Skip to main content

Full text of "Harper's encyclopædia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 : based upon the plan of Benson John Lossing"





^ ^^^,^^4(^ 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Pittsburgh Library System 




From 458 a.d. to 1906 



'' ' < 





WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L.;*iL.D*.I*** 






JOHN FRYER, A.M., LL.D. R. J. H. GOTTHEIL, Ph.D^.'*, *:•.*.• 






WOODROW WILSON, Ph.d,, LL.p;::' 




VOL. 11 



^-^ ,0 


Copyright, 1905, by Harper & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers- 

^U rii^hts restrved. 



President Grover Cleveland Frontispiece 

The Capitol, Washington Facing page 54 

The Fight between THE Merrimac AND Monitor . " " 176 
The Struggle on Concord Bridge ....." " 296 
The Engagement between the Constitution and 

Guerriere " " 344 

The Spanish-American War — President McKin- 

LEY Signing the Ultimatum " " 448 


Cuba o Facing page 438 






Cabell, James Laurence, sanitarian; 
born in Nelson county, Va., Aug. 26, 
1813; graduated at the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1833; studied medicine in Balti- 
more, Pliiladelpliia, and Paris; and became 
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the 
University of Virginia. He was in cliarge 
of the Confederate military hospitals dur- 
ing the Civil War. When yellow fever 
broke out at Memphis he was appointed 
chairman of the National Sanitary Con- 
ference, and devised the plan which 
checked the spread of the epidemic. From 
1879 till the time of his death, which oc- 
curred in Overton, Va., Aug. 13, 1889, 
he was president of the National Board of 

Cabell, Samuel Jordan, military offi- 
cer ; born in Amherst county, Va., Dec. 
15, 175G; was educated at William and 
Mary College. In 1775 he recruited a com- 
pany of riflemen for the American service, 
which is said to have opened the action 
at Saratoga. During the siege of Charles- 
ton he was captured, and not being able 
to procure an exchange remained inactive 
till peace was concluded. He was a Repre- 
sentative in Congress in 178.1-1 803, and 
in 1788, as a member of the constitutional 
convention, voted againpt the adoption 

of the proposed national Constitution. 
He died Aug. 4, 1818. 

Cabell, William, statesman ; born in 
Licking Hole, Va., March 13, 1730; was a 
commissioner to arrange military claims 
in 1758. During the trouble between the 
American colonies and Great Britain, 
prior to the Revolutionary War, he was 
a delegate to all the conventions for secur- 
ing independence ; was also a member of 
the committee which drew up the famous 
" declaration of rights." On Jan. 7, 1789, 
he was one of the Presidential electors 
who voted for Washington as the first 
President of the United States. He died 
in Union Hill, March 23, 1798. 

Cabet, Etienne, communist; born in 
Dijon, France, in 1788; studied law, but 
applied himself to literature and politics. 
In 1840 he attracted much attention 
through his social romance. Voyage en 
Icarie, in which he described a communis- 
tic Utopia. In 1848 he sent an Icarian 
colony to the Red River in Texas, but the 
colony did not thrive; and in 1850, as the 
leader of another colony, he settled in 
Nauvoo, 111., whence the Mormons had 
been expelled. This colony likewise failed 
to prosper, and was abandoned in 1857. 
He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 9, 1856. 


Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nunez. Span- 1528 he accompanied the expeditiOTi of "NaT- 
ish official and author: born in Jerez de vaez to Florida in the capacity of comp- 
la Frontera, Spain, probably in 1490. In troller and royal treasurer, and he and 
n. — \ 1 


three others were all of a party who es- 
caped from shipwreck and the natives. 
These four lived for several years among 
the Indians, and, escaping, made their 
way to the Spanish settlements in north- 
ern Mexico in the spring of 1536. In the 
following ■''ear Cabeza de Vaca returned to 
Spain; in 1540 was appointed governor of 
Paraguay; in 1543 explored the upper 
Paraguay River, and in 1544 was deposed 
by the colonists and afterwards impris- 
oned and sent to Spain. After trial he 
was sentenced to be banished to Africa, 
but was subsequently recalled, granted 
many favors by the King, and was made 
judge of the Supreme Court of Seville. 
He published two works, one relating to 
his experiences in Florida, and the other 
to his administration in Paraguay, both 
of which are of considerable historical 
value, and have been published in various 
languages. He died in Seville about 1560. 
The Journey Throiifjh Neto Mexico. — 
The following is his narrative of his jour- 
ney through New Mexico in 1535-36, from 
his Relation: 

We told these people that we desired to 
go where the sun sets ; and they said in- 
habitants in that direction were remote. 
We commanded them to send and make 
known our coming; but they strove to ex- 
cuse themselves the best they could, the 
jieople being their enemies, and they did 
not wish to go to them. Not daring to 
disobey, however, they sent two women, 
one of their own, the other a captive from 
that people; for the women can negotiate 
even though there be war. We followed 
them, and stopped at a place where we 
agreed to wait. They tarried five days; 
and the Indians said they could not have 
found anybody. 

We told them to conduct us towards the 
north ; and they answered, as before, that 
except afar off there were no people in 
that direction, and nothing to eat, nor 
could water be found. Notwithstanding 
all this, we persisted, and said we desired 
to go in that course. They still tried to 
excuse themselves in the best manner pos- 
sible. At this we became offended, and 
one night I went out to sleep in the woods 
apart from them ; but directly they came 
to where I was, and remained all night 
without sleep, talking to me in great fear, 

telling me how terrified they were, be- 
seeching us to be no longer angry, and 
said that they would lead us in the direc- 
tion it was our wish to go, though they 
knew they should die on the way. 

Whilst we still feigned to be dis- 
pleased lest their fright should leave them, 
a remarkable circumstance happened, 
which was that on the same d?y many 
of the Indians became ill, and the next 
day eight men died. Abroad in the coun- 
try, wheresoever this became known, there 
was such di'ead that it seemed as if the 
inhabitants would die of fear at sight 
of us. They besought us not to remain 
angered, nor require that more of them 
should die. They believed we caused their 
death by only willing it, when in truth 
it gave us so much pain that it could not 
be greater; for, beyond their loss, we 
feared they might all die, or abandon us 
of fright, and that other people thence- 
forward would do the same, seeing what 
had come to these. We prayed to God, our 
Lord, to relievo them; and from that time 
the sick began to get better. 

We witnessed one thing with great ad- 
miration, that the parents, brothers, and 
wives of those who died had great sympa- 
thy for them in their suffering; but, when 
dead, they showed no feeling, neither did 
they weep nor speak among themselves, 
make any signs, nor dare approach the 
bodies until we commanded these to be 
taken to burial. 

While we were among these people, 
which was more than fifteen days, we 
saw no one speak to another, nor did we 
see an infant smile: the only one that 
cried they took off to a distance, and with 
the sharp teeth of a rat they scratched 
it from the shoulders down nearly to 
the end of the legs. Seeing this cruelty, 
and offended at it, I asked why they did 
so: they said for chastisement, because 
the child had wept in my presence. These 
terrors they imparted to all those who 
had lately come to know us, that they 
might give us whatever they had ; for they 
knew we kept nothing, and would relin- 
quish all to them. This people were the 
most obedient we had found in all the 
land, the best conditioned, and, in general, 

The sick having recovered, and three 
days having passed since we came to the 


place, the women whom we sent away re- 
turned, and said they had found very 
few people; nearly all had gone for cat- 
tle, being then in the season. We ordered 
the convalescent to remain and the well 
to go with us, and that at the end of 
two days' journey those women should 
go with two of our number to fetch up 
the pe6ple, and bring them on the road to 
receive us. Consequently, the next morn- 
ing the most robust started with us. 

At the end of three days' travel we 
stopped, and the next day Alonzo del Cas- 
tillo set out with Estevanico, the negro, 
taking the two women as guides. She 
that was the captive led them to the river 
which ran between some ridges, where was 
a town at which her father lived; and 
these habitations were the first seen, hav- 
ing the appearance and structure of 

Here Castillo and Estevanico arrived, 
and, after talking with the Indians, Cas- 
tillo returned at the end of three days to 
the spot where he had left us, and brought 
five or six of the people. He told us he 
had found fixed dwellings of civilization, 
that the inhabitants lived on beans and 
pumpkins, and that he had seen maize. 
This news the most of anything delighted 
us, and for it we gave infinite thanks to 
our Lord. Castillo told us the negro was 
coming with all the population to wait 
for us in the road not far off. Accordingly 
we left, and, having travelled a league 
and a half, we met the negro and the 
people coming to receive us. They gave us 
beans, many pumpkins, calabashes, blank- 
ets of cowhide, and other things. As this 
people and those who came with us 
were enemies, and spoke not each other's 
language, we discharged the latter, giv- 
ing them what we received, and we de- 
parted with the others. Six leagues from 
there, as the night set in we arrived at 
the houses, where great festivities were 
made over us. We remained one day, and 
the next set out with these Indians. They 
took us to the settled habitations of 
others, who lived upon the same food. 

From that place onward was another 
usage. Those who knew of our approach 
did not come out to receive us on the 
road as the others had done, but we found 
them in their houses, and they had made 
others for our reception. They were all 

seated with their faces turned to the 
wall, their heads down, the hair brought 
before their eyes, and their property placed 
in a heap in the middle of the house. From 
this place they began to give us many 
blankets of skin; and they had nothing 
they did not bestow. They have the finest 
persons of any people we saw, of the 
greatest activity and strength, who best 
understood us and intelligently answered 
our inquiries. We called them the Cow 
nation, because most of the cattle killed 
are slaughtered in their neighborhood, and 
along up that river for over 50 leagues 
they destroy great numbers. 

They go entirely naked after the man- 
ner of the first we saw. The women are 
dressed with deer skin, and some few men, 
mostly the aged, who are incapable of 
fighting. The country is very populous. 
We asked how it was they did not plant 
maize. They answered it was that they 
might not lose what they should put in 
the ground; that the rains had failed for 
two years in succession, and the seasons 
were so dry the seed had everywhere been 
taken by the moles, and they could not 
venture to plant again until after water 
had fallen copiously. They begged us 
to tell the sky to rain, and to pray for 
it, and we said we would do so. We also 
desired to know whence they got the maize, 
and they told us from where the sun 
goes down ; there it grew throughout the 
region, and the nearest was by that path. 
Since they did not wish to go thither, we 
asked by what direction we might best 
proceed, and bade them inform us con- 
cerning the way; they said the path was 
along up by that river towards the north, 
for otherwise in a journey of seventeen 
days we should find nothing to eat, except 
a fruit they call chacan, that is ground 
between stones, and even then it could 
with difficulty be eaten for its dryness 
and pungency — which was true. They 
showed it to us there, and we could 
not eat it. They informed us also 
that, whilst we travelled by the river 
\ipward, we should all the way pass 
through a people that were their ene- 
mies, who spoke their tongue, and, though 
they had nothing to give us to eat, they 
v/ould receive us with the best good-will, 
and present us with mantles of cotton, 
hides, and other articles of their wealth. 


Still it appeared to them we ought by of it, until reaching permanent habita- 

uo means to take that course. tions, where was abundance of maize 

Doubting what it would be best to do, brought together. They gave us a large 

and which way we should choose for quantity in grain and flour, pumpkins, 

suitableness and support, we remained two beans, and shawls of cotton. With all 

days with these Indians, who gave us beans these we loaded our guides, who went back 

and pumpkins for our subsistence. Their the happiest creatures on earth. We gave 

method of cooking is so new that for thanks to God, our Lord, for having 

its strangeness I desire to speak of it; brought us where we had found so much 

thus it may be seen and remarked how food. 

curious and diversified are the contriv- Some houses are of earth, the rest all 
ances and ingenuity of the human family, of cane mats. From this point we march- 
Not having discovered the use of pipkins, ed through more than a hundred leagues 
to boil what they would eat, they fill of country, and continually found settled 
the half of a large calabash with water, domiciles, with plenty of maize and beans, 
and throw on the fire many stones of such The people gave us many deer and cotton 
as are most convenient and readily take shawls better than those of New Spain, 
the heat. When hot, they are taken up many beads and certain corals found on 
with tongs of sticks and dropped into the South sea, and fine turquoises that 
the calabash until the water in it boils come from the North. Indeed, they gave 
from the fervor of the stones. Then us everything they had. To me they gave 
whatever is to be cooked is put in, and five emeralds made into arrow-heads, 
until it is done they continue taking out which they use at their singing and dan- 
cooled stones and throwing in hot ones. cing. They appeared to be very precious. 
Thus they boil their food. I asked whence they got these; and they 

Two days being spent while we tarried, said the stones were brought from some 

we resolved to go in search of the maize, lofty mountains that stand towards the 

We did not wish to follow the path lead- north, where were populous towns and 

ing to where the cattle are, because it very large houses, and that they were 

is towards the north, and for us very purchased with plumes and the feathers 

circuitous, since we ever held it certain of parrots. 

that going towards the sunset we must Among this people the women are treat- 
find what we desired. ed with more decorum than in any part 

Thus we took our way, and traversed of the Indias we had visited. They wear 

all the country until coming out at the a shirt of cotton that falls as low as the 

South sea. Nor was the dread we had knee, and over it half sleeves with skirts 

of the sharp hunger through which we reaching to the ground, made of dressed 

should have to pass (as in verity we did, deer skin. It opens in front and is brought 

throughout the seventeen days' journey of close with straps of leather. They soap 

which the natives spoke) sufficient to hin- this with a certain root that cleanses 

der us. During all that time, in ascend- well, by which they are enabled to keep 

ing by the river, they gave us many cov- it becomingly. Shoes are worn. The 

erings of cow-hide; but we did not eat of people all came to us that we should 

the fruit. Our sustenance each day was touch and bless them, they being very 

about a handful of deer-suet, which we urgent, which we could accomplish only 

had a long time been used to saving for with great labor, for sick and well all 

such trials. Thus we passed the entire wished to go with a benediction, 

journey of seventeen days, and at the close These Indians ever accompanied us un- 

we crossed the river and travelled other til they delivered us to others; and all 

seventeen days. held full faith in our coming from heaven. 

As the sun went down, upon some plains While travelling, we went without food 
that lie between chains of very creat moun- all day until night, and we ate so little 
tains, we found a people who for the as to astonish them. We never felt ex- 
third part of the year eat nothing but the haustion, neither were we in fact at all 
powder of straw, and, that being the sea- weary, so inured were we to hardship, 
son when we passed, we also had to eat We possessed great influence and author- 



ity: to preserve both, we seldom talked 
with them. The negro was in constant 
conversation; he informed himself about 
the ways we wished to take, of the towns 
there were, and the matters we desired 
to know. 

We passed through many and dissimi- 
lar tongues. Our Lord granted us favor 
with the people who spoke them, for they 
always understood us, and we them. We 
questioned them, and received their an- 
swers by signs, just as if they spoke our 
language and we theirs; for, although we 
knew six languages, we could not every- 
where avail ourselves of them, there be- 
ing a thousand differences. 

Throughout all these countries the peo- 
ple who were at war immediately made 
friends, that they might come to meet us, 
and bring what they possessed. In this 
way we left all the land at peace, and we 
taught all the inhabitants by signs, which 
they understood, that in heaven was a 
Man we called God, who had created the 
sky and the earth; him we worshipped 
and had for our master; that we did what 
he commanded and from his hand came 
all good; and would they do as we did, 
all would be well with them. So ready of 
apprehension we found them that, could 
we have had the use of language by which 
to make ourselves perfectly understood, 
we should have left them all Christians. 
Thus much we gave them to understand 
the best we could. And afterward, 
when the sim rose, they opened their 
hands together with loud shouting tow- 
ards the heavens, and then drew them 
down all over their bodies. They did 
the same again when the sun went 
down. They are a people of good condi- 
tion and substance, capable in any pur- 

In the town where the emeralds were 
presented to us the people gave Dorantes 
over six hundred open hearts of deer. 
They ever keep a good supply of them for 
food, and we called the place Pueblo de 
los Corazones. It is the entrance into 
many provinces on the South sea. They 
who go to look for them, and do not en- 
ter there, will be lost. On the coast is 
no maize: the inhabitants eat the pow- 
der of rush and of straw, and fish that is 
caught in the sea from rafts, not having 
canoes. With grass and straw the women 

cover their nudity. They are a timid and 
dejected people. 

We think that near the coast by way 
of those towns through which we came are 
more than a thousand leagues of inhabited 
country, plentiful of subsistence. Three 
times the year it is planted with maize 
and beans. Deer are of three kinds; one 
the size of the young steer of Spain. 
There are innumerable houses, such as are 
called bahios. They have poison from a 
certain tree the size of the apple. For ef- 
fect no more is necessary than to pluck 
the fruit and moisten the arrow with it, 
or, if there be no fruit, to break a twig 
and with the milk do the like. The tree 
is abundant and so deadly that, if the 
leaves be bruised and steeped in some 
neighboring water, the deer and other an- 
imals drinking it soon burst. 

We were in this town three days. A 
day's journey farther was another town, 
at which the rain fell heavily while we 
were there, and the river became so swol- 
len we could not cross it, which detained 
us fifteen days. In this time Castillo 
saw the buckle of a sword-belt on the neck 
of an Indian and stitched to it the nail 
of a horseshoe. He took them, and we 
asked the native what they were: he an- 
sM'ered that they came from heaven. We 
questioned him further, as to who had 
brought them thence: they all responded 
that certain men who wore beards like 
us had come from heaven and arrived at 
that river, bringing horses, lances, and 
swords, and that they had lanced two Ind- 
ians. In a manner of the utmos'. indif- 
ference Ave could feign, we asked them 
what had become of those men. They an- 
swered us that they had gone to sea, put- 
ting their lances beneath the water, and 
going themselves also under the water; 
afterwards that they were seen on the 
surface going towards the sunset. For 
this we gave many thanks to God our 
Lord. We had before despaired of ever 
hearing more of Christians. Even yet we 
were left in great doubt and anxiety, 
ihinkinQ' those people ■nvre merely persons 
wlio had come by sea on disooveriea. How- 
ever, as we had now such exact infarma- 
lion. We made greater speed, and, as we 
advanced on our way, the news of the 
Christians continually grew. We told the 
natives that we were going in search of 


that people, to order them not to kill nor 
make slaves of them, nor take them from 
their lands, nor do other injustice. Of 
this the Indians were very glad. 

We passed through many territories 
and found them all vacant: their inhab- 
itants wandered fleeing among the moun- 
tains, without daring to have houses or 
till the earth for fear of Christians. The 
sight was one of infinite pain to us, a 
land very fertile and beautiful, abounding 
in springs and streams, the hamlets de- 
serted and burned, the people thin and 
weak, all fleeing or in concealment. As 
they did not plant, they appeased their 
keen hunger by eating roots and the bark 
of trees. We bore a share in the famine 
along the whole way; for poorly could 
these unfortunates provide for us, them- 
selves being so reduced they looked as 
though they would willingly die. They 
brought shawls of those they had con- 
cealed because of the Christians, present- 
ing them to us; and they related how the 
Christians at other times had come 
through the land, destroying and burning 
the towns, carrying away half the men, and 
all the women and the boys, while those 
•who had been able to escape were wander- 
ing about fugitives. We found them so 
alarmed they dared not remain any^vhere. 
They would not nor could they till the 
earth, but preferred to die rather than 
live in dread of such cruel usage as they 
received. Although these showed them- 
selves greatly delighted with us, we feared 
that on our arrival among those who held 
the frontier, and fought against the Chris- 
tians, they would treat us badly, and re- 
venge upon us the conduct of their ene- 
mies ; but, when God our Lord was pleased 
to bring us there, they began to dread and 
respect us as the others had done, and 
even somewhat more, at which we no lit- 
tle wondered. Thence it may at once be 
seen that, to bring all these people to be 
Christians, and to the obedience of the 
Imperial Majesty, they must be won by 
kindness, which is a way certain, and no 
other is. 

They took us to a town on the edge of 
a range of mountains, to which the ascent 
is over difficult crags. We found many 
people there collected out of fear of the 
Christians. They received us well, and 
presented us all they had. They gave us 

more than two thousand back - loads of 
maize, which we gave to the distressed 
and hungered beings who guided us to 
that place. The next day we despatched 
four messengers through the country, as 
we were accustomed to do, that they 
should call together all the rest of the 
Indians at a town distant three days' 
march. We set out the day after with all 
the people. The tracks of the Christians 
and marks where they slept were contin- 
ually seen. At mid-day we met our mes- 
sengers, who told us they had found no 
Indians, that they were roving and hid- 
ing in the forests, fleeing that the Chris- 
tians might not kill nor make them 
slaves ; the night before they had observed 
the Christians from behind trees, and dis- 
covered what they were about, carrying 
away many people in chains. 

Those who came with us were alarmed 
at this intelligence; some returned to 
spread the news over the land that the 
Christians were coming; and many more 
would have followed, had we not forbid- 
den it and told them to cast aside their 
fear, when they reassured themselves 
and were well content. At the time we 
had Indians with us belonging 100 
leagues behind, and we were in no condi- 
tion to discharge them, that they might 
return to their homes. To encourage 
them, we stayed there that night; the day 
after we marched and slejjt on the road. 
The following day those whom we had 
sent forward as messengers guided us to 
the place where they had seen Christians. 
We arrived in the afternoon, and saw at 
once that they told the truth. We per- 
ceived that the persons were mounted, by 
the stakes to which the horses had been 

From this spot, called the river Petu- 
tan, to the river to which Diego de Guz- 
man came, we heard of Christians, may 
be as many as 80 leagues; thence to 
the town where the rains overtook us, 
12 leagues, and that is 12 leagues from 
the South sea. Throughout this region, 
wheresoever the mountains extend, we 
saw clear traces of gold and lead, iron, 
copper, and other metals. Where the set- 
tled habitations are, the climate is hot; 
even in January the weather is very 
warm. Thence toward the meridian, the 
country unoccupied to the North sea is 


unhappy and sterile. There we underwent 
great and incredible hunger. Those who 
inhabit and wander over it are a race of 
evil inclination and most cruel customs. 
The people of the fixed residences and 
those beyond regard silver and gold with 
indifference, nor can they conceive of any 
use for them. 

When we saw sure signs of Christians, 
and heard how near we were to them, we 
gave thanks to God our Lord for having 
chosen to bring us out of a captivity so 
melancholy and wretched. The delight we 
felt let each one conjecture, when he shall 
remember the length of time we were in 
that country, the suffering and perils we 
underwent. That night I entreated my 
companions that one of them should go 
back three days' journey after the Chris- 
tians who were moving about over the 
country, where we had given assurance 
of protection. Neither of them received 
this proposal well, excusing themselves 
because of weariness and exhaustion ; and 
although either might have done better 
than I, being more youthful and athletic, 
yet seeing their unwillingness, the next 
morning I took the negro with eleven Ind- 
ians, and, following the Christians by 
their trail, I travelled 10 leagues, passing 
three villages, at which they had slept. 

The day after I overtook four of them 
on horseback, who were astonished at the 
sight of me, so strangely habited as I was, 
and in company with Indians. They 
stood staring at me a length of time, so 
confounded that they neither hailed me 
nor drew near to make an inquiry. I 
bade them take me to their chief: accord- 
ingly we went together half a league to 
the place where was Diego de Alcaraz, 
their captain. 

After we had conversed, he stated to me 
that he was completely undone; he had 
not been able in a long time to take any 
Indians; he knew not which way to turn, 
and his men had well begun to experience 
hunger and fatigue. I told him of Cas- 
tillo and Dorantes, who were behind, 10 
leagues off, with a multitude that con- 
ducted us. He thereupon sent three 
cavalry to them, with fifty of the Indians 
who accompanied him. The negro return- 
ed to guide them, while I remained. I 
asked the Christians to give me a certifi- 
cate of the year, month, and day I arrived 

there, and of the manner of my coming, 
which they accordingly did. From this 
river to the town of the Christians, named 
San Miguel, within the government of the 
province called New Galicia, are 30 leagues. 

Five days having elapsed, Andres Do- 
rantes and Alonzo del Castillo arrived 
with those who had been sent after them. 
They brought more than six hundred per- 
sons of that community, whom the Chris- 
tians had driven into the forests, and who 
had wandered in concealment over the 
land. Those who accompanied us so far 
had drawn them out, and given them to 
the Christians, who thereupon dismissed 
all the others they had brought with 
them. Upon their coming to where I was, 
Alcaraz begged that we would summon 
the people of the towns on the margin 
of the river, who straggled about under 
cover of the woods, and order them to 
fetch us something to eat. This last 
was unnecessary, the Indians being ever 
diligent to bring us all they could. Di- 
rectly we sent our messengers to call 
them, when there came six hundred souls, 
bringing us all the maize in their pos- 
session. They fetched it in certain pots, 
closed with clay, which they had concealed 
in the earth. They brought us whatever 
else they had; but we, wishing only to 
have the provision, gave the rest to the 
Christians, that they might divide among 
themselves. After this we had many high 
words with them; for they wished to 
make slaves of the Indians we brought. 

In consequence of the dispute, we left 
at our departure many bows of Turkish 
shape we had along with us and many 
pouches. The five arrows with the points 
of emerald were forgotten among others, 
and we lost them. We gave the Chris- 
tians a store of robes of cowhide and oth- 
er things we brought. We found it diffi- 
cult to induce the Indians to return to 
their dwellings, to feel no apprehension 
and plant maize. They were willing to 
do nothing until they had gone with us 
and delivered us into the hands of other 
Indians, as had been the custom; for, if 
they returned without doing so, they were 
afraid they should die, and, going with us, 
they feared neither Christians nor lances. 
Our countrymen became jealous at this, 
and caused their interpreter to tell the 
Indians that we were of them, and for a 


long time we had been lost; that they 
were the lords of the land who must be 
obeyed and served, while we were persons 
of mean condition and small force. The 
Indians cared little or nothing for what 
was told them; and conversing among 
themselves said the Christians lied: that 
we had come whence the sun rises, and 
they whence it goes down; we healed the 
sick, they killed the sound ; that we had 
come naked and barefooted, while they had 
arrived in clothing and on horses with 
lances; that we were not covetous of any- 
thing, but all that was given to us we 
directly turned to give, remaining with 
nothing; that the others had the only pur- 
pose to rob whomsoever they found, be- 
stowing nothing on any one. 

In this way they spoke of all matters 
respecting us, which they enhanced by 
contrast with matters concerning the oth- 
ers, delivering their response through the 
interpreter of the Spaniards. To other 
Indians they made this known by means 
of one among them through whom they 
understood us. Those who speak that 
tongue we discriminately call Primahaitu, 
which is like saying Vasconyados. We 
found it in use over more than 400 
leagues of our travel, without another 
over that whole extent. Even to the 
last, I could not convince the Indians 
that we were of the Christians; and only 
with great effort and solicitation we got 
them to go back to their residences. We 
ordered them to put away apprehension, 
establish their towns, plant and cultivate 
the soil. 

From abandonment the country had al- 
ready grown up thickly in trees. It is, 
no doubt, the best in all these Indias, the 
most prolific and plenteous in provisions. 
Three times in the year it is planted. It 
produces great variety of fruit, has beau- 
tiful rivers, with many other good waters. 
There are ores with clear traces of gold 
and silver. The people are well disposed: 
they serve such Christians as are their 
friends, with great good will. They are 
comely, much more so than the Mexicans. 
Indeed, the land needs no circumstance to 
make it blessed. 

The Indians, at taking their leave, told 
us they would do what we commanded, 
and would build their towns, if the Chris- 
tians would suffer them; and this I say 

and affirm most positively, that, if thej^ 
have not done so, it is the fault of the 

After we had dismissed the Indians in 
peace, and thanked them for the toil they 
had supported with us, the Christians 
with subtlety sent us on our way under 
cliarge of Zeburos, an Alcalde, attended 
by two men. They took us through for- 
ests and solitudes, to hinder us from inter- 
cou:se with the natives, that we might 
neither witness nor have knowledge of the 
act they would commit. It is but an 
instance of how frequently men are mis- 
taken in their aims; we set about to 
preserve the liberty of the Indians and 
thought we had secured it, but the con- 
trary appeared; for the Christians hau 
arranged to go and spring upon those we 
had sent away in peace and confidence. 
They executed their plan as they had 
designed, taking us through the woods, 
wherein for two days we were lost, with- 
out water and without v/ay. Seven of our 
raen died of thirst, and we all thought to 
have perished. Many friendly to the 
Christians in their company were unable 
to reach the place where we got water 
the second night, until the noon of next 
day. We travelled 2.5 leagues, little more 
or less, and reached a town of friendly 
Indians. The Alcalde left us there, and 
went on 3 leagues farther to a town called 
Culiagan where was Melchior Diaz, prin- 
cipal Alcalde and Captain of the Province. 

The Alcalde Mayor knew of the expe- 
dition, and, hearing of our return, he im- 
mediately left that night and came to 
where we were. He wept with us, giv- 
ing praises to God our Lord for having 
extended over us so great care. He 
comforted and entertained us hospitably. 
In behalf of the governor, Nuiio de Guz- 
man and himself, he tendered all that he 
had, and the service in his power. He 
showed much regret for the seizure, and 
the injustice we had received from Al- 
caraz and others. We were sure, had he 
been present, what was done to the Ind- 
i.ins and to us would never have occurred. 

The night being passed, we set out 
the next day for Anhacan. The chief 
Alcalde besought us to tarry there, since 
by so doing we couM be of eminent ser- 
vice to God and your Majesty; the de- 
serted land was without tillage and every- 


where badly wasted, the Indians were 
fleeing and concealing themselves in the 
thickets, unwilling to occupy their towns; 
we were to send and call them, command- 
ing them in behalf of God and the King, 
to return to live in the vales and culti- 
vate the soil. 

To us this appeared difficult to effect. 
We had brought no native of our own, nor 
of those who accompanied us according 
to custom, intelligent in these affairs. At 
last we made the attempt with two cap- 
tives, brought from that country, who 
were with the Christians we first overtook. 
They had seen the people who conducted 
us, and learned from them the great au- 
thority and command we carried and ex- 
ercised throughout those parts, the won- 
ders we had worked, the sick we had 
cured, and the many things besides we had 
done. We ordered that they, with others of 
the town, should go together to summon the 
hostile natives among the mountains and of 
the river Petachan, where we had found the 
Christians, and say to them they must 
come to us, that we wished to speak with 
them. For the protection of the messengers, 
and as a token to the others of our will, 
we gave them a gourd of those we were 
accustomed to bear in our hands, which 
had been our principal insignia and evidence 
of rank, and with this they went away. 

The Indians were gone seven days, and 
returned with three chiefs of those re- 
volted among the ridges, who brought 
with them fifteen men, and presented us 
beads, turquoises, and feathers. The mes- 
sengers said they had not found the peo- 
ple of the river where we appeared, the 
Christians having again made them run 
away into the mountains. Melchior Diaz 
told the interpreter to speak to the natives 
for us; to say to them we came in the 
name of God, who is in heaven; that we 
had travelled about the world many years, 
telling all the peop'e we found that they 
should believe in God and serve him; for 
he was the master of all things on the 
earth, benefiting and rewarding the vir- 
tuous, and to the bad giving perpetual 
punishment of fire; that, when the good 
die, he takes them to heaven, where none 
ever die, nor feel cold, nor hunger, nor 
thirst, nor any inconvenience whatsoever, 
but the greatest enjoyment possible to con- 
ceive; that those who will not believe 

in him, nor obey his commands, he casts 
beneath the earth into the company of 
demons, and into a great fire which is 
never to go out, but always torment; that, 
over this, if they desired to be Christians 
and seive God in the way we required, 
the Christians would cherish them as 
brothers and behave towards them very 
kindly; that we would command they give 
no ofi'ence nor take them from their terri- 
tories, but be their great friends. If the 
Indians did not do this, the Christians 
would treat them very hardly, carrying 
them away as slaves into other lands. 

They answered through the interpreter 
that they would be true Christians and 
serve God. Being asked to whom they 
sacrifice and ofi'er worship, from whom 
they ask rain for their corn-fields and 
health for themselves, they answered of a 
man that is in heaven. We inquired of 
them his name, and they told us Aguar ; 
and they believed he created the whole 
world, and the things in it. We retvirned 
to question them as to how they knew 
this; they answered their fathers and 
grandfathers had told them, that from 
distant time had come their knowledge, 
and they knew the rain and all good 
things were sent to, them by him. We told 
them that the name of him of whom 
they spoke we called Dios; and if they 
would call him so, and would worship 
him as we directed, they would find their 
welfare. They responded that they well 
understood, and would do as we said. 
We ordered them to come down from the 
mountains in confidence and peace, inhabit 
the whole country and construct their 
houses: among these they should build 
one for God, at its entrance place a cross 
like that which we had there present; 
and, when Christians came among them, 
they should go out to receive them with 
crosses in their hands, without bows or 
any arms, and take them to their dwell- 
ings, giving of what they have to eat, and 
the Christians would do them no injury, 
but be their friends; and the Indians told 
us they would do as we had commanded. 

The Captain having given them ahawla 
and entertained them, they returned, tak- 
ing the two captives who had been used as 
emissaries. This occurrence took place 
before the Notary, in the presence of many 



As soon as these Indians went back, all 
those of that province who were friendly to 
the Christians, and had heard of us, came 
to visit us, bringing beads and feathers. 
We commanded them to build churches 
and put crosses in them : to that time none 
had been raised; and we made them bring 
their principal men to be baptized. 

Then the Captain made a covenant with 
God, not to invade nor consent to invasion, 
nor to enslave any of that country and 
people, to whom we had guaranteed safe- 
ty; that this he would enforce and defend 
until your Majesty and the Governor 
Nuiio de Guzman, or the Viceroy in your 
name, should direct what would be most 
for the service of God and your Highness. 

When the children had been baptized, we 
departed for the town of San Miguel. So 
soon as we arrived, April 1,1536, came Ind- 
ians, who told us many people had come 

down from the mountains and were living 
in the vales; that they had made churches 
and crosses, doing all we had required. 
Each day we heard how these things were 
advancing to a full improvement. 

Fifteen days of our residence having 
passed, Alcaraz got back with the Chris- 
tians from the incursion, and they re- 
lated to the Captain the manner in which 
the Indians had come down and peopled 
the plain; that the towns were inhabited 
which had been tenantless and deserted, 
the residents, coming out to receive them 
with crosses in their hands, had taken 
them to their houses, giving of what they 
had, and the Christians had slept among 
them overnight. They were surprised at 
a thing so novel ; but, as the natives said 
they had been assured of safety, it was or- 
dered that they should not be harmed, and 
the Christians took friendly leave of them. 


Cabinet, President's, a body of execu- tender their resignations when the su- 

tive advisers authorized by Congress in preme legislative body acts adversely to 

the absence of a constitutional provision, any measure on which the ministry has 

and appointed by the President at the decided. In the cabinet no one member 

beginning of his administration. Unless takes precedence of another, and when the 

deatli, personal considerations, or other members are assembled in formal confer- 

circumstances prevent, cabinet officers ence the President presides. In a min- 

hold their places throughout the adminis- istry the spokesman is the president of 

tration. Each cabinet officer is at the the council, and usually the minister for 

head of a department comprising a num- foreign affairs is officially known either 

ber of executive bureaus. The chief of as the prime minister or premier. The 

the Department of Justice is the Attorney- various cabinet officers receive a salary 

General of the United States; the chiefs of $8,000 per annum. 

of all other departments are officially call- The following is a summary of the or- 

ed secretaries of the departments. The ganization and the functions of the eight 

cabinet of a President of the United States executive departments as they existed in 

is somewhat similar in its functions to 1901: 

the ministry of a monarchical govern- The Secretary of State has charge of 
ment; but there are notable differences, what is known as the State Department. 
As a general thing, members of a ministry This was created by act of Congress, July 
have the right to urge or defend any 27, 1789, having been in existence, how- 
public measure before the supreme legis- ever, at that time for some months, under 
lature of their country, a privilege with the name of the Department of Foreign 
which the American cabinet officer has Aflfairs. The first to fill the office was 
never been invested. While cabinet offi- Thomas Jefferson. The Secretary of State 
cers hold their places through an admin- has in his charge all business between our 
istration or at the pleasure of themselves own and other governments. The depart- 
or the President, and are in no wise af- ment conducts the correspondence with 
fected by any legislation in Congress to our ministers and other agents in foreign 
which they may be officially opposed, the countries, and with the representatives of 
members of a ministry almost invariably other countries here. All communicationg 




respecting boundary and other treaties are 
also under the direction of this depart- 
ment. This department also files all acts 
and proceedings of Congress, and attends 
to the publication of the same and their 
distribution throughout the country. No 
regular annual report is made to Con- 
gress concerning the work of this depart- 
ment, but special information is given 
whenever any unusual event or complica- 
tion in our foreign relations occurs. 

The first Secretary of the Treasury was 
Alexander Hamilton, who was appointed 
upon the organization of the department, 
Sept. 2, 1789. This department has 
charge of all moneys paid into the Treas- 
ury of the United States, also of all dis- 
bursements, the auditing of accounts, and 

the collection of revenue. It also super- 
vises the mint and coinage of money, and 
has charge of the coast survey. The 
marine hospitals of the government are 
also under its direction, and it controls 
the regulation and appointments of all 
custom-houses. The Secretary is obliged 
to make a full report to Congress, at the 
opening of each regular session, of the 
business done by the department during 
the year, and the existing financial con- 
dition of the government. The depart- 
ment has an important bureau of sta- 
tistics dealing with the foreign and do- 
mestic trade of the country. It also 
supervises the life-saving service, and has 
control of the National Board of Health. 

The War Department dates from Aug. 7, 
1789. John Knox was its first Secretary. It 




has in charge all business growing out 
of the military afi'airs of the government, 
attends to the paying of troops, and fur- 
nishing all army supplies; also super- 
vises the erection of forts, and all work 
of military engineering. Tlie department 
is divided into a number of important 
bureaus, the chief officers of which are 
known as the commanding - general, the 
adjutant-general, the quartermaster-gen- 
eral, the paymaster - general, the commis- 
sary-general, the surgeon-general, the chief 
engineer, the chief of survey, and the chief 
of ordnance. The signal service is un- 
der the control of this department. It 
is made the duty of the Secretary of War 
to report annually to Congress concerning 
the state of the army, the expenditures of 
the military appropriations in detail, and 
all matter concerning the bureaus ovgr 



which the department has special super- 
vision. This department has also in 
charge the publication of the official rec- 
ords of the Civil War, an enormous work. 
All the archives captured from or surren- 
dered by the Confederate government are 
also in charge of this bureau of records. 

The first Attorney-General of the Unit- 
ed States, Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, 
was appointed under act of Congress of 
Sept. 24, 1789. The Attorney - General 
is required to act as attorney for the 
United States in all suits in the Su- 
preme Court; he is also the legal ad- 
viser of the President and the heads of 
departments, and also of the solicitor of 
the treasury. He is further charged with 
the superintendence of all United States 

district attorneys and marshals, with the 
examination of all applications to the 
President for pardons, and with the trans- 
fer of all land purchased by the United 
States for government buildings, etc. 
The name, " Department of Justice," by 
which this division of the cabinet is now 
largely known, was given to it about 

The Navy Department (1789) was at 
first included in the War Department, but 
in 1798 the two branches of the service 
were separated. Aug. 21, 1842, this de- 
partment was organized into five bureaus — 
the bureau of navy-yards and docks; of 
construction, equipment, and repair; of 
provisions and clothing; of ordnance and 
liyarography ; of medicine and surgery. 
To these have since been added a bureau 



of navigation, one of steam engineering, 
and one of recruiting, to which last has 
been added the work of equipment former- 
ly provided for in connection with the con- 
struction bureau. It also keeps a library 
of war records. The Secretary of the 
Navy has charge of everything connect- 
ed with the naval service of the govern- 
ment, and the execution of the laws con- 
cerning it, and makes annual reports to 
Congress of the conditions of the depart- 
ment. All instructions to subordinate of- 
ficers of the na\'y and to all chiefs of the 
bureaus emanate from him, while the de- 
partment supervises the building and re- 
pairs of all vessels, docks, and wharves, 
and enlistment and discipline of gailoTs, 
together with all supplies needed by them. 
The first Secretary of the Navy was Ben- 
jamin Stoddert, of Maryland. 


The Department of the Interior was cre- 
ated by act of Congress, March 3, 1849. 
The business of the department is conduct- 
ed by eight bureaus — viz., bureau of the 
public lands, pensions, Indian affairs, pat- 
ents, education, railroads, and the geo- 
logical survey. These different bureaus 
have charge, under the Secretary, of all 
matters relating to the sale and survey 
of the public lands; the adjudication and 
payment of pensions^ the treaties with 
the Indian tribes of the West; the issue 
of letters patent to inventors; the collec- 
tion of statistics on the progress of edu- 
cation; and the supervision of the ac- 
counts of railroads. The Secretary of the 
Interior has also charge of the mining 
interests of the government, and of the 
receiving and arranging of printed jour- 
nals of Congress, and other books printed 
and purchased for the use of the govern- 
ment. The first to fill this office was 
Thomas Ewing, of Ohio. 

The Post-office Department was estab- 
lished May 8, 1794. It has the supervision 
of all the post-offices of the country, their 
names, the establishment and discontin- 
uance of post-offices, the modes of carry- 
ing the mails, the issue of stamps, the 
receipt of the revenue of the office, and 
all other matters connected with the man- 
agement and transportation of the mails. 
Samuel Osgood, of Massachusetts, was the 
first to fill this office. 

The Department of Agriculture was at 
first a bureau of the Interior Department; 
but in 1889, by act of Congress, it was 
made independent, and its chief, the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, became a member of 




the President's cabinet. This department 
embraces numerous divisions and sections, 
such as the botanical division, tne section 
of vegetable pathology, the pomological 
division, the forestry division, the chemi- 
cal division, the division of entomology, 
the seed division, the silk section, the 
ornithological division, the bureau of ani- 
mal industry, etc. On July 1, 1891, the 
weather bureau, which had hitherto been 
a branch of the 
signal service 
of the War De- 
partment, was 
transferred, by 
act of Con- 
gress, to this 

The Depart- 
ment of Com- 
merce and La- 
bor was created 
by act of Con- 
gress in Feb- 
ruary, 1903. It comprises the bureau 
of corporations, the bureau of labor, 
the lighthouse board, the lighthouse es- 
tablishment, the steamboat - inspection 
service, the bureau of standards, the coast 
and geodetic survey, the commissioner- 
general of immigration, the commission- 
ers of immigration, the bureau of immi- 
gration and the immigration service at 
large, the bureau of statistics of the 
Treasury Department, the bureau of nav- 
igation, the shipping commissioner, the 
bureau of foreign commerce ( formerly in 
the Department of State), the census bu- 
reau, and the fish commission. George 
B. Cortelyou was Secretary from Feb. 16, 
1903, till June 24, 1904, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Victor H. Metcalf. 



The following is a list of all members 
of Presidential cabinets since the organi- 
zation of the federal government: 

Name. Appointed. 

Thomas Jefferson Sept. 26, 1789 

Edmund Randolph Jan. 2, 1794 

Timothy Pickering Dec. 10, 1795 

John Marshall May 13, 1800 

James Madison March 5, 1801 

Robert Smith March 6, 1809 

James Monroe April 2, 1811 

John Quincy Adams March 5, 1817 

Henry Clay March 7, 1825 

Martin Van Buren March 6, 1829 

Edward Livingston May 24, 1831 

Louis McLane May 29, 1833 

John Forsyth June 27, 1834 

Daniel Webster March 5, 1841 

Hugh S. Legare May 9, 1843 

Abel P. Upshur July 24, 1843 

John C. Calhoun March 6, 1844 

James Buchanan March 6, 1845 

John M. Clayton March 7, 1849 

Daniel Webster July 22, 1850 

Edward Everett Nov. 6, 1852 

William L. Marcy March 7, 1853 

Lewis Cass March 6, 1857 

Jeremiah S. Black Dec. 17, 1860 

William H. Seward March 5, 1861 

Elihu B. Washburne March 5, 1869 

Hamilton Fish March 11, 1869 

William M. Evarts March 12, 1877 

James G. Blaine March 5, 1881 

F. T. Frelinghuysen Dec. 12, 1881 

Thomas F. Bayard March 6, 18S5 

James G. Blaine March 5, 1889 

John W. Foster June 29, 1892 

Walter Q. Gresham March 6, 1893 

Richard Olney June 7, 1895 

John Sherman March 5, 1897 

William R. Day April 26, 1898 

John Hay Sept. 20, 1898 

Elihu Root July 6, 1905 



Alexander Hamilton Sept 

Oliver Wolcott Feb. 2 

Samuel Dexter Jan. 1 

Albert Gallatin May 14 

George W. Campbell Feb. 9 

Alexander J. Dallas Oct. 6 

William H. Crawford Oct. 22 

Richard Rush March 7 

Samuel D. Ingham March 6, 

Louis McLane Aug. 2 

William J. Duane May 29 

Roger B. Taney Sept. 23 

Levi Woodbury June 27 

Thomas Ewirfg March 5 

Walter Forward Sept. 13 

John C. Spencer March 3 

George M. Bibb June 15 

Robert J. Walker March 6 

William M. Meredith March 8 

Thomas Corwin .July 23 

James Guthrie March 7 

Howell Cobb March 6 

Philip F. Thomas Dee. 12 

John A. Dix Jan. 11 


Name. Appointed. 

Salmon P. Chase March 7, 1861 

William Pitt Fessenden July 1, 1864 

Hugh McCulloch March 7, 1865 

George S. Boutwell March 11, 1869 

William A. Richardson March 17, 1873 

Benjamin H. Bristow June 4, 1874 

Lot M. Morrill July 7, 1876 

John Sherman March 8, 1877 

William Windom March 5, 1881 

Charles J. Folger Oct. 27, 1881 

Walter Q. Gresham Sept. 24, 1884 

Hugh McCulloch Oct. 28, 1884 

Daniel Manning March 6, 1886 

Charles S. Fairchild April 1, 1887 

William Windom March 5, 1889 

Charles Foster Feb. 21, 1891 

John G. Carlisle March 6, 1893 

Lyman J. Gage March 5, 1897 

Leslie M. Shaw Jan. 8, 1902 


Henry Knox 

Timothy Pickering 

James McHenry 

Samuel Dexter 

Roger Griswold 

Henry Dearborn 

William Eustis 

John Armstrong 

James Monroe 

William H. Crawford 

George Graham 

John C. Calhoun , 

James Barbour 

Peter B. Porter 

John H. Eaton 

Lewis Cass 

Joel R. Poinsett 

John Bell 

John C. Spencer , 

James M. Porter 

William Wilkins 

William L. Marcy 

George W. Crawford 

Charles M. Conrad 

Jefferson Davis 

John B. Floyd 

Joseph Holt 

Simon Cameron 

Edwin M. Stanton 

Ulysses S. Grant, ad interitn 
I,orenzo Thomas, ad interim. 

John M. Schofield 

John A. Rawlins 

William W. Belknap 

Alphonso Taft 

James D. Cameron 

George W. McCrary 

Alexander Ramsey 

Robert T. Lincoln 

William C. Endicott 

Redfield Proctor 

Stephen B. Elkins 

Daniel S. Lamont 

Russel A. Alger 

Elihu Root 

William H. Taft 


. . . .Ad ii 
Oct. 8 
March 7 
May 26: 

May 28 
March 11 
Oct. 25 
March 8 
May 22 
March 12 
Dec. 10 
March 5 
March 6 
March 5 
Dec. 17 
March 6 
March 5 
Aug. 1 
Aug. 25 



Benjamin Stoddert May 21, 1798 

Robert Smith July 15, 1801 



2iame. Appointed. 

J. Crownlnshield March 3, 1805 

Paul Hamilton March 7, 1809 

William Jones Jan. 12, 1813 

B. W. Crownlnshield Dec. 19, 1814 

Smith Thompson Nov. 9, 1818 

Samuel L. Southard Sept. 16, 1823 

John Branch March 9, 1829 

Levi Woodbury May 23, 1831 

Mahlon Dickerson June oO, 1834 

James K. Paulding June 25, 1838 

George E. Badger March 5, 1841 

Abel P. Upshur Sept. 13, 1841 

David Henshavv July 24, 1843 

Thomas W. Gilmer Feb. 15, 1844 

John Y. Mason March 14, 1844 

George Bancroft March 10, 1845 

John Y. Mason Sept. 9, 1846 

William B. Preston March 8, 1849 

William A. Graham July 22, 1850 

John P. Kennedy July 22, 1852 

James C. Dobbin March 7, 1853 

Isaac Toucey March 6, 1857 

Gideon Welles March 5, 1861 

Adolph E. Borie March 5,1869 

George M. Robeson June 25, 1869 

Richard W. Thompson March 12, 1877 

Nathan Goffi, Jr Jan. 6, 1881 

William H. Hunt March 5, 1881 

William E. Chandler April 1, 1882 

William C. Whitney March 6, 1885 

Benjamin F. Tracy March 5, 1889 

Hilary A. Herbert March 6, 1893 

John D. Long March 5, 1897 

William H. Moody March 10, 1902 

Paul Morton June 24, 1904 

Charles J. Bonaparte July 1, 1905 


Thomas Ewing March 

Alexander H. H. Stewart. .. .Sept. 

Robert McClelland March 

Jacob Thompson March 

Caleb B. Smith March 

John P. Usher Jan. 

James Harlan May 

Orville H. Browning July 

Jacob D. Cox March 5 

Columbus Delano Nov. 1 

Zachariah Chandler Oct. 19 

Carl Schurz March 12 

Samuel J. Kirkwood March 5 

Henry M. Teller April 6 

L. Q. C. Lamar March 6 

William F. Vilas Jan. 

John W. Noble March 

Hoke Smith March 

David R. Francis Aug. 

Cornelius N. Bliss March 

Ethan A. Hitchcock Dec. 




Samuel Osgood Sept. 26, 1789 

Timothy Pickering Aug. 12, 1791 

Joseph Habersham Feb. 25, 1795 

Gideon Granger Nov. 28, 1801 

Return J. Meigs, Jr March 17, 1814 

John McLean June 26, 1823 

William T. Barry March 9, 1829 

Amos Kendall May 1, 1835 

John M. Niles May 25, 1840 


Name. Appointed. 

Francis Granger March 6, 1841 

Charles A. Wickliffe Sept. 13, 1841 

Cave Johnson March 6, 1845 

Jacob Collamer March 8, 1849 

Nathan K. Hall July 23, 1850 

Samuel D. Hubbard Aug. 31, 1852 

James Campbell March 5, 1853 

Aaron V. Brown March 6, 1857 

Joseph Holt March 14, 1859 

Koratio King Feb. 12, 1861 

Montgomery Blair March 5, 1861 

William Dennison Sept. 24, 1864 

Alexander W. Randall July 25, 1860 

John A. J. Creswell March 5, 1869 

Marshall Jewell Aug. 24,1874 

James N. Tyner July 12, 1876 

David McK. Key March 12, 1877 

Horace Maynard June 2, 1880 

Thomas L. James March 5, 1881 

Timothy O. Howe Dec. 20, 1881 

Walter Q. Gresham April 3, 1883 

Frank Hatton Oct. 14, 1884 

William F. Vilas March 6, 1885 

Don M. Dickinson Jan. 16, 1888 

John Wanamaker March 5, 1889 

Wilson S. Bissell March 6,1893 

William L. Wilson Feb. 28, 1895 

James A. Gary March 5, 1897 

Charles E. Smith April 21, 1898 

Henry C. Payne Jan. 8, 1902 

Robert J. Wynne Oct. 10, 1904 


Edmund Randolph Sept. 

William Bradford Jan. 

Charles Lee Dec. 

Theophilus Parsons Feb. 

Levi Lincoln March 

Robert Smith March 

John Breckinridge Aug. 

Caesar A. Rodney Jan. 

William Pinkney Dec. 

Richard Rush Feb. 

William Wirt Nov. 

John M. Berrien March 

Roger B. Taney July 

Benjamin F. Butler Nov. 

Felix Grundy July 

Henry D. Gilpin Jan. 

John J. Crittenden March 

Hugh S. Legare Sept. 

John Nelson July 

John Y. Mason March 

Nathan Clifford Oct. 

Isaac Toucey June 

Reverdy Johnson March 

John J. Crittenden July 

Caleb Gushing March 

Jeremiah S. Black March 

Edwin M. Stanton Dec. 

Edward Bates March 

Titian J. Coffey, ad interim. .June 

James Speed Dec. 

Henry Stanbery July 

William M. Evarts July 

E. Rockwood Hoar March 

Amos T. Aokerman June 

George H. Williams Dec. 

Edwards Pierrepont April 

Alphonso Taf t May 












































































'Same. Appointed. Delphine; The Silent South; The Creoles 

Charles Devens March 12, 1877 o/" Louisiana; The Negro Question; 

i?n^m?n^'Z^SwVter;;;:;.•Der' ll lll\ ^^range True Stories of Louisiana; John 

Au!?ustus H. Garland March 6, 18S3 March, Southerner, etc. 

W. H. H. Miller March 5, 1889 Cable, ATLANTIC. See ATLANTIC Tele- 

Richard Olney March 6, 1893 GRAPH 

Judson Harmon June 7, 1895 n i.\ /-k . mt ^ i. i. 

Joseph McKenna March 5,1897 Cables, OCEAN. The first permanent 

John W. Griggs Jan. 25, 1898 Atlantic cable was laid in July, 18GG, from 

Philar.aer C. Knox April 5,1901 Valentia Bay, Ireland, to Trinity Bay, 

^'"'''°'.?;T>^r'^?'ny^;-;;"-;''"'^ ^' ^^"^ Newfoundland. In September of the same 


Norman J. Coleman Feb. 13. 1880 year a cable lost by an unsuccessful at- 

Jeremiah M. Rusk March 4, 1889 tempt in 1865 was recovered, and its lay- 

J. Sterling Morton March 6. 1803 ■ completed, thus making two lines be- 

James Wilson March 5, 1897 ,",,,., ", , 

tween the two pomts named (see Atlan- 

George B. Cortelyon Fob. 16, 1903 ^^-^^t was known as the Anglo-American 

\ictor H. Metcalf June 24, 1904 ^ ,, , , i- ^, 

Cable, managed by a company of the same 

Cabinet Council. See Cabinet, Presi- name. In 18G8 the French Atlantic Tele- 

dent's. graph Company was formed, and the fol- 

Cabinet, The Kitchen. See Kitchen lowing year it laid a line from Brest, 

Cabinet. France, to Duxbury, Mass. The fourth 

Cable. George Washington, author; Atlantic telegraph cable was laid from 
born in New Orleans, Oct. 12. 1844. Valentia, Ireland, to Heart's Content, 
In 1863-65 he served in the Confeder- Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, in the sum- 
ate army. In 1879 he gave himself nier of 187.3, and a few months later 
up wholly to literature, making a spe- the Brazilian telegraph cable was laid 
cialty of describing Creole life in Lou- from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a bay on 
isiana. In 1887 he established the House- the coast of Portugal. In 1874 the Direct 
Culture Clubs, a system of small clubs United States Cable Company was 


for the purpose of promoting more cor- formed and laid a line from Ballenskil- 
dial relations among the different class- ligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye, N. H., via Nova 
es of society. His wi'itings include Old Scotia. The same year a sixth line across 
Creole Days; The Grandissimes ; Madame the Atlantic was laid from Ireland to New- 



foundland. Another French 
line was laid from Brest to 
St. Pierre, an island in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, in 1880. 
The companies owning all these 
lines having formed a combina- 
tion and pooled their receipts, 
to keep up rates on the trans- 
mission of messages, a com- 
peting company was formed by 
James Cordon Bennett and 
John W. Mackay. This laid in 
1884-85 two lines from Ireland 
to Nova Scotia, having also a 
connecting line from Ireland to 
France. A Pacific cable, ex- 
tending from San Francisco 
to Honolulu, thence to Wake 
Island, Guam Island, and Ma- 
nila, all United States posses- 
sions, was formally opened 
July 4, 1903. 

Cabot, the name of a fam- 
ily of explorers intimately con- 
nected with the history of 
America. John is supposed to 
have been born in Genoa, al- 
though some historians have 
claimed Venice as his birth- 
place. There is evidence that 
for fifteen years prior to 1476 he re- 
sided in Venice, and in that year for- 
mally became a citizen. Subsequently 
he removed to Bristol, England, and en- 
gaged in mercantile business. With a 
view of finding a shorter route to India, 

(From an old print.) 

he determined to attempt a northwest pas- 
sage. To further his undertaking he secured 
from Henry VII. a patent for the dis- 
covery of any unknown lands lying in either 
the eastern, western, or northern seas. 
Sebastian, the second son of John, was 

U. — B 




born in Bristol, England, in 1477. As his 
name appears in the petition of his father 
to Henry VII. for the patent above men- 
tioned, it is believed that he accompanied 
his father in the voyage described below. 
Sebastian died in London in 1557. 

The latest evidence shows that John 
and probably his son Sebastian sailed from 
Bristol, May, 1497, discovered in June 
what was supposed to be the Chinese coast, 
and returned in July. In April, 1498, they 

most to lat. 60°, when the ice again barred 
his way. Then he sailed southward, and 
discovered a large island, which he called 
New Found Land (Newfoundland) ,and per- 
ceived the immense number of codfish in 
the waters surrounding it. Leaving that 
island, he coasted as far as the shores of 
Maine, and, some writers think, as far 
south as the Carolinas. On his return 
Cabot revealed the secret of the codfish 
at New Found Land, and within five or 


sailed again from Bristol; on this voyage six years thereafter fishermen from Eng- 
JOHN died and Sebastian succeeded to the land, Brittanj', and Normandy were gather- 
command. The place of the landfall is ing treasures there. As Cabot did not 
imcertain; probably Labrador and Prince bring back gold from America, King 
Edward Island were reached. A common Henry paid no more attention to him; 
account is that he was stopped by the ice- and in 1512 he went to Spain, by in- 
pack in Davis Strait. Then he sailed vitation of King Ferdinand, and en- 
southwest, and discovered the shores of joyed honors and emoluments until that 
Labrador, or, possibly, the northern shore monarch's death in 1516, when, annoyed 
of Newfoundland. Turning northward, he by the jealousies of the Spanish nobility, 
traversed the coast of the continent al- he returned to England. Henry VIII. 



furnished Cabot with a vessel, in 1517, to 
seek for a northwest passage to India; 
but he unsuccessfully fought the ice-pack 
at Hudson Bay and was foiled. The suc- 
cessor of Ferdinand invited Cabot to Spain 
and made him chief pilot of the realm. 
He was employed by Spanish merchants 
to command an expedition to the Spice 
Islands by way of the then newly discov- 
ered Strait of Magellan ; but circumstances 
prevented his going farther than the south- 
east coast of South America, where he 
discovered the rivers De la Plata and 
Paraguay. His employers were disappoint- 
ed, and, resigning his office into the hands 
of the Spanish monarch, he returned to 
England in his old age, and was pension- 
ed by the King. After the death of Henry 
VIII. the " boy King," Edward VI., made 
Cabot grand pilot of England; but Queen 
Mary neglected him, and allowed that 
eminent navigator and discoverer of the 
North American continent to die in Lon- 
don in comparative poverty and obscurity 
at the age of eighty years. His cheerful 
temperament was manifested by his dan- 
cing at an assembly of young seamen 
the year before his death. 

Cabot, George, statesman; born in 
Salem, Mass., Dec. 3, 1751; educated 
at Harvard College ; member of the Massa- 
chusetts Provincial Congress; also of the 
State convention which accepted the na- 
tional Constitution; was a United States 
Senator in 1791-96; and became the first 
Secretary of the Na\y in 1798. He died 
in Boston, Mass., April 18, 1823. 

Cabral, Pedro Alvarez, Portuguese 
navigator; born about 1460. In 1499, 
after Vasco da Gama {q. v.) returned 
from India, Cabral was sent by King 
Emanuel, with thirteen ships, on a voyage 
from Lisbon to the East Indies, for the 
purpose of following up Gama's discov- 
eries. He left Lisbon on March 9, 1500. 
In order to avoid the calms on the Guinea 
shore, he went so far westward as to dis- 
cover land on the coast of Brazil at lat. 
10° S. He erected a cross, and named the 
country " The Land of the Holy Cross." 
It was afterwards called Brazil, from 
hrasil, a dyewood that abounded there. 
Cabral took possession of the country in 
the name of the King. After it was ascer- 
tained that it was a part of the American 
continent, a controversy arose between the 

crowns of Spain and Portugal concerning 
the right of possession, but it was settled 
amicably — Portugal to possess the portion 
of the continent discovered by Cabral, that 
is, from the River Amazon to the Plate 
(De la Plata) . This discovery led Emanuel 
to send out another expedition (three 
ships) under Americus Vespucius {q. v.), 
in May, 1501. They touched Brazil at lat. 
5° S., and returned home after a voyage of 
sixteen months. Cabral died about 1526. 

Cabrilla, Juan Rodriguez, Portuguese 
navigator; born late in the fifteenth cen- 
tury; explored the Pacific coast as far as 
lat. 44° N., off the coast of Oregon, in 
1542, under orders from the King of 
Spain, and discovered many of the islands, 
bays, and harbors with which we are now 
familiar. This voyage, made in search of 
the " Strait of America," which Alargo© 
had failed to find, was described by him 
under the title of Viaje y descubrimien- 
tos hasta el grado 43 de Latitud. He 
died at San Bernardo, Cal., Jan. 3, 1543. 

Cacique, a word derived from the Hay- 
tien tongue and inaccurately applied by 
the Spaniards to the native nobles of Mex- 
ico, and also to great Indian chiefs. Its 
true meaning is " lord," " prince," or " su- 
preme ruler." 

Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, pio- 
neer; born in France about 1660; received 
a grant of land in Maine from Louis XIV. 
in 1688; appointed governor of Mackinac 
in 1694 by Frontenac; founded the city 
of Detroit in 1701; governor of Louisiana, 
1712-17; returned to France, where he 
died, Oct. 18, 1730. 

Cadwalader, George, military officer; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1804; prac- 
tised law there till 1846; served in the 
Mexican War; was present at the battles 
of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec; and 
for bravery in the latter was brevetted 
major-general. In 1861, he was appointed 
major-general, and placed in command of 
Baltimore, and in 1862 he was made a 
member of a board to revise the United 
States military laws and regulations. He 
published Services in the Mexican Cam- 
paign. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 
3, 1879. 

Cadwalader, John, military officer; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 10, 1742. 
He was colonel of one of the city bat- 
talions; later as brigadier-general he was 




I^laced in command of the Pennsylvania bishops and priests in the United States, 
uiilitia, eo-opeiating with Washington in and especially of Archbishop Katzer, of 
the attack on Trenton, and participating Milwaukee; but were opposed by many 
in the battle of Princeton. He was in the others, especially by Cardinal Gibbons, of 
battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Baltimore, who, at the installation of 
Monmouth. He challenged Gen. Thomas ArchbiKhop Katzer, in 1891, denounced the 
Conway to fight a duel because of ofl'en- movement as unpatriotic and disloyal. A 
sive words the latter used towards Wash- provincial congress of German - Catholic 

societies at Dubuque, la., in 1892, ap- 
proved the movement, as did also a na- 
tional congress in Newark, N. J.; but "1, 
seemed overshadowed later by the pre- 
dominance of more liberal views under 
the decisions of Monsignor Satolli, in 
1892 and 1803; and Archbishop Corrigan 
publicly declared it a dead issue, and con- 
demned by the Pope. 

Caimanera, a town on the Bay of 
Cuantananio, in the district of the same 
name, and the province of Santiago, Cuba; 
about 35 miles east of the entrance of the 
harbor of Santiago. At the beginning of 
tlio war with Spain in 1898, the town and 
vicinity were the scene of important mili- 
tary and naval operations. On June 10 
the bay was seized for a base of supplies 
by Captain McCalla, with the Marblehead, 
Yankee, and St. Louis, and the last ves- 
ington. They fought, and Conway was badly sel, supported by the others, cut the cable 
Avounded. After the war Cadwalader lived at Caimanera, which was connected witli 
in Maryland, and was in its legislature. Santiago. The town was garrisoned by 
He died in Shrewsbury, Pa., Feb. 11, 1786. 3,000 Spanish soldiers, and protected by 
Cahenslyism, a movement among Eo- several gunboats and a fort. When the 
man Catholic immigrants in the United American vessels opened fire at 800 yards, 
States to secure separate ecclesiastical forcing the Spaniards to withdraw from 
organization for each nationality or Ian- the block-house and the town, the Alfonso 
guage, and in particular for Germans; Pinzon appeared at the entrance of the 
named after Peter Paul Cahensly, Aus- bay, and at a range of 4,000 yards fired 
tro-Hungarian envoy to the Vatican, and on the American vessels. The latter soon 
a leader of the St. Raphael Society in found the range; but the Spanish vessel 
Germany and Austria for promoting Ro- refused to withdraw until the Marhlehead 
man Catholic interests among emigrants, gave chase, when she retired behind the 
About 1884, eighty-two German priests in fort, still keeping up her firing. On June 
the United States petitioned the Pope for 11, a battalion of 600 marines, the first 
help in perpetuating their native tongue United States troops to set foot upon 
and usages in the diocese of St. Louis, Cuban soil, were landed under Lieutenant- 
Mo., and in 1886 petitioned again that Colonel Huntington from the troop-ship 
German Catholics be obliged to join Ger- Panther and the men-of-war. They estab- 
man-speaking churches, and be forbidden lished themselves at the entrance of the 
attending those speaking English. Re- bay, little expecting that the Spanish sol- 
ceiving no open answer, they formed, in diers, who had been driven in panic to 
1887, a. society which sent representatives the mountains, would return during the 
that year to the St. Raphael Society at night. Consequently, when their pickets 
Lucerne, Switzerland, and enlisted the co- were fired upon there was considerable 
operation of Herr Cahensly. They also surprise. On the night of June 12, the 
secured the co-operation of many German Spaniards appeared in greater numbers, 



and charging up to the camp killed Sur- 
geon John B. Gibbs and two marines. 
The attack lasted until morning, when the 
assailants were forced to retire under the 
Are of the American field-guns. During 
the night of June 13, the Spaniards again 
attacked the camp, and kept up such a 
continuous fire that the Americans had 
no rest. The next night, however, the 
same plan did not work, as a force of 
Cubans under Colonel La Borda, who had 
hastened to the camp, were sent out on 
skirmish duty. On the following day a 
company of marines with the Cubans ad- 
vanced against the Spanish camp, and by a 
well-directed attack drove them away. In 
this action the American losses were six 
killed and three wounded, while more than 
forty of the Spanish were killed. See 


Cairo, Occupation' of. The city of 
Cairo, III. (population, 1900, 12,566), is 
situated near the extremity of a boat- 
shaped peninsula, at the confluence of the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers, 175 miles be- 
low St. Louis. It is a point of great im- 
portance as the key to a vast extent of 
navigable waters, and to it National 
troops were sent at an early period in the 
Civil War. Both the national govern- 
ment and Governor Yates, of Illinois, had 
been apprised of the intention of the Con- 
federates to secure that position, hoping 
thereby to control the navigation of the 
Mississippi to St. Louis, and of the Ohio 
to Cincinnati and beyond. They also 
hoped that the absolute control of the 
Mississippi below would cause the North- 
western States to join hands with the 
Confederates rather than lose these great 
trade advantages. The scheme was foil- 
ed. Governor Yates, under the direc- 
tion of the Secretary of War, sent Illinois 
troops at an early day to take possession 
of and occupy Cairo. By the middle of 
May there were not less than 5,000 Union 
volunteers there, under the command of 
Gen. B. M. Prentiss, who occupied the ex- 
treme point of the peninsula, where they 
cast up fortifications and gave the post 
the name of Camp Defiance. Before the 
close of May it was considered impreg- 
nable against any force the Confederates 
might send. It soon became a post of 
great importance to the Union cause as 
the place where some of the land and 

naval expeditions in the valley of the 
Mississippi were fitted out. 

Caldwell, James, clergyman; born in 
Charlotte county, Va., in April, 1734. 
Graduating at Princeton in 1759, he be- 
came pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
at Elizabeth town in 1762. Zealously es- 
pousing the revolutionary cause, he Vv'as 
much disliked by the Tories. Appointed 
chaplain of a New Jersey brigade, he was 
for a time in the Mohawk Valley. In 
1780 his church and residence Avere burned 
by a party of British and Tories; and the 
same year a British incursion from Staten 
Island pillaged the village of Connecticut 
Farms, where his familj' were temporarily 
residing. A soldier shot his wife through 
a window while she was sitting on a bed 
with her babe. At that time Mr. Caldwell 
was in Washington's camp at Morristown. 
In the successful defence of Springfield, 
N. J., June 2,3, 1780, when the wadding 
for the soldiers' guns gave out, he brought 
the hymn-books from the neighboring 
church and shouted, " Now put Watts 
into them, boys." In an altercation at 
Elizabethtown Point with an American 
sentinel, he was killed by the latter, Nov. 
2i, 1781. The murderer was afterwards 

Calef, Robert, author; place and date 
of birth uncertain; became a merchant 
in Boston; and is noted for his contro- 
versy with Cotton Mather concerning the 
witchcraft delusion in New England. 
Mather had published a work entitled 
Wonders of the Invisible World, and Calef 
attacked the book, the author, and the 
subject in a publication entitled More 
Wonders of the Invisible World. Calef's 
book was published in London in 1700, 
and in Salem the same year. About this 
time the people and magistrates had come 
to their senses, persecutions had ceased, 
and the folly of the belief in witchcraft 
was broadly apparent. Mather, however, 
continued to write in favor of it, and to 
give instances of the doings of witches 
in their midst. " Flashy people," wrote 
Mather, " may burlesque these things, but 
when hundreds of the most sober people, 
in a country where they have as much 
mother-wit certainly as the rest of man- 
kind, know them to be true, nothing but 
the absurd and froward spirit of Saddu- 
cism [disbelief in spirits] can question 



them." Calef first attacked Mather in a 
series of letters, which were subsequently 
published in book form, as above stated. 
In these letters he exposed Mather's 
credulity, and greatly irritated that really 
good man. Mather retorted by calling 
Calef a " weaver turned minister." Calef 
tormented Mather more by other letters 
in the same vein, when the former, be- 
coming wearied by the fight, called the 
latter " a coal from hell," and prosecuted 
him for slander. When these letters of 
Calef were published in book form, In- 

crease Mather, President of Harvard Col- 
lege, caused copies of the work to be pub- 
licly burned on the college green. Calef 
died about 1723. 

Calendar. Our present calendar is the 
creation of Julius Ca}sar, based on a 
slight error which in the course of 1,600 
years amounted to ten days. Pope Greg- 
ory XIII. rectified the calendar in 1582. 
The Gregorian calendar was accepted ul- 
timately by all civilized nations, with 
the exception of Russia, which still con- 
tinues the use of the Julian Calendar. 


Calhoun, John Caldwell, statesman; very great; and his political tenets, prac- 
born in Abbeville District, S. C, March tically carried out by acts of nullification, 
18, 1782. His father was a native of brought South Carolina to the verge of 
Ireland; his mother, formerly Miss Cald- civil war in 1832; and it made that State 
well, was of Scotch-Irish descent. The foremost and most conspicuous in inaugu- 
son was graduated, with all the honors, rating the Civil War. He died in Wash- 
at Yale College, in 1804, and studied law ington, D. C, March 31, 1850. His remains 
in the famous law-school in Litchfield, 
Conn. In 1807 he began the practice of 
the profession in his native district. 
Thoughtful, ardent, and persevering, he 
soon took high rank in his profession, and 
gained a very lucrative practice. Fond 
of politics, he early entered its arena, and 
in 1808-10 was a member of the State 
legislature. He was sent to Congress in 
1811, where he remained, by successive 
elections, until 1817. Mr. Calhoun was 
very influential in pressing Madison to 
make a declaration of war with Great 
Britain in 1812. President Monroe called 
him to his cabinet as Secretary of War 
(Dec. 16, 1817), and he served as such 
during the President's double term of 
office. In 1824 he was chosen Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States, and was re- 
elected with Andrew Jackson in 1828. In 
1831 he was elected United States Senator 
by the legislature of South Carolina. He 
was Secretary of State in 1844-45, and 
from 1845 till 1850 he was again a mem- 
ber of the United States Senate. The 
doctrine of State sovereignty and suprem- 
acy, and that the Union was a compact lie under a neat monument in St. Philip's 
of States that might be dissolved by the church-yard at Charleston, S. C. His writ- 
secession of any one of them, indepen- ings and a biography have been published 
dent of all action on the part of others, in 6 volumes. See Webster, Daniel. 
was held by Mr. Calhoun nearly all his Government of the United States. — The 
life. His influence in his own State was following is Senator Calhoun's conception 




of the national government, from his dis- absolutely ; and can be rightfully exercised 
course on " The Constitution " : only in furtherance of the objects for 
which they were delegated. 

Ours is a system of government, com- It is federal as well as democratic, 

pounded of the separate governments of Federal, on the one hand, in contradis- 

the several States composing the Union, tinction to national, and, on the other, 

and of one common government of all its to a confederacy. In showing this, I shall 

members, called the government of the begin with the former. 

United States. The former preceded the It is federal, because it is the govejrn- 

latter, which was created by their agency, ment of States united in a political union, 

Each was framed by written constitu- in contradistinction to a government of 

tions; those of the several States by the individuals socially united — that is, by 

people of each, acting separately, and in what is usually called, a social compact, 

their sovereign character; and that of the To express it more concisely, it is federal 

United States, by the same, acting in the and not national, because it is the govern- 

same character, but jointly instead of ment of a community of States, and not 

separately. All were formed on the same the government of a single State or 

model. They all divide the powers of nation. 

government into legislative, executive. That it is federal and not national, we 

and judicial ; and are founded on the have the high authority of the convention 

great principle of the responsibility of the which framed it. General Washington, aa 

rulers to the ruled. The entire powers its organ, in his letter submitting the 

of government are divided between the plan to the consideration of the Congress 

two; those of a more general character of the then confederacy, calls it in one 

being specifically delegated to the United place " the general government of the 

States; and all others not delegated, being Union," and in another "the federal gov- 

reserved to the several States in their ernment of these States." Taken together, 

separate character. Each, within its ap- the plain meaning is, that the government 

propriate sphere, possesses all the attri- proposed would be", if adopted, the govern- 

butes, and performs all the functions of ment of the States adopting it, in their 

government. Neither is perfect without united character as members of a common 

the other. The two combined, form one Union; and, as such, would be a federal 

entire and perfect government. With government. These expressions were not 

these preliminary remarks, I shall pro- used without due consideration, and an 

ceed to the consideration of the immediate accurate and full knowledge of their true 

subject of this discourse. import. The subject was not a novel one. 

The government of the United States The convention was familiar with it. It 

was formed by the Constitution of the was much agitated in their deliberations. 

United States; and ours is a democratic, They divided, in reference to it, in the 

federal republic. early stages of their proceedings. At 

It is democratic, in contradistinction to first, one party was in favor of a national 
aristocracy and monarchy. It excludes and the other of a federal government. 
classes, orders, and all artificial distinc- The former, in the beginning, prevailed; 
tions. To guard against their introduc- and in the plans which they proposed, the 
tion, the Constitution prohibits the grant- constitution and government are styled 
ing of any title of nobility by the United "national." But, finally, the latter gain- 
States, or by any State. The whole sys- ed the ascendency, when the term " na- 
tem is, indeed, democratic throughout, tional " was superseded, and United States 
It has for its fundamental principle, the substituted in its place. The Constitu- 
great cardinal maxim, that the people tion was accordingly styled, The Consti- 
are the source of all power; that the gov- tution of the United States of America; 
ernments of the several States and of the and the government, The government of 
United States were created by them, and the United States, leaving out " America " 
for them; that the powers conferred on for the sake of brevity. It cannot admit 
them are not surrendered, but delegated; of a doubt, that the Convention, by the 
and, as such, are held in trust, and not expression, " United States," meant the 



States united in a federal Union; for in 
no other sense could they, with propriety, 
call the government the federal govern- 
ment of these States, and the general 
government of the Union, as they did 
in the letter referred to. It is thus clear, 
that the Convention regarded the differ- 
ent expressions, " the federal government 
of the United States"; "the general gov- 
ernment of the Union," and " government 
of the United States " as meaning the 
same thing — a federal, in contradistinc- 
tion to a national government. 

Assuming it, then, as established, that 
they are the same thing, it is only neces- 
sary, in order to ascertain with precision 
what they meant by federal government, 
to ascertain what they meant by the gov- 
ernment of the United States. For this 
purpose it will be necessary to trace the 
expi'ession to its origin. 

It was at that time, as our history 
shows, an old and familiar phrase, hav- 
ing a known and well-defined meaning. 
Its use commenced with the political birth 
of these States; and it has been applied 
to them, in all the forms of government 
through which they have passed, with- 
out alteration. The style of the present 
Constitution and government is precisely 
the style by which the confederacy that 
existed when it was adopted, and which 
it superseded, was designated. The in- 
strument that formed the latter was call- 
ed. Articles of Confederation and Perpetu- 
al Union. Its first article declares that 
the style of this confederacy shall be, " The 
United States of America"; and the sec- 
ond, in order to leave no doub*^ ns to the 
relation in which the States should stand 
to each other in the confederacy about 
to be formed, declared—" Each State re- 
tains its sovereignty, freedom, and inde- 
pendence; and every power, jurisdiction, 
and right, which is not, by this confedera- 
tion, expressly de'egated to the United 
States in Congress ai=sembled." If we 
go one step further back, the style of the 
confederacy will be found to be the same 
with that of the revolutionary govern- 
ment, which existed when it was adopt- 
ed, and which it superseded. It dates its 
origin with the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. That act is styled — " The unani- 
mous Declaration of the thirteen United 
States of America." And here again, that 

there might be no doubt how these States 
would stand to each other in the new con- 
dition in which they were about to be 
placed, it concluded by declaring — " that 
these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent States "; 
" and that, as free and independent States, 
they have full power to levy war, conclude 
peace, contract alliances, and to do all 
other acts and things which independent 
States may of right do." The " United 
States " is, then, the baptismal name of 
these States — received at their birth — by 
which they have ever since continued to 
call themselves; by which they have char- 
acterized their constitution, government, 
and laws, and by which they are known 
to the rest of the world. 

The retention of the same style, through- 
out every stage of their existence, aflfords 
strong, if not conclusive evidence that the 
political relation between these States, un- 
der their present constitution and govern- 
ment, is substantially the same as under 
the confederacy and revolutionary govern- 
ment; and what that relation was, we are 
not left to doubt; as they are declared ex- 
pressly to be free, independent, and sover- 
eign States. They, then, are now united, 
and have been, throughout, simply as con- 
federated States. If it had been intended 
by the members of the convention which 
framed the present Constitution and gov- 
ernment, to make any essential change, 
either in the relation of the States to each 
other, or the basis of their union, they 
would, by retaining the style which desig- 
nated them imder the preceding govern- 
ments, have practised a deception, utterly 
unworthy of their character, as sincere 
and honest men and patriots. It may, 
therefore, be fairly inferred, that, retain- 
ing the same style, they intended to attach 
to the expression, " the United States," 
the same meaning, substantially, which 
it previously had ; and, of course, in call- 
ing the present government " the federal 
government of these States " they meant 
by " federal " that they stood in the same 
relation to each other — that their union 
rested, without material change, on the 
same basis — as under the confederacy and 
the revolutionary government : and that 
federal and confederated States meant 
substantially the same thing. It follows, 
also, that the changes made by the pres- 


ent Constitution were not in the founda- 
tion, but in the superstructure of the 
system. We accordingly find, in confir- 
mation of this conclusion, tliat the conven- 
tion, in their letter to Congress, stating 
the reasons for the changes that had been 
made, refer only to the necessity which 
required a different organization of the 
government, without making any allusion 
whatever to any change in the relations 
of the States towards each other, or the 
basis of the system. They state that " the 
friends of our country have long seen 
and desired that the power of making 
war, peace, and treaties; that of levying 
money and regulating commerce, and the 
correspondent executive and judicial au- 
thorities, should be fully and effectually 
vested in the government of the Union: 
but the impropriety of delegating such ex- 
tensive trusts to one body of men is evi- 
dent; hence results the necessity of a 
different organization." Comment is un- 

We thus have the authority of the 
convention itself for asserting that the 
expression, " United States," has essen- 
tially the saTue meaning, when applied to 
the present Constitution and government, 
as it had previously; and, of course, that 
the States have retained their separate 
existence, as independent and sovereign 
communities, in all the forms of political 
existence through which they have passed. 
Such, indeed, is the literal import of the 
expression, " the United States," and the 
sense in which it is ever used, when it is 
applied politically — I say, politically — 
because it is often applied, geographically, 
to designate the portion of this continent 
occupied by the States composing the 
Union, including Territories belonging to 
them. This application arose from the 
fact, that there was no appropriate term 
for that portion of this continent; and 
thus, not unnaturally, the name by which 
these States are politically designated, was 
employed to designate the region they oc- 
cupy and possess. The distinction is im- 
portant, and cannot be overlooked in dis- 
cussing questions involving the character 
and nature of the government, without 
causing great confusion and dangerous 

But as conclusive as these reasons are 
to prove that the government of the United 

States is federal, in contradistinction to 
national, it would seem, that they have 
not been sufficient to prevent the oppo- 
site opinion from being entertained. In- 
deed, this last seems to have become the 
prevailing one; if we may judge from 
the general use of the term " national," 
and the almost entire disuse of that of 
" federal." National is now commonly 
applied to the " general government of 
the Union " — and " the federal govern- 
ment of these States " — and all that ap- 
pertains to them or to the Union. It 
seems to be forgotten that the term was 
repudiated by the convention, after full 
consideration ; and that it was carefully 
excluded from the Constitution, and the 
letter laying it before Congress. Even 
those who know all this — and, of course, 
how falsely the term is applied — have, for 
the most part, slided into its use without 
reflection. But theve are not a few who 
so apply it, because they believe it to be 
a national government in fact; and among 
these are men of distinguished talents and 
standing, who have put forth all their 
powers of reason and eloquence, in sup- 
port of the theory. The question involved 
is one of the first magnitude, and deserves 
to be investigated thoroughly in all its 
aspects. With this impression, I deem 
it proper — clear and conclusive as I re- 
gard the reasons already assigned to prove 
its federal character — to confirm them by 
historical references ; and to repel the ar- 
guments adduced to prove it to be a na- 
tional government. I shall begin with the 
formation and ratification of the Consti- 

That the States, when they formed and 
ratified the Constitution, were distinct, 
independent, and sovereign communities, 
has already been established. That the 
people of the several States, acting in their 
separate, independent, and sovereign char- 
acter, adopted their separate State con- 
stitutions, is a fact uncontested and in- 
contestable; but it is not more certain 
than that, acting in the same character, 
they ratified and adopted the Constitu- 
tion of the United States; with this dif- 
ference only, that in making and adopt- 
ing the one, they acted without concert 
or agreement; but, in the other, ^^^th con- 
cert in making, and mutual agreement in 
adopting it. That the delegates who con- 


stituted the convention which framed the 
Constitution, were appointed by the sev- 
eral States, each on its own authority; 
that they voted in the convention by 
States; and that their votes were counted 
by States, are recorded and unquestion- 
able facts. So, also, the facts that the 
Constitution, when framed, was submitted 
to the people of the several States for 
their respective ratification ; that it was 
ratified by them, each for itself; and that 
it was binding on each, only in conse- 
quence of its being so ratified by it. Until 
then, it was but the plan of a Constitution, 
without any binding force. It was the 
act of ratification which established it as 
a Constitution between the States ratify- 
ing it; and only between them, on the 
condition that not less than nine of the 
then thirteen States should concur in the 
ratification — as is expressly provided by 
its seventh and last article. It is in the 
following words: "The ratification of the 
conventions of nine States shall be suffi- 
cient for the establishment of this Con- 
stitution between the States so ratifying 
the same." If additional proof be needed 
to show that it was only binding between 
the States that ratified it, it may be found 
in the fact that two States — North Caro- 
lina and Rhode Island — refused, at first, 
to ratify; and were, in consequence, re- 
garded in the interval as foreign States, 
without obligation, on their parts, to re- 
spect it, or, on the part of their citi- 
zens, to obey it. Thus far, there can be 
no diff'erence of opinion. The facts are too 
recent and too well established, and the 
provision of the Constitution too explicit, 
to admit of doubt. 

That the States, then, retained, after 
the ratification of the Constitution, the 
distinct, independent, and sovereign char- 
acter in which they formed and ratified 
it, is certain ; unless they divested them- 
selves of it by the act of ratification, 
or by some provision of the Constitution. 
If they have not, the Constitution must 
be federal, and not national ; for it would 
have, in tliat case, every attribute neces- 
sary to constitute it federal, and not one 
to make it national. On the other hand, 
if they have divested themselves, then it 
would necessarily lose its federal charac- 
ter, and become national. Whether, then, 
the government is federal or national, is 

reduced to a single question; whether the 
act of ratification, of itself, or the Con- 
stitution, by some one, or all of its provi- 
sions, did, or did not, divest the several 
States of their character of separate, inde- 
pendent, and sovereign communities, and 
merge them all in one great community 
or nation, called the American people. 

Before entering on the consideration of 
this important question, it is proper to re- 
mark, that, on its decision, the character 
of the government, as well as the Constitu- 
tion, depends. The former must, neces- 
sarily, partake of the character of the 
latter, as it is but its agent, created by 
it, to carry its powers into eflfect. Ac- 
cordingly, then, as the Constitution is fed- 
eral or national, so must the government 
be; and I shall, therefore, use them in- 
discriminately in discussing the subject. 

Of all the questions which can arise un- 
der our system of government, this is by 
far the most important. It involves many 
others of great magnitude; and among 
them, that of the allegiance of the citi- 
zen ; or, in other words, the question to 
whom allegiance and obedience are ulti- 
mately due. What is the true relation 
between the two governments — that of the 
United States, and those of the several 
States? and what is the relation between 
the individuals respectively composing 
them? For it is clear, if the States still 
retain their sovereignty as separate and 
independent communities, the allegiance 
and obedience of the citizens of each 
would be due to their respective States; 
and that the government of the United 
States and those of the several States 
would stand as equals and co-ordinates in 
their respective spheres; and, instead of 
being united socially, their citizens would 
be politically connected through their re- 
spective States. On the contrary, if they 
have, by ratifying the Constitution, di- 
vested themselves of their individuality 
and sovereignty, and merged themselves 
into one great community or nation, it 
is equally clear that the sovereignty would 
reside in the whole — or what is called the 
American people; and that allegiance and 
obedience would be due to them. Nor is it 
less so, that the government of the several 
States would, in such case, stand to that 
of the United States, in the relation of 
inferior and subordinate, to superior and 



paramount; and that the individuals of the declaration was taken by delegations, 

the several States, thus fused, as it were, each counting one. The declaration was 

into one general mass, would be united announced to be unanimous, not because 

socially, and not politically. So great every delegate voted for it, but because 

a change of condition would have in- the majority of each delegation did; 

volved a thorough and radical revolution, showing clearly that the body itself, 

both socially and politically — a revolution regarded it as the united act of the 

much more radical, indeed, than that several colonies, and not the act of the 

which followed the Declaration of Inde- whole as one community. To leave 

pendence. no doubt on a point so important, and in 

They who maintain that the ratification reference to which the several colonies 
of the Constitution effected so mighty a were so tenacious, the declaration was 
change, are bound to establish it by the made in the name and by the authority 
most demonstrative proof. The presump- of the people of the colonies, represented 
tion is strongly opposed to it. It has al- in Congress; and that was followed by de- 
ready been shown that the authority of daring them to be " free and independent 
the convention which formed the Consti- States." The act was^ in fact, but a for- 
tution is clearly against it ; and that the mal and solemn annunciation to the world 
history of its ratification, instead of sup- that the colonies had ceased to be de- 
plying evidence in its favor, furnishes pendent communities, and had become free 
strong testimony in opposition to it. To and independent States, without involv- 
these, others may be added ; and, among ing any other change in their relations 
them, the presumption drawn from the with each other than those necessarily in- 
history of these States, in all the stages cident to a separation from the parent 
of their existence down to the time of the country. So far were they from suppos- 
ratification of the Constitution. In all, ing, or intending that it should have the 
they formed separate, and, as it respects effect of merging their existence, as sepa- 
each other, independent communities, and rate communities, into one nation, that 
were ever remarkable for the tenacity with they had appointed a committee — which 
which they adhered to their rights as such, was actually sitting, while the declara- 
It constituted, during the whole period, one tion was under discussion — to prepare a 
of the most striking traits in their char- plan of a confederacy of the States, pre- 
acter, — as a very brief sketch will show. paratory to entering into their new con- 

During their colonial condition, they dition. In fulfilment of their appoint- 
formed distinct communities, — each with ment, this committee prepared the draft 
its separate charter and government, — of the articles of confederation and per- 
and in no way connected with each other, petual union, which afterwards was-adopt- 
except as dependent members of a com- ed by the governments of the several 
mon empire. Their first union amongst States. That it instituted a mere con- 
themselves was, in resistance to the en- federacy and union of the States had al- 
eroachments of the parent country on ready been shown. That, in forming and 
their chartered rights, — when they adopted assenting to it, the States were exceed- 
the title of, — " the United Colonies." Un- ingly jealous and watchful in delegating 
der that name they acted, until they de- power, even to a confederacy; that they 
clared their independence; — always, in granted the powers delegated most re- 
their joint councils, voting and acting as luctantly and sparingly; that several of 
separate and distinct communities ; — and them long stood out, under all the press- 
not in the aggregate, as composing one ure of the Revolutionary War, before they 
community or nation. They acted in the acceded to it; and that, during the inter- 
same character in declaring independence; val which elapsed between its adoption 
by which act they passed from their de- and that of the present Constitution, they 
pendent, colonial condition, into that of evinced, imder the most urgent necessity, 
free and sovereign States. The declara- the same reluctance and jealousy, in dele- 
tion was made by delegates appointed by gating powei- — are facts which cannot be 
the several colonies, each for itself, and disputed. 

on its OAvn authority. The vote making To this may be added another cireum- 



stance of no little weight, drawn from 
the preliminary steps taken for the rati- 
fication of the Constitution. The plan was 
laid, by the convention, before the Con- 
gress of the confederacy, for its consider- 
ation and action, as has been stated. It 
was the sole organ and representative of 
these States in their confederated charac- 
ter. By submitting it, the convention rec- 
ognized and acknowledged its authority 
over it, as the organ of distinct, indepen- 
dent, and sovereign States. It had the 
right to dispose of it as it pleased; and, 
if it had thought proper, it might have 
defeated the plan by simply omitting to 
act on it. But it thought proper to act, 
and to adopt the course recommended by 
the convention, which Avas, to submit it 
" to a convention of delegates, chosen in 
each State, by the people thereof, for 
their assent and adoption." All this was 
in strict accord with the federal charac- 
ter of the Constitution, but wholly repug- 
nant to the idea of its being national. It 
received the assent of the States in all 
the possible modes in which it could be 
obtained: first, in their confederated char- 
acter, through its only appropriate organ, 
the Congress; next, in their individual 
character, as separate States, through 
their respective State governments, to 
which the Congress referred it; and final- 
ly, in their high character of indepen- 
dent and sovereign communities, through 
a convention of the people, called in each 
State, by the authority of its government. 
The States acting in these various capaci- 
ties might, at every stage, have defeated 
it or not, at their option, by giving or 
withholding their consent. 

With this weight of presumptive evi- 
dence, to use no stronger expression, in 
favor of its federal, in contradistinction 
to its national character, I shall next pro- 
ceed to show that the ratification of the 
Constitution, instea'd of furnishing proof 
against, contains additional and conclu- 
sive evidence in its favor. 

We are not left to conjecture as to what 
was meant by the ratification of the Con- 
stitution, or its efi'ects. The expressions 
used by the conventions of the States, 
in ratifying it, and those used by the Con- 
stitution in connection with it, afford 
ample means of ascertaining with accu- 
racy, both its meaning and eflect. The usu 

al form of expression used for the former 
is: "We, the delegates of the State" 
(naming the State), "do, in behalf of 
the people of the State, assent to, and rati- 
fy the said Constitution." All use " rati- 
fy," and all, except North Carolina, use 
" assent to." The delegates of that State 
use " adopt " instead of " assent to," a 
variance merely in the form of expression, 
without, in any degree, affecting the mean- 
ing. Ratification was, then, the act of 
the several States in their separate ca- 
pacity. It was performed by delegates 
appointed expressly for the purpose. Each 
appointed its own delegates ; and the dele- 
gates of each acted in the name of, and for 
the State appointing them. Their act 
consisted in " assenting to," or, what is 
the same thing, " adopting and ratifying " 
the Constitution. 

By turning to the seventh article of the 
Constitution, and to the preamble, it will 
be found what was the effect of ratifying. 
The article expressly provides that, " the 
ratification of the conventions of nine 
States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
ment of this Constitution, between the 
States so ratifying the same." The pre- 
amble of the Constitution is in the follow- 
ing words : " We, the people of the United 
States, in order to form a more perfect 
union, establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquillity, provide for the common de- 
fence, promote the general welfare, and 
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and our posterity, do ordain and estab- 
lish this Constitution for the United 
States of America." The effect, then, of 
its ratification Avas, to ordain and estab- 
lish the Constitution, and thereby to make, 
what was before but a plan, " The Consti- 
tution of the United States of America." 
All this is clear. 

It remains now to show by tchom it was 
ordained and established; for ichom it was 
ordained and established; for tchat it was 
ordained and established; and over tohom 
it was ordained and established. These 
will be considered 'n the order in which 
they stand. 

Nothing more is necessary, in order 
to show by whom it was ordained and es- 
tablished, than to ascertain who are meant 
by " We. the people of the United States "; 
for. by their authority, it was done. To 
this there can be but one answer: it meant 



the people who ratitied the instrument; 
for it was the act of ratification which 
ordained and established it. Who they 
were, admits of no doubt. The process 
preparatory to ratification, and the acts 
by which it was done, prove, beyond the 
possibility of a doubt, that it was ratified 
by the several States, through conventions 
of delegates, chosen in each State by the 
people thereof; and acting, each in the 
name and by the authority of its State: 
and, as all the States ratified it, " We, the 
people of the United States," mean We, 
the people of the several States of the 
Union. The inference is irresistible. And 
when it is considered that the States of 
the Union were then members of the con- 
federacy, and that, by the express pro- 
vision of one of its articles, " each State 
retains its sovereignty, freedom, and in- 
dependence," the proof is demonstrative, 
that " We, the people of the United States 
of America," mean the people of the sev- 
eral States of the Union, acting as free, 
independent, and sovereign States. This 
strikingly confirms what has been already 
stated — to wit, that the convention which 
formed the Constitution meant the same 
thing by the terms " United States " and 
" federal," when applied to the Constitu- 
tion or government ; and that the former, 
when used politically, always mean these 
States united as independent and sovereign 

Having shown hy whom, it was ordain- 
ed, there will be no diSiculty in deter- 
mining for ichom it was ordained. The 
preamble is explicit — it was ordained and 
established for " The United States of 
America," adding " America," in comformi- 
ty to the style of the then confederacy, and 
the Declaration of Independence. Assum- 
ing, then, that the " United States " bears 
the same meaning in the conclusion of the 
preamble as it does in its commencement 
(and no reason can be assigned why it 
ehould not), it follows, necessarily, that 
the Constitution was ordained and estab- 
rished for the people of the several States, 
Hty whom it was ordained and established. 

Nor will there be any difficulty in show- 
tag for lohat it was ordained and es- 
tablished. The preamble enumerates the 
objects. They are — " to form a more 
perfect union, to establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquillity, provide lor the com- 

mon defence, 2)romote the general welfare, 
and secure the blessings of liberty to our- 
selves and our posterity." To effect the^ 
objects, they ordained and established, to 
use their own language, " the Constitu- 
tion for the United States of America," 
clearly meaning by " for " that it was 
intended to be their Constitution; and 
that the objects of ordaining and estab- 
lishing it were to perfect their union, to 
establish justice among them; to insure 
their domestic tranquillity, to provide for 
their common defence and general wel- 
fare, and to secure the blessings of liberty 
to them and their posterity. Taken all 
together, it follows, from what has been 
stated, that the Constitution was ordain- 
ed and established by the several States, 
as distinct, sovereign communities; and 
that it was ordained and established by 
them for themselves — for their common 
welfare and safety, as distinct and sover- 
eign communities. 

It remains to be sho\\Ti over ichom 
it was ordained and established. That 
it was not over the several States is set- 
tled by the seventh article beyond con- 
troversy. It declares that the ratifica- 
tion by nine States shall be sufficient to 
establish the Constitution between the 
States so ratifying. " Between " neces- 
sarily excludes over — as that which is he- 
tween States cannot be over them. Rea- 
son itself, if the Constitution had been 
silent, would have led, with equal certain- 
ty, to the same conclusion. For it was 
the several States, or, what is the same 
thing, their people, in their sovereign ca- 
pacity, who ordained and established the 
Constitution. But the authority which 
ordains and establishes is higher than 
that which is ordained and established ; 
and, of course, the latter must be subor- 
dinate to the former, and cannot, there- 
fore, be over it. " Between " always means 
more than over, and implies in this case 
that the authority which ordained and es- 
tablished the Constitution was the joint 
and united authority of the States ratify 
ing it ; and that, among the effects of theit 
ratification, it became a contract between 
them; and, as a compact, binding on 
them; but only as such. In that sense 
the term " between " is appropriately ap- 
plied. In no other can it be. It was, 
doubtless, used in that sense in this in- 



stance; but the question still remains, 
over whom was it ordained and establish- 
ed? After what has been stated, the an- 
swer may be readily given. It was over 
the government which it created, and all 
its functionaries in their official charac- 
ter, and the individuals composing and 
inhabiting the several States, as far as 
they might come within the sphere of 
the powers delegated to the United States. 

I have now shown, conclusively, by 
arguments drawn from the act of ratifi- 
cation, and the Constitution itself, that 
the several States of the Union, acting 
in their confederated character, ordained 
and established the Constitution; that 
they ordained and established it for them- 
selves, in the same character; that they 
ordained and established it for their wel- 
fare and safety, in the like character ; that 
they established it as a compact betiveen 
them, and not as a Constitution over 
them; and that, as a compact, they are 
parties to it, in the same character. I 
have thus established, conclusively, that 
these States, in ratifying the Constitu- 
tion, did not lose the confederated charac- 
ter which they possessed when they rati- 
fied it, as well as in all the preceding 
stages of their existence ; but, on the 
contrary, still retained it to the full. 

Those who oppose this conclusion, and 
maintain the national character of the 
government, rely, in support of their 
views, mainly on the expressions, " We, the 
people of the United States," used in the 
first part of the preamble; and "do or- 
dain and establish this Constitution for 
the United States of America," used in 
its conclusion. Taken together, they in- 
sist, in the first place, that " we, the peo- 
ple," mean the people in their individual 
character, as forming a single community; 
and that " the United States of America " 
designates them in their aggregate charac- 
ter as the American people. In maintain- 
ing this construction, they rely on the 
omission to enumerate the States by name, 
after the word " people " ( so as to make 
it read, " We, the people of New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, &c.," as was done 
in the articles of the confederation, and, 
also, in signing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence) ; and, instead of this, the simple 
use of the general term " United States." 

However plausible this may appear, an 

explanation perfectly satisfactory may be 
given, why the expression, as it now 
stands, was used by the framers of the 
Constitution, and why it should not re- 
ceive the meaning attempted to be placed 
upon it. It is conceded that, if the enu- 
meration of the States after the word, 
" people," had been made, the expression 
would have been freed from all ambiguity, 
and the inference and argument founded 
on the failure to do so left without pre- 
text or support. The omission is certainly 
striking, but it can be readily explained. 
It was made intentionally, and solely from 
the necessity of the case. The first draft 
of the Constitution contained an enumer- 
ation of the States, by name, after the 
word "people"; but it became impossible 
to retain it after the adoption of the 
seventh and last article, which provided, 
that the ratification by nine States should 
be sufficient to establish the Constitution 
as between them; and for the plain rea- 
son, that it was impossible to determine 
whether all the States would ratify; or, 
if any failed, which, and how many of 
the number; or, if nine should ratify, how 
to designate them. No alternative was 
thvis left but to omit the enumeration, and 
to insert the " United States of America " 
in its place. And yet, an omission, so 
readily and so satisfactorily explained, has 
been seized on, as furnishing strong proof 
that the government was ordained and 
established by the American people, in 
the aggregate, and is therefore national. 

But the omission, of itself, would have 
caused ho difficulty, had there not been 
connected with it a twofold ambiguity in 
the expression as it now stands. The term 
" United States," which always means, 
in Constitutional language, the several 
States in their confederated character, 
means also, as has been shown, when ap- 
plied geographically, the country occupied 
and possessed by them. While the term, 
" people," has, in the English language, no 
plural, and is necessarily used in the sin- 
gular number, even when applied to many 
communities or States confederated in a 
common union, as is the case with the Unit- 
ed States. Availing themselves of this dou- 
ble ambiguity, and the omission to enumer- 
ate the States by name, the advocates of 
the national theory of the government, 
assuming that we, the people, meant in- 



dividuals generally; and not people as That the Constitution regards itself in 
forming States; and that United States the light of a compact, still existing be- 
was used in a geographical and not a tween the States, after it was ordained, 
political sense, made out an argument of and established; that it regards the union, 
some plausibility, in favor of the con- then existing, as still existing; and the 
elusion that " we, the people of the United several States, of course, still members 
States of America," meant the aggregate of it, in their original character of con- 
population of the States regarded en federated States, is clear. Its seventh 
masse, and not in their distinctive charac- article, so often referred to, in cen- 
ter as forming separate political com- nection with the arguments drawn from 
munities. But in this gratuitous assump- the preamble, sufficiently establishes all 
tion, and the conclusion drawn from it, these points, without adducing others; 
they overlooked the stubborn fact, that except that which relates to the continu- 
the very people who ordained and estab- ance of the union. To establish this, it 
lished the constitution, are identically the will not be necessary to travel out of the 
same who ratified it ; for it was by the preamble and the letter of the convention, 
act of ratification alone that it was or- laying the plan of the Constitution before 
dained and established, as has been con- the Congress of the confederation. In 
clusively shown. This fact, of itself, enumerating the objects for which the 
sweeps away every vestige of the argu- Constitution was ordained and establish- 
ment drawn from the ambiguity of those ed, the preamble places at the head of the 
terms, as used in the preamble. rtst, as its leajling object — " to form a 

They next rely, in support of their more perfect union." So far, then, are the 
theory, on the expression, " ordained and terms " ordained and established " from 
established this Constitution." They ad- being incompatible with the union, or hav- 
mit that the Constitution, in its incipient ing the eflfect of destroying it, the Consti- 
state, assumed the form of a compact ; tution itself declares that it was intend- 
but contend that " ordained and establish- ed " to form a more perfect union." This, 
ed," as applied to the Constitution and of itself, is sufficient to refute the asser- 
government, are incompatible with the tion of their incompatibility. But it is 
idea of compact; that, consequently, the proper here to remark that it could not 
instrument or plan lost its federative have been intended, by the expression in 
character when it was ordained and estab- the preamble, " to form a more perfect 
lished as a Constitution ; and, thus, the union," to declare that the old was abol- 
States ceased to be parties to a compact, ished, and a new and more perfect union 
and members of a confederated union, and established in its place: for we have the 
became fused into one common commu- authority of the convention which formed 
nity, or nation, as subordinate and depend- the Constitution, to prove that their ob- 
ent divisions or corporations. ject was to continue the then existing 

I do not deem it necessary to discuss union. In their letter, laying it before 
the question whether there is any compat- Congress, they say, " In all our deliber- 
ibility between the terms " ordained and ations on this subject, we kept steadily 
established" and that of "compact," on in our view that which appears to us the 
which the whole argument rests ; although greatest interest of every true American, 
it would be no difficult task to show that the consolidation of our union." " Our 
it is a gratuitous assumption, without any union " can refer to no other than the 
foundation whatever for its support. It then existing union, the old union of 
is sufficient for my purpose to show that the confederacy, and of the revolu- 
the assumption is wholly inconsistent with tionary government which preceded it, 
che Constitution itself — as much so, as of which these States were confederated 
the conclusion drawn from it has been members. This must, of course, have 
shown to be inconsistent with the opinion been the union to which the framers re- 
ef the convention which formed it. Very ferred in the preamble. It was this, ac- 
little will be required, after what has been cordingly, which the Constitution intended 
already stated, to establish what I pro- to make more perfect; just as the con- 
pose, federacy made more perfect that of the 



revolutionary government. Nor is there But however strong be the proofs ot 
anything in the term " consolidation," used its federal character derived from this 
by the convention, calculated to weaken source, that portion which provides for 
the conclusion. It is a strong expression; the amendment of the Constitution, fur- 
but as strong as it is, it certainly was nishes, if possible, still stronger. It shows, 
not intended to imply the destruction of conclusively, that the people of the sev- 
the union, as it is supposed to do by the eral States still retain that supreme ulti- 
advocates of a national government; for mate power called sovereignty — the power 
that would have been incompatible with by which they ordained and established 
the context, as well as with the continu- the Constitution ; and which can right- 
ance of the union, which the sentence and fully create, modify, amend, or abolish 
the entire letter imply. Interpreted, then, it, at its pleasure. Wherever this power 
in conjunction with the expression used resides, there the sovereignty is to be 
in the preamble, " to form a more perfect found. That it still continues to exist in 
union," although it may more strongly the several States, in a modified form, is 
intimate closeness of connection, it can clearly shown by the fifth article of the 
imply nothing incompatible with the pro- Constitution, which provides for its 
fessed object of perfecting the union, still amendment. By its provisions, Congress 
less a meaning and effect wholly incon- may propose amendments, on its own au- 
sistent with the nature of a confederated thority, by the vote of two-thirds of both 
community. For to adopt the interpreta- Houses; or it may be compelled to call 
tion contended for, to its full extent, would a convention to propose them, by two- 
be to destroy the union, and not to con- thirds of the legislatures of the several 
solidate and perfect it. States: but, in either case, they remain, 
If we turn from the preamble and the when thus made, mere proposals of no 
ratifications, to the body of the Consti- validity, until adopted by three-fourths 
tution, we shall find that it furnishes most of the States, through their respective 
conclusive proof that the government is legislatures ; or by conventions, called by 
federal, and not national. I can discover them for the purpose. Thus far, the 
nothing, in any portion of it, which gives several States, in ordaining and estab- 
the least countenance to the opposite con- lishing the Constitution, agreed, for their 
elusion. On the contrary, the instrument, mutual convenience and advantage, to 
in all its parts, repels it. It is, through- modify, by compact, their high sovereign 
out, federal. It everywhere recognizes the power of creating and establishing con- 
existence of the States, and invokes their stitutions, as far as it related to the 
aid to carry its powers into execution. Constitution and government of the 
In one of the two Houses of Congress the United States. I say, for their mutual 
members are elected by the legislatures convenience and advantage; for without 
of their respective States ; and in the other the modification, it would have required 
by the people of the several States, not the separate consent of all the States of 
as composing mere districts of one great the Union to alter or amend their consti- 
community, but as distinct and indepen- tutional compact; in like manner as it 
dent communities. General Washington required the consent of all to establish it 
vetoed the first act apportioning the mem- between them ; and to obviate the almost 
bers of the House of Representatives insuperable difficulty of making such 
among the several States, under the first amendments as time and experience might 
census, expressly on the ground that the prove to be necessary, by the unanimous 
act assumed, as its basis, the former and consent of all, they agreed to make the 
not the latter construction. The Presi- modification. But that they did not in- 
dent and Vice-President are chosen by tend, by this, to divest themselves of the 
electors, appointed by their respective high sovereign right (a right which they 
States; and, finally, the judges are ap- still retain, notwithstanding the modifica- 
pointed by the President and the Senate; tion) to change or abolish the present 
and, of course, as these are elected by Constitution and government at their 
the States, they are appointed through pleasure, cannot be doubted. It is an 
their agency. acknowledged principle, that sovereigns 



may, by compact, modify or qualify the 
exercise of their power, witliout impair- 
ing their sovereignty; of wliich the confed- 
eracy existing at the time furnishes a 
striking illustration. It must reside, un- 
impaired and in its plenitude, somewhere. 
And if it do not reside in the people of 
the several States, in their confederated 
character, where — so far as it relates to 
the Constitution and government of the 
United States — can it be found? Not, 
certainly, in the government ; for, accord- 
ing to our theory, sovereignty resides in 
the people, and not i-n the government. 
That it cannot be found in the people, 
taken in the aggregate, as forming one 
community or nation, is equally certain. 
But as certain as it cannot, just so certain 
is it that it must reside in the people of 
the several States ; and if it reside in them 
at all, it must reside in them as separate 
and distinct communities; for it has been 
shown that it does not reside in them in 
the aggregate, as forming one community 
or nation. These are the only aspects under 
which it is possible to regard the people; 
and, just as certain as it resides in them, 
in that character, so certain is it that ours 
is a federal, and not a national government. 
California, the largest of the Pacific 
coast States; noted for its admirable cli- 
mate, its production of gold, its large 
commerce, and its great yield of fruit, 


which now finds a market even in Eu- 
rope. In recent years the production of 
gold has decreased, but there has been 

a remarkable development of other min- 
eral resources, especially petroleum. Re- 
ports on the foreign trade in the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1900, showed at the 
ports of Humboldt, Los Angeles, San 
Diego, and San Francisco, imports of 
merchandise, $49,441,831; exports, $43,- 
361,078; imports of gold and silver coin 
and bullion, $13,734,348; exports, $9,528,- 
309. The production of the precious 
metals in the calendar year of 1899 was: 
Gold, $15,197,800; silver, $494,580. In 
1900 the total assessed valuation of taxa- 
ble property was $1,218,228,588, and the 
total bonded debt was $2,281,500, nearly 
all of which was held in State educational 
funds. The population in 1890 was 1,208,- 
130; in 1900, 1,485,053. 

In 1534 Heknando Cortez (q. v.) sent 
Hernando de Grijalva on an errand of 
discovery to the Pacific coast, who prob- 
ably saw the peninsula of California. 
Twenty-five years before the Spanish 
leader discovered the country, a romance 
was published in Spain in which are de- 
scribed the doings of a pagan queen of 
Amazons, who brought from the " right 
hand of the Indies " her allies to assist 
the infidels in their attack upon Constan- 
tinople. The romance was entitled Es- 
plandian, the name of an imaginary 
Greek emperor, living in Stamboul, the 
Turkish name of Constantinople. The 
Amazonian queen was named Calafia, 
whose kingdom, rich in gold, diamonds, 
and pearls, was called California. The 
author probably derived the name from 
Calif, the title of a successor of Moham- 
med. The author says: "Know that on 
the right hand of the Indies there is an 
island, called California, very close to the 
Terrestrial Paradise, and it was peopled 
by black women without any man among 
them, for they lived in the fashion of the 
Amazonia. They were of strong and 
hardy bodies, of ardent courage, and of 
great force. Their island was the strong- 
est in all the world, with its steep cliff's 
and rocky shore. Their arms were all of 
gold, and so was the harness of the wild 
beasts which they tamed and rode. For 
in the whole island there was no metal but 
gold. They lived in caves wrought out 
of the rocks with much labor. They had 
many ships with which they sailed out to 
other countries to obtain booty." Both 





Cortez and Grijalva believed, as everybody 
then believed, that they were in the neigh- 
borhood of the coast of Asia ; and, as the 
aspect of the country corresponded with 
the description in the romance, they 
named the peninsula California. In the 
Gulf of California were found pearls; so 
the description of the country of the black 
Amazons — a country filled with gold and 
pearls — suited the actual condition of the 
region explored. 

