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COPTEIOEtT, 1901, 


U . S • A 


IN MY preface I have acknowledged in general terms the courtesy and liberality of authors and 
publishers, by whose permission I have used much of the matter quoted in this work. I think 
it now proper to make the acknowledgment more specific by naming those persons and publishing 
houses to whom I am in debt for such kind permissions. They are as follows : 


Evelyn Abbott, M. A.; President Charles Kendall Adams; Prof. Herbert B. Adams; Prof. Joseph H. Allen: 
Sir William Anson, Bart; Rev. Henry M. Baird; Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft; Hon. S. G. W. Benjamin; Sir Wal- 
ter Besant; Prof. Albert S. Bolles ; Joliu G. Bourinot, F. S. S.j Henry Bradley, IVL A. ; Rev. James Franek Bright, 
D. D. ; Daniel G. Brinton, M. D. ; Prof. William Hand Browne ; Prof. George Bryce ; Rt. Hon. James Brj'ce, M. P. ; 
Prot J. B. Bury ; Mr. Lucien Carr ; Gen. Henry B. Carrington ; Mr. John D. Champlin, Jr. : Mr Charles Carleton 
Coffin; Hon. Thomas M. Cooley; Prof. Henry Copp^e; Rev. Sir George W. Cox, Bart.; Gen. Jacob Dolson Cox; 
Mrs. Cox (for " Three Decades of Federal Legislation," by the late Hon. Samuel S. Cox) ; Prof. Thomas F. Crane ; 
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A list of books quoted from will be given in the final volume. 

I am greatly indebted to the remarkable kindness of a number of eminent historical scholars, 
who have critically examined the proof sheets of important articles and improved them by their 
suggestions. Jly debt to Miss Ellen M. Chandler, for assistance given me in many ways, is 
more than I can describe. 

In my publishing arrangements I have been most fortunate, and I owe the good fortune very 
largely to a number of friends, among whom it is just that I should name >Ir. Henry A. Richmond, 
Mr. George E. Matthews, and Mr. John G. Milburn. There is no feature of these arrangements so 
satisfactory to me as that which places the publication of my book in the hands of the Company of 
which Mr. Charles A. Nichols, of Springfield, JIassachusetts, is the head. 

I think myself fortunate, too, in the association of my work with that of Mr. Alan C. Reiley, 
from whose original studies and drawings the greater part of the historical maps in these volumes 
have been produced. 

J. N. Labnbd. 


Ethnographic map of Modem Europe Preceding the title-page. 

Map of American Discovery and Settlement, To follow page 53 

Plan of Athens, and Harbors of Athens, On page 153 

Plan of Athenian house, On page 169 

Four development maps of Austria To follow page 203 

Ethnographic map of Austria-Hungary On page 204 

Pour development maps of Asia !Minor and the Balkan Peninsula To follow page 249 

Map of the Balkan and Danubian States, showing changes during the present 

century, On page 251 

Map of Burgundy under Charles the Bold To folk w page 343 

Development map showing the diffusion of Christianity, To follow page 446 


Athenian and Greek history To follow page 151 

Austrian history, To follow page 205 


A. C. Ante Christum; used sometimes 
Instead of the more familiar abbreviation, B. C. 
— Before Christ. 

A. D. Anno Domini ; The Tear of Our Lord. 
See Era, Chbistiax. 

A. E. I. O. U. — "The famous device of Aus- 
tria, A. E. I. O. U., was first used by Frederic 
ILL [1440-1493], who adopted it on his plate, 
books, and buildings. These initials stand for 
'Austriae Est Imperare Orbl Universo'; or, in 
German, 'Alles Erdreich 1st Osterreich IJnter- 
than': a bold assumption for a man who was not 
safe in an inch of his dominions." — H. Hallam, 
J%e Middle Ages, v. 2, p. 89, foot-note. 

A. H. Anno Hejirae. See Era, Mahome- 

A. M. " Anno Mundi ;" the Year of the 
World, or the year from the begiiming of the 
world, according to the formerly accepted chro- 
nological reckoning of Archbishop Usher and 

A. U. C, OR U. C. "Ab urbe condita," 
from the founding of the city; or "Anno urbis 
Conditfe," the year from the founding of the 
city; the Year of Rome. SceRo>n3:B. C. 753. 

AACHEN. See Aix-la-Chapelle. 

AARAU, Peace of (1712). See Switzerland: 
A. D. 1G53-1789. 

ABJE, Oracle of. See Oracles of the 

ABBAS I. (called The Great), Shah of Per- 
sia; A. D. 1583-1627.... Abbas II., A. D. 
1641-1666. . . .Abbas III., A. D. 1732-1736. 

ABBASSIDES, The rise, decline and fall of 
the. See Mahometan Conquest, &c. : A. D. 
715-750; 763; and 815-945; also Bagdad: A. D. 


ABD-EL-KADER, The War of the 
French in Algiers with. See Barbart States: 
A. D. 1830-1840. 

ABDICATIONS. Alexander, Prince of 
Bulgaria. See Bulgakia: A. D. 1878-1886. 
. . . .Amadeo of Spain. See Spain: A. D. 

1866-1873 Charles IV. and Ferdinand VII. 

of Spain. See Spain: A. D. 1807-1808 

Charles V. Erapp.ror. See Ger.many: A. D. 

1552-1561, and Netherlands: A. D. 1555 

Charles X. King of France. See Fn.\NCE: 

A. D. 1815-1830 Charles Albert, King of 

Sardinia. See Italy: A. D. 1848-1849 

Christina, Regent of i^pain. See Spain : A. D. 

1833-1846 Christina, Queen of Sweden. 

See Scandinavian States (Sweden): A. D. 

1344-1697 Diocletian, Emperor. See Roue: 

A. D. 284-305. . . .Ferdinand, Emperor of Aus- 
tria. See Austria : A. D. 1848-1849 

Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland. See 

Is'etiierla.nd- ; A. D. ltiu6-181U Louis 

Philippe. See Fuance; A. D. 1841-1848 

Milan, King of Servia. See Servia : A. U. 

1882-1889 Napoleon I. See Fkanck: 

A. D. 1814 (Makch-April) and 1815 (June- 

August') Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil, 

and King of Portugal. See Portugal: 
A. D. 1824-1889, and Brazil : A. D. 1825-1865. 

Ptolemy I. of Egypt. See Macedonia, 

(fee: B. C. 297-280 Victor Emmanuel 1. 

See Italy: A. D. 1820-1821 William I., 

King of Holland. See Netherlands: A. D. 

ABDUL-AZIZ, Turkish Sultan, A. D. 

ABDUL-HAMID, Turkish Sultan, A. D. 
1774-1789 Abdul-Hamid II., 1876-. 

ABDUL-MEDJID, Turkish Sultan, A. D. 

ABELARD, PETER. See Education, 

ABENCERRAGES, The. See Spain: A. D. 
1238-1273, and 147&-1493. 

ABENSBURG, Battle of. See Germany; 

A. v. 1809 (J.VNUARY-JUNTS). 

AMERICA. See Canada (New France): A, 

England: A. D. 1851-1852, and 1855. 

ABIPONES, The. See American Aborigi- 
nes: Pampas Tribes. 

France: A. D. 1591-1593. 

ABNAKIS, The. See American Aborioi- 


ABO, Treaty of (1743). See Russia: A. D. 


Rise of. See Sla-v-ery, Negro: A. D. 1828- 
1833; and 1840-1847. 

CAN Aborigines. 

ABOUKIR, Naval Battle of (or Battle of 
the Nile). See Fr^vnce: A. D. 1798 (3Iay— 

August) Land-battle of (1799). See 

France: A. D. 1798-1799 (August— August). 

ABRAHAM, The Plains of. That part of 
the high plateau of Quebec on which the mem- 
orable victory of Wolfe was won, September 13, 
1759. The plain was so called "from Abraham 
Martin, a pilot knoirn as Maitre Abraham, who 
had owned a piece of land here in the early times 
of the colony."— F. Parkman, Montcalm ana 
Wolfe, V. 2, p. 289.— For an account of the battle 
which gave distinction to the Plains of Abraham, 
see Canada (New France): A. D. 1759, (June 

land, "the owners of about one-half the land do 
not live on or near their estates, while the owners 
of about one fourth do not live in the countrj-. 
. . . Absenteeism is an old evil, and in very 
early times received attention from the govern- 
ment. . . . Some of the disadvantages to the 
community arising from the absence of the more 
wealthy and intelligent classes are apparent tc 
every one. Unless the landlord is utterly pov- 
erty-stricken or very unenterprising, 'there is 




s groat deal more going on ' when he is in the 
country. ... I am convinced that absenteeism 
is a great disadvantage to the country and the 
people. ... It is too much to attribute to it all 
the evils that have been set down to its charge. 
It is, however, an important consideration that 
the people regard it as a grievance; and think 
the twenty-flve or thirty millions of dollars paid 
every year to these landlords, who are rarely or 
never m Ireland, is a tax grievous to be borne." 
— D. B. King, The Irish Questinn. pp. 5-11. 

American Aborigines: Siodak FAMfLT. 

ABU-BEKR, Caliph, A. D. 633-634 

ABU KLEA, Battle of (1885). See Egypt: 
A. D. 1884-1885. 

ABUL ABBAS, Caliph, A. D. 750-754. 

days of Frumentius [who introduced Christianity 
into Abyssinia in the 4th century] every ortho- 
dox Primate of Abyssinia has been consecrated 
by the Coptic Patriarch of the church of Alex- 
andria, and has borne the title of Abuna " — or 
Abuna Salama, "Father of Peace." — 11. M. 
Hozier, Tlie British Expedition to Ahjimnia, 

HENGE.— CARNAC— "The numerous cir- 
cles of stone or of earth in Britain and Ireland, 
varying in diameter from 30 or 40 feet up to 
1,200, are to be viewed as temples standing in 
the closest possible relation to the burial-places 
of the dead. The most imposing group of re- 
mains of this kind in this country [England] is 
that of Avebury [Abury], near Devizes, in 
Wiltshire, referred by Sir John Lubbock to a 
late stage in the Neolithic or to the beginning of 
the bronze period. It consists of a large circle 
of unworked upright stones 1,200 feet in diame- 
ter, surrounded by a fosse, which in turn is also 
surrounded by a rampart of earth. Inside are the 
remains of two concentric circles of stone, and 
from the two entrances in the rampart proceeded 
long avenues flanked by stones, one leading to 
Beckhampton, and the other to West Kcunett, 
where it formerly ended in another doi'blc circle. 
Between them rises Silbury Hill, the largest 
artificial mound in Great Britain, no less than 130 
feet in height. This group of remains was at 
one time second to none, ' but unfortunately for 
us [says Sir John Lubbock] the pretty little 
village of Avebury [Abury], like some beautiful 
parasite, has grown up at the expense and in the 
midst of the ancient temple, and out of 650 great 
stones, not above twenty are still standing. In 
spite of this it is still to be classed among the 
finest ruins in Europe. The famous temple of 
Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain is probably of a 
later date than Avebury, since not only are some 
of the stones used in its construction worked, but 
the surrounding barrows are more elaborate than 
those in the neighbourhood of the latter. It con- 
sisted of a circle 100 feet in diameter, of large 
upright blocks of sarsen stone, 12 feet 7 inches 
high, bearing imposts dovetailed into each other, 
so as to form a continuous architrave. Nine 
feet within this was a circle of small foreign 
stones . . . and within this five great trilithons 
of sarsen stone, forming a horse-shoe; then a 
horse-shoe of foreign stones, eight feet high, and 
in the centre a slab of micaceous sandstone called 
the altar-stone. ... At a distance of 100 feet 
from the outer line a small ramp, with a ditch 

outside, formed the outer circle, 300 feet in 
diameter, which cuts a low barrow and includes 
another, and therefore is evidently of later date 
than some of the barrows of the district." — W. B. 
Dawkins, Early Man in Britain, ch. 10. — "Stone- 
henge . . . may, I think, be regarded as a monu- 
ment of the Bronze Age, though apparently it 
was not all erected at one time, the inner circle of 
small, uuwrouglit, blue stones being probably 
older the rest; as regards Abury, since the 
stones are all in their natural condition, while 
those of Stonehenge are roughly hewn, it seems 
reasonable to conclude that Abury is the older 
of the two, and belongs either to the close of the 
Stone Age, or to the commencement of that of 
Bronze. Both Abury and Stonehenge were, I 
believe, used as temples. JIany of the stone 
circles, however, have been proved to be burial 
places. In fact, a complete burial place may be 
described as a dolmen, covered by a tumulus, 
and surrounded by a stone circle. Often, how- 
ever, we have only the tumulus, sometimes only 
the dolmen, and sometimes again only the stone 
circle. The celebrated monument of Camac, in 
Brittany, consists of eleven rows of unhewn 
stones, which differ greatly both in size and 
height, the largest being 22 feet above ground, 
while some are quite small. It appears that the 
avenues originally extended for several miles, but 
at present they are very imperfect, the stones hav- 
ing been cleared away in places for agricultural 
improvements. At present, therefore, there are 
several detached portions, which, however, have 
the same general direction, and appear to have 
been connected together. . . . Most of the great 
tumuli in Brittany probably belong to the Stone 
Age, and I am therefore disposed to regard Car- 
nac as having been erected during the same 
period." — Sir J. Lubbock, Prehistoric Times, 
ch. 5. 

ABYDOS. — An ancient city on the Asiatic 
side of the Hellespont, mentioned in the Iliad as 
one of the towns that were in alliance with the 
Trojans. Originally Thracian, as is supposed, it 
became a colony of Miletus, and passed at 
different times under Persian, Athenian, Lace- 
daemonian and Macedonian rule. Its site was at 
the narrowest point of the Hellespont — the scene 
of the ancient romantic story of Hero and 
Leander — nearly opposite to the town of Sestus. 
It was in the near neighborhood of Abydos that 
Xerxes built his bridge of boats; at Abydos, 
Alcibiades and the Athenians won an important 
victory over the Peloponnesians. See Greece: 
B.C. 480, and 411-407. 

ABYDOS, Tablet of.— One of the most valu- 
able records of Egyptian history, found in the 
ruins of Abydos and now preserved in the 
British jMuseum. It gives a list of kings whom 
Kamscs II. selected from among his ancestors to 
pay homage to. The tablet was much mutilated 
when found, but another copy more perfect has 
been unearthed by M. JIariette, which supplies 
nearly all the names lacking on the first. — F. 
Lenormant, Manual of Ancient Hist, of the East, 
t). 1, bk. 3. 

ABYSSINIA : Embraced in ancient Ethio- 
pia. See Ethiopia. 

Fourth Century. — Conversion to Christi- 
anity. — "Whatever may have been the effect 
produced in his native country by the conver- 
sion of Queen Candace's treasurer, recorded in 
the Acts of the Apostles [ch. VIII.], it would 



appear to have been transitory ; and the Ethio- 
pian or Abyssinian church owes its origin to an 
expedition made early in the fourth century by 
Meropius, a philosopher of Tyre, for the pur- 
pose of scientific inquiry. On his voyage home- 
wards, he and his companions were attacked at 
a place where they had landed in search of 
water, and all were massacred except two 
youths, .^idesius and Frumcntius, the relatives 
and pupils of Meropius. These were carried to 
the king of the country, wlio advanced .iEdcsius 
to be his cup-bearer, and Frumentius to be his 
secretary and treasurer. On the death of the 
king, who left a boy as his heir, the two 
strangers, at the request of the widowed queen, 
acted as regents of the kingdom until the prince 
came of age. ^desius then returned to Tjtc, 
where he became a prcsb}'ter. Frumentius, 
who, with the help of such Christian traders as 
visited the country, had already introduced the 
Christian doctrine and worship into Abyssinia, 
repaired to Alexandria, related his story to 
Athanasius, and . . . Athanasius . . . con- 
secrated him to the bisboprick of Axum [the 
capital of the Abyssinaiii kingdom]. The cliurch 
thus founded continues to this day subject to the 
see of Alexandria." — J. C. Robertson, Hist, of the 
Christian Church, Ik. 2, ch. 6. 

6th to i6th Centuries. — Wars in Arabia. — 
Struggle with the Mahometans. — Isolation 
from the Christian world. — "The fate of tlie 
Christian church among tlie Ilomcrites in Arabia 
Felix afforded an opportunity for the Abyssin- 
ians, under the reigns of the Emperors Justin 
and Justinian, to show their zeal in behalf of the 
cause of the Christians. The prince of that 
Arabian population, Dunaan, or Dsunovas, was 
a zealous adherent of Judaism ; and, under pre- 
text of avenging the oppressions wliich his 
fellow-believers were obliged to suffer in the 
Roman empire, he caused the Christian mer- 
chants who came from that quarter and visited 
Arabia for the purposes of trade, or passed 
through the country to Abyssinia, to be mur- 
dered. Elesbaan, the Christian king of Abys- 
sinia, made this a cause for declaring war on the 
Arabian prince. He conquered Dsunovas, de- 
prived him of the government, and set up a 
Christian, by the name of Abraham, as king in 
his stead. But at the death of the latter, which 
happened soon after, Dsunovas again made him- 
self master of the throne; and it was a natural 
consequence of what he had suffered, tliat lie 
now became a fiercer and more cruel persecutor 
than he was before. . . . Upon this, Elesbaan 
interfered once more, under tlie reign of tlie 
emperor Justinian, who stimulated him to the 
undertaking. He made a second expedition 
to Arabia Felix, and was again victorious. 
Dsunovas lost his life in the war; the Abys- 
sinian prince put an end to the ancient, in- 
dependent empire of the Homerites, and estab- 
lished a new government favourable to the 
Christians." — A. Neander, General History of the 
Christian Seligion and Church, second period, 
teet. 1. — "In the year 592, as nearly as can be 
calculated from the dates given by the native 
writers, the Persians, whose power seems to 
have kept pace with the decline of the Roman 
empire, sent a great force against the Abyssin- 
lans, possessed themselves once more of Arabia, 
acquired a naval superiority in the gulf, and 
secured the principal ports on either side of it. 

It is uncertain how long these conquerors re- 
tained their acquisition; but, in all probability 
their ascendancy gave way to the rising great- 
ness of the Mahometan power; which soon 
afterwards overwhelmed all the nations con- 
tiguous to Arabia, spread to the remotest parts 
of tlie East, and even penetrated the African 
deserts from Egypt to the Congo. Meanwhile 
Abyssinia, though within two hundred miles of 
tlie walls of Mecca, remained unconquered and 
true to the Christian faith; presenting a mor- 
tifying and galling object to the more zealous 
followers of the Prophet. On this account, 
implacable and incessant wars ravaged her terri- 
tories. . . . She lost her commerce, saw her conse- 
quence annihilated, her capital threatened, and the 
richest of her provinces laid waste. . . . There 
is reason to apprehend tliat she must shortly 
have sunk under the pressure of repeated in- 
vasions, had not the Portuguese arrived [in the 
IGth century] at a seasonable moment to aid 
her endeavours against the Moslem chiefs." — M. 
Russell, Knhia and Abyssinia, ch. 3. — "When 
Kubia, which intervenes between Egypt and 
Aljyssinia, ceased to be a Christian country, 
owing to the destruction of Its church by the 
JIahometans, the Abyssinian church was cut off 
from communication with the rest of Christen- 
dom. . . . They [the Abyssinians] remain an 
almost unique specimen of a semi-barbarous 
Cliristian people. Their worship is strangely 
mixed witli Jewish customs. " — H. F. Tozer, The 
Church and the Eastern Empire, ch. 5. 

Fifteenth-Nineteenth Centuries. — European 
Attempts at Intercourse. — Intrusion of the 
Gallas. — Intestine conflicts. — "About the raid- 
die of the 15th century, Abyssinia came in con- 
tact with Western Europe. An Abyssinian eon- 
vent was endowed at Rome, and legates were 
sent from the Abyssinian convent at Jerusalem 
to the council of Florence. These adhered to 
the Greek schism. But from that time the 
Church of Rome made an impress upon Ethiopia. 
. . . Prince Henry of Portugal . . . next opened 
up communication with Europe. He hoped to 
open up a route from the West to the East coast 
of Africa [see Portugal: A. D. 1415-1460], 
by which the East Indies might be reached with- 
out touching ]\Iahometan territory. During his 
efforts to discover such a passage to India, and 
to destroy the revenues derived by the Moors 
from the spice trade, he sent an ambassador 
named Covillan to the Court of Slioa. Covillan 
was not suffered to return by Alexander, the 
then Negoos [or Negus, or Nagash — the title of 
the Abyssinian sovereign]. He married nobly, 
and acquired rich possessions in the country. He 
kept up correspondence with Portugal, and urged 
Prince Henr}' to diligently continue his efforts to 
discover the Southern passage to the East. In 
1498 the Portuguese effected the circuit of Africa. 
The Turks shortly afterwards extended their con- 
quests towards India, where they were baulked by 
the Portuguese, but they established a post and a 
toll at Zeyla, on the African coast. From here 
they hampered and threatened to destroy the 
trade of Abyssinia," and soon, in alliance with 
the Mahometan tribes of the coast, invaded the 
country. " They were defeated by the Negoos 
David, and at the same time the Turkish town of 
Zeyla was stormed and burned by a Portuguese 
fleet." Considerable intimacy of friendly rela- 
tions was maintained for some time between the 



ABYSSINIA, 1854-1889. 

Abyssinians and the Portuguese, who assisted in 
defending them against the Turlis. "In the 
middle of the 16tli century ... a migration of 
Gnllas came from the Siuthand swept up to and 
over tlie confines of Abyssinia. Men of lighter 
complexion and fairer slsin than most Africans, 
tliey were Pagan in religion and savages in cus- 
toms. Notwithstanding frequent efforts to dis- 
lodge them, they have firmly established them- 
selves. A large colony has planted itself on the 
banks of the Upper Taklcazie, the Jidda and the 
Bashilo. Since their establishment here they 
have for the most part embraced the creed of 
Maliomet. The province of Shoa is but an out- 
lier of Christian Abyssinia, separated completely 
from coreligionist districts by these Galla 
bands. About the same time the Turks took a 
firm hold of Massowah and of the lowland by 
the coast, which had hitherto been ruled by the 
Abyssinian Bahar Nagash. Islaraism and heath- 
enism surrounded Abj'ssinia, where the lamp of 
Christianity faintlj' glimmered amidst dark 
superstition in tlie deep recesses of rugged val- 
leys." In 1558 a Jesuit mission arrived in the 
country and established itself at Fremona. ' ' For 
nearly a century Fremona existed, and its super- 
iors were the trusted advisors of the Ethiopian 
throne. . . . But the same fate which fell upon 
the company of Jesus in more civilized lands, 
pursued it in the wilds of Africa. The Jesuit 
missionaries were universally popular with the 
Negoos, but the prejudice of the people refused 
to recognise the benefits which flowed from Fre- 
mona." Persecution befell the fathers, and two 
of them won the crown of martyrdom. The 
Negoos, Facilidas, "sent for a Coptic Abuna 
[ecclesiastical primate] from Alexandria, and con- 
cluded a treaty with the Turkish governors of 
Massowah and Souakin to prevent the passage of 
Europeans into his dominions. Some Capuchin 
preachers, who attempted to evade this treaty 
and enter Abyssinia, met with cruel deaths. 
Facilidas thus completed the work of the Turks 
and the Gallas, and shut Abyssinia out from 
European influence and civilization. . . . After 
the expulsion of the Jesuits, Abyssinia was torn 
by internal feuds and constantly harassed by the 
encroachments of and wars with the Gallas. 
Anarchy and confusion ruled supreme. Towns 
and villages were burnt down, and the inhabi- 
tants sold into slavery. . . . Towards the middle 
of the 18th century the Gallas appear to have 
increased considerably in power. In the intes- 
tine quarrels of Abyssinia their alliance was 
courted by each side, and in their country politi- 
cal refugees obtained a secure asylum." During 
the early years of the present century, the cam- 
paigns in Egypt attracted English attention to 
the Red Sea. "In 1804 Lord Valentia, the 
Viceroy of India, sent his Secretary, Mr. Salt, 
into Abyssinia;" but Mr. Salt was unable to 
penetrate beyond Tigre. In 1810 he attempted 
a second mission and again failed. It was not 
until 1848 that English attempts to open diplo- 
'matic and commercial relations with Abyssinia 
became successful. Mr. Plowden was appointed 
consular agent, and negotiated a treaty of com 
merce with Ras Ali, the ruling Galla chief." — 
H. M. Hozier, The British Expedition to Abya- 
Hnia, Introd. 

A. D. 1 854-1889. — Advent of King Theodore. 
— His English captives and the Expedition 
which released them.— " Consul Plowden had 

been residing six years at Massowah when he 
heard that the Prince to whom he had been ac- 
credited, Ras Ali, had been defeated and de- 
throned by an adventurer, whose name, a few 
years before, had been unknown outside the 
boundaries of his native province. This was 
Lij Kasa, better known by his adopted name of 
Theodore. He was born of an old family, in 
the mountainous region of Kwara, where the 
land begins to slope downwards towards the 
Blue Nile, and educated in a convent, where he 
learned to read, and acquired a considerable knowl- 
edge of the Scriptures. Kfisa's convent life was 
suddenly put an end to, when one of those ma- 
rauding Galla bands, whose ravages are the 
curse of Abyssinia, attacked and plundered the 
monastery. From that time he himself took to 
the life of a freebooter. . . . Adventurers flocked 
to his stiindard ; his power continually increased ; 
and in 1854 he defeated Ras Ali in a pitched bat- 
tle, and made himself master of central Abys- 
sinia." In 1855 he overthrew the ruler of Tigre. 
"He now resolved to assume a title commen- 
surate with the wide extent of his dominion. In 
the church of Derezgye he had himself crowned 
by the Abuna as King of the Kings of Ethiopia, 
taking the name of Theodore, because an ancient 
tradition declared that a great monarch would 
some day arise in Abyssinia. " Mr. Plowden now 
visited the new monarch, was impressed with 
admiration of his talents and character, and be- 
came his counsellor and friend. But in 1860 the 
English consul lost his life, while on a journey, 
and Theodore, embittered by several mis- 
fortunes, began to give rein to a savage temper. 
"The British Government, on hearing of the 
death of Plowden, immediately replaced him at 
Massowah by the appointment of Captain Cam- 
eron." The new Consul was well received, and 
was entrusted by the Abyssinian King with a 
letter addressed to the Queen of England, solicit- 
ing her friendsliip. The letter, duly despatched 
to its destination, was pigeon-holed in the Foreign 
Office at London, and no reply to it was ever 
made. Insulted and enraged by this treatment, 
and by other evidences of the indifference of the 
British Government to his overtures, King Theo- 
dore, in January, 1804, seized and imprisoned 
Consul Cameron with all Ids suite. About 
the same time he was still further offended by 
certain passages in a book on Abyssinia that had 
been published by a missionary named Stem. 
S^m and a fellow missionary, Rosenthal with 
the lutter's wife, were lodged in prison, and sub- 
jected to flogging and torture. The first st«p 
taken by the British Government, when news of 
Consul Cameron's imprisonment reached Eng- 
land, was to send out a regular mission to Abys- 
sinia, bearing a letter signed by the Queen, de- 
manding the release of the Captives. The mission, 
headed by a Syrian named Rassam, made its way 
to the King's presence in January, 1866. Theo- 
dore seemed to be placated by the Queen's epistle 
and promised freedom to his prisoners. But soon 
his moody mind became filled with suspicions a.s 
to the genuineness of Rassam's credentials from 
the Queen, and as to the designs and intentions of 
all the foreigners who were in his power. He was 
drinking heavily at the time, and the result of 
his "drunken cogitations was a determination to 
detain the mission — at any rate until by their 
means he should have obtained a supply of skilled 
artisans and machinery from England." Mr. 

ABYSSINIA, 1854-1889. 


Rassam and his companions were accordingly 
put into confinement, as Captain Cameron had 
been. But they were allowed to send a mes- 
senger to England, making their situation known, 
ami conveying the demand of King Theodore 
that a man be sent to Iiim "who can make can- 
nons and muskets." The demand was actually 
complied with. Six skilled artisans and a civil 
engineer were sent out, together with a quantity 
of macbiner}' and other presents, in the hope that 
they would procure the release of the unfortunate 
captives at Magdala. Almost a year was wasted 
in these futile proceedings, and it was not until 
September, 1867, that an e.\pedition consisting of 
4,000 British and 8,000 native troops, under Gen- 
eral Sir Robert Xapier. was sent from India to 
bring the insensate barbarian to terms. It landed 
in Annesley Bay, and, overcoming enormous 
difficulties with regard to water, food-supplies 
and transportation, was ready, about the middle 
of January, 1868, to start upon its march to the 
fortress of llagdala, where Theodore's prisoners 
were confined. The distance was 400 miles, and 
several high ranges of mountains had to be passed 
to reach the interior table-land. The invading 
army met with no resistance until it reached the 
Valley of the Beshilo, when it was attacked 
(April 10) on the plain of Aroge or Arogi, by 
the whole force which Theodore was able to 
muster, numbering a few thousands, only, of 
poorly armed men. The battle was simply a 
rapid slaughtering of the barbaric assailants, and 
when they fled, leaving 700 or 800 dead and 1,.')00 
wounded on the field, the Abyssinian King had 
no power of resistance left. He offered at once 
to make peace, surrendering all the captives iu 
his hands; but Sir Robert Napier required an 
imconditional submission, with a view to displac- 
ing him from the throne, in accordance with 
t!ie wish and expectation which he had found to 
be general in the country. Theodore refused 
these terms, and when (.\pril 13) Magdala was 
bombarded and stormed by the British troops — 
slight resistance being made — he shot himself at 
the moment of their entrance to the place. The 
sovereignty he had successfully concentrated in 
himself for a time was again divided. Between 
April and June the English armj' was entirely 
withdrawn, and " Abyssinia w!is sealed up again 
from intercourse with the outer world." — Cas- 
sell's Illustrated Hist, of Eng., v. 9, ch. 28. — "The 
task of permanently uniting Abyssinia, in which 
Theodore failed, proved equally impracticable to 
John, who came to the front, in the first instance, 
as an ally of the British, and afterwards suc- 
ceeded to the sovereignty. By his fall (10th 
March, 1889) in the unhappy war against the 
Dervishes or Moslem zealots of the Soudan, the 
path was cleared for Menilek of Shoa, who en- 
joyed the support of Italy. The establishment 
of the Italians on the Red Sea littoral . . . 
promises a new era for Abyssinia." — T. NOldeke, 
Sketches from, Eastern Hint., ch. 9. 

Also m H. A. Stem, The Captive Mimonary. 
1 — H. M. Stanley, Coomasnie and Magdala, pt. 2. 

ACABA, the Pledges of. See Mahometan 
Conquest: A. D. Go9-0:V.3. 

ACADEMY, The Athenian.— " The Aca- 
deniia. a public garden in the neighbourhood of 
Atlicns, was the favourite resort of Plato, and 
gave its name to tlie school which he founded. 
This garden was planted with lofty plane-trees. 

and adorned with temples and statues; a gentle 
stream rolled through it." — G. H. Lewes, Biog. 
Hint, of Philomjilty, (ith Ejioch. — Tlie masters of 
the great schools of philosopy at Athens "chose 
for their lectures and di.^icussious the public 
buildings which were called gymnasia, of which 
tliere were several in different quarters of the city. 
They could only use them by the sufferance of 
the State, which liad built tliem chiefly for 
bodily exercises and athletic feats. . . . Before 
long several of the schools drew themselves 
apart in special buildings, and even took their 
most familiar names, such as the Lyceum and 
the Academy, from the gymnasia in which they 
made themselves at home. Gradually we find 
the traces of some material provisions, which 
helped to define and to perpetuate the different 
sects. Plato had a little garden, close by the 
sacred Eleusiniaa Way, in the shady groves of 
the Academy. . . . Aristotle, as we Know, in 
later life had taught in the Lyceum, in the rich 
grounds near the Ilissus." — W. W. Capes, Uni- 
versity Life in Ancient AtTieM. pp. 31-33. — For 
a description of the Academy, Lyceum, etc. . see 
Gtmx.vsia, Greek. — On the suppression of the 
Academy, see Athens: A. D. .529. 

ACADEMY, The French. —Founded by 
Cardinal Richelieu, in 163.5, for the refining of 
the language and the literary taste of France. 
Its forty members are styled "the Immortals." 
Election to a seat among them is a high object 
of ambition among French writers. 

ACADIA. See Nov V Scotia. 

ACADIANS, The, and the British Govern- 
ment. — Their expulsion. See Nov.*. Scotia: 
A. D. 1713-1730. 1749-175.5, and 175.5. 

ACARNANIANS. See Akaun.4.niaxs. 

ACAWOIOS, The. See Americas Abori- 
gines : Caries and their Kindred. 

Primitive ; and Semites. 

ACCOLADE.— "The concluding sign of 
being dubbed or adopted into the order of 
knighthood was a slight blow given by the lord 
to the cavalier, and called tlie accolade, from the 
part of the body, the neck, whereon it was 
struck. . . . Many writers have imagined that 
the accolade was the last blow which the sol- 
dier might receive with impunity: but this in- 
terpretation is not correct, for the squire was as 
jealous of his honour as the knight. The origin 
of the accolade it is impossible to trace, but it 
was clearly considered symbolical of the religious 
and moral duties of knighthood, and was the 
only ceremony used when knights were made in 
places (the field of battle, for instance), where 
time and circumstances did not allow of many 
ceremonies." — C. Jlills, Hist, of Chivalry, v. 1, 
p. 53, and foot-note. 

ACHiEAN CITIES, League of the.— This, 
which is not to be confounded with the " Achaian 
League " of Peloponnesus, was an early League 
of the Greek settlements in southern Ita?y, or 
Magna Gneca. It was "composed of the towns 
of Siris, Pandosia, Metabus or Metapontura, 
Sybaris with its offsets Posidonia and Laus, 
Croton, Caulonia, Temesa, Terina and Pyxus. 
. . . Tlie language of Polybius regarding the 
Achaean symmachy in the Peloponnesus may bo 
applied also to these Italian Acha?ans: 'not only 
did they live in federal and friendly communion, 
but they made use of the same laws, and the 
same weights, measures and coins, as well as of 



the same magistrates, councillors and judges.'" 
— T. Mommsen, Iliiit. of lio/ne, bk. 1, ch. 10. 

ACHiEAN LEAGUE. See Greece: B. C. 

ACHiEMENIDS, The.— The family or dy- 
nastic name (in its Greeli form) of the kings of 
the Persian Empire founded by Cyrus, derived 
from an ancestor, Acha^menes, who was probably 
a cliief of the Persian tribe of the Pasargada;. 
"In the inscription of Behistun, King Darius 
says: 'From old time we were kings; eight of 
my family have been kings, I am the ninth; 
from very ancient times we have been kings.' 
He enumerates his ancestors: 'My father was 
Vistai^pa, the father of Vista(;pa was Arsama ; 
the father of Arsama was Ariyaramna, the father 
of Ariyaramna was Khaispis, the father of Khais- 
pis was Hakhamanis ; hence we are called Hak- 
hamanisiya(Ach!cmenids).' Inthesewords Darius 
gives the tree of his own family up to Khaispis ; 
this was the younger branch of the Achre- 
menids. Teisjies, the_ son of Achaemenes, had 
two sons ; the elder was Cambyses (Kambujiya) 
the younger Ariamnes ; tlie son of Cambyses was 
Cyrus (Kurus), the son of Cyrus was Cambyses 
II. Hence Darius could indeed maintain that 
eight princes of his family had preceded him; 
but It was not correct to maintain that they had 
been kings before him and that he was the ninth 
king." — M. Duncker, Uiiit. of Antiquity, v. 5, 
bk. 8, eh. 3. 

Also in G. Rawlinson, Faniihj of the AcIub- 
menida, app. to Ik. 7 of Herodotua. — See, also, 
Persia, Am ient. 

ACHAIA. — "Crossing the river Larissus, and 
pursuing the northern coast of Peloponnesus 
south of tlie Corinthian Gulf, the traveller would 
pass into Achaia — a name which designated the 
narrow strip of level land, and the projecting 
spurs and declivities between tliat gulf and the 
northernmost mountains of the peninsula. . . . 
Achaean cities — twelve in number at least, if not 
more — divided this long strip of land amongst 
them, from the mouth of the Larissus and the 
northwestern Cape Ara.wis on one side, to the 
western boundary of the Sikyon territory on the 
other. According to the accounts of the ancient 
legends and the belief of Herodotus, this terri- 
tory had been once occupied by Ionian inhabit- 
ants, whom the Achaeans had expelled." — G. 
Grote, Hist, of Greece, pt. 2, ch. 4 (i<. 2).— After 
the Roman conquest and the suppression of the 
Achaian League, the name Achaia was given to 
the Roman province then organized, which 
embraced all Greece south of JIacedonia and 
Epirus.— See Gueece: B. C. 280-1-10.— " In tlie 
Homeric poems, wliere . . . the ' Ilellcnos ' 
only appear in one district of Southern Tlicssaly, 
the name Achaians is employed by preference 
as a general appehition for the whole race. But 
the Acha;ans we majc term, without hesitation, 
a Pelasgian people, m so far, that is, as we use 
this name merely as the opposite of the term 
'Hellenes,' which prevailed at a later time, 
although it is true that the Hellenes themselves 
,were nothing more than a particular branch of 
the Pelasgian stock. . . . [The name of the] 
Achajans, after it had dropped its earlier and 
more universal application, was preserved as the 
special name of a population dwelling in the 
north of the Peloponnese and the south of 
Thessaly." — G. F. SchOmann, Antiq. of Greece: 
xThe State, Int. — "The ancients regarded them 

[the Achaeans] as a branch of the .lEoliana, with 
whom they afterwards reunited into one national 
bodj^, i. e., not as an originally distinct nationality 
or mdepcndent branch of the Greek people. 
Accordingly, we hear neither of an Acha;an lan- 
guage nor of Achaean art. A manifest and decided 
influence of the maritime Greeks, wherever the 
Acha'ans appear, is common to the latter with 
the yEolians. Acha?ans are everywhere settled 
on the coast, and are always regarded as par- 
ticularly near relations of the lonians. . . . The 
Achieans appear scattered about in localities on 
the coast of the ^gean so remote from one 
another, that it is impossible to consider all bear- 
ing this name as fragments of a people originally 
united in one social community; nor do they 
in fact anywhere appear, properly speaking, 
as a popular body, as the main stock of the 
population, but rather as eminent families, from 
which spring heroes; hence the use of the expres- 
sion ' Sons of the AchcTans ' to indicate noble de- 
scent." — E. Curtius, Hist, of Greece, bk. 1, ch. 3. IN M. Duncker, Hist, of Greece, bk. 1, ch. 
2, and bk. 2, ch. 2. — See, also, Achaia, and 
Greece: The JIiorations. 

A. D. 1205-1387. — Mediaeval Principality. 
— Among the conquests of the French and 
Lombard Crusaders in Greece, after the taking of 
Constantinople, was that of a major part of the 
Peloponnesus — then beginning to be called the 
Morea — by William de Champlitte, a French 
knight, assisted by Geffrey de Villehardouin, 
the younger — nephew and namesake of the 
JIarshal of Champagne, who was chronicler of 
the conquest of the Empire of the East. William 
de Champlitte invested with this Principality 
of Achaia, or of the Jlorea, as it is variously 
styled. Geffrey Villehardouin represented him 
in the government, as his "bailly," for a time, 
and finally succeeded in supplanting him. Half 
a century later the Greeks, who had recovered 
Constantinople, reduced the territory of the 
Principality of Achaia to about half the penin- 
sula, and a destructive war was waged between 
the two races. Subsequently the Principality 
became a lief of the crown of Naples and Sicily, 
and underwent many changes of possession 
until the title was in confusion and dispute 
between the houses of Anjou, Aragon and 
Savoy. Before it was engulfed finally In the 
Empire of the Turks, it was ruined by their 
piracies and ravages. — G. Finlay, Jlist. of Greece 
from its Conquest by the Crusaders, ch. 8. 

ACHMET I., Turkish Sultan, A. D. 1603- 
1G17. . . . Achmet II., 1691-1690. . . . Achmet III., 

ACHRADINA.— A part of the ancient city 
of Syracuse, Sicily, known as the " outer city," 
occupying the peninsula north of Ortygia, the 
islanil, which was the "inner city." 

ACHRIDA, Kingdom of.— After the death of 
John Zimisces who had reunited Bulgaria to the 
Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians were roused 
to a struggle for the recovery of their Independ- 
ence, under tlie lead of four brothers of a noble 
family, all of whom soon perished save one, 
named Samuel. Samuel proved to be so vigor- 
ous and able a soldier and had so much success 
that he assumed presently the title of king. His 
authority was established over the greater part 
of Bulgaria, and extended into Macedonia, 
Epirua and Ulyria. He established his capital 



at Achrida (modern Ochrida, in Albania), which 
gave its name to his kingdom. The suppression 
of this new Bulgarian nionarcliy occupied the 
Byzantine Emperor, Basil II. , in wars from 981 
until 1018, when its last strongholds, including 
the city of Achrida, were surrendered to him. — 
G. Finlay, Hist, of the Byzantine Empire from 
716 to lO.'iT, bk. 2, ch. 3, sect. 2. 

ACKERMAN, Convention of (1826). See 
TunKs: A. D. 1826-1829. 

ACOLAHUS, The. See Mexico, Ancient: 
The Toltec Empire. 

ACOLYTH, The. See Vabanqian or Wak- 
xsa Guard. 

ACRABA, Battle of, A. D. 633.— After the 
death of Mahomet, his successor, Abu Bekr, had 
to deal with several serious revolts, the most 
threatening of which was raised by one Mosei- 
lama, who had pretended, even in the life-time of 
the Prophet, to a rival mission of religion. The 
decisive battle between the followers of Mosei- 
lama and those of Jlahomet was fought at Acraba, 
near Yemama. The pretender was slain and few 
of his army escaped. — Sir W. Muir, Annuls of 
the Early Caliphate, ch. 7. 

ACRABATTENE, Battle of.— A sanguinary 
defeat of the Idumeans or Edomites by the Jews 
under Judas JIaccaboeus, B. 0. 164. — Josephus, 
Antiq. of the Jews, Ik. 12, ch. 8. 

ACRAGAS. See Aorioentum. 

ACRE (St. Jean d'Acre, or Ptolemais) : A. 
D. 1 104. — Conquest, Pillage and Massacre by 
the Crusaders and Genoese. See Ciiusades: 
A. D. llOMlll. 

A. D. II 87. — Taken from the Christians by 
Saladin. See Jerusalem: A. D. 1149-1187. 

A. D. 1189-1191. — The great siege and recon- 
quest by the Crusaders. See Crusades: A. D. 
1188-11 D2. 

A. D. 1256-1257.— Quarrels and battles be- 
tween the Genoese and Venetians. See 
Venice: A. D. 1250-1257. 

A. D. 1291. — The Final triumph of the 
Moslems. See Jerusalem: A. I). 1291. 

loth Century. — Restored to Importance by 
Sheik Daher. — "Acre, or St. Juan d'Acre, 
celebrated under this name in the history of 
the Crusades, and in antiquity known by the 
name of Ptolemais, had, by the middle of the 
18th century^ been almost entirely forsaken, 
when Sheik Daher, the Arab rebel, restored its 
commerce and navigation. This able prince, 
whose sway comprehended the whole of ancient 
Galilee, was succeeded by the infamous tyrant, 
Djezzar-Pasha, who fortified Acre, and adorned 
it with a mosque, enriched witli columns of 
antique marble, collected from all the neighbour- 
ing cities." — JI. Malte-Brun, System of Univ. 
Oeog., bk. 28 (0. 1). 

A. D. 1799. — Unsuccessful Siege by Bona- 
parte. See France : A. D. 1798-1799 (August 
— August). 

A. D. 1831-1840.— Siege and Capture by 
Mehemed Ali. — Recovery for the Sultan by the 
Western Powers. See Turks: A. D. 1831-1840. 



road which, by running zigzag up the slope was 
rendered practicable for chariots, led from the 
lower city to the Acropolis, on the edge of the 
platform of which stood the Propylaea, erected 

by the architect Mnesicles in five years, during 
the administration of Pericles. ... On entering 
through the gates of the Propyloea a scene of 
unparalled grandeur and beauty burst upon the 
eye. No trace of human dwellings anywhere 
appeared, but on all sides temples of more or less 
elevation, of Pentelic marble, beautiful in design 
and exquisitely delicate in execution, sparlded 
like piles of alabaster in the sun. On the left 
stood the Erectheion, or fane of Athena Polias; 
to the right, that matchless edifice known as the 
Hecatompedon of old, but to later ages as the 
Parthenon. Other buildings, all holy to the eye 
of an Athenian, lay grouped around these master 
structures, and, in the open spaces between, in 
whatever direction the spectator might look, ap- 
peared statues, some remarkable for their dimen- 
sions, others for their beauty, and all for the 
legendary sanctity which surrounded them. No 
city of the ancient or modern world ever rivalled 
Athens in the riches of art. Our best filled mu- 
seums, though teeming with her spoils, are poor 
collections of fragments compared with that 
assemblage of gods and heroes which peopled the 
Acropolis, the genuine Olympos of the arts." — 
J. A. St. John, llie Hellenes, bk. 1, eh. 4. — 
"Nothing in ancient Greece or Italy could be 
compared with the Acropolis of Athens, in its 
combination of beauty and grandeur, surrounded 
as it was by temples and theatres among its 
rocks, and encircled by a city abounding with 
monuments, some of which rivalled those of the 
Acropolis. Its platform formed one great 
sanctuary, partitioned only by the boundaries of 
the . . . sacred portions. Wc cannot, there- 
fore, admit the suggestion of Chandler, that, in 
addition to the temples and other monuments on 
the summit, there were houses divided into regu- 
lar streets. This would not have been consonant 
either with the customs or the good taste of the 
Athenians. When the people of Attica crowded 
into Athens at the beginning of the Peloponno- 
sian war, and religious prejudices gave way, in 
every possible case, to the necessities of the occa- 
sion, even then the Acropolis remained unin- 
habited. . . . The western end of the Acropolis, 
which furnished the only access to the summit of 
the hill, was one hundred and sixty eight feet in 
breadth, an opening so narrow that it appeared 
practicable to the artists of Pericles to fill up the 
space with a single building which should serve 
the purpose of a gateway to the citadel, as well 
as of a suitable entrance to that glorious dis- 
play of architecture and sculpture which was 
within the inclosure. This work [the Propy- 
loea], the greatest production of civil archi- 
tecture In Athens, which rivalled the Parthenon 
in felicity of execution, surpassed it in bold- 
ness and originality of design. ... It may be 
defined as a wall pierced with five doors, be- 
fore which on both sides were Doric hexastyle 
porticoes." — AV. M. Leake, Topography of Athens, 
sect. 8. — See, also, Attica. 

erlands: A. D. 1577-1581. 

zerland: A. D. 1803-1848. 

ACT OF SECURITY. See Scotland: A. 
D. 1703-1704. 

England: A. D. 1701. 

Ireland: A. D. 1660-1665. 



ACT RESCISSORY. See Scotland. A. 
D. 1660-1666. 

ACTIUM: B. C. 434.— Naval Battle of the 
Greeks. — A defeat intlicted upon the Corinthiuns 
by the Corcyrians, in the contest over Epidamniis 
which was the prelude to the Peloponnesian 
War. — E. Curtius, Hist, of Greece, bk. 4, ch. 1. 

B. C. 31.— The Victory of Octavius. See 
Ro.\ie: B. C. 31. 

MACT, Acts of; and Englaitd: A. D. 1527- 
1534 ; and 1559. 

A. D. 1559 and 1662-1665. 

ACULCO, Battle of (1810). See Mexico: 
A. D. 1810-1819. 

ACZ, Battle of (1849). See Austria, A. D. 

ADALOALDUS, King of the Lombards, 
A. D. 616-626. 

ADAMS, John, in the American Revolu- 
tion. See United States op Am. : A. D. 1774 
(^Iat — June); 1774 (Septembee); 1775 (May — 
August); 1776 (January — June), 1776 (July). 
.... In diplomatic service. See United States 
OF Am. : A. D. 1782 (April) ; 1783 (September— 

Kovember) Presidential administration. 

See United St.-vtes of Am.: A. D. 1796-1801. 
Death. See the same : A. D. 1826. 

ADAMS, John Quincy. — The Treaty 
of Ghent. See United States of Am. : A. D. 

1814 (December) As President. See same : 

A. D. 1824-1829 Defending right of Peti- 
tion. See same : 1842. 

ADAMS, Samuel, in and after the American 
Revolution. See United States of Am. : 
A. D. 1772-1773; 1774 (September) ; 1775(]VIay); 

ADDA, Battle of the (A. D. 490). See 
Rome: A. D. 488-526. 

AD DECIMUS, Battle of (A. D. 533). See 
Vand.m.s: a. D. 533-534. 

homestead of the original settler, his house, 
farm-buildings and enclosure, ' the toft and croft, ' 
■n-ith the share of arable and appurtenant common 
rights, bore among the northern nations [early 
Teutonic] the name of Odal, or Edhel ; the primi- 
tive mother village was an Athelby, or Athel- 
ham; the owner was an Athelbonde: the same 
•word Adel or Athel signified also nobility of 
descent, and an Adaling was a nobleman." — W. 
Stubbs, CoTut. Hist, of Eny., ch. 3, sect. 24. — See, 
also, Alod, and Ethel. 

ADELAIDE, The founding and naming of. 
See Australia : A. D. 1800-1840. 

ADELANTADOS.— An early title given to 
the governors in Spanish America. 

tion, Modern : Reforms : A. D. 1804-1891. 

ADEN. — A port on the southern coast of 
Arabia, taken by Great Britain from the Sultan 
of Aden in 1839. Adjacent territory, with 
Perim and other neighboring islands, has been 
acquired since, affording a naval and coaling 
station important to the domination of the Red 
Sea and the Suez Canal. 

ADIABENE. — A name which came to be ap- 
plied anciently to the tract of country east of the 
middle Tigris, embracing what was originally 
the proper territory of Assyria, together with 
Arbelitis. Under the Parthian monarchy it 
fonned a tributary kingdom, muck disputed 

between Parthia and Armenia. It was seized 
several times by the Romans, but never perma- 
nently held. — G. Rawlinson, Sixth 0-reat Oriental 
Monarchy, p. 140. 

ADIRONDACKS. The. See Amkricau 
Aborigines: Adirondacks. 

ADIS, Battle of (B. C. 256). See PnNio 
War, The First. 

ADITES, The.— "The Cushites, the first In- 
habitants of Arabia, are known in the national 
tmditions by the name of Adites, from their 
progenitor, who is called Ad, the grandson of 
Ilam." — F. Lenormant, Manual of Ancient Hist., 
lie. 7, ch. 2. — See Arabia. 

ADJUTATORS. See England : A. D. 1647 
(ApiiiL — August). 

ADLIYAH, The. See Isl.\m. 

ADMIRALTY ISLES. See Melanesia. 

ADOLPH (of Nassau), King of Germany, 
A. D. 1291-1298. 

Sweden, A. D. 1751-1771. 

ADOPTIONISM. — A doctrine, condemned 
as heretical in the eighth century, which taught 
that "Christ, as to his human nature, was not 
truly the Son of God, but only His son by adop- 
tion." The dogma is also known as the Felician 
heresy, from a Spanish bishop, Felix, who was 
prominent among its supporters. Charlemagne 
took active measures to suppress the heresy . — J. 1. 
Mombert, Hist, of Charles the Great, bk. 2, ch. 12. 

ADRIA, Proposed Kingdom of. See Italy: 
A. D. 1343-1389, 

ADRIAN VI., Pope, A. D. 1523-1523. 

city in Thrace founded by the Emperor Hadrian 
and designated by his name. It was the scene 
of Constantine's victory over Licinius in A. D. 
323 (see Rome: A. D. 305-323), and of the de- 
feat and death of Valens in battle with the 
Goths (see Goths (Visigoths): A. D. 378). In 
1361 it became for some years the capital of the 
Turks in Europe (see Turks: A. D. 1360-1389). 
It was occupied by the Russians in 1829, and 
again in 1878 (see Turks: A. D. 1826-1829, and 
A. D. 1877-1878), and gave its name to the 
Treaty negotiated in 1829 between Russia and 
the Porte (see Greece; A. D. 1821-1829). 

ADRIATIC, The Wedding of the. See 
Venice: A. D. 1177, and 14th Century. 

ADRUMETUM. See Carthage, The Do- 
minion OF. 

ADUATUCI, The. See Belo^. 

ADULLAM, Cave of.— When David had 
been cast out by the Philistines, among whom he 
sought refuge from the enmity of Saul, "his 
first retreat was the Cave of Adullam, probably 
the large cavern not far from Bethlehem, now 
called Khureitun. From its vicinity to Bethle- 
hem, he was joined there by his whole family, 
now feeling themselves insecure from Saul's 
fury. . . . Besides these were outlaws from 
every part, including doubtless some of the 
original Canaanites — of whom the name of one 
at least has been preserved, Ahimelech the 
Hittite. In the vast columnar halls and arched 
chambers of this subterranean palace, all who 
had any grudge against the existing system 
gathered round the hero of the coming age." — 
Dean Stanley, Lect's on the Hist, of the Jeviish 
Church, led. 23. 

ADULLAMITES, The. See England: A. 
D. 1865-1868. 




ADWALTON MOOR, Battle of (A. D. 
1643). — This was a battle fought near Bradford, 
June 29. 1643, in the great English Civil War. 
The Parliamentary forces, under Lord Fairfax, 
were routed by the Roj'alists, under Newcastle. 
— C. R. Markham, Life of the Oreat Lord Fair- 
fax, ch. 11. 

.iEAKIDS (iEacidsV— The supposed de- 
scendants of the demi-god ^akus, whose grand- 
son was Achilles. (See Mtsmtdons.) Miltiades, 
the hero of Marathon, and Pyrrhus, the warrior 
Kin^ of Epirus, were among those claiming to 
belong to the roval race of ^Eakids. 

yEDHILING. See Ethel. 

iE D I LES, Roman. See Rome : B. C. 494-492. 

"The two most powerful nations in Gallia were 
the /Edui [or Hsedui] and the Arverni. The ^dui 
occupied that part which lies between the upper 
valley of the Loire and the Saone, which river was 
part of the boundary between them and the 
Sequani. The Loire separated the .Jidui from 
the Biturigcs, whose chief town was Avaricum 
on the site of Bourges. At this time [B. C. 121] 
the Arverni, the rivals of the ^dui, were seek- 
ing the supremacy in GaOia. The Arverni occu- 
pied the mountainous country of Auvergne in 
the centre of France and the fertile valley of the 
Elaver (Allier) nearly as far as the junction of the 
AUier and the Loire. . . . They were on friendly 
terms with the Allobroges, a powerful nation east 
of the Rhone, who occupied the country between 
the Rhone and the Isara (Isire). ... In order to 
break the formidable combination of the Arverni 
and the Allobroges, the Romans made use of the 
.(Edui, who were the enemies both of the Allo- 
broges and the Arverni. ... A treaty was made 
either at this time or somewhat earlier between 
the »Edui and the Roman senate, who conferred 
on their new Gallic friends the honourable title of 
brothers and kinsmen. This fraternizing was a 
piece of political cant which the Romans prac- 
ticed when it was useful." — G. Long, Decline of 
the lioman Republic, «. 1, ch. 21. — See, also, 

JEGJE. See Edessa (Macedonia). 

^GATIAN isles, Naval Battle of the 
(B. C. 241). See Punic Waii, The FntsT. 

.(EGEAN, The.— "The ^gean, or White 
Sea, ... as distinguished from the Euxine." 
— E. A. Freeman, Hiatorieal Oeog. of Europe, p. 
413, and foot-note. 

iEGIALEA. — .(EGIALEANS.— The orig- 
inal name of the northern coast of Peloponnesus, 
and its inhabitants. See Greece : The Migr.\.- 


iEGIKOREIS. See Phtl2E. 

iEGINA. — A small rocky island in the Sar- 
onic gulf, between Attica and Argolis. First 
colonized by Achseans it was afterwards occu- 
pied by Dorians (see Greece : The ^Ijgkations) 
and was unfriendly to Athens. During the 
sixth century B. C. it rose to great power and 
commercial importance, and became for a time 
the most brilliant center of Greek art. At the 
period of the Persian war, ^gtna was "the 
first maritime power in Greece." But the 
^ginetans were at that time engaged in war 
with Athens, as the allies of Thebes, and rather 
than forego their enmity, they offered submission 
to the Persian king. The Athenians thereupon 
appealed to Sparta, as the head of Greece, to 
interfere, and the jEginetana were compelled to 

give hostages to Athens for their fidelity to the 
Hellenic cause. (See Greece: B. C. 492-491.) 
They purged themselves to a great extent of 
their intended treason by the extraordinary valor 
with which they fought at Salamis. But the 
sudden pre-eminence to which Athens rose cast 
a blighting shadow upon jEgina, and in 429 B. C. 
it lost its independence, the Athenians taking 
possession of their discomfited rival. — C. Thirl- 
wall, Hist, of &reece, v. 1, ch. 14. 

Also en G. Grote, Hist, of Crreece, pt. 2, v. 4, 
ch. 36.— See, also, Athens: B. C. 489-480. 

B. C. 458-456. — Alliance with Corinth in 
war with Athens and Megara. — Defeat and 
subjugation. See Greece: B. C. 4.58— t.j6. 

B. C. 431. — Expulsion of the ^Eginetans 
from their island by the Athenians. — Their 
settlement at Thyrea. See Greece: B. C. 

B. C. 210. — Desolation by the Romans. — 
The first appearance of the Romans in Greece, 
when they entered the country as the allies of 
the iEtolians, was signalized by the barbarous 
destruction of jEgina. The city having been 
taken, B. C. 210, its entire population was reduced 
to slavery by the Romans and the land and 
buildings of the city were sold to Attains, king 
of Pergamus. — E. A. Freeman, Hist, of Federal 
Govt., ch. 8, sect. 2. 



.iEGITIUM, Battle of (B. C. 426).— A re- 
verse experienced by the Athenian General, 
Demosthenes, in his invasion of jEtolia, during 
the Peloponnesian War. — Thucydides, History, 
bk. 3, sect. 97. 

jEGOSPOTAMI (Aigospotamoi), Battle of. 
See Greece : B. C. 405. 

./ELFRED. See Alfred. 

./ELIA CAPITOLINA.— The new name 
given to Jerusalem by Hadrian. See Jews: 
A. D. 130-134. 

" The yElian and Fulian laws (leges -'Elia and 
Fufia) the age of which unfortunately we can- 
not accurately determine . . . enacted that a 
popular assembly [at Rome] might be dissolved, 
or, in other words, the acceptance of any pro- 
posed law prevented, if a magistrate announced 
to the president of the assembly that it was his 
intention to choose the same time for watching 
the heavens. Such an announcement (obnunti- 
atio) was held to be a sufficient cause for inter- 
rupting an assembly." — AV. Ihne, Hist, of Rome, 
bk. 6. ch. 16. 

iEMILIAN WAY, The.— "M. ^milius 
Lepidus, Consul for the year 180 B. C. . . . con- 
structed the great road which bore his name. 
The .^milian Way led from Ariminum through 
the new colony of Bononia to Placentia, being a 
continuation of the Flaminian Way, or great 
north road, made by C. Flaminius in 220 B. 0. 
from Rome to Ariminum. At the same epoch, 
Flaminius the son, being the colleague of Lepi- 
dus, made a branch road from Bononia acrcss 
the Appenines to Arretium." — H. G. Liddell, 
Hist, of Rome. bk. 5, ch. 41. 

iEMILIANUS, Roman Emperor, A. D. 253. 

.(EOLIANS, The.— " The collective stock of 
Greek nationalities falls, according to the view of 
those ancient writers who laboured most to 
obtain an exact knowledge of ethnographic 
relationships, into three main divisions, ^olians, 



Dorians and lonians. ... All the other iuliabit- 
ant3 of Greece [not Dorians and loniaus] and of 
the islands included in it. are comprised under 
thecommon name of .^Eolians — a name unknown 
11.8 yet to Homer, and which was iucontestably 
applied to a great diversity of peoples, among 
whicli it is certain that no such homogeneity of 
race is to be assumed as existed among the loni- 
ans and Dorians. Among the two former races, 
though even these were scarcely in any quarter 
completely unmixed, there was incontestubly 
to be found a single original stock, to which 
others had merely been attached, and as it were 
engrafted, whereas, among the peoples assigned 
to the iEolians, no such original stock is recog- 
nizable, but on the contrary, as great a differ- 
ence is found between the several members 
of this race as between Dorians and lonians, 
and of the so-called J^Iohans, some stood nearer 
to the former, others to the latter. ... A 
thorough and careful investigation might well 
lead to the conclusion that the Greek people 
was divided not into three, but into two main 
races, one of which we may call Ionian, the other 
Dorian, while of the so-called iEolians some, 
and probably the greater number, belonged to 
the former, the rest to the latter."— G. F. SchO- 
man, Antig. of 0-recce : The State, pt. 1, ch. 2. — 
In Greek myth., JJolus, the fancied progenitor 
of the yEolians, appears as one of the three sons 
of Ilellcn. "iEolus is represented as having 
reigned in Thessaly: his seven sous were Krc- 
theus, Sisyphus, Athamas, Salmoneus, Deion, 
Magnesand Pcrieres: his five daughters, Canace, 
Alcyone, Peisidike, Calyce and Permede. The 
fables of this race seem to be distinguished by a 
constant introduction of the God Poseidon, as 
well as by an unusual prevalence of haughty and 
presumptuous attributes among the ^Eolid 
heroes, leading them to affront the gods by pre- 
tences of equality, and sometimes even by defi- 
ance." — G. Grote, Uist. of Greece, pt. 1, ch. C. 
— See, also, Thessaly, Dorians and Ionians, 
and Asia J.Iinor: The Greek Colonies. 

./EQUIANS, The. SeeOscAUS; alsoLATiCM; 
and Ro.ME ; B. C. 458. 

.^RARIANS. — Roman citizens who had no 
political rishls. See Censors, Roman. 

iERARIUM, The. SeeFiscns. 

iESOPUS INDIANS. See Ajierican Abo- 
rigines: .Vloonquian Famtlt. 

iESTII, or iESTYI, The.— "At this point 
[beyond the Suioncs] the Suovic Sea [the Baltic], 
on its eastern shore, washes the tribes of the 
iEstii, whose rites and fashions and styles of 
dress are those of the Sucvi, while their language 
is more like the British. They worship the 
mother of the gods and wear as a religious sym- 
bol the device of a wild boar. . . . They often 
use clubs, iron weapons but seldom. They are 
more patient in cultivating corn and other pro- 
duce than might be expected from the general 
indolence of the Germans. But they also search 
the deep and are the only people who gather 
amber, which they call glesum." — "The iEstii 
occupied that part of Prussia which is to the 
north-cast of the Vistula. . . . The name still 
survives in the form Estonia. "—Tacitus, Ger- 
many, trans, by Church and Brodribb, with 
ncitc. — See, also, Prussian Lakouage, The 


iESYMNETjE, An.— Among the Greeks, 
an expedient ' ' which seems to have been tried 

not unfrequently in early times, for preserving 
or restoring tranquility, was to invest an indi- 
vidual with absolute power, under a peculiar 
title, which soon became obsolete: that of 
Ksymneta;. At Cuma, indeed, and in other cities, 
this was the title of an ordinary magistracj', prob- 
ably of that which succeeded the hereditary mon- 
archy ; but when applied to an extraordinary 
ofiice, it was equivalent to the title of protector 
or dictator." — C. Thirlwall, Ilist. of 0-reece, ch. 

yETHEL.— iETHELING. See Ethel, and 

See Ethelbert, etc. 

yETOLIA.— .(ETOLIANS.— "^tolia, the 
country of Diomed, though famous in the early 
times, fell back durin;: the migratory period 
almost into a savage condition, probably through 
the iufiux into it of an Illyrian population which 
became only partially Hellenized. The nation 
was divided into numerous tribes, among which 
the most important were the Apodoti, the Ophl- 
oneis, the Eurytanes and the Agrscans. There 
were scarcely any cities, village life being pre- 
ferred universally. ... It was not till the wars 
which arose among Alexander's successors that 
the iEtoliaus formed a real political union, and 
became an important power in Greece." — G. 
Rawlinson, Manual of Ancient Uist., bk. 3. — See 
also, Akarnauians, and Greece: The Migra- 

/ETOLIAN LEAGUE, The.— "The Acha- 
iau and the ^Elolian Leagues, had their constitu- 
tions been written down in the shape of a formal 
document, would have presented but few vari- 
eties of importance. The same general form of 
government prevailed in both ; each was federal, 
each was democratic; each had its popular as- 
sembly, its smaller Senate, its general with large 
powers at the head of all. The differences be- 
t\vecn the two are merely those differences of 
detail which will always arise between any two 
political systems of which neither is slavishly 
copied from the other. ... If therefore federal 
states or democratic states, or aristocratic states, 
were necessarily weak or strong, peaceful or 
aggressive, honest or dishonest, we should see 
Achaia and JEtolia both exhibiting the same 
moral characteristics. But history tells another 
tale. The political conduct of the Achaian 
League, with some mistakes and some faults, is, 
on the whole, highly honourable. The political 
conduct of the jJ'^tolian League is, throughout 
the century in which we know it best [last half 
of third and first half of second century B. C.] 
almost always simply infamous. . . . The coun- 
sels of the yEtolian League were throughout di- 
rected to mere plunder, or, at most, to selfish 
political aggrandisement." — E. A. Freeman, Hist. 
of Federal Govt., ch. 6.— The plundering aggres- 
sions of the yEtolians involved them in continual 
war with their Greek kindred and neighbours, 
and they did not scruple to seek foreign aid. It 
was through their agency that the Romans were 
first brought into Greece, and it was by their 
instrumentality that Antiochus fought his battle 
with Rome on the sacredest of all Hellenic soil. 
In the end, B. 0. 189, the League was stripped 
by the Romans of even its nominal independence 
and sank into a contemptible servitude. — E. A. 
Freeman, The .larne, ch. 7-9. 

Also ln C. Thiriwall, Uist. of Greece, ch. 63-66. 



AFGHANISTAN, 1803-1838. 

AFGHANISTAN: B. C. 330.— Conquest 
by Alexander the Great. — Founding of Herat 
and Candahar. See Macedonia, tic. : B. C. 
830-323; and India: B. C. 327-312. 

B. C. 301-246. — In the Syrian Empire. See 
Selkccid^; and Macedonia, &c. : 310-301 and 

A. D. 999-1183. — The Ghaznevide Empire. 
See Turks: A. D. 999-1183; and India: A. D. 

A. D. 13th Century. — Conquests of Jinghis- 
Khan. See Mongols: A. D. 1153-12J7; and 
India: A. D. 977-1290. 

A. D. 1380-1386.— Conquest by Timour. 
See Timour. 

A. D. 1504.— Conquest by Babar. See In- 
dia: A. D. 1399-1605. 

A. D. 1722. — Mahmoud's conquest of Persia. 
See Persia: A. D. 1499-1887. 

A. D. 1737-1738. — Conquest by Nadir Shah. 
See India: A. D. 1002-1748. 

A. D. 1747-1761. — The Empire of the Door- 
anie, Ahmed Abdallee. — His Conquests in 
India. See India. A. D. 1747-1701. 

A. D. 1803-1838.— Shah Soojah and Dost 
Mahomed. — English interference. — " ShahSoo- 
jali-ool Moolk, a grandson of the illustrious 
Ahmed Shah, reigned in Afghanistan from 1803 
till 1809. His youth had been full of trouble 
and vicissitude. lie had been a wanderer, on 
the verge of starvation, a pedlar, and a ban- 
dit, who raised money by plundering caravans. 
His courage was lightly reputed, and it was 
as a mere creature of circumstance that he 
reached the throne. His reign was perturbed, 
and in 1809 he was a fugitive and an e.\ilc. 
Ruujeet Singh, the Sikh ruler of tlio Punjaub, 
defrauded him of the famous Koh-i-noor, which 
is now the most precious of the crown jewels of 
England, and plundered and imprisoned the 
fallen man. Shah Soojah at length escaped 
from Lahore. After further misfortunes he 
at length reached the British frontier station of 
Loodianah, and in 1816 became a pensioner of 
tlie East India Company. After the downfall of 
Shah Soojah, Afghanistan for many years was a 
prey to anarchy. At length in 182G, Uost Ma- 
homed succeeded in making himself supreme at 
Cabul, and this masterful man thenceforward 
held sway until his death in 1803, uninterrupt- 
edly save during the three years of the British 
occupation. Dost JIahomed was neither kitli nor 
kin to the legitimate dynasty which he disphiced. 
His father Poyndah Khan was an able statesman 
and gallant soldier. He left twenty -one sous, of 
whom Futteh Khan was the eldest, and Dost 
Mahomed one of the youngest. . . . Throughout 
his long reign Dost .Ahihonied was a strong and 
wise ruler. His youth had been neglected and 
dissolute. His education was defective, and he 
had been addicted to wine. Once seated on the 
throne, the reformation of our Henry V. was not 
more thorough than was that of Dost Alahomed. 
He taught himself to read and write, studied the 
Koran, became scrupulously abstemious, assidu- 
ous in affairs, no longer truculent, but courteous. 
. . . There was a fine rugged honesty in his 
nature, and a streak of genuine chivalry; not- 
withstanding the despite he suffered at our 
hanils, he had a real regard for the English, 
Hnd his loyalty to us was broken only by his 
armeil support of the Sikhs in the second 
Punjaub war. The fallen Shah Soojah, from 

his asylum in Loodianah, was continually intrigu- 
ing for his restoration. His schemes were long 
inoperative, and it was not until 1833 that cer- 
tain arrangements were entered into between 
him and the Maharaja Rimjeet Singh. To an 
application on Shah Soojah's part for counte- 
nance and pecuniary aid, the Anglo-Indian Gov- 
ernment replied that to afford him assistance 
would be ■neonsistent with the policy of neutral- 
ity which the Government had imposed on itself ; 
but it unwisely contributed financially toward 
his undertaking by granting him four months' 
pension in advance. Si-vteen thousand rupees 
formed a scant war fund with which to attempt 
the recovery of a throne, but the Shah started on 
his errand in February, 1833. After a success- 
ful contest with the Ameers of Scinde, he marched 
on Candahar, and besieged that fortress. Canda- 
har was in extremity when Dost Mahomed, 
hurrying from Cabul, relieved it, and joining 
forces with its defenders, he defeated and routed 
Shah Soojah, who fled precipitately, leaving be- 
hind him his artillery and camp equipage. Dur- 
ing the Dost's absence in the south, Runjeet 
Singh's troops crossed the Attock, occupied the 
Afghan province of Peshawur, and drove the 
Afghans into the Khyber Pass. No subsequent 
efforts on Dost JIahomed's part availed to expel 
the Sikhs from Peshawur, and suspicious of 
British connivance with Runjeet Singh's success- 
ful aggression, he took into consideration the 
policy of fortifying himself by a counter alliance 
with Persia. As for Shah Soojah, he had crept 
back to his refuge at Loodianah. Lord Auckland 
succeeded Lord William Bentinck as Governor- 
General of India in JIarcli, 1S06. In reply to 
Dost Jlahomed's letter of congratulation, his 
lordship wrote : ' You are aware that it is not 
the practice of the British Government to inter- 
fere with the affairs of other independent States ; ' 
an abstention which Lord Auckland was soon to 
violate. He had brought from England the feel- 
ing of disquietude in regard to the designs of 
I'crsia and Russia which the communications of 
our envoy in Persia had fostered in the Home 
Government, but it would appear that he was 
wholly undecided what line of action to pursue. 
' Swayed,' says Durand, ' by the vague appre- 
hensions of a remote danger entertained by 
others rather than himself,' he despatched to 
Afghanistan Captain Burnes on a nominally 
commercial mission, which, in fact, was one of 
political discovery, but without delJnito instruc- 
tions. Burnes, an able but rash and ambitious 
man, reached Cabul in September, 1837, two 
months before the Persian army began the siege 
of Herat. . . ,. The Dost made no concealment 
to Burnes of his approaches to Persia and Rus- 
sia, in despair of British good offices, and being 
hungry for assistance from any source to meet 
the encroachments of the SilUis, he professed 
himself ready to abandon his negotiations with 
the western powers if he were given reason to 
expect countenance and assistance at the hands 
of the Anglo-Indian Government. . . . The situ- 
ation of Burnes in relation to the Dost was pres- 
ently complicated by the arrival at Cabul of a 
Russian otlicer claiming to be an envoy from the 
Czar, whose credentials, however, were reiiarded 
as dubious, and who, if that circumstance haa 
the least weight, was on his return to Russia tit- 
terly repudiated by Count Nesselrode. The 
Dost took small account of this emissary, con- 


AFGHANISTAN, 1803-1838. 

AFGHANISTAN, 183^1843. 

tinuing to assure Burncs that he cared for no 
connection except with the English, and Burnes 
professed to his Government his fullest con- 
fidence in the sincerity of those declarations. 
But the tone of Lord Auckland's reply, addressed 
to the Dost, was so dictatorial and supercilious 
as to indicate the writer's intention that it should 
give offence. It had that effect, and Burnes' 
mission at once became hopeless. . . . The Rus- 
sian envoy, who was profuse in his promises of 
everything which the Dost was most anxious to 
obtam, was received into favour and treated with 
distinction, and on his return journey he effected 
a treaty with the Candahar chiefs which was 
presently ratified by the Russian minister at the 
Persian Court. Burnes, fallen into discredit at 
Cabul, quitted that place in August 1838. He 
had not been discreet, but it was not liis indis- 
cretion that brought about the failure of his 
mission. A nefarious transaction, which Kaj'e 
denounces witli the passion of a just indignation, 
connects itself with Burnes' negotiations with 
the Dost ; his official correspondence was unscru- 
pulously mutilated and garbled in the published 
Blue Book with deliberate purpose to deceive 
the British public. Burnes had failed because, 
since he had quitted India for Cabul, Lord 
Auckland's policy had gradually altered. Lord 
Auckland had landed in India in the character 
of a man of peace. That, so late as April 1837, 
he had no design of obstructing the existing 
situation in Afghanistan is proved by liis writ- 
ten statement of that date, that ' the British 
Government had resolved decidedly to discourage 
the prosecution by the ex-king Shah Soojah-ool- 
Moolk, so long as he may remain under our pro- 
tection, of further schemes of hostility against 
the chiefs now in power in Cabul and Candahar.' 
Yet, in tlic following June, he concluded a treaty 
which sent Shah Soojah to Cabul, escorted by 
British baj'oncts. Of this inconsistency no ex- 
planation presents itself. It was a far cry from 
our frontier on the Sutlej to Herat In the con- 
fines of Central Asia — a distance of more than 
1,200 miles, over some of tlie most arduous 
marching ground in the known world. . . . 
Lord William Bentinck, Lord Auckland's prede- 
cessor, denounced the project as an act of in- 
credible folly. Marquis Wellesley regarded 
• this wild expedition into a distant region of 
rocks and deserts, of sands and ice and snow,' as 
an act of infatuation. The Duke of Wellington 
pronounced with prophetic sagacity, that the 
consequence of once crossing the Indus to settle 
a government in Afghanistan would be a peren- 
nial march into that country." — A. Forbes, Tlie 
Afghan Wars, ch. 1. 

Also in: J. P. Ferrier, Ilist. of the AfgJians, 
eh. 10-20. — Mohan Lai, Life of Amir Dosl Mo- 
hammed Khan, v. 1. 

A. D. 1838-1842. — English invasion, and 
restoration of Soojah Dowlah. — The revolt at 
Cabul. — Horrors of the British retreat. — 
Destruction of the entire army, save one man, 
only. — Sale's defence of Jellalabad. — "To ap- 
proach Afghanistan it was necessary to secure 
the friendship of the Sikhs, who were. Indeed, 
ready enough to join against their old enemies; 
and a threefold treaty was contracted between 
Runjeet Singh, the English, and Shah Soojah 
for the restoration of the banished house. The 
expedition — which according to the original 
intention was to have been carried out chiefly 

by means of troops in the pay of Shah 
Soojah and the Sikhs — rapidly grew into 
an English invasion of Afghanistan. A 
considerable force was gathered on the Sikh 
frontier from Bengal; a second army, under 
General Keane, was to come up from Kurraehee 
through Sindh. Both of these armies, and the 
troops of Shah Soojah, were to enter the high- 
lands of Afghanistan by the Bolan Pass. As 
the Sikhs would not willingly allow the free 
passage of our troops through their country, an 
additional burden was laid upon the armies, — 
the independent Ameers of Sindh had to be 
coerced. At length, with much trouble from 
the difficulties of the country and the loss of the 
commissariat animals, the forces were all col- 
lected under the command of Keane beyond the 
passes. The want of food permitted of no delay ; 
the army pushed on to Candahar. Shah Soojah 
was declared Monarch of the southern Princi- 
pality. Thence the troops moved rapidly on- 
wards towards the more important and ditlicult 
conquest of Cabul. Ghuznee, a fortress of 
great strength, lay in the way. In their hasty 
movements the English had left their battering 
train behind, but the gates of the fortress were 
blown in with gunpowder, and by a brilliant 
feat of arms the fortress was stormed. Nor did 
the English army encounter any important 
resistance subsequently. Dost Moharaed found 
his followers deserting him, and withdrew north- 
wards into the mountains of the Hindoo Koosh. 
With all the splendour that could be collected. 
Shah Soojah was brought back to his throne in 
the Bala Hissar, the fortress Palace of Cabul. 
. . . For the moment the policy seemed thor- 
oughly successful. The English Ministry could 
feel that a fresh check had been placed upon its 
Russian rival, and no one dreamt of the terrible 
retribution that was in store for the imjust vio 
lence done to the feelings of a people. . . . 
Dost Mohamed thought it prudent to surrender 
himself to the English envoy. Sir William Mac- 
naghten, and to withdraw with his fainily to the 
English provinces of Hindostan [November, 
1840]. He was there well received and treated 
with liberality; for, as both the Governor 
General and his chief adviser Macnaghten felt, he 
had not in fact in any way offended us, but had 
fallen a victim to our policy. It was in the full 
belief that their policy in India had been crowned 
with permanent success that the Whig Ministers 
withdrew from office, leaving their successors 
to encounter the terrible results to which it led. 
For while the English officials were blindly con- 
gratulating themselves upon the happy comple- 
tion of their enterprise, to an obServant eye 
signs of approaching difficulty were on all sides 
visible. . . . The removal of the strong rule of 
the Barrukzyes opened a door for undefined 
hopes to many of the other families and tribes. 
The whole country was full of intrigues and of 
diplomatic bargaining, carried on by the Eng- 
lish political agents with the various chiefs 
and leaders. But they soon found that the 
hopes excited by these negotiations were illu- 
sory. The allowances for which they had bar- 
gained were reduced, for the English envoy 
began to be disquieted at the vast expenses of 
the Government. They did not find that they 
derived any advantages from the establishment 
of the new puppet King, Soojah Dowlah; and 
every Mahomedan, even the very king himself, 


AFGHANISTAN. 1838-1842. 

AFGHANISTAN. 1888-1843. 

felt disgraced at the predomi'^ance of the Eng- 
lish inlidels. But as no actual insurrection 
broke out, Macnagliten, a man of sanguine 
temperament and anxious to believe what he 
wished, in spite of unmistakable warnings as to 
the real feeling of the people, clung with 
almost angry vehemence to the persuasion that all 
was going well, and that the new King had a real 
hold upon the people's affection. Bo completely 
had he deceived himself on this point, that he 
had decided to send back a portion of the Eng- 
lish army, under General Sale, into Hindostan. 
He even intended to accompany it himself to 
enjoy the peaceful post of Governor of Bombay, 
with which his successful policy had been 
rewarded. His place was to be taken by Sir 
Alexander Burnes, whose view of the troubled 
condition of the country underlying the com- 
parative calm of the surface was much truer 
than that of Macnaghten, but who, perhaps 
from that very fact, was far less popular among 
the chiefs. The army which was to remain at 
Candahar was under the command of General 
Nott, an able and decided if somewhat irascible 
man. But General Elphinstone, the commander 
of the troops at Cabul, was of quite a different 
stamp. He was much respected and liked for 
his honourpble character and social qualities, 
but was advanced in years, a confirmed invalid, 
and wholly wanting in the vigour and decision 
which his critical position was likely to require. 
The fool's paradise with which the English 
Envoy had surrounded himself was rudely 
destroyed. He had persuaded himself that the 
frequently recurring disturbances, and especially 
the insurrection of the Ghilzyes between Cabul 
and Jelhilabad, were mere local outbreaks. But 
In fact a great conspiracy was on foot in which 
the chiefs of nearly every important tribe in the 
country were implicated. On the evening of 
the 1st of November [1841] a meeting of the 
chiefs was held, and It was decided that an 
immediate attack should be made on the house 
of Sir Alexander Burnes. The following morn- 
ing an angry crowd of assailants stormed the 
houses of Sir Alexander Burnes and Captain 
Johnson, murdering the inmates, and rifling tlie 
treasure-chests belonging to Soojah Dowlali's 
army. Soon the whole city was in wild insur- 
rection. The evidence is nearly irresistible that 
a little decision and rapidity of action on the 
part of the military would have at once crushed 
the outbreak. But although the attack on 
Burnes's house was known, no troops were sent 
to his assistance. Indeed, that unbroken course 
of folly and mismanagement which marked the 
conduct of our military affairs throughout this 
crisis had already begun. Instead of occupying 
the fortress of the Bala Hissar, where the array 
would have been in comparative security, 
Elphinstone had placed his troops in canton- 
ments far too extensive to be properly defended, 
surrounded by an entrenchment of the most 
Insignificant character, commanded on almost 
all .sides by higher ground. To complete the 
unfitness of the position, the cotnmissariat 
supplies were not stored within the canton- 
ments, but were placed in an isolated fort at 
some little distance. An ill-sustained and futile 
assault was made upon the town on the -Sd of 
November, but from thit time onwards the 
British troops lav witli incomprehensible supine- 
ness awaiting their fate in their defenceless 

position. The commissariat fort soon fell into 
the hands of the enemy and rendered their situ- 
ation still more deplorable. Some flashes of 
bravery now and then lighted up the sombre 
scene of helpless misfortune, and served to show 
that destruction might even yet have been 
averted by a little firmness. . . . But the com 
mander had already begun to despair, and before 
many days had passed he was thinking of mak- 
ing terms with the enemy. Macnaghten had no 
course open to him under such circumstances 
but to adopt the suggestion of the general, and 
attempt as well as he could by bribes, cajolery, 
and intrigue, to divide the chiefs and secure a 
safe retreat for the English. Akbar Khan, the 
son of Dost Mohamed, though not present at the 
beginning of the insurrection, had arrived from 
the northern mountains, and at once asserted a 
predominant influence in the insurgent councils. 
With him and with the other Insurgent chiefs 
Macnaghten entered into an arrrangement by 
which he promised to withdraw the English 
entirely from the country if a safe passage were 
secured for the army through the passes. . . . 
While ostensibly treating with the Barrukzye 
chiefs, he intrigued on all sides with the rival 
tribes. His double dealing was taken advantage 
of by Akbar Khan. He sent messengers to Mac- 
naghten proposing that the English should make 
a separate treaty with himself and support him 
with their troops in an assault upon some of his 
rivals. The proposition was a mere trap, and 
the envoy fell into it. Ordering troops to be 
got ready, he hurried to a meeting with Akbar 
to complete the arrangement. There he found 
himself in the presence of the brotLer and rela- 
tives of the very men against whom he was 
plotting, and was seized and murdered by 
Akbar's own hand [December 23]. Still the 
General thought of nothing but surrender. The 
negotiations were entrusted to Major Pottinger. 
The terms of the chiefs gradually rose, and at 
length with much confusion the wretched army 
marched out of the cantonments [January 6, 
1843], leaving behind nearly all the cannon and 
superfluous military stores. An Afghan escort 
to secure the safety of the troops on their peril- 
ous journey had been promised, but the promise 
was not kept. The horrors of the retreat form 
one of the darkest passages in English military 
history. In bitter cold and snow, which took 
all life out of the wretched Sepoys, without 
proper clothing or shelter, and hampered by a 
disorderly mass of thousands of camp-followers, 
the army entered the terrible defiles which lie 
between Cabul and Jellalabad. Whether Akbar 
Khan could, had he wished it, have restrained 
his fanatical followers is uncertain. As a fact 
the retiring crowd — it can scarcely be called an 
army — was a mere unresisting prey to the 
assaults of the mountaineers. Constant com- 
munication was kept up with Akbar; on the 
third day all the ladies and children with the 
married men were placed in his hands, and 
finally even the two generals gave themselves up 
as hostages, always in the hope that the rem- 
nant of the army might be allowed to escape." — 
J. F. Bright, Ilist. <^ Snglnnd, v. 4, pp. 61-66.— 
"Then the march of the army, without a gen- 
eral, went on again. Soon it became the story 
of a general without an army ; before very long 
there was neither general nor army. It is idle to 
lengthen a tale of mere horrors. The strag- 


iiFGHANISTAN, 1838-1842. 

AFGHANISTAN, 1842-1869. 

gling remnant of an army entered the Jugdulluk 
Pass — a dark, steep, narrow, ascending path 
between cragj. The miserable toilers found 
that the fanatical, implacable tribes had barri- 
caded the pass. All was over. The army of 
Cabul was finally extinguished in that barri- 
caded pass. It was a trap; the British were 
taken iu it. A few mere fugitives escaped from 
the scene of actual slaughter, and were on the 
road to Jcllalabad, where Sale and his litlle 
army were holding their own. When they were 
within sixteen miles of Jcllalabad the number 
was reduced to six. Of these six five were 
killed by straggling marauders on the way. 
One man alone reached Jcllalabad to tell the 
tale. Literally one man, Dr. Brydon, came to 
Jella'.abad [January 13] out of a moving host 
whicn had numbered in all some 10,000 when it 
set out on its march. The curious eye will 
search through history or fiction in vain for 
any pii;ture more thrilling with the suggestions 
of an avvful catastrophe than that of this solitary 
survivor, faint and reeling on his jaded horse, 
as he appeared under the walls of Jcllalabad, to 
bear the tidings of our Thermopylae of pain and 
shame. This is the crisis of the story. 'NVilh 
this at least the worst of the pain and shame 
■were destined to end. The rest is all, so far 
as we are concerned, reaction and recovery. 
Our successes are common enough ; we may tell 
their tale briefly in this instance. The garrison at 
Jcllalabad had received before Dr. Brydon'a ar- 
rival an intimation that they were to go out and 
march toward India in accordance with the terms 
of the treaty extorted from Elphinstone at Cabul. 
They very properly declined to be bound by a 
vreaty which, as General Sale rightly conjec- 
tured, had been 'forced from our envoy and 
military commander with the knives at their 
throats.' General Sale's determination was clear 
and simple. 'I propose to hold this place on 
the part of Government until I receive its order 
to the contrary.' This resolve of Sale's was 
really the turning point of the history. Sale 
held Jcllalabad ; Nott was at Candahar. Akbar 
Khan besieged Jcllalabad. Nature seemed to 
have declared herself emphatically on his side, 
for a succession of earthquake shocks shattered 
the walls of the place, and produced more 
terrible destruction than the most formidable 
guns of modern warfare could have done. But 
the garrison held out fearlessly; they restored 
the parapets, re-established every battery, re- 
trenched the whole of the gates and built up all 
the breaches. They resisted every attempt of 
Akbar Khan to advance upon their works, and 
at length, when it became certain that General 
Pollock was forcing the Khyber Pass to come 
to their relief, they determined to attack Akbar 
Khan's army; they issued boldly out of their 
forts, forced a battle on the Afghan chief, and 
completely defeated him. Before Pollock, hav- 
ing gallantly fought his way through the 
Khyber Pass, had reached Jellalabad [April 16] 
the beleaguering army had been entirely defeated 
and dispersed. . . . Meanwhile the unfortunate 
Shah Soojah, whom we had restored with so 
much pomp of announcement to the throne of 
his ancestors, was dead. He was assassinated 
in Cabul, soon after the departure of the British, 
. . . and his body, stripped of its royal robes and 
its many jewels, was flung Into a ditch." — J. 
UcCarthy, Hist, ofourown IHmes, «. 1, eh. 11. 

Also in J. W. Kaye, Hist of the War in 
Afghanistan. — G. R Gleig, Sale's Brigade in 
Afijhanistan. — Lady Sale, Journal of t/ie Disas- 
ters in Afghanistan. — Mohan Lai, Life of Dost 
ifohammed, ch. 15-18 (v. 2). 

A. D. 1842-1869. — The British return to 
Cabul. — Restoration of Dost Mahomed. — It 
was not till September that General Pollock 
' ' could obtain permission from the Governor-Gen- 
eral, Lord EUcnborough, to advance against 
Cabul, though both he and Nott were burning to 
do so. AV'hen Pollock did advance, he found the 
enemy posted at Jugdulluck, the scene of the 
massacre. ' Here, ' says one writer, ' the skeletons 
lay so thick that they had to be cleared away to 
allow the guns to pass. The savage grandeur of 
the scene rendered it a fitting place for the deed 
of blood which had been enacted under its horrid 
shade, never yet pierced in some places by sun- 
light. The road was strewn for two miles with 
mouldering skeletons like a charnel house.' Now 
the enemy found they had to deal with other 
men, under other leaders, for, putting their 
whole energy into the work, the British troops 
scaled the heights and steep ascents, and defeated 
the enemy in their strongholds on all sides. 
After one more severe fight with Akbar Khan, 
and all the force he could collect, the enemy 
were beaten, and driven from their mountains, 
and the force marched quietly into Cabul. 
Nott, on his side, started from Candahar on the 
7th of August, and, after fighting several small 
battles with the enemy, he captured Ghuzni, 
where Palmer and his garrison had been de- 
stroyed. From Ghuzui General Nott brought 
away, by command of Lord EUcnborough, the 
gates of Somnauth [said to have been taken 
from the Hindu temple of Somnauth by Mah- 
moud of Ghazni, the first Mohammedan In- 
vader of India, in 1024], which formed the sub- 
ject of the celebrated ' Proclamation of the 
Gates,' as it was called. This proclamation, 
issued by Lord EUcnborough, brought upon him 
endless ridicule, and it was indeed at first con- 
sidered to be a satire of his enemies, in imitation 
of Napoleon's address from the Pyramids; the 
Duke of Wellington called it 'The Song of 
Triumph.' . . . This proclamation, put forth 
with so much flourishing of trumpets and ado, 
was really an insidt to those whom it professed 
to praise, it was an insult to the Mohammedans 
under our rule, for their power was gone, it was 
also an insult to the Hindoos, for their temple of 
Somnauth was in ruins. These celebrated ^ates, 
which are believed to be imitations of the original 
gates, are now lying neglected and worm-eaten, 
in the back part of a small museum at Agra. 
But to return, General Nott, having captured 
Ghuzni and defeated Sultan Jan, pushed on to 
Cabul, where he arrived on the 17th of Septem- 
ber, and met Pollock. The English prisoners 
(amongst whom were Brigadier Shelton and 
Lady Sale), who had been captured at the time 
of the massacre, were brought, ■ or found their, 
own way, to General Pollock's camp. Generall 
Elphinstone had died during his captivity. It 
was not now considered necessary to take any 
further steps; the bazaar in Cabul was de- 
stroyed, and on the 12th of October Pollock and 
Nott turned their faces southwards, and began 
their march into India by the Khyber route. 
The Afghans in captivity were sent back, and 
the Governor-General received the troops at 


AFGHANISTAN. 1842-1869. 


Ferozepoor. Thus ended the Afghan war of 
1838—43. . . . The war being over, we with- 
drew our forces into India, leaving the son of 
Shah Soojah, Fathl Jung, who had escaped from 
Cabul when his father was murdered, as king of 
the country, a position that he was unable to 
maintain long, being very shortly afterwards 
assassinated. In 1842 Dost JIahomed, tlie ruler 
whom we had deposed, and who had been living 
at our expense in India, returned to Cabul and 
resumed his former position as king of the coun- 
try, still bearing ill-will towards us, which he 
showed on several occasions, notably during the 
Sikh war, when he sent a body of his horsemen 
to fight for the Sikhs, and he himself marched 
an army through the Khyber to Pcshawur to 
issist our enemies. However, the occupation of 
the Punjab forced upon Dost JIahomcd the 
necessity of being on friendly terms with his 
powerful neighbour; he therefore concluded a 
friendly treaty with us in 1854, hoping thereby 
that our power would be used to prevent the in- 
trigues of Persia against his kingdom. This 
hope was shortly after realized, for in 1856 we 
declared war against Persia, an event which was 
greatly to the advantage of Dost JIahomcd, as 
it prevented Persian encroachments upon his 
territory. This war lasted but a short time, for 
early In 1857 an agreement was signed between 
England and Persia, by which the latter re- 
nounced all claims over Herat and Afghanistan. 
Herat, however, still remained independent of 
Afghanistan, until 1803, when Dost Jlahomed 
attacked and took the town, thus uniting the 
whole kingdom, including Candahar and Afghan 
Turkestan, under his rule. This was almost the 
last act of the Ameer's life, for a few days after 
taking Herat he died. By his will he directed 
that Shere Ali, one of his sons, should succeed 
him as Ameer of Afghanistan. The new Ameer 
immediately wrote to the Governor-General of 
India, Lord Elgin, in a friendly tone, asking 
that his succession might be acknowledged. 
Lord Elgin, however, as the commencemenl; of 
the Liberal policy of 'masterly inactivity' 
neglected to answer the letter, a neglect which 
cannot but be deeply regretted, as Shere Ali was 
at all events the de facto ruler of the country, 
and even had he been beaten by any other rival 
for the throne, it would have been time enough 
to acknowledge that rival as soon as he was 
really ruler of the coxintry. When six months 
later a cold acknowledgement of the letter was 
given by Sir William Denison, and when a re- 
quest that the Ameer made for 6,000 muskets 
had been refused by Lord Lawrence, the Ameer 
concluded that the disposition of England 
towards him was not that of a friend ; particu- 
larly as, when later on, two of his brothers re- 
volted against him, each of them was told by 
the Government that he would be acknowledged 
for that part of the country which he brought 
under his power. However, after various 
changes in fortune, in 1869 Shere Ali finally 
defeated his two brothers Afzool and Azim, 
together with Afzool's son, Abdurrahman." — P. 
P. Walker, Afghanistan, pp. 45-51. 

Also in J. W. Kaye, Hist, of the War in 
Afghanistan. — Q. B. Malleson, Hist, of Afghan- 
istan, ch. 11. 

A. D. 1869-1881.— The second war with 
the English and its causes. — The period of 
disturbance in Afghanistan, during the struggle 

of Shere Ali with his brothers, coincided with 
tlie vice royalty of Lord Lawrence m India. 
The policy of Lord Lawrence, "sometimes 
slightingly spoken of as masterly inactivity, 
consisted in holding entirely aloof from the dynas- 
tic quarrels of the Afghans . . . and in attempt- 
ing to cultivate the friendship of the Ameer by 
gifts of money and arms, while carefully avoid- 
ing topics of offence. . . . Lord Lawrence was 
himself unable to meet the Ameer, but his sue 
cessor. Lord !Mayo. had an interview with h\a 
at Umballah in 18G9. . . . Lord Jlayo adhered 
to the policy of his predecessor. He refused to 
enter into any close alliance, he refused to pledge 
himself to support any dynasty. But on the 
other hand he promised that he would not 
press for the admission of any English ofTicers as 
llesidents in Afghanistan. The return expected 
by England for this attitude of friendly non-in- 
terference was that every other foreign state, 
and especially Russia, should be forbidden to 
mix either directly or indirectly with the affairs 
of the country in which our interests were so 
closely involved. . . . But a different view was 
held by another school of Indian politicians, and 
was supported by men of such eminence as Sir 
Bartle Frere and Sir Henry Eawlinson. Their 
view was known as the Sindh Policy as con- 
trasted with that of the Punjab. It appeared 
to them desirable that English agents should be 
established at Quetta, Candahar, and Herat, if 
not at Cabul itself, to keep the Indian Govern- 
ment completely informed of the affairs of 
Afghanistan, and to maintain English influence 
in the country. In 1874, upon the accession of 
the Conservative Slinistry, Sir Bartle Frere pro- 
duced a memorandum in which this policy was 
ably maintained. ... A Viceroy whose views 
were more in accordance with those of the 
Government, and who was likely to be a more 
ready instrument in [its] hands, was found in 
Lord Lytton, who went to India intrusted with 
the duty of giving effect to the new policy. He 
was instructed ... to continue payments of 
money, to recognise the permanence of the 
existing dynasty, and to give a pledge of 
material support in case of unprovoked foreign 
aggression, but to insist on the acceptance of an 
English Resident at certain places in Afghanistan 
in exchange for these advantages. . . . Lord 
Lawrence and those who thought with him in 
England prophesied from the first the disastrous 
results which would arise from the alienation of 
the Afghans. . . . The suggestion of Lord 
Lytton that an English Commission should go 
to Cabul to discuss matters of common interest 
to the two Governments, was calculated . . . 
to excite feelings already somewhat unfriendly 
to England. He [Shere Ali] rejected the 
mission, and formulated his grievances. . . . 
Lord Lytton waived for a time the despatch of 
the mission, and consented to a meeting between 
the Slinister of the Ameer and Sir Lewis Pelly 
at Pcshawur. . . . The English Commissioner 
was instructed to declare that the one indispen- 
sable condition of the Treaty was the admission 
of an English representative within the limits of 
Afghanistan. The almost piteous request or 
the part of the Afghans for the relaxation of 
this demand proved unavailing, and the sudden 
death of the Ameer's envoy formed a gooa 
excuse for breaking off the negotiation. Lord 
Lytton treated the Ameer as incorrigible, gaTO 


AFGHANISTAN, 1869-1881. 

AFGHANISTAN, 1869-1881. 

him to understand that the English would pro- 
ceed to secure their frontier without further refer- 
ence to him, and withdrew his native agent 
from Cabul. While the relations between the 
two countries were in this uncomfortable con- 
dition, information reached India that a Russian 
mission had been received at Cabul. It was just 
at this time that the action of the Home Govern- 
ment seemed to be tending rapidly towards a 
war with Russia. ... As the despatch of a 
mission from Russia was contrary to the 
engagements of that country, and its reception 
under existing circumstances wore an unfriendly 
aspect, Lord Lytton saw his way with some 
plausible justification to demand the reception 
at Cabul of an English embassy. He notified 
his intention to the Ameer, but without waiting 
for an answer selected Sir Neville Chamberlain 
as his envoy, and sent him forward with an 
escort of more than 1,000 men, too large, as it 
was observed, for peace, too small for war. As 
a matter of course the mission was not admitted. 
. . . An outcry was raised both in England and in 
India. . . . Troops were hastily collected upon 
the Indian frontier; and a curious light was 
thrown on what had been done by the assertion 
of the Premier at the Guildhall banquet that 
the object in view was the formation of a ' scien- 
tific frontier;' in other v-'ords, throwing aside all 
former pretences, he declared that the policy 
of England was to make use of the opportunity 
ofTcred for direct territorial aggression. ... As 
had been foreseen by all parties from the first, 
the English armies were entirely successful in 
their first advance [November, 1878]. . . . By 
the close of December Jollalabad was in the 
hands of Browne, the Shutargardan Pass had 
been surmounted by Roberts, and in January 
Stewart established himself in Cand.ahar. When 
the resistance of his army proved ineffectual, 
Shcre Ali had taken to flight, only to die. His 
refractory son Yakoob Khan was drawn from 
his prison and assumed the reins of government 
as regent. . . . Yakoob readily granted the 
English demands, consenting to place his foreign 
relations under British control, and to accept 
British agencies. With considerably more 
reluctance, he allowed what was required for the 
rectification of the frontier to pass into English 
hands. He received in exchange a promise of 
support by the British Government, and an 
annual subsidy of £60,000. On the conclusion 
of the treaty the troops in the Jellalabad Valley 
withdrew within the new frontier, and Yakoob 
Khan was left to establish his authority as best 
he could at Cabul, whither in July Cavagnari 
with an escort of twenty-six troopers and eighty 
infantry betook himself. Then was enacted 
again the sad story which preluded the first 
Afghan war. All the parts and scenes in the 
drama repeated themselves with curious 
uniformity — the English Resident with his 
little garrison trusting blindly to his capacity 
for influencing the Afghan mind, the puppet 
king, without the power to make himself 
respected, irritated by the constant presence of 
the Resident, the chiefs mutually distrustful and 
at one in nothing save their hatred of English 
interference, the people seething with anger 
against the infidel foreigner, a wild outbreak 
which the Ameer, even had he wished it, could 
not control, an attack upon the Residency and 
the complete destruction [Sept., 1879] after a 

gallant but futile resistance of the Resident and 
his entire escort. Fortunately the extreme 
disaster of the previous war was avoided. The 
English troops which were withdrawn from the 
country were still within reach. . . . About the 
24th of September, three weeks after the out- 
break, the Cabul field force under General 
Roberts was able to move. On the 5th of Octo- 
ber it forced its way into the Logar Valley at 
Charassiab, and on the 12th General Roberts 
was able to make his formal entry into the city 
of Cabul. . . . The Ameer was deposed, martial 
law was established, the disarmament of the peo- 
ple required under pain of death, and the 
country scoured to bring in for punishment 
those chiefiy implicated in the late outbreak. 
While thus engaged in carrying out his work of 
retribution, the wave of insurrection closed 
behind the English general, communication 
through the Kuram Valley was cut off, and he 
was left to pass the winter with an army of 
some 8,000 men connected with India only by 
the Kybur Pass. ... A new and formidable 
personage . . . now made his appearance on 
the scene. This was Abdurahman, the nephew 
and rival of the late Shere Ali, who upon the 
defeat of his pretensions had sought refuge in 
Turkestan, and was supposed to be supported 
by the friendship of Russia. The expected 
attack did not take place, constant reinforce- 
ments had raised the Cabul army to 20,000, and 
rendered it too strong to be assailed. ... It 
was thought desirable to break up Afghanistan 
into a northern and southern province. . . . The 
policy thus declared was carried out. A cer 
tain Shere Ali, a cousin of the late Ameer of 
the same name, was appointed Wall or Gover- 
nor of Candahar. In the north signs were 
visible that the only possible successor to the 
throne of Cabul would be Abdurahman. . . . The 
Bengal army under General Stewart was to 
march northwards, and, suppressing on the way 
the Ghuznee insurgents, was to join the Cabul 
army in a sort of triumphant return to Peshawur. 
The first part of the programme was carried out. 
. . . The second part of the plan was fated to 
be interrupted by a serious disaster which 
rendered it for a while uncertain whether the 
withdrawal of the troops from Afghanistan was 
possible. . . . Ayoob had always expressed his 
disapproval of his brother's friendship for the 
English, and had constantly refused to accept 
their overtures. Though little was known 
about him, rumours were afloat that he intended 
to advance upon Ghuznee, and join the insur- 
gents there. At length about the middle of 
June [1880] his army started . . . But before 
the end of June Farah had been reached and it 
seemed plain that Candahar would be assaulted. 
. . . General Burrows found it necessary to fall 
back to a ridge some forty-five miles from 
Candahar called Kush-y-Nakhud. There is a 
pass called Maiwand to the north of the high- 
road to Candahar, by which an army avoiding 
the position on the ridge might advance upon 
the city. On the 27th of July the Afghan 
troops were seen moving in the direction of this 
pass. In his attempt to stop them with his 
sra.^ll force, numbering about 3,500 men. Gen- 
eral Burrows was disastrously defeated. With 
difficulty and vrith the loss of seven guns, about 
half the English troops returned to Candahar. 
General Primrose, who was in command, had no 


AFGHA2^ISTAX, 1869-1881. 

AFRICA, 1816-1818. 

choice but to strengthen the place, submit to an 
investment, and wait till he should be rescued. 
. . . The troops at Cabul -were on the point of 
withdrawing when the news of the disaster 
reached them." General Roberts at once pushed 
forward to the beleaguered city, and dispersed 

the army of the Ameer. Candahar was then 
held by the British until the fall of 1881. when 
they withdrew, Abdurahman having apparently 
established himself in power, and the country 
being in a quieted state. — J. F. Bright, Hut. of 
E/ig., period 4, pp. 534-544. 


Ancient. See Egypt ; Ethiopia ; Libyans ; 


The MediEEval City. See Barbary States : 
A. D. 1.543-1.560. 

Moslem conquest and Moslem States in the 
North. See M.\ho.\ietan Coxqcest, i.fec. : A. D. 
640-646 ; 647-709 : and 908-1171 ; also Bahbary 
States ; Egypt : A. D. 1250-1517, and after ; and 

The inhabiting races. — The indigenous races 
of Africa are considered to be four in number, 
namely : the Negroes proper, who occupy a cen- 
tral zone, stretching from the Atlantic to the 
Egyptiim Sudan, and who comprise an enormous 
number of diverse tribes ; the Fulahs (with whom 
the Nubians are associated), settled mainly be- 
tween Lake Chad and the Niger ; the Bantus, 
who occupy the whole south, except its extrem- 
ity; and the Hottentots, who are in that extreme 
southern region. Some anthropologists include 
with the Hottentots theBosjesmans or Bushmen. 
The Katjrs and Bechuanas are Bantu tribes. The 
north and northeast are occupied by Semitic and 
Ilamitic races, the latter including Abyssinians 
and Gallas. — A. H. Keane, T/ie African Maces 
(Stanford's Compeyidium : Africa, app.). 

A. D. 1415-1884. — A chronological record 
of European Exploration, Missionary Set- 
tlement, Colonization and Occupation. 

1415. — Conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese. 

1434-1461. — Portuguese explorations down 
the western coast, from Cape Bojador to Cape 
Slesurado, in Liberia, under the direction of 
Prince Henry, called the Navigator. 

1442. — First African slaves brought into Eu- 
rope by one of the ships of Prince Henry. 

1471-1482. — Portuguese explorations carried 
beyond the Guinea Coast, and to the Gold Coast, 
where the first settlement was established. 

1482. — Discovery of the mouth of the Zaire 
or Congo by the Portuguese explorer, Diogo Cao. 

1485-1596. — Establishment of Roman Catholic 
missions on the western coast. 

i486. — Unconscious rounding of the Cape of 
Good Hope by Bartholomew Diaz. 

1490-1527. — Visit to Abyssinia of Pedro da 
Covilhiio. or Covilham. the Portuguese explorer. 

1497. — Voyage of Vasco da Gama round the 
Cape of Good Hope to India. 

1505-1508. — Portuguese .settlements and forti- 
fied stations established on the eastern coast. 

1506.— Discovery of Madagascar by the Por- 

1552-1553. — Beginning of English voyages 
to the Guinea and Gold Coasts. 

1560. — French trading to the Senegal and 
Gambia begun. 

1562. — First slave-trading voyage of Sir John 
Hawkins to the Guinea Coast. 

1578.— Founding of St. Paul de Loando, Por- 
tuguese capital on the west coast. 

1582 (about). — Founding of the French post, 
St. Louis, at the mouth of the Senegal. 


1595. — Opening of trade on the western coast 
by the Dutch. 

1618-1621. — Exploration of the River Gam- 
bia for the Royal Niger Company of Eng- 

1644. — Fort Dauphin founded by the French 
in the island of Madagascar. 

1652. — Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good 

1694-1724. — ^Exploration of the River Senegal 
for the Royal Senegal Company. 

1723. — Exploration of the Gambia for the 
English Royal African Company. 

1736. — Moravian Mission on the Gold Coast. 

1737. — Moravian Mission planted by George 
Schmidt among the Hottentots. 

1754. — Substantial beginning of the domina- 
tion in Madagascar of the Hovas. 

1761-1762. — Dutch expedition from Cape 
Colony beyond the Orange River. 

1768-1773. — Journey of James Bruce to the 
fountains of the Blue Nile in Abyssinia. 

1774. — Founding of a French colony in Mada- 
gascar by Count Benyowsky. 

I78i-f785.— Travels of SI. Le Vaillant among 
the Hottentots and Kafirs. 

1787. — Founding of the English settlement 
for freed slaves at Sierra Leone. 

1788. — Formation of the African Association 
in England, for systematic exploration. 

1795. — The Cape Colony taken from the Dutch 
by the English. 

1795-1797. — The first exploring journey of 
Mungo Park, in the service of the African As- 
sociation, from the Gambia. 

1798. — Mission of Dr. John Vanderkemp to 
the Kafirs, for the London Missionary Society. 

1798. — Journey of the Portuguese Dr. La- 
cerda from the Lower Zambesi to the kingdom 
of Cazembe, on Lake Moero. 

1 802- J 806. — Restoration of Cape Colony to 
the Dutch and its reconquest by the English. 

1802-1811. — Journey of the Pombeiros (ne- 
groes) across the continent from Angola to Tete. 

1804. — Founding of the Church of England 
Mission in Sierra Leone. 

1805. — Second expedition of Mungo Park from 
the Gambia to the Niger, from which he never 

1805. — Travels of Dr. Lichtenstein in Bechu- 

1810. — Missions in Great Namaqualand and 
Damaraland begun by the London Slissionary 

1812. — Exploration of the Orange River and 
the Limpopo by Campbell, the missionary. 

1 8 12- 1 8 15.— Journey of Burckhardt" under 
the auspices of the African Association, vip the 
Nile, through Nubia, to Berbera, Shendy, and 
Suakin ; thence through Jidda to Mecca, in the 
charact<>r of a Mussulman. 

1816-1818. — Fatal and fruitless attempts to 
explore the lower course of the Niger. 

AFRICA, 1818. 

AFRICA, 1851. 

1818. — Mission in Madagascar undertaken by 
the London Missionary Society. 

1818. — Beginning, on tlie Orange River, of 
the missionary labors of Robert Moffat in South 

1818. — Exploration of the sources of the 
Gambia by Gaspard Mollien, from Fort St. Louis, 
at the mouth of the Senegal. 

1818-1820. — Exploration of Fezzan to its 
southern limit, from Tripoli, by Captain Lyon. 

1820. — First Wesleyan ilission founded in 

1820. — Treaty abolishing the slave-trade In 

1821. — Mission-work in Kaffraria undertaken 
by the Glasgow Missionary Society. 

1822. — Founding of the republic of Liberia. 
See Slavery, Negro: A. D. 1816-1847. 

1822. — Official journey of Lieutenant Laing 
from Sierra Leone in the "Timannee, Kooranko 
and Soolima " countries. 

1822-1825. — Expedition of Captain Clapper- 
ton, Dr. Oudney.and Colonel Denham, from Trip- 
oli to Lake Tchad and beyond. 

1825-1826. — Expedition of Major Laing, in 
the service of the British Government, from 
Tripoli, through the desert, to Timbuctoo, 
which he reached, and where he remained for a 
month. Two days after leaving the city he was 

X825-1827. — Expedition of Captain Clapper- 
ton from the Bight of Benin to Sokoto. 

1827. — Moravian Mission settled in the Tam- 
bookie territory, South Africa. 

1827. — Journey of Linant de Bellefonds, for 
the African Association, up the White Nile to 
,13° 6' north latitude. 

1827-1828. — Journey of Caille from a point 
on the west coast, between Sierra Leone and the 
Gambia, to Jenne and Timbuctoo; thence to Fez 
and Tangier. 

1828. — Undertakings of the Basle Missionary 
Society on the Gold Coast. 

1830-1831. — Exploration of the Niger to the 
sea by Richard and John Lender, solving the 
question as to its mouth. 

1830-1846. — French conquest and subjugation 
of Algiers. 

1831. — Portuguese mission of Major Monteiro 
and Captain Gamitto to the court of Muata 

1831. — Absorption of the African Association 
by the Royal Geographical Society of London. 

1832-1834. — First commercial exploration of 
the lower Niger, from its mouth, by Macgregor 
Laird, with two steamers. 

1833. — Mission in Basutoland established by 
the Evangelical Missionary Society of Paris. 

1834. — -Beginning of missionary labors under 
the American Board of Missions in South Africa. 

1834. — Mission founded at Cape Palmas on 
the western coast, by the American Board for 
Foreign Missions. 

1834.— The Great Trek of the Dutch Boers 
from Cape Colony and their founding of the re- 
public of Natal. 

1835. — Mission among the Zulus established 
by the American Board of Foreign Missions. 

1 835-1 849. — Persecution of Christians In 

1836-1837. — Explorations of Captain Sir 
James E. Alexander in the countries of the Great 
Namaquas, the Bushmen and the HiU Damaras. 

1839-1841. — Egyptian expeditions sent by 
Meheraet All up the White Nile to latitude 
6° 35' N. ; accompanied and narrated in part by 
Ferdinand Werne. 

1839-1843. — Missionary residence of Dr. Krapf 
in the kingdom of Shoa, in the Ethiopian high- 

1840. — Arrival of Dr. Livingstone In South 
Africa as a missionary. 

1841. — Expedition of Captains Trotter and 
Allen, sent by the British Government to treat 
with tribes on the Niger for the opening of com- 
merce and the suppression of the slave trade. 

1842. — Travels of Dr. Charles Johnston in 
Southern Abyssinia. 

1842. — Gaboon Mission, on the western coast 
near the equator, founded by the American 
Board of Foreign Slissions. 

1842. — The Rhenish Mission established by 
German missionaries at Bethanien In Nama- 

1842. — Wesleyan and Norwegian Misslooa 
opened In Natal. 

1842-1862. — French occupation of territory 
on the Gaboon and the Ogowe. 

1843.— British annexation of Natal, and mi- 
gration of the Boers to found the Orange 
Free State. 

1843. — Exploration of the Senegal and the 
Faleiue by Huard-Bessinl^res and Raffenel. 

1843-1845. — Travels and residence of Mr. 
Parkyns in Abyssinia. 

1843-1848. — Hunting journeys of Gordon 
Cumming in South Africa. 

1844. — Mission founded by Dr. Krapf at Mom- 
bassa, on the Zanzibar coast. 

1845. — Duncan's journey for the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society from Whydah, via Aborae, to 

1845. — Mission to the Cameroons established 
by the Baptist Missionary Society of Eujjland. 

1846. — Unsuccessful attempt of Raffenel to 
cross Africa from Senegal to the Nile, through 
the Sudan. 

1846. — Mission of Samuel Crowther (after- 
wards Bishop of the Niger), a native and a 
liberated slave, to the Yoruba country. 

1846. — Mission on Old Calabar River founded 
by the United Presbyterian Church in Jamaica. 

1847-1849. — Interior explorations of the Ger- 
man missionaries Dr. Krapf and Mr. Rebmano, 
from Mombassa on the Zanzibar coast. 

1848. — Founding of the Transvaal Republic 
by the Boers. 

1849. — Jlissionary journey of David Living- 
stone northward from the country of the Bechu- 
anas, and his discovery of Lake Ngaml. 

1 849- 1 85 1 . — Journey of Ladislaus Magyar from 
Bengucla to the kingdoms of Bihe and Moluwa 
on tiie interior table-land, and across the upper 
end of the Zambesi valley. 

i850.^Sale of Danish forts at Quetta, Adda, 
and Fingo, on the western coast, to Great 

1 850- 1 851. — Travels of Andersson and Gallon 
from Waltish Bay to Ovampo-land and Lake 

1850-1855.— Travels of Dr. Barth from Tripoli 
to Lake Tchad, Sokoto and the Upper Niger to 
Timbuctoo, where he was detained for nine 

1851.— Discovery of the Zambesi by Dr. 


AFRICA, 1852-1863. 

AFRICA, 187a-1875. 

1852-1863. — Hunting and trading journeys of 
Mr. Chapman in South Africa, between Natal 
and Wallish Bay and to Lake Ngami and the 

1853.— Founding of the Diocese of Natal by 
the English Church and appointment of Dr. 
Colenso to be its bishop. 

1853-1856. — Journey of Dr. Livingstone from 
Linyanti, the Makololo capital, up the Zambesi 
and across to the western coast, at St. Paul de 
Loando, thence returning entirely across the 
continent, down the Zambesi to Quilimane at its 
mouth, discovering the Victoria Falls on his 

1853-1858. — Ivory-seekingexpeditionsof John 
Petherick, up the Bahr-el-Ghazel. 

1853-1859. — Roman Catholic mission estab- 
lished at Gondokoro, on the Upper Nile. 

1854. — Exploration of the Somali country — 
the "eastern horn of Africa" — by Captains 
Burton and Speke. 

1855. — Beginning of attempts by the French 
governor of Senegal, General Faidherbe, to 
carry the flag of France Into the Western 

1856-1859. — Journeys of Du Chaillu in the 
western equatorial regions, on the Gaboon and 
the Ogobai. 

1857-1858. — Expedition of Captains Burton 
and Speke, from Zanzibar, through Uzaramo, 
Usagara, Ugogo, and Unyamwezi, to UJiji, on 
Lake Tanganyika — making the first European 
discovery of "the lake; returning to Kaze, aud 
thence continued by Speke alone, during Bur- 
ton's illness, to the discovery of Lake Victoria 

1858. — Journey of Andersson from Walfish 
Bay to the Okavango River. 

1858. — English mission station founded at 
Victoria on the Cameroons coast. 

1858-1863. — Expedition of Dr. Livingstone, 
in the service of the British Government, explor- 
ing the Shire and the Rovuma, and discovering 
and exploring Lake Nyassa — said, however, to 
have been known previously to the Portuguese. 

1860-1861. — Journey of Baron von Decken 
from Mombassa on the Zanzibar coast, to Kili- 
manjaro mountain 

1860-1862. — Return of Speke, with Captain 
Grant, from Zanzibar to Lake Victoria Nyanza, 
visiting Karagwe, and Uganda, and reaching the 
outlet of the Nile; thence through Unyoro to 
Gondokoro, and homeward by the Nile. 

1861. — Establishment of the Universities Mis- 
sion by Bishop Mackenzie on the Upper Shire. 

1861-1862. — English acquisition of the town 
and kingdom of Lagos on the Bight of Benin by 
cession from the native ruler. 

1861-1862. — Sir Samuel Baker's exploration 
of the Abyssinian tributaries of the Nile. 

1861-1862. — Journey of Captain Burton from 
Lagos, on the western coast, to Abeokuta. the 
capital of the Akus, in Yoruba, and to the Cam- 
aroons Mountains. 

1861-1862. — Journey of Mr. Baines from Wal- 
fish Bay to Lake Ngami and Victoria Falls. 

1862. — Resumption of the Christian Mission in 
Madagascar, long suppressed. 

1862-1867. — Travels of Dr. Rohlfs in Morocco, 
Algeria and Tunis, and exploring journey from 
the Gulf of the Syrtes to the Gulf of Guinea. 

1863.— Travels of Win wood Reade on the 
western coast. 

1863. — Incorporation of a large part of Kaf 
fraria with Cape Colony. 

1863. — Second visit of Du Chaillu to the west- 
em equatorial region and journey to Ashango- 

1863-1864.— Official mission of Captain Bur- 
ton to the King of Dahomey. 

