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Prepared for the Centennial Celebration held at 

Chai-nbersburg, Penn'a, July 4th, 1876, 

and Subsequently Enlarged 


" Incompleteness pervades all things human," — Dryden. 


JOHN M. POMEROY, Publisher. 





Over One Hundred Lithographic Illustrations, 

Drawn by W, W. Denslow. 
D. F. PURSEL, Publisher. 


Issued by D. F. PURSEL. 


f. A. Davis, Manager Pub. Dep't. 


Thomas Hunter, Lithographer. 


Copyright, 1877, by John M. Pomeroy. 
Additional Matter Copyrighted, 1878, by D. F. Pursel. 


BUILT IN 1794, f^EMOVEO 184-2. 



Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 9 

Neither William Penn nor his sons, John, Thomas and Richard, 
wlio succeeded to his rights as proprietors of the colony after his 
death, in 1718, were ever willing that settlements should be made 
anywhere in their new possessions without the consent of the 
Indians, until their claims to the soil had been extinguighed by 
purchase. Thus for nearly seventy years the best state of feeling 
existed between the settlers and the Indians. The latter were 
pleased to have the former come amongst them, pointed out volun- 
tarily the most desirable locations for settlement, encouraged the 
making of improvements, and lived in peace with those who thus 
became their neighbors. 

The lands in the " Kittochtinny," or jjresent Cumberland Valley, 
were not purchased from the Indians until October, 1736, and were 
not, therefore, before that time open for sale. But for several years 
prior to that period the agents of the proprietors, knowing the feel- 
ings of the Indians to be favorable, had encouraged settlers to come 
hither, and had issued to them special licenses for the settlement and 
securing of such tracts of land beyond the Susquehanna, Or ' Long, 
Crooked river," as might please their fancy. The lands embi aced in 
Amberson's Valley, Horse Valley, Path Valley, and the present 
counties of Bedford, Fulton, Blair, Huntingdon, Miflflin, Juniata 
and Snyder were not purchased from the Indians until October 
23d, 1758. 

History says that Benjamin Chambers was the first white man 
who made a settlement in what is now known as the county of 
Franklin. He was a native of the county Antrim, Ireland, of 
Scotch descent, and between the years 1726 and 1730 emigrated, 
with his brothers James, Robert and Joseph, to the Province of 
Pennsylvania. At that time neither Lancaster, York, Harris- 
burg or Carlisle had any existence. Harris' Ferry was the most 
prominent place in the interior of the State, and to that point the 
Chambers brothers made their way. Having heard of the beauty 
of the location upon which our town now stands, Benjamin boldly 
pushed out into the wilderness, was kindly received by the Indians, 
and obtained permission to settle on the place of his choice and 
make it his own. This was about the year 1730 ; and on the 30th of 
March, 1734, Thomas Blunston, the agent of the proiDrietaries, gave 
him a license " to take and settle and improve four hundred acres of 
land at the Falling Spring's mouth, and on both sides of the Cono- 
cochege Creek, for the conveniency of a grist mill and plantation." 
Such licenses were given by the agents of the proprietaries in advance 
of the extinguishment of the Indian title to the land, in order to 
fill up the valley speedily as far south as possible with those taking 
title from them, and thus crowd out and prevent the encroachments 
of settlers under Maryland rights, whose frontier posts, because of 

10 Historical Sketch of FrdnLlia County. 

the disputes and long delay in determining the boundary between 
the two colonies, were creeping too far westward and too much 
northward to suit tlie views of the Pennsylvania authorities. 


We all know what this jiart of our valley now is, with its thou- 
sands of largo, well-improved and well-tilled farms, and its liumireds 
of thousands of acres of elegant and valuable timbered lands. But 
if the reports which historians give us of its cliaracteristics in 1730-35 
be true, it must have then presented a very ditlerent appearance. 
Day, in his "Historical Collections of Pennsylvania," says: "It is 
a tradition, well supported, that a great part of the best lands in the 
Conococheague Valley were, at the first settlement of the country, 
what is now called in the Western States prairie. The land was 
without timber, covered with a rich, luxuriant grass, with some 
scattered trees, hazel bushes, wild plums and crab apples. It was 
then generally called ' the barrens.' The timber was to be found on 
or near the water courses, and on the slate soil. This accounts for 
the preference given by the early Scotch-Irish settlers to the slate 
lands before the limestone lands were surveyed or located. The 
slate lands had the attractions of wood, water courses and water 
meadows, and were free from rock at the surface. Before the intro- 
duction of clover, artificial grasses, and the improved system of 
agriculture, the hilly limestone land had its soil washed off, was 
disfigured with great gullies, aud was sold as unprofitable, for a 
trifle, by the proprietors, who sought other lands in Western Penn- 

