(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Herald and genealogist"



OENEAL-CGY C->i-l- 



GeNj 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 01264 1400 



GENEALOGY 
929.72 
H412 
V.3 



THE 



l|i[ali ajul (l§c,iti|al0J!jtj5i 



EDITED BY 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS , F.S.A. 

HOX. MEMBER OF THE SOCIETIES OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND AND 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, AND OF THE NEW ENGLAND 

HISTORIC-GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY. 



VJoL TIL 



VOLUME THE THIED. 



LONDON : 

J. G. NICHOLS AND K. C. NICHOLS, 

PRINTERS TO THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 

25, PARLIAMENT STREET, WESTMINSTER. 

1866. 






ADA^ERTISEMENT. 



In the present Volume we flatter ourselves to have maintained 
\ the standard of The Herald and Genealogist in the im- 
} portance, originality, and interest of its contents. 
^; In our researches into the antiquities of Armory we have 

k\ endeavoured to penetrate to the fountain head, as well in two 

r articles devoted to that subject as in that on the effigies in the 
Temple church ; intending to pursue the inquiry as further 
^ opportunities may occur. ]Many minor articles throughout our 
V pages bear upon the same subject. 
\ The history of one of our grades of hereditary rank has been 

for the first time investio-ated in the articles on the Institution 
o 

and early history of the dignity of Baronet, which are also to be 
continued. 

Upon Family History several very important articles have 
appeared, especially those on the Lees, the Temples, and the 
Carys Viscounts Falkland. The last, which is replete with 
original documentary evidence, will be succeeded in the next 
volume by a correspondent compilation on the house of Carey 
Lords Hunsdon. 

The annals of the conventual house of the Englisli Ladies of 
Pontoise will be regarded with particular interest in connection 
with the numerous families of ancient Catholic descent from 
which its members were derived, as shoAvn in the illustrative 
pedigrees. 

Upon the many valuable works of our fellow-labourers that 
we have had occasion to notice, we may well congratulate those 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

wlio partake our interest in the studies of Heraldry and Genea- 
logy, bearing witness as they do to the increasing popularity of 
these studies, and to the just appreciation which is now entertained 
^^ of the important assistance they afford to the labours of the 
biographer and the historian; whilst tlie honest and scientific 
sj)irit which has at length been applied to the investigation of 
these subjects, affords the best encouragement that they will 
henceforth be pursued with an assurance of progress, based upon 
sound premises and supported by judicious deductions. 



ERRATA. 

Page 67, note, /or 1825 read 1865. 
Page 96, lin. antepenult. /o?' Hanley read Hoby. 
Page 178, line 13, read bend sinister; line 23. for head read hand. 
Page 205, line 14 of notes,/or seventeen read five, and for 1612 read 1611. 
Page 214, line 12, for lower read bowed. 
Page 352, line 12,/or 1612 read 1611. 

Page 397, see corrections to the pedigree of Grenville in p. 535. 
Page 429, line 15, for his read her. 
Page 475, line 2S, for Gordon read Cxorham. 

Page 512, last line, the family of Tiehborne is not extinct, as will appear in the 
next volume. 

Page 542, last line of text, /or p. 514 read p. 520, 
Page 553, line 25, read the 9th March. 
Other Errata will be found in pp. 145, 146. 



'^\\i[ ^{niU mxA (^{w^nb^hi 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

" Not know the figures of Heraldry ? of what could your father be thinking?" 

Rol Roy, vol. i. chapter x. 

In taking up this subject ah initio, it is our object to divest it 
entirely of tlicory aud conjecture, and to proceed, if we can, 
wholly upon evidence presented to our eyes, or upon well ascer- 
tained historical facts. It was the pleasure of those who treated 
of Armory in former days to envelope it with a factitious mystery, 
to give it interpretations wholly allegorical and fanciful, and to 
connect it with a visionary antiquity. In their view it was iden- 
tictal with the symbolism of other times, and had actually existed 
from the earliest ages of the world. The ensigns of the Jewish 
tribes, the shields of the heroes of Homer and iEschylus, the de- 
vices of the Greek cities as displayed on their coins, and those of 
the Koman standards, were all enlisted into the ranks of heraldry, 
and put forth as so many proofs of the antiquity of Coat -Armour. 
This error was committed by some of the very earliest com- 
mentators on Armory, and amplified more or less by all their 
fanciful successors. It has been resumed with fresh zeal from 
time to time by other theorists. Upon the work of one of these, 
the Historical Discourse of the Original and Growth of Heraldry, 
by Thomas Philipot, M.A. 1672, the following censure was passed 
by Dallaway: — 

" A Treatise in the last century, very replete with erudition, deduces 
the introduction of Heraldry from the ancient mythology, and considers 
the hieroglyphics and emblems of Greece and Rome, impressed on the 
reverses of their medals, as the indubitable prototypes of modern 
armories; but with the usual success of misapplied learning." {Re- 
searches into the origin and progress of the Science of Heraldry in 
England, p. 3.) 

VOL. III. B 



^ 



2 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

But Dallaway himself falls into the like mistake when he is 
inclined to regard the devices upon the coins of the Anglo-Saxon 
kings as incipient coat-armour. He had found that at a very 
early period, as early at least as the time of Matthew Paris, a 
series of armorial coats had been invented for the old race of 
English sovereigns, and that they continued to be employed 
historically in mediaeval times, as indeed they have in our own 
days, — very extensively, in the new Houses of Parliament. 
Dallaway, being unable clearly to fix an epoch for the origin of 
Armory, failed to discriminate between this posthumous, or 
fictitious, and actual Coat- Armour, though in regard to "the 
Danes" at least he had a correct impression (p. 8) that it was 
"the device of the illuminator" in the manuscript chronicles 
where it occurred. 

Much more recently, and in the midst of what we must take 
leave to style more practical researches, a gentleman has expended 
great ingenuity in A Plea for the Antiquity of Heraldry, xoith an 
attempt to expound its Theory and elucidate its History, — an 
essay put forth by William Smith Ellis, Esq., of the Middle 
Temple, in 1853 (8vo. pp. 23), as an exposition of the views he 
had adopted in some memoirs inserted in the Sussex Archceological 
Collections. This writer endeavours to maintain the ancient 
argument that hereditary family arms have been prevalent in all 
ages and countries. He deduces such distinctions from the 
devices painted on the bodies and shields of savages, from " the 
parti- coloured shields" of the ancient Germans, mentioned by 
Tacitus,^ which he thinks may have descended in the Teutonic 
tribes like the plaids of the Highland clans ;2 he suggests that 

' After admitting that " Historical testimonies to the early existence of modern 
heraldry are scanty," Mr. Ellis proceeds, " The earliest and undoubtedly the most 
important, is the passage from Tacitus (De Mor. Ger. vi.) Scuta tantum lectissimis 
colorihus distinguunt : thus indicating the use by the Germans of parti-coloured 
shields." So far as we understand these words, they mean that the Germans 
painted their shields with the choicest or brightest colours, but whether in any 
manner resembling " modern heraldry " there seems to be no word in the passage 
that at all intimates. 

2 We have seen it affirmed that these plaids or tartans are really of no antiquity. 
We do not find the subject mentioned in Mr. Seton's Scottish Heraldry, though at 
p. 259 he enumerates the different sprigs or leaves of trees or shrubs worn as badges 
in the Highland bonnets. 



THE OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 3 

many Welsh coats, partaking as some of them do of the nature 
of legendary pictures, — as a wolf issuing from a cave, a cradle 
under a tree, with a child guarded by a goat, &c., are probably of 
Romano-Britisli origin ; and he even proceeds to prove the exist- 
ence of arms at the Norman Conquest, by what he calls a 
reductio ad absurdum, having first satisfied himself that "armorial 
bearings were in use for centuries among our Saxon ancestors." 
For this he cites, in particular, the well-known White-horse of 
Kent; and points out the remarkable absence of the horse from 
Norman heraldry, though found plentifully in that of Germany. 
Finally, he naturally is inclined to fraternise with the barbaric 
symbols of the Transatlantic Continent, where the native tribes 
of Indians distinguish themselves under the appellations of the 
Bear, the Turtle, the Eagle, &c., and, in consistence with his 
previous argument, he accepts the assertion of ]\Ir. Taylor, an 
American author, that " this is Indian heraldry ^ 

Mr. Ellis shows, it is true, many remarkable instances of corre- 
spondency in the bearings of cognate families, in the earliest era 
of Armory; it does not, however, follow, as he has concluded, 
that they mvist have been inherited from a common ancestor, 
who lived two or three generations earlier, at a time when we 
have no tangible evidence of the existence of Coat- Armour at 
all.i We agree with Mr. Ellis that a spirit of clanship led to the 
adoption of a general resemblance of colours and charges; and 
that, therefore, the origin of many coats may be attributed to 
the influence of consanguinity, though not wholly to the exclu- 
sion, as Mr. Ellis is disposed to contend, of what has been termed 
the feudal origin of Coat- Armour, where mesne tenants imitated 
the bearings of their chief. 

It is now generally admitted by the most judicious investiga- 
tors of the subject, that the present system of Armory in Europe 
is of indigenous origin, and was the product of the feudal age of 
chivalry ; that it was invented for use rather than show ; and that 
its signification, generally speaking, was practical rather than 
poetical. 

• The most abundant class of armorial monuments is presented by Seals : and a 
careful study of those of the twelfth century will generally show when persons of the 
foremost rank still sealed without armorial bearings, and when they first used them. 

B 2 



4 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

It was in reality a symbolic language, written in colours and 
devices instead of letters, and having in many cases some phonetic 
association, echoing to the names of persons or places, and thereby 
assisting the memory of those who read it. This quality, called 
by our own heralds canting, and described by the French under 
the term armes parlanies, — figures which were endowed with 
silent speech, has in every age been recognised as bearing a con- 
siderable share in Armory, but has sometimes been hastily and 
inconsiderately condemned as a foolish accessory, and very untruly 
treated as if of comparatively modern date.^ Those who have 
adopted such notions have betrayed at once their ignorance of 
the antiquities of the art, and their want of consideration and 
comprehension of its orighial purpose. When armorial symbols 
are viewed in their proper light as a pictorial language, a language 
addressed in great measure to those who were unlettered men, it 
becomes a merit and a recommendation that such symbols should 
be phonetic, and should establish their hold on the attention and 
the memory by their allusions and associations. How largely 
this quality exists in the earliest Coat- Armour has been ably shown 
in the writings of Mr. Planche, the present Rouge Croix pursui- 
vant; particularly in his very original and suggestive work Tlie 
Pursuivant of Arms, first published (in 1852), whilst he was still 

' A few years before Mr. Planch^, Mr. M. A. Lower undertook to discourse on 
The Curiosities of HeroMnj ; and, although he treated the subject, to our mind, alto- 
gether in too humorous and jocular a tone, we must do him the justice to remark 
that, in regard to this leading characteristic of ancient Armory, he very judiciously 
rebuked the perverse opinions of some earlier writers. In his chapter on Allusive 
Armory, he remarks, " Dallaway, Porny, and other modern writers condemn this species 
of bearings as of recent origin, and unworthy of a place amongst the classical devices 
of antient heraldry. Porny places them in the category of Assumptive Arms, — ' such 
as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of upstarts, though of never so mean an extrac- 
tion.' This notion, with whomsoever it originated, is decidedly erroneous, for such 
charges are found, not only in the arms of distinguished nobles and knights in the 
very earliest days of hereditary Armory, but occur also in those of several of the states 
of Europe " — of which Mr. Lower proceeds to give ample proof and numerous 
examples. And he very truly adds, " There can be no doubt but that, from the 
mutations our language [and the French also] has experienced within the last six 
centuries, many of the allusions contained in coats of arms are greatly obscured, whilst 
others are totally lost." {The Curiosities of Heraldry, 8vo. 1845, pp. 120, 126.) It 
has been in elucidating many of these obscure allusions that Mr. Planche has since 
been peculiarly happy. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 5 

an amateur herald. Armorial insignia were there, almost for the 
first time, or at least for the first time so thoroughly and entirely, 
investigated with a purely inductive spirit, and discussed in a 
common-sense way, as any other objects of antiquarian attention 
might be. 

■ In this country, essays on Heraldry had been very numerous, 
but greatly devoid of originality. They had been usually mere 
repetitions, the pouring forth from one vessel into another, as if 
there was nothing new to be learned; and this was the more 
remarkable, because no art was ever so mucb burdened and 
deformed with extraneous and adventitious overgrowth. Mi*. 
Planche boldly declared himself to be one tliat was 
Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri. 

He set tlie good example of casting away the fictions and imagi- 
nations of the old writers, and of rejecting their maxims and 
dicta, wherever they were unsupported by documentary proof, or 
not deduced from plain and obvious premises. 

" I start (he says) with the declaration that, as I have implicitly 
believed nobody, I desire not that any one should blindly credit me : 
but form his own conclusions from the evidence I may succeed in pro- 
ducing; rating mere speculations (for he will find some of my own) at 
their lowest value." 

It will be in the like spirit that we shall pursue the investiga- 
tions to be made in tlie course of the papers which we now 
commence. 

We consider it fruitless to inquire whether any other devices, 
in any other part of the world, have at any time resembled our 
system of Armory. It is sufficient to know that the latter was 
not derived from them, nor had any connection with them 
whatever. 

The first points to be defined are merely, — 1. When did 
Armory originate ? 2. For what reason ? 3. In what manner ? 

1. As to the date of its origin, it appears to be now unanimously 
conceded by all judicious and unprejudiced inquirers, that it was 
in the latter portion of the twelfth century that Coat-Armour was 
first adopted, and that it was scarcely prevalent, if at all, before 
the year 1180. 



6 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

2. The reason or cause of the adoption of armorial distinctions 
was, in the first place, the same which has prevailed at all periods 
in all armies with regard to standards or ensigns, i.e. that soldiers 
should recognise their proper leaders ; but, in the second place, 
the adoption of individual insignia evidently arose from the con- 
cealment of the person and features occasioned by the use of 
defensive armour, which made other external and visible means 
of recognition desirable. 

3. The manner in which Armory was devised, developed, and 
differenced, was various, and has to be discovered and ascertained 
in each instance. As already mentioned, it frequently bore 
allusion to names. This was certainly one of its first origins. 
It was then imparted to other names by connections of consan- 
guinity or feudal dependence. It was continually differenced by 
cadets, in order to distinguish their personal coats from those of 
their chief and the elder members of their house. 

Some of the simplest coats are those which bear what are called 
the Ordinaries, — the Chief, the Pale, the Bend, the Fess, and the 
Chevron ; the Cross and the Saltire ; the five former of which 
may all be regarded as having originally been bars placed in 
various directions to strengthen the shield, and the two latter as 
crossed bars. When these additions were tinctured differently to 
the field or surface of the shield, some of the simplest coats were 
at once formed. 

But there are other coats still more simple than these, which 
are wholly uncharged, and either of one tincture tliroughout, or 
merely parted by division into two colours. 

BANNERS OR COATS WITHOUT CHARGES. 

Such ensigns, it is obvious, may fairly claim an antiquity 
higher than Armory itself. They give room for that fancied 
connection with the painted shields of the Germans, or of the 
Britons, to which we have already referred ; and may even in 
some cases have been really derived from an hereditary preference 
for a particular colour. However, we shall be justified in treating 
them as part of our subject, as they were perpetuated in conjunc- 
tion with the more customary armorial devices, and in some cases 
even are so still. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 7 

The famous Orillainnic or Auriflammc of France, which always 
appeared at the head of the French armies, from the 12th to the 
15th century, was a square banner of flame-coloured silk, thus 
described by Guilaume Guiart: — 

Oriflamme est une banniere 
Aucune soi plus foit que guimple, 
De cendal roujearit et simple 
Sans portraiture d'autre affaire. 
" The oriflamme is a banner made of a silk stronger than guimp, it 
is of flaring cendal, and that simply, without any figure upon it." 

Its home during peace was the abbey of St. Denis ;• and it 
was entrusted by the sanction of that community to the Kings of 
France, who were graciously pleased to rank themselves as vassals 
of the abbey in their capacity of Counts of the Vexin. 

At a later period, the Oriflamme was sometimes powdered 
with golden flakes of fire, as it is represented in the Tndice Ar- 
morial of Louvain Geliot, folio 1635, and there thus described : 

" L'Oriflambe estoit faite de sendal, c'est a dire de tafetas ou tissu de 
soys rouge, aucunefois semee de flames d'or, d'ou elle prenoit le noni 
d' Oriflambe." 

We read of a Wldte banner that was carried in the army of the 
Kings of England when they went in war against Scotland. Tiie 
manor of Shorne ^ in Kent was held in capite by the service of 
carrying it, in conjunction with other tenants of the King. 

' With the Oriflamme may be compared the Dragon ordered for the church of 
St. Peter at Westminster by King Henry the Third in 1244 : it was to be in the form 
of a standard (t'OTiV/in/t), made of some red samite that sparkled throughout with gold, 
its tongue as if a burning fire, and continually moving, and its eyes of sapphires or 
other suitable stones. See the oiiginal order for this printed in the Exverpta IlUtu- 
rica, 1831, p. 404. That this Dragon was sometimes sent forth to battle may be pre- 
sumed, from it being stated with regard to the battle of Lewes in 1262, that a Dragon 
was then borne before King Henry the Third : and of a much earlier battle — that 
between Edmund Ironside and Canute — it is stated, " Regius locus erat inter Draconem 
et Standardum." (See further on this point in Retrospective Revie'v, New Series, 
1827, i. 94.) 

■•^ It is thus mentioned in the Inquis. post mortem of Sir Roger de Northwode, who 
died 34 Edw. III. (having been summoned to parliament in the previous year,) and 
in that of Sir Arnold Savage, 12 Hen. IV. " Schorne maner' extent' tent' de domino 
Rege in capite per servicium portandi cum aliis tenentibus domini Regis vexillum 
fdhum versus Seotiam in guerra Regis." 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 





MENEZES. 



NARBONNE. 



A shield of pure Gold was borne by the family of Menezes in 
Portugal,^ and a simple shield of Gules by the Viscounts of Nar- 
bonne.2 In the Salles des Croisades at Versailles such a shield, 
de gueules plein, is placed for Aymery, first of the name, Vicomte 
de Narbonne, who died in the Holy Land, about the year 1105; 
again, for Raymond Pelet, dit le CroisS ; and a third time for 
Amanjeu II. sire d'Albret,both crusaders under the command of 
the Count of Toulouse in 1096.^ 

The house of Albret or la Brette became Kings of Navarre. 

The same entirely red banner appeared at the siege of Carla- 
verock in 1301, borne by a cadet 5f that family named Amaneus 
de la Brette, as he is styled in records of the time,"* — or, by the 
poet of the expedition, Eurmenions — 

Mais Eurmenions de la Brette 
La baniere eus toute rougette. 

By the English chronicler Peter Langtoft he is called " Sir 
Emery the Brette." His father had borne the same name (in 
Latin, Amaneus); as did one who is supposed to have been 
his son ; for, at the siege of Calais in 1346, there was a Sir 
Amayen la Brette, serving King Edward the Third ; and he 
had then on his red sliield the golden lion of England passant 
in chief, a distinction evidently derived from the long services 

' Anselme, Hist. Genealogique de France, vol. i. p. 638. 

2 Ibid. vii. 759. 

3 Galeries Historiques du Palais de Versailles, 8vo. 1840, tome vi. pp. 112, 210, 
deuxieme partie, p. 9. 

* Rynier, Fcedera, New Edit. i. 708, 922. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 9 




GOURNAY. 



^vhicll this family, originally fr(5m Gascoigne, had rendered to 
the kings of this country.' 

The barons of Gournay in Normandy 
bore an uncharged sliield of Sable." The 
town of Gournay placed upon this shieLl a 
knight fully armed, ermine, and in chief a 
fleur-de-lis or ; which arms are said to 
have been conferred upon the town after 
its capture by Philip Augustus, on which 
occasion lie knighted Arthur Duke of 
Britany, the virifortunate nephew of our 
King John. There was therefore liisto- 
rical allusion, botli in the Knight (bearing the ermine of Britany) 
and in the golden fleur-de-lis of tlie monarch who conferred this 
distinction. 

The ducal house of Britany bore a shield 
of simple Ermine; down to the time of 
the marriage of its heiress in 1499 to 
Louis XII. On the coats of those mem- 
bers of this house who were Earls of Rich- 
mond in England this usually appears as a 
canton : as in the very interesting banner 
of John de Dreux, the Earl in the reign 
of Edward the First, who bore the Chccquy 
coat of Dreux, surrounded by a bordure of 
England, and a canton of Bretagne. 

Baniere avoit cointe et paree 

De or et de azur eschequeree 

Au rouge curie o jaunes lupars, 

D'ermine estoit la quarte pars. 
The bordure of England is described as "a 
red orle with yellow leopards." 

— a very remarkable example of the com- 
posite heraldry of the close of the thirteenth 
century : the Earl being a nephew of King 
Edward the First through his mother, that 

' See the memoir of Sir Eurmenions de la Brette in Sir Harris Nicolas 's edition of 
The Siege of Carlaverock, p. 178. 

'■^ See The Record of the House of Gouriuxij, 4to. 184S, p. 19. 



4. I J, ♦ .1. ^ A 4 ,1. ♦ I 

4 .j. ^ .', ^ .1. ^ .1, ^ + 4 

1 * _•- * .(^ ^ .1, ^ ,1. 4 .1. T 




BRETAGNE. 







^ 






1 


9fI 






■fi 


% 


#^ ^ 



10 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT AR3I0UR. 



is to say, the youngest son of John duke of Bretagne and the 

princess Beatrice of England. 

A division of the shield into two colours 
PER Pale still constitutes the entire coat of 
the ancient family of Waldegrave, Per pale 
argent and gules. The name of Styrlee is 
said to have borne Per pale or and sable. ^ 

A banner parted by pale indented argent and 
gules was borne by the great Simon de Mont- 
fort, Earl of Leicester, as he was represented 

in one of the windows of the cathedral of Chartres; whilst on his 





I Glover's Ordinary. In Burke's General Anaory, the coat of Sturley is Paly of 
six or and sable. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 11 

shield he carried a lion rampant with a double tail.^ The English 
roll of the reign of Henry III. agrees as to both these bearings: 

Le Conte De Leister, goules ung leon rampand d'argent, le cowe 
fourchee. Et le Banner part}' endentee d'argent et de goules. 

In some early rolls of arms ^ this Party coat is termed Le vielle 
escu de Leicester ; whilst other authorities ^ state it to have been 
the banner of the Honour of Hinckley in Leicestershire, by the 
tenure of which the Earls of that county were Stewards of 
England. It appears,"* however, to have been really a personal 
coat of the Montfort family, and at a time before their connec- 
tion with Leicestershire; for we find it stated^ that "Simon 
Montfort, brother to the Erie of Evreux, and father to Simon 
Erie of Leicester that maryed the kinges daughter, bare these 
armes: so did Almaric of Evreux, Erie of Gloucester." And the 
latter statement is confirmed by a seal of Earl Almaric (who 
died 1226) existing among the Harleian charters (45 C. 28). 

The same coat was also borne by Newsells or Xucelles : Party 
indented or and sable by Sir Henry Borle, and the like gviles and 
argent by Posyngworth.'' 

On the seal ^ of John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon, as 
Admiral of England, in the reign of Henry V., the stern of his 
ship has a banner party per pale dancette. This (remarks Sir 
Harris iS^icolas,^) " was evidently intended for the ancient coat of 
Holand, namely, Per pale dancette or and gules." Such a coat 
is attributed in the ordinaries to Holand of Lincolnshire. 



' Willemin, Moiiumens Francais Inedits : copied in tlie title-page of the Rolls of 
Arms of Henri/ III. and Edward HI. edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, 1829, and liy 
Planchfe, Pursuivant of Arms, p. 39, from wbich work we now extract it. 

" Named by Nicolas, Rolls, &c. p. xlii. In the Roll of Arms at the Society of 
Antiquaries, No. 17, the coat is inscribed Cike de Leycr., a word that has foiled inter- 
pretation. 

^ A volume of records in the Duchy of Lancaster ofiSce is mentioned in the History 
of Leicestershire, \. 671, in which the arms of the Duchy are accompanied by the 
banners of the various lordships which centred in that dignity, and among* them is 
this for the Honour of Hinckley. Also in the Harleian MS. 6163. The coat of Grand- 
mesuil, the ancient Barons of Hinckley, is said to have been Gules, a pale or. 

■• Brooke, Catalogue of Nohility; and charter in the Harleian collection, 45 C 28. 

* In the fine copy of Glover's Ordinary, Cotton MS. Tiberius, D. x. p. 677. 

* Glover, ubi supra. 

' Engraved in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1797, vol. Ixvii, p. 549. 

* Retrospective Review, New Series, i. 107. 



12 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

The partition of the shield was blasoned in France by terms 
which we have not adopted in England. Besides Parti for 
parted by pale, they used Coup4 for parted by fess, Tranche for 
parted by bend, and TailU for parted by bend sinister. There 
are several French coats that are parted in these various ways. 

The banner of the Templars was merely Coupe, or parted by 
fess, sable and argent. It has been remarked as a peculiarity 
that it was oblong in form : but such was really tlie customaiy 
shape of banners in the thirteenth century, when the Templars 
were in their vigour. The name of Bauseant was given to it, 
which is thus explained in a passage describing the Knights, 
written by a contemporary, the cardinal Jacques de Vitre, bishop 
of Acre : 

Lions they are in war, gentle lambs in the convent; fierce soldiers 
in the field, hermits and monks in the Church : to the enemies of Christ 
fierce and inexorable, but to Christians kind and gracious. They 
have a standard biparted of White and Black, that they call Bau- 
ceant, because to the friends of Christ they are white (candtdi) and 
kind, but to his enemies black and terrible. (Jacques de Vitre, 
Historia Iherosolimitana, cap. Ixv. in Gesta Dei ajmcl Francos.) 

This idea was quite Oriental, black and white being constantly 
used by the Arabs metaphorically. Their customary salutation 
is, May your day he lohite! But the ensign of the Knights 
Templars, by which they were personally distinguished, was their 
well-known red cross: and in a roll of arms of the thirteenth 
century, which has been recently edited for the Arcliceologia of 
the Society of Antiquaries, by W. S. Walford, esq. from the 
Harl. MS. 6589, both these devices are combined for 

Le auntient de Temple, d'argent vn chief sable vn crois gulez 
passant. 

• — the word auntient being varied in Leland's copy of that roll 
to haucent — which is the same word as bauseant above. ^ 

' In another work of de Vitre, his Historia Orientalis, lib. iii. cap. 10, (edited by 
Martene,) it appears as Baucaut — " Vexillum bicolorum, quod dicitur Baucaiit, ipsos 
in bello prsecedit." Bausaii was a term more frequently applied to a horse. " Bau- 
cant fut un cheval ferrant et gris, moitie Arabe, moitie Maure." Raynouard, Lezique 
Jtoman, i, 20, (from the Roman de Gerard de Rousillon) ; where also we find this 
citation as to the standard of the Templars — 

Preiro baneira . . . . lo Bausa. 

Cat. dels apost. de Roma, fol. 151. 
i. e. they took for banner tlio Bausa. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 13 

We do not find any English coat formed Party per Fess of 
two colours; but such division occurs, Party per fess or and 
azure, for Sturre, a noble family of Hungary. 

A shield parted by fess indented was borne by Landas, a noble 
family of Flanders, and is among those of the crusaders displayed 
at Versailles, in the description of which it is thus blasoned: 
Emmanche de dix pieces d'argent et de gueules.' 

A division of the shield into two colours per Chevron is the 
bearing of the ancient family of Aston, of Aston in Cheshire, 
who enjoyed the rank of Baronet from 1628 to 1815. Their 
shield was Per chevron sable and argent. The Astons barons of 
Forfar in Scotland varied this to Argent, a fess sable and in chief 
three lozenges of the last. 

The Quarterly coat of or and gules, without charge, was 
considered to be that of the ancient Earls of Essex of the name of 
j\Iandeville, and was borne during many later generations by their 
descendants the family of Say. It was also, with the simple dif- 
ference of a mullet in the first quarter, the arms of the long line 
of the Veres, Earls of Oxford, and in their case was probably 
derived from the same origin. It was borne with other dif- 
ferences by the baronial houses of Clavering and Eure, and by a 
groupe of families, the relationship of which, in connection with 
this bearing, will form an interesting subject of armorial study on 
some future opportunity. 

Guy de Eochford, le Poitevin, bore Quarterly argent and 
gules, temp. Hen. III., and Foulke FitzWaren Quarterly aro-ent 
and gules indented. 

Among the Crusaders at Versailles there are several simple 
Quarterly coats. That of Quarterly or and gules is erected for 
Senlis seigneur de Chantillj, for Herve de Boisberthelot, for Ber- 
trand de Thesan (1249), and for A. de Valon (1250). Quarterly 
or and azure was borne by Gauthier de Beyviers in Bresse 
(1120); Quarterly argent and gules by Jean seigneur of Dol in 
Bretagne; Quarterly argent and sable by the seigneur of Ganges 
m Languedoc. 

To revert to England, and to still existing families. The 
Stanhopes bear Quarterly ermine and gules; the Leightons of 

' Galeries Historiques, &c. VI. ii. 220. 



14 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 




\AA/y 



\/^A/ 





STANHOPE. 



Shropshire Quarterly per fess indented or and gules; and the 
Sandfords of the same county Quarterly per fess indented azure 
and ermine. 

The shield of Vaire, or and gules, was adopted by Ferrers 
Earl of Derby, at a very early period of armory, evidently 
because it resembled his name in its sound — 

Le Comte de Ferrers, verree de or et de goiiles. Roll Hen. III. 

It was derived from Ferrers to Gresley, by which family it is 
still borne tinctured ermine and gules. This was a coat assumed 
in token of feudality, for the manor of Drakelow was held under 
the Earl by Gresley, in the year 1200, by the yearly service of a 
bow, quiver, and twelve arrows. 





FERRERS. 




MEYNKLL. 



The more ordinary Vaire, argent and azure, was borne by the 
Beauchamps of Somersetshire, and was displayed on the banner 
of John de Beauchamp at Carlaverock. 

The jMeynells of Staffordshire and Derbyshire also still bear 
Vaire, argent and sable. This they took as heirs of De la 
Warde; which is found in the Roll temp. Edw. II. among les 
Ai'mcs abatues de Grand' Seignors, 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 15 

Sire Koberd cle la Warde, verre de argent e de sable. 

And the old rolls contain several other names that bore simple 
Vaire, without further charge. In the cuts in the opposite page 
the shield of Ferrers exhibits Vaire as it was drawn in early 
times ; those of Gresley and Meynell present the modern appear- 
ance of Vaire. 

In the English roll of Arms of the reign of Henry the Third, 
various coats will be found that have no charges, but are simply 
composed of two colours, either Barry, or Paly, or Undee, or Bendy. 
One is called Roelee, argent and azure ; this being a technical de- 
scription of the gnrges, or whirlpool, of Eauf de Gorges: and 
there is one Gyronny of the same tinctures, for AVarin de Bas- 
singborne. Mr. Seton, in his Scottish Heraldry, remarks that 
Gyronny is a favourite arrangement in Scotland, as in the fre- 
quently occurring escucheon of the Campbells, where the tinc- 
tures are usually or and sable. It is also borne by the surnames 
of Matthew and IMatthison (sable and gules), and by certain 
branches of the family of Spence (argent and azure). In Spain 
it is of common occurrence, being there borne by several distin- 
guished families, including the house of Giron, from which the 
Dukes of Ossuna are descended. Indeed its name seems to be 
derived from Spain, where the word signifies a gusset, or tri- 
angular piece of cloth. 

We have thus found a greater number of coats of arms than 
Avould at first be imagined, that were considered complete in 
their parti-coloured guise, though without charges. And there 
can be no doubt that we see in these uncharged coats the earliest 
features of the art of Armory. The next step was the employ- 
ment of the bars, or crossed bars, by which the shield was some- 
times strengthened, and of its central boss, which was modified 
into the Cross Flory,^ to form those simple figures which are 
termed the Ordinaries. To these we shall next pay attention on 
resuming our investigation. 

' Also into the Escarbonele; but we do not add this in the text, because the latter 
is really a subsequent fabrication, belonging to the fictitious armory which later 
heralds have fastened upon their predecessors. 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 



PiATFORD AND THE Feltons. A paper read at a Meeting of the Suffolk 
■ Institute of Archteology, etc., at Playford Hall, on October 24th, 1860. 

By the Hon. and Ven. Lord Arthur Hervey, President of the Institute. 

8vo. pp. 52. 

This copious memoir is a separate impression from the Transactions of 
the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. It includes many important historical 
papers : and terminates with three tabular pedigrees, 1. that of the Feltons ; 

2. the royal descent from the Kings of England and France of the Lady 
Elizabeth Howard (ob. 1681), the wife of Sir Thomas Felton, Bart.; and 

3. Bigod or Felbrigge, — Sir Simon le Bigod, in 28 Edw. I., having assumed 
the latter name from the family of his paternal grandmother ; and again 
Sir George le Bigod, his great-nephew, having again assumed it. The 
heiress of Felbrigge was married to Thomas Sampson, esq. who died in 
1439 ; and Margaret, sister and heiress to Sir Thomas Sampson, who died 
in 1513, was married to Kobert Felton, esq. The Feltons were descended 
in the male line from the Bertrams barons of Mitford in Northumber- 
land : Roger Bertram, who died in 1242, having left an elder son 
Roger, ancestor of the subsequent Bertrams, and a younger son Payne, 
who assumed the name of Felton from his residence in the same county." 
A branch of the Feltons became lords of Playford in 1513 ; and the heiress 
was married to John first Earl of Bristol in 1695. Sir Thomas Felton, 
Seneschal of Acquitaine, and a Knight of the Garter in the reign of 
Edward the Third, was a younger brother of Hamon de Felton, of Litcham 
in Norfolk, Knight of that Shire in 1377. His garter-plate remains at 
Windsor, and a fac-simile printed in coloured lithography illustrates this 
memoir. He bore. Gules, two lions passant ermine, crowned or. On his 
helmet, a golden coronet, with a panache of red feathers, quilled gold. 
The father of these brothers. Sir John de Felton, who was Governor of Aln- 
wick, and their grandfather Sir Robert, Governor of Scarborough, had 
both been summoned to Parliament temp. Edw. II., as was their cousin Sir 
William de Felton, Governor of Bamborough ; but in none of these cases 
does an hereditary barony appear to have originated. Appendix B. (con- 
tributed by Richard Almack, esq. F.S.A.) contains a discussion on the 
parentage of John Felton, the assassin of the first Villiers Duke of Buck- 
ingham : his genealogy is not ascertained, but is supposed to have been 
derived from the Feltons of Pentlow near Sudbury, who bore the Felton 
coat diflFerenced by a crescent. Nicholas Felton, successively Bishop of 
Bristol and Ely, who died in 1626, one of the translators of the Bible, was 
the third son of Mr. John Felton, an alderman of Great Yarmouth. 




JOHN ROSS COULTHART, 

OF 

COULTHART. COLLYN AND 

ASHTON UNDER-LYNE . 




THE COULTIIARTS OF COULTHART. 17 

A Genealogicai- and Heraldic Account of the Coulthakts of Coult- 
HART AND CoLLYN, CHIEFS OF THE NAME ; froiii tlieir first Settlement in 
Scotland in the reign of Conarus, to the Year of Our Lord 1854; to 
which are added, the Pedigrees of seven other considerable Families, 
that, through Heiresses, became incorporated with the House of Coult- 
hart. Ey George Parker Knowles, Genealogist and Heraldic Artist. 
Derived from the Family Muniments. Loudon : printed for private cir- 
culation only, by Hai-rison and Sons, mdccclv. Royal 8vo. pp. 24, 

CoULTHART, OF CoULTHART, CoLLYN, AND AsHTON-UNDER-LyNE. [A 

broadside Pedigree] derived from the Family Muniments, and brought 
down to A.D. 1853 by Alexander Cheyne, Esq. B.A. of Ashton-under- 
Lyne, Barrister-at-Law, and George Parker Knowles, of Manchester, 
Genealogist and Heraldic Ai'tist. 
A Genealogical and Heraldic Account of the Rosses of Dalton, in 
the County of Dumfries, from their first Settlement in Scotland, in the 
Twelfth Century, to the year of our Lord 1854. (By the Same, and 
printed at the same time.) Royal Svo. pp. 8. 
Notes and Memoranda to the Coulthart and Ross Pedigrees. Royal Svo. 
pp. 11. [Accompanied by a Declaration of Mr. George Parker Knowles, 
dated 3 Feb. 1864.] (Of all, 75 copies printed.) 

These genealogical records are dedicated to John Ross Coulthart, esq. of 
Croft House, Ashton-under-Lyne, co. Lancaster, and to George Ross, esq. 
of Newport, co. Salop ; and they were printed at the expense of the former, 
the i-epresentative of the Coultharts of Coulthart and Collyn. In a brief 
Preface we are informed that the more laborious part of the work, in tran- 
scribing and translating the documents from which the pedigrees are com- 
posed, had been accomplished by Alexander Cheyne, esq. of Ashton-under- 
Lyne, barrister-at-law, shortly before his death on the 26th August, 1 853 : 
their arrangement was completed by the gentleman whose name and desig- 
nation appears in the title-page. 

"Few families (remarks Mr. Knowles) can justly claim so ancient and 
honourable a descent as the Coultharts of Coulthart and Collyn, and fewer 
still can establish their lineage by such unerring documentary evidence. 
Deriving an uninterrupted male succession from the era of Julius Agricola, 
the genealogy is clearly traceable by means of monkish chronicles, his- 
torical achievements, marriage alliances, royal charters, baronial leases, 
sepulchral inscriptions, sasine precepts, judicial decreets, and fragmentary 
pedigrees, to the present lineal representative, who has furnished me with 
such an extensive collection of ancestral muniments, partly arranged by 
domestic annalists and antiquaries, that I am enabled to compile from the 
family, archives the following brief record of the Coultharts of Coulthart 
AND Collyn, chiefs of the name, and also to annex thereto heraldic and 
genealogical accounts of the Rosses of Renfrew, the Macknyghtes of 
Macknyghte, the Glendonyns of Glendonyn, the Carmichaels of Cars- 
pherne, the Forbeses of Pitscottie, the Mackenzies of Craigliall, and the 
VOL. III. C 



■1i 






ii>^ ' >->..c;^^ :m 



18 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

Gordons of Sorbie ; who have all, through heiresses, become incorporated 
with the house of Coulthart, as successive generations meandered down the 
stream of time." 

It has been thought sufficient in the southern half of Britain to trace a 
genealogy up to one of those Norman knights who " came in with the Con- 
queror," and are named on the Roll of Battle Abbey : but the extraordi- 
nary antiquity of the Coultharts mounts for more than thirty generations 
higher than that, up to " Coulthartus, a Roman lieutenant, who fought 
under Julius Agricola, at the foot of the Grampian mountains ;" and who, 
"versed in all the wisdom and learning of the Romans, appears to have 
lived at Leucaphibia, as a Caledonian chieftain, and to have died there, 
beloved and lamented, in the 12th year of the reign of King Conarus." 
The genealogy is carried on by the names of Julius, Ackaline, Doraldus, 
Moraldus, Thorwaldus, and a great variety of others, but Coulthartus 
occurs again in it at intervals. Coulthartus II. in the fifth generation from 
the first, " surpassed most men of his time in the manly exercises of run- 
ning, riding, shooting arrows, throwing the dart, and wielding the battle- 
axe ;" and his son and successor Diorthaca was " the first of the family that 
embraced the Christian religion." In the 14th generation we come to 
Coulthartus III. whose mother was a daughter of Lothus king of the Picts; 
in the 19th to Coulthartus IV. who was chiefly remarkable for his benefac- 
tions to the abbey of Candida Casa, or Whithorn, built in his time ; in the 
26th to Coulthartus V. who was equally liberal in erecting and repairing 
churches in Galloway; and in the 32d to Coulthartus VI. who having 
stood aloof from the usurper Macbeth, joyfully assisted in the restoration 
of Malcolm Kianmore- Immediately after his death, his two sons Alfred 
and Theodore went on a pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre of St. Peter at 
Rome; and the former, on his return, "had a confirmation charter from 
King Malcolm of the barony of Coulthart, on condition that three horses 
should always be furnished to the sovereigns of Scotland when required in 
time of war : for which reason three colts, courant, have ever since been boi'ne 
by the family of Coulthart as an armorial ensign." 

We need scarcely say, after all that has been stated on that point in 
former numbers of this periodical, that we consider this epoch too early for 
the origin of armorial bearings : and in the present case the anachronism is 
the more obvious, since it is placed two generations before the surname of 
Coulthart itself was established : for Alfred used none, nor his son Godo- 
fredus : and we are told that it was his grandson, Sir Radulphus de Coult- 
hart, who first used the territorial designation as a surname. He was also 
the first Crusader of his family. 

Still later by three generations we meet with an addition to the armorial 
legend. When Sir Roger de Coulthart had highly distinguished himself in 
a tournament held at Haddington in 1240, King Alexander II. "per- 
sonally invested him with the knightly girdle, and heraldically added to 
the three black colts courant on his silver shield a fess sable, which armo- 




THE COULTHARTS OF COULTHART. 19 

rial ensigns have ever since, without alteration, been borne by the chiefs of 
the family." The wife of Sir Koger was Isabella Stewart, a daughter of 
Walter the Steward of Scotland. 

The earliest seal bearing the 
arms now known to exist is at- 
tached to a charter granted by a 
later Sir Roger de Coulthart, in 
1443, to his brother- in -lawRobert 
de Agnewof thelandsof Fellmore 
in Galloway. This seal is said to 
be " still remarkably perfect." 
The legend is unusual in form 
and position, mentioning only the 
surname and not the personal 
name of its owner. The sup- 
porters form a rebus of the name 
—a colt, attired as a war-horse, and a hart, gorged with a coronet. 

The father of this Roger, Sir Gilbert, died in 1391 at Dantzick, in the 
service of Prussia against the Turks ; and for some generations after, the 
fate of each successive head of the family is remarkable. Sir Roger fell at 
the siege of Roxburgh castle in 1460; Sir Roger, his son, was killed at 
Sauchyburn in 1488 : Sir Richard, the next laird, was slain at Flodden in 
1513; and Cuthbert, his successor, at Solway Moss in 1542. One of the 
sons of the Sir Roger that died in 1488 was Henry, who settled in Craven in 
Yorkshire, and was ancestor of the late H. W. Coulthurst, D.D. Vicar of 
Halifax. In the next century occurs another remarkable cadet, one 
"Roger, a major in the army of King Charles II. [or I.?] who, to avoid 
persecution when Oliver Cromwell was proclaimed Lord Protector, flew 
beyond seas, and never afterwards returned from exile." If there are any 
Coultharts in America, they may claim descent from this Major. 

We arrive at more peaceful times ; and Richard Coulthart, esq. the chief 
who was born in 1659 and died in 1717, was an eminent agriculturist and 
author of The Economy of Agriculture, long a favourite text-book of the 
farmers of Scotland. His wife was the heiress of Gordon of Sorbie, whose 
pedigree we shall have to mention. 

He was great-grandfather of the last chief of the house, who was also 
devoted to the science of agriculture, residing in Cumberland, where his 
tomb is placed in his parish churchyard of Bolton-le-Gate, and is similar to 
those of the Coulthart family at Kells and Kirkpatrick-Fleming. It bears the 
following inscription to his memory, written by the Bishop of Manchester : — 

"Gulielmus Coulthart de Coulthart et CoUjn Arm. Gentis nominisque 
sue facile primarius. Nat. die Martis xxi° MDCCLXXIV. Denat. die 
Octob. vii° MDCCCXLVII." 

Not long after the decease of this gentleman his widow caused the west 
window of Bolton-le-Gate church to be filled with stained glass by Mr. 
Willement, of London; a commission executed with such success, that it is 

C 2 




WEST WINDOW OF BOLION-LE-GATE CUDBCB, CUMBEKLAND. 



considered superior to any of tlie same size in Cumberland. Its design is 
shown in the annexed engraving, the upper openings being occupied by angels, 
and the three principal lights by whole-length figures of the prophets 
Zacharias, Amos, and Jeremias. Beneath these, in square compartments, 
are armorial achievements. The first, being Coulthart impaling Ross, is 
accompanied with this inscription : — " Ad gloriam Dei et in memorlam 
Helenas Gulielmi Coulthart ux. ob. xv. Apr. MDCCCLX," The second 
panel has the quartered arms, crest, supporters, and motto of the chief of 
the family, with this inscription : — " Gulielmus Coulthart ob. vii. Oct. 
MDCCCXLVII." In the third panel a shield of arms with this inscrip- 
tion : — "Ad gloriam Dei et in memoriam Margaritse Gul. Coulthart fil. 
Jacobi Macgufiie ux. ob. xix. Mart. MDCCCLVI." 



THE COULTHARTS OF COULTHART. 21 

There is an account of the family of Macguffie of Crossmichael, co. Kirk- 
cudbright, in Burke's Landed Gentry, Their Arms are, Argent, a fess be- 
tween three boar's heads couped sable. The lady above mentioned left the 
numerous progeny of six sons and five daughters. 

John Ross Coulthart, esq. the present chief of the name, (from -whom, as 
already mentioned, we receive these genealogies,) is a magistrate for Lanca- 
shire, a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, a banker at Ashton-under-Lyne, where 
he served the office of mayor from Nov. 1855 to Nov. 1857, a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and a Member of the Royal Society of 
Literature. 

The other fiimilies whose genealogies are traced in these pages, are — 

2. Ross, of Henfreio : one of whose coheirs, the daughter of Sir John the 
Ross, knighted in 1412, was married to Sir Roger de Coulthart. Arms. 
Argent, a chevron cheeky of three tracks sable and or between three water- 
bougets of the second. Crest. A dexter arm in ai'mour proper, garnished 
or, holding a water-bouget sable. 

3. Mackntghte, of Machujghte, in the Regality of Galloway : the heiress 
of which was married to Sir John the Ross of Renfrew on the 4th July, 
1408. Arms. Sable, an escocheon cheeky argent and or, between three 
lion's heads erased of the second. Crest. A demi-lion rampant argent. 

4. Glendontn, of Glendonyn, in the shire of Ayr : wliose heiress was 
married in 1386 to Donald de Macknyghte. Arms. Quarterly argent and 
sable, a cross parted per cross engrailed and counterchanged. Crest. Two 
arms dexter and sinister, erect and embowed in armour proper, grasping a 
cross- crosslet fitchee or. 

5. Carmichael, of Carspherne, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright : whose 
heiress was married in 1447 to Sir Roger de Coulthart. Arms. Argent, on 
a bend cotised potentee sable a tilting-spear of the first. Crest. A dexter 
hand and arm in armour, brandishing a tilting-spear proper. 

6. Forbes, of Pitscottie, co. Ayr: whose heiress was married in 1575 to 
John Coulthart, of Coulthart and Largmore. Arms. Ermine, a chevron 
cheeky argent and sable between three bear's beads couped of the last, 
muzzled gules, within a bordure iiebulee of the third. Crest. Out of a 
coronet or, a dexter arm in armour, holding a scimitar proper. 

7. Mackenzie, of Craighall, in the district of Kyle : whose heiress was 
married in 1624 to William Coulthart, of Coulthart. Arms. Quarterly : 
1 and 4. Azure, a stag's head caboshed or ; 2 and 3. Argent, three human 
legs, united in the centre at the upper part of the thigh, and triangularly 
flexed, armed and spurred proper : an escocheon surtout. Ermine, a stag's 
head caboshed sable, within a bordure argent. Crest. A demi-savage, 
wreathed about the head and loins with laurel, holding in tlie dexter hand 
on his shoulder a club, all proper. 

8. Gordon, of Sorhie, co. Wigton: whose heiress was married in 1698 to 
Richard Coulthart, of Coulthart. Arms. Ermine, on a fess between three 
boar's heads erased erect sable a spear argent. Crest. Out of a mural crown, 
a boar's head, as in the arms. 



22 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 




ir^^iPt 





ROSS, OF RENFREW. 



GLENDONYN, OF GLENDONYN. 




MACKNYGHTE, OF MACKNYGHXE. 




CARMICHAEL, OF CARSPHERNE. 



THE COULTHARTS OF COULTIiART. 



23 





FORBES, OF PITSCOTTIE. 



GORDON, OF SORBIE. 





MACKENZIE, OF CRAIGHALL. 



KOSS, OF KEIU, CLOSEBURN, 
ST. MUNGO, AND DALTON. 



24 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 



The second Memoir of which the title is prefixed contains the genealogy 
of Ross, of Dalton, co. Dumfries. This is a younger branch of Ross, of 
Halkhead, co. Renfrew, which became Barons of parliament in 1490, or 
thereabouts, and continued to sustain that dignity until 1754. They 
derive their descent from the same Yorkshire house from whence we have 
still the English barony of Ros or de Roos ; and bear the same charges of 
water-bougets ; whilst the crest of a hawk's head is allusive to their seat 
already named. The junior line whose pedigree is here deduced were long 
of Rosshill, CO. Ayr, where Patrick Ross had royal licence to erect a castle 
in 1556. Mr. Coulthart's mother was Helen the second daughter of John 
Ross, esq. of Keir, Closeburn, St. Mungo, and Dalton, all co. Dumfries, by 
Margaret, daughter of Alexander Gleudinning, esq. of the Isle of Dalton, 
in the same county. Arms. Gules, three water-bougets argent. Crest. A 
hawk's head couped proper. 

The third fasciculus, which has been only recently printed, contains 
additional notes and memoranda to both the Coulthart and Ross pedigrees ; 
translations of charters ; some biographical memoirs ; a copy of the Seize 
Quartiers of John Ross Coulthart, esq. (as compiled by Mr. Bridger, of 
Witley, for his collection of Seize Quartiers) ; and the Royal Descent of the 
same gentleman from William the Conqueror, on one hand by twenty-five 
descents, through the Hays, — Lady Elizabeth Hay, eldest daughter of 
George sixth Eai-1 of Erroll, having married Cuthbert de Coulthart, who 
died in 1542; and on the other, by twenty-seven descents, through the 
families of Ross and Edmonstone, Sir William Edmonstone of Culloden and 
Duntreath, who died in 1460, having been the fourth husband of Mary 
Countess of Angus, one of the daughters of King Robert III. Her grandson 
Sir Archibald Edmonstone, of Duntreath, was one of those who surrounded 
his arms with the double tressure in commemoration of his royal descent. 

Mr. Coulthart quarters with his own arms those of the seven families 
commemorated in the first Memoir, thus marshalled : 1. Coulthart; 2. Ross; 
3. Macknyghte; 4. Glendonyn; 5. Carmichael; 6. Forbes; 7. Mackenzie; 
and 8. Gordon, — as shown at the foot of the stained-glass window. 




PEDIGEEES OF TRAVERS. 25 



1864. 



A CoLIiECTION OF PEDIGREES OF THE FaMILT OF TeAVERS: 01" Abstl'aCtS of 

certain Documents collected towards a History of that Family, by S. Smith 

Travers, Esq. Arranged by Henry J. Sides of the Bodleian Library. 

Oxford : printed by J. H. and J. Parker. 1 864. 4to. Title, leaf of 

introduction, three folding pedigrees, and 44 very closely printed pages. 

(A private work, 55 copies.) 

In modern times the name of Travers has been well known in the City of 
London for prosperous and honourable commercial transactions, and for 
no small share of political influence. In the i-anks of surgical skill also it 
has taken a foremost place for more than one generation : whilst, in the 
department of political and legal science, a gentleman who from his 
maternal descent has derived Travers for his baptismal name has attained 
a great reputation at once with his professional and academic friends and 
with the general public. 

It is to one of this London family that we are indebted for the genealo- 
gical " Collection " which we now notice : and all the parties to whom we 
have alluded are to be found in the tabular pedigrees with which it is com- 
menced. 

We would not quarrel, as Sir Harris i^icolas was disposed to do with 
Mr. Nicholas Carlisle, with any one for gathering into one focus all that 
can be collected respecting a particular name, and arranging such collec- 
tions in one or more volumes, under the several counties, or as may be 
most convenient. The error that laid Mr. Carlisle open to Sir Harris 
Nicolas's animadversion, and somewhat unfiiir ridicule, was that of entitling 
his book Collections for a History of the Family of Carlisle (1822, 4to.) ; 
and the editors of the volume before us fall into the same inadvertence 
when they say on their title-page, " the Family of Travers," instead oi the 
families, — for it is not pretended that all the families of the name have 
sprung from one stock. 

Mr. Lower, in his Patronymica Britunnica. derives the name of Travers 
from the " Fr. traverse, a cross path or foot-road leading from one village 
to another :" and again, of Maltravers, " It may be of local origin, and allu- 
sive to some had passage, or traject." It might apply, we imagine, to a 
passage, or ferry, across a river. 

At p. 22 of the Collection before us we find it stated, that "from Trevieres, 
a town in the department of Calvados, midway between Dives and Valognes, 
came the ancestors of Ralph Travers, who in the reign of Richard I. married 
Petronilla Tresgoz, the inheritrix, from her maternal grandfather, Walter de 
Valognes, of half the lordship of Berney, co. Norfolk ;" and that, at the pre- 
sent day, the surname of Travers is common in that district, for at Valognes 
was born, on 31st Jan. 1802, Julian Gilles Travers, a celebrated French 



26 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

professor, poet, and arcliseologist, the still surviving author and editor of 
many valuable works. 

Again, as the name was often spelt Travis, or Traves, may not some of 
the families that have borne it have come from the imperial city of Treves, 
or even from another Treves, a town on the Loire ? 

It may sometimes have had a personal instead of a local origin : for we 
find that Trevier was a maritime term, applied to one who looked after the 
sails of a ship, — "le maitre des voiles, qui a soin de I'envergure, et qui les 
visite a chaque quart, pour voir si elles sont en bon etat. Velis prcepositus. 
Trevier, ou Maitre voilier." (^Dictioyinaire Universel.) 

At various periods foreigners of the name may have come to England. 
In p. 21 is a notice of Peregrine Trevis, a merchant in Mincing Lane, 
who was a Jew by birth and a native of Venice, and obtained a patent of 
naturalisation in 1762. 

As a personal name, Travers is found in England as early as the Domes- 
day survey. At Egrafel in Hampshire (which was in the hundred of Bow- 
combe, but its modern name has not been identified,) William son of Stur 
held half a hide, and Travers held it of William. 

There are few parts of England, if any, in which some of the name cannot 
be traced, and Mr. Smith Travers, with very persevering research, has 
amassed a large mass of documents respecting them: which he has arranged 
under the several counties, — as was done by Captain Archer in his volume 
on the Archers which we recently described; and occasionally there occur in 
a single county two or more families of the name between whom no relation- 
ship can be traced. There appear in Burke's General Armory some ten 
different coats of arms for the name ; but that which belonged to the most 
ancient and distinguished house was /SaftZe, a c^ei;ro7z 
hetiveen three hoars heads couped argent^ borne by 
Travers of Horton in the county of Chester : from 
which Mr. Smith Travers derives his own linear 
descent, the name at the head of the first tabular 
pedigree being that of Hamon or Hamlet Travers, of 
Horton-hall, who is enrolled on the list of Cheshire 
gentry in 1522-3, and of whom various other me- 
morials are extant. He is supposed to have de- 
scended from the still more antient race that 
resided at Mount Travers, Nateby, &c. in the county of Lancaster. 

For these two ancient houses Mr. Travers has collected further materials, 
which he reserves at present for a more extended work: his principal object 
being to solicit assistance from any genealogist who can render it, particu- 
larly to verify the descent of the Cheshire family from that of Lancashire, 
or to attach any others of the outlying branches to the parent stem. 

The pedigrees that are now printed are illustrated by many important 
and curious records, especially wills. In Lancashire, particularly, there 
are several ancient families of Travers besides the chief house at Nateby. 




PEDIGREES OF TEA VERS. 27 

One of them at Blackley is traced to the first half of the sixteenth century. 
John Bradford the martyr wrote during his imprisonment many long 
letters to his friend " good Father Travers, minister of Blackley," which 
are given at length in Foxe's Actes and Monuments. From that time to 
the present Blackley Chapel has been constantly under the care of mem- 
bers of this family, either as trustees or ministers. 

There was a Peter Travers (p. 13) who, after having received his educa- 
tion at Westminster and Cambridge, was Rector of Bury and Ilodsall in 
Lancashire, and became Bishop of Sodor and Man in 1643, but of his 
parentage nothing is known. 

Christopher Travers of Doncaster (p. 38) is supposed to have been that 
retainer of the Earl of Northumberland who makes a short entry upon the 
stage in the Second Part of Shakespeare's Henry the Fourth. He made 
his will in London in 1466, and desired to be buried in the cathedral 
church of St. Paul. 

Under Devonshire is presented the pedigree of a family seated for five 
generations at Pille in the parish of Bishop's Tawton, from the reign of 
Edward IV. to that of Elizabeth. John, the second son in the last genera- 
tion, has been fixed upon for identification with a brother-in-law of the 
poet Spenser (Craik's Spenser and his Poetry, iii. 250) ; but in the pages 
before us it is remarked that this John Travers, baptised at Coleridge in 
.1567, would have been but thirteen years old in 1580, when the Poet's 
brother-in-law is said to have repaired to Ireland ; and a still more serious 
objection to the identity is offered by the same register recording the 
burial in 1573 of the child born in 1567. 

John Travers was an alderman of London, and three times sheriff, early 
in the thirteenth century, in 1215, 1223, and 1224. The last of those years 
was remarkable for the first arrival of the Franciscan friars in this country; 
and they were lodged for some time in Cornhill, at the house of John 
Travers, who was then chamberlain as well as sheriff. 

Another London family of the name, which flourished for several gene- 
rations, descended from Richard Travers, citizen and merchant-taylor, who 
was born at Maidstone circ. 1480-5, and died in 1540. It was partly upon 
his estate that the Royal Exchange was erected by Sir Thomas Gresham. 
He was father-in-law of Sir Thomas Blanck, Lord Mayor in 1582, and his 
great-grand-daughter was the wife of Sir John Dethick, another Lord 
Mayor. His posterity is traced to the end of the following century. 

Walter Travers of Nottingham, goldsmith, whose will, made in 1757, is 
presented to us, is supposed to have been one of the sons of Richard 
Travers, merchant-taylor, of London. He was the father of Walter Travers, 
B.D. a celebrated Puritan divine, who became Provost of Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1594 ; and also of John Travers, Rector of Faringdon, co. Devon, 
who married Alice Hooker sister to the still more celebrated Master of the 
Temple. The latter had four sons, all beneficed clergymen, and the pedi- 
gree of this branch of Travers is amply exemplified for five generations. 



28 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

Walter Travers for a time was lecturer at the Temple ; and wlien Hooker 
and Travers preached there, there were, says Fuller, almost as many writers 
as hearers : for not only students, but even the gravest Benchers — such as 
Sir Edward Coke and Sir James Altham, might be observed taking notes. 
"The worst was, these two preachers, though joyned in affinity, (their 
nearest kindred being married together,) acted with diiferent principles, 
and clashed one against the other. So that what Mr. Hooker delivered in 
the forenoon, Mr. Travers confuted in the afternoon. At the building of 
Solomon's Temple (1 Kings vi. 7) neither hammer, nor axe, nor tool of 
iron was heard therein : whereas, alas ! in this Temple much knocking was 
heard, but (which was the worst) the nailes and pins which one master 
builder drave in, were driven out by the other." Hooker allowed the 
Church of Eome, though not a pure and perfect, yet to be a true church ; 
but Travers maintained that the Church of Rome was no true church at 
all : so that such as live therein, holding justification in part by works, 
cannot be said by the Scripture to be saved. For these extreme opinions 
Travers was silenced by archbishop Whitgift ; and it was this which led to 
his acceptance of the invitation of archbishop Loftus, his ancient colleague 
at Cambridge, to become provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He remained 
there only three years and a half, and spent the remainder of his life in 
London, making his will in 1634. The history of tliis family of learned 
divines is very fully related, and their wills are singularly curious. The per- 
sonal biography of AValter Travers was previously well known, but his 
parentage, and his relationship to the Devonshire divines, has been dis- 
covered by Mr. Sides. 

Altogether, it will be perceived from the slight sketch we have now given 
of this Collection, that it contains a very large and copious amount of 
original materials for the history of all the English families of the name of 
Travers : and we sincerely hope that the perseverance of the collector, and 
his able and intelligent coadjutor, will be rewarded in obtaining such addi- 
tional information as may re-unite, on reliable evidence, some of the scattered 
branches to the parent tree. 

1860. 
The Jewell Register, containing a List of the Descendants of Thomas 
Jewell of Braintree, near Boston, Mass. Hartford : Press of Case, 
Lockvvood, and Company. 1860. Svo. pp. 104. 

This is one of those pedigrees in the form of a catalogue or register 
which have of late years been diligently compiled in considerable numbers 
by our consins of New England. The introductory advertisement is 
signed by Pliny Jewell of Hartford, Connecticut, and the Rev. Joel Jewell 
of French's Mills, Philadelphia. The ancestor named in the title-pag-e 
" was probably born in England, not far from the year 1600." The 
editors add, "We have been unable positively to connect him with any_ 



THE JEWELL REGISTEE. 29 

European family ; but various circumstances coincide to render it most 
likely that he was from the same original stock as Bishop John Jewell, 
who was born in the north of Devonshire in 1522, and died in 1571. The' 
name has been written Jule, Joyell, Jewel, and then Jewell. The first 
authentic account of Thomas is in the early part of 1639, but little more 
than 18 years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, and shows 
that he had then a wife and one child, probably a daushter." He received at 
that date a grant of twelve acres, as "Thomas Jewell of the Mount, miller," 
the spot having been first settled in 1625 as Mount Wollaston (so named 
from Captain Wollaston) ; and it was incorporated as " Braintree " in 1640. 
Probate of the miller's will (which is given) was granted to his widow Gri-' 
sell in 1654. 

His descendants are in this Register arranged in eight generations. 
" Our lists (say the Editors,) contain over eighteen hundred [persons], and 
there may be as many more [of the name] that we cannot trace to one pro- 
genitor. ^ George Jewell was at Saco, Maine, in 1637, and Samuel at 
Boston in 1655 ; they may have been brethren or kinsmen of Thomas 
Nathaniel of Boston (1694) and George sen. of Elizabethtown, New 
Jersey, were brothers, and probably related to the above. We find some 
in Maine ; some in New Hampshire (which descend from Mark) ; some 
along the Hudson River; in Philadelphia; in New Jersey, and at the 
South and West, that have Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Harmon, and Robert 
to their fathers ; and some who are the children of Richard, which came 
from Devonshire, England, in 1774." 

Thus we see that New England may fairly boast of the abundance of her 
Jewels. With regard to the presumed descent from the family of Bishop 
Jewell, it would have been more satisfactory had the Editors explained 
what the "various circumstances" are which in their view coincide to 
render it probable that Thomas Jewell was of the same stock as that emi- 
nent man. They have prefixed an engraving of the Bishop's arms from 
the Wiltshire Visitation of 1565, but have not given its blason. With this 
therefore we will now present them : — 

Or, on a chevron azure between three gillyflowers gules, slipt vert, a 
maiden head proper, wearing a chaplet of the third ; on a chief sable' a 
hawk's lure, double-stringed, between two falcons argent. Crest, on a 
wreath, a cubit arm vested azure, cuflfed argent, holding in the hand proper 
a gilly-flower gules, slipt vert. 

" This patent gyven to John Jule of Bowden in the Contey of Dewon- 
shire," by Benolte Clarencieux, 22 Hen. VHI. (1530), as stated in MS. 
Coll. Arm. 2 G. 4, f. 33 b., also on record as the arms of Bishop Jewell in 
Harvy's Visitation of Wiltshire, G. 8, fol. 3. 

The maiden-head points not improbably to John Jule havmg been a 
Mercer, being the head of the Blessed Virgin borne as the arms of that 
company : it was a singular accident that it should figure in the coat of 
the first Protestant Bishop of Salisbury. 



30 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

John Jule named hoth his sons John, and two of his daughters Joan. 
Westcote, in his View of Devonshire, 1630, (edit. 1845, p. 536,) has inserted 
the pedigree of Jewell from the Visitation of Devon, 1563, but omitting 
the elder John in the enumeration of his father's children. We shall there- 
fore take the opportunity of printing this genealogy verbatim from the MS. 
in the Heralds' office : — 

"John Jule of Bowden in the countie of Devon, gent, maryed Alys doughter to 
Rychard Bellamye,' and by her had yssue John his eldeste sonne, John bysshoppe of 
Sarum, second sonne, Jone maryed to John Dunne ^ of Holdysworthie, Jackett 
maryed to John Rede of Bery in erber, Xp'ian maryed to Anthonye Wethye of Bery 
in erber, Jone the yonger maryed to John Wethie, Cescellie maryed to Henrye Downe 
of Barnestable. 

"John Jule of Est Downe ^ in the saide countie, gent', eldeste sonne and heire to 
John, maryed Agnes doughter and sole heire to Rychard Cuttclyffe of Northcott in 
the countie of Devon, gent, and by her hath yssue Jone, Margaret, '' Alys,* Agnes,® 
and Cescellie.'' Jone maryed to Thomas Hamont' of Arlington, and hath yssue 
Rebecca." (MS. Coll. Arm. D. 7, fol. 8.) 

The male line does not appear to have been perpetuated. Burke in 
his General Armory gives the same coat without the maiden-head for 
Jewell of Scotland : and also this simple coat, — Azure, three gilly-flowers 
argent, for Jewell of Salisbury. The gilly-flowers were a canting allusion 
to the name, originally written Jule ; and which was derived, as Mr. Lower 
points out in his Patronymica Britannica, from the baptismal name Jules, 
the French of Julius. Jewell, we find, is not an uncommon name in Eng- 
land as well as America. 

' The editors of Westcote have quoted from the will of John Bellamy, incumbent of 
Highampton and Countisbury, dated 5 Dec. 1543, these items : " I gyve and bequethe 
to John Jueli the yonger now Scholar at Oxford, at such tyme that he dothe proeeede 
master of artes, Ixvj s. viij d. Item, I gyve and bequethe to Jaequet Juell xx s. 
Item, I gyve and bequethe to every other child of John Juell of Bowdon ys children 
one sheepe." John Bellamy was probably uncle and godfather of the Bishop. 

2 Downe, alias Dunne. (Westcote). 

^ i.e. the eldest son. He is styled " of Northcot in the parish of East Down" by 
Westcote ; but (as already mentioned) his relationship to the foregoing is not 
specified. 

'' Margaret married to Richard Ley of Northcot. (Westcote.) 

* Alice married to Thomas Fursdon of Raddon court in the parish of Thorver- 
toii. (Ibid.) 

^ Agnes, married to George Peard of Barnstaple. (Ibid.) 

' Cecily, married to Bradford in Wales. (Ibid.) ^ Hamond. 



BIBLIOTHECA HERAI4)K!A, 31 

htf3m± 

1709. 

A Manuscript copy of Verses addressed : 

To The Honourable S-" ROBt MARSHAM BAR*, on the 

HAPPY BIRTH of a SON. 

(In the hands of Mr. J. C. Hotten of Piccadilly.) 

They consist of seventy-three lines, in the usual inflated style of such 
compositions at the beginning of the last century. Apostrophising the 
infant, the Poet offers these heroics : — 

If thy serener Life's more halcyon Fate 

Shall plant Thee at tlie peaceful Helme of State, 

Copy thy Marsham Sire. When Albion calls 

The Delphick Heads to her S' Stephen's Walls, 

Whether to give New Gallick Tyrants Laws, &c. &c. 
Again,- 

Or if by rougher Glory Thou'rt called forth 

T'exert the Virtues of thy CloucVsly Birth, 

Set out a Heroe round the Watry World, 

By thy Bold Arm the British Thunder hurld, 

In either Post thy Birthright's equal Due, 

May the pleasd World thy dazling liuster view : 

Thus whilst this Double-portiond Glory reigns 

The Inborn Worth from such Parental Veins, 

May both the Shovel and the Marsham shine 

Both in One equal Transmigration joyn, 

And on that Darling Head descending, All 

Like th' old Elijah's Spirited Mantle fall. 

The concluding lines of the piece allude to the monument of Sir 

Cloudesly Shovell in Westminster Abbey, then recently erected at the 

expense of Queen Anne, with its inappropriate effigy,' from the chisel of 

Francis Bird ; where, as described in Pope's mocking line, the Admiral's 

peruke 

Eternal buckle takes in Parian stone. 

Sir Kobert Marsham, the fifth Baronet, of Cuxton in Kent, was married 
to Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Sir Cloudesly Shovell,^ Rear- Admiral 

' " The hardy admiral is represented on his tomb (as described by Addison) by the 
figure of a beau, dressed in a long periwig, and reposing himself upon velvet cushions 
under a canopy of state." See also Walpole's censure in Cunningham's Handbook to 
London. 

* Sir Cloudesly Shovell (modern books incorrectly present his name as Cloudesley 
Shovel) was born of humble parentage near Clay, in Norfolk. He married the widow 
of his patron. Admiral Sir John Narborough, Knt. who was Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Hill, esq. a commissioner of the Navy. It is stated in Chalmers's Biographical 
Dictionary, that " Sir Cloudesly Shovell left two daughters, co-heiresses, the eldest 



32 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

of Great Britain ; and his eldest son, Shovell Marsham, was born on the 
15th Oct. 1709. This, therefore, is the age of the composition before us. 
There is no intimation whatever of its author : but we may plausibly 
imagine that it was the chaplain of the household. 

Shovell Marsham did not live to fulfil the flattering anticipations of the 
Poet. He died in his infancy ; and the second son, Robert, born in 1712, 
became the second Lord Romney in 1724, his father having been advanced 
to the peerage in 1716. 

But the document is of most curiosity in its decorative features. It is 
written on four leaves of cardboard, measuring 14^ inches by lO^, The 
margins are stamped from book-binders' tools in gold, heightened with 
colours, their ornaments consisting of the usual scroll-patterns, inclosing 
figures of angels, urns, birds, flowers, &c. In the title-page is a shield of 
arms, surmounted with mantling, stamped in like manner, the bearings 
being, Argent, a lion passant gules between tjvo bendlets azure, the hand of 
Ulster in canton , and on an escocheon of pretence. Gules, a chevron er- 
mine between two crescents in chief argent and a fleur de lis in base or, 
for Shovell. Crest, on a helmet and wreath, a lion's head erased gules. 

Sir Cloudesly Shovell's coat was granted Jan. 6, 
1691-2, in commemoration of his victories over the 
Turks and French, and it is one of the simplest 
and best conceived of the historical class. The 
crest was. Out of a naval coronet or, a demi-lion 
gules holding a sail argent charged with an anchor 
or. We are allowed the annexed cut from Seton's 
Scottish Hei-aldry. 

Sir Cloudesly Shovell's armorial insignia are 
still conspicuous on the ceiling of the Town-hall 
at Rochester, which is a remarkable specimen of 
the plaster-work of the time. It is " curiously enriched with trophies 
of war, fruits, and flowers, with the arms of the City, and those of Sir 
Cloudesly Shovell, at whose expense it was done in 1695. The whole is 
executed in a masterly manner." (History of Rochester, 8vo. 1817, p. 241.) 
In the same room is a whole-length portrait of Sir Cloudesly Shovel), who 
was a further benefactor to the city in rebuilding the public clock-house in 
1706. He represented Rochester in Parliament from 1695 to 1701, and 
from 1705 to his death. 

of whom married Lord Rodney, and the other Sir Narborough D'Aeth, Bart.;'' but 
that statement is not correct. Elizabeth Narborough, the Iialf-sister of Lady Mar- 
sham, was married to Thomas D'Aeth, esq. who was created a Baronet in 1716 ; and 
she became in 1707 the heiress of her brother Sir John Narborough, Bart, (so created 
1688,) who and his only brother James were both lost on the rocks of Scilly with 
their step-father Sir Cloudesly Shovell. Her son Sir Narborough D'Aeth was the 
second Baronet (1745), and his son Sir Narborough was the third (1773) and last, dying 
unmarried in 1808. See the Extinct Baronetages by Courthope and Burke. 




33 



GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

The history of the Gary family remains yet to be written, but 
tliere can be little doubt that in able hands it would prove a most 
valuable as well as interesting contribution to the literature of our 
country. I shall not attempt in these pages to do more than men- 
tion some of its leading features, and these mainly for the special 
purpose of illustrating the subjoined Pedigrees. I shall, however, 
be very glad if the materials here collected prove of service to 
some genealogist, whose leisure exceeds my own, and whose in- 
terest is not less. 

The family is said to have received its name from the manor of 
Gary or Kari, lying in the parish of St. Giles in the Heath, near 
Launceston; but, if such be the case, a migration into Somerset 
must have taken place at an early period, as in the year 1198 
one Adam de Karry is mentioned as Lord of Gastle Gary in that 
county. Perhaps the real root of the name (which is very pro- 
bably allied to Garew, and perhaps to Garr and Ker,) ig to be 
found in the Geltic Gaer, and it would thus be equivalent to the 
more common patronymic Ghester. On this point it is well to 
observe, that, in Sir B. Burke's genealogy of the Garews of Hac- 
combe, co. Devon, an ancestor who died in 1173 is described as 
William of the Gastle Kerrin, co. Gaermarthen. The similarity 
between Gastle-Kerrin and Gastle-Gary is at least remarkable, and 
in both cases I am inclined to think that the double name is made 
up of a Geltic and Roman equivalent. At any rate, whether or 
no the two families sprung from the same source, it is certain that 
they became afterwards allied by marriage, and the punning allu- 
sion to what was implied in the slight change of Care I into Care 
you will be remembered by every reader of Prince's Worthies. 

As the chief object of the following pages is to trace the descent 
of a particular branch of the Gary family, it has not been thought 
necessary to go further back than to the ancestor, in the date of 
whose death we find a convenient starting-point. Sir William 
Gary, who heads the Pedigree, espoused the cause of the House 
of Lancaster, and fought in its behalf at the battle of Tewkes- 

VOL. III. D 



34 CARY: viscounts FALKLAND. 

bury. He is by some accounts said to have been slain in the 
figlit, but by others to have been taken prisoner and beheaded 
immediately afterwards. He was twice married ; by his first wife 
he became ancestor to the Carys, formerly of Cockington, and 
now of Torr Abbey, co. Devon (one of whom was Treasurer and 
afterwards Lord Deputy of Ireland in the reign of James I.), and 
also of the Carys of Clovelly in the same county (the last of whom' 
was Edward Gary, Sub-dean of Exeter and Eector of Silverton, 
who died about the year 1693). Sir William Gary's second wife 
was Alice, daughter of Sir Baldwin Fulford, knight, Sheriff of 
Devon 38 Hen. VI. and Vice- Admiral of England. By her he 
had a son Thomas Gary, who is described in the Visitation pedi- 
jji' grees as of Ghilton Foliot, co. Wilts. I have not been able to 
substantiate this statement; but it will be observed that in the 
will of his son. Sir John Gary of Plashey, a reference is made to 
ancestral property in Wiltshire. There is some little doubt as to 
the number of his children. In the Visitation pedigrees six are 
assigned to him ; viz. Sir John of Plashey, William father of Lord 
Hunsdon, a second WiWiam, Mary wife of Sir John Delaval, and 
Margaret and Anne both unmarried. It is possible that the 
second William is identical with " Edward Gary de London," 
who was buried at Aldenham in 1567. (See Extracts from Parish 
and other Registers, hereafter.) 

The eldest son of Thomas Gary Avas John Gary, commonly 
called Sir John Gary of Plashey, co. Essex, whose will I shall 
give in extenso. On the 21st July, 1536, he obtained from the 
Grown a grant of the dissolved Priory of Thremhall, co. Essex, 
being at that time married to Joyce, widow of William Walsing- 
ham (and by him mother of Sir Francis, the statesman), and 
daughter of Sir Edmund Denny. (Patent Polls.) He was 
knighted on the 22 Feb. 1546-7, two days after the coronation 
of Edward VI., and was buried at Hunsdon 8 Sept. 1551. 
Whether Plashey was ever leased by him from the Grown seems 
very doubtful; it is more probable that his connection with that 
place was simply occasioned by residence. 

His two children were, 1, Sir Wymond Gary, of Snettisham, 
CO. Norfolk (knighted 30 May, 1604,) who died without issue 
13 April, 1612; and 2, Sir Edward Gary, of Aldenham and 



1 



CART: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 35 

Great Berkhamstead, co. Herts. Sir Edward enjoyed several 

offices of trust. He was a Groom of the Privy Chamber, Keeper 

of iMarylebone Park, Master of the Jewel-house, &c., and in 

1596 was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. His property must at 

one time have been very extensive ; for, in addition to that which 

he inherited from his father, and held in right of his wife, he 

obtained from the Crown a lease of Berkhamstead Castle in 1560, .>' r' ''•^' 

and, when the estates of Sir John Neville were confiscated, the 

Queen granted to him the manor of Hunslet, near Leeds. This 

was subsequently (10 Jac. I.) settled upon his second son Sir 

Philip Cary, who parted with it to the Fenton family. In 1588 

he purchased the manor of Aldenham, which continued to be the 

chief residence of himself and his descendants until it was sold by I 

Lucius, Viscount Falkland, in 1642. Sir Edward Cary died at i 

his house in Great St. Bartholomew's, London, 18 July, 1618, 

and was buried at Aldenham on the 6th August following. By 

his wife Katharine, daughter of Sir Henry Knyvett, and widow 

of Henry, 2nd Baron Paget of Beaudesert, he had a numerous 

family. 

The eldest son, Henry, was born at Aldenham, ana educated 
at Exeter College, Oxford. He was created a Knight of the 
Bath in 1616, and made Comptroller of the Eoyal Household, 
and a Privy Councillor. On 10th of November he was elevated 
to the Peerage as Viscount Falkland of Fife in the kingdom of -^-**V ■ 
Scotland, and in 1622 was made Lord Deputy of Ireland. About 
the year 1610 he married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Chief Baron Tanfield ; but his domestic life was from various causes 
an unhappy one. He seems to have been greatly deficient in 
ordinary prudence, and in spite of his ample fortune to have 
suffered continually from the pressure of monetary difficulties. 
In 1618 he sold the office of Master of the Jewel-house to Sir H. 
]\lildmay, and he is also said to have prevailed upon his wife to if 

mortgage the remainder of her jointure, by which act she so I 

offended her father, that he disinherited both her and her I 

husband, and settled his property on their eldest son Lucius.' 

' For this fact and several particulars relating to Lady Falkland and her children, 
I am indebted to a recently published work, entitled " The Lady Falkland : her Life, 
from a MS. in the Imperial Archives at Lille." London : Dolman. 1861. 

D 2 



36 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

Anotlier source of trouble was the cliange In his wife's religion, 
and her consequent separation from him and from her family. 
She, too, seems to have been involved in debt, and after she had 
become a Roman Catholic to have been a pensioner upon her 
husband's bounty, which was neither large nor punctually paid. 
Their children are all mentioned in the subjoined pedigrees, but 
in the Appendix to the Life of Lady Falkland, just cited, 
another son is recorded whose name is unknown, but who was 
called " Father Placid" after his entry into the Benedictine order. 
It is, however, not impossible that this son was Patrick Gary, 
who, as we shall see, assumed for a brief space the monastic habit- 
Lord Falkland died at Theobalds Park, aged 37, and was buried 
at Aldenham 25 Sept. 1633. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son Lucius, who was born at Burford about the year 1610. 

The brief but brilliant part which this great nobleman played 
belongs rather to the pen of the biographer than to that of the 
genealogist. It will be sufficient to mention that he was some- 
time M.P. for Newport and a Secretary of State to Charles I. 
He was with the King at Edgehill and at the siege of Glou- 
cester, and fell fighting in the first rank of Lord Byron's regiment 
at the battle of Newbury, 20 Sept. 1643. He was buried in the 
church of Great Tew, co. Oxford, but no monument marks his 
last resting-place ; and the manor of Great Tew, which came to 
him from his maternal grandfather, has long passed away from 
the Cary family. Lady Falkland survived her husband, and 
died in 1647, leaving behind her a just reputation for virtue and 
piety.* 

The successor to the title was Lucius, eldest son of the great 
Viscount, whose existence has been altogether ignored by the 
Peerage writers. He died at Montpelier, in France, in 1649, at 
the early age of 17; and was succeeded by his brother Henry, as " 
fourth Viscount Falkland, who seems to have inherited some of 
the talents of his father and grandfather. Like the former, he 
identified himself closely with the royal cause, and was impri- 

' See a curious little tract, entitled " The Vertuous, Holy, Christian Life and Death 
of the late Lady Lettice, Viscountess Falkland." London. R, Royston. 1653. 
Written in a letter to her mother, the Lady Morison, at Great Tew, in Oxon, 15 
April, lQi7. 



GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 37 

soned during the usurpation on tlie charge of having taken part 
in Sir George Booth's rising. After the Eestoration he repre- 
sented Arundel in Parliament, and was Lord Lieutenant of Ox- 
fordshire till his death in 1663. 

His only son Sir Anthony Gary was his successor in the title 
and estates. He was clever enough to preserve his influence un- 
impaired in the difficult times of the Eevolution, and, after havino- 
been Paymaster of the Forces under King James, became a Privy 
Councillor and a Commissioner of Admiralty under Kino- William. 
His reputation, however, was injured by a charge of somethino- 
like peculation, upon which he was committed ^o the Tower. He 
died,-^erhaps--kr-TJt5lTSeqttaat^ soon afterwards; and, having no 
surviving issue, the title passed to his second-cousin Lucius Henry 
Cary, who succeeded in 1694 as sixth Viscount Falkland. 

His place in the Pedigree will be found in direct descent from 
Patrick Cary, the youngest son of the first Peer. This Patrick 
Cary was born in Ireland during the viceroyalty of his father, 
and was brought up by his mother as a Roman Catholic, On this 
account his fortunes seem to have greatly suffered, and it is very 
difficult to follow him throughout his chequered career. He was 
probably educated abroad, and at any rate we find him in 1650 
at Brussels writing to Sir Edw. Hyde in great distress. (Claren- 
don's State Papers, ii. 535.) After this he entered a monastery 
at Douay; but, the life not suiting his constitution, quitted it 
within the year. He then came to England in the hope of ob- 
taining a pension from his relatives there. It seems probable that 
he resided at this time with his sister Victoria, wife of Sir William 
Uvedale, in Hampshire, for he dates a small volume of" Trivial 
Poems" (edited by Sir Walter Scott in 1819) from Warnford in 
that county, 20 Aug. 1651, and states that they were written in 
obedience to the commands of Mr. Tomkins. This lady was, I 
suspect, a daughter of Sir Will. Uvedale by his first wife, Anne, 
daughter of Sir Edmund Cary, third son of Henry, Lord Huns- 
don. We may also conjecture that it was while staying in this 
neighbourhood he became acquainted with Sir William's niece, 
Susan Uvedale, whom he must have married at least as early as 
1652. I have not been able to ascertain the date of his death, 




38 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

but it must have occurred before September 1685. (See Will of 
John Gary of Stanwell, p. 29.) 

The lives of his children are involved in the same obscurity 
which surrounds his own career, and all the printed Peerages are 
equally silent about them and himself. Perhaps " Mrs. Faith Gary," 
who was buried at Wykeham, co. Hants, in 1652, was an infant 
daughter; and there is some reason to believe that the son, John 
Gary, whose birth and baptism took place at Great Tew, died 
young and without issue. 

The only son of whom we know anything is Edward Gary,' who 
was resident in the parish of St. James Westminster in 1687 ; in- 
herited property under the will of his cousin John Gary of Stan- 
well; and died in Westminster in 1692. He married his cousin 
Anne daughter and coheir of Gharles Lord Lucas, and had an 
only son Lucius Henry, who succeeded to the title upon the 
death of Anthony 5th Viscount. All the Peerages which I have 
been able to consult make this Lucius Henry a sow of Anthony ; 
and Debrett, with a certain sort of consistency, omits in his ac- 
count of the arms of the present peer all notice of the Lucas 
quartering. 

It is not necessary to trace the further descent of the title, 
which has been in almost regular succession since the death of 
the 6th Viscount in 1730. Some few particulars, which are not 
to be found in the printed Peerages, are given in the subjoined 
Pedigrees. I can scarcely hope that they are free from error, 
though I may take this opportunity of recording that I have had 
the advantage, in their compilation, of the valuable assistance of 
G. E. Adams, esq. Rouge Dragon, Golonel J. L. Ghester, Robert 
Dymond, esq. of Exeter, Rev. W. M. H. Ghurch, and the incum- 
bents of the parishes of Great Tew, Plashey, and Himsdon. 

G. J. Robinson. 

Great Berkhamstead. , 



I 

' He was probably identical with Edward Gary, of Ch. Ch. Oxford, whose matrt-j 
culation entry is thus expressed : — || 

" 1673. Jun. 27. Edwardus Gary, a.n. 17. Patric. C. Dubliniens. Hib. Gen." He 
would thus have been born about the year 1656. 



I 



cart: viscounts Falkland. 



39 



•r s 






c >, 









^~r|a 



o o -g . 



C3 Si o o 

ays o i 
"=<« c 
-»^ ° o OW 
g t- rj 'S o 

M c >> 2 

ii 




o OS 

"ll-f 2 - 

9 J 



H 

K 

« . 



o ^ 






n_0 o St 

.b O oj > C jj 

-tt .'^ (^ i. >> 

S i^ ts ~ 3 
■g-tc-.;; c«m 

.5 s "^ o a" 

"3 b 3 S;.a 
^ J .g .a g> _ 

c c S a ^ -tJ 
5 "S .^ .2 -J V2 

C J3 fc i 
C a ^sg ^ 



•a o ^ •* 
C^ 13 O "" 
3" c ic - 
C **- C3 ^3 >> 

■a ° ■C'3 

.b S C3 =s <" 

3:= d2.= • 
c3 *^ ^ -S , > 
^3 V. ''^ g , o 



c .a 



„' o 



3.S'-' o 



•-s/:i cr; 



o 2 c o gK 

.b S .3 "C-- ^ 
00 p^ E^ c ^ *;; 

. ». %- '2 3 in 



t- 3 , Ci 




Mfcd«2;2 , 




1^ f 




C3 _ . 




Cath 

rine, 

died 

15 

Aug, 

1608 




-^j 




^ 3 




3 3 o _ 




" .S *»-< ""l^ o 




C3 g-S -2 




OS 3 O .3 j3 




>>_ 3-2 3 s II \^ 

L_s 2 °-=''^„ 










.b .J 2 1. o .2 




V3 o q3 w .D-a 




, , .„ .,^30 , 




g S ° *^" -JQ - ^ • 




-3 2 -S = . = .J 




yofAl 
Berkl 

ts, an 
ork, 1 
use in 
Londoi 
iricd a 






SSo>^.g7'.s 






ward C 

nd Gre 

CO. H 

Ct, CO. 

it his '. 
olomew 
1618; 
m. 




.b ^ S 3 o b ■g 2 

tK .3 ts = -a a ^ -3 
fi 




iL 




o o ^ 




3^23 -" 


r- 


«3 C S-^ . s 


10 




3 


•E c -^ i~o^ A 


3 


5:2||--g 


►^ 


=Cat 

Sir: 
ofl 

CO. 

diei 
102 
Aid 


.2 


K n 




'■3 


"5 jS A 




w b o a 00 


^ 


>..S.^■0!^^ 




Henr 
2nd I 
Pane 
Beau 
died 
1608. 





c § JL o d .2 2 


;| 


S.3 o g 0.3 g 


^ 


S « § , .,2 





0-3^ S C w . 


J3 


Henry 

son ail 
app. 
bertC 
Chilto 
SuffoU 
1 Aug 




II 


3 


U 





. of John 

omerley- 
:, by Ca- 
lf George 
Cobham, 
dated 13 
ed 1 Feb. 


s 
3 

•3 


3 '^ r: ° ^ > 

cj • -3 — 






C3 

1 


's M 2 s ^'-^ 2 


5 


.Cath 
Jerni 
ton, 
thari 
Broo 
ob. s 
F'cb. 
1013 


3 


H 


^^ 


Caryi 

CO. 

born 
died 
bur. 

mar. 

-9. 


.3 


-a - .- •" .r -J^-Xi 




3 S ^- ^ ^ S ,? 


1 


2 =3 cS- S- 


g 


t— S .c Ji - is •= _ 





^i=o 

_• ■? 2; ^ : 



c £: 


.2 


s< 


•3 .3 


s 


•= s 




U 




c w 




.a ^ 


i-^ 




0=^ 


g: 


3 


^^S 










-14 


.— ^ 


\i 





^ 


3 s 
















3 
■3 


^2 

•1 -a 


S^ 




^S2 








icO 


'T'. 


^^''.S 



«-'-Sm82< 



«'g£'3<5^ 




dau. an 
f Sir R 
of Mo 
, CO. S 
mar. 9 
ur.l2M 


R. 




-O-g-g .,J2_ 


^ 



-<.ac3o=2S 



o 2 « ■Ti't.9 s 
t, O 3 ~ S O ■§ " 



. -»o<£g . 

l03 -H 00 I, — « 



■3 

3 


§ 


•3 
S 






■3 


S 




g 

■3 


►J 


j^' 3 

5^ 


3 


§ 




3 




, 




o 




















^ 


VI 


















tC -1 








.ii 


•3 




c 





r; 


Si 


w 


- 


Bi-J 


m 


c 







■3 
C 










t- 


■3 


<5 


S 


in 







P. 




■3 




,^ 




ci 


-g 


^«* 


C 





P. 


t: 





a 


H 


^ 





s 
















^ 




C 





> 


IN 
























u 










£- 




> 


-S 





.Q 


3! 





























-n 








u 








CO 


■" 


M 





"^ 


-< 



jOT^ta 



-i a~^ 

'.:> ^ 3 



V> XL 



40 



GARY : VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 



ge 5 "'' sij o-^ 
Ih 

~ O ^ 1:3 u i-^Cfcil'TS 



o ra 
o r- 



K S i; 



o « 



bD 






_o!^e 



o i: £ -a H -£2 «<1 .2 
^-< ^ c '^'^J3"" "-oo 

CN.S o btl> o B — -I 






S o E3 M S _ •* 
S -e 2 K •"dt^ • V 



<; o So gw jw^ 



(£) h^ ^ tP O _ 'a 



J-c- o< 



5 o..; 



«'aTj<«»0'a(P'a'0'+3 



II 

— — 03 I oT'a .g c« 






ca 030- is -S • 



3 Si 



. S a S .s 2 3 

I rt IN l> CS O <5 03 



KM 

Ih 






--f 



>> -r ^ — o .00 
-^ iS-Itt fcco* . p. 



:z! a) ^ > 
~!? i^, •°' ■" 









Wge^o. 



^r2;-'«S"2aJ P-53CO 

— r' mMW OS 03 o3,a,a o — 



■a - ,<M . 



; •= fc _g =5 



0, 



§1^ 



g 03^ 



r^aS 



GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 



41 









!«"• 

es « ,, o 

"2 ° -^ h 

■a •^ "^ 

^ C t^ CO 

. c fe tJO 
(N a I, cj 

.11 .^ 

^ <X> O 00 l' 

■s g t: S C 



_^ O -g dj c 

go c .,10 

St:'"-* 

03 sJ 3 -k^ °1j3 

tj 5 g p. 



— ^ 

o 



0*3 



^ 1-. 



a= H= 



1> ^*(4_, 



>? ►-! « »? o ^ - ^ a 






.0 bl 



^HS 



O S 



o 






■" "3 J o g 

I G .2 " S 
3 S ° ■'■S 



3 C ^J "2 t~ .0 
<= C g — ^ . 



c «= c »* 

C_^ 03 • _ 

pS — t- "^ J3 

c • ^ » SP 

s ^ ^ S 3 

,lH ,<U .i ^ O 



P O O !- ^ « — 
t- JlJ g O t. ^ 



3^gfe§<.Sd 
S <= S S .5 " o . 



3 a is 



^ o .2 S *H 2 *< 



ri ja ,■"' .2 >« 
U ■xi fi, -^ ^ 

-o Co z^ 

3 c3 o <j O) 



C3 



'h o. 



■=."3 ^ ^ .. „ , 

— i"^ J3 P 'O 




t^.s "-.s 



w^ 



^ -^ =^ • 03 r2 -ss t- 

g o « . -^f- — ■« • 



■§0 



II 
5 ts K o Sd'c ■, . 



c ^'t« ■= /^ s 'C " ^ 



^^ C3 03 3 Tj< ^, 



5 ^ ■ ^- <i 






g 5 -S 2 g S o .S S-S 



1-^ 






Ih 

6 « 



, O g O CO "«_- 

J t4 3 rt ^ o t^ rj 

1 V t3^ ^ .Q — <! 



tn o ^ tS ej O '^ 






■o -^ 






^Sc3S°o.S5oSxi-< 



42 



CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 









<J-3 




°'S" 




i| 




■a eo 
c — 





p. 
B 

W 


O 


,-1 


a-a 


S 






It 


"3 


c 


■o 






03 




d 


a 




ci 




















•^ 




P. 


•' 








c4 


1 & 


02 


ir 




>H 




t^ 


u 




J= 


o 


%- 


m 




1 ° 


3"S 

11 


Is 
•2 "^ 


P. 


d 

o 

'3 
c 


S 

C8 


g 


2 


c 


c 


g 

3 


o 


So 


^ 


OJ 


9: 


f^ 


P j= 


o 





c.a"3eis3-- 



,^ U c 2 






t-2 S 






. !S o ar o 3 G^ o . 
nU,a S — Ab^X « 



ci .5 C3 <^ 
O t- "O O 






- ^ - ■ ' -i ^ S -^ B - ■ 



— ojcoSW'a ^ oWH,p — 



It— i 



03 ^ 



fcp,2 



* ^ !2 r^ 



<i3g'd.«2bgS 



3 a 
:§2 



O 03 
CO 



^<l 



pa 


- 


•3 


S 


•v 




e 




ro 


03 


So 1 


t 


■-5 


-" 


Ir 


^ 




c3 






CJ 


s 




>l 


2 










s 


3 




<s 


oi 


•O 




in 


3 


03 






o 


i 


£ 


* 


e 


c3 


^ 


00 


C3 


o 


o 


O 


^ 


^ 


^ 


p 


^ 


3 


C3 




03 


^ 
^ 


< 


-^ 




05 


■^ 


.a 








3 






^ 




o 


O 




_J; 


,Q 


^ 


*3 


j; 


4^ 


.e 


.2 


o 


"3 


fl3 


M 


2 


a 


c 


c 


0) 


3 



-IK 



53S5 — g 



.2 .^.^ 



3 ts .i i; 
"> S h B 
" 'S ■'5 S 

^^-a 3 
■a 4J 

O 03 



32 



2^ 



2 3 "^ 

9 C 3 



03 03 , 

^ ^ - ■? 2? 
o & 2 X 2" 



•M2 



3 -e 
J3 J) 


fc'r 


o 
g 
3 














* 


M 


< 


3 -r- 




-O 


•^ 




^-' 



CARY: viscounts FALKLAND. 



43 






C ^ ^^ !- O 3 o 

g O C ;;^ b gS- 
£ o oS"»4s a a. 



!£ — ^ 



; -a c3' 
i S-J5 ■ 









o 2 



!>• & It— I — 



w 


HH 


►J 




PQ 


H 


-<J 


>-] 


H 


< 




g 




P4 



fo o 






)-3 o 



•C .2 t« . S 



^ o a) K g M.S _J 3 33 

^o'^ — — c^ — <w 



02P5 

Ih- 



0.2 




=Ed\ 
Car 
See 
Tab 


Nicholas 
Leke, 2nd 
Earl of 
Scarsdale. 


IK 


Anne, eld-= 

estdau.and 

coheir. 



• 3 ^ '^ tcoo 
: .Q CO — . c3 CO 



CJ z3 -t^ '^ 



f=Sir Thoma 
Cronipton 
Skerne, cc 
York, and 
Hounslow 
CO. Middle 
sex, .slain 
by a robb 
at Abbevi 
France ; \^ 
dated 18 ( 
1003, pro\ 
13 Feb. 
1006-7, in 
C.P.C. 


'1 

= ."5 - -^ 

- .S c f5 ''^ '^ *^ '^ ^" 



p :§ .1" " s^ *J £ -Tj -; ci 

II 



o 



i^ -a 



o 



.S " o 3 := :i 
Ih 



I 9 9.SS I 



£ f, . g C-. Q O ^ 



"^ p 



« fc:! S '-; S - 



C« .' 



« 1« S'-5 — 



Ofe-gc-a«.C3£.o«^ 
s- = » o S °* ° -'.ts ■' n "°. 



>- S » o S " " - « ■' o 



c "2 « 



5 . S.a h oC" 






o3 3 



S-i:s2 



_So3 3 02^5;-S3c3 



^^3 322 fe? 3?,^i 

o o ^ o rt "i^ o -*;:; ri. =2 ^ « o 
£ o C =3 o .^ — -i — o uj 3 « 



03 t. 3 A 

^="'^31,5'*^^ . - 
'^°'£UJ«..'->-3>> 

' I- S ,— h ° S 3 03 . 



I I 






i^8s«9S2 



c/3 v:: 



S S SccChv 



■^^■^ gj 3 ^ 



^g> 
•3^-^ 



i'S.Sw 



"5 

— 42 









44 CARY : VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

EXTRACTS FROM PARISH AND OTHER REGISTERS. 

Aldenham, Herts. 
Marriages. 

1597. Jan. 15. Mr. Henry Longvile, esq. and Mrs. Katherine Carye. 
1605. Mar. 3. Sir George Manners, kn*^ and Mrs. Frances Bashe, 
vidua. 

Baptisms. 

1599. Mar. 30. Katherine, the da. of M"" Thorn. Crumpton, esq. 

1604. Apr. 29. Edward y^ son of the right worshipfull Sir Henrie 
Longvile, knight. 

1610. May 3. Miriall, y« dau. of y« right worshipfull Sir Philip 
Carye, knight. 

1620. Sep. 16. Vittoria, y« dau' of Mr. Carye. 

1621. Jan. 9. Marye, y^ da. of y^ r* ho'^^^ Henry Lord Carye, 
Viscount Falkland. 

1637. Nov. 28. Lorenzo, son of the right honourable Lucius, Lord 
Falkland, and of the Lady Lettice his wife. 

1639, May 22. Adolphus, son of Lucius, Lord Viscount Falkland, 
and the Lady Lettice his wife. 

Burials. 

1567. Jime 23. Edward Cary de London. 

1599. May 16i. Mrs. Mirriall, wife of the right wor. Mr. Thomas 
Crumpton, esq. 

1601. March 12. Anne the wife of the r* wor. Mr. Adolphus Carey, 
esq. 

1616. Aug. 26. Edward y® son of y^ right worsh" Sir Henrie Carie, 
knight. 

1618. Aug. 6. Sir Edward Carye, knight. 

1622. Dec. 22. The right ho^'° Lady Katherine Paget. 

1623. Oct. 4. The Ladye Elizabeth, y^ wife of the right wor" Sir 
Pliilippe Carye, knight. 

1624. July 8. Philippe, y® so. of the right wor'^ Sir Philippe Carey, 
knight. 

1625. May 9. Adolphus, y® so. of the right worshipfull Sir Philippe 
Carye, knight. 

' It will be observed that the M. I. at Aldenham (Clutterbuck's Herts.) states May 
16, 1600, to have been the date. 



cart: viscounts FALKLAND. 45 

1631. June 16, The right wor" Sir Philippe Gary. 

1633. Sep. 25. The right hon''>e Henry, Lord Gary, Viscount Falk- 
land. 

1639. Feb. 10. Mr. Edward Garey, gent. 

1640. Jan. 22. Mr. Adolphus, son to the r* hon. L^ Vise* Falkland. 
1671. Jany 12. Anne, the wife of the right ho^'^ the Lord Weloby 

of Param, buryed in the valte of the Lord Gary, Viscount Falkland. 

AvELEY, Essex. 
Burial. 
1643-4. Jan. 2. Edward Barrett, Lord Newburgh, vir sanctissimus. 

Great Berkhamstead, Herts. 
Ifarriages. 

1586. Nov. 20. Jhon Savell, esq'* and M'^ Eliz'^ Carye. 

1596. Aug. 9. M"^ Adulphus Garey and M" Anne Gorbett. 

1597. Oct. 23. Thomas Grumpton, gent, and Meriall Garie. 
1607. Sep. 16. Francys Leake, knyght, and Mrs. Anne Garey. 

Baptisins. 

1585. Aug. 10. Anne, dau. of y^ r' worshippful Edwarde Garye, esq. 

1587-8. Jan. 9. Harrye, son of y° r* wors. Jhon Saville, esq, 

1589. April 8. Edwarde, son of y^ r* wors. Jhon Saville, esq. 

1609. Aug. 15. Francis, son of S"" Fra. Leake, knt. 

1611. Sept. 1. Elizabeth, dau. of r^ woi-pf. Sir Philip Garye, knt. 

1613. Oct. 5. Lorenzo, y^ sonne of Sir Henry Garye, knighte. 

1614. Dec. 4. Anne, dau. of S' Henry Garye, knighte. 

Bimals. 

1609. Apr. 10. Sir Adolphus Garye, knighte, a most loving bene- 
factour to y® poore of this towne. 

1610. Oct, 29. Ursula, y® dau. of y^ Ladye Scroope. 

1611. Dec. 9. Mrs. Meryall Garye, d^ of S"* Philip Garye, knt. 

BURFORD. 

The Registers of this parish do not commence before 1612. 

The Benedictine Gonvent at Gambray. 

JReceptions. 

1638. Aug. 31. Hon. Lucy Gary, £et. 19, in religion Magdalena, 
and her sister Mary, ^t. 17, daughters of the r* hon. Harry Gary, Vis- 
count Falkland, sometime Viceroy of Ireland. 



46 CARY: viscounts FALKLAND. 

1638. Oct. 29. Elizabeth Gary, in religion Angustina, £et. 21, dau. 
of Vise* Falkland. 

1639. Mar. 8. Anne Gary, set. 24, in religion Glementina, dau. of 
Viscount Falkland. 

Ohituarij of the Nuns. 

1650. Nov. 1. Lucy Magdalen Gary, dau. of Lord Viscount Falkland , 
sometime Viceroy of L'eland, died. 
1683 Nov. 17. Elizabeth Gary, died. 
1693. Sept. 22. Mary Gary, died. 

Gharlton, Kent. 

1752. Oct. 10. The rt. lion. Lucius Charles, Lord Viscount Falk- 
land, and the rt. hon. Sarah Countess of Suffolk, married at Morden 
College. 

Ghiswick, Middlesex. 

1704. Oct. 5. Rt. Hon. Lucius Henry Lord Falkland, of St. James, 
Westm'', singleman, and Mad. Dorothee Molyncux, of St. Gregory's, 
London, singlewoman, married by Licence. 

HuNSDON, Hertfordshire. 
Burial. 

Anno D'ni 1551. S"" John Gary, knight, was buried the vilj*'' of Sep- 
tember, 1551, predict'. 

Great St. Bartholomew's, London. 
Marriage. 

1616. Dec. 23. Thomas Littleton de Franckley, co. Wore. esq. 
and Katherine, dau. of Thomas Grompton, knt. 

Ba2')tisms. 

1617. Nov. 15. Elisabeth, dau. of Sir Henry Carey. 

1619. Dec. 23. Lucie, the dau. of Sir Henry Carey, Viscount Falk- 
land, Controller of the King's Majesty's household and one of his Privy 
Council, and of Elizabeth his wife. 

Burials. 

1616-7. Feb. 1. John Pearcivall, servant to Sir Henry Gary. 
1618-9. Feb. 22. William, servant to Sir Henry Carey, knt. 



GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 47 

St. Benet's, Paul's Wharf. 
Ahrriages. 

1653. Aug. 14. Bartlioloiitew Price and Victoria Huvedall {sic). 
1659. Dec. 13. Patrick Carey 1 and Dorothy 

St. Giles, Cripplegate. 
Marriage. 

1588-9. March 12. Wymond Carey, gent., and Katherine Crane, 
gent., by Licence. 

Gray's Inn Admissions. 
1590. Aug. 2. Henry Carey, son and heir of Edward Carey, of 
Barcomstead, co. Herts, esq. 

1500. Aug. 9. Adolph Carey, 2nd son of do. 
„ „ Philip Carey, 3rd son of do. 

St. Olave's, Silver Street. 
Baptisms. 

1012. Dec. 23. John, son of Sir Philip Carey. 

1613-4. Jan. 5. Eudolphus {sic), son of same. 

1615. June 10. Ann, daughter of Sir Philip Carew {sic). 

1618. Aug. 10. Edward, son of Sir Philip Carey and Elizabeth his 
wife. 

1623. Oct. 23. Philip, son of Sir Philip Carey and Elizabeth. 

1629. Oct. 4. Mary, daughter of Edmund Carey and Mary. 
Burials. 

1617. June 14. A chrisom of Sir Philip Carew's {sic). 

1634. Dec. 23. Edward Carey. 

1636. July 8. Edmond Carey. 

St. Pancras. 
Burial. 

1762. Apr. 6. Tlie hon^'^ Mrs. Gary. I;tJL.^i. «t< (» 

St. Peter le Poor. 
Baptism. 

1683. July 24. Harriott Gary, dau. of Anthony Lord Viscount 
Falkland and dame Rebekah his wife. 
Burial. 

1683. Oct. 21. Harriette, dau. of the right honnerable the Lord 
Falkland. 

' This Patrick Carey married apparently Dorothy Ling, and died in 1669, leaving 
issue. From his will which is at C. P. C. (Coke 82), we gather that he was an 
Irishman, but resident in the parish of St Andrew's, Holborn, London. He does not 
seem to have been connected with Lord Falkland's family. 



48 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The Eegister of St. Paul's is of modern date, but there can be no 
doubt from the following passage in the will of Francis Raynsford (dat. 
22 Apr. 1712), that the widow of Anthony, 5th Viscount Falkland, 
was buried in the Cathedral, — " to be buried in St. Paul's Cathedral 
near my veiy good friend Rebecca, Lady Vicountess Falkland, to whom 
my wife was executrix." 

Stanwell, Middlesex. 
Baptisms. 

1716-17. Jan. 21. Henry John, son of the r^ hon. Lucius Henry, 
Ld Visct Falkland. 

1718-19. Jan. 12. Frances, daughter do. do. do. 

Burials, 

1657. Dec. 24. Dame Maiy, wife of John Gary, esq. 

1673. Sep. 1. The Lady Katherine, wife of the hon. John Cary, esq. 

1718-19. Jan. 14. Frances, dau. of r* hon. Lucius Henry Lord 
Falkland. 

1719-20. Feb. 9. Dorothy Caiy, dau. of Lucius Henry Lord Falk- 
land. 

1722. July 2. Lady Dorothy, wife of the hon. Lord Falkland. 

Great Tew, co. Oxon. 
Baptisms. 

1632. July 5. Lucius, the son of the Hon^'^ Sir Lucius Cary, 
knight. 

1654. John Cary, son of the hon'''^ Patricke Cary, Esq., was born at 
Great Tew, October the 30th, and was baptized there November the 2nd. 

1656. Anthony Cary, the son and heir of the right hon**'^ Harry 
Lord Viscount of Falkland, Lord of the Manor of Great Tew, was born 
at Farley Castle the 15th of February, and baptized the 26th of the 
same month. 

Burials. 

1643. Sep. 23. The Right hon^^ie gr Lucius Cary, Knyght, Lord 
Viscount of Falkland, and Lord of the Manor of Great Tew. 

1643. Nov. 2. Mr. Lorenzo Cary, son to the right hon^'^ Lettice 
Viscountess of Falkland. 

1646-7. Feb. 27. The right hon^e Lettice, Viscountess of Falkland. 

1649. The right hon'^^^ Lucius Caiy, Lord Viscount Falkland, de- 
parted this life at Montpellier, in France, in the county of Languedoc, 



CART : VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 49 

the -^L day of September, Dr. John Maplett, his tutor, and Mr. George 
Neale, his servant, both them with him when he died. 

(Signed) John Maplett. 
George Neale. 

The said Lucius, Lord Viscount of Falkland, was bm-ied at Great 
Tew, in the county of Oxon, the 7th day of November, 1649, being 
Lord of the manor there. 

1663. The right hont^'e Harry Lord Viscount of Falkland, lord of 
the manor of Great Tew, departed this life at London on April 2, was 
buried at Great Tew April 9, 1663. Lord Lieutenant of this county. ' 

Westminster Abbey. 
Burial. 

1694. May 28. The L"' Falkland. 

St. James's, Westminster. 
Baptisms. 

1687. Sep. 7. Lucius Henry Gary, son of Edward and Ann, born 
27 August. i^^JU ,^u^, iM^, f^l 

Wykeham, Hampshire. 
Burials. 

1652. Dec. 3. S"^ W. Uvedale miles sepult fuit tertio die Decemb. 

„ Aug. 7. Mrs. Faith Carey sepulta fuit septimo die Augusti. 



fs. raitn Larey sepui 



Inquisition taken bij the Esclieator of the County of Devon in 4 Edw. IV. 
on' the Attainder of Sir William Cary.^ 

Inquisitio eapta apud Plumpton Comitis in com. Devon, duodecimo 
die Octobris anno Edw. IV. quinto, coram Joh'e Fortescue, Esceatore 
ejusdem d'ni Eegis in com. predicto, virtute officii sui, per sacramentum 

' From an old copy in the possession of Robert Dymond, esq. of Exeter. Tlie 
following draft of a letter on its back, from a young man in miserable plight to his 
mother, begging for a remittance of money, is so curious as to claim preservation. 

Ry3th rev'end and worshypfuU' moder, as lowly as a chyld' cane or may vn to hys 
moder y recomed' me vn to yo", byshechyng yo" of yo'' blessyng', desyryng' hartely to 
hyr' of yo'' wellfar'. yf ytt lyke yo" to hyr' of my wellfar', att y^ makyng of y^* byll 
y was nott yn good bodly helth thakynd' to God off all*! furdermor' p^yng yo» of yo' 
god' moderhed' for to helpe me nowe att my ned' for to send me su mony for to pay 
my fesysione, for yn god' feyth y have sped all' that I had & all' y' my fader left for 
to fynd me tyll he came agayne vn to y^ fesyc'on all yet he wyll' have uior' or lie wyll 
nott make no leger hed' to me. y wodefayne speke to my broder for su mony, save y 
darnott tell hym y' y wes syke, & for exchevyng' of . . . ytt, y ly nott w' hyrae, 
for y ly in tone, allso [y] pray of yo" to send me a payr of schetes, for y grett ned' 
for y' good w^fe ther as y ly doth lend' me non. 

VOL. III. E 



50 cary: viscounts Falkland. 

Jur' &c. Qui dicunt super sacramentum suum quod Willielmus Gary 
miles alias dictus Will's Caree miles, qui auctoritate cujusdam actus 
parliamenti editi vicesimo primo die Januarij anno quarto regni d'ni 
Regis nunc in parliamento tunc apud Westm' existent' vicesimo nono 
die Aprilis anno tccio regni Regis predicti inchoato et per diversa 
adjornamenta usque dictum vicesimum primum diem Januarii conti- 
nent' (sic), de alta proditione attinctus est, et fuit seisitus in dominico 
suo ut de feodo de maneriis de Nortlilow, Holewey, Halghewelle, 
Hygheheamton juxta Sliepewasshe, Cary Lutterford, et de Wrey alias 
diet' Wreycombe, cum eorum pertinentiis, in com' predicto, Necnon de 
duobus messuagiis et xl acris terras cum pertinentiis in Sliepewasshe in 
com' predicto Ac de xl solidatis annui redditus exeunt' de imo mesuagio et 
centum acris terrte cum pertin' in Monkeoakhampton in com' predicto Ac 
de uno mesuagio et xl acris terras cum pertin' in Chageford in com' pre- 
dicto Ac de duobus mesuagiis et xx acris terrse cum pertin' in Bewortliy 
in eodem com' Ac de uno mesuagio et quinque acris terrse cum pertin' in 
Domeslonde in eodem com' Ac de uno mesuagio etiiij^"" acris terrae cum 
pertin' in Wygdon in com' predicto. Et sic inde seisitus vicesimo die Julii 
anno regni d'ni Regis nunc quarto de eisdem maneriis, terris, tenemen- 
tis et redditibus cum eorum pertin' feofFavit Will'm Paulet militem, 
Job' em Cheyne, Job'em Byknelle, Joh'em Chilston, et Joh'em More, 
habend' et tenend' eis et lieredibus suis imperpetuum ad usum et pro- 
ficuum predicti Will'i Cary et heredum suorum. Virtute cujus feoffa- 
menti iidem Will's Paulet, &c. fuerunt inde seisiti in dominico suo ut de 
feodo ad usum et proficuum dicti W. C. et hered. suorum, et statum 
suum predictum continuaverunt ad usum et proficuum ejusdem W. C. 
et hered. suorum a tempore feoffamenti usque ad primum diem Octobris 
dicto aimo quarto et eodem die et continue possederunt ad tempus 
captionis hujusmodi Inquisitionis. Dicunt ulterius Juratores predicti 
quod Christina qua^ fuit uxor Philippi Cary patris predicti W. C. tenuit 
dicto prius die Octobris in dotem de hereditate predicti Willielmi Cary 
ex dotacione Philippi predicti unum mesuagium CCC acris terras C 
acris bosci quadraginta acris prati et C acris bruer' cum pertin' in 
Cocldngton com' predicto reversione inde post mortem dictie Christinai 
prefato Will'o Cary et hei'ed' suis dicto primo die Octobris spectante. 
Et ulterius dicunt Juratores predicti quod dictus Will'us Cary fuit 
seisitus in dominico suo ut de feodo vicesimo die Julij dicto anno quart© 
de quinque mesuagiis, CCC acris terras, xl acris prati, et CC acris pas- 
turre in Chilston in com' predicto. Et sic inde seisitus inde feoffavit 
predictos Will'um Paulet ((|-c. ut prius) quod ipsi sic inde feoffati de 



GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 51 

exitibus ^c. solverent seu solvi facient Joli'i More jun. xli. et xxvj li. 
Will'o Assheford in quibus idem W. C. sibi indebitatus fuit. Et dicunt 
quod ijdem feoifati ante captionem hujus Inquisitionis solverant prefato 
J. M. xvij li. (sicj parcel!' diet' x li. et prefato W. A. x li. in partem 
solutionis diet' xxvj li. de exitibus ^c. Et ulterius dicunt quod Bald- 
wynus Fulford miles fuit seisitus in dominico suo ut de feodo de Ma- 
nerio de Asshebury in com' predicto ante dictum primum diem Octobris, 
et sic inde seisitus idem manerium ante eundem primum diem Octobris 
per quandam cartam Juratoribus predictis ostentam tradidit et dimisit 
prefato WiU'o Gary et Aliciaj ux' ejus et hered' de corpore dictte Aliciae 
legitime procreatis ; virtute quarnm traditionis et cUmissionis ipsi W. et 
A. fuere inde seisiti, Videlicet ipse W. in dominico suo ut de libero 
tenemento, et ipsa A. in dominico suo ut de feodo talliato, et eorum 
statum inde predictum continuaverunt <|-c. usque [diem] captionis 
hujus Inquisitionis. Quod quidem manerium de A. valet per annum 
ultra reprisas x marcas. Et dicimt quod predicta nianeria (J-c. unde 
dictus W. C. feoffavit W. P. ^c. una cum dictis quinque acris ^-c. ^c. 
in Chilston valent per annum ^c. Ixvj li. Et quod prefata mesuagium ^c. 
in Cokyng-ton valent per annum xl marcas. Et ulterius dicunt quod 
Will'us Paulet miles omnia exitus ^c. excepto predicto mesuag' ^c. 
in Cockynton percepit et habuit a tempore feoffamenti ^c. usque diem 
captionis hujus Inquisitionis. Et dicunt quod omnia predicta Maneria 
^c. ad prefatum dominum Regem pertinere et devenire debent ratione 
actus predicti. In cujus rei ^c. 



Wills and Administration Acts. 

Sir John Cavy of Plashey, co. Essex, knight. In the name of 
God Amen, the xx*'^ day of August in the yere of o'r Lorde God a 
thousande fyve hundreth fyftye and two and in the vj"^ yere of the 
reigne of o'r Sou aigne Lorde Kynge Edwarde the vj">, I John Carij 
of Hounesdon, in the countye of Hertford, knyght, having my wytte 
and perfyte remembrance, make my testament and last will in this 
maner : First I gyve my soule to Almyghtye God, willyng my body 
to be buryed in the Church of Hounesdon. It' I will that Joyce my 
wyfe shall have durying all her naturall lyfe the late dissolved Priorye 
of Thremhall,! in the countye of Essex, with all his membres and app'- 
ten'nces in what townes or countyes soever they lye, accordyng to the 

' Bacon's Liber Regis, 1786. Archdeaconry of Colchester. Priory of Trerahale 
was returned at 60/. 18s. I^d. per annum. 

E 2 



52 cary: viscounts Falkland. 

Kings Maiestyes lettres patents to me and her thereof made, and all 
my mesnage and lands in Wryttyll in the sayd conntye of Essex called 
Benet Ots, and all the lands whiche I have in the countyes of Soni'set, 
Wilts, and Dorset, or ellswhere within the realme of England, towards 
the bryngeng up and fyndyng of Wymonde Cary and Edwarde Cary 
my ij sones duryng there nonages ; excepte all those lands and ten'ts 
whyche I have in the towne of Pole, co. Dorset, called Whytslands, all 
that mesnage and lands bothe freholde and copyholde called Bonks 
lyeng in Byrchangre in Essex whyche I late purchased of Thom's Ben- 
nysshe, all that copyholde lande lyeng in the parysshe of Stansted 
Mountfichet in Essex whiche I late purchased of Henry Grave, and 
excepte that crofte of land lyeng in Takeley in the same countye whiche 
I late purchased of Nicholas Gierke. Nev'theless I will that the sayd 
Joyce my wife shall have all the sayd mesnage and lands before 
excepted called Bonks, and all the sayd lands before excepted whiche I 
p'chased of Henry Grave, and the sayd crofte of land before excepted 
whiche I bought of Nicholas Gierke, unto suche time as the sayd Wy- 
monde Cary my son shall be of the full age of xxj yers if she shal so 
longe lyve, and whan the sayd Wymonde shal be of the full age of xxj 
yers then I will that he shal entre upon and have to hym and to his 
heires for ever all the sayd mesuage and lands before mencioned called 
Bonks, and all the sayd lands before mencioned whiche I p'chased of 
Henry Grave, and the sayd crofte of lande before mencioned whiche I 
purchased of Nich's Gierke. And in lyke mancr I will that the sayd 
Joyce shall have all the sayd landes and ten'ts before excepted called 
Whytslands unto suche tyme as the sayd Edwarde Cary my son shall 
be of the full age of xxj yers yf she so longe lyve, and whan the sayde 
Edwarde shalbe of the full age of xxj yers, then I will that he shall 
entre upon and have to hym and his heires for ever all the sayd lands 
and ten'ts before mencioned called Whytslands. And aft' the decesse 
of the sayd Joyce I will that all the sayd late dissolv'd p'orye with all 
his membres and app'tennences shall holly remayne to the sayd Wy- 
monde Cary my son and to his heires male for ever accordyng to the 
Kings Maiestyes lettres patents therof made, together with all my sayd 
lands and ten'ts lyeng in the countyes of Som'set, Wilts, and Dorset, 
whiche descended to me by enheritance aft' the dethe of Thom's Cary 
my father. And in lyke wyse I will that aft' the decesse of the sayd 
Joyce all the sayd mesuage and lands before mencioned called Benet 
Ots shall holly remayne to the sayd Edwarde my younger son and to 
bis heirs for ever. And as concerning my chattels or moveable goods I 



cary: viscounts Falkland. 53 

will that my sayd wjfe shall have to her and to her assignees my lease 
of Halyfeld Hall and the resydue of my yers theiin, and also my lesse 
of the parsonage of Stansted Abbot and all the resydue of my yers 
therin to her and to her assignees in lyke maner. It' I will that after 
the decesse of my sayd wyfe my newe basyn and ewer of sylver and my 
great cheyue of golde, and myn olde sygnet of golde with the swan 
whiche was my father's, shall remayne to the sayd Wymonde Cary my 
elder son. And also I will that aft' the decesse of my sayd wyfe my 
newe sygnet of golde with the swan shall remayn to the sayd Edwarde 
Cary my yomiger son. And all the resydue of my moveable goods not 
gyvyn and beqi;ethed herebefore by this my last will, I do gyve and 
bequethe to my sayd wyfe to bryng up my ij sones, and to pay my 
detts if any be. And also I ordeyn and make the said Joyce my wyfe 
my sole executrice to se this my wyll fulfylled and p'formed^ in all 
poynts accordyng to the trust that I putte to her. In witness wherof 
to this my testam'nt and last will I have putte my seale and sygne the 
day and yere first above wryten, in the p'sence of Thomas Sydney, i 
Esquyer, and Edmonde Stowell and others. (Extracted from the 
Registry of the Commissary Coui't of the Bishop of London fur the 
parts of Essex and Herts, Chelmsford.) 

Extracted fr 0711 the Registry of the Prerogative Court of Canterhury^ 
Doctors' Commons, London: 

(Loftes 3.) Dame Joyce Cary, late of Threndiall, co. Essex, widow, and 
late wife of Sir John Carye, knt. dec'^. Dat. 10 Nov. 15G0, prov. 30 
Jan. 1560-1. 

To be buried in parish church of Aldermanbury, in London, be- 
side my late husband Walsingham. To each of my S(jns, sons in 
law, and to everye of my daughters a gowne of black clothe. To 
Francis Walsingham 2 my sonne a bason and a ewer of sylver wliich 
was hys father's and a bole of sylver g'lt without a cover, a goblet of 
silver gyllt with a cover or seller, and a tester of velvet with gold 
knottes, &c. To Wymonde Carye my sonne the newe bason and ewer 
of silver, &c. To Edwarde Carye my sonne a boole of sylver gyllt 
wi'out a cover, &c. To my daughters Wentworth,^ Sydney,^ and 

' Probably Thomas Sidney, 2nd son of Nicholas Sidney, and great-uncle of Sir 
Philip Sidney (who married Frances Walsingham, granddaughter of William Wal- 
singham, by Joyce Denny, afterwards wife of Sir John Gary). 

3 Sir Francis Walsingham, Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth. 

* Elizabeth Walsingham, married secondly Peter Wentworth, Esq. 

* Barbara Walsingham, married Henry Sidney, Esq. 



54 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

Tamworth,! to either of tliem a bracelet of gold; to my daughter 
Wentworth my gowne of satin ; to my dan. Sydney my gowne of 
damaske ; to my dau. Tamworthe my gowne of velvitt. Item, to my 
dau. Myldmaye 2 two candlesticks of silver ; to Martha Myldmaye a 
salte of silver gilt whiche her father gave to me. Item, to Joyce Gates 
61. 13s. 4id. in reddye money to be delyvered to her by myne execu- 
tours at her full age of xviii years, or els at the daye of her manage, 
if she be married before her said age. My reddye money to be divided 
equally among my said sonnes Francis, Wymond, and Edward. 
Executours : My sonnes Sir Walter Mildmaye, knight, and Francis 
Walsingham, and my nephew Edmonde Danyell. 

Signed. Joyce Gary. 
Witnesses : Margaret Willington, widdow ; Elizabeth Andrews, 
widdow ; per me Thomam Sydney. Proved 30 Jan., 1560, by said 
Francis Walsingham and Edmond Danyell. 

(Dorset 33.) Sir Adoljyhe Canje, Id. Dat. March 16, 1604-5, prov, 
April 14, 1609. 

To my brother Sir Harry Gary, knt. those parsonages in Wales 
which are to descend upon me after the decease of my father as 
being in law the next heir unto me if I die without issue. To my 
sister Longfield (Longueville), my jewel of the fashion of a phoenix 
now in the custody of Mr. Pitt. To my sister Jane and Anne each 
401. in diamond rings. To John Darknoll my servant 60Z. To 
Richard Speed AOL To Angell Tm-ner 20/. To Gharies 10/. To the 
poor of Berkhamstead and Aldenham each 1 0/. To my brother Philip 
Carye my lease of parsonage of Glee, Lincolnshire, and my lease of 
Gardington, in co. Herts and Beds, with residue of all property, and 
appoint him sole ex' or. (He proved as Philip Garye, Knight.) 
{To he Continued.) 

' Christiana Walsingham, married first to John Tamworth, and secondly to William 
Doddington. 