1863-1864.— Exploration of the Bahr-el-Ghazel 
from Khartoum by the wealthy Dutch heiress. 
Miss Tinne, and her party. 

1863-1865.— Expedition by Sir Samuel Baker 
and his wife up the White Nile from Khartoum, 
resulting in the discovery of Lake Albert Ny- 
anza, as one of its sources. 

1864. — Mission of Lieutenant Mage and Dr. 
Quintin, sent by General Faidherbe from Sene- 
gal to the king of Segou, in the Sudait 

1866. — Founding of a Norwegian mission in 

1866-1873. — Last journey of Dr. Livingstone, 
from the Rovuma River, on the eastern coast, to 
Lake Nyassa ; thence to Lake Tanganyika, Lake 
Moero, Lake Bangweolo, and the Lualaba River, 
which he suspected of flowing into the Albert 
Nyanza, and being the ultimate fountain head 
of the Nile. In November, 1871, Livingstone 
was found at Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, by 
Henry M. Stanley, leader of an expedition sent 
in search of him. Declining to quit the country 
with Stanley, and pursuing his exploration of the 
Lualaba, Livingstone died May 1, 1878, on Lake 

1867. — Mission founded in JIadagascar by the 
Society of Friends. 

i867-i868.^British expedition to Abyssinia 
for the rescue of captives; overthrow and death 
of King Theodore. 

1868. — British annexation of Basutoland In 
South Africa. 

1869. — Christianity established as the state 
religion in Madagascar. 

1869. — Fatal expedition of Miss Tinne from 
Tripoli into the desert, where she was murdered 
by her own escort. 

" 1869-1871. — E.xplorations of Dr. Schweinfurth 
between the Bahr-el-Ghazel and the Upper 
Con CO, discovering the Welle River. 

1869-1873. — Expedition of Dr. Nachtigal from 
Tripoli through Kuka, Tibesti, Borku, Wadai, 
Darfur, and Kordofan, to the Nile. 

1870-1873. — Official expedition of Sir Samuel 
Baker, in the service of the Khedive of Egypt, 
Ismail Pasha, to annex Gondokoro, then named 
Ismalia, and to suppress the slave-trade in the 
Egyptian Sudan, or Equatoria. 

1871. — Transfer of the rights of Holland on 
the Gold Coast to Great Britain. 

1871. — Annexation of Griqualand West to 
Cape Colony. 

1871.— Scientific tour of Sir Joseph D. Hooker 
and Mr. Ball in Morocco and the Great Atlas. 

1871. — Jlissionary journey of Mr. Charles 
New in the Masai country and ascent of Mount 

1871-1880. — Hunting journeys of Mr. Selous 
in South Africa, beyond the Zambesi. 

1872-1875. — Travels of the naturalist. Rein- 
hold Buchliolz, on the Guinea coast. 

1872-1879. — Travels of Dr. Holub between 
the South African diamond fields and the Zam- 

1873-1875. — Expedition of Captain V. L. 
Cameron, from Zanzibar to Lake Tanganyika, 


AFRICA, 1873-1875. 

AFRICA, 1880-1881. 

and exploration of the Lake; thence to Nyan- 
gwe on the Liialaba, and thence across the con- 
tinent, through Ulunda, to the Portuguese set- 
tlement at Benguela, on the Atlantic coast. 

1 873-1 875. — Travels of the naturalist, Frank 
Gates, from Cape Colony to the Victoria Falls. 

1873-1876.— Explorations of GUsfeldt, Fal- 
kenstein and Pechuel-Loesche, under the aus- 
pices of the German African Association, from the 
Loango coast, north of the Congo. 

1874. — British expedition against the Ashan- 
tees, destroying their principal town Coomassie. 

1874. — Mission of Colonel Chaille-Long from 
General Gordon, at Gondokoro, on the Nile, to 
M'tese, king of Uganda, discovering Lake Ibra- 
him on his return, and completing the work of 
Speke and Baker, in the continuous tracing of 
the course of the Nile from the Victoria Nyanza. 

1874-1875.— Expedition of Colonel C. Chaille- 
Long to Lake Victoria Nyanza and the Makraka 
Niam-Niam country, in the Egyptian service. 

1874-1876. — First administration of General 
Gordon, commissioned by the Khedive as Gov- 
ernor of Equutoria. 

1874-1876. — Occupation and exploration of 
Darfur and Kordofan by the Egyptians, under 
Colonels Purdy, Mason, Prout and Colston. 

1874-1877.— Expedition of Henry M. Stanley, 
fitted out by the proprietors of the New York 
Herald and the London Daily Telegraph, which 
crossed the continent from Zanzibar to the 
mouth of the Congo River; making a prolonged 
stay in the empire of Uganda and acquiring 
much knowledge of it; circumnavigating Lakes 
Victoria and Tanganyika, and exploring the 
then mysterious great Congo River throughout 
its length. 

1874-1877. — Explorations of Dr. Junker in 
Upper Nubia and in the basin of the Bahr-el- 

1875.— Expedition of Dr. Pogge, for the Ger- 
man African Association, from the west coast, 
south of the Congo, in the Congo basin, pene- 
trating to Kawende, beyond the Ruru or Lulua 
River, capital of the Muata Tanvo, who rules a 
kingdom as large as Germany. 

1875. —Expedition of Colonel Chaille-Long 
into the country of the Makraka Niam-Niams. 

1875. — Founding by Scottish subscribers of 
the mission station called Livingstonia, at Cape 
Maclear, on the southern shores of Lake Nyassa; 
headquarters of the mission removed in 1881 to 
Bandawe, on the same lake. 

1875. — Mission founded at Blantyre, in the 
highlands above the Shire, by the Established 
Church of Scotland. 

1875-1876.— Seizure of Berbera and the region 
of the Juba River, on the Somali Coast, by 
Colonel Chaille-Long, for the Khedive of Egypt, 
and their speedy evacuation, on the remonstrance 
of England. 

1876. — Conference at Brussels and forma- 
tion of the International African Association, 
under the presidency of the king of the Bel- 
gians, for the exploration and civilization of 

1876. — Voyage of Romolo Gessi around Lake 
Albert Nyanza. 

1876. — Mission in Uganda established by the 
Church Missionary' Society of England. 

1876-1878. — Scientific explorations of Dr. 
Schweinfurth in the Arabian Desert between the 
Nile and the Red Sea. 

1876-1880. — Explorations and French annexa- 
tions by Svorgnande Brazza between the Ogowe 
and the Congo. 

1877. — The Livingstone Inland Mission, for 
Christian work in the Congo valley, established 
by the East London Institute for Home and 
Foreign Missions. 

1877-1879. — Second administration of GeneraV 
Gordon, as Governor-General of the Sudan, 
Darfur and the Equatorial Provinces. 

1877-1879.— War of the British In South 
Africa with the Zulus, and practical subjugation 
of that nation. 

1877-1879. — Journey of Serpa Pinto across 
the continent from Benguela via the Zambesi. 

1877-1880. — Explorations of the Portuguese 
officers, Capello and Ivens, in western and cen- 
tral Africa, from Benguela to the territory of 
Yacca, for the survey of the river Cuango in 
its relations to the hydrographic basins of the 
Congo and the Zambesi. 

1878. — Founding in Glasgow of the African 
Lakes Company, or "The Livingstone Central 
Africa Company," for trade on Lakes Nyassa 
and Tanganyika; by which company the "Ste- 
venson Road " was subsequently built between 
the two lakes above named. 

1878. — Walfish Bay and fifteen miles around 
it (on the western coast, in Namaqualand) de- 
clared British territory. 

1878. — Journey of Paul Soleillet from Saint- 
Louis to Segou. 

1 878-1 880. — Royal Geographical Society's 
East Central African expedition, under Joseph 
Thomson, to the Central African lakes, Tangan- 
yika, Nyassa and Leopold, from Zanzibar. 

1879. — Establishment, by the Belgian Inter- 
national Society, of a station at Karema, on the 
eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. 

1870. — Formation of the International Congo 
Association and the engagement of Mr. Stanley 
in its service. 

1879. — Missionary expeditions to the Upper 
Congo region by the Livingstone Inland Mission 
and the Baptist Missionary Society. 

1879. — Journey of Mr. Stewart, of the Living, 
stonia Mission, on Lake Nyassa, from that lake 
to Lake Tanganyika. 

1879. — Discovery of the sources of the Niger, 
in the hills about 200 miles east of Freetown, the 
capital of Sierra Leone, by the French explorers, 
Zweifel and Moustier. 

1879-1880. — Journey of Dr. Oskar Lenz, 
under the auspices of the German African Society, 
from Morocco to Timbuctoo, and thence to the 
Atlantic coast in Senegambia. The fact that the 
Sahara is generally above the sea-level, and can- 
not therefore be flooded, was determined by Dr. 

1879-1881. — Expedition of Dr. Buchner from 
Loanda to Kawende and the kingdom of the 
Muata Yanvo, where six months were spent in 
vain efforts to procure permission to proceed 
further into the interior. 

1880. — Mission established by the American 
Board of Foreign Missions in "the region ot 
Blhe and the Coanza," or Quanza, south of the 

1 880- 1 88 1. —War of the British with the Boers 
of the Transvaal. 

1880-1881. — Official mission of the German 
explorer, Gerhard Rohlfs, accompanied by Dr. 
Sleeker, to Abyssinia. 


AFRICA, 1880-1884. 

AFRICA, 1884-1891. 

l<8o-i884.— Campaigns in Upper Senegal, 
extending French supremacy to the Niger. 

1880-1884. — German Ease African Expedition 
to explore, in tlje Congo basin, tlie region between 
the Lualaba and the Luapula. 

1880-1886. — Explorations of Dr. Junker in 
the country of the Niam-Niani, and his journey 
from the Equatorial Province, through Unyoro 
and Uganda, to Zanzibar. 

1880-1889. — Journey of Captain Casati, as cor- 
respondent of the Italian geographical review, 
"L'Exploratore," from Suakin. on the Red Sea, 
into the district of the Mombuttu, west of Lake 
Albert, and the country of the Niam-Niam ; in 
which travels he was arrested by the revolt of 
the Mahdi and forced to remain with Erain Pasha 
until rescued with the latter by Stanley, in 1889. 

1881. — French protectorate over Tunis. 

1881. — Portuguese expedition of Captain An- 
drada from Senna on the Zambesi River to the 
old gold mines of Manica. 

1881. — .lourney of F. L. and W. D. James 
from Suakin, on the Red Sea, through the Base 
country, in the Egyptian Sudan. 

1881. — Founding of a mission on the Congo, 
at Stanley Pool, by the Baptist Missionary' So- 
ciety of England. 

1881-1884.— Expedition of Dr. Pogge and 
Lieutenant Wissmann to Nyangwe on the Lua- 
laba, from which point Lieutenant Wissmann 
t)ursued the journey to Zanzibar crossing the 

1881-1885.— Revolt of the ilahdi in the Su- 
dan ; the mission of General Gordon ; the uiisuc- 
cesstul expedition from England to rescue him ; 
the fall of the city and his death. 

1S81-1887. — French protectorate established 
on the Upper Niger and Upper Senegal. 

1882. — Itiilian occupation of Abyssinian terri- 
tory on the Bay of Assab. 

1882-1883. — German scientific expedition, 
under Dr. Bolira and Herr Reichard, to Lakes 
Tanganyika and Moero. 

1882-1883. — Journey of Mr. H. H. Johnston 
on the Congo. 

1883. — German acquisition of territory on An- 
gra Pequeria Bay, in Great Namaqualand. 

1883. — Exploration of Masailand by Dr. 
Fischer, under the auspices of the Hamburg 
Geographical Society. 

1883. — Explorations of Lieutenant Giraud in 
East Central Africa, descending for some dis- 
tance the Luapula. 

1883. — Scientific investigation of the basins of 
Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika, by Mr. Henry 
Drummond, for the African Lakes Company. 

1883. — Journey of M. Revoil in the South 
Somali country to the Upper Jub. 

1883-1884. — Explorations of Mr. Joseph Thom- 
son from Mombassa, through Masailand, to the 
northeast corner of the Victoria Nyanza, under 
the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society. 

1883-1885.— War of the French with the Ho- 
vas of Madagascar, resulting in the establish- 
ment of a French protectorate over the island. 

1883-1885. — Exploration of Lieutenant Giraud 
:n the lake region. 

1883-1886. — Austrian expedition, under Dr. 
Ilolub, from Cape Colony, through the Boor 
states, Bechuanaland and Matabeleland to the 
Zambesi, and beyond. 

1884. — Annexation by Germany of the whole 
v.'estcrn coast (except Walflsh Bay) between the 

Portuguese possessions and those of the British 
in South Africa. 

1884.— German occupation of territory on the 
Kameruns River, under treaties with the native 
chiefs. English treaties securing contiguous 
territory to and including tie delta of the Niger. 

1884.— German protectorate over Togolaud 
on the Gold Coast declared. 

1884.— Expedition of Dr. Peters, representing 
the Society of German Colonization, to the 
coast region of Zanzibar, and his. negotiation of 
treaties with ten native chiefs, ceding the sover- 
eignty of their dominions. 

1884.— Crown colony of British Bechuanaland 
acquired from the South African Republic. 

1884. — Portuguese Government expedition, 
under Major Carvalho, from Loanda to the Cen- 
tral African potentate called the Muata Yanvo. 

1884. — Exploration of the Benue and the 
Adamawa, by Herr Flegel. 

1884. — Scientific expedition of Mr. H. H. 
Johnston to Kilimanjaro Mountain. 

1884. — Discovery of the M'bangi or XJbangi 
River (afterwards identified with the Welle), by 
Captain Hansens and Lieutenant Van Gtle. 

1884. — Exploration of Reichard in the south- 
eastern part of the Congo State. 

A. D. 1884-1891. — Partition of the interior 
between European Powers. — " The partition 
of Africa may be said to dale from the Berlin 
Conference of 1884-85 [see Con(,o Free State], 
Prior to that Conference the question of inland 
boundaries was scarcely considered. . . . The 
founding of the Congo Independent State was 
probably the most important result of the Con- 
ference. . . . Two months after the Conference 
had concluded its labours. Great Britain and Ger- 
many had a serious dispute in regard to their re- 
spective spheres of influence on the Gulf of 
Guinea. . . . The compromise . . . arrived at 
placed the Mission Station of Victoria within the 
German sphere of influence." The frontier be- 
tween the two spheres of influence on the Bight 
of Biafra was subsequently defined by a line 
drawn, in 1886, from the coast to Yola, on the 
Benue. The Royal Niger Company, constituted 
by a royal charter, "was given .administrative 
powers over territories covered by its treaties. 
The regions thereby placed under British pro- 
tection . . . apart from the Oil Rivers District, 
which is directly administered by the Crown, 
embrace the coastal lands between Lagos and the 
northern frontier of Camarons, the Lower Niger 
(including territories of Sokoto, Gandu and 
Borgo), and the Benue from Yola to its con- 
fluence." By a protocol signed December 24, 
1885, Germany and France "defined their re- 
spective spheres of influence and action on the 
Bight of Biafra, and also on the Slave Coast and 
in Senegambia." This " fixed the inland exten- 
sion of the German sphere of influence (Camarons) 
at 15° E. longitude, Greenwich. . . . At present 
it allows the French Congo territories to expand 
along the western bank of the M"bangi . . . pro- 
vided no other tributary of the M'bangi-Congo is 
found to the west, in "which case, according to 
the Beriin Treaty of 1884-^5, the conventional 
basin of the Congo would gain an extension." 
On the 12th of Jlay, 1886, France and Portugal 
signed a convention by which France "secun-il 
the exclusive control of both banks of the Casa- 
manza (in Senegambia), and the Portuguese 
frontier in the south was advanced approximately 


AFRICA, 1884-1891. 

AFRICA, 1884-1891. 

to the southern limit of the basin of the Casini. 
On the Congo, Portugal retaiueil the Massabi dis- 
trict, to which France had laid claim, but both 
banks of the Loango were left to France." In 
1884 three represeutatives of the Society for 
German Colonization — Dr. Peters, Dr. Jilhlkc, 
and Count Pfeil — quietly concluded treaties with 
the chiefs of Useguha, Ukami, Nguru, and Usa- 
gara, by which those territories were conveyed 
to the Society in question. "Dr. Peters . . . 
armed with his treaties, returned to Berlin in 
February, 1885. On the 27th February, the day 
following the signature of the General Act of the 
Berlin Conference, an Imperial Schutzbrief, or 
Charter of Protection, secured to the Society for 
German Colonization the territories ... ac- 
quired for them through Dr. Peters' treaties: in 
other words, a German Protectorate was pro- 
claimed. When it became known that Germany 
had seized upon the Zanzibar mainland, the in- 
dignation in colonial circles knew no bounds. 
. . . Prior to 1884, the continental lands facing 
Zanzibar were almost exclusively under British 
influence. The principal traders were British 
subjects, and the Sultan's Government was ad- 
ministered under the advice of the British Resi- 
dent. The entire region between the Coast and 
the Lakes was regarded as being under the nomi- 
nal suzerainty of the Sultan. . . . Still, Great 
Britain had no territorial claims on the dominions 
of the Sultan." The Sultan formally protested 
and Great Britain championed his cause ; but to no 
effect. In the end the Sultan of Zanzibar yielded 
the German Protectorate over the four inland prov- 
inces and over Vitu, and the British and German 
Governments arranged questions between them, 
provisionally, by the Anglo-German Convention 
of 1886, which was afterwards superseded by 
the more definite Convention of July 1890, which 
will be spoken of below. In April 1887, the 
rights of the Society for German Colonization 
were transferred to the German East Africa As- 
sociation, with Dr. Peters at its head. The Brit- 
ish East Africa Company took over concessions 
that had been granted by the Sultan of Zanzibar 
to Sir William Mackinnon, and received a royal 
charter in September, 1888. In South-west Af- 
rica, "an enterprising Bremen merchant, Ilerr 
LUderitz, and subsequently the German Consul- 
General, Dr. Nachtigal, concluded a series of po- 
litical and commercial treaties with native chiefs, 
whereby a claim was instituted over Angra 
Pequefia, and over vast districts in the Interior 
between the Orange River and Cape Frio. . . . 
It was useless for the Cape colonists to protest. 
On the 13th October 1884 Germany formally 
notified to the Powers her Protectorate over 
South-AVest Africa. ... On 3rd August 1885 the 
German Colonial Company for South- West Af- 
lica was founded, and . . . received the Im- 
perial sanction for its incorporation. But in 
August 1886 a new Association was formed — 
the German West- Africa Company — and the ad- 
ministration of its territories was placed under an 
Imperial Commissioner. . . . Ths intrusion of 
Germany into South-West Africa acted as a check 
upon, no less than a spur to, the extension of 
British influence northwards to the Zambezi. 
Another obstacle to this extension arose from the 
Boer insurrection." The Transvaal, with in- 
creased independence had adopted the title of 
South African Republic. ' ' Zulu-land, having lost 
Its independence, was partitioned : a third of its 

territories, over which a republic had been pro- 
claimed, was absorbed (October 1887) by the 
Transvaal; the remainder was added (14th May 
1887) to the British possessions. Amatonga-land 
was in 1888 also taken under British protectiou. 
By a convention with the South African Repub- 
lic, Britain acquired in 1884 the Crown colony 
of Bechuana-land; and in the early part of 1885 
a British Protectorate was proclamied over the 
remaining portion of Bechuana-land." Further- 
more, "a British Protectorate was instituted 
[1885] over the country bounded by the Zambezi 
m the north, the British possessions in the south, 
' the Portuguese province of Sofala ' in the cast, 
and the 20lh degree of east longitude in the west. 
It was at this juncture that Mr. Cecil Rhodes 
came forward, and, having obtained certain con- 
cessions from Lobengula, founded the British 
South Africa Company. . . . On the 29th Oc- 
tober 1889, the British South Africa Company 
was granted a royal charter. It was declared in 
this charter that ' the princii)al field of the opera- 
tions of the British South African Company shall 
be the region of South Africa lying immediately 
to the north of British Bechuanaland, and to 
the north and west of the South African Repub- 
lic, and to the west of the Portuguese domin- 
ions.'" No northern limit was given, and the 
other boundaries were vaguely defined. The 
position of Swazi-land was definitely settled in 
1890 by an arrangement between Great Britain 
and the South African Republic, which provides 
for the continued independence of Swazi-land and 
a joint control over the white settlers. A British 
Protectorate was proclaimed over Nyassa-land 
and the Shire Highlands in 1889-90. To return 
now to the proceedings of other Powers in Africa: 
"Italy took formal possession, in July 1882, of 
the bay and territory of Assab. The Italian 
coast-line on the Red Sea was extended from Ras 
Kasar (18° 2' N. Lat.) to the southern boundary 
of Raheita, towards Obok. During 1889, shortly- 
after the death of King Johannes, Keren and 
Asmara were occupied by Italian troops. Mene- 
lik of Shoa, who succeeded to the throne of 
Abyssinia after subjugating all the Abyssinian 
provinces, except Tigre, dispatched an embassy 
to King Humbert, the result of which was that 
the new Negus acknowledged (29th September, 
1889) the Protectorate of Italy over Abyssinia, 
and its sovereignty over the territories of Mas- 
sawa, Keren and Asmara." By the Protocols 
of 24th March and 15th April, 1891, Italy and 
Great Britain define their respective Spheres of 
Influence in East Africa. " But since then Italy 
has practically withdrawn from her position. 
She has absolutely no hold over Abyssinia. . . . 
Italy has also succeeded in establishing herself 
on the Somal Coast." By treaties concluded in 
1889, ' ' the coastal lands between Cape Warsheikh 
(about 2° 30' N. lat.), and Cape Bedwin (8° 
3' N. lat. ) — a distance of 450 miles — were placed 
under Italian protection. Italy subsequently ex- 
tended (1890) her Protectorate over the Soma) 
Coast to the Jub river. . . . The British Pro- 
tectorate on the Somal Coast facing Aden, now 
extends from the Italian frontier at Ras Ilafiin 
to Ras Jibute (43° 1.5' E. long.). . . . The activ- 
ity of France in her Senegambian province, . . . 
during the last hundred years . . . has finally 
resulted In a considerable expansion of her terri- 
tory. . . . The French have established a claim 
over the country intervening between our Gold 


AFRICA, 1884^1891. 

AFRICA. 1885. 

Coast Colony and Liberia. A more precise de- 
limitation of the frontier between Sierra Leone 
and Liberia resulted from the treaties signed at 
Monrovia on the 11th of November, 1887. In 1888 
Portugal withdrew all rights over Dehome. . . . 
Recently, a French sphere of influence has been 
instituted over the whole of the Saharan regions 
between Algeria and Senegambia. . . . Declara- 
tions were exchanged (5th August 1890) between 
[France and Great Britain] with the following 
results : France became a consenting party to the 
Anglo-German Convention of 1st July 1890. (3.) 
Great Britain recognised a French sphere of in- 
fluence over Madagascar. . . . And (3) Great Brit- 
ain recognised the sphere of influence of France to 
the south of her Mediterranean possessions, up to 
a line from Say on the Niger to Barrua on Lake 
Tsad, drawn in such a manner as to comprise in 
the sphere of action of the British Niger Com- 
pany all that fairly belongs to the kingdom of 
Sokoto." The Anglo-German Convention of 
July, 1890, already referred to, established by its 
main provisions the following definitions of ter- 
ritory: " Tlie Anglo-German frontier in East 
Africa, which, by the Convention of 1886, ended 
at a point on the eastern shore of the Victoria 
Nyanza was continued on the same latitude across 
the lake to the confines of the Congo Independent 
State ; but, on the western side of the lake, this 
frontier was, if necessary, to be deflected to the 
south, in order to include !Mount M'f umbiro within 
the British sphere. . . . Treaties in that district 
were made on behalf of the British East Africa 
Company by Mr. Stanley, on his return (May 
1889) from the relief of Emin Pasha. ... (2.) 
The southern boundary of the German sphere of 
influence in East Africa was recognised as that 
ori,jinally drawn to a point on the eastern shore 
of Lake Nyassa, whence it was continued by the 
eastern, northern, and western shores of the lake 
to the northern bank of the mouth of the River 
Songwe. From this point the Anglo-German 
frontier was continued to Lake Tanganika, in 
such a manner as to leave the Stevenson Road 
within the British sphere. (3.) The Northern 
frontier of British East Africa was defined by 
the Jub River and the conterminous boundary of 
the Italian sphere of influence in Galla-land and 
Abyssinia up to the confines of Egypt ; in the 
west, by the Congo State and the Congo-Nile 
watershed. (4.) Germany withdrew, in favor of 
Britain, her Protectorate over Vitu and her claims 
to all territories on the mainland to the north of 
the River Tana, as also over the islands of Patta 
and Manda. (5.) In South-West Africa, the 
Anglo-German frontier, originally fixed up to 23 
south latitude, was confirmed; but from this 
point the boundary-line was drawn in such a man- 
ner eastward and northward as to give Germany 
free access to the Zambezi by the Chobe River. 
(6.) The Anglo-German frontier between Togo 
and Gold Coast Colony was fixed, and that be- 
tween the Camarons and the British Niger Ter- 
ritories was provisionally adjusted. (7.) The 
Free-trade zone, defined by the Act of Berlin 
(1885) was recognised as applicable to the present 
arrangement between Britain and Gennany. (8.) 
A British Protectorate was recognised over the 
dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar within the 
British coastal zone and over the islands of Zan- 
zibar and Pemba. Britain, however, undertook 
to use her influence to secure (what have since 
been acquired) corresponding advantages for 


Germany within the German coastal zone and 
over the island of Mafia. Finally (9), the island 
of Ileligoland, in the North Sea, was ceded by 
Britain to Germany." By a treaty concluded in 
June, 1891, between Great Britain and Portugal, 
" Great Britain acquired a broad central sphere 
of influence for the expansion of her possessions 
in South Africa northward to and beyond the 
Zambezi, along a path which provides for the un- 
interrupted passage of British goods and British 
enterprise, up to the confines of the Congo In- 
dependent State and German East Africa. . . . 
Portugal, on the East Coast secured the Lower 
Zambezi from Zumbo, and the Lower Shire from 
the Ruo Confluence, the entire Hinterland of 
Mosambique up to Lake Nyassa and the Hinter- 
land of Sofala to the confines of the South African 
Republic and the Matabele kingdom. On the 
West Coast, Portugal received the entire Hinter- 
land behind her provinces in Lower Guinea, up 
to the confines of the Congo Independent State, 
and the upper course of the Zambezi. . . . On 
!May 2uth 1891 a Convention was signed at Lis- 
bon, which has put an end to the dispute between 
Portugal and the Congo Independent State as to 
the possession of Lunda. Roughly speaking, the 
country was equally divided between the dispu- 
tants. . . . Lord Salisbury, in his negotiations 
with Germany and Portugal, very wisely upheld 
the principle of free-trade which was laid down 
by the Act of Berlin, 1885, in regard to the free 
transit of goods through territories in which two 
or more powers are indirectly interested." 
"Thus, by the Anglo-German compact, the con- 
tracting powers reserved for their respective 
subjects a ' right of way,' so to speak, along 
the main channels or routes of communication. 
Through the application of the same principle 
in the recent Anglo-Portuguese Convention, 
Portugal obtains not only a 'right of way' 
across the British Zambesi zone, but also the 
privilege of constructing railways and telegraphs. 
She thereby secures free and uninterrupted con- 
nection between her possessions on the East 
Coast and those on the "West Coast. A similar 
concession is made to Britain in the Zambesi 
basin, within the Portuguese sphere. Finally, 
the Zambesi itself has been declared free to the 
flags of all nations. Britain has stipulated for 
the right of preemption in the event of Por- 
tugal wishing to dispose of territories south of 
the Zambesi." — A. S. White, Tlie Dnelo-pnient 
of Jfrica, second ed., rev., 1892. — See, also. South 
Afric.\, and Uganda. 

A. D. 1884-1E95. — Chronology of European 
Exploration, Missionary Settlement, Coloni- 
zation and Occupation. 

1884-1885.— The Berlin Conference of Powers, 
held to determine the limits of territory conceded 
to the International Congo Association, to estab- 
lish freedom of trade within that territory, and 
to formulate rules for regulating in future the 
acquisition of African territory. 

1884-1885.— Journey of Mr. Walter M. Kerr 
from Cape Colony, across the Zambesi, to Lake 
Nyassa, and down the Shire River to the coast. 

1884-1885.— Travels of Mr. F. L. James and 
party in the Somali country. 

1 884-1887.— Exploration bv Dr. Sehinz of the 
newly acquired German terriWries in Africa. 

1885. — Transfer of the rights of the Society 
of Gcriiian Colonization to the German East 
Africa Company, and extension of imperial 

AFRICA, 1885. 

AFRICA, 1889-1890. 

protection to the territories claimert by the Com- 
pany. German acquisition of Witu, north of 

1885. — Agreement between Grcrmany and 
France, defining their respective spheres of in- 
fluence on the Bight of Biafra, on the slave 
coast anil in Senegambia. 

1885. — Transformation of the Congo Associa- 
tion into the Independent State of the Congo, 
with King Leopold of Belgium as its sover- 

1885. — British Protectorate extended to the 
Zambesi, over the country west of the Portu- 
guese province of Sofala, to the 20th degree of 
east longitude. 

1885. — British Protectorate extended over the 
remainder of Bechuanaland. 

1885.— Italian occupation of Massowa, on the 
Red Sea. 

1885. — Mission of Mr. Joseph Thomson, for 
the National African Company, up tlie Niger, to 
Sokoto and Gando, securing treaties with the 
sultans under which the company acquired para- 
mount rights. 

1885-1888. — Mission of M. Borelli to the 
kingdom of Shoa (Southern Ethiopia) and south 
of it. 

1885-1889.— When, after the fall of Khar- 
toum and the death of General Gordon, in 188.5, 
the Sudan was abandoned to the Malidi and the 
fanatical Mohammedans of the interior, Dr. Ed- 
ward Schnitzer, better known as Emin Paslia, 
who had been in command, under Gordon, of the 
province of the Equator, extending up to Lake 
Albert, was cut off for six years from communi- 
cation with the civilized world. In 1887 an ex- 
pedition to rescue him and his command was 
sent out under Henry M. Stanley. It entered 
the continent from the west, made its way up 
the Congo and the Aruwimi to Yambuya ; thence 
through the unexplored region to Lake Albert 
Nyanza and into communication with Emin 
Pasha; then returning to Yambuya for the rear- 
guard which had been left there ; again travers- 
ing the savage land to Lake Albert, and passing 
from there, with Emin and his companions, by 
way of Lake Albert Edward Nyanza (then 
ascertained to be the ultimate reservoir of tlie 
Nile system) around the southern extremity of 
the Victoria Nyanza, to Zanzibar, which was 
reached at the end of 1889. 

1886. — Settlement between Great Britain and 
Germany of the coast territory to be left under 
the sovereignty of the Sultan of Zanzibar, and 
of the "spheres of influence" to be appropriated 
respectively by themselves, between the lakes 
and the eastern coast, north of the Portuguese 

1886. — Agreement between Fr.ance and Portu- 
gal defining limits of territory in Senegambia and 
at the mouth of the Congo. 

1886. — Transformation of the African 
Company into the British Royal Niger Company, 
with a charter giving powers of administration 
over a large domain on the River Niger. 

1886. — Mission station founded by Mr. Arnot 
at Bunkeya, in the southeastern part of the 
Congo State. 

1886-1887. — Jou^ey of Lieutenant Wis:imann 
across the continent, from Luluaburg, a station 
of the Congo Association, in the dominion of 
Muata Yanvo, to Nyangwe, on the Lualaba, 
and thence to Zanzibar. 

1886-1889.— Expeditions of Dr. Zintgraff in 
the Cameroons interior and to the Benue, for the 
bringing of the country under German inlluence. 

1887. — Annexation of Zululand, partly to the 
Tra-nsvaal, or South African Repulilic, and the 
remainder to the British possessions. 

1887. — French gunboats launched on the Up- 
per Niger, making a reconnoissance nearly to 

1887.— Indentity of the Welle River with the 
M'bangi or Ubangi established by Captain Van 
GOle and Lieutenant Lienart. 

1887. — First ascent of Kilimanjaro by Dr. 
Hans Meyer. 

1887-1889. — Exploration by Captain Binger 
of the region between the great bend of the 
Niger and the countries of the Gold Coast. 

1887-1890.— Expedition of Count Telekl 
through Masailand, having for its most impor- 
tant result the discovery of the Basso-Narok, or 
Black Lake, to which the discoverer gave the 
name of Lake Rudolf, and Lake Stefanie. 

1888. — Chartering of the Imperial British 
East Africa Company, under concessions granted 
by the sultan of Zanzibar and by native chiefs, 
with powers of administration over a region de- 
fined ultimately as extending from the river 
Umba northward to the river Jub, and inland to 
and across Lake Victoria near its middle to the 
eastern boundary of the Congo Free State. 

1888. — British supremacy over Matabeleland 
secured by treaty with its King Lobengula. 

1888. — British Protectorate extended over 

1888. — Ascent of Mt. Kilimanjaro by Mr. 
Elders and Dr. Abbott; also by Dr. Hans 

1888.— Travels of Joseph Thomson in the At- 
las and southern Morocco. 

1889. — Royal charter granted to the British 
South Africa Company, witli rights and powers 
in the region called Zambesia north of British 
Bechuanaland and the South African Republic, 
and between the Portuguese territory on the east 
and the German territory on the west. 

1889. — Will of King Leopold, making Bel- 
gium heir to the sovereign rights of the Congo 
Free State. 

1889. — Protectorate of Italy over Abyssinia 
acknowledged by the Negus. 

1889. — Portuguese Roman Catholic Mission 
established on the south shore of Lake Nyassa. 
Portuguese exploration under Serpa Pinto in the 
Lake Nyassa region, with designs of occupancy 
frustrated by the British. 

1889. — Journey of M. Crampel from the 
Ogowe to the Likuala tributary of the Congo, 
and return directly westward to the coast. 

1889. — Dr. Wolf's exploration of the southeast 
Niger basin, where he met his death. 

1889. — ]\Iajor Macdonald's exploration of the 
Benue, sometimes called the Tchadda (a branch 
of the Niger), and of its tributary the Kebbi. 

1889. — Journey of Mr. H. H. Johnston north 
of Lake Nyassa and to Lake Leopold. 

1889. — Journey of Mr. Sharpe through the 
country lying between the Shire and Loangwa 

1889. — Jlr. Pigott's journey to the Upper 
Tana, in the service of the Imperial British East 
Africii Company. 

1889-1890. — British Protectorate declared over 
Nyassuland and the Shire Higlilands. 


AFRICA, 1889-1890. 

AFRICA, 1891-1892. 

1889-1890. — Italian Protectorate established 
over territory on the eastern (oceanic) Somali 
coast, from the Gulf of Aden to the Jub River. 

1889-1890. — Imperial British East Africa Com- 
pany's e-xpedition, under Jackson and Gedge, for 
the exploring of a new road to the Victoria Ny- 
anza and Uganda. 

1889-1890. — Captain Lugard's exploration of 
the river Sabakhi for the Imperial British East 
Africa Company. 

1889-1890. — Journey of Lieutenant Morgen 
from the Cameroons, on the western coast to the 

1889-1890. — French explorations in Mada- 
gascar by Dr. Catat and MM. Maistre and 

1890. — Anglo -German Convention, defining 
boundaries of the territories and " spheres of in- 
fluence " respectively claimed by the two powers ; 
Germany withdrawing from Vitu, and from all 
the eastern mainland coast north of the river 
Tana, and conceding a British Protectorate over 
Zanzibar, in exchange for the island of Heligo- 
land in the North Sea. 

1890. — French "sphere of influence" extend- 
ing over the Sahara and the Sudan, from Algeria 
to Lake Tchad and to Say on tlie Niger, recog- 
nized by Great Britain. 

1890. — Exploration of the river Sangha, an 
important northern tributary of the Congo, by 
M. Cholet. 

1890. — Exploring journey of M. Hodister, 
agent of the Upper Congo Company, up the 
Lomami river and across country to the Lua- 
laba, at Nyangwe. 

1890. — journey of Mr. Garrett in the interior 
of Sierra Leone to the upper waters of the 

1890.— Journey of Dr. Fleck from the west- 
ern coast across the Kalihari to Lake Ngami. 

1890-1891. — Itr.lian possessions in the Red Sea 
united in the colony of Eritrea. 

1890-1891. — Mission of Captain Lugard to 
Uganda and signature of a treaty by its king 
acknowledging the supremacy of the British 
East Africa Company. 

1890-1891. — Exploration by M. Paul Crampel 
of the central region between the French ter- 
ritories on the Congo and Lake Tchad, ending 
in the murder of M. Crampel and several of 
his companions. 

1890-1891. — Journey of Mr. Sharpe from 
Mandala, in the Shire Highlands, to Garenganze, 
the empire founded by an African adventurer, 
Mshidi, in the Katanga copper country, be- 
tween Lake Moero and the Luapula river on 
the east, and the Lualaba on the west. 

1890-1891. — Journey of Lieutenant Mizon 
from the Niger to the Congo. 

1890-1891. — Journey of Captain Becker from 
Yambuva, on the Aruwimi, north-northwest to 
the Welle. 

1890-1892. — Italian explorations in the So- 
mali countries by Signor Robecchi, Lieutenant 
Baudi di Vesme, Prince Ruspoli, and Captains 
Bottego and Grixoni. 

1890-1893. — Expedition of Dr. Stuhlmann, 
with Emin Pasha, from Bagamoyo, via the 
Victoria Nyanza and the Albert Edward, to the 
plateau west of the Albert Nyanza. From this 
point Dr. Stuhlmann returned, while Emin pur- 
sued his way, intending it is said, to reach Kib- 
ODge, on the right bank of the Congo, south 


of Stanley Pails. He was murdered at Kinena, 
150 miles northeast of Kibonge, by the order 
of an Arab chief. 

1891. — Extension of the British Protectorate 
of Lagos over the neighboring districts of Addo, 
Igbessa, and Ilaro, which form the western 
boundary of Toruba. 

1891. — Treaty between Great Britain and 
Portugal defining their possessions; conceding to 
the former an interior extension of her South 
African dominion up to the southern boundary 
of the Congo Free State, and securing to the 
latter defined territories on the Lower Zambesi, 
the Lower Shire, and the Nyassa, as well as the 
large block of her possessions on the western 

1891. — Convention between Portugal and the 
Congo Free State for the division of the dis- 
puted district of Lunda. 

1891. — Convention of the Congo Free State 
with the Katanga Company, an international 
syndicate, giving the Company preferential 
rights over reputed mines in Katanga and Urua, 
with a third of the public domain, provided it 
established an effective occupation within three 

1891. — French annexation of the Gold Coast 
between Liberia and the Grand Bassam. 

1891. — Opening of the Royal Trans- African 
Railway, in West Africa, from Loanda to Am- 
baca, 140 miles. 

1891. — Survey of a railway route from the 
eastern coast to Victoria Lake by the Imperial 
British East Africa Company. 

1891. — Exploration of the Jub River, in the 
Somali country, by Commander Dundas. 

1891. — Exploration by Captain Dundas, from 
the eastern coast, up the river Tana to Mount 

1891. — Mr. Bent's exploration of the ruined 
cities of Mashonaland. 

1891. — Journey of M. Maistre from the Congo 
to the Shari. 

1891. — Journeys of Captain Qallwey in the 
Benin country, West Africa. 

1891. — Mission established by the Berlin Mis- 
sionary Society in the Konde country, at the 
northern end of Lake Nyassa. 

1891-1892. — Incorporation of the African 
Lakes Company with the British South Africa 
Company. Organization of the administration 
of Northern Zambesia and Nyassaland. 

1891-1892. — Expedition of the Katanga 
Company, under Captain Stairs, from Bagamoyo 
to Lake "Tanganyika, thence through the coun- 
try at the head of the most southern affluents 
of the Congo, the Lualaba and the Luapula. 

1891-1892. — Belgian expeditions under Cap- 
tain Bia and others to explore the southeastern 
portion of the Congo Basin, on behalf of the 
Katanga Company, resulting in the determina- 
tion of the fact that the Lukuga River is an 
outlet of Lake Tanganyika. 

1891-1892. — Journey of Dr. James Johnston 
across the continent, from Benguela to the 
mouth of the Zambesi, through Bihe, Ganguela, 
Barotse, the Kalihari Desert, Mashonalanii, 
Manica, Gorongoza, Nyassa, and the Shire High- 

1891-1892. — Expedition of Mr. Joseph Thom- 
son, for the British South Africa Company, frnm 
Kilimane or Quillimane on the eastern coast to 
Lake Bangweolo. 

AFRICA, 1891-1893. 


1891-1892.— Journey of Captain Monteil from 
the Niger to Liike Tchad and to Tripoli. 

1891-1892. — E.xploration by Lieutenant Chal- 
tin of the river Lulu, and the country between 
the Aruwiini and the Welle Makua Rivers, in the 
Congo State. 

1891-1893. — Journey of Dr. Oscar Baumnnn 
from Tanga, on the eastern coast; passing to the 
south of Kilimanjaro, discovering two lakes be- 
tween that mountain and the Victoria Nyanza. 

1891-1894. — Expedition under the coinmand of 
Captain Van Kerckhoven and M. de la Kethulle 
de Ryhove, fitted out by the Congo Free State, 
for the subjugation of the Arabs, the suppression 
of the slave trade, and the exploration of the 
country, throughout the region of the Welle or 
Ubangi Uelle and to the Nile. 

1892. — Decision of the Imperial British East 
Africa Company to withdraw from Uganda. 

1892.— Practical conquest of Dahomey by the 

1892. — Journey of M. Mery in the Saliara to 
the south of Wargla, resulting in a report favor- 
able to the construction of a railway to tap the 
Central Sudan. 

1892. — French expedition under Captain Sin- 
ger to explore the southern Sudan, and to act con- 
jointly with British officials in determining the 
boundary between French and English posses- 

1892. — Journey of Mr. Sharpe from the Shire 
River to Lake Moero and the Upper Lunpula. 

1892-1893. — Construction of a line of tele- 
graph, by the British South African Company, 
from Cape Colony, through Mashonaland, to 
Fort Salisbury, with projected extension across 
the Zambesi and by the side of Lakes Nyassa 
and Tanganyika to Uganda, — and ultimately 
down the valley of the Nile. 

1892-1893. — French scientific mission, under 
M. Dfecle, from Cape Town to the sources of the 

1802-1893. — Italian explorations, under Cap- 
tain B6ttego and Prince Ruapoli, in the upper 
basin of the River Jub. 

1893. — Brussels Antislavery Conference, rati- 
fied in its action by the Powers. 

1893. — Official mission of Sir Gerald Porter to 
Uganda, sent by the British Government to re- 
port as to the expediency of the withdrawal of 
British authority from that country. 

1893.— Scientific expedition of Mr. Scott-El- 
liot to Uganda. 

1893. — Scientific expedition of Dr. Gregory, of 
the British Museum, from Mombassa, on the east- 
ern coast, through Masailand to Mount Kenia. 

1893.— Journey of Mr. Bent to Aksum, in Abys- 
sinia, the ancient capital and sacred city of the 

1893-1894. — German scientific survey of 
Mount, Kilimanjaro, under Drs. Lent and Volkens. 

1893-1894.— Expedition of Mr. Astor Chanler 
and Lieutenant von HOhnel from Witu, on the 
eastern coast, to the Jombini Range and among 
the Rendile. 

1893-1804. — Explorations of Baron von Uech- 
tritz and Dr. Passarge on the Benue. 

1893-1894. — Journey of Baron von Scheie 
from the eastern coast to Lake Nyassa, and 
thence by a direct route to Kihsa. 

1893-1894. — Journey of Count von GOtzen 
across the continent, from Dar-esSalaam, on the 
lastern coast, to the Lower Congo. 


1894.— Treaty between Great Britain and the 
Congo Free State, securing to the former a strip 
of land on the west side of the Nile between 
the Albert Nyanza and 10° north latitude, and to 
the latter the large Bahr-el-Ghazel region, west 
ward. This convention gave offense to France, 
and that country immediately exacted from the 
Congo Free State a treaty stipulating that the 
latter shall not occupy or exercise political Influ- 
ence in a region which covers most of the terri- 
tory assigned to It by the treaty with Great 

1894. — Franco-German Treaty,determinlng the 
boundary line of the Cameroons, or Kamerun. 

1894. — Treaty concluded by Captain Lugard, 
November 10, at Nikki, in Borgu, confirming 
the rights claimed by the Royal Niger Company 
over Borgu, and placing that country under 
British protection. 

1894.— Agreement between the British South 
Africa Company and the Government of Great 
Britain, signed November 24, 1894, transferring 
to the direct administration of the Company the 
Protectorate of Nyassaland, thereby extending 
its domain to the south end of Lake Tangan- 

1894. — Renewed war of France with thj 
Hovas of Madagascar. 

1894. — Expedition of Dr. Donaldson Smith 
from the Somali coast, stopped and turned back 
by the Abyssinians, in December. 

1894. — Completed conquest of Dahomey by 
the French; capture of the deposed king, Janu- 
ary 35, and his deportation to exile in Martin- 
ique. Decree of the French Government, June 
23, directing the administrative organization of 
the "colony of Dahomey and Dependencies." 

1894. — Occupation of Timbuctoo by a French 

1894. — Journey of Count von GOtzen across 
the continent, from the eastern coast, through 
Ruanda and the Great Forest to and along the 
Lowa, an eastern tributary of the Congo. 

1894. — Exploration of the Upper Congo and 
the Lukuga by Mr. R. Dorsey Mohun, American 
Agent on the Congo, and Dr. Hinde. 

1894.— Scientific expedition of Mr. Coryndon 
from the Cape to the Zambesi and Lake Tan- 

1894-1895. — War of the Italians in their 
colony of Eritrea with both the Abyssinians and 
the Mahdists. Italian occupation of Kassala. 

1895. — Franco-British agreement, signed Jan- 
uary 31, 1895, respecting the "Hinterland" of 
Sierra Leone, which secures to France the Upper 
Niger basin. 

1895. — Convention between Belgium and 
France signed February 5, recognizing a right of 
preemption on the part of the latter, with re- 
gard to the Congo State, in case Belgium should 
at any time renoimce the sovereignty which 
King Leopold desires to transfer to it. 

AGADE. See B.ibylonia: The Eablt 


ADAS. See Suulime PonTB. 

AGATHOCLES, The tyranny of. See 
Syiiacuse: B. C. 317-289. 

&c. See Stone Aoe. 

AGELA.— AGE L AT AS.— The youths and 
young men of ancient Crete were publicly 



trained and disciplined in divisions or companies, 
each of wliicli was called an Agela, tiud its 
leader or director ttie Agelatas. — G. SchOmann, 
Antiq. of Greece : Tlie State, pt. 3, ch. 3. 

AGEMA, The. — The royal escort of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

AGEN, Origin of. See Nitiobkioes. 


AGER PUBLICUS.— "Rome was always 
making fresh acquisitions of territory in her 
early history. . . . Large tracts of country be- 
came Roman land, the property of the Roman 
state, or public domain (ager publicus), as the 
Romans called it. The condition of this laud, 
the use to which it was applied, and the dis- 
putes which it caused between the two orders at 
Rome, are among the most curious and perplex- 
ing questions in Roman history. . . . That part 
of newly-acquired territory which was neither 
sold nor given remained public property, and it 
was occupied, according to the Roman term, by 
private persons, in whose hands it was a Pos- 
seasio. Hyginus and Siculus Flaccus represent 
this occupation as being made without any 
order. Every Roman took what he could, and 
more than he could use profitably. . . . AVe 
should be more inclined to believe that this 
public land was occupied under some regula- 
tions, in order to prevent disputes; but if such 
regulations existed we know nothing about 
them. There was no survey made of the public 
land which was from time to time acquired, but 
there were certainly general boundaries fixed for 
the purjjose of determining what had become 
public property. The lands which were sold 
and given were of necessity surveyed and fixed 
by boundaries. . . . There is no direct evidence 
that any payments to the state were originally 
made by the Possessors. It is certain, however, 
that at some early time such payments were 
made, or, at least, were due to the st.ite." — G. 
Long, Decline of the Roman Republic, ch. 11. 

AGGER. S'ee Castr.\. 

AGGR AVI ADOS, The. See Spain: A. D. 

Persia, A. D. 179.'5-1797. 

TAN Conquest and EirpuiE: A. D. 715-750. 

AGHRIM, OR AUGHRIM, Battle of (A. 
D. 1691). See Ireland: A. D. 16S0-1G91. 

AGILULPHUS, King of the Lombards. 
A. D. 590-616. 

AGINCOURT, Battle of (1415). See 
France: A. D. 1415. 

AGINNUM.— Modern Agen. See Nitio- 


AGNADEL, Battle of (1509). See Venice: 
A. D. 1.508-1509. 

AGNATI.-AGNATIC. See Gens, Roman. 

AGNIERS, The. See American Aborigi- 
nes: Aqnikrb. 

AGOGE, The. — The public discipline en- 
forced in ancient Sparta; the ordinances attri- 
buted to Lycurgus, for the training of the young 
and for the regulating of the lives of citizens. — 
G. SchOmann, Antiq. of Greece : Tlie State, pt. 3, 
eh. 1. 

AGORA, The. — The market-place of an ancient 
Greek city was, also, the centre of its political 
life. " Like the gymnasium, and even earlier 
than this, it grew into architectural splendour 

with the increasing culture of the Greeks. In 
maritime cities it generally lay near the sea ; in 
inland places at the foot of the hill which carried 
the old feudal castle. Being the oldest part of 
the city, it naturally became the focus not only 
of commercial, but also of religious and political 
life. Here even in Homer's time the citizens 
assembled in consultation, for which purpose it 
was supplied with seats; here were the oldest 
sanctuaries; here were celebrated the first fes- 
tive games; here centred the roads on which the 
intercommunication, both religious and commer- 
cial, with neighbouring cities and states was car- 
ried on ; from here started the processions which 
continually passed between holy places of kin- 
dred origin, though locally separated. Although 
originally all public transactions were carried on 
in these market-places, special local arrange- 
ments for contracting public business soon 
became necessary in large cities. At Athens, for 
instance, the gently rising ground of the Philo- 
pappos hill, called Pnyx, touching the Agora, 
was used for political consultations, while most 
likely, about the time of the Pisistratides, the 
market of Kerameikos, the oldest seat of Attic 
industry (lying between the foot of the Akropo- 
lis, the Areopagos and the hill of Theseus), 
became the agora proper, i. e., the centre of 
Athenian commerce. . . . The description by 
Vitruvius of an agora evidently refers to the 
splendid structures of post-Alexandrine times. 
According to him it was quadrangular in size 
[? shape] and surrounded by wide double colon- 
ades. The numerous columns carried architraves 
of common stone or of marble, and on the roofs of 
the porticoes were galleries for walking purposes. 
This, of course, does not apply to all market- 
places, even of later date; but, upon the whole, 
the remaining specimens agree with the descrip- 
tion of Vitruvius." — E. Guhl and W. Koner, 
Life of the Greeks and Roman.i, tr. by Ilueffer, pt. 
1, sect. 26. — In the Homeric time, the general 
assembly of freemen was called the Agora. — G. 
Grote, Hist, of Greece, pt. 1, ch. 20. 

AGRiEI, The. See Aicaenani.\nb. 

AGRARIAN LAWS, Roman.—" Great mis- 
takes formerly prevailed on the nature of the 
Roman laws familiarly termed Agrarian. It 
was supposed that by these laws all land was 
declared common property, and that at certain 
intervals of time the state resumed possession 
and made a fresh distribution to all citizens, 
rich and poor. It is needless to make any 
rcmarlvs on the nature and consequences of such 
a law ; sufficient it will be to say, what is now 
known to all, that at Rome such laws never 
existed, never were thought of. The lands 
which were to be distributed by Agrarian laws 
were not private property, but the property of 
the state. They were, originally, those public 
lands which had been the domain of the kings, 
and which were increased whenever any city 
or people was conquered by the Romans ; because 
it was an Italian practice to confiscate the lands 
of the conquered, in whole or in part." — H. G. 
Liddell, Hist, of Rome, bk. 3, ch. 8.— See Rome: 
B. C. 376, and B. C. 133-121. 

AGRI DECUMATES, The.— "Between the 
Rhine and the Upper Danube there intervenes a 
triangular tract of land, the apex of which 
touches the confines of Switzerland at Basel; 
thus separating, as with an enormous wedge, 
the provinces of Gaul and Vindelicia, and pre- 



senling at its base no natural lino of defence 
from one river to the otlier. Tliis tract was, 
however, occupied, for the most part, by forests, 
and if it broke the line of the Roman defences, it 
miglit at least Vie considered Impenetrable to an 
enemy. Abandoned by the warlilie and preda- 
tory tribes of Germany, it was seized by wander- 
ing immigrants from Gaul, many of them Roman 
adventurers, before whom tlie original inhabit- 
ants, tlie Marcomanni, or men of the frontier, 
seem to have retreated eastward beyond the 
Hcrcynian forest. Tlie intruders claimed or 
Bolicited Roman protection, and offered in return 
a tribute from the produce of the soil, whence 
the district itself came to be known by the title 
of the Agri Decumates, or Tithed Land. It was 
not, however, officially connected with any 
province of the Empire, nor was any attempt 
made to provide for its permanent security, till 
a period much later than that on which we are 
now engaged [the period of Augustus]." — C. 
Merivale, Hist, of the Jiomans, ch. 36. — "Wur- 
temburg, Baden and Hohenzollern coincide 
■with the Agri Decumates of the Roman writers." 
— R. G. Latham, Ethnology of Europe, ch. 8. — 
See, also, Alemanni, and Suevi. 

TAIN. See Britain: A. D. 78-84. 

AGRIGENTUM. — Acragas, or Agrigentum, 
one of the youngest of the Greek colonies in 
Sicily, founded about B. C. 582 by the older col- 
ony of Gela, became one of tlie largest and most 
splejidid cities of the age, in the fifth century 
B. C, as is testified by its ruins to this day. 
It was the scene of the notorious tyranny of 
Phalaris, as well as that of Theron. Agrigen- 
tum was destroyed by the Carthagenians, B. C. 
405, and rebuilt by Timoleon, but never recovered 
its former importance and grandeur. — E. Cur- 
tius. Hist, of Greece, bk. 4, ch. 3. — See, also, 
PiiALAUis, Brazen Bull op. — Agrigentum was 
destroyed by the Carthagenians in 406 B. C. 
See Sicily : B. C. 409-405.— Rebuilt by Timo- 
leon, it was the scene of a great defeat of the 
Carthagenians by the Romans, in 26!i B. C. See 
Punic War, The First. 

See Rome. A. D. 47-54. and 54-64. 

AHMED KHEL, Battle of (i88o). See 
Afghanistan: A. D. 18G9-1881. 

AIGINA. See iEoiNA. 

AIGOSPOTAMOI, Battle of. See Greece: 
B. C. 405. 

AIGUILLON, Siege of. — A notable siege in 
the "Hundred Years' War," A. D. 1340. An 
English garrison under the famous knight. Sir 
Walter Manny, held the great fortress of Aiguil- 
lon, near the confluence of the Garonne and the 
Lot, against a formidable French army. — J. 
Froissart, Chronicles, v. 1, bk. 1, ch. 120. 

AIX, Origin of. See Salves. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE: The Capital of 
Charlemagne. — The favorite residence and one 
of the two capitals of Charlemagne was the city 
■which the Germans call Aachen and the French 
have named Aix-la-Chapelle. " He ravished the 
ruins of the ancient world to restore the monu- 
mental arts. A new Rome arose in the depths 
of the forests of Austrasia — palaces, gates, 
bridges, baths, galleries, theatres, churches, — for 
the erection of which the mosaics and marbles of 
Italy were laid under tribute, and workmen sum- 
moned from all parts of Europe. It was there 

that an extensive library was gathered, there 
that the school of the palace was made perma- 
nent, there that foreign envoj'S were pompously 
welcomed, there that the monarch perfected his 
plans for the introduction of Roman letters and 
the improvement of music." — P. Godwin, Hist, 
of France : Ancient Gaul. bk. 4, ch. 17. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Treaty of (A. D. 
803). See Venice: A. D. 697-810. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Treaty of (A. D. 
1668). See Netherlands (Holland): A. D. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, The Congress and 
Treaty ■which ended the War of the Austrian 
Succession (1748). — The War of the Austrian 
Succession, which raged in Europe, and on the 
ocean, and in India and America, from 1740 to 
1748 (see Austria: A. D. 1718-1738, 1740- 
1741, and after), was brought to an end in the 
latter year by a Congress of all the belligerents 
which met at Aix-la-Chapelle, in April, and 
which concluded its labors on the 18tli of Octo- 
ber following. " The influence of England and 
Holland . . . forced the peace upon Austria and 
Sardinia, though botli were bitterly aggrieved by 
its conditions. France agreed to restore every 
conquest she had made during the war, to aban- 
don the cause of the Stuarts, and expel the Pre- 
tender from her soil ; to demolish, in accordance 
with earlier treaties, the fortifications of Dunkirk 
on the side of the sea, while retaining those on 
the side of tlie land, and to retire from the con- 
quest ■without acquiring any fresh territory or 
any pecuniary compensation. England in like 
manner restored the few conquests sliehad made, 
and submitted to the somewhat humiliating con- 
dition of sending hostages to Paris as a security 
for the restoration of Cape Breton. . . . The dis- 
puted boundary between Canada and Nova 
Scotia, which had been a source of constant difli- 
culty TS'lth France, was left altogether undefined. 
The Assiento treaty for trade with the Spanish 
colonies was confirmed for the four years it had 
still to run; but no real compensation was 
obtained for a war expenditure which is said to 
have exceeded sixty-four millions, and which 
had raised the funded and unfunded debt to 
more than seventy-eight millions. Of the other 
Powers, Holland, Genoa, and the little state of 
Jlodcna retained their territory as before the war, 
and Genoa remained mistress of the Duchy of 
Finale, which had been ceded to the king of 
Sardinia by the Treaty of Worms, and which it 
had been a main object of his later policy to 
secure. Austria obtained a recognition of the 
election of the Emperor, a general guarantee of 
the Pragmatic Sanction, and the restoration of 
everything she had lost in the Netherlands, but 
she gained no additional territory. She was 
compelled to confirm the cession of Silesia and 
Glatz to Prussia, to abandon her Italian con- 
quests, and even to cede a considerable part of 
her former Italian dominions. To the bitter 
indignation of Maria Theresa, the Duchies of 
Parma, Placentia and Guastella passed to Don 
Philip of Spain, to revert, however, to their 
former possessors if Don Philip mounted the 
Spanish throne, or died without male issue. The 
King of Sardinia also obtained from Austria the 
territorial cessions enumerated in the Treaty 
of Worms [see Italy: A. D. 1743], with the 
important exceptions of Placentia, which passed 
to Don Philip, and of Finale, which remained 



with the Genoese. For the loss of these he 
obtained no compensation. Frederick [tlie Great, 
of Prussia] obtained a general guarantee for the 
possession of his newly acquired territory, and a 
long list of old treaties was formally confirmed. 
Thus small were the changes effected in Europe 
by so much bloodshed and treachery, by nearly 
nine years of wasteful and desolating war. The 
design of the dismemberment of Austria had 
failed, but no ve.xed questions had been set at 
rest. ... Of all the ambitious projects that had 
been conceived during the war, that of Fredericli 
alone was substantially realized." — W. E. II. 
Lecky, Hist, of Eiig. 16t/i Century, ch. 3.— "Thus 
ended the War of the Austrian succession. In 
its origin and its motives one of the most wicked 
of all the many conflicts which ambition and 
perfidy have provoked in Europe, it excites a 
peculiarly mournful interest by the gross in- 
equality in the rewards and penalties which for- 
tune assigned to the leading actors. Prussia, 
Spain and Sardinia were all endowed out of the 
estates of the house of Hapsburg. But the 
electoral house of Bavaria, the most sincere and 
the most deserving of all the claimants to that 
vast inheritance, not only received no increase of 
territory, but even nearly lost its own patri- 
monial possessions. . . . The most trying prob- 
lem is still that offered by the misfortunes of the 
Queen of Hungary [Maria Theresa]. . . . The 
verdict of history, as expressed by the public 
opinion, and by the vast majority of writers, in 
every country except Prussia, upholds the 
• justice of the queen's cause and condemns the 
coalition that was formed against her." — H. 
Tuttle, Sist. of Prussia, 1745-1756, ch. 3. 

Also in W. Russell, Hist, of Modern Europe, 
pt. 2, letter 30.— W. Coxe, Hist, of the House of 
Austria, ch. 108 (v. 3). — See, also. New Eng- 
land: A. D. 1745-1748. 

AIZNADIN, Battle of (A. D. 634). See 
Mahometan Conquest : A. V. 632-639. 

Akarnanian League, formed by one of the least 
important, but at the same time one of the most 
estimable peoples in Greece . . . our knowl- 
edge is only fragmentary. The boundaries of 
Akarnania fluctuated, but we always find the 
people spoken of as a political whole. . . . 
Thucydides speaks, by implication at least, of 
the Akarnanian League as an institution of old 
standing in his time. The Akarnanians had, in 
early times, occupied the hill of Olpai as a place 
for judicial proceedings common to the whole 
nation. Thus the supreme court of the Akar- 
nanian TJnion held its sittings, not in a town, but 
in a mountain fortress. But in Thucydides' 
own time Stratos had attained its position as the 
greatest city of Akarnania, and probably the 
federal assemblies were already held there. . . . 
Of the constitution of the League we know but 
little. Ambassadors were sent by the federal 
body, and probably, just as in the Achaian 
League, it would have been held to be a breach 
of the federal tie if any single city had entered 
on diplomatic intercourse with other powers. As 
in Achaia, too, there stood at the head of the 
League a General with high authority. . . . 
The existence of coins bearing the name of the 
whole Akarnanian nation shows that there was 
unity enough to admit of a federal coinage, 
though coins of particular cities also occur." — 

E. a. Freeman, Hist, of Federal Govt., ch. •^, 
sect. 1. 

akarnanians (Acarnanians). — The 
Akarnanians formed " a link of transition " 
between the ancient Greeks and their barbarous 
or non-Hellenic neighbours in the Epirus and 
beyond. " They occupied the territory between 
the ri%-or Acheloiis, the Ionian sea and the 
Ambrakian gulf: they were Greeks and 
admitted as such to contend at the Pan-Hellenic 
games, yet tliey were also closely connected 
with the Amphilochi and Agrjei, who were not 
Greeks. In manners, sentiments and intelli- 
gence, they were half-Hellenic and half-Epirotic, 
— like the .^Etolians and the Ozolian Lokrians. 
Even down to the time of Thucydides, these 
nations were subdivided into numerous petty 
communities, lived in unfortified villages, were 
frequently in the habit of plundering each other, 
and never permitted themselves to be unarmed. 
. . . Notwithstanding this state of disunion and 
insecurity, however, the Akarnanians main- 
tained a loose political league among tliemselves. 
. . . The Akarnanians appear to have produced 
many prophets. They traced up tlieir mythical 
ancestry, as 'well as that of their neighbours the 
Amphiiochians, to the most renowned prophetic 
family among the Grecian heroes, — Amphiaraus, 
with his sons Alkmreon and Ampilochus: Akar- 
nan, the eponymous hero of the nation, and 
other eponymous heroes of the separate towns, 
were supposed to be the sons of Alkmseon. They 
are spoken of, together with the yEtolians, as 
mere rude shepherds, by the lyric poet Alkmau, 
and so they seem to have continued with little 
alteration until the beginning of the Pelopon- 
nesian war, when we hear of them, for the first 
time, as allies of Athens and as bitter enemies 
of the Corinthian colonies on their coast. The 
contact of those colonies, however, and the large 
spread of Akarnanian accessible coast, could not 
fail to produce some effect in socializing and im- 
proving the people. And it is probable that this 
effect would have been more sensibly felt, had 
not the Akarnanians been kept back by the 
fatal neighbourhood of the jStolians, with whom 
they were in perpetual feud, — a people the most 
unprincipled and unimprovable of all who bore 
the Hellenic name, and whose habitual faithless- 
ness stood in marked contrast with the rectitude 
and steadfastness of the Akarnanian character." 
— G. Grote, Hist, of Greece, pt. 2, ch. 24. 

AKBAR (called The Great), Moghul 
Emperor or Padischah of India, A. D. 1556- 

AKHALZIKH, Siege and capture of (1828). 
SeeTuiiKs: A. D. 1826-1829. 

AKKAD.— AKKADIANS. See Babylonia. 
Primitive ; also, Semites. 

AKKARON. See Philistines. 


ALABAMA : The Aboriginal Inhabitants. 
See American Aborigines: Apalaches; 
Muskhogee Family ; Cherokees. 

A. D. 1539-1542. — Traversed by Hernando 
de Soto. See Florida: A. D. 1528-1542. 

A. D. 1629.— Embraced in the Carolina 
grant to Sir Robert Heath. See America: 
A. D. 1629. 

A. D. 1663.— Embraced in the Carolina 
grant to Monk, Shaftesbury, and others. See 
NoiiTn Carolina : A. D. 1663-1670. 




A. D. 1702-1711. — French occupation and 
first settlement. — The founding of Mobile. 
Sec Loli^iana: A. D. 169«-1712. 

A. D. 1732. — Mostly embraced in the new 
province of Georgia, bee Georgia : A. D. 1732- 

A. D. 1763. — Cession and delivery to Great 
Britain. — Partly embraced in West Florida. 
See Seve.v Yeaks' Wau; and Flouida: A. D. 
1703; and NoiiTinvEST Terhitort: A. D. 17G3. 

A. D. 1779-1781. — Reconquest of West 
Florida by the Spaniards. See Florida: A. D. 

A. D. 1783. — Mostly covered by the English 
cession to the United States. See United 
States OF Am. : A. D. 17S3 (September). 

A. D. 1783-1787. — Partly in dispute with 
Spain. See Florida: A. D. 1783-17!^7. 

A. D. 1798-1804.— All but the West Florida 
District embraced in Mississippi Territory. 
See Mississippi: A. D. 1798-1804. 

A. D. 1803. — Portion acquired by the Louis- 
iana purchase. SeeLouislAN.i.: A. L). 179^1803. 

A. D. 1813. — Possession of Mobile and 
West Florida taken from the Spaniards. See 
Florida: A. D. 1810-1813. 

A. D. 1813-1814.— The Creek War. See 
United St.vtes op Am.: A. D. 1813-1814 
(AuofST — April). 

A. D. 1817-1819. — Organized as a Territory. 
— Constituted a State, and admitted to the 
Union. — "By an act of Congress dalod JIarcli 1, 
1817, JIississi|)i)i Territory was divided. Another 
act, bearing the date JIarch 3, thereafter, organ- 
ized the western [? eastern] portion into a Teni- 
tory, to be known as Alabama, and with the 
boundai-ics as they now exist. . . . By aa act 
approved March 2, 1819, congress authorized the 
inliabitants of the Territory of Alabama to form 
a state constitution, 'and that said Territory, 
when fonned into a State, shall be admitted into 
the Union upon the same footing as the original 
States.' . . . The joint resolution of congress 
admitting Alabama into the Union was approved 
by President ilonroe, December 14, 1819." — W. 
Brewer, AUthama. ch. 5. 

A. D. 1861 (January). — Secession from the 
Union. See United States of Am. : A. D. 1861 
(Janu.\ry — Feuruary). 

A. D. 1862. — General Mitchell's Expedition. 
See United States of Am. : A. D. 1802 (April 
— May: Alabama). 

A. D. 1864 (August).— The Battle of Mobile 
Bay. — Capture of Confederate forts and fleet. 
See United States of Am. : A. D. 18G4 (August: 

A. D. 1865 (March— AprilV— The Fall of 
Mobile.— Wilson's Raid.— End of the Rebel- 
linn. See United States of A.m. : A. D. 1865 
(April — IUy). 

A. D. 1865-1868. — Reconstruction. Sec 
United States of A.m. : A. D. 1865 (itAY — 
July), to 1868-1870. 


ALABAMA CLAIMS, The: A. D. 1861- 
1862. — In their Origin. — The Earlier Con- 
federate cruisers. — Precursors of the Ala- 
bama.— The commissioning of privateers, and 
of more officially commanded cruisers, in the 
American civil war, by the government of the 
Southern Confederacy, was begun early in tlie 
progress of the movement of rebellion, pur- 
luaut to a proclamation issued by Jefferson 

Davis on the 17th of April, 1861. "Before the 
close of July, 1861, more than 20 of those depre- 
dators were" afloat, and had captured millions 
of property belonging to American citizens. The 
most formidable and notorious of the sea-going 
ships of this character, were the Nashville, Cap- 
tain R. B. Pegram, a Virginian, who had aban- 
doned his flag, and the Sumter [a regularly 
commissioned war vessel]. Captain liaphael 
Semmes. The former was a side-wheel steamer, 
carried a crew of eighty men, and was armed 
with two long 12-pounder rifled cannon. Her 
career was short, but quite successful. She was 
fmally destroyed by the Montauk, Captain Wor- 
den, in the Ogeechee River. The career of the 
Sumter, which had been a New Orleans and 
II:ivana packet steamer named Marquis de Ha- 
bana, was also short, but much more active and 
destructive. She had a crew of si.xty-five men 
and twenty-five marines, and was heavily armed. 
She ran the blockade at the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi River on the 30th of June, and was pur- 
sued some distance by the Brooklyn. She ran 
among the West India islands and on the Spanish 
JIaiu. and soon made prizes of many vessels 
bearing the American flag. She was every- 
where received in British Colonial ports with 
groat favor, and was afforded every facility for 
her piratical operations. She became the terror 
of the American merchant service, and every- 
where eluded National vessels of war sent out 
in purstiit of her. At length she crossed the 
ocean, and at the close of 1861 was compelled to 
seek shelter under British guns at Gibraltar, where 
she was watched by the Tuscarora. Early in 
the year 1802 she was sold, and thus ended her 
piratical career. Encouraged by the practical 
friendship of the British evinced for these cor- 
sairs, and the substantial aid they were receiving 
from British subjects in various ways, especially 
through blockade-runners, the conspirators de- 
termined to procure from those friends some 
powerful i)iralical craft, and made arrangements 
for the purchase and construction of vessels for 
that purpose. Sir. Laird, a ship-builder at Liver- 
pool and member of the British Parliament, was 
the largest contractor in the business, and, in de- 
fiance of every obstacle, succeeded in getting 
pirate ships to sea. The first of these ships that 
went to sea was the Oreto, ostensibly built for a 
house in Palermo, Sicily. 3Ir. Adams, the 
American minister in London, was so well satis- 
fied from information received that she was de- 
signed for the Confederates, that he called the 
attention of the British government to the matter 
so early as the 18th of February, 1863. But 
nothing effective was done, and she was com- 
pleted and allowed to depart from British waters. 
She went first to Nassau, and on the 4th of Sep- 
tember suddenly appeared off Mobile harbor, 
flying the British flag and pennants. The block- 
ading squadron there was in charge of Com- 
mander George H. Preble, who had been specially 
instructed not to give offense to foreign nations 
while enforcing the blockade. He believed the 
Oreto to be a British vessel, and while deliberat- 
ing a few minutes as to what he should do, she 
passed out of range of his guns, and entered the 
harbor with a rich freight. For his seeming 
remissness Commander Preble was summarily 
dismis.sed from the service without a hear- 
ing — an act which subsequent events seemed 
to show was cruel injustice. Late in December 




the Oreto escaped from Mobile, fully armed for 
a piratical cruise, under the comiiuind of John 
Newland MafBt. . . . The name of the Oreto was 
changed to that of Florida." — B. J. Lossing, 
Field Book of the CiHl War, v. 2, ch. 21. —The 
fate of the Florida is related below— A. D. 1863- 
1S65. — R. Semmes, Memoirs of Service Afloat, 
ch. 9-2G. 

Also rx J. Davis, Rise and Fall of the Con- 
federate Government, ch. 30-31 (v. 2). 

A. D. 1862-1864. — The Alabama, her career 
and her fate. — "The Alabama [the second 
cruiser built in England for the Confederates] 
... is thus described by Semmes, her com- 
mander: 'She was of about 900 tons burden, 
230 feet in length, 32 feet in breadth, 20 feet in 
depth, and drew, when provisioned and coaled 
for cruise, 15 feet of water. She was barken- 
tine-rigged, with long lower masts, which 
enabled her to cany large fore and aft sails, as 
jibs and try-sails. . . . Iler engine was of 300 
horse-power, and she had attached an apparatus 
for condensing from the vapor of sea-water all 
the fresh water that her crew might require. 
. .. Herarmamentconsistedof eight guns.'. . . 
The Alabama was built and, from the outset, 
■jpas 'intended for a Confederate vessel of war.' 
The contract for her construction was 'signed 
by Captain Bullock on the one part and Messrs. 
liaird on the other.'. . . On the 15th of May 
[18j?J the was launched under the name of the 
290. Her officers were in England awaiting her 
completion, and were paid their salaries 
'monthly, about the first of the month, at Eraser, 
Trenholm & Co.'s office in Liverpool.' The pur- 
pose for which this vessel was being constructed 
was notorious in Liverpool. Before she was 
launched she became an object of suspicion with 
the Consul of the United States at that port, and 
she was the subject of constant correspondence 
on his part with his Government and with Jlr. 
Adams. . . . Early in the history of this cruiser 
the point was taken by the British authorities — 
a point maintained throughout the struggle — 
that they would originate nothing themselves 
for the maintenance and performance of their 
international duties, and that they would listen 
to no representations from the officials of the 
United States which did not furnish technical 
evidence for a criminal prosecution under the 
Foreign Enlistment Act. ... At last Mr. Dud- 
ley [the Consul of the United States at Liver- 
pool] succeeded in finding the desired proof. On 
the 21st day of July, he laid it in the form of 
affidavits before the Collector at Liverpool in 
compliance with the intimations which Jlr. 
Adams had received from Earl Russell. These 
affidavits were on the same day transmitted by 
the Collector to the Board of Customs at London, 
with a request for instructions by telegraph, as 
the ship appeared to be ready for sea and might 
leave any hour. . . . It . . . appears that not- 
withstanding this official information from the 
Collector, the papers were not considered by the 
law advisers until the 28th, and that the case 
appeared to them to be so clear that they gave 
their advice upon it that evening. Under these 
circumstances, the delay of eight days after the 
21st in the order for the detention of the vessel 
was, in the opinion of the United States, gross 
negligence on the part of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment. On the 29th the Secretary of the Com- 
mission of the Customfl received a telegram from 

Liverpool saying that ' the vessel 290 came out 
of dock last night, and left the port this morn- 
ing. "... After leaving the dock she ' pro- 
ceeded slowly down the Mersey.' Both the 
Lairds were on hoard, and also Bullock. . . . 
The 290 slowly steamed on to Moelfra Baj-, on 
the coast of Anglesey, where she remained ' aU 
that night, all the next day, and the next night.' 
No effort was made to seize her. . . . When the 
Alabama left Moelfra Bay her crew numbered 
about 90 men. She ran part way down the Irish 
Channel, then round the north coast of Ireland, 
only stopping near the Giant's Causeway. She 
then made for Terceira, one of the Azores, 
which she reached on the lOih of August. On 
ISth of August, while she was at Terceira, a 
sail was observed making for the ancliorage. It 
proved to be the ' Agrippiua of London, Cap- 
tain McQueen, having on board si.x guns, with 
ammunition, coals, stores, &c., for the Alabama.' 
I'rcparatious were iramediatelj' made to transfer 
this important cargo. On the afternoon of the 
20th, while employed discharging the bark, the 
screw-steamer Bahama, Captain Tessier (the 
same that had taken the annament to the Florida, 
whose insurgent ownership and character were 
well known in Liverpool), arrived, ' having on 
board Commander Raphael Semmes and officers 
of the Confederate States steamer Sumter." 
There were also taken from this steamer two 32- 
pounders and some stores, which occupied al.' 
the remainder of that day and a part of the next 
The 22d and 23d of August were taken up in 
transferring coal from the Agrippiua to the 
Alabama. It was not until Sunday (the 24th) 
that the insurgents' flag was hoisted. Bullock 
and those who were not going in the 290 went 
back to the Bahama, and the Alabama, now tirst 
known under that name, went off with '26 offi- 
cers and 85 men.' " — The Case of the United iStatet 
before the Tribunal of Arbitration at Genera (42(i 
Cong., 2i Sess., Senate Ex. Doc., Ko. 31, jip. 
146-3 "1). — The Alabama "arrived at Porto 
Praya on the 19th August. Shortly thereafter 
Capt. Raphael Semmes assumed command. 
Hoisting the Confederate flag, she cruised and 
captured several vessels in the vicinity of Flores. 
Cruising to the westward, and making several 
captures, she approached within 200 miles of 
Kew York; thence going southward, arrived, on 
the 18th November, at Port Royal, Martinique. 
On the night of the 19th she escaped from the 
harbour and the Federal steamer San Jacinto, 
and on the 20th November was at Blauquilla. 
On the 7th December she captured the steamer 
Ariel in the passage between Cuba and St. 
Domingo. On January 11th, 1863, she sunk the 
Federal gunboat llatteras off Galveston, and on 
the 30th arrived at Jamaica. Cruising to the 
eastward, and making many captures, she 
arrived on the lOlh April, at Fernando de 
Noronha, and on the 11th May at Bahia, where, 
on the 13th, she was joined by the Confederate 
steamer Georgia. Cruising near the line, thence 
southward towards the Cape of Good Hope, 
numerous captures were made. On the 29tli 
July she anchored in Saldanha Bay, South 
Africa, and near there on the 5lh August, wag 
joined by the Confederate bark Tuscaloosa, Com- 
mander Low. In September, 1863, she was at 
St. Simon's Bay, and in October was in the 
Straits of Sunda, and up to January 20, 1864, 
cruised in the Bay of Bengal and vicinity, visit- 




Ine Singapore, and making a number of very 
valuable captures, including the Highlander, 
Souora, etc. From this point she cruised on her 
homeward track via Cape of Good Hope, cap- 
turing the bark Tycoon and ship Rockingham, 
and arrived at Cherbourg, Prance, in June, 18G4:, 
where she repaired. A Federal steamer, the 
Kcarsarge, was lying off the harbour. Capt. 
Semmes might easily have evaded this enemy ; 
the business of his vessel was that of a privateer; 
and her value to the Confederacy was out of all 
comparison with a single vessel of the enemy. 
. . . But Capt. Semmes had been twitted with 
the name of ' pirate ; ' and he was easily per- 
suaded to attempt an eclat for the Southern 
Confederacy by a naval fight within sight of the 
French coast, which contest, it was calculated, 
would prove the Alabama a legitimate war ves- 
sel, and give sucli an exhibition of Confederate 
belligerency as possibly to revive the question 
of ' recognition ' in Paris and London. These 
were the secret motives of the gratuitous fight 
with which Capt. Semmes obliged the enemy 
off the port of Cherbourg. The Alabama car- 
ried one 7-inch Blakely rifled gun, one 8-inch 
smooth-bore pivot gun, and six 32-poundcrs, 
smooth-bore, in broadside ; the Kcarsarge carried 
four broadside 33-pounder3, two 11-inch and one 
28-pound rifle. The two vessels were thus 
about equal in match and armament; and their 
tonnage was about the same." — E. A. Pollard, 
The Lost Cause, p. 549. — Captain Winslow, com- 
manding the United States Steamer Kcarsarge, 
in a report to the Secretary of the Navy 
written on the afternoon of the day of his battle 
with the Alabama, June 19, 186-4, said: "I liave 
the honor to inform the department that the day 
subsequent to the arrival of the Kcarsarge off 
this port, on the 24th [14th] instant, I received 
a note from Captain Semmes, begging that the 
Kcarsarge would not depart, as he intended to 
fight her, and would delay her but a day or 
two. According to this notice, the Alabama 
left the port of Cherbourg this morning at about 
half past nine o'clock. At twenty minutes past 
ten A. JI., we discovered her steering towards 
us. Fearing the question of jurisdiction might 
arise, we steamed to sea until a distance of si.x 
or seven miles was attained from the Cherbourg 
break-water, when we rounded to and com- 
menced steaming for the Alabama. As we 
approached her, within about 1,200 yards, she 
opened fire, we receiving two or tlirce broad- 
sides before a shot was returned. The action 
continued, the respective steamers making a cir- 
cle round and round at a distance of about 900 
yards from each other. At the expiration of an 
hour the Alabama struck, going down in about 
twenty minutes afterward, carrying many per- 
sons with her." In a report two days later. 
Captain Winslow gave the following particulars: 
"Toward the close of the action between the 
Alabama and this vessel, all availabJe sail was 
made on the former for the purpose of again reach- 
ing Cherbourg. When the object was apparent, 
the Kearsarge was steered across the bow of the 
Alabama for a raking fire; but before reaching 
this point the Alabama struck. Uncertain 
whether Captain Semmes was not using some 
ruse, the Kearsarge was stopped. It was seen, 
shortly afterward, that the Alabama was lower- 
ing her boats, and an officer came alongside in 
one of them to say that they had surrendered, 

and were fast sinking, and begging that baat^ 
would be despatched immediately for saving 
life. The two boats not disabled were at once 
lowered, and as it was apparent the Alabama 
was settling, this officer was permitted to leave 
in his boat to afford assistance. An English 
yacht, the Deerhound, had approached near the 
Kcarsarge at this time, when I hailed and 
begged the commander to run down to the 
Alabama, as she was fast sinking, and we had 
but two boats, and assist in picking up the men. 
He answered aftirmatively, and steamed toward 
the Alabama, but the latter sank almost 
immediately. The Deerhound, however, sent 
her boats and was actively engaged, aided by 
several others which had come from sliore. 
These boats were busy in bringing the wounded 
and others to the Kearsarge; whom we were 
trying to make as comfortable as possible, when 
it was reported to me that the Deerhound was 
moving off. I could not believe that the com- 
mander of that vessel could be guilty of so dis- 
graceful an act as taking our prisoners off, and 
therefore took no means to prevent it, but con- 
tinued to keep our boats at work rescuing the 
men in the water. I am sorry to say that I was 
mistaken. The Deerhound made off witli 
Captain Semmes and others, and also the very 
officer who had come on board to surrender." — 
In a still later report Captain Winslow gave the 
following facts: "The fire of the Alabama, 
although it is stated she discharged 370 or more 
shell and shot, was not of serious damage to the 
Kearsarge. Some 13 or 14 of these had taken 
effect in and about the hull, and 16 or 17 about 
the masts and rigging. The ca.sualtics were 
small, only three persons having been wounded. 
. . . The fire of the Kearsarge, although only 
173 projectiles had been discharged, according 
to the prisoners' accounts, was terriflc. One 
sliot alone had killed and woimded 18 men, and 
disabled a gun. Another had entered the coal- 
bunkers, exploding, and completely blocking up 
the engine room; and Captain Semmes states 
that shot and shell had taken effect in the sides 
of his vessel, tearing large holes by explosion, 
and his men were everywhere knocked down." — 
liebdlion Record, v. 9, pp. 231-225. 

Also in J. R. Soley, T/ie Blockade and tht 
Crnisers (The Navy in, the Cieil War, v. 1), ch. 7. 
—J. R. Soley, J McI. Kell and J. M. Browne, 
The Confederate Cruisers (Battles and Leaders, 
V. 3). — R. Semmes, Memoirs of Service Afloat, 
ch. 29-5o.— J. D. Bullock, Secret Service of the 
Confederate States in Europe, v. 1, ch. 5. 

A. D. 1862-1865. — Other Confederate cruis- 
ers. — "A score of other Confederate cruisers 
roamed the seas, to prey upon United States 
commerce, but none of them became quite so 
famous as the Sumter and the Alabama. They in- 
cluded the Shenandoah, which made 38 captures, 
the Florida, which made 36, the Tallaiiassee, 
whicn made 27, the Tacony, which made 15, and 
the Georgia, which made 10. The Florida was 
captured in the harbor of Bahia, Brazil, in 
October, 1864, by a United States man-of-war 
[the Wachusett, commander Collins], in violation 
of the neutrality of the port. For this the 
United States Government apologized to Brazil 
and ordered the restoration of the Florida to the 
harbor wliere she was captured. But in Ilamp. 
ton Roads she met with an accident and sank. It 
was generally believed that the apparent acci- 




dent was contrived with the connivance, if not 
by direct order, of the Government. Most of 
these cruisers were built in British shipyards." — 
R. Johnson, Short Uist. of the War of Secesnon, 
eh. 24. — The last of the destroyers of American 
commerce, the Shenandoah, was a British merchant 
ship — the Sea King — built for the Bombay 
trade, but purchased by the Confederate agent. 
Captain Bullock, armed with six guns, and com- 
missioned (October, 1865) under her new name. 
In June, 1865, the Shenandoah, after a voyage 
to Australia, in the course of which she destroyed 
a dozen merchant ships, made her appearance in 
the Northern Sea, near Behring Strait, where 
she fell in with the New Bedford whaling fleet. 
"In the course of one week, from the 21st to 
the 28th, twenty -five whalers were captured, of 
which four were ransomed, and the remaining 
21 were burned. The loss on these 21 whalers 
was estimated at upwardsof $3,000,000, and con- 
sidering that it occurred . . . two months after 
the Confederacy had virtually passed out of ex- 
istence, it may be characterized as the most use- 
less act of hostility that occurred during the 
whole war." The captain of the Shenandoah 
destroyed 15 vessels even after he had news of 
the fall of Richmond. In August he surrendered 
his vessel to the British government, which 
delivered her to the United States. — J. R. Soley, 
7'Ae Confederate Cruisers (Battles and Leaders, 
i\ A), For statistics of the total losses inflicted 
by the eleven Confederate cruisers for which 
Great Britain was held responsible, see United 
States of Am. : 1865 (May). 

A. D. 1862-1869. — Definition of the indemnity 
claims of the United States against Great 
Britain. — First stages of the Negotiation. 
— The rejected Johnson-Clarendon Treaty. 
— "A review of the history of the negotiations 
between the two Governments prior to the corre- 
spondence between Sir Edward Thornton and Mr. 
Fish, will show . . . what was intended by these 
words, 'generically known as the Alabama 
Claims,' used on each side in that correspondence. 
The correspondence between the two Goverments 
was opened by Mr. Adams on the 20th of Novem- 
ber, 1863 (less than four months after the escape of 
the Alabama), in a note to Earl Russell, written 
under instructions from the Government of the 
United States. In this note Mr. Adams sub- 
mitted evidence of the acts of the Alabama, and 
stated: 'I have the honor to inform Your ijord- 
ship of the directions which I have received 
from my Government to solicit redress for the 
national and private injuries thus sustained.'. . . 
Lord Russell met this notice on the 19th of 
December, 1862, by a denial of any liability for 
any injuries growing out of the acts of the Ala- 
bama. ... As new losses from time to time 
were suffered by individuals during the war, 
they were brought to the notice of Her Slajesty's 
Government, and were lodged with the national 
and individual claims already preferred; but 
argumentative discussion on the issues involved 
was by common consent deferred. . . . The 
fact that the first claim preferred grew out of 
the acts of the Alabama explains how it was 
that all the claims growing out of the acts 
of all the vessels came to be 'generically 
known as the Alabama claims.' On the 7th of 
April, 1805, the war being virtually over, Mr. 
Adams renewed the discussion. He transmitted 
to Earl Russell an official report showing the 

number and tonnage of American vessels trans- 
ferred to the British flag during the war. He 
said: 'The United States commerce is rapidly 
vanishing from the face of the ocean, and that of 
Great Britain is multiplying in nearly the same 
ratio.' ' This process is going on by reason of the 
action of British subjects in cooperation with 
emissaries of the insurgents, who have supplied 
from the ports of Her Majesty's Kingdom all the 
materials, such as vessels, armament, supplies, 
and men, indispensable to the effective prosecu- 
tion of this result on the ocean.' . . . He stated 
that he 'was under the painful necessity of 
announcing that his Government cannot avoid 
entailing upon the Government of Great Britain 
the responsibility for this damage.' Lord Rus- 
sell . . . said in reply, ' I can never admit that 
the duties of Great Britain toward the United 
States are to be measured by the losses which 
the trade and commerce of the United States 
have sustained. . . . Referring to the offer of 
arbitration, made on the 26th day of October, 1863, 
Lord Russell, in the same note, said : ' Her 
3Iajesty's Government must decline either to 
make reparation and compensation for the cap- 
tures made by the Alabama, or to refer the 
question to any foreign State.' This terminated 
the first stage of the negotiations between the 
two Governments. ... In the summer of 1866 a 
change of ]\Iinistry took place in England, and 
Lord Stanley became Secretary of State for For- 
eign Affairs in the place of Lord Clarendon. 
He took an early opportunity to give an intima- 
tion in the House of Commons that, should the 
rejected claims be revived, the new Cabinet was 
not prepared to say what answer might be given 
them; in other words, that, should an oppor- 
tunit}' be offered. Lord Russell's refusal might 
possibly be reconsidered. Mr. Seward met these 
overtures by instructing Mr Adams, on the 37th 
of August, 1866, ' to call Lord Stanley's attention 
in a respectful but earnest manner,' to 'a sum- 
mary of claims of citizens of the United States, 
for damages which were suffered by them 
during the period of the civil war,' and 
to say that the Government of the United 
States, while it thus insists upon these par- 
ticular claims, is neither desirous nor willing 
to assume an attitude unkind and uncon- 
ciliatory toward Great Britain. . . . Lord Stan- 
ley met this overture by a communication to Sir 
Frederick Bruce, in which he denied the liability 
of Great Britain, and assented to a reference, 
' provided that a fitting Arbitrator can be found, 
and that an agreement can be come to as to the 
points to which the arbitration shall apply.' . . . 
As the first result of these negotiations, a con- 
vention known as the Stanley-Johnson convention 
was signed at London on the 10th of November, 
1868. It proved to be unacceptable to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States. Negotiations 
were at once resumed, and resulted on the 14th 
of .January, 1869, in the Treaty known as the^ 
Johnson-Clarendon convention [having been' 
negotiated by Mr. Reverdy Johnson, who had 
succeeded Sir. Adams as United States Minister 
to Great Britain]. This latter convention pro- 
vided for the organization of a mixed commission 
with jurisdiction over 'all claims on the part of 
citizens of the United States upon the Govern- 
ment of Her Britannic Majesty, including the 
so-called Alabama claims, and all claims on the 
part of subjects of Her Britannic Majesty upon 



the Government of the United States which jnay 
have been presented to either goverunKait for 
its interposition witli the other since tlie 36th 
July, 1853, and wliich yet remain unsettled.'" 
Tlie Johnson-Clarendon treaty, when submitted 
to the Senate, was rejected by that body, in 
April, "because, although it made provision for 
the part of the Alabama claims which consisted 
of claims for individual losses, the provision for 
the more extensive national losses was not satis- 
factory to the Senate." — The Argument of the 
United States delivered to tlie Tribunal of Arbi- 
tration at Geneva, June 15, 1872, Divition 13, 
sect. 3. 

A. D. 1869-1871. — Renewed Negotiations. 
— Appointment and meeting of the Joint 
High Commission. — The action of the Senate 
In rejecting the Johnson-Clarendon treaty was 
taken in April, 1869, a few weeks after Presi- 
dent Grant entered upon his office. At tliis time 
" the condition of Europe was such as to induce the 
British Ministers to take into consideration the 
foreign relations of Great Britain ; and, as Lord 
Granville, the British Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
has himself stated in the House of Lords, they 
saw cause to look with solicitude on the uneasy 
relations of the British Government with the 
United States, and the inconvenience thereof in 
case of possible complications in Europe. Thus 
impelled, the Government dispatched to Wash- 
ington a gentleman who enjoyed the confidence 
of both Cabinets, Sir John Rose, to ascertain 
whether overtures for reopening negotiations 
would be received by the President in spirit and 
terms acceptable to Great Britain. . . . Sir John 
Rose found the United States disposed to meet 
with perfect correspondence of good-will the ad- 
vances of the British Government. Accordingly, 
on the 26th of January, 1871, the British Gov- 
ernment, through Sir Edward Thornton, finally 
proposed to the American Government the ap- 
pointment of a joint High Commission to hold its 
sessions at Washington, and there devise means 
to settle the various pending questions between 
the two Governments affecting the British pos- 
sessions in North America. To this overture Mr. 
Fish replied that the President would with 
pleasure appoint, as invited, Commissioners on 
the part of the United States, provided the 
deliberations of the Commissioners should be 
extended to other differences, — that Is to say, 
to include the differences growing out of incidents 
of the late Civil War. . . . The British Gov- 
ernment promptly accepted this proposal for 
enlarging the sphere of the negotiation." The 
joint High Commission was speedily constituted, 
as proposed, by appointment of the two govern- 
ments, and the promptitude of proceeding was 
such that the British commissioners landed at 
New York in twenty-seven days after Sir Edw.ard 
Thornton's suggestion of January 26th was made. 
They sailed without waiting for their commis- 
sions, which were forwarded to them by special 
messenger. The High Commission was made 
up as follows: "On the part of the United 
States were five persons, — Hamilton Fish, Robert 
C. Schenck, Samuel Nelson, Ebenezer Rockwood 
Hoar, and George 11. Williams, — eminently fit 
representatives of the diplomacy, the bench, the 
bar, and the legislature of the United States ; on 
the part of Great Britain, Earl Do Grey and 
Ripon, President of the (Jueen's Council ; Sir 
Stafford Northcote, Ex-Ministerand actual Mem- 

ber of the House of Commons; Sir Edward 
Thornton, the universally respected Britisli Min- 
ister at Washington; Sir John [A.] Macdonald, 
the able and eloquent Premier of the Canadian 
Dominion; and, in revival of the good old time, 
when learning was equal to any other title of 
public honor, the Universities in the person of 
Professor Montague Bernard. ... In the face 
of many difflculties, the Commissioners, on the 
8th of May, 1871, completed a treaty [known as 
the Treaty of Washington], which received the 
prompt approval of their respective Govern- 
ments." — C. Gushing, Tfie Treaty of Washing- 
ton, pp. 18-20, and 11-13. 

Also in A. Lang, Life, Letters, and Diariet 
of Sir Stafford Northcote, First Earl of Iddesleigh, 
ch. 12 (v. 2). — A. Badcau, Orantin Peace, ch. 25. 

A. D. 1871.— The Treaty of Washington.— 
The treaty signed at Washington on the 8th day 
of May, 1871, and the ratifications of which 
were exchanged at London on the 17th day of the 
following June, set forth its principal agreement 
in the first two articles as follows: "Whereas 
differences have arisen between the Government 
of the United States and the Government of Her 
Brittanic Majesty, and still exist, growing out of 
the acts committed by the several vessels which 
have given rise to the claims generically known 
as the 'Alabama Claims;' and whereas Her 
Britannic Majesty has authorized Her High Com- 
missioners and Plenipotentiaries to express in a 
friendly spirit, the regret felt by Her Majesty's 
Government for the escape, under whatever cir- 
cumstances, of the Alabama and other vessels 
from British ports, and for the depredations com- 
mitted by those vessels: Now, in order to 
remove and adjust all complaints and claims on 
the part of the United States and to provide for 
the speedy settlement of such claims which are 
not admitted by Her Britannic Majest3''s Gov- 
ernment, the high contracting parties agree that 
all the said claims, growing out of acts com- 
mitted by the aforesaid vessels, and generically 
known as the ' Alabama Claims,' shall be referred 
to a tribunal of arbitration to be composed of 
five Arbitrators, to be appointed in the following 
manner, that is to say : One shall be named by 
the President of the United States ; one shall be 
named by Her Britannic Majesty; His Majesty 
the King of Italy shall be requested to name one ; 
the President of the Swiss Confederation shall 
be requested to name one ; and His Majesty the 
Emperor of Brazil shall be requested to name 
one. . . . The Arbitrators shall meet at Geneva, 
in Switzerland, at the earliest convenient day 
after they shall have been named, and shall pro- 
ceed impartially and carefully to examine and 
decide all questions that shall be laid before them 
on the part of the Governments of the United 
States and Her Britannic Majesty respectively. 
All questions considered by the tribunal, includ- 
ing the final award, shall be decided by a majority 
of all the Arbitrators. Each of the high con- 
tracting parties shall also name one person to 
attend the tribunal as its Agent to represent it 
generally in all matters connected with the arbi- 
tration. " Articles 3, 4 and 5 of the treaty specify 
the mode in which each party shall submit its 
case. Article 6 declares that, "In deciding the 
matters submitted to the Arbitrators, they shall 
be governed by the following three rules, which 
are agreed upon by the high contracting parties 
as rules to be taken as applicable to the case, and 




by such principles of international law not incon- 
sistent therewith as the Arbitrators shall deter- 
mine to have been applicable to the c;ise: A 
neutral Government is bound — First, to use due 
diligence to prevent the fitting out, arming, or 
equipping, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel 
which it has reasonable ground to believe is 
intended to cruise or to carry on war against 
a Power with which it is at peace ; and also to 
use like diligence to prevent the departure from 
its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise 
or carry on war as above, such vessel having 
been specially adapted, in whole or in part, 
within such jurisdiction, to warlike use. Sec- 
ondly, not to permit or suffer either belligerent to 
make use of its ports or waters as the base of 
naval operations against the other, or for the 
purpose of the renewal or augmentation of mili- 
tary supplies or arms, or the recruitment of men. 
Thirdly to exercise due diligence in its own 
ports and waters, and, as to all persons within 
its jurisdiction, to prevent any violation of the 
foregoing obligations and duties. Her Britannic 
Majesty has commanded her High Commis- 
sioners and Plenipotentiaries to declare that Her 
Majesty's Government cannot assent to the fore- 
going rules as a statement of principles of inter- 
national law which were in force at the time 
when the claims mentioned in Article 1 arose, 
but that Her Majesty's Government, in order to 
evince its desire of strengthening the friendly 
relations between the two countries and of 
making satisfactory provision for the future, 
agrees that in deciding the questions between 
the two countries arising out of those claims, the 
Arbitrators should assume that Her Majesty's 
Government had undertaken to act upon the 
principles set forth in these rules. And the 
high contracting parties agree to observe these 
rules as between themselves in future, and to 
bring them to the knowledge of other maritime 
powers, and to invite them to accede to tberii. " 
Articles 7 to 17, inclusive, relate to the procedure 
of the tribunal of arbitration, and provide for 
the determination of claims, by assessors and 
commissioners, in case the Arbitrators should 
find any liability on the part of Great Britain 
and should not award a sum in gross to be paid 
in settlement thereof. Articles 18 to 25 relate to 
the Fisheries. By Article 18 it is agreed that in 
addition to the liberty secured to American fish- 
ermen by the convention of 1818, "of taking, 
curing and drying fish on certain coasts of the 
British North American colonies therein defined, 
the inhabitants of the United States shall have, 
in common with the subjects of Her Britannic 
Majesty, the liberty for [a period of ten years, 
and two years further after notice given by 
either party of its wish to terminate the arrange- 
ment] ... to take fish of every kind, except 
shell fish, on the sea-coasts and shores, and in 
the bays, harbours and creeks, of the provinces 
of Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 
and the colony of Prince Edward's Island, and 
of the several islands thereunto adjacent, with- 
out being restricted to any distance from the 
shore, with permission to land upon the said 
coasts and shores and islands, and also upon the 
Magdalen Islands, for the purpose of drj-ing 
their nets and curing their fish; provided that, 
in 80 doing, they do not interfere with the rights 
of private property, or with British fishermen, 
in the peaceable use of any part of the said 

coasts in their occupancy for the same purpose. 
It is understood that the above-mentioned liberty 
applies solely to the sea-fishery, and that the 
salmon and shad fisheries, and all other fisheries 
in rivers and the mouths of rivers, are hereby 
reserved exclusively for British fishermen." 
Article 19 secures to British subjects the corre- 
sponding rights of fishing, &c., on the eastern 
sea-coasts and shores of the United States north 
of the 39th parallel of north latitude. Article 20 
reserves from these stipulations the places that 
were reserved from the common right of fishing 
under the first article of the treaty of June 5, 
1854. Article 21 provides for the reciprocal 
admission of fish and fish oil into each country 
from the other, free of duty (excepting fish of 
the inland lakes and fish preserved in oil). 
Article 22 provides that, "Inasmuch as it ts 
asserted by the Government of Her Britannic 
Majesty that the privileges accorded to the 
citizens of the United States under Article 
XVni of this treaty are of greater value than 
those accorded by Articles XIX and XXI of this 
treaty to the subjects of Her Britannic ilajesty, 
and this assertion is not admitted by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, it is further 
agreed that Commissioners shall be appointed 
to determine . . . the amount of any compensa- 
tion which in their opinion, ought to be paid by 
the Government of the United States to the Gov- 
ernment of Her Britannic Majesty." Article 23 
provides for the appointment of such Commis- 
sioners, one by the President of the United 
States, one by Her Britannic Majesty, and the 
third by the President and Her Majesty con- 
jointly; or, failing of agreement within three 
months, the third Commissioner to be named by 
the Austrian Minister at London. The Commis- 
sioners to meet at Halifax, and their procedure 
to be as prescribed and regulated by Articles 24 
and 25. Articles 26 to 31 define certain recipro- 
cal privileges accorded by each government to 
the subjects of the other, including the naviga- 
tion of the St. Lawrence, Yukon, Porcupine and 
Stikine Rivers, Lake Michigan, and the Welland, 
St. Lawrence and St. Clair Flats canals; and the 
transportation of goods in bond through the 
territory of one country into the other without 
payment of duties. Article S2 extends the pro- 
visions of Articles 18 to 25 of the treaty to New- 
foundland if aU parties concerned enact the 
necessary laws, but not otherwise. Article 33 
limits the duration of Articles 18 to 25 and Arti- 
cle 30, to ten years from the date of their going 
into effect, and "further until the expiration of 
two years after either of the two high contract- 
ing parties shall have given notice to the other 
of its wish to terminate the same." The remain- 
ing articles of the treaty provide for submitting 
to the arbitration of the Emperor of Germany 
the Northwestern water-boundary question (in 
the channel between Vancouver's Island and the 
continent) — to complete the settlement of North- 
western boundary disputes. — Treaties and Con- 
ventions betireen the U. S. and other Powers (ed. of 
1889), pp. 478-493. 

Also in C. Gushing, The Treaty of Washing- 
ton, app. 

A. D. 1871-1872.— The Tribunal of Arbi- 
tration at Geneva, and its Award. — " The ap- 
pointment of Arbitrators took place in due 
course, and with the ready good-will of the three 
neutral governments. The Ihiited States ap- 




pointed Mr. Charles Francis Adams; Great 
Britain appointed Sir Alexander Cockburn ; the 
King of Italy named Count Frederic Sclopis ; 
the President of the Swiss Confederation, Mr. 
Jacob Stsempfli ; and the Emperor of Brazil, the 
Baron d'ltajuba. ^Ir. J. C. Bancroft Davis was 
appointed Agent of the United States, and Lord 
Tenterden of Great Britain. Tlie Tribunal was 
organized for the reception of the case of each 
partj', and held its first conference [at Geneva, 
Switzerland] on the 15th of December, 1871," 
Count Sclopis being chosen to preside. "The 
printed Case of the United States, with accom- 
panying documents, was filed by Mr. Bancroft 
Davis, and the printed Case of Great Britain, 
with documents, by Lord Tenterden. The 
Tribunal made regulation for the filing of the 
respective Counter-Cases on or before the 15th 
day of April next ensuing, as required by the 
Treaty ; and for the convening of a special meet- 
ing of the Tribunal, if occasion should require ; 
and then, at a second meeting, on the next day, 
they adjourned until the 15th of June next ensu- 
ing, subject to a prior call by the Secretary, if 
there should be occasion." The sessions of the 
Tribunal were resumed on the 15th of June, 
1872, according to the adjournment, and were 
continued until the 14th of September following, 
when the decision and award were announced, 
and were signed by all the Arbitrators except 
the British representative. Sir Alexander Cock- 
burn, who dissented. It was found by the 
Tribunal that the British Government had 
"failed to use due diligence in the performance 
of its neutral obligations" with respect to the 
cruisers Alabama and Florida, and the several 
tenders of those vessels; and also with respect 
to the Shenandoah after her departure from Jlel- 
bourne, Feb. 18, 1865, but not before that date. 
With respect to the Georgia, the Sumter, tlie 
Nashville, the Tallahassee and the Chickamauga, 
it was the finding of the Tribunal that Great 
Britain had not failed to perform the duties of a 
neutral power. So far as relates to the vessels 
called the Sallie, the Jefferson Davis, the Music, 
the Boston, and the V. H. Joy, it was the deci- 
sion of the Tribunal that they ought to be 
excluded from consideration for want of evi- 
dence. "So far as relates to the particulars of 
the indemnity claimed by the United States, the 
costs of pursuit of Confederate cruisers " are 
declared to be "not, in the judgment of the 
Tribunal, properly distinguishable from the gen- 
eral expenses of the war carried on by the 
United States," and "there is no ground for 
awarding to the United States any sum by way 
of indemnity under this head." A similar deci- 
sion put aside the whole consideration of claims 
for " prospective earnings." Finally, the award 
was rendered in the following language: 
"Whereas, in order to arrive at an equitable 
compensation for the damages which have been 
sustained, it is necessary to set aside all double 
claims for the same losses, and all claims for 
'gross f reiglits ' so far as they exceed ' net freights ;' 
and whereas it is just and reasonable to allow 
interest at a reasonable rate ; and whereas, in ac- 
cordance with the spirit and letter of the Treaty 
of AVashington, it is preferable to adopt the 
form of adjudication of a sum in gross, rather 
than to refer the subject of compensation for 
further discussion and deliberation to a Board of 
Assessors, as provided by Article X of the said 


Treaty: The Tribunal, making use of the au- 
thority conferred upon It by Article VII of the 
said Treaty, by a majority of four voices to one, 
awards to the United States the sum of fifteen 
millions five hundred thousand Dollars in gold 
as the indemnity to be paid by Great Britain to 
the United States for the satisfaction of all the 
claims referred to the consideration of the Tri- 
bunal, conformably to the provisions contained 
in Article VII of the aforesaid Treaty." It 
should be stated that the so-called "indirect 
claims " of the United States, for consequential' 
losses and damages, growing out of the encour- 
agement of tlie Southern Rebellion, the prolong- 
ation of the war, &c., were dropped from con- 
sideration at the outset of the session of the Tri- 
bunal, in June, the Arbitrators agreeing then in 
a statement of opinion to the effect that ' ' these 
claims do not constitute, upon the principles of 
international law applicable to such cases, good 
foundation for an award of compensation or 
computation of damages between nations. " This 
declaration was accepted by the United States as 
decisive of the question, and the hearing pro- 
ceeded accordingly. — C. Gushing, The Treaty «f 

Also in F. Wharton, Digest of the Interna- 
tiojuil Law of the U. S., ch. 21 {v. 3). 

ALACAB, OR TOLOSO, Battle of (1212). 
See Almohades, and Spain: A. D. 1146-1233. 

ALADSHA, Battles of (1877). See Turks: 
A. D. 1877-1878. 

ALAMANCE, Battle of (1771). See North 
Carolina: A. D. 1766-1771. 

ALAMANNI. See Alkmanni. 

ALAMO, The massacre of the (1836). See 
Texas: A. D. 1824-1836. 

ALAMOOT, or ALAMOUT, The castle 
of. — The stronghold of the "Old Man of the 
Mountain," or Sheikh of the terrible order of the 
Assassins, in northern Persia. Its name signifies 
' ' the Eagle's nest, " or ' ' the Vulture's nest. " See 

ALANS, OR ALANI, The.— "The Alani 
are first mentioned by Dionysius the geographer 
(B. C. 30-10) who joins them with the Daci and 
the Tauri, and again places them between the 
latter and the Agathyrsi. A position (in 
the south of Russia in Europe, the modem 
IJkraine) is assigned to them by Pliny and 
Joseph us. Seneca places them further west upon 
the Ister. Ptolemy has two bodies of Alani, one 
in the position above described, the other in 
Scythia within the Imaus, north and partly east 
of the Caspian. It must have been from these 
last, the successors, and, according to some, the 
descendants of the ancient Massagetae, that the 
Alani came who attacked Pacorus and Tiridates 
[in Media and Armenia, A. D. 75]. . . . The 
result seems to have been that the invaders, after 
ravaging and harrying Media and Armenia at 
their pleasure, carried off a vast number of 
prisoners and an enormous booty into their own 
country." — G. Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental 
Monarch;/, ch. 17. — E. H. Bunbury, Hist, of 
Ancient Oeog., ch. 6, note H. — " The first of this 
[the Tartar] race known to the Romans were 
the Alani. In the fourth century they pitched 
their tents in the country between the Volga and 
the Tanais, at an equal distance from the Black 
Sea and the Caspian." — J. C. L. Sismoudi, FaU 
of the Boman Empire, ch. 3. 



A. D. 376. — Conquest by the Huns. See 

Goths (Visigoths): A. D. 376. 

A. D. 406-409. — Final Invasion of Gaul. 
See Gall: A. D. 406-409. 

A. D. 409-414. — Settlement in Spain. See 
Spain: A. D. 409-414. 

A. D. 429. — With the Vandals in Africa. 
See Vandals: A. D. 429-439. 

A. D. 451.— At the Battle of Chalons. See 
Hdns: a. D. 4o1. ^ 

ALARCOS, Battle of (A. D. 1195). See 


A. D. 39.5: 400-403, and Rome: A. D. 408-410. 

CHIANS.— "The Alarodians of Herodotus, 
joined with the Sapeires . . . are almost cer- 
tainly the inhabitants of Armenia, whose Semitic 
name was Urarda, or Ararat. ' Alarud,' indeed, 
is a mere variant form of 'Ararud,' the 1 and r 
being undistinguishable in the old Persian, and 
' Ararud ' serves determinately to connect the 
Ararat of Scripture with the Urarda, or Urartha 
of the Inscriptions. . . . The name of Ararat is 
constantly used in Scripture, but always to de- 
note a country rather than a particular moun- 
tain. . . . The connexion ... of Urarda with 
the Babylonian tribe of Akkad is proved by the 
application in the inscriptions of the ethnic title 
of Burbur (?) to the Armenian king . . . ; but 
there is nothing to prove whether the Burbur or 
Akkad of Babylonia descended in a very remote 
age from the mouutaius to colonize the plains, 
or whether the Urardians were refugees of a later 
period driven northward by the growing power 
of the Semites. The former supposition, how- 
ever, is most in conformity with Scripture, 
and incidental!}' with the tenor of the iuscrip- 
tions." — H. C. Rawlinson, Ilist. of Jlervdotus, 
bk. 7, app. 3. — "The broad and rich valley of 
the Kur, which corresponds closely with the 
modern Russian province of Georgia, was 
[anciently] in the'possessionof a people called by 
Herodotus Saspeires or Sapeires, whom we may 
identify with the Iberians of later writers. Ad- 
joining upon them towards the south, probably 
in the countr)' about Erivan, and so in the 
neighbourhood of Ararat, were the Alarodians, 
whose name must be connected with that of the 
great mountain. On the other side of the 
Sapeirian country, in the tracts now known as 
Mingrelia and Imeritia, regions of a wonderful 
beauty and fertility, were the Colchian.s, — de- 
pendents, but not exactly subjects, of Persia." — 
G. Rawlinson, Fice Great Monarchies: Persia, 
ch. 1. 

ALASKA : A. D. 1867.— Purchase by the 
United States. — As early as 1859 there were un- 
official communications between the Russian and 
American governments, on the subject of the 
sale of Alaska by the former to the latter. Rus- 
sia was more than willing to part with a piece of 
territory which she found dilficulty in defending, 
in war; and the interests connected with the 
fisheries and the fur-trade in the north-west 
were disposed to promote the transfer. In 
March, 1867, definite negotiations on the subject 
were opened by the Russian minister at AVash- 
ington, and on the 23d of that month he received 
from Secretary Seward an offer, subject to the 
President's approval, of §7,200,000, on condition 

that the cession be " free and unencumbered by 
any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, 
or possessions by any associated companies, 
whether corporate or incorporate, Russian, of 
any other." "Two days later an answer was 
returned, stating that the minister believed him- 
self authorized to accept these terms. On the 
29th final instructions were received by cable 
from St. Petersburg. On the same day a note 
was addressed by the minister to the secretary of 
state, informing him that the tsar consented to 
the cession of Russian America for the stipu- 
lated sum of §7,200,000 in gold. At four 
o'clock the next morning the treaty was signed by 
the two parties ■\\'ithout further phrase or negoti- 
ation. In May the treaty was ratified, and on 
June 20, 1867, the usual proclamation was issued 
by the president of the United States. " On the 
18th of October, 1867, the formal transfer of the 
territory was made, at Sitka, General Rousseau 
taking possession in the name of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. — H. H. Bancroft, 
Eist. of the Pacific States, v. 28, eh. 28. 

Also in W. H. Dall, Alaska and its Resources, 
pt. 2, eh. 2. — For some account of the aboriginal 
inhabitants, see American Aborigines: Es- 


ALATOONA, Battle of. See United States 
OP Am.: a. D. 1864 (Septembek — October: 

ALBA. — Alban Mount. — "Cantons . . . 
having their rendezvous in some stronghold, and 
including a certain number of clanships, form 
the primitive political unities with which Italian 
history begins. At what period, and to what 
extent, such cantons were formed in Latium, 
cannot be determined with precision ; nor is it a 
matter of special historical interest. The 
isolated Alban range, that natural stronghold 
of Latium, which offered to settlers the most 
wholesome air, the freshest springs, and the 
most secure position, would doubtless be first 
occupied by the new comers. Here accord- 
ingly, along the narrow plateau above Palaz- 
zuola, between the Alban lake (Lago di Castello) 
and the Alban mount (Monte Cavo) extended 
the town of Alba, which was universally 
regarded as the primitive seat of the Latin 
stock, and the mother-city of Rome, as well as 
of all the other Old Latin communities. Here, 
too, on the slopes lay the very ancient Latin 
canton-centres of Lanuvium, Aricia, and Tus- 
culum. . . . All these cantons were in primitive 
times politically sovereign, and each of them 
was governed by its prince with the co-opera- 
tion of the council of elders and the assembly of 
warriors. Nevertheless the feeling of fellow- 
ship based on community of descent and of 
language not only pervaded the whole of them, 
but manifested itself in an important religious 
and political institution — the perpetual league 
of the collective Latin cantons. The presidency 
belonged originally, according to the universal 
Italian as well as Hellenic usage, to that canton 
within whose bounds lay the meeting-])lace of 
the league ; in this case it was the canton of 
Alba. . . . The communities entitled to partici- 
pate in the league were in the beginning thirty. 
. . . The rendezvous of this union was, like the 
Pamba?otia and the Pauionia among the similar 
confederacies of the Greeks, the ' Latin festival ' 
(ferise Latina?) at which, on the Mount of Alba, 
upon a day annually appointed bj' the chief 



magistrate foi the purpose, an ox was offered in 
sacrifice by tlie assembled Latin stock to tlie 
* Latin god ' (Jupiter Latiaris)." — T. Mommsen, 
Sist. oflimne, bk. 1, ch. 3. 

Ai.80 IN Sir W. Gell, Topog. of Rome, v. 1. 

ALBA DE TORMES, Battle of. See 
Spain: A. D. 1809 (August — NovEMUEn). 

ALBAIS, The. See American Aborigi- 
KEs: Pampas Tribes. 

ALB AN, Kingdom of. See Albion; also, 
Scotland: 8th-9th CENTtmiES. 

ALBANI, The. See Britain, Tblbes op 

ALBANIANS: Ancient. See Episus and 

Mediaeval. — "From the settlement of the 
Servian Sclavonians within the bounds of the 
empire [during the reign of Heraclius, first half 
of the seventli century], we may . . . venture to 
date the earliest encroachments of the Illj'rian or 
Albanian race on the Hellenic population. The 
Albanians or Amauts, who are now called by 
themselves Skiptars, are supposed to be remains 
of the great Thracian race which, under various 
names, and more particularly as Paionians, 
Epirots and Macedonians, take an important part 
in early Grecian history. No distinct trace of the 
period at which they began to be co-proprietors 
of Greece with the Hellenic race can be found 
in history. ... It seems very diflicult to trace 
back the history of the Greek nation without 
suspecting that the germs of their modem con- 
dition, like those of their neighbours, are to be 
sought in the singular events which occurred in 
the reign of Heraclius." — G. Finlay, Greece Under 
the Romans, ch. 4, feet. 6. 

A. D. 1443-1467.— Scanderbeg's War with 
the Turlis. — "John Castriot, Lord of Emal- 
thia (tlie modern district of Moghlene) [in 
Epirus or Albania] had submitted, like the 
other petty despots of those regions, to Amurath 
early in his reign, and had placed his four sous 
in the Sultan's hands as hostages for his fidelity. 
Three of them died young. The fourth, whose 
name was George, pleased the Sultan by his 
beauty, strength and intelligence. Amurath 
caused him to be brought up in the Mahometan 
creed; and, when he was only eighteen, con- 
ferred on him the government of one of the 
Sanjaks of the empire. The young Albanian 
proved his courage and skill in many exploits 
under Amurath 's eye, and received from him the 
name of Iskanderbeg, the lord Alexander. 
When John Castriot died, Amurath took pos- 
session of his principalities and kept the son con- 
stantly employed in distant wars. Scanderbeg 
brooded over this injury ; and when the Turkish 
armies were routed by Hunyades in the cam- 
paign of 1443, Scanderbeg determined to escape 
from their side and assume forcible possession of 
his patrimony. He suddenly entered the tent 
of the Sultan's chief secretary, and forced that 
functionary, with the poniard at his throat, to 
write and seal a formal order to the Turkish 
commander of the strong city of Croia, in, 
Albania, to deliver that place and the adjacent 
territory to Scanderbeg, as the Sultan's viceroy. 
He then stabbed the secretary and hastened to 
Croia, where his strategem gained him instant 
admittance and submission. He now publicly 
abjured the Mahometan faith, and declared his 
intention of defending the creed of his fore- 
fathers, and restoring the independence of his 


native land. The Christian population flocked 
readily to his banner and the Turks were mas- 
sacred without mercy. For nearly twenty -five 
years Scanderbeg contended against all the 
power of the Ottomans, though directed by the 
skill of Amurath and his successor Mahomet, 
the conqueror of Constantinople." — Sir E. S. 
Creasy, Hist, of the Ottoman Turks, ch. 4. — 
"Scanderbeg died a fugitive at Lissus on the 
Venetian territory [A. D. 1467]. His sepulchre 
was soon violated by the Turkish conquerors; 
but the janizaries, who wore his bones enchased 
in a bracelet, aeclared by this superstitious 
amulet their involuntary reverence for his 
valour. . . . His infant son was saved from the 
national shipwreck ; the Castriots were invested 
with a Neapolitan dukedom, and their blood 
continues to flow in the noblest families of the 
realm." — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the 
Soman Empire, ch. 67. 