Although parts of the present terri- 
tory of the State are believed to have 
been discovered about 1534, settlements 
in Old or Lower California were first 
made in 1683 by Jesuit missionaries. New 
or Upper California was discovered later, 
and the first mission there (San Diego) 
was planted in 1768. For many years 
the government of California, temporal 
and spiritual, was under the control of 
monks of the O'-der of St. Francis. It 
was not until about 1770 that the Bay 
of San Francisco was discovered, and in 
1776 a mission was established there. At 
the bejrinninir of the nineteenth century 
eiffhteen missions had been established in 
California, with over 15,000 converts. The 


Spanish power in California was over- 
tlirown by the Mexican revolution in 1822, 
when the government was permanently sec- 
ularized. In 1843-46 many thousand emi- 
grants from the United States settled in 
California; and when the war with Mexico 
broke out in 1840, the struggle for thu 
mastery in that Pacific coast province 
speedily ended in victory for the Ameri- 
cans in 1847. By the treaty of peace at 
Guadalupe Hidalgo (q. v.), California 
and other territory were ceded to the Unit- 
ed States. In the month of February, 
1848, gold was discovered in California, on 
the Sacramento River, by John W. Mar- 
shall, who was working for John A. Sut- 
ter iq. v.), and as the news spread abroad, 
thousands of enterprising and energetic 
men flocked thither, not only from the 
United States, but from South America, 
Europe, and China, to secure the precioua 
metal. Very soon there was a mixed pop- 
ulation of all sorts of characters in Cali- 
fornia of at least 2.50.000 persons. The 
military governor called a convention to 
meet at IMonterey, Sept. 1, 1849, to frame 
a State constitution. One was formed by 
which slavery was to be excluded from th' 


uew State; and this document revived in 
Congress, in great intensity, debates on the 
subject of slavery in 1849-50. See Keae- 
NY, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Robebt 

Prior to the assembly of the constitu- 
tional convention the people of California, 
in convention at San Francisco, had voted 
against the admission of the slave-labor 
system in that country. The constitu- 
tion adopted at Monterey also had a pro- 
vision to exclude slavery from the State. 
Thus came into political form the crude 
elements of a State, the birth and matu- 
rity of which seems like a strange dream. 
All had been accomplished within twenty 
months from the time when gold was dis- 
covered at Sutter's Mill. Under this con- 
stitution John Charles Fremont {q. v.), 
and William M. Gwin {q. v.) were chosen 
by the State legislature United States 
Senators. Edward Gilbert and G. H. 
Wright were elected to the House of Rep- 
resentatives. When Fremont and Gwin 
went to W^ashington, they took the State 
constitution with them, and presented a 
petition (February, 1850) asking for the 
admission of California into the 
Union as a free and independent 
State. The article in its consti- 
tution which excluded slavery 
became a cause of violent debate 
in Congress and of bitter feel- 
ing in the South against the 
people of the North. The Union, 
so strong in the hearts of the 
people, was shaken to its cen- 
tre. Mr. Clay again appeared as 
a compromiser for the sake of 
peace and union. It seemed 
that some compromise was need- 
ed to avoid serious difficulty, for 
already the representatives of 
the slave interest had taken ac- 
tion, and the Southern members 
in Congress boldly declared their 
intention to break up the Union 
if California should be admitted 
under such a constitution. A 
joint resolution was adopted to 
appoint a committee of thirteen 
(six Northern and six South- 
ern members, who should choose 
the thirteenth) to consider the 
subject of a territorial gov- 
ernment for California, New 


Mexico, and Utah, with instructions to 
report a plan of compromise embracing 
all the questions thus arising out of the 
subject of slavery. Henry Clay was made 
chairman of that committee. He had al- 
ready presented (Jan. 25, 1850) a plan 
of compromise to the South, and spoke 
eloquently in favor of it (Feb. 5); and 
on May 8 he reported a plan of compro- 
mise in a series of bills, intended to be 
a pacification. This was called the 
Omnibus Bill {q. v.) . It made large con- 
cessions to the slave-holders, and yet it 
was not satisfactory to them. For months 
a. violent discussion of the compromise act 
was carried on throughout the country, 
and it was denounced upon diametrical- 
ly opposite grounds. It finally became a 
law, and on Sept. 9, 1850, California was 
admitted into the Union as a State. 

So lawless were a large class of the 
population at this time, that nothing but 
the swift operations of " Vigilance Commit- 
tees " could control them and preserve 
social order. The first vigilance commit- 
tee of San Francisco was organized in 
1851. Finally, these committees assumed 



From 1767 up to 1821, California being 
under Spanish rule, ten governors were 
appointed by that power. From 1822 
until 1845, being under Mexican domina- 
tion, her governors (twelve) were appoint- 
ed from Mexico. See United States- 
California, in vol. ix. 


the functions and powers of judges and 
executives, which guaranteed all accused 
persons a fair trial. Dangerous men of 
every kind were arrested, tried, hanged, 
or transported. In 1856 the vigilance 
committee surrendered its powers to the 
regularly constituted civil authority. Cal- 
ifornia furnished 15,725 three-year vol- 
imteers for the Union army in the Civil 
War. The Pacific Eailroad was completed 
May 12, 1869, thus connecting California 
with the Atlantic seaboard. The progress 
of the State was phenomenal up to the 
great earthquake of April 19, 1906. The 
destruction of San Francisco and the 
damage to the smaller cities simply stim- 
ulated the energies of the people. 




John C. Fremont 





Com. Robert F. Stockton 




1847 to 1849 

Gen Persifer F. Smith 






I'eter H. Burnett 

1849 to 1851 

1851 " 1852 

1852 " 1856 

1856 " iH.'iS 

John B. Weller 

1858 " 1860 


I860 to 1862 

1862 " 1863 

1863 " 1867 

Henry H Haight 

1867 " 1871 

1871 " 1875 


1875 to 1880 

1880 " 1883 

1883 " 1887 


1887 to 189] 

1891 " 1895 

J H Buiid 

1895 " 1899 

1899 " 1903 

1903 " 1907 



John C. Fremont... 
William M. Gwin... 

John B. Weller 

David C. Broderick. 

Henry P. Hann 

Millon S. Lathnrn. . . 
James A. McOougall 

John Conners 

Cornelius Cole 

Eugene Casserly.... 

John S. Hager 

Aaron A Sargent. .. 
Newton Booth. . . . . 

James T Farley 

John F. Miller 

Leland Stanford 


Charles N Felton... 
Stephen M White.. 
George C Perkins.. 
Thomas R. Bard 


, of Congress 

31st to 36th 
32d " 34th 
35th " 36lh 

3fith to 37tti 
3Tth " 39th 
38th " 40lh 
40th " 4Qd 
41st " 43d 

43d to 45th 

44th " 

46th " 

47th " 

49th " 

."iOth " 

52d " 

53d " 

56th to 



1849 to 

1849 " 

1851 " 

1857 " 

1860 to 

1861 " 
1863 " 
1867 " 
1869 " 


1873 to 

1875 '' 

1879 " 

1881 " 

1885 •' 

1887 " 

1891 " 

1893 " 

1893 " 

1899 " 





Callahan, James Morton, historian; in 1868. During his term of office he pre- 

born in Bedford, Ind., Nov. 4, 1864; was sented the resolution on which the Ku- 

graduated at the University of Indiana in Klux Klan (g. v.) bill was passed. He 

1894; acting Professor of American His- died in Lancaster, Wis., Sept. 23, 1898. 

tory and Constitutional Law at Hamilton Calumet, a kind of pipe for smoking 

College in 1897-98; became lecturer on used by the North American Indians. 

American Diplomatic History at the Johns The bowl is generally of stone, and the 

Hopkins University in the latter year, stem is ornamented with feathers, etc. 

His publications include Neutrality of the The calumet is the emblem of peace and 

American Lakes; Cuba and International hospitality. To refuse the offer of it 

Relations, etc. 

Callender, James Thompson, editor 
and author; born in Scotland. He pub- 
lished in Edinburgh, in 1792, a book call- 
ed Political Progress of Great Britain, 
which so offended the authorities that he 
was banished from the kingdom, and went 
to Philadelphia, where he published the 
Political Register in 1794-95, and the 
American Annual Register for 1796-97. 
He was a violent and unscrupulous oppo- 
nent of Washington's administration, and 
delighted in abusing Hamilton and Other 
Federalist leaders. For a season he en- 
joyed the friendship of Jefferson. The 
latter became disgusted with Callender, 
when the former, becoming Jefferson's 
enemy, calumniated him fearfully. He 
published the Richmond Recorder, in which 
he made fierce attacks upon the character 
of Washington and Adams. He died in 
Richmond, Va., in July, 1813. 

Callender, John, historian; born in 
Boston, Mass., in 1706; graduated at 
Harvard College in 1723; pastor of the 
First Baptist Church in Newport, R. I., 
in 1731-48. On March 24, 1738, he de- 
livered a public address entitled An His- 
torical Discourse on the Civil and Re- 
ligions A ffairs of the Colony of Rhode Isl- 
and and Providence Plantations, from the 
First Settlement to the end of the First 
Century. For more than 100 years this was 
the only history of Rhode Island. He also 
collected a number of papers treating of 
the history of the Baptists in America. He 
died in Newport, R. I., Jan. 26, 1748. 

Callis, John B., military officer; born 
in Fayetteville, N. C, Jan. 3, 1828; went 
to Wisconsin in 1840; entered the army 
as captain in the 7th Wisconsin Volun- 
teers when the Civil War broke out; 
brevetted brigadier - general in March, 
1864; sent to Huntsville, Ala., as assist- 
ant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bu- 

is to make a proclamation of enmity or 
war, and to accept it is a sign of peace 
and friendship. 

Calvert, the family name of the Lords 
Baltimore — George, Cecilius, Charles 1st, 
Benedict Leonard, Charles 2d, and Freder- 
ick. See Baltimore, Lords. 

Calvert, Leonard, son of the first Lord 
Baltimore, and first governor of Mary- 
land; born about 1606. Having been ap- 
pointed governor of the new colony by his 
brother Cecil, he sailed from Cowes, Isle 
of Wight, for Chesapeake Bay, Nov. 22, 
1633, with two vessels [Ark and Dove), 
and over 300 emigrants. The Ark was a 
ship of 300 tons, and the Dove a pinnace 
of 50 tons. Among the company were 
two Jesuit priests, Andrew White and 
John Altham. At religious ceremonies 
performed at the time of departure, the 
expedition was committed " to the pro- 
tection of God especially, and of His most 
Holy Mother, and St. Ignatius, and all the 
guardian angels of Maryland." The two 
vessels were convoyed beyond danger from 
Turkish corsairs. Separated by a furious 
tempest that swept the sea three days, 
ending with a hurricane which split the 
sails of the Ark, unshipped her rudder, 
and left her at the mercy of the waves, 
the voyagers were in despair, and doubted 
not the little Dove had gone to the bot- 
tom of the ocean. Delightful weather en- 
sued, and at Barbadoes the Dove joined 
the Ark after a separation of six weeks. 
Sailing northward, they touched at Point 
Comfort, at the entrance to the Chesa- 
peake, and then went up to Jamestown, 
with royal letters borne by Calvert, and 
received there a kind reception from Gov- 
ernor Harvey. They tarried nine days, 
and then entered the Potomac River, 
which delighted them. The colonists 
sailed up the river to the Heron Islands, 
and, at a little past the middle of March, 

reau; resigned and elected to Congress landed on one of them, which they named 



St. Clement's. On the 25th they offered 
the sacrifice of the mass, set up a huge 
cross hewn from a tree, and knelt in sol- 
emn devotion around it. Going farther 
up, they entered a river which they called 
St. George; and on the right bank found- 
ed the capital of the new province with 
military and religious ceremonies, and 
called it St. Mary's. That scene occurred 
March 27, 1G34. It remained the capital 
of Maryland until near the close of the 
century, when it speedily became a ruined 
town, and now scarcely a trace of it re- 
mains. They found the natives friendly, 
and awed into reverence for the white 
men by the flash and roar of cannon, 
which they regarded as lightning and 
thunder. The successful medical services 
of Father White in curing a sick Indian 
king gained the profound respect of these 
children of the forest. He and his queen 
and three daughters were baptized by 
Father White, and became members of the 
Christian Church. William Claiborne, an 
earlier settler on Kent Island, in the Ches- 
apeake, gave Calvert much trouble, and 
was abetted in his course by the Virginia 
authorities, who regarded the Maryland 
colonists as intruders. He was driven 
away, and his property was confiscated. 
But he was a " thorn in the side " of the 
proprietor for a long time. Governor Cal- 
vert tried to carry out the grand design 
of the proprietor to establish a feudal 
nobility with hereditary titles and privi- 
leges, the domain for the purpose being 
divided into manorial estates of 2,000 and 
3,000 acres each, but the provisions of the 
charter fortunately prevented such a con- 
summation of Lord Baltimore's order. 
Governor Calvert went to England in 
1643, and during his absence for nearly 
a year much trouble ensued in the col- 
ony, for Claiborne, with Capt. Bichard 
Ingle, harassed the settlement at St. 
Mary's. Civil war ensued (1645), and 
Governor Calvert was expelled from Mary- 
land, and took refuge in Virginia. Final- 
ly, Calvert returned from Virginia with a 
military force, took possession of Kent 
Island, and re-established proprietary 
rights over all the province of Maryland. 
He died June 9, 1647. See Baltimobe, 

Cambon, Jules Martin, diplomatist; 
born in Paris, France, April 5, 1845; 

French ambassador to the United States 
in 1897-1902; then to Spain. After the 
destruction of the fleets in Manila Bay and 
off Santiago, the surrender of the army at 
the city of Santiago, and the failure of the 
Spanish government to secure the inter- 
vention of the European powers, the Span- 


ish authorities undertook direct negotia- 
tions for peace. As diplomatic relations 
with the United States had been broken 
off, M. Cambon was appointed the special 
representative of the Spanish government 
to arrange for a cessation of hostilities as 
well as the preliminaries of peace. He 
executed this mission in a manner that 
won the appreciation of both governments 
concerned, and after the ratification of 
peace he was selected by the two govern- 
ments to make the formal exchange of 
certified copies of the act. 

Cambridge, city, and one of the coun- 
ty seats of Middlesex county, Mass., sepa- 
rated from Boston by the Charles River; 
was founded in 1631 under the name of 
Newtown ; and is noted as the place where 
Washington took command of the Conti- 
nental army on July 2, 1775; as the seat 
of Harvard Uni\t?:rsity {q. v.) ; and as 
the place where the sons of Alvan Clark 
carry on the manufacture of astronomical 
instruments which have a world-wide rep- 
utation. In 1900 the city had a total as- 
sessed valuation of taxable property of 
$94,467,930, and the net city and water 



debt was $6,226,182. The population in mder Lord Cornwallis, losing 700 men, 
1890 was 70,028; in J.900, 91,880. among them Baron de Kalb mortally 

The second Synod or ilassachusetts met wounded, and nearly all their luggage and 
at Cambridge in 1640, and was not dis- artillery. 

solved until 1018. The synod composed Cameron, Henry Clay, educator; born 
and adopted a system of church discip'ine in Shcpherdstown, Va., Sept. 1, 1827; 
called "The Cambridge Platform," and graduated at Princeton College in 1847 ; in 
recommended it, together with the West- 1855 became Professor of Greek at Prince- 
minster Confession of Faith, to the general ton. His publications include The History 
court and to the churches. The latter, of the American Whig Society ; Old Prince- 
in New England, generally complied with ton: Its Battles, Its Cannon, etc. 
the recommendation, and " The Cambridge Cameron, James Donald, statesman ; 
Platform," with the ecclesiastical laws, born in Middlctown, Pa., May 14, 1833; 
formed the theological constitution of graduated at Princeton in 1852; Secretary 
the New England colonies. of War, 1876-77; United States Senator, 

The seeming apathy of Congress in re- 1877-97. He was chairman of the nation- 
spect to the army besieging Boston great- al Republican committee in 1880. 
ly perplexed Washington. The cool season Cameron, Simon, statesman; born in 
was approaching, and not only powder Lancaster county, Pa., March 18, 1799; 
and artillery were wanting, but fuel, shel- elected to the United States Senate in 
ter, clothing, provisions, and the wages of 1845; resigned from the Senate to become 
the soldiers. Washington, wearied by in- Secretary of War in 1801; resigned this 
effectual remonstrances, at length wrote office, Jan. 11, 1862, to become minister 
a letter to Congress, implying his sense to Russia; re-elected to the United States 
that the neglect of that body had brought Senate in 1800, and again re-elected, but 
matters in his ariry to a crisis. He sub- resigned in 1877 in favor of his son. He 
mitted to their consideration the wants practically dictated the policy of the Re- 
ef the army, a mutinous spirit prevailing publican party in Pennsylvania for many 
among them, and the danger that, when years. He died June 20, 1889. 
the terms of enlistment of all the troops Camillus. Nom - de - plume of Alex- 
excepting the regulars should expire in ander Hamilton, used in a series of papers 
December, it would be difficult to re-enlist entitled Defence of the Treaty, published 
them or get new recruits. Congress had in 1795. 

really no power to provide an adequate »jampbell, Alexander, clergyman; born 
remedy for this state of things; therefore in County Antrim, Ireland, in June» 
it appointed a committee (Sept. 30, 1775), 1786; educated at the University of Glas- 
consisting of Dr. Franklin, Lynch, and gow; came to the United States in 1809; 
Harrison, to repair to the camp, and, with and became pastor of a Presbyterian 
the New England colonies and Washing- church in Washington county, Pa. In 
ton, devise a plan for renovating the army. 1810 with his father he left the Presby- 
They arrived at Cambridge, Oct. 15. With terian Church and founded in 1827 the 
such a representative of Congress as sect which he named The Disciples op 
Franklin and such a military leader as Christ {q. v.), and which is now kno^^^l 
W^ashington, the New England commis- as the Campbellites. Mr. Campbell estab* 
sioners worked harmoniously; and they lished Bethany College in 1840-41, and 
devised a scheme for forming, governing, was its first president. He died in Beth* 
and supplying a new army of about 23,- any. W. Va., March 4, 1800. 
000 men, whom the general was author- Campbell, Alexander, legislator; born 
ized to enlist without delay. See Army; in Concord, Pa., Oct. 4, 1814; member of the 
Washington, George. State legislature in 1858-59; and member 

Cambridge Platform. See Cambridge, of Congress in 1875-77. He obtained wide 
Mass. repute as the " Father of the Greenbacks." 

Camden, a village in South Carolina, He died in La Salle, 111., Aug. 9, 1898. 
where, on Aug. 10, 1780, about 3,600 Amer- Campbell, Sir Archibald, military of- 
icans, commanded by General Gates, were ficer; born in Tnverarv. Scotland, in 1739; 
defeated by from 2,000 to 2,500 British, entered the British army in 1758; became 



a lieutenant-colonel in 1775; with a part 
of his command was captured in Bos- 
ton Harbor early in the Revolutionary 
War, and was cruelly treated in re- 
taliation for treatment of American offi- 
cers captured by the British. On Dec. 

same, Aug. 29, 1759; was acting comman- 
dant of Fort Detroit when that place was 
besieged by Pontiac. He was captured by 
Pontiac and tortured to death in 1763. 

Campbell, George Washington, states- 
man; born in Tennessee in 1768; grad- 

29, 1778, he captured Savannah, Ga., and uated at Princeton in 1794; member of 
gave orders to his officers to show leniency Congress, 1803-9; United States Senator, 

to the people. On Jan. 29, 1779, he took 
Augusta, but on Feb. 13, he was forced 
to evacuate that city. He died in London, 
England, March 31,"^ 1791. 

Campbell, Charles, historian ; born in 
Petersburg, Va., May 1, 1807; gradu- 
ated at Princeton College in 
became a teacher. He was a member of 
the Virginia Historical Society, and a 
contributor to the Historical Register. 
He edited the Orderly Book of Gen. An- 
drew Lewis in 1776, and published An 
Introduction to the History of the Colony 
and Ancient Dominion of Virginia; Gen- 
ealogy of the Spotsicood Family. He died 
in Staunton, Va., July 11, 1876. 

1811-14, 1815-18; Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, 1814; minister to Russia, 1818-20. 
He died in Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 17, 1898. 

Campbell, James, jurist; born in 
Philadelphia in 1813; admitted to the bar 
in 1834; Postmaster-General, 1853-57. He 
1825, and died in Philadelphia, Jan. 27, 1893. 

Campbell, John, author ; born in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, [March 8, 1708. His pub- 
lications relating to the United States in- 
clude Concise History of Spanish Ameri- 
ca; Voyages and Travels from Columbus 
to Anson. He died Dec. 28, 1775. 

Campbell, John, military officer ; born 
in Strachur, Scotland; joined the British 
array in 1745; participated in the attack 

Campbell, Charles Thomas, military on Fort Ticonderoga in 1758. When the 

officer; born in Franklin county. Pa., Aug. 
10, 1823; was educated at Marshall Col- 
lege; served in the war with Mexico; pro- 
moted captain in August, 1847. When the 
Civil War broke out he entered the army, 
and in December, 1861, was commission- 
ed colonel of the 57th Pennsylvania In- 
fantry. Later he and his regiment were 

Revolutionary W^ar broke out he com- 
manded the British forces in west Florida 
until surrendered to the Spanish, May 
10, 1781. He died in 1806. 

Campbell, John Archibald, jiirist; 
born in Washington, Ga., June 24, 1811; 
justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, 1853-61, when he resigned to be- 



captured, but they escaped and brought come assistant Secretary of War of the 
into the Union lines more than 200 Con- 
federate captives. On March 13, 1863, 
he was promoted brigadier-general. 

Campbell, Cle\'eland J., military offi- 
cer: born in New York City in July, 
1836; graduated at the University of Got- 
tingen; enlisted in the 44th New York 
Regiment early in the Civil War; and 
was brevetted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers March 13, 1865. During the engage- 
ment of Petersburg he was colonel of the 

Confederate States. He 
more, Md., March 12, 1889. 

Campbell, Lewis Davis, diplomatist; 
born in Franklin, 0., Aug. 9, 1811; mem- 
ber of Congress in 1849-58; colonel of an 
Ohio regiment in 1861-62; appointed min- 
ister to Mexico in December, 1865. He 
returned to the United States in 1868, 
and held a seat in Congress in 1871-73. 
He died Nov. 26, 1882. 

Campbell, Richard, military officer; 

23d Regiment of colored troops, and while born in Virginia ; was made a captain in 

leading his command into the thickest 1776; served with Gibson in Pittsburg, 

of this fight the famous mine exploded, kill- and' with Mcintosh against the Ohio 

ing and wounding nearly 400 of his troops. Indians 

He also received injuries which caused his 
death in Castleton, N. Y., June 13, 1865. 
Campbell, Donald, military officer; 
born in Scotland about 1735; entered the 
British army, and on Jan. 4, 1756, be- 
came a lieutenant in the " Royal Ameri- 
can " Regiment ; promoted captain of the 

in 1778; promoted lieutenant- 
colonel ; and while leading the charge at 
Eutaw Springs which forced the British 
to retreat received a wound from which he 
died Sept. 8, 1781. A few hours after the 
battle, on hearing that the British were 
defeated, he exclaimed, " I die contented." 
Campbell's Station, a village in Knox 



county, Tenn., 12 miles southwest of 
Knoxville, where on Nov. 16, 1863, the 
National army under General Burnside 
was attacked by a Confederate force under 
General Longstreet. The engagement last- 
ed from noon till dark, and resulted in 
the defeat of the Confederates. The Na- 
tional force comprised portions of the 
9th and 23d Corps, with cavalry. 

Campbell, William, military officer; 
born in Augusta county, Va., in 1745; was 
in the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, 
and was captain of a Virginia regiment 
in 1775. Being colonel of Washington 
county militia in 1780, he marched, with 
his regiment, 200 miles to the attack of 
Major Ferguson at King's Mountain 
iq. V.) , where his services gained for him 
great distinction. So, also, were his prow- 
ess and skill conspicuous in the battle at 
Guilford {q. v.) , and he was made a 
brigadier-general. He assisted Lafayette 
in opposing Cornwallis in Virginia, and 
received the command of the light in- 
fantry and riflemen, but died a few weeks 
before the surrender of the British at 
Yorktown, Aug. 22, 1781. 

Campbell, William, Lord, royal gov- 
ernor; younger brother of the fifth Duke 
of Argyll; became a captain in the Brit- 
ish navy in August, 1762; was in Par- 
liament in 1764; governor of Nova Scotia 
1766-73; and was appointed governor of 
South Carolina, where he had acquired 
large possessions by his marriage to an 
American lady, in 1774. He arrived at 
Charleston in July, 1775; was received 
with courtesy; and soon summoned a 
meeting of the Assembly. They came, de- 
clined to do business, and adjourned on 
their own authority. The Committee of 
Safety proceeded in their preparations 
for resistance without regard to the pres- 
ence of the governor. Lord Campbell 
professed great love for the people. His 
sincerity was suspected, and the hollow- 
ness of his professions was soon proved. 

Early in September Colonel Moultrie, by 
order of the Committee of Safety, pro- 
ceeded to take possession of a small post 
on Sullivan's Island, in Charleston Har- 
bor. The small garrison fled to the Brit- 
ish sloops-of-war Tamar and Cherokee, 
lying near. Lord Campbell, seeing the 
storm of popular indignation against him 
daily increasing, particularly after it was 
discovered that he had attempted to in- 
cite the Indians to make war for the King, 
and had tampered with the Tories of the 
interior of the province, also fled to one 
of these vessels for shelter, and never re- 
turned. He died Sept. 5, 1778. 

Campbellites. See Campbell, AiEX- 
ANDER ; Disciples of Christ. 

Campos, Arsenio Martinez. See Mar- 

Camp Wild-cat. The invasion of Ken- 
tucky by Zollicoffer from Tennessee, in the 
early part of the Civil War, aroused the 
loyalists of eastern Kentucky, and they 
flew to arms. Some of them were organ- 
ized under Colonel GaiTard, a loyal Ken- 
tuckian, and among the Rock Castle hills 
they established Camp Wild-cat. There 
they were attacked (Oct. 21, 1861), by 
ZollicoflTer. When he appeared, Garrard 
had only about 600 men, but was joined 
by some Indiana and Ohio troops, and 
some Kentucky cavalry under Colonel 
Woolford. With the latter came General 
Schoepf, who took the chief command. 
Zollicoffer, with his Tennesseans and 
some Mississippi " Tigers " fell upon them 
in the morning, and were twice repulsed. 
The last was in the afternoon. After a 
sharp battle. Zollicoffer withdrew. Gar- 
rard had been reinforced in the afternoon 
by a portion of Colonel Steadman's Ohio 
regiment. General Schoepf, deceived by 
false reports that a force was coming from 
General Buckner's camp at Bowling Green, 
fell back hastily towards the Ohio River, 
by means of forced marches. See Ken- 


Canada, the northern neighbor of the lection of cabins, such as Hochelaga. No 

United States; discovered by Jacqutes settlements were made there until the ex- 

Cartier (q. V.) in 1534. Its name is plorations of Champlain about three- 

suposed to have been derived from the fourths of a century later. He established 

Huron word Kan-na-ta, signifying a col- a semi-military and semi-religious colony 


at Quebec, and from it Jesuit and other The easy conquest of Louisburg revived 
missions spread over the Lake regions, a hope that Canada might be conquered. 
Then came the civil power of France to Governor Shirley proposed to the minis- 
lay the foundations of an empire, fighting ters to have the task performed by a 
one nation of Indians and making allies of colonial army alone. They would not coni- 
another, and establishing a feudal system ply, for the colonists, thus perceiving their 
of government, the great land-holders own strength, might claim Canada by 
being called seigneurs, who were compelled right of conquest, and become too inde- 
to cede the lands granted to them, when pendent; so they authorized an expedi- 
doraanded by settlers, on fixed conditions, tion for the purpose after the old plan 
They were not absolute proprietors of the of attacking that province by land and 
soil, but had certain valuable privileges, sea. An English fleet was prepared to 
coupled with prescribed duties, such as go against Quebec; a land force, com- 
building mills, etc. David Kertk, or Kirk, posed of troops from Connecticut, New 
a Huguenot refugee, received a roj-al com- York, and colonies farther south, gather- 
mission from King Charles I. to seize the ed at Albany, to march against Montreal. 
French forts in Acadia {q. v.), and on Governor Clinton assumed the chief 
the river St. Lawrence. With a dozen command of the land expedition. His 
ships he overcame the small French force unpopularity thwarted his plans. The 
at Port Royal, and took possession of corporation of Albany refused to furnish 
Acadia in 1G29. Later in the summer quarters for his troops, and his drafts 
he entered the St. Lawrence, burned the on the British treasury could not purchase 
liamlet of Tadousac, at the mouth of the provisions. Meanwhile, Massachusetts 
Saguenay, and sent a summons for the and Rhode Island had raised nearly 4,000 
surrender of Quebec. It was refused, and troops, and were waiting for an English 
Kirk resolved to starve out the garrison, squadron. Instead of a British arma- 
He cruised in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, nient, a French fleet of forty war vessels, 
and captured the transports conveying with 3,000 veteran troops, was coming 
winter provisions for Quebec. The sufi"er- over the sea. New England was greatly 
ings there were intense, but they endured alarmed. It was D'Anville's armament, 
them until August the next year, when, and it was dispersed by storms. Ten 
English ships-of-war, under a brother of thousand troops gathered at Boston for its 
Admiral Kirk, appearing before Quebec, defence; the fort on Castle Island was 
instead of the expected supply-ships, the made very strong, and the land expedi- 
place was surrendered, and the inhabi- tion against Montreal was abandoned, 
tants, not more than 100 in all, were When Quebec fell, in the autumn of 
saved from starvation. By a treaty, Can- 1759, the French held Montreal, and were 
ada was restored to the French in 1G32. not dismayed. In the spring of 1760, 
In the early history of the colony, the Vaudreuil, the governor-general of Can- 
governors, in connection with the intend- ada, sent M. Levi, the successor of Mont- 
ant, held the military and civil adminis- calm, to recover Quebec. He descended the 
tration in their hands. Jesuit and other St. Lawrence with six frigates and a 
priests became conspicuous in the public powerful land force. The English, under 
service. Finally, when a bishop was ap- General Murray, marched out of Quebec, 
pointed for Quebec, violent dissensions oc- and met him at Sillery, 3 miles above 
eurred between the civil and ecclesiastical the city; and there was fought (April 4) 
authorities. Until the treaty of Utrecht one of the most sanguinary battles of the 
(1713), Canada included all of present war. Murray was defeated. He lost 
British America, and more. At that time about 1,000 men, and all his artillery, 
Hudson Bay and vicinity was restored to but succeeded in retreating to the city 
England by Louis XIV. Newfoundland with the remainder of his army. Levi 
and Acadia (Nova Scotia) were ceded to laid siege to Quebec, and Murray's condi- 
the English, and all right to the Iroquois tion was becoming critical, when an Eng- 
country (New York) was renounced, re- lish squadron appeared (May 9) with 
serving to Prance only the valleys of the reinforcements and provisions. Suppoa- 
St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. ing it to be the whole British fleet, Levi 



raised the siege (May 10), and fled to 
Montreal, after losing most of his ship- 
ping. Now came the iinal struggle. Three 
armies were soon in motion towards Mon- 
treal, where Vaudreuil had gathered all 
his forces. Amherst, with 10,000 Eng- 
lish and provincial troops, and 1,000 Ind- 
ians of the Six Nations, led by Johnson, 
embarked at Oswego, went down Lake On- 
tario and the St. Lawrence to Montreal, 
where he met Murray (Sept. 6), who 
bad come up from Quebec with 4,000 men. 
The next day, Colonel Haviland arrived 
with 3,000 troops from Crown Point, hav- 
ing taken possession of Isle aux Noix on 
the way. Resistance to such a crushing 
force would have been in vain, and, on 
Sept. 8, 1700, Vaudreuil signed a capitu- 
lation surrendering Montreal and all 
French posts in Canada and on the border 
of the Lakes to the English. General Gage 
was made military governor of Montreal, 
and General Murray, with 4,000 men, gar- 
risoned Quebec. The conquest of Canada 
Avas now completed, and by the Treaty 

the people of New York and New England. 
This proclamation neutralized the effects 
of the address of Congress to the Can- 
adians. The Quebec Act had soothed the 
I'rench nobility and Roman Catholic 
clergy. The English residents were of- 
fended by it, and these, with the Canadian 
peasantry, were disposed to take sides 
with the Americans. They denied the 
right of the French nobility, as magis- 
trates, or the seigneurs, to command their 
military services. They welcomed inva- 
sion, but had not the courage to join the 
invaders. At the same time, the French 
peasantry did not obey the order of the 
Roman Catholic bishop, which was sent to 
the several parishes, and read by the local 
clergy, to come out in defence of the Brit- 
ifh government. It was known that the 
bishop was a stipendiary of the crown. 

There was a decided war spirit visible 
in the second Continental Congress, yet 
it was cautious and prudent. Immediate- 
ly after the seizure of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point (May 10-12, 1775), the Con- 



of Paris in 1763, a greater portion of the 
French dominions in America fell into 
tiie possession of the British crown. 

When news of the surrender of Ticon- 
deroga (q. V.) reached Governor Carle- 
ton, of Canada, he issued a proclamation 
(•Tune 9, 177.5) in which he declared the 
captors to be a band of rebellious traitors; 
established martial law; summoned the 
French peasantry to serve under the old 
colonial nobility; and instigated the Ind- 
ian tribes to take up the hatchet against 

gress was urged to authorize the invasion 
and seizure of Canada. That body hoped 
to gain a greater victory by making the 
Canadians their friends and allies. To 
this end they sent a loving address to 
them, and resolved, on June 1, " that 
no expedition or incursion ought to 
be undertaken or made by any colony 
or body of colonists against or into Can- 
ada." The Provincial Congress of New 
lork had expressly disclaimed any inten- 
tion to make war on Canada. But Gage's 
proclamation (June 10) that all Ameri- 
cans in arms were rebels and traitors, and 
especially the battle of Bunker ( Breed's i 
Hill, made a radical change in the feel- 



ings of the people and in Congress. It Chambly, 12 miles from St. Johns, on 
was also ascertained that Governor Carle- the Sorel (Nov. 3), and, on the same 
ton had received a commission to muster day, the fort at the latter, which Mont- 
and arm the people of the province, and gomery had besieged for some time, cut off 
to march them into any province in 
America to arrest and put to death, or 
spare, " rebels " and other offenders. 
Here was a menace that could not go un- 
heeded. Cols. Ethan Allen, Benedict Ar- 
nold, and others renewed their efforts to 
induce the Congress to send an expedi- 
tion into Canada. The latter perceived 
the importance of securing Canada either 
by alliance or by conquest. At length the 
Congress prepared for an invasion of Can- 
ada. Maj.-Gen. Philip Schuyler had been 
appointed to the command of the North- 
ern Department, which included the whole 
province of New York. Gen. Richard 
Montgomery was his chief lieutenant. 
The regiments raised by the province of 
New York were put in" motion, and Gen- 
eral Wooster, with Connecticut troops, 
who were stationed at Harlem, was order- 
ed to Albany. The New - Yorkers were 
joined by " Green Mountain Boys." 
Schuyler sent into Canada an address to 
the inhabitants, in the French language, 
informing them that " the only views of 
Congress were to restore to them those 
rights which every subject of the British 
empire, of whatever religious sentiments 
he may be, is entitled to"; and that, in 
the execution of these trusts, he had re- 
ceived the most positive orders to " cher- 
ish every Canadian, and every friend to 
the cause of liberty, and sacredly to guard 
their property." It was now too late. 
Had the Congress listened to Allen and 

from supplies, also surrendered. Montreal 
fell before the patriots on the 13th, and 
Montgomery, leaving a garrison at both 
places, prepared to move on Quebec. 
Meanwhile Colonel Arnold had led an ex- 
pedition by way of the Kennebec and 
Chaudiere rivers, through a terrible 
wilderness, to the banks of the St. Law- 
rence (Nov. 9) opposite Quebec. He 
crossed the river, ascended to the Plains 
of Abraham (Nov. 13), and, at the head 
of only 750 half-naked men — with not 
more than 400 muskets — demanded the 
surrender of the city. Intelligence of an 
intended sortie caused Arnold to move 
20 miles farther up the river, where he 
was soon joined by Montgomery. The 
combined forces returned to Quebec, and 
began a siege. At the close of the year 
(1775), in an attempt to take the city by 
storm, the invaders were repulsed, and 
Montgomery was killed. Arnold took the 
command, and was relieved by General 
Wooster, in April (177G). A month later, 
General Thomas took command, and, hear- 
ing of the approach of a large armament, 
land and naval, to Quebec, he retreated 
up the river. Driven from one post to 
another, the Americans were finally ex- 
pelled from Canada, the wretched remnant 
of the army, reduced by disease, arriving 
at Crown Point in June, 1776. 

The American Board of War, General 
Gates president, arranged a plan, late in 
1777, for a winter campaign against Can- 

Arnold at the middle of May, and moved ada, and appointed Lafayette to the com- 
upon Canada, its conquest would have mand. The Marquis was cordially re- 
been easy, for there were very few troops ceived at Albany by General Schuyler, 
there. When, near the close of August, then out of the military service. General 
an expedition against Canada, under Conway, who had been appointed inspect- 
Schuyler, was ready to move, preparations or-general of the army, was there before 
had been made to thwart it. The clergy him. Lafayette was utterly disappointed 

and seigneurs of Canada, satisfied with 
the Quebec Act, were disposed to stand 
by the British government. The invad- 
ing army first occupied Isle aux Noix, in 
the Sorel River ; but the expedition made 
little advance bevond until November. 

and disgusted by the lack of preparation 
and the delusive statements of Gates. 
'■ I do not believe," he wrote to Washing- 
ton, " I can find 1,200 men fit for duty 
— and the quarter part of these arc 
naked — even for a summer campaign." 

Colonel Allen had attempted to take Mon- The Marquis soon found the whole affair 
treal, without orders, and was made a to be only a trick of Gates to detach him 
prisoner and sent to England. A detach- from Washington. General Schuyler had, 
went of Schuyler's army captured Fort in a long letter to Congress (Nov. 4, 



1777), recommended a winter campaign — Lower Canada, with a population of 

against Canada, but it was passed un- 300,000, mostly of French origin, and 

noticed by the Congress, and Gates appro- Upper Canada, with a population, of 100,- 

priated the thoughts as his own in form- 000, composed largely of American loyal- 

ing the plan, on paper, which he never ists and their descendants. The regular 

meant to carry out. military force in both provinces did not 

Another campaign for liberating Can- exceed 2,000 men, scattered over a space 

ada from British rule was conceived late of 1,200 miles from Quebec to the foot 


in 1778. From Boston, D'Estaing, in the 
name of Louis XVI., had summoned the 
Canadians to throw off British rule. 
Lafayette exhorted (December) the bar- 
barians of Canada to look upon the Eng- 
lish as their enemies. The Congress be- 
came inflamed with zeal for the projected 
measure, formed a plan, without consult- 
ing a single military officer, for the 
" emancipation of Canada," in co-opera- 
tion with an army from France. One 
American detachment from Pittsburg was 
to capture Detroit ; another from Wyoming 
was to seize Niagara; a third from the 
Mohawk Valley was to capture Oswego; a 
fourth from New England was to enter 
Montreal by way of the St. Francis ; a 
fifth to guard the approaches from Que- 
bec; while to France was assigned the task 
of reducing Halifax and Quebec. Lafay- 
ette offered to use his influence at the 
French Court in furtherance of this grand 
scheme; but the cooler judgment and 
strong common-sense of Washington inter- 
posed the objection that the part which 
the United States had to perform in the 
scheme was far beyond its resources. It 
was abandoned, as was another scheme 
for a like result, early in the year. 

The first important military movement 
after the declaration of war in 1812 was 
an attempt to conquer Canada by an in- 
vasion of its western border on the Detroit 
River. It then consisted of two provinces 

of Lake Superior. Sir George Prevost was 
then governor-general, with his residence 
at Montreal. To enter the province from 
the States, a water-barrier had to be 
crossed, while the American frontier was 
destitute of roads, infected with summer 
fevers, and sparsely settled. William Hull, 
a soldier of the Revolution, then governor 
of Michigan Territory, was consulted about 
an invasion of Canada, while on a visit 
at Washington. He insisted that before 
such an enterprise should be undertaken 
a naval control of Lake Erie should be ac- 
quired, and not less than 3,000 troops 
should be provided for the invasion. He 
accepted the commission of brigadier-gen- 
eral with the special object in view of pro- 
tecting his territory from the Indian al- 
lies of the British, yet, by orders of the 
government, he prepared to invade Cana- 
da. Governor Meigs, of Ohio, called for 
troops to assemble at Dayton, and volun- 
teers flocked thither in considerable num- 
bers. There General Hull took com.mand 
of them (May 25, 1812), and they started 
off in good spirits for their march through 
the wilderness. It was a perilous and 
most fatiguing journey. On the broad mo- 
rasses of the summit lands of Ohio, Hull 
received a despatch from the War Depart- 
ment urging him to press on speedily to 
Detroit, and there await further orders. 
When he reached the navigable waters of 
the Maumee, his beasts of burden were 



so worn dowu by fatigue that he despatch- 
ed for Detroit, in a schooner, his own bag- 
gage and that of most of his officers; also 
all of his hospital stores, intrenching 
tools, and a trunk containing his most 
valuable military papers. The wives of 

from the east, with a force gathered on 
his way. These events, and other causes, 
impelled Hull to recross the river to De- 
troit with his army, and take shelter in 
the fort there (Aug. 8, 1812). The Brit- 
ish congregated in force at Sandwich, and 

three of his officers, with thirty soldiers from that point opened a cannonade upon 
to protect the schooner, also embarked the fort at Detroit. On Sunday morning, 
in her. In a smaller vessel the invalids 
of the army were conveyed. Both vessels 
arrived at the site of Toledo on the even- 
ing of July 1. The next day, when near 
Frenchtown (afterwards Monroe), Hull 
received a note from the j ostmaster at 
Cleveland announcing the declaration of 
war. It was the first intimation he had 
received of that important event. In 
fact, the British at Fort Maiden (now 
Amherstburg) heard of the declaration be- 
fore Hull did, and captured his schooner, 
with all its precious freight. The com- 
mander at Maiden had been informed of 
it, by express, as early as June 30 — two 
days before it reached Hull. The latter 
pressed forward, and encamped near De- 
troit on July 5. The British were then 
casting up intrenchments at Sandwich 
on the opposite side of the Detroit River. 
There Hull awaited further orders from 
his government. His troops, impatient to 
invade Canada, had evinced a mutinous 
spirit, when he received orders to " com- 
mence operations immediately," and, if 
possible, take possession of Fort Maiden. 
At dawn on the morning of July 12, the 
greater part of his troops had crossed 
the Detroit River, and were on Canadian 
soil. Hull issued a proclamation to the 
Canadians, assuring them of protection 
in case they remained quiet. Many of the 
Canadian militia deserted the British 
standard. Hull advanced towards Mai- 
den (July 13). After a successful en- 
counter with British and Indians he fell 
back to Sandwich, without attacking Mal- 
(den. His troops were disappointed and 
mutinous. Then information came of the 
capture of Mackinaw (q. v.) by the Brit- 
ish. News also came that General Proc- 
tor, of the British army, had arrived at 
Maiden with reinforcements. This was 
followed by an intercepted despatch from 
the northwest announcinjr that 1.200 white 
men and several hundred Indians were 

the 16th, the British crossed the river to 
a point below Detroit, and moved upon 
the fort. Very little effort was made to 
defend it, and, on that day, Hull sur- 
rendered the fort, army, and Territory of 
Michigan into the hands of the British. 
See Detroit; Hull, William. 

On Oct. 17, 1813, General Harrison, of 
the United States army, and Commodore 
Perry, commander of the fleet on Lake 
Erie, issued a proclamation, stating that, 
by the combined operations of the land 
and naval forces of the United States, 
British power had been destroyed within 
the upper districts of Canada, which was 
in quiet possession of United States 
troops. They therefore proclaimed that 
the rights and privileges of the inhabi' 
tants and the laws and customs of the 
country, which were in force before the 
arrival of the conquerors, should continue 
to prevail, and that all magistrates and 
other civil officers might resume their 
functions, after taking an oath of fidelity 
to the United States government so long 
as the troops should remain in possession 
of the country. 

At the opening of the third year of the 
second war for independence, a favorite 
project with the United States govern- 
ment was the conquest of Canada. The 
principal military forces in Upper Canada 
were under Lieutenant-General Drum- 
mond. When the Army of the North, 
commanded by Major-General Brown, 
reached the Niagara frontier, Drummond's 
headquarters were at Burlington Heights, 
at the western end of Lake Ontario. Gen- 
eral Riall was on the Niagara River, at 
Fort George and Queenston ; but when 
he heard of the arrival of the Americans 
at Buffalo, under General Scott, he ad- 
vanced to Chippewa and established a for- 
tified camp. At the close of June, General 
Brown arrived at Buffalo, and assumed 
chief command, and, believing his army 

coming down to assist in the defence of to be strong enough, he proceeded to in- 
Canada.. General Brock was approaching vade Canada. His army consisted of two 



luigades, commanded respectively by 
Generals Scott and Ripley, to each of 
which was attached a train of artillery, 
commanded by Capt. N. Towson and Maj. 
J. Hindman. He had also a small corps 
of cavalry, under Capt. S. D. Harris. 
These regulars were well disciplined and 
in high spirits. There were also volun- 
teers from Pennsylvania and New York, 
lOO of them mounted, and nearly 600 Sen- 
eca Indians — almost the entire military 
force of the Six Nations remaining in the 
(Jnited States. These had been stirred to 
action by the venerable Red Jacket, the 
great Seneca orator. The volunteers and 
Indians were under the chief command of 
Gen. Peter B. Porter, then quartermaster- 
general of the New York militia. Major 
McRee, of North Carolina, was chief-en- 
gineer, assisted by Maj. E. D. Wood. On 
the Canada shore, nearly opposite Buffalo, 
stood Fort Erie, then garrisoned by 170 
men, under the command of Major Buck. 
On July 1 Brown received orders to 
cross the Niagara, capture Fort Erie, 
march on Chippewa, menace Fort George, 
and, if he could have the co-operation of 
Chauncey's fleet, to seize j:nd fortify Bur- 
lington Heights. Accordingly, Brown ar- 
ranged for General Scott and his brigade 
to cross on boats and land a mile below 
the fort, while Ripley, with his brigade, 
should be landed a mile above it. This 
accomplished, the boats were to return 
and carry the remainder of the army, 
with its ordnance and stores, to the Cana- 
da shore. The order for this movement 
was given on July 2. It was prompt- 
ly obeyed by Scott, and tardily by 
Ripley, on the 3d. When Scott had pressed 
forward to invest the fort, he found Ripley 
had not crossed, and no time was lost in 
crossing the ordnance and selecting posi- 
tions for batteries. These preparations 
alarmed the garrison, and the fort, which 
was in a weak condition, was surrendered. 
Nearly 200 men, including officers, became 
prisoners of war, and were sent across 
the river. 

By an act of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, in 1791, Canada was divided into 
two provinces. Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada, and each had a parliament or 
legislature of its own. An imperial act 
was passed in 1840 to unite the tw^o prov- 
inces under one administration and one 

legislature. Antecedent political strug- 
gles had taken place, which culminated in 
open insurrection in 1837-38. A move- 
ment for a separation of the Canadas from 
the crown of Great Britain, and their 
political independence, was begun simul- 
taneously in Upper and Lower Canada in 
1837. In the former province, the most 
conspicuous leader was William Lyon Mc- 
Kenzie, a Scotchman, a journalist of rare 
ability and a great political agitator; in 
the lower province, the chief leader was 
Joseph Papineau, a large land-owner, and 
a very influential man among the French 
inhabitants. Both leaders were republi- 
can in sentiment. The movements of the 
revolutionary party were well planned, 
but local jealousies prevented unity of 
action, and the eff'ort failed. It was es- 
teemed highly patriotic, and elicited the 
warmest sympathy of the American peo- 
ple, especially of those of the Northern 
States. Banded companies and individuals 
joined the " rebels," as they wei'e called 
by the British government, and " patri- 
ots " by their friends ; and so general be- 
came the active sympathy on the northern 
frontier, that peaceful relations between 
the United States and Great Britain were 
endangered. President Van Buren issued 
a proclamation, calling upon all persons 
engaged in the schemes of invasion of the 
Canadian territory to abandon the design, 
and warning them to beware of the penal- 
ties that must assuredly follow such in- 
fringement of international laws. 

In December, 1837, a party of sympa- 
thizing Americans took possession of 
Navy Island, belonging to Canada, in the 
Niagara River, about 2 miles above the 
falls. They mustered about 700 men, well 
provisioned, and provided with twenty 
pieces of cannon. They had a small steam- 
boat named the Caroline to ply between 
the island and Schlosser, on the American 
side. On a dark night a party of Cana- 
dian royalists crossed the river, cut 
the Caroline loose from her moorings, 
and set her on fire. She went down 
the current and over the great cataract 
in full blaze. It is supposed some 
persons were on board of her. Gen. 
Winfield Scott was finally sent to the 
northern frontier to preserve order, and 
was assisted by a proclamation by the gov- 
ernor of New York. Yet secret associa- 



tions, known as "Hunters' Lodges," con- $261,606,989; revenue, $66,037,069; ex- 

tinued quite active for some time. Against penditure, $51,691,903; mileage of rail- 

the members of these lodges. President ways in operation, 18,988; capital of 

Tyler issued an admonitory proclamation, chartered banks, $76,660,301 ; assets, 

which prevented further aggressive move- $641,985,372; liabilities, $508,049,963; 

ments. For four years this ominous cloud and number of post-office savings-banks, 

hung upon our horizon. It disappeared 934, with depositors, 167,023, and total 

in 1842, when the leaders of the move- balances, $44,255,326. See Anglo-Amer- 

ment were either dead or in exile. ican Commission. 

In 1841 Upper and Lower Canada were Canals. Gen. Philip Schuyler may 
united for purposes of government, the justly be regarded as the father of the 
system professedly modified after that of United States canal system. As early 
Great Britain. In 1857 Ottawa was se- as 1761, when he was in England settling 
lected as the permanent seat of govern- the accounts of Gen. John Bradstreet with 
ment for Canada, and costly public build- the government, he visited the famous 
ings were erected there. By act of the canal which the Duke of Bridgewater had 
Imperial Parliament, which received the just completed, and became profoundly 
royal assent March 28, 1867, the provinces impressed with the importance of such 
of Upper and Lower Canada, New Bruns- highways in the work of developing the 
wick, and Nova Scotia were connected internal resources of his own country, 
and made one nation, under the general On his return, he urged the matter upon 
title of " The Dominion." Upper Canada the attention of his countrymen. Mean- 
was named " Ontario," and Lower Can- while the active mind of Elkanah Wat- 
ada "Quebec." Provision was made for son {q. v.) had been deeply interested 
the future admission of Prince Edward in the subject. In 1785 he visited Mount 
Island, the Hudson Bay Territory, British Vernon, where he found Washington en- 
Columbia, and Newfoundland, with its gaged in a project for connecting the 
dependency, Labrador. In the new gov- waters of the Potomac with those west of 
ernment the executive authority is vested the Alleghany Mountains. He and Gen- 
in the Queen, and her representative in eral Schuyler projected canals between 
the Dominion is the acting governor-gen- the Hudson River and lakes Champlain 
eral, who is advised and aided by a privy and Ontario, and in 1792 the legislat- 
council of fourteen members, constituting ure of New York chartered two com- 
the ministry, who must be sustained by panics, known, respectively, as the 
a Parliamentary majority. There is a " Western Inland Lock Navigation Com- 
Parliament composed of two chambers, pany" and "Northern Inland Lock Naviga- 
the Senate and the House of Commons. tion Company," of both of which Schuyler 

According to the census of 1901 the was made president, and, at his death, in 

population of the Dominion, by prov- 1804, he was actively engaged in the pro- 

inces, was as follows: motion of both projects. The Western 

canal was never completed, according to 
its original conception, but was supple- 
Nova SroViaV. '.'..........!.. .'!.". '459,574 niented by the great Erie Canal, sviggested 

New Brunswick 331 120 ^^y Gouverncur Morris about 1801. In a 

Manlnba 254,947 •' . 

British coinmiiia 177.272 letter to David Parish, of Philadelphia, 

Prince Island 103.259 that year, he distinctly foreshadowed that 

Northwest Territories 211.r,54 - , . . •' ,„_, tit i- 

great work. As early as 1/74 Washing- 
Total 5,309,666 ton favored the passage of a law by the 

legislature of Virginia for the construc- 
Official statistics for the fiscal year tion of works — canals and good wagon- 
ending June 30, 1903, contained the fol- roads — by which the Potomac and Ohio 
lowing general items: Imports of mer- rivers might be connected by a chain of 
chandise, $241,214,961; exports, $225,- commerce. After the Revolution, the 
849,724, of which $214,401,674 represented States of Virginia and Maryland took 
Canadian productions; gross debt, $361,- measures which resulted in the forma- 
344,098; assets, $99,737,109; net debt, tion of the famous Potomac Company, to 


Ontario 2.182.942 

Quebec l,fi4S,8'.i 


<arry out Washington's project. In 1784 
AVashington revived a project for making 
a canal through the Dismal Swamp, not 
only for drainage, but for navigation be- 
tween the Elizabeth River and Albemarle 
Sound. The oldest work of the kind in 
the United States is a canal, begun in 
1792, 5 miles in extent, for passing the 
falls of the Connecticut River at South 
Hadley. The earliest completed and most 
important of the great canals of our coun- 
try is the Erie, connecting the waters of 
Lake Erie with those of the Hudson 
River. A committee appointed by Con- 
gress during Jefferson's administration re- 
ported in favor of this canal, and a sur- 
vey was directed to be made. Commission- 
ers were appointed in 1810, who reported 
to Congress in March, 1811. In conse- 
quence of the War of 1812, the project lan- 
guished until 1817. In that year ground 
was broken for the Erie Canal on July 4, 
under the authority of New York State, and 
on Oct. 26, 1825, the canal was completed. 
It was built by the State of New York 
at an original cost of $9,000,000, from the 

operation of which untold wealth has been 
derived by the city and State of New 
York. It was completed and formally 
opened by Governor De Witt Clinton, 
its great advocate, in 1825, an9 has been 
enlarged at great expense since. The 
canal changed the whole aspect of commer- 
cial affairs in the Lake region. The total 
area of these five great inland seas is 
about 90,000 square miles, and their inlets 
drain a region of 330,000 square miles. 

Of tlie various canals that have been 
constructed in the United States, the fol- 
lowing were the only ones in commercial 
operation at the close of the century. 
Some on this list are falling into disuse, 
and will probably soon be abandoned. An 
interesting feature of recent canal con- 
struction and improvement is the adapta- 
tion of these waterways to vessels of large 
tonnage, using steam or other swift motive 
poAver. The old-fashioned canal, accom- 
modating small boats drawn by mules 
or horses, has given way to the 'sliip'- 
eanal, through which a war - ship, , c^-H 
safely speecjl. 



Albemarle and Chesapeake 


Black River 

Cayugra ind Seneca 


Chesapeake and Delaware 

Ch.'sapeake and Ob io 

Chicago Drainage. See next page. 


Delaware and Raritan 

Delaware Division ..••...,... 

l^ea Moines Rapids 

Dismal Swamp 



Gal veston and Brazos 


Illinois and Michigan 

Illinois and Mississippi 

Lehigh Coal and Navii^ation Co. 

Lonisville and Portland 

Miami and Erie -.-. 


Muscle Shoals and Elk River Shoals. 

Newbern and Beaufort 





Portage Lake and Lake Superior 

Port A rthur 

Santa Fe 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Schuylkill Navigation Co 

Sturgeon Bav and Lake Michigan.... 

St. Mary's Falls 

Susquehanna and Tidewater 


Welland (,in Canada). 
II. — D 

1, 600,01 lO 






4,931, .345 
23,796,350 ' 




IS 28 


n miles 


4 1-2 

2 1-2 

I 1-4 
1 1-3 


Norfolk, Va., to Currituck Sound, N. C. 

Savannah River, Ga., to August,^, Ga. 

Rome, N. Y., to Lyons F.-ilis, N. Y. 

Montezuma, N. Y., to favuga and Seneca Lakes, N. T. 

Whitehall, N. Y., to Waterlord. N. Y, 

Chesapeake City, Md., to Deliware City, Del. 

Cumberland, Md., to Washington, D. C. 

Mississippi River, La., to Bavou Black, La. 

New [!runswiok, N. J., to Trenton, N. J. 

Easton, Pa., to Bristol, Pa. 

At Des Moines Rapids, Mississippi River. 

Connects Chesapeake Bay with Albemarle Sound. 

Albany, N. Y., to Buffalo, N. Y. 

Alligator River to Lake Mattimuskeet, N. C. 

Galveston, Tex , to Brazos Rivi 

Carroll, O., to Nelsonville. O. 

Chicago, 111., to LaSiille, 111. 

Around lower rapids ol Rock R 

Coalport, Pa., to Eastnn, Pa. 

At Falls of Ohio River, Lou 

Cincinnati, O., to Toledo, O, 

Easton, Pa., to Jersey City, N. J. 

Big Muscle Shoals, Tenn., to Elk Ri' 

Clubfoot Creek to Harlow Creek, N 

Savannah River, Ga., to Ogeechee Ri 

Cleveland, 0., to Portsmouth, O. . J 

Oswego, N. Y., to Syracuse, N. Y. 

^fow . , 

From Keweenaw Bay to Lake Superior, 

Port Arthur, Tex., to Gulf of Mexico. 

Waldo, Fla., to .Melrose, Fla. 

Connects Lakes Superior and Huron at St. Mary's River. 

Mill Creek, Pa., to Philadelphia, Pa. 

Between Green Bay and Lake Michigan. 

Connects Lnkes Superior and Huron at Sa«It Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Now atiandoned. 

Rochester, 0.,,to Roscoe, O. 

Connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. 


r, Tex. ■ t i -i ■, 

ver. 111, Connects with Missis8ij)pi' ftii 
ille, Ky. • ' e ,"" 

Shoils, Tenn. ' „ o ' 

r, Ga. 'OX,; : 


Chicago Drainage Canal, a canal in- and E. Kirby Smith. On July 28, 1866, 
tended chiefly for carrying off the sewage he was commissioned a brigadier-general 
of Chicago, but which may be used for in the regular army, and in 1861) took 
commercial purposes ; begun in Septem- command of the Department of the Colum- 
ber, 1892; completed in January, 1900. bia, on the Pacific coast. He devoted him- 
The main channel is 29 miles long, ex- self to the settlement of difficulties with 
tending from Chicago to Locksport on the the Modoc Indians (q. v.), and, while 
Illinois River, into which stream it dis- ''O doing, was treacherously murdered by 
charges. About 9 miles of the channel is Captain Jack, their leader, in northern 
cut through solid rock, with a minimum California, April 11, 1873. 
depth of 22 feet and a width of 160 feet Cancer, Luis, missionary; born in 
on the bottom in rock, which makes it Saragossa, Spain; became a member of 
the largest artificial channel in the wbrld. the Dominican Order. With two com- 
The length of the waterway from the panions and Magdalena, a converted Ind- 
mouth of the Chicago River to its ter- ian woman, whom he had brought from 
minus south of Joliet is about 42 miles. Havana as an interpreter, landed in Flor- 
The cost of the canal was estimated at ida in 1549. By presents and an expla- 
about $45,000,000. nation of his purpose through his inter- 

Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg, mill- prefer he gained the friendship of the 
tary officer; born in Kentucky in 1819; Indians. After a few days he visited an- 
graduated at West Point in 1839; served other part of the coast, leaving his com- 
in the Seminole War (7. v.) and the panions behind. When he returned, a 
war with Mexico. He was twice bre- canoe containing a survivor of De Soto's 
vetted for eminent services in the latter expedition approached and warned Father 
. , . Cancer that his companions had been 

killed. He declined to believe this and 
rowed alone to the shore. Magdalena, 
his interpreter, told him that his two 
companions were in the tent of the chief, 
whereupon he followed her and was al- 
most immediately surrounded by the Ind- 
ians and put to death. 

Cannon, in the United States, were 
cast at Lynn, Mass., by Henry Leonard, 
in 1647, and at Orr's foundry, Bridge- 
water, 1648. In 1735 the Hope Furnace 
was established in Rhode Island, where 
six heavy cannon, ordered by the State, 
were cast in 1775. The heaviest guns 
used at this time were 18-pounders. 

William Denning makes wrought-iron 
cannon of staves bound together with 
wrought-iron bands, and boxed and breech- 
ed, 1790. 

'" ^6 Colonel Bomford, of the United States 

war.; He was promoted to major in 1855, ordnance department, invents a cannon 
and colonel in 1861. In 1861 he was in called the columbiad, a long - chambered 
comm>»nd in New IMexico until late in piece for projecting solid shot and shell 
1862,. „and in March of that year was with a heavy charge of powder, 1812. 


made brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
was promoted to major-general of volun- 
teers in May. 1864, and took command 
of the Department of West Mississippi. 

West Point foundry established under 
special patronage of the government. 1817. 

First contract of Gouverneur Kemble, 
president, for the West Point Foundry 

He captured Mobile, April 12, 1865, and Association, for thirty -two 42 - pounders, 
afterwards received the surrender of the long guns, July 11, 1820. 
Confederate armies of Generals Tayler First gun rifled in America at the 



Soiitli Boslou liou Company's foundry, the establishment of a plant for gun- 

1834. making at the VVatervliet arsenal, West 

Cyi'us Alger patents and makes the first Troy, 1889. 
malleable iron guns cast and converted Manufacture of heavy ordnance begun 

in an oven, 183G. at the Washington navy-yard, 1890. 

Earliest piece of heavy ordnance cast Hotchkiss gun, English make, five bar- 

at the South Boston foundry, a 10-in, rels, revolving around a common axis, 

columbiad, under the supervision of Colo- placed upon block weighing about 386 

nel Bomford; weight, 14,500 lbs.; shot, 130 tons, fires thirty rounds a minute; adopt- 

Ibs.; shell, 90 lbs.; charge of powder, 18 ed by the United States in 1891. 
lbs., Sept. 6, 1839. Automatic rapid - firing gun, invented 

Character of " gun iron " definitely by John and Matthew Browning, of Og- 

tixed by the " metallo-dynamoter," a test- den, Utah ; firing 400 shots in one minute 

ing- machine invented by Major W\ade, and forty-nine seconds; adopted by the 

1840. United States in 1896. 

First 12-in. columbiad; weight, 25,510 Zalinski's dynamite gun, calibre 15 

lbs.; extreme range, 5,761 yds.; weight of ins.; throws 500 lbs. of explosive gela- 

shell, 172 lbs.; charge of powder, 20 lbs.; tine 2,100 yds.; also discharges smaller 

cast at the South Boston foundry, July 8, shells. Three of the guns of this class 

1846. were used with tremendous effect by the 

Dahlgren gun, of iron, cast solid and United States dynamite cruiser Vesu- 

cooled from the exterior, very thick at vius at the bombardment of Santiago de 

breech and diminishing to muzzle; first Cuba in 1898, and larger ones have been 

cast. May, 1850. installed at Fort Warren, Boston; Fort 

Rodman gun, a columbiad model, Schuyler, N". Y. ; Fort Hancock, N. J., 

smooth-bore, made by the Rodman proc- and at San Francisco. 

ess of hollow easting, cooled from the Graydon dynamite gun, calibre 15 ins.; 

interior; adopted by the United States using 3,000 lbs. of compressed air to 

for all sea-coast cannon, 1860. the square inch; throws 600 lbs. of dyna- 

First 10 - lb. Parrot gun, of iron, cast mite 3 miles, 
hollow, cooled from the inside and Armstrong gun, calibre 6 ins.; weight 

strengthened by an exterior tube made of shot, 69.7 lbs. ; of powder, 34 lbs. ; press- 

of wrought-iron bars spirally coiled and ure per square inch, 31,000 lbs. 
shrunk on ; made at the West Point foun- Hurst, double - charge gun, same prin- 

dry, 1860. ciples apply as in the Armstrong and 

15-in. Rodman gun, weighing 49,000 Haskell guns, 
lbs., cast by the South Boston Iron Com- Brown wire-wound gun. made in seg- 

pany, 1860. nients; kind authorized by Congress, STVa 

Parrott gun first put to test of active ft. lonsr; weicfht. 30.000 lbs. 
warfare in the battle of Bull Run, July Maxim - Nordenfeldt quick-firing gun; 

21, 1861. lowest weiirht, 25 lbs.; maximum firing 

Gatling rapid-firing gun, from five to ability, 650 rounds a minute, 
ten barrels around one common axis; ten- Cannon, George Q.. Mormon leader ; born 

barrel Gatling discharges 1,200 shots a in Liverpool, England, Jan. 11, 1827; came 

minute; range, 3,000 yds.; invented in to the United States in 1844; brought 

1861. up in the Mormon faith ; was driven out of 

S. B. Dean, of South Boston Iron Com- Nauvoo, 111., with the other Mormons in 

pany, patents a process of rouprh boring 1846, and settled in Utah in 1847. In 

bronze guns and forcibly expanding the 1857 he was chosen an apostle; in 1872- 

bore to its finished size by means of 82 represented the Territory of Utah in 

mandrels, 1869. Congress; and durin? this period his right 

Pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun built to a seat in that body was many times 

and mounted at Fort Lafayette (founded hotly contested. He became the object of 

on invention of D. M. Mefford, of Ohio), public scorn and suffered much personal 

1883. calumniation both in Congress and in the 

Congress makes an appropriation for press, but held his seat till absolutely 


CANNOU— Cape breton 

forced to retire. When Utah was seek- anger, but sent them back to Plymouth 

ing admission into the Union he was one as tokens of peace. The chief and his as- 

of the chief promoters of the movement, sociates honorably sued for the friendship 

He died in Monterey, Cal., April 12, 1901. of the white people. Canonicus became 

Cannon, Newtox, military officer; born the firm friend of the English, especially 

in Guilford county, N. C, about 1781 ; of Roger Williams, who found a retreat 

received a common school education; was in his dominions. Before Williams's ar- 

colonel of the Tennessee Mounted Rifles rival, there had been war between the 

in 1813, and with this company command- Narragansets and Pequods, concerning the 

ed the left column in the engagement with ownership of lands, in which a son of 

the Creek Indians at Tallusahatchee on Canonicus was slain. In his grief the 

Nov. 3; was a representative in Congress king burned his own house and all his 

in 1814-17 and in 1819-23; and governor goods in it. Roger Williams, who often 

of Tennessee in 1835-39. He died in Har- experienced his kindness, spoke of Canoni- 

peth, Tenn., Sept. 29, 1842. cus as " a wise and peaceable prince." 

Cannon, William, patriot; born in He was uncle of Miantonomoh (q. v.), 

Bridgeville, Del., in 1809; was a member who succeeded him as sachem of the Nar- 

of the Peace Congress in 1861, and it was ragansets in 1638. Canonicus died June 

said that he was " the firm friend of the 4, 1647. 

Crittenden Compromise and of an un- Cantilever. See Bridges. 
broken union." In 1864 he became govern- Cap, Liberty. See Liberty Cap. 
or of Delaware, and during his incum- Cape Ann, original name of the pres- 

bency was opposed by the legislature. On ent city of Gloucester, Mass., noted for 

one occasion when that body denounced a more than 250 years for its extensive 

certain law of Congress he proclaimed fishery interests. It was chosen as a 

that any United States officer found guilty place of settlement for a fishing colony by 

by a State court for performing his duty Rev. John White (a long time rector of 

to the government should receive his Trinity Church, Dorchester, England) and 

pardon. He advised the legislature in his several other influential persons. Through 

message of 1864 to adopt measures for the the exertions of Mr. White, a joint-stock 

liberation of slaves in Delaware. He died association was formed, called the " Dor- 

in Philadelphia, Pa., March 1, 1865. Chester Adventurers," with a capital of 

Canonicus, Indian chief; king of the about $14,000. Cape Anne was purchased, 
Narragansets; born about 1565. He was and fourteen persons, with live-stock, were 
at first unwilling to be friendly with sent out in 1623, who built a house and 
the Pilgrims at New Plymouth. To show made preparations for curing fish. Af- 
his contempt and defiance of the English, fairs were not prosperous there. Roger 
he sent a message to Governor Bradford Conant was chosen governor in 1625, but 
with a bundle of arrows in a rattlesnake's the Adventurers became discouraged and 
skin. That was at the dead of winter, concluded on dissolving the colony. 
1622. It was a challenge to engage in Through the encouragement of Mr. White, 
war in the spring. Like the venomous some of the colonists remained, but, not 
serpent that wore the skin, the symbol liking their seat, they went to Naum- 
of hostility gave warning before the blow keag, now Salem, where a permanent col- 
should be struck — a virtue seldom exer- ony was settled. Population in 1890, 24,- 
cised by the Indians. Bradford acted 651 ; in 1900, 26,121. 

wisely. He accepted the challenge by send- Cape Breton, a large island at the en- 

ing the significant quiver back filled with trance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 

gunpowder and shot. " What can these separated from Nova Scotia by the nar- 

things be?" inquired the ignorant and row strait of Canso; discovered by Cabot, 

curious savage mind, as the ammunition 1497. The French fortress Louisburg {q. 

was carried from village to village, in v.) was situated on this island. This 

superstitious awe, as objects of evil omen, was taken by the New England troops in 

They had heard of the great guns at the 1745. Island ceded to England, Feb. 10, 

sea-side, and they dared not keep the 1763; incorporated with Nova Scotia, 

mysterious symbols of the governor's 1819. Population, 1901, 97,605. 



Cape Fear, Action at. Gen. Braxton indicated that the Nome district would 

Bragg was in command of the Confederates compare for richness with the celebrated 

in the Cape Fear region at the time of the Klondike (q. v.) region. In the short 

fall of Fort Fisher, and General Hoke was season of 1899 the yield in gold from 

his most efficient leader. He held Fort this section alone was estimated at 

Anderson, a large earthwork about half- $1,500,000. 

way between Fort Fisher and Wilming- Capital, National. The seat of gov- 
ton. Gen. Alfred Terry did not think it ernment of the United States was per- 
prudent to advance on Wilmington un- manently settled in the city of Washing- 
til he should be reinforced. To effect this, ton, D. C, in the summer of 1800. It 
General Grant ordered Schofield from seemed like transferring it to a wilder- 
Tennessee to the coast of North Caro- ness. Only the north wing of the Capitol 
lina, where he arrived, with the 23d Corps, was finished, and that was fitted up to ae- 
on Feb. 9, 1865, and swelled Terry's force commodate both Houses of Congress. The 
of 8,000 to 20,000. Schofield, outrank- President's house was finished externally, 
ing Terry, took the chief command. The but much had to be done on the inside. 
Department of North Carolina had just There was only one good tavern, and that 
been created, and he was made its com- was insufficient to accommodate half the 
mander. The chief object now was to oc- Congressmen. There was only a path 
cupy Goldsboro, in aid of Sherman's march through an alder swamp along the line 
to that place. Terry was pushed forward of Pennsylvania Avenue from the Presi- 
towards Hoke's right, and, with gunboats, dent's house to the Capitol. Mrs. Adams 
attacked Fort Anderson (Feb. 18) and wrote concerning the President's house 
drove the Confederates from it. The flee- that it was superb in design, but then 
ing garrison was pursued, struck, and dreary beyond endurance. " I could con- 
dispersed, with a loss of 375 men and two tent myself almost anywhere for three 
guns. The National troops pressed up months," she said, " but, surrounded with 
both sides of the Cape Fear River, pushed forests, can you believe that wood is not 
Hoke back, while gunboats secured tor- to be had, because people cannot be found 
pedoes in the stream and erected batteries to cut and cart it! ... We have, indeed, 
on both banks. Hoke abandoned Wil- come into a new country." The public 
mington, Feb. 22, 18G5, after destroying offices had hardly been established in the 
all the steamers and naval stores there, city when the War-office, a wooden struct- 
Aniong the former were the Confederate ure, took fire and was burned with many 
privateers Chickamauga and Tallahassee, valuable papers. 

Wilmington was occupied by National From time to time there have been 

troops, and the Confederates abandoned movements in favor of removing the 

the Cape Fear region. seat of government from Washington, 

Cape Nome, a cape extending from the D. C. The first of this kind was in 

southern part of the western peninsula 1808. The really miserable situation 

of Alaska, which lies between Kotzebue and condition of the city at that time 

Sound on the north, and Bering Sea on rendered a removal desirable to most of 

the south. It is about 2,500 miles north- the members of Congress, and the city 

west of Seattle, and 175 miles southeast of Philadelphia, anxious to win it back 

of Siberia. In September, 1898, gold was to the banks of the Delaware, offered to 

first discovered here by a party of Swedes, furnish every accommodation to Congress 

Since then it has become the centre of a and the public offices at its own expense, 

rich gold-mining region, which lies about The new Hall of Representatives, by its 

the lower course of the Snake River, a ill adaptation whether for speakers or 

winding stream emerging from a range hearers, occasioned great dissatisfaction, 

of mountains not exceeding from 700 to A motion for removal occasioned much 

1,200 feet in altitude. In October, 1899, discussion in Congress and great excite- 

Nome City had a- population of 5,000 in- ment in the District of Columbia, espe- 

habitants living in tents. It is believed cially among land-owners. The Southern 

that the rapid growth of this town has members objected to Philadelphia because 

never been equalled. Early prospecting they would there be continually pestered 




by anti-slavery politicians and other an- 
noyances connected with the subject. A 
resolution for removal came within a very 
few votes of passin<?. It is believed that 
it would have been carried but for the 
opposition of the Southern men to Phila- 
delphia. Tn more recent years there have 
been agitations favoring removal to St. 
Louis or some other Western city, on the 
{jround of havinir it in a more central 
location geographically. 

In 1816 Congress, by joint resolu- 
tion, authorized the President of the 
"Ignited States to procure, for the or- 
namenting of the new Capitol, then 
building, four large paintings of Revo- 
lutionary scenes from the hand of 
John Trumbull, a worthy pupil of Ben- 
jamin West. lie possessed a large num- 
ber of portraits of the prominent actors 
in the events of the Revolution, painted 
by himself, and these he used in his com- 
positions. These pictures are now in the 

sent the Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, the Surrender of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga, the Surrender of 
Cornwallis at Yorktown, and the Res- 
ignation of Washington's Co77imission 
at Annapolis. To these have since been 
added others, of the same general size — 
namely, the Landing of Columbus, by 
John Vanderlyn ; the Burial of De Soto, 
by George Powell; the Baptism of Poca- 
hontas, by J. G. Chapman; the Em- 
barkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. 
Weir; President Lincoln Signing the 
Emancipation Proclamation, by Frank 
B. Carpenter, etc. The old Hall of Rep- 
resentatives is now used for a national 
Hall of Statuary, to which each State 
has been asked to contribute statues of 
two of its most distinguished citizens. 
The Capitol has already become the 
permanent depository of a large col- 
lection of grand paintings and statu- 
ary illustrative of the progress of tlie 

rotunda of the Capitol, under the magnif- nation, 
icent dome, and are of peculiar historic The Capitol was made a vast citadel on 
value, as they perpetuate correct like- the arrival of troops there after the close 
nesses of the men whom Americans de- of April, 1861. Its halls and committee- 
light to honor. These paintings repre- rooms were used as barracks for the sol- 



diers; its basement galleries were con- 
verted into store-rooms for barrels of pork, 


beef, and other provisions for the army; 
and the vaults under the broad terrace 
on the western front of the Capitol were 
converted into bakeries, where 16.000 
loaves of bread were baked every day. 
The chimneys of the ovens pierced the 
terrace at ihe junction of the freestone 
pavement and the glossy slope of the 
glacis ; and there, for three months, dense 
volumes of black smoke poured forth. 

Capital Punishment. See Living- 
stone, Edward. 

Capote, Domingo Mendez, statesman ; 
born in Cardenas. Cuba, in 1863; received 
his education at the University of Havana, 
wlun-e he later served as a professor of law 
for many years. Prior to the last Cuban 
insurrection he was known as one of the 
most distinTuished lawyers on the island. 
In December, 1895, he 
abandoned his practice to 
join the Cuban forces un- 
der Gen. Maximo Gomez. 
Afterwards he reached 
the rank of brigadier- 
general, and also served 
as civil governor of Ma- 
tanzas and of Las Villas. 
In November, 1897, he 
was elected vice-president 
of the republic of Cuba. 
After the adoption in 
convention of the new 
Cuban constitution early 
in 1901, he was appoint- 
ed chairman of a com- 
mission of five members 
selected by the conven- 
tion to confer with Presi- 
dent McKinley and Sec- 

retary Eoot in Washington in regard to a 
constitutional recognition of the future re- 
lations of the United 
States with Cuba. This 
conference was held in 

Capron, Allyn Kis- 
SAM, military officer; born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 
24, 1871; son of Allyn Ca- 
jjron ; was educated in his 
native city; joined the 
army Oct. 20, 1890. When 

hostilities with Spain 

broke out he entered the 
1st United States Volun- 
teer Cavalry, popularly known as the 
" Rough Eiders," and was made a cap- 
tain. He was killed in the battle of Las 
Guasimas, Cuba, June 24, 18D8. 

Capron, Allyn, military officer; born 
in Tampa, Fla., Aug. 27, 1846; grad- 
uated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1867, and entered the 
artillery branch. When the American- 
Spanish War began he accompanied Gen- 
eral Shaffer's army to Cuba. On July 
1, 1898, he led General Lawton's advance, 
and fired the first shot of the battle. The 
Spanish flag on the fort at El Caney was 
carried away by a shot from his battery. 
His exposure in the Santiago campaign 
resulted in typhoid fever, from which 
he died near Fort Myer, Va., Sept. 18, 




Caravel, a small sea-going vessel of 
about 100 tons' burden, built somewhat 
like a galley, formerly used by the Span- 
ish and Portuguese; two of the vessels 
of Columbus on his first voyage to Amer- 
ica were caravels. 

Card-cloth. The manufacture of cards 
for carding wool by hand was quite an im- 
portant industry in America before the 
llevolution, and was carried on success- 
fully during that war. In 1787 Oliver 
Evans, the pioneer American inventor, 
then only twenty-two years of age, and 
engaged in making card - teeth by hand, 
invented a machine that produced 300 
a minute. Already Mr. Crittendon, of 
New Haven, Conn., had invented a 
machine (1784) which produced 86,000 
card - teeth, cut and bent, in an hour. 
These inventions led to the contrivance of 
machines for making card-cloth — that is, 
a species of comb used in the manufacture 
of woollen or cotton cloths, for the pur- 
pose of carding and arranging the fibres 
preparatory to spinning. It consists of 
stout leather filled with wire card-teeth, 
and is the chief part of the carding-ma- 
chine in factories. A machine for making 
the card-cloth complete was invented by 
Eleazar Smith, of Walpole, Mass., at or 
near the close of the eighteenth century, 
for which invention Amos Whittemore re- 
ceived the credit and the profit (see 
Whittemore, Amos). This invention was 
imperfect. About 1836 William B. Earle 
made improvements, which were modified 
in 1843. 

Cardenas, a seaport in the province of 
Matanzas, Cuba, about 90 miles east of 
Havana. It was here, on May 11, 1898, 
that the Wilmington, a United States gun- 
boat, engaged the fortifications and Span- 
ish gunboats, and rescued the Hudson and 
Winsloto, which had steamed within 
range of a masked battery. Three Span- 
ish gunboats which lay under the forti- 
fications had been challenged by the tor- 
pedo-boat Winslouy and other United 
States vessels, but they refused to leave 
the protection of the batteries. When the 
Wilmington arrived and found the range 
at 2,500 yards, the Hudson and Winslow 
steamed into the inner harbor to attack 
the Spanish Vessels. They did not, how- 
ever, suspect that there was a strong bat- 
tery near the water's edge until a sud- 


den fire was opened upon them. The 
first shot crippled the steering-gear of 
the Winsloio, and another wrecked her 
boiler, wounding her commander, Lieut. 
John B. Bernadon, and killing Ensign 
Worth Bagley (q. v.) and four men. 
During this action the Wilmington sailed 
within 1,800 yards of the shore, till she 
almost touched bottom, and after send- 
ing 376 shells into the batteries and the 
town silenced the Spanish fire. In the 
mean time, amid a storm of shots, the 
Hudson ran alongside of the Winslow, and 
drew her out of danger. 

Cardinal, a prince in the Church of 
Rome, the council of the Pope, and the 
conclave or " sacred college," at first was 
the principal priest or incumbent of the 
parishes in Rome, and said to have been 
called cardinale in 853. The cardinals 
claimed the exclusive power of electing 
the Pope about 1179. In the United 
States the first cardinal was John Mc- 
Closkey, Archbishop of New York, created 
March 15, 1875; the second, James Gib- 
bons, Archbishop of Baltimore, created 
June 7, 1886; the third, Sebastian Mar- 
tinelli, titular Archbishop of Ephesus and 
Papal Ablegate to the United States, cre- 
ated April 15, 1901. 

Carey, Henry Charles, political econ- 
omist; born in Philadelphia, Dec. 15, 1793; 
retired from the book-trade in 1835 and 
devoted himself to the study of political 
economy, publishing many important books 
on the subject. Free-trade, in his opinion, 
while the ideal condition, could be reached 
only through protection. He died in Phila- 
delphia, Oct. 13, 1879. 

Carey, Matthew, publicist; born in 
Dublin, Ireland, Jan. 28, 1760; learned 
the business of printer and bookseller. 
He was compelled to fiy to Paris, in conse- 
quence of a charge of sedition, but re- 
turned to Ireland in the course of a year, 
where, in 1783, he edited the Freeman's 
Journal, and established the Volunteer's 
Journal. Because of a violent attack on 
Parliament, he was confined in Newgate 
prison; and after his release he sailed for 
the United States, arriving in Philadel- 
phia. Nov. 15, 1784. There he started the 
Pennsylvania Herald. He married in 
1791, and began business as a book- 
seller. He was active in works of be- 
nevolence during the prevalence of yel- 


low fever in Philadelphia, and wrote and 
published a history of that epidemic. He 
was an associate of Bishop White and 
others in the formation of the first Amer- 
ican Sunday-school society. While the 
War of 1812-15 was kindling he wrote 
much on political subjects, and in 1814 
his Olive Branch appeared, in which he 
attempted to harmonize the contending 
parties in the United States. It passed 
through ten editions. In 1819 appeared 
his vindication of his countrymen, entitled 
Vindicw Hlbernice. In 1820 he published 
his Neio Olive Branch, which was follow- 
ed by a series of tracts extending to more 
than 2,000 pages, the object being to dem- 
onstrate the necessity of a protective sys- 
tem. His writings on political economy 
were widely circulated. His advocacy of 
internal improvements led to the con- 
struction of the Pennsylvania canals. He 
published Bibles, etc., which were sold by 
book-agents. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Sept. 16, 1839. 

Carey's Rebellion. See North Caro- 
lina, 1706-11. 

Carleton, Sir Guy, Lord Dorchester, 
civil and military officer; born in Stra- 


bane, Ireland, Sept. 3, 1724; entered the 
Guards at an early age, and became a lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1748. He was aide to 

the Duke of Cumberland in the German 
campaign of 1757; was with Amherst in 
ihe siege of Louisburg in 1758; with Wolfe 
at Quebec (1759) as quartermaster-gen- 
eral; and was a brigadier-general at the 
siege of Belle Isle, where he was wounded. 
?le was also quartermaster-general in the 
expedition against Havana in 1762, and 
in 1767 he was made lieutenant-governor 
of Quebec. The next year he was appoint- 
ed governor. In 1772 he was promoted to 
major-general, and in 1774 was made gov- 
ernor-general of the Province of Quebec. 
In an expedition against the forts on Lake 
Champlain in 1775 he narrowly escaped 
capture; and at the close of the year he 
successfully resisted a siege of Quebec by 
Montgomery. The next spring and sum- 
mer he drove the Americans out of Can- 
ada, and totally defeated the American 
flotilla in an engagement on Lake Cham- 
plain in October. 

Sir John Burgoyne had been in England 
during the earlier part of 1777, and man- 
aged, by the help of Sir Jeffrey Amherst, 
to obtain a commission to take command 
of all the British forces in Canada. To 
do this he played the sycophant to Ger- 
main, and censured Carleton. When Sir 
John arrived at "Quebec (May 6, 1777), 
Carleton was amazed at despatches 
brought by him rebuking the governor 
for his conduct of the last campaign, and 
ordering him, " for the speedy quelling 
of the rebellion," to make over to Bur- 
goyne, his inferior officer, the command 
of the Canadian army as soon as it should 
leave the boundary of the Province of 
Quebec. The unjust reproaches and the 
deprivation of his military command 
greatly irritated Carleton, but, falling 
back on his civil dignity as governor, he 
implicitly obeyed all commands and an- 
swered the requisitions of Burgoyne. As 
a soothing opiate to his wounded pride, 
Burgoyne conveyed to the governor the 
patent and the jewel of a baronet. 

Governor Carleton was a strict dis- 
ciplinarian, and always obeyed instruc- 
tions to the letter. When Burgoyne, after 
the capture of Ticonderoga (July, 1777), 
pushing on towards the valley of the Hud- 
son, desired Carleton to hold that post 
with the 3,000 troops which had been left 
in Canada, the governor refused, pleading^ 
his instructions, which confined him to his 



own province. This unexpected refusal 
was the first of the embarrassments Bur- 
goyne endured after leaving Lake Cham- 
plain. He was compelled, he said, to 
" drain the life-blood of his army " to 
garrison Ticonderoga and hold Lake 
George. No doubt this weakening of his 
army at that time was one of the princi- 
pal causes of his defeat near Saratoga. 
If Carleton wished to gratify a spirit 
of retaliation because of Burgoyne's in- 
trigues against him, the surrender of the 
latter must have fully satisfied him. 
Carleton was made lieutenant-general in 
• 1778; was appointed commander-in-chief 
of the British forces in America in 1781; 
and sailed for England Nov. 25, 1783. 
In 178G he was created Baron Dorchester, 
and from that year until 1796 he was 
governor of British North America. He 
died Nov. 10, 1808. 

Carleton, James Henry, military offi- 
cer; born in Maine in 1814. During the 
controversy over the northeastern boun- 
dary of the United States he was lieuten- 
ant of the Maine volunteers in what was 
called the Aroostook War. He served 
in the Mexican War, and when the Civil 
War broke out was ordered to southern 
California as major of the Gth United 
States Cavalry. In April, 1862, he re- 
lieved General Canby in the command of 
the Department of New Mexico. For 
meritorious service during the war he 
was brevetted major-general, U. S. A. He 
was the author of The Battle of Buena 
Vista, with the Operations of the Army 
of Occupation for one Month. He died in 
San Antonio, Tex., Jan. 7, 1873. 

Carleton, Thomas, military officer; 
born in England in 1736; joined the 
British army and came to America in 
1755 as an ensign in Wolfe's command; 
was promoted lieutenant-general in 1798, 
and general in 1803. During the Revolu- 
tionary War he received a wound in the 
naval battle with Arnold on Lake Cham- 
plain in 1776. He died in Ramsgate, 
Enofiand, Feb. 2, 1817. 

Carlin, William Passmore, military 
officer; born in Greene covmty. 111., Nov. 
24, 1829: was graduated at West Point in 
1850, and was in the Sioux expeditions 
under General Harney in 1855. and under 
General Sumner against the Cheyennes in 
1857. He was in the Utah expedition 

in 1858; and did efficient service in Mis- 
souri for the Union in the early part 
of the Civil War, where he commanded 
a district until March, 1862. He com- 
manded a brigade under Generals Steele 
and Pope, which bore a prominent part in 
the battle of Stone River (q. v.). In the 
operations in northern Georgia late in 
1863, and in the Atlanta campaign the 
next year, he was very active. In the fa- 
mous march to the sea he commanded 
a division in the 14th Corps ; and was 
with Sherman in his progress through the 
Carolinas, fighting at Bentonville. He 
was brevetted major - general, U. S. A. 
in 1893; and was retired Nov. 24 of that 

Carlisle, Frederick Howard, fifth 
Earl of, royal commissioner; born in 
May, 1748; was one of the three commis- 
sioners sent on a conciliatory errand to 
America in 1778; and was lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland in 1780-82. He died Sept. 4, 

Carlisle, John Griffin, statesman; 
born in Campbell (now Kenton) county, 
Ky., Sept. 5, 1835; was admitted to the 
bar in 1858. He rapidly acquired a repu- 
tation both as a lawyer and politician. 
Having gained experience in both houses of 
the Kentucky legislature, and served as 
lieutenant-governor from 1871 to 1875, he 
entered the national House of Representa- 
tives in 1877 as Democratic member from 
his native State. In Congress he became 
rapidly one of the most notable and in- 
fluential figures, especially on financial 
and commercial matters. He was a mem- 
ber of the Ways and Means Committee, 
and was recognized as one of the ablest 
debaters and leaders in the movement for 
revenue reform. When his party obtain- 
ed control of the House in 1883, Carlisle, 
as the candidate of the revenue-reform 
wing of the Democrats, received the nomi- 
nation and election to the office of Speaker. 
He was twice re-elected, serving until 
1889. From 1890 to 1893 he was United 
States Senator. On March 4, 1893, he left 
the Senate to enter President Cleveland's 
second cabinet as Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and on retiring therefrom settled in 
]^ew York City to practise law. 

Carmichael, William, dipMmatist; 
born in Maryland, date uncertain; was a 
man of fortune. He wae in Europe in 



1776, and assisted Silas Deane in his po- men. John B. Floyd, the late Secretary 
litical and commercial operations in of War, was placed in command of the 
France. He also assisted the American Confederates in the region of the Gauley 
commissioners in Paris. In 1778-80 he River. From him much was expected, for 
was in Congress, and was secretary of le- he promised much. He was to drive Gen- 
gation to Jay's mission to Spain. When eral Cox out of the Kanawha Valley, while 
the latter left Europe (1782) Carmichael Lee should disperse the army of 10,000 
remained as charge d'affaires, and retain- men under Rosecrans at Clarksburg, on 
ed the office for several years. In 1792 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and so 
he was associated with William Short open a way for an invading force of Con- 
on a commission to negotiate with Spain federates into Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
a treaty concerning the navigation of the and Ohio. Early in September Rosecrans 
Mississippi. Sparks's Diplomatic Corre- marched southward in search of Floyd. He 
spondence contains many of his letters, scaled the Gauley Mountains, and on the 
He died in February, 1795. 10th found Floyd at Carnifex Ferry, on 

Carnegie, Andrew, philanthropist; the Gauley River, 8 miles from Sum- 
born in Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25, mersville, the capital of Nicholas county, 
1837; was brought to the United States Va. Already a detachment of Floyd's 
by his parents, who settled in Pittsburg in men had surprised and dispersed (Aug. 
1848. He became superintendent of the 26, 1861) some Nationals, under Col. E. 
Pittsburg division of the Pennsylvania B. Taylor, not far from Summersville, 
Railroad Company; invested largely in At the summit of Gauley Mountain Rose- 
oil-wells, and then engaged in the manu- crans encountered Floyd's scouts and 
facture of steel, iron, and coke. He is drove them before him; and on Sept. 
widely known as a founder of public li- 10, Floyd's camp having been recon- 
braries, and a promoter of other educa- noitred by General Benham, Rosecrans 
tional institutions. Among his most not- fell upon him with his whole force (chiefly 
able gifts are the Carnegie Library and Ohio troops), and for three hours a des- 
Institute, with art gallery, museum, and perate battle raged. It ceased only when 
music hall, in Pittsburg, erected at a the darkness of- night came on. Rose- 
great cost, and endowed with many mill- crans intended to renew it in the morning, 
ions; the public library in Washington, and his troops lay on their arms that 
D. C, $350,000; and Cooper Union, New night. Under cover of darkness, Floyd 
York, $300,000. In 1899-1900 his gifts stole away, and did not halt in his flight 
aggregated about $7,000,000. In March, until he reached Big Sewell Mountain, 
1901, he offered $5,200,000 for libraries near New River, 30 miles distant. The 
in New York City, and $1,000,000 for the battle at Carnifex Ferry was regarded as 
same purpose in St. Louis. His library gifts a substantial victory for the Nationals, 
are scattered all over the United States, The latter lost fifteen killed and seventy 
Canada, and Gi-eat Britain. In May, wounded; the Confederates lost one killed 
1901, he gave $10,000,000 to the Scotch and ten wounded. 

universities. $5,000,000 have endowed Carolinas. See North Carolina; 

the " Hero " fund, and $10,000,000 the South Carolina. 

Educational Fund to provide pensions to Caroline (vessel). In the service of the 

superannuated college professors; $10,- Canadian rebels in 1837, which was seized 

000,000 for scientific research; and a host by the British, Dee. 26, while in American 

of other gifts. He has published Tri- waters. The vessel was burned and several 

umphant Democracy ; An Aiiierican Four- men were killed. President Van Buren 

in-Eand in Britain ; Round the World; protested against this violation of neutral- 

Wcalth, etc. See Iron and Steel. ity. The New York militia was called out 

Carnifex Ferry, Battl?. at. The Con- and placed under Scott's command, 
federate troops left by Garnett and Pe- Caroline Islands, a group in the 

gram in western Virginia in the summer South Pacific, said to have been discover- 

of 1861 were placed in charge of Gen. ed by the Portuguese, 1525; also by the 

Robert E. Lee. At the beginning of An- Spaniard Lopez de Villalobos, 1545; and 

gust he was at the head of 16,000 fighting named after Charles 11. of Spain, 1686. 



These islands were virtually given up to 
Spain in 1876. The Germans occupying 
some of the islands, Spain protested in 
August, 1885. Spanish vessels arrived at 
the island of Yop, Aug. 21; the Germans 
landed and set up their flag, Aug. 24; 
dispute referred to the Pope; the sover- 
eignty awarded to Spain, with commercial 
concessions to Germany and Great Brit- 
ain; agreement signed, Nov. 25; con- 
firmed at Rome, Dec. 17, 1885; natives 
subdued, Spaniards in full possession, 
1891; sold by Spain to Germany in 1899. 

The chief American interest in the Caro- 
line Islands lies in the facts that Amer- 
ican missionaries in 1852 were believed 
to have been the first white people to 
occupy that island ; that the missionaries 
were ultimately expelled by the Span- 
iards from the islands. The United States 
government secured the payment of an 
indemnity by Spain of $17,500 in 1894. 

Carpenter, Frank Bicknell, painter 
and author ; born in Homer, N. Y., in 
1830; was mostly self-educated in art; 
settled in New York in 1851, and became 
an associate of the National Academy of 
Design in 1852. He painted numerous 
portraits of Presidents, statesmen, and 
other noted persons. His best - known 
works are the historical painting of 
President Lincoln Signing the Emanci- 
pation Proclamation, now in the Capitol 
in Washington, and Arbitration, a view 
of the British and American commission- 
ers on the Alabama claims in session 
in Washington in 1871, presented to Queen 
Victoria in 1892. He wrote Hix Months 
in the White House with Abraham Lin- 
coln. He died May 23, 1900. 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale, lawyer; 
born in Moretown, Vt., Dec. 22, 1824; 
was admitted to. the Vermont bar in 
1847 ; settled in Wisconsin in the follow- 
ing year, and later in Milwaukee, Mich. 
During the Civil War he was a stanch 
Union man. In March, 1868, with Ly- 
man Trumbull, he represented the govern- 
ment in the famous McCardle trial, which 
involved the validity of the reconstruc- 
tion act of Congress of March 7, 1867. 
Up to that time this was the most im- 
portant cause ever argued before the 
United States Supreme Court, and Car- 
penter and Trumbull won. He was a 
member of the United States Senate in 

1869-75 and 1879-81. He was counsel for 
Samuel J. Tilden before the electoral com- 
mission in 1877. His greatest speeches in 
the Senate include his defence of President 
Grant against the attack of Charles Sum- 
ner, and on the Ku-klux act, Johnson's 
amnesty proclamation, and the iron-clad 
oath. He died in Washington, D. C, 
Feb. 24, 1881. 

Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia. The 
first and second Continental Congresses 
held their sessions in this hall. 

Carpet-bag Governments. During the 
period between the ending of the Civil 
War and the restoration of all rights, 
many of the Southern States were con- 
trolled by unscrupulous white men (see 
Carpet - baggers ) and negro majorities. 
Enormous State debts were incurred and 
frauds of all kinds perpetrated. 

Carpet-baggers, a name of reproach 
given by the South to citizens of the 
North who went South after the Civil 
War. Many went there with the best in- 
tentions ; some in hope of political ad- 
vancement by the aid of negro votes. 

Carr, Eugene Asa, military officer; 
born in Concord, N. Y., March 20, 1830; 
graduated at West Point in 1850. As 
a member of mounted rifles he was en- 
gaged in Indian warfare in New Mexico, 
Texas, and the West; and in 1861 served 
under Lyon, in Missouri, as colonel of 
Illinois cavalry. He commanded a divi- 
sion in the battle of Pea Ridge (q. v.), 
and was severely wounded. He was made 
a brigadier-general of volunteers in 1862. 
He commanded a division in the battle 
of Port Gibson (q. v.) and others pre- 
ceding the capture of Vicksburg; also in 
the assaults on that place. He assisted in 
the capture of Little Rock, Ark., and the 
defences of Mobile. He was retired as 
brigadier-general and brevet major-gen- 
eral United States army in 1893. 

Carr, Sir Robert, commissioner; born 
in Northumberland, England. In 1664 
he was appointed, with Sir Richard 
NicoLLS (q. V.) and others, on a com- 
mission to regulate the affairs of New 
England, and to take possession of New 
Netherland (q. v.). The commission 
came on a fleet which had been fitted out 
to operate against the Dutch settlers on 
the Hudson. Carr and Nicolls gained 
possession of New Netherland Aug. 27, 



1664, and named it New York in honor War he raised nine regiments of militia 
of the Duke of York. On Sept. 24 of the in western Virginia for three - months' 
same year Fort Orange surrendered to volunteers; was promoted brigadier-gen- 
the English, and was renamed Albany, era] of volunteers in November, 1862; and 
In February, 1665, Carr and his associ- served throughout the war with distinc- 
ates went to Boston, but the colonists tion. In 1870-73 he held the chair of 
there declined to recognize them, as did Military Scien'ce and Tactics at Wabash 
also the towns in New Hampshire. In College, Ind. His publications include 
Maine, however, the commissioners were American Classics, or Incidents of Revo- 
well received, and a new government was lutionary Suffeting; Crisis Thoughts ; Aft- 
established in that colony, which lasted sa-ra-ka, Land of Massacre, and Indian 
from 1666 to 1668. He died in Bristol, Operations on the Plains; Battles of the 
England, June 1, 1667. American Revolution; Battle-Maps and 

Carricksford, Battle at. In July, Charts of the American Revolution; Pa- 
1861, after the battle on Rich Mountain triotic Reader, or Human Liberty De- 
(q. v.), the Confederates under Pegram, veloped; Columbian Selections; Beacon 
threatened by McClellan, stole away to Lights of Patriotism; The Washington 
Garnett's camp, when the united forces Obelisk and Its Voices; Washington, the 
hastened to Carricksford, on a branch of Soldier; Lafayette and American Inde- 
the Cheat River, pursued by the Nationals, pendeyice, etc. 

After crossing that stream, Garnett made Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 
a stand. He was attacked by Ohio and signer of the Declaration of Independence ; 
Indiana troops. After a short engage- born in Annapolis, Md., Sept. 20, 1737. 
ment, the Confederates fled. While Gar- His family were wealthy Roman Catholics, 
nett was trying to rally them, he was 
shot dead. The Confederates fled to the 
mountains, and were pursued about 2 

Carrington, Edward, military officer; 
born in Charlotte county, Va., Feb. 11, 
1749; became lieutenant-colonel of a Vir- 
ginia artillery regiment in 1776; was sent 
to the South ; and was made a prisoner 
at Charleston in 1780. He was Gates's 
quartermaster-general in his brief South- 
ern campaign. Carrington prepared the 
way for Greene to cross the Dan, and was 
an active and efficient officer in that offi- 
cer's famous retreat. He commanded the 
artillery at Hobkirk's Hill, and also at 
Yorktown. Colonel Carrington was fore- 
man of the jury in the trial of Aaron 
Burr {q. v) . He died in Richmond, Va., 
Oct. 28, 1810. His brother Paul, born 

P'eb. 24, 1733, became an eminent lawyer; the first a^jpearing in America at the close 
was a member of the House of Burgesses, of the seventeenth century. He was edu- 
and voted against Henry's Stamp Act reso- cated at St. Omer's and at a Jesuit college 
lutions; but was patriotic, and helped at Rheims ; and studied law in France 
along the cause of independence in an and at the Temple, London. He returned 
efficient manner. He died in Charlotte to America in 1764, when he found the 
county, Va., June 22, 1818. colonies agitated by momentous political 

Carrington, Henry Beebee, military questions, into which he soon entered — 
officer; born in Wallingford, Conn., March a writer on the side of the liberties of the 
2, 1824; graduated at Yale College in people. He inherited a vast estate, and 
1845. When the first call for troops was considered one of the richest men in 
was issued at the beginning of the Civil the colonies. Mr. Carroll was a member 




of one of the first vigilance committees ordained a priest in 1769, and entered the 
established at Annapolis, and a member order of Jesuits soon afterwards. He 
of the Provincial Convention. Early in tiavelled through Europe with young Lord 
1776 he was one of a committee appointed Staunton in 1770 as private tutor, and 
by Congress to visit Canada to persuade in 1773 became a professor in the college 
the Canadians to join the other colonies at Bruges. In 1775 he returned to Mary- 
in resistance to the measures of Parlia- land, and the next year, by desire of Con- 
ment. His colleagues were Dr. Franklin giess, he accompanied a committee of that 
and Samuel Chase. The committee was body on a mission to Canada. That com- 
accompanied by Eev. John Carroll. The mittee was composed of Dr. Franklin, 
mission was fruitless; and when, in June, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and Samuel 
the committee returned to Philadelphia, Chase. He was appointed the papal vicar- 
it found the subject of independence general for the United States in 1786, 
under consideration in Congress. Carroll and made Baltimore his fixed residence, 
and Chase induced Maryland to change In 1790 he was consecrated the first Ro- 
its attitude. Carroll was the last sin-- man Catholic bishop in the United States. 
vivor of that band of fifty-six patriots who He foimded St. Mary's College in 1791, and 
signed the Declaration of Independence, in 1804 obtained a charter for Baltimore 
Mr. Carroll served his State in its As- College. Liberal in his views, he main- 
sembly, in the national Congress, and in tained the friendship of all Protestant 
other responsible offices, with fidelity and sects. A few years before his death, in 
ability. At the age of over ninety years Georgetown, D. C, Dec. 3, 1815, he was 
(July 4, 1828) he laid the corner-stone of made archbishop. 

the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, attend- Carson, Curistopiier, popularly known 
ed by an imposing civic procession. The as "Kit Carson," military officer; born 
story that he appended "of Carrollton" in Madison county, Ky., Dec. 24, 1809; 
to his name defiantly, to enable the Brit- began a life of adventure when seventeen 
ish crown to identify him, is a fiction. He years old; was a trapper on the plains 
was accustomed to sign it so to prevent for eight years; and then hunter for 
confusion, as there was another Charles Bent's Fort garrison for eight years more. 
Carroll. He died in Baltimore, Md., Nov. Soon afterwards he became acquainted 
14, 1832. His great-grandson, John Lee with John C. Fremont (7. v.), who em- 
Carroll, of Baltimore, Md., is the general ployed him as guide on his later explora- 
president of the Society of the Sons of tions. His extensive familiarity with the 
the Revolution. habits and language of the various Ind- 

Carroll, George W., philanthropist and ian tribes in the Western country, and his 

business man ; born in Mansfield, La., in possession of their confidence, made him 

1854; removed to Texas in 1873; was the exceptionally effective in promoting the 

Prohibition party's candidate for Gov settlement of that region. In 1847 he 

ernor of Texas in 1902, receiving four was appointed a second lieutenant in the 

times the largest Prohibition vote ever United States Mounted Rifles; in 1853 

before cast in Texas. In 1904 he was drove 6.500 sheep across the mountains 

nominated for Vice-President of the Unit- into California, and on his return was 

ed States on the Prohibition ticket. made Indian agent in New Mexico, where 

Carroll, Howard, journalist; born in he did much in securing treaties between 

Albany, N. Y., in 1854; travelling and the goA^ernment and the Indians. During 

special correspondent of the New York the Civil War he rendered important ser- 

Times for several years, when he resigned vice in Colorado, New Mexico, and the 

to enter business. He subsequently de- Indian Territory, for which he was bre- 

clined the post of United States minister vetted a brigadier-general of volunteers, 

to Belgium. Among his works are At the close of the war he again became 

T'lvelve Americans: Their Lives and an Indian agent. He died in Fort Lynn, 

Times; A Mississippi Incident; etc. Col., May 23, 1868. 

Carroll, John, clergyman; born in Up- Carter, Samuel Powhatan, naval and 

per Marlboro, Md., Jan. 8, 1735; was edu- military officer; born in Elizabethtown, 

cated at St. Omer's, Liege, and Bruges; Tenn., Aug. 6, 1819; was educated at 



Piincetou College; entered the navy in dined it; and Andros warned him to for- 

February, 1840, and became assistant bear exercising any jurisdiction in east 

instructor of seamanship at the Naval Jersey, and announced that he should 

Academy in 1857. At the beginning of erect a fort to aid him (Andros) in the 

the Civil War he was transferred to the exercise of his authority. Carteret defied 

War Department and temporari'y served him; and when, a month later, Andros 

in drilling recruits from eastern Tennessee, went to New Jersey, seeking a peaceful 

He served through the war with much conference, Carteret met him with a mili- 

gallantry, and on March 13, 1865, re- tary force. As Andros came without 

ceived the brevet of major-general. He troops, he was permitted to land. The 

then re-entered the navy; in 1869-72 was conference was fruitless. A few weeks 

commandant of the Naval Academy; re- later Carteret was taken from his bed, in 

tired Aug. 6, 1881; and was promoted his house at Elizabethtown, at night, by 

rear-admiral May 16, 1882. He died in New York soldiers, and carried to that 

Washington, May 26, 1891. city and placed in the hands of the sheriff. 

Carteret, Sir George, English naval He was tried in May (1678), and though 

officer; born in St. Ouen, Jersey, in 1599. Andros sent his jurors out three times. 

Charles I. appointed him governor of the with instructions to bring in a verdict of 

Island of Jersey; and when the civil war guilty, he was acquitted. But he was 

broke out he was comptroller of the navy, compelled to give security that he would 

and esteemed by all parties. Leaving the not again assume political authority in 

sea, he went with his family to Jersey, New Jersey. The Assembly of New Jersey 

but soon afterwards returned to help his were asked to accept the duke's laws, but 

royal master. In 1645 he was created a tliey preferred their own. At the same 

baronet, and returned to his government time they accepted the government of An- 

of Jersey, where he received and sheltered dros, but with reluctance. Carteret went 

the Prince of Wales (afterwards Charles to England with complaints, and the case 

II.) when the royal cause was ruined in was laid before the duke by his widow 

England. Other refugees of distinction after his death. The Friends, of west 

were there, and he defended the island Jersey, had already presented their com- 

gallantly against the forces of Cromwell, plaints against Andros, and the case was 

At the Restoration he rode with the King referred to the duke's commissioners, 

in his triumphant entry into London. These, advised by Sir William Jones, de- 

Carteret became one of the privy council, cided that James's grant reperved no juris- 

vice-chamberlain, and treasurer of the diction, and that none could be rightly 

navy. Being a personal friend of James, claimed. This decided the matter for east 

Duke of York, to whom Charles II. grant- Jersey also, and in August and October, 

ed New Netherland, Carteret and Berke- 1680, the duke signed documents relin- 

ley (another favorite) easily obtained a quishing all rights over east and west 

grant of territory between the Hudson and .Jersey. 

Delaware rivers, which, in gratitude for Carthag'e, Battle of. In the sunimc 
his services in the Island of Jersey, was of 1861 General Lyon sent Col. Franz Sigt. 
called New Jersey. Carteret retained his in pursuit of the Confederates under Gov- 
share of the province until his death, in ernor Price in southeastern Missouri. His 
1680, leaving his widow, Lady Elizabeth, force consisted of nearly 1,000 loyal Mis- 
executrix of his estate. Sir George was sourians (of his own and Salomon's regi- 
one of the grantees of the Carolinas, and ments) with two batteries of artillery of 
a portion of that domain was called Car- four fieM-pieces each — in all about 1,500 
teret colony. Governor Andros. of New men. Though the Confedprateg were re- 
York, claimed political jurisdiction, in ported to be more than 4.000 in number, 
the name of the Duke of York, over all Siael diligently soufrht them. On the 
New Jersey. Philip Carteret, governor of morninor of July 5, 1861. he encountered 
east Jersey, denied it, and the two eov- large numbers of mounted riflemen, who 
ernors were in open opposition. A friend- seemed to be scouting, and a few miles 
ly meeting of the two magistrates, on from Carthage, the capital of Jasper 
Staten Island, was proposed. Carteret de- county, he came upon the main body, un- 



der General Jackson, who was assisted by 
General Rains and three other brigadier- 
generals. They were drawn up in battle 
order on the crown of a gentle hill. A 
battle commenced at a little past ten 
o'clock, by Sigel's field-pieces, and lasted 
about three hours, when, seeing his bag- 
gage in danger and his troops in peril of 
being outflanked, Sigel fell back and re- 
treated, in perfect order, to the heights 
near Carthage, having been engaged in a 
running fight nearly all the way. The 

born at St. Malo, France, Dec. 31, 1494; 
was commissioned by Francis I., King of 
France, to command an expedition to ex- 
plore the Western Continent. On April 
20, 1534, after appropriate ceremonies in 
the cathedral at St. Malo, he sailed from 
that port with two ships, having each a 
crew of 120 men, and, after a prosperous 
voyage of twenty days, they arrived at 
Newfoundland. Sailing northward, he en- 
tered the Strait of Belle Isle, and, touch- 
ing the coast of Labrador, he formally 

Confederates pressed him sorely, and he took possession of the country in the name 
continued the retreat (being outnumbered of his king, and erected a cross, upon 
three to one) to Springfield, where he which he hung the arms of France. Turn- 
was joined by Genei'al Lyon (July 13). ing southward, he followed the west coast 
who itook the chief command of the com- of Newfoundland to Cape Race. Then he 
bined forces. This junction was timely, explored the Bay of Chaleurs, landed in 
for the combined forces of Generals Mc- Gaspe Bay, held friendly intercourse with 

Culloch, Rains, and others had joined those 
of Price, making the number of Confeder- 
ates in that region about 20,000. 
Cartier, Jacques, French navigator; 


the natives, and induced a chief to allow 
two of his sons to go with him to France, 
promising to return them the next year. 
There, also, he planted a cross with the 
French arms upon it, and, 
sailing thence northeast 
across the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, entered the branch of 
the St. Lawrence River north 
of Anticosti Island. Uncon- 
scious of having discover- 
ed a magnificent river, he 
turned and sailed for France 
to avoid the autumn storms, 
and arrived at St. Malo on 
Sept. 5, 1534. 