Rupp, in his history of this county, says that the Reverend 
Michael Schlatter, a German Reformed minister, passed through 
this section of country in the year 1748, and in a letter dated May 
9th, 1748, saj's: "On the Cono-go-gig we reached the house of an 
h.ovie9>t scJvweitzer, (supposed to be Jacob Snivel^', of Antrim town- 
ship), where we received kind entertainment with thankfulness. 
In this neighborhood there are vt-r^^ fine lands for cultivation and 
pasture, exceedingly fruitful without the application of manures. 
The Turkish corn (Indian maize) grows to the height of ten feet, 
and higher, and the grasses are remarkably fine. Hereabouts there 
still remain a good number of Indians, the original dwellers of the 
soil. They are hospitable and quiet, and well aflfected to the chris- 
tians until the latter make them drunk with strong driiik." 

When we look at the immense bodies of fine timber in the lime- 
stone regions of our county, and compare the productiveness of our 
limestone lands with that of our slate lands, we cannot but think 
that ^^ tradition" must have been in error in this report. But, 
whether correct or incorrect in this regard, the fact is undeniable 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 11 

that the country was very rapidly settled. The Scotch-Irish, that 
" pugnacious and impracticable race," as one of the early governors 
called them, flowed into the valley in vast numbers, and from 1730 
to 1735, settled upon and improved large tracts of land at various 
points, from the Susquehanna to the southern line of the province, 
and by their presence and well-known attachment to Protestant 
modes of thought and government, forever put to rest all the 
fears of the proprietaries that the adherents of Catholic Maryland 
would ever take away from them their rights along the southern 
boundaries of their possessions. 


And here it may not, perhaps, be out of place to devote a few 
minutes to the consideration of the facts connected with a question 
long since settled, but one which for eighty years occupied the 
attention of the authorities of Pennsylvania and Maryland, which 
led to much bad feeling between the citizens of contiguous territo- 
ries, to riots, and even to bloodshed; which, after many unavailing 
attempts at settlement here in the New World, was adjourned to the 
presence of the King and his Lords in Council in the Old World, 
and which, long after the death of the original parties in interest, 
the Quaker Penn and the Cavalier Calvert, Lord Baltimore, was on 
this day (the 4th of July, 1760) one hundred and sixteen years ago, 
amicably settled by their descendants. I refer to the boundary line 
between the colonies of Pennsylvania and Maryland, a line for the 
past one hundred and nine years known as "Mason and Dixon's 
Line," because it was run and marked upon the ground by Charles 
Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two English astronomers, in 1767, 
under appointment fi'om the Penns and Lord Baltimore. It forms 
the southern boundary of our county at 39°, 43^, 26.3^^ of north lati- 
tude. For one hundred and thirty-two miles, or to the eastern base 
of Sideling Hill mountain, at the end of every fifth mile a stone was 
planted, on which were engraven the arms of the proprietors on the 
sides facing their possessions, respectively, the intermediate miles 
being noted each by a stone having M on the one side and P on the 
other. I have no doubt many of you have seen these stones scat- 
tered along the southern boundary of our county. 

In order to understand properly this long vexed question, a brief 
recurrence to the history of the early settlements made on our 
Atlantic coast will be necessary. 

The knowledge of American geography, in those days, was very 
imperfect. It embraced little beyond the great headlands, bays and 
rivers, and their true positions were not reliably known. But the 
monarehs of the Old World, who cared little about their undevel- 
oped possessions in the New World, and who executed conveyances 

12 Historical Sl:etch of Fran/:fi)i Countij. 

whit'h t'()V(.'iV(! the larjrer parts of a continent, assunii'd that thoy 
knew all about the localities of capes, bays, islands, and rivers and 
towns, and that the distances they jilaced them npart were reliable. 
They were less precise in the location of points, and in the use of 
terms which were to define the boundaries of future States, than we 
are now in describint!: a town lot. The consequences were conflict- 
injjc j;:rants, leading to long and anjjfry dispute, such as that which 
ji^rew out of tlie conflicting claims arising out of the boundary line 
between Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

It appears that a certain Captain John Smith, a l)old navigator of 
the early part of the 17th century, had been employed by the com- 
panies to whom King James f. of England had granted the greater 
part of his American possessions, to explore our coast and make a 
map of the true location of its capes, bays, rivers, &c. Having 
finished his surveys, he returned to England in 1(514 and made out a 
map and an account of his explorations, which he presented to the 
King's son, afterwards Charles I., who thereupon named the terri- 
tory N<m' En(jl(i)id. 