Also in A. Lamartine, Hist, of Turkey, bk. 11, 
sect. U-25. 

A. D. 1694-1696.— Conquests by the Vene- 
tians. See Tdbks: A. D. 1684-1696. 

ALBANY, N. Y. : A. D. 1623.— The first 

Settlement. — In 1614, the year after the first 
Dutch traders had established their operations on 
Manhattan Island, they built a trading house, 
which they called Fort Nassau, on Castle Island, 
in the Hudson River, a' little below the site of 
the present city of Albany. Three years later 
this small fort was carried away by a flood and 
the island abandoned. In 1623 a more important 
fortification, named Fort Orange, was erected on 
the site afterwards covered by the business part 
of Albany. That year, "about eighteen families 
settled themselves at Fort Orange, under Adriaen 
Joris, who 'staid with them all winter,' after 
sending his ship home to Holland in charge of his 
son. As soon as the colonists had built them- 
selves ' some huts of bark ' around the fort, the 
Mahikanders or River Indians [Mohegans], the 
Jlohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the 
Cayugas, and the Senecas, with the Mahawawa 
or Ottawawa Indians, 'came and made covenants 
of friendship . . . and desired that they might 
come and have a constant free trade with them, 
which was concluded upon.'" — J. R. Brodhead, 
Hist, of the State of N. T., v. 1, pp. 55 and 151. 

A. D. 1630. — Embraced in the land-purchase 
of Patroon Van Rensselaer. See New York: 
A. D. 1G21-1G46. 

A. D. 1O64. — Occupied and named by the 
English. See New Yokk: A. D. 1664. 

A. D. 1673. — Again occupied by the Dutch. 
See New York: A. D. 1673. 

A. D. 1754. — The Colonial Congress and its 
plans of Union. See United States op Am. : 
A. D. 1754. , 

ROAD OPENING. See Steam Locomotion 
ON Land. 

York; A. D. ia23. 

ALBEMARLE, The Ram, and her de- 
struction. See United States op Am. : A. D. 
1864 (April — JL^y: North Carolina), and 
(October: N. Carolina). 

ALBERONI, Cardinal, The Spanish Min- 
istry of. See Spain: A. D. 1713-1725; and 
Italy: A. D. 1715-1735. 



ALBERT, King of Sweden. A. D. 1365-1388. 
...Albert, Elector of Brandenburg, A. D. 

1470-14«6 Albert I., Duke of Austria and 

King of Germany, A. D. 129»-130«. . . .Alb*rt 
II., Duke of Austria, King of Hungary and 
Bohemia, A. D. 14o7-l-i40 ; King of Germany, 
A. D. U38-1440. 

ALBERTA, The District of. See Xouth- 
WEST Territories of Cax.vd.\. 

Saxoxt: a. D. 1180-1553. 

ALBICI, The.— A Gallic tribe which occu- 
pied the hills above Massilia (Marseilles) and 
who are described as a savage people even in 
the time of Caesar, when they helped the Massil- 
iots to defend their city against him. — G. Long, 
Decline of the Homan Republic, t. 5, cTi. 4. 

— "Nothing is more curious in Christian history 
than the vitality of the Slanichean opinions. 
That wild, half poetic, half rationalistic theory 
of Christianity, . . . appears almost suddenly 
in the 12th century, in living, almost irresist- 
ible power, first in its intermediate settlement 
in Bulgaria, and on the borders of the Greek 
Empire, then in Italy, in France, in Ger- 
many, in the remoter West, at the foot of the 
Pyrenees. . . . The chief seat of these opinions 
was the south of France. Innocent III., on his 
accession, found not only these daring insur- 
gents scattered in the cities of Italy, even, as it 
were, at his own gates (among his first acts 
was to subdue the Paterines of Viterbo), he 
found a whole province, a realm, in some re- 
spects the richest and noblest of his spiritual do- 
main, absolutely dissevered from his Empire, 
in almost universal revolt from Latin Christian- 
ity. ... In no [other] European country had 
the clergy so entirely, or it should seem so de- 
servedly, forfeited its authority. In none had 
the Church more absolutely ceased to perform 
its proper functions." — H. H. Milman, Hint, of 
Latin Ohristianity, bk. 9, ch. 8. — "By mere 
chance, the sects scattered in South France 
received the common name of Albigenses, from 
one of the districts where the agents of the 
church who came to combat them found them 
mostly to abound, — the district around the 
town of Alba, or Alby ; and by this common 
name they were well known from the commence- 
ment of the thirteenth century. Under this 
general denomination parties of different tenets 
were comprehended together, but the Catharists 
seem to have constituted a predominant element 
among the people thus designated." — A. Nean- 
der. Gen. Hist, of the Christian Rel. and Ch., 
5th per., div. 2, sect. 4, j>t. 3. — " Of the sectaries 
who shared the errors of Gnosticism and Mani- 
chaeism and opposed the Catholic Church and 
her hierarchy, the Albigenses were the most 
thorough and radical. Their errors were, in- 
deed, partly Gnostic and partly Manichfean, 
but the latter was the more prominent and 
fully developed. They received their name 
from a district of Languedoc, inhabited by the 
Albigeois and surrounding the town of Albi. 
They are called Cathari and Patarini in the acts 
of the Council of Tours (A. D. 11G3), and in 
those of the third Lateran, Publiciani (i. e., Pauli- 
ciani). Like the Cathari, they also held that the 
evil spirit created all visible things." — J. Alzog, 
Manual of Univ. Ch. Hist., period 2, epoch 2, 
pt. 1, ch. 3, sect. 236. — " The imputations of 

irreligion, heresy, and shameless debauchery, 
which have been cast with so much bitttemess 
on the Albigenses by their persecutors, and 
which have been so zealously denied by their 
apologists, are probably not ill founded, if the 
word Albigenses be employed as synonymous 
with the words Proven(;aux or Languedocians; 
for they were apparently a race among whom 
the hallowed charities of domestic life, and the 
reverence due to divine ordinances and the hom- 
age due to divine truth, were often impaired, 
and not seldom extinguished, by ribald jests, by 
infidel scoffings, and bj' heart-hardening impuri- 
ties. Like other voluptuaries, the Provenijaux 
(as their remaining literature attests) were ac- 
customed to find matter for merriment in vices 
whicli would have moved wise men to tears. 
But if by the word Albigenses be meant the 
Vaudois, or those followers (or associates) of 
Peter Waldo who revived the doctrines against 
which the Church of Rome directed her censures, 
then the accusation of dissoluteness of manners 
may be safely rejected as altogether calumnious, 
and the charge of heresy may be considered, if 
not as entirely unfounded, yet as a cruel and 
injurious exaggeration." — Sir J. Stephen, Lects. 
on the Hist, of France, lect. 7. 

Also in L. Mariotti, Prd Doleino and hit 
Times. — See, also, Paulieians, and Catharists. 

A. D. 1209. — The First Crusade. — Pope 
"Innocent III., in organizing the persecution of 
the Catharins [or Catharists], the Patarins, and 
the Pauvres do Lyons, exercised a spirit, and 
displayed a genius similar to those which had 
already elevated him to almost universal domin- 
ion ; which had enabled him to dictate at once to 
Italy and to Germany; to control the kings of 
France, of Spain, and of England ; to overthrow 
the Greek Empire, and to substitute in its stead 
a Latin dynasty at Constantinople. In the zeal 
of the Cistercian Order, and of their Abbot, 
Arnaud Amalric; in the fiery and unwearied 
preaching of the first Inquisitor, the Spanish 
Missionary, Dominic; in the remorseless activity 
of Foulquet, Bishop of Toulouse ; and above all, 
in the strong and unpitying arm of Simon de 
Montfort, Earl of Leicester, Innocent found ready 
instruments for his purpose. Thus aided, he ex- 
communicated Raymond of Toulouse [A. D. 
1207], as Chief of the Heretics, and he promised 
remission of sins, and all the privileges which 
had hitherto been exclusively conferred on ad- 
venturers in Palestine, to the champions who 
should enroll themselves as Crusaders in the far 
more easy enterprise of a Holy War against the 
Albigenses. In the first invasion of his territories • 
[A. 5. 1209], Raymond VI. gave way before the 
terrors excited by the 800,000 fanatics who pre- 
cipitated themselves on Languedoc; and loudly 
declaring his personal freedom from heresy, he 
surrendered his chief castles, underwent a humili- 
ating penance, and took the cross against his own 
subjects. The brave resistance of his nephew 
Raymond Roger, Viscount of Beziires, deserved 
but did not obtain success. When the crusaders 
surrounded his capital, which was occupied by a 
mixed population of the two Religions, a ques- 
tion was raised how, in the approaching sack, the 
Catholics should be distinguished from the Here- 
tics. ' Kill them all,' was the ferocious reply of 
Amalric; 'the Lord will easily know His own.' 
In compliance with this advice, not one human 
being within the waUs was permitted tosurii'ive; 




and the tale of slaughter has been variously 
estimated, by those who have perhaps exagger- 
ated the numhei's, at 60.000, but even In the ex- 
tenuating despatch, wliicli the Abbot himself 
addressed to the Pope, at not I'ewer than 13,000. 
Raymond Roger was not iucluded in this fearful 
massacre, and he repulsed two attacks upon Car- 
cassonne, before a treachermis breach of faith 
placed him at the disposal of de Montfort, by 
whom he was poisoned after a short imprison- 
ment. The removal of that young and gallant 
Prince was indeed most important to the ulterior 
project of his captor, who aimed at permanent 
establishment in the South. The family of de 
Montfort had ranked among the nobles of France 
for more than two centuries ; and it is traced by 
some writers through an illegitimate channel 
even to the throne: but the possessions of Simon 
himself were scanty, necessity had compelled 
Irim to sell the County of Evreux to Philippe 
Auguste ; and the English Earldom of Leicester 
which he inherited maternally, and the Lordship 
of a Castle about ten leagues distant from Paris, 
formed the whole of his revenues." — E. Smedley, 
Hist, of France, ch. 4 

Also in J. C. L. de Sismondi, Hist, of tlie 
Vrusades uy'st the Albiqenses, ch. 1. — II. H. Jlil- 
man, IHst. of Latin Chnstianity, bk. 9, ch. 8. — 
J. Alzog, Man. of Cnitersal Church Uist., period 
2, epoch 2, pt. 1, ch. 3. — See, also, iNQnisiTiON: 
A. D. 1203-1525. 

A. D. 1210-1213. — The Second Crusade. — 
"The comiuest of the Viscounty of Beziers had 
rather inflamed than satiated the cupidity of De 
Montfort and the fanaticism of Amalric [legate 
of the Pope] and of the monks of Citeaux. 
Raymond, Count of Toulouse, still possessed the 
fairest part of Langucdoc, and was still sus- 
pected or accused oif affording shelter, if not 
countenance, to his heretical subjects. . . . The 
unhapjjy Kaymoud was . . . again excommuni- 
cated from tiie Christian Church, and his domin- 
ions offered as a reward to the champions wlio 
should execute her sentence against him. To 
earn that reward De Jlontfort, at the head of a 
new host of Crusaders, attracted by the promise 
of earthly spoils and of heavenly blessedness, 
once more marched through the devoted land 
[A. D. 1210], and witli him advanced Amaliic. 
At each successive conquest, slaughter, rapine, 
and woes such as may not be described tracked 
and polluted their steps. Heretics, or those sus- 
pected of heresy, wherever they were found, 
were compelled by the legate to ascend vast piles 
of btirning fagots. ... At length the Crusaders 
reached and laid siege to the city of Toulouse. . . . 
Throwing liimscif into the place, R;iymond . . . 
succeeded in repulsing De Montfort and Amal- 
ric. It was, however, but a temporary respite, 
and the prelude to a fearful destruction. From 
beyond the Pyrenees, at the head of 1,000 
knights, Pedro of Arragon had marched to the 
rescue of Raymond, his kinsman, and of the 
counts of Fdi.t and of Comminges, and of the 
Viscount of Beam, his vassals ; and their united 
forces came into communication with each other 
at Muret, a little town which is about three 
leagues distant from Toidouse. There, also, on 
the 12th of September [A. D. 1213], at the head 
of the champions of the Cross, and attended by 
seven bisliops, appeared Simon de Montfort in 
full military array. The battle which followed 
was tierce, "short and decisive. . . . Don Pedro 

was numbered with the slain. His army, de 
privcd of his command, broke and dispersed, 
and the whole of the infantry of Raymond and 
his allies were either put to the sword, or swept 
away by the current of the Garonne. Toulouse 
immediately surrendered, and tlie whole of the 
dominions of Raymond sul)mitted to the con- 
querors. At a council subsequently held at 
Montpellier, composed of five archbishops and 
twenty-eight bisliops, De Montfort was unani- 
mously acknowledged as prince of the fief and 
city of Toulouse, and of the other counties con- 
quered by the Crusaders under his command." — 
Sir J. Stephen, Lect's on the Ilisl. of France, 
led. 7. 

Also in J. C. L. do Sismondi, IIi»t. of Cruaadea 
ag'nt the Albiqenses, ch. 2. 

A. D. 1217-1229. — The Renevyed Crusades. 
— Dissolution of the County of Toulouse. — 
Pacification of Languedoc. — "The cruel spirit 
of De ilontfort woidd not allow him to rest 
quiet in his new Empire. Violence and perse- 
cution marked his nde; he sought to destroy the 
Provencal population by the sword or the st,ake, 
nor could he bring himself to tolerate the liber- 
ties of the citizens of Toulouse. In 1217 the 
Toulousans again revolted, and war once more 
broke out betwixt Count R;iymond and Simon 
de Montfort. The latter formed the siege of the 
capital, and was engaged in repelling a sally, 
when a stone from one of the walls struck him 
and p\it an end to his existence. . . . Amaury 
de Jlontfort, son of Simon, offered to cede to the 
king all his rights in Langucdoc, which he was 
\mable to defend against the old house of Tou- 
louse. Philip [Augustus] hesitated to accept 
the important cession, and left the rival houses 
to the continuance of a struggle carried feebly on 
by either side." King Philip died in 1223 and 
was succeeded by a son, Louis VIII., who had 
none of his father's reluctance to join in the 
grasping pereecution of the unfortunate people 
of the south. Amaury de Montfort had been 
fairly driven out of old Simon do Jlontfort's con- 
quests, and he now sold them to King Louis for 
the office of constable of France. "A new cru- 
sade was preached against the Albigenses; and 
Louis marche<l towards Langucdoc at the head 
of a formidable army in the spring of the year 
1226. Tlie town of Avignon had proferred to 
the crusaders the facilities of cro.ssing the Rhone 
under her walls, but refused entry within them 
to such a host. Louis having arrived at Avig- 
non, insisted on passing through the town: tde 
Avignonais shut their gates, and defied the mon- 
arch, who instantly formed the siege. One of 
the rich municipalities of the south was almost a 
match for the king of France. He was kept three 
months under its walls ; his army a i)rey to fam- 
ine, to disease and to the assaults of a brave garri- 
son. The crusaders lost 20,000 men. The people 
of Avignon at length submitted, but on no dis- 
honourable terms. This was the only resistance 
that Louis experienced in Langucdoc. . . . AD 
submitted. Louis retired from his facile con- 
quest; he himself, and the c.iiefs of his army 
stricken by aa epidemy which had prevailed in 
the conquered regions. The monarch's feeble 
frame could not resist it; he expired at Montpen- 
sier. in Auvergne, in November, 1226." Louis 

VIII. was succeeded by his yoimg son, Louis 

IX. (Saint Louis), then a boj', under the regency 
of his energetic and capable mother, Blanche of 




Castile. " The termination of the war with the 
AJbigenses, aud tlie pacification, or it might he 
tailed the acquisition, of Languedoc, was tlie 
chief act of Queen Blanche's regency. Louis 
VIII. had overrun the country ■without resistance 
in his last campaign ; still, at his departure, Ray- 
mond VI. again appeared, collected soldiers and 
continued to struggle against the royal lieuten- 
ant. For upward of two years he maintained 
himself; the attention of Blanche being occupied 
by the league of the barons against her. The 
successes of Raymond VIL, accompanied by 
cruelties, awakened the vindictive zeal of the 
pope. Languedoc was threatened with another 
crusade; Raymond was willing to treat, and 
make considerable cessions, in order to avoid 
such extremities. In April, 1229, a treaty was 
signed: in it the rights of De Montfort were 
passed over. About two-thirds of the domains 
of the count of Toulouse were ceded to the king 
of France; the remainder was to fall, after 
Raymond's death, to his daughter Jeanne, who 
by the same treaty was to marry one of the royal 
princes: heirs failing them, it was to revert to 
the crown [which it did in 1271], On these 
terms, with the humiliating addition of a public 
penance, Raymond VII. once more was allowed 
peaceable possession of Toulouse, and of the 
part of his domains reserved to him. Alphonse, 
brother of Louis IX., married Jeanne of Tou- 
louse soon after, and took the title of count of 
Poitiers; that province being ceded to him in 
apanage. Robert, another brother, was made 
count of Artois at the same time. Louis himself 
married ^Margaret, tlie eldest daughter of Raymond 
Bereuger, count of Provence." — E. E. Crowe, 
Hist, of France, v. 1, ch. 2-3. --"The struggle 
ended in a vast increase of the power of the French 
crown, at the expense alike of the house of Tou- 
louse aud of the house of Aragon. The domin- 
ions of the count of Toulouse were divided. A 
number of fiefs, Bezicrs, Narbonne, Nimes, Albi, 
and some other districts were at once annexed to 
the crown. The capital itself and its county 
passed to the crown fifty years later. . . . The 
name of Toulouse, except as the name of the 
city itself, now passed away, and the new ac- 
quisitions of France came in the end to be known 
by the name of the tongue which was common 
to them with Aquitaine aud Imperial Burgundy 
[Provence]. Under the name of Languedoc 
they became one of the greatest and most valu- 
able provinces of the French kingdom." — E. A. 
Freeman, Hist. Qeoij. of Europe, ch. 9. 

The brutality and destructiveness of the 
Crusades. — "The Church of the Albigenses 
had been drowned in blood. These supposed 
heretics had been swept away from the soil of 
France. Tlie rest of the Languedocian people 
had been overwhelmed with calamity, slaughter, 
and devastation. The estimates transmitted to 
ns of the numbers of the invaders and of the 
slain are such as almost surpass belief. "We can 
neither verify nor correct them; but we cer- 
tainly know that, during a long succession of 
years, Languedoc had been invaded by armies 
more numerous than had ever before been 
brought together in European warfare since 
the fall of tlie Roman empire. "We know that 
these hosts were composed of men inflamed by 
bigotry and unrestrained by discipHne ; that tlicy 
had neither military i)ay" nor magazines ; that 
they provided for all their wants by the sword, 


living at the expense of the country, and seizing 
at their pleasure both the harvests of the peas- 
ants and the merchandise of the citizens. More 
than three-fourths of the lauded proprietors had 
been desjjoiled of their fiefs and castles. In 
hundred3 of villages, every inhabitant had been 
massacred. . . . Since the sack of Rome by the 
Vandals, the European world had never mourned 
over a national disaster so wide in its extent or 
so fearful in its character." — Sir J. Stephen, 
Lecta. on the Eiat. of France, led. 7. 

ALBION. — "The most ancient name known 
to have been given to this island [Britain] is 
that of Albion. . . . There is, however, another 
allusion to Britain which seems to caiTy us much 
further back, though it has usually been ill 
understood. It occurs in the story of the labours 
of Hercules, who, after securing the cows of 
Gerj'on, comes from Spain to Liguria, where he 
is attacked by two giants, whom he kills before 
making his way to Italy. Now, according to 
Pomponius Mela, the names of the giants were 
Albiona aud Bergyon, which one may, without 
much hesitation, restore to the forms of Albion 
and Iberion, representing, undoubtedly, Britain 
and Ireland, the position of which in the sea 
is most appropriately symbolized by the stoir 
making them sons of Neptune or the sea-god. 
. . . Even in the time of Pliny, Albion, as the 
name of the island, had fallen out of use with 
Latin authors; but not so with the Greeks, or 
with the Celts themselves, at any rate those of 
the Goidelic branch; for they are probably right 
who suppose that we have but the same word 
in the Irish and Scotch Gcelic Alba, genitive 
Alban, the kingdom of Alban or Scotland beyond 
the Forth. Albion would be a form of the name 
according to the Brjthonic pronunciation of it. 
... It would thus appear that the name Albion 
is one that has retreated to a corner of the island, 
to the whole of which it once applied." — J. 
Rhys, Celtic Britain, ch. 6. 

Also in E. Guest, Origines Cdticae, ch. 1. — 
See Scotl.\i;d: 8Tn-9Tn centuries. 

ALBIS, The. — The ancient name of the river 

ALBOIN, King of the Lombards, A. D. 

DOR. — "The word alcalde is from the Arabic 
' al cadi,' the judge or governor. . . . Alcalde 
mayor signifies a judge, learned in the law, who 
exercises [in Spain] ordinary jurisdiction, civil 
and criminal, in a town or district." In the 
Spanish colonies the Alcalde mayor was the chief 
judge. "Irving (Columbus, ii. 331) writes er- 
roneously alguazil mayor, evidently confounding 
the two offices. . . . An alguacil mayor, was a 
chief constable or high sheriff." " Corregidor, 
a magistrate having civil and criminal jurisdic- 
tion in the firet instance ( ' nisi prius ' ) and gub- 
ernatorial inspection in the political and eco- 
nomical government in all the towns of the district 
assigned to him." — H. H. Bancroft, Hist. oftTie 
Pacific Slates, t. 1. pp. 297 and 250, foot-notes. 

ALCANIZ, Battle of. See Spain: A. D. 

1809 (FeBRU.\RY — JVNE). 

ALCANTARA, Battle of the (1580). See 
Portugai,: a. D. 1579-1580. 

ALCANTARA, Knights of. — " Towards 
the close of Alfonso's reign [Alfonso VIII. of 
Castile and Leon, who called himself ' the Em- 


ALEMANNI, A. D. 259. 

peror,' A. D. 1138-1157], may be assigned the 
origin of the military order of Alcantara. Two 
cavaliers of Salamanca, don Suero and don 
Gomez, left that city with the design of choos- 
ing and fortifying some strong natural frontier, 
whence they could not onlj' arrest the continual 
incursions of the Moors, but make hostile irrup- 
tions themselves into the territories of the misbe- 
lievers. Proceeding along the banks of the 
Coales, they fell in with a hermit, Amando by 
name, who encouraged them in their patriotic 
design and recommended the neighbouring her- 
mitage oi St. Julian as an excellent site for a 
fortress. Having examined and approved the 
situation, they applied to the bishop of Sala- 
manca for permission to occupy the place: that 
permission was readily granted : with his assist- 
ance, and that of the hermit Amando, the two 
cavaliers erected a castle around the hermitage. 
They were now joined by other nobles and by 
more adventurers, all eager to acquire fame and 
wealth in this life, glory in the next. Hence the 
foundation of an order which, under the name, 
first, of St. Julian, and subsequently of Alcan- 
tara, rendered good service alike to king and 
church." — S. A. Dunham, Hist, of Spain and 
Portugal, bk. 3, sect. 2, ch. 1, did. 2. 

Battle of (1578 or 1579). See Makocco: The 
Au.vB Conquest and Since. 

ALCIBIADES, The career of. See 
Greece: B. C. 431^18, and 411^07; and 
Athens: B. C. 415, and 413-411. 

ALCLYDE. — Rhydderch, a Cumbrian prince 
of the sixth century who was the victor in a 
civil conflict, " fixed his headquarters on a rock 
in the Clyde, called in the Welsh Alclud [pre- 
viously a Roman town known as Theodosia], 
whence it was known to the English for a time 
as Alclyde; but the Goidels called it Dunbret- 
tan, or the fortress of the Brythons, which has 
prevailed in the slightly modified form of Dum- 
barton. . . . Alclyde was more than once de- 
stroyed by the Northmen." — J. Rhys, Celtic 
Britain, ch. 4. — See, also, Cumbria. 

ALCM.(EONIDS, The curse and banish- 
ment of the. See Athens: B. C. 613-595. 

ALCOLEA, Battle of (1868). See Spain: 
A. D. 1866-1873. 

ALDIE, Battle of. See United States of 
Am.: a. D. 1863 (June — July: Pennstl- 

ALDINE press, The. See Pkintinq 
AND THE Press: A. D. 1469-1515. 

ALEMANNIA: The Medieval Duchy. 
See Germany: A. D. 843-963. 

213. — Origin and first appearance. — "Under 
Antoninus, the Son of Severus, a new and more 
severe war once more (A. D. 213) broke out in 
Raetia. This also was waged against the Chatti ; 
but by their side a second people is named, 
which we here meet for the first time — the 
Alamanni. Whence they came, we known not. 
According to a Roman writing a little later, they 
were a conflux of mixed elements ; the appella- 
tion also seems to point to a league of communi- 
ties, as well as tlie fact that, afterwards, the 
different tribes comprehended under this name 
stand forth — more than is the case among the 
other great Germanic peoples — in their separate 
character, and the Juthungi, the Lentienses, and 
other Alamannic peoples not seldom act inde- 

pendently. But that it is not the Germans ol 
this region who here emerge, allied under the 
new name and strengthened by the alliance, is 
shown as well by the naming of the Alamanni 
along side of the Chatti, as by the mention of 
the unwonted skilfulucss of the Alamanni in 
equestrian combat. On the contrary, it was 
certainly, in the main, hordes coining on from 
the East that lent new strength to the almost 
extinguished German resistance on the Rhine ; it 
is not improbable that the powerful Semnones, 
in earlier times dwelling on the middle Elbe, of 
whom there is no further mention after the end 
of the second century, furnished a strong con- 
tingent to the Alamanni. " — T. Mommsen, Hist, 
of Home, bk. 8, di. 4. — "The standard quotation 
respecting the derivation of the name from 
' al'='all ' and m-n^'man', so that the word 
(somewhat exceptionably) denotes ' men of all 
sorts,' is from Agathias, who quotes Asinius 
Quadratus. . . . Notwithstanding this, I think 
it is an open question, whether the name may 
not have been applied by the truer and more 
unequivocal Germans of Suabia and Francouia, 
to certain less definitely Germanic allies from 
Wurtemberg and Baden, — parts of the Decu- 
mates Agri — parts which may have supplied a 
Gallic, a Gallo-Roman, or even a Slavonic ele- 
ment to the confederacy ; in which case, a name 
so German as to have given the present French 
and Italian name for Germany, may, originally, 
have applied to a population other than Ger- 
manic. I know the apparently paradoxical ele- 
ments in this view ; but I also know that, in the 
way of etymology, it is quite as safe to trans- 
late ' all ' by ' alii ' as by ' omnes ' : and I cannot 
help thinking that the ' al- ' in Alc-raanui is the 
' al- ' in 'alir-arto '(a foreigner or man of another 
sort), ' eli-benzo ' (an alien), and *ali-land ' (cap- 
tivity in foreign land). — Grimm, ii. 638. — Rech- 
salterth, p. 359. And still more satisfied am I 
that the ' al- ' in Al-cmanni is the ' al- ' in Al- 
satia='el-sass'='ali-satz '=' foreign settlement.' 
In other words, the prefl.x in question is more 
probably the ' al-' in ' el-se ', than the ' al- ' in 
' all.' Little, however, of importance turns 
on this. The locality of the Alemanni was the 
parts about the Limes Romanus, a boundary 
which, in the time of Alexander Severus, 
Niebuhr thinks they first broke through. Hence 
they were the Marchmen of the frontier, who- 
ever those Marchmen were. Other such March- 
men were the Suevi; unless, indeed, we con- 
sider the two names as synonymous. Zeuss ad- 
mits that, between the Suevi of Suabia, and the 
Alemanni, no tangible difference can be found." 

— R. G. Lathan, Tlie Germania of Tacitus; 
Epilegomena, sect. 11. 

Also in T. Smith, Arminius, pt. 2, ch. 1. — 
See, also, Sue\% and Bavari.vxs. 
A. D. 259. — Invasion of Gaul and Italy. 

— The Alemanni, "hovering on the frontiers 
of the Empire . . . increased the general dis- 
order that ensued after the death of Decius. 
They inflicted severe wounds on the rich 
provinces of Gaul; they were tlie first who 
removed the veil that covered the feeble majesty 
of Italy. A numerous body of the Alemanni 
penetrated across the Danube and through the 
Rhaitian Alps into the plains of Lombardy, ad- 
vanced as far as Ravenna and displayed the vic- 
torious banners of barbarians almost in sight 
of Rome [A. D. 259]. The insult and the danger 


ALEMA^'XI, A. D. 259. 

ALE>IANNI, A. D. 547. 

rekindled in the senate some sparks of their 
ancient virtue. Both the Emperoi-s were en- 
gaged in far distant wars — Valerian in the 
East and Galienus on the Rhine." The senators, 
however, succeeded in confronting the audacious 
Invaders with a force which checked their ad- 
vance, and they "retired into Germany laden 
with spoil." — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of t/ie 
Roman Empire, ch. 10. 

A. D. 270. — Invasion of Italy. — Italy was 
invaded by the Alenianui, for the second time, 
in the reign of Aurelian, A. D. 2T0. They rav- 
aged the provinces from the Danube to the Po, 
and were retreating, laden with spoils, when the 
vigorous Emperor intercepted them, on the 
banks of the former river. Half the host was 
permitted to cross the Danube ; the other half 
was surprised and surrounded. But these last, 
unable to regain their own country, broke 
through the Roman lines at their rear and sped 
into Italy again, spreading havoc as they went. 
It was only after three great battles, — one near 
Placentia, in which the Romans were almost 
beaten, another on the Metaurus (where Has- 
drubal was defeated), and a third near Pavia, — 
that the Germanic invaders were destroyed. — 
E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire, ch. 11. 

A. D. 355-361. — Repulse by Julian. See 
Gaul: A. D. 355-361. 

A. D. 365-367. — Invasion of Gaul. — The 
Alemanni invaded Gaul in 305, committing wide- 
spread ravages and carrying away into the for- 
ests of Germany great spoil and many captives. 
The nest winter they crossed the Rhine, again, 
in still greater numbers, defeated the Roman 
forces and captured the standards of the Heru- 
lian and Batavian auxiliaries. But Valentinian 
was now Emperor, and he adopted energetic 
measures. His lieutenant Jovinus overcame the 
invaders in a great battle fought near Chalons 
and drove them back to their own side of the 
river boundary. Two years later, the Emperor, 
himself, passed the Rhine and inflicted a memo- 
rable chastisement on the Alemanni. At the 
same time he strengthened the frontier defences, 
and, by diplomatic arts, fomented quarrels be- 
tween the Alemanni and their neighbors, the 
Burgundians, which weakened both. — E. Gib- 
bon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 
ch. 25. 

A. D. 378. — Defeat by Gratian. — On learn- 
ing that the young Emperor Gratian was pre- 
paring to lead the military force of Gaul and the 
West to the help of his uncle and colleague, 
Valens, against the Goths, the Alemanni swarmed 
across the Rhine into Gaul. Gratian instantly 
recalled the legions that were marching to Pan- 
nonia and encountered the German invaders in a 
great battle fought near Argentaria (modern 
Colmar) in the month of 3Iay, A. D. 378. The 
Alemanni were routed with such slaushter that no 
more than 5,000 out of 40,000 to 70,000, are said 
to have escaped. Gratian afterwards crossed the 
Rhine and humbled his troublesome neighbors 
in their own country. — E. Gibbon, Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 20. 

A. "D. 496-504.— Overthrow by the Franks. 
—"In the year 496 A. D. the Salians [Salian 
Franks] began that career of conquest which 
they followed up with scarcely any intermission 
until the death of their warrior king. The 
Alemanni, extending themselves from their origi- 

nal seats on the right bank of the Rhine, between 
the Main and the Danube, had pushed forward 
into Germanica Prima, where they came into 
collision with the Prankish subjects of King 
Sigebert of Cologne. Clovis flew to the assist- 
ance of his kinsman and defeated the Alemanni 
in a great battle in the neighbourhood of Zill- 
pich [called, commonly, the battle of Tolbiac]. 
He then established a considerable number of his 
Franks in the territory of the Alemanni, the 
traces of whose residence are foimd in the names 
of Franconia and Frankfort. "— W. C. Perry, 
TJie Franks, ch. 2.— "Clovis had been intending 
to cross the Rhine, but the hosts of the Alamanni 
came upon him, as it seems, unexpectedly and 
forced a battle on the left bank of the river. He 
seemed to be overmatched, and the horror of an 
impending defeat overshadowed the Frankish 
king. Then, in his despair, he bethought him- 
self of the God of Clotilda [his queen, a Burgun- 
dian Christian princess, of the orthodox or 
Catholic faith]. Raising his eyes to heaven, he 
said : ' Oh Jesus Christ, whom Clotilda declares 
to be the Son of the living God, who art said to 
give help to those who are in trouble and who 
trust in Thee, I humbly beseech Thy succour ! I 
have called on my gods and they are far from 
my help. If Thou wilt deliver me from mine 
enemies, I will believe in Thee, and be baptised 
in Thy name. ' At this moment, a sudden change 
was seen in the fortunes of the Franks. The 
Alamanni began to waver, they turned, they 
fled. Tiieir king, according to one account was 
slain; and the nation seems to have accepted 
Clovis as its over-lord." The following Christ- 
mas day Clovis was baptised at Reims and 3,000 
of his warriors followed the royal example. " In 
the early years of the new century, probably 
about 503 or 504, Clovis was again at war with 
his old enemies, the Alamanni. . . . Clovia 
moved his army into their territories and won a 
victory much more decisive, though less famous 
than that of 496. This time the angry king 
would make no such easy terms as he had done 
before. From their pleasant dwellings by the 
Main and the Keckar, from all the valley of the 
Middle Rhine, the terrified Alamanni were 
forced to flee. Their place was taken by Prank- 
ish settlers, from whom all this district'received 
in the Middle Ages the name of the Duchy of 
Francia, or, at a rather later date, that of the 
Circle of Franconia. The Alamanni, with their 
wives and children, a broken and dispirited host, 
moved southward to the shores of the Lake of 
Constance and entered the old Roman province of 
Rhaetia. Here they were on what was held to 
be, in a sense, Italian ground; and the arm of 
Theodoric, as ruler of Italy, as successor to the 
Emperors of the West, was stretched forth to 
protect them. . . . Eastern Switzerland, West- 
ern Tyrol, Southern Baden and WQrtemberg and 
Southwestern Bavaria probably formed this new 
Alamannis, which will figure in later history as 
the ' Ducatus Alamanniae, ' or the Circle of S wabia. 
— T. Hodgkin, Italy and Her Intaders. bk. 4. ch. 9. 

Also in P. Godwin, Hist, of France: Ancient 
Gaul. bk. 3, ch. 11. — See, also, Sc^vi: A. D. 
460-500; and Fr.\nks: A. D. 481-511. 

A. D. 528-729.— Struggles against the 
Frank Dominion. See GER>L\Nr: A. D. 481- 

A. D. 547. — Final subjection to the Franks. 
See Bavabia : A. D. 547. 



ALEXANDRIA. B. C. 282-246. 

ALEPPO: A. D. 638-969.— Taken by the 

Arab followers of Mahomet in 638, this city was 
recovered by the Byzantines in 969. See Byzan- 
TtNE Empire: A. D. 963-1035. 

A. D. 1260. — Destruction by the Mongols. 
— The Mongols, under Khulagu, or Houlagoii, 
brother of ]\Iangu Khan, having overrun Meso- 
potamia and extinguished the Caliphate at Bag- 
dad, crossed the Euphrates in the spring of 1360 
and advanced to Aleppo. The city was taken 
after a siege of seven days and given up for five 
days to pillage and slaugliter. "When the 
carnage ceased, the streets were cumbered witli 
corpses. ... It is said that 100,000 women and 
children were sold as slaves. The walls of 
Aleppo were razed, its mosques destroyed, and 
its gardens ravaged." Damascus submitted and 
was spared. Khulagu was meditating, it is said, 
the conquest of Jerusalem, when news of the 
death of the Great Khan called him to the East. 
— H. H. Howorth, Hist, of tlw Mongols, pp. 209- 

A. D. 1401. — Sack and Massacre by Timour. 
See Ti.MODR. 

ALESIA, Siege of, by Csesar. See Gaul: 
B. C. 58-51. 

ALESSANDRIA: The creation of the city 
(1 168). See Italy; A. D. 1174-1183. 

ALEUTS, The. Bee American Aborigi- 
nes: Eskimo. 

ALEXANDER the Great, B. C. 334-323. 
— Conquests and Empire. See M.\cedonia, &c., 

B. C. 334-330, and after Alexander, King of 

Poland, A. D. 1501-1507 Alexander, Prince 

of Bulgaria. — Abduction and Abdication. See 

Bulg.\ria: a. D. 1878-1886 Alexander I., 

Czar of Russia, A. D. 1801-1825. .. .Alexan- 
der I., King of Scotland, A. D. 1107-1124. . . . 

Alexander II., Pope, A. D. 1061-1073 

Alexander II., Czar of Russia, A. D. 1855- 

1831 Alexander II., King of Scotland, 

A. D. 1214-1349. . . .Alexander III., Pope, A. D. 

1159-1181 Alexander III., Czar of Russia, 

A. D. 1881—. . . .Alexander III., King of Scot- 
land, A. D. 1349-1286. . . .Alexander IV., Pope, 
A. D. 1254-1261. . . .Alexander V., Pope, A. D. 

1409-1410 (elected by the Council of Pisa) 

Alexander VI., Pope, A. D. 1492-1503. . . .Alex- 
ander VII., Pope, A. D. 1655-1667.... Alex- 
ander VIII., Pope, A. D. 1689-1 091.... Alex- 
ander Severus, Roman Emperor, A. D. 232-235. 

ALEXANDRIA: B. C. 332.— The Found- 
ing of the City. — "When Alexander reached 
the Egyptian military station at tlie little 
town or village of Rhakotis, he saw with 
the quick eye of a great commander how 
to turn this petty settlement into a great 
city, and to make its roadstead, out of which 
ships could be blown by a change of wind, 
into a double harbour roomy enough to 
shelter the navies of the world. All that was 
needed was to join the island by a mole to the 
continent. The site was admirably secure and 
convenient, a narrow strip of land between the 
Mediterranean and the great inland Lake Mare- 
otis. The whole northern side faced the two 
harbours, which were bounded east and west by 
the mole, and beyond by the long, narrow rocky 
island of Pharos, stretching parallel with the 
coast. On the south was the inland port of Lake 
Mareotis. The length of the city was more than 
three miles, the breadth more than three-quarters 
of a mile ; the mole was above three-quarters of 


a mile long and six hundred feet broad; its 
breadth is now doubled, owing to the silting up 
of the sand. Modern Alexandria until lately 
only occupied the mole, and was a great town in 
a corner of the space which Alexander, with 
large provision for the future, measured out. 
Tlie form of the new city was ruled by that of 
the site, but the fancy of Alexander designed it 
in the shape of a Macedonian cloak or chlamys, 
such as a national hero wears on the coins of the 
kings of Macedon, his ancestors. The situation 
is excellent for commerce. Alexandria, with the 
best Egyptian harbour on the Mediterranean, 
and the inland port connected with the Nile 
streams and canals, was the natural emporium 
of the Indian trade. Port Said is superior now, 
because of its grand artificial port and the 
advantage for steamsliips of au unbroken sea- 
route. "—R. S. Poole, CHks of Egypt, ch. 12.— 
See, also, Macedonia, &c. : B. C. 834-330; and 
Egypt : B. C. 332. 

Reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. 282- 
246. — ^ Greatness and splendor of the City. — 
Its Commerce. — Its Libraries. — Its Museum. 
— Its Schools. — Ptolemy Philadelphus, sou 
of Ptolemy Soter, succeeded to the throne of 
Egypt in 282 B. C. when his father retired from 
it m his favor, and reigned until 246 B. C. 
"Alexandria, founded by the great conqueror, 
increased and beautified by Ptolemy Soter, was 
now far the greatest city of Alexander's Empire. 
It was the first of those new foundations which 
are a marked feature in Hellenism; there were 
many others of great size and importance — 
above all, Antioch, then Seleucia on the Tigris, 
then Nicomedia, Nicrea, Apamea, which lasted; 
besides such as Lysimacheia, Antigoneia, and 
others, which early disappeared. . . . Alexan- 
dria was the model for all the rest. The inter- 
section of two great principal thoroughfares, 
adorned with colonnades for the footways, formed 
the centre point, the oraphales of the city. The 
other streets were at right angles with these 
thoroughfares, so that the whole place was quite 
regular. Counting its old part, Rhakotis, which 
was still the habitation of native Egyptians, 
Alexandria had five quarters, one at least devoted 
to Jews who had originally settled there in great 
numbers. The mixed population there of Mace- 
donians, Greeks, Jews, and Egyptians gave a 
peculiarly complex and variable character to the 
population. Let us not forget the vast number 
of strangers from all parts of the world whom 
trade and politics brought there. It was the 
great mart where the wealth of Europe and of Asia 
changed hands. Alexander had opened the sea- 
way by exploring the coasts of Media and Persia. 
Caravans from the head of the Persian Gulf, and 
ships on the Red Sea, brought all the wonders of 
Ceylon and China, as well as of Further India, to 
Alexandria. There, too, the wealth of Spain and 
Gaul, the produce of Italy and Macedonia, the 
amber of tlie Baltic and the salt fish of Pontus, 
the silver of Spain and the copper of Cyprus, the 
timber of Macedonia and Crete, the pottery and 
oil of Greece — a thousand imports from all the 
Mediterranean — came to be exchanged for the 
spices of Arabia, the splendid birds and embroi- 
deries of India and Cej'lon, the gold and ivory of 
Africa, the antelopes, the apes, the leopards, the 
elephants of tropical climes. Hence the enormous 
wealth of the Lagidse, for in addition to the mar- 
vellous fertility and great population — it is said 

ALEXA2TDRIA, B. C. 283-346. 

ALEXANDRIA. B. C. 282-346. 

to have been seven millions — of Egypt, they 
made all the profits of this enormous canying 
trade. We gain a good idea of what the splen- 
dours of the capital were by the very full account 
preserved to us by Athenoeus of the great feast 
which inaugurated the reign of Philadelphus. 
. . . All tiu's seems idle pomp, and the doing of 
an idle sybarite. Philadelphus was anything but 
that. ... It was he who opened up the Egyp- 
tian trade with Italy, and made Puteoli the great 
port for ships from Alexandria, which it remained 
for centuries. It was he who explored Ethiopia 
and the southern parts of Africa, and brought 
back not only the curious faima to his zoological 
gardens, but the first knowledge of the Troglo- 
dytes for men of science. The cultivation of 
science and of letters too was so remarkably one 
of his pursuits that the progress of the Alexan- 
dria of his day forms an epoch in the world's 
history, and we must separate his University and 
its professors from this summary, and devote to 
them a separate section. . . . The history of the 
organization of the University and its staff is 
covered with almost Impenetrable mist. For the 
Museum and Library were in the strictest sense 
what we should now call an University, and one, 
too, of the Oxford type, where learned men were 
invited to take Fellowships, and spend their 
learned leisure close to observatories in science, 
and a great library of books. Like the mediaeval 
universities, this endowment of research naturally 
turned into an engine for teaching, as all who 
desired knowledge flocked to such a centre, and 
persuaded the Fellow to become a Tutor. The 
model came from Athens. There the schools, 
beginning with the Academy of Plato, had a 
fixed property — a home with its suiTounding 
garden, and in order to make this foundation 
sure, it was made a shrine where tha Muses were 
worshipped, and where the head of the school, or 
a priest appointed, performed stated sacrifices. 
This, then, being held in trust by the successors 
of the donor, who bequeathed it to them, was a 
property which it would have been sacrilegious 
to invade, and so the title JIuseum arose for a 
school of learning. Demetrius the Phalerean, the 
friend and protector of Theophrastus, brought 
this idea with him to Alexandria, when his name- 
sake drove him into exile [see Greece: B. C. 
307-197] and it was no doubt his advice to the 
first Ptolemy which originated the great foun- 
dation, though Philadelphus, who again exiled 
Demetrius, gets the credit of it. The pupil of 
Aristotle moreover impressed on the king the 
necessity of storing up in one central repository 
all that the world knew or could produce, in 
order to ascertain the laws of things from a pro- 
per analysis of detail. Hence was founded not 
only the great library, which in those days had a 
thousand times the value a great library has now, 
but also observatories, zoological gardens, col- 
lections of exotic plants, and of other new and 
strange things brought by exploring expeditions 
from the furthest regions of Arabia and Africa. 
This library and museum proved indeed a home 
for the Muses, and about it a most brilliant group 
of students in literature and science was formed. 
The successive librarians were Zenodotus, the 
grammarian or critic; Callimachus, to whose 
poems we shall presently return; Eratosthenes, 
the astronomer, who originated the process by 
which the size of the earth is determined to-day ; 
AppoUonius the Rhodian, disciple and enemy of 

Callimachus ; Aristophanes of Byzantium, foimdei 
of a school of philological criticism ; and Aristar- 
chus of Samos, reputed to have been the greatest 
critic of ancient times. The study of the text of 
Homer was the chief labour of Zenodotus, Aris- 
tophanes, and Aristarchus, and it was Aristar- 
chus who mainly fixed the form in which the 
Iliad and Odyssey remain to this day. . . . The 
vast collections of the library and museum 
actually determined the whole character of the 
literature of Alexandria. One word sums it all 
up — erudition, whether in philosophy, in criti- 
cism, in science, even in poetry. Strange to say, 
they neglected not only oratory, for which there 
was no scope, but history, and this we may attri- 
bute to the fact that history before Alexander had 
no charms for Hellenism. 3Iythical lore, on the 
other hand, strange uses and curious words, were 
departments of research dear to them. In science 
they did great things, so did they in geography. 
. . . But were they original in nothing? Did 
they add nothing of their own to the splendid 
record of Greek literature? In the next gener- 
ation came the art of criticism, which Aristar- 
chus developed into a real science, and of that 
we may speak in its place; but even in this 
generation we may claim for them the credit of 
three original, or nearly original, developments 
in literature — the pastoral idyll, as we have it 
in Theocritus; the elegy, as we have it in the 
Roman imitators of Philetas and Callimachus; 
and the romance, or love story, the parent of our 
modern novels. All these had early prototypes 
in the folk songs of Sicily, in the love songs of 
Mimnermus and of Antimachus, in the tales of 
Miletus, but still the revival was fairly to be 
called original. Of these the pastoral idj'U was 
far the most remarkable, and laid hold upon the 
world for ever." — J. P. Slahaffy, The Story of 
Alexander's Empire, ch. 13-14. — " There were two 
Libraries of Alexandria under the Ptolemies, the 
larger one in the quarter called the Bruchium, 
and the smaller one, named ' the daughter, ' in 
the Serapeum, wliich was situated in the quarter 
called Rhacotis. The former was totally 
destroyed in the conflagration of the Bruchium 
during Csesar's Alexandrian War [see below: 
B. C. 48-47] ; but the latter, which was of great 
value, remained uninjured (see Matter, Eistoire 
de VEcole d'Alexandrie, wl. 1, p. 133 ««(?., 237 
seq.) It is not stated by any ancient writer 
where the collection of Pergamus [see Perga- 
sruii] was placed, which Antony gave to Cleo- 
patra (Plutarch, Anton., c. 58); but it is most 
probable that it was deposited in the Bruchium, 
as that quarter of the city was now without a 
library, and the queen was anxious to repair the 
ravages occasioned by the civil war. If this 
supposition is correct, two Alexandrian libraries 
continued to exist after the time of Ctesar, and 
this is rendered still more probable by the fact 
that during the first three centuries of the Chris- 
tian era the Bruchium was still the literanr 
quarter of Alexandria. But a g^c&t change took 
place in the time of Aurelian. This Emperor, in 
suppressing the revolt of Firmus in Egypt, A. 
D. 273 [see l>elow: A. D. 273] is said to have 
destroyed the Bruchium ; and though this state- 
ment is hardly to be taken literally, the Bruchium 
ceased from this time to be included within the 
walls of Alexandria, and was regarded only as a 
suburb of the city. Wliether the great library 
in the Bruchium with the museum and its other 


ALEXANDRIA. B. C. 283-246. 


literary cstabltshments, perished at this time, we 
do not linow; but the Serapeum for the next 
century talies its place as the literary quarter of 
Alexandria, and becomes the chief library 
in tlie city. Hence later writers erroneously 
spealc of the Serapeum as if it had been from tlie 
beginning the great Alexandrian library. . . . 
Gibbon seems to think that the whole of the 
Serapeum was destroyed [A. D. 389, by order of 
the Emperor Theodosius — see below]; but this 
was not tlie case. It would appear tliat it was 
only the sanctuary of the god that was 
levelled with the ground, and that the library, 
the halls and other buildings in the coasecruted 
ground remained standing long afterwards." — E. 
Gibbon, Decline and Full of the Roman Empire, 
ch. 28. Notes by Dr. William Smith. — Concern- 
ing the reputed final destruction of the Library 
by the Moslems, see below: A. D. 641-646. 
Also in : O. Delepierre. Historical Difficulties, 

eh. 3.— S. Sharpe, Hist, of Egypt, c/i. 7, 8 and 12. 

— See, also, NEorLATOxics, and LiiiHARrES. 

B. C. 48-47.— Caesar and Cleopatra. — The 
Rising against the Romans. — The Siege. — 
Destruction of the great Library. — Roman 
victory. — From the battle field of Pharsalia (see 
Rons : B. C. 48) Pompeius fled to Alexandria 
in Egypt, and was treacherously murdered as he 
stepped on shore. Csesar arrived a few days 
afterwards, in close pursuit, and shed tears, it is 
said, on being shown his rival's mangled head. 
He had brought scarcely more than 3,000 of his 
soldiers with him, and he found Egypt in a tur- 
bulent state of civil war. The throne was in 
dispute between children of the late king, 
Ptolemoeus Auletes. Cleopatra, the elder daugh- 
ter, and Ptolemceus, a son, were at war with 
one another, and ArsinoB, a younger daughter, 
was ready to put forward claims (see Egypt: 
B. C. 80-48). Notwithstanding the insignifi- 
cance of his force, Csesar did not hesitate to as- 
sume to occupy Alexandria and to adjudicate the 
dispute. But the fascinations of Cleopatra 
(then twenty years of age) soon made him her 
partisan, and her scarcely disguised lover. This 
aggravated the irritation which was caused In 
Alexandria by the presence of Csesar's troops, 
and a furious rising of the city was provoked. 
He fortified himself in the great palace, which 
he had taken possession of, and which com- 
manded the causeway to the island. Pharos, 
thereby commanding the port. Destroying a 
large part of the city in that neighborhood, he 
made his position exceedingly strong. At the 
same time he seized and burned the royal fleet, 
and thus caused a conflagration in which the 
greater of the two priceless libraries of Alex- 
andria — the library of the Museum — was, much 
of it, consumed. [See above: B. C. 282-246.] 
By such measures Csesar withstood, for 
several montba, a siege conducted on the part of 
the Alexandrians with great determination and 
animosity. It was not until March, B. C. 47, 
that he was relieved from his dangerous situa- 
tion, by the arrival of a faithful ally, in the per- 
son of Mithridates, of Pcrgamus, who led an 
army Into Egypt, reduced Pelusium, and crossed 
the Nile at the head of the Delta. Ptole- 
)ii;eus advanced with his troops to meet this 
new Invader and was followed and overtaken by 
Cssar. In the battle which then occurred the 
Egyptian army was utterly routed and Ptole- 
mseus perished in the Nile. Cleopatra was then 

married, after the Egyptian fashion, to a 
younger brother, and established on the throne, 
while ArsiuoO was sent a prisoner to Rome. — 
A. Hirlius, 7'he Alexandrian War. 

A. D. 100-312. — The Early Christian 
Church. — Its Influence. See Chiiistianity : 
A. D. 100-312. 

A. D. 116. — Destruction of the Jews. See 
Jews: A. D. 116. 

A. D. 215. — Massacre by Caracalla.— 
" Ciiracalla was the common enemy of mankind. 
He left the capital (and he never returned to it) 
about a year after the murder of Qeta [A. D. 
213]. The rest of his reign [four years] was 
spent in the several provinces of the Empire, 
particularly those of the East, and every prov- 
ince was, by turns, the scene of his rapine and 
cruelty. ... In the midst of peace, and upon 
the slightest provocation, he issued his commands 
at Alexandria, Egypt [A. D. 215], for a general 
massacre. From a secure post in the temple of 
Serapis, he viewed and directed the slaughter of 
many thousand citizens, as well as strangers, 
without distinguishing either the number or the 
crime of the sufferers." — E. Gibbon, Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 6. 

A. D. 260-272.— Tumults of the Third Cen- 
tury. — "The people of Alexandria, a various 
mixture of nations, united the vanity and incon- 
stancy of the Greeks with the superstition and 
obstinacy of the Egyptians. The most trifling 
occasion, a transient scarcity of flesh or lentils, 
the neglect of an accustomed salutation, a mis- 
take of precedency in the public baths, or even 
a religious dispute, were at any time suflicient 
to kindle a sedition among that vast multitude, 
whose resentments were furious and implacable. 
After the captivity of Valerian [the Roman Em- 
peror, made prisoner by Sapor, king of Persia, 
A. D. 200] and the insolence of his son had re- 
laxed the authority of the laws, the Alexandrians 
abandoned themselves to the ungoverned rage of 
their passioas, and their unhappy country was 
the theatre of a civil war, which continued (with 
a few short and suspicious truces) above twelve 
years. All intercourse was cut off between the 
several quarters of the afflicted city, every street 
was polluted with blood, every building ot 
strength converted into a citadel; nor did the 
tumult subside till a considerable part of Alex- 
andria was irretrievably ruined. The spacious 
and magnificent district of Bruchion, with its 
palaces and museum, the residence of the kings 
and philosophers of Egypt, is described, above a 
century afterwards, as already reduced to its 
present state of dreary solitude." — E. Gibbon, 
Decline and Fall of tlie Roman Empire, ch. 10. 

A. D. 273. — Destruction of the Bruchium by 
Aurelian. — After subduing Palmyra and its 
Queen Zenobia, A. D. 273, the Emperor Aure- 
lian was called into Egypt to put down a re- 
bellion there, headed by one Firmus, a friend 
and ally of the Palmyrene queen. Firmus had 
great wealth, derived from trade, and from the 
paper-manufacture of Egypt, which was mostly 
in his hands. He was defeated and put to death. 
" To Aurelian's war against Firmus, or to that 
of Probus a little before in Egypt, may be re- 
ferred the destruction of Bruchium, a great 
quarter of Alexandria, which according to Am- 
mianus Marcellinus, was ruined under Aurelian 
and remained deserted ever after." — .T. B. L. Cre- 
vier, Hist, of the Roman Emperors, bk. 27. 



ALEXANDRIA, A. D. 641-646. 

A. D. 296. — Siege by Diocletian. — A general 

revolt of the Afiiciin provinces of the Koman 
Emiiire occurred A. D. 296. The barbarous 
tribes of Ethiopia and the desert were brought 
into alliance with the provincials of Egypt, 
Cyrenaica, Carthage and Mauritania, and the 
flame of war was universal. Both the emperors 
of the time, Diocletian and Maximian, were 
called to the African field. "Diocletian, on his 
side, opened the campaign in Egypt by the 
Piege of Alexandria, cut oil' the aqueducts which 
convoyed the waters of the Nile into every quar- 
ter of that immense city, and, rendering his 
camp impregnable to the sallies of the besieged 
multitude, he pushed his reiterated attaclis with 
caution and vigor. After a siege of eight 
months, Alexandria, wasted by the sword and 
by fire, implored the clemency of the conqueror, 
but it experienced the full extent of his severity. 
Many thousands of the citizens perished in a pro- 
miscuous slaughter, and there were few obnox- 
ious persons in Egypt who escaped a sentence 
either of death or at least of exile. The fate of 
Busiris and of Coptos was still more melancholy 
than that of Alexandria ; those proud cities . . . 
were utterly destroyed." — E. Gibbon, Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. IS. 

A. D. 365. — Great Earthquake. See Earth- 
quake IN THE Roman World: A. D. 365. 

A. D. 389. — Destruction of the Serapeum. 
— "After the edicts of Theodosius had severely 
prohibited tlie sacrifices of the pagans, they were 
still tolerated iu the city and temple of Serapis. 
. . . The archepiscopal throne of Alexandria 
was filled by Thcophilus, tlie perpetual enemy 
of peace and virtue; a bold, bad man, whose 
hands were alternately polluted with gold and 
with blood. His pious indignation was excited 
by the honours of Serapis. . . . The votaries of 
Serapis, whose strength and numbers were much 
inferior to those of their antagonists, rose in 
arms [A. D. 389] at the instigation of the philo- 
sopher Olympius, who exhorted them to die in 
the defence of the altars of the gods. These 
pagan fanatics fortified themselves in the temple, 
or rather fortress, of Serapis; repelled the be- 
siegers by daring sallies and a resolute defence; 
and, by the inhuman cruelties which they exer- 
cised on their Christian prisoners, obtained the 
last consolation of despair. The eilorts of the 
prudent magistrate were usefully exerted for the 
establishment of a truce till the answer of Theo- 
dosius should determine the fate of Serapis." 
The judgment of the emperor condemned the 
great temple to destruction and it was reduced 
to a heap of ruins. " The valuable library of 
Alexandria was piUaged or destroyed ; and, near 
twenty years afterwards, the appearance of the 
empty shelves excited the regret and indignation 
of every spectator whose mind was not totally 
darkened by religious prejudice." — E. Gibbon, 
Decline and Fall of Vie Roman Empire, ch. 28. — 
Gibbon's statement as to the destruction of the 
great library in the Serapeum is called in ques- 
tion by his learned annotator, Dr. Smith. See 
above: B. C. 283-246. 

A. D. 413-415.— The Patriarch Cyril and 
his Mobs.— -"His voice [that of Cvril, Patri- 
arch of Alexandria, A. D. 413-444] inflamed or 
appeased the passions of the multitude: his com- 
mands were blindly obeyed by his numero\is aud 
fanatic parabolani. familiarized in their daily 
office with scenes of death ; and the prefects of 

Egypt were awed or provoked by the temporal 
power of these Christian pontiffs. Ardent in 
the prosecution of heresy, Cyril auspiciously 
opened his reign by oppressing the Novatians, 
the most innocent and harmless of the sectaries. 
. . . The toleration, and even the privileges of 
the Jews, who had multiplied to the number of 
40,000, were secured by the laws of the Csesars 
and Ptolemies, and a long prescription of 700 
years since the foundation of Alexandria. With- 
out any legal sentence, without any royal man- 
date, the patriarch, at the dawn of day, led a 
seditious multitude to the attack of the syna- 
gogues. Unarmed and unprepared, the Jews were 
incapable of resistance ; tlicir houses of prayer 
were levelled with the ground, and the episcopal 
warrior, after rewarding his troops with the 
plunder of their goods, expelled from the city 
the remnant of the misbelieving nation. Per- 
haps he might plead the insolence of their 
prosperity, and their deadly hatred of the Chris- 
tians, whose blood they had recently shed in a 
malicious or accidental tumult. Such crimes 
would have deserved the animadversions of the 
magistrate ; but in this promiscuous outrage the 
innocent were confounded with the guilty." — 
E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire, ch. 47. — "Before long the adherents of the 
archbishop were guilty of a more atrocious and 
unprovoked crime, of the guilt of which a deep 
suspicion attached to Cyril. All Alexandria 
respected, honoured, took pride in the celebrated 
Hypatia. She was a woman of extraordinary 
learning; in her was centred the lingering knowl- 
edge of that Alexandrian Platonism cultivated 
by Plotinus and his school. Her beauty was 
equal to her learning; her modesty commended 
both. . . . Hypatia Tived in great intimacy with 
the prsefect Orestes ; the only charge whispered 
against her was that she encouraged him in his 
hostility to the patriarch. . . . Some of Cyril's 
ferocious partisans seized this woman, dragged 
her from her chariot, and with the most revolt- 
ing indecency tore her clothes off and then rent 
her limb from limb." — H. H. Milman, Hist, of 
Latin Christianity, bk. 3, ch. 3. 

Also in C. Kingsley, Hypatia. 

A. D. 616. — Taken by Chosroes. See 
Egtpt: a. D. 61G-628. 

A. D. 641-646. — The Moslem Conquest. — 
The precise date of events in the Moslem con- 
quest of Egypt, by Amru, lieutenant of the 
Caliph Omar, is uncertain. Sir 'Wm. Muir fixes 
the first surrender of Alexandria to Amru in 
A. D. 641. After that it was reoccupied by the 
Byzantines either once or twice, on occasions of 
neglect bj- the Arabs, as they pursued their con- 
quests elsewhere. The probability seems to be 
that this occurred only once, in 646. It seems 
also probable, as remarked by Sir W. Muir, that 
the two sieges on the taking and retaking of the 
city — 641 and 646 — have been much confused in 
the scanty accounts which have come down to us. 
On the first occasion Alexandria would appear to 
have been generously treated; while, on the 
second, it suffered pillage and its fortifications 
were destroyed. How far there is truth in the 
commonly accepted story of the deliberate burn- 
ing of the great Alexandrian Library — or so much 
of it as had escaped destruction at the hands 
of Roman generals aud Christian patriarchs — is 
a question still in dispute. Gibbon discredited 
the story, aud Sir 'Williara ^luir, the latest of 

ALEXANDRIA, A. D. 641-646. 


students In Mahometan history, declines even the 
mention of it in his narrative of the conquest of 
Egypt. But other historians of repute maintain 
the prohable accuracy of the tale told by Abul- 
pharagus — that Caliph Omar ordered the de- 
struction of the Library, on the ground that. 
If the books in it agreed with the Koran they 
were useless, if they disagreed with it they were 
pernicious. — See Ma.hometan Conquest : A. D. 

iith-i5th Centuries. — Trade. See Tradb, 

A. D. 1798. — Captured by the French under 
Bonaparte. See France: A. D. 1798 (May — 

A. D. 1801-1802. — Battle of French and 
English. — Restoration to the Turks. See 
France: A. D. 1801-1802. 

A. D. 1807.— Surrendered to the English. — 
The brief occupation and humiliating capitu- 
lation. See Turks: A. D. 1806-1807. 

A. D. 1840.— Bombardment by the English. 
See Turks: A. D. 1831-1840. 

A. D. 1882.— Bombardment by the English 
fleet. — Massacre of Europeans. — Destruction. 
See Eoypt: A. D. 1875-1882, and 1883-1883. 

ALEXANDRIA, LA., The Burning of. 
See United States of Am. : A. D. 1864 (March 
— May: Louisiana). 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., A. D. 1861 (May).— 
Occupation by Union troops. — Murder of Col- 
onel Ellsvjorth. See United States op Am. : 
A. D. 1861 (May: ViRGrNiA). 


ALEXIS, Czar of Russia, A. D. 1645-1676. 

ALEXIUS I. (Comnenus), Emperor in the 
East (Byzantine, or Greek), A. U. 1081-1118. 

Alexius II. (Comnenus), Emperor in 

the East (Byzantine, or Greek), A. D. 1181- 

1183 Alexius III. (Angelus), Emperor 

in the East (Byzantine, or Greek), A. D. 1195- 

1203 Alexius IV. (Angelus), Emperor in 

the East (Byzantine, or Greek), A. D. 1203- 

1204 Alexius V. (Ducas), Emperor in 

the East (Byzantine, or Greek), A. D. 1204. 

ALFONSO I., KingofAragon and Navarre, 
A. D. 1104-1134.... Alfonso I., King of Castile, 
A. D. 1072-1109; and VI. of Leon, A. D. 1065- 

1109 Alfonso I., King of Leon and the 

Asturias, or Oviedo, A. D. 739-757 Alfonso 

I., King of Portugal, A. D. 1112-1185.... 
Alfonso I., King of Sicily, A. D. 1416-1458. . . . 
Alfonso II., King of Aragon, A D. 1163-1196. 
. . . .Alfonso II., King ofCastile, A. D. 1126- 
1157. .. .Alfonso II., King of Leon and the 

Asturias, or Oviedo, A. D. 791-843 Alfonso 

XL, King of Naples, A. D. 1494r-1495. . . . 
Alfonso II., King of Portugal, A. D. 1211- 
1223... Alfonso III., King of Aragon, A. D. 

1285-1291 Alfonso III., King of Castile, A. 

D. 1158-1214.... Alfonso III., King of Leon 
and the Asturias, or Oviedo, A. D. 866-910 . . . 
Alfonso III., King of Portugal, A. D. 1244- 

1279 Alfonso IV., King of Aragon, A. D. 

1327-1330 ...Alfonso IV., King of Leon and 
the Asturias, or Oviedo, A. O. 925-930.... 
Alfonso IV., King of Portugal, A. D. 1323- 

1357 Alfonso v7. King of Aragon and I. of 

Sicily, A. D. 1416-1458; I. of Naples, A. D. 
1443-1458.... Alfonso V., King of Leon and 
the Asturias, or Oviedo, A. U. 999-1027.... 
Alfonso v., King of Portugal, A. D. 1438-1481. 


Alfonso VI., King of Portugal, A. D. 

1656-1667. . . .Alfonso VII., King of Leon, A. 
D. 1109-1126.... Alfonso VIII., King of Leon, 
A. D. 1126-1157. . . .Alfonso IX., King of Leon, 
A. D. 1188-1330.... Alfonso X., King of Leon 
and Castile, A. D. 1252-1284 .. .Alfonso XL, 

King of Leon and Castile, A. D. 1312-1350 

Alfonso XII., King of Spain, A. D. 1874- 

ALFORD, Battle of (A. D. 1645). See 
Scotland: A. D. 1644-1645. 

ALFRED, called the Great, King of 
Wessex, A. D. 871-901. 

ALFuRUS. See Celebes. 

Algiers literally signifies "the island," aud was 
derived from the original construction of its 
harbor, one side of which was separated from 
the land. For history, see Barbary States. 

ALGIHED, The.— The term by which a 
war is proclaimed among the Jlahomctans to be 
a Holy War. 

See American Aborigines : Aloonkin Familt. 

ALGUAZIL. See Alcalde. 

ALHAMA, The taking of. See Spain: A. D. 

ALHAMBRA, The building of the. See 
Sp.^ra: A. D. 1238-1273. 

ALI, Caliph, A. D. 655-661. 

ALIA, Battle of the (B. C. 390). See Rome: 
B C 390-347 

See American Aborigines : Muskhogee 

See United States of Am: A. D. 1798. 

ALIGARH, Battle of (1803). See Isdia: 
A. D. 1798-1805. 

ALIWAL, Battle of (1846). See Indl4: 
A D. 1845-1849. 

ALJUBAROTA, Battle of (1385). See 
Portugal: A. D. 1383-1385, and Spain: A. D. 

ALKMAAR, Siege (1573). See Nether- 
lands: A. D. 1573-1574. 

ALKMAR, Battle of. See France: A. D. 
1799 (September— October). 

"ALL THE TALENTS," Ministry of. 
See England: A. D. ISUl-lSOO, and 1800-1812. 

ALLATOONA, Battle of. See United 
States OP Am. A. D. 18fi4(Sept.-Oot.: Georgi-\ 

ALLEGHANS, The. See American Abo- 
rigines: Allehu.vns. 

tion, Modern : America : A. D. 1769-1884. 

ALLEMAGNE. — The French name for 
Germany, derived from the confederation of the 
Alemanni. See Alemanni : A. D. 213. 

ALLEN, Ethan. See Vermont, A. D. 1749- 
1774; and United States of Am.: A. D. 1775 

ALLERHEIM, Battle of (or Second battle 
of Nordlingen, — 1645.) See Germany: A. D. 

ALLERTON, Isaac, and the Plymouth 
Colony. See MAssAcuusErxE (Plymouth): A. 
D. 1623-1629, and after. 

ALLIANCE, The Farmers'. See United 
States op Am. : A. D. 1877-1891. 

ALLOBROGES, Conquest of the. — The 
Allobroges (see .^dui ; also Gauls) having 
sheltered the chiefs of the Salyes, when the lat- 



ter succumbed to the Romans, and having 
refused to deliver them up, the proconsul Cn. 
Doraitius marched his army toward their coun- 
try, B. C. 121. The Allobroges advanced to 
meet him and were defeated at Vindalium, near 
the junction of tlie Sorgues with the Rhone, and 
not far from Avignon, having 20,000 men slain 
and 3,000 taken prisoners. The Arverni, who 
were the allies of the Allobroges, then took the 
field, crossing the Cevennes mountains and the 
river Rhone with a vast host, to attack the small 
Roman army of 30,000 men, which had passed 
under the command of Q. Fabius Ma.ximus 
jEmiUanus. On the 8th of August, B. 0. 121, 
the Gaulish horde encountered the legions of 
Rome, at a point near the junction of the Isere 
and the Rhone, and were routed with such enor- 
mous slaughter that 150,000 are said to have 
been slain or drowned. This battle settled the 
fate of the Allobroges, who surrendered to Rome 
without further struggle ; but the Arverni were 
not pursued. The final conquest of that people 
was reserved for Caesar. — G. Long, Decline of 
the Roman BepuUic, v. 1, ch. 21. 

ALMA, Battle of the. See Russia: A. D. 
1854 (September). 

quarrel of the. See Peru: A. D. 1533 1548. 

ALMANZA, Battle of (A. D. 1707). See 
Spain: A. D. 1707. 

ALMENARA, Battle of (A. D. 1710). See 
Spain: A. D. 1707-1710. 

ALM0HADE3, The. — The empire of tho 
Almoravides, in M rocco and Spain, T.hich 
originated in a Moslem missionary m vcmen*', 
was overturned in the middle oi .he tweLth cen- 
tury by a movement of s imewhat similar nature. 
The agitating cause of the revolution was a re- 
ligious teacher named Mahomet ben Abdallah, 
who rose in the reign of All (successor to the 
great Almoravide prince, Joseph), who gained 
the odor of sanctity at Morocco and who took 
the title of Al Mehdi, or El Mahdi, the Leader, 
"giving himself out for th3 person whom many 
Mahometans expect under that title. As bef re, 
the sect grew into an army, and the army grew 
into an empire. The new dynasty 'were called 
Almohades from Al Mehdi, and by his appoint- 
ment a certain Abdelmumen was elected Caliph 
and Commander of the Faithful. Under his 
vigorous guidance the new kingdom rapidly 
grew, till the Almohades obtained quite the 
upper hand in Africa, and in 1146 they too 
passed into Spain. Under Abdelmumen and his 
successors, Joseph and Jacob Almansor, the Al- 
mohades entirely supplanted the Almoravides, 
and became more formidable foes than tliey had 
been to the rising Christian powers. Jacob Al- 
mansor won in 1195 the terrible battle of Alarcos 
against Alfonso of Castile, and carried his con- 
quests deep into that kingdom. His fame spread 
through the whole Moslem world. . . . With 
Jacob Almansor perished the glory of the Almo- 
hades. His successor, Mahomet, lost in 1211 
[June 16] the great battle of Alacab or Tolosa 
against Alfonso, and that day may be said to 
have decided the fate of Mahometanism in Spain. 
The Almohade dynasty gradually declined. . . . 
The Almohades, like the Ommiads and the Al- 
moravides, vanish from history amidst a scene of 
confusion the details of which it were hopeless to 
attempt to remember." — E. A. Freeman, Mkt. 
und Conquests of the Saracens, led. 5. 

Also in H. CoppSe, Conquest of Spain by tM 
Arab-Moors, bh. 8, ch. 4. — See, also, Spain . A. D. 

ALMONACID, Battle of. See Spain: A, 

D. 1809 (August — November). 
ALMORAVIDES, The.— During the con- 
fusions of the 11th century in the Moslem world, 
a missionary from Kairwan — one Abdallah — 
preaching the faith of Islam to a wild tribe in 
Western North Africa, created a religious move- 
ment which "naturally led to a political one." 
' The tribe now called themselves Almoravides, 
or more properly Morabethah, which appears to 
mean followers of the Marabout or religious 
teacher Abdallah does not appear to have him- 
self claimed more than a religious authority, 
Lut their princes Zachariah and Abu Bekr 
were completely guided by his counsels. After 
his death Abu Bekr founded in 1070 the city 
of Morocco. There he left as his lieutenan'. 
his cousin Joseph, who grew so powerful 
that Abu Bekr, by a wonderful exercise of 
moderation, abdicated in his favour, to avoid 
a probable civil war. This Joseph, when he had 
become lord of most part of Western Africa, 
was requested, or caused himself to be requested, 
to assume the title of Emir al Momenin, Com- 
mander of the Faithful. As a loyal subject of 
the Caliph of Bagdad, he shrank from such sacri- 
legious usurpation, but he did not scruple to 
style himself Emir Al Muslemin, Commander of 
the Moslems. . . . The Almoravide Joseph passed 
over into Spain, like another Tarik; he van- 
quished Alfonso [the Christian prince of the 
rising kingdom of Castile] at Zalacca [Oct. 23, 
A. D. 1086] and then converted the greater por- 
tion of Mahometan Spain into an appendage to 
his own kingdom of Morocco. The chief por- 
tion to escape was the kingdom of Zaragossa. 
the great out-post of the Saracens in north- 
eastern Spain. . . . The great cities of Andalu- 
sia were all brought under a degrading submis- 
sion to the Almoravides. Their dynasty how- 
ever was not of long duration, and it fell in turn 
[A. D. 1147] before one whose origin was strik- 
mgly similar to their own" [the Almohades]. — 

E. A. Freeman, Hist, and Conquests of the Sara- 
cens, led. 5. 

Also in H. Coppee, Conquest of Spain hy the 
Arab-Moors, bk. 8, eh. 2 and 4. — See, also.iPoRTU- 
gal: Early History. 

ALOD.— ALODIAL.— " It may be ques- 
tioned whether any etymological connexion ex- 
ists between the words odal and alod, but their 
signification applied to land is the same: the alod 
is the hereditary estate derived from primitive 
occupation ; for which the owner owes no service 
except the personal obligation to appear in the 
host and in the council. . . . The land held in full 
ownership might be either an ethel, an inherited 
or otherwise acquired portion of original allot- 
ment ; or an estate created by legal process out 
of public land. Both these are included in the 
more common term alod ; but the former looks 
for its evidence in the pedigree of its owner 01 
in the witness of the community, while the lat- 
ter can produce the charter or book by which 
it is created, and is called bocland. As the 
primitive allotments gradually lost their his- 
torical character, as the primitive modes of 
transfer became obsolete, and the use of written 
records took their place, the ethel is lost sight of 
in the bookland. All the land that is not so ac- 




roTintcd for is fokland, or public land." — W. 
Stubbs, O'tifit. Hist, of Eng., eh. 3, sect. 24, and 
cA. 5, luct. 36. — "Alodial lands are commonly 
opposed to beneficiary or feudal ; the former be- 
ing strictly proprietary, while the latter depended 
upon a superior. In this sense the word is of 
continual recurrence in ancient histories, laws 
and instruments. It sometimes, however, bears 
the sense of inheritance. . . . Hence, in the 
charters of the eleventh century, hereditary fiefs 
arc frequently termed alodia." — H. Hallam, Mid- 
dle Ages, ch. ^, pt. 1, note. 

Also in J. M. Kemble, The Saxons in England, 
bk. 1, ch. 11. — See, also, Folcland. 

ALP ARSLAN, Seljouk Turkish Sultan, 
A. D. 1083-1073. 

ALPHONSO. See Alfonso. 

ALSACE.— ALSATIA: The Name. See 
Alemanni: A. D. 213. 

A. D. 843-870. — Included in the Kingdom of 
Lorraine. See Lorraine: A. D. 843-870. 

loth Century. — Joined to the Empire. See 
Lorr.une: a. D. 911-980. 

loth Century. — Origin of the House of 
Hapsburg. See Acstul*.: A. D. 1240-1283. 

A. D. 1525— Revolt of the Peasants. See 
Germany: A. D. 1524-1525. 

A. D. 1621-1622. — Invasions by Mansfeld 
and his predatory army. See Germany : A. D. 

A. D. 1636-1639. — Invasion and conquest by 
Duke Bemhard of Weimar. — Richelieu's ap- 
propriation of the conquest for France. See 
Germany: A. D. 1634-1639. 

A. D. 1648. — Cession to FrFnce in the 
Peace of Westphalia. See Germany: A. D. 

A. D. 1659. — Renunciation of the claims of 
the King of Spain. See France: A. D. 1659- 

A. D. 1674-1678.— Ravaged in the Cam- 
paigns of Turenne and Conde. See Nether- 
lands (Holland) : A. D. 1674-1678. 

A. D. 1679-1681.— Complete Absorbtion in 
France. — Assumption of entire Sovereignty by 
Louis XIV. — Encroachments of the Chamber 
of Reannexation. — Seizure of Strasburg. — 
Overthrow of its independence as an Imperial 
City. See France: A. D. 1679-1681. 

A. D. 1744. — Invasion by the Austrians. 
See Austria: A. D. 1743-1744. 

A. D. 1871.— Ceded to the German Empire 
by France. See Fr.\nce: A. D. 1871 (Januaky 

1871-1879. — Organization of government as 
a German Impenal Province. See Germany: 
A. D. 1871-1879. 

ALTA CALIFORNIA.— Upper California. 

See California : A. D. 1543-1781. 

ALTENHEIM, Battle of (A. D. 1675). 
See Netherlands (Holland): A. D. 1674- 

ALTENHOVEN, Battle of (1793). See 
France: A. D. 1793 (February — April). 

ALTHING, The. See Thing; also, Nor- 
mans.— Northmen: A. D. 860-11^.0; and Scan- 
dinavian States (Denmark — Iceland): A. D. 

ALTIS, The. See Olympic Festival. 

ALTMARCK. See Brandenburg: A. D. 

ALTONA: A. D. 1713.— Burned by the 

Swedes. See Scandinavian States (Sweden); 
A. D. 1707-1718. 

ALTOPASCIO, Battle of (1325). See Italy- 
A. D. 1313-1380. 

Netherlands: A. D. 1566-1568 to 1573-1574. 

AMADEO, King of Spain, A. D. 1871-1873. 

AMAHUACA, The. See American Abor- 
igines: Andebianb. 

AMALASONTHA, Queen of the Ostro- 
goths. See Rome: A. D. 535-553. 

AMALEKITES, The.— " The Amalekites 
were usuall/ regarded as a branch of the 
Edomites or ' Red-skins'. Amalek, like Kenaz, 
the father of the Kenizzites or ' Hunters," was 
the grandson of Esau (Gen. 36: 13, 16). He thtM 
belonged to the group of nations, — Edomites, 
Ammonites, and Moabites, — who stood in a 
relation of close kinship to Israel. But they had 
preceded the Israelites in dispossessing the older 
inhabitants of the land, and establishing them- 
selves in their place. The Edomites had partly 
destroyed, partly amalgamated the Horites of 
Mount Seir (Deut. 2: 12); the Moabites had done 
the same to the Emim, ' a people great and many, 
and tall as the Anakim' (Deut. 2: 10), while the 
Ammonites had extirpated and succeeded to the 
Rephaim or 'Giants,' who In that part of the 
country were termed Zamzummim (Ueut. 2: 30; 
Gen. 14: 5). Edom however stood in a closer 
relation to Israel than its two more northerly 
neighbours. . . . Separate from the Edomites or 
Amalekites were tlie Kenites or wandering 
•smiths.' They formed an important Guild in 
an age when the art of metallurgy was confined 
to a few. In the time of Saul hear of them 
as camping among the Amalekites (I. Sam. 15: 6.) 
. . . The Kenites . . . did not constitute a race, 
or even a tribe. They were, at most, a caste. 
But they had originally come, like the Israelites 
or the Edomites, from those barren regions of 
Northern Arabia which were peopled by the 
Menti of the Egyptian inscriptions. Racially, 
therefore, we may regard them as allied to the 
descendants of Abraham. While the Kenites 
and Amalekites were thus Semitic in their origin, 
the Hivites or 'Villagers' are specially asso- 
ciated with Amorites." — A. H. Sayce, Races of 
the Old Test, ch. 6. 

Also in H. Ewald, Hist, of Israel, bk. 1, sect. 
4. — See, also, Arabia. 

AMALFI. — " It was the singular fate of this 
city to have filled up the interval between two 
periods of civilization, in neither of which she 
was destined to be distinguished. Scarcely 
known before the end of the sixth century, 
Amalfl ran a brilliant career, as a free and trad- 
ing republic [see Rome: A. D. 654-800], which 
was checked by the arms of a conqueror in the 
middle of the twelfth. . . . There must be, I 
suspect, some exaggeration about the commerce 
and opulence of Amalfl, in the only age when 
she possessed any at all." — H. Hallam, The 
Middle Ages, ch. 9, pt. 1, with note. — "Amalfl 
and Atrani lie close together in two . . . 
ravines, the mountains almost arching over them, 
and the sea washing their very house-walls. 
... It is not easy to imagine the time when 
Amalfl and Atrani were one town, with docks 
and arsenals and harbourage for their associated 
fleets, and when these little communities were 
second in importance to no naval power of 




Christian Europe. The Byzantine Empire lost 
its hold ou Italy during the eighth century ; and 
after this time the history of Calabria is mainly 
concerned with the republics of Naples and 
Amalii, their conflict with the Lombard dulies 
of Benevento, their opposition to the Saracens, 
and their final subjugation by the Norman 
conquerors of Sicily. Between the year 839 
A. D., when Amalfi freed itself from the con- 
trol of Naples and the yoke of Benevento, and 
the year 1131, when Roger of Hauteville incor- 
porated the republic in his kingdom cf the Two 
Sicilies, this city was the foremost naval and 
commercial port of Italy. The burghers of 
Amalfi elected their own doge; founded the 
Hospital of Jerusalem, whence sprang the 
knightly order of S. John; gave their name 
to the richest quarter in Palermo ; and owned 
trading establishments or factories in all the chief 
cities of the Levant. Their gold coinage of 
' tari ' formed the standard of currency before the 
Florentines had stamped the lily and S. John upon 
the Tuscan florin. Their shipping regulations 
supplied Europe with a code of maritime laws. 
Their scholars, in the darkest depths of the dark 
ages, prized and conned a famous copy of the 
Pandects of Justinian, and their seamen deserved 
the fame of having first used, if they did not 
actually invent, the compass. . . . The republic 
had grown and flourished on the decay of the 
Greek Empire. When the hard-handed race of 
Hauteville absorbed the heritage of Greeks and 
Lombards and Saracens in Southern Italy [see 
IT.U.T (Southern): A. D. 1000-1090], these 
adventurers succeeded in annexing Amalfi. But 
it was not their interest to extinguish the state. 
On the contrary, they relied for assistance upon 
the navies and the armies of the little common- 
wealth. New powers had meanwhile arisen in 
the North of Italy, who were jealous of rivalry 
upon the open seas; and when the Neapolitans 
resisted King Roger in 1135, they called Pisa to 
their aid, and sent her fleet to destroy Amalfi. 
The ships of Amalfi were on guard with Roger's 
navy in the Bay of Naples. The armed citizens 
were, under Roger's orders, at Aversa. Mean- 
while the home of the republic lay defenceless on 
its mountain-girdled seaboard. The Pisans sailed 
into the harbour, sacked the city and carried oflE 
the famous Pandects of Justinian as a trophy. 
Two years later they returned, to complete the 
work of devastation. Amalfi never recovered 
from the injuries and the humiliation." — J. A. 
Symonds, Sketches and Studies in Italy, pp. 3-4. 
AMALINGS, OR AMALS. — the royal 
race of the ancient Ostrogoths, as the Balthi or 
Balthings were of the Visigoths, both claiming a 
descent from the gods. 

AMATONGALAND, or Tongaland.— On 
the east coast of S. Africa, north of Zululand, 
under British protection since 1888. 
AMAZIGH, The. See LmvANS. 
AMAZONS. — "The Amazons, daughters of 
Arfis and Harmonia, are both early creations, and 
frequent reproductions, of the ancient epic. . . . 
A nation of courageous, hardy and indefatigable 
women, dwelling apart from men, permitting 
only a short temporary intercourse for the pur- 
pose of renovating their numbers, and burning 
out their right breast with a view of enabling 
themselves to draw the bow freely, — this was at 
once a general type stimulating to the fancy of 
the poet, and a theme eminently popular with 

his hearers. Nor was it at all repugnant to the 
faith of the latter — who had no recorded facts 
to guide them, and no other standard of credi- 
bility as to the past except such poetical narra- 
tives themselves — to conceive communities of 
Amazons as having actually existed in anterior 
time. Accordingly we find these warlike females 
constantly reappearing in the ancient poems, and 
universally accepted as past realities. In the 
Iliad, when Priam wishes to illustrate emphatic- 
ally the most numerous host in which he ever 
found himself included, he tells us that it was 
assembled in PUrygia, on the banks of the San- 
garius, for the purpose of resisting the formida- 
ble Amazons. When Bellerophon is to be em- 
ployed on a deadly and perilous undertaking, by 
those who indirectly w)=h to procure his death, 
he is despatched against the Amazons. . . . The 
Argonautic heroes find the Amazons on the river 
Thermodon in their expedition along the south- 
ern coast of the Euxine. To the same spot 
Hfirakles goes to attack them, in the performance 
of the ninth labour imposed upon him by Eurys- 
theus, for the purpose of procuring the girdle of 
the Amazonian queen, Hippolyte ; and we are told 
that they had not yet recovered from the losses 
sustained in this severe aggression when Theseus 
also assaulted and defeated them, carrying off 
their queen Antiop8. This injury they avenged 
by invading Attica . . . and penetrated even 
into Athens itself: where the final battle, hard- 
fought and at one time doubtful, by which Th§- 
seus crushed them, was fought — in the very- 
heart of the city. Attic antiquaries confidently 
pointed out the exact position of the two con- 
tending armies. . . . No portion of the ante-his- 
torical epic appears to have been more deeply, 
worked into the national mind of Greece than] 
this invasion and defeat of the Amazons. . . . ! 
Their proper territory was asserted to be the town , 
and plain of Themiskyra, near the Grecian colony 
of Amisus, on the river Thermodon [northern 
Asia Minor], a region called after their name by 
Roman historians and geographers. . . . Some 
authors placed them in Libya or Ethiopia." — ■ 
G. Groie, Eist. of Greece, pt. 1, ch. 11. 

AMAZONS RIVER, Discovery and Nam- 
ing of the. — The mouth of the great river of 
South America was discovered in 1500 by Pin- 
zon, or Pinijon (see America: A. D. 1499-1500), 
who called it ' Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce ' 
(Samt Mary of the Fresh- Water Sea). " This 
was the first name given to the river, except that 
older and better one of the Indians, 'Parana,' 
the Sea; afterwards it was Maranon and Rio daa 
Amazonas, from the female warriors that were 
supposed to live near its banks. . . . After Pin- 
ion's time, there were others who saw the fresh- 
water sea, but no one was hardy enough to 
venture into it. The honor of its real discovery 
was reserved for Francisco de Orellana; and he 
explored it, not from the east, but from the 
west, in one of the most daring voyages that waa. 
ever recorded. It was accident rather than! 
design that led him to it. After . . . Pizarro 
had conquered Peru, he sent his brother Gon- 
zalo, with 340 Spanish soldiers, and 4,000 
Indians, to explore the great forest east of Quito, 
' where there were cinnamon trees. ' The expe- 
dition started late in 1539, and it was two years 
before the starved and ragged survivors returned 
to Quito. In the course of the> wanderings they 
had struck the river Coco ; building here a brig- 




-totlne, they followed down the current, a part of 
them in the vessel, a part on shore. After a 
■while they met some Indians, who told them of 
a rich country ten days' journey beyond — a 
country of gold, and with plenty of provisions. 
€k)nzalo placedJOrellana in command of the brig- 
antine, and ordered him, with 50 soldiers, to go 
on to this gold-land, and return with a load of 
provisions. Orellana arrived at the mouth of 
the Coco in three days, but found no provisions; 
'and he considered that if he should return with 
this news to Pizarro, he would not reach him in 
a year, on account of the strong current, and 
that if he remained where he was, he would be 
of no use to the one or to the other. Not know- 
ing how long Gonzalo Pizarro would take to 
reach the place, without consulting any one he 
set sail and prosecuted his voyage onward, 
intending to ignore Gonzalo, to reach Spain, and 
obtain that government for himself.' Down the 
Napo and the Amazons, for seven months, these 
Spaniards floated to the Atlantic. At times they 
luffered terribly from hunger: 'There was 
nothing to eat but the skins which formed their 
girdles, and the leather of their shoes, boiled 
with a few herbs.' When they did get food 
they were often obliged to fight "hard for it; and 
again they were attacked by thousands of naked 
Indians, who came in canoes against the Spanish 
vessel. At some Indian villages, however, they 
were kindly received and well fed, so they could 
rest while building a new and stronger vessel. 
. . . Onthe26thof August, 1541, Orellana and his 
men sailed out to the blue water ' without either 
pilot, compass, or anything useful for naviga- 
tion; nor did they know what direction they 
should take.' Follovring the coast, they passed 
inside of the island of Trinidad, and so at length 
reached Cubagua in September. From the king 
of Spain Orellana received a grant of the land 
he had discovered ; but he died while returning 
to it, and his company was dispersed. It was 
not a very reliable account of the river that was 
given by Orellana and his chronicler, Padre Car- 
bajal. So Herrera tells their story of the warrior 
females, and very properly adds : ' Every reader 
may believe as much as he likes.'" — H. H. 
Smith, Brazil, the Amazons, and the Coaxt, eh. 1. 
— In ch. 18 of this same work "The Amazon 
Myth " is discussed at length, with the reports 
and opinions of numerous travellers, both early 
and recent, concerning it. — Mr. Southey had so 
much respect for the memory of Orellana that 
he made an effort to restore that bold but unprin- 
cipled discoverer's name to the great river. " He 
discarded Maranon, as having too much resem- 
blance to Maranham, and Amazon, as being 
founded upon fiction and at the same time incon- 
venient. Accordingly, in his map, and in all his 
references to the great river he denominates it 
Orellana. This decision of the poet-laureate of 
Great Britain has not proved authoritative in 
Brazil. O Amazonas is the universal appellation 
of the great river among those who float upon its 
waters and who live upon its banks. . . . Para, 
the aboriginal name of this river, was more 
appropriate than any other. It signifies 'the 
father of waters.' . . . The origin of the name 
and mystery concerning the female warriors, I 
think, has been solved vrithin the last few years 
by the intrepid Mr. Wallace. . . . Mr. Wallace, 
I think, shows conclusively that Friar Gaspar 
[Carbajal] and his companions saw Indian male 

warriors who were attired in habiliments such m 
Europeans would attribute to women. ... I 
am strongly of the opinion that the story of the 
Amazons has arisen from these feminine-looking 
warriors encountered by the early voyagers." — 
J. C. Fletcher and D. P. Kidder, Brazil and t?ie 
Brazilians, ch. 27. 

Also in A. R. Wallace, Travels on the Ama- 
zon and Rio Negro, ch. 17. — R. Southey, Hist, of 
Brazil, ch. 4 (t>. 1). 

War. See South Africa: The Aboriginal 
Inhabitants; and the same: A. D. 1877-1879. 

AMBACTI.— "The Celtic aristocracy^ [of 
Gaul] . . . developed the system of retainers, 
that is, the privilege of the nobility to sun'ound 
themselves with a number of hired mounted ser- 
vants — the ambacti as they were called — and 
thereby to form a state within a state; and, 
resting on the support of these troops of their 
own, they defied the legal authorities and the 
common levy and practically broke up the com- 
monwealth. . . . 'This remarkable word [am- 
bacti] must have been in use as early as the 
sixth century ol Rome among the Celts in the 
valley of the Po. ... It is not merely Celtic, 
however, but also German, the root of our 
'Amt,' as indeed the retainer -system itself is 
common to the Celts and the Germans. It would 
be of great historical importance to ascertain 
whether the word — and therefore the thing — 
came to the Celts from the GJermans or to the 
Germans from the Celts. If, as is usually sup- 
posed, the word is originally German and pri- 
marily signified the servant standing in battle 
'against the back' (' and '=against, 'bak'— 
back) of his master, this is not wholly irrecon- 
cilable with the singularly early occurrence of 
the word among the Celts. . . . It is . . . prob- 
able that the Celts, in Italy as in Gaul, em- 
ployed Germans chiefly as those hired servants- 
at-arms. The ' Swiss guard ' would therefore in 
that case be some thousands of years older than 
people suppose." — T. Mommsen, Eist. of Some, 
bk. 5, ch. 7, and foot-note. 

AMBARRI, The.— A small tribe in Geul 
which occupied anciently a district between the 
Saone, the Rhone and the Ain. — Napoleon ILL, 
Hist, of Ca^ar, bk. 3, ch. 3, note. 

AMBIANI, The. See Belq^. 

AMBITUS. — Bribery at elections was termed 
ambitus among the Romans, and many unavail- 
ing laws were enacted to check it. — W\ Ramsay, 
Manual of Roman Antiq., ch. 9. 

AMBIVARETI, The.— A tribe in ancient 
Gaul which occupied the left bank of the Meuse, 
to the south of the marsh of Peel. — Napoleon 
III., Eist. of Cmsar, bk. 3, ch. 2, note. 

AMBOISE, Conspiracy or Tumult of. Sea 
Fr.\nce: A. D. 1559-1561. 

AMBOISE, Edict of. SeeFRAKCB: A. D. 

AMBOYNA. See Moluccas, and Malay 

AMBOYNA, Massacre of. See India: A. 
D. lfiOO-1702, 

AMBRACIA (Ambrakia). SeeKoRKTRA. 

AMBRONES, The. See Cimbrl 

SIAN CHANT. See Milan: A. D. 374-397; 
and Music, E.\rlt Christian. 

(1663). See Portugal : A. D. 1637-1668. 






The Name. See below: A. D. 1500-1.j14. 

Prehistoric. — " Widely scattered throughout 
the United States, from sea to sea, artificial 
mounds are discovered, which may be enumer- 
ated by the thousands or hundreds of thousands. 
They vary greatly in size ; some are so small that 
a half-dozen laborers with shovels might con- 
struct one of theui in a day, while others cover 
acres and are scores of feet in height. These 
mounds were observed by the earliest explorers 
and pioneers of the country. They did not 
attract great attention, however, until the 
science of archaeology demanded their investiga- 
tion. Then they were assumed to furnish evi- 
dence of a race of people older than the Indian 
tribes. Pseud-archaeologists descanted on the 
Mound-builders that once inhabited the land, 
and they told of swarming populations who had 
reached a high condition of culture, erecting 
temples, practicing arts in the metals, and using 
hieroglyphs. So the Mound-builders formed the 
theme of many an essay on the wonders of 
ancient civilization. The research of the past 
ten or fifteen years has put this subject in a 
proper light. First, the annals of the Colum- 
bian epoch have been carefully studied, and it 
is found that some of the mounds have been con- 
structed in historical time, while early explorers 
and settlers found many actually used by 
tribes of North American Indians ; so we know 
that many of them were builders of mounds. 
Again, hundreds and thousands of these mounds 
have been carefully examined, and the works of 
art found therein have been collected and assem- 
bled in museums. At the same time, the works 
of art of the Indian tribes, as they were pro- 
duced before modification by European culture, 
have been assembled in the same musuems, and 
the two classes of collections have been carefully 
compared. All this has been done with the 
greatest painstaking, and the Mound-builder's 
arts and the Indian's arts are found to be sub- 
stantially identical. No fragment of evidence 
remains to support the figment of theory that 
there was an ancient race of Mound-builders 
superior in culture to the North American 
Indians. . . . That some of these mounds were 
built and used in modern times is proved in 
another way. They often contain articles mani- 
festly made by white men, such as glass beads 
and copper ornaments. ... So it chances that 
to-day unskilled archaeologists are collecting 
many beautiful things in copper, stone, and 
shell which were made by white men and traded 
to the Indians. Now, some of these things are 
found in the mounds; and bird pipes, elephant 
pipes, banner stones, copper spear heads and 
knives, and machine-made wampum are col- 
lected in quantities and sold at high prices to 
wealthy amateurs. . . . The study of these 
mounds, historically and archieologically, proves 
that they were used for a variety of purposes. 
Some were for sepulture, and such are the most 
common and widely scattered. Others were 
used as artificial hills on which to build com- 
munal houses. . . . Some of the very large 
mounds were sites of large communal houses in 
which entire tribes dwelt. There is still a third 
class . . . constructed as places for public 
assembly. . . . But to explain the mounds and 
their uses would expand this article into a book. 

It is enough to say that the Slound-builders wer" 
the Indian tribes discovered by white men. It 
may well be that some of the mounds were 
erected by tribes extinct when Columbus first 
saw these shores, but they were kindred in cul- 
ture to the peoples that still existed. In the 
southwestern portion of the United States, con- 
ditions of aridity prevail. Forests are few and 
are found only at great heights. . . . The tribes 
lived in the plains and valleys below, while the 
highlands were their hunting grounds. The 
arid lands below were often naked of vegetation; 
and the ledges and cliffs that stand athwart the 
lands, and the canyon walls that inclose the 
streams, were everywhere quarries of loose rock, 
Ij'ing in blocks ready to the builder's hand. 
Hence these people learned to build their 
dwellings of stone; and they had large com- 
munal houses, even larger than the structures of 
wood made by the tribes of the east and north. 
Many cf these stone pueblos are still occupied, 
but the ruins are scattered wide over a region of 
ccuntry embracing a little of California and 
Nevada, much of Utah, most of Colorado, the 
whole of New Mexico and Arizona, and far 
southward toward the Isthmus. . . . No ruin 
has been discovered where evidences of a higher 
culture are found than exists in modern times at 
Zirui, Oraibi, or Laguna. The earliest may have 
been built thousands of years ago, but they were 
built by the ancestors of existing tribes and 
their congeners. A careful study of these ruins, 
made during the last twenty years, abundantly 
demonstrates that the pueblo culture began with 
rude structures of stone and brush, and gradu- 
ally developed, until at the time of the explora- 
tion of the country by the Spaniards, beginning 
about 1540, it had reached its highest phase. 
Zuni [in New Mexico] has been built since, and 
it is among the largest and best villages ever 
established within the territory of the United 
States without the aid of ideas derived from 
civilized men." With regard to the ruins of 
dwellings found sheltered in the craters of extinct 
volcanoes, or on the shelves of cliffs, or other- 
wise contrived, the conclusion to which all recent 
archiEological study tends is the same. "All 
the stone pueblo ruins, all the clay ruins, all the 
cliff dwellings, all the crater villages, all the 
cavate chambers, and all the tufa-block houses 
are fully accounted for without resort to hypothet- 
ical peoples inhabiting the country anterior to 
the Indian tribes. . . . Pre-Columbian culture 
was indigenous ; it began at the lowest stage of 
savagery and developed to the highest, and was 
in many places passing into barbarism when the 
good queen sold her jewels." — Major J. W. 
Powell, Prehistoric Man in America; in " The 
Forum" January, 1890. — "The writer believes 
. . . that the majority of American archwolo- 
gists now sees no suflicient reason for supposing 
that any mysterious superior race has ever lived 
in any portion of our continent. They find no 
archiBological evidence proving that at the time 
of its discovery any tribe had reached a stage 
of culture that can properly be called civiliza- 
tion. Even if we accept the exaggerated sta'"- 
ments of the Spanish conquerors, the most Intelli- 
gent and advanced peoples found here wcrs 
only semi-barbarians, in the stage of transition 
from the stone to the bronze age, possessing no 



Norte Discovery. 


written language, or what can properly be 
styled an alphabet, and not yet having even 
learned the use of beasts of burden." — H. W. 
Haynes, Prehistoric Arcluvology of N. Am. {v. 1, 
eh. 6, of " Narrative and Critical Hist, of Am."). 
— " It may be premised . . . that the Spanish 
adventurers who thronged to the New World 
after its discovery found the same race of Red 
Indians in the West India Islands, in Central 
and South America, in Florida and in Mexico. 
In their mode of life and means of subsistence, 
in their weapons, arts, usages and customs, in 
their instit\itions, and in their mental and physi- 
cal characteristics, they were the same people in 
dillerent stages of advancement. . . . There was 
neither a political society, nor a state, nor any 
civilization in America when it was discovered; 
and. excluding the Eskimos, but one race of 
Indians, the lied Race." — L. H. Morgan, Jlouses 
and House-life of tlw American Aborigines : (Con- 
tributions toN. A. Ethnology, r>. 5.), ch. 10. — "We 
have in this country the conclusive evidence of 
the existence of man before the time of the 
glaciers, and from the primitive conditions of 
that time, he has lived here and developed, 
through stages which correspond in many par- 
ticulars to the Homeric age of Greece." — F. W. 
Putnam, liept. Peabody Museum of Arcluwlogy, 

Also in L. Carr, The Mounds of the Mississippi 
Valley. — C. Thomas, Burial Mounds of the 
Northern Sections of the U. 8.: Annual Rept. of 
the Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84. — JNIarquis de 
Nadaillac, Prehistoric America. — J. Fiske, The 
Discovery of America, ch. 1. — See, also, Mexico; 
Peuu; and American Aborigines: Alleghans, 
Cheuokees, iuid Mayas. 

loth-iith Centuries. — Supposed Discover- 
ies by the Northmen. — The fact that the North- 
men knew of the existence of the Western Con- 
tinent prior to the age of Columbus, was promi- 
nently brought before the people of this country 
in the year 1837, when the Royal Society of 
Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen published 
their work on the Antiquities of North America, 
under the editorial supervision of the great Ice- 
landic scholar. Professor Rafn. But we are not 
to suppose that the first general account of these 
voyages was then given, for it has always been 
known that the history of certain early voyages 
to America by the Northmen were preserved in 
the libraries of Denmark and Iceland. . . . Yet, 
owing to the fact that the Icelandic language, 
though simple in construction and easy of acqui- 
sition, was a tongue not understood by scholars, 
the subject has until recent j-ears been suffered to 
lie in the background, and permitted, through 
fl want of interest, to share in a measure the 
treatment meted out to vague and uncertain re- 
ports. ... It now remains to give the reader 
some general account of the contents of the nar- 
ratives which relate more or less to the discovery 
of the western continent. . . . The first extracts 
given are very brief. They are taken from the 
'Landanama Book,' and relate to the report in 
general circulation, which indicated one Gunni- 
born as the discoverer of Greenland, an event 
whicli has been fixed at the year 876. . . . The 
next narrative relates to the rediscovery of 
Greenland by the outlaw, Eric the Red, in 983, 
who there passed three years in exile, and after- 
wards returned to Iceland. About the year 986, 
be brought out to Greenland a considerable colony 


of settlers, who fixed their abode at Brattahlid, 
in Ericsflord. Then follow two versions of 
the voyage of Biarne Heriulfson, who, in the 
same year, 986, when sailing for Greenland, was 
driven away during a storm, and saw a new 
land at the southward, which he did not visit. 
Next is given three accounts of the voyage of 
Leif, son of Eric the Red, who in the year 1000 
sailed from Brattahlid to find the land which 
Biarne saw. Two of these accounts are hardly 
more than notices of the voyage, but the third is 
of considerable length, and details the successes 
of Leif, who found and explored this new land, 
where he spent the winter, returning to Green- 
land the following spring [having named differ- 
ent regions which he visited Ilelluland, Mark- 
laud and Vinland, the latter name indicative of 
the finding of grapes]. After this follows the 
voyage of Thorvald Ericson, brother of Leif, 
who sailed to Vinland from Greenland, which 
was tho point of departure in all these voyages. 
This expedition was begun in 1003, and it cost 
him his life, as an arrow from one of the natives 
pierced his side, causing death. Thorstein, his 
brother, went to seek Vinland, with the inten- 
tion of bringing home his body, but failed in the 
attempt. The most distinguished explorer was 
Thorfinn Kailsefne, the Hopeful, an Icelander 
whose genealogy runs back in the old Northern 
annals, through Danish, Swedish, and even 
Scotch and Irish ancestors, some of whom were 
of royal blood. In the year 1006 he went to 
Greenland, where he met Gudrid, widow of 
Thorstein, whom he married. Accompanied by 
his wife, who urged him to the undertaking, he 
sailed to Vinland in the spring of 1007, with 
three vessels and 160 men, where he remained 
three years. Here his son Snorre was born. Ho 
afterwards became the founder of a great family 
in Iceland, which gave the island several of its 
first bishops. Thorfinn finally left Vinland be- 
cause he found it difficult to sustain himself 
against the attacks of the natives. The next to 
undertake a voyage was a wicked woman named 
Frcydis, a sister to Leif Ericson, who went to 
Vinland in 1011, where she lived for a time with 
her two ships, in the same places occupied by 
Leif and Thoi-finn. Before she returned, she 
caused the crew of one ship to be cruelly mur- 
dered, assisting in the butchery with her own 
hands. After this we have what are called the 
Minor Narratives, which are not essential." — B. 
F. De Costa, Pre- Columban Discovery of Am., Gen- 
eral Introd. — By those who accept fully the 
claims made for the Northmen, as discoverers of 
the American continent in the voyages believed 
to be authentically narrated in these sagas, the 
Ilelluland of Leif is commonly identified with 
Newfoundland, Markland with Nova Scotia, and 
Vinland with various parts of New England. 
Massachusetts Bay, Cape Cod, Nantucket Island, 
Martha's Vineyard, Buzzard's Bay, Narragan- 
sett Bay, Mount Hope Bay, Long Island Sound, 
and New York Bay are among the localities 
supposed to be recognized in the Norse narra- 
tives, or marked by some traces of the presence 
of the Viking explorers. Prof. Gustav Storm, 
the most recent of the Scandinavian investiga- 
tors of this subject, finds the Helluland of the 
sagas in Labrador or Northern Newfoundland, 
Markland in Newfoundland, and Vinland in 
Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island.^ G. Storm, 
Studies of the Vineland Voyages. — "The only dift- 



AMERICA, 1484-1492. 

credit which has been thrown upon the story of the 
Vinland voyages, iu the eyes either of scholars or 
of the general public, has arisen from the eager cre- 
dulity with which ingenious antiquarians have 
now and then tried to prove more than facts will 
warrant. . . . Archaelogical remains of the North- 
men abound in Greenland, all the way from Im- 
martinek to near Cape Farewell; the existence 
of one such relic on the North American con- 
tinent has never yet been proved. Not a single 
vestige of the Northmen's presence here, at all 
worthy of credence, has ever been found. . . . 
The most convincing proof that the Northmen 
never founded a colony in America, south of 
Davis Strait, is furnished by the total absence of 
horses, cattle and other domestic animals from 
the soil of North America until they were 
brought hither by the Spanish, French and 
English settlers. "—J. Fiske, The Discovery of 
America, ch. 2. — "What Leif and Karlsefne 
knew they experienced," writes Prof. Justin 
Winsor, "and what the sagas tell us they 
underwent, must have just the difference be- 
tween a crisp narrative of personal adventure 
gnd the oft-repeated and embellished story of a 
fireside narrator, since the traditions of the 
Norse voyages were not put in the shape of 
records till about two centuries had elapsed, and 
we have no earlier manuscript of such a record 
than one made nearly two hundred years later 
stilL ... A blending of history and myth 
prompts Horn to say that 'some of the sagas 
"were doubtless originally based on facts, but the 
telling and retelling have changed them into 
pure myths.' The unsympathetic stranger sees 
this in stories that the patriotic Scandinavians 
are over-anxious to make appear as genuine 
chronicles. . . . The weight of probability is in 
favor of a Northman descent upon the coast of 
the American mainland at some point, or at 
several, somewhere to the south of Greenland; 
but the evidence is hardly that which attaches to 
well established historical records. . . . There is 
not a single item of all the evidence thus ad- 
vanced from time to time which can be said to 
connect by archaeological traces the presence of 
the Northmen on the soil of North America 
south of Davis' Straits." Of other imagined 
pre-Columban discoveries of America, by the 
Welsh, by the Arabs, by the Basques, &c., the 
possibilities and probabilities are critically dis- 
cussed by Prof. Winsor in the same connection. 
— J. Winsor, Narrative and Critical Hist, of 
Am., V. 1, ch. 2, and Critical Notes to t!ie same. 

Also in Bryant and Gay, Popular Hist, of the 
U. S., ch. 3.— E. F. Slafter, M. Voyages of t/ie 
Northman to Am. (Prince Soc, 1877). — 'The same. 
Discovery of Am. by the Northmen (N. II. Ilist. 
Sue, 1888). — N. L. Beamish, Discovery of Am. by 
the Northmen. — A. J. Weise, Discoveries of Am. , 
eh. 1. 

A. D. 1484-1492, — The great project of 
Columbus, and the sources of its inspiration. 
— His seven years' suit at the Spanish Court. 
— His departure from Palos. — "All attempts 
to diminish the glory of Columbus' achievement 
by proving a previous discovery whose results 
were known to him have signally failed. . . . 
Columbus originated no new theory respecting 
the earth's form or size, though a popular idea 
has always prevailed, notwithstanding the state- 
ments of the best writers to the contrary, that 
he is entitled to the glory of the theory as well 

as to that of the execution of the project. He 
was not in advance of his age, entertained no 
new theories, believed no more than did Prince 
Henry, his predecessor, or Toscanelli, his con- 
temporary ; nor was he the first to conceive th« 
possibility of reaching the east by sailing west. 
He was however the first to act in accordance 
with existing beliefs. The Northmen in their 
voyages had entertained no ideas of a New 
World, or of an Asia to the West. To knowl- 
edge of theoretical geography, Columbus added 
the skill of a practical navigator, and the iron 
will to overcome obstacles. He sailed west, 
reached Asia as he believed, and proved old 
theories correct. There seem to be two unde- 
cided points iu that matter, neither of which can 
ever be settled. First, did his experience in the 
Portuguese voyages, the perusal of some old 
author, or a hint from one of the few men 
acquainted with old traditions, first suggest to 
Columbus his project ? . . . Second, to what ex- 
tent did his voyage to the north [made in 1477, 
probably with an English merchantman from 
Bristol, in which voyage he is believed to have 
visited Iceland] influence his plan ? There is no 
evidence, but a strong probability, that he heard 
in that voyage of the existence of land in the 
west. . . . Still, his visit to the north was in 
1477, several years after the first formation of 
his plan, and any information gained at the time 
could only have been confirmatory rather than 
suggestive." — H. H. Bancroft, Hist, ^of the 
Pacific States, v. 1, summary app. to ch. 1. — "Of 
the works of learned men, that which, according 
to Ferdinand Columbus, had most weight with 
his father, was the ' Cosmographia ' of Cardinal 
Aliaco. Columbus was also confirmed in his 
views of the existence of a western passage ta 
the Indies by Paulo Toscanelli, the Florentine 
philosopher, to whom much credit is due frr the 
encouragement he afforded to the enterprise. 
That the notices, however, of western lands were 
not such as to have much weight with other 
men, is sufficiently proved by the difBculty 
which Columbus had in contending with adverse 
geographers and men of science in general, of 
whom he says he never was able to convince any 
one. After a new world had been discovered, 
many scattered indications were then found to 
have foreshown it. One thing which cannot be 
denied to Columbus is that he worked out his 
own idea himself. . . . He first applied himself 
to his countrymen, the Genoese, who would have 
nothing to say to his scheme. He then tried the 
Portuguese, who listened to what he had to say, 
but with bad faith sought to anticipate him by 
sending out a caravel with instructions foimded 
upon his plan. . . . Columbus, disgusted at the 
treatment he had received from the Portuguese 
Court, quitted Lisbon, and, after visiting Genoa, 
as it appears, went to see what favour he could 
meet with in Spain, arriving at Palos in the year 
1485." The story of the long suit of Columbus 
at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella ; of his 
discouragement and departure, with intent to 
go to France; of his recall hy command of 
Queen Isabella; of the tedious hearings and 
negotiations that now took place ; of the lofty 
demands adhered to by the confident Genoese, 
who required "to be made an admiral at once, 
to be appointed viceroy of the countries he 
should discover, and to have an eighth of the 
profits of the expedition;" of his second rebuff, 


AMERICA, 1484-1492. 


AMERICA, 1492. 

his second departure for France, and second re- 
call by Isabella, who finally put her heart Into 
the enterprise ard persuaded her more skeptical 
consort to assen to it — the story of those seven 
years of the struggle of Columbus to obtain 
means for his voyage is familiar to all readers. 
"The agreement between Columbus and their 
Catholic highnesses was signed at Santa Fe on 
the 17th of April, 1493; and Columbus went to 
Palos to make preparation for his voyage, bear- 
ing with him an order that the two vessels which 
that city furnished annually to the crown for 
three months should be placed at his disposal. 
. . . The Pinzons, rich men and skilful mariners 
of Palos, joined in the undertaking, subscribing 
an eighth of the expenses ; and thus, by these 
united exertions, three vessels were manned with 
90 mariners, and provisioned for a year. At 
length all the preparations were complete, and 
on a Friday (not inauspicious in this case), the 
8d of August, 1492, after they had all confessed 
and received the sacrament, they set sail from 
the bar of Saltes, making for the Canary 
Islands." — Sir A. Helps, T/ie Spanish Conquest 
in America, bk. 2, ch. 1. 

Also rar J. Winsor, Christopher Columbus, eh. 
5-9, and 20. 

A. D. 1492.— The First Voyage of Colum- 
bus. — Discovery of the Bahamas, Cuba and 
Hayti. — The three vessels of Columbus were 
called the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the 
Nina. "All had forecastles and high poops, 
but the ' Santa Maria ' was the only one that 
was decked amidships, and she was called a ' uao ' 
or ship. The other two were caravelas, a 
class of small vessels built for speed. The 
'Santa Maria,' as I gather from scattered notices 
in the letters of Columbus, was of 120 to 130 
tons, like a modern coasting schooner, and she 
carried 70 men, much crowded. Her sails were 
a foresail and a foretop-sail, a sprit-sail, a main- 
sail with two bonnets, and maintop sail, a mizzen, 
and a boat's sail were occasionally hoisted on 
the poop. The ' Pinta ' and ' Nina ' only had 
square sails on the foremast and lateen sails on 
the main and mizzea The former was 50 tons, 
the latter 40 tons, with crews of 20 men each. 
On Friday, the 3d of August, the three little 
vessels left the haven of Palos, and this memor- 
able voyage was commenced. . . . The expedi- 
tion proceeded to the Canary Islands, where the 
rig of the ' Pinta ' was altered. Her lateen sails 
•were not adapted for running before the wind, 
and she was therefore fitted with square sails, 
like the ' Santa Maria. ' Repairs were completed, 
the vessels were filled up with wood and water 
at Qomera, and the expedition took its final de- 
parture from the island of Gomera, one of the 
Canaries, on September 6th, 1492. . . . Colum- 
bus had chosen his roiite most happily, and with 
that fortunate prevision which often waits upon 
genius. From Qomera, by a course a little 
south of west, he would run down the trades 
to the Bahama Islands. From the parallel of 
about 30° N. nearly to the equator there is 
a zone of perpetual winds — namely, the 
northeast trade winds — always moving in the 
same direction, as steadily as the current of a 
river, except where they are turned aside by 
local causes, so that the ships of Columbus were 
steadily carried to their destination by a 
law of nature which, in due time, revealed 
itself to that close observer of her secrets. The 

constancy of the wind was one cause of alarm 
among the crews, for they began to murmur 
that the provisons would all be exhausted if they 
had to beat against these unceasing winds on 
the return voyage. The next event which excited 
alarm among the pilots was the discovery that 
the compasses had more than a point of easterly 
variation. . . . This was observed on the 17th 
of September, and about 300 miles westward of 
the meridian of the Azores, when the ships had 
been eleven days at sea. Soon afterwiirds the voy- 
agers found themselves surrounded by masses of 
seaweed, in what is called the Sargasso Sea, and 
this again aroused their fears. They thought 
that the ships would get entangled in the beds 
of weed and become immovable, and that the 
beds marked the limit of navigation. The cause 
of this accumulation is well known now. 
If bits of cork are put into a basin of water, 
and a circular motion given to it, all the corks 
will be found crowding together towards the 
centre of the pool where there is the least motion. 
The Atlantic Ocean is just such a basin, the 
Gulf Stream is the whirl, and the Sargasso Sea 
is in the centre. There Colimabus found it, and 
there it has remained to this day, moving up 
and down and changing its position according to 
seasons, storms and winds, but never altering its 
mean position. ... As day after day passed, 
and there was no sign of land, the crews became 
turbulent and mutinous. Columbus encouraged 
them with hopes of reward, while he told them 
plainly that he had come to discover India, and 
that, with the help of God, he would persevere 
until he found it. At length, on the 11th of Oc- 
tober, towards ten at night, Columbus was on 
the poop and saw a light. ... At two next 
morning, land was distinctly seen. . . . The 
island, called by the natives Guanahani, and by 
Columbus San Salvador, has now been ascertained 
to be Watling Island, one of the Bahamas, 
14 miles long by 6 broad, with a brackish lake 
in the centre, in 24° 10' 30" north latitude. . . . 
The difference of latitude between Gomera and 
Watling Island is 235 miles. Course, W. 5" S. ; 
distance 3,114 miles; average distance made 
good daUy, 85' ; voyage 35 days. . . . After dis- 
covering several smaller islands the fleet came 
In sight of Cuba on the 27th October, and ex- 
plored part of the northern coast. Columbus 
believed it to be Cipango, the island placed on 
the chart of Toscanelli, between Europe and 
Asia. . . . Crossing the channel between Cuba and 
St. Domingo [or Hayti], they anchored in the 
harbour of St. Nicholas Jlole on December 4th. 
The natives came with presents and the coun- 
try was enchanting. Columbus . . named the 
island ' Espanola ' [or Hispaniola]. But with all 
this peaceful beauty around him he was on the eve 
of disaster." The Santa Maria was drifted by 
a strong current upon a sand bank and hopelessly 
wrecked. "It was now necessary to leave a 
small colony on the island. ... A fort was 
built and named 'La Navidad,' 39 men remain- 
ing behind supplied with stores and provisions," 
and on Friday, Jan. 4, 1493, Columbus began 
his homeward voyage. "Weathering a danger- 
ous gale, which lasted several days, his little 
vessels reached the Azores Feb. 17, and arrived 
at Palos March 15, bearing their marvellous 
news. — C. R. Markham, The Sea Fathers, ch. 2. — 
The same. Life of Columbus, ch. 5. — The statement 
above that the island of the Bahamas on which 


AjNLERICA, 1492. 

Fapal Grant. 

AilERICA, 149a-1496. 