Encouraged by the success 
of this voyage, the King placed 
Cartier in command of three 
ships, which left St. Malo at 
the middle of May, 1535, 
bearing some of the young no- 
bility of France. Separated 
by storms, they met at the 
appointed rendezvous, in the 
Strait of Belle Isle, in July, 
and sailed up the St. Law- 
rence to the mouth of a river 
(now St. Charles) at the site 
of Quebec, which they reached 
on Sept. 14. His squadron 
consisted of the Great Eer- 
mine, 120 tons; Little Eer- 
mine, 60 tons; and L'Emiril- 
lon, a small craft. On the 
day after their arrival, they 
were visited by Donnaconna, 




"King of Canada," who received them Little Eermine was found to be rotten 

with the greatest kindness, and, through and unseaworthy, and, as the other two 

the two young men whom Cartier had vessels could carry his reduced company, 

brought back, they were enabled to she was abandoned. He formally took 

converse. Mooring the larger vessels in possession of the country in the name of 

the St. Croix (as Cartier named the his King, and, just before his depart- 

St. Charles), he went up the river ure (May 9, 1636), he invited Donna- 

in the smaller one, with two or three vol- conna and eight chiefs on board the flag- 

unteers, and, with a small boat, they ship to a feast. They came, and Cartier 

reached the Huron village called Hoche- treacherously sailed away with them to 

laga, on the site of Montreal. He called France as captives, where they all died 

the mountain back of it Mont Real of grief. Cartier reached St. Malo 

(Royal Mountain), hence the name of July 16. 

Montreal. There he enjoyed the kindest There was now a pause in this enter- 
hospitality, and bore away with him a prise, but finally Francis de la Roque, 
pretty little girl, eight years old. daugh- Lord of Roberval, Picardy, prevailed upon 
ter of one of the chiefs, who lent her to the King to appoint him viceroy and lieu- 
him to take to France. Returnimr to tenant-general of the new territory, and 
Stadacona (now Quebec) early in October, Cartier captain-general and chief pilot of 
the Frenchmen spent a severe winter there, the royal ships. Five vessels were fitted 
during which twenty-five of them died out, and Cartier, with two of them, sail- 
of scurvy. Near'y every one of them had ed from St. Malo in May. 1541. Late 
the disease. When Cartier was prepared in August these reached Stadacona. The 
to leave for France, in the spring, the people there eagerly pressed to the ships 
" " 65 

II. — E 



to welcome their monarch, whom Cartier was a deacon or elder in Robinson's church 
had promised to bring back. They shook at Leyden, and was one of the committee 
their heads incredulously when he told sent to London to effect a treaty with the 
them Donnaconna was dead. To show his Virginia Company concerning colonization 
good faith, he showed them the pretty in America. When the written instru- 
little Huron maiden whom he was to re- ment for the government of the colony 
turn to her friends at Hochelaga. But 
they grew more sullen every hour, and 
became positively hostile. After visiting 
Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona, 
and on an island (Orleans) just below, 
he caused a fort to be built for protection 
through the ensuing winter, where he 
waited patiently for the viceroy, but he 
came not. Towards the end of May the 
ice moved out of the St. Lawrence, and 
Cartier departed for France. He ran 
into the harbor of St. Johns, Newfound- 
land, where he found De la Roque on his 
way to the St. Lawrence. Cartier tried 
to induce him to turn back by giving 
him most discouraging accounts of the 
country, but he ordered the navigator to 

go back with him to the great river. Car- was subscribed on board the Mayflower, 
tier disobeyed and sailed for France. The Mr. Carver was chosen to be governor, 
viceroy went above the site of Quebec, His wife died during the succeeding 
where he built a fort and spent the next winter. Governor Carver's chair (the 
winter in great suffering, returning to first throne of a chief magistrate set 
France in the autumn of 1543. Cartier up in New England) is preserved by the 
had arrived the previous summer, and Massachusetts Historical Society. He 
did not make another voyage. He died died in New Plymouth, Mass., April 5, 
in 1555. 1621. 

Cartwright, John, author; born in Carver, Jonathan, traveller; born in 
Marnham, England, Sept. 28, 1740; be- Stillwater, Conn., in 1732; served in the 
came widely known as an advocate of French and Indian War, and^ afterwards 
the freedom of the American colonies; attempted to explore the vast region in 
and issued a pamphlet entitled American America which the English had acquired 
Independence the Glory and Interest of from the French. He penetrated the coun- 
Great Britain, in 1775. In this he plead- try to Lake Superior and its shores and 
ed for a union between England and the tributaries, and, after travelling about 
colonies, but with separate legislative 7.000 miles, he returned to Boston, whence 
bodies. This tract, supplemented by his he departed in 1766, and sailed for Eng- 
refusal to accept a commission in the land, to connnunicate his discoveries to 
British army on American soil, destroy- the government, and to petition the King 
ed the friendship between Lord Howe and for a reimbursement of his expenses. His 
himself. On April 2, 1777, he recommend- Trai^els were published in 1778. He was 
ed the King to use his power to estab- badly used in England, and, by utter neg- 
lish peace with the colonies on the basis lect, was reduced to a state of extreme 
suggested in his pamphlet. He died in destitution. He died in London, Jan. 31, 
London, Sept. 23, 1824. 1780. 

Carver, John, first governor of New Casa de Mata. See El Molino del 
Plymouth; born in England, between 1575 Rey. 

and 1590; spent a considerable estate Case, Augustus Ludlow, naval offi- 
in forwarding the scheme of the " Pil- cer ; born in Newburg, N. Y., Feb. 3, 
grims " for emigrating to America, and 1813; joined the navy in 1828; served in 
accompanied them in the Mayfloicer. He the Gulf of Mexico during the Mexican 

- 66 



War, and took part in the engagements 1831 he resigned the governorship and be- 
ef Vera Cruz, Alvarado, and Tabasco. In came Secretary of War, under President 
1861-63 he was fleet-captain of the North Jackson. From 1836 to 1842 he was 
Atlantic blockading squadron, and was United States minister to France, and 
present at the capture of Forts Clark from 1845 to 1848 United States Senator, 
and Hatteras. Early in 1863 he was He received the Democratic nomination 
assigned to the Iroquois, and in that year 
directed the blockade of New Inlet, N. C. 
He became rear-admiral May 24, 1872. 
During the Virginius trouble with Spain 
in 1874 he was commander of the com- 
bined North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and 
European fleets at Key West. He died 
Feb. 17, 1893. 

Casey, Silas, military officer; born in 
East Greenwich, R. I., July 12, 1807; was 
graduated at West Point in 1826; served 
with Worth in Florida (1837-41) and 
under Scott in the war with Mexico 
(1847-48) ; was also in the operations 
against the Indians on the Pacific coast 
in 1856. Early in the Civil War he was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
organized and disciplined the volunteers 
at and near Washington. He was made 
major-general of volunteers in May, 1862, 

and commanded a division in General for President in 1848, but was defeated, 
Keyes's corps on the Peninsula, and re- and was again in the United States Sen- 
ceived the first attack of the Confederates ate from 1851 to 1857, when President 
in the battle of Fair Oaks {q. v.). Gen- Buchanan called him to his cabinet as 
eral Casey was brevetted major-general Secretary of State; but when the Presi- 
U. S. A. in March, 1865, for " merito- dent refused to reinforce the garrison at 
rious service during the rebellion," and the Fort Sumter, he resigned. General Cass 
legislature of Rhode Island gave him a favored the compromise of 1850, and also 
vote of thanks in 1867. He was author favored a compromise with the disunion- 
of a System of Infantry Tactics (1861) ists until they became Confederates, when 
and Infantry Tactics for Colored Troops he favored the supporters of the Union. 
(1863). He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. He was author of a work entitled France: 
22, 1882. Its King, Court, and Government. He 

Cass, Lewis, statesman; born in Exe- died in Detroit, Mich., June 17, 1866. 
ter, N. H., Oct. 9, 1782; entered upon the Castine, Capture of. A British fleet, 
practice of law about 1802, in Zanesville, consisting of four 74-gun ships, two frig- 
O., and at the age of twenty-five was a ates, two sloops of war, and one schooner, 
member of the legislature. He was colo- with ten transports, the latter bearing 
nel of an Ohio regiment, under General almost 4,000 troops, sailed from Halifax 
Hull, in 1812, and was with the troops Aug. 26, 1814, under the command of 
surrendered at Detroit (q.v.). In March, I;ieut.-Gen. Sir John Cope Sherbrooke, 
1813, he was made a brigadier-genei'al, governor of Nova Scotia, assisted by Maj.- 
and was volunteer aide to General Harri- Gen. Gerard Gosselin. The fleet was in 
Son at the battle of the Thames (q. v.), command of Rear- Admiral Edward Grif- 
when he was appointed governor of Mich- fith. The destination of the armament 
igan Territory. As superintendent of was the Penobscot River, with a design 
Indian afi"airs in that region, he nego- to take possession of the country between 
tiated nineteen treaties with the Indians, that river and Passaniaquoddy Bay. 
In 1829 he organized a scientific expedi- Sherbrooke intended to stop and take pos- 
tion to explore the upper Mississippi. In session of Machias, but, learning that the 



corvette John Adams, 24 guns, had enter- 
ed the Penobscot, he hastened to overtake 
her. On the morning of Sept. 1 they ar- 
rived in the harbor of Castine. There was 
SI small American force there, under Lieu- 
tenant Lewis, occupying a little battery. 
Lewis, finding resistance would be in vain, 
spiked the guns, blew up the battery, and 
fled. About 600 British troops landed and 
took quiet possession of the place. The 
Jolui Adams had just returned from a 
long cruise, much crippled by striking on 
a rock on entering the bay. It was with 
difficulty that she was kept afloat until 
she reached Hampden, far up the river, 
to which she fled. The British immedi- 
ately detached a land and naval force to 
seize or destroy her. Sherbrooke and 
Griffith issued a joint proclamation as- 
suring the inhabitants of their intention 
to take possession of the country between 
the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Bay, 
and offering them protection on condition 
of their acquiescence. All persons taken 
in arms were to be punished, and all who 
should supply the British with provisions 
were to be paid and protected. General 
Gosselin was appointed military govern- 
or. See Hampden, Action at. 

Castine, Vincent, Baron de, military 
officer; born in Orleans, France; a scion 
of a noble family. At the age of seven- 

troduced among the natives of that region. 
He gained great influence over them. Dur- 
ing his absence in 1688, his establishment 
Avas pillaged by the English, and he be- 
came their bitter foe. He taught the Ind- 
ians around him the use of fire-arms, and 
he frequently co-operated with them in 
their attacks on the northeastern fron- 
tier. In 1696, with 200 Indians, he as- 
sisted Iberville in the capture of the fort 
at Pemaquid. In 1706-7 he assisted in 
the defence of Port Royal, and was wound- 
ed. He lived in America thirty years, 
when he returned to France, leaving Fort 
Castine and the domain around it to his 
half-breed son and successor in title. The 
young baron was really a friend to the 
English, but, being at the head of the 
Penobscot Indians, and suspected of being 
an enemy, he was surprised and captured 
in 1721, taken to Boston, and imprisoned 
several months. His name is perpetuated 
in the town of Castine, at which place 
slight traces of his fort are yet visible. 

Castle ■William, a defensive work on 
the northwest point of Governor's Isl- 
and, New York Harbor; completed in 
1811; and now used chiefly as a mili- 
tary prison. It is the most conspicuous 
building on the island, and from it is 
fired the regulation gun signal at sun- 
rise and sunset. As a defensive work 


teen years, he was colonel of the King's Castle William is now of no importance 

body-guard, and when the regiment to whatever. 

which he belonged was sent to Canada Castle Thunder. See Confedeeate 

(1665) he went with it and remained Prisons. 

after it was disbanded. In 1667 he estab- Castries, Armand Charles Augustin, 

lished a trading-post and built a fort at Due de, military officer; born in France, 

or near the mouth of the Penobscot River, in April, 1756; came to America in the 

and married the daughter of a Penobscot early part of the Revolutionary War; 

chief. By him Christianity was first in- was an officer under Rochambeau; and 



iras promoted brigadier-general in 1782. 
He died in France in 1842. 

Caswell, Richard, military officer; 
born in Maryland, Aug. 3, 1729: went to 
North Carolina in 1746, and practised law 
there, serving in the Assembly from 1754 
to 1771, and being speaker in 1770. In 
the battle of the AUamance he commanded 
Tryon's right wing, but soon afterwards 
identified himself with the cause of the 
patriots, and was a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress (1774-75). For three 
years he was president of the Provincial 
Congress of North Carolina, and was gov- 
ernor of the State from 1777 to 1779. 
In February, 1776, he was in command of 
the patriot troops in the battle of Moore's 
Creek Bridge, and received the thanks of 
Congress and the commission of major- 
general for the victory there achieved. He 
led the State troops in the battle near 
Camden (August, 1780) ; and was con- 
troller-general in 1782. He was again 
governor in 1784-86; and a member of the 
convention that framed the national Con- 
stitution. While presiding as speaker in 
the North Carolina Assembly he was 
stricken with paralysis, and died in Fay- 
etteville, N. C, Nov. 20, 1789. 

Catawba Indians, one of the eight Ind- 
ian nations of North America discovered 
by the Europeans in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when they had 1,500 warriors. They 
occupied the region between the Yadkin 
and Catawba rivers, on each side of the 
boundary-line between North and South 
Carolina. They were southward of the 
Tuscaroras, and were generally on good 
terms with them. They were brave, 
but not warlike, and generally acted on 
the defensive. In 1672 they expelled the 
fugitive Shawnecs; but their country was 
desolated by bands of the Five Nations 
in 1701. They assisted the Carolinians 
against the Tuscaroras and their confed- 
erates in 1711; but four years afterwards 
they joined the powerful league of the 
Southern Indians in endeavors to ex- 
tirpate the white people. A long and 
virulent war was carried on between 
them and the Iroquois. The English en- 
deavored to bring peace between them, 
and succeeded. When, in 1751, William 
Bull, commissioner for South Carolina, at- 
tended a convention at Albany, he was at- 
tended by the chief sachem of the Cataw- 

bas and several chiefs. The hatred be- 
tween the two nations was so bitter that 
the English commissioners deemed it pru- 
dent to keep the Catawbas alone in a 
chamber until the opening of the conven- 
tion, to prevent violence. In the conven- 
tion, after a speech by Mr. Bull, attend- 
ed by the usual presents of wampum, the 
Catawba " king " and his chiefs approach- 
ed the grand council, singing a song of 
peace, and bearing their ensigns — colored 
feathers carried horizontally. A seat was 
prepared for them at the right hand of 
the English company. The singers con- 
tinued their song, half fronting the old 
sachems to whom their words were ad- 
dressed, pointing their feathers, and 
shaking their musical calabashes, while 
their " king " was preparing and lighting 
the calumet, or .pipe of peace. The king 
first smoked, and then presented the pipe 
to King Hendrick, of the Mohawks, who 
gracefully accepted and smoked it. Then 
each sachem smoked it in turn, when the 
Catawba monarch addressed the Six Na- 
tions — the singers having fastened their 
feathers, calabashes, and pipes to their 
tent-pole. The Catawbas were again the 
active allies of the Carolinians in 1760, 
when the Cherokees made war upon them, 
and were friends of the " pale faces " ever 
afterwards. In the Revolution they join- 
ed the Americans, though few in numbers. 
They have occupied a reservation only a 
few miles square upon the Catawba River, 
near the mouth of Fishing Creek, and are 
now nearly extinct. 

Cathay, the old name of China, so call- 
ed by the Venetian traveller Marco Polo, 
who, in the employ of the Khan of Tar- 
tary, visited it early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It was the land Columbus expect- 
ed to find by sailing westward from Spain. 

Cathcart, Wiltiam Schaw, Earl, mil- 
itary officer; born in Petersham, Eng- 
land, Sept. 17, 1755; joined the British 
army in June, 1777, and came to the 
United States; later was aide to Gen. 
Spencer Wilson and General Clinton, and 
participated in the siege of Forts Mont- 
gomery and Clinton, and in the battles of 
Brandywine and Monmouth. In May, 
1778, during the reception given in honor 
of Lord Howe, in Philadelphia, he led 
one section of the " knights " at the cele- 
brated Mischianza (q. v.). Later he 



recruited and commanded the Caledonian She died in New London, Conn., Feb. 3, 

Volunteers, which subsequently was call- 1SG9. 

ed Tarleton's Legion. He returned to Eng- Cavaliers, adherents of the fortunes 
land in 1780. He died in Cartside, Scot- of the Stuarts — the nobility, and the bit- 
land, June 16, 1843. ter opposers of the Puritans. On th( 

Catholicism in the United States, death of Charles I. (1649), they fled to 

See Roman Catholicism. Virginia by hundreds, where only, in 

Catlin, George, artist; born in Wilkes- America, their Church and their King were 

barre. Pa., in 1796. In 1832 he went to respected. They made an undesirable ad- 

the Far West, where he lived for several dition to the population, excepting theil 

years among the Indians. His paintings, introduction of more refinement of mannel 

illustrative of Indian life and customs, than the ordinary colonist possessed. They 

numbered in all more than 500. His pub- were idle, inclined to luxurious living, 

lications include Manners, Customs, and and haughty in their deportment towards 

Condition of the North American Indians ; the " common people." It was they who 

0-kee-pa: A Religious Ceremony, and oth- rallied around Berkeley in his struggles 

er Customs of the Mandans, etc. He died with Bacon (see Bacon, Nathaniel), and 

in Jersey City, N. J., Dec. 23, 1872. gave him all his strength in the Assem- 

Catron, John Dean, jurist; born in bly. They were extremely social among 

Wythe county, Va., in 1788; justice of the tlieir class, and gatherings and feastings 

United States Supreme Court, 1837-65. and wine-drinking Avere much indulged in 

He died in Nashville, Tenn., May SO, 1865. until poverty pinched them. They gave 

Catskill Movintains, a group of the a stimulus to the slave-trade, for, un- 

Appalachian range on the west bank of willing to Avork themselves, they desired 

the Hudson River in New York State, servile tillers of their broad acres; and 

Highest point. Round Top, 3.804 feet. so were planted the seeds of a landed oli- 

Caucus, a word in the vocabulary of garchy in Virginia that ruled the colony 
the politics of the United States, proba- until the Revolution in 1775, and in a 
bly a corruption of the word calkers — - measure until the close of the Civil War 
men who drive oakum or old ropes un- in 1865. 
twisted into the seams of vessels. These Cavalry. See Army. 
men naturally associated much with rope- Cavite, a former Spanish military post, 
makers in seaports. In Boston the calk- on a narrow peninsula jutting out from 
ers had formed an association of which the the mainland of Luzon Island, Philip- 
father of Samuel Adams, and Samuel pines, into Manila Bay, about 8 miles 
Adams himself afterwards, were members, southwest of the city of Manila. On the 
After the Boston Massacre, this society at night of April 30, 1898, Commodore 
their meetings, in speeches and resolu- Dewey, in command of the Pacific squad- 
tions, took strong grounds against the ron, sailed boldly past the batteries on 
British government, its acts, and its in- Corregidor Island, into Manila Bay, and 
struments in America, and planned on the morning of May 1, attacked the 
schemes for relieving their country of op- Spanish fleet which had hastily formed 
pression. The Tories, in derision, called in battle-line under the protection of the 
these assemblies " calkers' meetings," guns of the Cavite fort. When the Amer- 
which became corrupted to " caucus meet- loan vessels neared the fort they had to 
ings " — gatherings at which politicians of sustain both its fire and that of the 
the same creed meet, consult, and lay Spanish ships. But Commodore Dewey 
plans for political action. See Nominat- so manoeuvred his fleet as to keep in an 
iNG Conventions, National. advantageous position in the strong cur- 

Caughnawagas, Canadian Indians al- rents of the bay and to avoid the fire of 

lied with the Mohawks. the Spaniards. Some of the American 

Caulkins, Frances Mainwaring, au- ships engaged the fleet and others direct- 

thor; born in New London, Conn., in cd their fire against the batteries. The 

1796; was highly educated; and was the water battery at Cavite was shelled until 

author of A History of Norwich, Conn.; a magazine exploded, killing forty men, 

A History of New London, Conn., etc. when the commander raised a white flag as 



a sign of a truce. Later the forts of Cavite 
and Corregidor surrendered, and the six 
batteries at the entrance of the bay were 
destroyed. After the destruction of Ad- 
miral Montijo's fleet the Americans es- 
tablished a hospital at Cavite, where 250 
Spanish wounded and sick were cared for. 
In 1900 the United States authorities 
converted Cavite into a stronger protec- 
tive post than it had ever been. See 
Dewey, George; Manila; Manila Bay, 
Battle of. 

Cayuga Indians, one of the four nations 
of the Iroquois Confederacy {q. v.) , 
calling themselves Goiogiven, or " Men of 
the Woods." Tradition says hat at the 
formation of the confederacy, Ei-a-ivat-ha 
said to the Cayugas: "You, Cayugas, 
a people whose habitation is the ' Dark 
Forest,' and whose home is every^vhere, 
shall be the fourth nation, because of 
your superior cunning in hunting." They 
inhabited the country about Cayuga Lake 
in central New York, and numbered about 
300 warriors when first discovered by the 
French at the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The nation was composed of the 
families of the Turtle, Bear, and Wolf, 
like the other cantons, and also those of 
the Beaver, Snipe, Heron, and Hawk. 
They were represented in the congress of 
the league by ten sachems. Through 
Jesuit missionaries the French made fruit- 
less attempts to Christianize the Cayugas 
and win them over to the French interest, 
. but found them uniformly enemies. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War the CayuQ-as 
were against the colonists. They fought 
the Virginians at Point Pleasant in 
1774. They hung upon the flank and rear 
of the army under Sullivan that invaded 
the territory of the Senecas in 1779; but 
they soon had their own villages destroy- 
ed, which greatly annoyed them. After 
the war they ceded their lands to the State 
of New York, excepting a small reserva- 
tion. In 1800 some of them joined the 
Senecas, some went to the Grand River 
in Canada, and some to Sandusky, 0.. 
whence they were removed to the Indian 
Territory (q. v.). In 1899 there were 
only 161 left at the New York agency. 

Cebu, one of the Philippine Islands, 
lying between Luzon and Mindanao, 135 
mile long, with an extreme width of 30 
miles. Sugar cultivation- and the manu- 

facture of abaca are the chief industries. 
Population, 320,000.— The town of Cebu, 
on the eastern coast of the island, the 
oldest Spanish settlement in the Philip- 
pines, is a place of considerable trade, 
and has a cathedral and several churches. 
It is about 360 miles from Manila, and 
has a population of 40,000. There are 
valuable and extensive coal deposits near 
the town. The China Steam Navigation 
Company began in 1900 to run a regular 
steamer from Hong-Kong to the port of 
Cebu. Hemp was exported from the isl- 
and in 1899 to the value of $3,151,910; 
sugar, .$770,503; copra, $241,953. The to- 
tal shipments exceeded by $1,456,000 
those of 1898. Imports in 1899 were val- 
ued at $1,055,286. 

Cedar Creek, Battle at. In October, 
1864, the National army, commanded by 
General Wright, in the temporary absence 
of Sheridan at Washington, were so strong- 
ly posted behind Cedar Creek that they had 
no expectation of an attack. They were 
mistaken. Early felt keenly his misfort- 
une, and, having been reinforced by Ker- 
shaw's division and 600 cavalry sent by 
Lee, he determined to make a bold move- 
ment, swiftly and stealthily, against the 
Nationals. He secretly gathered his forces 
at Fisher's Hill behind a mask of thick 
woods, and formed them in two columns 
to make a simultaneous attack upon both 
flanks of the Nationals. He moved soon 
after midnight (Oct. 19, 1864), with 
horse, foot, and artillery. alon<? rugged 
paths over the hills, for he shunned the 
hiijhways for fear of discovery. The divi- 
sions of Gordon. Ramseur. and Pegram 
formed his right column; his left was com- 
posed of the divisions of Kershaw and 
Wharton. At dawn these moving columns 
fell upon the right, left, and rear of the 
Nationals. It was a surprise. So furious 
was the assault before the Nationals had 
time to take battle order, that in fifteen 
minutes Crook's corps, that held a position 
in front, and had heard mysterious sounds 
like the dull, heavy tramp of an army, was 
broken into fragments, and sent flying 
back in disorder upon the corps of Emory 
and Wright. Crook left 700 men as pris- 
oners, with many cannon, small-arms, and 
munitions of war in the hands of the Con- 
federates. Emory tried in vain to stop 
the fugitives, but very soon his own corps 



gave way, leaving several guns behind, it to be only a reconnoissance. After 
These, with Crook's, eighteen in all, were breakfast he mounted his horse — a power- 
turned upon the fugitives with fearful ful black charger — and moved leisurely 
effect, while Early's right column, led by out of the city southward. He soon met 
Gordon, continued their flanking advance the van of fugitives, who told a dreadful 


with vigor, turning the Nationals out of 
every position where they attempted to 
make a stand. 

Seeing the peril of his army, Wright 
ordered a general retreat, which was cov- 
ered by the 6th Corps, under the command 
of Ricketts, which remained unbroken. 
The whole army retreated to Middletown, 
a little village 5 miles north of Strasburg, 
where Wright rallied his broken columns, 
and, falling back a mile or more, left 
Early in possession of Middletown. The 
Nationals had lost since daybreak (it 
was now ten o'clock) 1,200 men made cap- 
tive, besides a large number killed and 
wounded; also camp equipage, lines of 
defence, and twenty-four cannon. There 
being a lull in the pursuit, Wright had 
reformed his troops and changed his 
front, intending to attack or retreat to 
Winchester as circumstances might dic- 

At that critical moment Sheridan ap- 
peared on the field. He had returned from 
Washington, and had slept at Winchester. 
Early in the morning he heard the boom- 
ing of cannon up the valley, and supposed 

tale of disaster. He immediately ordered 
the retreating artillery to be parked on 
each side of the turnpike. Then, ordering 
his escort to follow, he put his horse on 
a swinging gallop, and at that pace rode 
nearly 12 miles to the front. The fugi- 
tives became thicker and thicker every mo- 
ment. He did not stop to chide or coax, 
but, waving his hat as his horse thunder- 
ed on over the magnificent stone road, he 
shouted to the cheering crowds, " Face 
the other way, boys! face the other way! 
We are going back to our camp. We are 
going to lick them out of their boots!" 
Instantly the tide of retreating troops 
turned and followed after the young gen- 
eral. As he dashed along the lines and 
rode in front of forming regiments, he 
gave a word of cheer to all. He declared 
they should have all those camps and cau' 
non back again. They believed the 
prophecy, and fought fiercely for its ful- 
filment. The reformed army advanced 
in full force. Already (10 a.m.) General 
Emory had quickly repulsed an attack, 
which inspirited the whole corps. A gen- 
eral and severe sttucrgle ensued. The whole 


Confederate army were soon in full and 
tumultuous retreat up the valley towards 
Fisher's Hill, leaving guns, trains, and 
other hinderances to tlight behind. Early's 
army was virtually destroyed; and, with 
the exception of two or three skirmishes 
between cavalry, there was no more fight- 
ing in the Shenandoah Valley. That 
night the Nationals occupied their old 
position at Cedar Creek. The promise of 
Sheridan, " We will have all the camps 
and cannon back again," was fulfilled. 
Sheridan was rewarded by the commis- 
sion of a major-general in the regular 
army, dated Nov. 4, 1864. " Sheridan's 
Ride " was made the theme of poetry and 

Cedar Mountain, Battle of. Pope's 
main army was near Culpeper Court- 
house, and " Stonewall " Jackson was at 
Gordonsville, with a heavy force, at the 
close of July, 1862. Pope had taken com- 
mand on June 28, and assumed the con- 
trol in the field on July 29. Both ar- 
mies advanced early in August. Jackson, 
reinforced, had thrown his army across 
the Rapidan River on the morning of the 
8th, and driven the National cavalry back 
on Culpeper Court-house. Gen. S. W. 
Crawford was sent with his brigade to as- 
sist the latter in retarding Jackson's 
march, and to ascertain his real inten- 
tions, if possible. The movements of the 
Confederates were so mysterious that it 
was difficult to guess where they intended 
to strike. On the morning of Aug. 9, Pope 
sent General Banks forward with about 
8,000 men to join Crawford near Cedar 
Mountain, 8 miles southward of Culpeper 
Court-house, and Sigel was ordered to ad- 
vance from Sperryville at the same time 
to the support of Banks. Jackson had 
now gained the commanding heights of 
Cedar Mountain, and he sent forward 
General Ewell under the thick mask of tlie 
forest. Early's brigade of that division 
was thrown upon the Culpeper road. The 
Confederates planted batteries, and opened 
fire upon Crawford's batteries. Before 
Crawford and Banks were about 20.000 
veteran soldiers in line of battle. Against 
these Banks moved towards eveninsr, and 
almost simultaneously fell upon Jackson's 
right and left. The attacking force was 
composed of the division of General Auger 
(the advance led by General Geary) and 


the division of General Williams, of which 
Crawford's brigade was a part. The bat- 
tle now became general, and raged for an 
hour and a half, during which deeds of 
great valor were performed on both sides. 
The Nationals, outnumbered, were pushed 
back after much loss by both parties. At 
dusk Ricketts's division of McUowell's 
corps came upon the field, and checked the 
pursuit. Artillery firing was kept up un- 
til near midnight. Later in the evening 
Sigel's corps arrived, and these reinforce- 
ments kept Jackson in check. On the 
night of the 11th, informed of the ap- 
proach of National troops from the Rap- 
pahannock, and alarmed for the safety of 
his communications with Richmond, he 
fled beyond the Rapidan, leaving a part 
of his dead unburied. 

Cedars, Affair at the. In 1776 there 
was a small American party posted at the 
Cedars Rapids of the St. Lawrence River, 
under Colonel Bedel, of New Hampshire. 
While the colonel was sick at Lachine, 
Captain Foster, with some regulars, Cana- 
dians, and 500 Mohawks, under Brant, 
came down the river and attacked and 
captured this post without resistance. 
Arnold went out from Montreal with a 
force to attack tlie captors ; but, to pre- 
vent the Indians murdering the prisoners, 
he consented to a compromise for an ex- 

Celoron de Bienville, French explor- 
er; born about 1715. The treaty of peace 
at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 did not touch 
the subject of boundaries between the 
French and English colonies in America. 
The Ohio Company was formed partly for 
the purpose of planting English settle- 
ments in the disputed territory. The 
French determined to counteract the move- 
ment by pre-occupation ; and in 1749 the 
governor of Canada, the Marquis de la 
Galissonidre, sent Celeron with subordinate 
officers, cadets, twenty soldiers, 180 Cana- 
dians, thirty Iroquois, and twenty-five 
Abenakes, with instructions to go down 
the Ohio River and take formal pos- 
session of the surrounding country in 
the name of the King of France. Con- 
trecceur, afterwards in command at Fort 
Duquesne, and Coupon de Villiers accom- 
panied him as chief lieutenants. Celoron 
was provided with a number of leaden tab- 
lets, properly inscribed, to bury at differ- 


ent places as a record of pre-occupation 
by the French. The expedition left La- 
chine on June 15, ascended the St. Law- 
rence, crossed Lake Ontario, arrived at 
Niagara July 6, coasted some distance 
along the southern shores of Lake Erie, 
and then made an overland journey to the 
head-waters of the Alleghany River. Fol- 
lowing that stream to its junction with 
the IVIonongahela, they went down the 
Ohio to the mouth of the Great Miami, be- 
low Cincinnati, proclaiming French sov- 
ereignty, and burying six leaden tablets 
at as many different places. From the 
mouth of the ]\Iiami they made an over- 
land journey to Lake Erie, and reached 
Fort Niagara Oct. 19, 1749. The place 
and date of Celeron's death are uncertain. 

Cemeteries, in the United States. By 
an act of the legislature of New York 
State, April 27, 1847, land devoted to 
cemetery purposes in that State is exempt 
from taxation. 

Cemeteries, National. National ceme- 
teries for soldiers and sailors may be said 
to have originated in 1850, the army ap- 
propriation bill of tliat year providing 
money for a cemetery near the city of 
Mexico, for the interment of the remains 
of soldiers who fell in the INIexican War. 
The remains of Federal soldiers and sail- 
ors who fell in the Civil War have been 
buried in seventy-eight cemeteries, exclu- 
sive of those interred elsewhere, a far 
greater number. In the subjoined list are 
given the names and locations of the na- 
tional cemeteries, with the number therein 
buried, known and unknown: 


Cypress Hills, N. Y 3,710 

W'oodlawn, Elmira, N. Y. . . . 3,074 

Beverly, N. J 145 

Finn's Point, N. J 

Gettysburg, Pa 1,967 

Philadelphia, Pa 1,881 

Annapolis, Md 2.285 

Antietam, Md 2.853 

London Park, Baltimore, Md. 1,637 

Laurel, Paltimore, Md 232 

Soldiers' Home, D. C 5,314 

Battle, D. C 43 

Grafton, W. Va 634 

Arlington, Va 11,915 

Alexandria, Va 3,402 

Ball's Bluff, Va 1 

Cold Harbor, Va 673 

City Point, Va 3,778 

Culpeper, \a 456 






















Known. known. 

Danville, Va 1,172 155 

Fredericksburg, Va 2,487 12,770 

Fort Harrison, Va 236 575 

Glendale, Va 234 961 

Hampton, Va 4,930 494 

Poplar Grove, Va 2,197 3,993 

Richmond, Va 842 5,700 

Seven Pines, Va 150 1,208 

Staunton, Va 233 520 

Winchester, Va 2,094 2,365 

Yorktown, Va 748 1,434 

Newbern, N. C 2,177 1,077 

Raleigh, N. C 619 562 

Salisbury, N. C 94 12,032 

Wilmington, N. C 710 1,398 

Beaufort, S. C 4,748 4,493 

Florence, S. C 199 2,799 

Andersonville, Ga 12,793 921 

Marietta, Ga 7,188 2,963 

Barrancas, Fla 798 657 

Mobile, Ala 756 113 

Corinth, Miss 1,789 3,927 

Natchez, Miss 308 2,780 

Vicksburg, Miss 3,896 12,704 

Alexandria, La 534 772 

Baton Rouge, La 2,469 495 

Chalmette, La 6,837 5,674 

Port Hudson, La 596 3 223 

Brownsville, Tex 1,417 1,379 

San Antonio, Tex 324 167 

Fayetteville, Ark 431 781 

Fort Smith, Ark 711 1,152 

Little Rock, Ark 3,265 2,337 

Chattanooga, Tenn 7,999 4,963 

Fort Donelson, Tenn 158 511 

Knoxville, Tenn 2,090 1,046 

Memphis, Tenn 5,160 8,817 

Nashville, Tenn 11,825 4,701 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn 1,229 2,361 

Stone River, Tenn 3,821 2,324 

Camp Nelson, Ky 2,477 1,165 

Cave Hill, Louisville, Ky... 3,344 583 

Danville, Ky 335 8 

Lebanon, Ky 591 277 

Lexington, Ky 805 108 

Logan's, Ky 345 366 

Crown Hill, Indianapolis, 

Ind 681 32 

New Albany, Ind 2,139 676 

Camp Butler, 111 1,007 355 

Mound City, 111 2,505 2,721 

Rock Island, 111 277 19 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo 8,584 2,906 

Jefferson City, Mo 349 412 

Springfield, Mo 845 713 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan 835 928 

Fort Scott, Kan 390 161 

Keokuk, Iowa 612 33 

Fort Gibson, I. T 215 - 2,212 

Fort MePherson, Neb 152 291 

City of Mexico, Mexico 284 750 

Total 171,302 147,568 

Censuring the President. The United 
States Congress has twice censured the 
President: Jackson in 1834, and Tyler in 
1843 iqq.v.). 


Census, United States. The follow- 
ing table gives the total and the urban pop- 
ulation of the United States at each dec- 
ade, together with the percentage of in- 
crease, the balance of sexes, and the popu- 
lation to each square mile: 

Monday of August, and close within nine 
months thereafter. The free persons were 
to be distinguished from others, males and 
females, and Indians not taxed were to be 
omitted from the enumeration. Free males 
of sixteen vears and over were to be dis- 

GENERAL TABLE 1790-1900, 



Per Cent, of 

Population per 
Square Mile. 

per 1,000 Population. 

Urban Population. 

Percent. o( 

Urban Pop- 

ulution to 

















35' ii 


20 78 














25,031, ."iOS 

3 35 




4 93 


4 93 


6 72 


8 52 


12 49 


16 13 


20 93 


22 57 




Previous to 1790 there were no definite 
figures of population; everything was esti- 
mate. During the life of the Continental 
Congress the taxation apportionment, as 
well as the calls for troops from the colo- 
nies, was made on meagre information, 
and that often of a purely conjectural 
character. Mr. DeBow, who edited the 
census returns in 1850, gave the follow- 
ing estimates of colonial population: 

1707 262,000 

1749 1,046,000 

1775 2,803,000 

Mr. Bancroft gives the estimates of the 
Board of Trade, which had its agents in 
the colonies, as follows: 

1714 434,600 

1727 580,000 

1754 1,485,634 

The Constitution of the United States 
provides for an enumeration of the popu- 
lation as often as once in every ten years, 
as follows: "Representatives and direct 
taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral States which may be included within 
the Union according to their respective 
numbers, which may be determined by 
adding to the whole number of free per- 
sons, including those bound to service for 
a term of years, and excluding Indians 
not taxed, three-fifths of all other per- 
sons." The first act of Congress for the 
census-taking was dated March 1, 1790; 
the enumeration was to begin the first 


tinguished from those under that age. By 
that census there were 3,929,214 persons 
in the United States, of whom 697,681 
were slaves and 59,527 were free colored 
persons. In 1810 the act provided for an 
enumeration of the inhabitants, distin- 
guishing between races, sexes, and ages. 
In 1820 another step forward was taken, 
in that it was required of the enumerators 
that their reports show the number of per- 
sons engaged in agriculture, manufactures, 
and commerce. 

In 1830 there was required an enumer- 
ation of the deaf, dumb, and blind, but 
there were no statistics of agriculture, 
manufactures, or commerce. In 1838 prep- 
arations were made for taking the sixth 
census, and the act is very comprehen- 
sive, embracing the enumeration of the 
population, with classification, according 
to age, sex, and color, the deaf, dumb, 
and blind, insane, idiots, free and slave 
colored; number of persons drawing pen- 
sions from the United States, with their 
names and ages; also statistical tables 
of mines, agriculture, commerce, manu- 
factures, and schools. The returns made 
show the products of mines, manufactures, 
number of bushels of grain of every kind, 
of potatoes, tons of hay and hemp, pounds 
of tobacco and cotton and sugar, the value 
of dairy products, etc. The census of 
1850 was placed under the charge of the 
newly created Department of the Interior. 
The first superintendent was Joseph 
C. G. Kennedy, of Pennsylvania. 


In the following table are given the establishment of a census office in the De- 
comparative rank of all the States and partment of the Interior. Additions were 
Territories, exclusive of Porto Rico and the made to the previous acts, such as the 
Philippines: indebtedness of cities, counties, and in- 






uk each Decad«. 














' 9,658 
11, 273 





107, 20(5 













































































































































































































J 37 





















Delaware .. .. 

District of Columbia. . . . 







Indian Territory 















New Hampshire 

New .ler.-ey. ... 






Norlli DiikotM) 

South l)ukot;i/ 



401, .^70 













9.^8. 8Ci0 



In the taking of the ninth census the act 
of 1850 was substantially followed, and Gen, 
Francis A. Walker was the superintend- 
ent. There were the volumes of statistics, 
of population, agriculture, and manufact- 
ures, and, besides, a compendium was 
issued Nov. 1, 1872, in which were well- 
prepared summaries of the more important 
reports. The tenth census act directed the 

corporated villages; reports were pro- 
vided for from railways, to ascertain their 
condition, business, etc.; also, similar in- 
formation was asked for in regard to 
express and telegraph companies; experts 
were employed in place of the enumer- 
ators to collect social and manufacturing 
statistics. General Walker was appoint- 
ed superintendent of the census April 1, 



1879; resigned Nov. 3, 1881; and was sue- A table showing the centre of population 

ceeded by Charles W. Seaton, who died 
before the work was completed. The office 
of superintendent of the census was abol- 
ished in 1885, and was re-established by 
the act of March 1, 1889. Robert P. Por- 

from 1790 to 1900 will be found under 
" Centre of Population." 

The following table shows the popula- 
tion, according to the census of 1900, by 
States and Territories, with the totals of 

ter was appointed superintendent of the the census of 1890, and the increase: 


States and Territories. 




Increase Since 









District of Columbia 







Indian Territory. . . . 















New Hampshire.... 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 





Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 







West Virginia 


































































































328 808 





1,655 980 





















































168 713 







• Decrease. 

tenth census; served till 1893; and was The following table shows the popula- 
succeeded by Carroll D. Wright. The tion of all cities having 25,000 and up- 
eleventh census (1900) was taken under ward inhabitants in the census years 
the directorship of William R. Merriam. 1890 and 1900, together with their change. 




New York. N. Y 

Chicago, 111 

Philadelphia. Pa , 

Si. Louis. Mo , 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

Cleveland, O 

Buffalo, N. Y 

San Francisco, Cal 

Cincinnati, O 

Pittsburg, Pa 

New Orleans, La 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Washington, D. C 

Newark, N. J 

Jersey City, N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Providence, R. I 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Kansas City, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Denver, Col 

Toledo, O 

Allegheny, Pa 

Columbus, O 

Worcester, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

New Haven, Conn 

Paterson, N. J 

Fall River, Mass 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Omaha, Neb 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Memphis, Tenn 

Scranton, Pa 

Lowell, Mass 

Albany, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Portland, Ore 

Atlanta, Ga 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Dayton, O 

Richmond, Va 

Nashville, Tenn 

Seattle, Wash 

Hartford, Conn 

Reading, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Camden, N. J 

Trenton, N. J 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Lynn, Mass 

Oakland, Cal 

Lawrence, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass 

Des Moines, la 

Springfield, Mass 

Somerville, Mass 

Troy, N. Y 

Hoboken, N. J 

Evansville, Ind 

Manchester, N. H 

Utica, N. Y 

Peoria, 111 

Charleston, S. C 

Savannah, Ga 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Antonio. Tex 

Duluth, Minn 

Erie, Pa 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Wilkesbarre, Pa 

Kansas City, Kan 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Portland, Me 

Yonkers, N. Y 












































































































































































28 994 




























26 811 



21 858 






























15 648 






10 782 




* Decrease. 


Norfolk, Va 

AVatei'bury, Conn.. 

Holyoke, Mass. . . . 

Fort Wayne, Ind. . 

Youngstown, O.... 

Houston, Tex 

Covington, Ky. . . . 

Akron, O 

Dallas, Tex 

Saginaw, Mich. . . . 

Lancaster, Pa. . . . 

Lincoln, Neb 

Brockton, Mass . . . 

Binghamton, N. Y. 

Augusta, Ga 

Pawtucket, R. I. . . 

Altoona, Pa. 

Wheeling, W. Va. . 

Mobile, Ala 

Birmingham, Ala. . 

Little Kock, Ark. . . 

Springfield, O 

Galveston, Tex. . . . 

Tacoma, Wash . . . . 

Haverhill, Mass. . . 

Spokane. Wash. . . . 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Dubuque, la 

Quincy, 111 

South Bend, Ind. . . 

Salem, Mass 

Johnstown, Pa. . . . 

Elmira, N. Y 

AUentown, Pa. . . . 
Davenport, la 

McKeesport, Pa. . . 

Springfield. 111. . . . 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

York, Pa 

Maiden, Mass 

Topeka, Kan 

Newton, Mass. . . . , 

Sioux City, la 

Bayonne, N. J 

Knoxville, Tenn. . . 
Chattanooga, Tenn 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Fitchburg, Mass. . . 

Superior, Wis 

Rockford, 111 

Taunton, Mass. . . . 

Canton, O 

Butte, Mont 

Montgomery, Ala. . 

Auburn, N. Y 

East St. Louis, 111. 

Joliet. Ill 

Sacramento, Cal. . . 

Racine, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis .... 
WilliamsDort, Pa. . 
Jacksonville. Pa. . . 

Newcastle. Pa 

Newport, Kv 

Oshkosh. Wis 

Noonsocket. R. I. . . 

Pnoblo. Col 

Atlantic City. N. J. 

Passaic. N. J 

Bav City. Mich 

Fort Worth. Tex. . . 

Lexington. Ky 

Gloucester. Mass. . . 
South Omaha. Neb. 
New Britain. Conn. 
Council Bluffs. la. . 
Cedar Rapids, la. . 

Faston, Pa 

Jackson, Mich 
















40 063 





































































46 322 
32 011 
55 154 
3 9,033 



*14 9*^5 
10,1 37 



Centennial Exhibition, the " World's 
Fair," held in Philadelphia in 1876, com- 
memorating the centennial of the politi- 
cal existence of the North American Re- 
public. On June 1, 1872, Congress passed 
an act providing for a Centennial Board 
ox Finance. The members of this board 
were authorized to procure subscriptions 
to a capital stock not exceeding $10,000,- 
000, in shares of $10 each. John Welsh, of 

invitations to all foreign nations having 
diplomatic relations with the United 
States to participate in the exhibition 
l-y sending the products of their indus- 
tries. There was a generous response, and 
thirty -three nations, besides the United 
States, were represented — namely, Ar- 
gentine Republic, Austria, Belgium. Bra- 
zil, Canada, Chili, China, Denmark, Egypt, 
France, Germany, Great Britain and Ire- 


Philadelphia, was chosen president of this land, India and British colonies, Hawaiian 
board. William Sellers and John S. Bar- Islands, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Liberia, 
hour were appointed vice-presidents, and Luxemburg Grand Duchy, Mexico, Nether- 
Frederick Fraley treasurer. An official seal lands, Norway, Orange Free State, Peru, 
was adopted, simple in design. The words Portugal, Russia, Santo Domingo, Spain 
United States Centennial Commission and Spanish colonies, Siam, Sweden, 
were placed in concentric circles around Switzerland, Tunis, Turkey, and Venez- 
the edge of the seal. In the centre was uela. A " Woman's Executive Commit- 
a view of the old State-house in Phila- tee " was formed, composed of Philadel- 
delphia; and beneath the building were phians, who raised money sufficient among 
the words (cast on the State-house bell the women of the Union for the erection 
ten years oefore the Revolution), "Pro- of a building for the exhibition exclu- 
CLAiM Liberty throughout the Land, sively of women's work — sculpture, paint- 
unto all the Inhabitants thereof." ing, engraving, lithography, literature. 
It was soon decided to make the affair telegraphy, needlework of all kinds, etc. — 
international, instead of national — an ex- at a cost of $.30,000. The building was 
hibition of the products of all nations. called the " Women's Pavilion." In it 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, an ideal were exhibited beautiful needlework from 
site for the purpose, was chosen as the England and etchings from the hand of 
place to hold the great fair. Suitable Queen Victoria. 

buildings were erected, five in number The women of the republic also contrib- 

— namely, Main Exhibition Building, uted ta the general fund of the Centennial 

Memorial Hall (or Art Gallery), Ma- Commission more than $100,000. The 

chinery Hall, Horticultural Hall, and great exhibition was opened May 10. The 

Agricultural Hall. The ageregate cost opening ceremonies were grand and im- 

of these buildinsrs was about $4,444,000. posing. Representatives of manv nations 

The space occupied bv them was about 49 were present. The late Dom Pedro II., 

acres of ground, and their annexes covered then Emperor of Brazil (with his em- 

26 acres more, making a total of 75 acres, press), was the only crowned head pres- 

The main building alone covered over 21 ent. The American Congress and the 

acres. The national government issued foreign diplomats were largely represent- 



ed. The President of the United States 
(General Grant), in the presence of fully 
100,000 people, appeared upon the great 
platform erected for the occasion, accom- 
panied by his wife, when the " Grand 
Centennial March," composed by Richard 
Wagner, tlie great German musical com- 
poser, was performed by the orchestra of 
Theodore Thomas. Then Bishop Simp- 
son, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
uttered a praj'er, and was followed by a 
thousand voices chanting an impressive 
" Centennial Hymn," composed by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, accompanied by a 
grand organ and the whole orchestra. 
When the chanting was ended the chair- 
man of the Centennial Board of Fi- 
nance formally presented the building to 
the United States Centennial Commis- 
sion. After a cantata, composed by Sid- 
ney Lanier, of Georgia, was sung, General 
Hawley, president of the Commission, 
presented the exhibition to the President 
of the United States, after which the lat- 
ter made a brief response. The American 
flag was then unfurled over the Main 
Building, which gave notice to the multi- 
tude that the Centennial Exhibition was 
opened. The government of the United 

structures 190. The exhibition was open 
for pay admissions 159 days, the pay-gates 
being closed on Sundays. The total num- 
ber of cash admissions at fifty cents each 
was 7,250,620; and at twenty-five cents, 
753,654. The number of free admissions 
was 1,906,692, making the grand total of 
admissions 9,910,966. The largest number 
of admissions in a full month was in Oc- 
tober, when it reached 2,663,911. The 
largest number admitted in a single day — 
"Pennsylvania Day" — was 274,919. The 
total amount of cash receipts was $3,813,- 
725.50. The exhibition closed, with im- 
posing ceremonies, on Nov. 10. In 
all respects it was the grandest and most 
comprehensive international exposition 
that had then been held. See Columbian 
Exposition, World's. 

Centennial Oration. See Wintiirop, 
Robert Charles. 

Central America, a large expanse of 
territory connecting North and South 
America, and comprising in 1901 the re- 
publics of Guatemala, Honduras. Salvador, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The region 
was discovered by Columbus, in his fourth 
voyage, in 1502. He found the bay of 
Honduras, where he landed; then proeeed- 


States, senarnte States, foreign govern- ed along the main shore to Cape Gracias 

ments, different industries, corporations, a Dios; and thence to the Isthmus of 

and individuals erected buildings on the Darien, hoping, but in vain, to obtain 

grounds, making the whole number of a passage to the Pacific Ocean. At the 

n. — F 



isthmus he found a harbor, and, on ac- 
count of its beauty and security, he called 
it Porto Bello. At another place in that 
country, on the Dureka River, he began a 
settlement with sixty-eight men; but they 
were driven off by a warlike tribe of Ind- 
ians — the first repulse the Spaniards had 
ever met with. I3ut for this occurrence, 
caused by the rapacity and cruelty of the 
Spaniards, Columbus might have had the 
honor of planting the first European col- 
ony on the continent of America. In 1509 
Alonzo de Ojeda, with 300 soldiers, began 
a settlement on the east side of the Gulf 
of Darien. At the same time Diego Ni- 
cuessa, with six vessels and 780 men, be- 
gan another settlement on the west side. 
Both were broken up by the fierce na- 
tives; and thus the Spaniards, for the 
first time, were taught to dread the dusky 
people of the New World. This was the 
first attempt of Europeans to make a per- 
manent lodgment on the continent of 
America. ]\Iany attempts have been made 
in recent years to bring about a federa- 
tion of the five republics, the latest 
in 1895, when the Greater Eepublic 
of Central America was formed, and in 
1898, when, by treaty, Hondiiras, Salva- 
dor, and Nicaragua formed the United 
States of Central America, Guatemala 
and Costa Rica declining to enter the 
compact. Local revolutions and mutual 
jealousies have so far prevented a per- 
manent union. 

Centre of Population, the centre of 
gravity of the population of a country, 
each individual being assumed to have 
the same weight. The centre of popula- 
tion in the United States has clung to 
the parallel of 39° lat. and has moved in 
a westward direction during the last 110 
years. The following table shows the 
movement of the centre of population since 

Cerro Gordo, Battle of. Cerro Gordo 
is a difficult mountain pass, at the foot 
of the eastern slope of the Cordilleras, on 
the great national road from Vera Cruz 
to the city of Mexico. Santa Ana, by ex- 
traordinary efforts after the battle of 
BuENA Vista (q. v.), had gathered a 
force of about 12,000 men from among 
the sierras of Orizaba, concentrated them 
upon the heights of Cerro Gordo, and 
strongly fortified the position. When the 
capture of Vera Cruz (g. v.) was com- 
pleted, General Scott prepared to march 
upon the Mexican capital, along the na- 
tional road. He left General Worth as 
temporary governor of Vera Cruz, with 
a sufficient garrison for the Castle of 
San Juan de Ulloa, and moved forward 
(April 8, 1847) with about 8,000 men, 
the division of Gen. D. A. Twiggs in ad- 
vance. Twiggs approached Cerro Gordo 
on the 13th, and found Santa Ana in 
his path. Scott arrived the next morn- 
ing and prepared to attack the strong- 
hold. On the 17th he issued a remarkable 
general order, directing, in detail, the 
movements of the army in the coming 
battle. These directions followed, secured 
a victory. That order appeared almost 
prophetic. On the 18th the attack com- 
menced, and very severe was the struggle. 
It was fought in a wild place in the moun- 
tains. On one side was a deep, dark river; 
on the other was a frownins: declivity 
of rock 1.000 feet in height, brist- 
ling with batteries; while above all arose 
the strong fortress of Cerro Gordo. The 
place had to be taken by storm; and the 
party chosen to do the work was composed 
of the regulars of Twiggs's division, led by 
Colonel Harney. Victory followed the ef- 
forts of skill and bravery, and strong 
Cerro Gordo fell. Velasquez, the com- 
mander of the fortress, was killed; and 
the Mexican standard was hauled down 

Census Year. 

North Latitude. 

West Lnnci 


Approximate L"CM(inn by Important Town. 


39° 15' 


7«o IV 


Twpntv thrpp milps past nf Rnltiinnrp. Aid. 


390 in,- 


7K0 5C,' 


E'ffhtPPM milps wPi=t nf Rnllimnrp M<1 


390 11' 


770 37' 


Fnrtv iTiilPs tinrllwpst in- wpst of \Vnohinston, P. C. 


390 ."i' 


7viO 33' 


PixfP"n m I'^B nnrlh nf Wno.!=lo-k. Va 


3'^° ^T 


790 Ifi' 


NiiiPtPon '"ilPB wp=t-pn"ihu-pi=t (.f ^'nnrpf1p1(1, W. Va. 


390 2' 


8OO IS' 


Pix-tppp nvlpPPOMth orriMrU-shnrer W \'n 


3S° 59' 


81° 19' 


TwPiitv thrpp iiiilnB sonilipast of Parkprsbiirg, W.Va. 


390 0' 


82° 4S' 


Twpiity milpp snnlh of fhilli'-nthP O 


39° 12' 


83° 35' 


Fnrtv-Pishf milPspMPt liv nortti of rinpinnati, 0. 


390 4' 


84° 39' 


Fieht iiiilps wpsi hv Boiilh of rinr'nnati, 0. 


39° 11' 


85° 32' 


Twptity milps past of Colnnilnis. Ind. 


390 9' 


85° 48' 


Six miles southeast of Columbus, Ind. 



by Serg. Tliomas Henry. Santa Ana, in 1898 he was given command of the fleet 

with Almonte and other generals, and 
8,000 troops, escaped; the remainder v/ere 
made prisoners. Santa Ana attempted to 
fly with his carriage, which contained a 
large amount of specie; but it was over- 
turned, when, mounting a^ mule taken 
from the carriage harness, he fled to the 
mountains, leaving behind him his wooden 
leg — a substitute for the real one which 
was amputated after a wound received in 
the defence of Vera Cruz in 1837. In the 
vehicle were found his papers, clothing, 
and a pair of woman's satin slippers. 
The victory of the Americans was com- 
plete and decisive. The trophies were 
3,000 prisoners (who were paroled), forty- 
three pieces of bronze artillery (cast in 
Seville, Spain), 5,000 stand of arms 
(which were destroyed), and a large quan- 
tity of munitions of war. The fugitives 
were pursued towards Jalapa with vigor. 
In that battle the Americans lost 431 men. 
The loss of the Mexicans was about 1,200 
killed and Avounded. 

Cervera y Topeto, Pascual de, Conde 
DE Jerez, Marquis de Santa Ana, naval 
officer; born in the province of Jerez, 
Spain, in 1833; was graduated at the San 
Fernando Naval Academy in 1851. He par- 
ticipated in the expeditions to Morocco 


in 1859 and Cochin-China in 1862, and in 
the blockade of Cuba against filibusters 
in 1870; and later became secretary of 
the navy. He was promoted admiral in 
1888. In the war with the United States 


sent to operate in Cuban waters. After 
Hobson and his companions, who sunk the 
collier at the entrance of Santiago Har- 
bor, were captured by the Spaniards, they 
were handsomely treated by Admiral Cer- 
vera till regularly exchanged. When the 
admiral received orders to attempt an es- 
cape from the harbor of Santiago he saw 
and reported the hopelessness of such an 
undertaking, yet when peremptory orders 
were received he did not hesitate to act 
upon them. The result was one of the 
most thrilling naval encounters in his- 
tory, ending in the destruction of all his 
ships, on July 3. After his surrender 
his dignified bearing and high qualities 
as a naval officer, together with the re- 
membrance of his kind treatment of Hob- 
son and his comjjanions, prompted marks 
of exceptional consideration from the 
United States authorities between the time 
of his surrender and his departure for 
Spain. See Cuba; Sampson, William 
Thomas; Santiago de Cuba; Schley, 
Winfield Scott. 

Cesnola, Luigi Palma di, archaeologist; 
born near Turin, Italy, June 29, 1832; at- 
tended the Royal Military Academy; came 
to the United Slates in 1860; and entered 
the army as colonel of the 4th New York 
Cavalry ; was wounded and captured in the 
battle of Aldie, in June, 1862. While 
United States consul at Cyprus he made 
archaeological explorations, securing a col- 
lection of antiquities which were placed 
in the Metropolitan INIuseum of Art in 
New York City in 1873. He became di- 
rector of the museum in 1878, and died in 
New York City, Nov. 20, 1904. 

Chabert, Joseph Bernard, Marquis de, 
naval officer; born in Toulon, France, Feb. 
28, 1724; joined the navy in 1741; came 
to America, and fought with the French 
in the Revolutionary War, winning much 
distinction. Later he planned and finished 
maps of the shores of North America. He 
was author of Voyages sur les cotes do 
VAm&rique septentrionale. He died in 
Paris, Dec. 1, 1805. 

Chadd's Ford, a town in Delaware 
county, Pa., on Brandywine Creek, 30 
miles southwest of Philadelphia. The bat- 
tle of Brandywine was fought here, Sept. 
11, 1777. 

Chaffee, Adna Romanza, military offi- 


cei; born in Orwell, 0., April 14, 1842; 
entered the regular army as a private in 
the 6th Cavalry, July 22, 1861; soon af- 
terwards was made first sergeant of his 
troop: March 13, 1863, was promoted 
to second lieutenant; Feb. 22, 1865, to 
first lieutenant, and Oct. 12, 1867, to cap- 


tain. For several years his regiment was 
employed in almost continuous service 
against the Indians in the Southwest, 
where he proved himself a brave and 
stubborn fighter. For his gallantry in 
various actions he was, in March, 1868, 
brevetted major, and Feb. 27, 18!)0,lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Meanwhile, on July 7, 1888, 
he had been promoted to major, and as- 
signed to the 9th Cavalry, one of the two 
regiments of regular cavalry composed of 
colored men. Major Chaffee was in- 
structor in cavalry tactics at the Fort 
Leavenworth school for officers in 1894- 
96. On June 1, 1897, he was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Cavalry, and 
made commandant of the Cavalry School 
of Instruction at Fort Riley, which post 
he held at the opening of the war with 
Spain, in 189S. He was appointed a brig- 
adier-general of volunteer?. May 4, 1898; 
promoted to major-general, July 8, fol- 
lowing; honorab'y disc'iarged from the 
volunteer service and reappointed a brig- 
adier-general, April 13, 1899. From De- 
cember, 1898, he served as chief-of-staff 
to the governor-general of Cuba, He had 

command of the troops which captured 
El Caney, and practically closed the San- 
tiago campaign. On May 8, 1899, he was 
promoted to colonel of the 8th Cavalry, 
and July 19, 1900, was assigned to com- 
mand the American troops with the al- 
lied armies in China, with the rank of ma- 
jor-general of volunteers. He took an 
active part in the advance on Peking and 
in the establishment of order after the 
capture of the city. After the looting of 
the ancient Imperial Observatory, in Pe- 
king, General Chatfee addressed a strong 
protest against this and similar depre- 
dations to Count von Waldersee, the com- 
mander-in-ciiief of the allied troops. On 
the reorganization of the regular army, in 
1901, he was appointed major-o-eneral and 
commander of the military division of the 
Philippines, and Jan. 8, 1904, was pro- 
moted lieutenant - general and chief of 

Chain, The Great, across the Hud- 
son. See Clinton, Fort. 

Chalmers, George, historian; born in 
Fochabers, Scotland, in 1742; educated 
at King's College, Aberdeen; studied 
law; came to America in 1763, and prac- 
tised in Baltimore. Being opposed to the 
Eevolutionary War he returned to Eng- 
land. His publications relating to the 
United States include Political Annals of 
the Present United Colonies; Opinions 
on Interesting Subjects of Public Laws 
and Commercial Policy, arising from 
American Independence ; and Life of 
Thomas Paine. He died in London, May 
21, 1825. 

Chalmette Plantation, La., a few miles 
below New Orleans on the Mississippi 
River, where General Jackson repulsed 
an advance of the British, Dec. 28, 1814. 
See Jackson, Andrew; New Orleans. 

Chamberlain, Daniel Henry, laAvyer; 
born in West Brook^eld, Mass., June 23, 
1835; graduated at Yale College in 1862, 
and at Harvard Law School in 1864; 
entered the Union army as an officer in 
the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry; 
after the war settled in South Carolina, 
of which he was (Republican) governor 
in 1R74-76. 

Chamberlain, Joseph, statesman; born 
in London, England, in 1836; educated 
at the University College School, in 
London; and was mayor of Birmingham 



in 1870-75. He was elected to Parliament 
from Birmingham as a Liberal Union- 
ist in 1875, and has since held his seat; 
was president of the Board of Trade in 


1880-85; president of the Local Govern- 
ment Board in 1886; one of the British 
commissioners to settle the North Ameri- 
can fisheries dispute in 1887, and lord 
rector of Glasgow University. In 1895 
he became Secretary of State for the Colo- 
nies, and has since held the post. During 
1898, and especiplly when the internation- 
al troubles concerning China were thick- 
ening, he made several notable speeches, 
voicing a widespread sentiment in Great 
Britain that there shou'd be a closer un- 
derstanding between the United States and 
Great Britain touching their various com- 
mercial interests. In 1888 he married 
Mary, daughter of William C. Endicott, 
Secretary of War in President Cleveland's 
first administration. 

Chamberlain, -Joshua Lawrence, mili- 
tary officer and educator; born in Bangor, 
Me!, Sept. 8, 1828; graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1852. He attended a mili- 
tary academy in his boyhood. He was a 
professor in his alma mater from 1855 to 
1862, when he was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of a Maine regiment, and rose to 
brigadier-ereneral of volunteers in the sum- 
mer of 1864. He was severely wounded 
in the siege of Petersburg, and asain at 
Quaker Road in :\Iarch. 1865. In the final 
operations ending in Lee's surrender he 
commanded a division of the 5th Corps. 
General Chamberlain was a most active 

and efficient officer, and was in twenty- 
four pitched battles. He was six times 
wounded — three times severely. He was 
designated to receive the formal surren- 
der of the weapons and colors of Lee's 
army, and was brevetted major-general 
in 1865. He resumed his professional du- 
ties in the college in 1865 ; was governor 
of Maine in 1866-71; president of Bow- 
doin College in 1871-83; and afterwards 
engaged in writing and lecturing. 

Chambers, William, author; born in 
Peebles, Scotland, in 1800; was author 
of Things as they are in America; and 
Slavery and Color in America; and com- 
piler of a Hand-book of American Liter- 
ature. He died in Edinburgh, May 20, 

Chambersburg. See Pennsylvania. 

Cham.bly, Fort, Capture of. In 1775 
it was supposed by General Carleton that 
the fort at Chambly, 12 miles below St. 
John, at the rapids of the Sorel, the out- 
let of Lake Champlain, could not be reach- 
ed by the republicans so long as the Brit- 
ish held the post above and kept only a 
feeble garrison there. Informed of this 
by Canadian scouts, Montgomery, besieg- 
ing St. John, sent Colonel Bedel, of New 
Hampshire, with troops to capture the 
post. He was assisted by Majors Brown 
and Livingston. The attack was planned 
by Canadians familiar with the place. Ar- 
tillery was placed in bateaux, and, dur- 
ing a dark night, was conveyed past the 
fort at St. John to the head of Cham- 
bly Rapids, where the guns were mounted 
and taken to the place of attack. The 
garrison surrendered after making slight 
resistance. The spoi's were a large quan- 
tity of provisions and military stores; also 
the colors of the 7th Regiment of British 
regulars, which were sent to the Conti- 
nental Congress, and were the first tro- 
phies of war i-eceived by that body. This 
disaster hastened the downfall of St. John. 
See St. John, Siege of. 

Champe, John, patriot; born in Lou- 
don county, Va., in 1752; sent to New. 
York as a spy after the treason of Ar- 
nold, at the request of Washington. As 
it was also rumored that another Ameri- 
can officer (supposed to be General Gates) 
was a traitor, Champ was instructed to 
discover the second traitor, and, if possi- 
ble, to take Arnold. He left the Ameri- 



can camp at Tappan at night, in the 
character of a deserter, was pursued, but 
reached Paulus Hook, where the British 
vessels were anchored. After he had been 
examined by Sir Henry Clinton, he was 
sent to Arnold, who appointed him a ser- 
geant-major in a force which he was re- 
cruiting. He found evidence which 
proved that the suspected general was in- 
nocent, and forwarded the same to Wash- 
ington. He learned also that Arnold was 

concentration of his forces at Edwards's 
Station, 2 miles from the railway bridge 
over the Big Black River. While Sherman 
tarried in Jackson long enough to destroy 
the railways, military factories, arsenal, 
bridges, cotton factories, stores, and other 
public property, the remainder of the army 
turned their faces towards Vicksburg. 
Pemberton was at or near Edwards's Sta- 
tion, with about 25,000 troops and ten 
batteries of artillery. Blair moved tow- 


accustomed to walk in his garden every 
night, and conceived a plan for his capt- 
ure. With a comrade he was to seize 
and gag him, and convey him as a drunk- 
en soldier to a boat in waiting, which 
would immediately cross to the New Jer- 
sey shore, where a number of horsemen 
were to be in waiting. Unfortunately, 
on the night set, Arnold changed his quar- 
ters, and the command of which Champe 
was a member was ordered to Virginia. 
Later he escaped and joined the army of 
Greene in North Carolina. He died in 
Kentucky, about 1798. 

Champion Hills, Battle of. Grant, 
at Jackson (q. v.), hearing of the arrival 
of Johnston and his order for Pemberton 
to strike his rear, perceived the reason 
for the sudden evacuation of their post 
by the troops at the capital. No doubt 
they had been sent to join Pemberton that 
the latter might crush Grant by the weight 
of superior numbers. The latter com- 
prehended his peril, and instantly took 
measures to meet Pemberton before such 
junction could take place. He ordered a 

ards the station, followed by McClernand 
and Osterhaus; while McPherson, on an- 
other road, kept up communication with 
McClernand. Pemberton had advanced 
to Champion Hills, when a note from 
Johnston caused him to send his trains 
back to the Big Black River ; and he was 
about to follow with his troops, when 
Grant, close upon him, competed him to 
remain and fight (May 16, 1863). Gen- 
eral Hovey's division now held the advance 
directly in front of Pemberton. At eleven 
o'clock a battle began, Hovey's division 
bearing the brunt, and. after a severe 
contest of an hour and a half, his in- 
fantry were compelled to fall back half 
a mile to the position of his artillery. Re- 
inforced, he renewed the batt'e with srreat 
enersry. Finally Pemberton's left besfan 
to bend under Logan's severe pressure, 
and, at five o'clock, gave way. The rest 
of his army became so confused and dis- 
heartened that thev bejran to fly. Seeincr 
this, Pemberton ordered his whole army 
to retreat towards the Big Black River; 
when Grant ordered the fresh brigades 



of Osterhaus and Carr to follow with all 
speed, and cross the river, if possible. 
In the retreat Pemberton lost many of 
his troops, made prisoners. This battle 
was fought mainly by Hovey's division of 
McClernand's corps and Logan's and Quin- 
by's divisions (the latter commanded by 
Crocker) of McPherson's corps. The Na- 
tional loss was 2,457, of whom 426 were 
killed. The loss of the Confederates was 
estimated to have been quite equal to 
that of tiie Nationals in killed and wound- 
ed, besides almost 2,000 prisoners, eigh- 
teen guns, and a large quantity of small- 
arms. Among the killed was General 
Tilghman, who was captured at Fort 
Henry the year before. 

Champlain, Samuel de, French navi- 
gator; born in Brouage, France, in 1567. 
His family had many fishermen and mar- 


iners. and he was carefully educated for 
a navigator. Tn early life he was in the 
cavalry of Brittany, and was with his 
uncle, pilot-general of the fleets of Spain. 

when that officer conducted back to that 
country the troops who had served in 
France. In 1599 he commanded a vessel 
of the Spanish ileet that sailed to Mexico, 
and he diew up a faithful account of the 
voyage. On his return he received a pen- 
sion from Henry IV. of France; and he 
was induced by M. de Chastes, governor 
of Dieppe, to explore and prepare the way 
for a. French colony in America. Chastes 
had received a charter from the King to 
found settlements in New France, and the 
monarch commissioned Champlain lieuten- 
ant-general of Canada. With this author- 
ity, he sailed from Honfleur on March 5. 
1603, with a single vessel, commanded by 
Pont-Greve, a skilful navigator. In May 
they ascended the St. Lawrence and land- 
ed near the site of Quebec, from which 
place Pont-Greve and five men ascended 
the river in a canoe to 
Lachine Rapids, above 
Montreal. The Indians 
at Stadacona yet re- 
membered Cartier's 
perfidy (see Cartier, 
Jacques ) , but were 

Champlain, on his re- 
turn to France in the 
autumn, found Chastes 
dead and his conces- 
sions transferred by 
the King to Pierre de 
Gast, the Sieur de 
Monts, a wealthy Hu- 
guenot, who had re- 
ceived the commission 
of viceroy of New 
France. The latter 
made a new arrange- 
ment with Champlain, 
and in March, 1604, he 
sailed with the naviga- 
tor from France with 
four vessels. They land- 
ed in Nova Scotia, and 
remained there some 
time planting a settle- 
ment and exploring the 
neierhbor'ns: regions; 
and when dp Monts re- 
turned to France, he left Chamnlain to 
explore the New England coast. He went 
as far south as Cape Cod, and in 1607 re- 
turned to France. Having suggested to De 



Monts that a point on the St. Lawrence 
would be a moie eligible site for the seat 
of the projected, new empire, Champiain 
was sent to the river in fOuS with font- 
Greve, and, at Stadacona, founded Quebec, 
the Indian name for " the narrows," and 
pronounced Kebec. There the colonists built 
cabins and prepared to plant. In 1G09 
Champiain, who had made the Monta- 
gnais Indians on the St. Lawrence his 
fi lends, marched with them against their 
enemies, the Iroquois. They were joined 
by a party of Hurons and Algonquins, and 
ascended the Sorel to the Chambly Rap- 
ids, whence Champiain proceeded in a ca- 
noe and discovered a great lake, and gave 
it his own name. On its borders he fought 
and defeated the Iroquois, who fled in 
terror before the fire of his arquebuses. 
He returned to France, but went back in 
1610, and the same year was wounded by 
an arrow in a fight with the Iroquois. 
Again returning to France, he, at the age 

sons, the successor to De Monts, as vice- 

In 1815 he started on his famous expe- 
dition to the (Jiioiiaaga Indians, lie lol- 
iowed Fatlier Le Caioii and his party to 
Lake Hui on, to wnich he gave the name 
of ]\ler Douce. Retuniing acioss the great 
forests, he sailed with several hundred ca- 
noes down a stream into the Bay of 
Quinte, and entered the broad Lake On- 
tario, which he named Lac St. Louis. 
With a considerable war party, chiedy 
Hurons, he crossed the lake into the 
country of the Iroquois, in (present) New 
York. Hiding their canoes in the forest, 
they pressed onward to the Indian post on 
the shore of Onondaga Lake. It was at 
the time of the maize harvest, and the 
Iroquois were attacked in the fields. They 
retired to their town, which was fortified 
with four rows of palisades. On the in- 
side of these were galleries furnished with 
stones and other missiles, and a supply of 



of forty-four years, married a girl of water to extinguish a fire if kindled be- 

twelve; and in 1G12 he went back to neath these wooden walls. The Hurons 

Canada, with the title and powers of were rather insubordinate, and the attack 

lieutenant - governor, under the Prince was ineffectual. Champiain had construct- 

of Conde, who had succeeded De Sois- ed a wooden tower, which was dragged 


near the palisades, and from the top of 
which his marksmen swejjt the galleries 
filled with naked Iroquois. But he could 
not control the great body of the Jlurons, 
and, in their furious and tumultuous as- 
sault upon the palisades, they were 
thrown back in confusion, and could not 
bo induced to repeat the onset, but re- 
solved to retreat. Champlain, wounded 
in the leg, was compelled to acquiesce, and 
he made his way back to Quebec (1616), 
after a year's absence. The same year he 
went to France and organized a fur-trad- 
ing company. 

On his return to Canada he took with 
him some Recollet priests to minister to 
the colonists and the pagans. The colony 
languished until 1620, when a more ener- 
getic viceroy gave it a start. Champlain 
got permission to fortify it, and he return- 
ed with the title and power of governor, 
taking with him his child-wife. Jesuit 
priests were sent to Canada as mission- 
aries, and Champlain worked energeti- 
cally for the cause of religion and the ex- 
pansion of French dominion. In 1G28 Sir 
David Kertk appeared with an English 
fleet before Quebec and demanded its sur- 
render. Champ^ain's bold refusal made 
Kertk retire, but on his way down the 
St. Lawrence he captured the French 
supply-ships. This produced great dis- 
tress in Quebec; and in July of next year 
Champlain was compelled to surrender 
to Kertk's brothers, and was carried to 
England. By a treaty in 1632, Canada 
was restored to the French. Champlain 
was reinstated as governor, and sailed for 
the St. Lawrence in 1633. He did not long 
survive, but worked energetically and 
faithfully until the last. His wife sur- 
vived him. She was a Protestant when 
she was married, but died an Ursuline 
nun. Champ'ain's zeal for the propaga- 
tion of Christianity was intense. A col- 
lege was established at Quebec, in which 
the children of the savages were taught 
and trained in the hab'ts of civilization. 
In 1603 Champlain pubHshed an account 
of his first voyage, and. in 1613 and 1619, 
a continuation of his narrative. In 1632 
they were included in a work of his then 
pub'ished. which comprised a history of 
New France from the time of Verrazani's 
discoveries to 1631, entitled Les Voyages 
a la Nouvelle France Occidentale et Can- 

ada. He died in Quebec, Dec. 25, 1635. 
In 1870 a complete collection of his works, 
including his voyage to Mexico, with fac- 
similes of his maps, was published in 
Quebec, edited by Abbes Laverdiere and 

Champlain, Lake, Operations on. 
After the Americans left Canada in sad 
plight in June, 1776, Carleton, the govern- 
or of Canada and general of the forces 
there, appeared at the foot of Lake Cham- 
plain with a well-appointed force of 13,000 
men. Only on the bosom of the lake could 
they advance, for there was no road on 
either shore. To prevent this invasion, 
it was important that the Americans 
should hold command of its waters. A 
flotilla of small armed vessels was con- 
structed at Crown Point, and Benedict 
Arnold was placed in command of them as 
commodore. A schooner called the Royal 
Savage was his flag-ship. Carleton, mean- 
while, had used great diligence in fitting 
out an armed flotilla at St. John for the 
recovery of Crown Point and Ticonderoga. 
Towards the close of August, Arnold went 
down the lake with his fleet and watched 
the foe until early in October, when he 
fell back to Valcour Island and formed 
his flotilla for action without skill. Carle- 
ton advanced, with Edward Pringle as 
commodore, and, on the morning of Oct. 
II, gained an advantageous position near 
Arnold's vessels. A very severe battle en- 
sued, in which the Royal Savage was first 
crippled and afterwards destroyed. Ar- 
nold behaved with the greatest bravery 
during a fight of four or five hours, until 
it was closed by the falling of night. In 
the darkness Arnold escaped with his ves- 
sels from surrounding dangers and pushed 
up the lake, but was overtaken on the 
1 3th. One of the vessels, the Washington, 
was run on shore and burned, while Ar- 
nold, in the schooner Congress, with four 
gondolas, kept up a running fight for five 
hours, suff'ering great loss. When the 
Congress was almost a wreck. Arnold ran 
the vessels into a creek about 10 miles 
from Crown Point, on the eastern shore, 
and burned them. Then he and his little 
force mads their way through the woods 
to a place opposite Crown Point, just 
avoiding an Indian ambush, and escaped 
to the port whence he started in safety. 
At Crown Point he found two schooners, 



two galleys, one sloop, and one gondola — 100. The captured sloops were refitted, 
all that remained of his proud little fleet, and named, respectively, Finch and Chubb. 
In the two actions the Americans lost They were engaged in the battle off Platts- 
about ninety men; the British not half burg the next year, when McDonough 
tbat number. General Carleton look pos- recaptured them. For a while the British 
session of Crown Point on Oct. 14, but were masters of Lake Champlain. This 
abandoned it in twenty days and returned loss stimulated McDonough to greater ex- 
to Canada. ertions. By Aug. 6 he had fitted out 

When the War of 1812-15 was declared, and armed three sloops and six gunboats, 
the whole American naval force on Lake At the close of July a British armament, 
Champlain consisted of only two boats under Col. J. Murray, attacked defenceless 
that lay in a harbor on the Vermont shore. Plattsburg. It was composed of soldiers. 
The British had two or three gunboats, sailors, and marines, conveyed in two 
or armed galleys, on the 
Richelieu, or Sorel, River, 
the outlet of Lake Cham- 
plain. Some small 
vessels were hastily fitted 
up and armed, and Lieut. 
Thomas McDonough was 
sent to the lake to super- 
intend the construction of 
some naval vessels there. 
In the spring of 1813 he 
put two vessels afloat — 
the sloops-of-war Growler 
and Eagle. Early in 
June, 1813, some small 
American vessels were 
attacked near Rouse's 
Point by British gun- 
boats. McDonough sent 
the Grov'ler and Eagle, 
manned by 112 men, un- 
der Lieut. Joseph Smith, 
to look after the matter. 
They went down the 
Sorel, chased three Brit- 
ish gunboats some dis- 
tance down the river, 
and were in turn pur- 
sued by three armed row - galleys, which sloops-of-war, three gunboats, and forty- 
opened upon the flying sloops with long seven long-boats. They landed on Satur- 
24 - pounders. At the same time a day afternoon, and continued a work of 
land force, sent out on each side of destruction until ten o'clock the next day. 
the river, poured volleys of musketry General Hampton, who was then at Bur- 

upon the American vessels, which were . „„,„„ „„„ „,„/i„ *„„™ » ^-ow 

^ 1 • 1. T-i This engravmg was made from a draw- 
answered by grape and canister, l^or j^g jq water-colors, of the Royal Savage, 
four hours a running fight was kept found by the late Benson .T. Lossing among 
up, when a heavy shot tore off a plank the papers of General Schuyler, and gave the 
."^ ., r, 1 1. ^ 4. ji,„ first positive information as to the design and 
from the Eagle below water, and she appearance of the "Union Flag" (q. v.), 
sank immediately. The Groivler was displayed by the Americans at Cambridge on 
disabled and run ashore, and the people Jan. 1, 1776. The drawing exhibited, in proper 
of both vessels were made prisoners. The ^ol?f ' *»?« thirteen stripes alternate red and 
, ,, . . . , -IT J J J white, with the British union (the crosses of 
loss of the Americans in killed and wound- g^_ Q^Qj.g^ and St. Andrew) on a blue field 
ed Avas twenty; that of the British almost in the dexter corner. 





lington, only 20 miles distant, with 4,000 in April, 1863, Hooker, in command of the 
troops, made no attempt to oppose the in- Army of the Potomac, became impatient, 
vaders. The block-house, arsenal, armory, and resolved to put it in motion towards 
and hospital at Plattsburg were destroy- Kichmond, notwithstanding his ranks 

were not full. Caval- 
ry under Stoneman 
were sent to destroy 
railways in Lee's rear, 
but were foiled by the 
high water in the 
streams. After a 
pause. Hooker de- 
termined to attempt 
to turn Lee's flank, 
and, for that purpose, 
sent 10,000 mounted 
men to raid in his 
ed; also private store-houses. The value rear. Then he moved 36,000 of the 
of public property wasted was $25,000, troops of his right wing across the 
and of private merchandise, furniture, etc., Rappahannock, with orders to halt and 
several thousand dollars. Many then went intrench at Chancellorsville, between the 
on a plundering raid, destroying transport Confederate army near Fredericksburg 
vessels and property on shore. Such was and Richmond. This movement was so 
the condition of naval affairs on Lake masked by a demonstration on Lee's 
Champlain at the close of the summer of front by Hooker's left wing, under 
1813. General Sedgwick, that the right was 

Champlin, Stephen', naval officer; born well advanced before Lee was aware 
in South Kingston, R. I., Nov. 17, 1789; of his peril. These troops reached Chan- 
went to sea when sixteen years old, and cellorsville, in a, region known as " The 
commanded a ship at twenty-two. In Wilderness," on the evening of April 30, 
Jlay, 1812, he was appointed sailing-mas- 1863, when Hooker expected to see Lee, 
ter in the navy, and was first in com- conscious of danger, fly towards Rich- 
mand of a gunboat under Perry, at New- mond. He did no such thing, but proceed- 
port, R. I., and was in service on Lake ed to strike the National army a heavy 
Ontario in the attacks on Little York (To- blow, for the twofold purpose of seizing 
ronto) and Fort George, in 1813. He join- the communications between the two parts 
ed Perry on Lake Erie, and commanded of that army and compelling its command- 
thc sloop-of-war Scorpion in the battle on er to fight at a disadvantage, with only a 
Sept. 10, 1813, firing the first and last gun part of his troops in hand. Hooker had 
in that action. He was the last surviving made his headquarters in the spacious 
officer of that engagement. In the follow- brick house of Mr. Chancellor, and sent 
ing spring, while blockading Mackinaw out Pleasonton's cavalry to reconnoitre, 
with the Tigress, he was attacked in the A part of these encountered the Confeder- 
night by an overwhelming force, severely ate cavalry, under Stuart, and were de- 
woimded. and made prisoner. His wound feated. 

troubled him until his death, and he was Lee had called " Stonewall " Jackson's 
disabled for any active service forever af- large force to come up when he perceived 
terwards. He died in Buffalo, N. Y., Feb. Sedsrv/ick's movements. Lee left General 
20. 1870. Early with 9.000 men and thirty cannon 

Chancellorsville, Battle of. Early to hold his fortified position at Freder- 
icksburg acrainst Sedgwick, and. at a little 
♦This scene Is between Port Kent and past midnisrht (May 1. 1863). he put 
Plattsburar, on Lake Chamnlain. western Jnckson's column in motion towards Chan- 

Sninnfl''" n^\tVXt^T r.Lr!j^\l\n2l cellorsville. It joined another force under 
mainland : on tne rignt a part of Valconr i » i . -i , i > • , 

Island. Between these Arnold formed his General Anderson at eight o'clock in the 
little fleet for action. morning, and he, in person, led the Con- 



federates to attack the Nationals. Hook- the line to the left of McLaws. Such was 
er had also disposed the latter in battle the general disposition of the opposing 
order. Aware of the peril of fighting with armies on the morning of May 2. 
the Wilderness at his back, he had so Lee was unwilling to risk a direct at- 
disposed his army as to fight in the open tack on Hooker, and Jackson advised a 
country, with a communication open with secret flank movement with his entire 
the Rappahannock towards Fredericksburg, corps, so as to fall on Hooker's rear. Lee 
At eleven o'clock the divisions of Griffin hesitated, but so much did he lean on 
and Humphreys, of Meade's corps, pushed Jackson as adviser and executor that be 
out to the left, in the direction of Banks's consented. With 25,000 men Jackson 
Ford, while Sykes's division of the same made the perilous movement, marching 
corps, supported by Hancock's division, swiftly and steadily through the thick 
and forming the centre column, moved woods, with Stuart's cavalry between his 
along a turnpike. Slocum's entire corps, forces and those of the Nationals. But 
with Howard's, and its batteries, massed the movement was early discovered; the 
in its rear, comprising the right column. Nationals, however, believing it to be a 
marched along a plank road. The battle retreat of the Confederates towards Rich- 
was begun about a mile in advance of the mond. Sickles pushed forward Birney's 
National works at Chancellorsville, by the division to reconnoitre, followed by two 
van of the centre column and Confederate brigades of Howard's corps. Birney 
cavalry. Sykes brought up his entire charged upon the passing column, and 
column, with artillery, and, after a severe captured a Georgia regiment, 500 strong, 
struggle Avith IMcLaws, he gained an ad- but was checked by Confederate artillery, 
vantageous position, at noon, on one of the The Nationals now held the road over 
ridges back of Fredericksburg. Banks's which Jackson was moving. Disposition 
Ford, which Lee had strenuously sought was made to pursue the supposed fugitives, 
to cover, was now virtually in possession when Jackson made a quick and startling 
of the Nationals, and the distance between movement towards Chancellorsville, con- 
Scdgwick, opposite Fredericksburg, and cealed by the thick woods, at six o'clock 
the army at Chancellorsville was short- in the evening, suddenly burst forth from 
ened at least 12 miles. the thickets with his whole force, like an 
Meanwhile, Slocum and Jackson had unexpected and terrible tornado, and fell 
met and struggled fiercely on the plank with full force upon Howard's corps (the 
road. Perceiving Jackson endeavoring to 11th), with tremendous yells, just as they 
flank Slocum, and his strong column over- were preparing for supper and repose, 
lapping Sykes's flank. Hooker, fearing his Devens's division, on the extreme right, re- 
army might be beaten in detail before he ceived the first blow, and almost instant- 
could successfully resist the furious on- ly the surprised troops, panic-stricken, 
slauTht of Jackson, ordered its withd^-aw- fled to the rear, communicating their 
al behind his Avorks at Chancellorsvire, alarm to the other divisions of the corps, 
the Confederates following close in the The Confederates captured men and guns 
rear of the retreating troops. So ended and a commanding position, while the 
the movements of the day. Hooker's po- fugitives, in evident confusion, rushed tow- 
sition was a strons: one. The National ards Chancellorsville, upon the position 
line pvtpTidpd from the Rappahannock to of General Schurz, whose division had al- 
the W'MprnPi=« church. 2 miles west of ready retreated. The tide of affrighted 
ChanceilorsviMc. INTende's corps, with men rolled back upon General Steinwehr. 
Couch's, formpd his Ipft: Slocum's. and a While the divisions of Devens and 
division of Sick^ps's. his cent'-e. and How- Schurz were reforming, Steinwehr quick- 
ard's h's right, with P'easonton's cavalry ly chansed front, threw his men behind 
near. Lee's forces had the Virginia some works, rallied some of Schurz's men, 
cavalry of Owen and Wickham on the and checked the pursuit for a brief space, 
right, and Stuart's and a part of Fhr.- But the overwhelming number of the Con- 
huffh Lee's on the left. ]\fcLaws's forces federates speedily captured the works, 
occupied the bridge on the east of the Bi? These disasters on the right were partial- 
Meadow Swamp, and Anderson's continued \y relieved by Hooker, who sent forward 



troops at the double-quick, under Generals 
Berry and French, and also a courier to 
apprise Sickles, who had pushed some dis- 
tance beyond the National lines, of the 
disaster to the 11th Corps and his own 
peril. He was directed to fall back and 
attack Jackson's left Hank. He was in a 
critical situation, but Pleasonton saved 
him by a quick and skilful movement, 
greatly assisting in checking the pursuit. 
This was done long enough for Pleasonton 
to bring his own horse-artillery and more 
tlian twenty of Sickles's guns to bear upon 
the Confederates, and to pour into their 
ranks a destructive storm of grape and 
canister shot. Generals Warren and 
Sickles soon came to Pleasonton's assist- 
ance, when there was a severe struggle 
for the possession of cannon. Mean- 
while Lee was making a strong artillery 

some lost ground, and brought back some 
abandoned guns and caissons. During the 
night a new line of intrenchments was 
tluown up by the Nationals; but Hooker's 
forces were in a very perilous position on 
Sunday morning. May 3. When he heard 
of the movement of Jackson on Saturday 
morning, he had called from Sedgwick Rey- 
nolds's corps, 20,000 strong, and it arrived 
the same evening. Hooker's force was 
now 00,000 strong, and Lee's 40,000. The 
former ordered Sedgwick to cross the river 
and seize and hold Fredericksburg and the 
heights behind it, and then, pushing along 
the roads leading to Chancellorsville, crush 
every impediment and join the main army. 
Plach army made disposition for a battle 
on Sunday morning. Stuart advanced to the 
attack with Lee's left wing, and when he 
came in sight of the Nationals he shouted, 


attack upon Hooker's left and centre. 
Soon a great misfortune befell the Con- 
federate commander, in the loss of " Stone- 
wall " Jackson, the strong right arm of 
his power. Jackson had sent for Hill, 
and was anxious to follow up the advan- 
tage he had gained by extending his lines 
to the left and cutting off Hooker's com- 
munication with the United States Ford. 
While waiting for Hill, he pushed forward 
with his staff, on a personal reconnois- 
snnce, and, when returning, in the gloom 
of evening, his men, mistaking them for 
National cavalry, fired upon them and 
mortally wounded the great leader. 

No more fighting occurred in that part 
of the field. Birney's division drove back 
the Confederates at midnight, recovered 


"Charge, and remember Jackson!" With 
thirty pieces of artillery presently in po- 
sition on an elevation, his men made a 
desperate charge under cover of their fire, 
and were soon struggling with Sickles's 
corps and four other divisions. These 
were pushed back, and a fierce battle en- 
sued, the tide of success ebbing and flow- 
ing for more than an hour. During this 
struggle Hooker had been prostrated, and 
Couch took command of the army. Al- 
most the whole National army became en- 
gaged in the battle, at different points, 
excepting the troops under Meade and 
EeynoMs. Couch fell back towards the 
Rappahannock, and, at noon. Hooker, hav- 
ing recovered, resumed chief command. 
Lee's army was now united, but Hook- 


er's was divided. Sedgwick had seriously 
menaced Lee's flank, but had not joined 
Hooker. After a hard conflict and the 
loss of 1,000 men, Sedgwick had captured 
the Confederate works on the heights back 
of Fredericksburg, and sent Early, their 
defender, flying southward with his shat- 
tered columns. Intelligence of these events 
made Lee extremely cautious. Sedgwick, 
leaving Gibbon in command at Fredericks- 
burg, marched for Chancellorsville, when 
Lee was compelled to divide his army to 
meet this new peril. He sent McLaws 
with four brigades to meet Sedgwick. At 
Salem church they had a sanguinary con- 
flict. The Confederates won, and the losses 
of Sedgwick, added to those sustained in 
the morning, amounted to about 5,000 men. 
Hooker, at the same time, seemed para- 
lyzed in his new position, for his army ap- 
peared being beaten in detail. On the 
following morning, perceiving that Hook- 
er's army had been much strengthened, 
Lee thought it necessary to drive Sedg- 
wick across the Rappahannock before 
again attacking the main body. Early 
was sent to retake the Heights of Freder- 
icksburg, and he cut Sedgwick off from 
the city. Early was reinforced by Ander- 
son, by which Sedgwick was enclosed on 
three sides. At six o'clock in the evening 
the Confederates attacked him. His forces 
gave way and retreated to Banks's Ford, 
and before morning the remains of Sedg- 
wick's corps had crossed the Rappahan- 
nock over pontoon bridges. Gibbon also 
withdrew from Fredericksburg to Fal- 
mouth that night, and. on Tuesday, Lee 
had only Hooker to contend with. He con- 
centrated his forces to strike Hooker a 
crushing blow before night, but a heavy 
rain-storm prevented. Hooker prepared 
to retreat, and did so on the night of 
May 5 and morning of the 6th, cross- 
ing the Rappahannock and returning to 
the old quarters of the army opposite 
Fredericksburg. The losses of each army 
had been very heavy. That of the Confed- 
erntes was reported at 12.277. including 
2.000 prisoners, and that of the Nationals 
was 17,197. including about .5.000 prison- 
ers. The latter also lost thirteen hea^'y 
guns, about 20.000 small-arms, seventeen 
colors, and a large amount of ammunition. 
The Union Generals Berry and Whipple 
were killed. 

Chancery Jurisdiction. In all the 
crown colonies, excepting New Hampshire, 
the chancery court had been introduced, 
in spite of the colonists, who dreaded its 
prolix proceedings and heavy fees. Wher- 
ever it had been introduced, it was retain- 
ed in the State governments after the 
Revolution. In New Jersey and South 
Carolina the governor was made chancel- 
lor, as in colonial times. In New York 
and Maryland a separate officer was ap- 
pointed with that title. In Virginia there 
were several distinct chancellors. In North 
Carolina and Georgia the administration 
both of law and equity was intrusted to 
the same tribunals. In Pennsylvania a 
limited chancery power was conferred 
upon the Supreme Court. In Connecti- 
cut the Assembly vested the judicial courts 
with chancery powers in smaller cases, 
reserving to itself the decision in matters 
of more importance. In New England 
there was such a sti'ong prejudice against 
chancery practice that for many years 
there was a restriction to the system of 
common-law remedies. 

Chandler, John, legislator; born in 
Epping, N. H., in 1760. His business 
was that of blacksmith, and he became 
wealthy. With much native talent, he rose 
to the places of councillor and Senator 
(1S03-5) ; member of Congress (1805-8) ; 
and, in July, 1812, was commissioned 
a brigadier-general. Wounded and made 
prisoner in the battle at Stony Creek, in 
Canada, he was soon afterwards ex- 
changed. From 1820 to 1829 he w^as 
United States Senator fom Maine, one 
of the first appointed from that new State. 
From 1829 to 1837 he was collector of the 
port of Portland. He became a major- 
general of militia, and held several civil 
local oflSces. He died in Avigusta, Me., 
Sept. 25, 1841. 

Chandler, William Eaton; born in 
Concord, N. H., Dec. 28, 1835; gradu- 
ated at the Harvard Law School, and 
admitted to the bar in 1855; appointed 
reporter of the New Hampshire Supremo 
Court in 18.59; was a member of the New 
Hampshire House of Representatives in 
1S62-1864, being twice elected speaker. 
In 1865 President Lincoln appointed him 
judge-advocate-general of the navy, and 
soon afterwards he was made Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury. He resigned 



in 1SG7, and began practising law in New 
Hampshire. During the Presidential 
campaigns of 1SG8, 1872, and 1876 he ren- 
dered etiective work for the Republican 
party as secretary of the National Repub- 
lican Committee. After the campaign of 
1876 he was active in the investigation of 
the electoral counting in Florida and 
South Carolina; and in 1878-79 was an 
important witness in the cipher despatch 
investigation. He was appointed solicit- 
or-general of the United States, March 23, 
1881, but his nomination was rejected by 
the Senate; and in 1882-85 was Secretary 
of the Navy. In 1887, 1889, and 1895 he 
was elected United States Senator; in 
1900 was defeated; in 1901 president of 
the Spanish Treaty Claims Commission. 

Chandler, Zaciiariah, legislator; born 
in Bedford, N. H., Dec. 10, 1813; settled 
in Detroit, Mich., in 1833. In 1857 he 
was elected United States Senator, and 
held the seat until 1874, when he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Interior; and in 
1879 was again elected to the Senate. He 
was active in the organization of the Re- 
publican party; and sent a famous letter to 
Governor Blair, of Michigan, on Feb. 11, 
1861, in which he used the words, " With- 
out a little blood-letting this Union will 
not, in my estimation, be worth a rush." 
He died in Chicago, 111., Nov. 1, 1879. 

Channing, Edw^ard, historian; born in 
Dorchester, Mass., June 15, 1856; was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1878; 
and became Professor of History there. 
His publications include The United 
States, 1165-1865; A Student's History of 
the United States; Toion and County 
Government in the English Colonies of 
North America; Narraganset Planters; 
Companions of Columhus, in Justin Win- 
sor's Narrative and Critical History of 
A merica; Guide to Study of American 
History (with Albert B. Hart) ; and Eng- 
lish History for Americans (with Thomas 
W. Hiffginson). 

Channing-, William Ellert, clergy- 
man; born in Newport, R. I., April 7, 
1780; graduated at Harvard in 1798 
with highest honors; was a teacher in a 
private family in Richmond, Va., for a 
year afterwards; and, returning in feeble 
health in 1802, studied theology, and be- 
came pastor of the Federal Street Church 
in Boston, June 1, 1803. All through 

his laborious life he suffered from 
ill - health. In 1822 he sought physi- 
cal improvement by a voyage to Eu- 
rope, and in 1830 he went to St. Croix, 


W. I., for the same purpose. With a col- 
league he occasionally officiated in the 
pulpit until 1840, when he resigned. In 
August, 1842, he delivered his last public 
address at Lenox, Mass., in commemora- 
tion of the abolition of slavery in the 
West Indies. Mr. Channing contributed 
much towards stimulating anti - slavery 
feeling. He died in Bennington, Vt., Oct. 
2, 1842. 

Chantilly, Battle of. On the morn- 
ing after the second battle at Bull Run 
Pope was joined at Centreville by the 
corps of Franklin and Sumner. The next 
day (Sept. I, 1862), Lee, not disposed 
to make a direct attack upon the Nation- 
als, sent Jackson on another flanking 
movement, the latter taking with him 
his own and Ewell's division. With in- 
structions to assail and turn Pope's right, 
he crossed Bull Run at Sudley Ford, and, 
after a while, turning to the right, turn- 
ed down the Little River pike, and march- 
ed towards Fairfax Court - house. Pope 
had prepared to meet this movement. 
Heintzelman and Hooker were ordered to 
different points, and just before sunset 
Reno met Jackson's advance (Ewell and 
Hill) near Chantilly. A cold and drench- 
ing rain was falling, but it did not pre- 
vent an immediate engagement. Very 
soon McDowell, Hooker, and Kearny came 
to Reno's assistance. A very severe battle 



I'aged for some time, when Gen. Isaac J. Chaplain, originally a clergyman who 

Stevens, leading Reno's second division performed divine service in a chapel, for a 

in person, was shot dead. His command prince or nobleman. In the United States 

fell back in disorder. Seeing this. Gen. one who holds divine ser\ice in the army 

Philip Kearny advanced with his division or navy or for any public .body. 

and renewed the action, sending Birney's Chaplin's Hills, Battle of. See 

brigade to the front. A furious thunder- Perkyville. 

storm was then raging, which made the 
use of ammunition very difficult. Unheed- 
ing this, Kearny brought forward a bat- 
tery and planted it in position him- 
self. Then, perceiving a gap caused by 
the retirement of Stevens's men, he push- 
ed forward to reconnoitre, and was shot 
dead a little within the Confederate lines, 
just at sunset, and the command of his 
division devolved on Birney, who instant- 
]y made a bayonet charge with his own 

Chapultepec, Battle of. The city of 
Mexico stands on a slight swell of ground, 
near the centre of an irregular basin, and 
encircled by a broad and deep navigable 
canal. The approaches to the city are 
over elevated causeways, flanked by ditch- 
es. From these the capital is entered by 
arched gateways; and these, when the 
victorious Americans approached the city 
(August, 1847), were strongly fortified. 
When El Molino del Rey and Casa de 

brigade of New York troops, led by Colo- Mata had been captured (Sept. 8, 1847), 
nel Eagan. The Confederates were pushed the castle of Chapultepec alone remained 

back some distance. Birney held the field 
that night, and the broken and demoral- 
ized army was withdrawn within the lines 
at Washington the next day. See Kearny, 

After the battle at Chantilly, the Army 
of Virginia was merged into the Army of 
the Potomac, and General Pope returned 
to service in the West. The loss of Pope's 
army, from Cedar Mountain to Chantilly, 

as a defence for the city — this and its 
outworks. The hill, steep and rocky, 
rises 150 feet above the surroimding coun- 
try. The castle was built of heavy stone 
masonry. The whole fortress was 900 feet 
in length, and the terreplcin and main 
buildings 600 feet. The castle was about 
100 feet in height, and presented a splen- 
did specimen of military architecture. A 
dome, rising about 20 feet above the walls. 

in killed, wounded, prisoners, and missing, gave it a grand appearance. Two strong- 
ly built walls surrounded the whole struct- 
ure, 10 feet apart and 12 or 15 feet high. 
The works were thoroughly armed, and 
the gariison, among whom were some ex- 
pert French gunners, was commanded by 
small-arms. Of the 91.000 veteran troops General Bravo. The whole hill v/as spotted 
from the Peninsula, lying near. Pope re- 
ported that only 20,500 men had joined 
him in confronting Lee. 

Chapelle, Placide Louis, clergyman; 
born in Mende, France, Aug. 28, 1842. 

was estimated at 30,000. Lee's losses 
during the same time amounted to about 
15,000. He claimed to have taken 7,000 
prisoners, with 2,000 sick and wounded, 
thirty pieces of artillery, and 20,000 

with forts and outworks. 

To carry this strong post with the 
least loss cf men, Scott determined to 
batter it with heavy cannon. Accord- 
ingly, on the night of Sept. 11, four 

He came to the United States in 1859; and batteries of heavy cannon were erected on 

was graduated at St. Mary's College, and 
ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1865. 
For five years he was a missionary, and 
from 1870 to 1891 held pastorates in 
Baltimore and Washington. He was made 
coadjutor archbishop of Santa F& in 1891; 
archbishop in 1894; and archbishop of 
New Orleans in 1897. In 1898 he was 

a hill between Tucabaya and Chapulte- 
pec, commanded respectively by Captains 
Drew, Haynes, and Brooks, and Lieuten- 
ant Stone. They were placed in position 
by the engineer officers Huger and Lee 
(the latter afterwards commander-in-chief 
of the Confederate army). On the morn- 
ing of the 12th these batteries opened 

appointed Apostolic Delegate to Cuba, fire, every ball crashing through the cas- 
Porto Rico, and the Philippines. After a tie, and every shell tearing up the ram- 
brief service in Cuba he went to the Philip- parts. The fire of the Mexicans was not 
pines in 1901 and aided in establishing less severe, and this duel of great guns 
civil government. was kept up all day. The next morning 



(13th) troops moved to assail the works, 
at their weakest point, in two columns, 
one led by General Pillow and the other 
by General QuitmariP Pillow marched to 


assail the works on the west side, while 
Quitman made a demonstration on the 
easterly part. Both columns were pre- 
ceded by a strong party — that of Pillow 
by 250 of Worth's division, commanded 
by Captain McKenzie: and that of Quit- 
man by the same number, commanded by 
Captain Carey. Each storming party was 
furnished with scaling-ladders. While 
the troops were advancing the American 
batteries kept up a continuous fire over 
their heads upon the works to prevent re- 
inforcements reaching the Mexicans. Pil- 
low's column bore the brunt of the battle. 
It first carried a redoubt, and drove the 
Mexicans from shelter to shelter. At 
length the ditch and the wall of the main 
work were reached; the scaling-ladders 
and fascines were brought up and planted 
by the storming parties; and the work 
n. — G 9 

was soon taken and the American flag un- 
furled over the ramparts amid prolonged 

Meanwhile Quitman's column had moved 
along a causeway, 
captured two bat- 
teries, and joined 
Pillow's column 
in time to share in 
the work of accom- 
plishing a final 
victory. Together 
they took the 
strong castle of 
Chapultepec, and 
scattered its de- 
fenders in every 
direction. It was 
literally torn in 
pieces ; and with- 
in, a crowd of 
prisoners of all 
grades were seized, 
among them fifty 
general officers. 
There were also 
100 cadets of the 
Military College, 
the latter " pretty 
little boys," wrote 
an American offi- 
cer, " from ten to 
sixteen years of 
age." Several of 
their little com- 
panions had been 
killed, " fighting like demons." The fugi- 
tives fled to the city, along an aqueduct, 
pursued by General Quitman to the very 
gates engaged all the way in a running 
fight, which was sometimes severe. See 
Lee, Robert Edward ; Mexico, War with ; 
Pillow, Gideon Johnson; Quitman, 
John Anthony; Worth, William Jen- 

Charles I., King of England; second 
son of James I.; was born at Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, Nov. 19, ICOO. The death 
of his elder brother, Henry, in 1612, made 
him heir-apparent to the throne, which he 
ascended as King in 1625. He sought the 
hand of the infanta of Spain, but finally 
married (1625) Henrietta Maria, daugh- 
ter of Henry IV. of France. She was a 
Ixoman Catholic, and had been procured 
for Charles bv the infamous Duke of 


Buckingham, whose influence over the 
young King was disastrous to England 
and to the monarch himself. 

Charles was naturally a good man, but 
his education, especially concerning the 
doctrine of the divine right of kings and 
the sanctity of the royal prerogative, led 
to an outbreak in England which cost 
him his life. Civil war began in 1641, 
and ended with his execution at the be- 
ginning of 1G49. His reign was at first 
succeeded by the rule of the " Long Parlia- 
ment," and then by Cromwell — a half- 
monarch, called the " Protector." After 
various vicissitudes during the civil war, 
Charles was captured, and imprisoned in 
Carisbrooke Castle, in the Isle of Wight, 
from whence he was taken to London at 
the close of lG-18. He was brought to trial 
before a special high court in Westmin- 
ster Hall on Jan. 20, 1G40, on the 27th 
was condemned to death, and on the 30th 
was beheaded on a scaffold in front of the 
banqueting-house at Whitehall. 

Charles had eight children by his queen, 
Henrietta, six of whom survived him. 
His family was driven into exile; but a 
little more than eleven years after his 
death his eldest son, Charles, ascended 
the throne as King of Great Britain. The 
son held much more intimate relations, 
as monarch, with the English-American 
colonies than the father. 

Charles II., King of England; son and 
successor of Charles I. ; born in London, 
May 29, 1630. His mother was Henrietta II. 

Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of France, 
and sister of the then reigning King of 
that realm. As the fortunes of his father 
waned, his mother returned to France, 

where the son joined her; and, at the 
Hague, he heard of the death of his parent 
by the axe, when he assumed the title of 
King, and was prodHimed such at Edin- 
burgh, Feb. 3, 1649. He was crowned at 
Scone, Scotland, Jan. 1, 1G51. After an 
unsuccessful warfare with Cromwell for 
the throne, he fled to Paris ; and finally he 
became a resident of Breda, in Belgium, 
whence he was called to England by a 
vote of Parliament, and restored to the 

throne. May 8, 1660. He was a very prof- 
ligate monarch — indolent, amiable, and un- 
scrupulous. He misgoverned England 
twenty-five years in an arbitrary manner, 
and disgraced the nation. He became a 
Roman Catholic, although professing to be 
a Protestant; and, when dying from a 
stroke of apoplexy, Feb. 6, 1685, he con- 
fessed to a Roman Catholic priest, and 
received extreme unction. The throne de- 
scended to his brother James, an avowed 
Roman Catholic. See James II. 

In March, 1663, Charles II. granted to 
several of his courtiers the vast domain of 
the Carolinas in America. They were 
men, most of them past middle life in 
years, and possessed of the " easy virtues " 
which distinguished the reign of that 
profligate monarch. They begged the do- 
main under pretence of a " pious zeal for 
the propagation of the Gospel among the 
heathen," while their real object was to 
rob the " heathen " of these valuable 
lands, and to accumulate riches and honors 
for themselves. It is said that when these 
petitioners appeared before Charles in the 
gardens at Hampton Court, and presented 
their memorial so full of pious pretensions, 
the monarch, after looking each man in 
the face for a moment, with a merry 
twinkle in his eyes, burst into loud laugh- 
ter, in which his audience joined involun- 
tarily. Then taking up a little shaggy 
spaniel, with large meek eyes, and holding 
it at arm's-length before them, he said, 
'' Good friends, here is a model of piety 



and sincerity which it might be wholesome 
for you to copy." Then, tossing the little 
pet to Clarendon, he said, " There, Hyde, 
is a worthy prelate; make him archbishop 
of the domain I shall give you." With 
grim satire, Charles introduced into the 
preamble of their charter that the peti- 
tioners, " excited with a laudable and pi- 
ous zeal for the propagation of the Gospel, 
have begged a certain country in the parts 
of America not yet cultivated and planted, 
and only inhabited by some barbarous peo- 
ple who have no knowledge of God." See 
North Carolina; South Carolina. 

Charleston, city, port of entry, and 
commercial metropolis of South Carolina; 
on a peninsula between the Cooper and 
Ashley rivers, which unite in forming an 
admirable harbor; 82 miles northeast of 
Savannah, Ga. The city was founded in 
1680 by an English colony; was occupied 
by the British in 1780-82; and was the 
State capital till 1790. It has been the 
ficene of many stirring and historical 
events. The celebrated Democratic Na- 
tional Convention of 1860 was opened 
here, and after the split among the dele- 
gates an adjourned session was held in 
Baltimore. It was the birthplace, the 
same year, of the Secession movement; the 
first act of hostility to the national gov- 
ernment occurred here (see Sumter, Fort; 
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant) ; 
was besieged and bombarded during the 
last two years of the war; and was evacu- 
ated by the Confederates on Feb. 17, 186.5. 
On Aug. 31, 1886, a large part of the city 
was destroyed by an earthquake, in which 
many lives were lost. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, 
the foreign trade of the port was: Im- 
ports, $1,124,671; exports, $7,151,720. In 
1899 the assessed valuation of all taxable 
property was $17,293,458. The population 
in 1890* was 54.955; in 1900, 55.807. 

History. — Provoked by the attack on St. 
Augustine by the South Carolinians in 1706, 
the Spaniards fitted out an expedition to 
retaliate. It consisted of five vessels of 
war, under the command of the French Ad- 
miral Le Feboure, bearing a large body of 
troops from Havana. It was proposed to 
conquer the province of South Carolina 
and attach it to Spanish territory in Flor- 
ida. The squadron crossed Charleston Bar 
(May. 1706), and about 800 troops were 


landed at different points. Then the com- 
mander made a peremptory demand for 
the surrender of the city, threatening to 
take it by storm in case of refusal. Gov- 
ernor Moore, apprised of the expedition, 
was prepared for it. When the flag ar- 
rived with the demand for a surrender, 
he had so disposed the provincial militia 
and a host of Indian warriors that it gave 
an exaggerated idea of the strength of the 
Carolinians. Before the messenger had 
made any extended observations he was 
dismissed with the defiant reply that the 
people were ready to meet the promised 
attack. That night was passed in quiet; 
but at dawn a strong party of Carolinians 
on the shore, led by the governor and 
Colonel Rhett, made a furious assault 
upon the invaders; killed many, captured 
more, and drove the remnant back to their 
ships. Meanwhile the little provincial 
navy, lying in the harbor, prepared to at- 
tack the invading squadron, when the 
French admii-al, amazed by this display of 
valor, hoisted his anchors and fled to sea. 
A French war-ship, uninformed of these 
events, soon afterwards sailed into the 
harbor with troops, and was captured. 
The victory was coYnplete, and the Span- 
iards became circumspect. 

