter Getz all public arms and 
parts left in her possession by the former inspector. 

STOKES, Enoch — Lancaster, Pa. Two gunsmiths of same name listed 
at different addresses in the 1857 Directory. 

STONE, David — Walpole, N. H., musket maker. In association with 
Gurdon Huntington, John Livingston and Josiah Bellow, con- 
tractor for 1,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at 
$13.40 per stand, contracted for under the Act of July 5, 1798. 
Of these 608 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

STONER, John—Webster, Westmoreland Co., Pa. 

STORY, Asa— Windsor, Va., 1835. 

STOSSMEISTER, Charles— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-63. 

STOUDENOUR, Jacob— Colerain Township, Bedford Co., Pa., about 
1825. Died in 1871. 

STRAUB, John— Snyder Co., Pa. 1847-1923. Specialized in heavy 
target rifles. Good workmanship. 

STREETS, Charles— Portsmouth, Scioto Co., Ohio, 1829. 

STRIECER, E. J.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

STRODE, John — Culpepper County, Va. Manager of the Rappa- 
hannock Forge, or Hunter Iron Works and gun factory at 
Falmouth during its operation 1776-81. After the Revolutionary 
War, Strode apparently retained arms manufacturing connec- 
tions, as he (unsuccessfully) submitted bids for the manufacture 
of muskets for the State of Virginia on March 18, 1796, and 
Sept. 7, 1797. Was inspector of arms made by Home & Wheeler 
in 1801-02. 

STROHHECKER, H. F.— Charleston, S. C. Reported marking on 12 
inch percussion pistol with belt hook. 

STROHECKER & EWBANK— Late flint lock with reinforced hammer 
and roller frizzen-spring bearing, factory decorated. Poorly fitted 
to a southern Kentucky rifle. 

S. T. S.— Mark of Samuel Todd Sherwood. 

STROHL, J.— Fremont, Ohio, 1868-70. 

STRONG FIREARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn., 1881-83. Breechload- 
ing shot-guns with interchangeable rifle barrels. 

STRONG, H. A. — Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 

STROSSMEISTER, Charles— Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-1863. 

STROUP, O. M.— Wellington, Ohio, 1880-83. 

STUART, Charles — 43 Washington St., Binghamton, N. Y. Ex-em- 
ployee of Bartlett Bros. Made high grade rifles in his own 
establishment 1850-83. Also underhammer percussion pistols. 

STUBBLEFIELD, James; — Superintendent Harpers Ferry Armory, 
1809-1817. 

STUDTE, F.— 638 Commercial, San Francisco, Calif., 1861-62; 648 
Commercial, 1863-65. 

STULL, S. — Ohio. Well-made halfstock percussion rifle stamped with 
name on barrel and "S. STULL, OHIO" on lock. 

STURDIVANT, Lewis G.— Talladega, Ala., rifle contractor to the 
Confederacy. The plant was on the south side of Battle Street 
west, three doors below S.W. Crossing of Court St., in a two 
story building still standing, numbered 116-118. The contract was 
of March 6, 1862 for 2,000 Enfield or Mississippi type rifles. About 
280 rifles were delivered, some not up to standard. 

Sturdivant had been a jeweller and rented the building from 



American Gun Makers 211 

Mr. S. D. Watson for the manufacture of arms. It was then a 
two story shop, the lower floor used as a blacksmith and ma- 
chinery shop, the upper story was the woodworking shop where 
the stocks were made and guns finished. 

STURGIS, Julius— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

STUTSMAN, J. G.— Dayton, Ohio. Stamping on factory-made late 
percussion lock on a Kentucky rifle. 

SUE, W. — Pennsylvania. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SUMNER ARMORY— Gallatin, Tenn., 1861 and later. Makers of 
Model 1841, Mississippi, type rifles. 

SUNDERLAND— Boulton, Bethlehem District, Pa. 

SUNDERLAND & BLAIR— Boulton, Bethlehem district, Pa. Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SUTER, C. & CO. — Rifle contractors to the Confederacy. Selma, 
Alabama. Furnished 50 Mississippi rifles (M.1841) to the State 
of Alabama between Oct. 1, 1863 and Nov. 1, 1864. Partner was 
P. Lessier. 

SUTER, John J. — Bucks Co., Pa., gunsmith of (Edinburgh) Scottish 
ancestry. Born 1823 at Ruffsdale, Pa. Had been apprenticed to 
John Johnson. Made plain, long, percussion hunting rifles of 
large caliber, .40 to .50. No engraving, no butt plates but un- 
usually slender and light for their caliber and length. Used 
peculiar enamel-like blueing. Made his own locks; barrels pur- 
chased from Brown & Hirth, Pittsburgh, Pa. Rifles marked 
"J.J.S." on barrel between cone and rear sight. Died 1902. 

SUTER, Worthe, G. — Ruffsdale, Pa., gun maker, current period. Born 
near Ruffsdale, Pa., Oct. 6, 1896. As a very small boy worked as 
a gunsmith's helper with his grandfather, John J. Suter, until 
the latter's death, then with C. M. Knupp at Bakersville, Somer- 
set Co., Pa. All phases of gun making: hunting rifles, flint or 
percussion, ornamental, with name and address stamped on 
barrel. Makes own locks, curly maple or walnut stocks, barrels, 
brass and silver work, set triggers and ornaments. 

SUTHERLAND, Samuel— Richmond, Va. His address is given at 
174 Main Street, in 1852, at 132 Main Street, in 1855, and at 
1406 E. Main and 609 E. Broad in 1869. During the Civil War 
Sutherland operated a large plant chiefly devoted to alteration 
of flintlocks and reclamation of arms damaged in the Con- 
federate service. 

SUTTON— Early marking of the A. Waters arms made at Sutton, 
Mass., in which the Waters Armory followed the practice of 
the national armories in using the name of the town of manu- 
facture rather than the name of the firm in marking early 
muskets. 

SUTTON, John— Gunsmith. 55 Duke, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

S. V. J. D.— Unidentified. Marking on late flintlock period, highly 
decorated Kentucky rifles. 

SWAIN, John— West Virginia. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

SWAN, James — Musket contractor to the State of Virginia in 1800. 

SWARTZ, Abraham— Sugar Creek, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 1850-1870. 

Also tuned organs. 
SWARTCOOP— New York, N. Y., 1786-1796. 
SWARTZ, Peter— York County, Pa. Did work for the State 1784-86. 



212 American Gun Makers 

SWEET, D. & CO.— Unidentified. Percussion period. 

SWEET, E. S. — Kalamazoo, Mich., percussion period. Lock of single- 
hammer, 3-barrel percussion rifle by J. A. Lien. 

SWEET, W. A. — Syracuse, N. Y., late percussion period. Heavy target 
pistol with shoulder stock. 

SWEGER, Wm.— Unidentified. Flintock Kentucky rifle. 

SWEITZER, A. — Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles. Probably same as A. 
Schweitzer, q. v. 

SWEITZER, J.— Greenville, Ohio. Reputed maker of half stock per- 
cussion rifle. 

SWEET, JENKS & SONS— Rhode Island musket makers. Contractors 
of Nov. 13, 1810, for 3,000 Model 1808 muskets, duration five years. 
Only 250 delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

It is believed that this firm is identical with Jewett, Jenks & 
Sons of Rhode Island, who were reported in 1818 by Col. Decius 
Wadsworth of the Ordnance Office, to have been given a con- 
tract for 3,000 muskets of which 250 stands at $13.48 per stand 
were delivered to the State of Rhode Island. 

SWEET, W. A.— See William Malcolm. 

SWEGER, William— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

SWIETZER, DANIEL & CO.— Lancaster, Pa. Announced in 1808 
the establishment of their "gun-lock factory, west of the court 
house, on the road to Millerstown." Model 1808 type flintlock 
pistols are known marked "SWEITZER & CO." believed to have 
been made by the same firm. 

SWIGER, W.— Period of 1800; flintlock Kentucky rifles. Possibly same 
as Wm. Sweger. 

SWOPE, A. — Pennsylvania. Percussion Kentucky rifles, one with 
patchbox on both sides of stock. 

SYMMES, J. C. — Watertown, Mass. Maker of Symmes breech-loading 
carbines, patented Nov. 16, 1858, No. 22,094. The purchase of 
200 or less, Symmes carbines at $40.00 each was authorized as 
early as July 18, 1855. Ordnance Department correspondence 
of March 4, 1857, shows that 200 were ordered April 2, 1856, and 
20 were delivered at the cost of $804.50. 

SYRACUSE ARMS CO.— Syracuse, N. Y. Hammerless shotguns. 



TALCOTT, George — Lieut. Colonel Ordnance. Acting Superintendent 
Springfield Armory from August 26, 1833 to October 31, 1833. 
Brig. General 1850. 

TALL AS SEE ARMORY— Tallassee, Ala. Confederate carbine armory 
ordered transferred from Richmond, Va., about June 2, 1864, 
Transfer completed by June 16, 1864. The operators of the armory 
had been in the ranks during Dahlgren's Raid, May 1, 1864. 

The site and buildings to house the plant were acquired 
from Barnet, Micou & Co., owners of a cotton mill on the 
location, by Col. James H. Burton, C. A., of the Macon Armory, 
who left Macon May 26, 1864, and completed the negotiations 
May 30th. The armory repaired arms and made a carbine com- 
bining Enfield and Springfield features. 

TALLEY — Massachusetts gunsmith active from 1768 to 1776, and 



American Gun Makers 213 

later. Appointed Master Armorer to the Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay June 13, 1775. Served as ensign in Col. Danielson's 
Regiment, where he drew extra nay as armorer. 

TANNER, N. B. — Bastrop, Texas. Made at least 264 rifles of the 
Model 1841 type for the Confederacy. 

TARPLEY, GARRETT & CO.— Jere H. Tarpley, Greensboro, N. C., 
1864. Makers of the Tarpley Confederate breech-loading carbine. 
(Adv. in Greensboro Patriot, Jan. 14, 1864.) Tarpley obtained 
a Confederate patent on his arm, Feb. 14, 1863. No. 148. 

Jere H. Tarpley was associated with one Yarborough in 
the operation of a foundry and machine shop which had been 
established before the Civil War, was known as the Greens- 
boro Foundry in 1864, and the Pioneer Foundry and Machine 
Shop, makers of domestic and farming implements, in 1866. 
Probabilities are that the Tarpley carbine was made in these 
shops, which in 1869 became the Sergeant Manufacturing Co. 

TARRINGTON — Percussion period. Under J. H. Durke at Lebanon, 
N. H., later at Springfield, Mass., and elsewhere. 

T. A. T. — Marking on a barrel of a two-shot, single barrel, percus- 
sion, Kentucky type rifle. 

TAYLOR, Alexander— Fulton Co., Penna., 1826. (Fulton Co., was a 
part of Bedford County prior to 1850). 

TAYLOR, Argulus— Ira, N. Y. 

TAYLOR, A. J. & CO.— 209 Clay St., San Francisco, Calif., 1856-58. 

TAYLOR, C. — Unlocated. Halfstock percussion rifle. 

TAYLOR, F. C— St. Louis, Mo. "Taylor Fur Getter," .22 cal. trap 
pistol patented June 9, 1914. 

TAYLOR, George— Easton, Pa., before 1783. Barrel maker, lock tester, 
etc., under Richard Backhouse at the Durham Iron Works. 

TAYLOR, Henry— First gunsmith, Jackson Tp. (Co.?), Ohio, 1817. 

TAYLOR, Jno. — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of Safety. 
Was one of the petitioners representing the gun-making trade, 
complaining to the Committee of Safety in November, 1776, 
against the high and rising cost of materials and labor entering 
into arms making, and quoting advances in prices within one 
year, since 1775. 

TAYLOR, J. N. — Unlocated gunbarrel maker. Stamped on muzzle 
of heavy percussion match rifle. 

TAYLOR, L. B. & CO.— Chicopee, Mass. Makers of a rim-fire car- 
tridge, single-shot, sliding barrel, pocket pistol. 

TAYLOR, N. B— Vienna, Trumbull Co., Ohio, 1840. 

TEAFF, Joseph— Steubenville, Jefferson Co., Ohio, 1820's. 

TEAFF, James and Nimrod— Father and son. Steubenville, Ohio. 
James was active from the end of the Mexican War, in which 
he had served, until about 1861. Nimrod had become associated 
with his father, James, about 1856, and was active until 1891 
or later. Nimrod was "a great hunter of bear and deer." 

T. B. & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringers. 

T. D.— What looks like "T. D." in old German script on a long flint- 
lock Kentucky rifle, is "C. D." The initials of Christian Durr. 
The barrel is marked under breech "C. H. D." 

T. D. & CO. — Unidentified. Stamped factory percussion lock on boy's 
Kentucky rifle. 



214 American Gun Makers 

TEEGER, J. A. — Curly maple, full stock, octagon barrel Kentucky 
rifle with ornate patch box and silver inlays. 

TEFF, George — Rhode Island gunsmith to Committee of Safety, 
1775-76. 

TELL, Frederick — Adams Co., Pa., Frederick and Hagerstown, Md., 
about 1780-1820. Ornate flintlock Kentucky rifles with handmade 
brass lockplates, raised carving, brass and silver inlays. 

TENNESSEE ARMORY— Location unknown. Operated in 1861 by 
George W. Morse for the conversion of sporting rifles to mili- 
tary caliber. On the arrival of Federal troops in the vicinity 
of Nashville, the machinery was first shipped to Atlanta, Ga., 
then on being turned over by the governor of Tennessee to 
the Governor of South Carolina, was shipped to the State Works 
at Greenville, S. C, where Morse carbines were made. See Morse, 
George W. 

In an inventory taken while at Atlanta was listed a stamp 
"Tennessee Armory." 

TERRELL, Eph — Tennessee. Heavy percussion match rifles. 

TERRY, B. L. — Unlocated. .22 cal. vest pocket pistols. 

TERRY, J. C. — Unlocated. Brass frame .22 vest pocket pistol. 

TETLEY— See Bown & Tetley, Enterprise Gun Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

THAMES ARMS CO.— Norwich, Conn. Double-action, 5-shot re- 
volvers. 