In June, U)32, King Charles I. granted to Ceeilius Calvert (Lord 
Baltimore) all the land from thirty-eight degrees of north latitude 
"unto that part of Delaware Bay which lieth under the fortieth 
degree of north latitude, where New England terminates; and all 
that tract of land, from the aforesaid hay of Delaware, in a right 
line, by the degree aforesaid, to the true meridian of the first foun- 
tain of the river Potomac " 

At that time the whole territory within this grant, with the 
exception of a small settlement upon Kent's Island, in the Chesa- 
peake bay, was a wilderness, uninhabited by a single white man. 
Captain John Smith's majD was relied upon in fixing the boundaries 
of ^laryland, and for years afterwards Lord Baltimore and his heirs 
paid no particular attention to where those boundaries really were. 
The grant to them was undoubtedly intended to carry Maryland up 
to New England, and out to the banks of the Delaware easttv((rd, 
and to the sources of the Potomac on the west. 

In 1G88 the first Swedish colonists landed in the Delaware, and 
bought from the natives they found there rights to settle along the 
western shore of the bay and the river up as high as the Trenton 
Falls. They were unwittingly trespassing upon Lonl Baltimore's 
territory. They multiplied rapidly in numbers, built forts and 
towns, and were very successful in cultivating the soil and in 
obtaining and retaining the good will of the surrounding Indians. 
In 1655 the Dutch conquered the Swedes, and annexed their little 
State to their possessions at New York. 

In 16G4 King Charles II. granted New York, the greater part of 
New Jersey and Delaware, to his brother, the Duke of York, after- 
wards James II. So far as this grant purported to give away the 

Historical Sketch of FranMin County. 13 

territory embraced in the present State of Delaware, it was un- 
doubtedly a violation of the grant made by King Charles I., in 
1632, to Lord Baltimore. His successor endeavored, without success, 
to have this grant annulled. 

In 1681 William Penn obtained his grant from Charles II. When 
he petitioned for it, in 1680, it was stated that it was desired to lie 
west of the Delaware river, and north of Maryland. It is well 
known that Lord Baltimore's charter was the model used by Penn 
when he drafted his own charter for Pennsylvania. He had thus 
express notice that Maryland reached to the Delaware bay, and 
included all the land abutting thereon " which lieth under the fortieth 
degree of north latitude, where New England terminates. ' ' A degree 
of latitude is not a mere line, but is a definite quantity, or belt, upon 
the earth's surface, of sixty-nine and a-half statute miles in width, 
and nothing short of the northern end of those sixty-nine and a-half 
miles will complete a degree of latitude. Therefore, the end of the 
northern boundary of Maryland undoubtedly was where the forty- 
first degree of north latitude commenced, for the Neiv England 
grant was/ro??r the fortieth degree. 

But where was the fortieth degree of north latitude believed to be 
in 1632, when Lord Baltimore's grant was made; and in 1681, when 
William Penn received his grant? In making these grants, history 
says Captain Smith's map of 1614 was used, and was believed to be 
correct. By that map the fortieth degree is laid down as crossing 
the Delaware a little beloiv where New Castle stands, whilst its true 
location is now known to be a little over nineteen miles north of 
that point, and above the citi/ of Philadelphia. 

This error was not discovered until in the year 1682. Its conse- 
quences upon their respective claims and rights was at once seen and 
duly estimated by the parties most deeply interested — Penn, Lord 
Baltimore and the Duke of York. The former was most deeply dis- 
appointed — Lord Baltimore was elated — the Duke of York was 
rather indifferent. He was near the throne, being the next heir to it, 
and feared not the result. Besides, he was in possession. It was thus 
poioer Sigsdn^t parchment as far as he was concerned. Penn concluded 
that might would eventually become right. He bought the Duke of 
York's title. A long contest of eighty years followed. King 
Charles died in 1685, and the Duke of York succeeded him as 
James II. Lord Baltimore had nothing to expect in that quarter. 
In June, 1691, William III. annulled the charter of Maryland, 
and constituted the colony a royal province, of which he appointed 
Sir Lionel Copley Governoi*. In 1715 Benedict Charles Calvert, 
the fourth Lord Baltimore, obtained from King George I. a restora- 
tion of his rights. In 1718 William Penn died, and the boundary 
line contest went on year after year, each party claiming authority 
over, and granting lands in the disputed territory, until the year 