In the Revolutionary War. — In the 
spring of 1776 a considerable fleet, un- 
der Admiral Sir Peter Parker, sailed 
from England with troops, under Earl 
Cornwallis. to operate against the coasts 
of the Southern provinces. This arma- 
ment joined that of Sir Henry Clinton 
at Cape Fear. After some marauding 
operations in that region, the united 
forces proceeded to Charleston Harbor, to 
make a combined attack bv land and water 
upon Fort Sullivan, on Sullivan's Island, 
and then to seize the city and province. 
The Southern patriots had cheerfully re- 
sponded to the call of Governor Rutledge 
to come to the defence of Charleston, and 
about 6,000 armed men were in the vicin- 
ity when the enemy appeared. The city 
and eligible points near had been forti- 
fied. Fort Sullivan was composed of pal- 
metto logs and earth, armed with twenty- 
six cannon, and carrisoned by about 500 
men, chiefly militia, under Col. William 
Moultrie. It commanded the channel lead- 
ing to the town. Gen. Charles Lee, who 
had been ordered by W^ashington to watch 


tlie movements of Clinton, liad made his 
way southward, and arrived at Charleston 
on June 4, but was of no service whatever. 
Late in the month Clinton had landed 
troops on Long Island, which was sepa- 
rated from Sullivan's Island by a shallow 
creek. There he erected batteries to con- 
front those on Sullivan's Island, and 
awaited the signal for attack by Parker. 
It Avas given on the morning of June 28, 
and a terrible storm of shot and shell was 
poured upon the fort, with very little 
effect, for the spongy palmetto logs would 
not fracture, and the balls were embed- 
ded in them. The conflict raged for al- 
niost ten hours between the fort and the 
fleet, and the latter was terribly shat- 

Meanwhile Clinton had endeavored to 
pass over to Sullivan's Island with 2,000 
men, but was kept back by the determined 
troops under Colonel Thompson with two 
cannon and deadly rifles. The fire from 
the fleet slackened at sunset, and ceased 
at nine o'clock. The admiral's flag-ship, 
Bristol, and another were nearly a wreck. 
The flag-ship was pierced by not less than 
seventy balls. All but two of the vessels 
(which were destroyed) withdrew. The 
British lost in the engagement 225 men 
killed and wounded, while the Americans 
lost but two killed and twenty-one wound- 
ed. Three days afterwards the British all 
departed for New York; and the fort, so 
gallantly defended, 'was called Fort Moul- 
trie in honor of its commander. 

Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New 
York on Christmas Day. 1779, for the pur- 
pose of invading South Carolina. He took 
with him the main body of his army, leav- 
ing General Knyphausen in command in 
New York. The troops were borne by a 
British fleet, commanded by Admiral Ar- 
buthnot, who had 2,000 marines. They en- 
countered heavy storms off" Cape Hatteras, 
which scattered the fleet. One vessel, laden 
with heavy battery-cannon, went to the 
bottom. Another, bearing Hessian troops, 
was driven across the Atlantic, and dashed 
on the shore of England. The troops land- 
ed on islands below Charleston, and it was 
late in February before the scattered Brit- 
ish forces appeared on St. John's Island, 
in sight of the wealthy city, containing' a 
population of 15,000 inhabitants, white 
and black. The city was then defended by 

less than 2,000 effective troops, under 
General Lincoln, who cast up intrench- 
nients across Charleston Neck. Commo- 
dore Whipple had sunk some of his armed 
vessels in the channels of the harbor, after 
transferring the cannon and seamen to 
the land fortifications. Fort Moultrie was 
well garrisoned. The invading troops 
appeared before the defences of Charles- 
ton March 29, and the fleet entered the 
harbor, unmolested, April 9. 

On the following day Clinton and Ar- 
buthnot demanded the surrender of the 
city, which was promptly refused, and a 
siege began. On the 13th Lincoln and a 
council of officers considered the propriety 
of evacuating the city to save it from de- 
struction, for the American troops were 
too few to hope for a successful defence. 
It was then too late, for cavalry, sent out 
to keep open communications with the 
country, had been dispersed by the Brit- 
ish troopers. The arrival of Cornwall is 
(April 19) with 3,000 fresh troops render- 
ed an evacuation impossible. The siege 
continued about a month. Fort Moultrie 
surrendered on May 6, when a third de- 
mand for the surrender of the city was 
made and refused. Late on the succeed- 
ing evening a severe cannonade was open- 
ed upon it from land and water. All night 
long the thunder of 200 heavy guns shook 
the city, and fiery bombshells were rained 
upon it, setting the town on fire in dif- 
ferent places. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 
12th Lincoln proposed to yield, and on 
that day the city and garrison were sur- 
rendered, and the latter, as well as the 
adult citizens, became prisoners of war. 
The latter were paroled ; and by this ex- 
traordinary proceeding Clinton could boast 
of over 5,000 captives. The city was 
given up to pillage by the British and 
Plessian troops. When the whole amount 
of plunder was appraised for distribution, 
it aggregated in value $1,500,000. Clin- 
ton and his major-generals each received 
about $20,000. Houses were rifled of 
plate, and slaves were seized, driven on 
board the ships, and sent to the West 
Indies to be sold, so as to swell the money- 
gains of the conquerors. Over 2,000 men 
and women, without regard to the separa- 
tion of families, were sent at one embarka- 
tion; and only upon the promise of un- 



conditional loyalty to the crown was thousands of voices exclaimed, " God bless 

British protection offered to citizens. In you, gentlemen! Welcome! welcome!" 

uiter violation of the terms of surrender. Before night the British squadron (about 

a large number of the leading men of 300 vessels) crossed the bar, and the last 

Charleston were taken from their beds sail was seen like a white speck just as 

(August) by armed men, and thrust on the sun went down, 

board filthy prison-ships, under the falsa The Democratic Convention. — On April 

accusation of being concerned in a con- 23, 1860, about 600 representatives of 
spiracy to burn the town and murder the the Democratic party assembled in con- 
loyal inhabitants. vention in the hall of the South Caro- 
The evacuation of the city took place lina Institute in Charleston, and chose 
on Dec. 14, 1782. Gen. Alexander Les- Caleb Gushing {q. v.), of Massachu- 
LiE {q. V.) had levelled the fortifications setts, their chairman. From the first 
around the city, and demolished Fort hour of the session knowing ones dis- 
Johnson, on St. John's Island, near covered omens of an impending tem- 
by, on the morning of the 13th. The pest, which might topple from its foun- 
American army slowly approached the dations their political organization. Mr. 
city that day, and at dawn the next Cushing's opening address to the conven- 
morning the British marched to Gads- tion pleased them. In it he declared it 
den's wharf and embarked. An Amer- to be the mission of the Democratic party 
ican detachment took formal possession " to reconcile popular freedom with con- 
of the town. At 3 p.m. General Greene stituted order," and to maintain "the 
escorted Governor Mathews and other sacred reserved rights of the sovereign 
civil officers to the toAvn-hall, the troops States." He charged the Republicans with 
greeted on their way by cheers from " laboring to overthrow the Constitution." 
windows and balconies, and even from He declared that the Republicans were 
house-tops. Handkerchiefs waved, and aiming to produce "a perpetual sectional 



conspiracy," which would " hurry the interfere with slavery anywhere, or to 
country on to civil war," and that it was impair or destroy the right of property 

the high and noble part of the Demo- 
cratic party of the Union to withstand 
— to strike down and conquer — these 
banded enemies of the Constitution." 

This speech was applauded by all but 

in slaves by any legislation. This was 
a demand for the Democratic party to 
recognize slavery as a sacred, permanent, 
and national institution. 

The minority, composed wholly of dele- 

the extreme pro-slavery wing of the con- gates from the free-labor States, resolved 
vention, who, it is said, desired rather to that the limit of concession to the de- 
" strike down " the Democratic party, to mands of the Southern politicians was 
obtain more important advantages for reached, and they would yield no further, 
themselves. They had come instructed to They represented a majority of the Presi- 
demand from the convention 
a candidate and an avowal of 
principles which should prom- 
ise a guarantee for the speedy 
recognition by the national 
government and the people, 
in a political way, of the sys- 
tem of slavery as a national 

The most prominent candi- 
date for the Presidency in the 
convention was Stephen A. 
Douglas, who was commit- 
ted to an opposite policy con- 
cerning slavery, and whose 
friends would never vote for 
the demands of the extreme 
pro-slavery men. This the lat- 
ter well knew. They also knew 
that the rejection of Mr. 
Douglas by the representatives of the slave- 
holders would split the Democratic party, 
and they resolved to act, it is said, in 
accordance with their convictions. They 
held the dissevering wedge in their own 
hands, and they determined to use it with 
eflfect. A committee of one delegate from 
each State was appointed to prepare a 
platform of principles for the action of 
the convention. Ben.tamin F. Butler sued, and Avery, from North Carolina, 
(q. V.) of Massachusetts, proposed in that declared that the doctrine of popular sov- 
committee to adopt the doctrine of the ereignty — the authority of the people con- 
cerning slavery — was as dangerous as 
that of congressional interference with 
the institution. The debate continued 
until the 29th, and the next morning 
a vote was taken. 

The minority report, in favor of popu- 


dential electors — 172 against 127. They 
offered to adopt a resolution expressive 
of their willingness to abide by any de- 
cision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. To this concession Butler ob- 
jected, and three reports from the com- 
mittee went into the convention — a ma- 
jority and a minority report, and one 
from Mr. Butler. A warm debate en- 

right of the people in any State or Terri- 
tory to decide whether slavery should or 
should not exist within its borders. 
This was rejected by seventeen States 
(only two of them free-labor States) 
against fifteen. This was the entering 
of the dissevering wedee. The majority lar sovereignty, was adopted by a decided 

now offered to accept that doctrine, with 
an additional resolution declaring that, in 
the spirit of Judge Taney's opinion (see 
Dred Scott Case), neither Congress nor 
any other legislative body had a right to 


majority, when Walker, of Alabama, 
afterwards the Confederate Secretary of 
War, announced that the delegates from 
his State would secede from the conven- 
tion. The movement was preconcerted. 


This delegation was followed by those of of war at the beginning of 1863, its 

other slave-labor States, and the seceders possession was coveted by the national 

assembled in St. Andrew's Hall, to pre- government because of the salutary moral 

pare for an independent political organ- effect which such a conquest would 


ization. The disruption of the Demo- 
cratic party, as represented in the con- 
vention, was now complete. When D. C. 
Glenn, of Mississippi, announced the se- 
cession of the delegation from his State. 
he said: "I tell Sovithern members, and 
for them I tell the North, that in less 
than sixty days you will find a united 
South standing side by side with us." 

There was great rejoicing in Charles- 
ton that nisfht because of this secession, 
for the politicians were aware that the 
scheme for disunion was ripe for execu- 
tion. The seceders organized a " Con- 
stitutional Convention," with James A. 
Bayard, of Delaware, as chairman. They 
called the body they had left the " Eump 
Convention." On May 3 they adjourned, 
to meet in Richmond, Va., in June. The 
regular conA'ention also adjourned, to 
meet in Baltimore June 18. See Balti- 

In the Civil War. — Although Charles- 
ton had become a comparatively un- 
important point in the grand theatre 


produce. A strong effort to accomplish 
that end was made in the spring of 
1863. On April 6 Admiral Dupont cross- 
ed Charleston Bar with nine " mon- 
itors," or turreted iron vessels, leaving 
five gunboats outside as a reserve, and 
proceeded to attack Fort Sumter (q. v.) 
— the most formidable object in the way 
to the city. At the same time, a land 
force near at hand, 4.000 strong, un- 
der Oen. Truman Seymour, took a masked 
position on Folly Island, ready to co- 
operate, if necessary. The military works 
that defended Charleston were numerous 
and formidable. Between Forts Sumter 
and Moultrie the sea was strewn with 
torpedoes, and there Avere other formi- 
dable obstructions. On Morris Island, 
abreast of Fort Sumter, was a strong 
work, called Fort Wagfner. Dupont's 
squadron lay quietly within the bar until 
noon of .4piil 7, when it advanced direct- 
ly upon Sumter, intending not to reply to 
any attack from Fort Wagner. The 
Weehav>ken led, Dupont was ignorant 


of the torpedoes, but the discovery of of the navy, and lay Charleston in ashes 
these soon explained the ominous silence by firing shells, if it should not be 
of Sumter and Fort Wagner as he ad- surrendered. 

vanced. Suddenly, when the Weehaw- As Dupont did not approve this plan, 
ken had become entangled in a net-work Admiral Dahlgren took his place in July, 
of cables, the barbette guns of Sumter Gillmore had batteries constructed, un- 
opened upon her with plunging shot, der the direction of General Vogdes, on 
Then the other " monsters of the deep " the northern end of Folly Island. This 
commanded by Dupont came forward and work was completely masked by a pine 
delivered tremendous discharges of heavy forest. When all was in readiness. Gen. Al- 
raetal on Sumter, and at the same time fred H. Terry was sent, with nearly 4,000 
that fortress. Fort Wagner, and other troops, up the Stono River, to make a de- 
batteries, with an aggregate of nearly monstration against James Island to mask 
SOO guns, poured heavy shot and shell Gillmore's real intentions, and Col. T. W. 
upon the squadron — then within the focus Higginson,with some negro troops, went up 
of their concentric fire — at the rate of the Edisto to cut the railway communica- 
160 a minute. A greater portion of these tion between Charleston and Savannah, 
missiles glanced off harmlessly from the Thirty hours after Terry's departure 
mailed " monitors." The weaker Keokuk Gen. George C. Strong silently embarked 
was nearly destroyed; all of the other 2,000 men in small boats and crossed over 
vessels were more or less injured. The to Morris Island before dawn (July 13), 
fiag-ship was in peril, and Fort Sumter unsuspected by the Confederates. At that 
was but slightly hurt, when Dupont. after hour Vogdes's masked batteries opened a 
a terrible fight of forty minutes, signalled tremendous cannonade, and Dahlgren's 
the squadron to withdraw. In that time four " monitors," at tne same time, opened 
it was estimated that the Confederates a cross-fire upon the Confederates, who 
fired 3,500 shells and shots. The attack saw the amazing apparition of a strong 
was a failure, but not a disaster. Du- National force ready to attack them. Af- 
pont lost but a few men, and only one ter a sharp battle. Strong gained posses- 
vessel, sion of the powerful Confederate works 
Second Attack on Fort Sumter. — It on the southern end of Morris Island, with 
was now seen that a land force on Mor- eleven guns. The occupants were driven 
ris Island to keep Fort Wagner em- away, and took shelter in Fort Wagner, 
ployed was necessary to secure a success- the garrison of which had been kept quiet 
ful attack on Sumter. After this attack by Dahlgren's guns. 
Dupont watched the Confed- 
erates on Morris Island, and 
did not allow them to erect 
any more works on it. Gen. 
Quincy A. Gillmore was as- 
signed to the command of 
the Department of the South 
June 2, 18G3. The govern- 
ment determined to renew 
the attack on Fort Sumter 
by a land and naval force. 
Gillmore was at the head of 
18,000 men, with a generous 
supply of gi'eat guns, small- 
arms, and ordnance stores. 
He determined to seize Mor- 
ris Island preliminary to 

an attack on Sumter and Charleston. Meanwhile, Terry had fought and re- 
That island and the military works in pulsed Confederate assailants at Seces- 
his possession, he might batter do^vn Fort sionville, on James Island, in which i'i(> 
Sumter from Fori Wagner, with the aid lost about 100 men, and his adversary 20U. 




He then hastened to Morris Island to join 
in the attack on Fort Wagner. Five bat- 
teries were speedily erected across the 
island to confront Wagner, and at noon 
' (July 13) Gillmore opened a bombard- 
ment of that fort. Dahlgren, at the same 
time, moved his " monitors "' nearer to it, 
and poured a continuous stream of shells 
upon it. From noon until sunset 100 guns 
were continually assailing the fort, which 
replied with only two guns at long inter- 

When night fell, a tremendous thunder- 
storm swept over the harbor and the isl- 
ands, when General Strong, with a heavy 
assaulting party, moved upon the fort. It 
was composed of a Massachusetts regi- 
ment of colored troops, under Col. R. G. 
Shaw, and one regiment each from Con- 
necticut, New Hampshire, New York, and 
Pennsylvania. The storming party ad- 
vanced against a shower of shot and shell 
from Wagner, Sumter, and Battery Gregg. 

When at the fort they were met by a 
furious tempest of musketry, while howit- 
zers swept the ditch where the assailants 
were crossing. Hand-grenades were also 
thrown upon the Unionists. Colonel Shaw 
was shot dead, and fell among the slain 
of his dusky followers. General Strong, 
and also Colonel Chatfield, of the Con- 
necticut regiment, were mortally wounded. 
The Nationals were repulsed, when anoth- 
er brigade pushed forward to the assault, 
led by Col. H. L. Putnam. It was com- 
posed of Ohio and New York troops. Some 
of Putnam's men actually got into the 
fort, but were expelled. Finally their 
leader was killed, and the second storm- 
ing party was repulsed. The loss on the 
part of the Nationals was fearful. The 
Confederates said they buried 600 of them 
in front of the fort. Among the bodies 
of the slain so buried was that of Colonel 
Shaw, who was cast into a trench, and 
upon it were piled those of his slain col- 
ored troops. He was hated by the Con- 
federates because he commanded negro 

Siege of Fort Sumtet: — Gillmore now 
abandoned the idea of assaults, and began 
a regular siege. He planted batteries 
of heavy siege and breaching guns at dif- 
ferent points, and mounted a 200-pounder 
^arrott gun upon a battery constructed 
>i timber in a marsh between Morris and 

James islands, which might hurl shell 
upon the city, or, at least, upon the ship- 
ping and wharves of Charleston. This 
gun was named " The Swamp Angel." It 
was about 5 miles from Charleston. On 
the morning of Aug. 17 Gillmore, having 
completed his arrangements for attack, 
opened the guns from twelve batteries and 
from Dahlgren's naval force on Forts Sum- 
ter and Wagner and Battery Gregg. Fort 
Sumter, 2 miles distant, was the chief 
object of attack — to make it powerless as 
an assistant of Fort Wagner. This was 
continued until the 24th, when Gillmore 
telegraphed to Washington, " Fort Sumter 
is to-day a shapeless and harmless mass 
of ruins." " The Swamp Angel " sent 
some 150-lb. shells that fell in Charles- 
ton — one penetrating St. Michael's Church 
— and greatly alarmed the people. 

On the fall of Sumter, the attack cen- 
tred on Fort Wagner ; and at two o'clock 
on the morning of Sept. 7 General Terry, 
with 3,000 troops, in three columns, was 
about to advance to assail that strong 
fortification, when it was found that the 
Confederates had evacuated it and Bat- 
tery Gregg before midnight. During forty 
hours no less than 120,000 pounds of 
iron had been rained upon the fort. Dahl- 
gren, believing the channel to be strewn 
with torpedoes, did not venture to pass 
the silent forts with his vessels and ap- 
pear before Charleston. 

Indeed, Sumter was not dead, but slum- 
bering. On the night of Sept. 8 a portion 
of the men of the squadron went in thirty 
row-boats to take possession of Sumter. 
They scaled the ruins, where, as they sup- 
posed, the decimated garrison were sleep- 
ing, but were met by determined men, and 
repulsed. They were assailed not only 
by the garrison, but by neighboring bat- 
teries, a gunboat, and a " ram," and lost 
200 men, four boats, and three colors. 

Finally, on Oct. 2G, perceiving the gar- 
rison mounting cannon on the southeast 
face of Sumter, to command Fort Wag- 
ner, Gillmore opened hea\'y rifled can- 
non on the former, which soon reduced it 
to an utterly untenable ruin. From that 
time until near the close of the year Gill- 
more kept up an irregular fire on Charles- 
ton, when, seeing no prospect of the fleet 
entering the harbor, he kept silent. 

When Hardee, in command of the Con- 



federate troops at Charleston, heard of that stood upon the northern slope of the 
the fall of Columbia (q. v.), he perceived Wyllys Hill, in Hartford, a beautiful ele- 
the necessity for his immediate flight, by vation on the south side of Charter Oak 
the only railway then left open for his Street, a few rods east from Main Street, 
use, and of endeavoring to join Beaure- The trunk was 25 feet in circumference 
gard, with the remnant of Hood's army, near the roots. A large cavity, about 2 
then making their way into North Caro- feet from the ground, was the place of con- 
Una, where Johnston was gathering all of cealment of the original charter of Con- 

his available forces in Sherman's path. 
Hardee at once fired every building, ware- 
house, or shed in Charleston stored with 
cotton, and destroyed as much other prop- 
erty that might be useful to the Nationals 
as possible. The few remaining inhabi- 
tants in the city were filled with conster- 
nation, for the flames spread through the 

necticut from the summer of 1687 until 
the spring of 1689, when it was brought 
forth, and under it Connecticut resumed 
its charter government. 

In 1800 a daughter of Secretary 
Wyllys, writing to Dr. Holmes, the an- 
nalist, said of this tree: "The first inhab- 
itant of that name [Wyllys] found it 

town. An explosion of gunpowder shook standing in the height of its glory. Age 
the city to its foundations and killed fully seems to have curtailed its branches, yet 
200 persons. Four whole squares of build- it is not exceeded in the height of its col- 
ings were consumed. oring or the richness of its foliage. The 

That night (Feb. 17, 1865), the last of cavity which was the asylum of our char- 
Ilardee's troops left Charleston. On the ter was near the roots, and large enough 
following morning Major Hennessy, sent to admit a child. Within the space of 
from Morris Island, raised the National eight years that cavity has closed, as if it 
flag over ruined Fort Sumter. The mayor had fulfilled the divine purpose for which 
surrendered the city, and some National it had been reared." 

troops, with negroes in Charleston, soon This tree was blov/n down by a heavy 
extinguished the flames that threatened gale on Aug. 21, 1856. The Wyllys Hill 
to devour the whole town. On that day 
(Feb. 18, 1865), the city of Charles- 
ton was " repossessed " by the national 
government, with over 450 pieces of ar- 
tillery, a large amount of gunpowder, and 
eight locomotives and other rolling-stock 
of a railway. General Gillmore took posses- 
sion of the city, and appointed Lieut.-Col. 
Stewart L. Woodford military governor. 

Charlestown, a town in West Virginia, 
where on Dec. 2, 1859, John Brown was 
hung, and on the 16th, Green, Copeland, 
Cook, and Coppoc, and on March 16, 1860, 
Stephens and Hazlett. See Brown, John. 

Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavieb 
DE, traveller; born in Saint-Quentin, 
France, Oct. 29. 1682. He was sent as a 
Jesuit missionary to Quebec in 1705; later 
returned to France; and in 1720 again 
went to Canada. On his second visit he 
ascended the St. Lawrence River; travelled 
through Illinois; and sailed down the Mis- 
sissippi to Npw Orleans: and returned to 
France in 1722. His publications include Main Street, and now called Charter Oak 
Histoire de la nouveUe France. He died Avenue. On the terrace, a few feet from 
in La Fleche, France, Feb. 1, 1761. See the entrance to Charter Oak Place, a 
jEJStrTT Missions. white-marb'e slab marks the exact spot 

Charter Oak, The, a famous oak-tree where the famous tree stood. 



has been graded to a terrace, called 
Charter Oak Place, fronting on old 
Charter Oak Street, running east from 


Charters, granted to corporate towns to 
protect their manufactures by Heniy I. 
in 1132; modified by Charles II. in 1683; 
the ancient charters restored in 1698. Al- 
terations were made by the Municipal Re- 
form act in 1835. Ancient Anglo-Saxon 
charters are printed in Kemble's Codex 
Diplomaticus, 1829. For colonial char- 
ters in the United States, see different 
State articles. 

Chase, Ann, patriot; born in Ireland, 
in 1809; came to the United States in 
1818; settled in New Orleans in 1832, and 
in Tampico, Mexico, in 1833, where she 
married Franklin Chase, United States 
consul, in 1836. During the war with 
Mexico she held possession of the con- 
sulate, in the absence of her husband, to 
protect the American records. A mob at- 
tempted to remove the American flag 
which floated over the consulate, but she 
protected it with drawn revolver, ex- 
claiming that her flag would not be touch- 
ed except over her dead body. Later, 
through her eflforts, the city of Tampico 
was captured without the loss of life or 
treasure. She died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Dec. 24, 1874. 

Chase, Salmon Portland, statesman; 
born in Cornish, N. H., Jan. 13, 1808. 
When twelve years of age he was placed 
in charge of his uncle, Bishop Chase, 
in Ohio, who superintended his tuition. 
He entered Cincinnati College; and after 
a year there returned to New Hamp- 
shire and entered Dartmouth College, 
where he graduated in 1826. He taught 
school and studied law in Washing- 
ton, D. C, and was admitted to the 
bar there in 1829. The next year he went 
to Cincinnati to practise, where he be- 
came eminent. He prepared an edition of 
the Statutes of Ohio, with copious notes, 
which soon superseded all others. In 1834 
he became solicitor of the Bank of the 
United States in Cincinnati. Acting as 
counsel for a colored woman who was 
claimed as a slave (1837), he controvert- 
ed the authority of Congress to impose 
any duties or confer any powers, in fugi- 
tive-slave cases, on State magistrates. 
The same year, in his defence of J. G. 
BiRNEY {q. v.), prosecuted under a State 
law for harboring a fugitive slave, Mr. 
Chase asserted the doctrine that slavery 
was local, and dependent upon State law 

for existence, and that the alleged slave, 
being in Ohio, where slavery did not exist, 
was free. From that time he was regard- 
ed as the great legal champion of the 
principles of the anti-slavery party. 

He entered the political field in 1841, on 
organizing the Liberty Party (g. v.) in 


Ohio, and was ever afterwards active in 
its conventions, as well as in the ranks 
of the opposers of slavery. The Democrats 
of the Ohio legislature elected him (1849) 
to a seat in the United States Senate, 
where he opposed the Fugitive Slave Bill 
and other compromise measures, and, on 
the nomination of Mr. Pierce for the 
Presidency, he separated from the Demo- 
cratic party. He opposed the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill iq. v.), and in 1855 was 
elected governor of Ohio. 

He was one of the founders of the Re- 
publican party in 1856, and was governor 
until 1859. In 1861 he became Secretary 
of the Treasury of the United States, un- 
der President Lincoln, and managed the 
finances of the nation with great ability 
until October, 1864, when he was appoint- 
ed Chief-Justice of the United States in 
place of Judge Taney, deceased. In that 
capacity he presided at the trial of Presi- 
dent Johnson in the spring of 1868. Be- 
ing dissatisfied with the action of the Re- 
publican majority in Congress, Mr. Chase 
was proposed, in 1868, as the Democratic 
nominee for President. He was willing 
to accept the nomination, but received only 
four out of 663 votes in the convention. 



He then withdrew from the political field, 
but in 1872 he opposed the re-election of 
General Grant to the Presidency. He died 
in New York City, May 7, 1873. 

Chase, Samuel, jurist; born in Som- 
erset county, Md., April 17, 1741; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1761; entered on 
practice at Annapolis, and soon rose to 
distinction. He was twenty years a mem- 
ber of the colonial legislature; was a 
strong opposer of the Stamp Act; a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Correspond- 
ence; and a delegate to the Continental 
Congress (1774-79). In 1776 he was a 
fellow-commissioner of Franklin and Car- 
roll to seek an alliance with the Cana- 
dians, and was efficient in changing the 
sentiments of Maryland in favor of inde- 
pendence, so as to authorize him and his 
colleagues to vote for the Declaration, 
which he signed. In 1783 Mr. Chase was 
sent to England, as agent for ]\Iaryland, 
to redeem a large sum of money intrusted 
to the Bank of England, $650,000 of which 
was finally recovered. From 1791 to 1796 
he was chief-justice of his State, and 
was a warm supporter of the administra- 
tions of Washington and Adams. 

In the session of Congress in the early 
part of 1804, it was determined by the 
leaders of the dominant, or Democratic, 
party to impeach Judge Chase, then as- 
sociate-justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. He was an ardent Fed- 
eralist, and warmly attached to the prin- 
ciples of Washington's administration. At 
the instance of John Randolph, of Vir- 
ginia, Democratic leader of the House of 
RepresentatiA'es, he was impeached for his 
conduct during the trial of Callender and 
Fries, solely on political grounds. Eight 
articles of impeachment were agreed to, 
most of them by a strict party vote. One 
was founded on his conduct at the trial 
of Fries ( see Frie.s ) , five on the trial of 
Callender ( see Callexder, J. T. ) , and two 
on a late charge to a ]\Iaryland grand jury. 
Having been summoned by the Senate to 
appear for trial, he did so (Jan. 2, 1805), 
and asked for a delay until the next ses- 
sion. The boon was refused, and he was 
given a month to prepare for trial. His 
ease excited much sympathy and indigna- 
tion, even among the better members of 
the administration party. His age, his 
Revolutionary services, and his pure judi- 

cial character all pleaded in his favor, 
and not in vain, for he was acquitted. He 
died June 19, 1811. 

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Chevalier 
DE, historian; born in Paris, France, in 
1734; served in the American Revolution 
under Rochambeau as a major-general. 
His amiability gained him the friendship 
of Washington. He was the author of 
Voyage dans I'Amerique septentrionale 
dans les annees 1180-82, etc. He also 
translated into French Humphrey's Ad- 
dress to the Army of the United States. 
He died in Paris, Oct. 28, 1788. 

Chateaugay, N. Y., Battle of, Oct. 
26, 1813. Gen. Wade Hampton, with 
3,500 men, while guarding the ford on the 
Chateaugay River, was attacked by the 
British under De Salaberry with a thou- 
sand men. By a clever stratagem, Sala- 
berry led Hampton to believe himself 
surrounded. He immediately ordered a 
retreat, and was followed by the Cana- 
dian militia. The whole aflTair was a 
disgrace to the American arms. The 
Americans lost fifteen killed and twenty- 
three wounded, while the British had five 
killed, sixteen wounded, and four missing- 
Chatham, Earl of. See Pitt, William. 
Chatham Island, one of the Galapagos 
Archipelago, in the Pacific Ocean, 600 miles 
west of Ecuador, to which it belongs. It 
is of volcanic origin, the fifth in size of 
the Galapagos, and abounds in turtles and 
a small species of cat. Chatham Island 
has been the subject of negotiation between 
the United States and Ecuador, the former 
desiring it as a coaling station. It would 
possess strategic importance in the event 
of the opening of an isthmian canal. 

Chattahoochee, Passage of the. On 
the morning of July 3, 1864, General John- 
ston's Confederate army passed in haste 
through Marietta, Ga., and on towards the 
Chattahoochee River, a deep and rapid 
stream, closely followed by Sherman witli 
the National army, who hoped to strike 
his antagonist a hea\'y blow while he was 
crossing that stream. By quick and skil- 
ful movements, Johnston passed the Chat- 
tahoochee without much molestation and 
made a stand behind intrenchments on its 
left bank. Again Sherman made a suc- 
cessful flanking movement. Howard laid 
a pontoon bridge 2 miles above the ferry 
where the Confederates crossed. Demon- 


Chauncey, Isaac, naval officer; born 

in Black Eock, 
early life was 

in the 

Feb. 20, 1772; in 
merchant service. 


strations by the vest of the Nationals made ary Ridge, within 3 miles of the town. 
Johnston abandon his position and retreat See Chickamauga, Battle of; Chicka- 
to another that covered Atlanta. The left mauga National Park. 
of the Confederates rested on the Chat- 
tahoochee, and their right on Peach-tree 
Creek. There the two armies rested some 
time. On July 10, or sixty-five days after 
Sherman put his army in motion south- 
ward, he Avas master of the country north 
and west of the river on the banks of 
which he was reposing — nearly one-half 
of Georgia — and had accomplished the 
chief object of his campaign, namely, the 
advancement of the National lines from 
the Tennessee to the Chattahoochee. 

Chattanooga, Abandonment of. In 
1863 the Army of the Cumberland, imder 
Rosecrans, after crossing the Cumberland 
Mountains in pursuit of the Confederates 
under Bragg, was stretched along the 
Tennessee River from a point above Chat- 
tanooga 100 miles westward. Rosecrans 
determined to cross that stream at differ- 
ent points, and, closing around Chatta- 
nooga, attempts to crush or starve the Con- 
federate army there. General Hazen was 
near Harrison's, above Chattanooga (Aug. 
20) . He had made slow marches, displaying 
camp-fires at different points, and causing 
the fifteen regiments of his command to ap- 
pear like the advance of an immense army. 

On the morning of Aug. 21 National 
artillery under Wilder, planted on the 
mountain-side across the river, opposite 
Chattanooga, sent screaming shells over 
that town and among Bragg's troops. The 
latter was startled by a sense of immedi- 
ate danger; and when, soon afterwards, 
Generals Thomas and McCook crossed the 
Tennessee with their corps and took pos- 
session of the passes of Lookout Mountain 
on Bragg's Hank, and Crittenden took post 
at Wauhatchie, in Lookout Valley, nearer 
the river, the Confederates abandoned 
Chattanooga, passed through the gaps of 
Missionary Ridge, and encamped on Chick- 
amauga Creek, near Lafayette in north- 
ern Georgia, there to meet expected Na- 
tional forces when pressing through the 
gaps of Lookout Mountain and threat- 
ening their communications with Dalton 
and Resaca. From the lofty summit of 
Lookout Mountain Crittenden had seen the 
retreat of Bragg. He immediately led 
his forces into the Chattanooga Valley 
and encamped at Ross's Gap, in Mission- 


chauxcky's JIO.NUSIE.NT. 


and commanded a ship at the age of 
nineteen years. He made several voyages 
to the East Indies in the ships of John 
Jacob Astor. In 1798 he was made a lieu- 
tenant of the navy, and was acting cap- 
tain of the Chesapeake in 1802. He be- 
came master in May, 1804, and captain in 
1806. During the War of 1812-15 he was 
in command of the American naval force 
on Lake Ontario, where he performed 
efficient service. After that war he com- 
manded the Mediterranean squadron, and, 
with Consul Shaler, negotiated a treaty 
with Algiers. In 1820 he was naval com- 
missioner in Washington, D. C, and 
again from 1833 until his death, in that 
city, Jan. 27, 1840. Commodore Chaun- 
cey"s remains were interred in the Con- 
gressional Cemetery in Washington, and 
at the head of his grave stands a fine 
white-marble monument, suitably in- 

Chautauqua System of Education, an 
enterprise established in 1878 at Chau- 
tauqua, N. Y., in connection with the 
Chautauqua Assembly, which had been or- 
ganized in 1874, by the joint efforts of 
Lewis Miller and the Rev. John H. Vin- 
cent, for the purpose of holding annual 
courses of instruction in languages, sci- 
ence, literature, etc., at Chautauqua, in 
July and August annually. The aim of 
the Chautauqua System is to continue the 
work of the assembly throughout the year 
in all parts of the country. Since 1878 
more than 250,000 students have enrolled 
their names for the various courses. The 
purpose of the Chautauqua Circles is to 
promote habits of reading and study in 
literature, history, art, and science, with- 
out interfering with the regular routine 
of life. The complete course covers four 
years, and aims to give " the college out- 
look " on life and the world. The books 
for study include specified works approved 
by the counsellors; a membership book, 
with review outlines; a monthly maga- 
zine, with additional readings and notes; 
and other aids. Local circles can be form- 
ed with three or four members. One hour 
each day for nine months is the time an- 
nually required. All who complete the 
course receive certificates, and in case 
any have pursued collateral and advanced 
reading seals are affixed to the certificate. 

Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin, mil- 

itary officer; born in Nashville, Tenn., 
Oct. 20, 1820. He entered the Mexican 
War as captain in the 1st Tennessee Regi- 
ment; distinguished himself in the battles 
of Monterey, Medelin, and Cerro Gordo, 
and became colonel of the 3d Tennessee 
Regiment. At the conclusion of the war 
he was appointed major-general of the 
Tennessee militia. When the Civil War 
broke out he organized the whole supply 
department for the Western Army of the 
Confederacy — a work in which he was em- 
ployed when he was appointed brigadier- 
general (September, 1861). He partici 
pated in the battles of Belmont and Shiloh 
and accompanied Bragg on his expedition 
into Kentucky in September, 1862. Later 
he was promoted to major-general, and 
was engaged at Chickamauga, Chatta- 
nooga, Nashville, and other places. After 
the war he applied himself chiefly to ag- 
riculture. In October, 1885, he was made 
postmaster of Nashville. He died in 
Nashville, Sept. 4, 1886. 

Cheat River, Battle of. See Car- 
RiCKSFORD, Battle of. 

Cheeshahteaumuck, Caleb, Indian ; 
born in Massachusetts in 1646; grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1665, being 
the only Indian who received a degree 
from that institution. He died in Charles- 
town, Mass., in 1666. 

Cheney, Theseus Apoleon, historian; 
born in Leon, N. Y., March 16, 1830; 
educated at Oberlin. When the Repub- 
lican party was forming he suggested its 
name in an address at Conewango, N. Y., 
Aug. 20, 1854. His publications include 
Report on the Ancient Monuments of 
Western Neic York; Historical Sketch of 
Chemung Valley: Historical Sketch of 
Eighteen Counties of Central and South- 
ern Netv York; Relations of Government 
to Science; and Antiquarian Researches. 
He died in Starkey, N. Y., Aug. 2, 1878. 

Cherokee Indians, a nation formerly 
inhabiting the hilly regions of Georgia, 
western Carolina, and northern Ala- 
biima, and called the Mountaineers of the 
South. They were among high hills and 
fertile valleys, and have ever been more 
susceptible of civilization than any of the 
Indian tribes within the domain of the 
United States. They were the determined 
foes of the Shawnees, and, after many 
conflicts, drove those fugitives back to the 



Ohio. Tliey united -with the Carolinians Five Nations had bloody contests; but 

and Catawbas against the Tuscaroras in the English eflfected a reconciliation be- 

1711, but joined the great Indian league tween them about 1750, when the Chero- 

against the Carolinians in 1715. kees became the allies of the British, 

When, early in 1721, Gov. Francis Nich- and allowed them to build forts on their 

olson arrived in South Carolina, he tried domain. They wore now at the height of 



to cultivate the good-will of the Spaniards 
and Indians in Florida. He held a con- 
ference with the chiefs of the Cherokees. 
He gave them presents, and marked the 
boundaries of the lands between them 
and the English settlers. He then con- 
eluded a treaty of commerce and peace 
with the Creeks. 

About 1730 the projects of the French 
for uniting Canada and Louisiana by a 
cordon of posts through the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi valleys began to be developed. To 
counteract this scheme, the British wish- 
ed to convert the Indians on the fron- 
tiers into allies or subjects. The British 
government accordingly sent out Sir 
Alexander Cumming to conclude a treaty 
with the Cherokees, who could then put 
0.000 warriors in the field. In April, 
1730, Sir Alexander met the chief war- 
riors of all the Cherokee towns in council, 
and made a treaty with them. 

For a long time the Cherokees and the 


their power, inhabiting sixty-four villages ; 
but soon afterwards nearly one-half the 
population were swept off by the small- 
pox. The Cherokees assisted in the capt- 
ure of Fort Duquesne in 1758. On their 
return through Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, they quarrelled with the settlers, 
and several white men and Indians were 
killed. Some Cherokee chiefs, sent to 
Charleston to arrange the dispute, were 
treated almost with contempt by the 
governor. This was soon followed by an 
invasion of the Cherokee country by 
Governor Littleton (October. 1759) 
with 1,500 men, contributed by Virginia 
and the Carolinas. He found the Chero- 
kees ready for war, and was glad to 
make the insubordination of his soldiers 
and the prevalence of small-pox among 
them an excuse for leaving the country. 
He accepted twenty-two Indian hostages 
as security for peace and the future 
delivery oif the murderers, and retired 



in haste and confusion (June, 1760). 
These hostages were placed in Fort St. 
George, at the head of the Savannah 
River. The Cherokees attempted their 
rescue as soon as Littleton and his army 
had gone. A soldier was wounded, when 
his companions, in fiery auger, put all 
the hostages to death. 

The Cherokee nation Avas aroused by 
the outrage. They beleaguered the fort, 
and war-parties scourged the frontiers. 
The Assembly of South Carolina voted 
1,000 men and offered £2.5 for every 
Indian scalp. North Carolina voted a 
similar provision, and authorized the 
liolding of Indian captives as slaves. 
General Amherst detached 1,200 men, 
under Colonel Montgomery, to chastise 
the Cherokees. Montgomery left Charles- 
ton early in April, with regular and pro- 
vincial troops, and laid waste a portion 
of the Cherokee country. They were not 
subdued. The next year Colonel Grant led 
a stronger force against them, burned their 
towns, and killed many of their warriors. 
Then the Indians sued for peace (.June, 

In 1776 the Cherokees seriously threat- 
ened the frontier. Georgia, North Caro- 
lina, and Virginia joined in the defence of 
South Carolina. Col. Andrew Williamson 
led an expedition into the Cherokee coun- 
try, and destroyed all their settlements 
eastward of the Appalachian Mountains. 
This conquest was effected between July 
1.5 and Oct. 11, 1776. Fort Rutledge Avas 
erected in the Cherokee country. 

In 1781 the Cherokees, having made a 
hostile incursion into District Ninety-six, 
in South Carolina, murdered some fam- 
ilies and burned several houses. Gen. 
AndreAV Pickens, at the head of about 400 
mounted militia, in fourteen days burned 
thirteen villages, killed more than forty 
Indians, and took a number of prisoners, 
Avithout losing a man. 

By a treaty concluded at HopcAvell, on 
the KeoAvee, the Cherokees submitted to 
the protection of the United States, and 
the boundaries of their hunting-grounds 
Avere settled. 

These Indians Avere friends of the Unit- 
ed States in the War of 1812, and helped 
to subjugate the Creeks. Civilization took 
root among them and produced contention. 
They Avere so divided that in 1818 a por- 

tion of the nation emigrated to land as- 
signed to them Avest of the Mississippi. 
The Cherokees had ceded large portions of 
their lands, and their domain Avas mostly 
confined to northern Georgia. The Georgi- 
ans coveted their lands, but the Cherokees 
AA'ere yet poAverful in numbers, and dis- 
posed to defend their rights against en- 

President Jackson favored the Georgians, 
and the Avhite people then proceeded to 
take possession of the lands of the Chero- 
kees. The United States troops had been 
Avithdrawn from Georgia, and the national 
government offered no obstacle to the 
forcible seizure of the Indian territory by 
the Georgians. The Cherokees then num- 
bered 15,000 east of the Mississippi. The 
dispute Avas adjudicated by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and on March 
30, 1832, that tribunal decided against the 
claims of the Georgians. An amicable 
settlement Avas finally reached, and in 
1838 the Cherokees left Georgia and Avent 
to the Indian territory. 

In 1861, John Ross, the renoAvned princi- 
pal chief of the Cherokees, Avho had led 
them Avisely for almost forty years, took 
a decided stand against the Confederates. 
But he and his loyal associates among the 
Cherokees and Creeks Avere overborne by 
the tide of secession. Tlie chief men of the 
Cherokees held a mass-meeting at Tahle- 
quah in August, AA'hen, Avith great unanim- 
ity, they declared their allegiance to the 
'■ Confederate States." Ross still held out, 
but AA'as finally compelled to yield. At a 
council held on Aug. 20 he recommended 
the severance of the connection Avith the 
national government. 

During the Civil War the Cherokees suf- 
fered much. The Confederates Avould not 
trust Ross, for his Union feelings Avere 
very apparent. When, in 1862, they Avere 
about to arrest him, he and his family 
escaped to the North. 

In 1809 there Avere 32,161 Cherokees at 
the Union agency, Indian territory, and 
1.351 at the Eastern Cherokee agency. 
North Carolina. 

Cherry Valley, Massacre at. During 
a heaA'y storm of sleet on Noa'. 11, 1778, 
a band of Indians and Tories — the former 
led by Brant, and the latter by Walter 
N. Butler, son of Col. John Butler — 
fell upon Cherry Valley, Otsego co., N. Y., 



and murdered thirty - two of the inhabi- 
tants, mostly women and children, with 
sixteen soldiers of a little garrison there. 
Nearly forty men, women, and children 
were carried away captive. Butler was 
the arch-fiend on this occasion, and would 
listen to no appeals from Brant for mercy 
on the innocent and helpless. The cap- 
tives were led away in the darkness and 
a cold storm; and when they rested they 
were huddled together, half naked, with 
no shelter but the leafless trees, and no 
resting-place but the wet ground. 

Chesapeake, the name of a famous 
United States frigate that wall always 
bo memorable because of her interest-ab- 
sorbing career. In the spring of 1807 a 
small British squadron lay (as they had 
lately) in American waters, near the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay, watching some 
French frigates blockaded at Annapolis. 
Three of the crew of one of the British 
vessels, Melampus, and one of another, 
Halifax, had deserted, and enlisted on 
board the Chesapeake, lying at the Wash- 
ington navy-yard. The British minister 
made a formal demand for their surren- 
der. The United States government re- 
fused compliance, because it was ascer- 
tained that two of them (colored) were 
natives of the United States, and there 
was strong presumptive evidence that 
the third one was, likewise. The com- 
modore of the British squadron took the 
matter into his own hands. The Chesa- 
peake, going to sea on the morning of 
June 22, 1807, bearing the pennant of 
Commodore Barron, was intercepted by 
the British frigate Leopard, whose com- 
mander, hailing, informed the commodore 
that he had a despatch for him. A Brit- 
ish boat bearing a lieutenant came along- 
side the Chesapeake. The officer was po- 
litely received by Barron, in his cabin, 
when the former presented a demand from 
the captain of the Leopard to allow the 
bearer to muster the crew of the Chesa- 
peake, that he might select and carry 
away the alleged deserters. The demand 
was authorized by instructions received 
from Vice-Admiral Berkeley, at Halifax. 

Barron refused compliance, the lieuten- 
ant withdrew, and the Chesapeake moved 
on. The Leopard followed, and her com- 
mander called out through his trumpet, 
" Commodore Barron must be aware that 


the vice-admiral's commands must be 
obeyed." This insolent announcement was 
repeated. The Chesapeake moved on, and 
the Leopard sent two shots athwart her 
bow. These were followed by the remain- 
der of the broadside, poured into the hull 
of the Chesapeake. Though Barron, sus- 
pecting mischief, had hastily tried to pre- 
pare his ship for action, he was unable 
to return the shots, for his guns had no 
priming-powder. After being severely in- 
jured by repeated broadsides, the Chesa- 
peake struck her colors. The vice-ad- 
miral's command was obeyed. The crew 
of the Chesapeake were mustered by Brit- 
ish officers, and the deserters were carried 
away; one of them, who was a British 
subject, was hanged at Halifax, and the 
lives of the Americans were spared only 
on condition that they should re-enter the 
British service. 

This outrage caused fiery indignation 
throughout the United States. The Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, at the begin- 
ning of July, ordering all British armed 
vessels to leave the waters of the United 
States, and forbidding any to enter until 
ample satisfaction should be given. A 
British envoy extraordinary was sent to 
Washington to settle the difficulty. In- 
structed to do nothing until the Presi- 
dent's proclamation should be withdrawn, 
the matter was left open more than four 
years. In 1811 the British government 
disavowed the act. Barron, found guilty 
of neglect of duty in not being prepared 
for the attack, was suspended from the 
service for five years, without pay or 

• While the Hornet, Captain Lawrence, 
was on her homeward-bound voyage with 
her large number of prisoners, the Chesa- 
peake was out on a long cruise to the 
Cape de Verde Islands, and the coast of 
South America. She accomplished noth- 
ing except the capture of four British 
merchant vessels ; and as she entered Bos- 
ton Harbor, in the spring of 1813, in a 
gale, her topmast was carried away, and 
with it several men who were aloft, three 
of whom were drowned. Among the su- 
perstitious sailors she acquired the char- 
acter of an " unlucky " ship, and they 
were loath to embark in her. Evans was 
compelled to leave her on account of the 
loss of the sight of one of his eyes: and 


Lawrence, who had been promoted to cap- 
tain for his bravery, was put in com- 
mand of her, with the Hornet, Captain 
Biddle, as her consort. 

of the Chesapeake that she became unman- 
ageable. This misfortune occurred at the 
moment when the latter was about to 
take the wind out of the sails of her an- 

At the close of May the British frigate tagonist, shoot ahead, lay across her bow, 
Shannon, thirty-eight guns, Capt. Philip rake her, and probably secure a victory. 


Bowes Vere Broke, appeared off Boston 
Harbor, in the attitude of a challenger. 
She then carried fifty - two guns. He 
wrote to Lawrence, requesting the Chesa- 
peake to meet the Shannon, " ship to 
ship, to try the fortunes of their respective 
flags." He assured Lawrence that the 
Chesapeake couM not leave Boston with- 
out the risk of being " crushed by the su- 
perior force of the British squadron," then 
abroad, and proposed that they should 
meet in single combat, without the in- 
terference of other vessels. 

Lawrence accepted the challenge, and, 
with Lieut. Augustus Ludlow as second in 
command, he sailed out of Boston Harbor 
to meet the Shannon, at mid-day, June 1, 
1813. The same eveninsr. between five and 
six o'clock, they engaged in a close con- 
flict. After fighting twelve minutes, the 
Shannon so injured the spars and rigging 

Her mizzen rigging was entangled in the 
fore-chains of the Shannon, in which posi- 
tion the decks of the Chesapeake were 
swept with terrible effect by the balls of 
her antagonist. Lawrence ordered his 
boarders to be called up. There was some 
delay, when a musket-ball mortally wound- 
ed the gallant young commander, and he 
was carried below. As he left the deck 
he said, " Tell the men to fire faster, and 
not to give up the ship; fight her till she 
sinks." These words of the dying hero 
slightly paraphrased to " Don't give up 
the ship," became the battle-cry of the 
Americans, and the formula of an en- 
couraging maxim in morals for those who 
are struggling in life's contests. 

Broke's boarders now swarmed upon the 
deck of the Chesapeake, and Lieutenant 
Ludlow, the second in command, was 
mortally wounded by a sabre cut. After 



a severe struggle, in which the Americans 
lost, in killed and wounded, 146 men, vic- 
tory remained with the Shannon. The 
British lost eighty-four men. Broke sailed 
immediately for Halifax with his prize, 
and the day before his arrival there 
(June 7) Lawrence expired, wrapped in 
the flag of the Chesapeake. 

England rang with shouts of exulta- 
tion because of this victory. An American 
writer remarked : " Never did any victory 
— not even of Wellington in Spain, nor 
those of Nelson — call forth such expres- 
sions of joy on the part of the British"; 
a proof that our naval character had risen 
in their estimation. Lawrence fought 
under great disadvantages. He had been 
in command of the ship only about ten 
days, and was unacquainted with the abili- 
ties of her officers and men ; some of the 
former were sick or absent. His crew were 
almost mutinous because of disputes con- 
cerning prize-money, and many of them 
had only recently enlisted; besides, the 
feeling among the sailors that she was an 
" unlucky " ship was disheartening. 

The remains of Lawrence and Lvidlow 
were conveyed to Salem, Mass., where 
funeral honors were paid to them on 
Aug. 2.3. Early in September thej^ were 
conveyed to New York, and were deposited 
(Sept. 16) in Trinity church - yard. The 
corporation of the city of New York 
erected a marble monument to Lawrence, 
which becoming dilapidated, the vestry 
of Trinity Church erected a handsome 
mausoleum of brown freestone (1847), 
near the southeast corner of Trinity 
Church, close by Broadway, in commemo- 
ration of both Lawrence and Ludlow, and 
eight trophy cannon were placed around 
it. Captain Lawrence's coat, chapeau, 
and sword are now in possession of tlie 
New Jersey Historical Society. 

The freedom of the city of London and 
a sword were given to Captain Broke by 
the corporation ; the Prince Regent knight- 
ed him; and the inhabitants of his native 
county (Suffolk) presented him with a 
gorgeous piece of silver as a testimonial 
of their sense of his eminent services. 
The Cheftnnralve was taken to England and 
sold to the government for about $66,000, 
and in 1814 was put in commission. In 
1820 she was sold to a private gentleman 
for a very small sum, who broke her up 


and sold her timbers for building purposes, 
much of it for making houses in Ports- 
mouth, and a considerable portion for the 
erection of a mill at Wickham, 9 miles 
from Portsmouth. 

Chesapeake Bay. At the mouth of 
this bay a contest took place between the 
British Admiral Graves and the French 
Admiral de Grasse, aiding the American 
colonies against Great Britain; the for- 
mer was obliged to retire, Sept. 5, 1781. 
The Chesapeake and Delaware were block- 
aded by the British fleet in the War of 
1812, and the bay was, at that period, 
the scene of hostilities, with various re- 
sults. See Maryland; Virginia. 

Chesney, Charles Cornwallis, mili- 
tary writer; born in England, Sept. 29, 
1826; entered the British army, and was 
professor at Sandhurst Military College. 
His publications relating to the United 
States include Military Vieto of Recent 
Campaigns in Virginia (1863-65), and 
Military Biographies (1873), in which is 
included several American military offi- 
cers. He died in England, March 19, 1876. 

Chester, the first town settled in Penn- 
sylvania. The Delaware River Iron Ship- 
building and Engine Works established 
here in 1872 by "John Roach. Here the 
City of Pekin and City of Tokio were 
built for the Pacific mail service. 

Chester, Joseph Lemuel (pen name 
Julian Cramor), antiquarian; born in 
Norwich, Conn., April 30, 1821 ; removed 
to London, England, in 1858, and devoted 
himself to the history and genealogy of 
the early settlers in New England. His 
publications include Edticational Laics of 
Virginia ; The Personal Nari-ative of Mrs. 
Margaret Douglas; John Rogers (with a 
genealosry of the family), etc. He died 
in London, England, May 28, 1882. 

Chestnut, James, Jr., Senator; born 
near Cnmden. S. C, in 1815; gradu- 
ated at Princeton College in 1835; elected 
United States Senator from South Caro- 
lina, Jan. 5. 1859. When it became evi- 
dent that his State would secede he re- 
signed his seat, but his resignation was 
not nccrpted. and on July 11, 1861. he was 
expelled. He was a member of the Con- 
federate Provisional Congress; became 
aide to Jefferson Davis ; and was pro- 
moted brigadier-general in 1864. He died 
in Camden, S. C, Feb. 1, 1885. 


Ch.evalier, Michel, political econo- 
mist; born in Limoges, France, Jan. 13, 
1806; educated in a polytechnic school; 
came to the United States to examine 
its canals and railroads. His publications 
include Lettres stir I'Amerique du Nord; 
Introduction aux rapports du jury inter- 
natioiialj Histoire et description des voies 
de communication aux Etats-Unis et 
des travaux qui en dependent; Cours 
d'economie; L'Isthme de Panama; La 
liherte aux Etats-Unis ; L'expedition du 
Mexique; Le Mexique ancien et moderne, 
etc. He died Nov. 28, 1879. 

Cheves, Langdon, statesman ; born 
in Abbeville District, S. C, Sept. 17, 177(i. 
Admitted to the bar in 1800, he soon 
became eminent as a lawyer and as a 
leader in the State legislature, which he 
entered in 1808. He was attorney - gen- 
eral of the State, and was a member 
of Congress from 1811 to 1816, zealous- 
ly supporting all war measures intro- 
duced. When, in 1814, Henry Clay was 
sent to negotiate a treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, he succeeded the Kentuck- 
ian as speaker of the House, which place 
he held for a year, his casting vote defeat- 
ing a bill for the rechartering of the 
United States Bank. The bank was re- 
chartered in 1816; and when in trouble 
in 1819 Cheves was appointed president 
of its directors, and by his great energy 
and keen judgment it was saved from dis- 
solution. He became chief commissioner 
under the treaty of Ghent for settling 
some of its provisions. He was a public 
advocate of disunion as early as the year 
18.30, but opposed Nullification {q. v.). 
He died in Columbia, S. C, June 25, 

Chew, Benjamin, jurist; born in West 
River, Md., Nov. 29, 1722; settled in Phila- 
delphia in 1745; was recorder in 1755-72; 
and became chief-justice of Pennsylvania 
in 1774. During the Revolutionary War 
he sided with the royalist party, and in 
1777 he was imprisoned in Fredericksburg, 
Va., because he had refused to give a 
parole. On Oct. 4, 1777, during the battle 
of Germantown, a British outpost took ref- 
uge in his large stone mansion, and the 
Americans, in order to drive them out, 
fired on the building with muskets and 
cannon. The building, however, was too 
strongly built to be demolished by the 


3 and 6 pounder field - pieces of that 
time. A brigade commanded by Maxwell 
was left to surround the house, while the 
main American force pushed on. This 
incident gave the British time to pre- 
pare for the American attack. From 
1790 to 1806, when the High Court 
of Errors and Appeals was abandoned, 
he was president of that court. He 
died Jan. 20, 1810. See Geemantown, 
Battle of. 

Cheyenne Indians, one of the most 
westerly tribes of the Algonquian nation. 
They were seated on the Cheyenne, a 
branch of the Red River of the North. 
Driven by the Sioux, they retreated be- 
yond the Missouri. Near the close of 
the eighteenth century they were driven 
to or near the Black Hills (now in the 
Dakotas and W^yoming), where Lewis 
and Clarke found them in 1804, when 
they possessed horses and made plun- 
dering raids as far as New Mexico. See 
Clarke, Geokge Rogers; Lewis, Meri- 

About 1825, when they were at peace 
with the Sioux, and making war upon 
the Pawnees, Kansas, and other tribes, a 
feud occurred in the family. A part of 
them remained with the Sioux, and the 
others went south to the Arkansas River 
and joined the Arapahoes. Many treaties 
were made with them by agents of the 
United States, but broken; and, finally, 
losing all confidence in the honor of the 
white race, they began hostilities in 1861. 
This was the first time that the Chey- 
ennes were at war with the white people. 
While negotiations for peace and friend- 
ship were on foot, Colonel Chivington, of 
Colorado, fell upon a Cheyenne village 
(Nov. 29, 1864) and massacred about 
100 men, women, and children. The whole 
tribe was fired with a desire for revenge, 
and a fierce war ensued, in Avhich the 
United States lost many gallant soldiers 
and spent between $30,000,000 and $40,- 

The ill-feeling of the Indians towards 
the white people remained unabated. 
Some treaties were made and imperfectly 
carried out; and, after General Han- 
cock burned one of their villages in 1867, 
they again made war, and slew 300 United 
States soldiers and settlers. General Cus- 
ter defeated them on the Washita, killing 


their chief, thirty - seven warriors, and' 
two-thirds of their women and children. 
The nortliern band of the Cheyennes re- 
mained peaceable, refusing to join the 
Sioux in 18(io. 

In 1899 there were 2,069 Cheyennes at 
the Cheyenne and Arapahoe agency, Okla- 
homa ; 56 at the Pine Ridge agency. South 
Dakota; and 1,349 at the Tongue River 
aeencv, Montana. 


Chicago, city, port of entry, county- 
seat of Cook county. 111., commercial me- 
tropolis of the West, and second city in 
the United States in population (1900) 
and in national - bank clearings (1906); 
popularly known as the " Garden City." 
Population (1900), United States census, 
1,698,57.5; local city directory (1906), 
2,300,500; local school census (1906), 

Location, Area, etc. — It is situated on 
the southwestern shore of Lake ilichi- 
gan, about eighteen miles north of its 
southern extremity; has a water frontage 
by the Chicago River and its branches of 
fifty-eight miles and by the lake of twen- 
ty-two miles; extends about twenty-six 
miles north and south along the lake, 
with an extreme width of about fifteen 
miles; and has an area of 197 square 
miles. The Calumet and Chicago rivers 
How into the lake Avithin the city lim- 
its, and the Chicago River, sweeping to 
the west, divides into the north and south 
branches a short distance north of the 
Court House, these running about two 
miles in each direction nearly parallel 
with the lake. The south branch is con- 
nected with the Illinois & Michigan Canal, 
which extends to the Illinois River at 

La Salle, and afi'ords communication for 
boats of 140 tons with the Mississippi 
and its tributaries during three-quarters 
of the year, and with Chicago's great 
drainage canal, which has its southern 
terminus in the Desplaines River at Lock- 

The location of a commanding com- 
mercial centre could not possess greater 
advantages, the city being at the head of 
navigation of the four lower lakes, thus 
having direct communication with all im- 
portant Canadian ports and an entrance 
into the Atlantic Ocean through the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and another by way of 
the Erie Canal and Hudson River at Xew 
York ; and being also on the line of 
twenty - eight trunk railroads operating 
more than 93,934 miles of direct track, 
and reaching with their connections every 
city and port of consequence on the con- 

These exceptional facilities for domestic 
and foreign communication have promoted 
conmercial, industrial, and financial in- 
terests till they have reached a volume 
which has prompted the statement by 
many competent authorities on the drift 
of monetary and commercial affairs in the 
country that the city is rapidly becoming 




the financial centre of tlie nation. It has 
been pointed out that on Nov. 10, 1904, 
the banks west of the Mississippi had 
more than $700,000,000 of loans and dis- 
counts, and nearly $800,000,000 in indi- 
vidual deposits. These figures showed a 
gain of 133 per cent, in loans and dis- 
counts and of 139 per cent, in deposits 
since 1898, while the national banks in 
all the rest of the country gained only 6.5 
per cent, in loans and 72 per cent, in 
deposits. The explanation is to be found 
in the fact that the country west of the 
Mississippi in 1904 produced 70 per cent, 
of all the wheat, 50 per cent, of all the 

corn, 43 per cent, of all the oats, and 80 
per cent, of all the barley and flax grown 
in the United States. 

Topography. — Originally the surface 
rose gradual Ij- towards the west from the 
water's edge on the lake till it reached a 
height of about twenty-eight feet, and 
then merged into a prairie extending for 
luindreds of miles to the south and west : 
but since 1856 the ground in what is now 
the business section has been raised to a 
height of fourteen feet above the lake. The 
natural drainage, though slow, was sufll- 
cient for many years, the sewage passing 
through the river into the lake. In 1866- 

MKiJ.Ai, f;ivi;N ic 

KI.Af'K r.\KTRIlR;K liY TlrK .\MKKIC.*XS 



1870, when the city deepened the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal it also dredged the river 
channel to a depth sufficient to allow the 
water of the lake to flow through it, thus 
forcing the sewage towards the Illinois 
River and keeping the Chicago River 
imperfectly cleansed. Subsequently, with 
the increase of industrial plants, domiciles, 
and population, a more extensive system 
became imperative, and a great canal, 
whose main channel is twenty-eight miles 
long, was constructed in 1892-1900, at a 
cost of about $45,000,000. primarily to 

been improved by deepening and the con- 
struction of piers extending into the lake 
on either side, by the building of long 
breakwaters by the national government, 
foiming an outer harbor with sixteen feet 
of water and an area of over 450 acres; 
and by an exterior breakwater, 5,436 feet 
long. A second though smaller harbor has 
been formed at the mouth of the Calumet 
River, by the construction of long piers, 
300 feet apart. 

Government. — In 1906 the municipal 
fiovernment was in a transition state. A 



carry off the sewage, but with an ultimate 
l)urpose of transforming it into a ship- 

The Chicago River and its two branches 
divide the city into three sections, known 
as the North, South, and West sides. 
The North and South, and the South and 
West sides, are each connected by tunnels 
under the river, and the three divisions 
are bound together by a large number of 
bridges. The city is laid out methodically, 
with streets intersecting at right angles. 
Under an Act of the Legislature of Febru- 
i'ry, 1869, about eighty parks have been 
laid out, having a total area of 3,180 

The mouth of the Chicago River has 


new section to Article IV. (Section 34) of 
the State Constitution, proposed in the 
Legislature of 1903, was ratified by the 
voters of the State at the general election 
on Nov. 8, 1904. This amendment per- 
mitted the Legislature to form a new 
charter for the local government of the 
city of Chicago; authorized the consolida- 
tion in the new municipal government of 
the powers previously vested in the city, 
board of education, township, park, and' 
other local governments; limited to five 
per cent, of the full value of the taxable 
property the indebtedness of the city, in- 
cluding the existing debt, the debt of all 
municipal corporations lying wholly in the 
city, and also the city's proportion of the 


debt of the county and sanitary district; 
and required that new bond issues under 
the amendment should be submitted to the 
\oters for approval. Steps were taken 
immediately after the ratification of the 
toregoing amendment to give it vitality, 
and the following were appointed a com- 
mittee Jo have charge of the framing of 
the new charter: Chairman, John P.Wil- 
son, Judge M. F. Tuley, Judge Francis 
Adams, John S. Miller, B. A. Eckhart, 
B. E. Sunny, and ^Nlayor Carter H. Har- 

On April 5. 1904, the city voted in favor 
of the municipal ownership of the street 
railways, and on April 6, 1!)05, Judge Ed- 
ward F. Dunne, the Democratic candidate 
foi' mayor, was elected, by a majority of 
ap])roximately 25,000. over John M. Har- 
lan, Reijublican; both candidates standing 
on a municipal ownership platform. Judge 
Dunne representing the demand for imme- 
diate ownership, and Mr. Harlan that for 
a tentative arrangement with the traction 
companies, providing for ultimate owner- 
ship. Speaking after the election of the 
result, Judge Dunne said: "It means that 
Chicago, which is the nerve-centre of 
America, will take the lead among Amer- 
ican cities in municipalizing its public 
utilities, if we can. as I confidently be- 
lieve we can, introduce this great reform 
in Chicago." 

Judge Dunne entered office with a Ee- 
publican city council to deal with, the 
election giving the new council thirty- 
seven Republicans, thirty-two Democrats, 
and one Independent Republican. Under 
the redistricting ordinance of Jan. 7. 
1901, the city was divided into thirty-five 
wards for administrative purposes, and in 
1905 its afi'airs were conducted by a 
mayor, elected for two years, with salary 
of $10,000 per annum; a Board of Alder- 
men, comprising two members from each 
ward, annual salary of each $1,500; the 
usual municipal executive departments 
and their bureaus ; justices of the peace 
are appointed by the governor for terms 
of four years ; and police magistrates, 
selected from the list of justices of the 
peace are appointed by the mayor. 

lender the provisions of the new con- 
stitutional amendment, adopted in 1903. 
the new police court thus constituted, 
consisting of one chief justice, salary 


$7,500 a year; twenty-eight associate jus- 
tices, $6,000 each: one chief clerk, $5,000: 
and one chief bailiff'. $5,000, was created 
for the purpose of rapidly disposing of 
small litigation, and was given as great 
powers as any of the nisi prius courts. 
It entirely supplanted the courts formerly 
presided over by justices of the peace and 
police magistrates, and abolished the con- 
stabulary system. The first election for 
municipal court officers was held Nov. 0, 

Financial Interests. — According to mu- 
nicipal reports of 1905 the city owns 
buildings and real estate to the value of 
$90,918,40.3. including the water -works 
plant, which cost $34,111,789, and the elec- 
tric-lighting system. The assessed valua- 
tions of taxable property as equalized 
were: Real estate. $295,514,443: personal 
property, $112,477,182, including railroad 
property, $21,058,562, and capital stock, 
$12,097.270;— total, $407,991,625. The tax 
rate for city purposes only was $1.80 per 
$1,000; for all purjioses, $68.54; and the 
amount of city taxes collected in 1905 
was $10,845,974. The ordinary expenses 
of municipal administration were $14,842,- 
774; extraordinary expenses, $3,198,898 ; — 
total, $18,046,672; and the appropriations 
for 1905 for city, school, and public li- 
brary purposes aggregated $39,301,473. 
On Dec. 31, 1905, the total bonded debt 
of the city was $24,618,000. 

The city has 4,186 miles of streets and 
alleys, of which 1,497 miles are paved, and 
the annual cost of street cleaning averages 
$338,767. There are 1,644 miles of sewer 
mains and laterals; water - works plant 
Avith ten pumping-stations, daily capacity 
of 045,000.000 gallons : daily consumption, 
411,655,950 gallons; 2,000 miles of mains; 
and land and lake water tunnels having a 
total length of thirty-eight miles; a police 
department of 3,790 men, that costs annu- 
ally about $4,610,000; a fire department 
of 1,531 men, costing annually $2,327,277; 
and a public - school system with 287,113 
pupils and 5,867 teachers, costing in 
1905-1906, $10,177,020. 

Commerce. — Reference has already been 
made to the extraordinary facilities for 
carrying on a large domestic and foreign 
trade. The domestic trade is enormous, 
but its great volume cannot be measured 
with any degree of accuracy because of the 
20 " 


conditions imposed on the city as a dis- 
tributing centre. 80, too, with the for- 
eign trade, which has this additional feat- 
ure, that hirge quantities of merchandise 
shipped to and from Chicago pass through 
Atlantic or lake ports and are credited to 
them, the city being thus deprived of the 
showing to which it is entitled. With 
this disadvantage in mind an approximate 
estimate may be made of the extent of 
the foreign trade by considering the offi- 
cial reports for the year 1905. 

In the calendar year 1905 the imports 
of merchandise had a value of $22,138,080. 
In 1905 the tonnage movement was: Ar- 
rivals, coastwise trade, 7.048,369 ; foreign 
trade, 170,272; clearances, coastwise, 
6,968,'728; foreign, 312,531; total number 
vessels arriving, 0,949 ; total number ves- 
sels clearing, 7,014. Reports for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1905, show the 
sources and destination of the foreign 
trade as follows : Largest imports, from 
Germany, $3,561,322 ; England, $3,754,321 ; 
France,' $2,627,013; Japan, $2,093,228; 
Canada, $701,406; China, $702,467; Swit- 
zerland, $606,907; and Cuba, $798,043. 

Manufactures. — Not only is Chicago the 
greatest railroad, grain, lumber, furni- 
ture, agricultural-implement, and live and 
dressed meat centre in the world, but it 
has attained high rank in general indus- 
trial activities. According to the Feder- 
al census of 1900 the city had 19,203 
manufacturing and industrial establish- 
ments, operated on a combined capital of 
$534,000,689; employing 262,621 persons, 
exclusive of proprietors, firm members, 
salaried officials, and clerks ; paying 
$131,065,337 for wages, $80,414,823 ' for 
operating expenses, and $538,401,562 for 
materials used in manufacturing, and 
having products of a combined value of 

The principal industries, with the value 
of the 1905 output, were: Slaughtering, 
meat-packing and by-products, $421,000,- 
000; foundry and machine-shops, $66,- 
840,000; men's clothing, $50,000,000; iron 
and steel, $62,370,000; agricultural im- 
plements, $85,250,000; railroad cars, 
$20,000,000; book and job printing, 
$33,330,000; beer and malt, $18,500,000; 
coffee and spices, $15,000,000; furniture, 
$27,027,000; electrical apparatus, $18,000.- 
000; soaps and candles. $15,200,000: 


tobacco, $8,174,000. The iron and steel 
industry, including architectural and 
structural iron and sheet metal, amounted 
to $93,870,000, exclusive of implements 
and foundry and machine products. In 
the period 1890-1900, the increase in the 
nimiber of industrial establishments was 
92.5 per cent. ; in capital, 48.4 per cent. ; 
in number of wage-earners, 37.8 per cent. ; 
in amount of wages, 25.9 per cent. ; in cost 
of materials, 31.5 per cent.; and in value 
of products, 33.8 per cent. Chicago has 
80 grain-elevator warehouses, with aggre- 
gate capacity of 63,545,000 bushels. Dur- 
ing 1905, 8,953,455 barrels of flour were 
received and 7,455,867 barrels shipped, the 
city consumption being 1,497,588. The re- 
ceipts of wheat for the same year were 
28,555,164 bushels; corn, 112,963,827 
bushels; oats, 96,066,603 bushels; and 
barley, 28,086,875 bushels. The grain 
shipments were: wheat, 19,033,333 bush- 
els; corn, 94,855,663 bushels: oats, 71,677,- 
008 bushels; and barley, 7,374,037 bushels. 
The receipts of hogs at the Union Stock- 
yards in 1905 were 7,737,225, and the 
shipments 2,178,324, the balance of 6,290,- 
432 having been consumed bj^ the city or 
packed. The cattle receijits were 3,410.- 
469; shipments, 1,410,213; and city con- 
sumption and jiacking, 2,000,256. Re- 
ceipts of sheep amounted to 4,736,558 : 
shipments, 1,355,865; and city consump- 
tion and packing, 3,380,693. 

Banking. — In 1900 there were fifty-six 
national. State, and saving banks and 
loan and trust companies. Reports con- 
cerning the national banks for the year 
ending Sept. 4, 1906, showed sixteen 
banks, with aggregate capital of $25,350,- 
000; individual deposits, $125,537,344; 
loans and discounts, $213,405,587; specie, 
$44,524,195: legal tenders, $15,176,517; 
reserve required, $79,684,080; cash means, 
$122,304,463; and assets and liabilities 
balancing at $384,366,454. Tlie exchanges 
at the Chicago clearing-house in the year 
ending Dec. 30, 1905, amounted to $10,- 
141,765,732, an increase in a year of 

Local Transit.— In 1905 the street-rail- 
way system comprised fifteen surface 
roads, capitalized at $87,916,150, and op- 
erating 1,265 miles of single track; and 
five elevated roads, capitalized at $51.- 
023,800. and operating 106 miles of track 


—a total capitalization of $138,939,950 
and trackage of 1,371 miles. These figures 
indicate the vastness of the problem of the 
municipal ownership of the street rail- 
ways, to which the city became pledged 
by the popular vote of April C, 1905. 

At this same election the following 
questions were submitted to popular vote: 
( 1 ) " Shall the city council pass the ordi- 
nance reported by the local transportation 
committee to the city council of August 
24, 1904, granting a franchise to the Chi- 
cago City railroad company?" (2) "Shall 
the city council pass any ordinance grant- 
ing a franchise to the Chicago City rail- 
road company?" (3) "Shall the city 
council pass anj' ordinance granting a 
franchise to any street - railroad com- 
pany?" The result Avas: The first propo- 
sition received 04,391 affirmative and 157,- 
785 negative votes; the second, 00,020 
affirmative and 151,974 negative votes; 
and the third, 59,013 affirmative and 152,- 
135 negative votes. The extension, or ten- 
tative, ordinance was placed on file by 
the city council in accordance with the 
dictates of the foregoing vote. The city 
authorities had contended that the fran- 
chises of the traction companies had ex- 
pired July 1, 1903, and the case was car- 
ried to the United States Supreme Court, 
which tribunal decided, March 12, 190G, 
that the city was right. A year after the 
election of Mayor Dunne municipal owner- 
ship again was made an issue in the alder- 
manic campaign, and on April 3, 1900, 
Chicago voted on these questions: (1) 
" Shall the city proceed to operate street 
railways?" (2) "Shall the ordinance 
making provision for the issue of street- 
railway certificates not to exceed in 
amount $75,000,000, as authorized by the 
Mueller enabling act passed by the Legis- 
lature in May, 1903, be approved?" (3) 
" Shall the city council proceed without 
delay to secure municipal ownership and 
operation of all street railways in Chicago 
under the Mueller law?" The result of 
this vote was: First question, yeas, 121,- 
916; nays, 110,323; second question, yeas, 
110,225; nays, 100,859; third question, 
yeas, 111,955; nays, 108,087. On the 
question of municipal operation, while the 
affinnative vote was 11.593 in excess of 
the negative, the principle of operation 
was defeated, because, under the ^lueller 

law, a 60-per-cent. instead of a majority 
Aote was required on this issue. On June 
7, 1906, a bill was filed to test the validity 
of the Mueller - law railway certificates, 
and Sept. 16, 1906, a decision was ren- 
dered in the Cook county Circuit Court 
upholding the constitutionality of the 
;^^ueller law and the validity of the cer- 
tificates. The Federal government, by 
ordering the old street-railway tunnels 
under the Chicago River removed because 
of the serious obstruction they offered to 
navigation, forced the city to issue per- 
mits allowing the traction companies to 
adopt the trolley system instead of the 
cables. At the time of this writing nego- 
tiations are pending between the city and 
the street-car companies looking to an 
agreement as to the value of the com- 
panies' rights and property. 

The daily average of passengers carried 
on the surface and elevated roads exceeds 
1,500,000, a number very largely increased 
by the travel to and from the suburbs on 
the 1,500 passenger-trains which daily ar- 
rive at and depart from the six principal 
railway passenger stations within the city 

Between May 23, 1892, and Dec. 31. 
1904, ordinances were passed by the city 
council and accepted by the railroad com- 
panies for the elevation of their road- 
beds and tracks, covering the elevation of 
710 miles of track and the construction 
of 537 subways, at an estimated total cost 
of $44,240,250; and up to Dec. 31, 1904, 
the work completed comprised the eleva- 
tion of 447.95 miles of track and the 
construction of 362 subways, at a total 
cost of $28,802,250. Later ordinances and 
agreements for additional work will bring 
the total cost of road-bed and track eleva- 
tion up to $48,690,250, all of which is pay- 
able by the railroad companies interested. 

A unique feature of the local - traffic 
system is the underground, narrow-gauge 
railway connected with many down-town 
business establishments, which handles the 
merchandise of the stores, the coal for 
office buildings, the mail for the Post-office, 
and other commodities, thus relieving the 
streets of a vast amount of general freight 
traffic, and being an enormous time and 
labor saver. The plan of tracks under- 
lies all of the down - town streets, with 
switches at every corner, thus forming a 



loop around every city block. The motive 
power is the third-rail electric system, 
and the total mileage under the original 
-cheme is about twenty-one miles. 

Public Health. — The death-rate for 1905 
was 13.67 per one thousand population, 
or one-third of one per cent, higher than 
the lowest previous rate in the history 
of the city, which was 13.62 in 1904. The 
total expenditure by the city for the main- 
tenance of the health department in 1905 
was $247,176. The department has one 
hospital, to which all small-pox patients 
are taken. During 1906 extraordinary 
efforts were made to perfect the system 
of inspection of food supplies, special at- 
tention being paid to the meat supplies, 
milk, the sanitary condition of restau- 
rants, and the condition of food supplies 
in cold-storage. 

Parks, Boulevards, etc. — In 1869 the 
Legislature provided for the creation of a 
public-park system that now comprises a. 
total area of 3,180 acres. Prior to that 
date about sixty " lungs " were established 
by the city, less than a dozen being parks 
proper, the remainder being small patches, 
mostly triangles, at street intersections. 
The commissions authorized by the Legis- 
lature proceeded sj'stematically to estab- 
lish the present chain of connected parks, 
which includes Lincoln, Humboldt, Gar- 
field, Douglas, Washington, Jackson, Mc- 
Kinley, and Gage, with their connecting 
boulevards. Subsequently the city coun- 
cil appointed a special park commission 
to consider the feasibility of creating 
breathing-spots in the most congested sec- 
tions, and as a result nine municipal 
plaj'grounds had been laid out up to 1905, 
each in charge of an athletic director, a 
jiolice officer, and. in sinnmer, a trained 
kindergartner, and in that year a large 
number of additional small parks and play- 
grounds were in process of creation. 

The chain of principal parks contains 
numerous statues, monuments, and foun- 
tains. Lincoln Park has the following 
monuments: Andersen, Beethoven, Frank- 
lin. Garibaldi, Goethe. Grant. La Salle. 
Lincoln, Linne, Schiller, Shakespeare, 
" Signal of Peace," " The Alarm," and 
Kennison, and also the Electric Fountain 
of Columbian World's Fair celebrity: 
Humboldt Park has memorials of Hum- 
boldt, Leif Ericsson. Pcuter. and Kosci- 


usko ; Union Park has the Haymarket 
Monument; and Garfield Park, Victoria. 
There are also monuments to Logan in 
Lake Front Park; Douglas, at foot of 
Thirty-fifth Street; and Washington, on 
the Grand Boulevard and Fifty - first 
Street; a Confederate monument in Oak- 
woods Cemetery ; and a commemoration 
of the Fort Dearborn Massacre, on Calu- 
met Avenue and Eighteenth Street. The 
public fountains include the Drake, on La 
Salle Street; the Drexel, on Drexel Bou- 
levard; and the Rosenberg, at the south 
end of Lake Front Park. 

Notable Buildings. — The mother of the 
sky-scraper, Chicago, has an array of ex- 
traordinarily tall buildings that cannot 
be surpassed — if equalled— by any city in 
the world. Chief among these structures 
are the Masonic Temple, on State and 
Randolph streets (cost $3,500,000), twenty 
stories high ; the Great Northern Hotel, 
and the Manhattan and Monadnock (cost, 
$2,500,000) buildings, each seventeen sto- 
ries ; the Woman's Temple, built by the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
(cost $1,500,000), sixteen stories; the 
First National Bank, American Trust and 
Savings Bank, and the Commercial Na- 
tional Bank building's, each eighteen sto- 
ries; the Marshall Field group of build- 
ings, forming the largest retail store in 
the world; the Young Men's Christian 
Association, Stock Exchange, Chamber of 
Commerce, Railway Exchange, Fine Arts, 
Medinah Temple, Pullman, and Rookery 
buildings; the Chicago, Union League, 
University, Chicago Athletic, Illinois Ath- 
letic, Union, and Germania Club build- 
ings; the Post-office and Federal building; 
and scores of commercial buildings of the 
sky-scraper type, reaching the legal-height 
limit of 260 feet. The county buildings 
include a court - house, criminal - court 
building and jail, hospital, morgue, de- 
tention hospital, and several institutions 
at Dunning. The City Hall is an im- 
posing structure that cost $2,000,000: 
and a new county building and court- 
house, of steel - and - granite construc- 
tion, to cost $5,000,000, is now (au- 
tumn. 1906) in process of erection. The 
Auditorium is one of the most remarkable 
non-civic buildings in the world. It con- 
tains a theatre with 7,000 seats, a large 
concert-hall, a hotel occupying ten floors, 


and nearly 150 officers and storerooms, seum ; the Newberry Library; the Ham- 
Connected with the Auditorium are the mond Library; the Blackstone Library; 
Annex and Annex apartments, the three and the North Side Water-works, compris- 

buildings together forming the largest 
hotel in the world. 

Other striking buildings of a public 
eliaracter are, the Field Columbian Mu- 
seum, the Art Palace of the great Colum- 
bian World's Exposition of 1893, contain- 
ing' many choice exhibits of that event, and 
named in honor "of Marshall Field, who 


gave it .$1,000,000: the Pubfic Library, on 
^lichigan Avenue and Randolph and Wash- 
ington streets, one of the most attractive 
buildings of its character in the country, 
and containing over 28.5,000 bound volumes 
and 55.000 pamphlets; the Art Institute, 
on the Lake Front, a granite and marble 
structure, costing $800,000, and containing 
an art museum with modern and old-mas- 
ter paintings, Greek vases and antiquities, seminaries; eight colleges for boys; twen 
ivory carvings, and other valuable art ob- ty-three academies for girls : seven asylums 
jects, an art school, and a hall for loan caring for 1.28.3 orphans : thirty-nine char- 
exhibitions; the Chicago Historical Mu- itable institutions: and an aggregate of 


ing a stone water-tower 100 feet high, 
from which a cylindrical brick tunnel ex- 
tends a distance of two miles beneath the 
lake, six other large tunnels, great intake, 
and numerous cribs and pumping-stations. 

The Union Stock-yards occupy an area 
of 400 acres, with thirty-two miles of 
drainage, twenty miles of streets and 
alleys, and 2,300 gates, and represent an 
outlay of more than $4,000,000. They 
have a capacity for 25,000 cattle, 120,000 
hogs, 15,000 sheep, and 1,200 horses. Con- 
nected with the Stock-yards are great 
.slaughtering and packing houses, hotels, 
banks, churches, schools, post-office, tele- 
graph-offices, and a board of trade. 

Churches. — There are about 700 churches 
and places of religious service. Chicago 
is a Roman-Catholic-cathedral city, with 
edifice on the Xorth Side. The Church of 
the Holy Family is a type of Gothic 
architecture. The First Church of Christ, 
Scientist, is a striking building, having a 
seating capacity of 1,600. Grace Episco- 
pal Church is a Gothic stone edifice; and 
St. James's, also Episcopal, is very mas- 
sive, with a square tower. The peculiar 
spire of the Second Baptist Church 
gives attractiveness to an otherwise plain 
Italian structure; and the very tall spire 
of the Union Park Congregational Church, 
on Ashland Avenue and Washington 
Street, renders it a marked building in 
its class. Unity Church (LTnitarian) is 
readily distinguished by its double spires, 
gracefully setting off a light - stone con- 
struction in modern Gothic. Immanuel 
Baptist Church, on Michigan Avenue, also 
a stone Gothic, has both tower and spire. 
St. James's Methodist Episcopal Church, 
on Ellis Avenue and Forty-sixth Street, 
is the most noticeable church of thai, 

The Roman Catholic population of the 
archdiocese of Chicago is estimated at 
about 1.000,000. This communion has 310 
churches, with resident priests and mis- 
sions with churches; 168 parishes with 
chools, attended by 67,388 children; three 


93,388 cliiUlren in its various institu- university has upward of 4,500 studeiits in 

tions. all departments, 3G0 professors and in- 

Schools and CoUeges.-^ln 1905 the structors, over 400,000 volumes in its va- 
school, population was over 625,000, of rious libraries, grounds and buildings val- 
whom about 280,000 were enrolled in the ued at upward of $8,500,000, and pro- 
public schools and about 90,000 in private ductive funds exceeding $10,000,000. 
and parochial schools. There were 245 The Armour Institute of Technology 
public elementary and sixteen high schools; was founded by the late Philip D. Armour 
withatotalof 5,911 teachers in Sept., 1900. in 1893 on an initial gift of $1,500,000, 
The appropriation in 1905 for various to which he added $750,000 in 1899. The 
public - school purposes was $12,422,341, Armour Institute, Armour Mission, and 
and the city owned public-school property Armour Flats form a group of closely re- 
valued at about $25,000,000. Much atten- lated interests that together cost the donor 
tion is being given to manual and industrial nearly $5,000,000 ; the first two receive a 
training, for which there are the Chicago considerable part of the annual income 
English High and Manual Training School, from the rentals of the last. St. Igna- 
Chicago Manual Training School, Chicago tins College, opened in 1869, and St. 
Sloyd School, Jewish Training School, Stanislaus, opened in 1890, ai'e both 
Lewis Institute, and the Richard T. Crane Roman Catholic institutions of high grade 
Manual Training School. Normal train- and reputation. Professional schools in- 
ing was provided by the Chicago Normal elude the Chicago Lutheran Theological 
School, the University of Chicago, and St. Seminary (Evangelical Lutheran), opened 
Ignatius College, and private secondary in 1891; Chicago Theological Seminary 
instruction by the Academy of Our Lady, (Congregational), 1858; McCormick Theo- 
Academy of the Sacred Heart, Lake View logical Seminary (Presbyterian), 1830; 
Institute, Ascham Hall, Dearborn Semi- Divinity School of the University of Chi- 
nary, Harvard School, Kenwood Institute, cago (Baptist), 1866; and the Western 
Kirkland School, Loring School, St. Fran- Theological Seminary (Protestant Epis- 
cis School (boys), St. Francis Xavier copal), 1885; College of Law of Lake 
School (girls), Starrett's School for Girls, Forest University, 1888; Chicago Law 
and the preparatory department of Zion School, 1896; Illinois College of Law, 
College. 1898; John Marshall Law School, 1899; 

At the head of the institutions for and the School of Law of Northwestern 

higher education is the University of Chi- University, 1859; American Medical Mis- 

cago, a coeducational, non-sectarian insti- sionary College, 1895; College of Physi- 

tution, founded in 1890, and taking the cians and Surgeons of the University of 

name of an earlier school which, from Chicago, 1882; Harvey Medical College, 

financial difliculties, Avas closed in 1886. 1891; Illinois Medical College, 1894; 

The present university was opened in 1892. Jenner Medical College, 1893; Medical 

John D. Rockefeller subscribed $7,000,000 School of Northwestern University, 1859; 

towards its establishment, and has since and the Rush Medical College of the Uni- 

given it several millions more; citizens of versify of Chicago, 1867; dental schools 

Chicago have given more than $7,000,000, of Lake Forest University, Northwestern 

and in 1903 were credited with the erection University, and the University of Chicago; 

of all but three of the twenty-nine build- three schools of pharmacy, one of veteriu- 

ings on the campus; and the late Charles ary surgery, and twenty-three training- 

T. Yerkes, another citizen, gave $500,00C schools for nurses, all connected Avith 

for a telescope for the university's ob- local hospitals. 

servatory, located at Lake Geneva, Wis. Chicago has over eighty libraries of 

Tlirough the later munificence of Mr. all grades besides the Public Library, of 

Rockefeller the Rush Medical College has which mention has already been made, 

become a part of the university. In ad- belonging largely to schools, colleges, hos- 

dition to the regular academic courses pitals, and public institutions. Of these, 

there are departments of law, medicine, three deserve a special word. That of 

theology, civil, mechanical, and electrical the Chicago Historical Society contains 

engineering, pedagogy, music, etc. The about 35,000 bound volumes and 75,000 



pamphlets, many of the latter being of Mission and ^Ulied Charities, Chicago Re- 
priceless value; the library established lief and Aid Society, Chicago Woman's 
under the will of John Crerar, and bearing Aid Society, Hungarian Charity Society, 
his name, excludes all sensational novels Illinois Charitable Relief Corps, Illinois 
and sceptical works, cost for building, Children's Home and Aid Society, SocietS 
books, and endowment, $2,500,000, and con- Frangaise de Bienfaisance de I'lllinois, 
tains over 97,000 volumes, chiefly scien- Soci^te Frangaise de Secours Mutuals, 
tific; and the Newberry Library, with an United Hebrew Charities, Visitation and 
endowment of $3,000,000, is general in Aid Society, and the Woman's Benevolent 
character, contains nearly 200,000 volumes. Association of Chicago, 
and is widely known for possessing what History. — The site of Chicago was first 
is probably the largest collection of music- visited by Louis Joliet and Jacques Mar- 
al publications in the country. quette, French missionaries and explorers, 

Humane Activities. — For the relief of in 1673, and the name is first mentioned 

human suffering and misfortune Chicago in Hennepin's account of the building of 

has a great heart, as befits a city whose a new fort on the Illinois River in 1680, 

every impulse, efl"ort, and achievement as Che-caw-gou. This fort when completed 

are on a grand scale. Besides the United was commanded by an officer in the Cana- 

States Marine Hospital, at Lake View, dian service, and before the end of the 

beyond Lincoln Park, one of the largest seventeenth century the Jesuits made it a 

and costliest in the country, and the Cook mission post. Permanent settlement was 

County Hospital, on Harrison and Wood retarded by Indian hostilities, and it was 

streets, there are twenty-three hospitals, not till 1803 that the United States 

municipal, denominational, and memorial. Government deemed it advisable to take 

and all doing such excellent work that possession of the place as a possible 

it is quite delicate to individualize. Tlie strategic point of importance. In July of 

Mercy, Michael Reese, German, Hahne- that year a company of soldiers under 

mann. Woman's, Chicago, St. Joseph's, command of Captain John Whistler ar- 

Alexian Brothers, Augustana, St. Luke's, rived at the Chicago River, and at once 

and Wesley may be mentioned, however, began the erection of Fort Dearborn on 

as containing the largest number of beds the south side of the river. John Kinzie, 

for patients. the " Father of Chicago," emigrated from 

The asylums, homes, retreats, and reform- Michigan and bought some property here 

atories number over seventy. Noticeable in 1804, and in the same year a United 

among them are the Home for the Friend- States Indian agency was established, and 

less, on Fifty-first Street, fronting on the first white child, Ellen Marion Kinzie, 

Washington Park; Protestant Orphan was born. 

Asylum, on Michigan Avenue and Twenty- The garrison of Fort Dearborn and the 

second Street; St. Joseph's (male) and family of Mr. Kinzie, living near by, 

St. Mary's (female) orphan asylums on maintained friendly relations with the sur- 

North State Street, both under charge of rounding Indians till the spring of 1812, 

the Sisters of Mercy; Jewish Orphan when hostile feelings created by British 

Asylum, Drexel Boulevard and Sixty-first emissaries began to be manifested. A 

Street; Old People's Home, on Indiana scalping party of Winnebagoes made a 

Avenue; Foundlings' Home, on Wood Street, raid on a settlement near Chicago in 

near Madison ; Newsboys' Home, the April, and during the early part of the 

Washington Home for Inebriates, and the ensuing summer the inhabitants saw with 

Armour Mission, previously mentioned, alarm a continued gathering of Indians, 

which contains an assembly hall, cr§che, On Aug. 7, a friendly Pottawottamie chief 

library, kindergarten, and free dispensary, arrived at the fort with a letter to 

The charitable organizations in 1905 in- Captain Nathan Heald. the commandant, 

eluded the Associated Jewish Charities from General Hull, giving notice of the 

of Chicago, Austro-Hungarian Benevolent declaration of war against Ens;land and 

Association, Chicago Bureau of Charities, the fall of Mackinaw, and advising the 

Chicago Bureau of Justice, Chicago Daily evacuation of the fort. On Aug. 12, 

News Fresh Air Fund, Chicago Medical Captain Heald called a council of the 



Indians, and, under General Hull's in- the first propeller built on Lake Michigan 
structions, told them to come to the fort was lauiiched at Averell's ship-yard the 
and receive and distribute among them- same year. The slaughtering and meat- 
selves the United States property there, packing industry had its birth in 1844-5, 
and accepted their offer to escort the white when a quantity of beef was packed and 
people through the wilderness to Fort shipped to England; the first permanent 
Wayne. public-school building was erected on 

On Aug. 15, the day fixed for the Madison Street at a cost of $7,500 in 
evacuation, the whites became convinced 1845; and a great River and Harbor 
that the Indians intended to murder ('onvention held in July, 1847, gave 
the whole party, but it was then too late Chicago its first celebrity as a " Conven- 
to plan resistance. They had gone but a tion City." The success of the first ship- 
short distance from the gate of the fort ment of packed or dressed meat to Eng- 
when their savage escort, 500 strong, fell land led to the opening of the first cat- 
upon them suddenly, and in the fight that tie-yards, known as the " Bull's Head," 
ensued twelve cliildren, all the male in the vicinity of Ashland Avenue and 
civilians excepting Mr. Kinzie and his Madison Street, in 1848. That year is 
sons, three officers, and twenty-six pri- memorable also because the first boat 
vates were killed. Only the surrender of locked through the Illinois & Michigan 
the remainder of the party saved them Canal, the General Frye, arrived at Lake 
from a similar fate. The fort was burned Michigan, a pleasing feature of the formal 
by the Indians on the following day ; the opening of this important waterway, April 
government rebuilt it in 1816; and it was 16, and because the Chicago & Galena 
garrisoned till 1837. The site of Fort Union Railroad completed ten miles to the 
Dearborn is near the present junction Des Plaines River and opened that section 
of Michigan Avenue and River Street, to passenger and freight traffic. 
The last vestige of the fort — a block- The first disasters of note visited the 
house — was preserved till 1856. city in 1849, when there were a great 

A town was surveyed and platted by flood in the Illinois River in March and 
James Thompson near the fort in 1830, an epidemic of- cholera in July and Au- 
with an area of about three-eights of a gust. Gas was first used for lighting the 
square mile; in the following year the streets in 1850; an improved water serv- 
settlement contained twelve families be- ice was established, the Chicago & 
sides the garrison, and was made the Rock Island Railroad was completed to 
county-seat of Cook county; and on Aug. Chicagt), and the city had another epi- 
10, 183.3, it was incorporated as a demic of cholera, all in 1854. 
town, with a population of about 150. The foregoing " firsts " have a large 
The first regiilar school had been opened interest, not only to the citizens of Chi- 
in 1816; the first sermon preached in cago, but to students of municipal de- 
English in 1825; the first post-office es- velopnient and political economy, as they 
tablished in 1831; the first frame busi- illustrate the formative processes which 
ness structures erected in 1832; and the made the city the great financial, com- 
first improvement of the harbor begun in mercial, and industrial metropolis of the 
1833. Domestic commerce had its begin- West; and in its later history the city 
ning in 1834, when the first steamboat to has been the scene of several events of 
enter the river below Dearborn Street, far-reaching influence and importance, 
the Michigan, made its appearance, fol- Here, in May, 1860, the Republican Na- 
lowed a month later by the Illinois, the tional Convention put Abraham Lincoln 
first lake schooner, from Sackett's Har- in nomination for the Presidency. Here, 
bor. N. Y., which sailed up to Wolf Point, on Oct. 8-9, 1871, occurred the most 
The town was incorporated as a city on destructive conflagration ever known, the 
March 4, 1837, and its first mayor was fire breaking out in a barn on De Koven 
William B. Os^den. Street at about 8.45 P.M. on the 8th 

The free public-school system was es- (Sunday), burning over about three and 

tablished in 1840. The water-works system, a half square miles of territory., destroy- 

using wooden pipes, dates from 1842, and ing 17,450 buildings, causing the death 



of 200 persons, leiideiing 98,500 persons (Sept. 19, 1863), the Confederate right 
■ Homeless, and involving a property loss was commanded by General Polk, and the 
of over $200,000,000. The city was rapid- left by General Hood until Longstreet 
ly -recovering from this terrible disaster should arrive. During the previous night 
and was rebuilding its ■ burned business nearly two-thirds of the Confederates had, 
section in a much more substantial and ciossed to the west side of the creek, and 
elegant manner than formerly, when in held the fords from Lee and Gordon's mills 
1874 another disastrous fire broke out in far towards Missionary Eidge. Rose- 
its busiest quarter, consumed eighteen crans's concentrated army did not then 
blocks with over 600 buildings, and caused number more than 55,000 men. 
a loss of more than $4,000,000. In May, Gen. George H. Thomas, who was on 
1886, there was an anarchist outbreak, re- the extreme left of the National line, on 
suiting in rioting at the Haymarket, dui-- the slopes of Missionary Ridge, by a move- 
ing which six police officers were killed ment to capture an isolated Confederate 
and several others wounded. Eight of the brigade, brought on a battle (Sept. 19) 
rioters were convicted, four were executed, at ten o'clock, which raged with great 

Chicago early entered the contest of fierceness until dark, when the Nationals 

cities for the holding of the World's seemed to have the advantage. It had 

Columbian Exposition, won the prize, and been begun by Croxton's brigade of Bran- 

from May 1 till Oct. 30, 1893, enter- nan's division, which struggled sharply 

tained more than 17,000,000 people in with Forrest's cavalry. Thomas sent 

her "White City." (See Columbian Ex- Baird's division to assist Croxton, when 

POSITION.) The noteworthy political events other Confederates became engaged, mak- 

of 1904-5 have already been detailed. In ing the odds against the Nationals, when 

the spring of 1905 a strike of the team- the latter, having driven the Confederates, 

sters continued through May and June, were in turn pushed back. The pur- 

Chickahominy, Battles on the. See suers dashed through the lines of United 

Peninsular Campaign. States regulars and captured a Michigan 

Chickamauga, Battle of. Rosecrans, battery and about 500 men. In the charge 
erroneously supposing Bragg had begun all of the horses and most of the men of 
a retreat towai'ds Rome when he aban- the batteries were killed, 
doned Chattanooga (q. v.) and marched At that moment a heavy force of Na- 
southward through the gaps of Mission- tionals came up and joined in the battle, 
ary Ridge, pushed his forces through the They now outnumbered and outflanked the 
mountain passes, and was surprised to Confederates, and, attacking them furious- 
find his antagonist, instead of retreating, ly, drove them back in disorder for a mile 
concentrating his forces to attack the at- and a half on their reserves. The lost 
tenuated line of the Nationals, the extrem- battery was recovered, and Brannan and 
ities of which were then 50 miles apart. Baird were enabled to reform their shat- 
Rosecrans proceeded at once to concen- tered columns. There was a lull, but at 
trate his own forces; and very soon the five o'clock the Confederates renewed the 
two armies were confronting each other battle, and were pressing the National 
in battle array on each side of Chicka- line heavily, when Hazen, who was in 
niauga Creek, in the vicinity of Crawfish charge of a park of artillery — twenty 
Spring, each line extending towards the guns — hastened to put them in position, 
slope of Missionary Ridge. Rosecrans with such infantry supports as he could 
did not know that Lee had sent troops gather, and brought them to bear upon 
from Virginia, under Longstreet, to rein- the Confederates, at short range, as they 
force Bragg, who was then making his dashed into the road in pursuit of the 
way up from Atlanta to swell the Con- Nationals. The pursuers recoiled in dis- 
federate forces to the number of fully order, and thereby the day was saved on 
70,000. Johnston, in ]\nssissippi, also the left. Night closed the combat, 
sent thousands of prisoners, paroled at There had been some lively artillery 
Vicksburg and Port Hudson, to still fur- work on the National right during the 
ther reinforce Bragg. day; and at three o'clock in the after- 

In battle order on Chickamauga Creek noon Hood threw two of his divisions 



upon General Davis's division of Mc- 
Cook's corps, pushing it back and capt- 
uring a battery. Davis fought with 
great pertinacity until near sunset, when 
a brigade of Sheridan's division came to 
his aid. Then a successful countercharge 

struggle ensued, with varying fortunes 
for the combatants. The carnage on both 
sides was frightful. Attempts to turn the 
National flank were not successful, for 
Thomas and his veterans stood like a wall 
in the way. The conflict for a while was 

(From a corttempt/ranetnts sketch.) 

was made; the Confederates were driven equally severe at the centre; and the 

back, the battery was retaken, and a num- 
ber of Confederates were made prisoners. 
That night General Hindman came to the 
Confederates with his division, and Long- 
street arrived with two brigades of Mc- 

bl under of an incompetent staff officer, 
sent with orders to General Wood, pro- 
duced disaster on the National right. A 
gap was left in the National line, when 
Hood, with Stewart, charged furiously, 

Laws's veterans from Virginia, and took while Buckner advanced to their support, 
command of the left of Bragg's army. The charge, in which Davis and Brannan 

Preparations were made for a renewal and Sheridan were struck simultaneously, 

of the struggle in the morning. It was be- 
gun (Sept. 20), after a dense fog had 
risen from the earth, between eight and 
nine o'clock. The conflict was to have 
been opened by Polk at daylight on the 

isolated five brigades, which lost forty per 
cent, of their number. By this charge the 
National right wing was so shattered that 
it began crumbling, and was soon seen 
flying in disorder towards Chattanooga, 

National left, but he failed. Meanwhile, leaving thousands behind, killed, wounded, 

under cover of the fog, Thomas j-eceived re- or prisoners. 

inforcements, until nearly one-half of the The tide carried with it the troops led 

Army of the Cumberland present were un- by Eosecrans, Crittenden, and McCook; 

der his command, and had erected breast- and the commanding general, unable to 

works of logs, rai's. and earth. The battle join Thomas, and believing the whole army 

was begim by an attack by Breckinridge. wouM speedily be hurrying pell-mell to 

The intention was to interpose an over- Chattanooga, hastened to that p'ace to 

whelming force between Rosecrans and provide for rallying them there. Thomas, 

Chattanooga, which Thomas had prevented meanwhile, ignorant of the disaster on the 

the previous day. An exceedingly fierce right, was maintaining his position firmly. 
II.— I 129 


Sheridan and Davis, who had been driven 
over to the Dry Valley road, rallying their 
shattered columns, reformed them by the 
way, and, with McCook, halted and 
changed front at Rossville, with a de- 
termination to defend the pass at all haz- 
ards against the pursuers. Thomas finally 
withdrew from hia breastworks and con- 
centrated his troops, and formed his line 
on a slope of Missionary Ridge. Wood 
and Brannan had barely time to dispose 
their troops properly, when they were 
furiously attacked, the Confederates 
throwing in fresh troops continually. 
General Granger, commanding reserves at 
Eossville, hastened to the assistance of 
Thomas with Steedman's division. The 
latter fought his way to the crest of a 
hill, and then turning his artillery upon 
his assailants, drove them down the south- 
ern slope of the ridge with great slaughter. 
They returned to the attack with an over- 
whelming force, determined to drive the 
Nationals from the ridge, and pressed 
Thomas most severely. 

Finally, when they were moving along 
a ridge and in a gorge, to assail his right 
flank and rear, Granger formed two bri- 
gades (VVhittaker's and Mitchell's) into a 
charging party, and hurled them against 
the Confederates led by Hindman. Steed- 
man led the charging party, with a regi- 
mental flag in his hand, and soon won a 
victory. In the space of twenty minutes 
the Confederates disappeared, and the 
Nationals held both the ridge and gorge. 

Very soon a greater portion of the Con- 
federate army were swarming around the 
foot of the ridge, on which stood Thomas 
with the remnant of seven divisions of the 
Army of the Cumberland. The Confeder- 
ates were led by Longstreet. There 
seemed no hope for the Nationals. But 
Thomas stood like a rock, and his men 
repulsed assault after assault until the 
sun went down, when he began the with- 
drawal of his troops to Rossville, for his 
ammunition was almost exhausted. Gen- 
eral Garfield, Rosecrans's chief of staff', had 
arrived with orders for Thomas to take 
the command of all the forces, and, with 
McCook and Crittenden, to take a strong 
position at Rossville. It was then that 
TVomas had the first reliable information 
?i disaster on the right. Confederates 
seeking to obstruct the movement were 

driven back, with a loss of 200 men made 
prisoners. So ended the battle of Chicka- 

The National loss was reported at 16,- 
326, of whom 1,687 were killed. The total 
loss of officers was 974. It is probable the 
entire Union loss, including the missing, 
was 19,000. The Confederate loss was re- 
ported at 20,500, of whom 2,673 were 
killed. Rosecrans took 2,003 prisoners, 
thirty-six guns, twenty caissons, and 8,450 
small-arms, and lost, as prisoners, 7,500. 
Bragg claimed to have captured over 8,000 
prisoners (including the wounded), fifty- 
one guns, and 15,000 small-arms. 

The Confederates were victors on the 
field, but their triumph was not decisive. 
On the evening of the 20th the whole Na- 
tional army withdrew in good order to a 
position in front of Chattanooga, and on 
the following day Bragg advanced and 
took possession of Lookout Mountain and 
the whole of Missionary Ridge. 

Chickamauga National Park, a pub- 
lic park established by Congress Aug. 19, 
1890, in the southeastern part of Ten- 
nessee and northwestern part of Georgia; 
embraces the famous battle-fields of 
Chickamauga and of the scenes which oc- 
curred around Chattanooga. Both Ten- 
nessee and Georgia ceded to the United 
States jurisdiction over the historic fields 
as well as the approaching roads. The 
roads, buildings, and conditions existing 
at the time of the battles are gradually 
being restored. A road 20 miles in extent 
has been constructed along the crest of 
Missionary Ridge where occurred some of 
the heaviest actions. The headquarters 
of the general officers and the positions of 
participating organizations, batteries, 
regiments and detached forces of both 
armies, are marked with inscribed tablets. 
The erection of monuments to commemo- 
rate the smaller organizations has been 
left to the States and veterans' societies. 
The park is designed to create a " com- 
prehensive and extended military object- 

Chickasaw Bayou, Battle of. When 
Gen. W. T. Sherman came do\Tn from 
Memphis to engage in the siege of Vicks- 
burg, late in 1862, with about 20,000 men 
and some heavy siege guns, he was joined 
by troops from Helena, Ark., and was met 
by a gunboat fleet, under Admiral Porter, 



at the mouth of the Yazoo River, just 
above the city (Dec. 25). The two com- 
manders arranged a plan for attacking 
Vicksburg in the rear. They went up the 
Yazoo to capture some batteries at Chicka- 
saw Bayou and other points. The Yazoo 
sweeps round in a great 
bend within a few miles of 
Vicksburg. The range of 
hills on which Vicksburg 
stands extends to the Ya- 
zoo, about 12 miles above 
the city, where tliey termi- 
nate in Haines's Blufl'. 

There is a deep natural 
ditch extending from the 
Yazoo below Haines's Bluff 
to the Mississippi, called 
Chickasaw Bayou, passing 
near the bluffs, which were 
fortified, and along their 
bases were rifle - pits for 
sharp-shooters. This bayou 
lay in the path of Sher- 
man's march up the bluffs, 
which must be carried to 
gain the rear of Vicksburg. 
His troops moved in four 
columns, commanded re- 
spectively by Generals 
Morgan, A. J. Smith, Mor- 
gan L.Smith, and F.Steele. 
They moved on Dec. 27, bivouacked with- 
out fire that night, and proceeded to the 
attack the next morning. The Nationals 
drove the Confederate pickets across the 
bayou, and everywhere the ground was so 
soft that causeways of logs had to be built 
for the passage of troops and artil- 
lerj'. The Nationals were seriously en- 
filaded by the Confederate batteries and 
sharp-shooters. The right of the Union 
troops was commanded by Gen. F. P. 
Blair, who led the way across the 
bayou over a bridge his men had built, 
captured two lines of rifle-pits, and fought 
desperately to gain the crest of the hill 
before him. Others followed, and a severe 
battle ensued. Pembcrton, the Confederate 
chief, had arrived, and so active were the 
Confederates on the bluffs that the Na- 
tionals were repulsed with hea\^ loss. 
Blair lost one-third of his brigade. Dark- 
ness closed the struggle, when Sherman 
had lost about 2,000 men, and his an- 
tagonists only 207. 


Chickasaw Indians, a tribe of the 
Creek confederacy that formerly inhabited 
the country along the Mississippi from the 
borders of the Choctaw domain to the 
Ohio River, and eastward beyond the 
Tennessee to the lands of the Cherokees 


and Shawnees. They were warlike, and 
were the early friends of the English and 
the inveterate foes of the French, who 
twice (1736 and 1740) invaded their coun- 
try under Bienville and De Noailles. The 
Chickasaws said they came from west of 
the Mississippi, under the guardianship 
of a great dog, with a pole for a guide. 
At night they stuck the pole in the ground, 
and went the way it leaned every morn- 
ing. Their dog was drowned in crossing 
the Mississippi, and after a while their 
pole, in the interior of Alabama, remained 
upright, and there they settled. De Soto 
passed a winter among them (1540-41), 
when they numbered 10,000 warriors. 
These were reduced to 450 when the 
French seated themselves in Louisiana. 

Wars with the new-comers and sur- 
rounding tribes occurred until the middle 
of the eighteenth century. They favored 
the English in the Revolution, when they 
had about 1,000 warriors. They joined 
the white people against the Creeks in 


1795, and always remained the friends of slavery, and in the following year, while 
the pale faces; and, in 1818, they had in Paris, addressed a memoir to the So- 
ceded all their lands north of the State of ciete pour rabolition d'esclavage. He also 
Mississippi. Some of the tribe had al- forwarded a pamphlet on the same subject 
ready emigrated to Arkansas. In 1834 to the Eclectic Revieio in London. In 
they ceded all their lands to the United 1843-44 he edited (with his wife) the 
States, amounting to over 6,400,000 acres, Anti-Hlavery Standard in New York. He 
for which they received $3,046,000. Then died in Wayland, Mass., Sept. 18, 1874. 
they joined the Choctaws, who spoke the Child, Lydia Maria, author; born in 
same language, and became a part of that Medford, Mass., Feb. 11, 1802; edu- 
nation. During their emigration the cated in the common schools; began ner 
small-pox destroyed a large number of literary career in 1819; and was noted 
their tribe. as a supporter of the abolition movement. 
They did not advance in civilization as In 1859 she sent a letter of sympathy to 
rapidly as the Choctaws, and had no John Brown, who was then imprisoned at 
schools until 1851. They were politically Harper's Ferry, offering to become his 
separated from the Choctaws in 1855, and rmrse. This offer he declined, but request- 
have since been recognized as a distinct ed her to aid his family, which she did. 
tribe. Led by their agents, who were Governor Wise, of Virginia, politely re- 
Southern men, they joined the Confeder- buked her in a letter, and another epistle 
ates, and lost nearly one-fourth of their from Senator Mason's wife threatened her 
population, much stock, and all their with eternal punishment. These letters 
slaves. They gave up 7,000,000 acres of with her replies were subsequently pub- 
land for 41/2 cents an acre, and the money lished and reached a circulation of 300,- 
was to go to the freedmen, unless within 000. In 1840-43 she was editor of the 
two years they allowed the negroes to National An1 i-Slavery Standard. Her 
become a part of the tribe. The latter publications include The Rebels; The First 
alternative was adopted, Jan. 10, 1873. Settlers of Neio England; Freedman's 
In 1899 there were 8,730 still bearing their Book; Avp^al for that Class of Americans 

old name at the Union agency, Indian Ter- 
ritory. See Choctaw Ixdians. 