2 Mary Walsingham, married Sir Walter Mildmay, K.G. and P.C. to Queen 
Elizabeth. 



Errata. — In p. 35, line 23, read 10th Nov. 1620. In p. 37, line 31, for Mr. 
read Mrs. Tomkins. In p. 38, line 2, /or p. 29, read p. 133 (hereafter). In the note, 
for a. n. 17, read an. 17. P. 40, Sir William Uvedale died in 1652, and was buried 
on the 3rd Dee. (see p. 49). The date 1654 in the pedigree belongs to the death of 
his contemporary Sir William Uvedale of Wickhara, Hants. In p. 47, note, for 
" was an Irishman," rend had debts and lands in Ireland, but was, <ix. Page 48, The 
register of marriages at St. Paul's commences in 1697, that of burials not until 1760. 



55 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

The town of Pontoise, situate about fifteen English miles 
west of Paris, takes its name from having grown up around 
the first bridge erected over the Oise {Pons ad Isaratn), above 
the confluence of that river with the Seine. 

A convent of English Benedictine Nuns fixed their residence 
in this town in the year 1658. The community was a filiation 
from the house of the same order at Ghent, as the latter had been 
from the abbey at Brussels. This offset had been first established 
in 1652 at Boulogne, whither six of the convent of Ghent were 
sent, one of whom appears to have been a lay sister.' The fol- 
lowing account of their removal to Pontoise, is from a volume 
entitled " Recherches historiqucs, archeologiques, et biographiques 
sur la ville de Pontoise. Par M"* I'Abbe Trou. Pontoise, 
1841,'^ 8vo. 

Louis XIV. delivra des lettres patentes pour autoriser Christine 
Forster, fille du Chevalier Richard Forster, Tresorier General de la 
Reine Henriette Marie, Mere de Charles II. superieure des Benedic- 
tines Anglaises de Boulogne sur Mer, a venir s'etablir a Pontoise. 
Touclie de compassion, I'Abbe conimendataire de St. Martin de Pon- 
toise, Milord Montaigu,- leur compatriote, les avait determinees u faire 

' " Notices of the English Colleges and Convents established on the Continent after 
the Dissolution of Religious Houses in England. By the late Hon. Edward Petre. 
Edited by the Rev. F. C. Husenbeth. Norwich, 1849." 4to. 

* This was Walter Montagu, second son of Henry first Earl of Manchester, and 
brother to Lord Kimbolton, of Roundhead celebrity. Having become a convert to 
the Church of Ronie, he entered a French monastery, and was promoted by Anne of 
Austria to be head of the Benedictine abbey of Nanteuil in the diocese of Meaux, and 
afterwards removed to that of Pontoise in the diocese of Rouen. He subsequently 
became Lord Almoner to Henrietta Maria the Queen Mother of England: who 
confided her youngest son Henry Duke of Gloucester to reside with him at Pontoise 
about the beginning of November, 1654, but the prince was shortly after summoned to 
Cologne by the King his brother, who sent the Marquis of Ormonde for him. The abbe 
Montagu died Feb. 6, 1677, and was buried in the Hospital of the Incurables at Paris. 
The abbe Trou adds, " Gautier de Montagu retablit le culte de St. Gautier :" i. e. in his 
own abbey church of St. Martin at Pontoise, from whence the shrine of that saint has 
since been removed to the church of Notre Dame in the same town. See further 
of Walter Montagu in Collinses Peerage, Wood's Athenic Oxonienses, Cooper's Athena- 



56 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

choix de notre yille pour lenr demeure, se proposant de les aider. 
L'Archeveque de Rouen approuva leur etablissement par un acte du 
20 Mai, 1G58. 

Le Chevalier Forster fit les premiers frais de leur etablissement. i 
Milord Charles Carington, pere d'une des religieuses, fut assassine 
dans une maison de la Coutellerie par un de ses valets. On I'inhuma 
a S. Maclou." Le frere du Comte de Bristol, Jean Digby,^ qui avait 

Cantabrigienses, and Granger's Biograph. History of England. There is a portrait of 
him, whole-length, in the title page of one of his books, by Marshall. 

When Henrietta Maria the Queen-Mother returned to France in 1661-2, taking 
with her the princess Henrietta her daughter, then affianced to the Duke of Orleans, 
"M. de Montagu, hergrandalmoner, abbot of St.Martin at Pontoise, earnestly besought 
her to do him the honour, before she proceeded to Paris, to alight at his abbatial 
residence, which he had superbly fitted up and prepared for the purpose. She 
acquiesced in his request, alighted, and stopped in his house, and found all things in 
excellent order. While she was surveying the rich pictures, the jewellery, the porce- 
lain, and other embellishments, there was the sound of drums, trumpets, kettledrums^ 
and presently appeared the King, the Queen, and Monsieur, who came to salute the 
Queen, and to express their joy at her happy arrival. The King and the Queen his 
consort conversed till night with the Queen of England ; and Monsieur fancied him- 
self in paradise on seeing the Lady Henriette, whom he tenderly loved, and whom he 
regarded as his future wife, etc. cC-c. Gladly would he have passed the night thus; 
but it grew late, and he was obliged to break off the conversation, and return with 
the King to the castle of St. Germain. Meanwhile M. de Montagu had prepared a 
supper of the most delicate viands and the most delicious wines that he could procure 
for the Queen and all her attendants." See further in the Memoirs of Father Cypnen 
des Gamaches, one of the Capuchins attached to the household of Queen Henrietta 
Maria, as translated and appended as a make-weight to The Court and Times of 
Charles the First, 2 vols. 8vo. 1848, at vol. ii. p. 42 ; also (less literally translated) in 
Miss Agnes Strickland's Lives of the Queens of England, edit. 1851, vol. v. p. 450. 

' Sir Richard Forster of Stokesley in Yorkshire, Knt. was created a Baronet by 
patent dated at St. Germain's Sept. 18, 1649. He died at Paris Jan. 17, 1661, 
leaving issue Sir Richard his successor ; with whose son, a third Sir Richard, the title 
became e.\tinct before 1714. See pedigrees of Forster in Graves's History of Cleve. 
land, p. 225, and in Ord's History of Cleveland, p. 397. 

* See the particulars in a subsequent page. 

' Misprinted d'lngley by the Abbe Trou. "John Digby, born in London in 1618, 
was entered in Magdalen College, Oxford, anno 1634 ; sided with the King in the 
beginning of the civil war, and, being esteemed a valiant and good man, was made 
general of horse in the army of Ralph Lord Hopton, and fought bravely in many 
encounters. When the King's cause declined, he retired into France, and some time 
followed the court of Charles II. ; but, getting nothing there, he lived very obscurely, 
and in 1654 came to England, where continuing for a time among the afilicted 
Royalists, he at length retired to Pontoise, entered himself among the religious there, 
became a secular priest, said mass daily to the English nuns, and died there after the 
Restoration, unmarried." (Wood, Afhen. Oxon. vol. iii.p. 341.) The records of the 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 57 

qiiitte le parti des armes pour entrer dans le sacerdoce, s'interessa aux 
Benedictines. Elles rejurent pres de 300,000 fr., elles enfermerent un 
grand terrain de murs, et batireut un convent dans un bout de cette 
propriete an S. Quest de la ville, pres la porte St. Martin. Ce convent 
flit appelle le Monastere de la Grace de Dieu, et on le considera comme 
dependance du Monastere de ce nom dans le comte de Leicester, i 
L'Eglise fut dediee sous le nom de la Conception de la S^^ Vierge. 

On y voyoit le tombeau de la Pr^^^ Honore (morte en Languedoc 
IG Janvier, 1698), fille de Guillaume Burke, pair d'Irlande, et epouse 
de Jacques FitzJames, Due de Berwick.^ Le Prince Henry Fitz- 
James, Lord Perth, Lord Milford [Melfort], Richard Hamilton, Grand 
Maitre de la Garderobe du Roi, Porter Vice-Chambellan du Roi, Milord 
Waldegrave, Baron et Paii* d'Angleterre, furent presents a son enterre- 
ment, aussi bien que Domini(iue Macguirre, Archeveque d' Armagh, 
Primat d'Irlande. 

Les religieuses se signalerent par leurs oeuvres de devouement, et 
d'une immense charite envers les soldats du regiment de Hamilton qui 
sejourna plus d'uu an a Pontoise. 

The first Abbess was the Lady Catharine Wigmore, 
daughter of William Wigmore, esq. of Liichton, in Hereford- 
shire, bj Anne daugliter of Sir John Throckmorton. Her sister 
Christina was also a nun at Pontoise, and died in 1699, aged 62; 
and her brother William was one of the Society of Jesus. The 
Lady Abbess died, whilst the community was still at Boulogne, on 
the 28th Oct. 1656, aged 67, having been professed 31 years. 
Her body was afterwards brought to Pontoise, and buried in the 



convent show that he was ordained in 1660, and, after being a great benefactor, died 
March 15, 1663 ; when, according to his own orders, he was buried in the church of 
the English Benedictine nuns, with these words only ; 

Hie jacet umbra et pulvis nihil. 
He had been grievously wounded at the siege of Portsmouth, and, during his long 
illness, resolved to devote himself to the Divine Service, which he did so fervently, 
that he was universally respected and admired. At the time he died, he was acting 
as Ecclesiastical Superior to the Benedictines, in place of the Abbot Montagu, who 
was obliged to go to England on business. 

1 This statement seems to be unfounded. Though the house had the name of Grace 
Dieu, it was not dependent on any other. Gracedieu abbey in Leicestershire was a 
nunnery of the Cistercian Order. — Dugdale, Monasticon Atiglicamun, (London, 
1718,) p. lOS. 

^ See the ceremony of her funeral hereafter, p. 64. 



58 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

choir of the nuns, near the high altar on the Gospel side, on the 
10th July 1671, with this inscription : — 

Cette pierre enchasse la plus eminente en vertu M"^^ Cath"® Wig- 
more, fille de Men'' Guillaume Wigmore de Luchton dans le Comte 
de Hereford au pays de Galles. EUe fut envoyee Superieure en 
la Mission de Gand a Bouloigne en Picardie, et la choisie la l®""® 
Abbesse. Son liumilite dans sa prelatin-e etait tres remarquable, aussi 
etait son affabilite et mansuetude : son zele et ferveur n'etait pas moins 
ardent et rempli de pouvoir. Elle apprenait aux autres par son ex- 
emple en silence, et obtenait de Dieu davantage par oraison et recol- 
lection que par aucun autre moyen, Elle mourut a Bouloigne I'an 
Mdclvi. le Lxvii. de son age, le xxxi. de sa profession. Elle fut en- 
terree en grande estime de saintete non seulement de ses religieuses, 
mais aussi de I'Eveque, de son clerge, et de toute la ville : et pour la 
consolation de ses filles ses ossements furent transportes en notre 
Eglise le x^ de juillet de fan Mdclxxi. Requiescat in Pace. 

The second Abbess was the Lady Anne Forster, daughter 
of Sir Richard Forster, of Stokesley, co. York, Knt. and Bart., 
by Joan IMiddleton, of Leighton, in Lancashire. She was pro- 
fessed at Ghent under the name of Anne Christina, Jan. 13, 1641 ; 
was afterwards sent to Boulogne ; and moved with the rest of the 
community to Pontoise, where she became Abbess on the 27th of 
May, 1657. She died at Paris, Dec. 16, 1661, aged 44 ; when 
her body, having been embalmed, was buried in the church of 
the Feuillantines of the Faubourg St. Jacques : her heart, placed 
in lead, was brought to her sorrowing daughters, and in 1671 her 
body also was removed to Pontoise. These particulars are more 
fully related as follows in a MS. formed by her successor the 
Lady Anne Neville. 

Le Chevalier Forster, fondateur du Monastere de Pontoise, eut 
beaucoup a souffrir pendant les troubles de la Religion, et fut oblige de 
se retirer a la campagne, ou on ne le laissa pas longtemps en repos. 
Pour le trouver, il revint a la Cour, et se mit au service de la Reine, qui 
eprouva en quantite de rencontres sa fidelite, sa prudence, et son zele. 
La Reine, ayant parfaitement reconnu son merite et son integrite, le fit 
son Tresorier General, et lui confia tous ses biens. II s'acquitta de cet 
emploi avec une fidelite tres grande ; et si Sa Majeste reconnut ses 
services, il employa tout cela aussi bien que tout le revenu de ses terres 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 59 

a faire batir des Monasteres, et en tirer cVautres de la derniere neces- 
site; a elever de pauvres gentilshommes Anglais dans les etudes; a 
marier de pauvi-es filles, et a faire des aumones a cenx qui avaient ete 

chasses de I'Angleterre pour la Foi Catholique Enfin etaut tres 

dangereusement malade, il fit son Testament, par lequel il legua beau- 
coup au Monastere (dont sa fille etait alors Abbesse) ; mais ces biens 
etant en de piussantes mains, nous n'en avons recus que tres peu. H a 
ete enterre dans I'Eglise de St. Martin sur Viosne-les-Pontoise, et en- 
terre devant I'autel de St. Gautier, proche du lieu oii a ete enten*e le 
meme saint. i 

La maison qui M. le Chevalier Forster ceda a la communaute lui 
avait coute 30,000 livres, avec la ferme et metairie qui y appartenaient. 
Cette maison s'appellait de Maudestour, et avait ete autrefois T Hotel 

des anciens seigneurs de Maudestour On commenja la meme 

annee (1659) le batiment neuf, oii est a present (1672) la cbapelle, le 
cboeur, et quelques cellules. L' Abbesse Forster etant tres malade, 
on la fit voyager a Paris avec la permission de Mons^' I'Ai-cheveque. 
Mais sou mal s'augmentant, elle y mourut sm* le midi, le 16™'' jour de 
Dec""^ 1661. Son coeur fut enferme dans un coeur de plomb, et envoye 
a Pontoise ; son corps fut embaume et mis en depot en I'Eglise des 
Feuillantines du Faubourg St. Jacques a Paris, d'oii M°"' Anne de 
Neville 4^ Abbesse le fit apporter a Pontoise et enteiTer dans le choeur 
des Religieuses, avec I'inscription suivante: 

" Ici repose la tres illustre Abbesse Madame Christine Forster, fille 
du Chevalier Forster d'Ethersod (Ederston) en Northumberland, Baron 
de Storsly (Stokesly) en Yorkshire, Tresorier de la Reine Mere d'Angle- 
terre. La charite et liberaHte de ce digne Pere envers sa fille, et, pom* 
I'amour d'elle, envers cette communaute, lui donne avec justice le titre 
de Fondateur de ce Monastere. Elle fut envoyee de Gand en Flancbes 
pour notre etabHssement a Bouloigne en Picardie, fut 2™'' Abbesse, et 
commeiifa notre Monastere a Pontoise. Sa vie etait un miroir tres 
admirable de toutes sortes de vertus. Elle excellait en grace et en 
nature. Sa prudence ensemble ses comportements et entretiens at- 
trayants avoient beaucoup de pouvoir et faisaient de grands efifets sur 
tous, mais specialement ses Rehgieuses, qu'elle gouvernoit avec autant 
de douceur que d'autorite. Elle mourut a Paris I'an Mdc.lxi. le xvi 
de Dec"^*^, le xliv. de son age, le xx. de sa profession, et le v. de sa pre- 
latm-e. Elle fut la embanmee, et son coeur genereux fut alors porte a 

1 This proves St. Gautier's tomb has been moved. It is now in the church of 
N6tre Dame at Pontoise. 



60 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

son Monastere pour la consolation de ses filles, et place dans la muraille 
du choeur, audessous de son portrait. En Tannee Mdc.lxxi. son corps 
fut transporte et enterre avec solemnite dans la meme chapelle a Pont- 
oise. Requiescat in Pace. 

The third Abbess was the Lady Eugenia Thorold, daughter 
of Edmund Thorold, esq., of Hough, near Grantham, in Lincoln- 
shire, by Anne, sister to Sir Robert Thorold, Bart, of Heath. ^ She 
was professed at Ghent, Dec. 27, 1639; made Abbess of Pontoise 
March 7, 1662; and died Dec. 21, 1667, aged 44, when she was 
buried in the church of the monastery, near the high altar, on the 
Gospel side, — where a few years after the remains of her prede- 
cessors were placed by her side. Her epitaph was as follows : 

Cy gist illustre Dame Religieuse Madame Eugenie Thouold de 
Hough, 3™^ Abbesse de ce Monastere, premierement etabli a Bou- 
logne, et depuis erige a Pontoise, une de ses premieres Religieuses qui 
sont venues de Gaud. Entre toutes ses vertus elle excella en silence, 
paix, et douceur — admirable dans sa conversation, ce qui fa rendue non- 
seulement agreable a Dieu, mais encore tres aimable a ses Religieuses. 
Elle est heureusement decedee le xxi. Dec'"® Tan Mdc.lxvii. agee de xliv. 
ans, de profession xxviii. et de sa prelature vi. Requiescat in Pace. 

The fourth Abbess was the Lady Anne Neville, daughter 
of Henry Lord Abergavenny and Lady Mary Sackville, daughter 
of Thomas first Earl of Dorset. She was professed at Ghent, the 
2d July, 1634, and whilst there was first mistress of the school, 
then mistress of novices, and afterwards prioress, in all which 
oQices she had under her care the young lady of the Thorold 
family whose history has been just detailed, and who, having 
always retained a grateful aifection for her former mistress, and 
entire confidence in her, at length persuaded her to come to 
Pontoise; where, at the Lady Eugenia's decease, she became her 
successor. Lady Neville died 15 December, 1689, aged 84.^ 

* See the account of Lincolnshire Families temp. Charles II. in vol. ii. p. 125. 

' Lady Abergavenny, the mother of this Abbess, though daughter of the Protestant 
Lord Treasurer, was secretly a favourer of the ancient faith. A young lady, whose edu- 
cation she had undertaken, the orphan daughter of Henry Blanchard, esq. of Prior's 
Court, Berks, retired after Lady Abergavenny's death to the English convent at 
Brussels, where she was professed as Dame Alexia, and some years after she became 
the fourth Abbess of that community. — {Pontoise MSS.) 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF TONTOISE. 61 

Tlie ceremony of her Benediction was appointed by the Archbishop 
of Rouen to be performed at St. Martin's-sur-Viosne, of which Lord 
AValter Montagu was then Abbot ; and it was conferred by the Most 
Eev. Dr. Edmund O'Reilly, Archbishop of Armagh "(who had been 
obliged to flee from Ireland during the violent persecutions), on the 
12th February, 1668. Abbot Montagu after the ceremony gave a 
noble entertainment to the new Abbess and the four or five Religious 
who accompanied her, to the Abbess of Maubuisson, Princess Louisa 
Hollandina (granddaughter of James I.), who, with her niece the 
Princess Mary, had come purposely to honour Lady Neville on this 
solemn occasion, and to three or four other English present. In the 
afternoon Lady Neville returned to her dear community, and was 
visited by the Princess Louisa on her return to Maubuisson, who 
assured her of her affection, and ever after continued a kind benefactress 
to the Nuns, who were, almost from the first, in straitened circumstances, 
their numbers being too great for their temporalities, and the times 
making it very difficult to obtain moneys due to them. — {Pontoise 3ISS.) 

Catherine Dayrell, described as a niece of Lord Castlemaine,^ 
and cousin of Lady Abbess Neville, died wliilst at scliool at the 
Pontoise convent. This happened shortly after Dame Anne 
Neville was made Abbess. 

The fiftli Abbess was Dame ELIZABETH Dabridgcouet, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Dabridgcourt, Bart., and of Anne, 
daughter of Launcclot Saunders, of Sutton Court, Esq. She died 
17 August, 1715, having attained the age of 71, of her profession 
55, and of her abbacy 20. 

The sixth Abbess was Dame Anne Xaveria Gifford, 
daughter of Sir Henry Giflord, Bart., of Burstall, in Leicester- 
shire, and of Joan, daughter of Benjamin Vaughan, Esq., of 
Ruadon, in Gloucestershire. She was professed in 1676, and 

' Rather of Lady Castlemaine. Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine, (who married 
Barbara Duchess of Cleveland, the mistress of Charles II.) was a son of Sir 
James Palmer, younger son of Sir Thomas Palmer, the first Baronet of AVingham, 
Kent. It does not appear that Catharine Dayrell was so near a relation to him as 
niece; see the Pedigree hereafter, No. I. There may probably have been some 
speaking of him as Uncle a la mode de Bretagne. He gave the house of Pontoise 
4S0 livrts (see p. 65), and again 55 livres, when he went ambassador to the Pope in 
lOSO. Of that embassy there is a contemporary History, by Mr. jMichael Wright, with 
i.iteresting plates, described in Moule's Bibiiotheca Heraldica, p. 2-42, and in Granger's 
Bio(/y. History of England. 



62 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

made Abbess in 1710, Lady Elizabeth Dabridgcourt having 
resigned on account of lier great infirmities. She died on the 
11th February of the ensuing year, having been Abbess only 11 
months. She was 57 years of age, and had been professed 35. ^ 

Her sister, Dame Maura Giflford, died 28 August, 1691, aged 
34, professed 17. 

The seventh Abbess was Dame Elizabeth Joseph Wid- 
DRINGTON, daughter of Lord Widdrington, of Blanckney, in 
Lincolnshire, and of Elizabeth (who both embraced the Catholic 
religion,) daughter of Sir Peregrine Bertie, of Evedon, in Lin- 
colnshire. She died 9 November, 1730, aged 71; professed 51; 
Abbess 20. 

The eighth Abbess was Dame Maeina Hunloke, daughter of 
Sir Henry Hunloke, of Wingerworth, co. Derby, and Catharine, 
only daughter and heir of Francis Tyrwhitt, esq,, of Kettleby, co. 
Lincoln. 

The ninth Abbess was Dame Anna Catherine Haggerston. 

The tenth Abbess was Mary Anne Clavering, daughter of 
Ralph Clavering, esq., of Callaly, and of Mary, daughter of 
Richard Stapleton, esq. of Ponteland and Carleton, Yorkshire; 
professed 1751, retired to Dunkirk convent in 1784, and died at 
Hammersmith 8 November, 1795, aged 65. Anne Widdrington 
was her paternal grandmother, and thus she was great-niece to the 
seventh Abbess. 

On the 4th March, 1665, Charles Carrington, Lord Carrington 
of Wotton, father of one of the nuns, was murdered at Pontoise 
by one of his own servants.^ He was buried in the church of St. 

' " Dans le Mercure Galant Avril 1710, pp. 75, 76, on voit que Lord Midleton 
avait une fiUe marine a Sir John Gifford, oncle d'Anne Xavifere GifiFord abbesse des 
Dames Benedictines Angloises de Pontoise, mort a St. Germain en Laye en 1708." 
F. Michel, Ecossais en France. 

2 The following account of Lord Carrington's murder was heard by Thomas Dineley 
esq. when he visited Pontoise in 1675, and is preserved in his MS. journal now in the 
possession of Sir Thomas Edward Winnington, Bart. Describing the churches of Pont- 
oise, he remarks, — "S. Macloue is the fairest of all, with a square steeple of free 
stone ; in this the first monument and inscription I cast mine eye upon was y' of an 
English gentleman, who was assazined by his servant, a French fellow, his valet de 
chamhre, who made his escape after it for some time, and the master of the house 
being a magistrate of the town, and his whole family, where this gentleman lodged, 
were secured and a guard sett upon them, by order of the other magistrates, untill the 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 63 

j\Iaclou, opposite the second pillar on entering at the right-hand 
side, with this inscription : 

D. O. M. 

Siste Viator!- Terrd hie non sua sepultus jacet Carolus Carrington 
de Woottou in comitatu Warwicensi, ex antiqua et nobili familia Car- 
ringtonum natus, qui Primogeuitorum in fide Romana constantiam 
difficillimis temporibus cum insigni pietate servans Carole 1°. Regi 
bellis civilibus Angliam vastantibus, tam per se quam per fratres, con- 
sanguiueos, et aniicos perutilem nava^dt operam. Optimo principe per 
nefas immane sublato, qua liberius Deo et conscientia frueretur, in Bel- 
gium migrans Leodii multa pietatis et misericordife exempla edidit, 
donee Carolo IP. divina ope, trium Regnorum gaudio, in solium Patris 
restitute, ipse quoque, reversus in Patriam, communis lastitite. partem 
cepit. Denique quietem in Gallia quEerens, Pontisara post multa reli- 
gionis, devotionis, et mimificenticT? in omnes, sed maxime in gentiles 
suas Ordinis 8'' Benedicti Moniales ibi habditas opera, ad meliorem et 
permaneutem vitam migravit anno a^tatis 65, Domini 1665, Martii 4. 
Requiescat in Pace. Amen. 

malefactor was found out : which cost y*' master of the afores'' house over 200 Louis 
d'or, or French golden pistols, in scouts. At length j-e murderer was took in a caba- 
ret and gameing- house not farr from this town, and for this notorious fact of having 
stabb'd his master in several places as he lay in his bed and stole away his moneys, he 
rec'd sentence to be broken on the wheele, which accordingly was done. It is said 
that y*^ Lord Montague in memory of this bloody accident (happening to Mr. Charles 
Carington of the ancient family of y« Caringtons of Wotton in the county of War- 
wyck) erected this Monument of marble against one of the pillars of this church, and 
hath also founded three masses and the offices for the dead yearly on that day." (But 
these pious duties w-ere really performed by Lord Carrington's son and successor, as 
the epitaph states.) 

Some biographical notices of Lord Carrington, who was so created on the 4th 
November, 19 Car. 1. 1044, will be found in Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 470, and in his 
History of Warwichhire (edit. Thomas,) p. 810. There is a pedigree of the family 
under Ashby Folvile in Nichols's Hisiorj of Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 29. 

On the death without issue in 1758 of the last male descendant of the Carringtons, 
William Smith alias Carrington, the family estates devolved in equal moieties on his 
two nieces, — Constantia, the widow of John Wright of Kelvedon hall, Essex, but then 
the wife of Mr. Peter Holford, and Catherine a nun in the English Benedictine 
convent at Cambray. Mrs. Holford, by her second husband, left a daughter Catherine 
Maria, who married Sir Edward Sraythe, the fifth Baronet, of Acton Burnell, co. 
Salop, and Eske, co. Durham, the grandfather of the present Sir Frederick Sniytiie. 
(Statement in Notes and Queries, 1861, II. -xii. 401, by J. F. Wright, esq. of Kel- 
vedon hall, Brentwood, Essex, great-great-grandaon of Constantia above-mentioned 
by her first husband.) 



64 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

Parent! omni obsequio prosequendo Carolus Carrington primogenitus 
titulorum ha?res et virtatum monumentum moerens posuit, et anniver- 
sariiim trium missarum et aliaruni precum officium 4 Martii persol- 
vendum perpetuo fnndavit contractu, per Fredin notarium publicum 
facto, 13 Junii, anno 1670. 

Dame Fi'ancisca Carrington was daughter of the above by his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Caryll, of Harting in Sus- 
sex. She was professed at Ghent 9th April, 1646, and sent to 
the new foundation at Boulogne in 1653, and removed with the 
rest to Fontoise — but returned to Ghent after her father's death, 
and died there 2nd January, 1701. 

In 1698 the wife^ of James Duke of Berwick, natural son of 
King James the Second, was interred at Fontoise, and the follow- 
ing record of the ceremony has been preserved : — 

ACTE DE l'EnTERREMENT DE M™" LA DuCHESSE DE BERWICK. 

(From the Pontoise Necrology.) 
L'an de grace 1698, ce jour d'hui 25® de fevrier, a ete inhumee dans 
la Chapelle de I'Eglise de I'Abbaye des Dames Benedictines Anglaises, 
tres-haute, tres-puissante, et tres-vertueuse Princesse Honoree Burgh, 
Duchesse de Berwick, decedee a Perenas en Languedoc le 16 Janvier 
de cette dite annee, munie des sacremens de Penitence, de I'Eucharistie, 
et de r Extreme Onction; et transferee dans cette dite Abbaye, oii elle 
avait clioisi en mourant sa sepulture, le 24 du dit mois de fevi'ier (agee 
de 22 ans 10 mois) par Messire Vincent Francois Des Marets pretz*e, 
licencie en droit Canon, Grand- Vicaire et Official de Pontoise et du 
Vexin-le-Franjais, et Superieur de ladite Abbaye : en presence de 
Monseigneur I'Archeveque d' Armagh, Primat d'Irlande; de tres-haut, 
tres-puissant, et tres-excelleiit Prince, Milord due d' Albemarle, Cheva- 
lier de rOrdre de la Jarretiere, et chef d'escadre des armees navales de 
sa Majeste tres-Chretienne ; de Milord Perth, Comte et Pair d'Ecosse, 
Chevalier del' Ordre de la Jarretiere, Gouverneur de son Altesse Royale 
Monseig"" le Prince de Galles ; de Milord Melfort, Comte et Pair 
d'Ecosse, Chevalier de 1' Ordre de la Jarretiere ; de Milord Galmoy, 
Comte et Pair d'Irlande ; de Milord Waldegrave, Baron et Pair 
d' Angleterre ; de Milord Montleinster, Baron et Pair d'Irlande ; de 
Milord Forth, fils du Milord Melfort; de Milord de Brittas, Baron 

' Honora, third daughter of William Burke, Earl of Clanricard, and widow of 
Colonel Patrick Sarsfield, called Earl of Lucan, the tirst wife of the Duke of Berwick : 
see Sandford, Oeneal. Hist, of England, edit. 1707, p. 683. 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 



65 



et Pair d'lrlande ; et d'un grand nombre de Seigneiu'S et Dames de la 
Coin- d'Angleterre. En foi de quoi ont signe ledit Sieur Des Marets, 
le Sieur Lawrence Breers, Pere Confesseur de ladite Abbaye, et le 
Sieiu" Louis Du Val, pi-etre, bachelier de Sorbonne et Cure de Notre 
Dame de cette rille de Pontoise. 

Extracts from Receipts of Pontoise.^ 

Lord Castlemaine, then Ambassa- 
dor from J. R. to the Pope, for 
masse and prayers ... 55 

Lady Petre . ... 260 

Lady Waldegrave the widow 77 

A token to y« com'y from Mrs. 
Susan Warner, when she en- 
tered to be Religious (at Dun- 
kirk), wh*^*" was noe less a con- 
curring kyndness from her wor- 
thy Father, Rev**. Father Clare 
(Sir John Warner), and y^ con- 
sent and goodwill of his other 
Dau'r Dame Agnes Warner 

4281ivres 12 sous. 
Lady Gage, at her death . livres 120 
The auncient Mrs. Plowdeu . 100 

Mr. Tunstall .... 390 
Mrs. Blount . . . . 600 

2 legaci^ from my cousins Stanley 120 
(In some old books only 12 livres are 
reckoned to make a pound.) 



A nameless Friend . , livres 120 


Queen Mother and Madame (her 




dau'r) a legacy 


300 


Lord Castlemaine 


480 


2 Mr. Carylls .... 


490 


Dutchess of Cleveland 


540 


Cardinal of Boulogne . 


2,100 


Sir Geo. Southcot 


300 


Mr. Nichs. Timperley, a legacy . 


600 


Lady Goring, Sir John Gage, and 




Mr. Roper .... 


513 


Lady Powis .... 


500 


Lord Cardigan .... 


760 


Lady Guildford .... 


200 


Lady Hamilton .... 


100 


2 Mr. Fermors .... 


252 


1685 and 16S6, Princess Louisa of 




Maubuisson .... 


250 


15 April, '85, A nameless Friend, 




to desire our prayers, and proved 




to be y« glorious King J. R. 


2,000 


Sir Rowland Bellasis . 


55 



On a fly-leaf of tlie same book is tlie following copy of a 
mortuary circular transmitted by the community of Maubuisson 
on the deatli of their abbess the Princess Louisa (already men- 
tioned), one of the daughters of Frederick Elector Palatine and 
the Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain, and elder sister of the 
Princess Sophia, the designated heiress of the English crown. 

Xous vous demandons tres-instammeiit, Mesdames, le secours de vos 
saintes prieres pour M""^ la Priucesse Electorale Louise Marie Pala- 
tine de Baviere, notre tres-digne et tres-chere Abbesse, qui est decedee 
ie IP"* fevrier 1709, munie des Saints Sacremens de I'Eglise, agee de 

' In Lady Abbe.ss Neville's writing. 



VOL. III. 



66 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

86 ans, de profession religiense 50, dont elle a ete Abbesse 45, et a 
gonverne ce monastere avec tant de piete, de zele, de bonte, et d'edifi- 
cation, que dans raccablement de douleur ou nons sommes, nous vous 
demandons aussi vos prieres, Mesdames, pour la consolation et les 
besoins de cette communaute. 

The English nuns left Pontolse in the year 1784: having then 
grown so impoverished that it became necessary to break up the 
establishment. The Archbishop of Kouen having given them 
permission to retire to any other convents, the Abbess, with six 
of her sisters, retired to the community of their order at Dun- 
kirk, where they were afterwards joined by others of their former 
companions, and where they remained in peace and happiness 
until the fatal year 1793, when their church was seized for the 
meetings of the Jacobin Club of that city. They were then 
driven from their convent (on the 13th Oct.) at a few hours' 
notice, and fled to Gravelines ; whence, in April 1795, they re- 
paired to England ,* and before the end of the same year they 
took possession of the convent at Hammersmith near London. 
They were then under the government of the Lady Abbess Mary 
]\Iagdalen Prujean, who died in 1814; and was succeeded by 
Mary Placida Messenger, who died in 1828; and her successor 
(living in 1865), is the Abbess Mary Placida Selby.^ 

Very recently, these Benedictine ladies have moved to Teign- 
mouth in Devonshire ; and their house at Hammersmitli (now 
threatened by a projected railway or building,) is at present 
occupied by a small community of sisters of " The Sacred Blood." 

1 See fuller details of their sufferings and adventures in Mr. Petre's work before 
quoted, from which these particulars are derived. 

^ It is to Lady Abbess Selby that we owe most of this information, she having 
both written with her own hand, and permitted Dame Mary Thais English to make ex- 
tracts from the Conventual Records and Necrologies for us. 



This article trill be continued with a list of the Religious Ladies, 
extracted from the Necrology of the House and other sources, 
accompanied by some genealogical tables shoiving their parentage 
and family connections. 



67 



HISTORICAL AND HERALDIC CARDS.i 

Playing Cards are no longer the engrossing objects of time 
and attention wliicli they once were in this country, and still are 
in some others. Since the last century there has been a great 
change in our manners, and in the distribution of our time. The 
dinner-hour Jias become continually later, leaving little or no room 
for cards after that important ceremonial. The secondary enter- 
tainment that was called " Tea and Cards " has given way to 
the Soiree Dansante and its substantial supper ; and, as parents 
naturally ingraft their own manners on the rising generation, so, 
in "juvenile parties " and the festivities of the Christmas holidays, 
the once merry Round Game has been generally banished for 
the hired showman, the ]\Iagician of the North or South, or 
other more ambitious if not more scientific entertainments, — 
succeeded in most cases by music and dancing, not by cards. 

So, also, in the senior ranks of the existing 'community, the 
amusement of card-playing has been greatly relinquished. It is 
no longer the common pastime, but only the peculiar taste of a 
few. ]\Iany clerics of the last century, and particularly those 
who enjoyed the social circles of a market-town or a cathedral- 
close, spent half their time on whist. They were instant in 
season and out of season, before dinner and after. In great 
measure such occupation is now considered not merely frivolous, 

' The principal English writers on Playing Cards have been the Hon. Daines Bar- 
rington, the Rev. John Bowie, and Mr. Gough, in the Archceologia, vol. VIII.; Mr. 
Pettigrew, in the Journal of the Archaoloyical Association, vol. IX.; Singer, Chatto, 
and Taylor. The works of the three last, which we shall have occasion to quote in the 
following pages, are : — 

Researches on the History of Playing Cards. By Samuel Weller SiiNGEr. 
1S16. 4to. 

Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of Playing Cards. By William 
A.XDREW Chatto. 1848. 8vo. 

The History of Playing Cards, with Anecdotes of their use in Conjuring, Fortune- 
Telling, and Card-Sharping. Edited by the late Rev. Ed. S. Taylor, B.A. and 
others. 1825. 12mo. A very interesting volume just published by Mr. J. C. Rotten, 
embellishecTby many curious and well-executed wood engravings, many of which 
were originally published in " Les Cartes a Jouer et la Cartomancie. Par P. Boiteau 
d'Ambly." 

F 2 



68 HISTORICAL AND 

but altogether unbecoming to the clotli. Like other indulgences, 
the abuse or excess of which leads to vice and crime, card- 
playing has become associated in common repute, more or less, 
with gambling, and total abstinence has been very generally 
prescribed in lieu of temperance and moderation. 

Cards are in fact the resource of the idle, and of those who 
want to kill time. The Nineteenth Century is far more busy 
than the Eighteenth, and on the whole is better employed. 
Even those who have abundance of leisure can now find other 
intellectual occupations besides the once favourite cribbage or the 
eternal whist. The spoiled children of Fortune have no longer 
the excuse they once had for spending 

A youth of folly, an old age of cards. 

All those who have not worn out their eye-sight have now the 
never-failing newspaper, or magazine, in all shapes, and touching 
on all topics. If there are still many who never open a book, 
the daily paper places before them a constant supply of multi- 
farious mental food and entertainment. In the last century 
those who took no pleasure in books were often disposed to make 
cards their only reading. i 

When this was the state of things, it was an obvious device, 
in order to find an entrance to the minds of such limited readers, 
to attempt to make the cards themselves the vehicles of advice 
or instruction. 

Indeed, the idea is by no means new. It was broached, with 
great approbation, by Dr. Thomas Murner, a Franciscan friar, 
and professor at Cracow, at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century.^ This learned man undertook to teach the art of 
reasoning by a pack of fifty-two cards : his performance was 

' As cards served, first for books, so they next answered the purpose of stationery. 
An old playing-card was a ready means of conveying a billet, or message. Many a 
challenge of the duellists of former days has been so transmitted, and many an invi- 
tation to more agreeable meetings. Hence it became customary to use (plain) cards 
rather than note-paper on all such occasions : and it is only of late years that cards of 
invitation to dinner or evening parties have been succeeded in fashionable life by 
engraved forms printed on note-paper. 

2 At a still earlier period the Italian game called La Afenchiata, which was played 
with the Tarot cards, was invented by Michael Angelo at Sienna, to teach children 
Arithmetic. Archseologia, vol. viii. 172, 



HERALDIC CARDS. 69 

printed at Cracow in 1507, and at Strasburg in 1509,^ under the 
title of Chartiludium Logicce, and was re-published at Paris in 
1629 by ]\I. des Balesdens, an advocate of the parliament. 

During the youth of Louis XIY. and it is said for his special 
instruction, the plan was further pursued by Desmaretz, a well- 
known academician, in conjunction with the engraver Delia Bella. 
On the 9th April, 1644, letters patent were issued to "Jean 
Desmaretz, Conseiller, Secretaire, et ControUeur- General de 
I'extraordinaire des Guerres," granting him the privilege and 
monopoly of procuring to be executed, in wood or copper-plate, 
engraving or etching, the figures of the Games of Cards of the 
History of the Kings and Queens, of Illustrious j\Ien and 
Women, Fables, Geography, Ethics (inorale), Politics, Logic, 
Physic, and generally of all other games of any art, science, 
history, or fable, which he had invented, or should thereafter 
invent ; forbidding their sale by any one else, under a penalty 
of 3000 livres and confiscation of the articles. 

Specimens of these cards are still preserved by the curious. 
The first of the series was the Jeu de Fables, 1644, a pack of 
the usual number, relating to the heathen deities and their meta- 
morphoses.^ The next, a Jeu de VHistoire de France, did not 
adhere to the ordinary arrangement of playing-cards, or corre- 
spond to the usual suits. Instead of fifty-two cards, it had sixty- 
five ; presenting the French kings arranged in six divisions — 
the good, the simple-minded, the cruel, the faithless, the luckless, 
and those who were neither good nor bad.-' The last of the 
series represents Louis XIY. as a child, in a carriage drawn by 
his mother. 

In another, the Jeu de Cartes des Reines renommees,^ all the 
celebrated Queens of the world were classed in like manner 
accordino- to their characters, bvit their number was confined to 
fifty-two, and divided into four suits, which were distinguished 
by the colours of gold, silver, green, and columbine. 

' Singer, p. 216, gives the title of the latter edition. The former is mentioned by 
•Mr. Taylor at p. 1 88. 

2 Described by Taylor, p. 191 : and a specimen the Ace of Clubs, — the subject 
Arion on his dolphin, engraved as Plate xxxv. 

^ A specimen, representing the fayneants (five on one card), is Plate xxxvi; of 
the same volume. ■* Described ibid. p. 192, 



70 HISTORICAL ANT) 

Something of tins kind had already been engrafted on the 
ordinary playing-cards, of which the figured or court-cards were 
usually known by these names — the Kings as David, Alexander, 
CjBsar, and Charlemagne; the Queens as Judith, Rachel, Argine, 
and Pallas; the Valets as Lahire, Hector, Lancelot, andHogier.' 
The four Kings were supposed to represent the four ancient 
monarchies of the Jews, Greeks, Romans, and Franks ; the 
Queens, Wisdom, Birth, Beauty, and Fortitude. In some packs, 
Esther, as an impersonation of Piety, was substituted for Rachel. 
In a French pack of the time of Henri IV. the Kings were 
named Solomon, Auguste, Clovis, and Constantine; the Queens, 
Elizabeth, Dido, Clotilda, Pantilisee; the Valets, Valet de Court 
(a hat under his arm). Valet de Chasse (with a dog in a leash). 
Valet d'Ete (carrying a flower). Valet de Noblesse (with a hawk 
and riding rod). The like personifications have been frequently 
repeated in subsequent times. In a pack published in Paris 
in the Revolutionary days, the figures of Moliere, La Fontaine, 
Voltaire, and Rousseau were substituted for the four Kings; for 
the Queens, Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude; for 
the Valets, four Republican citizens, or rather soldiers. After the 
same fashion, an American represented the Kings by Washington, 
John Adams, Franklin, and La Fayette; the Queens, by Venus, 
Fortune, Ceres, and JMinerva; and the Knaves by four Indian 
chiefs. See Mr. Pettigrew's Essay in the Journal of the Archaeo- 
logical Association, ix. 124. 

The Jen de Cartes de la Geographie, designed 'by Desmaretz, 
is described as equally beautiful and interesting, a native of each 
country being represented in his national costume. Another 
pack of Geographical cards was published by M. Duval in 1677; 
and one in London, about 1680, of which there is a copy in 
the British Museum.^ 

A second English pack*'' of the same period was devoted to a 
geographical description of The Jifty-two Counties of England and 

' These names have been retained on French cards even to modern times, except 
Lancelot, which was usually displaced to make room for the manufacturer's name. 

■^ These are also described in Mr. Taylor's woik, pp. 193, 194. 

^ Described by Chatto, p. 150, and the same account quoted by Taylor, p. 196, See 
also Archajological Journal, vol. vii. p. 306. 



HERALDIC CARDS. 71 

Wales; the number of wliich happened to cohicide with that of a 
pack of cards: and they were declared to be "as phiine and 
ready for the pkiying of all ouv English games as any of the 
common cards." 

There were also published in England, in the reign of Charles 
the Second, several pictorial cards of an Historical, or perhaps 
we should rather say Political, character; for they related chiefly 
to the passing events of the day. A pack containing the history of 
the Spanish Invasion (published about the year 1679) is said to 
have been exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries by Sir Joseph 
Banks in 1773. It is probably the same that is now in the 
British Museum, where it is publicly exhibited in the show-case 
No. xiii. in the Royal Library. It is quite perfect. 

One satirising the Rump Parliament and the great men of the 
Commonwealth is fully described by Mr. Pettigrew in the Journal 
of the Archceoloijiral Associatlo)/, vol. ix. pp. 121-154, and 308-329, 
with eight fac-sindle engravings. 

One advertised in the Mercurius Domesticus oF Dec. 19, 1679, 
was to form " An History of all the Popish Plots that have been 
in England;" but no existing copy of it has been discovered, 
unless (which is not improbable) it was afterwards confined to 
the plots of Oates and Bedloe in 1678, and the murder of Sir 
Edmund Berry Godfrey, — a pack being preserved representing 
those occurrences. This is fully described, with eight fac-simlle 
engravings, in the Gentleman s Magazine for Sept. 1849; and a 
perfect copy is in the Print Room at the British Museum. 

Another pack commemorated the Rye- house plot, but only 
four cards of it have been discovered.^ 

In the reign of James the Second one was published repre- 
senting the most memorable scenes of Monmouth's Rebellion 
and other recent political events. As this pack has not hitherto 
been described,- we avail ourselves of the opportunity to place 
upon record the following account of the few cards that we have 
seen of it. They are only fourteen in number; — 

Clubs. — IV. Argyle Landiiigjin Ila with 5 Hundred Men. 
VIII. Severall of y^ King's Forces in search after Ferguson. 

' Described by Chatto, p. 155; Taylor, p. 1G9. 

^ It is briefly mentioned by Taylor, p. 408, and in Notes and Queries, I. ii. 463. 



72 HISTORICAL AND 

IX. One Pitts is to be Wliipt through every town in Dorsetshire 
for Seaven Years togeather.i 

Knave. Ferguson Preeching to the Eebells y® Day before y® Defeat 
on losh. 22 v. 22. 

Queen. The Defeat of the Rebells 2000 Slayn & their Canon taken. 

Spades. — I. Argyle receiving a wound on his Head. (He is wading 
through a stream, and exclaiming " unfortunate Argyle.") 

IV. Severall Officers by Command of y^ Eng going into y^ West. 

V. 7 Rebells kill'd in a fight at Bridport & 32 taken Prisoners. 

VI. The late D: of M: L* Grey & a German carried to y^ Tower. 
(In two boats on the Thames, London Bridge and St. Mary Overies 
in the distance.) 

VII. The late D. of M. beheaded on Tower Hill 15 July 1685. 

VIII. Rebells Marching out of Lime. 

Knave. 5 Mon's taking an Oath not to discover who is y^ Right. 
(^Five men standing together and holding a testament in their hands.) 
Queen. The late D of M®. Standard. (It bears only this motto — 

FEAR NOTHING BUT GOD.) 

Kinc/. Devils in y® Ayre Bewitch[ ] Army. (This card is 

torn.) 

We will add references to some other English historical packs, 
as in so doing we are giving information that has not hitherto 
been collected. 

6. There is some intimation of a pack relating to the Warming- 
pan Plot and the Revolution of 1688. (^Taylor, p. 169.) 

7. One of the reign of Anne, commemorating the victories of 
Marlborough, &c. is in the British Museum (7913 a. 1.) It is 
a perfect pack of fifty-two. 

8. One relating to the South Sea Bubble was exhibited to the 
Archaeological Association by Mr. Palin. Each card has four 
lines of poetry, and all these verses except those on the Three 
of Diamonds are printed in Notes and Queries, I. v. 217. 

9. The Mississippi scheme was in like manner recorded in 
Holland. 

10. A pack satirising contemporary vices and follies, circ. 

• 

' The sentence is represented as in execution at a fair or niarlvct. Tliis was 
" Thomas Pitts, gent." subsequently autlior of " The New Martjrology, or The 
Bloody Assize," 1693. His real name was John Tatchin, who had been a busy po- 
litical writer in promotion of the rebellion. Sec Roberts's Life of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth, 1844, ii. 211, 339; and Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England. 



HERALDIC CARDS. 73 

1730, is in the British Museum library (7913 a.) having been 
purchased in 1854, and is partly described by Taylor, p. 170. 

11. Another was formed of designs in ilhistration of English 
proverbs: see Azotes and Queries, I. ii. 463. 

The same Duval already named invented another pack of cards, 
called Le Jeu des Princes de F Empire, in which the suits, in lieu 
of the ordinary pips or symbols,' were distinguished by the 
Imperial Crown, the Ducal Coronet, the Electoral Bonnet, and 
the Chapeau of the Free Towns. 

The combination of instruction in Blason together with Geo- 
graphy and History is said to have originated with M. Claude 
Oronce ^ Fine dit de Brianville, an abbe of Poitiers, to whose 
publisher, Benoist Coral a bookseller at Lyons, Desmaretz trans- 
ferred his privilege so far as related to Cartes de Blason, by a 
memorandum dated May 13, 1659: and the first edition of his 
work was published in that year. ^ 

These heraldic cards are divided into the four established suits 
of cceurs, trefles, piques, and carreaux, which are accompanied 
respectively by the armories of the kingdoms, provinces, and 
great dignitaries of France, Italy, the North, and Spain. The 
only changes in designation from ordinary cards are that the 

' Our present symbols, Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs, are derived from the 
French -piquet cards, of Cceurs, Carreaux, Piques, and Trefles, substituted at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century for the more numerous pack of Tarot cards, of 
which the suits were Cups, Pennies, Clubs, and Swords. It is remarkable that in 
England we retained the names of the two latter, instead of translating the French 
terms into pikes and trefoils, — that is to say, we retained the English term in Gluhs, and 
a corruption of the Italian or Spanish name of the siiade or espadas in Spades. The 
Dutch now call the Trefoil Klaver (Angl. clover'); and the Spade Scop, i. e. a scoop 
or shovel. 

" Not Ozonce, as in Taylor, p. 197, nor Brainville as misprinted by Chatto. 

^ According to Guigard (Blhlioiheque Ileraldique de la France, 1861, p. 9,) the 
second edition was published in 1660, the third in 1665, another in 1672; the 
fourth (^so called) in 1676 ; the fifth in 1781 ; the eighth at Amsterdam, without date. 
Mr. Hudson Gurney possessed the third edition (see Mr. Pettigrew's notice of it in 
Journal of the Archaological Association, vol. ix. p. 125). Of the edition of 1676 
there is a copy in the British Museum (9930 a). It has no plates. We do not find 
mentioned by Guigard another edition (or a similar work) which was published at 
Lyons under Menestrier's own name : 

" Jeu des Cartes de Blason, contenant les Arnies des Princes des Prlncipales parties 
de I'Europe, par le Pere C. F. Menestrter. Lyons, Anauley, 1592." 12mo. 



I 



74 HISTORICAL AND 

knaves and aces are altered into Princes and Chevaliers, — pour 
eviter tout equivoque. According to an anecdote related by Me- 
nestrier in liis Bibliotheque Curieuse et Instructive (12mo. 1704, 
ii. 186) tliis was not done until after offence had been taken with 
the first edition, and its plates seized by the magistrates (of 
Lyons?) because certain Princes were arranged under the titles 
of Valets and As. This stoiy, as told by Menestrier, is retailed 
by Singer and his successors, but no English writer has been able 
to examine a copy of the first edition to test its veracity. 

In the edition of 1672 (also printed at Lyons) of which Mr. 
Taylor has seen a copy by the favour of A. W. Morant, esq., it 
is recommended in the preface that the games to be played should 
be those of Here, Malcontant, or Coucou, as being the easiest, 
and not likely to divert the required attention from the Blason, 
Geography, and History. The players were to range themselves 
around a table covered with a map of Europe, and after the cards 
were dealt and exchanged to every one's satisfaction, the lowest 
was to pay according to the laws of Here. He who was first 
then described the blason of the card he held, forfeiting one 
counter if he made an error, either to the player who corrected 
him, or to the bank if there was one. The next highest then 
followed suit, and so on with the rest. The first round being- 
completed, the players were to proceed to the second, and describe 
the Geography of each card; and, in the third, the History in 
like manner. 

There were several editions of this game,^ and an Italian trans- 
lation was made, at the procurance (says Menestrier,) of Antoine 
Bulifon, a bookseller who removed from Lyons to Naples. A 
gentleman of the latter city. Signer Don Annibale Acquaviva, 
established a society of young gentlemen, who met weekly to 
exercise themselves in the game, and, after the fashion of the 
learned academies then in estimation, took the distinctive name 
o£ the Armeristi. Their first meeting was on the 19th of Sep- 
tember 1677.^ As it was further thought proper that they 

' One of the book (without plates) is in the British Museum (9930 a), It is called 
the Quafrieme edition, and dedicated a sa Altesse Royale de Savoye. 

- This is stated in Lettera di Alessandro Partetiio intorno alia Soeieta degli 
Arnieristi, e nel giuoco detto Lo Splendor dclla Nobilta Napoletana. Ascritta ne' 



HERALDIC CARDS. 75 

should have an imprese, or device, of their own, live were pro- 
posed, from which one was selected that represented a table 
spread with the map of Europe, upon which were laid some 
cards of the Game of Blason, with these words, pulchra sub 
IMAGINE LUDI ; " intending thereby to shew not only that they 
gained instruction by the means of sport; but also that all the 
grandeurs of the world and all the powers of the earth, repre- 
sented by their blasons, are only the sport of Fortune."' 

In the Italian version the suit of Spades is entitled Germania, 
but remains the same as Brianville called " le Xort," and the 
King of Great Britain is in both packs the Prince of this division. 
The trey of the same suit displays the arms of the Seventeen Pro- 
vinces of the Low Countries, and Mr. Taylor's volume furnishes us 
the annexed fac-simile. 

The blason of the coats is as follows : 

Les Pays has. 
Flanders. Or, a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules, the 
shield held by a lion sejant, his head covered in an antient tilting 

cinque Seggi. This letter is dated at Naples on the second of the same month, and a 
copy is appended to Bulifon's book, which bears the following title : " Giuoco d'Arme 
dei Sovrani, et de gli Stati d'Europa, per apprender PArme, la Geografia, e la Storia 
lore euriosa. Di C. Oronce Fine, detto di Brianville. Tradotto del Francesa in 
Italiano, et accresciuto di molte notizie necessarie per la perfetta cognizion della 
Storia: da Bernardo Giustiniani, Veneto. In Napoli, do. lo c. Lxxxi. Presso 
Antonio Bulifon, All' Insegna della Sirena. Con lie. et Privil. 12mo. pp. xxxii. 
285. (From a copy now in the hands of Mr. J. C. Hotten.) 

In the British Museum (608 a 3) is a copy of a later edition printed at Naples 1692, 
and containing the cards printed on paper. It is prefaced by a dedication from the 
printer, Giacomo Raillard, to D. Paolo Mattia Doria of Genoa, dated Napoli, ] Feb. 
1692. The arms of the Pope (on the King of Fieri) are Campo di Oro con tre pentoce 
in mezo, o uero Pignate nere, due sopra, et una sotto in triangolo. Lo scudo coronato 
della Tiara, et ornato della due chiaui della Santa Sede. These three black pots 
were the arms of Pope Innocent XII. {Pignattelli) 1691-1700. 

A still later edition printed at Naples in ] 725 by Paolo Petrini is supplemented with 
a geographical discourse by Michele Angelo Petrini. The arms of the Pope in this 
are, Sharra con vna Serpe in Caiiqjo cVOro, sopra una rosa in Campo iVargtnto, 
gotto 4 Sharre a trauerso rosse in Camjjo d'arfjento. The first-mentioned Sbarra is 
a fess, the campo (Vargento a chief ; the lower half of the shield is engraved as if it 
were (in English blason) Gules, three bendlets agent. These were the arms of Pope 
Benedict XIII. {Ursird), 1721-1730. 

The arms of the Pope were evidently changed for every reign, but no other altera- 
tion appears to have been made for the several editions. 

' Menestrier, ut prius. 



76 



HISTORICAL AND 




Bralant. Ziimlomy.Luxetuiourj. ^lu/dreJ' 

Iff 









3fiv-- 








rtfteht. yjvTU^zauc: Jrfu>, Ovu/rcfid 



helm, crowned, and crested with a lion's head sable between a pair of 
wings or. 

Brahant. Sable, a lion rampant or. 

Limbourg. Argent, a lion rampant gules. 

Luxembourg. Barry of ten argent and azure, over all a lion rampant 
gules, armed, langiied, and crowned or. 

Gueldres. Azure, a lion rampant crowned or, contourne to an im- 
palement of Juliers, Or, a lion rampant sable crowned. 

Aras (Artois). Seme of France, a label of three pendents gules, 
each charged with three towers or (i. e. CastilU). This label however 
is not correctly shewn in the engraving. 

Hainaut. Quarterly of Flanders and Holland. 

Namur. Flanders^ surmounted by a bendlet gules. 

Hollande. Or, a lion rampant gules. 

Zelande. Per fess, in base wavy argent and azure, in chief oi', a 
lion naissant gules. 

Zutphen. Or, a lion rampant argent. 

Anuers. Gules, three towers in triangle, joined by walls, argent, 
masoned sable, in the dexter and sinister chief a head apaume proper, 



HERALDIC CARDS. 77 

one in bend, the other in bar (Aiigl. bend sinister), the whole sur- 
mounted by a chief of the Empire. 

Maliiies. Or, three pales gules, over all an escocheon of the Empire. 

Vtrecht. Tranche gules and argent. 

Groningue. Or, a double-headed eagle displayed sable (for the 
Empire), charged on the breast with an escucheon gules, bearing a foss 
argent (for Austria). But Groningen should be further distinguished 
by a chief azure charged with three estoiles argent. 

Frize. Azure, seme of tratti or billets couche or, two lions passant 
in pale of the same. 

Oueressel. The shield of Holland, debrized by a fess wavy azure. 

A pack of these cards is in the library of the British Museum 
(C. 31 a). It wants only the King of Hearts and the eight of 
Trefoils or Clubs. The armories are coloured. It is of the 
period of Pope Innocent XI. 1676-1689, as shown by his arms 
(Odeschalelii), which are thus blasoned : — 

Porte d'argent i\ six coupes couuertes de gueules, posees trois deux 
et un, entre trois filetes de meme mis en face, surmontes d'un lion 
leoparde ax;ssi de gueules, un chef cousu d'or charge d'un aigle esployee 
de sable. 

But the case in which this p^k is preserved is still more 
remarkable than the cards themselves. It is of ebony inlaid with 
ivory and woods, and fitted with clasps and hinges of chased 
steel. On the sides the inlaid materials represent these arms : — 

Two lion's jambs couped and crossed in saltire between an 
estoile of eight rays in chief and a fleur de lis in base. These 
are borne on a shield which is placed within these four letters : 

S 

T ]\I 

B 

We have not ascertained the name to which the arms on the 
case belonged. The family of Kasponi of Piome bore Azure, 
two lion's jambs crossed in saltire or; and Easpi of Venice had 
also lion's jambs in saltire, with a lion's head in chief and an 
eagle's leg in base. The letters, however, do not point to a name 
commencing with that initial. 

In 1682 the idea was adapted to the nobility of Venice by 
Casimir Freschot, a Benedictine. His production bears this title : 



78 HISTORICAL AND 

Li Pregi della Nohilta Veneta ahhozzati in un Giuoco cTArme di 
tutte le Famiglie. He acknowleges in liis preface that he had 
followed the plan of Brianville. For the four Kings he took the 
four dignities of the Pope, the Emperor, a King, and the Doge. 
For the Queens, the armories of Princesses and Provinces. For the 
Princes, the foreign nobility aggregated to that of Venice; for 
the Chevaliers, the Generals of the armies of the Repuhlic. The 
signs he adopted instead of Hearts, Spades, Diamonds, and Clubs, 
were four flowers, Violets, Roses, Lilies, and Tulips, on which he 
placed letters for the coat cards, and cyphers for the numbers. 
A copy of his book, including the plates (printed on paper), is 
in the Royal Library at the British ]\Iuseum (269 c. 31). 

It appears also from an advertisement of some Amsterdam 
booksellers so late as 1728, that the Heraldic as well as the 
Geographical and Historical games were copied in Dutch, but we 
have no particulars.' 

In England the plan of Brianville had been imitated very soon 
after his first publication. A pack, described by Chatto, dis- 
played the following armorial atchievements — the term Knave 
being converted into Prince, and designated by the initial P. 

King of Clubs — the Pope. 

Queen . . . King of Naples. 

Prince . . . Duke of Savoy. 

Ace .... Republics of Venice, Genoa, and Lucca. 

King of Spades — King of France. 

Queen . . . Sons of France, the Dauphin, Duke of 
Anjou, and Duke of Orleans. 

Prince . . . Princes of the Blood, the Dukes of Bour- 
bon, Barry, Vendome, and Alencon. 

Ace .... Ecclesiasticks Dukes and Peirs, Reims, 
Langres, Laon. 

King of Diamonds — King of Spain. 

Queen King of Portugal. 

Prince Castille and Leon. 

Ace Arragon. 

1 Taylor, p. 205. 



HERALDIC CARDS. 79 

King of Hearts — King of England. 
Queen . . . The Emperour. 
Prince . . . Bohemia and Hungary. 
Ace .... Poland. 

The date of these cards is closely determined by the arms of 
the Pope being those of Clement IX. (Quarterly or and azure, 
four lozenges counterchanged, Rospigliosi,) who was elected 20 
June 1667 and died 9 Dec. 1669. The card representing them, 
together with those of the Emperor, Castille and Leon, and the 
three French Ecclesiastical Dukes, are engraved in fac-simile in 
Chatto's work. 

In Tlie Ohservator, No. 239, for Feb. 12, 1686-7, are advertised 
" Cards, containing the Arms of the King, and all the Lords 
Spiritual and Tem.poral of England. Printed for John Nicholson, 
and sold by E. Evets, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Church- 
yard." 

Mr. Singer (at p. 218 of his History of Playing Cards) has 
misprinted the word " King" as Kings, conveying the idea of 
something more historical than a series of contemporary armories : 
but a copy of the title-page of this pack (from a copper-plate) 
happens to be preserved in the curious collections of Bagford at 
the British Museum,^ and it is satisfactory in identifying the 
production in question. We give a literal copy: — 

1688. 
{Royal Arms.) 

CARDS 

containing the Arms of the 

KING 

And all the LORDS 

Spirituall & Temporall 

OF ENGLAND. 



This may be printed 
Norfolke and Marshall. 

' Harl. MS. 5947, fol. 4. The date 1688, placed in small figures at top, was pro- 
bably inserted for a second edition. 



80 HISTORICAL AND 

It is supposed that these Cards, which thus appeared with the 
Imprimatur of the Earl Marshal, were edited by Gregory King, 
^^((lAfV j^yQT^ Somerset Herald; as "A Pack of Cards containing the 
Arms of the English Nobility. Lond. 1684," is attributed to 
him in Watt's Blhliotheca Britannica. No copy of them has 
been seen by any recent writer on the subject, but Chattoi be- 
lieved the pack to be the same which is thus briefly described by 
Menestrler.^ 

The four pips of Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs were all 
printed in black with their numbers in cypher by their side, and 
the Kings, Queens, and Princes were designated by the letters K., 
Q., and P. (as in the pi'eceding). For the four Kings were adopted 
the four kingdoms of wJiich the King of England bore the 
armories: England for the King of Hearts;^ Ireland for the King 
of Diamonds; France for the King of Spades; and Scotland for 
the King of Clubs. Upon the Queen of Hearts were given the 
arms of the Duke of York, afterwards James II. ; on the Queen 
of Diamonds those of Prince Rupert; on the Queen of Spades, 
those of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York ; and on the 
Queen of Clubs those of the Dukes of Norfolk, Somerset, and 
Buckingham. The aces were for Barons, as well as the twos, 
threes, and fours. The fives for Bishops, four together. The 
sixes, for Viscounts. The sevens, eights, nines, and tens for 
Earls. 

A pack of cards of Scotish Heraldry, lately in the possession of 
Mrs. Lee Warner, and now of her son-in-law Capt. W. E. G. L. 
Bulwer, of Quebec, East Dereham, was described by the Rev. G. H. 

' Origin and History of Playing Cards, 1848, p. 152. 

^ Bihiiotheque Curieuse et Instructive, ut prius. Should any of our readers be pre- 
pared to enable us to describe them more particularly, we shall esteem their doing so 
a particular favour. 

3 The association of the heart with loving affection makes the suit of Hearts naturally 
the favourite when used in a borrowed or metaphorical way. In one instance we find 
it applied politically to the unfortunate Charles I. In the Royal collection of News- 
papers and Pamphlets at the British Museum, vol. 7, art. 11, is a political piece, 
entitled " The Bloodij Game at Cards, As it was played betwixt the King of Hearts 
and the rest of His Suite against the residue of the packe of cards: wherein is dis- 
covered where faire play was plaied, and where was fowl. (^Woodcut of a King of 
Hearts.) Shuffled at London, Cut at Westminster, Dealt at Yorke, and Plaid in the 
open field, by the Citty-clubs, the country Spade-men, Rich-Diamond men, and 
Loyall Hearted men." 4to. pp. 8. It is dated in MS. Feb. 10, 1642(-3). 



HERALDIC CARDS. 81 

Dashwood, F.S.A. in the fifth vohime of the Norfolk Archaeology. 
It contains the armories of the Nobility of Scotland as they stood 
in the year 1691. The King of Hearts is accompanied by the 
arms of Scotland, and the other three Kings by those of England, 
France, and Ii'cland. The four Queen cards bear the arms of 
as many dukes; and the Princes those of the marquesses of 
Douglas, Graham, and Athol, together with the shields of three 
earls on the Prince of Diamonds. The other earls, sixty-five 
in number, occupy the tens, nines, eights, sevens, and sixes; and 
eighteen viscounts and fifty- three barons are distributed among 
the smaller cards.^ The wrapper displays, in two compartments, 
the official seal of Sir Alexander Araskin, of Cambo, Knight 
and Baronet, Lyon King of Arms, and the arms of the city of 
Edinburgh, with this title: — 

Phylarcharum Scotorum Gentilicia Insignia illus- 
trium a gualtero scot aurifice chartis lusoriis ex- 
PRESSA. ScuLPSiT Edinburgi. Anno Dom. CIO.IOC.XCI.2 

Four of these cards are represented in the annexed fac-simile 
engravings (first published in the Norfolk Archaology). 

The Queen of Clubs displays the atchievements of the 
Duke of Lennox and the Duchess of Buccleuch placed under 
one coronet, as if they had been man and wife. This, however, 
can only have been intended by the artist to refer to their enjoy- 
ing the same dignity in the peerage. The Duchess was the heiress 
of the old house of Scot, Earls of Buccleuch, and widow of the 
Duke of Monmouth. The Duke of Lennox's shield is further 
ensigned with the Garter, and the Duchess's with the cordeliere, 
then usual for widows in French heraldry, and occasionally adopted 
in our own island. A remarkable feature of the Lennox shield 

' The names are catalogued by Mr. Dashwood in the Norfolh Archeology. 

* In a copy of these Insignia in the library at Abbotsford Sir Walter Scott made a 
note, stating that one Walter Scott, goldsmith, of Edinburgh, was admitted into the 
fraternity of his craft in 1686, and another, using a similar signature, in 1701. On 
the 28th Aug. 1706, a daughter of v.mqukile Walter Scott was appointed to the Trades' 
Maiden Hospital; but the second of the name survived, being deacon of the incorpo- 
ration for the two years 1706-7 and 1707-8. (Taylor, p. 204, from a communication 
of John Stuart, esq. Sec. S. Ant. Soc.) Other copies are at Drummond Castle and 
in the library of David liaing, esq. at Edinburgh : and one was possessed by the late 
Benj. Nightingale, esq. and sold with his museum at Sotheby's in 1862. 

VOL. IIL G 



82 



HISTORICAL AND 





HERALDIC CARDS. 



83 





G 2 



84 HISTORICAL AND 

is, that the arms of Scotland, instead of those of France and 
England, are placed in the first and fourth quarters. This inode 
of marshalling the royal arms was then prevalent in Scotland, 
and has been maintained in some measure to more recent times ; 
but it could not be legally justified in the case of the Duke of 
Richmond and Lennox, whose arms had been granted and 
officially blasoned by the English college. 

The Prince or Spades presents the arms of Murray, Mar- 
quess of Athol, — in the first and fourth quarters Murray within a 
tressure, in the second and third Athol and Stuart quarterly: 
ensigned with the collar of the Thistle. 

The Deuce of Diamonds contains four Lords: — 

37. Falconer L. Hacherton.^ Azure, a crowned falcon displayed 
argent, charged on the breast with a heart gules, between three mullets 
of the second. 2 

38. Hamilton L. Belhaven. Gules, a sword erect proper between 
three cinquefoils argent. 

39. Sandilands L. Abercrombie. 1 and 4, Argent, a bend azure, for 
Sandilands ; 2 and 3, Argent, a heart gules, crowned or, on a chief 
azure three mullets of the field for Douglas. 

40. Carmichael L. Carmichael.^ Azure, sem^e de hs ermine, a heart 
gules, crowned of the second, for Douglas of Pittendriech (?); 2 and 3, 
Argent, a fess wreathy azure and gules for Carmichael. 

The AcE of Hearts also contains the shields of four Lords: — 

41. Sutherland L. Duffos. Gules, a boar's head erased between 
three mullets and three cross -crosslets fitchee or. (Composed of the 
coats of Sutherland, Gules, three stars or ; Chisholm, Gules, a boar's 
head erased argent; and Cheyne, Azure, three cross-crosslets fitchee 
argent ; which are marshalled quarterly, 1 and 4 Sutherland ; 2 Cheyne, 
and 3 Chisholm, in Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, by Wood.) 

' The eighth Lord Halkerton succeeded in 1778 to the earldom of Kintore, in 
which the former title has since been merged. 

* The arms given to the peers on those cards are in various respects different from 
those usually stated. Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (edit. Wood) places a mullet 
argent in the arms of Lord Belhaven instead of the sword. 

* Advanced to the earldom of Hyndford 1701. Lord Carmichael's ancestor, 
Sir John Carmichael (ob. 1600), married Margaret, daughter of Sir George Douglas 
of Pittendriech, sister of David, 7th Earl of Angus, and of James, Earl of Morton, 
Regent of Scotland. In addition to the crowned heart on an ermine field, Nisbet 
(i. 78) gives to the Pittendriech family a chief azure charged with three stars argent. 



HERALDIC CARDS. 85 

42. Rollo L. Rollo. Or, a chevron azure between three boar's 
heads erased sable. 

43. Colvil L. Colvil. 1 and 4, Argent, a cross moline sable ; 2 
and 3, Gules, a fess cheeky argent and azure, for Lindsay. 

44. Mackdonald L. Mackdonald. 1. Argent, a lion rampant gules ; 
2. Or, a dexter hand couped in fess proper holding a cross-crosslet 
fitchee gules ; 3. Or, a lymphad or galley sable ; 4. Vert, a salmon 
naiant proper, and a chief wavy argent. 

The company of Cardmakers of London was incorporated by 
letters patent of Charles the First, dated 22 Oct. 1629, by the 
name of The Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Mistery 
of the Makers of Playing- Cards of the City of London} In 1739 
it was governed by a Master, two AYardens, and eighteen As- 
sistants; but they had neither Livery, nor Hall to transact their 
affairs in.^ The arms assumed by them were, Gules, on a cross 
argent between four ace-cards proper, viz, the aces of Hearts and 
Diamonds in chief and those of Clubs and Spades in base, a 
lion passant guardant of the first. Crest, on a wreath an arm 
embowed in armour proper, the hand holding a heart. Motto : 
CORDI ERECTO STANT OMNEs'.'' Supporters, (as added in Ed- 
mondson's Complete Body of Heraldry, fol. 1780.), Two men in 
complete armour proper, garnished or, on each a sash gules. But 
we do not find these armorial insignia at all recorded in the Col- 
lege of Arms. 

At the end of a little book of City ceremonials, printed when 
Alderman Barber (1710-17 — ) was City printer, is a list of 
eighty-four companies then existing, of which the Cardmakers 
and the Fanmakers stand the last in rank.* In a similar list of 
ninety -three companies in the 1755 edition of Stowe's Survey the 
Cardmakers are No. 72, " no Hall nor Livery." When the Com- 
pany ceased we have not ascertained. 

The English manufacturers were continually annoyed by a 
large importation of foreign cards, and it is stated that in 1631 
(only two years after the incorporation of the Company) the 

' Pat. 4 Car. p. 22, m. 6. 

2 Maitland, Hist, of London, 1739, p. 603. Edit. 1775. p. 1243. 
' We give tlie third word by conjecture: not having been able to find the motto 
except in Maitland, where it is misprinted erau. 
'' Seymour, Survey of London, ii. 413. 



86 



THE CARD COMPANIES OF FRANCE. 



King created a monopoly for purchasing all cards, and selling 
them out at an advanced price.' In 1638 it was ordered by 
proclamation that cards imported should be sealed in London and 
packed in new bindings or covers. In 1684 the price of a pack 
of cards in England was four-pence, which is double that men- 
tioned by Koger Ascham in 1545. In the reign of Queen Anne? 
according to Mr. Chatto, they had become much cheaper, not 
more than a penny, — the wholesale price, one pack with another, 
being only three-halfpence. There were then about a hundred 
cardmakers in and about London, who consumed annually 
40,000 reams of Genoa paper. 

The Cardmakers of Paris formed a guild, calling themselves 
tarotiers, in the sixteenth century. There is a code of their 
statutes dated 1594. By an ordonnance of the 22d May, 1583, 
the tax of un sou Parisis was laid on every pack intended for 












THIERS. TOULOUSE. . ROUEN. 

' Macpherson, Annals of Commerce, i. 679. 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 87 

home use. By another ordonnance 14 Jan. 1605, the exporta- 
tion of cards was prohibited ; and, for the easier collection of the 
duty, it was determined that the manufacture should be limited 
to the towns of Paris, Rouen, Lyons, Toulouse, Troyes, Limoges, 
and Thiers in Auvergne. Shortly afterwards the like privilege 
was accorded to Orleans, Angers, Romans, and Marseilles; and, 
by way of recompence to other places, it was arranged that the 
revenue should be expended in the encouragement of manufac- 
tures. Subsequently, in 1751, it was devoted to the support of 
the Ecole Militaire.^ The trade in 1847 was carried on by 129 
makers, of whom sixteen were in Paris, employing 263 men, 
women, and children. In that year the stamp was placed on 
5,555,807 packs, — an amount reduced 32 per cent, in the year 
following, in consequence of the population then finding employ- 
ment for the time which they had ))efore been spending in mere 
amusement." 

In common with other trading communities of the middle 
ages the Card Companies of France assumed armorial insignia; 
which were designed in very appropriate fashion, as will be seen 
by the annexed cuts, extracted from the recent work of Mr. 
Taylor. By the names it is evident that other towns obtained 
the privilege of the manufacture, besides those which we have 
mentioned on the authority of Chatto. 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 



A History of the Clanna-Rory, or Rudricians, descendants of Roderick the Great, 
Monarch of Ireland : compiled from the ancient records in the libraries of 
Trinity College and the Royal Irish Academy, from our native Annals, the pub- 
lications of several learned Societies, and other reliable sources. By Richard 
F. Cronnelly, Constabulary Reserve Force. To which is added, by way of Ap- 
pendix, a paper on the Authorship of the " Exile of Erin," by a Septuagenarian. 
Dublin, 1864. 8vo. pp. 135. (Price ISd.) 

A History of the Clan Eoghan or Eoghanachts, descendants of Eoghan More or Eu- 
gene the Great, compiled from all the accessible sources of Irish Family History. 
By Richard F. Cronnelly, Irish Constabulary Force. Dublin, 1864. 8vo, pp^ 
xii. 137-267. (Price ISrf.) 

It may be observed by the pagination which we have noted above, 
that these two publications, though bearing distinct title-pages, form 
' Chatto, p. 271. ' - Taylor, p. 246.. 



88 IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

Parts I. and II. of a work intended to be continuous, under the title of 
Irish Family History. The Introductory essay which is prefixed to 
the second of them offers some home thrusts, in answer to those who 
are inclined to cavil at what they may hastily regard as the visionary 
genealogies of the Irish and the Welsh. It is remarked with some 
show of truth that the extremely mixed race of which the modern 
English are composed, having lost the history of their remote ancestry, 
are prone to discredit such claims as they cannot advance on their own 
account. The shades of Hengist and Cerdic, of Creoda and Uffa, have 
faded (it is asserted) from men's sight, and are lost amongst the ruins 
of fallen kingdoms. The Saxon noble and the Saxon churl are alike 
untraceable : their generations were never recorded ; they were swept 
from mortal ken by the Normans. With the Celts of Wales and of 
Ireland it has been different. Giraldus Cambrensis, in the twelfth 
century, wrote of them: " Generositatem vero, et generis nobilitatem, 
prje rebus omnibus magis appetunt; unde et generosa conjugia plus 
longe cupiunt quam sumptuosa vel opima. Genealogiam quoque generis 
sui etiam de populo quilibet observat, et non solum avos, atavos, sed 
usque ad sextam vel septimam et ultra procul generationem memoriter 
et prompte genus enarrat. Genus itaque super omnia diligunt, et 
damna sanguinis et dedecoris ulciscuntur." Four centuries later the 
like observations were made by Sir Warham St. Leger: "As there is 
nothinge (he remarked) that the Irishe more esteme than the Nobilitie 
of bloud, preferringe it farre before eyther vertue or wealth, so abhorre 
they nothinge more than disparagement, more odious unto them than 
death." And now (adds the writer before us) after a further lapse of 
three centuries, the Irish are still apt to think it something for a poor 
man to have in his veins — and they are indulgent even if he boast of it 
— the blood of Heber Fionn, of Ir, of Heremon, or of Ith. 

To meet a sentiment so generally diffused among the people at large, 
a work in a popular and accessible shape like the present is well suited. 
To all their countrymen the patriotism, the valour, the learning, and 
the piety of Irishmen of bye-gone ages are an inheritance, and therefore 
to all are these sketches, genealogical, historical, and biographical, pre- 
sumed to be acceptable : but in an especial manner must they be dear 
to those families in whose veins still runs the blood of those saints and 
heroes whose pedigrees are commemorated. It is remarked in another 
page that even the pedigrees of the Norman colonists were more care- 
fully kept in Ireland than those of their kinsmen and contemporaries 
who remained in England : of which as examples are cited the genea- 
logies of the Fitz-Geralds, the Butlers, the De Courcys, the Barrys, and 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 89 

the Roches. We need not therefore be surprised that the genealogies 
of the native Irish chieftains were preserved with affectionate care. " The 
scrnpulous accuracy with which every individual was placed at birth, 
and withdrawn at death, on and from the Sept Roll, owed its origin, 
not merely to the Celtic reverence for blood, but to a motive of worldly 
prudence, which to our English readers will appear more natural. That 
the ancient Irish (said the late learned Dr. O'Donovan,) should have 
been careful to preserve their genealogies need not be a matter of sur- 
prise; and that these are perfectly authentic may be expected, as they 
were entered on the local books of pedigrees, and preserved in the poems 
of family or hereditary bards. Those of the lowest rank among a great 
tribe traced and retained the whole line of theii- descent with the same 
care which in other nations was peculiar to the rich and great ; for it 
was from his own genealogies that each man of the tribe, poor as well 
as rich, held the charter of his civil state, the right of property in the 
cantred in which he was born, the soil of which was occupied by one 
family or clan, and in which no one lawfully possessed any portion of 
the soil if he was not of the same race as the chief. This was also the 
case with the Welsh." {Miscellany of the Celtic Societii, p. 144.) 

We will now describe briefly how Mr. Cronnelly has arranged his 
account of 1. the descendants of Roderick the Great; and 2. the 
descendants of Eugene the Great. 

Commencing " at the beginning," he first gives the genealogy from 
Adam, by fifty generations, to Rughraidhe Mor, or Roderick the Great, 
born A.M. 3352, and who, having reigned over Ireland for thirty years, 
died at Rath-beagh, on the Nore, in the county of Ealkenny, in the 
80th year of his age. It was some fifteen generations earlier that Ir 
the son of Milesius had led his colonists to the land of Erin from the 
shores of Gallicia. 

The families which claim descent from Roderick Mor are introduced 
by Mr. Cronnelly in the following order : — 

1. Magennis, " the senior family of the illustrious Irian or Rudrician 
race." The last notable chieftain of this name was Hugh Magennis, 
who died in 1595 ; but several of the race distinguished themselves in 
the army of James the Second, and afterwards shared the hard fortune 
of the Irish Brigade. Some of them were Colonels and Chefs de 
Bataillon in the service of France, and three became Knights of St. 
Louis. It is added that " The unhappy Dr. Magennis, who was com- 
mitted for the murder of Mr. Hardy in June, 1783, was a senior repre- 
sentative of this family." Here " committed" is, we presume, a mis- 



90 IRISH FAMILY HISTORT. 

print for convicted: his trial and conviction took place at the Old 
Bailey in London, on the 17th Jnne, 1783, and is very fully reported 
in The Gentleman's Magazine of that month, pp. 75-79.1 It is there 
stated that " The son of the unhappy Dr. Magennis's brother takes the 
title of Lord Viscount Iveahof the kingdom of Ireland, but, on account 
of some old outlawry, the title is not acknowledged by the House of 
Peers. The last Lord Iveah, whose family name was Magennis, and 
who sat in Parliament, was godson to King William III., and, what is 
not a little remarkable, was murdered," — the story of which is added. 

In our own times, commercial enterprise and a princely munificence 
have won a world-wide reputation for this ancient name, under a some- 
what abbreviated form, for Mr. Cronnelly further states that 

" Benjamin Lee Guinness, Esq., is one of the representatives of this ancient and 
once powerful Sept ; but his pedigree is not yet satisfactorily traced." 

2. O'MoRE, — in Irish Mordha, and in English Moore. Mordha, 
from whom the name is derived, was thirty-first in descent from Rode- 
rick ; and there are records of many distinguished O' Mores, from the 
date 1016, when Geathin O'More, a chieftain of Leix, was slain. 

The famous Rory O'More of song and story was the head of the 
insurrectionists of 1641. His confederate chiefs Lord Maguii-e and 
MacMahon, being taken prisoners, were brought to England, and hung 
at Tyburn. O'More buried himself in the woods of Ballyna, where he 
soon after died. This was the last of the native chieftains of Leix who 
wielded much power : but after his death the leadership of the Sept 
was assumed by Lewis O'More, a Colonel of the Catholic confedera- 
tion ; whose great-grandson James O'More of Ballyna was father of 
Letitia married to Richard O'Ferrall, grandfather of the present Right 

• Mr. John Hardy was a hosier in Newgate Street, with whom Dr. Magennis 
lodged, and the fatal event occurred during an accidental domestic fracas. Dr. 
Daniel Magennis was a man of threescore years of age ; had been an army surgeon, 
and had seen much service in the West Indies. The position in which his sudden 
violence had placed him excited great commiseration, for he had many friends of 
distinction who could speak to his character for humanity and gentleness of dispo- 
sition. As witnesses to these qualities there came forward at the trial Mr. Daniel 
Shiel, a West India merchant, who had known him for twelve years in Jamaica, Lord 
Viscount Barrington, the Earl of Effingham, Major-Gen. Murray an uncle of the 
Duke of Athol, no less a man than Edmund Burke, Major Fleming who had known 
him for seventeen years, Mr. Alderman Sawbridge, and Governor Nugent of Tortola. 
The judge (Willes) would not hear of an acquittal, and the jury, to the surprise of 
the auditory, brought a verdict of Wilful Murder instead of Manslaughter. The Re- 
corder in passing sentence declared he had never felt so much pain and affliction. 
Qii. Was the sentence carried into execution ? 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 91 

Hon. Richard More O'Ferrall of Ballyna. Of this family we observe 
that the modern genealogy may be seen in Burke's Landed Gentry. 

3. O'Cronnelly. The families of this name in Ulster and Con- 
naught derive themselves from Cronghilla, who died in 935, and who 
was in the eleventh generation from Conal, 29th in descent (in M'Gen- 
nis's pedigree) fi'om Roderick the Great. This Conal Cearnach, or the 
Victorious, left his name to the Conaille Murtheimhne, a large division 
of the ijrovince of Ulster, afterwards occupied by his descendants. 
There were also Cronnellys of Munster, but of a different race. 

Our genealogist (p. 25) claims as an offshoot of the O'Cronnellys 
Thomas Cranley, archbishop of Dublin, and lord chancellor of Ireland, 
temp. Rich II. He says that 

" Upon the defeat of the Ultonians in 1177, one of the chiefs of the family under 
notice was given as a hostage for the future fealty of the Conaille to the De Courcy, 
by whom he was sent to England, where he became the ancestor of the Cranleys of 
Cranley ; one of whom, a Carmelite friar, was elected Archbishop of Dublin, in 1397, at 
the instance of Richard II. This prelate came to Ireland in the following year, and was 
appointed Lord Chancellor by King Richard, who sent his protege on a mission to 
the continent, and furnished him with letters of protection. He died at Farrington in 
England [Faringdon in Berkshire], on the 25th of May 1417, and was buried with 
great solemnity in the New College, Oxford, where a fair stone, adorned with brass 
plates, bearing the figure of a bishop clothed in his sacred vestments, was placed over 
his remains." 

The fine sepulchral brass of Cranley, who was one of the wardens of 
New College, is well known: it has been engraved in the works of 
Gough, Waller, and Boutell. But we must demur to his being affili- 
ated to the Cronnellys. We have places named Cranley both in Surrey 
and in Suffolk, from one of which the archbishop more probably derived 
his name and origin. 

It is admitted that the O'Cronnellys sank into comparative obscimty 
at an early period of Irish history ; but, having settled in the county 
of Galway, they became through an heiress the coarbs or representatives 
of St. Grellan, the patron saint of the race of Colla da Crich, whose 
crozier was borne on the standards of the princes of Hy-Many, as is 
told in the Book of Lecain. " This crozier (says Dr. O' Donovan, writing 
in 1843,) was preserved for ages in the family of O'Cronghaile or 
O'Cronnelly, who were the ancient Comorbas of the saint. It was in 
existence so late as 1836, being then in the possession of a poor man 
named John Cronelly, who lived near Ahascra, in the east of the county 
of Galway." It is supposed to have been sold to some collector of anti- 
quities, in which case it may probably still be recovered and identified. 
The arms of Cronnelly are tAvo croziers in saltire. 



92 IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

Daniel O'Cronnelly, called Donal Buidhe or the yellow, was an officer 
in the army of Charles the First, and fought on the field of Edgehill 
and at Marston Moor. He is said also to have been at Worcester with 
Charles the Second ; after which he repaired to his ancestral home at 
Killeenan near Rahasane, co. Galway, where he died about 1659, and 
was buried in the now ruined church of Kileely. 

Intending to return to this important work, we close our review for 
the present with the following passage, at the end of which the author 
has introduced a very modest allusion to himself: 

" According to a tradition in the family, the O'Cronnellys possessed the greater por- 
tion of the parish of Killeenen, together with the lands of Lavally, Ballynasteage, and 
Kileely, all in the barony of Dunkellin and county of Galway. These, however, have 
long since passed into other and various hands ; and the lineal descendant of Matu- 
dhan, prince of Crich Cualgne, and of Donal of the Moor, holds the initiatory grade 
in the Irish Constabulary Force." 

(To be continued.) 



The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of Great Britain and Ireland, for 

1865, including all the Titled Classes. Twenty-fifth year. By Robert 

P. DoD, Esq. 12mo. pp. 770. (Price IO5. 66?.) 
Debrett's Illustrated Peerage, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 

and Ireland. 1865. 12mo. pp. xxxvi. 504. (Price 7s.) 
Debrett's Illustrated Baronetage and Knightage, of the United Kingdom 

of Great Britain and Ireland. 1865. 12mo. pp. xxxii. 504. (Price 7s.) 
These books being offered to our critical notice on the same day, and 
being compiled with the same aim and object, it is impossible to estimate 
them fairly without taking a comparative view of them : more particularly 
as they are now much more nearly assimilated in form and arrangement 
than they have ever been before. In the long review ' which we presented 
last year of the whole series of this class of literature, past and present, we 
pointed out the change that had taken place in all successively having 
adopted the alphabetical form of arrangement, instead of that of rank and 
precedence, so as to furnish the ready reference of a dictionary without 
the intervention of an index. This plan has evidently been found useful 
and convenient, and is now carried out more entirely than ever. 

The work of Captain Dod (whose premature death has recently occurred) 
has reached its twenty-fifth year, and is as closely compacted a manual of 
many thousand facts as the number of pages above mentioned could well 
be made to contain. It has arrived at this stage of completeness by the 
continued labour and attention of many years, and the new Editor is 
evidently impressed with the importance of maintaining that character 

' Vol. II. pp. 3^8-363. , 



debrett's peerage and baronetage. 93 

which Captain Dod so diligently acquired for accuracy and alacrity in 
recording every change incidental to the public or private lives of the 
subjects of the work. The leading articles of the book, in its first alpha- 
betical arrangement, consist, not only of the Peers, Baronets, and Knights (of 
various orders), but also of the Privy Councillors, the Bishops (Irish, Scotish, 
and Colonial,) the Lords of Session, the Widows of Baronets and Knights, 
&c. In its second Part are contained the Junior Nobility bearing Courtesy 
Titles ; with various tabular lists. Its further merits have been described 
at p. 358 of our last volume. 

The two other volumes before us are really a new work on a similar plan, 
though they bear the name of one who had attained great popularity for 
works of the kind before the first appearance of Dod. We have related in 
the article before referred to, how that the Peerage and Baronetage of 
Debrett were formerly the standard manuals of the London booksellers, 
before their domain was invaded by " Lodge " or " Burke." The numerous 
editions of Debrett's Peerage are enumerated in our vol. ii. p. 352, the first 
having appeared in 1802, and the last in 1849; and in p. 354 those of his 
Baronetage, fji -rnhxch the first appeared in 1804, and the last in 1840. The 
revival of Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage, in 1864, was noticed in 
pp. 272, 355 ; and now we have to describe the expansion of that book into 
two, one a Peerage and the other a Baronetage, as in the days of old. 

The arrangement of Debrett's Peerage is now as follows : — 

After twenty-four pages occupied with an account of the Royal Family, 
historical and actual, the Peers of the three Kingdoms are arranged in one 
alphabet. This includes a genealogical account of all the living members 
of every family, omitting those that are deceased ; accompanied by a list of 
the several creations of peerage that each enjoys, and the blason of their 
armorial insignia, which is illustrated by the woodblocks engraved for the 
former editions of Debrett (with the additions made necessary by new 
creations). Of the blason we may remark that its perspicuity is considerably 
impaired by a superfluity of punctuation. 

The alphabet of Peers is interspersed by all the inferior dignities of 
peerage that are merged in others. This is very well, so far as regards the 
Courtesy Titles which are personally borne by sons or grandsons ; but it 
would be better to confine the entries to that limit, perhaps with those 
by right of which peers of Scotland or L-eland sit in the House of Lords, 
the rest being otherwise given as we have already stated. Another pre- 
sumed improvement that we still less appreciate is the insertion of the 
names of livings of which the peers are patrons. There is nothing of 
personal importance (except to clerks expectant) in this information. Some 
account of their estates or mansions would be more to the purpose, though 
perhaps not so readily procured, nor brought into available dimensions. 

After this main division of the book, there follow, — 1. The Lords 
Spiritual : Archbishops and Bishops in alphabetical arrangement ; the 
Bishops in Scotland, the Colonial Bishops, and Retired Bishops, each ar- 



94 debrett's peerage and baronetage. 

ranged in like manner; and succeeded by a list of the Chaplains in Ordinary 
to the Queen, — we presume because some of them may be Bishops in em- 
bryo; 2. An alphabetical list of such Younger Sons of Peers, as either are 
married, or hold appointments in the army or navy, or learned professions, 
or have obtained degrees and distinctions in the universities ; 3. A similar 
list of the Married Daughters of Peers ; 4. A biographical list of the 
Judicial Bench, accompanied by engravings of their armorial bearings. 
The last is certainly a novel feature in a Peerage, — except that the Judges, 
as knights, have been included in Dod's book. Their marriages are given, 
but why not also their parentage ? For the Bishops we are presented with 
their parentage, and not only their marriages, but their children also, which 
is something quite new. After these, follow mere nominal lists of the 
Privy Council, of Baronets, (might they not now be omitted from the 
Peerage ?) Ambassadors, the Royal Households, and Convocation. Lastly, 
twenty-seven pages on Heraldic Distinctions and Armorial Bearings; and 
fifteen on the Orders of Knighthood. 

The companion volume of Debrett's Baronetage and Knightage corre- 
sponds in the main with the Peerage, and is illustrated in like manner with 
wood engravings of armorial bearings. The preliminary matter as to the 
Royal Family and to titles, orders, and degrees of peerage, precedence, and 
dignity, appears to belong, on the whole, rather to the former volume. One 
great oversight that we notice is that the Baronets of Nova Scotia (or of 
Scotish families before the Union), though included, are not specially dis- 
tinguished, nor are their armorial bearings charged with their appropriate 
badge. As is so usual in Scotland, they generally boast supporters. 

The biographical Knightage occupies rather more than fifty pages of the 
latter part of the volume : it includes marriages, like Dod's, but not 
children. Of the final pages, six are occupied by accounts of the several 
orders of Knighthood, and nominal lists of their members ; and then lists are 
also inserted of the present Sheriffs and of the House of Commons. 

From the description we have now given, it will be perceived that these 
" Debretts " are very different from those of former days ; for they con- 
tained genealogical histories of the families, as the work of Burke does now, 
whilst the present manuals are confined to living members, after the plans 
of Lodge and Dod. They are really new works, both in form and substance, 
adapted to the old name. We should have much more to say upon details, 
did not our limits now confine us to general criticism. We shall therefore 
only add, for the present, that whilst we consider Captain Dod's book one 
of the highest merit, as a compact aggregation of biograj)hical facts, we 
think there may be room for genealogical manuals arranged on the plan 
formed by the new Editor of Debrett, and it is evident that to some people, 
both as regards price and convenience, they will be more acceptable than 
the very ponderous and gigantic tomes we have elsewhere described as 
genealogical encyclopedias. We hope therefore that he may be encouraged 
to bring his books to a state of further completeness in future years. 



LIST OF COUNTY COURT JUDGES. 95 

List of County Court Judges. Note on the Abolition of certain Fran- 
chise Gaols. London: C. W. Reynell, Little Pulteney-street. 1865. 
Royal 8vo. pp. 50. 

This pamphlet, though neithei* heraldic nor genealogical, has a claim on 
our notice as a valuable contribution to legal biography. The List of 
Judges of the County Courts contains 103 names, with the dates of their 
appointments and of being called to the bar, and particulars of their other 
preferments and professional productions and performances. At thefirstinsti- 
tution of the County Courts in 1847, fifty-four Judges were appointed by Lord 
Chancellor Cottenham, and six by the Earl of Carlisle as Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster. The remaining forty-three have supplied the subse- 
quent vacancies occasioned by deaths or resignations. To this list are 
appended Notes on the subjects of precedence, salaries, the amount of busi- 
ness in the several courts (of which some statistical tables are presented), 
and other matters of interest; and, finally, a relation. How certain Franchise 
Gaols came to he abolished. These lingering " Franchise prisons," which 
were abolished by an Act passed in 1858, were : 1, Swansea Debtors' 
Prison for the Liberty of Gower ; 2, the Prison of the Liberty of Newark 
for Debtors ; 3, Halifax Home Gaol for the Manor of Wakefield ; 4, the 
Gaol for the Forest and Forest Liberty of Knaresborough, belonging to the 
Duchy of Lancaster ; 5, the Gaol for the Borough and Township of Knares- 
borough, also belonging to that Duchy ; 6, Sheffield Debtors' Gaol, for the 
Liberty of Hallamshire ; and 7, Hexham Debtors' Prison. The steps which 
led to their abolition are stated to have originated at Swansea, first in a 
report made by Mr. Perry, Inspector of Prisons, in 1853; and subsequently, 
after the matter had been impeded by the death of the late and the cold- 
ness of the present Duke of Beaufort, by a more energetic remonstrance 
made in Jan. 1858 by Thomas Falconer, esq. Judge of the County Court of 
Glamorganshire. From this portion of the pamphlet, and from others, we 
gain our information of its author : the same gentleman whose writings on 
the law respecting Changes of Name we have before brought before our 
readers. Mr. Falconer has held the post of County Court Judge at 
Swansea from Dec. 1851. 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 

Browne. — Are the Brownes of Elsing, co. Norfolk, extinct in the male 
line ? In The Fasten Letters (Ramsay's ed. vol. i. pp. 33, 64, vol. ii. pp. 
124, 130, 137,) it appears that there were Brownes in Norfolk before the 
line founded by William Browne's marriage with the heiress of Hastings of 
Elsing. There have been Sir William Browne, knt. M.D. of King's Lynn, 
founder of Cambridge University prizes. J. Browne of Halveyate, John 
Browne of Tacolnestone [Morley Hall] and William Helsham Candler 
Brown of St. Mary Hall, Lynn. Were these of the Elsing family ? One 
line of which, if not the family, is represented by the Batts and Astleys. 

Hobart Town. Justin Browne. 



I 



96 GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 

SiE Thomas Fortescue. Elizabeth eldest dau. of Ferdinando Gary is 
said to have married, 1st, Francis Staunton of co. Salop, esq. and 2nd Sir 
Thomas Fortescue. Who was the latter ? C. J. R. 

Prideaux. la collecting information for a more detailed pedigree of the 
Prideaux family than any yet published, I met with a statement that one of 
the name named Arthur Prideaux, of Lusan in the parish of Ermington, 
Devon, did for some time assume the name and arms of Parnell in com- 
pliance with the will of his maternal uncle, Nicholas Parnell of Lyons, gent. 
This Arthur Parnell was born about 1710. I wish to ascertain where or 
how I can confirm this statement ; also what were the armorial bearings of 
Parnell that he assumed. George Prideaux. 

Stanley. Who was Sir Hastings Stanley, knight, and to what family 
did he belong ? 

The will of "Dame Ellinor Stanley, widow, late wife of Sir Hastings 
Stanley, knt. deceased," is dated 7th June, 1614, and proved at York 11th 
March, 1615. She desires to be buried in the church of Haitefield, men- 
tions her sons Hastings and Piercie, and her loving brother Mr. Bartholo- 
mew Fletcher. C. J. 

[We do not find the name of Sir Hastings Stanley either in the list of 
Queen Elizabeth's knights or among those of James I. Edit. H. & G.] 

Thompson. I am told that, in some heraldric work or MS. of Legh, the 
Lancashire topographer, the following coat occurs : 

" Per fesse embattled argent and sable, three falcons, belled, counter- 
changed, a canton gules. Crest, a demi-ounce erminois, collared, lined, and 
ringed azure. Motto, optima est Veritas." 

In what book or MS. of Legh, is this coat likely to be found ? I believe 
it is assigned to the family of Thompson, but to which branch, or where 
resident, I cannot ascertain Lancastriensis. 

In Burke's General Armo7-y this coat and crest are assigned to Thompson 
of Yorkshire. [Edit. H. & G.] 

Weston. I require the following particulars concerning Benjamin 
Weston, youngest son of Kichard 1st Earl of Portland. 

The dates of his marriages (according to Burke he was twice married). 

When and where he died, and if he left any issue. 

It appears from Hutchins's History of Dorsetshire (new edition, vol. i. 
p. 32) that he was admitted a burgess of Poole, as " Benj. Weston, esq. son 
of the Lord Treasurer of England," Aug. 26th, 1630, and the name of 
Weston occurs after that time pretty frequently in the list of the Mayors of 
Poole up to the middle of the last century. C. H. 

By Banks, Dormant and Extinct Baronage, 4to. 1809, iii. 609, he is men- 
tioned as Bt^njamin, who married Elizabeth widow of Charles Earl of 
Anglesey, and daughter of Thomas Sheldon, of Haixley, in co. Leic. esq., 
but we do not find him named in Lodge's Irish Peerage as the Countess's 
second husband. [Edit. H. & G.] 



THE EFFIGY ATTRIBUTED TO GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE, 
AND THE OTHER EFFIGIES IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 

FuiMUS Troes. 

When the inns of court, and particularl^Jfrthe Temple, formed 
an university for the youthful nobility of England, and when 
many an important transaction or serious consultation took place 
beside the pillars of the Eound Church,^ the cross-legged knights 
which lie in that remarkable area continually attracted the vague 
curiosity, and the extravagant conjectures, of those who were 
waiting to fulfil their appointments or loitering in mere idleness. 

Hentzner, who visited England in 1598, gives vent to the 
amusing speculation that they were the figures of the Danish 
monarchs who once reigned in England. 

It was a curiosity that was not readily satisfied, for it happened 
that no authentic information had been handed down for the due 
appropriation of these monuments of the prse-legal days of the 
Temple. To two or three only, of the whole, were names 
assigned by Camden, Stowe, and Weever, and the various London 
topograpliers who followed in their train. 

In more recent times a name not mentioned by those authors 
has been attached to one of these effigies, which has thereby 
been raised into a position of such importance, in regard to the 
archaeology of coat-armour, that it has especially suggested the 
present investigation. 

This effigy has been assigned to Geoffrey de Magnaville, who 
was advanced to the earldom of Essex by King Stephen and the 

' " Item, they have no place to walk in, and talk and confer their learnings, but 
in the Church ; which all the terme times hath in it no more quietness than the 
Pervyse of Pawles, by occasion of the confluence and concourse of such as are suiters 
in the law." Description of the state of the Middle Temple in Cotton MS. Vitellius 
C. IX. f. 320 a. attributed to the reign of Henry VIII. by Dugdale, in Origines Juri- 
diciales, p. 193. Nor was it otherwise two centuries later, when Hudibras was 
advised to 

Retain all sorts of witnesses 

That ply i' th' Temples, under trees, 

Or walk the Round with knights o' th' poste. 

Among the cross-hffffed kniyhts, their hosts. 
VOL. III. H 



98 EFFIGY ATTRIBUTED TO GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE 

Empress Maud, and wlio died in 1144. Dallaway, writing in 
the year 1793, thus introduces it: — 

" By many antiquaries the precise era of the introduction of Arms 
into England is ascertained to have been in 1147, when the second 
Croisade was undertaken. It is obserred by Mr. Gough, in his very 
accurate and judicious researches, that arms scul^Dtured on the shield 
of Geoffry de Magnaville Earl of Essex in the Temple Church, who 
died in 1144, are the earliest which have yet been discovered." In- 
quiries into the Origin and Progress of the Science of Heraldry in 
England, p. 30. 

And again, more vaguely and indelinitely, — 

" It has been already observed, that the first instances of the sculpture 
of Arms upon the effigies placed as sepulchral monuments, now remain 
in the Temple Church, of the date of 1144." (Ibid. p. 105.) 

The dictum thus asserted so positively by Dallaway has been 
adopted more or less decidedly by many subsequent writers, how 
far accurately or judiciously it is the object of the following pages 
to ascertain. Among others, Mrs. Ogborne,^ who published 
in 1815 the first portion of an intended History of Essex, placed 
as a vignette on the engraved title a representation of this &^gj, 
thus inscribed : — 

Geofrey de Mandevile \st Earl of Essex, created hy K. Stephen 
W^Q, founder of Walden Ahhey, Buried in the Temple Church 
London, the first instance of Armorial Bearings on a Sepidchral 
figure in Ejigland. 

When the late Sir Harris Nicolas began to search for the most 
ancient records of English armory, and could discover none of an 

' Elizabeth Ogborne was the daughter of a physician of eminence and the wife of 
Mr. John Ogborne engraver. Her book, which is of some value for the Church Notes, 
and is illustrated with several portraits and other interesting plates, forms only a thin 
quarto volume, stopping short with the history of twenty-two parishes. As there is 
no Index to the book we will give an alphabetical list of them, with the pages at 
which each will be found: Barking 37; Chigwell 237; Chingford 219; Dagenham 
57; Eastham 29; Epping 204; Havering 101; Hornchurch 138; Little Ilford 33; 
Leyton 76; Loughton 252; Nazing 226; Ongar 235; Romford 122; Theydon Bois 
259; Theydon Gernon 261; Theydon Mount 272; Waltham 163; Walthamstow 83; 
Wansted 65; Westham 15; Woodford 71. Mr. Ogborne died at an advanced age, a 
pensioner of the National Benevolent Institution, Nov. 13, 1837; his widow survived, 
and died, also a pensioner of that charity. 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 99 

earlier date than the reign of Henry the Third, he was met by 
this piece of apparently conflicting evidence, and he thus noticed 
it in his preface (written in 1829') to the Rolls of Arms of the 
reigns of Henry HI. and Edward III. at p. xxii.: 

" Considerable doubt has been entertained as to the period when 
Heraldiy was introduced; and it has been conjectured that if the 
science was known it was not generally adopted in this country until 
the reign of Richard the First. Arms, it is true, occur on the tomb of 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, who died in 1148 [1144], but 
this monument may not have been erected until some years after his 
death." 

In 1845 Mr. ]\I. A. Lower, ^ in his Curiosities of Heraldry, p. 
40, still maintained the opinion, upon the authority of this effigy, 
that " Anns upon tombs are found so early as 1144;" but later 
authors have generally accompanied the introduction of this 
example with some scruples. Thus, in Parker's Glossary of 
Heraldry, 8vo. 1847, under the head of Escarbuncle : — 

" The escarbuncle appears in perhaps the earliest remaining example 
of armorial bearings in England, upon the shield of Geoffry de Magna- 
ville, or Mandeville, Earl of Essex, in the Temple church, London. 
He died 1144. It is, however, doubted whether the effigy is older 
than 1185, the date of the consecration of the church." 

And Mr. Planche, in The Pursuivant of Arms, 1852, p. 129: — 
" In like manner the arms of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, 
are said to have been Quarterly or and gules, over all an escarbuncle 
sable ; but a comparison of the shield 3 of the effigy in the Temple 
church, with that of William Earl of Flanders ^ and others of the same 
period, will convince you that the Escai'buncle did not become an 
heraldic charge till its use as a clamp became unnecessary from the 
alteration of the shape of the shield." 

' Two years earlier, in an article in the Retrospective Review, New Series, vol. i. 
p. 92, Sir Harris Nicolas had expressed himself to the effect that the effigy in question 
" is perhaps the earliest instance which exists of the use of armorial bearings in this 
country." 

■■^ A woodcut copied from one of Mr. Edward Richardson's profiles of the effigy is 
prefixed to Mr. Lower's preface, but the scale of the diapering on the shield is so far 
magnified as to lose mucli of its due effect. 

•* A cut of the shield accompanies these remarks. It was not, however, made with 
an eye to Mr. Richardson's drawings, and consequently does not show the dancettes. 

* Engraved in Sandford's Genealogical History of EnrjJand, after O. Vredius. 

IT 2 



100 EFFIGY ATTRIBUTED TO GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE 

Lastly, Mr. Boutell, in his Heraldry, Historical and Popular, 
(Third edit. 1864, p. 41), also when mentioning " the Carbuncle 
or Escarbuncle": — 

" It aj/pears upon the shield of Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, 
in the Q^^j attributed to him in the Temple Church, the date being 
about A.D. 1160 [qu. whence this date?]. This example, however, is 
earlier than the period in which any peculiar charges can be considered 
to have assumed definite and recognised forms." 

By none of these writers is any suspicion expressed that the 
effigy in question might not really be that of the first Geoffrey de 
Magnaville, Earl of Essex; though it is now evident that such 
appropriation was altogether mistaken, as will appear in the 
sequel of this investigation. 

None of the London historians ' made any mention of the name 
of Geoffrey de Magnaville as belonging to one of the effigies in 
the Temple, before the publication, in 1786, of the first volume 
of Mr. Gough's Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, in which 
all the effigies were represented in Plates V. and XIX. Only 
Burton, in his History of Leicestershire 1622, had mentioned for 
them the names ofVereEarl of Oxford; Mandeville, Earl of 
Essex ; Marshal, Earl of Pembroke ; Bohun, Earl of Hereford ; 
and Lord Ross." 

But this had been disregarded by the London historians, as 
will be seen in the review of them which we shall take presently. 

Mr. Gough asserted without hesitation, (at vol. i. p. 23,) that 
" In the Temple church, London, is the figure of Geoffrey de 
Magnaville, first Earl of Essex, so created A.D. 1148 " [read 
1 141] ; and the " long pointed shield " on his left arm is described 
as " charged with an escarboucle on a diapered field." It is after- 
wards added, " This is the first instance of arms on a sepulchral 
figure with us. They obtained in France 40 years before."^ 

Gough probably thought that he had substantial authority for 
his appropriation of this effigy in the chronicle of Walden abbey, 

' The History of London, by John Noorthouck, 4to. 1773, gives an account of the 
Temple effigies at p. 646, but the only names mentioned are those of the three Earls 
of Pembroke. 

"^ This allusion refers to an effigy at Mans, engraved in the Monumens of Montfau- 
con, and by Stothard, which is attributed to Elie Comte de Maine, who died in 1109. 



1 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 101 

which commemorates the same Geoffrey de i\Iagnaville as its 
founder. The story of the Earl's death and burial is there re- 
lated: how that when he was killed at the siege of Burwcll 
castle in Cambridgeshire, some of the Knights Templars, putting 
the habit of their order, with a red cross, upon his body, carried 
it to their orchard in the Old Temple at London, and, coffining it 
in lead, hanged it temporarily on a crooked tree, because he had 
died under sentence of excommunication. Subsequently, that 
when his absolution had been received from the Pope, they 
buried him in the churchyard of the New Temple, in the porch 
before the west door. And further, in another passage of the 
same chronicle, it is stated that after Geoffrey was girt with the 
sword of the Earldom of Essex, he augmented the arms of his 
ancestors with a carbuncle — postquam gladio Comitis accinctus 
erat, ai^ma progenitorum cum carbunculo nobilitavitA All this 
was certainly sufficient to mislead an antiquary of the last cen- 
tury. It would even seem probable that the writer — at whatever 
time he lived — knowing that the Earl was buried at the Temple, 
may have had in his view this very effigy, the shield of which 
displays so magnificent a " carbuncle." But the monastic chro- 
nicler was really no competent authority in such a matter. He 
was evidently a man of a later age than that of which he was 
writing. Our earliest armorial records recognise no carbuncle in 
English coats.- In the roll of the reign of Henry III. we read for 
Le Conte de Mandevile simply " quartele d'or et de goulez :' 
which simple quarterly coat was long after held to be that of the 
Earldom of Essex.^ Moreover, we now know very well that, so 

■ ' Morant, in his History of Essex, vol. ii. p. 546, note [E], has, either by blunder 
or design, transferred this statement to a subsequent Earl of Essex, Geoffrey Fitz- 
Piers : and it may be noted that this error is inadvertently adopted by Sir Harris 
Nicolas at p. xviii. of his Prefatory Remarks to the Rolls of Henry III. and Edward 
III. where he states that Geoffrey (the IHd.), who succeeded to the earldom in 1212. 
" is considered to have assumed the name and arms of Mandevile, with an escarluncle 
over all, which coat and name were adopted by his brother and successor in the Earl- 
dom, William, the last Earl." These and similar variations are often merely the 
fancies of heralds in later times, when perhaps engaged in depicting (in stained glass 
or otherwise) a series of Earls. • 
^ We shall discuss the carbuncle in our next Part. i^ 

3 As on the seal of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex from 1297 
to 1321. 



102 EFFIGY ATTRIBUTED TO GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE 

far from "augmenting tlie arms of his ancestors," Geoffrey de 
Magnaville himself died before arms were as yet adopted. 

In tlie very costly architectural renovation bestowed upon the 
Temple Church in the year 1842 the monumental effigies par- 
took, when they were carefully restored by Mr. Edward Richard- 
son:^ and a very remarkable discovery was then made with 
regard to the effigy ascribed to Geoffrey de Magnaville; though, 
strange to say, it has never yet been publicly noticed. In his 
Plate III. Mr. Richardson gives a front and two profile views of 
this effigy, and it is accompanied by the following description : 

This cross-legged effigy of Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, is 
of Sussex marble, and represents him in ring-mail. The hauberk and 
sm-coat descend below the knee. This is believed to be the only example 
of a monumental effigy with the tall cylindrical flat-topped helmet over 
the hood of mail. King Henry the Second is represented, on his great 
seal, wearing such a helmet, with a similar appendage passing down 
each side of the face and under the chin. Strutt (about 1796) repre- 
sented this helmet with a half-nasal, covering only the upper part of 
the nose. No part of it remained, though there is some appeai-ance of 
a fracture. * * * The Chronicle of Walden Abbey says that on his 
promotion he augmented his family distinction by adding to his shield 
an escarbuncle, which is a charge consisting of eight rays, four of them 
making a common cross, and the other four a saltire. This charge is 
on the shield, and is represented raised on a diapered field, with thi'ee 
plain spaces left, somewhat resembling a fess dancette. The head rests 
on a well-filled lozenge-shaped cushion. The upper lip is without any 
moustache, of the absence of which this and the effigy in Plate 10 are 
the only instances among these figures.^ The legs, though thin and 
wasted, appear easy and natural. 

Now, the little-heeded discovery to which we have alluded is 
this: that the "three plain spaces left" on the shield,^ each of 

' As described in " The Monumental Effigies of the Temple Church, with an 
Account of their Restoration, in the year 1842. By Edward Richardson, Sculptor. 
1843." Folio. Eleven plates in lithography. 

^ Except that in No. IV. the upper lip is not shown. See note in p. 110. 

3 The accompanying engraving is copied from Mr» Richardson's plate : which we 
have carefully examined with the original sculpture, and found to be very accurate. 
The bars are not cut in relief as the carbuncle is, but are formed by the cessation of 
the diapered pattern, the transverse lines of the diaper running level into the bars. 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 



103 




104 EFFIGY ATTRIBUTED TO GEOFFREY DE MAGNAVILLE 

them resembling a dancette or bar dancette, are in fact the arms 
of the person whom the efhgy was intended to commemorate. 
The carbuncle, as it has been called, was nothing more than a 
constructional part of his shield ; the diapering was a mode of 
ornamentation usuaP at the time; but the bars dancette were the 
distinctive coat-armour of the individual. It is perfectly clear he 
was not Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, nor any other 
member of that family. Who he really was it may be difficult 
to determine : but with our present knowledge of costume and of 
armour it may not be impossible to arrive at a proximate date for 
his death. 

In one of the earliest rolls of arms, we have a coat Barry 
dancettee of six argent and gules given for Walter de Balun; 
and Barry dancettee of six or and sable for Eoger Lovedai.- 
Either of these names might claim the effigy, could any con- 
nection between them and the Templars be established. Richard 
de Riveres bore Azure, two bars dancette or,^ — where the wavy 
or watery line was very probably intended to allude to his name. 

Were we to regard the shield as an antique form of Undee, 
we have before us also the names of Achard, Amauri, le Blount, 
and Lovell. And at a later date three dancettes were borne by 
the family of Delamare,'* another allusion to water, as le mer. 

But since so little is known of the history of the Knights Tem- 
plars, or their benefactors, we must turn from the coat-armour to 
the costume of this e&gj. 

One of its most remarkable features is its cylindrical helmet: 
upon which the following statements are made by Sir Samuel 
R. Meyrick: — 

" The cylindrical helmet came first into fashion in England ahoxit the 
latter part of the reign of Richard I. ; though Charles the Good, earl 
of Flanders, is represented in one on his seal so early as the year 1122; 
but it may be doubted whether it be the work of that period.^ The 

' A well-known and remarkable, example of this is the effigy of Robert de Vere, 
third Earl of Oxford, 1221, at Hatfield Broadoak, Essex. Gougb, vol. i. plate viii. 
2 St. George's Roll, printed in the Archceologia, vol. xxxix. 
^ Roll of the Society of Antiquaries, printed ibid. 
* Brasses of the fifteenth century in the Lady Chapel at Hereford. 
Oliv. Vredius, p. 11. 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 105 

Knights Templars, whose costume was appointed by Pope Engenins in 
1186, are represented on their official seal as wearing cylindrical hel- 
mets with aventailles, and they are perhaps the earliest who so did, 
Richard introducing it after his return from Jerusalem. The seal of 
William Earl Ferrers, in 1190, exhibits him in one of these helmets." 
Critical Inquiry into Ancient Arms and Armour, vol. i. p. 86. 

"John is represented [on his great seal, 1199] with a cylindrical hel- 
met, but without any covering over his face. The monument in the 
Temple church, attributed to Geoffrey Magnaville, and ivhich appears 
to he about this period, has one very similar, except that in it the nasal 
is revived,! and there are cheek-pieces, &c." Ibid. p. 101. 

Mr. Gougli also compares the helmet of this efSgy to that of 
Raoul de Beaumont, who founded the abbey of Estival in 1210, 
represented by Montfaucon. 

On the whole, it would seem that this Q^gy is of a date very 
nearly, if not quite, half a century posterior to that of the death 
of the first Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, in 1144. 

Having examined, for the object of this inquiry, all the suc- 
cessive descriptions that have been given of the Temple Effigies, it 
may be satisfactory to the reader that we should lay a brief abstract 
of them before him. 

We have not discovered any notice of them earlier in date 
than that of Gerard Legh, in Yas Accedens of Armory, (first edition 
1562, fo. 205,) where he describes himself as having "entered 
into a churche of aunciente building wherein were manye monu- 
mentes of noble personnages, armed in knightly habit, with their 
cotes depeinted on aunciente shieldes, whereat I toke pleasure to 
beholde." 

Their shields were not improbably then actually painted ij. 
their proper tinctures, — afterward obliterated by rough usage, and 

' As restored by Mr. Richardson, the helmet has no nasal. In his description 
Mr. Richardson says, " Strutt (about 1796) represented this helmet with a half-nasal, 
covering only the upper part of the nose. No part of it remained, though there is some 
appearance of a fracture." Temjile Chiirch Effigies, p. 18. To protect ]\Ir. Richard- 
son from the suspicion of having removed any indication of a nasal, we may point to 
Stothard's plate, where no symptom of it appears. Strutt perhaps imagined it when 
the figure was covered with paint : he did not engrave the effigy, but the helmet only, 
in his Habits and Dresses, vol. i. plate xliv. jUr 



106 SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES 

concealed by coats of wliite paint, one application of whicli is 
recorded in the year 1706'i 

The first historical writer who describes them, so far as we are 
aware, is Camden, — in the following passage, as it is given by 
his earliest translator, Philemon Holland : — 

— " having gotten in all places verie faire possessions and exceeding 
great wealth, they flourished in high reputation for piety and devotion: 
yea and in the opinion, both of the holinesse of the men and of the 
place, King Henrie the Third 2 and many noble men desired much to 
bee buried in their church among them. Some of whose images are 
there to be seene, with their legges acrosse : for so they were buried in 
that age that had taken upon them the crosse (as they then termed it) 
to serve in the Holy Land, or had vowed the same. Among whom was 
William Marshall the elder, a most powerfull man in his time, William 
and Gilbert his sonnes Marshalles of England and Earles of Penbroch. 
Upon William the elder his tombe I some yeares since read in the 
upper part Comes Penhrochice, and upon the side this verse — 
Miles eram Martis, Mars omnes vicerat armis." 

Stowe, in his Survay of London, enlarges very little upon the 
preceding account, but mentions one more name, that of Robert 
de Ros: — 

" In the Round Walk whereof, which is the west part without the 
Quire, there remayne monuments of noble men there buried, to the 
number of eleven. Eight of them are images of armed knights : five 
lying cross-legged, as men vowed to the Holy Land, against the In- 
fidels and unbelieving Jews ; the other three straight-legged. The 
rest are cooped stones, all of grey marble. 

' " In the year 1706 the church was wholly new white-washed &c, etc. also the 
figures of the Knights Templars were cleaned and painted, and the iron- work inclosing 
them painted and gilt with gold." Seymour's Survey of London, fol. 1733, i. 79. 

^ There is documentary proof dated 27 July in the 19th year of his reign that 
Henry the Third at one time announced his intention that his body should be interred 
at the Temple, as appears by the Registruni Hasp. S. Joh. Jems, in Anglia, in Bibl. 
Cotton, fol. 25 a. ; and his queen Eleanor, probably at the same period, made the like 
promise, " with the consent and approbation of her lord Henry the illustrious King of 
England, who had lent a willing ear to her prayers upon the subject." Subsequently, 
having rebuilt the abbey church of Westminster, he desired by his will made in 1253, 
to be buried there — " Sepulturam corpori meo eligo apud ecclesiam beati Edwardi 
Westmonasterii, eo non obstante quod prius eligeram sepulturam apud Novum Templum 
LondonicE.'''' (Hearne^ Liber Niger Scaccarii, ii. 532 ; Nichols, Royal and Noble Wills, 
p. 15.) But his infant son William is said to have been buried at the Temple so late 
as 1256. (Weever, p. 443.) 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 107 

" Tte first of the crosse-legged was William Marshall the elder, 
Earl of Pembroke, who died in 1219. 

" William Marshall his son, Earl of Pembroke, was the second; 
he died in 1231. 

" And Gilbert Marshall, his brother. Earl of Pembroke, slain 
in a tournament at Hertford besides Ware, twenty miles from London : 
he died in the year 1241. 

" After this, Robert Eos, otherwise called Fwsan, being made a 
Templar in the year 1245, died and was buried there. 

" And these are all that I can remember to have read of." 

The next account In order of date is that of Burton, who was 
a member of the Inner Temple, given in his History of Leicester- 
shire, fol. 1622, p. 222: 

" In the Round Walk at the west end of the church (he says) many 
of the said order lay buried, their portraits being cut in stone, some of 
them cross-legged, and who were of the chiefest houses of nobility ; as 
Yere, Earl of Oxford; Mandeville, Earl of Essex; Marshal, Earl of 
Pembroke ; Bohun, Earl of Hereford ; and Lord Ross." 

AYhence Burton caught the names of Vere, Mandeville, and 
Bohun, does not appear;^ none of them were adopted bj the to- 
pographers of London until i\fr. Gough made the identification of 
the effigy of Magnaville which we have now discussed. 

John ^\^eever, in his Funerall Monuments, fol. 1631, presents 
an apparently long account of the Temple effigies, but it is really 
a mere repetition of what had been already said by Camden and 
Stowe, amplified by biographical details. James Howell in his 
Londinopolis, fol. 1657, derives all his information from the same 
sources. There is a description of the Temple effigies in Dug- 
dale's Origines Jiiridiciales , fol. 1666; but it is not very particu- 
lar, nor perfectly accurate. It is as follows : 

" Within a spacious grate of iron, in the midst of the Round Walk 
under the steeple, do lie eight statues in military habits, each of them 
having large and deep shields on their left arms ; of which five are 
cross-legged. There are also three other gravestones, lying about five 
inches above the level of the ground ; on one of which is a large es- 
cocheon, with a lion rampant graven thereon." 

' Burton found some account of the monuments in the Temple in one of the 
Cottonian manuscripts, but which volume that was we are not now ahle to discover. 



108 SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES 

As no such stone as that last mentioned is elsewhere noticed, 
it may be supposed that the "lion rampant" was transferred 
from the shield of one of the effigies (hereafter, No. VII.) 

We proceed to the account supplied by Hatton in his New 
Vieic of London, 1708, which furnishes some fresh and interesting 
particulars : — 

" In the middle of the area lie the marble figures of nine of the 
Knights Templars, some of them seven feet and a half in length. 
They are represented in the habit before described,^ cnmbant in full 
proportion, five in one rank, inclosed with iron railing, of which three 
are not cross-legged, and four in another rank, all cross-legged, and 
inclosed with iron railing, south from the last ; but none (that I can 
find) shew the names of these knights, only that William Mai'shal, 
Earl of Pembroke, who died anno 1219, William his son, who died 
anno 1231, and Gilbert, the said Earl's brother, who was also Earl of 
Pembroke, 1241, and Robert Rouse, are represented in these images ; 
and another, being the least, was brought from York by Mr. Serjeant 
Belwood, Recorder of that city,^ about the year 1682, and is said to be 
the figure of one Rooce, of an honourable family." 

In this account we may ohserve, that, since that published by 
Duo-dale in 1666, the effigies had increased in number from eight 

' This is imagination, the writer meaning the habit of the Order. Not any one of 
the effigies is attired in any such costume, but in ordinary armour and surcotes. 
This supports the tradition that they are rather the effigies of noblemen of high rank 
who were buried in the church, than of the regular members of the fraternity. No 
effigy of a Knight Templar has been discovered in England. Montfaucon {Afonu' 
mens Francois, \i. 184,) represents one of Jean de Dreux, living in 1275. He is 
figured without armour in the mantle of the Order, with a cross, and wearing a beard. 
Hollis, in his Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, 1840, gives " a Knight Templar, 
in Walkerne church, Hertfordshire." The grounds of this designation seem to have 
been that the effigy is cross-legged, and bears otherwise a general resemblance to those 
in the Temple ; but, unlike all of them, the face is wholly concealed by a helmet, of 
about A.D. 1225, as described by Hewitt, Ancient Armour, i. 280. 

■■^ Roger Belwood met the heralds at their visitation of York on the 21st March, 
1665-6, and then described himself as " now a Student of y« Middle Temple, London, 
set. 25 an." He was the son of Josias Bellwood of Leathley, co. York, and grand- 
son of Roger Bellwood, a Master of Arts, of York, who died in 1646, or there- 
abouts. ("Visit, of Yorkshire, edit. Surtees Soc. p. 213.) The books of the Middle 
Temple also record his admission on the 13th June, 1665, and that he was called to 
the degree of serjeant-at-law on the 11th of April, 1689. He does not appear in 
Drake's History of York to have been Recorder of that city ; but he may have been 
Deputy Recorder to the Earl of Burlington, who was appointed Recorder in 1685, 
He died in 1694 -. Drake, p. 301, where he is miscalled Robert, 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 109 

to nine, and tliey were now arranged in two groups, inclosed 
with iron railing, instead of being within one " spacious grate" as 
before. An addition had been made by an e^gy brought from 
Yorkshire, of a member of the family of Koos, and that removal 
had probably been suggested by the opinion (mentioned by Burton) 
that one of the original Temple effigies belonged to the same 
family. On this occasion the effigies had been all shifted, a fact 
of which Mr. C. A. Stothard was convinced, and he remarks: 

" It is almost conclusive from the situation of this figaire that, when- 
ever its removal took place, the whole of these statues received their 
present arrangement, and the two coped stones wanting were taken 
away and destroyed." Monumental Effigies of Great Bi'itain, p. 12. 