Columbus first landed, and which he called San 
Salvador, ' ' has now been ascertained to be Watling 
Island " seems hardly justified. The question be- 
tween Walling Island, San Salvador or Cat Island, 
Bamana, or Attwood's Cay, Mariguana, the Grand 
Turk, and others is still in dispute. Profes- 
sor .Justin Winsor says "the weight of modern 
testimony seems to favor Watling's Island;" 
but at the same time he thinks it " probable that 
men will never quite agree which of the Baha- 
mas it was upon which these startled and exul- 
tant Europeans first stepped." — J. Winsor, Chris- 
topher Columbus, ch. 9. — The same, Narrative and 
Critical Hist, of Am., c. 2, ch. 1, note B. — 
Professor Jolm Fiske, saj-s: ".Ul that can be 
positively asserted of Guanahani is that it was 
one of the Bahamas ; there has been endless discus- 
sion as to which one, and the question is not easy 
to settle. Perhaps the theory of Captain Gustavua 
Fox, of the United States Navy, is on the whole 
best supported. Captain Fox maintains that 
the true Guanahani was the little Island now 
known as Samana or Attwood's Cay." — J. Fiske, 
Ttts Discovery of America, ch. 5 (v. 1). 

Also ix U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Sept., 
1880, app. 18. 

A. D. 1493. — Papal grant of the New 
World to Spain. — "Spain was at this tinie 
connected with the Pope about a most momen- 
tous matter. The Genoese, Cristoforo Colombo, 
arrived at the Spanish court in March, 1493, 
with the astounding news of the discovery of 
a new continent. . . . Ferdinand and Isabella 
thought it wise to secure a title to all that might 
ensue from their new discovery. The Pope, as 
Yicar of Christ, was held to have authority to 
dispose of lands inhabited by the heathen ; and 
by papal Bulls the discoveries of Portugal 
along the African coast had been secured. The 
Portuguese showed signs of urging claims to the 
New World, as being already conveyed to them 
by the papal grants previously issued in their 
favour. To remove all cause of dispute, the 
Spanish monarchs at once had recourse to Alex- 
ander VI., who issued two BuUs on May 4 and 5 
[1493] to determine the respective rights of Spain 
and Portugal. In the first, the Pope granted to 
the Spanish monarchs and their heirs all lands 
discovered or hereafter to be discovered in the 
western ocean. In the second, he defined his 
grant to mean all lands that might be discovered 
west and south of an imaginar3'line, drawn from 
the North to the South Pole, at the distance of a 
hundred leagues westward of the Azores and 
Cape de Verd Islands. In the light of our pres- 
ent knowledge we are amazed at this simple 
means of disposing of a vast extent of the earth's 
surface." Under the Pope's stupendous patent, 
Spain was able to claim every part of the American 
Continent except the Brazilian coast. — M. Crcigh- 
ton, Hiat. of the Papacy during the Refornui- 
tion, bk. 5, ch. 6 (v. 3). 

Also in E. G. Bourne, I7ie Demarcation Line of 
Pope Ale.rander VI. (Yale Rer., May, 1892).— J. 
Fiske, Tlie Discovery of America, di. 6 (j). 1). — J. 
Gordon, The Bulls distributing America {Am. Soc. 
ofCh. Hist., V. 4).— See, also, below: A. D. 1494. 

A. D. 1493-1496. — The Second Voyage of 
Columbus. — Discovery of Jamaica and the 
Caribbees. — Subjugation of Hispaniola. — 
"The departure of Cohimbus on his secrnd 
royage of discovery presented a brilliant con- 
trast to his gloomy embarkation at Palos. On 

the 25th of September [1493], at the dawn of day, 
the bay of Cadiz was whitened by his fleet. 
There were three large ships of heavy burden 
and fourteen caravels. . . . Before sunrise the 
whole fleet was under way." Arrived at the 
Canaries on the 1st of October, Columbus 
purchased there calves, goats, sheep, hogs, and 
fowls, with which to stock the island of 
Hispaniola; also "seeds of oranges, lemons, 
bergamots, melons, and various orchard fruits, 
which were thus first introduced into the islands 
of the west from the Hesperides or Fortunate 
Islands of the Old World." It was not until the 
13th of October that the fleet left the Canaries, 
and it arrived among the islands since called the 
Lesser Antilles or Caribbees, on the evening of 
Nov. 2 Sailing through this archipelago, dis- 
covering the larger island of Porto Rico on the 
way, Columbus reached the eastern extremity 
of Hispaniola or Hayti on the 22d of November, 
and arrived on the 27th at La Navidad, where 
he had left a garrison ten months before. He 
found nothing but ruin, silence and the marks 
of death, and learned, after much inquiry, that 
his unfortunate men, losing all discipline after 
his departure, had provoked the natives by rapa- 
city and licentiousness until the latter rose against 
them and destroyed them. Abandoning the 
scene of this disaster, Columbus found an 
excellent harbor ten leagues east of Jlonte 
Christ! and there he began the founding of a 
city which he named Isabella. " Isabella at the 
present day is quite overgrown with forests, in 
the midst of which are slill to be seen, partly 
standing, the pillars of the church, some remains 
of the king's storehouses, and part of the resi- 
dence of Columbus, all built of hewn stone." 
While the foundations of the new city were 
being laid, Columbus sent back part of his ships 
to Spain, and undertook an exploration of the 
interior of the island — the mountains of Cibao 
— where abundance of gold was promised. Some 
gold washings were found — far too scanty to 
satisfy the expectations of the Spaniards; and, as 
want and sickness soon made their appearance 
at Isabella, discontent was rife and mutiny afoot 
before the year had ended. In April, 1494, 
Columbus set sail with three caravels to revisit the 
coast of Cuba, for a more extended exploration 
than he had attempted on the first discovery. ' ' He 
supposed it to be a continent, and the extreme end 
of Asia, and if so, by following its shores in the 
proposed direction he must eventually arrive 
at Cathay and those other rich and commercial, 
though semi-barbarous coimtries, described by 
Mandeville and Marco Polo." Reports of gold 
led him southward from Cuba until he discovered 
the island which he called Santiago, but which 
has kept its native name, Jamaica, signifying the 
Island of Springs. Disappointed in the search for 
gold, he soon returned from Jamaica to Cuba 
and sailed along its southern coast to very near 
the v.-estem extremity, confirming himself and 
his followers in the belief that they skirted the 
shores of Asia and might follow them to the Red 
Sea, if their ships and stores were equal to so 
long a voyage. "Two or three days' further 
sail would have carried Columbus round the 
estremity of Cuba; would have dispelled his 
illusion, and might have given an entirely differ- 
ent course to his subsequent discoveries. In his 
present conviction he lived and died ; believing 
to his last hour that Cuba was ihc extremity of 


AMERICA, 1483-1496. 


AMERICA, 1497. 

the Asiatic continent." Returning eastward, he 
visited Jamaica again and purposed some further 
exploration of the Caiibbee Islands, when his 
toils and anxieties overcame him. " He fell into 
a deep Ictliargy, resembling death itself. His 
crew, alarmed at this profound torpor, feared 
that death was really at hand. They abandoned, 
therefore, all further prosecution of the voyage ; 
and spreading their sails to the east wind so 
prevalent in those seas, bore Columbus back, in 
a state of complete insensibility, to the harbor 
of Isabella," — Sept. 4. Recovering conscious- 
ness, the admiral was rejoiced to find his 
brother Bartholomew, from wliom he had been 
separated for years, and who had been sent out 
to him from Spain, in command of three ships. 
Otherwise there was little to give pleasure to 
Columbus when he returned to Isabella. His 
followers were again disorganized, again at war 
with the natives, whom they plundered and 
licentiously abused, and a mischief-making 
priest had gone back to Spain, along with 
certain intriguing officers, to make complaints 
and set enmities astir at the court. Involved in 
war, Columbus prosecuted it relentlessly, 
reduced the island to submission and the 
natives to servitude and misery by heavy 
exactions. In March 1496 he returned to Spain, 
to defend himself against the machinations of 
his enemies, transferring the government of 
Hispaniola to his brother Bartholomew. — W. 
Irving, Life and Voyages of Columbus, bk. 6-8 
(9. 1-2). 

Also in H. H. Bancroft, Hist, of the Pacific 
Stales, V. 1, ch. 2. — J. "Winsor, Christopher 
Columbus, eh. 12-14. 

A. D. 1494.— The Treaty of Tordesillas.— 
Amended Partition of the New World between 
Spain and Portugal. — " "When speaking or writ- 
ing of the conquest of America, it is generally 
believed that the only title upon which were 
based the conquests of Spain and Portugal was 
the famous Papal Bull of partition of the Ocean, 
of 1493. Few modern authors take into consid- 
eration that this Bull was amended, upon the pe- 
tition of the King of Portugal, by the [Treaty of 
Tordesillas], signed by both powers in 1494, 
augmenting the i)ortion assigned to the Portu- 

guese in the partition made between them of the 
ontinent of America. The arc of meridian fixed 
by this treaty as a dividing line, which gave rise, 
owing to the ignorance of the age, to so many 
diplomatic congresses and interminable contro- 
versies, may now be traced by any student of 
elementary mathematics. This line . . . runs 
along the meridian of 47° 32' 56" west of Green- 
wich. . . . The name Brazil, or ' tierra del Bra- 
zil,' at that time [the middle of the 16th century] 
referred only to the part of the continent pro- 
ducing the dye wood so-called. Nearly two 
centuries later the Portuguese advanced toward 
the South, and the name Brazil then covered the 
new possessions tliej' were acquiring." — L. L. 
Dominguez, Jiitrod. to " Tlte Cmiquest of tlie Riter 
Plate " (Hakluyt Sue. Pubs. No. 81). 

A. D. 1497. — Discoveryof the North Ameri- 
can Continent by John Cabot. — " The achieve- 
ment of Columbus, revealing the wonderful truth 
of which the germ may have existed in the 
imagination of every thoughtful mariner, won 
[in England] the fi'liniratiou which belonged to 
genius that seemed more divine than human; 
and ' there was great talk of it in all the court of 

Henry VH.' A feeling of disappointment re- 
mained, that a series of disasters had defeated 
tlie wish of the illustrious Genoese to make his 
voyage of essay under the flag of England. It 
was, therefore, not difficult for John Cabot, a 
denizen of Venice, residing at Bristol, to interest 
that politic king in plans for discovery. On the 
5th of March, 1496, he obtained under the great 
seal a commission empowering himself and his 
three sons, or either of them, their heirs, or their 
deputies, to sail into the eastern, western, or 
northern sea with a fleet of five ships, at their 
own expense, in search of islands, provinces, or 
regions hitherto unseen by Christian people; to 
aflix the banners of England on city, island, or 
continent; and, as vassals of the English crown, 
to possess and occupy the territories that might 
be found. It was further stipulated in this ' most 
ancient American State paper of England,' that 
the patentees should be strictly boimd, on every 
return, to land at the port of Bristol, and to pay 
to the king one-fifth part of their gains; while 
the exclusive riglit of frequenting all the coun- 
tries that might be found was reserved to them 
and to their assigns, without limit of time. 
Under this patent, which, at the first direction of 
English enterprise toward America, embodied the 
worst features of monopoly and commercial 
restriction, John Cabot, taking with him his son 
Sebastian, embarked in quest of new islands and 
a passage to Asia by the north-west. After sail- 
ing prosperously, as he reported, for 700 leagues, 
on the 24th day of June [1497] in the morning, 
almost fourteen months before Columbus on his 
third voyage came in sight of the main, and 
more than two years before Amerigo Vespucci 
sailed west of the Canaries, he discovered the 
western continent, probably in the latitude of 
about 56° degrees, among the dismal cliffs of 
Labrador. He ran along the coast for many 
leagues, it is said even for 300, and landed on 
what he considered to be the territory of the 
Grand Cham. But he encountered no human 
being, although there were marks that the region 
was inhabited. He planted on the land a large 
cross with the flag of England, and, from affec- 
tion for the republic of Venice, he added the ban- 
ner of St. Mark, which had never been borne so 
far before. On his homeward voyage he saw on 
his right hand two islands, which for want of 
provisions he could not stop to explore. After 
an absence of three months the great discoverer 
re-entered Bristol harbor, where due honors 
awaited him. The king gave him money, and 
encouraged him to continue his career. The peo- 
ple called him the great admiral ; he dressed in 
silk; and the English, and even Venetians who 
chanced to be at Bristol, ran after him with such 
zeal that he could enlist for a new voyage as 
many as he pleased. . . . On the third day of 
the month of February next after his return, 
'John Kaboto, Venecian,' accordingly obtained 
a power to take up ships for another voyage, at 
the rates fixed for those employed in the service 
of the king, and once more to set sail with aa 
many companions as would go with him of their 
own will. With this license every trace of John 
Cabot disappears. He may have died before 
the summer; but no one knows certainly the 
time or the place of his end, and it has not even 
been ascertained in what country this finder of a 
continent first saw the light." — G. Bancroft, 
Hist, of tlie U. S. of Am. (Author's last Revision), 


AMERICA, 1497. 


AMERICA, 1497-1498. 

pt. 1, eh. 1. — In his critical work on the discov- 
ery of America, published in 1893, Mr. Henry 
Harrisse states his conclusions as to the Cabot voy- 
ages, and on the question whether the American 
discoveries were made by John Cabot or his son 
Sebastian, as follows: "1. — The discovery of 
the continent of North America and the first 
landing on its east coast were accomplished not 
by Sebastian Cabot, but by his father John, in 
1497, under the auspices of King Henry VII. 
2. — The first landfall was not Cape Breton 
Island, as is stated in the planisphere made by 
Sebastian Cabot in 1544, but eight or ten degrees 
further north, on the coast of Labrador ; which 
was then ranged by John Cabot, probably as far 
as Cape Chudley. 3. — This fact was tacitly 
acknowledged by all pilots and cosmographers 
throughout the first half of the 16th century ; 
and the knowledge of it originated with Sebas- 
tian Cabot himself, whatever may have been 
afterwards his contrary statements in that re- 
spect. 4. — The voyage of 1498, also accom- 
plislied under the British flag, was likewise 
carried out by John Cabot personally. The land- 
fall on that occasion must be placed south of the 
first; and the exploration embraced the north- 
east coast of the present United States, as far as 
Florida. 5. — In the vicinity of the Floridian 
east coast, John Cabot, or one of his lieutenants, 
was detected by some Spanish vessel, in 1498 or 
1499. 6. —The English continued in 1501, 1.502, 
1504, and afterwards, to send ships to Newfound- 
land, chiefly for the purpose of fisheries." — H. 
Harrisse, The Discovery of North America, pt. 1, 
bk. 8, ch. 5. 

Also in: Narrative and Critical Hist, of Am., 
V. 3, ch. 1, Critical Essay (C. Deane). — R. Biddle, 
Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, ch. 1-8. — See, also, 
A. D. 1498. 

A, D. 1497-1498. — The first Voyage of 
Americus Vespucius. — Misunderstandings 
and disputes concerning it. — Vindication of 
the Florentine navigator. — His exploration 
of 4,000 miles of continental coast. — "Our 
information concerning Americus Vespucius, 
from the early part of the year 1496 imtil after 
his return from the Portuguese to the Spanish 
service in the latter part of 1504, rests primarily 
tipon his two famous letters ; the one addressed 
to his old patron Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' 
Medici (a cousin of Lorenzo the Magnificent) and 
written in March or April, 1503, giving an ac- 
count of his third voyage ; the other addressed 
to his old school-fellow Piero Soderini [then 
Gonf aloniere of Florence] and dated from Lisbon, 
September 4, 1504, giving a brief account of 
four voyages which he had made under various 
commanders in the capacity of astronomer or 
pilot. These letters . . . became speedily popu- 
lar, and many editions were published, more 
especially in France, Germany, and Italy. . . . 
The letter to Soderini gives an account of four 
voyages in which the writer took part, the first 
two in the service of Spain, the other two in the 
service of Portugal. The first expedition sailed 
from Cadiz May 10, 1497, and returned October 
15, 1498, after having explored a coast so long 
as to seem unquestionably that of a continent. 
This voyage, as we shall see, was concerned 
with parts of America not visited again until 
1513 and 1517. It discovered nothing that was 
calculated to invest it with much importance in 
Spain, though it by no means passed without 

notice there, as has often been wrongly asserted. 
Outside of Spain it came to attract more atten- 
tion, but in an unfortunate wa}', for a slight but 
very serious error in proof-reading or editing, in 
the most important of the Latin versions, caused 
it after a while to be practically identified with 
the second voyage, made two years later. This 
confusion eventually led to most outrageous 
imputations upon the good name of Americus, 
which it has been left for the present century to 
remove. The second voyage of Vespucius was 
that in whicli he accompanied Alonso de Ojeda 
and Juan de la Costa, from May 20, 1499, to 
June, 1500. They explored the northern coast 
of South America from some point on what we 
would now call the north coast of Brazil, as far 
as the Pearl Coast visited by Columbus in the 
preceding year; and they went beyond, as far as 
the Gulf of Maracaibo. Here tlie squadron 
seems to have become divided, Ojeda going over 
to Hispaniola in September, while Vespucius 
remained cruising till February. ... It is cer- 
tainly much to be regretted tliat in the narrative 
of his first expedition, Vespucius did not happen 
to mention the name of the chief commander. 
. . . However ... he was writing not for us, 
but for his friend, and he told Soderini only what 
he thought would interest him. ... Of the 
letter to Soderini the version which has played 
the most important part in history is the Latin 
one first published at the press of the little 
college at Saint-Die in Lorraine, April 25 (vij 
Kl' Maij), 1507. ... It was translated, not from 
an original text, but from an intermediate French 
version, which is lost. Of late years, however, 
we have detected, in an excessively rare Italian 
text, the original from which the famous Lor- 
raine version was ultimately derived. ... If 
now we compare this primitive text with the 
Latin of the Lorraine version of 1507, we observe 
that, in the latter, one proper name — the Indian 
name of a place visited by Americus on his first 
voyage — has been altered. In the original it is 
'Lariab;' in the Latin it has become 'Parias.' 
This looks like an instance of injudicious editing 
on the part of the Latin translator, although, of 
course, it may be a case of careless proof-reading. 
Lariab is a queer-looking word. It is no wonder 
that a scholar in his study among the mountains 
of Lorraine could make nothing of it. If he had 
happened to be acquainted with the language of 
the Huastecas, who dwelt at that time about the 
river Panuco — fierce and dreaded enemies of their 
southern neighbours the Aztecs — he would 
have known that names of places in that region 
were apt to end in ab. . . . But as such facts 
were quite beyond our worth}' translator's ken, 
we cannot much blame him if he felt that such 
a word as Lariab needed doctoring. Parias 
(Paria) was known to be the native name of a 
region on the western shores of tlie Atlantic, and 
so Lariab became Parias. As the distance from 
the one place to the other is more than two thou- 
sand miles, this little emendation shifted the 
scene of the first voyage beyond all recognition, 
and cast the whole subject into an outer dark- 
ness where there has been much groaning and 
gnashing of teeth. Another curious circumstance 
came in to confirm this error. On his first voy- 
age, shortly before arriving at Lariab, Vespu- 
cius saw an Indian town built over the water, 
'like Venice.' He counted 44 large wooden 
houses, 'like barracks,' supported on huge tree- 


A>IERICA, 1497-1498. 


AMERICA, 1497-1498. 

trunks and communicating with each other by 
bridges that could be drawn up in case of danger. 
This may well have been a village of communal 
houses of the Chontals on the coast of Tabasco ; 
but .such villages were afterwards seen on the 
Gulf of Maracaibo, and one of them was called 
Venezuela, or 'Little Venice,' a name since 
spread over a territory nearly twice as large as 
France. So the amphibious town described by 
Vespucius was incontinently moved to Maracaibo, 
as if there could be only one such place, as if 
that style of defensive building had not been 
common enough in many ages and in many parts 
of the earth, from ancient Switzerland to modem 
Siam. . . . Thus in spite of the latitudes and 
longitudes distinctly stated by Vespucius in his 
letter, did Lariab and the little wooden Venice 
get shifted from the Gulf of Mexico to the 
northern coast of South America. . . . We are 
told that he falsely pretended to have visited 
Paria and Maracaibo in 1497, in order to claim 
priority over Columbus In the discovery of ' the 
continent." What continent ? When Vespucius 
wrote that letter to Soderini, neither he nor any- 
body else suspected that what we now call Amer- 
ica had been discovered. The only continent of 
which there could be any question, so far as sup- 
planting Columbus was concerned, was Asia. 
But in 1.504 Cohimbus was generally supposeil to 
Jiave discovered the continent of Asia, by his new 
route, in 1493. ... It was M. Varnhagen who 
first turned inquiry on this subject In the right 
direction. . . . Having taken a correct start by 
simply following the words of Vespucius him- 
self, from a primitive text, without reference to 
any preconceived theories or traditions, M. Varn- 
hagen tiuds" tliat Americus in his first voyage 
made land on the northern coast of Honduras; 
" that he sailed around Yucatan, and found his 
aquatic village of communal houses, his little 
wooden Venice, on the shore of Tabasco Thence, 
after a fight with the natives in which a few 
tawny prisoners were captured and carried on 
board the caravels, Vespucius seems to have 
taken a straight course to the Huasteca country 
by Tampico, without touching at points in the 
region subject or tributary to the Aztec confed- 
eracy. This Tampico country was what Vespu- 
cius understood to be called Lariab. He again 
gives the latitude definitely and correctly as 23° 
N., and he mentions a few interesting circum- 
stances. He saw the natives roasting a dread- 
fully ugly animal," of which he gives what 
seems to be "an excellent description of tlio 
iguana, the flesh of which is to this day an im- 
portant article of food in tropical America. . . . 
After leaving this country of Lariab the ships 
kept still to the northwest for a short distance, 
and then followed the windings of the coast 
for 870 leagues. . . . After traversing the 870 
leagues of crooked coast, the ships found them- 
selves ' in the finest harbour in the world ' [which 
M. Varnhagen supposed, at first, to have been 
in Chesapeake Bay, but afterwards reached con- 
clusions pointing to the neighbourhood of Cape 
Caiiavcral, on the Florida coast]. It was in June, 
1498, thirteen months since they had started from 
Spain. . . . Tliey spent seven-and-thirty days in 
this unrivalled harbour, preparing for the home 
voyage, and found the natives very hospitable. 
Tlicse red men courted the aid of the white 
strangers," in an attack which they wished to 
make upon a fierce race of cannibals, who inhab- 

ited certain islands some distance out to sea. 
The Spaniards agreed to the expedition, and 
sailed late in August, taking seven of the friendly 
Indians for guides. "After a week's voyage 
tljcy fell in with the islands, some peopled, others 
uninliabited, evidently the Bermudas, 600 miles 
from Cape Hatteras as the crow flies. The 
Spaniards landed on an island called Iti, and had 
a brisk fight," resulting In the capture of more 
than 200 prisoners. Seven of these were given 
to the Indian guides, who paddled home with 
them. ' ' ' We also [wrote Vespucius] set sail 
for Spain, with 222 prisoners, slaves ; and arrived 
in the port of Cadiz on the 15th day of October, 
1498, where we were well received and sold our 
slaves.'. . . The obscurity in which this voy- 
age has so long been enveloped is due chiefly to 
the fact that it was not followed up till many 
years had elapsed, and the reason for this neglect 
impresses upon us forcibly the impossibility of 
understanding the history of the Discovery of 
America unless we bear in mind all the attend- 
ant circumstances. One might at first suppose 
that a voyage which revealed some 4,000 miles of 
the coast of North America would have attracted 
much attention in Spain and have become alto- 
gether too famous to be soon forgotten. Such 
an 'argument, however, loses sight of the fact 
that these early voyagers were not trying to ' dis- 
cover America.' "There was nothing to astonish 
them in the existence of 4,000 miles of coast line 
on this side of the Atlantic. To their minds it 
was simply the coast of Asia, about which they 
knew nothing except from Marco Polo, and the 
natural effect of such a voyage as this would be 
simply to throw discredit upon that traveller." 
— J. t'iske. The Discovery of America, ch. 7 {v. 2). 

The arguments against this view are set forth 
by Mr. Clements R. Markham, in a paper read 
before the Royal Geographical Society, in 1892, 
as follows: "Vespucci was at Seville or San 
Lucar, as a provision merchant, from the mid- 
dle of April, 1497, to the end of May, 1498, as is 
shown by the official records, examined by Munoz, 
of expenses incurred in fitting out the ships for 
western expeditions. Moreover, no expedition 
for discovery was despatched by order of King 
Ferdiiiand in 1497; and there is no allusion to 
any such expedition in any contemporary record. 
The internal evidence against the truth of the 
story is even stronger. Vespucci says that he 
sailed W. S. W. for nearly 1000 leagues from 
Grand Canary. This would have taken him to 
the Gulf of Paria, which is rather more than 900 
leagues W. S. W. from Grand Canary. ... No 
actual navigator would have made such a blun- 
der. He evidently quoted the dead reckoning 
from Ojeda's voyage, and invented the latitude 
at random. . . . His statement that he went 
N. W. for 870 leagues (2,610 miles) from a posi- 
tion in latitude 23° N. is still more preposterous. 
Such a course and distance would have taken 
him right across the continent to somewhere in 
British Columbia. The chief incidents in the 
voyage are those of the Ojeda voyage in 1499. 
There is the village built on piles called Little 
Venice . . . There was the encounter with na- 
tives, in which one Spaniard was killed and 22 
were wounded. These numbers are convincing 
evidence" — C. R. Markham, Columbus (BoycU 
Oeog. Soc Proceedings, Sept., 1892), 

Also in: J. Winsor, Christopher Columbus, 
cA. 15. 


AMERICA, 1498. 

John Qabot, 

AMERICA, 1498-1505. 

A. D. 1498.— Second Voyage of John 
Cabot, sometimes ascribed to his son Se- 
bastian. — "Very soon after his return, John 
Cabot petitioned Henry VII. for new letters 
patent, authorizing him to visit again the coun- 
try wliich he had just discovered. The King 
granted his request on the 3rd of February, 1498. 
There is no ground whatever for the assertion, 
frequently repeated, that John Cabot did not 
command this second expedition, or that it was 
undertalien after his death. On the contrary, 
Pasqualigo and Soncino mention him by name 
exclusively as the party to whom Henry VIL 
intended to entrust the fleet. Besides, this time, 
John Cabot is the only grantee, and the new let- 
ters patent omit altogether the names of Sebastian 
and of his brothers. Moreover, John explained 
in person to Soncino his plans for the second 
voyage ; and July 25, 1498, Puebla and Ayala 
announced officially to the Spanish Sovereigns 
that the vessels had actually sailed out 'con 
otro ginoves como Colon,' which description 
does not apply certainly to Sebastian, but to 
John Cabot, as we know from corroborative evi- 
dence already stated. The fact is that the name 
of Sebastian Cabot appears in connection with 
those voyages, for the inrst time, in Peter Mar- 
tyr's account, printed twenty years after the 
event, and taken from Sebastian's own lips ; 
which ... is not a recommendation. In Eng- 
land, his name reveals itself as regards the dis- 
covery of the New World at a still later period, 
in John Stow's Chronicle, published in 1580. 
And, although both that historian and Hakluyt 
quote as their authority for the statement a 
manuscript copy of Robert Fabian's Chronicle, 
everything tends to show that the name of 
Sebastian Cabot is a sheer interpolation. . . . 
The expedition was composed of five vessels, 
fitted out at the expense of John Cabot or of his 
friends: ' payng for theym and every of theym.' 
We have not the exact date when the fleet 
sailed. It was after April 1, 1498, as on that 
day Henry VII. loaned £ZQ to Thomas Bradley 
and Louncelot Thirkill, ' going to the New 
Isle.' On the other hand, Pedro de Ayala already 
states, July 25, 1498, that news had been received 
of the expedition, which was obliged to leave 
behind, in Ireland, one of the ships, owing to a 
severe storm. The vessels therefore set out 
(from Bristol?) in May or June. Puebla states 
that they were expected back in the month of 
September following : ' Dizen que seran venydos 
para el Septiembre ; ' yet the vessels had taken 
supplies for one year : ' fueron proueydas por 
hun ano.' We possess no direct information 
concerning this voyage, nor do we know when 
Cabot returned to England. It is important to 
note, however, that the expeditions of 1497 and 
1498 are the only ones which in the fifteenth 
century sailed to the New World under the 
British flag, and comprise, therefore, all the 
transatlantic discoveries made by Cabot before 
the year 1500. Our only data concerning the 
north-west coast, which the Venetian navigator 
may have visited in the course of his second 
voyage, are to be found in the map drawn by 
Juan de la Cosa in the year 1500. ... In that 
celebrated chart, there is, in the proximity and 
west of Cuba, an unbroken coast line, delineated 
like a continent, and extending northward to the 
extremity of the map. On the northern portion 
of that seaboard La Cosa has placed a continuous 

line of British flags, commencing at the south 
with the inscription ; ' Mar descubierta por 
ingleses ; ' and terminating at the north with 
' Cape of England : — Cauo de ynglaterra.' Un- 
fortunately, those cartographical data are not 
sufliciently precise to enable us to locate the 
landfalls with adequate exactness. Nor is the 
kind of projection adopted, without explicit de- 
grees of latitude, of such a character as to aid 
us much in determining positions. We are 
compelled, therefore, to resort to inferences. 
. . . Taking the distance from the equator 
to the extreme north in La Cosa's map as a 
criterion for measuring distances, and comparing 
relatively the points named therein with points 
corresponding for the same latitude on modem 
planispheres, the last English flagstaff in the 
southern direction seems to indicate a vicinity 
south of the Carolinas. . . . This hypothetical 
estimate finds a sort of corollary in Sebastian 
Cabot's account, as reported by Peter Martyr. 
In describing his alleged north-western discover- 
ies, Sebastian said that icebergs having com- 
pelled him to alter his course, he steered south- 
wardly, and followed the coast until he reached 
about the latitude of Gibraltar. . . . Several 
years afterwards, Sebastian Cabot again men- 
tioned the matter in his conversation with the 
Mantua gentleman; but this time he extended the 
exploration of the north-west coast five degrees 
further south, naming Florida as his terminus. 
. . . Twenty years after . . . Sebastian . . . 
declared, under oath before the Council of the 
Indies, December 31, 1535, that he did not know 
whether the mainland continued northward or 
not from Floricja to the Bacallaos region."— 
H. Harrisse, Discovery of America, pt. 1, bk. 2. 

A. D. 1498-1505.— The Third and Fourth 
Voyages of Columbus. — Discovery of Trini- 
dad, the northern coast of S. America, the 
shores of Central America and Panama. — 
When Columbus reached Spain in June, 1496, 
"Ferdinand and Isabella received him kindly, 
gave him new honors and promised him other 
outfits. Enthusiasm, however, had died out and 
delays took place. "The reports of the returning 
ships did not correspond with the pictures of 
Marco Polo, and the new-found world was 
thought to be a very poor India after all. Jlost 
people were of this mind ; though Columbus was 
not disheartened, and the public treasury was 
readUy opened for a third voyage. Coronel 
sailed early in 1498 with two ships, and Colum- 
bus followed with six, embarking at San Lucas 
on the 30th of May. He now discovered Trini- 
dad (July 31), which he named either from its 
three peaks, or from the Holy Trinity; struck 
the northern coast of South America, and skirted 
what was later known as the Pearl coast, going 
as far as the Island of Margarita. He wondered 
at the roaring fresh waters which the Oronoco 
pours into the Gulf of Pearls, as he called it, and 
he half believed that its exuberant tide came 
from the terrestrial paradise. He touched the 
southern coast of Hayti on the 30th of August. 
Here already his colonists had established a for- 
tified post, and founded the town of Santo 
Domingo. His brother Bartholomew had ruled 
energetically during the Admiral's absence, but 
he had not prevented a revolt, which was headed 
by Roldan. Columbus on his arrival found the 
insurgents still defiant, but he was able after a 
while to reconcile them, and be even succeeded 


AMERICA, 1498-1505. 

Latt Voyaget 
of Columbus. 

AMERICA, 1499-1500. 

in attaching Roldan warmly to his interests. 
Columbus' absence from Spain, however, left his 
eood name -without sponsors; and to satisfy 
detractors, a new commissioner was sent over 
with enlarged powers, even with authority to 
supersede Columbus in general command, if 
necessary. This emissary was Francisco de Bo- 
badilla, who arrived at Santo Domingo with two 
caravels on the 23d of August, 1500, finding 
iDiego in command, his brother, the Admiral, 
ibeing absent. An issue was at once made. 
jDiego refused to accede to the commissioner's 
'orders till Columbus returned to judge the case 
(himself; so Bobadilla assumed charge of the 
crown property violently, took possession of tlie 
Admiral's house, and when Columbus returned, 
he with his brother was arrested and put in irons. 
In this condition the prisoners were placed on 
shipboard, and sailed for Spain. The captain of 
the ship offered to remove the manacles: but 
Columbus would not permit it, being determined 
to land in Spain bound as he was ; and so he did. 
The effect of his degradation was to his advant- 
age ; sovereigns and people were shocked at the 
sight; and Ferdinand and Isabella hastened to 
make amends by receiving him with renewed 
favor. It was soon apparent that everything 
reasonable would be granted him by the mon- 
archs, and that he could have all he might wish 
short of receiving a new lease of power in the 
islands, which the sovereigns were detenuined 
to see pacified at least before Columbus sliould 
again assume government of them. The Admiral 
had not forgotten his vow to wrest the Holy 
Sepulchre from the Infidel; but the monarchs 
did not accede to his wish to undertake it. Dis- 
appointed in this, he proposed a new voyage; 
.and getting the royal countenance for this 
scheme, he was supplied with four vessels of 
from fifty to seventy tons each. ... He sailed 
from Cadiz, May 9, 1503, accompanied by his 
brother Bartholomew and his sou Fernando. 
The vessels reached San Domingo June 29. 
Bobadilla, whose rule of a year and a half had 
been an unhappy one, had given place to Nicho- 
las de Ovando; and the fleet which brought the 
new governor — with Maldonado, Las Casas and 
others — now lay in the harbor waiting to receive 
Bobadilla for the return voyage. Columbus had 
been instructed to avoid Hispaniola; but now 
that one of his vessels leaked, and he needed to 
make repairs, he sent a boat ashore, asking per- 
mission to enter tlie harbor. He was refused, 
though a storm was impending. He sheltered 
his vessels as best he could, and rode out the 
gale. The fleet which had on board Bobadilla 
and Roldan, with their ill-gotten gains, was 
wrecked, and these enemies of Columbus were 
drowned. The Admiral found a small harbor 
where he could make his repairs; and then, July 
14, sailed westward to find, as he supposed, 
the richer portions of India. ... A landing was 
made on the coast of Honduras, August 14. 
Three days later the explorers landed again 
fifteen leagues farther east, and took possession 
of the country for Spain. Still east they went ; 
and, in gratitude for safety after a long storm, 
they named a cape which they rounded, Gracias 
a Dios — a name still preserved at the point 
wliere the coast of Honduras begins to trend 
southward. Columbus was now lying ill on 
his bed, placed on deck, and was half the time 
in re very. Still the vessels coasted south," 

along and beyond the shores of Costa Rica ; then 
turned with the bend of the coast to the north- 
east, until they reached Porto Bello, as we call 
it, where they found houses and orchards, and 
passed on "to the farthest spot of Bastidas' 
exploring, who had, in 1501, sailed westward 
along the northern coast of South America." 
There turning back, Columbus attempted to 
found a colony at Veragua, on the Costa Rica 
coast, where signs of gold were tempting. But 
the gold proved scanty, the natives hostile, and, 
the Admiral, withdrawing his colony, sailed 
away. ' ' He abandoned one worm-eaten caravel 
at Porto Bello, and, reaching Jamaica, beached 
two others. A year of disappointment, grief, 
and want followed. Columbus clung to his 
wrecked vessels. His crew alternately mutinied 
at his side, and roved about the island. 
Ovando, at Hispaniola, heard of his straits, but 
only tardily and scantily relieved him. The dis- 
contented were finally humbled ; and some ships, 
despatched by the Admiral's agent in Santo 
Domingo, at last reached him and brought him 
and his companions to that place, where Ovando 
received him with ostentatious kindness, lodging 
him in his house till Columbus departed for 
Spain, Sept. 12, 1504." Arriving in Spain in 
November, disheartened, broken with disease, 
neglected, it was not until the following May 
that he had strength enough to go to the court at 
Segovia, and then only to be coldly received by 
King Ferdinand — Isabella being dead. ' ' While 
still hope was deferred, the infirmities of age and 
a life of hardships brought Columbus to his end ; 
and on Ascension Day, the 20tli of May, 1506, he 
died, with his son Diego and a few devoted 
friends by his bedside." — J. Winsor, Narrative 
and Critical Hist, of Am., v. 2, eh. 1. 

Also m : H. H. Bancroft, IHkI. of the Pacific 
States, v. 1, ch. 3 and 4. — W. Irving, Life and 
Voyages of Columbics, bk. 10-18 (v. 2). 

A. D. 1499-1500. — The Voyages and Dis- 
coveries of Ojeda and Pinzon. — The Second 
Voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. — One of the 
most daring and resolute of the adventurers who 
accompanied Columbus on liis second voyage 
(in 1493) was Alonzo de Ojeda. Ojeda quarrelled 
with the Admiral and returned to Spain in 1498. 
Soon afterwards, "he was provided by the 
Bishop Fonseca, Columbus' enemy, with a 
fragment of the map which the Admiral had 
sent to Ferdinand and Isabella, showing the dis- 
coveries which he had made in his last voyage. 
With this assistance Ojeda set sail for South 
America, accompanied by the pilot, Juan de la 
Cosa, who had accompanied Columbus in his 
first great voyage in 1492, and of whom Colum- 
bus complained that, 'being a clever man, he 
went about saying that lie knew more than he 
did,' and also by Amerigo Vespucci. They set 
sail on the 20th of May, 1499, with four vessels, 
and after a passage of 27 days came in sight of 
the continent, 200 leagues east of the Oronoco. 
At the end of June, they landed on the shores of 
Surinam, in six degrees of north latitude, and 
proceeding west saw the mouths of the Essequibo 
and Oronoco. Passing the Boca del Drago of 
Trinidad, they coasted westward till they reached 
the Capo de la Vela in Granada. It was in this 
voyage that was discovered the Gulf to which 
Ojeda gave the name of Venezuela, or Little 
Venice, on account of the cabins built on piles 
over the water, a mode of life which brought to 


A3IERICA, 1499-1500. 

Third Voyage 
of Vespucim, 

Al^EERICA, 1500-lol4 

his mind the water-city of tlie Adriatic. From 
the American coast Ojeda went to the Caribbce 
Islands, and on the 5th of September readied 
Yaguimo, in Hispaniola, where he raised a 
revolt against the authority of Columbus. His 
plans, however, were frustrated by Roldan and 
Escobar, the delegates of Columbus, and he was 
compellcd«to withdraw from the island. On the 
5th of February, 1500, he returned, carrying 
with him to Cadiz an extraordinary number of 
slaves, from which he realized an enormous sum 
of money. At the beginning of December, 1499, 
the same year in which Ojeda set sail on his last 
voyage, another companion of Columbus, in his 
first voyage, Vicente Yaiiez Pinzon, sailed from 
Palos, was the first to cross the line on the 
American side of the Atlantic, and on the 20th 
of January, 1500, discovered Cape St. Augustine, 
to which he gave the name of Cabo Santa Maria 
de la Consolacion, whence returning northward 
he followed tlie westerly trending coast, and so 
discovered the mouth of the Amazon, which he 
named Paricura. Within a month after his de- 
parture from Palos, he was followed from the 
same port and on the same route by Diego de 
'Lepe, who was the first to discover, at the mouth 
of the Oronoco, Ijy means of a closed vessel, 
which only opened when it reached the bottom 
of the water, that, at a depth of eight fathoms 
and a half, the two lowest fathoms were salt 
water, but all above was fresh. Lepe also made 
the observation that beyond Cape St. Augustine, 
which he douliled, as well as Pinzon, the coast 
of Brazil trended south-west." — K. H. Major, 
Life of Prince Henry of Portufjfd, eh. 19. 

Also in: W. Irving, Life and VoTjages of 
Columhui, T. 3, cli. 1-3. 

■ A. D. 1500. — Voyages of the Cortereals 
'to the far North, and of Bastidas to the 
jlsthmus of Darien. — "The Portuguese did not 
overlook the north while making tiieir important 
discoveries to the south. Two vessels, probably 
in the spring of loOO, were sent out under 
Gaspar C'ortercal. Ko journal or chart of the 
voyage is now in existence, hence little is known 
of its object or results. Still more dim is a 
previous voyage ascribed by Cordeiro to Joao 
Vaz Cortereal, fatlier of Gaspar. . . . Touchiug 
at the Azores, Gaspar Cortereal, possibly follow- 
ing Cabot's charts, struck the coast of Xewfoimd- 
land north of Cape Race, and sailing north 
discovered a land which he called Terra Verde, 
perhaps Greenland, but was stopped by ice at a 
ri\ er which he named Rio Nevado, whose loca- 
tion is unknown. Cortereal returned to Li.sbon 
before the end of 1500. ... In October of this 
same year Kodrigo de Bastidas sailed from Cadiz 
with two vessels. Touching the shores of South 
America near Isia Verde, which lies between 
Guadalupe and the main land, he followed the 
coast westward to El Retretc, or perhaps Nombre 
de Dios, on the Istlunus of Darien, in about 9° 
30' nortli latitude. Returning he was wrecked 
on Espanola toward tlie end of 1501, and reached 
Cadiz in September, 1502. This being the first 
authentic voyage by Europeans to the territory 
herein defined as the Pacific States, such inci- 
dents as are known will be given hereafter." — 
H. H. Bancroft, Hint, of the Pacific States, v. 1, ;;. 
113. — "We have Las Casas's authority for say- 
ing that Bastidas was a humane man toward llie 
Indians. Indeed, he afterwards lost his life by 
this humanity; for, when governor of Santa 

Martha, not consenting to harass the Indians, he 
so alienated his men that a conspiracy was 
formed against him, and he was murdered in liis 
bed. The renowned Vasco Nunez [de Balboa] 
was in this expedition, and the knowledge he 
gained there had the greatest influence on the 
fortunes of his varied and eventful life." — Sir 
A. Helps, Spanish Conquest in Am., hk. 5, ch. 1. 

Also in : J. G. Kohl, Hist, of tlie Discovery of 
Maine, ch. 5. — R. Biddle, Memoir of Sebastian, 
Cabot, bk. 2, ch. 3-5. — See, also, Newfound- 
land: A. D. 1501-1578. 

A. D. 1500-1514.— Voyage of Cabral.— The 
Third Voyage of Americus Vespucius. — Ex- 
ploration of the Brazilian coast for the King 
of Portugal. — Curious evolution of the conti- 
nental name "America." — " A_ffairs now be- 
came curiously complicated. King Emanuel of 
Portugal intrusted to Pedro Alvarez de Cabral 
the command of a fleet for Hindustan, to follow 
up the work of Gama and establish a Portu- 
guese centre of trade on the JIalabar coast. 
This fleet of 13 vessels, carrying about 1,200 
men, sailed from Lisbon March 9, 1500. After 
passing the Cape Verde Islands, JIarch 23, for 
some reason not clearly known, whether driven 
by stormy weather or seeking to avoid the calms 
that were apt to be troublesome on the Guinea 
coast, Cabral took a somewhat more westerly 
course than he realized, and on April 22, after a 
weary progress averging less than 60 miles per 
day, he found himself on the coast of Brazil not 
far beyond the limit reached by Lepe. . . . 
Approaching it in such a way Cabral felt sure 
that this coast must fall to the east of the papal 
meridian. Accordingly on May day, at Porto 
Seguro in latitude 10° 30' S., he took formal 
possession of the country for Portugal, and sent 
Gaspar de Lemos in one of his ships back to 
Lisbon with the news. On 3Iay 23 Cabral 
weighed anchor and stood for the Cape of Good 
Hope. . . . Cabral called the land he had found 
Vera Cruz, a name which presently became Santa 
Cruz; but when Lemos arrived in Lisbon with 
the news he had with him some gorgeous paro- 
quets, and among the earliest names on old maps 
of the Brazilian coast we find ' Land of Paro- 
quets 'and ' Land of the Holy Cross.' The land 
lay obviously so far to the east that Spain could 
not deny that at last there was something for 
Portugal out in the ' ocean sea. ' Much interest 
was felt at Lisbon. King Emanuel began to 
prepare an expedition for exploring this new 
coast, and wished to secure the services of some 
eminent pilot and cosmographer familiar with 
the western waters. Overtures were made to 
Americus, a fact which proves that he had 
already won a high reputation. The overtures 
were accepted, for what reason we do not know, 
and soon after his return from the voyage with 
Ojeda, probably in the autumn of 1.500, Ameri- 
cus passed from the service of Spain into that of 
Portugal. . . . On May 14, 1501, Vespucius, 
who was evidently principal pilot and guiding 
spirit in this voyage under unknown skies, set sail 
from Lisbon with three caravels. It is not quite 
clear who was chief captain, but M. Varnhagen has 
found reasons for believing that it was a certain 
Don Nuno JIanuel. The first halt was made on 
the African coast at Cape Verde, the first week 
injune. . . . After67daysof 'the vilestweather 
ever seen by man ' they reached the coast of 
Brazil in latitude about 5° S., on the evening 


AMERICA, 1500-1514. 

Naming of 

AMERICA, 1500-1514 

of tbe 16th of August, the festival-day of San 
Roque, whose name was accordingly given to 
the cape before which they dropped anchor. 
From this point they slowly followed the coast to 
the southward, stopping now and then to exam- 
ine the country. ... It was not until All Saints 
day, the first of ^November, that they readied 
the bay in latitude 13° S., which is still known 
by the name which they gave it, Bahia de Todos 
Santos. On New Year's day, 1502, they arrived 
at the noble bay where 54 years later the chief 
city of Brazil was founded. They would seem 
to have mistaken it for the mouth of anotlier 
huge river, like some that had already been seen 
in this strange world ; for they called it Rio de 
Janeiro (River of January). Thence by February 
15 they had passed Cape Santa Maria, when they 
left the coast and took a southeasterly course out 
into the ocean. Americus gives no satisfactory 
reason for this change of direction. . . . Per- 
haps he may have looked into the mouth of the 
river La Plata, which is a bay more than a hun- 
dred miles wide; and the sudden westward 
trend of the shore may have led him to suppose 
that he had reached the end of the continent. 
At any rate, he was now in longitude more than 
twenty degrees west of the meridian of Cape 
San Roque, and therefore unquestionably out of 
Portuguese waters. Clearly there was no use in 
going on and discovering lands which could 
belong only to Spain. This maj' account, I 
think, for the change of direction." The voyage 
southeastwardly was pursued until the little 
fleet had reached the icy and rock}- coast of the 
island of South Georgia, in latitude 51° S. It 
was then decided to turn homeward. "Ves- 
pucius . . . headed straight N. X. E. through 
the huge ocean, for Sierra Leone, and the dis- 
tance of more than 4,000 miles was made — with 
wonderful accuracy, though Vespucius says 
nothing about that — in 33 days. . . . Thence, 
after some further delay, to Lisbon, where they 
arrived on the 7th of September, 1502. Among 
all the voyages made during that eventful 
period there was none that as a feat of navi- 
gation surpassed this third of Vespucius, and 
there was none, except the first of Columbus, 
that outranked it in historical importance. For 
it was not only a voyage into the remotest 
stretches of the Sea of Darkness, but it was 
preeminently an incursion into the antipodal 
world of the Southern hemisphere. ... A 
coast of continental extent, beginning so near 
the meridian of the Cape Verde island^ and run- 
ning southwesterly to latitude 35' S. and per- 
haps beyond, did not fit into anybody's scheme 
of things. ... It was land unknown to the 
ancients, and Vespucius was right in saying that 
he had beheld there things by the thousand 
which Pliny had never mentioned. It was not 
strange that he should call it a ' New 'World,' 
and in meeting with this phrase, on this first 
occasion in which it appears in any document 
with reference to any part of what we now call 
America, the reader must be careful not to clothe 
it with the meaning which it wears in our mod- 
em eyes. In using the expression ' New World ' 
Vespucius was not thinking of the Florida coast 
which he had visited on a former voyage, nor of 
the 'islands of India' discovered by Columbus, 
nor even of the Pearl Coast which he had fol- 
lowed after the Admiral in exploring. The 
expression occurs in his letter to Lorenzo 

de' Me'lici, written from Lisbon in March or April, 
1503. relating solely to this third voyage. The let- 
ter begins as follows: "I have formerly written 
to you at sufficient length about my return from 
those new countries which in the ships and at the 
expense and command of the most gracious King 
of Portugal we have sought and found. It is 
proper to call them a new world.' Obse»ve that it 
is only the new countries visited on this third voy- 
age, the countries from Cape San Roque south- 
ward, that Vespucius thinks it proper to call a new 
world, and here is his reason for so calling them : 
' Since among our ancestors there was no know- 
ledge of them, and to all who hear of the affair it 
is most novel. For it transcends the ideas of the 
ancients, since most of them say that beyond the 
equator to the south there is no continent, but only 
the sea which they call the Atlantic, and if any of 
them asserted the existence of a continent there, 
they found many reasons for refusing to consider 
it a habitable country. But this last voyage of 
mine has proved that this opinion of theirs 
was erroneous and in every way contran,- 
to the facts.' . . . This expression ' Novus 
Mundus [jsew World], thus occurring in a 
private letter, had a remarkable career. Early 
in June, 1503, about the time when Americus 
was starting on his fourth voyage, Lorenzo 
died. By the beginning of 1.5U4, a Latin 
version of the letter [translated by Giovanni 
Giocondo] was printed and published, with the 
title 'Mundus Novus.'. . . The little four- 
leaved tract, 'Mundus Novus,' turned out to 
be the great literary success of the day. >I. 
Harisse has described at least eleven Latin edi- 
tions probably published in the course of 1504, 
and by 1506 not less than eight editions of Ger- 
man vereions had been issued. Intense curiosity 
was aroused by this announcement of the exis- 
tence of a populous land beyond the equator and 
unknown (could such a thing be possible) to the 
ancients," — who did know something, at least, 
about the eastern parts of the Asiatic continent 
which Columbus was supposed to liave reached. 
The "Novus Mundus," so named, began soon to 
be represented on maps and globes, generally as 
a great island or quasi-continent lying on and 
below the equator. "Europe, Asia and Africa 
were the three parts of the earth [previously 
known], and so this opposite region, hitherto 
unknown, but mentioned by Mela and indicated 
by Ptolemy, was the Fourth Part. We can now 
begin to understand the intense and wildly 
absorbing interest with which people read the 
brief story of the third voyage of Vespucius, 
and we can see that in the nature of that interest 
there was nothing calculated to bring it into com- 
parison with the work of Columbus. The two 
navigators were not regarded as rivals in doing 
the same thing, but as men who had done two 
very different things ; and to give credit to one was 
by no means equivalent to withholding credit 
from the other." In 1507, Martin Waldsee- 
milller, professor of geography at Saint-Die, 
published a small treatise entitled "Cosmo- 
graphie Introductio," with that second of the two 
known letters of Vespucius — the one addressed 
to Soderini, of which an account is given above 
(A D. 1497-1498) — appended to it. "In this 
rare book occurs the first suggestion of the name 
America. After having treated of the division 
of the earth's inhabited surface into three parts 
— Europe, Asia, and Africa — Waldseemttller 


AMERICA, 1500-1514 

AMERICA, 1509-1511. 

gpeaks of the discovery of a Fourth Part," and 
says: " ' Wherefore I do not see what is rightly 
to hinder us from calling it Amerige or America, 
i e., the land of Americas, after its discoverer 
Americus, a man of sagacious mind, since both 
Europe and Asia have got their names from 
■women. "... Such were the winged words but 
for which, as M. Harisse reminds us, the western 
hemisphere might have come to be known as 
Atlantis, or Hesperides, or Santa Cruz, or New 
India, or perhaps Columbia. ... In about a 
quarter of a century the first stage in the devel- 
opment of the naming of America had been 
completed. That stage consisted of five distinct 
steps: 1. Americus called the regions visited by 
him beyond the equator ' a new world ' because 
they were unknown to the ancients; 2. Giocondo 
made this striking phrase ' Mundus Novus ' into 
a title for his translation of the letter. . . ; 3. 
the name Mundus Novus got placed upon sev- 
eral maps as an equivalent for Terra Sanctae 
Crucis, or what we call Brazil; 4. the sugges- 
tion was made that JIundus Xovus was the 
Fourtli Part of the earth, and might properly be 
named America after its discoverer; 5. the name 
America thus got placed upon several maps [the 
first, so far as known, being a map ascribed to 
Leonardo da Vinci and published about 1514, 
and the second a globe made in 1515 by Johann 
SchOner, at Nuremberg] as an equivalent for 
what we call Brazil, and sometimes came to 
stand alone as an equivalent for what we call 
South America, but still signified only a part of 
the dry land bej'ond the Atlantic to which 
Columbus had led the way. . . . This wider 
meaning [of South America] became all the 
more firmly established as its narrower meaning 
was usurped by the name Brazil. Three cen- 
turies before the time of Columbus the red 
dye-wood called brazil-wood was an article of 
commerce, under that same name, in Italy and 
Spain. It was one of the valuable things 
brought from the East, and when the Portu- 
guese found the same dye-wood abundant in 
those tropical forests that had seemed so beauti- 
ful to Vespucius, the name Brazil soon became 
fastened upon the country and helped to set 
free the name America from its local associa- 
tions." When, in time, and by slow degrees, 
the great fact was learned, that all the lands 
found beyond the Atlantic by Columbus and 
his successors, formed part of one continental 
system, and were all to be embraced in the con- 
ception of a New World, the name which had 
become synonymous with New World was then 
naturally- extended to the whole. The evolu- 
tionary process of the naming of the western 
hemisphere as a whole was thus made complete 
in 1541, by ilercator, who spread the name 
America in large letters upon a globe which he 
constructed that year, so that part of it appeared 
upon the northern and part upon the southern 
continent. — J. Fiske, Tlie Diacocery of America, 
eh. 7 (r. 2). 

Also is : W. B. Scaife, America : Its Geograph- 
ical History, sect. 4. — R. H. Major, •//(/« of 
Prince Henry of Portugal, ch. 19. — J. Winsor, 
Narrative and Critical Hist, of Am., v. 3, ch. 2, 
notea.—R. H. Bancroft, Hist, of the Pacific States, 
e. 1, pp. 99-112, and 123-125. 

A. D. 1501-1504. — Portuguese, Norman and 
Breton fishermen on the Newfoundland Banks. 
See Newfocndlaa'd ; A. D. 1501-157S. 


A. D. 1502.— The Second Voyage of Ojeda. 

— The first voyage of Alonzo de Ojeda, from 
which he returned to Spain in June 1500, was 
profitable to nothing but his reputation as a bold 
and enterprising explorer. By way of reward, 
he was given "a grant of land in Hispaniola, 
and likewise the government of Coquibacoa, 
which place he had discovered [and which he had 
called Venezuela]. He was authorized to fit out a 
number of ships at his own expense and to pros- 
ecute discoveries on the coast of Terra Firma. 
. . . With four vessels, Ojeda set sail for the 
Canaries, in 1.502, and thence proceeded to the 
Gulf of Paria, from which locality he found his 
way to Coquibacoa. Not liking this poor 
country, he sailed on to the Bay of Honda, 
where he determined to found his settlement, 
which was, however, destined to be of short 
duration. Provisions very soon became scarce ; 
and one of his partners, who had been sent to 
procure supplies from Jamaica, failed to return 
until Ojeda's followers were almost in a state of 
mutiny. The result was that the whole colony 
set sail for Hispaniola, taking the governor with 
them in chains. All that Ojeda gained by his 
expedition was that he at length came off winner 
in a lawsuit, the costs of which, however, left 
him a ruined man." — R. G. Watson, Spanish and 
Portuguese S. Am., bk. 1, ch. 1. 

A. D. 1503-1504. — The Fourth Voyage of 
Americus Vespucius. — First Settlement in 
Brazil. — In June, 1503, "Amerigo sailed again 
from Lisbon, with six ships. The object of this 
voyage was to discover a certain island called 
ilelcha, which was supposed to lie west of Cali- 
cut, and to be as famous a mart in the commerce 
of the Indian world as Cadiz was in Europe. 
They made the Cape de Verds, and then, con- 
trary to the judgment of Vespucci and of all the 
fleet, the Commander persisted in standing for 
Serra Leoa." The Commander's ship was lost, 
and Vespucci, with one vessel, only, reached the 
coast of the New World, finding a port which 
is thought to have been Bahia. Here "they 
waited above two months in vain expectation of 
being joined b}- the rest of the squadron. Having 
lost all hope of this they coasted on for 260 
leagues to the Southward, and there took port 
again in 18° S. 35° W. of the meridian of Lis- 
bon. Here they remained five months, upon 
good terms with the natives, with whom some 
of the party penetrated forty leagues into the 
interior; and here they erected a fort, in which 
they left 24 men who had been saved from the 
Commander's ship. They gave them 13 guns, 
besides other arms, and provisions for six 
months; then loaded with brazil [wood], sailed 
homeward and returned in safety. . . . The 
honour, therefore, of having formed the first 
settlement in this country is due to Amerigo 
Vespucci. It does not appear that any further 
attention was as this time paid to it. . . . But 
the cargo of brazil which Vespucci had brought 
home tempted private adventurers, who were 
content with peaceful gains, to trade thither for 
that valuable wood; and this trade became so 
well known, that in consequence the coast and 
the whole country obtained the name of Brazil, 
notwithstanding the holier appellation [Santa 
Cruz] which Cabral had given it." — R. Southey, 
Hist, of Brazil, t. 1. ch. 1. 

A. D. 1509-1511. — The Expeditions of 
Ojeda and Nicuesa to the Isthmus. — The Set- 

AMERICA, 1509-1511. 

Settlement at 

AMERICA, 1509-1511. 

tiement at Darien. — "For several fears after 
his ruiaous, though successful lawsuit, we lose 
all traces of Alonzo de Ojeda, excepting that we 
are told he made another voyage to Coquibacoa 
[Venezuela], in 1505. No record remains of this 
expedition, which seems to have been equally 
unprofitable with the preceding, for we find 
him, in 1508, In the island of Hispaniola as poor 
In purse, though as proud in spirit, as ever. . . . 
About this time the cupidity of King Ferdinand 
■was greatly excited by the accounts by Colum- 
bus of the gold mines of Veragua, in which the 
admiral fancied he had discovered the Aurea 
Chersonesus of the ancients, whence King Solo- 
mon procured the gold used in building the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem. Subsequent voyagers had 
corroborated the opinion of Columbus as to the 
general riches of the coast of Terra Firma; King 
Ferdinand resolved, therefore, to found regular 
colonies along that coast, and to place the whole 
under some capable commander." Ojeda was 
recommended for this post, but found a competi- 
tor in one of the gentlemen of the Spanish court, 
Diego de Nicuesa. "King Ferdinand avoided 
the dilemma by favoring both ; not indeed by 
furnishing them with ships and money, but by 
granting patents and dignities, which cost noth- 
ing, and might bring rich returns. He divided 
that part of the continent which lies along the 
Isthmus of Darien into two provinces, the 
boundary line running through the Gulf of 
Uraba. The eastern part, extending to Cape de 
la Vela, was called New Andalusia, and the gov- 
ernment of it given to Ojeda. The other to the 
west [called Castilladel Oro], including Veragua, 
and reaching to Cape Gracias k Dios, was as- 
signed to Nicuesa. The island of Jamaica was 
given to the two governors in common, as a place 
whence to draw supplies of provisions." Slender 
means for the equipment of Ojeda's expedition 
were supplied by the veteran pilot, Juan de la 
Cosa, who accompanied him as his lieutenant. 
Nicuesa was more amply provided. The rival 
armaments arrived at San Domingo about the 
same time (in 1509). and much quarreling be- 
tween the two commanders ensued. Ojeda 
found a notary in San Domingo, Martin Fer- 
nandez de Enciso, who had money which he con- 
sented to invest in the enterprise, and who prom- 
ised to follow him with an additional ship-load of 
recruits and supplies. Under this arrangement 
Ojeda made ready to sail in advance of his com- 
petitor, embarking Nov. 10, 1509. Among those 
who sailed with him was Francisco Pizarro, the 
future conqueror of Peru. Ojeda, by his energ}-, 
gained time enough to nearly ruin his expedition 
before Nicuesa reached the scene; for, having 
landed at Carthagena, he made war upon the na- 
tives, pursued them rcclilessly into the interior of 
the country, witli 70 men, and was overwhelmed 
by the desperate savages, escaping witli only one 
companion from their poisoned arrows. His 
faithful friend, the pilot, Juan do la Cosa, was 
among the slain, and Ojeda himself, hiding in the 
forest, was ncarlj- dead of hunger and exposure 
when found and rescued by a searching party 
from his ships. At this juncture the fleet of Ni- 
cuesa made its appearance. Jealousies were for- 
gotten in a co.ninon rage against the natives and 
the two expeditions were joined in an attack on 
the Indian villages which spared nothing. Nicu- 
esa then proceeded to Veragua, while Ojeda 
founded a town, which he called San Sebastian, 

at the east end of the Gulf of Uraba. Incessantly 
harassed by the natives, terrified by the effects of 
the poison which these used in their warfare, and 
threatened with starvation by the rapid exhaustion 
of its supplies, the settlement lost courage and 
hope. Enciso and his promised ship were waited 
for in vain. At length there came a vessel which 
certain piratical adventurers at Hispaniola had 
stolen, and which brought some welcome pro- 
visions, eagerly bought at an exorbitant price. 
Ojeda, half recovered from a poisoned wound, 
which he had treated heroically with red-hot 
plates of iron, engaged the pirates to convey him 
to Hispaniola, for the procuring of supplies. 
The voyage was a disastrous one, resulting in 
shipwreck on tlie coast of Cuba and a month of 
desperate wandering in the morasses of the island. 
Ojeda survived all these perils and sufferings, 
made his way to Jamaica, and from Jamaica to 
San Domingo, found that his partner Enciso had 
sailed for the colony long before, with abundant 
supplies, but could learn nothing more. Nor 
could he obtain for himself any means of return- 
ing to San Sebastian, or of dispatching relief to 
the place. Sick, penniless and disheartened, he 
went into a convent and died. Meantime the 
despairing colonists at San Sebastian waited until 
death had made them few enough to be all taken 
on board of the two little brigantines which were 
left to them ; then they sailed away, Pizarro in 
command. One of the brigantines soon went 
down in a squall ; the other made its way to the 
harbor of Carthagena, where it found tlie tardy 
Enciso, searching for his colony. Enciso, under 
his commission, now took command, and insisted 
upon going to San Sebastian. There the old ex- 
periences were soon renewed, and even Enciso 
was ready to abandon the deadly place. The 
latter had brought with him a needy cavalier, 
Va.sco Nuiiez de Balboa — so needy that he 
smuggled himself on board Enciso's ship in a 
cask to escape his creditors. Vasco Nuiiez, who 
had coasted this region with Bastidas, in 1500, 
now advised a removal of the colony to Darien, 
on the opposite coast of the Gulf of Uraba. His 
advice, which was followed, proved good, and 
the hopes of the settlers were raised; butEnciso'a 
modes of government proved irksome to them. 
Then Bnlboa called attention to the fact that, 
when they crossed the Gulf of Uraba, they passed 
out of the territory covered by the patent to 
Ojeda, under which Enciso was commissioned, 
and into that granted to Nicuesa. On this sug- 
gestion Enciso was promptly deposed and two 
alcaldes were elected, Balboa being one. While 
events in one corner of Nicuesa's domain were 
thus establishing a colony for that ambitious gov- 
ernor, he himself, at the other extremity of it, 
was faring badly. He had suffered hardships, 
separation from most of his command and long 
abandoiiincnt on a desolate coast; had rejoined 
his followers after great suffering, only to suffer 
j-et more in their company, until less than one 
hundred remained of the 700 who sailed with 
him a few months before. The settlement at 
Veragua had been deserted, and another, named 
Nombre de Dios undertaken, with no improve- 
ment of circumstances. In this situation he was 
rejoiced, at last, by the arrival of one of his lieu- 
tenants, Rodrigo de Colmenares. who came with 
supplies. Colmenares brought tidings, moreover, 
of the prosperous colony at Darien, which he had 
discovered on his way, with an invitation to 


AMERICA, 1509-1511. 

Discovery of 
the Pacific. 

AMERICA, 151S-1517. 

Nicuesa to come and assume the government of it. 
lie accepted the invitation with delight; but, 
alas! the community at Daricn had riipented of 
it before he reached them, and tlicy refused 
to receive him when he arrived. Permitted finally 
to land, he was seized by a treacherous party 
among the colonists — to whom Balboa is said 
to have opposed all the resistance iuhis power — 
was put on board of an old and crazy brigautine, 
with seventeen of his friends, and compelled to 
take an oath that he would sail straight to Spain. 
"The frail bark set sail on the first of March, 
1511, and steered across the Caribbean Sea for the 
island of Hispaniola, but was never seen or heard 
of more." — W. Irving, ii/e and Voyages of Colum- 
hus and Ms Covipanions, v. 3. 

Also in H. H. Bancroft, Hist, of the Pacific 
States, V 1, ch. 6. 

A. D. 1511. — Tha Spanish conquest and oc- 
cupation of Cuba. See Cuba: A. D. 15U. 

A. D. 1512. — The Voyage of Ponce de Leon 
•n quest of the Fountain of Youth, and his 
Discovery of Florida. — "Whatever may have 
been the Southernmost point reached by Cabot 
in coasting America on his return, it is certain 
that he did not land in Florida, and that the 
honour of first exploring that country is due to 
Juan Ponce de Leon. This cavalier, who was 
govern or of Puerto Rico, induced by the vague 
traditions circulated by the natives of the West 
Indies, that there was a country in the north 
possessing a fountain whose waters restored tlie 
aged to youth, made it an object of his ambition 
to be the first to discover this marvellous region. 
With this view, he resigned the governorship, 
and set sail with three caravels on the 3d of 
March 1512. Steering N. J N., he came upon a 
country covered with flowers and verdure; and 
as the day of his discovery happened to be 
Palm Sunday, called by the Spaniards ' Pasqua 
Florida,' he gave it the name of Florida from this 
circumstance. He landed on the 2d of April, and 
took possession of the country in the name of 
the king of Castile. The warlike people of the 
coast of Cautio (a name given by the Indians to 
all the country lying between Cape Canaveral 
and the southern point of Florida) soon, how- 
ever, compelled him to retreat, and he pursued 
his exploration of the coast as far as 30^ 8' north 
latitude, and on the 8th of Jlay doubled Cape 
Canaveral. Then retracing his course to Puerto 
Rico, in the hope of finding the island of Bimini, 
which he believed to be the Land of Youth, and 
described by the Indians as opposite to Florida, 
he discovered the Bahamas, and some other 
islands, previously unknown. Bad weather com- 
pelling him to put into the isle of Guanima to 
repair damages, he despatched one of his cara- 
vels, under the orders of Jaun Perez de Ortubia 
and of the pilot Anton de Alaminos, to gain in- 
formation respecting the desired land, which he 
had as )-et been totally unable to discover. He 
returned to Puerto Rico on the 21st of Septem- 
ber; a few days afterwards, Ortubia arrived also 
with news of Bimini. He reported that ho had 
explored the island, — which he described as 
large, well wooded, and watered by numerous 
streams, — but he had failed in discovering the 
fountain. Oviedo places Bimini at 40 leagues 
west of the island of Bahama. Thus all the ad- 
vantages which Ponce de Leon promised himself 
from this voyage turned to the profit of geogra- 
phy : the title of ' Adelantado of Bimini and 

Florida,' which was conferred upon him, vr&i 
purely honorary ; but the route taken by him in 
order to return to Puerto Rico, showed the advan- 
tage of making the homeward voyage to Spain by 
the Bahama Channel." — W. B. Rye, Jutrod. to 
" DiscoTti-y and Coiuj'Mst of Terra Florida, by a 
gentleman of Elvas" (Hakluyt Soc., 1851). 

Also IN G. R. Fairbanks, Hist, of Florida, ch. 1. 

A. D. 1513-1517.— The discovery of the 
Pacific by Vasco NuBez de Balboa. — Pedra- 
rias Davila on the Isthmus. — With Enciso de- 
posed from authority and Kicuesa sent adrift, 
Vasco Nunez de Balboa seems to have easily 
held the lead in affairs at Darien, though not 
without much opposition ; for faction and turbu- 
lence were rife. Enciso was permitted to carry 
his grievances and complaints to Spain, but Bal- 
boa's colleague, Zamudio, went with him, and 
another comrade proceeded to Hispaniola, both 
of them well-furnished with gold. For the quest 
of gold had succeeded at last. The Darien ad- 
venturers had found considerable quantities in 
the possession of the surrounding natives, and 
were gathering it with greedy hands. Balboa 
had the prudence to establish friendly relations 
with one of the most important of the neigh- 
boring caciques, whose comely daughter he wed- 
ded — according to the easy customs of the 
country — and whose ally he became in wars with 
the other caciques. By gift and tribute, therefore 
as well as by plunder, he harvested more gold 
than any before him had found since the ransack- 
ing of the New World began. But what they 
obtained seemed little compared with the treas- 
ures reported to them as existing beyond the 
near mountains and toward the south. One In- 
dian youth, son of a friendly cacique, particu- 
larly excited their imaginations by the tale which 
he told of another great sea, not far to the west,- 
on the southward-stretching shores of which 
were countries that teemed with every kind of 
wealth. He told them, however, that they would 
need a thousand men to fight their way to this 
Sea. Balboa gave such credence to the story 
that he sent envoys to Spain to solicit forces from 
the king for an adequate expedition across the 
mountains. They sailed in October, 1512, but 
did not arrive in Spain until the following May. 
They found Balboa in much disfavor at the court. 
Enciso and the friends of the unfortunate Nic- 
uesa had unitedly ruined him by their complaints, 
and the king had caused criminal proceedings 
against him to be commenced. Meantime, some 
inkling of these hostilities had reached Balboa, 
himself, conveyed by a vessel which bore to him, 
at the same time, a commission as captain-gen- 
eral from the authorities in Hispaniola. He now 
resolved to become the discoverer of the ocean 
which his Indian friends described, and of the 
rich lands bordering it, before his enemies could 
interfere with him. ' ' Accordingly, early in Sep- 
tember, 1513, he set out on his renowned expe- 
dition for finding 'the other sea,' accompanied 
by 190 men well armed, and by dogs, which were 
of more avail than men, and by Indian slaves 
to carry the burdens. He went by sea to the ter- 
ritory of his father-in-law. King Careta, by whom 
he was well received, and accompanied by whose 
Indians he moved on into Poncha's territory." 
Quieting the fears of this cacique, he passed his 
country without fighting. The next chief encoun- 
tered, named Quarequa, attempted resistance, 
but was routed, with a great slaughter of his 


AMERICA, 1513-1517. 

Finding of 

AMERICA, 1517-1518. 

people, and Balboa pushed on. "On the 25th 
of September, 1513, he came near to the top of a 
mountain from whence the South Sea was visi- 
ble. The distance from Poncha's chief town to 
this point was forty leagues, reckoned then six 
days' journey; but Vasco Nunez and his men 
took twenty-five days to accomplish it, as they 
suffered much from the roughness of the ways 
and from the want of provisions. A little before 
Vasco Nufiez reached the height, Quarequa's In- 
'dians informed him of his near approach to the 
sea. It was a sight in beholding which, for the 
first time, any man would wish to be alone. 
Vasco Nunez bade his men sit down while he 
ascended, and then, in solitude, looked down 
upon the vast Pacific — the first man of the Old 
World, so far as we know, who had done so. 
Falling on his knees, he gave thanks to God for 
the favour shown to him in hi^ being permitted 
to discover the Sea of the South. Then with his 
hand be beckoned to his men to come up. When 
they had come, both he and they knelt down and 
poured forth their thanks to God. He then ad- 
dressed them. . . . Having . . . addressed his 
men, Vasco Nunez proceeded to take formal 
possession, on behalf of the kings of Castile, of 
the sea and of all that was in it ; and in order to 
make memorials of the event, he cut down trees, 
formed crosses, and heaped up stones. He also 
inscribed the names of the monarchs of Castile 
upon great trees in the vicinity." Afterwards, 
when he had descended the western slope and 
found the shore, " he entered the sea up to his 
thighs, having his sword on, and with his shield 
in his hand ; then he called the by-standers to 
witness how he touched with his person and took 
possession of this sea for the kings of Castile, and 
declared that he would defend the possession of 
it against all comers. After this, Vasco Nunez 
made friends in the usual manner, first conquer- 
ing and then negotiating with " the several chiefs 
or caciques whose territories came in his way. 
He explored the Gulf of San Miguel, finding 
much wealth of pearls in the region, and re- 
turned to Darien by a route which crossed the 
isthmus considerably farther to the north, reach- 
ing his colony on the 29th of January, 1514, hav- 
ing been absent nearly five months. "His men 
at Darien received him with exultation, and he 
lost no time in sending his news, ' such signal 
and new news," ... to the King of Spain, ac- 
companying it with rich presents. His letter, 
which gave a detailed account of his journey, 
and which, for its length, was compared by 
Peter Martyr to the celebrated letter that came 
to the senate from Tiberius, contained in every 
page thanks to God that he had escaped from 
such great dangers and labours. Both the letter 
and the presents were intrusted to a man named 
Arbolanche, who departed from Darien about the 
beginning of March, 1514. . . . Vasco Nunez's 
messenger, Arbolanche, reached the court of 
Spain too late for his master's interests." The 
latter had already been superseded in the Gov- 
ernorship, and his successor was on the way to 
take his authority from him. The new gover- 
nor was one Pedrarias De Avila, or Davila, as 
the name is sometimes written ; — an envious and 
malignant old man, under whose rule on the 
isthmus the destructive energy of Spanish con- 
quest rose to its meanest and most heartless and 
brainless development. Conspicuously exposed 
as he was to the jealousy and hatred of Pedra- 

rias, Vasco Nuiiez was probably doomed to ruin, 
in some form, from the first. At one time, in 
1516, there seemed to be a promise for him of 
alliance with his all-powerful enemy, by a mar- 
riage with one of the governor's daughters, and 
he received the command of an expedition which 
again crossed the isthmus, carrying ships, and 
began the exploration of the Pacitic. But cir- 
cumstances soon arose which gave Pedrarias ar 
opportunity to accuse the explorer of treasonable 
designs and to accomplish his arrest — Francisco 
Pizarro being the officer fitly charged with the 
execution of the governor's warrant. Brought 
in chains to Ada, Vasco Nunez was summanly 
tried, found guilty and led forth to swift deatli, 
laying his head upon the block (A. D. 1517). 
"Thus perished Vasco Nunez de Balboa, in the 
forty-second year of his age, the man who, since 
the time of Columbus, had shown the most states- 
manlike and warriorlike powers in that part of 
the world, but whose career only too much re- 
sembles that of Ojeda, Nicuesa, and the other im- 
fortunate commanders who devastated those 
beautiful regions of the earth." — Sir A, Helps, 
Spanish Conquest in Am., bk. 6 (». 1). — "If I 
have applied strong terms of denunciation to 
Pedrarias Davila, it is because he unquestionably 
deserves it. He is by far the worst man who 
came officially to the New World during its 
early government. In this all authorities agree. 
And all agree that Vasco Nunez was not deserv- 
ing of death." — 11. H. Bancroft, Hist, of tlie Paci- 
fic States, V. 1, ch. 8-13 (foot-mte, p. 458). 

Also in W. Irving, Life and Voyages of Col- 
limbus and his Companions, v. 3. 

A. D. 1515. — Discovery of La Plata by 
Juan de Solis. See Paraguay: A. D. 1515- 

A. D. 1517-1518.— The Spaniards find 
Mexico. — "An hidalgo of Cuba, named Her- 
nandez de Cordova, sailed with three vessels on 
an expedition to one of the neighbouring 
Bahama Islands, in quest of Indian slaves (Feb. 
8, 1517). He encountered a succession of heavy 
gales which drove him far out of his course, and 
at the end of three weeks he found himself on a 
strange and unknown coast. On landing and 
asking the name of the country, he was answered 
by the natives 'Tectelan,' meaning 'I do not 
understand you,' but which the Spaniards, mis- 
interpreting into the name of the place, easily 
corrupted into Yucatan. Some writers give a 
diHerent etymology. . . . Bernal Diaz says the 
word came from the vegetable ' yuca ' and ' tale,' 
the name for a hillock in which it is planted. 
. . . M. Waldcck finds a much more plausible 
derivation in tlie Indian word ' Ouyouckatan,' 
'listen to what they say.'. . . Cordova had 
landed on the north-eastern end of the peninsula, 
at Cape Catoche. He was astonished at the size 
and solid materials of the buildings constructed 
of stone and lime, so different from the frail 
tenements of reeds and rushes which formed the 
habitations of the islanders. He was struck, 
also, with the higher cultivation of the soil, and 
with the delicate texture of the cotton garments 
and gold ornaments of the natives. Everything 
indicated a civilization far superior to anything 
he had before witnessed in the New World. He 
saw the evidence of a different race, moreover, 
in the warlike spirit of the people. . . . Where- 
ever they landed they were met with the most 
deadly hostility. Cordova himself, in one of his 


A3IERICA, 1517-1518. 

Voyage of 

A3IERICA, 1519-1534 

skirmishes with the Indians, received more than 
a dozen wounds, and one only of his party 
escaped unhurt. At length, when he had 
coasted the peninsula as far as Canipeacliy, he 
returned to Cuba, which he reached after an 
absence of several months. . . . The reports he 
Jiad brought back of the country, and, still more, 
the specimens of curiously wrought gold, con- 
vinced Velasquez [governor of Cuba] of the im- 
portance of this discovery, and he prepared 
with all despatch to avail himself of it. He 
accordingly fitted out a little squadron of four 
vessels for the newly discovered lands, and 
placed it under the command of his nephew, 
Juan de Grijalva, a man on whose probity, 
prudence, and attachment to himself he knew 
he could rely. The fleet left the port of St. Jago 
de Cuba, May 1, 1518. . . . Grijalva soon 
passed over to the continent and coasted the 
peninsula, touching at the same places as his 
predecessor. Everywhere he was struck, like 
him, with the evidences of a higher civilization, 
especially in the architecture ; as he well might 
be, since this was the region of those extraordi- 
nary remains which have become recently the 
subject of so much speculation. He was aston- 
ished, also, a:t the sight of large stone crosses, 
evidently objects of worship, which he met with 
in various places. Reminded by these circum- 
stances of his own country, he gave the penin- 
sula the name New Spain, a name since ap- 
propriated to a much wider e.xteut of territory. 
Wherever Grijalva landed, he experienced the 
same unfriendly reception as Cordova, though 
he suffered less, being better prepared to meet 
it." He succeeded, however, at last, in opening 
a friendly conference and trafBc with one of the 
chiefs, on the Rio de Tabasco, and "had tlie 
satisfaction of receiving, for a few worthless 
toys and trinkets, a rich treasure of jewels, gold 
ornaments and vessels, of the most fantastic 
forms and workmanship. Grijalva now thouglit 
that in this successful traffic — successful beyond 
his most sanguine expectations — he had accom- 
plished the chief object of his mission." He 
therefore dispatched Alvarado, one of his cap- 
tains, to Velasquez, with the treasure acquired, 
and continued his voyage along the coast, as far 
as the province of Panuco, returning to Cuba at 
the end of about six months from his departure. 
" On reaching the Island, he was surprised to 
learn that another and more formidable arma- 
ment had been fitted out to follow up his own 
discoveries, and to find orders at the same time 
from the governor, couched in no very courteous 
language, to repair at once to St. Jago. He was 
received by that personage, not merely with cold- 
ness, but with reproaches, for having neglected 
so fair an opportunity of establishing a colony in 
the country he had visited." — W. H. Prescott, 
Conquest of Mexico, bk. 3, ch. 1. 

Also in : C. St. J. Fancourt, Hist, of Yucatan, 
ch. 1-2. — Bernal Diaz del Castillo, Memoirs, v. 1, 
ch. a-19. 

A. D. 1519-1524. — The Spanish Conquest of 
Mexico. See Mexico: A. D. t.519-1.524. 

A. D. 1519-1524.— The Voyage of Magellan 
and Sebastian del Cano. — The New World 
passed and the Earth circumnavigated. — The 
Congress at Badajos. — Fernando Magellan, or 
Magalhaes, was "a disaffected Portuguese gen- 
tleman who had served his country for five years 
in the Indies under Albuquerque, and understood 

well the secrets of the Eastern trade. In 1517, 
conjointly with his geographical and astronomi- 
cal friend, Ruy Falerio, another unrequited Por- 
tuguese, he offered his services to the Spanish 
court. At the same time these two friends pro- 
posed, not only to prove that the Moluccas were 
within the Spanish lines of demarkation, but to 
discover a passage thither different from that 
used by the Portuguese. Their schemes were 
listened to, adopted and carried out. The Straits 
of Magellan were discovered, the broad Soutu 
Sea was crossed, the Ladrones and the Phil- 
lipines were inspected, the Moluccas were passed 
through, the Cape of Good Hope was doublcl 
on the homeward voyage, and the globe was 
circumnavigated, all in less than three years, 
from 1519 to 1522. Magellan lost his life, and 
only one of his five ships returned [under Sebas- 
tian del Cano] to tell the marvelous story. The 
magnitude of the enterprise was equalled only 
by the magnitude of the results. The giobe for 
the first time began to assume its true character 
and size in the minds of men, and the minds of 
men began soon to grasp and utilize the results 
of this circumnavigation for the enlargement of 
trade and commerce, and for the benefit of geog- 
raphy, astronomy, mathematics, and the other 
sciences. This wonderful story, is it not told in 
a thousand books 1 . . . The Portuguese in India 
and the Spiceries, as well as at home, now seeing 
the inevitable conflict approaching, were thor- 
oughly aroused to the importance of maintaining 
their rights. They openly asserted them, and 
pronounced this trade with the Moluccas by the 
Spanish an encroachment on their prior discov- 
eries and possession, as well as a violation of the 
Papal Compact of 1494, and prepared themselves 
energetically for defense and offense. On the 
other hand, the Spaniards as openly declared 
that Magellan's fleet carried the first Christians 
to the Moluccas and by friendly intercourse with 
the kings of those islands, reduced them to Chris- 
tian subjection and brought back letters and 
tribute to Caesar. Hence these kings and their 
people came under the protection of Charles V. 
Besides this, the Spaniards claimed that the 
Moluccas were within the Spanish half, and were 
therefore doubl}' theirs. . . . Matters thus wax- 
ing hot. King John of Portugal begged Charles 
V. to delay dispatching his new fleet until the 
di.^puted points could be discussed and settled. 
Charles, who boasted that he had rather be right 
than rich, consented, and the ships were staid. 
These two Christian princes, who owned aU the 
newly discovered and to be discovered parts of 
the whole world between them by deed of gift 
of the Pope, agreed to meet in Congress at 
Badajos by their representatives, to discuss and 
settle all matters in dispute about the division of 
their patrimony, and to define and stJike out 
their lands and waters, both parties agreeing to 
abide by the decision of the Congress. Accord- 
ingly, in the early spring of 1524, up went to 
this little border town four-and-twenty ■wise 
men, or thereabouts, chosen by each prince. 
They comprised the first judges, lawyers, mathe- 
maticians, astronomers, cosmographers, naviga- 
tors and pilots of the land, among whose names 
were many honored now as then — such as Fer- 
nando Columbus, Sebastian Cabot, Estevan 
Gomez, Diego Ribero, etc. . . . The debates and 
proceedings of this Congress, as reported by Peter 
Martyr, viedo, and Gomara, are very amusing. 


AMERICA, 1519-1524. 

Voyages of 

AMERICA, 1528-1524 

but no regular joint decision could be reached, 
the Portuguese declining to subscribe to the ver- 
dict of the S*p!iniards, Inasmuch as it deprived 
them of tlie Moluccas. So each party publlslied 
and proclaimed its own decision after the Con- 
gress broke up in confusion on the last day of 
Slay, 1524. It was. however, tacitly understood 
that the Moluccas fell to Spain, while Brazil, to 
the extent of two hundred leagues from Cape 
St. Augustine, fell to the Portuguese. . . . 
However, much good resulted from this first 
geographical Congress. The extent and breadth 
of the Pacific were appreciated, and the influence 
of the Congress was soon after seen lu the greatly 
improved maps, globes, and charts." — H. Ste- 
vens, Hist, and Geog. Notes, 1453-1530.— " For 
three months and twenty days he [Magellan] 
Bailed on the Pacific and never saw inhabited 
land. He was compelled by famine to strip off 
the pieces of skin and leather wherewith his 
riggmg was here and there bound, to soak them 
in the sea and then soften them with warm 
water, so as to make a wretched food ; to eat the 
sweepings of the ship and other loathsome mat- 
ter; to drink water gone putrid by keeping; and 
yet he resolutely held on his course, though his 
men were dying daily. ... In the whole his- 
tory of human undertakings there is nothing that 
exceeds, if indeed there is anything that equals, 
this voyage of Magellan's. That of Columbus 
dwindles away in comparison. It is a display of 
superhuman courage, superhuman persever- 
ance." — J. W. Draper, Hist, of the Tntellectunl 
Development of Europe, ch. 19. — "The voyage [of 
Magellan] . . . was doubtless the greatest feat 
of navigation that has ever been performed, and 
nothing can be imagined that would surpass 
it except a journey to some other planet. It has 
not the unique historic position of the first voy- 
age of Columbus, which brought together two 
streams of human life that had been disjoined 
since the Glacial Period. But as an achieve- 
ment in ocean navigation that voyage of Colum- 
bus sinks into insignificance by the side of it, 
and when the earth was a second time encom- 
passed by the greatest English sailor of his age, 
the advance in knowledge, as well as the diflEcr- 
ent route chosen, had much reduced the diffi- 
culty of the performance. When we consider 
the frailness of the ships, the immeasurable ex- 
tent of the unknown, the mutinies that were 
prevented or quelled, and the hardships that 
were endured, we can have no hesitation in 
speaking of Magellan as the prince of naviga- 
tors." — J. Fiske, The Discovery of America, ch. 7 
(V. 2). 

Also in Lord Stanley of Alderley, TJui First 
Voyage round tlie World (Hakluyt Soc, 1874). — 
R. Kerr, Collection of Voy/igcs, v. 10. 

A. D. 1519-1525.— The Voyages of Garay 
and Ayllon. — Discovery of the mouth of the 
Mississippi. — Exploration of the Carolina 
Coast.— In 1519, Francisco de Garay, governor 
of Jamaica, who had been one of the companions 
of Columbus on his second voyage, having 
heard of the richness and beauty of Yucatan, 
"at his own charge sent out four ships well 
equipped, and with good pilots, under the com- 
mand of Alvarez Alonso de Pineda. His pro- 
fessed object was to search for some strait, west 
of Florida, which was not yet certainly known 
to form a part of the continent. The strait 
having been sought for in vain, his ships turned 

toward the west, attentively examining the 
ports, rivers. Inhabitants, and everything else 
that seemed worthy of remark ; and especially 
noticing the vast volume of water brought down 
by one very large stream. At last they came 
upon the track of Cortes near Vera Cruz. . . . 
The carefully drawn map of the pilots showed 
distinctly the Mississippi, which, in this earliest 
authentic trace of its outlet, bears the name of 
the Espiritu Santo. . . . But Garay thought not 
of the Mississippi and Its valley: ho coveted 
access to the wealth of Mexico; and, in 1523, 
lost fortune and life Ingloriously in a dispute 
with Cortes for the government of the country 
on the river Panuco. A voyage for slaves 
brought the Spaniards in 1520 still farther to the 
north. A company of seven, of whom the most 
distinguished was Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, 
fitted out two slave ships from St. Domingo, in 
quest of laborers for their plantations and mines. 
From the Bahama Islands they passed to the coast 
of South Carolina, which was called Chicora. 
The Combahee river received the name of 
Jordan; the name of St. Helena, whose day is 
the 18th of August, was given to a cape, but 
now belongs to the sound." Luring a large 
number of ithe confiding natives on board their 
ships the adventurers treacherously set sail with 
them ; but one of the vessels foundered at sea, 
and most of the captives on the other sickened 
and died. Vasquez de Ayllon was rewarded for 
his treacherous exploit by being authorized and 
appointed to make the conquest of Chicora. 
" For this bolder enterprise the undertakei' 
wasted his fortune in preparations; in 1525 his 
largest ship was stranded in the river Jordan; 
many of his men were killed by the natives; and 
he himself escaped only to suffer from the con- 
sciousness of having done nothing worthy of 
honor. Yet it may be that ships, sailing under 
his authority, made the discovery of the Chesa- 
peake and named it the bay of St. Mary; and 
perhaps even entered the bay of Delaware, which, 
m Spanish geography, was called St. Christo- 
pher's."— G. Bancroft, Hist, of th-e U. S., pt. 1, 
cJi. 2. 

Also in H. H. Bancroft, Hist, of the Pacific 
States, V. 4, ch. 11, and v. 5, ch. 6-7.— W. Q. 
Simms, Hist.of S. Carolina, bk. 1, ch. 1. 

A. D. 1523-1524. — The Voyages of Verra- 
zano. — First undertakings of France in the 
New World. — " Itis constantly admitted incur 
history that our kings paid no attention to Amer- 
ica before the year 1523. Then Francis I., wish- 
ing to excite the emulation of his subjects in 
regard to navigation and commerce, as he had 
already so successfully in regard to the sciences 
and fine arts, ordered John Verazani, who was in 
his service, to go and explore the New Lands, 
which began to be much talked of in France. 
. . . Verazani was accordingly sent, in 1523, with 
four ships to discover North America ; but our 
historians have not spoken of his first expedition, 
and we should be in ignorance of It now, had 
not Ramusio preserved In his great collection a 
letter of Verazani himself, addressed to Francis I. 
and dated Dieppe, July 8, 1524. In it he sup- 
poses the king already informed of the success 
and details of the voyage, so that he contents 
himself with stating that he sailed from Dieppe 
In four vessels, which he had safely brought back 
to that port. In January, 1524, he sailed with 
two ships, the Dauphine and the Normande, to 


AMERICA, 1523-1524. 

Dticovery of 

AMERICA, 1524^1528. 

eruise against the Spaniards. Towards the close 
of the same year, or early in the next, he again 
fitted out the Dauphinc, on which, embarltiug 
with 50 men and provisions for eight months, ho 
first sailed to the island of Madeira." — Father 
Charlevoix, Hut. of New Jf^ance (trans, by J. O. 
Sfiea), bk. 1.— " On the 17th of January, 1524, he 
[Verrazano] parted from the 'Islas desiertas.'a 
well-known little group of islands near Madeira, 
and sailed at first westward, running in 25 days 
500 leagues, with a light and pleasant easterly 
breeze, along the northern border of the trade 
winds, in about 80° N. His track was conse- 
quently nearly like that of Columbus on his first 
voyage. On the 14th of February ho met ' with 
as violent a hurricane as any ship ever en- 
countered.' But he weathered it, and pursued 
his voyage to the west, ' with a little deviation 
to the north ;' when, after having sailed 24 days 
and 400 leagues, he descried a new country which, 
as he supposed, had never before been seen 
either by modern or ancient navigators. The 
country was very low. From the above des- 
cription it is evident that Verrazano came in 
sight of the east coast of the United States about 
the 10th of March, 1524. He places his land-fall 
in 34° N., which is the latitude of Cape Fear." 
He first sailed southward, for about 50 leagues, 
he states, looking for a harbor and finding none. 
He then turned northward. "I infer that Verra- 
zano saw little of the coast of South Carolina 
and nothing of that of Georgia, and that in these 
regions he can, at most, be called the discoverer 
only of the coast of North Carolina. ... He 
rounded Cape Hatteras, and at a distance of about 
50 leagues came to another shore, where he an- 
chored and spent several days. . . . This was 
the second principal landing-place of Verrazano. 
If we reckon 50 leagues from Cape Hatteras, it 
would fall somewhere upon the cast coast of Del- 
aware, in latitude 88° N., where, by some 
authors, it is thought to have been. But if, as 
appears most likely, Verrazano reckoned his dis- 
tance here, as he did in other cases, from his last 
anchoring, and not from Cape Hatteras, we must 
look lor his second landing somewhere south of 
the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, and near the en- 
trance to Albemarle Sound. And this better 
agrees with the 'sail of 100 leagues ' which Ver- 
razano says he made from his second to his third 
landing-place, in New York Bay. . . . He found 
at this third landing station an excellent berth, 
where he came to anchor, well-protected from 
the winds, . . . and from which he ascended 
the river in his boat into the interior. He found 
the shores very thickly settled, and as he passed 
up half a league further, he discovered a most 
beautiful lake ... of three leagues in circum- 
ference. Here, more than 80 canoes came to him 
with a multitude of people, who seemed very 
friendly. . . . This description contains several 
accounts which make it still more clear that the 
Bay of New York was the scene of these occur- 
rences."— Verrazano's anchorage having been at 
Gravesend Bay, the river which he entered being 
the Narrows, and the lake he found being the 
Inner Harbor. From New York Bay Verrazano 
sailed eastward, along the southern shore of 
Long Island, and following the New England 
coast, touching at or describing points which are 
Identified with Narragansett Bay and Newport, 
Block Island or Martha's Vineyard, and Ports- 
mouth. His coasting voyage was pursued as far 

as 50° N., from which point he sailed homeward. 
" He entered the port of Dieppe early in July, 
1534. His whole exploring expedition, from 
Madeira and back, had accordingly lasted but 
five and a half months." — J. G. Kohl, Hist, of the 
Discovery of Maine (Me. Hist. 8oc. Coll. , id Series, 
V. 1), ch. 8. 

Also in G. Dexter, Cortereal, Verrazano, &c. 
(Narrative and Critical Hist, of Am., v. 4, ch. 1). 
— Relation of Verrazano (N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., 
V. 1, and N. S., v. 1). — J. C. Brevoort, Verrazano 
the Navigator. 

A. D. 1524-1528.— The Explorations of 
Pizarro and Discovery of Peru. — "The South 
Sea having been discovered, and the inhabitants 
of Tiirra Firme having been conquered and 
pacified, the Governor Pedrarlas de Avila 
founded and settled the cities of Panama and of 
Nata, and the town of Nombre de Dies. At this 
time the Captain Francisco Pizarro, son of the 
Captain Gonzalo Pizarro, a knight of the city of 
Truxillo, was living in the city of Panama; 
possessing his house, his farm and his Indians, 
as one of the principal people of the land, which 
indeed he always was, having distinguished him- 
self in the conquest and settling, and in the 
service of his Majesty. Being at rest and In re- 
pose, but full of zeal to continue his labours 
and to perform other more distinguished services 
for the royal crown, he sought permission from 
Pedrarlas to discover that coast of the South 
Sea to the eastward. He spent a large part of 
his fortune on a good ship which he built, and 
on necessary supplies for the voyage, and he set 
out from the city of Panama on the 14tli day of 
the month of November, in the year 1524. He 
had 112 Spaniards In his company, besides some 
Indian servants. He commenced a voyage In 
which they suffered many hardships, the season 
being winter and unpropltious." From this 
unsuccessful voyage, during which many of his 
men died of hunger and disease, and in the 
course of which he found no country that 
tempted his cupidity or his ambition, Pizarro re- 
turned after some months to "the land of 
Panama, landing at an Indian village near the 
Island of Pearls, called Chuchama. Thence he 
sent the ship to Panama, for she had become un- 
seaworthy by reason of the teredo; and all that 
had befallen was reported to Pedrarlas. while 
the Captain remained behind to refresh himself 
and his companions. When the ship arrived at 
Panama it was found that, a few days before, 
the Captain Diego de Almagro had sailed in 
search of the Captain Pizarro, his companion, 
with another ship and 70 men." Almagro and 
his party followed the coast until they came to 
a great river, which they called San Juan [a few 
miles north of the port of Buenaventura, in New 
Granada]. . . . They there found signs of gold, 
but there being no traces of the Captain Pizarro, 
the Captain Almagro returned to Chuchama, 
where he found his comrade. They agreed that 
the Captain Almagro should go to Panama, re- 
pair the ships, collect more men to continue the 
enterprise, and defray the expenses, which 
amounted to more than 10,000 castellanos. At 
Panama much obstruction was caused by 
Pedrarlas and others, who said that the voyage 
should not be persisted In, and that his Majesty 
wculd not be served by it. The Captain Alma- 
gro, with the authority given him by his com- 
rade, was very constant in prosecuting the work 


AJIERICA, 1524-1528. 

Cartier in the 
Si. Laiorence. 

AMERICA, 1534-1535. 

he had commenced, and . . . Pedrarias was 
forced to allow him to engage men. He set out 
from Panama with 110 men; and went to the 
place where Pizarro waited with another 50 of 
the first 110 who sailed with him, and of the 70 
who accompanied Almagro when he went in 
search. The other 130 were dead. The two 
captains, in their two ships, sailed with 160 men, 
and coasted along the land. When they thought 
they saw signs of habitations, they went on 
shore in three canoes they had with them, rowed 
by 60 men, and so they sought for provisions. 
They continued to sail in this way for three 
years, suffering great hardships from hunger 
and cold. The greater part of the crews died of 
hunger, insomuch that there were not 50 surviv- 
ing, and during all those three years they dis- 
covered no good land. All was swamp and in- 
undated country, without inhabitants. The 
good country they discovered was as far as the 
river San Juan, where the Captain Pizarro re- 
mained with the few survivors, sending a cap- 
tain with the smaller ship to discover some good 
land further along the coast. He sent the other 
ship, with the Captain Diego de Almagro to 
Panama to get more men." At the end of 70 
days, the exploring ship came back with good 
reports, and with specimens of gold, silver and 
cloths, found in a country further south. "As 
soon as the Captain Almagro arrived from 
Panama with a ship laden with men and horses, 
the two ships, with their commanders and all 
their people, set out from the river San Juan, to 
go to that newly-discovered land. But the 
navigation was difficult; they were detained so 
long that the provisions were exhausted, and the 
people were obliged to go on shore in search of 
supplies. The ships reached the bay of San 
Mateo, and some villages to which the Spaniards 
gave the name of Santiago. Next they came to 
the villages of Tacamez [Atacames, on the coast 
of modern Ecuador], on the sea coast further 
on. These villages were seen by the Christians 
to be large and well peopled: and when 90 
Spaniards had advanced a league beyond the 
villages of Tacamez, more than 10,000 Indian 
warriors encountered them ; but seeing that the 
Christians intended no evil, and did not wish to 
take their goods, but rather to treat them peace- 
fully, with much love, the Indians desisted from 
war. In this land there were abundant supplies, 
and the people led well-ordered lives, the vil- 
lages having their streets and squares. One 
village had more than 3,000 houses, and others 
were smaller. It seemed to the captains and to 
the other Spaniards that nothing could be done 
in that land by reason of the smallness of their 
numbers, which rendered them unable to cope 
with the Indians. So they agreed to load the 
ships with the supplies to be found in the 
villages, and to return to an island called Gallo, 
where tliey would be safe until the ships arrived 
at Panama with the news of what had been dis- 
covered, and to apply to the Governor for more 
men, in order that the Captains might be able to 
continue their undertaking, and conquer the 
land. Captain Almagro went in the ships. 
Many persons had written to the Governor 
entreating him to order the crews to return to • 
Panama, saying that it was impossible to endure 
more hardships than they had suffered during 
the last three years. The Governor ordered that 
all those who wished to go to Panama might do 

80, while those who desired to continue the dis- 
coveries were at liberty to remain. Sixteen men 
stayed with Pizarro, and all the rest went back 
in the ships to Panama. The Captain Pizarro 
was on that island for five months, when one of 
the ships returned, in which he continued the 
discoveries for a hundred leagues further down 
the coast. They found many villages and great 
riches; and they brought away more specimens 
of gold, silver, and cloths than had been found 
before, which were presented by the natives. 
The Captain returned because the time granted 
by the governor had expired, and the last day 
of the period had been reached when he entered 
the port of Panama. The two Captains were so 
ruined that they could no longer prosecute their 
undertaking. . . . The Captain Francisco Pizarro 
was only able to borrow a little more than 1,000 
castcUanos among his friends, with which sum 
he went to Castile, and gave an account to his 
Majesty of the great and signal services he had 
performed." — F. de Xeres (Sec. of Pizarro), Ac- 
eount of the Province of Cuzco ; tr. and ed. by 0. 
R. Markham {Hakluyt Soc, 1873). 

Also in : W. H. Prescott, Hist, of the Conquest 
of Peru, bk. 2, ch. 2^ (e. 1). 

A. D. 1525. — The Voyage of Gomez. See 
Can.\d.\ (New France) : The Najies. 

A. D. 1526-1531. — Voyage of Sebastian 
Cabot and attempted colonization of La Plata. 
See Paragu.w : A. D. 1.515-1.557, 

A. D. 1528-1542. — The Florida Expeditions 
of Narvaez and Hernando de Soto. — Discovery 
of the Mississippi. Sec Florida: A. D. 1538- 

A. D. 1531-1533. — Pizarro's Conquest of 
Peru. See Peru: A. D. 1528-1531, and 1531- 

A. D. 1533.— Spanish Conquest of the King- 
dom of Quito. See Ecl'.\dor. 

A. D. 1534-1535.— Exploration of the St. 
Lawrence to Montreal by Jacques Cartier. — 
"At last, ten years after [the voyages of Verra- 
zano], Philip Chabot, Admiral of France, induced 
the king [Francis I.] to resume the project of 
founding a French colony in the New World 
whence the Spaniards daily drew such great 
wealth ; and he presented to iiim a Captain of St. 
Malo, by name Jacques Cartier, whose merit he 
knew, and whom that prince accepted. Cartier 
having received his instructions, left St. Malo the 
2d of April, 1534, with two ships of 60 tons and 
122 men. He steered west, inclining slightly 
north, and had such fair winds that, on the 10th 
of May, he made Cape Bonavista, in Newfound- 
land, at 46° north. Cartier found the land there 
still covered with snow, and the shore fringed 
with ice, so that he could not or dared not stop. 
He ran down six degrees south-southeast, and 
entered a port to which he gave the name of St. 
Catharine. Thence he turned back north. . . . 
After making almost the circuit of Newfound- 
land, though without being able to satisfy him- 
self that it was an island, he took a southerly 
course, crossed the gulf, approached the conti- 
nent, and entered a very deep bay, where he 
suffered greatly from heat, whence he called 
it Chaleurs Bay. He was charmed with the 
beauty of the country, and well pleased with the 
Indians that he met and with whom he ex- 
changed some goods for furs. ... On leaving 
this bay, Cartier visited a good part of the coasts 
around the gulf, and took possession of the coun- 


AMERICA, 1534-1535. 


AJEERICA, 1541-1603. 

try in the name of the most Christian king, as 
Verazanl had done in all the places where he 
landed. He set sail again on the 15th of August 
to return to France, and reached St. Malo safely 
on the 5th of September. ... On the report 
■which he made of his voyage, the court con- 
cluded that it would be useful to France to have 
a settlement in that part of America ; but no one 
took this affair more to heart than the Vice- 
Admiral Charles de Mony, Sieur de la JIailleraye. 
This noble obtained a new commission for Car- 
tier, more ample than the first, and gave him 
three ships well equipped. This fleet was ready 
about the middle of ^lay, and Cartier . . . em- 
barked on AVednesday the 19th." His three 
vessels were separated by violent storms, but 
found one another, near the close of July, in the 
gulf which was their appointed place of rendez- 
vous. " On the 1st of August bad weather drove 
him to take refuge in the port of St. Nicholas, at 
the mouth of the river on the north. Here Car- 
tier planted a cross, with the arms of France, and 
remained until the 7th. This port is almost the 
only spot in Canada that has kept the name 
given by Cartier. ... On the 10th the three 
vessels re-entered the gulf, and in honor of the 
saint whose feast is celebrated on that daj'. Car- 
tier gave the gulf the name of St. Lawrence ; or 
rather he gave it to a bay lying between Anti- 
costi Island and the north shore, whence it ex- 
tended to the whole gulf of which this bay is 
part; and because the river, before that called 
River of Canada, empties into the same gulf, it 
insensibly acquired the name of St. Lawrence, 
which it still bears. . . . The three vessels . . . 
ascended the river, and on the 1st of September 
they entered the river Sagucnay. Cartier merely 
reconnoitered the mouth of this river, and . . . 
hastened to seek a port where his vessels might 
winter in safety. Eight leagues above Isle au.x 
Coudres he found another much larger and hand- 
somer island, nil covered with trees and vines. 
He called it Bacchus Island, but the name has 
been changed to Isle d'Orleans. The author of 
the relation to this voyage, printed under the 
name of Cartier, pretends that only here the 
country begins to be called Canada. But he is 
surely mistaken ; for it is certain that from the 
earliest times the Indians gave this name to the 
whole country along the river on both sides, from 
its mouth to the Sagucnay. From Bacchus 
Island, Cartier proceeded to a little river which 
is ten leagues off, and comes from the north ; he 
called it Riviere de Ste Croix, because he entered 
it on the 14th of September (Feast of the E.xalta- 
tion of the Holy Cross) ; but it is now commonly 
called Riviere de Jacques Cartier. The dav after 
his arrival he received a visit from an Indian 
chief named Donnacona, whom the author of the 
relation of that voyage styles Lord of Canada. 
Cartier treated with tins chief by m^ans of two 
Indians whom he had taken to France the year 
before, and who knew a little French. They 
informed Donnacona that the strangers wished 
to go to Hochelaga, which seemed to trouble him. 
Hochelaga was a pretty l.irge town, situated on 
an island now known under the name of Island of 
Montreal. Cartier had heard much of it, and 
was loth to return to France without seeing it. 
The reason why this voyage troubled Donnacona 
was that the people of Hochelaga were of a dif- 
ferent nation from his, and that he wished to 
profit exclusively by the advantages which he 

hoped to derive from the stay of the French in 
his country." Proceeding with one vessel to 
Lake St. Pierre, and thence in two boats. Car- 
tier reached Hochelaga Oct. 2. "The shape of 
the town was round, and three rows of palisades 
inclosed in it about 50 tunnel shaped cabins, each 
over 50 paces long and 14 or 15 wide. It was 
entered by a single gate, above which, as well 
as along the first palisade, ran a kind of gallery, 
reached by ladders, and well provided with 
pieces of rock and pebbles for the defence of the 
place. The inhabitants of the town spoke the 
Huron language. They received the French 
very well. . . . Cartier visited the mountain at 
the foot of which the town lay, and gave it the 
name of Mont Royal, which has become that of 
the whole Island [Jlontreal]. From it he dis- 
covered a great extent of country, the sight of 
which charmed him. ... He left Hochelaga on 
the 5th of October, and on the 11th anived at 
Sainte Croix." Wintering at this place, where 
his crews suffered terribly from the cold and 
from scurvy, he returned to France the following 
spring. "Some authors . . . pretend that Car- 
tier, disgusted with Canada, dissuaded the king, 
his master, from further thoughts of it; and 
Charaplain seems to have been of that opinion. 
But this does not agree with what Cartier him- 
self says in his memoirs. . . . Cartier in vain 
extolled the country which he had discovered. 
His small returns, and the wretched condition to 
which his men had been reduced by cold and 
scurvy, persuaded most that it would never be 
of any use to France. Great stress was laid on 
the fact that he nowhere saw any appearance of 
mines; and then, even more than now, a strange 
land which produced neither gold nor silver was 
reckoned as nothing." — Father Charlevoix, Siit. 
of Nexo France {trans, by J. G. Shea), bk. 1. 

Also in: R. Kerr, General Coll. of Voyages, pt. 
2, bk. 2, ch. 13 {v. 6).— F. X. Garneau, Hist, of 
Canada, v. 1, ch. 2. 

A. D. 1535-1540. — Introduction of Printing 
in Mexico. See PRrNTiUG, &c. : A. D. 1535- 

A. D. 1535-1550. — Spanish Conquests in 
Chile. See Chile; A. D. 14.50-i:':4. 

A. D. 1536-1538. — Spanish Conquests of 
New Granada. See Colo.mblo.- St.\tes ; A. D. 

A. D. 1541-1603. — Jacques Cartier's last 
Voyage. — Aoortive attempts at French Colo- 
nization in Canada. — "Jean Frau9ois de la 
Roque, lord of Roberval, a gentleman of Picardy, 
was the most earnest and energetic of those who 
desired to colonize the lands discovered by 
Jacques Cartier. . . . The title and authority 
of lieutenant-general was conferred upon him; 
his rule to extend over Canada, Hochelaga, 
Saguenay, Newfoundland, Belle Isle, Carpon, 
Labrador, La Grand Baye, and Baccalaos, with 
the delegated rights and powers of the Crown. 
This patent was dated the 15th of January, 
1540. Jacques Cartier was named second m 
command. . . . Jacques Cartier sailed on the 
23d of May, 1541, having provisioned his fleet 
for two years." He remained on the St. Law- 
rence until the following June, seeking vainly 
for the fabled wealth of the land of Saguenay, 
finding the Indians strongly inclined to a 
treacherous hostility, and" "suffering severe 
hardships during the winter. Entirely dis- 
couraged and disgusted, he abandoned his under- 


Al^IERICA, 1541-1603. 

ITawkina and 
the Slave Trade. 

AMERICA, 1563-1567. 

taking early in the summer of 1543, and sailed 
for home. In the road of St. John's, Newfound- 
land, Cartier met his tardy chief, Roberval, just 
coming to join him; but no persuasion could 
induce the disappointed explorer to turn back. 
"To avoid the chance of an open rupture with 
Roberval, the lieutenant silently weighed anchor 
during the night, and made all sail for France. 
This inglorious withdrawal from the enterprise 
paralyzed Roberval's power, and deferred the 
permanent settlement of Canada for generations 
then unborn. Jacques Cartier died soon after 
his return to Europe. " Roberval proceeded to 
Canada, built a fort at Ste Croi,\, four leagues 
west of Orleans, sent back two of his three ships 
to France, and remained through the winter 
with his colony, having a troubled time. There 
is no certain account of the ending of the enter- 
prise, but it ended in failure. For half a cen- 
tury afterwards there was little attempt made 
by the French to colonize any part of New 
France, though the French fisheries on the New- 
foundland Bank and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
were steadily growing in activity and import- 
ance. "When, after fifty years of civil strife, the 
strong and wise sway of Henry IV. restored 
rest to troubled France, the spirit of discovery 
again arose. The Marquis de la Roche, a Breton 
gentleman, obtained from the king, in 1598, a 
patent granting the same powers that Roberval 
had possessed. ' But La Roche's undertaking 
proved more disastrous than Roberval's had been. 
Yet, there had been enough of successful fur- 
trading opened to stimulate enterprise, despite 
these misfortunes. "Private adventurers, unpro- 
tected by any special privilege, began to barter 
for the rich peltries of the Canadian hunters. 
A wealthy merchant of St. Malo, named Font- 
grave, was the boldest and most successful of 
these traders; he made several voyages to Ta- 
doussac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, bringing 
back each time a rich cargo of rare and valuable 
furs." In 1600, Pontgrave effected a partner- 
ship with one Chauvin, a naval captain, who 
obtained a patent from the king giving him a 
monopoly of the trade; but Chauvin died in 1603 
witliout having succeeded in establishing even a 
trading post at Tadoussac. De Chatte, or De 
Chastes, governor of Dieppe, succeeded to the 
privileges of Chauvin, and founded a company 
of mercliants at Rouen [1603] to undertake the 
development of the resources of Canada. It was 
under the auspices of this company that Samuel 
Champlain, the founder of New France, came 
upon the scene. — E. Warburton, The Conquat of 
Canada, v. 1, ch. 2-3. 

Also in : F. Parkman, Pioneers of France in 
the New World : Cliamplain, ch. 1-2. 

A. D. 1562-1567.— The slave trading Voy- 
ages of John Hawkins. — Beginnings of Eng- 
lish Enterprise in the New World. — "The 
history of English America begins with the 
three slave-trading voyages of John Hawkins, 
made in the years 1563, 1564, and 1567. Noth- 
ing that Englishmen had done in connection 
with America, previously to those voyages, had 
any result worth recording. England had 
known the New AVorld nearly seventy years, for 
John Cabot reached it shortly after its discovery 
by Columbus; and, as the tidings of the dis- 
covery spread, many English adventurers had 
crossed the Atlantic to the American coast. But 
as years passed, and the excitement of novelty 

subsided, the English voyages to America had 
become fewer and fewer, and at length ceased 
altogether. It is easy to account for this. 
There was no opening for conquest or plunder, 
for the Tudors were at peace with the Spanish 
sovereigns: and there could be no territorial 
occupation, for the Papal title of Spain and 
Portugal to the whole of the new continent 
could not be disputed by Catholic England. 
No trade worth having existed with the natives: 
and Spain and Portugal kept the trade with 
their own settlers in their own hands. ... As 
the plantations in America grew and multiplied, 
the demand for negroes rapidly increased. The 
Spaniards had no African settlements, but the 
Portuguese had many, and, w-ith the aid of 
French and English adventurers, they procured 
from these settlements slaves enough to supply 
both themselves and the Spaniards. But the 
Brazilian plantations grew so fast, about the 
middle of the century, that they absorbed the 
entire supply, and the Spanish colonists knew 
not where to look for negroes. This penury of 
slaves in the Spanish Indies became known to 
the English and French captains who frequented 
the Gumea coast; and John Hawkins, who had 
been engaged from boyhood in the trade with 
Spain and the Canaries, resolved in 1563 to take 
a cargo of negro slaves to Hispaniola. The 
little squadron with which he executed this 
project was the first English squadron which 
navigated the West Indian seas. This voyage 
opened those seas to the English. England had 
not yet broken with Spain, and the law excluding 
English vessels from trading with the Spanish 
colonists was not strictly enforced. The trade 
was profitable, and Hawkins found no difficulty 
in disposing of his cargo to great advantage. A 
meagre note . . . from the pen of Hakluyt con- 
tains all that is known of the first American 
voyage of Hawkins. In its details it must have 
closely resembled the second voyage. In the 
first voyage, however, Hawkins had no occasion 
to carry his wares further than three ports on 
the northern side of Hispaniola. These ports, 
far away from San Domingo, the capital, were 
already well known to the French smugglers. He 
did not venture into the Caribbean Sea; and 
having loaded his ships with their return cargo, 
he made the best of his wav back. In his 
second voyage ... he entered the Caribbean 
Sea, still keeping, however, at a safe distance 
from San Domingo, and sold his slaves on the 
mainland. This voyage was on a much larger 
scale. . . . Having sold his slaves in the conti- 
nental ports [South American], and loaded his 
vessels with hides and other goods bought with 
the produce, Hawkins determined to strike out a 
new path and sail home with the Gulf-stream, 
which would carry him northwards past the 
shores of Florida. Sparke's narrative . . . 
proves that at every point in these expeditions the 
Englishman was following in the track of the 
French. He had French pilots and seamen on 
board, and there is little doubt that one at least 
of these had already been with Laudonniure in 
Florida. The French seamen guided him to 
Laudonniere's settlement, where his arrival was 
most opportune. They then pointed him the 
way by the coast of North America, then uni- 
versally know in the mass as New France, to 
Newfoundland, and thence, with the prevail- 
ing westerly winds, to Europe. This was the 


AMERICA, 1562-1567. 


AMERICA, 1573-1580. 

pioneer voyage made by Englishmen along 
coasts afterwards famous in history through 
English colonization. . . . The e.\tremely inter- 
esting narrative . . . given . . . from the pen 
of John Sparke, one of Hawkins' gentlemen 
companions . . . contains the first information 
concerning America and its natives which was 
published in England by an English eye-wit- 
uess." Hawkins planned a third voyage in 
1566, but the remonstrances of the Spanish king 
caused him to be stopped by the English court. 
He sent out his ships, however, and they came 
home in due time richly freighted, — from what 
source is not known. "In another year's time 
the aspect of things had changed." England 
was venturing into war with Spain, "and Haw- 
kins was now able to execute his plans without 
restraint. He founded a permanent fortified 
factory on the Guinea coast, where negroes 
might be collected all the year round. Thence 
he sailed for the West Indies a third time. 
Young Francis Drake sailed with him in com- 
mand of the 'Judith,' a small vessel of fifty 
tons." The voyage had a prosperous beginning 
and a disastrous ending. After disposing of 
most of their slaves, they were driven by storms 
to take refuge in the ^Mexican port of Vera 
Cruz, and there they were attacked by a Spanish 
fleet. Drake in the "Judith "and Hawkins in 
another small vessel escaped. But the latter 
was overcrowded with men and obliged to put 
half of them ashore on the Jlexican coast. The 
majority of those left on board, as well as a 
majority of Drake's crew, died on the voyage 
home, and it was a miserable remnant that 
landed in England, in January, 1569. — E. J. 
Payne, Voyaaes of the Elizabethan Seamen to 
Am., ch. 1. 

I Also in: The Haiekins Voyayes; ed. by C. R. 
Markham {Ilakluyt Soc, No. 57). — R. Southey, 
Lives of tiie British Admirals, i\ 3. 