CMckering, Jesse, political economist; 
born in Dover, N. H., Aug. 31. 1797; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1818; 

called Africans, etc. She died in Way- 
land. Mass., Oct. 20, 1880, 

Children, Dependent. See Dependent 
Children, Care of. 

Children's Day, or Floral Sunday, a 

later studied medicine and practised in Sunday set apart annually in June by most 

Boston, Mass. His publications include of the Protestant evangelical churches in 

Statistical Vieio of the Population of the United States, when the Sunday-school 

Massachusetts from rUlS-lSItO; Emigra- children are given charge of one or both 

tion into the United States; Reports on church services. 

the Census of Boston; and a Letter Ad- Childs, George William, publisher; 
dressed to the President of the United born in Baltimore, Md., May 12, 1829; 
States on Slavery, considered in Relation book publisher, 1850-63; editor of the 
to the Principles of Constitutional Gov- Philadelphia Public Ledger (purchased in 
ernment in Great Britain and in the conjunction with A. J. Drexel), 1864-94. 
United States. He died in W^est Roxbury, He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 3. 1894. 
Mass., May 29, 1855. " Chile. Towards the close of 1890 a 
Child, David Lee, abolitionist; born in revolution occurred in Chile, South Amei-- 
West Boylston. Mass.. July 8, 1794; iea. It was the result ot certain abuses 
graduated at Harvard College in 1817: of power on the part of the President of 
was later admitted to the bar. In 1830 that republic, and the conflict was carried 
he was editor of the Massachusetts Jour- on with great bitterness between his ad- 
r,al, and while howling a seat in the lesfis- herents and the revolutionary party, with 
lature opposed the annexation of Texas; the Chilean Congress at its head. Early 
afterwards he issued a tract on the subject in the course of the war almost the en- 
entitled Naboth's Vineyard. In 1836 he tire Chilean navy deserted the cause of the 
published ten articles on the subject of President and espoused that of the r^yo- 

132 • 


lutionists. Among the vessels employed 
by the latter was the liata, originally 
a merchant ship, but then armed and re- 
fitted as a cruiser. In the spring of 1891 
this vessel put in at the harbor of San 
Diego, Cal., for the purpose of securing 
a cargo of arms and ammunition for the 
revolutionists. The secret, however, was 
not well kept, and when it came to the 
knowledge of the United States authori- 
ties, steps were at once taken to prevent 
her from accomplishing the object of her 
mission. Officers acting under the neutral- 
ity laws seized the vessel and placed a 
United States deputy marshal on board. 

Soon afterwards, on the night of May 
6, the liata, disregarding this action of 
the United States, sailed away from San 
Diego with the American officer on board. 
The latter, however, was landed a few 
miles south of San Diego. The Itata 
then took on board, from the American 
schooner Robert and Minnie, a cargo of 
arms and ammunition which had arrived 
from the Eastern States, and immediately 
sailed for Chile. On May 9 the United 
States warshijj Charleston was ordered in 
pursuit, with instructions to take her at 
all hazards. The chase lasted twenty-five 
days. The Charleston reached the bay of 
Iquique first, and there learned that the 
revolutionists, fearing to provoke the hos- 
tility of the United States, had resolved 
to surrender the Itata to the authorities 
of that country. A few days later that 
vessel, upon arriving at Iquique, was 
promptly given over to the United States 
officers. She was manned with an Amer- 
ican crew, and sent back to the harbor of 
San Diego, where it was intended she 
should remain imtil the settlement of the 
question at issue concerning her cargo and 
her responsibility to the United States. 

The Chilean war, however, was brought 
to a close in the autumn by the complete 
success of the revolutionary forces, and the 
case against the Itata was allowed to drop. 

About the same time another complica- 
tion arose between Chile and the United 
States. While the United States cruiser 
Baltimore was in the harbor of Valparai- 
so, a party of her sailors became involved 
in a riot with the Chileans, Oct. 16, 1891. 
In the course of the melee several sailors 
were wounded, of whom two died; thirty- 
six were arrested by the authorities. When 
the news of the affair reached the United 
States it created considerable excitement. 
On Oct. 23 President Harrison despatched 
a message to United States Minister Egan 
at Santiago, demanding reparation, and 
two war-ships were sent to the country. 
On Dec. 11, the Chilean minister of 
foreign affairs, Matta, sent a communica- 
tion, which became known as the " Matta 
Note." The Chilean request for Mr Egan's 
recall, and the phraseology of the " Matta 
Note," gave offence at Washington, and in 
Januai-y, 1892, the President despatched 
a protest to the Chilean government, and 
on Jan. 25 sent a message to Congress. 
Meantime at Valparaiso an inquiry was 
held on the riot, and three Chileans were 
sentenced to penal servitude. President 
Montt, who had now been inducted into 
office, directed the minister of foreign af- 
fairs to withdraw the " Matta Note " and 
also the request for Minister Egan's re- 
call, and Chile paid an indemnity of 

The affair was variously interpreted in 
the United States: by enemies of the ad- 
ministration as the bullying of a weaker 
power ; by the administration's friends as 
an instance of a vigorous national policy. 
During 1893 and 1894 Chile was shaken 
by several domestic revolutions, during 
which much American property was de- 
stroyed. In November, 1895, Seiior Bar- 
ros, a liberal, formed a cabinet and paid 
to the United States $250,000 for damage 
done during the revolutions. In 1896 Chile 
concluded peace treaties with all her 


China. From time to time, during the stationed in the northern provinces of 
latter part of 1899 and the early part of China, of the rapid spread and threaten- 
1900, came disturbing reports, from mis- ing attitude of the Boxers, a secret or- 
sionaries and the representatives of the ganization having for its purpose the ex- 
United States and the European powers termination of all foreigners and the 



abolition of all foreign influence from 
Chinese territory. The native name of 
this society is I-ho-ch'uan, " Combination 
of Righteous Harmony Fists " ; it had for 
its leader Prince Tuan, the father of the 
heir-presumptive to the Chinese throne; 
and had its origin in the intense anti- 
foreign sentiment excited by the occupa- 
tion by the European powers of Chinese 
territory under various cessions in the 
years immediately following the Chino- 
Japanese War (1895), the superstitions 
of the ignorant classes, and the hatred, in 
certain districts, of the missionaries, who, 
in their zeal for converts, had entered under 
treaty rights into every part of the empire. 
Conditions grew more critical and the 
threatening of the missionaries increased 
in extent and intensity until, on May 19, 
1900, the Christian village of Lai-Shun, 
70 miles from Peking, was destroyed, and 
seventy-three native converts massacred. 
The representatives of the foreign powers, 
on May 21, addressed a joint note to the 
Tsung-li-Yamen, the foreign office of the 
Cliinese government, calling for the sup- 
pression of the Boxers, and the restora- 
tion of order. This and all further at- 
tempts on the part of the ministers met 
with little or no response, the Court itself 
openly encouraging the anti-foreign senti- 
ment, and the young Emperor, Kwang- 
Su, being entirely under the influence of 
the Empress Dowager, notorious for her 
hatred of and opposition to the reforma- 
tion policy. Upon the report of United 
States Minister Edwin H. Conger {q. v.) , 
that the Boxers were operating within a 
few miles of Peking, and of the great 
danger to the property and lives of the 
Americans in that part of the world, the 
United States government ordered Rear- 
Admiral Louis Kempff (7. v.) to pro- 
ceed at once with the flag-ship Newark to 
Taku, at the mouth of the Peiho River, 
the harbor for Tientsin and Peking. Here 
gathered, within a few days, the available 
war-ships of Great Britain, Russia, 
France, Germany, and Italy. Captain 
McCalla, with 100 men from the Newark, 
landed and proceeded to Tientsin, and on 
May 31, a small international force, in- 
cluding seven officers and fifty-six men of 
the American marine corps, were despatch- 
ed to Peking, as a guard for the legations, 
and were admitted to the city. 

On June 2, Mr. H. V. Norman, an Eng- 
lish missionary, was murdered by the 
Boxers at Yung Ching, a few miles from 
Peking, and during the following days 
the rioting and destruction of property 
seemed to break out on every side with 
renewed violence. The imperial decrees 
against the rioters were only half-hearted, 
and it was responsibly reported that, in 
spite of the representations of the Chinese 
government of heavy engagements in their 
efforts to put down the uprising, a large 
number of the imperial forces were fight- 
ing with the Boxers. Fifty miles of the 
Luban Railway had been destroyed by the 
anti-foreign mob, with many stores and 
supplies for the new lines then under con- 
struction. Chapels and mission settle- 
ments in Shantung and Pechili provinces 
were looted and burned and hundreds of 
native Christians massacred. Finally the 
railway from Tientsin to Peking was cut. 

On June 10, the British Admiral Sey- 
mour, with 2,000 men, drawn from the in- 
ternational forces in Tientsin, set out to 
repair the railway, and found it so badly 
damaged that in two days he had advanced 
only 35 miles. Then came the news that 
he had been surrounded by countless hordes 
of Chinese, imperial soldiers and Boxers, 
and that all communication with Tientsin 
and Peking was closed. Not until June 
26 was he able, after receiving reinforce- 
ments, to cut his way back into Tientsin. 
He had lost 374 men, and had not been 
able to get within 25 miles of Pekinsr. his 
whole command barely escaping annihila- 
tion. In this unfortunate advance and 
retreat. Captain McCalla, who was the 
leader of the American contingent, was 
highly commended for his bravery and 

On June 17, the Chinese forts at Taku 
opened fire upon the warships of the allied 
forces, and those of Germany, Russia, 
Great Britain, France, and Japan im- 
mediately returned the bombardment. The 
fortifications were finally captured at the 
point of the bayonet by soldiers landed at 
a point enabling them to assauH in .the 
rear. Over 100 Europeans were killed and 
wounded in this engagement; the Chinese 
loss was estimated at 700. The American 
Admiral Kempflf did not participate in the 
attack, taking the ground that the United 
States was not at war with China, and 



that such hostile action would merely serve 
to unite the Chinese against the foreign- 

On June 18, the United States govern- 
ment ordered the battle-ship Oregon and 
the gunboats Yorktown, NashotUe, and 
Monocacy, and the 'Jth Regiment, 1,400 
men, under Col. Emerson H. Liscum, from 
Manila to Taku, and other United States 
forces were held in readiness for service 
in China. While on the way, June 28, 
the Oregon ran aground in the Gulf of 

infantry and cavalry, intended for the 
I'hilippines, proceeded to China, and the 
United States government announced that 
it would, if necessary, increase the Amer- 
ican army of occupation to 16,000. On 
July 4, Secretary of State John Hay, in 
a note to the European powers, declared 
the attitude of the United States towards 
the Chinese troubles. 

On June 21-23 the allies had forced their 
way, by the aid of fire from the fleet, into 
the foreign quarter at Tientsin, and had 


Pechili, in a fog. One week later she was 
floated, without having suffered serious 
damage, and through the courtesy of the 
Japanese government sent to the national 
docks at Kure for repairs. On June 24, 
REAR-AniriRAL George C. Remey (q. v.) 
proceeded with the flag-ship Brooklyn 
from Manila to succeed Admiral KempflF 
in the command of the American fleet. 
On June 26, Gen. Adxa R. Chaffee (q. v.) 
was appointed to the command of the 
American army in China, and 6,300 troops, 

united with the Europeans there besieged 
by the Chinese Boxers and imperial sol- 
diers; for many days hard fighting was 
carried on against this enemy, sheltered 
in the native portion of the city and on 
the walls. On July 2, the women and 
children, at great risk, were sent down the 
I'eiho to Taku, and for the following ten 
daj's the Chinese bombarded the foreign 
city. On June 9, 11, and 13, attempts were 
made by the allies to capture the native 
city. On the 13th Colonel Liscum was 



killed while leading his men. On July 14, 
the forts were captured, and the Chinese 
driven out with great loss. The casualties 
of the allies were 875, of whom 215 were 

The temporary success of the Chinese at 
Tientsin, the siege of the legations in 
Peking, and the murder, June 12, of the 
Japanese chancellor of legation, and, 
June 20, of Baron von Ketteler, the Ger- 
man minister, seemed to inspire them with 
new fury, and the Boxer craze spread with 
fearful rapidity over all the northern dis- 
tricts, while in the south much uneasi- 
ness was shown. On July 15, a Chinese 
force invaded Russia, and the latter gov- 
ernment immediately declared the Amur 
district in a state of war. July 23, Presi- 
dent McKinley, in answer to the request 
of the Chinese Emperor for the good of- 
fices of the United States in bringing about 
peace, demanded that the imperial gov- 
ernment should first make known to the 
world whether the representatives of the 
foreign powers in Peking were alive; and 
that it co-operate with the allied army 
gathering for their relief. On July 20, a 
message, purporting to have been sent by 
Minister Conger, dated July 18, was re- 
ceived through Minister Wu at Washing- 
ton, and was accepted as authentic by the 
United States government, and subse- 
quently by the European powers, Minister 
Wu having personally guaranteed to get 
a message to and from Mr. Conger, 

By the latter part of July the inter- 
national force numbered 30.000 men, and 
on Aug. 4, a relief column 16.000 strong 
left Tientsin and met its first determined 
resistance at Peitsang, Aug. 5, Avhich it 
captured after a hard fight, with a loss of 
about 200 killed and wounded. With a 
considerable loss, Yangtsun, Aug. 7, and 
Tung Chow, Aug. 12, were occupied, and 
on Aug. 14, the relief forces entered 
Peking. The Emperor and the Empress 
Dowager had fled and the Chinese troops 
were surrounded in the inner city. Fight- 
ing in the streets continued till Aug. 28, 
when the allied troops m^^rched in force 
through the Forbidden City. 

The relief of the besieged foreismers was 
most timely. For forty-five davs. 3.000 
souls, including 2,200 native converts, had 
been shut up in the compound of the 
British Legation, subjected to the artil- 


lery and rifle fire of 50,000 troops under 
Prince Tuan. With the exception of a 
truce of twelve days after the fall of Tien- 
tsin, July 17, t?ie bombardment scarcely 
ceased day or night. Provisions and 
ammunition were ve:y short, and the ex- 
posure and constant labor were telling 
severely on the besieged. Many efl'orts 
were made on the part of the Chinese to 
induce the besieged to proceed to Tientsin 
under promise of safe escort, but were 
promptly refused. The missionaries were 
in many cases less fortunate. A few 
made their way into Peking, one party 
escaped across the Gobi Desert, and some 
succeeded in making their way to the more 
tolerant southern provinces; but in the 
inland cities many perished at their posts. 
At Pao-ting-fu, 80 miles southwest of Pe- 
king, fourteen persons, including women 
and children, were butchered by order of 
the authorities. 

Military operations ceased with the oc- 
cupation of Peking, with the exception of 
punitive expeditions sent to Pao-ting-fu 
and the more disturbed districts. On 
Aug. 10, Count von Waldersee, field-mar- 
shal of the German army, was unani- 
mously approved as commander of the 
allied forces. He arrived in Shanghai 
Sept. 21. On Oct. 3, the withdrawal of 
the United States troops was bearun. Oct. 
I, Li Hung Chang reached Peking, and 
the Chinese Peace Commission, consisting 
of Li Hung Chang, Yung Lu, Hsu Tung, 
and Prince Ching, was announced. Nego- 
tiations Avere begun at once, and on Dec. 
22 the allied forces came to an ao^eement 
as to the demands unon China, which was 
accepted by the Chinese Emperor on Dee. 

This agreement provided: 1. The sending 
of an Imnerial prince to Berlin on an ex- 
piatory mission. 2. Punishment of those 
designated by the powers. 3. Reparation 
to Japan for the murder of Mr. Suivama. 
4. An expiatory monument in all the 
desecrated foreign cemeteries. 5. Importa- 
tion of ai-m« and ammunition to c^ase. 
6. Indemnity to each and everv individual 
or society for loss incurred through 
Chinese. 7. Right to maintain eiTirds in 
foreign legations. 8. Destruction of Tien- 
tsin forts. 9. Right to military occupa- 
tion of certain points. 10. Imperial decree 
to be issued prohibiting, under penalty of 


death, membership in any anti-foreign 
society, and holding viceroys responsible 
for maintenance of order. 11. New com- 
mercial treaties to be negotiated. 12. 
Reform of the Chinese foreign office. Oc- 
cupation of Peking until the agreement 
is carried out. Prince Tuan and Duke 
Lan we:e banished to Turkestan, General 
Tung Fu Siang was degraded, Prince 
Cliuang Ying Niew and Chao Su Kiam 
were ordered to commit suicide, Hsu 
Cheng Yu, Yu Hsieu, and Kih Sin were 

The Chinese court made their formal 
re-entry into Peking on Jan. 7, 1902. An 
Anglo-Japanese agreement for maintain- 
ing the independence and territorial in- 
tegrity of China and Korea was signed 
Jan. 30, 1902, and a convention between 
China and Kussia on April 8, in which 
Russia recognized Manchuria as an in- 
' tegral part of China, and agreed to re- 
duce the period of Russian occupation 
from three years to eighteen months. A 
treaty with Great Britain was signed 
Sept. 5, in which China agreed to abolish 
the likin and kindred taxes for adequate 
considerations, on Jan. 1, 1904, provided 
the other powers entered into a similar 
engagement. China also agreed to open 
four new treaty ports; and, in a treaty 
with the United States, guaranteed to 
make Mukden and Antung open ports 
also. In 190.3 Japan and Russia engaged 
in negotiations concerning paramount in- 
terests in Korea and the status of Man- 
churia. On Feb. 6, 1904, Japan severed 
diplomatic relations with Russia, and on 
the 8th began war ag'ainst her, Manchuria 
becoming the feM of action. 

China and the Powers. A clear ex- 
position of the Chinese situation in 1900 is 
given in the following article written by 
Lord Charles Beresford: 

Observation of recent events teaches us 
that, if vjc continue to leave China to her- 
self without recunpvative power from 
■within, or firm and determined assistance 
from without, her ultimate disintegration 
is onlv a question of time. The reforms 
which are uvgpnt'y required in China, both 
for the hpuefit of that empire and its peo- 
ple, and for the development of the trade 
of friendly nations, may be shortly sum- 
marized as follows: 

1. The appointment of a foreign finan- 
cial adviser to direct the administration 
and collection of internal revenue. 

2. The reform of currency, so as to af- 
ford a more stable exchange. 

3. The establishment and centralization 
of mints. 

4. The abolition of the present octroi 
and likin charges on goods which have al- 
ready paid duty at the ports. In return 
for this, China should be allowed to in- 
crease her present tariff. Trade would 
not be damaged so much by slightly in- 
creased taxation, as it is injured and hin- 
dered by the delays and uncertainties of 
the present fiscal system. 

5. The rearrangement of the salt mo- 
nopoly, and general administrative reform. 

6. The establishment and maintenance 
of a proper military and police, capable 
of affording that protection to which the 
foreign merchant is entitled for himself or 
his goods. 

7. The opening up of the country and 
its resources, by giving greater facilities 
to native or foreign capital in the de- 
velopment of the minerals of the country, 
and improvements in the lines of com- 
munication, including postal and tele- 
graphic reforms. 

8. The right of residence in the interior 
to be conceded to foreigners. 

9. The promotion of all reforms and the 
introduction of all changes which are 
likely to promote the cause of civiliza- 
tion and the well-being of the Chinese 

A coalition of the four great trading 
powers — England, Germany, Russia, and 
the United States — could obtain these re- 
forms with advantage to themselves and 
benefit to China, and, indeed, the trading 

In a very few years, with this assist- 
ance loyally rendered, China would have 
an army capable of protecting herself, as 
long as she retained the foreigTi officers. 
The idea that the Chinese are not good 
soldiers is a great mistake. I was per= 
mitted to insnect most of the armies, and 
al' of the forts and arsenals of China, as 
wi'l be seen by the detailed account in my 
report, nnd T am convinced that, properly 
armed, disciplined, and led. there could 
be no better material than the Chinese 
soldier. I leave it to the commercial 



classes of the United States to say whether 
it is not worth their while to incur such 
slight risks for such great profit, and for 
so good an object. 

On sound business lines this policy ap- 
peals to the American nation; but, in ad- 
dition to that, are we going to let this 
opportunity slip of drawing the two An- 
glo-Saxon nations together for the cause 
of civilized progress, and the benefit of the 
world at large? Great nations have great 
responsibilities, to which they must be 
true, and when those responsibilities and 
self-interest go hand in hand, it would be 
unwise to miss the opportunity. 

Events are moving very rapidly in the 
Far East. A decision must be arrived at, 
and action of some sort taken very soon. 
It is the duty of Great Britain to lead, 
and I believe that the United States will 
not refuse to follow, but that both nations 
will combine to hoist aloft the banner of 
civilization and industrial progress, for 
the benefit of their own people, as well as 
for the benefit of China, and of the world. 

Chinese-American Reciprocity. His 
Excellency Wu Ting-Fang, Chinese minister 
to the United States, writes as follows: 

Confucius was once asked for a single 
word which might serve as a guiding 
principle through life. " Is not reciproc- 
ity such a word?" answered the great 
sage. " What you do not want done to 
yourself, do not do to others." This is the 
" Golden Rule " which should govern the 
relations of man to man. It is the foun- 
dation of society. It lies at the bottom of 
every system of morality, and every sys- 
tem of law. Therefore, if permanent rela- 
tions are to be established between two 
nations, reciprocity must be the key-note 
of every arrangement entered into between 

Having recognized this great principle 
of international intercourse, how shall we 
apply it to the case of China and the 
United States in such a manner as to re- 
sult in mutual helpfulness? Assuredly, 
the first thing to do is to take a general 
survey of the situation and see what are 
the needs of each country. Then we shall 
perceive clearly how each may help the 
other to a higher plane of material de- 
velopment and prosperity. 


The United States now has its indus- 
trial machinery perfectly adjusted to the 
production of wealth on a scale of un- 
precedented magnitude. Of land, the first 
of the three agents of production enumer- 
ated by economists, the United States is 
fortunately blessed with an almost un- 
limited amount. Its territory stretches 
from ocean to ocean, and from the snows 
of the Arctic Circle to the broiling sun of 
the tropics. Within these limits are found 
all the products of soil, forest, and mine 
that are useful to man. With respect to 
labor, the second agent of production, the 
United States at first naturally suffered 
the disadvantage common to all new coun- 
tries. But here the genius of the people 
came into play to relieve the situation. 
That necessity which is " the mother of 
invention " substituted the sewing-machine 
for women's fingers, the reaper for farm- 
hands, the cotton-gin for slaves. The effi- 
ciency of labor was thereby multiplied, in 
many cases, a hundredfold. The ingenious 
manner in which capital, the third agent 
of production, is put to a profitable use 
is equally characteristic of America. Since 
competition reduces profits, the formation 
of industrial combinations, commonly 
called trusts, is for the capitalist the 
logical solution of the difiiculty. These 
enable the vast amount of capital in the 
country to secure the best results with 
the greatest economy. Whether they y 
secure " the greatest good to the greatest 
number " is another matter. 

The development of the resources of the 
United States by the use of machinery 
and by the combination of capital has 
now reached a point which may be termed 
critical. The productive power of the 
coimtry increases so much faster than its 
capacity for consumption that the demand 
of a population of 75,000,000 is no sooner 
felt than supplied. There is constant dan- 
ger of over-production, with all its attend- 
ant conseqiiences. Under these circum- 
stances, it is imperative for the farmers 
and manufacturers of the United States 
to seek an outlet for their products and 
goods in foreign markets. But whither 
shall they turn? 

On the other side of the Pacific lies the 

vast empire of China, which in extent 

of territory and density of population 

exceeds the whole of Europe. To be more 



particular, the province of Szechuen can tably wheat, flour, and canned goods, are 

muster more able-bodied men than the destined for consumption in the Chinese 

German Empire. The province of Shan- mainland. 

tung can boast of as many native-born sons Such is the present condition of trade 
as France. Scatter all the inhabitants of between the United States and China. 
Costa Rica or Nicaragua in Canton, and That trade can be greatly extended. Let 
they would be completely lost in that city's the products of American farms, mills, 
surging throngs. Transport all the people and workshops once catch the Chinese 
of Chile into China and they would fill fancy, and America need look no farther 
only a city of the first class. Further for a market. The present popularity 
comparisons are needless. Suffice it to of American kerosene illustrates the readi- 
say that China has her teeming millions ness of the Chinese to accept any article 
to feed and to clothe. Many of the sup- that fills a long-felt want. They have 
plies come from outside. The share fur- recognized in kerosene a cheap and good 
uished by the United States might be illuminant, much superior to their own 
greatly increased. According to the statis- nut-oil, and it has consequently found 
ties published by the United States gov- its way into distant and outlying parts 
ernment, China in 1899 took American of the empire where the very name of 
goods to the value of $14,437,422, of which America is unknown. Stores in the in- 
amount $9,844,565 was paid for cotton terior now send their agents to the treaty- 
goods. All the European countries com- ports for it. I would suggest that Amer- 
bined bought only $1,484,363 worth of ican farmers and manufacturers might 
American cotton manufactures during the find it to their advantage to study the 
same period. The amount of similar pur- wants and habits of the Chinese and the 
chases made by the Central American conditions of trade in China, 
states was $739,259; by all the South Thus we see that China can give the 
American countries $2,713,967. It thus United States a much - needed market, 
appears that China is the largest buyer What, on the other hand, can the United 
of American cotton goods. British Amer- States do for China? Let us consider 
ica comes next in the list with purchases China's stock- of the three requisites for 
amounting to $2,759,164. Cotton cloth the production of wealth — land, labor, and 
has a wide range of uses in all parts of capital. 

the Chinese Empire, and it is almost im- The Chinese Empire embraces a contin- 
possible for the supply to equal the de- uous territory which stretches over sixty 
mand. degrees of longitude and thirty-four degrees 
Up to the year 1898 cotton goods and of latitude. Nature has endowed this 
kerosene were the only articles import- immense region with every variety of 
ed from the United States in large soil and climate, but has, however, 
enough quantities to have a value of over scattered her bounties over it with an 
$1,000,000. But I noticed in the statistics uneven hand. Tliat portion which com- 
published by the United States government prises the eighteen provinces of China 
for the year 1899 that manufactures of proper, extending from the Great Wall to 
iron and steel have also passed that mark, the China Sea, and from the Tibetan pla- 
This is due to the fact that China has teau to the Pacific Ocean, is more highly 
now begun in real earnest the work of favored than the rest. Whenever China 
building railroads. The demand for con- is mentioned, it is generally this particu- 
struction materials is great. The value of lar portion of the empire that is meant. 
locomotiA-es imjjorted in 1899 from the On this land hundreds of generations of 
United States was $732,212. men have lived and died without exhaust- 
Besides the articles mentioned, there in-r its richness and fertility. There re- 
are many others of American origin mains for generations to come untold 
which do not figure in the customs re- wealth of nature lying hidden within the 
turns as such. These find their way into bowels of the earth. The mines of Yun- 
China through adjacent countries, es- nan, though they have for centuries sup- 
pecially Hong-Kong. At least three- plied the government mints with copper 
fourths of the imports of Hong-Kong, no- for the coining of those pieces of money 



commonly known as cash, only await 
the introduction of modern methods of ex- 
traction to yield an annual output as 
large as that of the famous Calumet and 
Hecla mines. The sands of the Yangtsze, 
washed down from the highlands of Tibet, 
contain so much gold that that part of 
its course as it enters the province of 
Szechuen is called the River of Golden 
Sand. Much more important than these, 
however, are the deposits of coal which 
underlie the surface formation of every 
province. All varieties of coal are found, 
from the softest lignite to the hardest 
anthracite, and in such quantities that, 
according to the careful estimate of 
Baron Richtofen, the famous German 
traveller and geologist, the province of 
Shansi alone can supply the whole world, 
at the present rate of consumption, for 
3,000 years. In most cases beds of iron- 
ore lie in close proximity to those of coal, 
and can hence be easily worked and smelt- 
ed. In short, the natural resources of 
China, in both variety and quantity, are 
so great that she stands second to no oth- 
er nation in potential wealth. To reduce 
this potentiality to actuality is for her 
the most important question of the hour. 
For this purpose she has an almost un- 
limited supply of labor at her command. 

Every village can count its thousands 
of laborers, every city its tens of thou- 
sands. Experience proves that the Chi- 
nese as all - round laborers can easily 
distance all competitors. They are in- 
dustrious, intelligent, and orderly. They 
can work under conditions that would kill 
a man of a less hardy race, in heat that 
would suit a salamander or in cold that 
would please a polar bear, sustaining their 
energies through long hours of unremit- 
ting toil with only a few bowls of rice. 

But have the Chinese sufficient capital 
to carry on their industrial operations? 
They are a nation of shopkeepers. What 
capital they have is usually invested in 
,'imall business ventures. It is their in- 
stinct to avoid large enterprises. Thus the 
capital in the country, though undoubtedly 
large, may be likened to a pile of sand 
on the beach. It has great extent, but is 
so utterly lacking in cohesion that out of 
it no lofty structure can be built. Be- 
fore China can be really on the high road 
to prosperity, it must find means of fully 

utilizing every economic advantage that 
it has. Modern methods are its greatest 
need. Here is America's opportunity. 

Of all public works, China has most 
pressing need of railroads. Only a few 
years ago it would have been difiicult to 
convince one man in ten of the immediate 
necessity for the introduction of railroads 
into all the provinces of the empire. To- 
day at least nine out of every ten believe 
that railroads ought to be built as fast 
as possible. This complete change of pub- 
lic opinion within so short a time shows 
perhaps better than anything else how 
fast China is getting into the swing of the 
world's forward movement. There are at 
present only about 400 miles of railroad 
open to traffic throughout the whole 
country, and all the lines building and 
projected foot up to 5,000 or 6,000 miles 
more. China proper covers about as 
many square miles as the States east of 
the Mississippi. Those States, with a 
population of 50,000,000, require 100,- 
000 miles of railroad to do their business. 
China, with a population eight times as 
large, would naturally be supposed to 
need at least about an equal mileage of 
roads for her purposes. It would not be 
strange if the activity in railroad con- 
struction in the United States soon after 
the Civil War should find a parallel in 
China in coming years. 

The building of railroads in China does 
not partake of the speculative character 
which attended the building of some of the 
American roads. There are no wild re- 
gions to be opened up for settlement, no 
new towns to be built along the route. 
Here is a case of the railroad following 
the population, and not that of the pop- 
ulation following the railroad. A road 
built through populous cities and famous 
marts has not long to wait for traffic. It 
would pay from the beginning. 

The first railroad in China was built 
for the transportation of coal from the 
Kaiping mines to the port of Taku. The 
line, though in an out-of-the-way corner 
of the empire, proved so profitable from 
the very start that it was soon extended 
to Tientsin and Peking in one directioUj 
and to Shanhaikwan, the eastern terminus 
of the Great Wall, in the other. Not long 
ago it was thought advisable to build a 
branch beyond Shanhaikwan to the treaty- 



port of Newchwang. The era of railroad by its own subjects or citizens. But 
building in China may be said to have China has been so long accustomed to in- 
just dawned. China desires nothing bet- demnify foreigners who have fallen vic- 
ter than to have Americans lend a hand tims to mob violence that she is looked 
in this great work. upon in a sense as an insurer of the lives 

It gave me great pleasure two years and property of all foreigners residing 

ago to obtain for an American company within her borders. To such an extent 

a concession to build a railroad between is this idea current among foreigners in 

Hankow, the great distributing centre of China that some years ago an American 

central China, and Canton, the great dis- missionary in the province of Shantung, 

tributing centre of south China. Tlie line who happened to have some articles stolen 

is to connect with the Lu-Han line on the from his house in the night, estimated his 

north and with the Kowloon line on the loss at $60, and actually sent the bill 

south, and throughout its whole length of through the American minister at Peking 

more than 900 miles will run through opu- to the Foreign Office for payment. The 

lent cities, fertile valleys, and cultivated Chinese tarifl" also favors foreigners resi- 

plains. The construction of such a line dent in China much more than it does the 

by Americans through the heart of China Chinese themselves. Most articles import- 

cannot fail to bring the people of the two ed for the use of foreigncis are on the 

countries into closer relations. free-list. Such is the treatment which 

Besides railroads, there are other pub- Americans, in common with the subjects 

lie works which China must undertake and citizens of other foreign powers, re- 

sooner or later. Among them are river ceive in China. 

and harbor improvements, city water sup- Justice would seem to demand equal 
plies, street lighting, and street railways, consideration for the Chinese on the part 
Owing to the traditional friendship be- of the United States. China does not ask 
tween the two countries, our people are for special favors. All she wants is en- 
well disposed towards Americans. They joyment of the same privileges accorded 
are willing to follow their lead in these other nationalities. Instead, she is sin- 
new enterprises, where they might spurn g'ed out for discrimination and made the 
the assistance of other people with whom subject of hostile legislation. Her door 
they have been on less friendly terms in is wide open to the people of the United 
the past. States, but their door is slammed in the 

Now, reciprocity demands the " open face of her people. I am not so biased as 

door." China long ago adopted that pol- to advocate any policy that might be 

icy in her foreign intercourse. She has detrimental to the best interests of the 

treaty relations with aM the European people of the United States. If they 

powers, tocether with the United States, think it desirable to keep out the objec- 

Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Japan, and Korea, tionable class of Chinese, by all means let 

All these are equally " favored nations " them do so. Let them make their immi- 

in every sense of the term. The Swede gration laws as strict as possible, but let 

and the"^ Dane enjoy the same rights, privi- them be applicable to all foreigners, 

leges, immimities, and exemptions, with Would it not be fairer to exclude the il* 

respect to commerce, navigation, travel, literate and degenerate classes of all na- 

and residence throughout the length and tions rather than to make an arbitrary 

breadth of the empire as are accorded to ruling against the Chinese alone? Would 

the Russian or the Englishman. Any fa- it not be wiser to set up some specific 

vor that may be granted to Japan, for in- test of fitness, such as ability to read 

stance, at once inures to the benefit of the intelligently the American Constitution? 

United States. Indeed. China, in her treat- That would give the Chinese a chance 

ment of strangers within her gates, has along with the rest of the world, and yet 

in a great many respects gone even beyond efl'ectually restrict their immigration, 

■what is required of international usage. Since the law and the treaty forbid the 

According to the usual practice of na- coming of Chinese laborers, I must do all 

tions, no country is expected to accord to I can to restrict their immigration. I 

foreigners rights which are not enjoyed should, however, like to call attention 



to the fact that the Chinese Exclusion Chinese in America explained? By the 

Act, as enforced, scarcely accomplishes fact that some forty years ago, when the 

the purpose for which it was passed. It Pacific Railway was building, there was 

aimed to provide for the exclusion of great scarcity of laborers. Agents went 

Chinese laborers only, while freely admit- to China and induced a considerable num- 

ting all others. As a matter of fact, ber of Chinese to come to this country 

the respectable merchant, who would be and assist in the construction of the rail- 

an irreproachable addition to the popula- road. After their work was done most of 

tion of any country, has been frequently them returned home, taking their eavn- 

turned back, whereas the Chinese high- ings with them. They told their rela- 

binders, the rifl'rafi' and scum of the na- tives of the exceptional opportunities for 

tion, fugitives from justice and advent- making money in this country, and they 

urers of all types, have too often effected in turn decided to seek their fortunes 

an entrance without much difficulty. This here. Were it not for this circumstance, 

is because the American officials at the there would be no more Chinese in this 

entrance ports are ignorant of Chinese country than there are in Europe, where 

character and dialects and cannot always wages are also much higher than in China, 

discriminate between the worthy and the As it is, all who are in the United States 

unworthy. Rascals succeed in deceiving are from the province of Canton, and they 

them, while the respectable but guileless come from two or three places only of 

Chinese are often unjustly suspected, in- that one province. 

conveniently detained, or even sent back It has been said that the rules of in- 
to China. A number of such cases have ternational intercourse as observed by 
been brought to my attention. It must Western nations among themselves are not 
not be supposed, however, that I blame applicable to intercourse with Eastern na- 
any official. In view of their limited tions. True it is that the people of the 
knowledge of Chinese affairs, it is not East speak different languages and have 
strange that the officials sometimes make different customs, manners, religions, and 
mistakes. The Americans judge us ways of thinking from the people of the 
wrongly, just as we often misjudge them. West. But the rule of contraries is by 
This unpleasant state of things is to be no means a safe guide through the intri- 
deplored. and I would suggest that diffi- cacies of social observances. By disre- 
culties might be avoided if the regular garding the common civilities of life, 
officials, in passing on immigrant China- which are considered very important in 
men, could have the assistance of Chinese China, and by assuming a loftv air of 
consuls, or people fitted by training and superiority, foreigners frequently make 
experience in China for the discharge of themselves unpopular in China. Amer- 
such duties. ieans have the reputation there of being 
Great misunderstanding exists in the abrupt, English dictatorial. In recent 
United States in regard to Chinese ques- years competition in trade with people 
tions. There is a current fear that if all of other nationalities has reduced their 
restrictions on Chinese immigration were profits and forced them, for the sake of 
removed, the United States would be flood- obtaining custom, to be more suave in 
ed with my countrymen. Inasmuch as their manners. Foreigners are sometimes 
China contains some 400,000,000 inhabi- guilty, also, of practising all sorts of 
tants, a wholesale emigration would cer- tricks upon the unsuspecting natives. It 
tainly be a serious matter for the people should be remeinbered that the Chinese 
of the country to which they removed, standard of business honesty is very high. 
But there is no danger of such a calamity The " yea, yea " of a Chinese merchant is 
befalling the United States. One of the as good as srold. Not a scrap of paper is 
most striking features of the conserva- necessary to bind him to his word. 

tism of the Chinese is their absolute hor- 
ror of travel, especially by sea. They re- 
gard any necessity for it as an unmiti- 
gated evil. 

I believe that the Western nations want 
to treat the people of the Orient fairly. 
It is gratifying to see that Japan has 
been able to revise her ex-territorial trea- 
How, then, is the presence of so many ties, and it speaks well for the fair- 



mindedness of England and other coun- 
tries that they have thrown no obstacles 
in her way. I hope that the day will 
soon come when China may follow in her 

In the mean time, China observes with 
interest that the planting of the Stars 
and Stripes in the Philippine Islands will 
make the United States her neighbor in 
the future, as she has been her friend in 
the past. It is her earnest hope that the 
United States will make no attempt to bar 
Asiatics from her new shores, but that 
she will seize this opportunity to strength- 
en friendly relations of inutual helpful- 
ness between the two countries. No other 
nation has a stronger claim to the confi- 
dence of China than has the United 
States. More than once the United 
States government has used its good of- 
fices to promote Chinese interests and wel- 
fare. Nations, like individuals, appreciate 
favors, and, like them also, resent indig- 
nities. The sentiment of good-will enter- 
tained by the government and people of 
China towards the government and people 
of the United States is strong and pro- 
found because of the long, unblemished 
past, but underneath it all there is, I am 
soiry to say, a natural feeling of disap- 
pointment and irritation that the people 
of the United States deal less liberally 
with the Chinese than with the rest of the 
world. China does not ask for mvich. She 
has no thoutrht of territorial aggrandize- 
ment, of self-glorification in any form. See 
Wu Tixg-Fang. 

Chinese Exclusion Acts. In 1881 a 
treaty was effected and ratified between 
the United States and China, which pro- 
vided that the government of the former 
should have power to limit, suspend, or 
regulate, but not prohibit, the importation 
of Chinese laborers. Chinese merchants, 
travellers and their servants, teachers, and 
students in this country were to enjoy the 
same rights as those vouchsafed to the citi- 
zens of the most favored nations. 

On May 6, 1882. however. Congress 
passed an act suspending Chinese immi- 
gration for a period of ten years. To en- 
force this law a heavy fine was ordered 
to be imposed upon any captain or ship- 
owner who should bring Chinese laborers 
to any part of the United States, and each 
laborer so coming was liable to imprison- 

ment for a period not exceeding twelve 
months. Other Chinese persons — as stu- 
dents, travellers, merchants, scientists, di- 
plomatists, etc. — were to be provided with 
an official certificate or passport from 
their home government. 

Notwithstanding this exclusion act, 
many Chinamen still found entrance into 
the United States by first landing in 
British Columbia, whence they were sys- 
tematically smuggled across the border. 
It was estimated that the number of la- 
borers thus surreptitiouslj^ introduced 
into the United States averaged not less 
than 1,500 per year for several years af- 
ter the passage of the law. 

The feeling against the Chinese was es- 
pecially strong on the Pacific slope. A 
bill promoted by Representative Geary, of 
California, and known as the Geary Act, 
became law May 5, 1892. By this measure 
the previous exclusion acts of 1882, 1884, 
and 1888 were re-enacted for ten years. 
Only about 12,000 out of 100,000 complied 
with the law. The question of its constitu- 
tionality was settled by a decision of the 
U. S. Supreme Court, May 15, 1893. See 
Chinese-American Reciprocity. 

Chinese Exclusion Bill, Veto of. See 
Arthur, Chester Alan. 

Chinook Indians, a former distinct 
and interesting nation in the Northwest. 
They once inhabited the country on each 
side of the Columbia River from the Grand 
Dalles to its mouth. Tlie Chinooks proper 
were on the north side of that stream, 
and the other division, called Clatsops, 
were on the south side and along the Pa- 
cific coast. Broken into roving bands, 
they began fading away, and the nation 
has become almost extinct; and their lan- 
guage, corrupted by French and English 
traders, is almost obliterated. There are 
a very few of them in the State of Wash- 

Chippewa, Battle of. General Brown 
took prompt measures to secure the ad- 
vantages derived from the capture of 
Fort Erie (see Canada), for it was known 
that General Riall, who was then in chief 
command on the Niagara frontier, was 
moving towards Fort Erie. Early in the 
morning of July 3. 1814, he had sent for- 
ward some of the Royal Scots to reinforce 
the garrison. At Chippewa, at the mouth 
of Chippewa Creek, they heard of the sur- 



render of the fort, when Riall determined Finally a flank movement and a fu- 
to make an immediate attack upon the rious charge were made by Major McNeill 
Americans on Canadian soil. Hearing with Colonel Campbell's 11th regiment, 
that reinforcements were coming from and a terrific fire from a corps under Major 
York, he deferred the attack until the Jesup in the centre made the British 
next morning. To meet this force, Gen- line give way. It broke and fled in haste 
eral Brown sent forward General Scott to the intrenchments below Chippewa 
with his brigade, accompanied by Towson's Creek. The fugitives tore up the bridge 
artillery, on the morning of the 4th. Rip- over the creek behind them, leaving an 
ley was ordered in the same direction with impassable chasm between themselves and 
his brigade, but was not ready to move the Americans. The battle-field (opposite 
until the afternoon. Scott went down the Navy Island) was strewn with the dead 
Canada side of the Niagara River, skir- and dying. The Americans lost, in killed, 
mishing nearly all the way to Street's wounded, and missing, 355 men; the Brit- 
Creek, driving back a British advanced de- ish lost, by the same casualties, 604 men, 
tachment. of whom 236 were killed. 

The main portions of Brown's army On that hot July evening a gentle show- 
reached Scott's encampment on the south er of rain descended, which mitigated the 
side of Street's Creek that night, and horrors of the battle-field. Scott was 
on the morning of the 5th the oppos- eager to pursue, but was compelled to 
ing armies were only two miles apart, wait for the tardy Ripley, who did not 
At about noon Scott was joined by arrive in time to participate in the bat- 
General Porter, with his volunteers and tie or to join in an instant pursuit. The 
Indians. The British had also been re- immediate results of the battle were im- 
inforced. portant. The Indian allies of the Brit- 

The two armies were feeling each other ish were disheartened, and nearly all of 

for some time, when preliminary skirmish- them left the army and returned to their 

ing was begun by Porter with marked homes. The Americans were greatly in- 

success. The Irdians behaved gallantly spirited. 

under the leadership of Captain Pollard Chippewa Indians, also kno^^^l as 
and the famous Red Jacket. The British O.iibways, an Algonquian family, living in 
advanced corps, severely smitten, fied back scattered bands on the shores and islands 
in afi'right towards Chippewa. Porter of the upper Lakes, first discovered by the 
pursued, and found himself within a few French in 1640 at the Sault Ste. Marie, 
yards of the entire British force, advan- when they numbered about 2.000. They 
cing in battle order. A desperate strug- were then at war with the Iroquois, the 
gle ensued. Finally the British made Foxes, and the Sioux; and they drove the 
a furious charge with bayonets. Hear- latter from the head-waters of the Mis- 
ing nothing from Scott, Porter ordered sissippi and from the Red River of the 
a retreat. It became a tumultuous North. The French established mission- 
rout, aries among them, and the Chippewas were 

It was now towards evening. Brown the firm friends of these Eu'-opeans until 

had been watching Porter's movements the conauest of Canada ended French do- 

with great anxiety, and had ordered Scott minion in America. In 1712 they aided 

to cross Street's Creek, when Porter's fly- the French in repelling an attack of the 

ing troops were observed. Riall had sent Foxes on Detroit 

forward some Royal Scots, part of an- In Pontiae's conspiracy (see Pontiac) 

other regiment of regtilars, a regiment of they were his confederates; and they sided 

Lincoln militia, and about 300 Indians, with the British in the war of the Revo- 

Tliese composed the force that fought lution and of 1812. Joining the Miamis, 

Porter. Scott crossed Street's Creek in they fought Wayne and were defeated, 

the face of a heavy cannomde, and very and subscribed to the treaty at Greenville 

soon the battle raged Avith fury along the in 1795. In 1816 they took part in the 
entire line of both armies. Several times pacification of the Northwestern tribes, 
the British line was broken and closed and in 1817 they gave up all their lands 

up again. in Ohio. At that time they occupied a 



vast and undefined territory from Macki- 
naw along the lint of Lalce Superior to 
the Mississippi River. The limits of this 
tevrifory were defined by a treaty in 1825, 
after which they gradually ceded their 
lands to the United States for equivalent 
annuities. All but a few bands had gone 
west of the Mississippi in 1851; and in 
18G6 the scattered bands in Canada, Mich- 

Gully, Walter Riley, a negro, confessed 
that he was guilty of the crime, and also 
declared that neither Judge Chisolm nor 
any of his friends had tried to influence 

Chittenden, Thomas, first governor of 
Vermont; born in East Guilford, Conn., 
Jan. 6, 1730. He held local offices in his 
native State before 1774, when he emi- 

igan, on the borders of La'-'e Superior, grated to the New Hampshire Grants, and 

and beyond the Mississippi numbered more settled at VVilliston. During the Revo- 

than 15,000. lution he was an active participant in the 

Their religion is simply a belief in a councils of his State, and was a leader in 

good and evil spirit, and the deification the convention which (Jan. 16, 1777) de- 

of the powers of nature. Various denomi- clared Vermont an independent State. He 

nations have missionaries among the Chip- was also a leader in the convention (July, 

pewas. 1777) which formed a constitution for 

In 1899 there were 3,410 Chippewas that State, and president of the council of 

at Devil's Lake agency, North Dakota; safety vested with governmental powers 

4,682 at La Pointe agency, Wisconsin; 
7,833 at White Earth agency, Minnesota; 
and 6,630 Chippewas and Ottawas com- 
bined at the Mackinac agency, Michi- 

Chisolm, William Wallace, jurist; 
born in Morgan county, Ga., Dec. 6, 1830; 
settled in Kemper covmty. Miss., in 1847. 
In 1858 he was made chief- justice of the 

He was elected governor of Vermont in 
1778, and, with the exception of one 
year, filled that office until his death, dur- 
ing which time the controversy between 
New York and Vermont was settled and 
the latter admitted as a State of the 
Union. He died in Williston, Vt., Aug. 
24, 1797. 

Choate, Joseph Hodges, diplomatist; 

peace; in 1860-67 was probate judge; and born in Salem, Mass., Jan. 24, 1832; 
subsequently was sheriff for several terms. 
During the Civil War he was a strong 
Unionist, and this fact made him an object 
of suspicion to the Confederate authori- 
ties. Early in 1877, John W. Gully, a 
Democrat, was murdered near Judge 
Chisolm's house, and Judge Chisolm and 
several of his Republican friends were ar- 
rested. Later the jail was broken into 
by a mob, one of whom shot Judge 
Chisolm's young son John. Thereupon 
the judge immediately killed the assassin 
with a gun that had been left by a faith- 
less guard. The cry was now raised, 
" Burn them out." Believing that the jail 
had been set on fire Judge Chisolm de- 
scended the stairs with his family, who 
had accompanied him to the jail. As soon 
as he appeared the crowd opened fire upon 
him, and he fell mortally wounded. His 
daughter also, a girl eighteen years old, 
received several wounds. The father died, 
May 13, 1877, and two days later his 
daughter succumbed to her injuries. 
Though the leaders of the crowd were in- 
dicted, not one of them was ever punished, up the Tweed ring, and was instrumental 
In December, 1877, the real murderer of in having Gen. Fitz-John Porter rein- 
II.— K 145 


graduated at Harvard University in 1S.?2; 
admitted to the bar in 1855, and settled 
in New York to practise. He was em- 
ployed in many famous lawsuits; was one 
of the committee of seventy which broke 


state in the army. In 1894 he was presi- 
dent of the New York Constitutional Con- 
vention, and in 1899 was appointed 

In 1861 they had a population of 25,000, 
with 5,000 negro slaves. They were se- 
duced into an alliance with the Confeder- 

L'nited States ambassador to England to ates in the Civil War, and disaster befell 

succeed John Hay, appointed Secretary 
of State. In 1905 he resigned and 
returned to the United States, after six 
years' service, being succeeded by White- 
law Reid. 

Choate, Rufus, lawyer; born in Essex, 
Mass., Oct. 1, 1799; studied at the 
Cambridge Law School, and, with W^ill- 
iam Wirt, became one of the most emi- 
nent lawyers and orators of his time. He 
began the practice of law at Danvers, 
Mass., in 1824. He was a distinguished 
member of both branches of his State 
legislature, a member of the Lower House 
of Congress, and United States Senator, 
succeeding Daniel Webster in 1841. In 
1853 he was attorney-general of Massa- 
chusetts. After the death of Webster, Mr. 
Choate, was the acknowledged leader of 
the Massachusetts bar. Impaired health 
compelled him to retire from public life 
in 1858. He died in Halifax, N. S., July 
13, 1859. 

Choctaw Indians, a tribe mostly Mo- 

them. They lost an immense amount of 
property, and their numbers, including 
the Chickasaws, were reduced to 17,000. 
Slavery was abolished, and part of their 
lands was forfeited for the benefit of 
the freedmen. 

In 1899 there were 18,456 Choctaws at 
the Union agency, Indian Territory. 

Choiseul, Etienne Francois, Due de, 
French statesman; born June 28, 1719; 
became a lieutenant-general in the army 
in 1759; and was at the head of the 
French ministry when, in 1761, cabinet 
changes in England threatened to diminish 
the power of that government. He was 
minister of foreign affairs, and in Janu- 
ary, 1761, became minister of war, and 
annexed those departments to the marine. 
Like Pitt, he was a statesman of consum- 
mate ability. He was of high rank and 
very wealthy, and was virtually sole min- 
ister of France. 

When the British had despoiled France 
of her American possessions Choiseul ea- 

bilians, and a peaceful agricultural peo- gerly watched for an opportunity to in- 

ple. Their domain comprised southern 
Mississippi and western Alabama. De 
Soto fought them in 1540. They became 
allies of the French in Louisiana, where 
they numbered about 2,500 warriors, and 
formed forty villages. In the Revolu- 
tion they were mostly with the EngMsh, 
but were granted peaceable possession of 
their lands by the United States govern- 

On Jan. 3, 1786, a treaty was made with 
the leaders of the nation, of the same pur- 
port and upon the same terms as that 
made with the Cherokees the previous 
year. As early as 1800, numbers of them 
went beyond the Mississippi, and in 1803 
it was estimated that 500 families had 
emigrated. They served with the United 
States t'-nopa"in the second war with Eng- 
land and in that with the C''eel:s. and in 
1820 they ceded a part of their lands for 
a domain in what is now the Indian Ter- 

In 1830 they ceded the rest of their 
lands and joined their brethren west of 
the Mississippi, where the Chickasaws 
joined them. 

flict a retaliatory blow; and he was de- 
lighted when he perceived that a rising 
quarrel between Great Britain and her 
American colonies foreshadowed a dis- 
memberment of the British Empire. Choi- 
seul determined to foster the quarrel as 
far as possible. He sent the Baron de 
Kalb to America in the disguise of a 
traveller, but really as a French emissary, 
to ascertain the temper of the people tow- 
ards the mother-country. The report of 
the baron did not warrant the hope of an 
immediate rupture. 

But Choiseul waited and watched, and 
in the summer of 1768 he saw reasons for 
expecting an almost immediate outbreak 
of rebellion in America. He wrote to the 
I'rench minister in London that facts and 
not theories must shape French action at 
that crisis. He proposed to make a com- 
mercial treaty with the discontented 
colonies, both of importation and exporta- 
tion, at the moment of rupture, the ad- 
vantages of which might cause them at 
once to detach themselves from the Brit- 
ish government. He believed the separa^ 
tion must come sooner or later, and wished 



to liasten the hoped-for event. He per- 
ceived the difficulties that stood in the 
way of the consummation of his scheme, 
weighed their evils, but still persisted. He 
said to the minister, " I firmly believe and 
hope this government will so conduct itself 
as to widen the breach " ; and he was san- 
guine that his plans would result in grat- 
ifying the wishes of every Frenchman. 
But Choiseul had to wait seven years be- 

Chouteau, Pierre, trader; born in New 
Orleans in 1749; ascended the Missis- 
sippi River, and founded the city of St. 
Louis, Mo. He died in St. Louis, Mo., 
July 0, 1849. 

Christ, Disciples of. See Disciples 
OF Christ. 

Christian Associations, Young Men's, 
societies organized for the purpose of pro- 
viding for the social, physical, intellectual. 

fore these wishes were gratified, and then and spiritual advancement of young men. 
he was dismissed from office bj' the sue- The first association of this character was 
cessor of the old King (Louis XV.) whom established in London, in 1844, by George 

he had ruled so long. He died in Paris, 
May 7, 1785. 

Choisi, Claude Gabriel de, military 
officer ; born in France ; entered the French 
array June 16, 1741 ; came to America in 
1780; was given command of a brigade 
with which, in conjunction with Lauzun's 
cavalry, he defeated Tarleton Oct. 3, 1781. 
During the Eeign of Terror in France, 
through his friendship for the King, he 
was imprisoned and, it is supposed, died $25,417,605. Tliey had 736 libraries, con- 

Williams. The first society in the United 
States was established in New York City, 
in 1852. Since then similar societies have 
sprung up throughout the civilized world. 
In 1903 there were 6,625 associations 
in the world, of which 1,736 were in 
North America, principally in the 
United States. The total membership 
of the North American societies was 
350,455, with 460 buildings, valued at 


Cholera, Asiatic, described by Garcia 
del Huerto, a physician of Goa, about 
1560, appeared in India in 1774, and 
became endemic in Lower Bengal, 1817; 
gradually spread till it reached Russia, 
1830; Germany, 1831; carrying off more 

taining 544,275 volumes; employed 1,729 
general secretaries and other paid offi- 
cials; and expended for all purposes 

Christian Associations, Young Wom- 
en's, societies established for work by 
and among women. The members aim ( 1 ) 

than 900,000 persons on the Continent in to develop women physically, by system- 

1829-30; in England and Wales in 1848- atic training in the gymnasium and holi- 

49, 53,293 persons; in 1854, 20,097. First day outings; (2) socially, by receptions, 

death by cholera in North America, June helpful companionships, musical and lit- 

8, 1832. in Quebec. In New York, June 22, erary entertainments, boardinsr chibs, em- 

1832. Cincinnati to New Orleans, October, ployment bureaus, etc. ; (3) intellectually, 

1832 (very severe throughout the United by reading-rooms and libraries, lecture 

States). Again in the United States 
in 1834, slightly in 1849, severely in 1855, 
and again slightly in 1866-67. By the 
prompt and energetic enforcement of 
quarantine it was prevented from entering 
the United States in 1892. The German 
steamship Moravia reached New York 

courses, educational classes, concerts, art 
clubs, etc. ; (4) spiritually, by Gospel meet- 
ings, evangelistic meetings, Bible training- 
classes and personal work. The World's 
Young Women's Christian Association was 
established in 1893 and holds biennial 
conventions. State associations, holding 

Harbor Aug. 31, having had twentj^-two annual conventions, have been organized 

deaths from cholera during the voyage. 

The President ordered twenty days' 

quarantine for all immigrant vessels from 

cholera-infected districts, Sept. 1. On 

Sept. 3, the Xonnayinia and Rufjia, from 

Hamburg, were put in quarantine. On 

Sept. 10, the Scandia arrived with more 

cholera cases. The Surf Hotel property 

on Fire Island was bought by Governor 

Flower for quarantine purposes. 


in twenty-one States. The Evangel is the 
official organ of the associations, and is 
published monthV at Chicacro, 111. In 1900 
Ihere were 1,340 associations in Great 
Britain, 400 in Germany, 270 in France, 
400 in Denmark, with a smaller number 
in various other countries. In the LTnited 
States there were 377 (connected with the 
International Committee), with a mem- 
bership of 35,000. 


Christian Commission, United States, Christian Connection. See Chris- 

an organization that had its origin in TIANS. 

the Young Men's Christian Association, Christian Endeavor, Young People's 
in New York City, and was first sug- Society of, a religious society organized 
gested by Vincent Colyee {q. v.), who, by the Rev. Fbancis Clark {q. v.) in 
with Frank W. Ballard and Mrs. Dr. Har- the Williston Congregational Church, in 
ris, Avho represented the Ladies' Aid Soci- Portland, Me., on Feb. 2, 1881. He called 
ety, of Philadelphia, went to Washington the young people, of his church together 
immediately after the battle of Bull Run after a period of religious interest, and 
(July, 1861), to do Christian work in read to them substantially the same con- 
the camps and hospitals there. Mr. Colyer stitution which governs all the societies 
distributed Bibles and tracts and hymn- now organized throughout the world. The 
books among the soldiers, and held pray- society is strictly a religious body, hav- 
er-meetings. In August he suggested the ing for its main purpose the forwarding 
combination of all the Young Men's Chris- of the church's interests. In 1900 there 
tian Associations of the land in the for- were 42,490 societies in the United States; 
mation of a society similar to that of 3,526 in the British provinces; and 16,- 
the United States Sanitary Commission. 264 in foreign countries, a total of 62,- 
The suggestion was acted upon, and at 280 societies, with an aggregate member- 
a meeting of the Young Men's Christian ship of 3,376,800. 

Association, held in New York, Sept. 23, Christians, a religious body organ- 

1861, a committee was appointed to con- ized from several independent movements. 

duct the correspondence, and make ar- In 1792 James O'Kelly and twenty or 

rangements for holding a national conven- thirty ministers, and about 1,000 members, 

tion of such associations. left the Methodist Episcopal Church in 

A convention was called, and assembled North Carolina and Virginia. On Aug. 

in New York, Nov. 14, 1861, when the 4, 1794, they agreed to be known as 

United States Christian Commission was '"' Christians, and should acknowledge no 

organized, with George H. Stuart, of Phil- head over the church but Christ, and 

adelphia, as president. Its specific work should have no creed or discipline but 

was to be chiefly for the moral and relig- the Bible." Abner Jones, M.D., left t'he 

ions welfare of the soldiers and sailors, con- Baptists in New England, and preached 

ducted by oral instruction, and the circula- similar principles. He established the 

tion of the Bible and other proper books, first churches to have no name but Chris- 

with pamphlets, newspapers, etc., among tian at Lyndon, Vt., in 1800; at Brad- 

the men in hospitals, camps, and ships. ford, Vt., in 1802; at Piermont, N. II., 

The commission worked on the same and at Haverhill, Mass., in 1803. In 
general plan pursued by the United States April, 1801, a religious excitement, called 
Sanitary Commission. Its labors were " the falling exercise," began in southern 
not confined wholly to spiritual and in- Kentucky. It soon spread northward to 
tellectual ministrations, but also to the the Presbyterian churches at Cane Ridge 
distribution of a vast amount of food, and Concord, over which Rev. Barton W. 
hospital stores, delicacies, and clothing. Stone was pastor. His usual " May meet- 
It, too, followed the great armies, and was ing " was attended by 2,500 persons, many 
like a twin angel of mercy with the of whom were from other States. This 
Sanitary Commission. It co - operated revival lasted for several years, and 
most efficiently with the army and na^^r spread over several States, 
chaplains, and in various ways cast about The enthusiasm going beyond the de- 
the soldier a salutary hedge of Christian nominational conservatism of those days, 
influence. The money collected for the use there were many trials for hersy, and 
of the commission was chiefly gathered finally a new presbytery was organized, 
by the women of various religious denom- But on June 28, 1804, they disbanded and 
inations. The entire receipts of the published a document called The Last Will 
commission amounted to over $6,000,000. and Testament of the Springfield Pres- 
See Sanitary Commission, United hytery, in which they ignored all doctrinal 
States. standards and denominational names. In 



1802 Elias Smith, a Baptist minister at of the best troops of the army, to cross 

Portsmouth, N. H., met Abner Jones, and the river to oppose the British detach- 

became converted to his views, and sub- ments on the Canadian side (Nov. 7, 

sequently led his church over to the new 1813), and these were soon followed by 

movement. On Sept. 1, 1808, at Ports- riflemen under Lieutenant-Colonel For- 

raouth, N. H., Smith started the publica- sythe, who did excellent service in the 

tion of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, which rear of Macomb. 

is now issued at Dayton, O., and is the When news was received of the arrival 

oldest religious periodical in the United of reinforcements at Prescott, Wilkinson 

States. At first the Christians had no called a council of war (Nov. 8), and it 

separate ecclesiastical organization, but was decided " to proceed with all possi- 

ultimately circumstances became such ble rapidity to the attack of Montreal." 

that they were compelled to organize. General Brown was at once ordered to 

Half of their membership is found in New cross the river with his briga<ie and some 

York, Ohio, and Indiana. In 1899 they dragoons. Morrison's troops, fully 1,000 

reported 1,452 ministers, 1,505 churches, strong, had come down to Prescott in arm- 

and 112,414 members. ed schooners, with several gunboats and 

Christian Science, a religious faith bateaux under Captain Mulcaster, and 
founded by the Rev. Mary Baker G. Eddy, were joined by provincial infantry and 
of Boston, Mass., in 18G6. It absolutely dragoons under Lieutenant-Colonel Pear- 
denies the power of the human mind and son. They pushed forward, and on the 
human will, and claims no will but God's, morning of the 9th were close upon Wil- 
It holds that man is the reflection of God's kinson, and the land troops were debark- 
mind, and therefore establishes the broth- ed to pursue the Americans — 2,000 men, 
crhood of man. It further claims that including cavalry. 

Jesus Christ brought perfect salvation General Boyd and his brigade were now 
from sin and disease. It is not mind- detached to reinforce Brown, with orders 
cure, as that is generally understood, for to cover his march, to attack the pursu- 
it recognizes but one mind, which is God. ing enemy if necessary, and to co-operate 
Neither is it faith-cure, for it does not with the other commanders. Wilkinson 
accomplish its work through blind faith now found himself in a perilous posi- 
in God, but through the understanding tion, for the British armed vessels were 
of man's relation to God. The one great close upon his flotilla, and the British 
text-book of Christian Science is Science land troops were hanging upon the rear 
and Health, with key to the Bible, sup- of Brown and Boyd. The latter also en- 
plemented by another book called Miscel- countered detachments coming up from 
lancous Writings, both of which were pub- below. 

lished by Mrs. Eddy. In 1899 there were The British gunboats attacked the flo- 

in the United States 497 regularly organ- tilla, but Wilkinson made such disposi- 

ized churches, 12,000 ministers, and 80,- tion of his cannon in battery on the shore 

000 members. Churches have also been or- that they were repulsed, and fled up the 

ganized in England, France, Germany, river. Brown had captured a British 

Canada, and Brazil. post at the foot of the rapids, and Wil- 

Chrysler's Field, Battle of. When kinson had just issued orders for the 
Wilkinson's expedition down the St. Law- flotilla to proceed down these rapids, and 
rence River against ]\Iontreal, com- Boyd to resume his march, when a British 
posed of land troops borne by a flotilla column attacked the rear of the latter, 
of boats, arrived at a point 4 miles be- Boyd turned upon his antagonist, and a 
low Ogdensburg. information reached the sharp battle ensued. General Swartwout 
commander of the expedition that the op- was detached with his brigade to assail 
posite shore of the river was lined with the British vanguard, and General Coving- 
posts of musketry and artillery, and that ton took position at supporting distance 
a large reinforcement of British troops un- from him. Their antagonists were driven 
der Lieutenant-Colonel Morrison had ar- back out of the woods on the main line 
rived at Prescott. W'ilkinson had already in the open fields of John Chrysler, a 
ordered Col. Alexander Macomb, with 1,200 British militia captain then in the service. 



That line was covered by Mulcaster's gun- erents like a pendulum. It would doubt- 
boats, and protected in part by deep less have rested with the Americans had 
ravines. their ammunition held out. Their retreat 
Then General Covington led his brigade was promising to be a rout, when the 
against the British left, near the river, fugitives were met by 600 troops under 


and the battle became general. By charge 
after charge the British were forced back 
nearly a mile, and the American cannon, 
under the direction of Col. J. G. Swift, 
did excellent execution. At length Cov- 
ington fell, seriously wounded, and the 
ammunition of the Americans began to 
fail. It was soon exhausted, and Swart- 
wout's brigade, hard pushed, slowly fell 
back, followed by others. 

The British perceived this retrograde 
movement, followed up the advantage 
gained with great vigor, and were endeav- 
oring by a flank movement to capture 
Boyd's cannon, when a gallant charge of 
cavalry, led by Adjutant-General Wal- 
bach, whom Armstrong had permitted to 
accompany the expedition, drove them 
hack and saved the pieces. The effort was 
renewed. Lieutenant Smith, who com- 
manded one of the cannon, was mortally 
wounded, and the piece was seized by the 

For five hours the conflict had been car- 
ried on in the midst of sleet and snow, 
and victoryhad swayed between the bellig- 

Colonel Upham and Major Malcolm, Avhom 
Wilkinson had sent up to the support of 
Boyd. These checked the flight, drove 
back the British, and saved the American 

Meanwhile Boyd had reformed a por- 
tion of the army, and then awaited an- 
other attack. It was not made. The Amer- 
icans, under cover of darkness, retired to 
their boats unmolested. Neither party 
had gained a victory, but the advantage 
lay with the British, who held the field. 
The British army on that occcasion was 
slightly superior in numbers, counting its 
Indian allies. The Americans lost in the 
bnttle, in killed and woimded, 339; the 
British lost 187. 

On the morning after the battle, the flo- 
tilla, with the gunboats and troops, passed 
safely down the rapids, and 3 miles above 
Cornwall they formed a junction with the 
forces under General Brown. There Wil- 
kinson was informed that Hampton, 
whom he had invited in Armstrong's 
name to meet him at St. Regis, had re- 
fused to join him. A council of war (Nov. 



12, 1813) decided that it was best to 
abandon the expedition against Montreal, 
although it was said there were not more 
tlian GDO troops there, and put the army 
into winter-quarters at French Mills, on 
the Salmon Kiver, which was done. Thus 
ended in disaster and disgrace an ex- 
pedition which in its inception piomised 
salutary results. See Canada^ Macomb, 
Alexander; Montreal; Prescott; Wil- 
kinson, James. 

Church, Benjamin, military officer; 
born in Plymouth, Mass., in 1G39; was 
a leader in King Philip's War; com- 
manded the party by whom Philip was 
slain (August, 1676) ; and with his own 
sword cut off the head of the dusky mon- 
arch. While Phipps was operating 
against Quebec in 1690, Colonel Church 
was sent on an expedition against the 
eastern Indians. He went up the An- 
droscoggin River to the site of Lewiston, 
Me., where he, " for example," put to death 
a number of men, women, and children 
whom he had captured. The Indians re- 
taliated fearfully. 

In May, 1704, Governor Dudley sent, 
from Boston, an expedition to the east- 
ern bounds of New England. It con- 
sisted of 550 soldiers, under Church. The 
campaign then undertaken against the 
French and Indians continued all sum- 
mer, and Church inflicted much damage 
to the allies at Penobscot and Passama- 
quoddy. He is represented by his con- 
temporaries as distinguished as much for 
his integrity, justice, and purity as for 
his military exploits. He is the author 
of Entertaining Passages relating to Phi- 
lip's War. He died in Little Compton, 
E. I., Jan. 17, 1718. 

Church, Benjamin, surgeon; born in 
Newport, R. I., Aug. 24, 1734; son of Col. 
Benjamin Church ; was graduated at Har- 
vard College; studied medicine in Lon- 
don, and became eminent as a surgeon. 
He lived a bachelor, extravagantly and 
licentiously, in a fine mansion which he 
built at Rayiiham. T\Tass.. in 1768. For 
several years precedins: the Revolution he 
was conspicuous among the leading 
W'higs. Of the Massachusetts Provincial 
Congress he was an active member. At 
the same time, while he was trusted as an 
ardent patriot, Church was evidently the 
scci-et enemy of the republicans. As 


early as 1774 he wrote parodies of hia 
own popular songs in favor of liberty for 
the Toiy newspapers ; and in September, 
1775, an intercepted letter, written by 
him in cipher to Major Cain, in Bos- 
ton, which had passed through the hands 
of the mistress oi Church, was deciphered ; 
and the woman confessed that he was 
the author. The case was laid before the 
Continental Congress, and he was dismiss- 
ed from his post of chief director of the 
general hospital. He was arrested and 
tried by a court-martial at Cambridge on 
8. charge " of holding a criminal corre- 
spondence with the enemy." He was con- 
victed (Oct. 3), and imprisoned at Cam- 

On Nov. 7 the Congress ordered him to 
be " close confined, without the use of 
pen, ink, or paper ; and that no person 
be allowed to converse with him, except 
in the presence and hearing of a magis- 
trate of the town or the sheriff of the 
county where he shall be confined, and in 
the English language, until further or- 
ders' from this or a future Congress." 
He was so confined in the jail at Nor- 
wich, Conn. In May, 1776, he was re- 
leased on account of failing health, and 
sailed for the West Indies in a merchant 
vessel. He and the vessel were never 
heard of afterwards. Beniamin Church 
was the first traitor to the republican 
cause in America. He was well educated, 
and a writer in prose and verse of con- 
sirln'"jb1p ability. 

Church. See Adventists; Baptist 
Church ; Congregational Church ; 
Methodist Episcopal Church; Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South; Mo- 
ravian Church ; Swedenborgian Church ; 
Protestant Episcopal Church; Re- 
FORjtED Episcopal Church; Roman 
Catholic Church ; Jews and Judaism ; 
Lutheran Churches ; Presbyterian 
Churches ; Reformed Churches. 

Church and State. There is no con- 
nection between them in the United States, 
but in the colonies of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut the Congregational Church 
was established; in Virginia, 1662; Mary- 
land, 1692; South Carolina, 1703. By the 
Constitution "' no religious test shall ever 
be required as a qualification to any office 
or public trust in the United States," an'l 
" Congress shall make no law respecting 


an establishment of religion, or prohibit- 
ing the free exercise thereof." In 1882 
Congress prohibited polygamy in the Ter- 
ritories, and was sustained by the Su- 
preme Court. 

Church-member^liip Suffrage. From 
1631 to 1691 the suffrage was denied by 
the colony of Massachusetts to any in- 
dividual who was not a member of some 

Churchill, Sylvester, military officer; 
born in Woodstock, Vt., August, 1783; re- 
ceived a common-school education ; served 
through the War of 1812-15, and especial- 
ly distinguished himself on Burlington 
Heights in defending the Meet of Macdon- 
ough when it was attacked while being 
repaired. In 1835 he was promoted ma- 
jor, and took part in the Creek Indian 
War; in 1830-41 was acting inspector- 
general of the Creeks in Florida ; then 
became inspector-general ; served in the 
Mexican War, and for his gallantry at 
Buena Vista was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral in February, 1847; retired in Septem- 
ber, 1861. He died in Washington, D. C, 
Dec. 7, 1862. 

Churubusco, Battle of. After the 
victory at Contreras, Mexico, the Ameri- 
cans proceeded to attack the fortresses of 
San Antonio and Churubusco. The latter 
was a small village G miles south of the 
city of Mexico, and connected with it by 
a spacious causeway. At the head of the 
causewav, near the village, was erect- 
ed a stron? redoubt, mounted wHh bat- 
teries and heavi^ srarrisonpd. Th's was 
in front of the bridge over the Churubusco 

The Convent-church of San Pablo, with 
its massive stone walls, on an eminence, 
was converted into a fort, and around it 
was the hamlet, defended by a covering 
of stone waMs and a heavy stone building 
fortified. The outs'de waTs were p'erced 
for cannon. hi?h enoucrh to fire plunging 
shot upon an anproachinT enemy. All the 
stores and artillery saved from the wreck 
of Contrerng were gathered at Churubusco, 
with much sent from the citv. for Santa 
Ana had resolved to make a stand at this 
place. He was at the city with 12,000 
troops. When the Americans began to 
move forward, the garrison of Antonio, 
pereei^'^ne themselves in rreat daneer of 
bediig cut off, abandoned the fort and fled 


towards Churubusco, attacked and divided 
on the way. 

The retreat of the Mexicans from San 
Antonio and the general maicli of all the 
Americans upon Cluuubu&co began the 
grand movements of the day. The divi- 
sions of Twiggs and Piiiow were advanc- 
ing on the west, and on a causeway south 
the division of Worth was rapidly ad- 
vancing to storm the redoubt at the bridge. 
General Scott, at a mile distant from 
Churubusco, was directing all the move- 
ments. The redoubt at the bridge was 
carried at the point of the bayonet. At 
the same time Twiggs was assailing the 
fortified church and hamlet, where a fierce 
battle raged for some time. There the able 
JMcxican General Ringon commanded, and 
there tliree masses of Santa Ana's men 
opposed General Shields. The veterans of 
Gen. Persiier F. Smith, who had capt- 
ured Contreras, were conspicuous in this 
fearful contest. The most desperate de- 
fence at the church was made by deserters 
from the American army, led by Thomas 
Riley. The alarmed Mexicans several 
times hoisted a white flag, in token of 
surrender, when these Americans with 
halters about their necks as often tore 
it down. The battle raged three hours, 
when the church and the other defences 
of Churubusco were captured. 

Meanwhile Generals Shields and Pierce 
(afterwards President of the United 
States) were battling furiously with Santa 
Ana's men, partly in the rear of the de- 
fences of Churubusco. The ^Mexicans were 
there 7,000 strong — 4.000 infantry and 
3,000 cavalry — but victory again crowned 
the Americans. 

This was the fiffli victory won on that 
memorable 20th of Ausnist, 1847 — Contre- 
ras. San Antonio, the redoubt at the 
bridsre, the Church of San Pablo, and with 
Santa Ana's troops. In fact, the com- 
bined events of that day formed one great 
contest over a considerable extent of ter- 
ritory, and miffht properly be known in 
h'story as the "Battle of the Valley of 
IVTexico." The number eniaoed on that 
dav was n.OOO effective American soldiers 
and 32.000 Mexicans. The resuU was the 
capture by the former of the exterior line 
of Mexican defences, opening the cause- 
way to the citv and leaving it no other 
resources but its fortified gates and the 


Castle of Chapultepec. Fully 4,000 Mexi- 
cans had been killed or wounded that day; 
3,000 were made prisoners. Thirty-seven 
pieces of fine artillery had been captured, 
with a vast amount of munitions of war. 
The Americans lost, in killed and wounded, 
about 1,100 men. See Mexico, War 
WITH; PiEKCE, Franklin; Pillow, 
Gideon Johnson ; Santa Ana, Antonio ; 
Scott, Winfield; Smith, Persifer Fra- 
zer; Worth, William Jenkins. 

Cilley, Jonathan, lawyer; born in 
Nottingham, N. H., July 2, 1802; grad- 
uated at Bowdoin College in 1825; elect- 
ed to Congress as a Democrat in 1837, 
and served until Feb. 24, 1838, when 
he was fatally wounded in a duel 
with William J. Graves, a Representative 
from Kentucky. When the affair became 
known in Congress, a committee was ap- 
pointed, which reported that Mr. Graves 
should be censured by the House for his 
conduct. See Bladensburg Duelling 

Cilley, Jonathan Prince, military 

officer; born in Thomaston, Me., Dee. 29, 
1835; son of the preceding; graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1858, and be- 
came a lawyer. When the Civil War 
broke out he was commissioned a captain 
in the 1st Maine Cavalry. On May 24, 
1862, when General Banks retreated 
from the Shenandoah Valley, Captain 
Cilley was wounded and taken prisoner. 
In recognition of his services at Five 
Forks, Farmville, and Appomattox Court- 
house he was brevetted brigadier-general 
at the close of the war. He is the author 
of a genealogy of the Cilley Family. 

Cilley, Joseph, military officer; born 
in Nottingham, N. H., in 1735; took part 
in the dismantling of the fort at Ports- 
mouth in 1774; led a company of volun- 
teers into Boston after the battle of Lex- 
ington ; made colonel of the 1st New 
Hampshire Regiment in 1777; took part 
in the attack on Ticonderoga and in the 
actions at Bemis's Heights, Monmouth, 
and Stony Point. He died in Nottingham, 
N. H., Aug. 25, 1799. 


Cincinnati, city, port of delivery, and river bottoms, is mainly devoted to manu- 
county-seat of Hamilton county, Ohio; facturing and wholesale trade; the north- 
second city in the State and tenth in the eastern part, separated from the rest of 
United States in population, according to the city by the Miami & Erie Canal, is 
the Federal census of 1900; popularly locally called "Over the Rhine," because 
known as the "Queen City of the West." of its large German population; and the 
Population (1900), 325,902; 1905 (esti- West End is the handsomest residential 
mated), 410.000. portion. By the annexation in 1895 and 

Location, Area, etc. — It is situated in 1903 of a number of suburban villages, 

an amphitheat'-e of great natural beauty, the city has attained an area of about 

on the north bank of the Ohio River and forty square miles. 

opposite the mouth of the Licking River, Public Interests. — In 1902 the Legisla- 

and geographically possesses many of the ture provided in the new municipal code 

distinctive features of a Northern and a what is practically a new charter, the 

Southern city. Its fifteen miles of river change being necessitated by the declara- 

frontage face the apex of Kentucky, and tion of the Supreme Court that the exist- 

make the city the centre of large inter- ing classification of the cities of the State 

state interests shared by Covington, New- was unconstitutional. Under the new code 

po'-t, BePevue, Davton. LudVw. and the Board of Legislation, consisting of 

Bromley, all belonging to the Southland, thirty-one members, was succeeded by a 

Two terraces, one about 60 feet above City Council, composed of one member 

the level of the river, the other about 112 from each of the twenty-four wards into 

feet, on which the city has been built, en- which the city was redistricted. Avon- 

hance the beauty of a spot already exceed- dale, Clifton, Linwood, Rivers'de, and 

ingly picturesque by reason of the hills Westwood had been annexed in 1895, and 

that nearly surround it. in 1903. when the new code went into 

Topographically, the city is divided efl'ect, Hyde Park, Evanston, Bond Hill, 

into three sections. The lowest giound, or and Winton Place were absorbed. 



In 1905 there were 640 miles of streets, 
of which 391 were paved; 229 miles of 
sewers; a police department of 533 men; 
a fire department of 350 men; and a 
water-works system owned by the city 
that had 45 miles of mains, cost $14,- 
500,000, and was being greatly extended. 
The assessed valuations of taxable prop- 
erty aggregated $224,139,960; the total 
outstanding debt was $36,818,140, sinking- 
fund holdings, $5,574,211, net debt, $31,- 
243,929. The city owns the Cincinnati 
Southern Railroad, leased till Oct. 12, 
1966, at annual rentals running for speci- 
fic periods from $1,050,000 to $1,200,000, 
the lessee to pay interest on $2,500,000 
bonds for terminal improvements and an 
annual sum for a sinking-fund. The 
water-works system pays the interest on 
all water bonds and is creating a sinking- 
fund for their redemption. 

The city has an extensive domestic 
trade, promoted by twenty-five railroads 
that radiate from it, by several bridges 
to the Kentucky shore, and by invaluable 
water communications, comprising the 
Ohio River, navigable from Pittsburgh to 
the Mississippi, and the Miami & Erie 
Canal, connecting Cincinnati with Lake 
Erie. As a port of delivery the city re- 
ceived foreign merchandise to the value of 
$2,115,088 in the calendar year 1904. 

Notable Buildings. — The United States 
Government Building, on the square 
bounded by Main, Walnut, Fifth, and Pat- 
terson streets, built of granite in the Re- 
naissance style, 354 feet long, 164 feet deep, 
and six stories high, is considered the 
handsomest structure in this city of hand- 
some buildings. It cost about $5,000,000. 
The new County Court-House, on Main 
Street, is Romanesque in style. In its 
rear, occupying an entire square, is the 
County Jail. The Municipal Buildings, on 
the square bounded by Plum, Eighth, and 
Ninth streets, and Central Avenue, are 
built of red sandstone, and cost over $1,- 
600,000. Springer Music Hall, in modi- 
fied Gothic, is a grand edifice, 178 feet 
wide, 293 feet deep, and 150 feet high 
from sidewalk to gable pinnacle, has ex- 
tremely rich interior decorations, and 
contains one of the largest organs in the 
world. The Public Library is of stone 
and brick, Romanesque in style, with 
shelf-room for 300,000 volumes, and now 


containing over 225,000. Byzantine in 
style, the Masonic Temple arrests the 
sweep of the eye from a distance by reason 
of its two towers and its spire 180 feet 
high. Other notable society buildings are 
the Cathedral of the Masonic Scottish Rite 
on Broadway, and Odd Fellows' Hall on 
Elm Street. 

On Elm Street, fronting Washington 
Park are the Exposition Buildings, cover- 
ing three and a half acres and having an 
exhibiting space of seven acres. Pike's 
Building, the widely famed Rookwood Pot- 
tery, the Emery Arcade, the Board of 
Trade, the College of Music, and the 
magnificent building of the Cincinnati 
Museum in Eden Park, amply repay close 
inspection. The Tyler-Davidson Fountain, 
on Fifth Street between Vine and Walnut, 
is a beautiful classic in bronze, embellish- 
ed with statuary and supporting a female 
figure of more than heroic size. The foun- 
tain was cast in Munich, and cost over 
$200,000. Eden Park is the principal pub- 
lic reservation ; others are Burnet Woods, 
Lincoln Park, Washington Park, Hop- 
kins Park, and Chester Park. Among the 
noteworthy monuments in the city are 
those to Presidents William Henry Harri- 
son and James A. Garfield, and to Colonels 
R. L. McCook and Frederick Hecker. 

Manufactures. — According to the Fed- 
eral census of 1900, Cincinnati had 5,127 
manufacturing and mechanical industries, 
which were operated on a total capital of 
$109,582,142; employed 69,897 wage- 
earners ; paid for wages $33,965,210, and 
for materials used in manufacturing, $77,- 
539,292 ; and had a combined product 
valued at $157,806,834. The principal in- 
dustries with the value of output were the 
manufacture of men's clothing (in fac- 
tories), $11,950,648; foundry and machine- 
shop products, $11,705,778; wholesale 
slaughtering and meat-packing, $9,532,- 
057; leather, $9,419,687; boots and shoes 
(in factories), $8,788,424; and malt li- 
quors, $6,387,383. In pork-packing Cincin- 
nati ranked second to Chicago. Other im- 
portant manufactures were furniture, sad- 
dlery and harness, safes and vaults, soap, 
candles, and tobacco in its various forms. 

Banks.— On Sept. 6, 1904, there were 
twelve national banks in operation, re- 
porting an aggregate capital of $9,500,- 
000; surplus, $4,090,000; individual de- 


posits, $34,028,447; outstanding circula- Churches. — Cincinnati is an arcli- 

tion, $4,384,445 ; loans and discounts, $45,- bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church, 

962,864; and assets and liabilities balan- and the handsomest church edifice in the 

cing at $83,646,690. In the year ending city is unquestionably St. Peter's Cathe- 

Sept. 30, 1904, the exchanges at the dral, a grand structure on Plum Street, 

United States clearing-house here amount- built of Dayton limestone in Pure Grecian 

ed to $1,196,854,400, an increase in a year style, measuring 200 by 80 feet on the 

of $42,988,900. ground, having a stone spire 224 feet 

Schools and Colleges. — The city has over high, and a portico supported by ten sand 

45,500 pupils in daily attendance in its stone pillars. The most striking features 

public schools, with 1,000 teachers, and of the interior are the altar of Carrara 

spends annually for public education more marble made in Genoa, and the altar- 

than $1,100,000. The estimated attend- piece by Murillo, " St. Peter Delivered." 

ance at private and parochial schools is The Hebrew Synagogue, also on Plum 

about 22,500. Public secondary schools in- Street and opposite the Cathedral, is a 

elude the Hughes, Norwood, Walnut Moorish building of brick, and the Hebrew 

Hills, and Woodward high schools, and Temple on Mount Street is Gothic, with 

private ones, the Bartholomew-Clifton, double spires. 

Butler, Collegiate, Franklin, Fredin, and St. Paul's (Episcopal), on Seventh and 

Lupton schools, Academy of the Sacred Plum streets, is of stone and stuccoed 

Heart, St. Francis Seraphim's College, St. brick. Pure Norman in style, with square 

Mary's Educational Institute, Ursuline towers and lofty Norman door; St. Paul's 

Academy, and Ohio Military Institute. (Methodist) , on Seventh and Smith streets. 

Technical instruction is furnished by the is of blue limestone, in cruciform style, 

Ohio Mechanic's Jnstitute and the Cincin- with a spire 200 feet high ; the First 

nati Technical School ; and training Presbyterian, on Fourth Street, has a 

schools for nurses are maintained by the great tower surmounted by a spire 270 

Bethesda, Christ's, Cincinnati, Jewish, and feet high, capped by a hand with finger 

the Ohio Women's and Children's hos- pointing heavenward ; the Baptist Church, 

pitals. on Ninth Street, has a massive clock- 

The University of Cincinnati, founded tower; St. Xavier (Roman Catholic), on 

and endowed by Charles McMicken, and Sycamore Street, displays the Pointed 

occupying with its cluster of substantial Gothic style of architecture ; and the First 

buildings a tract of forty acres in Burnet Congregational, Unitarian, and St. Francis 

Woods Park, had, in 1905, grounds and de Sales and St. Lawrence churches (the 

buildings valued at over $1,250,000, scien- last two Roman Catholic) are other 

tific and other apparatus valued at $75,- noticeable specimens of ecclesiastical archi- 

000, productive funds aggregating nearly tecture. 

$1,000,000, and a library of about 85,000 Charities. — Occupying a square of four 

volumes. The former Cincinnati Law acres on Twelfth Street, between Central 

School and the Medical College of Ohio Avenue and Plum Street, is the Cincin- 

are now departments of the imiversity. nati Hospital, a group of buildings around 

St. Xavier College (Roman Catholic) Avas a central court with connecting corridors, 

opened in 1831, and occupies a building in that is claimed to be the largest and most 

the Romanesque style on Sycamore Street, thoroughly appointed institution of its 

Professional schools include the Hebrew kind in the country. The Good Samaritan 
LTnion College, opened in 1875, and the Hospital is on Sixth and Lock streets; 
Lane Theological Seminary (Presby- St. Mary's, on Baymiller and Betts 
terian), 1829; Law Department, Univer- streets; St. Francis's, on Queen City 
sity of Cincinnati and Law School of Mc- Avenue; Jewish, on Burnet Avenue; and 
Donald Institute; and the Medical De- the Longview Asylum for the Insane is at 
partment. University of Cincinnati, Laura Carthage, ten miles north of the city, a 
Memorial Woman's ]\Iedical College, Mi- brick building in the Italian style, and 
ami ]Medical College, Cincinnati College of noticeable for the absence of grated win- 
Medicine and Surgery, and the Pulte and dows and other former features of sucit 
Eclectic colleges. institutions. 



There are a House of Kefuge on Cole- 
rain Avenue; a City Workhouse near by; 
the Cincinnati Orphan Asylum on Mount 
Auburn; and a Widows' and Old Men's 
Home on Ashland Avenue ; besides a large 
number of helpful associations connected 
with the various churches, societies, and 
business interests. 

History. — Cincinnati was originally 
known as Losantiville, from L = Licking, 
OS = mouth, anti = against, ville = town — 
i. e., " the town opposite the mouth " of the 

Clair, the place was renamed Cincinnati, 
in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, 
with which he and the principal officers of 
the Revolutionary War were connected. 

The first post-office was established in 
1793; the first recorded celebration of In- 
dependence Day occurred here on July 4, 
1799; the Legislature passed a bill to re- 
move the seat of government from Chilli- 
cothe to Cincinnati in 1801; the town was 
incorporated in 1802; and the United 
States reservation around Fort Washing- 


Licking — because Israel Ludlow croseed 
the Ohio from the mouth of the Lick- 
ing River and settled here, on Dec. 28, 

1788. The site of the city is believed 
to have been visited first by white 
men about eight years previously. In 

1789, Major Doughty with about 140 
men left Fort Harmar on the Mus- 
kingum River, and built Fort Wash- 
ington on the line of the present Third 
Street, between Broadway and Lawrence. 
A village soon sprang up around this fort, 
which was a cluster of strongly built log 
cabins, a story and a half high, arranged 
for soldiers' barracks, and occupying a 
hollow square enclosing about an acre of 
ground. At the suggestion of General St. 

ton was sold in 1808. In 1816 the ship- 
building industry was introduced and a 
steamboat completed, and in 1819 the town 
was incorporated as a city. Public utili- 
ties had their birth in the latter year, 
when Col. Samuel W. Davis, who had ob- 
tained a charter for the exclusive privilege 
of laying the water-pipes in the streets for 
ninety-nine years, began supplying water 
through wooden pipes. Seven years after- 
wards the Cincinnati Water Company was 
incorporated. Public education was estab- 
lished in 1831; the first city bonds were 
issued and the locks on the Miami & 
Erie Canal here were completed, both in 
1834; and the Little Miami Railroad was 
built in 1840. From this period till 1862 



the history of the city was one of whole- 
some growth. 

On Sept. 2, 1862, a Confederate force 
under command of Gen. E. Kirby Smith, 
which had invaded Kentucky and pushed 
on towards the Ohio for the purpose of 
capturing Cincinnati, was unexpectedly 
confronted by a Union force under Gen. 
Lew Wallace, who had been ordered by 
General Wright to provide for the de- 
fence of this city. Martial law was pro- 
claimed, and in a few hours General Wal- 
lace had a force of 40,000 workers and 
fighters at his service. Tliis force ci'ossed 
the river on a pontoon bridge, and within 
three days built a line of intrenchments 
ten miles long on the hills of Covington. 
When the Confederates discovered the bar- 
rier against them they retreated in great 
haste, and made no further attempt to 
occupy or injure either city. 

The National Democratic Convention 
Avhich nominated Buchanan met here in 
1856; the Liberal Republican which nomi- 
nated Greeley, in 1872; the Republican 
which nominated Hayes, in 1876; and the 
Democratic which nominated Hancock, in 
1880. The most serious local trouble the 
city has experienced was in March, 1884, 
when a riot broke out because of a verdict 
of manslaughter in the Berner and Palmer 
murder trial after both had confessed to 
murder, and while there were about 
twenty untried murderers in the city jail. 
A mob, incensed at what was generally 
considered a miscarriage of justice, 
fired the court-house; the militia were 
called out; and in an attack on the 
mob 45 persons were killed and 138 

Cincinnati, Society of the. A few 
weeks before the disbanding of the Conti- 
nental army (June, 1783) a tie of friend- 
ship had been formed among the officers, 
at the suggestion of General Knox, by the 
organization, at the headquarters of Baron 
von Steuben, near Fishkill Landing, N. Y., 
of an association known as the " Soci- 
ety of the Cincinnati." Its chief objects 
were to promote a cordial friendship and 
indissoluble union among themselves, and 
to extend benevolent aid to such of its 
members as might need assistance. Wash- 
ington wag chosen the first president of 
the society, and remained president-gen- 
eral until his death. Gen. Henry Knox 

was its first secretary-general. State so- 
cieties were formed, auxiliary to the gen- 
eral society. To perpetuate the associa- 
tion, it was provided in the constitution 
of the society that the eldest masculine 
descendant of an original member should 
be entitled to wear the order and enjoy 
the privileges of the society. The order, 
or badge, of the society consists of a 
golden eagle, with enamelling, suspended 
upon a ribbon. On the breast of the eagle 
is a medallion, with a device representing 
Cincinnatus at his plough receiving the 
Roman senators who came to offer him the 
chief magistracy of Rome. The members' 
certificate is eighteen and a half inches 
in breadth and twenty inches in length. 
Tlie general Society of the Cincinnati is 
still in existence, and also State societies. 
The president-general from 1854 till his 
death in 1893 was Hamilton Fish, son 
of Col. Nicholas Fish, one of the original 
members. In 1900 William Wayne, of 
Pennsylvania, held the office. The order 
worn by the president-general at the meet- 
ings of the society is a beautifully jewelled 
one. It was presented to Washington by 
the French officers. The society met with 
much jealous opposition from the earnest 



republicans of the day. Among the most 
powerful of these opponents was Judge 
Aedanus Burke, of Charleston, S. C, who, 
in an able dissertation, undertook to 
prove that the society created two dis- 
tinct orders among the Americans — first, 
a race of hereditary nobles founded on the 
military, together with the most influen- 


/■tyCc^H /uCa€>?L). 

a»/<Vi ^ K G^^ 


tial families and men in the State: and, liabits of civilized life. He died in Can- 

second, the people, or plebeians. These 
suspicions were natural, but were not 

Cinque, African chief and slave. See 
Amtstad, Case of the. 


Circular Letter. On Feb. 11, 1768, the 
General Court of Massachusetts sent a 
circular letter to all the American 
colonies, in which it asked them to co- 

Cipher Despatches. The result of the operate with Massachusetts in obtaining 
Presidential election of 1876 in the Unit- redress of grievances. 

ed States depended upon the electoral votes 
of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, 
long in dispute. Mr. Hayes needed all 
three States, while any one of them would 
have elected Mr. Tilden. Pending the re- 
sult, many despatches in cipher passed be- 
tween Mr. Tilden's friends and persons in 
Ihe South, which, when translated and 

This letter was laid before the English 
cabinet, which resolved, 

1. That the Massachusetts assembly 
should rescind the letter, and 

2. That the other colonial legislatures 
before whom it had been laid should re- 
ject the letter. 

The legislature of Massachusetts by a 

published in the New York Tribune, 1877, vote of 92 to 17 refused to do the first, and 

suggested attempted bribery. A great 
scandal arose, and Mr. Tilden public- 
ly disclaimed all knowledge of the de- 
spatch ps. 

Ciquard, FRAxrois, missionary; born 
in Clermont, France, about 1760; entered 

the other legislatures refused to take the 
required action. 

Circulation, Monetary. The estimated 
population of the United States on April 
1, 1901, was 77.427.000, and the amount of 
money in circulation was equal to $28.25 

the Sulpitian order; came to the United for every man, woman, and child in the 

States in 1792, and settled in Old Town, country. The following table shows the 

Me., where he labored among the Penob- amount of gold and silver coin and certif- 

scot and Passamaquoddy Indians, for icates. United States notes, and national 

whom he prepared a code of laws, but had bank notes in circulation and in the treas- 

great difficulty in inducing them to adopt ury on that date: 





Gold coin (in'liiiiiiiK bullion in Treasury). 

Gold cerlificM'PS 

St.indard silv. r Uoil irs 

Silver cerlitlcaiL's 

Siib.siiJiary silver 

Treasury notes of 1890 

United 8lates notes 

Ciirremy certiflratos, act of June 8, 1872. 
National bank notes 

Total 2.477.227.185 


April 1, 1901. 








AjTil 1, 1901. 



" 13,029,880 




' '8,945,979 



April 1, 1901. 








ON MARCH 30, 1901. 



c. s. 


NOTE.S OP 1«90. 














41,134 000 



















102.. 5(10 













62,539 000 


Five dollars 


Ten dollars 

32,077, .500 


Fifty (iDllars 

One liundrod dollars 






33 703 



1.000 01 10 





1.000. 000 


340.(;81.(lliil 53.881.000 





See Coinage, United States; Cur- 
rency, National; Monetary Reform. 

Cisneros, Salvador, Marquis de Santa 
Lucia, statesman; born in Cuba in 1831. 
In 1868, the year that the Ten Years' War 
broke out, he renounced all allegiance to 
Spain and his right to a noble title, declar- 
ing himself henceforth a republican. He 
was a man of large wealth, but when his 
affiliation with the Cuban cause became 
known in Spain his property was con- 
fiscated. Upon the organization of the first 
Cuban government he was elected presi- 
dent of the House of Representatives, and 
later, when President Cespedes died, he be- 
came chief executive of the Cuban Republic. 

Cist, Charles, printer; born in St. 
Petersburg, Russia, Aug. 15, 1783; gradu- 
ated at Halle; came to America in 1773; 
and lived in Philadelphia, where he 
founded a printing and publishing busi- 
ness with Melchior Steiner. Later he be- 
came sole proprietor and publisher of The 


American Herald and the Columbian Mag- 
azine. He introduced anthracite coal into 
general use in the United States. During 
the Revolutionary War he endorsed Conti- 
nental currency to a large amount, which 
he was afterwards compelled to redeem. 

Cist, Henry Martin, military officer; 
born in Cincinnati, 0., Feb. 20, 1839; was 
graduated at Belmont College in 1858; 
in April, 1861, enlisted in the 6th Ohio 
Regiment, and at the time of his resigna- 
tion had attained the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was the author of The Army 
of the Cumberland, and editor of the Re- 
ports of the Soeietj) of the Army of the 
Cumberland. He died in Rome, Italy, 
Dec. 17, 1902. 

Citizen. By a chan^-e in the political 
character of the English-American col- 
onies, the word " citizen " took the place 
of "subject," and was as comprehensive 
in its application to the inhabitants of the 
territories included in the United States 


of America. In the United States every 
man. ■woman, and child is a citizen, with 
I'egiilations as to the exercise of the rights 
and privileges of citizenship. All male 
persona over twenty-one, except Indians 
not taxed and foreigners not naturalized, 
are citizens, with the right to vote. Be- 
fore the 14th and 15th amendments to the 
Constitution, proclaimed July 20, 1868, 
and March 30, 18fi9, such citizenship was 
restricted to white men. Every one born 
on American soil was and is a citizen, by 
virtue of nativity; and, by the grace of 
statute law, foreign-born persons become 
citizens by naturalization laws. See 
Elective Franchise; Naturalization. 

City of Brotherly Love. Ihe popular 
name of Philadelphia. 

City of Notions, a popular name given 
to the city of Boston, Mass. 

City of Spindles, a popular name given 
to the city of Lowell, Mass. 

City of the Strait, the popular name of 
Detroit (the French word for "strait"), 
situated upon the strait between lakes 
St. Clair and Erie. 

City Point, on the James River at the 
mouth of the Appomattox, near Peters- 
burg, Va. In May, 1864, General Butler 
seized this place, which became the prin- 
cipal base of supplies for the army oper- 
ating against Richmond under Grant. 

Civic Federation. See American 
National Arbitration Board. 

Civil Death. The extinction of a man's 
civil rights and capacities. In some States 
imprisonment for life is civil death. 

Civil Rights Bill, an important meas- 
ure introduced in the United States Sen- 
ate on Jan. 29. 1806; adopted there Feb. 
2 by a vote of 33 to 12, and passed in the 
House on March 13 by a vote of 111 to 
38. The bill was vetoed March 27 by 
President Johnson, but was passed over 
the veto, in the Senate on April 6, and in 
the House on April 9. While the bill was 
passing through these stages a number of 
amendments were proposed for the pur- 
pose of nullifying the decision in the Dred 
Scot ease; and on April 30 Thaddeus 
Stevens, of Pennsylvania, in the House, 
reported from a joint committee the meas- 
ure that became the 14th Amendment to 
the Constitution (q. v.). 

The original civil rights bill comprised 
in brief the following provisions: 

1. All persons born in the United States 
and not subject to any foreign power, ex- 
cluding Indians not taxed, were therein 
declared to be citizens of the United States, 
having the same rights as white citizens 
in every State and Territory to sue and 
to be sued, make and enforce contracts, 
take and convey property, and enjoy all 
civil rights whatever. 2. Any person who, 
under color of any State law, deprived 
any such citizen of any civil rights se- 
cured by this act was made guilty of a 
misdemeanor. 3. Cognizance of offences 
against the act w^as entirely taken away 
from State courts and giver to federal 
courts. 4. Officers of the United States 
Courts or of the Freedmen's Bureau, and 
special executive agents, were charged 
with the execution of the act. 5. If such 
officers refused to execute the act, they 
were made subject to fine. 6. Resistance 
to the officers subjected the offender to 
fine and imprisonment. 7. This section 
related to fees. 8. The President was em- 
powered to send officers to any district 
where offences against the act were likely 
to be committed. 9. The President was 
authorized to use the services of special 
agents, of the army and navy, or of the 
militia, to enforce the act. 10. An 
appeal was permitted to the Supreme 

Charles Sumner, the distinguished Senar 
tor from Massachusetts, was exceedingly 
anxious to secure the adoption of an 
amendment to the original bill, which, 
among other things, should prevent com- 
mon carriers, inn-keepers, theatre-man- 
agers, and officers or teachers of schools 
from distinguishing blacks from whites; 
should prevent the exclusion of negroes 
from juries; and should give federal 
courts exclusive cognizance of offences 
against it. In 1872 he offered a bill cover- 
ing these grounds as an amendment to the 
amnesty act, but it failed of passage by 
a single vote. Later in the same year it 
was introduced in the House. On April 
30. 1874, the measure was adopted in the 
Senate, but rejected in the House, and in 
February. 1875, it was adopted in both 
Houses, becoming a law March 1. On Oct. 
25, 1883. the Supreme Court of the United 
States, through Justice Bradley, decided 
that the supplementary civil rights bill 
(Sumner's) was unconstitutional. 



Civil Service Reform. The civil ser- to see remedied by this Congress. It is 

vice is a name applied to the duties ren- a reform in the civil service of the couur 

dered to the government other than naval try. I would have it go beyond the mere 

and military service. That is, all per- fixing of the tenure of office of clerks and 

sons employed by the government o\itside employes who do not require the advice 

of the array and navy are in the civil and consent of the Senate to make their 

seivice. By civil service reform is meant appointments complete. I would have it 

tiio doing away with many objectionable govern, not the tenure, but the manner 

e'ustoms and abuses that had found their of making all appointments. There is no 

way, through the influence of politicians, duty which so much embarrasses the ex- 

into the civil service. Away back in Pres- ecutive and heads of departments as that 

ident Jackson's time the custom was in- of appointments; nor is there any such 

troduced of making appointments to this arduous and thankless labor for Senators 

service a reward for party effort, and and Representatives as that of finding 

not in consequence of any particular fit- places for constituents. The present sys- 

ness for the positions. The change of the tern does not secure the best men, and 

political character of an administration often not even fit men, for public place, 

would, of course, under this plan, cause The elevation and purification of the civil 

an entire change in the civil service, no service of the government will be hailed 

faithful performance of tasks assigned or with approval by the whole people of the 

acquired experience counting as of any United States." 

value in competition with party service. Following this was a bill called the 

It can readily be seen how a system like civil service bill, which carried out the 

this would demoralize most branches of spirit of President Grant's recommenda- 

the public service, how patronage, or the tion. The first civil service commission 

control of offices, would come to be a consisted of G. W. Curtis, of New York : 

mere matter of traffic, and how it would Joseph Medill, of Chicago; A. J. Catteli, 

lead to a. condition of wastefulness and of New Jersey; D. A. Walker, of Penn- 

inefficiency in many instances. The mat- sylvania; S. B. Elliott, and J. H. Blaok- 

ter was made even worse by a system of fair. A second commission was appoint 

levying a tax or assessment, a.t each elec- ed March 1, 1883, consisting of Dorman 

tion, on all office-holders to bear party B. Eaton, of New York; Leroy D. Tho- 

expenses, the understanding being that the man, of Ohio ; and Dr. John B. Gregory, 

payment of this tax was a condition of of Illinois. In 1000 the commission con- 

the retention of the office. sisted of John R. Procter, John B. Har- 

The first attempt to call the attention low, and Mark S. Brewer. At the end of 
of Congress to the need of reform in the 1898 the number of persons in the classi- 
civil service was made in 1867. On Feb. fied civil service of the national govern- 
2 of that year, Mr. Jenckes, of Rhode ment was estimated at 83,817. See ad- 
Island, a Republican, brought forward a dress on the " Spoils System," under 
bill for the investigation and reorganiza- Curtis, Geohge William. 
tion of that service. The bill was referred Civil Service, United States Colonial, 
to a committee, but the report of the Prof. Edward Gaylor Bourne, Professor 
committee when received was tabled, and of History in Yale University, writes as 
nothing further was done about it. In follows concerning the civil service for 
1870 Mr. Jenckes tried to get a bill passed our new possessions: 

for the introduction of a system of com- 

potitive examination in the civil service. Our previous annexations of territory, 
but this also failed. President Grant gave with the possible exception of Alaska, 
it the weight of his influence, and really have never involved questions of ad- 
made legislation in that regard possible, ministration essentially different from 
In his message to Congress. Dec. 5, 1870, those with Avhich our public men have 
the President thus referred to the meas- been familiar; for, from the first settle- 
ure: "Always favoring practical reform, ment of the colonies, the occupation of 
I respectfully call your attention to one new land and the organization of new 
abuse of long standing which I would like communities have been the special tasl* 
II.— L 161 


and most noteworthy achievement of the ranges from the Negrito head-hunters to 
American people. Acquisitions, like the the civilized Tagals and Visayas, who had 
Louisiana and Mexican cessions, merely a written language before the Spaniards 
afforded room for the natural overflow came among them, to say nothing of the 
of our people, and the new possessions Chinese, the Chinese-Malay, and Spanish- 
soon became more distinctively American Malay mixtures who constitute the en- 
than the mother States. The wonderful tcrprising element in the towns. Fur- 
results of this spontaneous process are ac- thermore, although hitherto beyond our 
cepted by too many of our people as a horizon, these islands are not in a remote 
demonstration that we can cope equally corner of the earth like Alaska, where fail- 
well with the extremely difficult and com- ure would be hidden or unnoticed, but they 
plicated task of governing large masses of lie at the very meeting-place of nations, 
alien and unwilling subjects. Yet a mo- and all that we do there will be under a 
ment's reflection must show every one that white light of publicity. The most ener- 
the simple form of growth which has ex- getic and ambitious powers of Europe will 
panded the United States from the AUe- be our neighbors and critics, 
ghanies to the Pacific cannot be extended To expect that the problem of the 
to our recent acquisitions. Philippines or of Cuba and Porto Rico 
Neither Cuba nor Porto Rico is likely can be dealt with by our ordinary methods 
ever to be populated by English-speak- of administration and of appointment to 
ing Americans. Our ideas, no doubt, will office is to live in a fool's paradise. Only 
pervade these islands to £,ome extent, but a blind national pride can believe for a 
that their civilization will cease to be moment that the average American poli- 
Spanish is highly improbable. Their in- tician or office-seeker can deal with the 

habitants are a civilized people, heirs, 
like ourselves, of a European culture, pos- 
sessing a noble language, a splendid lit- 
erature, and a highly developed jurispru 

situation any better than the Spanish po- 
litical heelers have done. In fact, the 
American, with his ignorance of the lan- 
guage and customs and his contempt for 

dence. This inheritance they will never " dagoes " and " niggers," will be even less 

Aoluntarily give up, nor can they be forced qualified for the task. A repetition in the 

to sacrifice it without tyrannical oppres- West Indies of the mistake of Jefferson, 

sion. Those who think differently should ^vho committed the French and Spanish 

study the case of French Canada, or, even population of Louisiana to the government 

better, the case of Louisiana. It would of Claiborne and Wilkinson, men grossly 

have been natural to expect, in 1803, that ignorant of their language, customs, in- 

the inflowing tide of American immigra- stitutions, and history, will make our rule 

tion would soon absorb or overwhelm the less tolerable than that of Spain. A repe- 

scattered little settlements of French ere- tition in the Philippines of the govern- 

oles, numbering in all, masters and slaves, ment of Alaska or of South Carolina in 

within the bounds of the present State of 1869, would be a world-wide scandal, and 

Louisiana, not more than 30.000. On the biing more disgrace on the American 

contrary, French life and manners still name than all the fraud, stealing, and 

survive, the civil law has never been dis- murder of the entire Reconstruction 

placed by the English common law, and period. 

after nearly a century, over one-sixth of As a civilized, progressive, and con- 
the native whites of the State cannot scientious people, we must either not at- 
speak the English language. In view of tempt the work which has fallen upon 
this experience how remote is the possibil- our hands, or we must intrust it to the 
ity that the dense population of Porto best administrative ability that the coun- 
Rico will ever lose its Spanish character! trv possesses, to men not inferior in nat- 
Turning to the Philippines we find a ural powers and special training to our 
task still more widely different from any loadine army and navy officers, who will, 
that we have ever undertaken, and far like these officers, enjoy permanence of 
more complicated. This archipelago is tenure, the social distinction of an honor- 
nothing less than an ethnological museum, ed profession, and the privilege of retir- 
Its population of 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 ing after their term of service on an al» 



lowance adequate to their comfortable 

The nucleus for such a body of officials 
will naturally be found in the regular 
army, and for the transition work of 
c-stablishing order and restoring confi- 
dence they are fitted by their professional 
experience and discipline. But a perma- 
lient military government is alien to our 
ideas and should be established only as a 
final resort. The education of a soldier 
does not prepare him for civil administra- 
tion. The military mind is arbitrary and 
unconciliatory ; it is disposed to crush 
rather than to win ; it holds life cheap. 
In brief, its ideals and standards are those 
engendered by war and its necessities. 

What, then, should be the nature of the 
special training required of candidates for 
administrative positions in our dependen- 
cies? In thoroughness and extent, it 
should not be less than that demanded 
of our own lawj^ers and physicians. This 
moans two or three years of distinctively 
professional training resting on the solid 
foundation of a regular course of study 
in a college or scientific school. Starting 
from the same general level of prepara- 
tion as the student of law or medicine, 
the colonial civil service candidate should 
devote himself to the following groups of 
studies: Geography and ethnology, his- 
tory, economics and law, languages, re- 
ligions, and folk psychology. 

The work in geography should cover the 
physical features, climate, plants, and 
economic resources of our dependencies, 
and the principles of tropical hygiene. 
Under the head of ethnology, the elements 
of the comparative study of the races of 
man would be followed by a more thor- 
ough examination of the peoples of east- 
ern Asia and Polynesia. The next group 
would deal with the history of the rela- 
tions of Europeans with the East, and, in 
particular, with the history of the colo- 
nial systems of England, France, Holland, 
and Spain; with the tariffs and financial 
systems; and, finally, with the principles 
of administration, including the study of 
the civil law as developed in the Spanish 
codes, Mohammedan law, and the legal 
customs of the native tribes. Between cus- 
toms and religions the dividing line is 
really invisible, and this branch of the 
work may just as well be included under 

the general head of folk psychology. By 
tliis somewhat unfamiliar name we mean 
tlie study of the outfit of ideas, moral, 
religious, social, and philosophical, which 
any weil-difi'erentiated human group in- 
herits from its ancestors and passes over 
to its posterity. Into this mental world 
in which they live he must enter who 
wishes to stand on common ground with 
any alien race. In no other way can 
suspicion and hatred be made to give 
jjlace to sympathy and confidence. The 
entrance to this strange world,, vastly 
more remote and inaccessible to the aver- 
age man than the Philippines, is to be 
found only through the study of language 
find with the help of a trained scientific 
imagination. Translations and interpret- 
ers, at the best, leave one still outside 
and merely peering in through a dense 
and highly refracting medium. 