We add some farther observations by Mr. Stothard : 

" The most ancient of these statues are Nos. 1, 4, 7, [iii. iv. and ii. 
of the description hereafter given]. The first is said to represent 
Geofifrey Magnaville, and the other two appear to be of the same date 
with each other. The most remarkable circumstance that distinguishes 
these three figures arises from their wearing the sword on the right side ; 
the repetition argues against its being accidental, and it is possible this 
may have been a fashion peculiar to the early Eoiights Templars, bor- 
rowed from their near neighbours, the infidels. If the effigy called 
Geoffrey Magnaville really re^yresents that nobleman, this distinction in 
him on this ground would be easily accounted for, as he received from 
the Templars, when dying, the habit of the order. It may be added, 
as an argument for the high antiquity of these statues, that they are 
not like any others at present knoAvn." 

This was written by Mr. Stothard in 1812, and accompanied 
by a Plate of the effigy, inscribed "Geoffrey de Magnaville, 
Earl of Essex, in the Temple Church, London: " in which 
plate, however, the shield appears neither Quarterly nor Dan- 
cette, but uniformly diapered over its surface, with the escar- 
buncle spread thereon : and so in the engraving by Ogborne. 

Stothard, it will be observed, admitted in his description some 
doubt on the appropriation of the presumed effigy of jNIagnaville, 
whilst it was stated positively on his plate. His posthumous 
editor and brother-in-law Mr. A. J. Kempe, F.S.A., when con- 
tinuing the subject, on the next page (but yet after an interval 



110 SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES 

of nearly twenty years), after saying that " This effigy i?, perhaps 
rightly assigned to Geoffrey de Magnaville," and telling the story 
of his death and funeral (already inserted), suggests that the cir- 
cumstances thereof " may account for the style of the effigy, 
which does not appear to have been made before the latter end of 
the tivelfth century.^' 

It is therefore now pretty clear, from the concurrence of much 
judicious testimony, that Gough and Dallaway, and those who 
have followed in their track, designating this eflSgy as that of 
Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, bearing a shield of his 
Quarterly coat, surmounted by an escarbuncle, were totally mis- 
taken. As a very early instance of armorial bearings it must still 
be regarded, but whether actually the earliest on a sepulchral 
effigy in this country may be worthy of further inquiry. 

We shall conclude with a brief description of the Effigies, as 
they occur in Mr. Kichardson's plates, noticing also which are 
etched by Stothard, and which by Hollis, in his continuation of 
Stothard's work.^ We may premise that all the Knights are 
attired in chain mail and siircotes: — 

I. A coffin-lid, en dos d'dne, its ridge terminated at the upper 
end by a lion's head, and at the lower by a lamb's. By Gough 
this coffin-lid was assigned to William the son of King Henry III. 
buried at the Temple in 1256. [Sepidchi^al Monuments, vol. i. pi. v.) 

II. A knight with his legs straight, a large plain shield on his 
left arm. Sword at right side. (Engraved by Hollis.) 

III. That attributed to Geoffrey de Magnaville. 

IV. A knight with hands and legs both crossed, his forehead 
surrounded with a low cap or coif, his helmet coming over his 
cheeks and mouth,^ but shewing his other features ; a large plain 
shield. Sword at right side. (Engraved by Stothard, Plate 15.) 



' There is a vignette representing the whole of the efl5gies on a small scale in 
Stothard's Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, p. 11. In Knight's London, (edit. 
1842, vol. iii. 314) the two groupes are also represented — but without any indication 
of the dancettes on the carbuncled shield. In the accompanying description by Mr. 
J. Saunders that effigy is unhesitatingly assigned to Mandeville, and No. IX, to 
Robert de Ros(Fursan). 

■•* The mouth of William Longuesple, Earl of Salisbury, (ob. 1226) in Salisbury 
cathedral, — an effigy of which there are many engravings, is covered in like manner. 



IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. Ill 

V. Another, straight legs, his hands raised as in prayer : with 
features youthful, his mouth shown, and moustaches. Under 
each foot a grotesque human head. Large plain shield. 

VI. Another, straight-legged : holding in his right hand the 
pommel of a sword, the point of which pierces the head of the 
leopard upon which his feet rest. A plain shield, not so large as 
the preceding. This is the effigy attributed to William IMarshal 
the elder, Earl of Pembroke, who died in 1219. (Etched by 
Hollis.) 

YII. A cross-legged knight, having both hands on his sword, 
as if sheathing it, his feet on a lion, and a lion rampant on his 
shield. The dexter corner of his shield is fancifully supported by 
a squirrel, which stands on his breast. His features are juvenile, 
and there seems to be no reason to doubt that this effigy is 
correctly assigned to William Marshal the younger, Earl of 
Pembroke, who died in 1231.^ A pattern of battlements under 
the pillow of his head has been supposed to allude to the castles 
of Cardigan and Carmarthen, of which he was governor. (En- 
graved by Stothard, Plates 26, 27.) 

VIII. A line efQ.gj of a young knight, represented as drawing 
his sword (the hilt of which is in the form of an escallop-shell) 
with both his hands: his legs crossed, and feet on a dragon. He 
has a large shield, but it is plain; and the guige by which it 
hangs is ornamented with small escucheons, but they are also 
plain.'^ This effigy has been commonly attributed to Gilbert le 
Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, who died in 1241 : but if it had 
really been his we might have expected to have found the shield 
carved with armorial charges, like that of his brother William. 
They may however have been painted. 

IX. A cross-legged knight, his right hand on his breast, with 
an acutely pointed shield. 

' — " although (remarks Weever) the Annales of Ireland asserted him to be buried 
by his brother Richard, in the quire of the Friars Predicants in Kilkenny." 

* There is a peculiarity in the attire of this effigy. " Between the hauberk and 
sureoat (as described by Richardson) is a plain thick under-garment, fastened with 
straps or clasps which appear under the arms ; probably some kind of haqueton." 
Mr. Hewitt notices this more particularly as having been either made of leather, or, 
if of iron, the earliest example of a body-armour formed of two plates that Europe 
has to offer. Ancient Armour, &c. p. 271. 



112 EFFIGIES IN THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 

X. A cross-legged figure, the hood of mail let down on the 
neck, showing the head bare, with flowing hair ; the hands 
raised in prayer, the legs crossed and resting on a lion. On his 
shield are three water-bougets. Mr. Richardson's plate is in- 
scribed "Robert lord de Ros, died a.d. 1227;" but in his 
descriptive letterpress he admits that the costume is of the reign 
of Edward I. (This is also engraved by Stothard, PI. 38.) 

There is every probability that one of the preceding effigies is 
that of Robert de Ros, surnamed Fursan, who died in 1227 : 
because it is stated of him that f actus est Templarius, et Londini 
est sepultus : and his charter is still extant, by which he granted 
to the Templars his manor of Ribstone, together with his body 
for interment.^ Burton's statement, also, shows that one of the 
effigies was traditionally attributed to a Lord de Ros. 

The effigy No. X. however, was certainly the addition which 
was made to the series in the year 1682, as related in the extract 
from Hatton's JVew View of London already given. It is doubtless 
a de Ros, as shown by the three water bougets; and perhaps came 
from the priory of Kirkham in Yorkshire, where several of that 
family were interred." 

XL The effigy of a Bishop, in a low mitre, his right hand 
raised in benediction, his left holding his pastoral staff, the point 
of which is thrust into the mouth of the dragon upon which his 
feet rest. This has been attributed by Browne Willis and others 
to Silvester de Everdon, Bishop of Carlisle, who died in 1247. 
(Engraved by Stothard, Plate 28.) 

J. G. N. 

' Monasticon Anglicanum, 1661, vol. ii. p. 557. 

^ It corresponds very closely in design to an effigy at Norton, co. Durham, engraved 
in Surtees' History of Dxhrham, vol. iii. p. 155, and in Hewitt, Ancient Armour, plate 
ixx. Pennant, in his popular but often inaccurate work on London, gives the fol- 
lowing absurd description of this effigy : " One of these figures is singular, being bare- 
headed and bald, his legs armed, his hands mailed, his mantle long, round his neck 
a cowl, as if, according to a common superstition in early days, he had desired to be 
buried in the dress of a monk, least the evil spirit should take possession of his body. 
On his shield are t\iTQe fleurs-de-lis.''' The baldness, the cowl, and anything like a 
monastic dress are altogether imagination, and the fleurs-de-lis a gross misapprehen- 



113 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 

This family is of very ancient origin, and came originally from 
Chesliire. It occupied a distinguished position at Wybunbury 
in that county in the thirty-eighth year of King Edward III., 
while from a memher who settled at Quarrendon, co. Bucks, in 
the reign of King Henry VII., was descended Sir Henry Lee, 
the celebrated Knight of the Garter, temp. Queen Elizabeth. 
Sir Henry Lee, Knight, of Ditchley, co. Oxon, first cousin and 
heir of the K.G., was created a Baronet by King James I. 22nd 
May, 1611 ; and his great-grandson, Sir Edward Henry Lee, was 
by King Charles II. raised to the peerage as Earl of Litchfield, 
Viscount Quarrendon, and Baron Lee, of Spelsbury, co. Oxon, 
5th July, 1674. This peerage became extinct on the death of 
Robert fourth Earl, in 1776 ; when the estates in the counties of 
Bucks and Oxon passed to Henry the eleventh Viscount Dillon, 
of Ireland, who had married, 26th Oct. 1745, Lady Charlotte Lee, 
the eldest daughter of George- Henry second Eaxl of Litchfield, 
and whose great-grandson now represents the main branch 
through the female line. Other representatives of the family exist, 
the intermarriages for many generations having been numerous ; 
amongst them the following, — the Thorntons, of Brockhall, co. 
Northampton; the Dods, of Cloverley, co. Salop; Lord Clifibrd, 
of Chudleigh; the Nevills, of Holt, co. Leicester; Sir Piers 
Mostyn, Bart.; Lord Vaux, of Harrowden; Lord Palmerston; 
Sir Alfred Slade, Bart.; the Gore-Langtons, of Somersetshire; the 
Bishop of Manchester, the Rev. James Prince Lee, D.D. ; Benja- 
min Lee Guinness, LL.D., of Ashford Park, co. Galway; the 
Lees, of Thame, co. Oxon; Henry Lee, esq., of Barua, co. 
Tipperary; Sir George Philip Lee, Knt., &c. 

It will be the object of the writer of this paper to give as 
correct and reliable information as possible of the main and all 
other branches of this family, commencing formally with Benedict 
Lee, of Quarrendon, who settled there a.d. 1438. In the first 
place, however, the pedigree connecting this Benedict with the 
Lees of Cheshire will be set forth; and, in the second, it should 
be remembered that several recorded pedigrees of the College of 
Arms differ somewhat materially one from the other. Tlie writer 

VOL in. I 



114 THE LEES OP QUARRENDON. 

has the advantage of being able to consult four independent 
pedigrees, all transcripts of originals, possessed by different 
branches of the family; and thus may be able, in some degree, 
not only to reconcile certain existing diiferences, but to add from 
these and from other sources some valuable information with 
regard to a gentle, knightly, and noble family of considerable 
renown, and formerly of high position. The first pedigree, 
which will be referred to under the mark (A), is a transcript 
from one originally belonging to the 2nd Earl of Litchfield ; the 
second (B), is copied from a MS. in the possession of Cosmas 
Nevill, of Holt, CO. Leicester, esq.; the third (C), is transcribed 
from a most interesting original of the date a.d. 1611, at Brock- 
hall, CO. Northampton, the seat of the Kev. T. C. Thornton; and 
the fourth (D), from one formerly in the possession of John Lee, 
esq., great-grandfather of the late Rev. T. T. Lee, B.A. of Thame 
and Stokenchurch, co. Oxon. In pedigree (B) the Quarrcndon 
Lees are thus connected with the Lees of Cheshire : — 

Sir Walter At Lee, of y^ manner of Lee, of=^. . . . 
Lee Hall there in y^ parish of Wibenbuiy, 
in y* County Palatine of Chester, y^ 36 of 
King Edward y^ 3, whose ancestors had 
heen there seated for ages. 



Sir John at Lee, of Lee Hall, 1 K.=plsabel, dau. to Sir Piers de Button, of 
Richard ye 2d. | Dutton, com. Chester, kt. 



John Lee, of Lee Hall, in Cheshire, esq.,=^Elizabeth, dau. to Sir Thomas Fouls- 
King Henry y« 4th. hurst, of Crewe Hall, com. Chester, kt. 

I ' 

Thomas Lee, of Lee Hall, in Cheshire, esq.,^Elizabeth, dau. to Sir John Aston, kt.' 
King Henry y* 6th. I 

I 
John T^ee, of Lee Hall, in Cheshire, esq.,=j=Margerie, dau. to Sir Ralph Hocknell, 
King Henry 6. I of Hocknell Hall, com. Chester, kt. 

I ' 

Benedict Lee, of Quarendon, com. Bucks, esq., a younger son; 
King Edward y« 4th, K. Henry 7th. 

Upon this it should be remarked (a), that in Pedigree A, Sir 
Thomas Foulshurst is called " Sir Thomas Fowlechurch," and 
that side by side with the John Lee who married Elizabeth 
Foulshurst are placed the names of two brothers not mentioned 

' On an ancient silver seal of the sixteenth century, now in the possession of W. J. 
Legh, Esq., M.P. of Lyme Hall, co. Chester, which the writer of this paper recently in- 
spected, and of which he took impressions, the ancient arms of Aston, co. Chester, 
appear in the second quarter, thereby connecting the Leghs of Lyme with the Leghs 
or Lees of Wibonbury. Lyme Hall contains some interesting ancient heraldic glass. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 



115 



above, Richard Lee and John Lee ; also {b) that in the same 
pedigree Sir John Aston is called " Sir John Astron of Astron, 
Cheshire," and that his dauHiter's name is given as " Alice," and 
not as Elizabeth. 

The brothers of Benedict Lee, esq. of Quarrendon, stand as 
follows in Pedigree A.: — 

John Lee, of Lee Hall, esq.=T=Margaret, dau. of Sir Ralph Hockuell, 
I of Hocknell Hall, in Cheshire. 
L 



1, Tho-=Wini- 
mas Lee, freda 
of Lee Cotton, 
Hall. 



1 1 

2. JohnLee,=Grace 3. AVil-=Mary 
of Astron, Bagot. liaoi Har- 

in Stafford- Lee, of leton. 

shire, Essex. 



1 

5. BE.NEDicT=Elizabeth, 
Lee, of Qua- heir of 
rendon, John 

Bucks. \Vood,esq. 



4. Robert Lee, of Astron, in Staffordshire, 



In Pedigree C the information is slightly different, and given 
at greater length. On the latter account, therefore, it is worthy 
of being reproduced: — 



II . 1 ■ 

Thomas John Lee, of Lee, in the-pilargerv, 


_ .... _, 
dau. Richard 


WiUia 


Ql 


Lee 


parish of Wibonbury, in | of ... , 


Lee.. 


Lee, 






com. Chester. 


1 Hocknell 

1 , 














1 




1 




' 1 


Thomas^ 


=Wyne- John Lee,= 


-Grace, 


Be.\edict= 


=Eliza- 


Robert- 


=:,,.. 


Francis 


Lee, of 


fred, of Aston 


dau. 


Lee, of 


beth. 


Lee, of 




Lee, 


Lee, in 


dau. of {sic), in 


of... 


Quaren- 


dau. of 


Aston, 




sixt 


Che- 


Stafford - 


Bagot. 


don, in 


.... 


in Staf- 




sone. 


shire, 


Cotton, shire, 




com. 


Woode, 


ford- 






eldest 


seconde 




Buck. 


ofWar- 


shire, 






son of 


sone. 




fifte sone. 


wicke- 


fourth 






John. 








shire. 


sone. 







William Lee, of Essex, thirde sone.= . . . . dau. of John Harleton. 

Thus much, then, with regard to the descents as far down 
as Benedict Lee, the founder of the Lees of Quarrendon. The 
question now arises, what arms were borne 
by him? The ancient arms of Lee of Lee 
Hall were, Argent, a chevron (ov a /esse, for 
both appear,) between three leopard's heads 
sable *. The folio win or arms were also 



' The Leghs of East Hall, in High Lee, co, Chester, 
bear the following arms, allowed in 1566: Argent, a lion, 
rampant gules, arvied and langued azure. The Leighs of 
West Hall, in High Leigh, now bear the following arms, 
allowed in 1563: Or, a lion rampant gules, arraed and 
langued azure. Originally this branch of the Leghs 
bore. Gules, a pale fusille argent. 

I 2 




ORIGINAL ARMS OF 
LEE OF CHESHIRE. 



116 



TTIK LEES OF QUAURENDON. 



borne by the Lees ofWybunbiuy: Gules, a lion rampant or} 
These arms are found agahi and again repeated in either 
the second or third quartering of the Lees of Quarrendon, 
in the MS. description, now in the British Museum, of the 
armorial bearings at (formerly existing in) St. Peter's Quarren- 
don, the family burying-place, by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster 
Herald. In one shield of the Lees, for example, containing eight 
quarterings — in the first of which appears the annulet, as a 
mark of cadency — the arms, Gules, a lion rampant or, stand 
second. ^ 

It appears, however, tolerably certain that Benedict Lee, who 
settled at Quarrendon a.d. 1438, and who, as is learnt from a 
deed in the possession of Lord Viscount Dillon, was made Con- 
stable of Quarrendon in 1441, continued 
to use the arms, as already given, which 
the family had borne in Cheshire. He 
married, as one of the above pedigrees 
states, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
John Wood, of Warwickshire, esquire, 
by whom he had issue three sons : 

1. Eichard Lee, styled "firmare" [far- 
mer] in a deed dated 1472, was likewise, 
like his father, Constable of Quarrendon, 
and bore for his arms, Argent, a fess 
hetioeen three crescents sable. 

2. Edward Lee, Constable of Quarrendon from a.d. 1485 to 
1486. 

3. Robert Lee, Constable of Quarrendon from ad. 1486 to 
1496. 

The arms borne by Richard Lee (whether by grant or by 
assumption is not now easily determined, as there is no record 
of sucli a grant at the College of Arms,) are undoubtedly those 
which since his day have been invariably used by his descendants, 

' These arms appear in the first quarter of the arms of Sir Anthony Lee (wrongly 
called Sir Henry Lee), impaling those of Wyatt, co. Kent, at fol. 104 of the MS. of 
Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald (Lansdowne MS. British Museum, No. 874). 

^ The same arms and quarterings (the eighth being like the first) are likewise found 
at fdl. 78 of the Visitation of Bucks, 157Ji-lG34. (Harleian MS. British Museum, 
No. 1533.) 




THE ARMS OF WOOD, 
CO. WARV/ICK. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 



117 




THE ARMS OF LEE, OF 
QCARRENDON, CO. BUCKS. 



and by every branch of such, including both that more direct 

branch which was ennobled, and the other branches which spruno- 

from the main stock during the fifteenth 

and sixteenth centuries. They occurred 

on every monumental memorial at Quar- 

rendon; according to Kicholas Charles's 

MS., no less than thirteen times, either 

in glass or stone. Here and there other 

arms may have been used by individual 

members of the family — as for example : 

on one occasion by Sir Anthony Lee, 

already referred to, who reverted to the 

old Cheshire arms, and also by the widow 

of Sir Henry Lee, K.G., buried in the 

north transept of St. ]Mary's, Aylesbury, 

who bore the grant specially made to Sir Robert Lee in 1513 ; 

but the customary arms were those here represented. 

Eichard Lee married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of 
William Saunders or Sanders, esq. of the co. Oxon. Arms of 
Saunders, Ar. a lion rampant azure within 
a bordure of the second, charged with 
fleurs de lys or. The Pedigree of Cope of 
Hampshire gives the arms " charged with 
eight estoiles or "in theVisitations of 1531 
and 1575. Stephen Coape or Cope of 
Bedenham, in co. Southampton, married 
another of the co-heiresses of AVilliam 
Saunders, and the arms of Cope impaling 
Saunders are given by Xicholas Charles, 
Lansdowne MSS. No. 874, British Mu- 
seum, as amono-st " these four eschocous 
(which) stand in the north and south win- 
do wes of the chauncell " of St. Peter's Quarrendon. The above 
Richard Lee had issue, by Elizabeth his wife, 

•Robert Lee, of Quarrendon, Burston, and Hardwicke, co. 
Bucks, gentleman, sheriff of Bucks in 1521, afterwards knighted. 
He was Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII. A 




ARMS OF SAUNDERS, 
CO. OXON. 



118 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 




ARMS OF SIR ROBERT LEE 
OF QUARRENDON. 



special grant of arms was made to him hy 
Thomas Wriothesley, Garter, and Thomas 
Benolt, Clarenceaux, dated London, April 
18th, 1513, 4th of Henry VIII. He 
is styled " gentilhomme," and the arms 
are thus described in the grant: "D'ar- 
gent a une fece d'asur entre trois testes de 
licorne rasees de sable, sur la fece trois lis 
d'or. A son tymbre ung laneret dor, ses 
esles becque et membres de gueules, sais- 
sissant etrepaissant sur une jambe de heron 
d'asur, assiz sur une torse d'argent et de 
pourpre, mantelle de gueules double d'ar- 
gent." Sir Robert Lee married, first, Mary [some pedigrees say 

Joane] daughter of Cope, esq. of the co. Oxon, and by 

her had issue : 

Sir Anthony Lee, Knt. of Burston, co. Bucks, commoner 
of St. John's College, Oxford, M.P. for Bucks, 1 Edw. VI. ob. 
circa 1550, buried at Quarrendon. Sir Anthony ^ married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir Henry Wyatt or Wiat, and sister of Sir 
Thomas Wyatt of Allington Castle, co. Kent. [Arms of Wyatt, 
Per fesse azure and gules, a barnacle argent.] 

The follovTing inscription existing at St. Peter's Quarrendon in 
1611, transcribed verbatim from Nicholas Charles' Visitation, has 
not, we believe, been printed : — 

Anthony Lee knight of worthy name. 
Sire to S"^ Henry Lee of noble fame, 
Sonne to S' Robert Lee, here buried lyes, 
Whereas his fiime and memory never dyes. 
Great in the fortune whence himself did run, 
But greater in y= greatnesse of his sonne ; 
His body here, his soul in heaven doth rest, 
What scornde the earth cannot with earth be prest. 

In Charles' LIS. the arms of Lee (eight quarterings) appear 

' The arms of Sir Anthony Lee impaling those of Wyatt, may be found tricked at 
fol. 104, Heraldic Collections of Nicholas Charles, Lansd. MS. 874, British Museum. 
The old arms of Lee of Cheshire appear in the 1st and 4th quarters, and those granted 
to his father, Sir Robert Lee, in the 2nd and 3rd quarters. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 119 

to the left, and those of Lee impaling Wyatt to the right. Vide 
also Harleian MSS. No. 1533, A.D. 1575—1634, fol. 78. 
He had issue,' 

1. Sir Henry Lee, K.G. 

2. Robert Lee. 

3. Cromwell Lee. 

1. Sir Henry Lee, Lord of Fleet Marston and Quarrendon, 
was born at Allington Castle, co. Kent, in 1531; married Anne, 
daughter of William, Lord Paget; died at Spelsbury, co. Oxon, 
in 1610, s. p. v.* and was buried at Quarrendon. Sir Henry's 
epitaph, as it appeared in Quarrendon Chapel, is given at pp. 
114 — 116 of Mr. Jordan's Parochial History of Enstone, 4to. 
1857 ; and again at p. 133 of the Addenda to the yEdes Hart- 
loelUance, 4to. 1864, for a copy of which the writer is in- 
debted to the kindness of Dr. John Lee, Q.C., of Hartwell Park. 
The fifth plate in this interesting volume contains engravings of 
certain monumental relics of the Quarrendon Lees in the Hart- 
well Museum, and a copy of Sir Henry Lee's arms as set forth 
in his garter-plate, still existing at St. George's, Windsor — re- 
stored by Sir C. G. Young, Garter. Sir Henry Lee's lady is 
buried in the north transept of St. Mary's Aylesbury, co. Bucks. 
On the tomb the arms stand as follows: Argent, on a fesse 
azure three lilies or, between three unicorn's heads erased sable, 
impaling, Quarterly, first and fourth Sable, on a cross engrailed 
arg. five lions passant of the first between four eagles displayed 
or; secoiM and third Argent, two bars gules; in a dexter canton 
gules a cinquefoil or, in sinister chief a crescent : below on the 
dexter side the arms of the dexter impalement, and on the sinister 

' In the Pedigree of the Lees in Lipscombe's Bucks, it is stated that Sir Anthony 

Lee married, secondly, Anne daughter and heiress of Hassell of , co. 

Chester, and had issue Jane or Elizabeth, but no authority is given for the statement. 
The MSS. in Caius Coll. Library, Cambridge, which appear to be referred to, contain 
no evidence of the fact. On the other hand, the Pedigree of the family of Lee, 
belonging to the Thorntons of Brockhall, co. Northampton (c), contains the follow- 
ing:— 

, daughter of S"' =Sir Anthony Lee of=f=Anne, daughter of 

Thomas Wyat, Knt. Burston, K. married j Hassall, seconde 

first wife. two wyves. | wyfe. 



Sir Richard Lee, Knt. married the La. 
Halls, and dyed without issue. 

* The names of his children were John, Henry, and Mary. 



120 THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 

those of tlie sinister impalement in a lozenge, for Lee of Quar- 
rendon and Paget.^ Sir Henry Lee was Master of the Ordnance 
to Queen Elizabeth, and Knight of the Most Noble Order of the 
Garter. His garter-plate still remains in his stall at St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, whereon his arms are, Quarterly of seven ffour 
in chief and three in base): 

L Argent, a fess between three crescents sable, Lee. 

2. Argent, a fess between three unicorn's heads erased sable, 
Lee of CO. Sucks. 

3. Gules, a lion rampant argent, Lee of co. Chester. 

4. Argent, a fess between three leopard's heads sable, Wood 
of CO. Warwick. 

5. Azure, an escocheon ermine, within an orle of eight estoiles 
or. 

6. Vert, two wolves courant or. 

7. Argent, a lion rampant within a bordure azure, charged 
with eight ileurs de lis or. Crest, out of a marquess's coronet, 
a column argent, upon the capital a bird's leg erased at the thigh, 
a cormorant preying thereon or. Supporters, On either side a 
lion sable, having a collar or charged with three crescents of the 
first. Motto (above the crest) Fide et CONSTANCIA, with the 
following inscription below : — 

DV . TEESHONORABLE . CH'LR . HENRY 
LEA . CH'lR . DV . TRESNOBLE . ORDRE 

DE . LA . lARRETIEEE . LE . XXIIII ^ 

DE . MAY . l'aN . 1597. 

Not long after Sir Henry resigned his office as special champion 
of the beauty of Queen Elizabeth, he fell in love with her new 
maid of honour, Anne Vavasour, of an ancient and distinguished 
Yorkshire family, mentioned in a letter from Sir John Stanhope 
to Lord Talbot in November 1590, as a brilliant star at court, — 
" Our new mayd Mrs. Vavasoure florishethe like the lylly and 
the rose." *' Though in the morning flower of her charms," 

' Having tricked the arras described above, Nicholas Charles writes : " On a fayre 
monument of Sir Henry Lee's wife, daughter of the Lord Pagett, w"^'' woman died 
A° D'ni 1584, having issue, by Sir Henry Lee aforesaid, John Lee, Henry, and Mary." 
Fol. 70, MS. Lansdowne 874. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 121 

■writes Miss Strickland, '' and esteemed the loveliest girl in the 
whole court, she drove a whole bevy of youthful lovers to despair 
by accepting this ancient relic of the age of chivalry." Tradition 
reports that Miss Vavasour became Sir Henry's mistress ; hence 
the rhyming couplet : 

" Here lyes the old k"' good S"' Harry, 
By her he lov'd, but ne'er would marry," etc. 

It is also believed that after the erection of a monument to Sir 
Henry Lee and his mistress, in the chancel of Quarrendon church, 
the bishop of the diocese ordered it to be removed.' Two frag- 
ments of the figures, in alabaster, existed at Quarrendon so late 
as the year 1863, when that place was visited by the writer of 
this article. Nicholas Charles's I\IS. gives the following inscrip- 
tion as having been placed on the tomb : 

" Under thys stone intombed lyes a faire and worthy dame, 
Daughter to Henry Vavasor, Anne Vavasour her name. 
She living with S'' Henry Lee for love long tyme did dwell : 
Death could not part them but that here they reste within one cell." 

Nicholas Charles gives the arms of Vavasour, on a lozenge, 
[Or,] a fesse dancette [sa.] with a crescent for difference; crest, 
on a wreath or and sable, a cock gules ; as existing in Quarrendon 
church at his visit in 1611. 

2. Kobert Lee married Jane Eestwold, Pedigree C states 
that Eobert Lee married Jane, Lady Llastings, daughter of 

Restwood. [Arms of Eestwolde, co. Bucks, Gyronny 

of four, erm. and gu.] They had issue, according to Pedigree A, 
Barbara Lee, who married Richard Rogers, and had no issue ; 
according to Pedigree C. Barbara Lee married Edward Raynfforde. 

3. Cromwell Lee, esq. of Holywell, Oxford, and of St. John's 
College, to which he was a very considerable benefactor, married 
Mary, the daughter of Sir John Harcourt, and relict of Richard 
Taverner, esq. [Arms of Harcourt, Gules, two bars or.] Crom- 
well Lee died a.d. 1601. His only son, John, is thus referred to 
at p. 802 of Wood's Athence Oxonienses, Ed. Oxon.: "Junel. — 
Doctor of Divinity, John Lea of St. John's College, and of the 

' " This tombe is since erased and pulled dovvne. 1C12.'''' Nicholas Charles in 
MS. Lansdowne 876, p. 72. 



122 THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 

gentile family of the Leas or Lees of Quarrendon, in Bucks, and 
of Ditchley, in Oxfordshire; was chaplain to the most noble 
knight, Sir Henry Lea ; was beneficed in the said counties, and, 
dying about 1609,^ was buried in St. John's Coll. Chappel, to 
the adorning of which he was an especial benefactor. He gave 
also many books to that Coll. Library." The Rev. J. B. Gray, 
M.A., Fellow of St. John's, adds the following in a note to the 
author of this paper : — " John Lee proceeded A.M. 1591, S.T.B. 
1610. He was chaplain to Sir Hen. Lee and rector of Fleet 
Marston, and afterwards of Wootton. He died a Fellow, and 
was buried in the chapel. He gave sexaginta et decern pounds 
for the choir, which, for some reason unexplained, was spent on 
the ornamentation of the chapel." 

Thus far, with regard to the issue of Sir Robert Lee of Quar- 
rendon, by Mary Coape, Cope, or Coope, his first wife. 

F. G. L. 

* This date must be incorrect, as he proceeded to his degree of S.T.B. in 1610, and 
possibly was not created S.T.P. or D.D. per saltum. 

{To be continued.) 



Hatchment of the Seventeenth Century. 

A hatchment painted on oak panelling, in an oblong quadrilateral frame, 
measuring 2 feet in width by 2 feet 3 inches in height, is now in the shop 
of Mr. J. C. Hotten, in Piccadilly. 

The armorial bearings which it displays, are these : Gules, on a chevron 
between three spread eagles or as many torteaux, with the inescocheon of 
Ulster ; impaling. Sable, a fess or, fretty of the field, between three fleurs 
de lis and a bordure of the second. There is a crest over each coat : over 
the baron side, an eagle's head erased argent gorged with a coronet or • 
over the femme, a wolf's head couped sable, collared or, and fretty on the 
neck of the same. 

These are the arms of Dycer impaling Styles. Sir Robert Dycer, of 
Uphall, CO. Hertford, who was created a Baronet March 18, 1660-1, mar- 
ried Dorothy, daughter of William Styles, esq. of Emingston, or Hemino-- 
stone, CO. Suffolk. He died August 26, 1667, a;ged 72. 

His son and successor of the same name died without issue about 1676, 
when the title became extinct. ( Courthope's Synopsis of the Extinct 
Baronetage., p. 70; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 179.) 



123 



ANGLO-AMERICAN GENEALOGY— NORTH AND SOUTH. 

Throughout the lamentable struggle which has afflicted the States of 
America during the last four years, nothing has been more remarkable 
than the sensitiye anxiety manifested by either party to enlist on its 
own side the sympathies of Europe, and of England in particular. 
This was obviously at first suggested by the anticipation of a probable 
and indeed expected intervention : for, whilst the idea of control or 
dictation was spumed upon the instant, and the most friendly and 
benevolent mediation would have been as quickly misinterpreted, each 
antagonist confidently reckoned upon something more. Each imagined 
that England must of necessity take his part. The Northerners relied 
on her hatred of slavery, the Southerners on her hunger for Cotton. 
As time wore on, these hopes, or fears, were continually deferred, or 
prolonged, until they can scarcely have been seriously entertained any 
longer,! and yet they have not ceased to tincture strongly the effusions 
of the public writers of America, from Mr. Secretary Seward downwards. 

If England, as a nation, has done no more than sincerely lament 
this devastating conflict among those who derive their language and so 
much of their blood from herself, it has stili been her misfortune to be 
greatly distrusted and misunderstood by both parties. And this has 
evidently arisen, in no slight degree, from the extraordinary misconcep- 
tions which are prevalent in America, in regard to the actual political 
condition of " the mother country." These popular delusions, founded 
upon a blind admiration of their own form of government, appear to 
proceed upon some such uninquiring argument as this : that, if a 
Republic and democracy afford the perfection of liberty, then a Monarchy 
and aristocracy must of necessity suppress it. They have, in fact, no 
adequate appreciation of the more than republican Hberty which we really 
enjoy. In their view, England is rather a country as aristocratic as she 
was in the days of the Tudors or Stuarts. It was consequently a device 
of the Southerners to bid for her favour on the ground of their pos- 
sessing a similar constitution of society. It is that line of argument 

• " If the sympathy of England were now as desirable and as strongly expected as it 
was ttoo years ago [i. e. about June 1861], I might urge the matter further. As it is, 
it seems sufficient to overthrow the claims of Southerners," &c. (This passage is from 
p. 48 of the pamphlet before us.) 



124 ANGLO-AMERICAN GENEALOGY — 

which is encountered and combated by the pamphlet of which wc now 
transcribe the title-page: — 

The Cavalier Dismounted: an Essay on the Origin of the Founders of the 
Thirteen Colonies. 
. "We are the Gentlemen of this Country." 

Robert Toombs, in 1860. 

" Our Plantations in America, New England excepted, have been generally, L by 
Malcontents with the Administrations from time to time; 2. by fraudulent Debtors, as 
a refuge from their Creditors; and by Convicts or Criminals, who chose Transporta- 
tion rather than Death." Dr. William Douglass, 1749. 

By William H. Whitmore, Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and 
of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society. 

Salem : Published by G. M. Whipple and A. A. Smith. 1864. 8vo. pp. iv. 48. 

This essay appeared in the Continental Magazine for June 1863, the 
present impression being enlarged, particularly in the quotations by 
which the writer's arguments are supported. Two points are proposed 
for examination: 1. The proportion of native-born citizens in the 
United States. descended from the inhabitants in 1790; 2. The origin 
of the ancestors of the Colonists. The discussion has been provoked 
by what are termed " the monstrous assertions of the leaders of the 
KebelUon." 

' ■ One of these was that which arrogates to the inhabitants of the Seceding States a 
superiority over their Northern brethren in respect to their Ancestry. Not only did 
they claim to be a nation peculiarly free from intermixture with foreigners, but they 
claimed one and all to be of English Parentage, and deduced their pedigree exclu- 
sively from one class of Englishmen, — the Gentry. The inhabitants of the Loyal 
States were described not only as mongrel in race, but the English portion of it was 
declared to be of the most ignoble extraction. * * » The cry of Cavalier and 
Puritan was again raised, and English sympathy was evoked in behalf of the oppressed 
Gentlemen. 

" I propose in this sketch to prove the utter falsity of both assertions; to prove that 
the South is not homogeneous, and its English element is not of gentle origin; to show 
that New England is in the highest degree a purely English community, and that its 
colonists were not of the lowest rank. 

" I shall confine myself to authorities whose statements were made long before the 
commencement of our civil war, in order that no reproach of partiality may attach to 
them; and in most instances I shall be able to use the words of Southerners, writing 
of matters in which they had a strong personal interest. 

* # * * * 

" That there has been a wide diversity in the construction of society. North and 
South, from the commencement of the colonies of Virginia and New England, is 
indisputable. Accident has brought these original peculiarities in antagonism, but we 
must not be misled as to their true significance. 

" In the Southern colonies, as will be proved, society received a form somewhut 



NOETH AND SOUTH. 125 

analogous to that of tlie England of two centuries ago; an aristocratic form, a base and 
spurious imitation of a bad original, was imposed upon the infant settlements. In 
England in 1C30 the rank of the Gentry was established, and it had a certain meaning 
and cause. This modified form of feudalism had a reasonable foundation. « * * 
The country Gentleman, whose family had been known and respected for four cen- 
turies, seemed a natural chief to those whose ancestors had during that period owned 
allegiance to the name. To this class had been confined nearly all of the wealth, 
valour, and culture of the nation. 

" When Virginia and the other Southern Atlantic colonies were planted, however, 
the emigrants took with them but the empty form of their native customs. As will be 
proved, very few of them possessed any hereditary claim to the rank of Gentlemen, 
and even these were without the indispensable body of hereditary retainers, in whom 
a reverential submission was a matter of faith." 

The writer proceeds to contend that the colonists of Virginia and 
the Carolinas never did establish an aristocracy of rank, but merely an 
imitation of such a class, which was liable to be invaded by any inter- 
loper that invested capital in slaves, and that " the slave-owners 
usurped the name of Gentlemen." He adds that it has only been in 
recent times that these Southern Gentry have claimed any superiority 
of race over the North. 

" It has only been since our rational prosperity has been so great, that these false 
aspersions have been indulged in, and a Cavalier has presumed to arrogate a pre- 
cedence over a Puritan." 

The meaning of the title of this pamphlet will now be perceived. 
Its object is to dismount " the Cavalier " from what is declared to be a 
false stalking-horse. For this purpose the author introduces a series 
of tables compiled from the official Census returns. These show : 
1. that in the States in 1860, out of 27,706,425 white inhabitants, 
19,976,762 were the descendants of those who in 1790 were citizens 
by birth; 2. that of the 19 millions of native-born citizens, New Eng- 
land has contributed nearly one third, and nearly one quarter of the 
entire population ; 3. that by no conceivable chance can more than 
five-sixths of the population of the South be descended from the 
English Cavaliers. But, lastly, he proceeds to show from historical 
testimony that the Southerners were of divers races even at the com- 
mencement — all having a considerable proportion of French, Swiss, 
and German colonists. Several pages are then occupied by historical 
extracts which record that from the year 1619 even down to the Eevo- 
lution of 1775 there was a large and constant stream of convicted cri- 
minals transported from England to the American colonies, particularly 
to Virginia and Maryland. Dr. Douglass, the same writer whose sweep- 



126 ANGLO-AMERICAN GENEALOGY — 

ing condemnation of the quality of the original colonists of America, 
New England excepted, has been already given as it appears on Mr. 
Whitmore's title-page, in another place distinguishes them with further 
particularity :— . 

" The settling of our sundry Colonies (he remarks) have been upon several occasions 
and from various beginnings. New England was first settled by people from England 
[who,] tenacious of their own Non-Conformist way of religious worship, were resolved 
to endure any hardships, viz. a very distant removal, inclemencies of the climate, bar- 
renness of the soil, &,c. in order to enjoy their own way of thinking, called Gospel 
Privileges, in peace and purity. Our West India Islands have been settled or increased, 
some of them by Royalists, some by Parliamentarians, some by Tories, some by Whigs, 
at different times fugitives or exiles from their native country. Virginia and Mary- 
land have been for many years and continue to be a sink for transported criminals. 
Pennsylvania being the property of Mr. Penn, a Quaker, he planted it with Quakers; 
(as Lord Baltimore for the same reason at first planted Maryland with Roman Catho- 
lics;) it is lately very much increased with husbandmen swarming from Ireland and 
Germany." A S^immary, historical and political, of the first planting, progressive 
improvements, and present state of the British Settlements in North America. By 
William Douglass, M.D. Boston, N.E. 1749. 

The original settlement of Virginia is not here alluded to. Its Cava- 
lier element is admitted, we presume, by all parties; but the propor- 
tion of that element is greatly reduced in the comments of the present 
writer, as will be perceived in the following passages : — 

" It is shown by Bishop Meade, in his book especially devoted to the history of The 
Old Churches and Old Families oj Virginia, that the records of the parishes have been 
lost, the churchyards destroyed, and few authorities save tradition remain. Even in 
the case of the Washingtons, a family whose records have been traced with sedulous 
care, there is now no evidence of the connections with an English family sufficient to 
satisfy Heralds' College. In short, there are two hundred families in Massachusetts 
having as great a claim, through traditions and the use of coats-of-arms, to the rank 
of Gentlemen, as the bulk of the Patrician families of Virginia. 

"We have therefore to glean, here and there, little fragments of truth, to prevent 
our styling the entire claim of the Cavaliers a bold fabrication. A very few Virginia 
families can be thus proved to have sprung from the English Gentry. The book of 
Bishop Meade gives the following meagre list, and any other authorities are still want- 
ing. He names the families of Ambler, Barradall, Baylor, Bushrod, Burwell, Carter, 
Digges, Fairfax, Fitzhugh, Fowke, Harrison, Jacqueline, Lee, Lewis, Ludwell, Mason, 
Robinson, Spottswood, Sandys, and Washington. I believe I have omitted none, and 
I have rather strained a point in admitting some. I do not, of course, mean to deny 
that others may exist, but until the proofs are submitted to examination there is no 
justice in presuming them to exist." 

However, as a supplement to this enumeration of twenty families of 
Virginia whose gentle descent is allowed to be proved, we have a 
further list, from Meade's book, (vol. ii. p. 428,) of " some of the Old 



NORTH AND SOUTH. 127 

and Leading Families in Eastern Virginia, in Colonial Times and im- 
mediately succeeding the Kevolution." These amount in number to 
two hundred and seventy, but upon them Mr. Whitmore makes this 
remark : — 

" Most of the names in this list also occur in Savage's Dictionary of the Settlers of 
Neiu England. Two thirds of them are to be found in both places. The proof is as 
ample in the one case as the other. J[f the Virginians were Gentlemen on account of 
their names, so were the Yankees." 

One would scarcely have supposed that any claims to aristocracy 
would have been founded merely upon names: but Mr. Whitmore 
states that in America "it is often most erroneously supposed that the 
names of certain families is a proof of their gentle origin." We know 
how even at home the noblest names have subsisted for many centuries 
among the humblest classes. We have recently seen how unduly they 
have been assumed both in England and America. Mr. Whitmore 
certainly arrives at a just conclusion when he declares that, " unless the 
line of descent can be clearly proved, identity of name signifies 
nothing." 

And even when names are apparently supported by coat-armour — 
we introduce here a point to which we know Mr. Whitmore's attention 
is now particularly directed, — it is essential to ascertain that such coat- 
armour is of hereditary right, and not merely fitted to the name, as for 
many generations has been done, and is even still doing, to a great 
extent in England, if there be any customers of the soi-disant Heraldic 
Offices, which are continually advertising their Ai'ms hy name and 
county. Eecords alone can be sure evidence either of arms or of 
descent. 

On turning to examine the ancestry of the settlers of New England, 
Mr. Whitmore at once confidently feels himself upon sure ground, and 
supported by records such as no other country can boast. With his 
account of those records we shall conclude this article, after first quoting 
the concise but perspicuous description of the settlement of this colony 
given by Palfrey in the introduction to his History of New England, 
viz. : — 

"The founders of the Commonwealth of which I write were Englishmen. Their 
emigration to New England began in 1620. It was inconsiderable till 1630. At the 
end of ten years more it almost ceased.' A people consisting at that time of not many 

' The motive of the Puritans for transportation to America was passed by after the 
change of affairs in England on the meeting of the Long Parliament. Hutchinson in 
his History of Massachusetts, 1764, states that "in 298 ships, which were the whole 
number from the beginning of the colony, there arrived 21,200 passengers, men, 
women and children, perhaps about 4000 families." 



128 ANGLO-AMERICAN GENEALOGY. 

more than twenty thousand persons, thenceforward multiplied on its own soil, in 
remarkable seclusion from other communities, for nearly a century and a half. Some 
slight emigrations from it took place at an early day; but they were soon discontinued; 
and it was not till the last quarter of the eighteenth century that thosejswarms began 
to depart which have since occupied so large a portion of , the territory of the United 
States." 

The same facts are set forth in greater detail by extracts from A 
Genealogical Dictionary of the Early Settlers of New England, a 
very comprehensive work which has been recently completed by James 
Savage, formerly President of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and editor of Winthrop's History of New England. 

" Mr. Savage's Dictionary consists of four volumes, embracing over twenty-five 
hundred closely printed pages. He attempts to give the first three generations of 
those who settled in New England before 1692. However imperfect the book may be 
in the record of the children, he has unquestionably obtained the names of nineteen- 
twentieths of those who settled here previous to 1640, the date when, as Hutchinson 
says, the immigration ceased ; and these names confirm entirely his assertion that the 
settlers were English. Of the 4000 heads of families one-third at least had taken 
the freeman's oath by that time, and their names are pi-inted in the Massachusetts 
Records. 

" Massachusetts, Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut have all issued volumes 
containing the early records of the respective colonies. Nearly all the older towns 
have their Histories carefully prepared and printed. Of those not yet published I 
believe hardly one can be named whose records have not been examined in aid of 
Mr. Savage, or for the use of our numerous genealogists. Our county registries of 
deeds, the records of births, marriages, and deaths preserved in every town, and the 
registries of the different parishes, are all very complete, are open to inspection freely 
and gratuitously, and have been consulted by hundreds of our writers. We have a 
Genealogical Society which has published seventeen annual volumes, averaging nearly 
four hundred pages each, devoted to the history of New England families. * * * 
" When (continues Mr. Whitmore,) I published a Handbook of American Genealogy 
in 1862, the list comprised 222 genealogies, 16 tabular pedigrees, and 59 town histo- 
ries and collections, and of the genealogies not half a dozen were of other than New 
England families. It is almost certain that there are extant more printed pages of 
genealogical information relative to the eight generations of families here, than there 
are relative to the history of English families since the Conquest. 

" Is it too much to claim, therefore, that we are dealing with facts and not conjec- 
tures, when we say that, whatever was the case in other colonies, New England was 
thoroughly English and homogeneous?" 

We cannot but add our conviction, that Mr. Whitmore proves his 
case with regard to New England. And when Virginia can advance 
her claims as pertinently, though not so completely, we shall rejoice to 
listen to them. 



129 



RECORDS OF THE FAMILY OF CxVRY : VISCOUNTS 
FALKLAND. 



{Continued from p. 54.) 



Wills from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

(Fenner 28.) Sir Wymond Carye, of Snettisham, co. Norfolk, knt. 
Dated Dec. 27, 1609. 

To be buried in chiu'ch of Snettisham. To said church 20s. To 
poor of Snettisham 10/. per ann. for 10 yrs. To my nephew Sir 
Henry Gary, kt., son and heir app. of my brother Sir Edward 
Caiy, kt, and to his heirs for ever, my parsonage of Snettisham ^ 
and all my messuages, lands, tenements, &c. in or near Snettisham, 
whether freehold or copyhold, held of the manor of Snettisham, Dame 
Cicilies, Hawkyns, Ingalsthorpe, Rustings, Hitcham, or either of them ; 
also to said Sir Henry Gary all my lands and terms of years in the 
manors and lordships of Snettisham and Hawkins in Snettisham, &c. 
To my nephew Sir Philip Gary, kt., the youngest son of my said 
brother, and his heirs for ever, my manor of Roydon Wingfield, and 
all my messuages, lands, and tenements in Marshland and Sharnburne, 
in CO. Norfolk. To each of the daus. of my said brother lOL To my 
said brother 4 of my best colts or horses, except my 2 coach horses, 
which I give to my niece the Lady Sydney, now wife of Sir Henry 
Sidney of Walsingham, kt., and to her said husband my nephew 2 
colts. To Alex"^ Roberts, preacher of the word of God, hi., and appoint 
him supervisor of my will. To John Legitt 40s. To John Rogers, 
servant to my said nephew Sir Heniy Gary, 101. To Richard Met- 
calfe my servant lOZ. and 40s. per ann. for life. To Margaret Grubb 
my servant bl. and 20s. per ann. for life. To Wynyfred Rouse, so 
called before she married, and to Joan, dau. of Robert Brooke, of 
Newzed, my god-daughter, and to Beatrice Keble, a young girl abqjit 
the age of 12 yrs. each 10/. Residue of all personalty to my said 
brother Sir Edward Gary, and my said nephew Sir Henry Gary ; and 
appoint them executors. (Signed) "Wi:Gary." 

' The manor was farmed by Sir Wymond Gary of Queen Elizabeth and James I., 
and, in consideration of 1,500?., was granted by the latter to Sir Henry Gary to be 
held in socage of the manor of East Greenwich, in Kent, by fealty. The manor after- 
wards passed to the Styleman family, an heiress of which carried it to the L'Estranges. 
H. L. Styleman TEstrange is the present owner. 
VOL. III. K 



130 CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

Proved in London at the C. P. C. April 20, 1612, by said Sir 
Edward Gary, kt., power being reserved to said Sir Henry Gary, kt., 
who also proved July 10, 1612. 

(Lawe 12.) Dame Catharine Cary, of Flethall, in par. of Little 
Stoneham, co. Suffolk, widow. Dated 13 Feb. 1613, 11 Jac. Proved 
1 Feb. 1614, at G. P. G. 

To be buried at discretion of ex'or. To my loving mother Katharine 
Bellamy, widow, lOZ. To my son Sir Eob. Grane, knt. a rounde hoope 
ringe of gould of the price or value of 3Z. 6s. 8c?. To my dau. his wife 
the like, and 1 pr. of fine sheets. To my loving nephew Sir Philip 
Knyvett, knt. and bart. one hoope ringe of like value. To my dearly 
beloved niece Dame Kath® his wife my ring of gold sett with 11 
diamonds, and my best petticoat. To my dearly beloved sister Lady 
Hobert one ring of gold to be set with diamonds value 6Z. 13s. 4c?. To 
my very loving servant Hellen Gayle 50Z. To my servant Frances 
Browne 100 marks. To my seiTant Johanna Springe 30?. To my 
nephew Frances Jarnegan hi. To my cousin Bridgett Thimblethorpe 
my new gown. To my servant Martin 20s. To Thomas my coach- 
man 20s. To Agnes Shellop my maidservant 20s. To Joane my 
cookmaid 20s. To poor of the parish where I shall be buried 5/. 
Residue to my very good friend Sir Thomas Hyrne, knt.,' and he to be 
my executor (he proved the will), forasmuch as I owe him divers sums 
of money, and he stands charged for payment of divers sums. 

Witnesses, Gregory Sanderson. 

Mark of Robert Seman. 
(Meade 75.) Sir Edward Carye, of Aldenham, co. Herts, knt. 
Dat. Mar. 20, 1614-5. Godicil May 13, 1616. Proved July 21, 1618. 
To my son Henry Carye all my household stuff and white plate, 
linen, brass and pewter, at my house in Great St. Bartholomew's, near 
West Smithfield, London, and at my house in Aldenham, co. Herts., 
my wife to have use of same during life or widowhood. To my said 
wife my carriage, coach horses, and 6 of my saddle horses ; my son 
Henry to keep my said wife and her family at his cost and charge for 
6 months after my decease. To my servt. Richd. Speed 50Z. Poor of 
Aldenham and Great Berkhamsted, 10?. each ; of Glose of Great St. 
Bartholomew's 5?. Residue of all goods to said son Henry, and ap- 
points him sole ex'or. »• 

Codicil. — Now of Gt. St. Bartholomew's, and Master and Treasiirer 

' Probably Sir Thomas Heme, who was connected with the Knyvett family. In 
1613 Mr. Clement Hurne married Mary Knyvet, of New Buckenham, co. Norfolk. 



cart: viscounts FALKLAND. 131 

of H.M. Plate and Jewels. To my wife absolutely certain white plate. 
To my dan. Manners and my dan. Barrett my gold buttons, to be 
divided. To my dau. Longvile 201. or plate of that value. To son 
Philip 1001. or plate ; dau. Leeke 20Z. ; Lorenzo Gary, one of the sons 
of my son Henry, and to John Gary, the eld. son of my son Philip, 
each 50/. or plate. To Margaret Monmouth 51. To my grandchildren, 
Katherine Grompton and Frauncis Savell, each 101. For my funeral 
200Z. For a tomb to be set xip for me and my wife at Aldenham 2001. 

Proved by Sir Henry Gary, knt., son of deed, and ex'or named. 

(Swan 30.) Dame Katherine Lady Paget, dowager. Dat. Nov. 18, 
1622, proved April 9, 1623. 

To be buried at Aldenham. Wliereas there is due to me from 
my son the Lord of Falkland, Lord Deputy of the Kingdom of 
L'eland, 400/. ; I disj^ose of the same as follows, viz., to Lucius 
and Lorenzo, sons of my said son, each 100/. To Adolphus, 2nd 
son to my son Sir Philip Gary, Kt , 100/. ; and 100/. to Edward, 
youngest son of my said son Sir Philip Gary. To my dau, the Lady 
Manners my new couch and canopy in my bedchamber. To my dau. 
Lady Leake my cabinet. To John Gary, eldest son of my said son 
Sir Philip Gary, all my plate bought of my said son Viscount of Falk- 
land, and a ling. To Elizabeth Gary, one of the daus. of my said son 
Sir Philip Gary, my clock, &c. To Anne Gary, another of his daus., 
my diamond bracelet given me by my late deed brother Lord Knevet. 
To said Elizabeth and Anne, the daus. of my said son Sir Philip Gary, 
all my linen, to be divided. To Pagett Latham, son of Nicholas 
Latham dece*^, 10/. To my servants as follows, viz., to Mrs. Bafford 
10/. To Katherine Matthew 5/. To Philadelphia Williams 3/. To 
Margaret Elsden 3/. To George Goleman 10/. To Ambrose Marsh 
10/. To Robert Sowthwick 30/. To Timothy Greston 10. To Rice 
Thomas 3/. To Owen Thomas 3/. To John Jarrett 3/., and to Wm. 
Burre 5/. I leave the charge and providing for of Edward Ingley to 
my ex'or. To the poor of Aldenham 10/.; of Great Berkhamsted 5/.; 
and of St. Olave's, in London, 5/. I appoint said son Sir Philip Gary 
sole ex'or. (He proved.) 

(Goventry 21.) Edward Gary (Probate Act Book says died in parts 
beyond the seas, bachelor). Dated at Paris, January 3, 1640 {^ie), 
proved February 18, 1639-40. 

" For my loving brother, Mr, John Gary, Mr. Killigrew, Mr. Batty, 
and to the twoe Ginde " cloth for mourning. To Henry Bonnes 20/. 
To Mr. Ayme 25/. To St. John's Gollege in Oxford, for the Library, 

k2 



132 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

10^. To Mr. Arne "the wache with the reveille matin." To Mr. 
Quoy, my host, 20/. To Mr. Paine lOl. To the poor of Madlen par. 
in Oxford, 10*. To the woman who looks to me, Mary Aignan, 51. 

Second date, 24 Jan. 1640 (sic). 

" I make my well beloved John Gary my sole heir and executor." 
(He proved the will as brother.) 

"Witnesses, Thos. Killigrew, D. Smith, WilHame D'Anisone, Robert 
Diniy, Tege, and Galanach. 

(Fines 92.) Leftice, Viscountess Falkland, late wife of Lucius late 
Viscount Falkland. Dat. 25 May, 1646, proved 8 May, 1647. 

To be buried at Gt. Tewe, co, Oxford. To my mother Dame Marie 
Morrison i 80Z. per an. for life, and to my aunt Katharine Harrington 
20Z. per an. for life, both out of rents, &c. of the rectories or parson- 
ages of Burford, Astall, and Fulbrooke, co. Oxon. ; my estate to be 
discharged thereof, however, if my son Lucius now Viscount Falkland 
shall, when 21, make grants of said sums out of lands in fee simple. 
Whereas my late husband in his lifetime granted 60Z. per an. to my 
aunt Ruth Harrington for life out of lands in or near Great Tewe, I 
desire said son Lucius to confirm and continue said grant. To my son 
Henry the yearly rent of 80/., which is secured to me by the Lord 
Capell out of the manor of Thorn Falcon and other lands in co. Somer- 
set. To my said son Henry 50/. more per ann. for life. Residue of 
the leases of said rectories of Burford, Astall, and Fulbrooke, and of 
the manor of rectory of Gt. Tewe (whereof Doctor Sheldon and Doctor 
Morley are trustees for me), and the manor and farm of Darneford 
(whereof Thos. Hinton and Jno. Garrett, gents, are feoffees in trust for 
me), and the monies thereupon dv;e by Mr. Goodier, and residue of all 
debts, goods, chattels, &c., to my said son Lucius, Viscount Falkland, 
and I app^ him ex'or, and during his minority I appoint said Thomas 
Hinton and John Garrett to be my ex'ors. (They proved the will.) 

Overseers, Doctor Sheldon, Dr. Morley, Dr. Haman, and Dr. Earles. 

2nd Adm'on, June 27, 1659. To the Rt Hon. Henry, Lord 
Viscount Falkland, son of dec'', of goods unadministered by said Hin- 
ton and Garrett by reason of the death of Lucius, Viscount Falkland, 
the ex'or named, in his minority. 

3rd Adm'on, Dec. 1, 1663. To Lady Rachael, Viscoimtess Falk- 
land, relict of Henry late Viscount Falkland, now also dec'^, dm-ing 
minority of Anthony now Vise* Falkland, his sou, 

' Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Harington, kilt., and widow of Sir Richard Morison, 
knt., of Tooley Park, co. Leicester. 



cart: viscounts FALKLAND. 133 

Will at C. P. C, but proved at Oxford. 

Sir Lucius Carie, knt., Viscount of Falkland, in perfect health and 

memory. My sonl to God, my body to earth to be biu'ied as my 

ex'trix shall think fit. All my personal estate to my dearly beloved 

^vife Lettice, Viscountess of Falkland, whom I appt. my extrx. she to 

have the education of my 3 sons, Lucius, Henry, and Lorenzo, and to 

bear the charges of educating my 2 younger sons, Henry and Lorenzo. 

Dated 12 June, 18 Charles, 1642. 

(Signed) Falkland. 

Witnesses, Robt. Stanior, Thomas Hinton. Proved at Oxford, 20 Oct. 
1643, by Lettice, Viscountess Falkland. 

Seal — Arms and crest of Cary, with a label of 3 points ; no coronet. 

The will, all but the signature " Falkland" and " Tliomas Hinton," 
seems to be in Rob. Stanior s handwriting. With it is a copy alto- 
gether in one hand without seal, and the signature written " Faulk- 
LAXD." No notice of date or time of death. 

(Lloyd 89.) John Cary, of Stamcell, co. Midclx. esq. Dat. 10 Sep. 
1685. Codicil 18 Sep. 1685; and 2nd codicil 20 Sep. 1685. Proved 
1 Sep. 1686. 

To Edward Cary, esq. my kinsman, son of Patrick Cary, esq. 
dec. the manor of Caldicott, Newton, and Magor, in co. Monmouth. 
All my manor and lordship of Stanwell, co. Middx, and all my farms, 
messuages, lands, and ten'ts in ]\linster, Isle of Thanet, co. Kent, and 
my rectories or parsonages of Llannarth and Llannina, in co Cardigan, 
and my moiety of parsonage of Stanwell, and my manor of Skiunam, 
alias Sldunon, in co. Lincoln, my farm and lands in Naseby, co. 
Lincoln, and all my other manors, lands, and ten'ts, &c. whatsoever to 
John Grout, my menial servant, and to John Hall, of Gate Burton, co. 
Lincoln, gent, and to Wm. Whitlocke, of the ]\Iiddle Temple, London, 
esq. in trust to settle and assm-e the glebe lands, tythes, tenths, &c. 
of said rectories of Llannarth and Llannina on the incumbents thereof 
for ever ; said incumbents always to be fellows of St. John's College, 
Oxford. Same as to vicarage of Stanwell, co. ]\Iiddx.,i the present In- 
cumbent being George Calvert, clerk. Said trustees first to raise out 
of my estates 4,000/., to be disposed as follows : — 2,000/. to the childi-en 
of Christopher late Lord Hatton" and the lady Elizabeth his wife, and 

' This bequest does not seem to Lave been carried out. These livings are not now 
in the gift of St. John's College, nor ever have been. 

2 Lord Hatton married, 1630, Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheir of Sir Charles 
Montagu (brother of Henry, Earl of Manchester). 



^ 



134 CARY: viscounts FALKLAND. 

tlie other 2,000Z. to the children of Dudley late Lord North i and the 
Lady Anne his wife, to be distributed to said children according to a -Ji 
certain writing under the hand and seal of Dame Mary Baesh, my first * 
wife, and dated Sep. 3, 1657 : rest of my said estates (except certain 
devises hereafter mentioned) to be held in trust for the Hon. Elizabeth 
Willoughby, my cousin and heir, sole dau. and heir of George late 
Lord Willoughby of Parham, my nephew, in case she be married^ 
within 3 years after my decease, according to the practice of the 
Church of England, to Francis Lord Guildford, the eldest son 
of Francis late Lord Guildford, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal 
of England, lately deceased, for her life, and after her death for 
her eldest son by said marriage, &c. If such marriage do not take 
place as aforesaid, then the said estates in trust for use of the Rt. 
Hon. Anthony Gary, Lord Viscount Falkland, for his life ; remainder 
to his first son and other sons in succession ; remainder to the above- 
named Edward Gary, esq. and his heirs male ; remainder to my right 
heirs. I appoint as my ex'ors said Wm. Whitlock, esq. and Roger 
North, esq. brother to the late Lord Keeper. To my servant Joseph 
Bowry, my messuage or ten't and farm which John Wrenn now occu- 
pies in Stanwell, for life. To my Idnswoman Mrs. Hester Hollingsworth ^ 
an aiinuity of 201. for life, and same to her sister Mrs. Catherine Long- 
vill. To my maid-servant Mary Fellowes annuity of 10^. for life. To my 
servant Nicholas Hersey the mess, or ten't where he now dwells in 
Stanwell, for life. To Sarah Mercer my late coachman's wife the mess, 
or ten't in Stanwell where she now dwells. To the Master and Fellows 
of University College, Oxford, 40/., being a gift I promised Dr. Walker 
when he was Master of the said College. To the poor of Minster in the 
Isle of Thanet 101. per annum for ever. 20/. for plate for the Commu- 

' Lord North married, 1632, Anne, second daughter and coheir of the aforesaid Sir 
C. Montagu. 

2 This clause gave rise to considerable litigation, Elizabeth Willoughby did not 
marry Lord Guildford, and therefore this devise did not entirely take effect ; but a 
compromise was made in 1697 by which Elizabeth Willoughby, then Mrs. Bertie, 
■was allowed to enjoy the estate of Stanwell for her life, and the reversion was adjudged 
to Lucius Henry Lord Falkland, who accordingly succeeded to it in 1715, and sold it 
in 1720. See hysons' s Hiivirons of London under Stanwell. A MS. copy of the 
pleadings in Chancery with reference to the estate is in the possession of G. E. 
Adams, Esq., Rouge Dragon. 

^ In the pedigree of the Longuevilles of Wolverton, given [by Sir B. Burke 
(Extinct Baronetage, 631), Sir Edward's eldest daughter Catherine is said to have 
married Thomas Gibbs, of Honington, co. Warwick ; and Hester, the second daughter, 
William Lawton, of Lavvton, co. Chester. 



cary: viscounts Falkland. 135 

nion Service at Stanwell ; in the vault in the chancel of which said 
parish church I direct my body to be buried. To Sergeant Branch, 20/. 
To Stephen Stovell my cook 20Z. To John Stevens my butler 201. To 
my servants, Christ, Grout, Thos. Wakelyn, and James Broughton, 
each 20Z. To Walter Owen, Richard Perry, and Wm. Fellowes, each 
20/. To my maid-servants, Susannah Gander 30/., Margaret Lorchin 
20/., and to Joane Crew and Rebecca Gray, each 10/. To John Ostler 
my porter, Charles Russell my postillion, and my servants Geo. Hur- 
locke, Thomas Mowdey, James Ashley, and Robert Hickman, each 5/. 
To Goodwife Ware, and Goodwife Trew her eldest dau., and Goody 
Stanny, each 5/., &c., &c. I appoint Samuel Aldridge of Stanes, co. 
Middx., gent., to be steward of the Courts to be held for said manor of 
Stanwell for life. 

1st Codicil appoints Simon Smith, esq., another executor; revokes 
appointment of John Hall as trustee ; revokes bequest to Jno. Stevens 
his butler; and gives him an annuity of 10/. instead. 

2nd Codicil desires Lady Wiseman, sister of the late Lord Keeper, 
to take care of the education of said niece Elizabeth Willoughby. 

Proved by said Simon Smith, power being reserved to the other 
executors. 

(Box 153.) Anthony Car?/, Lord Viscount Falkland. Dated 30 Oct. 
1691, proved 26 July, 1694. 

Whereas Dame Rebecca Litton, widow, the relict of Sir Rowland 
Litton, knt., dec"^, by her last will dat, Jan. 7, 1685-6, devised all her 
messuages, lands, &c., which she had purchased of me, situate in Sand- 
ford or elsewhere, in co. Oxon., xmto Sir Edward Atkins, knt., and 
Martin Folkes, esq., in trust to receive the rents &c. of the same during 
the life of her daughter, my wife, and dispose of the same to her sepa- 
rate benefit, and after decease of her daughter, my wife, then to the 
first and all the sons of her said dau. my wife ; remainder to her 
daus., &c. And whereas Dame Rebecca Litton devised the residue of 
her estate, except an annuity of 500/., to said Sir Edward Atkins and 
Martin Folkes, in trust to dispose of same to use of her said dau., my 
wife, and her sons and daus., with remainder as follows : — viz., one- 
third to Sir Thomas Hussey, nephew of said Dame Rebecca; one-third 
to her nephew Sir Berkeley Lucye, and the other third to me and my 
heirs. By death of said Dame Rebecca, I am entitled to the rever- 
sion, upon decease of my said wife without issue, of said messuages and 
lands in said co. Oxon., and said third part of the manors and lands to 
be purchased with the residue of said Lady Litton's estate. I now 



136 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

devise all said messuages, lands, &c., in said co. Oxon., and my rever- 
sion, &c,, and all other property whatsoever to my said wife Rebecca, 
Viscountess Falkland, dau. to said Lady Litton, and her heirs for ever, 
and appoint her sole executrix. (She proved the will.) 

The death of this Lord is thus noticed by John Evelyn, under the 
date of May 30, 1694:— 

" Lord Falkland, grandson to the learned Lord Falkland, Secretary 
of State to King Charles I., and slain in his service, died now of the 
small-pox. He was a pretty, brisk, understanding, industrious young 
gentleman; had formerly been faulty, bi;t now much reclaimed; had 
also the good luck to marry a very great fortune, besides being entitled 
to a vast sum, his share of the Spanish wreck, taken np at the expense 
of divers adventurers. From a Scotch Viscount he was made an English 
Baron, designed Ambassador for Holland, had been Treasurer of the 
Navy, and advancing extremely in the new Court. All now gone in a 
moment, and I think the title is extinct. I know not whether the 
estate devolves to my cousin Carew. It was at my Lord Falldand's, 
whose lady importuned us to let our daughter be with her some time, so 
that that dear child took the same infection, which cost her valuable 
life."i 

(Young 28.) A7ine Hamilton, wife of Lord Archibald Hamilton. 
Dat. 30 April, 1708, prov. 15 Feb. 1710-11. 

Whereas the castle. and lands of Confey and other lands in L'eland 
are devised by my uncle Lord Lucas to Robert Thornhill, of Middle 
Temple, London, Esq""®, and John Walker, of Hillingdon, co. Middx., 
Esq., on trust for my sole and separate use ; I devise the same to my 
husband Lord Archibald Hamilton, subject to these legacies. To my 
daughter Ann,2 Lady Grandison, 2,000/. in two years. To Mrs. 
Dorothy Potter 2oL a-year for life, payable in London. If the land 
is sold, then 300/. in lieu thereof. To my son. Lord Viscount Falk- 
land, 100/. To my servant, Mary Hon, 25/. My husband to be ex'or. 
(He proved the will.) 

Signed, Ann Hamilton. 
Witnesses, Jo. Marshall. 
Wm. Rawlins. 
E. Stables. 

Seal. — Lucas, with a baron's coronet. 

On the original will: "died Oct. 1709." 

• Diary, edit. 1857, ii. 330. 

- Evidently a clerical error for Frances. 



CARY: viscounts FALKLAND. 137 

Attached to the original will : — 

Seal — Lucas, imder a baron's coronet. 

" These witness I, Lord Archibald Hamilton, impower my wife Ann 
Hamilton, to make a will of her real and personal estate left her by the 
late Lord Lucas for her separate use, and I consent to the same. 

29 April, 1708. 

Seal. — Arms, Quarterly, 1 and 4, Hamilton and Lorn. 
2 and 3, Douglas. 

Witnesses same as above. 

(Box 42.) Sir James Hayes of Great Bedgbury, co. Kent, knt. Dat. 
11 Jan. 1692, prov. 13 March 1721. 

To poor of Goudhurst, co. Kent, and Great Tew, co. Oxon, 10^. each. 
To my dear brother John Hayes, my brother and sister Humphrey, my 
sister and my nephew Blake, and my good friend Mr. Arthur Moor, 10/. 
each. To my dear wife Rachel, Viscountess Falkland, all her jewels 
and plate, and all my plate, furniture, horses, &c. Debts to be paid 
in the way that my wife and said brother John Hayes and nephew 
James Blake and said Arthur Moor think fit, but not that of Sir John 
Champante, as not believing his transactions or thoSe of Mr. Roberts. 
The debt to Sir Robert Dashwood, or other ex'or of George Dashwood 
dec'*, on acct. of undertaking to farm the revenues of Ireland, also 
not to be paid. To my dear dau. Rachell Hayes, 2,000/. at 21, or 
marriage, if with mother's consent ; and she and my son James Hayes 
to be maintained. If she die, then the same to my son. Power to 
augment it to 3,000/. or abridge it. I hope my dear son William 
Hayes will be well provided for by the parsonage of Tew, and so leave 
him but 200/. My manors of Bedgbury, Goudhurst, and Foard and 
other lands, &c. to my son James Hayes for life, remainder to his 
issue in tail male, remainder to son William and his issue in tail 
.male, rem'^ to dau^ of said James Hayes, rem^ to daus. of said William, 
rem'^ to my dau' Rachel for her life, rem"" to her sons tail male, 
rem"^ to her dau^, rem"" to my brother John Hayes and his issue like 
way, rem"" to nephew James Blake and his issue like Avay, rem'' to my 
own right heirs. If I am indebted justly to Sir John Chamj^ante or 
Sir Robert Dashwood, it to be paid out of what is received from Sir 
James Shaen, who is boiind to reimburse me. My wife, brother, and 
my nephew Blake, and said Ai'thur Moor, to be executors. My said 
wife to be the guardian of my children, and after her death my other 
ex'ors. In token of respect to Lord Falkland, son of my dear wife, 
and his lady, to whom I hold myself much obliged, I leave them 



138 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

mourning, and vf^ have asked his lordshijD to have been ex'or, but con- 
sidered he had so much business to look after. He to be consulted by 
my ex'ors, and hope he will look after the welfare of my poor children. 

"Witnesses. Abraham Blake. 
James Sloane. 
Jacob Bourdon. 
John Wilson. 

Seal. Ermine, three escutcheons gules, for Hayes; impaling Hunger- 
ford. Over arms of Hayes, crest, an eagle displayed ; over anns of 
Hungerford, a viscount's coronet. 

Written on back of the original will of Sir James Hayes : 

14 June, 1694. Rachel, Viscountess Falkland, one of the ex'ors, 
sworn. Proved by her 22 June, 1694. 

13 Dec. 1721. Arthur Moore, esq. another ex'or, sworn. Proved 
13 March, 1721-2. 

Glim de Bedgbury in com. Kent, postea de parochia S*' Jacobi 
Westmonstariensi, sed apud Kensington, co. Middx. defunct. 

Sir James Hayes, having purchased the estate of Bedgebury from 
Thomas Colepeper, esq.i built a new house there, at a small distance 
from the ancient manor-house (in which Queen Elizabeth had slept in 
1573). He placed the* following inscription on the foundation-stone; 
together with the arms of Haijes, Ermine, three escucheons gules ; im- 
paling Hungerford, Sable, two bars argent, in chief three plates. 

BENIGNITATE DEI 

CVI PARENT OMNIA 

SPOLIIS PROFVNDI ET ABSCONDITIS ARENAr' THESAVRIS 

QVA8I COELITVS LOCVPLETES FACTI 

lACOBVS HAVES EQ. AVRAT. 

SERENISSIMO REGI CAROLO II. 

A SANCTIORIBVS CONSILIIS IN HIBERNIA 

ET RACHEL VICECOMITISSA FALKLANDIAE UXOR EIVS 

HANC DOMVM rOELICITER A FVNDAMENTIS 

STRVXERVNT. 



ANNO DOM. MDCLXXXVIII. 
DA, PATER OMNIPOTENS, BONA QVI MIHI CVNCTA DEDISTI, 
HIC PIETAS, HIC PRISCA FIDES, CONCORDIA, VIRTVS, 

' Hasted, //i6-^o)-j/ o/7rc/(<, edit. 1790, iii. 36. 



CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 139 

REGVM AMOR, ET PATRIAE MANEANT PER SECVLA CVNCTA, 
ET BENE QVAESITIS VENIAT CENTESIMVS HAERES. 

Exemplar Imjus Tahulcc in fundamentis ejus domus 
Conditores Deuvi venerati posuerunt.^ 

The house which Sh- James Hayes erected still exists embedded in 
additions which Lord Beresford and Mr. Beresford-Hope have succes- 
sively made. 

The descent of the i^roperty subsequently to Hasted's account is as 
follows. Mr. Cartier, formerly Governor-general of Bengal,2 died 
Jan. 23, 1802, a^t. 69, without issue. His widow, Stephana, daughter 
of Stephen Law, esq. of Broxbourn, formerly Governor of Bombay, 
succeeded, and died at Bedgebury Aug. 22, 1825, aged 80; leaving 
Bedgebury to her brother Archdeacon Law of Rochester (see again the 
Falkland pedigree, Table II.), who enjoyed it for less than two years, 
and left it to his son; he sold it in 1836 to Lord Viscount Beresford, 
on whose death in 1854 it devolved to Mr. Beresford-Hope. 

Extract from the will of Rachel, Viscountess Falkland. All in her 
own handwriting. 

(Browning 208.) To be privately buried. 1 appoint James Blake, 
esq., of Great Russell Street, and Mr. Thomas Bubb, of the Liner 
Temple, my ex'ors and trustees. To each of them 10 guineas. To 
Mr. John Lidgold 5Z., and to Mr. Crowther, of Cranbrooke, hi. To 
Mrs. Elizabeth Fen, 15^. a-year for life. To my servant Katherine 
Springate, 5Z. a-year, out of the general proceeds of my estate, or out 
of my right of mortgage due to me of Great Bedgebury. My real 
estate to my son James Hayes, esq. for life. Rem'^' to such wife as he 
shall leave at his death for her life. Rem'' to his children ; but, if none, 
remi" to my dau. Rachel Hay (^sic). Dated 19 Feb^ 1717, 4 George. 

(Signed) Rachel Falkland. 
Witnesses, Hen. Courthope, Robert Philip, Thos. Boorman. 
3 June, 1719. James Blake, esq., one ex'or sworn. 
30 June, 1719. Thomas Bubb, other ex'or sworn. 
Proved 12 Nov. 1719, by both the ex'ors. 
Seal — In a lozenge Gary, impaling Hungerford. All under a 

' The brass plate bearing this inscription is now let into the wall of the Hall. The 
allusion in the third line is explained by the previous quotation from Evelyn, 
* A memoir of him will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxii. 



140 caky: viscounts Falkland. 

viscount's coronet. Written on the original will : " Died 24 Feb^ 
171^ at Bedgbury, in tbe parish of Goudhurst, co. Kent." 

(Bellas 265.) Sarah, Viscountess Falkkmd, wife of Lord Henry 
Viscount Falkland, and relict of Henry Howard, Earl of Suffolk, only 
surviving child and heir of Thomas Inwen, esq. by Sarah his wife, late 
of St. Saviour's, Southwark, Surrey. Dated 25th May 1776, but 
stated in codicil to have been written many years before ; contained in 
23 sheets. She bequeaths to churchgoing poor of Widford, co. Essex, 
200^.; Purleigh 100^.; Woodham Ferrers 60/.; Stow Maries 501 ; 
Woodham Mortimer 100/. ; Writtle 100/. ; Chignall Smalley 100/. ; 
Boreham 100/.; Saffron Walden 600/.; Great Chesterford 100/.; 
Little Chesterford 100/. ; Lewisham 200/. — to be entered in the regis- 
ter book as the gift of Sarah, daughter of Thomas Liwen, esq., late of 
Southend, in this parish, and relict of Henry Howard, esq. of Southend, 
and wife of Lord Henry Viscount Falkland 200/. To master of Dul- 
wich College, for 6 old men and 6 old women 300/. ; St. George's 
Hospital, Hyde Park Corner, 100/. ; to Christ Church Hospital, as the 
gift of Sarah, daughter of Thomas Inwen, esq., late one of the gover- 
nors, and relict of Henry Howard, Earl of Suffolk, also one of the 
governors, 3,000/. These charitable bequests amount to 5,210/. 

To Servants, &c. : — To Margaret Turing, spinster, present waiting 
woman, 200/. ; Thomas Cole, my late husband's old coachman, 60/. ; 
Sarah Brands, widow, who lived with me as housekeeper at Beckenham, 
Kent, 30/. ; besides 10 guineas each to every other domestic servant. 

Legacies to Friends and Relations : — Margaret Hatcher, widow, of 
St. Margaret's Canterbury, 200/. ; Mary, Avidow of the late Rev. Dr. 
Kemp, of Camberwell, 100/. ; Mary Peck, spinster, sister of William 
Peck, of Sansford Hall, co. Essex, 100/. ; Mary Howard, widow of 
Gen. Thomas Howard, of Savill Street, St. James's Westminster, 100/.; 
Catharine Howard, spinster, eldest daughter of Henry Howard, esq. 
and granddaughter of late Gen. Thomas Howard, in remembrance of 
the friendly notice the late Gen. Howard and his lady expressed to me 
and my late husband, 1,000/.; John Austen, esq. of Horsemonden, co. 
Kent, 100/.; Thomas Unwin, esq. of Castle Hedingham, Essex, 100/.; 
Rev. John Saunders, of Widford, Essex, 100/.; Francis Austen, esq. 
of Sevenoaks, Kent, 500/. ; Sarah Hucks, widow of Joseph Hucks, of 
Great Russell Street, St, Giles's-in-the-Fields, 500/.; Mary Gibins, 
widow of Joseph Gibins, of St. George's, Southwark, 2,000/. ; Richard 
R^jidall, brother of said Mary Gibins, 2,000/.; William Heberden, 
M.D. 100/.; Francis Motley Austen, esq. of Wilmington, grandson 



cart: viscounts FALKLAND. 141 

of the late Thomas Motley, esq. of Beckingham, co Kent, 500/.; to 
Viscount Falkland my husband 1,000/. 

To be privately buried in churchyard of Widford, co. Essex. No 
escocheons at funeral ; no achievements on any house or place of resi- 
dence ; Tliomas Cole, my late coachman, to drive the hearse to Wid- 
ford. My tenants to attend, and to have 2 guineas each, their wives 
1 guinea ; the rector of Widford 3 guineas, and the parish clerk 
1 guinea. An Egyptian pyramid to be built over my body in east 
front of churchyard i for 150/. like Mrs, Blackwell's at Lewisham, the 
inscription I have by me to be placed thereon and copied in register 
book. All my books, my two pictures of horses, and one of a dog, to 
the Rectory of Widford as heir looms, 30/. for the cost of fixing and 
moving them. Full-length picture of my late husband, of Sovithend, 
now in manor-house of Billingham in Southend, co. Kent, to Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge; on it to be inscribed, " Henry Howard, Earl 
of Suffolk, Visitor of this College, bom on New Year's Day 1706, 
died at his seat, Audley End, 22 April, 1745. The gift of Sarah, the 
wife of the said Earl, at the time of her decease." 30/. for expenses 
attending it ; 20/. to master of said college. 

Recites that she had power by indenture made on late marriage to 
dispose of all her property failing issue of her body, and that since her 
marriage she had pm'chased many estates. The manor and lands of Wid- 
ford Hall, Essex, and advowson (the lands let at 110/. a year) to William 
Hucks, son of late Thomas Hucks, esq. of St. Olave's, Southwark, subject 
to an annuity of 20/. for life to Lydia Vanderplank (youngest daughter 
of late Lydia Hucks Normandy, widow, of Dulwich) for separate use ; 
also my quit-rent and reverse of lease of a house in or near St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, and let to Roger Pindar. My trustees to present 
Rev. John Saunders to rectory of Wootlham Mortimer, and subject 
thereto the said advowson, the manor of same and lands therein, now 
let at 73/. 10s. a-year, to Sarah Cope, widow, daughter of late Joseph 
Hucks, esq. of St. Giles's-in-the-Fields ; but if she die before me, then 
to William Hucks, son of said Thomas Hucks, in fee. To William 
Hucks, of Knaresborough, co. York, son of late Joseph Hucks, of St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, my manor of Barons and lands at Purleigh, co. 
Essex, now let at 125/. a-year. To Sarah Normandy, eldest daughter 

' This injunction was carried out and the following inscription placed .on it : — 
" Sarah, Viscountess Falkland, wife of Lucius Charles Viscount Falkland, relict of 
Henry Howard, late Earl of Suffolk, and daughter and only child of Thomas Inwen, 
Esq., deceased, died the 27th May, 1776, aged 62." 



142 GARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 

of late Lydia Hucks Noiinandy, widow, of Dulwich, my manor of 
Woodham Ferrers, Pm-leigh, or Stow Maries, and lands now let at 
331. a-year ; but if she die before me, then same to William Harding, 
grandson of said Thomas Hucks, esq. 

After my debts and the said legacies are paid, all other my lands in 
the coimties of Essex, Kent, Middlesex, Bedford, Cambridge, Lincoln, 
or elsewhere, and all my real and personal property, in trust for my 
said husband Viscount Falkland for life, and then to sell and pay 
thereout:— to Eobert Hucks, esq. of St. George's, Bloomsbury, 1,000/.; 
to Harriet Kelley, his sister, 500/. ; to Sarah Noyes, also his sister, 
and if she die then to her issue, 3,000/. ; to Mary Gibins, widow 
above named, in like manner, 5,000/. ; to Eichard Eandall, her brother, 
in hke manner, 5,000/. ; to William Hucks, of Knaresborough, in like 
manner, 4,000/.; to William Hucks, his eldest son, 500Z. ; to William 
Harding, grandson of late Thomas Hucks, esq , and if he die before 
me the same to Maria Harding, spinster, his sister, 2,000/. ; to said 
Maria Harding 2,000/.; Sarah Cope, widow, daughter of said Joseph 
Hucks, esq. 1,000/.: Caroline Howard, spinster, granddaughter of late 
Gen. Thomas Howard, 1,000/. ; Sackville Austen, second son of said 
Francis Austen, 500/.; John Austen, youngest son of said Francis 
Austen, 500/.; Sarah Normandy, eldest daughter of late Lydia Hucks 
Normandy, widow, 1,000/. Eesidue to Francis Motley Austen, esq. 
absolutely. My executors to be said Lord Falkland, Francis Austen, 
esq. of Sevenoaks, Francis Motley Austen, esq. of Wilmington, co. 
Kent, and William Hucks, esq. the son of Thomas Hucks, esq. 

Signed " Sarah F." stated to be the " Signature and mark of 
Sarah, Viscountess Falkland." 

Codicil of same date, with same witnesses, stating that a legacy of 
2,000/. had lapsed by the death of the party, and bequeathing same 
to her husband. Lord Viscount Falkland. 

Seal effaced. 

Proved 22 June, 1776, by Francis Austen, esq. and William 
Hucks, esq. two of the executors, power reserved to Francis Motley 
Austen, esq. and Lord Viscount Falkland, the others, the said Lord 
Viscount Falkland consenting. 

On original Will : " Late of Blackheath in parish of Lewisham, 
Kent; died 27 May last." 

(Ducarel 128.) Lucius Charles, Lord Viscount Falkland. Dat. 26 
Nov. 1784, proved 5 Mar. 1785. 

Desires to be privately buried in Audley Chapel, St. George's 



CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 143 

Hanover Square, if he should die in or near London; if not, in the 
churchyard of the parish in which he should be resident. As to the 
capital messuage (now divided into two) at the corner of Great George 
Street, Hanover Square, and now in occupation of himself and Fish 
Bury, esq., and all other real estates, to eldest daughter Hon. Jane 
Gary in fee. To the said (sic) Dr. John Law 50 guineas, as a recom- 
pense for the trouble in assisting said daughter. 

To daughters [Mary Law'] and Charlotte Chapman 20 guineas 
each. Residue to said daii. Jane Gary and Rev. Dr. John Law, whom 
he appoints executors. 

Proved by said Rev. John Law, Archdeacon of Rochester, one of the 
executors, jDOwer reserved to Hon. Jane Gary, spinster. 

Administrations. 

June 9, 1598. Administration of Ralph Baesh, late of Stansted, co. 
Herts, to the relict, Frances Baesh. 

1631. July 4. Sir Philip Can/, hit., late of St. Clave, Silver Street, 
London. Adm. granted to Sir Edward Barrett, knt,, baron of New- 
burgh, in Scotland, and Sir George Manners, of Fulbeck, co. Lin- 
coln, knt., during the minority of John Gary, Edward Gary, Elizabeth 
Gary, and Ann Gary, children of deceased. 

(Marginal note.) These letters expired by reason of the arrival at 
full age of John Gary, one of the said children of deceased, to whom 
new administration was granted Jan. 1634-5. 

This last administration, dated Jan. 3, 1634-5, to John Gary, son 
of Sir Philip Gary, knt., late of St. Glave's, Silver Street, London. 

Nov. 4, 1633. Administration of Lord Henry Carey, late Viscoiint 
Falkland, to Lady Elizabeth Carey, Dowager Countess Falkland, 
relict of deceased. 

July 10, 1663. Administration oi Lord Henry, late Viscount Falk- 
land, late of Tewe Magna, co. Oxon, to the relict the Viscountess 
Falkland. 

Nov. 24, 1692. Administration oi Edward Gary, late of St. James's 
Westminster, co. Middlesex, esq., to the relict the Hon. Anne Gary. 

• Erased in original. 



144 



CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 



Oh 



p-> 



a 
o 






II— 



0-; 



J3 — m 



C 3 o! g S 

o c — 3 a 

o § .2i P* ^ 

T: i^ xiai^i CO 

?2 -a c °° • • 



Ih- 



-^ ^ '^ ^ ^ s 

S " "-I « fc 5:5 Ci3 

c _ p 1- 3 ^ 

_a)co rt"2 S .-". 

:S - S S -c^ «i^- 

cl - -^ -a t^ «> 

*^ rJ2 T— ( ^ cd r-l i—t , 

° ^ O II =2 - 0^ 

K ,2 X! a 03 'S fe 



- oj-m CO 

^ u ^ ^ 
c73 '"o Q -3 , 

It- f 

a -a oo 



o , 



]K 



■^ S'2 



'< ?:q -^ '^ 

•S .5- s j2 



t 



^=^ 



5!^ -a 



5 6" 

cq .2 C 

*^ — "" 

■-3 ■£ -S 






<a 



S a 

^ O 



_l ■ ^ 









cfi a 

<u o 






^.2 



CARY: VISCOUNTS FALKLAND. 145* 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

P. 34. Chilton-Foliot was a manor in dower of the Queen of England 
temp. Hen. VIII and Edw. VI. From a survey taken on behalf of 
Queen Katharine, 19 Dec. 1548 (1 Edw. VI), it appears that Sir 
Edward Darell had obtained a lease of the principal manor, in 1546, 
for a term of 21 years; paying per annum 4U. 15.9. ll|f/., and 
8Z. 7s. Sd. new rent. Among the customary tenants (copyholders), at 
the same date, was Sir John Carie or Carye, who seems to have held 
an inferior manor, Sowley, in the parish of Chilton, together with a 
house containing " hawle and ketchinge, 2 chambers, and a stable," at 
the rent of xis. per annum. (Communicated by the Rev. J. E. Jackson, 
Leigh Delamere.) 

P. 35. Berkhamstead Castle and manor were recovered by the Prince 
of Wales in 1611, and remained the property of the Duchy of Cornwall 
till a few years since, when they were sold to the trustees of the present 
Earl BrownloAv, who now holds them. 

Ibid. The elevation of Sir Henry Cary to the Scotish peerage raised 
the question whether, as he had been chosen M.P. for Hertfordshire, 
Lord Falkland belonged to the Upper or the Lower House. (See Cou7-t 
and Times of James /., vol. ii. 228.) 

P. 37, line \2, for "perhaps in consequence," rmcZ " of the small 
pox." 

Ibid. Evelyn states that he obtained an English barony (cf. infra, 
p. 136), but I have not been able to discover the date of the patent, 
nor indeed that any was issued. 

Ibid. It would seem from a passage in Evelyn's Diary (vol. i. 156, 
ed. 1827,) that Patrick Cary became a monk early in life. Evelyn met 
him at Rome in November, 1644, and speaks of him as "an abbot, 
brother to our learned Lord Falkland, a witty young priest, who after- 
wards came over to our Church." 

An interesting account of some of the writings of Patrick Cary may 
be found in Notes and Queries (29 Oct. 1853), and a reference is there 
made to a mention of him by Sir Walter Scott, in " Woodstock." 

P. 38. Edward Cary was high bailiff of the city of Westminster, 
and his wife's burial is recorded in the registers of St James's to have 
taken place in Oct. 1709. She is entered as "Mrs. Cary," and not as 
Lady Anne Hamilton. She is also so styled in the MS. Memoranda of 
Peter le Neve, Norroy, " Mrs. Cary mother of the present Vise*. Falk- 
land dyed in Queen Street, Westminster." 

VOL. III. L 



146 cary: viscounts Falkland. 

P. 39. Thomas Cary of Chilton Foliot, ob. ante 1548. 

Ibid. Joyce, widow of Sir John Cary. Cf. Machyn's Diary : " The vi. 
day of Aprell (1559) was bared at [Saint Clement's] without Tempyll- 
bare my lady Gray (Carey) the [wyfe of Sir John] Gray and the wyfF 
also of Master Walsyngham, .... Avith ij. whyt branchys andiiij. grett 
tapurs and fo[ur] staff torchys, and ij dozen and di. of skochyons of 
armes [without] .... masse and or (^sic orig.) communyon." 

Ibid. Chamberlaine's Letter, dat. 6 April, 1609. "The small pox 
is very rife . . . Sir Adolphus Gary died of them here in town about a 
fortnight since." {Court and Times of James I. vol. i. 9G.) 

P. 40. Sir William Uvedale was buried 3 Dec. 1652. His issue by 
his first wife will be given in the account of the Hunsdon line. 

P. 43. Catherine, Avife of Sir Henry Longueville, was buried at 
Wolverton, 10th May, 1611. 

Ibid. The marriage between Jane Cary and Sir Edward Barrett 
seems to have taken place in 1609. (See Court and Times of James I. 
vol. i. 85.) 

Additions and Corrections to the Register Extracts. 

P. 47. St. Pancras. The honourable Mrs. Cary was Anne, daughter 
of Hugh, Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, and widow of George Cary of 
Torre Abbey, co. Devon. 

P. 49. Wolverton, co. Bucks. 

1611. 10th day of May. The Ladye Longueville, junior, was buried. 
1620. 17th day of May. Sir Henry Longueville, knt. was buried. 

Wtkeham, Hants. 

1642. William, son of Sir Wm. Uvedale and Lady Victoria, was 
born 5th May, 1642, and baptised in London. [He was alive in 1651, 
but dead before 1663, as appears by a family deed.] 

1696. The Right Honourable Elizabeth, Countesse Dowager of y® 
R*^ Honourable Edward Earl of Carlisle, Lord Viscount Morpeth, 
Baron Dacre of Gilsland, was buried y^ 30 day of Deer. 1696. 

Victoria Cary married Sir R. Corbet in 1663 or 4, and was dead 
before 1683, as she is not mentioned in her husband's will, and her 
mother-in-law is appointed guardian of her children and executrix. 
(Communicated by Granville L. Gower, Esq. M.P.) 

P. 132, line 3, /or '* 10 " read " lOZ." 



147 



REVIEW. 

POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, OR THE ART OF PEDIGREE-MAKING. 

Falsum committunt viri docti, qui hominibus de plebe nobilitatem, in- 
signia, et antiquitatem generis adfingunt. . . . Et potest profecto debetque 
mercenariorum illorum poena tunc, quum reipubliofe valde per eos nocitum, 
atque fides monumentorum et historias turbata est, ad ultimum supplicium 
proferri. — Leyserus, Meditationes ad Pandectas, Sp. dcxvi. 3, 4. 

Edinburgh : Edmonston and Douglas, 1865. Crown 8vo. pp. 100.] 

This is a small book, but very much to the purpose; and, though 
the writer is anonymous, he is evidently one who possesses competent 
knowledge of the matters of which he treats, and access to the best 
sources of information. He has been irresistibly provoked to speak out 
when reflecting upon the contrast presented by the many excellent 
examples of genealogical history which are an honour to the present 
age, and the frequent instances of fiction and humbug that still venture 
to show their heads like poppies in the harvest-field. 

It has become an admitted fact that the history of the leading families of a country 
is an important part of the history of that country. A race of learned and accurate 
investigators have sprung up, who, approaching genealogy in a critical spirit, have 
brought entirely new resources to bear on it. Rejecting all that is not borne out by 
authentic evidence, they have applied themselves to the patient examination of the 
national records, the archives and chronicles of the monasteries, and the contents of 
private charter-chests. Each source has yielded its quota of facts, and these facts 
have been woven into genealogical biographies. Heraldry itself, after having been 
abandoned to coach-painters and undertakers, has again come into favour; having 
been found to be a valuable, if not indispensable, aid to the knowledge both of family 
and of national history. 

England and Scotland have produced a succession of more or less excellent family 
histories, some published and some privately printed, in the foremost rank of which 
must be placed Lord Lindsay's delightful record of the House of Lindsay, the model 
for all family histories in time coming. In this change which has come over the 
spirit of genealogy, it is pleasant to find that Scotland, once notorious for looseness 
and credulity in matters of pedigree, has taken a prominent part. It would not be 
easy to overrate the value of the muniments which have been preserved and carefully 
edited by the Maitland, Bannatyne, and Spalding Clubs. 

While this genealogical revival cannot fail to be extremely gratifying to every lover 
of historical truth, I propose in these few pages to make it matter of inquiry, how far 
it has as yet extended to genealogical literature of a more popular kind, such as the 
Peerages, histories of the " Landed Gentry," and similar works, which are in the 
hands of every one, and daily referred to by the general public. 

The writer proceeds to describe the various works that bear the 

L 2 



148 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 

name of Sir Bernard Burke; and which, he justly observes, have now 
an apparent stamp of authority, which they could not be said to possess 
before that gentleman, as Ulster king of arms, became the head of the 
heraldic establishment of one of the three kingdoms. The beau ideal of 
a Genealogical History of our Nobility is first sketched. 

It would presuppose high genealogical qualifications on the part of its author, in- 
cluding patience, carefulness, and a scrupulous regard to truth. It would be based 
on an attentive examination of title-deeds, contemporary documents, and the public 
records, and its statements would be checked by reference to every available source of 
information. While due weight would be allowed to conclusions arrived at by genea- 
logical critics of tried skill and accuracy, no mere dictum of the representative of a 
family, however unimpeachable in point of veracity, would be received without inves- 
tigation. The heraldry would also be carefully checked and corrected by the records 
of the several Colleges of Arms. 

The Peerage works of Dugdale and Collins in England, and of Crawfurd and Sir 
Robert Douglas in Scotland, written in an uninquiring and credulous age, were pro- 
bably up to the highest mark of their time. Since their day, the materials for arriving 
at truth have been so greatly extended, the public records have become so much more 
accessible, and so much light has been thrown on family history by the labours of 
genealogical antiquaries, that it is obviously desirable that these standard works should 
be replaced by others written under advantages which the older writers never pos- 
sessed, and embodying the results of the genealogical literature which has been accu- 
mulating since their date. 

The author then makes some critical remarks on Burke's Peerage 
and Baronetage ; and alludes more particularly to an idea which "is 
found recurring in all Sir Bernard's writings, until it becomes a posi- 
tive mania," that of introducing among the quarterings of families " the 
undifferenced royal arms of England, and still more frequently of Scot- 
land, on the most frivolous grounds, and often on the score of an 
alleged descent from royalty that will not stand a moment's examina- 
tion." (p. 10.) ^^ 

The " lineage " presented by Sir Bernard's work is condemned very 
generally : " there are a few instances in which it is tolerably correct, 
and two or three in which it is extremely correct ; but unfortunately 
these are exceptional cases." (p. 12.) These are indeed sweeping 
charges, and must summon Ulster to his defence. 

An average example, not worse than many others, is the pedigree of the Polwarth 
family. Lord Polwarth is the representative of the family of Scott of Harden, a very 
early cadet of the house of Scott. The representative of the male line, progenitor of 
Buccleuch, on marrying the heiress of Murdockstone in the thirteenth century, 
altered the original arms, the stars and crescent, by incorporating with them the 
Murdockstone bend, the old Scott coat being retained by the house of Harden, who 
branched off prior to the Murdockstone marriage : — 



OR THE ART OF PEDIGREE-MAKIMG. 149 

'' An aged kniglit to danger steel'd. 
With many a mosstrooper came on ; 

And azure in a golden field, 

The stars and crescent graced his shield. 
Without the bend of Murdieston." 
The poet is fully borne out in this matter by the prosaic testimony of seals and 
charters. The Buccleuch succession went in the seventeenth century through an heir- 
female, Anne Duchess of Buccleuch, to her son by the attainted Duke of Monmouth, 
from whom the ducal house of Buccleuch are now descended, and are therefore not 
paternally Scotts. The male representation of Buccleuch passed to the latest cadet, 
Scott of Howpaisley, afterwards of Thirlestane, from whom descend Lord Napier and 
all the various Napiers who have deserved so well of their country, who are all pater- 
nally Scotts. So long as a male descendant of the Thirlestane branch is in life, or any 
male descendant of Sir Richard le Scot and the Murdockstone heiress, the Harden 
Scotts can never claim the male representation of Buccleuch. 

Sir Bernard Burke, however, makes Lord Polwarth the heir-male of Buccleuch, 
and accomplishes this by putting forth Thirlestane as a cadet, not of Buccleuch, but 
of Harden, and assigning him for ancestor James fourth son of Sir Walter Scott of 
Harden, who " lived in the time of James VI." Yet, in the Family Romance, p. 27, 
(in a narrative called " The Heir of Thirlestane," which by the way is utterly apocry- 
phal), the hereditary loyalty of the house of Thirlestane is enlarged on as already 
" attested by deeds of arms of ages " in the time of James V. ; and in the account of 
the Napier family in the Peerage we find the Thirlestane branch of the Scotts traced 
upwards — correctly enough — to William Scott of Howpaisley, whose grandson Walter 
fell at the battle of Pavia in 1525, more than forty years before James VI. was born. 

I may state, as the result of my own experience, that any one who seriously 
attempts to use Burhe^s Peerage as a book of reference, will find himself involved at 
every turn in similar genealogical paradoxes. 

Our author next remarks that one of the most unsatisfactory features 
of Burke's Peerage is its heraldry : into the examination of which how- 
ever we will not now accompany him, having a more painful duty still 
to perform in reportbig what is alleged iof Sir Bernard Burke's other 
great and standard work, the Dictionary of the Landed Gentry. 
Kespecting this, an account is first given of its four distinct issues, 
or editions, the first dated 1837, the second appearing from 1846 to 
1849, the third in 1850, and the fourth in 18G3. 

Though we call these works different editions, each is to a great extent a new 
book, yet not always an improvement on those that were before it. While the 
Peerage may be to a slight extent improving from year to year, the Landed Gentry is 
deteriorating. The successive editions are marked by a gradual disappearance of 
families of status and historical repute, while their places are to a large extent filled 
by persons whose sole connexion with land arises from their Laving been purchasers 
of a few acres in a county where their very names are unknown. Surely Ulster does 
not consider the representatives of the Lords of the Isles, who had their due place in 
former editions, unworthy of being numbered among the lesser nobility, because their 
ancient possessions have passed into other hands. The excluded list comprehends 



•150 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 

also, it is difficult to divine why, other families of consideration, whose position as 
landed gentry remains unaltered, some of them (as the Bethunes of Balfour) being 
those whose genealogies were in former editions among the most elaborate in the 
work. 

The immense majority of the pedigrees in the Landed Gentry, including more 
especially the Scottish pedigrees, cannot, I fear, be characterised as otherwise than 
utterly worthless. The errors of the Peerage are as nothing to the fables which we 
encounter everywhere. Families of notoriously obscure origin have their veins filled 
with the blood of generations of royal personages of the ancient and mythical world. 
There are not a few minute circumstantial genealogies of soi-disant old and distin- 
guished families, with high-sounding titles, which families can be proved by docu- 
mentary evidence never to have had a corporeal existence. Other pedigrees contain 
a small germ of truth eked out with a mass of fiction, in the proportion of Falstaff's 
bread and sack ; while an extreme minuteness of detail is often combined with reck- 
less disregard of dates and historical possibilities. Some of the anachronisms en- 
countered are quite as bold as Mrs. Beecher Stowe's assertion ' that Sir William 
Wallace received his education at the Grammar School of Dundee. 

In proof of these admittedly strong censures, the author enters into a 
detailed examination of the genealogies of two families, one as an ex- 
ample of the ivliolly fictitious Pedigree^ and the other of the partially ficti- 
tious Pedigree. We feel bound in honour to pursue his examination of 
the former of these, finding it to be none other than that of Coulthart 
OF Coulthart, our own account of which occupied some pages of our 
last Part. "We there presented to our readers such a sketch of this 
marvellous genealogy as would at once intimate to any judicious appre- 
hension how largely it partook of the legendary and poetical in its 
earlier generations ; but we must confess that we ourselves were entirely 
unprepared for the intimation that, even up to very recent times, it is 
equally and throughout fictitious. Who the Mr. George P. Knowles, 
the " Genealogist and Heraldic Artist," who has solemnly pledged his 
faith to this performance in the presence of the Bishop of Manchester 
and another reverend magistrate of that city, may be, or have been, we 
are not informed ; but we do not envy him the reputation, either pro- 
fessional or moral, living or posthumous, which he has thereby acquired. 

Had we, by any accident, afforded the first facilities for the publica- 
tion of such a composition, we should have been more anxious to make 
personal apologies; but such is by no means the case. This pedigree 
of Coulthart has now for nearly twenty years been pushed forward with 
remarkable pertinacity in every available vehicle, particularly in the 
works of Sir Bernard Burke.- It appeared first in the Dictionary of the 

' S^uuiy Memories of Foreign Lands, Letter vii. 

' Not so soon as the General Armori/ of 1842. In that work there are no arms 



OR THE ART OF PEDIGREE-MAKING. 151 

Commoners, in 1846, again with additions and expansions in 1849, and 
with further additions in 18G3; also in Illuminated Heraldic Visitations, 
1852; again in the Visitation of Seats and Arms, First Series, of the 
same date (where in the prior division of the volume is, at p. 123, a view 
of Croft House, Ashton under Line, " the seat of John Ross Coulthart. 
of Coulthart and Collyn, Esq., Chief of his name;" and in the latter 
division, at p. 89, the pedigree and an engraving of the Arms); and 
again in the Second Series of the same work, 1854, the Pedigree at still 
fuller length, with another plate of the arms.i Then, in Mr. Lower's 
Patronymica Britannica, 18G0, a column is devoted to an account of 
this " most elaborate pedigree," together with an engraving of the seal 
(as in our p. 195), accompanied by a mystifying conjecture that " the 
name of the Scottish locality is probably synonymous with that of 
Coudhard, a village in the department of Orne, a few miles n.e. of 
Argentan in Normandy." And in the same year the crest of " a 
war-horse's head and neck, couped ar., armed and bi'idled ppr., gar- 
nished or," is furnished to the Crests of Great Britain and Ireland, 
collected by James Fairbairn, an engraver at Edinburgh, and inserted 
in his Plate 7 and fig. 12. Still more recently, the legend of the 
Coultharts has been again published in Anecdotes of Heraldry, by C. 
N. Elvin, M.A., 12mo., 1864; and in Walford's County Families,'^ John 
Ross Coulthart, Esq., is recognised as the " lineal heir male representa- 
tive of the ancient Scottish family of Coulthart of Coulthart." We have, 
therefore, not merely to lament that we should in any degree have 
been deceived by wilful misstatements, but are required to assist in 
checking a wide-spread contagion. 

It will be recollected that we undertook only to give an account, as 
an article of our Bibliotheca Heraldica, of a private volume of genealogy 
Avhich Mr. Coulthart had produced at considerable expense, and which 

whatever for the name of Coulthart. But in its " Third Edition, with a Supplement," 
1844, they are, sure enough, inserted with three quarterings, crest, and supporters, 
as belonging to " Coulthart, of Largmore, co. Kirkcudbright, and Collyn, co. Dum- 
fries, a family of great antiquity in the South of Scotland." 

' " The colt and the hart meet us in every volume with the most ' damnable itera- 
tion,' and in one of the plates of the Visitations the Sigillum Coultiiarti occupies 
the centre, while round it are arranged the several quarterings of the Coulthart escut- 
cheon." Popular Genealogist, p. 84. 

2 It is said (in p. 90) respecting Walford's Coiinty Families, that " its brief outlines 
of family history are filled with matter so extraordinary, that it is difficult to conceive 
from what source the writer could have collected it." Particulars, however, are not 
exhibited. 



152 



POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 



in that respect might rauk with more important works of the kind, — 
though now unfortunately destined only to retain the bad pre-eminence 
of being the most extended fictitious pedigree ever printed. 

We need not repeat our sketch of its earlier portions. When we 
refer the reader to page 18 of our last Part, he has only to peruse it, 
and it will carry its own convictions with it. It is perfectly unnecessary 
to quote the reviewer's assurance that Tacitus and Ptolemy and Bede, 
and all the early chronicles, would be searched in vain for even the 
names of the personages whose deeds and chai'acteristics are set forth 
and described with unblushing confidence. 

But when, in succession to such romantic history or tradition, an 
affectation of producing documentary evidence is assumed, the result is 
little less marvellous. We are told of a marriage settlement bearing 
date the twenty-first year of the reign of King Kennethus III., though 
that monarch has hitherto been supposed to have reigned only from 
997 to 1005, and the very earliest written legal documents existing in 
Scotland belong to the closing years of the eleventh century. To make 
the matter still more absurd, the marriage was to be solemnised between 
two males, William de Coulthart and " one Angus de Cumin." Surely, 
Mr. George Parker Knowles was a little too wicked here ! 

Charters are put forth professing to be from the Scotish Kings, 
Robert I., David 11. (a. r. 33), Kobert II. (a. r. 12), and Robert III. 
(a. r. 2) all in favour of members of the family of Coulthart: 

The constructor of those documents has, however, made a sad blunder. Instead 
of taking actual charters for his models, he has gone to the printed volume of the 
(rreat Seal Register, and, all unaware of the difference in form between the actual 
deed and the abbreviated record of it, he has transcribed four entries of charters 
lileratim as they appear in the Register, and therefore in a form in which no charter 
was ever issued, changing only the name of tlie grantee and the designation of the 
lands. The record of the charter of Robert I. Rot. i. 32, " Alexandre de Meynies 
militi et Egiliae secundte sponsse suae," of the lands of Durrisdeer, is transformed into 
a charter, " Johanni de Coulthart militi et Elizabethae secundse sponsse suae," of the 
lands of Quhithurn, with the same date, and in the same terms; and Robert III.'s 
" Carta pro Mariota de Wardlaw et Andrea de Wardlaw filio quondam Gilberti de 
Wardlaw " Rot. x. 40, still more naturally becomes " Carta pro Mariota de Coulthart 
et Andrea de Coulthart filio quondam Gillierti de Coulthart," with all details scru- 
pulously copied, letter for letter, down to the very verbal abbreviations, except the 
name of the lands, the identity extending to date, place of signing, and full name 
and designation of witnesses. The deeds of David II. and Robert II. conclude 
" Testibus etc.," without enumeration of witnesses, — an ending, it is needless to say, 
never found in any actual charters, though in accordance with the abridged form in 
which the charters of these two monarchs are entered in the Great Seal Register. But 
these mistakes are amply atoned for by the charming naivete with which the designa- 



OR THE ART OF PEDIGREE-MAKING. 153 

tion " Willielmo de Coulthart gentis nominisque sui facile primario," comes into 
these fourteen til- century charters. 

King David's genuine charter has no such fanciful phrase. It relates 
to the barony of Glencharny in the shrievalty of Invernys in the county 
of Moray, and was granted to Gilbert de Glencharny. Except the 
changing of that name to William de Coulthart gentis nominisque sui 
facile primario ! and that of the locality to baronie de Coulthart cum 
pertin infra dominium de Wygtoun, the remainder is taken unaltered, 
almost to a letter, including the date, as it may be read in the Eegister 
of the Great Seal of Scotland (one of the Record Commission publica- 
tions), Lib. i. 20. Even the names of the baron of Glencharny's sister 
Christian and her husband, Duncan Eraser, are appropriated: but an 
amusing proof of the ignorance that has accompanied all this disho- 
nesty is, that the contracted name, Duncano fras\ has been misinter- 
preted 1 into *' Duncano-Francisco," a compound hitherto unexampled 
in the nomenclature of the fourteenth century. 

As the second son of "Sir Roger de Coulthart," said to have been 
knighted by James I. at his coronation at Scoon, A D. 1428, we are 
presented by the genealogist with the name of 

Gilbert, who went in the train of Earl Douglas, lord of Galloway, to various Euro- 
pean courts, A.D. 1449, and fought at the battle of Brechin, 18 May, 1452. 

For this, in the Burke edition of 1849 (but omitted in the Private 
edition), the following authority is cited as a foot-note. 

Thair was vtheris of lower estate, as Coulthart, Vrquhart, Campbell, Forrester, and 
Lowther, all knightis and gentlemen, whose, convoy maid the Earle so proud and 
insolent, that he represented ane kingis magnificence quhairevir he came. — Lindsay's 
Chronicles of Scotland. 

Will it be believed (asks the commentator) that the name here printed Coulthart 
is Calder in the ori;,'inal, the person alluded to by Lindsay of Pitscottie being doubtless 
Sir John Sandilands of Calder, ancestor of Lord Torphichen, who, as a far-off cousin 
of the Douglas, and his vassal in the lands of Calder, was naturally one of the high- 
born gentlemen who formed the Earl's train ? 

Among the children of Sir Roger de Coulthart, the imaginary elder 
brother of the same imaginary Gilbert, are named 

Walter, an admiral of the fleet. 

Henry, who settled in Craven in the co. of York, and was ancestor of H.W. 
Coulthurst, D.D. late Vicar of Halifax. 

' '* Transcribed into unabbreviated Latin, 14 August, 1855, by the Reverend 
Edward Greswell, B.D. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford,"— a gentleman 
whose learning, it must be presumed, lies rather with classical than mediaeval 
Latinity. 



154 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 

Upon these our merciless critic remarks that an Admiral of the 
Fleet in Scotland in the sixteenth century would be " about as remark- 
able a phenomenon as a marriage contract in the tenth:" and that 

It was a foolish and unaccountable act in the Vicar of Halifax thus to modify his 
illustrious patronymic; but he had himself only to blame when the public forgot his 
distinguished lineage, and imagined him to be the scion of a inere commonplace 
respectable family of the Irish baronetcy. 

But we have next to notice a fiction which affects a more historic 
race than even the Coultharts could aspire to be. 

Ever since the year 1852, Burke's Peerage has duly chronicled, in the lineage of 
the ErroU family, among the daughters of the sixth Earl, " Elizabeth, m. first to Cuth- 
bert Coulthart of Coulthart, lord of the barony of Coulthart, chief of the name, by 
whom he had an only son, John (see Burke's Landed Gentry) ; 2dly to William lord 
Keith, son and heir-apparent of William fourth Earl Marischal, by whom he had four 
sons and four daughters." 

Here we have the inky dye of this Manchester brooklet staining the 
wider stream of a grand historic river. Such an irruption is enough 
to turn any feelings of ridicule into indignation. In the accounts of the 
Erroll and Marischal families given by Crawfurd and Douglas, Lord 
Keith is stated to have been Lady Elizabeth's sole husband ; and the 
writer before us (in his pp. 34, 35,) gives various proofs that their 
statement is correct. 

Besides this Erroll alliance, the Coulthart Pedigree affects to chronicle 
numei'ous intermarriages Avith other historical houses, 

— including Lindsays Earls of Crawfurd, Murrays of Tullibardine, Ramsays of Dal- 
housie, the Earls of Breadalbane, the Lords Napier and Somerville, the Sinclairs of 
Dunbeath, Anstruthers of that Ilk, Wallaces of Craigie, Baillies of Lamington, Hen- 
dersons of Fordel, Chalmers of Gadgirth, Campbells of Skerrington, Muirheads 
of Lauchope, Boswells of Auchinleck, and Boswells of Balmuto. The representatives 
of all these families, as well as the Earls of Glasgow, are claimed as kinsmen by the 
descendant of Coulthartus. It has hitherto been believed that Balmuto came to the 
Boswells by an intermarriage in the fifteenth century with the heiress of Balmuto, 
whose family name was Glen ; but we have here a Roger de Coulthart, in the reign 
of William the Lion, marrying Margaret daughter of Boswell of Balmuto. 

But even when we have travelled down this pedigree to its compara- 
tively recent generations, there is still a strange amount of folly and 
absurdity intermixed with its ambition and presumption. Thus, it 
presents a *' Captain of Eoyal Artillery " in the reign of James the 
First, though no such corps in the British army has hitherto been dis- 
covered until the time of Queen Anne : it speaks of deeds with pendent 
seals of lead at the beginning of the seventeenth century ; and of a 
Major in the army of Charles the Second, who never returned home 



OR THE ART OP PEDIGREE-MAKING. 155 

after he had been exiled by Oliver Cromwell. It speaks of Robert 
Coulthart, an officer in the R.N., who was killed 16 June, 1693, off St. 
Vincent, when fiyhting under Admiral Roche, against the French 
squadrons ; and of William his brother, who represented the burgh of 
Wigtown in Parliament from 1692 to the Union. Now, the commen- 
tator shows that the latter personage was William Cultraiue (not 
Coulthart), Provost of Wigtown, of whom various particulars are on 
record : and the naval officer must also be the duplicate of some other 
man, if not a being purely imaginary. 

Lastly, and strangest of all, considering his propinquity, the Richard 
Coulthart, Esq., assumed to be the grandfather of the grandfather of 
the present " chief," and whom we have distinguished in p, 19 as having 
been " an eminent agriculturist and author of The Economy of Agricul- 
ture, long a favourite text-book of the farmers of Scotland," even this 
ancestor is not actually to be found, nor any trace of his " once cele- 
brated work." When searching for it, our inquirer has merely had the 
fortune to encounter, as the production of one of the race, a book bearing 
a title at least somewhat in harmony with his object, viz. The Quacks 
Unmask' d, by P. Coltheart, Surgeon, 1717. 

There actually lived in the last century, in the suburbs of Kircud- 
bright; a man named James Coltart, of whom M'Taggart, in a book 
called the Gallovidian Encyclopedia, (1824) gives some extravagant 
anecdotes, under the name of '■'•Laird Covjtart, or the obstinate man." 
It is suggested that if this person can be identified, as seems probable, 
with James Coulthart, Esq., of Coulthart and Largmore," who married 
" Grizel, daughter of MacTurk, Esq,, of The Glenkens, co. Kircud- 
bright," then we at last arrive at the first decidedly non-mythical person 
in this wonderful pedigree. The more sober facts of the case, and our 
author's reflections upon them, are as follows: — 

The name of Coulthart or Colt-herd prevails among the peasantry of Cumberland, 
and is also not unfrequently found among the same class on the northern side of the 
Solvvay. No family of the name is mentioned in any of the chronicles or county 
histories, in any known charters, or other sources from which family history is derived, 
or in the public records. No such lands as those of Coulthart exist, or ever existed, in 
Wigtownshire or any other shire in Scotland ; and it is instructive to note that in the 
1846-8 edition of the Landed Gentry, where the earliest trace is to be found of the 
family,' they are merely Coultharts "of Largmore," the territorial designation " of 
Coulthart " not having been thought of. 

Had the framer of this pedigree been a Scotchman, he would probably have been 

' Our author had not detected the notice we have quoted from the Supplement to 
the General Anaor>/. (Edit. H. & G.) 



156 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 

aware that tlie Register of Retours aflForded a sure and easy means of testing its truth. 
Not only every minor baron, but every laird holding from the Crown, however small, 
before he acquires a right to his property by succession, must be served and " re- 
toured " heir to it. The retours are preserved in a register which is rendered pecu- 
liarly accessible to the public by an excellent printed index and abstract, easy of 
reference, which is to be found in every large public library of the kingdom; and 
notwithstanding day and date given, as above quoted, to the services of some of these 
Coultharts, neither the lands nor the surname occur once in this index ; whereas, had 
these " Lords of Coulthart " ever existed, every one of them would have appeared in 
his place. 

Had they been even mere feuars, whom a vivid imagination had magnified into 
lairds and barons, they would have been found in another record, the Register of 
Sasines, where their names will also be looked for in vain. 

The other alleged ancestral estate, Largmore, is a farm in the parish of Kells, 
shown by the Retours to have belonged first to the Gordons of Barskeoch, and after- 
wards to the Selkirk family, during the period when it is said to have been the pro- 
perty of the Coulthart chieftains. It is here that " Laird Cowtart " is reputed to 
have had his dwelling, and the popular belief on this subject is corroborated by the 
parish register of Kells. 

We have still to make some important statements with regard to the 
shields of arms of wliich engravings were given in our last Part, and 
which have been erected, as the quarterings of Coulthart, in the west 
window of Bolton-le-Gate church. 

First, as to the assumed arms of Coulthart, — Argent, a fess between 
three colts courant sable, borne, we are told, "in allusion to three horses 
that the Coultharts were anciently bound to furnish the sovereigns of 
Scotland in time of war, when required, for their barony of Coulthart 
in the county of Wigtown." i Now, this coat, including its tinctures, is 
simply the coat of Colt, a family " formerly possessed of very consider- 
able estates in Suffolk and Essex,"^ and which, having been raised to a 
Baronetcy in 1692, is still represented by the Rev. Sir Edward Harry 
Vaughan Colt, now Vicar of Hill in Gloucestershire. In the Baronet- 
ages, its descent is traced from Thomas Colt, who was Chancellor of 
the Exchequer in the reign of Edward IV. : and therefore it may be 
presumed that the family bore these arms at least as early as that time. 
It appears that the same design, but with a field or, was granted by 
Camden, June 30, 1615, to Colfe of Canterbury ;3 and that it was 

' Stated in Mr. Elvin's Anecdotes of Heraldry, to be confirmed by a charter from 
Malcolm Canmore — " a confirmation charter hardly less wonderful than a marriage 
contract of king Kenneth's time," and " a formal grant of arms in Scotland more than 
a century before the earliest germs of coat-armour in Normandy." 

' Kimber's Baronetage. 

^ Morgan's Sphere of Gentry, 1661, book 2, p. 115. Colfe or Coulf, not Colt or 
Coult, as in Burke's General Armory, and 1615 not 1613. See also the pedigree of 



I 



OR THE ART OF PEDIGREE-MAKING. 157 

borne with an Ermine field, by another family of Colt in Essex ; and 
also, with the field Argent and the fess Azure,i by a third Essex family 
of Colt. The like was granted to the name of Colthurst : to Colthurst 
of Somersetshire, Argent, a fess between two colts passant sable ; but 
to Colthurst of Ardrum, co. Cork, — now represented by Sir George 
Conway Colthurst, Bart. (or. 1744) M.P. for Kinsale, a coat still nearer 
to that of Colt, viz. Argent, on a fess azure between three colts courant 
sable, as many trefoils slipped or: and for crest, instead of the running 
colt of the Colts, a colt statant sable. We do not admire the taste of 
the heralds of former days, whoever they were, who allowed the arms of 
Colt, even so varied, to Colfe and to Colthurst : but it does not appear 
that, at any time, the arms of Colt were allowed, by ofiicial authority, 
to the name of Coulthart; whilst the crest of a "war-horse's head," 
and the canting Supporters of a Colt and a hart, — as Mr. Lower well 
remarks, " a unique instance of canting supporters," — are additions for 
which the " heraldic artist" of Manchester must enjoy the entire credit. 

But what is to be said of the seven quartered coats, which are bla- 
soned in our p. 21, and engraved in pp. 22, 23 ? Our author describes 
them as " coats, some of which were never seen elsewhere, while the 
rest belong to other and really existing families." 

One of these is the Glendonwyns of Glendonwyn. A well-known family of that 
name, whose history is to be found at length in Douglas's Baronage, long existed in 
Roxburghshire, owning also estates in Kirkcudbright; but these Coulthartian Glen- 
donwyns are in Ayrshire, and their history and succession bear no resemblance to 
those of the real family. 

The rest of these subsidiary families are purely fabulous. One of them, the Gor- 
dons of Sorbie, are said to have been owners of the lands of Sorbie from the time of 
David I. to 1552, (where were the Ahannays then ?j and their alliances during the 
fifteenth century are not quite what might have been expected of a Galloway family 
at that date. For example, one representative of the family, whose mother was 
• " Millicent dau. of Sir William Knatchley," marries " Rachael dau. of Thomas Mal- 
travers of Balgoram," while his daughters marry " Colonel Cavendish " (sic) and 
" Maclachlane of Drumore." 

The arms assigned to the fabulous " EossES of Renfrew" are really 
those of the Lords Ross of Halkhead. 

The " Glendonyn " coat is slightly varied from the true coat of the 
Glendonwyns, which is Quarterly argent and sable, a cross indented 
counterchanged. 

Colfe in the Kent Visitation of 1619, and as it is more fully displayed in the memoir 
prefixed to the Catalogue of the Library of the Free Grammar School at Lewtsham, 
founded by the Rev. Abraham Colfe, M.A.,in. the year 1652: by William Henry 
Bljlck, 8vo. 1831, p. xvi. 

' Burke's General Ai-mory. 



158 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS, 

The coat given to the imaginary Mackntghte of Mackntghte is 
that of Macnaught of Kilquharity ' — to which family Mr. Knowles has 
attributed an utterly different coat at p. 14 of the Coulthart Genealogy, 
regarding a supposititious scion of that house. 

The coat assigned to " Carmichael of Carspherne" bears no resem- 
blance to any Carmichael coat, the fess wreathed " being the character- 
istic bearing of the Carmichaels: a bend cotised, or still more cotised 
potentee, is utterly unlike Scotish armory. 

The coat of " Mackenzie of Craig Hall " is the true coat of Macken- 
zie, quartered with the insignia of Man, — borne by Mackenzie of Scat- 
well as representing the Macleods of Lewis. Whence the inescucheon 
en surtout may come from Mr. Knowles only could tell. 

Of the two remaining coats, for " Gordok of Sorbie" and " Forbes 
of Pitscottie," it need only be said that they are purely fabulous. 