THATCHER, H. C— See J. Peacock & H. C. Thatcher, Chicago, 111. 

THAYER, Eli— Notice given at Worcester, Mass., in 1856 of Eli 
Thayer's control of the manufacturing of a rifle invented by 
B. F. Joslyn. No record of manufacture. Thayer was born at 
Mendon, Mass., June 11, 1819. Taught school 1845-52. Was in 
State Legislature 1853-54, and was engaged in a plan to colonize 
Kansas for freedom, 1854-56. Founded Ceredo, W. Va. Elected 
to Congress in 1856. 

THAYER, O. G. — Chardon, Ohio. Creedmoor percussion match rifles. 

THAYER, ROBERTSON & CARY— Norwich, Conn. Pocket revolvers. 

THAYER, Thaddeus — Norwood, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 

THENDON, John— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

THOMAS, Benjamin — Hingham, Mass., about 1740-50. 

THOMAS, H.— Kingman, 111. Active before and after 1841. Had 
worked in Kentucky before settling in Illinois. 

THOMAS, Milt— Kingman, 111. Son of Thomas, H., above. 

THOMAS, Henry— Gunsmith with firm Hyde & Goodrich, 15 Chartres, 
New Orleans, La. 

THOMAS, Isaac — Harford County, Md., musket maker to Committee 
of Safety. Agreed March 4, 1776, with John Cunningham, "for 
making a parcel of musquets which they oblige themselves 
to do, agreeable to directions which they have and are to re- 
ceive from the Committee, as may be directed by the Council 
of Safety, at the price of Musquets are made for at Baltimore, 
to be completed with steel ramrod and bayonet ..." A com- 
pany of riflemen was raised in Harford County during the War 
of Revolution. 

THOMAS, J. F.— Unlocated, 1858. 

THOMPSON, George— Washington, Pa., 1870-80. 






American Gun Makers 215 

THOMPSON, Harry— Fremont, Ohio, 1878-83. 

THOMPSON, John— Philadelphia, Pa., before and after 1800. 

THOMPSON, John— 1 Market St., Norwich, Conn., 1866. 

THOMPSON, J. R. — Jackson, Mich. Over-under percussion rifle. 

THOMPSON, Samuel— Columbus and Lancaster, Ohio, 1820-27. 

THREE BARREL GUN CO.— Moundsville, W. Va. Makers of shot- 
guns combined with rifle barrel. 

THORNTON, R. L.— Seneca St, Seattle, Wash., 1910 and before. 

THORNTON, William A.— Captain Ordnance Dept, U. S. Army. U. S. 
Inspector of Contract Arms 1842-61. Graduated U. S. Military 
Academy 1825. Died Brig. General 1866. 

THRESHER, A.— Stafford, Conn. Underhammer pistols. 

T. H. S. — Initials of Thos. H. Steves, U. S. Inspector of Contract 
Arms (ship's cutlasses) in 1816 at the plant of Nathan Starr. 

THURBER, Charles T.— See Allen & Thurber, Allen & Wheelock. 

THURSTON, R. R.— Cuba, N. Y., percussion period to about 1880. 

TIDD, Marshall— Woburn, Mass., 1846-1890; died 1890. Light percus- 
sion rifle without forearm; round-barrel pistol with nipple on 
axis; both marked "M. TIDD." 

TILLMAN, J. N.— Petersburg, Ind., 1860. 

TIMMINS, Edward — Maryland. Contracted with Council of Safety in 
1776, to furnish steel musket ramrods at 5 shillings each. 

TIMOTHY FIELDS FOUNDRY & MACHINERY CO.— Trenton, N. J. 
Arms makers during the Civil War. Use barrels supplied by 
the Trenton Iron Co. 

TIPLE, C— Unlocated. Late flintlock rifle. 

TISDALE, Luther W. — Scranton, Pa. On Pennsylvania Avenue, be- 
fore 1850, on Washington after 1850. Died about 1890. Heavy 
percussion match rifle. 

TOBIAS, S. E.— Xenia, Ohio. Early 20th century; percussion rifles 
and pistols. 

TOBEY, Elisha — Inspector and Foreman, arms stocking shop, Spring- 
field Armory, 1818. U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms 1818-1830. 
Inspected arms in plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon North, 
Nathan Starr and Asa Waters. 

TODD, George — Austin, Tex., and later Montgomery, Ala. Active 
about 1857-65. Maker of muskets and Colt type, brass frame 
revolvers for the Confederacy. 

TOLEDO ARMS CO.— Toledo, Ohio. Sheath trigger pocket revolvers 
and semi-automatic pocket pistols. 

TOMES, HENRY & CO.— New York, N. Y., 1847. 

TOMLINSON — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of Safety, 
1775-76. 

TOMLINSON, Carter— Unlocated. Marking on a lock of a Kentucky 
rifle by D. Glassbrenner. Early percussion period. 

TONKS, Joseph— 49 Union St., and 1 Marshall St., Boston, Mass., 
1860-68. 

TOOKER, J. S.— Carthage, N. Y., percussion period. 

TOPPER, H.— Napier Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1835. Flintlock 
Kentucky rifle. 

TOULSON, Alexander— St. Mary's Md. Active in 1663. The earliest 



216 American Gun Makers 

Maryland gunsmith on record after the landing of the Calverts 
in 1634. 

TOUZE, John— Gunsmith. 101 So. Second, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

TOWN, Aspy — Unlocated. Flintlock, Kentucky, squirrel rifle. 

TOWN, Benjamin — Pennsylvania musket maker to the Committee 
of Safety. In association with John Willis, contracted on Dec. 
6, 1775, to make 200 firelocks at £4-5s, each. 

TOWSEY, Thomas — Vergennes, Vt., musket maker. In association 
with Samuel Chipman contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, 
for 1,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 
per stand. Of these 275 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 
Thomas Towsey settled at Vergennes in 1791. 

T. P.— -Initials of Thomas Palmer, U. S. Inspector of Arms 1808-10. 

T. P. — Unidentified. Curly maple, full stock, percussion Kentucky 
rifle. 

T. R. — Unidentified. An early percussion Kentucky rifle with hand- 
hammered barrel marked in script; 16 silver inlays; long patch- 
box with side plates shaped and engraved to represent snakes. 

TRANT, George B.— Thornville, Ohio, 1877-80. 

TRAUDT, John — Milwaukee, Wis. Apprentice and son-in-law of John 
Meunier; shop manager for 64 years until retirement in 1941. 
Died Oct. 19, 1945. 

TREDEGAR IRON WORKS— Richmond, Va. Confederate cannon 
foundry and machine works. Made small arms making machinery. 

TREIBEL, Henry — Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

TRENTON ARMS CO.— Trenton, N. J., 1863-65. Makers of rifle 
muskets during the Civil War. 

TRENTON IRON CO.— Trenton, N. J. Civil War makers of rifle- 
musket barrels for the government and for arms contractors. 

TRIPP, S. G. — Leidersdorff near Commercial, San Francisco, Calif., 
1855-56. 

TRIPPER, A. N.— Potsdam, N. Y. Percussion pistol. 

TROTH— Unlocated. Early flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

TROUT, John— Williamsport, Pa., about 1855 and after. Maker of 
percussion sporting rifles, and over-under, walnut half stock, 
percussion rifle-shotgun with lower barrel fired by an under- 
hammer, and single trigger firing either hammer. 

TROUTMAN, D. B.— Londonderry Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1858. 
Plain, fullstock percussion rifles of good workmanship with long 
or oval patchboxes. One with lock by Whitmore & Wolff, Pitts- 
burgh. 

TROYER, William— Lancaster, Pa., 1847. 

TRUBY, Jacob — Kittaning, Armstrong Co., Pa. Kittaning was the 
chief Indian town west of the Alleghenys until Sept. 1756, when 
it was destroyed by Gen. Armstrong. 

TRUE & DAVIS— Albany, N. Y. 8-ga. percussion goose gun. 

TRUETT BROS. & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Makers of flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

TRUITT, BROS, & Co.— Philadelphia, Pa. "Importers and wholesale 
dealers in foreign and domestic hardware." Flint and percus- 
sion rifle locks. 'TRUITT BROS. & CO." stamped on .44 caliber 
percussion rifle barrel. 

TRUMP, J. W.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion duelling pistol. 



American Gun Makers 217 

TRUITT & CO.— Located at 528 Market Street, below 6th, South Side, 
Phila., Pa., in 1863. Successors to Truitt Bros. & Co., above. 

TRUMBULL ARMORY— Stonington, Conn., 1861. Lockplate marking 
off a two-band Civil War short rifle. 

TRUMPLER, J. F. — Unlocated. Percussion derringer. 

TRY, John — Beaver Springs, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles, 

TRYON, George W. — Philadelphia, Pa., arms maker, founder of the 
firm of Tryon of that city. George W. Tryon, of French Hugue- 
not descent, was born in 1791. In his early youth he was appren- 
ticed to Frederick W. Goetz, (or Getz), a Philadelphia gunsmith 
whose partner he became in 1811 at the age of 20. The Tryon 
family memoir (1909), states that shortly after entering into 
the partnership, Tryon bought out "Getz", and continued the 
business in his own name at 165 North Second St., until 1829, 
when the plant was enlarged and re-established at 134 North 
Second Street, (Now No. 220). In this connection the following 
entries in the Philadelphia City Directories are of interest: 
Frederick Goetz, gunsmith is shown at Sassafras Alley in 1809-11, 
and at 163 North Second, and at 32 Sassafras Alley from 1813 to 
1817. Geo. W. Tryon, gun maker and stocker, is listed at 165 
North Second in 1816, and from 1817 to 1824 is shown at the 
same location as gun manufacturer and dealer. 

In February, 1814, George W. Tryon, in association with 
John Joseph Henry, undertook to manufacture for the navy 
"20 repeating swivels and 200 repeating muskets" invented by 
Joseph G. Chambers, and described as arms which could be fired 
"in such a manner that by a single operation of the trigger, it 
will discharge several loads in succession (say 6 or 8), with a space 
between each sufficient to take another aim." In this connection 
Mr. Chambers was appointed "sailing master" and his two sons 
"gunners," in the navy, to superintend the manufacture of these 
arms and to have authority to instruct "a certain number of 
persons in the art of repeating gunnery." The "repeating arms" 
were approved by Commodore Wm. Bainbridge, and Mr. George 
Harrison, the Navy Agent at Philadelphia, was directed April 
18, 1814, to send 15 repeating swivels, 50 muskets and 50 pistols 
to Com. Chauncey on the Great Lakes, in order to test their use 
in the active service. Harrison, the Navy Agent, had been di- 
rected in February, 1814, by the Secretary of the Navy, Wm. 
Jones, to contact reliable parties for the construction of 50 
repeating swivels and 200 repeating muskets, and apparently in 
addition to the 20 contracted for by Tryon and Henry, others 
were constructed by other contractors, for at the request of 
Com. Rogers, eight of the repeating swivels were placed on the 
"Guerriere," launched at Philadelphia in 1814. 

On Jan. 1, 1836, Edward K. Tryon, the eldest son was ad- 
mitted into partnership, the firm continuing the manufacture 
of shotguns, pistols and especially Kentucky rifles. 

On Nov. 7, 1837, Tryons contracted for 1,000 rifles for 
Indians at $12.50 each, which was followed by a contract for 
640 muskets at $12.18 each on July 8, 1846, awarded to Tryon, 
Son & Co. Edward K. Tryon is next shown to have received 
contracts for Northwestern guns and arms for the Indian De- 
partment, on Dec. 11, 1846, Jan. 8, 1847, and May 15, 1847. On 
April 22, 1848, the Tryons obtained a contract for 5,000 Model 
1841 percussion rifles at $12.87% each. The Tryon memoir men- 



218 American Gun Makers 

tions a contract of April 3, 1840, for 1,500 army rifles Model 1841, 
for the Republic of Texas. 

The founder of the firm, George W. Try on, retired from 
active participation in the firms affairs in 1841, and died in 
1878. The successive names of the firm were as follows: 
1811— Tryon & Getz: Geo. W. Tryon. 
1836— Geo. W. Tryon & Co. (General Business). 

Tryon, Son & Co. (Manufacturing business). 
1841— Edw. K. Tryon & Co. 
1843— Edw. K. Tryon. 
1859— Edw. K. Tryon & Co. 
1863— Tryon & Brother. 

1866— Tryon Bros. & Co.: Edw. K. Tryon, Jr. & Co. 
1905— Edw. K. Tryon Co., Inc. 
TRYON, MERRICK & CO.— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion pistols. 
T. S. — Unidentified. Marking on a percussion Kentucky Squirrel rifle. 
T. S. — Tobias Snider, Liberty Township, Bedford County, Pa. Maker 
of a side-by-side, double barrel, curly maple stock, percussion 
Kentucky type rifle, as well as of percussion, Kentucky single 
barrel rifles. 
TUBES, J. B. — Waterloo, N. Y. Over-under percussion, mule-ear 

hammer shotguns and rifles. 
TUCKER, SHERRARD & CO.— of Lancaster, Dallas Co., Texas. 
Entered into contract with State of Texas for 3,000 pistols on 
April 11, 1862, one-half being army size, and the other half navy 
size, at $40.00 per pistol. The contract was cancelled and about 
400 made and sold to private parties. 

The firm consisted of Labon E. Tucker, J. H. Sherrard, W. L. 
Killen, A. W. Tucker, Pleasant Taylor, and Jno. M. Crockett, the 
latter acting as agent. 

Though commonly known as "Tucker, Sherrod & Co.," it is 
believed that "Tucker, Sherrard & Co." is more nearly correct. 
There was no partner by the name of Sherrod in the firm. Sher- 
rard pronounced with a Texan or Southern drawl sounds like 
Sherrod. Probabilities are that the error originated there. 
TUCKER & TYLER — Makers of full stock, cherry wood, brass patch- 
box, flintlock Kentucky rifle. 
TUNX, William — Colonial gunsmith returned to England by Governor 
William Tryon in December, 1775, with inducement of prepaid 
passage, 20 guineas and work in government armory. 
TUPPER, A. N.— Potsdam, N. Y. Percussion rifles. 
TURK, James — Morrow and Cincinnati, Ohio. Percussion rifles. 
TURNBULL— New Orleans, La., 1885. 