Does all this seem impracticable and 
Utopian? In proportion as it does, the 
reader may be sure that he falls short of 
realizing what we have really undertaken 
to do. It is no more than England, Hol- 
land, France, and Germany are doing for 
their colonial and diplomatic service. If 
Ave do less, we shall take heavy risks that 
European colonial authorities will have 
the same contempt for our management 
that we now have for Spain's. Mr. John 
Foreman, after an experience in Spain 
and the Philippines of nearly a quarter of 
a century, writes: "Of the hundreds of 
officials that I have known, not one had 
the most elementary notions of Tagalog 
or Visaya (the native languages of the 
Philippine Islands) at the time of their 
appointment, and not one in fifty took 
the trouble to learn either language after- 
wards." In not one of the Spanish uni- 
versities is there taught a modern Orien- 
tal language, except Arabic, nor was there 
in 1898 a single chair devoted to colonial 
problems, nor in the university of Manila 
was there any opportunity to study the 
languages and customs of the Philippines. 
The civil service in the Spanish colonies, 
like that of the mother-country, was 
purely a spoils system. No examinations 
of any kind were required. Offices were 
the reward of fidelity to the political 
'•' caciques " (bosses), and the dangers and 
discomforts of colonial service were com- 
pensated for by the abundant opportuni* 



ties for 'chocolate" (boodle). Not least bridge, nine courses of a practical charac- 
among the causes of the final collapse of ter are provided for the candidates for the 
Spain's colonial power was the blight of Indian civil service. In London, Univer- 
spoils. sity College has professors and lecturers 

In marked contrast to Spain stands lit- on Arabic, Persian, Pali, Hindustani, Ben- 
tie Holland, with substantially the same gali, Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, and 
problems in the East. Whatever have Telugu, and Indian law. Still further pro- 
been the dark sides of the Dutch colo- vision is made by King's College joining 
nial system, incapacity and venality have with the University in establishing a sepa- 
uot been among them. For the last fifty rate school of modern Oriental languages 
years the Dutch government has required in which instruction is given in Burmese, 
a definite standard of proficiency for the Arabic, Japanese, modern Greek, Chinese, 
various grades of the colonial service, to Persian, Russian, Turkish, Armenian, and 
be proved by passing the colonial service Swahili. Candidates for the Indian ser- 
cxaminations or by the attainment of a vice in their final examination must be 
degree in law. The candidate for the examined in the Indian penal code, the 
cofonial service finds in Holland exten- language of the province in which they 
sive provision for his instruction. At the seek appointment, the Indian Evidence 
University of Leyden there are professors Act and the Indian Contract Act, and in 
of colonial and Mohammedan law, the any two of the following: Civil proced- 
Japanese and Chinese languages, of eth- ure, Hindu and Mohammedan law, San- 
nography, and lecturers on the Sunda Ian- scrit, Arabic, Persian, and the history of 
guages, on Llalayan, Persian, and Turk- India. 

ish, on Mohammedan civilization, and re- France is not behind England in the 

ligious history. Designed especially for effort to obtain highly qualified men to 

training men for the colonial service is take up the responsibilities of administra- 

the Indisches Institut at Delft, where tjon in Africa and Asia. In Paris the 

there are courses in the administrative Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, found- 

and constitutional law of the Netherlands, ed in 1874, is designed especially to pre- 

Indies, the Malayan and Sunda languages, pare students for foreign diplomatic ser- 

Japanese, ethaology, geography, religious vice. Its corps of teachers is recruited 

legislation and customary law, the law from the most eminent scholars in France 

and institutions of the Dutch Indies, and within and without the regular faculties, 

the Bata, Bali, and Madura languages, and the courses embrace administrative 

This systematic training has borne abun- law, political economy, finance, commer- 

dant fruit in the indefatigable activity cial geography, commercial law, history, 

of the Dutch officials, travellers, and scien- and modern languages. On " colonial 

tific men in the collection of material and questions " alone there are six lecturers. 

the diffusion of knowledge relating to Side by side with this school of politics 

every aspect of their colonial domain, to is the school of modern Oriental lan- 

an extent of which the average American guages, a list of whose graduates is annu- 

can have no idea. In 1895 a clerk in the ally communicated to the ministers of 

Dutch colonial office published a bibli- war, marine, commerce, and foreign af- 

oaraphy of the literature of the Nether- fairs. In this institution the course of 

lands East Indies, covering only the study extends over three years, and m- 

twenty- seven years 1866-1893. This struction is provided m Arabic, written 

simple list of titles and references fills and colloquial, Persian, Russian, Turkish, 

400 octavo pages. Armenian, modern Greek, Chinese, Japan- 

Turnincr to England. France, or Ger- ese, Hindustani, Roumanian, Annamese, 

many, we'find. as we might expect, a high- Malayan, and Malagasy, in the geography 

Iv trained colonial service, and university history and legislation of the Far East 

courses of study designed to supply such and of the Mohammedan countries _ 

a trainincr At Oxford, there are teachers Germany, although a late competitor in 

of Hindustani, Persian, Tamil, Telugu, the field of colonial and commercial ex- 

Marathi, Bengalese, Turkish, and Chinese, pansion, has realized as fully as England 

Indian law and Indian history. In Cam- and France the importance of trained 



men in the public service, and the seminary 
for the study of modern Oriental lan- 
guages at Berlin is one of the most sys- 
tematically equipped in the world. The 
teaching force is made up both of Ger- 
mans and of Orientals, who teach their 
native tongues, and includes instructors 
in Arabic (2), Chinese (2), Japanese (2), 
Gujarati, Persian, Hindustani, Syrian 
Arabic, Maroccan Arabic, Egyptian Ara- 
bic, Turkish (2), Swahili (2), Hausa (2), 
Russian and modern Greek, in the tech- 
nique of the natural sciences, the hygiene 
of the tropics, and tropical botany. The 
unequalled opportunities in both Berlin 
and Paris for studying anthropology, eth- 
nology, comparative religions, and all 
branches of geographical science need not 
be set forth here. 

This brief review of what Holland, 
England, France, and Germany are doing 
to obtain trained men for the diplomat- 
ic and colonial service cannot fail to im- 
press every thinking reader with the sim- 
ple fact that we have entered the race for 
the control and development of the East 
far behind our rivals and critics in prepa- 
ration for the work. Vastly superior to 
Spain in wealth and energy and progres- 
siveness of spirit, and actuated in some 
measure by philanthropic impulses, we 
take up our task under a fearful handi- 
cap. We lack not only trained men, but 
the belief that training is necessary. The 
most ominous feature of the situation is 
that the controlling element among the 
advocates of expansion look upon a train- 
ed civil service with hostility and con- 
tempt. Yet, if our colonial service is 
sacrificed to party interests as spoils, 
nothing can be more certain than that 
we shall take up Spain's work with her 
methods, and that with such discredited 
methods we shall fall far short in our co- 
lonial administration of the disciplined 
and intelligent efficiency of the English 
and Dutch services. The consequence will 
be humiliation for ourselves and irrita- 
tion and discontent among our depend- 

Yet, supposing that the seriousness and 
perplexity of the problems of government 
in our new dependencies should convince our 
authorities of the need of highly trained 
men, where can they be found? Pend- 
ing the organization of a regular system 


of preparation, the first resort should b? 
to men of successful diplomatic experienc« 
in Spanish-speaking countries and in the 
Orient. A knowledge of Spanish should 
be insisted upon at the earliest practica- 
ble moment for every official in the West 
Indies and the Philippines. The events 
of 1898 have already given such an im- 
pulse to the study of Spanish at our 
colleges that before long this requirement 
will be as practicable as it is reasonable. 
For service in the Philippines a certain 
number of men of the highest character 
and thorough knowledge, and familiar 
with Oriental life and thought, could be 
recruited from the ranks of our mission- 
aries in Asia. Suitable instruction for 
candidates for a colonial service in such 
subjects as Oriental history, colonial 
problems, administrative law, civil law, 
comparative religions, ethnology, anthro- 
pology, and folk psychology could be sup- 
plied to-day in no small degree at several 
of our universities. The facilities at these 
institutions and at others would be en- 
larged and adjusted in prompt response 
to a specific demand. In fact, in a sur- 
prisingly short time it would be entirely 
practicable for our government to have 
as candidates for- appointment for the co- 
lonial service men as thoroughly equipped 
for intelligent and efficient administra- 
tion as those at the disposal of England, 
France, Holland, and Germany. As I 
have just said, the most serious difficulty 
will not be to get the right kind of men. 
but to educate public opinion to demand 
trained men for such work. This will re- 
quire resolute, persistent, and intelligent 
agitation, and the energetic difTusion of 
knowledge in regard to the nature of our 
task and the ways of dealing with it. In 
this direction a good beginning has al- 
ready been made in the despatch of the 
Philippine Commission, and in the ap- 
pointment of committees by the American 
Historical Association and the American 
Economic Association to collect informa- 
tion. Much may be hoped from both 
these committees in the way of extending 
our knowledge of every phase of the ex- 
pansion of Europe in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. In the light of this knowledge, an 
intelligent and well-directed public opin- 
ion may guide and control the expansion 
of America in the twentieth century. 


Civil War in the United States. This 
great struggle was actually begun when, 
after the attack on Fort Sumter, in Charles- 
ton Harbor, in April, 1861, President Lin- 
coln, recognizing the fact that a part of 
the people in the Union were in a state of 
rebellion, called for 75,000 men (April 15, 
1861) to suppress the insurrection. Then 
an immediate arming and other prepara- 
tions for the impending struggle began 
in all parts of the republic, and very soon 
hostile armies came in contact. The first 
overt act of war was committed by the 
Confederates in Charleston Harbor at 
the beginning of 1861 (see Star of the 
West). The last struggle of the war oc- 
curred in Texas, near the battle-ground of 
Palo Alto, on May 13, 1865, between Con- 
federates and the 63d United States regi- 
ment of colored troops, who fired the last 
volley. The last man wounded in the 
Civil War was Sergeant Crockett, a col- 
ored soldier. The whole number of men 
called into the military service of the 
government in the army and navy during 
the war was 2,656,553. Of this number 
about 1,490,000 men were in actual ser- 
vice. Of the latter, nearly 60,000 were 
killed in the field and about 35,000 were 
mortally wounded. Diseases in camp and 
hospitals slew 184,000. It is estimated 
that at least 300,000 Union soldiers per- 
ished during the war. Fully that number 
of Confederate soldiers lost their lives, 
while the aggregate number of men, in- 
cluding both armies, who were crippled 
or permanently disabled by disease, was 
estimated at 400,000. The actual loss to 
the country of able-bodied men caused by 
the rebellion was fully 1.000.000. 

The total cost of the war has been mod- 
erately estimated at $8,000,000,000. This 
sum includes the debt which on Aug. 31, 
1865, had reached $2,845,907,626.56; the 
estimated value of the slaves was $2,000.- 
000,000; in addition about $800,000,000 
were spent during the war by the govern- 
ment, mainly in war expenses, and large 
outlays were made by States ; one estimate 
of the total pension bill raises this item 
to $1,500,000,000. The property destroyed 
is beyond computation. The harmony of 
action in the several States which first 
adopted ordinances of secession seemed 
marvellous. It was explained in a com- 
munication published in the Xational In- 


telligencer, written by a " distinguished 
citizen of the South, who formerly repre- 
sented his State in the popular branch of 
Congress," and was then temporarily re- 
siding in Washington. He said a caucus 
of the senators of seven cotton-producing 
States (naming them) had been held on 
the preceding Saturday night, in that city, 
at which it was resolved, in effect, to as- 
sume to themselves political power at the 
South, and to control all political and 
military operations for the time; that 
they telegraphed directions to complete 
the seizures of forts, arsenals, custom- 
liouses, and all other public property, and 
advised conventions then in session, or 
soon to assemble, to pass ordinances for 
immediate secession. They agreed that it 
would be proper for the representatives of 
" seceded States " to remain in Congress, 
in order to prevent the adoption of meas- 
ures by the national government for its 
own security. They also advised, ordered, 
or directed the assembling of a conven- 
tion at Montgomery, Ala., on Feb. 15. 
" This can," said the writer, " of course, 
only be done by the revolutionary con- 
A'entions usurping the power of the peo- 
ple, and sending delegates over whom they 
will lose all control in the establishment 
of a provisional government, which is the 
plan of the dictators." This was actually 
done within thirty days afterwards. They 
resolved, he said, to use every means in 
their power to force the legislatures of 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, 
Texas, Virginia, and Maryland into the 
adoption of revolutionary measures. They 
had already possessed themselves of the 
telegraph, the press, and wide control of 
the postmasters in the South ; and they 
relied upon a general defection of the 
Southern-born members of the army and 

Of the 11,000,000 inhabitants in the 
slave-labor States at the beginning of the 
Civil War, the ruling class in the South — 
those in whom resided in a remarkable de- 
gree the political power of those States — 
numbered about 1,000,000. Of these the 
large land and slave holders, whose influ- 
ence in the body of 1,000.000 was almost 
supreme, numbered less than 200.000. In 
all the Southern States, in 1850, less than 
170,000 held 2.800,000 out of 3,300,000 
slaves. The production of the great staple, 


cotton, which was regarded as king of 
Rings, in an earthly sense, was in the 
hands of less than 100,000 men. The 11,- 
000,000 inhabitants in the slave - labor 
States in 1860 consisted of 6,000,000 
small slave-holders, and non-slave-holders, 
mechanics, and laboring-men; 4,000,000 
negro slaves, and 1,000,000 known in those 
legions by the common name of " poor 
white trash," a degraded population scat- 
tered over the whole surface of those 
States. These figures are round numbers, 
approximately exact according to publish- 
ed statistics. 

Chronology of the War. — The follow- 
ing is a brief record of the most important 
of the minor events of the war, the greater 
ones being treated more at length under 
readily suggestive titles: 

I860.— Nov. 18. The Georgia Legislat- 
ure voted $100,000 for the purpose of 
arming the State, and ordered an election 
for a State convention. — 29. The legislat- 
ure of Vermont refused, by a vote of 125 
to 58, to repeal the Personal Liberty Bill. 
The legislature of Mississippi voted to 
send commissioners to confer with the au- 
thorities of the other slave-labor States. — 
Dec. 6. In Maryland, a Democratic State 
Convention deplored the hasty action of 
South Carolina. — 10. The legislature of 
Louisiana voted $500,000 to arm the State. 
— 22. The Crittenden Compromise voted 
down in the United States Senate. — 24. 
The South Carolina delegation in Congress 
offered their resignation, but it was not 
recognized by the speaker, and their names 
were called regularly through the session. 
— 31. The Senate committee of thirteen 
reported that they could not agree upon 
any plan of adjustment of existing diffi- 
culties, and their journal was laid before 
the Senate. 

1861. — Jan. 2. The authorities of Geor- 
gia seized the public property of the 
United States within its borders. — 4. 
Governor Pickens, having duly proclaimed 
the " sovereign nation of South Carolina," 
assumed the office of chief magistrate of 
the new empire, and appointed the follow- 
ing cabinet ministers: A. G. Magrath. Sec- 
retary of State; D. F. Jamison. Secretary 
of War; C. G. Memminsrer. Secretarv of 
the Treasury; A. C. Garlington, Secretary 
of the Interior; and W. W. Harllee, Post- 

master-General. — 7. The United States 
House of Representatives, by a vote, 
commended the course of Major Ander- 
son in Charleston Harbor. — 12. The five 
representatives of Mississippi withdrew 
from Congress. — 14. The Ohio legislature, 
by a vote of 58 to 31, refused to repeal 
the Personal Liberty Bill. — 21. Jefi"erson 
Davis, of Mississippi; Benjamin Fitz- 
patrick and C. C. Clay, of Alabama, and 
David L. Yulee and Stephen R. Mallory, 
of Florida, finally withdrew from the 
L'^nited States Senate. Representatives 
from Alabama withdrew from Congress. — 
23. Representatives from Georgia, except- 
ing Joshua Hill, withdrew from Congress. 
Hill refused to go with them, but resign- 
ed. — 24. The Anti-Slavery Society of Mas- 
sachusetts, at its annual session, broken 
up by a mob. — 25. Rhode Island repealed 
its Personal Liberty Bill by act of its 
legislature. — Feb. 5. John S'.idell and J. 
P. Benjamin, of Louisiana, withdrew from 
the United States Senate, the representa- 
tives in the Lower House also withdrew, 
excepting Bouligny, under instructions 
from the Louisiana State Convention. 
Bouligny declared he would not obey the 
instructions of that illegal body. — 11. 
The House of Representatives " Resolved, 
that neither the Congress nor the people 
or governments of the non-slave-holding 
States have a constitutional right to legis- 
late upon or interfere with slavery in any 
slave-holding State of the Union." — 28. 
Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern 
Confederacy, vetoed a bill for legalizing 
the African slave-trade. — March 16. A con- 
vention at Mesilla, Ariz., passed an ordi- 
nance of secession, and subsequently the 
Confederate Congress erected a ter- 
ritorial government there. — April 
17. Governor Letcher, of Virginia, 
recognized the Confederate govern- 
ment. — 20. Property valued at $25,000,- 
000. belonging to the United States gov- 
ernment, lost at the Gosport navy-yard, 
Va. Eleven vessels, carrying 602 guns, 
were scuttled. — 21. The Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington, and Baltimore Railway taken 
possession of by the United States gov- 
ernment. — 23. The first South Carolina 
Confederate regiment started for the Po- 
tomac. — 28. Virginia proclaimed a mem- 
ber of the Confederacy by its governor.— 
30. The legislature of Virginia, by act, 


established a State navy. — May 3. The the Confederates. — 24. Count de Paris and 
legislature of Connecticut voted $2,000,- Due de Chartres entered the United States 
000 for the public defence. — 4. The gov- service as aides to General McClellan. — 
ernors of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oct. 11. Marshal Kane, of Baltimore, sent 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and other to Fort Lafayette. — 15. Three steamers 
States met at Cleveland, 0., to devise plans despatched from New York after the Con- 
for the defence of the Western States. — 7. federate steamer Nashville, w^hich escaped 
The governor of Tennessee announced a from Charleston on the Uth. — 23. The 
military league between the State and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus sus- 
Confederacy. — 10. The President of the pended in the District of Columbia. — 30. 
United States proclaimed martial law on All the state-prisoners (143) in Fort La- 
the islands of Key West, the Tortugas, fayette transferred to Fort Warren, Bos- 
and Santa Rosa. — 11. The blockade of ton Harbor. — Nov. 3. Rising of Union men 
Charleston, S. C, established. — 13. The in eastern Tennessee, who destroy rail- 
blockade of the Mississippi River at Cairo road bridges. — Dec. 1. Loyal legislature 
established. — 15. The legislature of Mas- of Virginia meet at Wheeling. — 3. Henry 
sachusetts offered to loan the United C. Burnett, representative from Kentucky, 
States government $7,000,000. — 20. All and John W. Reid, representative from 
mail-steamships on the coast, and run- Missouri, expelled from the House of Rep- 
ning in connection with the Confederates, resentatives because of alleged treacherous 
were stopped. — 21. The Confederate Con- acts. Fortifications at Bolivar Point, Gal- 
gress, at Montgomery, adjourn to meet at veston Harbor, Tex., destroyed by the 
Richmond, July 20. — 26. New Orleans United States frigate Santee. — 9. The 
blockaded by sloop-of-war Brooklyn. — Confederate Congress passed a bill ad- 
27. The ports of Mobile and Savannah mitting Kentucky into the Southern Con- 
blockaded. — June 1. The postal system in federacy. — 20. Confederates destroyed 
the Confederacy put into operation. — 10. about 100 miles of the North Missouri 
Forty-eight locomotives, valued at $400,- Railroad, with its stations, bridges, ties, 
000, 'belonging to the Baltimore and Ohio fuel, water-tanks, and telegraph-poles.— 
Railroad, were destroyed by the Confed- 30. The banks of New York, Albany, Phil- 
erates at Martinsburg, Va.— July 11. The adelphia, and Boston suspend specie pay- 
United States Senate expelled from that ments. 

body James M. Mason, R. M. T. Hunter, 1862.— Jan. 10. Waldo P. Johnson and 
T. L. Clingman, Thomas Bragg, Louis T. Trusten Polk, of Missouri, expelled from 
Wigfall, J. A. Hemphill, Charles B. Mitch- the United States Senate.— 11. Bridges of 
ell, W. K. Sebastian, and A. O. P. Nichol- the Louisville and Nashville Railroad 
son, charged with treasonable acts.— 25. burned by the Confederates.— 16. The Ohio 
The governor of New York called for 25,- legislature authorized the banks of that 
000 more troops.— Aug. 16. Several news- State to suspend specie payments.— 17. 
papers in New York presented by the Cedar Keys, Fla., captured by Union 
grand jury for hostility to the govern- troops. — 30. The Monitor launched.— 
TTient.— 19. Secretary of State ordered that Feb. 3. Confederate steamer Nashville 
all persons leaving or entering the United ordered to leave Southampton (England) 
States shall possess a passport. Major Harbor; the United States gunboat Tus- 
Berrett, of Washington, D. C, arrested on carora, starting in pursuit, stopped by 
a charge of treason, and conveyed to Fort the British frigate Shannon. — 5. Jesse D. 
Lafayette, in the Narrows, at the en- Bright, of Indiana, expelled from the 
trance of New York Harbor. — 24. Trans- United States Senate. British schooner 
mission of Confederate journals through Mars captured off Florida. — 8. General 
the mails prohibited.— Sept. 12. Col. John Hunter declared martial law throughout 
A. Washington, formerly of Mount Vernon, Kansas.— 9-13. The House Treasury-note 
aide of Gen. Robert E. Lee. killed while Bill, with legal-tender clause, passed the 
reconnoitring in western Virginia. — IS. United States Senate. Chesapeake and 
Bank of New Orleans suspended specie Albemarle Canal destroyed by Union 
payments.— 21. John C. Breckinridge fled forces.— 17. Confederates defeated at Sugar 
from Frankfort, Ky., and openly joined Creek. Ark. First regular Congress of the 



Confederates assembled at Richmond. — 10. 
Confederate government ordered all Union 
pi'isoners to be released. — 20. Fully 4,000 
Confederates, sent to reinforce Fort Donel- 
son, captured on the Cumberland River. — 
21. First execution of a slave-trader un- 
der the laws of the United States took 
place at New York, in the case of N. P. 
Gordon. — 22. Martial law proclaimed over 
western Tennessee. — 24. Fayetteville, Ark., 
captured by the Union troops, but burn- 
ed by the Confederates on leaving it. — 
25. Telegraph lines taken possession of hj 
government, and army news not to be 
published until authorized. — 20. Legal 
tender bill approved by the President. — 
28. Confederate steamer Nashville ran the 
blockade at Beaufort, N. C. Fast Day in 
the Confederacy. — March 1. John Minor 
Botts arrested at Richmond, Va., for trea- 
son to the Confederate States. Schooner 
British Queen captured while trying to 
run the blockade at Wilmington, N. C. — 
2. Brunswick, Ga., captured by Union 
troops. — 6. President Lincoln asks Con- 
gress to declare that the United States 
ought to co-operate with any States which 
may adopt a gradual abolition of slavery, 
giving to such State pecuniary indem- 
nity. — 8. Fort Clinch, St. Mary, Ga., and 
Fernandina, Fla., taken by Dupont's expe- 
dition. — 10. Confederate troops from Tex- 
as occupy Santa Fe, N. M. — 11. General 
McClellan relieved of the supreme com- 
mand of the army, and made commander 
of the Army of the Potomac. Resolu- 
tion recommending gradual emancipation 
adopted by the House of Representatives. 
— 13. Point Pleasant, Mo., captured by 
Pope. — 18. Name of Fort Calhoun, at the 
Rip Raps, Hampton Roads, changed to 
Fort Wool. — 21. Washington, N. C, occu- 
pied by Union troops. Departments of 
the "Gulf" and '•' South " created.— 20. 
Skirmish near Denver City, Col., and fifty 
Confederate cavalry captured. — 31. Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad reopened, after 
being closed nearly a year. Confederate 
camp at Union City, Tenn., captured, 
with a large amount of spoils. — April 1. 
General Banks dro've the Confederate? 
from Woodstock. Va. Battle at Putnam'? 
Ferry, Ark., and Confederate stores capt- 
ured. — 2. Tlie emancipation and compen- 
sation resolution passed the United States 
Senate. Appalachicola, Fla., surrendered 

to Union troops. — 4. Departments of the 
Shenandoah and Rappahannock created. 
Pass Christian, on the Gulf coast, taken 
by National troops. — 8. National tax bill 
passed the House of Representatives. — 11. 
Bill for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia passed the House of 
Representatives. — 12. General Hunter de- 
clares all the slaves in Fort Pulaski and 
on Cockspur Island free. Engagement 
at Martinsburg, Va. — 15. Confederates 
cut the levee on the Arkansas side 
of the Mississippi, near Fort Wright, 
causing an immense destruction of 
property. — 16. President Lincoln signed 
the bill for the abolition of slavery 
in the District of Columbia. Battle of 
Lee's Mills, near Yorktown. — 17. Skirmish 
on Edisto Island. — 19. Battle of Camden, 
or South Mills, N. C— 21. Santa Fe evac- 
uated by the Texans. Confederate Con- 
gress at Richmond broken up and dis- 
persed. — 24. Destruction of the Dismal 
S\^'amp Canal completed. — INIay 1. Skir- 
mish at Pulaski, Tenn., and 200 Union 
troops captured. — 3. Skirmish near 
Monterey, Tenn., and Union victory. 
Skirmish near Farmington, Miss., and 
Union victory. — 4. British steamer 
Circassian captured near Havana, Cuba. 
Skirmish at Lebanon, Tenn.; the Confed- 
erates defeated, with the loss of 105 
men, their guns, and horses. The Confed- 
erates burn their gunboats on the York 
River. Battle of West Point, Va., and 
Union victory. — 8. Union cavalry sur- 
prised and captured near Corinth, Miss. 
— 9. Attack on Sewell's Point by the Mon- 
itor. Confederates evacuate Pensacola. 
Skirmish at Slater's Mills, Va. Bombard- 
ment of Fort Darling, on James River. — 
10. Craney Island abandoned by the Con- 
federates. General Butler seized $800,000 
in gold in the office of the Netherlands 
Consulate, New Orleans, when all the for- 
eign consuls uttered a protest. — 11. Pensa- 
cola occupied by Union troops; the na^'y- 
yard and public buildings, excepting the 
custom-house, had been burned by the Con- 
federates. — 12. President Lincoln pro- 
claimed that the ports of Beaufort, N. C, 
Port Royal, S. C, and New Orleans should 
be open to commerce after June 1. — 13. 
Natchez, Miss., surrendered to Union gun- 
boats. — 17. Naval expedition up the Pa- 
munkev River, and Confederate vessels 



burned. — 18. Suffolk, 17 miles below Nor- 
folk, occupied by National troops. — 19. 
May, recorder and chief of police of New 
Orleans, arrested and sent to Fort Jack- 
son. — 22. The United States Senate organ- 
ized as a High Court of Impeachment for 
the trial of W. H. Humphreys, a United 
States district judge, for treason. — 23. 
<^OBfederates defeated at Lewisburg, Va. — 
26. The government, by proclamation, took 
^iossession of all railroads for the trans- 
portation of troops and munitions of 
war. Confiscation bill passed the United 
States House of Representatives. Hanover 
Court-House, Va., captured by National 
troops. — 29. Skirmish at Pocotaligo, S. C. 
— June 2. General Wool transferred to the 
Department of Maryland, pnd General Dix 
ordered to Fortress Monroe. — 3. National 
troops landed on James Island, S. C. — 4. 
Battle near Trentor's Creek, N. C. 
Skirmish on James Island, S. C. — 5. 
Artillery battle at New Bridge, near Rich- 
mond; Confederates defeated. — 6. Tax 
bill passed United States Senate. Battle 
of Union Church, near Harrisonburg, Va. 
— 14. A severe battle on James Island, S. 
C. — 17. Battle between Union gunboats 
and Confederate batteries at St. Charles, 
on the White River, Ark., the batteries 
being carried. — 18. Confederate works at 
Cumberland Gap, Tenn., occupied by Na- 
tional troops. — 19. An act confiscating the 
slaves of Confederates passed the United 
States House of Representatives. — 20. 
Commodore Porter arrived before Vicks- 
burg with ten mortar-boats. Free terri- 
tory act signed by President Lincoln. — 26. 
High Court of Impeachment ordered 
Judge Humphreys to be removed from of- 
fice and disqualified. Confederates de- 
stroy their gunboats on the Yazoo River. 
— 27. Vicksburg bombarded. — 28. The 
governors of eighteen loyal States pe- 
tition the President of the United 
States to call out additional troops. — 
30. Battle of Charles City Cross-roads. — 
July 1. Defeat of Confederates at Boone- 
ville. Mo. Brunswick, Ga., establish- 
ed as a port of entry. Skirmish 
at Turkey Bend, on the James River. 
President Lincoln calls for 600.000 addi- 
tional volunteers. — 6. Engagement at Du- 
val's Bluff.— 7. Battle of Bayou de Cachi. 
Ark. ; the Confederates defeated. Ensase- 
ment 10 miles above Duval's Bluff; all the 

camp-equipage and provisions of the Con- 
federates captured. — 8. Union expedition 
up Roanoke River started from Plymouth, 
N. C. — 9. Confederate batteries at Hamil- 
ton, on the Roanoke River, with steamers, 
schooners, and supplies, captured. — 11. 
Gen. H. W. Halleck appointed commander 
of all the land forces of the republic. — ■ 
13. National troops at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., captured by Confederate cavalry. — 
11. Battle of Fayetteville, Ark. ; the Con- 
federates defeated. — 15. Confederate 
" ram " Arkansas ran past the Union flo- 
tilla, and reached the batteries at Vicks- 
burg. — 17. Congress authorized the use of 
postage and other stamps as currency, to 
supply a deficiency of small change, and 
made it a misdemeanor for any individual 
to issue a fractional paper currency, or 
" shin-plasters." National troops defeat- 
ed at Cynthiana, Ky. — 20. National cav- 
alry struck a guerilla band between Mount 
Sterling and Owensville, Ky., and scat- 
tered them, taking their cannon and 
horses. — 22. The President issued an order 
for the seizure of supplies in all the 
States wherein insurrection prevailed; di- 
rected that persons of African descent 
should be employed as laborers, giving 
them wages; also that foreigners should 
not be required to take the oath of allegi- 
ance. — 23. General Pope ordered to arrest 
all disloyal citizens within the lines 
under his command. National troops 
victors in a sharp engagement near Car- 
rael Church. — 25. The Confederates noti- 
fied by the President of the provisions of 
the confiscation act. — 22. Skirmish at 
Bollinger's Mills, Mo. — 29. Confederates 
driven from Mount Sterling, Ky., by 
" Home Guards." Confederate guerillas 
defeated at Moore's Mills, near Fulton, 
Mo. — 30. Skirmish at Paris, Ky., when a 
part of a Pennsylvania regiment drove 
Morgan's guerillas from the town. — Aug. 

1. Retaliatory order issued by the Con- 
federate government, and General Pope 
and his officers declared not to be entitled 
to the consideration of prisoners of war. 
CJonfederates attacked Newark, Mo., and 
captured seventy L'nion troops; the next 
day the L^nionists recovered everything. — 

2. Oi-ange Court-House, Va., taken by Pope's 
troops. A draft of the militia to serve 
nine months was ordered by the President. 
— 5. Malvern Hills occupied by National 



troops. — 6. Battle near Kirksville, Mo.; 
tl)e Union troops victorious.— 8. Battle 
near Fort Fillmore, N. M. ; Unionists vic- 
torious. The privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus, in respect to all persons 
arrested under it, suspended; also for the 
airest and imprisonment of persons who 
bj' act, speech, or writing discourage 
volunteer enlistments. — 11. Skirmishes 
near Williamsport, Tenn., and also at 
Ainderhook, Tenn. ; Confederates defeat- 
ed. Independence, Mo., surrendered to the 
Confederates. — 12. Gallatin, Tenn., sur- 
rendered to Morgan's guerillas. Battle at 
Yellow Creek, Clinton co., Tenn.; Con- 
federates defeated. — 18. Confederate Con- 
gress reassembled at Richmond. — 19. De- 
partment of the Ohio formed of the States 
of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, and Kentucky east of the Tennes- 
see River, and including Cumberland 
Gap. Cavalry expedition to Charleston, 
Mo. — 20. Clarkesville, on the Cumber- 
land, Tenn., surrendered to the Confed- 
erates. — 21. Gallatin, Tenn., surrendered 
to the Confederates.— 22. Catlett's Sta- 
tion, Va., captured by Stuart's cavalry. — • 
24. Battle between Bloomfield and Cape 
Girardeau, Mo. ; the Confederates were de- 
feated. — 25. Skirmish at Waterloo Bridge, 
Va. Combined military and naval expedi- 
tion under General Curtis and Commander 
Davis returned to Helena, Ark., having 
captured the Confederate steamer Fair 
Play, containing a large quantity of small- 
arms and ammunition, also four field- 
guns, and another laden with tents and 
baggage, and, proceeding up the Yazoo 
River, captured a Confederate battery of 
four guns, with a large quantity of pow- 
^ler, shot, shells, and grape. — 27. Skirmish 
near Rienzi, Miss. Confederates routed by 
General Hooker at Kettle Run, near 
Manassas, Va. — 28. Battle near Centre- 
ville, Va., by Nationals under McDowell 
and Sigel, and Confederates under Jack- 
son, when the latter were defeated with 
a loss of 1,000 made prisoners and many 
arms. Skirmish near Woodbury, Tenn. : 
Confederates defeated. — 29. City Point, 
on the James River, shelled and destroyed 
by Union gunboats. — 30. Buckhannon, Va.. 
entered and occupied by Confederates. 
Battle of Bolivar, Tenn.; Confederates 
routed. — .31. Skirmish at Weldon, Va.; 
Confederates defeated. — Sept. 1. The legis- 

lature of Kentucky, alarmed by Confeder- 
ate raids, adjourned from Frankfort to 
Louisville. Battle at Britton's Lane, near 
Estanaula, Tenn.; Confederates defeated. 
Skirmish near Jackson, Tenn. ; Confeder- 
ates defeated. — 2. General McClellan 
placed in command of the defences of, and 
troops for the defence of, Washington, D. 
C. Martial law declared in Cincinnati. 
Fighting between Fairfax Court-House and 
Washington. — 3. Centreville, Va., evacu- 
ated by the Union forces. — 4. Confederate 
steamer Oreto ran the Uockade into Mo- 
bile Harbor. — 6. Confederate cavalry at- 
tacked the Union outposts at Martinsburg, 
Va., and were repulsed. — 8. General Pope 
relieved of the command of the Army of 
Virginia, and assigned to that of the 
Northwest. General Lee issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Maryland. Skir- 
mish near Cochran's Cross Roads, Miss. 
Restrictions on travel rescinded, and ar- 
rests for disloyalty forbidden except by 
direction of the judge-advocate at Wash- 
ington. — 9. Confederate cavalry attacked 
a Union force at Williamsburg, Va., and 
were repulsed. — 10. Governor Curtin, of 
Pennsylvania, issued an order calling on 
all able-bodied men in the State to organize 
immediately for its defence. Confederates 
attacked Union troops near Gauley, Va. ; 
the latter burned all the government prop- 
erty and fled. Skirmish near Covington, 
Ky. — 11. Maysville, Ky., taken by the Con- 
federates. Bloomfield, Mo., captured by 
the Confederates, and recaptured by the 
Unionists the next day. — 12. Eureka, Mo., 
captured by the Nationals. — 13. Confeder- 
ates attacked Harper's Ferry, and the next 
night the National cavalry escaped from 
that post, and it was surrendered on the 
15th. — 17. Cumberland Gap, Tenn., evacu- 
ated by the Union forces. Confederate 
soldiers captured at Glasgow, Ky. — 18. A 
day of fasting and prayer held by 
the Confederates. Prentiss. Miss., shelled 
and burned. — 19. Confederates evacu- 
ated Harper's Ferry. Confederates 
attacked Owensboro, Ky.. and Avere re- 
pulsed. — 21. Sharp skirmish on the Vir- 
ginia side of the Potomac near Shepherds- 
toAvn, Va., and the Nationals forced back 
across the river with considerable loss. 
Cavalry fiffht near Lebanon Junction, Ky. — 
22. President Lincoln's preliminary Proc- 
lamation of Emancipation for the slaves 


issued. — 24. Convention of the governors 
of the loyal States at Altoona, Pa. Presi- 
dent Lincoln suspended the privilege of 
the writ of habeas corpus in respect to 
all persons arrested and imprisoned in 
any fort, camp, arsenal, military prison, 
or other place by any military authority, 
or by sentence of court-martial. Engage- 
ment at Donaldsonville, La. — 25. Commo- 
dore Wilkes's squadron arrived at Ber- 
muda, and he was ordered to leave in 
twenty-four hours. — 27. Augusta, Ky., at- 
tacked by Confederates, who captured the 
garrison and destroyed the town. — 29. 
General Buell ordered to turn over the 
command of his troops to General Thomas. 
Warrenton, Va., taken by the Nationals. — • 
30. Retaliatory resolutions introduced into 
the Confederate Congress on account of 
the Emancipation Proclamation. — Oct. 1. 
General Halleck sent to McClellan, urg- 
ing him to cross the Potomac and attack 
the Confederates. National soldiers cross- 
ed at Shepherdstown and drove the Con- 
federates to Martinsburg. The Western 
gunboat fleet transferred from the War 
to the Navy Department. National naval 
and military expedition sailed from Hilton 
Head for St. John's River, Fla., open- 
ed fire on the Confederate fortifications at 
St. John's Bluff on the 2d, and reduced 
the works on the 3d. — 3. The Confeder- 
ates drove in the Union pickets at Corinth, 
Miss., and on the 4th a severe battle was 
fought there. — 5. Galveston, Tex., occu- 
pied by National troops. — 6. Battle of La 
Vergne, Tenn. ; the Confederates were de- 
feated. — 7. Expedition to destroy the salt- 
v/orks on the coast of Florida. Confeder- 
ates evacuate Lexington, Ky. — 9. Stuart's 
cavalry start on their famous expedition 
into Pennsylvania ; reached Chambers- 
burg on the 10th, and on the 11th destroy- 
ed much property there. — 11. General 
Wool arrived at Harrisburg and assumed 
command of the troops for the defence 
of the State of Pennsylvania. Battle be- 
tween Harrodsburg and Danville, Ky., in 
which the Confederates were defeated. — 

13. The Confederate Congress adjourned, 
to meet again early in January, 1863. — 

14. In the State elections held in Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, and Indiana, the Republicans 
were defeated. — 15. Severe battle between 
Lexington and Richmond, in which 45,000 
Confederates were repulsed by 18,000 Na- 


tionals. There was heavy loss on both 
sides. — 18. The guerilla chief Morgan 
dashed into Lexington, Ky., and took 125 
prisoners. — 20. In the early hours of the 
morning a small Confederate force destroy- 
ed a National train of wagons near Bards- 
town, Ky., and at daylight they capt- 
ured another train there. — 21. Confeder- 
ates near Nashville attacked and dispersed. 
— 22. The governor of Kentucky called on 
the people of Louisville to defend the men- 
aced city. — 24. General Rosecrans succeed- 
ed General Buell in command of the army 
in Kentucky. Skirmish at Morgantown, 
Ky. — 27. Confederates attacked and de- 
feated at Putnam's Ferry, Mo. — 28. Bat- 
tle near Fayetteville, Ark., where the Con- 
federates were defeated and chased to 
the Boston Mountains. Skirmish at 
Snicker's Gap, Va. — Nov. 1. Artillery 
fight at Philomont, Va., lasting five 
hours. The Confederates pursued tow- 
ards Bloomfield, where another skir- 
mish ensued, lasting four hours. — 4. Maj. 
Reid Sanders, a Confederate agent, capt- 
ured pn the coast of Virginia while en- 
deavoring to escape with Confederate 
despatches. National troops destroy salt- 
works at KingsbiTry, Ga. — 5. The Confed- 
erates attacked Nashville and were re- 
pulsed. General Burnside superseded 
General McClellan in command of the 
Army of the Potomac. — 9. Town of St. 
Mary, Ga., shelled and destroyed by Union 
gunboats. — 10. Great Union demonstration 
in Memphis. — 15. Army of the Potomac 
began its march from Warrenton towards 
Fredericksburg. — 17. Artillery engagement 
near Fredericksburg. Jefferson Davis or- 
dered retaliation for the execution of ten 
Confederates in Missouri. — 18. Confeder- 
ate cruiser Alabama escaped the San Ja- 
cinto at Martinique. — 19. First general 
convention of " The Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the Confederate States of Amer- 
ica " met at Augusta, Ga. — 25. Confederate 
raid into Poolesville, Md. A body of 4,000 
Confederates attacked Newbern, but were 
forced to retreat in disorder. — 27. Nearly 
all the political prisoners released from 
forts and government prisons. Confed- 
erates defeated near Frankfort, Va. — 28. 
General Grant's army marched towards 
Holly Springs, Miss. Confederates crosS' 
ed the Potomac and captured nearly two 
companies of Pennsylvania cavalry near 


Hartwood. — 29. General Stalil tights and 
routs a Confederate force near Berryville. 
— Dec. 2. King George Court-Houee, Va., 
captured by National cavalry. Expedi- 
tion went out from Sufl'olk, Va., and re- 
captured a Pittsburg battery. — 4. General 
Banks and a part of his expedition sailed 
from New York for New Orleans. — 5. 
Skirmish near Cofleeville, Miss. — 6. Con- 
federates repulsed at Cane Hill, Ark. — 
7. California steamer Ariel captured by 
the Alabama. — 9. Concordia, on the Mis- 
sissippi, burned by Union troops. — 10. 
National gunboats shell and destroy most 
of the town of Front Eoyal, Va. — 11. 
Skirmish on the Blackwater, Va., and 
National troops pushed back to Suffolk. — 
12. National gunboat Cairo blown up by 
a torpedo on the Yazoo. — 13. National 
troops surprise and capture Confederates 
at Tuscumbia, Ala. — 14. Gen. N. P. 
Banks succeeded General Butler in com- 
mand of the Department of the Gulf. 
Plymouth, N. C, destroyed by Confeder- 
ates. — 15. Confederate salt-works at Yell- 
ville. Ark., destroyed. — 21. A body of 
Union cavalry destroyed important rail- 
road bridges in eastern Tennessee, with lo- 
comotives, and captured .500 prisoners and 
700 stand of arms. — 23. Jefferson Davis 
issued a proclamation directing retalia- 
tory measures to be taken because of the 
course of General Butler in -New Orleans, 
and dooming him and his officers to death 
by hanging when caught. He ordered 
that no commanding officer should be re- 
leased or paroled before exchanged until 
Genei-al Butler should be punished. — 24. 
Heavy skirmish at Dumfries, Va., when 
the Confederates were repulsed. — 27. A 
company of Union cavalry were surprised 
and captured at Oceoquan, Va. — 31. The 
Monitor sunk at sea south of Cape Hat- 

1863.— Jan. 1. General Sullivan fought 
Forrest near Lexington, Tenn. Emancipa- 
tion jubilee of the negroes at Hilton 
Head, S. C— 2. Gold at New York, I3314 
(7P. 1337/8-— 3. Department of the East 
created, and General Wool assigned to 
its command. — 4. Confederates defeated 
ut Moorefield, W. Va. The Confed-irato 
<^eneral Magruder declares the port of 
(Jalveston, Tex., opened to the commerce 
of the world. Clarkesville, Tenn., surren- 
ders to the Union forces. — 5. An " indig- 


nation meeting " of the opposition was 
held at Springfield, HI., to protest against 
the President's Emancipation Proclama- 
tion. — 8. Confederates drive Union forces 
out of Springfield, Miss. — 9. Exchange of 
20,000 prisoners effected. — 10. Cavalry 
skirmish at Catlett's Station. Bombard- 
ment of Galveston. The National gun- 
boat Hatteras sunk by the Alabama on 
the coast of Texas. — 11. General Weit- 
zel destroyed the Confederate gunboat Cot- 
ton on the Bayou Teche. — 12. Jefferson 
Davis recommends the Confederate Con- 
gress to adopt retaliatory measures 
against the operation of the Emancipation 
Proclamation. — 13. Peace resolutions in- 
troduced into the New Jersey legislature. 
Several boats carrying wounded Union 
soldiers destroyed by the Confederates at 
Harpeth Shoals, on the Cumberland River. 
Confederate steamer Oreto (afterwards the 
Florida) runs the blockade at Mobile. — ■ 
15. National gunboat Columbia, stranded 
at Masonboro Inlet, N. C, burned by the 
Confederates. Mound City, Ark., burned 
by National troops. — 17. Confederate 
cruiser Oreto destroyed tlie brig Estelle. 
CJongress resolved to issue $100,000,000 in 
United States notes. — 20. General Hunter 
assumes command of the Department of 
the South. — 22. Gen. Fitz-John Porter dis- 
missed from the National service. — 24. 
General Burnside, at liia own request, re- 
lieved from the command of the Army of 
the Potomac. — 25. First regiment of negro 
Union soldiers organized at Port Royal, 
S. C. — 26. Peace resolutions offered in the 
Confederate Congress by Mr. Foote. En- 
gagement at Woodbury, Tenn. — 27. Fort 
McAllister, on the Ogeechee River, Ga., 
bombarded by the Montauk. — 30. Union 
gunboat Isaac Smith captured in Stono 
River, S. C. — 31. Blockading squadron off 
Charleston Harbor attacked by Confederate 
iron-clad gunboats, and the harbor pro- 
claimed opened by Beauregard and the 
Confederate Secretary of State. Skirmish 
near Nashville, Tenn., and the Confed- 
erates defeated. — Feb. 1. National troops 
occupy Franklin, Tenn. — 2. United 
States House of Representatives passed 
a bill providing for the employment 
of negro soldiers. — 3. Fort Donelson 
invested by Confederate troops, who 
were repulsed. — 4. Skirmish near Lake 
Providence, La. — 5. Second attack on 


Fort Donelaon by Confederates repulsed. — Knights of the Golden Circle at Reading, 

0. The Emancipation Proclamation pub- 
lished in Louisiana. — 7. Mutiny of the 
100th Illinois Regiment. Confederates de- 
clare the blockade at Galveston and Sabine 
Pass opened. — 8. Circulation of the Chi- 
cago Times suppressed. — 10. Official denial 
that the blockade at Charleston had been 
raised. — 11. Confederates attempt to as- 

Pa. — 4. Town of Palmyra, on the Cumber- 
land, destroyed by National gunboats. — 5. 
Confederate vessels detained at Liverpool 
by order of the British government. — 6. 
President Lincoln and family visited the 
Army of the Potomac. — 7. Combined at- 
tack of iron-clad vessels on Fort Sumter; 
five out of seven National vessels disabled. 

sassinate General Banks on his way to the Emperor of the French intimates his aban- 

Opera-house in New Orleans. — 12. Na- 
tional currency bill passes the Senate. 
Ihe Jacob Bell, from China, with a cargo 
of tea worth $1,000,000, captured and 
burned by the Confederate cruiser Florida. 
— 14. National cavalry defeated at An- 
nandale, Va. — 15. Confederates defeated 
at Arkadelphia, Ark. — 16. Conscription 
bill passed the United States Senate. — 20. 
National currency bill passed the United 
States House of Representatives. — 23. 
United States Senate authorized the sus- 
pension of the privilege of habeas corpus. 
— 25. English-Confederate steamer Peter- 
hoff captured by the Vanderbilt. Na- 
tional currency act approved by the 
President. — 26. Cherokee national council 
repeal the ordinance of secession. — 28. 
Confederate steamer Nashville destroyed 
by the Montauk in Ageechee River. — 
March 4. Palmyra, Mo., burned by 
Union gunboats. — 6. General Hunter 

donment of the European intervention 
policy in our national affairs. — 8. Raid 
of Nationals through Loudon county, Va. — 
14. Engagement at Kelly's Ford, on the 
Rappahannock. — 20. Great mass-meeting 
at Union Square, New York, in commemo- 
ration of the uprising of the loyal people 
in 1861. — 24. National forces defeated at 
Beverly, Va. Confederates defeated on the 
Iron Mountain Railroad near St. Louis. 
National forces rout the Confederates at 
Tuscumbia, Ala. — 26. Destructive Union 
raid on Deer Creek, Miss. Confederates 
defeated at Rowlesburg, Va. — 27. Con- 
federate " Texan Legion " captured near 
Franklin, Ky. — 28. Cavalry engagement 
ttt Sand Mountain, Ga. ; Confederates de- 
feated. — 29. Fairmount, Va., captured by 
Confederates. — 30. Fast Day in the United 
States. Artillery engagement at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va. Confederates defeated at 
Williamsburg, Va. — May 1. Battle at 

ordered the drafting of negroes in the Monticello, Ky. ; Confederates defeated. — 

Department of the South. Confeder- 3. Mosby's guerillas routed at Warren- 

ates capture Franklin, Tenn. — 8. Briga- ton Junction. — 4. Admiral Porter takes 

dier - General Stoughton captured by possession of Fort de Russy, on Red River. 

Moseby's cavalry at Fairfax Court-House, — 0. Confederates put to flight near Tu- 

Va. Twenty-three Confederate steamers pelo. Miss. Battle near Clinton, Miss. — ■ 

captured on the Yazoo River. — 11. Gov- 15. Corbin and Grau hung at Sandusky 

ernor Cannon, of Delaware, declared tlie 
national avithority supreme. — 18. House 
of Representatives of New Jersey pass 
peace resolutions. — 19. Mount Sterling, 
Ky., taken by Confederates, and retaken 
by Nationals on the 23d. English-Con- 
federate steamer Georgia, laden with 
arms, destroyed near Charleston. — 25. Im- 
pressment of private property in the Con- 
federacy authorized. — 31. General Herron 
appointed to the command of the Army 
of the Frontier. Jacksonville, Fla., burn- 
ed by Union colored troops and evacuated. 
-April 1. Cavalry fight near Drainesville, 

for recruiting within the Union lines. — 
18. Democratic convention in New York 
City expresses sympathy Avith Vallandig- 
ham.— 22-23. Battle of Gum Swamp, N.C., 
— 28. First negro regiment from the 
North left Boston. — June 1. Democratic 
convention in Philadelj^hia sympathized 
with Vallandigham. — 3. Peace party meet- 
ing in New York, under the lead of Fer- 
nando Wood. — 8. Departments of Monon- 
gahela and Susquehanna created. — 12.* 
Darien, Ga., destroyed by National forces. 
Governor Curtin, of Pennsylvania, calls 
out the militia and asks for troops from 

Va. — 2. Farragut's fleet ravaged in Red New York to repel threatened Confederate 
River. Serious bread-riot in Richmond; invasion. General Gillmore in command 
the mob mostly women. — 3. Arrest of of the Department of the South. — 14. 



The consuls of England and Austi'ia dis- 
missed from the Confederacy. — 15. Presi- 
dent Lincoln calls for 100,000 men to re- 
pel invasion. — 19. Confederate invasion of 
Indiana. — 21. Confederate cavalry defeat- 
ed at Aldie Gap, Va. — 28. General Meade 
succeeded General Hooker in the command 
of the Army of the Potomac. Bridge over 
the Susquehanna burned. The authori- 
ties of the city of Philadelphia petition 
the President to relieve General McClellan 
of command. — 30. Martial law proclaim- 
ed in Baltimore. — July 1. Battle at Car- 
lisle, Pa. — 10. Martial law proclaimed at 
Louisville, Ky. Cavalry engagement on 
the Antietam battle-field. — 11. Conscrip- 
tion under the draft begins in New York 
City. — 12. Martial law proclaimed in Cin- 
cinnati. — 13. Yazoo City, Miss., captured 
by the Nationals. — 14. Draft riots in Bos- 
ton. — 15. Riots in Boston, Brooklyn, Jer- 
sey City, Staten Island, and other places. 
• — 23. Engagement at Manassas Gap; 300 
Confederates killed or wounded, and 
ninety captured. — 30. President Lincoln 
proclaims a retaliating policy in favor 
of negro soldiers. Defeat of Confeder- 
ates at Winchester, Ky. — Aug. 1. Heavy 
cavalry fight at Kelly's Ford, Va., 
and Confederates defeated. — 3. Governor 
Seymour, of New York, remonstrated 
against the enforcement of the draft, be- 
cause of alleged unfair enrolment. On 
the 7th President Lincoln replied and 
intimated that the draft should be car- 
ried out. — 6. National Thanksgiving Day 
observed. — 12. Gen. Robert Toombs ex- 
poses the bankruptcy of the Confederacy. 
— 15. The Common Council of New York 
City voted .$3,000,000 for conscripts.— 21. 
National batteries opened on Charleston. 
— 22. Beauregaid protests against shelling 
Charleston. — 25. ISiany regiments in the 
squares of New York City to enforce the 
draft; removed Sept. 5. — 28. The Super- 
visors of New York county appropriate 
.$2,000,000 for the relief of conscripts.— 
Sept. 4. Bread-riot at Mobile, Ala. — 11. 
One-half of James Island, Charleston Har- 
bor, captured by National troops. — 13. 
Brilliant cavalry engagement at Culpep- 
er Court-House, Va. — 21. Sharp cavalry 
fight and National victory at Madison 
Court-House, Va. — 24. Port of Alexandria. 
Va., officially declared to be open to trade. 
•—Oct. 5. Confederates under Bragg bom- 


barded Chattanooga, Tenn., from Lookout 
Mountain. — 7. The British government 
seized the Confederate " rams " building 
in the Mersey, and forbid their de- 
parture. — 10. Confederates defeated at 
Blue Springs, Tenn. — 17. The President 
orders a levy of 300,000 men, announcing 
that if not furnished by Jan. 1, 1864, a 
draft for the deficiency would be made. 
— 30. Union meeting at Little Rock, Ark. 
—31. Battle of Shell Mound, Tenn.; Con- 
federates defeated. — Nov. 1. Plot to liber- 
ate Confederate prisoners in Ohio discov- 
ered. — 2. Landing of General Banks's army 
in Texas. — 3. Confederate cavalry defeat- 
ed near Columbia, and at Colliersville, 
Tenn. Battle of Bayou Coteau, La. — 4. 
Banks takes possession of Brownsville on 
the Rio Grande. — 9. Gen. Robert Toombs 
denounces the course of the Confederate 
government in a speech in Georgia. — 11. 
Lord Lyons, the British minister, official- 
ly informed the United States government 
of a contemplated Confederate raid from 
Canada, to destroy Buffalo, and liberate 
Confederate prisoners on Johnson's Isl- 
and, near Sandusky. A fleet of French 
steamers arrived off Brazos, Tex. — 15. Cor- 
pus Christi Pass, Tex., captured by Na- 
tional troops. — 18. Mustang Island, Tex., 
captured by the Nationals. — 19. Gettys- 
burg battle-field consecrated as a national 
cemetery for Union soldiers who fell in 
the July battles. — 26. National Thanks- 
giving Day observed. — Dec. 8. President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation of amnesty. 
Congress thanked General Grant and his 
army, and ordered a gold medal to be 
struck in honor of the general. — 12. No- 
tice given that the Confederate authoritie? 
refused to receive more supplies for the 
starving Union prisoners in Richmond. 

1864. — Jan. 11. General Banks issued a 
proclamation for an election in Louisiana, 
Feb. 22. A provisional free-State govern- 
ment inaugurated at Little Rock, Ark. — 
25. Congress thanked Cornelius Vander- 
bilt for the gift to the government of the 
sfeamer VanderUlt. worth $800,000.-26. 
The United States Circuit Court at Louis- 
ville, Ky., decided that guerillas were "com- 
mon enemies." and that carriers could not 
recover at law goods stolen by such. — 27. 
Ladies' Loyal League, New Y'ork, sent a 
petition for general emancipation, bearing 


100,000 signatures. Confederate cavalry de- 
feated at Sevierville, Tenn. Three hundred 
Confederate salt-kettles destroyed at St. 
Andrew's Bay, Fla.— 28. Battle at Fair 
Garden, Tenn.; Confederates defeated. — 
Feb. 1. The President ordered a draft, on 
March 10, for 500,000 men, for throe 
years or the war. — 4. Colonel Mulligan 
drove Early out of Moorefield, W. Va. 
— 13. Governor Bramlette, of Kentucky, 
proclaims protection to slaves from claims 
by Confederate owners.^22. Michael Hahn 
elected governor of Louisiana by the loyal 
vote. Moseby defeats Union cavalry at 
Drainesville. — 23. Admiral Farragut began 
a six days' bombardment of Fort Powell, 
below Mobile. — March 2. Ulysses S. Grant 
made lieutenant-general. — 6. Confederates 
hung twenty-three Union prisoners of war 
(one a drummer - boy aged fifteen) at 
Kinston, N. C. — 7. Vallandigham advises 
forcible resistance to United States au- 
thority. — 8. New York State voted by 
over 30,000 majority for the soldiers' 
voting law. — 9. Colored troops under Colo- 
nel Cole captured Suffolk, Va. — 15. Pres- 
ident Lincoln calls for 200,000 men in 
addition to the 500,000 called for Feb. 1. 
— 16. Governor of Kentucky remonstrates 
against employing slaves in the army. 
Arkansas votes to become a free-labor 
State. — 17. General Grant assumes com- 
mand of all the armies of the republic. 
Fort de Russy blown up by the National 
forces. — 28. Louisiana State Constitution- 
al Convention met at New Orleans. — 31. 
Longstreet's army, after wintering in east- 
ern Tennessee, retired to Virginia. — April 
10. Confederates seized and blew up Cape 
Lookout light-house, N. C. — 13. New York 
Senate passes the soldiers' voting bill by 
a unanimous vote. — ICJ. Ohio Superior 
Court decides the soldiers' voting law 
constitutional. Surprise and defeat of 
Confederates at Half Mountain, Ky., by 
Colonel Gallup. — 17. Women's bread - riot 
in Savannah, Ga. — 21. Nationals destroy 
the State salt-works near Wilmington, N. 
C, worth $100,000.-25. The offer of 
85.000 lOO-days' men by the governors of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. Wiscon=in. and 
Iowa accepted bv the President. — May 2. 
Ohio National Guard, 38.000 strong, re- 
port for duty. — 4. Colonel Spear, 11th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, departed on a raid 
from Portsmouth, Va., captured a Confed- 


erate camp on the Weldon road, and de- 
stroyed $500,000 worth of property at 
Jarratt's Station. — 7. To this date, one 
lieutenant-general, five major-generals, 
twenty-five brigadiers, 186 colonels, 146 
lieutenant-colonels, 214 majors, 2,497 cap- 
tains, 5,811 lieutenants, 10,563 non-com- 
missioned officers, 121,156 privates of the 
Confederate army, and 5,800 Confederate 
citizens had been made prisoners by Na- 
tional troops. General Crook defeated the 
Confederates at Cloyd's Mountain, W. Va., 
and fought an artillery duel on the 10th. 
— 16. Sortie from Fort Darling upon Gen- 
eial Butler's besieging force. — 18. General 
Howard defeats a Confederate force at 
Adairsville, Ga. Nationals defeat Confed- 
erates at Yellow Bayou, La., the latter 
led by Prince Polignac. A forged Presi- 
dential proclamation, calling for 400,000 
more troops, was published for the pur- 
pose of g61d speculation. The perpetra- 
tors (Howard and Mallison) were sent 
to Fort Lafayette. — 26. Major-General 
Foster takes command of the Department 
of the South. Louisiana State Constitu- 
tional Convention adopts a clause abol- 
ishing slavery. — 27. Eight steamers and 
other shipping burned at New Orleans by 
incendiaries. — 30. McPherson had a sharp 
encounter at the railroad near Marietta, 
Ga., taking 400 prisoners, with a railroad 
train of sick and wounded Confederates. — 
June 1. To this date the Nationals had 
taken from the Confederates as naval 
prizes, 232 steamers, 627 schooners, 159 
sloops, twenty-nine barks, thirty-two 
brigs, fifteen ships, and 133 yachts and 
small craft; in all, 1,227 vessels, worth 
$1 7,000.000. — 2. Heavy artillery firing and 
skirmishing at Bermuda Hundred. United 
States gunboat Water Witch surprised and 
captured in Ossabaw Sound, Ga. — 6. Gen- 
eral Hunter occupied Staunton, Va. — 9. 
Blockade-runner Pervensey run ashore by 
the supply-steamer Nen-hern, and taken; 
worth, with cargo, $1,000,000.-13. The 
United States House of Representatives 
repealed the Fugitive Slave law. — 17. 
Near Atlanta 600 Confederate conscripts 
fled to the Union lines.— 22. Battle of 
Culp's Farm. Ga. — 24. Maryland Constitu- 
tional Convention passed an emancipation 
clause. — 25. General Pillow, with 3,000 
Confederates, repulsed at Lafayette, Tenn. 
— 27. General Carr defeated the Confeder- 


ates near St. Cliarles, j\Io. — 30. Secretary 
Chase, of the Treasury, resigned his office. 
— July 1. General Sherman captured 3,000 
prisoners near Marietta, Ga. — 3. General 
Sherman occupied Kenesaw Mountain at 
daylight. — 4. A national salute of double- 
shotted cannon fired into Petersburg, Va. 
— 5. The Confederates in Jackson flanked 
and driven out by General Slocum. Gen. 
Bradley Johnson, Avith 3,000 Confederate 
troops, crossed the Potomac into Mary- 
land. — 9. Governor Brown, of Georgia, 
called out the reserve militia, from fifteen 
to fifty-five years of age. A mass-meeting 
in Geneva, Switzerland, adopted resolutions 
of sympathy with the United States and 
approved the emancipation measure. 
President Lincoln, in a proclamation, put 
forth his plan for reorganizing the disor- 
ganized States. — 12. Confederates aj)- 
proached within 5 miles of the Patent 
Office at Washington and were repulsed 
with heavy loss. — 13-14. Gen. A. J. Smith 
defeated the Confederates under Forrest, 
Lee, and Walker, in five different engage- 
ments, in Mississippi, killing and wound- 
ing over 2,000. — 15. Six steamers burned 
at St. Louis by incendiaries. — 16. Gold in 
New York rose to 284. General Rousseau 
burned four store-houses and their con- 
tents of provisions at Youngsville, Ala. — 
17. General Slocum defeated the Confeder- 
ates at Grand Gulf, Miss. — 18. Rousseau 
sent out raiders on the Atlantic and Mont- 
gomery Railway, who destroyed a large 
section of it, defeated 1,500 Confederates 
in a battle, and captured 400 conscripts. 
The President called for 300,000 volun- 
teers within fifty days, the deficiency 
to be made up by drafts. — 20. General As- 
both captured a Confederate camp for con- 
scripts in Florida. — 21. Henderson, Ky., 
attacked by 700 guerillas. — 22. General 
Rousseau reached Sherman's lines near 
Atlanta, having in fifteen days traversed 
450 miles, taken and paroled 2,000 prison- 
ers, killed and wounded 200, captured 
800 horses and mules, and 800 negroes, 
destroyed 31 miles of railroad, thirteen 
depots, some cars and engines, and a great 
quantity of cotton, provisions, and stores. 
Louisiana State Convention adopted a con- 
stitution abolishing slavery. — 26. A gun- 
boat expedition on Grand Lake, La., de- 
stroyed many boats of the Confederates, 
and on the 27th destroyed saw-mills worth 

$40,000.-29. General Canby enrolled all 
citizens in the Department of the Gulf, 
and expelled the families of Confederate 
soldiers. — Aug. 1. Confederates defeated 
by General Kelly at Cumberland, Md. — 2. 
General Banks enrolled into the service 
all the negroes in the Department ,of the 
Gulf between eighteen and forty years of 
age. — 9. An ordnance-boat, laden with am- 
munition, was blown up at City Point, 
James River, killing fifty persons, wound- 
ing 120, and destroying many buildings. 
— 15. Commodore Craven, on the Niagara, 
seized the Confederate cruiser Georgia, 
near Lisbon. — 18. The Confederate cruiser 
Tallahassee, after great depredations on 
the sea, gets into Halifax, N. S. ; but, hav- 
ing secured some coal, was ordered out 
of the harbor and ran the blockade into 
Wilmington.— 23. Nearly all the 5th Illi- 
nois Volunteers captured near Duval's 
Bluff by Shelby.— 29. General Hunter su- 
perseded in command of the Department 
of western Virginia by General Crook. — 
Sept. 7. Confederates defeated at Reedy- 
ville, Tenn., by Colonel Jourdan, with 
about 250 Pennsylvania cavalry. — 8. The 
Confederate General Price crossed the Ar- 
kansas River at Dardanelles, on his way 
to Missouri. — 14'. Governor Brown, by proc- 
lamation, withdrew the Georgia militia, 
15,000 strong, from the Confederate army 
at Atlanta. — 19. Confederate passengers 
seized the steamers Island Queen and Par- 
sons on Lake Erie, with the intention of 
capturing the United States gunboat 
Michigun; but the latter captured the 
whole party; the Queen was sunk and the 
Parsons was abandoned. A Confederate 
force of 1,500 captured a train worth 
$1,000,000 at Cabin Creek, Kan.— 26. The 
Confederate governor (Allen) of Louisiana 
wrote to the Confederate Secretary of 
War that the time had arrived for them 
to " put into the army every able-bodied 
negro as a soldier." — 29. The United 
States steam-packet Roanolce, just after 
passing out of Havana, Cuba, admitted 
on board three boat-loads of men claiming 
to be passengers, who seized the vessel, 
put the passengers on board another ves- 
sel, went to Bermuda, burned the steamer 
there, and went ashore. — 30. The Confed- 
erate General Vaughan driven out of his 
works at Carroll Station, Tenn., by Gen- 
eral Gillem. — Oct. 3. John B. Meigs, Sheri- 



dan's chief engineei- in the Shenandoah 
Valley, having been brutally murdered by 
some guerillas, all the houses within a 
radius of 5 miles were burned in retalia- 
tion. — 6. A Richmond paper advocated the 
employment of slaves as soldiers. — 7. Com- 
mander Collins, in the gunboat Wachusett, 
ran down and captured in the harbor of 
Bahia, Brazil, the Confederate cruiser 
Florida. — 10. Maryland adopted a new 
constitution which abolished slavery. — 12. 
It was announced that all the regimental 
flags taken from the Nationals in the De- 
partment of Arkansas and the Gulf had 
been retaken while on their way to Rich- 
mond. — 13. Some of the negro Union sol- 
diers, prisoners of war, having been set 
at work in the trenches by the Confeder- 
ates, General Butler put eighty-seven Con- 
federate prisoners of war at work, under 
the fire of Confederate shells, at Dutch 
Gap. — 17. The governors of Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, and Missouri held a conference at 
Augusta, Ga., and resolved to strengthen 
the Confederate army with white men and 
negioes. — 18. Some of the feminine no- 
bility of England and Confederate women 
opened a fair in Liverpool for the bene- 
fit of the Confederate cause. — 22. General 
Auger, about this time, put in practice 
an effective way of defending National 
army trains on the Manassas Gap Railway 
from guerillas, by placing in each train, in 
conspicuous positions, eminent Confeder- 
ates residing within the Union lines. — 25. 
General Pleasonton, in pursuit of Price 
in Missouri, attacked him near the Little 
Osage River; captured Generals Marma- 
duke and Cabell, and 1,000 men, and sent 
the remainder flying southward. — 28. 
General Gillem defeated the Confederates 
at Morristown, Tenn., taking 500 prisoners 
and thirteen guns. — 31. Plymouth, N. C, 
taken by Commander Macomb. — Nov. 5. 
Forrest, Avith artillery, at Johnsville, 
Tenn., destroyed three " tin-clad " gun- 
boats and seven transports belonging to 
the Nationals. — 8. Gen. George B. McC^el- 
lan resigns hie commission in the National 
army. A flag-of-truce fleet of eighteen 
steamers departed r'rora Hampton Roads 
for the Savannah River, to elTect an ex- 
change of 10,000 prisoners. The exchange 
began Nov. 12 by Colonel Mulford near 
Fort Pulaski.— 13. General Gillem defeat- 


ed by General Breckinridge, near Bull's 
Gap, Tenn., who took all his artillery, 
trains, and baggage. — IG. Confederates 
surprised and captured Butler's picket- 
line at Bermuda Hundred. — 19. The Pres- 
ident, by proclamation, raised the block- 
ade at Norfolk, Va., and Pensacola and 
Fernandina, Fla. — 22. Hood advances from 
near Florence, Ala., towards Nashville, 
with 40,000 Confederate troops. — 24. 
Thanksgiving Day observed in the Army of 
the Potomac, when 59,000 lbs. of tur- 
keys, sent from the North, were consumed. 
About 36,000 lbs. were sent to Sheri- 
dan's army in the Shenandoah Valley. — 
25. An attempt was made by Confederate 
agents to burn the city of New York by 
lighting fires in rooms hired by the in- 
cendiaries in fifteen of the principal ho- 
tels. General Dix, in the morning, order- 
ed all persons from the Confederate States 
to register themselves at the provost-mar- 
shal's oflSce, and declared the incendiaries 
to be spies, who, if caught, would be im- 
mediately executed. — 29. General Foster 
co-operated with General Sherman as he 
approached the sea from Atlanta. — Dec. 
2. The Pope declined to commit himself to 
tlie Confederate cause. Up to this time 
sixty-five blockade-running steamers had 
been taken or destroyed in attempts to 
reach Wilmington, N. C, the vessels and 
cargoes being worth $13,000,000.-6. Mil- 
roy defeated the Confederates near Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn. — 8. Confederate plot to 
burn Detroit discovered. — 15. Rousseau, 
at Murfreesboro, defeated Forrest, who 
lost 1,500 men. — 17. To keep out improper 
persons from Canada, the Secretary of 
State issued an order that all persons 
entering the United States from a foreign 
country must have passports, excepting 
emigrants coming direct from sea to our 
ports. — 19. The President issued a call 
for 300,000 volunteers, any deficiency to 
be made up by a draft on Feb. 5, 1865. 
Colonel Mulford reached Fortress Mon- 
roe with the last of the 12,000 Union 
prisoners he was able to obtain by ex- 
change. — 21. Admiral Farragut made vice- 
admiral. — 27. Completion of the destruc- 
tion of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad from 
Corinth to below Okolona, by a raiding 
force sent out by General Dana. 

1865. — Jan. 6. A fleet of transports and 
9,000 troops, under General Terry, sailed 


Fort Mouroe for an attack on Fort men had been supported by the national 
r. — 10. Meetinar in Philadelphia to srovernment, at a cost of $113,500; and 


Fisher. — 10. Meeting in Philadelphia to 
give charitable aid to Confederates in Sa- 
vannah. On the 14th two vessels left 
New York with supplies for the suffering 
citizens of Savannah. — 15. Confederate 

government, at a cost of $113,500; and 
that 50,000 freedmen were at work under 
him, and 15,000 others under military 
rule. — 16. By permission of the Confeder- 
ate authorities, vessels were allowed to 
post at Pocotaligo Bridge, S. C, taken by take cotton from Savannah to New York 
the Nationals, and the (railroad) bridge to purchase blankets for Confederate pris- 

saved. — 16. Magazine in captured Fort 
Fisher exploded and killed or wounded 
about 300 National troops. Another ves- 
sel left New York laden with provisions 
for the suffering citizens of Savannah. 
The policy of JefTerson Davis unsparingly 
assailed in the Confederate Congress at 
Richmond. — 17. The monitor Patapsco 
blown up by a torpedo at Charleston and 
sunk, with seven officers and sixty-five 
men. — 18. Three fine blockade-runners 
went into the Cape Fear River, ignorant 
of the fall of Fort Fisher, and were capt- 

oners; the first two vessels of the fleet ar- 
rived at New York with cargoes valued at 
$6,000,000. Confederate iron-works in the 
Shenandoah Valley destroyed by National 
troops. — 18. General Lee wrote a letter to 
a Confederate Congressman declaring that 
the white people could not carry on the 
war, and recommending the employment 
of negroes as soldiers. — 21. Generals 
Crook and Kelly seized in their beds at 
Cumberland, Md., and carried away pris- 
oners by Confederate guerillas. — 22. The 
divisions of Terry and Cox enter Wilming- 

ured. — 23. The main ship-channel at Sa- ton, N. C, evacuated by the Confederates. 

vannah was opened. — 25. Jefferson Davis 
proclaimed March 10 a day for a public 
fast. — 26. This day was observed as a fes- 
tival in Louisiana, by proclamation of 
Governor Hahn, in honor of the emancipa- 
tion acts in Missouri and Tennessee. — Feb. 
1. The legislature of Illinois ratified the 
emancipation amendment to the national 
Constitution; the first to do so. John S. 
Rock, a negro of pure blood, admitted to 

— 24. John Y. Beall, of Virginia, hanged 
as a spy at Fort Lafayette, N. Y., He 
was one of the pirates who tried to seize 
the Michigan on Lake Erie. — 25. Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston supersedes Beaure- 
gard in command of the Confederate forces 
in North Carolina. — March 1. Admiral 
Dahlgren's flag-ship Harvest Moon blown 
up by a torpedo and sunk ; only one life 
lost. New Jersey rejects the emancipa- 

practise as a lawyer in the Supreme Court tion amendment to the national Constitu- 
of the United States; the first. — 2. Gen. tion. — 2. The Confederates at Mobile are 
Robert E. Lee made commander-in-chief twenty-four shots at a flag-of-truce steam- 
of the Confederate forces. — 4. Lieutenant- er. A secret council of Confederate lead- 
Commander Gushing, with fifty-one men, ers in Europe ended at Paris this day. — 
in four boats, destroyed cotton valued at 8. Battle near Jackson's Mills, N. C, in 
$15,000 at All Saints, N. C— 5. Harry Gil- which the Confederates captured 1,500 
mor's camp broken up and himself eapt- Nationals and three guns. — 10. Up to this 
ured at Moorefield, W. Va., by Lieuten- day Sherman's march through the Caro- 
ant-Colonel Whittaker, who marched over linas has resulted in the capture of four- 
mountains and across streams filled with teen cities, the destruction of hundreds of 
floating ice — 140 miles in forty-eight miles of railroad and thousands of bales 
hours — with 300 picked cavalry for the of cotton, the taking of eighty-five guns, 
purpose.— 6. A number of soldiers in 4.000 prisoners, and 25.000 animals, and 

Early's army send a petition to Jeff"erson 
Davis to stop the war.— 7. The Confeder- 
ate Senate rejected the plan to raise 200,- 
000 negro soldiers. Of 500 Confederate 
prisoners at Camp Chase, Ohio, ordered 
for exchange, 260 voted to remain pris- 
oners, preferrinsr their eood treatment 
there. — 13. Superintendent Conway, in 

the freeing of 15.000 white and biacK refu- 
gees : also the destruction of an immense 
quantity of machinery and other property. 
— 18. The Confederate Con^fress adjourned 
sine die. Tt was their final session. One of 
their latest acts wns to authorize the 
raising of a nes^ro militqi-y force. — 25. R. 
C. Kennedy haneed at Fort Lafayette for 

charge of free labor in Louisiana, reported having been concerned in the attempt to 
that, during the year 1864, 14,000 freed- burn the city of New York.— 27. General 




Steele encounters and defeats 800 Con- review of Union troops in Richmond took 
federates at Mitchell's Fork. — 28. Moni- place. — 9. Secretary Stanton ordered a sa- 
tor Milwaukee blown up and sunk by a lute of 200 guns at West Point, and at 
torpedo in Mobile Bay; only one man in- each United States post, arsenal, and de- 
jured. The monitor Osage blown up and partment and army headquarters, for 
sunk the next day by a torpedo in Mobile Lee's surrender. — 10. The American consul . 
Bay. Of her crew, four were killed and at Havana hoisted the American flag, 
six wounded. The Mihcaulcee, having when the Confederate sympathizers there 
sunk in shallow water, kept up her firing, threatened to mob him, but were prevent- 
—30. The amount of cotton taken at Sa- ed by the authorities. — IL A proclaraa- 
vfinnah reported at 38,500 bales, of which tion was issued to the effect that hereafter 
0,000 bales were Sea Island. — 31. The all foreign vessels in American ports were 
transport General Lyon burned off Cape to have exactly the same treatment that 
Hatteras, and about 500 soldiers perished, ours have in foreign ports. — 13. An order 
— April 1. Newbern, N. C, fired in several from the War Department announced 
places by incendiaries; little harm done, that it would stop all drafting and re- 
cruiting in the loyal States, 
curtail military expenses, 
and discontinue restrictions 
on commerce and trade as 
soon as possible. Raleigh, 
N. C, occupied by National 
cavalry. — 14. The colored 
men of eastern Tennessee 
presented a petition in the 
State Senate for equality 
before the law and the 
elective franchise. Four 
National vessels — two gun- 
boats, a tug, and a trans- 
" port — blown up by torpe- 

does in Mobile Bay. — 15 
General Saxton called a 
mass-meeting at Charleston, and William 
Lloyd Garrison addressed it. — 18. The 
Confederate prisoners at Point Lookout, 
22,000 in number, express, by resolutions. 


Battle of Big Mulberry Creek, Ala.; Con- 
federates defeated by Wilson. — 2. The 
Confederates at Richmond blow up their 
forts and " rams " preparatory to evac- 
uating the city. — 3. Rejoicing throughout their abhorrence of the assassination of 
the loyal States because of the evacuation President Lincoln. — 22. General Hancock 
of Richmond by the Confederate troops reported that nearly all of the command 
and flight of the Confederate government, of Moseby, the guerilla chief, had surren- 
National troops enter Petersburg at 3 a.m. dered, and some of his men were hunting 
— 4. President Lincoln sent a despatch for him to obtain the $2,000 reward offer- 
dated "Jefferson Davis's late residence in ed for him. — 26. Booth, the murderer of 
Richmond," and held a reception in that President Lincoln, found in a barn belong- 
mansion. — 8. The last of the state-prison- ing to one Garnett, in Virgina, 3 miles 
ers in Fort Lafayette discharged. First from Port Royal, with Harrold, an accom- 
plice, and refused to surrender. The barn 
* Fort Lafayette was bnllt in the narrow was set on fire, and Booth, while trying 
strait between Lo^^ff Island and Staten ^q shoot one of his pursuers, was mortally 

wounded by a shot in the head, fired by 
Sergeant Corbett, and died in about four 

Island, known as " The Narrows." at the en- 
trance to the harbor of New York. During 
the Civil War it was iispd as a nrlson for 
persons disaffected towards the national gov- 
ernment. On Dec. 1, 1868, the fort was 
partially destroyed by fire, and the place 
has since been used for the storage of 
ordnance supplies. 


hours. — 27. General Howard issued an or- 
der to the citizens along the line of 
march of Sherman's army to the national 
capital to the effect that they were to 


keep at home; that foraging was stopped; he went to England to seek redress. After 

that supplies were to be bought; and all the King heard his story he severely rep- 

niarauders punished. — 28. The steamer rimanded Lord Baltimore for violating 

Sultana, with 2,106 persons on board, royal commands in driving Claiborne from 

mostly United States soldiers, blew up, Kent Island. In the spring of 1635 Clai- 

took fire, and was burned at Memphis, borne despatched a vessel for trading. 

Only about 700 of the people were saved, prepared to meet resistance. The Mary- 

— 29. President Johnson removed all re- landers sent out two armed vessels under 

strictions on commerce not foreign in all Cornwallis, their commissioner, or coun- 

territory east of the Mississippi, with cillor, to watch for any illegal traders 

specified exceptions. within the bounds of their province. On 

Civilized Tribes, The Five, the official April 23 they seized Claiborne's vessel, 

designation of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, The latter sent an armed boat, under the 

Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole nations of command of Ratcliffe Warren, a Virginian, 

Indians, all now located in the Indian to recapture the vessel. Cornwallis met 

Territory {q. v.) . For details, see their Warren with one of his vessels in a har- 

respective titles. bor (May 10), and captured it after a 

Claiborne, John Francis Hamtramck, sharp fight, in which Warren and two of 

lawyer; born in Natchez, Miss., April his men were killed; also one of Cornwal- 

24, 1809; admitted to the Virginia bar; lis's crew. This event caused intense ex- 

and represented Mississippi in Congress in eitement. The first Maryland Assembly, 

1835-38. He published Life and Corr-e- which had convened just before the event, 

spondence of Gen. John A. Quitman; Life decreed "that offenders in all murders 

and Times of Gen. Sam. Dale; and Missis- and felonies shall suffer the same pains 

sippi as a Province, a Territory, and a and forfeitures as for the same crimes in 

State. He died in Natchez, Miss., May 17, England." A requisition was made upon 

1884. Governor Harvey for the delivery of Clai- 

Claiborne, or Clayborne, W^illiam, co- borne. That functionary decided that Clai- 
lonial politician ; born in Westmoreland, borne might go to England to justify his 
England, about 1589; appointed survey- conduct before the home government. A 
or of the Virginia plantations under the court of inquiry — held three years after- 
London company in 1621. In 1627 the wards to investigate the matter — resulted 
governor of Virginia gave him author- in a formal indictment of Claiborne, and 
ity to explore the head of Chesapeake a bill of attainder passed . against him. 
Bay; and in 1631 Charles I. gave him a Thomas Smith, next in rank to Warren, 
license to make discoveries and trade with was hanged. Claiborne, who was now 
the Indians in that region. With this treasurer of Virginia, retaliated against 
authority, he established a trading-post Maryland by stirring up civil war there, 
on Kent Island, in Chesapeake Bay, not and, expelling Gov. Leonard Calvert 
far from the site of Annapolis. When (1645), assumed the reins of government. 
Lord Baltimore claimed jurisdiction over in 1051 Claiborne was appointed, by the 
Kent and other islands in the bay, Clai- council of state in England, one of the 
borne refused to acknowledge his title, commissioners for reducing Virginia to 
having, as he alleged, an earlier one from obedience to the commonwealth ruled by 
the King. Baltimore ordered the arrest Parliament; and he also took part in 
of Claiborne. Two vessels were sent for governing Maryland by a commission, 
the purpose, when a battle ensued between He was soon afterwards made secretary 
them and one owned by Claiborne. The of the colony of Virginia, and held the 
Marylanders were repulsed, and one of office until after the restoration of mon- 
their number was killed. Claiborne was archy (1660) in England. Claiborne was 
indicted f"r and found guilty of construe- one of the court that tried the captured 
tive murder and other high crimes, and followers of Nathaniel Bacon (q. v.). 
fled to Virginia. Kent Island was seized He resided in New Kent county, Va., until 
and confiscated by the Maryland authori- his death, about 1676. 
ties. Sir John Harvey, governor of Vir- Claiborne, William Charles Cole, 
ginia, refused to surrender Claiborne, and iurist; born in Sussex county, Va., in 



1775; became a lawyer, and settled in 
Tennessee, where he was appointed a ter- 
ritorial judge. In 179G he assisted in 
framing a State constitution, and was a 


member of Congress from 1797 to 1801. 
In 1802 he was appointed governor of 
the Mississippi Territory, and was a com- 
missioner, with \Yilkinson, to take pos- 
session of Louisiana when it was purchased 
from France. On the establishment of a 
new government in 1804, he was appoint- 
ed governor ; and when the State of 
Louisiana was organized he was elected 
governor, serving from 1812 to 1816. In 
the latter year he became L^nited States 
Senator, but was prevented from taking 
his seat on account of sickness. He died 
in New Orleans, La., Nov. 23, 1817. 

Clap, Roger, pioneer ; born in Salcomb, 
England. April. 1609: settled in Dorches- 
ter, Mass., with IMaverick and others in 
1630; was representative of the town in 
1652-66, and also held a number of mil- 
itary and civil offices. In 1665-86 he was 
captain of Castle William. He wrote a 
memorial of the New England worthies, 
and other Memoirs, which were first pub- 
lished in 1731 by Rev. Thomas Prince, and 
later republished by the Historical So- 


ciety of Dorchester. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 2, 1691. 

Clark, Abraham, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence; born in Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., Feb. 15, 1726; was a strong- 
minded and energetic man. Bred a farmer, 
he taught himself mathematics and a 
knowledge of law; and from his habit of 
giving legal advice gratuitously he was 
called " the poor man's counsellor." Mr. 
Clark was a member of the committee of 
public safety in Elizabethtown, and was 
appointed (June 21, 1776), one of the 
five representatives of New Jersey in the 
Continental Congress, where he voted for 
and signed the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. He served in Congress (excepting 
a single session) until near the close of 
1783. He was one of the commissioners of 
New Jersey who met at Annapolis in 1786 
for the purpose of arranging national com- 
mercial intercourse, which led to the for- 
mation of the national Constitution the 
following year, in which labor he was 
chosen to be a participant; but ill-health 
compelled him to decline. In 1790 he was 
made a member of the second national Con- 
gress, and retained his seat until a short 
time before his death in Rahway, N. J., 
Sept. 15, 1794. 

Clark, Alvan, optician ; born at Ash- 
field, Mass., March 8, 1804, a descendant 
of the captain of the Mayflower. He show- 
ed a genius for art in early youth, and be- 
came an engraver and portrait-painter. 
In 1835 he relinquished engraving and set 
up a studio for painting in Boston. He 
was over forty years of age before he be- 
came practically interested in telescope- 
making. Owing to the extraordinary 
acuteness of his vision, his touch, and 
his unlimited patience, he was specially 
skilful in grinding lenses of enormous 
size. Just before the Civil War he pro- 
duced object-glasses equal, if not superior, 
to any ever made. One, 18 inches in 
diameter, then the largest ever made, went 
to Chicago. It revealed twenty stars, 
hitherto unseen by mortal eyes, in the 
nebula of Orion. With his sons, Mr. Clark 
established a manufactory of telescopes at 
Cambridge. They have produced some of 
otraordinary power. In 1883 they com- 
pleted a telescope for the Russian govern- 
ment which had a clear aperture of 30 
inches and a magnifying power of 2,000 


diameters. It was the largest in the world, 
for which they were paid $33,000. At the 
time of his death, in Cambridge, Mass., 
Aug. 19, 1887, Mr. Clark was engaged 
in making a telescope for the Lick Observ- 
atory, California, having a lens 36 inches 
in diameter. After his death the business 
v,as carried on by his sons. 

Clark, Charles Edgar, naval officer; 
born in Bradford, Vt., Aug. 10, 1843; was 


trained in the naval academy in 1860-63, 
becoming ensign in the latter year. In 
1863-65 he served on the sloop Ossipee, 
and participated in the battle of Mobile 
Bay, Aug. 5. 1864, and the bombardment 
of Fort Morgan, Aug. 23. He was 
promoted lieutenant in 1867 ; lieutenant- 
commander in 1868; commander in 1881; 
and captain, June 21, 1896; and was 
given command of the Monterey. He held 
this post till March, 1898, when he was 

given command of the battle-ship Oregon, 
then at San Francisco, under orders to 
hurry her around Cape Horn to the vi- 
cinity of Cuba. He made the now famous 
run of 14,000 miles to Key West in sixty- 
five days, arriving at his destination on 
May 26. This was the longest and quick- 
est trip of any battle-ship afloat. Despite 
her long voyage, the Oregon immediately 
joined Admiral iSampson's squadron. Cap- 
tain Clark's excellent discipline was evi- 
dent in the effective work against the 
Spanish fleet at Santiago. In company with 
tlie Brodklyn, he gave chase to the Vizcaya, 
the Colon, and the flag-ship of Admiral 
Cervera, the Maria Teresa, and aided in 
the destruction of each. In 1899 he was 
assigned to the navy-yard, Philadelphia; 
promoted rear-admiral June 16, 1902. 

Clark, Francis Edward, clergyman; 
born of New England parents in Aylmer, 
Quebec, Sept. 12, 1851; studied at Kim- 
ball Union Academy, in Meriden, Conn.; 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1873, 
and studied theology at the Andover 
Seminary; and became pastor of the Wil- 
liston Congregational Church, Portland, 
Me., Oct. 19, 1876. In this church, on 
Feb. 2, 1881, he founded the Society 
of Christian Endeavor, which has spread 
throughout the world. In 1883 he became 
pastor of the Phillips Congregational 
Church in South Boston, but in 1887 he 
resigned that charge to become president 
of the United Society of Christian En- 
deavor, and editor of the Golden Rule, the 
oflicial organ of the society. He is the 
author of World-Wide Endeavor; Our 
Journey Around the World; The Great 
Secret; A New Way Aroutid an Old World, 
etc. See Christian Endeavor, Young 
People's Society of. 


Clark, or Clarke, George Rogers, mil- 
itary officer; born near Monticello, Albe- 
marle CO., Va., Nov. 19, 1752; was a land 
surveyor, and commanded a comnany in 
Dunmore's war against the Indians in 
1774. He went to Kentucky in 1775. and 
took command of the armed settlers there. 
It was ascertained in the spring of 1778 
that the English governor of Detroit 
(Hamilton) was inciting the Western Ind- 

ians to make war on the American fron- 
tiers. Under the authority of the State 
of Virginia, and with some aid from it 
in money and supplies, Clark enlisted 200 
men for three months, with whom he em- 
barked at Pittshurs'. and descended to the 
site of Louisville, where thirteen families?, 
following in his train, located on an isl- 
and in the Ohio (June, 1778). There 
Clark was joined by some Kentuckians, 



and, descending the river some distance 1779), and recaptured it (Feb. 20). He 
farther, hid his boats and marched to at- also intercepted a convoy of goods worth 
tack Kaskaskia (now in Illinois), one of $10,000, and afterwards built Fort Jeffer- 
the old French settlements near the Mis- son, on the west side of the Mississippi. 
«issippi. The expeditionists were nearly The Indians from north of the Ohio, with 

some British, raided in Kentucky in June, 
1780, when Clark led a force against 
the Shawnees on the Grand Miami, and 
defeated them with hea\'7 loss at Pick- 
away. He served in Virginia during its 
invasion by Arnold and Cornwallis; and 
in 1782 he led 1,000 mounted riflemen 
from the mouth of the Licking, and in- 
vaded the Scioto Valley, burning five Ind- 
ian villages and laying waste their plan- 
tations. The savages were so awed that 
no formidable war-party ever afterwards 
appeared in Kentucky. Clark made an 
unsuccessful expedition against the Ind- 
ians on the Wabash with 1,000 men in 
178G. His great services to his country 
in making the frontiers a safe dwelling- 
place were overlooked by his countrymen, 
and he died in poverty and obscurity, near 
Louisville, Ky., Feb. 18, 1818. See Jef- 
ferson, Thomas. 

GEORGE ROGERS CLARK. Cupture of Vincennes. — The story of the 

capture of Vincennes by the " Hannibal 
st arved when they reached the town, of the West " is thus told in his Memoirs : 
Taken entirely by surprise, the inhabi- 
tants submitted (July 4, 1778) without 
resistance. Cahokia and two other posts 
near also submitted. In the possession 
of the commandant of Kaskaskia were 
found letters directing him to stimulate 
the Indians to hostilities. Clark estab- 
lished friendly relations with the Spanish 
commander at St. Louis, across the Mis- 
sissippi. The French inhabitants in that 
region, being told of the alliance between 
France and the United States, became 
friendly to the Americans. The Kaskas- 
kians. and also those of Vincennes, on the 
Wabash, took an oath of allegiance to Vir- 
ginia, and Clark built a fort at the Falls 
of the Ohio, the germ of Louisville. The 
Virginia Assembly erected the conquered 
country, embracing all the territory north 
of the Ohio claimed as within their limits, 
into the country of Illinois, and ordered 
.500 men to be raised for its defence. Com- 
missioned a colonel, Clark successfully la- 

Everything being ready, on Feb. 5, after 
receiving a lecture and absolution from 
the priest, we crossed the Kaskaskia River 
with 170 men, marched about 3 miles 
and encamped, where we lay until the 
[7th], and set out. The weather wet (but 
fortunately not cold for the season) and 
a great part of the plains under water 
several inches deep. It was difficult and 
very fatiguing marching. My object was 
now to keep the men in spirits. I sufl'er- 
ed them to shoot game on all occasions, 
and feast on it like Indian war-dancers, 
each company by turns inviting the others 
to their feasts, which was the case every 
night, as the company that was to give 
the feast was always supplied with horses 
to lay up a sufficient store of wild meat 
in the course of the day, myself and prin- 
cipal officers putting on the woodsmen, 
shouting now and then, and running as 
much through the mud and water as any of 
bored for the pacification of the Indian them. Thus, insensibly, without a mur- 
tribes. Learning that Governor Hamilton, mur, were those men led on to tile banks 
of Detroit, had captured Vincennes, Clark of the Little Wabash, which we reached 
Ipd an expedition against him (February, on the 1.3th, through incredible difficulties, 



far surpassing anything that any of us 
had ever experienced. Frequently the di- 
versions of the night wore off the 
tlioughts of the preceding day. We form- 
ed a camp on a height which we found 
on the bank of the river, and suffered our 
troops to amuse themselves. I viewed 
this sheet of water for some time with 
distrust; but, accusing myself of doubt- 
ing, I immediately set to work, without 
holding any consultation about it, or suf- 
fering anybody else to do so in my pres- 
ence; ordered a pirogue to be built imme- 
diately, and acted as though crossing the 
water would be only a piece of diversion. 
As but few could work at the pirogue at a 
time, pains were taken to find diversion 
for the rest to keep them in high spirits. 
... In the evening of the 14th our vessel 
was finished, manned, and sent to explore 
the drowned lands on the opposite side of 
the Little Wabash, with private instruc- 
tions what report to make, and, if possi- 
ble, to find some spot of dry land. They 
found about half an acre, and marked the 
trees from thence back to the camp, and 
made a very favorable report. 

Fortunately, the 15th happened to be 
a warm, moist day for the season. The 
channel of the river where we lay was 
about 30 yards wide. A scaffold was 
built on the opposite shore (which was 
about .3 feet under water ) , and our bag- 
gage ferried across and put on it. Our 
horses swam across, and received their 
loads at the scaffold, by which time the 
troops were also brought across, and we 
began our march through the water. . . . 

By evening we found ourselves en- 
camped on a pretty height, in high spirits, 
each party laughing at the other, in con- 
sequence of something that had happened 
in the course of this ferrying business, as 
they called it. A little antic drummer af- 
forded them great diversion by floating 
on his drum, etc. All this was greatly en- 
couraged ; and they really began to think 
themselves superior to other men, and that 
neither the rivers nor the seasons could 
stop their progress. Their whole conver- 
sation now was concerning what they 
would do when they got about the enemy. 
They now began to view the main Wabash 
as a creek, and made no doubt but such 
men as they were could find a way to cross 
it. They wound themselves up to such a 


pitch that they soon took Post Vineennes, 
divided the spoil, and before bedtime were 
far advanced on their route to Detroit. 
All this was, no doubt, pleasing to those 
of us who had more serious thoughts. . . . 
We were now convinced that the whole ot 
the low country on the Wabash wha 
drowned, and that the enemy could easily 
get to us, if they discovered us, and wish- 
ed to risk an action; if they did not, we 
made no doubt of crossing the river by 
some means or other. Even if Captain 
Kogers, with our galley, did not get to his 
station agreeable to his appointment, we 
flattered ourselves that all would be well, 
and marched on in high spirits. . . . 

The last day's march through the wa- 
fer was far superior to anything the 
Frenchmen had an idea of. They were 
backward in speaking; said that the near- 
est land to us was a small league called 
the Sugar Camp, on the bank of the [riv- 
er?]. A canoe was sent off, and returned 
without finding that we could pass. I 
went in her myself, and sounded the wa- 
ter ; found it deep as to my neck. I re- 
turned with a design to have the men trans- 
ported on board the canoes to the Sugar 
Camp, which I knew would spend the 
whole day and ensuing night, as the ves- 
sels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time, to men half- 
starved, was a matter of consequence. I 
would have given now a great deal for 
a day's provisions or for one of our horses. 
I returned but slowly to the troops, giv- 
ing myself time to think. On our arrival, 
all ran to hear what was the report. Ev- 
ery eye was fixed on me. I unfortunately 
spoke in a serious manner to one of the 
officers. The whole were alarmed without 
knowing what I said. I viewed their con- 
fusion for about one minute, whispered 
to those near me to do as I did: imme- 
diately put some water in my hand, 
poured on powder, blackened my face, 
gave the war-whoop, and marched into the 
water without saying a word. The party 
gazed, and fell in, one after another, with- 
out saying a word, like a flock of sheep. 
T ordered those near me to beain a favor- 
ite song of theirs. It soon passed through 
the line, and the whole went on cheer- 
fully. I now intended to have them trans- 
ported across the deepest part of the wa- 
ter; but, when about waist deep, one of 


the men informed me that he thought he son among us. The. whole gave a cry of 

lelt a path. We examined, and found it approbation, and on we went. This was 

so, and concluded that it kept on the high- the most trying of all the difficulties we 

est ground, which it did; and, by taking had experienced. I generally kept fifteen 

pains to follow it, we got to the Sugar or twenty of the strongest men next my- 

Camp without the least difficulty, where self, and judged from my own feelings 

there was about half an acre of dry what must be that of others. Getting 

ground, at least, not under water, where about the middle of the plain, the water 

we took up our lodging. The Frenchmen about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly 

that we had taken on the river appeared failing; and, as there were no trees nor 

to be uneasy at our situation. They beg- 
ged that they might be permitted to go 
in the two canoes to town in the night. 
They said that they would bring from 
their own houses provisions, without a 
possibility of any persons knowing it; 
that some of our men should go with 
them as a surety of their good conduct; 

bushes for the men to support themselves 
by, 1 feared that many of the most weak 
would be dro^vned. I ordered the canoes 
to make the land, discharge their loading, 
and play backward and forward with all 
diligence, and pick up the men; and, to 
encourage the party, sent some of the 
strongest men forward, with orders, when 

that it was impossible we could march they got to a certain distance, to pass the 
from that place till the water fell, for word back that the water was getting shal- 
the plain was too deep to match. Some low, and when getting near the woods to 

of the [officers?] believed that it might 
be done. I would not suffer it. I never 
could well account for this piece of ob- 
stinacy, and give satisfactory reasons to 
myself or anybody else why I denied a 
proposition apparently so easy to exe- 
cute and of so much advantage; but some- 
thing seemed to tell me that it should 
not be done, and it was not done. 

The most of the weather that we had 
on this march was moist and warm for the 
season. This was the coldest night we 
had. The ice, in the morning, was from 
one-half to three-quarters of an inch 
thick near the shores and in still water. 

eiy out, "Land!" This stratagem had its 
desired eflFect. The men, encouraged by it, 
exerted themselves almost beyond their 
ability; the weak holding by the stronger. 
... The water never got shallower, but 
continued deepening. Getting to the 
woods, whore the men expected land, the 
water was up to my shoulders; but gain- 
ing the woods was of great consequence. 
All the low men and the weakly hung to 
the trees, and floated on the old logs until 
they were taken off by the canoes. The 
strong and tall got ashore and built fires. 
Many would reach the shore, and fall with 
their bodies half in the water, not being 

The morning was the finest we had on our able to support themselves without it. 
march. A little after sunrise I lectured This was a delightful dry spot of ground 

the whole. What I said to them I forget, of about ten acres. We soon found that 

but it may be easily imagined by a per- the fires answered no purpose, but that 

son that could possess my alTections for two strong men taking a weaker one_ by 

them at that time. I concluded by in- the arms was the only way to recover him ; 

forming them that passing the plain that and, being a delightful day, it soon did. 

was then in full view and reaching the But, fortunately, as if designed by Provi- 

opposite woods would put an end to dence, a canoe of Indian squaws and chil- 

their fatigue, that in a few hours they dren was coming up to town, and took 

would have a sight of their long-wished- through part of this plain as a nigh 

for object, and immediately stepped into way. It was discovered by our canoes 

the water without waiting for anv replv. as they were out after the_ rnen. They 

A huzza took place. As we generally 
marched through the water in a line, be- 
fore the third entered I halted, and called 
to Major Bowman, orderin? him to fall 
in the rear with twenty-five men, and 
put to death any man who refused to 
inarch, as we wished to have no such per- 

gave chase, and took the Indian canoe, 
on board of which was near half a quar- 
ter of a buffalo, some corn, tallow, ket- 
tles, etc. This was a grand prize, and was 
invaluable. Broth was immediately made, 
and served out to the most weakly with 
great care. Most of the whole got a lit- 



tie; but a great many gave their part to chief, the Tobacco's son, had but a few 
the wealily, jocosely saying something days before openly declared, in council 
cheering to their comrades. This little with the British, that he was a brother 
refreshment and fine weather by the after- and friend to the Big Knives. These 
noon gave new life to the whole. Crossing were favorable circumstances; and, as 
a narrow, deep lake in the canoes, and there was but little probability of our re- 
marching some distance, we came to a maining until dark undiscovered, I de- 
copse of timber called the Warrior's Isl- termined to begin the career immediately, 
and. We were now in full view of the and wrote the following placard to the 
fort and town, not a shrub between us, inhabitants: 

at about 2 miles' distance. Every man , t. -rr 

, , , , . T J. I ii i To THE Inhabitants of Post vincbnnes : 
now feasted his eyes, and forgot that 

, v J /v J . 1 • • ii J. n " Gentlemen, — Being now within 2 miles 

ho had suffered anything, saying that all ^^ ^^^^ ^j,,^^^ ^,.^^- ^^ ^^.^^^ determined 

that had passed was owing to good policy to take your fort this night, and not 
and nothing but what a man could bear; being willing to surprise you, I take this 
and that a soldier had no right to think, method to request such of you as are true 
^ . ° , ., citizens and willmg to enjoy the liberty I 
etc.— passing from one extreme to another, ^^^.-^^^ y^^ ^o remain still in your houses ; and 
which is common in such cases. It was those, if any there be, that are friends to the 
now we had to display our abilities. The King will instantly repair to the fort, and 
plain between us and the town was not J^^" t\« hair-buyer general and fight like 
^ . , , _, , , men. And if any such as do not go to the 
a perfect level. The sunken grounds were fo^.^ gijaii be discovered afterwards, they may 
covered with water full of ducks. We depend on severe punishment. On the con- 
observed several men out on horseback, trary, those who are true friends to liberty 
, ,. ,1 -.1 • \ ic -1 c may depend on being well treated; and I 
shooting them, within a half-mile of us, ^J^ ^^^.^ ^^q^^^^ ^^%^ ^^ ^^^p ^^^ ^f the 

and sent out as many of our active young streets. For every one I find in arms on my 

Frenchmen to decoy and take one of these arrival I shall treat him as an enemy. 

men prisoner in such a manner as not " (Signed) G. R. Clark." 
to alarm the others, which they did. 

The information we got from this person 1 had various ideas on the supposed 

was similar to that which we got from results of this" letter. I knew that it 

those we took on the river, except that could do us no damage, but that it would 

of the British having that evening com- cause the lukewarm to be decided, encour- 

pleted the wall of the fort, and that there age our friends, and astonish our enemies, 

v^ere a good many Indians in town. ... We anxiously viewed this messenger 

Our situation was now truly critical— until he entered the town, and in a few 

no possibility of retreating in case of de- minutes could discover by our glasses some 

feat, and in full view of a town that stir in every street that we could pene- 

had, at this time, upward of 600 men trate into, and great numbers running or 

in it — troops, inhabitants, and Indians, riding out into the commons, we sup- 

The crew of the galley, though not fifty posed, to view us, which was the case, 

men, would have been now a reinforce- But what surprised us was that nothing 

ment of immense magnitude to our little had yet happened that had the appear- 

army (if I may so call it), but we would ance of the garrison being alarmed — no 

not think of them. We were now in the drum nor gun. We began to suppose that 

situation that I had labored to get our- the information we got from our prisoners 

selves in. The idea of being made prison- was false, and that the enemy already 

er was foreign to almost every man, as knew of us, and were prepared. ... A 

they expected nothing but torture from little before sunset we moved, and dis- 

the savages, if they fell into their hands, played ourselves in full view of the town, 

Our fate was now to be determined, prob- crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 

ably in a few hours. We knew that noth- ourseh'es into certain destruction or suc- 

ing but the most daring conduct would cess. There was no midway thought of. 

insure success. I knew that a number We had but little to say to our men, ex- 

of the inhabitants wished us well, that cept inculcating an idea of the necessity 

many were lukewarm to the interest of of obedience, etc. We knew they did not 

cither, and I also learned that the grand want encouraging, and that anything 



might be attempted with them that was 
possible for such a number — perfectly 
cool, under proper subordination, pleased 
with the prospect before them, and much 
attached to their officers. They all de- 
clared that they were convinced that an 
implicit obedience to orders was the only 
thing that would insure success, and hoped 
that no mercy would be shown the person 
that shouM violate them. Such language 
as this from soldiers to persons in our 
station must have been exceedingly agree- 
able. We moved on slowly in full view 
of the town; but, as it was a point of 
some consequence to us to make ourselves 
appear as formidable, we, in leaving the 
covert that we were in, marched and 
countermarched in such a manner that 
we appeared numerous. In raising volun- 
teers in the Illinois, every person that 
set about the business had a set of colors 
given him, which they brought with them 
to the amount of ten or twelve pairs. 
These were displayed to the best advan- 
tage; and, as the low plain we marched 
through was not a perfect level, but had 
frequent risings in it 7 or 8 feet higher 
than the common level (which was cov- 
ered with water), and as these risings 
generally ran in an oblique direction to 
the town, we took the advantage of one 
of them, marching through the water un- 
der it, which completely prevented our 
being numbered. But our colors showed 
considerably above the heights, as they 
were fixed on long poles procured for the 
purpose, and at a distance K.ide no des- 
picable appearance; and, S5 our young 
Frenchmen had, while we lay on the War- 
rior's Island, decoyed and taken several 
fowlers with their horses, officers were 
mounted on these horses, and rode about, 
more completely to deceive the enemy. In 
this manner we moved, and directed our 
march in such a way as to suffer it to 
be dark before we had advanced more 
than half-way to the town. We then 
suddenly altered our direction, and crossed 
ponds where they could not have suspect- 
ed us, and at about eight o'clock gained 
the heights back of the town. As there 
was yet no hostile appearance, we were 
impatient to have the cause unriddled. 
Lieutenant Bayley was ordered, with four- 
teen men, to march and fire on the fort. 
The main body moved in a different direc- 

tion, and took possession of the strongest 
part of the town. 

The firing now commenced on the fort, 
but they did not believe it was an enemy 
until one of their men was shot down 
through a port, as drunken Indians fre- 
quently saluted the fort after night. The 
drums now sounded, and the business 
fairly commenced on both sides. Rein- 
forcements were sent to the attack of the 
garrison, while other arrangements were 
making in town. . . . We now found that 
the garrison had known nothing of us; 
that, having finished the fort that even- 
ing, they had amused themselves at differ- 
ent games, and had just retired before 
my letter arrived, as it was near roll-call. 
The placard being made public, manj 
of the inhabitants were afraid to show 
themselves out of the houses for fear of 
giving offence, and not one dare give in- 
formation. Our friends flew to the com- 
mons and other convenient places to view 
the pleasing sight. This was observed 
from the garrison, and the reason asked, 
but a satisfactory excuse was given; and, 
as a part of the town lay between our 
line of march and the garrison, we could 
not be seen by the sentinels on the walls. 
Capt. W. Shannon and another being 
some time before taken prisoners by one 
of their [scouting parties], and that even- 
ing brought in, the party had discovered 
at the Sugar Camp some signs of us. 
They supposed it to be a party of ob- 
servation that intended to land on the 
height some distance below the town. 
Captain Lamotte was sent to intercept 
them. It was at him the people said 
they were looking, when they were asked 
the reason of their unusual stir. Several 
suspected persons had been taken to the 
garrison; among them was Mr. Moses 
Henry. Mrs. Henry went, under the pre- 
tence of carrying him provisions, and 
whispered him the news and what she had 
seen. Mr. Henry conveyed it to the rest 
of his fellow-prisoners, which gave them 
much pleasure, particularly Captain Helm, 
who amused himself very much during the 
siege, and, I believe, did much damage. 

Ammunition was scarce with us, as 
the most of our stores had been put on 
board of the galley. Though her crew 
was but few, such a reinforcement to 
us at this time would have been invaluable 



In many instances. But, fortunately, at ures of their cannon were frequently shut, 

the time of its being reported that the for our riflemen, finding the true direc- 

whole of the goods in the town were to tion of them, would pour in such volleys 

be taken for the King's use (for which when they were opened that the men 

the owners were to receive bills). Colonel could not stand to the guns. Seven or 

Legras, Major Bosseron, and others had eight of them in a short time got cut 

buried the greatest part of their powder down. Our troops would frequently abuse 

and ball. This was immediately produced, the enemy, in order to aggravate them to 

and Ave found ourselves well supplied by open their ports and fire their cannon, 

those gentlemen. that they might have the pleasure of 

The Tobacco's son, being in town with cutting them down with their rifles, fifty 
a number of warriors, immediately mus- of which, perhaps, would be levelled the 
tered them, and let us know that he moment the port flew open; and I be- 
wished to join us, saying that by the lieve that, if they had stood at their ar- 
niorning he would have 100 men. He tillery, tho greater part of them would 
received for answer that we thanked him have been destroyed in the course of the 
for his friendly disposition ; and, as we night, as the greater part of our men lay 
were sufficiently strong ourselves, we wish- within 30 yards of the walls, and in a 
ed him to desist, and that we would coun- few hours were covered equally to those 
sel on the subject in the morning; and, within the walls, and much more experi- 
as we knew that there were a number of enced in that mode of fighting. . . . Some- 
Indans in and near the town that were times an irregular fire, as hot as possi- 
our enemies, some confusion might happen ble, was kept up from diff'erent directions 
if our men should mix in the dark, but for a few minutes, and then only a con- 
hoped that we might be favored with his tinual scattering fire at the ports as 
counsel and company during the night, usual; and a great noise and laughter 
which was agreeable to him. immediately commenced in diff'erent parts 

The garrison was soon completely sur- of the town, by the reserved parties, as 

rounded, and the firing continued without if they had only fired on the fort a few 

intermission (except about fifteen minutes minutes for amusement, and as if those 

a little before day) until about nine continually firing at the fort were only 

o'clock the following morning. It was regularly relieved. Conduct similar to 

kept up by the whole of the troops, join- this kept the garrison constantly alarmed, 

ed by a few of the young men of the town. They did not know what moment they 

who got permission, except fifty men kept might be stormed or [blown up?], as 

as a reserve. ... I had made myself fully they could plainly discover that we had 

acquainted with the situation of the fort flung up some intrenchments across the 

and town and the parts relative to each, streets, and appeared to be frequently very 

The cannon of the garrison was on the busy under the bank of the river, which 

upper fioors of strong block-houses at each was within 30 feet of the walls. The 

angle of the fort, 11 feet above the sur- situation of the magazine we knew well, 

face, and the ports so badly cut that many Captain Bowman began some works in 

of our troops lay under the fire of them order to blow it up, in case our artillery 

within 20 or 30 yards of the walls. They should arrive; but, as we knew that we 

did no damage, except to the buildings of were daily liable to be overpowered by 

the town, some of which they much shat- the numerous bands of Indians on the 

tered; and their musketry, in the dark, river, in case they had again joined the 

employed against woodsmen covered by enemy (the certainty of which we were 

houses, palings, ditches, the banks of the unacquainted with), we resolved to lose 

river, etc., was but of little avail, and no time, but to get the fort in our pos- 

did no injury to us except wounding a session as soon as possible. If the vessel 

man or two. As we could not aff'ord to did not arrive before the ensuing night, 

lose men, great care was taken to preserve we resolved to undermine the fort, and 

them sufficiently covered, and to keep up fixed on the spot and plan of executing 

a hot fire in order to intimidate the enemy this work, which we intended to commence 

as well as to destroy them. The embras- the next day. 