It will now be thought, perhaps with some impatience, that we have 
expended sufficient space in exposing the genealogical fictions of Mr. 
George Parker Knowles. It is not to be imagined that his pedigrees of 
Eoss, Macknyghte, nor the rest, are a whit more genuine than that of 
Coulthart. With regard to Carmichael we find that a remonstrance 
has already appeared (in Notes and Queries, Oct. 3, 1863), from Mr. 
Charles H. E. Carmichael, of the College, Isle of Cumbrae, complain- 
ing how variant were the statements in the Visitation of Seats and Arms, 
and in Lower's Patronymica Britannica, s. v. Carmichael, from anything 
he had previously read of his family. Indeed, we grieve to find that 
the pages of Mr. Lower are frightfully spotted with this Coulthart infec- 
tion. Not only has his credulity been imposed upon in regard to the 
" Carmichaels of Carspherne ;" but under the name of Glendonyn he has 
been induced to copy the fictions of Mr, Knowles, or (as they are attri- 
buted in this case,) of the deceased barrister, Mr. Alex. Cheyne. And 
again under the names of Forbes, Mackenzie, Macknyghte, and Ross, he 
everywhere quotes with confidence " Knowles's Genealogy of Coult- 
hart." 

Mr. Knowles's account of the Rosses of Halkhead is taken from 
Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, with a few apocryphal additions and in- 
terpolations. They were a Yorkshire family who acquired lands in 
Renfrewshire towards the close of the 13th century, and two centuries 
later the title of Lord Ross of Halkhead, Mr. Knowles copies Douglas 

' The inescocheon has been altered from Cheequy argent and azure to Checquy 
argent and or: but in the Landed Gentry, edit. 1849, it was exactly Macnaught of 
Kilquharity. 

* See the Heraldic card engraved in p. 83 atite. 



OR THE ART OF PEDTGREE-MAKING. 159 

in stating that this dignity became extinct at the death of the 13th 
lord in 1754: yet he invents a younger son, " Randolph Eoss of Rose- 
hill," to the second Lord Ross, from whom the Rosses of Dalton are said 
to be descended. If this were true, the peerage Avould not be extinct: 
but Mr. Coulthart's maternal grandfather was de jure Lord Ross, and 
his cousin is the present peer. But his audacity, or perhaps his dis- 
cernment, does not push the pedigree-maker quite so far as to advance 
such a claim. 

All the retours of the successive heirs, affected to be quoted by date, 
viz. of Patrick Ross of Rosshill in 1548, of William Ross of Rosshill 
1594, Patrick Ross of Rosshill 1614, Ninian Ross of Rosshill 1631, 
Ninian Ross of Rosshill 1662, and John Ross of Keir 1701, are 
myths, — not one being found in the public records. The alleged per- 
mission to erect Rosshill castle in 1556, and an alleged confirmation 
charter under the great seal 1558, are alike non-existent. 

There is evidence in the records of a Captain William Ross having 
acquired certain lands called — not Ross hill, but — Rose-isle in the latter 
part of the 17th century; to which his cousin Gulielmus l^os, faber 
lignarius in Tayn (filius fratris avi) serves heir in J 674 ; and on the 
death of this William soon after, Patrick Ros in Formeston {nepos fra- 
tris 2)roavi of Captain William Ross) serves in 1676. These Rosses 
and this Roseisle were however in Dumfriesshire, not Ayrshire (the 
locale of the imaginary Rosshill Castle), and they do not bear the 
slightest correspondence to Mr. Kuowles's Rosses. 

One more audacious invention in the Carmichael pedigree may be 
noticed. It is that a certain Alice Carmichael married " Sir Richard 
Keith, ancestor of the Earl Marischal" about the time of King 
Robert II. There is no Richard in the line of Keith, and the Marischal 
at that period was Sir Robert Keith, a man of no little note in his 
days, whose first wife (ancestress of the Earls Marischal) was heiress of 
Troup, and his second Lady Elizabeth Lindsay of the Crawfurd family. 
Of the same date a Carmichael of Carspherne marries the " sister of 
the Eev. Canon Lawson, of St. Giles's church, Edinburgh " ! 

We have now pursued, from page to page, the critic's example of a 
wholly fictitious Pedigree, in order to redeem our own character after the 
additional circulation that was given to it in our last Part. We must 
more briefly state that his example of the partially fictitious pedigree is 
one entitled " Bonar of Bonare, Keltye, Kilgraston, and Kimmerghame," 
which occupies eleven closely printed columns of the Landed Gentry in 
the supplemental volume of 1849. This has been purposely selected 



160 POPULAR GENEALOGISTS. 

as the account of " a family whose social position and high honourable 
principles preclude the idea of knowingly conniving at falsehood or 
fiction :" and yet so ignorant and careless about genealogy, as to allow 
their history to be written by one of those charlatans who seem to make 
a trade in writing for the Landed Gentry. The details of this compo- 
sition both genealogical and armorial (exposed in pp. 55 — 82 of the 
Essay before us,) are quite as curious and extraordinary as those con- 
nected with the pedigree of Coulthart, but our space allows us only to 
make this allusion to them. 

A few words are added regarding Sir Bernard Burke's other works, 
— the Vicissitudes of Families and Family Romance', and it is remarked 
that, " though at times they contain a correct enough sketch of some 
remarkable incident of family history, they are full of the same loose- 
ness and credulity in everything that relates to pedigree." As a sample, 
the history given in the former work of John Law, the great financier, 
containing a flourishing account of his estates and descent, is contrasted 
with the simple truth that he was the son of a working silversmith in 
Edinburgh, of no claim to gentle birth. 

After noticing one more fantastic pedigree of the History of the 
Landed Gentry, that of Dearden of Rochdale, the writer draws to a 
close with the following reflections : — 

In bringing this and similar genealogical fictions to the light of day, it is proper for 
me to add that no necessity exists for supposing that the late Mr. Dearden, or the 
other persons for whose glorification they were invented, had any complicity in the 
fraud. The presumption is that they had not. Profoundly ignorant of history and 
genealogy, and only interested in the latter in so far as it could be made to minister 
to their foolish vanity, a superabundance of this latter quality has probably led them 
to be eyed as promising subjects by one of these genealogical impostors who live on 
the folly and credulity of the public ; and, having once fallen into the hands of the 
charlatan, they yield as implicit a faith in his fables as does the unhappy patient to 
the nostrums of the quack doctor. As Mr. Coltheart exposed the medical charlatans 
of his day, and " set in a true light their pernicious and destructive practice, with 
some reasons why it ought to be entirely abolished," so have I thought it a duty, 
humbly following in the wake of that eminent surgeon, to "unmask" those "quacks '' 
who deal, not in pills and potions, but in pedigrees, and whom a large portion of the 
community seem unable to distinguish from bondjide genealogists. 




THE HOUSE OF SOMERSET: 

IN THE DAYS OF EDWARD LORD HERBERT, EARL OF 
GLAMORGAN, AND MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 

The Life, Times, and Scientific Labours of the second Marquis of Worces- 
ter. To which is added, a reprint of his Century of Inventions, 1663, with a 
Commentary thereon. By Henry Dircks, Esq. Civil Engineer, &c. &c. London : 
Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly. 1865. 8vo. pp. xxiv. 624, 

The house of Somerset, descended in the direct male line from our 
medifeval kings, though with two illegitimate links in the chain, has 
maintained its dignity and high station throughout a duration of time 
that has been seldom surpassed. In the long line of eighteen genera- 
tions, extending from King Edward the Third to the present Duke of 
Beaufort, the subject of the book before us occupies the tenth. He 
lived in very perilous times : and by his profusion and temerity brought 
the fortunes of the House of Somerset to the very brink of ruin, 
though happily not past recovery. Very little has hitherto been 
written in his praise, nor have the actions and events of his life been 
placed in our ordinary biographical collections. Yet his name, or 
rather his two successive titles of peerage, are sufficiently familiar, both 
in political history and in the history of science. He is the Earl of 
Glamorgan of Clarendon and Carte, the Marquess of "Worcester of 
those numerous authors who now write of Steam, that potent agent of 
our daily progress. 

But, if the Marquess of "Worcester has not been enshrined in the 
more popular temples ^ our English worthies, so neither has his 
biography been altogether neglected. There is a memoir of him, by 

VOL. III. M 



162 THE HOUSE OF SOMERSET; AND 

Edmund Lodge, Norroy, in the Portraits and Memoirs of the most illus- 
trious Persons of English History ; and he had previously been noticed 
by Anthony Wood, in his Athence Oxonienses ; by Granger, in his Bio- 
graphical History of England; and by Horace Walpole, in his Eoyal and 
Noble Authors. These, however, in the opinion of the author before us, 
were tributes far inferior to the merits of a man whom he regards as 
" one of the most remarkable, interesting, and glorious benefactors of 
the country" (p.vii.), as " pre-eminent for his gifts in constructive inge- 
nuity," and as unequalled " among the most eminent scientific celebri- 
ties of Europe, during the last two centuries." (p. iv.) 

The origin of the book appears to be this. Mr. Dircks has been a 
student of the lucubrations of the Marquess of "Worcester for thirty years, 
(p. vii.) He determined to prepare a new edition of the Century of In- 
ventions, and this is incorporated in the present volume (pp. 343-552), 
accompanied by a running commentary, very diligently compiled : but, 
not satisfied with that, he undertook to investigate the personal history 
of the author, and this has given birth to "The Life, Times, and Scien- 
tific Labours of the Marquis of Worcester," of which the Century of 
Inventions now forms but a secondaiy feature. 

The success of Mr. Smiles in rendering popular the triumphs of 
Engineering has evidently suggested the form and plan of the work ; 
which is indeed a very handsome volume, and adorned with many beau- 
tiful illustrations, among which are portraits of the Marquess and both 
his wives, and numerous vignettes of the localities of his career and his 
more remarkable scientific contrivances. Mr. Dircks has collected his 
materials with diligence and perseverance, and he has had the advan- 
tage of deriving documents of very considerable importance from the 
family archives at Badminton. 

Mr. Dircks differs, of course, toto coelo, from Horace Walpole, who 
termed the Century of Inventions " an amazing piece of folly," and from 
David Hume, who described it as " a ridiculous compound of lies, 
chimeras, and impossibilities." He differs also from Lodge, who 
remarks that the Marquess " was a statesman, a philosopher, and a 
mathematician, and in each of those stations a mystic. He was a man 
of parts or a madman, or both:" and afterwards describes the Century 
of Inventions as a "strange little book, which certainly savours much of 
a disordered imagination." Mr. Dircks differs equally from Lord 
Macaulay, who appreciated the merits of the Marquess feebly and de- 
fectively (pp. X. xi.), and from Mr. Muirhead, 'the biographer of James 
Watt, who has spoken of the Marquess and his inventions "Ih the most 



EDWARD MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 163 

disiiaraging terms." (p. xviii.) The fact is that Mr. Dircks has become 
the champion of his hero with even more than the usual partiality of 
biographers, impressed with the conviction that the Marquess of "Wor- 
cester " was a man of rigid honour and probity, remarkable for his 
modesty, virtue, and genius " (p. xii.) ; and, in regard to his " scientific 
labours," repeatedly employing such hyperboles as these — " his singular 
abilities, his versatile mechanical talent, and the fecundity of his in- 
ventive ingenuity." (p, 16.) 

It woiild exceed our province, and far exceed our limits, to enter 
into a discussion of the merits of those philosophical labours of the 
Marquess of Worcester which our author admits (pp. x. 292) were so 
bHndly " neglected by contemporaries," and have been so defectively 
estimated or depreciated by subsequent philosophers and historians. 
The subject, no doubt, will still be matter of debate in many a more 
appropriate arena : and we may therefore fairly take leave of it with 
the old maxim, — Tractant fabrilia fahri. 

We may however remark that the researches of Mr. Dircks into the 
records of the Marquess's Water-Commanding Engine, which was set 
up at the manor of Vauxhall, form materials of a curious chapter in 
the history of that world-celebrated locality : and that other historical 
particulars relative to Worcester House in the Strand are a valuable 
contribution to om* metropolitan topography. 

The political conduct of " the Earl of Glamorgan " as the agent of 
Kiug Charles in his negociations with the Roman Catholics of Ireland 
is a theme of still greater difficulty, and demanding a far wider space 
than is at our disposal. From Badminton the author has obtained 
several original documents that throw fi-esh light upon this subject, in 
addition to those which were published by the adversaries of the Mar- 
quess and his Sovereign when their designs were first discovered ; to 
those which were edited by Carte in his Life of James Duke of 
Ormond; by Dr. Birch, in his Inquiry into the Share which Charles I. 
had in the Transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan, 1756, 8vo. ; and by 
Mr. Bruce in Letters of King Charles L to Queen Henrietta Maria in 
1646 (Camden Society 1856); but Mr. Dircks has most unfortunately 
confused the arrangement of these documents, and impau-ed the per- 
spicuity of his narration, by being perfectly unconscious of what is 
called the old style of the calendar; so that, in each successive year, 
nearly one-fourth of its events are presented to the reader before those 
to which they were actually consequent (the letters and papers of 
1642-3 being taken to belong to 1641-2, and so on); and when at 

M 2 



164 THE HOUSE OF SOMERSET; AND 

last, on quoting some of his historical predecessors, the author falls 
into their customary practice of notation, in which both the civil and 
ecclesiastical years are mentioned, he actually is led on to speak of the 
1st of April, 1644-5 (p. 112), and the 29th September, 1645-6 (p. 138). 

This very material deficiency in one of the first points of knowledge 
necessary for writing history has caused Mr. Dircks to head his Eighth 
Chapter with this title, " The Earl of Glamorgan's Second Visit to 
Ireland;" yet, in his Preface (p. xvi.), he admits his misgivings that 
the Earl, after all, made only a single visit to that country. The same 
misapprehension explains why, in p. 87, our author finds the statements 
of Dr. Birch regarding the year 1644-5 "at variance" with the letters 
of the year 1645-6, derived from the Carte papers. 

The date of the birth of Edward Somerset has not been ascertained 
with precision. It is supposed to have been in 1601, the year after 
his father's marriage in June 1600. His grandfather Edward fourth 
Earl of Worcester, Master of the Horse to Queen Elizabeth and King 
James, and afterwards Lord Privy Seal,^ lived to the year 1627-8 : up 
to which time his father was Lord Herbert, and he only Mr. Somerset.^ 
He became Lord Herbert upon his grandfather's decease ; in 1644 
King Charles designated him Earl of Glamorgan, by which title he 
was known during his transactions in Ireland ; next, after his father's 
death in 1646, he was called Earl of Worcester, — for the Parliament 
would not acknowledge the higher title of Marquess ; and from the 
Eestoration in 1660 until his death in 1667 he was Marquess of 
Worcester. 

Scarcely any part of his earlier history has been recovered, except 
the dates of his two marriages. His education appears to have been 
chiefly, if not entirely, conducted on the Continent, — owing, no doubt, 
to his father's zealous attachment to the Roman communion, ^ to which 
his grandfather had also adhered : it being remarked by Fuller, or 
some such sententious biographer, that " Q. Elizabeth excused his 
faith, which was Popish; and honoured his faithfulness, which was 
Roman." The Marquess himself writes of his education : — 

Amongst Almighty God's infinite mercies to me in this world, I account it one of 
the greatest that his divine goodness vouchsafed me parents as well careful as able to 

' Mr. Dircks in p. 7 states that the Earl of Worcester was invested with the Garter 
in 1604, an error for 1593. 

' In writing of " the young Lord Herbert " in p. 12, Mr. Dircks is premature. 

' Lord Herbert was scolded by James I. in 1620 for sending one of his daughters 
to become a nun at Brussels. He died at last a Penitent of the Society of Jesus, as 
declared in a paper drawn up by the Jesuits themselves, after the Restoration (p. 232). 



EDWARD MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 165 

give me virtuous education and extraordinary breeding at home and abroad in Ger- 
many, France, and Italy, allowing me abundantly in those parts, and since most plen- 
tifully at my master of most happy memory the late King's court. 

But this statement is misunderstood by Mr. Dircks when he regards 
it (p. 11) as "making it almost conclusive that his education was 
considered as completed shortly prior to the King's decease, in 1625 : " 
whereas the document from which it is extracted is assigned by Mr. 
Dircks himself, in p. 335, to the date 1663, or soon after, and there- 
fore " the late King " whom it mentions was not James, but Charles.i 

Our author has fallen into a more serious misapprehension just 
before, in stating (p. 11) that " His preceptor at Raglan Castle was 
Mr. Adams." That this error should be pointed out is the more neces- 
sary, as no authority is given for it ; but we have discovered its origin 
at p. 141, in a document which unfolds an interesting picture of 
the household at Raglan Castle,^ and the manner of living there 
established : 

At the second table in the Dining-room sat Knights and honourable Gentlemen 
attended by footmen: Sir Ralph Blackstone, Steward; the Comptroller; the Secretary; 
the Master of the Horse, Mr. Delaware ; the Master of the Fishponds, Mr. Andrews; 
iny Lord HerherV s preceptor, Mr. Adams ; with such Gentlemen as came there under 
the degree of a Knight, attended by footmen, and plentifully served with wine. 

Now this was certainly not earlier than 1642, for Sir Nicholas 
Kemeys, Bart., who is subsequently mentioned in the same document 
as Governor of Chepstow (but misprinted Sir Mich. Keneys), was not 
created a Baronet before that year. It follows that the Lord Herbert 
to whom Mr. Adams was preceptor was Henry, afterwards first Duke 
of Beaufort, who was born in 1629. 

The early predilection of Mr. Edward Somerset for philosophical 
amusements and engineering is shown by what he states in 1663 
respecting a German who was then managing his "Water-Commanding 
Engine" at Vauxhall, and who is described as "the miparallel'd 
Workman both for trust and skill, Caspar Kaltoff, who hath been these 

' Had Edward Somerset in his youthful days been about the court of James, or 
even elsewhere in England, his name would probably have been found among the 
Knights of the Bath made at the Creation of Henry Prince of Wales in 1610, at 
that of Charles Prince of Wales in 1616, or at the Coronation of King Charles. His 
three uncles had received that honour : Sir Thomas Somerset at the Creation of 
Charles Duke of York in 1604-5; Sir Charles and Sir Edward at that of Henry 
Prince of Wales. 

3 In the same paper Sir Toby Matthews, the son of the late bishop of Durham and 
archbishop of York, and a man well known in the annals of his times as a convert to 
the Church of Rome, is mentioned as the Earl's principal chaplain. 



166 THE HOUSE OF SOMERSET; AND 

five and thirty years as in a school under me employed." This takes 
us back as far as 1628. 

To the same early days belongs an anecdote connected with one of 
the " Century of Inventions." In p. 25, when speaking of the Mar- 
quess's " large wheel for exhibiting self-motive power," Mr. Dircks 
remarks that it was exhibited at the Tower of London whilst Sir Wil- 
liam Balfour "was Lord Lieutenant," i and he adds, that this wheel- 
experiment may have been made in 1638-9, prior to the decease of 
Lord Herbert's first lady. But her ladyship died in 1635 (p. 22), and 
the experiment may have been still earlier, for Sir William Balfour was 
appointed Lieutenant of the Tower on the death of Sir Allen Apsley, 
which took place in May, 1630. The Marquess of Worcester's own 
account of the circumstance is as follows : — 

A most incredible thing if not seen ; but tried before the late King (of blessed 
memory) in the Tower, by my directions, two Extraordinary Ambassadors accompany- 
ing his Majesty, and the Duke of Richmond and Duke Hamilton, with most of the 
Court, attending him * * Sir William Balfore, then Lieutenant of the Tower, can 
justify it, with several others. 

Beyond this little anecdote, all that Mr. Dircks has discovered of 
the Marquess's early life is confined to the dates of his marriages. 
He first married, in 1628, Elizabeth Dormer, grand-daughter of the 
first Lord Dormer, and sister to the first Earl of Carnarvon ; and 
their eldest child Henry, afterwards Duke of Beaufort, was born in the 
following year. Her portrait, from a picture by Vandyck, is engraved 
in the volume before us by J. Cochran, we believe for the first time. 
The original at Badminton is minutely described by Mr. Dircks in 
p. 22. He mentions also Vandyck's portrait of Lord Herbert him- 
self, and dates it as between 1621 and 1626 ; but Vandyck did not 
arrive in this country until 1632, and, as the picture represents Lord 
Herbert in armour and holding a baton, with a paper — perhaps a royal 
missive, in the left hand (as engraved in Lodge's series), we think it 
must be carried forward to more wai'like times. ^ 

' Mr. Dircks repeats this expression with respect to Sir John Byron in p. 59, evi- 
dently not aware that the meaning of Lieutenant of the Tower is merely locum tenens 
of the Constable of that fortress. 

2 There is an engraving of Vandyck's picture, by Faithorne, without an inscrip- 
tion; which is mentioned in the last edition of Gra.ngev''s Bioffrajihical Histoi-i/ of 
England, 1824, vol. iv. p. 163, under the name of Henry Duke of Beaufort: with 
the remark, " This has been mistaken for Edward, Marquis of Worcester, by 
Granger." It must, however, be the editor that is wrong; for, as Vandyck died in 
1641, when the Duke of Beaufort was only eleven years of age, that painter could not 
represent him as a grown-up man, in armour. 



EDWARD MARQUESS Or WORCESTER. 167 

It is not until these times arrive tliat Mr. Dircks has anything to relate 
of the subject of his biography, further than that he became a widower 
in 1635,1 and was married secondly in 1639 to the Lady Margaret 
O'Bryen, second daughter and coheir of Henry Earl of Thomond. 
Accompanied by her, and by their only child, Lady Mary Somerset, 
who died in her childhood, he is represented in another picture at Bad- 
minton, which is engraved as a frontispiece to this volume. The 
Marquess is here attired in Roman costume, with a long flowing peruke 
out of curl, and without the moustaches shown in Vandyck's picture, 
looking, in Mr. Dircks' opinion, less young, and in ours less wise, than 
he need have done. The painter was Hanneman : and, whatever doubt 
there may be As to the date or identity of the two portraits by Vandyck,^ 
the certainty of this is ascertained by the atchievement upon it of the 
arms of Somerset impaling O'Bryen. 

It is in the year 1641 that we find Lord Herbert first drawn forth into 
public life. At that time King Charles, alarmed by the gathering storm, 
looked round for aid to all of his nobility upon whom he retained any 
influence. The Earl of Worcester was one who was better able to 
serve him in purse than in j^erson. He had fallen into a gouty habit 
of body, which rendered him unwieldy and inactive.^ The first original 

* In Collins's Peerage this date has been misprinted 1665. Mr. Dircks has intro- 
duced (p. 23) her Ladyship's funeral certificate, prepared by George Owen, York 
herald. It records that she died at Worcester house in the Strand, near London, on 
Sunday the last of May, 1635 ; and that her body was honourably conveyed to Raglan, 
in the county of Monmouth, there to be interred. 

^ May not Vandyck's picture be one of the second Lady Herbert ? The fashion of the 
hair in both pictures is identical, and the features, judging from the engravings, not 
dissimilar. 

^ " At the commencement of this period (remarks Mr. Dircks, p. 95.) the noble 
Marquess [Earl] would be in about the sixty-third year of his age, rather feeble, and a 
martyr to gout, which his fondness for claret may have aggravated ; a pleasant story 
being related by his chaplain (Dr. Bayly) that, on the physician recommending absti- 
nence from his favourite beverage, he declared he would rather incur the attacks of 
his old enemy than abandon his favourite claret." In regard to the age of the old 
Marquess we think that Mr. Dircks has differed on good grounds from former writers. 
Rushworth calls him eighty-four in 1646, and Lodge has consequently stated that 
" he was born in or about the year 1562 :" but better evidence is oflered by Anthony 
a Wood, who states that when William Lord Herbert (who died s. p.) and his brother 
Henry were at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1591, they were of the respective ages 
of 15 and 14 : this brings the birth of Henry to 1577. 

It is remarkable that Granger, in the BiogrcqAical History of England, whilst adopt- 
ing Rushworth's estimate of the Earl of Worcester's age, has given the very opposite 
account of his physical energies. He states that " The Earl of Worcester, when he . 
was about eighty years of age, raised the first horse that were levied for Charles I. in 



168 THE HOUSE OF SOMERSET; AND 

document now presented to us from Badminton is one dated Aug. 3, 
1641, in which the King acknowledges "the good service of you and 
yours," but excuses the Earl's personal attendance to receive the royal 
thanks on account of his " indisposition of body." In December fol- 
lowing occurs the King's first letter to Herbert. It was succeeded by 
many others, several of which are now published for the first time.i 

They are a valuable addition to the history of the pohtical trans- 
actions in which Glamorgan was involved ; and little less so is the 
Autobiographical Statement of his Services and Expenses which he drew 
up after the Restoration, to be submitted to King Charles the Second 
and the House of Lords.^ But we must abstain from quoting them, 
for the reasons already assigned. They show how profusely large were 
the contributions which he induced his father to make to the King's 
supplies, — to the extent of many hundred thousand pounds ; and they 
also show how inefficient and painfully unsuccessful were his own 
military efforts, and how rash and desj^erate his expedition to Ireland, 
as, even with less complete evidence, it has always been considered by 
every judicious historian. 

The King first addressed Lord Herbert as Earl of Glamorgan in 
1644. It was in June 1645 that the Earl landed in Ireland, and he 
remained there until the end of 1647, ^ when he passed over into 

the civil war ; and entered into the service with all the ardour of a volunteer. No man 
of his years seemed ever to have retained more of the fire and activity of yoidh ; and the 
readiness and sprightliness of his wit are said to have been no less extraordinary. 
***** He was remarkable for the singularity of wearing a frieze coat, in which 
he was always dressed when he went to court." It is evident that the Earl and his 
son are here mixed together, and that the lines which we print in Italics relate to the 
latter. The allusion to *' his wit " belongs to the Father, being founded on the anecdotes 
contained in Worcester's Apophthegmata, or Witty Sayings of the Right Honourable 
Henry (late) Marquess of Worcester. By T. B. a constant Observer, and no less 
Admirer, of his Lordship's Wisdom and Loyalty. 1650. 12mo. a scarce little book, 
from which extracts may be seen in Seward's Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, and 
in Bliss's edition of the Athence Oxonienses, as well as in the volume before us. 

' We believe there are still others, not introduced by Mr. Dircks. One at least of 
the most remarkable is that of which the original is in the British Museum (dated 
April 5, 1646), in which, after Charles had publicly disavowed Glamorgan's proceed- 
ings, he assures him in cypher to " be confident of my making good all instructions 
and promises to you and Nuntio." This is printed in Seward's Anecdotes. 

* It occupies pp. 319-335 of Mr. Dircks' volume, — in modernised orthography : 
having been previously printed literatim from the original MS. in the possession of the 
Duke of Beaufort, by Charles Baker, esq. his Grace's Steward of the Seigniories of 
Gower and Kilvey. 

' Mr. Dircks, p. 185, says he went to France in March 1647-8, with Father Ley- 
burn, quoting Leyburn's Memoirs, p. 61 ; but Carte, in his Life of the Duke of 



EDWARD MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 169 

France. In July 1652 he returned to England as rashly as he had 
quitted her shores. He was again the forlorn hope of his sovereign, 
and as adventurous for the sake of the second Charles as he had been 
for his father. That at least is Kennett's account, who states that 
Charles " sent to England the noble Marquess of Worcester for private 
intelligence as well as for supplies ; but the Marquess was taken up 
prisoner in London and sent to the Tower in September." This date, 
however, is wrong; for it was on the 28th July, 1652, that the House 
of Commons resolved, " That the Earl of Worcester i do stand com- 
mitted to the Tower of London, in order to his trial." It was not 
thought necessary to proceed further ; and, after Worcester had remained 
prisoner for two years and three months, he was released under the 
circumstances thus related in Burton's Diary of that Parliament. 

The Petitioner was alleged to be a Papist, in arms in England, who bad headed a 
party in Ireland, making a most dishonourable peace there, and had done many other 
disservices for which he was excepted from all mercy and pardon, his whole estate 
ordered to be sold, and all such to be banished. Yet, it was urged, he was an old 
man, had lain long in prison, and the small-pox then raging under the same roof 
where he lay ; and he had not, as was said, done any action of hostility but only as a 
soldier; and in that capacity had always shown civilities to the English prisoners and 
Protestants. It was therefore ordered that he should be bailed out of prison. 

His manifold errors and "disservices" were overbalanced by his long 
sufferings and unparalleled losses. His enemies could afford to pity 
him, and to admit that his faults had been those of the head, not of the 
heart. So this " old man," of about fifty-three years of age, was 
released from confinement, and allowed to go and amuse himself with 
his engineering at Vauxhall. 

His son Lord Herbert, afterwards the first Duke of Beaufort, had 
now grown up into manhood ; and it is evident that, taking warning 
from his father's errors, he had adopted a very different course of 
action. He had already established an interest with the ruling powers f 
so far that on one occasion (from Edinburgh April 12, 1651,) Crom- 
well wrote to his wife as follows : 

My Dearest, — Beware of my Lord Herbert his resort to your house; if he do so, may 
occasion scandal, as if I were bargaining with him. Indeed be wise : you know my 
meaning. 

Ormond, states that the Duke went to Paris in March, and the Earl of Glamorgan 
had come thither a few months before him. 

' The Commonwealth government, as before remarked, did not allow his title of 
Marquess. 

2 Mr. Dircks, p. 210, states that he " sat in the Cromwellian parliament." 



170 



THE HOUSE or SOMERSET; AND 



Cromwell in fact bargained with him to the advantage of both 
parties, and the estates of the Somersets were apportioned between 
them. This was probably, in effect, the salvation of the family : for 
the old Marquess — or Earl, as he was then called — could never be 
taught, by all his painful experience, any worldly wisdom. In June 
1655 he was glad to accept from Cromwell a pittance of three pounds 
a week ; and all else that is learned of him until the Restoration is 
from papers which relate to his borrowing money from various parties. 
In 1655 he prepared his Century of Inventions for the press; but it was 
not published until the year 1663. He walked in the Coronation pro- 
cession of Charles the Second; and died in London on the third of 
April 1667. The body of his father had been interred in 1646 in the 
family vault in the Beaufort Chapel at Windsor, the Parliament allow- 
ing 500Z. for the funeral expenses : but the second Marquess was con- 
veyed to Raglan, as described in the Funei-al Certificate,^ as follows : 




The Right Hon'''® Edward Somerset, Marquess and Earle of Worcester, Earle of 
Glamorgan, and Baron Herbert of Raglan, Chepstow, and Gower, departed this 
mortalllife upon Wedensday the third of Aprill 1667, and was conveyed with Fune- 



' The quarterings placed at the head of this Certificate, are 1. Somerset; 2. Her- 
bert; 3. Wydvile; and 4. Russell: viz. — 

1. France and England quarterly, within a bordure gobonated argent and azure, 
Somerset. 

2. Per pale azure and gules, three lions rampant argent, ior Herhert, — the first Earl 
of Worcester having become Lord Herbert by his marriage with Elizabeth sole 
daughter and heir of William Lord Herbert, some time Earl of Huntingdon. 

3. Argent, a fess and a canton gules, for Wi/dvile, — the wife of William Earl of 
Huntingdon just mentioned having been Mary sister and coheiress to Richard Wyd- 
vile, Earl Rivers. 



EDWARD MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 171 

rail Solemnitie from London to his Barony of Raglan in the county of Monmouth 
(accompanied with many Gentry of y*^ Countys of Gloucester and Monmouth afore- 
said,) and there interred in his Lordship's Chappell in the Parish Church, neare to 
the body of Edward Earle of Worcester, Lord Privie Scale, his Grandfather, (in a 
vault arched with stone,) on Fryday the 19. day of the same month. His Lordship 
married to his first wife Elizabeth Dormer, daughter of Sir William Dormer, knight, 
that dyed in the lifetime of his father, and sister unto Robert Earle of Carnarvon, by 
whom he had issue his only son Heni-y Lord Herbert, now Marquess of Worcester, at 
the time of the takeinge of this Certificate ; who, marrying with Mary daughter of that 
most loyall Nobleman Arthur Lord Capell, beheaded by the rebells upon the 9th day 
of March, 1648 (sister to Arthur Earle of Essex, &c. and widdow to Henry Seamour, 
Lord Beauchampe, that dyed in the lifetime of his father, by whom she had issue 
William now Duke of Somerset aged Ifl years, and Frances and Mary dead, and 
Elizabeth Seamour third daughter now liveing,) had by the said Mary also issue 
Henry Somerset his eldest son dead, and buried at Windsor, Charles Somerset second 
son and heire, now Lord Herbert, about 6 years old ; Edward Somerset, 3d son, dead 
also, and was interred at Raglan ; and Henry Somerset the yonger, 4 sonne, who 
departed this world about two dayes before his grandfather, and was buried at 
Raglan; Elizabeth Somerset, elder daughter, dyed young, and was buried at Raglan; 
and Lady Mary Somerset, younger daughter, is now liveing about a yeare and halfe 
old. Lady Anne Somerset, elder daughter to the defunct, was married to Henry 
Howard second sonne of Henry Earle of Arundell, and brother and heire to Thomas 
Duke of Norfolke, and by him hath issue Henry Howard, Thomas, Elizabeth, and 
Frances. Lady Elizabeth Somerset, younger daughter to the defunct, is the wife of 
William Lord Herbert of Powis, and by him hath issue William Herbert his only son, 
and four daughters. 

4. Argent, a lion rampant gules, on a chief sable three escallops of the first, 
Russell. This quartering was inherited from the mother of the deceased, Anne 
daughter and sole heir of John lord Russell, (who died v. p.) son of Francis Earl of 
Bedford. 

The Supporters are, on the dexter side, a Panther argent, spotted sable, azure and 
gules, sending forth flames of fire at his mouth, eyes, and ears proper [otherwise Masoned 
as incensed proper], collared and chained or; on the sinister, a Wyvern vert, devour- 
ing a hand couped at the wrist gules. 

The Crest of the Marquess (Sandford, Geneal. History, 1677, p. 344) was the same 
as is still borne by the Dukes of Beaufort, — a Portcullis or, chained argent. This 
well-known laclge of the Beauforts — and through the mother of King Henry VII. of 
the Royal House of Tudor also — was evidently (remarks Mr. Willement, Royal He- 
raldry, 1821, p. 86,) the type of the castle of Beaufort in Anjou, where Dame Katha- 
rine Swinford gave birth to John Beaufort the first Duke of Somerset. But Charles 
first Earl of Worcester has on his seal (Sandford, p. 240) the more appropriate Crest 
of the royal line of England, a lion statant guardant, collared and chained. 

The impalement for the Marquess of Worcester's first wife is. Azure, ten billets and 
on a chief or a demi-lion rampant issuant sable, Dormer. 

That of his second wife is Quarterly of four: 1. & 4. Gules, three lions passant 
guardant, parted per pale or and argent, O'Bryen; 2. Argent, three piles gules; 
3. Gules, a pheon argent. 



172 EDWARD MARQUESS OF WORCESTER. 

The said Edward Lord Marquess defunct married to his second wife the Lady Mar- 
garet O' Bryan, daughter and coheire of Henry Earle of Thomond, and by her had 
issue one only daugliter named Mary, who dyed an infant, and was buried at Raglan. 

This Certificate was taken upon the 24th of Aprill 1667 by Francis Sandford, 
Rouge Dragon, who served for S' Edward Walker K*. Garter Prineipall King of 
Amies, and the truth thereof attested by the subscription of the Right Ho'''^ Henry 
Marquess of Worcester. 

{Signed) Worcester. 

Exam-i F. R, S. D. 
(i.e. Francis Sandford, Rouge Dragon.) 

On the whole it will be seen that Mr. Dircks has added materially to 
the biographical particulars of the second Marquess of Worcester, but 
has formed a very exaggerated estimate of his abilities and perform- 
ances. No wonder that he is angry with every one who has written 
about his hero ; and most of all with the unhappy Charles, who in- 
sanely entrusted the most hazardous enterprises to so weak a person. 
Lord Clarendon, who, at the time of those untoward events, told 
Secretary Nicholas plainly, " I care not how little I say in that business 
of Ireland, since those strange powers and instructions given to your 
\_i.e. the King's] favourite Glamorgan, which appear to me inexcusable 
to justice, piety, and prudence:" yet, subsequently, in his History, 
looked back mercifully at the many failings of this generous but visionary 
enthusiast; allowing that "he was one whose person many men 
loved, and very few hated ; that he was in truth of a civil and obliging 
nature, and of a fair and gentle carriage toward all men," as well as 
" a man of more than ordinary affection and reverence to the person of 
the King, and one who, he was sure, would neither deceive or betray 
him." 

Edward Marquess of Worcester is, we may say, the Good-Natured 
Man of English History : one who followed the eager impulses of 
his affections, and the sanguine anticipations of an enterprising genius, 
at the sacrifice of every consideration of prudence, and with no reason- 
able prospects of success. These characteristics even Charles himself 
could not fail to perceive, though he was ready to catch at a broken 
reed, for he wrote to the Marquess of Ormond, ** His honesty or affec- 
tion to my service will not deceive you, but I will not answer for his 
judgment." i 

The new dignities of peerage which the Iving conferred on the 
House of Somerset will form the subject of another article. 

• This is a postscript added in cypher to Charles's letter to Ormond, then Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, dated Oxford, 27 Decemb. 1644. 



173 



WHO WAS ARNULPH DE HESDING? 



To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — The name of Amulph de Hesding appears in Domesday Book 
as the holder of large possessions in various counties, and he is men- 
tioned in your vol. i. p. 202 as one of the companions in arms of the 
Conqueror. 

Among his Gloucestershire possessions were the manors of Kemps- 
ford and Hatherop, the former of which, says Rudder (History of Glou- 
cestershire J , he about the end of the reign of William Rufus " conveyed 
to Patrick de Chaworth" (p. 510), and the latter, he says (p. 480), 
" probably passed to the Chaworths at the same time." Collinson, 
in his History of Somersetshire, confesses his inability to give any 
details of Arnulph's history further than that he was one of William's 
attendants, and that "about the latter end of William Rufus" certain 
hides in Weston, formerly his property, were also found to be in the 
possession of Patrick de Chaworth or Cadurcis. 

From the list of donations to the monastery of St. Peter at 
Gloucester, given in Rudder, from the Monasticon, it appears that in 
the year 1126 Robert son of Walter and Aveline his wife gave to that 
monastery the church of Norton with the lands &c. as fully as Emeline 
the mother of Aveline some years since had given the same. A charter 
of Stephen, King of England, dated 1 138, confirming certain gifts to 
the aforesaid monastery, enumerates, inter alia, " The church of Norton, 
with the tithes, &c., which were given by Emulph de Hesding and Emme- 
line his wife." ^ 

The same Amulph also gave certain other lands in the year 1081, 
when Serlo was Abbot. 

In the pages of Ordericus Vitalis,^ we have a further trace of Amulph. 
We learn that when Stephen laid siege to the Castle of Shrewsbury, 
anno 1138, FitzAlan the Governor made his escape privately, but 
Arnulph de Hesding his Uncle, " a bellicose and venturesome soldier, 
arrogantly refused the peace which the King offered him on several 

' Under the head of " Norton " Rudder states that one " Elmelina " gave the 
advowson of the church to the abbey of Gloucester, and that the grant was confirmed 
by " her grandson Robert, son of Walter, and by Aveline his wife." 

« Bohn's Edition, iv. 204. 



174 WHO WAS ARNULPH DE HESDING? 

occasions, and obstinately forced others who wished to surrender them- 
selves to persist in their rebellion. ^ At last, when the fortress was 
reduced, he was taken amongst many others, and brought into the 
presence of the King, whom he had treated with contempt. The 
King, finding that his gentleness had lowered him in the eyes of the 
revolters, and that in consequence many of the nobles summoned to 
his court had disdained to appear, was so incensed that he ordered 
Arnulf, and nearly ninety-three others of those who had resisted him, 
to be hung on the gallows, or immediately executed in other ways. 
Arnulf, now repenting too late, and many others on his behalf, suppli- 
cated the King, offering a large sura of money for his ransom. But, 
the King preferring yengeance on his enemies to any amount of money, 
they were put to death without delay." 

The FitzAlan here alluded to was William, son of Alan, son of 
Flaald, and ancestor to the great house of FitzAlan. Alan, son of 
Flaald, is said to hare married Ameria the daughter and heir of 
Warine, Sheriff of Salop ; so that, if Arnulph were really the uncle 
of William FitzAlan, he must have either been a son of Warine, or a 
brother of Alan. If it be true that Alan's wife was Warine's daughter 
and heii% of com-se she had no brother; and therefore (supposing all 
these statements to be strictly true), Arnulph de Hesding must have 
been another of Flaald's sons. 

Mr. Eyton, however, in his account of the FitzAlans, after quoting 
the above passage from Vitalis, comes to the conclusion that Fitz- 
Alan's wife was not, as is usually supposed, a daughter of the Sheriff 
Warine, but one Aveline, Adeliza, or Adeline de Hesding; and this is 
corroborated by the foundation charter of Haghmond Abbey, wherein 
the mother of FitzAlan is styled Avelina. 

This lady sm'vived her husband many years, and, as is manifest from 
the passage above quoted from Rudder, was remarried to Robert, the 
son of Walter.2 

Other proofs of connection subsisting between the families of FitzAlan 
and Hesding occur : Reginald de Hesding, probably a son of the second 
Arnulf, is a witness to the charter whereby William, son of William, 
son of Alan, at the request of Fulke Fitzwarren, grants the said 
Fulke's land at Alveston to Reginald de Le.^ 

Again we find a trace of Arnulph in the pages of Collins and Lodge, 
but this time he is a belted Earl — Henry de Novo Burgo, Beaumont, 

1 This " insolent soldier " must have been a son of the Domesday landholder. 

^ Who this person was I have yet to learn. 

^ Owen and Blake way. 



WHO WAS ARNULPH DE HESDING? 175 

or Bellomonte, we are told, took to wife Margaret de Hesdene, 
"daughter oi Amiulph, and sister to Rotro, loth Earls of Per die T 

Heylin {Help to English Histoi-y) also makes the same statement on 
the authority of Milles, but adds that " Vincent, correcting Brooke, says 
she was daughter of Geoffrey Earl of Moreton ;" and gives the arms of 
tliis match as, Cheeky or and azure, a chevron ennine, the old Wai-wick 
coat. Now these arms are assigned in the heraldic dictionaries to the 
name of " Hesding," and are engraved in Burke's Visitations of Seats 
and Arms, 1st Series, vol. ii., as the arms of a family of Hedding, 
claiming descent from this very Arnulph. The pedigree there given 
states Arnulph to have been the son or grandson of Phojlice, daughter 
of Rohaud, Earl of Warwick, and wife of the celebrated Guy (Earl jure 
uxoris), and adds that these arms were assumed and ever afterwards 
borne by the Hedding family to commemorate their descent from the 
Saxon Earls of Warwick. The wife of Arnulph is stated to have been 
one Ameline,^ " who gave to the Abbey of Bee Hellouin in Normandy 
the manor of Comb." He is said to have had a brother Ilbodus, 
who held vast possessions in Oxfordshire ; and finally he is made 
to be father of Rotro, Earl of Perche and Mortagne, who died 1123, 
whose daughter (by his first wife Maud, natm'al daughter of King 
Henry 1st) Margaret married Henry de Newburgh, and from whose 
second marriage with " a Saxon lady" springs the family in question. 
One daughter of Arnulph, Magdalen, is made to marry Marius IV. 
King of Navarre," and another, by name Levitha, is stated to have 
been a nun. 

Now the genealogy of the Counts of Perche and Montague appears 
to be pretty well known. Rotro, Geoffrey, and other Counts of that 
family, are frequently mentioned by Ordericus Vitalis, but in no one 
instance is any relationshij) or connection with a family called de 
Hesding mentioned. Rotro Count of Perche is also called son of 
Arnulph de Hesding by Sandford,^ but Vitalis distinctly states that he 
was the only son of " Geoffrey Earl of Moriton."-* 

' See the charter of Stephen, cited aiUe, 

^ Garcias King of Navarre married, according to Moreri, Margaret, daughter of 
Gilbert de Aquila, by Juliana, daughter of Geoffrey Earl of Perche. 

^ " Maud " a natural daughter of King Henry the First, was espoused to Rotrock 
Earl of Perch (called also Consul of Moriton) . . . She was the first wife of this 
Rotrock, first of the name, son of Arnolfe de Hesding also, first Earl of that county 
. . . She perished by shipwrack with her half-brother Duke William, upon Friday, 
the 26th of November, in the 20th year of her father's reign, and of grace M.CXIX," 
Geneal. Hist. p. 32, 1st ed. 

■• Bohn's edition, iii. 80 ; iv. 108, &c. 



176 



WHO WAS ARNULPH DE HESDING 



I subjoin a short pedigree of these Counts, derived principally from 
Moreri's Dictionary, which, it will be seen, is quite at variance with 
Burke's statements: — 

Rotrou, Comte de Mortagne.=7=. . . . 



Geoffrey, "donna du se-=pBeatrix, Hugh, an- 

cours a Guillaume le dau. of cestor of the 

Conquerant a son pas- Hilduin, Seigneurs 

sage en Angleterre," Comte de de Cha- 

died circa 1110. Rouey. teaudun. 



1 

Rotrou 
Sieur de 
Montfort 
dans le 
Maine. 



Juliana ux, 
Gilbert de 
Aquila. 



Margaret ux. 
Henry de Bel- 
lomont or Novo 
Burgo. 



Heruise d'Ev-=pRotrou, Comte= 



reux,^ dau. of 
AValter Earl 
of Salisbury. 



de Perche, 
died circa 
1149. 



1 

Fulco-Elis, 
" dont les 
alliances 
sont incon- 
nuesJ'''^ 

=Maud, natural 
dau. of Henry 
I., King of 
England. 



Rotrou, died at the siege^ 
of Acre, 1191. 



T 



Stephen, Archbishop Philippa, wife of Elias d'Anjou, 
of Palermo. brother of Geoffrey Plantagenet. 



Geoffrey, Comte de Perche et de Mortagne, died 1205. -p. . . 



— i—rn 
Three sons, ob. s. p. 



Thomas,' slain at the battle of Lincoln, s. p. 1217. 

The whole question, says Mr. Eyton, in concluding his remarks, is 
worth the attention of any student of baronial genealogy. Hence I make 
no apology for occupying so much of your space with the few particu- 
lars I have been able to glean ; indeed I trust the query propounded at 
the head of this article may be considered of sufficient general interest 
to induce your readers to lend me their aid in ventilating it. I should 
add, that I am personally interested in this question, one of my earliest 
ancestors having, according to constant family tradition, married shortly 
after the Conquest a great heiress, one Etlielswytha de Hesdene, of the 
Saxon Mood royal, and for this match we quarter, whether rightly or 
wrongly I know not, the chequered shield and ermine chevron of the 
old Earls of "Warwick. 

This lady is supposed to have been a near relative of Arnulph, but 
in what degree she was related to him I am ignorant ; indeed, the very 
name of her father is unknown. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, H. S. G. 

* Sic Moreri, but the Nugent family is said, I believe on pretty good authority, to 
derive from this Fulke. The name Nugent being taken from Nogent-le-Rotrou, the 
family residence of the Counts of Perche. 

* The name (TEvreux, given to the Norman Earls of Salisbury, has been shown to 
have arisen entirely in error: see the History of Lacoch Ahhey, and a memoir on the 
Earldom of Salisbury in the Archceological Journal. (Edit. H. & G.) 

' See an anecdote of him in Topog. and Geneal. i. 312. 





2Ji..f.^-.--^^, 



€Z<-.^ 



177 



THE FAMILY OF MILLAIS, 

AND THE Chief Families of Jersey. 

The Lineage and Pedigree of the Family of Millais ; recording its History from 
1331 to 1865. Being an extract from an " Armorial of Jersey," by J. Ber- 
trand Payne, Membre de I'lnstitut Historique de France, &c. &c. With Illus- 
trations from Designs by the Author. London : Privately printed 1865. Imperial 
4to. pp. 8. 

Our readers will remember the accomit given in om- first volume 
(pp. 531-534) of A Monograph of the House of Lempriere, by the gen- 
tleman above named, who has devoted liimself to the Genealogy of the 
Island of Jersey, and who favom-ed us in om- second volume (pp. 23-30) 
with some brief notes on the principal Jersey Families — Aboriginal and 
Immigrant. We have now before us a brief but sumptuously appointed 
memoir, which, like the Lempriere Monograph, is an excerpt from Mr. 
Bertrand Payne's great work, the Armorial of Jersey, now in progress 
through the press. 

The family of Millais is traced by records, among the lesser land- 
holders of Jersey, for more than five centuries ; and is thought to have 
existed there even before the Norman Conquest of England. A bold 
range of hills to the north-east of the town of S. Helier is named Les 
Monts IVIillais, and the Cuillette de Millais is one of the "gatherings" 
or vingtaines of the parish of S. Ouen. In the extente or royal rent- 
roll of Jersey of the year 1338 the name occurs under the form Milayes; 
a bovate or bouve'e of land in the parish of Grouville being held by 
Gaufridus Milayes at 10 sols per annum. At other times the name 
has been written Millays, Mylais, and IMilfes, and sometimes Millet. 
About 1540 John Myllais, by his marriage with the heiress of the 
family of Le Jarderay, became possessed of the estate of Tapon, in the 
parish of S. Saviour ; of this ancient residence, which remained in the 
family until the beginning of the present century, the book contains a 
photographic plate. 

The pedigree extends from John Millays, living circa 1331, to the 
present representatives of the family: 1. John William Millais, esq., 
and WilHam Henry Millais (his son), of Kingston, Surrey ; 2. John 
Everett Millais, esq,, E.A., of Cornwall Place, South Kensington 
(brother to the last); 3. Henry William Millais, esq. (son of the late 
George Henry Millais, esq., who died in 1864) ; and 4. Thomas Mil- 
lais, esq., of Jersey. 

VOL. III. N * 



178 THE FAMILY OF MILLAIS. 

The Memoir is illustrated by three armorial plates, representing the 
atchievements and alliances of William Henry Millais, esq., of the 
Eoyal Academician his brother, and of the late George Henry Millais, 
esq. A peculiar interest attaches itself to the second, which exliibits 
the coat-annour of the Royal Academician, whose works have ren- 
dered the name of Millais far more familiar to the world than it has 
ever been during the whole five centuries of his recorded pedigree. It 
is, that this plate was designed ?ind etched by the hands of John 
Everett Millais himself : and we have to acknowledge ourselves under 
especial obligations to Mr. Bertrand Payne that he now affords us the 
pleasure of presenting an impression to our readers. 

The bearings of the Millais atchievements are these : 

1. Per hendjoT and azure, a star of eight points counter-changed, 
Millais; 2. Aziu-e, a cross-passion argent, surmounted of an Eastern 
crown or, Le Jarderay ; 3. Or, an orle azure, Bertram ; 4. Argent, a 
palm-tree proper, Fallot ; 5. Argent, a cock statant proper, Faultrart ; 
6. Ai-gent, a cross sable between a Maltese cross gules in the first and 
fourth quarters, and a tent of the same in the second and third, BaU' 
douin ; 7. Argent, on a chevron sable four eagles of the field, between 
three mullets gules, Morice de la Ripaudiere; 8. Ermine, a lion ram- 
pant gules, Le Geyt. Crest, a head gauntleted and apaume, in pale, 
gules. 

The marriage with the heiress of Le Jarderay we have already men- 
tioned. The third quartering was brought in to the atchievement by 
the marriage of John Milays, early in the 17th century, with Jane 
daughter and heir of Benjamin Bertram; and the next four by that 
of his son Edward, in 1671, with Margaret daughter and eventual heir 
of the Rev. Joshua Pallot. It was Edward, grandson of the last, who 
married in 1728 an heiress of Le Geyt : and we may add, that the 
marriage of Mary, one of the offspring of that marriage with the Rev. 
John Dupre, Rector of St. Helier, introduces into the tabular pedigree 
a portion of the genealogy of that family ; including Edward Dupre, 
D.C.L. also Rector of S. Helier, and Dean of Jersey, and John "William 
Dupre, Attorney-general of Jersey, the Dean's son. 

The arms impaled in the etching are those of Gray^ Gules, a lion 
rampant within a bordure engrailed argent, a crescent for difference ; 
the Royal Academician having mai-ried Euphemia- Chalmers, daughter 
of George Gray of Bowerswell, Perth, N.B. by whom he has issue three 
sons and two daughters. 

The Armorial of Jersey^ of which the Lineage of the Family of Millais 



THE ARMORIAL OF JERSEY. 



179 



is a chapter, contains the history and arms of the chief Jersey families, 
of which a list is subjoined: — 

Amy. De Quetteville. La Cloche. Manger. 

Anqnetil. De Vanmorel. Langlois. Messeroy. 

Anthoine. Duheaume. Le Bailly. Millais. 

Bailhache. Dumaresq. Le Bas. Mouraut. 

Balleine. Durell. Le Breton. NicoUe. 

Bandinel. Fillenl. Le Boutillier. Payn. 

Bandains. Fiott. Le Couteur. Perrot. 

Bertram. Gabonrel. Le Fenvi-e. Pinel. 

Bisson. Gervaise. Le Gallais, Pipon. 

Boudier. Gibaut. Le Geyt. Poingdestre. 

Cabot. Gu'audot. Le Gros. Ricard. 

Chateaubriand. Godfray. Le Hardy. Richardson vel 

Collas. Gosselin. Le Maistre. Reserson. 

Coutanche. Gosset. Lempriere. Robin. 

D'Auvergne. Guerdain. Le Montais. Seale. 

De Bareutine. Guille. Le Quesne, Simonet, 

De Carteret. Hammond. Levrier. Sohier. 

De Gruchy. Hamptonne. Le Sueur. Valpy. 

De la Garde. Hemery. Le Touzel. Yautier. 

De la Place. Herault. Low. Vibert. 

De la Taste. Janvrin. Luce. 

De Ste. Croix. Jeune. Malet. 

De S. Martin. Journeaulx. Marelt. 

To the account of most of these families, in addition to biographical 
notices of their chief members, the date of their estabUshment in the 
island, <S:c. is appended a tabular pedigree, compiled from family 
papers, parochial and royal court registers, and the ecclesiastical records 
of Jersey which exist at the departmental archives at S. Lo, in Nor- 
mandy, with plates of the arms and quarterings borne by members of 
the houses whose histories are recorded. An endeavour has been made, 
in these plates, to chronicle the various styles of heraldic depicture from 
the earliest to the present time, and, although these number nearly 150, 
no two are identical in treatment. 

The work will be completed in six Parts, to which will be added a 
Supplement, intended to contain the histories and arms of such families, 
not of native origin, which are either connected with the island by 
marriage or which possess property there. The work is j^rinted for 
private circulation only, and has occupied its compiler ten years. 

N 2 



180 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDIC A. 



Heraldic Cards by Richard Blome. 

Richard Blome was a very successful publisher of books by subscription, 
who produced the fourth and fifth editions of Guillim's Display of Heraldry 
in 1660 and 1679, and a variety of books illustrated by plates, of which 
the most magnificent were his Britannia^ his History of the Bible, and 
his Gentleman s Recreation, all folio volumes. The plates of his works are 
dedicated throughout to his patrons, and are usually decorated with their 
armorial coats, now afibrding evidence of some importance of the heraldry 
of his contemporaries. He also produced an Essay to Heraldry, 1684, 
12mo., re-published as The Art of Heraldry 1685 (but under the latter 
title unnoticed by Moule). This manual was illustrated with engravings of 
examples, most of which are marshalled on quartered shields, in the same 
way as those on the pack of cards now before us. 

These cards have not hitherto attracted the attention of the bibliographer. 
We shall describe them from a copy on paper, mounted and bound in a 
volume, which is at present in the hands of Mr. J. C. Hotten, bookseller, 
of Piccadilly. The armories are coloured throughout. We copy (in part) 
the inscriptions literally, including errors. 

Hearts. King. His Ma'J* Royall Atchivement. The Royall Atchivem* 
of his Sacred Ma'J^ Charles, &c. &c. 

Queen. The Atchivement of a woman not under ferame in covert. She 
beareth in a Lozenge as a maiden Lady, B. a fess wavey between 3 Goates 
heads erazed A. by y<* name of sedney, & is y* paternall Coate Armour of 
Mary sedney sole daughter & heyre of S"" Charles sedney of Southfleet in 
Kent, Bar'. 

Knave. Navall things. — They are arranged In a shield of twelve quar- 
terings. 

Ace. Military things. — Another shield of twelve quarterings. 

Deuce. Military things. — Another of fourteen. 

Trey. The Atchivement of a Duke. The R' Noble Christopher Duke 
of Albemarle, E. of Torington, Baron Monck of Potheridge, Beauchamp 
& Teys, K' of ye Garter, L** Leiutenant of Devonshire & Esses, one of y* 
Gent: of his Ma'^' Bedchamber, & L^s of his most Hone"", privy Councell 
&<:'. who beareth — his arms, crest, and supporters are described, after which 
these two lines : 

To whose patronage these Armoriall Cards are humbly dedicated by his 
Orace most humble Sf obedient servant Ric. Blome. 

Four. The Atchivement of a Marquess. — The like of Henry Marquess of 
Dorchester, a Privy Councillor. 

Five. The Atchivement of a Earle. — John Earl of Bridgewater. 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 181 

Six. The Atchivement of a Viscount. — Thomas Needham Lord Viscount 
Killmurrey, — Needham quartering Pearle, on a chiefe emerald a Taw 
between two mullets Topaz (Druri/.) 

Seven. The Atchivement of a Baron. — Lord Berkelej' of Berkeley. 

Eight. The Atchivement of a Baronet, y^ Augmentation of a Bar' is 
always put in y« most convenientest place of j'« shield. He beareth quar- 
terly (1) G. 3 Kath&rin wheles O. on a cheife A. a Bulls head couped at y* 
neck S. (2) B. a Lyon rampant O. y* (S^) as y* (2'') y« 4"i as ye (I), in y« 
midst of w'b is y« Arraes of Vlster w"" is y^ Augmentation of a Baronet viz 
in a Escocheon A. a sinister hand couped at y*^ wrist G. mantled G. doubled 
A. & for his Crest on a helmet & wreath of his colours a Bulls head S. 
between 2 wings A. This Atchivement is thus borne by S^ Phillip 
Mathews of Great Gobions near Rumford in Essex Bar'. 

Nine. The Atchivement of a Knight. He beareth G. 3 Ducall Crowns 
O. on a chiefe of the second 3 laurell leaves erect pp. by y^ name of Ber- 
kenhead, mantled G. doubled A. & for his Crest out of a Crown Ducall a 
dexter Arme pp. holding 3 Arrows O. This is y« Atchivement of y« R' 
worshipful! S'' lohn Berkenhead K'. Master of Requests to his Ma'?' & 
Master of y* ffaculties. 

Ten. The Atchivement of an Esquire, w"" is y* same as a Gentlemans. — 
That of Thomas Barrington, Esq. son & heir of Sir John Barrington, Bart. 

Diamonds. King. The severall wayes of beareing of Lyons. — Arranged in 
fifteen quarterings. 

Queen. Beasts, or four footed Animalls. — In twelve quarterings. 

Knave. Flowers, and Fruits. — In twelve quarterings. 

Ace. The Parts of a Mans Body. — In nine quarterings. 

Deuce. Parts of Beasts. — In nine quarterings. 

Trey. Parts of Beasts. — Nine more. 

Four. Monsters. — Also in nine quarterings. 

Five. Animalls. — In eleven quarterings. 

Six. Birds and Flyes. — In twelve quarterings. 

Seven. Fishes. — In fourteen quarterings. 

Flight. Parts of Birds. — In nine quarterings. 

Nine. Civill Artificiall things. — In twelve quarterings. 

Ten. Civill Arti6ciall things. — In fifteen quarterings. 

Clubs. King. The generall colours vsed in Armory are 6, & y^ hatches 
as thus exprest shew y"" Colours, but there are some others, as Purpure, 
Tenne, Tawny, and Murry, which being very rarely vsed in arms are here 
omitted. 

Queen. Furrs. — In six quarterings. 

Knave. The partes of Armes. — A shield with letters of reference to its 
several points. 

Ace. Bordures. — In twelve quarterings. 

Deuce. Formes of charges on w'^'' Rewards & Additions of honor arc 
oftentymes placed in Coates, — In nine quarterings. 



182 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

Trey. Abatments of honour for misdemenors & dishonourable actions. 
— In nine quarterings. 

Four. Theire are severall crooked lines in Heraldry, &c. — Shown on a 
shield. 

Five. The Honourable ordinaries. — In nine quarterings. 

Six, The Crosses most usually borne in Heraldry. — In twenty-four quar- 
terings. 

Seven. The Chiefe is s'^ to be give" to those y' by their high merits have 
procured them chiefe place and esteem amongst men. — Chiefs in six quar- 
terings. 

Eight. The fess is called ye Belt, or girdle of honor, &c. — Fesses and 
their diminutives, in twelve quarterings. 

Nine. A Bend is said to represent a ladder set aslope to scale y* walls of 
a Citty, or Castle, and betokneth ye bearer to have been one of y* first 
y' mounted vp ye enemys wall.' — Twelve examples quartered. 

Ten. A Cheveron represents ye rafters of a hovse, & betokneth to y* 
bearer ye Atcheiving some signall undertaking. — Nine examples of the 
chevron and its diminutives quartered. 

Spades. King. A pale, &c. — In five quarterings. 

Queen. The saltier was made y* hight of a man, and was driven full of 
Finns, and served to scale y^ walls of a Citty. — Four examples quartered. 

Knave. The pile is an honourable bearing, &c. — In six quarterings. 

Ace. A shield of six quarterings, an escocheon, orle, &c. 

Deuce. Partitions and counter changes. — In fifteen quarterings. 

Trey. Counter changes. — In four quarterings. 

Four. A shield of six quarterings, the lozenge, roundel, &c. 

Five. Two ordinaries in one shield, w^h may be borne w"* or betwen a 
charge. — Twelve examples quartered. 

Six. Twelve more examples of the like. 

Seven. A quai'tered shield of six examples of Paly bendy, &c. 

Fight. Counter changes with charges on the field. — Twelve quarterings. 

Nine. Celestialls. — A shield quarterly of twelve. 

Ten. Vegetables. — Eleven quarterings. 



1857. 1862. 1864. 

Notirrs of tl)c ©Iltses : 
OJ" France (from the time of Charlemagne), and of England (from the Con- 
quest) to the present time ; and of the Synonymous Families (in France) of 
HALIS, ALES, ELIE, ELLIES, HELIS, etc., and (in England) of 
ALIS,FITZ-ELLIS,ELLICE,EYLES,EALES,ALISON,ELLISON, 
ETC., including the following Families of the same origin, viz. Marshall 
{Earls of Pembroke), Deivill, De la Mahe, Damort, Cantalupe, and 

' See Vol. ii. p. 245. 



BIBLIOTHECA HEKALDICA. 183 

AuBERviLLE (Buroiis), Kaleigh, Venouk, Pontdelarche, Punchar- 
DUN, Norman, Kiddall, Ferby, Hauvill, Amukdeville, Helshami 
Datvill, Disney, Doisnel, Cerne, Plumstead, Bcrningham, Fitz- 
Walter, Redisham, Combe, etc. By William Smith Elus, Esq. 
Barrister at Law. Xo. I. March 1857, pp. 52. No. 2, September 1862, 
pp. 53—108. No. 3, March 1864, pp. 109-184. Not Published. 

From the title of this compilation, which is literally copied above, it will 
be perceived that the author casts his net for a vei-y large draught of fishes, 
not limiting himself to the numerous families of Ellis, nor even to the 
Eales, who, perhaps in allusion to their slippery character, bore three eels 
for their arras, which have sometimes been taken for snakes (p. 14). The 
fact is that Mr Ellis readily accepts, as a proof of families being connected, 
either a similarity of sound in the name, or a similarity of bearing in the 
arms : so that in one way or other his grasp is very comprehensive indeed. 
Hence the concatenation which the title describes : to which we think most 
of his readers will be disposed to give but partial and limited assent : par- 
ticularly as (in a note in p. 5) he candidly admits that his genealogical 
deductions in the earlier portion of his inquiries could, for the most part, 
never have been made, except upon the assumption that hereditary arm 
were in use long before the period of the Crusades : and he acknowleges 
that " the belief in the existence for centuries before the Norman Conquest 
of hereditary heraldic symbols, has been throughout the guide and clue to 
the hypotheses and conclusions here made:" according to the views which 
the Author has published in a pamphlet upon that subject which we have 
before noticed in p. 2 of this Volume. 

The introductory paragraph of No. I. is as follows : — " The object of the 
following Essay will be to show that most of the EUises of England descend 
from a Norman ancestor, who came over with William the Conqueror, and 
that he, in common with most of the EUises, or synonymous families of 
France, was descended from the early Kings of that country ; and, as such, 
bore the royal _^e7<rs de Zw, the name being originally Elias, or Louis." 

The subject is divided into two Parts : the first (in pp. 1 — 34) treating of 
the origin of the EUises of England; the second (pp. 34 — 52) of those of 
France. 

The following names are then all taken as varieties of Ellis : 

Alls, Halis, and Hallis ; 

Elias, and Helias; 

Elis, Ellis, Elles, Ellys, and Elys ; 

Elice, EUice ; 

Hellis, Hellys, Hilles, Helles ; 

Hollis, Holys, Holies ; 

lies, Ilys ; 

Eyles, Eales. 

Here we will venture to ask, if some of the name come from the Christian 



184 BIBLIOTHECA HEEALDICA. 

name Elias (in French Elie), have not others been derived from the female 
name Alice ? Again, the French family of Alis took their name from a 
place called Alis or Alisay near Pont de I'Arche, according to the opinion 
of M. L'Echaude D'Anisy, quoted in p. 4. 

Sir William Alis, a Norman lord mentioned on three occasions by 
Ordericus Vitalis, is, says Mr. Ellis, the same person who occurs in Domes- 
day Book and elsewhere as William de la Mare, William Fitz-Norman, 
William Dalmare, and William Pontdelarche ; and he suggests also that 
Robert de Auberville, Robert le Marshal, Robert Fitz-Walter, Robert Fitz- 
Halis, and Normannus Vicecomes, were different designations of Sir William 
Alis's father (p. 54). These few lines are sufficient to show how ready the 
author is to accept such identifications : accompanied by consanguinities 
furnished upon the presumptive, if not imaginary, evidence we have already 
described. We can scarcely consider it safe to adopt these so readily, as 
the general basis of early genealogical researches ; though occasional disco- 
veries of the kind, when worked out with severe caution, may have been 
among the triumphs of the most learned genealogists. 

So, in regard to Armory, it is our grand maxim, that it has power to 
render the most efficient aid in early genealogical researches ; but then it 
must be carefully ascertained, not accepted on mere "traditional" or legen- 
dary authority. In p. 55 we find it stated, of one of the most distinguished 
races of Ellis, — that resident at Kiddal near Leeds in Yorkshire — that "the 
great traditional ancestor of this family is Sir Archibald Ellis, a Crusader 
under Richard I., who is said to have first borne the crusading coat used 
by the family, viz. Or, on a cross sable five crescents argent ; and to have 
first used their crest, viz. a woman naked, her hair dishevelled, proper, in 
celebration of his having captured a Saracen maiden, and, like another 
Scipio, left her honour inviolate." Now, it is very well known to more 
sober heraldic inquirers than Mr. Ellis that no such crest could have been 
adopted in the reign of Richard I. nor indeed for some centuries after. 
Neither, in fact, is there any proof whatever of the arms above blasoned 
having any claim to be classed as a " crusading coat." To determine their 
real date and origin, it should be ascertained on what rolls or other docu- 
ments they are first recorded. And so, for the Crest, instead of accepting 
the romantic legend we have just repeated, it would probably further the 
history of the family much more materially to inquire in some other direc- 
tion why the crest of a naked woman was adopted, a device which some of 
the name have varied to a mermaid, (p. 120.) 

Nos. 2 and 3 of these "Notices of theEUises" are occupied almost entirely 
with collections, from all quarters of the globe, of genealogical particulars 
of the various families of the name. They are somewhat fragmentary, and 
their arrangement confused, for which the compiler makes apologies, — 
his plans having changed during the progress of his labours. He states 
(p. 109) that he commenced by collecting what printed and accessible MS. 
sources furnished, which, joined to some specific and some incidental 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 185 

researches, and private communications, constituted a collection which he 
thought useful to be put in print. This he liberally undertook, at his pri- 
vate expense ; and, with the view of obtaining further information, sent 
copies to nearly two hundred persons of the name, such being the estimated 
number of the gentry bearing this appellation in the United Kingdom, so 
far as could be ascertained from calendars and directories. The communi- 
cations he has received have induced him " to make these pages a Record 
of the Ellises of the present day, and of the recent as well as the remote 
past ; in fact, as regards Families of One Name, to produce a Genealogical 
Visitation." In this respect his book resembles that on the Travers family, 
which we have noticed in a former page. 

The circumstance that No. 3 consists so much of information supple- 
mentary to what had been given in No. 2, suggests that it will be desirable, 
before the volume is closed, to supply a synoptical table of Contents that 
will lead the inquirer to the several pages in which the same families are 
more than once noticed. 

The Author has No. 4 in preparation, and it will probably be issued 
during the present year, to those who have intimated to him that his former 
Parts have been acceptable. It is to contain, inter alia, Additional Early 
Notices of the Ellises ; and the Descent of Families bearing goafs heads, 
of presumed cognate origin with the Alises. He solicits the commu- 
nication of notices from Deeds, Wills, &c., and Monumental Inscriptions 
from churches and churchyards ; and any other additions or corrections to 
his pages already circulated ; which may be addressed to him at his resi- 
dence, Hydecroft, Charlwood, Surrey. 



Three Rolls of Arms of the Latter Part of the Thirteenth Century : 
together with an Index of Names and an Alphabetical Ordinary of the 
Coats. Edited for the Society of Antiquaries by Weston Styleman Wal- 
FORD, Esq. F.S.A. and Charles Spencer Perceval, Esq. LL.D., F.S.A. 
London : printed by J. B. Nichols and Sons, 25, Parliament Street. 1864. 
Printed in this form for Private Distribution. 4to. pp. 99. 

These Rolls have been printed for the XXXIXth volume of the Archge- 
ologia, the Second Part of which is on the eve of publication. The Ordi- 
nary is an addition peculiar to the separate copies, as will be presently 
explained. 

The 'first Roll is edited by Mr. Walford. It is of the time of King 
Henry III. and is that which Mr. J. Wyatt Papworth, in his Oi-dinary of 
British Armorials, has quoted under the reference C. Its original has not 
been discovered ; but the copy by Nicholas Charles in the Harleian MS. 
6589, from which it is now printed, was taken in 1606 from " a very antient 
Rolle, made, as may be supposed, in the year of K. H. 3." Mr. Walford 
considers it of not quite so early a date, but still not later than about 1280. 
It consists of about 180 coats, and is shown to be substantially the same as 



186 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

that given in Hearne's edition of Leland's Collectanea, vol. ii. p. 610, of 
which the present Editor has attached a collation. 

The second and third Rolls of this series are also of the reign of Edward 
the First ; and are edited, with some prefatory remarks, by Mr. Perceval. 

One of these has, for many years, been preserved in the library of the 
Society of Antiquaries, but has never before been printed. It was in the 
year 1610 in the possession of that truly antiquarian herald and scientific 
heraldic antiquary, Nicholas Charles, to whose industry is due the trans- 
cription of nearly twenty rolls of arms preserved (in his handwriting) in 
the Harleian volume already mentioned. The Society's Roll, however, is 
not one of them ; but there is a copy in the Harl. MS. 6137. In the Cata- 
logue of the Society's Manuscripts, printed in 1816, it was entered as 
No. 17, and attributed to the fifteenth century : but it is now shown to be 
a copy from a Roll formed about the year 1300. It contains so many as 
486 coats. 

The third Roll is one which has gone by the name of Charles's Roll, and 
is quoted by Mr. Papworth by the letter E. It is known to exist only in 
two copies, preserved in the two volumes of the Harleian MSS. already 
named. That in the Harl. MS. 6589 (the work of Nicholas Charles him- 
self,) is prefaced by this note : " This Roll, on the other side, was copied 
by the original, which Mr. Norry lent me An. D'ni 1607. Nicholas 
ChahIiES." So that a more proper distinctive title for it is to call it St. 
George's roll, as Sir Richard St.George was the Norroy who possessed it. 

These two rolls are ascertained to belong almost exactly to the same 
period. Of 677 coats which St. George's roll contains, nearly 300 are 
found agreeing in every respect with the other, whilst about 50 more occur 
in each roll with variations, sometimes as to Christian names, at other times 
as to hrizures, with other discrepancies of various degrees of importance. 
The careful comparison which Mr. Perceval has carried out between them 
adds much to their value : and they together form a very large and im- 
portant collection of arms between 1240-5, the date of the Roll of Arms 
of the reign of Henry III. edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, and 1300, the date 
of the Carlaverock Roll.' 

The Editors have appended an Index of Names to the three Rolls ; and 
to the separate copies is also added an Alphabetical Ordinary, to which is 
prefixed the following explanatory Note : — 

Note. — Whilst engaged in preparing my text of Rolls E and F for the press, I 
found it necessary to compile, for my own use, an Ordinary of the Coats contained in 
those two Rolls. Mr. Papworth having digested the whole of these Rolls in his book, 
of which the greater part has already appeared, it seemed hardly justifiable to encum- 
ber the pages of Archseologia by printing my own Ordinary there. At the same time 

• We have given, in our Second Volume, p. 377, an account of the poetic roll 
on the Siege of Carlaverock, and in p. 389 a note upon the other more regular, and 
longer, rolls of the arms present at the same siege. 



BIBLIOTHECA HEKALDICA. 187 

it was thought that, with the addition of the coats comprised in Roll C, the compilation 
might be acceptable to that limited number of persons specially interested in the sub- 
ject, into whose hands the separate copies of the Rolls, and remarks thereon, might 
come. One hundred and twenty-five copies of the following pages have therefore 
been printed, for private distribution, at the joint expense of Mr, A. W. Franks, Mr. 
W. S. Walford, and myself. 

Mr. Papworth's excellent arrangement has mostly been followed. In several in- 
stances a coat has been twice entered ; once in its proper alphabetical order, and 
again in italics, either where the blazon is doubtful, or in order to bring one coat into 
juxtaposition with another, on which it either certainly is or may be conjectured to 
be founded. 

December, 1864. C. S. P. 

To those who appreciate the paramount value of contemporary evidence, 
we need say nothing further in estimation of the service conferred on the 
heraldic antiquary by making these Rolls accessible to ready reference : 
forming as they do a very ample storehouse of information for the earliest 
period of armory, dating next to the brief roll, of only 218 coats, edited by 
Sir Harris Nicolas in 1829. 



REVIEW. 

Heraldry, Historical and Popular. By Charles Boutell, M.A. 
Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 1864. 8vo. Pp. xvi. 547. 

Having already on two occasions given our opinion upon this work, 
we have little more to say, on its third appearance, than to offer our 
congratulations. To enter into minute criticism is beyond our pur- 
pose, or indeed our available space: and it is a process which we are 
endeavouring to pursue, with regard to the whole field of Heraldry, 
more at large in the general scope of our miscellany. We attribute 
the success that has attended the work of Mr. Boutell at once to its 
moderate price, and to the good taste which the author has manifested 
in his artistic appreciation of the subject, and the selection of the best 
models among the remains of ancient heraldic design. Nor can we 
withhold from him a fair share of praise for the pains and diligence he 
displays throughout in working out the details of his subject, and 
availing himself in a candid and generous spirit of every aid which 
may be gained either from the communications of his friends or the 
animadversions of his critics. He assures his readers that 

This Third Edition has been most carefully revised and corrected throughout; and it 
has received many additions of the greatest importance. To all points connected with 
heraldic rule, authority, and early usage, I have directed my especial attention. The 



IJ 



BOUTELL S HERALDRY. 



Chapters previously entitled Marshalling and Cadency now appear, enlarged and re- 
arranged, severally bearing the following titles, Marshalling and Inheritance, and 
Cadency and Differencing. Chapter XIV. has been devoted exclusively to Royal 
Cadency, which has been treated in it in as systematic a manner as possible. The 
Chapter on the Royal Heraldry of England has been in part rewritten ; and the 
Chapter on Foreign Heraldry has been considerably extended. 

Again I have introduced several fresh Illustrations. They consist of twenty-four 
additional woodcuts, printed with the text : and four lithographic Plates, containing 
twelve examples : thus my Illustrations, in all, now number upwards of nine hundred 
and seventy examples. 

Mr. Boutell pays a well -merited tribute of praise to the extraordi- 
nary spirit with which the shield of a knight who lies in efSgy at Cle- 
hongre in Herefordshire is sculptured. The bars are carved in bold 
relief: the bend is brought to a still higher surface, and the leopard's 
heads have extraordinary animation. To this finely-sculptured effigy 
three plates (dated 1841) are devoted in The Monumental Effigies of 
Great Britain, by T. and G. Hollis. The person represented is there 
styled " A Knight of the Pembridge Family," and we think with great 
probability. The original and simple coat of Pembruge was Barry of 
six or and azure. To this coat Sir Henri de Penbruge, of Herefordshire, 
in the reign of Edward the Second, added a bend gules ; and Sir Johan 
de Pembruge (whose name follows in the Roll of that date) added on 
the bend three mullets argent. Therefore we think it highly probable 
that another of the family diflFerenced again by leopard's heads in place 
of the mullets. 




189 

Thompson of Yorkshire ; and of Lancashire? 
To the Editor of the Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — In the Harleian MS. 1394, folio 337, occurs this entry : 

These armes, viz., Party per fece silver and sable, a fece batelle, three faulcons 
counterchanged of j* feild, the belles and beakes gould. The crest or badge an arme 
quarterly gold and azure, w'*" a gauntlett of the color of barneys, holding of tronchon 
of speare gould : set upon a wreath silver and sable ; were granted by Lawrence 
Dalton, al's Norroy King of Armes, to Henry Tompson, of Esliold, in the county of 
York, gentleman, and one of the King's Mat' gentlemeli-at-armes at Boloigne, by 
letters patent dated the 15. of Aprill in the first yeare of y^ reigne of Queene 
Elizabethe. 

It is to be inferred this Henry Thompson would not be admitted into 
the corps of gentlemen-at-arms of Henry VIII. unless he had some pre- 
tensions to what Sir Bernard Burke designates " gentilitial " origin ; but, 
be this as it may, he is said (see Harl. MS. 1394, folio 211,) to have had a 
natural son by Ellen daughter of Lawrence Townley, esq. «f Barnside. It 
is, however, rather in contradiction of this statement that, on an incised 
slab to the memory of this lady placed in the church of Colne in Lanca- 
shire, she is called Ellen " the wife " of Henry Thompson, esq. 

The descendants of this Henry settled at Esholt, the lands of the dis- 
solved priory there having been granted to him by his royal master. His 
son William married Dorothy daughter of Christopher Anderton of 
Lostock, Lancashire, prothonotary, and by her had two sons, Christopher 
and Henry. The former (born 1581)" married Frances daughter of James 
Thwaites, of Marston, esq , about the year 1601, and had a son Henry, with 
other sons and daughters. The heir (Henry) married Mary daughter of 
Walter Stanhope, esq., and had only one child, a daughter, on whose mar- 
riage with Walter Calverley, esq., the estates passed from the Thompsons 
to the family of that name. 

To return. Of Henry, the second son of William of Esholt, and the 
younger grandson of the grantee, nothing is stated in the documents (Har- 
leian MSS. 1394, fol. 211, and 1487, fol. 310) from which these particulars 
are compiled. 

The arms of Henry Thompson granted by Dalton, Norroy, are now used 
(quarterly) by Lord Wenlock, and, slightly differenced, by more than one 
branch of the wealthy Yorkshire family named Thompson, though none of 
them trace their pedigrees back to the original grantee of Esholt. 

It is also remarkable that the same coat (or nearly the same) is assigned 
on anonymous authority (Harleian MS. 893, folio 31, date James I and 
Charles I), on the authority of Saunders (Harl. MS. 1468, fol. 109), on 
the authority of Randle Holmes (Harl. MSS, 1940, 1987, and 2040), and 
on that of Captain Booth of Stockport (Baines's MSS.) to Thompson of 
Lancashire, but that no place of residence is attached. 



190 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

I would inquire, Was there any known Lancashire family in the six- 
teenth or seventeenth century to whom the arms in question were assigned, 
and, if so, where were they seated ? Baines, in his History of Lancashire, 
in a catalogue entitled Familice Lancastrienses, mentions the name Thomp- 
son with a number of others of arm-bearing families; but adds that "no 
residence is attached to any of them." Would you, Sir, or any of your 
correspondents able to throw light on this matter, oblige me by so doing? 
In the interesting letter of the late Mr. Markland, printed in your second 
volume, it is related that, in a schedule to a kind of summons addressed by 
Sir William Dugdale, Norroy, to the Bailiff of Salford, are inserted the 
names of seventy-three Lancashire gentlemen, many of them members of 
very ancient families, who had refused to make their appearance before 
him to register their descents and justify their titles of Esquires and Gentle- 
men. Does this circumstance account for the omission of residences from 
Baines's list, the Familice Lancastrienses f 

In the lists of freeholders present or summoned to the Lancashire 
weapon-shows in 1574, 1600, and 1613, several persons of the name men- 
tioned appear; and, in the Calendai'ium Inquisitioimm post Mortem Ducatus 
Lancastrice, published by the Record Commission, William Thompson is 
recorded to have died possessed of lands in Lonsdale Hundred (1566), 
William Tompson of land at Larbrick in the reign of Elizabeth, Henry 
Thompson of land at Thistleton (1621), and others at places also named. 
About the year 1580 also, among the Catholic families of Lancashire 
having children in " Popish countries," who were ordered by the Bishop 
of Chester to send for them in order that they might be educated at home, 
was one named Thompson. (See Gregson's Fragments of Lancashire.') 

From the assignment of the arms of Thompson of Esholt to Thompson of 
Lancashire by heralds or heraldry painters in the seventeenth century, it 
seems probable descendants of the original grantee settled in the county 
just named; or, if not, how do we account for the references already given ? 

It is remarkable that the arms should have been recorded or entered in 
so many lists, without being associated with a residence or assigned to 
some particular person. Probably some of your readers acquainted with 
Lancashire pedigrees and armorial bearings may be enabled to clear up the 
obscurity. If they would do so they would oblige. Sir, 

Yours obediently. 

Genealogist. 



Families of Arthur. — At Wiggenhall St. Mary's in Norfolk, on the 
28th November, 1655, died John Arthur, gent, and about the 20th March, 
1656, his only child and heiress Anne Arthur married John Colby of 
Banham in Norfolk, gent, whom she survived, and afterwards became the 
second wife of Edward North of Benacre in Suffolk, Esq. It does not 
appear from the settlement made in contemplation of her first marriage, 
that she derived any real property from her father, and the probability is 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 191 

that he had only a casual residence at Wiggenhall. The question I want 
to ask is — to what family of Arthur did he belong ? In the preceding cen- 
tury there was a family of that name located at Wisbech, from which Wig- 
genhall is not far distant ; but they were of the Arthurs of Bishopsworth 
in the parish of Bedminster, Somerset, and bore for arms : Gules, a chevron 
argent between three rests or, while the coat added by Anne Arthur to 
the Colby quarterings is a very different one. It is shewn on a silver cup in 
the possession of my family, which now represents that of Colby, as — Party 
per bend sinister gules and azure, a lion rampant argent, and the same coat 
appears impaled with that of North on her tombstone in Benacre church. 
But that bearing has afforded me no clue whatever ; it is not to be found in 
any ordinary of arms or heraldic dictionary I have met with. Finding a 
match in 1704 between a John Arthur and a lady of my family, then in 
Cornwall but already allied in marriage with the Colbys and Norths, I 
hoped I had hit the right scent, but was again thrown out by the arms, the 
Cornish Arthurs being said to bear. Argent, a chevron engrailed gules 
between three choughs proper. If my family of Arthur can be identified 
by the peculiar bearing I have given, through the medium of H. and G. 
I shall be most grateful. Geo. A. Carthew. 



Bbownes of Norfolk (p. 95). Of the extinction in the male line of 
the Brownes of Elsing there can be no reasonable doubt, and it is equally 
true that there were Browns and Brownes in Norfolk before the establish- 
ment of that line, which is now represented by the descendants of a female 
heir. There have also been more recently Browns of Norwich, Brownes of 
Lynn, Brownes of Tacolnestone, Brownes of Dereham, Brownes of Ful- 
modestone, Brownes of Bio Norton, Browns of Massingham, all of them 
distinct from the Elsing family, and from each other, and bearing different 
arms, and all of them, I believe, now extinct in the male line. Existing 
families bearing the name are legion ; but none of them claim descent from 
Elsing, nor any other of the families I have named, except through 
females. G. A. C. 



Who was General Richard Fortescue, commander of the army in Ja- 
maica in the time of Oliver Cromwell ? He died there ; and by his will, 
proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury July 29, 1657, bequeathed 
houses and lands at Bray and in Reading, Berks. His wife, Mary, was 
executrix. To what branch of the Fortescues did he belong ? C. 



P. 32. The name of Shovell has been perpetuated in the family of 
Brereton, of Brinton, co. Norfolk, of which there is an account in Burke's 
Landed Gentry. A niece of Admiral Sir Cloudesly Shovell was Anne 
daughter of Thomas Shorting, collector of customs at the port of Cley ; she 



192 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

was married to William Brereton esq. of Brinton, and her eldest son was 
Shovell Brereton, esq. who left only two daughters. John his brother, and 
successor, was father of another John ; whose fourth and youngest son, now 
living, is the Rev. Shovell Brereton, M.A, of Briningham, impropriator and 
Rector of Great Porlngland, Norfolk : who has two sons, the elder of whom 
is named Shovell-Henry. 



Weston (p. 96). Elizabeth Countess of Anglesey, who was remarried to 
Benjamin Weston, esq. was not the widow of Charles Earl of Anglesey, as 
stated by Banks in his Dormant and Extinct Baronage^ iii. 609, nor of any 
of the Earls of the Annesley family, but of Christopher Villiers, Earl of 
Anglesey, younger brother of the favourite Buckingham. She is described 
by Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 432, as '' Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Sheldon 
of Houby, in com. Leic. Esquire," and Banks has previously named her, 
under the title of Anglesey (Villiers) at p. 11 of his same volume, as 
having been the daughter of Thomas, or William, Sheldon of that place. 
Nichols, Hist, of Leicestershire, iii. 265, shows that the Villiers family had 
some connection with Hoby, but the Sheldons were not seated there. It 
appears from the History of Surrey, by Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 767, 
that Christopher Earl of Anglesey resided at Ashley Park, in the parish 
of Walton-on-Thames ; and that Benjamin Weston, esq., by marriage with 
the dowager Countess, became of that place. In The Topographer, 1791, 
vol. i. p. 304, is printed a letter written in 1728 by the Rev. Samuel 
Croxall, Vicar of Walton upon Thames, giving an account of the disturb- 
ance of the coffin of this Countess of Anglesey from a vault in that church 
in the year 1710; when the only portions of the interment that remained 
at all perfect or sound were some knots of ribbon, which were sent (with 
the letter) to the house of Sir John Shelley of Michelgrove in Sussex (as 
the presumed representative of the deceased) ; and they were seen by the 
Rev. Stebbing Shaw, the editor of The Topographer, at the house of Mr. 
Tomkins in Arundel, in 1790. 

It is shown in the Baronetages that Sir Charles Shelley, the second 
Baronet (creation 1611), married for his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Benjamin Weston, esq. of Walton upon Thames, by Elizabeth Countess 
of Anglesey ; and that the subsequent Baronets have descended from that 
marriage. 



THE INSTITUTION AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE 
DIGNITY OF BARONET. 

From the earliest times of Chivalry in Europe we read of two 
grades of Knights, the Bannerets and the Bachelors : ^ the latter of 
whom carried penons terminating in a point or points : the former 
such as, from having the points cut away, became more like the 
standards of the sovereign chieftains, and were termed banners. 

We shall not linger on the threshold of our present subject, 
by enlarging on this occasion upon the grade of the Banneret: 
although a very interesting topic, and one deserving of further 
investigation, in addition to what it has already received in 
Selden's Titles of Honour. We merely allude to Bannerets here, 
as having occupied in certain respects a rank between the Baron 
and the ordinary Knight during our mediaeval times, and as 
having been occasionally, either purposely, or more frequently 
from etymological misapprehension, been styled Baronettus in- 
stead of Banerettus.^ 

When Baronets were first created by King James the First, 

' The Roll of Arms of the Reign of Edward the Second, edited by Sir Harris 
Nicolas in 1828, is in the title-page termed a " Roll of Arms of Peers and Knights," 
and in its head-lines throughout " Les noras e les armes a banerez de Engleterre." 
But the names and arms of the bannerets, including those of the King, eleven Earla, 
and the Bishop of Durham, really extend over only the first thirteen pages ; after 
which, the names and arms of the Knights of a lower grade, arranged under their 
respective counties, occupy seventy-six pages (pp. 14 — 89). 

' There is an accord between the King and his Lords 9 Ric. II. in which occur the 
words " Contes, Barons et Baronettes, et sages Chevaliers. (Cotton MS. Nero, D. vi.) 
Selden quotes as examples the statute of Richard II. enjoining every Archbishop, Duke, 
Earl, Baron, Baronet, Knight of a shire, &c. to appear in parliament ; an attaint 35 
Hen. VI. in which a juryman challenged himself because his ancestors had been 
Baronets et seigneurs de parliament ; and a patent granted to Sir Ralph Vane so late 
as 4 Edw. VI. in which his grade of Banneret is latinised by Baronettus. The his- 
torian Walsingham, in like manner, describing the prisoners at the battle of Stirling, 
speaks of Barones et Baronetti viginti duo, Milites sexaginia oclo, &c. 

In a pi'evious division of his great work, when discoursing of the Barons of 
Germany, Selden, after discussing the most probable derivation of haro, as a word 
equivalent to viV, makes these remarks— " But the Germans have also the name of 
hanner-heer or panner-heer for a Baron, as if you would say dominus vexillifer or the 
like, or as the title of Banneret. The nearness and sometimes community of the 
title of banneret and baron, in other states appears in due place hereafter." (Titles of 
Honour, Part II. cap. i. sec. 52.) " They that have the immediate title oi freheeren 

VOL. III. O 



194 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

the name tlierefore was not entirely new, — at least not in Latin 
records; nor was the rank, as representing the grade between a 
Baron and a simple Knight. The chief novelty was that the 
dignity of Baronet, when once conferred, was to be become 
hereditary, like a peerage, according to the terms of the letters 
patent conferring it. 

During the reign of Elizabeth, on the whole so little martial, 
and so parsimonious in the bestowal of honours, the grade of 
Banneret had been allowed to die out in England: and in Europe 
generally the various Orders of Knighthood, like the Garter and 
the Bath in this country, and the Thistle in Scotland, had as- 
sumed the front of the ranks of chivalry. But " Order" had 
not been the English word in earlier times. We talked of the 
Company, Fellowship, or Fraternity of the Garter: the French 
word ordre was rej)resented in English by " livery," and it meant, 
not the society or sodality of Knights, but their robes, their 
badge, their collar, their garter, or whatever we now term 
insignia. 

It is therefore scarcely a correct application of the word Order 
to attach it, as has often been done, to this grade of our hereditary 
nobility. The Baronets do not owe their dignity to personal inves- 
titure with a livery or order, whether badge, star, or other insignia, 
but to a patent of creation which has raised them to a certain po- 
sition of hereditary rank. At the same time it is true that this rank 
corresponds most nearly with Knighthood ; that it is accompanied 
with the same titular designation of Sh" and Lady ; and that, up 
to a comparatively recent period, it possessed an inherent claim 
to the honour of Knighthood, with which in its earlier days 
it was usually associated. 

Some of the leading circumstances connected with this institu- 
tion are sufficiently well known, and have been repeated hun- 
dreds of times, — namely, that it was a device suggested by the 
low condition of the treasury of King James I.; that the dignity 
was avowedly sold (to persons of certain previous position and 
qualifications) for a stipulated sum of money; that the proceeds 
were professedly destined for the defence of the new plantation of 

(or banner- or ^lanner-heereii) and barones in Latin, in Germany, were such as in the 
Lombard Customs are called valvasores regis and valvasores majores, and capiianei 
also." (Ibid.) 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 195 

the province of Ulster, but that they were ahuost immediately 
diverted to other still more urgent demands upon the Exchequer. 
Beyond these few prominent particulars, it is surprising how 
little has been hitherto collected regarding the origin of this 
dignity, or the early stages of its institution and progress. For 
such information we look in vain to the introductory pages of 
all the numerous works that set forth the genealogies of the ex- 
isting families which enjoy it, or to the Extinct Baronetages of 
Courthope and Burke. 

It may therefore be acceptable if we endeavour to collect some- 
what of what — to use a favourite term of the elder D'Israeli, may 
be called " the secret history" of this institution. 

It is to the year 1609 that our attention is first directed, when 
Robert Cecill, Earl of Salisbury, was Lord Treasurer and chief 
minister, and when the profuse expenditure that had attended the 
early years of James's reign was beginning to be seriously felt at 
the Exchequer. It was the unhappy object of the Stuarts, even 
from their first accession, to dispense as far as possible with Par- 
liament, and consequently with parliamentary taxation. It was 
imagined that there were other ways and means which rendered 
that scarcely necessary, except on such emergencies as war. The 
revenues of the Crown were derived from a great variety of 
sources, among which were many of the nature of taxes that it 
was thought might be imposed by the royal authority alone. 
The hasty dissolution of parliament in Jan. 1610-11, made such 
courses more requisite; and the financial necessities of the day 
were such that the aid of every statist or projector whose talents 
or schemes were considered promising was summoned to assist 
in the undertaking: and the great record-antiquary of the day, 
Sir Robert Cotton, was desired to direct his attention to all the 
historical precedents that bore upon the inquiry, for which 
purpose he was allowed free access to the State Papers in the 
possession of the government. 

The result was a methodical report or treatise' on "The 
Manner and Means how the Kings of England have from time to 
time supported and repaired their Estates :" in the course of 

' Among the books made up by that busy book-maker James Howell, was one 
which he entitled Cottoni Postkuma, in 8vo, 1652. The treatise above mentioned is 
there printed, and the extract in the text is thence taken. Sir Robert Cotton's ma- 

o2 



196 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

which it was suggested that among those means the sale of Titles 
of Honour was perfectly legitimate, and authorised by precedent. 
The passage is as follows : — 

For Honovrs, 
And That either by Power legall or Election. 

Of the first it is only in respect of Land, whereby every man is to 
give when the King shall require, that hath ability to be made a 
Knight, and is not. Of this sort there be plenty of examples. 

The other out of choise and grace, as Hugh de Putiaco, bishop of 
Durham, was by King Richard I. created Earle of Northumberland for 
a great sum of money. And I doubt not but many of these times 
v/ould set their ambition at as high a price. ^ 

And for his Majesty to make a degree of honour hereditary, as 
Baronets, next under Barons, and grant them in tail, taking of every 

terials, and possibly his report itself (but in detached portions), is contained in a large 
volume of his Library of Manuscripts, lettered Collections relating to the Rercnue of 
the Craivn, and entitled on a fly-leaf A Collection made hy S'' Robert Cotton for his 
Ma'''^ seruice in time of Extremytie. It is marked Cleopatra F. vi., and is a miscel- 
laneous intermixture of many very valuable documents that were abstracted from 
the archives of the country, together with the crude schemes and projects of his 
own day, and the results of the researches and conclusions made by himself and 
others on their examination of the public records. Among other curious essays in 
the volume (pp. 119-124) is one by Sir Francis Bacon in his own handwriting, being 
A proposition concerning the avgmentation of the Kinges yearlye reveneire, hy the con- 
vertiiige of his Landes into a yearlye fee far nie rent, &c. 

One portion, comprised in fT. 51-61, is intitled Means to 7-e2)ayr the Kinges Estate 
An" 10 Jaco'ii Regis, 1612, collected by S'' Robert Cotton for the Earl of Northampton,, 
and is signed at the end Ro. Cotton, 1612, Sept. 15; but it is clear from the quota- 
tion in the text that Sir Robert's published Treatise — probably in the form in 
which it is edited by Howell — must have been written before the institution of the 
dignity of Baronet, that is in the year 1609 or 1610; and this remark is made by 
Dr. Thomas Smith in his life of Cotton (in Latin) prefixed to the first edition of the 
Cottonian Catalogue : " Licet enim ad finem libri predicti post nomen Cottoni, uti ab 
initio aliena nianu, adscribatur annus hujus seculi duodecimus \i.e. 1612], quo denuo 
descriptus et recognitus videtur ; illud tamen ante institutum Ordinem quo de jam 
agitur, h.e. circa annum M.DC.IX aut M.DC x compositum fuisse constat, ex hac pro- 
positione quam claris verbis profert, Si Regies Mujestatis, &c." Dr. Smith then gives 
a Latin translation of the passage in the text. And for his Majesty, &.c. somewhat 
amplified with the substance of the passages that precede it. 

' It is not unknown that during the latter portion of the reign of James the First 
this suggestion was anted upon, by the sale of Peerages. The particulars would be 
too large for the present note. The price fixed upon a Barony was 10,000/. ; on an 
Earldom 30,000/. ; though in various cases reduced bargains were negociated. The 
former sum, given by Roper when created Baron Teynham, gave occasion for his 
soubriquet of ten-M. The larger sum was piiid in full by Holies Earl of Clare. 



THE DIGNITY OF BAKONET. 197 

one 1,000/. in fine, it would raise with ease 100,000/., and, by a judi- 
cious election, be a means to content those worthy persons in the 
Common Wealth that by the confused admission of many Knights of 
the Bath hold themselves all (^lege at) this time disgraced.i 

But before the scheme for creating " hereditary Baronets had 
taken this definite form, there had been various proposals nearly 
resembling it. One was an idea ^ for making a new order of 
500 Knights, of *'' gentlemen of ancient houses and sufficient 
abilities to take precedence." Another suggestion (of which the 
particulars will be given presently), was to form an intermediate 
grade of nobility between Baron and Knight by " the ancient and 
honourable title of Vidom." A third was to create " Knights of 
the Crown.'* 

Sir Thomas Sherley of Wiston, a veteran but impoverished 
Knight of the previous reign, was, it is asserted, the actual in- 
ventor of "the devise for making of Baronets." He had been 
Treasurer at War in the Low Countries, but had become deeply 
indebted to the Queen, on which account her j\Iajesty seized his 
estates and personal effects, excepting the manor of Wiston, 
which had been settled on his wife. He died in October 1612, 
before the end of the year following the institution of this 
dignity ; but so soon after as the 21st of Jan. 1615, his son of 

' This censure, whether deserved or not, was certainly intended to apply to those 
Knights of the Bath who were made at the King's Coronation in 1603. On that 
occasion the number created was so many as sixty; and among them at first there 
were to have been three Earls and six Barons, as appears by a preliminary list signed 
by the Earl of Nottingham, of which the variations are described in the Progresses, ttc. 
of King James I. \o\. i. p. 221. One was "The Erie of Bedford; he was the last 
Nobleman [i.e. Peer] that made to be put out, because ther was non but him self." 
Several of those left, however, were sous of Peers, and eventualK became Peers them- 
selves, the foremost being Sir Philip Herbert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke and 
Montgomery. There were three subsequent creations of Knights of the Bath 
in James's reign, and on all those occasions they were either young Peers, or the 
junior members of the families of the peerage. Ten were made at the Creation of 
Charles Duke of York in 1604, twenty-five at that of Henry Prince of Wales in 
1610, and twenty-six at that of Charles Prince of Wales in 1616. 

* The draft of a Proclamation to this effect is preserved in the MSS. of Queen's 
College, Oxford, K. 4. It is possible, however, though perhaps not probable, that 
this was a scheme subsequent to the institution of Baronets. The document is un- 
dated. The MS. containing it belonged to Sir Thomas Shirley of Bottlebridge, the 
antiquary, not the Sir Thomas mentioned in the text. (He was a cousin of Sir 
Robert Cotton, whose mother was Elizabeth Shirley : see Stenimata Shirleiana, p. 57.) 



198 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

his own name, one of the celebrated Three Brothers, in a brief 
of his claims presented to the King, asserted his father's merits 
on this score in the following positive terms : — 

My Father (being a man of excellent and working wit,) did find out 
the device for the making of Baronets, which brought to your Majesty's 
coffers well nigh a hundred thousand pounds, for which he was pro- 
mised by the late Lord of Salisbury, Lord Treasurer, a good recom- 
pense, which he never had. (Memorials and Letters of State relating 
to the History of Britain in the reign of James the First, edited by 
Lord Hailes. Second edition, 1766, p. 69.) 

The proposal for making " Knights of the Crown" was part 
of a more extended project for a " Refined Militia." There is a 
paper regarding it in a volume of Sir Robert Cotton's own col- 
lections (Julius C. IX. p. 131), described in his table of contents 
as Privat advertisementes of the title of honor. The writer him- 
self heads it, Priuat aduertisements, concerning a Sute to be 
framed, of perticular Hono"^, w*^*^ (besides y^ inestimable benifite 
to ys publike) will accrewe by meanes of my Refined Militia 
(&c. &c.). And it thus commences : — 

This sute is to be framed by an order of Knighthood handled in the 
sayde Militia, and tearmed by so honorable and extraordinary a titile 
as Knights of the Crowne : — a number lymited: a societie of gentillmen 
only of greate qualitie and value, professing armes: adorned w*^'* 
Insignes of Hono*" according and peculiar to y' Order, as is the Garter 
to that of St. George: honored w*-^ precedence above all Orders, saveing 
of the Garter and Knights of the Previe Counsell: a dignitie to be 
exemplified w*'' all the privileges and immunities apperteyning under 
the King's Letters Pattens, w*^'^ everie Knight shall have as a record 
and monument of hono"^ to all his Posteritie: in regard whereof, and to 
digresse from the vilitie of Knighthood now falne from reputatione into 
contempt, yt wilbe every man's indever to put himselfe in to so honor- 
able a ranck, Whereunto never the less none can be admitted more 
than the stinted nomber here under inswing, and suche only whose 
abilities and desartes shalbe corresponding, according to the orders pre- 
scribed more at large in my Treatise of the Refined Militia.^ 

It would occupy too much space to transcribe all the details of 
the scheme here. It was to have a military organisation, of 

' Whether this treatise is anywhere extant or not has not been ascertained. 



THE DIGNITY OF BAliONET. 199 

which the Prince (Henry Prince of Wales) was " under his Ma- 
jestic to be substituted as Generall ": and it was to resemble the 
Gens ifarmerle of France. The nuinber of Knights was to be only 
forty-five in each shire one with another, and tlieir fees of creation 
were not to exceed 251. The " office," with its profits, was to 
be granted to A. B. — ^. e. Sir llobert Cotton, supposing the offer 
was made to him; and the Projector, styling himself C. D., 
claimed a certain proportion thereof, for which a blank is left in 
the MS. On the whole, it appears to be exceedingly probable 
that this is the original project of Sir Thomas Sherley submitted 
to Sir Robert Cotton. 

It is stated by Dr. Thomas Smith, the biographer of Sir 
Robert Cotton, that the Earls of Salisbury and Northampton,' 
the leading statesmen of the day, were divided in opinion regard- 
ing the new dignity, as they not unfrequently were upon other 
subjects. Northampton (who was Lord Privy Seal), on the part 
of the higher ranks of the nobility, feared that it might injuri- 
ously affect the interests of their younger sons ; • but Salisbury 
deemed that such considerations were not to be regarded, in the 
view of the great advantages it promised to bring to the treasury. 

Dr. Smith further states^ that the device of tlie hereditary 

' " Comites vero Northaruptonias et Sarisburioe, licet pari Regis honorem patriajque 
commodum promovendi zelo incitati, uti in plerisque consultationibus ita in hac quoque 
discordabant : nam ille veritus, si novusliic orJo tantis juribus et privilegiis donaretur» 
ne ea Magnatutn filiis natu minoribus nobilissiinaa prosapise fraudi forent, strenue 
admodum intereessit : hie vero, maxima ex parte diligent! D. Robert! Cottoni et D. 
Thomae Sherley prensatione et ambitu adjutus, quasi absque hoc illicio nova dignitas 
non tam avide a pluribus captaretur, causiim istam turn Regis turn suam (cum fisci, 
cui prseerat, res esset,) acriter quoque tutatus est, et obtinuit." It must be observed 
that in this passage Dr. Smith introduces the name of Sir Thomas Sherley, which in 
all probability he had derived from some document different to that published by Lord 
Hailes. 

'■^ It may be remarked, however, that Sir Robert Cotton is stated to have had 
great influence with Northampton. That nobleman took a very active part in the 
conduct of public business during the illness of the Earl of Salisbury, and was then 
sanguinely aspiring to the treasurership ; though he was himself uuwittinglj approach- 
ing the close of his career, which terminated, after a short illness, on the 15th June, 
161 4. " He was so heart-whole and so little expected death, that he had not made 
his will till the day before he died, and Sir Robert Cotton, his old friend, was the 
man who put him in mind of it.'" — Mr. Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, June 
30th, 1614. 

^ " Novos hosce Equites titulo JHquitUM Coronce insigniendos aliqui coutendebant. : 



200 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

Baronets finally triumphed, upon Sir Robert Cotton having dis- 
covered letters patent of the 13th Edw. III. in which that title 
was granted to William de la Pole and his heirs: and that in 
return for a sum of money of which the King and his army had 
been in great need. In the series of Domestic documents in the 
State Paper Office there are several which have been placed 
under the year 1611, because, though undated, they evidently 
have relation to this new rank of nobility. One of them is the 
proposal, already alluded to, for its institution under the name of 
Vidom. This was to be confined to two principal gentlemen in 
each county, a kind of ennobled Deputy Lieutenants, but we 
may conclude with hereditary succession, although that is not 
directly specified. This project is as follows: — 

[State Paper Office, Dom. James I. vol. Ixiii. art. 61.] 

The title of Vidom (in Latin Vicedominus) was an auntient and 
honorable title used in this kingdome of England both before and since 
the Norman Conquest: and is the next immediate degree of Honor 
under a Barron, ^ as Viscount is imder an Earle. For in anno 948 in 
a Charter graunted by King Edred to the Abbey of Crowland, one 
Bingulph Vidom signed as a witness next after the Barrens before all 
Knights; and about the same time a Precipe was awarded by the King 
to Radboto Vidom of Lincolne, and to others our officers in that behalf, 
for the perambulation of the He of Crowland. Divers other presidents 
are extant to proove that the title of Vidom was frequent and Honorable 
in auntient times in this kingdome, and in France it continueth still, 
as the Vidom of Chartres, of Keims, of Amiens, &c. 

If it might please the King's Ma*^'® to restore this Honorable title to 
the auntient dignitie and place, w'"^ some additions of grace and favour, 

sed niox itum est in sententiam Cottoni, qui literas patentes anno decimotercio Regis 
Edwardi III. signatas produxit, in quibus, praster opima praedia ad annuum quingen- 
tarum librarum valorem, titulus dignitasque Baronetti Gulielmo de la Poole et hoere- 
dibus conceduntur, ob pecunias ab ipso procuratas, quo tempore Rex ipse una cum 
exercitu, deficiente pecunia, absque his subsidiis turn ingens periculum turn dedecus 
Bubiisset." 

' This assertion is untrue, and advanced upon a misapprehension. The fact with 
regard to a Vidome is that he was the representative of an ecclesiastical lord, whilst 
the Vicomte represented a temporal superior. Selden says, '' As Viscounts had thus 
their original from being subordinate to the great Dukes or Counts of France, so the 
Vidames from being so to Bishops. And as the one so the other, being at first merely 
officiary, became at length feudal and honorary." Titles of Honour , Second Part, 
Gap, II. BCrCt. 20. 



I 



THE JDIGNITY OF BARONET. 201 

and to conferr it onlye upon tow Principall Gentlemen of birth and 
Qualitie in everye shire of England, it would bring a great sum of 
monye into his Ma*'^^ coflfers w'^'^in few months. 

The favours whearwith it is desired that his Ma*'® would be pleased 
to grace the title of Vidom are, that they may have place in the Lower 
House of Parliament as the Barrons have in the higher house, and that 
their persons may be free from arrest for matter of debt. 

Indorsed, Project concerninge the conferiinge the title of Vidom. 

Another paper ^ (which is of considerable length) is headed 
Distinctions and Differences of Barons. It commences with the 
assertion that 

Barons are of three sortes, but Lordes Barons are but of two, and 
the other only a Baronett,^ but yet retayneth the appellation of a Baron 
by ancient custonie. 

The first and aucientest Lo. Baron is he that is summoned to Parlia- 
ment by the King's writt of sommons, &c. 

The second Lo. Baron is he that is created by the Kinges letters 
pattentes under his broad or privie ^ seale, &c. 

The Baronett is he which is Baron by Tenure, holding mediat of 
another Lo. and not of the Kinge; and therefore ancientlie called a 
Baron, which appellation is continewed in them to this day. * * * * 

Upon which definition the following remark is made by a 
second hand in a side-note : — 

The name of Baronett hath not beene in use in England but cor- 
ruptly for Bannerett. 

This observation seems to be really the true view of the 
matter. However, the name Baronet was now approved, and 
the following paper contains the " Project" almost exactly in the 
terms in which it was subsequently carried into effect : — 

[State Paper Office, Dom. James I. vol. Ixiii. art. 64.] 
A Project for erecting a new Dignitie beetween Barons and Knights, 
in w*^^ theese Circumstances are considerable: 
What shall bee their name, and their place. 
And upon what conditions they shall have itt. 

' Article 63 of the same volume. 

^ The words printed in Italic are underscored by the same pen which made tbs 
remark on " the name of Baronett " printed in the text. 



202 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

Name. 

The partie that hath itt shall beare the name of Baronet. 

Hee shall have the same given him by L'res Patents to him and to 
the heires males of his body. Hee shall bee called Sir and his wife 
Lady. 

Place. 

Hee shall goe above all Knights Bannerettes, not made under the 
Kinges standard in the fFeild displaied in his owne presence, and above 
the Knights of the Bath ^ and all other Knights under them. 

The same place shall be retained by their wyves. And their sonnes 
and their daughters shall likewise take their places above the children 
of all others that are to goe beneath their Fathers. 

Condicions imposed upon the Partie that shall have the Di(jnitie. 
Hee shall bee content to pay 30 foote after 8'^ per diem for 3 yeares, 
towardes the service of Ireland and particularlie in regard of the plan- 
tation of Ulster, and that reason shall bee expressed in the Patent, 
Honoris gratia. 

The King to bee pleased to covenant never to exceed the numbre of 
200. 

Thus much to bee expressed in the body of the Patent. 
Cautions concerning the former Project. 

1. That none bee admitted except hee have of certain yearlie reven- 
newe of Inheritance, in possession 1000" per annum de claro, or of 
landes of old i-ent good in accompt as 1000" per annum of improove- 
ments, or at least twoo parts in three of landes to the vallewe as aforsayd 
and the third in revercion expectant upon one life only holding by Dower 
or in Jointure. 

2. That none be received whose Grandfather by the Father did not 
beare Armes. 

3. That whosoever shall bee received upon death of an other w'^'^out 
issue, shall come in the lowest ranke. 

4. That he must pay the mony downe for one yeares interteinm' 
every yeare in hande. 

And for the order to be observed in ranking those that shall receive 
this dignitie, although it is to be wished that those Knights w^** have 
now place before other Knights in respect of the time of their creation 
may be ranked before others [cceteris j^aribus), yett, because this is a 
dignitie w*^** shall bee hereditarie, wherin divers circumstances are 

' Another of tlie papers in the same volume, Art. G2, contains "Notes to prove 
tliat the Knights of the Bath are not higher in dignity than the Knights Bachelors." 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET, 203 

more considerable then such a inarke as is but temporary (that is to 
say of being now in Knight in time before an other), It is his Ma"*^* 
pleasure that the LL. shall sliall not be so precise in placing those that 
shall receive the dignitie, but that an Es(iuire of greate antiquitie and 
extraordinarie living may bee ranked in this choyce before some 
Knights. And so of Knightes a man of greater living, more remarqua- 
ble for his house, yeares, and calling in the common wealth, [may be] 
now preferred before one in this dignitie that was made Knight before 
him.^ 

And lastlie, that it may appeare that the partie w*^^ hath this dignitie 
hath not obtained itt by any sordid or base meanes, hee shall upon the 
delivery of his Patent take his corporall oath in the presence of the 
LL. Comissioners in manner and forme following, viz. I, A. B., doe 
sweare, that neyther I nor any other to my knowledge have, or hath, 
given, or promised, procured, or consented to give, or to bee given, 
any gift, or reward, directly, or indirectly, to any person or persons 
whatsoever, for procuring his Ma*s favour in my behalfe to create me 
a Baronet, or ranke mee before any other (those summes of money w'''^ by 
my Patent I am tied to pay for the interteium*. of 30 foote after S'* per 
diem for 3 yeares in Ireland only excepted), And that I will not give, 
nor any w"' my consent shall give, or consent to bee given, any gift or 
reward, directly or indirectly, other then that w'^'' I am so to pay in 
manner as aforesayd. So help me God. 

Indorsed, A Project for Baronetts. 

This document (though itself previously unpublished) will be 
found to correspond with the Instructions^ which were given to 
the Lords of the Privy Council who were appointed Commis- 
sioners for admitting such gentlemen as were willing to accept 
the new dignity. 

Provided always, that you proceed with none, except it shall appear 
unto you, upon good proof, that they are men for quality, state of 
living, and good reputation, worthy of the same ; and that they are, at 
the least, descended of a Grandfather (by the father's side) that bore 

' The deficient words are supplied from the Instructions to the Royal Commis- 
sioners. 

2 The Instructions were promulgated at the time by royal authority, and are 
reprinted in Selden's Titles of Honour and in Wotton's Baronetage, 1741, vol. v. 
Further particulars respecting these and other documents belonging to the early his- 
tory of the Order will be ai-ranged in our second paper on this subject. 



204 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OP 

arms ; and have also of certain yearly revenue," &c., &c., as in the pre- 
ceding Project. 

And so, for " tlie order of ranking " in precedence of creation, 
the directions to tbe Commissioners are word for word the same 
as in the " Project." 

It is obvious that " the ranking" of the new Baronets in their 
precedence inter se was the most arduous part of the Commis- 
sioners' task. The qualifications of each aspirant for admission 
within certain limits as to birth and landed property would be 
ascertained with little difficulty : but to arrange their relative 
merits interchangeably, irrespective of any rank they had hitherto 
sustained, but having regard at once to the antiquity of their 
houses, their " greater living " {i. e. means of expenditure), their 
services to the state, or other personal merits, must have brought 
to the arbitration of the Commissioners a variety of embarrasing 
and conflicting questions, the settlement of which woxdd, after 
all, be determined in great measure by individual interests, and 
the private favour of the principal councillors. As the natural 
result, some of the competitors would retire from the struggle in 
disgust. 

Such, certainly, are the inferences which may be deduced from 
the few contemporary documents which we have been able to 
discover relating to the earliest selection and admission of can- 
didates for the dignity. 

In the name of Sir Nicholas Bacon, who was placed first on 
the list, and whose descendant still retains the position of Premier 
Baronet, we may recognise a compliment very properly paid by 
the Lord Chancellor to his eminent predecessor, the Lord 
Keeper, who under the previous reign had attained no higher 
rank than a Knight. Sir Nicholas (his son) was also well quali- 
fied for the new dignity as a wealthy man, and he must have 
been now a " grave and reverend senior," for he had himself re- 
ceived knighthood in 1578, and in 1616 he erected a monument 
to his wife, recording her death, after a union of fifty-two years, 
at the age of sixty-eight. 

In another instance we find the Lord-Treasurer earnestly so- 
licited by his son-in-law, Lord Clifford,^ for a gentleman who 

' Henry Lord Clifford, only son of Francis fourth Earl of Cumberland, married in 
1610 Lady Frances Cecill, daughter of Robert first Earl of Salisbury. He sue- 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 205 

had lately been his associate in the Academy at Paris,* and was 
therefore evidently of youthful years. 

[State Paper Office, Domestic James I., vol. Ixiv. art. 32.] 

My most honored Lord, — 

I have soe much enjoyed the good company and love of this 
gentleman heere, in the Academie, that I should be unthankful unto 
him for them both in denyinge him my letters unto your LordP, 
which hee soe earnestly requireth at my handes, and to entrete your 
favor iinto him in the helpinge him unto that honor which hee for 
himselfe and I now in his behalfe doe most humbly and earnestly 
desire. To give the gentleman his due, hee hath beene alhvayes soe 
observant of me that I coulde not doe lesse for him than now I doe, 
but his merit also is such, accompanyed with his quallity and menes, 
that I am in hope your LoP will helpe him to this dignity of 
Barronett as one Avho may bee fittinge for that honor. I therefore, 
beinge induced thus to doe by thes resons, as I am bould to pray your 
LordP to helpe to place him in that ranke as his menes and birthe 
shall require and deserve, and I shall not esteeme my selfe less honored 
by your Lp than hee if your LP shall please to lett him know that I am 
an ernest suter for him. Thus, commending him unto your Lordshipp's 

ceeded his father as Earl of Cumberland in 1641. It is remarkable that among the 
first seal of Baronets the thirteenth was Sir Gervase Clifton, of Clifton in Nottingham- 
shire, K.B., who subsequently became a brother-in-law of Lord Cliffoi-d. He was 
certainly not his brother-in-law in 1611, as the Lady Frances Clifford was the second 
of his seven wives, and the death of the Lady Penelope (Rich), the first of the seven, 
did not occur until the 26th October, 1613. It is not impossible, however, that Sir 
Gervase Clifton may have been the companion of Lord Clifford at Paris, and the per- 
son to whom his lordship's letter referred, rather than Sir Thomas Puckering, who is 
mentioned in the following note. 

' In the printed Calendar of the State Papers, it is suggested that this may have 
been " Mr. Puckering," a suggestion which also appears on the document itself, in the 
handwriting of the late Mr. Lemon. Upon what grounds it was made does not 
appear. Thomas Puckering of Weston, in Hertfordshire, esquire, who was the son of 
Lord-Keeper Puckering, was created a Baronet seventeen months later, on the 25th 
Nov. 1612. He was educated at Paris, and not improbably at " the Academy "; of 
this Mr. Lemon may possibly have had some evidence besides the letter of his tutor 
Mr. Lorkin, written from Paris to Mr. Adam Newton (the tutor of Henry Prince 
of Wales), which is edited by Sir Henry Ellis, in his Original Letters, second series, 
vol. iii. p. 220, and presents a remarkable account of the arrangements of Mr. Puck- 
ering's education at Paris. The news-letters of Mr. Lorkin, which were subsequently 
addressed from England to Sir Thomas Puckering (then again abroad) are some of 
the most interesting that are extant for the latter part of James's reign : see The CouH 
and Times of James the First, 8vo. 1848, i. 245. 



4a1 



206 



INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 



favor and good assistance, with my most humble duty unto your Lor'' 
I rest 

Your LordP^ most dutifull sonne in Law, 

Hen. Clifforde. 
Paris, this 22th of June st no. 

We now come to a favoured client of the Lord Privy SeaL 
This was a young gentleman of Suffolk, Lionel Talmach of 
Helmingham, esquire, ancestor of tlie Earls of Dys;irt. Just on 
the eve of the first creation of Baronets, the following letters^ 
were written to him by a kinsman in London, who seems to have 
been alsjo his legal agent. 

" My very good cosin, I have bine sithence your departure out of 
London thre times w"' uiy lorde of Northhampton, and at the writing 
heerof 1 came from his IqPp becawse I would write to you of all cer- 
tenty that his IoPp woulde imparte to me; w"^'' is that the business goeth 
forwarde, but when any shalbe made his IoPP could not tell me. I 
pressed his IoPP and tould him that I harde ther should be three made 
nowe at the first. He towlde me that it was not concluded as yet howe 
many should be first made, but saide ther was a speech that ther should 
be three or fowre first made to leade the way. I desiered his IoPP that 



' For the communication of these letters we are indebted to Richard Almack, Esq., 
F.S.A., of Melford, Suffolk. The originals are now in the hands of Nathaniel C. 
Barnard iston, Esq., of the Ryes. 

Their writer was William Strode of Meavyohurch, brother 
to Sir Richard Strode, of Newnham, co. Devon; and who 
afterwards, as M.P. for Beeralston, beacme celebrated as one 
of the five members impeached by Charles the First in 1640. 
He was cousin-german to the wife of Mr. Talmach, as shown 
in the annexed pedigree. The arms of Strode, as they 
appear on his seal, are, Argent, a chevron between three 
conies sable. 

Cxregory first Lord Cromwell, son of^Elizabeth, dau. of Sir John Seymour, and sister 
Thomas Earl of Esse.\ (attainted). | to Edward Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector. 




Henry second^^Lady Mary Powlet, dau. 



Lord Crom- 
well. 



of John Marquess of 
Winchester. 



Richard Strode, esq. 
of Newnham, co. 
Devon. 



-Frances 
Cromwell. 



Edward third Lord 
Cromwell. 



Catharine, mar. Sir Lionel 
Talmach. 



William Strode, esq. of Meavy- 
church, writer of the Letter, 



In Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 375, Mr. Strode's father is erroneously named Edward; 
and so in Banks's Dormant and Extinct Baronage, ii. 127. See the pedigree of 
Strode in Westcote's Vien- of Devonshire, 4to, ISi.'j.-p. 543. 



TITE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 207 

you might not be forgotten, but tliat his Iopp would place you as your 
selfe and the antiquity of your hovvse deserveth, w'^*' was best knowne 
to his loPP. He saide to me that he would take all' the care he might 
for your advancement; w"' many more protestations, and further saide 
that if he could bring you with the first making he would doo his best. 
But if it did not fall' out so for the first, he would so place you that it 
should be to your content, and saide I should not need to move him any 
more for it, for he could not nor would not forget you and your howse. 
This is air I can write you of this matter; only I wilbe ready to doo 
my best in this or in anything else I may; so av"" my moste loving com- 
mendations to your selfe, my good cosin your wife, and all' my cosins, 
I committ you to God, and rest 

" Your moste assured loving cosin, 
" From my lodging in littell' " William Strode. 

S*- Bartholmewes this x*'* 

of May 1611. 

" If you can conveyniently spare a hawke I will make bould to be a 
begger. 

" I have not scene my lady Candish sithence your departure. 
" To the right worp" my very \ 

lovinge cosen Lionell Talmage | This direction is in anothe?- hand. 

Esq^ at Helmingham, dd." ; 

" My very good Cosin, I hav receavd your Letter, and this day I 
hav bin w"' my Lorde. Your patent is a writing, and ther wilbe of 
this newe creation at this time some tow and twenty, and the mony 
must be paide w"^ speed, wherfore if you please to cum upp you may 
see it done yourselfe, but I thinke it will go to the scale w'*^ all speed, 
and then I will take order for the payment of the mony. Thus in hast, 
out of Westminster Halle, I committ you to God, and rest 
" Your moste assured 

" Loving Cosin, 

" London, this 2Ath of May, 1611. " William Strode, 

" You may cum to London a littell the soner for this business. 

" To the Right Wor" Lionell Talmach, Esq. 
at Helmingham in SofFolke, geve these w"^ speed." 



" My very good Cos"" I have receaved your Letter, by the w*^^ I 
understand you desire to know the certainty of this business. Ther 
ar sealed twenty and two patents, the names of them you shall see in 



208 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

the end of this letter, and as they stand in ther places as I am credibelly 
informed. I have not bin backward in putting my Lord in minde for 
your jDlace, and his LqPP saith he hath don his best for you. The patents 
are not as yet delivered to any, for I doo learn that the parties must cum 
upp to give securety for the payment of the two other payments, but 
whether you will cum upp nowe or when you shall hav notice I must 
leave to your liking. You shall here from me againe w'^'^in these few 
dales. So I commit t you to God and rest 

" Your assured 

" Loving Cos" 
"London, this friday morning} " William Strode. 

" l.*Sir Nicholas Bacon. 13.*Sir Jarvis Clifton. 

2.tSir Richarde Mullinex. 14.*Sir [Thomas] Gerrarde. 

3. Sir Thomas Maunsell. 1 5. fSir Walter Aston. 

4.fGeorge Sherley, Esq. 16. Sir Georg Trencherd. 

5. Sir John StradHng. 17. Philipp Knevitt, Esq. 

6- Sir Francis Leake 18. Sir John Strangwaise. 

T-jThomas Pellam, Esq. lO.fSir John St.John. 

8.*Sir Kichard Haughton. 20.*John Shelley, Esq. 
9.fSir Henry Hubbert. Sir Thomas Walsinghara 

10. Sir George Bouth. and Sir Thomas Barnardstone ar 

11. Sir John Payton. stayed. 

12. Lionell Tallmach, Esq. 

" To the Right Wor" Lionell Tallmach, Esq"", at his Howse, 
Hehningham, Suffolk, geve these w*^"^ speed." 