TURNER, C. B.— Grand Rapids, Mich, maker of a light weight, three 
barrel, combination percussion shotgun-rifle, with under hammer 
rifle barrel underneath the side-by-side shotgun barrels, with 
single trigger capable of firing all three barrels simultaneously. 

TURNER, Henry— "Gunsmith, 15 Beaver St., shop 3 Beaver St., 
Albany, N. Y., 1820-1823. "Mary Turner, widow of Henry" listed 
1825. A very fine English style flintlock double shotgun, breeches 
stamped "H. TURNER ALBANY," in Mahogany case. 

TURNER, W. — Maker of a percussion Kentucky rifle with ornate 
brass patchbox in full curly maple stock. 

TUSTIN, J.— Soho, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1833. A gunsmith's threading 



American Gun Makers 219 

plate marked "J. TUSTIN SOHO" (S backwards), 1833. An iron 
pipe-tomahawk similarly marked but undated. 

TUTTS, Charles— Unlocated, 1883. 8-ga. ring trigger gun. 

TVERYAR, M. — Unlocated, Percussion rifle. 

TYDICH, Peter — Baltimore, Md., Revolutionary War period. 

TYLER ARSENAL — Tyler, Texas. Organized in May 1862 and oper- 
ated by George Yarborough, J. C. Short and W. S. Briscoe, the 
latter a gunsmith. Taken over by Confederate States in fall of 
1863 for manufacture of rifles "after the model of the Mississippi 
rifle." However arms made were closer to Enfield patern. The 
armory was established with machinery assembled from numer- 
ous localities, such as Little Rock, Arkadelphia, etc. The arms are 
marked "TEXAS RIFLE TYLER C. S." 

TYLER, Daniel — Lieutenant Ordnance Dept, U. S. Army. Chief In- 
spector of arms made at National Armories after 1831. Had in- 
spected musket stocks in the plant of Nathan Starr. 

TYLER, DAVIDSON & CO.— Cincinnati, Ohio. Makers of percussion 
rifle locks. 

TYLER, John — Pennsylvania gunsmith active about 1770-1780. Was 
located on Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa., on April 16, 1777. On 
Oct. 31, 1777, John Tyler is reported as having purchased a place 
in Northampton (Allentown), where he employed 16 hands and 
expected to repair 300 stands of arms. Payments recorded for 
repair of public arms in 1778-79. 

TYLER, N. B.— Vienna, Trumbull Co., Ohio, 1855-71. Maker of rifles 
and shotguns. Operator of Tyler's rifle works. 

TYLER'S RIFLE WORKS— See Tyler, N. B. above. 

TYLER, William — Providence, R. I. Musket maker, associated with 
William Rhodes in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 2,000 
Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. 
Of these 950 were delivered by June 10, 1801. 

TYSON, J. H.— North Beaver St., York, Pa. 

u 

UHLINGER, W. L. & Co.— Philadelphia, Pa. Sheath trigger .22 pocket 
revolvers. 

ULRICH, D. — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

ULLBRICH, A.— Albany, N. Y. Maker of a double barrel, side-by-side 
muzzle loading, percussion rifle. 

UMBARGER, Obediah— Central Pennsylvania; Kentucky rifles, Prob- 
ably related to Humberger family of Pennsylvania, later of Ohio. 

UNDERWOOD, Thomas— Lafayette, Ind. 

UNION ARMS CO.— Hartford, Conn. 1857-61 and later. At 2 Central 
Row, Hartford, 1861. Makers of percussion pepperbox and single- 
shot percussion pistols, and 5- and 6-shot percussion revolvers. 

UNION ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y. Contracted Nov. 15, 1861, for 
25,000 Springfield rifle muskets. Three delivered; these were 
marked "U. A. CO." and '"New York." 

UNION FIREARMS CO.— Toledo, Ohio, about 1904. Makers of a 
semi-automatic, recoil operated revolver. About 1902 the Com- 
pany had negotiated with Francis Bannerman of New York City, 
and his associates, in control of the Spencer Arms Company of 



220 American Gun Makers 

Windsor, Conn., for the purchase of the Spencer plant for manu- 
facture of repeating shotguns. However, the purchase did not 
materialize. Following from Sporting Goods Dealer, 1903: — 

"In our October number we noticed the report that the 
Union Firearms Co., Toledo, Ohio had purchased the Spencer 
gun plant, which would be removed to Toledo, and the manu- 
facture of the Spencer gun reinaugurated on a large scale. We 
are advised by Francis Bannerman, 579 Broadway, New York 
City, that the reported sale has not been made. The Spencer 
plant is still in his hands, and is advertised for sale elsewhere 
in this issue of the Sporting Goods Dealer. The merits of the 
Spencer repeating shot gun are too well known and generally 
known to require being touched upon here. It was the joint 
invention of Christopher M. Spencer (who at the age of 19 in- 
vented the Spencer repeating rifle and carbine, adopted and 
used by the U. S. Government in the civil war) and Sylvester M. 
Roper, also closely identified with improvements in American 
arms. The Spencer gun appeared in 1884 and stood the brunt 
of the battle against the prevailing prejudice which opposed 
single barrel repeating guns and favored the double barrel. For 
something like nine years it was the only repeating shot gun 
- in the field, virtually creating a demand which heretofore had 
not existed, and establishing its reputation as a thoroughly re- 
liable arm. Some 20,000 Spencer guns were made and nearly 
all of them were sold and are now in use in all parts of the 
world. Lately their manufacture was discontinued by Mr. 
Bannerman and his associates, principally, because their original 
business of handling ordnance, military goods and war relics had 
grown so large that it required undivided attention. The Spencer 
gun is still in demand and it is to be hoped that its manufacture 
will shortly be resumed." 

UNION MFG. CO.— Richmond, Va., 1861. Operated by G. P. Sloat 
making arms for the Confederacy. In business only a short time. 

UNION RIFLE WORKS— Lancaster, Pa. Percussion rifles. 

UNSELD, John— Frederick City, Md. Contracted December 14, 1775, 
with Council of Safety to furnish 80 muskets with complete 
equipment according to Maryland specifications, to be delivered 
by May 1, 1776. The Council wrote May 3, 1776 that so far they 
had received only 29 very roughly made muskets. 

UPDEGRAPH, Jacob— Schuylkill County, Pa. 

URIE, Solomon — Orange Township, Ashland Co., Ohio, 1818. 

URIELL, D.— Unlocated. Kentucky rifles. 

U. S. ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y., about 1873-78. Makers of .22 cal. 
knife pistols and rim-fire cartridge revolvers. 

U. S. SMALL ARMS CO.— Chicago, 111., 1917. Knife-pistol. 

UTTER, George — Newark, N. J. Saw-handle percussion duelling pis- 
tols. 



VAGEN, J. H. & CO.— Indianapolis, Ind., 1869-71. 

VALE, T. A.— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

VALEE, Prosper — Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith at 101 S. Second in 

1829. 
VALLEY FORGE— The Valley Forge was originally built on the 



American Gun Makers 221 

south bank of the Schuylkill, slightly over a half mile up from 
the mouth of the Valley Creek, in Chester County, Pa. It is 
believed to have been established by one Walker, a friend of 
William Penn, as a forge for making bar iron from pig metal 
obtained from the Warwick furnace, a few miles westward. 
In 1742, the forge was sold by Isaac Walker to Stephen Evans, 
Daniel Walker (or Welker) and Joseph Williams. The forge 
was operated by the Potts family of Chester, Pa., as a general 
manufactory of iron products, from the early part of 1757 until 
1771, when Col. William Dewees, son of Sheriff William Dewees 
of Philadelphia, became associated with the Potts family through 
marriage and probably acquired an interest in the mill in 1773. 

The forge was destroyed by the British under Gen. Howe 
on Sept. 21, 1777, about two months before Washington selected 
and occupied the Valley Forge as the site of his winter encamp- 
ment. After the War of Revolution the forge was rebuilt and 
was operated by Isaac and David Potts (brothers), in conjunc- 
tion with a slitting mill on the Schuylkill. In 1786, the forge 
and the mill were operated by Isaac Potts & Co., the "Co." being 
Isaac's son, James. 

In 1814 the works were sold to John Rogers of Philadelphia, 
an iron-monger, and his cousin, Joshua Main took charge of 
operation of the works, whose output consisted of domestic 
hardware, and farming and industrial implements. The rolling 
mill produced sheet iron, boiler plates and kindred material. 
There is no record of gun manufacture in those early days, 
though gun skelps were made for the "public service" by Col. 
Dewees in 1776. 

In 1821, John Rogers, in association with Brooke Evans, 
took over a defaulted Alexander McRae contract of 1817 for 
10,000 muskets, and converted the shops into an arms factory, 
the armory being known as Valley Forge. Apparently after this 
contract was fulfilled, the partnership was dissolved, for on 
Jan. 1, 1825, Rogers alone obtained a contract which was prob- 
ably shared with William L. Evans of Evansburg, a practical 
gun maker who managed the works. 

Apparently about 1830, the Valley Forge Armory was leased 
by William L. Evans, who made the Model 1826 pistols marked 
"W. L. Evans V. Forge 1831 USN," and Model 1821 muskets 
made under contract of May 3, 1821, and marked "W. L. Evans 
V. Forge." Earlier arms made prior to 1825, are marked "V. 
Forge" and "B. Evans Valley Forge." See Evans, W. L. and 
Rogers, John. 

The Valley Forge Gun Factory was partially destroyed by 
a freshet in 1839, and was completely destroyed in 1843. The 
property descended to a nephew, Charles H. Rogers, then to 
female descendants, until bought by the State of Pennsylvania 
for a park. 

VANDEMAN— Unlocated. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles, halfstock 
and fullstock percussion rifles, marked in bold script. Rifles came 
from Ross Co., Ohio. 

VANDERBURGER, F.— Unlocated. Percussion rifles. 
VANDERGRIFT, Isaac and Jeremiah— Philadelphia, Pa., active be- 
fore and after 1809-14. Ex-employees of John Joseph Henry. 

VANDERGRIFT, John— Bucks County, Pa., 1775. Musket maker to 
Committee of Safety. 



222 American Gun Makers 

VANDERHEYDEN, John— Auburn, N. Y., 1850. 

VAN DER POEL— Albany, N. Y., 1740. 

VANDERSLICE T.— Pennsylvania. 

VAN HORN, D. A.— Oneida, N. Y., about 1850-80. Double, percussion 
rifle-shotgun. 

VAN METER— Chillicothe, Ohio. 

VAN METER, J.— Richmond Dale, Ohio. Silver wire inlaid halfstock 
percussion rifle. 

VANTREES, J. & J. F.— Father and son. Fort Recovery, Ohio, about 
1826-1900. The early arms produced by Vantrees were percussion 
only. No flintlock made. 

VAN VALKENBURGH, H.— Albany, N. Y., percussion period. 

VAN WART & SON CO.— British, Birmingham and London. Lock 
marking of a silver stocked, all-metal, percussion pistol with 
barrel marked "HYDE & GOODRICH, NEW ORLEANS." Also 
a pair of fine percussion duelling pistols with locks marked "VAN 
WART SON & CO." barrels marked "LONDON," but Birmingham 
proofed, entirely by the same maker. Association with Hyde & 
Goodrich explained by the fact that the latter were importers of 
British Arms. 

VARNEY, David M.— Burlington, Vt, 1850. 

VELLEE— 2nd and Walnut Sts., Philadelphia, Pa., 1826. 

VELVERT— Maker of Kentucky rifles, circa 1860. (Connected with 
Volvert?) 

VENIA & JOHNSTONE— Toledo, Ohio, 1880-83. 

VICKERS, Jonathan— Cleveland, Ohio, 1821. 

VIERGUTZ, O. H.— Pueblo, Colo., 1874-80. 

VILLWOCK, Charles— Toledo, Ohio, active about 1873-82. 

VINCENT, John— Cleveland, Ohio, 1850. 

VINCENT, John — Washington County, Ohio, rifle maker active from 
about 1844-82. John Vincent was born Aug. 28, 1809, and after an 
apprenticeship as cabinet maker, his father's trade, he became 
a gunsmith about 1844. He died Sept. 17, 1882, the shop being 
taken over by his son, John Caleb. Made percussion and cartridge 
arms. 

VINCENT, John Caleb— Son of John Vincent. Succeeded to his 
father's shop, whose plain but accurate arms were improved by 
the son as to finish. John Caleb was born March 21, 1841, was 
active until about 1900, and died April 19, 1918. 

VIRGINIA MANUFACTORY— Also RICHMOND ARMORY, Rich- 
mond, Va. Authorized by Act of 1797, Virginia Legislature to 
found an armory for the manufacture of arms to equip state 
militia. The armory was erected in 1798, at the foot of Fifth 
Street, fronting James River. 

Production began in 1802, 2,151 stands of arms being re- 
corded as made by Oct. 13, 1803, and continued until 1820, in- 
cluding two models of flintlock pistols: the first a large model 
dated 1805 to 1811 inclusive, and the second resembling the 
Harpers Ferry Model 1806, with the addition of a swivel ram- 
rod, found dated 1812 to 1815 inclusive. In 1820 manufacture was 
discontinued and the plant converted into a school. 

In 1860, the armory was rehabilitated with machinery ordered 
from the Tredegar Iron Works of Richmond, and later aug- 



American Gun Makers 223 

mented with machinery captured at Harpers Ferry. The armory 
was operated under supervision of Salmon Adams, master 
armorer and produced "Richmond" rifles until the close of the 
Civil War. 

VIRGINIA POINT OF FORK STATE ARSENAL— Established by the 
state as a manufacturing armory and a general ordnance depot 
at Point of Fork, Va. 

In 1783, the arsenal was enlarged by equipment moved from 
the Public Gun Factory, and three new buildings were author- 
ized July 4, 1783, "to be erected on the ground where the State 
Magazines were lately built and destroyed by the enemy." 

The arsenal did considerable work in repair and restocking 
of arms, making locks, forging bayonets, etc., and plans were 
made for the utilization of its facilities for reconditioning arms 
until a reserve stock of 10,000 stands was accumulated. 