A. D. 1572-1580. — The Piratical Adventures 
of Drake and his Encompassing of the World. 
— "Francis Drake, the first of the English Buc- 
caneers, was one of the twelve children of Ed- 
ward Drake of Tavistock, in Devonshire, a 
staunch Protestant, who had fled his native 
place to avoid persecution, and had then become 
a ship's chaplain. Drake, like Columbus, had 
been a seaman by profession from boyhood ; and 
. . . had served as a young man, in command 
of the Judith, under Hawkins. . . . Haw- 
kins had confined himself to smuggling: Drake 
advanced from this to piracj'. 'This practice 
was authorized by law in the middle ages for 
the purpose of recovering debts or damages 
from the subjects of another nation. The Eng- 
lish, especially those of the west country, were 
the most formidable pirates in the world ; and 
the whole nation was by this time roused against 
Spain, in consequence of the ruthless war waged 
against Protestantism in the Netherlands by 
Philip II. Drake had accounts of his own to 
settle with the Spaniards. Though Elizabeth 
had not declared for the revolted States, and 
pursued a shifting policy, her interests and 
theirs were identical; and it was with a view 
of cutting off those supplies of gold and silver 
from America which enabled Philip to bribe 
politicians and pay soldiers, in pursuit of his 
policy of aggression, that the famous voyage 
was authorized by English statesmen. Drake 
had recently made more than one successful 

voyage of plunder to the American coast." In 
July, 1572, he surprised the Spanish town of 
Nombre dc Dios , which was the shipping port 
on the northern side of the Isthmus for the 
treasures of Peru. His men made their way 
into tlie royal treasure-house, where they laid 
hands on a heap of bar-silver, TOJcet Juagr-10 
wide, and IQ-liigh; but Drake himself had re- 
ceived a wound which compelled the pirates to 
retreat with no very large part of the splendid 
booty. In the winter of 1573. with the help of 
the runaway slaves on_ths_Istluxuis, known as 
CimiHTones, he crossed~the Istlunus, looked on 
the Pacific ocean, approafhcd within sight of 
the city of Panama, and waylaid a transportation 
party conveyiog gold to J s'onibre de Dio s: but 
was disappointed of his prey by the excited con- 
duct of some of his men. When he saw, on this 
occasion, the great ocean beyond the Isthmus, 
"Drake then and there resolved to be the 
pioneer of England in the Pacific; and on this 
resolution he solemnly besought the blessing of 
God. Nearly four years elapsed before it was 
executed ; for it was not until November, 1577, 
that Drake embarked on his famous voyage, in 
the course of which he proposed to plunder Peru 
itself. The Peruvian ports were unfortified. 
The Spaniafcls^khew tUeTiTtoTigTiy nature abso- 
lutely secured from attack on the north; and 
they never dreamed that the English pirates 
would be daring enough to pass the terrible 
straits of Slagellan and attack them from the 
south. Such was the plan of Drake ; and it was 
executed with complete success." He sailed 
from Plymouth, Dec. 13, 1577, with a fleet of 
_four vessels, ahda, pinHaCe, but lost one of the 
ships after he had entereTthe Pacific, in a storm 
which drove him southward, and which made 
him the discoverer of QajiS-Jioiu. Another of 
his ships, separated from the^squjidron, returned 
home, and a third, while attempting to do the 
same, was lost in the river Plate. Drake, in his 
own vessel, the Golden Hind, proceeded to the 
Peruylan__CDasts^ where he cruised until he had 
"taken~and plundered a score of Spanish ships. 
" Laden with a rich booty of Peruvian treasure 
he deemed it unsafe to return by the way that he 
came. He therefore resolved to strike across the 
Pacific, and for this purpose made the latitude 
in which this voyage was usually performed by 
the Si)anish government vessels which sailed 
annually from Acapulco to the Philippines. 
Drake thus reached the c oast of Califo rnia, 
where the Indians, delighted bcyoncTmeasuTeTiy 
presents of clothing and trinkets, invited him to 
remain and rule over them. Drake took pos- 
session of the country in the name of the Queen, 
and refitted his vessel in preparation for the 
unknown perils of the Pacific. The place where 
he landed must have been either the great bay 
of San Francisco [per contra., see C.^lifornu.: 
A. D. 1846-1847] or the small bay of Bodega, 
which lies a few leagues further north. The 
great seaman had already coasted five degrees 
more to the northward before finding a suitable 
harbour. He believed hiniself to be the first 
European who had coasted these shores; but it 
is now well known that Spanish explorers had 
preceded him. Drake's circumnavigation of 
the globe was thus no deliberate feat of seaman- 
ship, but the necessary result of circumstances. 
The voyage made in more than one way a great 
epoch in English nautical history," Drake 


AMERICA, 1573-1580. 

Firtt Colon]/. 

AMERICA, 1584-1686. 

reached Plymouth on his return Sept. 26, 1580. 
— E. J. Pavne, Voyages of the Elizabetlian Seamen, 
pp. 141-143. 

Also in F. Fletcher, IVie World Encompassed 
by Sir F. Drake (Uakluyt Soc, 1854).— J. Barrow, 
Life of Drake. — R. Southey, Lives of British 
Admirals, v. 3. 

A. D. 1580. — The final founding of the City 
of Buenos Ayres. See Argentine Republic: 
A. D. 1580-1777. 

A. D. 1583.— The Expedition of Sir Hum- 
phrey Gilbert. — Formal possession taken of 
Newfoundland. — lu 1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
an English gentleman, of Devonshire, whose 
younger half-brother was the more famous Sir 
Walter Raleigh, obtained from Queen Elizabeth 
a charter empowering him, for the next si.x 
years, to discover "such remote heathen and 
barbarous lands, not actually possessed by any 
Christian prince or people, as he might be 
shrewd or fortunate enough to find, and to oc- 
cupy the same as their proprietor. Gilbert's first 
expedition was attempted the next year, with 
Sir Walter Raleigh associated in it; but misfor- 
tunes drove back the adventurers to port, and 
Spanish intrigue prevented their sailing again. 
"In June, 1583, Gilbert sailed fromCawsand Bay 
with five vessels, with the general intention of 
discovering and colonizing the northern parts of 
America. It was the first colonizing expedition 
which left the shores of Great Britain ; and the 
narrative of the expedition by Hayes, who com- 
manded one of Gilbert's vessels, forms the first 
page in the history of English colonization. 
Gilbert did no more than go through the empty 
form of taking possession of the island of New- 
foundland, to which the English name formerly 
applied to the continent in general . . , was 
now restricted. . . . Gilbert dallied here too 
long. When he set sail to cross the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and take possession of Cape Breton 
and Nova Scotia the season was too far advanced ; 
one of his largest ships went down with all on 
board, including the Hungarian scholar Par- 
menius, who had come out as the historian of 
the expedition; the stores were exhausted and 
the crews dispirited ; and Gilbert resolved on 
sailing home, intending to return and prosecute 
his discoveries the next spring. On the home 
voyage the little vessel in which he was sailing 
foundered; and the pioneer of English coloniza- 
tion found a watery grave. . . . Gilbert was a 
man of courage, piety, and learning. He was, 
however, an indijfferent seaman, and quite in- 
competent for the task of colonization to which 
he had set his hand. The misfortunes of his ex- 
pedition induced Amadas and Barlow, who fol- 
lowed in his steps, to abandon the northward 
voyage and sail to the shores intended to be oc- 
cupied by the easier but more circuitous route of 
the Canaries and the West Indies." — E. J. 
Payne, Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen, pp. 
173-174.— " On Monday, the 9th of September, 
in the afternoon, the frigate [the ' Squirrel '] was 
near cast away, oppressed by waves, yet at that 
time recovered; and giving forth signs of joy, 
the general, sitting abaft with a book in his 
hand, cried out to us in the ' Hind ' (so oft as we 
did approach within hearing), ' We are as near 
to heaven by sea as by land, ' reiterating the same 
speech, well beseeming a soldier resolute in 
Jesus Christ, as I can testify he was. On the 
same Monday night, about twelve o'clock, or not 

long after, the frigate being ahead of us in the 
'Golden Hind,' suddenly her lights were out, 
whereof as it were in a moment we lost the 
sight, and withal our watch cried the General was 
cast away, which was too true; for in that 
moment the frigate was devoured and swallowed 
up by the sea. Yet still we looked out all that 
night and ever after, until we arrived upon the 
coast of England. ... In great torment of 
weather and peril of drowning it pleased God to 
send safe home the ' Golden Hind,' which arrived 
in Falmouth on the 22d of September, being 
Sunday." — E. Hayes, A Report of the Voyage by 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert (reprinted in Payne's 

Also m E. Edwards, Life of Raleigh, v. 1, ch. 
5. — R. Hakluyt, Principal Navigations; ed. by 
E. Ooldsmid, v. 13. 

A. D. 1584-1586.— Raleigh's First Coloniz- 
ing attempts and failures. — "The task in 
which Gilbert had failed was to be undertaken 
by one better qualified to carry it out. If any 
Englishman in that age seemed to be marked out 
as the founder of a colonial empire, it was 
Raleigh. Like Gilbert, he had studied books; 
like Drake he could rule men. . . . The associa- 
tions of his youth, and the training of his early 
manhood, fitted him to .sympathize with the aims 
of his half-brother Gilbert, and there is little 
reason to doubt that Raleigh had a share in his 
undertaking and his failure. In 1584 he obtained a 
patent precisely similar to Gilbert's. Hisfirststep 
showed the thoughtful and well-planned system 
on which he began his task. Two ships were 
sent out, not with any idea of settlement, but to 
examine and report upon the country. Their 
commanders were Arthur Barlow and Philip 
Amidas. To the former we owe the extant 
record of the voyage: the name of the latter 
would suggest that he was a foreigner. Whether 
by chance or design, they took a more southerly 
course than any of their predecessors. On the 
2d of July the presence of shallow water, and a 
smell of sweet flowers, warned them that land 
was near. The promise thus given was amply 
fulfilled upon their approach. The sight before 
them was far different from that which had met 
the eyes of Hore and Gilbert. Instead of the 
bleak coast of Newfoundland, Barlow and 
Amidas looked upon a scene which might recall 
the softness of the Mediterranean. . . . Coasting 
along for about 120 miles, the voyagers reached 
an inlet and with some difficulty entered. They 
then solemnly took possession of the land in the 
Queen's name, and then delivered it over to 
Raleigh according to his patent. They soon dis- 
covered that the land upon which they had 
touched was an island about 20 miles long, and 
not above six broad, named, as they afterwards 
learnt, Roanoke. Beyond, separating them from 
the mainland, lay an enclosed sea, studded with 
more than a hundred fertile and well-wooded 
islets." The Indians proved friendly, and were 
described by Barlow as being "most gentle, lov- 
ing and faithful, void of all guile and treason, 
and such as live after the manner of the golden 
age." "The report which the voyagers took 
home spoke as favourably of the land itself as of 
its inhabitants. . . . With them they brought 
two of the savages, named Wanchese and Man- 
teo. A probable tradition tells us that the queen 
herself named the country Virginia, and that 
Raleigh's knighthood was the reward and ac- 


AMERICA, 1584-1586. 

Lost Colony 
of Roanoke. 

AMERICA, 1587-1590. 

knowledgment of his success. On the strength 
of this report Raleigh at once made preparations 
for a settlement. A fleet of seven ships was pro- 
vided for the convej'ance of 108 settlers. The 
fleet was under the command of Sir Richard 
Grenville, who was to establish the settlement 
and leave it under the charge of Ralph Lane. 
... On the 9th of April [158.5] the emigrants 
set sail." For some reason not well explained, 
the fleet made a circuit to the West Indies, and 
loitered for five weeks at the island of St. John's 
and at Hispaniola, reaching Virginia in the last 
days of June. Quan-els between the two com- 
manders, Grenville and Lane, had already begun, 
and both seemed equally ready to provoke the 
enmity of the natives. In August, after explor- 
ing son.e sixty miles of the coast, Grenville re- 
turned to England, promising to come back the 
next spring with new colonists and stores. The 
settlement, thus left to the care of Lane, was 
established "at the north-east corner of the Island 
of Roanoke, whence the settlers could command 
the strait. There, even now, choked by vines 
and underwood, and here and there broken by 
the crumbling remains of an earthen bastion, 
may be traced the outlines of the ditch which 
enclosed the camp, some forty yards square, the 
home of the first English settlers in the New 
World. Of the doings of the settlers during the 
winter nothing is recorded, but by the next 
spring their prospects looked gloomy. The In- 
dians were no longer friends. . . . The settlers, 
unable to make fishing weirs, and without seed 
corn, were entirely dependent on the Indians for 
their daily food. Under these circumstances, 
one would have supposed that Lane would have 
best employed himself in guarding the settle- 
ment and improving its condition. He, however, 
thought otherwise, and applied himself to the 
task of exploring the neighbouring territory." 
But a wide combination of hostile Indian tribes 
had been formed against the English, and their 
situation became from day to day more imperilled. 
At the beginning of June, 1586, Lane fought a 
bold battle with the savages and routed them; 
but no sign of Grenville appeared and the pros- 
pect looked hopeless. Just at this juncture, a 
great English fleet, sailing homewards from a 
piratical expedition to the Spanish Main, under 
the famous Captain Drake, came to anchor at 
Roanoke and offered succor to the disheartened 
colonists. With one voice they petitioned to be 
taken to England, and Drake received the whole 
party on board his ships. "The help of which 
the colonists had despaired was in reality close 
at hand. Scarcely had Drake's fleet left the coast 
when a ship well furnished by Raleigh with need- 
ful supplies, reached Virginia, and after search- 
ing for the departed settlers returned to England. 
About a fortnight later Grenville himself arrived 
with three ships. He spent some time in the 
country exploring, searching for the settlers, and 
at last, unwilling to lose possession of the coun- 
try, landed fifteen men at Roanoke well supplied 
for two years, and then set sail for England, 
plundering the Azores, and doing much damage 
to the Spaniards."— J. A. Doyle, The English^iii 
Americti : Virginia, <fr., eh. 4. — " It seems to be 
generally admitted that, when Lane and his com- 
pany went back to England, they carried with 
them tobacco as one of the products of the coun- 
try, which they presented to Rtilcigh, as the 
planter of the colony, and by him it was brought 

into use in England, and gradually in other 
European countries. 'The authorities are not en- 
tirely agreed upon this point. Josselyn says: 
'Tobacco first brought into England by Sir John 
Hawkins, but first brought into use by Sir 
Walter Rawleigh many years after.' Again he 
says : ' Now (say some) Tobacco was first brought 
into England by Jlr. Ralph Lane, out of Virginia. 
Others will have Tobacco to be first brouglit into 
England from Peru, by Sir Francis Drake's 
Mariners.' Camden fixes its introduction into 
England by Ralph Lane and the men brought 
back with him in the ships of Drake. He says: 
'And these men which were brought back were 
the first that I know of, which brought into 
England that Indian plant which they call To- 
bacco and Nicotia, and use it against crudities, 
being taught it by the Indians.' Certainly from 
that time it began to be in great request, and to 
be sold at a high rate. . . . Among the 108 men 
left in the colony with Ralph Lane in 1585 was 
Mr. Thomas Hariot, a man of a strongly mathe- 
matical and scientific turn, whose services in this 
connection were greatly vahied. He remained 
there an entire year, and went back to England 
in 1586. He wrote out a full account of his ob- 
servations in the New World." — I. N. Tarbox, 
Sir Walter Raleigh and his Colony (Prince Soc, 

Also in T. Hariot, Brief and true Ik-port {He- 
printed in above-nayned Prince Soc. Publication). — 
F. L. Hawks, Hist, of N. Carolina, v. 1 {contain/- 
ing reprints of Lane's Account, Hariofs Report, 
&c. — Original Doc's ed. by E. E. Ilale {Arch/B- 
ologia Americana, v. 4). 

A. D. 1587-1590. — The Lost Colony of 
Roanoke. — End of the Virginia Undertak- 
ings of Sir Walter Raleigh. — "Raleigh, undis- 
mayed by losses, determined to plant an agricul- 
tural state ; to send emigrants with their wives 
and families, who should make their homes in 
the New World ; and, that life and property 
might be secured, in January, 1587, he granted a 
charter for the settlement, and a municipal 
government for the city of 'Raleigh.' John 
White was appointed its governor; and to him, 
with eleven assistants, the administration of the 
colony was intrusted. Transport ships were 
prepared at the expense of the proprietary; 
' Queen Elizabeth, the godmother of Virginia,' 
declined contributing 'to its education.' Em- 
barking in April, in July they arrived on the 
coast of North Carolina ; they were saved from 
the dangers of Cape Fear; and, passing Cape 
Hatteras, they hastened to the isle of Roanoke, 
to search for the handful of men whom Gren- 
ville had left there as a garrison. They found 
the tenements deserted and overgrown with 
weeds; human bones lay scattered on the field 
where wild deer were reposing. The fort was 
in ruins. No vestige of surviving life appeared. 
The instructions of Raleigh had designated the 
place for the new settlement on the bay of 
Chesapeake. But Fernando, the naval officer, 
eager to renew a profitable trafl3c in the West 
Indies, refused his assistance in exploring the 
coast, and White was compelled to remain on 
Roanoke. ... It was there that in July the 
foundations of the city of Raleigh were laid.'' 
But the colony was doomed to ilisaster from the 
beginning, being quickly involved in warfare 
with the surrounding natives. "With the re- 
turning ship White embarked for England, un- 


AMERICA, 1587-1590. 

Aeu England. 

AMERICA, 1603-1605. 

der the excuse of interceding for re-enforcements 
and supplies. Yet, on the 18th of August, nine 
days previous to his departure, his daughter 
Eleanor Dare, the wife of one of the assistants, 
gave birth to a female child, the first offspring 
of English parents on the soil of the United 
States. The infant was named from the place 
of its birth. The colony, now composed of 89 
men, 17 women, and two children, whose names 
are all preserved, might reasonably hope for the 
speedy return of the governor, as he left with 
them his daughter and his grandchild, Virginia 
Dare. The farther history of this plantation 
Is involved in gloomy uncertainty. The inhabit- 
ants of ' the city of Raleigh,' the emigrants from 
England and the first-born of America, awaited 
death in the land of their adoption. For, when 
White reached England, he found its attention 
absorbed by the threats of an invasion from 
Spain. . . . Yet Raleigh, Vhose patriotism did 
not diminish his generosity, round means, in April 
1588, to despatch White with supplies in two ves- 
sels. But the company, desiring a gainful voy- 
age rather than a safe one, ran in chase of prizes, 
till one of them fell in with men of war from 
Rochelle, and, after a bloody fight, was boarded 
and rifled. Both ships were compelled to return 
to England. The delay was fatal: the English 
kingdom and the Protestant reformation were in 
danger ; nor could the poor colonists of Roanoke 
be again remembered till after the discomfiture of 
the Invincible Armada. Even then Sir Walter 
Raleigh, who had already incurred a fruitless 
expense of £40,000, found his impaired fortune 
insufficient for further attempts at colonizing 
Virginia. He therefore used the privilege of his 
patent to endow a company of merchants and ad- 
venturers with large concessions. Among the 
men who thus obtained an assignment of the pro- 
prietary's rights in Virginia is found the name of 
Richard Hakluyt ; it connects the first efforts of 
England in North Carolina with the final coloniza- 
tion of Virginia. The colonists at Roanoke had 
emigrated with a charter; the instrument of 
March, 1589, was not an assignment of Raleigh's 
patent, but the extension of a grant, already held 
under its sanction by increasing the number to 
whom the rights of that charter belonged. More 
than another year elapsed before White could 
return to search for his colony and his daughter; 
and then the island of Roanoke was a desert. 
An inscription on the bark of a tree pointed to 
Croatan ; but the season of the year aud the dan- 
gers from storms were pleaded as an excuse for 
an immediate return. The conjecture has been 
hazarded that the deserted colony, neglected by 
their own countrymen, were hospitably adopted 
into the tribe [the Croatans] of Hatteras Indians. 
Raleigh long cherished the hope of discovering 
some vestiges of their existence, and sent at his 
own charge, and, it is said, at five several times, 
to search for his liege men. But imagination 
received no help in its attempts to trace the fate 
of the colony of Roanoke. " — G. Bancroft, Hist, of 
the U. S.,pt. 1, ch. 5 (0. 1).— "The Croatans of 
today claim descent from the lost colony. 
Their habits, disposition and mental characteris- 
tics show traces both of savage and civilized 
ancestors. Their language is the English of 300 
years ago, and their names are in many cases 
the same as those borne by the original colonists. 
No other theory of their origin has been ad- 
Tanced." — S. B. Weeks, The Lost Colony of 


Roanoke (Am. IlUt. Asu'n P(tpers, v. 5, pt. 4). — 
"This last expedition [of Wliite, searching for 
his lost colony] was not despatched by Raleigh, 
but by his successors in the American patent. 
And our history is now to take leave of that 
illustrious man, with whose sthemes and enter- 
prises it ceases to have any further connexion. 
The ardour of his mind was not exhausted, but 
diverted by a multiplicity of new and not less 
arduous undertakings. . . . Desirous, at the 
same time, that a project which he had carried 
so far should not be entirely abandoned, and 
hoping that the spirit of commerce would pre- 
serve an intercourse with Virginia that might 
terminate in a colonial establishment, he con- 
sented to assign his patent to Sir Thomas Smith, 
and a company of merchants in London, who 
undertook to establish and maintain a traffic 
between England and Virginia. ... It ap- 
peared very soon that Raleigh had transferred 
his patent to hands very different from his own. 
. . . Satisfied with a paltry traffic carried on 
by a few small vessels, they made no attempt to 
take possession of the country : and at the period 
of Elizabeth's death, not a single Englishman 
was settled in America." — J. Grahame, Hist, of 
the Rise aTid Progress of tlie U. S. of N. Am. till 
1688, ch. 1. 

Also in W. Stith, Hist, of Va., bk. 1. — F. L. 
Hawks, Hist, of N. C. v. 1, No.% 7-8. 

A. D. 1602-1605. — The Voyages of Gosnold, 
Pring, and Weymouth. — The First English- 
men in Nev7 England. — Bartholomew Gosnold 
was a West-of-England mariner who had served 
in the expeditions of Sir Walter Raleigh to the 
Virginia coast. Under his command, in the 
spring of 1602, "with the consent of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, and at the cost, among others, of Henry 
Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, the accom- 
plished patron of Shakespeare, a small vessel, 
called the Concord, was equipped for exploration 
in 'the north part of Virginia,' with a view to 
the establishment of a colony. At this time. In 
the last year of the Tudor dynasty, and nineteen 
years after the fatal termination of Gilbert's 
enterprise, there was no European inhabitant of 
North America, except those of Spanish birth in 
Florida, and some twenty or thirty French, the 
miserable relics of two frustrated attempts to 
settle what they called New France. Gosnold 
sailed from Falmouth with a company of thirty- 
two persons, of whom eight were seamen, and 
twenty were to become planters. Taking a 
straight course across the Atlantic, instead of the 
indirect course by the Canaries and the West 
Indies which had been hitherto pursued in 
voyages to Virginia, at the end of seven weeks 
he saw land in Massachusetts Bay, probably near 
what is now Salem Harbor. Here a boat came 
off, of Basque build, manned by eight natives, 
of whom two or three were dressed in European 
clothes, indicating the presence of earlier foreign 
voyagers in these waters. Next he stood to the 
southward, and his crew took great quantities of 
codfish by a head land, called by him for that 
reason Cape Cod, the name which it retains. 
Gosnold, Brereton, and three others, went on 
shore, the first Englishmen who are known to 
have set foot upon the soil of Massachusetts. 
. . . Sounding his way cautiously along, first 
in a southerly, and then in a westerly direction, 
and probably passing to the south of Nantucket, 
Gosnold next landed on a small Island, now 

A3IERICA, 1603-1605. 


AMERICA, 1609. 

called No Stan's Land. To this he gave the 
name of Martha's Vineyard, since transferred to 
the larger island further north. . . . South of 
Buzzard's Bay, and separated on the south by 
the Vineyard Sound from Martha's Vineyard, is 
scattered the group denoted on modern maps as 
the Elizabeth Islands. The southwesternmost 
of these, now known by the Indian name 
of Cutlyhunk, was denominated by Gosnold 
Elizabeth Island. . . . Here Gosnold found a 
pond two miles in circumference, separated from 
the sea on one side by a beach thirty yards wide, 
and enclosing 'a rocky islet, containing near an 
acre of ground, full of wood and rubbish.' This 
islet was fixed upon for a settlement. In three 
weeks, while a part of the company were absent 
on a trading expedition to the mainland, the rest 
dug and stoned a cellar, prepared timber and 
built a house, which they fortified with palisades, 
and thatched with sedge. Proceeding to make 
an inventory of their provisions, they found that, 
after supplying the vessel, which was to take 
twelve men on the return voyage, there would 
be a sufficiency for only six weeks for the 
twenty men who would remain. A dispute 
arose upon the question whether the party to be 
left behind would receive a share in the proceeds 
of the cargo of cedar, sassafras, furs, and other 
commodities which had been collected. A small 
party, going out in quest of shell-fish, was 
attacked by some Indians. "With men having 
already, it is likely, little stomach for such 
cheerless work, these circumstances easily led to 
the decision to abandon for the present the 
scheme of a settlement, and in the following 
month the adventurers sailed for England, and, 
after a voyage of five weeks, arrived at Exmouth. 
. . . The expedition of Gosnold was pregnant 
with consequences, though their development 
■was slow. The accounts of the hitherto unknown 
country, which were circulated by his company 
on their return, excited an earnest interest." 
The next year (April, 1603), Martin Pring or 
Prynne was sent out, by several merchants of 
Bristol, with two small vessels, seeking cargoes 
of sassafras, which had acquired a high value on 
account of supposed medicinal virtues. Pring 
coasted from Maine to Martha's Vineyard, 
secured his desired cargoes, and gave a good 
account of the country. Two years later (JIarch, 
1605), Lord Southampton and Lord Wardour 
sent a vessel commanded by George Weymouth 
to reconnoitre tlie same coast with an eye to 
settlements. Weymouth ascended either the 
Kennebec or the Penobscot river some 50 or 60 
miles and kidnapped five natives. "Except for 
this, and for some addition to the knowledge of 
the local geocraphv, the voyage was fruitless." 
—J. G. Palfrey, Hist, of N. Eng., v. 1, ch. 2. 

Also in Masx. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d Sei'tes, u. 8 
(1843). — I. McKeen, On the Voyage of Geo. Wey- 
mouth {Maine Nisi. S<}C. Coll.. v. 5). 

A. D. 1603-1608.— The First French Settle- 
ments in Acadia. See C.\N.\n.\ (New Fh.\>ce): 
A. D. I()i):i-Ui0.j. and 1006-1608. 

A. D. 1607. — The founding of the English 
Colony of Virginia, and the failure in Maine. 
See Viiu;iNi.\: A. D. IKOO-IOOT, and alter; and 
Maine: A. 1). 1607-1608. 

A. D. 1 607-1608.— The First Voyages of 
Henry Hudson. — "The first recorded voyage 
made by Henry Hudson was undertaken . . . 
for the Muscovy or Russia Company [of Eng- 

land]. Departing from Gravesend the first of 
May, 1607, with the intention of sailing straight 
across the north pole, by the north of what is 
now called Greenland, Hudson found that this 
land stretched further to the eastward than he 
had anticipated, and that a wall of ice, along 
which he coasted, extended from Greenland to 
Spitzbergen. Forced to relinquish the hope of 
finding a passage in the latter vicinity, he once 
more attempted the entrance of Davis' Straits by 
the north of Greenland. This design was also 
frustrated and he apparently renewed the at- 
tempt in a lower latitude and nearer Greenland 
on his homeward voyage. In this cruise Hudson 
attained a higher degree of latitude than any 
previous navigator. ... He reached England on 
his return on the 15th September of that year 
[1607]. ... On the 22d of April, 1608, Henry 
Hudson commenced his second recorded voyage 
for the Muscovy or Russia Company, with the 
design of ' finding a passage to the East Indies 
by the north-east." ... On the 3d of June, 1608, 
Hudson had reached the most northern point of 
Norway, and on the 11th was in latitude 75° 24', 
between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla." Fail- 
ing to pass to the north-east beyond Nova 
Zembla, he returned to England in August. — J. 
M. Read, Jr., Hist. Inquiry CoTicerning Henry 
Hudson, pp. 133-138. 

Also in G. M. Asher, Henry Hudson, the 
Navigator (Hakluyt Soc, 1860). 

A. D. 16081616.— Champlain's Explora- 
tions in the Valley of the St. Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes. Sec C.\n.\d.\ (New Fr.vnce) : 
A. D. 1608-1611, and 1611-1616. 

A. D. 1609. — Hudson's Voyage of Discovery 
for the Dutch. — "The failure of two expedi- 
tions daunted the enterprise of Hudson's em- 
ployers [the Muscovy Company, in England] ; 
they could not daunt the courage of the great 
navigator, who was destined to become the rival 
of Smith and of Champlain. He longed to tempt 
once more the dangers of the northern seas; and, 
repairing to Holland, he offered, in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, to explore the icv 
wastes in search of the coveted passage. The 
voyage of Smith to Virginia stimulated desire; 
the Zealanders, fearing the loss of treasure, ob- 
jected; but, by the influence of Balthazar 
iloucheron, the directors for Amsterdam re- 
solved on equipping a small vessel of discovery; 
and, on the 4th day of April, 1609, the ' Crescent ' 
[or ■ Half-Moon,' as the name of the little ship 
is more commonly translated], commanded by 
Hudson, and manned by a mixed crew of Eng- 
lishmen and Hollanders, his son being of the 
number, set sail for the north-western passage. 
Masses of ice impeded the navigation towards 
Nova Zembla; Hudson, who had examined the 
maps of John Smith of Virginia, turned to the 
west; and passing beyond Greenland and New- 
foundland, and running down the coast of 
Acadia, he anchored, probably, in the mouth of 
the Penobscot. Then, following the track of 
Gosnold, he came upon the promontory of Cape 
Cod, and, believing himself its first discoverer, 
gave it the name of New Holland. Long after- 
wards, it was claimed as the north-eastern bound- 
ary of New Netherlands. From the sands of 
Cape Cod, he steered a southerly course till he 
was opposite the entrance into the bay of Vir- 
ginia, where Hudson remembered that his coun- 
trymen were planted. Then turning again to 


AitERICA, 1609. 

John SmiiK. 

AMERICA, 1614-1615. 

tho north, ho discovered the Delaware Bay, ex- 
amined its currents and its soundings, and, with- 
out going on sliore, tool;; note of tlie aspect of 
the country. On the 3d day of September, 
almost at the time when Champlain was invad- 
ing New York from the north, less than five 
months after the truce with Spain, which gave 
the Netherlands a diplomatic existence as a 
state, tho 'Crescent' anchored within Sandy 
Hook, and from the neighboring shores, that 
■were crowned with 'goodly cakes,' attracted 
frequent visits from the natives. After a week's 
delay, Hudson sailed through the Narrows, and 
at the mouth of the river anchored in a harbor 
which was pronounced to bo very good for all 
■winds. . . . Ten days were employed in explor- 
ing the river; the first of Europeans, Hudson 
went sounding his w.iy above the Highlands, 
till at last the ' Crescent ' had sailed some miles 
beyond the city of Hudson, and a boat had ad- 
vanced a little beyond Albany. Frequent inter- 
course \vas held with the astonished natives [and 
two battles fought with them]. . . . Having 
completed his discovery, Hudson descended the 
stream to which time has given his name, and on 
the 4th day of October, about the season of the 
return of John Smith to England, he set sail for 
Europe. ... A happy return voyage brought 
the 'Crescent' into Dartmouth. Hudson for- 
warded to his Dutch emplo^-ers a brilliant ac- 
count of his discoveries; but he never revisited 
the lands which he eulogized: and the Dutch 
East-India Company refused to search further for 
the north-western passage." — G. Bancroft, Hist. 
of the [f. S., eh. 15 {or pt. 3, ch. 13 of "Author's 
Last Revision "). 

Also in H. R. Cleveland, Life of Henry 
Hudson (Lib. of Am. Biog., v. 10), ch. 3^. — R. 
Juet, Journal of Hiid.ioii's Voyage (If. T. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., Second Scries, v. 1). — J. V. N. Yates 
and J. W. Jloulton, Hist, of the State of N. T., 
pt. 1. 

A. D. 1610-1614. — The Dutch occupation 
of New Nethcrland, and Block's coasting 
exploration. See New Yokk: A. D. IGIO- 

A. D. 16:4-1615. — The Voyages of Capt. 
John Smith to North Virginia. — The Naming 
of the country New England. — "From the 
lime of Capt. Smith's departure from Virginia 
[see ViRGiNLV: A. D. 1007-1610], till the year 
1614, there is a chasm in his biography. . . . 
In 1614, probably by his advice and at his sug- 
gestion, an expedition was fitted out by some 
London merchants, in the expense of which he 
also shared, for the purposes of trade and dis- 
covery in New England, or, as it was then called, 
North Virginia. ... In Slarch, 1G14, he set sail 
from London with two ships, one commanded 
by himself, and the other by Captain Thomas 
Hunt. Tlicy arrived, April 30th, at the island 
of JIanhegin, on the coast of Maine, where they 
built seven boats. The purposes for which they 
were sent were to capture whales and to search 
for mines of gold or copper, which were said to 
be there, and, if these failed, to make up a cargo 
of fish and furs. Of mines, they found no indi- 
aitions, and they found whale-fishing a ' costly 
conclusion;' for, although they saw many, and 
chased them too, they succeeded in taking none. 
They thus lost the best part of the fishing season; 
but, after giving up their gigantic game, they 
diligently employed the months of July and 

August In taking and curing codfish, an humble, 
but more certain prey. While the crew were 
thus employed. Captain Smith, with eight men 
in a small boat, surveyed and examined the 
whole coast, from Penobscot to Capo Cod, traf- 
ficking with the Indians for furs, and twice 
fighting with them, and taking such observa- 
tions or the prominent points as enabled him to 
construct a map of the country. He then sailed 
for England, where he arrived in August, 
within six months after his departure. lie left 
Captain Hunt behind him, with orders to dispose 
of his cargo of fish in Spain. Unfortunately, 
Hunt was a sordid and unprincipled miscreant, 
who resolved to make his countrymen odious to 
the Indians, and thus prevent the establishment 
of a permanent colony, which would diminish 
the large gains he and a few others derived by 
monopolizing a lucrative traffic. For this pur- 
pose, having decoyed 24 of the natives on board 
his ship, he carried them 00 and sold them as 
slaves in the port of Malaga. . . . Captain 
Smith, upon his return, presented his map of 
the country between Penobscot and Cape Cod to 
Prince Charles (afterwards Charles I.), with a 
request that he would substitute others, instead 
of the ' barbarous names ' which had been given 
to particular places. Smith himself gave to the 
country the name of New England, as he 
expressly states, and not Prince Charles, as is 
commonly supposed. . . . The first port into 
which Captain Smith put on his return to Eng- 
land was Plymouth. There he related his 
adventures to some of his friends, 'who,' he 
says, ' as I supposed, were interested in the dead 
patent of this unregarded country.' The Ply- 
mouth Company of adventurers to North Vir- 
ginia, by flattering hopes and large promises, 
induced him to engage his services to them." 
Accordingly in Slarch, 1615, he sailed from 
Plymouth, with two vessels under his command, 
bearing 16 settlers, besides their crew. A storm 
dismasted Smith's ship and drove her back to 
Plymouth. "His consort, commanded by 
Tliomas Dermer, meanwhile proceeded on her 
voyage, and returned with a profitable cargo in 
August; but the object, which was to effect a 
permanent settlement, was frustrated. Captain 
Smith's vessel was probably found to be so 
much shattered as to render it inexpedient to 
repair her; for wo find that he set sail a second 
time from Plymouth, on the 24th of June, in a 
small bark or 60 tons, manned by 30 men, and 
carrying with him tho same 16 settlers he had 
taken before. But an evil destiny seemed to 
hang over this enterprise, and to make the voy- 
age a succession of disasters and disappoint- 
ments." It ended in Smith's capture by a pirat- 
ical French fleet and his detention for some 
mouths, until he made a daring escape in a small 
boat. "AVhile he had been detained on board 
the French pirate, in order, as he says, ' to keep 
my perplexed thoughts from too much medita- 
tion of my miserable estate,' he employed him- 
self in writing a narrative of his two voyages to 
New England, and an account of the country. 
This was published in a quarto form in June, 
1016. . . . Captain Smith's work on New England 
was the first to reconuuend that country as a 
place of settlement." — G. S. llillard. Life of 
Capt. John Smith (ch. 14-1.5). 

Also in Capt. John Smith, Description of N. 


AMEBICA, 1619. 

The Buccaneers. 

AMERICA, 1639-1700. 

A. D. 1619. — Introduction of negjro slavery 
into Virginia. See Virginia: A. D. 1619. 

A. D. 1620. — The Planting of the Pilgrim 
Colony at Plymouth, and the Chartering of 
the Council for New England. See Massa- 
chusetts (PLYMOUTn Colony): A. D. 1630; and 
New England: A. D. 1630-1623. 

A. D. 1620. — Formation of the Government 
of Rio de La Plata. See Argentine Re- 
public: A. D. 1580-1777. 

A. D. 1621. — Conflicting claims of England 
and France on the North-eastern coast. — 
Naming and granting of Nova Scotia. See 
New England: A. D. 1631-1631. 

A. D. 1629. — The Carolina grant to Sir 
Robert Heath. — "Sir Robert Heath, attorney- 
general to Charles I., obtained a grant of the 
lands between the 38th [36th ?] degree of north 
latitude to the river St. Matbeo. His charter 
bears date of October 5, 1639. . . . The tenure 
is declared to be as ample as any bishop of 
Durham [Palatine], in the kingdom of England, 
ever held and enjoyed, or ought or could of right 
have held and enjoyed. Sir Robert, his heirs 
and assigns, are constituted the true and absolute 
lords and proprietors, and the country is erected 
into a province by the name of Carolina [or 
Carolana], and the islands are to be called the 
Carolina islands. Sir Robert conveyed his right 
some time after to the earl of Arundel. This 
nobleman, it is said, planted several parts of his 
acquisition, but his attempt to colouize was 
checked by the war with Scotland, and after- 
wards the civil war. Lord Maltravers, who soon 
after, on his father's death, became earl of 
Arundel and Sussex . . . made no attempt to 
avail himself of the grant. . . . Sir Robert 
Heath's grant of land, to the southward of 
Virginia, perhaps the most extensive possession 
ever owned by an individual, remained for a 
long time almost absolutely waste and unculti- 
vated. This vast extent of territory occupied all 
the country between the 30th and 36th degrees 
of northern latitude, which embraces the pres- 
ent states of North and South Carolina, Georgia, 
[Alabama], Tennessee, 3Iississippi, and, with 
very little exceptions, the whole state of 
Louisiana, and the territory of East and West 
Florida, a considerable part of the state of 
Missouri, the Mexican provinces of Texas, 
Chiuhaha, &c. The grantee had taken posses- 
sion of the country, soon after he had obtained 
his title, which he afterwards had ^nveyed to 
the earl of Arundel. Henry lord Maltravers ap- 
pears to have obtained some aid from the prov- 
ince of Virginia in 1639, at the desire of Charles 
I., for the settlement of Carolana, and the coun- 
try had since become the property of a Dr. Cox ; 
yet, at this time, there were two points only in 
which incipient English settlements could be 
discerned; the one on the northern shore of 
Albemarle Sound and the streams that flow into 
it. The population of it was very thin, and the 
greatest portion of it was on the north-east bank 
of Chowan river. The settlers had come from 
that part of Virginia now known as the County 
of Nansemond. . . . They had been joined by a 
number of Quakers and other sectaries, whom 
the spirit of intolerance had driven from New 
England, and some emigrants from Bermudas. 
. . . The other settlement of the English was at 
the mouth of Cape Fear river; . . . those who 
composed it had come thither from New England 

in 1659. Their attention was confined to rearing 
cattle. It cannot now be ascertained whether 
the assignees of Carolana ever surrendered the 
charter under which it was held, nor whether it 
was considered as having become vacated or 
obsolete by non-user, or by any other means." — 
F. X. Martin, Hist, of If. Carolina, v. 1, ch. 5 
and 7. 

A. D. 1629.— The Royal Charter to the Gov- 
ernor and Company of Massachusetts Bay. 
See Massachusetts: A. D. 1623-1639, The 
Dorchester Co.mpant. 

A. D. 1629-1631. — The Dutch occupation of 
the Delaware. See Delaware: A. D. 1639- 

A. D. 1629-1632. — English Conquest and 
brief occupation of New France. See Canada 
(New France): A. D. 1638-1633. 

A. D. 1632.— The Charter to Lord Balti- 
more and the founding of Maryland. See 
SIartland: a. D. 1633, and A. D. 1633-1637. 

A. D. 1638. — The planting of a Swedish 
Colony on the Delaware. See Delaware: 
A. D. 1638-1640. 

A. D. 1639-1700. — The Buccaneers and their 
piratical warfare with Spain. — "The 17th 
century gave birth to a class of rovers wholly 
distinct from any of their predecessors in the 
annals of the world, difEering as widely in their 
plans, organization and exploits as in the princi- 
ples that governed their actions. . . . After the 
native inhabitants of Haiti had been extermi- 
nated, and the Spaniards had sailed farther west, 
a few adventurous men from Normandy settled 
on the shores of the island, for the purpose of 
hunting the wild bulls and hogs which roamed 
at will through the forests. The small island of 
Tortugas was their market; thither they repaired 
with their salted and smoked meat, their hides, 
&c., and disposed of them in exchange for pow- 
der, lead, and other necessaries. The places 
where these semi-wild hunters prepared the 
slaughtered carcases were called 'boucans,' and 
they themselves became known as Buccaneers. 
Probably the world has never before or since wit- 
nessed such an extraordinary association as theirs. 
Unburdened by women-folk or children, these 
men lived in couples, reciprocally rendering each 
other services, and having entire community of 
property — a condition termed by them matelot- 
age, from the word 'matelot,' by which they 
addressed one another. ... A man on joining 
the fraternity completely merged his identity. 
Each member received a nickname, and no at- 
tempt was ever made to inquire into his antece- 
dents. When one of their number married, he 
ceased to be a buccaneer, having forfeited his 
membership by so civilized a proceeding. He 
might continue to dwell on the coast, and to 
hunt cattle, but he was no longer a ' matelot ' — 
as a Benedick he had degenerated to a ' colonist.' 
. . . Uncouth and lawless though the bucca- 
neers were, the sinister signification now attach- 
ing to their name would never have been merited 
had it not been for the unreasoning jealousy of 
the Spaniards. The hunters were actually a 
source of profit to that nation, yet from an in- 
sane antipathy to strangers the dominant race 
resolved on exterminating the settlers. Attacked 
whilst dispersed in pursuance of their avocations, 
the latter fell easy victims ; many of them were 
wantonly massacred, others dragged into slavery. 
. . . Breathing hatred and vengeance, 'the 


AMERICA, 163»-1700. 

AMERICA, 1713. 

brethren of the coast' united their scattered 
forces, and a war of horrible reprisals com- 
menced. Fresh troops arrived from Spain, whilst 
the ranks of the buccaneers were filled by adven- 
turers of all nations, allured bj' love of plunder, 
and fired with indignation at the cruelties of the 
aggressors. . . . The Spaniards, utterly failing 
to oust their opponents, hit upon a new ex- 
pedient, so short-sighted that it reflects but little 
credit on their statesmanship. This was the 
extermination of the horned cattle, by which the 
buccaneers derived their means of subsistence ; a 
general slaughter took place, and the breed was 
almost extirpated. . . . The puffed up arrogance 
of the Spaniard was curbed by no prudential 
consideration ; calling upon every saint in his 
calendar, and raining curses on the heretical 
buccaneers, he deprived them of their legitimate 
occupation, and created wilfully a set of desper- 
ate enemies, who harassed the colonial trade of 
an empire already betraying signs of feebleness 
with the pertinacity of wolves, and who only 
desisted when her commerce had been reduced 
to insignificance. . . . Devoured by an undying 
hatred of their assailants, the buccaneers de- 
veloped into a new association — the freebooters. " 
—0. H. Eden, The West Indies, ch. 3.— -'The 
monarchs both of England and France, but 
especially the former, connived at and even en- 
couraged the freebooters [a name which the 
pronunciation of French sailors transformed 
into ' flibustiers,' while that corruption became 
Anglicized in its turn and produced the word 
filibusters], whose services could be obtained in 
time of war, and whose actions could be dis- 
avowed in time of peace. Thus buccaneer, 
filibuster, and sea-rover, were for the most part 
at leisure to hunt wild cattle, and to pillage and 
massacre the Spaniards wherever they found an 
opportunity. When not on some marauding ex- 
pedition, they followed the chase." The piratical 
buccaneers were first organized under a leader 
in 1639, the islet of Tortuga being their favorite 
rendezvous. " So rapid was the growth of their 
settlements that in 1641 we find governors ap-^ 
pointed, and at San Christobal a governor-general 
named De Poincy, in charge of the French 
filibusters in the Indies. During that year 
Tortuga was garrisoned by French troops, and 
the English were driven out, both from that islet 
and from Santo Domingo, securing harborage 
elsewhere in the islands. Nevertheless corsairs 
of both nations often made common cause. . . . 
In [1654] Tortuga was again recaptured by the 
Spaniards, but in 1660 fell once more into the 
hands of the French ; and in their conquest of 
Jamaica in 1655 the British troops were reBn- 
forced by a large party of buccaneers." The 
first of the more famous buccaneers, and ap- 
parently the most ferocious among them all, was 
a Frenchman called Fran9ois L'Olonnois, who 
harried the coast of Central America between 
1660-1665 with six ships and 700 men. At the 
same time another buccaneer named Mansvelt, 
■was rising in fame, and with him, as second in 
command, a Welshman, Henry Morgan, who be- 
came the most notorious of all. In 1668, Morgan 
attacked and captured the strong tov\Ti of Porto- 
bello, on the Isthmus, committing indescribable 
atrocities. In 1671 he crossed the Isthmus, 
defeated the Spaniards in battle and gained 
possession of the great and wealthy city of 
Panama— the Largest and richest in the New 

World, containing at the time 30,000 Inhabitants. 
The city was pillaged, fired and totally destroyed. 
The exploits of this ruffian and the stolen riches 
which he carried home to England soon after- 
ward gained the honors of knighthood for him, 
from the worthy hands of Charles II. In 1680, 
the buccaneers under one Coxon again crossed 
the Isthmus, seized Panama, which had been 
considerably rebuilt, and captured there a 
Spanish fleet of four ships, in which they 
launched themselves upon the Pacific. From 
that time their plundering operations were chiefly 
directed against the Pacific coast. Towards the 
close of the 17th century, the war between Eng- 
land and France, and the Bourbon alliance of 
Spain with France, brought about the discour- 
agement, the decline and finally the extinction 
of the buccaneer organization. — H. H. Bancroft, 
Hist, of the Pacific States : Central Am., t. 2, ch. 

Aiso IN W. Thornbury, Ths Buccaneers. — A. 
O. Exquemelin, Hist, of the Buccaneers. — J. 
Bumey, Uiat. of the Buccaneers of Am. — See, 
also, /amaica: A. D. 1655-1796. 

A. D. 1655. — Submission of the Swedes on 
the Delaware to the Dutch. See Delawake: 
A. D. 1640-1656. 

A. D. 1663.— The grant of the Carolinas to 
Monk, Clarendon, Shaftesbury, and others. 
See North Carolina: A. D. 1663-1670. 

A. D. 1664. — English conquest of New 
Netherland. See New York: A. D. 1664. 

A. D. 1673. — The Dutch reconquest of New 
Netherland. See New York: A. D. 1673. 

A. D. 1673-1682. — Discovery and explora- 
tion of the Mississippi, by Marquette and 
La Salle. — Louisiana named and possessed 
by the French. See Cakada (New France); 
A. D. 1634-1673. and 1669-1687. 

A. D. 1674.— Final surrender of New Neth- 
erland to the English. See Netherlands 
(Holland): A. D. 1674 

A. D. 1681.— The proprietary g^ant to Wil- 
liam Penn. See Pennsylvania: A. D. 1681. 

A. D. 1689-1697.— The first Inter-Colonial 
War: King William's War (The war of the 
League of Augsburg). See Canada (New 
France): A. D. 1689-1690; 1692-1697; also, 
Newfoundland: A. D. 1694-1697. 

A. D. 1690. — The first Colonial Congress. 
See United States op Am. : A. D. 1690; also, 
Canada (New France): A. D. 1689-1690. 

A. D. 1698-1712. — The French colonization 
of Louisiana. — Broad claims of France to the 
whole Valley of the Mississippi. See Louisi- 
ana: A. D. 1698-1712. 

A. D. 1700-1735. — The Spread of French 
occupation in the Mississippi Valley and on 
the Lakes. See Canada (New France) : A. D. 

A. D. 1702. — Union of the two Jerseys as a 
royal province. See New Jerset ; A. D. 1688- 

A. D. 1702-1713.— The Second Inter-Co- 
lonial War: Queen Anne's War (The War of 
the Spanish Succession). — Final acquisition of 
Nova Scotia by the English. See New Eng- 
land: A. D. 1702-1710; Canada (New France): 
A. D. 1711-1713. 

A. D. 1713. — Division of territory between 
England and France by the Treaty of Utrecht. 
See Canada (New France) : A. D. 1711- 


AMERICA, 1729. 


A. D. 1729. — End of the proprietary gov- 
ernment in North Carolina. See North 
Cakoltna: a. D, 1688-1729. 

A. D. 1732.— The colonization of Georgia 
by General Oglethrope. See Georgia: A. D. 

A. D. 1744-1748.— The Third Inter-Colon- 
ial War: King George's War (The War of 
the Austrian Succession). See Xew Englajntj : 
A D 1714; 1745; and 1745-1748. 

A. D. 1748-1760. — Unsettled boundary dis- 
putes of England and France. — The fourth and 
last inter-colonial war, called the French and 
Indian War (The Seven Years War of Europe). 
— English Conquest of Canada. See Canada 
(New Fra-N-ce): A. D. 1750-1753; 1760; Nova 
ScoTU.: A. D. 1749-1755; 1755; Ohio (Valley) : 
A. D. 1748-1754; 1754; 1755; Cape Breton 
Isl.\nd: a. D. 1758-1760. 

A, D. 1749. — Introduction of negro slavery 
into Georgia. See Georgia: A D. 1735-1749. 

A. D. 1750-1753. — Dissensions among the 
English Colonies on the eve of the great 
French War. See United States of A.m. : 
A. D. 1750-1753. 

A. D, 1754. — The Colonial Congress at 
Albany. — Franklin's Plan of Union. See 
United St-\tes of Am. : A. D. 1754. 

A. D. 1763. — The Peace of Paris.— Canada, 
Cape Breton, Nev^foundland, and Louisiana 
east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) 

ceded by France to Great Britain. — West of 
the Mississippi and New Orleans to Spain. — 
Florida by Spain to Great Britain. See Seven 
Years War. 

A. D. 1763-1764.— Pontiac's War. See PoR- 
TiAC's War. 

A. D. 1763-1766 — Growing discontent of 
the English Colonies. — The question of taxa- 
tion. — The Stamp Act and its repeal. See 
United States of A.M.: A D. 1760-1775, to 1766. 

A. D. 1766-1769. — Spanish occupation of 
New Orleans and Western Louisiana, and the 
revolt against it. See Locisian.^: A. D. 1766- 
1768, and 1769. 

A. D. 1775-1783. — Independence of the Eng- 
lish colonies achieved. See United States of 
Ail. : A D. 1775 (April) to 1783 (September). 

A. D. 1776. — Erection of the Spanish Vice- 
royalty of Buenos Ayces. See Argentine 
Republic: A. D. 1580-1777 

A. D. 1810-1816. — Revolt, independence and 
Confederation of the Argentine Provinces. 
See Argentine Republic : A. D. 1S06-1820. 

A. D. 1818. — Chilean independence achieved. 
See Chile: A. D. 1810-1818. 

A. D. 1820-1821 — Independence Acquired 
by Mexico and the Central American States. 
See Mexico: A. D. 1820-1826, and Central 
America: A. D. 1821-1871. 

A. D. 1824. — Peruvian independence won at 
Ayacucho. See Peru: A D. 1820-1826. 


Linguistic Classification. — In the Seventh 
Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (for 
1885-86, published in 1891), Major J. W. Powell, 
the Director of the Bureau, has given a classifica- 
tion of the languages of the North American abo- 
rigines based upon the most recent investigations. 
The following is a list of families of speech, or lin- 
guistic stocks, ■which are defined and named: 
"Adaizan [identified since the publication of 
this list as being but part of the Caddoan stock]. 

— Algonquian. — Athapascan. — Attacapan. — 
Beothukan. — Caddoan. — Chimakuan. — Chimari- 
kan. — Chimmesyan. — Chinookan. — Chitimachan. 
— Chumashan.— -Coahuiltecan. — Copehan. — Cos- 
tanoan. — Eskimauan. — Esselenian. — Iroquoian. — 
Kalapooian. — Karankawan. — Keresan. — Kiowan. 

— Kituanahan. — Koluschan. — Kulanapan. — 
Kusan. — Lutuamian. — Mariposan. — Moquelum- 
nan. — Muskhogean. — Natchesan. — Palaihnihan. 

— Piman. — Pujunan. — Quoratean. — Salinan. — 
Salishan. — Sastean. — Shahaptian. — Shoshonean. 
— Siouan. — Skittagetan. — Takilman. — Tanoan. — 
Timuquanan. — Tonikan. — Tonka wan. — Uchean. 
— Waiilatpuan. — "Wakashan. — Washoan. — Weit- 
spekan. — Wishoskan. — Yokonan. — Yanan. — 
Y^ukian. — Yuman. — Zuiiian. " — These families 
are severally defined in the summary of in- 
formation given below, and the relations to 
them of all tribes having any historical impor- 
tance are shown by cross-references and other- 
wise; but many other groupings and associa- 
tions, and many tribal names not scientifically 
recognized, are likewise exhibited here, for the 
reason that they have a significance in history 
and are the subjects of frequent allusion in 

Abipones. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Abnakis, or Abenaques, or Taranteens. — 

' ' The Abnakis were called Taranteens by the 
English, and Owenagungas by the New Yorkers. 
. . . We must admit that a large portion of the 
North American Indians were called Abnakis, 
if not by themselves, at least by others. This 
word Abnaki is found spelt Abenaques, Abenaki, 
Wapanachki, and Wabenakies by diSerent writ- 
ers of various nations, each adopting the manner 
of spelling according to the rules of pronunci- 
ation of their resfjective native languages. . . . 
The word generally received is spelled thus, 
Abnaki, but it should be ' Wanbanaghi,' from 
the Indian word 'wanbanban,' designating the 
people of the Aurora Borealis, or in general, of 
the place where the sky commences to appear 
white at the breaking of the day. ... It has 
been difficult for different writers to determine 
the number of nations or tribes comprehended 
under this word Abnaki. It being a general 
word, by itself designates the people of the east 
or northeast. . . . We find that the word Abnaki 
was applied in general, more or less, to all the 
Indians of the East, by persons who were not 
much acquainted with the aborigines of the 
country. On the contrary, the early writers and 
others well acquainted with the natives of New 
France and Acadia, and the Indians themselves, 
by Abnakis always pointed out a particular 
nation existing north-west and south of the Ken- 
nebec river, and they never designated any 
other people of the Atlantic shore, from Capa 
Hatteras to Newfoundland. . . The Abnakia 
had five great villages, two amongst the French 
colonies, which must be the village of St. 
Joseph or Sillery, and that of St. Francis de 
Sales, both in Canada, three on the head waters, 




br along three rivers, between Acadia and New 
EnglaDd. These three rivers are the Kennebec, 
the Androscoggin, and the Saco. . . . The na- 
tion of the Abnakis bear evident marks of hav 
ing been an original people in their name, man 
ners, and language. They show a kind of civil 
Tzation which must be the effect of antiquity 
and of a past flourishing age." — E. Vetromile, 
T?ie AbnakiIndians(Maine Uist. Soc. Coll., v. 6). — 
See, also, below: Algonqdian Family. — For 
some account of the wars of the Abnakis, with 
the New England colonies, see Canada (New 
France): A. D. 1689-1690, and 1693-1697; 
New England: A. D. 1675 (July— Sept.); 
1703-1710, 1711-171.3; and Nova Scotia: A D. 

Absarokas, Upsarokas, or Crows. See 
below; SioL'AN Family. 

Acawoios. See below: Caribs and their 

Acolhuas, See Mexico, A. D. 1335-1502. 

Adais.* — These Indians were a "tribe who, ac 
cording to Dr, Sibley, lived about the year 1800 
near the old Spanish fort or mission of Adaize, 
' about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the 
Yattassees, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which 
communicates with the division of Red River 
that passes by Bayou Pierre ' [Lewis and Clarke]. 
A vocabulary of about 250 words is all that re- 
mains to us of their language, which according 
to the collector, Dr. Sibley, 'differs from all 
others, and is so difficult to speak or understand 
that no nation can speak ten words of it. ... A 
recent comparison of this vocabulary by Mr. 
Gatschet, with several Caddoan dialects, has led 
to the discovery that a considerable percentage 
of the Adai words have a more or less remote 
affinity with Caddoan, and he regards it as a 
Caddoan dialect." — .1. W. Powell, Seventh An. 
^Report, Bureau of EtUnolo'jy, pp. 45-46. — See 
preceding page. 

Adirondacks. — "This is a term bestowed by 
the Iroquois, in derision, on the tribes who 
appear, at an early day, to have descended the 
Utawas river, and occupied the left banks of 
the St. Lawrence, above the present site of 
(Juebec, about the close of the 15th century. It 
is said to signify men who eat trees, in allusion 
to their using the bark of certain trees for food, 
when reduced to straits, in their war excursions. 
The French, who entered the St. Lawrence from 
the gulf, called the same people Algonquins — 
a generic appellation, which has been long 
employed and come into universal use, among 
historians and philologists. According to early 
accoimts, the Adirondacks had preceded the 
Iroquois in arts and attainments." — H. R 
Schoolcraft, Notes on the Iroquois, ch. 5. — See, 
also, below: Iroquois Confederacy: Their 
Conquests, &c. 

.ffisopus Indians. See below: Algonouian 

Agniers. — Among several names which the 
Mohawks (sec below: Iroquois) bore in early 
colonial history was that of the Agniers. — F, 
Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, v. 1, p. 9, 

Albaias. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Aleuts. See below; Eskimauan Family. 

Algonquiani Algonkin) Family. — " About the 
period 1500-16OU, tliose related tribes whom we 
now know by the name of Algonkins were at the 
height of their prosperity. They occupied the 

• See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 84 

Atlantic coast from the Savannah river on the south 
to the strait of Belle Isle on the north. , . , The 
dialects of all these were related, and evidently at 
some distant day had been derived from the same 
primitive tongue. Which of them had preserved 
the ancient forms most closely, it may be prema 
ture to decide positively, but the tendency of 
modem studies has been to assign that place to 
the Cree — the northernmost of all. We cannot 
erect a genealogical tree of these dialects. . , . 
We may, however, group them in such a manner 
as roughly to indicate their relationship. This 
I do" — in the following list: "Cree. — Old 
Algonkin. — Montagnais. — Chipeway, Ottawa, 
Pottawattomie, Miami, Peoria, Pea, Piankishaw. 
Kaskaskia, Menominee, Sac, Fox, Kikapoo. — 
Sheshatapoosh, Secoffee, Micmac, Slelisceet, 
Etchemin, Abnaki. — Mohegan, Massachusetts, 
Shawnee, Minsi, Unami, Unalachtigo [the last 
three named forming, together, the nation of the 
Lenape or Delawares], Nanticoke, Powhatan, 
Panipticoke. — Blackfoot, Gros Ventre, Shey- 
enne. . . . All the Algonkin nations who dwelt 
north of the Potomac, on the east shore of 
Cliesapeake Bay, and in the basins of the Dela- 
ware and Hudson rivers, claimed near kinship 
and an identical origin, and were at times united 
into a loose, defensive confederacy. By the 
western and southern tribes they were col- 
lectively known as Wapanachkik — ' those of the 
eastern region ' — which in the form Abnaki is 
now confined to the remnant of a tribe in Maine. 
. . . The members of the confederacy were the 
Mohegans (Mahicanni) of the Hudson, who occu- 
pied the valley of that river to the falls above 
the site of Albany, the various Nfw Jersey 
tribes, the Delawares proper on the Delaware 
river and its branches, including the Mii&i or 
Monsej'S, among the mountains, the Nanticokes, 
between Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic, and 
the small tribe called Canai, Kanawhas or 
Ganawese, whose towns were on tributaries of 
the Potomac and Patusent. . . . Linguistically, 
the Mohegans were more closely allied to the 
tribes of New England than to those of the 
Delaware Valley. Evidently, most of the tribes 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut were compara- 
tively recent offshoots of the parent stem on the 
Hudson, supposing the course of migration had 
been eastward. . . . The Nanticokes occupied 
tlie territory between Chesapeake Bay and the 
ocean, except its southern extremity, which ap- 
pears to have been under the control of the 
Powhatan tribe of Virginia." — D. G. Brinton, 
The Lenape and tlieir Legends, ch. 1-2. — " Mohe- 
gans. Munsees, Manhattans, MetOacs, and other 
affiliated tribes and bands of Algonquin lineage, 
inhabited the banks of the Hudson and the 
islands, bay andseaboardof New York, including 
Long Island, during the early periods of the rise 
of the Iroquois Confederacy. . . . The Jlohegans 
finally retired over the Highlands east of them 
into the valley of the Housatonic. The Munsees 
and Nanticokes retired to the Delaware river and 
reunited with their kindred, the Lenapees, or 
modern Delawares. The ^Manhattans, and 
numerous other bands and sub-tribes, melted 
away under the influence of liquor and died in 
their tracks." — H R. Schoolcraft, Notes on the 
Iroquois, ch. 5 — " On the basis of a difference 
in dialect, that portion of the Algonquin Indians 
which dwelt in New England has been classed in 
two divisions, one consisting of those who in- 



habited what is now the State of Maine, nearly 
up toils western border, the other consisting of 
tlie rest of the native population. Tlie JIaine 
Indians may have been some 15,000 in number, 
or somewhat less than a third of tiie native popu- 
lation of New England. That portion of them 
who dwelt furthest towards the east were known 
by the name of Etetchemins. The Abenaquis, 
including the Tarratines, hunted on botli sides of 
the Penobscot, and westward as far as the Saco, 
If not quite to the Piscataqua. The tribesfound 
in the rest of New England were designated by 
a greater variety of names. The home of the 
Penacook or Pawtucket Indians was in the 
southeast corner of what is now New Hampshire 
and the contiguous region of JIassachusetts. 
Next dwelt the Massachusetts tribe, along the 
bay of that name. Then were found successively 
the Pokanokets, or Wampanoags, in the south- 
easterly region of Massachusetts, and by Buz- 
zard's and Narragansett Bays; the Narragansetts, 
with a tributary race called Nyantics in what is 
now the western part of the State of Rhode 
Island ; tlie Pequots, between the Narragansetts 
and the river formerly called the Pequot River, 
now the Thames ; and the Mohegans, spreading 
themselves beyond the River Connecticut. In 
the central region of Massachusetts were the 
Nipmucks, or Nipiiets ; and along Cape Cod were 
the Nausets who appeared to have owed some 
fealty to the Pokanokets. The New England 
Indians exhibited an inferior type of humanity. 
. . . Though fleet and agile when e.xcited to 
some occasional effort, they were found to be in- 
capable of continuous labor. Heavy and 
phlegmatic, they scarcely wept or smiled." — 
J. G. Palfrey, CompeiuUous llist. of K. Eng., 
bk. 1, ch. 3 (B. 1).— "The valley of the 
' Cahohatatea,' or Mauritius River [i. e., the 
Hudson River, as now named] at the time Hud- 
son first ascended its waters, was inhabited, 
chiefly, by two aboriginal races of Algonquin 
lineage, afterwards known among the English 
colonists by the generic names of Jlohegans 
and Mincees. The Dutch generally called 
the Mohegans, Mahicans; and the Mincees, 
Sanhikans. These two tribes were subdivided 
into numerous minor bands, each of which 
had a distinctive name. The tribes on the 
east side of the river were generally Jlohe- 
gans; those on the west side, Mincees. They 
were hereditary enemies. . . . Long Island, or 
'Sewan-hacky,' was occupied by the savage tribe 
of Metowacks, which was subdivided into various 
clans. . . . Staten Island, on the opposite side 
of the bay, was inhabited by the Monatons. . . . 
Inland, to the west, lived the Raritans and the 
Hackinsacks; while the regions in the vicinity of 
the well-known ' Highlands,' south of Sandy 
Hook, were inhabited by a baud or sub-tribe 
called the Nevesincks or Navisinks. ... To the 
south and west, covering the centre of New 
Jersey, were the Aquamachukesand the Stanke- 
kans; while the valley of the Delaware, north- 
ward from the Schuylkill, was inhabited by 
various tribes of the Lenape race. . . . The 
island of the JIanhattans " was occupied by the 
tribe which received that name (see MANn.\TT.\N). 
On the shores of the river, above, dwelt the 
Tappans, the Weckquaesgeeks, the Sint Sings, 
" whose chief village was named OssinSing, or 
'the Place of Stones,'" the Pachami, the Waorin- 
ftcks, the Wappingers, and the Waronawankougs. 

"Further north, and occupying the present 
counties of Ulster and Greene, were the Minqua 
clans of Minnesincks, Nanticokes, Miucees, and 
Delawares. These clans had pressed onward 
fromtheupper valley of the Delaware. . . . They 
were generally known among the Dutch as the 
.iEsopus Indians." — J. R. Brodliead, Ilist. o} 
tlie State of N. Y., v. 1, ch. 3—" The area for- 
merly occui)ied by the Algonquian family was 
more extensive than that of any other linguistic 
stock in North America, their territory reaching 
from Labrador to the Rocky Jlountains, and from 
Churchill River of Hudson Bay as far south at 
least as Pamlico Sound of North Carolina. In 
the eastern part of this territory was an area 
occupied by Iroquoian tribes, surrounded on 
almost all sides by their Algonquian neighbors. 
On the south the Algonquian tribes were bor- 
dered by those of Iroquoian and Siouan (Catawba) 
stock, on the southwest and west by the Musk- 
hogean and Siouan tribes, and on the northwest 
by the Kitunahan and the great Athapascan 
families, while along the coast of Labrador and 
the eastern shore of Hudson Bay they came in 
contact with the Eskimo, who were gradually 
retreating before them to the north. In New- 
foundland they encountered the Beothukan 
family, consisting of but a single tribe. A portion 
of the Shawnee at some early period had sep- 
arated from the main body of the tribe in central 
Tennessee and pushed their way down to the 
Savannah River in South Carolina, where, known 
as Savannahs, they carried on destructive wars 
with the surrounding tribes until about the be- 
ginning of the 18tli centurj- they were finally 
driven out and joined the Delaware in the north. 
Soon afterwards the rest of the tribe was expelled 
by the Cherokee and Chicasa, who thencefor- 
ward claimed all the country stretching north to 
the Ohio River. The Cheyenne and Arapaho, 
two allied tribes of this stock, had become sep- 
arated from their kindred on the north and had 
forced their way through hostile tribes across the 
Missouri to the Black Hills country of South 
Dakota, and more recently into Wyoming and 
Colorado, thus forming the advance guard of 
the Algonquian stock iu that direction, having 
the Siouan tribes behind them and those of the 
Shoshonean family in front. [The following are 
the] principal tribes: Abuaki, Algonquin, Ara- 
paho, Cheyenne, Conoy, Crce, Delaware, Fox, 
Hlinois, Kickapoo, Mahicau, Massachuset, Me- 
nominee, Miami, Micmac, Mohegan, Moutagnais, 
Montauk, Munsee, Nanticoke, Narraganset, 
Nauset, Nipmuc, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Pamlico, Pen- 
nacook, Pequot, Piiinkishaw, Pottawotomi, Pow- 
hatan, Sac, Shawnee, Siksika, Wampanoag, 
Wappinger. The present number of the Algon- 
quian stock is about 9.5,600, of whom about 60,000 
are in Canada and the remainder in the United 
States." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Report, 
Bureau of Ethnology, pp 47-48. 

Also in J. W. De Forest, Hist, of the LuUans 
of Connecticut. — A. Gallatin, Synopsis of the 
Indian Tribes ( ArcJuEologia Anmricana, v. 2), 
intra., sect. 2. — S. G. Drake, Aboriginal Boms of 
N. Am., bk. 2-3. — See, also, below: Delawares; 
HoKiKAXS; Sh.^waxese; ScsquEnAXNAS: Ojib- 
WAS ; Illinois. — For the Indian wars of New 
England, see New Enol.a.nd: A. D. 1637 (Thb 
PEiiUOT War); A. D. 1674-1675 to 1676-1678 
(King Philip's War). — See, also, Pontiac's 




Alibamus, or Alabamas. See below : Musk- 
nooEAN Family. 
AUeghans, or Allegewi, or Talligewi. — 

"Tlic oiliest tribe of the United States, of which 
tlicre is a distinct tradition, were the AUeghans. 
The term is perpetuated in the principal chain of 
mount^iins traversing the country. This tribe, at 
nn anticiue period, had the seat of their power 
in the Ohio Valley and its confluent streams, 
which were the sites of their numerous towns 
and villages. Tliey appear originally to have 
borne the name of Alii, or Allcg, and hence the 
names of Talligewi and Allegewi. (Trans. Am. 
Phi. Soc., vol. 1.) By adding to the radical of 
this word the particle 'hany 'or 'ghany,' meaning 
river, they described the principal scene of their 
residence — namely, the Alleghany, or River of 
the AUeghans, now called Ohio. The word 
Ohio Is of Iroquois origin, and of a far later 
period; having been bestowed by them after 
their conquest of the country, in alliance with 
the Lenapees, or ancient Delawares. (Phi. 
Trans.) The term was applied to the entire 
river, from its confluence with the Mississippi, 
to its origin in the broad spurs of the AUe- 
ghanies, in New York and Pennsylvania. . . . 
There are evidences of antique "labors in the 
alluvial plains and valleys of the Scioto, Miami, 
and Muskingum, the Wabash, Kaskaskia.Cahokia, 
and Illinois, denoting that the ancient AUeghans, 
and their allies and confederates, cultivated the 
soil, and were serai-ugriculturists. These evi- 
dences have been traced, at late periods, to the 
fertile table-lands of Indiana and Michigan. 
The tribes lived in fixed towns, cultivating 
extensive fields of the zea-maize; and also, as 
denoted by recent discoveries, ... of some 
species of beans, vines, and esculents. They 
were, in truth, the mound builders." — H. R. 
Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Indian 
Tribe), pt. 5, p. 133. — This conclusion, to which 
Mr. Schoolcralt had arrived, that the ancient 
AUeghans or Tallegwi were the mound builders 
of the Ohio Valley is being sustained by later 
investigators, and seems to have become an 
accepted opinion among those of highest 
authority. The AUeghans, moreover, are being 
identified with the Cherokees of later times, in 
whom their race, once supposed to be e.xtinct, 
has apparently survived; while the fact, long 
suspected, that the Cherokee language is of tlie 
Iroquois family is being proved by the latest 
studies. According to Indian tradition, the 
AUeghans were driven from their ancient seats, 
long ago, by a combination against them of the 
Lenape (Delawares) and the Mengwe (Iroquois). 
The route of their migrations is being traced by 
the character of the mounds which they built, 
and of the remains gathered from the mounds. 
'■ The general movement [of retreat before the 
Iroquois and Lenape] . . . must have been 
southward, . . . and the e.xit of the Ohio mound- 
builders was, in all probability, up the Kanawah 
Valley on the same line that the Cherokees 
appear to have followed in reaching their 
historical locality. ... If the hypothesis here 
advanced be correct, it is apparent that the 
Cherokees entered the immediate valley of the 
Mississippi from the northwest, striking it in the 
region of Iowa." — C. Thomas, The Problem oftlie 
Ohio Mounds (Bureau of Ethnology, 1889). 

Also in The same. Burial MoxiiuUi of the 
Northern Secliom of the U. 8. (Fifth An. Rept. 


oftJw. Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84).— J. Hecke. 
welder, Acct. of the Indian Natioiu, eh. 1. — 
See, below : Cherokees, and Inoquoia Conped- 
EUACY; also America, Preuistouic. 

Amahuacas. See below : Andesians. 

Andastes. See below: Susqueiiannas. 

Andesians. — "The term Andesians or An- 
tesians, is used with geographical rather than 
ethnological limits, and embraces a number of 
tribes. First of these are the Cofan in Equador, 
cast of Chimborazo. They fought valiantly 
against the Spaniards, and in times past killed 
many of the missionaries sent among them. 
Now they are greatly reduced and have become 
more gentle. The Huamaboya are their near 
neighbors. The Jivara, west of the river Pas- 
taca, are a warlike tribe, who, possibly through 
a mi.xture of Spanish bloody have a European 
cast of countenance and a beard. The half 
Christian Napo or Quijo and their peaceful neigh- 
bors, the Zaporo, live on the Rio Napo. The 
Yamco, living on the lower Chambiva and cross- 
ing the Maranon, wandering as far as Saryacu, 
have a clearer complexion. The Pacamora and 
the Yuguarzongo live on the Maraiion, where it 
leaves its northerly course and bends toward the 
east. The Cochiquima live on the lower Yavari ; 
the Slayoruna, or Barbudo, on the middle Ucayali 
beside the Camjjo and Cochibo, the most terrible 
of South American Indians; they dwell in the 
woods between the Tapiche and the Maranon, 
and like the Jivaro have a beard. The Pano, who 
formerly dwelt in the territory of Lalaguna, but 
who now live in villages on the upper Ucayali, 
are Christians. . . . Their language is the prin- 
cipal one on the river, and it is shared by seven 
other tribes called collectively by the mission- 
aries Manioto or Mayno. . . . Within the woods 
on the right bank live the Amahuaca and Sha- 
caya. On the north they join the Remo, a pow- 
erful tribe who are distinguished from all the 
others by the custom of tattooing. Outside this 
Pano linguistic group stand the Campa, Campo, 
or Antis on the east slope of the Peruvian Cor- 
dillera at the source of the Rio Beni and its tribu- 
taries. The Chontaquiros, or Piru, now occupy 
almost entirely the bank of the Ucayali below the 
Pachilia. The Mojos or Moxos live in the Bolivian 
province of Moxos with the small tribes of the 
Baure, Itonama, Pacaguara. A number of 
smaller tribes belonging to the Antesian group 
need not be enumerated. The late Professor 
James Orton described the Indian tribes of the 
territory between Quito and the river Amazon. 
The Napo approach the type of the Quichua. 
. . . Among all the Indians of the Provincia del 
Oriente, the tribe of Jivaro is one of the largest. 
These people are divided into a great number of 
sub-tribes. All of these speak the clear musical 
Jivaro language. They are muscular, active 
men. . . . The Morona are cannibals in the full 
sense of the word. . . . The Campo, still very 
little known, is perhaps the largest Indian tribe 
in Eastern Peru, and, according to some, is 
related to the Inca race, or at least with their 
successors. They are said to be cannibals, 
though James Orton does not think this possible. 
. . . The nearest neighbors of the Campo are the 
Chontakiro, or Cliontaqiiiro, orChonquiro, called 
also Piru. who, according to Paul Marcoy, are 
said to be of the same origin with the Campo; 
but the language is wholly different. . . . Among 
the Pano people are the wild Conibo; they are 



the most interesting, but are passing into extinc- 
tion." — The Standard Natural History (J. S. 
Kingdey, ed.), v Q, pp. 227-231. 

Apache Group.*— Under the general name of 
the Apaches "I include all the savage tribes 
roaming tlirough New Me.xico, the north-western 
portion of Texas, a small part of northern 
Mexico, and Arizona. . . . Owing to their rov- 
iag proclivities and incessant raids they are led 
lirst in one direction and then in another. In 
general terms they may be said to range about 
as follows: The Comanches, Jetaus, or Nauni, 
consisting of three tribes, the Comanches proper, 
the Yamparacks, and Tenawas, inhabiting 
northern Texas, eastern Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, 
Coahuila, Durango, and portions of south- 
western New Mexico, by language allied to the 
Shoshone family; the Apaches, who call them- 
selves Shis Inday, or 'men of the woods,' 
and whose tribal divisions are the Chiricaguis, 
Coyoteros, Faraones, GilefSos, Lipanes, Llan- 
eros, Mescaleros, Mimbreiios, Natages, Pelones, 
Pinaleiios, Tejuas, Tontos, and Vaqueros, 
roaming over New Mexico, Arizona, North- 
western Texas, Chihuahua and Sonora, and 
who are allied by language to the great 
Tinneh family; the Navajos, or Tenuai, 'men,' 
as they designate themselves, having linguistic 
affinities with the Apache nation, with which 
they are sometimes classed, living in and around 
the Sierra de los ilimbres ; the Mojaves, occupy- 
ing both banks of the Colorado in Mojave Valley ; 
the Hualapais, near the head-waters of Bill 
Williams Fork ; the Yumas, on the east bank of 
the Colorado, near its junction with the Rio 
Gila ; the Cosninos, who, like the Hualapais. are 
sometimes included in the Apache nation, rang- 
ing through the Mogollon Mountains; and the 
Yampais, between Bill Williams Fork and the 
Rio Hassayampa. . . . The Apache country is 
probably the most desert of all. ... In both 
mountain and desert the fierce, rapacious Apache, 
inured from childhood to hunger and thirst, and 
heat and cold, finds safe retreat. . . The 
Pueblos . . . are nothing but partially reclaimed 
Apaches or Comanches." — H. H. Bancroft, 
Native Races of the Pacific States, v. 1, ch. 5 — 
Dr. Brinton prefers the name Yuma for the 
whole of the Apache Group, confining the name 
Apache (that being the Yuma word for "fight- 
ing men") to the one tribe so called. "It has 
also been called the Katchan or Cuchan stock." 
— D. G. Brinton, The American Race, p. 109. — 
See, also, below: Athapascan Family. 

Apalaches. — " Among the aboriginal tribes of 
the United States perhaps none is more enig- 
matical than the Apalaches. They are mentioned 
as an important nation by many of the early 
French and Spanish travellers and historians, 
their name is preserved by a bay and river on 
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and by the 
great eastern coast range of mountains, and has 
been applied by ethnologists to a family of cog- 
nate nations that found their hunting grounds 
from the Mississippi to the Atlantic and from the 
Ohio river to the Florida Keys, yet, strange to 
say, their own race and place have been but 
guessed at," The derivation of the name of the 
Apalaches "has been a ' questio vexata ' among 
Indianologists." "We must "consider it an in- 
dication of ancient connections with the southern 
continent, and in itself a pure Carib word 

Apfiliche' in the Tamanaca dialect of the 

Guaranay stem on the Orinoco signifies 'man,' 
and the earliest application of the name in the 
nortliern continent was as the title of the chief 
of a country, 'I'homme par excellence,' and 
hence, like very many other Indian tribes 
(Apaches, Lenni Lenape, Illinois), his subjects 
assumed by eminence the proud appellation of 
'The Men.' ... We have . . . found that 
though no general migration took place from the 
continent southward, nor from the islands north- 
ward, yet there was a considerable intercourse 
in both directions ; that not only the natives of 
the greater and lesser Antilles and Yucatan, but 
also numbers of the Guaranay stem of the 
southern continent, the Caribs proper, crossed 
the Straits of Florida and founded colonies on 
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico; that their 
customs and language became to a certain extent 
grafted upon those of the early possessors of the 
soil; and to this foreign language the name 
Apalache belongs. As previously stated, it was 
used as a generic title, applied to a confederation 
of many nations at one time under the domina- 
tion of one chief, whose power probably ex- 
tended from the Alleghany mountains on the 
north to the shore of the Gulf; that it included 
tribes speaking a tongue closely akin to the 
Choktah is evident from the fragments we have 
remaining. . . . The location of the tribe in 
after years is very uncertain Dumont placed 
them in the northern part of what is now Ala- 
bama and Georgia, near the mountains that bear 
their name. That a portion of them did live in 
this vicinity is corroborated by the historians of 
South Carolina, who say that Colonel Moore, in 
1703, found them 'between the head- waters of 
the Savannah and Altamaha.' . . . According to 
all the Spanish authorities, on the other hand,' 
they dwelt in the region of country between the 
Suwannee and Appalachicola rivers — yet must 
not be confounded with the Apalachicolos, . . 
They certainlj' had a large and prosperous town 
in this vicinity, said to contain 1,0U0 warriors. 
... I am inclined to believe that these were 
different branches of the same confederacy. . . . 
In the beginning of the 18th century they 
suffered much from the devastations of the Eng- 
lish, French and Creeks. . . . About the time 
Spain regained possession of the soil, they 
migrated to the West and settled on the Bayou 
Rapide of Red River. Here they had a village 
numbering about 50 souls." — D. G. Brinton, 
Notes on tlie Ploridian Peninsula, ch. 2. — See, 
also, below : Muskhogean Family. 
Apelousas. See Texas: The Aboriginal m- 


Araicu. See below: Gdck or Coco Group. 
Arapahoes. See above : Aloonqctan Fashlt. 
Araucanians. See Chile. 
Arawaks, or Arauacas. See below: Caribs 


Arecunas. See below: Caribs and their 

Arikaras. See below-. Pawnee (Caddoan) 

Arkansas. See below : Sion.\j« Family. 

Assiniboins. See below: Sior an Family. 

Athapascan Family. — Chippewyans. — Tin- 
neh. — Sarcees* — '"This name [Athapascans 
vT .Vthabascans] has been applied to a class of 
tribes who are situated nortli of the great 
Churchill river, and north of the source of the 
fork of the Saskatchawine, extending westward 

•See Note, Appendis E, vol. 6. 




till within about 150 miles of the Pacific Ocean. 
. . . The name is derived, arbitrarily, from 
Lake Athabasca, which is now more generally 
called the Lake of the Hills. Surrounding 
this lake extends the tribe of the Chippewyans, 
a people so-called by the Kenistenos and Chip- 
pewas, because they were found to be clothed, 
in some primary encounter, in the scanty garb 
of the fisher's skin, . . . We are informed by 
Mackenzie that the territory occupied by the 
Chippewyans extends between the parallels 
Cf 60° and 65° north and longitudes from 
100° to 110° west." — H. R. Schoolcraft, In- 
formation Respecting the Indian Tribes, pt. 5, 
p. 173. — " The Tinneh may be divided into four 
great families of nations , namely, the Chippe- 
wyans, or Athabascas, living between Hudson 
Bay and the Rocky Mountains ; the Tacullies, or 
Carriers, of New Caledonia or North-western 
British America; the Kutchins, occupying both 
banks of the Upper Yukon and its tributaries, 
from near its mouth to the Mackenzie River, and 
the Kenai, inhabiting the interior from the lower 
Yukon to Copper River." — H. H. Bancroft, 
The Native Races of the Pacific States, ch. 2. — 
" The Indian tribes of Alaska and the adjacent 
region may be divided into two groups ... : 1. 
Tinneh — Chippewyans of authors. . . . Father 
Petitot discusses the terms Athabaskans, Chip- 
pewayans, Montagnais, and Tinneh as applied 
to this group of Indians. . . . This great family 
includes a large number of American tribes ex- 
tending from near the mouth of the Mackenzie 
south to the borders of Mexico. The Apaches 
and Navajos belong to it, and the family seems 
to intersect the continent of North America in a 
northerly and southerly direction, principally 
along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains. , . ". 
The designation [Tinneh] proposed by Messrs. 
Ross and Gibbs has been accepted by most 
modern ethnologists. ... 3. T'linkets," which 
familv includes the Yakutats and other groups. 
— W.'H. Dall, Tribes of the Extreme NorthweU 
{Contributions to iV. Am. Ethnology, v. 1). — 
"Wherever found, the members of this group 
present a certain family resemblance. In ap- 
pearance they are tall and strong, the forehead 
low with prominent superciliary ridges, the eyes 
elightly oblique, the nose prominent but wide 
toward the base, the mouth large, the hands and 
feet small. Their strength and endurance are 
often phenomenal, but in the North, at least, 
their longevity is slight, few living beyond fifty. 
Intellectually they rank below most of their 
neighbors, and nowhere do they appear as fos- 
terers of the germs of civilization. Where, as 
among the Navajos, we find them having some 
repute for the mechanical arts, it turns out that 
this is owing to having captured and adopted the 
members of more gifted tribes. . . . Agriculture 
was not practised either in the north or south, 
the only exception being the Navajos, and with 
them the inspiration came from other stocks. 
. . . The most cultured of their bands were the 
Navajos, whose name is said to signify 'large 
cornfields,' from their extensive agriculture. 
When the Spaniards first met them in 1541 they 
were tillers of the soil, erected large granaries for 
their crops, irrigated their fields by artificial 
water courses or acequias, and lived in substan- 
tial dwellings, partly underground ; but they had 
not then learned the art of weaving the cele- 
brated 'Navajo blankets,' that being a later 

*See Note, Appendix £, vol. 6. 

acquisition of their artisans. "* — D. G. Brinton, 
I7ie American Race, pp. 69-72. — See, abovei 
Apache Group, and Blackfeet. 

Atsinas (Caddoes).* See below: Blackfeet. 

Attacapan Family — "Derivation: From a 
Choctaw word meaning 'man eater.' Little is 
known of the tribe, the language of which forms 
tli3 basis of the present family. The sole know- 
ledge possessed by Gallatin was derived from a 
vocabulary and some scanty information fur- 
nished by Dr. John Sibley, who collected his ma- 
terial in the year 1805. Gallatin states that the 
tribe was reduced to 50 men. . . . Mr. Gatschet 
collected some 3,000 words and a considerable 
body of text. His vocabulary differs consider- 
ably from the one furnished by Dr. Sibley and 
published by Gallatin . . . The above material 
seems to show that the Attacapa language is dis- 
tinct from all others, except possibly the Chit(- 
machaa" — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Report, 
Bureau of Ethnology, p 57. 

Aymaras. See Peru. 

Aztecs. See below: Matas; also Mexico: 
A. D. 1325-1502; and Aztec and Maya Picture 

Bakairi. See below : Caribs. 

Balchitas. See below: Pampas Tribes. 

Bannacks. See below: Shoshonean Family. 

Barbudo. See above: Andesians. 

Bare. See below Guck or Coco Group. 

Baure. See above: Andesians. 

Beothukan Family. — The Beothuk were a 
tribe, now extinct, which is believed to have 
occupied the whole of Newfoundland at the time 
of its discovery. What is known of the language 
of the Beothuk indicates no relationship to any 
other American tongue — J. W. Powell, Seventh 
Annual Rept. of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 57. 

Biloxis. See below: Siouan Family. 

Blackfeet, or Siksikas."^' The tribe that wan- 
dered the furthest from the primitive home of the 
stock [the Algonquian] were the Blackfeet, or 
Sisika, which word has this signification. It is 
derived from their earlier habitat in the valley of 
the Red river of the north, where the soil was 
dark and blackened their moccasins. Their 
bands include the Blood or Kenai and the Piegan 
Indians. Half a century ago they were at the 
head of a confederacy which embraced these and 
also the Sarcee (Tinne) and the Atsina (Caddo) 
nations, and numbered about 30,000 souls. They 
have an interesting mythology and an unusual 
knowledge of the constellations." — D. G. Brin- 
ton, T/ie American Race, p. 79. — See above: 
Algonquian Family; and, below: Flatheads. 

Blood, or Kenai Indians. See above: Black- 

Botocudos. See below: Topi — Guauanl — 

Brule'. Sec below : Siouan Family. 

Caddoan Family. See below. Pawnee (Cad- 
do an) Fajiily; see, also, Texas: The Aborig- 
inal Inhabitants. 

Cakchiquels. See below: Quiches, and 

Calusa. See below : Tumuquanan Family. 

Cambas, or Campo, cr Campa. See above: 
Andesians; also, Bolivia: Aboriginal In- 

CaQares. See Ecuador. 

Canas. See Peru. 

Canichanas. See Bolivia: Ab::uoiiial IX' 




Caniengas. See below: Iroquois Confed- 

Cariay. See below : Guck or Coco Group. 

Caribs and their Kindred. — "The warlike 
and unyielding character of these people, so 
different from that of the pusillanimous nations 
around them, and the wide scope of their enter- 
prises and wanderings, like those of the nomad 
tribes of the Old World, entitle them to dis- 
tinguished attention. . . . The traditional ac- 
counts of their origin, though of course extremely 
jVague, are yet capable of being verified to a 
great degree by geographical facts, and open one 
'of the rich veins of curious inquiry and specula- 
tion which abound in the New World. They 
are said to have migrated from the remote valleys 
embosomed in the Apalachian mountains. The 
earliest accounts we have of them represent them 
with weapons in their hands, continually en- 
gaged in wars, winning their way and shift- 
ing their abode, until, in the course of time, they 
found themselves at the extremity of Florida. 
Here, abandoning the northern continent, they 
passed over to the Lucayos [Bahamas], and 
fiience gradually, in the process of years, from 
island to island of that vast verdant chain, which 
links, as it were, the end of Florida to the coast 
of Paria, on the southern continent. The archi- 
pelago extending from Porto Rico to Tobago 
was their stronghold, and the island of Guada- 
loupe in a manner their citadel. Hence they 
made their expeditions, and spread the terror of 
their name through all the surrounding countries. 
Swarms of them landed upon the southern con- 
tinent, and overran some parts of terra firma. 
Traces of them have been discovered far in the 
interior of that vast country through which flows 
(the Oroonoko. The Dutch found colonies of 
them on the banks of the Ikouteka, which emp- 
,ties into the Surinam; along the Esquibi, the 
Maroni, and other rivers of Gua3'ana ; and in the 
country watered by the windings of the Cay- 
enne " — W Irving, Life and Voya<;es of Colum- 
bus, bk 6, ch. 3 (ii, 1). — "To this account [sub- 
stantially as given above] of the origin of the 
Insular Charaibes, the generality of historians 
have given their assent; but there are doubts 
attending it that ar^ not easily solved. If they 
migrated from Florida, the imperfect state and 
natural course of their navagation induce a be- 
lief that traces of them would have been found 
on those islands which are near to the Florida 
shore ; yet the natives of the Bahamas, when dis- 
covered by Columbus, were evidently a similar 
people to those of Hispaniola. Besides, it is 
sufficiently known that there existed anciently 
many numerous and powerful tribes of Charaibes 
on the southern peninsula, extending from the 
river Oronoko to Essequebe, and throughout the 
whole province of Surinam, even to BrazU, some 
of which still maintain their independency. . . . 
I incline therefore to the opinion of Martyr, and 
conclude that the islanders were rather a colony 
from the Charaibes of South America, than from 
any nation of the North. Rochefort admits that 
their own traditions referred constantly to Gui- 
ana." — B Edwards, Hist, of Brit. Colonics in the 
W- Indies, bk. 1, ch. 2.— "The Carabisce, Cara- 
beesi, Charaibes, Caribs, or Galibis, originally 
occupied [in Guiana] the principal rivers, but as 
thi Dutch encroached upon their possessions 
they r.nired inland, and are now daily dwind- 
ling away According to Mr Hillhouse, they 

could formerly muster nearly 1,000 fighting men, 
but are now [1855] scarcely able to raise a tenth 
part of that number. . . . The smaller islands 
of the Caribbean Sea were formerly thickly 
populated by this tribe, but now not a trace of 
them remains " — H. G. Dalton, Ilist. of British 
Guiana, v. 1, ch. 1. — E. F. im Thum, AmoTvg 
the Indians of Guiana, ch. 6. — " Recent re- 
searches have shown that the original home of 
the stock was south of the Amazon, and prob- 
ably in the highlands at the head of the Tapajoz 
river. A tribe, the Bakairi, is still residant 
there, whose language is a pure and archaic 
form of the Carib tongue." — D. G. Brinton, Ra- 
ces and Peoples, p. 268. — "Related to the Caribs 
stand a long list of small tribes ... all inhabit- 
ants of the great primeval forest in and near 
Guiana. They may have characteristic differen- 
ces, but none worthy of mention are known. In 
bodily appearance, according to all accounts, 
these relatives of the Caribs are beautiful.' In 
Georgetown the Arauacas [or Arawaks] are cele- 
brated for their beauty. They are slender and 
graceful, and their features handsome and regu- 
lar, the face having a Grecian profile, and the 
skin being of a reddish cast. A little farther in- 
land we find the Macushi [or Macusis], with a 
lighter complexion and a Roman nose. These 
two types are repeated in other tribes, except in 
the Tarumi, who are decidedly ugly. In mental 
characteristics great simUarity prevails. " — The 
Standard Natural History (J. S. Kingsley, ed.),p. 
237. — " The Arawaks occupied on the continent 
the area of the modem Guiana, between the 
Corentyn and the Pomeroon rivers, and at one 
time all the West Indian Islands. From some of 
them they were early driven by the Caribs, and 
within 40 years of the date of Columbus' first 
voyage the Spanish had exterminated nearly all 
on the islands. Their course of migration had 
been from the interior of Brazil northward ; their 
distant relations are still to be found between the 
headwaters of the Paraguay and Schingu rivers." 
— D. G. Brinton, Baces and Peoples, p. 268-269.— 
"The Kapohn (Acawoios, Waikas, &c.) claim 
kindred with the Caribs. . . . The Acawoios, 
though resolute and determined, are less hasty 
and impetuous than the Caribs. . . , According 
to their tradition, one of their hordes removed 
[to the Upper Demerera] . . . from the 3Iasa- 
runi. The Parawianas, who originally dwelt on 
the Demerera, having been exterminated by the 
continual incursions of the Caribs, the Waika- 
Acawoios occupied their vacant territory. . . . 
The Macusis . . . are supposed by some to have 
formerly inhabited the banks of the Orinoco. 
... As they are industrious and unwarlike, they 
have been the prey of every savage tribe around 
them. The Wapisianas are supposed to have 
driven them northward and taken possession of 
their coimtry. The Brazilians, as well as the 
Caribs, Acawoios, &c., have long been in the 
habit of enslaving them. . . . The Arecunas 
have been accustomed to descend from the 
higher lands and attack the Macusis. . . , This 
tribe is said to have formerly dwelt on the banks 
of the Uaupes or Ucayari, a tributary of the Rio 
Negro . The Waraus appear to have been 
the most ancient inhabitants of the land Very 
little, however, can be gleaned from them re- 
specting their early history. . . . The Tivitiva^ 
mentioned by Raleigh, were probably a branch 
of the Waraus, whom he calls Quarawetea."— 




W H. Brett, Indian Tribes of Ouiana, pt. 2, eh. 

Caripuna. See below : GccK ou Coco Groct. 

Cat Nation, or Eries. See below: Huroxs, 
&c., and Iroqcois Cosfederact: Their Cos- 
quests, &c. 

Catawbas, or Kataba. See below: Siouan 
Family; also, TliinqUANAif. 

Cayugas. See below: Iroquois Confeder- 

Chancas. See Peru. 

Chapas, or Chapanecs. See below: Zapo- 


Cherokees. — "The Cherokee tribe has long 
been a puzzling factor to students of ethnology 
and North American languages. Whether to be 
considered an abnormal offshoot from one of the 
well-known Indian stocks or families of North 
America, or the remnant of some undetermined 
or almost extinct family which has merged into 
another, appear to be questions yet unsettled." 
— C. Thomas, Burial Mounds of t?ie Northern Sec- 
tions of the U. 8. (Fifth Annual Bept. of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-4). — Facts which 
tend to identify the Cherokees with the ancient 
"mound-builders" of the Ohio Valley — the Al- 
leghans or Talligewi of Indian tradition — are 
set forth by Prof. Thomas in a later paper, on 
the Problem of the Ohio Mounds, published by 
the Bureau of Ethnology in 1889 [see above: 
Allegh-vss] and in a little book published in 
1890, entitled "The Cherokees in Pre-Columbian 
Times." "The Cherokee nation has probably 
occupied a more prominent place in the aSairs 
and history of what is now the United States of 
America, since the date of the early European 
settlements, than any other tribe, nation, or con- 
federacy of Indians, unless it be possible to ex- 
cept the powerful and warlike league of the 
Iroquois or Six Nations of New York. It is al- 
most certain that they were visited at a very 
early period [1040] following the discovery of the 
American continent by that daring and enthiisi- 
astic Spaniard, Fernando de Soto. ... At the 
time of the English settlement of the Carolinas 
the Cherokees occupied a diversified and well- 
watered region of country of large extent upon 
the waters of the Catawba, Broad, Saluda, Keo- 
wee, Tugaloo, Savannah, and Coosa rivers on 
the east and south, and several tributaries of the 
Tennessee on the north and west. ... In sub- 
sequent years, through frequent and long con- 
tinued conflicts with the ever advancing white 
settlements, and the successive treaties whereby 
the Cherokees gradually yielded portions of their 
domain, the location and names of their towns 
were continually changing until the final removal 
of the nation [1S35-1830] west of the Mississippi. 
. . . This removal turned the Cherokees back in 
the calendar of progress and civilization at least 
a quarter of a century. The hardships and ex- 
posures of the journey, coupled with the fevers 
and malaria of a radically different climate, cost 
the lives of perhaps 10 per cent, of their total 
population The animosities and turbulence 
bom of the treaty of 1835 not only occasioned 
the loss of many lives, but rendered property in- 
secure, and in consequence diminished the zeal 
and industry of the entire community in its ac- 
cumulation A brief period of comparative 
quiet, however, was again characterized by an 
advance toward a higher civilization, PMve 
years after their removal we find from the re- 

*See Kote, Appeudiz £, vol. S. 

port of their agent that they are again on the 
increase in population. . . . With the exception 
of occasional drawbacks — the result of civU 
feuds — the progress of the nation in education, 
industry and civilization continued until the 
outbreak of the rebellion. At this period, from 
the best attainable information, the Cherokees 
numbered 21,000 souU. The events of the war 
brought to them more of desolation and ruin 
than perhaps to any other community. Raided 
and sacked alternately, not only by the Confed- 
erates and Union forces, but by the vindictive, 
ferocity and hate of their own factional divis-' 
ions, their country became a blackened and deso- 
late waste. . . . The war over, and the work of 
reconstruction commenced, found them number- 
ing 14,000 impoverished, heart-broken, and 
revengeful people. . . . To-day their country is 
more prosperous than ever. They number 
22,000, a greater population than they have had 
at any previous period, except perhaps just 
prior to the date of the treaty of 183.1, when 
those east added to those west of the Mississippi 
are stated to have aggregated nearly 25,000 peo- 
ple. Today they have 2,300 scholars attend- 
ing 75 schools, established and supported by 
themselves at an annual expense to the nation of 
nearly $100,000. To-day, 13,000 of their people 
can read and 18,000 can speak the Eng- 
lish language. To-day, 5,000 brick, frame and 
log-houses are occupied by them, and they have 
64 churches with a membership of several thou- 
sand. They cultivate 100,000 acres of land and 
have an additional 150,000 fenced. . . . They 
have a constitutional form of government predi- 
cated upon that of the United States. As a rule 
their laws are wise and beneficent and are en- 
forced with strictness and justice. . . . The 
present Cherokee population is of a composite 
character. Remnants of other nations or tribes 
[Delawares, Shawnees, Creeks, Natchez] have 
from time to time been absorbed and admitted to 
full participation in the benefits of Cherokee citi- 
zenship." — C. C. Royce, The Cherokee Nation of 
Indians {Fifth Annual Bept. of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, 1883-84). — This elaborate paper by 
Mr. Royce is a narrative in detail of the official 
relations of the Cherokees with the colonial and 
federal governments, from their first treaty with 
South Carolina, in 1721, down to the treaty of 
April 27, 1868 —"As early as 1798 Barton com- 
pared the Cheroki language with that of the 
Iroquois and stated his belief that there was a 
connection between them. . . . Mr. Hale was 
the first to give formal expression to his belief In 
the affinity of the Cheroki to Iroquois. Recently 
extensive Cheroki vocabularies have come into 
possession of the Bureau of Ethnology, and a 
careful comparison of them with ample Iroquois 
material has been made by Mr Hewitt. The re- 
sult is convincing proof of the relationship of 
the two languages." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Ati- 
nual Bept. of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 77.* 

Also in S. Q. Drake, The Aboriginal Races of 
N. Am., bk. 4, ch. 13-16 — See, above: Alle- 
CHANS. — See, also, for an account of the Che 
rokee War of 1759-1761, South Carolina: A D 
1759-1761; and for "Lord Dunmores War," 
Ohio (Valley). A D 1774. 

Cbeyenoes, or Sheyennes. See above: Al- 
gokquiax Family 

Chibchas. — The most northerly group of the 
tribes of the Andes "are the Cundinamarca of 




the table lands of Bogota. At the time of the 
conquest the ■n-atershed of the Magdalena was 
occupied by the Chibcha, or, as they were called 
by the Spaniards, Muyscas. At that time the 
Chibcha were the most powerful of all the 
autochthonous tribes, had a long history behind 
them, were well advanced toward civilization, 
to which numerous antiquities bear witness. 
The Chibcha of to-day no longer speak the well- 
developed and musical language of their fore- 
fathers. It became extinct about 1730, and it 
can now only be inferred from existing dialects 
of it; these are the languages of the Turiero, a 
tribe dwelling north of Bogota, and of the Itoco 
Indians who live in the neighborhood of the 
celebrated Emerald mines of Muzo. " — The Stan- 
dard Natural History (J. 8. Kingsley, ed.) v. 6, p. 
215. — "As potters and goldsmiths they [the 
Chibcha] ranked among the finest on the conti- 
nent. " — D. Q. Brinton, Hacea and Peoples, p. 272. 
—See, also, CoLOiiBiAN States: A. D. 1536- 

Chicasas. See below : Muskhoobun Family; 
also, Louisiana: A. D. 1719-1750. 

Chichimecs. See Mexico: A. D. 1325-1503. 

Chimakuan Family. — "The Chimakum are 
Said to have been formerly one of the largest and 
most powerful tribes of Puget Sound. Their 
warlike habits early tended to diminish their num- 
bers, and when visited by Gibbs in 1854 they 
counted only about 70 individuals. This small 
remnant occupied some 15 small lodges on Port 
TownsendBay." — J. AV. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 62. 

Chiraarikan Family. — "According to Powers, 
this family was represented, so far as known, by 
two tribes in California, one the Chi-raal-a-kwe, 
living on New River, a branch of the Trinity, 
the other the Chimariko, residing upon the Trin- 
ity itself from Burnt Ranch up to the mouth of 
North Fork, California. The two tribes are said 
to have been as numerous formerly as the Hupa, 
by whom they were overcome and nearly exter- 
minated. Upon the arrival of the Americans 
only 25 of the Chimalakwe were left." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 63. 

Chinantecs. See below: Zapotecs, etc. 

Chinookan Family.— "The banks of the Col- 
umbia, from the Grand Dalles to its mouth, belong 
to the two branches of the Tsinuk [or Chinook] 
nation, which meet in the neighborhood of the 
Kowlitz River, and of which an almost nominal 
remnant is left. . . . The position of the Tsinuk 
previous to their depopulation was, as at once 
appears, most important, occupying both sides of 
the great artery of Oregon for a distance of 200 
miles, they possessed the principal thoroughfare 
between the interior and the ocean, boundless 
resources of provisions of various kinds, and facil- 
ities for trade almost unequalled on the Paci- 
fic." — G. Gibbs, Tribes of West Washington and 
N. W. Oregon (Contrib. to X. A. Ethnology, o. 1), 
p. 164. — See, also, below: Flatheads. 

Chippewas. See below: Ojibwas; and 
above: Algonquian Family. 

Chippewyans. See below : Athapascan 

Choctavirs. See below: Muskhoge.\^n Family. 

Chontals and Popolocas. — "According to 
the census of 1S80 there were 31,000 Indians in 
Mexico belonging to the Familia Chontal. No 
such family exists. The word 'chontalli ' in the 

Nahuatl language means simply ' stranger, ' and 
was applied by the Nahuas to any people other 
than their own. According to tlie Mexican 
statistics, the Chontals are found in tlie states of 
Mexico, Puebla, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Tabasco, 
Guatemala and Nicaragua. A similiar term is 
'popoloca,' which in Nahuatl means a coarse 
fellow, one speaking badly, that is, broken 
Nahuatl. The Popolocas have also been erected 
into an ethnic entity by some ethnographers, 
with as little justice as the Chontallis. They 
are stated to have lived in the provinces of 
Puebla, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Mechoacan and 
Guatemala." — D. G. Brinton, The American 
Race, pp. 146-153. 

Chontaquiros. See above : Andesians. 

Chumashan Family. — "Derivation: From 
Chumash, the name of the Santa Rosa Islanders. 
The several dialects of this family have long 
been known under the group or family name, 
' Santa Barbara,' which seems first to have been 
used in a comprehensive sense by Latham in 
1856, who included under it three languages, viz. : 
Santa Barbara, Santa Inez, and San Luis Obispo. 
The term has no special pertinence as a family 
designation, except from the fact that the Santa 
Barbara Mission, around which one of the dia- 
lects of the family was spoken, is perhaps more 
widely known than any of the others." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 67. 

Cliff-dwellers. See America: Prehistoric. 

Coahuiltecan Family. — "Derivation: From 
the name of the Mexican State Coahuila. This 
family appears to have included numerous tribes 
in southwestern Texas and in Mexico. ... A 
few Indians still survive who speak one of the 
dialects of this family, and in 1886 Mr. Gatschet 
collected vocabularies of two tribes, the Come- 
crudo and Cotoname, who live on the Rio Grande, 
at Las Prietas, State of Tamaulipas." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 68. 

Coajiro, or Guajira. — "An exceptional posi- 
tion is taken, in many respects, by the Coajiro, 
or Guajira, who live on the peninsula of the 
same name on the northwestern boundary of 
Venezuela. Bounded on all sides by so-called 
civilized peoples, this Indian tribe is known to 
have maintained its independence, and acquired 
the well-deserved reputation for cruelty, a tribe 
which, in many respects, can be classed with the 
Apaches and Comanches of New Mexico, the 
Araucanians of Chili, and the Guaycara and 
Guarani on the Parana. The Coajiro are mostly 
large, with chestnut-brown complexion and 
black, sleek hair. While all the other coast 
tribes have adopted the Spanish language, the 
Coajiro have preserved their own speech. They 
are the especial foes of the other peoples. No 
one is given entrance into their laud, and they 
live with their neighbors, the Venezuelans, in 
constant hostilities. They have fine horses, 
which they know how to ride excellently. . . . 
They have numerous herds of cattle. . . . They 
follow agriculture a little." — The Standard Nat- 
ural History {J. S. Kingsley, ed.), v. 6, p. 243. 

Cochibo. See above: Andesi^vns. 

Cochiquima. See above: Andesiakb. 

Coco Group. See below: GucK or Coco 

Coconoons. See below : MARiPoaAN Familt. 

Cofan. See above : ANDESiAua. 




Collas. See Peru. 

Comanches. See below: Shoshonean Fam- 
ily, and KiowAN Family; and above: Apache 

Conestogas. See below : Susquehannas. 

Conibo. See above : Andesians. 

Conoys. See above : Algonquian Family. 

Copehan Family. — " The territory of tbeCope- family is bounded on the north by Mount 
Shasta and the territory of the Sastean and Lutu- 
amian families, on the east by the territory of 
the Palaihnihan, Yanan, and Punjunan families, 
and on the south by the bays of San Pablo and 
Suisun and tlie lower waters of the Sacramento." 
— J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual jRept., Bureau of 
Ethnolorjy, p. 69. 

Costanoan Family. — "Derivation: From the 
Spanish costano, 'coast-men.' Under this group 
name Latham included five tribes . . . which 
were under the supervision of the Mission Dolores. 
. . . The territory of the Costanoan family ex- 
tends from the Golden Gate to a point near the 
southern end of Monterey Bay. . . . The surviv- 
ing Indians of the once populous tribes of this 
family are now scattered over several counties 
and probably do not number, all told, over 30 
Individuals, as was ascertained by Mr. Henshaw 
in 1888. Most of these are to be found near the 
towns of Santa Cruz and Monterey." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Bept., Bureau of Eth- 
7u>lo(jy, p.l\. 

Creek Confederacy. — Creek Wars. See 
below: Muskhogean Family; also United 
States op Am. : A. D. 1813-1814 (August— 
April); and Florida: A. D. 1816-1818. 

Crees. See above: Aloonquian Family. 

Croatans. See America: A. D. 1587-1590. 

Crows (Upsarokas, or Absarokas). See 
below ; SiouAN Family. 

Cuatos. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Cunimare. See below: QucK OB Coco 

Cuyriri or Kiriri. See below: Guck or Coco 

Dakotas, or Dacotahs, or Dahcotas. See 
below : Siouan Family and Pawnee (Caddoan) 

Delawares, or Lenape. — "The proper name 
of the Delaware Indians was and is Lenape (a as 
In father, e as a in mate). . . . The Lenape 
were divided into three sub-tribes: — 1. The 
Minsi, Monseys, Montheys, Munsees, or Mini- 
sinks. 2. The Unami or Wonameys. 3. The 
Unalachtigo. No explanation of these designa- 
tions will be found in Heckewelder or the older 
writers. From investigations among living Dela- 
wares, carried out at my request by Mr. Horatio 
Hale, it is evident that they are wholly geo- 
graphical, and refer to the location of these sub- 
tribes on the Delaware river. . . . The Minsi 
lived in the mountainous region at the head 
waters of the Delaware, above the Forks or 
junction of the Lehigh river. . . . The Unamis' 
territory on the right bank of the Delaware river 
extended from the Lehigh Valley southward. It 
was with them and their southern neighbors, the 
Unalachtigos, that Penn dealt for the land ceded 
to him in the Indian deed of 1682. The Minsis 
did not take part in the transaction, and it was 
not until 1737 that the Colonial authorities treated 
directlv with the latter for the cession of their 
territory. The Unalachtigo or Turkey totem had 
its principal seat on the affluents of the Delaware 

near where Wilmington now stands." — D. G. 
Brinton, The Lenape and Their Legends, ch. 3. 
—"At the . . . time when William Penn landed 
in Pennsylvania, the Delawares had been subju- 
gated and made women by the Five Nations. It 
is well known that, according to that Indian mode 
of expression, the Delawares were henceforth 
prohibited from making war, and placed under 
the sovereignty of the conquerors, who did not 
even allow sales of land, in the actual possession 
of the Delawares, to be valid without their appro- 
bation. William Penn, his descendants, and the 
State of Pennsylvania, accordingly, always pur- 
chased the right of possession from the Delawares, 
and that of Sovereignty from the Five Nations. 
. . . The use of arms, though from very differ- 
ent causes, was equally prohibited to the Dela- 
wares and to the Qualiers. Thus the coloniza- 
tion of Pennsylvania and of West New Jersey by 
the British, commenced under the most favorable 
auspices. Peace and the utmost harmony pre- 
vailed for more than sixty years between the 
whites and the Indians ; for these were for the 
first time treated, not only justly, but kindly, by 
the colonists. But, however gradually and 
peaceably their lands might have been purchased, 
the Delawares found themselves atlast in the same 
situation as all the other Indians, without lands 
of their own, and therefore without means of 
subsistence. They were compelled to seek 
refuge on the waters of the Susquehanna, as 
tenants at will, on lands belonging to their hated 
conquerors, the Five Nations. Even there and 
on the Juniata they were encroached upon. . . . 
Under those circumstances, many of the Dela- 
wares determined to remove west of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, and, about the year 1740-50, 
obtained from their ancient allies and uncles, the 
Wyandots, the grant of a derelict tract of land 
lying principally on the Muskingum. The great 
body of the nation was still attached to Pennsyl- 
vania. But the grounds of complaint increased. 
The Delawares were encouraged by the western 
tribes, and by the French, to shake olf the yoke 
of the Six Nations, and to join in the war against 
their allies, the British. The frontier settlements 
of Pennsylvania were accordingly attacked both 
by the Delawares and the Shawnoes. And, 
although peace was made with them at Easton in 
in 1758, and the conquest of Canada put an end 
to the general war, both the Shawnoes and Dela- 
wares removed altogether in 1768 beyond the 
Alleghany Mountains. . . . The years 17G5-1795 
are the true period of the power and importance 
of the Delawares. United with the Shawnoes, 
who were settled on the Scioto, they sustained 
during the Seven Years' War the declining power 
of Franco, and arrested for some years the pro- 
gress of the British and American arms. 
Although a portion of the nation adhered to the 
Americans during the War of Independence, the 
main body, together with all the western nations 
made common cause with the British. And, 
after the short truce which followed the treaty of 
1783, they were again at the liead of the western 
confederacy in their last struggle for indepen- 
dence. Placed by their geographical situation in 
the front of battle, they were, during those 
throe wars, the aggressors, and, to the last 
moment, the most active and formidable enemies 
of America. The decisive victory of General 
Wayne (1794), dissolved the confederacy; and the 
Delawares were the greatest sufferers by the 




treaty of Greenville of 1795." After this, the 
greater part of the Delawares were settled on 
White River, Indiana, "till the year 1819, when 
they finally ceded their claim to the United 
States. Those residing there were then reduced 
to about 800 souls. A number . . . had pre- 
viously removed to Canada ; and it is difficult to 
ascertain the situation or numbers of the residue 
at this time [1836]. Those who have lately 
removed west of the Mississippi are, in an esti- 
mate of the War Department, computed at 400 
souls. Former emigrations to that quarter had 
however taken place, and several small dispersed 
bands are, it is believed, united with the Senecas 
and some other tribes." — A. Gallatin, Synopsis of 
the Indian Tribes {Archwologia Americana, v. 2), 
introd., sect. 3. — See, above: Algonqdiau Fam- 
ily ; below : Shawanese, and Pawnee (Cad- 
doan) Famfly. — Also, Pontiac's War; United 
States of Am. : A. D. 176.5-1768 ; and Moravian 
Brethren; and, for an account of "Lord Dun- 
more's War," see Ohio (Valley): A. D. 1774. 

Eries. See below: Hqrons, &c., and Iro- 
quois Confeder.\ct : Their Conquests, &c. 

Eskimauan Family. — "Save a slight inter- 
mixture of European settlers, the Eskimo are 
the only inhabitants of the shores of Arctic Amer- 
ica, and of both sides of Davis Strait and Baf- 
fin Bay, including Greenland, as well as a tract 
of about 400 miles on the Beliring Strait coast 
of Asia. Southward they extend as far as about 
50° N. L. on the eastern side, 60° on the west- 
ern side of America, and from 55° to 60° on 
the shores of Hudson Bay. Only on the west 
the Eskimo near tlieir frontier are interrupted 
on two small spots of the coast by the Indians, 
named Kennayaus and Ugalenzes, who have 
there advanced to the sea-shore for the sake of 
fishing. These coasts of Arctic America, of 
course, also comprise all the surrounding islands. 
Of these, the Aleutian Islands form an excep- 
tional group ; the inhabitants of these on the one 
hand distinctly difEering from the coast people 
here mentioned, while on the other they show a 
closer relationship to the Eskimo than any other 
nation. The Aleutians, therefore, may be con- 
sidered as only an abnormal branch of the 
Eskimo nation. ... As regards their northern 
limits, the Eskimo people, or at least remains of 
their habitations, have been found nearly as far 
north as any Arctic explorers have hitherto 
advanced; and very possibly bands of them may 
live still farther to the north, as yet quite 
unknown to us. . . . On comparing the Eskimo 
with the neighbouring nations, their physical 
complexion certainly seems to point at an 
Asiatic origin; but, as far as we know, the 
latest investigations have also shown a tran- 
sitional link to exist between the Eskimo and 
the other American nations, which would suf- 
ficiently indicate the possibility of a common 
origin from the same continent. As to their 
mode of life, the Eskimo decidedly resemble 
their American neiglibours. . . . With regard to 
their language, the Eskimo also appear akin to 
the American nations in regard to its decidedly 
polysyuthetic structure. Here, however, on the 
other hand, we meet with some very remarkable 
similarities between the Eskimo idiom and the 
language of Siberia, belonging to the Altaic or 
Firmish group. . . . According to the Sagas of 
the Icelanders, they were already met with on 
the east coast of Greenland about the year 1000, 

and almost at the same time on the east coast of 
the American continent. . . . Between the years 
1000 and 1300 they do not seem to have occupied 
the land south of 65° N. L. on the west coast of 
Greenland, where the Scandinavian colonies 
were then situated. But the colonists seem 
to have been aware of their existence in 
higher latitudes, and to have lived in fear of an 
attack by them, since, in the year 1266, an 
expedition was sent out for the purpose of 
exploring the abodes of the Slcralings, as they 
were called by the colonists. . . . About the 
year 1450, the last accounts were received from 
the colonies, and the way to Greenland was 
entirely forgotten in the mother country. . . . 
The features of the natives in the Southern part 
of Greenland indicate a mixed descent, from the 
Scandinavians and Eskimo, the former, how- 
ever, not having left the slightest sign of any 
influence on the nationality or culture of the 
present natives. In the year 1585, Greenland was 
discovered anew by John Davis, and found 
inhabited exclusively by Eskimo." — H. Rink, 
Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, introd. and 
ch. 6. — The same, I'he Eskimo tribes. — "In 1869, 
I proposed for the Aleuts and people of Innuit 
stock collectively the term Orarians, as indicative 
of their coastwise distribution, and as supplying 
the need of a general term to designate a very 
well-defined race. . . . The Orarians are divided 
into two well-marked groups, namely the 
Innuits, comprising all the so-called Eskimo and 
Tuskis, and the Aleuts."— W. H. Dall, Tribes of 
the Extreme Northwest (Contrib. to N. A. Eth- 
nology, V. 1), pt. 1. 

Esselenian Family. — "The present family 
was included by Latham in the heterogeneous 
group called by him Salinas. . . . The term 
balinan [is now] restricted to the San Antonio 
and San Miguel languages, leaving the present 
family ... [to be] called Esselenian, from the 
name of the single tribe Esselen, of which it is 
composed. . . . The tribe or tribes composing 
this family occupied a narrow strip of the Cali- 
fornia coast from Monterey Bay south to the 
vicinity of the Santa Lucia Mountain, a distance 
of about 50 miles. "—J. W. Powell, Seventh An^ 
nual Bept. , Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 75-76. 

Etchemins. See above: Aloonquian Family. 

Eurocs, or Yuroks. See below : Modocs, &c. 

Five Nations. See below: Iroquois Con- 

Flatheads (Salishan Family).''^" The name 
Flathead was commonly given to the Choctaws, 
though, says Du Pratz, he saw no reason why 
they should be so distinguished, when the prac- 
tice of flattening the head was so general. And 
in the enumeration just cited [Documentary Hist, 
of N. Y., V. 1, p. 24] the next paragraph ... is: 
' The Flatheads, Cherakis, Chicachas, and Totiris 
are included under the name of Flatheads by the 
Iroquois. "— JI. F. Force, Some Early Notices of 
the Indians of Ohio, p. 33. — "The Salish . . . 
are distinctively known as Flatheads, though 
the custom of deforming the cranium is not 
confined to them. " — D. G. Brinton, The Ameri- 
can liace, p. 107. — "In . . . early times the 
hunters and trappers could not discover why 
the Blackfcet and Flatheads [of Montana] re- 
ceived their respective designations, for the 
feet of the former are no more inclined to sable 
than any other part of the body, while the heads 
of the latter possess their fair proportion of 

• See Note, Appendix E. vol. 5. 




rotundity. Indeed it is only below the falls and 
rapids that real Flatheads appear, and at the 
mouth of the Columbia that they flourish most 
supernaturally. The tribes who practice the 
custom of flattening the head, and who lived at 
the mouth of the Columbia, differed little from 
each other in laws, manners or customs, and were 
composed of the Cathlamahs, Killmucks, Clat- 
sops, Chinooks and Chilts. The abominable 
custom of flattening their heads prevails among 
them all." — P. Ronan, Hist. Sketch of the Flat- 
head Indian Nation, p. 17, — In Major Powell's 
linguistic classification, the " Salishan Family" 
(Flathead) is given a distinct place. — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual llept. of tlie Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 103. 

Fox Indians. See above: Alronqdian 
Family, and below, Sacs, &c. — For an account 
of the massacre of Fox Indians at Detroit in 1712, 
see Canada (New France): A. D. 1711-1713. 
— For an account of the Black Hawk War, see 
Illinois: A. D. 1832. 

Fuegians. See below: Pataqonians. 

Gausarapos or Guuchies. See below: Pam- 
pas Tribes. 

Ges Tribes. See below: Tdpi. — Guabani. — 


Gros Ventres (Minnetaree ; Hidatsa).* See 
below: Hidatsa; also, above: Algonquian 

Guaicarus. See below : PAirPAS TRtBES. 

Guajira. See above: Coajiro. 

Guanas. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Guarani, See below : Tupi. 