The family of Talmach, in its later generations written Tolle- 
mache, was certainly among the most ancient of those who were 
advanced to the new dignity. Mr. Talmach was the son and 
heir of Sir Lionel Talmach (who was christened during Queen 
Elizabeth's visit to Helmingham in 1561, her Majesty standing 
sponsor), by Susan, daughter of Sir Ambrose Jermyn of Rush- 
brook ; and his own wife was Catharine, daughter of Henry 

' This last letter, in which the writer states that the patents " are sealed," but not 
yet delivered, was probably written on Friday the 31st of May; as in the second 
letter, written on Friday the 24th of May, he says that they " will go to the seal with 
all speed." Though the patents were dated on the 22nd of that month, they were 
evidently not actually sealed for some days after. 

The Baronetcies are still existing in those live families which are marked with a* 
and also, merged in Peerages, in the six marked ■{•. 



THE DIGNITY OF BAUONET. 209 

second Lord Cromwell and grand-daughter of John Marquess of 
Winchester. The alliances of the family in other generations 
were of a similar character; and the fourth Baronet became, in 
1697, Earl of Dysart, on the death of his mother, Elizabeth 
Countess of Dysart, (and by her second marriage Duchess of 
Lauderdale,) the heiress of that dignity in the peerage of Scot- 
land. The baronetcy became extinct ^ in 1821, on the death of 
Wilbraham Earl of Dysart, the seventh who enjoyed it : but the 
Earldom survives, having passed to his sister Lady Louisa wife 
of John Manners of Grantham Grange, co. Lincoln, esq., whose 
issue have taken the name of Tollemache, rather than that of 
Murray, which was the patronymic of the first Earl. 

The most remarkable point, perhaps, in the preceding letters, 
is the statement that two and twenty patents were originally sealed 
or intended for the first seal, but that two had been stayed, namely 
those for the families of Walsingham and Barnardiston. Subse- 
quently, two others in the list were also stayed, namely, those for 
Trenchard and Strangways: so that, eventually, only eighteen 
were of th.e original creation of the 22nd May, 1611. 

Sir Thomas Walsingham was the representative of an antient 
family seated at Scadbury, in the parish of Chiselhurst, Kent: 
the grandson of Sir Edmund Walsingham, sometime Lieutenant 
of the Tower of London, to whom the great Sir Francis Wal- 

' In the Baronia Anglica Concentrata, 4to. 1843, by Sir T, C. Banks, (styling 
himself) Baronet of Nova Scotia, there is a list (vol. ii. p. 209) of Baronetcies then 
supposed to be dormant, and among them is this of Tollemache. But why it was 
placed in that list does not appear. It was probably a misapprehension. Sir William 
Manners, son and heir-apparent of Lady Louisa (Tollemache), by John Manners, esq. 
(mentioned in the text,) who died Sept. 23, 1792, was created a Baronet Jan. 5, 
1793. He became by courtesy Lord Huntingtower on his mother's succession to the 
Earldom in 1821, and on that occasion he took the surname of Tahnash only ; dying 
during her lifetime in 1833. He was father of the present Earl ; who in consequence 
is a Baronet, but of the precedence of 1793. 

John Manners, esq. the father of Sir William, sometime of Buckminster Park, co. 
Leicester, was a natural son of Lord William Manners, second son of the second Duke 
of Rutland. When the Baronetcy was conferred, in 1793, the arms of the house of 
Manners were given to Sir William, differenced by a bordure wavy gobony argent 
and sable : the crest of a peacock in'its pride, and the chapeau upon which he stands; 
being in like manner differenced by a bendlet sinister wavy gobony or and sable. 
(See the engraving in Debi-ett's Baronetage, edit. 1819, plate 35.) These have now 
been relinquished for the simple coat of Tollemache, Argent, a fret sable. 

VOL. III. P 



210 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

singliam, Secretary of State, was nepliew.i Sir Thomas was the 
son of Sir Thomas Walsingham, (knighted 1573, and died 1583,) 
by Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Guldeford. The junior Sir 
Thomas Walsingham must have been knighted during the reign 
of Elizabeth, as his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Peter Man- 
wood, K.B., was then already styled Lady. The reason for his 
not actually receiving the patent of Baronetcy that had so nearly 
passed the great seal in 1611 we have no grounds to determine; 
but it may be presumed that it was no loss of favour at court, as 
his son and heir apparent, a third Sir Thomas, was knighted, at 
Royston, so shortly after as the 26th Nov. 1613. The father 
survived to the year 1630, being then aged 69. 

Sir Thomas Barnardiston was cousin-german to Sir Thomas 
Walsingham, being the son and heir of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, 
of Ketton, in Suffolk, by Mary, daughter of Sir Edmund Wal- 
singham, of Chiselhurst, Lieutenant of the Tower. He died Dec. 
23rd, 1619, and has a fine monument, with his ef^gj, at Ketton. 
His eldest son had died before him, in the year 1610; and at the 
time when the old Knight received this affront in 1611, his heir 
apparent was his grandson, Nathaniel, then about three and twenty, 
and afterwards knighted, at Theobalds, Dec. 21, 1618. 

Subsequently, in 1663, two brothers. Sir Thomas and Sir 
Samuel Barnardiston, great-grandsons of Sir Thomas, were created 
Baronets ; but in the intermediate time, since 1611, the Bar- 
nardistons had taken an important part in the events wliich had 
brought grief to the royal Stuarts ; having great influence, and 
being generally in Parliament, for Suffolk or some of the 
boroughs in that county. Considered in connection with the 
money payment required from those who accepted the dignity of 
Baronet, it is remarkable to find that Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston, 
in 1626, (who was grandson to the Sir Thomas upon whom the 
baronetcy was to have been conferred in 1611,) "refused to lend 
unto his Majesty;" and in February, 1627, the commissioners 
for the loan money, at Newmarket, were commanded to send 
hini (a prisoner!) to the Council, to be examined. (See Calen- 
dar of State Papers.) In March 1627, it was ordered by the 

' The pedigree of this family has never been published : a defect which we propose 
very shortly to supply. 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 211 

King, being present in Council, that certain persons shall be 
"set at liberty from any restraint put on them by his Majesty's 
commandment," viz,, 

" Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston, 

" John Hampden, 

" Richard Knightley, &c." ^ 
The Insignia Dignissimi Dom : I) : Nathanaelis Bar- 
nardiston, Equitis Aurati, placed upon a tree, the branches of 
which bear the names of his children (seven sons and three 
daughters) form the frontispiece to the Fourth Book of Sylvanus 
Morgan's Sphere of Gentry, fol. 1681, as an example of the 
atchievement of a Knight. He had died in the year 1653, In 
his life, which was written by Fairclough, and printed in Clarke's 
Lives of sundry Eminent Persons, fol. 1683, he is styled " one of 
the most eminent Patriots of his time, and the twenty-third 
Knight of his family." 

In Dec. 1641, Samuel Barnardiston, a younger son of Sir 
Nathaniel, gave rise to the party term Roundhead, having 
been so called by the Queen, who saw him in a city procession 
that came to AVhitehall, bringing a petition (see Rapin's History 
of England). This was the same Samuel who was created a 
Baronet in 1663, after having joined heartily in the restoration 
of Monarchy. However, the vengeance of the court again fell 
on him several times. In 1683 he was prosecuted for high 
misdemeanor (see State Trials), having said in an intercepted 
letter to Sir Philip Skippon, who had married his niece, that the 
brave Lord William Russell was lamented ; that the Earl of 
Essex had been murdered ; and Algernon Sidney was about to be 
beheaded, &c. He w^as tried before Jeffreys, who in his address 
to the jury alluded to the Roundhead notoriety, and said, '^ The 
act of oblivion might have put Sir Samuel in mind that it was 
not fit any more to go down to Whitehall to make uproars and 
tumults and hubbubs." He was fined £10,000, which he 
refused to pay, and his estates were seized, and he suffered long 
imprisonment. The foreman of the jury, Thomas Vernon, was 
knighted " for his services in securing a conviction " (see Lady 
Rachel RusselVs Letters, 3rd edition, p. 52). 

' See Lord Nugent's Life of John Hampden, vol. i. p. 394. 
p 2 



212 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF THE RANK OF BARONET. 

In 1745, Sir John Barnardiston, the last male representative 
of the creation of 1663, died, being also the representative of the 
intended creation of 22nd May, 1611 ; but under such creation the 
male heir of Thomas, younger brother of Sir Nathaniel before- 
mentioned, would have then become a Baronet, and the title 
would have descended to his lineal male heir, the present 
Nathaniel C. Barnardiston, of the Ryes, near Sudbury, whose 
pedigree is briefly given in Burke's Landed Gentry. 

Sir George Trenchard and Sir John Strangways, the two 
others whose patents were also " stayed," were, like Walsingham 
and Barnardiston, persons nearly connected — the former being 
father-in-law to the latter. 

The families of Trenchard and Strangways were both of high 
antiquity in Dorsetshire. Sir George Trenchard,^ of Wolverton, 
had been knighted in 1588, and his daughter Grace was the wife 
of Sir John Strangways, of Melbury, in the same county.^ Sir 
John was subsequently conspicuous for his opposition to the 
measures of the Court, and so early in the next reign as the years 
1626 and 1627, he was confined to the county of Bedford for not 
complying with a loan. It is very possible that his first disgust 
was taken when his baronetcy miscarried. 

J. G. N. 

' There was another Sir George Trenchard, son of the above, who was knighted in 
1603, but he was dead before th6 present date. He was the first of the three hus- 
bands of the Lady Penelope Darey, of whom the story is told that, being courted by 
all at once, Sir John Trenchard, Sir John Gage, and Sir William Hervey, she told 
them that if they would have patience she would take them each in turn. Her first 
marriage had not taken place on the 21st April, 1610, as appears by a letter of Lady 
Darcy, her mother ; but Sir George Trenchard, junior, must have died during the 
same year, or early in 1611, as the Lady Penelope's marriage settlement with her 
second husband, Sir John Gage, of Firle, bears date the 28th June, 9 Jas. I. (1611). 
Sir Thomas Trenchard, the next surviving son of old Sir George, was knighted in 
1613 : but the family never received the title of Baronet. 

'■^ The family of Strangways became extinct in the male line in 1726, and is now 
represented by the Earl of lichester, who bears their name in addition to Fox. 



{To be continued.^ 



Sfe 



213 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT 
ARMOUR. 



No. 11. 

Before we proceed to investigate further the development of 
Armory,^ we may still dwell with some advantage upon the era 
of its origin, it being most desirable to acquire some fixed opi- 
nions upon that primary point. Having refused to be misled by 
the visions of theoretic systems, or by data and examples ^ of 
which the true era has been misapprehended, let us form our 
judgment upon such reliable evidence as may certainly be 
attained by the study of contemporary documents whether of 
record or of art. 

"We welcome an excellent ally in Mr. John Hewitt,'' who 
has unavoidably gathered for the heraldic antiquary many inte- 
resting facts, without attempting to set them forth in all their 
bearings upon the science of Coat- Armour, of which he has not 
professed specifically to treat. But, in perusing the following 
passages of his very elaborate and well-considered work, most 
readers will be sensible of a conviction how greatly preferable to 
the most ingenious theories are facts judiciously detected and 
faithfully related. 

When speaking of the period extending from the Conquest to 
the end of the twelfth century, ]\Ir. Hewitt remarks: — 

The devices upon the shields in the earlier part of the period under 
examination are devotional "* or fanciful. In the second half of the 

' See the first paper of this series at the beginning of this volume. 

* It has been objected to our former paper, that we cited some of our examples 
from the Salle des Croisades at Versailles, where they are positively attributed to per- 
sons who flourished hefore the middle of the twelfth century. AVe ought to have 
protected ourselves by saying, that we merely took them as examples of coats, quantum 
valeant, whatever the time of their origin. We do not believe that regular armorial 
coats can really claim a much earlier date in France than in England, but pre- 
sume that the coats in question became those of the families to whose names they are 
attached at Versailles when such families first assumed arms. 

^ In his Ancient A'rmoicr and Weapons in England : from the Iron Period of the 
Northern nations to the end of the seventh century. 3 vols. 8vo, 1855-1860. 

■• By the term " devotional " we understand Mr. Hewitt merely as regarding the 
various forms of the cross in that light. 



214 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

twelfth century heraldic bearmgs that became hereditary began to 
appear. The earlier shield-paintings consist of crosses, rounds or 
bezants, dragons, interlacing bands, flat tints bordered with a different 
hue, or simple flat tints ; with some varieties which the pencil only can 
describe with clearness. Numerous examples of these in all their 
diversity will be found in the Bayeux tapestry, in Sir Frederic Mad- 
den's paper on the Isle of Lewis chessmen, (Archceologia, vol. xxiv.) 
and among the plates of Shaw's Dresses and Decoratw7is. 

The two seals of Richard the First very exactly mark the growth of 
the science of heraldry. In the earliest [1189] the monarch's shield is 
ensigned with the symbol of valour, a lion. But it is a rampant lion, 
and as the lower shield presents only one-half of its surface to view, it 
has been conjectured [certainly without substantial gi'ounds] that the 
complete device would consist of two lions combatant. This device, 
whether of one or two lions, has passed away, among the serpents and 
knot-work of the earlier time ; but the bearing on Richard's second 
seal [1194], three lions [or leopards] passant gardant, retains its place 
in the royal escutcheon to the present day. In this second seal ^ of 
Richard I. the lion passant appears also in the helmet of the monarch.^ 

Another example of the repetition of a royal device is afforded by the 
seal of Alexander II. of Scotland (circa 1214), where the lion rampant 
figured on the shield is repeated on the saddle.' 

The shields were often highly decorated with painting, and even, if 
we may interpret literally the evidences of chroniclers, with inlaid 
jewels. Examples of richly ornamented shields of the twelfth century 
may be seen in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations, and in Harl. MS. 
2895, fol. 82. Robert of Aix, in the twelfth century, writing of the 
first crusade, tells us that the European knights carried shields aura et 
gemmis inserti variisque coloribus depicti. (Vol. i. p. 146.) 

These evidences and proofs of what shields were at the very- 
dawn of Coat Armour, are exceedingly valuable, for tliey offer 
many hints of that species of decoration from which Coat 
Armour took its early growth. In another page there are some 
further remarks of similar import : — 

Armorial bearings are the usual adornment of the knightly shield 

' Both seals are represented as the frontispiece to Mr. Hewitt's first volume. 

* Mr. Hewitt enumerates other similarly ornamented helmets in p. 287. The de- 
vices are not crests, but placed on the surface of the helmet. 

* We may refer to a beautiful representation of this seal by Mr. Edward Blore, 
among the seals of the Kings of Scotland engraved in Raine's History of North 
Durhara. Seals, Plate II. 



THE OKIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 215 

throughout this period [the thirteenth century], and the field was some- 
times richly diapered, as in this example [of a representation of the 
murder of Saint Thomas of Canterbury] from the window of the north 
transept of Oxford cathedral. Where heraldic devices are not found, 
a " pattern " generally takes their place : a cross, a rosette, a star, a 
fret, or some such simple ornament. In other cases the face of the 
shield is painted of a single colour. (Vol. i. p. 296.) 

We learn from these statements tliat, before the rise of armo- 
rial charges, or the ordinaries as they are now called, shields 
were as richly ornamented as afterwards, and perhaps more 
richly — with gay colours, and ornamental patterns, and even 
valuable jewels. 

There are proofs in the monuments of ancient Art that what is 
called Diapering was certainly coeval with, and probably ante- 
rior to, the earliest armorial charges. Diapering was a mode of 
decorating the surface of the shield independent of the actual 
device. The field might first receive from the hand of the 
carver or painter its ornamental pattern, and then be tinctured 
and charged according to the rules of armory ; or the charges 
might be ornamented or diapered in like manner, if they pre- 
sented surfaces suitable for the purpose. 

Mr. Planche, in his essay on the origin of Armorial Bearings, 
printed in the Winchester volume of the British Archaeological 
Association, (and since amplified in his judicious and instructive 
volume entitled The Pursuivant of Arms,) has pointed out the 
fact that one of the shields of the Chessmen of the eleventh cen- 
tury, discovered in the Isle of Lewis, (and figured in the xxivth 
volume o^ Archaologia,) is (in the language of blazon) Party per 
pale, the sinister side being cross-hatched with oblique lines, evi- 
dently to represent a darker colour than that of the dexter side, 
which is left smooth, as being of some light colour, or Argent. 
He has placed, in juxtaposition, the round shield of a Mexican 
warrior, divided exactly in the same manner, from a native 
painting (circ. 1519) preserved in the Vatican. 

Another shield of the Lewis chessmen is Quarterly of two 
colours, surmounted or divided by a plain cross. These were 
therefore evidently the primitive distinctions of shields before 
the superposition of charges. 



216 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 

Two of the most remarkable among our early sepulchral effi- 
gies have diapered shields. One is that which has been incor- 
rectly attributed to Geoffrey de ]\Iagnaville, and is engraved in 
the present volume, at p. 103. The other is that of Kobert de 
Vere, third Earl of Oxford (ob. 1221), at Hatfield Broadoak in 
Essex, which is engraved in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, and 
also in Stothard's Momimenial Ejffigies. His quarterly coat has 
two patterns of diaper : one for the first and fourth quarters, and 
the other for the second and third. See this shield also repre- 
sented in Boutell's Heraldry, plate vi. together with two carved 
examples (circ. 1350) from the beautiful Percy monument in 
Beverley Minster. 

Among the families bearing shields without charges is that of 
Eansow in Denmark. Its shield is like that of Waldegrave, 
party per pale, and of the same colours, but gules and argent, 
instead of argent and gules. This simplicity was claimed as an 
evidence of high antiquity, in the following epigram, which was 
written nearly three centuries ago : — 

INSIGNIA RANSOVIORUM. 
Ransoyii rubra est clypei pars dextra, sinistra est 

Candida : sed cassis cornua bina gerit.' 
Cornua sunt robur: Martis color alter, et alter 

Pacis, utrumque satos nobilitate decet. 
Forma quid hsec simplex ? simplex fuit ipsa yetustas ; 
Simplicitas formte stemmata prisca notat. 
Henrici Ranzovii de Conservanda Valetudine Liber. 8yo. 1584. 

The shield of Waldegrave, however, has not been always 
wholly uncharged. A junior branch of the family which resided 
at Lawford, between Colchester and Ipswich, and erected a 
mansion house there in the reign of Elizabeth, placed a large 
estoile in fess point," 

In regard to another biparted shield, that per pale indented, 
which was borne on the banners of the Montforts, and has been 
supposed (incorrectly as we have before remarked) to belong to 
the Honour of Hinckley, we should have stated that, not only 
Simon de Montfort, but his elder brother also, Amauri de Mont- 
fort, Constable of France, was represented in the cathedral of 

! The crest is of two horns, argent and gules, resembling elephant's trunks. 
' See drawing in Suckling's Collections for Essex. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 217 

Cliartres in the manner already figured in p. 10: see Montfau- 
con, Les Monumens de la Monarchie Frangoise, fol. 1730, tome ii. 
pi. xxxiii. The counter-seal of Amauri in the same plate exhi- 
bits the same banner, evidently therefore belonging to the Mont- 
forts as a family, placed between two fleurs de lis, and surrounded 
with the legend ►J* VERITAS. On the obverse of his seal he car- 
ries a shield charged with a lion, and a lion is on his horse's 
housings, both before and behind, — its tail not forked, if we may 
trust to the engraving. 

An English family named Hickman, seated at Gainsborough 
in Lincolnshire, and at Oken in Staffordshire, bore simply Per 
pale indented argent and azure. This was the arms of the 
family from which the present Earl of Plymouth is paternally 
descended. 

The family of Tuite, enjoying a baronetcy of Ireland, bears 
simply. Quarterly argent and gules. 

There are many other ancient bearings, which it is unneces- 
sary to specify by name, that may be called coats without 
charges, being simply Barry, Paly, Bendy, or Cheeky: though 
some of them have been varied, by modern blasonry, into two 
or three Bars, Bends, &c. 

Another variety is Lozengy ; or IVIasculy, as it was called in 
the earliest times. The coat of Bavaria was once blazoned as 
Masculy argent and azure; but its modern blazon is Barry 
bendy. The well-known coat of Fitzwilliam is Lozengy argent 
and gules; that of Burgh, Earl of Kent, was Lozengy gules 
and vaire. And there are others in the old rolls. At Carlave- 
rock in 1300 Ralph de Gorges (then a newly-dubbed knight) 
had all his harness and his attire Masculy of gold and azure : 
Tout son harnois e son atire 
Avoit mascle de or et de azur : 

whilst the good Richard de la Rokeley had his shield portrayed 
Masculy of red and ermine. 

The family of Grimaldi, princes of Monaco in Italy, bear 
Lozenzy argent and gules, like our Fitzwilliam: and the late 
Mr. Stacey Grimaldi (who derived his descent from them) was 
disposed to trace this bearing to a very early date. He observed 
that in the loth plate of the Bayeux tapestry (as published by 
the Society of Antiquaries) the Standard-Bcarer, immediately in 



218 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR; 

advance of the Conqueror, has on his breast " a square, inclosing 
some diagonal lines from right to left, as well as from left to 
right, and thereby forming the figure commonly called dia- 
mond;"^ and, when deducing the genealogy of the Barons of 
Bee,- Mr. Grimaldi showed that Turstin, who was the Conque- 
ror's Standard-Bearer at Hastings (and is afterwards mentioned 
in the Domesday Survey as Turstinus fiiius Rolf), was, together 
with his brother Goisfrid the Marshal, and his cousins William and 
Gilbert Crispin, who all fought at Hastings, a grandson of Crispin 
Baron of Bee (flor. 1000), who was a younger son of Grimoaldo 
Prince of Monaco, by Crispina daughter of Rollo Duke of Nor- 
many. He adds that the armorial bearing of Goisfrid's family 
was Lozengy, like that of Grimaldi: and these are associations 
which certainly carry back the age of merely coloured banners, 
or imcharged arms (as we may term them), used as distinctive 
marks of gentilitial descent or alliance, to some generations before 
the time when we first find coats bearing charges. 

The Carbuncle. 

In discussing in a former article (p. 101) the armorial shield 
on the effigy in the Temple Church, (erroneously) assumed to be 
that of Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, we undertook to 
make some remarks upon the Carbuncle, because that figure has 
been supposed to be part of the arms of Magnaville; and, if so, 
really one of the earliest armorial charges that was adopted. 

We showed that the misapprehension is of no recent date, it 
being actually asserted in the chronicle of Walden Abbey that 
the said Geoffrey, postgiiam gladio Comilis accinctus erat, arma 
progenitorum cum carlmnculo nobilitavit. And there is a corre- 
spondent passage in the chronicle of Wigmore priory, where it 
said of Roger de Mortimer (circ. 1270) that, the Queen of 
Navarre having fallen in love with him (from reputation), and 
sent him a present of gold, 

Ipseque dominiis Rogerus ejusdem regiiia? ob amorem carbiuiculum 
armis suis ad totam vitam suam addidisse noscitur. 

This second monastic story, however, like the former, is not 

' Gentlemairs Magazine, Dec. 1829, p. 499. ' Ibicl. Jan. 1832, p. 27. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 219 

borne out by any seal of Roger de Mortimer, nor by the early 
Rolls of Arms. 

The carbuncle appears to have become an armorial charge in 
some foreign coats : and its most honourable position was in that 
of the King of Navarre : 

Le Roy de Navarre porte de goules ore une charboncle d'or. Mr. 
Grimaldfs Holl, in Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica, vol. ii. 

This is the key to the legend above presented, and explains 
why such an addition was fancied honourable. 

As drawn more recently, and as familiar in representations of 
the arms of the united kingdoms of France and Navarre up to 
the time of the Revolution of 1789, the escarhoncle had changed 
its appearance from that of a radiating star to a trellis-work of 
chains, said to be commemorative of the palisado begirt with 
chains, in which the JNIoors were intrenched at the battle of 
Tolosa, in 1211, and which was forced by the Christian warriors.^ 

The Counts and Dukes of Cleves, on the other hand, retained 
the more ancient form of the Escarbuncle, but for their arms it 
Avas blasoned as radiating from a small escocheon or orle placed 
in the centre — in fact, the original boss, or umbo, of the shield : — 

Le Comtee de Cleve gules au escocheon d'argeut uu carbuncle d'or 
flurte. Roll, Harl. MS. 6589. 

Comte de Cliflfe de Alemain. Gules, an orle argent, surtout a car- 
buncle of eight rays or. Society of Antiquaries' Boll, No. 7. 

As time ran on, the heralds gave this escarhoncle a still fuller 
blason. It was described as being pommette et fleurette ; that is, the 
former term was applied to its knobs or protuberances, and the 
latter to its terminations, which were drawn as fleurs-de-lis. 

We have no hesitation, however, in affirming that originally 
these carbuncles were merely ornamental or constructional parts 
- of the shield, and not strictly heraldic charges. The sepulchral 
effigy of William Count of Flanders (ob. 1227), son of Robert 
Duke of Normandy and grandson of William the Conqueror of 
England, furnishes a good example. This was in the church of 
S. Bertin at St Oraer's, and may be seen figured in the work of 
Olivarius Vredius on the Counts of Flanders, and copied in 

' Various noble houses of Arragon ami Navarre assumed the same chains as part 
of their arms, as may be seen in Favine's Theater of Honour, quoting the Count de 
Lansarote. 



220 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR, 

Sandford's Genealogical History of England. The central boss 
is like a five-leaved flower, surrounded by eight short rays, and 
again by eight longer ramifications that dart out to the margin 
of the shield. 

So, in Willemin's Monuments Frangais, pi. 73, will be seen a 
shield from the portrail de Notre Dame de Chartres, which is 
ornamented after the manner of the carbuncle, with eight bars 
radiating from a central boss, but with this difference that the 
bars run close up to the border. The border is studded as if 
with jewellery. 

In the enamelled plate at Mans, engraved by Stothard, and by 
him assigned to Geoffrey Plantagenet, there is such a carbuncle : 
audit is accompanied by armorial bearings, (of which it forms no 
part,) viz. Or, eight lions rampant azure ; in the same way as in 
the effigy at the Temple (engraved in p. 101) the carbuncle 
occurs together with the armorial charges of dancettes. 

That the escarboncle did not become an armorial charge in 
England, as it did on the continent, is shown by the evidence 
of the three ancient rolls recently edited by Messrs. Walford and 
Perceval, as well as by others, in which it does not occur for any 
English coat. 

It is true that a carbuncle appears on the seal of Hameline, 
Earl of Warren and Surrey, the natural brother of King 
Henry I.; and on the seal of John Earl Warren, his grandson,* 
3 Edw. III. 1329, the carbuncle is worn as a crest both for 
himself and his horse. But this again we must refer to conti- 
nental armory, the old arms of Anjou (of the house of Planta- 
genet) being blasoned as Gules, a chief argent, over all an escar- 
buncle of eight staves, nowed and flowered or. This coat is 
placed for Anjou on the monument of Queen Elizabeth in West- 
minster Abbey. 

We may here mention that, in the garter-plate of Ealph Lord 
Basset of Drayton, (ob. 1390), in the Chapel at Windsor, his 
escocheon is surmounted by this badge or cognizance, — On a 
roundel, per pale gules and azure, an escarbuticle of eight rays 
fleurette or.^ 

The arms of some families of Thornton are three cscarbuncles 

' See both engraved in Watson's History of the Earls of Warren and Surrey. 
^ Beltz's Memorials of the Garter, p. 162. 



THE OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COAT ARMOUR. 221 

on a bend, but these are modern variations of the more ancient 
coat. Argent, on a bend gules three Katharine-wheels of the 
field. The coat. Argent, on a bend gules three escarbuncles or, 
a fleur-de-lis sable for diflPerence, was granted to Thornton of 
Middlesex, March 12, 1575. 

If the escarbuncle be found in the quarterings of certain noble 
families, it will prove to be an imagination of the later heralds. 
Such it is in the quarterings of Sydney, for the very coat of 
" Magnaville Earl of Essex," which has led to this investigation. 

And so one of the coats assigned to the abbey of Colchester is 
evidently formed in imitation of that attributed to Magnaville, — 
Quarterly argent and gules, a cross within a bordure or, over all 
an escarbuncle sable. We find this in Glover's Ordinary, with 
the name (or designation) Dapifer.^ 

On the whole, these exceptions help to prove the rule that the 
escarbuncle is not truly an armorial charge, but it is a misappre- 
hension of the ornamental boss of the shield, which was antece- 
dent to armory, and lasted for a certain period in conjunction 
with it. To conclude with one more quotation from our friend 
Mr. Hewitt, he states, vol. i. p. 295, that ^' The boss is still 
retained in some of the shields of the thirteenth century, though 
but rarely. It occurs in our woodcut No. 75, and on folio 4 of 
the Lives of the OiFas." These historical shields were perhaps 
designedly drawn of an archaic fashion. The former belongs 
to a figure of Goliath, receiving on his temple the mortal 
wound from the sling of David. It is from a Hebrew MS. of the 
Pentateuch written in Germany about the close of the thirteenth 
century (Addit. MS. 11,639). " The shield retains (remarks 
Mr. Hewitt, p. xxi.) the boss and strengthening bands we have 
seen in examples from the Anglo-Saxon and Frankish graves." 

" The boss and the strengthening bands '^ — writes Mr. Hewitt, 
perfectly innocent of any heraldic theory. But our own theory 
is that from " the boss " was developed the cross flory, and all 
the other endless varieties of crosses which are so abundant in 
armory, and from the other " strengthening bauds " were derived 
the fess, pale, bend, chevron, and bars, which became the Ordi- 
naries of the armorial system. 

' It may be noticed that Dr. Charles ManJevile, Dean of Peterborough, received in 
1722 a grant of arms founded upon the old traditional coat of Magnaville. It was Per 
saltire or and gules, an escarbuncle of eight rays sable ; and for crest, on a wreath, a 
mural crown argent, charged with an escarbuncle sable. 



222 

Fees paid by the Duke of Lauderdale when installed 
AS A Knight of the Garter in 1672. 

[From the original account in the possession of Richard Almack, Esq. F.S.A.] 

Fees payable by his Grace y^ Duke of Lauderdale 
at his Installation. 

To the Deane of Windsor, Register 

To the said Register for a Book of Statutes 

To the Dean & Channons 

To the Chore &c. . 

To the Poore Knights .... 



£ 

38 
03 
10 
08 
10 



s. 
13 
00 
00 
10 
00 



d. 
04 
00 
00 
00 
00 



70 : 03 : 04 



To Garter for [his] Grace's Upper Garment . 
To him for his Fee in Money .... 

To Garter & y^ Officers of Armes for Proclayrning 
his Stile ........ 

To ye Black Roodd 

To ye Officers of Armes ..... 



55 
35 

05 
20 
20 



00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



135 : 00 : 00 

Fees & Gratuities to others his Ma*^ Servants, viz^ 

To ye Wardrobe 03 : 00 : 00 

To ye Trumpetts 06 : 00 : 00 

To ye Serjeant Trumpetter . . . . . 01 : 00 : 00 
To ye Musycians 4 Companies . . . . 08 : 00 : 00 

Knight Harbenger 03 : 06 : 08 

Drums & Fifes 02 : 00 : 00 

To ye Porters 03 : 00 : 00 

Master Cooke 01 : 10 : 00 

Serjeant Porter 03 : 00 : 00 

Vestry 01 : 00 : 00 

Yeomen Harbengers . . . . . . 03 : 00 : 00 

Vshers of the Hall 01 : 10 : 00 

Groomes of the Chamber . . . . . 01 : 10 : 00 

Yeomen Vshers . . . . . . . 03 : 06 : 08 

Quarter Waiters . . . . . . . 04 : 08 : 04 

Sewers 04 : 08 : 04 

Buttery . . 01 : 10 : 00 



FEES OF THE ORDER OF THE GARTER. 223 

£ S. d. 

Pantry 01 : 10 : 00 

Celler 01 : 10 : 00 

To ye Seijants at Armes lately added . . . 05 : 00 : 00 

59 : 10 : 00 



Totall . 264 : 13 : 04 
Edw. Walker, Garter. 

Also y^ Painter's Bill for a Great Banner of his 
Grace's Armes, Helmet, Crest, Sword & Plate of 
his Armes, are to be paid to the Painter, amount- 
ing unto about y^ sume of . . . . 31 : 00 : 00 
Besides Cloath of gold for the Mantle, Sattin to 
line it, Velvit for a Cushion with TafFata to line 
it, with Fringe & Tassells, are either to be deli- 
vered to y^ Painter to make up, or the Painter to 
provide & make up y® same .... (blank ^) 
Lastly, if the 3 other Noble Lords speedily to be Elected & 
Installed shall think fitt to aiford all y® Officers of Armes who 
attend them att their Installation, and who have received by the 
Bounty of many Knights formerly installed each of them 5£ for 
Hats, Feathers & Scarfes, his Grace hath promised that he will 
Give his part of the sume of Q0£ to y^ 12 Officers of Armes, 
which is 15 for his part. Edw. Walker, Garter. 

Side note. The other 3 new Knights have paid each of them 
15£. E. W. Gr. 

Delivered May 25*1' 1672. 

30th May 1672. 
.Received then by mee Edward Walker Kn' Garter 
Principall King of Armes, of M^" John Lindsey, 
the full sume of two hundred seventy nine Pounds 
Thirteen shillings four pence being for the Instal- 
lacon Fees of his Grace the Duke of Lauderdala 
according unto y^ before written Bill (excepting 
the Painter's Bill) I say received the day & year 

above written 279 : 13 : 4 

Edw, Walker, Garter. 

June 3d 1672. 

Works done & Money laid out for y^ Installation of y® High 
Mighty & Illustrious Prince John Duke of Lauderdale. 
Imprimis for one great Banner painted in Oyle & £ s. d. 
fine Gold with his LoPs Armes . . . . 10 : 00 : 00 
' See the subsequent account. 



224 FEES OF THE ORDER OP THE GARTER. 

£ s. d. 

For a Socket for the Great Banner . . . 00 : 02 : 00 

For a StafFe painted in Oyle for the Great Banner . 00 : 05 : 00 

For an Hehnet of Steele Gilt fitting his degree . 03 : 00 : 00 

For a Sword with a Crossehilt Pomell & Chape Guilt 01 : 00 : 00 

For Crest Carved & Guilt 02 : 00 : 00 

For Carving Enameling & Guilding the Plate for 

the Stall 06 : 00 : 00 

For 6 Scutchions guilt with fine Gold with his 

Grace's Armes and Titles at 15^ p peece . . 04 : 10 : 00 

For making the Mantles 00 : 10 : 00 

For making the Wreath & finding Silk . . 00 : 05 : 00 

For making the Cushion . . . . . 01 : 06 : 08 

For a pair of Knobs for the Mantle guilt . . 00 : 02 : 00 

For Cariage & putting- up y^ Acheivement . , 01 : 10 : 00 



For 7 y^^ & a Quarter of Silk and Gold Fringe for 

ye Cushion at 4s 6^1 01 : 12 : 07 

For 4 Silk and Gold Tassells for y^ Cushions . 01 : 00 : 00 

For 11 ounces Silk Fringe for y^ Great Banner . 01 : 03 : 00 
For 2 Tassells of Silk and Gold for y^ Mantle .01 : 00 : 00 

£M : 07 : 01 



Side note to the four last items. These have been formerly 
delivered with y^ Velvet & Cloth of Gold, but now furnished by 
the Painter. 

I have examined & doe approve of this Bill. 
7 Jime 1672. Edw. Walker, Garter. 

June the ll^h 1672. 

Received then of M"" John Lindsey the sufhe of 
thirty four Pounds in full of this Bill. I say 

received p mee ;634 : 00 : 00 

Arthur Blackamore, 

Sir Harris Nicolas, in his History of the Order of the Garter, at 
pp. 388 — 393, has given various particulars in regard to the several 
items forming this aggregate of Fees ; and the subject is still more 
fully discussed by Ashmole in Tlie Institution, ^c , of the Order of the 
Garter, pp. 455 —466. We are not aware of any bill of the whole 
payments for the Installation Fees that has hitherto been edited. 



225 



THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 

1684. 

NoTiTiA CAMBRO-BRiTANmCA: A Vojage of North and Soutli Wales. BeUig 
various cursory Remarks touching their ancient Kings of y* North and South, Princes 
of y*^ British and y*" English Line, Lords Presidents, Militia, Speeches, Entertain- 
ments, Seals of Corporations, Views of Churches, Funerali Monuments, Epitaphs, 
Inscriptions, Marbles, Roman Ara's, Fragments of Antiqxdty, Castles, Seats of 
Gentlemen, Coat-armors of divers British and other Families, Customes, Pedigrees, 
Sayings, Manners, Maps, Prospects, Landmarks, Havens, Market Towns, Faires, 
Wakes, Commodities of tlie respective Counties of AV ales, witli sundry other Observa- 
tions in attending his Grace the Duke of Beaufort, in his Progres and Generall Visita- 
cion of his Comands there, An^ D'ni m.dc.LXXXIv. Intermixt w^'' some Historical! 
Observations, Annotations, and brief Notes from approved Authorities, Manuscripts of 
others. Records, ancient Charters, &c. 

By T. D. Gill. 

SPffi LABOR LEVIS. 

Edited from the Original MS. in the possession of His Grace the Eighth Duke of 
Beaufort^ by Charles Baker, His Grace's Steward of the Seigniories of Gower and 
Kilvey. Printed for Private Circulation, mdccclxiv. 4to. pp. vi. 284. 

Among the archives of the Duke of Beaufort preserved at Bad- 
minton was found the orioinal of the present vohune — one of the 
IVLSS. of Thomas Dineley, a gentleman whose predilection for the 
.study of genealogy and antiquities in general is commemorated by 
various volumes hitherto little known, but of which we propose to 
give some accoiint. The present has been very handsomely printed 
at the expense of the Duke of Beaufort, under the careful supervision 
of Mr. Baker, and the impre-ssion is limited to one hundred copies. 

Its contents resemble those of the Diaries of Richard Symonds 
which haA'e been pj-inted for the Camden Society. Symonds was a 
cavalier in the army of Charles the First, who during his mai'ches, 
and in the intervals of the dangers and fatigues of active service, still 
pursued the bent of the taste he had accpiired for gentilitial and 
armorial records by visiting the churches and mansions that lay in 
liis way, and making notes of their memorials, whether inscribed in 
letters or in heraldic symbols. 

Thomas Dinelej', who accompanied the official progress which the 
Duke of Beaufort, as Lord President of Wales, made through tlie 
Principality in 1G84, pursued a similar course, making the best use 
of the opportunity that more peaceful journey affurded him. Both 
works, in like manner, have two claims to attention, the one his- 

VOL. 111. Q 



226 THE EEAUFOTIT PROGRESS TITROUGTI WALES, 1684. 

torical, the other geutilitial ; and though in the former respect the 
Diary of Synionds may be considered as the more important from its 
relation to the incidents of a great civil contest, yet that of Dineley 
is also of a certain historical value, as showing not only that the Lord 
President of Wales occasionally made a personal survey of his ter- 
ritory (as was customary with the Lord Lieutenant or Deputy of 
L-eland), but also with what state and to what purposes he made it — 
which seem to have been, principally, reviewing the militia, and 
keeping iip a loyal and political interest in the corporations. 

The title of Lord President originated with a Council of which this 
officer was the head, being appointed for the government of the Princi- 
pality, in place of the ancient Lords Marchers. That Council was not 
constituted until the 17th Hen. VII. 1502. It has sometimes been 
supposed that at an earlier period John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, occupied 
this position ; because when Prince Edward, the son of King Edwai'd 
the Fourth, together with his uncle and governor Earl Rivers, were 
sent to reside at Ludlow, Bishop Alcock accompanied them as their 
chief councillor, I That residence, however, must have been brief and 
temporary. 

William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln (the founder of Brazenose), is 
called " the first Lord President," by Himiphrey Lloyd, in his History 
of Wales ; and his portrait at Brazenose College is inscribed primvs 
wALLi^ PR.ESES. He is Stated to have accompanied Arthur Prince of 
Wales to Ludlow, when that Prince went thither shortly after his 
marriage in 1502, and upon the Prince's decease within a few months 
he continued Lord President until his own death in 1513." 

The four next Lord Presidents were also Bishops. 

2. Jeffrey Blyth, Bp. of Coventry and Lichfield, appointed in 1513. 

3. John Voysey, Bishop of Exeter, appointed 1525. 

4. Rowland Lee, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, appointed 1535. 
During his time the principality of Wales was united to the kingdom 

' Alcock was rather President of the King's Council, as well as Lord Chancellor. 
He was so styled in the window of Little Malvern Church — " quondam Cancellarii 
Anglia;, et Presidentis Concilii Edwardi Regis Quarti." 

■■^ The Council of the North, whose seat of government was York, was not esta- 
lilished until 152G, when Henry VIIL sent thither his natural son Henry FitzRoy, 
Duke of Richmond and Somerset, in the capacity of General Warden of the Marches 
towards Scotland. In the absence of any other male issue, it is certain that King 
Henry had then some intention to make the Duke of Richmond his heir to the Crown, 
though he did not exactly choose to place him in the definite position of a Prince of 
Wales, because his hope of having a legitimate son, though long protracted, was not 
abandoned. 



THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 227 

of England by act of parliament. He die<.l in 1543, and was buried at 
Shrewsbury. 

5. Richard Sampson, Bitsliop of Coventry and Lichfield, succeeded 
Bishop Lee, and held the office until the second year of Edward VL, 
when he was removed. 

6. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, is then said to have 
held the office for a short time, but without visiting the se^t of govern- 
ment ; and he soon relinquished it to 

7. Wtlllvm Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who held it until the 
King's death. 

8. On the accession of Queen Mary, she returned to the former 
pi-actiee in Catholic times of appointing a Bishop to this office, in the 
pei-son of Nicholas Heath, Bishop of Worcester, who resigned in 1556. 

The Earl of Pembroke was reappointed for a second time from 1556 
to 1558; but Mary afterwards found another Bishop for the office in 
the person of 

0. Gilbert Bourne, Bishop of Bath and Wells, who was Lord 
President for the remainder of her reign.' 

10. John Lord Williams of Thame was appointed by Queen Eliza- 
beth, and died in office at Ludlow on the 14th Oct. 1559. 

11. Sir Henry Sydney, K.G., was appointed in 1560, and held the 
office for six and twenty years. For a portion of that time he was also 
Lord Deputy of L-eland, and during his absence Whitgift, then Bisho]) 
of Worcester, was appointed Vice-President of Wales. Sir Henry 
Sydney died at Ludlow on the 5th of May, 1586. 

12. Henry Herbert, second Earl of Pembroke, was the next 
President, and so continued until his death in 1601. The Instructions 
given to him in 1586 are in the Lansdowne MSS. No. 49, art. 62. 

13. Edward Lord Zouche was appointed in 1602, and continued in 
office until 1606. 

14. Ralph Lord Eure succeeded in 1607, and gave way to 

15. Thomas Lord Gerard, of Gerards Bromley, who was appointed 
March 7, 1616-17. He held the office for a very short time. 

16. William Lord Compton was appointed in 1617, and the In- 
structions given him are printed in Rymer's Foedera, &c. Ho was 
created Earl of Northampton in 1618, and held this office until his 
death in 1630. 

For the next two years the office was apparently vacant. Its duties 
were performed by the Lord Chief Justice, Sir John Bridgeman, 

' His patent of appointment is in Cotton MS. Vitellius, C. i. fol. 173. 

Q2 



228 THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 

ancestor of the Earls of Bradford. He died in 1G36, and was buried 
in Ludlow Church, where he has a monument. 

17. John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewatek, was appointed Lord 
President in 1633: and the Instructions issued to him also are in 
Eymer's collection. In the following year the memorable performance 
took place at Ludlow Castle of Milton's Masque of Comus. The 
Earl is believed to have nominally retained the office until his death 
in 1G49 : but the Council itself "fell to pieces by reason of the civil 
wars,"i and it has been said that the King superseded the Earl by 
nominating his nephew Prince Rupert.2 The Prince's commission 
was really as Captain- General of his Majesty's forces in Shropshire 
and North Wales, as that of the Marquess of Worcester was to be 
his Captain-General in South Wales and Monmouthshire. 

18. After the Eestoration, Charles the Second conferred this office 
upon EicHARD Vaughan, Earl of Carbery, extracts from whose 
Instructions are appended to the volume before us. The appointment 
of his secretary ^Samuel Butler to be Steward of the Court at Ludlow 
connects another eminent poet with the history of the castle, where 
the early cantos of Hudibras were composed. The Earl of Carbery 
survived until 1713; but he relinquished his office long before to 

19. Henry Somerset, Marquess or Worcester, who was ap- 
pointed in 1672, and created Duke of Beaufort ten years later. It is 
his stately progress in 1684 that has directed our attention to this 
subject; and on the 23rd of August, 1686, he had the honour to 
receive his sovereign James 11. at Ludlow Castle. The Eevolution 
appears to have unseated him, together with his royal master, whose 
measures he had promoted with the hereditary loyalty of his race : 
and, though one more Lord President was nominated in the person of 

20. Charles Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, that appointment 
was probably only a preliminary to the extinction of the office ; for 
in 1689 the Court of Marches was abolished by Act of Parliament 
(1 Will. & Mar. cap. 27,) as an institution which had operated too 
favourably in aid of arbiti-ary power. 

' MSS. Salusliury of Eibistock, (jiioted in Pai'ry's Roi/al Visits and Pro</resses to 
Wales, 4to. 1851, p 335. 

2 Mr. Baker has appended lo his volume, p. 272, the appointment of Henry Lord 
Marquis of Worcester to be President, " in as large, ample and beneficial manner <Cr. 
as Richard Lord Vaughan, Earle of Carbery, William Earle of Northampton, John 
Earle of Bridgewater, our dear Cousin Priiice Rupert, or either of them, or any other 
peraon, formerly enjoyed <ic. the same." We do not however regard this inexact 
enumeration of the former occupants of the office as decisive evidence. 



THE BKAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH AVALES, 1684. 229 

We have drawn out this prefatory list of the twenty Lords Presi- 
dent of Wales ; because we think they are not readily to be found.^ 

Lord Macauh^y, when noticing " the stately household and princely 
style of living of the first Duke of Beaufort, has alluded to the progress 
of 1684, as if it was an ordinary jn-actice of the Lords President, and 
frequently repeated. We have no means of judging how far tliat was 
the fact ; but it appears that Lord Macaulay founded his remark upon 
what he had gathered from the London Gazette regarding the Duke's 
perlustration of the principality in the year 1684; Avhich, it seems to 
us, was rather an extraordinary measure, undertaken principally for 
^lolitical ends, and with the view of strengthening the dwindling loyalty 
of Welshmen towards the house of Stuart. During the journey his 
sole Ostensible business seems to have been to review the militia of the 
several counties, and to receive the ovations of the corporations, one of 
which (Cardift") is said to have surrendered to him its charter with very 
suspicious alacrity. 

The Duke started from Chelsea on the 14th of Jiily; rested the first 
night at Henley, the second at Chippen- Norton, and on the third at 
Worcester, having been met at Pershore by the Mayor, Sheriff, Dean, 
and many of the most eminent citizens of Worcester, who conducted 
him with all imaginable respect to the Bishop's palace. On the 17th, 
towards the evening, he arrived at Ludlow, wliere all tlie officers of his 

' Only a few of the more prominent names are noticed by Mr. Thomas AVright, in 
h\s, History of Ludlow, 8vo. 1852. We have extracted them from the curious and 
handsome volume entitled Documents connected v-ith the History of Ludlow and Lords 
Marchers, 4to. 1841, a compilation formed by the Hon. R. H. Clive from the collec- 
tions of T. F. Dovaston, Esq. and the Rev. J. B. Blakeway, and MSS. in the British 
Museum, with the assistance of Mr. John Martin and Mr. Thomas Moule, the author 
of the Bihliotheca Heraldica, by whose aid the arms of the Lord Presidents were 
drawn and blasoned, and a long series of arms and inscriptions in the castle and the 
Bull Inn at Ludlow fully described. 

- History of England, 12mo. 1860, ii. 172. Lord JIacaulay states that the Duke was 
Lord Lieutenant of four English counties. He was Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire, 
Herefordshire, and Monmouthshire. [See note hereafter, in p. 288.] The authors of 
the History of Shrewsbury (Owen and Blakeway), 1825, imagined that the Duke's 
progress was an inaugural one, making this remark : " He had held this distinguished 
office in an earlier part of the reign of Charles IL and appears to have been reap- 
pointed in this year (1684); on which occasion he made a tour through his jurisdic- 
tion. Hence the Peerages are to be corrected which attribute his second appoint- 
ment to James H." It is true that Collins states that the Duke was by James II. 
made Lord President of Wales, quoting as authority Bill. Signat. 1 Jas. II. ; and it 
thereliy appears that he received a fresh appointment at the commencement of the 
new reign, though his tenure of the office was continuous. 



230 THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 

Presidency waited his Grace's coming, and the order in which he made 
his solemn entry was thus marshalled : — ^ 

First. The Quartermaster for y« Progress. 

2. Four Sunipturemen in livery, well mounted, leading their baggage, covered 
with fair sumpture-cloaths of fine blew cloth, diversified and embroidered with the 
coat-armor of his Grace. 

3rdly. Three helpers belonging to the stables, in livery, leading horses to supply 
accidents and defects of y*' coach cavalry. 

4thly. His Grace's Gentleman of the Horse, Lowe, Esq. well mounted and 

equipped. 

Stilly. Six Pages, in rich liveries, following him, 2 & 2. 

6thly. Seven Grooms, in bis Grace's livery, each with a led horse caparisoned, S 
stone and 4 gueldings, with stately sadles and houises, richly embroidered and em- 
bossed with gold and silver, some carrying a Portcullis subscrib'd with this motto iw 
an escrowle, altera securitas, in high raised work, also of gold and silver. 

7. His Grace's 4 Trumpeters, in very rich coats, having for badge his Grace's 
cypher in gold, under a ducall crown, on their backs and breasts, each with a silver 
trumpet, with gold and silver strings and tazzels, and crimson flowr'd damask 
banners, embroidered with y'^ coat armour of his Grace the Duke of Beaufort, viz. 
the souveraigne ensignes of France & England quarterly, with a bordui-e gobonated 
pearl and saphire, all within a garter, with his Grace's motto in a compartment, — 

MUTARE VEL TIMERE SPERNO. 

Stilly. Henry Chivers, Esq. Lieut.- Colon el of the Militia Foot in tlie county of 
Wilts, richly equipp'd, who led the cavalcade of his Grace's gentlemen, officers, and 
servants of his family. 

9. Two Gentlemen at large. 

10. The Yeoman of bis Grace's Wine-cellar, Thomas Parson, gent, and Thomas 
Kemis, gent. Grome of the Chamber, in a breast. 

11. The Cooks. 

12. Mr. Smith and Mr. Nichols, a Master of Musick and Harper to his Grace. 

13. Mr. Aldred and the Mareschall or Farier of y* Progress. 

14. Wainnian, gent. Clerk of the Kitchin, and Spiller, gent, in a breast, 

well mounted. 

15. Captain Spalding nnd the Reverend his Grace's Chaplain. 

16. The Steward of the House, and Steward outward. 

17. Henry Crow, esq. his Grace's Secretary, and Harecourt, esq. his Grace's 

Sollicitor. 

18. Mr. Lockwood and Mons. Claud, of bis Grace's Chamber. 

19. Mr. Rose and Mr. Blackmore. 

20. Captain Lloyd and [William] Wolsley, esq. Steward of the Castle of Ludlow, 
Mustermaster of the county of Gloucester, and Governor of Chepstow Castle in Mon- 
mouthshire. 

21. The Sergeant with y"? Mace, Mr. Winwood with the White Rod, with 

y« Tipstaff, and other officers of the Court of Ludlow, as pursivants, &c. 

' A copy of this procession has been previously published in Mr. Clive's volume, 
pp. 185—187, and in the Hidovj nf Skrewihin-)/, but there are several ^rtf(?««: in it. 



THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 231 

22. His Grace the Duke of Beaufort, &c. Lord President of Wales, himself iu 
glorious equippage. 

23. The Right Honourable Charles Earle of AVorcester, and Sir John Talbot the 
High Sheriff of the county of Salop, with the Shropshire gentry, and a great number 
of the loyall gentlemen of the neighbouring counties. 

These were followed by his Grace's chariot, and two other coaches and six horses 
each, wherein was her Grace the Lady Duchess of Beaufort, y<^ Countess of Worcester, 
y'^ most noble ladys her daughters, with their woemen, and with a greate retinue 
rideing by. 

The cavalcade was received at the gate of Ludlow by the Bailift's 
aud Coi-poration ; and " in the principall part of the town, neer y® high 
cross and publicqne fountaine, his Grace was presented by them with 
a neat banquet of sweetmeats, consisting of half a dozen marchpanes, 
and wines." 

The next day, being Friday, July 18, 1684, Sir Edward HeAert, Chief Justice of 
Chester, and all the judges and officers of the Court, waited on the Duke to the 
Chappel ; after which his Grace, in his rich robes of Presidency, walked to the Court 
of Ludlow, where, the Chief Justice having given the charge, the rest of the forenoon 
was spent in hearing of causes, his Grace being upon the bench; which done, all the 
company was again enterteined at a magnificent dinner at the Castle, each person 
contending to outdo the other in manifestation of their loyaltie to his Majesty and due 
respect to his Grace. 

Leaving LucUow on the 19th, the Duke of Beaufort arrived that 
evening at the castle of Powis, commonly called Red Castle, having 
passed on the way in state through the town of Bishop's Castle, where 
he was welcomed by the corporation, and " an handsome banquett 
was lodged for his Grace at y® Palm-house ^ belonging to their church," 

On entering the county of Montgomery, the Lord President was 
received by its militia, consisting of four companies of foot, with white 
colours flying, and one troop of horse. Their standard of damask 
carried a dexter arm, armed proper, and holding a heart gules, with this 
motto on an escrowle, pro rege, and tassels of gold silk and silver. 

On Monday the 21st the Dulve proceeded from Red Castle to Chirk, 
in Denbighshire, and at the confines of the two counties the Mont- 
gomeryshire troop was relieved by the Militia of Denbigh and a great 

' This term is new to us, but it appears to be synonymous with what architectural 
antiquaries now generally term a lych-gate. At p. 103, where Dineley gives a sketch 
of the church of Hay, he remarks, " The ascent to the Palmer's house whereof, marked 
A, is rocky." It is repj^sented in the sketch as a shed covering the stile and gate in 
the churchyard wall. Perhaps in both these passages the true meaning is palmer 
liuuse, a shelter for wandering palmers or pilgrims. The guild of the Palmers of Lud- 
low, founded temp. Edw. IH. was the principal corporation of that town, and main- 
tained the grammar-school : sec Wright's Ludlow, p. 206. 



232 THE BEAUFOET PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 



number of gentry of that shire, who conducted him to Chirk castle, 

where a very magnificent and splendid entertainment was prepared by 

the owner, 8ir Richard Middleton, Bart. 

The like reception welcomed him elsewhere. On the 22nd he 

was entertained by Sir John Wynn, at Wynnstay, being there met 
by the Bishop of St. Asaph (Dr. William Lloyd), 
and several knights and gentlemen of that, and 
the adjacent counties ; on the 23rd by the magis- 
tracy of Wrexham; on the evening of the same 
day and during the 24th by Sir Roger Mostyn, at 
Mostyn ; on the 25th at Conway ; and on the 26th at 
Beaumaiis in Anglesey. Here he was nobly enter- 
tained by the Lord Bulkeley, and, the next day being 
Sxmday, attending service twice at Beaumaris chm'ch, 
was after evening prayers " collation'd according to 

Ihis quality " at a house half a mile out of the town, 
which was the residence of the Lord Bulkeley's 
eldest son, the Captain of the County Horse ; whose 
standard of crimson flowered damask was as is re- 
presented in the margin, with gold and silk fringe 
and tazzells. The militia of this county consisted 
of one troop of horse, and four companies of foot ; 
the Beaumaris company having red colours with a 
red cross in the canton, and the other three blue 
colours. 

On Monday the 28th the Duke came to Gwydir, a house that had 
been acquired by the Lord Willoughby of Parham, in marriage with 
Sir Richard Wynn's daughter and heir. Lord and Lady Willoughby 
were then from home; but their mansion accommodated "his sayd 
Grace, the Lord of Worcester, Lord Bulkeley, Sir John Talbot, and 
severall of the gentry of the neighbouring countyes." 

Leaving Gwydir, on the following day, the Duke proceeded to 
Rhiwlas, about a mile short of Bala in Merionethshire. On his way 
thither he was met by its owner, Colonel Piice, and some of the loyal 
gentlemen of that county ; and at a convenient place on the way 
their party of horse was drawn up to attend his Grace, being well 
equipped. Advancing forward, in the avenue leading to Rhiwlas, 
the foot was found drawn in a line, with their officers in proj^er 
station. One of Dineley's neat sketches shows this military recejotion, 
as well as the aspect of the old mansion. 




THE BEAUFOKT PKOGKESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 233 




UHnVLAS, CO. MERIONETH. 



The militia of this county consisted of one small troop of horse, 
and two companies of foot. The standard of the former bore this 
nuitto, in letters of gold upon silk : — 

NOX PALMA SINE PULVERE. 

In Rliywlas hall, carved in the timber, is this, — 

ByDD. DDADTHOLUDTRA VYC'HYNY 

MED^IA.NTVAL IB OYSDORYT 

PANE LYCU. * 

AVhich was explained to me — 

Be Hospitable, as long as you are in possession of this House ; so you leave some- 
what behind you. 

Another timber-beam earrieth, — 

ANNO REMYNI REGINE EL1ZARETHN VN- 
DECCMO SEXTO : DEVM TIME. 

TIlis last date I believe was design'd for as good Latin as the advice in the rear. 

Over y*^ Porch and principall entry is the Arms of England and France quarterly, 
subscribed Ikrania D Elizabeth, ideo qiuere. 

The carver appears to have been no scholar, and to have blundered 
alike the Latin and his own language. We think, however, that the 
last inscription was clearly intended for Insignia domince ElizabetJtce : 



234 THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH AVALES, 1684. 

and the other in Latin is equally obvious for the 11th year of the 
Queen's reign, 1569. The Welsh should probably be read — 

Bydd dda d'th olud tra v'ych yn y 
meddiant, val y bo ysdflr y't 
pan elych. 

Of which the following is the true version : 

" Do good with thy wealth while thou possessest it ; that there may 
be store [laid up] for thee when thou departest." 

On the 30th the Lord President was at Lloydyarth, the seat of a 
oentleman named Vaughan, where a noble entertainment was pro- 
vided, with good standing and provisions for above 90 horse : and 
from that place he began to retrace his steps. Having met the 
Duchess and ladies again at Powis Castle on the 31st, he stayed 
there during the next day ; and on the 2nd of August, on his road to 
Ludlow, paid a somewhat unexpected visit to the town of Shrewsbury. 

Yett his Grace was mett by a large troop of the most considerable and loyall 
gentlemen of Shropshire who were within notice; when, and at his Grace's arrivall, 
the Mayor of Shrewsbury and the Aldermen his bretheren waited upon him in their 
formalities, and the Town presented him with twenty dozen bottles of wine, and 
twenty chargers of sweetmeats. After dinner his Grace, accompanied with my Lord 
of Worcester, Sir John Talbot, and all the Gentlemen, visited the Schools, the Library, 
and the Castle; during which solemnity the people expressed their joy by ringing 
of the bells of y"^ several! churches of this town. 

We have now followed the progress of the Lord President through 
the six counties of North Wales, and, without noticing so fully the 
particulars of his reception in the southern counties, which are very 
similar to those already detailed, it will be sufficient to say that he was 
entertained in Radnorshire at Prestcign, on the 4th of August ; on the 
5th, having crossed the river Wye at Whitney Ford or Ferry, in his 
chariot, at the castle of Hay in Brecknockshire ; and at the piiory of 
Brecknock, where he stayed two nights, and in which town the author, 
among other gentlemen of the Duke's retinue, was admitted a Burgess ; 
and on the 7th at " the Eaa'l of Carberrie's famous seat called Golden 
Grove," having passed through the town of Llandinonaurc, where, " for 
about an English mile, the road and streets were strewed with rushes, 
to receive him." 

Among other remarkes at Golden Grove are seen y^ Drinking Horn above exhibited, 
beautified with silver artifice, being the first vessell Henry Tudor Earle of Richmond, 
King of England (by the name of Henry VIL), drank out of after his landing at Mil- 
ford Haven in Pembrokeshire, in order to the marrying the Lady Elizabeth and 
deposing Richard HI. 



THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 235 




This Horn was presented by himself to this noble family, now Earles of Carbery, 
where it hath remained ever since, and is kept among the noble Earles choicest 
raritys. The foot is of silver in form of a mount, upon which stand a Dragon and 
Greyhound of the same mettall, in imitation of the Supporters of the Royall Arms of 
Henry VII. which are drawn below, shewing the dexter side a Red Dragon, the 
ensigne of Cadwalader the last King of the Britains, from whom by a male line 




he derives his pedigree (according to the -laborious Sandford's (r't'ne'((/oi/// o/"A'<'j(^*, 
p. 434); and on the sinister- side a Greyhound argent, collared gules, which he gave 
in right of his wife the Queen Elizabeth of York, descended from the Nevils by Anne 
her grandmother, the daughter of Ralph Nevill Earle of Westmoreland, and wife of 
Richard Duke of York. The Portcullis upon the lipping or rim of the mouth is in 
token of his descent through his mother from the noble family of the Beauforts. To 
this devise on his mausole or royal sepulture at Westminster is added this motto — 

ALTERA SECURITAS, 

as who should say, As a Portcullis is a further security to a gate, so his [royal descent 
from the House of Lancaster through his] Mother corroborated his other titles. From 



236 THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 

this devise he instituted a Pursivant at Armes, and named him Portcullis; as from 
the leading supporter the Red Dragon had been instituted by him also the Pursivant 
called Rouge Dragon. 

The Roses on the rim I suppose to speake the Union of the two Houses, Lancaster 
and York, by his marriage. 

Mr. Diuelcy inlarges further both on the heraldic and mystic import 
of this Horn, conchiding with the additional information that its sub- 
stance " is a fair home of a beefe, a poculum charitatis, famous for 
having seized the head of many a bold Britain." Whatever may have 
been its exploits in that respect, it is certainly a very interesting as well 
as beautiful piece of ancient plate, and very probably attributed cor- 
rectly to the time of Henry VII. ; though we may presume it was 
rather made during his reign, than in readiness for his first draught 
after landing at Milford Haven. We should be glad to learn whether 
it is still preserved at Golden Grove or elsewhere. 

With regard to the greyhound adopted as a supporter by our Tudor 
sovereigns, it has been remarked by Mr. Willement,^ that Sandford is 
probably mistaken in deriving it from the family of Neville ; but that 
it properly belonged to the house of Beanfort. In the chapel of Can- 
terbnry Cathedral, in which the monument of John Earl of Somerset 
stands, there was formerly in the window his arms, supported on the 
dexter side by a white greyhonnd, and on the sinister side by a white 
hind, the latter being the well known " beast " of his Countess the 
heiress of ike Holands Earls of Kent. The same arms and animals 
yet remain on the ceiling of the same chapel, and the feet of the Earl's 
sepulchral efiligy rest on a greyhound. On a chimney-piece erected by 
Bishop Courtenay, in the palace at Exeter, the arms of King Henry 
the Fourth were supported on both sides by greyhounds. 

From Golden Grove the Duke of Beaufort journeyed forward, on the 
8th of August, to Carmarthen, reviewing the militia of that county at 
Aberguilly, and on the next day that of Cardiganshire at Castle Emlyn. 
On Monday the 11th, entering Pembrokeshire, he came to Haver- 
fordwest ; and on the following day was " treated at sea " on board a 
yacht, in which he surveyed the historic bay of Milfoixl Haven. On 
the loth he was nobly entertained at dinner by Sir Erasmus Philips, at 
Picton Castle, and well collationed on the way by Wogan of Bolston. 
On the 1 5th he dined at Mudlescombe ; and in the evening reached 
Swansea in Glamorganshire. On Saturday the 16th he was welcomed 
by Sir Edward Mansell, at Margam. In his progress of the 18th he 

' Ii.<)al Ha-aldiii, p. 59. 



THE BEAUFORT PROGRESS THROUGH WALES, 1684. 237 

made Ji halt in tlie town of Cowbridge, and afterwards went ont of his 
way to Cardiff", to receive a surrender of the charter of that borough, a 
ceremony said to have been made not only voluntarily, but with great 
manifestations of joy. Probably to this medallion there 'was a reverse, 
to be read only in the next reign. On the same evening the Duke 
arrived at the castle of Kuperra, part of the company halting at Keven- 
mably, both houses of Sir Charles Keraeys. 

Whose loyall father had in the Standard belonging to his own troop this device 
and inscription in the British language : Issuing out of a cloud a dexter arm arm'd, 
holding a broad sword drawn proper, subscribed in an escrowle, which was thus 
cxplain'd to me, 

Oes dalla hwn If this holds 

Gvvaerpen crwn. -woe to the Roundheads ! 

On Tuesday the 19th, on the confines of Monmouthshire, the Duke 
was met by the troop of that county, commanded by his son Charles 
Earl of Worcester ;^ and was collationed in the market-town of New- 
port, Avhere the streets were strewed with flowers and sweet herbs, 
giving our author the opportunity of quoting (as he was very fond of 
doing) one of the classic poets — 

Floribus apricis et multieoloribus lierbis. — Martial. 

The Lord President also made another halt at the town of Usk ; 
and in the evening arrived at Monmouth. He lodged in the neigh- 
bouring mansion of Troy, the residence of his son the Earl of Wor- 
cester. This " Progress and visitation of his commands in Wales " 
is now finished; and on the 21st of August he left Troy for his own 
seat at Badminton in Gloucestershire. 

On resuming our notice of this interesting volume wo shall direct 
our attention in the first place to the personal history of its author 
Thomas Dineley, and to some account of his Manuscript Collections; 
and then endeavour to estimate the value of the Church notes and 
other genealogical and antiquarian memoranda which he has handed 
down to us. 

' It appears that he did not assume the designation of Marquess. 




Insignia op the Star of India : from Burke's Peerage and Baronetaoe. 



PARSEE AEMORY IN BRITISH INDIA. 



In his new edition of Heraldry Historical and Poprdar Mr. 
Boutell has given some engraved examples of armorial coats re- 
cently granted (we understand within these three years) by the 
College of Arms to natives of India, subjects of Her Majesty, 
which we are kindly permitted to extract from that work. 
They are interesting as specimens of the present taste in heraldic 
composition in this country, and further, when regarded as proofs 
of the cordiality with which the gentlemen of India are ready 
to adopt the ancient usages of the Imperial sway whicli they 
now acknowledge. 




239 



Mr. MuNGULDASS NuTHOOBHOY, of Girgaum House, Bom- 
bay, Is a banker in that city. He bears, Argent, a garb of rice, 
environed by two sickles interlaced, all proper ; on a chief in- 
dented azure, between two bezants, a mullet or. Crest, — On a. 
mound vert an elephant statant, holding in his trunk a palm- 
branch, all proper, charged on his side with two mullets in fess 
or. The lower portion of this heraldic composition intimates 
that the prosperity of the grantee has arisen from his father and 
himself havino; been laborious agriculturists : the bezants on the 
chief allude to his present profession as a banker; whilst the 
golden mullet or " Star of India " indicates the sphere of his 
exertions. It will be observed that in the insignia of the Order 
of the Star of India, the Star is in the form — not of an heraldic 
Estoile, but of a Mullet, covered with diamonds. 




240 




Mr. COWASJEE JehanGIER bears, Azure, within an orle of 
eight mullets, the sun in splendour or; on a canton argent the 
rose of England and the lotus of India in saltire proper. Crest, — 
On a mound vert, a low pillar, the base and capital masoned, 
flames of fire issiiing therefrom, all proper. The allusions in this 
composition refer especially to the religion of the Parsees ; includ- 
ing the crest, which seems to be the nearest heraldic approach 
to a fire-altar. The rose and lotus united on the canton evi- 
dently typify the intimate union of England and India.' 

' With the same feeling, the lotus and rose have also been adopted in a design which 
Mr. Boutell has lately furnished for the Font of Bombay Cathedral. It resembles the 



241 




f^-GQQD-CONiSCIENCEiSA-SUREDEFENCE 



NIC?] 



Mr. CuRZETJEE FuRDOONJEE Paruk, also of Bombay, 
bears. Argent, a chevron gules between three ancient galleys 
sable; on a chief azure, between two estoiles, the sun in splen- 

Norman style, in correspondence with the architecture of the church ; the bowl is 
is supported by low clustered columns, the capitals of which are formed of the rose 
and lotus ; a band of lotus-leaves encircles the base of the bowl; whilst another, of 
the lily of the valley, above, typifies baptismal innocence and also suggests the figura- 
tive image of the Saviour — "the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the Valley." On 
the bowl are medallion bas-reliefs of the Baptism of our Lord, and that of the Ethio- 
pian, the monogram IHS. and the date 1864. This font is of the finest Caen stone, the 
shafts being of Serpentine and Devon marbles. The plinth and steps have been pre- 
pared at Bombay in black basalt; but the other portions have been executed in 
London by Mr. James Forsyth. This font, which has Deen greatly admired as a fine 
specimen of modern architectural sculpture of the highest order, is of full cathedral 
proportions, and is the gift of an English gentleman long resident at Bombay, where 
he is deservedly held in great esteem. 

VOL. III. K 



242 PARSEE ARMORY IN BRTTISTT INDIA. 

•lour or. Crest, — On a mound vert, a winged lion passant or, 
charged on tlie shoulder with an estoile azure, and behind him a 
palm-tree proper. Here again the devices have Parsee allu- 
sions: the galleys intimating the great Zoroastrian emigration in 
ancient days from Persia to Hindustan ; and the winged lion, a 
well-known Persian emblem, is brought, in the crest, under the 
protecting shade of the Indian palm. 

The gentlemen to whom these grants have been made are, to 
use their own expression, Zoroastrians : and the two latter have 
evidently taken a pride in selecting such armorial symbols as 
might typify their ancient descent, and commemorate the faith of 
their forefathers. 

The two first-named are Fellows of the University of Bombay, 
and all are magistrates, and men of munificent liberality. One of 
the latest of the princely public gifts that these Parsee gentlemen 
delight in making, is a fountain to be placed in the centre of the 
new " Victoria and Albert Gardens" at Bombay. This fountain 
will cost £4,000, and it is the gift of Mr. Cursetjee Furdoonjee 
Paruk. It will bear the name of the " Frere Fountain," after 
Sir Bartle Frere. the present Governor of Bombay. The design, 
with the general superintendence of the execution of this im- 
portant work, has been entrusted, through Dr. G. Birdwood of 
Bombay, to Mr. Boutell, who has called to his aid Mr. R. Norman 
Shaw, Mr. James Forsyth, and Mr. T. Woolner, the last named 
gentleman having undertaken a medallion portrait of Sir Bartle 
Frere. Mr. Forsyth, the sculptor, has made such progress with 
this fountain that it will be completed in the course of the pre- 
sent year. 

The mottoes, which appear in the engravings, were selected 
by the grantees themselves, and by their desire are expressed in 
the English language. We cannot quite approve of a motto 
being placed, in the first engraving, hetioeen the Crest and the 
Shield. To place mottoes above the Crest is a recognised practice, 
particularly in Scotish heraldry, and in that way there are many 
instances of mottoes being attached both to the Arms and the 
Crest ; but, as there is here only one motto, it should be placed, 
as usual, below the shield. 



PAESEE ARMORY IN BRITISH INDIA. 



243 



These Indian coats are certainly more strictly heraldic than that 
of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, whose father, the very munificent 
merchant, also of Bombay, was knighted in 1842, and created a 
Baronet in 1857. His armorial bearings, which are represented 
in the annexed vignette, are a pictorial landscape. They are 
blasoned as, Azure, a sun rising above a representation of 
Ghautz (a mountain near Bombay) in base, and in chief two 
bees volant, all proper. Crest, — A mount vert, thereon a peacock, 
amidst wheat, and in the beak an ear of wheat, all proper. 
Motto, By industry and liberality. 

We believe that these are not all the coats that have been 
granted to natives of India ; but we have not hitherto met with 
the description or representation of any others. 




R 2 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

By Richard F. Cronnelly. 

(^Continued from p. 92.) 



4. O'DuGAN. — The O'Dugans deriTed their descent and surname 
from Dubhagain, of the race of Soghan Salbhuidhe, i. e. of the YeUow 
Heel, son of Fiacha Aruidlae, prince of Uhdia. This Soghan settled, 
in the third century, in the country which now forms the barony of 
Tiaquin, in the county of Galway, and gave name to the families and 
lands subsequently known as the six Soghans, or Sodhans, the head 
chief of which was O'Mannion. The O'Dugans became the here- 
ditary bards and historiographers of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy- 
Many, in the counties of Galway and Roscommon; and one of them 
was John More O'Dugan, author of a valuable poem on the Irish 
chiefs of the fourteenth century, who died in^372, at the Abbey of 
St. John's of Rinndun, or Randown, on the Shannon. His family 
were the compilers of the Book of Hy-Many, "which is supposed to 
be in the collection of some English collector of rare books and manu- 
scripts." 

Of the same stock as the O'Dugans were the O'Morans, O'Lennans, 
and O'Casans of Sodan ; but our author has found neither pedigrees 
nor memorials of them. We have still in London a prosperous family 
of Dowbiggin, which sounds to our English ears even nearer to the 
original Dubhagain than O'Dugan itself. 

5. M'GowAN. — The MacGaibhnions were not only converted into 
thie Anglicised orthography of M'Gowan, but directly translated into 
Smith. Felan M'an-Gowan was one of the authors of the Book of 
Hy-Many. Tadg Mac-an-Gowan was chief historiograjjher to the 
O'Connors towards the close of the fourteenth century ; and at a 
much earlier date Angus the Culdee, Mac-an-Gowan, wrote lives of 
the Irish Saints and other treatises, in the eighth century. Of this 
race more learned men are enumerated ; and they have a worthy 
modern representative in James Huband Smith, esq. of Dublin, M.A. 
and M.R.I.A. 

6. MacWard.— The Mac-an-Bairds, or MacWards, were of the 
like literary class. They were hereditary bards to the O'Donnells, 
princes of Tirconel, and the O'Kellys, lords of Hy-Many, in Galway 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 245 

and Roscommon ; and the names of many of the race arc com- 
memorated for tliat reason by the Four Masters. 

7. M'ScANLAN. — A family of note in Ulidia, or Down. 

8. O'Kenny. — Also of Ulidia and Meath ; a different race from those 
of Galway and Roscommon. 

9. O'Lawlor. — Formerly princes of Ulidia, of whom there are still 
several respectable families in the county of Tipperary, Queen's 
County, and county of Kildare, one of the chief representatives being 
Denis Shine Lawlor, esq. J. P. of Kerry. 

10. O'Lynch. — The chiefs of Del-Araidhe, in Ulidia, and desig- 
nated by O'Dugan as 

" The O'Loingsidhs of the haughty champions." 
There were other 0' Lynches in Mayo and Sligo, and othei-s again in 
Tijjperary. 

11. O'Maixin, or O'Mannion. — Before mentioned under O'Dugau. 
Sometimes Anglicised into Manning. 

12. Maginn. — Chiefly distinguished in the ecclesiastical annals of 
Dromore. 

13. MacColreavy. — The descendants of Giolla Riabhach, twenty- 
seventh in descent from Conal Cearnach ; who was seventh from 
Roderick Mor. Their name has been further abridged into Macgreevy, 
M'Revy, and Gray ; but several respectable families of M'Colreavy 
are still existing in the counties of Roscommon, Leitrim, and 
Longford. 

14. M'Cartan. — Cinel Faghartaigh was the tribe name of the 
M'Cartans, and also the name given to the district they inhabited. 
They are thus eulogized by the bard O'Dugan : < 

" To M'Cartan by charter belongs 

The intelligent Cinel Faghartaigh ; 
They are heroes who have been liberal to clerics. 
The maintainers of hospitality are they." 

They were descended from Artan, who was the son of Fahartaigh, of 
the race of Conal Cearnach. They continued a powerful family in 
Ulidia, down to the time of Elizabeth, when Acholy M' Artan, having 
joined the Earl of Tyrone with 250 horse and some foot, forfeited his 
estates, and they were granted to EngKsh and Scottish settlers. 

15. O'Carelon. — The descendants of Cairbhalain, an Ultonian 
chief in the early part of the eleventh century. In the twelfth century 
they produced an archbishop of Armagh, and in the next several 
bishops of Tyrone and Deny. As late as 1542 Hugh O'Carolan was 
bishop of Cloglicr. Torlagh O'Carolan, the celebrated harper and bard, 



246 IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

who died in 1738, was born in 1670 at Newtown, in the barony of 
Morgallian, co. Meath. The ancient barony of Glen-Dermot was 
de'serted by the head of the Sept towards the close of the seventeenth 
century. He became possessed of a small estate in the co. Antrim. 
About the same period several of the name, conforming to the Esta- 
blished Church, changed their name to Carleton. The senior repre- 
sentative of the family, Charles Carolan, Esq., was some years since 
living in Abbey Street, Dublin. 

16. The Clan Fergus. — Descended from Fergus, son of Eosa Eoe, 
the fourth son of Eoderick the Great. One line, called the Clan Ciar, 
were lords of Kerry from Tralee to the Shannon, and for many gene- 
rations went by the name of the 0' Conor Kerry. They were finally 
overthrown in the Cromwellian struggle, and Charles the Second in 
1666 granted a large portion of their domains to Trinity College. One 
of the chief representatives of the family at the present day is the 
Commandant of Mantua, Daniel 0' Conn ell O'Connor Kerry, now 
Baron O'Connor, an ofiScer high in favour with the Emperor Francis II. 

17. Another branch is the Clan Corc, named from Core, son of 
Fergus. From him descended the O'Conors Corc, whose progenitor 
was Conchobhair, or Conor, son of Melaghlin, lord of Corcumroe, who 
was slain in West Connaught in 1002. Their decadence is thus 
pathetically and poetically told by our author : — 

" The O'Connors of Core fell into decay in the early part of the sixteenth century, 
and their extensive possessions passed to the Fit^geralds, Gores, Stackpooles, and 
other English families, when the descendants of the Prince of Ullad, and of the 
celebrated Meva queen of Connaught, became tillers of the fields of Corcumroe for 
alien lords, and dwellers in miserable huts constructed in the shelter of the cloud- 
supporting hills from whose gorse-clad slopes and cairn -crowned summits ten 
thousand voices pi'oclaimed their ancestors Kings of Cinel Ardga." 

18. The O'LoGHLENS Burren, another branch of the Clan Corc, 
were formerly chiefs of Eastern Corcumroe, an extensive territory in 
the county of Clare, having a harboitr at Burren, in the parish of 
Abbey. The present representatives of this Sept are. Sir Colman 
M. O'Loghlen, Bart., son of Sir Michael, who was an eminent lawyer 
and Master of the EoUs in Ireland, and his cousin, Colman Bryan 
O'Loghlen, Esq., sub-inspector of the Irish Constabulary, son of the 
late Bryan O'Loghlen, Esq., of Port, co. Clare. 

19. The Clan Conmac is another tribe, which divides itself into 
several branches ; and our author notices first of them, O'Kiely of 
West Connaught. That family derives its name and descent from 
Cadhla, an ancestor in the twenty-fourth generation of Malachy 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 247 

O'Kicly, who became x\rchbishop of Tiiam in 1G30, and was killed in 
1645 in defending the town of Sligo from the forces of the Parliament. 

"Coniimacne Mara, imlgo Coiinemara, was the name given to the descendants of 
Conmac, son of Fergus, who settled along the western coast of Galway in very remote 
times. The adjunct viara, which signifies ' the sea,' was affixed to the tribe name 
that this family and their possessions might be distinguished from the inland Con- 
niacne, such as the Conmaene Cuil Talaigh, or the Conmacne of the barony of 
Kilmain, the Conmacne of Dun-mor, the Conmacne of Magh-Rein, the Conmacne of 
Cinel Dubhan, &c." 

20. M'Shanley, a name derived from Seanlaoich, a chieftain of the 
connty of Lcitrim, is frequently mentioned by the Irish annalists of 
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, and maintained an 
independent position until forfeited by their adherence to James II. 

21. The Priors of the same clan deduce their descent from the 
seven sons of Muireasgan Mac Raghnal, Prior of the Abbey of Cloone. 
They possessed an extensive tract of land in the barony of Carrigallen, 
CO. Leitrim, down to the close of the seventeenth centuiy, and some 
respectable families of the name are to be met with in that county at 
the present day. 

2'2. One of the most dominant families of the Conmacne was 
O'Ferrall, which had its residence at a place now called White Hill, 
and more anciently Cluain-Bran, i.e., the retreat of Bran O'Ferrall, 
whence the present name of the parish, Clonborne. The O'Ferralls 
were lords of Analy, in the county of Longford, and in p. 61 we are 
presented with a chronological table of their chieftains from 1030 to 
1445. The constant state of warfare in which they lived is shown by 
their quick succession, for they are forty in number, of whom thirteen 
are stated to have been Idlled or slain. Nor was that the end of the 
bloodshed, by any means ; for when William fitz John fitz Donal died 
in 1445, two rival chieftains were elected to succeed him, which led to 
a long and sanguinary struggle. At length Rossa son of Murtogh, 
lord of the fort of Longford, was settled in Upper Analy, and became 
ancestor of the O'Ferrall Buidhe, or the Yellow ; whilst Donal Boy 
obtained Lower Analy, or the country north of Granard, and was 
progenitor of the O'Ferrall Ban, or the Fair. Thei-e were three other 
branches of some importance, and Mr. Cronnelly presents pedigrees of 
them all. O'Ferrall of Ballyna has been already mentioned as the 
present representative of the house of O'More. 

23. O'RoDDY. — Rodochan, thirty-sixth in descent from Rory the 
Great, left his name to the O'Rodachans, or O'liodachaes, which name 
was Anglicised into Redington and Roddy. Tadg O'Roddy, who was 



248 lEISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

an excellent antiquary, and died at an advanced age in 1704, was 
representative of the hereditary Comorbas of St. Caillin, and possessed 
some very ancient manuscripts and other relics, among which was the 
clog-na-righ, or " bell of the kings," said to have been presented to 
St. Caillin by St. Columbkill. 

The Redingtons of Kilcornan and Dangan, in the county of Galway, 
are claimed as descendants of the Rodachans ; although some have 
stated them to descend from an English settler during the Protectorate ; 
" but local senachies and tradition agree that they deduce their descent 
from a scion of the house of Fenagh, in the county of Leitrim, who 
settled in the parish of Ballinacourty, in the county of Galway, in or 
about A.D. 1 624, and soon afterwards purchased the castle and lands 
of Cregana, whence his grandson, Thomas Redington, removed to 
Kilcornan on his marriage with the daughter and heiress of Chris- 
topher Burke, of Kilcornan House, the great-grandson of the cele- 
brated Nora-an-Ouver-I-burc. The present chief of Kilcornan (a 
minor) is the son of the late Sir Thomas Nicholas Redington, who 
was the son of Christopher, by his wife Frances, daughter of Henry 
Dowell, esq. of Cadiz." 

24. M'FiNVAR, or Gaynor, as the name is now generally Anglicised. 
James MacFinvar, who died in 1792, was twenty-second in descent 
from Fionnbhair, or Finvar, of the race of Fergus M'Roy ; and the 
antient territory of the Sept was the northern half of the barony of 
Granard. Mr. Cronnelly states that several families of this name are 
still extant in the counties of Galway, Roscommon, and Leitrim. 

25. M'CoRMicK, or Cormack, derived from the house of O'Ferrall, 
and formerly chief of Corcard, co. Longford. Four bishops are com- 
memorated of this sept — one of Down, one of Ardagh, and two of 
Raphoe. 

26. The M'DoRCHYS, Anglicised to Dorchy and Darcy, derive their 
name from Dubhchain, of the race of Fergus M'Roy. Their country, 
denominated Cinel Luachain, was co-extensive with the parish of 

, Oughteragh, in the coimty of Leitrim. 

27. MacRaghnall, or Rannall, is a name now generally Anglicised 
to Reynolds. It is derived from Ragnall, son of Muirceardoig Maol, of 
the race of Conmac son of Fergus. They were chiefs of Muinter 
Eolus, otherwise the Conmacne of Magh Rein, a territory comprising 
the whole country of the present baronies of Moliill, Leitrim, and 
Carrigallen, co. Leitrim, and the parish of Killoe, co. Longford. In 
p. 75 Mr. Cronnelly gives a list of twenty chieftains of Muinter Eolus 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 249 

concerned in the rebellion of 1641. One of them, Henry M'Rannal, 
of Annaduflf, was the progenitor of several persons who have attained 
considerable notoriety in modern politics. Dr. Reynolds, the friend 
and fellow-patriot of Theobald Wolf Tone, in consequence of being 
implicated in the affair of Cockayne and Jackson in 1794, fled to 
America, and settled in Philadelphia, where he died about 1818. In 
another line from the same ancestor descended Hemy Reynolds, esq. 
who, by Margaret, daughter of Richard Bulkeley, esq. M.D. of 
Nenagh, left issue — 1. Thomas, born in 1793, Marshal of Dublin ; 
2. John, born in 1797, now an alderman of that city, and late Lord 
Mayor; and 3. Henry Reynolds, esq. born in 1799. Of this Sept also, 
we are told, but not in what line, descended Thomas Reynolds, a 
silk-manufactm-er of Dublin, who is " commonly called the Informer," 
because he contributed to the arrest of Lord Edward Fitzgerald in 
1798. His political career is related by Mr. Cronnelly at considerable 
length. 

At Lough- Scur, otherwise called Lettei-fine, resided in 1641 a 
Humphrey Reynolds, sixth in descent from whom was George Reynolds, 
esq. who was shot on the lands of Diynaun, near Sheemore, co. Leitrim, 
on the 16th Oct. 1786, by Mr. Robert Keon of the same coimty, an 
attorney, who was executed for that crime on the 16th Feb. 1788. 
The murdered man was the father of George Xugent Reynolds, esq. of 
Lettei-fine, (a very memorable person, as we shall see presently), who 
died without issue in 1802, leaving two sisters — 1. Mary Anne, mamed 
first to Colonel Peyton, father of Reynolds Peyton, esq. and grand- 
father of the present Richard Reynolds Peyton, esq. of Letterfine, and 
secondly to Capt. Richard Macnamara, brother to the celebrated 
Major of that name; and 2. Bridget, married to Richard Young 
Reynolds, esq. of Fort Lodge, co. Cavan. 

We must now notice the Appendix which is mentioned in the title- 
page of Mr. Cronnelly's book, and is entitled " A Paper on the 
Authorship of The Exile of Erin, by a Septuagenarian." It occupies 
thirty-seven pages, and is a very remarkable piece of literary histoiy, 
in which one of the most distinguished poets of the last generation is 
seriously concerned. 

The Septuagenarian relates that his memory of the ballad called The 
Exile of Erin canies him back to the Christmas of 1799, and he was 
then informed that its author was Mr. George Nugent Reynolds of 
Letterfine, to whom he was personally introduced in the autumn of the 
following year. Mr, Reynolds left his native country for England in 



250 IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

the spring of 1801, and never returned to it; dying in the following 
year, at Stowe, the mansion of his relative the Marquess of Buckingham.* 
Towards the close of 1810, the writer was astonished, on opening a 
new edition of the Poems of Thomas Campbell, to find The Exile of 
Erin there appropriated; and in the following January the circum- 
stance attracted the attention of Thomas Stafford, esq. of Portobello) 
near Elphin, himself a relative of the deceased Irish bard. He im- 
mediately showed the writer a MS. copy which he had received from 
Reynolds's own hands in Nov. 1799, and it had only two various 
readings from the copy printed in Campbell's works. 

" Mr. Reynolds was a gentleman of such high honour and feeling as to he totally 
incapable of so weak and disreputable an act as to pass off any other man's com- 
position as his own, or to strut in borrowed plumes. He was besides regardless of 
literary fame or publicity." 

On the other hand, the writer does not hesitate to say of Thomas 
Campbell, that, not content with the wreaths that already adorned his 
broAV, he was in this case a shameless pilferer. Further proofs are 
added. Among others, Mrs. Macnamara, a sister of George Nugent 
Reynolds, makes deposition on oath that, to the best of her recollection, 
she copied and sang for her brother the song he called The Exiled 
Irishman's Lament, in the year 1792 : he also said that he intended it 
as a sequel to Green were the Fields, which he composed in the same 
year. This song described the affliction of a peasant turned out of his 
small farm for political reasons ; that he called Erin Go Bragh — the ' 
same as Campbell's Exile of Erin — was intended to depict the sorrow 
and sufferings of the same peasant dying on a foreign shore. 

' How related the writer does not state ; but we presume that he was actually 
second cousin to the Marchioness, as follows : — 

Edmond Nugent, of Carlanston, esq. 



of Lough scur, CO. 
Leitrim, 
—1 



I • 1 

Michael Nugent, esq. AnnG=7=James Reynolds, esq. 

died 1739. 

Robert Nugent George Reynolds, 

created Earl Nugent 1776, I 

r— ^ H 

Lady Mary Elizabeth=George Grenville, George Nugent Reynolds. 

Nugent. Marquess of 

Buckingham. 
The Marquess of Buckingham, who was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1782 and 
1787, assumed the names of Nugent-Temple in 1779, and in 1788 succeeded his 
father-in-law as Earl Nugent by a special remainder, having been created Marquess of 
Buckingham in 1784. 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 251 

Campbell was at last brought to account, but not until 1810. He was 
then able to deny some of the statements of the story, as it had been 
incorrectly related in the Sligo Observer; and he declared that "I 
wrote the song of The Exile of Erin at Altona, and sent it off 
immediately to London, where it was published by my friend Mr. Perry 
in the Morning Chronicle.'''' But this assertion helps rather to convict 
than to excidpate him. It- is true that, at that period, Campbell was a 
constant contributor to the Morning Chronicle, and more than fifty of 
his songs and poems appeared in its columns, but with the never-' 
failing advertisement that they were " By the Author of The Pleasures 
of Hope." Mr. Reynolds's song was also printed in the Morning 
ChronicUj in the paper of the 28th Jan. 1801, but anonymously, and 
communicated, it is suggested, rather by some accidental possessor of 
a MS. copy, in the hope that it might excite a merciful feeling on 
behalf of the exiled rebels, rather than by the author himself. 

There was never a clearer case of literary plagiarism. And what 
could have induced Campbell to commit it ? It was that he had 
become intimate at Altona with a gentleman named Anthony M'Cann, 
a native of Dundalk, who had been banished for ' the part he took in 
the eventful '98 ; and, seeing the song in the Chronicle (with which his 
friend Perry supplied him), he took a copy of it, and in a moment of 
weakness and vanity passed it off as his ovv^n composition. The printed 
copy he probably cut out, and placed with his own compositions. 

The discussion is closed by copies of Mr. Reynolds's two songs which 
we have named, together ■with some others of a similar character — 
all fully bearing out by their internal evidence his claim to the author- 
ship of the disputed composition, the style of which, indeed, is different 
from that usual with Thomas Campbell. 

Magennis. — Addendum to p. 90. 

A correspondent having expressed a wish to ascertain whether Dr. Ma- 
gennis, whose unfortunate commission of homicide and harsh condemnation 
was related in the note at p. 90 of the present volume, was actually exe- 
cuted in pursuance of his sentence, we I'.ave the satisfaction to st;ite that he 
was not, having discovered in the Annual liegister, vol. xxvii. p. 236, the 
following paragraph : "1785, July 16th. On Tuesday last Dr. Macginnis, 
who was convicted of stabbing Mr. Hardy the hatter in Newgate-street, 
two years ago, was discharged from his confinement in the King's Bench, 
and set off for the continent." 

(To be continued.) 



THE COULTHART ARMORIALS. 

We are not at all surprised that in forming (in p. 151) our list of the 
books that during the last twenty years have been infected with the 
Coulthart plague-spots, we failed at once to discover the whole of them. 
The parties concerned have been so watchful to inoculate every heraldic 
or genealogical infant that was about to make its way in the world, that 
it is well-nigh impossible to detect all the ramifications of this disgrace- 
ful epidemic. 

We now learn that there was a book published at Edinburgh in the 
year 1863, entitled The Scottish Natioji : or the Surnames, Families, 
Literature, Honours, and Biograj>hical History of the People of Scot- 
land, by William Anderson, in Three Volumes octavo, in which the 
Coulthart romance was heralded forth at considerable length in the 
Appendix, pp. 699-701 ; and recently there has been published (also 
at Edinburgh, in one volume, 8vo.) another work by the same author, 
entitled Genealogy and Surnames : with some Heraldic and Biographi- 
cal Notices. In this book, in pp. 37-40, another edition of this 
monstrous fabrication is presented to the world, accompanied by an 
engraving of the window at Bolton-le-Gate, with its mendacious 
armory, and introduced by an amusing comment upon the name, which, 
so far as we know, is produced for the first time. 

" It would be useless (writes Mr. Anderson) to speculate on its original signification, 
beyond what is supplied in giving the name of its first recorded (!) possessor in Scot- 
land, though we may add that all the earliest traditions and etymologies regarding it, 
and also all the armorial bearings belonging to it, refer the derivation to the prowess 
and valour of a Roman horse-soldier." 

So that, after all, " Coulthartus, the Roman lieutenant of Julius 
Agricola," was so named because his charger was a hardy colt ! 

The compiler of this book, however, on the eve of his publication, 
appears to have smelt a rat : for the last paragraph of his Preface 
(dated April 1865) is as follows : — " The author thinks it proper to 
state that the account of the Coulthart family and Arms, inserted on 
page 37, rests entirely on the authority of the book quoted on page 38." 

It has further been communicated to us that still another work of 
Sir Bernard Burke's, his Authorised Arms, published in I860,' cou- 

' The full title of this work is " A Selection of Arms authorised by the Laws of 
Heraldry. With Annotations by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, Author 

of The Pecrcujc and Baronckujc, Vicisdludcs of Fainilks, tDc." 8vo. 



THE COULTHAET ARMORIALS. 253 

tains a brief sketch of the Coulthart genealogy, prefixed to an account 
of the armorial bearings, which opens forth a new chapter in their 
history. It is there stated that — 

" The Scottish Armorial bearings, viz., A fess between two colts in chief, and one 
in the base courant (otc), are registered in the Lord Lyon Office, Edinburgh; but 
those annexed are recorded in the Heralds' College, London : — Arg. a fess between a 
horse courant in chief, and a water-bouget in base sable. Crest, a demi-horse argent, 
armed and accoutred proper, supporting a flagstaff also proper, therefrom flowing to- 
wards the sinister a pennon gules charged with a water-bouget arg. Motto, Vir- 
TUTE NON Verbis." 

To which there is this, surely un-" authorised," addition — 

" The chiefs of the family of Coulthart of Coulthart and Collyn have always had 
Supporters by prescriptive right, in accordance with the usage in Scotland, authorised 
by Mackenzie and other heraldic authorities (! ! !) Those Supporters are Dexter, a 
war-horse argent, completely armed for the field proper, garnished or ; Sinister, a 
stag proper, attired and ducally gorged or. 

We have now ascertained that the coat commonly disjilayed by Mr. 
Coulthart was granted to his father, and registered at the Lyon Office 
in November 1846 — but without Quarterings or Supporters. We 
understand that, two years earlier, Mr. J. R. Coulthart had made ap- 
plication for leave to bear the coat of four quarters, which appears 
in Burke's Heraldic Illustrations, 1843, with Supporters, i but this had 
been refused ; and in 1849 Mr. Coulthart had a warning or remon- 
strance addressed to him by the Lyon Office that he was acting ille- 
gally in displaying Supporters and Quartered Arms, further than the 
coat granted to his father in 1846. 

About 1857 or 1858 he made application to the English College of 
Arms for registration of the coat he had obtained at Edinburgh in 1846 ; 
which, being objected to aS being the coat of a family of Colt,~ was 
withdrawn, 

Mr. Coulthart afterwards obtained of the English College a new 
coat, by a grant dated on the 17th January, 1859, wherein he was 
described of Coulthart, co. Wigtown, of Collyn, co. Dumfries, and of 

' Burke's Heraldic Illustrations, Plate ii. published in 1843, contains the arms 
of William Coulthart, esq. of Collyn, co. Dumfries, engraved as of four quarters, viz, 
the assumed arms of Coulthart, Ross, Macknyghte, and Glendonyn (though no names 
are there assigned to the quarterings,) accompanied by the supporters. 

Again in the Visitation of 'Seats and Arms, vol. i. 1851, in plate iv. the same is 
repeated for John Ross Coulthart, esq. of Croft House, co. Lancaster, the only differ- 
ence being a slight variation of the form of the cross in the fourth quartering. 

* The Baronet's family, as we have stated in p. 156. 



254 THE COULTITART ARMORIALS. 

Ashton under Lyne, co. Lancaster, esquire, and in the commission of 
the peace for that county ; without any reference to ancient right or 
pretence to arms. The blason of that coat is, as we have ah-eady 
detailed it from the Yolume of Authorised Arms; but, excepting in- 
that work, it seems, from that time to this, to have been altogether 
suppressed, and the usurpation of the arms of Colt perseveringly 
repeated. Such is the history of " the Armorial Insignia of the Coult- 
hart family." 

The siGiLLVM covLTHARTi (of whicli we gave an impression in p. 
19,) is placed, certainly not without reason, in the title-page of 
Popular Genealogists, as a symbol of the clumsy forgeries developed in 
the pages of that work. It will be remembered that we made a 
passing remark on the unexampled position and wording of the legend : 
but the rest of the design is equally misconceived. The caparisons of 
the colts are in the style of the last century, and the classical dentil 
moulding which surrounds the whole is unlike any pattern of me- 
diaeval days. 

Another piece of Coulthartiana has found admission into Mr. An- 
derson's new book, which is very characteristic, and deserves to be held 
up for admiration. We see that the genealogical portions of it are 
derived from the Coulthart Genealogies of Mr. Knowles's composition, 
at p. 15 ; but Mr. Anderson's introductory observations of an etymolo- 
gical complexion appear to be peculiarly appropriate : — 

The surname of MacGuffie, sometimes written MacGuffy, is mostly confined to the 
soutli-west of Scotland and the north-east of Ireland. Tlie epithet Giiff in the Scot- 
tish language {Goff'm the English), is still used as a synonym for fool, so that Mac- 
Guffie may be supposed to mean, as a correspondent suggests, the son of a fool ; or, 
taking the terminal syllable of of) or ol<j into account, as in the following name, the 
son of youthful folly. The name, however, has neither a Scotch nor an English 
derivation, being purely Celtic and Gallovidian, whatever may be its meaning. 

It is a name of frequent occurrence in Galloway, and there was a Colonel John 
MacGuffie, of Cubbicks, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, who was killed at Flodden 
9th September, 1513. He left, by Felicia his wife, daughter of John Home, Esq., of 
Ardmillan, three sons and two daughters. The eleventh in direct heritable descent 
from this Colonel MacGuffie, of Cubbicks, is James MacGuffie, Esq., of Crossmichael, 
who married Margaret, only daughter of the late William Coulthart, Esq., of Coulthart 
and Collyn. The ensigns armorial used by MacGuffie of Crossmichael are, Argent, 
a fess sable between three boar's heads couped of the last. Crest, a boar's head, as 
in the Arms. Motto, Arnia 2Xiratafero. 

This MacGuffie pedigree, with the Colonel killed at Flodden at the 
head of it, is a piece of exactly the same texture as that of the allied 
house. We observe that the " eleven lieritable descents " have been 



THE COULTIIART ARMORIALS. 255 

drawn out in like fashion, and have been printed in the Dictionary 
of the Landed Gentry^ edit. 1863, p. 747. What is more, we find on 
inquiry that " the Son of a Fool " is as apociyphal in his arms as in 
his lineage. There are in fact no arms whatever for this distinguished 
name. The nearest approach to it of a family actually entitled to arms 
is M'Guffock, whose totally different bearings are xVrgent, two crosiers 
saltire-ways azure between a man's heart in chief proper and thi'ee 
stars of the second. Crest, a dove proper. Motto, Industna et lahore. 
This coat was registered in the Lyon office to William McGuffock of 
Rusco, in the year 1673. Mr. Anderson says (p. 71), " Although so 
similar, McGuffbg and MacGufifie are distinct names :" we are inclined 
to believe that they are of one origin, in spite of the diversity of 
spelling. Indeed, Mr. Anderson himself has previously admitted as 
much (in the passage we have quoted), — " taking the terminal syllable 
of og or oig into accoimt." 

It ought further to be made generally known that, besides the window 
at Bolton-le-Gate, mommients to the imaginary line of the Coultharts 
have been erected in the churchyard of the parish of Kells, co. Kirkcud- 
bright, and in that of Kirkpatrick Flemuig, co. Dumfries. They are 
both altar-tombs ; and in the Notes and Memoranda to the Coidthart 
and Ross Pedigrees, printed in 1864, copies are given of theii' inscrip- 
tions. Upon the former are recorded personages supposed to have died 
in the years 1542, 1620, 1653, 1690, 1717, and 1775, being six 
lairds of Coulthart in succession, together with Griselda Macturk, the 
spouse of the last, supposed to have died 1767.i At Kirkpatrick 
Fleming, together with " the armorial insignia of the Coulthart family, 
beautifully sculptured within shields," are commemorated Gulielmus 
Coulthart de Coidthart et CoUyn arm. nominis gentisque suce facile 
primarius, who died in 1807 ; Janetta (McNaught) his wife, who died 
in 1832 ; and Alexander their son, who died in 1789. These last we 
believe to have been people who actually lived and died, but certainly 
without " aiTQorial insignia." 

With regard to the family of Henry William Colthurst, D.D. Vicar 
of Halifax, absurdly claimed by the Coulthart genealogist as an offset 
of the Coultharts, he is described in his epitaph in Halifax Church 
(a copy of which is printed in Whitaker's Loidis et Elmete at p. 39 of 
the Appendix), as " ab ingenua inter Cravenses stirpe oriundo ;" and in 

' A rumour has just reached us, since the above was written, that the ancestral 
monument at Kells has recently disappeared ! Its brief existence will still be on 
record on the substantial vellum of The Coulthart Genealogies. 



256 THE COULTHART ARMORIALS. 

Dr. Whitaker's History of Craven, Ho. 1812, at p. 184, a pedigree 
of his family will be found. It had been resident at Gargrave from the 
reign of Elizabeth. The author of Popular Genealogists suggests that 
this was an offshoot of that family which, enjoying a Baronetcy, is seated 
in the county of Cork ; but, so far as appears, these two families of 
Colthurst are distinct. The arms of Colthurst of Gargrave are 
Argent, a fess between two colts sable ; those of Colthurst of Ardrum, 
CO. Cork, Argent, on a fess between three colts courant sable as many 
trefoils slijtped or. 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 

The Heraldic Journal; recording the Armorial Bearings and Genealogies of Ame- 
rican Families. Nos. I. — IV. Boston (Massachusetts.) 8vo. Published monthly. 

This is a new periodical work, edited by Mr. W. H. Whitmore, and 
its object will be fully understood on perusal of the letter which that 
gentleman addressed to us a few months ago, and which was printed 
in our last volume, at p. 530. 

The simimary, from the pen of the same writer, of what has been 
done in America on the subject of Genealogy, quoted in our last Part, 
at p. 128, from his Essay entitled The Cavalier Dismounted, furnishes 
the English reader with a fair account of the extensive laboiu's and 
accumulations of our American Cousins in that department of family 
history. And now we come to consider how far they have cultivated 
the science of Armorial Heraldiy. 

It is admitted that it has hitherto been neglected by them, and in 
fact allowed to fall almost into utter oblivion. Some families, entitled 
to hereditary coat-armom-, have preserved and handed it down, but 
generally with no further appreciation of its pecuUar meaning or 
value than they would attach to any other device on a ring or seal 
that was not armorial. 

Others have taken up the notion that every person of the same 
name was entitled to the same armorial insignia. 

Others again (as in the anecdote related in our vol. ii. p. 263) 
have regarded arms, when painted on a carriage or engraved on silver 
plate, much as they would any arbitrary patterns repeated upon 
paper hangings, on china, or other materials, which might be selected 
and copied by the public in general just as they pleased the eye. 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-AKMOUR. 2o7 

111 the iutvodnctory remarks which the Editor has prefixed to The 
Heraldic Journal, he has deemed it necessary to give his countrymen 
some elementary instruction on these matters. He apprises them 
that, " Notwithstanding the common error, coats of arms do not 
belong to all. the bearers of a name, but are a species of personal 
property inherited by the lineal descendants of the first owner, and 
belonging solely to them :" and that, " having been originally granted 
to individuals, their use is a distinct claim to a descent from the grant- 
ees." It is obviously requisite that these primary laws of Armory 
should be duly recognised, before it can take its proper place as an 
efficient accessory to the researches of Genealogy. 

When, however, any early settler in New England can be shown to 
have used certain arms, Mr. Whitmore reasonably regards such evi- 
dence as of considerable importance. The arms then become a very 
serviceable clue towards the discovery of the particular family in the 
old country from Avhich the settler was derived, and may save a world 
of trouble in prosecuting fruitless searches among families who, though 
bearing the same name, were of totally different race. 

Mr. Whitmore further makes the following candid admissions : — 

" Could we be assured of the authenticity of all the coats of arms in use here, our 
task would be light. We should simply have to record all the documents presented, 
and leave it to the persons interested to follow the clue abroad. Unfortunately we 
have no reason to presume that any such authority attaches to all remaining examples; 
we have on the contrary great reason for condemning whole classes as worthless. \Xq 
see almost daily in this country seals engraved, arms emblazoned, and engravings pub- 
lished, which we know are assumed without proof or inquiry." 

Rejecting entirely all recent assumptions of coat-armour, the Editor 
and his coadjutors propose to scrutinise critically all found to have 
been used in America prior to the year 1800. As the first colonists 
brought their seals of arms with them, that class of evidence is deemed 
of important value. But after the arrival of the time when seal-en- 
graving and arms-painting were practised in New England by resident 
artists, — a date supposed to have commenced about 1730 — 1735, the 
confidence in contemporary usage is greatly impaired. In order to 
test the character of such artists, endeavours are made to ascertain 
their personal history : and notices of two of them are now jji'esentcd 
to us, — Thomas Johnson, born in Boston 1708, died 17G7 ; and Na- 
thaniel Hurd, born in Boston 1729, died 1777. 

The other contents of the Joiirnal may be classed under the following 
descriptions : — 

A series of arms derived from the official seals of the Governors of 
Massachusetts. 

VOL. III. S 



258 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 



Documentary evidence, — such as a list of Esquires, residents in New 
England, 1736; extracts from Cotton Mather's Magnalia, descriptive 
of the ancestry of the colonists, &c. 

Some brief genealogical memoirs, accompanied by evidence of various 
kinds in regard to their coat-armour. 

Sepulchral inscriptions, to which armorial insignia are attached. 

Heraldic Notes and Queries. 

One of the most interesting memorials of the last century that is 
brought before our notice is a silver tankard, which was a mari'iage 
present received in the year 1728 by Dr. Ebenezer Miller, who built 
the Episcopal Church at Braintree, Massachusetts, and officiated 
therein for five and thirty years. He was a son of Mr. Samuel Miller, 
one of the earliest settlers at Milton, in the province of Massachusetts 
Bay, by Eebecca, daughter of Joseph Belcher of Boston. Having 
graduated at Harvard College, he came to England to pursue his theo- 
logical studies, was ordained deacon in 1726, and priest in 1727, by 
the Lord Bishop of London ; was thereupon appointed Chaplain to the 
Duke of Bolton, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ; and received the 
honorary degree of M. A. from the university of Oxford ; the several 
documents attesting which preferments are carefully preserved by his 
descendants. Li 1728 he was appointed by the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel a missionary for New England, with the 
annual stipend of 100/.; and before leaving the old country he was 
married, at the church of St. Martin's-in-the- Fields, Westminster, to 
Martha Mottram, of a family resident at Addlethorp in Lincolnshire. 
The silver tankard bears the arms of Miller, Ermine, a fess gules 
between three wolf's heads erased azure ; impaling Sable, on a chevron 
argent between three cross-crosslet's [or?] as many quatrefoils 
[gules ?], Crest, a wolf's head erased, collared ermine. 




ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 



259 



We find these arms attributed to Miller of Oxenhoatli in Kent, 
descended from Nicholas IVIiller of Horsenells Crouch in Wrotham, 
Sheriff of Kent 8 Charles I. 

For the arms of Mottram, our American friends have not given the 
tinctures of either the cross-crosslets or the quatrefoils. Those we 
have supplied complete the blason as given in Burke's Armory for 
Mottram of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, except that we there read cinque- 
foils instead of quatrefoils. 

Of the Mottram family, from which J\[r. Miller took a wife, we find 
some particulars in OlcLfield's Account of Wainfleet and the Wapental:e 
of Candleshoe, 1829, Addlethoi-p being one of the parishes described 
in that work. It is there stated, at p. 115 — 

" The family of Mottram appear to have resided in this parish for a considerable 
period. The name of Thomas Mottram occurs in 1584. John Mottram from 1627 to 
1663. John Mottram, jun. 1674. Samuel Mottram 1682 to 1710. The seal of John 
Mottram was a death's head, with the motto memento mori." 

But nothing is said of their having borne coat-armour ; nor yet in 
p. 107, where are the epitaphs of John Mottram, gent. ob. 5 Jan. 
1689, ^t. 71; Samuel Mottram, gent. d. Feb. 9, 1710-11, aged 59; 
and Mary, eldest daughter of the last, and wife of John Andrews, 
gent.; she died Oct. 21, 1728, aged 31. 

The arms here engraved are those of Mather : 
a family of great repute in New England as 
having produced several eminent clergymen, the 
authors of " many works, theological, historical, 
and pohtical ; the whole number being probably 
over seven hundred."^ One of the best known of 
them was the Rev. Cotton Mather, the author of 
that important and very interesting historical 
work, the Magnalia Christi Americana, whose 
Life was written by his son Samuel, (Boston, 
1729,) in which occurs the following passage :" — 

1 Handl)ook of American Genealogy, p. 61. 

^ " This passage,"' says our author, " has long been a puzzle to the reader." And no 
wonder, when it was printed after the following fashion : — " In our Coat of arms, we 
bear Ermine Or, A Fess, Wavy, Azure, three lions rampant ; or, for a Crest, on a 
wreath of our Colours, a Lion Sedant, or on a Trunk of a Tree vert.'''' This indeed is 
blason bewitched. It is corrected by our author, except that he has omitted the 
tincture of the lions. And sedant (though perhaps written by Mr. Mather) is not the 
correct heraldic term, but sejant. In the engraving, the " wreath of our colours " 

s 2 




L M ^ ^ k 




260 ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 

" I have not great disposition to enquire into the remote antiquities of his Family, 
nor indeed is it matter of much consequence that in our coat of arms we bear Ermine, 
on a fess wa^7 azure three lions rampant or. For a Crest, on a wreath of our colours, 
a lion sejant or, on a trunk of a tree vert." 

From other records ' it is ascertained that Richard Mather, the first 
emigrant, was born at Lowton in the parish of Winwick, co. Lancaster, 
in the year 1596 ; that he was the son of Thomas, and grandson of 
John Mather of the same place. It is remarkable that this armorial 
coat, though not in Glover's Ordinary, has been found in a MS. of 
WilHam Smith, Rouge -Dragon, now in America, entitled Promiituarium 
Armonim, 1602-15. It is there given for William Mather of co. 
Salop. In Burke's General Armory it occurs under the name of 
Madder, of Staffordshire. A simpler coat, viz. Ermine, a fess em- 
battled gules, was granted to Mather of Secroft, co. York, Feb. 11, 
1575. 

The old burying-ground at Charlestown in Massachusetts furnishes 
ten coats of arms, others having perished. Those remaining are of 
the earlier part of the last century, and with two exceptions are of the 
same style of work. All are on stone, and nine of them are on the 
front of tombs built on the side of a slope. Five of these are shown 
in the accompanying engravings, representing the arms of Cheever, 
Greaves, Foster, Jenner, and Chambers. 

EzEKiEL Cheever was born in 1692, tlie son of Thomas, and grand- 
son of Ezekiel, "the famous school-master." He was styled "of 
Boston" in 1715, when he married Elizabeth Jenner of Charlestown. 
According to Savage's Genealogical Dictionary the family was from 
Canterbury in the mother country. 

The coat and crest here assumed are, however, really those of a 
family wholly different, and not very closely resembling Cheever 
even in ajipearance. They belong to Chaytor, a house eminent among 
the gentry of the comity of Durham : viz. Per bend dancette argent 
and azure, three cinquefoils counterchanged. Crest, a stag's head 
erased lozengy argent and azui-e, the dexter horn argent, the sinister 
azure. 

should not have been omitted : and the trunk of a tree should be described as " lying 
fessways:" for usually armorial trunks of trees are upright. 

' Cotton Mather himself says (i. 443) : " It was at a small town called Lowton in 
the county of Lancaster, anno 1596, that so great a man as Mr. Richard Mather was 
born, of parents that were of credible and antient families." And in the Life of 
Richard Mather (1670) it is stated, " His parents, Thomas and Margaret Mather, 
were of ancient families in Lowton aforesaid, but by reason of some unhappy mortgage 
they were reduced unto a low condition as to the world," 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 



261 









CHAMBERS. 



262 ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 

On the next tomb, that of David Wood 1762, are carved, not the 
arms of Wood (which are said to be a lion rampant), but those of 
the Governor of the province. Sir William Phij)ps. 

The Honble. Thomas Greaves, Esq. " departed this life in his sleep 
on the 19th of June, 1747, jetatis 63. He was a Beloved Physician, 
an Upright Judge, and a Wise and Good Man." There is an account 
of this family, of which the name is frequently spelt Graves, in Fro- 
thingham's History of Charlestown. 

We find an eagle displayed borne, with various distinctions of the 
field, &c., by several families of Graves and Greaves. The little bird 
in the corner is doubtless intended as a martlet for difference, and 
should therefore be shorn of his feet. 

The arms of Foster on the gravestone accompany several records of 
that family, one of which names the Honble. Richard Foster, Esq. who 
died August 29, 1774, aged 82 years, having " sustained the office of 
High Sheriff for the County of Middlesex for many years, and, upon 
his resignation, was appointed a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas 
for the same coiinty, in which office he continued until his decease." 
He was the grandson of William Foster, who was of Charlestown 
about 1650, and is recorded as having been about 80 at his death in 
1698. It is thought that he may have been the passenger in the Her- 
cules from Southampton in 1634, and the son of Richard Foster of 
Romsey, baptised there 22 Jan. 1615. Various articles with the 
Foster arms are still preserved : among others, Mr. Edward I. Browne 
of Boston has a large tankard, on which they are beautifully engraved, 
with 'the colours, viz. Argent, a chevron vert between three hunting- 
horns sable. 

The second coat of Foster is from another cemetery. It is upon an 
upright stone at Dorchester, recording Mr. James Foster, who died 
Oct. 4, 1732, in the 82nd year of his age, having been " member in 
full communion with the Church of Christ in Dorchester about 60 
years." This gentleman was the son of Hopestill Foster, who died 
1676, and brother to John Foster, of whom Blake writes that he was 
schoolmaster of Dorchester, and made the seal of arms of the colony, 
namely, an Indian with a bow and arrow, &c. 

It is added that " he was the grandson of Hopestill Foster, who may 
not have come hither, though his family did in 1635 with their relative 
Rachel Bigg, of Kent." Among the many varieties of the coats of 
Foster and Forster that will be found in the ordinaries, composed of a 
chevron, bugle-horns, and leopard's heads, one is Argent, a chevron 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 263 

gules between tliree bugle-horns vert, on a chief of the second as many 
leopard's heads or (^Ordinary in Edmondson); and one of the crests of 
Foster is An arm embowed, holding a broken tilting-spear proper. 
(Burke's General Armory.) 

Another stone at Charlesto-wn commemorates Thomas Jenner, Esq., 
who died June 23, 17G5, aged 72. He was the great-great-grandson 
of the Eev. Thomas Jenner of Weymouth. The armorial bearings are 
varied from some we find in Burke's General Armory^ for Jenner of 
Essex, viz. Azure, a cross flory between four fleurs de lis or : with the 
like crest of a greyhound, sejant, argent. We do not quite understand 
the editor's remark that " the ornamentation of the border of the shield 
may be intended to represent it as engrailed, which it should be, ac- 
cording to English works on Heraldry." He alludes, we presume, to 
some coat of Jenner that we do not find ; but the frame of the shield on 
the stone is certainly merely ornamental, not an heraldic bordure. 

The last of the engravings is on a monument erected to the memory 
of Charles Chambers, Esq., who died April 27, 1743, in the SSrd 
year of his age; having been for many years one of his Majesty's 
Council, a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and a Justice of the 
Peace for the county of Middlesex, On the same stone is added an 
epitaph in memoiy of Daniel Russell, Esq., who died Dec. 6, 1763, 
aged 78, having been for upwards of twenty years a member of His 
Majesty's Coimcil for the Province of Massachusetts, a Commissioner 
of Impost, and for more than fifty years Treasurer of the county of 
IVIiddlesex. He married a daughter of Thomas Chambers, and had a 
son named Chambers Russell. The arms are no doubt intended for 
Chambers ; for, though we find no such coat in our ordinaries, there are 
some coats of Chambre and Chambers with a fess checquy. The hand 
in the crest, we presume, holds a palm-branch, which is alluded to in 
the motto justus ut palma. 

These examples, it must be confessed, are not very encouraging in 
regard to the value of the sepulchral heraldry of America. . Still, it 
is generally possible to test each instance that occurs, by other evi- 
dence, and such armorials are suggestive, if not authoritative. Being 
desirous to render our American friends any assistance in our power 
in their interesting investigations, we shall describe some of the other 
monuments when we resume this subject. We may now add that 
we find an account of a solitary funeral hatchment in p. 38 : — 

" Addington Davenport, junior, was the first Rector of Trinity Church, Boston, 
and married Ann Faneuil. He died 8 Sept. 1746; and a hatchment bearing his 



264 ANGLO- AMERICAN COAT-AllMOUR. 

arms impaling Faneuil was erected in the church. This has been preserved, perhaps 
the only remaining instance of such a memorial, and we understand that Bishop 
Eastburn has ordered its erection in a proper place in the church." 

The arms in this case are not desciibed. 

We conclude for the present by extracting the following account of 
the family of Thorndike, compiled by Mr. A. T. Perkins from com- 
munications made by the late Lord Monson, Mr. H. G. Sowerby, and 
Mr. George Quincy Thorndike. The generations are shown by the 
small figures, a simple and ingenious method which the American 
genealogists find very iiseful. 

William Thorndike, born in the reign of Henry VII., lived at Little 
Carlton in Lincolnshire, married there, and died in L539. In his will he 
mentions six children, — Herbert,2 William,^ John,2 and three daughters. 

(2). Herbert Thorndike was lord of the manor of Little Cai'lton, 
and by his wife Janet had five sons, Nicholas,-^ Richard,"' Herbert,^ 
James, 5 George, ^ and five daughters. 

(3). Nicholas married Frances Southrey, and had two sons, Francis •* 
and Herbert,''' and two daughters. The two sons signed their pedigree 
h\ the Visitation (? of Lincolnshire) in 1634. 

(4). Francis married Alice Coleman, and left four sons, — Francis,^ 
John 5 the first of the family in New England, Herbert ^ the Pre- 
bendary of Westminster distinguished by his theological writings, and 
Paul, 5 

(.5). John, the second son, went to New England in 1633, married 
there, and had one son, Paul,'' and six daughters. In the year 1668 
John Thorndike returned to England on a visit to his brother Herbert, 
the Prebendary of Westminster, and took with him his son Paul,^ 
and two of his daughters, Martha '^ and Alice.6 He died in London 
not long after his arrival, and was buried in the cloisters at West- 
minster, Nov. 3, 1668. 

(6). Paul Thorndike returned to New England, but his sisters Martha 
and Alice continued to live with their uncle Herbert until he died, 
when he provided for them in his will, on condition, however, " that 
they should neither return to New England their birthplace, nor yet, 
remaining in England, marry with any who went to the Mass or to 
the new Licenced Conventicles." Herbert Thorndike was a profound 
scholar and laborious author, and his works have been republished in 
the Lihrnry of Anglo -Catholic Theology ^ occupying six volumes, 8vo. 
1844— 1856, 

Paul Thorndike,*' son of John, on his return to New England, settled 



ANGLO-AMERICAN COAT-ARMOUR. 



265 



at Beverly, and married Mary Patch, by whom he left three sons, 
John,7 Paul,7 and Herbert,^ and fom* daughters. 

(7.) John Thorndikc, the eldest son, married Joanna Larkin, and had 
Robert,^ Paul,^ John,^ Janies,'^ Herbert,^ Edward,^ and two daughters. 

(8). James Thorndike, the fourth son, married Anna Ober, and had 
Hezekiah,9 James,9 Jeremiah,9 Paul,9 Herbert,9 and three daughters. 

(9). Hezekiah Thorndike, eldest son of James and Anna, married 
Sarah Prince, and had Hezekiah, lo Jeremiah, ^o and one daughter. 

(10). Hezekiah married Abigail Chamberlain, and had one son, 
John Prince 11 Thorndike. 

(11). John Prince Thorndike married Sarah Hill, and has John Hill 
Thorndike,^2 James F. Thorndike, ^^ and George Quincy Thorndike. 

S. Lothorp Thorndike, esq.i^ of Beverly, descends from John 7 
through Herhert,^ Nicholas,9 Nicholas, junior,^*' and Albert.^ 

Augustus 12 Thorndike, son of Charles ^ and Mary Edgar Thorn- 
dike, descends from Paul,^ Paul, junior,^ Andrew ,s IsBael,9 Augustus. lo 

The arms of Thorndike are. Argent, six guttees, three, two, and one, 
gules, on a chief of the second three leopard's faces or. Crest, a 
damask rose proper, with leaves and thorns vert, at the bottom of the 
stalk a beetle proper. 




THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 

Remarks on the far descended and renowned Title of Lord Percy, By Alex- 
ander SiNCLAIU. 8vo. pp. 15. 

More Percy Anecdotes, Old and New. pp. 12. 1865. (Privately printed.) 

Mr. Sinclair (a member of a family well known in the literary world, 
a son of Sir John the celebrated agriculturist, a brother of Sir George 
a political writer, of Miss Sinclair the favourite novelist, and of our 
own Archdeacon of Middlesex,) m&s the author of an elaborate dis- 
sertation on the subject of Heirs Male published nearly thirty years 
ago, and has, it is well known, ever taken a lively interest in all 
matters relating to pedigree and kindred topics. He has now been 
again tempted into print by the fact that, on a death which has been 
universally deplored, the Barony of Percy has recently been separated 
from the English Dukedom of Northumberland to be absorbed in the 
Scotish Dukedom of Athol. " The only question left open relates 
to the date of the Percy peerage to which the Duke of Athol is heir 
— which (Mr. Sinclair remarks) has been a subject of doubt for three 
centuries, and involves many points of interest." 

The real facts of the case are, however, to the best of our belief, 
stated with perfect accuracy in Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peerage, nor 
do we find that Mr. Sinclair's views differ from that authority. 

The first summons to Parliament to a Henry Percy was dated on 
the 6th Feb. 1299. It was his great-grandson the 4th Baron who 
was created Earl of Northumberland at the coronation of King 
Richard the Second. Attainders occurring in the reigns of Henry 
IV. and Edward IV. were reversed : but there was a third eclipse 
of the dignity in 1537, on the death s.p. of the 6th Earl, whose next 
brother had recently engaged in Aske's rebellion, and suffered capital 
punishment, leaving, in consequence, his son and heir under attainder. 
When the wheel of Fortune again turned, and the time came for the 
restoration of that heir, Queen Mary did not reverse the father's at- 
tainder, but she created the peerage anew. She made Thomas Percy a 
Baron by patent, on the 30th April, 1557 ; and on the next day Earl 
of Northumberland ; each dignity with special remainder to his heirs 
male, and then to his brother Henry and his heirs male. 

On the accession of King Charles the First, in 1625, Algernon, 
afterwards the 10th Earl, was summoned to Parliament as Baron 



THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 267 

Percy : but this was regarded as one of those cases in which an heir 
apparent is summoned in his father's barony, and thereby no new peer- 
age is created. His father was Baron Percy only by the creation of 
1557 : but the precedency of 1299 was, in error, conceded to the son. 