About 1803, the Point of Fork Arsenal was discontinued and 
the equipment and material moved to the Richmond Armory, 
or "Virginia Manufactory." See Point of Fork Arsenal. 

VIRGINIA PUBLIC GUN FACTORY— Fredericksburg, Va. The estab- 
lishment of the factory was authorized by an ordinance of the 
Convention in July, 1775, Col. Fielding Lewis and Major Charles 
Dick being appointed Commissioners 'to form, establish and con- 
duct a Manufactory of Small Arms at Fredericksburg," to equip 
Continental Line regiments raised in Virginia. 

The ground was acquired shortly after the passage of the 
Ordinance, and the buildings erected early in 1776. The plant 
also had a magazine, a substantial stone biulding begun in 1776, 
and completed in 1781, and operated under lease (from the 
widow of Roger Dixon) a mill on Hazel Run, for the grinding 
of bayonets, ramrods and gun-barrels. 

From 1781 the business of the factory declined, due to 
partial dismantling and removal of tools under threat of British 
raiders, Tarleton's Dragoons actually operating within a few 
miles of Fredericksburg. In September, 1782 the number of 
workmen employed had shrunk to four hands and two appren- 
tices, as compared with nineteen men and five apprentices in 
July of that year. By February of 1783, the plant was consider- 
ably in debt in salaries to officers and workmen, and the operat- 
ing force had shrunk to three artisans. 

The plant was discontinued in 1783, and equipment, tools 
and materials were moved to Point of Fork Arsenal. 

VOESTER, F. G.— Denver, Col., 1868-69. 

VOGLER, Christopher— Salem, N. C, before 1827. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles. 

VOGLER, Nathaniel — Son of Christopher Vogler. Learned gunsmith- 
ing at Nazareth, Pa.; succeeded his father at Salem, N. C, in 1827. 
Flintlock Kentucky rifles, later percussion arms. 

VOGLER, Phillip— Salisbury, N. C. Born in Germany, 1725; emi- 
grated to North Carolina in 1777. Highly decorated flintlock 
Kentucky rifle. 

VOGLER, G.— Salisbury, N. C. Maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles 
of very fine workmanship and decorative skill, circa 1825-30. 
Used spread eagle design on patchbox finials. Lock of one fine 
specimen engraved "J. VOGLER," (Brother?) Probably sons of 
Philip Vogler, above. 

VOGLER, J. — See G. Vogler of Salisbury, N. C, above. 



224 American Gun Makers 

VOGLER, Timothy — Salem, N. C. Kentucky rifles. 

VOGLESANG, A. W.— Fostoria, Ohio, 1868-69. 

VOIGT, Henry — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of Safety 
1775-76. One of the petitioners representing Philadelphia gun 
makers, complaining to the Committee of Safety in November, 
1776, against the high cost of materials and labor entering into 
arms making, and quoting advances in prices within one year, 
since 1775. 

VOLCANIC REPEATING ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn. Originally 
organized by Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson at Norwich, 
Conn., in 1854, to manufacture a repeating arm developed by 
Tyler B. Henry, ex-employee of Robbins & Lawrence of Windsor, 
Vt, in whose plant he had worked on the production of the 
Jennings magazine rifle. The arm was patented by Smith & 
Wesson, on Feb. 14, 1854, No. 10,535, Mr. Henry being the super- 
intendent in charge of production. 

The Volcanic Repeating Arms Company had been organized 
by Smith & Wesson in July, 1855, in order to attract additional 
capital to the Company, the Smith & Wesson patents being turned 
over to the new firm. Shortly after Horace Smith withdrew 
from the firm, and in February, 1856, the Company moved its 
plant to New Haven, doubtless under the influence of Oliver F. 
Winchester of New Haven, one of the principal stockholders. 
Mr. Wesson resigned from the firm Feb. 11, 1856. 

The Volcanic became insolvent in March, 1857. The assets 
of the firm were acquired by Winchester, who re-organized it 
into the New Haven Arms Co. Later in 1866, it became the 
Winchester Repeating Arms Co. See New Haven Arms Co. 

VOLENTENE, J. — Washington, Mo. Plain, accurate, hand-made per- 
cussion rifles. 

VOLPIUS, H. — Manually operated, revolving cylinder, 7-shot per- 
cussion rifle. 

VOLVERT — Lancaster, Pa., rifle maker, Revolutionary War period. 

VONDERGRIFT, J.— -Unlocated. Maple half-stock, octagon barrel, 
percussion plains rifle. 

VONDERSMITH — Lancaster, Pa., arms maker, Revolutionary period. 

VORE, Benny — New Paris, Pa., percussion period. 

VOSSBURG, Selah— Alabama, N. Y., 1845. Over-under, double mule- 
ear hammers, single-trigger percussion rifle. 

w 

W. — Unidentified. Marking on barrel of fine relief carved Kentucky 

rifle circa 1800-1810. 
W. A. — Unidentified. Middletown, Conn. Percussion under-hammer 

pistols. 
WADE, Abner — Saleto Township, Muskigum Co., Ohio, 1811. 
WADSWORTH, Decius— Captain U. S. Ordnance. U. S. Inspector of 

Muskets for Eastern States 1799-1801. Inspected, sabers at plant 

of Nathan Starr in 1799. Colonel Ordnance 1814-1819. 
WAGENHORST— Unidentified. Flintlock, heavy barrel, match rifles. 

Same as John Wagenhorst? 
WAGENHORST, Io.— John Wagenhorst. Maple fullstock flintlock 

Kentucky rifle. 



American Gun Makers 225 

WAGGONER — Schenectady, N. Y. Reported maker of a percussion 
Kentucky rifle with lock marked "STAFFORD." 

WAGNER, Alvin — Jackson, Mo. Percussion period. 

WAKEMAN, Harvey— Buffalo, N. Y., 1828-35. 

WALCH FIREARMS CO.— New York, N. Y., about 1859-62. Makers 
of Walch 10- and 12-shot revolvers, with cylinders taking two 
loads to a chamber. Patented by J. Walch, Feb. 8, 1859, No. 22,905. 

WALDREN, Alexander— Pisquataqua River, Mass., 1672. 

WALDREN, William— Boston, Mass., 1671. 

WALKER— Unidentified. Maker of flintlocks. 

WALKER, B. H. — Over-under, octagon barrels, set triggers, percus- 
sion Kentucky rifle. Also on stock of Bedford Co., Pa., style rifle 
marked on barrel "G. FAY." 

WALKER, John— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle with an 1835 
ten-cent coin inlaid in cheek-piece. Marked on barrel "JOHN 
WALKER." 

WALKER, John, JACKSON, L. — Reported percussion lock marking 
on a fancy, curly maple full stock, Kentucky rifle. 

WALKER, Joseph— Knox Co., Ohio, 1804-07. Repaired gun locks for 
Indians. 

WALKER, P. H.— 6 F. H. Sqr., Boston. Marking on rib of double- 
barreled percussion shotgun with dolphin-head hammers. 

WALKER, S. L.— (or J. L.) Cedarville, Ohio. Percussion rifles. 

WALKER, William— Born in Tuckaleeche Cove, Great Smoky Mts., 
Tenn., 1838; died 1919. Flintlock and percussion rifles. 

WALKEY, Sam — Made fine Snyder Co., Pa. style, inlaid percussion 
Kentucky rifles. 

WALLACE & OSBORNE— Canton, Conn. Underhammer percussion 
pistol. 

WALLACE, V. M— New York, N. Y., 1835. 

WALLACH, Moses A.— Boston, Mass., 1800-25. 

WALLIS & BURCH— Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion derringer. 

WALLIS, Daniel— See Wallis & Rice. 

WALLIS & RICE — Talladega, Alabama, rifle contractors to the Con- 
federacy. The firm consisted of Daniel Wallis of Talladega, and 
Samuel F. Rice of Montgomery, Ala. On May 9, 1862 they signed 
a contract to make one thousand Mississippi (Model 1841) type 
rifles for the State of Alabama and were advanced $2,000 in 
cash. There is no record of production, but Gen. Lovell H. 
Rousseau made a raid from Decatur, Ala., and on July 15, 1864, 
reached Talladega, where he destroyed two gun factories, which 
probably included this one and that of Lewis G. Sturdivant. 

WALLY, Samuel — Pennsylvania. Later maker of Kentucky rifles. 

WALSH, James — Philadelphia, Pa., arms and gun-lock maker to the 
Committee of Safety in 1776. With Samuel Kinder, in December, 
1776, petitioned to the Committee for redress (on contracted 
arms) because of rise in materials, tools and labor entering into 
gun-making. Walsh earlier in November, 1776, was one of the 
petitioners representing Philadelphia gunmakers, complaining 
against the high and mounting cost of equipment and materials 
used in making arms. James Walsh served the state as Superin- 
tendent of Arms at the State Gun Repair Shop at Allentown 



226 American Gun Makers' 

about 1777-78. In 1779 Walsh advertised, offering his gunsmith 
tools for sale. 

"J. WALSH" marking appears on well made, handsomely 
ornamented brass flintlock pistols. 

WALSH, John — Pennsylvania stock maker to the Committee of 
Safety, 1776. With James Walsh, was one of the petitioners to the 
Committee complaining against the rising cost of materials and 
labor entering into gun-making, and quoting the advance in 
prices in one year, since 1775. 

WALTERS, A.— New York, N. Y., 1822. 

WALTERS, A.— Millbury, Mass., 1837. 

WALTON, T. — Unlocated. Percussion period. 

WARD — Unlocated. Halfstock percussion sporting rifle. 

WARD -BURTON — Makers of magazine military and sporting rifles, 
about 1807-74. There were 313 breech-loading single-shot carbines 
and 1,015 rifles made on the Ward-Burton system, Burton patent 
of Dec. 20, 1859, No. 26,475, and W. G. Ward patent of Feb. 21, 
1871, No. 111,994, at the Springfield Armory in 1871, and were 
issued for trial to troops in 1872. 

WARD, H. D.— Massachusetts, 1863. 

WARD, S. H. — Jamestown, N. C. Halfstock percussion rifle with Josh 
Golcher lock; percussion pea rifles. 

WARE, J. S. — Unlocated 12 ga. double, percussion shotgun. 

WARE & MORSE— Joseph S. Ware and John R. Morse, Worcester, 
Mass., 1825-33 and later. 

WARE, Orlando — Worcester, Mass. 

WARE & WHEELOCK— Worcester, Mass., 1825 and after. 

WARFIELD, L. & CO.— Gun barrel makers. Marking on barrel of a 
half stock, percussion plains rifle by S. J. Fosdick, Laporte, Ind. 

WARNER — Rochester, N. Y. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun. 
Also New York style mule-ear hammer percussion rifle. 

WARNER, Benjamin Franklin — Seneca County (Indian Country). 
Came from Connecticut. Made gunstocks for the Senecas. Went 
with the tribe to Fort Gibson, Iowa. 

WARNER, Charles — Windsor Locks, Conn. Maker of 6-shot percus- 
sion revolvers. 

WARNER, George— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

WARNER, H.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

WARNER, Horace — Ridgeway, Pa. 

WARNER, Horace— Williamsport, Pa., about 1890. 

WARNER, Horace — Born near Hartford, Conn., about 1832; died at 
Williamsport, Pa., 1893. Moved to Ridgeway, Pa., when 16; taught 
himself gunsmithing. Served in Berdan's Civil War sharpshooters. 
Made hunting and target rifles at Williamsport, Pa.; moved to 
Syracuse, N. Y., about 1880 and made many target and machine 
rest rifles weighing up to 60 lbs., most with under-hammer locks 
and Berdan primer ignition. A famous match shooter. 

WARNER, James — Revolver manufacturer of Springfield, Mass., 
brother of Thomas Warner. Operator of the Springfield Arms Co. 
Active before 1850 to about 1869. Maker of Warner pocket per- 
cussion revolvers, 6-shot revolving percussion rifles and Warner 
rim-fire cartridge carbines, 150 of which were purchased by the 



American Gun Makers 227 

government between Jan. 24 and Nov. 15, 1864, and 2,500 from 
Feb. 2 to March 15, 1865. 

The 1850 City Directory lists the James Warner & Co pistol 
factory at Lyman and Gardner Streets. Thereafter, until 1869, the 
address is Blake's Hill. See Springfield Arms Co., which this 
pistol factory is believed to be. 

The Warner hand arms were manufactured under patents of 
Jan. 1851, No. 7,894; July 15, 1851, No. 8,229, and July 28, 1857, 
No. 17,904. The Warner carbine was patented Feb, 23, 1864, No. 
41,732. Warner, believed to have been a former employe of the 
Massachusetts Arms Co., was born about 1818 and died in 1870. 

WARNER, JAMES & CO. — See Warner, James, above, and Spring- 
field Arms Co. 

WARNER, Joseph— Gunsmith. Rose Alley, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

WARNER & LOWE— Syracuse, N. Y., 1879-80. Horace Warner and 
William V. Lowe. Percussion sporting rifles. 

WARNER, Thomas — Arms maker, elder brother of James Warner, 
born at Springfield, Mass., June 12, 1793. After serving a three- 
year apprenticeship to his uncle, a millwright of North Amherst, 
Mass., he returned to Springfield in 1814, and entered the service 
at the Armory. By 1837 Warner was Master Armorer, which posi- 
tion he held until Dec. 31, 1842. At this time the civilian superin- 
tendents were being replaced with Ordnance Department person- 
nel, and Warner left the armory service, and went to the Whit- 
neyville Armory, to take charge of the tooling up for the produc- 
tion of the Model 1841 rifle. In 1848-49, Thomas Warner was 
associated with Edwin Wesson, and later with the Massachusetts 
Arms Co. He is next found at the Waters Armory, at Millbury, 
Mass., and was active in the removal of the Waters machinery to 
the Palmetto Armory of Columbia, S. C. After that Warner was 
engaged in New York in an enterprise of rifling muskets; then 
went to Chicopee Falls, and finally back to Springfield, where he 
died Feb. 11, 1885. 

WARREN — Albany, N. Y. Maker of a curly maple half stock, muzzle- 
loading, percussion sporting rifle. See Warren & Steele. 
WARREN, A. J. & CO.— Memphis, Tenn., 1860. 