14 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

IToS, wlu'ii flu' lu'irs of IVnii and Lord Baltimore made an agree- 
ment wheroljy the lines between the two j)rovinees, known to sur- 
veyors and in liistory as the "Temporary Line," was estahlisiied. 
That agreement provided that Eant of the Sustjuehanna river the 
line shoiihl be, until finally settled, fifteen and one-quarter miles 
south of the most southern part of the city of Philadelphia, and 
Went of the Susquehanna to the western end of the line, at a point 
fourteen and thrce-<fnarter miles south of the most southern ])art of 
the said eity ; and that the holders of lands on either side of the line 
should not be disturbed in their titles, wlu-tiier granted by the 
Penns or Lord Baltimore. This agreement (piieted disputes about 
all previous grants of land north and south of the disi)uted line, but 
did not determine exactly where the true line should be fixed for 
the future ; and over that the contest went on until tlie 4th of July, 
I7(i0 — 116 years ago, when a compromise, as I have already stated, 
was effected, which settled the true boundary and saved to Pennsyl- 
vania a strip of territory along her soutliein line, from the Dela- 
ware to the Laurel Hills, over nineteen miles in width, embracing 
hundreds of thousands of acres of tiie best and most beautiful and 
productive lands of the State. To that great compromise are we as 
Pennsylvanians indebted that Philadelphia, Chester, Media, West 
Chester, York, Gettysburg, Chambersburg, and a hundred other 
tow-ns and villages are not Maryland towns, and we citizens of the 
South, and perhaps rebels — hoping yet for the ultimate triumph of 
the "Lost Cause," and hoping also that Congress will soon pay us 
for our slaves emancipated by the late war for the Right. 


The precise dates at which settlers began to locate in the neighbor- 
hood of Greencastle, Welsh Run, Mercersburg, Loudon, Strasburg, 
Rocky Spring, Shippensburg, Middle Si)ring, Big Spring, Silvers' 
Spi'ing, and other points towards the Susquehanna are not known, 
as in many cases the earlier records of even the churches of the 
valley are lost ; but they must have been commenced between the 
years 1730 and 1735, for within a few years afterwards Presbyterian 
congregations were organized at nearly all these places. Wherever 
the Scotch-Irishman went, one of his first eflforts, after locating, was 
to secure the stated preaching of the gosjiel, (through the organiza- 
tion of a congregation of his faith), and by the year 1740 Presby- 
terian churches were found dotted over the broad bosom of this 
valley, almost invariably in a grove of shady trees, and near a spring 
of pure, crystal water. 

"Their pews of unpainted pine, straight-backed and tall ; 

Their gal'ries mounted high, three sides around ; 
Their pulpits goblet-shaped, half up tlie wall, 

With sounding-board above, with acorn crowned." 


> College. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 15 


In 1735, the "North Valley," embracing all the territory from the 
Susquehanna to the Maryland line, was divided, by order of the 
Court of Lancaster county, into two townships, by a line crossing 
the valley at the "Great Spring," now Newville— the eastern town- 
ship to be called "Pennsborough" and the western one "Hopewell," 
and a Justice of the Peace and a Constable were appointed for each. 

On the 4th of November of the same year an order was granted by 
the same Court for the laying out of a public road from Harris' 
Ferry towards the Potomac river, and strange to say it was "opposed 
by a considerable number of the inhabitants on the west side of the 
Susquehanna, in those parts." As the people had no public roads 
down the valley at that time, and such conveniencies were certainly 
much needed in the new country, I can conceive of no reason for 
this opposition other than, perhaps, that the road did not pass near 
the settlements of those who desired a review of its route. 

Our whole county, except the present townships of Warren. Metal 
and Fannett, and a considerable part of the present county of Cum- 
berland, was at this date, 1735, in "Hopewell" township, Lancaster 
county. Of the number of the population then in either township 
I have not been able to obtain any data. The following is a state- 
ment of the taxes assessed for several years thereafter, viz. : 

1786. Hopewell, 


















7 9d. 