When Josceline, the 11th Earl, dying in 1670, left an only daughter, 
that daughter, the Lady Elizabeth Percy, was believed to have suc- 
ceeded to the barony of Percy and to other ancient baronies that had 
merged in the Earldom ; but such was not actually the fact. The older 
titles had been forfeited in 1537, and not restored; and, had they 
existed, they might, at an earlier date, have descended in 1572 to the 
heirs of the 7th Earl, who left only daughters, but that he also died 
under attainder. 

The Lady Elizabeth became Duchess of Somerset ; and upon her 
death her son Algernon (afterwaixls 7th Duke of Somerset) was sum- 
moned to Parliament as Baron Percy, in 1722, imder the erroneous 
supposition that he had inherited the ancient baronies, the original 
precedency of 1299 being again allowed. 

And so again, on the death of Elizabeth (Seymour), Duchess of North- 
umberland, Dec. 5, 1776, her son (afterwards the second Duke of the 
creation of 1766) was summoned to Parliament in 1777 as Baron Percy, 
as if he had inherited a Barony by writ ; and so he really had, but it 
was one originating with the summons of 1722, not the ancient barony 
of 1299, which was no longer in existence. 

The summons in 1722, though made in error, had in fact, according 
to the present interpretation of Peerage Law, created a neiv Barony by 
ivrit ; and it is this Barony of Percy, of the date 1722, which has now 
come to the Duke of Athol. His Grace is the grandson of John 7th 
Dake of Athol, by the Lady Emily Percy, Lady Glenlyon, sister of the 
two last Dukes of Northumberland, and the only one of her generation 
that has left children. 

From Mr. Sinclair's supplementary notes we take the following: — 

" Hugh the 3rd Duke got a shield of the quarterings of the families from whom the 
Percies were descended by heiresses or co-heiresses, numbering above nine hundred ! 
But there was an error in assuming the arms of Scotland with other eleven quarter- 
ings, as they did not descend from the Princess Margaret; and the arms and quar- ^ 
terings of Marshal, Earl of Pembroke,' amounting to eight, occur thirteen times by 
different lines, making one hundred and four." 

' Mr. Sinclair's enumeration of the matrimonial engagements of the Marshals is 
extraordinary : " The Marshals, Earls of Pembroke, terminated in five brothers, all 
married, without children, by seven wives. The last died in 1246. They had five 
sisters, their co-heirs, all married. They had eight husbands, and one of these five 



268 THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 

Where this wonderful aggregation of quarterings is to be seen we 
are not informed. ^ In Edmondson's Baronagium Genealogicum, Plate 
267 represents the arms and quarterings of Percy, engraved at the 
expense of Elizabeth Countess of Northumberland circa 1765, or soon 
after. The number is there limited to one hundred and fifty. 

Mr. Sinclair's second brochure of 3fore Percy Anecdotes contains — 

1. A notice of the family of Percy of Athol, proving that 500 years 
ago there was a family which lasted above sixty years under that title 
— being the reverse of the occurrence that has lately taken place. 

2. A brief descent of the Strathbogie Earls of Athol, who were re- 
peatedly forfeited both in Scotland and England, but were summoned 
to the English parliament for the three last generations (ending in 
1373) ; also their share in the great Pembroke succession. 

3. A deduction of the heirs of Thomas 7th Earl of Northumberland, 
who was forfeited, and executed in 1572, leaving daughters but no 
son ; who, had there been one, would not have succeeded (on account 
of the Earl's attainder), though the entail in 1557 carried the Earl- 
dom, &c. to a brother. 

4. The extraordinary history of Lady Dorothy Devereux's stolen 
marriage with Sir Thomas Perrott, which was dissolved, and after 
which, while Sir Thomas was living, she became the wife of Henry 
9th Earl of Northumberland. 

5. Explanation of the connection between the Earls of Egremont 
and the Percies, and how they derived their title and great estates — 
i.e. by creation in 1749, and the will of Algernon Dulce of Somerset 
and Earl of Northumberland, who died in 1786 — whereby the great 
Percy estates were divided between the families of Smithson and 
Wyndham. 

had seven daughters, who had thirteen husbands. Thus the blood and arms of 
Marshal has been dispersed through various [and probably countless] channels for 
above six centuries." 

' Since the above was v^ritten we have glanced at a copy of the shield alluded to. 
It is handsomely " Engraved by J.Leslie, ]5, Oxendon Street, Haymarket," on a 
copper-plate, measuring 26 inches by IQj. The exact number of quarterings is 892. 
There is also a key-plate of the same, in outline ; and four pages of letter-press in 
correspondent size, containing " Surnames of the Heirs of Families. London, printed 
by Wm. Nicol, Shakespeare Press." We found this plate in the collection of the late 
Mr. Robert Thomson, Joint Librarian of the London Institution, who is recently 
deceased, and his library sold at Sotheby's. Mr. Thomson was conversant with 
heraldry, having been in early life a clerk to the late Mr. Edmund Lodge, Norroy ' 
and we are inclined to believe that he was concerned in the compilation of this grand 
Perev Atchievement. 



THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 269 

Mr. Sinclair expresses some indignation that the Duke of Athol 
inherits so great a representation, and only a barren title. " On the 
foi-mer occasion (500 years ago) Northumberland took car6 that his 
sons the two Percies should, with the heiresses, secure the Athol 
estates, to which they had a right, in England. Now Northumberland, 
by cutting the entail, has succeeded in preventing his grand-nephew 
Athol from getting any Percy lands, on becoming Lord Percy." But 
this, we think, is scarcely surprising in the contemplation of the title 
being merged in the Dukedom of Athol. Should, indeed, it ever 
devolve to a Baroness Percy, estates will be required to support that 
dignity. 

We have now one very important remark to make upon the tabular 
pedigree which Mr. Sinclair has given of the Representatives of the 
Daughters and Coheirs of Thomas 1th Earl of Northumberland, beheaded 
1572. These representatives are drawn down to 1, Percy Woodroffe 
Paver, bom 1829 ; 2, Henry Charles Gage, born 1854 (grandson of 
Henry Viscount Gage); and 3, Sir Stephen Eichard Glynne, Bart. 
Now, it is true that the Lady Elizabeth Pei'cy, the 7th Earl's eldest 
daughter and coheir, was married to Richard Woodroffe of Wolley in 
Yorkshire ; it is true that the descent given by Mr. Sinclair is set forth 
with full particulars in the Baronia Anglica Concentrata of Sir T. C. 
Banks (calling himself Bart. N. S.), 4to. 1845, p. 369 ; and it is true 
that even Mr. Beltz, Lancaster herald, was so far deceived as to state 
in his Memorials of the Order of the Garter, p. 158, that '' Of [Lady] 
Elizabeth Woodruff William Paver was the heir-general in 1775." 
The soi-disant Sir T. C. Banks even presumed to say that Mr. William 
Paver, living at York in 1843, " is the eldest coheir of the Baronies of 
Percy and Poynings, and holds one entire moiety of the same, whereas 
the moiety of Lady Lucy, wife of Sir Edward Stanley, is divided and 
subdivided among several representatives of her;" and to lament the 
sad fate of the said Mr. William Paver, as " the humble and depressed 
first co-heir of the unhappy Earl Thomas ;" though " possessing the 
honour of priority of blood over the present bearer of the ancient dig- 
nities," who was politely designated as " the pompous occupier of 
Northumberland House and Alnwick Castle. "^ 

' In an earlier work, \\is Stemmata Anfjlicana,lia,r]\i?, had perversely endeavoured 
to back up the claims of James Percy, the Dublin trunkmaker, whose claim, after 
many years' investigation, was dismissed by the House of Lords, in 1689, as that of 
" the false and impudent pretender to the Earldom of Northumberland.'" We may 
add that the facts of the trunkmaker's claim were reviewed, and entirely exploded, 
by the present Garter in the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica, vol. vi. pp. 266 — 283; 



270 THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 

The Historian of South Yorkshire was evidently unconscious of all 
this. He has, however, left an effectual contradiction to it in the 
following passage : — 

" In Hopkinson, and in a better authority, Harl. MS. 6070, f. 123, it is shown 
that Richard Woodruff had issue by the co-heir of the Earl of Northumberland, who 
was beheaded at York, a son named Joshua or Joseph, who married Magdal-ene, 
daughter and heir of Roger Billings, esq. of Marthagare, near Denbigh, in Wales, by 
whom Charles, Joseph, Francis, Foljambe, and Mary. (Vol. ii. p. S87.) 

Not a word of Maximilian Woodroffe, the " son and heir " of Richard 
and the Lady Elizabeth, said to have married a Paver ; or of Maxi- 
milian his son that married another Paver; or Miliana the daughter 
and heir of the latter, who again married a Paver; whence the descent 
was deduced in the male line to the " son and heir " of William Paver, 
that was born in 1829, and named by his father " Percy Woodroffe 
Paver," in assertion of the Percy inheritance ! 

It was a clerk in the Will Office at York who was guilty of the 
fabrication. The particulars of it were fully exposed some years ago in 
a pamphlet on the Ecclesiastical Courts of Record written by Mr. 
Downing Bruce, now a member of the Chancery bar ; but, as pamphlets 
are productions of which few copies are preserved, and are consequently 
difficult of access, we shall on this occasion republish the passage : — 

" On 19th February, 1850, the author, accompanied by a friend, had occasion to 
\isjt the Will-office at York, for the purpose of making some researches among the 
early records. In searching the Index No. 76, for the years 1721 and 1722, they dis- 
covered, written in a modern hand, the name of John Paver. It appeared that a 
clerk in the office of that name claimed to be the representative of the house of Percy, 
and heir to all the ancient baronies of that illustrious family; this modern insertion 
caused a doubt in their minds, and the doubt was considerably strengthened by the 
production of the pretended will itself, dated 15th January, 1721. It actually recited 
that the testator, John Paver, had married Millian, only daughter and heiress of 
Maximilian Woodroofe, son and heir of Maximilian Woodroofe, who was the eldest 
son and heir of Richard Woodroofe, by Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter of the Earl 
of Northumberland, and that the said John Paver, eldest son and heir, was then dead, 
and that William Paver, his grandson, was his eldest son and heir, and that his (Wm. 
P.'s) eldest child John was then living. The Earl of Northumberland was beheaded 
in 1572, and the last-mentioned John Paver died in 1760, so that this Will extended 

including a cuiious account of the celebrated marriage of Thomas Thynne, of Longleat, 
with the Lady Ogle ; whilst in the second volume of that work, pp. 57 — 66, is some 
account (from the same high authority) of the actual younger branches of the house 
of Percy, several of whom would have succeeded to the Earldom on the extinction 
of the elder line in 1670, but for the attainder of Thomas seventh Earl in 1572. One 
of these was the family of Percy of Cambridge, descended from the Gunpowder 
Conspirator. 



THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 271 

over no less than 188 years, and proved eight generations. It is fortunate for those 
persons having estates or titles depending on the records at York, that about this period 
the wills were all copied into volumes, which Mr. Protheroe describes as of " prodi- 
gious bulk, and requiring a man of herculean strength to move them;" for, on a most 
careful search made by both gentlemen, from 1719 to 1731, no such Will could be 
discovered in those books, which clearly proved that the Will had been placed in the 
office long since that period. Shortly after, several articles entitled " The Doom of 
English Wills " appeared in Mr. Charles Dickens's Household Words, on the subject. 
These had the effect of the removal or destruction of the pretended Will, and the 
erasure from the parchment Index Book, No. 76, of the name of John Paver; for, on 
a visit to this office by the same gentleman, on the 19th and 2ith July, 1851, for the 
purpose of showing the document to a Barrister of high standing in his profession, no 

traces could be discovered, save the erasure from the Index under the letter P ." 

All Account of the present deplorable State of the Ecclesiastical Courts of Record, with 
Proposals for their complete Reformation. By William Downing Bruce, Esq., 
Barrister-at-la\v, F.S.A., 1854, p. 22. (The author proceeds to state that a real Will 
of John Paver had been destroyed, together with a leaf of the Register, and that sub- 
sequently a third (fictitious) Will, for John Paver, 1722, was substituted, with some 
other particulars, not now of importance.) 

We are informed, that, wliilst the pretended Will was on record, an 
official attested copy was obtained of it : but, after the publicity that 
has now been given to this transaction, there can be little chance of a 
dishonest advantage being taken of that copy hereafter ;i or of future 
authors, — except by occasional inadvertence, as in the present case of 
Mr. Sinclair, assuming the Pavers to be cohiers of Thomas Earl of 
Northumberland. 

We ought not to quit the subject of the House of Percy without 
remarking that in a work recently published under the title of The 
Great Governing Families of England, by John Langton Sandford 
and Meredith Townsend (2 vols. 8vo. 1865), the first essay is one 
upon " The Percies." It affords — in accordance with the general com- 
position of those essays (which have recently appeared in The Spectator 
newspaper), an animated and effective sketch of the political history of 
the family. We will merely animadvert on the repetition it contains 
of the old legend as to the respective arms of Percy and Louvaine. 

' There was also placed in the office at York a forged Will, purporting to be that 
of Maximilian Woodroffe, bearing date 14 May, 1652, and for probate 2 June in the 
same year. This Will, with some other fictitious documents relating to the pretended 
Paver descent from the house of Percy, were removed from the office, and were lately 
in the possession of Mr. Joseph Buckle the registrar, he having satisfied himself of 
their true character. William Paver, who had been clerk to a law stationer, and was 
the son of a working blacksmith at York, was dismissed from the office upon the dis- 
covery being made. 



272 THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 

Josceline de Louvaine, wlio married the heiress of the ekler line of 
Perci in the reign of Henry I , was brother to Adelisa, the King's 
second wife ; and, it is added, was brought over by her " to 
marry the Percy under condition of accepting either her name or her 
arms. He chose the former, which was popular, substituting only 
his own arms for those borne, and probably invented, by Lord William 
the founder " — by which designation is meant William Perci, surnamed 
Alsgernons, who died in the Holy Land in 109G. Now this, as we 
have said, is the old and oft-repeated story : but that is no reason why 
any good opportunity of refuting such a legend, affecting the earliest 
origin of Armory, should not be taken. In the first place, then, 
we may remark, what we have frequently said elsewhere, that the 
era of Josceline de Louvaine is quite early enough for the very com- 
mencement of an armorial coat, and 1096 is nearly a century too 
early. Secondly, that all the most ancient rolls give for the arms 
of Percy the fusils, or millpicks as they were often termed, and which 
it has been supposed, not without probability, were allusive to the 
name. Lastly, in respect to the blue lion, said to have been the old arms 
of Brabant, or Louvaine, it was certainly not used by Josceline. Indeed 
Mr. Longstaffe tells us that the old story is erroneous on both the 
matters of which it affects to speak. Josceline always retained his 
paternal name of Louvaine, that of Percy being taken by his son. 
But, as to the arms, " neither in the main line of Percy, its offshoots, 
or its sub-feudatories, is there many traces of the blue lion until the 
reign of Edward I." {The Old Heraldry of the Percys, by W. Hylton 
Dyer Longstaffe, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo., 18G0, p. 6.) 

It is in the Siege of Carlaveroch 1300, and on the seal attached to 
the Barons' letter to the Pope in 1301, that we first meet with the 
blue lion on a golden field as the armorial coat of Henry de Perci, the 
first Baron of 1299. The change from the fusils or millpicks coincides 
remarkably with the marriage of this Baron to the daughter of the Earl 
of Arundel, his lord paramount, and their seals to the Barons' letter 
are very similar. The lion of the Arundels was borne in gold on a red 
field. They were descended from the same Queen Adelisa before- 
mentioned, by her second husband William de Albini. 

Mr. Longstafife's essay is the most perfect monograph upon the 
heraldry of any great family that has hitherto been compiled ; and we 
are pleased to observe in it a well-merited tribute to the labours of the 
great genealogist of the Percies, the Bishop of Dromore. After 
alluding to some mythic Earls of Caux and Poictiers before the Con- 



THE HOUSE OF PERCY. 



273 



quest of England, he remarks that, " saving the -said early descent 
and a few other apocrypha when the compiler was seduced by family 
pedigrees and Pierpont's MS., the narrative detail of Bishop Percy in 
the later editions of Collins's Peerage is wonderfully correct. The 
light and glory of the house might well allow a total loss of the Earls 
in Normandy if it could clearly and indis^nitably boast of Bishop Percy 
as a scion." It was to the 1779 edition of Collins that the Bishop com- 
municated his labours: they occupy there 211 pages, pp. 280 — 390: 
and they were never reprinted at the same length, a fact which is worth 
remembering. We may add that in the volume of Testamenta Ebora- 
censia, which is now passing through the press for the Surtees Society, 
the will of the Earl who was murdered in the insurrection at Thirsk 
in 1489 is printed for the first time, and will be found an interesting 
addition to the materials for his lif(\ 




"NOTICES OF THE ELLISES." 

To the Editor of the Herald cmd Genealogist. 

Sir, — Tlie critique of my work — Notices of the Ellises — in j'our last 
number induces me to request you will insert the following remarks : — 

Conscious that the long title of my first Number might seem presump- 
tuous, and that I had omitted the word "presumed" before the word 
" origin," in the second and third Numbers I merely called my work 
Notices of the Ellises. This you do not state; indeed, you were not bound 

VOL. III. T 



274 NOTICES OF THE ELLISE'^. 

to do so : but if you had, it would have abated the pretensions of my work 
in the eyes of your readers as judged by its first title. 

You have given my list of variations of the name of Ellis, which you 
mention "as taken" [for granted]. My words were, "investigation 
proves" that they are variations of one name, and I mean it. 

I have no ambition of being reckoned among those "sober heraldic in- 
quirers" who are contented to believe that "crests were not adopted for 
some centuries after the reign of Richard T." I can cite armorial seals of 
the twelfth century with crests; and Geoffrey de Vinsauf, in his Itinerary 
of Richard I , speaks of " helmets Avith crests" as seen in the ranks of 
the Crusaders serving under that monarch. 

With respect to the naked female, it is found as early as Edward III. 
as the crest of the Ellises of Kiddall, for it occurs on a helmet of that date 
in stained glass in the church of Berwick-in-Elmete.' Howevei*, since the 
issue of my work, I have seen reason to give up the Crusading character of 
both coat of arms and crest, as also of most other "Crusading coats of arms." 
But in one of the copies of the Roll of Arms of Edward II.2 the cross and 
crescents are given as the arms of Sir Henry Elys of Yorkshire — a copy 
that Sir H. Nicolas considers to have well-founded claims to genuineness. 
As to the crest, I believe it is as old as the coat, and my No. 4 will contain 
the result of my inquiries into the genealogy of all families bearing it, or 
anything like it — as the mermaid, maiden's head, &c. — so as, if possible, to 
get at its origin. 

You ask, if Alis may not in some cases be the same as Alice. I admit 
that it may, as in the case possibly of Walter and Martin fitz Alice, 
Sheriffs of London 1201 and 13. But when I find " Rog' Alic'," temp. 
Hen. III. in connection with "Auditon," how can I refuse to identify that 
person with Sir Roger Alis, who is mentioned in deeds of that reign as 
owner of Auditon, or AUington, which, temp. Hen. II. I find, by the same 
evidence, was owned by William .\lis, and, temp. AVill. I. by another 
William Alis ? 

When you mention Sir William Alis, " a Norman lord," you omit to 
state that he is named in Domesday, and was progenitor of a knightly race, 
who owned AUington, in Hants, till the time of Edward II. — an omission 
that would leave the impression that my derivation of the_ Ellises of 
England from the Alises of Normandy is entirely fanciful and unwarranted. 
This, and any mention of some not obscure persons and families of the 
name of Ellis and Fitz Ellis, you altogether omit, and have dwelt on my 
conjectures rather than stated my facts. 

With respect to my " identification" of one with other Domesday tenants, 
if the evidence in No. 1 is insuflicient, I trust in No. 4 very considerably to 
strencfthen it ; and I think genealogists would elucidate many a pedigree by 
following my example in this matter. 

' Hurl. MSS. 1394. 2 jjai-i. mSS. 4033. 



NOTICES OF THE ELLISES. 275 

You remark, that I readily accept a similarity of sound in a name as a 
proof of relationstiip. Now, all the Welch EUises I expressly exclude from 
this bond of union, and do not apply it to other fiiinilies of one name 
unless warranted by circumstantial evidence. As to similarity of arms in 
early times showing a common origin of the families bearing them (in- 
cluding female descent), I hold to that opinion as a general rule most 
tenaciously, and hope shortly to give you good grounds for it in a paper on 
" Early Armorial Seals" which will also strongly maintain my opinion 
which you quote — that " hereditary heraldic symbols were in existence for 
centuries before the Norman conquest." 

I think a family established at the Conquest, and continued in the chief 
male line for nearly three centuries, must have thrown off many off-shoots, 
whose descendants must now be extremely numerous. Sir Roger Alis, 
temp. Hen. III. spelt his name also Elys, as did others of the family. It is 
not too much, therefore, to presume that " most of the EUises of England" 
(not of Wales) descend from his Norman ancestor. 

Alis-ay, near Pontdelarche, was a place where councils were held in the 
ninth century. It was evidently named after an Alis, and not conversely. 
It and Ferte-Alais in the twelfth century had the same owners. The name 
must, therefore, have been as old as the time of Charlemagne. I conclude it 
is the same as Louis and Elias. In De Brecquigny's Receuil des Charles, 
3 vol. folio, from the ninth century to the twelfth century the name of Elias 
occurs frequently at early periods ; that of Louis never, except as the 
name of a French king. Nor is it met with in England or France at an 
early period, whilst Elie, as a Christian name, occurs frequently. What 
does this imply ? I say boldly this : that during the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth centuries Elias in Latin and Elie in French were the synonyms or 
current forms of Louis. 

Further, if in England and France at early periods families are found 
whose arms contain one or more fleurs-de-lis, and their surnames or 
prevalent Christian names are Elias, it is a remarkable coincidence at least, 
and can scarcely be accidental, but must point to a meaning. This is 
exemplified in my work. That fleurs-de-lis should be taken as amies 
parlantes by Alis, Elys, Fitz-Elys, &c. is, even if true, except originally, an 
insufficient explanation ; for the families of Plumstead and Burlingham 
bore them, and places of these names were owned at the Domesday survey 
by " Elir.s." I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Charhcood, Surrey. W. S. Ellis. 



-r '2 



276 



NORTON OF SHAEPENHOE, CO. BEDFORD. 

A Genealogy of the Norton Family, with Miscellaneous Notes. From 

the New England Historical and Genealogical Register for July 1859. 

Boston: Henry W. Dutton and Son, Printers, mbccclix. 8vo. pp. 10. 

An old pedigree of the Nortons of Sharpenhoe in Bedfordshire, having 
been preserved in America, in the possession of a junior branch of the 
family, is here edited by Mr. W. H. Whitmore, the indefatigable genealogist 
of New England. It is one of the performances of John Philipott, Somer- 
set, anno 1632 : but is evidently tainted with the romantic ingredients to 
which even the official heralds condescended at that period. To an ex- 
perienced eye the title alone is sufficient : " This Genealogie of the Nortons of 
Sharpenhow in Bedfordshire, beginninge at Nokvile that married into the 
howse Valois, and came into England with Kinge William the Conquer^, and 
was his Constable : whose posteritie, long time after, assumed the English 
name of Norton, being the same in signification that Norvile is in French. 
For the proof whereof it is to be understood that this Pedigree agreeth 
with records remaining in the Office of Armes," &c. &c. The imaginary 
alliances — as we may make free without hesitation to term them, are, — 
into the house of Valois, the house of Barr, that of Dalbemonte, a daughter 
of Nevil of Raby, Jorlcia daughter of Sigr. Dampre de Court, the 
daughter of Sir John Hadscoke, and even we should say the daughter and 
coheiress of Monsignr. Bassingbourne, and the daughter of the Lord Grey 
de Ruthyn. 

To the last two, however, it is true that some other testimony occurs. 
In the MS. Harl. 1546, p. 102b, is a pedigree which states that a certain 
Sir John Norton of Battle, in Sussex (the son of John Norton of the same 
place), married a daughter of the Lord Grey de Ruthyn, and was father 
of Thomas Norton, whose daughter Catharine was married to Thomas 
WIndowt, alderman of London. But in the pedigree before us the father 
of Catharine is described as Thomas Noi-land, alderman of London, who 
became the second husband of Agnes, widow of Sir John Winger, alderman, 
that Agnes being daughter of William Walker by Joane Norton, daughter 
of " Sir John Norton alias Norvile, who married the daughter of the Lord 
Grey de Ruthyn." We suspect that about this there was some intentional 
mystification. 

But, again, Philipott speaks of some armorial evidence shewing an 
alliance with Bassingbourne : — 

In an ancient Mansion Hous in Fulham in the countie of Midd. sometime in the 
possession of Thomas Windowt, Alderman of London, and now hoc anno 1632 the 
possession of Mr. Williamson procurator in the Court of Arches, London, the armes 
of Norton are in manie places remaining, and the Bassingbournes armes quartered 
with theirs. There are also impailed the amies of Norland and Norton quarteringe 
Bassingliourn, and Walker impaled with Norton ; also the armes of Mr. Hill and Mr. 
Rice impaled with Norland. Per John Philipott, Somersett, 



NORTON OF SHARFENHOE, CO. BEDFORD. 277 

William Hill and Simon Rice are stated to have been the successive hus- 
bands of Lettice, another daughter of Alderman Thomas Norland, and 
sister to Catharine Windowt. 

But this pedigree of Norton of Sharpenhoe is more remarkable because 
it is the hitherto unrecognised genealogy of Thomas Norton the Eliza- 
bethan poet, one of the metrical translators of the Psalms, and joint-author 
of Gorboduc with Thomas Sackville, afterwards Lord Treasurer and Earl 
of Dorset. When Mr. W. Durrant Cooper, F.S.A., prefixed a biographical 
memoir of Norton to the edition of Gorboduc printed for the Shakespeare 
Society in 1847, he failed to discover any pedigree,' though there actually 
is one, signed by his son Robert Norton, in the Visitation of Hertfordshire 
of 1G34, and another signed by his nephew Graveley Norton in the Visita- 
tion of Bedfordshire of the same year. This is a copy of the former : — 

Elizabeth, dau. of Ro-=pThomas Norton of=Elizabeth, dau. of Robert 
bert Merry, of North- I Sharpenhow, co. Marshall, of Hitchin, co. Hert- 
all, 1 ux. I Bedford. ford, 2 ux. 

L _, 

Margaret, daughter of Thomas Cran-:=Thomas Norton, of-p Alice, daughter of Ed- 
mer, archbishop of Canterbury. Sharpenhow. | mund Cranmer. 

r -• 

Robert Norton, Esq. of Mar-=pAnne, daughter of Robert 
keate-cell, esq. now living 1634. ( Hare of co. Lincoln. 

I 1 — I r-\ 1 1 

Thomas, eldest 2. Robert, s. p. 4. Richard. Anne, wyfe of James Elizabeth, 
son, s.p. 3. Thomas. 5. George. Castle of London. 

{Signed) Rob't Norton. 

We thus discover that the Poet twice married a Cranmer, and that by 
his first marriage he was son-in-law to the Archbishop.^ Mr. Durrant Cooper 

1 — "in the visitations of Bedfordshire there are the arms of two families of Norton, 
without any pedigree." Memoir, p. Iviii. 

■^ The passage in Camden's Annals, 1635 (see note in p. 280) states that Margaret 
Cranmer was the Archbishop's only daughter. Finding that a will of Miuyerie 
Norton was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1572, we entertained a 
hope that we had discovered an interesting document in connection with that 
prelate's family. The lady proves however to be another person : she styles herself 
." Margerie Norton of Sharpenhoe, in the parish of Streatley, widow ;" and, we pre- 
sume, must have been that " Margery, daughter of Wingar of Sharpenhow," as 
styled in Philipott's pedigree, who was the wife of Richard Norton, an uncle of the 
Thomas who married Margaret Cranmer. But the will shows her maiden name to 
have been Wingate, not Wingar. The pedigree gives her only two children, Thomas 
and William ; but the will opens many other genealogical particulars. She leaves 
her son Danyell 40/., two silver spoons at the age of 24, and other things. To her 
daughter Hill 30/. : if she died before her, the same to be equally divided among her 
children. To Marie Hill her goddaughter [and probably granddaughter] 10/. : if 
she die, the same to her brother Richard at 24. To her daughter Hill and her 
daughter Wynshe various articles of dress. To Margaret Wingate a petticoat. To 
Suzan Winshe 6/. 135. id. on her marriage : if she died, the same to her sister Jane 
Winshe. To her daughter Winshe a silver salt. To Thomas Winshe her godson 



278 NORTON or SHARPENHOE, CO. BEDFORD. 

subsequently' identified liira with Thomas Norton, who was one of the 
members in parliament for London from 1571 to 1582, — "a man wise, bold, 
and eloquent," — as well as City Remembrancer ; having previously sat for 
Gatton in 5 & 6 Phil, et Mar. and 1 Eliz. He was (as stated by himself) 
"born a citizen," in the year 1532 : became a student of the Inner Temple 
in 1552; counsel to the Stationers' Company in 1562; licenser of books 
by the Bishop of London 12th Dec 1562; and the first City Remem- 
brancer, on the institution of that office, 6th Feb. 1570-1, His father 
lived until the 10th March 1582-3; having in the previous year lost his 
third and last wife, who drowned herself. She had in her youth been 
brought up in the house of Sir Thomas More, and to that education the 
fancies which haunted her latter days, and drove her to distraction, are 
attributed in a letter of Fleetwood the Recorder.* She is not named in the 
Visitation ; but, according to Philipott's pedigree now placed before us, 
she was the widow of a Mr. Osborne, and bore to Thomas Norton senior 
three sons, Daniel, Barnabas, and Isaac. It is pi'obable that her senti- 
ments were totally opposed to those of her step-son, who was a zealous 
Calvinist. On his father's death he came into possession of his estates ; 
and in May 1583 he made a provision for his wife, by giving her the man- 
sion of Sharpenhoe for life, with an annuity. He and his father had pre- 
viously granted an annuity of 201. out of the real estate to his brother Luke 
Norton, of the Inner Tem^jle. The Remembrancer died at Sharpenhoe 
exactly a year after his father (March 10), making a nuncupative will,* 
which was proved April 14, 1584, by his brother-in-law Thomas Cranmer. 
When his inquisition post mortem was taken, Elizabeth his father's widow 
(and therefore his third wife) was residing in Holborn, and his own wife, 
Alice, was living at Cheston (i.e. Cheshunt), Herts. In Camden's Annals, 

[and probably grandson] 505. now in the hands of his father William Winsbe. To 
John Wingate 3s. id. he owed her, and 6s. M. To her cousin [i. e. probably nephew] 
George Wingate, 485. 6d. that he owed her. To every one of her daughter Winshe's 
children at home one sheep. To her brother Edward Norton [he is not in Philipott's 
pedigree] one sheep. To her brother Wingate 10s. To her sister Shorte 10s. To 
Mr. Watts, vicar of Streatlye, 3s. id. to make a sermon at her burial. Residue to 
her son William Norton. Witness, Thomas Norton. Executors, her son William 
Norton and son-in-law William Winshe. Overseers, her brother Edward Wingate 
and son-in-law Edward Hill. Dated 2Gth June, 1571, proved 25th Nov. 1572. 

' See two papers in the ^jrAoroZof/ia, vol. xxxvi. 1855, the first an account of a 
MS. by Norton on the ancient Duties of the Lord Mayor and Corporation, commu- 
nicated to the Society of Antiquaries by J. Payne Collier, esq., and the second con- 
taining " Further Particulars of Thomas Norton, and of State Proceedings in matters 
of Religion, in 1581 and 1582," by W. Durrant Cooper, Esq. 

^ See Mr. Cooper's memoir, p. liii. Mr. Peter Osborne, mentioned in the same letter, 
was Remembrancer of the Exchequer, and a well-known person of his time. We 
may thereTore presume that Mrs. Norton's former husband was a member of the 
same family, afterwards Baronets, of Chicksands, co, Bedford. 

•' Printed in Mr. Cooper's Memoir, p. Ivii. 



NORTON OF SHAKPENHOE, CO. BEDFOKD. 279 

1635, he is stated to have left by her " a plentiful issue." And Philipott's 
pedigree supplies the names of their children, of which Mr. Cooper was 
unable to find any trace. They were — 

1. Anne, married to Sir George Coppin, and had issue Robert and 
Thomas. Sir George was of a Norwich family, and knighted July 23, 1603. 
(Arms, Argent, a chief vaire.) 

2. Elizabeth, married first to Miles Raynsford (his arms Gules, a chevron 
engrailed between three fleurs de lys argent), and had Robert and Ciarrett; 
and secondly to Simon Biisell, by whom she had Simnn. 

3. Thomas, who died at Cambridge in his father's lifetime. Probably 
this was the Thomas Norton entered at Pembroke hall in 1565, and a 
graduate in 1569. 

4. Henry, who was aged 13 years, 8 months, and 20 days at his father's 
death. (Inq. p.m.) 

5. Robert,' who married Anne, daughter of Robert Heare, (or Hare, as in 
the Herts Visitation,) and had issue Thomas, Robert, Thomas, Richard, 
and Anne. He was living at Market Cell, near Dunstable, v/hen visited by 
the Heralds in 1634. 

6. William, who married Ruth Harding. 

Norton's half-brother and successor, Luke, was admitted to the Inner 
Temple in 1583. In 1613 he v/as in possession of Sharpenhoe. He 
married Lettice daughter of George Gravele}^ and had issue tl;ree sons, 
Graveley, Benjamin, and Thomas ; and six daughters. 

In the Bedfordshire Visitation of 1634 is the following pedigree signed by 
Graveley Norton: — 

Arms: 1 and 4. Gules, a fiet argent, surmounted by a l;end vaire or and of tlie field, 
difTerenced by a crescent; 2. Sable, a cross pointed argent, differenced by a 
crescent. Graveley. 

I 1 

Luke Xoiton, one of the 3.1"^^ of^Lettice, daughter and sole heire of Thomas, of 



the Chauneery, dwelt at Offley, 
ill CO. Hertford, Esq^ and Coun- 
cillor of the Law of the Inner 
Temple. 



GeorgeGraveley, of Hitchin, com. Sharpenhoe, 

Hertford, a younger brother of co. Bedford, 

Graveley, of Graveley, com. He:t- Counsellor at 

ford. law.^ 



I 1 1 

Graveley Norton, of Sharpen-=Ellen, dau. of 2. Benjamin 3. Thomas Nor- 

how, in the parish of Stret- William Angell, Norton, of ton, of London, 

ley, CO. Bedford, and of the sergentofthe London, silkman in 

Inner Temple, Esq. liveing a° Acatery to King linnen Lombard 

1634, eldest son. James. draper.^ street. 

r~l — I I I I ' 

Anne, wife to Eustace Nedham, of Little Wimondley, co. Hertford, esq. 
Lettice, first wife to Robert Cheney, of ^ramhanger, in Luton parish, co. Bed- 
ford ; after to Richard Norton, of Cornhill, linnen draper. 
Elizabeth, wife to Doctor Pierce, of Hitchin, divine. 
Martha, wife to Thomas Coppin, of Markett cell, co. Hertford, gen. 
Susan, wife to John Berners, of Tharfeild, co. Hertford, gen. 
Talbot, wife to Thomas Rotheram, of Farley, co. Bedford, gen. 

[Siyned) Gra. Norton, 
{Froiii the oriyutal in (he College of Arms.) 

' It does not appear \v!iy the estate of Sharpenhoe \\cnt to the half-brother of the 



280 NORTON OF SHARPENHOE, CO. BEDFORD. 

Mr. Durrant Cooper has noticed that the family of Norton continued 
owners of Sharpenhoe until the end of the 17th century or nearly so, 
although not resident. Richard Norton, esq. who lived at Mitcham in 
Surrey, by his will dated in 1686 founded at Sharpenhoe a school (still in 
existence) for eight children, and charged the manor with the annual pay- 
ment of 1 0/. for its support; He left a son John ; and a daughter Dorothy, 
who was the wife of Richard Laurence, and whose epitaph In Mitcham 
church is printed in the History of Surrey. 

The emigrants to New England, in whose family this old pedigree has 
been preserved, were John and William Norton, sons of William Norton 
and Alice Browest; and grandsons of William Norton of Sharpenhoe, the 
son of Richard, a younger brother of the old man who died in 1583. Mr. 
Whitmore has briefly traced the descendants of John, (William having died 

Remembrancer, and not to his son Robert. Robert Norton was, like his father, a man 
of letters. The Third edition of Camden's Annals cf Queen Elizabeth, in folio 1635, 
was " translated by R. N. gent." and that he was this Robert Norton is shown by an 
insertion made by him at p. 254. This tribute of filial piety, which has not hitherto 
been recognised by Norton's recent biographers, is sufficiently interesting to induce us 
to copy it : — 

" About the end of this yeare Thomas Norton of Sharpenhow, in the county of Bed- 
ford, Esquire, quietly rendered his soule into the hands of his Creator, who for his 
excellent gifts and able parts was by the grave citizens of London made Remem- 
brancer of the same city and chosen one of their burgesses in divers parliaments. In 
which places he gave such proofe of his surpassing wisedome, remarkable industry and 
dexterity, singular piety and approved fidelity to his prince and country, that the most 
upright Lord Keeper Bacon, the most wise Lord Treasurer Burghley, the most sharpe- 
sighted subtile searching Secretary Walsingham, and the rest of the Queen's most 
honorable Privy Councell, taking notice of his sufficiencies, made use of his counsaile 
and employment in many weighty and important affaires of state. He most exactly 
translated into English that excellent booke of Master Calvin's Institutions of Christian 
Religion, &nA was the greatest helpe Mr. John Foxe had in compiling his large volume 
of Acts and Monuments. Besides many other pretty bookes he wrote corresponding 
with the times and tending to the promoting of religion, the safety of his Prince, and 
good of his country, to the advancement whereof he applyed his utmost studies and 
endeavours, his best credite in court and city, and his sundry excellent speeches in 
parliament, wherein he expressed himself in such sort to be a true and zealous philo- 
pater, that hee attained the noted name of ' Master Norton the Parliament man,' and 
hath left even to this day a pleasing impression of his wisedome and vertue in the 
memories of many good men. This short digression in pious memory of a good man, 
being all which the translator hath presumed upon the readers' patience to insert of his 
owne, he hopeth will not be distastfull to many, but pleasing to some, and excusable to 
most readers." 

In 1604 was published " A Mathematical Appendix, containing many Propositions 
and Conclusions Mathematical, with an Easy Way to delineate Sun-dials. By Robert 
Norton." 8vo. And in 1628, with the same name, "The Gunner, shewing the 
whole practice of Artillery, and Artificiail Fireworks, as well for Pleasure and 
Triumphs, as for War and Service. London, 1628." Folio. But whether these were 
by the same Robert Norton we have not ascertained. 



THE COHEIRS OF SIR JOHN CHANDOS. 281 

s. p.) down to Andrews Xoi ton, now or recently Professor of Sacred Lite- 
rature at Harvard College, and his son Charles Eliot Norton, esq. of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, the present possessor of Philipott's pedigree. He 
has also appended abstracts fi'om the wills of some of the American members 
of the family. 

In his " Miscellaneous Xotes " Mr. Whitmore alludes to the Nortons of 
Norton Conyers in Yorkshire, and to others of the name in Kent. We 
apprehend that none of these had any relationship to those of Sharpenhoe. 
The former family, memorable for their devotion to the church of Rome, 
which brought two of them to the scaffold as notorious rebels in the year 
1570, was called Norton alias Conyers, and derived from the Conyers a 
mauncli for their armorial charge, their coat being Azure, a maunch 
ermine, a bendlet gules. 

The Nortons of Sharpenhoe bore for arms Gules, a fret argent, over all a 
bend vaire or and of the field ; and it is true that the same coat is attri- 
buted to the sire de Norvyll in Glover's Ordinary : but we are still unin- 
formed ichere any such family of Norville may have flourished, and our 
suspicions of its being entirely imaginary are not removed by the absence 
of this coat from the ancient rolls of arms recently edited for the Society of 
Antiquaries by Messrs. Perceval and Walford, as well as from those edited 
by Sir Harris Nicolas. 



The Coheirs of Sir John Chaxdos, K.G.— It is stated in the third 
edition of CoUins's Peerage, (smZ» fi<. Anglesey, vol. ii.) that Sir John de 
Annesley, knight of the shire of Nottingham temp. Edw. III. and Ric. II., 
married Isabel, dau. and coheir of Margaret, sister and co-heir of Sir John 
Chandos, K.G. (but not mentioning who her father was), and was, by her, 
ancestor of the late Earls of Anglesey and the present Viscount Valentia, 
&c. Banks says Sir John de Annesley married the sister and co-heir of Sir 
John Chandos, and left no issue by her; but in the Addenda to his work 
he says she was Isabel, dau. of Sir John Ireland and niece of Sir John 
Chandos, K.G., and again repeats he had no issue by her. Burke says she 
was Isabel, sister and co-heir of the Knight of the Garter, and was ancestor 
to the present families of Annesley. Which of these various versions is to 
be preferred? A. H. Le B. 

Note. — We add another and more circumstantial statement, from the 
accurate pen of ]\Ir. Beltz, given in his memoir of Sir John Chandos, 
Memorials of the Order of the Garter, p. 74 : " Sir John Chandos died un- 
married (Dec. 31, 1369). The family inheritance devolved to his two 
sisters Eleanor and Elizabeth, and his niece Isabel wife of Sir John Annes- 
ley, the daughter of another sister, Margaret. Eleanor Chandos was un- 
married in 1371, when <S-c. She married, first. Sir John Lawton, who had 
been ' the dear friend and companion in arms ' of Sir John Chandos ; and, 
secondly, Roger Colly ng, of Herefordshire, whose wife she was in 1391. 



282 THE COHEIRS OF SIR JOHN CHANUOS. 

By Lawton she had a daughter, Elizabeth, who, in or before 1386, was 
affianced to Peter de la Pole, of Newborough in co. Stafford, and, in her 
right, of Radbourne. From this marriage descended Sacheverell Pole, of 
Radbourne, esq. who, in 1807, obtained the royal licence to prefix the sur- 
name of Chandos to his own. Elizabeth, the second sister, died unmarried 
in or before 1398, at which date Isabel Annesley was also dead without 
issue. So that the entire representation became vested in the family of 
Pole." \See also the additions to Dugdale's B.aronage, art. Chandos, by 
Francis Townsend, Windsor, printed in the Collectanea Topogr. et Geneal. 
vol. V. p. 142. 

The names of Sir John Chandos's three co-heirs have been derived from 
an inquisition taken after the death of Sir Richard Damory, " supposed 
(says Mr. Beltz) to have been a son of Margaret by her husband Richard 
Damory;" and in that record {Esc. 49 Edw. III. p. 1, n. 36) the father of 
Isabel lady Annesley is not named ;' which was the cause why Collins could 
not name him. A second inquisition on the death of Sir Richard Damory 
shews that Sir John Chandos had granted the manor of Headington, &c. to 
Damory for life only, with remainder to his own right heirs. 

We have not been able to find the passage of Mr. Banks's Addenda, men- 

' We are enabled to give the following abstract of the record in question : " Jura- 
tores dicunt quod Ric'us Damory Clir. defunetus tenuit die quo obiit M. de Heding- 
ton cum pertin' et hund' de Bolyndon et Northgate cum pertin' in co. Oxon. ad 
termin. vite sue et unius anni post mortem suum, revercione spectante rectis heredi- 
bus Johannis Chandos Ch'r. Et dicunt q'd predic' Ric'us obiit die Jovis prox. post 
festum annunc. beate Marie Virg. A", sup'dieto. Et dicunt q'd Elizabetha Chandos, 
et Alianor Chaundos quani Rogerus Colynge duxit in uxorem, sorores pred' Joh'is 
Chandos, et Isabella fiT Margarete tercie sororum ejusdem Joh'is, quamquidem Isa- 
bellam Joh^es de Annesley Ch'r. duxit in uxorem, sunt heredes Joh'is predicti, et 
quelibet eorum etatis xxvi. annorum et amplius. {Esc. 49 Edw. III. p. 1, no. 36.) 
So that Eleanor was then already wife of Roger Colynge in 1375. 1377, 1 Ric. II. 
Another Inquisition taken on death of Sir Richard d'Amory further shews that he 
held the Manor of Hedingdon, &c. for his life by gift of John Chaundos, Kt. whose 
heirs were the sisters of said Sir John Chandos, which Sir John in 33 Edw. III. 
(1359) for his many services among other grants obtained the Manor of Hedingdon 
and the two hundreds of Bolendon and Northgate from the Crown. (Parker's Archi- 
tectural Antiquities in the Neighbourhood of Oxford, p. 286.) 1399, 22—23 Ric. II. 
the King grants to W m. Willicotes the Manor of Hedingdon and said hundreds in 
fee farm for 40Z. yearly rent, which premises were formerly Sir John Chandos, and 
are now forfeited to the King for defect of payment of the reserved rent. (Ibid.) 
1415, 3 Hen. V. Thomas Wilcotes, son and heir of William Wilcotes, who holds the 
Manor of Hedingdon, &c. accounts to the King in Michaelmas term for the reliefs of 
Eliz. Chaundos, Roger Colinge and Alianore his wife, John Annesley and Eliz. his 
wife, for the manor and hundreds aforesaid, due upon the King's pardon to them. 
{Ashmole MSS. X. p. 350.) This vol. of Ashmole's is No. 1106 in Mr. Black's Cista- 
logue of the Ashmolean MSS. It contains collections for a history of the Order of the 
Garter ; and those for Sir John Chandos occupy from p. 349 to p. 360. — B. W. G. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 283 

tioned by our correspondent, in wliich the father of Lady Annesley is state<l 
to have been Sir John Ii-eland. This statement should be verified, — it 
having, if true, escaped the notice of Mr. Beltz. Besides, a writer in The 
Topogi-apher and Genealogist, vol. i. p. 179, names him as Sir Robert (not 
Sir John) de Ireland. \ye have further consulted the pedigree of Annesley 
in Lodge's Pee?-«g-e of Ireland (edit. Archdall, 1789), iv. 103, but without 
obtaining additional information. He states indeed that Elizabeth Chandos 
was married to Thomas Berkeley of Cubberley ; but in correction of that 
mistatement we may refer to a letter by B. W. G. in the Gentlemau''s Maga- 
zine for March of the present year, which shews that Elizabeth Chandos, 
who was married to Sir Thomas Berkeley of Cubberley, was not of the 
Radborne branch of the family, but of the SnodehuU. 

It may be further remarked that, notwithstanding R. Glover's opinion 
(quoted by Beltz and Townsend) that Isabel Annesley left no issue, that 
fact can scarcely be deemed to be thoroughly verified. Beltz in afoot-note 
(p. 75) clearly states that Elizabeth Chandos, who died unmarried, in 1386 
settled her portion in Radborne on her niece Elizabeth Pole and the heirs 
of her body. This is no proof that her other niece Isabel Annesley left no 
issue : but it might be argued that this disposal of her estate has originated 
the assertion that Elizabeth Pole was the sole representative of Sir John 
Chandos : whilst, on the other hand, the Annesley family have continually 
assumed the quartering of Chandos, whether joer fas aid nefas. So long- 
since as the reign of Charles II. Arthur xVnnesley bore on his shield four 
quarters : 1 and 4. Annesley ; 2. Vert, three battle axes or, Houscarle ; 
3. Or, a pile gules, Chandos. And his, and his grandfather's, descendants, 
have ever in the same way asserted their descent from the illustrious Sir 
John Chandos. 

Sir John Archer, Justice of the Common Pleas in the reign of Charles 
II , married for his first wife Margaret, daughter of Sir George Savile, of 
Thornhill, by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Ascough, 
of South Kelsey, co. Lincoln Sir John Archer married secondly Eleanor 
daughter of Sir John Curzon, and had issue, which terminated in a female, 
and is assumed to be represented by Lord Wrottesley. By his first wife, 
who was buried at Great Ponton, in Lincolnshire (a manor possessed by Sir 
John Archer), he had a son, John. Qij. Was this the same John Archer 
who had an extensive grant of land in Jamaica in 1G64 ? The Ayscoughs 
emigrated in great numbers to the West Indies in the 17th century; and 
in 1654 Sir George Ayscough published an Account of Barbados. 

Gabriel Archer went to Virginia with Captain Gosnald in 1584, and 
published an account of the voyage in 1602. 

Gabriel Martyn, of Jamaica, had by his wife Catharine Gallimore a son 
named Archer Martyn, who died in 1703. Jane Gallimore, sister to Catha- 
rine, was married to Matthew Gregory. John Archer in 1689 bequeaths 
to his nephew Gabriel Martyn. 



284 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Michael Archer, who is mentioned in the State Papers as having gone to 
Virginia, afterwards turns up at Cadiz, as Don Miguel Archer, a wine 
merchant. They were evidently one and the same. 

The Virginian Archers of the 17th century were originally from Eipon, 
in England. 

The following extract from the pedigree of a well-known Lincolnshire 
family is perhaps noteworthy : — 

John Chaplin, of Blankney, co. Lincoln, had issue : 

1. Anne, mar. Thomas Archer (son of Thomas Archer of Umberslade), 
ob. s.p. 1743. Vide Monument at Hale, near Salisbury. 

2. Francis, ob. 1720. 

3. John, ob. in West Indies. 

4. Thomas, mar. Diana, youngest daughter of Andrew Archer, of Umber- 
slade, and sister of the 1st Lord Archer. 

5. Porter, mar ? and had issue : L Elizabeth, mar. Edward 

Ayscough; 2. (Sir) John ; 3. Anne; 4. Francis, mar. Charles Fitzwilliam. 

(Compare these coincidences of names with the pedigree of the Coopersale 
Archers.) 

There were twelve grants of land to, and purchases by, a John Archer, 
between 1664 and 1686, in Jamaica, and Sir Hans Sloane mentions in his 
work on that island " Archer's ridge." 

There were certainly, however, at least two John Archers in Jamaica at 
the period in question. One died without male issue, and his line was 
eventually represented by a wealthy family named Gregorij, from which 
descended the celebrated Monk Lewis. 

The other John Archer had by his wife Dorothy Harvey a son named 
William, who settled at Wexford in Ireland. — Burke's Landed Gentry. 

J. H. L.-A. 



Sir Hastings Stanley (p. 96). — Li reply to the question " who was Sir 
Hastings Stanley, Knight, and to what family did he belong," I am enabled, 
by a search at the British Museum, to show that he was the son of Peter 
Stanley, of Womersley, co. York, by Margaret his wife, daughter of Thomas 
Wright and widow of Sir William Gascoign, of Gawthorpe, the said Peter 
Stanley being of the Stanleys of Hooton in Cheshire. 

Sir Hastings would appear to have been "knighted by the French King 
in 1603," which may account for the absence of his name from the lists of 
knights made at home in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I. His 
wife was Ellinor, daughter of Rooke Reresby, of Bunsham' in Huntingdon- 
shire ; and though buried at Hatfield, co. York, in pursuance of her will, 
there is no memorial of her now to be found beyond the entry in the Regis- 
ter of Burials — 

1614. " Novemb. D» Elinor Stanley, vii die." 

' Probably Bluntisham, near St. Ives. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 285 

The pedigi-ee of Stanley (Visitation of Yorkshire, 1612) ; of Mauleverer 
(Hunter's South Yoi-kshire, i. 297) ; of Gascoigne (ibid. ii. 484) ; and of 
Reresby (Harl. MS. 890, fo. 44b. and also 1174, fo. 140), may be referred 
to for confirmation of this account of Sir Hastings Stanley's family. 

Peter Stanley, adm'on to his son,=f=Margaret, dau. of Thomas=l husb. Sir William 
Nov. 1, 16U0. I Wright. Gascoigne. 

r ^ 

Sir Hastings Stanley, of Womersley, knt.=f^Ellinor, dau. of Rooke Reresby. 

r ' 1 

Hastings Stanley, of^Margaret, dau. of John Lewis, of Marr, Percy of Letwell, 
Letwell, CO. York. j and widow of John Mauleverer. gent. 1625. 

r -^— \ 1 

Thomas Stanley, of Ful- Darcy, buried at St. .... wife of Timothy Scott, 

wood's Rents, near Gray's John's, co. York, in of Bishopsdyke Hall, in Sher- 
Inn, 1666. 1619. burn, gent. 

Having answered, I hope, fully the question of C. J., I would in my turn 
ask, on what occasion or for what particular service was Sir Hastings 
knighted by the French King ? 

Doncaster. J. S. 



Canting Supporters. — When noticing (in p. 157) the fictitious sigil- 
LVM covLTHARTi we remarked that the Colt and Hart had been truly desig- 
nated by Mr. Lower as " a unique instance of canting suppoi'ters." A Cor- 
respondent demurs to this, reminding us that the Earl of Shrewsbury and 
Talbot has Talbots on both sides of his atchievement, and Lord Talbot of 
Malahide on the dexter; that the Earl of Ilchester and Lord Holland have 
Foxes : Lord Wodehouse has Woodhouses or wild men of the wood ; 
Baring, Lord Ashburton, has two Bears; and the Babingtons once had 
Baboons; and there are perhaps other similar cases. Canting on his title. 
Lord Mounteagle has two Eagles, gorged with chains that carry a port- 
cullis, the emblematic badge of the Exchequer ; and the Eagles of Lord 
Godolphin, as the spread eagle in the coat of Godolphin, are derived from a 
Cornish word bearing that signification. But the idea of making a canting 
rebus of the two supporters — the colt and hart, remains, we imagine, " ori- 
ginal" and unique, and the inventor must retain all the credit, such as it is, 
due to his perverse ingenuity. 



Heraldic Cards by Richard Blome (p. 180). From the statement 
made in p. 180, viz. "The armories are coloured throughout," it might be 
inferred that these cards were printed in colours. This, however, was not 
the case, the tinctures being indicated by the lines and dots used for that 
purpose. I possess an exceedingly fine copy of these cards. The margins 
have not been cut off, and by placing them together I ascertained that 
they must have been originally printed in sheets, probably folio, the cards 
being arranged in two or three rows. I joined nearly all my pack in two 
pieces, but so as to lead to the impression in my mind that they were 



286 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

originally printed on two separate sheets. I purchased them some months 
ago from a country bookseller, for 5s. ; they were bound in a little 12mo. 
book, which was in very bad contiition. I have therefore had them 
remounted. George W. Marshall, LL.B. 



The Author of the Workes of Armorie. 

Since I last wrote on this subject I have had an opportunity of looking 
through the early parish register of Stainton and have extracted the Boswell 
entries, and amongst them the burial of "John Boswell Gentleman" on 
25 Oct. 1558. Was not this John the heir of Thomas B. of Stainton who 
died April 4th 1551, and sixty years old at the time of his father's death, as 
appears by a copy of the Inq. p. mortem now before me, and noted in Mr. 
Hunter's own copy of the South Yorkshire ? See Herald and Genealogist, 
i. 115. If so, is it likely that he was the author of a book printed in 1572, 
when his age would be 81 ? Again, is It known that the author was alive 
when the reprint of his book was Issued in 1597 ? 

I have met with no Will or Administration of the John B. whose burial 
I have quoted above; and I fear the question "Who was John Bossewell 
the author of the Worhesof Armo7-ie?'''' must at present remain unanswered. 

Doncaster. J. S. 



Alliances of the Family of Fitz-Simon alias Stmokds with "The 
Lees op Quarrendon," (p. 113). — According to the pedigrees of the 
SufEeld (Norfolk) and Yeldham (Essex) branches of the Fitz-Simon alias 
Symonds family, it appears that William Symons, of Wendron, Cornwall, 
(elder brother of Simon Symons, rector of Taplow, Bucks, vicar of Bray, 
Berk?, and prebendary of Lichfield), married, first, INLirgery, daughter of 
Thomas Fowler, of Ricot, Oxon, gent. ; and secondly, Joan, a daughter of 
Roie7't Lea., of " Quarenden" co. Bucks, Esq. He died in 1559, leaving by 
his second wife, an only son, Anthony Symons, of London, merchant, born 
in 1525, who married in 1571, Jane, sister of Giles Simonds, of Clay, co. 
Norfolk, (whose wife was Katharine, daughter of Sir Anthony Lee, of 
Burston, knt., M.P. for co. Bucks,) and died in 1586. His son John having 
predeceased him, he was succeeded In a small estate which he had purchased 
(Leigh, In Pillaton), by his nephew John, of Trelay, who died In 1615, 
leaving an only son, John, of Botus-Fleming, Cornwall, born in 1582, who 
married, in 1604, Agnes, younger daughter and co-heir of Robert Trepe, 
of Crediton, co. Devon, esq., and was ancestor of the Symonses of Hatt. 

The arms borne by the above William Symons, of "Wendron, were 
" Quarterly : 1st and 4th, Azure, a canton ermine; 2nd and 3rd, Argent three 
escutcheons gules," Impaling '■'■ Argent, a f esse between three crescents sable." 

The arms borne by the above Giles Simonds, of Clay, were " Azure, three 
trefoils slipped or," Impaling, " Qiia7'terly : first and fourth, Argent, a fesse 
between three leopard'' s heads sable ; second and third, Argent, on a. /esse . . . .? 
between three nnicarns heads ei'ased. sable, as many lilies ....?" 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 287 

Tiie "S)-mon(ls" pedigree, of which I have a copy, having been made 
about 1587, when those marriages were but of recent occurrence, they are 
not likely to have been confused with other members of the Lee family. Pro- 
bably. Robert "Lea," of " Quarenden," was father of Sir Anthony "Lee," of 
Burston; but I should like to know the dates of their marriages and deaths, 
as I cannot obtain any clue to them from local records. J. G. F. 



HuTCHiN. Richard Hutchin of Dartmouth in Devonshire, died in 1808, 
and Hannah his wife in 1806. They had issue: 1. Henry, born in 1768, 
married, and had issue; 2. Charles, who settled in Newfoundland, who also 
married and had issue ; 3. Hannah ; 4. Margaret, married to Mr. W. Ha- 
sard, and lived at Brecon (issue Hannah and other children); 5. Susan, 
vinmarried ; 6. Mary. 

A brother of the above Richard Hutchin died in 1813, aged 83, leaving 
issue : 1. the Rev. Robert Hutchin, Rector of DIttesham, co. Devon; and 
Chaplain to the E.I. Company at Penang; married at Calcutta May 10, 
1818, to Elvii'a daughter of the late C. Phipps, esq. of Watton Court, Devon. 

Amongst the collaterals of this family occur the names Spanke, Brams- 
comb, Montague, Trench, and Newman. 

A branch of the family, spelling their name Hutchings, settled in Jamaica. 
Any information about them will oblige . L.-A. 



To Tj3mpi,arius we reply, with thanks, that we were aware of the 
Memoir on the Temple Church by Joseph Jekyll, esq. M.P. F.R.S. F.S.A. 
in Architectvra Ecclesiastica Londini, 1819; but the account it gives of the 
effigies will be found very confused and erroneous indeed. We should be 
very glad if any one would help us by a reference to "the collections made 
by a person studious of antiquities in Sir Robert Cotton's voluminous 
library," which were made use of by Weever. 



Lieutenant-General Tatton. — Wanted the descent of this officer, 
whose son was Dean of Canterbury about the middle of last century, and 
whose daughter was the unfortunate Lady Abergavenny, wife successively 
of the 13th and 14th Lords, and mother of George 15th Lord. 

229, Clarendon Villas, Plumstead. F. M. S. 



P. 556. — W. G. condemns the two first lines of le Siege de Karlaveroch as 
being clearly a spurious addition, because they speak of Edward the First 
as being rois Edewars li ters. But that objection is not decisive. King 
Edward I. was in legal documents called Edward only, or Edward son of 
Henry : but by historical writers of his own time or shortly after he was 
often called " the Third," they reckoning the two Edwards before the 
Norman Conquest, Edward the Elder and E^iward the Martyr, as the First 
and Second. 



288 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Vol. II. p. 84. — In the title-page of his Atlas Terrestris, a book of maps 
of the world, John Seller is styled " Hydrographer to the Kings most 
Excellent Majesty." It was "to be sold at his shop at the Hermitage in 
Wapping, and on the Royal Exchange in London," but has no date. I have 
Mr. Bowyer's copy, full of his MS. notes. 

In p. 16 of his Heraldry Epitomized he gives as the arms of Seller, Argent, 
a fess ermine and in chief three roses. This coat is not inserted in 
Burke's General Armory. J. G. N. 



P. 98. — Mrs. Elizabeth Ogbourne died 1853, the end of the year, in her 
89th or 90th year, at 58, Great Portland-street, Oxford-street. She was 
not the wife, but the sister, of the engraver. 



The first Duke of Beaufort. Since the note in p. 229 of the present 
Part was printed, we have made further inquiry into the accuracy of Mac- 
aulay's statement that the Duke of Beaufort in 1685 " was President of 
Wales and Lord Lieutenant of four English counties." And again, in Dec. 
1687, "the Duke of Beaufort, whose authority extended over four English 
counties and over the principality of Wales." We find these expressions 
derived from the random assertion of Roger North in his Life of the Lord 
Keeper Guilford that the Duke " was Lord Lieutenant of four or five 
counties and Lord- President of Wales." The truth is that the Duke, be- 
sides being Lord President of Wales, was Lord Lieutenant of the three 
counties of Gloucester, Hereford, and Monmouth, also of the town of 
Bristol and of the Isle of Purbeck ; and Lord President of Wales and of 
the Marches thereof, excepting the counties of Salop and Worcester, — 
Francis Viscount Newport being Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire and Thomas 
Earl of Plymouth being Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire. At the Revo- 
lution the Duke relinquished not only the Presidency of Wales but all his 
Lieutenancies. The Earl of Macclesfield who was appointed his successor 
as Lord President, after the abolition of that office by act of parliament 
(as noticed in p. 228), continued virtually to exercise the same authority 
as Lord Lieutenant of North and South Wales, the counties of Gloucester, 
Herefoi-d, and Monmouth, and the city of Bristol. After that nobleman's 
death in 1693, we find (in 1700) his son Charles the second Earl the Lord 
Lieutenant of North Wales as well as Lancashire, and the Earl of Pembroke 
and Montgomery the Lord Lieutenant of South Wales as well as Wilt- 
shire, the Earl of Berkeley the Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire and the 
City of Bristol, and the Duke of Shrewsbury the Lord Lieutenant of Here- 
fordshire. After the death of Charles second Earl of Macclesfield in 1702, 
the Earl of Derby succeeded him as Lord Lieutenant both in North Wales 
and in liancashire. These particulars are derived from Charaberlayne's 
Angli<s Notitia, or. The Present State, &c. for the years 1684, 1687, 1700, 
and 1702. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 

(No. II.) 

Continued from p. 122. 

In addition to his three sons, Henry, Robert, and Cromwell, 
Sir Anthony Lee, according to a Pedigree of the Lees of Hat- 
field, CO. York, had another son, Thomas; and from Pedigree C,' 
it appears that he had likewise four daughters — 1. Lettice; 
2. Joice; 3. Jane; and 4. Catherine. Of these, the eldest, Let- 
tice, or Letitia, married Nicholas Cooke, of Linstead, in Suffolk, 
esquire. Joice married John Cheyne, of Chesham Bois, co. 
Bucks, esq., as the following extract from the parish register 
testifies: — " ]\laister John Cheyne, esquier, and Mistress Joice 
Lee, the daughter of Sir Antony Lee, Knight, were married the 
xxix. day of November, A° Dni 156j." We learn from the same 
source that " Joice, the wife of John Cheyne, was buried at 
Drayton Beauchamp, co. Bucks, Julyxi. 1579." The writer has 
been unable to discover anything concerning the two remaining 
daughters. 

Sir Robert Lee, of Quarrendon, on the death of his first wife, 
married Letitia, daughter of Sir Thomas Penyston, Knt., and 
widow of Robert Knollys, esq., of Nether Winchendon, co. Bucks. 
[Arms of Penyston, of Hawridge, co. Bucks: Argent, three 
choughs sable.] " Robert Knollys was Gentleman of the Privy 
Council to King Henry VHL and had from that monarch a lease 
for a certain number of years of the manor of Rotherlield Greys, 
CO. Oxon. He married Letitia, daughter of Sir Thomas Peny- 
ston, Knt., Lord of Haurage or Hawridge and Marshall, in Bucks, 
and by her (who married secondly, Sir Robert Lee, of Quarren- 
don, in Bucks; and thirdly. Sir Thomas Trcsham, Lord Prior of 
St. John), had a daughter, Jane, married to Sir Richard Wing- 
field, of Kimbolton Castle, and a son and heir, Sir Francis 
Knollys. "2 

' In the possession of the Rev. T. C. Thornton, of Brockhall, co. Noi-thampton. 

* MS. in possession of the writer. Francis Knollys of Thame, co. Oxon, Esq. — a 
member of this family, was created a Baronet 1 April, 1754. He was Sheriff of Oxford- 
shire in 1757 and M.P. for Reading in 1761. He married in 1756, Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Robert Kendall Carter of Kempstone, co. Bedford, but dying with- 
out issue 29 June, 1772, the baronetcy expired. 
VOL. III. U 



290 



THE LEES OF QUAREENDON. 



By his wife Letitia [Penyston or Knollys] Sir Robert Lee had 
issue three sons — 1. Benedict; 2. Roger; and 3. John; and two 
daughters — 1. Elizabeth; and 2. Mary. 

1. Benedict Lee, of Hulcott and Bagginton, co. Bucks, who 
died 1574, married Elizabeth, fourth daughter of Robert and 
Elizabeth Cheyne, of Hulcott, co. Bucks. 

2. Roger Lee married Isabel, fifth daughter of the said Robert 
and Elizabeth Cheyne. 

3. John Lee (living 1520) married Alice, daughter of Robert 
Dalby, esq. and had issue the Lees of Yorkshire and of Binfield, 
CO. Berks. 

1. Elizabeth Lee married Sir Thomas Tresham, Knt. 

2. Mary Lee married Thomas Lane, gentleman. 

The following Pedigree of Cheyne and Lee, compiled from 
parisli registers,^ is authentic and reliable : — 

Arms of Cheyne, co. Bucks : Chequey or and az. a fesse gules fretty ar. 

John Cheyne, Esq. Sheriff of Bucks 1505, and=j=Margaret, dau. of Robert Ingleton, 
Sheriff of Beds 1520 ; died Jan. 1, 1535. | Esq. of Thornton, co. Bucks. 



I 

1. Robert, mar.= 
1535; died] 532, 
aged 47; bur. at 
Chesham Bois. 



^Elizabeth, dau. of John 
Webb, Esq. of 
CO. Hertford, widow of 
Fulke Odell, Esq. 



2. Margaret, mar. 
Paul Dayrell, Esq. 
of Lillingston Day- 
rell. 



1 

3. Elizabeth, mar. 

William Fawconer, 

Esq. of Ashendon, 

CO. Bucks. 



I 1 1 1 1 

1. John, his heir, mar. Wini- 2. Catherine, 3. Mar- 4. Elizabeth, 5. Isabel, 

fred, dau. of John first Lord mar. first, garet, mar. Bene- mar. Roger 

Mordaunt, of Turvey, CO. Beds, Christopher mar. dictLee,Esq. Lee, of Pitt- 

who died July 8, 1561, and Lidcott, in Richard of Hulcott, son, co. 

was buried at Chesham Bois; Yorkshire, Dun- co. Bucks, Bucks, also 

he mar. secondly, Joice or and secondly, combe, a. D. 1529, brother to. 

Jocosa, dau. of Sir Anthony Edward of Mar- brother of Sir Robert 

Lee, Knt. of Quarrendon, co. Maystyn or low, co. Sir Robert Lee, Knt.'^ 

Bucks. Mastyn. Bucks. Lee, Knt. 

It should be mentioned here that some pedigrees {e.g. that at 
Brockhall, marked C) make Benedict Lee, of Hulcott and Bag- 
ginton, brother, and not son, of Sir Robert Lee, and give, as the 
issue of Sir Robert Lee and Letitia Penystone, simply — 

1 . Benedict Lee, of Bagginton, who married Margaret, daughter 

' The author of this paper is indebted to the labours and assistance of the late Rev. 
Henry Roundell, M.A. sometime Vicar of Buckingham, an accomplished archseo- 
logian and genealogist, for several facts and references in compiling the above. 

"^ At Chesham Bois, Bucks, there remains in the church the brass effigy of Benedict 
Lee, a ehrysome child, with the following inscription : — " Of Roger Lee, gentleman, 
here lyeth the son, Benedict Lee, ehrysome, whose soule Ihu pardon." 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 291 

of Eobert Packington, esq., by Catharine, daughter and co-heiress 
of Lord Chief Justice Baldwin, and had issue; and 

2. Elizabeth Lee, " wife to Tresham, esq." 

To render the differences intelligible — differences which appear 
in several visitations and records, both at the College of Arras 
and British Museum, it is necessary to give the descents for a few 
generations from Benedict Lee, of Quarrendon, the founder of 
the family, in Buckinghamshire, as far down as that of Sir Henry 
Lee, the first Baronet— from the four independent original pedi- 
grees which have been used in the preparation of this article : — 

PEDIGREE A.— LORD LITCHFIELD. 

Benedict Lee.=FElizabeth Wood. 



Richard Lee.=pAnne Saunders. 

r -■ 

Sir Robert Lee.^Lettice Penystone. 

r -^ 

Benedict Lee.-j-Elizabeth Clieyne. 

r -■ 

Sir Robert Lee.-j-Lucy Pigott. 

r -^ 

Sir Henry Lee, Bart. 

PEDIGREE B.— NEVILL OF HOLT. 

Benedict Lee.=pElizabeth Wood. 

r -^ n _ 

Sir Robert Lee.=Lettice Penystone. Benedict Lee-p-EIizabetli Cheyne. 
I ' 



Sir Robert Lec-p. 



I 

Sir Henry Lee, Bart, 

PEDIGREE C— THORNTON OF BROCKHALL. 

Benedict Lee.=pElizabeth Wood. 

r -■ 

Richard Lee.^r^Elizabeth Saunders. 



r- 



SilSRobert Lee.=pLettice Penystone. Benedict Lee.=pEiizabeth Cheyne. 

, -" r ± 

Benedict Lee.i=Margaret Packington. Robert Lee.-pLucy Pigott. 

r -^ 

Sir Henry Lee, Bart. 

PEDIGREE D.— LEE OF YORKSHIRE AND STOKENCHURCH. 

Benedict Lee.=FElizabeth Woode. 

I 

Richard Lee.=7=Anne Sanders. 

r ^ 

Sir Robert Lee.=FLettice Pennistone, 



Benedict Lee =pElizabeth Cheney. 

I 

Sir Henry Lee, Bart. 

u 2 



292 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 



Sir Egbert Lee, knt., of Hulcott, was the eldest son of 
Benedict Lee, esq., of Hulcott [by Elizabeth Cheyne], He was 
born at Helstrapp in the parish of Drayton Beauchamp, co. 
Bucks, June 15th, 1545, and married Lucy daughter of Thomas 
Pigott or Pygot * of Beachampton, co. Bucks, and had issue eight 
sons and six daughters, viz.: 



^A\^d 




mM^^l^m 






'A 




"SIR HARRET LEA." 



(See the b/ason before in p. 120.) 

1. Sir Henry Lee, Knight and Baronet, of Quarrendon, co. 
Bucks, and Ditchley, co. Oxon, 

2. Tlie Rev. Edward Lee of Merton College, Oxford, Rector 
of Hard wick, co. Bucks, to which he was presented by his 
brother Sir Henry, and instituted 2nd March, 1613; died Nov. 
1641, buried at Hardwick. He was a liberal benefactor to 
Merton College. 

3. Benedict Lee. 

4. Thomas Lee. 

5. George Lee. 

6. Robert Lee. 



' Arms of Pigott of Beachampton : — Sable, three pickaxes argent. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 293 

7. Eichard Lee. 

8. Anthony Lee. 

1. Frances Lee, 2. Elizabeth Lee, 3. Mary Lee, 4. Margaret 
Lee, 5. Joyce Lee, 6. Alice Lee. 

Sir Robert died at Stratford Langton in the county of Essex, 
and was buried at Hard wick, Aug. 20th, 1616, aged 78. On 
the north side of the sanctuary of St. Mary's Hardwick is a 
mural monument with statues of Sir Robert and Lady Lee 
with their children, all represented kneeling. 

The following inscription stands on the upper part: — 
nobilis hic miles genere et virtutibus annos 
Cum decies septem et tres numerasset obit : 

Cui VITAM UT RENOVET POSUIT CASTISSIMA CONJUX 

hoc quicquid tumuli est sumptibus omne suis. 
Sic vivit moriens: justorum vita perennis: 

NON MORITUR QUISQUIS VIXERAT ANTE DeO. 

Mors ho'em ubique expectat, ubiq. etia' expectat ea' 
Ad vocem tub^e resurgent mortui. [homo. 

Anima moritur per culpam, resurget per gratiam, 
Corpus moritur per p^nam, resurget per gloriam. 

And this on the part below: — 

Here lyeth interr'd the Body of S* Robert Lee, k"', Sonne 
and heire of Benedict Lee of Huccott, in the county of Bucks, 
Esq., who was second brother to Sir Robert Lee of Birdsthorn. 
He was born at Helstrap in the P'ish of Drayton Beauchamp, 
An" D°' 1545, June 15th, and married Dame Luce Piggott, 
Daughter to Tho* Pygot, of Beachampton in y^ County of Buck™, 
Esq., by whom he had issue viii Sonnes, viz. Sir Henry Lee, 
Knt. and Baronett, Edward, Bennett, Thomas, George, Robert, 
Richard, and Antlionie; and vi. daughters, Fraunces, Elizab., Mary, 
Marsfaret, Jovce, and Alice: when he had lived married 55 
yeares, he dep'ted this life in the faith of Jesus Christ at Stratford 
Langton in y® county of Essex, and was buried at Hardwicke, 
A" D"' 1616, Aug. 20, a^tatis 73. 

This inscription goes far to prove, therefore, that the pedigrees 
B and C are right in making Benedict Lee Sir Robert Lee's 
brother, and that pedigrees A and D are wrong. 

1. Mary Lee, daughter of Benedict Lee and Elizabeth Cheyne, 



294 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 



inarried Sir George Tyrrell, Kniglit, of Thornton, co. Bucks. 
Burke calls him Sir Edward. (Arms of Tyrrell :— Argent, two 
chevronels azure within a bordure engrailed gules.) They had 
issue Edward, who was created a Baronet 31 May, 1627, and two 
daughters. 

2. Jane Lee. 

Sir Henry Lee, Knt. of Quarrendon, eldest son of Sir 
Kobert, was created a Baronet by King James L 22nd May, 
1611. He married^ Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir Richard Wortley, Knt. of Wortley, 
CO. York, died a.d. 1631, and was buried 
at Spelsbury, co. Oxon. In the year 1613 
(10th James L) Sir Henry Lee served the 
office of High Sheriff of the county of 
Oxford, on account of his tenure of the 
manor and mansion of Ditchley, Dytchlea, 
or Ditchlee, besides his property at Charl- 
bury in the same county. He was Sheriff 
of Bucks in the year 1621. A note by 
Antony a Wood runs thus: — " Spelsbury, 
1675. On the north side of the chancel close to the wall is a faire 
table monument erected of black and white marble, with the sta- 
tues of a man and his wife lying at full length, and divers children 
kneeling at the head and feet, to the memorie of Sir Henry Lee 
who married Eleanor Wortley. This Sir Henry Lee died 1633.[?] 
But this Eleanor married thrice after his death, viz. Eatcliffe 




ARMS OF SIR HENKT LEE, 
KNIGHT AND BARONET. 



' Sir Henry Paget, brother-in-law of Sir Henry Lee, K.G. succeeded his father, 
William Lord Paget, and was the second lord, being summoned to Parliament in the 
8th year of Queen Elizabeth. He married Catharine, daughter of Sir Henry Knevett, 
knt. and had issue Elizabeth, an only daughter and heiress, who married Sir Henry 
Lee, knt. and the same therefore, in all probability, as is mentioned above. By some 
the issue of this marriage is said to have been only one daughter ; others state that 
there were no children, the wife dying young, and this latter view is certainly con- 
firmed by the fact that Thomas Paget succeeded his brother as third lord, and was 
summoned to Parliament in the 13th year of Elizabeth. This would not have been 
the case if his niece, the Lady Elizabeth Lee, had been alive, or had died leaving 
issue, for the title, being a barony in fee, would have passed to her or to her issue. — 
Vide Jordan's History of Enstone, p. 121, where these facts are given at length. On 
the other hand it is clear from the monument of Lady Lee at Aylesbury, that she had a 
grown-up daughter, Mary, and two infant sons, Henry and John, all represented on 
the monument, all of whom probably died before their mother. 



THE LEES OF QUARRENDON. 295 

Earl of Sussex, Rich Earl of Warwicke, Montagu Earl of 
Manchester." The monument referred to still remains at Spels- 
bury. From it we learn that his lady was the fourth daughter 
of Sir Richard Wortley, of Wortley, co. York, near which some 
of the Lees had continually resided, and that he had three sons, 

1. Sir Henry, who was knighted at Woodstock, Aug. 26, 1614, 
but who died s. p. unmarried; 2. Francis; and 3, Henry Antony 
(died unmarried); and four daughters, 1. Bridget; 2. Anne; 
3. Louisa; and 4. Elizabeth. 

1. Bridget, married Sir Francis Try on, of Essex, Baronet; 

2. Anne, married Sir ^Maurice Berkeley, Viscount Fitzhardinge. 
Sir Francis Lee, 2nd Baronet, married Anne, daughter of 

Sir John St. John,^ of Lydiard Tregoze, co. Wilts, who survived 
her husband, and married, secondly, Henry Earl of Rochester. 
They had issue two sons, who in turn each succeeded to the 
baronetcy. 1. Henry Lee. 2. Francis Henry Lee. 

Sir Henrt Lee, 3rd Baronet, married at Ditchley, June 4, 
1655, Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir John Danvers of 
Dauntsey in AYiltshire. They had issue two daughters, — 

1. Eleanor Lee, baptized at Ditchley June 3, 1658, married 
James Bertie, first Earl of Abingdon fcreated Xov. 30, 1682), 
and died May 31, 1691, leaving six sons. 

2. Anne. 

Sir Francis Henry Lee, 4th Baronet, married Elizabeth, 
co-heiress of Thomas Pope, Earl of Downe, (by Lucy, daughter and 
co-heiress of John Dutton, esq. of Sherborne, co. Gloucester), who 
married, secondly, Robert third Earl of Lindsey, and had issue — 

1. Edward Henry Lee, 5th Baronet. 

2. Francis Henry Lee, who married .... daughter of 
Williamson, esq. and had issue a daughter, Anne Eliza- 
beth, baptized Sept. 22, 1687, at the Lodge in Woodstock Park, 
by the Rev^R. Rowlandson, Rector of Wootton, co. Oxon. 

F. G. L. 
(^To he continued.^ 

' According to an ancient Court Roll of the manor of Spelsbury, for the year 
1532-3, it appears that there was at that date a Sir John St.John, knt. the owner of 
lands and tenements in Ditchley, and, supposing this property still to belong to that 
family, the fact in all probability led to the marriage of Sir F. H. Lee with the 
daughter of Sir John St.John. 



296 






o 






Pi 






b 






w 




oj 


hJ 




2 


>< 




C8 


o 

Pi 






^ 


^ 




o 


H 


-s 


H 


►> 


e 


P-i 


o 




<! 


w 




W 


P5 


03 


fo 


2 


oT 


O 


5 


c 




H 


S 


ci 


Oh 


O 




w 


^ 






-< 




UJ 


S 




1 


w 




<« 


W 






H 






fc 






O 






QQ 






P3 






O 






(B 






05 






H 






OQ 






OS 






o 






Ph 













^ ■^ «2 
So t: 

=« >- • ^ 

Ti 1^ ^ O 

$ — 2 -^ 

^ o o "^ 

1=^ fe e 
Of o ^ 

>: eS . 

S £ S: 

-a ■" 05 
s ^ t- 
'^ oi -a 

Ph ri o 
C ^^ 

rt tfi r- 
03 O 

"^ ^ 
=» C O i_i 

^ w •'§ 



■" =« '-2 • 



oi -d 3 -5 Oi 



if ^-s-"-' 

tB W O O =2 S rl 



So 
,9 o 



e .s 



c g S 



"S p;* 






CO • 

c=2 



a J id 

hJ O oT-g 
«^ '>-* ^ 

o C o 
^-Ph ■ 

S |3 c 

o I h2 :^ 
>Tj Pm K <3 



o 



o ... . 

c Q . --co Oi 
i-s -J «2 j: --I --I 



q; 



O) 



&J0 



l~ 



a) 






. o 



ffi -s s s ^ : 



Ih 



>> t« C |3 

?* S CM J3 



fd 43 t^ a> -13 ;3 rH 



. Ph o i-i 



^ S n .. o CO 



td <» 

liS oo ^ 

^ I-l I-H 








execut 
of her 
father' 
will;li 

1699. 


3 Tl 


(N 


a* C 






^2 



I ! 



=2P^-S 



"^ ^ ■& 



^ to 



KCL, 



. <« cu -^ 2 5D .r: '-' 

W tE r-H a rH O tn 



.g oo CO 






m -S «0 

Ol => OS 

b* -to 
? -M ^ 

a o a 

I 43 o CJ 

o o iJ 

1-5 Ph "o 



297 



DESCENT OP THE MANOR and ADVOWSON of HAMPTON 
POYLE, IN THE County of Oxford, in the Family of WEST, 
FROM 1648 to 1712. By Benjamin Wyatt Greenfield, Esq. 
Barrister at Law. 

Since the article on this subject printed in the first vokime of 
the present iNIiscellany was completed, further documents have 
enabled me to illustrate more completely the descent of the 
Manor of Hampton Poyle, when in the possession of the Family 
of West from 1648 to 1712. 

Katharine Seaman, the wife of John West, (whose marriage on 
5th Jan. 1664-5, is stated in vol. i. p. 333,) was daughter and 
sole heir of Richard Seaman of Painswick, co. Gloucester, and of 
Pantfield Priory, Essex, deceased, by his wife Katharine, daughter 
of Martin Wright, an Alderman of the city of Oxford. She 
inherited lands worth 240Z. per annum, of which the manor of 
Pantfield Priory formed part. The latter estate she brought in 
marriage to John West the younger; and thereof, by indenture 
tripartite of release, before marriage, dated 14th Oct. 1664, in 
consideration of a jointure of 200^. to be settled on her by John 
West the elder, and for other considerations, she covenanted to 
levy a fine to John West the elder and his heirs, for the purpose 
of paying 80?. per annum to Katlierine, her mother, for life, and, 
subject to that annuity, to the use of John West the younger, 
her intended husband, and herself and the issue of their marriage, 
and in default of such issue, then to the children of the survivor 
of the husband and wife. 

After her death without issue, John West the younger, on 
7tli Feb. 1669, conveyed the manor of Pantfield Priory to his 
deceased wife's uncle and trustee, William Wright the elder, an 
alderman of Oxford, who left it to his eldest son, William Wright 
the younger, afterwards Recorder of Oxford in 1688, and ap- 
pointed one of the Welsh Judges 15th Jan. 1714. He died in 
1721, leaving the estate to his eldest son, Martin Wright of the 
Inner Temple, who was made Sergeant at Law, 14th April, 1733; 
King's Sergeant, 23rd Oct. 1738; P-ron of the Exchequer, Nov. 



298 WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 

1739, and a Knight; and one of the Jvistices of the King's 
Bench, Nov. 1740. He retired from the Bench in 1755, and 
died at Fulham on 26th Sept. 1767, possessed of Pantfield Priory. 

John West the elder, being thus tenant for life, made his will, 
dated 2nd Sept. 1687, of which he made his second daughter, 
Mary, then Mary Street, widow, sole executrix, and appointed 
her his residuary legatee, who, as j\Iary Conant alias Street (being 
then wife of John Conant, LL.D. of Oxford,) duly proved the 
same, with a codicil dated 12th Aug. 1693, in the Prerog. Court 
of Canterbury, on 15th January, 1695-6. [Bond, 151.] He 
therein left various pecuniary legacies to his children and grand- 
children and others, to the value of 3000Z. and upwards. As he 
never made any specific appointment to whom the sum of 1300/., 
which by the settlement of 1664 was to be raised after his death 
and charged upon the Hampton Poyle estate, should be .paid, that 
sum was claimed by his daughter ]\Iary Conant as his executrix. 
He also bequeathed a yearly rent-charge of 61. 10s. out of lands 
in Northmore, co. Oxford, to trustees to pay yearly to the minister 
of the parish of St. Aldate, in the city of Oxford, 60s., to preach 
three sermons in that church yearly, on the 8th ]\Iay and 9th 
Oct — being the anniversaries of their deaths — in commemoration 
of his wife, and Ann West his youngest daughter, and on the 
day of the month on which he should die; and lay out on 
each occasion 20s. in a dole of bread to the poor men, women, 
and children of that parish who happen to be present; and apply 
the residue in payment of the clerk's dues, and for keeping clean 
the WEST aisle and monument erected by him in St. Aldate's 
Church, in which church he desires his body to be interred. 

On his decease, which took place on 8th Jan. 1695-6, he was 
succeeded in the possession of the manor and premises of Hamp- 
ton Poyle and Hundred of Ploughley and office of bailiff of the 
same, by his only son, John West the younger, as tenant in 
tail male general under the settlement of 1664, whose first wife, 
Katharine Seaman, died without issue. John West the younger's 
second wife was a widow of the name of Portington. By her he 
had no issue; and he married, thirdly, Elizabeth Palmer, by 
whom he had no issue, and who was livins; as his widow in 1717. 



WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 299 

He made his will on 30th April, 1712, and therein appointed 
Elizabeth his wife sole executrix and residuary legatee, devising 
to her all his copyhold lands in the county of Oxford called 
Turley FaTm, in the tithing of Haley and in the manor of 
Witney, for her own absolute use; and leaving to her his manor 
of Hampton Poyle, the Hundred of Ploughley, and office of 
bailiff thereof, and two hams in Kidlington-on-the-Green, in 
trust, to sell the same, and out of the monies thence arising to 
pay and satisfy all his debts. 

By Indentures of lease and release, dated 14th and 15th Feb. 
1695-6, made between John West of Hampton Poyle, esq. son 
and heir of John West, esq. deceased, of the first part; Joseph 
Offley of the Middle Temple, London, esq. of the second part; 
Edward Barry of Hampton Gay, and Win wood Serjeant of 
Wickham, co. Bucks, esquires, of the third part, he made a 
settlement of his estate tail in the manor and premises of Hamp- 
ton Poyle, subject to a mortgage of 1000/., with interest at the 
rate of 5 per cent, per annum, to the said Joseph OfHey; and by 
indenture tripartie, dated 20th July, 1698, between himself of 
the first part; the said Winwood Serjeant, esq. and Thomas 
Norton, of Clifford's Inn, London, and of the Six Clerks' Office 
in Chancery, gentleman, of the second part; and the said Joseph 
Offley of the third part, he made a further mortgage of the 
premises (probably to meet the expenses of an action in the 
Court of King's Bench mentioned below), for securing a further 
sum of 250/. lent by the said Joseph Offley, with interest at the 
rate of 6 per cent, per annum. 

On the decease of John West the elder. Dr. Conant and his 
wife took possession of the premises of Hampton Poyle, ]\Irs. 
Conant, as sole executrix of her father's will, claiming the 1300/. 
charged on the premises by the settlement of 1664, with interest 
from the time of his death, and refused to give up possession 
until the money was paid. Thomas Eowney and William 
Wright esquires, who were the respective sons and heirs of the 
surviving trustees under that settlement, likewise refused, the 
former, to join in raising the 1300/. by mortgage of the premises, 
the latter, to surrender his estate therein, without having a decree 



300 AVEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 

of the Court of Chancery to protect them ; consequently, in Easter 
term 1696, John AVest, esq. son and heir of John West, late of 
Hampton Poyle, esq. deceased, preferred his bill of complaint in 
the Court of Chancery against John Conant, LL.D. and Llary 
his wife, Thomas Rowney, and William Wright, esquires, and 
others, as to his having free possession of the capital messuage of 
the manor of Hampton Poyle with its appurtenances, the Hun- 
dred of Ploughley and office of bailiff of the said hundred, and as 
to the payment of the 1300/. charged thereon, in order that he 
might be relieved of the claim. The cause having come to full 
hearing in Michaelmas term following before the Master of the 
EoUs, it was ordered and decreed on 27th Oct. 1696, that the 
defendants, Dr. and Mrs. Conant, be paid 1300^., with interest at 
the rate of 6 per cent, per annum from the time of the death of 
John West the father, together with their costs of suit, and dis- 
counting what Dr. Conant had received out of the profits of the 
premises, — the computation of what was due to Dr. and Mrs, 
Conant being referred to Sir Miles Cooke, one of the Masters in 
Chancery; that immediately upon payment being made at such 
time and place as the said Master might appoint, the defendants 
Conant and Rowney should execute an assignment of the term of 
500 years to the plaintiff, or to such person as he might appoint; 
the defendants Conant and Wright deliver over to the plaintiff 
all deeds, evidences, &c. relating to the premises; and the defen- 
dant Wright execute a grant and surrender to the plaintiff of all 
the estate which he held in the premises under the settlement of 
1664. 

Accordingly, by indenture dated 27th Nov. 1696, and en- 
rolled in Chancery 1st December following, between William 
Wright of Oxford, esq. son and heir of William Wright, late of 
Oxford, deceased, of the one part, and John West, of Hampton 
Poyle, esq. son and heir of John West, late of Hampton Poyle, 
esq. deceased, of the other part, Wright bargains and sells all 
right and title in the premises to West. IClose Roll, 8 W. III. 
p. 4, No. 5.] 

On 25th Aug. 1697, the Master made his report, containing 
the following computation, viz. : 



WEST, OF HAMPTON TOYLE, CO. OXFORD. 301 

Principal sum £1300 

Interest at 6 per cent, from 8 Jan. 1695-6 

(on wliicli day plaintiff's father died) 

to 30th Sept. 1697 134 14 6 

Amount paid on the premises by the 

Conants 18 10 91- 

Defendants' Bill of Costs £71 17s. 9(7. 

taxed at 32 7 7 

£1485 12 lOi 
Less amount received by Dr. Conant 

out of the profits of the premises . 130 6 10| 

Amount of balance due to Dr. and ]\Irs. 

Conant £1355 6 



Which amount, by order dated 16 Sept. 9 W. III. 1697, the 
Master appointed the plaintiff to pay to Dr. Conant at the Chapel 
of the Rolls on tlie 30th following ; and at the same time and 
place the defendants Conant and Rowney to execute the assign- 
ment of the term of 500 years, as specified in the decree of the 
court. 

In order to meet this payment, John West raised £1600 on a 
further mortgage of the premiises, as is shown by the three fol- 
lowing abstracts. 

By Indenture quadripartite, dated 30th Sept. 9 W. III. 1697, 
between John West, of Hampton Poyle, esq. son and heir of 
John West, esq. deceased, of the first part; John Conant, doctor 
of laws, and ]\Iary his wife, one of the daughters of the said 
John West deceased, and sole executrix of his will, of the second 
part; Thomas Rowney, of the city of Oxford, esq. son and heir 
of Thomas Rowney deceased, of the third part; and Christopher 
Clitherow of Boston, near New Brentford, co. Middlesex, and 
John Elwick of London, mercer, of the fourth part; in con- 
sideration of 1355Z. 6s. paid to Dr. Conant by Clitherow (being 
part of 16007. consideration money mentioned in the next 
noticed indenture), the Conants and Rowney, by the appointment 
of West, assign the term of 500 years in the premises to Elwick 
in trust for Clitherow; and by another indenture, of even date 



302 WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 

with the next above, between the said John West and Elizabeth 
his wife of the one part; and the said Christopher Clitherow 
and John Stevens of London, linendraper, of the other part; 
in consideration of 1600Z. paid by Clitherow, the Wests grant 
and convey the reversion, freehold, and inheritance of the pre- 
mises of Hampton Poyle to Stevens, in trust for Clitherow; 
with condition to be void on West's paying to Clitherow 1696^. 
being principal and interest for one year at rate of 6 per cent. 

In Michaelmas term 1697 a fine was levied in corroboration of 
the above conveyance, between the said John West and Elizabeth 
his wife querents, and the said Clitherow and Stevens defor- 
ciants, after the said John West had been in 'possession of the 
premises; and on the 24th Nov. 1697, a deed indented was 
effected between the said John West and Elizabeth his wife of 
the first part, and the said Winwood Serjeant, esq. and Thomas 
Norton, gentleman, of the other part, for declaring the uses of 
the above fine levied to Clitherow and Stevens. 

In Hilary term 1698, i\Ir. West brought an action in the Court 
of King's Bench, in the name of William Wright, esq. the 
representative of the surviving trustee under the marriage settle- 
ment of 1664, against Dr. Conant and his wife, as sole executrix 
of John West the elder, to enforce compensation for an unful- 
filled covenant in that settlement that the jointure lands should 
remain of the yearly value of 200^. for ever, and obtained judg- 
ment : whereupon Dr. and Mrs. Conant filed their Bill in 
Chancery, 28th Nov. 1698, against West and Wright, and ob- 
tained an injunction restraining ]\Ir. West, until Michaelmas term 
1699, from executing a writ of inquiry as to what damages he 
had sustained. Accordingly, in that term the writ of inquiry 
was executed, when the jury gave Mr. West 2001. damages and 
costs; whereupon, in Hilary term, 1699-1700, Mr. West moved 
the Court of Chancery to dissolve the Conants' injunction. 

By these protracted proceedings in law and equity, and other 
causes, Mr. West was forced to raise further sums of money on 
mortgage of the premises, as is shown by the following abstracts. 
By two indentures tripartite, dated 2nd Sept. 11 Will. HI. 1699, ' 
the one between John West of Hampton Poyle, esq. son and 
heir of John West, esq. deceased, of the first part; the said 



WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 330 

Christopher Clitherow and John Elwick of the second part; and 
^^'illIam Lord Digby, Baron of Geashill in Ireland, and Edward 
Birch of Leacroft, co. Stafford, esq. Serjeant at law, of the third 
part; the other between the said John "West of the first part; 
the said Clitherow and John Stevens of the second part; and 
the said William Lord Digby and Michael Noble of the Middle 
Temple, London, esq. of the third part; for the purpose of raising 
600?., and transferring the mortgage for 1600/. from Clitherow 
to Lord Digby, in consideration of 2200?. advanced by Lord 
Digby, viz.: of 1600?. paid, at West's direction, by Lord Digby 
to Clitherow, and 600Z. by Lord Digby to West, the inheritance 
in Hampton Poyle and Hundred of Ploughley with the appurte- 
nances is, by the last deed, released and conveyed by West and 
Stevens to ]\Iichael Noble in trust for Lord Digby ; and, as a further 
security, the term of 500 years in the premises is, by the first 
deed, assigned by Elwick — under the direction of Clitherow and 
ratification of West — to Mr. Serjeant Birch, in trust for Lord 
Digby; with condition to be void on payment of 2255?., being 
principal and interest at rate of 5 per cent, for six months. 

In May 1702, Mr. West raised a further sum of 2550?. by 
borrowing 6000?. of Sir Edward Sebright, bart. on mortgage of 
the premises, and transferring to him the mortgage to Ofiley for 
1250?. and that to Lord Digby for 2200?. as is shown by the 
three following abstracts: 

By indenture quadripartite, dated 22nd May, 1702, between the 
said John West, esq. of the first part; the said Joseph Ofiley, 
esq. of the second part; Sir Edward Sebright of Besford Court, 
CO. Worcester, bart. of the third part; and Christopher Dightou 
of the Middle Temple, gentleman, of the fourth part; Ofiley, by 
the appointment of West, assigns his mortgage on the premises 
to Dighton, in trust for Sir Edward Sebright, for securing, with 
interest, 1250?. paid to Ofiley by Sir Edward Sebright. 

By indenture quinquepartite dated 22nd IMay, 1702, between the 
said John West of the first part, the said Edward Birch of the 
second part, the said William Lord Digby and I\Iichacl Xoble of 
the third part, the said Sir Edward Sebright, bart., of the fourth 
part, and James AVittewrong, of Lincoln's Inn, esq. of the fifth 
part, in consideration of 2,200?. paid by Sir Edward Sebright to 



304 WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 

Lord Digby, Birch by the appointment and direction of West 
and Lord Digby, assigns the term of 500 years, and Lord Digby 
and Noble, by the direction of West, release the inheritance of 
the premises to Wittewrong to hold both in trust for Sir Edward 
Sebright and his heirs for securing the 2,200/. 

By indenture tripartite of defeasance dated 22nd May, 1702, 
between the said John West of the first part, the said Sir Edward 
Sebright, bart., of the second part, and the said James Witte- 
wrong and Christopher Dighton of the third part, the convey- 
ance of the premises to Sir Edward Sebright and his trustees is 
to become void on payment by West of 6,000/. with interest at 
the rate of 5 per cent, per annum. This defeasance bears an 
endorsement, dated 23rd June, 1705, whereby West acknowledges 
to have borrowed a further sum of 1,000/. at 5 per cent, of 
Edward Sayer and John Coppyn, esquires, executors of the last 
will of Sir Edward Sebright, bart., deceased; 900/., part thereof, 
being for three years' interest due, on 23rd May preceding, on the 
6,000/. secured on the above mortgage. 

Sir Edward Sebright died on 15th December, 1702, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Saunders Sebright, who was 
then vmder age. By his last will dated 9th Sept., 1699, he 
appointed Edward Sayer and John Coppyn, esquires, to be his 
executors and trustees of all his personal estate. 

On 19th May, 7 Anne, 1708, a decree in Chancery was pro- 
nounced in a cause between the said Edward Sayer and John 
Coppyn, as executors of Sir Edward Sebright, bart., deceased, 
James Wittewrong and Thomas Barker, as executors of Christo- 
pher Dighton, deceased, and Sir Thomas Saunders Sebright, 
bart., an infant, plaintiffs, and John West and Elizabeth his 
wife, Thomas Norton and Winwood Serjeant, defendants, order- 
ing computation of what was due to plaintiffs for principal and 
interest in respect of the 6,000/. secured on the above mortgage, 
no portion of the interest or capital having been paid up by 
West, and ordering West and his wife to pay the same within 
two years and a half from the date of reporting the computation. 
The Master, by his Report dated 23rd June, 1708, computed prin- 
cipal, interest, and costs of suit due to plaintiffs down to 23rd Dec, 
1710, at 9,008/, 16^^., and ordered the same to be paid on 23rd 



WEST, OF HAMPTON POYLE, CO. OXFORD. 305 

Sept. 1710, at the Chapel of the KoUs, which report was con- 
firmed on 29th June, 1710. West and his wife not having com- 
plied with this decree, nor having paid any part of the principal 
and interest or costs, it was, by a subsequent order made on 
2nd Feb., 10 Anne, 1711-2, ordered that the said John West 
should stand absolutely foreclosed and debarred of all right and 
equity of redemption of the mortgaged premises. 

Sir Thomas Saunders Sebright, bart., on coming*^ of age in 
1715, took possession of Hampton Poyle, and exercised all the 
rights of lord of the manor. 

By indenture dated 26th June, 1717, between Sir Thomas 
Saunders Sebright of Beechwood, Herts, bart. of the one part, 
and the Eight Hon. Arthur, Earl of Anglesey, of the other part, 
an agreement is entered into between them, viz., for the conside- 
ration of 10,000^. the Earl of Anglesey agrees to purchase the 
manor and premises of Hampton Poyle with the appurtenances, the 
hundred of Poughlow alias Ploughley, and the office of bailiff of 
the said hundred from Sir Thomas, or from any other person 
seized or possessed thereof in trust for him, or for his father Sir 
Edward Sebright, bart. deceased ; and Sir Thomas agrees to 
convey to the Earl an absolute indefeasible estate in the premises 
in fee, clear of all incumbrances. In pursuance whereof. 

By separate indentures of bargain and sale enrolled, dated 16th 
Jan. 1717-8, and of lease and release of the same date and the day 
next before, made between Elizabeth West, widow, Edward Sayer 
of Berkhampstead, Herts, esq., and John Coppyn of Marketsell, 
Herts, esq., executors of the will of Sir Edward Sebright, bart. 
deceased, and Sir Thomas Saunders Sebright, bart., eldest son 
and heir of the said Sir Edward Sebright, bart. deceased, of the 
one part; Arthur, Earl of Anglesey, Francis Annesley, and 
Thomas Barsham, esquires, of the other part; the said manor and 
premises, hundred, and office of bailiff, etc. were granted, sold, 
and released in fee to the said Francis Annesley and Thomas 
Barsham, in trust for the said Arthur Axnesley, Earl of 
Anglesey: which conveyance was further confirmed by fine 
levied in Easter term, 4 Geo. I. 1717-8, between the said Francis 
Annesley and Thomas Barsham, querents, and the said Elizabeth 

VOL. in. X 



306 



PEDIGREE OF GREY, EARL OF KENT. 



West, widow, Edward Sayer, John Coppyn, and Sir Tliomas 
Saunders Sebright, bart. deforciants. 



Corrections and Additions to tlie Descent of the Manor and Advowson of 
Hampton Poyle. Vol. I. 

P. 324, 1. 5 from foot, after "commander," add He was knighted at Whitehall in 
1604. 

P. 325, 1. 7. from foot, after " Knt." add She was eldest daughter of Sir William 
More of Loseley, near Guildford, Knt. Her first husband was Richard Polsted of 
Albury, Surrey, and her third Sir Thomas Egerton, Knt. Lord Keeper (afterwards 
Lord Ellesmere and Lord Chancellor); by neither of whom had she issue. She died 
in January, 1599-1600, and was buried beside her second husband in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

P. 326, 1. 2, for " 11 years," read 12 years. 

P. „ , 1. 3, /or "1584," read 1583; and after " Sir Francis Wolley," «cZ(^ was 
knighted at the Charterhouse 11th May, 1603; and 

P. „ , 1. 8 from foot, dele " Knt." and add being knighted at Theobalds 31st 
Oct. 1615. 

P. 327, 1. 3 from foot, after " 1596," insert The following scheme of descent con- 
tains particulars not recorded in Dugdale's Baronage under title : Grey, E. of Kent : — 

Henry Grey, of Wrest, Beds, 1st hush, died v.p.=^Margaret, sis-=pFrancis Pigott, of 
20 March, 1545, bur. at Flitton, Beds.; son of ter of Oliver, | Stratton, Beds, 2nd 
Sir Henry Grey, of Wrest, who died 24 Sept. 
1662 (brother and heir of Richard, Earl of 
Kent, who died s.p. 1523), by Ann, dau. of 
John Blenerhasset. 

I 



Lord St. John, 
of Bletsho, 
Beds. 



n— 1 — 

1. Reginald, 

2. Henry, 

3. Charles; 
successively 
Earls of 
Kent. 



husb. marr. circa 
1547 to Margaret, 
who was his second 
wife. 



Winifred, 1st wife, sole dau. and heiress=pJohn Pigott,: 



of Thomas Sankey, Esq. of Edlesho- 
rough, Bucks, by Alice, dau. of Rafe 
Hawtrey, of Rislip, Middlesex, mar. in 
her 21st, and died in her 31st year, 12 
May, 1592. 



barrister-at- 
law, of Stud- 
ham, Beds., 
and Edles- 
bro', Bucks. 



^Winifred, 2nd 
wife, dau. of 
Ambrose Dor- 
mer, and wid. 
of Sir William 
Hawtrey. of 
Chequers, Knt. 

r-T- r-T ' I -" 

I.Thomas, Margery, Frances Pigott, bo. Catherine Pigott, bo. 3 July, 1596, co- 
born 1586. 1)0. 1584. 1590, mar. to heir of her mother, mar. to VVm. Plais- 
2. Henry, Alice. Henry Bruges. tow,pf Lee, Bucks, and died Aug. 1656. 

P. 328, 1. 10, for " 31st June," read 30th June. 

P. ^28, dele I. 12 — 16, and after " Plaistovve," insert, This she enjoyed for only 
15 months, as she died in August or Sept. 1656, and administration of her effects, as 
" Katlierine Plaistowe, alias Pigott, late of Lee alias Ley, co. Bucks, deceased," was 
granted to [William] P/aistowe, the lawful Jmsband," in the Prerog. Court of Canter- 
bury, on 15th Oct. 1656. Between 1628 and 1638 she married to WiUiam Plais- 
towe, of Little Hampden, Bucks, who for many years acted as steward to Mary Lady 
WoUey. He afterwards settled at Lee, near Little Hampden. They had issue two 
sons, Samuel and Thomas Plaistowe. The latter died 20th Sept. 1715, in his 87th 



ADDENDA TO HAMPTON POYLE. 307 

year, and was buried at Lee. From him is descended Mr. Deering, the present pro- 
prietor of the estate at Lee. 

P. 329, 1. 3 from foot, after " inheritance," insert The following is a verbatim copy 
of General Fairfax's Original Passport to Sir Robert Croke, printed on parchment, 
and certified with his autograph signature at foot, preserved in the Public Record 
Office among the Royalist Composition Pa2iers. Second Series, vol. xxv. p. 639: — 
" Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knight, Generall of the Forces raised by the Parliament. 

" Suffer the Bearer hereof, Sir Robert Croke, Kt. who was in the City and Garri- 
son of Oxford at the Surrender thereof, and is to have the full benefit of the Articles • 
agreed unto upon the Surrender, quietly and without let or interruption, to pass your 
guards with his Servants, Horses, Amies, Goods, and all other necessaries, and to 
repaire unto London or elsewhere upon his necessary Occasion; And in all Places 
where he sliall reside, or whereto he shall remove, to be protected from any Violence 
to his Person, Goods, or Estate according to the said Articles, and to have full 
Liberty at any time within Six Months to goe to any convenient Port, and to Trans- 
port himselfe with his Servants, Goods, and Necessaries beyond the Seas, And in all 
other things to enjoy the Benefit of the said Articles. Hereunto due obedience is to 
be given by all Persons whom it may concerne, as they will answer the contrary. 
Given under my Hand and Scale, the 24th di^of June, 1646. 

" To All Officers And Souldiers under my Command, and " Fairfax. 

to all others whom it may concerne.'" 

P. 337, Table I. third descent from foot, Edward Gaynesford, of Idbury, was living 
ill 1550. 

P. 337, Table I. last descent but one, John Gaynesford, of Idbury, was living in 
1574. 

P. 337, Table I. last descent ; besides Christian there were three other daughters, 
viz., Ann, Alice, and Liicy. 

Arms of John Gaynesford, of Idbury, as recorded by Richard Lee, Portcullis, in the 
Visitation of Oxfordshire, 1 574 : Quarterly of four coats : — 

1. Argent, a chevron gules between three greyhounds in full course sable, Gaynes- 
ford. 

2. Argent, a saltire gules within a bordure sable bezantee, De la Poyle. 

3. Argeut, a chevron between three buckles, tongues fess-wise, sable, Croxford. 

4. Sable, three garbs or, banded argent, Nowers. 

Crest : on a wreath argent and gules, a demi-woman sable, vested and crined or, in 
the dexter hand a chaplet vert, in the sinister a rose proper. 

The presence, in an heraldic visitation in 1574, of the De la Poyle coat in the 
Gaynesford shield of quarterings may be accepted as further evidence of blood alli- 
ance of the two families. 

P. 339, Table II. last descent, Susan Vanlore, wife of Sir Robert Croke : uflev 
" mar." add at St. Andrew's, Holborn, 29 July; 1634. 

Family of Vanlore, p. 371, 1. 27, after " Catherine, married," add at St. Alphage, 
Cripplegate, 21st June, 1619, to Sir Thomas Giemham, etc. 

L. 29, after " Middlesex," add who died in 1625, s.p. 

o ^i ^ T\r ^QaK BeNJ. W. GREENFIELD. 

ciouthampton, May, lobo. 



X 2 



308 



THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUKEFEY, AND DUDLEY. 
To the Editor o/The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — In reading your article upon Mr. Adlard's account of the 
American family of Dudley ,i it occurred to me that I might be able to 
throw a glimmer of light upon the early history of the most interesting 
character in the family group, Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachu- 
setts, the founder of the American line. I have for some time refrained 
from sending you the little information I am able to give in the hope 
that I might increase it by further inquiries, but I have not been able 
substantially to do so. My information relates to the families of Purefey 
and Nicolls, which are supposed to have been connected with that of 
Dudley. 

The earliest protectress of Thomas Dudley is stated in Cotton 
Mather's account to have been"" Mrs. Purfroy, a gentlewoman famed 
in the parts about Northampton for wisdom, piety, and works of 
charity ; " and his later patron is said to have been <' Judge Nichols, 
who, being his kinsman also by the mother's side, took more special 
notice of him." Mr. Adlard, without having clearly made out who 
Judge Nichols was, assumed that he was in some way connected with 
Mrs. Purefoy, and acting upon this assumption he appears to have 
hastily identified him with a Nicols of Devonshire, mentioned in the 
Purefoy pedigree to have married Dorothy, daugher of Michael Pure- 
foy, of Caldecote, co. Warwick.^ There can be no doubt, as you 
observe in your notice, that by Judge Nichols is meant Sir Augustin 
Nicolls, Justice of the Common Pleas 1612 — 1616 ;3 who is well 
known to have been a Northamptonshire man, and whose connection 
with Mrs. Purefoy, or Purefey, I shall presently shew. I have taken 
considerable trouble to solve the question in what way Thomas Dudley 
was a kinsman of Sir Augustin Nicolls, but without success. In order 
to put Mr. Adlard in the way of further inquiry, I will furnish such 
information as I can of the connections and alliances of Thomas 
Dudley's protectress and patron. 

' Herald and Genealogist, vol. II. p. 409. 

^ Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 601. 

' Sir Augustin Nicolls's patent as justice, dated 26 Nov. 1612, is stated by Dug. 
dale (Orig. Juridic. Chronica Series, p. 102) to have been recalled ; but on his 
tomb he is said to have laboured in his calling of a judge for four years (Bridges, 
History of Northamptonshire, vol. ii. p. 95). This is explained by Mr. Foss (Judges 
of England, vol. vi. p. 172). 



THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFET, AND DUDLEY. 309 

William Nicolls, the grandfather of Sir Augustin, is the first of his 
family whose name is remembered."* He was lord of the manor of 
Clay Coton, in Northamptonshire, of which he levied a fine, 4 Philip 
and Mary, 1557-8,^ and appears to have resided at Ecton, in the same 
county; where his son Thomas was born, about 1530, and his grand- 
son, Augustin, about 1560.^ He died 7th Sept. 1575, aged 96, and is 
described upon his monument at Hardwick, co. Northampton, as 
* GuUelmus Nicolls, generosus, pater Thome Nicolls, armigeri, de- 
functi.' No will of William Nicolls can be found, either at Doctor's 
Commons or at Northampton. 

Thomas Nicolls, the father of the judge, is said by Fuller to have 
been a serjeant-at-law." This I think is a mistake. His name does 
not occur in Dugdale's list of Serjeants,^ and in his will, dated 25 
March, 1568, three months before his death, and proved in the Prei'ogative 
Court of Canterbury in the same year, he describes himself as Thomas 
Nicolls of Pichelye, in the county of Northampton, gentleman. The 
same document however shows him to have been a lawyer, since he 
leaves to Edward GryfFyn, esquire, his two books of " Fitzharbert's 
Abrydgement and the Table to the same," and he directs the rest of 
his books, " as well such as concerne the law as others," to be divided 
among his sons. He appears to have resided a part of the year in 
London, for the purpose of his practice, for he directs his executors 
to dispose of the lease of his " house in the Old Baihe, in the suburbes 
of London, and all the hangings and joined works there, except only 
the bedstedes, chaires, and stools," for the payment of his debts. He 
disposes in favor of his sons of sundry estates in the counties of North- 
ampton and Dorset, and devises to his wife Ann Nicolls the rectory 
and parsonage of Pichely, in which he then dwelt. He bequeaths to 
his singular good father William Nicolls a silver cup which he had of 
him, and also Sir Henry Corapton's cup. He bequeaths ten shillings 
to the poor folks in Eckton, where he was born, as well as like sums 

* In the pedigree entered in the Visitation of Northamptonshire, 1619, the name of 
William Nicolls is not given, but immediately above Thomas Nicolls, " . . . . Nicolls 
del North, temp. E. 4, et de Eckton in com. Northampton." 

* Bridges's History of Northamptonshire, vol. i. p. 549. 

* Fuller's "Worthies, Northamptonshire. 

^ Fuller's Worthies, Northamptonshire, Serjeants' Inn, according to the obligmg 
information of Serjeant Gaselee, the present Treasurer, and of my friend Serjeant 
Manning, whose learning respecting the antiquities of his order is so well known, is 
absolutely bare of any records capable of throwing light upon the point. 

" Origines Juridiciales, ap?^'«. 



310 THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY. 

to other parishes ; and a ring to his servant and kinsman Edward Pell. 
He forgives to Mr. Mordaunt the arrears of the annuity of 6Z. 13s. Ad. 
granted to the testator by my lord his grandfather and himself. This 
was probably one of those annuities pro concilio imj)enso et impendendo, 
which were so agreeably familiar to our early lawyers, and appears to 
shew the testator to have been retained by lord Mordaunt as of his 
counsel.i^ That Thomas Nicolls practised his profession with extraor- 
dinary success is proved by the fact that, although he died at the early 
age of thirty-eight and in the lifetime of his father, he left a very con- 
siderable landed estate in the county of Northampton and elsewhere. 
Among the creditors of Thomas Nicolls, mentioned in a schedule to his 
will, is William Nicolls, of Much Billing, the sum owed being 30/. : and 
William Nicolls 'phisitian,' (probably the same person) is a witness to his 
will. His children mentioned in the will were four sons, Francis, 
Augustin, Lewis, and William, and three daughters, Susan, Ann, and 
Margery. Thomas Nicolls died 29th June, 1568, and was buried at 
Picheley . It is probable, though I have not been able to obtain certain 
proof of it, that Thomas Nicolls of Pichelye ■was identical with Thomas 
Nicolls of the Middle Temple, who was Header of that Society in 
1566, and assistant at the Lent Eeading in 1567, and whose arms 
(Sable, three j^heons argent, the same as those of Sir Augustin Nicolls) 
are in one of the windows of Middle Temple Hall. The Eegister of 
that Inn, which ought to have contained the entry of Thomas Nicolls, 
is missing from 1524 to 1551, and in the entry of Sir Augustin Nicolls 
it will be seen that the status of his father is not very distinctly shown. 
The Reader of 1566 does not appear to have lived to attain the honour 
of a double Eeadership, which in the ordinary course of things he 
would have done about seven years after his first Reading. 

Ann, the wife of Thomas Nicolls of Pichelye, is described in the 
Pedigrees of the family of Nicolls entered in the Visitations of North- 
amptonshire and Leicestershire in 1619, as daughter of John Pell of 
Eltington, co. Northampton. No pedigree of the family of Pell ap- 
pears to have been entered; but some notices of them, derived from 
inquisitions post mortem and other records, are found in the manorial 
history of Eltington in Bridges's County History. Thomas Pell pur- 
chased a portion of that manor in 7 Edw. VI. and another portion 4 

^ I have assumed that the grantor of this annuity was John first lord Mordaunt. 
who died in 1562; but his son John second lord Mor Jaunt was living in 1568. 
Lewis Mordaunt, the only issue of the second lord, named by Collins, is stated to have 
been knighted in 1567. (Collins'^ Peerage.) 



THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY. 311 

and 5 Phil, and Mar. and died 1 Eliz. leaving Edward Pell his grand- 
son and heir. John Pell purchased a moiety of the manor 3 Eliz. and 
died 23 Eliz. seised of lands in the tenure of Thomas Pell, leaving 
Richard Pell his son and heir.i Mrs. NicoUs after the death of her 
husband was married to Richard Purefey, who appears, if I rightly 
understand an entry in the pedigree of Purefey which will be hereafter 
mentioned, to have been the third son of Edward Purefey of Shalston, 
CO. Bucks.2 That she was remarried to one of this family is proved 
by her monument formerly existing at Faxton in Northamptonshire, 
which was surmounted by the arms of Purefey (Gules, three pairs of 
hands conjoined argent) impaling those of Pell, (Argent, a bend be- 
tween two mullets sable), and in which she is desci-ibed as "Ann .... 
mother of Judge NichoUs, who .... day of February .... in the 82 
yeare of her age;"-' and still more conclusively by the will of her 
son Lewis Nicolls, in which she is named as " my mother Mrs. Ann 
Purifie." We find her name " Ann Purefey '' as a witness to the bap- 
tisms of several children of her son WiUiam Nicholls, of Tilton, co. 
Leicester, in the extracts from a family bible printed in Nichols's 
Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 1137, the last occasion on which her name so 
appears being on the 3rd March, 1G13. Richard Purefey, her husband, 
was the purchaser of an estate at Faxton in Northamptonshire,'* about 
ten miles north of Northampton, where was afterwards her residence, 
and that of her son Sir Augustin Nicolls ;5 and there can be little 
doubt that this I\Irs. Purefey was the gentlewoman famed in the parts 
about Northampton for her piety and charity, to whom Thomas Dudley 
was so much indebted in his early years. A religious temperament 
was hereditary in her family, and her son Sir Augustin Nicolls, like 
the other patrons and friends of Dudley, was attached to the Puritan 
teaching. " His forbearing to travail on the Lord's day wrought a 
reformation in some of his own order. He loved plain and profitable 
preaching, being wont to say, ' I know not what you call Puritanical 
Sermons, but they come nearest to my conscience.' " ^ Mrs. Purefey 's 
will, in which, if it could be found, some mention of Thomas Dudley 

' Bridges's Histoi7 of Northamptonshire, vol. i. p. 565. 

2 See Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 600. 

3 Bridges's Hist, of Northampt. vol. ii. p. 96 ; Nichols's Hist. Leic. vol. iii. p. 479. 
The surname is defaced, but the first letter is given in both these accounts as B. 

■* Index to Chancery Proceedings, temp. Eliz. vol. ii. pp. 260, 326. 
* Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 479. 
•^ Fuller's Worthies, Northamptonshire. 



312 THE FAMILIES OP NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY. 

might be expected, Las been sought in vain at Doctors' Commons and 
in the Northampton Registiy. 

Francis Nicolls of Hardwick, co. Northampton, the eldest son of 
Thomas Nicolls, is said to have been governor of Tilbury Fort in 1588, 
and to have died 1st April, 1604, aged 47 J I have been equally un- 
successful in endeavouring to discover the record of his will either in 
London or at Northampton. His son Francis Nicolls of Hardwick 
was knight of the shire of Northampton in 1627, and sheriff of the 
county in 1631; was created a Baronet in 1641; and died 4th March, 
1642. He married Mary, daughter of Edward Bagshaw, and step- 
daughter of his uncle Sir Augustin Nicolls, and by her had issue, 
whose history I shall not now further pursue. 

Sir Augustin Nicolls, the second son of Thomas Nicolls, was accord- 
ing to Fuller born at Ecton, co. Northampton, which was, as we have 
seen, the residence of his grandfather, William Nicolls. He was 
entered at the Middle Temple, when about sixteen years of age. The 
register of his admission is shorter and less formal than usual, having 
been omitted and subsequently inserted in the page, ex relatione the 
Treasurer or Reader who admitted him. It is as follows : 

5 Nov. 1575. Mr. Augustinus Nicholls filius M' Nichols de Banco de Northampton 
admissus est. Per me Plm' Cole. Ex relatione sua propria. 

Unless the words de Banco are a mere miswriting for de comitatii, they 
must, I think, be' understood to mean a ' bencher of this Inn.' This de- 
scription would be applicable to Thomas Nicolls the Reader of 1567. 
Benchers' sons were frequently admitted without ' fine,' or upon payment 
of a lower amount, and in all the formal enti'ies the amount of fine or 
cause of exemption is stated. Of this nothing is said in the entry before us, 
and it is probable that Augustin Nicolls, as the first son of a bencher 
applying for admission, had the advantage of exemption. His brother 
William was admitted five years later, and is more formally entered, as 
follows : 

1581, 26 Feb. Mr. Will' Nicholls nuper de Novo Hospitio generosus filius quartus 
Thomoe Nicholls de Picheley in comitatu Northampton admissus et obligatus una cum 
Augustino Nicholls fratre sue : dat de fine xx'. 

For a further account of Sir Augustin Nicolls I must refer to Fuller's 
Worthies, and Mr. Foss's Lives of the Judges. I may mention that we 
have among our manuscripts in Lincoln's Inn, " Les conceits Augustini 
ISHchols sur le Statute 32 Hen. 8, de Devises," probably the notes of 

^ Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. iii, pp. 478, 480. 



THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY. 313 

some reading in his Inn. He is stated in the Pedigrees before referred 
to, to have married Mary daughter . . . Heming, or Hemiugs, of London, 
and widow of Edward Bagshaw of London.^* Upon his monument 
are the arms of his father and mother, Sable, three pheons argent, 
Nicolls, impaling Argent, a bend between two mullets sable. Pell; and 
his own arms, Nicolls, with a crescent for difference, impaling Gules, 
on a fess between three mascles or, three escallops of the first, within a 
bordure engrailed of the second seme with torteaux. These arms appear 
among those granted by Sir Christopher Barker, Garter King of Arms, 
between 1536 and 1548, to Thomas Hemminge of Hitchine in the 
county of Hertford. The family of Heming does not occur among 
the Hertfordshire gentry, and the grantee was very probably connected 
with London, There is in the Heralds' College a short pedigree entered 
by a Roger Hemming (son of William) living in 1633, probably by a 
different family, — by whom the same arms were claimed, but the claim 
was respited for want of proof. 

Sir Augustin Nicolls died without issue 3rd August, 1616, at Kendal 
in Westmerland, while sitting there as Justice of Assize. A handsome 
monument with a long inscription was erected to him at Faxton, and 
another with a like inscription at Kendal.s His will, written in his 
own hand, but without date, was proved by his nephew, Francis Nicolls, 
on the 21st August, 1616, in the Prerogative Court. He describes 
himself as Augustin Nicolls of Faxton, co. Northampton, knight, 
Justice of the Common Pleas, being well in health but moved to a 
serious consideration of mortality by the late death of his wife, and 
since of his mother, both within the year. He directs his burial to be 
in the chancel of the chapel at Faxton, and that a monument be made 
like that of his wife at Bath, but with a figure of himself in his judge's 
robes of scarlet. He disposes of hereditaments at Broughton; settles 
his manor and lands of Faxton upon his nephews Francis and William 
and their sons in strict settlement; devises the rectory of Tilton to his 
nephew William for life, with remainder to his wife Joyce, and to his 
sons ; and bequeaths the several legacies mentioned in a schedule to 
his will. This schedule, in which we might expect to find the name of 
the judge's protege Thomas Dudley, is unfortunately not registered 
with the will, and being preserved, if at all, among the unsorted in- 
ventories, is not open to inspection. 

8 This lady died at Bath, 4 May, 1614, and was buried in Batli Abbey ; the inscrip- 
tion on her monument is given in Nichols's Hist. Leic. vol. iii. p. 479. 

^ Bridges's Hist. Northampt. vol. ii. p. 95 ; Nichols's Hist. Leic. vol. iii. p. 479 ; 
Nicholson's Hist, of Kendal. 



314 THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY. 

Besides Francis already mentioned, Sir Augustin had two brothers, 
Lewis and William. Lewis was a merchant of London, and died 
Avithout issue. By his will dated 8th February, 1585, the testator is 
described as " bound for Barbaric in the aifairs of Mr. Richard Gore." 
He leaves his brother Augustin his executor, bequeaths legacies to his 
sister Margerie Purefie and to his mother Mrs. Ann Purefie, and a ring 
" to his father-in-law, mother, and each of his brothers and sisters, 
brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law." As there is no mention of his 
wife either in his will or in the Pedigree, he may possibly mean by his 
father-in-law his step-father Richard Purefey. The name of Dudley 
does not occur in the will ; which was proved by Augustin Nicolls, 2nd 
November, 1592, some years after its date. 

Of the family of William Nicolls of Ilalstead in Tilton, co. Leices- 
ter, the other brother of Sir Augustin, a full account may be found in 
•the History of Leicestershire, vol. iii. pp. 480, 1137. In his will, 
which Avas proved in the Prerogative Court in October 1625, there is 
no mention of the name of Dudley. 