Guayanas. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Guck or Coco Group. — An extensive linguistic 
group of tribes in Brazil, on and north of the Ama- 
zon, extending as far as the Orinoco, has been 
called the Guck, or Coco group. "There is no 
common name for the group, that here used 
meaning a father's brother, a very important per- 
sonage in these tribes. The Guck group em- 
braces a large number of tribes. . . . We need 
enumerate but few. The Cuyriri or Bjriri (also 
known as Sabaja, Pimenteiras, etc.), number 
about 3,000. Some of them are half civilized, 
some are wild, and, without restraint, wander 
about, especially in the mountains in the Prov- 
ince of Pernambuco. The Araicu live on the 
lower Amazon and the Tocantius. Next come 
the Manaos, who have a prospect of maintaining 
themselves longer than most tribes. With them 
is connected the legend of the golden lord who 
washed the gold dust from his limbs in a lake 
[see El Dorado]. . . . The Uirina, Bare, and 
Cariay live on the Rio Negro, the Cunimare on 
the Jurua, the Maranha on the Jutay. Whether 
the Chamicoco on the right bank of the Paraguay, 
belong to the Guck is uncertain. Among the 
tribes which, though very much mixed, are still 
to be enumerated with the Guck, are the Tecuna 
and the Passe. In language the Tecunas show 
many similarities to the Ges; they live on the 
western borders of Brazil, and extend inEquador 
to the Pastafa. Among them occur peculiar 
masques which strongly recall those found on 
the northwest coast of North America. ... In 
the same district belong the Uaupe, who are no- 
ticeable from the fact that they live in barracks, 
indeed the only tribe in South America in which 
this custom appears. The communistic houses 
of the Uaupe are called ' malloca ; ' they are build- 
ings of about 120 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 30 

high, in which live a band of about 100 persons 
In 12 families, each of the latter, however, in its 
own room. . . . Finally, complex tribes of the 
most different nationality are comprehended 
under names which indicixte only a common way 
of life, but are also incorrectly used as ethno- 

fraphic names. These are Caripuna, Jlura, and 
liranha, all of whom live in tlie neigliborhood 
of the Madeira River. Of the Caripuna or 
Jaiin- Avo (both terms signify ' watermen '), who 
are mixed with Quichua blood, it is related that 
they not only ate human flesh, but even cured it 
for preservation. . . . Formerly the Mura . . . 
were greatly feared ; this once powerful and 
populous tribe, however, was almost entirely 
destroyed at the end of the last century by the 
Slundruco; the remnant is scattered. . . . The 
Mura are the gypsies among the Indians on the 
Amazon; and by all the other tribes they are 
regarded with a certain degree of contempt as 
pariahs. . . . Much to be feared, even among the 
Indians, are also the Miranha (i. e., rovers, vaga- 
bonds), a still populous tribe on the right bank 
of the Japura, who seem to know nothing but 
war, robbery, murder, and man-hunting." — 
The Standard Natural History (J. S. Kingsley, 
ed.), v. 6, pp. 245-248. 

Also in F. Keller, The Amazon and Madeira 
Rivers, ch. %aiul6.— H. W. Bates, A Naturalist 
on t?ie Riser Amazons, ch. 7-13. 

Guuchies. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

Hackinsacks. See above : Algonquian 

Haidas. See below : Skittagetan Family. 

Hidatsa, or Minnetaree, or Grosventresf— 
"The Hidatsa, Minnetaree, or Grosventre In- 
dians, are one of the three tribes which at pres- 
ent inhabit the permanent village at Fort Ber- 
thold, Dakota Territory, aud hunt on the waters 
of the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, 
in Northwestern Dakota and Eastern Montana. 
The history of this tribe is . . . intimately con- 
nected with that of the politically allied tribes of 
the Aricarees and Mandans." The name, Gros- 
ventres, was given to the people of this tribe 
"by the early French and Canadian adventurers. 
The same name was applied also to a tribe, 
totally distinct from these in language and 
origin, which lives some hundreds of miles west 
of Fort Berthold ; and the two nations are now 
distinguished from one another as Grosventres of 
the Missouri and Grosventres of the Prairie. . . . 
Edward Umfreville, who traded on the Saskatche- 
wan River from 1784 to 1787, . . . remarks: 
. . . ' They [the Canadian French] call them 
Grosventres, or Big-Bellies; aud without any 
reason, as they are as comely and as well made 
as any tribe whatever. ' ... In the works of 
many travellers they are called Minnetarees, a 
name which is spelled in various ways. . . . 
This, although a Hidatsa word, is the name ap- 
plied to them, not by themselves, but by the 
Mandans; it signifies 'to cross the water,' 
or 'they crossed the water. '. . . Plidatsa was 
the name of the village on Knife River 
farthest from the Jlissouri, the village of 
those whom Lewis aud Clarke considered the 
Minnetarees proper." It is tlie name "now gen- 
erally used by this people to designate them- 
selves." — W. Matthews, Ethnography a/(d Phil- 
ology of the Hidatsa India ns, pt. 1-2 {U. S. 
Oeolog. and Oeog. Survey, F. V. Tlayden, Mis. 
Pub., No. 7). — See also, below: Siouan Family. 

•See Note, Appendix E, vol. 6. 




Hitchitis. See below: Mdskhogean Family. 

Horikans. — North of the Mohegans, who oc- 
cupied the east bank of the Hudson River 
opijosite Albany, and covering the present coun- 
ties of Columbia and Rensselaer, dwelt the Al- 
gonkin tribe of Horikans, "whose hunting 
grounds appear to have extended from the 
waters of the Connecticut, across the Green 
Mountains, to the borders of that beautiful lake 
[named Lake George by the too loyal Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson] which might now well bear 
their sonorous name." — J. R. Brodhead, Hist, 
of the State of N. T., p. 77. 

Huamaboya. See above: Andebians. 

Huancas. See Peru. 

Huastecs. See below: Mayas. 

Huecos, or Wacos. See below: Pawkee 
(Caddoan) Family. 

Humas, or Oumas. See below: Muskho- 


Hupas.* See below: Modocs, &c. 

Hurons, or Wyandots. — Neutral Nation. — 
Eries. — "The peninsula between the Lakes 
Huron, Erie, and Ontario was occupied by two 
distinct peoples, speaking dialects of the Iro- 
quois tongue. The Hurona or Wyandots. includ- 
ing the tribe called by the French the Diononda- 
dies, or Tobacco Nation, dwelt among the 
forests which bordered the eastern shores of the 
fresh water sea to which they have left their 
name ; while the Neutral Nation, so called from 
their neutrality in the war between the Hurons 
and the Five Nations, inhabited the northern 
si ores of Lake Erie, and even extended their 
e( stern flank across the strait of Niagara. The 
pjpulation of tlie Hurons has been variously 
stated at from 10,000 to 30,000 souls, but proba- 
bly did not exceed the former estimate. The 
Franciscans and the Jesuits were early among 
them, and from their descriptions it is apparent 
that, in legends, and superstitions, manners and 
habits, religious observances and social customs, 
they were closely assimilated to their brethren 
of the Five Nations. . . . Like the Five Nations, 
the Wyandots were in some measure an agricul- 
tural people; they bartered the surplus products 
of their maize fields to surrounding tribes, 
usually receiving fish in exchange; and this 
traffic was so considerable that the Jesuits styled 
their country the Granary of the Algonquins. 
Tlieir prosperity was rudely broken by the hos- 
tilities of the Five Nations; for though the con- 
flicting parties were not ill matched in point of 
numbers, yet the united counsels and ferocious 
energies of the confederacy swept all before 
them. In the year 1649, in the depth of winter, 
their warriors invaded the country of the Wyan- 
dots, stormed their largest villages, and involved 
all within in indiscriminate slaughter. The sur- 
vivors fled in panic terror, and the whole nation 
was broken and dispersed. Some found refuge 
among the French of Canada, where, at the 
village of Lorette, near Quebec, their descendants 
still remain; others were incorporated with their 
conquerors, while others again fled northward, 
beyond Lake Superior, and sought an asylum 
among the wastes which bordered on the north- 
lastern lands of the Dahcotah, Driven back by 
those fierce bison-hunters, they next established 
themselves about the outlet of Lake Superior, 
and the sliores and islands in the northern parts of 
Lake Huroa Thence, about the year 1680, they 
descended to Detroit, where they formed a per- 

manent settlement, and where, by their superior 
valor, capacity and address, they soon acquired 
an ascendancy over the surrounding Algonquins. 
The ruin of the Neutral Nation followed close 
on that of the Wyandots, to whom, according to 
Jesuit authority, they bore an exact resemblance 
in character and manners. The Senecas soon 
found means to pick a quarrel with them ; they 
were assailed by all the strength of the insatiable 
confederacy, and within a few years their 
destruction as a nation was complete." — F. 
Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac, ch. 1. — The 
same. The Jesuits in North America., ch. 1. — 
"The first in this locality [namely, the western 
extremity of the State of New York, on and 
around the site of the city of Buffalo], of whom 
history makes mention, were the Attiouandar- 
onk, or Neutral Nation, called Kah-kwas by 
the Senecas. They had their council-fires along 
the Niagara, but principally on its western side. 
Their hunting grounds extended from the Gen- 
esee nearly to the eastern shores of Lake Huron, 
embracing a wide and important territory. . . . 
They are first mentioned by Champlain during 
his winter visit to the Hurons in 1615 . . . but 
he was unable to visit their territory. . . . The 
peace which this peculiar people had so long 
maintained with the Iroquois was destined to be 
broken. Some jealousies and collisions occurred 
in 16-17, wliich culminated in open war in 16.50. 
One of the villages of the Neutral Nation, nearest 
the Senecas and not far from the site of our city 
[Buffalo], was captured in the autumn of the 
latter year, and another the ensuing spring. So 
well-directed and energetic were the blows of 
the Iroquois, that the total destruction of the 
Neutral Nation was speedily accomplished. . . . i 
The survivors were adopted by their conquerors. I 
... A long period intervened between the 
destruction of the Neutral Nation and the per-; 
mauent occupation of their country by the Sen- 
ecas," — which latter event occurred after the 
expulsion of the Senecas from the Genesee 
Valley, by the expedition under General Sulli- 
van, In 1779, during the Revolutionary War. 
"They never, as a nation, resumed their ancient 
seats along the Genesee, but sought and found a 
new home on the secluded banks and among the 
basswood forests of the D6-syo-wil, or Buffalo 
Creek, whence they had driven the Neutral 
Nation 130 years before. ... It has been as- 
sumed by many writers that the Kah-kwas and 
Eries were identical. This is not so. The latter, 
according to the most reliable authorities, lived 
south of the western extremity of Lake Erie 
until they were destroyed by the Iroquois in 
1655. The Kah-kwas were exterminated by 
them as early as 1651. On Coronelli's map, 
published in 1688, one of the villages of the 
latter, called 'Kahouagoga, a destroyed nation,' 
is located at or near the site of Buffalo." — O. H. 
Marsliall, The Niagara Frontier, pp. 5-8, and 
foot-note. — "Westward of the Neutrals, along 
the Southeastern shores of Lake Erie, and stretch- 
ing as far east as the Genesee river, lay the 
country of the Eries, or, as they were denomi- 
nated by the Jesuits, 'La Nation Chat,' or Cat 
Nation, who were also a member of the Huron- 
Iroquois family. The name of the beautiful 
lake on whose margin our city [Buffalo] was 
cradled is their most enduring monument, as 
Lake Huron is that of the generic stock. They 
were called the Cat Nation either because that 

' See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 




'Interesting but mischievous animal, the raccoon, 
■which the holy fathers erroneously classed in 
the feline gens, was the totem of their leading 
clan, or sept, or in consequence of the abundance 
of that mammal within their territory." — W. C. 
Bryant, Interesting Archaeological Studies in and 
about Buffalo, p. 12. — Mr. Schoolcraft either 
identities or confuses the Eries and the Neutral 
Nation.— H. R. Schoolcraft, Sketch of the Hist, 
'of the Ancient Eries (Information Sespecting the 
Indian Tribes, pt. 4, p. 197). 

Also in J. G. Shea, Inqiiiries Respecting the 
lost Neutral Nation {same, pt. 4, p. 204). — D. 
Wilson, The Huron-Iroquois of Canada (Trans. 
Royal Soc. of Canada, 1884).— P. D. Clarke, 
Origin and Traditional Hist, of the Wyandottea. 
— W. Ketchum, Hist, of Buffalo, v. 1, ch. 1-2.— 
N. B. Craig. The Olden Time, v. 1, p. 225.— See 
below: Iroquois Confederacy; also, Canada 
(New France): A. D. 1608-1611; 1611-1616; 
1634-1652; 1640-1700.— See, also, Pontiac's 
War, and for an account of ' ' Lord Dunmore's 
War," see Ohio (Valley): A. D. 1774. 

Illinois and Miamis. — "Passing the country 
of the Lenape and the Shawanoes, and descend- 
ling the Ohio, the traveller would have found its 
valley chiefly occupied by two nations, the 
Miamis or Twightwees, on the Wabash and its 
branches, and the Illinois, who dwelt in the 
neighborhood of the river to which they have 
given their name, while portions of them ex- 
tended beyond the Mississippi. Though never 
subjugated, as were the Lenape, both the 
Miamis and the Illinois were reduced to the last 
e.xtremity by the repeated attacks of the Five 
Nations ; and the Illinois, in particular, suffered 
so much by these and other wars, that the popu- 
lation of ten or twelve thousand, ascribed to 
them by the early French writers, had dwindled, 
during the first quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, to a few small villages. "—P. Parkman, 
Conspiracy of Pontiac, ch. 1. — See, also, above: 
Alqonquian Family ; and below : Sacs, &c. ; 
also Canada (New France): A. D. 1669-1687. 

Incas, or Yncas. See Peru. 

Innuits. See above : Eskimauan. 

lowas. See below : Siodan Family, and Paw- 
nee (Caddoan) Family. 

Iroquois Confederacy. — Iroquoian Family. 
'—" At the outset of the 16th Century, when the 
five tribes or nations of the Iroquois confederacy 
first became known to European explorers, they 
were found occupying the valleys and uplands 
of northern New York, in that picturesque and 
fruitful region which stretches westward from 
the head-waters of the Hudson to the Genesee. 
The Mohawks, or Caniengas — as they should 
properly be called — possessed the Mohawk River, 
and covered Lake George and Lake Champlain 
with their flotillas of large canoes, managed with 
the boldness and skill which, hereditary in their 
descendants, make them still the best boatmen of 
the North American rivers. West of the Canien- 
gas the Oneidas held the small river and lake which 
bear their name. . . . West of the Oneidas, the 
imperious Onondagas, the central and, in some re- 
spects, the ruling nation of the League, possessed 
the two lakes of Onondaga and Skaneateles, to- 
gether with the common outlet of this inland lake 
system, the Oswego River to its Issue into Lake 
Ontario. Still proceeding westward, the lines of 
trail and river led to the long and winding stretch 
of Lake (jayuga, about which were clustered the 

towns of the people who gave their name to the 
lake ; and beyond them, over the wide expanse 
of hills and dales surrounding Lakes Seneca and 
Canandaigua, were scattered the populous vil- 
lages of the Senecas, more correctly called Sonon- 
towanas, or Mountaineers. Such were the names 
and abodes of the allied nations, members of the 
far-famed Kanonsionni, or League of United 
Households, who were destined to become for a 
time the most notable and powerful community 
among the native tribes of North America. The 
region which has been described was not, however, 
the original seat of those nations. They belonged 
to that linguistic family which is known to ethnol- 
ogists as the Huron-Iroquois stock. This stock 
comprised the Hurons or Wyandots, the Atti- 
wandaronks or Neutral Nation, the Iroquois, the 
Eries, the Andastes or Conestogas, the Tuscaroras 
and some smaller bands. The tribes of this family- 
occupied a long irregular area of inland terri- 
tory, stretching from Canada to North Carolina. 
The northern nations were all clustered about 
the great lakes ; the southern bands held the fer- 
tile valleys bordering the head-waters of the 
rivers which flowed from the Allegheny moun- 
tains. The languages of all these tribes showed 
a close afilnity. . . . The evidence of language, 
so far as it has yet been examined, seems to show 
that the Huron clans were the older members of 
the group ; and the clear and positive traditions 
of all the surviving tribes, Hurons, Iroquois, and 
Tuscarora, point to the lower St. Lawrence as 
the earliest known abode of their stock. Here 
the first explorer, Cartier, found Indians of this 
stock at Hochelaga and Stadacone, now the sites 
of Montreal and Quebec. ... As their numbers 
increased, dissensions arose. The hive swarmed, 
and band after band moved off to the west and 
south. As they spread they encountered people 
of other stocks, with whom they had frequent 
wars. Their most constant and most dreaded 
enemies were the tribes of the Aigonkin family, 
a fierce and restless people, of northern origin, 
who everywhere surrounded them. At one 
period, however, if the concurrent traditions of 
both Iroquois and Algonkins can be believed, 
these contending races for a time stayed their 
strife, and united their forces in an alliance 
against a common and formidable foe. This foe 
was the nation, or perhaps the confederacy, of 
the Alligewi or Talligewi, the semi-civilized 
' Mound -builders ' of the Ohio Valley, who have 
left their name to the Allegheny river and moun- 
tains, and whose vast earthworks are still, after 
half-a-century of study, the perplexity of archoe- 
ologists. A desperate warfare ensued, which 
lasted about a hundred years, and ended in the 
complete overthrow and destruction, or expul- 
sion, of the Alligewi. The survivors of the con- 
quered people fled southward. . . . The time 
which has elapsed since the overthrow of the 
Alligewi is variously estimated. The most prob- 
able conjecture places it at a period about a 
thousand years before the present day. It was 
apparently soon after their expulsion that the 
tribes of the Huron-Iroquois and the Aigonkin 
stocks scattered themselves over the wide region 
south of the Great Lakes, thus left open to their 
occupancy." — H. Hale, Introd. to Iroquois Book 
of Rites. — After the coming of the Europeans 
into the New World, the French were the first to 
be involved in hostilities with the Iroquois, and 
their early wars with them produced a hatred 




■which could never be extinguished. Hence the 
English were able to win the alliance of the Five 
Nations, when they struggled with France for 
the master)' of the North American continent, 
and they owed their victory to that alliance, prob- 
ably, more than to any other single cause. Eng- 
land still retained the faithful friendship and 
alliance of the Iroquois when she came to a 
struggle with her own colonies, and all the tribes 
except the Oneidas were in arms against the 
Americans in the Revolutionary War. "With 
the restoration of peace, the political transactions 
of the League were substantially closed. This 
was, in effect, the termination of their political 
existence. The jurisdiction of the United States 
was extended over their ancient territories, and 
from that time forth they became dependent 
nations. During the progress of the Revolution, 
the Mohawks abandoned their country and re- 
moved to Canada, finally establishing themselves 
partly upon Grand River, in the Niagara penin- 
sula, and partly near Kingston, where they now 
reside upon two reservations secured to them by 
the British government. . . . The policy of the 
State of New York [toward the Iroquois nations] 
wasever justand humane. Although their coun- 
try, with the exception of that of the Oneidas, 
might have been considered as forfeited by the 
event of the Revolution, yet the government 
never enforced the rights of conquest, but ex- 
tinguished the Indian title to the country by 
purchase, and treaty stipulations. A portion of 
the Oneida nation [who had sold their lands to 
the State, from time to time, excepting one small 
reservation] emigrated to a reservation on the 
river Thames in Canada, where about 400 of them 
now [1851] reside. Another and a larger band 
removed to Green Bay, in Wisconsin, where they 
still make their homes to the number of 700. 
But a small part of the nation have remained 
around the seat of their ancient council-fire . . . 
near Oneida Castle, in the county of Oneida." 
The Onondagas "still retain their beautiful and 
secluded valley of Onondaga, with sufficient ter- 
ritory for their comfortable maintenance. About 
150 Onondagas now reside with the Senecas; 
another party are established on Grand River, in 
Canada, and a few have removed to the west. 
... In the brief space of twelve years after the 
first house of the white man was erected in Cay- 
uga county (1789) the whole nation [of the Cay- 
ugas] was uprooted and gone. In 1795, they 
ceded, by treaty, all their lands to the State, with 
the exception of one reservation, which they fin- 
ally abandoned about the year 1800. A portion 
of them removed to Green Bay, another to Grand 
River, and still another, and a much larger band, 
settled at Sandusky, in Ohio, from whence they 
were removed by government, a few years since, 
into the Indian territory, west of the Mississippi. 
About 120 still reside among the Senecas, in west- 
ern New York. . . . The Tuscaroras, after re- 
moving from the Oneida territory, finally located 
near the Niagara river, in the vicinity of Lewis- 
ton, on a tract given to them by the Senecas. 
. . . The residue of the Senecas are now shut up 
within three small reservations, the Tonawanda, 
the Cattaraugus and the Allegany, which, united, 
would not cover the area of one of the lesser 
counties of the State." — L. H. Morgan, The 
League of the Iroquois, bk. 1, ch. 1. — "The In- 
dians of the State of New York number about 
5,000, and occupy lands to the estimated extent 

of 87,677 acres. With few exceptions, these 
people are the direct descendants of the native 
Indians, who once possessed and controlled the 
soil of the entire State." — Sept. of Special Com. 
to Inveitigate the Indian Problem of the State of 
N. Y., 1889. —In 1715 the Five Nations of 
the Iroquois Confederacy became Six Nations, 
by the admission of the Tuscaroras, from N. 
Carolina. — See below : Iroquois Tribes op 
THE South. — On the relationship between the 
Iroquois and the Cherokees, sec above : Chero- 


Iroquois Confederacy. — The Legend oJ 
Hiawatha, the Founder. See Iroquois Con- 

Iroquois Confederacy. — Their Name. — " The 

origin and proper meaning of the word Iroquois 
are doubtful. All that can be said with cer- 
tainty is that the explanation given by Charlevoix 
cannot possibly be correct. The name of 
Iroquois, he says, is purely French, and has 
been formed from the term ' hiro,' ' I have 
spoken, ' a word by which these Indians close all 
their speeches, and 'koue,' which, when long 
drawn out, is a cry of sorrow, and when briefly 
uttered is an exclamation of joy. . . . But . . . 
Champlain had learned the name from his 
Indian allies before he or any other Frenchman, 
so far as is known, had ever seen an Iroquois. 
It is probable that the origin of the word is to 
be sought in the Huron language ; yet, as this 
is similar to the Iroquois tongue, an attempt 
may be made to find a solution in the latter. 
According to Bruyas, the word ' garokwa ' meant 
a pipe, and also a piece of tobacco, — and, in its 
verbal form, to smoke. This word is found, 
somewhat disguised by aspirates, in the Book of 
Rites, — denighroghkwayen, — ' let us two smoke' 
together.'. . . In the indeterminate form the 
verb becomes 'ierokwa,' which is certainly very 
near to Iroquois. It might be rendered ' they who 
smoke,' or 'they who use tobacco,' or, briefly, 
'the Tobacco People.' This name, the Tobacco 
Nation ('Nation du Petun ') was given by the 
French, and probably also by the Algonkins, to 
one of the Huron tribes, the Tionontates, noted 
for the excellent tobacco which they raised and 
sold. The Iroquois were equally well known 
for their cultivation of this plant, of which they 
had a choice variety. " — H.Hale, Iroquois Book 
of Rites, app., note A. 

Iroquois Confederacy. — Their conquests 
and wide dominion. — "The project of a 
League [among the ' Five Nations ' of the Iro- 
quois] originated with the Onondagas, among 
whom it was first suggested, as a means to 
enable them more efEectually to resist the pres- 
sure of contiguous nations. The epoch of its 
establishment cannot now be decisively ascer- 
tained ; although the circumstances attending its 
formation are still preserved by tradition with 
great minuteness. These traditions all refer to 
the northern shore of the Onondaga lake, as the 
place where the Iroquois chiefs assembled, in 
general congress, to agree upon the terms and 
principles of the compact. . . . After the forma- 
tion of the League, the Iroquois rose rapidly IR 
power and influence. . . . With the first con- 
sciousness of rising power, they turned their 
long cherished resentment upon the Adiron- 
dacks, who had oppressed them in their infancy 
as a nation, and had expelled them from their 
country, in the first struggle for the ascendancy. 




'. . . At the era of French discovery (1535), the 
latter nation [the Adirondacks] appear to have 
been dispossessed of their original country, and 
driven down the St. Lawrence as far as Quebec. 
... A new era commenced with the Iroquois 
upon the establishment of the Dutch trading- 
post at Orange, now Albany, in 1615. . . . 
Friendly relations were established between the 
Iroquois and the Dutch, which continued with- 
out interruption until the latter surrendered 
their possessions upon the Hudson to the Eng- 
lish iu 1664. During this period a trade sprang 
up between them in furs, which the Iroquois ex- 
changed for European fabrics, but more es- 
pecially for fire-arms, in the use of which they 
were afterwards destined to become so expert. 
The English, in turn, cultivated the same rela- 
tions of friendship. . . . With the possession of 
fire-arms commenced not only the rapid eleva- 
tion, but absolute supremacy of the Iroquois 
over other Indian nations. In 1643, they ex- 
pelled the Neuter Nation from the Niagara pen- 
insula and established a permanent settlement at 
the mouth of that river. They nearly extermin- 
ated, in 1653, the Eries, who occupied the south 
side of Lake Erie, and from thence east to the 
Genesee, and thus possessed themselves of the 
whole area of western New York, and the north- 
ern part of Ohio. About the year 1670, after 
they had finally completed the dispersion and 
subjugation of the Adirondacks and Hurons, 
they acquired possession of the whole country 
between lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario, and of 
the north bank of the St. Lawrence, to the 
mouth of the Ottawa river, near Montreal. . . . 
They also made constant inroads upon the New 
England Indians. ... In 1680, the Senecas with 
600 warriors invaded the country of the Illinois, 
upon the borders of the Mississippi, while La 
Salle was among the latter. ... At various 
times, both before and after this period, the Iro- 
quois turned their warfare against the Cherokees 
upon the Tennessee, and the Catawbas in South 
Carolina. . . . For about a century, from the 
year 1600 to the year 1700, the Iroquois were in- 
volved in an almost uninterrupted warfare. At 
the close of this period, they had subdued and held 
in nominal subjection all the principal Indian na- 
tions occupying the territories which are now 
embraced iu the states of New York, Delaware, 
Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, the north- 
em and western parts of Virginia, Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, Northern Tennessee, Ilhnois, Indiana, 
Michigan, a portion of the New England States, 
and the principal part of Upper Canada. Over 
these nations, the haughty and imperious Iro- 
quois exercised a constant supervision. If any of 
them became involved in domestic difficulties, a 
delegation of chiefs went among them and re- 
stored tranquillity, prescribing at the same time 
their future conduct." — L. H. Morgan, League of 
the Iroquois, bk. 1, ch. 1. — "Their [the Iroquois's] 
war-parties roamed over half America, and their 
name was a terror from the Atlantic to the Mis- 
sissippi ; but when we ask the numerical strength 
of the dreaded confederacy, when we discover 
that, in the days of their greatest triumphs, 
their united cantons could not have mustered 
4,000 warriors, we stand amazed at the folly and 
dissension which left so vast a region the prey 
of a handful of bold marauders. Of the cities 
and villages now so thickly scattered over the 
lost domain of the Iroquois, a single one might 

» See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 98 

boast a more numerous population than all the 
five united tribes. " — F. Parkman, The Conspir- 
acy of Pontiac, ch. 1. 

Iroquois Confederacy; A. D. 1608-1700. 
— Their wars with the French. See Canada 
(New Fn.\NCE): A. D. 1608-1611; 1611-1616; 
1634-1653; 1640-1700; 1696. 

Iroquois Confederacy: A. D. 1648-1649. — 
Their destruction of the Hurons and the 
Jesuit Missions. See Canada (New Fbance): 
A. D. 1634-1652; also, above, Hcrons. 

Iroquois Confederacy : A. D. 1684-174^. — 
Surrenders and conveyances to the English. 
See New York: A. D. 1684, and 1726; Vir- 
ginia: A. D. 1744; Ohio (Valley): A. D. 1748- 
1754; United States op Am. : A. D. 1765-1768. 

Iroquois Confederacy: A. D. 1778-1779. — 
Their part in the War of the American Revo- 
lution. See United States op America: A. D. 
1778 (June — November) and (July); and 1779 
(August — September). 

Iroquois Tribes of the South.*— "The 
southern Iroquois tribes occupied Chowan River 
and its tributary streams. They were bounded 
on the east by the most southerly Lenape tribes, 
who were in possession of the low country along 
the sea shores, and those of Albemarle and 
Pamlico Sounds. Towards the south and the 
west they extended beyond the river Neuse. 
They appear to have been known in Virginia, in 
early times, under the name of Monacans, as far 
north as James River. . . . Lawson, in his 
account of the North Carolina Indians, enumer- 
ates the Chowans, the Meherrins, and the Not- 
toways, as having together 95 warriors in the year 
1708. But the Meherrins or Tuteloes and the 
Nottoways inhabited respectively the two rivers 
of that name, and were principally seated in 
Virginia. We have but indistinct notices of the 
Tuteloes. ... It appears by Beverly that the 
Nottoways had preserved their independence 
and their numbers later than the Powhatans, and 
that, at the end of the 17th century, they had 
still 130 warriors. They do not appear to have 
migrated from their original seats in a body. In 
the year 1820, they are said to have been reduced 
to 27 souls, and were still in possession of 7,000 
acres in Southampton county, Virginia, which 
had been at an early date reserved for them. 
. . . The Tuscaroras were by far the most 
powerful nation in North Carolina, and occupied 
all the residue of the territory in that colony, 
which has been described as inhabited by 
Iroquois tribes. Their principal seats in 1708 
were on the Neuse and the Taw or Tar rivers, 
and according to Lawson they had 1,200 warriors 
in fifteen towns." In 1711 the Tuscaroras 
attacked the English colonists, massacring 180 
in a single day, and a fierce war ensued. "In 
the autumn of 1712, all the inhabitants south and 
southwest of Chowan River were obliged to live 
in forts; and the Tuscaroras expected assistance 
from the Five Nations. This could not have 
been given without involving the confederacy in 
a war with Great Britain ; and the Tuscaroras 
were left to their own resources. A force, con- 
sisting chiefly of southern Indians under the 
command of Colonel Moore, was again sent by 
the government of South Carolina to assist the 
northern Colonies. He besieged and took a fort 
of the Tuscaroras. ... Of 800 prisoners 600 
were given up to the Southern Indians, who 
carried them to South Carolina to sell them as 



glaves. The Eastern Tuscaroras, whose principal 
town was on the Taw, twenty miles above 
Washington, immediately made peace, and a 
portion was settled a few years after north of 
the Roanoke, near Windsor, where they con- 
tinued till the year 180.S. But the great body of 
the nation removed in 171-1-15 to the Five 
Nations, was received as the Sixth, and has since 
shared their fate."— A. Gallatin, Synopsis of the 
Indian Tribes {ArehcBologia Americana, v. 2), 
introd., sect. 2. 

Also in J. W. Moore, Hist, of N. Carolina, 
V. 1, ch. 3. — See, also, above: iKoquois Con- 


Itocos. See above: Chtbchas. 

Itonamos, or Itonomos. See above: Ande- 
BiANs ; also Bolivia : Aboriginal Inhabitants. 

Jivara, or Jivaro. See above: Andesians. 

Kah-kwas. See above: Hurons, &c. 

Kalapooiaa Family. — "Under this family 
name Scouler places two tribes, the Kalapooian, 
inhabiting ' the fertile Willamat plains ' and the 
Yamkallie, who live ' more in the interior, 
towards the sources of the Willamat River.' . . . 
The tribes of the Kalapooian family inhabited 
the valley of Willamette River, Oregon, above 
the falls. "—J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., 
Bureau of Ethtwlogy, p. 81. 

Kanawhas, or Ganawese. See above: 
Algonquian Family. 

Kansas, or Kaws. See below : Siouan. 

Kapohn. See above: Caribs and their 

Karankawan Family. — "The Karankawa for- 
merly dwelt upon the Texan coast, according to 
Sibley, upon au island or peninsula in the Bay of 
St. Bernard (Matagorda Bay). ... In 1884 Mr. 
Gatschet found a Tonka we at Fort Griffin, Texas, 
who claimed to have formerly lived among the 
Karankawa. From him a vocabulary of twenty- 
tive terms was obtained, which was all of the 
language he remembered. The vocabulary . . . 
such as it is, represents all of the language that is 
extant. Judged by this vocabulary the language 
Beems to be distinct not only from the Attakapa 
but from all others."— J. W. Powell, Seventh 
Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnohgy, p. 83. 

Karoks, or Cahrocs. See below: MoDocs. 

Kaskaskias. See above : Algoxqciaj* Fam- 


Kaus, or Kwokwoos. See below: Kusan 

Kaws, or Kansas. See below: Siouan. 

Kenai, or Blood Indians.* Seeabove: Black- 

Keresan Family. — "The . . . pueblos of 
Keresan stock . . . are situated in New Jlexico 
on the upper Rio Grande, on several of its small 
western affluents, and on the Jemez and San 
Jose, which also are tributaries of the Rio 
Grande." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Sept., 
Bureau of Ethnology, p. 83. — See Pueblo. 

Kikapoos. See above : ALGONqui.vN Famh.y, 
and below: Sacs, >fec. , and Pawnee (Caddoan) 

Kiowan Family. — "Derivation: From the 
Kiowa word K6-i, plural K6-igu, meaning 
'Kay owe man.' The Comanche Terra kayowe 
means 'rat.' The author who first formally 
separated this family appears to have been 
Turner. . . . Turner, upon the strength of a 
vocabulary furnished by Lieut. Whipple, dis- 
sents from tlie opinion expressed by Pike and 

others to the effect that the language is of the 
same stock as the Comanche, and, while admitting 
that its relationship to Comanche is greater than 
to any other family, thinks that the likeness is 
merely the result of long intercommunication. 
His opinion that it is entirely distinct from any 
other language has been indorsed by Busch- 
mann and other authorities. The family is rep- 
resented by the Kiowa tribe. So intimately 
associated with the Comanches have the Kiowa 
been since linown to history that it is not easy to 
determine their pristine home. . . . Pope defi- 
nitely locates the Kiowa in the valley of the 
Upper Arkansas, and of its tributary, the Purga- 
tory (Las Animas) River. This is in substantial 
accord with the statements of other writers of 
about the same period. Schermerhorn (1812) 
places the Kiowa on the heads of the Arkansas 
and Platte. Earlier still they appear upon the 
headwaters of the Platte." — J. W. Powell, 
Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 

Kiriri, Cuyriri. See above: Guck ob 
Coco Group. 

Kitunahan Family. — " This family was based 
upon a tribe variously termed Kitunaha, Kutenay, 
Cootenai, or Flatbow, living on the Kootenay 
River, a branch of the Columbia in Oregon." — 
J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 85. 

Klamaths. See below: Modocs. 

Koluschan Family. — " Derivation: From the 
Aleut word kolosh, or more properly, kaluga, 
meaning 'dish,' the allusion being to the dish- 
shaped lip ornaments. This family was based 
by Gallatin upon the Koluschen tribe (the 
Tshinkitani of Marchand), ' who inhabit the 
islands and the [Pacific] coast from the 60th to 
the 55th degree of north latitude.'" — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 86. 

Kulanapan Family. — " The main territory 
of the Kulanapan family is bounded on the 
west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the 
Yukian and Copehan territories, on the north by 
the watershed of the Russian River, and on the 
south by a line drawn from Bodega Head to the 
southwest corner of the Yukian territory, near 
Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, California." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 88. 

Kusan Family.*— " The ' Kaus or Kwokwoos ' 
tribe is merely mentioned by Hale as living on a 
river of the same name between the Umqua and 
the Clamet." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Rept. , Bureau of Ethnology, p. 89. 

Kwokwoos. See above: Kus.vN Family. 

Lenape. See above: Delaw.uses. 

Machicuis. See below: Pampas Tribes. 

Macushi. See above: Caribs and theib 

Manaos. See above : Guck or Coco Group. 

Mandans, or Mandanes. See below: Siouak 

Manhattans. See above : Aloonqul\u Fam- 
ily, and, also, 3I.anh.\ttan Island. 

Manioto, or Mayno. Seeabove: Andesians. 

Mapochins. See Chile: A. D. 1450-1724. 

Maranha. See above: Guck ok Coco 

Maricopas. See below: Pueblos. 

Mariposan Family. — " Derivation : A Spanish 
word meaning ' butterfly,' applied to a county in 

• See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 




California and subsequently taken for the family 
name. Latham mentions the remnants of three 
distinct bauds of the Coconoon, each with its 
own language, in the north of Mariposa County. 
These are classed together under the above 
name. More recently the tribes speaking 
languages allied to the Coconun have been 
treated of under the family name Yokut. As, 
however, the stock was established by Latham on 
a sound basis, his name is here restored." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual liept.. Bureau of Eth- 
nology, p. 90. 

Mascoutins, or Mascontens. See below: 
Sacs, &c. 

Massachusetts. See above: Algonquian 

Matag^ayas. See Bolivia.: Aboriginal in- 

Mayas. — "In his second voyage, Columbus 
heard vague rumors of a mainland westward 
from Jamaica and Cuba, at a distance of ten days' 
journey in a canoe. . . . During his fourth voy- 
age (1503-4), when he was exploring the Gulf 
southwest from Cuba, he picked up a canoe 
laden with cotton clothing variously dyed. The 
natives in it gave him to understand that they 
were merchants, and from a land called 
Maia. This is the first mention In history of the 
territory now called Yucatan, and of the race of 
the Mayas; for although a province of similar 
name was found in the western extremity of the 
island of Cuba, the similarity was accidental, as 
the evidence is conclusive that no colony of the 
Mayas was found on the Antilles. . . . Maya 
was the patrial name of the natives of Yucatan. 
It was the proper name of the northern portion 
of the peninsula. No single province bore it at 
the date of the Conquest, and probably it had 
been handed down as a generic term from the 
period, about a century before, when this whole 
district was united under one government. . . . 
Whatever the primitive meaning and first appli- 
cation of the name Maya, it is now used to signify 
specifically the aborigines of Yucatan. In a more 
extended sense, in the expression 'the Maya 
family," it is understood to embrace all tribes, 
wherever found, who speak related dialects pre- 
sumably derived from the same ancient stock as 
the Maya proper. . . . The total number of 
Indians of pure blood speaking the Maya proper 
may be estimated as nearly or quite200,000, most 
of them in the political limits of the department 
of Yucatan; to these should be added nearly 
100,000 of mixed blood, or of European descent, 
who use the tongue in daily life. For it forms 
one of the rare examples of American languages 
possessing vitality enough not only to maintain 
its ground, but actually to force itself on Euro- 
pean settlers and supplant their native speech. 
. . . The Mayas did not claim to be autoch- 
thones. Their legends referred to their arrival 
by the sea from the East, in remote times, under 
the leadership of Itzamna, their hero-god, and 
also to a less numerous immigration from the 
West, which was connected with the history of 
another hero-god, Kukul Ca,n. The first of these 
appears to be wholly mythical. . . . The second 
tradition deserves more attention from the his- 
torian. ... It cannot be denied that the Mayas, 
the Kiches [or Quiches] and the Cakchiquels, in 
their most venerable traditions, claimed to have 
migrated from the north or west from some part 
ef the present country of Mexico. These tra- 

ditions receive additional importance from the 
presence on the shores of the Mexican Gulf, on 
the waters of the river Panuco, north of Vera 
Cruz, of a prominent branch of the Maya family, 
the Huastecs. The idea suggests itself that 
these were the rear-guard of a great migration of 
the Maya family from the north toward the 
south. Support is given to this by their dialect, 
which is most closely akin to that of the Tzendals 
of Tabasco, the nearest Maya race to the south of 
them, and also by very ancient traditions of the 
Aztecs. It is noteworthy that these two partially 
civilized races, the Mayas and the Aztecs, 
though differing radically in language, had 
legends which claimed a community of origin in 
some indefinitely remote past. We find these on 
the Maya side narrated in the sacred book of the 
Kiches, the Popol Yuh, in the Cakchiquel 
'Records of Tecpan Atillan,' and in various 
pure Maya sources. . . . The annals of the Aztecs 
contain frequent allusions to the Huastecs." — D. 
G. Brinton, The Maya Chronicles, introd. — 
" Closely enveloped in the dense forests of Chia- 
pas, Gautemala, Yucatan, and Honduras, the 
ruins of several ancient cities have been discov- 
ered, which are far superior in extent and mag- 
nificence to any seen in Aztec territory, and of 
which a detailed description may be found in the 
fourth volume of this work. Most of these cities 
were abandoned and more or less unknown at the 
time of the [Spanish] Conquest. They bear 
hieroglyphic inscriptions apparently identical in 
character; in other respects they resemble each 
other more than they resemble the Aztec ruins — 
or even other and apparently later works in 
Guatemala and Honduras. AH these remains 
bear evident marks of great antiquity. ... I 
deem the grounds sufficient . . . for accepting 
this Central American civilization of the past as a 
fact, referring it not to an extinct ancient race, 
but to the direct ancestors of the peoples still 
occupying the country with the Spaniards, and 
applying to it the name Maya as that of the lan- 
guage which has claims as strong as any to be 
considered the mother tongue of the linguistic 
family mentioned. . . . There are no data by 
which to fix the period of the original Maya 
empire, or its downfall or breaking up into rival 
factions by civil and foreign wars, "rhe cities of 
Yucatan, as is clearly shown by Mr. Stephens, 
were, many of them, occupied by the descend- 
ants of the builders down to the conquest, and 
contain some remnants of wood-work still in good 
preservation, although some of the structures 
appear to be built on the ruins of others of a 
somewhat different type. Palenque and Copan, 
on the contrary, have no traces of wood or other 
perishable material, and were uninhabited and 
probably unknown in the 16th century. The 
loss of the key to what must have been an 
advanced system of hieroglyphics, while the 
spoken language survived, is also an indication 
of great antiquity, confirmed by the fact that the 
Quiche structures of Guatemala differed materi- 
ally from those of the more ancient epoch. It is 
not likely that the Maya empire in its integrity 
continued later than the 3d or 4th century, 
although its cities may have been inhabited much 
later, and I should fix the epoch of its highest 
power at a date preceding rather than following 
the Christian era. " — H. H. Bancroft, Native Macet 
of the Pacific States, v. 2, ch. 2; v. 4, ch. 3-6/ «i 
5, ch. n-13. 




Also m Marquis de Nadaillac, Prehistorie 
America, ch. 6-7. — J. L. Stephens, Incidents of 
T'ravelin Yucatan; and Travel in Central America, 
&c. — B. M. Norman, Rambles in Yucatan. — 
D. Charnay, Ancient Cities of the New World. — 
See, also, Mexico: Ancient, and Aztec and 
Maya Picture-Writing. 

Mayoruna, or Barbudo. See above: Ande- 


Menominees. See above : Algonquian Fam- 
ily, and Sacs, &c. 

I Metoacs. See above: Family. 
' Miamis, orTwightwees. See above : Alqon- 
<juian Family, Illinois, and Sacs, &c. 

Micmacs. See above: Aloonquian Family. 

Mingoes. — " The name of Mingo, or Mengwe, 
by which the Iroquois were known to the Dela- 
■wares and the otlier southern Algonkins, is said 
to be a contraction of the Lenape word 'Ma- 
hongwi,' meaning the 'People of the Springs.' 
The Iroquois possessed the head-waters of the 
rivers which flowed through the country of the 
Dela wares." — H. Hale, The Iroquois Book of 
Rites, app., note A. 

Minneconjou. See below: Siouan Family. 

Minnetarees.* See above: Hidatsa; and 
below : Siouan Family. 

Minquas. See below: Susquehannas ; and 
above: Algonquian Family. 

Minsis, Munsees, or Minisinks. See above: 
Delawares, and Algonquian Family. 

Miranha. See above: Guck or Coco Group. 
. Missouris. See below: Siouan Family. 

Mixes. See below: Zapotecs, etc. 

Mixtecs. See below: Zapotecs, etc. 

Mocovis. See below: Pampas Tribes. 

Modocs (Klamaths) and their California 
'and Oregon neighbors.— "The principal tribes 
occupying this region [of Northern California 
from kogue River on the north to the Eel River, 
south] are the Klamaths, who live on the head 
waters of the river and on the shores of the lake 
of that name ; the Modocs, on Lower Klamath 
Lake and along Lost River; the Shastas, to the 
south-west of the Lakes; the Pitt River Indians; 
the Eurocs, on the Klamath River between 
Weitspek and the coast; the Cahrocs, on the 
Klamath River from a short distance above the 
junction of the Trinity to the Klamath Moun- 
tains; the Hoopahs [or Hupas, a tribe of the 
Athapascan Family] in Hoopah Valley on the 
Trinity near its junction with the Klamath; 
numerous tribes on the coast from Eel River and 
Humboldt Bay north, such as the Weeyots, 
Wallies, Tolewahs, etc., and the Rogue River 
Indians, on and about the river of that name. 
The Northern Californians are in every way 
superior to the central and southern tribes." — 
H. H. Bancroft, T/ie Native Iiac£s of the Pacific 
States, D. 1, cli. 4. — "On the Klamath there live 
three distinct tribes, called the Yii-rok, Ka-rok, 
and M6-dok, which names are said to mean, 
lespectively, 'down the river,' 'up the river," 
and 'head of the river.' . . . The Karok are 
probably the finest tribe in California. . . . 
Hoopa Valley, on the Lower Trinity, is the 
home of [the Hu-pa]. Ne.\t after the" Ka-rok 
they are the finest race in all that region, and 
they even excel them in their statecraft, and in 
the singular influence, or perhaps brute force, 
which they exercise over the vicinal tribes. 
They are the Romans of Northern California in 
Iheir valor and their wide-reaching dominions; 

• See Note, Appendi.x. E, vol. 5. 


they are the French in the extended diffusion of 
their language." The'Modoks, "on the whole 
. . . are rather a cloddish, indolent, ordinarily 
good-natured race, but treacherous at bottom, 
sullen when angered, notorious for keeping 
Punic faith. But their bravery nobody can 
impeach or deny ; their heroic and long defense 
of their stronghold against the appliances of 
modern civilized warfare, including that arm so 
awful to savages — the artillery — was almost 
the only feature that lent respectability to their 
wretched tragedy of the Lava Beds [1873]." — S. 
Powers, Tribes of California {Contributions to 
N. A. Ethnology, v. 3), ch. 1, 7, and 27.— "The 
home of the Klamath tribe of southwestern 
Oregon lies upon the eastern slope of the south- 
ern extremity of the Cascade Itange, and very 
nearly coincides with what we may call the 
head waters of the Klamath River, the main 
course of which lies in Northern California. 
. . . The main seat of the Modoc people was the 
valley of Lost River, the shores of "Tule and of 
Little Klamath Lake. . . . The two main bodies 
forming the Klamath people are (1) the Klamath 
Lake Indians; (2) the Modoc Indians. The 
Klamath Lake Indians number more than twice 
as many as the Modoc Indians. They speak the 
northern dialect and form the northern chief- 
taincy. . . . The Klamath people possess no 
historic traditions going further back in time 
than a century, for the simple reason that there 
was a strict law prohibiting the mention of the 
person or acts of a deceased individual by using 
his name. . . . Our present knowledge does not 
allow us to connect the Klamath language 
genealogically with any of the other languages 
compared, but ... it stands as a linguistic 
family for itself." — A. S. Gatschet, The Klamath 
Indians (Contributions to N A. Ethnology, v. 3, 
pt. 1). — In Major Powell's linguistic classifica- 
tion, the Klamath and Modoc dialects are em- 
braced in a family called the Lutuamian Family, 
derived from a Pit River word signifying 
"lake;" the Yuroks in a family called the 
Weitspekan; and the Pit River Indian dialecti 
are provisionally set apart in a distinct family 
named the Palaihnihan Family. — J. W. Powell, 
Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 
89 and 97. 

Mohaves (Mojaves). See above: Apache 

Mohawks. See above: Iroquois Con- 

Mohegans, or Mahicans. See above: Al- 
gonquian Family ; and below : Stockbridoe In- 
DLANs; also. New England: A. D. 1637. 

Montagnais. See above: Algonquu-N Fam- 
ily ; and Athapascan FAjnLY. 

Montauks. See above: Algonqui.^n Family. 

Moquelumnan Family. — "Derivation: From 
the river and hill of the same name in Calaveras 
County, California. ... It was not until 1856 
that the distinctness of the linguistic family was 
fully set forth by Latham. Under the head of 
Moquelumne, this author gathers several vocabu- 
laries representing different languages anvl dia- 
lects of the same stock. These are the Talatui 
of Hale, the Tuolumne from Schoolcraft, the 
Sonoma dialects as represented by the Tshoko- 
yem vocabulary, the Chocuyem and Youkiousme 
paternosters, and the Olamentko of Kostro- 
niitonov in Baer's Beitrage. . . . The Moque- 
lumnan family occupies the territory bounded 



en the north by the Cosumne River, on the south 
by the Fresno River, on the east by the Sierra 
Nevada, and on the west by the San Joaquin 
River, with the exception of a strip on the east 
bank occupied by the Cholovone. A part of 
this family occupies also a territory bounded on 
the south by San Francisco Bay. " — J. W. Powell, 
tksventh Annual Sept., Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 

Moquis. See below : Pueblos. 
[ Morona. See above: Ande8i.\U8. 
I Moxos, or Mojos. See above: Andesiahs; 
also, BoLrviA: Aboriginal Inhabitants. 

Mundrucu. See below: Tdpi. 

Munsees. See above: Delawares. and Al- 
GONQuiAN Family; also Manhattan Island. 

Mura. See above : Gdck or Coco Group. 

Muskhogean, or Maskoki Family. — "Among 
the various nationalities of the Gulf territories 
the Maskoki family of tribes occupied a central 
and commanding position. Not only the large 
extent of territory held by them, but also their 
numbers, their prowess in war, and a certain 
degree of mental culture and self-esteem made 
of the Maskoki one of the most important groups 
In Indian history. From their ethnologic con- 
dition of later times, we infer that these tribes 
have extended for many centuries back in time 
from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond 
that river, and from the Apalachian ridge to the 
Gulf of Mexico. With short intermissions they 
kept up warfare with all the circumjacent Indian 
communities, and also among each other. . . . 
The irresolute and egotistic policy of these tribes 
often caused serious difficulties to the govern- 
ment of the English and French colonies, and 
some of them constantly wavered in their adhe- 
sion between the French and the English cause. 
The American government overcame their oppo- 
sition easily whenever a conflict presented Itself 
(the Seminole War forms an exception), because, 
like all the Indians, they never knew how to 
unite against a common foe. The two main 
branches of the stock, the Creek and the Cha'hta 
[or Choctaw] Indians, were constantly at war, 
and the remembrance of their deadly conflicts 
has now passed to their descendants In the foirn 
of folk lore. . . . The only characteristic by 
which a subdivision of the family can be at- 
tempted, is that of language. Following their 
ancient topographic location from east to west, 
we obtain the following synopsis: First branch, 
or Slaskoki proper: The Creek, Maskokalgi or 
Maskoki proper, settled on Coosa, Tallapoosa, 
Upper and Middle Chatahuchi rivers. From 
these branched off by segmentation the Creek 
portion of the Seminoles, of the Yamassi and of 
the little Yamacraw community. Second, or 
Apalachian branch : This southeastern division, 
which may be called also ' a parte potiori ' tlie 
Hitchiti connection, anciently comprised the 
tribes on the Lower Chatahuchi river, and, east 
from there, the extinct Apalachi, the Mikasuki, 
and the Hitchiti portion of the Seminoles, Ya- 
massi and Yamacraws. Third, or Alibamu 
branch, comprised the Alibamu villages on the 
river of that name ; to them belonged the Koas- 
efiti and Witumka on Coosa river, its northern 
atfluent. Fourth, Western or Cha'hta [Choctaw] 
branch: From the main people, the Cha'hta, 
settled LT the middle portions of the State of Mis- 
sissippi, the Chicasa, Pascagoula. Biloxi, Huma, 
»ad other tribes once became separated through 

•See Note, Appendix E, vol. S, "10 

segmentation. The strongest evidence for a com' 
munity of origin of the Maskoki tribes is fur- 
nished by the fact that their dialects belong to 
one linguistic family. . . . Maskoki, JIaskogi, 
isti Maskoki, designates a single person of the 
Creek tribe, and forms, as a collective plural, 
Maskokalgi, the Creek community, the Creek 
people, the Creek Indians. English authors write 
this name Muscogee, Muskhogee, and its plural 
Muscogulgee. The first syllalile, as pronounced 
by the Creek Indians, contains a clear short a. 
. . . The accent is usually laid on the mid- 
dle syllable: Maskoki, Maskogi. None of the 
tribes are able to explain the name from their 
own language. . . . Why did the English colo- 
nists call them Creek Indians? Because, when 
the English traders entered the Maskoki country 
from Charleston or Savannah, they had to cross 
a number of streams or creeks, especially between 
the Chatahuchi and Savannah rivers. Gallatin 
thought it probable that the inhabitants of the 
country adjacent to Savannah river were called 
Creeks from an early time. ... In the southern 
part of the Cha'hta territory several tribes, repre- 
sented to be of Cha'hta lineage, appear as dis- 
tinct from the main body, and are always men- 
tioned separately. The French colonists. In 
whose annals they figure extensively, call them 
Mobilians, Tohomes, Pascogoulas, Biloxis, Mou- 
goulachas, Bayogoulas and Humas (Dumas). 
They have all disappeared in our epoch, with the 
exception of the Biloxi [Major Powell, in the 
Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, places the Biloxi in the Siouan Family],*of 
whom scattered remnants live in the forests of 
Louisiana, south of the Red River." — A. S. Gats- 
chet, A Migration Legendofthe Creek Indians, v. 1, 
pt. 1. — "The Uchees and the Natches, who are 
both incorporated in the piuskhogee or Creek] 
confederacy, speak two distinct languages alto- 
gether different from the Muskhogee. The Nat- 
ches, a residue of the well-known nation of that 
name, came from the banks of the Mississippi, and 
joined the Creeks less than one hundred years ago. 
The original seats of the Uchees were east of the 
Coosa and probably of the Chatahoochee ; and 
they consider themselves as the most ancient in- 
habitants of the country. They may have been 
the same nation which is called Apalaches in the 
accounts of De Soto's expedition. . . . The four 
great Southern nations, according to the estimates 
of the War Department . . . consist now [1836] 
of 67,000 souls, viz. : The Cherokees, 15,000; the 
Choctaws (18,500), the Chicasas (5,500), 24,000; 
the JIuskhogees, Seminoles, and Hitchittees, 
26,000; the Uchees, Alibamons, Coosadas, and 
Natches, 2,000. The territory west of the Mis- 
sissippi, given or offered to them by the United 
States in exchange for their lands east of that 
river, contains 40,000,000 acres, exclusively of 
what may be allotted to the Chicasas." — A. Gal- 
latin, Synopsis of the Indian Tribes (Archaologia 
Amerieana, v. 2), sect. 3. — See below: Seminoles. 
Musquito, or Mosquito Indians. — " That por- 
tion of Honduras known as the ilusquito Coast 
derived its name, not from the abundance of 
those troublesome insects, but from a nativo 
tribe who at the discovery occupied the shore 
near Blewfield Lagoon. They are an intelligent 
people, short in stiiture, unusually dark in color, 
with finely cut features, and small straight noses 
— not at all negroid, except where there has 
been an admixture of blood. They number 



about 6,000, many of whom have been partly 
civilized by the efforts of missionaries, who have 
reduced the language to writing and published 
in it a number of works. The Tunglas are one 
of the sub-tribes of the Musquitos." — D. G. 
Brinton, The American Race, p. 163. — See, also, 
Nic.vkaoua: A. D., 1850. 

Nahuas. See Mexico, Ancient: The Maya 
AND Naiiua Peoples. 

Nanticokes. See above : Alqonquian Fam- 


Napo. See above: Andesians. 

Narragansetts. See above: Algonquian 
Family; also Rhode Island: A. D. 1630; and 
New England: A. D. 1637; 167-1-1675; 1675; 
and 1676-1678. 

Natchesan Family. — When the French first 
entered the lower Mississippi valley, they found 
the Natchez [Na'htchi] occupying a region 
of country that now surrounds the city 
which bears their name. "By the persever- 
ing curiosity of Gallatin, it is established 
that the Natchez were distinguished from 
the tribes around them less by their customs 
and the degree of their civilization than by their 
language, which, as far as comparisons have 
been instituted, has no etj'mological affinity with 
any other whatever. Here again the imagina- 
tion too readily invents theories; and the tradi- 
tion has been widely received that the dominion 
of the Natchez once extended even to the 
Wabash. History knows them only as a feeble 
and inconsiderable nation, who in the 18th 
century attached themselves to the confederacy 
of the Creeks."— G. Bancroft, Hist, of tlie U. 8. 
(Author's last rev.), v. 2, p. 97. — " Chateaubriand, 
in his charming romances, and some of the early 
French writers, who often drew upon their fancy 
for their facts, have thrown an interest around 
the Natchez, as a semi-civilized and noble race, 
that has passed into history. We find no traces 
of civilization in their architecture, or in their 
social life and customs. Their religion was 
brutal and bloody, indicating an Aztec origin. 
They were perfidious and cruel, and if they were 
at all superior to the neighboring tribes it was 
probably due to the district they occupied — the 
most beautiful, healthy and productive In the 
valley of the Mississippi — and the Influence of 
its attractions in substituting permanent for 
temporary occupation. The residence of the 
grand chief was merely a spacious cabin, of one 
apartment, with a mat of basket work for his 
bed and a log for his pillow. . . . Their govern- 
ment was an absolute despotism. The supreme 
chief was master of their labor, their property, 
and their lives. . . . The Natchez consisted ex- 
clusively of two classes — the Blood Royal and 
its connexions, and the common people, the 
Mich-i-mioki-quipe, or Stinkards. The two 
classes understood each other, but spoke a dif- 
ferent dialect. Their customs of war, their 
treatment of prisoners, their ceremonies of 
marriage, their feasts and fasts, their sorceries 
and witchcraft, differed very little from other 
savages. Father Charlevoix, who visited Nat- 
chez in 1721, saw no evidences of civilization. 
Their villages consisted of a few cabins, or rather 
ovens, without windows and roofed with mat- 
ting. The house of the Sun was larger, 
plastered with mud, and a narrow bench for a 
seat and lied. No other furniture in the mansion 
^f this grand dignitary, who has been described 

by imaginative writers as the peer of Monte- 
zuma 1 " — J. F. H. Claiborne, Mississippi, v. 1, ch. 
4. — In 1729, the Natchez, maddened by insolent 
oppressions, planned and executed a general 
massacre of the French within their territory. 
As a consequence, the tribe was virtually ex- 
terminated within the following two years. — C. 
Gayarre, Louisiana, its Colonial Hist, and 
Somance, ^dseries, led. 3 and 5. — "The Na'htchi, 
according to Gallatin, a residue of the well-l 
known nation of that name, came from the) 
banks of the Mississippi, and joined the Creek* 
less than one hundred years ago. The seashore' 
from Mobile to the Mississippi was then in- 
habited by several small tribes, of which the 
Na'htchi was the principal. Before 1730 the 
tribe lived in the vicinity of Natchez, Miss., 
along St. Catherine Creek. After their disper- 
sion by the French in 1730 most of the remainder 
joined the Chicasa and afterwards the Upper 
Creek. They are now in Creek and Cherokee 
Nations, Indian Territory. The linguistic rela- 
tions of the language spoken by the "Taensa tribe 
have long been in doubt, and it is possible they 
will ever remain so." — J. W. Powell, Seventh 
Annual Eept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 96. — See 
Lodisl\jja: a. D. 1719-1750. — See, also, above: 
Mdskhogean Family. 

Natchitoches.* See Texas: The AboriginaIi 

Nausets. See above: Axgonquian Family. 

Navajos. See above: Athap.4scan Family, 
and Apache Group. 

Neutral Nation. See above : Hukons, &c. ; 
and Iroquois Confederacy: Their Con- 
quests, &c. 

Nez Perces, or Sahaptins. — "The Sahaptins 
or Nez Perces [the Shahaptian Family in Major 
Powell's classification], with their affiliated tribes, 
occupied the middle and upper valley of the 
Columbia and its affluents, and also the passes of 
the mountains. They were in contiguity with 
the Shoshones and the Algonkin Blackfeet, thus 
holding an important position, intermediate bs- 
tween the eastern and the Pacific tribes. Hav- 
ing the commercial instinct of the latter, they 
made good use of it." — D. G. Brinton, Tm 
American Race, p. 107. 

Also in J. W. Powell, Seiienth Anntial Rept. 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, p. 106. 

Niniquiquilas. See below : P.vmpas Tribes. 

Nipmucs, or Nipnets. See above: Algon- 
QuiAN Family ; also. New England : A. D. 1674- 
1675; 1675; and 1676-1678 (King Philip's War). 

Nootkas. See below: Wakash.\n Family. 

Nottoway s. See above: Iroquois Tribes 
OP THE South. 

Nyantics. See above: Algonqulan Pamilt. 

Ogalalas. See below: Siouan Family. 

Ojibvyas, or Chippewas. — "The Ojibways, 
with their kindred, the Pottawattamies, and 
their friends the Ottawas, — the latter of whom 
were fugitives from the eastward, whence they 
had fled from the WTath of the Iroquois, — were 
banded into a sort of confederacy. They were 
closely alhed in blood, language, manners and 
character. The Ojibways, by far the most 
numerous of the Uiree, occupied the basin ot 
Lake Superior, and extensive adjacent regions. 
In their boundaries, the career of Iroquois 
conquest found at length a check. The fugitive 
Wyandots sought refuge in the Ojibway hunt- 
ing grounds; and tradition relates that, at the 

•See Note, AiipeiiUi.x E, vui. o. 




outlet of Lake Superior, an Iroquois war-party 
once encountered a disastrous repulse. In their 
mode of life, they were far more rude than the 
Iroquois, or even " the southern Algonquin 
tribes." — F. Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac, 
eh. 1. — " The name of the tribe appears to be 
recent. It is not met ■with in the older writers. 
The French, who were the earliest to meet them, 
in their tribal seat at the falls or Sault de Ste 
Marie, named them Saulteur, from this circum- 
Btance. M'Kenzie uses the term ' Jibway,' as the 
equivalent of this term, in his voyages. They 
are referred to, with little difference in the 
orthography, in General Washington's report, in 
1754, of his trip to Le Bceuf, on Lake Erie; 
but are first recognized, among our treaty-tribes, 
in the general treaty of Greenville, of 1794, in 
which, with the Ottawas they ceded the island 
of Michilimackinac, and certain dependencies, 
conceded by them at former periods to the 
French. . . . The Chippewas are conceded, by 
writers on American philology ... to speak 
one of the purest forms of the Algonquin." — 
H. R Schoolcraft, Information respecting tJie 
Hist., Condition and Prospects of the Indian 
Tribes, pt. 5, p. 142. 

Also in G. Copway, The Qjibway Nation. — 
J. G. Kohl, Kitchi-gami. — See, also, Pontiac's 
War ; and above : Algonqdian Family. 

Omahas. See below: Siouan Familt, and 
Pawnee (Caddoan) Family. 

Oneidas. See above: iRoqnois Confedeb- 


Onondagas. See above: Iroquois Confed- 


I Crejones. See below : Pampas Tribes. 

I Osages. See below: Siouan Family, and 

Pawnee (Caddoan) Family. 

Otoes, or Ottoes. See below: Siouan Family, 
and Pawnee (Caddoan) Family. 

Otomis. — "According to Aztec tradition, the 
Otomis were the earliest owners of the soil of 
Central Jlexico. Their language was at the 
conquest one of the most widely distributed of 
any in this portion of the continent. Its central 
regions were the States of Queretaro and Guan- 
ajuato. . . . The Otomis are below the average 
stature, of dark color, the skull markedly dolicho- 
cephalic, the nose short and flattened, the eyes 
slightly oblique." — D. G. Brinton, T?ie Ameri- 
can Race, p. 135. 

Ottawas. See above: Algonqotan Family, 
and Ojujwas. — See, also, Pontiac's War. 

Pacaguara. See above: Andesl^ns. 

Pacaraora. See above: Andesians. 

Pamlicoes. See above : Algonquian Family. 

Pampas Tribes. — "The chief tribe of the 
Pampas Indians was entitled Querandis by the 
Spaniards, although they called themselves Pe- 
huelches [or Puelts — that is, the Eastern]. Vari- 
ous segments of these, under different names, 
occupied the immense tract of ground, between 
the river Parana and the republic of Chili. The 
Querandis . . . were the great opponents to 
settlement of the Spaniards in Buenos Ayres. 
. . . 'The Ancas or Aracaunos Indians [see 
Chile] resided on the west of the Pampas near 
Chili, and from time to time assisted the Queran- 
dis in transporting stolen cattle across the Cor- 
dilleras. The southern part of the Pampas was 
occupied by the Balchitas, Uhilchcs, Telmel- 
ches, and others, all of whom were branches of 
the original Quelches horde. The Guarani In- 

dians were the most famous of the South Ameri- 
can races. . . . Of the Guayauas horde there were 
several tribes — independent of each other, and 
speaking different idioms, although having the 
same title of race. Their territory extended 
from the river Guarai, one of the affluents into 
the Uruguay, for many leagues northwards, 
and stretched over to the Parana opposite the 
city of Corpus Christi. They were some of tha 
most vigorous opponents of the Spanish invaders. 
. . . Tlie Nalicurgas Indians, who lived up to 
near 21° S. lat. were reputed to dwell in caves, 
to be very limited in number, and to go entirely 
naked. The Gausarapos, or Guuchies dwelt in thg 
marshy districts near where the river Gausarapo^ 
or Guuchie, has its source. This stream enter* 
from the east into the Paraguay at 19° 16' 30" 8. 
lat. . . . The Cuatos lived inside of a lake to 
the west of the river Paraguay, and constituted 
a very small tribe. . . . The Orejones dwelt on 
the eastern brows of the mountains of Santa 
Lucia or San Fernando — close to the western 
side of Paraguay river. . . . Another tribe, the 
Niniquiquilas, had likewise the names of Potre- 
ros, Bimanos, Barcenos, and Lathanos. They 
occupied a forest which began at about 19° 8. 
lat., some leagues backward from the river Para- 
guay, and separated the Gran Chaco from the 
province of Los Chiquitos in Peru. . . . The 
Guanas Indians were divided into eight separate 
segments, for each of which there was a particu- 
lar and different name. They lived between 20° 
and 22° of S. lat. in the Gran Chaco to the west of 
Paraguay, and they were not known to the Span- 
iards till the latter crossed the last-named river 
in 1673. . . . The Albaias and Payaguas Indians 
... in former times, were the chief tribes of the 
Paraguay territory. . . . The Albaias were 
styled Machicuis and Enimgas by other authors. 
At the time of the Spaniards' arrival here, the 
Albaias occupied the Gran Chaco side of the 
river Paraguay from 20° to 22° S. lat. Here 
they entered into a treaty offensive and defen- 
sive with the Payaguas. . . . The joined forces 
of Albaias and Payaguas had managed to extend 
their territory in 1673 down to 24° 7' S. on the 
eastern side of Paraguay river. . . . The Al- 
baias were a very tall and muscular race of 
people. . . . The Payagua Indians, before and 
up to, as well as after, the period of the con- 
quest, were sailors, and domineered over the 
nver Paraguay. . . .The Guaicarus lived on the 
Chaco side of Paraguay river and subsisted en- 
tirely by hunting. From the barbarous custom 
which their women had of inducing abortion to 
avoid the pain or trouble of child-bearing, they 
became exterminated soon after the conquest. 
. . . The Tobas, who have also the titles of 
NatecoEt and Yncanabaite, were among the best 
fighters of the Indians. They occupy the Gran 
Chaco, chiefly on the banks of the river Vermejo, 
and between that and the Pilcomayo. Of these 
there are some remains in the present day. . . . 
The Mocovis are likewise still to be found in the 
Chaco. . . . The Abipones, who were also styled 
Ecusgina and Quiabanabaite, lived in the Chaco, 
so low down as 2b° south. This was the tribe 
with whom the Jesuits incorporated, when they 
erected the city of San Geronimo, in the Gran 
Chaco, and nearly opposite Goya, in 1748." — T. 
J. Hutchinson, The Parana, ch. 6-7. — "The Abi- 
pones inhabit [in the 18th century] the province 
Chaco, the centre of all Paraguay ; they have no 




fixed abodes, nor any boundaries, except what 
fear of their neighbours has established. They 
roam extensively in every direction, whenever 
the opportunity of attacking their enemies, or 
the necessity of avoiding them renders a journey 
advisable. The northern shore of the Rio Grande 
or Bermejo, which the Indians call InatS, was 
their native land in the last century [the 17th]. 
Thence they removed, to avoid the war carried 
on against Chaco by the Spaniards . . . and, 
migrating towards the south, took possession of 
a valley formerly held by the Calchaquis. . ._. 
From what region their ancestors came there is 
no room forconjecture."— M. Dobrizhoflfer, Acct. 
of the Abipoms, v. 2, ch. 1. — "The Abipones are 
in general above the middle stature, and of a 
robust constitution. In summer they go quite 
naked; but in winter cover themselves with 
skins. . . . They paint themselves all over with 
different colours. "—Father Charlevoix, Eist. of 
Paraguay, bk. 7 (s. 1). 

Also m The Standard Natural History (J. 8. 
Kingsley, ed.), v. Q,pp. 256-262. — See, also, below: 


Pampticokes. See above: Algonqulvn 


Pano. See above : Andesiaks. 

Papagos. See below: Piman Family, and 

Parawianas. See above : Cakibs and theib 

Pascogoulas. See above: Muskhogean 

Passtf. See above : GncK or Coco Group. 

Patagonians and Fuegians. — " The Patago- 
nians call themselves Chonek or Tzoueca, or 
Inaken (men, people), and by their Pampean 
neighbors are refeiTed to as Tehuel-Che, southern- 
ers. They do not, however, belong to the Au- 
canian stock, nor do they resemble the Pampeans 
physically. They are celebrated for their stature, 
many of them reaching from six to six feet four 
Inches in height, and built in proportion. In 
color they are a reddish brown, and have aquiline 
noses and good foreheads. They care little for a 
sedentary life, and roam the coast as far north as 
the Rio Negro. . . . On the inhospitable shores 
of Tierra del Fuego there dwell three nations of 
diverse stock, but on about the same plane of 
culture. One of these is the Yahgans, or Yapoos, 
on the Beagle Canal ; the second is the Onas or 
Aonik, to the north and east of these; and the 
third the Aliculufs, to the north and west. . . . 
The opinion has been advanced by Dr. Deniker 
ol Paris, that the Fuegians represent the oldest 
type or variety of the American race. He be- 
lieves that at one time this type occupied the 
whole of South America south of the Amazon, 
and that the Tapuyas of Brazil and the Fuegians 
are its surviving members. This interesting 
theory demands still further evidence before it 
can be accepted. " — D. G. Brinton, Tfie American 
Race, pp. 327-333. 

Pawnee Family (named "Caddoan" by 
Major Powell). — "The Pawnee Family, though 
some of its iDranches have long been known, 
is perhaps in history and language one of the 
least understood of the important tribes of the 
West. In both respects it seems to constitute 
a distinct group. During recent years its 
extreme northern and southern branches have 
evinced a tendency to blend with surrounding 
Stocks; but the central branch, constituting the 

Pawnee proper, maintains still in its advanced 
decadence a bold line of demarcation between 
itself and all adjacent tribes. The members of 
the family are : The Pawnees, the Arikaras, the 
Caddos, the Huecos or Wacos, the Keechies, the 
Tawaconies, and the Pawnee Picts or Wichitas. 
The last five may be designated as the Southern 
or Red River branches. At the date of the Louis- 
iana purchase the Caddos were living about 40 
miles northwest of where Shreveport now stands. 
Five years earlier their residence was upon Clear 
Lake, in what is now Caddo Parish. This spot 
they claimed was the place of their nativity, and 
their residence from time immemorial. . . . They 
have a tradition that they are the parent stock, 
from which all the southern branches have sprung, 
and to some extent this claim has been recog- 
nized. . . . The five [southern] bands are now 
all gathered upon a reserve secured for them in 
the Indian Territory by the Government. ... 
In many respects, their method of building 
lodges, their equestrianism, and certain social 
and tribal usages, they quite closely resemble the 
Pawnees. Their connection, however, with the 
Pawnee family, not till recently if ever mentioned, 
ismainly a matter of vague conjecture. . . . The 
name Pawnee is most probably derived from ' pa- 
rfk-I,' a horn; and seems to have been once used 
by the Pawnees themselves to designate their 
peculiar scalp-lock. From the fact that this was 
the most noticeable feature in their costume, the 
name came naturally to be the denominative term 
of the tribe. The word in this use once probably 
embraced the Wichitas (i. e. , Pawnee Picts) and 
the Arikaras. . . . The true Pawnee territory 
till as late as 1833 may be described as extending 
from the Niobrara south to the Arkansas. They 
frequently hunted considerably beyond the Ar- 
kansas; tradition says as far as the Canadian. 
. . . On the east they claimed to the Missouri, 
though in eastern Nebraska, by a sort of tacit 
permit, the Otoes, Poncas, and Omuhas along 
that stream occupied lands extending as far west 
as the Elkhom. In Kansas, also, east of the Big 
Blue, they had ceased to exercise any direct con- 
trol, as several remnants of tribes, the Wyandots, 
Delawares, Kickapoos, and lowas, had been set- 
tled there and were living under the guardian- 
ship of the United States. ... On the west their 
grounds were marked by no natural boundary, 
but may perhaps be described by a line drawn 
from the mouth of Snake River on the Niobrara 
southwest to the North Platte, thence south to 
the Arkansas. . . . It is not to be supposed, how- 
ever, that they held altogether undisturbed pos- 
session of this territory. On the north they were 
incessantly harassed by various bauds of the Da- 
kotas, while upon the south the Osages, Coman- 
ches, Cheyennes, Arapahoes and Kiowas (the last 
three originally northern tribes) were equally re- 
lentless in their hostility. ... In 1833 the Paw- 
nees surrendered to the United States their claim 
upon all the above described territory lying south 
of the Platte. In 1858 all their remaining terri- 
tory was ceded, except a reserve 30 miles long 
and 15 wide upon the Loup Fork of the Platte, 
its eastern limit beginning at Beaver Creek. In 
1874 they sold this tract and removed to a reserve 
secured for them by the Government in the In- 
dian Territory, between the Arkansas and Cimar- 
ron at their junction." — J. B. Dunbar, Ths 
Pawnee Indiana (Mag. of Am. Hist., April, 1880, 
V. 4). 




' Also dj G. B. Grinnell, Pawnee Hero Stories. 
— D. Q. Brinton, Tfte American Race, pp. 95-97. 
— ,1. W. Powell, Seventh An. Rept. of the Bureau 
of Ethnology, p. 59. — See, also, above: Adais aud 


Payaguas. See above : Pampas Tribes. 
Pehuelches, or Puelts. See above: Pampas 

Penacooks, or Pawtucket Indians. See 

above: Algonqui,\n Family. 

Peorias. See above : Algonquian Family. 
' Pequots. See above: Algonquian Family; 
and below: Shawanese; also. New England: 
A. D. 1637. 

Piankishaws. See above : Algonqulan; Fam- 
ily, and Sacs, &c. 

Piegans. See above : Bl.\ckfeet. 

Piman Family. — " Onl}' a small portion of the 
territory occupied by this family is included 
■within the United States, the greater portion 
being in Mexico, where it extends to the Gulf of 
California. The family is represented in the 
United States by three tribes, Pima alta, 
Sobaipuri, and Papago. The former have lived 
for at least two centuries with the Maricopa on 
the Gila River about 160 miles from the mouth. 
The Sobaipuri occupied the Sanbi Cruz and San 
Pedro Rivers, tributaries of the Gila, but arc no 
longer known. The Papago territory is mucli 
more extensive and extends to the south across 
the border." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Rept., Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 98-99. — See 
below: Pueblos. 

Pimenteiras. See above: Guck or Coco 

Pirn. See above: Andesians. 

Pit River Indians. See above: Modocs(Kla- 

'MATHS), &C. 

Piutes. See below : Shoshonean Family. 

Pokanokets, or Wampanoags. See above: 
Algonquian Family; also, Ivew England: 
A. D. 1674-1675 ; 1675 ; 1676-1678 (Kino Philip's 

Ponkas, or Puncas. See below: Siouan 
Family ; and above : Pawnee (Caddoan) Family. 

Popolocas. See above: Chontals. 

Pottawatomies. See above: Algonquian 
Family, Ojibwas, and Sacs, &c. 

Powhatan Confederacy. — "At the time of 
the first settlement by the Europeans, it has 
been estimated that there were not more than 
20,000 Indians within the limits of the State of 
Virginia. Within a circuit of 60 miles from 
Jamestown, Captain Smith says there were 
about 5,000 souls, and of these scarce 1,500 were 
•warriors. The whole territory between the 
mountains and the sea was occupied by more 
than 40 tribes, 30 of whom were united in a con- 
federacy under Powhatan, whose dominions, 
hereditary aud acquired by conquest, comprised 
the whole country between the rivers James and 
Potomac, and extended into the interior as far as 
the falls of the principal rivers. Campbell, in 
his History of Virginia, states the number of 
Powhatan's subjects to have been 8,000. Pow- 
hatan was a remarkable man ; a sort of savage 
Napoleon, who, by the force of his character and 
the superiority of his talents, had raised himself 
from the rank of a petty chieftain to something 
of imperial dignity and power. He had two 
places of abode, one called Powhatan, where 
Richmond now stands, and the other at Werowo- 
comoco, on the north side of York River, within 

the present county of Gloucester. . . . Besides 
the large confederacy of vvhicli Powliatan was 
the chief, there were two others, with which 
tliat was often at war. One of these, called the 
Mannahoacs, consisted of eight tribes, and occu- 
pied the country between the Rippaliannoc 
and York rivers; the otlicr, consisting of five 
tribes, was called the Monacans, aud was settled 
between York and James rivers above the Falls. 
There were also, in addition to tliese, many scat- 
tering and independent tribes." — G. S. Hillard, 
Life of Capt. John Smith (Library of Am. Biog.), 
ch. 4. — "The English invested savage life with 
all the dignity of European courts. Powhatan 
was styled 'King,' or 'Emperor,' his principal 
warriors were lords of the kingdom, liis wives 
were queens, his daughter was a ' princess,' 
and his cabins were his various seats of resi- 
dence. ... In his younger days Powhatan had 
been a great warrior. Hereditarily, he was the 
chief or werowance of eight tribes ; tlirough con- 
quest his dominions had been extended. . . . The 
name of his nation and the Indian appellation of 
tlie James River was Powhatan. He himself 
possessed several names." — E. Eggleston and 
L. E. Seelye, Pocahontas, ch. 3. 

Also in Capt. John Smith, Description of Vir- 
ginia, and General Ilistorie of Va. {Arber't 
reprint of Works, pp. 65 and 360). — See, also, 
above : Algonquian Family. 

Puans. See below : Siouan Family. 

Pueblos. — "The non-nomadic semi-civilized 
town and agricultural peoples of New Mexico 
and Arizona ... I call the Pueblos, or Towns- 
people, from pueblo, town, population, people, 
a name given by the Spaniards to such inhabi- 
tants of this region as were found, when first 
discovered, permanently located in comparatively 
well-built towns. Strictly speaking, the term 
Pueblos applies only to the villagers settled along 
the banks of the Rio Grande del Norte and its 
tributaries between latitudes 34° 45' and 36° 
30', and although the name is employed as a 
general appellation for tliis division, it will be 
used, for the most part, only in its narrower and 
popular sense. In this division, besides the 
before mentioned Pueblos proper, are embraced 
the Moquis, or villagers of eastern Arizona, and 
the non-nomadic agricultural nations of the lower 
Gila river, — the Pimas, Maricopas, Papagos, 
and cognate tribes. Tlie country of the Towns- 
people, if we may credit Lieutenant Simpson, 
is one of ' almost universal barrenness,' yet inter- 
spersed with fertile spots ; that of the agricultural 
nations, though dry, is more generally pro- 
ductive. The fame of this so-called civilization 
reached Mexico at an early day ... in exagger- 
ated rumors of great cities to the north, which 
prompted the expeditious of Marco de Niza in 
1539, of Coronado in 1540, and of Espejo in 1586 
[1583]. These adventurers visited the north m' 
quest of the fabulous kingdoms of Quivira, 
Tontonteac, Marata and others, in which great 
riches were said to exist. The name of Quivira 
was afterwards applied by them to one or more 
of the pueblo cities. Tlie name Cibola, from 
' Cibolo,' Mexican bull, ' bos bison,' or wild ox of 
New Mexico, where the Spaniards first encoun- 
tered buffalo, was given to seven of the towns 
wliich were afterwards known as the Seven 
Cities of Cibola. But most of the villages known 
at the present day were mentioned in the reports 
of the early expeditions by their present namea 




. . . The towns of the Pueblos are essentially 
unique, and are the dominant feature of these 
aboriginals. Some of them are situated in 
valleys, others on mesas; sometimes they are 
planted on elevations almost inaccessible, reached 
only by artificial grades, or by steps cut in the 
solid rock. Some of the towns are of an ellipti- 
cal shape, while others are square, a town being 
frequently but a block of buildings. Thus a 
Pueblo consists of one or more squares, each 
enclosed by three or four buildings of from 300 to 
400 feet in length, and about 150 feet in width 
at the base, and from two to seven stories of 
from eight to nine feet each in height. . . . The 
stories are built in a series of gradations or re- 
treating surfaces, decreasing in size as the}^ rise, 
thus forming a succession of terraces. In some 
of the towns these terraces are on both sides of 
the building ; in others they face only towards 
the outside ; while again in others they are on 
the inside. These terraces are about six feet 
wide, and extend around the three or four sides 
of the square, forming a walk for the occupants 
of the story resting upon it, and a roof for the 
story beneath; so with the stories above. As 
there is no inner communication with one another, 
tlie only means of mounting to them is by ladders 
which stand at convenient distances along the 
several rows of terraces, and they may be drawn 
up at pleasure, thus cutting off all unwelcome 
intrusion. The outside walls of one or more of 
the lower stories are entirely solid, having no 
openings of any kind, with the exception of, in 
some towns, a few loopholes. ... To enter the 
rooms on the ground floor from the outside, one 
must mount the ladder to the first balcony or 
terrace, then descend through a trap door in the 
floor by another ladder on the inside. . . . The 
several stories of these huge structures are 
divided into multitudinous compartments of 
greater or less size, which are apportioned to the 
several families of the tribe." — H. H. Bancroft, 
Katire Races of the Pacific States, v. 1, ch. 5. — 
"There can be no douljt that Cibola is to be 
looked for in New ilexico. . . . "We cannot . . . 
refuse to adopt the views of General Simpson 
and of Mr. W. W. H. Davis, and to look at the 
pueblo of Zuni as occupying, if not the actual 
site, at least one of the sites within the tribal 
area of the Seven Cities of Cibola. Nor can we 
refuse to identify Tusayan with the Moqui dis- 
trict, and Acuco with Acoma." — A. F. Ban- 
delicr. Hist. Introd. to Studies among the Sedentary 
Indians of N. Mexico (Papers of the ArcheBolor;. 
Inst, of Am.: Am. Series, v. 1). 

Also in J. H. Simpson, T/te March of Coro- 
nado. — L. H. Morgan, Houses and House-life of 
the Am. Aborigines {Contributions to N. Am. 
Ethnology, v. 4), ch. 6. — F. H. Gushing, My 
Adventures in Zuni {Century, t. Z-i). — The same, 
Fourth Annual Rept. of Vie Bureau of Ethnology 
(1882-83). pp. 473-^0.— F. W. Blackmar, Spanish 
Institutions of the Southwest, ch. 10. — See, also, 
AjrERiCA, Prehistoric, and above: Piman 
Family, and Keresan Famtly. 

Pujunan Family. — "The following tribes 
were placed in this group by Latham: Pujuni, 
Secumne, Tsamak of Hale, and the Cushna of 
Schoolcraft. The name adopted for the family 
is the name of a tribe given by Hale. This was 
one of the two races into which, upon the infor- 
mation of Captain Sutter as derived by Mr. 
Dana, all the Sacramento tribes were believed to 

• See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 


be divided. ' These races resembled one another 
in everj' respect but language.'. . . The tribes 
of this family have been carefully studied by 
Powers, to whom we are indebted for most all 
we know of their distribution. They occupied 
the eastern bank of the Sacramento in California, 
beginning some 80 or 100 miles from its mouth, 
and extended northward to within a short dis- 
tance of Pit River."— J. W. Powell, Serenth 
Annual Eept., Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 99-100. 

Puncas, or Ponkas. See below: Siocan 
Family; and above: Pawnee (Caddoan) 

Purumancians. See Chile: A. D. 1450- 

Quapaws. See below : Siouan Family. 

Quelches. See above; Pampas Tribes. 

Querandis, or Pehuelches, or Puelts. See 
above : Pampas Tribes. 

Quiches. — Cakchiquels. — "Of the ancient 
races of America, those which approached the 
nearest to a civilized condition spoke related dia- 
lects of a tongue, which from its principal mem- 
bers has been called the Maya-Quiche linguistic 
stock. Even to-day, it is estimated that half a 
million persons use these dialects. They are 
scattered over Yucatan, Guatemala, and the adja- 
cent territory, and one branch formerly occupied 
the hot lowlands on the Gulf of ilexico, north 
of Vera Cruz. The so-called ' metropolitan ' dia- 
lects are those spoken relatively near the city of 
Guatemala, and include the Cakchiquel, the 
Quiche, the Pokonchi and the Tzutuhill. They 
are quite closely allied, and are mutually intelli- 
gible, resembling each other about as much as did 
in ancient Greece the Attic, Ionic and Doric dia- 
lects. . . . The civilization of these people was 
such that they used various mnemonic signs, 
approaching our alphabet, to record and recall 
their mythology and history. Fragments, more 
or less complete, of these traditions have been 
preserved. The most notable of them is the 
national legend of the Quiches of Guatemala, the 
so-called Popol Yuh. It was written at an un- 
known date in the Quiche dialect, by a native 
who was familiar with the ancient records." — D. 
G. Brinton, Essays of an Americanist, p. 104. 

Also vs The Annals of the Cakchiquels. 
— H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific 
States, ch. 11. — See, also, above: JIayas. 

Quichuas. See PERr. 

Quijo. See above: Andesiaks. 

Quoratean Family. — " The tribes occupy both 
banks of the lower Klamath from a range of 
hills a little above Happy Camp to the junction 
of the Trinity, and the Salmon River from its 
mouth to its sources. On the north, Quoratean 
tribes extended to the Athapascan territory near 
the Oregon line." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Rept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 101. 

Rapid Indians. — -A name applied by various 
writers to the Arapahoes, and other tribes. 

Raritans. See above: ALGOsqriAN Familt. 

Remo. See above : Andesians. 

Rogue River Indians.* See above: Modocs, 


Rucanas. See Peru. 

Sabaja. See above: GrcK or Coco GRorp. 

Sacs (Sauks), Foxes, etc.— "The Sauks or 
Saukies (White Clay), and Foxes or Outagamies, 
so called by the Europeans and Algonkins, but 
whose true name is Musquakkiuk (Red Clay), are 
in fact but one nation. The French missionaries 



on coming first in contact -with them, in the year 
1665, at once found that they spoke the same lan- 
guage, and that it differed from the Algonkin, 
though belonging to the same stock ; and also that 
this language was common to the Kickapoos, 
and to those Indians they called Maskontens. This 
last nation, if it ever had an existence as a dis- 
tinct tribe, has entirely disappeared. But we are 
informed by Charlevoix, and Mr. Schoolcraft cor- 
roborates the fact, that the word ' Mascontenck ' 
means a country without woods, a prairie. The 
name Mascontens was therefore used to designate 
' prairie Indians.' And it appears that they con- 
sisted principally of Sauks and Kickapoos, with 
an occasional mixture of Potowotamies and 
Miamis, who probably came there to hunt the 
Buffalo. The country assigned to those Mascon- 
tens lay south of the Fox River of Lake Michi- 
gan and west of Illinois River. . . . When first 
discovered, the Sauks and Foxes had their seats 
toward the southern extremity of Green Bay, on 
Fox River, and generally farther east than the 
country which they lately occupied. . . . By the 
treaty of 1804, the Sauks and Foxes ceded to the 
United States all their lands east of . . . the 
Mississippi. . . . The Kickapoos by various 
treaties, 1809 to 1819, have also ceded all their 
lands to the United States. They claimed all the 
country between the Illinois River and the 
Wabash, north of the parallel of latitude passing 
by the mouth of the Illinois and south of the 
Kankakee River. . . . The territory claimed by 
the Miamis and Piankishaws may be generally 
stated as having been bounded eastwardly by the 
Maumee River of Lake Erie, and to have in- 
cluded all the country drained by the Wabash. 
The Piankishaws occupied the country border- 
ing on the Ohio. " — A. Gallatin, Synopsis of the 
Indian Tribes (Archaoloijia Americana, t. 2), 
introd., sect. 2. — The Mascontens, or Mascoutins, 
" seldom appear alone, but almost always in 
connection with their kindred, the Ottagamies or 
Foxes and the Kickapoos, and like them bear a 
character for treachery and deceit. The three 
tribes may have in earlier days formed the Fire- 
Nation [of the early French writers], but, as 
Gallatin observes in the Archseologia Americana, 
it is very doubtful whether the Mascoutins were 
ever a distinct tribe. If this be so, and there is 
no reason to reject it, the disappearance of the 
name will not be strange." — J. G. Shea, Brief 
Researches Respecting the Mascoutins {SclioolerafVa 
Information Respecting Indian Tribes, pt. 4, p. 
245). — See above, Algonquian Familt. — For an 
account of the Black Hawk War see Illinois, 
A. D. 1832. 

Sahaptins. See above : Nez Perces. 

Salinan Family. — This name is given by 
Major Powell to the San Antonio and San Miguel 
dialects spoken by two tribes on the Salinas 
River, Monterey County, California. — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Anmial Report, Bareati of Eth- 
nology, p. 101. — See EssELEXiAN Family. 

Salishan Family. See above : Fl.4^thead3. 

Sanhikans, or Mincees. See above : Algon- 
quian F-VMILT. 

Sans Arcs. See below : Siouan Family. 

Santees.* See below : Siouan Family. 

Sarcee (Tinneh).* See above: Blackfeet. 

Sastean Family. — "The single tribe upon the 
language of which Hale based his name was 
located by him to the southwest of the Lutuami 
or Klamath tribes. . . . The former territory of 

" See Note, Appendix E, vol. 5. 108 

the Sastean family is the region drained by the 
Klamath River and its tributaries from the 
western base of the Cascade range to the point 
where the Klamath flows through the ridge of 
hills east of Happy Camp, which forms the 
boundary between the Sastean and the Quorafean 
families. In addition to this region of the Kla- 
math, the Shasta extended over the Siskiyou 
range northward as far as Ashland, Oregon." — 
J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Rept., Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 106. 

Savannahs. See above: Algonquian Family. 

Seminoles. — "The term ■seman61e,' or 'isti 
Simanole,' signifies 'separatish' or 'runaway,' 
and as a tribal name points to the Indians who 
left the Creek, especially the Lower Creek settle- 
ments, for Florida, to live, hunt, and fish there 
in independence. The term does not mean ' wild,' 
'savage,' as frequently stated; if applied now in 
this sense to animals, it is because of its original 
meaning, 'what has become a runaway.'. . . 
The Seminoles of modern times are a people 
compounded of the following elements: separa- 
tists from the Lower Creek and Hitchiti towns ; 
remnants of tribes partly civilized by the 
Spaniards; Yamassi Indians, and some negroes. 
. . . The Seminoles were always regarded as a 
sort of outcasts by the Creek tribes from which 
they had seceded, and no doubt there were 
reasons for this. . . . These Indians showed, like 
the Creeks, hostile intentions towards the thirteen 
states during and after the Revolution, and con- 
jointly with the Upper Creeks on 'Tallapoosa 
river concluded a treaty of friendship with the 
Spaniards at Pensacola in Jlay, 1784. Although 
under Spanish control, the Seminoles entered into 
hostilities with the Americans in 1793 and 1812. 
In the latter year Payne miko [' King Payne'] 
was killed in a battle at Alachua, and his brother, 
the influential Bowlegs, died soon after. These 
unruly tribes surprised and massacred American 
settlers on the Satilla river, Georgia, in 1817, and 
another conflict began, which terminated in the 
destruction of the Mikasuki and Suwanee river 
towns of the Seminoles by General Jackson, in 
April, 1818. [See Florida: A. D. 1816-1818.] 
After the cession of Florida, and its incorporation 
into the American Union (1819), the Seminoles gave 
up all their territory by the treaty of Fort Moultrie, 
Sept. 18th, 1823, receiving in exchange goods and 
annuities. When the government concluded to 
move these Indians west of the Mississippi river, 
a treaty of a conditional character was con- 
cluded with them at Payne's landing, in 1832. 
The larger portion were removed, but the more 
stubborn part dissented, and thus gave origin to 
one of the gravest conflicts which ever occurred 
between Indians and whites. The Seminole war 
began with the massacre of Major Dade's com- 
mand near Wahoo swamp, December 28th, 1835, 
and continued with unabated fury for five years, 
entailing an Immense expenditure of money and 
lives. [See Florida: A. D. 1835-1843.] A 
numbei of Creek warriors joined the hostile 
Seminoles in 1836. A census of the Seminoles 
taken in 1822 gave a population of 3,899, with 
800 negroes belonging to them. The population 
of the Seminoles in the Indian Territory amounted 
to 2,667 in 1881. . . . There are some Seminoles 
now in Mexico, who went there with their negro 
slaves. " — A. S. Gatschet, A Migration Legend of 
the Creek Indians, v. 1, pt. 1, sect. 2. — "Ever since 
the first settlement of these Indians in Florida 



they have been engaged in a strife with the 
whites. ... In the unanimous judgment of 
unprejudiced writers, the whites have ever been 
in the wrong." — D. Q. Brinton, Notes on the 
Floridian Peninsula, p. 148. — "There were in 
Florida, October 1, 1880, of the Indians com- 
monly known as Seminole, 208. They consti- 
tuted 37 families, living in 22 camps, which were 
gathered into five widely separated groups or 
settlements. . . . This people our Government 
has never been able to conciliate or to conquer. 
. . . The Seminole have always lived within our 
borders as aliens. It is only of late years, and 
through natural necessities, that any friendly 
intercourse of white man and Indian has been 
secured. . . . The Indians have appropriated for 
their service some of the products of European 
civilization, such as weapons, implements, 
domestic utensils, fabrics for clothing, &c. 
Mentally, excepting a few religious ideas which 
they received long ago from the teaching of 
Spanish missionaries, and, in the southern settle- 
ments, excepting some few Spanish words, the 
Seminole have accepted and appropriated prac- 
tically nothing from the white man." — C. Mac- 
Cauley, The Seminole Indians of Florida {Fifth 
An. Rept. of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84), 
introd. and ch. 4. 

Also in J. T. Sprague, The FUmda War. — 
8. G. Drake, Th£ AborigiTial Races of N. Am. . bk. 
4. ch. 6-21. — See, also, above: Mdskhoqeak 

Senecas; their name. — "How this name 
originated is a ' vexata qutestio ' among Indo- 
antiquarians and etymologists. The least plausi- 
ble supposition is, that the name has any 
reference to the moralist Seneca. Some have 
supposed it to be a corruption of. the Dutch term 
for Vermillion, cinebar, or cinnabar, under the 
assumption that the Senecas, being the most 
warlike of the Five Nations, used that pigment 
more than the others, and thus gave origin to 
the name. This hypothesis is supported by no 
authority. . . . The name 'Sennecas' first 
appears on a Dutch map of 1616, and again on 
Jean de Laet's map of 1633. ... It is claimed 
by some that the word may be derived from 
'Sinnekox,' the Algonquin name of a tribe of 
Indians spoken of in Wassenaer's History of 
Europe, on the authority of Peter Barentz, who 
traded with them about the year 1626. . . . 
Without assuming to solve the mystery, the 
writer contents himself with giving some data 
which may possibly aid others in arriving at a 
reliable conclusion. [Here follows a discussion 
of the various forms of name by which the 
Senecas designated themselves and were known 
to the Hurons, from whom the Jesuits first 
heard of them.] By dropping the neuter pre- 
fix O, the national title became ' Nan-do-wah- 
gaah, ' or ' The great hill people,' as now used by 
the Senecas. ... If the name Seneca can legiti- 
mately be derived from the Seneca word ' Nan-do- 
wah-gaah "... it can only be done by prefixing 
'Son,' as was the custom of the Jesuits, and 
dropping all unnecessary letters. It would then 
form the word ' 8on-non-do-wa-ga,' the first two 
and last syllables of which, if the French sounds 
of the letters are given, are almost identical in 
pronunciation with Seneca. The chief diflaculty, 
however, would be in the disposal of the two 
superfluous syllables. They may have been 
dropped in the process of contraction so common 

in the composition of Indian words — a result 
which would be quite likely to occur to a Seneca 
name, in its transmission through two other 
languages, the Mohawk and the Dutch. The 
foregoing queries and suggestions are thrown 
out for what they are worth, in the absence of 
any more reliable theory. " — O. H. Marshall, 
Historical Writings, p. 231. — See above: Iroquois 
Confederacy, and Hubons, &c. — See, also, Pos- 
TiAc's War, and for an account of Sullivan's ex- 
pedition against the Senecas, see United St.^tes 
OP Am. : A. D. 1779 (August — Septembek). 

Shacaya. See above : Andesians. 

Shahaptian Family. See above: Nez 

Shastas. See above : Sastean Family. 

Shawanese, Shawnees, or Shawanoes. — 
"Adjacent to the Lenape [or Delawares — see 
above], and associated with them in some of the 
most notable passages of their history, dwelt the 
Shawanoes, the Chaouanons of the French, a 
tribe of bold, roving, and adventurous spirit. 
Their eccentric wanderings, their sudden appear- 
ances and disappearances, perplex the antiquary, 
and defy research; but from various scattered 
notices, we may gather that at an early period 
they occupied the valley of the Ohio ; that, be- 
coming embroiled with the Five Nations, they 
shared the defeat of the Andastes, and about the 
year 1672 fled to escape destruction. Some found 
an asylum in the country of the Lenape, where 
they lived tenants at will of the Five Nations; 
others sought refuge in the Carolinas and 
Florida, where, true to their native instincts, 
they soon came to blows with the owners of the 
soil. Again, turning northwards, they formed 
new settlements in the valley of the Ohio, where 
they were now suffered to dwell in peace, and 
where, at a later period, they were joined by 
such of their brethren as had found refuge i 
among the Lenape." — F. Parkman, The Con- 
spiracy of Pontiac, ch. 1. — "The Shawnees were 
not found originally in Ohio, but migrated there 
after 1750. They were called Chaouanons by 
the French and Shawanoes by the English. The 
English name Shawano changed to Shawanee, 
and recently to Shawnee. Chaouanon and 
Shawano are obviously attempts to represent the 
same sound by the orthography of the two re- 
spective languages. . . . Much industry has 
been used by recent writers, especially by Dr. 
Brinton, to trace this nomadic tribe to its original 
home; but I think without success. . . . We 
first find the Shawano in actual history about the 
year 1660, and living along the Cumberland river, 
or the Cumberland and 'Tennessee. Among the 
conjectures as to their earlier history, the greatest 
probability lies for the present with the earliest 
account — the account given by Perrot, and ap- 
parently obtained by him from the Shawanoes 
themselves, about the year 1680 — that they 
formerly lived by the lower lakes, and were 
driven thence by the Five Nations." — M. F. 
Force, Some Early Notices of the Indians of Ohio. 
— "Their [the Shawnee's] dialect is more akin 
to the Mohegan than to the Delaware, and 
when, in 1692, they first appeared in the area 
of the Eastern Algonkin Confederacy, they 
came as the friends and relatives of the former. 
They were divided into four bands " — Piqua, 
properly Pikoweu, Mequachake, Kiscapokoke, 
Chilicothe. "Of these, that which settled in 
Pennsylvania was the Pikoweu, who occupied 




and gave their name to the Pequa valley ia Lan- 
caster county. According to ancient "^lohcgan 
tradition, the New England Pequods were mem- 
bers of this hand. " — D. G. Brinton, The Lenape 
and their Legends, ch. 3.— The same, The Shaw- 
nees and their Migrations (Hist. Mag., v. 10, 
1866). — "The Shawanese, whose villages were on 
the western bank [of the Susquehanna] came 
into the valley [of Wyoming] from their former 
localities, at the 'forks of the Delaware' (the 
junction of the Delaware and Lehigh, at Easton), 
to which point they had been induced at some 
remote period to emigrate from their earlier 
home, near the mouth of the river Wabash, in 
the 'Ohio region,' upon the invitation of the 
Delawares. 'This was Indian diplomac}*, for the 
Delawares were desirous (not being upon the 
most friendly terms with the Miugos, or Six 
Nations) to accumulate a force against those 
powerful neighbors. But, as might be expected, 
they did not long live in peace with their new 
allies. . . . The Shawanese [about 1755, or soon 
after] were driven out of the valley by their 
more powerful neighbors, the Delawares, and 
the conflict which resulted in their leaving it 
grew out of, or was precipitated by, a very 
trifling incident. While the warriors of the 
Delawares were engaged upon the mountains in a 
hunting expedition, a number of squaws or female 
Indians from Maughwauwame were gather- 
ing wild fruits along the margin of the river 
below the town, where they found a number of 
Shawanese squaws and their children, who had 
crossed the river in their canoes upon the same 
business. A child belonging to the Shawanese 
having taken a large grasshopper, a quarrel arose 
among the children for the possession of it, in 
■which their mothers soon took part. . . . The 
quarrel became general. . . . Upon the return 
of the warriors both tribes prepared for battle. 
. . . The Shawanese . . . were not able to sus- 
tain the conflict, and, after the loss of about half 
their tribe, the remainder were forced to flee to 
their own side of the river, .shortly after which 
they abandoned their town and removed to the 
Ohio." This war between the Delawares and 
Shawanese has been called the Grasshopper War. 
— L. H. Miner, The YalUy of Wyoming, p. 32.— 
See, also, above, Algonquian Family, and Dela- 
wares. — See, also, Pontlac's Wab; fxiTED 
States of Am. : A. D. 1765-1768; and (for an 
account of ' ' Lord Dunmore's War ") see Ohio 
(Valley): A. D. 1774. 

Sheepeaters (Tukuarika). See below: Sno- 
BHOXEAX Family. 

Sheyennes. See above : Algonquian F.amily. 

Shoshonean Family. — "This important 
family occupied a large part of the great interior 
basin of the United States. Upon the north 
Shoshonean tribes extended far into Oregon, 
meeting Shahaptian territory on about the 44th 
parallel or along the Blue Mountains. Upon the 
northeast the eastern limits of the pristine habi- 
tat of the Shoshonean tribes are unknown. The 
narrative of Lewis and Clarke contains the 
explicit statement tliat the Shoshoni bands en- 
countered upon the Jefferson River, whose sum- 
mer home was upon the head waters of the 
Columbia, formerly lived within their own 
recollection in the plains to the east of the Rocky 
Mountains, whence they were driven to their 
mountain retreats by the Minnetaree (Atsina), 
who had obtained firearms. . . . Later a divi- 

sion of the Bannock held the finest portion of 
Southwestern Montana, whence apparently they 
were being pushed westward across the moun- 
tains by Blackfeet. Upon the east the Tukuarika 
or Sheepeaters held the Yellowstone Park 
country, where they were bordered by the Siouan 
territory, while tlie Wasliaki occupied south- 
western Wyoming. Nearly the entire moun- 
tainous part of Colorado was held by the several 
bands of the Ute, the eastern and southeastern 
parts of the State being held respectively by the 
Arapaho and Cheyenne (Algonquian), and the 
Kaiowe (Kiowan). To the southeast the Ute 
country included the northern drainage of the 
San Juan, extending further east a short dis- 
tance into New Mexico. The Comanche divi- 
sion of the family extended farther east than any 
other. . . . Bourgemont found a Comanche 
tribe on the upper Kansas River in 1724. Accord- 
ing to Pike the Comanche territory bordered 
the Kaiowe on tlie north, the former occupying 
the head waters of the Upper Red River, Arkan- 
sas and Rio Grande. How far to the southward 
Shoshonean tribes extended at this early period 
is not known, though the evidence tends to show 
that they raided far down into Texas, to the terri- 
tory tliey have occupied in more recent years, 
viz., the extensive plains from the Rocky Sloun- 
taius eastward into Indian Territory and Texas 
to about 97°. Upon the south Shoshonean terri- 
tory was limited generally by the Colorado 
River . . . while the Tusayan (Moki) had es- 
tablished their seven pueblos ... to the east of 
the Colorado Chiquito. In the southwest Sho- 
shonean tribes had pushed across California, oc- 
cupying a wide band of country to the Pacific." 
— J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual liept., Bureau 
of Ethnology, pjh 109-110.—" The Pah Utes oc- 
cupy the greater part of Nevada, and extend 
southward. . . . 'The Pi Utes or Piutes inliabit 
Western Utah, from Oregon to New Iklexico. 
. . . The Gosh Utes [Gosuites] inhabit the coun- 
try west of Great Salt Lake, and extend to the 
Pah Utes." — H. H. Bancroft, Native Haces of 
the Pacific States, v. 1, ch. 4. 

Siksikas, or Sisikas. See above : Blackfeet. 

Siouan Family. — Sioux.* — "The nations 
which speak the Sioux language may be con- 
sidered, in reference both to their respective 
dialects and to their geographical position, aa 
consisting of four subdivisions, viz., the Winne- 
bagoes; the Sioux proper and the Assiniboins; 
the Minetare group; and the Osages and other 
southern kindred tribes. The Winnebagoes, so 
called by the Algonkins, but called Puans and 
also Otchagras by the French, and Horoje (' fish- 
eaters ') by the Omaha ws and other southern 
tribes, call themselves Hochungorah, or the 
' Trout ' nation. The Green Bay of Lake Michi- 
gan derives its French name from theirs (Bays 
des Puans). . . . According to the War Depart- 
ment they amount [1836] to 4,600 souls, and ap- 
pear to cultivate the soil to a considerable degree. 
Their principal seats are on the Fox River of 
Lake Michigan, and towards the heads of the 
Rock River of the Mississippi. . . . The Sioux 
proper, or Naudowessies, names given to them 
by the Algonkins and the French, call themselves 
Dahcotas, and sometimes 'Ochente Shakoans,' 
or the Seven Fires, and are divided into seven 
bands or tribes, closely connected together, but 
apparently independent of each other. They do 
not appear to have been known to the French 

'See Note, Appendi.x E, vol. 5. 




before the year 1660. . . . The four most eastern 
tribes of the Dahcotas are known by the name 
of the Mendewahkantoan, or 'Gens du Lac,' 
Wahkpatoan and Wahkpakotoan, or 'People 
of the Leaves,' and Sisitoans. . . . The three 
westerly tribes, the Yanktons, the Yanktonans, 
and the Tetous, wander between the Mississippi 
and the Missouri. . . . The Assiniboins (Stone 
Indians), as they are called by the Algonkins, 
are a Dahcota tribe separated from the rest of 
the nation, and on that account called Hoha or 
'Rebels,' by the other Sioux. They are said to 
have made part originally of the Yanktons. . . . 
Another tribe, called Sheyennes or Cheyennes, 
were at no very remote period seated on the left 
bank of the Red River of Lake Winnipek. . . . 
Carver reckons them as one of the Sious tribes; 
and Mackenzie informs us that they were driven 
away by the Sioux. They now [1836] live on 
the headwaters of the river Sheyenne, a south- 
western tributary of the Missouri. ... I have 
been, however, assured by a well-informed person 
who trades with them that they speak a distinct 
language, for which there is no European inter- 
preter. . . . The Minetares (Minetaree and Mine- 
turies) consist of three tribes, speaking three 
diflCerent languages, which belong to a common 
stock. Its affinities with the Dahcota are but 
remote, but have appeared sufficient to entitle 
them to be considered as of the same family. 
Two of those tribes, the JIandanes, whose num- 
ber does not exceed 1,500, and the stationary 
Minetares, amounting to 3,000 souls, including 
those called Annahawas, cultivate the soil, and 
live in villages situated on or near the Missouri, 
■ between 47^ and 48° north latitude. . . . The 
'third Jlinetare tribe, is that known by the name 
of the Crow or Upsaroka [or Absarokaj nation, 
probably the Keeheetsas of Lewis and Clarke. 
They are an erratic tribe, who hunt south of the 
Missouri, between the Little Missouri and the 
southeastern branches of the Yellowstone River. 
. . . The southern Sioux consist of eight tribes, 
speaking four, or at most five, kindred dialects. 
Their territory originally extended along the 
Mississippi, from below the mouth of the 
Arkansas to the forty -first degree of north lati- 
tude. . . . Their hunting grounds extend as far 
west as the Stony Mountains ; but they all culti- 
vate the soil, and the most westerly village on 
the Missouri is in about 100° west longitude. 
The three most westerly tribes are the Quappas 
or Arkansas, at the mouth of the river of that 
name, and the Osages and Kansas, who inhabited 
the country south of the Missouri and of the 
river Kansas. . . . The Osages, properly Wau- 
sashe, were more numerous and powerful than 
any of the neighbouring tribes, and perpetually 
at war with all the other Indians, without ex- 
cepting the Kansas, who speak the same dialect 
with themselves. They were originally divided 
into Great and Little Osages; but about forty 
years ago almost one-half of the nation, known 
by the name of Chaneers, or Clermont's Band, 
separated from the rest, and removed to the 
river Arkansa. The villages of those several 
subdivisions are now [1836] on the headwaters 
of the river Osage, and of the Verdigris, a 
northern tributary stream of the Arkansa. They 
amount to about 5,000 souls, and have ceded a 
portion of their lands to the United States, re- 
serving to themselves a territory on the Arkansa, 
south of 38° north latitude, extending from 95° 

to 100° west longitude, on a breadth of 45 to 50 
miles. The territory allotted to the Cherokees, 
the Creeks and the Choctaws lies south of that of 
the Osage. . . . The Kansas, who have always 
lived on the river of that name, have been at 
peace with the Osage for the last thirty years, 
and intermarry with them. They amount to 
1,500 souls, and occupy a tract of about 3,000,000 
acres. . . . The five other tribes of this sub- 
division are the loways, or Pahoja (Grey Snow), 
the Missouris or Neojehe, the Ottoes, or Wali- 
tootahtah, the Omahaws, or Mahas, and the 
Puncas. . . . All the nations speaking languages 
belonging to the Great Sioux Family may . . . 
be computed at more than 50,000 souls." — A. 
Gallatin, Synopsis of the Indian Tribes (Arc/ueo- 
logia Americana, v. 2), sect. 4. — "Owing to the 
fact that ' Sioux ' is a word of reproach and 
means snake or enemy, the term has been dis- 
carded by many later writers as a family designa- 
tion, and ' Dakota, ' which signifies friend or 
ally, has been employed in its stead. The 
two words are, however, by no means prop- 
erly synonymous. The term ' Sioux ' was used 
by Gallatin in a comprehensive or family 
sense and was applied to all the tribes collec- 
tively known to him to speak kindred dialects of 
a widespread language. It is in this sense only, 
as applied to the linguistic family, that the term 
is here employed. The term ' Dahcota ' (Dakota) 
was correctly applied by Gallatin to the Dakota 
tribes proper as distinguished from the other 
members of the linguistic family who are not 
Dakotas in a tribal sense. The use of the term 
with this signification should be perpetuated. 
It is only recently that a definite decision has 
been reached respecting the relationship of the 
Catawba and Woccon, the latter an extinct tribe 
known to have been linguistically related to the 
Catawba. Gallatin thought that he was able to 
discern some affinities of the Catawban language 
with 'Muskhogee and even with Choctaw,' 
though these were not sufficient to induce him to 
class them together. Mr. Gatschet was the first 
to call attention to the presence in the Catawba 
language of a considerable number of words 
having a Siouan affinity. Recently Mr. Dorsey 
has made a critical examination of all the 
Catawba linguistic material available, which has 
been materially increased by the labors of Mr. 
Gatschet, and the result seems to justify its in- 
clusion as one of the dialects of the widespread 
Siouan family." The principal tribes in the 
Siouan Family named by Major Powell are the 
Dakota (including Santee, Sisseton, Wahpeton, 
Yankton, Yanktonnais, Teton, — the latter em- 
bracing Brule, Sans Arcs, Blackfeet, Jliunecon- 
jou, Two Kettles, Ogalala, Uncpapa), Assinaboin, 
Omaha, Ponca, Kaw, Osage, Quapaw, Iowa, 
Otoe, Missouri, Winnebago, Mandau, Gros Ven- 
tres, Crow, Tutelo, Biloxi (see Muskhogean 
Family), Catawba and Woccon. — J. W. Powell, 
Seventh Annual Rept. of the Bureau of Ethru)k>gy, 
p. 113. 

Al'so in J. O. Dorsey, Migratimis of Siouan 
Tnbes (Amencan Naturalist, i). 20, March). — 
The same, Biloxi Indians of Louisiana {V.-P. 
address A. A. A. S., 1893).— See, above: Hidats.v. 

Sissetons. See above Siouan Family. 

Six Nations. See above: Ikoquois Con- 

Skittagetan Family.— "A family designa- 
tion . . . retained for the tribes of the Queen 




Charlotte Archipelago ■which have usually been 
called llaida. From a comparison of the vocabu- 
laries of the Haida language with others of the 
neighboring Koluschan family, Dr. Franz Boas 
is inclined to consider that the two are genetically 
related. The two languages possess a consider- 
able number of words in common, but a more 
thorough investigation is reqiiisite for the settlc- 

.ment of the question." — J. W. Powell, Seventh 

{Annual Kept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 120. 

I Snakes. See above : SnosnoNEAN Family. 

■ Stockbridge Indians. — " The Stockbridge In- 
dians were originally a part of the Housatannuck 
Tribe [Mohegans], to whom the Legislature of 
Massachusetts granted or secured a township 
[afterward called Stockbridge] in the year 1736. 
Their number was increased by Wappingers and 
Mohikanders, and perhaps also by Indians be- 
longing to several other tribes, both of New 
England and New York. Since their removal to 
New Stockbridge and Brothcrton, in the western 
parts of New York, they have been joined by 
Mohegans and other Indians from East Connecti- 
cut, and even from Rhode Island and Long 
Island. " — A. Gallatin, Synopsis of Indian Tribes 
(Archaologia Americana, v. 8), p. 35. 

Also m A. Holmes, Annals of Am., 1786 (». 3). 
— S. G. Drake, Aboriginal Races, p. 1.5. 

I Susquehannas, or Andastes, or Conestogas. 
— " Dutch and Swedish writers speak of a tribe 
called Minquas ; . . . the French in Canada . . . 
make frequent allusions to the Gaudastogues 
(more briefly Andastes), a tribe friendly to their 
allies, the Hurons, and sturdy enemies of the 
Iroquois ; later still Pennsylvania writers speak 
of the Concstogas, the tribe to which Logan be- 
longed, and the tribe which perished at the 
hands of the Paxton boys. Although Gallatin 
in his map, followed by Bancroft, placed the 
Andastes near Lake Erie, my researches led me 
to correct this, and identify the Susquehannas, 
Minqua, Andastes or Gandastogues. and Cones- 
togas as being all the same tribe, the first name 

1 being apparentlji an appellation given them by 
the Virginia tribes; the second that given them 
by the Algonquins on the Delaware ; while Gan- 
dastogue as the French, or Conestoga as the 
English wrote it, was their own tribal name, 
meaning cabin-pole men, Natio Perticarum, 
from 'Andasta,' a cabin-pole. . . . Prior to 1600 
the Susquehannas and the Jlohawks . . . came 
mto collision, and the Susquehannas nearly ex- 
terminated the Mohawks in a war which lasted 
ten years." In 1647 they offered their aid to the 
Hurons against the Iroquois, having 1,300 war- 
riors trained to the use of fire-arms by three 
Swedish soldiers; but the proposed alliance 
failed. During the third quarter of the 17th 
century they seem to have been in almost con- 
tinuous war with the Five Nations, until, in 
1675, they were completely overthrown. A 
party of about 100 retreated into Maryland 
and became involved there in a war with the 
colonists and were destroyed. "The rest of 
the tribe, after making overtures to Lord Balti- 
more, submitted to the Five Nations, and 
were allowed to retain their ancient grounds. 
When Pennsylvania was settled, they became 
known as Conestogas, and were always friendly 
to the colonists of Penn, as they had been to the 
Dutch and Swedes. In 1701 Canoodagtoh, their 
king, made a treaty with Penn, and in the docu- 
ment they are styled Minquas, Conestogas, or 

' See Note, Append!.^ E, vol. 5. 

Susquehannas. They appear as a tribe in a 
treaty in 1743, but were dwindling away. In 
1763 the feeble remnant of the tribe became in- 
volved in the general suspicion entertained by 
the colonists against the red men, arising out of 
massacres on the borders. To escape danger the 
poor creatures took refuge in Lancaster jail, and 
here they were all butchered by the Paxton boys, 
who burst into the place. Parkman, in his Con- 
spiracy of Pontiac, p. 414, details the sad story. 
The last interest of this unfortunate tribe centras 
in Logan, the friend of the white man, whose 
speech is so familiar to all, that we must regret 
that it has not sustained the historical scrutiny of 
Brantz Mayer {2'ahgahjute ; or Logan and Capt. 
Michael Oresap, Maryland Hist. Soc. , May, 1851 ; 
and 8»o. Albany, 1867). Logan was a Cones- 
toga, in other words a Susquehanna. "- -J. G. 
Shea, Note 46 to George Alsop's Character of the 
Province of Maryland (Oowan's Bibliotheca Ameri- 
cana, 5). — See, also, above: Iroquois Confed- 


Tachies. See Texas: The abokiqinal in- 
habitants AND THE NAME. 

TacuUies. See below : Athapascan Familt. 

Taensas. See Natchesan Family. 

Takilman Family.*— " This name was pro- 
posed by Mr. Gatschet for a distinct language 
spoken on the coast of Oregon about the lower 
Rogue River." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Kept., Bureauof Ethnology, p. 121. 

Talligewi. See above : Alleohans. 

TaBoan Family. — " The tribes of this family 
in the United States resided exclusively upon the 
Rio Grande and its tributary valleys from about 
33' to about 36°. "—J. W.Powell, Seventh An- 
nual Bcpt., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 123. 

Tappans. See above : Algonquian Family. 