8 1 







19 3 






In 1741 Hopewell township was divided by the Courts of Lancas- 
ter county by a line "beginning at the 'North Hill' — or North Moun- 
tain, at Benjamin Moore's House, thence to Widow Hewry's and 
Samuel Jameson's, and on a straight line to the 'South Hill,' or South 
Mountain — the western division to be called '^ Antrim,'' and the east- 
ern ' Hopewell.' " Where this line ran I cannot say positively, but 
I believe that it was about where the division line now is between 
the counties of Cumberland and Franklin. The new township 
thus embraced all of our present county, except the territory in the 
townships of Fannett, Metal and Warren, which never was within 
the township of Antrim. 


The following taxes were assessed in Antrim township, Lancaster 
county, for the following years — viz. : 

16 Jlinforical S/:< tch of Frduklin Connfif. 

1741 £ 9 3s, 2d. 

1742 8 IS 2 

1743 19 10 7 

1744 22 4 7 

1745 1(5 14 8 

1746 14 13 8 

1747 11 1 2 

1748 7 19 4 

1749 21 18 8 


On the 29th day of January, 17o(), the county of Cumberland was 
formed. It embraced all the lands in the State westward of the 
Sus(iuehanna and the Soutli Mountain, and iiicUided all of Fulton 
and Bedford counties. There were then in tlie Cumberland Valley 
between eiglit hundred and one thousand taxables, and tlie whole 
population was between three and four thousand. The courts were 
first held at Shippensburg, but were removed to Carlisle in 1751, 
after that town was laid out. All the settlements in the valley were 
of inconsiderable size — mere stragijling villages — containing each 
but a few houses and a small number of people. 

According to "Rupp's History of the 8ix Counties," the taxables 
in the various townships of Cumberland county, now embraced in 
our county, were then as follows— viz : 

In Lurgan, 174 

" Antrim, 133 

" Peters, 167 

" Guilford, 31 

" Hamilton, 42 

Total, 547 

The settlers were at their various "improvements" scattered all 
over the country, busily engaged, each for himself, in erecting his 
necessary buildings and bringing the soil under fence and cultiva- 
tion. The In<lians had removed beyond tiie western mountains, 
and only occasionally returned in small numbers to see their for- 
mer possessions and trade off their peltries with its possessors. 
Peace and friendship had reigned for time beyond the memory of the 
oldest inhabitant of the land. 


But this desirable condition of things was fast hastening to a close. 
War had existed between England and France for six years, having 
been declared by both nations in 1744. The settlers of this valley 
had not yet felt any of its disastrous consequences because of their 
inland location. It is true that in 1748 they had associated them- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 17 

selves together for the support of their home and foreign govern- 
ments, and had elected Benjamin Chambers, Esq., their Colonel, 
Robert Dunning, their Lifutenant Colonel, and William Maxwell, 
their Major. Loyalty to King and country filled every bosom. 

But their danger was not to come from the east, but from the far 
west. The cruel Indian, at the instigation, and often under the 
leadership of equally cruel and crafty Frenchmen, who had repudi- 
ated every common characteristic of their nationality, were to 
lay their homes in ashes and slaughter their helpless wives and 
innocent children, in the hope that the pathway of American em- 
pire westward might thereby be stayed. Vain hope ! Though their 
outrages commenced by isolated abductions and murders in 1752, 
they became more fearful and more horrible in 1753 and 1754, and 
culminated in 1755, by the disastrous defeat and slaughter of Gen- 
eral Braddock and the flower of the English army— and though the 
hills and valleys of this fair land, from the Susquehanna to far 
down beyond the Potomac, were swept by fire and drenched with 
blood— yet the hardy settlers rallied to the contest, and after sending 
their families to places of safety, under the leadership of Col. Arm- 
strong, Col. Potter, Captain Smith, Rev. John Steele, and other gal- 
lant spirits, gave back blow for blow. Hundreds of lives were lost, 
and the greatest distress everywhere prevailed. Says Gordon, in his 
history of Pennsylvania: "In the fall of 1755 the country west of 
the Susquehanna had 3,000 men in it fit to bear arms, and in Au- 
gust 1756, exclusive of the Provincial forces, there were not one 
hundred left. 