Sir Augustin had three sisters, who are all named in .the will of 
their father; Susan, married, according to the Pedigree of 1619, to 
Robert Manley of the county of Warwick; Ann, married, according 
to the same avithority, to Edward Ilesilrige, of Thedingworth, co. 
Leicester; and Margery (in the printed Pedigree in the History of 
Leicestershire incorrectly named Maria) married to Michael Purefey of 
Mussin {qu. Muston), co. Leicester.^o 

The Pedigrees of the various branches of the Purefey family given 
in the History of Leicestershire are taken from a manuscript in the 
Harleian collection, and, though copious, require considerable cor- 
rection. In the pedigree of Purefoy of Misterton and Drayton (vol. iv» 
599), Nicholas {qu. Michael) Purefoy, third son of George Purefoy of 
Drayton, is stated to have married Margery, daughter of — Nicholas 
of Pickley, Norfolk. This last name we may conjecture to be written in 
error for Thomas Nicolls of Picheley, co. Northampton. And in the 
pedigree of Purefoy of Shalstone (vol. iv. p. 600)), the second mar- 
riage of Ann Pell widow of Thomas Nicolls, which has been already 
mentioned, is found under a form still more difficult to recognise, 
Richard Purefoy, third son of Edward Purefoy of Shireford, being 
stated to have married — Pell, widow of Nicholas Foxton. Faxton 
was, as we have seen, the residence of Mrs. Ann Purefey and of her 
son Sir Augustin Nicolls. 

'" Pedigree in the Visitation of Leicestershire, 1619, in the College of Arms. 



THE FAMILIES OF NICOLLS, PUREFEY, AND DUDLEY, 315 

I think I have now set down all my information concerning these 
families whicli is not already in print. In all my researches I have 
not met with the name of Dudley. Mr. Adlard appears to have 
jumped rather hastily to the conclusion that the connection of Thomas 
Dudley was with the family of Purefey. The expression of his bio- 
grapher is, that Judge Nicolls was a " kinsman by the mother's side." 
This would in strictness mean, either that Judge Nicolls's mother, Ann 
Pell, was of kin to Dudley, or that Dudley's mother was a kinswoman 
of Judge Nicolls, and therefore most likely to be found in the families 
of Nicolls or Pell. The judge was not, so far as I have found, related 
in blood to the family of Purefey, though doubly connected by the 
marriages of his mother and sister. 

I am, &c. 

Lincobis Lin. Francis Nichols. 



SIKES OF DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

Great uncertainty obscures the origin of a family of tliis name, 
sometime of note in the counties of Derby and Xottingliam ; and 
this uncertainty is mainly attributable to the pertinacity of its 
late representative in putting forward Inaccurate and (in some 
instances) irreconcilable statements on the subject. Led by these 
statements unchecked by any supervision of his own, Dickinson, 
in his Antiquities of Nottinghamshire, taking the earlier genera- 
tions of the family of Sykes of Leeds, as recorded in Thoresby's 
History of that place, and suiting the orthography of the name 
to the occasion, brings them down to Richard Sikes, j\LA.^ gives 
him for wife Martha daughter and heiress of Sir Francis Caven- 
dish Burton knight (a myth), and for son, Joseph Sikes, after- 
wards of Derby; but, recklessly following his informant, Mr. 
Dickinson states the year of the father's death as 1686, and the 
year of the son's birth as 1696. 

The object of this communication is to show that Kichard 
Sykes, M.A. died unmarried, and therefore we must look else- 
where for the parentage of Joseph Sikes. 

Mr. Burke, in his Landed Gentry (1833-38), under the head of 
" Sikes of the Chauntry House," states that Richard died in 
1696, and that Joseph was born in 1686. Thorcsby, who was 



316 SIKES OP DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

nearly related by marriage to Ricliard Sykes, states distinctly 
that he died 10th Oct. 1686, luithout issue, and this is entirely 
corroborated by his will dated 11th Dec. 1684, and proved 
10th Dec. 1686. 

On the other hand, Joseph Sikcs of Derby was evidently a 
man of some mark, apparently considering himself as having a 
common ancestor with the family of Sykes of Leeds, using the 
same arms, and the traditionary " branded bull " for crest, as 
specimens of his seals bear witness. 





1. Argent, a chevron sable between three antique heraldic fountains or sykes, i.e. 
azure roundels, each charged with two bars wavy argent (the modem heraldic fountain 
being barry wavy of six, argent and azure). 

2. Over the initials J.S., on a wreath, a bull proper. (One branch of the family of 
Sykes of Leeds uses the bull passant, charged on the shoulder with an heraldic 

fountain, as fully exemplifying the word " branded.") 

This gentleman married Hannah dauohter and heiress of Wil- 
liam Chambers of Derby, and first cousin of Hannah Sophia 
Chambers (also an heiress) who married Brownlow eighth Earl of 
Exeter. He made his will 11th April, 1752, naming inter 
alios his sister Hannah Brough, his brother-in-law Mr. Thomas 
Ploughman, his brother George Sikes (abroad), his brother 
Edward Sikes, and an only surviving son, Joseph Sikes, who 
had already succeeded as heir-general, through his deceased 
mother, to the estates of the Burtons of Weston-under-Wood, on 
the death of Samuel Burton, Esq., 24th Oct. 1751, — the elder 
son, Samuel Sikes, having died previously. 

The names George and Edward do not appear in Thoresby's 
account of the Sykes family, and the testator does not seem to 
have had any predecessors of his own at Derby, unless we accept 
as such John Sixe, who made his will 15th Nov. 1680, and does 
not name any male issue; but, singularly enough, speaks of his 
grand-daughter. Patience Burton. 




SIKES OF DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGIIA-MSniRE. 317 

At Anston, on the borders of North Derby- 
shire, a family named Sikes has been settled for 
many generations ; and, although the baptismal 
name Joseph is not known to have occurred in 
it, Joseph Sikes of Derby may have been a member 
of it, as his grandson, Joseph Sikes, LL.B. possessed an old seal 
(engraved in the margin) of the arms of Clayton,^ a fiuiiily which 
became extinct in the male line by the death of Vaughan 
Clayton of Whitwell, near Anston, early in the last century. 
Vaughan Clayton's will, dated 21st Jan. 1715, mentions his 
cousin Sich (Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 24,458, p. 472), which may 
be only another variation of the name of Sikes. 

The late Joseph Sikes, LL.B., was the inventor of the fol- 
lowing stories: that Walter de Sike was returned among the 
gentry of Cumberland early in the fifteenth century ; that Robert 
de Sike sued Daniel Fletwitch, &c. temp. Ric. IIL ; that a curious 
picture of Henry Sike, temp. Eliz. among others of little less anti- 
quity, is at the Chauntry House — all pure fiction ; and he claimed 
the " Heron and Crayle families" as his "collateral progenitors "( !) 
{vide Curtis's History of Nottinghamshire, p. 198) merely because 
his father had married for his first wife Jane Heron of Newark, 
who died issueless, 28th July, 1778. 

Q. F. V. F. 

In regard to this subject, the following interesting and very charac- 
teristic letter of the late Historian of South Yorkshire has been placed 
in our hands. It was addressed to Dr. Sykes of Doncaster: — 

"30, Torrington Square, May 3, 1859. 
" My dear Sir, 
" To your main question I am quite unable to give any sufBcient 
answer, and I doubt whether you would obtain one in any quarter in 
which you might apply. The question is, whether what Thoresby 
states to be the origin of the family of Sykes of Leeds, which produced 
several distinguished persons, is worthy of credit. I will tell you how 
it appears to me. Thoresby's father must have been well acquainted 

' Argent, a cross engrailed sable between four torteaux. Crest, a dexter arm, em- 
bowed, the hand holding a dagger, point to the dexter, all proper. (This may have 
been the seal of Vaughan Clayton's grandfather, William Clayton of AVhitwell, co. 
Derby, who died 29th June, 1C66.) 



318 SIKES OF DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

with the Richard Sykes who had accumuhited a very considerable for- 
tune and who was not far removed from his Cumberland ancestor, and 
the acquisition of such an estate would naturally lead to some curiosity- 
respecting the origin of the family; and, again, Thoresby having mar- 
ried one of them Avould be in a favourable position for knowing what 
could be known respecting them. Again, there was no temptation to 
invent such a descent, and the very unlikelihood of it seems to me 
favourable to the truth of it. Thoresby had curiosity enough to seek 
out what could be known, and genealogical ambition enough to seek 
out a more showy descent if he was proceeding on insufficient informa- 
tion. See how he writes to Le Neve respecting the Sykes's. He even 
goes so far as to say, that this Richard gave his daughters ten thousand 
pounds apiece. 

" So that it really appears to me that there can be no great reason to 
suspect the truth of his printed testimony, and I am quite sure that it 
will be very up-hill work for any one who shall attempt to show any 
other descent for the wealthy alderman. At the same time, one would 
like to know that there is or has been a Sykes Dyke in the neighbour- 
hood of Carlisle, where a family of the name of Sykes resided in the 
earlier of the Tudor reigns. It is also quite clear that there were fami- 
lies of the name residing in a good position in the West Riding of York- 
shire, some one of whom might Avell be supposed to have strayed into 
Leeds, and he or a son to have acquired the wealth which it is manifest 
the alderman possessed. I could not but be struck with the support 
which the Wills you have shown me give to Thoresby's pedigree of 
Sykes ; and this pedigree being so supported must, I think, for the 
present at least, be an impassable barrier to claims of descent from 
this family of the name; that is, unless a jyerson tvho has inherited the 
name can show that he descends from one of the persons named in the 
Ducatus — which is still within the range of Avhat may be expected 
from family recollections a little aided — he must give up all thoughts 
of being a descendant of the wealthy alderman. Yet there is a printed 
book of topography — one of Mr. Rastall's publications ^ — which de- 
duces a family of the name, living at Newark I think, from one of the 
Sykes's whose will you have sent me; the latter showing plainly, when 
connected with Thoresby's negative testimony, that no such descent had 
any real existence. ********* 
but the disposition seems to be growing in the countiy of setting forth 
descents quite fictitious — nor is it confined to England. Too many 

' The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire, by Dickinson, who took the name of Rastall. 



SIKES OF DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 319 

of our Xew England cousins do the same. Some people seem to think 
that there is a different law of veracity in respect of Genealogy than in 
respect of other subjects. I bok upon Thoresby's pedigree as a very 
important bulwark against intrusions such as these. Here is one 
family, with its borders well defined, living in the midst of countless 
families of the name in various grades of social position. But there is 
nothing in regard to the insulation of this one family to discourage in- 
quiry respecting other families who bear the same name ; and something 
would be found to reward research. At the same time the wide diffu- 
sion of the name of which you speak, and the want of association with 
any of the great landed estates, would make the search difficult and the 
results uncertain. There is even a possibility that a descent may one 
day be proved from one of the Sykes's named in the alderman's will, 
though not spoken of as relations by him, yet possibly being so. I 
quite agree with you that the name was in repute, early, in the Stain- 
cross and Agbrigg districts. But I have no account of any family of 
the name in those districts, or indeed in any part of Yorkshire. I have 
looked at my collections for any mention of the name that you might 
like to add to what you have already collected, but all that I can find 
is only what follows. In the dispute between Christopher Wilson of 
Broomhead and Thomas Barnby of Barnby, esq. respecting common in 
Horndean, there are depositions taken in 19 Elizabeth, when Isabel 
Sykes, wife of William Sykes" of Cawthorne, servant to Thomas Barnby 
and then aged 65, was one of the deponents on the side of Barnby. My 
notes are written short and are imperfect, but I rather collect from 
them that she speaks of her father-in-law Nicholas Barnby having 
made a pinfold in Horndean. \_So far was written by an amanuensis.'] 

Excuse me for having employed another hand. I have a large collec- 
tion of early Bretton deeds (that is, copies from originals), but I do 
not observe the name either as principal or Avitness. Nor, indeed, do 
I in any of my Staincross or Agbrigg deeds. Yet I conceive that the 
name must have abounded, and have been of some note, in those parts of 
Yorkshire. The letter of Eichard Sykes, in which he speaks of " Cousin 
Beaumont," who must be he who was afterwards Sir Thomas Beaumont 
of Whitley, proves a connection of the Sykes's of Leeds with that very 
eminent family : how can it have originated ? The printed pedigree 
of Beaumont will not assist. Who again was i;ncle and aunt Binns ? 
The ' brothers ' of the latter were clearly Stocks, brothers of the 
writer's wife. 

"I have nothing of the name at Sandal. They may be found, I 



320 SIKES OF DERBYSHIRE AND NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

suspect, at Holmfirtli, and probably throughout the parish of Kirk 
Burton. But really the name is so abundant that there is probably 
hardly a parish in those parts without it. In the Sheffield Directory 
of 1797 there are 6 persons of the name, two of them, however, 
brothers. These were John and Dennis Sykes, both of whom I knew. 
You may perhaps like to know that this family of Sykes came to Shef- 
field from Derbyshire at the close of the 17 th century, when Godfrey 
Sykes, son of John Sykes of Calver in the parish of Bakewell, mason, 
was bound apprentice in the Corporation of Cutlers of Hallamshire for 
eight years. This was in 1699, and on Dec. 21, 1710, he married Mary 
Sellick, by whom he had two sons : John, a fllesmith, father of John and 
Dennis; and William^ who died 24 Oct. 1809, aged 87. I knew many 
of the descendants of John, but not the descendants of William, whom 
I have always regarded as the Sykes's one reads of in the Lives of Mr. 
Wesley. I remember we spoke of this when I had the pleasure of 
seeing you at Doncaster. Very likely I might be qviite wrong, as I 
have no notes of any authority, nor any very definite recollection of 
what I may have heard. John and Dennis had 5 married sisters ; 
most of whom I knew. Dennis was the father of Mr. Godfrey Sykes, 
who became Solicitor to the Stamp Office in London. I knew also 
another family of the name at Sheffield, at the close of the last century, 
not related to the Sykes's just named. The family consisted of two sisters, 
one of whom married James Bramhall, and was mother of John Sykes 
Bramhall, who died some twenty years ago. The other sister never 
married. I remember hearing her speak of her descent as if there was 
something notable about it, but 1 never heard any particulars, so far as 
I recollect, and do not think there was much in it. Of the other 

Sykes's in the Directory I know nothing. 

********** 

*' Yours very truly, 

" Joseph Huntek." 



VOL. III. 




NORMAN TOWER AT BURY. 



THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

The Brights of Suffolk, England ; Represented in America by the Descendants of 
Henry Bright, Jun., who came to New England in 1630, and settled in Water- 
town, Massachusetts. By J. B. Bright. For Private Distribution, Boston, 1858, 
8vo. pp. XX. 345. 

Among the many handsome genealogical works that have been pro- 
duced in New England, this may deservedly be placed in the foremost 
rank : whilst it has this peculiar characteristic, that it is wholly devoted 
to the histoiy of those members of an American family who either lived 
before the emigration across the Atlantic, or who belonged to the 
branches who still remained in England. It is profusely illustrated 
with maps and views, chiefly of churches and mansion-houses in Suffolk: 
and the town of Bury St. Edmund's, in particular, has in its pages an 
epitome of its interesting history and repi'esentations of its very remark- 
able monastic monuments. The annexed copy of an old view of the 
Town is a specimen of the neatness with which these illustrations are 
executed: having been drawn and engraved by two young artists who 
are natives of Waltham and Boston. 

The Author takes a comprehensive survey of all the families of 
Bright which have I'isen to any eminence. He has found the name in 
most of our counties, though he states that it does not appear in the 
records of the Heralds' College until the seventeenth century. The 

Y 2 



324 THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

Briglits of Yorkshire, in their several branches, seated at Banner Cross, 
Wliirlow, Graystones, and Carbrook, were described by the Historian of 
Hallamshire. Colonel John Bright of Badsworth, born at Sheffield in 
1619, after haying been a distingiushed officer in the service of the 
ParHament, was created a Baronet at the Bestoration in 1660, but 
died without male issue. His name and arms were assumed by his 
grandson John Liddell, (a younger son of Sir Heniy Liddell of Bavens- 
worth, Bart.) whose granddaughter Mary Bright became Marchioness 
of Rocldngham ; but she died without issue, and the Badsworth estates 
eventually passed by another heiress to the Earl Fitzwilliam. 

Of other memorable persons of the name,^ the Author describes — 

1. Henry Bright, for forty years Master of the Grammar School at 
Worcester, and who was rewarded with a prebend in that church in the 
year 1607. He is commemorated by Fuller, in his Worthies, as having 
in that border city equally contributed to the instruction of the youth 
of England and of Wales. Dying in 1626, he was buried in the 
cathedral, and Fuller states that his Latin epitaph was written by the 
celebrated Dr. Joseph Hall, then Dean of Worcester. It is set forth in 
the local works of Nash and Thomas, as well as in Willis's Survey of 
the Cathedrals. Heniy Bright married Joan Berkeley, one of the 
distinguished family of Spetchley near Worcester (not Sketchley, as in 
p. 299 of the book before us,) and his daughter, Doi*othy, was married 
to John Dobyns, esq. an eminent barrister, who purchased the manor 
of Evesbatch in , Herefordshire, and, dying in 1639, was also bmied in 
Worcester Cathedral. 

2. Thomas Bright, sometimes called " the second old Parr," a man 
considered to be a hundred and thirty years old in 1708, having his 
sight and strength to walk, and then living at Longhope in Gloucester- 
shire. 

3. Edmund Bright, of Mai don, who was remarkable for liis size, 
weighing at his death in 1751, when only twenty-nine years of age, 
5 cwt. 1 qr. 21 lbs. His portrait is in The Universal Magazine, and in 
Caulfield's Remarkable Characters. 

The fourth great man of the name is John Bright, M.P. for Bir- 
mingham, whose celebrity has now attained very large dimensions in 
the eyes of the men of America, as a consequence of his general 
sympathy with democratic institutions, and his particular advocacy of 
the North during the recent struggle. When the book before us was 

' Besides '' the Brights of Suffolk," the author has collected various notes upon 
other families of Bright, in his pp. 2—5, 297—316, 323. 



THE HEIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 325 

written eight years since, he was less known, and was thns briefly men- 
tioned — 

John Bright, Esq. recently the distinguished representative of Manchester iu 
Parliament, is of the Society of Friends; but his family is unknown to us. (p. 4.) 

At the general election of 1865 Mr. John Bright has been for the 
second time returned to Parliament for Birmingham. His brother Mr. 
Jacob Bright was a candidate for Manchester, but he was not suc- 
cessful. We are not aware what ancestry they can boast: except that 
Dod tells us they are the sons of Mr. Jacob Bright, of Greenbank, near 
Rochdale. 

But we have now another senator of the name. Sir Charles Tilston 
Bright, who has been elected for Greenwich. He is an eminent civil 
engineer, and was knighted by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland upon 
the fii'st laying down of the Atlantic Telegraph : and we learn from 
Dod's Peerage, ^c. that he is the son of Brailsford Bright, esq", by a 
daughter of Edward Tilston, esq. and was born at West Ham, in 
Essex, in 1832. 

The wide diifusion of this name is obviously attributable to its having 
been personal with our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. They had it in com- 
position in their favourite appellations, Egbert, Ethelbert, and Cuthbert, 
as we have it still in Albert, Gilbert, and Robert ; and by itself in 
Beorht, from whence is evidently the modern Bright, as are possibly 
two other surnames, Brett and Burt. Ou.r author has received the 
following comment on its import from Thomas Wright, esq. F.S A. 
" one of the best Saxon scholars in England : " — 

The name Bright is an excellent Anglo-Saxon name. In the Saxon it was spelled 
Beorht. It is the simple word bright ; but was used then with much more extensivg 
meaning, as signifying distinguished, excellent, surpassing in courage or anything 
else; as you would say now ' a. shininc/ feWov/', we say 'a bright fellow,' more with 
reference to his intelligence. Hence the name means an excellent or distinguished 
man. Beorht was a common name among the Anglo-Saxons, and is often found in 
records. 

To this we may add the remark that for a daughter the name of 
Beorht became Bertha, a name still not wholly disused, though not 
very common. We wonder that the Brights have not adopted it, 
though it might be bringing " sweets to the sweet." 

The Suffolk family of Bright, from which the author derives his 
lineage, and which forms the principal subject of the work, was once 
very numerous in that county ; but every branch of it that has been 
traced has run out, or entirely disappeared from Suffolk, and it is now 



326 THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

believed to be extinct in England. A single individual named Bright, 
living at Saxmundham, was ascertained to be of another race — that had 
come from Shropshire. 

The first ancestor of the Suffolk family is discovered in 1539, when 
John Bright held leases in Bury St. Edmund's of the abbey, being 
described in one of them as a mercer. He is supposed to have been 
the father of Walter Bright, from whom the pedigree has been satis- 
factorily and circumstantially deduced. 

It is not without reason that the people of New England are invited 
to contemplate the map of Suffolk, and to read of its old personal and 
local names, from which so many of their own are derived : 

This county is interesting to New Englanders, and especially to the people of 
Massachussetts, on account of the emigration from it to our State between the years 
1630 and 1640, these emigrants being considered the best as to character that came 
to New England. This State derived the names of many of its towns, viz. Acton, 
Boxford, Groton, Haverhill, Hingham, Needham; Stow, Sudbury, and others, from 
Suffolk. Governor Winthrop, one of the first of the Suffolk Puritans that emigrated 
to Massachusetts, whose family was remotely allied by marriage to the Brights, came 
from Groton ; and there were the Fiskes from Laxfield, Appleton from Little Wald- 
ingfield. Ward from Haverhill, Browne, Bond, and others, from Bury St. Edmund's, 
and numbers from differents parts of that county, many of whom were among the 
earliest settlers of Watertown and Waltham, where the names of Bright, Goldstone, 
Fiske, Pierce, Mason, Browne, Spring, Kemball, Mixer, Barnard, Coolidge, Liver- 
more, and others, are found in the records. 

The effect of this emigration from Suffolk on our topographical and genealogical 
nomenclature is everywhere manifest in our old and respected Commonwealth ; and 
the good influence of these Puritans from the Eastern shores of the mother country, in 
shaping the destiny of the infant colony, is seen in its present elevated rank among 
its sister States of our Republic, (p. 7.) 

The author's thirst for infonnation regarding his ancestors had 
existed from his early youth, but with little expectation of learning any- 
thing beyond what is afforded by such vague traditions as circulate 
among that portion of the population of New England which was 
composed of families mostly of English descent. These obscure and 
unwritten family histories are wont to bear a certain resemblance to 
each other, and to tell how a progenitor fled with one or more of his 
brothers from the persecutions of his native country, to enjoy on the 
Western Continent that liberty of worship which was denied him at 
home. Though implicitly believed, these traditions have often proved, 
on investigation, to be quite as eiToneous as much of what is called 
history : and in Mr. Bright's case, '' he regrets being forced to confess 



THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 327 

that investigation robbed him of the larger number of those objects of 
his youthful veneration ; and that two out of the three brothers, whose 
supposed sufferings in the wilderness for conscience' sake had awakened 
his sympathy, never crossed the wide waters ; but, having passed their 
whole lives in their native land, were gathered to their fathers, and 
now sleep in an ancient churchyard of that district of England whose 
shores are washed by the German Ocean." 

The effectual clue to the real connection of the family with the 
mother country was accidentally furnished by the discovery, in the 
records of Boston, of payment of an English legacy to the first Anglo- 
Saxon ancestor. This led to the discovery of the will itself, in Lon- 
don ; and, through it, to a knowledge of his family, and their once 
flourishing condition in Suftolk. The investigation was pursued in 
England by Mr. H. G. Somerby, a gentleman of much experience in 
such inquiries, who soon poured into the author's hands the materials 
which he has skilfully digested and arranged. After the genealogy 
itself was formed, upon the solid foundation of wills and other public 
records, some interesting family papers, consisting of letters and other 
documents, were recovered from the hands of Charles Tyrell, esq., of 
Haughley in Suffolk, into whose family the heiress of the Krights of 
Netherhall in Thurston was married. These documents occupy a con- 
siderable share of the volume : the letters being chiefly on aftairs 
connected with foreign merchandise. 

Two portraits are, for the first time, engraved. One is that of the 
heiress just mentioned (she died in 1753, and was buried at Stow- 
market) ; the other is that of Thomas Bright, a public benefactor of 
the town of Bury, and son of Walter, before named. The original 
pictiu-e of him is preserved in the Guildlaall of Bury, and bears the 
following inscription : 

Thomas Bright, sometj-me Draper of this Towne, a worthy Benefactor, who gave 
for the benefit of this Towne the inheritance of a portion of Thythes worthe x"" per 
annum, and an equal part of his goods, as much as he gave any of his children, which 
amounted to ccc"*. 1587. 

As the testator left nine children, it will be seen that he was a 
wealthy man. His benefaction has not been kept distinct ; but, toge- 
ther with the other town charities, to which his son Thomas and his 
daughter Lady Carew (hereafter mentioned) were contributors, it forms 
part of "the Guildhall feoffment," which in the year 1844 produced a 
yearly rental of 2,111/. 




328 THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

The arms of the family were first granted to 
Thomas Bright the younger, by Camden Claren- 
ceux, on the 20th of May, lG15.i They are Sable, 
a fesse argent between three escallops or ; and for 
crest, a dragon's head gules, vomiting flames of 
fire proper, collared and lined or. 

Thomas Bright the elder, by his wife Marga- 
ret daughter of William Paytou, of Risby, had in 
all fifteen children (enumerated in p. 49 of this 
history) ; and of the issue that he left alive, to share his property 
together with the poor of Bury, there were five that we may particu- 
larise : — 

The eldest son, Thomas, was father of John, afterwards a captain in 
the Parliamentary army as well as alderman of Bury, who purchased 
Talmach hall in the parish of Bricet, Sufiblk ; and had issue Wilham, 
whose daughter and heiress, Sarah, carried the representation of this 
eldest branch of the family to the name of Dawtrey ; whence it came 
to Luther, one of whose co-heiresses was married to John Fane, esq. 
brother to the eighth Earl of Westmoreland, and the other to John 
Taylor, esq.^ 

In the church of Great Bricet the Parliamentary Captain was buried, 

under a slab of slate having this inscription : 

John Bright of Little 

Bricett Gent. Aged : 67: yeare 

Departed this life the :17th 

Day of March :1660. 

' It is stated in Dr. Bond's Genealogies and History of Watertown, 1860, p. 102? 
" These arms were confirmed in 1615, (not then granted, as stated by Burke,) to 
Thomas Bright, Jr., showing that they had been in the family long before that 
period." And we perceive that in the American Heraldic Journal, (June 1865,) 
p. 82, the same idea is maintained, " These were confirmed in 1615 to Thomas and 
Robert Bright, uncles of the emigrant ; and it is most probable that they had been 
long the inheritance of the family." But this latter account is entirely incorrect. It 
is clear that the arms were (jranUd to Thomas Bright of St. Edmund's Bury in 1615, 
by Camden Clarenceux ; and confirmed to Thomas Bright of Netherhall, nephew of 
the former, in 1643, by Sir John Borough. (The Brights of Suffolk, p. 66, quoting 
tTWillim's Heraldry.) Our American friends have been misled by the usual phraseology 
of Grants of arms, in which it was very usual to veil an original concession under 
terms of confirmation. 

2 Grandfather of the present John Taylor Gordon, esq. M.D. (Burke's General 
Armory, 1851.) 



THE BKIGnTS OF SUFFOLK. 



329 




Twenty years later his son erected to his memory the monumont 
here i-epresented : when the mistals:e (never corrected) was made by 
the stone-cutter that he died anno septuagesimo of the century, instead 
of sexagesimo. That the inscription on the floor was the correct date 
is confirmed by the probate of the Captain's will. 

But the monument exhibits another peculiarity, in the atchievcment 
of arms with which it is crowned. The arms of Bright impale those 



330 THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

of Style, of Hemingstone near Ipswich (wliere the father of Mrs. Bright 
built, in 1665, the manor-house which is still standing,) viz. Sable, a 
fess or, fretty of the field, between three fleurs-de-lis and within a bordure 
engrailed of the second ; and on the sinister side of these, by an unusual 
arrangement,! are placed the arms of this lady's second husband. He 
was, as stated on the tablet, the Honorable John North, esquire, a son 
of Dudley third Lord North, of Catlege or Kirtling ; and below the 
tablet his arms. Azure, a lion passant between three fleurs-de-lis argent, 
are more correctly marshalled, impaling hers. 

William Bright, the son, also married, for his first wife, one of the 
same family, namely Sarah, daughter of Henry North, of Laxfield, son 
of Sir Henry North, of Mildenhall, a younger son of Roger second Lord 
North. 

Eobert Bi-ight, the second son of old Thomas, was a citizen and 
Salter of London, and founded the family at Netherhall in Thurston, of 
which we have already spoken as the last remaining in Suffolk. It is 
conjectured (p. 101) that he was identical with Robert Bright, "one 
of the coroners of Middlesex," who, in 1613, held the inquest on Sir 
Thomas Overbury, who died of poison in the Tower of London : but 
this may be doubtful. 

Henry, the third son of the Benefactor, remained at Bury St. 
Edmund's, resident in the mansion which has since been the Angel Inn ; 
and is found to have died in 1609, though neither will nor substantial 
record of him is preserved. It was his son Henry Bright, baptized 
at St. James's church, Bury St. Edmund's, Dec. 29, 1609, who became 
the settler in New England. There is reason to believe that he was 
one of the companions of John Winthrop of Groton in 1638: his 
name being the forty-eighth in the signatures to the Church Covenant 

' When three coats are impaled in this manner, it is generally supposed that the 
central one is that of a husband, and those on either side the coats of his two wives. 
The former is termed the haron, and the others dexter femme a,nd, sinister femnie. And 
that this practice has been adopted for nearly four centuries we have an instance 
presented by a sepulchral brass of the date 1486, still existing in the church of Salt- 
wood in Kent. It bears the following inscription : 

" Herelieth the bowelles of dame Anne Muston late the wyf of Will'm Muston which 
dame Anne decessyd the vij'h day of Septeber y<= yere of o"" lord M' iiij^ Ixxxvj. on 
whose soulles ihu have mercy." 

Above is a demi-angel rising from clouds, holding with both hands the heart and 
bowels of the deceased, and below the inscription is a shield bearing the arms of 
Muston, a chevron between three swords erect; which is marshalled between two 
impaled coats, that on the dexter a chevron between three dog's heads erased, col- 
lared ; that on the sinister three cross-crosslets. 



THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 



331 



at Charlestown. He emigrated a bachelor ; but Ms future wife fol- 
lowed him four years after. Her name was Goldstone, and she came 
(with her parents) from the same county of Suffolk. Her father was 
Henry Goldstone of Wickham Skeith ; her grandfather, the Vicar of 
Bedingfield, is called Sir William Goldstone ; her great-grandfather, 
bearing the singular name of Roman Goldstone, was buried at Beding- 
field in 1575. Their pedigree is given by Mr. Bright. 

The last child we mean to notice of Thomas Bright the elder is his 
youngest, Susan, baptised at St. James's, Bury, Sept, 28, 1579. The 
name of her first husband is not ascertained. In her mother's will, 
1599, she is named as Susan Barker, which it is thought may be an 
error for Barber, because one of her sisters, Katherine, is called Katherine 
Barber in the same document, having been really the wife of Bennet 
Barber. But in the Visitation of Surrey she is described as the widow 
of a merchant of London named Butler. Before the Surrey Visitation 
of 1623 she was manied to Sir Nicholas Carew, alias Tlirockmorton, 
of Beddington in that county : who had married for his first wife 




Mary, daughter of Sir George More of Loseley ; and whose sister 
Elizabeth Carew was the wife of Sir "Walter Raleigh. This was a 



332 THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 

high alHance for the little maid of Bury St. Edmund's. Of her further 
history not many particulars have been ascertained. Her character is 
still commemorated upon the monument at Beddington, represented in 
the preceding engraving, and by a benefaction which is thus recorded 
by the historians of Bury : 

The Lady Carey, daughter of Thomas Bright, gave £100 for the purchasing of 
lands to the yearly value of £5, which was to be equally distributed to five poor 
widows. 

The spelling Carey for Carew, which our author terms a mistake, 
scarcely amounts to one, as the name Carew has been usually pro- 
nounced as it is thus written. The late Right Hon. Reginald Pole 
Carew (ob. 1835), who assumed the latter name on the extinction of 
the male line of the ancient family of Carew, seated at Anthony in 
Cornwall, thereby became, to ordinary ears, Mr. Poole Carey. 

The Surrey Visitation of 1623 gives the lady only two children by 
Sir Nicholas Carew, Thomas, who died in infancy, and Susan. The 
epitaph is in this respect ambiguous, in the phrase '■'■my deare mother" 
being first employed, followed by a mention of " her children." Mr. 
Bright infers from this " that other children than Susan survived 
to mature age, and shared the duty of erecting this token of respect 
to the memory of their parent." She may possibly have had children 
by her first husband : but we rather think those alluded to in the 
epitaph are the numerous children of her husband by his fonner wife, 
who would be called hers ; and it is exceedingly probable that the 
monument was actually erected by her step-son Sir Francis Carew, 
rather than by her daughter Susan, of whose surviving no record has 
occurred. 

As we have already intimated, the Author does not pursue the 
history of his family after it became settled in America. That has been 
already done in Dr. Bond's Genealogies arid History of Watertown. 
1860, 8vo. (where the portraits of the Bright benefactor and the 
Bright heiress are republished) ; and in Savage's Genealogical Dic- 
tionary of the Early Settlers in Neiv England. Heniy Bright the 
emigrant was for many years a deacon of the church at Watertown, 
and held various town offices of trust. He was seventy-eight years of 
age in 1680 ; and yet his son Nathaniel, who continued the line in 
America, did not marry until 1681. He was the father of a second 
Nathaniel, born in 1686; whose son, a third Nathaniel, was the father 
of John Bright, born in 1754. This John Bright married Elizabeth 



THE BRIGHTS OF SUFFOLK. 



333 



Browii, and vras fatlicr of Jonathan Brown Briglit, the authoi- of tlie 
handsome vohime we have now had the pleasure to review. 

He has introduced, in ilhistration of female descent, pedigrees of 
various ancient English families, — among which are Alston, of New- 
ton, Saxham, and Boxford, in Suffolk ; Dawtrey, of Sussex ; i Fiske, 
of Eattlesden, in Suffolk ; Forth, of Nayland ; Honeywood, of Mai-ks 
hall, in Essex ; Luther, or Luter, of Essex ; Mileson, of Suffolk ; 
Salter, of Shropshire and Suffolk; and Tyrell, extending from the 
famous involuntary regicide, who shot William Rufus, down to Edmund 
Tyrell, esq. who married Mary Bright, and whose son Edmund Tyrell, 
esq. of Gipping, died in 1799, having de^^sed his estates to his cousin, 
the father of the present Mr. Tyrell, of Plashwood, formerly M.P. for 
Suffolk. 

' In the Dawtrey pedigree Emle, Chief Justice, is a misprint for Ernie. In the 
Forth pedigree there are these mistakes of names : Long Malford for Melford; 
Clemlmm for Glemham ; Femley for Fernley; Cn/mhle for Grymble; Hernegan ior 
Gernegan, i. e. Jerningham; and Knewett for Knevett. In the Tyrell pedigree there 
is Hewj for Hervey, an ancestor of the Marquess of Bristol, 




THE ABBEY GATE, 

BURY ST. Edmund's. 




CHARTERS OF THOMAS FIRST LORD FURNIVAL. 

By favour of a friend at Doncaster we are able to exhibit what 
will be regarded as an extraordinary curiosity by such armorial 
heralds as suppose that a lozenge shield has never been used except for 
females.! It is the seal of Thomas Furnival, lord of Hallamshire,' who 
lived in the reign of Henry the Third, was first summoned to parlia- 
ment as a Baron of the realm in 1274, and died before the 7 Edw. 1. 
1279. Two impressions are before us, attached to charters, which we 
shall presently describe. 

It is remarked by the late Historian of South Yorkshire, in his 
earlier work The History of Sheffield and Hallamshire (p. 30), that 
" there are fewer early charters than might have been expected in the 
archives of the present noble lord of Hallamshire [the Duke of Nor- 
folk], relating to his Grace's Yorkshire possessions:" and in a subse- 
quent page the following passage will be found : — 

In the fine collection of family evidences which descended with the estate of 
Broomhead to its late proprietor, John Wilson, esquire, the oldest was a deed without 
date of Thomas son of Thomas de Furnival, by which he conveys to John Wilson de 
Bromhead forty-six acres of land in Wightwistle, &c. for a rent of sixpence yearly to 
himself, and four shillings to his mother the Lady Bertha de Furnival, d'nm Brette de 
Furnivall, yearly during her life, to revert on her death to the said Thomas and his 
heirs. To this deed is appended a seal of greenish wax, exhibiting the arms of Fur- 
nival on a lozenge shield perfectly plain, and this inscription surrounding it, 
s. THOM^ DE FURNIVAL. HistoTy of Hallamshire, p. 34. 



' There is one other contemporary example in what Sir Harris Nicolas terms " the 
large signet of William de Paynell attached to the Barons' Letter to the Pope, 
1301; displaying his arms in a lozenge," — " the only instance of the kind " among the 
seals attached to that document {Archceoloffia, vol. xxi. p, 222, and engravings in 
the Velusta Monuinenta, vol. i.) The seal of the first Lord Furnival attached to the 
Barons' Letter is different from that which we now publish. In another article upon 
this family we shall give an engraving of it, together with the remarkable seal of his 
great-uncle Gerard de Furnival, probably the first of the family who used arms. 



CHARTERS OF THOMAS FIRST LORD FURNIVAL. 335 

We are disposed to think tliat this passage describes another impres- 
sion of the same seal : notwithstanding that the copy of the inscription 
does not Avholly agree. At any event it appears to have been a charter 
of the same person ; whose mother Bertha is supposed to have been a 
Ferrars.i 

On our seal the name is apparently spelt with an o: for, although 
both the impressions from which the engraving has been made are im- 
perfect in the legend, in one of them part of an o seems to be left. The 
name is also spelt on the seal with a w in the last syllable, as it is in 
the following charter (which we transcribe in extenso) : — 

Seiant presentes et futuri quod ego Thomas filius Thome de Furniwallo dedi con- 
cessi et hac present! carta mea confirmavi Thome filio Roger! de Haldwyrth et here- 
dibus vel suis assingnatis exceptis viris religiosis et Judeis unam Bovatam terre et 
dimidium cum pertinentiis et edificiis superpositis in villa et territorio de Haldwyrth . 
quam quidem Bovatam terre et dimidium predictus Thomas de Haldewyrth de me 
tenuit in servicio Hastilar' . Jacentem videlicet inter boscum qui dicitur Lockeslay 
ex parte Orientali et Rivulum qui dicitur Le SputesyJce ex parte Occidentali et inter 
aquam qui vocatur stene ex parte australi et Moram que vocatur Oues-nor ex parte 
boriali pro quadam summa pecunie quam predictus Thomas de Haldwrth mihi dedit 
premanibus Habendum et tenendum de me et heredibus meis sibi et heredibus vel 
suis assingnatis exceptis viris religiosis et Judeis libere quiete plenarie integre bene et 
in pace in feodo et hereditate cum omniniodis pertinentiis libertatibus [et] aysiamentis 
prediete Bovate terre et dimidio infra villam de Haldwrth et extra spectantibus. 
Reddendo inde per annum mihi et heredibus meis Duodecim solidos argenti ad duos 
anni terminos vid. medietatem ad festum Assumpeionis beate Marie virginis et aliam 
medietatem ad festum Annunciaeionis ejusdem pro omnimodis aliis servitiis consue- 
tudinibus exactionibus sectis curie et secularibus demandis. Salvo forinseco servltio. 
Et salvis mihi et heredibus meis omnimodis appruamentis wasti mei infra limites de 
Hallumsyre sine aliqua contradietione predict! Thome de Haldwyrth vel heredum 
suorum. Et salvis mihi et heredibus meis duabus sectis ad curiam meam apud She- 
feud per annum, viz. ad proximam curiam post Pascham et ad proximam curiam 
post festum Sancti Michaelis. Et quod molet bladum suum crescens super predictam 
terram ad quodcumque molendinorum meorum voluerit infra Hallumsyre et non 
alibi. Ego vero predictus Thomas tilius Thome de Furniwallo et heredes mei predic- 
tam Bovatam terre et dimidium cum omnimodis pertinentiis supradictis predict© 
Thome de Haldwyrth et heredibus vel suis assingnatis exceptis viris religiosis et Judeis 
pro predicto redditu contra omnes homines et feminas warantizabimus adquietabimus 
et imperpetuum defendemus. In cujus rei testimonium huic presenti carte sigillum 

' " A collector of the earlier part of the last century, Mr. Vincent Eyre of Dron- 
field-\\'oodhouse, in his account of the family of Furnival, represents Bertha the wife 
of Thomas as a daughter of William Ferrars the seventh Earl of Derby. It may be 
so, for Bertha was a family name among the Ferrarses; but no connection between 
the houses of Ferrars and Furnival appears in the laborious comments of Vincent on 
the work of Brooke." Hallamshire, p. 2>i. 



336 CHARTERS OF THOMAS FIRST LORD FURNIVAL. 

meum apposui. Hiis testibus -, Joh'e de AVyntewrth tunc senescallo. Thoma de 
Furneus. Elya de Midhop. Joh'e del Wyteley. Rieardo Moriz de Wyrhale. Nich'o 
Langus. Rieardo Ryuello. WiU'o del Leyston. Thoma de Morwd' et aliis. {Seat 
in green wax.) 

The vsecond charter it will be unnecessary to transcribe, for its terms, 
except in any allusion to the servitium hastilare, are nearly an echo to 
those of that now printed; and it is evidently of almost the same date, 
as among its witnesses four names again occur: the whole attestation 
being, His testibus, Joh'e del Wytelye, Joh'e fiP suo, Rob'o le Eous, 
Ric'o Moriz, Nich'o de Langus, Ric'o Riuello, et aliis. By this charter 
Thomas de Furnivall, son of Thomas de Furnivall, (the name is now 
spelt with u instead of iv), grants to Thomas son of Ralph svib monte 
(i. e. Underhill) and his heirs and assigns, except to religious men and 
Jews (as in the other case), one half bovate of land with its appurte- 
nances and buildings, which John de Piilay once had to farm from 
Robert de Halddewrth: it lay between the field called Bilbeleye to- 
wards the south and the Moor towards the north, in its length ; and 
the wood called Lockeslay towards the east and Le Bentelane towards 
the west, in its breadth. The rent was to be two shillings, and all the 
other conditions as in the former charter. Sheffield is written Shefeuld. 
On the fold of the parchment is written in a later hand: que Will's 
Sjnalbihend tenet. John Smalbyhynd was witness to a charter of Wil- 
liam son of Thomas Ryvell of Haldworth in 13H9, (Eastwood's History 
of Ecclesfield, p. 149.) 

Two expressions in the first charter may require explanation. To 
one of them, indeed, an explanation is not readily to be found. The 
land that was granted to Thomas de Haldworth had it seems been pre- 
viously held by him — the verb is tenuit, in the past tense,— m servicio 
Hastilari. We have been unsuccessful in searching for an explanation of 
this service: but find "half a bovate of hastier land" mentioned at 
p. 373 of Eastwood's History of Ecclesfield. It was evidently a mili- 
tary tenure, and we may presume was that rendered by a spearman.^ 

' A service rendered to the manor of Sheffield so late as the reign of Charles I. is 
thus described ; " I cannot heere omitt a Royaltie that this manor hath above other 
manors, that is, upon every Sembley Tuesday (i. e. Easter Tuesday) is assembled upon 
Sembley Greene, where the court is kept, at least 139 horsemen with horse and har- 
nesse provided by the freeholders, coppieholders, and other tennants, and to appeare 
before the Lord of this mannor, or the steward of this court, to bee viewed by them, 
and for confirmeinge of the peace of our sovereigne lord the Kinge." Survey of the 
Manor, taken by John Harrison in 1637, quoted by Eastwood, History of Ecclesfield, 
p. 466. 

The term Hastyllar occurs frequently in a rental of the manor of Eckington, co. 



CHARTERS OF THOMAS FIRST LORD FURNIYAL. 337 

It Avould seem that on the execution of this charter the servitium 
hastilare was to cease for land to which it relates, as the money rent of 
125. Avas to be paid " pro omnimodis aliis servitiis," &c. 

The other remarkable term is appruamentum. This was the inclo- 
sure or cultivation of part of a common, wood, or pasture, on the part 
of the lord : 

Domini vastorum, bosconim, et pastnirarum appruare se possunt de vastis et pas- 
turis illis, non obstante contradictione tenentium suorum, dum modo tenentes ipsi 
haberent suffieientera pasturam ad tenementa sua, cum libero ingressu et egressu ad 
eadem. Statutum Wesimonast. 2, cap. 50. 

The derivation of the term is " quasi in provandavi, seu prcehendam 
sibi asserere \i. e. to raise provender for their own cattle], vel (forte) 
sibi appropiriare.'''' See further in Ducange, Glossarium Ifedice et Injimce 
Latinitatis, edit. Henschel, 1840, i. 338. 

Next, as to the localities : 

Haldwortli is a vill in "the wide district called Bradfield." (Hunter, 
South Yorkshire, ii. 191.) Some deeds relating to it are described by 
Mr. Eastwood {History of EccUsfield, 8vo. 1861, p. 148). 

" The wood called Locheslay.'''' Mr. Hunter (Soitth Yorkshire, ii. 
191) mentions " the range of waste and rugged lands which formed 
the high ridge of Loxley Chase." This is also the name given to the 
stream Avhich runs near Haldworth and Bradfield (see South York- 
shire, ii. 183), and the hamlet of Loxley is not far from Wadsley. (See 
Eastwood's Ecclesjield, pp. 5, 65, 231.) "Thousands know Locksley 
as one of the aliases of Robin Hood " (Ibid. p. 7), and " Locksley 
Chase being inhabited by fletchers, or arrow-makers, the tale Avould 
have peculiar attractions for this region " (p. 8). Dr. Ingledew, 
however, in his Yorkshire Ballads, p. 35, places the birth of Robin 
Hood at another Locksley in Nottinghamshire. 

" The brook called the Sjnite-si/ke.'^ This was probably near Spout- 
house, which will be found in the Ordnance Map to the north of 
Haldworth, and noticed by Eastwood, p. 486. A syke is the well- 
known local term for a spring. 

" The water called Stene." This is named in the Introduction to the 
History of South Yorkshire, vol. I. p. iii. 

Derby, temp. Hen. VII. as, " a mese and j. oxg' land of the Hastyllar," and with 
it are mentioned other holdings, as " halfe a oxg' land of the Bui-deho'.il,''' " a oxg' o' 
the low hold.'''' 

Simon de Hashwell tenet quoddam tenenientum in villa de Habhwell in com. Essex 
per serjantiam essendi Hastilarius Domini B,e^ii, i.e. the King's spe.innan. — Blount's 
Antient Tenures. 

VOL. III. Z 



338 CHARTERS OF THOMAS FIRST LORD FURNIVAL. 

" The moor called Onesmor'''' is to the north of Haldworth. 

Then, in the second charter, Underldll farm still retains that name, 
and is to the west of Onesmoor and Haldworth, on the north of the 
river Don. 

Pillay, from which " John de Pillay " derived his name, is in the 
parish of Tankersley : see Sduth Yorkshire, ii. 306. 

" The field called Bilbeleye." 

" The Bentelane." Bents and Bentslane will be found south of 
Iloldsworth: there is also a Bent Hill. 

Lastly, with regard to the witnesses: — 

The first witness is "John de Wynteivrth then steward" of Hallam- 
shire. No name is more distinguished in the surrounding district in 
later times than that of Wentworth ; but we do not identify this John, 
nor is there any list of the Stewards of Hallamshire. The same person, 
however, occurs among the witnesses to a charter of John de Carlton 
granting the manor of Penisal to Elias de Midhope (beloAV mentioned) 
in 1284. (Hunter's South Yorkshire, ii. 195.) 

Thomas de Furneus. This was one of the families, which, like De 
Ecclesall, Mountney, Wadsley, and Wortley, assumed an armorial coat 
resembling that of Furnival, — a bend between six martlets : — a very 
interesting chapter of heraldry which we purpose to develope in a 
future article. 

Elias de Midhop. For the place from which this witness derived his 
name see Hallamshire, p. 282. Mr. Hunter says, 

The lords of this manoi* had their residence within it, and were called de Mid- 
hope. We find the name in deeds from the reign of John to the time of Edward III. 
and most of the heads of the family bore the name of Elias. Several of them were 
knighted. 

See also much more about the family in the History of Soiitli York- 
shire, ii. 194. 

John del Wyteley. '* Between Barnes Hall and Ecclesfield, about 
half a mile from the chvirch, is the quaint old mansion of Whitley 
hall," which afforded a resting-place for one night to Mary Queen of 
Scots. (Eastwood, p. 421.) 

Richard Moriz of Wyrhall. Probably Worral or Wirrall near 
Bradfield, in the byerlaAv of Westmonhalgh or Westnal. (Hunter's 
South Yorkshire, ii. 191.) 

Nicholas Langus, or de Langus, as in the second charter. Hunter 
in his Hallatitshire, p. 271 (copied by Eastwood, History of Ecclesfield, 
p. 642,) mentions " Robert the son of Nicholas de Dangers:" to whom 
Robert de Wadsley gave in 1294 land in Dangers near the moor of 



THE LATE T?EV. JONATHAN EASTWOOD. 339 

Wirrall. But Langus is the reading of the present charters, — qu. 

Lang-US, or " the long house," as Loftus is from Lofthouse, and Bacchus 

from Bakehouse. 

Richard Ryvell, in the second charter Rivell. Mr. Hunter says, 
At Revel-grange (in Stannington) resided from an early period a family of the 

name of Revel, whom we often meet in the old genealogies as connected by marriage 

with the superior gentry of the county of Derby. * * « Mr. Richard Broomhead of 

this place married the heiress of the Revels about the year 1 740. History of Ilalla-ni- 

shire, p. 273. 

See also a pedigree of Revel of Whiston in History of Sonth York- 
shire, ii. 180. The Ry veils were still at Haldworth late in the 14th 
century: see deeds quoted in Eastwood's Ecclesfield, p. 148. 

William del Leyston. John de Leeston occurs in charters dated at 
Haldworth in 1379 and 1389. (Eastwood, pp. 148, 149.) 

Thomas de Moncde. John de Morewod is also a witness to the same 
charters. See also several of the family in an inquisition of 9 Edw. III. 
printed by Eastwood, p. 124. They were afterwards a family of gentry 
at the Oaks in Bradfield : and subsequently at Alfreton in Derby- 
shire: for which county the three last representatives served Sheriff; 
John Morewood, of Alfreton, esquire, receiving a grant of arms of Vert, 
an oak-tree coupe in base argent, fructed or, in 1677. See their pedi- 
gree at full in Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 274. 



Note. We cannot relinquish this opportunity of remarking that the 
*' History of the Parish of Ecclesfeld in the County of York. By the 
Rev. J. Eastwood, M.A. Curate of Eckington, Derbyshire, formerly 
Curate of Ecclesfield, (8vo. 1862, pp. xvi. 558,)" which has been so 
often quoted in the preceding pages, is one of the most elaborate and 
well-compiled topographical productions that has appeared of late years. 
Its author unfortunately did not long survive its production. From 
"A brief Memoir of the late Rev. Jonathan Eastwood, M.A. Incumbent/ 
of Hope. By the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D. Vicar of Ecclesfield and 
Sub-dean of York," (first published in The Reliquary,') we gather the 
following particulars : — 

Mr. Eastwood was born on the 31st October, 1823. He was educated 
at Wakefield proprietary school and afterwards at Uppingham. At St. 
John's college', Cambridge, he graduated B.A. 1846 as eighth Senior 
Optime, and third in the third class of the classical tripos. He was 
ordained at York by archbishop Musgrave, and, being the only deacon 
who knew anything of the Hebrew language, was selected for preacher 
in the following year, when he proceeded to priest's orders. He was Curate 

z 2 



340 EPITAPH or JOSEPH HUNTER, F.S.A. 

of Ecclesfield from 1 Feb. 1848 to 1 July 1854; when, on his marriage, 
he became Curate of Eckington. In 1862 the Bishop of Lichfield 
repeated an oiFer of preferment, and he accepted the church at Hope, in 
the Potteries of Staffordshire. On his death it was reported to the 
bishop by Sir Lovelace Stamer, the Rector of Stoke upon Trent, and 
Rural Dean, that " In Mr. Eastwood the Church in the Potteries has 
lost one of its most earnest, faithful, and judicious clergy— certainly its 
most accomplished." He died at St. Leonard's on Sea, July 5, 1864, 
aged 40. Mr. Eastwood married at Ecclesfield, August 3, 1854, Anne 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of William Frederick Dixon, esq. of Page 
Hall in that parish, a magistrate for the West Riding, and had issue a 
son, John Frederick, born in 1855, and two daughters. 

Besides his History of Ecclesfield, Mr. Eastwood was the joint 
author of " The Bible and Liturgical Word Book. By the Rev. J. 
Eastwood, clerk, and W. A. Wright, Esq. Trinity College, Cambridge " 
(announced for publication by Messrs. Macmillan). He was also a 
frequent writer in Notes and Queries and in The Reliquary. 

In the History of Ecclesfield, following in the steps of the Historian 
of South Yorkshire, Mr. Eastwood availed himself of several sources of 
information which were not open to that eminent antiquary : and we 
must not terminate this brief notice of his work without remarking 
that it contains at p. 372 a pedigree of the family of Hunter, Mr. 
Hunter's great-grandfather having resided at Hatfield House in Eccles- 
field, Mr. Hunter was buried, in accordance with a clause in his 
will, on the north-east side of the churchyard; and the following 
inscription has since been placed upon the stone : 

H. S. E. 

JosEPHus Hunter, S.A.S. 

Sacr. Scriniorum unus de Vice-custodibus, 

qui cum in archivis nostris versaretur 

summo rerum antiquariorum studio provectus 

multa docte, luculenter, accurate scripsit. 

Sed praesertim hujusce agri 

annales labore exploravit histori^que mandavit. 

Natus est SheflSeldise vi*^" die Februarii 

A" Salutis Humanas ix"° die Maii 

Anno M.D.CCC.LXI-no 

quo ipse vivens designavit loco 

in pace deponitur. 



THE INSTITUTION AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE 
DIGNITY OF BARONET. 

(Continued from p. 212.) 

At the institution of this hereditary rank, the most important 
documents relating to it were promulgated by royal authority:^ 
but they have not been subsequently reprinted so often as might 
have been expected. Selden, in his Titles of Honom', copies the 
form of the original Patents of creation, and the Instructions 
given to the Commissioners appointed to admit the aspirants to 
the dignity, and to arrange their precedence; together with the 
substance of two subsequent Eoyal Declarations or Decrees on 
the latter subject. The same documents were reprinted in the 
Analogia Honorum attached to Guillim's Display of Heraldry, 
fol. 1677; in Wotton's Baronetage of 1741, in pp. 280-305 
of the fifth and last volume; and in the Baronetage by Kimber 
and Johnson 1771; and the form of Patent is also given by 
Morgan in his Sphere of Gentry, Book 4, p. 12. 

The Royal Commission for this business has never been re- 

' In quarto pamphlets wliich bear the following titles : — 

1. His Maiesties Commission to all the Lords and others of the Privie Connsell, 
touching the Creation of Baronets. AVhereunto are annexed divers Instructions and 
his Maiesties Letters Patents containing the forme of the said Creation. Also the 
forme of an Oath to be taken by the said Baronets. Imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker, Printer to the Kings most Excellent Maiestie. Anno 1611. Title-leaf and 
pp. 44. 

2. The Decree and Establishment of the King's Maiestie, upon a eontroversie of 
Precedence betweene the yonger sonnes of Viscounts and Barons, and the Baronets; 
And touching some other points also, concerning aswell Bannerets, as the said 
Baronets. Imprinted at London by Robert Barker, Printer to the Kings most 
excellent Maiestie. 1612. Leaf of Title, and pp. 14. 

3. Three Patents concerning the Honourable Degi'ee and Dignitie of Baronets : 

The first containing the Creation and Grant. 
The second : a Decree with addition of other Priuiledges. 
The thirde : a confirmation and explanation. 
Imprinted at London by Robert Barker, Printer to the Kings Most Excellent 
Maiestie. Anno 1617. Title-leaf and pp. 5-39 : there being no pages 1-4 either in the 
British Museum copy or in that in the collection upon "Baronets, Arms, &c." from 
Sir George Naylor's library, now in the Office of Arms. 

The first and second articles of this third pamphlet are the same which were before 
published : the third is the Decree of 1616-17, which will be described hereafter. 



342 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

printed since its first publication: and is probably known to few. 
It may therefore be acceptable if now reproduced : 

His Majesties Commission to all the Lords and others of the Privie 
Councell touching the creation of Baronets. 
James by the grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To our right trustie and right 
Avellbeloved Councellour Thomas Lord EUesmere, Lord Chancellour of 
England, and to our right trustie and right well beloved cousins and 
Councillors Robert Earle of Salisburie, Lord High Treasurer of Eng- 
land, Henry Earle of Northampton, Lord Keeper of our Privie Seale, 
Loudovike Duke of Lenox, Charles Earle of Nottingham, our High 
Admirall of England, Thomas Earle of Suffolke, Lord Chamberlaine of 
our Household, Gilbert Earle of Shrewsbury, Justice in Eire beyond 
Trent northward, Edward Earle of Worcester, INIaster of our Horse, 
Thomas Earle of Excester, John Earle of Marre, Alexander Earle of 
Dunfermyline ; and to our right trusty and right well beloved Coun- 
cellours Thomas Lord Viscount Fenton, Edward Lord Zouche, William 
Lord Knolles, Treasurer of our Houshold, Edward Lord Wotton 
Comptroller of our Houshold, John Lord Stanhope, Vice-Chamber- 
laine of our Houshold; and to our trustie and right wellbeloved 
Councellours Sir John Herbert, Knight, our second Secretarie of State, 
Sir Julius Caesar, Knight, Chancellour and Under-Treasurer of our 
Exchecquer, and Sir Thomas Parrie, Knight, Chancellour of our 
Dutchie of Lancaster, greeting. Whereas divers principall Knights 
and Esquires of sundry parts of this our Eealme, mooved Avith zeale 
and affection to further the plantation of Ulster, and other like services 
in our Eealme of Ireland, have offered and agreed every of them to 
maintaine thirtie footmen souldiers in the same our Eealme at their 
owne proper costs and charges, after the rate of eight pence apiece by 
the day sterling during the space of three yeeres now next ensuing (by 
the imitation of which example that good worke, whereupon the esta- 
blishment of religion and civilitie in place of blindnesse and barbarisme 
doeth so much depend, is likely to be so much advanced and supported 
as no reasonable meanes would be forborne that may cherish and 
encourage such an endeavour). Wee have been pleased, as an argu- 
ment of our gracious acceptation of so remarkable a service, not onely 
to bestow upon them a dignitie newly erected and created by Us 
answerable to their estate and merit, which Wee have stiled by the 
name of Baronet, with divers privileges annexed thereunto, and the 
same have granted by Lettei's Patents to them, and the heires males of 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 343 

their bodies, to the end the memorie thereof may remaine to them, and 
their posteritie ; but are determined to doe the like also to some such 
other selected persons as shall concurre in the same intentions, not 
exceeding a convenient number; and therefore, although Wee could 
not in reason forbeare to begin and conclude Avith some principall per- 
sons of especiall note and qnalitie that first discovered their good affec- 
tions in this kinde, before "Wee had made any publique declaration of 
our certaine resolution to proceed further, yet when We enter into 
consideration, that there may be divers other Knights and Esquires of 
all parts of this our Eealme that are capable of this dignitie (respecting 
their estate and qualitie) and in -whom there would be found a like 
affection to the said service if they could take notice of this course so 
soone as others that are not so remote in their habitations, We have 
thought fit hereby as well to notifie our pleasure to receive a conve- 
nient number to this dignity as to warrant and authorize you (when 
any that are moved with the same affections to the publique good, and 
are otherwise qualified as is fit, shall repaire unto you within the time 
limited for this our Commission,) to treat and conclude with them in 
maner and forme as you have done Avith others, and according to those 
Instructions, which for your better direction in a matter of this conse- 
quence Wee have annexed to this Commission. Know yee therefore that 
AVee have appointed you to be our Commissioners, and Wee doe by 
these Presents give and grant unto you all, or unto any eight or more 
of you (whereof you the said Lord Chancellor or Lord Treasurer to be 
always one, and you the saide Lord Privie Seale, Duke of Lenox, Earle 
of Nottingham our Admirall, Earle of Suffolk our Chamberlaine, and 
Earle of Worcester Master of our Horse, to be always two, who are so 
much the more able to judge of men's blood and antiquitie in regard 
you are Commissioners in the office of Earle Marshall,) full, free, and 
lawfull power and authoritie to commune and treat with any of our 
loving subjects Avhom you shall finde willing to give such pay and enter- 
tainment to such number of footmen as is aforesaid to be imployed in 
the said service, and for such time as aforesaid, and thereupon to 
informe your selves of their family, living, and reputation ; and such 
and so many of the said persons as you or any such eight or more 
of you (as is aforesaid) shall find and approve to bee in all the respects 
aforesaid worthy such degree (not exceeding the number of two hun- 
dred, which We have covenanted in our Patents shall not be exceeded, 
but suffered to diminish as their issue shall faile,) to cause every 
one of them for himself to make payment or to give good and sufficient 



344 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

assurance for the due answering of so much as shall be sufficient 
for maintenance of thirtie souldiers footmen after the rate of eight 
pence apiece bj the day for the terme of three yeeres as is aforesaid, 
and thereupon to give warrant and direction under any such eight or 
more of your hands as is aforesaid unto our Attourney or Sollicitor- 
Generall, for the drawing up of severall bills and grants to passe from 
Us unto all and every such person and persons as shall be so approved 
by you or any such eight or more of you,) as is aforesaid, for the 
making and creating of every such person Baronet, with all privileages 
of precedence, place, title, and all other things thereunto belonging 
according to the forme hereunto annexed; and these presents, together 
with such warrant and direction of you, or any such eight or more of 
you as is aforesaid, shall be from time to time to our said Attourney 
and Sollicitor Generall for the time being sufficient warrant for the 
drawing up and subscribing of every such bill or grant to passe from 
Us according to the true meaning of these presents ; and our will and 
pleasure is that our Attourney or Sollicitor Generall shall draw, 
ingrosse, and subscribe the bills and grants to be made of the said 
dignitie of Baronet according to the directions and warrants by you, or 
any such eight or moi'e of you, as is aforesaid; and the said bills and 
grants so drawen, ingrossed, and subsci'ibed with the hands of our 
Attourney or Sollicitor Generall, or either of them, shall be a sufficient 
warrant and discharge to you our said Commissioners to subscribe 
likewise the said bills and grants with the hands of any such eight or 
more of you as aforesaid. 

And furthermore, for the more easie and speady passing of the 
grants and letters patents to be made of the said dignitie, Wee are 
pleased and contented, and by these presents, for Us, our heires and 
successors, Wee doo grant, ordaine, and appoint that the bills for such 
patents prepared by our said Attourney or Sollicitor as aforesaid, and 
signed with the hands of you, or any such eight or more of you as is 
aforesaid, shall be a sufficient and immediate warrant to the Lord 
Chancellour of England or Lord Keeper of the Great Scale of England 
for the time being to passe the same grants and letters patents under 
the Great Scale of England without any other or further warrant from 
Us to be had or obtained in that behalfe ; and this our Commission 
Wee have made to continue till the sixt day of July next comming 
after the date hereof, and then to cease and determine. In witnesse 
whereof, &c. Witnesse, etc. 

The Instructions given to the Commissioners to guide their 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 345 

conduct in tlie clioice and ranking of Baronets correspond with 
the contents of the original " Project" which we have inserted 
at p. 201. 

The Patent of Creation, — which was uniformly alike in every 
case, — was composed by the learned Camden, as is commemorated 
by Dr. Smith in his Life of Sii' Robert Cotton. Its preamble 
will be read with pleasure, as a specimen of the excellent 
Latinity of its author: — 

Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. Salutem. Cum inter alias Imperii nostri 
gerendi curas, quibus animus noster assidue exercetur, ilia non 
minima sit, nee minimi momenti,de Plantatione Regni nostri Hiberniae, 
ac potissimum Ultonise, amplte et percelebris ejusdem Kegni Provincial, 
quam nostris jam auspiciis atque armis, fceliciter sub obsequii jugum 
redactam, ita constabilire elaboramvis, ut tanta Provincia, non solum 
sincero Religionis cultu, humanitate civili, morumque probitate, 
verum etiam opi;m affluentia, atque omnium rerum copia, qute statum 
Eeipublicfe ornare vel beare possit, magis magisque efflorescat: Opus 
sane, quod nulli progenitorum nostrorum prsestare et perficere Hcuit, 
quamvis id ipsum multa sangiunis et opum profusions ssepius tentave- 
rint; In quo opere soUicitudo nostra Regia non solum ad hoc excu- 
bare debet, ut Plantatio ipsa strenue promoveatur, oppida condantur, 
Eedes et castra extruantur, agri colantur, et id genus alia; Sed etiam 
prospiciendum imprimis, ut universus hujusmodi rerum civilium appa- 
ratus, manu armata, prsesidiis videlicet et cohortibus, protegatur et 
communiatur, ne qua aut vis hostilis, aut defectio intestina, rem dis- 
turbet aut impediat: Cumque nobis intimatum sit, ex parte quorundam 
ex fidelibus nostris subditis, quod ipsi paratissimi sint, ad hoc regium 
nostrum inceptum, tam corporibus, quam fortunis "suis promovendum: 
Nos commoti operis tam sancti ac salutaris intuitu, atque gratos 
habentes hujusmodi generosos afFectus, atque propensas in obsequium 
nostrum et bonum publicum voluntates, Statuimus apud nos ipsos 
nulli rei deesse, quEe subditorum nostrorum studia pr^efata remunerare, 
aut aliorum animos atque alacritatem, ad operas suas prsestandas, aut 
impensas in hac parte faciendas, excitare possit; Itaque uobiscumi 
perpendentes atque reputantes virtutem et industriam nulla alia re 
magis quam honore ali atque acui, omnemque honoris et dignitatis 
splendorem, et amplitudinem, a Rege tanquam a fonte originem et 
incrementum ducere, ad cujus culmen et fastigium proprie spectat 
novos honorum et dignitatum titulos erigere atque instituere, utpote a 



346 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

quo antiqui illi fluxerint; consentanetim duximus (postulante usu Rei- 
publicEe atque temporum ratione) nova merita novis dignitatum insig- 
nibus rependere: Ac propterea, ex certii scientia et mero motu nostris, 
Ordiuavimus, ereximus, constituimus, et creavimiis, quendam statum, 
gradum, dignitatem, nomen et titulum Baronetti (Anglice of a Baronet) 
infra hoc Regnum nostrum Anglite perpetuis temporibus duraturum. 
Sciatis modo, quod nos de gratia nostra speciali, &c. &c. 

After tlius setting fortli the avowed object of the institution — 
the defence and maintenance of the Plantation of Ulster, and the 
royal desire to distinguish those who were well-disposed to assist 
in that design, the instrument proceeds to stipulate that every 
recipient of the dignity should furnish a contribution sufficient 
to maintain in the King's service thirty footmen for three years ;2 
and to concede that the new Baronets should enjoy a rank above 
all Knights of the Bath, Knights Bachelors, and all Bannerets 
there or to be thereafter created, except such as should be made 
under the King's own standard, in open field of battle, and in 
the King's personal presence ; that they should have the title of 
Sir, and their wives that of Lady, Madam, Dame (according to 
the mode of speech). Further, the King engaged, for himself, 
his heirs and successors, that the number of Baronets in the 
kingdom of England should never exceed two hundred, having 
precedency according to their order of creation; that he would 
create no other dignity intervening between those of Baron and 
Baronet; and that if any Baronet should die without heir male 
of his body or of the body of the grantee, the first number of 
tAvo hundred should thereby be allowed to decrease, and be re- 
duced to a lesser number. To this last clause, however, it has 
been observed that King James did not pledge his "heirs and 
successors." 

The Founder eventually created 204^ Baronets; but it was 
alleged that he did not depart from his bargain : inasmuch as five 
vacancies had arisen, not by extinction, but by promotion to the 
peerage, viz. of Sir Eobert Dormer to an English barony in 1615, 

^ At the pay of 8d. a day, as appears by the Instructions next mentioned : so that 
the total for three years amounted to 1,095L; to which were added the cost of passing 
the patent a,nd various fees of office. 

^ If Vavasour (see p. 352) be reckoned, they amount to 205. 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 347 

Sir Thomas Eidgeway, Sir William Maynard, and Sir William 
Hervey to Irish Baronies in 1616 and 1620, and Sir Thomas 
Beaumont to an Irish Viscovintcy in 1622. King Charles the 
First, however, had not long been on the throne when, relying 
on his royal prerogative as the Fountain of Honour, he disre- 
garded the stipulated limitation of the number of Baronets. 
His father had virtually done the same thing by creating Baro- 
nets of Ireland, — except that, until the Union of 1801, all Baro- 
nets of Ireland ranked (in England) after English Baronets of 
whatever creation. 

Among the documents relating to the early days of the dignity 
preserved in the State Paper Office is a Warrant for the nomi- 
nation of a Baronet, — one that was not used, but prepared in 
readiness for use, having the autograph signatures of nine of the 
Commissioners : 

[State Paper Office, Domestic James I. Vol. LXIII. art. 65*.] 

After o'^ very harty Comenclations. Whereas 
of in the County of hath out of his 

good affection to his Ma*^'*^ service oifered to charge himself av"^ the 
yearlye intertaynenient of 30"^ foote for three yeares after the rate of 
8'' per diem for the Plantation of Ulster. His Ma*'^, having gratiously 
accepted of this his good service, is pleased in recompence thereof to 
conferr upon him the dignity and place of a Baronnett ; av*^ all titles, 
priviledges, and preheminences w*=^' by his Ma*'®^ favo"^ is graunted unto 
others in like case. These shalbe therefore to require yow to drawe a 
bill for that purpose fitt for us to subscribe according unto the direc- 
tion given yow and the authority w'^'' we have received by vertue of 
his Ma*^'^^ Commission in that behalf. For w'^'^ this shalbe yo'' warrant. 
And soe Ave bid yow hartely farewell. From Whitehall this 
of , 1611. 

Yo'' very loving frendes, 
T. Ellesmeke, Cane. E. Salisbury. Lenox. 

T. SuFFOLKE. Gilbert Shrewsbury. E. Worcester. 
W. Knollys. Fenton. 

Jul. CiESAR. 

The payment of the 1095/. was divided into three annual sums. 
Hie Receipt given to Sir Thomas Holte, of Aston Hall, near 
Birmingham, whose patent was dated November 25, 1612, is 



348 INSTITUTION AND HISTOEY OF 

still preserved by liis descendant Charles Holte Bracebridge, esq. 
of Atlierstone Hall, co. Warwick. It is as follows: 

In Pello Recept' de Terminu Mich 'is anno nono Eegis Jacobi, sexto 
Decembris. Ware'. — D' Thomas Holte Mil' et Baronett' trescent' 
sexagint' quinq' libras de parte M'iiij^^xv^'. per ip'm D'no Eegi Jacobo 
dat' et cone' ad manutenend' trigint* viros in cohortibus suis pedestr' 
in Regno suo Hibernie pro defensu ejusdem et p'cipue pro securitat' 
plantacois Provincie Ultonie ib'm per spatium triu annorum subse- 
quen' s'c'd'm ratam viij d. pro quoUb't hujusmodi pedit' per diem 
duran' termino p'd' ...... ccclxv''. SoL 

Then follows the receipt for Michaelmas 1612, and the like for 
Michaelmas 1613 — in plen' exon'ac' omni' on'um quor'cunq' sup' ip'm 
Baronett' hered' vel execut' sues posthac imponend' virtute duarum 
obligac' sive Recognic' capt' coram Joh'e Bingley ar' et Irrotulat' p' 
Ed'r'um Wardour ar' pro soluc' Dccxxx" quinto Decembris 1612 et 
quinto Decemb' 1613 equis porc'o'ib's ultra ccclxv''. p'manibus solut' ad 
usu p'd' Que quidem obligac' sive Irrotulament' eor' vel al' on'a que- 
cumque pro manuten' d'c'or' xxx*^* pedit' vacua imp'p'm habeant"^. 

Ex' p. Ed. Wardour. 

Mr. Bracebridge also preserves the original Patent of baronetcy- 
granted to Sir Thomas Holte. It is not otherwise decorated than 
with a pen-and-ink initial of the King's portrait, seated, holding 
his sceptre and globe. 

The names of the Baronets advanced to the dignity by the 
patents of the Second Seal, which was dated the 29th of June, 
1611, were as follow. Though comparatively few remain on the 
roll of Baronets at the present time, yet nearly all will be recog- 
nized as having belonged to some of the most eminent families 
of our English annals. 

(The names which are printed in Italics are those whose Baronetcies are still 
subsisting. Those marked * are those whose representatives are now Peers, or were 
so before their extinction.) 

19. Sir Jolin Savage, of Rocksavage, Cheshire, Knight.* 

20. Sir Francis Barrington, of Barrington Hall, Essex, Knight. 

21. Henry Berlieley, of Wymondham, Leicestershire, Esquire. 

* Dates of the Peerages conferred on Families of Baronets: 

19. Sir John Savage (second Baronet) succeeded in 1639 to the Earldom of Rivers 
conferred on his maternal grandfather Thomas Dai'cy in 1626. Extinct 1728. 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 349 

22. William Wentworth, of Wentworth Wodehouse, Yorkshire, 
Esquire* 

23. Sir Richard Miisgrave, of Ilartley Castle, Weslmerland, K.B. 

24. Edward Seymour^ of Berry Pomeroy, Devonshire, Esquire.* 

25. Sir Moyle Finch, ofEastivell, Kent, Knight.* 

26. Sir Anthony Cope, of Hanivell, Oxfordshire, Knight. 

27. Sir Thomas Monson, of Carlton, Lincolnshire, Knight.* 

28. George Gresley, of Drakelow, Derbyshire, Esquire. 

29. Paul Tracy, of Stanway, Gloucestershire, Esquire. 

30. Sir John Wentworth, of Gosfield, Essex, Knight. 

31. Sir Henry Bella^yse, of JSfewhorough, Yorkshire, Knight.* 

32. Sir William Constable, of Flamborough, Yorkshire, Knight. 

33. Sir Thomas Leigh, of Stoueleigh, Warwickshire, Knight.* 

34. Sir Edward Noel, of Brook, Eutlandshire, Knight* 

35. Sir Eobert Cotton, of Conington, Huntingdonshire, Knight. 

36. Kobyrt Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley, Cheshire, Esquire.* 

37. Sir John Molineux, of Teversal, Nottinghamshire, Knight. 

38. Sir Francis Wortley, of Wortley, Yorkshire, Knight. 

39. Sir George Savile, of Thornhill, Yorkshire, Knight.* 

40. William Kniveton, of Mircaston, Derbyshire, Esquire. 

41. Sir Philip Wodehouse, of Kimherley, Norfolk, Knight.* 

42. Sir William Pojse, of Wilcot, Oxfordshire, Knight.* 

43. Sir James Harrington, of Ridlington, Rutlandshire, Knight. 

44. Sir Henry Savile, of Methley, Yorkshire, Knight. 

45. Henry Willoughby, of Risley, Derbyshire, Esquire. 

46. Lewis Tresham, of Rushton, Northamptonshire, Esquire. 

22. Baron Raby, July, 1628; Viscount Wentworth, Dec. 1628; Earl of Strafford 
1640: the two latter dignities extinct 1695. Again Earl of Strafford 1711. 
Extinct 1799. 

24, Succeeded to Dukedom of Somerset 1750. 

25. His widow Viscountess Maidstone 1623 ; Countess of Winchilsea 1628. 
Earl of Nottingham 1681. 

27. Baron Monson 1728. 

31. Baron Fauconberg 1627; Viscount Fauconberg 1643. Extinct 1815. 

33. Baron Leigh, of Stoneleigh, 1643. Extinct 1786. 

34. Baron Noel, 1617; succeeded his father-in-law Sir Baptist Hickes as Viscount 
Campden 1629. Earl of Gainsborough 1682. Extinct 1798. 

36. Lord Cholmondeley of Kells (a Baron of Ireland) ]628; Lord Cholmondeley 
of Wich-Malbank 1645 ; Earl of Leinster 1645-6. Extinct 1659. 

39. Viscount Hallifax 1668 ; Earl of Ilallifax 1679; Marquess of Hallifax 1682. 
All extinct 1700. Baronetcy extinct 1784. 

41. Baron AVodehouse 1797. 

42. Earl of Downe, in Ireland, 1628. Extinct 1660, 



350 INSTITUTION AND HISTORY OF 

47. Thomas Brudenell, of Dean, Northamptonshire, Esquire.* 

48. Sir George St. Paul, of Snarford, Lincolnsliire, Knight. 

49. Sir Philip Tyrwhitt, of Stanfield, Lincolnshire, Knight. 

50. Sir Roger DalHson, of Laughton, Lincolnshire, Knight, 

51. Sir Edward Carr, of Sleaford, Lincolnshire, Knight. 

52. Sir Edward Hussey, of Honington, Lincolnshire, Knight. 

53. V Estrange Mordaunt, of Ilassmgham, Norfolk, Esqni7^e. 

54. Thomas Bendish, of Steeple Bumsted, Essex, Esquire. 

55. Sir John Wynne, of Gwydir, Carnarvonshire, Knight. 

56. Sir William Throckmorton, of Tortworth, Gloucestersh. Knight. 

57. Sir Richard Worsley, of Apiddercombe, Isle of Wight, Knight. 

58. Richard Fleetwood, of Caldwich, Staffordshire, Esquire. 

59. Thomas Spencer, of Yarnton, Oxfordshire, Esquire. 

60. Sir John Tufton, of Hothfield, Kent, Knight * 

61. Sir Samuel Peyton, of Knowlton, Kent, Knight. 

62. Sir Charles Morrison, of Cashiobury, Hertfordshire, K.B. 

63. Sir Henry Baker, of Sisinghurst, Kent, Knight. 

64. Roger Appleton, of South Bemfleet, Essex, Esquire. 

65. Sir William Sedley, of Ailesford, Kent, Knight. 

66. Sir William Twysden, of East Peckham, Kent, Knight. 

67. Sir Edward Hales, of Woodchurch, Kent, Knight. 

68. William Monyns, of Waldersham, Kent, Esquire. 

69. Sir Thomas Mildmay, of Moulsham Hall, Essex, Knight.* 

70. Sir William Maynard, of Eastaines Parva, Essex, Knight.* 

71. Henry Lee, of Quarendon, Buckinghamshire, Esquire.* 

On the 24th of September following, four others were added to the 
rank : 

72. Sir Robert Napier, of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire, Knight. 

73. Paul Bayning, of Bentley Parva, Essex, Esquire.* 

74. Sir Thomas Temple, of Stowe, Buckinghamshire, Knight.* 

75. Thomas Penyston, of Leigh, Sussex, Esquire. 

47. Lord Brudenell 1627; Earl of Cardigan 1661 ; Duke of Montagu 1766 (extinct 
1790); Now Earl of Cardigan. 

60. Baron Tufton 1626 ; Earl of Thanet 1628. Extinct 18.50. The present Sir 
Richard Tufton, being the natural son of the last Earl of Thanet, and heir of Hoth- 
field and his other landed property, was created a Baronet in 1851. 

69. Baron Maynard, in Ireland, 1620; Baron Maynard, in England, 1628; 
Viscount Maynard 1766. Extinct 1775. The Viscountcy conferred in 1766 (with 
a further remainder) still existing, the Viscount being also a Baronet of a creation 1681. 

71. Earl of Litchfield 1674. Extinct 1776. 

73. Baron Bayning 1628; Viscount Bayning 1628-9. Extinct 16-38. 

74. The fifth Baronet was created Baron Cobham 1714, Baron and Viscount Cob- 



THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 351 

Sixth In precedence in tliis list, and having been up to this 
time a simple esquire, appears the name of Sir Edward Seymour 
of Berry Pomeroy, grandson of the Protector Somerset, and by 
seniority of birth actually his male heir, had not the remainders 
of the peerages which were conferred on the Protector given a 
preference to the offspring of his second wife Anne Stanhope. 
Two letters which at this period Mr. Seymour addressed to the 
Lord Treasurer are preserved in the State Paper Office, and the 
terms in which he expresses his appreciation of the honour con- 
ferred upon him by his admission into " the new order " are very 
remarkable as coming from a person of his birth. 

In the earlier letter,^ which is dated " Lupton, 12th June, 
1611," after first thanking the Lord Treasurer for a prospect of 
obtaining the wardship of Mr. Parker (who had become the 
writer's son-in-law) if his grandfather should die before he became 
of age, he desires 

" to intymate how much I stande further charged to your Lordship for 
your hon'^'y conceaved good opinion of me and my house as to deeme me 
worthie to be rauckt amongst that newe intended order of Baronettes 
which (as it should seeme) is ment to none but such as are well 
deservinge." 

Again, writing from Exeter on the 21st of July a similar letter ^ 
of thanks, Sir Edward Seymour a second time expresses his grati- 
tude 

" in that yt pleased yo'^' LqP to holde me worthy to be ranckt in the 
nomber of Baronettes, and in that of havinge precedencye of many 
worthie gentlemen of the same creation, w°^^ I cannot but be sensible to 
be by yo"" ho'''® meanes." 

ham 1718. The former peerage became extinct on his death : the latter (by special 
remainder) was inherited by his sister Hester, wife of Richard Grenville, esq. and 
has descended to the present Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. The present Sir 
Grenville Temple descends from a younger son of the first Baronet. 

' Domestic, James I. vol. LXIV. 

2 Ibid. vol. LXV. art. 48. He states in this letter that Mr. Parker's grandfather 
was dead since he wrote before. That was Edmund Parker, esq. who married 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir Clement Smith, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. His 
grandson, Edmund Parker, of Northmolton and Boringdon, esquire, married Amy, 
daughter of Sir Edward Seymour, and was sheriff of Devonshire in 1622. His 
descendants have attained to the rank of Lord Boringdon (1784) and Earl of 
Morley (1815). 



352 THE DIGNITY OF BARONET. 

When it is remembered tliat tlie writer was grandson to a 
Duke, in remainder to the (then dormant) dukedom, and to the 
existing earldom of Hertford, and that his descendant (the sixth 
Baronet) actually succeeded to both those dignities in 1750, 
these passages are certainly worthy of notice, in proof of the 
estimation in which the dignity of Baronet was held in some 
quarters at its first institution. It happened that Mr. Seymour 
had never received knighthood. The present Duke of Somerset 
is the eleventh Baronet of the creation of 1611. 

As a closely similar instance we may mention that of Edward 
Devereux, esquire/ of Castle Bromwich in Warwickshire, created 
a Baronet on the 25th Nov. 1612. He was in the remainder to 
the Viscountcy of Hereford ; to which his son Walter succeeded, 
on the death of the Earl of Essex, in 1646. 

Among other families that were to be raised to the dignity of 
Baronet by the patents of the Second Seal, there were three 
regarding which some delay arose; but whose precedency was 
eventually arranged with great precision, which shows how much 
importance was attached to that particular, 

.Charles Vavasour of Killingthorp in Lincolnshire, esquire, was 
not actually created a Baronet until the 22nd June, 1631; but 
he was then created with the precedency of the 29th June, 
1611,2 and placed between Monson and Gresley (Nos. 27 and 
28). He died unmarried about 1665, when the title became extinct. 

The Warrant for Sir George Savile of Thornhill did not pass 
until the 2nd July, 1611, and that for Sir George St. Paul not 
until the 5th of that month; but warrants were issued to date 
their patents of creation on the 29th of June last past, notwith- 
standing the Statute 18 Hen. VI., and they were ranked respec- 
tively as the 39th and 48th in order of creation. 

•^ J. G. N. 

( To he continued.) 

' The King knighted " Sir Edward Devereux of Warwickshire," in his summer 
progress of 1612. (^Progresses, &c. of James I., vol. ii. p. 462.) So he may have 
received that honour as a prelude to his advance to the Baronetcy, although designated 
as Esquire in the patent. 

" This could only have heen upon the ground of his having been accepted at the 
time, hut by some accident " stayed." The particulars of the case have now disap- 
peared : but may possibly at some time return to the surface. 



REVIEW. 



Genealogy and Surnames : with some Heraldic and Biographical 
Notices. By William Anderson, Author of The Scottish Nation, Land- 
scape Lyrics, etc. etc. Edinburgh, 1865. 8vo. pp. viii. 174. 

Another addition to the multitude of rash and ill-considered works on 
this subject: a medley of hasty conjectures, trifling anecdotes, and empty 
humour. The author says, truly, in his preface, that " considerable atten- 
tion has of late years been directed to the origin of Surnames :" and yet he 
betrays that he actually knows very little of what has been published. He 
acknowledges himself to be especially indebted to an American work on 
the subject by Mr. B. Homer Dixon, printed for private distribution, Boston, 
1857, and yet he says nothing of another American book which has reached 
three editions, the Suffolk Surnatnes of the late Mr. Nathaniel IngersoU 
Bowditch. He quotes the Essays on English Surnames by Mr. Mark Antony 
Lower, published in 1849, as being "as yet the only standard work on 
family nomenclature in the country," in complete ignorance of the same 
author's much more elaborate production, in a dictionary form, the Patro- 
nymica Britannica, completed in 1860. 

It will not be worth while to examine Mr. Anderson's pages at much 
length. We shall be giving a general idea of them by copying the titles of 
the fourteen chapters into which his collections are distributed: 1. Original 
Significance of Names; 2. Personal or Distinctive Names ; 3 Names from 
striking peculiarities ; 4. Names from Colour and Complexion ; 5. Surnames 
from Animals; 6. Surnames from Weapons and Insignia of War ; 7. Sur- 
names from Trades, Offices, and Occupations; 8. Genitive Names and 
Diminutives; 9. Surnames from Trees, Plants, Waters, and Rivers; 10. and 
11. Surnames from Countries, Towns, and Lands ; 12. Miscellaneous Sur- 
names; 13. Change of Name ; 14. Nomenclature in Scotland. 

The penultimate Chapter is a very imperfect notice of a subject that has 
been recently much discussed ; ' whilst the last is the best part of the book, 
because it is actually the substance of a paper written by Dr. Stark, in the 
Annual Report of the Registrar-General for Scotland for 1860. 

A hope is expressed in the Preface that the volume will prove acceptable, 
because "all mere theory or speculative conjecture as to the derivation of 
Names has been studiously avoided." But the performance is very opposite 
to this assurance. The glorious uncertainty of the etymologists of olden 
days is emulated to the full by Mr. Anderson with respect to personal 
nomenclature. The following is a specimen of his style of obscuring rather 
than elucidating the subjects of his inquiry: — 

The name Mitchell is said by Lower {Essays on Surnames, vol. i. p. 140) to be 

' See the various articles in our first volume, and the several essays there quoted, 
VOL. III. 2 A 



354 ANDEESON ON SURNAMES. 

derived from the Anglo-Saxon Michel or Mucel, meaning great ; hence the Scotch 
MicHe, tliat is muclle, much or large. It may, however, have been derived from the 
Scandinavian Modschiold, Courageous Shield. I am inclined to think, from the 
crest of the Mitchells, a hand holding a pen, that it has its derivation in the German 
Mit-schuler, a disciple or scholar, literally " with a school." 

Here is choice: but still omitting the most obvious derivation of all, — 
the baptismal name Michael, which has this soft pronunciation in French, 
and which the author (in p. 15) has already explained as signifying "Who 
is like God?" 

At p. 48, in like manner, three different derivations are offered for the 
name of Ellis; one, from Elias; another, from the town of Eliseux in Nor- 
mandy; the third from the Cornish word for a son-in-law. No doubt some 
names, now perfectly alike in appearance, have had more than one origin : 
but then it would be much more satisfactory to give in each case an ascer- 
tained instance, than a varietj' of conjectures, however ingenious or plausible, 
unsupported by evident and authenticated deduction. 

"It is strange (Mr. Anderson adds) how any family of the name should 
have chosen eels for their arms :" and yet he makes this remark at the foot 
of a page in which he has related how many families bearing the names of 
fish have canting coats, as Goujon, Delphini, Tarbet, Chabot, Garvie, Ged, — 
to which we might add Salmon, Herring, Roche, and others. It is apparent 
that he has never studied the late Mr. Moule's pleasing monograph on The 
Heraldry of Fish. 

So little does he appreciate the symbolic system upon which, as we have 
elsewhere shown, armory was based from the earliest times, that he stig- 
matises it as false : 

The Scotch name of Cockburn, in the true or rather false canting style of heraldry, 
also assumes three cocks in the shield, although the name itself has nothing to do 
with them, having been originally a corruption of Colbrand. (p. 47) 

But was such the fact ? We are aware that the local name of Cockburns- 
peth on the Borders is traced as a corruption of Colbrandspath : but that 
derivation does not necessarily include the personal name of Cockburn. 

On another well-known name the reader is offered the following absurd 
string of surmises : — 

" The Scottish name of Stoddart is supposed to have been derived from the word 
Standard. It has also been conjectured to have been originally Stout-heart, to which 
the Anglified form of the name, Stothert, gives some countenance. An English 
family of the name of Studdard has for crest a demi-horse with a ducal coronet round 
its body." (p. 136) 

— implying, we presume, that its owner is a great s/wri-master! 

The facts here asserted are as untrue as the conjectures are worthless. 
The " English family of the name of Studdard " (as the author designates 
it) is really named Studdert, and is seated at Bunratty castle, co, Clare : 
whilst that which is elegantly styled by Mr. Anderson " the Anglified form 



ANDERSON ON SURNAMES. 355 

of the name Stothert," is to be found at Cargen in the county of Kirk- 
cudbright.' 

We do not know that the name can be properly termed " Anglified " or 
Anglicised under any form : but we have seen as eminent men in our own 
metropolis Dr. Stoddart, once the Editor of Tlie Times ;^ and Stothard the 
immortal Royal Academician, with his several clever sons. 

But then, for the etymology of the name, is it not obviously one of the 
same class of which we have recently detected a memorable example in 
Coulthart ? — we mean a class desci-iptive of the herdsmen of the hills or 
open country. 

Heard — a herdsman or keeper of cattle. 

Colthart — the colt-herd. , 

Coward — the cow-herd. 

Ewart — the ewe-herd. 

Hoggard, and Hogarth »— the hog-herd. 

Kennard — the kye or kine herd. 

Shepherd — the sheep-herd. 

Stothart — the stot-herd. 

Swinnerd — the swine-herd. ' 

Taggart, Teggart, and Tewart — the teg-herd. 

Mr. Lower, in his Patronymica Britannica, adopts this origin for the 
name Coward, but still with some diffidence. He remarks, 

" Although the popular derivation of this opprobrious word from coic-herd (whose 
occupation would be regarded with some disdain by the chivalrous in the middle 
ages,) is untenable,'' I think it quite probable that the surname may be from that 
source, like Shepherd, Hayward, and other similar names." 

' See Burke's Landed Gentry for both these houses. 

^ Afterwards Sir John Stoddart, Chief Justice and Judge of the Vice-Admiralty 
Court of Malta. He received the following allusive arms : — 

Sable, two chevronels inclosing a Maltese cross between three estoiles argent, a 
bordure of the last. Crest, Fasces and the Oar of the Admiralty in saltire, placed 
within a wreath. Motto, Justitia tenax. He impaled Argent, a lion rampant gules, 
a chief ermine, for Wellwood (Book-plate), having married Isabella, eldest daughter 
of the Rev. Sir Henry Moncrieff-Wellwood, Bart, and sister to Sir William Moncrieff 
who died Attorney general of Malta in 1813. Sir John Stoddart died Feb. 16, 1856, 
in his 85th year; and a memoir of him will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for May following. 

^ In p. 31, Mr. Anderson says, " Hogarth is Dutch, and means high-natured, 
generous." But are any of our English Hogarths of Dutch ancestry ? 

* " Coward is the past participle of the verb to cowre or to cower, a word formerly in 
common use," as stated by Home Tooke : and adopted by Richardson in his Xe^v 
English Dictionary. 

In the Roll of Arms of the reign of Henry the Third, edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, 
at p. 15, two contemporary knights, who bore the same name of John de Neville, are 
distinguished as John de Neville Cowerde and John de Neville le Forrestier. AVe are 

2 a2 



356 ANDERSON ON SURNAMES. 

But we can now present him with an instance of the name still written 
Cowherd at the beginning of the fifteenth century. In the register of 
archbishop Bowet at York there is recorded a dispensation granted in 
1412 for the marriage of William son of Thomas de Fawxhed and Agnes 
daughter of John Coivherd, who were related in the third and fourth 
degrees.' In the Pi-omptorium Parvulorum occurs Cowheede, vaccarius, 
vaccaria, showing that this term was applied both to male and female 
servants. And somewhat later, "16 Ap. 1618, Buryed Archie the cowhird 
of Goswick." Register of Holy Island, in Raine's North Durham, p. 151. 

We do not, however, quite agree with Mr. Lower in combining the 
Herd and the Ward. We imagine there was this difference between the 
two. Whilst the Herd was a servant, like the Swain^ (A.-S. 7;?/?'J and 
swan,) the Ward assumes the position of a public officer. The Hay-ward 
was the keeper of the hay or inclosure on the common for a whole commu- 
nity, the Wood-ward an officer who looked after a wood, the Bull-ward ^ 
the keeper of the parish bull, and so on. 

Mr. Anderson (p. 44) says that " The surname of Swan has most likely 
been adopted at first from an innkeeper's sign," — a similar misapprehension 
to that of deriving names from armorial bearings, instead of the former 
suggesting the latter. It is surely the original Anglo-Saxon form of Swain, 
which is still a frequent name as Swayne. 

And so (in p. 76) " The surname Rose is evidently taken from the 
beautiful flower of the name ;" — whereas we suppose few can fail to per- 
ceive that Rose, together with Roos, and Rouse, is from le JRos, the Red- 
complexioned man, as Blount is from le Blond, the Fair man. This 
etymology of Blount and Blunt is correctly given by ]VIr. Anderson among 
his miscellaneous anecdotes (p. 121), but it is not included in his chapter 
on " Names from Colour and Complexion." 

In p. 62 Mr. Anderson remarks that 

The Church has supplied the names of Pope, Priest, Dean, Deans, Deacon, and 
Deakin ; Chaplin, Parsons; Abbot, Bishop, Prior, Monk, Friar, Fryer, and Frere ; 
Vicar, Vicars, and MacVicar {Scotch, son of the Vicar), 

not aware whether any attempt has been made to explain these designations. In 
the preceding page Thomas de Moulton le Forrestier is thus distinguished from another 
Thomas de Multon. 

^ Testamenta Eboracensia, iii. 321 (a volume just published by the Surtees 
Society). 

^ The Swain was peculiarly the swine-herd. On the very ancient seal of Evesham, 
the swain from whom that town took its name is represented watching his swine, 
with this couplet — 

" Eoves her wonede, ant was swon. 
For wy men clepet this Eovishom." 
See an engraving in the Arc/ueolo(/ia, vol. xix. plate v. 

* Bullard is still a surname : and within memory those who took an active part in 
the buU-fights at Stamford in Lincolnshire were called the Bullards. 



ANDERSON ON SURNAMES. 357 

To which may be added the lower clei-ical orders of Bennet and Colet 
(i. e. acolyte). Some of the former, as Pope, Bishop, &c. it has with pro- 
bability been suggested, first adhered to the successful performers of such 
characters in the miracle plays, or in the mummeries of Christmas and 
other festivals. But Frere was a surname of a different origin, probably 
first given to distinguish two brothers that bore the same baptismal name, 
— as was frequently the case. We read of William FitzWarin le Frere in 
the reign of Edward the Thii-d. It thus is of the same class as le Neve or 
Neve, i. e. the nephew ; Fitz, — a well-known Devonshire family, — the son ; 
Beaufitz, — a son-in-law ; and Eyre, a name given to several races, the heir. 

Altogether, this book is exceedingly imperfect, and full of errors, both 
historical and speculative, put together with a singular lack of knowlege 
and discrimination — and to criticise all its misstatements would occupy a 
greater number of pages than it contains. 

We will not, however, part from Mr. Anderson without doing him the 
justice to admit that, to any one able to use his own judgment upon its 
contents, this book may be useful for occasional reference, particularly as 
it has a full index nominum. We would not pin our faith on all its ge- 
nealogical information : but the following, at least, in which the author is 
personally concerned, we presume may be relied upon : — ■ 

As stated in a note to an article on the Moral and Social Condition of Wales, in 
Blackwood's Magazine for Sept. 1849, the leading scholars of Wales are all named 
Williams, viz. Archdeacon Williams,' and the Rev. Robert Williams, John Williams,^ 
Rowland Williams,^ Charles Williams, and another Robert Williams, — none of them 
relations. John Williams, author of The Mineral Kingdom, was also a Welshman, 
although the greater part of his life was spent in Scotland. He was the author's 
maternal grandfather. Well known in his time as an antiquarian and geologist, he 
was one of the twelve original members of the Antiquarian Society in Scotland. 
Having gone to Russia, on the invitation of the Empress Catherine, to survey for 
minerals in that Empire, he was on his way back to Scotland, having fulfilled his 
mission, after being two years and a half in Russia, when he was seized with a fever, 
and died at Verona in Italy, May 29, 1795. 

* It is now sixteen years since this was written. It refers to John Williams, MA. 
Archdeacon of Cardigan, Prebendary of St. David's, and of Brecon : who has been 
for some years deceased. 

^ The Rev. John Williams (ab Ithel), editor of the Archceologia Camhrensis and 
The Cambrian Jottnial, died Aug. 27, 1862, aged 51, and a memoir of him will be 
found in the Gentleman's Magazine for Feb. 1863. 

* The Rev. Rowland Williams, MA. Canon of St. Asaph, and Rector of Ysceifiog, 
one of the revisers of the Welsh translation of the Prayer-Book, died Dec. 28, 1854, 
aged 75. 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 



1687. 
GREGORY KING'S PEERAGE CARDS, TEMP. JAMES IL 

By the favour of Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq. F.S.A., we are now ^ 
enabled to present our readers with some description of the Cards of the ^ 
English Peerage edited by Gregory King, ^mcrgali Herald, which were^<^ 
mentioned in our article on Historical and Heraldic Cards, in pp. 79, 80, of *<s 
the present volume. 

Though these Cards are now so exceedingly scarce as to be almost un- 
known, it is evident that there were several editions of them, and that 
consequently they must have had a considerable circulation. 

The description we have quoted in p. 80 from Menestrier,' is that of a 
pack of cards of the Peers of England made before 1682, the year of the 
death of Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland. Whether that pack had 
been superintended by Gregory King does not appear; but its plan is 
identical with his, though the cards occupied by the several grades of the 
Peerage do not perfectly correspond. 

Next, we know that Gregory King's set was published (or republished) 
in 1684 (see p. 80). 

The same set, altered to the year 1687, is that we are about to describe 
from the copy lent us by Mr. Shirley. 

And again, another edition was sanctioned by the Earl Marshal in 1688, 
as appears by the title or wrapper which we copied in p. 79. 

Mr. Shirley's pack is remarkable, as showing the new dignities which 
James the Second had bestowed, chiefly upon noblemen of his own faith. 
The Garter is added to the shields of the Earls of Peterborough, Rochester, 
and Faversham, upon whom that honour had been conferred in 1685; but 
not to the arms of the Earl of Sunderland, who was elected K.G. in 1687. 
This pack includes, however, the King's natural son, James Duke of Ber- 
wick, so created on the 19th of March in that year. 

Accompanying Mr. Shirley's pack is a List of the Peerage, in letter-press, 
copies of which had probably been provided to accompany the edition of 
1684: it therefore furnishes the means of observing the alterations made 
by the engraver, which, considering the shortness of time that had elapsed, 
were very numerous, and involved the engraving of several new plates. 

' Menestrier's description is evidently incomplete : as, besides the two Royal Dukes 
(of York and Cumberland), he mentions only three others, — Norfolk, Somerset, and 
Buckingham : and no Marquess. Now, the Duke of Albemarle was created in June 
1660, and the death of Henry Duke of Gloucester did not occur until the following 
September. We should be very glad to be allowed to examine a copy of this pack of 
the reign of Charles II. 



GREGOEY IJING'S PEERAGE CARDS. 359 

We will first make a copy of this List of the Peers Spiritual a?td Temporal 
in the year 1684,^ omitting the armorial blason, which is sufficiently well 
known, and gives only single coats, without any quarterings or impalements. 
The mark * indicates a Knight of the Garter. 

One Diike of the Royal Blood, 

*JAMES Duke of York, only Brother to his most Sacred Majesty. 

Three Great OflScers who take place above all Dukes not of the 
Royal Blood. 

Francis Lord Guilford, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. 
Laurence Earl of Rochester, Lord President of the Council. 
George Mart.), of Halifax, L. Privy Seal. 

Two Great Officers who take place above all of their Degree. 

Henry Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England. 

James Duke of Ormond, Lord Steward of his Majesties Houshold. 

Dukes XIII. and Duchesses II. 

1. Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk, (Earl 9.*Charles Lenos, Duke of Richmond. 

Marshal of England.) 10. *Charles Fitz-Roy,D. of Southampton. 

2,*Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset. ll.*Henry Fitz-Roy, Duke of Grafton. 

3.*George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 12.*James Butler, Duke of Ormond. 

4.*Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle. 13.*Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort. 

5.*James Scot, Duke of Monmouth. 14.*George Fitz-Roy, Duke of North- 

6. Henry Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle. umberland. 

7. Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland. 15.*CharlesBeauclair, Dukeof S.Albans. 

8. Louisa deQueroualle,Duchess of Ports- 

mouth. 

Marquisses II. 

1. Charles Pawlet, Marquiss of Winchester. 

2. George Savile, Marquiss of Halifax (Lord Privy Seal.) 

Two other Great Officers who take place above all of their Degree. 
Robert Earl of Lindsey, L. High Chamberlain of England. 
Henry Earl of Arlington, Lord Chamberlain of his Majesties Houshold. 

' Catalogues of the Nobility temp. Charles II. were published by Nath. Brooke, 
4to. 1660, and by Robert Pawley, 8vo. 1661 (see Moule, pp. 156, 160). One is 
also given in Sylvanus Morgan's Sphere of Gentry, folio, 1661. At p. 227, Moule 
describes " A Catalogue of the Nobility of England, according to their respective 
Precedencies, as it was presented to His Majesty [i.e. James II.] on New Year's Day, 
Anno 1684. To which is added, The Blazon of their Paternal Coats of Arms, and a 
List of the present Bishops. By Permission of the Duke of Norfolk. By John 
DuGDALE, Esq. Norroy King of Arms. Printed at London, Anno 1685. A single 
Folio Sheet." (Reprinted in 1690.) This description tallies so completely with the 
Catalogue before us — to which the Duke of Norfolk's signature is attached, that we 
have no doubt that it is the same. The copy before us has no title : but is cut up 



360 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 



Earls LXVI. and I. Countess. 

l,*Aubrey de Vere, Earl of Oxford. 36 

2. Charles Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. 37, 

3. Anthony Grey, Earl of Kent. 38, 

4. William Stanley, Earl of Derby. 39 

5. John Maners, Earl of Rutland. 40, 

6. Theophilus Hastings, Earl of Hunt- 41 

ingdon. 42 

7.*William Russel, Earl of Bedford. 43 

8. Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. 44 

9. Edward Clinton, Earl of Lincoln. 45 

10. James Howard, Earl of Suffolk. 46 

11. Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset. 

12. James Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. 47, 

13. John Cecil, Earl of Exeter. 48 

14. John Egerton, Earl of Bridgwater. 49 

15. Philip Sidney, Earl of Leicester. 50 

1 6. GeorgeCompton,EarlofNorthampton. 

17. Edward Rich, Earl of Warwick. 

18. WilliamCavendish,Earl of Devonshire 61, 

19. William Fielding, Earl of Denbigh. 

20. John Digby, Earl of Bristol, 52, 

21. Gilbert Holies, Earl of Clare. 53. 

22. Oliver St. John, Earl of Bolingbroke. 54. 

23. Charles Fane, Earl of Westmerland. 55. 

24. Charles Mountagu, Earl of Man- 56. 
Chester. 57. 

25. Thomas Howard, Earl of Berkshire. 58. 
26.*John Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave, 69. 

27. Thomas Savage, Earl Rivers. 60. 

28. Robert Bertie, Earl of Lindsey, 61. 

(L. High Chamberlain of England.) 62. 

29. Henry Mordant, Earl of Peterborow, 63. 

30. Thomas Grey, Earl of Stamford. 

31. Heneage Finch, Earl of Winchelsea. 64. 

32. AVilliam Pierpont, Earl of Kingston. 65. 

33. Charles Dormer, Earl of Carnarvon. 66. 

34. Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield. 67. 

35. Thomas Tufton, Earl of Thanet. 



Thomas Weston, Earl of Portland. 
William Went worth,Earl of Strafford. 
Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland. 
, Robert Leke, Earl of Scarsdale. 

Edward Mountagu, Earl of Sandwich. 
. Henry Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. 
, Algernon Capel, Earl of Essex. 
, Robert Brudenel, Earl of Cardigan. 
Arthur Annesley, Earl of Anglesey. 
. John Grenville, Earl of Bathe. 
. Charles' (now Edward) Howard, 

Earl of Carlisle. 
, William Craven, Earl of Craven. 
, Robert Bruce, Earl of Ailesbury. 
. Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington. 
.*Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington,'* 
(L. Chamberlain of his Maj'*** House- 
hold.) 
, Anthony Ashley Cooper, E. of Shafts- 
bury. 
, William Herbert, Earl of Powis. 

Edward-Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield, 
*Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby. 
Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex, 
Lewis de Duras, Earl of Feversham. 
Charles Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield. 
John Roberts, Earl of Radnor. 
William Paston, Earl of Yarmouth. 
George Berkeley, Earl of Berkeley. 
ElizabethBanning, Countess of Shepey 
Daniel Finch, Earl of Nottingham. 
Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, 
(Lord President of the Council.) 
James Bertie, Earl of Abingdon. 
Edward Noel, Earl of Gainsborough. 
Coniers D'Arcie, Earl of Holderness. 
Thomas Windsor, Earl of Plymouth, 



into slips, which are pasted in a book. For the Peerage in the reign of William III. 
there is " An Exact Catalogue," by Robert Dale, Blanch Lion Pursuivant and Dep. 
Registrar of the College of Arms. 8vo 1697. Pp. 164. And, in succession to 
that, the catalogues given in the various editions of Chamberlayne's Present State may 
be usefully consulted. 

» Charles first Earl of Carlisle died Feb, 26, 1684. 

2 The ordinary coat of Bennet, Gules, a bezant between three demi-lions rampant 
argent, granted by W. Dethiek 1602, was altered to Gules, a moiMcl roi/alor between 



GREGORY king's PEERAGE CARDS, 



361 



Viscounts IX. 

1. Edward Devereux, Viscount Hereford. 

2. Francis Brown, Viscount Mountagu. 

3. WilliamFiennes.ViscountSay and Sele. 

4. ThomasBellassise, Viscount Falconberg 

5. Charles Mordant, Viscount Mordant. 

Barons LXII. and Baronesses IV. 

1. George Nevill, Lord Bergaveny. 26. 

2. Mervyn Touchet, Lord Audley. 27. 

3. Charles West, Lord la Warr. 28. 

4. Thomas Parker, Lord Morley. 29. 

5. Robert Shirley, Lord Ferrers. 30. 

6. Charles Mildmay, Lord Fitzwalter. 31. 

7. Henry Yelverton, Lord de Grey. 32. 

8. Frances Sutton, Baroness Dudley. 33. 

9. William Stourton, Lord Stourton. 34. 

10. Coniers D'arcie, L. Coniers, Son and 35. 
Heir apparent to the Earl of Holder- 36. 
ness. 37. 

11. Vere-EssexCrom well, Lord Cromwell 
(and Earl of Arglass in Ireland.) 33. 

12. Ralph Eure, Lord Eure. 

13. Philip Wharton, Lord Wharton. 39. 

14. Thomas Willoughby, Lord Wil- 

loughby of Parham. 4O. 

15. William Paget, Lord Paget. 41. 

16. Fran. Howard, L. Howard of Effing- 42. 
ham. 43 

17. Charles North, Lord North. 44 

18. James Bruges, Lord Chandos. 45_ 

19. Robert Carey, Lord Hunsdon. 4g 

20. John' (now Thomas)Petre,LordPetre 47_ 

21. Charles Gerard, Lord Gerard. 48_ 

22. Henry Arundel, L. Arundel of War- 49. 
dour. 50. 

23. Lady Catherine Stuart, Baroness Clif- 51. 

ton of Leighton Bromswold. 52. 

2i. Christopher Roper, Lord Tenham. 53. 
25. Foulk Grevil, Lord Brook. 



6. Francis Newport, Viscount Newport. 

7. Horatio Townsend,ViscountTownsend. 

8. Thomas Thynne, Viscount Weymouth. 

9. Christopher Hatton, Viscount Hatton. 



Ralph Mountagu, Lord Mountagu. 
John Lovelace, Lord Lovelace. 
John Pawlet, Lord Pawlet. 
William Maynard, Lord Maynard. 
John Coventry, Lord Coventry. 
Charles Mohun, Lord Mohun. 
WilliamHoward,L.HowardofEscrick 
Henry Herbert, L.Herbert ofChirbury 
Thomas Leigh, Lord Leigh. 
Thomas Jermyn, Lord Jermyn. 
William Byron, Lord Byron. 
Richard Vaughan, Lord Vaughan, 

(and Earl of Carbery in Ireland.) 
Francis Smith, Lord Carrington, (and 

Viscount Carrington in Ireland.) 
William Widdrington, Lord Wid- 

drington. 

Edward Ward, Lord Ward. 
Thomas Colepeper, Lord Colepeper. 
Jacob Astley, Lord Astley. 
Charles Lucas, Lord Lucas. 
John Bellassise, Lord Bellassise. 
Edward Watson, Lord Rockingham. 
Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington. 
MarmadukeLangdale,Lord Langdalc 
John Berkeley, Lord Berkeley. 
Francis Holies, Lord Holies. 
Charles Cornwallis, Lord Cornwallis. 
Henry Booth, Lord De la mer, 
Thomas Crew, Lord Crew. 
Mary Lucas, Baroness Lucas, (and 

Countess of Kent.) 



three demi-lions rampant argent, granted by Sir Edward Walker in 1664 to Sir Henry 
Bennet, Secretary of State, created Lord Arlington, of Arlington, co. Middlesex, (more 
properly Harlington,) in that year, and Earl of Arlington in 1672, K.G. also in 1672. 
He became Lord Chamberlain in 1674 : and died without male issue in 1685. By a 
special remainder, his daughter, marrying the first Duke of Grafton, one of the sons of 
his Royal master, carried his dignities of peerage to that family. 
' John Lord Petre died 1084, 



362 



BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 



Richard Arundel, L. Arundel of 
Trerice, 

James Butler, Baron Butler of More 
Park, Grandson and Heir apparent 
to the Ihike of Ormond. 

56. Hugh Clifford, Lord Clifford. 

57. Lord Richard Butler, Baron Butler 
of Weston, (and Earl of Arran in 
Ireland.) 

58. Susan Airmine, Baroness Bellassise 
of Osgodby. 



55 



59. Richard Lumley, Lord Lumley, (and 
Viscount Lumley in Ireland.) 

60. George Carteret, Lord Carteret. 

61. George Legge, Lord Dartmouth. 

62. John Bennet, Lord Ossulston. 

63. Will.' (now Giles) Allington, L. Al- 

lington. 

64. Ralph Stawell, Lord Stawell. 

65. Francis North, Lord Guilford, (Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seal.) 

66. Sidney Godolphin, Lord Godolphin. 



Archbishops II. and Bishops XXIV. 



1. Dr. William Sandcroft, Lord Arch- 

bishop of Canterbury, and Primate 
of all Engl. 

2. Dr. John Dolbin, Lord Archbishop of 

York, and Primate of England. 

3. Dr.HenryCompton,L.BishopofLondon 

4. Dr.NathanielCrew,L.BishopofDurham 

5. Dr. Peter Mew, L.Bishopof Winchester 

6. Dr.HerbertCrofts, L.Bishopof Hereford 

7. Dr. Seth Ward, L. Bishop of Salisbury. 

8. Dr. Anthony Sparrow, L. Bishop of 

Norwich. 

9. Dr. Thomas Wood, Lord Bishop of 

Lichfield and Coventry. 

10. Dr. Guy Carleton, L. Bishop of 
Chichester. 

11. Dr. JohnPearson,L. Bishop of Chester. 

12. Dr. Humphry Lloyd, L.Bp. of Bangor. 

13. Dr.Will.Lloyd,L.Bp.of Peterborough. 



1 4. Dr.Tho. Barlow, L. Bishop of Lincoln. 

15. Dr.John Fell.Lord Bishop of Oxford. 

16. Dr. Tho. Lampleugh, L, Bishop of 
Exeter. 

17. Dr. Will. Thomas, L. iBishop of 
Worcester. 

1 8. Dr. Will. Beaw, L. Bishop of Landaff. 

19. Dr.Will.Lloyd, L. Bishop of S.Asaph. 

20. Dr. Rob. Frampton, L. Bishop of 
Glocester. 

21 . Dr. Francis Turner, L. Bishop of Ely. 

22. Dr. Laurence Womock, L. Bp. of S. 
David's. 

23. Dr. Thomas Smith, L. Bishop of 
Carlisle. 

24. Dr.John Lake,Lord Bishop of Bristol. 

25. Dr.Tho. Sprat, L.Bishopof Rochester. 

26. Dr. Tho. Kenn, L. Bp. of Bath and 
Wells. [Consecrated 25 Jan. 1684.] 



The Archbishop of Canterbury takes place next to the Princes of the 
Blood, and above all the Nobility and Great Officers. 

The Archbishop of York takes place above all the Nobility and 
Great Officers, except the Lord Keeper. 

The rest of the Bishops take place next after the Viscounts, and 
above the Temporal Barons. 

Whereof the Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester do always 
precede the other Bishops, the rest taking place according to the 
Seniority of their Consecrations. 



This Roll of Peers received the following Imprimatur from the Earl 
Marshal : — 



William Lord Allington died in 1684. 



GREGORY king's PEERAGE CARDS. 363 

Jan. 21, 1684. 

/ do Order and Appoint that this LIST be printed, and that none 
other be printed tcithout my Allowance. 

Norfolk and MarshaL 



We now proceed to describe Gregory King's Cards : — 

King of Hearts. Armes of England. Amies of Scotland. 

Two shields (the former encircled by a Garter) under one large crown. 

King of Diamonds. Armes of France. Armes of Ireland. 

Arranged in like manner. 

King of Spades. Arch Bishops of Canterbury. York. 

Their two shields, under one mitre. 

King of Clubs. Dukes of Norfolk, Somerset, Buckingham. 

Their three shields within one Garter, and under one ducal coronet. 

Queen of Hearts. Dukes of Albemarle and Newcastle ; and Duchesses 
of Cleveland and PortsmoiUh : the two former both encircled with Garters; 
the two latter in lozenges. 

Queen of Diamonds. Dukes of Richmond, Southampton, and Grafton^ all 
within one garter, and under one coronet. 

Queen of Spades. Dukes of Ormond, Bearifort, and Northumberland, 
arranged in like manner. 

Queen of Clubs. Dukes of St. Albans and Berivick under one coronet. 

These are the last of 15 Dukes and Duchesses. 

The plan of having one large coronet for each card is followed through- 
out th^ pack, as in that of the Peerage of Scotland, of which specimens 
were shown at p. 81 of the present volume. 

The Prince of Hearts contains the shields of the Marquesses of Win- 
chester and Halifax : and this memorandum : Poivis, Herbert, See his Armes 
among y' Earles, No. 51, his elevation having taken place in 1687, since the 
cards were first engraved. 

The Earles commence in the Prince of Diamonds. They agree with 
the printed list throughout twelve cards, that is down to No. 49. In No. 14 
it may be remarked that the boi'dure has been taken out from the shield 
of Egerton Earl of Bridgwater : which corresponds with a remark made 
in the printed list, where that coat is thus blasoned : 

Argent, a Lion rampant Gules, between three Pheons with a Bordure engrail'd 
Sable, (but the Bordure is now left off.) 

In the 8 of Diamonds the shield of the Earl of Arlington, No. 50, has 
been taken out in consequence of his death s. p. m. in 1685. That of the 
Earl of Burlington was removed with it, and re-engraved in the centre, so 
that this card has only three shields instead of the usual number of lour. 
Shaftsbury and Poicis become Nos. 50 and 51 : and to the latter is added 
this memorandum, " now Marijuess of Powis," that dignity having been 
oonferi'cd in 1687. 



364 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

In the 8 of Spades, Lichfield, Danby, Sussex, and Feversham are altered 
to Nos. 52, 53, 54, and 55 ; and a Garter is added to the last, as already 
mentioned. 

In the 8 of Clubs (the Nos. now being altered to the end of the Earls) 
the first shield, which had displayed the arms of the Earl of Macclesfield, 
is left blank. This is a remarkable memorial of the temporary disgrace of 
that nobleman — Charles Gerard, the first Earl (so created 1679) who was 
committed to the Tower in the year 1684, together with the Earl of Stam- 
ford and the Lord Delamere, on suspicion of having intended to raise a 
rebellion, but escaped attainder, and lived until 1693. 

In the 7 of Hearts the arms of the Countess of Shepey have been taken 
out, and those of the Earl of Nottingham are engraved in the centre. 
According to Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peerage the death of the Countess 
of Shepey did not occur until 1690, but qu. ? 

Lastly, to close the Earls, in the 7 of Diamonds is added the arms (on a 
lozenge) of the Countess of Dorchester, Catherine Sidley (or Sedley), the 
King's mistress, who had been so created on the 2nd Jan. 1685-6. 

The Viscounts occupy the 7 of Spades, 7 of Clubs, and 7 of Hearts, the 
last containing one shield only, — there being only nine Viscounts, and their 
names and arrangement the same as in the printed List. 

The Bishops are thus arranged — 

Six of Diamonds. London, Durham, Winchester, Hereford. 

Six or Spades. Salishury, Norioich, Coventry and Lichfield, Bangor. 

Six of Clubs. Lincoln, Exeter, Worcester, Landaff. 

Five of Hearts. St. Asaph, Gloucester, Ely, Carlisle. 

Five of Diamonds. Bristol, Rochester, Bath and Wells, Chichester. 

Five of Spades. Peterborough, St. David's, Oxford, Chester. 

(In every case the armorial coat of the See only is engraved.) 

This was the precedence of the Bishops at the end of 1686, when 
Thomas Cartwright, Bishop of Chester, one of whose Diaries has been 
printed for the Camden Society, was the last member of the bench : except 
that Norwich is out of his place. There had been five changes since the 
printed list of 1684, by the deaths of Bishops Sparrow, Carleton, Pearson, 
Fell, and Woraack. Dr. Lloyd, Bishop of Peterborough, had been trans- 
lated to Norwich : but the shield of Norwich remains in its former place 
as for Bishop Sparrow. This must have been an oversight, as that very 
card (the 6 of Spades) has Bangor brought into it, omitting Chichester and 
Chester, the two intervening Bishops in 1684, and the four subsequent 
cards must have been all re-engraved. 

The first four cards of Barons correspond with the first sixteen names 
in the list of 1684, excepting that the number of Howard of Effingham is 
altered from 16 to 17, and at the foot of the card in a small lozenge is 
added 16 Howai-d Baroness Stafford. This lady was Mary Stafford, 
sole heir of the old barony of Staflord ; whose husband Sir William 
Howard, created Baron Staflord (with remainder to his heirs male) Sept. 



GREGORY king's PEERAGE CARDS. 365 

12, 1640, and Viscount Stafford on the 11th November following, had been 
attainted and beheaded in 1678. King James had now restored his wife to 
her ancestral dignity, and afterwards, on the 5th October, 1688, he created 
her Countess of Stafford for life, at the same time giving her son the 
dignity of Earl.. 

The next card, 4 of Clubs, still begins with another 17; and that and 
the 3 of Hearts correspond with the printed list. In the 3 of Diamonds 
Lovelace and Pmdet are altered to 28 and 29 ; and in the centre is inserted 
a small shield for 27 Grey Ld Grey [of ] Wark. Why this nobleman had 
been omitted in the List of 1684 it is difficult to guess. Soon after, he was 
concerned in the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth ; but he managed to 
make composition for that error, and King William subsequently created 
him Eai-1 of Tankerville. 

In the next card, the 3 of Spades, there has been an alteration in the 
figures only. Howard of Escrick is numbered 31, and Mohtin 32, as if 
their precedence had been found wrong, and corrected. 

The next six' cards correspond with the printed list as to names and 
shields: though in the first of them, the 3 of Clubs, there are indistinct traces 
of something having been inserted, and taken out again. And between 
that card and the next the number 37 is dropped : and consequently Nos. 
38 — 5*1 inclusive correspond to Nos. 37 — 56 of the List. 

The three last cards must have been re-engraved. They are — 

One of Diamonds. 58. Armine Baroness Bellasise, for life. 

59. Lumley L^ Lumley. 

60. Carteret if^ Carteret. 

62. Legge L' Dartmouth. 
One OF Spades. 61. Bennet L^ Ossulston. 

63. Allivgton L^ Allington. 

64. Stawell L^ Stawell. 

65. North L^ Guilford. 
One of Clubs. 66. Godolphin L^ Godolphin. 

67. Jermyn L^ Dover. 

68. Churchill L^ Churchill. 

69. leffreys Baron of Wem. 

The figures to Ossulston and Dartmouth it will be observed have been 
altered, reversing their precedence from the printed list. The three last 
Barons had been created in 1685, — Lord Dover, by patent dated May 13 ; 
Lord Churchill, afterwards the great Duke of Marlborough, by patent 
dated May 14; and the odious Lord Chancellor by patent dated May 15. 

As it is very probable that any other set of these Cards that may 
happen to be preserved would prove to be of a different impression to that 
we have now described, it would be esteemed a favour if any of our friends 
that may be the fortunate possessor of a copy (whether perfect or other- 
wise) will allow us to examine it. 




3G6 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

1865. 

EVANS. 

250 Copies. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Printed by J. G. Forster, 81, Clayton 
Street. For Private Distribution. J.R.A. & M.C.J. 8vo. pp. 24. 
The family of Evans, to which these pages relate, has long been settled 
in the county of Montgomery. Pedigrees of lines of the name flourishing 
at Plas Duon, in Carno, and at Trecastle, in Llanwnog, both parishes in 
that county, are given in Lewis Dwnn's Visitations of Wales (temp. Eliza- 
beth), and in Protheroe's Collections of Welsh Pedigrees in the College of 
Arms, as amongst the genealogies of families descended from a chieftain, 
Gwdhno Goron (or Gwyddno Garanhir), to whom the 
Arms, Argent, a lion passant between three fieurs dc lis 
gules, were ascribed. Vincent also states in his MSS. 
that "of him Gwyddno Garanhir do descend men of the 
Lordship of Keiveilior, in the county of Montgomery." 
These arms (the lion being sable) have been worn in 
common by families of Pryce, Pugh, and Evans, settled 
in that shire, " a confusing and improper usage (as has 
been well observed by an experienced genealogist,) as it is clear that only 
the heir-at-law or co-heirs of some great homo propositus entitled to these 
arms could wear them without substantial difierence. Some Cambrian 
antiquary may be able to say who's who ; and all the Pryces, Pughs, and 
Evanses besides should obtain differenced grants." 

The particular family of Evans which constitutes the subject of this 
memoir was resident in the parish of Guildsfield, co. Montgomery, where 
they were tenants to the Herberts of Powis for nearly two centuries. The 
present head of the family is John Evans, Esq. long resident in Bartho- 
lomew Close, London, afterwards of Stoke Newington, but now of Lea- 
mington ; whose younger brother Edward Evans, esq., J.P., was Mayor of 
Worcester in 1841-2.' 

Their sister Elizabeth was married in 1806 to Morris Jones, esq. of 
Welshpool, and afterwards of Gungrog in Montgomeryshire ; whose son 
Morris Charles Jones, esq. of Liverpool, solicitor, and of Gungrog, is the 
owner of the initials wbich, with those of J. R. Appleton, esq. F.S.A., are 
attached to the present genealogy, and are a guarantee of the care with 

' On the 7th August, 1865 (since the memoir before us was printed), at a meeting 
of the Worcester City and County Banking Company, Richard Padmore, Esq. M.P. 
in the chair, it was moved by Mr. Sheriff, M.P. and unanimously Resolved, "That 
Edward Evans, Esq. the founder, and for many years the Managing Director of the 
Company, be respectfully requested to sit for his bust in marble, to be placed in the 
Bank," It is intended as a companion to the bust of Mr. Padmore, which is already 
there. 



PEDIGREE OF EYANS. 367 

which It has been compiled, as indeed is amply shown by the circumstantial 
array of dates, with their authorities in each case annexed. 