WARREN. Milton — Abingdon, Va. Apprenticed under John M. White- 
sides of Abingdon (then Wolf Hills). Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

WARREN & STEELE— Albany, N. Y. Marking on the lock of an Eng- 
lish barreled, percussion pistol. 

WASHBURN, Nathan — Worcester, Mass. Was making five tons of 
rifle-barrel iron per day for the Springfield Armory, and was 
under contract to furnish 100,000 rifle-musket barrels during the 
Civil War. 

WASHINGTON ARMS CO.— Unidentified. Makers of single-shot and 

6-shot pepperbox, percussion pistols. 
WASSMAN, F. — Washington, D. C, percussion period. 
W.A.T. — Initials of Captain William A. Thornton, Ordnance Dept., 

U. S. Army. Inspector of Contract Arms 1842-61. See Thornton, 

William A. 

WATERS— Dutchess County, N. Y. Gunsmith to Committee of Safety, 
1775-76. 

WATERS, A. & CO.— See Waters, Asa W. Jr. 



228 American Gun Makers 

WATERS, Andrus — Sutton, Mass., musket maker to Committee of 
Safety, 1775-76. Died in 1778. Brother of Asa Waters. 

WATERS Armory — See, Waters, Asa, Jr., and Waters, Asa H. 

WATERS, Elijah— Sutton, Mass. Son of Asa Waters and elder brother 
of Asa, Jr. Active from about 1775 until his death in 1814. See 
Waters, Asa, Jr. 

WATERS, Asa — Revolutionary War musket maker and gunsmith to 
Committee of Safety. Asa Waters was born at Sutton, Mass., 
Jan. 27, 1742. With his brother Andrus he established the Sutton 
Waters Armory on Singletary Stream, Sutton, Mass., which fur- 
nished arms to the Continental troops. It is reputed to have been 
one of the first to utilize water power in the operation of trip- 
hammers used in making skelps and gun forgings. The iron ore 
for the works was obtained from Salisbury, in the northwest 
corner of Connecticut. Andrus Waters who had been taking care 
of the ore shipments, died from exposure after two years of 
operations, and was buried at West Point with military honors; 
the business being carried on by Asa. 

Asa Waters had also served as lieutenant in a company of 
the Lexington Alarm. He died Dec. 24, 1814. 

WATERS, Asa, Jr. — Son of Asa Waters above. Asia, Jr., was born 
at Sutton, Nov. 2, 1769, at his father's home at West Main and 
Rhodes Streets. With his elder brother Elijah, he learned the 
gunsmith trade in his father's factory. In 1797 Asa, Jr. and Elijah 
Waters purchased land and water power on Blackstone River, 
below the Singletary, and built the Waters Armory. Elijah died 
in 1814, and Asa (Jr.) became the sole proprietor. As in his 
father's shops, the welding of barrels at the Waters Armory 
was done by water power operated trip-hammer perfected by 
Asa Waters and patented Oct. 25, 1817. 

Asa Waters had received the following contracts: Oct. 16, 
1818, for 10,000 stands at the rate of 2,000 yearly, beginning 
April 1, 1819, (M. 1816: The barrels and bayonets to be brown 
color, locks unpolished). October 16, 1823, Waters obtained an 
additional contract for 10,000 Model 1816 muskets with deliveries 
of 2,000 per annum from Jan. 1, 1825, Contract of Jan. 24, 1829, 
details unknown. 

Sept. 22, 1836, Waters contracted for 4,000 pistols Model 
1836 at $9.00 each, to be delivered by Dec. 31, 1837. On Feb. 7, 
1840, Asa Waters, in association with his son, Asa H., under the 
name of A. Waters & Son, obtained an additional contract for 
15,000 pistols. Model 1836, (still flintlock) at $7.50 each, the con- 
tract being of five years duration with deliveries at the rate of 
3,000 per annum. 

Apparently after 1843 Asa H. Waters (son of Asa) took over 
the management of the firm and incorporated, for pistols dated 
1844 are stamped "A. H. Waters & Co." 

A part of the arms making machinery of the Waters Armory 
was sold to Wm. Glaze, operator of the Palmetto Armory at 
Columbia, S. C, in 1852, and was later used in the manufacture of 
Palmetto Armory arms. The Waters Armory is known to have 
made early Joslyn carbines after 1855. 

WATERS, Richard— Salem, Mass., 1632. 

WATERS & WHITMORE— Massachusetts musket makers, contractors 
of Sept. 8, 1808, for 5,000 Model 1808 muskets, delivery to be 
completed in five years. Of these 3,000 were delivered by Oct. 7, 



American Gun Makers 229 

1812. The arms were probably made either in the Sutton or 
Millbury Waters armories. 

WATSON, J. M.— Altoona, Pa., late 19th century. Over-under rifle- 
shotgun, serial No. 23. 

WATSON, Jonathan— Chester, N. H., 1800. 

WATSON, Walter— Fayetteville, N. C. Advertised Nov. 7, 1864, "Pis- 
tol Maker and Machinist. Guns and pistols made and repaired 
with Dispatch. Members of Reserves and Home Guards can have 
their arms repaired at half-price." 

WATKEYS, Henry— New York City, N. Y., before and after 1772-76. 
Proposed to the Provincial Congress of New York (under con- 
sideration June 13, 1775,) to furnish 1,000 muskets complete with 
steel ramrods, bayonets and scabbards at the price of £3, 15 shill- 
ings per stand, New York currency. 

WATT — McVeytown, Pa. Extensive maker of flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

WATT, G. — Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

WATT, J. — Licking Creek, Juniata Co., Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. 

WATT, J. — Unlocated. Heavy-barrel, flintlock match rifle. 

WATT, William — Old employee of Hawken shop in St. Louis, Mo. 
Operated it during 1859-61, while Samuel Hawken and his son 
were in Denver, Colo. 

WAY, Arad— Canfield, Ohio 1800-08. Trumbull and Middlebury Sum- 
mit Co., 1812. Made pistols. 

WEATHERBY, Joseph— Gunsmith. Above 449 Front, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

WEATHERHEAD, Joseph— U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1821- 
25. Inspected arms in plants of R. & J. D. Johnson, Simeon 
North, Lemuel Pomeroy, Nathan Starr and Asa Waters. 

WEAVER, Cry pret— Pennsylvania, 1818. 

WEAVER, Hugh— Pleasant Ridge, Ohio, about 1870. Half-stock, per- 
cussion target rifle. 

WEAVER, H. B. — South Windham, Conn. Breech-loading percussion 
shotgun. 

WEAVER, Sam— Unlocated. Beautiful converted flintlock Kentucky 
rifle, early period. 

W. B. — William Border, New Paris, Bedford Co., Pa. Maker of full 
stock, percussion squirrel rifles. 

WEBB, S. — Unlocated single action revolvers. 

WEBBER ARMS CO.— Denver, Col. Modern. 

WEBEL, Charles— Gunsmith, Jackson near Tchouptoulas Sts., New 
Orleans, La., 1853. 

WEBER, P. — Unlocated. Curly maple, half stock percussion rifle. 

WEDDELL, P. M.— Zanesville, Ohio, 1823. Flintlock, fullstock Ken- 
tucky rifle (now converted to percussion) with silver inlays in 
stock, complex patch box opening device. Marked on barrel, in 
script "P. M. WEDDEL" and on a silver inlay under cheek piece 
"ZANESVILLE 1823." 

WEEDS, N. B. & H.— Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

WEEKS, D. — Erie, Pa. Percussion halfstock squirrel rifle, Steatham 
lock. 

WEIBLE, J.— Unlocated. 1844 Percussion rifle. 

WEICHOLD, Jack— 4047 Herron Ave., Cincinnati, O. Modern under- 
hammer percussion match rifle. 



230 American Gun Makers 

WEIDMAN, Solomon— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

WEIKER, G.— Pennsylvania, period of 1780. Flintlock Kentucky rifle, 
engraved on patchbox, "G. Weiker, gunsmith, has his price — 
$16.48 for manufacturing." 

WEISER, G. W.— Pennsylvania, 1839. 

WEIS, G. — Pennsylvania. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun. 

WELCH, BROWN & CO.— William W. Welch and his sureties, Plumb 
Brown and Austin A. Spaulding, Norfolk, Conn., Civil War con- 
tractors, for 16,000 Springfield rifle-muskets, Model 1861, contract 
of June 6, 1862. Of these 1,360 were recorded delivered: 1,000 
April (?) 21, 1865, and 360 May 3, 1865, both lots at $15.00 each. 
In the records the first date is given as August 21: — this is be- 
lieved to be a typographical error, as both lots were paid for in 
full on May 11, 1865. 

WELCH, James— Philadelphia, Pa., 1783. 

WELCH, W. W.— William Wickham Welsh, Norfolk, Conn. Civil War 
arms contractor. Organized a concern for the manufacture of 
percussion rifle muskets Model 1861. Nov. 6, 1861, for 18,000 at 
$20.00 each. 16,000 delivered. Jan. 12, 1864, for 2,500 at $18.00 
each. 1,000 delivered. The rifle-muskets were made in the long 
stone shop of the Empire Company. After the war the same 
company undertook the manufacture of "revolving pistols" under 
the name of "The Connecticut Arms Company." 

Dr. Welch was born Dec. 10, 1818, in Norfolk, Conn. Gradu- 
ated from Yale Medical School in 1839 and represented his town 
in General Assembly during years 1848, 1850, 1879 and 1881. Was 
State Senator from 17th District in 1851-52 and Representative 
in Congress from 4th Congressional District of Connecticut in 
1855-57. In addition to his interest in rifle-musket contracts, Dr. 
Welch was active in a number of other enterprises, including 
services as vice-president of Norfolk Bank from 1862 until his 
death in 1892. 

WELDON, Robin— Mansfield, Richland Co., Ohio, 1810. Made imple- 
ments of war, War of 1812. Lived in blockhouse during the War. 

WELHANCE, Kunrat — York, Pa., musket maker. Associated with 
Jacob Laether in a contract with the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, of April 11, 1798, for 1,200 Charleville pattern, (Model 
1795) muskets. He is also listed as Conrad Welshanze in a later 
contract of April 17, 1801, also with Pennsylvania, in which, he 
in association with Jacob Doll and Henry Pickell, of York 
County, contracted for 1,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) 
muskets. 

WELLES, C— See Wells, C. 

WELLS, C— (Or Welles). Milwaukee, Wis., 1867-1910. Gunmaker, 
gunsmith and dealer. Formed a partnership with a Mr. Hale and 
was listed as Welles & Hale from about 1858 until about 1870. 
Located at 15 Wisconsin Avenue until 1871, later 87 Wisconsin 
(1871), 425 East Water Street (1878) 423% East Water (1887), 
419 Sycamore (1893), 5,124 Second Street (1910). Made single and 
double barrel percussion rifles and shotguns. 

WELLS & HALE — Milwaukee, Wis. Percussion rifles. See Wells, 
John C. 

WELLS, J. H. — Staunton, Va. Kentucky rifle for match shooting. 

WELLS, W. & BRO. — Madison, Ind. Makers of percussion gun locks. 



American Gun Makers 231 

WELSH, James— Dock Ward, Northern part Philadelphia, Pa., 1779. 
Flintlock holster pistol. 

WELSHANS, Jacob — Probably same as Welshantz below. Contracted 
for "rifle guns" in 1792. Payment of $72.00 recorded. 

WELSHANTZ, David— York County, Pa., 1780-83. 

WELSHANTZ, Jacob— York County, Pa., 1777-83. Worked for the 
State 1777-80. 

WELSHANTZ, Joseph— York County, Pa., 1779-83. 

WELSHANZE, Conrad — York, Pa., musket maker. In association 
with Jacob Doll and Henry Pickell, of York County, contracted 
April 17, 1801, with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 1,000 
muskets, Charleville pattern. 

Under the name of Kunrat Welhance he had earlier, April 
11, 1798, contracted in association with Jacob Laether to fur- 
nish the Commonwealth with 1,200 muskets made on the Charle- 
ville pattern. Doubtless was of the same clan with the Welshantz 
gunsmiths above, regardless of the spelling of the family name. 

WELSHENS, J.— No details. (Joseph or Jacob Welshantz?) 

WELTON, Ard — Waterbury, Conn., musket maker, before and after 
1773-1801. Contractor under the Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 
Charleville pattern (Model 1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand. 
$7,865 recorded paid on account in 1799; $7,705 in 1800, and 
$598.20 in 1801. Welton had served as lieutenant in the Con- 
tinental Army during the Revolutionary War. 

WELZHOFER, Joseph— 307 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1845. 

WENTZEL, W. H.— Frederick, Md. (?) Maker of a side-by-side, 
double barrel, percussion rifle with curly maple half-stock and 
locks by "McKIM & CO." 

WAREHAM, David— Ohio. 

WERGER, Christian — Leacock Township, Pa., musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety in 1776. 

WERNER, Charles — Rochester, N. Y. Percussion period. 

WERNER, J. G.— York, Pa. Percussion, double-barrel rifle. 

WERTER — Gun barrel maker; late flint period. Stamped under breech 
of H. Gibbs, Lancaster, Kentucky rifle. 

WERTZ, Peter — Gunsmith, Saleto Township, Muskingum Co., Ohio, 
1811. 

WESLE, Norbert — Milwaukee, Wis. Percussion hunting and target 
rifles. Located on Third between Chestnut and Prairie in 1854-55, 
on Third between Tamarack and Prairie in 1856-61, at 289 Third 
in 1862-74, and at 315 State Street from 1874 to 1880. 

WESSON, D. B.— Daniel Baird Wesson, one of the founders of Smith 
& Wesson, was born at Worcester, Mass., in May, 1825, of an 
old New Hampshire family of English descent. After a brief 
attempt to interest himself in the shoe business with his brothers 
Rufus and Martin, Daniel joined his brother Edwin at Northboro 
in 1843, and completed his apprenticeship in 1846. He continued 
with Edwin until about 1850, when his brother died. After work- 
ing for a time for his brother Frank, who had a gunsmith shop 
at Grafton, and with Leonard at Charlestown, Mass., as super- 
intendent of the Leonard pepperbox pistol plant, Wesson went 
to work for Allen, Brown and Luther at Worcester, Mass., in 
1852. There he became associated with Horace Smith and the 
Volcanic Repeating Arms Co., and later formed the Smith & 



232 American Gun Makers 

Wesson arms manufacturing firm. See Smith & Wesson. Daniel 
B. Wesson died at Springfield, Mass., August 4, 1906. 