The war raged for twelve years. During this period the following 
forts were built in this and the adjoining valleys, viz. : 

Fort Louther, at Carlisle, 1753 

" Le Tort, " " I753 

" Crogan, in Cumberland county, . . . 1754 

" Morriss, at Shippensburg, .... 1755 

" Steele, at the "White Church,". ... " 

" Loudon, near Loudon, . . . . . 1755 

" M'Dowell, near Bridgeport, . . . . " 

" M'Cord, near Parnell's Knob, ... " 

" Chambers, at Chambersburg, ... " 

" Davis, near Maryland line, at Davis' Knob, " 

" Franklin, at Shippensburg, .... " 

" Lyttleton, in Fulton county, .... " 

" Armstrong, north-east of Loudon, . . 1764 

" Dickey, Cumberland county, ... " 

" Ferguson, " " .... " 

" M'Callister, near Roxbury, .... " 

" M'Connell, south of Strasburg, ... " 

18 Hhtoricdf Slcctch of Franklin Coiintij. 

besides a number of other private fortifications at various other 
points, of wliieh very little is now known. 

A brief description of one of these forts (Louther, at Carlisle) 
-will jrive a fair idea of the manner in which they were nearly all 
constructed : 

Around the area to bo embraced within the fort a ditch was dug 
to tlie doi)th of about four feet. In this oak logs — or logs of some 
other kind of timber not easily set on fire — or cut through, and 
about seventeen or eighteen feet long, i)ointed at the top, were placed 
in an upright position. Two sides of the logs were hewn fiat, and 
the sides were brought close together and fastened securely near the 
top, by horizontal pieces of timber spiked or pinned ujion their 
inner sides, so as to m:ike the whole stockade firm and staunch. 
The ditch having been filled up again, platforms were constructed 
all around the inner siiles of the enclosure some four or five feet 
from the ground, and ujton these the defenders stood, and fired 
through loop holes left near the top of the stockade, upon those who 
were investing or attacking the fort. A few gates were left in the 
stockade for ingress and egress, and they were made as strong and 
secure, and as capable of defence as the means of those within 
would enable them to make them. Within these forts the people of 
the surrounding districts of country were often compelled to fly for 
protection from the tomahawks and scalping knives of the savages 
when they made their forays into the frontier settlements of this and 
the neighboring valleys. One of these forts in our county (Mc- 
Cord's, near Parnoll's Knob) was captured by the Indians on or 
about the 4th of April, 17o6, and burned, and all the inmates, twenty- 
seven in number, were either killed or carried into captivity. 


In 1755 instructions were given by the proprietaries to their agents 
that they should take especial care to encourage the emigration of 
Irishmen to Cumberland county, and send all the German emi- 
grants, if possible, to York county. The mingling of the two races in 
Lancaster county, they said, had been productive of bad consequen- 
ces by causing ill feelings and serious riots, when they came together 
at elections. Nearly all the people in this valley tlien were Irish, 
and those known as Scotch-Irish, and hence, perhaps, it was the 
part of wisdom in the proprietaries to desire to have those of one 
blood, and nationality, and religious feeling, together. They were 
also, almost all of them, Presbyterians of the real "blue-stocking" 
type. . 

The term "Scotch-Irish" originated in this wise. In the time of 
James I. of England, who, as is well known, was a Scotch Presby- 
terian, the Irish Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell conspired against 

Historical Sketch of Franld'm County. 19 

his government, fled from Ireland, were outlawed, and their es- 
tates, consisting of about 500,000 acres of land, were seized by the 
crown. King James divided these lands into small tracts and gave 
them to persons from his own country (Scotland) because they were 
Protestants, on the sole condition that they should cross over into 
Ireland within four years and locate upon them. A second insur- 
rection soon after gave occasion for another large forfeiture, and 
nearly six counties in the province of Ulster were confiscated, and 
taken possession of by the officers of the government. The King 
was a zealous sectarian, and his primary object was to root out the 
native Irish, who were all Catholics, hostile to his government, and 
a'most constantly engaged in plotting against it, and to re-people the 
country with those whom he knew would be loyal. The distance 
from Scotland to the county Antrim, in Ireland, was but twenty 
miles. The lands thus offered free of cost were among the best and 
most productive in the Emerald Isle, though blasted and made barren 
by the troubles of the times and the indolence of a degraded peas- 
antry. Having the power of the government to encourage and pro- 
tect them, the inducements offered to the industrious Scotch could 
not be resisted. Thousands went over. Many of them, though not 
Lords, were Lairds, and all of them were men of enterprise and 
energy, and above the average in intelligence. They went to work 
to restore the land to fruitfulness, and to show the superiority of 
their habits and belief to those of the natives among whom they 
settled. They soon made the counties of Antrim, Armagh, Caven, 
Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone 
(names all familiar to Pennsylvania ears) to blossom as the rose. 