The Indians of different tribes that got over, much to the joy of their friends, 
were inimical had left the town and But, on considering the matter, they must 
neighborhood. Captain Lamotte contin- have been convinced that it was a scheme 
ued to hover about it, in order, if pos- of ours to let them in, and that we were 
sible, to make his way good into the fort, so strong as to care but little about them 
Parties attempted in vain to surprise him. or the manner of their getting into the 
A few of his party were taken, one of garrison. . . . The firing immediately com- 
which was Maisonville, a famous Indian menced on both sides with double vigor; 
partisan. Two lads that captured him and I believe that more noise could not 
tied him to a post in the street, and have been made by the same number of 
fought from behind him as a breastwork, men. Their shouts could not be heard 
supposing that the enemy would not fire for the fire-arms; but a continual blaze 
at them for fear of killing him, as he was kept around the garrison, without 
would alarm them by his voice. The lads much being done, until about daybreak, 
were ordered, by an officer who discover- when our troops were drawn off to posts 
ed them at their amusement, to untie prepared for them, about GO or 70 yards 
their prisoner, and take him off to the from the fort. A loop-hole then could 
guard, which they did, but were so in- scarcely be darkened but a rifle-ball would 
human as to take part of his scalp on pass through it. To have stood to their 
the way. There happened to him no other cannon would have destroyed their men, 
damage. As almost the whole of the without a probability of doing much ser- 
persons who were most active in the de- vice. Our situation was nearly similar, 
partment of Detroit were either in the It would have been imprudent in either 
fort or with Captain Lamotte, I got ex- party to have wasted their men, without 
tremely imeasy for fear that he would some decisive stroke required it. 
not fall into our power, knowing that Thus the attack continued until about 
he would go off, if he could not get into nine o'clock on the morning of the 24th. 
the fort in the course of the night. Find- Learning that the two prisoners they had 
ing that, without some unforeseen acci- brought in the day before had a consider- 
dent, the fort must inevitably be ours, able number of letters with them, I sup- 
and that a reinforcement of twenty men, posed it an express that we expected 
although considerable to them, would not about this time, which I knew to be of the 
be of great moment to us in the present greatest moment to us, as we had not re- 
situation of affairs, and knowing that we ceived one since our arrival in the coun- 
had weakened them by killing or wounding try; and, not being fully acquainted with 
many of their gunners, after some deliber- fj^e character of our enemy, we were doubt- 
ation, we concluded to risk the reinforce- ful that those papers might be destroy- 
ment in preference of his going again pj^ to prevent which I sent a flag [with a 
among the Indians. The garrison had at letter] demanding the garrison, 
least a month's provisions; and, if they The following is a copy of the letter 
could hold out, in the course of that time which was addressed by Colonel Clark 
he might do us much damage. A little to Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton on this 
before day the troops were withdrawn occasion: 

from their positions about the fort, except ^ ^ „„„ „„„nc»if fmm thP 

,. r T, i- J +1.^ flv^rifT "Sir, — In order to save yourself from tne 

a few parties of observation, and the firing jj^pg^^j^g ^.torm that now threatens you, I 

totally ceased. Orders were given, in case order you immediately to surrender yourself, 

of Lamotte's approach, not to alarm or with all yoiu- garrison, stores, etc. For, if 

fire on him without a certainty of Idliin, l'^^ ^^«^^l„\' £T]JsZ T. £T'»u7. 

or taking the whole. In less than a quar- ^p^^^ Beware of destroying stores of any 

ter of an hour, he passed within 10 feet i^-ind or any papers or letters that are In your 

of an officer and a party that lav conceal- possession, or iiurting one honse »", t"^° ; 

, I ,, J i 4-u ^ ^„A for bv Heavers! if you do, there shall be no 

ed. Ladders were flung over to them : and, ;^p^;.^7 .^^^^ ^^u. 

as they mounted them, our party shouted. ' .. ( signed) G. R. Clark." 

Many "of them fell from the top of the , , . j. x i 

walls— flome within, and others back; The British commandant immediately 

but as they were not fired on, they all returned the following answer: 



" Lieuteuant-Governor Hamilton begs leave We met at the cliurch, about 80 vards 
to acquaint Colonc' Clark that he and his f,.„™ +!,„ i-^,.j. t ;„,,4-„ i. r^ \i 

garrison are not disposed to be awed into ^ °'^ the foit, Lieutenant-Governor Han.- 
any action unworthy British subjects." ilton, Major Hay, superintendent of Ind- 

The filing then-says Clark— com- ^'y\ affairs, Captain Helm, their prisoner, 
menced warmly for a considerable time; ^^^J''[ ^«^^man, and myself. The confer- 
and we were obliged to be careful in pre- '^"'^^ ^S^"' Hamilton produced terms of 
venting our men from exposing themselves capitulation, signed, that contained vari- 
too much, as they were now much ani- °"^ articles, one of which was that the 
mated, having been refreshed during the p.^'i^on should be surrendered on their 
flag. They frequently mentioned their ''^'"f permitted to go to Pensacola on 
wishes to storm the place, and put an end Parole. After deliberating on every ar- 
to the business at once. . . . The firing *'^'^' ^ rejected the whole. He then 
was heavy through every crack that could ^^;ished that I would make some proposi- 
be discovered in any part of the fort. *'°"- ^ ^^^^ ^'™ t'^at I had no other to 
Several of the garrison got wounded, and "'^'^^^ t'^^" ^^'^^t I had already made- 
no possibility of standing near the em- *''^<^ °^ ^^'^ surrendering as prisoners at 
brasures. Towards the evening a flag ap- discretion. 1 said that his troops had 
peared with the following proposals: behaved with spirit; that they could not 

.. ^ . , , ^ „ ., suppose that they would be worse treated 

" liieutenant-Governor Hamilton proposes . r -^ .■ , -^ , 

to Colonel Clark a truce for three days, dur- ^" consequence of it; that, if he chose to 
ing which time he promises there shall be no comply with the demand, though hard, 
defeosive works carried on in the garrison, perhaps the sooner the better;" that it 

on condition that Colonel Clark shall observe, ,,,„„ •, ,r„;„ +^ „,„!... „„,r -j.- j 

,,. 4. ,■, J.- c J i • was 111 vain to malce any proposition to 

on his part, a like cessation of any defensive i.i . u , , • • "1-'^^=' 

work— that is, he wishes to confer with ™e : that he, by this time, must be sensible 
Colonel Clark as soon as can be, and promises that the garrison would fall ; that both 
that whatever may pass between them two of us must [view?] all blood spilt for the 
and another person mutually agreed upon to ^ , i .i • , ,, , 

be present shall remain secret till matters ^^^^^''^^ V t^e garrison as murder; that 
be finished, as he wishes that, whatever the my troops were already impatient, and 
result of the conference may be, it may tend called aloud for permission to tear down 
to the honor and credit of each party. If ^j ^orm the fort If such a sten was 
Colonel Clark makes a difficulty of coming , stoim tne loit. ii sucn a step was 
into the fort. Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton taken, many, of course, would be cut 
will speak to him by the gate. down; and the result of an enraged body 

« r. i' ^S'S"^<^> „ Henry Hamilton. of woodsmen breaking in must be obvious 

" February 2ith, 1779." +„ i,- t^. u u i. ^ i.i r 

to him. It would be out of the power of 

I was at a great loss to conceive what an American officer to save a single man. 
reason Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton Various altercation took place for a con- 
could have for wishing a truce of three siderable time. Captain Helm attempted 
days on such terms as he proposed. Num- to moderate our fixed determination. I 
bers said it was a scheme to get me into told him he was a British prisoner; and 
their possession. I had a diflferent opin- it was doubtful whether or not he could, 
ion and no idea of his possessing such with propriety, speak on the subject, 
sentiments, as an act of that kind would Hamilton then said that Captain Helm 
infallibly ruin him. Although we had vvas from that moment liberated, and 
the greatest reason to expect a reinforce- ^nj^iit use his pleasure. I informed the 
ment in less than three days, that would captain that I would not receive him on 
at once put an end to the siege, I yet did s,,ch terms; that he must return to the 
not think it prudent to agree to the pro- gnrrison, and await his fate. I then told 
posals, and sent the following answer: Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton that hostil- 

" Colonel Clark's comnllments to Lleuten- ities should not commence until five min- 

ant-Goverror Hamilton. a"d begs leave to In- utes after the drums gave the alarm. We 

form him that he will rot agree to any terms took our leave, and parted but a few 
other than Mr. Hamilton s surrendering him- t. tt m^ j. j j 

self and garrison prisoners at discretion. If stens, when Hamilton stopped, and po- 

Mr. Hamilton Is desirous of a conference with litely asked me if I would be SO kind 

Colonel Clark, he will meet him at the church aa to give him mv reasons for refusing 

with Captain Helm. ,, ^ . •,, , .i xi. " 

" (Signed) G R C garrison any other terms than those 

" February Sith, 1779." ' I had oifered. I told him I had no ob- 



joctions in giving him my real reasons, -' III. The garrison to be delivered up at 

which were simply these: that I knew the ten o'clocl£ to-morrow. 

, , f ., • „■ „i t„j:„„ ^„.. "IV. Tliree days' time to be allowed the 

greater part of the principal Indian pai- g^rHson to settle their accounts with the ia- 

tisans of Detroit were with him; that habitants and traders of this place. 

I wanted an excuse to put them to death " V. The officers of the garrison to be al- 

or otherwise treat them as I thought 'owed their necessary baggage etc 

,, , ,, . . ,, .^ ^ , "Signed at Post St. \mcent [Vincennes], 

proper; that the cries of the widows and 24th of February, 1779. 

the fatherless on the frontiers, which they " Agreed for the following reasons : the 

had occasioned, now required their blood remoteness from succor ; the state and quan- 

from my hand; and that I did not choose tity o^^pro^v.sions.^et. :^u^na^ of^officers 

to be so timorous as to disobey the abso- terms allowed ; and, lastly, the confidence in 

lute commands of their authority, which a generous enemy. 

I looked upon to be next to divine; that " (Signed) Henuy Hamilton, 

_ 11.1 1 £fi. ii 4- Lteut.-Gov. and Superintendent." 
I would rather lose fifty men than not 

to empower myself to execute this piece of 1'he business being now nearly at an 
business with propriety; that, if he chose end, troops were posted in several strong 
to risk the massacre of his garrison for houses around the garrison and patrolled 
their sakes, it was his own pleasure; and during the night to prevent any deception 
that I might, perhaps, take it into my that might be attempted. The remainder 
head to send for some of those widows on duty lay on their arms, and for the 
to see it executed. Major Hay paying fiist time for many days past got some 
great attention, I had observed a kind lest. . . . During the siege, I got only 
of distrust in his countenance, which in a one man wounded. Not being able to lose 
great measure influenced my conversa- many, I made them secure themselves 
tion during this time. On my concluding, well. Seven were badly wounded in the 
" Pray, sir," said he, " who is it that you fort through ports. . . , Almost every 
call Indian partisans?" "Sir," I replied, man had conceived a favorable opinion of 
" I take Major Hay to be one of the prin- Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton— I believe 
cipal." I never saw a man in the moment what affected myself made some impres- 
of execution so struck as he appeared to sion on the whole; and I was happy to 
be, pale and trembling, scarcely able to find that he never deviated, while he 
stand. Hamilton blushed, and, I ob- stayed with us, from that dignity of con- 
served, was much affected at his behavior, duct that became an officer in his situ- 
Major Bowman's countenance sufficiently ation. The morning of the 25th approach- 
explained his disdain for the one and his ing, arrangements were made for receiving 
sorroAV for the other. . . . Some moments the garrison [which consisted of seventy- 
elapsed without a word passing on either nine men], and about ten o'clock it was 
side. From that moment my resolutions delivered in form; and everything was im- 
changed respecting Hamilton's situation. I mediately arranged to the best advantage, 
told him that we would return to our re- Clark, John Bullock, military officer ; 
spective posts; that I would reconsider born in Madison county, Ky., April 17, 
the matter, and let him know the result. 1802; went to Missouri in 1818; admitted 
No offensive measures should be taken in to the bar in 1824; commanded a regiment 
the mean time. Agreed to; and we parted, in the Black Hawk War in 1832; and sub- 
What had passed being made known to sequently led the force which drove the 
our officers, it was agreed that we should Mormons out of Missouri. In 1857-61 he 
moderate our resolutions. was a Democratic member of Congress. 

In the course of the afternoon of the At the beginning of the Civil War he join- 

'>4th the following articles were signed, ed the Confederate army; was made a 

and the garrison capitulated: brigadier - general ; and commanded the 

Missouri troops till seriously wounded in 

"T.Lfeute.a.t-Gover.or Hamilton e...a,es August, 1801. ^^"""^^^^^^"t'fed^ 

to deliver to Colonel Clark Fort Sackville, as the war he was a member ot the Conted- 

it is at present, with all the stores, etc. erate Congress, and at the conclusion of 

"IT. The garrison are to deliver themselves hostilities' resumed law practice at Fay- 

a^X'r/acclT.^^me^ntlX^' °"* ""' ' ette, Mo., where he died, Oct. 29, 1885. 



Clark, Thomas, author; born in Lan- in England; came to America during the 
eastei', Pa., in 1787; educated at St. reign of Queen Anne; and settled in New 
Mary's College, in Baltimore ; made an York. When Governor Cosby died he was 
assistant topographical engineer, with the proclaimed governor pro tern, by the coun- 
rank of captain, April 1, 1813; served cil, and later was commissioned lieuten- 
in the War of 1812-15, in building de- ant-governor by the British government, 
fences on the Delaware River; and after He died in Chester, England, in 1763. 
the war devoted himself to literature. His Clarke, James Freeman, author-clergy- 
publications include Naval History of the man; born in Hanover, N. H., April 4, 
United States from the Commencement of 181 0; graduated at Harvard College in 
the Revolutionary War; and Sketches of 1829, and at Cambridge Divinity School 
the Naval History of the United States, in 1833. His publications relating to the 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1860. United States include History of the Cam- 

Clark, William, military officer; born paiyn of 1812, and Defence of General 
in Virginia, Aug. 1, 1770; removed to William Hull for the Surrender of De- 
what is now Louisville, Ky., in 1784. He troit; and Anti-Slavery Days. He died 
was appointed an ensign in the army in Jamaica Plains, Mass., June 8, 1888. 
in 1788; promoted lieutenant of infan- Clarke, or Clerke, Jeremy, one of the 
try in 1792; and appointed a mem- settlers of Newport, R. I., in 1639; became 
ber of Captain Lewis's expedition to the constable of the new plantation in 1640, 
mouth of the Columbia River in 1804. and treasurer in 1647. He was elected 
The success of the expedition was largely as an assistant to the president in 1648, 
due to his knowledge of Indian habits, and when the president-elect, William Cod- 
Afterwards he was made brigadier-gen- dington, failed to enter upon his office 
eral for the Territory of upper Louisiana; and to answer certain accusations brought 
in 1813-21 was governor of the Mississippi against him, Clarke, who was a repub- 
Territory; and in 1822-38 superintend- lican, was chosen by the assembly as pres- 
ent of Indian affairs in St. Loviis. He ident-regent, and served as such till the 
died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 1, 1838. following May. , 

See Clark, George Rogers; Lewis, Meri- Clarke, John, clergyman; born in Bed- 

wether. fordshire, England, Oct. 8, 1609; emi- 

Clarke, Sir Alured, military officer; grated to Boston in 1637, but, espousing 

born in 1745; joined the British army in the cause of Anne Hutchinson (q. v.), 

1765; came to America, and during the and claiming full toleration in religious 

Revolutionary War was lieutenant-colo- belief, he was obliged to flee. He was wel- 

nel of the 7th Foot. When the British comed to Providence by Roger Williams, 

took Savannah, Ga., he was placed in com- He was one of the company who gained 

mand of the city, and by the strict dis- Rhode Island from the Indians, and began 

cipline of his troops and his courtesy to a settlement at Pocasset in 1638. A preach- 

the inhabitants won their good will. He er of the Gospel, he founded, at Newport 

died in September, 1832. (16G4), the second Baptist church in 

Clarke, Elijah, military officer; born America. He was treasurer of the colony 

in North Carolina; went to Georgia in in 1649. Mr. Clarke was persecuted while 

1774, where he became a captain in 1776, visiting friends in Massachusetts, and 

and fought both British and Indians on driven out of the colony. He accompanied 

the frontiers. He was an active leader Williams to England in 1651 as agent &r 

in the war for independence, and was the colony, where he remained nearly 

largely instrumental in the capture of twelve years, and returned (1663) with a 

Augusta, Ga., in 1781. He fought many second charter for Rhode Island. He 

battles and made several treaties with the resumed his pastorate at Newport, where 

Indians; but in 1794 he was accused of for three successive years he was deputy- 

a design to establish an independent gov- governor of the colony. His publications 

ernment among the Creeks, where he had include III News from New England; or a 

settled in violation of law. He died in Narrative of Neio England's Persecution. 

Wilkes county, Ga., Dec. 15, 1799. He died in Newport, R. I., April 20, 1676. 

Clarke, George, colonial governor; born Clarke, Richard H., lawyer; borr> in 
n.— N 193 


Washington, t). C, July 3, 1827; grad- 
uated at Georgetown College, 1847; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1848. He is the au- 
thor of an illustrated History of the Cath- 
olic Church in the United States, etc. 

Clarke, Rodert, publisher; born in 
Scotland, May 1, 1829; settled in Cincin- 
nati, O., in 1840. He edited Col. George 
Rogers Clarke's Campaign in the Illinois 
in 1778-79; Captain James Smith's Cap- 
tivity, and Pioneer Biographies. He is the 
author of The Prehistoric Remains ichich 
tcere found on the Site of the City of 
Cincinnati, icith a Vindication of the Cin- 
cinnati Tablet. He died in Cincinnati, 
Aug. 6, 18!)!). 

Clarke, Samuel, clergyman ; born in 
Warwickshire, England, in 1.50!). He was 
the author of A True and Faithful Ac- 
count of the Four Chicfcst Plantations 
of the English in America ; and New De- 
scription of the World, etc. He died in 

Clarke, Thomas Curtis, engineer; born 
in Newton, Mass., in 1827; graduated at 
Harvard in 1848; specialist in bridge and 
railroad engineering. He died in New 
York City, June 15, 1901. 

Clarke, Walter, colonial governor; 
deputy-governor of Ehode Island in 1075- 
67; governor in 1070-79; deputy in 
1679—86; and then governor again. In 
1687 he was compelled to surrender the 
government into the hands of the royal 
governor who had been commissioned in 
England; and in 1088 became a member of 
the governor's council under the new com- 
mission. In 1096, eight years after the 
overthrow of the royal governor, he was 
again elected governor, but after two years 

Clay, Cassius Marcellus, diplomatist; 
horn in Madison county, Ky., Oct. 19, 
1810; son of Green Clay; was graduated 
at Yale College in 1832. He became a law- 
yer; was a member of the Kentucky legis- 
lature in 1835, 1837, and 1840. In June, 
1845, he issued, at Lexington, Ky., the 
first number of the True American, a 
weekly anti-slavery paper. In August his 
press was seized by a mob, after which 
it was printed in Cincinnati and publish- 
ed at Lexington, and afterwards at Louis- 
ville. Mr. Clay was a captain in the war 
with Mexico, and was made prisoner in 
January, 1847. In 1862 he was appointed 

major-general, and was United States mln* 
ister to Russia from 1803 to 1809. He 
died in White Hall, Ky., July 22, 1903. 

Clay, Clement Claiborne, lawyer; 
born in Huntsville, Ala., in 1819; grad- 
uated at the University of Alabama in 
1835; admitted to the bar in 1840; elected 
United States Senator in 1853 and 1859; 
was expelled in 1801 ; and elected to the 
Confederate Senate. In 1804 he was a 
secret Confederate agent to Canada, and 
participated in laying the plans for the 
raids on the northern border. At the 
close of the war, hearing that a reward 
was offered for his capture, he surrender- 
ed himself, and was a prisoner with Jef- 
ferson Davis in Fort Monroe; was released 
in 1800; and resumed the practice of law 
at Huntsville, Ala., where he died, Jan. 
3, 1882. 

Clay, Green, military officer; born in 
Powhatan county, Va., Aug. 14, 1757. 
Before he was twenty years old he emi- 


grated to Kentucky, where he became a 
surgeon, and laid the foundation of a fort- 
une. He represented the Kentucky dis- 
trict in the Virginia legislature, and was 
a member of the Virginia convention that 
ratified +he national Constitution. He 



also assisted in framing the Kentucky (q. v.); and, being left in command of 
constitution in 1799. Mr. Clay served that post, he defended it against an at- 
long in the Kentucky legislature. In the tack by British and Indians under Gen- 
spring of 1813 he led 3,000 Kentucky vol- eral Proctor and Tecumseh. He died in 
unteers to the relief of Fort Meigs Kentucky, Oct. 31, 1826. 


Clay, Henry, statesman; born in Han- 
over county, Va., April 12, 1777; received 
the rudiments of education in a log-cabin 
school - house; labored on a farm until 
he was fifteen years of age, when he enter- 
ed the office of the High Court of Chan- 
cery, in Richmond, at which time his 
mother, who had married a second time, 
emigrated to Kentucky. He studied law 
under the direction of Chancellor Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1797, when 
he opened a law-office in Lexington, Ky., 
where he obtained an extensive practice. 
In 1803 he was elected to the Kentucky 
legislature, and was speaker in 1807-8. 
He became United States Senator in 1808, 
and member of Congress and Speaker in 
1811-14. In 1814 he was a commission- 


cr to treat for peace with Great Britain, 
and afterwards, in Congress, was five 
times elected Speaker of the House of 


Representatives. Mr. Clay was Secretary 
of State in the cabinet of John Quincy 
Adams (1825-29), and again a member 
of the United States Senate from 1831 till 
1842. He was twice defeated as a candi- 
date for the Presidency (1832 and 1844) ; 
and was in the Senate for the last time 
from 1849 till 1852, taking a leading part 
in the compromise measures of 1850, as 
he did in those of 1832. Mr. Clay did 
much by his eloquence to arouse a war 
spirit against Great Britain in 1812; and 
his efforts were effective in securing an 
acknowledgment of the independence of 
the Spanish colonies in South America. 
He always advocated the thoroughly 
American policy of President Monroe in 
excluding European influence on this con- 
tinent. He died in Washington, D. C, 
June 29, 1852. - 

The secret history of Clay's Compromise 
Bill in 1832, which quieted rampant nulli- 
fication, seems to be as follows: Mr. Cal- 
houn, as leader of the nullifiers, had pro- 
ceeded to the verge of treason in his oppo- 
sition to the national government, and 
President Jackson had threatened him 
with arrest if he mov.ed another step for- 
ward. Knowing the firmness and decision 
of the President, he dared not take the 
fatal step. He could not recede, or even 
stand still, without compromising his 
character with his political friends. In 
this extremity a mutual friend arranged 
with Clay to propose a measure which 
would satisfy both sides and save the 
neck and reputation of Calhoun. In dis- 
cussing the matter in the Senate, the lat- 
ter earnestly disclaimed any hostile feel- 
ings towards the Union on the part of 
South Carolina. He declared that the 
State authorities looked only to a judicial 
verdict on the question, until the con- 
centration of United States troops at 
Charleston and Augusta (by order of 
the President) compelled them to make 
provision to defend themselves. Clay's 


compromise only postponed civil war a 
little less than thirty years. 

The Consequences of Secession. — On Feb. 
C, 1850, Senator Clay delivered the follow- 
ing speech in the Senate chamber: 

Sir, this Union is threatened with 
subversion. I want, Mr. President, to 


Our country now extends from the 
northern provinces of Great Britain to 
the Rio Grande and the Gulf of Mexico 
on one side, and from the Atlantic Ocean 
to the Pacific on the other side — the 
largest extent of territory under any gov- 
ernment that exists on the face of the 
earth, with only two solitary exceptions. 
Our tonnage, from 
being nothing, has 
^^ risen in magnitude 

and amount so as to 
rival that of the na- 
tion who has been 
proudly characterized 
" the mistress of the 
ocean." We have 
gone through many 
wars — wars, too, with 
the very nation from 
whom we broke off in 
1776, as weak and 
feeble colonies, and 
asserted our indepen- 
dence as a member of 
the family of nations. 
And, sir, we came out 
of that struggle, un- 
equal as it was — arm- 
ed as she was at all 
points, in consequence 
of the habits and nat- 
ure of our country 
and its institutions — 
we came, I saj', out of 
that war without any 
loss of honor what- 
ever — we emerged 

from it gloriously, 
take a very rapid glance at the course In every Indian war — and we have 
of public measures in this Union pres- been engaged in many of them — our ar- 
ently. I want, however, before I do mies have triumphed; and, without speak- 
that, to ask the Senate to look back upon ing at all as to the causes of the recent 
the career which this country has run war with Mexico, whether it was right 
since the adoption of this Constitution or wrong, and abstaining from any ex- 
down to the present day. Was there pression of opinion as to the justice or 
ever a nation upon which the sun of propriety of the war, when once com- 
heaven has shone that has exhibited so menced all must admit that, with respect 
much of prosperity? At the commence- to the gallantry of our armies, the glory 
ment of this government our population of our triumphs, there is no page or pages 
amounted to about 4,000,000; it has now of history which records more brilliant 
reached upward of 20,000,000. Our ter- successes. With respect to one command- 
ritory was limited chiefly and principally «r of an important portion of our army, T 
to the border upon the Atlantic Ocean, need say nothing here; no praise is neces- 
and that which includes the southern sary in behalf of one who has been elevated 
shores of the interior lakes of our country, by the voice of his country to the highest 



station she could place him in, mainly wars of Europe; Jay's treaty, the alien 

on account of his glorious military ca- and sedition laws, and war with France, 

reer. And of another, less fortunate in 1 do not say, sir, that these, the leading 

many respects than some other military and prominent measures which were 

commanders, I must take the opportu- adopted during the administrations of 

nity of saying that, for skill, for science, Washington and the elder Adams, were 

for strategy, for ability and daring fight- carried exclusively by Northern counsels — • 

ing, for chivalry of individuals and of they could not have been — but mainly by 

masses, that portion of the American the ascendency which Northern counsels 

army which was conducted by the gallant had obtained in the affairs of the nation. 

Scott, as the chief commander, stands un- So, sir, of the later period — for the last 

rivalled either by the deeds of Cortez him- fifty years. 

self, or of those of any other commander I do not mean to say that Southern 

in ancient or modern times. counsels alone have carried the measures 

Sir, our prosperity is unbounded — nay, which I am about to enumerate. I know 
Mr. President, I sometimes fear that it they could not have exclusively carried 
is in the wantonness of that prosperity them, but I say that they have been ear- 
that many of the threatening ills of the ried by their preponderating influence, 
moment have arisen. Wild and erratic v/ith the co-operation, it is true — the 
schemes have sprung up throughout the large co-operation, in some instances — of 
whole country, some of which have even the Northern section of the Union. And 
found their way into legislative halls; v/hat are those measures? During that 
and there is a restlessness existing among fifty years, or nearly that period, in which 
us which I fear will require the chastise- Southern counsels have preponderated the 
ment of Heaven to bring us back to a embargo and commercial restrictions of 
sense of the immeasurable benefits and non-intercourse and non-importation were 
blessings which have been bestowed upon imposed, war with Great Britain, the 
us by Providence. At this moment — with Bank of the United States overthrown, 
the exception of here and there a particu- protection enlarged and extended to do- 
lar department in the manufacturing busi- mestic manufactures — I allude to the 
ness of the country — all is prosperity and passage of the act of 1815 or 1816 — 
peace, and the nation is rich and power- the Bank of the United States re-establish- 
ful. Our country has grown to a magni- ed, the same bank put down, re-establish- 
tude, to a power and greatness, such as ed by Southern counsels and put down 
to command the respect, if it does not by Southern counsels, Louisiana acquired, 
awe the apprehensions, of the powers Florida bought, Texas annexed, war with 
of the earth with whom we come in Mexico, California and other territories 
contact. acquired from Mexico by conquest and 

Sir, do I depict with colors too lively purchase, protection superseded and free 

the prosperity which has resulted to us trade established, Indians removed west 

from the operations of this Union? Have of the Mississippi, and fifteen new States 

I exaggerated in any particular her power, admitted into the Union. It is very pos- 

her prosperity, or her greatness? And sible, sir, that in this enumeration I may 

now, sir, let me go a little into detail have omitted some of the important meas- 

with respect to sway in the councils of ures which have been adopted during 

the nation, whether from the North or this later period of time— the last fifty 

the South, during the sixty years of years — but these I believe to be the most 

unparalleled prosperity that we have en- pi-ominent ones. 

joyed. During the first twelve years of Now, sir, I do not deduce from the 

the administration of the government enumeration of the measures adopted by 

Northern counsels rather prevailed; and the one side or the other any just cause 

out of them sprang the Bank of the of reproach either upon one side or the 

United States, the assumption of the State other; though one side or the other has 

debts, bounties to the fisheries, protec- predominated in the two periods to which 

tion to our domestic manufactures — I al- I have referred. These measures were, to 

lude to the act of 1789 — neutrality in the say the least, the joint work of both par- 



ties, and neither of them have any just where slavery exists, has been introduced; 
cause to reproach the other. But, sir, I Louisiana, or all the most valuable part 
must say, in all kindness and sincerity, of that State — for although there is a 
that least of all ought the South to re- large extent of territory north of the 
proach the North, when we look at the line 36° 30', in point of intrinsic value 
long list of measures which, under her and importance, I would not give the 
sway in the counsels of the nation, have single State of Louisiana for the whole 
been adopted; when we reflect that even of it — all Louisiana, I say, with the ex- 
opposite doctrines have been from time to ception of that which lies north of 36° 
time advanced by her; that the establish- 30', including Oregon, to which we obtain 
ment of the Bank of the United States, title mainly on the ground of its being a 
which was done under the administra- part of the acquisition of Louisiana; all 
tion of Mr. Madison, met with the co- Texas; all the territories which have been 
operation of the South — I do not say the acquired by the government of the United 
whole South — I do not, when I speak of States during its sixty years' operation, 
the South or the North, speak of the en- have been slave territories, the theatre of 
tire South or the entire North; I speak slavery with the exception that I have 
of the prominent and larger proportions mentioned of that lying north of the 
of Southern and Northern men. It was line 36° 30'. 

during Mr. Madison's administration that And here, in the case of a war made 
the Bank of the United States was estab- essentially by the South— growing out of 
lished. My friend, whose sickness — the annexation of Texas, which was a 
which I very much deplore — prevents us measure proposed by the South in the 
from having his attendance upon this oc- councils of the country, and which led to 
easion (Mr. Calhoun), w-as the chairman the war with Mexico — I do not say all 
of the committee, and carried the meas- of the South, but the major portion of the 
ure through Congress. 1 voted for it South pressed the annexation of Texas 
with all my heart. Although I had been upon the country— that measure, as I 
instrumental with other Southern votes have said, led to the war with Mexico, 
in putting down the Bank of the United and the war with Mexico led to the ac- 
States, I changed my opinion and co- quisition of those territories which now 
operated in the establishment of the bank constitute the bone of contention between 
of 1816. The same bank was again put the different members of the confederacy, 
down by the Southern counsels, with And now, sir, for the first time after the 
General Jackson at their head, at a later three great acquisitions of Texas, Florida, 
period. Again, with respect to the policy and Louisiana have been made and have 
of protection. The South in 181.5—1 redounded to the benefit of the South — 
mean the prominent Southern men, the now, for the first time, when these terri- 
lamented Lowndes, IMr. Calhoun, and tories are attempted to be introduced 
oLhers — united in extending a certain without the institution of slavery, I put it 
measure of protection to domestic manu- to the hearts of my countrymen of the 
factures as well as the North. South, if it is right to press matters to the 

We find a few years afterwards the disastrous consequences which have been 
South interposing most serious objection indicated no longer ago than this very 
1o this policy, and one member of the morning, on the occasion of the presenta- 
South threatening on that occasion a tion of certain resolutions even extending 
dissolution of the Union or separation, to a dissolution of the Union. Mr. Presi- 
Now, sir, let us take another view of the dent, I cannot believe it. 
question— and I would remark that all Such is the Union and such are the 
these views are brought forward not in a glorious fruits which are now threatenea 
spirit of reproach but of conciliation — not M'ith subversion and destruction. Well, 
to provoke, or exasperate, but to quiet, sir, the first question which naturally 
to produce harmony and repose if possible, arises, is, supposing the Union to be dis- 
What have been "the territorial acquisi- solved for any of the causes or grievances 
t'ons made bv this country, and to what v.'hich are complained of, how far will 
interests have they conduced? Florida dissolution furnish a remedy for those 



grievances which are complained of, how independent of each other — foreign coun- 

fur will dissolution furnish a remedy for 
these grievances? If the Union is to be 
dissolved for any existing cause, it will 
be because slavery is interdicted or not 
allowed to be introduced into the ceded 

tries — and slaves escaping from the 
United States to Canada. There would be 
no right of extradition, no right to de- 
mand your slaves; no right to appeal to 
tlie courts of justice to indemnify you for 

territories; or because slavery is threat- the loss of your slaves. Where one slave 

ened to be abolished in the District of escapes now by running away from his 

Columbia; or because fugitive slaves are master, hundreds and thousands would 

not restored, as in my opinion they ought escape if the Union were dissevered — I 

to be, to their masters. These, I believe, care not how or where you run the line, 

would be the causes, if there be any causes or whether independent sovereignties be 

which lead to the dreadful event to which e.'stablished. Well, sir, finally, will you. 

I have referred. Let us suppose the 
Union dissolved; what remedy does it, in 
a severed state, furnish for the grievances 
complained of in its united condition? 

in case of a dissolution of the Union, be 
safer with your slaves within the sepa- 
rated portions of the States than you are 
now? Mr. President, that they will es- 

Will you be able at the South to push cape much more frequently from the bor- 

slavery into the ceded territory? How 
are you to do it, supposing the North, or 
all the States north of the Potomac, in 
possession of the navy and army of the 
United States? Can you expect, I say, 
under these circumstances, that if there 
is a dissolution of the Union vou can 

der States no one will deny. 

And, sir, I must take occasion here to say 
that, in my opinion, there is no right on 
the part of any one or more of the States 
to secede from the Union. War and dis- 
solution of the Union are identical and 
inevitable, in my opinion. There can be a 

carry slavery into California and New dissolution of the Union only by consent 

or by war. Consent no one can antic- 
ipate, from any existing state of things, 

Mexico? Sir, you cannot dream of such 
an occurrence. 

If it were abolished in the District of 
Columbia and the Union were dissolved, 
vi'ould the dissolution of the Union re- 
store slavery in the District of Columbia? 

is likely to be given, and war is the 
only alternative by which a dissolution 
could be accomplished. If consent were 
given — if it were possible that we were 

Is your chance for the recovery of your to be separated by one great line — in less 
fugitive slaves safer in a state of dissolu- than sixty days after such consent was 

tion or of severance of the Union than 
when in the Union itself? Why, sir, what 
is the state of the fact? In the Union 
you lose some slaves and recover others ; 
but here let me revert to a fact which I 
ought to have noticed before, because it is 
highly creditable to the courts and judges 
of the free States. In every instance, as 
far as my information extends, in which 

given war would break out between the 
slave-holding and non-slave-holding por- 
tions of this Union — between the two in- 
dependent parts into which it would be 
erected in virtue of the act of separation. 
In less than sixty days, I believe, our 
slaves from Kentucky, flocking over in 
numbers to the other side of the river, 
would be pursued by their owners. Our 

an appeal has been made to the courts of hot and ardent spirits would be restrain- 
justice to recover penalties from those ed by no sense of the right which apper- 
who have assisted in decoying slaves from tains to the independence of the other side 

their masters — in every instance, as far 
as I have heard, the court has asserted 
the rights of the owner, and the jury has 
promptly returned an adequate verdict 
on his behalf. Well, sir, there is then 

of the river, should that be the line of 
separation. They would pursue their 
slaves into the adjacent free States; they 
would be repelled, and the consequences 
would be that, in less than sixty days, war 

some remedy while you are a part of the would be blazing in every part of this now 
Union for the recovery of your slaves, happy and peaceful land, 
and some indemnification for their loss. And, sir, how are you going to separate 
What would you have if the Union w^as the States of this confrrlpracy? In my 
Severed? Why, the several parts would be humble opinion, Mr. President, we shoul(J 



begin with at least three separate con- 
federacies. There would be a confederacy 
of the North, a confederacy of the South- 
ern Atlantic slave-holding States, and a 
confederacy of the valley of the Missis- 
sippi. My life upon it, that the vast 
population which has already concentrated 
and will concentrate on the head-waters 
and the tributaries of the Mississippi will 
never give their consent that the mouth 
of that river shall be held subject to the 
power of any foreign state or community 
whatever. Such, I believe, would be the 
consequences of a dissolution of the Union, 
immediately ensuing; but other confeder- 
acies Avould spring up from time to time, 
as dissatisfaction and discontent were 
disseminated throughout the country — the 
confederacy of the Lakes; perhaps the 
confederacy of New England, or of the 
Middle States. Ah, sir, the veil which 
covers those sad and disastrous events 
that lie beyond it is too thick to be pene- 
trated or lifted by any mortal eye or 

Mr. President, I am directly opposed to 
any purpose of secession or separation. I 
am for staying within the Union, and de- 
fying any portion of this confedei-acy to 
expel me or drive me out of the Union. I 
am for staying within the Union and 
fighting for my rights, if necessary, with 
the sword, within the bounds and under 
the safeguard of the Union. I am for 
vindicating those rights, not by being 
driven out of the Union harshly and un- 
ceremoniously by any portion of this con- 
federacy. Here I am within it, and here 
I mean to stand and die, as far as my in- 
dividual wishes or purposes can go — with- 
in it to protect my property and defend 
myself, defying all the power on earth 
to expel or drive me from the situation 
in which I am placed. And would there 
not be more safety in fighting within the 
Union than o\it of it? Suppose our rights 
to be violated, suppose wrong to be done 
to you, aggressions to be perpetrated upon 
you, can you not better vindicate them — 
if you have occasion to resort to the last 
necessity, the sword, for a restoration of 
those rights — within, and with the sym- 
pathies of a large portion of the popula- 
tion of the Union, than when a large por- 
tion of the population have sympathies 
adverse to your own? You can vindicate 

your rights within the Union better than 
if expelled from the Union, and driven 
from it without ceremony and without au- 

Sir, I have said that I thought there 
was no right on the part of one or more 
States to secede from the Union. I think 
so. The Constitution of the United States 
was made not merely for the generation 
that then existed, but for posterity — un- 
limited, undefined, endless, perpetual pos- 
terity. And every State that then came 
into the Union, and every State that has 
since come into the Union, came into it 
binding itself, by indissoluble bands, to 
remain within the Union itself, and to re- 
main within it by its i^osterity forever. 
Like another of the sacred connections 
in private life, it is a marriage which no 
human authority can dissolve or divorce 
the parties from. And if I may be al- 
lowed to refer to some examples in private 
life, let me say to the North and the 
South, what husband and wife say to each 
other: We have mutual faults; neither 
of us is perfect ; nothing in the form of 
humanity is perfect; let us, then, be kind 
to each other — forbearing, forgiving each 
other's faults — and, above all, let us live 
in happiness and peace together. 

I\Ir. President, I have said, what I sol- 
emnly believe, that dissolution of the 
Union and war are identical and inev- 
itable; that they are convertible terms; 
and such a war as it would be following 
a dissolution of the Union! Sir, we may 
search the pages of history, and none so 
ferocious, so bloody, so implacable, so ex- 
terminating — not even the wars of Greece, 
including those of the Commoners of Eng- 
land and the revolutions of France — none, 
none of them all would rage with such 
violence, or be characterized with such 
bloodshed and enormities, as would the 
war which must succeed, if that event 
ever happens, the dissolution of the Union. 
And what would be its termination? 
Standing armies and navies, to an extent 
stretching the revenue of each portion of 
the dissevered members, would take place. 
An exterminating war would follow — not, 
sir, a war of two or three years' duration, 
but a war of interminable duration — and 
exterminating wars would ensue until, 
after the struggles and exhaustion of both 
])artieSj some Philip or Alexander, some 



Caesar or Napoleon, would arise and cut granted to the settlers in 1682; came with 

the Gordian knot, solve the problem of his family to Pennsylvania, in 1683, and 

the capacity of man for self-government, held important offices. 

and crush the liberties of both the severed Clayton, John Middi,eton, jurist; born 

portions of this common empire. Can you in Dagsboro, Sussex co., Del., July 24, 

doubt it? 1796; graduated at Yale College in 1815, 

Look at all history — consult her pages, and at the famous Litchfield Law School; 
ancient or modern — look at human nat- began practice in 1818; and, after serv- 
ure; look at the contest in which you ing in the State legislature, and as Sec- 
Avould be engaged in the supposition of retary of State, was elected to the Unit- 
war following upon the dissolution of the ed States Senate in 182!) and 1835. In 
Union, such as I have suggested; and I 1837 he resigned to become chief-justice 
ask you if it is possible for you to doubt of Delaware; from 1845 till 1849 was 
that the final disposition of the Avliole again in the United States Senate; in 
would be some despot treading down the the latter year became Secretary of State 
liberties of the people — the final result under President Taylor; and from 1851 
would be the extinction of this last and till his death was again in the United 
glorious light which is leading all man- States Senate. It was during his service 
kind, who are gazing upon it, in the hope as Secretary of State that he negotiated 
and anxious expectation that the liberty with the British government what has 
that prevails here will sooner or later be since become known as the Claytoiv-Bul- 
diflfused throughout the whole of the civ- wer Treaty {q. v.) . He died in Dover, 
ilized world. Sir, can you lightly con- Del., Nov. 9, 1856. 

template these consequences? Can you Clayton, Powell, diplomatist; born in 

yield yourself to the tyranny of passion. Bethel, Pa., Aug. 7, 1833; received an 

amid dangers which I have depicted in academical education; removed to Kansas, 

colors far too tame, of what the result At the beginning of the Civil War he 

would be if that direful event to which joined the Union army; in May, 1863, he 

1 have referred should ever occur? Sir, scattered a band of guerillas and captured 

I implore gentlemen, I adjure them. Confederate stores at White River, Ark.; 

whether from the South or the North, by figured in other important actions; and 

all that they hold dear in this world — by was promoted brigadier-general in August, 

all their love of liberty — by all their ven- 1864. After the war he removed to 

eration for their ancestors — by all their Arkansas, where he was elected governor 

regard for posterity — by all their grati- in 1868. He was a United States Senator 

tude to Him who has bestowed on them in 1871-77; appointed minister to Mexico 

such unnumbered and countless blessings — in 1897; and raised to rank of ambassador 

by all the duties which they owe to man- there in 1899. 

kind — and by all the duties which they Clayton-Biilwer Treaty, The, a treaty 

owe to themselves, to pause, solemnly to negotiated in April, 1850, by Secretary of 

pause, at the edge of the precipice, before State Clayton, on the part of the United 

the fearful and dangerous leap is taken States, and Sir Edward Bulwer, on the 

i7ito the yawning abyss below, from which part of Great Britain, for the purpose of 

none Avho have ever taken it shall return preventing dissensions on the subject of 

in safety. proposed canals and railways across the 

Finally, Mr. President, and in conclu- American isthmus. It has special refer- 

sion, I implore, as the best blessing which ence to the Nicaragua route, which at that 

Heaven can bestow upon me, upon earth, time had been proposed for a canal ; but 

that if the direful event of the dissolu- as it declared that its purpose was "not 

tion of this LTnion is to happen, I shall only to accomplish a particular object, but 

not survive to behold the sad and heart- to establish a general principle," it must 

rending spectacle. be taken to apply to all routes. By this 

Claypoole, James, settler; born in treaty the two governments jointly de- 
England in 1634; a Quaker, and a close clared that "neither the one nor the other 
friend of William Penn; was a witness will ever obtain or maintain for itself ex- 
of the signing of the Charter of Privileges elusive control over the projected ship 



canal"; that "neither will ever erect or as still in force; but as meanwhile Mr. 
maintain fortifications commanding the lUaine had left the State Department there 
same or in the vicinity thereof," nor was no further diplomatic discussion on 
'■ fortify, or colonize, or assume any do- the subject until the publication of a pro- 
minion over any part of Central America." posed treaty with Nicaragua. This treaty 
Further, the treaty pledged that in case was in direct violation of the Clayton- 
of war between Great Britain and the Bulwer treaty, for its object was to pro- 
United States all vessels of both coun- vide for the construction of a canal across 
tries should, in going through the canal, Central America, at the expense of the 
be exempt from detention and capture. United States, and to be controlled when 
Further, the contracting parties engaged completed by this country. The treaty 
to protect and guarantee the neutrality of was not accepted by Congress, so that the 
the canal, and to invite other states to do question of the abrogation of the Clayton- 
likewise, " to the end that all states may Bulwer treaty remained open, 
share in the honor or advantage " of as- The war between the United States and 
sisting in so important a work. Now, pre- Spain created a new interest in the sub- 
vious to the adoption of this treaty Great ject of an interoceanic canal as a new 
Britain had held possessions in Central necessity was developed for having a 
America. She had owned Balize, or Brit- speedy means of sending vessels from one 
ish Honduras, since 1783, and had later ocean to the other. (See Clakk, Charles 
acquired a protectorate over the Mosquito Edgar). A new bill was introduced into 
coast and over the Bay Islands, a group Congress for the construction of a canal 
near Honduras. The question, therefore, on the Nicaragua route, and this, after 
arose whether by the pledge not to occupy various vicissitudes and being amended 
any part of Central America in the fut- materially, was adopted in the Senate on 
ure she was bound to surrender possessions Jan. 21, 1899, by a vote of forty-eight to 
held in the present. There was consider- six. The chief provisions of this bill 
able debate over the matter for some years, were: the issue of 1,00-0,000 shares of 
and it seemed at one time doubtful whether stock at $100 each, the United States to 
an understanding satisfactory to both take 945,000 shares ; the canal to be corn- 
sides could be reached. However, on Great pleted in six years; to be ample to ac- 
Britain's giving up the Bay Islands and commodate the largest sea - vessels ; and 
signing a treaty with Nicaragua, yielding to cost not over $115,000,000. In case of 
all claims on the Mosquito coast, the failure in negotiating with Nicaragua or 
American Secretary of State, in 1860, in Costa Rica for the route the President 
behalf of the government, consented to the was empowered to negotiate for another 
continued occupation of Balize, and Pres- one. The bill guaranteed the neutrality 
ident Buchanan, in his next message, de- of the canal. The most important feature 
clared that all disputes under the Clayton- of the bill in the present connection was 
Bulwer treaty " had been satisfactorily the authority given to the President to 
adjusted." open negotiations with the British govern- 

This treaty then was accepted as set- ment for the abrogation of the Clayton- 
tied and binding on both parties until Bulwer treaty. Under the last provision 
November, 1881, when Mr. Blaine wrote to a convention was signed in February, 
Mr. Lowell, the American minister to 1900, by Secretary Hay, on the part of 
Great Britain, urging the abrogation of the United States, and by Lord Pauncefote 
the treaty on the ground that it was form- on the part of Great Britain, in which 
ed thirty years before under circumstances the Clayton-Bulwer compact for the joint 
that no longer existed; that the develop- control of any canal which might be built 
ment of the Pacific coast had enormously across the isthmus was annulled, and the 
increased the interest of the United States United States given an exclusive, uncon- 
in the canal, and that the well-being of ditional right to build and manage such 
this country demanded a modification of a water-way. The convention committed 
the treaty. To this letter Lord Gran- both nations to a declaration guarantee- 
ville made reply in January, stating Great ing the neutrality of such a canal, and 
Britain'? reasons for regarding the treaty the United States was pledged to refraii\ 



from fortifying its approaches or en- 
trances, and otherwise restricting open 
access to it on the part of the world's 
commerce. On Dec. 20, 1900, the United 
States Senate ratified this convention by 
a vote of 55 to 18, modifying it in three 
essential points, and a certified copy of 
the amended treaty was delivered to Lord 
Pauncefote for transmission to his gov- 

The British government did not see its 
way clear to accept the Senate amend- 
ment, but negotiations were resumed, and 
a new treaty was signed Nov. 16 (ratified 
by the Senate Dec. 16, 1902), substantial- 
ly in accordance with the views of the 
United States. 

The United States of America and his 
Majesty, Edward the VII. of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
and of the British dominions beyond the 
seas, King, and Emperor of India, being 
desirous to facilitate the construction of 
a ship-canal to connect the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans, by whatever route may be 
considered expedient, and to that end to 
remove any objection which may arise 
out of the convention of the 19th of April, 
1850, commonly called the Clayton-Bul- 
wer treaty, to the construction of such 
canal under the auspices of the govern- 
ment of the United States without im- 
pairing the " general principle " of neu- 
tralization established in article viii. of 
that convention, have for that purpose 
appointed as their plenipotentiaries: The 
Piesident of the United States, John Hay, 
Secretary of State of the United States 
of America, and his Majesty, Edward the 
VII. of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland and of the British 
dominions beyond the seas, King, and 
Emperor of India, the Right Hon. Lord 
Pauncefote, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., his Maj- 
esty's ambassador extraordinary and pleni- 
potentiary to the United States; who, 
having communicated to each other their 
full powers, which were found to be in 
due and proper form, have agreed upon 
the following articles: 

Article I. — The high contracting parties 
agree that the present treaty shall super- 
sede the aforementioned convention of the 
19th April, 1850, 

Article II. — It is agreed that the canal 
may be constructed under the auspices of 
the government of the United States, 
either directly at its own cost, or by gift 
or loan of money to individuals or cor- 
porations, or through subscription to or 
purchase of stock or shares, and that, 
subject to the provisions of the present 
treaty, the said government shall have 
and enjoy all the rights incident to such 
construction, as well as the exclusive 
right of providing for the regulation and 
management of the canal. 

Article III. — The United States adopts 
as the basis of the neutralization of such 
ship-canal the following rules, substan- 
tially as embodied in the convention of 
Constantinople, signed the 28th October, 
1888, for the free navigation of the Suez 
Canal, that is to say: 

1. The canal shall be free and open to 
the vessels of commerce and of war of 
all nations observing these rules, on 
terms of entire equality, so that there 
shall be no discrimination against any 
such nation or its citizens or subjects, 
in respect of the conditions or charges 
of traffic or otherwise. Such conditions 
and charges of traffic shall be just and 

2. The canal shall never be blockaded, 
nor shall any right of war be exercised 
nor any act of hostility be committed 
within it. The United States, however, 
shall be at liberty to maintain such mil- 
itary police along the canal as may be 
necessary to protect it against lawless- 
ness and disorder. 

3. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall 
not revictual nor take any stores in the 
canal except so far as may be strictly 
necessary, and the transit of such vessels 
through the canal shall be effected with 
the least possible delay in accordance with 
the regulations in force, and with only 
such intermission as may result from the 
necessities of the service. Prizes shall be 
in all respects subject to the same rules 
as vessels of war of the belligerents. 

4. No belligerent shall embark or dis- 
embark troops, munitions of war, or war- 
like materials in the canal except in case 
of accidental hinderance of the transit, and 
in such case the transit shall be resumed 
with all possible despatch. 

5. The provision§ of thie article shall 



apply to waters adjacent to the canal, each bank employed a man to go around 
within three marine miles of either end. every day and collect all checks and 
Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not drafts drawn upon it by other banks in 
remain in such waters longer than twenty- the city. Now, at the clearing-house, a 
four hours at any one time, except in messenger and a clerk from each bank 
case of distress, and in such case shall appear every morning, each clerk taking 
depart as soon as possible, but a vessel a seat at the desk of his designated bank, 
of war of one belligerent shall not depart arranged in the form of a hollow ellipse, 
within twenty-four hours from the de- Each messenger brings with him from his 
parture of a vessel of war of the other bank a sealed package for every other 
bellioerent. bank, properly marked with the amount 

6. The plant, establishments, buildings, enclosed, containing all the checks or 
and all works necessary to the construction, drafts on each bank. The messengers 
maintenance, and operation of the canal take their places near the desks of their 
shall be deemed to be parts thereof for the respective banks, with tabular statements 
purposes of this treaty, and in time of of the amount sent to each bank and the 
war, as in time of peace, shall enjoy com- aggregates. These are exhibited to the 
plete immunity from attack or injury by respective clerks and noted by them on 
belligerents, and from acts calculated to blank forms. At a prescribed hour the 
impair their usefulness as part of the manager of the clearing-house calls to 
canal. order and gives the word for proceeding, 

Article IV. — It is agreed that no change wlien all the messengers move forward 
of territorial sovereignty or of inter- from left to right of the desks, handing 
national relations of the country or coun- in to them the packages addressed to their 
tries traversed by the before - mentioned respective banks, and taking receipts for 
canal shall affect the general principle of them on their statements. These clerks 
neutralization or the obligation of the niake a mutual exchange of all claims, 
high contracting parties under the present and the balances, if any, are struck, each 
treaty. bank paying in cash the amount of such 

Article V.— The present treaty shall be balance. This operation occupies about 
ratified by the President of the United one hour, within which time all accounts 
States by and with the advice and consent are adjusted. The balances due to the 
of the Senate thereof, and by his Britan- several banks are paid into the clearing- 
nic Majesty; and the ratifications shall house within about another hour, 
be exchanged at Washington or at London The extent of the system, the vast 
at the earliest possible time within six amount of money handled by it, and the 
months from the date hereof. enormous saving of time tlirough its op- 

In faith whereof the respective pleni- erations are clearly detailed in the report 
potentiaries have signed this treaty and of the comptroller of the currency. In 1903 
hereunto affixed their seals. Done in there were ninety - eight clearing-houses 
duplicate at Washington the 18th day of in the United States, and in the year end- 
November in the year of our Lord one ing Sept. 30 the aggregate of exchanges 
thousand nine himdred and one. was $114,068,837,569, a decrease in a year 

John Hay (Seal). of $1,823,361,065. In New York City the 

Pauncefote (Seal). exchanges amounted to $70,833,655,940; 
Clearing-houses, institutions estab- in Boston, to $6,837,767,883; in Chicago, 
lished in the United States about 1853, to over $8,627,000,000; in Philadelphia, to 
for the convenience and economy of bank- over $5,968,000,000; in St. Louis and Pitts- 
ing institutions in large cities. The sys- burg, to over $2,300,000,000; and in Balti- 
tem originated in London. By it the more, to over $1,169,000,000. 
banks of a city become, in certain opera- Cleaveland. Moses, pioneer: born m 
tions, as an individual in work; for it Canterburv. Conn.. Jan. 29, 1754; gradu- 
dispenses with the individual clerical la- ated at Yale College in 1777; admit- 
bor of each bank associated, in the matter ted to the bar; made a brigadier-gen- 
of the exchange of checks and drafts and eral in 1796; and the same year was 
Wis coming in from abroad. Formerly selected by a land company, of which he 



was a shareholder, to survey the tract movement, young Olem brought his gun 
which had been purchased in northeastern up and fired, killing the colonel instant- 
Ohio. He set out with fifty emigrants ly. He escaped; and for this exploit on 
from Schenectady, N. Y. ; reached the the battle-field he was made a sergeant, 
mouth of the Cuyahoga on July 22; and put on duty at headquarters of the Army 
finding it a favorable site for a town de- of the Cumberland, and placed on the Roll 
cided to settle there. His employers called of Honor. In 1871 he was appointed a 
the place Cleaveland in his honor. When 
the first newspaper, the Cleveland Ad- 
vertiser, was established, the head-line was 
found to be too long for the form, and 
the editor cut out the letter " a," which 
revision was accepted by the public. Gen- 
eral Cleaveland died in Canterbury, Conn., 
Nov. 16, 1806. 

Cleburne, Patrick Ronayne, military 
officer; born in County Cork, Ireland, 
March 17, 1828; came to the United 
States and settled at Helena, Ark., where 
he later practised law. When the Civil 
War broke out he entered the Confederate 
army; in March, 1861, planned the capture 
of the United States arsenal in Arkansas; 
in 1862 was promoted brigadier-general; 
took part in many important engagements 
in the war; and in recognition of his de- 
fence of Ringgold Gap received the thanks 
of the Confederate Congress. He origi- 
nated the Order of the Southern Cross, 
and was known as " the Stonewall of the 
West." He was killed in the battle of 
Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. 

Clem, John L., military officer; born 
in Newark, O., in 1851. In May, 1861, he 
attempted to enlist as a drummer-boy in 

the 3d Ohio Volunteers, but was rejected 2d lieutenant in the United States army, 
on account of his size and age. Subse- and became colonel and assistant quarter- 
quently he accompanied the 22d Michigan master-general in 1903. 
Volunteers to the field, and in the summer Clemens, Jeremiah, statesman ; born 
of 1862 was regularly enlisted as a drum- in Huntsville, Ala., Dec. 28, 1814; grad- 
mer in that regiment. He displayed a uated at the Alabama University in 1833 ; 
fearless spirit in the battle of Shiloh, took a company of riflemen to Texas in 
where his drum was destroyed by a piece 1842; United States Senator, 1849-53; 
of shell. At the battle of Chickamauga opposed secession, but accepted office un- 
he served as a marker, carried a musket der the Confederacy. He wrote several 
instead of a drum, and especially dis- historical works. He died in Huntsville, 
tinguished himself. He had been in the Ala., May 21, 1865. 

thickest of the fight, and three bullets Clemens, Samuel Laxghorne (pen- 
had passed through his hat, when, sep- name, Mark Twain), author; born in 
arated from his companions, he was seen Florida, Mo., Nov. 20, 1835; educated 
running, with a musket in his hand, by at Hannibal, Mo.; learned the printer's 
a mounted Confederate colonel, who call- trade, served as a Mississippi River pilot, 
ed out, "Stop! you little Yankee devil!" and became territorial secretary of Neva- 
The boy halted and brought his musket da. He spent several years in mining and 
to an order, when the colonel rode up to newspaper work. In 1884 he established 
make him a prisoner. With a swift the publishing house of C. L, Webster & 


(From a print published ii 




Co. in New York. Tlie failure of thig 
firm, after it had published General 
Grant's Personal Memoirs, and paid over 
$250,000 to his widow, involved Mr. Clem- 
ens in heavy losses; but by 1900 he had 
paid off all obligations by the proceeds 
of his books and lectures. He has trav- 
elled extensively in Europe, Australia, and 
other places. His books include The Jump- 
itig Frog; The Innocents Abroad; Rough- 
ing It; Adventures of Tom Saioyer; The 
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; The 
Prince and the Pauper; A Tramp Abroad; 
Life on the Mississippi; A Yankee at King 
Arthur's Court; Tom Sawyer Abroad; 
Pudd'nhead Wilson; Joan of Arc; More 
Tramps Abroad, etc. 

Cleopatra's Needle. See Gorbinge, 
Henry Honeychurch. 


Cleveland, city, port of entry (Cuy- which is spanned by a great stone viaduct, 
ahoga), and county-seat of Cuyahoga over 3,000 feet long, a remarkable piece 
county, Ohio; first city in the State and of engineering work, completed in 1878, at 
seventh in the United States in population, a cost of $2,500,000, and by four minor 
according to the Federal census of 1900 ; viaducts, all of which form a belt elevated 
popularly known as the " Forest City." roadway connecting the several topograph- 
Population (1900), 381,768; (1905, esti- leal divisions of the city, 
mated), 482,000. The most important business thorough- 
Location, Area, etc. — It is on the south- fares are Superior, Ontario, Water, Bank, 
east shore of Lake Erie, on both sides of Seneca, St. Clair, Merwin, and River 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, at the streets and a part of Euclid Avenue, on 
lake terminus of the Ohio Canal, and on the east side, and Detroit, Pearl, and Lorain 
several lines of trunk and other great streets on the west side. At Erie Street 
railroads; 244 miles northeast of Cin- the character of Euclid Avenue wholly 
einnati; area, thirty-four square miles. It changes, becoming the choicest residential 
has an excellent harbor, commodious, safe, section and sharing with Prospect Street, 
and of sufficient depth to accomodate the which runs parallel to it, the grandeur of 
largest ships afloat, formed by enormous magnificient dwellings set in beautifully 
breakwaters constructed by the national embellished grounds. The wholesale trade 
government. In addition to its lake front- is found largely on Merwin and River 
age, the irregular course of the Cuyahoga streets, on the eastern plateau; the re- 
River within its limits affords it more tail trade on Superior, Ontario, Cedar, 
than twenty miles of docking facilities. Central, Woodland, Broadway, Pearl, 
The city is considered the most beauti- Lorain, and Detroit streets; and the ore, 
ful one on the Great Lakes. Built on a coal, and lumber trades in the commodious 
bluff about one hundred feet above the slips along the winding river, 
lake, it is so embowered with trees that Public Interests.— A new city charter, 
but little can be seen from the water ex- which went into effect in April, 1891, 
eepting its church spires. It is laid out modified the forms of municipal and 
with much taste and regularity, its wide school government after the Federal plan, 
streets forming attractive squares, and dis- In 1902 the Legislature provided a new 
playing an abundance of shade trees, prin- code for the cities of the State, the former 
cipally elms. The surface is a gravelly scheme of government having been de- 
plateau cut by the valley of the river, clared unconstitutional, and under this 



tlie city is divided into twenty-six wards, 
with one councilman from each, and six 
more from the city at large. 

In 1905 there were 579 miles of streets, 
of which 235 were paved ; 363 miles of 
sewers; a police department of 435 men; 
a fire department of 434 men; and a 
water-works system owned by the city, 
having 594 miles of mains, and a daily 
storage capacity of 150,000,000 gallons, 
and costing $9,085,000. The valuation of 
property assessed for taxation for 1903, 
was: Real estate, $151,363,320; personal, 
$51,851,910— total, $203,215,230; tax rate 
fixed for 1904, $29.80 per $1,000. The net 
debt Oct. 1, 1904, was $12,615,910; 
debt limit under law (seven per cent, of 
assessed valuation), $14,225,066; reserve 
imder limits, $1,609,156. The receipts of 
the municipal government from all sources 
in 1903 were $9,669,848; the disburse- 
ments, $9,341,371; and the balance on 
hand Jan. 1, 1904, was $4,228,721, 

The city has an extensive trade by 
rail and water, particularly in ore, coal, 
grain, and lumber. Its foreign commercial 
interests are almost wholly with Canada. 
In the calendar year 1904 the imports of 
merchandise had a value of $2,855,967, 
and the exports of domestic commodities, 

Manufactures. — According to the Feder- 
al census of 1900, Cleveland had 2,927 
manufacturing and mechanical industries, 
which were operated on a total capital of 
$98,303,682; employed 64,220 wage- 
earners; paid $34,624,834 for wages, and 
$71,597,595 for materials used in manu- 
facturing; and had a combined product 
valued at $139,849,806. Tlie principal 
articles, with value of output, were: Iron 
and steel, $24,276,197; foundry and ma- 
chine-shop products, $15,428,053; packed 
meat, wholesale, $7,514,470; women's 
clothing (in factories), $4,213,248; and 
malt liquors, $4,033,915. Other important 
industries were wood, iron, and steel ship- 
building, and the manufacture of flour, 
railroad cars, paint, iron and steel forg- 
ings, and lumber and planing-mill prod- 

Banhing. — On Sept. 6, 1904, there 
were ten national banks in operation, 
which reported a combined capital of 
$10,300,000; surplus, $3,099,000; outstand- 
ing circulation, $4,384,445; individual de- 

posits, $29,775,680; loans and discounts, 
$45,962,864; and assets and liabilities 
balancing at $76,442,244. The exchanges 
at the United States clearing-house here 
in the year ending Sept. 30, 1904, 
aggregated $700,078,208, a decrease in a 
year of $104,772,693. 

Schools and Colleges. — Cleveland is 
credited with having built in 1846 the 
first public high school in the United 
States. In 1905 there were about 66,700 
pupils in daily attendance at the public 
schools, and about 17,000 in private and 
parochial schools. Public-school teachers 
numbered about 1,600; the annual cost 
of public instruction exceeded $1,991,000; 
and the city owned public-school property 
valued at upward of $4,050,000. There 
were the Central, East, Lincoln, South, 
and West high schools ; Hathaway Brown 
School for Girls, Laurel Institute, Mit- 
tleberger School for Girls, University 
School, and Ursuline Academy; Jewish 
Orphan Asylum and Working Home for 
Young Women, both for manvial and in- 
dustrial training; the Cleveland Normal 
Training School ; and training schools for 
nurses connected with the Cleveland City, 
Cleveland General, Huron Street, Lake- 
side, and St. Vincent's charity hospitals. 

The institutions for higher education 
comprised the Western Reserve University 
(non-sectarian), opened in 1826, and St. 
Ignatius College (Roman Catholic), opened 
in 1886. The former is an outgrowth 
of Adelbert College, founded at Hudson 
under the name of the Western Re- 
serve College, and removed to Cleve- 
land in 1882, when its name was changed 
as at present, under conditions imposed 
by Amasa Stone, who gave it $500,000. 
The Case School of Applied Science is a 
technical school of high and wide repute, 
established in 1881, on an endowment of 
$1,250,000 by the late Leonard Case. 
Professional instruction is given, in the- 
ology, at St. Mary's Tlieological Semi- 
nary (Roman Catholic), opened in 1848; 
in law, at the Law School of Baldwin 
University and at Western Reserve Uni- 
versity; in medicine, at the Cleveland 
College of Physicians and Surgeons (Ohio 
Wesleyan University) and the Medical 
College of Western Reserve University; 
in pharmacy, at the Cleveland School 
of Pharmacy; and in dentistry, at the 



Dental College of Western Reserve Univer- 

Churches. — The city has about 350 
churches and missions, the Roman Catholic 
and Methodist Episcopal leading in num- 
ber. T!ie Roman Catholic Cathedral is 
a large and liandsome building. The 
Episcopal churches include Trinity, in the 
Gothic style of architecture, and St. 
Paul's, on Case and Euclid avenues; the 
Presbyterian, Woodland Avenue, Old 
Stone, First, Second, Third, and Calvary; 
the Methodist, the First; the Congrega- 
tional, the First and Plymouth ; and the 
Baptist, the Euclid Avenue. The Young 
Men's Christian Association and the Young 
Women's Christian Association are large 
and influential organizations, handsomely 
supported, and carrying on a number of 
excellent works. 

Chwrities. — The public charities com- 
prise the Middle House or Home for the 
Aged Poor, the City, Children's, and 
Detention hospitals (the last a tubercu- 
losis sanitarium). Home for the Insane, 
House of Correction, Boys' Home, and 
Bureau of Outdoor Relief. The Charity 
Hospital was established partly by the 
city and partly by private subscriptions, 
and is in charge of the Sisters of Charity. 
On the lake shore is an extensive group 
of buildings comprising the United States 
Marine Hospital. Other institutions of 
this character have already been men- 
tioned. The Roman Catholic Church sup- 
ports three hospitals, a House of the Good 
Shepherd, a House of ilaternity, separate 
male and female orphan asylums, and 
several other benevolent institutions. 

'Sotable Buildings. — The United States 
Government Building, fronting on Monu- 
mental Park, accommodates the custom- 
house, post-office, and Federal courts. The 
City Hall, on Superior Street, is a six- 
story building, measuring 200 by 100 feet 
on the ground; Case Hall, belonging to 
the Case Library, is a beautiful structure 
near Monumental Park. The Euclid 
Avenue Opera House, Lyceum, Cleveland, 
Star, Bohemian, and German theatres are 
the principal places for dramatic enter- 
tainments. The water-works near the 
lake, whence pure water is taken by tun- 
nels; the reservoirs; the great viaduct; 
the breakwater, just west of the river's 
mouth, which encloses 180 acres of water 

surface, and cost $1,200,000; and the 
Union Railroad Station, with its cluster 
of keystone portraits and symbolical de- 
signs — are all deserving mention and a 

Paj-k System. — Cleveland has a system 
of public parks and boulevards of which 
it is justly proud, acquired partly by 
purchase under the direction of the Park 
Commission and partly by gift of citizens. 
The work of enlarging (where possible), 
connecting, and beautifying these pleasure- 
grounds, and the acqviisition of others, is 
still in progress. The most conspicuous 
park, by reason of its location, is the 
Monumental, at the intersection of Ontario 
and Superior streets, which divide its 
area of ten acres into four smaller squares. 
It contains a monument to the soldiers 
of Cuyahoga county, a bronze statue of 
Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city, a 
handsome fountain, and a pool and cascade. 

Other parks are the Gordon; Wade, con- 
taining a zoological collection and trout- 
pond; Rockefeller, where public enter- 
tainments are given in season to im- 
mense gatherings; Shaker Heights, with 
the Ambler Parkway and the Giddings and 
Doan brooks; Woodland Hills, largely de- 
voted to athletic games ; Garfield ; Lake 
View, with baseball diamonds, athletic- 
grounds, and recreation-fields; and Clin- 
ton, Sterling, Washington, Lincoln, Fair- 
view (children's summer play-grounds in 
last three), Franklin, Edgewater, and 
Brookside. Following the policy of making 
the public parks attractive at all times to 
all people, the park commissioners have 
laid out courses for skating contests on 
the various park lakes, and are continually 
providing places for outdoor athletics " the 
year round." 

History. — According to Professor Park- 
man, the Indian chief, Pontiac, met Major 
Rogers and his band of Rangers at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River, the site 
of Cleveland, on Nov. 7, 1760. No prac- 
tical attempt at settlement seems to have 
been made until 1796, when General Moses 
Cleaveland and associates came to the 
spot (July 22), began surveying (Sept. 
16), had the first plot of the city made 
by Amos Spofford (Oct. 1), and superin- 
tended the erection of a storehouse for 
the Connecticut Land Company later in 
the same year. The first white child in 



Cuyahoga county was born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Stiles in 1797^ and in the same year 
a second surveying party arrived, and 
Edward Paine opened a general store. 

Miss Sarah Doan opened the first school 
in the township in 1800; the city was re- 
surveyed by Amos SpolTord and the cor- 
ners of the streets were marked by oak 
posts in 1801; the first permanent frame 
house was built in 1802; and the mouth 
of the river was made a port of entry in 
1805. The ship-building industry was 
started in 1808; Cleveland became the 
county-seat in 1809; the village of Cleve- 
land was incorporated Dec. 23, 1814; the 
Ohio Canal was opened to Akron in 1827; 
and Cleveland was incorporated as a city 
March 5, 1836. This is certainly a remark- 
ably swift chronology, and the events that 
have marked the subsequent development 
of the city have followed each other at a 
corresponding pace. 

On July 22, 1896, the city celebrated 
the centennial of its settlement; in 1899 
it was the scene of serious rioting, fol- 
lowing a strike of street-railway opera- 
tives; and on Sept. 1, 1901, it was visited 
by a disastrous flood that spent its rage 
on the fashionable section. In the four- 
teen years ending with 1905, the city had 
three different forms of government; first, 
that of boards, illegally authorized by the 
Legislature; second, that based on the 

Federal plan, provided in 1891, and sub- 
sequently declared unconstitutional; and 
third, that by the new municipal code, en- 
acted in 1902. 

Cleveland, Benjamin, military officer, 
born in Prince William county, Va., May 
26, 1738; removed to North Carolina in 
1769; entered the American army in 1775; 
led a company in the campaign of Ruther- 
ford against the Cherokee Indians in 1776; 
greatly distinguished himself at King's 
Mountain (q. v.) ; and later settled in 
South Carolina, where he became a judge. 
He died in October, 1806. 

Cleveland, Frances (Folsom) ; born 
in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1864; graduated at 
Wells College; married President Cleve- 
land in the White House, June 2, 

Cleveland, Frederick Albert, educa- 
tor; born in Sterling, 111., March 17, 1865; 
graduated at De Pauw University in 1891, 
instructor in University of Chicago and 
University of Pennsylvania; author of 
Growth of Democracy in the United 
States; First Lessons in Finance; Funds 
and their Uses; etc. 

Cleveland, Cynthia Eloise; born in 
Canton, N. Y., Aug. 13, 1845; admitted to 
practise law in Dakota in 1883, author 
of several novels of Washington po- 
litical life, and of United States army 
life, etc. 


Cleveland, Grover, twenty-second and 192,000, and entered office in January, 

twenty-fourth President of the United 
States, from 1885 to 1899, and from 1893 
to 1897; Democrat; born in Caldwell, Es- 
sex CO., N. J., March 18, 1837. After 
some experience as a clerk and some 
labor on the compilation of the Ameri- 
can Herd Book, he became a bank clerk 
in Buffalo, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. From 1863 to 1865 he was as- 
sistant district-attorney, and in 1870 he 
was elected sheriff of Erie county and 
served three years. Elected mayor of 
Buffalo in 1881, he attracted during the 
first few months of his term more than 
local notice, and was the Democratic can- 
didate for governor of New York in 1882. 
One of the successful nominees in this 
'■ tidal-wave " Democratic year, Mr. Cleve- 
land received the phenomenal majority of 

1883. His administration of affairs at 
Albany secured the presentation of his 
name to the Democratic National Con- 
vention in 1884. He was nominated; and 
elected, after a close and exciting strug- 
gle, over James G. Blaine, and was inau- 
gurated March 4, 1885 (see Cabinet, 
President's). President Cleveland, in his 
famous message to Congress on the sur- 
plus and the tariff in December, 1887, 
forced the fighting on the revenue-reform 
issue. He was the candidate of his party 
in 1888, but was defeated by Benjamin 
Harrison, and retired in 1889. He settled 
in New York, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1892 he received for the third 
time the Democratic nomination. In the 
election he received 277 electoral and 
5,556,533 popular votes, while Harrison 



(renominated) had 145 electoral and 
5,175,577 popular votes. He was inau- 
gurated March 4, 1893. At the close of 
his second term he took up the practice 
of law again, making his home at Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

Tariff Message of 1SS7. — During both 
of his administrations President Cleve- 
land gave much thought to the question 
of the tariff, and in several of his mes- 
sages to Congress he urged a reform based 
on the conditions of the day. Towards the 
close of 1887 he deemed the condition of 
the national finances so important as to 
justify a special expression of his views 

This condition of our Treasury is not al- 
together new, and it has more than once 
of late been submitted to the people's 
representatives in the Congress, who alone 
can apply a remedy. And yet the situation 
still continues, with aggravated incidents, 
more than ever presaging financial con- 
vulsion and widespread disaster. 

It will not do to neglect this situation 
because its dangers are not now palpably 
imminent and apparent. They exist none 
the less certainly, and await the unfore- 
seen and unexpected occasion, when sud- 
denly they will be precipitated upon us. 

On June 30, 1885, the excess of rev- 

thereon, and accordingly he devoted his enues over public expenditures, after 

entire message of Dec. 6 to a consideration 
of the subject. The following is the text 
of the message: 

Washington, Dec. 6, 1S87. 

To the Congress of the United States, — 
You are confronted at the threshold of 
your legislative duties with a condition 
of the national finances which imperative- 
ly demands immediate and careful con- 

The amount of money annually exacted, 
through the operation of present laws, 
from the industries and necessities of the 
people largely exceeds the sum necessary 
to meet the expenses of the government. 

When we consider that the theory of our 
institutions guarantees to every citizen 
the full enjoyment of all the fruits of his 

complying with the annual require- 
ment of the Sinking-fund Act, was $17,- 
859,735.84; during the year ended June 
30, 1886, such excess amounted to $49,- 
405,545.20; and during the year ended 
June 30, 1887, it reached the sum of $55,- 

The annual contributions to the sinking- 
fund during the three years above speci- 
fied, amounting in the aggregate to $138,- 
058,320.94, and deducted from the surplus 
as stated, were made by calling in for that 
purpose outstanding 3 per cent, bonds of 
the government. During the six months 
prior to June 30, 1887, the surplus revenue 
had grown so large by repeated accumu- 
lations, and it was feared the withdrawal 
of this great sum of money needed by the 
people would so affect the business of the 
country that the sum of $79,864,100 of 

industry and enterprise, with only such 

deduction as may be his share towards the such surplus was applied to the payment 

careful and economical maintenance of of the principal and interest of the 3 per 

the government which protects him, it is 
plain that the exaction of more than this 
is indefensible extortion and a culpable 
betrayal of American fairness and justice. 
This wrong inflicted upon those who bear 
the burden of national taxation, like other 
wrongs, multiplies a brood of evil con- 
sequences. The public Treasury, which 
should only exist as a conduit conveying 
the people's tribute to its legitimate 
objects of expenditure, becomes a hoard- 
ing-place for money needlessly withdrawn 

cent, bonds still outstanding, and which 
were then payable at the option of the 
government. The precarious condition of 
financial affairs among the people still 
needing relief, immediately after June 
30, 1887, the remainder of the 3 per 
cent, bonds then outstanding, amounting 
with principal and interest to the sum 
of $18,877,500, were called in and applied 
to the sinking-fund contribution for the 
current fiscal year. Notwithstanding these 
operations of the Treasury Department, 

from trade and the people's use, thus representations of distress in business cir- 

crippling our national energies, suspend- 
ing our country's development, prevent- 
ing investment in productive enterprise, 
threatening financial disturbance, and in- 
viting schemes of public plunder. 

cles not only continued, but increased, and 
absolute peril seemed at hand. In these 
circumstances the contribution to the 
sinking-fund for the current fiscal year 
was at once completed by the expenditure 



of $27,684,283.55 in the purchase of gov- 
ernment bonds not yet due, bearing 4 and 
41/2 per cent, interest, the premium paid 
thereon averaging about 24 per cent, for 
the former and 8 per cent, for the latter. 
In addition to this, the interest accruing 
during the current year upon the outstand- 
ing bonded indebtedness of the government 
was to some extent anticipated, and banks 
selected as depositaries of public money 
were permitted to somewhat increase their 

While the expedients thus employed to 
release to the people the money lying idle 
in the Treasury served to avert immediate 
danger, our surplus revenues have con- 
tinued to accumulate, the excess for the 
present year amounting on Dec. 1 to $55,- 
258,701.19, and estimated to reach the 
sum of $113,000,000 on June 30 next, at 
which date it is expected that this sum, 
added to prior accumulations, will swell 
the surplus in the Treasury to $140,- 

There seems to be no assurance that, 
with such a withdrawal from use of the 
people's circulating medium, our business 
community may not in the near future be 
subjected to the same distress which was 
quite lately produced from the same 
cause. And while the functions of our 
national Treasury should be few and 
simple, and while its best condition would 
be reached, I believe, by its entire discon- 
nection with private business interests, 
yet when, by a perversion of its purposes, 
it idly holds money uselessly subtracted 
from the channels of trade, there seems to 
be reason for the claim that some legiti- 
mate means should be devised by the gov- 
ernment to restore, in an emergency, with- 
out waste or extravagance, such money to 
its place among the people. 

If such an emergency arises, there now 
exists no clear and undoubted executive 
power of relief. Heretofore the re- 
demption of 3 per cent, bonds, which were 
payable at the option of the government, 
has afforded a means for the disbursement 
of the excess of our revenues ; but these 
bonds have all been retired, and there arc 
no bonds outstanding the payment of 
which we have a right to insist upon. 
The contribution to the sinking-fund 
which furnishes the occasion for expendi- 
ture in the purchase of bonds has been 


already made for the current year, so that 
there is no outlet in that direction. 

In the present state of legislation the 
only pretence of any existing executive 
power to restore at this time any part of 
our surplus revenues to the people by its 
expenditure consists in the supposition 
that the Secretary of the Treasury may 
enter the market and purchase the bonds 
of the government not yet due, at a rate 
of premium to be agreed upon. The only 
provision of law from which such a power 
could be derived is found in an ap- 
propriation bill passed a number of years 
ago, and it is subject to the suspicion that 
it was intended as temporary and limited 
in its application, instead of conferring a 
continuing discretion and authority. No 
condition ought to exist which would 
justify the grant of power to a single 
official, upon his judgment of its necessity, 
to withhold from or release to the busi- 
ness of the people, in an unusual manner, 
money held in the Treasury, and thus af- 
fect at his will the financial situation of 
the country; and, if it is deemed wise to 
lodge in the Secretary of the Treasury 
the authority in the present juncture to 
purchase bonds, it should be plainly vest- 
ed, and provided, as far as possible, with 
such checks and limitations as will de- 
fine this official's right and discretion and 
at the same time relieve him from undue 

In considering the question of purchas- 
ing bonds as a means of restoring to cir- 
culation the surplus money accumulating 
in the Treasury, it should be borne in 
mind that premiums must of course be 
paid upon such purchase, that there may 
be a large part of these bonds held as in- 
vestments which cannot be purchased at 
any price, and that combinations among 
holders who are willing to sell may rea- 
sonably enhance the cost of such bonds to 
the government. 

It has been suggested that the present 
bonded debt might be refunded at a less 
rate of interest, and the difference be- 
tween the old and new security paid in 
cash, thus finding use for the surplus 
in the Treasury. The success of this 
plan, it is apparent, must depend upon 
the volition of the holders of the present 
bonds; and it is not entirely certain that 
the inducement which must be offered 


them would result in more financial bene- be fully realized, and though it presents 

fit to the government than the purchase features of wrong to the people as well as 

of bonds, while the latter proposition peril to the country, it is but a result 

would reduce the principal of the debt growing out of a perfectly palpable and 

by actual payment instead of extending apparent cause, constantly reproducing 

it. the same alarming circumstances — a con- 

The proposition to deposit the money gested national Treasury and a depleted 
held by the government in banks through- monetary condition in the business of the 
out the country for use by the people is, country. It need hardly be stated that 
it seems to me, exceedingly objectionable while the present situation demands a 
in principle, as establishing too close a remedy, we can only be saved from a 
relation between the operations of the like predicament in the future by the re- 
government Treasury and the business of moval of its cause. 

the country, and too extensive a com- Our scheme of taxation, by means of 
mingling of their money, thus fostering which this needless surplus is taken from 
an unnatural reliance in private business the people and put into the public Treas- 
upon public funds. If this scheme should ury, consists of a tariflf or duty levied 
be adopted, it should only be done as a upon importations from abroad and in- 
temporary expedient to meet an urgent ternal-revenue taxes levied upon the con- 
necessity. Legislative and executive ef- sumption of tobacco and spirituous and 
fort should generally be in the opposite malt liquors. It must be conceded that 
direction, and should have a tendency to none of the things subjected to internal- 
divorce, as much and as fast as can be revenue taxation are, strictly speaking, 
safely done, the Treasury Department from necessaries. There appears to be no 
private enterprise. just complaint of this taxation by the con- 

Of course, it is not expected that un- sumers of these articles, and there seems 

necessary and extravagant appropriations to be nothing so well able to bear the 

will be made for the purpose of avoiding burden without hardship to any portion 

the accumulation of an excess of revenue, of the people. 

Such expenditure, besides the demoraliza- But our present tariff laws, the vicious, 

tion of all just conceptions of public duty inequitable, and illogical source of un- 

which it entails, stimulates a habit of necessary taxation, ought to be at once 

reckless improvidence not in the least revised and amended. These laws, as their 

consistent with the mission of our people, primary and plain effect, raise the price 

or the high and beneficent purposes of to consumers of all articles imported 

our government. and subject to duty by precisely the 

I have deemed it my duty to thus bring sum paid for such duties. Thus the 

to the knowledge of my countrymen, as amount of the duty measures the tax paid 

well as to the attention of their repre- by those who purchase for use these im- 

sentatives charged with the responsibil- ported articles. Many of these things, 

ity of legislative relief, the gravity of however, are raised or manufactured in 

our financial situation. The failure of our own country, and the duties now 

the Congress heretofore to provide against levied upon foreign goods and products are 

the dangers which it was quite evident called protection to these home manufact- 

the very nature of the difficulty must nee- ures, because they render it possible for 

essarily produce caused a condition of those of our people who are manufacturers 

financial distress and apprehension since to make these taxed articles and sell them 

your last adjournment which taxed to the for a price equal to that demanded for the 

utmost all the authority and expedients imported goods that have paid customs 

within executive control ; and these appear duty. So it happens that, while com- 

now to be exhausted. If disaster results paratively a few use the imported ar- 

from the continued inaction of Congress, tides, millions of our j)eople, who never 

the responsibility must rest where it be- used and never saw any of the foreign 

longs. products, purchase and use things of the 

Though the situation thus far consider- same kind made in this country, and pay 

ed is fraught with danger which should therefor nearly or quite the same en- 



hanced price which the duty adds to to be laid upon every consumer in the 
the imported articles. Those who buy land for the benefit of our manufacturers, 
imports pay the duty charged thereon quite beyond a reasonable demand for gov- 
into the public Treasury, but the great ernmental regard, it suits the purposes 
majority of our citizens, who buy do- of advocacy to call our manufactures in- 
niestic articles of the same class, pay fant industries still needing the highest 
a sum at least approximately equal to this and greatest degree of favor and foster- 
duty to the home manufacturer. This ing care that can be wrung from federal 
reference to the operation of our tariff legislation. 

laws is not made by way of instruction. It is also said that the increase in the 
but in order that we may be constantly price of domestic manufactures result- 
reminded of the manner in which they ing from the present tariff is necessary 
impose a burden upon those who consume in order that higher wages may be paid 
domestic products, as well as those who to our working-men employed in manufac- 
consume imported articles, and thus ere- tories than are paid for what is called 
ate a tax upon all our people. the pauper labor of Europe. All will 

It is not proposed to entirely relieve acknowledge the force of an argument 

the country of this taxation. It must which involves the welfare and liberal 

be extensively continued as the source of compensation of our laboring people, 

the government's income; and in a read- Our labor is honorable in the eyes of 

justment of our tariff the interests of every American citizen ; and as it lies 

American labor engaged in manufacture at the foundation of our development 

should be carefully considered, as well as and progress, it is entitled, without af- 

the preservation of our manufacturers, fectation or hypocrisy, to the utmost ro- 

It may be called protection or by any gard. The standard of our laborers' life 

other name, but relief from the hardships should not be measured by that of any 

and dangers of our present tariff laws other country less favored, and they are 

should be devised with especial precaution entitled to their full share of all our ad- 

against imperilling the existence of our A'antages. 

manufacturing interests. But this exist- By the last census it is made to appear 

ence should not mean a condition which, that, of the 17,392,000 of our population 

without regard to the public welfare or a engaged in all kinds of industries, 7,670,- 

national exigency, must always insure 493 are employed in agriculture, 4,074,238 

the realization of immense profits instead in professional and personal service (2,- 

of moderately profitable returns. As the 934,876 of whom are domestic servants 

volume and diversity of our national ac- and laborers), while 1,810,256 are employ- 

tivities increase, new recruits are added ed in trade and transportation, and 3,837,- 

to those who desire a continuation of the 112 are classed as employed in manufact- 

advantages which they conceive the pres- uring and mining. 

cnt system of tariff taxation directly af- For present purposes, however, the last 
fords them. So stubbornly have all ef- number given should be considerably re- 
forts to reform the present condition been duced. Without attempting to enumer- 
resisted by those of our fellow-citizens ate all, it will be conceded that there 
thus engaged that they can hardly com- should be deducted from those which it 
plain of the suspicion, entertained to a includes 37.5,143 carpenters and joiners, 
certain extent, that there exists an or- 285,401 milliners, dressmakers, and seam- 
ganized combination all along the line stresses, 172,726 blacksmiths, 133,756 tai- 
to maintain their advantage. lors and tailoresses, 102,473 masons, 76,- 

We are in the midst of centennial cele- 241 butchers, 41,309 bakers, 22,083 plas- 

brations, and with becoming pride we terers, and 4.891 engaged in manufact- 

rejoice in American skill and ingenuity, uring agricultural implements, amounting 

in American energy and enterprise, and in the aggregate to 1,214,023, leaving 

in the wonderful natural advantages and 2,623,089 persons employed in such manu- 

rcsources developed by a century's nation- facturing industries as are claimed to be 

al growth. Yet, when an attempt is made benefited by a high tariff. 
to iustify a scheme which permits a tax To these the appeal is made to save 



their employment and maintain their 
wages by resisting a change. There should 
be' no disposition to answer such sugges- 
tions by the allegation that they are in 
a minority among those who labor, and 
therefore should forego an advantage in 
the interest of low prices for the major- 
ity. Their compensation, as it may be 
affected by the operation of tariff laws, 
should at all times be scrupulously kept 
in view; and yet, with slight reflection, 
they will not overlook the fact that they 
are consumers with the rest; that they, 
too, have their own wants and those of 
their families to supply from their earn- 
ings, and that the price of the necessaries 
of life, as well as the amount of their 
wages, will regulate the measure of their 
welfare and comfort. 

But the reduction of taxation demanded 
should be so measured as not to necessi- 
tate or justify either the loss of employ- 
ment by the working-man or the lessen- 
ing of his wages; and the profits still 
remaining to the manufacturer after a 
necessary readjustment should furnish 
no excuse for the sacrifice of the interests 
of his employes, either in their oppor- 
tunity to work or in the diminution of 
their compensation. Nor can the worker 
in manufactures fail to understand that 
while a high tariff is claimed to be neces- 
sary to allow the payment of remunera- 
tive wages, it certainly results in a very 
large increase in the price of nearly all 
sorts of manufactures, which, in almost 
countless forms, he needs for the use of 
himself and his family. He receives at the 
desk of his employer his wages, and per- 
haps before he reaches his home is obliged, 
in a purchase for family use of an article 
which embraces his own labor, to return, in 
the payment of the increase in price which 
the tariff permits, the hard-earned com- 
pensation of many days of toil. 

The farmer and the agriculturist, who 
manufacture nothing, but who pay the in- 
creased price which the tariff imposes 
upon every agricultural implement, upon 
all he wears, and upon all he uses and 
owns, except the increase of his flocks and 
herds and such things as his husbandry 
produces from the soil, is invited to aid in 
maintaining the present situation; and 
he is told that a high duty on imported 
wool is necessary for the benefit of those 

who have sheep to shear, in order that 
the price of their wool may be increased. 
They, of course, are not reminded that the 
farmer who has no sheep is by this 
scheme obliged, in his purchases of cloth- 
ing and woollen goods, to pay a tribute to 
his fellow-farmer as well as to the manu- 
facturer and merchant, nor is any mention 
made of the fact that the sheep-owners 
themselves and their households must 
wear clothing and use other articles manu- 
factured from the wool they sell at tariff 
prices, and thus, as consumers, must re- 
turn their share of this increased price 
to the tradesman. 

I think it may be fairly assumed that a 
large proportion of the sheep owned by the 
farmers throughout the country are found 
in small flocks, numbering from twenty- 
five to fifty. The duty on the grade of 
imported wool which these sheep yield 
is 10 cents each pound if of the value of 
30 cents or less, and 12 cents if of the 
value of more than 30 cents. If the 
liberal estimate of 6 lb. be allowed for 
each fleece, the duty thereon would be 
GO or 72 cents; and this may be taken 
as the utmost enhancement of its price 
to the farmer by reason of this duty. 
Eighteen dollars would thus represent the 
increased price of the wool from twenty- 
five sheep, and $36 that from the wool 
of flfty sheep; and at present values this 
addition would amount to about one-third 
of its price. If upon its sale the farmer 
receives this or a less tariff profit, the 
wool leaves his hands charged with pre- 
cisely that sum, which in all its changes 
will adhere to it until it reaches the con- 
sumer. When manufactured into cloth 
and other goods and material for use, its 
cost is not only increased to the extent 
of the farmer's tariff profit, but a further 
sum has been added for the benefit of the 
manufacturer under the operation of other 
tariff laws. In the mean time the day ar- 
rives when the farmer finds it necessary 
to purchase woollen goods and materials 
to clothe himself and family for the win- 
ter. When he faces the tradesman for 
that purpose, he discovers that he is 
obliged not only to return in the way of 
increased prices his tariff profit on the 
wool he sold, and which then perhaps lies 
before him in unmanufactured form, but 
that he must add a considerable sum 



thereto to meet a further increase in cost one thing has been discovered which should 

caused by a tariff duty on the manufact- be carefully scrutinized in an effort to 

ure. Thus, in the end, he is aroused to leduce taxation. 

the fact that he has paid upon a moderate The necessity of combination to main- 
purchase, as a result of the tariff scheme, tain the price of any commodity to the 
which when he sold his wool seemed so tariff point furnishes proof that some one 
profitable, an increase in price more than is willing to accept lower prices for such 
sufficient to sweep away all the tariff commodity, and that such prices are re- 
profit he received upon the wool he pro- munerative; and lower prices produced 
duced and sold. by competition prove the same thing. 

When the number of farmers engaged in Thus, where either of these conditions 

wool-raising is compared with all the exists, a case would seem to be presented 

farmers in the country, and the small for an easy reduction of taxation, 
proportion they bear to our population The considerations which have been pre- 

is considered; when it is made apparent sented touching our tariff laws are in- 

that in the case of a large part of those tended only to enforce an earnest recom- 

who own sheep the benefit of the present mendation that the surplus revenues of 

tariff on wool is illusory; and, above all, the government be prevented by the reduc- 

when it must be conceded that the increase tion of our customs duties, and at the 

of the cost of living caused by such tariff same time to emphasize a suggestion that 

becomes a burden upon those with moder- in accomplishing this purpose we may dis- 

ate means and the poor, the employed and charge a double duty to our people by 

unemployed, the sick and well, and the granting to them a measure of relief from 

young and old, and that it constitutes a tariff taxation in quarters where it is 

tax which with relentless grasp is fastened most needed, and from sources where it 

upon the clothing of every man, woman, can be most fairly and justly accorded, 
and child in the land, reasons are sug- Nor can the presentation made of such 

gested why the removal or reduction of considerations be with any degree of fair- 

this duty should be included in a re- ness regarded as evidence of unfriendli- 

vision of our tariff laws. ness towards our manufacturing interests 

In speaking of the increased cost to or of any lack of appreciation of their 

the consumer of our home manufactures value and importance, 
resulting from a duty laid upon import- These interests constitute a leading and 

ed articles of the same description, the most substantial element of our national 

fact is not overlooked that competition greatness and furnish the proud proof 

among our domestic producers sometimes of our country's progress. But if in 

has the effect of keeping the price of the emergency that presses upon us our 

their products below the highest limit manufacturers are asked to surrender 

allowed by such duty. But it is notorious something for the public good and to avert 

that this competition is too often stran- disaster, their patriotism, as well as a 

gled by combinations quite prevalent at grateful recognition of advantages al- 

this time, and frequently called trusts, ready afforded, should lead them to will- 

which have for their object the regula- ing co-operation. No demand is made that 

tion of the supply and price of commodi- they should forego all the benefits of gov- 

ties made and sold by members of the ernmental regard; but they cannot fail 

combination. The people can hardly hope to be admonished of their duty, as well 

for any consideration in the operation as their enlightened self-interest and safe- 

of these selfish schemes. ty, when they are reminded of the fact 

If, however, in the absence of such com- that financial panic and collapse, to which 
bination, a healthy and free competition the present condition tends, affords no 
reduces the price of any particular greater shelter or protection to our manu- 
dutiable article of home production factures than to other important enter- 
below the limit which it might otherwise prises. Opportunity for safe, careful, and 
reach under our tariff laws, and if with deliberate reform is now afforded ; and 
such reduced price its manufacture con- none of us should be unmindful of a time 
tinues to thrive, it is entirely evident that when an abused and irritated people, heed- 



less of those who have resisted timely The question thus imperatively pre- 

and reasonable relief, may insist upon a sented for solution should be approached 

radical and sweeping rectification of their in a spirit higher than partisanship, and 

wrongs. considered in the light of that regard for 

The difficulty attending a wise and fair patriotic duty which should characterize 

revision of our tariff laws is not under- the action of those intrusted with the 

estimated. It will require on the part of weal of a confiding people. But the 

the Congress great labor and care, and obligation to declared party policy and 

especially a broad and national contem- principle is not wanting to urge prompt 

plation of the subject and a patriotic and eff"ective action. Both of the great 

disregard of such local and selfish claims political parties now represented in the 

as are unreasonable and reckless of the government have, by repeated and authori- 

welfare of the entire country. tative declarations, condemned the condi- 

Under our present laws more than 4,000 tion of our laws which permits the col- 
articles are subject to duty. Many of these lection from the people of unnecessary 
do not in any way compete with our own revenue, and have in the most solemn 
manufactures, and many are hardly worth manner promised its correction ; and 
attention as subjects of revenue. A con- neither as citizens nor partisans are our 
siderable reduction can be made in the countrymen in a mood to condone the 
aggregate by adding them to the free list, deliberate violation of these pledges. 
The taxation of luxuries presents no feat- Our progress towards a wise conclusion 
ures of hardship; but the necessaries of will not be improved by dwelling upon the 
life used and consumed by all the people, theories of protection and free-trade. This 
the duty upon which adds to the cost savors too much of bandying epithets. It 
of living in every home, should be greatly is a condition which confronts us, not a 
cheapened. theory. Eelief from this condition may 

The radical reduction of the duties im- involve a slight reduction of the advan- 

posed upon raw material used in manu- tages which we award our home produc- 

factures, or its free importation, is of tions, but the entire withdrawal of svich 

course an important factor in any eflfort to advantages should not be contemplated, 

reduce the price of these necessaries. It The question of free-trade is absolutely ir- 

would not only relieve them from the in- relevant, and the persistent claim made 

creased cost caused by the tariff on such in certain quarters that all the efforts 

material, but, the manufactured product to relieve the people from unjust and un- 

being thus cheapened, that part of the necessary taxation are schemes of so- 

tariff now laid upon such product, as a called free-traders is mischievous and far 

compensation to our manufacturers for removed from any consideration for the 

the present price of raw material, could public good. 

be accordingly modified. Such reduction The simple and plain duty which we owe 
or free importation would serve besides the people is to reduce taxation to the 
to largely reduce the revenue. It is not necessary expenses of an economical oper- 
apparent how such a change can have any ation of the government and to restore 
injurious effect upon our manufacturers, to the business of the country the money 
On the contrary, it would appear to give which we hold in the Treasury through 
them a better chance in foreign markets the perversion of governmental powers, 
with the manufacturers of other coun- These things can and should be done with 
tries, who cheapen their wares by free safety to all our industries, without dan- 
material. Thus our own people might ger to the opportunity for remunerative 
have the opportunity of extending their labor which our working-men need, and 
sales beyond the limits of home con- with benefit to them and all our people 
sumption, saving them from the depression, by cheapening their means of subsistence 
interruption in business, and loss caused and increasing the measure of their com- 
by a glutted domestic market, and af- forts. 

fording their employes more certain and The Constitution provides that the 

steady labor, with its resulting quiet and President " shall from time to time, give 

contentment. to the Congress information of the state 



of the Union." It has been the custom inst., I called attention to the pending 
of the executive, in compliance with this boundary controversy between Great Brit- 
provision, to annually exhibit to the Con- ain and the republic of Venezuela, and 
gress, at the opening of its session, the recited the substance of a representation 
general condition of the country, and to made by this government to her Britan- 
detail with some particularity the oper- nic Majesty's government suggesting rea- 
ations of the different executive depart- sons why such dispute should be sub- 
ments. It would be especially agreeable to mitted to arbitration for settlement, and 
follow this course at the present time, and inquiring whether it would be so sub- 
to call attention to the valuable accom- mitted. 

plishments of these departments during the The answer of the British government, 

last fiscal year ; but I am so much impress- which was then awaited, has since been 

ed with the paramount importance of the leceived, and, together with the despatch 

subject to which this communication has to which it is a reply, is hereto appended, 

thus far been devoted that I shall forego Such reply is embodied in two communi- 

the addition of any other topic, and only cations addressed by the British prime 

urge upon your immediate consideration minister to Sir Julian Pauncefote, the 

the *' state of the Union " as shown in British ambassador at this capital. It 

the present condition of our Treasury and will be seen that one of these communi- 

our general fiscal situation, upon which cations is devoted exclusively to obser- 

every element of our safety and pros- vations upon the Monroe Doctrine, and 

perity depends. claims that in the present instance a new 

The reports of the heads of depart- and strange extension and development 

ments, which will be submitted, contain of this doctrine is insisted on by the 

full and explicit information touching United States, that the reasons justify- 

the transaction of the business intrusted ing an appeal to the doctrine enunciated 

to them, and such recommendations re- by President Monroe are generally in- 

lating to legislation in the public interest applicable " to the state of things in 

as they deem advisable. I ask for these which we live at the present day," and 

reports and recommendations the deliber- especially inapplicable to a controversy 

ate examination and action of the legis- involving the boundary-line between Great 

lative branch of the government. Britain and Venezuela. 

There are other subjects not embraced Without attempting extended argument 
in the departmental reports demanding in reply to these positions, it may not be 
legislative consideration, and which I amiss to suggest that the doctrine upon 
should be glad to submit. Some of them, which we stand is strong and sound be- 
however, have been earnestly presented cause its enforcement is important to our 
in previous messages, and as to them I beg peace and safety as a nation, and is essen- 
leave to repeat prior recommendations. tial to the integrity of our free institu- 

As the law makes no provision for any tions and the tranquil maintenance of our 

report from the Department of State, a distinctive form of government. It is 

brief history of the transactions of that intended to apply to every stage of 

important department, together with other our national life, and cannot become 

matters which it may hereafter be deemed obsolete while our republic endures. If 

essential to commend to the attention of the balance of power is justly a cause 

the Congress, may furnish the occasion for for jealous anxiety among the govern- 

a future communication. ments of the Old World and a subject 

The Venezuela Boundary. — On Dec. 17, for our absolute non-interference, none the 

1895, President Cleveland sent the follow- less is an observance of the Monroe Doc- 

ing message to Congress concerning the trine of vital concern to our people and 

dispute between Great Britain and Venez- their government. 

uela on the boundary question and its Assuming, therefore, that we may prop- 
relation to the Monroe Doctrine: erly insist upon this doctrine without 
regard to " the state of things in which 

To the Congress, — In my annual mes- we live," or any changed conditions here 

sage addressed to the Congress on the 3d or elsewhere, it is not apparent why its 



changed application i^ay not be invoked . ed claims. Nor is this ignored in the 

ill the present controversy. British reply. The prime minister, while 

If a European power, by an extension not admitting that the Monroe Doctrine 

of its boundaries, takes possession of the is applicable to present conditions, states: 

territory of one of our neighboring re- ••' In declaring that the United States 

publics against its will and in derogation would resist any such enterprise if it 

of its rights, it is difficult to see why, to were contemplated, President Monroe 

that extent, such European power does adopted a policy which received the en- 

not thereby attempt to extend its system tire sympathy of the English govern- 

of government to that portion of this ment of that date." He further declares: 

continent which is thus taken. This " Though the language of President Mon- 

is the precise action which President Mon- roe is directed to the attainment of ob- 

roe declared to be " dangerous to our peace jects which most Englishmen would agree 

and our safety," and it can make no dif- to be salutary, it is impossible to admit 

ference whether the European system is that they have been inscribed by any ade- 

extended by an advance of frontier or quate authority in the code of internation- 

otherwise. al law." 

It is also suggested in the British re- Again he says: "They (her Majesty's 
ply that we should not seek to apply the government) fully concur with the view 
Monroe Doctrine to the pending dispute \vhich President Monroe apparently en- 
because it does not embody any principle tertained, that any disturbance of the ex- 
of international law which " is founded isting territorial distribution in that hem- 
on the general consent of nations," and isphere by any fresh acquisitions on the 
that " no statesman, however eminent, and part of any European state would be a 
no nation, however powerful, are compe- highly inexpedient change." 
tent to insert into the code of internation- In the belief that the doctrine for which 
al law a novel principle which was never we contend was clear and definite, that 
recognized before, and which has not since it was founded upon substantial considera- 
been accepted by the government of any tions and involved our safety and wel- 
other country." fare, that it was fully applicable to our 

Practically, the principle for which we present conditions and to the state of the 

contend has peculiar, if not exclusive, world's progress, and that it was directly 

relation to the United States. It may related to the pending controversy, and 

not have been admitted in so many words without any conviction as to the final 

to the code of international law, but since merits of the dispute, but anxious to 

in international councils every nation is learn in a satisfactory and conclusive 

entitled to the rights belonging to it, if manner whether Great Britain sought, 

the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine under a claim of boundary, to extend 

is something we may justly claim, it has her possessions on this continent without 

its place in the code of international law right, or whether she merely sought pos- 

as certainly and as securely as if it were session of territory fairly included within 

specifically mentioned, and when the her lines of ownership, this government 

United States is a suitor before the high proposed to the government of Great 

tribunal that administers international Britain a resort to arbitration as the 

law the question to be determined is proper means of settling the question, to 

whether or not we present claims which the end that a vexatious boundary dispute 

the justice of that code of law can find between the two contestants might be de- 

to be right and valid. termined and our exact standing and re- 

The Monroe Doctrine finds its recogni- lation in respect to the controversy might 

tion in those principles of international be made clear. 

law which are based upon the theory that It will be seen from the correspondence 

every nation shall have its rights pro- herewith submitted that this proposition 

tected and its just claims enforced. has been declined by the British govern- 

Of course this government is entirely ment, upon grounds which, in the circum- 

oonfident that under the sanction of this stances, seem to me to be far from satis- 

doctrine we have clear rights and undoubt- factory. It is deeply disappointing that 



such an appeal, actuated by the most 
friendly feelings towards both nations di- 
rectly concerned, addressed to the sense of 
justice and to the magnanimity of one of 
the great powers of the world and touch- 
ing its relations to one comparatively 
weak and small, should have produced no 
better results. 

The course to be pursued by this gov- 
ernment, in view of the present condition, 
does not appear to admit of serious doubt. 
Having labored faithfully for many years 
to induce Great Britain to submit this 
dispute to impartial arbitration, and hav- 
ing been now finally apprised of her re- 
fusal to do so, nothing remains but to ac- 
cept the situation, to recognize its plain 
requirements, and deal with it according- 
ly. Great Britain's present proposition 
has never thus far been regarded as admis- 
sible by Venezuela, though any adjust- 
ment of the boundary which that country 
may deem for her advantage and may en- 
ter into of her own free will cannot of 
course be objected to by the United States. 

Assuming, however, that the attitude of 
Venezuela will remain unchanged, the dis- 
pute has reached such a stage as to make 
it now incumbent upon the United States 
to take measures to determine with suf- 
ficient certainty for its justification what 
is the true divisional line between the re- 
public of Venezuela and British Guiana. 
The inquiry to that end should of course 
be conducted carefully and judicially, 
and due weight should be given to all 
available evidence, records, and facts in 
support of the claims of both parties. 

In order that such an examination 
should be prosecuted in a thorough and 
satisfactory manner, I suggest that the 
Congress make an adequate appropriation 
for the expenses of a commission, to be 
appointed by the executive, who shall 
make the necessary investigation and re- 
port upon the matter with the least pos- 
sible delay. When such report is made 
and accepted it will, in my opinion, be 
the duty of the United States to resist, 
by every means in its power, as a wilful 
aggression upon its rights and interests, 
the appropriation by Great Britain of any 
lands or the exercise of governmental ju- 
risdiction over any territory which, after 
investigation, we have determined of right 
belongs to Venezuela. 

In making these recommendations I am 
fully alive to the responsibility incurred, 
and keenly realize all the consequences 
that may follow. 

I am, nevertheless, firm in my convic- 
tion that while it is a grievous thing to 
contemplate the two great English-speak- 
ing peoples of the world as being other- 
wise than friendly competitors in the on- 
ward march of civilization and strenuous 
and worthy rivals in all the arts of peace, 
there is no calamity which a great nation 
can invite which equals that which fol- 
lows a supine submission to wrong and 
injustice and the consequent loss of na- 
tional self-respect and honor, beneath 
which are shielded and defended a people's 
safety and greatness. 

For the results of this message, see 

Clifford, Nathan, jurist; born in 
Rumney, N. H., Aug. 18, 1803; grad- 
uated at the Hampton Literary Institu- 
tion; settled in York county. Me., after 
being admitted to the bar; member of 
Congress in 1839-43; appointed attorney- 
general of the United States in 1846; and 
in 1848 went to Mexico as United States 
commissioner to arrange terms for the 
cession of California to the United States. 
In 1849 he resumed practice in Maine; 
in 1858 was appointed an associate justice 
of the United States Supreme Court, and 
in 1877 was president of the Electoral 
Commission (q. v.). He published Unit- 
ed States Circuit Court Reports. He died 
in Cornish, Me., July 25, 1881. 

Clingman, Thomas Lanier, legislator; 
born in Huntsville, N. C, July 27, 1812; 
graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 1832; settled in Asheville, 
N. C; United States Senator from 1858 
till 1861, when he resigned, with other 
members from the Southern States. He 
joined the Confederate army, and was 
made a brigadier-general in May, 1862. 
In 1855 he located the highest point of 
the Black Mountain, which has since been 
known as " Clingman's Peak"; and he 
also discovered the highest point of the 
Smoky Mountain in 1858, now known 
as " Clingman's Dome." He died in Mor- 
gantown, N. C, Nov. 3, 1897. 

Clinton, Charles, immigrant; born in 
Longford. Ireland, in 1690. With a num- 
ber of relatives and friends, he sailed 



froiu Ireland for America in May, 1729. 

His destination was Philadelphia; but the 
captain of the vessel, with a view to 
their destruction by starvation, so as 
to obtain their property, landed them on 
barren Cape Cod, after receiving large 
sums of money as commutation for their 
lives. Clinton and his family and friends 
made their way to Ulster county, about 
00 miles up the Hudson and 8 miles from 
it, in 1731, and there formed a settlement, 
he pursuing the occupation of farmer 
and surveyor. He was justice of the 
peace, county judge, and lieutenant-colo- 
nel of Ulster county, to which he gave 
its name. Two of his four sons were gen- 
erals in the war for independence, and 
his youngest (George) was governor of 
the State of New York and Vice-President 
of the United States. He died in Ulster 
(now Orange) county, N. Y., Nov. 19, 

Clinton, De Witt, statesman; born in 
Little Britain, Orange co., N. Y., March 
2, 1769; graduated at Columbia Col- 


lege in 1786; studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1788, but practised 
very little. He was private secretary to 
his uncle George, governor of New York, 
in 1790-95, in favor of whose administra- 
tion he wrote much in the newspapers. He 
was in the Assembly of his State in 1797, 
and from 1798 to 1802 was a Democratic 
leader in the State Senate. He was 
mayor of New York City in 1803-7, 1809- 
10, and 1811-14. He was an earnest 
promoter of the establishment of the New 

York Historical Society and the Ameri- 
can Academy of Fine Arts. Opposed to 
the War of 1812-15, he was the Peace 
candidate for the Presidency in 1812, but 
was defeated by James Madison. Mr. 
Clinton was one of the founders and first 
president of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society in New York, and was 
one of the most efficient promoters of 
the construction of the Erie Canal. In 
1817-22, and in 1824-27, he was governor 
of New York. He was the most conspicu- 
ous actor in the imposing ceremonies at 
the opening of the Erie Canal in the fall 
of 1825, when, outside the Narrows, he 
poured a vessel of water from Lake Erie 
into the Atlantic Ocean, as significant of 
their wedding. He died in Albany, N. Y., 
Feb. 11, 1828. 