It may further be noticed that at p. 12 there is some account of the 
several families of Bickerton :' and at p. 13 a pedigree of Hill of Worcester- 
shire, deduced from Humphrey Hill of Little Witley in that county, buried 
in 1712, to Thomas Rowley Hill, esq. now of Catharine Hill house, Worces- 
ter, who is the son of William Hill, esq. of that city, who died in 1859, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Rowley of Stourport. Thomas Rowley 
Hill, esq. J.P. (who, like his partner and father-in-law Mr. Evans, has 
served the office of mayor of Worcester,) received a grant of arms on the 
11th Aug. 1864, viz. Ermine, a chevron checquy or and azure, in base upon 
a mount a Cornish chough proper. Crest, on a wreath of the colours, upon 
a mount in front of a fern-brake proper a talbot or, collared azure, resting 
the dexter foot upon three annulets interlaced, also or. These arms were a 
compound of Hill and Rowley, and were registered with proof of pedigree. 



Since the foregoing was written, we have received the following commu- 
nication from one of the authors of the Evans pedigree : — 

The circumstance mentioned on page 4, that " David ap Evan by his 
will dated in 1640 left 20*. to the poor of the parish of Llangadfan," was 
noticed by Thomas Nevill, Esq. (agent of the Earl of Powis), and it 
occurred to him that a branch of the family lived in that neighbourhood. 
In 1832 the late Lord Powis purchased some property in the parish of 
Llangadfan from Mr. Maurice Evan Evans, then of Holborn, London. 
The title-deeds (which by Mr. Newill's courtesy I have inspected) show 
Mr. Maurice Evan Evans's pedigree for eight generations from 1648, his 
ancestor then in possessioa of the property having been John Evan of 
Blouty. Lands called Tyddyn, &c. were settled by John Evan, by deed 
dated 20 Sep. 1648, and descended by heirship, or by virtue of several 
subsequent settlements, to Maurice Evan Evans, who sold to the late Lord 
Powis in 1832. 

' The late Sir John Bickerton Williams, F.S.A. of Shrewsbury, and afterwards 
of the Hill, Wera, co. Salop, was the son of Mr. William Williams by Hannah second 
daughter of John Bickerton of Sandford hall in the parish of West Felton, co. Salop, 
and cousin-german to Catharine Bickerton, who married Edward Evans (Evans 
pedigree, p. 12.) He was the editor of the Life and AVorks of the Rev. Phillip 
Henry (the father of the Commentator, Matthew Henry,) and author of a Life of 
Chief Justice Sir Matthew Hale. He died Oct. 21, 1855, and there is a memoir of 
him in the Gentleman's Magazine for December following, p. 656. He was the first 
Knight made by her present Majesty (July 19, 18S7,) that honour having been pro- 
mised by King William the Fourth, at the instance of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex; 
and is said to have been the first Dissenter upon whom knighthood had been conferred 
since the accession of the House of Hanover. His friendship with the Duke origi- 
nated in his presenting a very rare addition to his Royal Highnesb's collection of Bibles 



368 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

1648. John Evan.=F 



William John [party to an exchange of lands in^Jane daughter of 
1657, with Lord Herbert of Chirbury]. j David Morgan. 

I ' 

1667. Evan John Evans.=f: 
I 



(1st.) 1713. Morris Evans.=f=Elizabeth daughter of William John Evan 
I of Garthbeibio. 

1713. Evan Morris.=p 

1 ' 

(2nd.) 1742. Morris Evans, settler of 1742.=p 

1775. John Evans, eldest son.=p 



(3rd.) 1784, Maurice Evans=f= 

r -■ 

1832. Maurice Evan Evans, of Holborn (near Middle Row), London, 

But what is more material to my present purpose is, that amongst the 
deeds there is one of the reign of Henry VIII. [the year illegible], being a 
Kelease from " Rees ap Jeuan ap Bedo and John ap Jeuan ap Bedo of 
Llangadfan, Brothers and Coheirs of Evan ap Bedo, unto Matthew ap 
Jeuan ap Bedo their elder Brother, another Son and Co-heir of the afore- 
said Jeuan ap Bedo (their Brother being then in possession) of all their 
right, &c. in four tenements in Garthbeibio, in the Lordship of Kereignion 
[Caereinion] called Tyddyn, &c," the same property that was settled by 
John Evan in 1648. The witnesses are, " David ap Jean Bedo, Griffith 
. , . ap Evan ap . . ., Matthew Bedo." "Jeuan" is identical with "Evan." 

It is not possible that the "David ap Jean [or Evan] ap Bedo" could be 
the " David ap Evan," the Testator of 1640. But the bequest by the 
latter Testator of 20s. to the Poor of Llangadfan is a strong indication of 
his having sprung from that parish, and most probably from the "Evans" 
of Blouty there settled. 

With reference to " Jeuan ap Bedo," the father of Matthew, Rees, John, 
and David, it seems probable that he was a brother of " Howell ap Bedo y 
Castell of Tre Castell in Llanwnog," which is a parish situate in the centre 
of Montgomeryshire, and not far distant from Llangadfan. 

The name " Howell ap Bedo y Castle " commences the pedigree of " Tre 
Castle in Llanwnog," in Lewis Dwnn's Visitations of Wales (vol. i. 306), 
which is as follows : 

Howell ap Bedo y Castell ap David ap^Margaret urch Maurice David ap Evan 
David ap Meredith Beiiwyn. ( ap Howell of Llandysal. 

r -^ 1 

David ap Howell=f=Catherine urch Thomas ap Griffith ap Howell the father 

Evan Lloyd. of Henry, 

R"* Partyn ap Thomas Partyn=pElizabeth urch Rob* Richardson. 

"—I 1 ' 

Evan David, gent"=pAlson urch R"" Partington. 



1 ' W"! Griffith, M.A.=rMabel urch John Herbert of Kemaes. 

I r -• 

Richard Evans= urch W™ Griffiths, M.A., and Parson of Kemaes. 



PEDIGREE OF EVANS. 369 

This pedigree is also given with a little variation in Protheroe's collections in the 
College of Arms, vol. vii. 130, and vol. viii. 61. 

I have since found in an old guide-book published in 1813 (^Cambrian 
T?'aveUer's Guide, p. 766,) the following : — 

Near Llanerfyl [an adjoining parish to Llangadfan] is an uncommonly ancient 
mansion called Neuadd "Wen. This was the seat of Meredyth ap Kynan, brother of 
Uruffudd ap Kynan, Prince of North Wales, who served the Princes of Powis, and 
was termed Lord of Rhiwhirieth, Coed-talog, and Neuadd Wen. The present name 
was probably given to the new structure, for there is a tradition that its former 
appellation was Llys Wgan. The brook which runs by is called Nant Wgan. Below 
this house on the side of the road once stood a stone whereon was a cross fleury, but 
it was lately broken by a silly wench in search of treasure. 

Adjoining to Neuadd Wen lies the capital farm of Llyssin, sometime the estate of 
Jeuan ap Bedo Gwyn, descendant of a cadet branch of the family of Neuadd Wen, 
whose name appears amongst the bards. This estate was purchased by the Herberts 
ancestors to the Earl of Powis, and was the residence of some of its branches. 

The statement that Jeuan ap Bedo, descended from Meredith ap Cynan 
of Neuadd Wen, was a brother of Howel ap Bedo, is confirmed by the 
pedigree given by Lewis Dwnn (i. 306) commencing " Howel ap Bedo y 
Castle ap David ap David ap Meredith Benwyn,^^ if Meredith Benwyn was 
identical with, or a descendant of Meredith ap Cynan, sed qucere. 

I shall pursue the inquiry when time and opportunity p'ermit ; but the 
theory that springs to one's mind is, that, upon the purchase by Lord 
Powis's ancestors from the descendants of Jeuan ap Bedo of the farm of 
Llyssin — a remnant of their inheritance which had been divided into shreds 
by the operation of the custom of Gavelkind then prevailing in Wales — 
the Herberts provided farms for the descendants of the ancient owners of 
the soil, and amongst the rest for David ap Evan (Evans pedigree, pp. 3 
nd 4,) in Tirymynech, and there the Evanses remained tenants for nearly 
two centuries (viz. from 1634 to 1817). This is consistent with the tradi- 
tions of the Powis family, and with the circumstance mentioned on page 
10 of the Evans pedigree. 

Meredith ap Cynan is stated to have served the Princes of Powis. The 
intimate connection between his descendants and the owners of Powisland, 
who were the successors of the Princesof Powis, would seem to be evidenced 
by the circumstance that in a charter dated ] Aug. 8 Hen. V. from Edward 
de Charlton, Lord of Powis, to the Abbey of Strata Marcella, the following 
are " Witnesses, John Fitzpier, Surveyor (supervisor) of our Lordship of 
Powis ; David Holbach and Hugh Say, our Stewards there ; Mattheiv ap 
Evan our receiver there," &c. 

The result of the foregoing observations is to indicate the probability of 
this family of Evans in common with the Evans of Blouty in Llangadfan 
having sprung from Jeuan ap Bedo, who was a Brother of Howel ap Bedo 
mentioned in Lewis Dwnn's Visitations, and who is stated to have descended 
from a cadet branch of Meredyth ap Cynan of Neuadd Wen. Any 
information or hint on the subject would be highly esteemed. M. C. J. 
VOL. III. 2 B 



370 BIBLIOTHECA HERALDICA. 

1857. 
Memoranda relating to the Lane, Reyner, and Whipple Families, 

Yorkshire and Massachusetts. Reprinted from the New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Register, for April and July, 1857. By W. H. 
Whitmore. Boston: Henry W. Button and Sons, Printers. 1857. pp.22. 

In America manuscript papers and letters of the seventeenth cen- 
tury are historical records of priceless value, regarded somewhat in the 
same light as we look upon charters of some five hundred years' earlier 
date. We make this remark with no disrespect ; but with the very opposite 
feeling : for we admire the affectionate reverence which attaches itself to 
the earliest ancestral memorials that are available. 

The primeval documents preserved in the pages before us are desig- 
nated as the Lane Family Papers, preserved by descendants of Job Lane, 
who resided in "the old Lane Farm" near Boston, in Massuchusetts, and 
whose descendants were commemorated in a previous number (Oct. 1856) 
of the magazine above named. They retained some property at Edstone, 
in the East Riding of Yorkshire, near Beverley, so late as 1796. 

One of the longest and most curious letters among them is that written 
by John Dickinson of Gildersome near Leeds on the 6th of March, 1670, 
to his " Cozen Laine," then in America. We extract one or two remark- 
able passages : — 

" Trading is bad ; it's stolen out of England into Ireland, Germany, and Holland, 
that mightily impoveriseth England. Besides, there hath been great teynts and taxing 
in this land, that hath disabled tenants in too much money [i.e. deprived them of 
much money that might have supplied them with the means of paying their 
rents] . * * * 

"I deal in oil and dye-stuffs. I have them from London : I am at London com- 
monly every August, but write thither every week. * * * 

" Old England is at a loss in sure things ; the want of a liberty of preaching, . , 
. , and that trade that hath been formerly in our country for cloath, which is much 
lamented." 

Such were the causes that often provoked emigration : and, though these 
passages record but a temporary decadence of the great clothing trade of 
Yorkshire, yet they have an historical value. From a later letter of the 
same writer, dated the 1st April, 1679, we take another passage : 

' ' Your uncle Boyes was slain in the war at a fight between the Lord Fairfax and 
the King's forces called Seacroft Fight, or Club Fight. It was called so because 
many of the countrymen went with the Lord Fairfax with clubs, and no other wea- 
pons. The Parliament party your uncle was in, and they was put to the run 
and he slain, between Seacroft and Leeds, within 2 miles of Leeds, in April 1643, 
now 36 years since." 

The accuracy of this date we find confirmed by an entry' in the parish 
register of Leeds: "Buried 1st April, 1643, Captain Boswell, slain at 

' Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete^ p. 75. 



LANE, REYNER, AND WHIPPLE FAMILIES. 371 

Seacroft battel, aud six soldiers." Though beaten at Seacroft, the Clubmen 
were on the whole an effective force, and their victories at Bradford, Leeds, 
and Wakefield were among the Republican triumphs commemorated in a 
contemporary news-tract entitled 

The Rider of the White Horse and his Army: Their late Good Success in Yorkshire 
Or a true and faithful Relation of that famous and wonderfuU Victory at Bradford 
obtained by the Club-men there, with all the circumstances thereof. And of the 
taking of Leeds and Wakefield by the same men, &c. . London, 1643. 

Of which it is stated in the Catalogue of the library of Edward Hail- 
stone, esq. F.S.A. at Horton hall (privately printed in 1858,) that not 
more than two or three copies are known to exist. 

The other Lane Papers contain further particulars of the family of 
Boyes, who was also from Edstone,^ and of the Reyners, who were from 
Gildersome, and whose entries have been procured from the parish register, 
and are appended. 



JAMES HEYWOOD MARKLAND, ESQ. D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

On the 28th December last died at his residence, Lansdown Crescent, 
Bath, James Heywood Markland, esq. Hon. D.C.L. of Oxford (1849), 
F.R.S. and F.S.A. This gentleman has long been distinguished for 
his writings in support of the principles of the Church of England, 
and of the respect due to her sacred structures and their architecture 
and accessories : as well as for his general attachment to antiquities and 
literature. He was one of the original members of the Roxburghe 
Club (founded in 1812), and the last survivor of them. He was for 
nearly fifty-six years a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, having 
been elected on the 26th Jan. 1809; and for two years, from 1827 to 
1829, its Director ; and he was the contributor of several valuable 
papers to the Society, of which the first (published in the Archceologia 
in 1815) was connected with the subjects of our pages, being on 
" The Antiquity and Introduction of Surnames in England." 

It is scarcely known, however, how much Mr. Markland's original 
bent was towards heraldry and genealogy. Whilst at school at 
Chester, and only fourteen, he compiled a treatise on Lancashire and 
Cheshire Heraldry, which is still preserved in manuscript : as are the 
fragments of some old family deeds, reaching back to the reigns of the 
Edwards, which about the same time he rescued from the scissors of a 
utilitarian housekeeper. 

' Robert Ripley of Hull, who died about 1624, married Emniot, daughter of John 
Boyseof Egton (i.e.Edstone). — Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire, (SurteesSoc.) p. 130. 

2 B 2 



372 JAMES HEYWOOT) MARKLAND, ESQ. D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

When a student in the Temple, in the year 1811, Mr. Markland 
communicated to the author of the Life of Bowijer some biographical 
particulars regarding the learned Greek scholar Jeremiah Markland, 
M.A. and his relative Dr. Abraham Markland, Master of St. Cross : 
the former having been one of the leading characters in Mr. Nichols's 
work. This communication was printed in the fourth volume of the 
Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century^ pp. 657-661, accom- 
panied by a sheet pedigree of the Marklands, foraierly of the Meadows, 
&c. in the county of Lancaster.^ 

Mr. Markland was seventh in descent from Eaufe Markland, of the 
Meadows, who about 1529 sat in Parliament for Wigan ; near which 
town the family had held lands from the time of Edward III. The 
Markland family was one of the twenty concerning whom Queen 
Elizabeth ordered the Bishop of Chester to take heed that they sent 
not their children abroad to be brought up in the Popish persuasion. 

When Mr. Ormerod (now nearly half a century ago) undertook his 
History of Cheshire^ he received from Mr. Markland such assistance as 
elicited from him (in 1819) the following recognition: — 

From J. H. Markland, esq. F.R.S. and S.A. whose accurate pen has lately 
rescued the Chester Mysteries [some of which he edited for the Roxburghe Club,] 
from all aspersions on their well-grounded claim to remote antiquity, he has the 
pleasure of acknowledging many valuable communications and much friendly assist- 
ance. 

Mr. Markland's eldest uncle John Markland, esq. took the name of 
Entwisle, on inheriting from his cousin, the last of that family, who 
died in 1787, the estate of Foxholes, co. Lancaster: his grandfather 
John Markland, of Pemberton, co. Lane. esq. having married Ellen, 
eldest daughter of Bertie Entwisle, of Wigan, esq. Vice- Chancellor of 
the Coimty Palatine of Lancaster. Mr. Entwisle was High Sheriff of 
Lancashire in 1798, and father of the late John Entwisle, esq. High 
Sheriff in 1824, and M.P. for Eochdale ; whose son John Smith 
Entwisle, of Foxholes, esquire, is the present representative of that 
family, and of the elder line of Markland. 

Robert, the second son, succeeded to the small hereditary estate at 
Pemberton, near Wigan, and, becoming a merchant in Manchester, 
married Elizabeth daughter of Robert Hibbert, esq. of that town. 
James Heywood Markland was their fourth and youngest son, born at 
Manchester Dec. 7, 1788. 

' An interleaved copy of this Memoir, enlarged by MS. additions and letters, was 
in the recent sale of Mr. Markland's library, lot 1094. It was purchased for 5/. 15«. 
by the Rev. C. R. Conybeare. 



JAMES HEYWOOD MARKLAND, ESQ. D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 373 

Mr. Markland married, in 1821, Charlotte, eldest daughter of 
Sir Francis Freeling, the first Baronet, one of his brother Roxburghers ; 
and by that lady, -who sur\'iTes him, he had issue one daughter, 
Elizabeth-Jane, now the wife of the Rev. Charles Ranken Conybcare, 
M.A. Vicar of Itch en Stoke, third son of the late Dean of Llandaff. 
A short notice of Mr. Markland, written by his son-in-law, has been 
published in The Gentleman's Magazine for May 1865. 

The memory of Mr. Markland will be preserved by a painted window 
to be erected in Bath abbey church, the proposal having emanated 
from the Bath Literary Club, of which he was the first founder and 
over which he long presided. This will be in accordance with the 
improved taste for sepulchral memorials which he did so much to pro- 
mote, as well as a due tribute to his enlightened religious zeal, his 
many good works, and the warm interest he took in the restoration of 
the Abbey Church. 

Mr. Markland, having previously parted with some of his more valu- 
able books, left a large aiid gentlemanly library, which has occupied a 
whole week's sale at Sotheby's (May 29 — June 3, 1865). It was rich 
in theology, history, biography, antiquities, and general literature, and 
included some volumes illustrated with interesting manuscript notes 
and autograph letters : but, as there were few lots of extraordinary 
rarity or value, its total jiroceeds did not exceed 1,636Z. 4s. M. 

Having mentioned that one of Mr. Markland's earliest printed me- 
moirs was a communication regarding his family made to the elder 
Mr. Nichols, it is worthy of remark that, after the lapse of fifty years, 
one of his latest was the letter which he addressed to the Editor of 
The Herald and Genealogist^ on " The Proofs of Arms required by the 
Heralds at their Visitations," and which was printed in our second 
volume, in pp. 149-154. The question he mooted was, how far arms 
of undoubted antiquity, but upon which the heralds have at any time 
expressed a doubt of " proof," and which have never received their 
official sanction, can be maintained as genuine and authentic. In this 
case it was mentioned that " a gold seal-ring mth the arms and crest, 
pronounced by a competent judge to be of the age of Elizabeth, is still 
in the possession of the family." 

Mr. Markland did not state the blason of his coat. It is simply 
Argent, a chevron between three martlets sable : and for crest, a lion's 
head erased. On his book-plate, which was engraved in wood, these 
arms appear, impaling Freeling: and we had obtained permission to 
append it to this article, but the block is unfortunately not forth- 
coming. 



374 



EDGAR OF AUCHINGRAMMONT, LANARKSHIRE. 

There can be little doubt that qpe of the best claims to represent the 
Edgars of Wedderlie is that of the Edgars of Auchingrammont, who have 
moreover the double advantage of uniting another family of the same name 
by the marriage of Alexander Edgar of Auchingrammont (1740-1) and 
also styled, by himself (in the parish registers of Leith), "from Nether- 
houses." 

The following facts contrasted will place the question more clearly before 
the reader, it being kept in view that there is no proved representative in the 
male line of Wedderlie. ' 

1. John Edgar, Laird of Wedderlie, was sued by Mr. Chieslie (vide 
Decree of Court of Session 1663) for the maintenance of his younger brother 
Alexander, then apprenticed to the said Mr. Chieslie, surgeon. 

These lawsuits are continued till the close of the seventeenth century, 
and we gradually meet with suggestive cases, in the index to the records, 
in which the following appear almost interchangeably as litigants : Edgar, 
Chieslie, Osborne, Handasyde, Murray, &c. 

On the establishment of the College of Surgeons of Edinburgh,* Alex- 
ander Edgar becomes a member, and that he is identical with the apprentice 
of Mr. Chieslie, and brother of John Edgar of Wedderlie, the order for him 
on record to settle the affairs of his late master Mr. Chieslie, at once shows. 

The co-collegians of this Alexander Edgar were Mr. Purves (brother of 
Purves Hall), Colin Lauder (of the Hutton branch of the "Bass" family), 
Handasyde.^ Then we find Minute Book, Register of Deeds) : 

16 June, 1663, Handaside to Chieslie. 

' Captain F. Pemberton Campbell, 14th Hussars, the grandson and heir of the 
late Admiral Alexander Edgar, only surviving son of the last laird of Wedderlie, 
represents the direct line. 

^ " From the records of Inquisitions regarding the possession of property in Scot- 
land and other sources of information, I can prove that, of the first 150 members of 
the Incorporation of Surgeons, nearly twenty were possessed of landed property, A 
great many more held property in houses, chiefly in Edinburgh ; six at least were 
nearly allied by blood or marriage to the families of the nobility ; three were mem- 
bers of the Parliament ; and six were surgeons to the Scotch Kings." — Sketch of the 
Early History of the Medical Profession in Edinburgh, by John Gairdner, M.D. 
Edinb. OUver and Boyd. 1864. 

3 Handasyde, I believe, is a Haddingtonshire name, and one would be inclined to 
examine the coincidences of names and dates in the family of Alexander Edgar, 
Commissioner for Haddington, " promoter of the Darien scheme," who was probably 
a son of Alexander Edgar of Westruther, Cautioner for Mary Edgar of Wedderlie, 
and probably her uncle. 

It has been supposed that the Auchingrammont Edgars were of the Newton branch 
of Wedderlie, but this surmise seems rather applicable to James Edgar, father-in. 
law of Alexander Edgar of Auchingrammont. 



EDGAR OF AUCHINGBAMMONT, LANARKSHIRE. 375 

2. AucHiNGRAMMONT. — The vaHous disjointed traditions of the family 
of Auchingrammont, supported by old-fashioned silver plate bearing the 
arms of Wedderlie, antique gold-enamelled snuff-boxes, &c. &c. appear to 
be as follows.' 

They asserted that they were the descendants and lineal representatives 
of Edgar of AVedderlie, inasmuch as the father of the first Edgar of 
Auchingrammont was an Edgar of Wedderlie. That the latter took with 
him to Jamaica portraits of the Edgars of Wedderlie, which, being rolled 
up, were damaged, and so lost. That on his return he married a cousin (?) 
named Edgar, by whom he acquired property in the Luckenbooth and 
Lawn Market, Edinburgh, &c. and sent his sons early in life to the West 
Indies while he himself remained at home, and never returned there. 

It is clear that in 1783 the Auchingrammont Edgars were intimate with 
Mr. Purves of Purves Hall, one of whose letters to John Hutton (after- 
wards a Doctor in the Army ?) exists. John Hutton was the grandson of 
Alexander Edgar of Auchingrammont, and a correspondence exists in 
which he appears as candidate for the surgeoncy of the 56th regiment. 

There was also an intimacy, as shown by old letters, with the family of 
Dr. Colin Lauder (son ? of the Member of the College of Surgeons before 
named), with Hamilton of Dalzell, and with Stirling of Keir, but this last 
seems rather to have originated in Jamaica, and at a later period.^ 

It is worthy of a passing comment, that Alexander Edgar, then in pos- 
session of Auchingrammont, which he had now owned for many years, 
nevertheless j9re/er?'e(Z in 1754, the inferior designation of "from Nether- 
houses."' He was then living within the bounds of S. Leith, near Hill- 
housefield, and adjoining the village of the Water of Leith, both of which 
places are contiguous to the barony of Broughton, Restalrig, and other 
places,"* mentioned in the " Inquisitiones Geuerales of 1599," as the pro- 
perty of a family named Edgar. 

Early in the 18th century the Edgars of Auchingrammont owned pro- 

' Armorial ensigns engraven on old family plate are by themselves no proof of a 
descent, but they may serve to throw a light on one obscure link, and show that at 
an early period, when money was scarce and books few, such articles belonged to a 
family assumed to have been descended from another bearing similar arms. 

^ There was a Scotch family of Edgar connected with Jamaica early in the 18th 
century which settled at Bristol, and their baptismal names were ^'Preston, Alex- 
ander, Archibald,'''' &c. The late Mr, Alexander Edgar of Bristol was J. P. for the 
CO. Gloucester. 

' Nethermills and Nethermains are common names. There are only, I think, 
altogether four Netherhouses mentioned in Gazetteers of Scotland. There is a place 
called Nethermains, which may possibly indicate the true locality in question. 

■* " Nicolaus Edger haeres Capitanei Jacobi Edger patris in terris Patricii Edgar 
mere, in burgo de Edin." &c. — " de Lymphoy " — " parte villse et terrarum de Res- 
talrig" — " Villas et Aquse de Leyth " — " In Baronia de Brouchtoun," " terrarum de 
Hillhousefield," &c. 



376 EDGAK OF AUCHINGRAMMONT, LANARKSHIRE. 

perty in Jamaica, viz. AVedderlie plantation, and Osborne, in the parish of 
St. Georo-e. This Osborne was so named after a Mr. Osborne, a surgeon, 
who settled in Jamaica towards the close of the I7th century, and whose 
seal bore the significant Bhinoceros. 

Alexander Edgar, Fellow of the College of Surgeons, is again mentioned 
in 1696. He probabhj married in 1697 the daughter of Mr. or Dr. Handasyde. 

In an old silver-bossed family bible, the property of Margaret Edgar, 
the last of her family who owned Auchingrammont, is the following entry : — 
Alexander Edgar, born 1698. The locality of his birth is not given, and, 
as parish registers in Scotland used to be very carelessly kept, it might not 
be easy to find this entry of baptism, or that of Peter Edgar, a younger 
brother ; but probably a positive proof of the parentage of both might be 
obtained from some will of an Edgar between 1706 and 1750. 

This Alexander' is stated to have returned from Jamaica in the record of 
his purchase of Auchingrammont. 

It seems reasonable to suppose that the sudden return of Alexander 
Edgar, a young man only 26 years of age, from Jamaica, was caused by 
the death of a parent in that year, and his not again going abroad seems to 
confirm the inference. 

His younger brother, Peter Edgar* (of Bridgelands) married in 1743 
Anne, the daughter of the Rev. John Hay, minister of Peebles, and was 

' 11 Oct. 1666. Disch. Edgar to Osbume, &c. &c. Alex"- Edgar y^ bro: of 
Wedderlie contra John Edgar of Wedderlie. If Alexander Edgar, younger brother, 
of Wedderlie, was 15 in 1663, when Mr. Chiesly sued the latter (and probably he 
was three years younger), he must have been born about 1648, in which case he was 
50 years of age on the birth of his first (assumed) son Alexander in 1698. The 
latter would therefore, let us say, be 17 years of age in 1715, and we may therefore 
suppose that he had been scarcely six years abroad when his father died in 1723-4. 
On receiving intelligence of the event he returned home, and with his father's per- 
sonal property purchased Auchingrammont. The father therefore need only have 
been 76 at the period of his death (assumed for the nonce) in 1723-4, This Alex- 
ander was not married till he was 43, and his son again, also Alexander, not till he 
was actually 52. 

From the Minute Booh, Register of Deeds, Edinburgh. 

16 June, 1663. Handiside to Chieslie. I 20 June, 1667. Obi, Edgar to Hamilton. 
23 Dec. 1664, Cont, Edgar and Edgar. 26 Jan. 1683. Obi, Edgar to Murray, 
11 Oct, 1666, Disch. Edgar to Osborne. ' 

■■^ Peter and Patrick are baptismal names continually interchanged in Scotland, and 
very notable instances must be fresh in the recollection of Edinburghians. 

Patrick from the earliest period was a family name constantly recurring amongst 
the AVedderlie Edgars from Cos-Patricl:, founder of the Earldom of Dunbar. 

Peter Edgar appears to have been an episcopalian, for his marriage (with Ann 
Hay) was solemnised by Mr. Kerr an episcopal clergyman, so that perhaps the 
records of this family of Edgar are only to be found in the books of the episcopal 
church. 



EDGAR OF AUCHINGRAMMONT, LANARKSHIRE. 377 

father of Anne (the wife first of Count James Leslie of Deanhaugh, by 
whom she had a daughter Jacobina the first wife of Mr. Vere of Stone- 
byres, CO. Lanark, and secondly of Sir H. Raeburn,) and of John Edgar, 
W.S., who died s.p. in 1799. Peter Edgar ob. 1781, set. 75 years. 

In 1740-1 Alexander Edgar married Margaret (ob. 1791), the daughter 
of James Edgar, writer in Edinburgh, official clerk to Sir Gilbert Elliot of 
Minto, and who received the freedom of the City of Edinburgh in 1710 as 
a " Pewtherer Burgess." James Edgar left no male issue. 

The issue of Alexander Edgar of Auchingrammont by his wife Margaret 
Edgar, were: 1. Alexander, ob. 1820; 2. James, of Auchingrammont, ob. 
1810; 3. Handasyde, M.D. ob. 1806; Priscilla, or Prudence; Susan, ob. 
1778, ajt. 22. 

According to a custom in Scotland, the eldest son is named after the 
paternal grandfather, the second son after the father, or the maternal grand- 
father, &c. There are, however, numerous exceptions. 

James Edgar of Auchingrammont also named a daughter Priscilla, in 
respect to the memory of his gi-andmothei- Priscilla Handasyde, but, as both 
grandfathers were Edgars it might be doubtful which of the two mai-ried a 
lady named Handasyde. It is probable, however, that the wife of James 
Edgar, the maternal grandfather of James of Auchingrammont, was Eliza 
Lothian. (Vide Par. Registers of Edinburgh.) The latter James Edgar also 
had sons who died in infancy, named John, Alexander, James. 

It is asserted that the patrimony of Alexander, the son of Alexander 
and Margaret of Auchingrammont, consisted of ground rents and tenements 
in the city of Edinburgh. A reference to the Register of Sasines would 
of course set this question at rest. 

I do not venture to assert positively that this Is exactly how the question 
stands ; but I think that the references given would be ample to enable 
a clear case to be made out for the Edgars of Auchingrammont to compete 
with the Hutton and Newton Edgars, for the honour of representing 
Wedderlie ; and if I have erred in ray view of the case, I should only be 
too glad to be corrected, maintaining, however, and ready to prove, that 
the representation in the male line of Wedderlie is an open question. 

The following particulars have come to my knowledge since the above 
was written, and are the result of a search in the Register of Sasines. 

Although James Edgar became "of Auchingrammont," it was only by the 
breaking of the entail and surrender of Auchingrammont to him by his 
elder brother Alexander, who was returned their father's heir in 1777, and 
had seisin of the said property. On the 1st March, 1783, there is a seisin 
or sasine in favour of James, as heir of his brother Alexander of Auchin- 
grammont; but there is no sasine of a James as heir of his father of 
Auchingrammont. L.-A. 



378 



Monument of Captain Francis Knollys. 

We bear a great deal of the restoration of churches in the present day : 
and too often of that restoration being accompanied by a reckless destruc- 
tion of sepulchral memorials. It is therefore a pleasant thing to be told 
occasionally of the restoration of a monument. An instance is just pre- 
sented to us in the case of one of the ancient family of Knollys Earls of 
Banbury : to whom an inscription, with some quaint verses of the time of 
Charles I., was placed in the church of Stanford in the Vale in Berkshire. 
It has been restored by Mr. Byam his descendant and representative, and 
erected upon the wall of the chancel, within a mural monument of Gothic 
design. From an excellent photograph produced by the sculptors, Messrs. 
Tyleys, of Bristol, we take the following copy: — 

Arms. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Azure, crusilly and a cross moline voided or: 2 and 3. 
Gules, on a chevron argent three roses of the field; impaling Vaire argent and gules, 
on a canton or a stag's head caboshed vert, Beecher. Crest, an Elephant. 

Near this place lies the body of Captain Francis Knollts, sonne of Richard 
Knollys esquire, brother to the late Earl of Banbury, who first married one of the 
daughters of Sir Charles Wiseman, of this County, and after her decease Alice, sister 
of Sir William Beecher, of Middlesex; by whom he left one Daughter and two Sonnes 
and was by death taken from the command of the Train Bands of Abingdon Division, 
and here interred the 4th of August a.d. ]640. 

When stones break silence, and attention crave. 

Well may't be thought some wonder's in the grave : 

Reader, then stay, and marvell not if I 

(Though stone) relate what rare thing here doth lie. 

That noble name was his thou read'st before; 

Able itself to guild the Title o'er. 

That valor does but sleep within this bed 

Which never (but by death) was captive led; 

Whose ling'ring, slow, and coward-like delay 

Argu'd her fear of losing of the day; 

Since when, this place more than a grave shall be 

Where his bones are, 'tis an Artillerye. 

Thus I him praise, whose merit might denye 

The poor applause of fun'ral obsequie. 

But custom so prevails, that 'tis but just 

To polish diamonds, with their own dust. 
Restored a.d. 1865 by Edward S. Byam, Esq. descended lineally from the "one 
daughter" above mentioned, viz. Dorothy Knollys, wife of William Byam, General of 
Guiana and Governor first of Surinam and afterwards of Antigua. The " two sons " 
William and Francis Knollys dying without issue. 

Within the Communion-rails of this Church is placed a Marble slab to the memory 
of John Heigham, Esq. the maternal Uncle of the aforesaid Capt. Francis Knollys. 

A brief biography of Governor Byam will be found in our first volume, 
at p. 377. He was son of the Rev. Edward Byam, M.A. Vicar of Dulver- 



MONUMENT TO THE KEV. EDWARD BYAM. 379 

ton, CO. Somerset, and afterwards Precentor of Cloyne, whose elder brother 
was the more celebrated Dr. Henry Byam, Chaplain to King Charles I. 
We noticed in the same place a previous restoration, by the same pious 
hands, of Dr. Henry Byam's monument at Luckham or Luccombe, co. 
Somerset : and we may further mention that a mural monument has been 
erected in the church of Castle Lyons, co. Cork, to the Rev. Edward 
Byam, the Governor's father, which bears the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Edward Byam, M.A. of Magdalen Coll. Oxford, 
son of the Rev. Lawrence Byam, Rector of Luccombe, Somerset, and brother of the 
celebrated Henry Byam, D.D. of the same place. He married a.d. 1612 Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Rev. Anthony Eaglesfield, Rector of Walton and Prebendary of Wells, 
On resigning the vicarage of Dulverton, in his native county, Somerset, a.d. 1625, he 
became Vicar of Castle Lyons and Precentor of Cloyne. He died at Kilwillin 6th 
June, 1639, in the 55th year of his age, and was buried at Castle Lyons. His sons 
Lawrence and William were commanders of distinction in the service of King Charles 
the 1st, but more especially the latter, who rose to great eminence, and was General 
of Guiana, and Governor, first of Surinam, and afterwards of Antigua, where he died 
A.D. 1670. 

This tablet was, a.d. 1864, raised to the memory of a respected Ancestor, by the 
Rev. Richard Burgh Byam, M.A. a Member of Council in Antigua, Vicar of Kew 
and Petersham in the county of Surrey. 

Arms. Argent, three dragon's heads erased vert, each holding in his mouth a 
dexter hand, couped at the wrist, dropping blood, Byam; impaling. Or, three eagles 
displayed gules, a crescent for difference, Eaglesfield. Crest, a wolf passant or, col- 
lared and lined vert. 



GoBDONs IN Ireland. 



It appears to me that the following statement in the preamble to the 
pedigree of Gordon of Florida, as given in Burke's Landed Gentrxj^ is a 
mistake, and that this family is a branch either of the Gordons of Earlston 
or of Knokespoch. 

"Many years after the period of the settlement of the former (Irish 
branch) in the sister island. Lord Adam Goi'don, a general in the army, 
fourth son of Alexander second Duke of Gordon, during a visit to that 
country, resided with his cousin (?) George Gordon of Florida ;" and, 
when the Irish branch aftei'wards visited Scotland, they were "received 
with much kindness by Alexander fourth Duke of Gordon, ^]xo fully recog- 
nised the relationship.'''' 

Now, to have fully recognised the relationship he must have had either 
the PROOf , or simple faith ; but, as no such proof has ever been shown, it is 
more than probable that the duke was not a genealogist. In fact his recog- 
nition, as true, of a genealogical problem, was no more than any other per- 
son's recognition, without proof, and moreover it seems inconsistent that 
he should have agreed to a proposition which his oion pedigree ignores. 
Thus much for cunsinship or kindred. On the other hand it is quite possi' 



380 GORDONS IN IRELAND. 

ble that, in some obscure, remote, and now lost degree, a connection may 
have existed between the two families, just as it may exist between any 
families bearing the same surname ; but these secrets of the past do not 
belono- to genealogy, which only recognises the definite, and rejects all else. 

If I mi"-ht venture to approach a more probable origin for this family, I 
should be inclined to believe that, amongst the many children of Sir Alex- 
ander Gordon, second baronet of Earlston, who have been summarily dis- 
missed from the pedigree of the latter family, would be discovered Robert 
Gordon, the founder of the family in Ireland, and who died in 1720. 

The Gordons of Florida were, during last century, connected both with 
our western colonies and the army (50th regt.) 

Now in Jamaica is found the monumental inscription of Colonel William 
Gordon's wife Susannah who died in 1751. The arms of the former are 
(no tincture) a roundle or annulet between three boar's heads couped . . . 
impaling (no tincture) a bend between two wings. Crest, a dexter hand 
grasping a sword. 

The 50th regiment was for many years in Jamaica, where the monuments 
or tombs of some of its officers still exist. Whether or no the . above 
Colonel W. Gordon was of this corps, I cannot as yet say. 

There were Gordons of Earlston in Jamaica, and Christiana Scarlett (of 
Lord Abinger's family) married James Gordon in 1779, and was mother of 
the fifth Baronet of Earlston. 

Besides many distinct families of this name in Jamaica between 1700 
and 1790, was that of Harry Gordon from Enniskillen, who married, 1st. 
a (Lady?) Mary Jones and 2nd. Anne Taaffe. By his second wife he had 
a son, also named Harry, whose will is dated in 1788. In 1766 James 
Gordon of Jamaica mentions in his will his " brother Harry Gordon in 
H.M.'s service." A certain Lt.-Colonel Harry Gordon, Royal Engineers, 
was in Liverpool (nearest English port to Dubliii) in 1777, and was 
deceased before the 1st Sept. 1787. He served in the West Indies. Harry 
Gordon, grandfather of the first Gordon of Knokespoch, must have been a 
contemporary with the above. 

These are the only instances of the name Harry united to Gordon that 
I have ever met with prior to 1800; and it seems clear to me that Lt.- 
Colonel Harry Gordon of the Royal Engineers yiAS identical vf'xih. the Harry 
Gordon, who by his wife Anne Taaffe had a son also named Harry.' 

Whether these Gordons had been long settled at Enniskillen before they 
emigrated (or loent^ to Jamaica it is impossible to say. Anne Taaffe was 
the daughter of Christopher Taaffe, who appears to have been originally 
from Dromishen, co. Louth, and it is not unlikely that the present proprie- 
tor of the castle of that name has papers which might show who these ear- 
lier Gordons were. Vide also Chancery Suits (Ireland) 1780-7. 

L.-A. 

' I have since discovered that another Harry Goi-don is to be found in Douglas's 
Baronage. 



381 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Arms of Richard Coeur de Lion. — In the extract from Mr, Hewitt's 
work, given in p. 214, the passage relating to the shield on the first seal of 
King Richard I. is marred by a misprint. It should read — "In the earliest 
(1189) the monarch's shield is ensigned with the emblem of valour, a Lion. 
But it is a rampant lion; and as the bowed shield presents only one-half of 
its surface to view, it has been conjectured that the complete device would 
consist of two lions combatant." 

Our comment was " conjectured, — certainly without substantial grounds :" 
but this we must beg to modify. We made it, because we have observed 
that in similar contemporary instances the whole of an armorial coat is 
shown, although only part of the field of the shield may be visible : but in 
regard to this shield of King Richard the First, the remarks made by Mr. 
Planche ought not to be disregarded. They are as follow : — 

" On the first seal of Richard I. we find a shield charged with a lion 
counter-rampant, that is, with his face turned to the sinister or left side of the 
escutcheon, and as the convex form of the shield enables us to see but half 
of it. Sir Henry Spelman, in his Aspilogia, conjectures there would be an- 
other lion on the sinister side, forming a coat that would be blasoned ' two 
lions combatant;' and that Richard, during the life of his father, bore, as 
his brother John did, more than one lion on his shield,' we have evidence 
in the verses of a contemporary poet, who makes William de Barr say he 
knew Richard by the grinning lions on his shield, 

rictus agnosco leonum 

lUius in clypeo : 
establishing the plurality as strongly as John of Marmoustier has those of 
Henry I. or of GeofFry of Anjou." Pursuivant of Arms, p. 75. 

These authorities certainly deserve some consideration, as tending to 
show that the device of Richard I. was not a single lion rampant. They do 
not, however, entirely convince us that he bore two lions counter-rampant 
or combatant. The visible lion being placed looking to the sinister favours 
that supposition : but it is not impossible that it only arose from the 
ga7icherie of the seal-engraver, and that to the like cause, at that rude 
period of sigillistic art, we may attribute the appearance of only one lion 
instead of more. 



Shkriffs' Seals. There is an interesting class of seals of which I think 
very little notice has hitherto been taken, though examples are not unfre- 
quently occurring, and the number that once existed must have been very 
great. I allude to the Seals of Sheriflis, which were required, I scarcely 
know for what purposes, but should like to be informed. 

' On the seal of John then Earl of Morton there are two lions passant: which 
anpear entire, notwithstanding the convexity of the shield. 



382 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

These seals are usually of a small circular form, and bear tlie repre- 
sentation of a castle, evidently denoting the power of imprisonment : and 
therefore it may be presumed that their chief employment was connected 
with the jurisdiction of the gaols. Accompanying this castle there is 
generally the coat of arms of the individual, a circumstance which gives 
them an important historical value. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for June 1787, Plate II. there is engraved 
such a seal : of which it is only stated : " Fig. 4 is an impression from a 
wooden seal, which wants decyphering." 

It is in size about that of our old halfpenny, and represents a castle, on 
the walls of which appear two human heads (either alive or dead). Above, 
is a shield of two coats impaled : a chevron between three pheons ; and 
three boar's heads erased erect. In the margin are the initials p. h., and 
at the foot (as numismatists say, in the exefgum), i. b. 

In combination with these initials there can be little hesitation in attri- 
buting these arms to the names of Holman and Booth, which bore respect- 
ively. Vert, a chevron or between three pheons argent, and Argent, three 
boar's heads erased erect sable. 

I think it most probable that in this case impalement does not typify 
marriage : but rather that this was the seal of some city or town that had 
two Sheriffs ; and I beg therefore to inquire whether in any list of Sheriffs 
the names of Holman and Booth are to be found serving in conjunction. 
J. G. N. 

In answer to A. H, Le B.'s queries — There is no doubt that the arms of 
Altham of Oxhey, Herts, were Paly of six ermine and azure, on a chief 
gules a lion passant guardant or; as they were thus quartered by the 
Annesleys Earls of Anglesey, &c. who were descended from the heiress of 
Altham by her marriage with Arthur first Earl of Anglesey. 

We must refer A. H. Le B. to Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, for the arms 
of Gayer of Stoke Pogeis ; but we think they are the same as the Gayers 
of Foxley, Berks. 

Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, father of the late Mrs. Annesley of Bletch- 
indon, was son of Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, knight banneret, and grand- 
son of Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy, knt. of Queen Anne's time. He died 
in 1780 at Portsmouth, when in command of the Fleet. 

We are not aware that there was any connexion between him and Nel- 
son's flag-captain, the late Admiral Sir Thomas M. Hardy. 

Probably the arms of Sir Charles Hardy might be met with at the Great 
Hall in Greenwich Hospital, as he was Governor at the time of his death in 
1780. 

John Browne is mentioned in an Indenture dated 13 September, 1585 
(Irish Archffiologia, O'Flaherty's lar Connaught) : the same person is sup- 
posed to be named in O'Luinin's MS. Pedigrees, vol. i. Office of Arms, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 383 

Dublin, and in a State Paper dated 18 April, 1585 (Hardiman's History of 
Galway, ed. 1820, pp. 10, 94, 95, and Notes). Is there an Inquisition upon 
the death of John Browne, dated 14 March, 1591, showing him to have 
been killed in a fray in Connaught, 7 Februar}', 1588 ? Does it give his 
arms, family, marriage, or heir, or style him of any place ? 

The lists of Inquisitions published by the Commissioners upon Irish State 
Records in 1816 to 1820 do not give this Inquisition, but do at p. 564, roll 
68, give one of the same name taken at Dublin in the 25th year of 
Henry VIII. 

John Browne, " master of Awney," or Awny (co. Limerick), had ten 
daughters. The eldest, Annabella, was mother of the wives of Thomas 
Browne, knt. of Hospital, co. Limerick, head of the Kenmare family of 
Browne, and of Sir Richard Boyle, the first and great Earl of Cork (see 
Smith's County of Kerry, ed. 1774, pp 41 and 47, and notes; also County 
of Cork, ed. 1774, vol. i. p. 113). 

What were his arms? had he any male heirs ? or did Sir Thomas Browne, 
husband of his grand-daughter, inherit Awney ? 

Hohart Town, 19 June, 1865. Justin Browne. 



I should be glad to know whether there exists any copy of the now 
obliterated epitaph of Capt. Anthony Archer, who was buried at Shadwell, 
Middlesex, about 1680, and if any records of the name are to be found in 
the parish registers in connection with this surname. A. 



John Hodges, a nephew of Bonella Hodges, mother of the first Lord Pen- 
rhyn, married Anne Blake (of a Jamaica family), in England, probably 
between 1760 and J 775. I should be obliged to any one who might be able 
to furnish me with the date and place of that marriage. One of the chil- 
dren of John and Anne Hodges was Robert Franklyn Hodges, who died in 
London either late in the last century or early in this. His wife, a daughter 
of Judge Lewis of Jamaica, was either divorced or separated from him. The 
story is curious, but unfitted for a note of this description. H. 



Can any of your readers give me information respecting a family named 
Handley ? More than one member of it was connected with the Court of 
Chancei-y during the last century, and I am inclined to think that the 
following extract (taken from a MS. Heraldic Painter's Book in the British 
Museum) has reference to the family in question. 

" Handley and Pickering at Barnes, March, 1738." 

Arms : (sketched) viz., Gules, a bend or between six mascles of the 
second, impaling Ermine, a lion rampant azure, crowned or. The Crest, 
a hand holding a bunch of quills proper. Equity, the motto. 



384 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

The arms (which are quite different from any assigned to the name of 
Handley in Burke's General Armory) seem to allude to the connection 
which the family had with the Court of Chancery ; the impalement is the 
ordinary coat of Pickering. 

I find the names of Robert and Thomas Handley in the list of Sworn 
Clerks in 1766 and 1788. A son of the latter was Charles Peter Handley, 
of the Hon. E.I.C. Navy, who married in 1797 a Miss Dyce of Essex, and 
died in the year 1800. Closely connected (I do not know in what degree) 
was Sukey Handley, who married, 1st. Edward Norton, one of the six 
clerks and a brother of Fletcher Lord Grantley, and 2ndly, in 1755, Mil- 
ward Rowe, chief clerk of the Treasury. She died in 1804, and was buried 
beside her second husband at Tillington, co. Sussex. Her sister Anne 
Handley married at St. Christopher's, in the West Indies, 16 July, 1757, 
Thomas Tomkyns of Buckenhill Park, co. Hereford, by whom she had, with 
other issue, Dr. Packington Tomkyns, chaplain to King George the Fourth. 

There were families of the name of Handley in Nottinghamshire, Hert- 
fordshire, and Buckinghamshire ; but I have not been able to obtain many 
particulars of them. I believe it was from Thomas Handley of Great 
Marlow that the late Rev. H. Handley Norris, of Hackney, derived his 
second name ; but on this point also my knowledge is somewhat con- 
jectural. C. J. R. 



Vol. ii. p. 264. — Dr. James Lind the successful medical author and 
physician to Haslar hospital, and Dr. James Lind the genealogist and 
physician to the Household of Queen Charlotte, were evidently different 
persons : as the former died in 1794, and the latter printed his book in 1795. 
" 1794. July 18 [not 11]. At Gosport, James Lind, M.D. formerly Phy- 
sician to the Royal Hospital at Haslar, and deservedly celebrated as a 
medical writer." GenUeman's Magazine, Ixiv. 767. The records of the 
Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh show that one James Lind 
obtained his diploma at Edinburgh university 3 May 1748, and was admitted 
a Fellow of the College 1 May 1750; and another James Lind, also having 
an Edinburgh diploma, was admitted 6 Nov. 177 0. The date of the gene- 
alogist's decease we have not ascertained. 



Penelope Darcy.— Since the note in p. 212 was printed, the record of 
the first marriage of Penelope Darcy with Sir George Trenchard has oc- 
curred in the course of our reading. It is in the Parish Register of Clerk- 
enwell:— 1610: June 11. Sir George Trencher and Mrs. Penelope Dar- 
cey {misprinted D'urfey in Pinlts' History of Clerkenwell, 1865, p. 46.) 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

The deatli of Lord Palmerston, whilst still at the summit of 
his poTver and popularity, has stimulated the pens of a legion of 
public writers throughout the civilised world; and the great 
length of his political career has carried back their reflections from 
the passing events of the day to those now far receding into past 
history. But whilst the late Premier had survived more than 
one generation of contemporary statesmen, he was also the last 
male survivor, in his own branch, of a family which has produced 
many men of considerable eminence during the last three cen- 
turies; the most illustrious amono- them having been Sir William 
Temple, the celebrated negociator, statesman, and essayist, who 
exercised great political influence during the reigns of Charles II. 
and William III. He was a brother of one of the late Premier's 
direct ancestors. It may therefore be interesting on this occasion 
to take some retrospect of the past generations of this family. 

The name makes no prominent appearance in our earlier his- 
torical annals. It is not one that figures in the Chronicles or the 
ancient Rolls of Arms, nor even does it claim a place in Mr. 
Shirley's account of The Noble and Gentle Men of England who 
have retained the landed estates possessed by their ancestors be- 
fore the year 1500. The race was one of those whose fortunes 
ensued after the changes of the Reformation. 

And yet, like other new-made rich, when subjected to the 
patronage of flattering genealogists, the Temples have been fur- 
nished with ancestry of the most remote and most ambitious kind 
that this country has to ofier. Their descent has been derived 
from the Saxon Earls of JNIercia, and the fabulous arms attributed 
to those Earls have been prefixed (in the first quarter) to those 
which they originally assumed. 

It is somewhat inconsistent with those pretensions when we 
find the same genealogists^ asserting that the son of Earl Leofric, 
" living in the reign of William the Conqueror, was wrote Henry 
del Temple;" particularly when it is remembered that the order 

' Collins, Peerage 1741, tit. Cobbam; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, edit. Archdall, . 
1779, tit. Palmerston. 

VOL. III. 2 C 



386 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

of the Templars was not founded until the year 1118, the same 
writers proceeding to state that the family derived their name 
from residence in one of the houses of that order. 

In truth, this origin of the family is recorded upon very sub- 
stantial evidence : but the genealogical descent is obscure, as the 
Temples did not rise above the rank of small gentry until the 
latter part of the 15th century. 

Near the town of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire is a 
village named Wliellesborough, which is a hamlet of the parish of 
Sibbesdon. " Within the hamlet of Whellesburgh," as described 
by Burton the old Leicestershire historian, but extra-parochial 
according to the usual privileges of the Templars, " is a mansion 
still called Temple Hall, which at an early date was granted to 
the Knights Templars," — as Burton supposed, "by one of the 
old Earls of Leicester." ^ An inquisition taken in 7 Edw. I. 
(1279) showed this Temple to be then held by one Henry de 
Temple, who had evidently derived his name from his residence. 
The verdict to this inquisition is as follows : — 

Templum est de feodo Wintonie, et Henricua de Templo tenet in eadem tres vir- 
gatas terre in dominico. Item in viJlenagio tres virgatas terre, quas quatuor servi 
tenent de eodem. Item in libera tenura tres virgatas terre, quas Willielmus de 
Templo tenet de eodem, una cum quadam cultura que voeatur Hongebur. Et dictus 
Henricus tenet dictam tenuram de Templariis de Balsall, et Templarii de heredibus 
Wintonie, et heredes de Rege. Dieti tamen Templarii tenent in pura elemosyna; et 
habent visum franciplegii et regale, et non dant scutagium. De warrena et aliis capi- 
tulis nihil. 

The same Henry of the Temple also held of the Templars two 
virgates at Sibbesdon, in villenage, held of him by two serfs. 

Burton states in another place that the manor of Shepey parva 
was the ancient inheritance of the family of Temple, and con- 
tinued in that name until the latter end of the reign of Edward 
in. He notices also that John de Temple temp. Hen. III. gave 
lauds at Shepey to the abbey of Miravall in Warwickshire. 
Burton observed, "at Great Shepey church, in the north-east 
window, very old, the picture of a man kneeling, under whom 
is written ricardus de templo." 

Two other generations of the family, both bearing the name 

' Wliellesborough belonged to the fee of Leicester (Hist, of Leic. iv. 963*), but 
Temple to the fee of Winchester, as appears by the document next quoted. 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 387 

Nicholas, occur in the year 1322; when Nicholas, son of Nicholas 
de Temple, of the county of Leicester, was one of the manucap- 
tors for the good behaviour of Kobert de Astele, of the county of 
Warwick, and other prisoners then discharged.^ 

Such are the scanty records of the family in those early times 
which we have been able to recover. They afford very little* aid 
towards forming a pedigree : but in Nichols's History of Leices- 
tershire, in which the genealogy of the family is far more fully 
detailed than anywhere, there appear (in vol. iv. j^p- 958, 959,) 
the two following very contradictory lines of descent, both leading 
to Eobert Temple, the husband of Mary Kingscote : 

Visitation of Leicestershire, 1619, CTietivynd MS. 

and that of Bucks, 1634. 

Robert de Temple, temp. Hen. III. Henry del Temple, 3rd son of Leofric 

Earl of Mercia. 

I 
Geifrey de Temple. 

I 
William Temple, 1219. Henry de Temple, t. Hen. I. and John. 

I I 

Henry Temple,=pMatilda, dau. of Sir John de Temple, temp. Hen. III. 
1274. I William Ribbesford. I 



Richard Temple,=^Katharine, dau. of Tho- Richard de Temple, 1296. 
temp. Edw. I. mas Langley, esq. I 

Nicholas Temple,=f:Isabel, dau. of William Nicholas de Tem-=f=Margery, dau. of Sir 

1310. I Barwell, esq. pie, 1322, " ^ , . . ^.. 



r 



J 



Roger Corbet, of Sib- 
besdon, Knt. 1312. 



Nicholas Temple,=pMary, dau. of Robert Richard de Tern— pAgnes, dau. of Sir 
1380. I Daberon, esq. pie, 1322, 1346. I Ralph Stanley, Knt. 



1345. 



Thomas Temple,=pJane, dau. of John Nicholas deTem—pMaud, dau. of John 
1421. I Bracebridge, esq. pie, 1372. | Burgillon, of Newton. 

Robert Temple.=^Mary, dau. of William Kingescote. 

It is not a question, to our mind, which of these discordant 
lines of descent should be preferred; for we deem them alike 
questionable, even though one has the sanction of having 
been entered by the heralds in their books of Visitation. 
Whether any of the alliances are gathered from presumptive 
evidence, or whether they are entirely imaginary, we cannot tell. 

' Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs, &c. App. i. pp. 207, 209. 

2 c 2 



388 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

There was at tlie time in question a Sir Eoger de Corbet, who 
married the heiress of Camvile at Sibbesdon. 

Eobert Temple, of Temple Hall, by his second wife Mary 
Kingscote, is stated to have had three sons : 1, Nicholas ; 
2, Eobert; and 3, Thomas. 

Fn regard to Nicholas we at last arrive at some substantial 
evidence. He was an esquire, and was buried in the church of 
Great Shepey, co. Leic. with the following inscription, the date 
of his death being 1506. 

Hie jacet corpus Nicholai Templi armigeri, et Elizabethse uxoris ejus, qui quidem 
Nicholaus obiit 150(3. 

This was accompanied by a shield of arms: Argent, on two 
bars sable six martlets or; impaling. Azure, two bars or, and 
a mullet in chief The impaled coat is that of Burdet, an 
ancient Leicestershire family; and the pedigree recognises the 
lady as one of that name, adding that she was living in 1512. 

The similarity of these two coats at once strikes our attention, 
and we are led to believe that there was something more than 
accident in that similarity. In the reign of Edward II. a Burdet 
had differenced his arms with three martlets on the upper bar — 

Sire William Bordet, de azure, a ij. barres de or. 

Sire Robert Bordet, meisme les armes, en la sovereyne barre iij. merelos de goules. 

and in that of Henry VI. Sir Nicholas Burdet, who was great but- 
ler of Normandy, and slain at the battle of Pontoise in Bretagne, 
bore three martlets upon each bar.^ In the latter example we have 
the complete design of the coat of Temple as it first appears on 
the monument at Great Shepey, and as it has been usually borne 
in modern times. Moreover, among various shields of Burdet 
which were in the windows of Great Shepey church, was one 
that displayed the six martlets upon the two bars. .There are 
certainly, therefore, strong grounds for supposing that Nicholas 
Temple was the first to adopt these arms, deriving them, with 
merely a change of tinctures, from Sir Nicholas Burdet, who was 
probably no very distant relation of his wife. 

Nicholas Temple left no legitimate issue. The subsequent 
branches of the family have sprung from the two other brother.-?, 
Eobert and Thomas. 

Eobert, the second son, carried on the line at the ancient 

' History of Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 351. 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 389 

Tem^ile Hall;i and liis posterity continued to occupy the spot 
from wliich tliey derived their name. 

Burton and Wyrley have preserved memoranda of the epitaphs 
of two generations, at Sibbesdon, (and they are the only Temple 
epitaphs extant from that church ^) — 

In eccTia de Sihhesdon per W. Wyrley et W. Burton a° 16U3, 

Richard Temple and Joyce his wife. He died 1556. Without any mark of arms. 

Richard Temple, of Temple, alias Welsborow, and Elizabeth his wife. He died 
1567. He bereth these tow cotes quartered and paled : 

Arms. — Quarterly: 1 and 4, Ermine, on a chevron sable five martlets argent; 
2 and 3, Argent, three wolves passant in pale sable, Lovett ; impaling, Argent, on a 
fess engrailed gules, between three falcons rising azure, as many plates, each charged 
with a lion's head erased sable, for George. 

Kichard the son married Elizabeth, daughter of John George, 
of BaudlngtoUj co. Gloucester. He quartered Lovett for his 
mother, a coheiress of Lovett, of Welford, co. Northampton.^ In 
his own coat, it will be observed, we have a great variation 
from that upon which we have already commented. We shall 
review the several changes of the family coat-armour hereafter. 

At the Heralds' Visitation of Leicestershire in 1619 there 
were five brothers at Temple Hall, sons of Edmund Temple who 
had died three years before. Of these, Peter, the third, then 
aged nineteen, became the head of the family by the death of 
his elder brothers. In 1645 he was sheriff of the county (the 
first of his family that had filled the office), and in that capacity 
he took an active part. in the defence of Leicester for the Parlia- 
ment. This led to still graver charges and responsibilities. 
Thomas Coke, esq. one of the burgesses for Leicester, was ex- 

• The Visitation of Leicestershire says, that Robert by gift of his father had lands at 
Barton under Needwood, co. Stafford ; and that Richard his son was also of that 
place, and died 22 Hen. VII. (Visit, in Coll. Arm. 127, p. 147.) Burton, having 
heard of thie, was doubtful whether the Temple who came to Temple from Barton 
under Needwood was of the same race ; but this passage he afterwards cancelled : 
see Nichols's Hist, of Leic. iv. 958. 

^ These epitaphs are here given from MS. Coll. Arm. Vincent, 197, fol. 52. In 
Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 956, the arms are misdescribed : the 
quartering omitted : and the impalement said to be Langham instead of George, 
though correctly engraved in Plate CXLVII. fig. 26. 

^ In 1 Edw. VI. a fine was levied between Robert Warner, demandant, and Francis 
Temple, deforciant, of Lovett's manor in Welford. It was soon after sold to John 
Randolf. Bridges, Hist, of NorthamiHonsh. i. 594 ; that Francis being the only 
Temple there mentioned. 



390 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

eluded from the House of Commons in November of tlie same 
year, whereupon Mr. Temple was elected to take his place; and, 
when subsequently the Eepublican party determined to sit in 
judgment upon their sovereign, the member for Leicester was 
one of those nominated upon that fearful commission. He be- 
came a close attendant during the trial, and signed the warrant 
for the King's execution. The following curious description of 
him is given in The Character of the Regicides, appended to Tlie 
Loyall Martyrologtf, by William Winstanley, 1665. 

LXVIII. Peter Temple. He was at first a linnen-draper, apprentice in Fryday- 
street, but his elder brother dying, he forsooli his trade, and was possest of an estate 
of some four hundred pounds a year in Leicestershire, and being a person well affected 
to the Cause, was a recruit-chosen Burgess for that country-town, as colleage to Sir 
Arther Hazelrig, that furious Northern blast. He was made a Captain of a troop of 
horse, and besides was a great Committee-man; yet was a person of very weak parts, 
and easie to be led to act any thing to which the hope of profit called him; yet (as ill- 
gotten goods never prosper) so he thrived not, notwithstanding his gainfull trade, but 
was fool'd by Oliver into the snare, as he often afterwards confessed the same. 

When the Rea;icides were themselves brouo;ht to trial after the 
Eestoration, Peter Temple was one of those arraigned on the 16th 
October, 1660. He had previously pleaded Not Guilty, and he 
explained that plea on the ground that there were many things 
in the indictment of which his conscience could not accuse him, 
" for (he declared) I had not a malicious or traitorous heart 
against the King :" but he admitted his signature to the war- 
rants. Being convicted, and asked why sentence should not be 
passed, he said that he had come in upon the Proclamation, and 
humbly begged the benefit of it. He was condemned, but not 
brought to execution, and is supposed to have remained a prisoner 
until his death. ^ 

Thus terminated in disgrace the eldest line of the Temples, 
after having occupied for so many centuries the old preceptory of 
the Templars at Whellesborough. It is remarkable that the 

' Another of those who signed the warrant for the King's execution was Colonel 
James Temple, whom Winstanley describes as "a Sussex man." He had obtained 
the estate of Sir Charles Shelley in that county ; and appears to have been a nephew 
of the first Baronet of Stowe, and son of Sir Alexander Temple, of Chadwell in Essex, 
who was Knight of the Shire for Sussex in the second Parliament of 1625. Noble, in 
his Lives of the Regicides, does not attempt to identify either James or Peter ; but he 
states that James was governor of " Banbury Castle in Sussex " — meaning Bramber. 
We shall notice him more fully hereafter. 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 391 

Historian of Leicestershire did not, under the head of Temple 
Hall, recognise the cause of the family's removal, thoiigh in 
another place (under Shawell) he mentions the forfeiture of 
Peter Temple's estate. ^ 

The Regicide married Phoebe, daughter of John Gay ring, of 
London, and had three sons, Edmund, John, and Peter, born 
1635. John died s. p. and of the two others nothing further is 
recorded. 

The contemporary Baronet of Stowe, though a distant cousin, 
"was also named Peter.^ He also was nominated one of the com- 
missioners for the trial of Charles the First (being then M.P. for 
Buckingham), but fortunately for him and the future Temples of 
Stowe, he did not take part in it. 

Temple of Burton Derset, co. Warwick, 
AND OF Stowe, co. Buckingham. 

From Thomas, the third son of Eobert Temple before men- 
tioned, have proceeded those Temples who have risen to higher 
importance. The pedigree states that Thomas himself removed 
to Witney in Oxfordshire ; and that William his son and Thomas 
his grandson were of that town f that the last married Alice, 
daughter of John Heritage, or Eritage, of Burton Derset, co. 
Warwick, esq.; and that Peter, the second son of that marriage, 
purchased the manor of Burton Derset in 1560, and afterwards 
became owner of Stowe in Buckinghamshire.'* The pedigree is 
still fragmentary, and embarrassing from the variety of its branches. 

' " From the Bensons the reputed manor of Shawell passed to Peter Temple, 
who was a Regicide ; and this estate, consequently, was confiscated by Charles II. 
who afterwards gave it to his brother James Duke of York," Hist, of Leic. iv. 337. 

^ Granger, Mark Noble, and other writers have confused the two, together with Sir 
Peter Temple of Stanton Barry, Knt., the Baronet's nephew. 

^ On the last page of Willis's Hundred of Buckingham is a slight memorial of the 
Temples of Witney. Anne Wenman, widow of Richard Wenman of Witney, a mer- 
chant of the staple of Calais (and ancestor of Lady Wenman), making her will Nov. 22, 
1536, leaves to " Goodwife Temple " and other women of Witney small legacies, 

■' Besides this Peter, who was evidently the great raiser of the family foi-tunes, we 
meet, in the distribution of monastic property, with the recurrence of the old name of 
Nicholas. There was a Nicholas Temple (who has no place in the pedigree), to 
whom the manor of Cadeby, late belonging to Leicester Abbey, was granted in 1544 
(Hist, of Leic. iv. 573) ; Nicholas Temple and Richard Andrews had a grant of Sele 
Abbey, in Sussex, which they sold in 1546 ; and the same parties occur with regard 
to other monastic property in Bridges's Northamptonshire, i. 160, 232, 584. 



392 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

It here contains some brief particulars of a line of three genera- 
tions descending from Eobert/ an elder brother of Peter. 

It is stated in the pedigree that Peter Temple " was owner of 
Stowe in 1574." But this was not actually the case. Some 
particulars stated by Browne Willis, at p. 275 of his History of the 
Hundred of Buckingham, tend to place the position of the family 
at this period in a truer light. That historian observes, " that 
this family had been, as it seems to me, resident in this county in 
Henry the Sixth's time; and were, as I find, lessee tenants to 
Oseney Abbey [to which Stowe belonged] 2 before the dissolu- 
tion;" and he adds, that " Peter Temple occurs possessed of lands 
in these parts anno 1554." In truth, he was one of those who 
having had to do with monastic property, and knowing its value, 
availed themselves of the opportunity of becoming its owners. 
It was in 1553 that Peter Temple obtained from the Crown a 
grant of the manor of Merston Boteler, in Warwickshire;^ 
and in 1560 he purchased the manor of Burton Derset, in the 
same county. Pie was designated of that place when he received 
in 1567 a grant of arms which will be particularly noticed 
hereafter. It was so far considered the family seat, that, on his 
death occurring at Stowe,* his body was conveyed into War- 
wickshire, and buried in the church of Burton Derset, with 
the following inscription : — 

Here under this stone lyeth the body of Peter Temple, esquire, who departed out 
of this world at Stow, in the county of Buckingham, the xxviij. day of May Anno 
[1577] whose soule God hath in his blessed keeping. 

It was not until the year 1590 that the Temples actually 

' In 1597 the Augustine priory at Leicester was sold by Robert Temple of Leicester, 
and Thomas his son and heir apparent, for 20^., to Robert Heyrick, ironmonger. But 
the Robert in the Pedigree has a son Cuthbert, and no Thomas. 

^ In the same page it is mentioned that among the ancient sepulchral memorials at 
Oseney, was that of Stephen de Templar, who gave to Oseney a mill at Fuliwell. 

3 His name occurs frequently in that character : see Dugdale, History of Warwick- 
shire, pp. 326, 558, 612, Bridges's Northamptonshire, i. 5. 

■• His burial is recorded in the register at Stowe, under the date 28 May, according 
to Willis's Hundred of Buckingham, p. 286 ; but, as in Lipscombe's History of 
Buckinghamshire, iv. 296, " Peter Temple, esq. was buried y^ 29"' of May, 1577." 
This probably records the commencement of the funeral ceremonies at Stowe, before 
starting for Warwickshire. Lipscombe, in his pedigree of Temple, has a statement 
(evidently unfounded), that the body was brought back to Stowe 11 May, 1603, tha 
date of the son's funeral. 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 393 

became lords of Stowe. The estate up to that time had belonged 
to the bishopric of Oxford; but, during a vacancy of that see, 
Queen Elizabeth, by letters patent dated 27th Jan. in the 32nd 
year of her reign, granted the manor, &c. to Thomas Crompton, 
Robert Wright, and Gelly Merrick, who shortly after sold it to 
John Temple, esq. doubtless then the lessee, as his father had 
been before him. 

John Temple, the purchaser of Stowe, was avowedly an 
opulent man, and his possession of many children, many friends, 
an^ much money, was commemorated in these epigrammatic 
lines appended to his epitaph : — 

Cur liberos hie plurimos, 
Cur hie amicos plurimos, 
Et plurimas pecunias 
Vis scire cur reliquerit ? 
Tempellus ad plures abiit. 

The epitaph designates him as "of Stow, in the county of 
Bucks, Esquier, and one of the Lords of this Mannovir" of 
Burton Derset,^ where he was buried.^ He died on the 9th of 
May, 1603, aged sixty-one ; having married the heiress of 
Thomas Spencer, of Everdon, co. Northampton, by whom he 
left five sons and six daughters. 

Hitherto we have not met with a Temple who attained the 
order of knighthood; but the reign of the great Knight-maker 
James the First was now commenced, and in the very month 
after his flxther's death Thomas Temple went to support his 
neighbour Sir John Fortescue in the reception of that monarch 
at Salden in Buckinghamshire (when the King went part of the 
way on the North road to welcome his Queen on her first arrival 
in his new dominions), and on that occasion he became Sir 
Thomas Temple. Subsequently, when the order of Baronets was 
founded in the year 1611, Sir Thomas Temple was elevated 

' Burton Derset was still in the possession of the Temples of Stowe in 1802, as 
appears by a letter of the Marquess of Buckingham written in that year, and printed 
in Lipscombe's History of Buckinghamshire, vol. iii. p. 87. 

^ Like his father it is evident that he died at Stowe, for his funeral is recorded 
among the burials there under the date of the 11th May. The epitaph will be found 
at length in Dugdale's AVarvvickshire, edit. Thomas, p. 525, together with an account 
of the armory surrounding the tomb. 



394 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

to tliat dignity, the only other Buckinghamshire family thus 
honoured being that of Lee of Quarendon, afterwards Earls of 
Lichfield. Like his father, Sir Thomas had a numerous family, 
of whom four sons and three daughters lived to maturity ; and 
so rapidly did their posterity multiply that it is said that the 
mother survived to see seven hundred of her descendants. ' She 
was Esther, or Hester, daughter of Miles Sandys, esq. of 
Latimers, co. Buckingham ; and after her the name of Hester 
was long perpetuated in many noble families. She died in 1656. 

There were four Baronets in successive generations, of whom the 
last, Sir Eichard, being a distinguished general in the campaigns 
of Marlborough, at length became a Field Marshal. He is the 
" brave Cobham " commemorated as a Patriot in the well-known 
lines of Pope, having been created Baron of Cobham in Kent in 
1714, and in 1718 Baron and Viscount Cobham. The second 
patent included a remainder to his sisters, Hester wife of Eichard 
Grenville, esq. of Wotton, and Christian wife of Sir Thomas 
Lyttelton, bart.,2 and their male issue. 

When Lord Viscount Cobham died in 1749, Stowe, with the 
peerage, passed to his sister Mrs. Grenville (her husband having 
died in 1727), and in the same year she was created Countess 
Temple. Thus it happens that the Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos is also Earl Temple and Viscount and Baron Cobham, 
and bears the name of Temple as the first of his five conjoint 

* " She had four sons and nine daughters, which lived to be married, and so 
exceedingly multiplied, that this lady saw seven hundred extracted from her body. 
Reader, I speak within compass, and have left myself a reserve, having bought the 
truth hereof by a wager I lost." Fuller's Worthies of England. She thus outri- 
valled by far her contemporary Mrs. Honywood. But we are not aware that the 
assertion has been proved (except to the satisfaction of Dr. Fuller). The posterity of 
Mrs. Honywood will be found enumerated and described in The Topoyrapher and 
Qeneahrjist, vol. i. pp. 397-411, 568-576. 

^ Their son was the first Lord Lyttelton (of Frankley, co. Wore.) so created in 
1757, and the present Lord Lyttelton is now next heir presumptive to the Viscountcy 
of Cobham, the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos having only daughters. The 
title of Cobham was very remotely derived by Sir Richard Temple in allusion to the 
descent of his paternal grandmother, the wife of the second Baronet. She was Chris- 
tian, sister and coheir to Sir Richard Leveson, K.B. of Trentham, co. Stafford, and 
daughter of Sir John Leveson, who was the eldest son of another Sir John by 
Frances, daughter and sole heir of Sir Thomas Sondes of Throwley, co. Kent, by 
Margaret sister to Henry sixth Lord Cobham, and last of that ancient line. 



THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 395 

surnames.^ He marshals the quarterly coat of Earl Leofric and 
Temple in his second quarter, has for his sinister supporter a 
horse argent, semee of the eaglets of the Saxon Earl, and gives 
for his motto templa quam dilecta.2 

Moreover, when his father was created Duke, in the year 
1822, which was before the present Duke's birth, a fresh patent 
was also conferred of the Earldom of Temple, by which, failing 
the heirs male of the patent of 1749, it will be inherited by his 
granddaughter Anne Eliza Mary, and the heirs male of her body. 
In virtue of this remainder, that lady, who is now the wife of 
William Henry Powell Gore-Langton, esq. is at present the next 
heir presumptive to the title of Countess Temple. 



When the representation of the Temples of Stowe devolved 
on a female, there were various junior branches in the male line, 
two of which have since successively borne the title of Baronet, — 

' Earl Temple had the royal licence to use the names and arms of Nugent and 
Temple in addition to his own name of Grenville, Dec. 2, 1779. 

^ The canting motto Templa quam dilecta, which is used by the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, is evidently derived from the first verse of the 83rd Psalm, though the words 
in the Vulgate are Quain dilecia tabernacula tuo,. It has been observed, however, 
that in the epitaph of John, Abbot of Croyland, written about the year 1475, the 
words of the Temple motto are to be found. The abbot had painted and gilded the 
roof of his church, and it was said of him 

Quam sibi dilecta fuerant sacra templa 
Laudis in exempla demonstrant aurea tecta. 
This motto Templa quam dilecta was also used by the late Lord Nugent, and has 
been adopted by the Baronets now represented by Sir Grenville Temple. The motto 
of the Lords Palmerston was Flecti non Frangi, the opposite to the sentiment pro- 
fessed by the Levesons (Duke of Sutherland and Earl Granville), and by several other 
families, Frangas non flectes. 

We do not know when the motto Templa quam dilecta was first adopted, but it 
occurs in the engraving of the portrait of Richard Temple Viscount Cobham, made 
in 1732 by J. Faber, from the painting of Sir Godfrey Kneller. It is scarcely fanciful 
to suppose that the ornamental temples in the gardens of Stowe were multiplied in 
reference to this sentiment. Browne Willis, in the introductory passage of his account 
of Stowe {Hundred of Buckingham, p. 273) after alluding to " the Mansion, Seat, and 
Gardens of its Lord " having been rendered " one of the Wonders of the Kingdom " 
by the addition of the ornaments of Art to those of Nature, expresses a hope that, to 
complete its beauty, " the tall Spire Steeple " of Buckingham might be re-edified, 
which beyond all other illustrations would dignify the ancient Family Motto, Templa 
quam dilecta. 



396 THE FAMILY OF TEMPLE. 

the first having been represented by Sir William, Sir Peter, and 
Sir Elchard, from 1749 to 1786; and the second by Sir John, 
and four Sir Grenvilles, from 1786 to the present time. 

For nearly sixty years the various Baronetages, in their accounts 
of this family, were content to designate Sir William Temple as 
having been "the next heir male," without attempting to describe 
his actual descent; until by Mr. Courthope, the editor of Debrett's 
Baronetage in 1835, he was shown to have descended from Sir 
Peter Temple, of Stanton Barry, co. Buckingham, knt., son and 
heir of Sir John Temple, who married a co-heiress of Lee of 
Stanton Barry, and who was a younger son of the first Baronet. 

Sir John Temple, who assumed the title in 1786, was stated, 
in editions of the Baronetage published before 1828, to have 
descended from the second Baronet. This could not have been 
the fact ; or his branch would have inherited the dignity before 
those of Stanton Barry. Other lines of descent have subsequently 
been suggested for him, but none has been actually ascertained. 

There were a great variety of junior branches of Temple at the 
commencement of the seventeenth century, ^ but there is the 
utmost confusion of statement regarding them in the several pedi- 
grees of the fatnily that have been published. In order to arrive 
at any satisfactory conclusions it will be necessary to examine 
each branch seriatim, for which we have not present space. We 
shall therefore defer this part of the genealogy to a future page, 
and then give some account of the two branches that have taken 
the title of Baronet, of the Temples of America, and of others : 
proceeding now to that branch, of still remoter origin (and, so 
far as appears, the most distant of the whole), which has produced 
the Viscounts Palmerston. 

' The pedigree in the History of Leicestershire, vol, iv. p. 960, will give some evi- 
dence of this fact : though, like all others, it is imperfect and incorrect. It may be 
pointed out as a remarkable coincidence, that in p. 962 of that volume the pedigree 
of Pitt, Earl of Chatham, is given, in continuation from Grenville, and immediately 
below it is placed that of Temple Viscount Palmerston : so that the genealogy of our 
late Premier was printed some fifty years ago in the same page with that of William 
Pitt. It should also be noted, that the register extracts in p. 958 are not from Sib- 
besdon, as there stated, but from Stowe. 



397 



PARALLEL DESCENTS OF TEMPLE OF STOWE, AND OF 

TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. // . ^^ h 

Petkr Temple, Esq. of Burton Derset; died 1577. ()W^ 



( 1 

John Temple, Esq. of Stowe; Anthonv, of Coughton, co. 

died 1603. Warwick. 

I I 

Sir Thomas Temple, created Sir William Temple, knighted 

Baronet 1611. 1622; died 1627. 

I I 

Sir Peter, 2nd Baronet; died Sir John Temple, Master of the 

1653. Rolls in Ireland; died 1677. 



Sir Richard, 3rd Sir William Temple, P.O. the Sir John Temple, Attorney- 
Baronet; died Statesman; created Baronet 1665; General in Ireland; died 
1697. died 1698-9. 1704. 

l_^ , L , 

Sir Richard, 4th Baronet; Hester, mar. George Grenville, Esq. Henry, created Vis- 
Lord Cobliam 1710 ; Vis- Viscountess Cobham and Countess count Palmerston 
count 1718; died 1749. Temple 1749; died 1752. 1722; died 1757. 

I -^ n I 

Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, K.G.; Right Hon. George Hon. Henry Temple; 

died 1779. Grenville. died 1740. 

, I 



J 



George Marquess of Buckingham ; Henry 2nd Viscount Palmerston; 
died 1813. died 1802. 
1 I 



Richard-Temple-Nugent, Duke of Buck- Henry- John 3rd Viscount Palmerston, 
ingham and Chandos 1822; died 1861. K.G.; died 1865. 



— I 1 

Richard Plantagenet Campbell Temple- Lady Anna-Eliza-Mary, wife of William 
Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, now H. P. Gore-Langton, Esq.; heir pre- 
Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and sumptive to the Earldom of Temple, 
Earl Temple. created in 1822. 



Temple, Lord Viscount Palmerston. 

The line of Temple, of wliich the late Lord Palmerston was 
the last male representative, rose to distinction by filling various 
important offices in Ireland ; whither his ancestor William re- 
paired^ on the ruin of his patron the Earl of Essex, in the year 
1600. 

William is svipposed to have been a grandson of Peter Temple, 
esq. of Burton Derset, who died at Stowe in 1577. Of his father 
very little indeed is recorded. His name is said to have been 
(I.) Anthony ; his residence Coughton, in the county of War- 
wick, and his wife a lady named Bargrave. 

II. William was elected from Eton to King's College in the 



398 TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 

year 1573 ; and is said to have been for a time master of the free- 
scliool at Lincoln. 1 

Having attached himself to the illustrious Sir Philip Sidney, 
to whom he dedicated a Latin treatise, printed in 1581, he at- 
tended him as secretary to the Netherlands, and Sir Philip died 
in his arms at Arnheim, on the 16th Oct. 1586. Sir Philip in 
his will not only bequeathed to Mr. Temple an annuity of SOL 
for life, but recommended him to the service of the Earl of 
Essex, who employed him in the same capacity until the rash 
and fiital enterprise which terminated that nobleman's career. 
In this event Mr. Temple was unavoidably compromised, ^ and 
he was glad to escape more serious consequences by returning to 
Ireland (where he had previously attended on the Earl of Essex 
when Lord Lieutenant). His talents soon made a way for him 
there. In 1609 he became Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
at the request of Archbishop Ussher; and he held that office 
until his death, together with a Mastership in Chancery, to which 
he was appointed in the same year. He sat in Parliament for 
Dublin University in the year 1613, and was knighted by the 
Lord Deputy St. John in 1622. He died on the 15th Jan. 
1626-7, and was buried on the 20th, under the Provost's seat in 
his college chapel. Having married Martha daughter of Mr. 
Eobert Harrison ^ of Derbyshire, he left issue — Sir John, his 
heir ; Thomas, a divine, and the presumed ancestor of the 

' There was a previous William Temple elected from Eton to King's in 1545, of 
whom some account is given in the Athence Cantab, i. 116. It is possible that he 
may have become the schoolmaster at Lincoln. No particulars are known of his 
parentage. 

" On the 17th Feb. 1600-1, he was indicted by the name of William Temple, late 
of London, esq., for complicity in the treasons of the Earls of Essex, Rutland, and 
Southampton. (Baga de Secretis, pouch 57, file 2.) In MS. Tanner 79, p. 229, is a 
letter to him from Sir Philip Sidney testifying his great esteem. It is dated 29 May 
1584. In MS. Tanner 75, p. 109, is a letter from him to Charles Blount, Earl of 
Mountjoy, dated 7 May, 1604. We are not aware that these letters have been printed. 
He is noticed in Zouch's Life of Sir Philip Sidney, pp. 240, 241, 266 ; Collins's 
Sydney Papers, and Birch's Elizabeth, ii. 1 06 ; and will be more fully commemorated 
in the Athence Cantahrigienses. 

' Funeral entry in Ulster's office, printed hereafter. In Collins's Peerage this 
name is altered to Harrington, and so in the pedigree in the History of Leicestershire, 
and elsewhere. Lady Temple's family it may be presumed was not entitled to arms, 
as the impalement on the funeral certificate is left blank. 



TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 399 

Temples of Mount Temple in Westmeatli (of whom hereafter) ; 
and three daugliters, — 1. Catharme Lady Veil ; 2. Mary wife of 
Job Ward, esq. (both of whose funeral entries will be inserted 
hereafter) ; and 3. Martha, who died unmarried, and who was 
very probably the "Mrs. Temple" buried at St. Werburgh's, 
Dublin, in 1675.i 

III, Sir John Temple, son of Sir William, born in 1600, 
became Master of the Rolls in Ireland in 1640, and retained that 
post until his death in 1677, throughout all the various influences 
of those chequered times. In truth, he inclined to the side of 
the Parliament, and, after suffering a year's imprisonment on that 
account, was much trusted in the business of Ireland by the Lord 
Protector. Yet he was continued in oflS.ce at the Restoration, and 
in 1663 obtained a reversionary grant of the same for his son. He 
inherited the friendship of the Sydney family; and his wife, who 
was a sister of the learned Dr. Henry Hammond, died and was 
buried at Penshurst in 1638. When Robert Sydney, Earl of 
Leicester, was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Sir John Temple 
enjoyed his utmost confidence: and from his intimate acquaint- 
ance with the politics of those days, he was induced to write a 
History of the Irish Rebellion, which was printed in 1646, and 
was generally accepted as a work of the highest merit and im- 
portance. On his death at Dublin, in 1677, he was buried with 
his father; leaving issue two surviving sons. Sir William and 
Sir John ; and two daughters, Martha the wife of Sir Thomas 
Giflford, of Castle Jordan, co. Kildare, bart.,^ and Mary wife of 
Abraham Yarner, esq. 

IV. His elder son, the second Sir William Temple, was, 
until our own times, the most celebrated person of his race, and 
his talents were widely recognised abroad as well as at home. 
Eminently successful in political negociations, he was also highly 
popular as an elegant writer. His life is the subject of a work 
by the Right Hon. T. P. Courtenay, 1836. Succeeding to the 

' See the funeral entry of that date. In Lodge's Peerage of Ireland (edit. Archdall) 
V. 234, this entry is inadvertently applied to Lady Temple the mother. 

2 Lady Gifford wrote memoirs of her brother, and they were prefixed to the edition 
of his Works published in 1741, but without those portions relating to his more private 
life : Mr. Courtenay availed himself of these in his Life, published in 1836. Lady 
Gifford was buried in Westminster Abbey, Jan. 5, 1722-3, aet. 84. 



400 TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 

Mastership of the Rolls in Ireland, he retained it until 1696; but 
this was not incompatible with residence in England, where the 
greater portion of his life was spent, taking a leading part in the 
business of the privy council and parliament. He was created a 
Baronet on the 31st Jan. 1665, but left no heir male; his only 
son John Temple, esq. who was paymaster-general of the army,^ 
having drowned himself under London Bridge in the year 1691. 
Sir William married Dorothy, second daughter of Sir Peter 
Osborne, ofChicksands in Bedfordshire; his son married Mary, 
the only daughter of M. Duplcssis Eambouillet, a French Protes- 
tant,^ by whom he had two daughters : Elizabeth, married to her 
cousin John Temple, esq. next brother to the first Viscount 
Palmerston; and Dorothy, married to Nicholas Bacon, esq. of 
Shrubland in Suffolk. Sir William Temple died in Jan. 1698, 
in his 70th year, at his seat. Moor Park, near Farnham in Surrey, 
which became the property of Mr. John Temple, his grand- 
daughter's husband. That gentleman had a numerous family, 
but no surviving male issue at his death in 1752. 

IV. 2. Sir John Temple, the younger brother, was succes- 
sively Solicitor-General of Ireland 1660, Speaker of the Irish 
House of Commons at the age of thirty, Attorney-General 1684. 
His latter days he spent in England, and dying at a house he had 
purchased at East Sheen, on the 10th March, 1704, in his 72nd 
year, was buried in Mortlake church. He had married in 1663 
Jane, daughter of Sir Abraham Yarner, Muster- INIaster-General in 
Ireland; and she was buried at St. Michan's, in Dublin, in 1677. 
Sir John Temple left two surviving sons, — Henry, created 
Viscount Palmerston, and John, already mentioned; and several 
daughters, of whom Jane, the youngest, was first the wife of 
John Lord Berkeley of Stratton, and afterwards of William Earl 
of Portland, under which name she was for many years governess 
in succession to all the Princesses, daughters of King George the 

' Mr. Courtenay terms this ofifice "Secretary at War," and seems to liave thought 
the catastrophe occurred shortly after the accession of William and Mary. See what 
he says on the subject in his vol. ii. p. 439 : his authority being apparently the 
Memoirs of Sir John Rereshy, 8vo. 1735, p. 346. We give the date 1691 on the con- 
temporary authority of Peter le Neve, MS. Baronets in Coll. Ann. 

^ Mr. Temple was in Paris in 1684, when the remarkable diploma or certificate of 
nobility was granted to him, which is printed hereafter, p. 406. 



TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 401 

Second. She died in London March 21, 1751, aged about 80 
years. 

V. Henry Temple, his son and heir, was appointed Joint 
Remembrancer of the Exchequer in Ireland as early as 1680, 
and held that office for some years in conjunction with his son, 
until the death of the latter in 1740. 

In 1722 he was created Baron Temple of Mount Temple, co. 
Sligo, and Viscount Palmerstown, of Palmerstown, co. Dublin, 
witli remainder to his brother John (who died however without 
surviving male issue). In the preamble to the patent the services 
of his father and grandfather were honourably acknowledged, 
and the more brilliant qualities of his uncle were also suitably 
commemorated, in the following terms: — 

cujus Avus et Pater muneribus in Hibernia publicis ea fide, prudentia, et 

abstineutia functi sunt, ut adhue etiam grato animo recolant illius regni cives. 
Patruus vero periculis et negotiis ad exteras gentes legatus felicem Regi et Civitati 
operam navavit, atque rebus gestis juxta ac scriptis quod vivida vis animi possit 
ostendit. Virura itaque tali stirpe natum, prisca fide et moribus antiquis prseditum, 
cui nostra dignitas et salus publica maxim^ cordi sunt, libenter titulis insignimus. 

The first Viscount Palmerston died at Chelsea in 1757, at the 
age of eighty-four. 

VI. His elder son the Hon. Henry Temple had died before 
him in 1740 ; and his younger son, Richard Temple, esq. ]\I.P. 
for Downton, died in 1749 without surviving issue. 

VII. Henry, the second Viscount, succeeded his grandfather, 
and was for many years a Lord of the Admiralty. His name 
occurs in literary memoirs in connection with Dr. Johnson, Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, and ]\Iadame D'Arblay, and it has been remarked 
that he was evidently a genuine Temple, but with the lighter 
qualities of the line in larger proportion than the solid ones. He 
died in 1802, and was the father and immediate predecessor of 
the late Premier. 

VIII. Henry John, third and last Viscount Palmerston, thus 
succeeded to the title during his minority, and lived to enjoy it for 
sixty-three years. Altogether it has been held for the long 
period of 143 years by only three possessors. The last Viscount 
would doubtless have been rewarded with a British peerage, and 
of a higher grade, had the time ever arrived for him to relinquish 

VOL. III. 2 D 



402 TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 

his commanding position in the Lower House of Parliament. 
But to one who had no male heirs such promotion could scarcely 
have oiFered any temptation. He received from his grateful 
Sovereign the personal distinction of the Garter, which was con- 
ferred upon him in 1856, and he had previously been created a 
Grand Cross of the Bath in 1832. The blue ribbon had never 
before been conferred upon one who was only a Peer of Ireland ; 
nor since the days of Sir Eobert Walpole has it been worn by 
more than three members of the House of Commons: of whom 
the first was Lord North, afterwards Earl of Guildford ; and the 
second Lord Castlereagh, afterwards Marquess of Londonderry; 
both, like Lord Palmerston, occupying the foremost seat on 
the ministerial bench. 

Except in the possession of some Lnsh estates, the connection of 
the Palmerstons with Ireland has been little after their elevation 
to the peerage. The first Viscount became a member of the 
English House of Commons, sitting for various boroughs, and 
his successors have done the same. They resided for many years 
at Mortlake, near London : and their marriages have been chiefly 
with the families of eminent citizens. The first Viscount mar- 
ried Anne daughter of Abraham Houblon,^ merchant; and after 
her death the widow of Sir John Fryer, bart., Lord Mayor in 
1721, daughter of Sir Francis Gerard of Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
bart. The mother of the second Viscount was Jane daughter of 
Alderman Sir John Barnard, and married during his mayoralty 
in 1738. His second wife, the mother of the late Premier, 
was a sister of Benjamin Mee, esq. a Director of the Bank of 
England.^ 

In reviewing the family history thus briefly sketched, we 

' See our first volume, p. 173. 

■•* The marriage of Lord Palmerston's parents is thus announced in the Gentleman' s 
Magazine ior 17 8Z: " Jan. 5, at Bath, Ld. Vise. Palmerston of Ireland, M.P. for 
Hastings, to Miss Mary Mee, second dau. of the late Benj. Mee, esq. and sister of 
Benj. M. esq. one of the directors of the Bank." Lady Palmerston's father is styled 
" of the city of Bath" in Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, edit. Archdall 1779, v. 2.44. 
Lord Palmerston was born on the 20th October in the following year, it has been 
generally stated at his father's seat of Broadlands, near Romsey, but the con- 
temporary authority of the Scots Magazine records his birth to have taken place in 
Park Street, Westminster. See further of the Mee family in p. 410. 



TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 403 

gather as the general results' that Lord Palmerston came 
of a family of very ancient gentry, little connected in his own 
branch with the higher nobility, but frequently with the leading 
families of the commercial class; that it was a thoroughly English 
family, in spite of its Irish employments; that it has enjoyed 
nearly unintermitted intellectual distinction for 300 years ; and 
that there has been a pervading likeness of character in the line 
all through. Practical statesmen or lawyers; always fond of 
literature, and sometimes famous in it; successful men of the 
world, and worldly, but kind-hearted, genial, and capable of 
high feeling; tough in constitution in spite of gout, and, for the 
most part, long-lived — the Temples were the natural forerunners 
and producers of the veteran who has just been laid in his grave. 
The old tree seems to have put forth all its energy and to have 
concentrated all its hereditary qualities to produce its last fruit, 
which has now fallen so ripe and yet so sound in surface and at core. 
Lord Palmerston was the last of his own generation. He had 
one younger brother, Sir William Temple, formerly Minister at 
Naples, who died in 1856, and left a valuable collection of an- 
tiquities to the British Museum; and two sisters, Frances, mar- 
ried in 1820 to Captain Bowles, R.N. ; and Elizabeth, married in 
1811 to Laurence Sulivan, esq. Deputy Secretary at War. Mrs. 
Sulivan died in 1837; and Mrs. Bowles in 1838. Their hus- 
bands are still living: one as Admiral Sir William Bowles, K.C.B. 
and the other as the Right Hon. Laurence Sulivan,* having been 
sworn a Privy Councillor on his retirement from office in 1851. 
The latter only has children. His eldest son died at Lima in 
1856. His only surviving son is the Rev. Henry Sulivan, now 
Rector of Yoxall in Staffordshire, who married in 1843 Emily 
Anne, eldest daughter of Lionel Ames, esq. of the Hyde, St. 
Alban's. There are three daughters, the eldest married to Henry 
Hippisley, esq.; the second to the Rev. Robert George Baker, 
Vicar of Fulham ; and the third unmarried. 

' In the ensuing remarks we avail ourselves of the conclusion of an historical sum- 
mary, something of the nature of our own, which appeared in the Pall INIall Gazette. 

2 There was previously a Privy Councillor of this name, the Right Hon. John 
Sullivan, who held the office of Under Secretary of War from 1801 to 1805. But he 
was of a different family, spelling the name differently, and brother to Sir Richard 
Joseph Sullivan, created a Baronet in 1804. 

2 d2 



404 



FUNERAL ENTRIES OF THE TEMPLE FAMILY. 

(From Ulster's Office at Dublin Castle.) 

1626. S'" W™ Temple, knight, deceased y^ 15 of January, 1626. He 
had to wife Martha, dau. of Robert Harrison of Darbyshire, by 
whome he had issue. (Vol. 5, p. 121.) 

Arms : Argent, two bars sable, each charged with three 
martlets or ; the impalement hlanh. But in the Will Books in 
Ulster's office, vol. iv. p. 222, accompanying a short pedigree 
derived from Sir William Temple's will, is a shield of the 
coat granted in 1576, a chevron ermine between three martlets, 
probably taken from his seal attached to the will. 

1627. Mary, d"^ of S"^ William Temple, knight, deceased the 24 of 

December, 1627. She was mar. to Jobe Warde, by whome 
she had issue John. (Vol. 5, p. 123.) 

Arms: In a lozenge. Azure, a cross flory or, a crescent for dif- 
ference; impaling Temple (as before). 
1642. Dame Katherin dau. of S'' William Temple, knight, and some- 
time Provost of Trinitie Colledge adjoyninge to the Cittie of 
Dublin. The said Dame Katherin was marryed to John Arch- 
dall of Archdall, in the county of Fermanagh, esquire, by 
whome she had divers children, but they are all dead. The 
said Dame Katherin was after marryed to S"" John Veil, knight, 
by whome she left issue 3 sonnes and 3 daughters, viz*, Gary 
Veil eldest sonne, John Veil 2*^ sonne, Edward Veil 3*^ sonne, 
Ann eldest daughter, Katherin 2d daughter, and Martha 3*^ 
daughter. The abovesaid Dame Katherin departed this mortall 
life the 13*^ of November, 1642, and was interred in S* War- 
broajh's church in Dublin the 15*^^' of the same month. The 
trueth of the premisses is testified by the subscription of S^ John 
Veil, knight, aforesaid. Taken by me Albon Leveret, Ath- 
lone officer of Arms, to be recorded. 

{Signed) Jo. Vell. (Vol. 10, p. 153.) 

Arms: Argent, on a bend sable three wolves passant or, 
for Veil ; impaling Temple (as before). 
1662. S' Thomas Giffiard, of Castle Jordan, Baronett, deceased 4*'^ of 
May, and was buried the 9"^ of the same month, 1662, in S*^ 
Auden's church in Dublin. He had to wife [Martha] Temple, 
daughter of S"^' John Temple, Master of the Eolles, and one of 
the Privy Councell of Ireland, but left noe issue. This certi- 



TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 405 

ficate was taken by me, Richard S' George, Esq""., Ulster King 
of Armes of Ireland, 1662. (Vol. 10, p. 49.) 

A}'7ns : Gules, three lions passant argent, the badge of Ulster, 
impaling Temple (as before). 

1663. M*" Alexander Temple^ died 28*h of November, and buried the 
3*^ of December, 1663. He married Mary dau. of Calcot 
Chambre, by whom he had a son and a dang: now living named 
Mary. (Vol. 14, p. 57.) 

Aivns : Temple (as before) impaling Azure, a dexter arm 
embowed in armour or holding a rose gules slipt vert. 

1675. M's Temple departed this mortal life the 6**^ of Decem- 

ber, and was buried the 7"' of the same month in S' "Warbo- 
rough's church, Dublin, 1 075. (Vol. 14, p. 178.) 

Arms: Two lozenge shields: 1. Temple (as before) quartering 
Or, an eagle displayed sable, "Kirhill"; 2 Temple alone (as 
before). This last, it will be observed, is the only case in these 
books in which the spread eagle occurs, and here it seems to 
have been mistaken for the coat assigned in Burke's General 
Armory to " Kirhiles or Kii-hir, of Devonshire." 

1677. S*" John Temple, Kn*^, Master of the Rolls, &c., in the Kingdom 
of Ireland, died the 12**^ and buried the 19*** of November, in 
Trinity College. (Vol. 14, p. 196.) 
Arms of Temple (as before). 

' This appears, from Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, edit. Arclidali, i. 278, to have 
been Alexander Temple of BalJinderry, esq., but his name does not occur in the 
same work tit. Temple Viscount Palmerston. His wife Mary was granddaughter of 
Calcot Chambre, of Denbigh in Wales, and Carnowe, co. Wicklow, esq. who " died 
29 Oct. 1635, and was buried at Carnowe, leaving a son Calcot, whose issue were a 
son of that name who died childless, and a daughter Mary, who became sole heir to 
that estate, and by her first husband Alexander Temple of Ballinderry, esq. had an 
only daughter Mary, married in Nov. 1676 to Abraham, second son of Sir Abraham 
Yarner, in whose marriage articles the Wicklow estate was limited to the Countess of 
Meath and her heirs male." (Lodge, uhi supra.) The Countess of Meath was the 
younger daughter of Calcot Chambre, esq. the grandfather (whose elder daughter was 
Elizabeth wife of Francis Sandford, esq.), and hence the name of Chambre came to 
the Brabazon family, Chambre Brabazon her third son succeeding (after his two 
elder brothers) as fifth Earl of Meath. 

A pedigree discovered since the foregoing note was written (in Harl. MS. 1533, fol. 
68), shows that Mary, the widow of Alexander Temple of Ballinderry, was re-married 
to Henry Temple, esq. of Lincoln's Inn (unnamed by Archdall), the youngest son of 
Sir John Temple {ante, p. 399), and had issue a son, Chambre Temple, who died at 
17 years of age. The same pedigree also shows that her first husband, Alexander, was 
a grandson of Sir Alexander Temple, of Longhouse in Essex, a youn jer brother to 
the first Baronet of Stowe : and of that branch some account will be given hereafter. 



406 TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 

From the Peers' Entries in Ulster's Office. 

The Eight Hon'ble Henry Temple Viscount Palmerston, died in 
June 1757. He married first Anne, daughter of Abraham Houblon, 
esq. by whom he had five children, Henry, Jane, Elizabeth, John, and 
Eichard, who all died before him. He afterwards married Isabella, 
daughter of Sir Francis Gerrard, of Harrow on the Hill, in Middlesex, 
Bart, widow of Sir John Fryer, Bart, by whom he had no issue. The 
eldest son, Henry, married first the daughter of Colonel Lee, by Lady 
Elizabeth Lee, daughter of the Earl of Litchfield ; who dying without 
issue, he married Jane, daughter of Sir John Bernard, Knt. by Avhom 
he had one son, Henry, now Viscount Palmerston. The truth of all 
which is attested by the said Lord, this 1st day of May 1767. Pur- 
suant to a Standing Order of the House of Lords, dated this 12th of 
August 1707. 

(Signed) Palmerston. 

W. Hawkins, Ulster. 

Arms : 1 and 4, Or, an eagle displayed sable ; 2 and 3, Argent, two 
bars sable each charged with three martlets or. Supporters. A lion 
poean and a horse argent, maned, tailed, and hoofed or, both regardant. 
Crest. On a wreath, a hound sejant sable, collared or. Motto, flecti 

NGN FKANGl. 



Diploma under the Common Seal of the College of Arms issued in 
1684 to John Temple, esquire, then at Paris, the son of the Eight 
Hon. Sir William Temple. 

This is an official certificate of the nobility of Mr. Temple granted by the College of 
Arms for the object of procuring him a proper reception in foreign courts. We are 
not aware of any similar document having been hitherto published; but the certificate 
from Sir John Borough, Garter, given to Marmaduke Rawdon of London when about 
to visit Spain in 1638, is described in our vol. I. p. 75. 

[MS. Coll. Arms. L. 2, f. 163,] 

Omnibus ad quos prtesentes Litter^e pervenerint Nos Eeges Heraldi 
et Pursuivandi Armorum florentissimi Eegni Anglite salutem. Cum 
nos juramento astricti et authoritate regia sub magno Anglic sigillo 
muniti sumus genealogias virorum Nobilium una cum armis sive 
clypeis suis gentilitiis in Collegio nostro Armorum conservare et de 
eisdem quoties rogati fuerimus attestationem facere. Nos ex parte 
Johannis Temple Armigeri apud Luteciam Parisioruin in regno 



TE3IPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 407 

Francige jam jam commorantis, Vobis notum facimus quod idem 
Johannes genus suum ducit a nobili et perantiqua familia Templorum 
qu« apud Temple-hcill in agro Leicestrensi dicti regni Anglic provincia 
celeberrima per multa retro secula floruit. Filius scilicet unicus 
Domini Gulielmi Temple Baronetti nuper Legati Extraordinarii ad 
Ffederatos Belgii ordines et Regice Majestati a sacris consiliis in Regno 
Anglic et Scriniorum Sacrorum Magistri in regno Hibernise et Doro- 
tliese uxoris ejus filije D'ni Petri Osborne equitis aurati et nuper Guber- . 
natoris Insulse de Gurnsey, qui quidem Dominus Gulielmus filius fuit 
primogenitus D'ni Johannis Temple equitis aurati, Scriniorum Sacro- 
rum magistri in regno Hibernite et ibidem Regife Majestati a sacris 
consiliis, per Mariam uxorem ejus filiam Roberti Hammond de 
Chertsey in com. Surrey generosi; filii et heredis domini Gulielmi 
Temple equitis aurati et Marthas Harrington ^ uxoris snse ; filii Antho- 
nii Temple generosi (et uxoris ejus filite Bargrave) secundo- 

geniti Petri Temple de By r ton Dasset in com. Warwick generosi et 
Milicentiffi filite Johannis Jykett ^ de Newiugton in com. Midlesex 
generosi uxoris ejus ; filii secundi Thorns Temple de Whitney in agro 
Oxoniensi generosi per uxorem suam Aliciam filiam Johannis Erytage 
de Byrton Dasset pr?edicta; qui quidem Thomas fuit filius et hgeres 
Gulielmi Temple de Whitney preedicta generosi et Isabellas uxoris 
filige et haeredis Henrici Everton armigeri; filii et hseredis Thomaj 
Temple de Whitney generosi et Marine fili« Thorn® Gedney armigeri; 
tertiogeniti Roberti Temple domini manerii de Temple Hall prope 
Wellesbrough in com. Leicest. qui vixit ao 8 Hen. 6 Anglise Regis et 
duxit Mariam filiam Gulielmi Kingescote Armigeri. Iste Robertus ^ 
primogenitus fuit Thomas Temple d'ni de Temple Hall prjedicta a" 

1 H. 6, et conjugis ejus Johannje filite Johannis Brasbridge armigeri; 
filii et haeredis Nicholai Temple domini de Temple Hall (a° 4^° Ric'i 

2 Regis) et Marias filiae Roberti Daberon armigeri; filii et hteredis 
alterius Nicholai domini de Temple Hall (a° 24 Regis Edw. primi) et 
Isabellas filife Gulielmi Barwell armigeri; primogeniti Ricardi Temple 
domini de Temple Hall a" 3. Edw. primi prasdicti et Katharinge uxoris 
ejus filife Thomse Langley armigeri. Qui quidem Richardus filius et 
haeres fuit Henrici Temple (ao 3 Edw. I.) et Matildas filia? Johannis 
Ribbesford armigeri; filii et hasredis Roberti Temple de Temple Hall in 
pai'ochia de Sibsden prope Wellesbrough in com. Leicestr. qui Rober- 

' So in MS : see p. 398. - An error for JeMl. 

* From this point the pedigree will be found to ascend in conformity with the line 
already given from the Visitations in p. 387. 



408 TEMFLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 

tus ibi floruit imperaiite Henrico tertio Angliaj Eege prout per Genea- 
logiam suprascriptara plenius apparet. Ac etiam Insignia sive tesseras 
gentilitias antecessorum ejusdem Jobannis Temple rite et legitime 
spectantia in hiis tabulis delineari curavimus. Qu« omnia ex Regis- 
tris nostris in Collegio Armorum Londini remanentibus vobis pro veri- 
tate perlucida et indubitata per prtesentes significamus et attestamur, 
rogantes ut praamissis fidem debitam adhibeatis. In quorum omnium 
testimonium sigillum commune CoUegii Armorum prsedicti prsesenti- 
bus apponi fecimus. Datum Londini tricesimo primo die Julii ao 
regni prepotentissimi et excellentissimi Monarchse Domini nostri Caroli 
2*^' Dei gratia Anglige, Scotise, Francise et Hiberniee Regis, Fidei Defen- 
soris, etc. 36°, Annoque SalutLs 1684. 

At tlie foot of the document two shields of arms are drawn. One is 
quarterly ; 1 and 4, Sable, a chevron ermine between three martlets 
argent, differenced by a crescent, for Temple ; 2 and 3, Argent, three 
boar's heads erased sable, for Everton ; and an inescocheon of Ulster, 
with the inscription: — 

Insignia Domini Gulielmi Templi Baronetti quarteriatim cum scuto familise de 
Everton, ex cujus hajrede Isabella genus suum duxit. 

The second shield contains the same quartered arms, with a crescent 
in centre point, and in chief a label of three points, with this in- 
scription : — 

Insignia Jobannis Temple armigeri, filii et hseredis Domini Gulielmi Temple Baro- 
netti, prout opportet eum gestare durante vita patris secundum leges armorum apud 
Anglos, scil. Lemnisco triplici distincta. 

This is the only instance that has occurred of the adojstion of the 
quartering of Everton; for Avhich the heralds went so far back as the 
marriage of William Temple of Witney (mentioned in the preceding 
page), which took place in the 15th century. 



By his Will dated Nov. 22, 1864, Loid Palmerston has left his real 
and leasehold estates in England and Ireland to Lady Palmerston for 
life, and after her decease to her Ladyship's second son, the Right Hon. 
William Francis Cowper; expressing his earnest wish, but without 
imposing an obligation on the devisee, that he will, immediately upon 
coming into possession of the estates, apply for Her Majesty's licence 
and authority for him and his descendants to take and use the surname 
of Temple, either in substitution for, or in addition to, that of Cowper, 
but so that Temple be the final name, and that the family arms of 
Temple be quartered with those of Cowper. 



409 



TEMPLE, OF MOUNT TEMPLE, CO. WESTMEATH. 

We have further to acknowledge, among the favours we have re- 
ceived from Ulster's office, the following pedigree of the branch of 
Temple, seated at Mount Temple, co. Westmeath. In a note to Arch- 
dall's edition of Lodge's Peerage (vol. v. p. 234) it is stated that 
Robert Temple, esq. was descended, it is presumed, from Thomas 
Temple, B.D. sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and after- 
wards Minister of Battersea, in Surrey (1641), a frequent preacher 
before the Long Parliament: the date of whose death and place of 
burial are not stated. He had an assignment of 750 acres of land in 
the county Westmeath ; and Robert, who married a Surrey lady in 
1693-4, was not improbably his grandson. The name of Temple has 
been twice assumed by his heirs in the female line. The pedigree is 
as follows: 
Dorothea.lst wife, sisterto William Cock, =pRobert Temple, of=pCatharine, 2nd wife. 



of Letherhead, co. Surrey, widow of 
Needham; mar. March 11, 1693-4. 



Mr. 



Mount Temple, co. 
Westmeath, Esq. 



sister to John Jeph- 
son, Esq, 



Two chil- Gustavus Handcock, of Waterstown, co.= 
dren, who Meath, Esq. M.P. for Athlone ; died at Bath, 
died young. 5 Sept. 1751, or 25 Oct. 1754, 



=EIizabeth, only dau. and 
heir, bapt. Aug. 29, 
1701 ; mar. July 1725. 



Robert Handcock,^Elizabeth, eldest dau.= 


=Edmond Sexten 


1 
Catharine, 


of Waterstown, 


of Sir John Vesev, Lord 


Pery, created Vis- 


only dau. ; 


Esq. ; born 15 


Knapton ; mar. 4 July, 


count Pery, 1786; 


died April 


April, 1728. 


1751. 


2nd husband. 


2, 1746. 



Gustavus Handcock, of Waterstown, Esq.; born in^Mary, eldest dau. of William 
Sackville Street, Dublin, 9 June, 1754 ; assumed the [ Henry Moore, of Drumbana- 
name of Temple. gher. 



r- 

Robert-] 


=Louisa, 


Ed- 


T ■ ■ 
Gertrude, wife 


1 
Henry. 


Charles, 


Gus- 


■ T 
Vesey. 


Louisa, 


Hand- 


dau. of 


mond, 


of AVilliam 




in East 


tavus 




wife of 


cock 


William 


of 


James 




India 






John 


Tem- 


Steame 


the 


Alexander, 




Com- 






Lush- 


ple, 


Tighe, 


Na^7 


son and heir 




pany's 






ington 


Esq. 


Esq, of 


Office. 


of Robert 




Service. 






Reilly, 


of 


South 




Alexander, 










of 


Wa- 


Hill, CO. 




of Sea- 










Scar. 


ters- 


West- 




mount, 










vagh, 


town. 


meath. 

1 




CO. Dublin. 










CO. 
nnwr. 


] 


L w. Eliza Serena 


Anne=pWilliam 


George 


2nd=f 2 w 


Isabella Helena, 




Dick. 


1 Lord Harris 

r 


1 

1 


only 


child. 





George Francis Hon. Robert Temple Harris, born 1830, took 
Robert now Lord the surname and arms of Temple only by 
Harris, Royal Licence 1S52. 



410 



TEMPLE, LORD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. 



LORD PALMERSTON'S MATERNAL ANCESTRY. 



The family of Mee or Mey is of considerable antiquity in Hereford- 
shire and Gloucestershire. John Mey was Mayor of Hereford a.d. 1406. 
Members of the same family were Mayors temp. Edw. IV. and Hen. VH. 
Richard Mey was Vicar of Hempsted, co. Glouc. 1428, appointed by 
the Canons of Lanthony Priory. The following Pedigree has been 
furnished by the Rev. Samuel Lysons, M.A., F.S A. : 

Thomas Mee described as citi-=pElizabeth, dau. of Thomas 



zen of London, born 1636, set- 
tled in Gloucester. Marriage 
settlement dated 15 Chas. II. 
23Aug. 1663, ob. ITll.cet. 75. 



Pierce, of Gloucester,mayor 
of that city in 1661. She 
was born 1610; died 1721, 
ffit. 81. 



Thomas Mee, 
born 1664, 
ob. 1722. 



Samuel Mee, born Oct. 7, 1668,^Anne, dau. of Thomas Trye,' 



ob. Aug. 3, 1749, at. 81, High 
Sheriff of county of Gloucester 
1731, 



I 1 

Mary, b. 1704, 

d. 1705 
Anna,mar. J. 

Viney, Esq. 



Esq., of Hardwicke Court, co. 
Glouc; born 1668, ob. 1706; 
mar. at Hempsted, co. Glouc. 



Thomas^l. Anne, dau. of ... Savage, Esq. Eliza — pDaniel Ly- 



Mee, b. 
1700,d. 
1757. 



by whom three children, Eliza- 
beth, Anne, and Samuel, died 
young. 
2. Barbara, dau. of ... Nest, Esq. 



beth 
Mee, 
born 

1702. 



sons, Esq. 
of Hemp- 
sted Court, 
CO. Glouc. 



I 1 

Mary, Samuel 
born Benjamin, 
1739. born 1740. 



Benjamin - 
ThomasMee, 
Esq.b.l742. 



dau. 
of. . 



1 

Thomas, 

born 

1743.2 



Anne. Daniel Lysons, Rev. 

Esq . LL.D. ob. Samuel 
s.p. 1802. Lysons. 

, I 



Mary Mee, =pHenry, 2nd 



mar. Jan. 3, 
1783, died 

1805. 



Viscount 
Palmers- 
ton. 



Henry John, 
3rd Viscount 
Palmerston, 
died 1865. 



Elizabeth, 
m.Rt.Hon. 
Lawrence 
Sulivan. 



Rev. Daniel Lysons, of Hemp- 
sted Court, Rector of Rodmarton, 
and joint author with his brother 
of many archaeological works. 



Rev. Samuel Lysons, M. A. 
F.S. A. of Hempsted 
Court, and Rector of Rod- 
marton, Gloucestershire. 



SamuelLysons,Esq. 
F.R.S. F.S.A. 
Keeper of H.M. Re- 
cords, ob. 1819, s.p. 
■-1 



Colonel Daniel Ly- 
sons, C.B., D. Quar- 
ter-Master-Gene- 
ral, Canada. 



Rev. Henry Sulivan (see p. 403). 

Arms of Mee : Gules, a chevron ermine between three goat's heads 
erased argent, horned or. 

' The Tryes, a most ancient and honourable family of Trie in Normandy, connected 
with the royal family of France. Among them were the Comtes de Dammartin, 
several Grand Admirals and Grand Constables of France, an Archbishop, Due de 
Eheims, &c. 

2 The children of Thomas Mee and Anne Savage were baptized at St. Mary de 
Lode, Gloucester. Thomas Mee was Mayor of Gloucester in 1793 and 1804. His 
sister Anne was married to the Rev. Richard Raikes. 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

{Continued from p. QQ?) 

NA31ES OF ALL THE RELIGIOUS OF THE CHOIR AT PONTOISE 

(except the Abbesses already mentioned). 

The initial M. in this catalogue signifies Mary, an additional con- 
ventual name assumed in honour of the B. Virgin. The appellation 
Lady is applied to the Abbess, and Mother to the Piioress. Dame is 
the title of all Choii* Xims, in distinction to the Lay Sisters. 

The Pedigrees which are appended (in pp. 417 et seq.) will be found 
to explain the relationship of many of the ladies. 
Dames — 

Lucy Perkins, from Northamptonshire : hermother, N. Icomme, 
died 1662, aged 57. 

j\Iargaret Markham, daughter of George Markham, of Ollerton, 
Notts, and Judith Withernwick Fitzwilliams, heiress of Claxby, 
&c. died 25 July, 1717, aged 104. 

Clara Vaughan, daughter of Richard Vaughan, of Courtfield, 
in Monmouthshire, and Bridget, daughter of John WIgmore, 
esq. of Luchton, died 1687, aged 49. 

Gertrude Turner, daughter of Thomas Turner, esq. of Little 
Audley End, in Essex, and Alice, sister to Lady Abbess Wigmore. 
She died 1691, aged 59. 

Mary Jane Butler, daughter of Toby Butler, of Collin, in 
Ireland, esq. nearly related to Duke of Ormond. Her mother was 
Anne Audley, who was co-heiress to an estate in Essex, Dame 
Butler afterAvards became Abbess of Ypres, and died 1723. 

M. Frances Elliot, daughter of John Elliot, of Bellos, in Essex, 
and Catherine, daughter of John Scrimshaw, esq. of Norbury, 
in StaflPordshire (this lady was nurse to James II.); died 1698, 
aged 66. 

Helen Hammerton, daughter of Philip Hammerton, of Monk- 
roode, in Yorkshire, esq. and Dorothy daughter of . . . Young, esq. 
of Burn, in Yorkshire, near Selby; died 1707, aged 68. 

Anna Catharine Bruning, sister to Dame Mary; died 1668, 
aged 27. 



412 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

Mary Bruning, daughter of Anthony Bruning, esq. of Whnmer- 
ing, Hants, and Mary Hyde, of Pangbourn, Berks; died 1709, 
aged 72. 

Mary Eoper, daughter of Edmund Roper, esq. of HartclifFe, 
Kent, and Anne, daughter of Henry Noble, who was coheir to an 
estate in Essex. She died 1690, aged 48. 

Placida Roper, sister to Dame Mary; died 1709, aged 65. 

Catherine Roper, sister to Dames Mary and Placida, and co- 
heir with them to their father's property; died 1700, aged 51. 

Justina Timperley, daughter of Michael Timperley, esq. of 
Hintlesham, Norfolk, and Frances, daughter of Sir Henry 
Bedingfeld, Bart.; died 1684, aged 43. 

Aloysia Elliot, sister to Dame M. Frances; died 1722, aged 82. 

Benedict Hammerton, sister to Dame Helen; died 1679, 
aged 45. 

Anna Maria Talbot, daughter of John Talbot, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, and Frances, daughter of Lord Arundell of Wardour; died 
1692, aged 51. 

Dorothy Calvert, daughter of John Calvert, esq. of Lincoln- 
shire; died 1665, aged 25. 

Angela Riddell, daughter of Sir Thomas Riddell, of Fenham, in 
Northumberland, and Barbara, daughter of Sir Alexander Davi- 
son, of Newcastle; died 1709, aged 65. 

Mary Teresa Swift, daughter of Mr. Henry Swift, of Mag- 
borough, Devon, and Margaret Lismore; died 1720, aged 85. 

Barbara Philpott, daughter of George Philpott, esq. of Comp- 
ton, Hants, and Winifred, daughter of Gilbert Welles, esq. of 
Brambridge, Hants; died 1696, aged 56. 

M. Winifred Philpott, sister to Dame Barbara; died 1737, 
aged 88. 

Mechtilda Smith, daughter of Edward Smith, esq. of Ash, near 
Durham, and Margaret Boulemore; died 1708, aged 64. 

Alexia Smith, sister to Dame Mechtilda; died 1666, aged 19. 

Xaveria CoUens, daughter of John Collens, of Diricksteed, 
Kent, and Mary, daughter of Sir N. Best, of Maidstone, in Kent ; 
died 1668, aged 22. 

Scholastica Bruning, daughter of Edmund Bruning, of Wira- 
mering, esq. and of Anne, daughter of Henry Winchcombe, esq. of 
Bucklebury, Berks; ^lied 1713, aged 65. 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 413 

Mary Gertrude Cone, daughter of j\Ir. Francis Cone, and Susan, 
daughter of Thomas Wiseman, of Canfield Hall, Essex; died 
1686, aged 43. 

M. Ignatius CJiampion, daughter of Thomas Champion, of 
Champion Court, Bucks, esq. and of Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. 
George Paterson; died 1717, aged 78. 

Anna Catherine Thorold, daughter of Sir Robert Thorold, 
Bart, of the Haugh, Lincolnshire, and Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Henry Knollys, of Grove Park, Hants; died 1707, aged 54. 

M. Magdalen Warren, daughter of Arthur Warren, esq. of 
Thorpe Ernold, Leicestershire, and Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Eowland Rugley, of Dunton, Warwickshire; died 1683, aged 36. 

Victoria Longueville, youngest daughter of Sir Edw. Longue- 
ville, of Wolverton, Bart., and of ]\Iargaret, daughter of Sir 
Richard Temple, of Stow, co. Bucks, Bart.; she died 1674, aged 
26. 

Eugenia Greene, daughter of Sir Edward Greene, Bart, of 
Sandford Hall, Essex, and of Anne, daughter of Sir George 
Simmons, of , Oxfordshire; died 1709, aged 73. 

M. Christina Whyte, daughter of Sir Andrew Whyte, Bart., 
naturalised in France, and afterwards made Comte d'Albie by 
Louis 14 (because AYliyte was too difficult a name for the French), 
and Anastasia, daughter of Sir James Walsh, Bart, of county 
Waterford. Dame Christina died at the convent at Ipres in 
1683, aged 29. 

Anne Neville, daughter of Henry Neville, esq. of Holt, in 
Leicestershire, and Ursula, daughter of William Clopton, of 
Clopton, in Warwickshire, esq. (See the account of her journey 
to Ireland with M. Markham in a future page.) She died at 
Milford Haven, 25 September, 1687, aged 30. 

Alexia Weston, daughter of John Weston, esq. of Sutton 
Court, Surrey, and Mary, daughter of William Copley, esq. of 
Burnthall, Surrey; died 1674, aged 18. 

Mary Brooke, daughter of John Brooke, of Madeley, in 
Shropshire, esq. and Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Guildford, 
esq. of Hempsted, Kent; died 1714, aged 57. 

Maura Gilford, sister to Lady Abbess GifFord; died 1691, 
aged 33. 



414 THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 

Ursula Hammerton, sister to Dame Dorothy ; died 1691, aged 31. 

Dorothy Hammerton, daughter of John Hammerton, esq. of 
Piirston, Yorkshire, and Dorothy, daughter of Mr. Richard Lock- 
wood, of Soersbie (Sowerby) in Yorkshire; died 1705, aged 49. 

M. Susan Fletcher, daughter of Mr. Richard Fletcher and Mrs. 
Mary Furs, of Ashford, Kent; died 1689, aged 40. She died at 
the new establishment in Dublin, for which see a future page. 

M. Lawrence Lawson, daughter of Sir John Lawson, of 
Brough, Bart, and Catherine, daughter of Sir William Howard, 
of Na worth, in Northumberland; died 1728, aged 71. 

M. Stanislaus Culcheth, daughter of Thomas Culcheth, esq. of 
Culcheth, and Anne, daughter of James Bradshaw, of Haigh, 
esq. in Lancashire; died 1704, aged 48. 

Francisca Culcheth, sister to the above; died 1717, aged 59. 

M. Catherine Tichborne, daughter of Henry Kemp, esq. of the 
house of Slindon, in Sussex, and of Mrs. Anne Coope. Dame 
M. Catherine was widow of Michael Tichborne, of Sheffield, 
Hants. She died 1689, aged 69. 

M. Carola Selby, daughter of Sir George Selby, of Whitehouse 
in the North, and of Mary, daughter of Lord Viscount Molyneux ; 
died 1721, aged 60. 

Mary Anne Tichborne,^ daughter of Sir Henry Tichborne, 
Bart, and Mary, daughter of William Arundell, esq. of Wardour; 
died 1734, aged 73. 

Augustine Bruning, sister to Dame Scholastica; died 1741, 
aged 80. 

Constantia Heneage, daughter of George Heneage, esq. of 
Hainton, Lincolnshire, and of Faith, daughter of Sir Philip 
Tirwhitt, of Stainfield, Bart.; died 1717, aged 59. 

Mary Petre, daughter of John Petre, esq. of Fithelres, in 
Essex, and of Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Mannock, of Gif- 
ford's Hall, Suffolk; died 1733, aged 70. 

Justina Greene, daughter of Sir Edward Greene, of Sandford 
Hall, Essex, and Catharine,^ daughter of Mr. Pegg, of Bradley, in 
Shropshire. She died 1717, aged 50. 

' Some interesting particulars of tliis Lady will be found in a subsequent page. 
^ Katharine Pegge, the wife of Sir Edward Greene, was the daughter of Thomas 
Pegge of Yeldersley, co. Derby, and Katharine his wife, eldest daughter of Sir Gilbert 



THE ENGLISH LADIES OF PONTOISE. 415 

Aune Bodenham, daughter of Thomas Bodenhara, esq. of 
Eotherwas, and Catherine, daughter of Edward Guildford, esq. of 
Hempsted, Kent. She died 1717, aged 51. 

Henrietta Pound, daughter of Henry Pound, esq. of Bernons, 
Hants, and Dorothy, daughter of Arthur Warren,