WESSON, Edward— Grafton, Mass., 1834-40, then at Northboro until 
1843 and later. 

WESSON, Edwin — Son of Rufus Wesson, a native of New Hampshire, 
who migrated to Massachusetts and established a plow manu- 
factory. 

Edwin apprenticed himself to Silas Allen of Shrewsbury, 
and later set up for himself at Northboro, where in association 
with Leavitt he manufactured the Wesson and Leavitt revolver, 
until his death in 1850. See Massuchusetts Arms Co. Edwin was 
an older brother of Daniel B. Wesson. 

WESSON, Frank— Brother of Daniel B. and Edwin Wesson. Arms 
manufacturer of Worcester, Mass. Active about 1850-77. Maker 
of Wesson pistols, military carbines and sporting and target rifles, 
under the patent of Frank Wesson and N. S. Harrington of Oct. 
25, 1859. No. 25,926, and the numerous Frank Wesson patents 
of Nov. 11, 1862; Dec. 15, 1868; July 20, 1869; June 13, 1871 and 
July 10, 1877. 

One hundred and fifty Wesson rim-fire carbines were pur- 
chased by the government during the Civil War, as well as many 
hundreds by various states and units. 

WESSON & HARRINGTON— Worcester, Mass., 1871-74. Makers of 
5- and 7-shot cartridge revolvers. Succeeded by Harrington & 
Richardson 1875 to date. See the latter firm. 

WESSON & PRESCOTT— Northboro, Mass. Prior to 1850. Edwin 
Wesson in association with E. A. (?) Prescott, rifle manufac- 
turers. Partnership dissolved on Edwin Wesson's death in 1850. 

WESSON, STEVENS & MILLER— Hartford, Conn., Edwin Wesson, 
Joshua Stevens and S. C. Miller, manufacturers, between 1837-49, 
of hand-turned cylinder, percussion revolvers made on the 
Daniel Leavitt of Cabotsville (now Chicopee), Mass., patent of 
April 29, 1837, No. 182. 

WEST, Stephen — Woodward, Frederick Co., Md. Revolutionary War 
period. His letter with address given as Woodyard, (?), dis- 
cusses the many merits of his guns and scoffs at all others pro- 
duced in Maryland, particularly those of Isaac Harris, at "fit 
only to beat homminy with." 

WESTERN ARMS CO.— New York, N. Y. and Chicago, 111. Percussion 
pocket and rim-fire cartridge belt revolvers. Quite likely made 
for Western Arms Company by some other firm. 

WESTERN ARMS CORP.— Ithaca, N. Y., Modern. 

WESTERN GUN WORKS— Chicago, 111. "Tramp's Terror" .22 pocket 
revolver. 

WESTPHALL, Charles W.— Musket maker. In association with 
Frederick Goetz of Philadelphia, contracted on July 13, 1808, 
for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets, duration five years. Of these 1,019 
recorded delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

WETMORE, W. W.— Lebanon, N. H., and Windsor, Vt. Percussion 
gaintwist rifle for picket bullet; false muzzle recessed for either 
linen or paper cross-patch. 

WETZEL, Jonathan — Pennsylvania. Middle and late flintlock period 
and early percussion, Roman nose style, graceful Kentucky rifles. 
WEYERMAN, Isaac— Le Soeur County, Minn., 1864-65. 



American Gun Makers 233 

W. G. M. — Unidentified. Kentucky rifles with very dark stocks. 

WHALL, William— Kirby St., Liberty Square, Phila., Pa. Advertised 
for an apprentice Feb. 2, 1793 and had for sale pistols," very 
elegant Fowling and Cocking Pieces . . . calculated for large and 
small game . . . very elegant Muskets with bayonets, fit for mili- 
tary gentlemen." 

WHALL, William, Jr.— Boston, Mass., 1813-19. 

WHEATLEY, Henry— Washington and Claysville, Washington Co., Pa. 

WHEELDON, James— Pomeroy, O., 19th-20th century. Muzzle-loading 
rifles. 

WHEELER, A. G.— Farmington, Me., 1867-68. 

WHEELER, G. E.— Farmington, Me., 1877. Maker of Plains rifles. 

WHEELER, George — Stevensburg, Culpepper Co., Va. Musket maker 
to the State of Virginia, and operator of Wheeler's Works. Con- 
tracted with the State about 1797, for 4,000 muskets, of which 
250 were inspected and passed Oct. 16, 1801, at Richmond, Va., 
by Alex Quarrier and John Clerke with comments that the work 
was roughly executed, especially in the locks, but better than 
any Wheeler had made before; considerably inferior to guns sent 
from Philadelphia. Another parcel is reported inspected and 
passed Feb. 23, 1802, by John Strode. 

WHEELER, J. H.— Unlocated, Heavy barrel (24 lb.) percussion target 
rifle. 

WHEELER, Leicester — Forged pistol barrels, Springfield Armory, 
1808. 

WHEELER & MORRISON— Virginia musket makers, contractors of 
Oct. 21, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets, duration five years. 
Only 125 delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

WHETCROFT, William— Annapolis, Md. Musket maker to Commit- 
tee of Safety 1776. Had a plant producing 50 muskets a week. 

WHIPPLE, T. H.— Cambridge, Vt. Made heavy sharpshooters' rifles 
for Union forces. An 18-lb. under-hammer percussion rifle. 

WHIT, J. R. — Gunsmith. Seneca Co., Ohio. Bored gun barrels and 
repaired arms during War of 1812. 

WHITE, E. B. — Unlocated. Maker of percussion under-hammer 
pepperbox pistol with bootleg grip. 

WHITE, H.— Gunsmith, Jackson, Jackson Co., Ohio, 1851-65. 

WHITE, Horace — Springfield, Mass., arms maker to Committee of 
Safety 1775-76. 

WHITE, H. W. — Jackson, Ohio. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

WHITE, J. — Uniontown, Pa., from about 1815. Smallbore rifles. (Same 

as, or related to John White of Uniontown, Pa.?) 
WHITE, J. A.— Gunsmith. Jackson, Jackson Co., Ohio, 1854-58. 
WHITE, John— New Lisbon, (now Lisbon) Columbiana, County, Ohio. 

Active in the early part of 19th Century. 

WHITE, John— Uniontown, Fayette Co., Pa., about 1790-1810. 

WHITE, John— Gunsmith. New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio. 

WHITE, L. B. — Underhammer percussion pistol. 

WHITE, Nicholas — Frederick Town, Md., musket maker, associated 
with Thomas Crabb, Jacob Metzger and Christopher Barnhizle 
in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville 



234 American Gun Makers 

pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 
235 delivered by June 10, 1801. 

WHITE, Peter — Annapolis, Md., rifle maker of the Revolutionary 
War period. 

WHITE, Peter— Colerain Township. Bedford Co., Pa., 1825. 

WHITE, Peter— Highly ornamented flintlock rifles. Said by Uriah 
Fisher to have been the first gunsmith in Uniontown, Fayette 
Co., Pa. Possibly the same as Peter White above. 

WHITE, ROLLIN ARMS CO.— Lowell, Mass. Established about 1864, 
to manufacture cartridge revolvers which infringed on the Rollin 
White patents controlled by Smith & Wesson, and 8,642 revolvers 
were turned over to Smith & Wesson for sale. 

The firm assumed the name of Rollin White without author- 
ity or permission from Mr. White. On Rollin White's protest on 
the use of his name, the firm's name was changed to Lowell 
Arms Co. 

WHITE, Rollin — Arms inventor and designer was born at Williams- 
town, Vt, June 6, 1817. During 1849-57 he resided at Hartford, 
Conn., where he worked for two of his brothers, contractors to 
Colt, in 1849. He did contract work for Colt from 1849 until 1852, 
when he left Colts on their abandonment of the contract system 
in their shops. Lived at Davenport, Iowa, from 1857 to 1863, 
when because of frequent visits East, necessary because of his 
patent interests, he moved to Springfield, Mass. In 1864 he pur- 
chased a residence in Lowell and engaged in the invention of 
arms as well as many other mechanical devices, such as a loom, 
wrenches, spinning spindles, drawing punches, a torpedo, car- 
tridges, etc. About 1866 he heard that a Lowell revolver manu- 
facturing firm had without his consent assumed his name in con- 
nection with their trade name, Rollin White Arms Company, 
which he caused them to abandon, they changing to Lowell Arms 
Co. Rollin White died at Lowell March 22, 1892. 

Rollin White's patent of "a cylinder bored end to end" pur- 
chased by Smith & Wesson, had paid him a royalty of 50 
cents per arm, but since the terms of the contract stipulated 
that White had to defend his patent against infringements, 
most of the royalties were absorbed in law suits to defend the 
patent, which expired on April 3, 1869. White succeeded in 
obtaining Congressional legislation for its extension, but the 
measure was vetoed by President Grant, because the control 
of the patent had deprived the Union armies of cartridge re- 
volvers during the Civil War. 

WHITE, W. H.— Jackson, Ohio, 1851-65. 

WHITESCARVER, CAMPBELL & CO.— Rusk, Cherokee Co., Tex. 
Delivered 750 Texas (Model 1841 type) Rifles by November, 
1864. Texas Rifles were issued mainly to Indian troops serving 
in the Confederate army and stationed in Indian Territory, 
now Oklahoma. 

WHITESIDES, John M.— Abingdon (then Wolf Hills), Va. Axe- 
maker, turned to riflesmithing. Handmade percussion Kentucky 
rifles, mounted with iron, brass, German silver, or silver. Scroll 
wire inlaying a specialty. Taught Milton Warren. 

WHITING, John— Independence, Iowa. 1867-68. 

WHITMAN, B.— Stillwater, N. Y. Percussion period. 

WHITMORE — Sutton, Mass., musket maker associated with Asa 



American Gun Makers 235 

Waters in a contract of Sept. 8, 1808, for 5,000 Model 1808 
muskets, of five years duration. Of these 3,000 delivered by 
Oct. 7, 1812. 

WHITMORE, Andrew H.— Somerville, Mass., 1868. 

WHITMORE, H. G.— Boston, Mass., 1853 and later. 

WHITMORE, Nathaniel G Rifle maker. Born at Mansfield, Mass., in 

1829, and learned the trade in his father's shop. Worked for 
Sharps Rifle Co. and Remingtons. Died at Eastondale, Mass., in 
1917. 

Maker of a heavy barrel, muzzle loading, percussion, target 
rifle with double set triggers. 

A presentation rifle by Whitmore was gift to Gen. U. S. Grant 
from the citizens of Providence, R. I., and is now in the Smith- 
sonian Institution in Washington, D. C. 

WHITMORE & WOLFF— Makers of half stock, muzzle loading per- 
cussion rifle with double set triggers. See Whitmore, Wolff below. 

WHITMORE, WOLFF & CO.— 50 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1853. 
M. Whitmore, C. H. Wolff, Hugh Jones, Geo. J. Duff, "Importers 
and Wholesale Dealers in Hardware and Cutlery." Makers of 
front and back action locks. 

Probable firm sequence: Whitmore & Wolff; Whitmore, Wolff 
& Co.; Whitmore, Wolff, Duff & Co. 

WHITMORE, WOLFF, DUFF & CO.— Pittsburgh, Pa. Lockmakers, 
late percussion period. Back-action lock with this marking on a 
M. Rmgle, late Kentucky rifle. See Whitmore, Wolff & Co., above. 

WHITMORE, W. W.— Percussion period. Under J. H. Durkee at 
Lebanon, N. H.; later opened shop at Springfield, Mass. 

WHITNEY ARMORY— Whitneyville, Conn. Established by Eli Whit- 
ney, inventor of the cotton gin, upon the receipt of a contract 
to make 10,000 muskets under the Act of July 5, 1798. The 
armory made flintlock, percussion and cartridge arms for the 
government and for private use in the 90 years of its existence, 
including Models 1798, 1808, 1812, 1816 flintlock muskets, 1841 
percussion rifles, Springfield rifle muskets during the Civil War, 
percussion as well as cartridge revolvers, and Whitney, Burgess, 
Phoenix, Kennedy and other sporting and military rifles and 
carbines. The armory ceased operations in 1888. See Whitney, 
Eli, £r. and Jr., below. 

WHITNEY ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn., 1866-69. Eli Whitney 
(Jr.) Pres. Connected with the Whitney Armory. Made Howard 
patent hammerless rifles for Howard Bros. 

WHITNEY, Eli (Sr.)— New Haven, Conn. Born Dec. 8, 1765. Famous 
as the inventor of the cotton gin. On Jan. 14, 1798, under the 
influence of Hon. Oliver Wolcott, the Secretary of War, Whitney 
obtained a contract for 10,000 Charleville pattern muskets (Model 
1795) at $13.40 per stand, and established an armory for their 
manufacture at the foot of East Rock, (Whitneyville) about two 
miles from New Haven. The contract was not completed until 
1809, due to many difficulties encountered in the establishment 
of a new business, but the Whitney arms proved very satisfactory 
and embodied improvements which became features of later 
models. 

April 8, 1808, Whitney contracted to furnish the State of 
New York with 2,000 muskets at $13.00 per stand; these were 
delivered by March 13, 1811, and an additional 2,000 were 
ordered. 



236 American Gun Makers 

His next government contracts were of July 18, 1812, for 
15,000 stands; August 1, 1822, for 3,000 muskets Model 1816, at 
$12.00 per stand to be delivered by Feb. 1, 1824, which was 
followed on August 15, 1822, by an additional contract for 
15,000 more of the same model, also at $12.00, to be delivered 
at the rate of 3,000 per annum from January 1, 1824. 