Clinton, George, naval officer and co- 
lonial governor; youngest son of Francis, 
sixth Earl of Lincoln, and rose to dis- 
tinction in the British navy. In 1732 he 
was commissioned a commodore and gov- 
ernor of Newfoundland. In September, 
1743, he v/as appointed governor of the 
tolony of New York, and retained that 
office ten years. His administration was 
a tumultuous one, for his temperament 
and want of skill in the management of 
civil affairs unfitted him for the duties. 
He was unlettered ; and being closely con- 
nected with the Dukes of Newcastle and 
Bedford, he was sent to New York to 
mend his fortune. In his controversies 
with the Assembly he was ably assisted 
by the pen of Dr. Cadwallader Colden, 
afterwards lieutenant-governor of the prov- 
ince. His chief opponent was Daniel 
Horsmanden, at one time chief-justice of 
the colony. After violent quarrels with 
all the political factions in New York, 
he abandoned the government in disgust, 
and returned home in 1753. He became 
governor of Greenwich Hospital — a sine- 
cure. In 1745 he was vice-admiral of the 
red, and in 1757 admiral of the fleet. He 
died while governor of Newfoundland, 
July 10, 1761. 

Clinton, George, Vice-President of the 
United States from 1805 to 1812; Re^ 
publican; born in Little Britain, Ulster 
CO., N. Y., July 26, 1739; was care- 
fully educated by his father and a Scotch 
clergyman, a graduate of the University 
of Aberdeen. In early youth George made 



a successful cruise in a privateer in the he was opposed, because it would be le- 
French and Indian War, and soon after- structive of State supremacy. In 1801 he 
wards joined a militia company, as lieu- was again elected governor of New York, 
tenant, under his brother James, in the 
expedition against Fort Frontenac in 
1758. He chose the profession of law, 
studied it with William Smith, and be- 
came distinguished in it in his native 5i 
county. In 1768 he was elected a mem- ^ 
ber of the Provincial Assembly, wherein 
he soon became the head of a Whig mi- 
nority. In 1775 he was elected to the 
Continental Congress, and voted for the 
resolution for independence in 1776; but 
the invasion of New York by the British 
from the sea called him home, and he did 
not sign the Declaration of Independence. 
He was appointed a brigadier-general, and 
as such performed good service in his 
State. On the organization of the State 
of New York, in 1777, he was elected the 
first governor, and held the office, by suc- 
cessive elections, eighteen years. He was 
very energetic, both in civil and military 
aflairs, until the end of the war; and 
was chiefly instrumental in preventing the 
consummation of the British plan for 
separating New England from the rest of 
the Union by the occupation of a line 
of military posts, through the Hudson and 


and in 1804 was chosen Vice-President of 
the United States. In 1808 he was a 
prominent candidate for the Presidency, 
but was beaten by Madison, and was re- 
elected Vice-President. By his casting- 
vote in the Senate of the United States, 
the renewal of the charter of the Bank of 
the United States was refused. While in 
the performance of his official duties at 
Washington, he died, April 20, 1812. His 
remains rest beneath a handsome white 
marble monument in the Congressional 
Cemetery in Washington. 

Glinton, Sir Henry, military officer; 
born in 1738; was a son of George Clin- 
ton, colonial governor of New York. He 
entered the army when quite young, and 
had risen to the rank of major-general in 
1775, when he was sent to America with 
Howe and Burgoyne. He participated in 


Champlain valleys, from New York to the 
St. Lawrence. In 1788 Governor Clinton 
presided over the convention held at 
Poughkeepsie to consider the new na- 
tional Constitution. To that instrument 



the battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775), on a marauding excursion, hoping to draw 
and was thereafter active in service Gates from Burgoyne's front to protect 
against the oppressed colonists until June, the country below. On the day after the 
1782, when he returned to England. He capture of the forts Sir Henry wrote on 

a piece of tissue-paper the following de- 
spatch to Burgoyne : " Nous y void [here 
we are], and nothing between us and 
Gates. I sincerely hope this little suc- 
cess of ours may facilitate your opera- 
tions. In answer to your letter of the 
28th September by C. C., I shall only say 
I cannot presume to order, or even advise, 
for reasons obvious. I heartily wish 
you success. Faithfully yours, H. Clin- 
ton." This despatch was enclosed in an 
elliptical silver bullet, made so as to sep- 
arate at the centre, and of a size (as de- 
lineated in the engraving) small enough 
to be swallowed by a man, if necessary. He 
intrusted it to a messenger who made his 
way north on the west side of the river, 
succeeded General Howe as commander- and, being suspected when in the camp of 
in-chief of the British forces in America George Clinton back of New Windsor, was 
in January, 1778. arrested. When brought before General 

In October, 1777, Sir Henry undertook Clinton, he was seen to cast something into 
a diversion in favor of General Burgoyne, his mouth. An emetic was administered 
then making his way towards Albany from to him, which brought the silver bullet 
Canada, in accordance with the British from his stomach. The despatch was 

found in it, and the prisoner 
was executed as a spy at 
Hurley, a few miles from 
Kingston, while that village 
was in flames lighted by the 
British marauders. Sir 


olirton's despatch and bullet. 

plan of conquest. Clinton, with a strong Henry died in Gibraltar, Spain, Dec. 23, 
land and naval force, had captured Forts 1795. 

Clinton and Montgomery, in the Hudson Clinton, James, military officer; born 
Highlands (Oct. 6), and sent forces of in Ulster (now Orange) county, N. Y., Aug. 
both arms of the service up the river 9, 1736; son of Charles Clinton; was well 



educated, but he had a strong inclination gnn Highlands were three forts of con- 
fer military life. Before the beginning of siderabie strength, but with feeble garri- 
thc Revolutionary War he was lieuten- sons — Fort Constitution, opposite West 
ant-colonel of the militia of Ulster county. I'oint, and Forts Clinton and Montgom- 
He was a captain under Bradstreet in the ery, on the west side of the river at the 
capture of Fort Frontenac in 1758; and he lower entrance to the Highlands, standing 
afterwards was placed in command of four on opposite sides of a creek, with high, 
regiments for the protection of the fron- rocky shores. From Fort Montgomery, 
tiers of Ulster and Orange counties — a po- on the northern side of the stream, to 
sition of difficulty and danger. When the Anthony's Nose, opposite, the Americans 
war for independence broke out, he was had stretched a boom and chain across the 
appointed colonel of the 3d New York Reg- river to prevent the passage of hostile 
iraent (June 30, 1775), and accompanied vessels up that stream. Forts Clinton 
Montgomery to Quebec. Made a briga- and Montgomery were under the immedi- 
dier-general in August, 1776, he was ac- ate command of Gov. George Clinton, 
live in the service; and was in command of and his brother Gen. James Clinton. 
Fort Clinton, in the Hudson Highlands, Tories had informed Sir Henry Clinton 
when it was attacked in October, 1777. of the weakness of the garrisons, and as 

soon as expected reinforcements from 
Europe had arrived, he prepared trans- 
ports to ascend the river. He sailed (Oct. 
4, 1777) with more than 3,000 troops, in 
many armed and unarmed vessels, com- 
manded by Commodore Hotham, and land- 
ed them at Verplanck's Point, a few miles 
below Peekskill, then the headquarters of 
General Putnam, commander of the High- 
land posts. He deceived Putnam by a 
feigned attack on Peekskill, but the more 
sagacious Governor Clinton believed he 
designed to attack the Highland forts. 
Under cover of a dense fog, on the morn- 
ing of the 6th, Sir Henry re-embarked 
2,000 troops, crossed the river, and landed 
them on Stony Point, making a circuitous 
march around the Dunderberg to fall 
upon the Highland forts. At the same 
time, his armed vessels were ordered to 
anchor within point-blank-shot distance 
In 1779 he joined Sullivan's expedition of these forts, to beat off any American 
against the Senecas with 1,500 men. He vessels that might appear above the 
was stationed at Albany during a great boom and chain. Sir Henry divided his 
part of the war ; but he was present at the forces. One party, led by General 
surrender of Cornwallis. General Clinton Vaughan, and accompanied by the baronet 
was a commissioner to adjust the boun- (about 200 strong), went through a defile 
dary-line between New York and Pennsyl- west of the Dunderberg, to strike Fort 
vania; and was a member of both the As- Clinton, while another party (900 
sembly and Senate of the State of New strong), led by Colonel Campbell, made 
York. He died in Little Britain, N. Y., a longer march, back of Bear Mountain, 
Dec. 22, 1812. to fall on Fort Montgomery at the same 

Clinton, Fort, Capture of. While time. Vaughan had a severe skirmish 
Burgoyne was contending with Gates on with troops sent out from Fort Clinton, 
the upper Hudson, in 1777, Sir Henry on the borders of Lake Sinnipink, near 
Clinton was attempting to make his way it: at the same time the governor sent a 
up the river, to join him or to make a messenger to Putnam for aid. The mes- 
diversion in his favor. Among the Hud- senger, instead, deserted to the British. 




Campbell and his men appeared before he was wounded twice in the battle at 

Fort Montgomery at 5 p.m. and demand- Gaines's Mills; and after passing a month 

ed the surrender of both forts. It was in Libby prison was exchanged and ap- 

refused, when a simultaneous attack pointed commandant at West Point; bre- 

by both divisions and by the vessels vetted brigadier-general in March, 1865; 
in the river was made. The garrison retired July 1, 1885; was last seen alive 
(chiefly militia) made a gallant defence at Niagara Falls, Oct. 30, 1888. 
until dark, when they were overpowered Closure, a method of terminating de- 
and sought safety in a scattered retreat bates; adopted by the British Parliament 
to the adjacent mountains. The governor on Feb. 9, 1881, but not used until Feb. 
fled across the river, and at midnight was 24, 1884. Since then it has been fre- 
ir the camp of Putnam, planning future quently called into use. It is also freely 
operations. His brother, badly wounded, used in the French Senate and Chamber of 
made his way OA'er the mountains to his Deputies. In the United States House of 
home at New Windsor. Some American Representatives a debate can be closed 
vessels lying above the boom, unable to by adopting the previous question, but 
escape, were burned by their crews. By in the United States Senate there can be 
the light of this conflagration the fugitive no closure under the present rules. De- 
garrisons found their way through the bates there are brought to a close by 
mountains to settlements beyond. general consent, which is sometimes 
Clitz, Henry Boynton, military offi- forced through physical exhaustion of 
cer ; born in Sackett's Harborl N. Y., those opposing a vote. 

July 4, 1824; graduated at the Unit- 
ed States Military Academy in 1845; 

Cloture. See Closure. 

Clubs, originally a few persons of kin- 

served in the Mexican War, and for brav- dred tastes and pursuits, meeting at 
ery at Cerro Gordo received the brevet stated times for social intercourse. They 
of first lieutenant. During the Civil War may be political, literary, scientific, fine 



arts, inisincss or commercial, athletic, ing the war for independence, and ft 

etc.; and cluhs of these classes are es- member of the council of safety in Phila- 

tablished in all of the principal cities of delphia. In July, 1775, he was made joint 

the United States. Political clubs often treasurer of Pennsylvania with Mr. Hille- 

exert great influence in public affairs, gas; and when, in December, 1776, Con- 

The oldest club in the United States is gress fled to Baltimore, Clymer was one 

the Wistar Club, established in Phila- of the commissioners left in Philadelphia 

delphia in 1833, and the next, the Union to attend to the public interests. In 1777 

Club, of New York City, established in he was a commissioner to treat with the 

1836. Indians at Fort Pitt;, and in 1780 he as- 

In the early part of the Civil War, sisted in organizing the Bank of North 

Union League clubs were established in America. At the close of the war he 

all the cities and towns in the Northern made his residence at Princeton, N. J. ; 

States, and exerted a powerful influence and in 1784 was a member of the Pennsyl- 

in maintaining patriotic sentiments in vania legislature. In 1787 he was a mem- 

their communities. They partook some- ber of the convention that framed the 

what of the character of secret and fra- national Constitution, and was a mem- 

ternal organizations. A few of the largest ber of the first Congress under it. A col- 

and wealthiest ones are still in existence, lector of the excise duties in 1791 which 

the others having gradually disbanded a led to the Whiskey Insurrection {q. v.) , 

few years after the close of the war. A and serving on a commission to treat with 

striking feature of modern club-life in Southern Indians, Mr. Clymer, after con- 

the United States is found in the large eluding a treaty (in June, 1796), with- 

and constantly growing number of clubs drew from public life. He was one of 

organized by and for women exclusively, the founders of the Pennsylvania Agri- 

Of these the most conspicuous example cultural Society, the Pennsylvania Acad- 

is the Sorosis, of New York City, found- emy of Fine Arts, and the Pennsylvania 

ed in 1868, and claiming to be the first Bank. He died in Morrisville, Pa., Jan. 

distinctively women's club in the country. 23, 1813. 

The growth of these clubs reached an ex- Coal. The business of coal-mining in 

tent in 1892 which warranted the or- the United States for commercial purposes 

ganization of the Central Federation of has entirely grown up since 1825. It was 

Women's Clubs, which has in affiliation known before the Revolution that coal ex- 

with it over 2,700 women's clubs, repre- isted in Pennsylvania. As early as 1769, 

senting a membership of 200,000. a blacksmith, Obadiah Gore, in the Wy- 

Cluseret, Gustave Paul, military offi- oming Valley, used coal found lying on 

cer; born in Paris, France, June 13, 1823; the surface of the ground. Forty years 

came to the United States in January, afterwards he tried the successful experi- 

1802; enlisted in the Union army and was ment of burning it in a grate for fuel, 

made aide-de-camp to General McClellan, During the Revolution anthracite coal was 

and received the brevet of brigadier-gen- used in the armory at Carlisle, Pa., for 

eral of volunteers in 1862 for bravery in blacksmiths' fires. In 1790 an old hunter, 

the battle of Cross Keys. On March 2, Philip Gintner, in the Lehigh Valley, dis- 

1863, he resigned from the army, and the covered coal near the present Mauch Chunk, 

next year became editor of the New Na- In 1792 the Lehigh Coal-Mining Company 

Hon, a weekly published in New York was formed for mining it, but it did little 

City. In this paper he strongly opposed more than purchase lands. In 1806 200 

the renomination of Lincoln and favored or 300 bushels were taken to Philadelphia, 

Fremont. He was the author of a num- but experiments to use it for ordinary fuel 

ber of articles on The Situation in the failed. In 1812 Col. George Shoemaker 

United States, which were published in took nine wagon-loads to Philadelphia, but 

the Courier Frangais. He returned to could not sell it. It was soon afterwards 

France in 1867; died Aug. 23, 1900. used with success in rolling-mills in Del- 

Clymer, George, signer of the Declara- aware county, and it soon found pur- 

tion of Independence; born in Philadel- chasers elsewhere. But it was not until 

phia in 1739; was an active patriot dur- 1825 that the coal-trade began to assume 
II.— p 225 


notable proportions, when anthracite was 
used in factories and in private houses for 
fuel. The whole amount of anthracite 
sent to market in 1820 was 365 tons. The 
entire product of the country in the cal- 
endar year 1902 was 260,210,844 short 
tons of bituminous, spot value, $290,858,- 
483; and 41,373,595 short tons of Penn- 
sylvania anthracite, spot value, $76,173,- 

Coan, Titus, missionary: born in Kill- 
ingsworth. Conn., Feb. 1, 1801; grad- 
uated at Auburn Theological Seminary in 
1833. With his wife and six others he 
sailed for Hawaii, Dec. 5, 1834, and reach- 
ed Honolulu in July, 1835. His labors 
met with great success. In 1838-40 he 
made over 7,000 converts, and his subse- 
quent eflforts increased this number to 
13,000. His publications include Life in 
Hawaii, etc. He died in Hilo, Hawaii, 
Dec. 1, 1882. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, United 
States, a national undertaking for the 
security of the vast commerce upon the 
very extended and often dangerous coasts 
of the Unitei/ States. It is believed that 
\to Professor Patterson, of Philadelphia, 
is due the honor of having first suggested 
to President Jefferson the idea of a geodet- 
ic survey of the coast. Mr. Gallatin was 
then Secretary of the Treasury, and warm- 
ly approved the measure. The first at- 
tempt to organize a national coast sur- 
vey, " for the purpose of making complete 
charts of our coasts, with the adjacent 
shoals and soundings," was made in 1807. 
Congress authorized such a survey, and 
appropriated $50,000 for the purpose. Mr. 
Gallatin, with great assiduity, gathered 
information for scientific uses. A plan 
proposed by F. R. Hassleb {q. v.) was 
adopted, but, on account of political dis- 
turbances in Europe and America, noth- 
ing was done in the matter until 1811, 
when Mr. Hassler was sent to Europe for 
instruments and standards of measure. 
The War of 1812-15 detained him abroad. 
On his return, in 1815, he was formally 
appointed superintendent, and entered 
upon the duties in 1816, near the city of 
New York; but in less than two years it 
was discontinued. Mr. Hassler resumed 
it in 1832, and the work has been carried 
on continually ever since. Mr. Hassler 
died in 1842, and was succeeded by Alex- 


ANDER Dallas Bache {q. v.). On his 
death, in 1867, Prof. Benjamin Peirce 
{q. V.) was made superintendent. Profes- 
sor Bache greatly extended the scope of 
the survey, including an investigation of 
the Gulf Stream, the laws of tides, and 
their ebb and flow in harbors and rivers, 
so that navigators might have complete 
information concerning tide-waters of the 
United States. The observations and in- 
vestigations also include meteorological 
charts — changes in the weather in differ- 
ent seasons at various points, and the 
laws of storms. During the Civil War 
the work ceased on the Southern coasts, 
for the Confederates captured some of the 
vessels employed in the survey; and offi- 
cers and pilots engaged in the work were 
transferred to service in the navy, and, 
with their minute knowledge of the 
coasts, greatly assisted in the national op- 
erations there. Professor Peirce still 
further extended the survey, so as 
to constitute a great national trian- 
gulation — a geodetic survey intended to 
embrace the shores of the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans within its limits, and to 
form, by means of triangulation, a grand 
chain across the continent. The opera- 
tions of " field-work " are carried on 
simultaneously at many points on the 
coast. The Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf 
coasts are divided into sections, each hav- 
ing its triangulation, astronomical, topo- 
graphical, and hydrographical parties, all 
working independently, but upon the same 
system, so that the whole wili form a 
connected survey from Maine to Texas 
and from San Diego to the 49th parallel 
on the Pacific. The coast of Alaska 
{q. V.) , since its acquisition, has been add- 
ed to the field of operations, and a very 
large amount has been done and projected 
there. The whole work is under the con- 
trol of the Treasury Department, while a 
superintendent, Henry S. Pritchett, in 
1901, directs all the details of the work, 
governs the movements of the parties, and 
controls the expenditures. 

Cobb, David, military officer; born in 
Attleboro, Mass., Sept. 14, 1748; grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1766; be- 
came a physician ; member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress i« 1775; aide-de-camp to 
Washington for a number of years ; and 
brevetted brigadier-general at the close of 


the Revolutionary War. Washington as- ordered 2,000 copies of this work for pub- 
signed him the duty of providing enter- lie distribution to promote the cultiva- 
tainment for the French officers, and of tion of mulberry-trees. In 1835 Mr. Cobb 
making terms for the evacuation of New became superintendent of the first silk- 
York. He was a member of Congress in manufacturing company organized in New 
1793-95; lieutenant-governor of Massa- England. He died in Dedham, Mass., 
chusetts in 1809. He died in Taunton, March 12, 1882. 

Mass., April 17, 1839. Cobb, Joseph Beckham, author; born 

Cobb, Howell, statesman; born in in Oglethorpe county, Ga., April 11, 1819; 
Cherry Hill, Jefferson co., Ga., Sept. 7, educated at Franklin College, Ga., set- 
1815; was a lawyer by profession, and tied in Noxubee county. Miss., in 1838. 
was solicitor-general of the Western cir- His publications include The Creole, or 
cuit of Georgia from 1837 to 1841; a the Siege of New Orleans (a novel); 
member of Congress from 1843 to 1851; Mississippi Scenes, or Sketches of South- 
speaker of the 31st Congress; and gov- em and Western Life and Adventure, etc. 
ernor of Georgia from 1851 to 1853. He He died in Columbus, Ga., Sept. 15, 1858. 
was again elected to Congress in 1855, Cobb, Thomas R. R., lawyer; born in 

Cherry Hill, Ga., April 10, 1823; grad- 
uated at the University of Georgia in 
1841; member of the Confederate Con- 
gress; general in the Confederate army. 
His publications include Digest of the 
Iiaws of Georgia; Inquiry into the Law 
of Negro Slavery in the United States; 
and Historical Sketch of Slavery, from 
the Earliest Periods. He was killed in 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

Cobbett, William, journalist; born in 
Farnham, Surrey, England, March 9, 
1762; was the self-educated son of a farm- 
er, and in early manhood was eight years 
in the army, rising to the rank of ser- 
geant-major. He obtained his discharge 
HOWELL COBB. jp 1791^ married, and came to America in 

1792, when he became a pamphleteer, 
and was Secretary of the Treasury under bookseller, and journalist, having estab- 
President Buchanan from 1857 to 1860. lished Peter Porcupine's Gazette in 1794. 
He was a zealous promoter of the Con- He attacked Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia, 
federate cause in 1860-61, and was chosen because of his treatment of yellow-fever 
president of the convention at Montgom- cases, especially of his blood-letting, 
ery, Ala., that organized the Confederate Rush prosecuted him for libel, and ob- 
government Feb. 4, 1861. He became a tained a verdict for $5,000 damages, 
brigadier - general in the Confederate That suit had been brought to a trial on 
army; and at the close of the w^ar he op- the day of Washington's death (Dec. 14, 
posed the reconstruction measures of the 1799), and Cobbett remarked that it was 
national government. He died in New a singular coincidence that while the 
York City, Oct. 9, 1868. great patriot was dying in consequence of 

Cobb, JoxATHAx Holmes, manufact- the too free use of the lancet, he should 
urer; born in Sharon, Mass., July 8, be mulcted in a verdict of $5,000 for ex- 
1799; graduated at Harvard College in posing and ridiculing the dangerous prac- 
1817; and was one of the first to in- tice in yellow fever. In anticipation of 
troduce the manufacture of silk in the the verdict, Cobbett stopped the publica- 
United States. In 1831 he published tion of his paper and removed to New 
Manual of the Mulberry-Tree and the Cult- Y^ork, where he was threatened with im- 
ure of Silk. Two years later Congress prisonment, but procured bail. There he 



issued a series of vigorous pamphlets, 
called Rush Lights, in which he exhibited, 
in vivid colors, the various phases of char- 
acter of all engaged in his prosecution. 
Then he went back to England, and issued 
Porcupine's Works, in 12 octavo volumes, 
which sold largely on both sides of the 
Atlantic. In these he exhibited such pict- 
ures of his American enemies that he 
tasted the sweets of revenge. In 1802 he 
began h's famous Weekly Political Regis- 
ter, which he conducted with ability about 
thirty years, but which caused him to 
incur fines and imprisonment because of 
his libellous utterances. He again came 
to the United States in 1817, but returned 
to England in 1819, taking with him the 
bones of Thomas Paine. He continued the 
business of writing and publishing, and 
many of his books, written in vigorous 
Anglo-Saxon, are very useful. He enter- 
ed Parliament in 1832, and was a member 
three years. He died in Farnham, June 
18, 18.35. 

Cobden Club, a club instituted in Lon- 
don for the purpose of putting into prac- 
tical application the principles of Richard 
Cobden. Its first annual dinner was held 
July 21, 1866, with William E. Gladstone 
in the chair. Its active membership in- 
cludes many of the best-known statesmen 
of Great Britain, and among its honorary 
members are quite a number of well-known 
Americans, several of whom have been sub- 
jected to severe political criticism be- 
cause of their connection with the club. 

Cochran, John, surgeon; born in Suds- 
bury, Pa., Sept. 1, 1730; was a surgeon's 
mate in the French and Indian War; ap- 
pointed surgeon-general in the array in 
1776; and commissioned director-general 
of hospitals by Congress in 1781. When 
peace was concluded he settled in New 
York, and was appointed commissioner of 
loans for that State. He died in Pala- 
tine, N. Y., April 6, 1807. 

Coclirane, Sib Alexander Forester 
Inglis, British naval officer; born April 
22, 1758 ; won great distinction in the 
wars with the United States and France, 
but most particularly in an unequal en- 
gagement with five French ships in Chesa- 
peake Bay. In the War of 1812-15 he 
was commander of the American station. 
In August, 1814, he participated with the 
land forces in capturing Washington, and 

later aided in the attack on New Or- 
leans {q. v.). He was made admiral of 
the blue in 1819. He died in Paris, 
France, Jan. 26, 1832. 

Cockburn, Sir George, naval officer; 
born in London, England, April 22, 1772; 
entered the royal navy in 1783, and was 
rear-admiral in 1812. During the spring 
and summer of 1813 a most distressing 
warfare was carried on upon land and wa- 
ter by a British squadron, under his com- 
mand, along the coasts between Delaware 
Bay and Charleston Harbor. It was mark- 
ed by many acts of cruelty. " Chastise 
the Americans into submission " was the 
substance of the order given to Cock- 
burn by the British cabinet, and he seem- 
ed to be a willing servant of the will of 
his government. An Order in Council, is- 
sued on Dec. 20, 1812, declared the ports 
and harbors of much of the American 
coast in a state of blockade. Cockburn 
entered between the capes of Virginia 
early in February, 1813, with a squadron, 
of which his flag-ship was the Marlbor- 
ough, seventy-four guns. This squadron 
bore a land force of about 1,800 men, a 
part of them captive Frenchmen from 
British prisons, who preferred active life 
in the British service to indefinite' con- 



finement in jails. The appearance of this 
force alarmed all lower Virginia ; and the 
militia of the Peninsula and about Nor- 
folk were soon in motion after the squad- 
ron had entered Hampton Roads. The 
Secretary of the Treasury ordered the ex- 
tinguishment of all the beacon-lights on 
the Chesapeake coast. At the same time 
the frigate Consfenairon, thirty-eight guns, 
lying at Norfolk, was making ready to 
attack the British vessels. A part of 
the British squadron went into Delaware 
Bay, but the forewarned militia were 
ready for the marauders, who only attack- 
ed the village of Lewiston. 

On April 3, 1813, a flotilla of a dozen 
boats filled with armed men from the Brit- 
ish fleet, under Lieutenant Polkingthorne, 


of the St. Domingo, seventy-four guns, en- 
tered the Rappahannock River and attack- 
ed the Baltimore privateer Dolphin, ten 
guns, Captain Stafford, and three armed 
schooners prepared to sail for France. The 
three smaller vessels were soon taken, but 
the struggle with the Dolphin was severe. 
She was boarded, and for fifteen minutes 
a contest raged fearfully on her deck, 
when the Dolphin struck her colors. Cock- 
burn now went up the Chesapeake with 
the brigs Fantome and Mohaxok, and the 
tenders Dolphin, Racer, and Highflyer, and 
proceeded to destroy Frenchtown, a hamlet 
of about a dozen houses on the west 
coast of Delaware. Cockburn made the 
Fantome his flag-ship. The only defenders 
of the hamlet were a few militia who came 
down from Elkton, and some drivers of 
stages and transportation - wagons. The 
former garrisoned a redoubt which had 
just been erected, upon which lay four iron 
cannon. They were vanquished and re- 
tired. The storehouses were plundered 
and burned, but the women and children 
were well treated. Property on land worth 
$25,000 was destroyed, and on the water 
five trading-vessels were consumed. Thence 
Cockburn Avent up the bay to Havre de 
Grace ( 7. v. ) , at the mouth of the Sus- 
quehanna, which he plundered and burned. 
Afterwards he attacked the villages of 
Fredericktown and Georgetown (May 6, 
1813), on the Sassafras River. They con- 
tained from forty to fifty houses each. 
He first visited Fredericktown, on the 
north shore. The militia, under Colonel 
Veazy, made a stout resistance, but were 
compelled to retire. The village was laid 
in ashes, and the storehouses were plunder- 
ed and burned. The marauders then cross- 
ed over to Georgetown, and served it in 
the same way. Having deprived three vil- 
lages on the Chesapeake of property worth 
at least $70,000, Cockburn returned to 
the fleet. 

Early in July, 1813, Admiral Cock- 
burn, with a part of his marauding fleet, 
went southward from Hampton Roads to 
plunder and destroy. His vessels were the 
Sceptre, seventy - four guns (flag -ship), 
Fomithis, Fox, and Nemesis. Off Ocracoke 
Inlet, he despatched (July 12, 1813) about 
800 armed men in barges to the waters 
of Pamlico Sound. There they attacked 
the Anaconda and Atlas, two American 

privateers, and captured both. The crew 
of one escaped, and gave the alarm at 
Newbern. The British boats proceeded to 
attack that place, but found it too well 
prepared to warrant their doing so. They 
captured Portsmouth, and plundered the 
country around. They decamped in haste 
(July 16), carrying with them cattle and 
other property, and many slaves, to whom 
they falsely promised their freedom. 
These, and others obtained the same way, 
Cockburn sold in the West Indies on his 
private account. 

Leaving Pamlico Sound, the marauders 
went down the coast, stopping at and 
plundering Dewees's and Capers's islands, 
and filling the whole region of the lower 
Santee with terror. Informed of these 
outrages, the citizens of Charleston pre- 
pared for the reception of the marauders. 
Fort Moultrie and other fortifications 
were strengthened, breast-works were 
thrown up at exposed places, and a body 
of militia was gathered at Point Pleas- 
ant. In anticipation of the coming of an 
army of liberation, as they were falsely 
informed Cockburn's men were, the ne- 
groes were prepared to rise and strike for 
freedom. Cockburn did not venture into 
Charleston Harbor, but went down to Hil- 
ton Head, from which he carried off slaves 
and cattle. Then he visited the Georgia 
coast, and at Dungenness House, the fine 
estate of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, on 
Cumberland Island, he made his head- 
quarters for the winter, sending his ma- 
rauders out in all directions to plunder 
the plantations on the neighboring coast. 
He was concerned in the sack of Washing- 
ton in 1814, and in an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to capture Baltimore in the same 
year. He was knighted in 1815; made a^ 
major-general of marines in 1821; and 
died in London, Aug. 19, 1853. 

Cocke, Philip St. George, military 
oflicer; born in Virginia in 1808; grad- 
uated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1832; brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army in 1861; and was com- 
mander of the 5th Brigade in the first 
engagement of Bull Run. After eight 
months' service he returned to his home 
in Powhatan county, Va., where ha died, 
Dec. 26, 1861. 

Cockran, Witxtam Bourke, lawyer; 
born in Ireland, Feb. 28, 1854; became 



prominent in New York politics as an pared by his brother, David DtJDLE"? 
adherent of Tammany Hall; member of Field {q. v.), for the State of New York. 
Congress in 1891-95 and 1904-05; spoke The latter, after completing the above- 
for McKinley and the gold standard in mentioned work, was appointed by the 
1896, and for Bryan in 1900. legislature chairman of a commission to 

Cockrell, Francis Marion, statesman; prepare a political code, a penal code, 
born in Johnson county, Mo., Oct. 1, and a civil code, which, with the codes 
1834; graduated at Chapel Hill College in of procedure alluded to, were designed to 
1853; served in the Confederate army, take the place of the common law, and 
1861-65, rising from captain to brigadier- to cover the entire range of American 
general; United States Senator in 1875- law. A number of the States have adopt- 
1905. ed in whole or in part this last class of 

Cod, Cape, the long, narrow, and sandy codes. Mr. Field also actively urged the 
peninsula of Massachusetts; about 65 preparation of a code of international 
miles long, and from 1 to 20 miles wide, law, and personally prepared Outlines of 
It was discovered and named by Barthol- a'l International Code, which was highly 
OMEW GosNOLD {q. V.) , in 1602. commended by jurists and statesmen in 

Cod Fisheries. At Fortune Bay, United all countries. One of Mr. Field's princi- 
States fishers set nets on Sunday, Jan. 13, pal objects in his projected international 
1878, contrary to local regulations; they code was to secure a general adoption of 
were forcibly removed ; controversy ensued, the principle of arbitration in inter- 
Mr. Evarts, for the United States, sent national disputes, an end approximately 
despatch Aug. 24 ; correspondence, Sep- reached in the international agi'eement 
tember, October; Marquis of Salisbury re- at the Peace Conference at The Hague, in 
fused compensation; but Earl Granville 1899. See Arbitration, International 
granted it; £15,000 awarded by arbitra- Court of. 
tion, May 28, 1881. Codman, John, author; born in Dor- 

Coddington, William, founder of Chester, Mass., Oct. 16, 1814; educated 
Rhode Island; born in Lincolnshire, Eng- at Amherst College; followed the sea in 
land, in 1001; came to America in 1630 1834-64, and in the Civil War was cap- 
as a magistrate of Massachusetts ap- tain of the Quaker City, which carried 
pointed by the crown. He was a pros- provisions to Port Royal. His publica- 
perous merchant in Boston, but, taking tions relating to the United States in- 
the part of Anne Hutchinson {q. v.), elude Restoration of the American Carry- 
he was so persecuted that, with eighteen ing Trade; and the Mormon Country, 
others, he removed to the island of Aquid- He died in Boston, Mass., April 6, 1900. 
neck (now Rhode Island), where, on the Cody, William Frederick, scout; born 
organization of a government, he was ap- in Scott county, la., Feb. 26, 1846. In 
pointed judge, or chief ruler. In March, 1857-58 he was under contract to supply 
1640, Coddington was elected governor, the Kansas Pacific Railroad with all the 
and held the office seven years. He went buffalo meat needed during its construe- 
to England in 1651, and in 1674-75 he tion, and in eighteen months he killed 
was again governor. He adopted the 4,280 buffaloes, on account of which he 
tenets of the Quakers. He died Nov. 1, received his widely known sobriquet of 
1G78. " Buffalo Bill." He was a guide and 

Codes, in general terms a collection of scout for the national government for 
laws, the most notable of which in modern many years, and in the action at Indian 
times is the Code Napoleon, which was Creek, in a personal encounter, killed 
promulgated between 1803 and 1810, and Yellow Hand, the Cheyenne chief. He 
has since been adopted in large part by is co - author of The Great Salt Lake 
various countries. In the United States Trail. 

the most notable codes are those prepared Coeur d'Alene. An Indian tribe, which 
by Judge Stephen J. Field (q. v.) for were subjugated by Colonel Wright in 
use in California at the time of its ad- 1858. They were placed on reservations 
mission into the Union, and the Codes in 1867 and 1872. 

of Civil md Criminol Procedure pre- Coffee, John, surveyor; boj-n in Nott^- 




way county, Va., in 1772. In December, Having a real attachment for his native 
1813, he was colonel of Tennessee volun- country, he endowed a " Coffin School " in 
teers under Jackson, and was with him Nantucket, where many of his relatives 

lived, and gave for its support $12,500. 
He died in Cheltenham, England, July 
23, 1839. 

Coffin, John, loyalist; born in Boston, 
Mass., in 1756; took part in the battle of 
Bunker Hill; later recruited 400 men in 
New York, who were afterwards called the 
Orange Rangers; was promoted major and 
received a handsome sword from Corn- 
wallis in recognition of his bravery and 
skill in many important actions. Later 
he was promoted major-general. He died 
in King's county, N. B., in 1838. 

Coffin, Joshua, antiquarian; born in 
Newbury, Mass., Oct. 12, 1792; grad- 
uated at Dartmouth College in 1817; an 
earnest abolitionist; helped to establish 
the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 
1832; published The History of Ancient 
Newburt/. He died in Newbury, Mass., 
June 24, 1864. 

Coffin, Levi, philanthropist; born near 
in all his wars with the Creek Indians. New Garden, N. C, Oct. 28, 1798; early 
He was with him also in his expedition became interested in the welfare of the 
to Pensacola (q. v.), and in the defence slaves in the South; financially aided on 
of New Orleans. In 1817 he was surveyor their way to Canada thousands of fugitive 
of public lands. He died near Florence, slaves, including Eliza Harris, who later 
Ala., July 7, 1833. became widely known through Uncle Tom's 

Coffin, Charles Cakleton (pen-name Cabin. In April, 1847, he went to Cin- 
Carleton ) , author ; born in Boscawen, cinnati, O., and opened a " free-labor 
N. H., July 26, 1823; during the Civil goods" store, which he operated success- 
War was war correspondent of the Boston fully for many years. For thirty years 
Journal. His publications include Days he was president of the secret society 
and Nights on the Battle-field; Following known as the " underground railroad," 
the Flag; Four Years of Fighting; Caleb the purpose of which was to aid slaves 
Erinlde, a Story of American Life; Story iu their escape by passing them on from 
of Liberty; Old Times in the Colonies; member to member. He died in Avon- 
Life of Garfield, etc. He died in Brook- dale, O., Sept. 16, 1877. 
line, Mass., March 2, 1896. Coggeshall, George, author; born in 

Coffin, Sir Isaac, naval officer; born Connecticut in 1784; during the War of 
in Boston, May 16, 1759; was the son of 1812-15 commanded two privateers. His 
a collector of the customs in Boston, who publications relating to the United States 
was a zealous loyalist. He entered the include History of American Privateers 
British navy in 1773, became a lieutenant and Letters of Marque during our Wa/r 
in 1776, and was active on the American with England, 1812, 13, 14; and Histori- 
coast at different times during the war cal Sketch of Commerce and Navigation 
for independence. He served under Rod- froin the Birth of our Saviour down to the 
ney, was made post-captain in 1790, and Present Date. He died in 1861. 
rear-admiral of the blue in 1804, in Coinage, Confederate States. When 
which year he was knighted. In June, Louisiana seceded and seized the United 
1814, he was created admiral of the States mint at New Orleans, there were 
blue, and in 1820 admiral of the white, thousands of dollars' worth of gold and 
He was a member of Parliament in 1818. silver bullion in store. The State issued 



jointly with the Confederate government coining. Some coins had been made in 

a gold coinage of $254,820 in double eagles, Bermuda for the use of the Virginia col- 

and a silver coinage of $1,101,316.50 in ony as early as 1644. 

half-dollars, using the United States dies Copper coins bearing the figure of an 
of 1861, the dies of 1860 having been elephant were struck in England for the 
destroyed. The bullion, when nearly ex- Carolinas and New England in 1694. Coins 
hausted, was transferred to the Confeder- were also struck for Maryland, bearing 
ate government, May, 1861, and all the the effigy of Lord Baltimore. In 1722- 
United States dies were destroyed, the 23, William Wood obtained a royal patent 
Confederate government ordering a new for coining small money for the " Eng- 
die for its use. When completed it was lish plantations in America." He made it 
of such high relief as to be useless in the of pinchbeck — an alloy of copper and tin. 
press. As there was but little if any One side of the coin bore the image of 
bullion to coin, no attempt was made to George I., and on the other was a large 
engrave another. Four pieces, however, double rose, with the legend "Rosa Ameri- 
half-dollars, were struck, which formed the cana utile dulci." In the coinage of 1724 
entire coinage of the Confederate States, the rose was crowned. This base coin 
The coin shows — Obverse: A goddess of was vehemently opposed in the colonies, 
liberty within an are of thirteen stars. A writer of the day, speaking of the spec- 
Exergue, 1861. Reverse: An American ulation, said Wood had "the conscience 
shield beneath a liberty-cap, the upper part to make thirteen shillings out of a pound 
of the shield containing seven stars, the of brass." The power of coinage was ex- 
whole surrounded by a wreath : to the left, ercised by several of the independent 
cotton in bloom; to the right, sugar- States from 1778 until the adoption of 
cane. Legend: Confederate States of the national Constitution. A mint was 
American. Exergue: Half Dol. Boarders, established at Rupert, Vt., by legislative 
milled; edge, serrated. authority in 1785, whence copper cents 
Coinage, United States. Wampum were issued, bearing on one side a plough 
depreciated in value as currency in conse- and a sun rising from behind hills, and on 
quence of over-production, and a final the other a radiated eye surrounded by 
blow was given to it as a circulating me- thirteen stars. Some half-cents also were 
dium in New England by an order from issued by the Vermont mint. In the same 
the authorities of Massachusetts not to j-ear the legislature of Connecticut au- 
receive it in payment of taxes. As fast thorized the establishment of a mint at 
as coin came to the colony of Massachu- New Haven, whence copper coins were is- 
setts by trade with the West Indies, it sued having on one side the figure of a 
was sent to England to pay for goods pur- human head, and on the other that of 
chased there. To stop this drain of specie a young woman holding an olive-branch. 
Massachusetts set up a mint, and coined This mint continued in operation about 
silver threepences, sixpences, and shillings, three years. In 1786 parties obtained au- 
each bearing the figure of a pine-tree on thority from the legislature of New Jer- 
one side, and the words " New England " sey to coin money, and they established 
on the other. The silver was alloyed a two mints in that State: one not far from 
quarter below the English standard, with Morristo\vn, and the other at Elizabeth- 
the expectation that the debasement would town. On one side of this coinage was the 
prevent the coin leaving the country. Thus head of a horse, with a plough beneath ; 
the pound currency of New England came and on the reverse a shield. The head 
to be one-fourth less than the pound ster- of a horse and three ploughs now form 
ling of Great Britain; and this standard the chief device of the great seal of New 
v"as afterwards adopted by the British Jersey. 

Parliament for all the English American Cents and half-cents w^ere issued in Mas- 
colonies. The "mint-house" in Boston sachusetts in 1788, exhibiting on one side 
existed about thirty-four years. All the an eagle with a bundle of arrows in the 
coins issued from it bore the dates 1652 right talon, an olive-branch in the left, 
or 1662, the same dies being used, prob- and a shield on its breast bearing the 
ably, throughout the thirty-four years of word " cent." That device wag, ai^d is 



now, the chief on the great seal of the of a dollar in silver, and a hundredth of a 
United States. On the other side of the dollar in copper. 

Massachusetts cent was the figure of an This report was adopted by Congress in 
Indian holding a bow and arrow; also 1785, and was the origin of our copper 
a single star. As early as the adoption of cent, silver dime and dollar, and golden 
the "Articles of Confederation" (1781) eagle. The following year Congress framed 
the subject of national coinage occupied an ordinance for the establishment of a 
the attention of statesmen. In 1782, Rob- mint, but nothing further was done until 
ert Morris, superintendent of finance, 1787, when the board of treasury, by au- 
submitted to the Continental Congress a thority of Congress, contracted with James 
plan for a metallic currency for the Unit- Jarvis for 300 tons of copper coins of 
ed States, arranged by Gouverneur Mor- the prescribed standard, which were coin- 
ris, who attempted to harmonize all the ed at a mint in New Haven, Conn. They 
moneys of the States. He found that the bore the following devices: On one side 
1440th part of the Spanish dollar was a thirteen circles linked together; a small 
common divisor of all the various curren- circle in the middle, with the words 
cies. Starting with that fraction as a "American Congress" within it, and, in 

the centre, the sen- 
tence " We are one." 
On the other side a 
sun-dial, with the sun 
above it, and the word 
" Fugio " ; and around 
the whole, " Conti- 
nental Currency, 1776." 
Below the dial, " Mind 
your business." A 
few of these pieces, it 
is said, were struck in 
a mint at Rupert, Vt. 
The national Constitu- 
tion vested the right of 
coinage exclusively in 
the national govern- 
unit, he proposed the following table of ment. The establishment of a mint was 
moneys: Ten units to be equal to one authorized by act of Congress in April, 
penny, ten pence to one bill, ten bills to 1792, but it did not go into full operation 
one dollar (about seventy-five cents of our until 1795. 

present currency), and ten dollars to one During the interval of about three years 
crown. The superintendent reported the its operations were chiefly experimental, 
plan to Congress in February, 1782, and and hence the variety of silver and copper 
employed Benjamin Dudley, of Boston, to coins which appeared between 1792 and 
construct machinery for a mint. The sub- 179.5, now so much sought after by coin- 
ject was debated from time to time, and collectors. The most noted of these is the 
on April 22, 1783, some coins were submit- "Washington cent," or " Liberty - cap 
ted to Congress as patterns. Nothing cent," so called because it has the profile 
further was done in the matter (and Mr. of Washington on one side and a liberty- 
Dudley was discharged) until 1784, when cap on the other. The subject of a device 
Mr. Jefferson, chairman of a committee for the national coin caused much and 
appointed for the purpose, submitted a sometimes warm debate in Congress. The 
report, disagreeing with that of Mor- bill for the establishment of the mint 
ris becavise of the diminutive size of its originated in the Senate, and provided 
unit. He proposed to strike four coins for an eagle on one side of the gold and 
upon the basis of the Spanish milled dollar silver coins. To this there was no ob- 
as follows: A golden piece of the value jection. The bill proposed for the reverse 
of ten dollars, a dollar in silver, a tenth a representation of the head of the Presi- 




dent of the United States for the time be- 
ing, with his name and order of succession 
to the Presidency and the date of the coin- 


age. To this it was objected that the 
President might not always be satisfac- 
tory to the people, who would be disturbed 
by the effigy of an unpopular or unworthy 
one. Besides, the head of the President 
might be viewed as a stamp of royalty on 
the coins, and would wound the feelings 
of many. The House, after much debate, 
did not agree with the Senate, and the 
bill was sent back. Then it was proposed 
to substitute a head or figure of Liberty. 
This was finally agreed to, but an attempt 
was afterwards made to substitute the 
head of Columbus. At last the eagle, in 
the place of the head of Liberty, was 
chosen for the golden coins. 

David Eittenhouse, of Philadelphia, was 
chosen the first director of the mint. At 
that city (being the seat of government) 
it was established, and was never moved 
from it. It was the sole mint until 1835, 
when Congress created several branches. 
The dies used in coinage in all the mints 
in the United States are under the super- 
vision of the engraver of the mint at 
Philadelphia. By the act of 1792 the 
golden eagle of 10 dollars was to weigh 
270 grains, the parts in the same propor- 
tion; all of the fineness of 22 carats. 
The silver dollar, of 100 cents, was 
to weigh 416 grains, the fractions in 
proportion; the fineness, 892.4 thou- 
sandths. The copper cent was to weigh 
264 grains; the half-cent in proportion. 
In 1793 the weight of the cent was re- 
duced to 208 grains, and the half-cent 
in the same proportion. 

Assay offices were established at New 
York in 1854; at Denver, Col., in 1864; 
and at Boiso City, Ida., in 1872. In 1873 
Congress made the mint and assay offices 
a bureau of the Treasury Department, the 

title of the chief officer of which is Super- 
intendent of the Mint. An act was passed 
in June, 1834, changing the weight and 
fineness of the gold coin, and the relative 
value of gold and silver. The weight of 
the eagle was reduced to 258 grains, and 
the parts in proportion, of which 232 
grains must be pure gold, making the fine- 
ness 21 carats. The silver coinage was 
not then changed, but in January, 1837, 
Congress reduced the weight of the 
silver dollar to 4121^ grains, and the parts 
in proportion. By act of March 3, 1849, 
there were added to the series of gold 
coins the double eagle and the dollar; and 
in February, 1853, a 3-dollar piece. On 
March, 3, 1851, there was added to the 
silver coins a 3 - cent piece (a legal 
tender for sums not exceeding 30 cents), 
and this piece continued to be coin- 
ed until April 1, 1853, when its fineness 
was raised and its weight reduced. By 
act of Feb. 21, 1853, gold alone was 
made a legal tender, and the weight of 
the half-dollar was reduced to 206 grains, 
and smaller coins in proportion. Silver 
was made a legal tender only to the 
amount of 5 dollars. The silver dollar 
was not included in the change, but re- 
mained a legal tender. The copper cent 
and half-cent were discontinued in 1857, 
and a new cent of copper and nickel was 
coined. In 1864 the coinage of the bronze 
cent was authorized; also 2-cent pieces. 
By act of March 3, 1865, a 3-cent piece 
was authorized, of three - fourths cop- 
per and one-fourth nickel. May 16, 1866, 
a coinage of 5-cent pieces, three - fourths 
copper and one-fourth nickel, was author- 
ized. The coinage act of 1873 prescribed 
the fineness of all gold and silver coins 
to be .900. The gold coins were of the 
same denomination as before; the silver 
coins were a " trade-dollar," weighing 420 
grains; a half-dollar, or 50-cent piece; 
a quarter-dollar, and a dime. There were 
also 5 - cent and 3 - cent silver coins is- 
sued. The issuing of coins other than 
those enumerated in the act is prohibited. 
It was provided that upon the coins of the 
I'nited States there shall be the follow- 
ing devices and legends: Upon one side 
an emblem of Liberty, with the word 
" Liberty " and the year of the coinage ; 
and upon the reverse the figure of an 
eagle, with the inscriptions " United States 



of America " and " E pluribus unum," and The highest figure ever attained by the 
a designation of the value of the coin; but fund was reached on April 24 of this 
on the gold dollar and 3 - dollar pieces, year, when the total reached the $502,173,- 
the dime, 5, 3, and 1 cent pieces, the 119 mark. The diminution since then 
figure of the eagle shall be omitted; and has been a little less than $1,000,000, and, 
on the reverse of the silver trade-dollar of course, there is virtually no significance 
the weight and the fineness of the coin in the drop. When it is considered that 
shall be inscribed, with the motto " In six or seven years ago this fund amounted 
God we trust" added when practicable. to a sum less than $100,000,000 the exact 
The following table shows the coinage amount now held can be better appreci- 
of the mints of the United States from ated. When the fund was ebbing at that 
their organization in 1792 to June 30, time it was found necessary by the nation- 
al administration to issue bonds to stay 
the inroads which were being made upon 
it, due to demands for gold from the 
money centres, and it was not without 
involving the government in considerable 
debt that the fund was maintained at the 






Three-dollar pieces (coinage discontinued under 

act nf Sept. 26, 1890) 


Dollars (coinage discontinued under act of Sept, 

26, 1890) 

Total gold 


Dollars (coinage discontinued, act of Feb. 12, 1873, 

and resumed under act of Feb. 28, 1878) 


Dollars (Lafayette souvenir), act of March 3, 1899. 


Half-dollars (Columbian souvenir) 

Quarter-dol lars 

Quarter-dollars (Columbian souvenir) 

Twenty-cent pieces (coinage discontinued, act of 

May 2, 1878) 


Half-dimes (coinage discontinued, act of Feb. 12, 


Three-cent pieces (coinage discontinued, act of Feb, 

12, 1873) 

Total silver 


Five-cent pieces, nickel 

Three-cent pieces, nicliel (coinage discontinued, act 

of Sept. 26, 1890) 

Two-cent pieces, bronze (coinage discontinued, act 

of Feb. 12, 1873) 

One-cent pieces, copper (coinage discontinued, act 

of Feb 21, 1857) 

One-cent pieces, nickel (coinage discontinued, act 

of April 22, 1864) 

One-cent pieces, bronze 

Half-cent pieces, copper (coinage discontinued, act 

of Feb. 21, 1857) 

Total minor 

Total coinage. 


29;oi5;635;oo lowest figure permissible. 


There is not a country on the face of 

^■■',1 6 7,088,113. 00 the earth whieh holds so much gold in its 

treasury as the United States now has in 

»|506,527.453.oo its coffcrs. Russia, England, France, and 

^*'^5o,o26:oo other great money powers of Europe, 

^'^sjoiloss'so ^'^'^^ fi'°™ ti™6 to time held amounts 

*^''io'oo575 °^ commensurate value in their treasu- 

„ ,' ries, but at the present time we have 

271,000.00 /., 

35,931,861.20 any and all of them beaten by a large 
4,880,219.40 margin. See Bimetallism; Circula- 
1,282,087.20 TioN, Monetary; Currency, National; 


$33,503,969 72 


$ 796,171,1.59.55 MONETARY EeFORM. 

Coke, Sir Edward, jurist; born at Mile- 
$17,967,308.10 ]^^j^^ Norfolk, England, Feb. 1, 1552; 
941,349.48 educatcd at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
912,020.00 Cliiford's Inn, and the Inner Temple; be- 
1,662,887.44 gan the practice of law in 1578, and quick- 
2,007,720.00 ly rose to the highest rank. Passing 
through different grades of judicial of- 
fice, he became lord chief-justice of Eng- 
land, opposed in his whole course by a 
powerful rival, Francis Bacon. Coke was 
s^^i^:^^%:lt^^^^.'''''''^'''''•'''''^'"'^ a_ violent and unscrupulous man, and car- 

ried his points in court and in politics by 
On May 3, 1901, the United States sheer audacity, helped by tremendous in- 
treasurer issued the following statement tellectual force. As attorney-general, he 
concerning the amount of gold held by the conducted the prosecution of Sir Walter 
treasury: Ealeigh with shameful unfairness; and 

The gold fund in the treasury now from the beginning of his reign King 
amounts to $501,469,468. This is made James I. feared and hated him, but failed 
up as follows: Reserve fund, $150,000,000; to suppress him. Coke was in the privy 
held against gold certificates, $283,441,- council and in Parliament in 1621 when 
989, and the general fund, $68,027,479. the question of monopolies by royal grants 
This total includes both coin and bullion, was brought before the House in the case 
and the average fund held during the of the council of Plymouth and the New 
last month has been the highest in the England fisheries. Coke took ground 
history of the government. against the validity of the patent, and §0 



directly assailed the prerogative of the 
King. In. other cases he took a similar 
course; and when the King censured the 
House of Commons, as composed of " fiery, 
popular, and turbulent spirits," Coke, 
speaker of the House, invited that body 
to an assertion of its rights, independent 
of the King, in the form of a protest en- 
tered on its minutes. The angry monarch 
sent for the book, tore out the record of 
the protest with his own hands, dissolved 
Parliament, and caused the arrest and the 
imprisonment of Coke, Pym, and other 
members for several months in the Tower. 
After that he was a thorn in the side of 
James and his successor. In 1628 Coke 
retired from public life, and died in 
Stoke Pogis, Buckinghamshire, Sept. 3, 
1634. His Reports and other writings 
upon law and jurisprudence were numer- 
ous and most important. He published 
Coke upon Littleton in 1628. 

Golden, Cadwallader, physician; born 
in Dunse, Scotland, Feb. 17, 1688; grad- 
uated at the University of Edinburgh 
in 1705, and became a physician and 


mathematician. In 1708 he emigrated to 
Pennsylvania, and returned to his na- 
tive country in 1712. He came again to 
America in 1716, and in 1718 made 
his abode in New York, where he was 
made first surveyor-general of the colony, 
became a master in chancery, and, in 
1720, obtained a seat in Governor Bur- 
net's council. He received a patent for 
lands in Orange county, N. Y., about 10 
miles from Newburg, and there he went 

to reside in 1755. Becoming president of 
the council, he administered the govern- 
ment in 1760, and was made lieutenant- 
governor in 1761, which station he held 
until his death, being repeatedly placed 
at the head of affairs by the absence or 
death of governors. During the Stamp 
Act excitement the populace burned his 
coach. After the return of Governor 
Tryon in 1775, he retired to his seat on 
Long Island. Dr. Colden wrote a History 
of the Five Indian 'Nations of Canada in 
1727. He was an ardent student of bot- 
any, and introduced the Linna?an system 
into America. He published scientific 
works and was a correspondent of the 
leading men of science in Europe. He died 
on Long Island, N. Y., Sept. 28, 1776. 

Gold Harbor, Battle of. In 1864 
the Army of the Potomac and a large part 
of the Army of the James formed a junc- 
tion near Cold Harbor, a locality in Han- 
over county, Va., originally known as 
Cool Arbor, and the old battle - ground 
of MeClellan and Lee in June, 1862. 
Gen. W. F. Smith and 16,000 men of the 
Army of the James had been taken in 
transports from Bermuda Hundred around 
to the White House, whence they had 
marched towards the Chickahominy. Sher- 
idan had seized the point at Cold Harbor, 
and the Nationals took a position extend- 
ing from beyond the Hanover road to 
Elder Swamp Creek, not far from the 
Chickahominy. Burnside's corps com- 
posed the right of the line, Warren's and 
Wright's the centre, and Hancock's the 
left. The Confederate line, reinforced by 
troops under Breckinridge, occupied a 
line in front of the Nationals — Ewell's 
corps on the left, Longstreet's in the cen- 
tre, and A. P. Hill's on the right. On the 
morning of June 1, 1864, Hoke's division 
attempted to retake Cold Harbor. It was 
repulsed, but was reinforced by McLaws's 
diA'ision. Wright's 6th Corps came up in 
time to meet this new danger : and 
Smith's troops from the Army of the 
James, after a march of 25 miles, came 
up and took post on the right of the 6th 
Corps, then in front of Cold Harbor, on 
the road leading to Gaines's Mills. Be- 
tween the two armies was a broad, open, 
undulating field and a thin line of woods. 
Over this field the Nationals advanced to 
the attack at 4 P.m. The veterans of 



Smith soon captured the first line of rifle- 
pits and 600 men. Their attack on the 
second line was a failure, and with dark- 
ness the struggle ceased, the Nationals 
having lost 2,000 men. They held the 
ground, and bivouacked on the battle- 

During the night the Confederates made 
desperate but unsuccessful efforts to re- 

opened one of the most sanguinary bat- 
tles of the war. It was begun on the 
right by the divisions of Barlow and Gib- 
bon, of Hancock's corps, supported by 
Birney's. Barlow drove the Confederates 
from a strong position in front of their 
works, and captured several hundred men 
and three guns, when the Confederates 
rallied and retook the position. General 


take the rifle-pits. General Grant had 
ordered a redisposition of his army, mak- 
ing Hancock form the right, to the right 
of Wright's corps. Burnside was with- 
drawn entirely from the front and placed 
on the right and rear of Warren, who 
connected with Smith. Having made 
these dispositions on the 2d, it was deter- 
mined to force the passage of the Chicka- 
hominy the next morning, and compel 
Lee to seek safety in the fortifications 
around Richmond. The Nationals moved 
at four o'clock on the morning of the 3d. 
Wilson's cavalry was on the right flank, 
and Sheridan's held the lower crossings 
of the river, and covered the roads to the 
White House. Orders had been given for 
a general assault along the whole line. 
At half-past four, or a little later, the 
signal for the advance was given, and then 


Gibbon, who charged at the same time, 
was checked by a marsh of the Chicka- 
hominy which partly separated and weak- 
ened his command, and part of them 
gained the Confederate works, but could 
not hold them. There was a severe strug- 
gle, and in the assaults Hancock lost 3,000 
men. The other divisions of the army 
were hotly engaged at the same time. 
The battle was " sharp, quick, and de- 
cisive." The Nationals were repulsed at 
nearly every point with great slaughter. 
It was estimated that within the space of 
twenty minutes after the struggle began 
10,000 Union soldiers lay dead or wound- 
ed on the field, while the Confederates, 
sheltered by their works, had not lost 
more than 1,000. And so, at one o'clock 
in the afternoon of June 3, 1S64, the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor ended. 


rt wag one of the most sanguinary River. He was made a brigadler-genefal 

struggles of the great Civil War. The Na- of volunteers on May 28, 1898, and given 

tionals had a fearful loss of life, but command of the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 

firmly held their position, with all their at Camp Alger. The unwholesome condi- 

munitions of war. Their loss in this en- tions of the camp caused his resignation, 

gngement, and in the immediate vicinity and his death, in St. Louis, Mo., July 31, 

of Cold Harbor, was reported at 13,153, 
of whom 1,705 were killed and 2,406 
were missing. Immediately after the bat- 
tle Sheridan was sent to destroy the rail- 
ways in Lee's rear, and so make Wash- 
ington more secure. This task he effectu- 
ally performed, fighting much of the 
time. Grant then resolved to transfer his 
army to the south side of the James 

Cole, Thomas, painter; born in Bolton- 
le-Moor, Lancashire, England, Feb. 1, 
1801, of American parents who had gone 
to England previous to his birth, and re- 
turned in 181!), settling in Philadelphia, 
where Thomas practised the art of wood- 
engraving. He began portrait-painting 
in Steubenville, O., in 1820, soon wander- 
ed as an itinerant in the profession, and 


Coleman, William T., pioneer; born in 
Cynthiana, Ky., Feb. 29, 1824; removed to 
San Francisco in 1849; became known 
through his affiliation with a secret or- 
ganization for the suppression of crime 
in that city, called the Vigilance Commit- 
tee. In the course of a few months this 
committee executed four notorious charac- 
ters, and either drove out of California 
or terrified into concealment large num- 
bers of others. In 1856 public indignation 
was again aroused by the murder of a 
well - known editor, James King. The 
Vigilance Committee again became active, 
and Mr. Coleman became chairman of 
the executive committee. In this capacity 
he presided at the trials and had charge 
of the execution of four murderers, in- 

finally became one of the most eminent eluding Casey, the murderer of King. For 

of American landscape-painters. He es- many years this organization was the 

tablished himself in New York in 1825. dominating power in municipal politics. 

The charming scenery of the Hudson em- He died in San Francisco, Cal., Nov., 22, 

ployed his pencil and brush, and orders 1893. 

for his landscapes soon came from all 
quarters. From 1829 to 1832 he was in 
Kurope, and on his return he made his 
heme in Catskill, N. Y., where he resided 

Coles, Edw^ard, governor; born in Albe- 
marle county, Va., Dec. 15, 1786; grad- 
uated at William and Mary College in 
1807; went to Russia on a confidential 

until his death, Feb. 11, 1847. His two diplomatic mission for the United States 

great finished works are The Course of 
Empire and The Voyage of Life, the for- 
mer consisting of a series of five, and the 
latter of four, pictures. He produced 
many other fine compositions in land- 
scape and figures, which gave him a place 

government in 1817. He removed to Ed- 
wardsville. 111., in 1819, and freed all the 
slaves which he had inherited, giving to 
the head of each family 160 acres of 
land. He was governor of Illinois from 
1823 to 1826, and during his term of 

at the head of his profession. Mr. Cole office he prevented the slavery party from 

left unfinished at his death a series en- 
titled The Cross and the World, and was 
also the author of a dramatic poem and 
works of fiction. 

Cole, Nelson, military officer; born in 
Dutchess county, New York, Nov. 18, 1833; 
subsequently settled in St. Louis, Mo. 
When the Civil War broke out he enter- 
ed the Union army and served with con- 
spicuous ability in numerous engagements. 
Early in 1865, at the head of 1,500 men, 
he led a successful expedition against the 
hostile Sioux, Arapahoe, and Cheyenne 
Indians at the sources of the Yellowstone 

obtaining control of the State. Later he 
settled in Philadelphia, Pa., and in 1856 
read a History of the Ordinance of 1787 
before the Pennsylvania Historical Soci- 
ety. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 
7, 1868. 

Colfax, Schuyler, statesman; born in 
New York City, March 23, 1823; was 
grandson of the last commander of Wash- 
ington's life-guard ; became a merchant's 
clerk, and then, with his family, he went 
to New Carlisle, St. Joseph eo., Ind., 
where for five years he was a clerk in a 
country store. In 1841 his step-father, 




Mr. Mathews, was elected county auditor, 
and he removed to South Bend and made 

quently lectured to large audiences Upon 
men he had known and subjects connected 
with his long career in public life. His 
best lecture was undoubtedly that on 
Lincoln and Garfield. He died suddenly, 
in Mankato, Minn., Jan. 13, 1885. 

Collamer, Jacob, born in Troy, N. Y., 
Jan. 8, 1791; graduated at the Univer- 
sity of Vermont in 1810; admitted to 
the bar in 1813; elected a justice of the 
Vermont Supreme Court in 1833; served 
until his election to Congress in 1843; 
appointed Postmaster-General under Pres- 
ident Taylor in March, 1849; elected 
United States Senator in 1854, and served 
until his death, in Woodstock, Vt., Nov. 
9, 1865. 

College Fraternities. The principal 
Greek-letter societies in the United States 
are as follows: 

Kappa Alpha 

Delta Phi 

Sigma Phi 

Alpha Delta Phi 

Psi Upsilon 

Delta Upsilon 

BetaTheta Pi 

Chi Psi 

Delta Kappa Epsilon 

Zeta Psi 

Delta Psi 

Theta Delta Chi 

Phi Delta Theta 

Phi Gamma Delta. . . 
Phi Kappa Sigma.. . 

Phi Kappa Psi 

Chi Phi 

Sigma Chi 

Sigma Alpha Epsilon 

Delta Tan Delta 

Alpha Tail Omega. . . , 
Kappa Alpha (south). 

Kappa Sigma 

Sigma Nu 


Where Founded. 







* Y 








New York University 


A S' 





<t> K 2 

University of Pennsylvania 




2 X 


S A E 



A T fl 


Virginia Military Institute 


K A 


K 2 

2 N 

Virginia Military Institute 


Schuyler his deputy. There he studied 
law, and finally established a weekly 
newspaper. In 1850 he was a member of 
the Indiana State constitutional conven- 
tion, and the next year was a candidate 
for Congress, but was not elected. In 
1856 the newly formed Republican party 
elected him to Congress, and he was re- 
elected for six consecutive terms. In De- 
cember, 1863, he was elected Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, and was re- 
elected in 1865 and 1867. In November, 
1868, he was elected Vice-President, with 
General Grant as President. After his re- 
tirement to private life in 1873 he fre- 

College Influence. The American col- 
lege has rendered a service of greater 
value to American life in training men 
than in promoting scholarship. It has 
affected society more generally and deeply 
through its graduates than through its 
contributions to the sciences. It has been 
rather a mother of men than a nurse of 

College Settlements, a plan to elevate 
the degraded masses of large cities. It 
consists in the establishment in tenement 
localities of settlements or houses where 
educated people live either permanently 
or temporarily for the purpose of work- 



ing among the poor. The first attempt Randolph-Macon Women's College, Lynch- 
of this kind was made in 1867 when Ed- burg, Va. These colleges had 543 pro- 
ward Denison, a graduate of Oxford Uni- fessors and instructors, 4,606 students, 
versity, went to live in the East End of seventeen fellowships, 254 scholarships, 
London that he might study the griev- $0,390,398 invested in grounds and build- 
ances of the poor, and do educational ings, $4,122,473 invested in productive 
work among them. A similar work was funds, and $1,244,350 in total income, 
done by Arnold Toynbee, whose labors The second division, which comprised in- 
led to his death in 1883, but whose efforts stitutions under the corporate name of 
and name were perpetuated by the estab- colleges, institutes, and seminaries, and 
lishment on Jan. 10, 1885, of Toynbee were largely under the control of the dif- 
Hall, in Whitechapel, East London, and ferent religious organizations, numbered 
afterwards of Oxford Hall. The first col- 132, with 1,933 professors and instructors, 
lege settlement in the United States was 18,417 students, $8,494,071 invested in 
founded in New York City in the fall of grounds and buildings, $743,700 invested 
1889, by the graduates of several women's in productive funds, and $2,080,911 in 
colleges. The building, at No. 95 Riving- total income. 

ton Street, is located in one of the most Colleges in the United States. There 
crowded tenement districts of the East were nine higher institutions of learn- 
Side. On May 14, 1891, another settle- ing in the English-American colonies 
nient was organized in New York by the before the breaking - out of the Revo- 
graduates of Yale, Columbia, Princeton, lutionary War — namely, Harvard, in 
and other colleges. In October of the IMassachusetts; William and Mary, in 
same year the graduates of Andover The- Virginia; Yale, in Connecticut; King's, 
ological Seminary and other ex-collegians in New York; College of New Jersey and 
began a similar work in the tenement Queen's, in New Jersey; College of Rhode 
district of Boston. See Addams, Jane. Island; Dartmouth, in New Hampshire; 
Colleges for Women. One of the most and University of Pennsylvania. Hamp- 
striking features of the development of den-Sidney College was foimded in 1775, 
higher education in the United States in just as the war broke out. In these colo- 
the closing years of the nineteenth cen- nial institutions many of the brightest 
tury was the opening of regular courses statesmen of the eighteenth century and 
to women by a remarkably large number beginning of the nineteenth were educated, 
of colleges. At the close of the school (See their respective titles.) At the close 
year 1899 there were 484 colleges and uni- of the school year 1898-99 collegiate edu- 
versities in the United States, more than cation in the United States was afforded 
a majority of which had been made co- by 484 colleges and universities, of which 
educational. For the higher instruction 348 were co-educational, and 136 for men 
of women exclusively there were 145 col- only; 145 colleges and seminaries for wom- 
leges and seminaries authorized to confer en conferring degrees, forty-three insti- 
degrees, having 2,441 professors and in- tutions of technology, 163 theological 
structors, 20,548 students and $3,236,416 schools, ninety-six law schools, 151 medi- 
in total income. The institutions exclu- cal schools, fifty dental schools, fifty-one 
sively for women, organized on the general pharmaceutical schools, thirteen veter- 
basis of college requirements, were divided inary schools, and 393 training-schools for 
into two classes. The first comprised the nurses. These institutions combined re- 
following: Mills College, in Mills College ported 21.439 professors and instructors 
Station, Cal.; Rockford College, Rockford, and 224,808 students. The universities 
111. ; Women's College, Baltimore, Md. ; and colleges for men and for both sexes 
Radcliffe, in Cambridge; Smith, in North- had 417 fellowships, 7,077 scholarships, 
ampton; Mount Holyoke, in South Had- 7,096,325 volumes in their libraries, $11,- 
ley; Wellesley. in Wellesley — all in Mas- 004,532 invested in scientific apparatus, 
sachusetts; Wells, in Aurora; Elmira, in $126,211,099 in grounds and buildings, and 
Elmira; Barnard, in New York City; and $119,632,651 in productive funds, and 
Vassar, in Poughkeepsie — all in New $19,213,371 in total income. The schools 
York; Bryn Mawr, Bryn Mawr, Pa.; and of technology had 567 scholarships, $2,- 



632,656 I'nA'ested in scientific apparatus, ed to capture privateers. On Oct. 7, 1864, 

$12,785,009 in grounds and buildings, and he followed the Confederate steamer 

$9,078,143 in productive funds, and $3,- Florida into the harbor of Bahia, Brazil, 

424,610 in total income. Nearly all of and captured her. Later, as Brazil had 

the professional schools were connected complained that her neutrality had not 

with the large universities and colleges, been respected, his act was disavowed. Col- 

and the training-schools for nurses were lins was promoted rear-admiral in 1874, 

a part of municipal and other chartered and given command of the South Pacific 

hospitals. The agricultural and mechan- squadron. He died in Callao, Peru, Aug. 

ical colleges endowed by Congress are in 9, 1875. 

general connected with State universities, Colman, Norman J., agriculturalist; 

and are officially classified as schools of born near Richfield Springs, N. Y., in 

technology. 1827; began the practice of law in New 

Colleton, James, colonial governor; was Albany, Ind., and the editing of an agri- 
made governor of South Carolina, and cultural paper in St. Louis, Mo., in 1871. 
given 48,000 acres of land in 1686. It He was elected lieutenant-governor as a 
was his duty to exercise the authority of Democrat in 1874, and was United States 
the proprietaries, and enforce the laws Commissioner and Secretary of Agricul- 
whieh were being violated by the colonists, ture in 1885-89. 

ITpon his arrival in the colony Colleton Colonial Civil Service. See Civil 

excluded from the legislative halls all the Service, Colonial. 

members of the Parliament who opposed Colonial Commissions. The first of 

these acts. Later the Assembly defied the two notable royal commissions to what is 

proprietaries and the governor, imprison- now the United States was sent out in 

ed the secretary of the colony, and after- 1634. Morton of Merry Mount had made 

wards impeached, disfranchised, and drove serious charges against the people of Mas- 

Colleton out of the province. sachusetts before the privy council. That 

Collier, Sir George, naval officer; en- body summoned the council for New Eng- 
tered the British navy in 1761; given land before them to answer the charges, 
command of the Rainbow in 1775, and They denied having had anything to do 
cruised off the American coast. In 1777 with the matters complained of, and added 
he captured the American vessel Hancock; new and serious charges of their own, de- 
destroyed the stores at IMachias, and thir- daring themselves unable to redress their 
ty vessels on the northeast coast; and grievances. They referred the whole mat- 
later he ravaged the coasts of Connecti- ter to the privy council. A commission 
cut and Chesapeake Bay. On Aug. 14, of twelve persons was appointed, with 
1779, he captured the fleet of Commodore Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, at its 
Saltonstall on the Penobscot River. He head, to whom full power was given to 
died April 6, 1795. revise the laws, to regulate the Church, 

Collins, John, governor; born June 8, and to revoke charters. The members 

1717; was an active patriot during the of the Massachusetts Company in Eng- 

Revolutionary War; in 1776 was made a land were called upon to give up their 

commissioner to arrange the accounts of patent, and Governor Cradock wrote for 

Rhode Island with Congress; in 1778- it to be sent over. Morton wrote to one 

83 was a member of the old Congress, and of the old planters that a governor-general 

m 1786-89 governor of Rhode Island. He had been appointed. Orders were also is- 

was then elected to the first Congress un- sued to the seaport towns of England to 

der the national Constitution, but did not have all vessels intended for America 

take his seat. He died in Newport, R. I., stopped. The colonists were alarmed. 

March 8, 1795. The magistrates and clergy met on an isl- 

Collins, Napoleon, naval officer; born and at the entrance to the inner harbor 

in Pennsylvania, May 4, 1814; joined the of Boston, and, resolving to resist the 

navy in 1834; served in the war with commissioners, agreed to erect a fort on 

Mexico; and in the Civil War was placed the island, and to advance the means for 

in command of the steam-sloop Wachu- the purpose themselves until the meeting 

sett, in 18*^3, when that vessel was assign- of the general court. They sent letters 
is.—Q 241 


of remonstrance to England, and refused governor, the other commissioners pro- 
to send over the charter before the meet- ceeded to Boston. Meanwhile the authori- 
ing of the court. When that body met, ties of Massachusetts had sent a remon- 
in May, active measures for defence vpere strance to England against the appoint- 
adopted. They ordered a fort to be built ment of tlie commissioners. It was un- 
in Boston. Military preparations were heeded. The Massachusetts authorities 
ordered, and three commissioners were ap- were unyielding, the commissioners were 
pointed to conduct " any war that might haughty and overbearing, and a bitter 
befall for the space of a year next en- mutual dislike finally made their corre- 
suing." The English government threat- spondence mere bickerings. The commis- 
ened, but did nothing. In September, 1635, sioners proceeded to settle the boundary 
a writ of quo loarranto was issued against between I'lymouth and Rhode Island, 
the Massachusetts Company; but every- More difficult was the settlement of the 
thing went on in the colony as if no serious boundary between Rhode Island and Con- 
threats were impending. The political necticut, because of opposing claims to 
disorders in England were safeguards to jurisdiction over the Pequod country. The 
the infant colony. It was after the appoint- commissioners finally directed that the 
ment of this commission that Endicott cut region in dispute should constitute a sepa- 
the cross from the standard at Salem. rate district, under the title of the 
The second of these commissions was " King's Province." Neither party was 
sent over in 1664. Territorial claims, satisfied, and the boundary dispute con- 
rights of jurisdiction, boundaries, and tinned fifty years longer, 
other matters had created controversies The commissioners now proposed to sit 
in New England, which were continually as a court to hear complaints against 
referred to the crown, and in 1664 the Massachusetts, of which there were thirty. 
King signified his intention to appoint The general court, by public proclama- 
a commission for hearing and determining tion, forbade such a proceeding, and the 
all matters in dispute. This occasioned commissioners went to New Hampshire 
alarm in Massachusetts, which had been and Maine, when they decided in favor of 
a narrow oppressor of other colonies, es- claims of the heirs of Mason and Gorges, 
pecially of Rhode Island, and against In the latter province they organized a 
which serious complaints had been made, new government; and on their return to 
A large comet appearing at that time in- Boston the authorities complained that 
creased the general alarm, for it was re- the commissioners had disturbed the peace 
garded as portentous of evil, and a fast of Maine, and asked for an interview. It 
was ordered. Fearing a design to seize ^vas denied by the commissioners, who de- 
their charter might be contemplated, it nounced the magistrates as traitors be- 
was intrusted to a committee for safe- cause they opposed the King's orders. The 
keeping. The commission was appointed, commissioners having violated a local law 
consisting of Sir Richard Nicolls, Sir by a carousal at a tavern, a constable 
Robert Carr, Sir George Cartwright, and v/as sent to break up the party, when one 
Samuel Maverick, of Massachusetts. They of the commissioners and his servant beat 
came with an armament to take possession the officer. Another constable was sent 
of New Netherland. Touching at Boston, to arrest the commissioners. They had 
the commissioners asked for additional gone to the house of a merchant. The 
soldiers, but the request was coldly re- officer went there and reproved them, say- 
ceived. The magistrates said they could ing, " It is well you have changed quar- 
not grant it without the authority of the ters, or I would have arrested you." 
general court. That body soon met and "What!" exclaimed Carr. "Arrest the 
voted 200 soldiers. In Connecticut the King's commissioners?" "Yes, and the 
commissioners were cordially received, and King himself, if he had been here." " Trea- 
Governor Winthrop accompanied the ex- son! treason!" cried Maverick. "Knave, 
pedition against New Netherland. After you shall hang for this!" The commission- 
the conquest, they proceeded to settle the ers sent an account of their proceedings 
boundary between New York and Con- to the King, and soon afterwards they 
necticut. Leaving Nicolls at New York as were recalled (1666). Their acts were ap- 



proved, and those of all the colonies ex- was formed in 1621, with unrestricted 

cept Massachusetts, which was ordered to control over New Netherland. They bought 

" appoint five able and meet persons to Manhattan Island of the Indians for about 

make answer for refusing the jurisdiction $24, paid chiefly in cheap trinkets, and 

of the King's commissioners." Although in 1623 thirty families fi'om Holland land- 

this order produced considerable alarm, ed there and began a settlement. Then 

the sturdy magistrates of Massachusetts were laid the foundations of the State of 

maintained their position with much New York, as New Netherland was called 

adroitness, and the country being engaged after it passed into the possession of the 

in a foreign war, the nation left his English. I-ate in 1620 a company of Eng- 

Majesty to fight alone for the mainte- lish Puritans (see Puritans) who had fled 

nance of the royal prerogative. Massachu- from persecution to Holland, crossed the 

setts was victorious, and soon after the Atlantic and landed on the shores of 

departure of the commissioners a force Massachusetts, by permission of the Plym- 

^ ■"'s sent to re-establish the authority of outh Company (see Plymouth Com- 

virdt colony over Maine. pany). They built a town and called 

Colonial Settlements. Settlements it New Plymouth; they organized a civil 

were made, as productive germs of colo- government and called themselves " Pil- 

nies, in the following order of time: St. grims." Others came to the shores of 

Augustine, Fla., was settled by Spaniards, Massachusetts soon afterwards, and the 

under Menendez, 1565, and is the old- present foundations of the State of Mas- 

est settlement by Europeans within the sachusetts were laid at Plymouth in 1620 

domain of the United States. It was per- (see Pilgrims). In 1622 the Plymouth 

manently occupied by the Spaniards, ex- Company granted to Mason and Gorges 

cepting for a few years, until Florida a tract of land bounded by the rivers Mer- 

passed from their control (see Florida rimac and Kennebec, the ocean, and the 

and St. Augustine). Virginia was first St. Lawrence River, and fishermen settled 

settled by the English temporarily (see there soon afterwards. Mason and Gorges 

Raleigh, Sir Walter). The first per- dissolved their partnership in 1629, when 

manent settlement was made by them in the former obtained a grant for the whole 

1607, under the auspices of London mer- tract, and laid the foundations for the 

chants, who that year sent five ships, with commonwealth of New Hampshire (q. v.). 

a colony, to settle on Roanoke Island. King James of England persecuted the 

Storms drove them into the entrance to Roman Catholics in his dominions, and 

Cliesapeake Bay, when they ascended the George Calvert, who was a zealous roy- 

Powhatan River 50 miles, landed, and alist, sought a refuge for his brethren 

built a hamlet, M'hich they called James- in America. King James favored his proj- 

town. The stream they named James oct, but died before anything of much 

River — both in compliment to their King, consequence was accomplished. His son 

After various vicissitudes, the settlement Charles I. granted a domain between North 

flourished, and, in 1619, the first repre- and South Virginia to Calvert (then ere- 

sentative Assembly in Virginia was held ated Lord Baltimore). Before the char- 

at Jamestown. Then were laid the foun- ter was completed Lord Baltimore died, 

dations of the State of Virginia (see but his son Cecil received it in 1632. The 

Virginia). Manhattan Island (now the domain was called Maryland, and Cecil 

borough of Manhattan, city of New York) sent his brother Leonard, with colonists, 

was discovered by Henry Hudson in 1609, to settle it (see Baltimore; Baltimore, 

while employed by the Dutch East India Lords; Calvert, Leonard). They ar- 

Company. Dutch traders were soon after- lived in the spring of 1634, and, at a 

wards seated there and on the site of place called St. Mary, they laid the foun- 

x\lbany, 150 miles up the Hudson River, dations of the commonwealth of Mary- 

The government of Holland granted ex- land (see Maryland). The Dutch navi- 

clusive privilege to Amsterdam merchants gator, Adrian Block {q. v.), sailing east 

to traffic with the Indians on the Hudson, from Manhattan, explored a river some 

and the country was called New Nether- distance inland, which the Indians called 

land. The Dutch West India Company Quon-eh-ti-cut, and in the valley watered 



by that river a number of Puritans from brethren, the Quakers, and settlements 
Plymouth began a settlement in 1633. were immediately begun there, in addition 
The first permanent settlement made in to some already made by the Swedes with- 
the valley of the Connecticut was planted in the domain. Unsuccessful attempts to 
by Puritans from Massachusetts (near settle in the region of the Carolinas had 
Boston), in 1636, on the site of Hartford, been made before the English landed on 
In 1638 another company from Massachu- the shores of the James River. Some set- 
setts settled on the site of New Haven, tiers went into North Carolina from 
The two settlements were afterwards polit- Jamestown, between the years 1640 and 
ieally united, and laid the foundations of 1650, and in 1663 a settlement in the 
the commonwealth of Connecticut (q.v.), northern part of North Carolina had an 
in 1639. organized government, and the country 

Meanwhile, elements were at work for was named Carolina, in honor of Charles 
the formation of a new settlement between II., of England. In 1668 the foundations 
Connecticut and Plymouth. Roger Will- of the commonwealth of North Caro- 
iams, a minister, was banished from Mas- una (q. v.) were laid at Edenton. In 
sachusetts in 1636. He went into the 1670 some people from Barbadoes sailed 
Indian country at the head of Narragan- into the harbor of Charleston and settled 
set Bay, where he was joined by a few on the Ashley and Cooper rivers (see 
sympathizers, and they located themselves South Carolina). The benevolent Gen- 
a"t a place which they called Providence, eral Oglethorpe, commiserating the con- 
Others, men and women, joined them, and dition of the prisoners for debt, in Eng- 
they formed a purely democratic govern- land, conceived the idea of founding a 
ment. Others, persecuted at Boston, fled colony in America with them. The govern- 
to the Island of Aquiday, or Aquitneck ment approved the project, and, in 1732, 
(now Rhode Island), in 1638, and formed he landed, with emigrants, on the site of 
a settlement there. The two settlements the city of Savannah, and there planted 
were consolidated under one government, the germ of the commonwealth of Geor- 
called the Providence and Rhode Island gia (q. v.). 

Plantation, for which a charter was given The first English colony planted in 
in 1644. So the commonwealtli of Rhode America was the one sent over in 1585 
Island (q. v.) was founded. A small by Sir Walter Raleigh, who despatched 
colony from Sweden made a settlement on Sir Richard Grenville, with seven ships 
the site of New Castle, Del., and called and many people, to form a colony in 
the country New Sweden. The Dutch Virginia, with Ralph Lane as their gov- 
claimed the territory as a part of New ernor. At Roanoke Island Grenville left 
Netherland, and the governor of the lat- 107 men under Lane to plant a colony, 
ter proceeded against the Swedes in the the first ever founded by Englishmen in 
summer of 1655, and brought them under America. This colony became much strait- 
subjection. It is difficult to draw the line ened for want of provisions next year, 
of demarcation between the first settle- and, fortunately for them, Sir Francis 
ments in Delaware, New Jersey, and Penn- Drake, sailing up the American coast 
sylvania, owing to their early political sit- with a squadron, visited the colony and 
uation. The (present) State of Delaware found them in great distress. He gener- 
remained in possession of the Dutch, and ously proposed to furnish them with 
afterwards of the English, until it was supplies, a ship, a pinnace, and small 
purchased by William Penn, in 1682, and boats, with sufficient seamen to stay and 
annexed to Pennsylvania {q. v.). So it make a further discovery of the country; 
remained until the Revolution as "the or sufficient provisions to carry them to 
Territories," when it became the State of England, or to give them a passage home 
Delaware {q. v.). The first permanent in his fleet. The first proposal was ac- 
settlement in New Jersey {q. v.) was cepted; but a storm having shattered his 
made at Elizabethtown in 1644. A prov- vessels, the discouraged colonists concluded 
ince lying between New Jersey and Mary- to take passage for home with Drake, 
land was granted to William Penn, in which they did. The whole colony 
1681, for an asylum for his persecuted sailed from Virginia June 18, 1586, and 



arrived at Portsmouth, England, July 28. quent and decided negatives. The pro- 
Madame de Guercheville, a pious lady in vincial acts for establishing the writ of 
France, zealous for the conversion of the habeas corpus were also vetoed by the 
American Indians, persuaded De Monts King. He also continued the order of 
to surrender his patent, and then obtained James II. prohibiting printing in the 
a charter for " all the lands of New colonies. Even men of liberal tendencies, 
France." She sent out missionaries in like Locke, Somers, and Chief-Justice Holt, 
1613. They sailed from Honfleur March conceded prerogatives to the King in the 
12, and arrived in Acadia {q. v.), where colonies which they denied him at home, 
the arms of Madame Guercheville were The most renowned jurists of the king- 
set up in token of possession. Her agent dom had not yet comprehended the true 
proceeded to Port Royal (now Annapolis) , nature of the connective principle be- 
where he found only five persons, two tween the parent countiy and her colonies, 
of whom were Jesuit missionaries pre- As early as 1696 a pamphlet appeared 
viously sent over. The Jesuits went with in England recommending Parliament to 
other persons to Mount Desert Island, tax the English-American colonies. Two 
Just as they had begun to provide them- pamphlets appeared in reply, denying the 
selves with comforts, they were attacked right of Parliament to tax the colonies, 
by Samuel Argall {q. v.), of Virginia, because they had no representative in 
The French made some resistance, but were Parliament to give consent. From that 
compelled to surrender to superior num- day the subject of taxing the colonies was 
bers. One of the Jesviits was killed, sev- a question frequently discussed, but not 
eral were wounded, and the remainder attempted until seventy years afterwards, 
made prisoners. Argall took fifteen of the After the ratification of the treaty of 
Frenchmen, besides the Jesuits, to Vir- Paris in 1763, the British government re- 
ginia; the remainder sailed for France, solved to quarter troops in America at 
This success induced the governor of Vir- the expense of the colonies. The money 
ginia to send an expedition to crush the was to be raised by a duty on foreign 
power of the French in Acadia, under the sugar and molassds, and by stamps on all 
pretext that they were encroaching upon legal and mercantile paper. It was de- 
the rights of the English. Argall sailed termined to make the experiment of tax- 
with three ships for the purpose. On his ing the American colonists in a way which 
arrival he broke in pieces, at St. Saviour, Walpole feared to undertake. A debate 
a cross which the Jesuits had set up, and arose in the House of Commons on the 
raised another, on which he inscribed the right of Parliament to tax the Americans 
name of King James. He sailed to St. without allowing them to be represented 
Croix and destroyed the remains of De in that body. The question was decided 
Mont's settlement there; and then he went by an almost unanimous vote in the afiirm- 
to Port Royal and laid that deserted town ative. " Until then no act, avowedly for 
in ashes. The English government did the purpose of revenue, and with the 
not approve the act, nor did the French ordinary title and recital taken together, 
government resent it. is found on the statute-book of the realm," 
Though the revolution in England said Burke. " All before stood on com- 
(1688) found its warmest friends among mercial regulations and restraints." Then 
the Low Churchmen and Non-conformists the House proceeded to consider the Stamp 
there, who composed the English Whig Act (7. v.). 

party, the high ideas which William en- In 1697 the right of appeal from the 

tertained of royal authority made him colonial courts to the King in council was 

naturally coalesce with the Tories and sustained by the highest legal authority, 

the High Church party. As to the govern- By this means, and the establishment of 

ment of the colonies, he seems not to have courts of admii'alty, England at length 

abated any of the pretensions set up by acquired a judicial control over the col- 

his predecessors. The colonial assemblies onies, and with it a power (afterwards 

had hastened to enact in behalf of the peo- imitated in our national Constitution) of 

pie the Bill of Rights of the Convention bringing her supreme authority to bear 

Parliament. To these William gave fre- not alone upon the colonies as political 



corporations, but, what was much more 
effectual, upon the colonists as individuals. 
At the beginning of the French and Ind- 
ian War (1754), the period when the 
American people " set up for themselves " 
in political and social life, there was no 
exact enumeration of the inhabitants; but 
from a careful examination of official rec- 
ords, Mr. Bancroft estimated the number 
as follows: 



New Hampshire 


Rhode Island 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania and Delaware. 



North Carolina 

South Carolina 

















5. 3,000 






At this period the extent of the terri- 
torial possessions of England and France 
in America was well defined on maps pub- 
lished by Evans and Mitchell — that of the 
latter (a new edition) in 1754. The Brit- 
ish North American colonies stretched 
coastwise along the Atlantic about 1,000 
miles, but inland their extent was very 
limited. New France, as the French set- 
tlers called their claimed territory in 
America, extended over a vastly wider 
space, from Cape Breton, in a sort of cres- 
cent, to the mouth of the Mississippi 
River, but the population was mainly col- 
lected on the St. Lawrence, between Quebec 
and Montreal. The English colonies in 
America at that time had a population 
of 1,485,634, of whom 292,738 were 
negroes. The French were scarcely 100,- 
000 in number, but were strong in Indian 
allies, who, stretching along the whole in- 
terior frontier of the English colonies, and 
disgusted with constant encroachments 
upon their territories, as well as ill-treat- 
ment by the English, were always ripe 
and ready for cruel warfare. 

The war with the French and Indians, 
and the contests with royal authority in 
which the colonies had been engaged at 
its close, in 1763, revealed to the colonists 
their almost unsuspected innate strength. 
During these contests, disease and weapons 
had slain 30,000 of the colonists. They 
had also spent more than $16,000,000, of 

which $5,000,000 had been reimbursed by 
Parliament. Massachusetts alone had kept 
from 4,000 to 7,000 men in the field, be- 
sides garrisons and recruits to the regular 
regiments. They served but a few months 
in the year, and were fed at the cost of 
the British government. At the approach 
of winter they were usually disbanded, 
and for every campaign a new army was 
summoned. Yet that province alone spent 
$2,000,000 for this branch of the public 
service, exclusive of all parliamentary dis- 
bursements. Connecticut had spent fully 
$2,000,000 for the same service, and the 
outstanding debt of New York, in 1763, 
incurred largely for the public service, 
was about $1,000,000. 

The Southern colonies, too, had been 
liberal in such public expenditures, ac- 
cording to their means. At that time 
Virginia had a debt of $8,000,000. Every- 
where the English-American colonies felt 
the consciousness of puissant manhood, 
and were able to grapple in deadly con- 
flict with every enemy of their inalien- 
able rights. They demanded a position 
of political equality with their fellow- 
subjects in England, and were ready to 
maintain their rights at all hazards. 

In Pitt's cabinet, as chancellor of the 
exchequer, was the brilliant Charles Town- 
shend, loose in principles and bold in sug- 
gestions. He had voted for the Stamp 
Act, and voted for its repeal as expedient, 
not because it was just. In January, 
1767, by virtue of his office, on which 
devolved the duty of suggesting ways and 
means for carrying on the government, 
he proposed taxation schemes which 
aroused the most vehement opposition in 
America. He introduced a bill imposing 
a duty on tea, paints, paper, glass, lead, 
and other articles of British manufacture 
imported into the colonies. It was passed 
June 29. The exportation of tea to Amer- 
ica was encouraged by another act, passed 
July 2, allowing for five years a draw- 
back of the whole duty payable on the 
importation. By another act, reorganiz- 
ing the colonial custom-house system, a 
board of revenue commissioners for 
America was established, to have its seat 
at Boston. Connected with these bills 
were provisions very obnoxious to the 
Americans, all having relation to the 
main object — namely, raising a revenue 



in America. There was a provision in 
the first bill for the maintenance of a 
standing army in America and enabling 
the crown to establish a general civil 
list; fixing the salaries of governors, 
judges, and other officers in all the prov- 
inces, such salaries to be paid by the 
crown, making these officers independent 
of the people and fit instruments for 
government oppression. A scheme was 
also approved, but not acted upon, for 
transferring to the mother-country, and 
converting into a source of revenue, the 
issue of the colonial paper currency. 

The narrow-minded Hillsborough, Brit- 
ish secretary of state for the colonies 
wishing, if possible, to blot out the settle- 
ments west of the Appalachian Moun- 
tains, and to extend an unbroken line of 
Indian frontier from Georgia to Canada, 
had issued repeated instructions to that 
efl'ect, in order to make an impassable ob- 
struction of emigration westward. These 
instructions were renewed with emphasis 
in 1768, when John Stuart, an agent faith- 
ful to his trust, had already carried the 
frontier line to the northern limit of 
l^orth Carolina. He was now ordered to 
continue it to the Ohio, at the mouth of 
the Kanawha. By such a line all Ken- 
tucky, as well as the entire territory 
northwest of the Ohio, would be severed 
from the jurisdiction of Virginia and con- 
firmed to the Indians by treaties. Vir- 
ginia strenuously opposed this measure; 
and, to thwart the negotiations of Stuart 
with the Indians, sent Thomas Walker as 
her commissioner to the congress of the 
Six Nations held at Fort Stanwix {q. v.) 
late in the autumn of 1768. There about 
3,000 Indians were present, who were 
loaded with generous gifts. They com- 
plied with the wishes of the several agents 
present, and the western boundary-line 
was established at the mouth of the Kana- 
wha to meet Stuart's line on the south. 
From the Kanawha northward it followed 
the Ohio and Alleghany rivers, a branch 
of the Susquehanna, and so on to the 
junction of Canada and Wood creeks, 
tributaries of the Mohawk River. Thus 
the Indian frontier was defined all the 
way from Florida almost to Lake On- 
tario; but Sir William Johnson {q. v.), 
pretending to recognize a right of the Six 
Nations to a larger part of Kentucky, 

caused the line to be continued down the 
Ohio to the mouth of the Tennessee River, 
which stream was made to constitute the 
western boundary of Virginia. 

In striking a balance of losses and gains 
in the matter of parliamentary taxation in 
America, it was found in 1772 that the ex- 
penses on account of the Stamp Act ex- 
ceeded $60,000, while there had been re- 
ceived for revenue (almost entirely from 
Canada and the West India islands) only 
about $7,500. The operation of levying 
a tax on tea had been still more disastrous. 
The whole remittance from the colonies 
for the previous year for duties on teas 
and wines, and other articles taxed indi- 
rectly, amounted to no more than about 
$400, while ships and soldiers for the sup- 
port of the collecting officers had cost 
about $500,000; and the East India Com- 
pany had lost the sale of goods to the 
amount of $2,500,000 annually for four or 
five years. 

After the proclamation of King George 
III., in 1775, Joseph Hawley, one of the 
stanch patriots of New England, wrote 
from Watertown to Samuel Adams, in Con- 
gress : " The eyes of all the continent are 
on your body to see whether you act with 
firmness and intrepidity — with the spirit 
and despatch which our situation calls for. 
It is time for your body to fix on periodi- 
cal annual elections — nay, to form into a 
parliament of two houses." This was the 
first proposition for the establishment of 
an independent national government for 
the colonies. 

On April 6, 1776, the Continental Con- 
gress, by resolution, threw open their ports 
to the commerce of the world " not sub- 
ject to the King of Great Britain." This 
resolution was the broom that swept away 
the colonial system within the present 
bounds of the republic, and the flag of 
every nation save one was invited to our 
harbors. Absolute free-trade was estab- 
lished. The act was a virtual declaration 
of independence. 

Colonial Wars, Society of, a patriotic 
society established in 1892 to " perpetuate 
the memory of those events and of the men 
who, in military, naval, and civil offices 
of high trust and responsibility, by their 
acts or counsel assisted in the establish- 
ment, defence, and preservation of the 
American colonies, and were in truth the 



founders of the nation. With this end in in 1787, for a home for destitute Afri- 
view it seeks to collect and preserve manu- cans from different parts of the world, 
scripts, rolls, and records; to provide suit- and for promoting African civilization, 
able commemorations or memorials relat- He failed. I:i 1793 he proposed a plan of 
ing to the American colonial period, and colonization to be carried on by the sev- 
to inspire in its members the paternal and eral States and by the national govern- 
patriotic spirit of their forefathers, and in nient. He persevered in his unavailing 
the community of respect and reverence efforts until his death, in 1803. The sub- 
for those whose public services made our ject continued to be agitated from time to 
freedom and unity possible." Any adult time, and in 1815 a company of thirty- 
male may become a member who is the eight colored persons emigrated to Sierra 
descendant of an ancestor who fought in l.eone from New Bedford, 
any colonial battle from the Jamestown Steps had been taken as early as 1811 
settlement in Virginia, in 1607, to the for the organization of a colonization so- 
battle of Lexington, in 1775, or who at ciety, and on Dec. 23, 1816, the con- 
any time was a governor, deputy-governor, stitution of the American Colonization 
lieutenant-governor, member of the coun- Society was adopted at a meeting at 
cil, or as a military, naval, or marine Washington, and the first officers were 
officer in behalf of the colonies, or under chosen Jan. 1, 1817. All reference to 
the flag of England, or during that period emancipation, present or future, was 
was distinguished in military, official, or specially disclaimed by the society, and in 
legislative life. The officers in 1900 were: the course of the current session of Con- 
Governor-general, Frederick J. De Peyster, gress, Henry Clay, John Randolph, Bush- 
New York; secretary-general, Walter L. rod Washington, and other slave-holders 
Suydam, 45 William street, New York; took a leading part in the formation of 
deputy secretary-general. Gen. Howard R. the society. In March, 1819, Congress 
Bayne, New York; treasurer-general, Ed- appropriated $100,000 for the purpose of 
general, George N. McKenzie, Baltimore. sending back to Africa such slaves as 
ward Shippen, Philadelphia; registrar- should be surreptitiously imported. Pro- 
Colonies, Grievances of the Ameri- vision was made for agents and emigrants 
CAN. See Hopkins, Stephen. to be sent out, and early in 1820 the 
Colonies, Vindication of the. See society appointed an agent, put $30,000 
Franklin, Benjamin. at his disposal, and sent in a government 
Colonists, Rights of. See Adams, vessel thirty-eight emigrants, who were to 
Samuel. erect tents for the reception of at least 
Colonization Society, American. The 300 recaptured Africans. The agents of 
idea of restoring Africans in America to the United States were instructed not to 
their native country occupied the minds exercise any authority over the colonists, 
of philanthropists at an early period, and the government of the colony was as- 
It seems to have been first suggested by sumed by the society. 

Rev. Samuel Hopkins and Rev. Ezra A constitution for the colony (which 

Stiles, of Newport, R. I., where the Afri- was named Liberia) was adopted (Jan. 

can slave-trade was extensively carried 24, 1820), by which all the powers of 

on. They issued a circular on the sub- the government were vested in the agent 

ject in August, 1773, in which they in- of the colonization society. In 1824 a 

vited subscriptions to a fund for founding plan for a civil government in Liberia 

a colony of free negroes from America was adopted, by which the society re- 

on the western shore of Africa. A con- tained the privilege of ultimate decision, 

tribution was made by ladies of Newport Another constitution was adopted in 1828, 

in February, 1774, and aid was received by which most of the civil power was 

from Massachusetts and Connecticut, secured to the colonists. In 1841 Joseph 

After the Revolution the effort was re- J. Roberts, a colored man, was appointed 

newed by Dr. Hopkins, and he endeav- governor by the society. Import duties 

ored to make arrangements by which free were levied on foreign goods, and out ol 

blacks from America might join the Eng- this grew a temporary difficulty with the 

lish colony at Sierra Leone, established British government. British subjects vio- 



lated the navigation law with impunity, 
and, when the British government was ap- 
pealed to, the answer was that Liberia 
had no national existence. In this 
emergency the society surrendered such 
governmental power as it had retained, 
and recommended the colony to proclaim 
itself a sovereign and independent state. 
It was done, and such a declaration of 
independence was made July 26, 1847. 
The next year the independence of Liberia 
was acknowledged by the United States, 
Great Britain, and France. So the Amer- 
ican Colonization Society became mainly 
instrumental in the foundation of Liberia, 
and in sustaining the colony until it be- 
came self-supporting. 

After that consummation the society 
continued to send out emigrants, and to 
furnish them with provisions and tem- 
porary dwellings; and it materially aided 
the republic in the development of its 
commerce and agriculture. It also aided 
in the dissemination of Christianity in 
that region, and in the promotion of educa- 
tion and the general welfare of the coun- 
try. The whole amount of receipts of the 
society from its foundation to 1875 was, in 
round numbers, $2,400,000, and those of 
the auxiliary societies a little more than 
$400,000. The -whole number of emigrants 
that had been sent out to that date by 
the parent society was nearly 14,000, and 
the Maryland society had sent about 
1,250; also 5,722 Africans recaptured by 
the United States government had been 
returned. The society had five presidents 
— namely, Bushrod Washington, Charles 
Carroll, James Madison, Henry Clay, and 
J. H. B. Latrobe — all slave-holders. 

Colorado, a State occupying a moun- 
tainous and high plateau region, between 
Kansas and Nebraska on the east, Utah 
on the west, Wyoming on the north, and 
New Mexico and Texas on the south, or- 
ganized as a Territory Feb. 28, 1861, from 
parts of its several contiguous neighbors, 
and admitted to the Union July 4, 1876, 
hence known as the " Centennial State." 
The portion north of the Arkansas 
River, and east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, was included in the Louisiana pur- 
chase of 1803 and the remainder in the 
Mexican cession of 1848. Francis Vas- 
quez de Coronado is believed to have been 
the first European explorer of this region 

in 1540. In 1806 President Jefferson 
sent an expedition, under Lieut. Z. M. 
Pike, to explore this region, and it nearly 
crossed the territory from north to south 
in the mountain region, and discovered 


the mountain known as Pike's Peak. In 
1820 another expedition, under Col. S. H. 
Long, visited this region; and in 1842- 
44 Col. John C. Fremont crossed it in his 
famous passage over the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Before the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, it is believed that no 
white inhabitants lived in Colorado, ex- 
cepting a few Mexicans and Spaniards in 
the southern portion. Gold was discov- 
ered there, near the mouth of Clear Creek, 
in 1852, by a Cherokee cattle-dealer. This 
and other discoveries of the precious 
metal brought about 400 persons to Colo- 
rado in 1858-59; and the first discovery 
of a gold-bearing lode was by John H. 
Gregory, May 6, 1859, in what is now 
known as the " Gregory Mining District," 
in Gilpin county. An attempt to organize 
government among the miners was made 
by the erection of Arapahoe county, and 
the election of a representative to the 
Kansas legislature, Nov. 6, 1858. He 
was instructed to urge the separation of 
the district from Kansas and the organi- 
zation of a new Territory. The first move- 
ment for a territorial government was by 
a convention of 128 delegates held at Den- 
ver in the autumn of 1859, who decided 
to memorialize Congress on the subject. 



The Territory was organized in 1861, and 

Dut for the veto of President Johnson 

statehood would have been granted in ^ 

1867. A further attempt was made in ^^g^^^f,^^,^.^®®-- 

1873, but Congress refused to pass an en- Kathaniei p. Hill!!! 

nhlinjr act Thomas M. Bowen. . 

aoiing act. Henry M. Teller.... 

Colorado was long noted as a silver-pro- Edward o. Woicott. 


No. of Congress. 

44th to 45th, 

41lh " 47th 

4(;th » 48th 

48th " 50th 


51st to 57th 

57th " 


1876 to 1879 

1877 " 1883 
1879 " 1885 
1883 " 1889 

1885 " 

1889 " 1901 

1901 " 

ducing state, but after the repeal of the Thomas H. Patterson. 

silver-purchase clause of the Bland Silver „ , . 

Bill («. 17.) by the Sherman Act of 1890, Colquitt, Alfred Holt, statesman; 

the serious apprehensions of local mine- born in Walton county, Ga., April 20, 

operators were proved groundless by the 1824; graduated at Princeton in 1844; 

results of a general exploitation for gold, admitted to the bar in 1845; served 

and within a few years Colorado passed throughout the Mexican War as staff offi- 

from the status of a silver to that of a cer; in 1852 was elected to Congress; in 

gold State. In the calendar year 1900 the 1859 was a member of the State legis- 

State produced bullion of various kinds Mature. He favored the secession of 

to the value of $50,303,964, and of this Georgia and entered the Confederate army, 

total $29,226,198 was in gold and $12,- ^ ^^hich he rose to the rank of major- 

433,785 in silver. Coal, both bituminous general. In 1876 he was elected gov- 

and anthracite, and iron, are found in ernor of the State, and in 1882 United 

great quantities; lead, zinc, copper, quick- States Senator. He died March 26, 

silver, tellurium, salt, gypsum, and pottery 1884. 

clays are plentiful. In 1899 the total Colt, Samuel, inventor; born in Hart- 
assessed valuation of taxable property was ford. Conn., July 19, 1814; patented 
$212,202,886. A strike in the mining re- Colt's revolver in 1835; laid the first sub- 
gions of Teller county in 1903 extended marine cable (between Coney Island and 
into 1904, and led to a reign of terror, a New York City) in 1843. He died in 
long service by the State militia, and a Hartford, Conn., Jan. 10, 1862. 

loss to various interests of over $23,000,- 
000. The population in 1890 was 412,- 
198; in 1900, 539,700. See United States 
— Colorado, in vol. ix. 

territorial goverxors. 


William Gilpin 

John Evans 

Alexander Cummiugs . , 

A. C. Hunt 

Edward M. McCook 

Samuel H. Elbert 

Edward M. McCook 

John li. Routt 



Appointed by 

dent Lincoln 

STATE governors. 


John L. Routt 

Fred. W. Pitkin 

James B. Grant 

Benj. H. Eaton 

Alvab Adams 

Job A. Cooper 

John L. Routt 

Davis H. Waite 

A. W. McTntyre 

Alvab Adams 

Charles S. Thomas 

James B. Ormnn 

James H. Peabody 

Alva Adams (to March 16) 

J. F. McDonald (Peabody resigns March 17) 


Columbia, Capture of. See South 

Columbia, District of. See United 
States — District of Columbia, in vol. 
ix. ; Washington. 

Columbia, Tenn. ; 47 miles southwest 
of Nashville. It contains a number of 
educational institutions, and a large Unit- 
ed States arsenal. During the Civil War 
Johnson there were two encounters here between 
Grant t^e National and Confederate forces; the 
;; first on Sept. 9, 1862, when the 42d II- 
li linois Volunteers were engaged, and on 
Nov. 24-28, when a considerable part of 

General Thomas's army fought what is 

Y^^ sometimes known as the battle of Duck 

-—I-- Run. 

1882 Columbia River. Discovered by the 
1885 Spanish in 1775; explored by Captain 
1888 Gray in 1792, and by Lewis and Clarke in 
1890 1805-6. 

J^g^ Columbia University, founded in 1746. 
1897 Originally named King's College, after- 
1901 wards Columbia College, and in 1896 
J003 Columbia University. Rev. Samuel John- 


son, of Stratford, Conn., was invited, 

in 1753, to become president of the 


proposed institution, and a royal charter in charge of twenty-four trustees. On 
constituting King's College was granted May 21, 1787, William Samuel Johnson, 
Oct. 31, 1754. The organization was ef- LL.D., son of the first president, was 
fected in May, 1755. The persons named chosen to fill his father's place, and the 
in the charter as governors of the col- college started on a prosperous career. A 
lege were the Archbishop of Canterbury, new charter was obtained in 1810. A 
the principal civil officers of the colony, medical and law school was established, 
the principal clergymen of the five de- and in 1828 the Hon. James Kent de- 
nominations of Christians in the city of livered a course of law lectures in the 
New York, and twenty private gentle- college that formed the basis of his 
men. The college opened July 17, 1754, famous Commentaries. The college oc- 
with a class of eight, under Dr. Johnson, cupied the original site until 1857, when 
sole instructor in the vestry-room of it was removed to the square between 
Trinity Church. The corner-stone of the Madison and Fourth avenues and Forty- 
college building was laid Aug. 23, 1756, ninth and Fiftieth streets. 
on the block now bounded by Murray, In 1892, the institution having out- 
Church, and Barclay streets and College grown its accommodations, a tract of land 
Place. It faced the Hudson River and was purchased on Morningside Heights, 
" was the most beautifully situated of between Amsterdam Avenue, the Boule- 
any college in the world." The first com- vard, and 116th and 120th streets, and 
mencement was on June 21, 1758, when the erection of the first of a group of new 
about twenty students were graduated, buildings, the observatory, was begun. 
In 1767 a grant was made in the New Since then the work of construction has 
Hampshire Grants of 24,000 acres of land, steadily progressed, and prominent among 
but it was lost by the separation of that its completions is the noble library build- 
part of Vermont from New York. In ing, erected by President Seth Low at a 
1762 Rev. Myles Cooper was sent over cost of over $1,000,000. In 1900 the uni- 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury to be- versity had $235,000 invested in scientific 
come a " fellow " of the college. He was apparatus, $8,500,000 in grounds and 
a strong loyalist, and had a pamphlet buildings, and $9,500,000 in productive 
controversy with young Alexander Ham- funds. The total income was $854,327, 
ilton, one of his pupils. Cooper became and the total benefactions, $518,667. The 
president of the college, and so obnoxious departments were: Columbia College (the 
were his politics that the college was at- School of Arts), School of Political 
tacked by the " Sons of Liberty " and a Science, School of Philosophy, School of 
mob in New York on the night of May Pure Science, School of Law, School of 
10, 1775, and he was obliged to flee for Medicine, School of Applied Science, Bar- 
his life. Rev. Benjamin Moore (after- nard College (for women). Teacher's Col- 
wards bishop of the diocese) succeeded lege, Suminer School, and Extension 
him. The college was prepared for the Work. There were 35 fellowships, 230 
reception of troops the next year, when scholarships, 339 professors and instruc- 
the students were dispersed, the library tors, and a total of 4,034 students in all 
and apparatus were stored in the City departments. The debt of the univer- 
Hall, and mostly lost, and the bviilding sity, growing out of its removal to 
became a military hospital. About 600 Morningside Heights, was substantially 
of the volumes were recovered thirty years $3,000,000. 
afterwards in a room in St. Paul's Columbiad. See Cannon. 
Chapel, when none but the sexton knew Columbian Exposition. Early in 
of their existence. In 1784 regents of a 1890 an act was passed by Congress, pro- 
State University were appointed, who viding for an exhibition of arts, indus- 
took charge of what property belonged tries, manufactures, and products of the 
to the institution and changed its name soil, mines, and sea in 1892. This exhibi- 
to Columbia College. There was no presi- tion was designed to be a commemoration 
dent for several years. In 1787 the origi- and celebration of the 400th anniversary 
nal charter was confirmed by the State of the discovery of America by Columbus, 
legislature, and the college was placed and hence was designated " The World's 



Columbian Exposition." When the ques- Affairs. The total estimated expenditure 
tion of a site for the exposition came up for the fair was $26,000,000. 
for determination, the four cities, New The imposing naval parade in New 
York, Chicago, St. Louis, and Washing- York Harbor proved to be an event of sur- 
tion, were competitors, and on Feb. 24 passing interest. The fair was opened 
Chicago, which had given a good guaran- by President Cleveland; a poem. Prophecy, 
tee of $10,000,000, was awarded that by William A. Croffut, was read, and the 
honor. Congress at once appropriated usual initiatory exercises occurred, but 
$1,500,000 towards providing for the sue- several weeks elapsed before all the ex- 
cessful management of the enterprise. A hibits were in place. Some special feat- 
commission of two persons from each ures of interest were the various eon- 
State and Territory was appointed by the gresses which assembled at Chicago. Aside 
President on the nomination of the gov- from religious an