Taranteens or Tarratines. See above: Ab- 
nakis ; also, Algonquian Family. ' 

Tarascans. — ' ' The Tarascans, so called from 
Taras, the name of a tribal god, had the reputa- 
tion of being the tallest and handsomest people 
of Mexico. They were the inhabitants of the 
present State of Michoacan, west of the valley of 
Mexico. According to their oldest traditions, or 
perhaps those of their neighbors, they had mi- 
grated from the north in company with, or about 
the same time as, the Aztecs. For some 300 
years before the conquest they had been a seden- 
tary, semi-civilized people, maintaining their in- 
dependence, and progressing steadily in culture. 
When first encountered by the Spaniards they 
were quite equal and in some respects ahead of 
the Nahuas. ... In their costume the Tarascos 
differed considerably from their neighbors. The 
feather garments which they manufactured sur- 
passed all others in durability and beauty. Cot- 
ton was, however, the usual material. " — D. G. 
Brinton, The American Race, p. 136. 

Tarumi. See above : CAiiiBS and theer Kin- 

Tecuna. See above : Guck on Coco Group. 

Tehuel Che. See above: Patagonianb. 1 

Telmelches. See above: Pampas TRiBEa i 

Tequestas. See below: Timcquanan Family. I 

Tetons. See above: Siouan Family. 

Teutecas, or Tenez. See below : Zapotecs, 

Timuquanan 'Family. — The Tequestas. — 
" Beginning at the southeast, we first meet the 
historic Timucua family, the tribes of which are 
extinct at the present time. ... In the 16th 




I ' 

century the Timucua inhabited the northern 
and middle portion of tlie peninsula of Florida, 
and although their exact limits to the north 
are unknown, they held a portion of Florida 
bordering on Georgia, and some of the coast 
islands in the Atlantic ocean. . . . The people 
received its name from one of their villages called 
Timagoa. . . . The name means 'lord,' 'ruler,' 
'master' ('atimuca,' waited upon, 'muca,' by 
servants, 'ati'), and the people's name is writ- 
ten Atimuca early in the 18th century. . . . The 
languages spoken by the Calusa and by the peo- 
ple next in order, the Tequesta, are unknown to 
us. . . . The Calusa held the southwestern ex- 
tremity of Florida, and their tribal name is left 
recorded in Calusahatchi, a river south of Tampa 
bay. ... Of the Tequesta people on the south- 
eastern end of the peninsula we know still less 
than of the Calusa Indians. There was a tradi- 
tion that they were the same people which held 
the Bahama or Lucayo Islands." — A. S. Gat- 
schet, A Migration, Legend of the Creek Indiana, 
«. 1, pt. 1. 
' Tinneh. See above: Athapascan Family. 

Tivitivas. See above: Caries and theis 

Tlascalans. See Mexico : A. D. 1519 (Jdkb 
— October). 

T'linkets. See above : Athapascan Family. 

Tobacco Nation. See above: Hurons; and 
Iroquois Confederacy : Their name. 

Tobas. See above : Pa.mpas Tribes. 

Toltecs. See Mexico, Ancient. 

Tonikan Family. — '"The Tonika are known 
to have occupied three localities : First, on the 
Lower Yazoo River (1700) ; second, east shore of 
Mississippi River (about 1704); third, in Avoy- 
elles Parish, Louisiana (1817). Near JIarksville, 
the county seat of that parish, about twenty-five 
are now living." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Sept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 12.5. 

Tonkavsran Family. — "The Tonkawa were a 
migratory people and a colluvies gentium, whose 
earliest habitat is unknown. Their first men- 
tion occurs in 1719; at that time and ever since 
they roamed in the western and southern parts 
of what is now Texas." — .1. AY. Powell, Seventh 
Annual Bept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 126. 

Tontos. See above: Apacide Group. 

Toromonos. See Bolivia: Aboriginal in- 

Totonacos. — "The first natives whom Cortes 
met on landing in Mexico were the Totonacos. 
They occupied the territory of Totonicapan, now 
included in the State of Vera Cruz. According 
to traditions of their own, they had resided there 
800 years, most of which time they were inde- 
pendent, though a few generations before the 
arrival of the Spaniards they had been subjected 
by the arms of the Montezumas. . . . Sahagun 
describes them as almost white in color, their 
heads artificially deformed, but their features 
regular and handsome. Robes of cotton beauti- 
fully dyed served them for garments, and their 
feet were covered with sandals. . . . These 
people were highly civilized. Cempoalla, their 
capital city, was situate about five miles from the 
Bea, at the junction of two streams. Its houses 
were of brick and mortar, and each was sur- 
rounded by a small garden, at the foot of which 
a stream of fresh water was conducted. . . . 
The affinities of the Totonacos are difiicult to 
jnake out. . . . Their language has many words 

' 1 

from Maya roots, but it has also many more 
from the Nahuatl." — D. G. Brinton, The Ameri- 
can Bace, p. 139. 

Tukuarika. See above : Shoshone.\n Family. 

Tupi. — Guarani. — Tupuyas. — "The first In- 
dians with whom the Portuguese came in con- 
tact, on the discovery of Brazil, called themselves 
Tupinama, a term derived by Barnhagen from 
Tupi and Mba, something like warrior or noble- 
man ; by Martins from Tupi and Anamba (rela- 
tive) with the signification 'belonging to the 
Tupi tribe. ' These Tupi dwell on the east coast of 
Brazil, and with their language the Portuguese 
were soon familiar. It was found especially ser- ' 
viceable as a means of communication with other 
tribes, and this led the Jesuits later to develop it as 
much as possible, and introduce it as a universal 
language of intercourse with the Savages. Thus 
the ' lingua geral BrasUica ' arose, which must be 
regarded as a Tupi with a Portuguese pronun- 
ciation. The result was a surprising one, for it 
really succeeded in forming, for the tribes of 
Brazil, divided in language, a universal means 
of communication. Without doubt the wide ex- 
tent of the Tupi was very favorable, especially 
since on this side of the Andes, as far as the 
Caribbean Sea, the continent of South America 
was overrun with Tupi hordes. . . . Von Mai- 
tius has endeavored to trace their various migra- 
tions and abodes, by which they have acquired 
a sort of ubiquity in tropical South America. 
. . . This history . . . leads to the supposi- 
tion that, had the discovery been delayed a few 
centuries, the Tupi might have become the lords 
of eastern South America, and have spread a 
higher culture over that region. The Tupi 
family may be divided, according to their 
fixed abodes, into the southern, northern,! 
eastern, western, and central Tupi ; all these are 
again divided into a number of smaller tribes. 
The southern Tupi are usually called Guarani 
(warriors), a name which the Jesuits first in- 
troduced. It cannot be determined from which 
direction they came. The greatest number are 
in Paraguay and the Argentine province of Cor- 
rientes. The Jesuits brought them to a very 
high degree of civilization. The eastern Tupi, 
the real Tupinamba, are scattered along the At- 
lantic coast from St. Catherina Island to the 
mouth of the Amazon. They are a very weak 
tribe. They say they came from the south and 
west. The northern Tupi are a weak and widely 
scattered remnant of a large tribe, and are now 
in the province of Para, on the island of JIarajo, 
and along both banks of the Amazon. ... It 
is somewhat doubtful if this peaceable tribe are 
really Tupi. . . . The central Tupi live in 
several free hordes between the Tocantins and 
Madeira. . . . Cutting off the heads of enemies is 
in vogue among them. . . . The Mundrucu are 
especially the head-hunting tribe. The western 
Tupi all live in Bolivia. They are the only ones 
who came in contact with the Inca empire, and 
their character and manners show the influence 
of this. Some are a picture of idyllic gayety 
and patriarchal mildness." — The Standard Sat- 
vral Hint. (./. S. Kingslcy, ed.) v. 6, pp. 248-249. 
— "In frequent contiguity with the Tupis was 
another stock, also widely dispersed through 
Brazil, called the Tupuyas, of whom the Boto- 
cudos in eastern Brazil are the most prominent 
tribe. To them also belong the Ges nations, 
south of the lower Amazon, and others. They 



are on a low grade of culture, going quite 
naked, not cultivating the soil, ignorant of pot- 
tery, and with poorly made cauoes. They are 
dolichocephalic, and must have inhabited the 
country a long time." — D. G. Brinton, Saces and 
Ptopki. pp. 269-370. 

Turiero. See above : Chibchas. 

Tuscaroras. See above: Iboquois Confed- 
ERACT, and Iboquois Tribes op the South. 

Tuteloes. See above : Siouan Family. 

Tvyightwrees, or Miamis. See above: Illi- 

1 Two Kettles. See above : Siouan Family. 
I Uaupe. See above : GucK OR Coco Group. 

Uchean Family. — "The pristine homes of the 
Tuchi are not now traceable with any degree of 
certainty. The Yuchi are supposed to have 
been visited by De Soto during his memorable 
march, and the town of Cofltachiqui chronicled 
by him, is believed by many investigators to 
have stood at Silver Bluff, on the left bank of 
the Savannah, about 25 miles below Augusta. 
If, as is supposed by some authorities, Coflta- 
chiqui was a Yuchi town, this would locate the 
Yuchi in a section which, when first known to the 
whites, was occupied by the Shawnee. Later 
the Yuchi appear to have lived somewhat farther 
down the Savannah." — J. W. Powell, Seventh 
Annual Sept., Bureau of Ethnology, p. 126. 

Uhilches. See above : Pampas Tribeb. 

Uirina. See above: Guck or Coco Group. 

Uncpapas. See above : Siouan Family. 

Upsarokas, or Absarokas, or Crows. See 
above : Siodan Family. 

Utahs. See above: Shoshojtean Family. 

Wabenakies, or Abnakis. See above : Abna- 


Wacos, or Huecos. See above: Pawnee 
(Caddoan) Family. 

Wahpetons. See above : Siouan Family. 

Waiilatpuan Family. — "Hale established 
this family and placed under it the Cailloux or 
Cayuse or Willetpoos, and the Molele. Their 
headquarters as indicated by Hale are the upper 
part of the Walla "Walla River and the country 
about Mounts Hood and Vancouver." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 127. 

Waikas. See above: Cabibs aitd their 

Wakashan Family. — "The above family 
name was based upon a vocabulary of the 
"Wakash Indians, who, according to Gallatin, 
' inhabit the island on which Nootka Sound is 
situated.' . . . The term 'Wakash' for this 
group of languages has since been generally 
Ignored, and in its place Nootka or Nootka- 
Columbian has been adopted. . . . Though by 
no means as appropriate a designation as could 
be found, it seems clear that for the so-called 
Wakash, Newittee, and other allied languages 
lusually assembled under the Nootka family, the 
jterm Wakash of 1836 has priority and must be 
iietained." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Be- 
fort. Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 129-130. 
' Wampanoags, or Pokanokets, See above: 


Wapisianas. See above: Casibs A2n> their 

Wappingers. See above : Algonqiiian Fam- 

Waraus. See above : Cabibs and theib Kin- 


Washakis. See above : Shoshonean Familt. 

Washoan Family. — "This family is repre- 
sented by a single well known tribe, whose range 
extende(J from Reno, on the line of the Central 
Paqific Railroad, to the lower end of Carson 
Valley." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Re- 
port, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 131. 

Wichitas, or Pavynee Picts. See above: 
Pawnee (Caddoan) Fa.mily. 

Winnebagoes. See above: Siouan Family. ■ 

Wishoskan Family. — "This is a small and 
obscure linguistic family and little is known con- 
cerning the dialects composing it or of the tribes 
which speak it. . . . The area occupied by the 
tribes speaking dialects of this language was the 
coast from a little below the mouth of Eel River 
to a little north of Mad River, including par- 
ticularly the country about Humboldt Bay. " — 
J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 133. 

Witumkas. See above: Mubkhooean Fau- 


Woccons. See above : Siouan Familt. 

Wyandots. See above : Hurons. 

Vamasis and Yamacraws. See above: 


Yamco. See above: ANDESiANa 

Yanan Family. — "The eastern boundary of 
the Yanan territory is formed by a range 
of mountains a little west of Lassen Butte 
and terminating near Pit River; the northern 
boundary by a line running from northeast to 
southwest, passing near the northern side of 
Round Mountain, three miles from Pit River. 
The western boundary from Redding southward 
is on an average 10 miles to the east of the 
Sacramento. North of Redding it averages 
double that distance or about 20 miles." — J. W. 
Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 135. 

Yanktons and Yanktonnais. See above: 
Siouan Family. 

Yncas, or Incas. See Peru. 

Yuchi. See above : Uchean Family. 

Yuguarzongo. See above : ANDESiANa 

Yukian Family. — " Round Valley, California, 
subsequently made a reservation to receive the 
Yuki and other tribes, was formerly the chief 
seat of the tribes of the family, but they also 
extended across the mountains to the coast." — J. 
W. Powell, Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of 
Ethnology, p. 136. 

Yuman Family. — " The center of distribution 
of the tribes of this family is generally con- 
sidered to be the lower Colorado and Gila 
Valleys." — J. W. Powell, Seventh Annual Re- 
port, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 137. — See above: I 
Apache Group. 

Yuncas. See Peru. 

Yuroks or Eurocs. See above: Modocs, &c,' 

Zaporo. See above: Andesians. \ 

Zapotecs, Mixtecs, Zoques, Mixes, etc. — 
"The greater part of Gaxaca [Mexico] and the 
neighboring regions are still occupied by the 
Zapytees, who call themselves Didja-za. There 
are now about 265,000 of them, about 50,000 of 
whom speak nothing but their native tongue. In 
ancient times they constituted a powerful 
independent state, the citizens of which seem to 
have been quite as highly civilized as any mem- 
ber of the Aztec family. They were agricul- 
tural and sedentary, living in villages and 
constructing buildings of stone and mortar. The^ 



most remarkable, but by no means the only, 
specimens of these still remaining are the ruins 
of Jlitla. . . . The Mixtecs adjoined the 
Zapotecs to the west, extending along the coast 
of the Pacific to about the present port of 
Acapulco. In culture they were equal to the 
Zapotecs. . . . The mountain regions of the 
isthmus of Tehuantepec and the adjacent portions 
of the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca are the 
habitats of the Zoques, Slixes, and allied tribes. 
The early historians draw a terrible picture of 
their valor, savagery and cannibalism, which 
reads more like tales to deter the Spaniards from 
approaching their domains than trutliful 
accounts. However this may be, they have 
been for hundreds of years a peaceful, ignorant, 
timid part of the population, homely, lazy and 
drunken. . . . The faint traditions of these 
peoples pointed to the South for their origin. 
. . . The Chinantecs inhabited Chinantla, which 
is a part of the state of Oaxaca. . . . The 
Chinantecs had been reduced by the Aztecs and 
severely oppressed by them. Hence they 
welcomed the Spaniards as deliverers. . . . Other 
names by which they are mentioned are Tenez 
and Teutecas. ... In speaking of the province 
of Chiapas the historian Herrera informs us that 
it derived its name from the pueblo so-called, 
'whose inhabitants were the most remarkable in 
New Spain for their traits and inclinations.' 
They had early acquired the art of horsemanship, 
they were skillful in all kinds of music, excellent 
painters, carried on a variety of arts, and were 
withal very courteous to each other. One tra- 
dition was that they had reached Chiapas from 
Nicaragua. . . . But the more authentic legend 
of the Chapas or Chapanecs, as they were pro- 
perly called from their totemic bird the Chapa, 
the red macaw, recited that the whole stock 
moved down from a northern latitude, following 
down the Pacific coast until they came to 
Soconusco, where they divided, one part enter- 
ing the moimtains of Chiapas, the other pro- 
ceeding on to Nicaragua." — D. G. Brinton, 
The American Race, pp. 140-146. 

Also ix A. Bandelier, Bept. of Archaeological 
Tour in Mexico. 

Zoques. — See above : Zapotecs, etc. 

Zufiian Family. — "Derivation: From the 
Cochiti term Suinyi, said to mean ' the people of 
the long nails," referring to the surgeons of Zuni 
who always wear some of their nails very long 
(Cushing). " — J. TV. Powell, Seventh Annual 
Report, Bureau of Ethnology, p. 138. — See, 
above, Pueblos; also, America: Prehistoric. 

States op Am. : A. D. 1860 (November — De- 
cember), and after. — Statistics of. See same: 
A. D. 186.5 (Mat). 

United States of Am. : A. D. 1864 (October). 

AMERICAN PARTY, The. See United 
St.\tes op Am. : A. D. 1853. 

Legislation (United States): A. D. 1816- 

AMHERST COLLEGE, The founding of. 
Bee Education, Modern. 

ICA. See Canada (New France): A. D. 1758 
to 1760. 

AMICITIjE. See Guilds of Flakders. 

AMIDA, Sieges of.— The ancient city of 
Amida, now Diarbekr, on the right bank of the 
Upper Tigris was thrice taken by the Persians 
from the Romans, in the course of the long wars 
between the two nations. In the first instance, 
A. D. 359, it fell after a terrible siege of seventy- 
three days, conducted by the Persian king Sapor 
in person, and was given up to pillage and 
slaughter, the Roman commanders crucified and 
the few surviving inhabitants dragged to Persia 
as slaves. The town was then abandoned by the 
Persians, repeopled by the Romans and recovered 
its prosperity and strength, only to pass through 
a similar experience again in 503 A. D., when it 
was besieged for eighty days by the Persian king 
Kobad, carried by storm, and most of its inhabit- 
ants slaughtered or enslaved. A century later, 
A. D. 605, Chosroes took Amida once more, but 
with less violence. — G. Rawlinson, Seventh Great 
Oriental Monarchy, ch. 9, 19 and 24. — See, also, 
Persia: A. D. 226-627. 

AMIENS. — Origin of name. See Belce. 

A. D. 1597. — Surprise by the Spaniards. — 
Recovery by Henry IV. See France : A. D. 

A. D. 1870.— Taken by the Germans. See 
France: A. D. 1870-1871. 

AMIENS, The Mise of. See Oxford, Pro- 
visions OF. 

AMIENS, Treaty of (1527).— Negotiated by 
Cardinal Wolsey, between Henry VIII. of Eng- 
land and Francis I. of France, establishing an 
alliance against the Emperor, Charles V. The 
treaty was sealed and sworn to in the cathedral 
church at Amiens, Aug. 18, 1527. — J. 8. Brewer, 
Reign of Henry Till., v. 2. ch. 26 and 28. 

AMIENS, Treaty of (1801). See France: 
A. D. 1801-1802. 

AM IN AL, Caliph, A. D. 809-«13. 

AMIR. — An Arabian title, signifying chief or 

AMIRANTES. See Mascabene Is- 

AMISUS, Siege of. — The siege of Amisus by 
LucuUus was one of the important operations of 
the Third Mithridatic war. "The city was 
on the coast of the Black Sea, between 
the rivers Halys and Lycus; it is repre- 
sented in site by the modem town of Sam- 
soon. Amisus, which was besieged in 73 B. C. 
held out until the following year. Tyraimio the 
grammarian was among the prisoners taken and 
sent to Rome. — G. Long, Decline of tlw Roman 
Republic, T. 3, ch. 1 and 2. 

AMMANN.— This is the title of the Mayor or 
President of the Swiss Communal Council or 
Gemeinderath. See Switzerland: A. D. 1848- 

AMMON, The Temple and Oracle of.— The 
Ammonium or Oasis of Ammon, in the Libyan 
desert, which was visited by Alexander the Great, 
has been identified with the oasis now known as 
the Oasis of Siwah. "The Oasis of Siwah was 
first visited and described by Browne iu 1792; 
and its identity with that of Ammon fully estab- 
lished by >IaJor RenneU (' G«og. of Herodotus," 
pp. 577-591). . . . The site of the celebrated 
temple and oracle of Ammon was first discovered 
by Mr. Hamilton in 1853."" "Its famous oracle 
was frequently visited by Greeks from Cyrene, 
as well as from other parts of the Hellenic world, 
and it vied in reputation with those of Delphi 




and Dodona. " — E. H. Bunbury, Eiat. of Ancient 
Oeog., ch. 8, sect. 1, andch. 12, sect. 1, and note E. 
— An expedition of 50,000 men sent by Cambyses 
to Ammon, B. C. 525, is said to have perished in 
the desert, to the last man. See Egypt: B. C. 

AMMONITES, The.— According to the nar- 
rative in Genesis xi.K: 30-39, the Ammonites 
were descended from Ben-Ammi, son of Lot's 
Vsecond daughter, as the Moabites came from 
Moab, the eldest daughter's son. The two people 
are much associated in Biblical history. "It is 
Ihard to avoid the conclusion that, while Moab 
'was the settled and civilized half of the nation of 
Lot, the Bene Ammon formed its predatory and 
Bedouin section." — G. Grove, Dici. of the Bible. — 
See Jews: The Eakly Hebrew Histoky; also, 


AMMONITI. See Florf.nce: A. D. 13.58. 

United St.^tesof Ait.: A. D. 1863 (December). 

AMOOR, OR AMUR, The. See Siberia. 

tine Ejipire; a. D. 820-1057. 

AMORIAN WAR, The. — The Byzantine 
Emperor, Theophilus, in war with the Saracens, 
took and destroyed, with peculiar animosity, the 
town of Zapetra or Sozopetra, in Syria, which 
happened to be the birthplace of the reigning 
caliph, Motassem, son of Haroun Alraschid. The 
caliph had condescended to intercede for the place, 
and his enemy's conduct was personally insult- 
ing to him, as well as atrociously inhumane. To 
avenge the outrage he invaded Asia Minor, A. D. 
838, at the head of an enormous army, with the 
special purpose of destroying the birthplace of 
Theophilus. The unfortunate town which suf- 
fered that distinction was Amorium in Phrygia, 
— whence the ensuing war was called the Amorian 
War. Attempting to defend Amorium in the 
field, the Byzantines were hopelessly defeated, 
and the doomed city was left to its fate. It made 
an heroic resistance for fifty-five days, and the 
siege is said to have cost the caliph 70,000 men. 
But he entered the place at last with a merciless 
sword, and left a heap of ruins for the monument 
of his revenge. — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of 
the Roman Empire, ch. 52. 

AMORITES, The. — "The Hittites and 
Amorites were . . . mingled together in the 
mountains of Palestine like the two races which 
ethnologists tell us go to form the modem Kelt. 
But the Egyptian monuments teach us that they 
were of very different origin and character. The 
Hittites were a people with yellow skins and 
' Mongoloid ' features, whose receding foreheads, 
oblique eyes, and protruding upper jaws, are rep- 
resented as faithfully on their own monuments 
as they are on those of Egypt, so that we cannot 
accuse the Egpytian artists of caricaturing their 
enemies. If the Egyptians have made the Hit- 
tites ugly, it was because they were so in reality. 
The Amorites, on the contrary, were a tall and 
handsome people. They are depicted with 
white skins, blue eyes, and reddish hair, all the 
characteristics, in fact, of the white race. Mr. 
Petrie points out their resemblance to the Dar- 
danians of Asia Minor, who form an inter- 
mediate link between the white-skinned tribes of 
the Greek seas and the fair-complexioned Libyans 
of Northern Africa. The latter are still found in 
large numbers in the mountainous regions which 
Stretch eastward from Morocco, and are usually 

known among the French under the name ol 
Kabyles. The traveller who first meets with 
them in Algeria cannot fail to be struck by their 
likeness to a certain part of the population in the 
British Isles. Their clear-white freckled skins, 
their blue eyes, their golden-red hair and tall 
stature, remind him of the fair Kelts of an Irish 
village ; and when we find that their skulls, which 
are of the so-called dolichocephalic or ' long- 
headed ' type, are the same as the skulls discov- 
ered in the prehistoric cromlechs of the country 
they still inhabit, we may conclude that tliey 
represent the modern descendants of the white- 
skinned Libyans of the Egyptian monuments. 
In Palestine also we still come across representa- 
tives of a fair-complexioned blue-eyed race, in 
whom we may see the descendants of the ancient 
Amorites, just as we see in the Kabyles the des- 
cendants of the ancient Libyans. We know that 
the Amorite type continued to exist in Judah long 
after the Israelitish conquest of Canaan. The 
captives taken from the southern cities of Judah 
by Shishak in the time of Rehoboam, and de- 
picted by him upon the walls of the great temple 
of Karnak, are people of Amorite origin. Their 
'regular profile of sub-aquiline cast,' as Mr. 
Tomkins describes it, their high cheek-bones and 
martial expression, are the features of the Amor- 
ites, and not of the Jews. Tallness of stature 
has always been a distinguishing characteristic of 
the white race. Hence it was that the Anakim, 
the Amorite inhabitants of Hebron, seemed to 
the Hebrew spies to be as giants, while they 
themselves were but ' as grasshoppers ' by the 
side of them fNum. xiii : 33). After the Israel- 
itish invasion remnants of the Anakim were left 
in Gaza and Gath and Ashkelon (Josh, xi : 22), 
and in the time of David, Goliath of Gath and his 
gigantic family were objects of dread to their 
neighbors (2 Sam. xxi: 15-22). It is clear, then, 
that the Amorites of Canaan belonged to the 
same white race as the Libyans of Northern Af- 
rica, and like them preferred the mountains to 
the hot plains and valleys below. The Libyans 
themselves belonged to a race which can be 
traced through the peninsula of Spain and the 
western side of France into the British Isles. 
Now it is curious that wherever this particular 
branch of the white race has extended it has been 
accompanied by a particular form of cromlech, 
or sepulchral chamber built of large uncut stones. 
... It has been necessary to enter at this length 
into what has been discovered concerning the 
Amorites by recent research, in order to show 
how carefully they should be distinguished from 
the Hittites with whom they afterwards inter- 
mingled. They must have been in possession of 
Palestine long before the Hittites arrived there. 
They extended over a much wider area. " — A. H. 
Bayce, Tht Jlittites. rh. 1. 

Amphiktyonic, or, more correctly, an Amphik- 
tionlc, body was an assembly of the tribes who 
dwelt around any famous temple, gathered to- 
gether to manage the affairs of that t«mple. 
There were other Amphiktyonic Assemblies in 
Greece [besides that of Delphi], amongst which 
that of the isle of Kalaureia, off the coast of 
Argolis, was a body of some celebrity. The 
Amphiktyons of Delphi obtained greater import- 
ance than any other Amphiktyons only because 
of the greater importance of the Delphic 
sanctuary, and because it incidentally hap- 




pened that the greater part of the Greek na- 
tion had some kind of representation among 
them. But that body could not be looked 
upon as a perfect representation of the Greek 
nation which, to postpone other objections to its 
constitution, found no place for so large a frac- 
tion of the Hellenic body as the Arkadians. 
Still the Amphiktyons of Delphi undoubtedly 
came nearer than any other existing body to the 
character of a general representation of all Greece. 
It is therefore easy to understand how the relig- 
ious functions of such a body might incidentally 
'assume a political character. . . . Once or twice 
then, in the course of Grecian history, we do 
lind the Amphiktyonic body acting with real 
dignity in the name of united Greece. . . . 
Though the list of members of the Council is 
given with some slight variations by different 
authors, all agree in making the constituent 
members of the union tribes and not cities. The 
representatives of the Ionic and Doric races sat 
and voted as single members, side by side with 
the representatives of petty peoples like the 
Magngsians and Phthiotic Achaians. When the 
Council was first formed, Dorians and lonians 
were doubtless mere tribes of northern Greece, 
and the prodigious development of the Doric and 
Ionic races in after times made no difference in 
its constitution. . . . The Amphiktyonic Coun- 
cil was not exactly a diplomatic congress, but it 
was much more like a diplomatic congress than 
it was like the governing assembly of any com- 
monwealth, kingdom, or federation. The Pyla- 
goroi and Hieromn?mones were not exactly 
Ambassadors, but they were much more like 
Ambassadors than they were like members of a 
British Parliament or even an American Congress. 
. . . The nearest approach to the Amphik- 
tyonic Council in modern times would be if the 
College of Cardinals were to consist of members 
chosen by the several Roman Catholic nations of 
Europe and America. " — E. A. Freeman, Hist, of 
Federal Govt., v. 1, eh. 3. 
AMPHILOCHIANS, The. See Akabna- 


AMPHIPOLIS.— This town in Macedonia, 
occupying an important situation on the eastern 
bank of the river Strymon, just below a small 
lake into which it widens near its mouth, was 
originally called "The Nine Ways," and was the 
scene of a horrible human sacrifice made by 
Xerxes on his march into Greece. — Thirlwall, 
Ilist. of O recce, ch. 15.— It was subsequently 
taken by the Athenians, B. C. 437, and made 
a capital city by them [see Athens: B. C. 
440-437], dominating the surrounding district, its 
name being changed to Amphipolis. During the 
Peloponnesian War (B. C. 424), the able Lacedfe- 
monian general, Brasidas, led a small army into 
Slacedonia and succeeded in capturing Amphi- 
polis, which caused great dismay and discourage- 
ment at Athens. Thucydides, the historian, was 
one of the generals held responsible for the dis- 
aster and he was driven as a consequence into the 
fortunate exile which produced the composition 
of his history. Two years later the Athenian 
demagogue-leader, Cleon, took command of an 
expedition sent to recover Amphipolis and 
otlier points in Macedonia and Thrace. It was 
disastrously beaten and Cleon was killed, but 
Brasidas fell likewise in the battle. Whether 
Athens suffered more from her defeat than 
Sparta from her victory is a question. — Thucy- 


dides, History, Ik. 4, sed. 103-135, bk. 5, sect. 1-11. 
— See, also, Athexs: B. C. 466-454, and Gkeece: 
B. C. 424—421. — Amphipolis was taken by Philip 
of Macedon, B. C. 358. — See Greece: B. C. 

AMPHISSA, Siege and Capture by Philip 
of Macedon (B. C. 339-338). See Greece: 
B, C. 357-336. 

AMPHITHEATRES, Roman. — " There 
was hardly a town in the [Roman] empire which 
had not an amphitheatre large enough to contain 
vast multitudes of spectators. The savage ex- 
citement of gladiatorial combats seems to have 
been almost necessary to the Roman legionaries 
in their short intervals of inaction, and was the 
first recreation for which they provided in the 
places where they were stationed. . . . Gladia- 
torial combats were held from early times in the 
Forum, and wild beasts hunted in the Circus; 
but until Curio built his celebrated double 
theatre of wood, which could be made into an 
amphitheatre by turning the two semi-circular 
portions face to face, we have no record of any 
special building in the peculiar form afterwards 
adopted. It may have been, therefore, that 
Curio's mechanical contrivance first suggested 
the elliptical shape. ... As specimens of archi- 
tecture, the amphitheatres are more remarkable 
for the mechanical skill and admirable adaptation 
to their purpose displayed in them, than for any 
beauty of shape or decoration. The hugest 
of all, the Coliseum, was ill-proportioned and 
unpleasing in its lines when entire." — R. Burn, 
Borne and the Campagna, introd. 

AMPHORA.— MODIUS.— " The [Roman] 
unit of capacity was the Amphora or Qua- 
drantal, which contained a cubic foot . . . equal 
to 5.687 imperial gallons, or 5 gallons, 2 quarts, 
1 pint, 2 gills, nearly. The Amphora was the 
unit for both liquid and dry measures, but the 
latter was generally referred to the Modius, 
which contained one-third of an Amphora. . . . 
The Culeus was equal to 20 Amphora;." — W. 
Ramsav, Mammal of Boman Antiq., ch. 13. 

AMRITSAR. See Sikhs. 

AMSTERDAM : The rise of the city.— 
"In 1205 a low and profitless marsh upon the 
coast of Holland, not far from the confines of 
Utrecht, had been partially drained by a dam 
raised upon the hitherto squandered stream of 
the Amstel. Near this dam a few huts were 
tenanted by poor men who earned a scanty live- 
lihood by fishing in the Zuyder Sea; but so 
uninviting seemed that barren and desolate spot, 
that a century later Amstel-dam was still an 
obscure seafaring town, or rather hamlet. Its 
subsequent progress was more rapid. The spirit 
of the land was stirring within it, and every por- 
tion of it thrilled with new energy and life. 
Some of the fugitive artizans from Flanders saw 
in the thriving village safety and peace, and 
added what wealth they had, and, what was t 
better, their manufacturing intelligence and 
skill, to the humble hamlet's store. Amstcldam 
was early admitted to the fellowship of the 
Hanse League; and, in 1343, having outgrown 
its primary limits, required to be enlarged. For 
this an expensive process, that of driving piles 
into the swampy plain, was necessary; and to 
this circumstance, no doubt, it is owing that the 
date of each successive enlargement has been so 
accurately recorded." — W. T. McCuUagh, Indut- 
trial Hiitory of Three Nationi, vol. 3, (A. 9. 



AMT.— AMTER. See Scandinavian 
States (Denmark — Iceland): A. D. 1849- 
1874 ; and the same (Norway): A. D. 1814-1815. 

AMUR, Russian Acquisition of the basin 
of the. See Siberia. 

AMURATH I. and II., Conquests of. See 
Turks: A. D. 1360-1389, and 1402-1451. 
' AMYCL.ffi, The Silence of.— Amyclse was 
the chief city of Laconia while that district of 
Peloponnesus was occupied by the Achseans, 
before the Doric invasion and before the rise of 
Sparta. It maintained its independence against 
the Doric Spartans for a long period, but suc- 
cumbed at length under circumstances which 
gave rise to a proverbial saying among the 
weeks concerning "the silence of Amyclse." 
" The peace of Amyclse, we are told, had been 
so often disturbed by false alarms of the 
enemy's approach, that at length a law was 
passed forbidding such reports, and the silent 
city was taken by surprise. " — C. Thirlwall, 
Hist, of Greece, eh. 7. 

AMYTHAONIDiE, The. See Argos.- Ak- 


AN, The City of. See On. 

" Mtlnster is a town in Westphalia, the seat of a 
bishop, walled round, with a noble cathedral and 
many churches; but there is one peculiarity 
about Jlilnster that distinguishes it from all 
other old German towns; it has not one old 
church spire in it. Once it had a great many. 
How comes it that it now has none? In Mllnster 
lived a draper, Knipperdolling by name, who 
was much excited over the doctrines of Luther, 
and he gathered many people in his house, and 
spoke to them bitter words against the Pope, the 
bishops, and the clergy. The bishop at this 
time was Francis of Waldeck, a man much in- 
clined himself to Lutheranism ; indeed, later, he 
proposed to suppress Catholicism in the diocese, 
as he wanted to seize on it and appropriate it as 
a possession to his family. Moreover, in 1544, 
he joined the Protestant princes in a league 
against the Catholics ; but he did not want things 
to move too fast, lest he should not be able to se- 
cure the wealthy See as personal property. 
Knipperdolling got a young priest, named Rott- 
mann, to preach in one of tlje churches against 
the errors of Catholicism, and he was a man of 
such fiery eloquence that he stirred up a mob 
which rushed through the town, wrecking the 
churches. The mob became daily more daring 
and threatening. They drove the priests out of 
the town, and some of the wealthy citizens fled, 
not knowing what would follow. The bishop 
would have yielded to all the religious innova- 
tions if the rioters had not threatened his tem- 
poral position and revenue. In 1532 the pastor, 
Rottmann, began to preach against the baptism 
of infants. Luther wrote to him remonstrating, 
but in vain. The bishop was not in the town ; 
he was at Minden, of which See he was bishop as 
well. Finding that the town was in the hands 
of Knipperdolling and Rottmann, who were con- 
fiscating the goods of the churches, and exclud- 
ing those who would not agree with their opin- 
ions, the bishop advanced to the place at the 
head of some soldiers. Mllnster closed its gates 
against him. Negotiations were entered into; 
the Landgrave of Hesse was called in as pacifica- 
tor, and articles of agreement were drawn up 
and signed. Some of the churches were given 

to the Lutherans, but the Cathedral was reserved 
for the Catholics, and the Lutherans were for- 
bidden to molest the latter, and disturb their re- 
ligious services. The news of the conversion of 
the city of MUnster to the gospel spread, and 
strangers came to it from all parts. Among 
these was a tailor of Leyden, called John Bockel- 
6on. Rottmann now threw up his Lutheranism 
and proclaimed himself opposed to many of the 
doctrines which Luther still retained. Amongst 
other things he rejected was infant baptism. 
This created a split among the reformed in Mllns- 
ter, and the disorders broke out afresh. The 
mob now fell on the cathedral and drove the 
Catholics from it, and would not permit them to 
worship in it. They also invaded the Lutheran 
churches, and filled them with uproar. On the 
evening of January 28, 1534, the Anabaptists 
stretched chains across the streets, assembled in 
armed bands, closed the gates and placed senti- 
nels in all directions. When day dawned there 
appeared suddenly two men dressed like Proph- 
ets, with long ragged beards and flowing man- 
tles, stall in hand, who paced through the streets 
solemnly in the midst of the crowd, who bowed 
before them and saluted them as Enoch and 
Elias. These men were John Bockelson, the 
tailor, and one John Mattheson, head of the Ana- 
baptists of Holland. Knipperdolling at once as- 
sociated himself with them, and shortly the 
place was a scene of the wildest ecstacies. Men 
and women ran about the streets screaming and 
leaping, and crying out that they saw visions of 
angels with swords drawn urging them on to the 
extermination of Lutherans and Catholics alike. 
. . . A great number of citizens were driven out, 
on a bitter day, when the land was covered with 
snow. Those who lagged were beaten; those 
who were sick were carried to the market- place 
and re-baptized by Rottmann. . . . This was too 
much to be borne. The bishop raised an army 
and marched against the city. Thus began a 
siege which was to last sixteen months, during 
which a multitude of untrained fanatics, com- 
manded by a Dutch tailor, held out against a 
numerous and well-armed force. Thenceforth 
the city was ruled by divine revelations, or 
rather, by the crazes of the diseased brains of 
the prophets. One day they declared that all 
the otBcers and magistrates were to be turned 
out of their oflices, and men nominated by them- 
selves were to take their places; another day 
Mattheson said it was revealed to him that 
every book in the town except the Bible was to 
be destroyed ; accordingly all the archives and 
libraries were collected in the market-piace and 
burnt. Then it was revealed to him that all the 
spires were to be pulled down; so the church 
towers were reduced to stumps, from which the 
enemy could be watched and whence cannon 
could play on them. One day he declared he 
had been ordered by Heaven to go forth, with 
promise of victory, against the besiegers. He 
dashed forth at the head of a large band, but was 
surrounded and he and his band slain. The 
death of Mattheson struck dismay into the 
hearts of the Anabaptists, but John Bockelson 
took advantage of the moment to establish him- 
self as head. He declared that it was revealed 
to him that Mattheson had been killed because he 
had disobeyed the heavenly command, which 
was to go forth with few. Instead of that he 
had gone with many. Bockelson said he had 




been ordered in vision to marry Mattheson's 
widow and assume his place. It was furtlier re- 
vealed to him that Milnster was to be the 
heavenly Zion, the capital of the earth, and he 
was to be king over it. . . . Then he had an- 
other revelation that every man was to have as 
many wives as he liked, and he gave himself 
si.xteen wives. This was too outrageous for 
some to endure, and a plot was formed against 
him by a blacksmith and about 200 of the more 
respectable citizens, but it was frustrated and 
led to the siezure of the conspirators and the 
execution of a number of them. ... At last, 
on midsummer eve, 1536, after a siege of sixteen 
months, the city was taken. Several of the 
citizens, unable longer to endure the tyranny, 
cruelty and abominations committed by the king, 
helped the soldiers of the prince-bishop to climb 
the walls, open the gates, and surprise the city. 
A desperate hand-to-hand fight ensued; the 
streets ran with blood. John Bockelson, instead 
of leading his people, hid himself, but was 
caught. So was KnipperdoUing. When the 
place was in his hands the prince-bishop entered. 
John of Leyden and KnipperdoUing were cruelly 
tortured, their flesh plucked off with red-hot 
pincers, and then a dagger was thrust into their 
hearts. Finally, their bodies were hung in iron 
cages to the tower of a church in Milnster. Thus 
ended this hideous drama, which produced an 
indescribable effect throughout Germany. Milns- 
ter, after this, in spite of the desire of the prince- 
bishop to establish Lutheranisra, reverted to 
Catholicism, and remains Catholic to this day. " 
— 8. Baring-Gould, Tlie Story of Oermany, ch. 

Also in : L. von Ranke, Hist, of tJie RefoTma- 
tion in Oermany, bk. 6, ch. 9 (v. .3). — C. Beard, 
TJie Reformation (Hibbert Lects., 188.3). 

AN.ffi:STHETICS, The discovery of. 
See Medical Science: 19th Century. 

ANAHUAC. — "The word Anahuac signifies 
' near the water.' It was, probably, first applied 
to the country around the lakes in the Mexican 
Valley, and gradually extended to the remoter 
regions occupied by the Aztecs, and the other 
semi-civilized races. Or, possibly, the name 
may have been intended, as Veytia suggests 
(Hist. Antiq., lib. 1, cap. I), to denote the land 
between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific." 
— AV. H. Prescott, Conquest of Mcrico, bk. 1, ch. 1, 
note 11.— See Mexico: A. D. 1325-1503. 

ANAKIM, The. See Hokites, and Amor- 

ANAKTORIUM. See Korktra. 

ANAPA: a. D. T828.— Siege and Capture. 
—Cession to Russia. See Tdrks: A. D. 1826- 

ANARCHISTS.— "The anarchists are . . . 
a small but determined band. . . . Although 
their programme may be found almost word for 
word in Proudhon, they profess to follow more 
closely Bakounine, the Russian nihilist, who sep- 
arated himself from Marx and the Internationals, 
and formed secret societies in Spain, Switzerland, 
France, and elsewhere, and thus propagated 
nihilistic views; for anarchy and nihilism are 
pretty much one and the same thing when 
nihilism is understood in the older, stricter 
sense, which does not Include, as it does 
in a larger and more modem sense, 
those who are simply political and constitutional 
reformers. Lik« prince Krapotkine, Bakounine 

came of an old and prominent Russian family; 
like him, he revolted against the cruelties and 
injustices he saw about him; like him, he de- 
spaired of peaceful reform, and concluded that no 
great improvement could be expected until all 
our present political, economic, and social insti- 
tutions were so thoroughly demolished that of the 
old structure not one stone should be left on 
another. Out of the ruins a regenerated world 
might arise. We must be purged as by fire. 
Like all anarchists and true nihilists, he was a 
thorough pessimist, as far as our present manner 
of life was concerned. Reaction against conser- 
vatism carried him very far. He wished to 
abolish private propertv, state, and inheritance. 
Equality is to be carried so far that all must wear 
the same kind of clothing, no difference being 
made even for sex. Religion is an aberration of 
the brain, and should be abolished. Fire, dyna- 
mite, and assassination are approved of by at 
least a large number of the party. They are 
brave men, and fight for their faith with the 
devotion of martyrs. Imprisonment and death 
are counted but as rewards. . . . Forty-seven 
anarchists signed a declaration of principles, 
which was read by one of their number at their 
trial at Lyons. ..." We wish liberty [they 
declared] and we believe its existence incom- 
patible with the existence of any power what- 
soever, whatever its origin and form — whether 
it be selected or imposed, monarchical or repub- 
lican — whether inspired by divine right or by 
popular right, by anointment or universal suff- 
rage. . . . The best governments are the worst. 
The substitution, in a word, in human relations, of 
free contract perpetually revisable and dissoluble, 
is our ideal.'" — R. T. Ely, French and German 
Socialism in Modern Times, ch. 8. — "In anarchism 
we have the extreme antithesis of socialism and 
communism. The socialist desires so to extend 
the sphere of the state that it shall embrace all 
the more important concerns of life. The com- 
munist, at least of the older school, would make 
the sway of authority and the routine which fol- 
lows therefrom universal. The anarchist, on the 
other hand, would banish all forms of authority 
and have only a system of the most perfect lib- 
erty. The anarchist is an extreme individual- 
ist. . . . Anarchism, as a social theory, was first 
elaboratelj' formulated by Proudhon. In the 
first part of his work, 'A\Tiat is Property?' he 
briefly stated the doctrine and gave it the name 
'anarchy,' absence of a master or sovereign. . . . 
About 13 years before Proudhon publislicd his 
views, Josiah Warren reached similar conclusions 
In America." — H. L. Osgood, Scientific Anarch- 
ism (^Pol. Sei. Quart., Mar., 1889), pp. 1-2.— See, 
also. Nihilism, and Social Movements. 

ANARCHISTS, The Chicago. See Chi- 
cago: A. D. 1886-1887. 

ANASTASIUS I., Roman Emperor (East- 
ern.) A. D. 491-518. . . . Anastasius II., A. D. 

ANASTASIUS III., Pope, A. D. 911-913 
Anastasius IV., Pope., A. D. 1153-1154. 

ANATOLIA. See Asia Minor. 

ANCALITES, The.— A tribe of ancient 
Britons wlxise home was near the Thames. 

ANCASTER, Origin of. See Cacsenn.e. 

tile and peaceable lowlands of England . . . 
offered few spots sufficiently wild and lonely for 
the habitation of a hermit; those, therefore. 




who wished to retire from the world into a more 
strict and solitary life than that which the mon- 
astery afforded were in the habit of immuring 
themselves, as anchorites, or in old English 
'Ankers,' in little cells of stone, built usually 
against the wall of a church. There is nothing 
new under the suu ; and similar anchorites might 
have been seen in Egypt, 500 years before the 
.time of St. Antony, immured in cells in the 
ftemples of Isis or Serapis. It is only recently 
ithat antiquaries have discovered how common 
(this practice was in England, and how frequently 
■jthe traces of these cells are to be found about our 
parish churches." — C. Kingsley, The Hermits, 
p. 329. — The term anchorites is applied, gener- 
ally, to all religious ascetics who lived in solitary 
cells. — J. Bingham, Antiq. of the Christian Ch., 
bk. 7, ch. 1, sect. 4. — "The essential difference 
between an anker or anchorite and a hermit 
appears to have been that, whereas the former 
passed his whole life shut up in a cell, the latter, 
although leading indeed a solitary life, wandered 
about at liberty." — R. R. Sharpe, Int. to "Calen- 
dar of Wills in tlie Court of Busting, London," 
«. 2, p. xxi. 

ANCIENT REGIME.— The political and 
social system in France that was destroyed by 
the Revolution of 1789 is commonly referred to 
as the "ancien regime." Some writers translate 
this in the literal English form — "the ancient 
regime;" others render it more appropriately, 
perhaps, the "old regime." Its special applica- 
tion is to the state of things described under 
Fr.\nce: a. D. 1789. 

ANCIENTS, The Council of the. See 
Fbance: a. D. 1795 (June — September). 
il ANCRUM, Battle of. — A success obtained 
by the Scots over an English force making an 
Incursion into tlie border districts of their country 
A. D. 1544. — J. 11. Burton, Hist, of Scotland, ch. 
35 (o. 3). 

ANDALUSIA: The name.— "The Vandals, 
. . . though they passed altogether out of 
Spain, have left their name to this day in its 
southern part, under the form of Andalusia, a 
name which, under the Saracen conquerors, 
spread itself over the whole peninsula." — E. A. 
Freeman, Historical Oeog. of Europe, ch. 4, sect. 3. 
— See, also: Vandals: A. D. 428. — Roughly 
speaking, Andalusia represents the country 
known to the ancients, first, as Tartessus, and, 
later, as Turdetania. 

India : The A.boriginal Inhabitants. 

ANDASTES, The. See Americau Abori- 
gines: Sdsqueii.\nnas. 

ANDECAVI.— The ancient name of the city 
of Angers, France, and of the tribe which occu- 
pied that region. See Veneti op Western 

ANDREDSWALD.— A great forest which an- 
ciently stretched across Surrey, Sussex and into 
Kent (southeastern England) was called Auderida 
Sylva by the Romans and Andredswald by the 
Saxons. It coincided nearly with the tract of 
country called in modern times the Weald of 
Kent, to which it gave its name of the Wald or 
Weald. On the southern coast-border of the 
Anderida Sylva the Romans established the im- 
portant fortress and port of Anderida, which has 
been identified with modem Pevensey. Here 
the Romano-Britons made an obstinate stand 

. 1 

against the Saxons, in the fifth century, and An- 
derida was only taken by .^lle after a "long siege. 
In the words of the Chronicle, the Saxons "slew 
all that were therein, nor was there henceforth 
one Briton left."— J. R. Green, Ths Making of 
Eng., ch. 1. 

Also in T. Wright, Celt, Boman, and Saxon, 
ch. 5. 

ANDERSON, Major Robert.— Defense of 
Fort Sumter. See United States op Am. , A. D. 
1860 (Decembeu); 1861 (March— April). 

Prisons and Prison-Pens, Confederate. 

The. See Veneti of Western Gaul. 

ANDORRA.— A little semi-republic in the 
Spanish Pyrenees. Enjoying a certain self-gov- 
ernment since the French Revolution, it is prac- 
tically a part of Spain. The inhabitants are 
exempt, however, from Spanish conscription. 

ANDRE, Major John. See Uniied States 
OP Am.: a. D. 1780 (August — September). 

ANDREW I., II., and III., Kings of Hun- 
gary, A. D. 1040-lOUO, 1204-1235, 1290-1301. 

ANDRONICUS I., Emperor in the East 

(Byzantine or Greek), A. D. 1183-1185 

Andronicus II. (Palaeologus), Greek Emperor 
of Constantinople, A. D. 1282-1328. .. .An- 
dronicus III. (Palaeologus), A. D. 1328-1341. 

ANDROS, Governor, New England and 
New York under. See New Engl.\nd: A. D. 
1C86; Massachusetts: A. D. 1671-1686; and 
1686-1689; New York: A. D. 1688; and Con- 
necticut: A. D. 1685-1687. 

ANDROS, Battle of (B. C. 407). See 
Greece: B. C. 411^07. 

ANGELIQUE, La Mfere. See Port Royal 
and the Jansenists: a. D. 1602-1.660. 

ANGERS, Origin of. See Veneti op West- 
ern Gaul. 

PIRE. See England: A. D. 1154-1189. 

ANGHIARI, Battle of (1425). See Italy: 
A. D. 1412-1447. 

ANGLES AND JUTES, The.— The men- 
tion of the Angles by Tacitus is in the following 
passage: " Next [to the Langobardi] come the 
Reudigni, the Aviones, the Anglii, the Varini, 
the Eudoses, the Suardones, and Nuithones, who 
are fenced in by rivers or forests. None of these 
tribes have any noteworthy feature, except their 
common worship of Ertha, or mother-Earth, and 
their belief that she Interposes in human allairs, 
and visits the nations in her car. In an island of 
the ocean there is a sacred grove, and within it 
a consecrated chariot, covered over with a gar- 
ment. Only one priest is permitted to touch it. 
He can perceive the presence of the goddess in 
this sacred recess, and walks by her side with 
the utmost reverence as she is drawn along by 
heifers. It is a season of rejoicing, and festivity 
reigns wherever she deigns to go and be received. 
They do not go to battle or wear arras; every 
weapon is under lock; peace and quiet are wel- 
comed only at these times, till the goddess, weary 
of human iutercourse, is at length restored by 
the same priest to her temple. Afterwards the 
car, the vestments, and, if you like to believe it, 
the divinity herself, are purified in a secret lake. 
Slaves perform the rite, who are instantly swal- 
lowed up by its waters. Hence arises a myster- 
ious terror and a pious ignorance concerning the 
nature of that which is seen only by men doomed 




to die. This branch indeed of the Suevi stretches 
into the remoter regions of Germany. " — Tacitus, 
Qermany; trana. by Church and Brodribb, eh. 40. 

— "In close neighbourhood with the Saxons in 
the middle of the fourth century were the Angli, 
a tribe whose origin is more uncertain and the 
application of whose name is still more a matter 
of question. If the name belongs, in the pages 
of the several geographers, to the same nation, 
it was situated in the time of Tacitus east of the 
Elbe ; in the time of Ptolemy it was found on 
the middle Elbe, between the Thuringians to the 
south and the Varini to the north ; and at a later 
period it was forced, perhaps by the growth of 
the Thuringian power, into the neck of the Cim- 
bric peninsula. It may, however, be reasonably 
doubted whether this hypothesis is sound, and 
it is by no means clear whether, if it be so, the 
Angli were not connected more closely with the 
Thuringians than with the Saxons. To the north 
of the Angli, after they had reached their Schles- 
wig home, were the Jutes, of whose early his- 
tory we know nothing, except their claims to be 
regarded as kinsmen of the Goths and the close 
similarity between their descendants and the 
neighbour Frisians. " — W. Stubbs, Const. Hist, 
of Eng., c. 1, cA. 3. — " Important as are the An- 
gles, it is not too much to say that they are only 
known through their relations to us of England, 
their descendants ; indeed, without this paramount 
fact, they would be liable to be confused with 
the Frisians, with the Old Saxons, and with even 
Slavonians. This is chiefly because there is no 
satisfactory trace or fragment of the Angles of 
Germany within Germany ; whilst the notices of 
the other writers of antiquity tell us as little as 
the one we find in Tacitus. And this notice is 
not only brief but complicated. ... I still think 
that the Angli of Tacitus were — 1: The Angles 
of England; 3: Occupants of the northern parts 
of Hanover; 3: At least in the time of Tacitus; 
4: And that to the exclusion of any territory in 
Holstein, which was Frisian to the west, and 
Slavonic to the east. Still the question is one of 
great magnitude and numerous complications. " 

— R. G. Latham, The Germany of Tacitus; Epil- 
egomena, sect. 49. 

Also in J. M. Lappenberg, Hist, of Eng. under 
tfie Anglo-Saxon Kings, v. 1, pp. 89-95. — See, 
also, AvioNES, and Saxons. — The conquests and 
settlements of the Jutes and the Angles in Brit- 
ain are described under England: A. D. 449- 
473, and .547-033. 

ANGLESEA, Ancient. See Mona, Monaplv, 
and NoRMAXs: 8Tn-9Tn Centuries. 

ANGLO-SAXON.— A term which may be 
considered as a compound of Angle and Saxon, 
the names of the two principal Teutonic tribes 
which took possession of Britain and formed the 
English nation by their ultimate union. As thus 
regarded and used to designate the race, the 
language and the institutions which resulted from 
that union, it is only objectionable, perhaps, as 
being superfluous, because English is the ac- 
cepted name of the people of England and all 
pertaining to them. But the term Anglo-Saxon 
has also been more particularly employed to 
designate the Early English people and their 
language, before the Norman Conquest, as 
though they were Anglo-Saxon at that period 
and became English afterwards. Modem his- 
torians are protesting strongly against this use of 
the term. Mr. Freeman (Iforman Conquest, v. 

1, note A), says: "The name by which oui 
forefathers really knew themselves and by which 
they were known to other nations was English 
and no other. 'Angli,' 'Engle,' 'Angel-cyn,' 
' Englisc," are the true names by which the Teu- 
tons of Britain knew themselves and their Ian- 
fuage. ... As a chronological term, Anglo- 
axon is equally objectionable with Saxon. The 
'Anglo-Saxon period,' as far as there ever was 
one, is going on still. I speak therefore of our 
forefathers, not as 'Saxons,' or even as 'Anglo- 
Saxons,' but as they spoke of themselves, 
as Englishmen — ' Angli, ' ' Engle, ' — ' Angel- 
cyn.'" — See, also, Saxons, and Angles aud 

ANGLON, Battle of. —Fought in Armenia, 
A. D. 543, between the Romans and the Persians. 

ANGOLA. — The name now given to the ter- 
ritory which the Portuguese have occupied on 
the western coast of South Africa since the 16th 
century, extending from the Congo Free State, 
on the north, to Damaraland, on the south, with 
an interior boundary that is somewhat indefinite. 
It is divided into four districts, Congo, Loando, 
Beuguela, and Mossamedes. 

ANGORA, Battle of (1402). See TmouB; 
also, Turks : A. D. 1399-1403. 

Battle of. See Mexico : A. D. 184G-1847. 

ANGRIVARII, The. —The Angrivarii were 
one of the tribes of ancient Germany. Their set- 
tlements were to the west of the Weser. See 

ANI.— Storming of the Turks (10C4). See 
Turks: A. D. 1063-1073. 

ANILLEROS, The. See Spain: A. D. 

ANJOU : Creation of the County. — Orig^in 
of the Plantagenets. — "It was the policy of 
this unfairly depreciated sovereign [Charles the 
Bald, grandson of Charlemagne, who received 
in the dismemberment of the Carlovingian Empire 
the Neustrian part, out of which was developed the 
modem kingdom of France, and who reigned from 
840 to 877], to recruit the failing ranks of the false 
and degenerate Frankish aristocracy, by calling 
up to his peerage the wise, the able, the honest 
and the bold of ignoble birth. ... He sought 
to surround himself with new men, the men 
without ancestry; and the earliest historian of 
the House of Anjou both describes this system 
and affords the most splendid example of the 
theory adopted by the king. Pre-eminent 
amongst these parvenus was Torquatus or Tor- 
tulfus, an Armorican peasant, a very rustic, a 
backwoodsman, who lived by hunting and such 
like occupations, almost in solitude, cultivating 
his 'quillets,' his ' cueillettes, ' of land, and driv- 
ing his own oxen, harnessed to his plough. Tor- 
quatus entered or was invited into the service of 
Charles-le-Chauve, and rose high in his sover- 
eign's confidence: a prudent, a bold, and a good 
man. Charles appointed him Forester of the 
forest called 'the Blackbird's Nest,' the 'nid du 
merle,' a pleasant name, not the less pleasant for 
its familiarity. This happened during the con- 
flicts with the Northmen. Torquatus served 
Charles strenuously in the wars, and obtained 
great authority. 'Tertullus, son of Torquatus, 
inherited his father's energies, quick and acute, 
patient of fatigue, ambitious and aspiring; he 
became the liegeman of Charles; and his mar- 
riage with Petrouilla the King's cousin, Coiut 




Hugh the Abbot's daughter, Introduced him 
into the very circle of tlie royal family. Chd- 
teau Landon and other benefices in the Gastinois 
■were acquired by him, possibly as the lady's 
dowry. Seneschal also was Tertullus of the 
same ample Gastinois territory. Ingelger, son 
of Tertullus and Petronilla, appears as the first 
hereditary Count of Anjou Outre-Maine, — Mar- 
quis, Consul or Count of Anjou, — for all these 
titles are assigned to him. Yet the ploughman 
Torquatus must be reckoned as the primary 
Plantagenet : the rustic Torquatus founded that 
brilliant family." — Sir F. Palgrave, Hist, of Nor- 
Tnandyand England, bk. 1, ch. 3. 

Also ra K. Norgate, England under the An- 
gevin Kings, v. 1, ch. 2. 

A. D. 987-1120.— The greatest of the old 
Counts.— " Fulo Nerra, Fulc the Black [A. D. 
987-1040] is the greatest of the Angevins, the 
first in whom we can trace that marked type of 
character which their house was to preserve 
•with a fatal constancy through two hundred 
years. He was without natural affection. In 
his youth he burned a wife at the stake, and 
legend told how he led her to her doom decked 
out in his gayest attire. In his old age he 
waged his bitterest war against his son, and 
exacted from him when vanquished a humilia- 
tion which men reserved for the deadliest of 
their foes. ' You are conquered, you are con- 
quered I ' shouted the old man in fierce exulta- 
tion, as Geoffry, bridled and saddled like a beast 
of burden, crawled for pardon to his father's 
feet. . . . But neither the wrath of Heaven nor 
the curses of men broke with a single mishap 
the fifty years of his success. At his accession 
Anjou was the least important of the greater 
provinces of France. At his death it stood, if 
not in extent, at least in real power, first among 
them all. . . . His overthrow of Brittany on the 
field of Conquereux was followed by the gradual 
absorption of Southern Touraine. . . . His great 
victory at Pontlevoi crushed the rival house of 
Blols; the seizure of Saumur completed his con- 
quests in the South, while Northern Touraine 
was won bit by bit till only Tours resisted the 
Angeviu. The treacherous seizure of its Count, 
Herbert Wake-dog, left JIaine at his mercy ere 
the old man bequeathed his unfinished work to 
his son. As a warrior, Geoffry Martel was 
hardly inferior to his father. A decisive over- 
throw wrested Tours from the Count of Blois ; a 
second left Poitou at his mercj" ; and the seizure 
of Le Mans brought him to the Norman border. 
Here . . . his advance was checked by the 
genius of William the Conqueror, and with his 
death the greatness of Anjou seemed for the 
time to have come to an end. Stripped of Maine 
by the Normans, and weakened by internal dis- 
sensions, the weak and profligate administration 
of Fulc Rechin left Anjou powerless against its 
rivals along the Seine. It woke to fresh energy 
with the accession of his son, Fulc of Jerusalem. 
. . . Fulc was the one enemy whom Henry the 
First really feared. It was to disarm his restless 
hostility that the King yielded to his son, Geof- 
fry the Handsome, the hand of his daughter 
Matilda." — J. R Green, A Short History of t/ie 
English People, ch. 2, sect. 7. 

Axso IN K. Norgate, England under the Ange- 
vin Kings, v. 1, ch. 2-4. 

A. D. 1 154. — The Counts become Kings of 
England. See England: A. D. 1154-1189. 

A. D. 1204. — Wrested from the English 
King John. See France: A. D. 1180-1224 

A. D. 1206-1442. — English attempts to re- 
cover the county. — The Third and Fourth 
Houses of Anjou. — Creation of the Dukedom. 
— King John, of England, did not voluntarily 
submit to the sentence of the peers of France 
which pronounced his forfeiture of the fiefs of 
Anjou and Maine, "since he invaded and had 
possession of Angers again in 1206, when. Goth- 
like, he demolished its ancient walls. He lost it in 
the following year, and . . . made no further 
attempt upon it until 1213. In that year, having 
collected a powerful army, he landed at Rochelle, 
and actually occupied Angers, without striking 
a blow. But . . . the year 1214 beheld him 
once more in retreat from Anjou, never to reap- 
pear there, since he died on the 19th of October, 
1216. In the person of King John ended what is 
called the 'Second House of Anjou.' In 1204, 
after the confiscations of John's French posses- 
sions, Philip Augustus established hereditary 
seneschals in that part of France, the first of 
whom was the tutor of the unfortunate Young 
Arthur [of Brittany], named William des Roches, 
who was in fact Count in all except the name, 
over Anjou, Maine, and Tourraine, owing alle- 
giance only to the crown of France. The Sene- 
schal, William des Roches, died in 1222. His 
son-in-law, Amaury de Craon, succeeded him," 
but was soon afterwards taken prisoner during a 
war in Brittany and incarcerated. Henry UI. 
of England still claimed the title of Coimt of 
Anjou, and in 1230 he "disembarked a consid- 
erable army at St. Malo, in the view of re-con- 
quering Anjou, and the other forfeited possessions 
of his crown. Louis IX., then only fifteen years 
old . . . advanced to the attack of the allies ; but 
in the following year a peace was concluded, the 
province of Guienne having been ceded to the 
English crown. In 1241, Louis gave the counties 
of Poitou and Auvergne to his brother Alphonso; 
and, in the year 1246, he invested his brother 
Charles, Count of Provence, with the counties of 
Anjou and Maine, thereby annulling the rank 
anci title of Seneschal, and instituting the Third 
House of Anjou. Charles I., the founder of the 
proud fortunes of this Third House, was ambi- 
tious La character, and events long favoured his 
ambition. Count of Provence, through the in- 
heritance of his consort, had not long been 
invested with Anjou and Maine, ere he was in- 
vited to the conquest of Sicily [see Italy 
(Southern): A. D. 1250-1268]." The Third 
House of Anjou ended in the person of John, 
who became King of France in 1350. In 1358 
he invested his son Louis with Anjou and Maine, 
and in 1360 the latter was created the first Duke 
of Anjou. The Fourth House of Anjou, which 
began with this first Duke, came to an end two 
generations later with Rene, or Regnier, — the 
' ' good King Rene " of history and story, whose 
kingdom was for the most part a name, and who 
is best known to English readers, perhaps, as 
the father of Margaret of Anjou, the stout- 
hearted queen of Henry VI. On the death of 
his father, Louis, the second duke, Rene became 
by his father's will Count of Guise, his elder 
brother, Louis, inheriting the dukedom. In 
1434 the brother died without issue and Rene 
succeeded him in Anjou, Maine and Provence. 
He had already become Duke of Bar, as the 
adopted heir of his great-uncle, the cardinal- 




duke, and Duke of Lorraine (1430), by designa- 
tion of tlie late Duke, whose daughter he had 
married. In 1435 he received from Queen 
Joanna of Naples the doubtful legacy of that 
distracted kingdom, which she had previously 
bequeathed first, to Alphonso of Aragon, and 
afterwards — revoking that testament — to Rene's 
brother, Louis of Anjou. King Rene enjoyed 
the title during his life-time, and the actual king- 
dom for a brief period ; but in 1442 he was ex- 
pelled from Naples by his competitor Alphonso 
(see It.^xt: A. D. 1412-1447). —M. A. Hook- 
ham, Life arid Times of Margaret of Anjou, 

introd. and ch. 1-2. 


ANJOU, The English House of. See Eng- 
Lai«-d: a. D. 1155-1189. 

ANJOU, The Neapolitan House of: A. D. 
1266. — Conquest of the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies. See Italy: A. D. 1250-1268. 

A. D. 1282. — Loss of Sicily. — Retention of 
Naples. See It.u.y: A. D. 1282-1300. 

A. D. 1310-1382. — Possession of the Hun- 
garian throne. See Hungary: A. D. 1301-1442. 

A. D. 1370-1384. — Acquisition and loss of 
the crown of Poland. See Poland: A. D. 

A. D. 1381-1384. — Claims of Louis of Anjou. 
— His expedition to Italy and his death. See 
Italy: A. D. 134:i-13S9. 

A. D. 1386-1399. — Renewed contest for 
Naples. — Defeat of Louis II. by Ladislas. 
See Italy: A. D. 1386-1414. 

A. D. 1423-1442. — Renewed contest for the 
crown of Naples. — Defeat by Alfonso of Ara- 
gon and Sicily. See Italy: A. D. 1413-1447. 
♦ • 

ANKENDORFF, Battle of. See Germany: 
A. D. 1807 (Febrdaky — June). 

ANKERS. See Anchorites. 

ANNA, Czarina of Russia, A. D. 1730- 

ANNAM: A. D. 1882-1885. — War with 
France. — French protectorate accepted. See 
FRANfE : A. D. 1875-1889, and Tonkin. 

tion, Modern : America : A. D. 1845. 

land: A. D. 17U2-1710. 

practice had existed for some hundreds of years, 
in all the churches of Europe, that bishops and 
archbishops, on presentation to their sees, should 
transmit to the pope, on receiving their bulls of 
investment, one year's income from their new 
preferments. It was called the payment of An- 
nates, or first-fruits, and had originated in the 
time of the crusades, as a means of providing a 
fund for the holy wars. Once established it had 
settled into custom, and was one of the chief 
resources of the papal revenue." — J. A. Froude, 
History of England, ch. 4. — "The claim [by the 
pope] to the first-fruits of bishoprics and other 
promotions was apparently first made in England 
by Alexander IV. in 1256, for five years: it was 
renewed by Clement V. in 1306, to last for two 
years; and it was in a measure successful. By 
John XXII. it was claimed throughout Christen- 
dom for three years, and met with universal 
resistance. . . . Stoutly contested as it was in 
the Council of Constance, and frequently made 
the subject of debate in parliament and council 
the demand must have been regularly complied 

with."— W. Stubbs, Const. Hist, of En^. , eh. 19, 
sect. 718. — See, also. Queen Anne's Bounty. 

ANNE, Queen of England, A. D. 1702-1714. 

ANNE OF AUSTRIA, Queen-regent of 
France. See Fr.^nce : A. D. 1642-1643, to 1651- 

ANNE BOLEYN, Marriage, trial and 
execution of. See England: A. D. 1527-1584, 
and 1.536-1543. 

ANSAR, The. See Mahometan Conquest : 
A. D. 609-632. 

ANSELM. See England : A. D. 1087-11.35. 

ANSPACH, Creation of the Margravate. 
See Germany: 13tii Century. .. .Separation 
from the Electorate of Brandenburg. See 
Br.anden-burg : A. D. 1417-1640. 

ANTALCIDAS, Peace of (B. C. 387). See 
Greece: B. C. 399-387. 

ANTES, The. S6e Slavonic Peoples. 

ANTESIGNANI, The.—" In each cohort [of 
the Roman legion, in Caesar's time] a certain 
number of the best men, probably about one- 
fourth of the whole detachment, was assigned as 
a guard to the standard, from whence they 
derived their name of Antesignani." — C. Meri- 
vale. Hist, of the Romans, ch. 15. 

ANTHEMIUS, Roman Emperor (Western), 

A. D. 467-472. 

ANTHESTERIA, The. See Dionysia at 

iff Legisl.\tion (England): A. D. 1836-1889, 
and 1845-1846. 

States of Am. : A. D. 1789-1792. 

New York: A. I). 1820-1832. 

SIexico: a. D. 1822-1828. 

See Livingston Manor. 

Jews : 19th Century. 

Slavery, Negro. 

ANTIETAM, Battle of. See United 
ST.A.TES OF Am.: A. D. 1862 (Sept.: Maryland). 

ANTIGONID KINGS, The. See Greece: 

B. C. 307-197. 

ANTIGONUS, and the wars of the Dia- 
dochi. See >IACEDo^^A: B. C. 323-316; 315- 
310; 310-301. 

See Macedonia : B. C. 277-244. 

ANTILLES.— ANTILIA.—" Familiar as is 
the name of the Antilles, few are aware of the 
antiquity of the word ; while its precise signifi- 
cance sets etymology at defiance. Common con- 
sent identified the Antilia of legend with the 
Isle of the Seven Cities. In the year 734, says 
the story, the Arabs having conquered most of 
the Spanish peninsula, a number of Christian 
emigrants, under the direction of seven holy 
bishops, among them the archbishop of Oporto, 
sailed westward with all that they had, and 
reached an island where they founded seven 
towns. Arab geographers speak of an Atlantic 
island called in Arabic El-tennyn, or Al-tin (Isle 
of Serpents), a name which may possibly have 
become by corruption Antilia. . . . The seven 
bishops were believed in the 16th century to be 
still represented by their successors, and to pre- 
side over a numerous and wealthy people. Most 




geographers of the 15Ui century believed in the 
txistence of Antilia. It was represented as lying 
west of the Azores. ... As soon as it became 
known in Europe that Columbus had discovered 
a large island, Espaiiola was at once identified 
with Antilia, . . . and the name . . . has ever 
since been applied generally to the West Indian 
islands." — E. J. Payne, Hist, of the Neie World 
called America, v. "l, p. 98. — See, also. West 

BAcnusETTs: A. D. 1636-1638. 

ANTIOCH : Founding of the City. See 
SELEUCiDJi ; and ^Macedonia, &c. : B. C. 310- 

A. D. 36-400. — The Christian Church. See 
Christianity- A. D. 33-100. 

A. D. 115. — Great Earthquake. — "Early in 
the year 115, according to the most exact chron- 
ology, . . . the splendid capital of Syria was 
visited by an earthquake, one of the most disas- 
trous apparently of all the similar inflictions 
from which that luckless city has periodically 
suflered. . . . The calamity was enhanced by 
the presence of unusual crowds from all the cities 
of the east, assembled to pay homage to the 
Emperor [Trajan], or to take part in his expe- 
dition [of conquest in the east]. Among 
the victims were many Romans of distinction. 
. . . Trajan, himself, only escaped by creeping 
through a window." — C. Merivale, Uist. of the 
Somann, ch. 6.5. 

A. D. 260. — Surprise, massacre and' pillage 
by Sapor, King of Persia. See Persia: A. D. 

A. D. 526. — Destruction by Earthquake. — 
During the reign of .Justinian (A. D. 518-.565) the 
cities of the Roman Empire "were overwhelmed 
by earthquakes more frequent than at any other 
period of history. Antioch, the metropolis of 
Asia, was entirely destroyed, on the 20th of 
May, 526, at the very time when the inhabitants 
of the adjacent country were assembled to cele- 
brate the festival of the Ascension; and it is 
affirmed that 2,j0,000 persons were crushed by 
the fall of its sumptuous edifices." — J. C. L. de 
Sismondi, Fall of the Roinan Empire, ch. 10. 

Also in : E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the 
Boman. Empire, ch. 43. 

A. D. 540. — Stormed, pillaged and burned 
by Chosroes, the Persian King. See Persia: 
A. D. 226-627. 

A. D. 638. — Surrender to the Arabs. See 

A. D. 969. — Recapture by the Byzantines. — 
After having remained 328 years in the possession 
of the Saracens, Antioch was retaken in the winter 
of A. D. 96'J by the Byzantine Emperor, Nicepho- 
rus Phokas, and became again a Christian 
city. Three years later the Moslems made a 
great effort to recover the city, but were defeated. 
The Byzantine arms were at this time higlily 
successful in the never ending Saracen war, and 
John Zimiskes, successor of Nicephorus Phokas, 
marched triumphantly to the Tigris and threat- 
ened even Bagilail. But most of the conquests 
thus made in Syria and Mesopotamia were not 
lasting. — G. Finlay, Uiat. of tlte Byzantine Em- 
pire, A. D. 716-1007, bk. 2, ch. 2.— See Byzan- 
tine Empire, A. D. 96.3-1025. 

A. D. 1097-1098. — Siege and capture by the 
Crusaders. See Ckusades; A. D. 1096-1099. 

A. D. 1009-1144. — Principality. See Jeru- 
salem: A. D. 1099-1144. 

A. D. 1268. — Extinction of the Latin Prin- 
cipality. — Total destruction of the city. — An- 
tioch fell, before the arms of Bibars, the Sultan 
of Egpyt and Syria, and the Latin principality 
was bloodily extinguislied, in 1268. "The first 
seat of the Christian name was dispeopled by 
the slaughter of seventeen, and the captivity 
of one hundred, thousand of her inhabitants." 
This fate befell Antioch only twenty-three years 
before the last vestige of the conquests of the 
crusaders was obliterated at Acre. — E. Gibbon, 
Decline and Full of the Roman Empire, ch. 59. — 
"The sultan halted for several weeks in the 
plain, and permitted his soldiers to hold a large 
market, or fair, for the sale of their booty. This 
market was attended by Jews and pedlars from 
all parts of the East. . . . 'It was,' says tlie Cadi 
Mohieddin, ' a fearful and heart-rending sight. 
Even the hard stones were softened with grief.' 
He tells us that tlie captives were so numerous 
that a fine hearty boy might be purchased for 
twelve pieces of silver, and a little girl for five. 
When the work of pillage had been completed, 
when all the ornaments and decorations had been 
carried away from the churches, and the lead 
torn from the roofs, Antioch was fired in dif- 
ferent places, amid the loud thrilling shouts of 
'Allah Acbar,' ' God is Victorious. ' The great 
churches of St. Paul and St. Peter burnt with 
terrific fury for many days." — C. G. Addison, 
The Knights Templars, ch. 6. 

ANTIOCH COLLEGE. See Education, 
Modern- : Reforms : A. I). 1804-1891. 

CHUS THE GREAT. See Seleucid^, The: 
B. C. 281-224, and 224-187. 

ANTIPATER, and the wars of the Dia- 
dochi. See Macedonia: B. C. 323-316. 

ANTIUM. — " Antium, once a flourishing city 
of the Volsci, and afterwards of the Romans, 
their conquerors, is at present reduced to a small 
number of inhabitants. Originally it was with- 
out a port ; the harbour of the Antiates having 
been the neighbouring indentation in the coast of 
Ceno, now Nettuno, distant more than a mile to 
the eastward. . . . The piracies of the ancient 
Antiates all proceeded from Ceno, or Cerio, where 
they had 22 long ships. These Numicius took ; 
. . . some were taken to Rome and their rostra 
suspended in triumph in the Forum. ... It 
[Antium] was reckoned 260 stadia, or about 33 
miles, from Ostia." — Sir W. Gell, Topog. of Borne, 
V. 1. 

ANTIUM, Naval Battle of (1378). See 
Venice: A. D. 1378-1379. 

ANTIVEST.£UM. See BRiT.-aN, Tribes 
OP Celtic. 

varre, A. D. 1.55.5-1557. 

ANTONINES, The. See Rome: A. D. 13S- 

ANTONINUS, Marcus Aurelius, Roman 
Emperor, A. D. 161-180. 

ANTONINUS PIUS, Roman Emperor, 
A. D. 138-161. 

ANTONY, Mark, and the Second Triumvi- 
rate. See Rome; B. C. 44 to 31. 

ANTRUSTIONES.— In the Salic law, of 
the Fninks, there is no trace of any recognized 
order of nobility, "We meet, however, with 




several titles denoting temporary rank, derived 
from offices political and judicial, or from a 
position about the person of the liing. Among 
these the Antrustiones, who were in constant 
attendance upon the king, played a conspicuous 
part. . . . Antrustiones and Convivse Regis 
[Romans who held the same position] are the 
predecessors of tlie Vassi Dominici of later times, 
and like these were bound to the king by an es- 
pecial oath of personal and perpetual service. 
They formed part, as it were, of the king's 
family, and were expected to reside in the palace, 
where they superintended the various depart- 
ments of the royal household." — W. C. Perry, 
The Fninkn. eh. "lO. 

ANTWERP: The name of the City.— Its 
commercial greatness in the i6th century. — 
"The city was so ancient that its genealogists, 
with ridiculous gravity, ascended to a period 
two centuries before the Trojan war, and dis- 
covered a giant, rejoicing in the classic name of 
Antigonus, established on the Scheld. This 
patriarch exacted one half the merchandise of all 
navigators who passed his castle, and was ac- 
customed to amputate and cast into the river the 
right hands of those who infringed this simple 
tariff. Thus 'Hand-werpen,' hand-tlirowing, be- 
came Antwerp, and hence, two hands, in the 
escutcheon of the city, were ever held up in 
heraldic attestation of the truth. The giant was, 
in his turn, thrown into the Scheld by a hero, 
named Brabo, from whose exploits Brabant de- 
rived its name. . . . But for these antiquarian 
researches, a simpler derivation of the name 
would seem 'ant' werf,' 'on the wharf.' It had 
now [in the first half of the 16th century] be- 
come the principal entrepot and exchange of 
Europe . . . the commercial capital of the world. 
. . . Venice, Nuremburg, Augsburg, Bruges, 
were sinking, but Antwerp, with its deep and 
convenient river, stretched its arm to the ocean 
and caught the golden prize, as it fell from its 
sister cities' grasp. . . . No city, except Paris, 
surpassed it in population, none approached it 
in commercial splendor." — J. L. Motley, Th€ 
Rise of (he Dutch Republic, Hist. Introd., sect. 1.3. 

A. D. 1313. — Made the Staple for English 
trade. See Staple. 

A. D. 1566. — Riot of the Image-breakers in 
the Churches. See Netherlands: A. D. 1566- 

A. D. 1576. — The Spanish Fury. See Neth- 
erlands: A. D. 157.5-1577. 

A. D. 1577. — Deliverance of the city from 
its Spanish garrison. — Demolition of the Cita- 
del. See Netherlands: A. D. 1577-1581. 

A. D. 1583. — Treacherous attempt of the 
Duke of Anjou. — The French Fury. See Neth- 
ERL.A.NDS: A. D. 1.5S1-1584. 

A. D. 1584-1585.— Siege and reduction by 
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. — The 
dov7nfall of prosperity. See Netherlands: 
A. D. 1584-1585. 

A. D. 1648. — Sacrificed to Amsterdam in 
the Treaty of Miinster. — Closing of the 
Scheldt. See Netherl.^xds: A. D. 1646-1648. 

A. D. 1706. — Surrendered to Marlborough 
and the Allies. See Netherlands: A. D. 1706- 

A. D. 1 746-1748.— Taken by the French and 
restored to Austria. See Netherlaitds: A. D. 
1746-1747; and Aix-la-Chapelle: The Con- 

A. D. 1832.— Siege of the Citadel by the 
French. — Expulsion of the Dutch garrison. 
See Netherlands: A. D. 1830-1832. 


APACHES, The. See American Arorig- 
ines: Apache Grocp. and Ath.vpa8C.\n Fa.milt. 

APALACHES, The. See American Abor- 
igines: Apalaches. 

APAMEA.— Apamea, a city founded by 
Seleucus Nicator on the Euphrates, the site of 
which is occupied by the modern town of Bir, 
had become, in Strabo's time (near the beginning 
of the Christian Era) one of the principal centers 
of Asiatic trade, second only to Ephesus. Thap- 
sacus, the former customary crossing-place of 
the Euphrates, had ceased to be so, and the pas- 
sage was made at Apamea. A place on the 
opposite bank of the river was called Zeugma, or 
"the bridge." Bir "is still the usual place at 
which travellers proceeding from Antioch or 
Aleppo towards Bagdad cross the Euphrates." — 
E. H. Bunburv, Hist, of Ancient Oeog.,ch. 22, 
sect. 1 (r. 2. pp.'29S and 317). 

APANAGE. See^ge. 

APATURIA, The.— An annual family festi- 
val of the Athenians, celebrated for three days 
in the early part of the month of October 
(Pyauepsion). "This was the characteristic 
festival of the Ionic race ; handed down from a 
period anterior to the constitution of Kleisthenes, 
and to the ten new tribes each containing so many 
demes, and bringing together the citizens in 
their primitive unions of family, gens, phratry, 
etc., the aggregate of which had originally con- 
stituted the four Ionic tribes, now superannuated. 
At the Apaturia, the family ceremonies were 
gone through ; marriages were enrolled, acts of 
adoption were promulgated and certified, the 
names of youthful citizens first entered on the 
gentile and phratricroll; sacrifices were jointly 
celebrated by these family assemblages to Zeus 
Phriitrius, Athene, and other deities, accompanied 
with much festivity and enjoyment. " — G. Grote, 
Hist, of Greece, pt. 2, ch. 64 (v. 7). 

APELLA, The. See Sparta: The Cok- 
stitution, &c. 

APELOUSAS, The. See Texas: The abo- 
riginal Inhabit.\nts. 

APHEK, Battle of. — A great victory won by 
Ahab, king of Israel over Benhadad, king of 
Damascus. — H. Ewald, Hist, of Israel, b/c. 4, 
sect. 1. 

APODECT.<E, The. — "When Aristotle 
speaks of the officers of government to whom 
the public revenues were delivered, who kept 
them and distributed them to the several admin- 
istrative departments, these are called, he adds, 
apodectae and treasurers. In Athens the 
apodectae were ten in number, in accordance with 
the number of the tribes. They were appointed 
by lot. . . . They had in their possession the 
lists of the debtors of the state, received the 
money which was paid in, registered an account 
of it and noted the amount in arrear, and in the 
council house in the presence of the council, 
erased the names of tlie debtors who h;id paid 
the demands against them from the list, and 
deposited this again in the archives. Finally, 
they, together with the council, apportioned the 
sums received." — A. Boeckli, Public Economy of 
Athens (tr. hi/ Lamb), bk. 2, ch. 4. 

ing of, iace KOREYBA. 




APOSTASION. See Polet^. 

Title. Sw Hungary: A. D. 973-llU. 

APPANAGE. — " The term appanage denotes 
the provision made for the younger children of 
a king of France. This always consisted of 
lands and feudal superiorities held of the crown 
by the tenure of peerage. It is evident that this 
usage, as it produced a new class of powerful 
feudataries, was hostile to the interests and policy 
of the sovereign, and retarded the subjugation 
of the ancient aristocracy. But an usage coeval 
with the monarchy was not to be abrogated, and 
the scarcity of money rendered it impossible to 
provide for the younger branches of the royal 
family by any other means. It was restrained 
however as far as circumstances would permit." 
— H. Hallam, Tfie Middle Ages, ch. 1, pt. 2.— 
"From the words 'ad 'and 'panis,' meaning that 
It was to provide bread for the person who held it. 
A portion of appanage was now given to each of 
the king's younger sons, which descended to his 
direct heirs, but in default of them reverted to the 
crown." — "T. Wright, Hist, of France, v. 1, p. 
308, Tiote. 

APPIAN WAY, The— Appius Claudius, 
called the Blind, who was censor at Rome 
from 312 to 308 B. C. [see Rome: B. C. 313], con- 
structed during that time "the Appian road, the 
queen of roads, because the Latin road, passing 
by Tusculum, and through the country of the 
Hernicans, was so much endangered, and had 
not yet been quite , recovered by the Romans : 
the Appian road, passing by Terracina, Fundi 
and Mola, to Capua, was intended to be a shorter 
and safer one. . . . The Appian road, even if 
Appius did carry it as far as Capua, was not 
executed by him with that splendour for which 
we still admire it in those parts which have not 
been destroyed intentionally: the closely joined 
polygons of basalt, which thousands of years 
have not been able to displace, are of a some- 
what later origin. Appius commenced the road, 
because there was actual need for it ; in the year 
A. U. 457 [B. C. 297] peperino, and some years 
later basalt (silex) was first used for paving 
roads, and, at the beginning, only on the small 
distance from the Porta Capena to the temple of 
Mars, as we are distinctly told by Livy. Roads 
constructed according to artistic principles had 
previously existed." — B. G. Niebuhr, Lecis. on 
the Hist, of Home, led. 45. 

Also in: Sir W. Gell, Topog. of Some, «. 1. — 
H. G. Liddell, Hist, of Rome, v. 1, p. 251. 

Surrender at. See United States op Am. : 
A. D. 1865 (April : Virginia). 

APULEIAN LAW. See Majest.'^s. 

APULIA: A. D. 1042-1 127. — Norman con- 
quest and Dukedom. — Union with Sicily. 
See Italy (Southern): A. D. 1000-1090, and 

I APULIANS, The. See Sabines; also, 8am- 

j AQUiE SEXTI^. See Salyes. 
i AQU.(E SEXTI.(E, Battle of. See Cimbei 
AND Teutones: B. C. 113-103. 

AQUiE SOLIS.— The Roman name of the 
long famous watering-place known in modem 
England as the city of Bath. It was splendidly 
adorned in Roman times with temples and other 
edifices. — T. Wright, Celt, Boman and Saxon, 
ch, 5. 

name of Rhode Island. See Rhode Island: 
A. D. 1638-1640. 

AQUILA, Battle of (1424). See Italy: 
A. D. 1413-1447. 

AQUILEIA. — Aquileia, at the time of the 
destruction of that city by the Huns, A. D. 452, 
was, "both as a fortress and a commercial 
emporium, second to none in Northern Italy. It 
was situated at the northernmost point of the 
gulf of Hadria, about twenty miles northwest of 
Trieste, and the place where it once stood is now 
in the Austrian dominions, just over the border 
which separates them from the kingdom of 
Italy. In the year 181 B. C. a Roman colony 
had been sent to this far corner of Italy to serve 
as an outpost against some intrusive tribes, called 
by the vague name of Gauls. . . . Possessing a 
good harbour, with which it was connected by a 
navigable river, Aquileia gradually became the 
chief entrepot for the commerce between Italy 
and what are now the Illyrian provinces of 
Austria." — T. Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders, 
hk. 2, ch. 4. 

A. D. 238.— Siege by Maximin. See Rome: 
A. D. 238. 

A. D. 388.— Overthrow of Maximus by The- 
odosius. See Rome: A. B. 379-395. 

A. D. 452. — Destruction by the Huns. See 
Huns: A. D. 453; also, Venice: A. D. 452. 

AQUITAINE: The ancient tribes.— The 
Roman conquest of Aquitania was achieved, B. C. 
56, by one of Caesar's lieutenants, the Younger 
Crassus, who first brought the people called 
the Sotiates to submission and then defeated 
their combined neighbors in a murderous battle, 
where three-fourths of them are said to have 
been slain. The tribes which then submitted 
"were the Tarbelli, Bigerriones, Preciani, Vo- 
cates, Tarusates, Elusates, Garites, Ausci, Gar- 
umni, Sibuzates and Cocosates. "The Tarbelli 
were In the lower basin of the Adour. Their 
chief place was on the site of the hot springs of 
Dax. The Bigerriones appear in the name 
Bigorre. The chief place of the Elusates was 
Elusa, Eause ; and the town of Auch on the river 
Gers preserves the name of the Ausci. The 
names Garites, if the name is genuine, and Gar- 
umni contain the same element. Gar, as the 
river Garumna [Garonne] and the Gers. It is 
stated by Walckenaer that the inhabitants of the 
southern part of Les Landes are still called 
Cousiots. Cocosa, Caussfique, is twenty-four 
miles from Dax on the road from Dax to Bor- 
deaux." — G. Long, Decline of the Roman Re- 
public, v. 4, ch. 6. — "Before the arrival of the 
brachycephalic Ligurian race, the Iberians 
ranged over the greater part of France. ... If, 
as seems probable, we may identify them with 
the Aquitanl, one of the three races which oc- 
cupied Gaul in the time of Csesar, they must have 
retreated to the neighbourhood of the Pyrenees 
before the beginning of the historic period." — 
I. Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, ch. 2, sect. 5. 

In Cxsar's time. See Gaul described by 

Settlement of the Visigoths. See G0TH8 
(Visigoths): A. D. 410-419. 

A. D. 567. — Divided between the Merovin- 
gian Kings. See Fr.^nks: A. D. 511-752. 

A. D. 681-768.— The independent Dukes 
and their subjugation. —" The old Roman 


AQUITAINE, A. D. 681-768. 

AQUITAINE, A. D. 1137-1152. 

Aquitania, in the first division of the spoils of 
the Empire, had fallen to the Visigoths, who 
conquered it without much trouble. In the 
struggle between them and the Merovingians, it 
of course passed to the victorious party. But 
the quarrels, so fiercely contested between the 
different members of the Frank monarchy, pre- 
vented them from retaining a distant possession 
within their grasp ; and at this period [681-718, 
when the Mayors of the Palace, Pepin and Carl, 
were gathering the reins of government over 
the three kingdoms — Austrasia, Neustria and 
Burgundy — iuto their hands], Eudo, the duke 
of Aquitaine, was really an independent prince. 
The population had never lost its Roman char- 
acter ; it was, in fact, by far the most Romanized 
in the whole of Gaul. But it had also received 
a new element in the Vascones or Gascons [see 
Basques], a tribe of Pyrenean mountaineers, who 
descending from their mountains, advanced to- 
wards the north until their progress was checked 
by the broad waters of the Garonne. At this 
time, however, they obeyed Eudo. "This duke 
of Aquitaine, Eudo, allied himself with the 
Neustrians against the ambitious Austrasian 
Mayor, Carl Martel, and shared with them the 
crushing defeat at Soissons, A. D. 718, which 
established the Hammerer's power. Eudo 
acknowledged allegiance and was allowed to 
retain his dukedom. But, half-a-century after- 
wards, Carl's son, Pepin, who had pushed the 
' faineant ' Merovingians from the Frank throne 
and seated himself upon it, fought a nine years' 
war with the tlien duke of Aquitaine, to establish 
his sovereignty. "The war. which lasted nine 
years [760-768], was signalized by frightful 
ravages and destruction of life upon both sides, 
until, at last, the Franks became masters of 
Berri, Auvergne, and the Limousin, with their 
principal cities. The able and gallant Guaifer 
[or Waifer] was assassinated by his own sub- 
jects, and Pepin had the satisfaction of finally 
uniting the grand-duchy of Aquitaine to the 
monarchy of the Franks." — J. G. Sheppard, 
Fall of Rome, led. 8. 

Also in: P. Godwin, Hist, of France : Ancient 
Gaul, ch. 14-15.— W. H. Perry, The Franks, ch. 

A. D. 732. — Ravaged by the Moslems. 
See Mahometan Conquest: A. D. 715-733. 

A. D. 781. — Erected into a separate king- 
dom by Charlemagne, — In the year 781 Charle- 
magne erected Italy and Aquitaine into separate 
kingdoms, placing his two infant sons, Pepin 
and Ludwig or Louis on their respective thrones. 
"The kingdom of Aquitaine embraced Vasconia 
[Gascony], Septimania, Aquitaine proper (that 
is, the country between the Garonne and the 
Loire) and the 'county, subsequently the duchy, 
of Toulouse. Nominally a kingdom, Aquitaine 
was in reality a province, entirely dependent on 
the central or personal government of Charles. 
. . . The nominal designations of king and 
.kingdom might gratify the feelings of the 
Aquitanians, but it was a scheme contrived for 
holding them in a state of absolute dependence 
and subordination." — J. I. Mombert, Hist, of 
Charles the Great, bk. 2, ch. 11. 

A. D. 843— In the division of Charle- 
magne's Empire. See France: A. D. 843. 

A. D. 884-1151.— The end of the nominal 
kingdom.— The disputed Ducal Title.— "Car- 
loman [who died 884], son of Louis the Stam- 

merer, was the last of the Carlovingians who bore 
the title of king of Aquitaine. This vast state 
ceased from this time to constitute a kingdom. 
It had for a lengthened period been divided 
between powerful families, the most illustrious 
of which are those of the Counts of Toulouse, 
founded in the ninth century by Fredelon, the 
Counts of Poitiers, the Counts of Auvergne, the 
Marquises of Septimania or Gothia, and the Dukes 
of Gascony. King Eudes had given William the 
Pius, Count of Auvergne, the investiture of the 
duchy of Aquitaine. On the extinction of that 
family in 928, the Counts of Toulouse and those 
of Poitou disputed the prerogatives and their 
quarrel stained the south with blood for a long 
time. At length the Counts of Poitou acquired 
the title of Dukes of Aquitaine or Guyenne [or 
Guienne, — supposed to be a corruption of the 
name of Aquitaine, which came into use during 
the Middle Ages], which remained in their house 
up to the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with 
Henry Plantagenet I. [Henry II.], King of 
England (1151)." — E. De Bonnechose, Uist. of 
France, bk. 2, ch. 3, foot-note. — " The duchy 
Aquitaine, or Guyenne, as held by Eleanor's 
predecessors, consisted, roughly speaking, of the 
territory between the Loire and the Garonne. 
More exactly, it was bounded on the north oy 
Anjou and Touraine, on the east by Berry and 
Auvergne, on the south-east by the Quercy or 
County of Cahors, and on the south-west by 
Gascony, which had been united with it for the 
last hundred years. The old Karolingian king- 
dom of Aquitania had been of far greater extent; 
it had, in fact, included the whole country 
between the Loire, the Pyrenees, the Rhone and 
the ocean. Over all this vast territory the Counts 
of Poitou asserted a theoretical claim of over- 
lordship by virtue of their ducal title ; they had, 
however, a formidable rival in the house of the 
Counts of Toulouse." — K. Norgate, England 
under the Angevin Kings, v. 1, ch. 10. — See, also, 
Toulouse: 10th and 11th CENTtmiES. 

A. D. 1137-1152. — Transferred by mar- 
riage from the crown of France to the crown 
of England.— In 1137, "the last of the old line of 
the dukes of Aquitaine — William IX., son of 
the gay crusader and troubadour whom the Red 
King had hoped to succeed — died on a pilgrim- 
age at Compostella. His only son was already 
dead, and before setting out for his pilgrimage 
he did what -a greater personage had done ten 
years before: with the consent of his barons, he 
left the whole of his dominions to his daughter. 
Moreover, he bequeathed the girl herself as wife 
to the young king Louis [VII. ] of France. This 
marriage more than doubled the strength of the 
French crown. It gave to Louis absolute pos- 
session of all western Aquitaine, or Guyenne as 
it was now beginning to be called; that is the 
counties of Poitou and Gascony, with the im- 
mediate overlordship of the whole district lying 
between the Loire and the Pyrenees, the Rhone 
and the ocean: — a territory five or six times as 
large as his own royal domain and over which 
his predecessors had never been able to assert 
more than the merest shadow of a nominal superi- 
ority." In 1152 Louis obtained a divorce from 
Eleanor, surrendering all the great territory 
which she had added to his dominions, rather 
than maintain an unhappy union. The same 
year the gay duchess was wedded to Henry Plan- 
tagenet, then Duke of Normandy, afterwarda 


AQUTTAINE, A. D. 1187-1152. 


Henry II. King of England. By tliis marriage 
Aquitaine heoame joined to the crown of England 
and remained so for three hundred years. — K. 
Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings, v. 1, 
eh. 8. 

12th Century. — The state of the southern 
parts. See Pkovence: A. D. 1179-1207. 

A. D. 1360-1453. — Full sovereignty pos- 
sessed by the English Kings. — The final con- 
quest and union with France. — " By the Peace 
of Bretigny [see France: A. D. 1337-1360] Ed- 
ward III. resigned his claims on the crown of 
France ; but he was recognized in return as inde- 
pendent Prince of Aquitaine, without any hom- 
age or superioritj' being reserved to the French 
monarch. When Aquitaine therefore was con- 
quered by France, partly in the 14th, fully in 
the loth century [see France: A. D. 1431-1453], 
it was not the ' reunion ' of a forfeited fief, but 
the absorption of a distinct and sovereign state. 
The feelings of Aquitaine itself seem to have 
been divided. The nobles to a great extent, 
though far from universally, preferred the French 
connexion. It better fell in with their notions 
of chivalry, feudal dependency, and the like; 
the privileges too which French law conferred 
on noble birth would make their real interests 
lie that way. But the great cities and, we have 
reason to believe, the mass of the people, also, 
clave faithfully to their ancient Dukes ; and they 
had good reason to do so. The English Kings, 
both by habit and b}' interest, naturally pro- 
tected the municipal liberties of Bourdeaux and 
Bayonne, and exposed no part of their subjects 
to the horrors of French taxation and general 
oppression." — E. A. Freeman, 77ie Franks and 
the Oaiils (Historical Essays, \st Series, No. 7). 

AQUITANI, The. See Iberians, The 

ARABIA.— ARABS : The Name.— " There 
can be no doubt that the name of the Arabs was 
. . . given from their living at the westernmost 
part of Asia; and their own word ' Gharb,' the 
' West,' is another form of the original Semitic 
name Arab." — G. Rawlinson, Notes to Herodotus, 
V. 2, p. 71. 

The ancient succession and fusion of Races. 
— "The population of Arabia, after long cen- 
turies, more especially after the propagation and 
triumph of Islamism, became uniform through- 
out the peninsula. . . . But it was not always 
thus. It was very slowly and gradually that the 
inhabitants of the various parts of Arabia were 
fused into one race. . . . Several distinct races 
successively immigrated into the peninsula and 
remained separate for many ages. Their dis- 
tinctive characteristics, their manners and their 
civilisation prove that these nations were not all 
of one blood. Up to the time of Mahomet, 
several different languages were spoken in 
Arabia, and it was the introduction of Islamism 
alone that gave predominence to that one 
amon_gst them now called Arabic. The few 
Arabian historians deserving of the name, who 
have used any discernment in collecting the 
traditions of their country, Ibn Khaldoun, for 
example, distinguish three successive popula- 
tions in the peninsula. They divide these primi- 
tive, secondary, and tertiary Arabs into three 
divisions, called Ariba, Motareba, and Mostareba. 
. . . The Ariba were the first and most ancient 
inhabitants of Arabia. They consisted prin- 

cipally of two great nations, the Adites, sprung 
from Ham, and the Araalika of the race of Aram, 
descendants of Shem, mixed with nations of 
secondary importance, the Thamudites of the 
race of Ham, and the people of the Tasm, and 
Jadis, of the family of Aram. The Motareba 
were tribes sprung from Joktan, son of Eber, 
always in Arabian tradition called Kahtan. The 
Mostareba of more modern origin were Ismae'- 
itish tribes. . . . The Cushites, the first in- 
habitants of Arabia, are known in the national 
traditions by the name of Adites, from their pro- 
genitor, who is called Ad, the grandson of Ham. 
All the accounts given of them by Arab his- 
torians are but fanciful legends. ... In the 
midst of all the fabulous traits with which these 
legends abound, we may perceive the remem- 
brance of a powerful empire founded by the 
Cushites in very early ages, apparently including 
the whole of Arabia Felix, and not only Yemen 
proper. We also find traces of a wealthy nation, 
constructors of great buildings, with an advanced 
civilisation analogous to that of Chaldaja, pro- 
fessing a religion similar to the Babylonian; a 
nation, in short, with whom material progress 
was allied to great moral depravity and obscene 
rites. ... It was about eighteen centuries be- 
fore our era that the Joktanites entered Southern 
Arabia. . . . According to all appearances, the 
invasion, like all events of a similar nature, was 
accomplished only by force. . . . After this in- 
vasion, the Cushite element of the population, 
being still the most numerous, and possessing 
great superiority in knowledge and civilisation 
over the Joktanites, who were still almost in the 
nomadic state, soon recovered the moral and 
material supremacy, and political dominion. A 
new empire was formed in which the power still 
belonged to the Saboeans of the race of Cush. 
. . . Little by little the new nation of Ad was 
formed. The centre of its power was the country 
of Sheba proper, where, according to the tenth 
chapter of Genesis, there was no primitive Jok- 
tanite tribe, although in all the neighbouring 
provinces they were already settled. ... It was 
during the first centuries of the second Adite 
empire that Yemen was temporarily subjected 
by the Egyptians, who called it the land of Pun. 
. . . Conquered during the minority of Thothmes 
III., and the regency of the Princess Hatasu, 
Yemen appears to have been lost by the Egyp- 
tians in the troublous times at the close of the 
eighteenth dynasty. Ramses II. recovered it 
almost immediately after he ascended the throne, 
and it was not till the time of the effeminate 
kings of the twentieth dynasty, that this splendid 
ornament of Egyptian power was finally lost. 
. . . The conquest of the land of Pun under 
Hatasu is related in the elegant bas-reliefs of the 
temple of Deir-el-Bahari, at Thebes, published by 
M. Duemichen. . . . The bas-reliefs of the 
temple of Deir-el-Bahari afford undoubted proofs 
of the existence of commerce between India and 
Yemen at the time of the Egyptian expedition 
under Hatasu. It was this commerce, much 
more than the fertility of its own soil and its 
natural productions, that made Southern Arabia 
one of the richest countries in the world. . . . 
For a long time it was carried on by land only, 
by means of caravans crossing Arabia; for the 
navigation of the Red Sea, much more diflBcult 
and dangerous than that of the Indian Ocean, 
was not attempted till some centuries later. . . . 




The caravans of myrrh, incense, and balm cross- 
ing Arabia towards the land of Canaan are men- 
tioned in the Bible, in the history of Joseph, 
which belongs to a period very near to the first 
establishment of the Canaanites in Syria. As 
soon as commercial towns arose in Phoinicia, we 
find, as the prophet Ezekiel said, ' The mer- 
chants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy 
merchants : they occupied in thy fairs with chief 
of all spices, and with all precious stones and 
gold.'. . . A great number of Phoenician mer- 
chants, attracted by this trade, established them- 
selves in Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, and 
Bahrein. Phoenician factories were also estab- 
lished at several places on the Persian Gulf, 
amongst others in the islands of Tylos and 
Arvad, formerly occupied by their ancestors. 
. . . This commerce, extremely flourishing dur- 
ing the nineteenth dynasty, seems, together with 
the Egyptian dominion in Yemen, to have ceased 
under the feeble and inactive successors of 
Ramses III. . . . Xearly two centuries passed 
away, when Hiram and Solomon despatched 
vessels down the Red Sea. . . . The vessels of 
the two monarchs were not content with doing 
merely what had once before been done under 
the Egyptians of the nineteenth dynasty, namely, 
fetching from the ports of Yemen the merchan- 
dise collected there from India. They were 
much bolder, and their enterprise was rewarded 
with success. Profiting by the regularity of the 
monsoons, they fetched the products of India at 
first hand, from the very place of their shipment 
in the ports of the land of Ophir, or Abhira. 
These distant voyages were repeated with suc- 
cess as long as Solomon reigned. The vessels 
going to Ophir necessarily touched at the ports 
of Yemen to take in provisions and await 
favourable winds. Thus the renown of the two 
allied kings, particularly of the power of 
Solomon, was spread in the land of the Adites. 
This was the cause of the journey made by the 
queen of Sheba to Jerusalem to see Solomon. 
. . . The sea voyages to Ophir, and even to 
Yemen, ceased at the death of Solomon. The 
separation of the ten tribes, and the revolutions 
that simultaneously took place at Tyre, rendered 
any such expeditions impracticable. . . . The 
empire of the second Adites lasted ten centuries, 
during which the Joktanite tribes, multiplying 
in each generation, lived amongst the Cushite 
Sabseans. . . . The assimilation of the Joktanites 
to the Cushites was so complete that the revolu- 
tion which gave political supremacy to the 
descendants of Joktan over those of Cush pro- 
duced no sensible change in the civilisation of 
Yemen. But although using the same language, 
the two elements of the population of Southern 
Arabia were still quite distinct from each other, 
and antagonistic in their interests. . . . Both 
were called Sabaeans, but the Bible always care- 
fully distinguishes them by a different orthog- 
raphy. . . . The majority of the Sabaean Cush- 
ites, however, especially the superior castes, 
refused to submit to the Joktanite yoke. A 
separation, therefore, took place, giving rise to 
the Arab proverb, 'divided as the Sabaeans,' and 
the mass of the Adites emigrated to another 
country. According to M. Caussin de Perceval, 
the passage of the Sabaeans into Abyssinia is to 
be attributed to the consequences of the revolu- 
tion that established Joktanite supremacy in 
Yemen. . , . The date of the passage of the 

^ 129 

Sabseans from Arabia into Abyssinia is much more 
difficult to prove than the fact of their having 
done so. . . . Yarub, the conqueror of the 
Adites, and founder of the new monarchy of Jok- 
tanite Arabs, was succeeded on the throne by 
his son, Yashdjob, a weak and feeble prince, of 
whom nothing is recorded, but that he allowed 
the chiefs of the various provinces of his states 
to make themselves independent. Abd Shems, 
sumamed Sheba, son of Yashdjob, recovered the 
power his predecessors had lost. . . . Abd Shems 
had several children, the most celebrated being 
Himyer and Kahlan, who left a numerous pos- 
terity. From these two personages were de- 
scended the greater part of the Yemenite tribes, 
who still existed at the time of the rise of Islam- 
ism. The Himyarites seem to have settled in 
the towns, whilst the Kahlanites inhabited the 
country and the deserts of Yemen. . . . This is 
the substance of all the information given by 
the Arab historians." — F. Lenormant and E. 
Chevalier, Manual of Ancient Hist, of the East, 
bk. 7, ch. 1-2 (v. 2). 

Sabaeans, The. — "For some time past it has 
been known that the Himyaritic inscriptions fall 
into two groups, distinguished from one another 
by phonological and grammatical differences. 
One of the dialects is philologically older than the 
other, containing fuller and more primitive gram- 
matical forms. The inscriptions in this dialect 
belong to a kingdom the capital of which was 
at Ma'in, and which represents the country of 
the Minaeans of the ancients. The inscriptions 
in the other dialect were engraved by the princes 
and people of Saba, the Sheba of the Old Testa- 
ment, the Sabfpans of classical geographj-. The 
Sabaean kingdom lasted to the time of Moham- 
med, when it was destroyed by the advancing 
forces of Islam. Its rulers for several genera- 
tions had been converts to Judaism, and had been 
engaged in almost constant warfare with the 
Ethiopic kingdom of Axum, which was backed 
by the Influence and subsidies of Rome and 
Byzantium. Dr. Glaser seeks to show that the 
founders of this Ethiopic kingdom were the 
HabSsa, or Abyssinians, who migrated from 
Himyar to Africa in the second or first century 
B. C. ; when we first hear of them in the inscrip- 
tions they are still the inhabitants of Northern 
Yemen and ilahrah. More than once the Axum- 
ites made themselves masters of Southern Arabia. 
About A. D. 300, they occupied its ports and 
islands, and from 3-50 to 378 even the Sabaean 
kingdom was tributarj' to them. Their last suc- 
cesses were gained in .523, when, with Byzantine 
help, they conquered the whole of Yemen. But 
the Sabaean kingdom, in spite of its temporary 
subjection to Ethiopia, had long been a formidf- 
able State. Jewish colonies settled in it, and one 
of its princes became a convert to the Jewish 
faith. His successors gradually extended their 
dominion as far as Ormuz, and after the success- 
ful revolt from Axum in 378, brought not only 
the whole of the southern coast under their 
sway, but the western coast as well, as far north', 
as Mekka. Jewish influence made itself felt in 
the future birthplace of Mohammed, and thus 
introduced those ideas and beliefs which subse- 
quently had so profound an effect upon the birth 
of Islam. The Byzantines and Axumites en- 
deavoured to counteract the influence of Judaism 
by means of Christian colonies and proselytism. 
The result was a conflict between Saba and its 



assailants, which took the form of a conflict 
between the members of the two religions. A 
violent persecution was directed against the 
Christians of Yemen, avenged by the Ethiopian 
conquest of the country and the removal of its 
capital to Sana. The intervention of Persia in 
the struggle was soon followed by the appear- 
ance of Mohammedanism upon the scene, and 
Jew, Christian, and Parsi were alike overwhelmed 
by the flowing tide of the new creed. The epi- 
grapbic evidence makes it clear that the origin 
of the kingdom of Sabd went back to a distant 
date. Dr. Glaser traces its liistory from the time 
when its princes were still but Makurib, or 
'Priests,' like Jethro, the Priest of Midian, 
through the ages when they were ' kings of 
Saba,' and later still ' kings of Saba and Raidan,' 
to the days when they claimed imperial suprem- 
acy over all the principalities of Southern Arabia. 
It was in this later period that they dated their 
inscriptions by an era, which, as Halevy first dis- 
covered, corresponds to 115 B. C. One of the 
kings of Saba is mentioned in an inscription of 
the Assyrian king Sargon (B. C. 715), and Dr. 
Glaser believes that he has found his name 
in a ' Himyaritic ' text. When the last priest, 
Samah'ali Darrahh, became king of Saba, we do 
not yet know, but the age must be sufficiently 
remote, if the kingdom of Saba already existed 
when the Queen of Sheba came from Ophir to 
visit Solomon. The visit need no longer cause 
astonishment, notwithstanding the long journey 
by land which lay between Palestine and the 
south of Arabia. ... As we have seen, the in- 
scriptions of Ma'in set before us a dialect of more 
primitive character than that of Saba. Hitherto 
it had been supposed, however, that the two 
dialects were spoken contemporaneously, and 
that the Minsean and Saba;an kingdoms existed 
side by side. But geography offered difficulties 
in the way of such a belief, since the seats of 
2VIina;an power were embedded in the midst of 
the Saba;an kingdom, much as the fragments of 
Cromarty are embedded in the midst of other 
counties. Dr. Glaser has now made it clear that 
the old supposition was incorrect, and that the 
Minoean kingdom preceded the rise of Saba. We 
can now understand why it is that neither in 
the Old Testament nor in the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions do we hear of any princes of Ma'in, and 
that though the classical writers are acquainted 
with the Minoean people they know nothing of a 
Minaean kingdom. The Minaean kingdom, in 
fact, with its culture and monuments, the relics 
of which still survive, must have flourished in 
the grey dawn of history, at an epoch at which, 
as we have hitherto imagined, Arabia was the 
home only of nomad barbarism. And yet in this 
remote age alphabetic writing was already known 
and practised, the alphabet being a modification of 
the Phoenician written vertically and not horizon- 
tally. To what an early date are we referred for 
the origin of the Phoenician alphabet itself 1 The 
!Mina;an Kingdom must have had a long exist- 
ence. The names of thirty-three of its kings are 
'already known to us. ... A power which 
reached to the borders of Palestine must neces- 
sarily have come into contact with the great 
monarchies of the ancient world. The army of 
^lius Gallus was doubtless not the first which 
had sought to gain possession of the cities and 
spice-gardens of the south. One such invasion is 
alluded to in an inscription which was copied by 

M. Halevy But the epigraphy of ancient 

Arabia is still in its infancy. Tlio inscriptions 
already known to us represent but a small pro- 
portion of those that are yet to be discovered. 
. . . The dark past of the Arabian peninsula has 
been suddenly lighted up, and we find that long 
before the days of Mohammed it was a land of 
culture and literature, a seat of powerful king- 
doms and wealthy commerce, which cannot fail 
to have exercised an influence upon the general 
history of the world." — A. H. Sayce, Ancient 
Arabia (Contemp. Rev., Dec, 1889). 

6th Century.. — Partial conquest by the Abys- 
sinians. See Abyssinia: Ctu to 16th Cen- 


A. D. 609-632. — Mahomet's conquest. See 
Mahometan Conquest : A. D. 609-632. 

A. D. 1517. — Brought under the Turkish 
sovereignty. See Turks: A. D. 1481-1530. 

ARABS, Conquests. See Mahometak 
Conquest. — Medical Science. See Medical 
Science: 7-11tu Centuries. — Trade. See 
Trade, Ancient and Medieval. 

ARACHOTI, The.— A people who dwelt an- 
ciently in the Valley of the Arghandab, or Ur- 
gundab, in eastern Afghanistan. Herodotus gave 
them the tribal name of "Pactyes," and the 
modern Afghans, who call themselves "Pashtun" 
and "Pakhtun," signifying " mountaineers," are 
probably derived from them. — M. Duncker, Hist. 
of Antiquity, hk. 7, eh. 1. 

ARAGON: A. D. 1035-1258.— Rise of the 
kingdom. See Spain: A. D. 1035-1258. 

A. D. 1133. — Beginning of popular repre- 
sentation in the Cortes. — The Monarchical con- 
stitution. See Cortes, The Early Spanisii. 

A. D. 1218-1238.— The first oath of alle- 
giance to the king.— Conquest of Balearic 
Islands. — Subjugation of Valencia. See Spain: 
A. D. 1213-1238. 

A. D. 14x0-1475. — The Castilian dynasty. 
— Marriage of Ferdinand vyith Isabella of 
Castile. See Spain: A. D. 1368-1479. 

A. D. 1516. — The crown united -with that 
of Castile by Joanna, mother of Charles V. See 
Spain: A. D. 1496-1517. 

ARAICU, The. See American Aborioines: 
GucK OR Coco Group. 

ZOBAH.— ARAMAEANS. See Semites; also, 
Semitic Languages. 

ARAMBEC. See Norumbeqa. 

ARAPAHOES, The. See American Abo- 
rigines: Algonquian Family, and Pawnee 
(Caddoan) Family. 

ARAR, The. — The ancient name of the river 
Saone, in France. 

ARARAT. — URARDA. See Al.\rodians. 

ARATOS, and the Achaian League. See 
Greece: B.C. 280-146. 

ARAUCANIANS, The. See Chile. 

ARAUSIO. — A Roman colony was founded 
by Augustus at Arausio, wliich is represented in 
name and site by the modern town of Orange, in 
the department of Vaucluse, France, 18 miles 
north of Avignon. — P. Goodwin, Hist.of France: 
Anc. Oaul, bk. 3, ch. 5. 

ARAUSIO, Battle of (B. C. 105). See Cm- 
BRi and Teutones: B. C. 113-103. 

ARAVISCI AND OSI, The. — " Whether 
... the Aravisci migrated into Paimonia from 




the Osi, a German race, or whether the Osi came 
from the Aravisci into Germany, as both nations 
Btill retain the same language, institutions and 
customs, Is a doubtful matter." — "The locality 
of the Aravisci was the extreme north-eastern 
part of the province of Pannonia, and would 
thus stretch from Vienna (Vindobona), eastwards 
to Raab (Arrabo), taking in a portion of the 
south-west of Hungary. . . . The Osi seem to 
have dwelt near the sources of the Oder and the 
Vistula. They would thus have occupied a 
part of Gallicia." — Tacitus, Qermany, trans, by 
Church and Brodribb, with geog. n/>tes. 

AirERic.vN Aborigines: Caries. 

ARAXES, The. — This name seems to have 
been applied to a number of Asiatic streams in 
ancient times, but is connected most prominently 
with an Armenian river, now called the Aras, 
which flows into the Caspian. 

ARBAS, Battle of.— One of the battles of the 
Romans with the Persians in which the for- 
mer suffered defeat. Fought A. D. 581. 

ARBELA, or GAUGAMELA, Battle of 
(B. C. 331). See Macedonia: B. C. 334-330. 

ARBITRATION, International. See In- 
ternational Arbitration. 

ARCADIA.— The central district of Pelo- 
ponnesus, the great southern peninsula of Greece 
— a district surrounded by a singular mountain 
circle. "From the circle of mountains which 
has been pointed out, all the rivers of any note 
take their rise, and from it all the mountainous 
ranges diverge, whicli form the many headlands 
and points of Peloponnesus. The interior part 
of the country, however, has only one opening 
towards the western sea, through which all its 
waters flow united in the Alpheus. The pecu- 
liar character of this inland tract is also in- 
creased by the circumstance of its being inter- 
sected by some lower secondary chains of hills, 
which compel the waters of the valleys nearest 
to the great chains either to form lakes, or to 
seek a vent by subterraneous passages. Hence it is 
that in the mountainous district in the northeast of 
Peloponnesus many streams disappear and again 
<!merge from the earth. This region is Arcadia ; 
n country consisting of ridges of hills and ele- 
vated plains, and of deep and narrow valleys, 
with streams flowing through channels formed 
by precipitous rocks; a country so manifestly 
separated by nature from the rest of Pelopon- 
nesus that, although not politically united, it was 
always considered in the light of a single com- 
munity. Its climate was extremely cold; the at- 
mosphere dense, particularly in the mountains to 
the north ; the effect which this had on the char- 
acter and dispositions of the inhabitants has been 
described in a masterly manner by Polybius, 
himself a native of Arcadia. " — C. O. MQller, 
Hist, and Antig. of the Doric Race, bk. 1, ch. 4. — 
"The later Roman poets were wont to speak of 
Arcadia as a smiling land, where grassy vales, 
watered by gentle and pellucid streams, were 
inhabited by a race of primitive and picturesque 
shepherds and shepherdesses, who divided their 
time between tending their flocks and making 
love to one another in the most tender and roman- 
tic fashion. This idyllic conception of the 
country and the people is not to be traced in the 
old Hellenic poets, who were better acquainted 
with the actual facts of the case. The Arcadians 
were sufficiently primitive, but there was very 

little that was graceful or picturesque about their 
land or their lives." — C. H. Hanson, The Land 
of Greece, pp. 381-382. 

B. C. 371-362. — The union of Arcadian 
tovyns. — Restoration of Mantineia.— Building 
of Megalopolis. — Alliance with Thebes. — 
Wars with Sparta and Elis.— Disunion. — 
Battle of Mantineia. See Greece: B. C. 371, 
and 371-362. 

B. C. 338. — Territories restored by Philip of 
Macedon. See Greece: B. C. 3.'57-336. 

B. C. 243-146. — In the Achaian League. 
See Greece: B. C. 280-146. 


ARCHIPELAGO, The Dukes of the. 

Naxos: The Medi.-eval Dukedom. 
ARCHITECTURE. See Styles in AitCHi- 


ARCHON. See Athens: From the Dorian 
Migration to B. C. 683. 

ARCIS-SUR-AUBE, Battle of. See 
France : A. D. 1814 (J.anuaut — March). 

ARCOLA, Battle of (1796). See France: 
A. D. 1796-1797 (October— April). 

ARCOT : A. D. 1751.— Capture from the 
French and defence by Clive. See India : 
A. D. 1743-17.52. 