Eli Whitney (Sr.) died Jan. 8, 1826, and during his son's, 
Eli's (Jr.) minority, the Whitney Armory was operated by a 
Board of Trustees, among them P. & E. W. Blake (Eli W. 
Blake was a nephew of Eli Whitney, Sr.). The Blake name 
appears on Whitney arms before and after 1827. 

WHITNEY, Eli (Jr.)— Whitneyville, Conn. Son of Eli Whitney (Sr.), 
the founder of the Whitney Armory. The younger Whitney be- 
came of age in November, 1842. Under his administration the 
Whitney armory received numerous government contracts, in- 
cluding large orders for Model 1841 percussion rifles. Thomas 
Warner, ex-master armorer of the Springfield Armory, super- 
intended the tooling up and the manufacture of these rifles. 
Some of these arms were shipped to New Orleans about 1847, 
and issued to the 1st Mississippi Regiment commanded by Jeffer- 
son Davis, and so acquired the name of Mississippi rifles. 

The government contracts received before the Civil War 
included the following: Oct. 22, 1842, for 7,500 Model 1841 
rifles at $13.00 each, to be delivered by Jan. 1, 1847; an addi- 
tional order of March 27, 1848, for 7,500 more at $12.87%; 
Feb. 6, 1849, for 2,500 rifles at $12.87 and one for 100 rifles at 
$11.62% each, dated May 24, 1855. 

During the Civil War Whitney delivered 15,001 Whitney 
rifle muskets under contract of Oct. 17, 1863. In addition the 
government purchased 11,214 Whitney Navy revolvers. From 
the end of the Civil War until it suspended operations in 1888, 
the Whitney armory was engaged in the manufacture of various 
types of military and sporting arms. See Whitney Armory. 

WHITNEY, James S.— Colonel Ordnance. Superintendent Springfield 
Armory from October 19, 1854 to March 1, 1860. 

WHITNEY, John— Independence, Iowa, 1867. Made some rifles but 
mostly did repair work. Closed his shop in 1880's. Died towards 
end of that decade. 

WHITNEY SAFETY FIREARMS CO.— Florence, Mass., 1891* 

WHITSIDE, R. & J.— Makers of a full curly maple stock, double set 
triggers, flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

WHITTEMORE, Amos— Boston, Mass., about 1775-85. Arms maker 
to Committee of Safety. 

WHITTEMORE, D.— Cambridge, Mass., 1860. 

WHITTIER, O. W.— Enfield, N. H. Designed and made 6-shot per- 
cussion hammerless revolving rifles, Kentucky style stock. 

W. & H. S.— See Shannon, W. & H. 

WHYSONG, Samuel— Pavia, Union Township, Bedford Co., Pa., 1877. 

WICKER & HAGADORN— Ypsilanti, Mich. Double-barrel, side-by- 
side percussion rifles. 

WICKHAM, M. T Philadelphia, Pa., musket maker. Contractor 

of July 19, 1822, for 5,000 Model 1816 muskets to be delivered 
at the rate of 2,000 per year from January 1, 1823. Dec. 6, 
1823, he received a contract for an additional 10,000, deliveries 
at 2,000 a year from July 1, 1824. He also had a navy contract 



American Gun Makers 237 

for muskets of 1826, at $14.00 per stand. Also army contract of 
Jan. 24, 1829. 

Marine T. Wickham had been a U. S. Inspector of Arms, 
1811-15. He is listed in 1829-33 in the Philadelphia City Directory 
at the location of the John Joseph Henry gun factory, at the 
corner of 3rd and Noble Streets. 

WICKHAM & CO.— Military and fancy hardware, 94 High, Phila., Pa. 
See M. T. Wickham. 1819 Directory ad reads:— 
"Importers of Hardware 
Military and Sportsmen's Articles 
Have constantly on hand 
An extreme assortment of . . . 
A good variety of Fowling Pieces, Pistols, Sabres, Swords, 
Dirks, Foils, Locks — and component parts of each . . ." 

WICKHAM, T.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1775-76. Gunsmith to Committee 
of Safety. 

WICKHUN & MATHUES— Unlocated, period of 1810. Fine flintlock 
Kentucky rifles. 

WICKLINE— Gunsmith. New Ironton, Lawrence Co., Ohio. Halfstock 
Kentucky type, percussion rifles. 

WICKLINE, G. L.— Cadmus, O., late 19th century. Percussion half- 
stock Kentucky rifle. 

WIDMER, J. — Newark, N. J. Schuetzen rifle of fine, plain workman- 
ship. Remington Cast Steel barrel marked on top flat "J. WID- 
MER NEWARK, N. J." 

WIGFALL, Samuel — Philadelphia, Pa., musket-lock maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety. Contracted for 200 musket-locks Dec. 5, 1775. 

WIGLE, Peter— York County, Pa., 1777-80. Had worked for the State. 

WILCOCKS, John — Revolutionary War officer and operator of a gun- 
lock factory. 

WILCOX, John— Deep River, N. C, 1776-79. Maker of rifle barrels, 
shot and cannon for the State at his foundry and iron works. 

WILDER, F. — Unlocated. Light weight, single-barrel shotgun. 

WILDER, R. M. — Coldwater, Mich., 3-barrel, swivel-breech, percus- 
sion rifle. 

WILEY— Pennsylvania gunsmith to Committee of Safety, 1775-76. 

WILHELM, Jacob— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

WILKINS, Neil— Gunsmith, Zanesville, Muskigum Co, Ohio, 1804- 
1820. 

WILKINSON— Keesville, N. Y, 1870. Bolt action rifle. 

WILKINSON, J. D.— Plattsburg, N. Y., 1866 and after. 

WILKS, John— Letter cutter and gunsmith. Capitol St, Albany, 
N. Y, in 1815; 119 State St. in 1820-1821; different addresses up 
to 1826. 

WILLARD, A. — Boston, Mass. Underhammer percussion pistol. 

WILLARD, Bartholomew — Burlington, Vt. Percussion period. 

WILLARD CASE & CO.— New Hartford, Conn. Makers of under- 
hammer percussion pistols. 

WILLERDING— Evansville, Ind. 

WILLETS, A. & S.— New York, N. Y. Maple-stocked flintlock fowling 
piece. 

WILLETS — Lock marking of a striped maple, full stock, goose-neck 



238 American Gun Makers 

hammer, flintlock Kentucky rifle. Lock stamped with crown over 
V, so probably British; but see A. & S. Willets. 

WILLIAM, Abraham— Covington, Ky., 1845. 

WILLIAMS— Maquoketa, Iowa. 

WILLIAMS, Abe— Craft Creek near Prosperity, Washington Co., Pa., 
1835 or earlier, to about 1860. Flint and percussion rifles; name 
scribed on brass and inlaid in barrel. Operated water-power shop. 

WILLIAMS, Abe — Owego, N. Y. Percussion period. 

WILLIAMS, Charles— U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1808-14. Inspected 
sabers at plant of Nathan Starr 1812-13. 

WILLIAMS, Edward— Connecticut. Certified he sold to Capt. Hez. 
Huntington and Amasa Palmer, musket makers to Committee 
of Safety, "good duble bridle gunlocks." 

WILLIAMS, Elie— Williamsport, Md. Contractor under Act of July 
5, 1798, for 2,000, Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets, at 
$13.40 per stand. It is believed that he failed on his contract. 
No payments are recorded. 

WILLIAMS, M. D. — Horn ells ville, N. Y. .50 caliber percussion rifle, 
lock by Leman of Lancaster. 

WILLIAMS & REZNER— Mercer, Pa. Percussion Plains rifle, brass- 
mounted, walnut halfstock, G. Goulcher lock. 

WILLIAMSON, David — New York, N. Y. The name appears on a per- 
cussion derringer made under D. Williamson patent of Oct. 2, 
1866, No. 58,525. Probably made by the National Arms Co., of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., or Moore Firearms Co. of Brooklyn (same 
firm), makers of Williamson arms. 

WILLIS, John — Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of Safety. 
In association with Benjamin Town, contracted on Dec. 6, 1775, 
to make 200 "firelocks" at £4, 5 shillings each. Willis was one 
of the petitioners to the Committee of Safety at Philadelphia in 
November, 1775, complaining against the rising cost of materials 
and labor entering into arms making. 

WILLIS, Richard — Lancaster, Pa., gunsmith proscribed as "attained 
of treason" by public proclamation at Lancaster, June 15, 1778. 

WILMOT, Nathaniel N.— St. Paul, Minn., 1863-64. 

WILMOT, N. M. — St. Louis, Mo. Percussion 6 ga. goose gun. 

WILMOT, N. N. — Boston, Mass. Possibly same as Nathaniel N. 
Wilmot, St. Paul, Minn., 1863-4. 

WILSON & EVANS— 513 Clay and 122 Sacramento, San Francisco, 
Calif., 1862-63. 513 Clay, 1864-65. 

WILSON, H. H. & SON— 27 6th St., San Francisco, Calif. 1887. 

WILSON, Philip & Co.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1851. Percussion buffalo 
rifle. 

WILSON, Sam— Fairchild, Conn. Shop on Hoyden Hill Road near 
Black Rock Turnpike. Active about 1835-67. 

WILT, J.— Upper Hydraulic, Dayton, Ohio, 1850-54. 

WIMTELL, J. — Unlocated. Marking on a percussion rifle lock. 

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO.— New Haven, Conn. Organ- 
ized by Oliver F. Winchester in 1866, upon reorganization of the 
New Haven Arms Co., of which Winchester had been one of the 
principal stockholders. 

Mr. Winchester, a shirt manufacturer of New Haven, Conn., 
had come to that city in 1848, and started a shirt factory, Win- 
chester & Davies, at 59 Court St., the next house from his resi- 



American Gun Makers 239 

dence at 57 Court Street. He became interested in arms manu- 
facturing in 1855 when he purchased stock in the Volcanic Re- 
peating Arms Co., at Norwich, Conn., which moved to New 
Haven in February, 1856, failed in 1857; emerged as the New 
Haven Arms Co., and eventually became the Winchester. 

During the World War, the Winchester Company supplied 
the government with 465,980 Model 1917 (Enfield) rifles from 
August 1, 1917, to Nov. 9, 1918, as well as innumerable other 
equipment and munitions. 

WINDSOR MFG. CO.— Windsor, Vt., 1867-68. 

WING, Robert— Sharleston, S. C, 1867. 

WINGER, Richard — Lancaster County, Pa., gunsmith to Committee of 
Safety, 1775-77. 

WINGERT, William— Detroit, Mich. Active from 1845 to 1867. When 
he retired, his shop at 10 Congress Street East, was taken over 
by Fisher & Long. He made 3-barrel rifles, single-barrel per- 
cussion rifles, and under-hammer pistols. 

WINN, C. W. — Unlocated. Full stock percussion rifle. 

WINNER, James— 104 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1813. 

WINNER, NIPPES & CO.— Pennsylvania musket makers. Contractors 
of July 20, 1808, for 9,000 Model 1808 muskets, five years dura- 
tion. Of these 3,900 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. 

WINNIGER, Adams — Gunsmith. Rockey Fork near Lucas, Richland 
Co. Repaired firearms at Beams Mill, 1812. 

WINSHIP, Wynn — Gunsmith. Worked in Stockade, southeast of pub- 
lic square, Mansfield, Richland Co., Ohio, War of 1812. 

WINTABLE, Abraham— 437 North 3rd St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1816. 

WINTAFELD, Abel— Gunsmith. 437 N. Third, Phila., Pa., 1819. 

WINTER, Gustave— Denver, Colo., 1879-80. 

WINTERS, Elisha — Chestertown, Md., musket maker to Committee of 
Safety. Made 40 stands of muskets per month. 

WINTERSTEIN, E.— Trinidad, Colo., 1874-80. 

WITHER, John and Michael — Strasbourg Township, Lancaster Co., 
Pa., before and after 1771-79. 

WITHERS, Michael — Lancaster County, Pa. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety, 1775. Agreed to make muskets and bayonets at 
Philadelphia prices, and to confine himself and his workmen to 
that work. 

WITHERS, William— Gunsmith. 5 Baker's Court, Phila., Pa. 1819. 

WITMAN, Solomon— Lancaster, Pa., 1857. 

W. J. — Unidentified. A plain percussion Kentucky rifle with factory 

lock. 
W. K. — Unidentified. Early Kentucky rifle, flintlock period. 
W. L. — Unidentified. Maker of Kentucky rifle. 

W. N. — Initials of W. North, U. S. Inspector of Arms within years 
1831-1850. 

W. N. & S. — See Winner, Nippes & Co., Nippes, Daniel, and Steinman, 

John. 
WOLF— New York City. No details. 

WOLFE, Luther M. — Willshire, O. Modern muzzle-loading rifles. 
WOLFE, Meredith— Born in McMinn Co., Tenn., Sept. 3, 1833; died in 

Chattanooga, Feb. 8, 1930. Apprenticed under John Selvridge at 



240 American Gun Makers 

Harris Creek, Bradley Co., Tenn., in 1845; later married his 
daughter Elizabeth. U. S. Marshal of Bradley Co.; opened lock 
and gun repair shop at Chattanooga, 1881; made percussion rifles. 
Father of gunsmiths John, James, Frank, and Robert Wolfe. 

WOLFF, C. H.— Pittsburgh, Pa. Member of firms: Whitmore & Wolff; 
Whitmore, Wolff & Co.; Whitmore, Wolff, Duff & Co. 

WOLFF & LANE— Or Wolfe & Lane, Pittsburgh, Pa., percussion 
lock makers. Early period percussion lock mounted on a plain, 
curly maple, fullstock rifle by J. & D. Little. 

WOLFF & MASCHEK— Memphis, Tenn., 1860. 

WOLFF & WHITMORE— Pittsburgh, Pa., gun-lock makers. See Whit- 
more & Wolff, and Whitmore, Wolff & Co. 

WOLFHEIMER, Philip— Lancaster, Pa., before 1783. 

WOLLFINGER, Frank— Mohnton, Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa. 
Made rifle repairs. 

WOMELSDORF— Unidentified. Silver inlaid, flintlock Kentucky rifle. 

WOOD, Amos P. — North Hamden, N. Y. Percussion match and hunt- 
ing rifles. 