ARDEN, Forest of. — The largest forest in 
early Britain, which covered the greater part of 
modern Warwickshire and ' ' of which Shakes- 
peare's Arden became the dwindled representa- 
tive." — J. R. Green, The Making of England, 
ch. 7. ' 

ARDENNES, Forest of.— "In CsBsar's 
time there were in [Gaul] very extensive forests,/ 
the largest of which was the Arduenna (Arden- 
nes), which extended from the banks of the lower 
Rhine probably as far as the shores of the North! 
Sea." — G. Long, Decline of the Roman Republic, 
T. 3, ch. 22. — "Ardennes is the name of one of 
the northern French departments which contains 
a part of the forest Ardennes. Another part is 
in Luxemburg and Belgium. The old Celtic 
name exists in England in the Arden of War- 
wickshire." — The same. v. 4, ch. 14. 

ARDRI, OR ARDRIGH, The. See Tuath. 

ing of the Sassanian monarchy by. See Per- 
sia: B. C. 1.50-A. D. 226. 

ARECOMICI, The. See Volc^. 

ARECUNAS, The. See American Abo- 
rigines: Caries and thelr Kindred. 

AREIOS. See Arla. 

ARELATE: The ancient name of Aries. — 
The territory covered by the old kingdom of 
Aries is sometimes called the Arelate. See Bur- 
gundy: A. D. 1127-1378, and Salves. 

ARENGO, The. See San Marino, The 
Republic of. 

AREOPAGUS, The. — " Whoever [in an- 
cient Athens] was suspected of having blood 
upon his hands had to abstain from approaching 
the common altars of the land. Accordingly, 
for the purpose of judgments concerning the 
guilt of blood, choice had been made of the 
barren, rocky height which lies opposite the 
ascent to the citadel. It was dedicated to Ares, 
wlio was said to have been the first who was ever 
judged here for the guilt of blood; and to the 
Erinyes, the dark powers of the guilt-stained 
conscience. Here, instead of a single judge, a 




college of twelve men of proved integrity con- 
ducted the trial. If the accused had an equal 
numlier of votes for and against him, he was 
acquitted. The court on the hill of Ares is one 
of the most ancient institutions of Athens, and 
none achieved for the city an earlier or more 
widely-spread recognition." — E. Curtius, Hist, 
of Crrecce, bk. 2, ch. 2. — "The Areopagus, or, 
as it was interpreted by an ancient legend. 
Mars' Hill, was an eminence on the western 
side of the Acropolis, which from time immemo- 
rial had been the seat of a highly revered court 
of criminal justice. It tooli cognizance of 
charges of wilful murder, maiming, poisoning 
and arson. Its forms and modes of proceeding 
were peculiarly rigid and solemn. It was held 
in the open air, perhaps that the judges miglit 
not be polluted by sitting under the same roof 
with the criminals. . . . The venerable character 
of the court seems to have determined Solon to 
apply it to another purpose ; and, without mak- 
ing any change in its original jurisdiction, to 
erect it into a supreme council, mvested with a 
superintending and controlling authority, which 
extended over every part of the social system. 
He constituted it the guardian of the public 
morals and religion, to keep watch over the edu- 
cation and conduct of the citizens, and to protect 
the State from the disgrace or pollution of wan- 
tonness and profaneness. He armed it with e.x- 
traordinary powers of interfering in pressing 
emergencies, to avert any sudden and imminent 
danger which threatened the public safety. The 
nature of its functions rendered it scarcely pos- 
sible precisely to define their limits; and Solon 
probably thought it best to let them remain in 
that obscurity which magnifies whatever is in- 
distinct. ... It was filled with archons who 
had discharged their office with approved fidelity, 
and they held their seats for life. " — C. Thirlwall, 
Hist, of 0-reece, v. 1, ch. 11. — These enlarged 
functions of the Areopagus were withdrawn 
from it in the time of Pericles, through the 
agency of Ephialtes, but were restored about 
B. C. 400, after the overthrow of the Thirty.— 
"Some of the writers of antiquity ascribed the 
first establishment of the senate of Areopagus 
to Solon. . . . But there can be little doubt that 
this is a mistake, and that the senate of Are- 
opagus is a primordial institution of immemorial 
antiquity, though its constitution as Well as its 
functions underwent many changes. It stood at 
first alone as a permanent and collegiate au- 
thority, originally by the side of the kings and 
afterwards by the side of the archons: it would 
then of course be known by the title of The 
Boule, — the senate, or council; its distinctive 
title 'senate of Areopagus,' borrowed from the 
place where its sittings were held, would not be 
bestowed until the formation by ' Solon of the 
second senate, or council, from which there was 
need to discriminate it." — G. Grote, Hist, of 
Greece, pt. 2, ch. 10 (b. 3). — See, also, Athens: 
B. C. 477^62, and 466-454. 

ARETHUSA, Fountain of. See Syracuse. 
' AREVACiE, The.— One of the tribes of the 
Celtiberians in ancient Spain. Their chief town. 
Numantia, was the stronghold of Celtiberian re- 
sistance to the Roman conquest. See Numau- 
TiAN War. 

ARGADEIS, The. See Phtl^. 

ARGAUM, Battle of (1803). See India: 
A. D. 1798-1805. 

ARGENTARIA, Battle of (A. D. 378). See 
Alem.vnni: a. D. .378. 

inhabitants. See American Aborigines: Tupl 

— GUAR.\NI. 

A. D. 1515-1557.— Discovery, exploration 
and early settlement on La Plata. — First 
founding of Buenos Ayres. See Pakaouat: 

A. D. 1515-1557. 

A. D. 1580-1777.— The final founding of the 
City of Buenos Ayres. — Conflicts of Spain and 
Portugal on the Plata. — Creation of the 
Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. — "In the year 
1580 the foundations of a lasting city were laid 
at Buenos Ayres by De Garay on the same situa- 
tion as had twice previously been chosen — 
namely, by Mendoza, and by Cabeza de Vaca, 
respectively. The same leader had before this 
founded the settlement of Sante Fe on the Paranft. 
The site selected for the future capital of 
tlie Pampas is probably one of the worst ever 
cliosen for a city . . . has probably the worst 
harbour in the world for a large commercial 
town. . . . Notwithstanding the inconvenience 
of its harbour, Buenos Ayres soon became the 
chief commercial entrepot of the Valley of the 
Plata. The settlement was not effected without 
some severe fighting between De Garay's force 
and the Querandies. The latter, however, were 
effectually quelled. . . . The Spaniards were 
now nominally masters of the Rio de La Plata, 
but they had still to apprehend hostilities on the 
part of the natives between their few and far- 
distant settlements [concerning which see Para- 
guay: A. D. 1515-1557]. Of this liability De 
Garay himself was to form a lamentable example. 
On his passage back to Asuncion, having incau- 
tiously landed to sleep near the ruins of the old 
fort of San Espiritu, he was surprised by a party 
of natives and murdered, with all his compani- 
ons. The death of tliis brave Biscayan was 
mourned as a great loss by the entire colony. 
The importance of the cities founded by him was 
soon apparent; and in 1620 all the settlements 
south of the confluence of the rivers Parana and 
Paraguay were formed into a separate, indepen- 
dent government, under the name of Rio de La 
Plata, of which Buenos Ayres was declared the 
capital. This city likewise became the seat of 
a bishopric. . . . The merchants of Seville, who 
had obtained a monopoly of the supply of Mexico 
and Peru, regarded with much jealousy the 
prospect of a new opening for the South Ameri- 
can trade by way of La Plata," and procured re- 
strictions upon it which were relaxed in 1618 so 
far as to permit the sending of two vessels of 100 
tons each every year to Spain, but subject to a 
duty of 50 per cent. " Under this miserable 
commercial legislation Buenos Ayres continued 
to languish for the first century of its existence. 
In 1715, after the treaty of Utrecht, the English 
. . . obtained the ' asiento ' or contract for sup- 
plying Spanish colonies in America with African 
slaves, in virtue of which they had permission to 
form an establishment at Buenos Ayres, and to 
send thither annually four ships with 1,200 
negroes, the value of which they might export in 
produce of the country. They were strictly for- 
bidden to introduce other goods than those 
necessary for their own establishments; but 
under the temptation of gain on the one side and 
of demand on the other, the asiento ships natur- 
ally became the means of transacting a consider- 




able contraband trade. . . . The English were 
not the only smugglers in the river Plate. By 
the treaty of Utrecht, the Portuguese had obtained 
the important settlement of Colonia [the first 
settlement of the Banda Oriental — or ' Eastern 
Border' — afterwards called Uruguay] directly 
facing Buenos Ayres. . . . The Portuguese, . . . 
not contented with the possession of Colonia . . . 
commenced a more important settlement near 
Monte Video. From this place they were 
dislodged by Zavala [Goveraor of Buenos Ayres], 
who, by order of his government, proceeded to 
establish settlements at that place and at Maldo- 
nado. Under the above-detailed circumstances 
of contention . . . was founded the healthy and 
agreeable city of Monte Video. . . . The inevi- 
table consequence of this state of things was fresh 
antagonism between the two countries, which it 
was sought to put an end to by a treaty between 
the two nations concluded in 17.50. One of the 
articles stipulated that Portugal should cede to 
Spain all of her establishments on the eastern 
bank of the Plata ; in return for which she was 
to receive the seven missionary towns [known as 
the ' Seven Reductions '] on the Uruguay. But 
. . . the inhabitants of the Missions naturally 
rebelled against the idea of being handed over to 
a people known to them only by their slave-deal- 
ing atrocities. . . . The result was that when 
2,000 natives had been slaughtered [in the war 
known as the War of the Seven Reductions] and 
their settlements reduced to ruins, the Portuguese 
repudiated the compact, as they could no longer 
receive their equivalent, and they still therefore 
retained Colonia. When hostilities were re- 
newed in 1762, the governor of Buenos Ayres 
succeeded in possessing himself of Colonia ; but 
in the following year it was restored to the Por- 
tuguese, who continued in possession until 1777, 
when it was definitely ceded to Spain. The con- 
tinual encroachments of the Portuguese in the 
Rio de La Plata, and the impunity with which 
the contraband trade was carried on, together 
with the questions to which it constantly gave 
rise with foreign governments, had long shown 
the necessity for a change in the government of 
that colony ; for it was still under the superinten- 
dence of the Viceroy of Peru, residing at Lima, 
3,000 miles distant. The Spanish authorities 
accordingly resolved to give fresh force to their 
representatives in the Rio de La Plata ; and in 
1776 they took the important resolution to sever 
the connection between the provinces of La Plata 
and the Viceroyalty of Peru. The former were 
now erected into a new Viceroyalty, the capital 
of which was Buenos Ayres. ... To this Vice- 
royalty was appointed Don Pedro Cevallos, a 
former governor of Buenos Ayres. . . . The first 
act of Cevallos was to take possession of the island 
of St. Katherine, the most important Portuguese 
possession on the coast of Brazil. Proceeding 
thence to the Plate, he razed the fortifications of 
Colonia to the ground, and drove the Portuguese 
from the neighbourhood. In October of the fol- 
lowing year, 1777, a treaty of peace was signed 
at St. Ildefonso, between Queen Maria of Portu- 
gal and Charles III. of Spain, by virtue of which 
St. Katherine 's was restored to the latter country, 
whilst Portugal withdrew from the Banda Orien- 
tal or Uruguay, and relinquished all pretensions 
to the right of navigating the Rio de La Plata 
and its atBuents beyond its own frontier line. . . . 
The Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres was sub-divided 


into the provinces of — (1.) Buenos Ayres, the 
capital of which was the city of that name, and 
which comprised the Spanish possessions tliat 
now form the Republic of Uruguay, as well 
as the Argentine provinces of Buenos Ayres, 
Santa Fe, EntreRios, and Corrientes; (2.) Para- 
guay, the capital of which was Asuncion, and 
which comprised what is now the Republic of 
Paraguay; (3.) Tucuman, the capital of which 
was St. lago del Estero, and which included 
what are to-day the Argentine provinces of Cor- 
dova, Tucuman, St. lago, Salta, Catamarca, 
Rioja, and Jujuy; (4.) Las Charcas or Potosi, 
the capital of which was La Plata, and which 
now forms the Republic of Bolivia; and (5.) 
Chiquito or Cuyo, the capital of which was Men- 
doza, and in which were comprehended the pre- 
sent Argentine provinces of St. Luiz, Mendoza, 
and St. Juan." — R. G. Watson, Spanish and Por- 
tuffuese South America, v. 2, ch. 13-14. 

Also in: E. J. Payne, Jlisioi-y of European 
Colonies, ch. 17. — S. H. Wilcocke, Hist, of ths 
Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. 

A. D. 1806-1820. — The English invasion. — 
The Revolution. — Independence achieved. — 
Confederation of the Provinces of the Plate 
River and its dissolution. — "The trade of the 
Plate River had enormously increased since the 
substitution of register ships for the annual 
flotilla, and the erection of Buenos Ayres into a 
viceroyalty in 1778 ; but it was not until the war 
of 1797 that the English became aware of its real 
extent. The British cruisers had enough to do 
to maintain the blockade: and when the English 
learned that millions of hides were rotting in the 
warehouses of Monte Video and Buenos Ayres, 
they concluded that the people would soon see that 
their interests would be best served by submis- 
sion to the great naval power. The peace put 
an end to these ideas; but Pitt's favourite pro- 
ject for destroying Spanish influence in South 
America by the English arms was revived and 
put in execution soon after the opening of the 
second European war in 1803. In 1806 ... he 
sent a squadron to the Plate River, which offered 
the best point of attack to the British fleet, and 
the road to the most promising of the Spanish 
colonies. The English, under General Beres- 
ford, though few in number, soon took Buenos 
Aj'res, for the Spaniards, terrified at the sight 
of British troops, surrendered without knowing 
how insignificant the invading force really was. 
When they found this out, they mustered cour- 
age to attack Beresford in the citadel ; and the 
English commander was obliged to evacuate the 
place. The English soon afterwards took pos- 
session of Monte Video, on the other side of the 
river. Here they were joined by another squa- 
dron, who were under orders, after reducing 
Buenos Ayres, to sail round the Horn, to take 
Valparaiso, and establish posts across the conti- 
nent connecting that city with Buenos Ayres, 
thus executing the long-cherished plan of Lord 
Anson. Buenos Ayres was therefore invested a 
second time. But the English land forces were 
too few for their task. The Spaniards spread all 
round the city strong breastworks of oxhides, 
and collected all their forces for its defence. 
Buenos Ayres was stormed by the English at 
two points on the 5th of July, 1807 ; but they 
were unable to hold their ground against the 
unceasing fire of the Spaniards, who were 
greatly superior in numbers, and the next day 



Ihey capitulated, and agreed to evacuate the 
province within two months. The English had 
imagined that the colonists would readily flock 
to their standard, and throw off the yoke of 
Spain. This was a great mistake ; and it needed 
the events of 1808 to lead the Spanish colonists 
to their independence. ... In 1810, when it 
came to be known that the French armies had 
crossed the Sierra Morena, and that Spain was a 
conquered country, the colonists would no 
longer submit to the shadowy authority of the 
colonial ofBcers, and elected a junta of their own 
to carry on the Government. Jlost of the troops 
in the colony went over to the cause of inde- 
pendence, and easily overcame the feeble resist- 
ance that was made by those who remained 
faithful to the regency in the engagement of Las 
Piedras. The leaders of the revolution were the 
advocate Castelli and General Belgrano; and 
under their guidance scarcely any obstacle 
stopped its progress. They even sent their 
armies at once into Upper Peru and the Banda 
Oriental, and their privateers carried the Inde- 
pendent flag to the coasts of the Pacific; but 
these successes were accompanied by a total 
anarchy in the Argentine capital and provinces. 
The most intelligent and capable men had gone 
off to fight for liberty elsewhere; and even if 
they had remained it would have been no easy 
task to establish a new government over the 
scattered and half-civilized population of this 
vast country. . . . The first result of indepen- 
dence was the formation of a not very intelligent 
party of country proprietors, who knew nothing 
of the mysteries of politics, and were not ill- 
content with the existing order of things. The 
business of the old viceroyal government was 
delegated to a supreme Director; but this func- 
tionary was little more than titular. How 
limited the aspirations of the Argentines at first 
were may be gathered from the instructions with 
which Belgrano and Rivadavia were sent to 
Europe in 1814. They were to go to England, 
and ask for an English protectorate ; if possible 
under an English prince. They were next to 
try the same plan in France, Austria, and Rus- 
sia, and lastly in Spain itself: and if Spain still 
refused, were to offer to renew the subjection of 
the colony, on condition of certain specified con- 
cessions being made. This was indeed a strange 
contrast to the lofty aspirations of the Colom- 
bians. On arriving at Rio, the Argentine dele- 
gates were assured by the English minister. 
Lord Strangford, that, as things were, no Euro- 
pean power would do anything for them: nor 
did they succeed better in Spain itself. Mean- 
while the government of the Buenos Ayres 
junta was powerless outside the town, and the 
country was fast lapsing into the utmost dis- 
order and confusion. At length, when Govern- 
ment could hardly be said to exist at all, a 
general congress of the provinces of the Plate 
River assembled at Tucuman in 1816. It was 
resolved that all the states should unite in a con- 
federation to be called the United Provinces of 
the Plate River: and a constitution was elabor- 
ated, in imitation of the famous one of the 
United States, providing for two legislative 
chambers and a president. . . . The influence of 
the capital, of which all the other provinces 
were keenly jealous, predominated in the con- 
gress; and Puyrredon, an active Buenos Ayres 
politician, was made supreme Director of the 

Confederation. The people of Buenos Ayres 
thought their city destined to exercise over the 
rural provinces a similar influence to that which 
Athens, under similar circumstances, had exer- 
cised in Greece; and able Buenos Ayreans like 
Puyrredon, San Martin, and Rivadavia, now be- 
came the leaders of the unitary party. The 
powerful provincials, represented by such men as 
Lopez and Quiroga, soon found out that the Fed- 
eral scheme meant the supremacy of Buenos 
Ayres, and a political change which would deprive 
tliem of most of their influence. The Federal sys- 
tem, therefore, could not be expected to last very 
long; and it did in fact collapse after four years. 
Artigas led the revolt in the Banda Oriental 
[now Uruguay], and the Riverene Provinces soon 
followed the example. For a long time the 
provinces were practically under the authority 
of their local chiefs, the only semblance of politi- 
cal life being confined to Buenos Ayres itself. " — 
E. J. Payne, Hist, of European Colonies, ch. 17. 

Also in: M. G. Mulhall, The ErKjUsh in S. 
America, ch. 10-13, and 16-18. — J. Miller, Mem- 
oirs of Oeneral Miller, ch. 3 {v. 1). — T. J. Page, 
La Plata, the Argentine Confederation and Para- 
guay, ch. 31. 

A. D. 1819-1874.— Anarchy, civil war, despot- 
ism. — The long struggle for order and Con- 
federation. — "A new Congress met in 1819 and 
made a Constitution for the country, which was 
never adopted by all the Provinces. Pueyrredon 
resigned, and on June 10th, 1819, Jose Rondeau 
was elected, who, however, was in no condition 
to pacify the civil war which had broken out 
during the government of his predecessors. At 
the commencement of 1830, the last 'Director 
General ' was overthrown ; the municipality of 
the city of Buenos- Aires seized the government; 
the Confederation was declared dissolved, and 
each of its Provinces received liberty to organize 
itself as it pleased. This was anarchy oflicially 
proclaimed. After the fall in the same year of 
some military chiefs who had seized the power. 
Gen. Martin Rodriguez was named Governor 
of Buenos- Aires, and he succeeded in establish- 
ing some little order in this chaos. He chose 
M. J. Garcia and Bernardo Rivadavia — one of 
the most enlightened Argentines of his times — 
as his Ministers. This administration did a great 
deal of good by exchanging conventions of 
friendship and commerce, and entering into 
diplomatic relations with foreign nations. At the 
end of his term General Las Heras — 9th May, 
1824 — took charge of the government, and 
called a Constituent Assembly of all the Pro- 
vinces, which met at Buenos-Aires, December 
16th, and elected Bernardo Rivadavia President of 
the newly Confederated Republic on the 7th Feb- 
ruary, 1835. This excellent Argentine, however, 
found no assistance In the Congress. No under- 
standing could be come to on the form or the test 
of the Constitution, nor yet upon the place of 
residence for the national Government. Whilst 
Rivadavia desired a centralized Constitution — 
called here ' unintarian ' — and that the city of 
Buenos-Aires should be declared capital of the 
Republic, the majority of Congress held a dif- 
ferent opinion, and this divergence caused the 
resignation of the President on the 5th July, 1827. 
After this event, the attempt to establish a Con- 
federation which would include all the Pro- 
vinces was considered as defeated, and each 
Province went on its own way, whilst Buenos- 




Aires elected Manuel Dorrego, the chief of the 
federal party, for its Governor. He was 
inaugurated on the 13th August, 1827, and at 
once undertook to organize a new Confederation 
of the Provinces, opening relations to this end 
with the Government of Cordoba, the most 
important Province of the interior. He suc- 
ceeded in reestablishing repose in the interior, 
and was instrumental in preserving a general 
peace, even beyond the limits of his young 
country. The Emperor of Brazil did not wish 
to acknowledge the rights of the United Pro- 
vinces over the Cisplatine province, or Banda 
Oriental [now Uruguay]. He wished to annex 
it to his empire, and declared war to the Argen- 
tine Republic on the 10th of December, 1836. 
An army was soon organized by the latter, under 
the command of General Alvear, which on the 
20th of February, 1827, gained a complete 
victory over the Brazilian forces — twice their 
number — at the plains of Ituzaingo, in the 
Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul. 
The navy of the Argentines also triumphed on 
several occasions, so that when England offered 
her intervention, Brazil renounced all claim to 
the territory of Uruguay by the convention of 
the 27th August, 1838, and the two parties 
agreecl to recognize and to maintain the neutrality 
and independence of that country. Dorrego, 
however, had but few sympathies in the army, 
and a short time after his return from Brazil, the 
soldiers under Lavalle rebelled and forced him 
to fly to the country on the 1st December of the 
same year. There he found aid from the Com- 
mander General of the country districts, Juan 
Manuel Rosas, and formed a small battalion with 
the intention of marching on the city of Buenos- 
Aires. But Lavalle triumphed, took him 
prisoner, and shot him without trial on the 13th 
December. . . . Not only did the whole interior 
of the province of Buenos-Aires rise against 
Lavalle, under the direction of Rosas, but also a 
large part of other Provinces considered this 
event as a declaration of war, and the National 
Congress, then assembled at Santa-Fe, declared 
Lavalle's government illegal. The two parties 
fought with real fury, but in 1839, after an inter- 
view between Rosas and Lavalle, a temporary 
reconciliation was effected. . . . The legislature 
of Buenos-Aires, which had been convoked on 
account of the reconciliation between Lavalle and 
Rosas, elected the latter as Governor of the Pro- 
vince, on December 6th, 1839, and accorded to 
him extraordinary powers. . . . During this the 
first period of his government he did not appear 
in his true nature, and at its conclusion he 
refused a re-election and retired to the country. 
General Juan R. Balcarce was then — 17th 
December, 1833 — named Governor, but could 
only maintain himself some eleven months: 
Viamont succeeded him, also for a short time 
only. Now the moment had come for Rosas. 
He accepted the almost unlimited Dictatorship 
which was offered to him on the 7th March, 183.5, 
and reigned In a horrible manner, like a mad- 
man, until his fall. Several times the attempt 
was made to deliver Buenos-Aires from his 
terrible yoke, and above all the devoted and 
valiant efforts of General Lavalle deserve to be 
mentioned ; but all was in vain ; Rosas remained 
unshaken. Finally, General Justo Jose De 
Urquiza, Governor of the province of Entre- 
BioB, in alliance with the province of Corrientes 

and the Empire of Brazil, rose against the 
Dictator. He first delivered the Republic of 
Uruguay, and the city of Monte- Video — the 
asylum of the adversaries of Rosas — from the 
army which besieged it, and thereafter passing 
the great river Parana, with a relatively large 
army, he completely defeated Rosas at Monte- 
Caseros, near Buenos- Aires, on the 3rd February, 

1852. During the same day, Rosas sought and 
received the protection of an English war- 
vessel which was in the road of Buenos- Aires, in 
which he went to England, where he still [1876] 
resides. Meantime Urquiza took charge of the 
Government of the United Provinces, under the 
title of 'Provisional Director,' and called a 
general meeting of the Governors at San Nicolas, 
a frontier village on the north of the province of 
Buenos-Aires. This assemblage confirmed him 
in his temporary power, and called a National 
Congress which met at Santa-Fe and made a 
National Constitution under date of 3.5th May, 

1853. By virtue of this Constitution the Con- 
gress met again the following year at Parana, a 
city of Entre-Rios, which had been made the 
capital, and on the 5th May, elected General 
Urquiza the first President of the Argentine Con- 
federation. . . . The important province of 
Buenos- Aires, however, had taken no part in the 
deliberations of the Congress. Previously, on 
the 11th September 1853, a revolution against 
Urquiza, or rather against the Provincial 
Grovernment in alliance with him, had taken 
place and caused a temporary separation of the 
Province from the Republic. Several efforts to 
pacify the disputes utterly failed, and a battle 
took place at Cepeda in Santa-Fe, wherein 
Urquiza, who commanded the provincial troops, 
was victorious, although his success led to no 
definite result. A short time after, the two 
armies met again at Pa von — near the site of 
the former battle — and Buenos- Aires won the 
day. This secured the unity of the Republic 
of which the victorious General Bartolome 
Mitre was elected President for six years 
from October, 1863. At the same time the 
National Government was transferred from 
Parana to Buenos-Aires, and the latter was 
declared the temporary capital of the Nation. 
The Republic owes much to the Government of 
Mitre, and it is probable that he would have done 
more good, if war had not broken out with 
Paraguay, in 1865 [see Paraou.^y]. The Argen- 
tines took part in it as one of the three allied 
States against the Dictator of Paraguay, Fran- 
cisco Solano Lopez. On the 13th October, 1868, 
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento succeeded Gen. 
Mitre in the Presidency. . . . The 13th October, 
1874, Dr. Nicolas Avellaneda succeeded him in 
the Government." — R. Napp, The Argentine 
Republic, eh. 2. 

Also in : D. F. Sarmiento, Life in the Argentine 
Republic in the Days of the Tyrants. — J. A. King, 
Ticentyfour years in the Argentine Republic. 

A. D. 1880-1891. — The Constitution and its 
working. — Governmental corruption. — The 
Revolution of 1890, and the financial collapse. 
— "The Argentine constitutional system in its 
outward form corresponds closely to that of the 
United States. . . . But the inward grace of 
enliffhtened public opinion is lacking, and 
political practice falls below the level of a self- 
governing democracy. Congress enacts laws, 
but the President as commander-in-chief of the 




army, and as the head of a civil service depend- 
ent upon his will and caprice, possesses abso- 
lute authority in administration. The country 
is governed by executive decrees rather than ijy 
constitutional laws. Elections are carried by 
military pressure and manipulation of tlie civil 
service. . . . President Roca [who succeeded 
Avellaneda in 18S0] virtually nominated, and 
elected his brother-in-law, Juarez Celman, as 
his successor. President Juarez set liis heart 
upon controlling the succession in the interest of 
one of his relatives, a prominent official ; but was 
forced to retire before he could carry out his 
purpose. . . . Notliing in the Argentine sur- 
prised ^le more than the boldness and freedom 
with which the press attacked the government 
of the day and exposed its corruption. . . . The 
government paid no heed to these attacks. 
Slinisters did not trouble themselves to repel 
charges affecting their integrity. . . . This 
wholesome criticism from an independent press 
had one important effect. It gave direction to 
public opinion in the capital, and involved the 
organization of the Union Civica. If the coun- 
try had not been on the verge of a ilnancial 
revulsion, there might not have been the revolt 
against the Juarez administration in July, 1890; 
but with ruin and disaster confronting them, 
men turned against the President whose incom- 
petence and venality would have been condoned 
if tlie times had been good. The Union Civica 
was founded when the government was charged 
with maladministration in sanctioning an illegal 
issueof $40, 000, 000 of paper money. . . .The gov- 
ernment was suddenly confronted with an armed 
coalition of the best battalions of the army, the 
entire navy,and the Union Civica. The manifesto 
issued by the Revolutionary Junta was a terrible 
arraignment of the political crimes of the Juarez 
Government. . . . The revolution opened with 
every prospect of success. It failed from the 
incapacity of the leaders to co-operate harmo- 
niously. On July 19, 1890, the defection of tlie 
army was discovered. On July 36 the revolt 
broke out. For four days there was bloodslied 
without definite plan or purpose. No deter- 
mined attack was made upon the government 
palace. The fleet opened a fantastic bombard- 
ment upon the suburbs. There was ine.xplicable 
mismanagement of the insurgent forces, and on 
July 29 an ignominious surrender to the govern- 
ment with a proclamation of general amnesty. 
General Roca remained behind the scenes, appar- 
ently master of the situation, while President 
Juarez had fled to a place of refuge on the 
Rosario railway, and two factions of the army 
were playing at cross purposes, and the police 
and the volunteers of the Union Civica were 
shooting women and children in the streets. 
Another week of hopeless confusion passed, and 
General Roca announced the resignation of 
President Juarez and the succession of vice- 
President Pellegrini. Then the city was illumi- 
nated, and for three days there was a pande- 
monium of popular rejoicing over a victory which 
nobody except General Roca understood. . . . 
In June, 1891, the deplorable state of Argentine 
finance was revealed in a luminous statement 
made by President Pellegrini. . . . All business 
interests were stagnant. Immigration had been 
diverted to Brazil. . . . All industries were 
prostrated except politics, and the pernicious 
activity displayed by factions was an evil augury 

for the return of prosperity. . . . During thirty 
years the country lias trebled its population, its 
increase being relatively much more rapid than 
that of the United Statesduring the same period. 
The estimate of the present population [1892] is 
4,000,000 in place of 1,160,000 in 1857. . . . 
Disastrous as the results of political government 
and financial disorder have been in the Argen- 
tine, its ultimate recovery by slow stages is 
probable. It has a magnificent railway system, 
an industrious working population recruited 
from Europe, and nearly all the material appli- 
ances for progress." — I. N. Ford, Tropical 
America, ch. 6. — See Constitution, AROENTrNE. 
A. D. 1892. — Presidential Election. — Dr. 
Luis Saenz-Pena, former Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and reputed to be a man of 
great integrity and ability, was chosen Presi- 
dent, and inaugurated October 12, 1892. 

ARGINUSAE, Battle of. See Greece: 
B. C. 406. 

"The ship Argo was the theme of many songs 
during the oldest periods of the Grecian Epic, 
even earlier than the Odyssey. The king JEgtGs, 
from whom she is departing, the hero Jason, who 
commands her, and tke goddess HSrS, who 
watches over him, enabling the Argo to traverse 
distances and to escape dangers which no ship 
had ever before encountered, are all circum- 
stances briefly glanced at by Odysseus in his nar- 
rative to Alkinous. . . . Jason, commanded by 
Pelias to depart in quest of the golden fleece be- 
longing to the speaking ram which had carried 
away Phryxus and Hellfi, was encouraged by the 
oracle to invite the noblest youth of Greece to his 
aid, and fifty of the most distinguished amongst 
them obeyed the call. HGraklSs, ThSseus, 
Telamon and P61eus, Kastor and Pollux, Idas 
and Lynkeus — Zetes and Kalais, the winged 
sons of Boreas — Meleager. Amphiaraus, K6ph- 
eus, LaertSs, Autolykus, Menoetius, Aktor, Er- 
ginus, EuphSmus, Anka;us, Poeas, Periklymenus, 
Augeas, Eurytus, AdmStus, Akastus, Kicneus, 
Euryalus, PSneleos and Lfiitus, Askalaplius and 
lalmenus, were among them. . . . Since so many 
able men have treated it as an undisputed 
reality, and even made it the pivot of systematic 
chronological calculations, I may here repeat the 
opinion long ago expressed by Heyne, and even 
indicated by Burmann, that the process of dis- 
secting the story, in search of a basis of fact, is 
one altogether fruitless." — G. Grote, Eiat. of 
Greece, v. 1, pt. 1, ch. 13. — " In the rich cluster 
of myths which surround the captain of the 
Argo and his fellows are preserved to us the 
whole life and doings of the Greek maritime 
tribes, which gradually united all the coasts with 
one another, and attracted Hellenes dwelling in 
the most different seats into the sphere of their 
activity. . . . The Argo was said to have 
weighed anchor from a variety of ports — from 
lolcus in Thessaly, from Anthedon and Siphse in 
Boeotia: the home of Jason himself was on 
Mount Pelion by the sea, and again on Lemnos 
and in Corinth ; a clear proof of how homo- 
geneous were the influences running on various 
coasts. However, the myths of the Argo were 
developed in the greatest completeness on the 
Pagasean gulf, in the seats of the Minyi; and 
they are the first with whom a perceptible move- 
ment of the Pelasgian tribes beyond the sea — in 




other words, a Greek history in Europe — be- 
gins." — E. Curtius. Hist, of Greece, bk. 1, ch. 3-3. 
district of Greece contains so dense a succession 
of powerful citadels in a narrow space as Argo- 
lis [the eastern peninsular projection of the 
Peloponnesus]. Lofty Larissa, apparently de- 
signed by nature as the centre of the district, is 
succeeded by Mycenae, deep in the recess of 
the land ; at "the foot of the mountain lies Midea, 
at the brink of the sea-coast Tiryns ; and lastly, 
at a farther distance of half an hour's march, 
Nauplia, with its harbour. This succession of 
ancient fastnesses, whose indestructible struc- 
ture of stone we admire to tliis day [see Schlie- 
mann's ' Mycenci' and ' Tiryns''\ is clear evi- 
dence of mighty conflicts which agitated the 
earliest days of Argos; and proves that in this 
one plain of Inachus several principalities must 
have arisen by the side of one another, each 
putting its confidence in the walls of its citadel ; 
some, according to their position, maintaining 
an intercourse with other lands by sea, others 
rather a connection with the inland country. 
The evidence preserved by these monuments is 
borne out by that of the myths, according to 
which the dominion of Danaus is divided among 
his successors. Exiled Proetus is brought home 
to Argos by Lycian bands, with whose help he 
builds the coast-fortress of Tiryns, where he 
holds sway as the first and mightiest in the land. 
. . . The other line of the Danaidae is also in- 
timately connected with Lycia ; for Perseus . . . 
[who] on his return from the East founds Mycense, 
as the new regal seat of the united kingdom of 
Argos, is himself essentially a Lycian hero of 
light, belonging to the religion of Apollo. . . . 
Finally, Heracles himself is connected with the 
family of the Perseidae, as a prince born on the 
Tirynthian fastness. . . . During these divisions 
in the house of Danaus, and the misfortunes be- 
falling that of Proetus, foreign families acquire 
Influence and dominion in Argos: these are of 
the race of ^olus, and originally belong to the 
harbour-country of the western coast of Pelo- 
ponnesus — the Amythaonidse. . . . While the 
dominion of the Argive land was thus sub- 
divided, and the native warrior nobility subse- 
quently exhausted itself in savage internal feuds, 
a new royal house succeeded in grasping the 
supreme power and giving an entirely new im- 
portance to the country. " This house was that 
of the Tantalidae [or Peloptos, which see], 
united with the forces of Achaean population. 
. . . The residue of fact is, that the ancient dy- 
nasty, connected by descent with Lycia, was 
overthrown by the house which derived its 
origin from Lydia. . . . The poetic myths, ab- 
horring long rows of names, mention three prin- 
ces as ruling here in succession, one leaving the 
sceptre of Pelops to the other, viz., Atreus, Thy- 
estes and Agamemnon. Mycenae is the chief 
seat of their rule, which is not restricted to the 
district of Argos." — E. Curtius, Hist, of Greece, 
hk. 1, ch. 3. — After the Doric invasion of the 
Peloponnesus (see Greece: The >IiGR.A.TroNs ; 
also, DoKi.\NS AND loNiANs), Argos appears in 
Greek history as a Doric state, originally the 
foremost one in power and influence, but humili- 
ated after long years of rivalry by her Spartan 
neighbours. "Argos never forgot that she had 
once been the chief power in the peninsula, and 
her feeling towards Sparta was that of a jealous 

but impotent competitor. By what steps the 
decline of her power had taken place, we are im- 
able to make out, nor can we trace the succes- 
sion of her kings subsequent to Pheidon [8th 
century B. C.]. . . . The title [of king] existed 
(though probably with very limited functions) 
at the" time of the Persian War [B. C. 490^*9]. 
. . . There is some ground for presuming that 
the king of Argos was even at that time a Her- 
akleid — since the Spartans offered to him a 
third part of the command of the Hellenic force, 
conjointly with their own two kings. The con- 
quest of Thyreates by the Spartans [about 547 
B. C] deprived the Argeians of a valuable por- 
tion of their Perioekis, or dependent territory. 
But Orneae and the remaining portion of Kynu- 
ria still continued to belong to them: the plain 
round their city was very productive ; and. ex- 
cept Sparta, there was no other power in Pelo- 
ponnesus superior to them. Jlykenie and Tiryns, 
nevertheless, seem both to have been indepen- 
dent states at the time of the Persian War, since 
both sent contingents to the battle of Plataea, 
at a time when Argos held aloof and rather 
favoured the Persians." — G. Grote, Hist, of 
Greece, pt. 2, ch. 8 (:;. 2). 

B. C. 496-421. — Calamitous War with 
Sparta. — Non-action in the Persian War. — 
Slov7 recovery of the crippled State. — " One 
of the heaviest blows which Argos ever sustained 
at the hand of her traditional foe befell her about 
496 B. C, six years before the first Persian in- 
vasion of Greece. A war with Sparta having 
broken out, Cleomenes, the Lacedaemonian king, 
succeeded in landing a large army, in vessels he 
had extorted from the ^Eginetans, at NauplLa, 
and ravaged the Argive territory. The Argeians 
mustered all their forces to resist him. and the 
two armies encamped opposite each other near 
Tiryns. Cleomenes, however, contrived to at- 
tack the Argeians at a moment when they were 
unprepared, making use, if Herodotus is to be 
credited, of a stratagem which proves the ex- 
treme incapacity of the opposing generals, and 
completely routed them. The Argeians took 
refuge in a sacred grove, to which the remorse- 
less Spartans set fire, and so destroyed almost 
the whole of them. No fewer than 6,000 of the 
citizens of Argos perished on this disastrous day. 
Cleomenes might have captured the city itself ; 
but he was, or affected to be, hindered by un- 
favourable omens, and drew off his troops. The 
loss sustained by Argos was so severe as to re- 
duce her for some years to a condition of great 
weakness ; but this was at the time a fortunate 
circumstance for the Hellenic cause, inasmuch as 
it enabled the Lacedaemonians to devote their 
whole energies to the work of resistance to the 
Persian invasion without fear of enemies at home. 
In this great work Argos took no part, on the 
occasion of either the first or second attempt of 
the Persian kings to bring Hellas under their 
dominion. Indeed, the city was strongly sus- 
pected of ' medising ' tendencies. In the period 
following the final overthrow of the Persians, 
while Athens was pursuing the splendid career 
of aggrandisement and conquest that made her 
the foremost state in Greece, and while the Lace- 
dfemonians were paralyzed by the revolt of the 
Jlessenians, Argos regained strength and in- 
fluence, which she at once employed and in- 
creased by the harsh policy ... of depopula- 
ting Mycense and Tiryns, while she compelled 




several other semi-independent places in the Ar- 
golid to acknowledge her supremacy. During 
the first eleven years of the Pcloponnesian war, 
down to the peace of Nicias (421 B. C). Argos 
held aloof from all participation in the struggle, 
adding to her wealth and perfecting her military 
organization. As to her domestic conditions and 
political system, little is known ; but it is certain 
that the government, unlike that of other Dorian 
states, was democratic in its character, though 
there was in the city a strong oligarchic and 
philo-Laconian party, which was destined to ex- 
ercise a decisive influence at an important crisis. " 
— C. H. Hanson, Tlie Land of Greece, ch. 10. 

Also in : G. Grote, Hut. of Greece, pt. 3, ch. 36 
{V. 4). 

B. C. 421-418. — League formed against 
Sparta. — Outbreali of War.— Defeat at Man- 
tinea. —Revolution in the Oligarchical and 
Spartan interest. Sec Gueece: B. C. 431^18. 

B. C. 395-387. — Confederacy against Sparta. 
— The Corinthian War. — Peace of Antalcidas. 
See Greece: B. C. 399-387. 

B. C. 371.— Mob outbreak and massacre of 
chief citizens. See Greece: B. C. 371-363. 

B. C. 338.— Territories restored by Philip of 
Macedon. See Greece: B. C. 857-386. 

B. C. 271. — Repulse and death of Pyrrhus, 
king of Epirus, See JIacedonia: B. C. 277- 

B. C. 229. — Liberated from Macedonian con- 
trol. See Greece: B. C. 280-146. 

A. D. 267. — Ravaged by the Goths. See 
Goths: A. D. 258-267. 

A. D. 395.- Plundered by the Goths. See 
Goths: A. D. 395. 

A. D. 1463. — Taken by the Turks, retaken 
by the Venetians. See Greece: A. D. 1454- 

A. D. 1686. — Taken by the Venetians. See 
Turks: A. D. 1684-1696. 

ARGYRASPIDES, The.-" He [Alexander 
the Great] then marched into India, that lie 
might have his empire bounded by the ocean, 
and the extreme parts of the East. That the 
equipments of his army might be suitable to the 
glory of the Expedition, he mounted the trap- 
pings of the horses and the arms of the soldiers 
with silver, and called a body of his men, from 
having silver shields, Argyraspides. " — Justin, 
History (traM. by J. S. Watson), bk. 12, ch. 7. 

Also in: C. Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece, ch. 58. 
—See, also, Macedonia: B. C. 323-316. 

ARGYRE. See Chryse. 

by which the Herirud and its valley, the district 
of modern Herat, was known to the ancient 
Greeks. Its inhabitants were known as the Arei- 
ans. — M. Duncker, Hist, of Antiq., bk. 7, ch. 1. 

ARIANA. — " Strabo uses the name Ariana 
for the land of all the nations of Iran, except 
that of the Medes and Persians, i. e., for the 
whole eastern half of Iran" — Afghanistan and 
Beloochistan. — M. Duncker, Hist, of Antiquity, 
c. 5, bk. 7, ch. 1. 

ARIANISM.— ARIANS.— From the second 
century of its existence, the Christian church 
was divided by bitter controversies touching the 
mystery of the Trinity. "The word Trinity is 
found neither in the Holy Scriptures nor in the 
writings of the first Christians ; but it had been 
employed from the beginning of the second cen- 

tury, when a more metaphysical turn had been 
given to the minds of men, and theologians had 
begun to attempt to explain the divine nature. 
. . . The Founder of the new religion, the 
Being who had brought upon earth a divine 
light, was he God, was he man, was he of an in- 
termediate nature, and, though superior to all 
other created beings, yet himself created ? This 
latter opinion was held by Arius, an Alexandrian 
priest, who maintained it in a series of learned 
controversial works between the years 318 and 
325. As soon as the discussion had quitted the 
walls of the schools, and been taken up by the 
people, mutual accusations of the gravest kind 
tooic the place of metaphysical subtleties. The 
orthodox party reproached the Arians with 
blaspheming the deity himself, by refusing to 
acknowledge him in the person of Christ. The 
Arians accused the orthodox of violating the 
fundamental law of religion, by rendering to the 
creature the worship due only to the Creator. 
... It was difficult to decide which numbered 
the largest body of followers; but the ardent en- 
tliusiastic spirits, the populace in all the great 
cities (and especially at Alexandria) the women, 
and the newly-founded order of the monks of 
the desert . . . were almost without exception 
partisans of the faith which has since been de- 
clared orthodox. . . . Const^ntine thought this 
question of dogma might be decided by an as- 
sembly of the whole cliurch. In the year 325, 
he convoked the council of Nice [see Nic^ba, 
Council of], at which 300 bishops pronounced 
in favour of the equality of the Son with the 
Father, or the doctrine generally regarded as 
orthodox, and condemned the Arians to exile 
and their books to the flames." — J. C. L. de 8is- 
mondi. Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 4. — 'The 
victorious faction [at the Council of Nice] . . . 
anxiously sought for some irreconcilable mark 
of distinction, the rejection of which might in- 
volve the Arians in the guilt and consequences 
of heresy. A letter was publicly read and igno- 
miniously torn, in which their patron, Eusebius 
of Nicomedia, ingeniously confessed that the ad- 
mission of the homoousion, or consubstantial, a 
word already familiar to tlie Platonists, was in- 
compatible with the principles of their theo- 
logical system. The fortunate opportunity was 
eagerly embraced. . . . The consubstantiality 
of the Father and the Son was established by the 
Council of Nice, and has been unanimously re- 
ceived as a fundamental article of the Christian 
faith by the consent of the Greek, the Latin, the 
Oriental and the Protestant churches." Not- 
withstanding the decision of the Council of 
Nice against it, the heresy of Arius continued to 
gain ground in the East. Even the Emperor 
Constantine became friendly to it, and the sons 
of Constantine, with some of the later emperors 
who followed them on the eastern throne, were 
ardent Arians in belief. The Homoousians, or 
orthodox, were subjected to persecution, which 
was directed with special bitterness against their 
great leader, Athanasius, the famous bishop of 
Alexandria. But Arianism was weakened by 
hair-splitting distinctions, which resulted in 
many diverging creeds. "The sect which as- 
serted the doctrine of a ' similar substance' was 
the most numerous, at least in the provinces of 
Asia. . . . The Greek word which was chosen 
to express this mysterious resemblance bears so 
close an affinity to the orthodox symbol, that tbe 




profane of every age have derided the furious 
contests which the diiTerence of a single diph- 
thong excited between tlic Ilomoousians and tlie 
Homoiousians." The Latin churches of the 
West, with Rome at their Iiead, remained gen- 
erally firm in the orthodoxy of the Homoousian 
creed. But the Goths, who had received 
their Christianity from the East, tinctured with 
Arianism, carried that heresy westward, and 
spread it among their barbarian neighbors — 
Vandals, Burgundians and Sueves — through the 
induence of the Gothic Bible of Ulfilas, which 
he and his missionary successors bore to the Teu- 
tonic peoples. " The Vandals and Ostrogoths 
persevered in the profession of Arianism till the 
final ruin [A. D. 533 and 553] of the kingdoms 
which they had founded in Africa and Italy. 
The barbarians of Gaul submitted [A. D. 507] 
to the orthodox dominion of the Franks; and 
Spain was restored to the Catholic Church by 
the voluntary conversion of the Visigoths [A. D. 
589]." — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the 
Rnnan Empire, ch. 31 and 87. — Tlieodosius 
formally proclaimed his adhesion to Trinitarian 
orthodoxy by his celebrated edict of A. D. 380, 
and commanded its acceptance in the Eastern 
Empire. See Rome: A. D. 379-395.— A. Ne- 
ander, Oen. Hist, of Christ. Mel. and Ch., trans. 
by Torry, t. 2, sect. 4. 

Also in: J. Alzog, Manual of Univ. Ch. Hist., 
sect. 110-114.— W. G. T. Shedd, Hist, of Christ. 
Doctrine, bk. 3. — J. H. Newman, Arians of the 
Fourth Century. — A. P. Stanley, Lects. on tlie 
Hist, of tlie East. Ch., lects. 3-7.— J. A. Dorner, 
Hist, of the Development of the Doctrine of tlie 
Person of Christ, die. 1 (i'. 2). — See, also, Goths: 
A. D. 341-381; Pranks: A. D. 481-511; also, 
Goths (Visigoths): A. D. 507-509. 

ARICA, Battle of (i88o). See Chile: A. D. 

ARICIA, Battle of.— A victory won by the 
Romans over the Auruncians, B. C. 497, which 
summarily ended a war that the latter had de- 
clared against the former. — Livy, Hist, of Home, 
bk. 2, ch. 26. 

ARICIAN GROVE, The.— The sacred grove 
at Aricia (one of the towns of old Latium, near 
Alba Longa) was tlie center and meeting-place 
of an early league among the Latin peoples, 
about which little is known. — W. Ihne, Hist, of 
Rome, bk. 2, ch. 8.— Sir. W. Gell, Topog. of Rome, 
v. 1. — "On the nortliern shore of the lake [of 
Nemi] right under the precipitous cliffs on which 
the modern village of Nemi is perched, stood tlie 
sacred grove and sanctuary of Diana Nemorensis, 
or Diana of the Wood. . . . The site was ex- 
cavated in 1885 by Sir John Saville Lunilcy, 
English ao.bassador at Rome. For a general 
description of the site and excavations, see the 
Athenaaum, 10th October, 1885. For details of 
the finds see ' BuUetino dell ' Instituto di Corris- 
pondenza Aroheologica,' 1885. . . . The lake 
and the grove were sometimes known as the lake 
and grove of Aricia. But the town of Aricia 
(the modern La Riccia) was situated about three 
miles off, at the foot of the Alban Mount. . . . 
According to one story, the worship of Diana at 
Nemi was instituted by Orestes, who, after 
killing Thoas, King of the Tauric Chersonese 
(tlie Crimea), fled with his sister to Italy, bring- 
ing with him the image of the Tauric Diana. 
. . . Within the sanctuary at Nemi grew a cer- 
tain tree, of which no branch might be broken. 

Only a runaway slave was allowed to break off, 
if he could, one of its boughs. Success in the 
attempt entitled him to fight the priest in single 
combat, and if he slew him he reigned In his 
stead with the title of King of the Wood (Rex 
Nemorensis). Tradition averred that the fateful 
branch was that Golden Bough which, at the 
Sibyl's bidding, jEneas plucked before he 
essayed the perilous journey to the world of the 
dead. . . . This rule of succession by the sword 
was observed down to imperial times; for 
amongst his other freaks Caligula, thinking that 
the priest of Nemi had held office too long, 
hired a more stalwart ruffian to slay him." — J. 
G. Frazer, The Golden Boufjh, ch. 1, sect. 1. 

ARICONIUM.— A town of Roman Britain 
which appears to have been the principal mart 
of the iron manufacturing industry in the Forest 
of Dean. — T. Wright, The Celt, t/ie Roman and 
the StLcon, p. 161. 

ARII, The. SeeLTGi.\NS. 

ARIKARAS, The. See American Abori- 
gines: Pawnee (Caddo.\n) Family. 

ARIMINUM.— The Homan colony, planted 
in the third century B. C. , which grew into the 
modern city of Rimini. See Rome: B. C. 295- 
191. — When Caesar entered Italy as an invader, 
crossing the frontier of Cisalpine Gaul — the 
Rubicon — his first movement was to occupy 
Ariminum. He halted there for two or three 
weeks, making his preparations for the civil war 
which he had now entered upon and waiting for 
the two legions that he had ordered from Gaul. 

— C. !Merivale, Hist, of the Romans, ch. 14. 
ARIOVALDUS, King of the Lombards, 

A. D. 626-638. 

ARISTEIDES, Ascendancy of. See Ath- 
ens: B. C. 477-163. 

"Aristocracy signifies the rule of the best men. 
If, however, this epithet is referred to an absolute 
ideal standard of excellence, it is manifest that 
an aristocratical government is a mere abstract 
notion, which has nothing in history, or in nature, 
to correspond to it. But if we content ourselves 
with taking the same terms in a relative sense, 
. . . aristocracy . . . will be that form of gov- 
ernment in which the ruling few are distin- 
guished from the multitude by illustrious birth, 
hereditary wealth, and personal merit. . . . 
Whenever such a change took place in the char- 
acter or the relative position of the ruling body, 
that it no longer commanded the respect of it.', 
subjects, but found itself opposed to them, and 
compelled to direct its measures chiefly to the 
preservation of its power, it ceased to be, in the 
Greek sense an aristocracy ; it became a faction, 
an oligarchy." — C. Thirl wall. Hist, of Greece, 
ch. 10. 

Wars. First .\nd Second. 

ARIZONA: The Name. — "Arizona, proba- 
bly Arizonac in its original form, was the native 
and probably Pima name of the place — of a 
bill, valley, stream, or some other local feature 

— just south of the modern boundary, in the 
mountains still so called, on the headwaters of 
the stream flowing past Saric, where the famous 
Planchas de Plata mine was discovered in the 
middle of the 18th century, the name being first 
known to Spaniards in that connection and being 
applied to the mining camp or real de minas. 
The aboriginal meaning of the term is uot 




known, though from the common occurrence in 
this region of the prefix 'ari,' the root 'son,' and 
the termination 'ac,' the derivation ought not to 
escape the research of a competent student. 
Sucli guesses as are extant, founded on the native 
tongues, offer only tlie barest possibility of a 
partial and accidental accuracy; while similar 
derivations from the Spanish are extremely 
absurd. . . . The name should properly be writ- 
ten and pronounced Arisona, as our English 
sound of the z does not occur in Spanish." — 
H. H. Bancroft, Hist, of tlie Pacific States, v. 13, 
p. 520. 

Aboriginal Inhabitants. See A>rERiCAN 
Aborigines: Pueblos, Apache Group, Suo- 
8H0NE.VN Family, and Utahs. 

A. D. 1848. — Partial acquisition from Mex- 
ico. See Mexico: A. D. 1848. 

A. D. 1853. — Purchase by the United States 
of the southern part from Mexico. — The Gads- 
den Treaty. — "On December 30, 1853, James 
Gadsden, United States minister to Mexico, con- 
cluded a treaty by which the boundary line was 
moved southward so as to give the United States, 
for a monetary consideration of 810,000,000, all of 
modern Arizona south of the Gila, an effort so 
to fix the line as to include a port on the gulf 
being unsuccessful. . . . On the face of the 
matter this Gadsden treaty was a tolerably satis- 
factory settlement of a boundary dispute, and a 
purchase by the United States of a route for 
a southern railroad to California." — H. H. Ban- 
croft, Uist. of the Pacific States, v. 13, ch. 20. 

ARKANSAS, The. See American Abo- 
rigines: SiorAN Family. 

ARKANSAS: A. D. 1542— Entered by Her- 
nando de Soto. See Florida: A. D. 1538- 

A. D. 1803. — Embraced in the Louisiana 
Purchase. .Sue Louisiana: A. D. 1798-1803. 

A. D. 1819-1836. — Detached from Missouri. 
— Organized as a Territory. — Admitted as a 
State. — " Preparatory to the assumption of 
state government, the limits of the Missouri 
Territory were restricted on the south by the 
parallel of 36° 30' north. The restriction was 
made by an act of Congress, approved March 3, 
1819, entitled an 'Act establishing a separate 
territorial government in the southern portion of 
the Missouri Territory." The portion thus sep- 
arated was subsequently organized into the 
second grade of territorial government, and 
Colonel James Miller, a meritorious and distin- 
guished officer of the Northwestern army, was 
appointed first governor. This territory was 
known as the Arkansas Territory, and, at the 
period of its first organization, contained an 
aggregate of nearly 14,000 inhabitants. Its 
limits comprised all the territory on the west side 
of the Mississippi between the parallels 33° and 
86° 30', or between the northern limit of Loui- 
siana and the southern boundary of the State of 
Missouri. On the west it extended indefinitely 
to the jMexican territories, at least 550 miles. 
The Post of Arkansas was made the seat of the 
new government. The population of this exten- 
sive territory for several years was comprised 
chiefly in the settlements upon the tributaries of 
White River and the St. Francis; upon the Mis- 
sissippi, between New Madrid and Point Chicot ; 
and upon both sides of the Arkansas River, 
within 100 miles of its mouth, but especially in 

the vicinity of the Post of Arkansas. ... So 
feeble was the attraction in this remote region 
for the active, industrious, and well-disposed 
portion of the western pioneers, that the Arkan- 
sas Territory, in 1830, ten years after its organi- 
zation, Imd acquired an aggregate of only 30,388 
souls, including 4,576 slaves. . . . The western 
half of the territory had been erected, in 1834, 
into a separate district, to be reserved for the 
future residence of the Indian tribes, and to be 
known as the Indian Territory. From this time 
the tide of emigration began to set more actively 
into Arkansas, as well as into other portions of 
the southwest. . . . The territory increased rap- 
idly for several years, and the census of 1835 
gave the whole number of inhabitants at 58,134 
souls, including 9,630 .slaves. Thus the Arkan- 
sas Territory in the last five years had doubled 
its population. . . . The people, through the 
General Assembly, made application to Congress 
for authority to establish a regular form of state 
government. The assent of Congress was not 
withheld, and a Convention was authorized to 
meet at Little Rock on the first day of January, 
1836, for the purpose of forming and adopting a 
Slate Constitution. The same was approved by 
Congress, and on the 13th of June following the 
State of Arkansas was admitted into the Federal 
Union as an independent state, and was, in point 
of time and order, the twenty-fifth in the con- 
federacy. . . . Like the Missouri Territory, 
Arkansas had been a slaveholding country from 
the earliest French colonies. Of course, the 
institution of negro slavery, with proper checks 
and limits, was sustained by the new Constitu- 
tion." — J. W. Monette, Discovery and Settlement 
of the Valley of tlw Mississippi, bk. 5, ch. 17 (o. 
2). — See, also, United States of Am. : A. D. 

A. D. 1861 (March). — Secession voted down. 
See United States op Am. : A. D. 1861 (March 
— April). 

A. D. 1861 (April).— Governor Rector's reply 
to President Lincoln's call for troops. See 
United States of Am. : A. D. 1861 (April). 

A. D. 1862 (January — March). — Advance of 
National forces into the State.— Battle of Pea 
Ridge. See United States op Am. : A. D. 
1863 (January— March : Missouri— Arkansas). 

A. D. 1862 (July — September).- Progress of 
the Civil War. See United States of Am. : 
A. D. 1863 (July— September: Missouri — 

A. D. 1862 (December).— The Battle of Prairie 
Grove. See United States of Am. : A. D. 
1863 (September — December: Missouri — 

A. D. 1863 (January). — The capture of 
Arkansas Post from the Confederates. See 
United States of Am. : A. D. 1863 (January: 

A. D. 1863 (July). — The defence of Helena. 
See United States op Am. : A. D. 1863 (July: 
On the Mississippi). | 

A. D. 1863 (August— October).— The break- 
ing of Confederate authority. — Occupation ofi 
Little Rock by National forces. See Unitedj 
St.vtes op Am. : A. D. 1863 (August — October-.' 
Arkansas — Missouri). 

A. D. 1864 (March — October). — Last im- 
portant operations of the War. — Price's Raid. 
See United States op Am. : A. D. 1864 (March 
— October : Arkansas — Missouri). 




A. D. 1864.— First steps toward Reconstruc- 
tion. See United States of Am. : A. D. 186S- 
1864 (December — July). 

A. D. 1865-1868. — Reconstruction com- 
pleted. See United States op Am. : A. D. 1865 
(May— July), to 1868-1870. 

ARKITES, The.— A Canaanite tribe who 
occupied the plain north of Lebanon. 
OR WATER-FRAME, The invention of. 
See Cotton Manufacture. 

ARLES: Origin. See Salyes. 
I A. D. 411. — Double siege. See Britain: 
A. D. 407. 

A. D. 425. — Besieged by the Goths. See 
(JoTns (Visigoths): A. D. 419-451. 

A. D. 508-510. — Siege by the Franks. — After 
the overthrow of the Visigothic kingdom of 
Toulouse, A. D. 507, by the victory of Clovis, 
king of the Franks, at Voclad, near Poitiers, 
' ' the great city of Aries, once the Roman capital 
of Gaul, maintained a gallant defence against 
the united Franks and Burgundians, and saved 
for generations the Visigothic rule in Provence 
and southern Languedoc. Of the siege, which 
lasted apparently from 508 to 510, we have some 
graphic details in the hfe of St. Cfesarius, Bishop 
of Aries, written by his disciples." The city 
was relieved in 510 by an Ostrogotliic army, sent 
by king Theodoric of Italy, after a great battle 
in which 30,000 Franks were reported to be 
slain. ' ' The result of the battle of Aries was to 
put Theodoric in secure possession of all Pro- 
vence and of so much of Languedoc as was 
needful to ensure his access to Spain " — where 
tlie Ostrogothic king, as guardian of his infant 
grandson, Amalaric, was taking care of the Visi- 
gothic kingdom. — T. Hodgkin, Italy and Her Jn- 
■cackrs, bk. 4, ch. 9. 

A. D. 933. — Formation of the kingdom. See 
Burgundy: A. D. 843-9.3:3. 

A. D. 1032-1378. — The breaking up of the 
kingdom and its gradual absorption in France. 
See Burgundy: A. D. 1032, and 1127-1378. 

1092-1207. — The gay court of Provence. 
See Provence: A. D. 943-1093, and 1179-1207. 

ARMADA, The Spanish. See England: 

A. D. l.")«s. 
ARMAGEDDON. See Megiddo. 
ARMAGH, St. Patrick's School at. See 

Ireland: ."ith to 8th CENTtmiES. 

ARMAGNAC, The counts of. See Fkance: 
A. D. 1327. 

ARMAGNACS. See France: A. D. 1380- 
1415, and 1415-1419. 

ARMENIA. — "Almost immediately to the 
west of the Caspian there rises a high table-land 
diversified by mountains, which stretches east- 
ward for more than eighteen degrees, between 
the 37th and 41st parallels. This highland may 
properly be regarded as a continuation of the 
great Iranean plateau, with which it is connected 
at its southeastern corner. It comprises a por- 
tion of the modern Persia, the whole of Armenia, 
and most of Asia Minor. Its principal moun- 
tain ranges are latitudinal, or from west to east, 
only the minor ones taking the opposite or lon- 
gitudinal direction. . . . The heart of the moun- 
tain-region, the tract extending from the district 
of Erivan on the cast to the upper course of the 
Eazil-Irmak river and the vicinity of Sivas upon 


the west, was, as It still is, Armenia. Amidst 
these natural fastnesses, in a country of lofty 
ridges, deep and narrow valleys, numerous and 
copious streams, and occasional broad plains — a 
country of rich pasture grounds, productive 
orchards, and abundant harvests — this interest- 
ing people has maintained itself almost un- 
changed from the time of the early Persian 
kings to the present day. Armenia was one of 
the most valuable portions of the Persian empire, 
furnishing, as it did, besides stone and timber, 
and several most important minerals, an annual 
supply of 20,000 excellent horses to the stud of the 
Persian king. " — G. Rawlinson, Fine Oreat Mon- 
archies: Persia, ch. 1. — Before the Persians es- 
tablished their sovereignty over the country, "it 
seems certain that from one quarter or another 
Armenia had been Arianized : the old Turanian 
character had passed away from it ; immigrants 
had flocked in and a new people had been formed 
— the real Armenians of later times, and indeed 
of the present day." Submitting to Alexander, 
on the overthrow of the Persian monarchy, Ar- 
menia fell afterwards under the yoke of the Se- 
leucidiB, but gained independence about 190 
B. C, or earlier. Under the influence of Parthia, 
a branch of the Parthian royal family, the Arsa- 
cids, was subsequently placed on the throne and 
a dynasty established which reigned for nearly 
sixhundred years. The fourth of these kings, 
Tigranes, who occupied the throne in the earlier 
part of the last century B. C, placed Armenia 
in the front rank of Asiatic kingdoms and in 
powerful rivalry with Parthia. Its subsequent 
history is one of many wars and invasions and 
much buffeting between Romans, Parthians, 
Persians, and their successors in the conflicts of 
the eastern world. The part of Armenia west 
of the Euphrates was called by the Romans Ar- 
menia Minor. For a short period after the revolt 
from the Seleucid monarchy, it formed a dis- 
tinct kingdom called Sophene. — G. Rawlinson, 
Sixth and Seventh Oreat Oriental Monarchies. 

B. C. 69-68. — Warwith the Romans.— Great 
defeat at Tigranocerta. — Submission to Rome. 
See Rome: B. C. 78-68, and 69-63. 

A. D. 115-117. — Annexed to the Roman 
Empire by Trajan and restored to independ- 
ence by Hadrian. See Rome: A. D. 96-138. 

A. D. 422 (?). — Persian Conquest. — Becomes 
the satrapy of Persarmenia. See Persia: 
A. D. 226-627. 

A. D. 1016-1073. — Conquest and devastation 
by the Seljuk Turks. See Turks (Seljuks): 
A. D. 1004-1063, and 1063-1073. 

I2th-i4th Centuries. — The Mediaeval Chris- 
tian Kingdom. — "The last decade of the 12th 
century saw the estfl,blishment of two small 
Christian kingdoms in the Levant, which long 
outlived all other relics of the Crusades except 
the military orders; and which, with very little 
help from the West, sustained a hazardous ex- 
istence in complete contrast with almost every- 
thing around them. The kingdoms of Cyprus 
and Armenia have a history very closely inter- 
twined, but their origin and most of their cir- 
cumstances were very different. By Armenia as 
a kingdom is meant little more than the ancient 
Cilicia, the land between Taurus and the sea, 
from the frontier of the principality of Antioch, 
eastward, to Kelenderis or Pahcopolis, a little 
beyond Seleucia; this territory, which was com 
puted to contain 16 days' journey in 




measured from four miles of Antioch, by two in 
breadth, was separated from the Greater Ar- 
menia, which before the period on which we are 
now employed had fallen under the sway of the 
Seljuks, by the ridges of Taurus. The popula- 
tion was composed largely of the sweepings of 
Asia Minor, Christian tribes which had taken 
refuge in the mountains. Their religion was 
partly Greek, partly Armenian. . . . Their 
rulers were princes descended from the house of 
the Bagratidoe, who had governed the Greater 
Armenia as kings from the year 885 to the reign 
of Constantine of Monomachus, and had then 
merged their hazardous independence in the mass 
of the Greek Empire. After the seizure of 
Asia Minor by the Seljuks, the few of the Bagra- 
tidie who had retained possession of the moun- 
tain fastnesses of Cilicia or the strongholds 
of Mesopotamia, acted as independent lords, 
showing little respect for Byzantium save where 
there was something to be gained. . . . Rupin of 
the Mountain was prince [of Cilicia] at the time of 
the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin; he died in 
1189, and his successor, Leo, or Livon, after hav- 
ing successfully courted the favour of pope and 
emperor, was recognised as king of Armenia by 
the emperor Henry VI., and was crowned by 
Conrad of Wittelsbach, Archbishop of Mainz, in 
1198." The dynasty ended with Leo IV., whose 
"whole reign was a continued struggle against 
the Moslems," and who was assassinated 
about 1342. " The five remaining kings of Ar- 
menia sprang from a branch of the Cy priot house 
of Lusignan [see Cvpnus : A. D. 1192-1489].'*— 
"W. Stubbs, Lects. on the Study of Medioedal and 
Modern Hint., led. 8. 

A. D. 1623-1635. — Subjugated by Persia 
and regained by the Turks. See Tobks : A. D. 

A. D. 1895.— Turkish Atrocities in. See 
Turks: A. D. 189.5. 


ARMENIAN CHURCH, The.— The church 
of the Armenians is "the oldest of all national 
churches. They were converted by St. Gregory, 
called ' The Illuminator,' who was a relative of 
Dertad or Tiridates, their prince, and had been 
forced to leave the country at the same time with 
him, and settled at Csesareia in Cappadocia, 
where he was initiated into the Christian faith. 
When they returned, both prince and people em- 
braced the Gospel through the preaching of 
Gregory, A. D. 276, and thus presented the first 
instance of an entire nation becoming Christian. 
. . . By an accident they were unrepresented at 
[the Council of] Chalcedon [A. D. 451], and, 
owing to the poverty of their language in words 
serviceable for the purposes of theology, they 
had at that time but one word for Nature and 
Person, in consequence of which they misunder- 
stood the decision of that council [that Christ 
possessed two natures, divine and human, in one 
Person] with sulficient clearness. ... It was 
not until eighty-four years had elapsed that they 
finally adopted Eutychianism [the doctrine that 
the divinity is the sole nature in Christ], and an 
anathema was pronounced on the Chalcedonian 
decrees (536)."— H. F. Tozer, Tlte Church and 
the Eastern Empire, ch. 5. — "The religion of 
Armenia could not derive much glory from the 
learning or the power of its inhabitants. The 
royalty expired with the origin of their scliism; 
^d their Christian kings, who arose and fell in 


the 13th century on the confines of Cilicia, were 
the clients of the Latins and the vassals of the 
Turkish sultan of Iconium. The helpless nation 
has seldom been permitted to enjoy tlie tran- 
quility of servitude. From the earliest period 
to the present hour, Armenia has been the theatre 
of perpetual war; the lands between Tauris and 
Erivan were dispeopled by the cruel policy of the 
Bophis ; and myriads of Christian families were 
transplanted, to perish or to propagate in the dis- 
tant provinces of Persia. Under the rod of 
oppression, the zeal of the Armenians is fervent 
and intrepid ; they have often preferred the 
crown of martyrdom to the white turban of Ma- 
homet; they devoutly hate the error and idola- 
try of the Greeks." — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall 
of the Rtman Empire, ch. 47. 

ARMINIANISM. See Netherlands: A. D. 

ARMINIUS, The Deliverance of Germany 
by. See Germ.4.nt: B. C. 8-A. D. 11. 

to armorial bearings, there is no doubt that em- 
blems somewhat similar have been immemorially 
used both in war and peace. The shields of an- 
cient warriors, and devices upon coins or seals, 
bear no distant resemblance to modern blazonry. 
But the general introduction of such bearings, as 
hereditary distinctions, has been sometimes at- 
tributed to tournaments, wherein the champions 
were distinguished by fanciful devices; some- 
times to the crusades, where a multitude of all 
nations and languages stood in need of some vis-, 
ible token to denote the banners of their respec- 
tive chiefs. In fact, the peculiar symbols of her- 
aldry point to both these sources and have been 
borrowed in part from each. Hereditary arms 
were perliaps scarcely used by private families 
before the beginning of the thirteenth century. 
From that time, however, they became very gen- 
eral."— H. Hallam, The Middle Ages, ch. 2, pt. 2. 
ARMORICA. — The peninsular projection of 
the coast of Gaul between the mouths of the 
Seine and the Loire, embracing modern Brittany, 
and a great part of Normandy, was known to 
the Romans as Armorica. The most important 
of the Armorican tribes in Ciesar's time was that 
of the Veneti. " In the fourth and fifth centu- 
ries, the northern coast from the Loire to the 
frontier of the Netherlands was called ' Tractus 
Aremoricus,' or Aremorica, which in Celtic sig- 
nifies ' maritime country.' The commotions of 
the third century, which continued to increase 
during the fourth and fifth, repeatedly drove 
the Romans from that country. French antiqua- 
ries imagine that it was a regularly constituted 
Gallic republic, of which Chlovis had the protec- 
torate, but this is wrong." — B. G. Niebuhr, Lect». 
on Ancient Ethnography and Oeog., v. 2, p. 318. 

Also in: E. H. Bunbury, Hist, of Ancient 
Oeog., V. 2, p. 235. — See, also, Veneti op West- 
ern G.\uL, and Iberians, The Western. 

Modern: America: A, D. 1824-1898. 

ARMSTRONG, General John, and the 
Newburgh Addresses. See United St.^tes op 

Am. : A. D. 1782-1783 Secretary of War.— 

Plan of descent on Montreal. See United 
States of Am.: A. D. 1813 (Oct.— Nov.). 

ARMY PURCHASE, Abolition of. See 
England : A D. 1871. 

ARN.<EANS, The. See Greece: The Mi- 



ARNAULD, Jacqueline Marie, and the 
Monastery of Port Royal. See Port Royal 
and tlie.jANSENlsTS: A. O. 1603-1660. 

ARNAUTS, The. See Albanians, Medle- 


ARNAY-LE-DUC, Battle of (1570). See 
France: A. D. 1563-1070. 

ARNOLD, Benedict, and the American 
Revolution. See Canada: A. D. 1775-1776; 
and United States op Am. : A. D. 1775 (May); 
1777 (July — October); 1780 (August— Septem- 
ber); 1780-1781; 1781 (January— May) ; 1781 
(May — October). 

of. SeeRoME:A. D. 1145-1155. 

Battle of Sempach. See Switzerland: A. D. 

ARNULF, King of the East Franks 
(Germany), A, D. 888-899 ; King of Italy and 
Emperor, A. D. 891-899. 

AROGI, Battle of (1868). See Abyssinia: 

A. D. 1854-1889. 

ARPAD, Dynasty of. See Hungarians: 
Ravages in Europe; and Hungary: A. D. 973- 
1114; 1114-1301. 

ARPAD, Siege of.— Conducted by the 
Assyrian Conqueror Tiglath-Pileser, beginning 

B. C. 743 and lasting two years. The fall of the 
city brought with it the submission of all north- 
ern Syria. — A. 11. Sayce, Asxi/na, ch. 3. 

ARQUES, Battles at (1589). See France: 
A. D. 1589-1590. 

ARRABIATI, The. See Florence: A. D. 

1 ARRAPACHITIS. See Jews : The Early 
^Hebrew History. 

ARRAPAHOES, The. See American Abo- 


ARRAS: Origin. See Belg^. 

A. D. 1583. — Submission to Spain. See 
Netiterlands: A. D. 1584-1585. 

A. D. 1654. — Unsuccessful Siege by the 
Spaniards under Cond6. See France: A. D. 


ARRAS, Treaties of (1415 and 1435). See 
France: A. D. 1380-1415, and 1431-1453. 

ARRETIUM, Battle of (B. C. 285). See 
Rome: B. C. 395-191. 

neiform Writing. 

ARSACIDjE, The.— The dynasty of Par- 
thian kings were so called, from the founder of 
the line, Arsaces, who led the revolt of Parthia 
from the rule of the Syrian Seleucidre and raised 
himself to the throne. According to some 
ancient writers Arsaces was a Bactrian ; accord- 
ing to others a Scythian. — G. Rawlinson, Sixth 
Great Oriental Monarchy, ch. 8. 

ARSEN. — In one of the earlier raids of the 
Seljukian Turks into Armenia, in the eleventh 
century the city of Arsen was destroyed. " It 
had long been the great city of Eastern Asia 
Minor, the centre of Asiatic trade, the depot for 
merchandise transmitted overland from Persia 
and India to the Eastern Empire and Europe 
generally. It was full of warehouses belonging 
to Armenians and Syrians and is said to have 
contained 800 churches and 300.000 people. 
Having failed to capture the city, Togrul's 
general succeeded in burning it. The destruc- 
tion of so much wealth struck a fatal blow at 


Armenian commerce." — E. Pears, The Fall of 
ConMnntim/ple, ch. 3. 

ARSENE, Lake. — An ancient name of the 
Lake of Van, which is also called Thopitis by 
Strabo. — E. H. Bunbury, Uist. of Ancient Geog., 
ch. 33. sect. 1. 

ARTABA, The. See Eph.^. 

ARTAXATA.— The ancient capital of 
Armenia, said to have been built under the 
superintendence of Hannibal, while a refugee in 
Armenia. At a later time it was called Neronia, 
in honor of the Roman Emperor Nero. 


Persia, B. C. 46.5-435 Artaxerxes Mne- 

mon. King of Persia, B. C. 40.5-3.59.... 
Artaxerxes Ochus, King of Persia, B. C. 3.59- 
338. . . .Artaxerxes, or Ardshir, Founder of the 
Sassanian monarchy. See Persia : B. C. 150- 

A. D. 336. 

ARTEMISIUM, Sea fights at. See Greece: 

B. C. 480. 

ARTEMITA. See Dast.\gerd. 

ARTEVELD, Jacques and Philip Van: 
Their rise and fall in Ghent. See Flanders: 
A. D. 1335-1337, to 1383. 

ARTHUR, King, and the Knights of the 
Round Table. — "On the ditflcult question, 
whether there was a historical Arthur or not, 
... a word or two must now be devoted . . . ; 
and here one has to notice in the first place that 
Welsh literature never calls Arthur a gwledig or 
prince but emperor, and it may be inferred that his 
historical position, in c^se he had such a position, 
was that of one filling, after the departure of the 
Romans, the office which under them was that of 
the Comes Britannise or Count of Britain. The 
officer so called had a roving commission to 
defend the Province wherever his presence 
might be called for. The other military 
captains here were the Dux Britauuiarum, who 
had charge of the forces in the north and 
especially on the Wall, and the Comes Littoris 
Saxonici [Count of the Saxon Shore], who was 
entrusted with the defence of the south-eastern 
coast of the island. The successors of both these 
captains seem to have been called in AVelsh 
gwledigs or princes. So Arthur's suggested 
position as Comes Britanniae would be in a sense 
superior to theirs, which harmonizes with his 
being called emperor and not gwledig. The 
Welsh have borrowed the Latin title of imper- 
ator, 'emperor,' and made it into 'amherawdyr,' 
later 'amherawdwr,' so it is not impossible, that 
when the Roman imperator ceased to have 
anything more to say to this country, the title 
was given to the highest officer in the island, 
namely the Comes Britanniae, and that in the 
words 'Yr Amherawdyr Arthur,' 'the Emperor 
Arthur,' we have a remnant of our insular history. 
If this view be correct, it might be regarded as 
something more than an accident that Arthur's 
position relatively to that of the other Brythonic 
princes of his time is exactlj' given by Nennius, 
or whoever it was that wrote the Historia 
Brittonum ascribed to him: there Arthur 
is represented fighting in company with the 
kings of the Brythous in defence of their 
common country, he being their leader in war. 
If, as has sometimes been argued, the uncle of 
Maglocunus or Maelgwn, whom the latter is 
accused by Gilda of having slain and superseded, 
was no other than Arthur, it would supply one 
reason why that writer called Maelgwn 'inau-- 



laris draco,' 'the dragon or war-captain of the 
island.' and -why the latter and his successors 
after him were called by the Welsh not gwledigs 
but kings, though their great ancestor Cuneda 
■was only a gwlcdig. On the other hand the 
way in which Gildas alludes to the uncle of 
Maelgwn without even giving his name, would 
seem to suggest that in his estimation at least he 
was no more illustrious than his predecessors in 
the position which he held, whatever that may 
have been. How then did Arthur become famous 
above them, and how came he to be the subject 
of so much story and romance 1 The answer, in 
short, wliich one has to give to this hard question 
must be to the effect, that besides a historic 
Arthur there was a Brythonic divinity named 
Arthur, after whom the man may have been 
called, or with whose name his, in case it was of 
a different origin, may have become identical in 
sound owing to an accident of speech ; for both 
explanations are possible, as we shall attempt to 
show later. Leaving aside for a while the man 
Arthur, and assuming the existence of a god of 
that name, let us see what could be made of him. 
Mythologically speaking he would probably 
have to be regarded as a Culture Hero; for, a 
model king and the institutor of the Knighthood 
of the Round Table, he is represented as the 
leader of expeditions to the isles of Hades, and as 
one who stood in somewhat the same kind of 
rel.ntion to Gwalchmei as Gwydion did to ILeu. 
It is needless here to dwell on the character 
usually given to Arthur as a ruler: he with his 
knights around him may be compared to Con- 
chobar, in the midst of the Champions of Emain 
Macha, or Woden among the Anses at Valhalla, 
while Arthur's Knights are called those of the 
Round Table, around which they are described 
sitting; and it would be interesting to under- 
stand the signification of the term Round Table. 
On the whole it is the table, probably, and not 
its roundness that is the fact to which to call 
attention, as it possibly means that Arthur's 
court was the first early court where those 
present sat at a table at all in Britain. No such 
thing as a common table figures at Conchobar's 
court or any other described in the old legends 
of Ireland, and the same applies, we believe, to 
those of the old Norsemen. The attribution to 
Arthur of the first use of a common table would 
fit in well with the character of a Culture Hero 
which we have ventured to ascribe to him, and 
it derives countenance from the pretended history 
of the Round Table ; for the Arthurian legend 
traces it back to Arthur's father, Uthr Bendragon, 
in whom we have under one of his many names 
the king of Hades, the realm whence all culture 
was fabled to have been derived. In a wider 
sense the Round Table possibly signified plenty 
or abundance, and might be compared with the 
table of the Ethiopians, at which Zeus and the 
other gods of Greek mj'thology used to feast 
from time to time." — J. Rhj-s, Studies in the 
Arthurian Legend, ch. 1. — See, also CrMBRi.\. 

ARTHUR, Chester A.— Election to Vice- 
Presidency. — Succession to the Presidency. 
See United States of Am. : A. D. 1880 and 

ARTI OF FLORENCE. See Florexce: 
A. D. 12.50-1293. 

(American). See United States of Am. : 
A. D. 1777-1781, and 1783-1787. 


land: A. D. 1.573. 

ARTOIS, The House of. See Booibon, 
The Hocse of. 

ARTOIS : A. D. 1529.— Pretensions of the 
King of France to Suzerainty resigned. See 
Italy: A. D. 1.527-1.529. 

ARTS, The Fine. See Music, Painting, 
ScuLPTURK, Styles in ARcniTECTLTiE. 

ARTYNI. See Demiurgl 

ARVADITES, The. — The Canaanite inhab- 
itants of the island of Aradus, or Arvad, and who 
also held territorv on the main land. 

ARVERNI, The. See ^dui; also, Gauls, 
and Allobrooes. 

ARX, The. See Capitoijiie Hill; also 
Gens, Roman. 

ARXAMUS, Battle of.— One of the defeats 
sustained by the Romans in their wars with the 
Persians. Battle fought A. D. 603.— G. Raw- 
linson, Serenth Gre/it Oriental Monarchy, ch. 24. 

AR YANS.— AR YAS.— • • This family (which 
is sometimes called Japhetic, or descendants of 
Japhet) includes the Hindus and Persians among 
Asiatic nations, and almost all the peoples of 
Europe. It may seem strange that we English 
should be related not only to the Germans and 
Dutch and Scandinavians, but to the Russians, 
French, Spanish, Romans and Greeks as well; 
stranger still that we can claim kinship with 
such distant peoples as the Persians and Hindus. 
. . . What seems actually to have been the case 
is this: In distant ages, somewhere rbout the 
rivers Oxus and Jaxartes, and on the north of 
that mountainous range called the Hindoo- Koosh, 
dwelt the ancestors of all the nations we have 
enumerated, forming at this time a single and 
united people, simple and primitive in their way 
of life, but yet having enough of a common na- 
tional life to preserve a common language. They 
called themselves Aryas or Aryans, a word 
which, in its very earliest sense, seems to have 
meant those who move upwards, or straight; 
and hence, probably, came to stand for the noble 
race as compared with other races on whom, of 
course, they would look down. ... As their 
numbers increased, the space wherein they dwelt 
became too small for them who had out of one 
formed many different peoples. Then begar a 
series of migrations, in which the collection of 
tribes who spoke one language and formed one 
people started off to seek their fortune in new 
lands. . . . First among them, in all probability, 
started the Kelts or Celts, who, travelling 
perhaps to the South of the Caspian and the 
North of the Black Sea, found their way to 
Europe and spread far on to the extreme 'West. 
. . . Another of the great families who left the 
Aryan home was the Pelasgic or the Graeco- 
Italic. These, journeying along first South- 
wards and then to the West, passed through 
Asia Minor, on to the countries of Greece 
and Italy, and in time separated into those 
two great peoples, the Greeks (or Hellenes, as 
they came to call themselves), and the Romans. 
. . . Next we come to two other great families 
of nations who seem to have taken the same 
route at first, and perhaps began their travels 
together as the Greeks and Romans did. These 
are the Teutons and the Slaves. . . . The word 
Slave comes from Slowan, which in old Slavonian 
meant to speak, and was given by the Slavonians 
to themselves as the people who could speak in 



opposition to other nations whom, as they ■were 
not able to understand them, they were pleased 
to consider as dumb. The Greek word barbaroi 
(whence our barbarians) arose in obedience to a 
lilie prejudice, only from an imitation of babbling 
such as is made by saying • bar-bar-bar.'" — 
C. F. Kenry, Dawn of History, ch. 4. — The above 
passage sets forth the older theory of an Aryan 
family of nations as well as of languages in its 
unqualified form. Its later modifications are in- 
dicated in the following: "The discovery of 
Sanscrit and the further discovery to which it 
led, that the languages now variously known as 
Aryan, Aryanic, Indo-European, Indo-Germanic, 
Indo-Celtic and Japhetic are closely akin to one 
another, spread a spell over the world of thought 
which cannot be said to have yet wholly passed 
away. It was hastily argued from the kinship 
of their languages to the kinship of the nations 
that spoke them. . . . The question then arises 
as to the home of the 'holethnos,' or parent 
tribe, before its dispersion and during the pro- 
ethnic period, at a time when as yet there was 
neither Greek nor Hindoo, neither Celt nor 
Teuton, but only an undifferentiated Aryan. 
Of course, the answer at first was — where 
could it have been but in the East. And at 
length the glottologist found it necessary to 
shift the cradle of the Aryan race to the 
neighbourhood of the Oxus and the Ja.\artes, so 
as to place it somewhere between the Caspian 
Sea and the Himalayas. Then Doctor Latham 
boldly raised his voice against the Asiatic theory 
altogether, and stated that he regarded the at- 
tempt to deduce the Aryans from Asia as resem- 
bling an attempt to derive the reptiles of this 
country from those of Ireland. Afterwards 
Benfey argued, from the presence in the vocabu- 
lary common to the Aryan languages of words 
for bear and wolf, for birch and beech, and the 
absence of certain others, such as those for lion, 
tiger and palm, that the original home of the 
Aryans must have been within the temperate 
zone in Europe. ... As might be e.xpected in 
the case of such a difficult question, those who 
are inclined to believe in the European origin of 
the Aryans are by no means agreed among them- 
selves as to the spot to be fixed upon. Latham 
placed it east, or south-east of Lithuania, in Po- 
dolia, or Volhynia; Benfey had in view a district 
above the Black Sea and not far from the Cas- 
pian ; Peschel ti xed on the slopes of the Caucasus ; 
Cuno on the great plain of Central Europe; 
Fligier on the southern part of Russia; Posche 
on fhe tract between the Xiemen and the Dnieper ; 
L. Geiger on central and western Germany ; and 
Penka on Scandinavia. " — J. Rhys, Race Theories 
{in New Princeton, Rev., Jan., 1888). — " Aryan, in 
scientific language, is utterly inapplicable to race. 
It means language, and nothing but language; 
and, if we speak of Aryan race at all, we should 
know that it means no more than X + Aryan 
speech. ... I have declared again and again 
tliat if I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor 
bones, nor hair nor skull ; I mean simply those 
who speak an Aryan language. The same ap- 
plies to Hindus, Greeks, Romans, Germans, 
Celts and Slaves. ... In that sense, and in that 
sense only, do I say that even the blackest Hin- 
dus represent an earlier stage of Aryan speech 
and thought than the fairest Scandinavians. . . . 
If an answer must be given as to the place where 
our Aryan ancestors dwelt before their separation, 

^'^ 14 

whether in large swarms of millions, or in a few 
scattered tents and huts, I should still say, as I 
said forty years ago, 'Somewhere in Asia,' and 
no more." — F. Max Miiller, Biog. of Words and 
Home of the Aryas, ch. 6. — The theories which 
dispute the Asiatic origin of the Aryans are 
strongly presented by Canon Taylor in Tlie 
Origin of the Aryans, by G. H. Rendall, in The 
Cradle of the Aryans, and by Dr. O. Schrader in 
Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Petiples. 
— See, also, India: The Abokigikal Inhabit- 
ants ; The lMMiGR.4.TroN AND Conquests of 
THE Artas, and Eoropb. 

TIUS. — "The term As [among the Romans] 
and the words which denote its divisions, were 
not confined to weight alone, but were applied 
to measures of length and capacity also, and in 
general to any object which could be regarded as 
consisting of twelve equal parts. Thus they 
were commonly used to denote shares into which 
an inheritance was divided." As a unit of 
weight the As, or Libra, " occupied the same 
position in the Roman system as the pound does 
in our own. According to the most accurate 
researches, the As was equal to about 11 J oz. 
avoirdupois, or .7375 of an avoirdupois pound." 
It " was divided into 13 equal parts called unciK, 
and the uncia was divided into 24 equal parts 
called scrupula." "The As, regarded as a coin 
[of copper] originally weighed, as tlie name im- 
plies, one pound, and the smaller copper coins 
those fractions of the pound denoted by their 
names. By degrees, however, the weight of the 
As, regarded as a coin, was greatly diminished. 
We are told that, about the commencement of 
the first Punic war, it had fallen from 13 ounces 
to 2 ounces; in the early part of the second 
Punic war (B. C. 217), it was reduced to one 
ounce; and not long afterwards, by a Lex 
Papiria, it was fixed at half-an-ounce, which re- 
mained the standard ever after." The silver 
coins of Rome were the Denarius, equivalent 
(after 217 B. C.) to 16 Asses; the Quinarius and 
the Sestertius, which became, respectively, one 
half and one fourth of the Denarius in value. 
The Sestertius, at the close of the Republic, is 
estimated to have been equivalent in value to 
two pence sterling of English money. The 
coinage was debased under the Empire. The 
principal gold coin of the Empire was the De- 
narius Aureus, which passed for 25 silver De- 
narii. — W. Ramsay, Manual of Rjman Antiq., 
ch. 13. 

ASCALON, Battle of (A. D. 1099). See 
Jerusalem: A. D. 1099-1144. 

ASCANIENS, The. See Br.\.ndenburq : 

A. D. 928-1142. 

ASCLEPIADiE, The. See Medical Sci- 
ence, Greek. 

ASCULUM, Battle of (B. C. 279). See 
Rome : B. C. 282-275. 

ASCULUM, Massacre at. See Rome: 

B. C. 90-^8. 

ASHANTEE WAR, The (1874). See 
England : A. D. 1873-1880. 

United St.\tes of Am.: A D. 1842. 

ASHDOD. See Philistines. 

ASHTI, Battle of (1818). See India: A. D. 

ASIA: The Name.— "There are grounds for 
believing Europe and Asia to have originally 



signified ' the west ' and ' the east ' respectively. 
Both are Semitic terms, and probably passed to 
the Greeks from tlie Phoenicians. . . . The 
Greeks first applied the title [Asia] to that por- 
tion of the eastern continent which lay nearest 
to them, and with which they became first ac- 
quainted — the coast of Asia Minor opposite the 
Cyclades; whence they extended it as their 
knowledge grew. Still it had always a special 
application to the country about Ephesus." — G. 
liawlinson, Notes to Herodotus, v. 3, p. 33. 

ASIA: The Roman Province (so called). — 
"As originally constituted, it corresponded to the 
dominions of the kings of Pergamus . . . left 
by the will of Attalus III. to the Roman people 
(B. C. 133). ... It included the whole of lHysia 
and Lydia. with ^olis, Ionia and Caria, except 
a small part which was subject to Rhodes, and 
the greater part, if not the whole, of Phrygia. 
A portion of the last region, however, was de- 
tached from it." — E. H. Bunbury, Hist, of Ancient 
Geog., ch. 20, sect. 1. 

ASIA, Central. — Mongol Conquest. See 

Turkish Conquest. See Turks. 

Russian Conquests. See Russia: A. D. 
1859-1876, and 1869-1881. 

ASIA MINOR.— "The nameof Asia Minor, so 
familiar to the student of ancient geography, was 
not in use either among Greek or Roman writers 
until a very late period. Orosius, who wrote in 
the fifth century after the Christian era, is the 
first e.xtant writer who employs the term in its 
modern sense."— E. H. Bunbury, Hist, of An- 
cient Oeog., ch. 7, sect. 2. — The name Anatolia, 
which is of Greek origin, synonymous with 
"The Levant," signifying " The Sunrise," came 
into use among the Byzantines, about the 10th 
century, and was adopted by their successors, 
the Turks. 

Earlier Kingdoms and People. See Phrygi- 


Paphlagonians. — Troja. 

The Greek Colonies. — "The tumult which 
had been caused by the irruption of the Thes- 
protians into Thessaly and the displacement of 
the population of Greece [see Greece: The 
Migration, &c.] did not subside within the lim- 
its of the peninsula. From the north and the 
south those inhabitants who were unable to main- 
tain their ground against the incursions of the 
Thessalians, Arnaeans, or Borians, and preferred 
exile to submission, sought new homes in the is- 
lands of the Aegean and on the western coast of 
Asia Minor. The migrations continued for sev- 
eral generations. When at length they came to 
an end, and the Anatolian coast from Mount Ida 
to the Triopian headland, with the adjacent 
islands, was in the possession of the Greeks, three 
great divisions or tribes were distinguished in 
the new settlements: Dorians, lonians, and 
Aeolians. In spite of the presence of some alien 
elements, the Dorians and lonians of Asia Minor 
were the same tribes as the Dorians and lonians 
of Greece. The Aeolians, on the other hand, 
were a composite tribe, as their name imphes. 
... Of these three divisions the Aeolians lay 
farthest to the north. The precise limits of their 
territory were differently fixed by different au- 
thorities. . . . The Aeolic cities fell into two 
groups: a northern, of which Lesbos was the 
centre, and a southern, composed of the cities in 

the immediate neighbourhood of the Hermus, 
and founded from Cyme. . . . The northern 
group included the islands of Tenedos and Lesbos. 
In the latter there were originally six cities: 
Jlethymna, Jlytilene, Pyrrha, Eresus, Arisba, 
and Antissa, but Arisba was subsequently con- 
quered and enslaved by Mytilene. . . . The sec- 
ond great stream of migration proceeded from 
Athens [after the death of Codrus — see Athens: 
From the Dorian Migration to B. C. 683 — 
according to Greek tradition, the younger sons 
of Codrus leading these Ionian colonists across 
the Aegean, first to the Carian city of Miletus — 
see Miletus, — which they captured, and then to 
the conquest of Ephesus and the island of Samos]. 
. . . The colonies spread until a dodecapolis was 
established, similar to the union which the 
lonians had founded in their old settlements on 
the northern shore of Peloponnesus. In some 
cities the Ionian population formed a minority. 
. . . The colonisation of Ionia was undoubtedly, 
in the main, an achievement of emigrants from 
Attica, but it was not accomplished by a single 
family, or in the space of one life-time. . . . The 
two most famous of the Ionian cities were Mi- 
letus and Ephesus. The first was a Carian city 
previously known as Anactoria. . . . Ephesus 
was originally in the hands of the Leleges and 
the Lydians, who were driven out by the lonians 
under Androclus. The ancient sanctuary of the 
tutelary goddess of the place was transformed 
by the Greeks into a temple of Artemis, who 
was here worshipped as the goddess of birth and 
productivity in accordance with Oriental rather 
than Hellenic ideas." The remaining Ionic cities 
and islands were Myus (named from the mos- 
quitoes which infested it, and which finally 
drove the colony to abandon it), Priene, Ery- 
thrae, Clazomenoe, Teos, Phocaea, Colophon, 
Lebedus, Samos and Chios. "Chios was first 
inhabited by Cretans . . . and subsequently by 
Carians. ... Of the manner in which Chios be- 
came connected with the lonians the Chians could 
give no clear account. . . . The southern part 
of the Anatolian coast, and the southern-most 
islands in the Aegean were colonised by tho 
Dorians, who wrested them from the Phoenician 
or Carian occupants. Of the islands, Crete is the 
most important. . . . Crete was one of the old- 
est centres of civilisation in the Aegean [see 
Crete ]. . . . The Dorian colony in Rhodes, 
like that in Crete, was ascribed to the band which 
left Argos under the command of Althaemenes. 
. . . Other islands colonised by the Dorians were 
Thera, . . . Melos, . . . Carpathus, Calydnae, 
Nisyrus, and Cos. . . . From the islands, the 
Dorians spread to the mainland. The peninsula 
of Cnidus was perhaps the first settlement. . . . 
Halicarnassus was founded from Troezen, and 
the Ionian element must have been considerable. 
... Of the Dorian cities, six united in the com- 
mon worship of Apollo on the headland of Tri- 
opium. These were Lindus, lalysus, and Ca- 
mirus in Rhodes, Cos, and, on the mainland, 
Halicarnassus and Cnidus. . . . The territory 
which the Aeolians acquired is described by 
Herodotus as more fertile than that occupied by 
the lonians, but of a less excellent climate. It 
was inhabited by a number of tribes, among 
which the Troes or Teucri were the chief. . . . 
In Homer the inhabitants of the city of the Troad 
are Dardani or Troes, and the name Teucri does 
not occur. In historical times the Gergithes, 




■who dwelt in the town of the same name . . . 
near Lampsacus, and also formed the subject 
population of Miletus, were the only remnants of 
this once famous nation. But their former great- 
ness was attested by the Homeric poems, and the 
occurrence of the name Gergithians at various 
places in the Troad [see Tuoja]. To this tribe 
belonged the Troy of the Grecian epic, the site 
of -which, so far as it represents any historical 
city, is fixed at Hissarlik. In the Iliad the 
Trojan empire extends from the Aesepus to the 
Caicus; it was divided — or, at least, later his- 
torians speak of it as divided — into principali- 
ties which recognised Priam as their chief. But 
the Homeric descriptions of the city and its emi- 
nence are not to be taken as historically true. 
Whatever the power and civilisation of the 
ancient stronghold exhumed by Dr. Schliemann 
may have been, it was necessary for the epic 
poet to represent Priam and his nation as a dan- 
gerous rival in wealth and arms to the great 
kings of Mycenae and Sparta. . . . The tradi- 
tional dates fix these colonies [of the Greeks in 
Asia Minor] in the generations which followed 
the Trojan war. . . . We may suppose that the 
colonisation of the Aegean and of Asia Minor by 
the Greeks vpas coincident with the expulsion of 
the Phoenicians. The greatest extension of the 
Phoenician power in the Aegean seems to fall in 
the 15th century B. C. From the 13th it was 
gradually on the decline, and the Greeks were 
enabled to secure the trade for themselves. . . . 
By 1100 B. C. Asia Minor may have been in the 
hands of the Greeks, though the Phoenicians 
still maintained themselves in Rhodes and 
Cyprus. But all attempts at chronology are 
illusory." — E. Abbott, Hist, of Oreece, ch. 4 (v. 1). 

Also in: E. Curtius, Hist, of Ch-eece, bk. 2, ch. 
3 («. 1).— G. Grote, Hist, of Oreece, pt. 3, ch. 
13-15. — J. A. Cramer, Geog. and Hist. Description 
of Asia Minor, sect, 6 (v. 1). — See, also, Miletus, 

B. C. 724-539. — Prosperity of the Greek 
Colonies. — Their Submission to Croesus, King 
of Lydia, and their conquest and annexation 
to the Persian Empire. — "The Grecian colonies 
on the coast of Asia early rose to wealth by means 
of trade and manufactures. Though we have not 
the means of tracing their commerce, we know that 
it was considerable, with the mother country, 
•with Italy, and at length Spain, with Phoenicia 
and the interior of Asia, whence the productions 
of India passed to Greece. The Milesians, who 
had fine woolen manufactures, extended their 
commerce to the Euxine, on all sides of which 
they founded factories, and exchanged their 
manufactures and other goods with the Scythians 
and the neighbouring peoples, for slaves, wool, 
raw hides, bees-wax. flax, hemp, pitch, etc. 
There is even reason to suppose that, by means 
of caravans, their traders bartered their wares 
not far from the confines of China [see Miletus]. 
. . . But while they were advancing in wealth 
and prosperity, a powerful monarchy formed itself 
in Lydia, of which the capital was Sardes, a city 
at the foot of Slount Tmolus." Gyges, the first 
of the Mermnad dynasty of Lydian liings (see 
I lYDlANS), whose reign is supposed to have begun 
about B. C. 724, "turned his arms against the 
Ionian cities on the coast. During a century and 
a half the efforts of the Lydian monarchs to re- 
duce these states w-ere unavailing. At length 
(01. 55) [B. C. 568] the celebrated Crcesus 

mounted the throne of Lydia, and he made all 
Asia this side of the River Halys (Lycia and 
Cilicia excepted) acknowledge his dominion. 
The Aeolian, Ionian and Dorian cities of the 
coast all paid him tribute ; but, according to the 
usual rule of eastern conquerors, he meddled 
not with their political institutions, and they 
might deem themselves fortunate in being insured 
against war by the payment of an annual sum of 
money. Croesus, moreover, cultivated the friend- 
ship of the European Greeks. " But Croesus was 
overthrown, B. C. 554, by the conquering Cyrus 
and his kingdom of Lydia was swallowed up in 
the great Persian empire then taking form [see 
Peusia: B. C. 549-521]. Cyrus, during his war 
with Croesus, had tried to entice the lonians 
away from the latter and win them to an alliance 
with himself. But they incurred his resentment 
by refusing. "They and the .(Eolians now sent 
ambassadors, praying to be received to submis- 
sion on the same terms as those on which they 
had obeyed the Lydian monarch ; but the Mile- 
sians alone found favour: the rest had to prepare 
for war. They repaired the walls of their towns, 
and sent to Sparta for aid. Aid, however, was 
refused; but Cyrus, being called away by the 
war with Babylon, neglected them for the pres- 
ent. Three years afterwards (01. 59, 2), Harpa- 
gus, who had saved Cyrus in his infancy from 
his grandfather Astyages, came as governor of 
Lydia. He instantly prepared to reduce the 
cities of the coast. Town after town submitted. 
The Teians abandoned theirs, and retired to 
Abdera in Thrace; the Phocteans, getting on 
shipboard, and vowing never to return, sailed for 
Corsica, and being there harassed by the Car- 
thagenians and Tyrrhenians, they went to 
Rliegion in Italy, and at length founded Massalia 
(Marseilles) on the coast of Gaul. The Grecian 
colonies thus became a part of the Persian em- 
pire." — T. Keightley, Hist, of Greece, pt. 1, ch. 9. 

Also in: Herodotus, Hist., tr. and ed. by G. 
Eawlitison, bk. 1, and app. — M. Duncker, Hist, 
of Antiquity, bk. 8, ch. 6-7 (0. 6). 

B. C. 501-493. — The Ionian revolt and its 
suppression. See Persia: B. C. 521^93. 

B. C. 479. — Athens assumes the protection 
of Ionia. See Athens: B. C. 479-478. 

B. C. 477. — Formation of Confederacy of 
Delos. See Greece: B. C. 478-477. 

B. C. 413. — Tribute again demanded from 
the Greeks by the Persian King. — Conspiracy 
against Athens. See Greece: B. C. 413. 

B. C. 413-412. — Revolt of the Greek cities 
from Athens. — Intrigues of Alcibiades. See 
Greece: B. C. 413-412. 

B. C. 412. — Re-submission to Persia. See 
Persia: B. C. 486-405. 

B. C. 401-400. — Expedition of Cyrus the 
Younger, and Retreat of the Ten Thousand. 
See Persia: B. C. 401-400, 

B. C. 399-387. — Spartan war with Persia 
in behalf of the Greek cities. — Their aban- 
donment by the Peace of Antalcidas. See 
Greece: B. C. 399-387. 

B. C. 334. — Conquest by Alexander the 
Great. See Macedonia: B, C. 334-330. 

B. C. 301.— Mostly annexed to the Thracian 
Kingdom of Lysimachus. See Macedonia, 
&c. : B. C. 310-301. 

B. C. 281-224.— Battle-ground °^ ^^^ war- 
ring monarchies of Syria and Egypt.— 
Changes of masters. See Sel£Uciii.£. 




B. C. 191. — First Entrance of the Romans. 
— Their defeat of Antiochus the Great. — 
Their expansion of the kingdom of Perga- 
mum and the Republic of Rhodes. Sec Seleu- 
CID.k: B. C. 224-187. 

B. C. 120-65. — Mithridates. — Complete 
Roman Conquest. See Mitiiridatic Wars; 
also Rome -. B. C. 78-68, and 69-63. 

A. D. 45-100. — Rise of Christian Churches. 
See Christianity : A. D. 33-100. 

A. D. 292. — Diocletian's seat of Empire es- 
tablished at Nicomedia. See Home: A. D. 

A. D. 602-628. — Persian invasions. — Deliv- 
erance by Heradius. See Rosib: A. D. 565- 

A. D. 1063-1092. — Conquest and ruin by the 
Seljulc Turks. See Turks (Seljuks): A. D. 
1063-1073; and 1073-1092. 

A. D. 1097-1149. — Wars of the Crusaders. 
See Crusades: A. D. 1096-1099; and 1147-1149. 

A. D. 1204-1261. — The Empire of Nicaea 
and the Empire of Trebizond. See Greek 
Empire of Nice a. 



Slavery: A. D. 1698-1776; Utrecht: A. D. 
1712-1714; Aix-la-Chapblle, The Congress 
OF; England: A. D. 1739-1741; and Georgla: 
A. D. 17.38-1743. 

ASKELON. See Philistines. 

ASKLEPIADS.— "Throughout all the his- 
torical ages [of Greece] the descendants of 
AsklSpius [or Esculapius] were numerous and 
■widely diffused. The many families or gentes 
called AsklCpiads, who devoted themselves to 
the study and practice of medicine, and who 
principally dwelt near the temples of Askl6pius, 
whither sick and suffering men came to obtain 
relief — all recognized the god, not merely as the 
object of their common worship, but also as their 
actual progenitor." — G. Grote, JTUt. of Greece, 
pt. 1. ch. 9. 

ASMONEANS, The. See Jews: B. C. 166- 

ASOKA. See India : B. C. 312 . 

ASOV. See Azof. 

ASPADAN. — The ancient name of which 
that of Ispahan is a corrupted form. — G. 
Rawlinson. Fice Great Monarchies: Media, ch. 1. 

MARCHFELD), Battle of. See Germany: 
A. D. 1809 (J.ANUARY— June). 

ASPIS, The. See Phalanx. 

ASPROMONTE, Defeat of Garibaldi at 
(1862). See Italy: A. D. 1862-1866. 

ASSAM, English Acquisition of. See 
India; A. D. 1823-1833. 

ASSANDUN, Battle of.— The sixth and 
last battle, A. D. 1016, between Edmund Iron- 
sides, the English King, and his Danish rival, 
Cnut, or Canute, for the Crown of England. 
I The English were terribly defeated and the 
flower of their nobility perished on the field. 
The result was a division of the kingdom ; but 
Edmund soon died, or was killed. Ashington, 
in Essex, was the battle-ground. See England: 
A. D. 979-1016. 

ASSASSINATIONS, Notable.— Abbas, 
Pasha of Egypt. See Egypt: A. D. 1840-1869. 
. . . .Alexander II. of Russia. See Russia : A. 
D. 1879-1881. . . .Beatoun, Cardinal. See Scot- 
land- A D. 1546. .. .Becket, Thomas. SeeENO- 


land: A.D.1162-1170. ..Buckingham. PeeENCk 
land: a. D. 1628. . .Caesar. See Rome: B. C. 44 
. . .Capo d'Istrea, Count, President of Greece. 

See Greece: A. D. 1830-1862 Carnot, 

President. See France: A. D. 1894-1895.... 
Cavendish, Lord Frederick, and Burke, Mr. 

See Ireland: A. D. 1882 Concini. See 

Fr.ance: a. D. 1610-1619.... Danilo, Prince of 

Montenegro (i860). See Montenegro 

Darnley. See Scotland: A. D. 1561-1568 

Francis of Guise. See France: A. D. 1560-1563. 

Garfield, President. See United States 

ofAm. : A. D. 1881 GustavusIII. ofSvreden. 

See Scandinavian States (Sweden): A. D. 

1720-1792 Henry of Guise. See France: 

A. D. 1584^1589. . . Henry III. of France. See 
France: A. D. 1584-1589. .. .Henry IV. of 

France. See Fr.ance: A. D. 1599-1600 

Hipparchus. See Athens: B. C. 560-510 

John, Duke of Burgundy. See France: A. D. 

1415-1419 Kleber, General. See France: 

A. D. 1800 (January — June) Kotzebue. 

See Germany: A. D. 1817-1820 Lincoln, 

President. See United States of Am. : A. D. 
1865 (April 14th) .... Marat. See France : 
A. D. 1793 (July) Mayo, Lord. See Indla: 

A. D. 1862-1876. . . .Murray, The Regent. See 

Scotland: A. D. 1561-1568 Omar, Caliph. 

See Mahometan Conquest. &c. : A. D. 661. . . . 
Paul, Czar of Russia. See Russia: A. D. 1801. 
....Perceval, Spencer. See England: A. D. 
1806-1812.... Peter III. See Russia: A. D. 
1761-1762 Philip of Macedon. See Greece:i 

B. C. 357-336.... Prim, General (1870). Seel 
Spain: A. D. 1866-1873. .. .Rizzio. See Scot- 
land: A. D. 1561-1568 Rossi, Count. See 

Italy: A. D. 1848-1849. . . . Wallenstein (1634).' 
See Germany: A. D. 1632-1634. .. .William 
the Silent. See Netherlands: A. D. 1581- 

1584 Witt, John and Cornelius de. See' 

Netherlands: A. D. 1672-1674. 

ASSASSINS, The.— "I must speak. . . of 
that wonderful brotherhood of the Assassins, 
which during the 12th and 13th centuries spread 
such terror through all Asia, Mussulman and 
Christian. Their deeds should be studied in 
Von Hammer's history of their order, of which 
however there is an excellent analysis in Taylor's 
History of Mohammedanism. The word Assassin, 
it must be remembered, in its ordinary significa- 
tion, is derived from this order, and not the re- 
verse. The Assassins were not so called because 
they were murderers, but murderers are called 
assassins because the Assassins were murderers. 
The origin of the word Assassin has been much 
disputed by oriental scholars; but its application 
is sufficiently written upon the Asiatic history of 
the 12th century. The Assassins were not, strictly 
speaking, a dynasty, but rather an order, like the 
Templars; only the office of Grand-Master, like 
the Caliphate, became hereditary. They were 
originally a branch of the Egyptian Ishmaelitea 
[see Mahometan Conquest: A. D. 908-1171] 
and at first professed the principles of that sect 
But there can be no doubt that their inner doc- 
trine became at last a mere negation of all religion 
and all morality. ' To believe nothing and to 
dare everything ' was the summary of their 
teaching. Their exoteric principle, addressed to 
the non-initiated members of the order, waa 
simple blind obedience to the will of their su- 
periors. If the Assassin was ordered to take ofl 
a Caliph or a Sultaa by the dagger or the bo-w\ 




the deed was done ; if he was ordered to throw 
himself from the ramparts, the deed was done 
likewise. . . . Their founder was Hassan Sabah, 
wlio, in 1090, shortly before the death of Malek 
Shah, seized the castle of Alamout — the Vul- 
ture's nest — in northern Persia, whence they ex- 
tended their possessions over a whole chain of 
mountain fortresses in that countrj' and in Syria. 
The Grand-Master was the Sheikh-al-Jebal, the 
famous Old Man of the Mountain, at whose name 
Europe and Asia shuddered." — E. A. Freeman, 
llist. (tad Conquents of tlie SaraceM, led. 4. — " In 
the Fatimide Khalif of Egypt, they [the 
Assassins, or Ismailiens of Syria and Persia] be- 
held an incarnate deity. To kill liis enemies, in 
whatever way they best could, was an action, 
the merit of which could not be disputed, and 
the reward for which was certain." Hasan 
Sabah, the founder of the Order, died at Ala- 
mout A. D. 1124. " From the day he entered 
Alamut until that of his death — a period of 
thirty-five years — he never emerged, but upon 
two occasions, from the seclusion oi his house. 
Pitiless and inscrutable as Destiny, he watched 
the troubled world of Oriental politics, himself 
invisible, and whenever he perceived a formida- 
ble foe, caused a dagger to be driven into his 
heart." It was not until more than a century 
after the death of its founder that the fearful 
organization of the Assassins was extinguished 
(A D. 1357) by the same flood of Mongol inva- 
sion which swept Bagdad and the Caliphate out 
of existence. — R. D. Osborn, /a?<(m under t/ie 
Kludifs of Bagdad, pt. 3, ck. 3.— W. C. Taylor, 
Hist, of Mohammeduiiism aiid its Sects, ch. 9. — 
The Assassins were rooted out from all their 
strongholds in Kuhistan and the neighboring re- 
gion, and were practically exterminated, in 1257, 
by the Mongols under Kliulagu, or Houlagou, 
brother of Mongu Khan, the great sovereign of 
the Mongol Empire, then reigning. Alamut, 
the Vulture's Nest, was demolished. — H. H. 
Howorth, Hist, of the Mongols, part 1, p. 193; and 
part 3, pp. 91-108.— See B.\gd.\d: A. D. 1258. 

ASSA YE, Battle of (1803). See India : A. D. 
1798-1 sOo. 

FRANCE (1787). See France: A. D. 1774- 

ASSENISIPIA, The proposed State of. 
See Northwest Tekritory of the United 
States of Am. ; A. D. 1784. 

ASSIDEANS, The. See Cn.\siDnr, TnE. 

ASSIENTO, The. S<n Asiento. 

ASSIGNATS. See France -. A. D. 1789- 
1791: 1794-1795 (Jui.T— Aprii,); also, Money 
A.SD Basking : A. D. 1789-1796. 

ASSINARUS, Athenian defeat and sur- 
render at the. .See Syracise: B. C. 41.5—113. 

ASSINIBOIA. See Northwest Terri- 
tories (IF Canada. 

ASSINIBOINS, The. See American Abo- 
BlGiXEs: SiouAX Family. 

ASSIZE, The Bloody. See Engl.\nd: 
A. D. 1685 (September). 

Assize of Bread and Ale was an English ordi- 
nance or enactment, dating back to the time of 
Henry III. in the 13th century, which fixed the 
price of those commodities by a scale regulated 
according to the market prices of wheat, barley 
and oats. "The Assize of bread was re-enacted 
BO lately as the beginning of the last century and 

was only abolished in London and its neighbour- 
hood about thirty years ago " — that is, early in 
the present century. — G. L. Craik, Ilist. of 
British Commerce, v. 1, p. 137. 

England: A. D. 1162-1170. 

sooner had Godfrey of Bouillon [elected King of 
Jerusalem, after the taking of the Holy City by 
the Crusaders, A. D. 1099] accepted the office ot 
supreme magistrate than he solicited the public 
and private advice of the Latin pilgrims who 
were the best skilled in the statutes and customs 
of Europe. From these materiiils, with the 
counsel and approbation of the Patriarch and 
barons, of the clergy and laity, Godfrey com- 
posed the Assise of Jerusalem, a precious monu- 
ment of feudal jurisprudence. The new code, 
attested by the seals of the King, the Patriarch, 
and the Viscount of Jerusalem, was deposited 
in the holy sepulchre, enriched with tlie im- 
provementsof succeeding times, and respectfully 
consulted as often as any doubtful question arose 
in the tribunals of Palestine. With the king- 
dom and city all was lost ; the fragments of the 
written law were preserved by jealous tradition 
and variable practice till the middle of the 
thirteenth centurj-. The code was restored by 
the pen of John d'Ibelin, Count of Jaffa, one of 
the principal feudatories; and the final revision 
was accomplished in the year thirteen hundred 
and sixty-nine, for the use of the Latin kingdom 
of Cyprus. " — E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of tlia 
lioman Empire, ch. 58. 

ASSIZES. — " The formal edicts known under 
the name of Assizes, the Assizes of Clarendon 
and Northampton, the Assize of Arms, the 
Assize of the Forest, and the Assizes of Measures, 
are the only relics of the legislative work of the 
period [reign of Henry II. in England]. These 
edicts are chiefly composed of new regulations 
for the enforcement of royal justice. ... In 
this respect they strongly resemble the capitu- 
laries of the Frank Kings, or, to go farther back, 
the edicts of the Roman prajtors. . . . The 
term Assize, which comes into use in this mean- 
ing about the middle of the twelfth century, 
both on the continent and in England, appears 
to be the proper Norman name for such edicts. 
. . . In the 'Assize of Jerusalem' it simply 
means a law; and the same in Henry's legisla- 
tion. Secondarily, it means a form of trial 
established by the particular law, as the Great 
j\.ssize, the Assize of ^Mort d'Ancester; and 
thirdly the court held to hold such trials, in 
which sense it is commonly used at the present 
day."— W. Stubhs, Const. Hist, of Eng., ch. 13. 

ASSUR. See Assyria. 

ASSYRIA. — For matter relating to Assyrian 
history, the reader is referred to the caption 
Semites, under which it will be given. The sub- 
ject is deferred to that part of this work which 
will go later into print, for the reason that every 
month is adding to the knowledge of the students 
of ancient oriental history and clearing away dis- 
puted questions. It is quite possible that the 
time between the publication of our first volume 
and our fourth or fifth may make important ad- 
ditions to the scanty literature of the subject in 
English. Slodem excavation on the sites of the 
ancient cities in the East, bringing to light large 
library collections of inscribed clay tablets, — 
sacred and historical writings, official recoida, 




business contracts and many varieties of inscrip- 
tions, — have almost revolutionized the study of 
ancient history and the views of antiquity derived 
from it. " M. Botta, who was appointed French 
consul at llosul in 18-12, was the first to com- 
mence excavations on the sites of the buried 
cities of Assyria, and to him is due the honour of 
the first discovery of her long lost palaces. M. 
Botta commenced his labours at Kouyunjik, the 
llarge mound opposite 3[osul, but he found heie 
[very little to compensate for his labours. New 
at the time to excavations, he does not appear to 
have worked in the best manner; M. Botta at 
Kouyunjik contented himself with sinking pits 
in the mound, and on these proving unproduc- 
tive abandoning them. While JI. Botta was ex- 
cavating at Kouyunjik, his attention was called 
to the mounds of Khorsabad by a native of the 
village on that site ; and he sent a party of work- 
men to the spot to commence excavation. In a 
fiw days his perseverance was rewarded by the 
discovery of some sculptures, after which, aban- 
doning the work at Kouyunjik, he transferred 
his establishment to Khorsabad and thoroughly 
explored that site. . . . The palace which M. 
Botta had discovered ... is one of the most per- 
fect Assyrian buildings yet explored, and forms 
an excellent example of Assyrian architecture. 
Beside the palace on the mound of Khorsabad, 
M. Botta also opened the remains of a temple, 
and a grand porch decorated by six winged bulls. 
. . . The operations of M. Botta were brought 
to a close in 184.5, and a splendid collection of 
sculptures and other antiquities, the fruits of his 
labours, arrived in Paris in 1846 and was de- 
posited in the Louvre. Afterwards the French 
Government appointed M. Place consul at Mosul, 
and he continued some of the excavations of his 
predecessor. . . . Mr. Layard, whose attention 
was early turned in this direction, visited the 
country in 1840, and afterwards took a great in- 
terest in the excavations of M. Botta. At length, 
in 1845, Layard was enabled through the assis- 
tance of Sir Stratford Canning to commence exca- 
vations in Assyria himself. On the 8th of Novem- 
ber he started from Mosul, and descended the 
Tigris to Nimroud. . . . Mr. Layard has described 
in his works with great minuteness his successive 
excavations, and the remarkable and interesting 
discoveries he made. . . . After making these 
discoveries in Assyria, Mr. Layard visited Baby- 
lonia, and opened trenches in several of the 
mounds there. On the return of Mr. Layard to 
England, excavations were continued in the 
Euphrates valley under the superintendence of 
Colonel (now Sir Henry) Rawlinson. Under his 
directions, Jlr.. Hormuzd Rassam, Mr. Loftus, 
and Mr. Taylor excavated various sites and made 
numerous discoveries, the British Museum receiv- 
ing the best of the monuments. The materials 
collected in the national museums of France and 
England, and the numerous inscr