WOOD, B. C. — Painted Post, N. Y. Percussion rifles of many types, in- 
cluding over-under, combination rifle-shotguns, and multi-barrel 
rifles. Also made under-hammer pistols. 

WOOD, Daniel— Rochester, N. Y., in 1861. Designed improved tele- 
scope sight with range-finder reticule. 

WOOD, J. B. — Norwich, N. Y. 1866. Over-under percussion rifle- 
shotgun. 

WOOD, J. M. — Unlocated. Marking on halfstock Southern made rifle. 

WOOD, John — Roxbury, Mass., 1775. Arms maker to Committee of 
Safety. 

WOOD, John— Boston, Mass., 1800. 

WOOD, Josiah — Norrington Township, Pa. Musket maker to Com- 
mittee of Safety, 1775-76. 

WOOD, Luke — Sutton, Mass. Flintlock rifles. Model 1808 musket lock- 
plates are known marked "L.WOOD" and a five pointed star with 
a circle in the center, stamped over the name. 

WOOD, Win — Peebles, O. Recent percussion rifles. 

WOOD, W. N.— New York, N. Y. Percussion period. 

WOODBURY, N. & CO.— Woodstock, Vt. Makers of underhammer 
percussion half stock rifle. 

WOODS, James— Lancaster, Pa., about 1810-1820. Fine flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

WOODS, John — New York. Colonial gunsmith, who with Thomas 
Allen was returned to England in December, 1775, by Governor 
William Tryon with the inducement of prepaid passage, 20 
guineas in cash and employment at a government armory. 

WOODS, Robert— Pennsylvania, about 1800. Beautiful flintlock Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

WOODS, T.— Philadelphia, Pa., 1810. 

WORKMAN, J.— Hamburg, Pa. Ornate flintlock Kentucky rifle with 
incised carving, 30 silver inlays. 

WORL, H. — Pennsylvania, early flintlock period. 

WORL, H. — Unlocated. Maker of over-under barels for percussion 
rifles. Rifle lock, stock and furniture by D. Young. 



American Gun Makers 241 

WORLEY, David— East Finley Township, Washington Co., Pa. Per- 
cussion period. 

WORLEY — Wyomissing Creek, Pa. Built two gun shops on the Wyo- 
missing about 1811. (Same as J. Worly above?) Was succeeded by 
John Keim, his superintendent. 

WORLEY, Henry — Son of Worley above. Shop superintendent for 
Benjamin Mohn, a Wyomissing Creek, Pa., gun-maker. Bought 
Mohn's shops on latter's retirement, prior to Civil War, and 
carried on the business until about 1880. 

WORLY, J.— Unlocated. Also Worley. About 1800. Flintlock Kentucky 
rifles of fine workmanship. 

W.P.— Unidentified. (William Pannebecker?) 

WREN, I. G. — Unlocated. Walnut halfstock flintlock rifle with brass 
patchbox, silver eagles, acorns, etc. 

WRIGHT — Southern maker of percussion Kentucky rifles. 

WRIGHT, A. — Newburgh, N. Y. Heavy percussion target rifle. 

WRIGHT, Alexander— Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1835-46. Of the firm 
Palmateer & Wright. 

WRIGHT, A. C. — Fitchburg, Mass., percussion period. 

WRIGHT ARMS CO. — Lawrence, Mass., about 1876. Makers of .22 cal. 
"All Right" palm revolver. 

WRIGHT, J.— Unlocated. About 1820. 

WRIGHT, Loomis S. — Waddington, N. Y. Percussion period. 

WRISLEY, Loren H.— Norway, Me., 1834, and later. 

WUERKE, F.— Alton, 111. 1869-75. 

WUERKER, Frederick — Alton, 111. Emigrated from Germany with 
brother Christian, settled at Alton in 1849. Gunsmiths and lock- 
smiths, active in 1875. Percussion rifle, curly maple halfstock. 

WUNDHAMMER, Ludwig — Los Angeles, Cal. Modern rifle maker. 

WURFFLEIN, Andrew— Philadelphia, Pa., about 1835 and later. 
Maker of percussion derringers and double-barrelled shotguns. 

WURFFLEIN, John — Unlocated. Percussion derringers and brass- 
mounted needle guns. 

WURFFLEIN, J. & PESSOTA— Philadelphia, Pa. 

WURFFLEIN, William— Philadelphia, Pa., 1874-1910. Son of Andrew 
Wurfflein. Maker of breech-loading sporting and target rifles and 
pistols. 

W. W. — Unidentified. Light flintlock Kentucky rifle, slim-wrist maple 
fullstock with a high comb, brass patchbox. 

W. M. M. — Unidentified. Percussion under-hammer pistols. 

WYLER, J. L. — Unlocated. Revolving side-hammer percussion rifle. 



YACHUM, D.— Pennsylvania. 

YAGER, Charles — East Main Street, Elizabeth Borough, Lancaster, 
Pa., 1869-70. 

YAHNER, Henry F.— R.F.D. lc, Loretto, Cambria Co., Pa. Born Oct. 
15, 1860 at Boniface Farm near Loretto. Learned blacksmithing 
from his father; set up gunsmith shop in 1915. Made percussion 
rifles, shotguns, 3 over-under rifle-shotguns, stamped "H. F, 



242 American Gun Makers 

YAHNER LORETTO." Bored and rifled barrels, made his own 
locks; stocked in black walnut with plain inlays of brass, German 
silver, silver, or dollars. Last gun made about 1945, but still 
makes repairs and sporting conversions. 

YATES, A. — And "1776" engraved on octagon, very heavy barrel 
rifle. 

YENAN, T. M. — Unlocated. Percussion sporting rifle. 

YERIAN, Frederick — Gunsmith. Sharon Township, Noble Co., Ohio. 
Early period of Ohio. 

YERIAN, John— Sharon, Ohio, 1879-82. 

YERIAN, L. M.— Cumberland, Ohio, 1883-1902. 

YESLET, H.— Or Yesley. Unidentified. About 1840. 

YOCOM, Nicholas — Employed as musket barrel maker by Joseph 
Henry in 1810. 

YOCUM — Unlocated. Handsome, heavy flintlock Kentucky rifle, silver 
and brass inlaid. 

YOKUM, Nicholas & Son — Furnished iron for John Keim shops on 
Wyomissing Creek, Berks Co., Pa.; succeeded Keim in business; 
later sold out to Franklin K. Schnader. See Keim, John. 

YOMENS— Charlotte, N. C. See Youmans. 

YOST, Casper — Lancaster County, Pa., active before and after 1773- 
78. Gunsmith to Committee of Safety in 1777. 

YOST, John — Georgetown, Md. Revolutionary War period. 

YOST, John— Montgomery County, Md., before and after 1771-83. 
Musket and rifle contractor to Committee of Safety in 1775. 

YOUMANS — Lancaster, Pa. Revolutionary War period. Members of 
this family migrated to Charlotte, N. C. 

YOUNG, Charles A.— Maker of 2-shot shotguns, 1901-02. 

YOUNG, D. — Middleburg, Snyder Co., Pa. Early percussion period. 

YOUNG, Henry— Easton, Pa., before and after 1770-80. Located at the 
intersection of Minnisink Highway, main mountain thoroughfare, 
and Old Sullivan Road. 

YOUNG, J. — Michigan City, Mich. Halfstock percussion target rifle. 
Possibly same as James Young, Detroit. 

YOUNG, Jacob— Unlocated, period of 1820. Flintlock Kentucky rifles. 

YOUNG, James — Detroit, Mich., percussion period. 

YOUNG, John — Easton, Northampton County, Pa. Before and after 
1775-88. Brother of Henry Young. In association with Johnston 
Smith, Pennsylvania rifle and musket maker contracted in Feb- 
ruary, 1776, to furnish arms to the State of Virginia. With Adam 
Foulke in April, 1776, contracted to supply the Council of Safety 
(of Pennsylvania) with 130 rifles. John Young was an expert en- 
graver and at times had worked for his brother Henry. 

YOUNG, John— Maryland. Armorer to the Colony 1728-40. 

YOUNG, Joseph— Harpers Run, W. Va. 

YOUNG, Michael — Gunsmith. Government Stockade, Mansfield, Rich- 
land Co., Ohio. War of 1812. 

YOUNG, Nathaniel— Gunsmith. Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1803. 

YOUNG, P. — Pennsylvania. Revolutionary War period. 

YOUNG REPEATING ARMS CO.— Columbus, Ohio. Hammerless shot- 
guns. 



American Gun Makers 243 

YOUNG & SMITH — Unlocated. 6-shot percussion pepperbox. 

YOUS, Joshua — Unidentified. Percussion Kentucky rifle. 

YOUST, John — Frederick Co., Md. Contracted to make muskets for 

Council of Safety, in March, 1776. 
YOUTZE— Gunsmith, Wilmot, Stark Co., Ohio. 



ZARTMAN, Joshua— 77 North 5th St., Newark, Ohio, active 1852-1886. 

ZETTLER BROS.— New York, N. Y. 1868-1918. 134 Bowery in 1868; 
224 Bowery to 1886; then 159 W. 23rd St. Percussion and breech- 
loading target rifles. 

ZIEGLER, H. D.— Portsmouth, Ohio, 1858-65. Listed as H. D. Ziegler & 
Co. in 1866. 

ZIMMERMAN— Pennsylvania. 

ZICHANG, A. O. — Syracuse, N. Y. Famed for his accurate rifles. Born 
in Saxony, Germany in 1846, of a long line of professional gun- 
smiths. Came to U. S. in 1876 and shortly after found employ- 
ment with Sharps Rifle Co., at Bridgeport, Conn., which probably 
influenced his frequent choice of Sharps-Borchard actions for 
his best and most accurate rifles. From Bridgeport he went to 
Syracuse where he became associated with Nichols and Lefever, 
and in 1879 opened his own shop, doing general gunsmithing and 
specializing in fine target rifles. In 1919 he turned the manage- 
ment of the shop over to his son, William O. Zichang, but con- 
tinued to use the shop and do some work until his death in 1925. 

ZICHANG, William O. — Syracuse gunsmith, son and successor of 
A. O. Zichang. 

ZOLLINGER, A.— Lagrange Co., Ind. 

ZOOK, D. — Unidentified. Maker of over-under, swivel breech, percus- 
sion rifle. 

ZORGER, C— Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifles, about 1800. 

ZORGER, Frederick — York, Pa. Revolutionary War period. Was on 
guard duty March 17, 1778. Name on flintlock pistol. Listed as 
"Tenant Gun Smith." 

ZORGER, G.— York, Pa. Revolutionary War period. Name on flintlock 
rifle. 

ZUCCARELLE, N. B.— Pulaski, Tenn. Arms maker. 

ZUENDORFF, John— 106 East Houston St., New York, N. Y., 1850-60. 

ZUZER, J. G.— Arnheim, Pa., 1850. 






BHBUOGEAFinr 

ALBRIGHT— Greensboro (N. C), 1808-1904. 

ANTIQUES — Magazine articles. 

ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND. 

AMERICA'S MUNITIONS— Report of Assistant Secretary of War. 

BAYLES — History of Providence, R. I. 1891. 

BEAN— History of Montgomery County, Pa., 1884. 

BINGHAM— Early Buffalo Gunsmiths. 

BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW— Worcester, Mass., 1899. 

BUCK— History of Montgomery County, Pa. 1859. 

CARPENTER— History of Amherst, Mass., 1896. 

CAULKINS— History of Norwich, Conn. 1866. 

CHAPIN— Springfield; Its Inhabitants. 1893. 

CONDIT— History of Easton, Pa., 1739-1885. 

CONE — A Concise History of Hamilton, Ohio. 

CONGRESSIONAL RECORDS— American State Papers; U. S. Serials. 

CONNECTICUT— Archives. 

CONNECTICUT— Centennial Review. 

CONNECTICUT— Historical & Industrial. 1883. 

DANDRIDGE— Historic Shepherdstown. 1910. 

DESILVER— Philadelphia Directory and Stranger's Guide. 

DEYRUP— Arms Makers of the Connecticut Valley. 

DILLIN— The Kentucky Rifle. 

DIRECTORIES AND TAX LISTS— Baltimore, Lancaster, Philadel- 
phia, San Francisco and other cities. 

DULANEY— Early Baltimore Gunsmiths. 

ELLIS — History of Lancaster. 1883. 

EVERTS— History of Connecticut Valley, Mass. 1879. 

FULLER — Springfield Shoulder Arms. 

The Breech-loader in the Service. 



FULLER and STEUART— Firearms of the Confederacy. 

GARDNER — Arms Fabricators, Ancient and Modern. 

GLUCKMAN— United States Martial Pistols & Revolvers. 

GLUCKMAN— United States Muskets, Rifles & Carbines. 

GREAT INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES— 1871. 

GREEN— Springfield. 1636-1886. 

GREENER — The Gun and Its Development. 

HELLER— Historic Easton. 1911. 

HICKS— U. S. Ordnance, Vols. I and II. 

HURD— History of Worcester County. 

JOURNALS OF CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. 

KINGMAN — History of North Bridgewater. 

MATHEWS— History of Lehigh County, Pa. 1884. 

MILWAUKEE MUSEUM— Bulletin of the Nunnemacher Collection. 

MUZZLE BLASTS. 

NEW HAVEN RECORDS. 

NORTH— Simeon North First Official Pistol Maker of the U. S. 

PENNSYLVANIA— Archives. 

POLLARD— History of Firearms. 

RICE— Worcester. 1898. 

RIDD— History of Valley Forge. 

SATTERLEE — A Catalogue of Firearms. Articles in Hobbies. 

SAWYER— Our Rifles. 

Firearms in American History. 
Our Pistols & Revolvers. 
U. S. Single Shot Pistols. 

STEBBINS— Eighty Years of Progress. 1866. 
One Hundred Years of Progress. 

STOCKHARD— History of Guilford County, N. C. 1902. 

THOMPSON— History of Chester County, Pa. 1898. 

TICONDEROGA— Museum Bulletin, July 1941. 

VIRGINIA— Calendar of State Papers. 

WILLIAM & MARY QUARTERLY— 1818-19. 

WORCESTER ILLUSTRATED BUSINESS GUIDE. 



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