These were the first Protestants introduced into Ireland. They 
at once secured the ascendancy in the counties in which they settled, 
and their descendants have maintained that ascendancy to the pres- 
ent day against the efforts of the Government Church on the one 
hand, and the Romanists on the other. They did not intermarrv 
with the Irish who surrounded them. The Scotch were Saxon in 
blood and Presbyterian in religion, whilst the Irish were Celtic in 
blood and Roman Catholic in religion, and these were elements 
that would not readily coalesce. Hence the races are as distinct in 
Ireland to-day, after a lapse of two hundred and fifty years, as when 
the Scotch first crossed over. The term "Scotch-Irish" is purely 
American. In Ireland it is not used, and here it was given to the 
Protestant emigrants from the north of Ireland simply because they 
were the descendants of the Scots, who had in former times taken 
up their residence there. 

But in after times persecutions fell upon their descendants, under 
Catholic governments, and during the century preceding the date 
of which I am speaking— or from 1664 to 1764— large numbers had 
emigrated from the north of Ireland and settled in New Jersey, Mary- 

20 Jliatorical SIcctch of FrnnLlin Count}/. 

l:iiul ami North Carolina; anci wiien William Poiin foniidcd his 
government here, and oftVred free lands, free opinions, free worsiiip, 
and freedom to choose their own rules, and make their own laws, 
and reijulate their own taxes, to all who would come hither, thou- 
sancls upon thousands, often embraeinfr nearly whole neijrhborhoods, 
for the reasons j,nven, ami because of the high rents demaiided by 
their landlords, as fast as they could jrt-t away, hastened to accept 
the invitation, and year after year the tide rolled westward, until it 
almost looked as if those ])arts of Ireland were to be depopulated. 
In September, 1736, alone, one thousand families sailed from lielfast. 
because of their inability to renew their leases upon satisfactory 
terms, and the most of them came to the eastern and middle coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania. They hoped by a change of residence to find 
a freer field for the exercise of their industry and skill, and for the 
enjoyment of their religious opinions. They brought with them a 
hatred of oppression, and a love of freedom in its fullest measure, 
that served much to give that independent tone to the sentiments of 
our people which prevailed in their controversies with their home 
and foreign governments years before they seriously thought of in- 

They filled up this valley. They cut down its forests, and brought 
its fair lands under cultivation. They fought the savage and stood 
as a wall of fire against his farther forays eastward. Between 1771 
and 1773, over twenty-five thousand of them (all Presbyterians) 
came hither, driven from the places of their birth by the rapacity of 
their landlords. This was just before our revolutionary war, and 
whilst the angry controversies that preceded it were taking place 
between the American colonies and the English government, and 
these emigrants, upon their arrival here, were just in that frame of 
mind that was needed to make them take the part they did with the 
patriots in favor of liberty and independence of the mother country. 

The Scotch-Irish, in the struggle for national independence, were 
ever to be found on the side of the colonies. A tory was unheard of 
amongst them. I doubt if the race ever produced one. Pennsyl- 
vania owes much of what she is to-day to the fact that so many of 
this race settled within her borders as early as they did. They were 
our military leaders in all times of danger, and they were among 
our most prominent law-makers in the earliest days of the colony, 
and through and after the long and bitter struggle for freedom and 
human rights. They helped to make our constitutions and to frame 
our fundamental laws; they furnished the nation with five Presi- 
dents, and our State with seven Governors, many United States 
Senators, Congressmen, Judges, and others eminent in all the avo- 
caiions of life. The names of these patriots and wise men, as well 
as the names of many of their descendants, are familiar words, not 
only here but throughout the Union ; and none of the many diverse 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 21 

nationalities of which this great people is composed, did more for 
the national good, prosperity and glory, than those known as the 
"Scotch-Irish," and their descendants. 


In those days the chief route of communication from Philadel- 
phia and the eastern i)arts of the colony to the west, was up this 
valley to Shippensburg, thence by the old military road across to 
Fort Loudon, thence over the mountains to Bedford, and thence to 
Fort Cumberland. All transportation was done by pack horses, 
each carrying about 200 pounds. Sir John Sinclair, Quarter Master 
General of General Braddock, moved much of his supplies by that 
route, and had one of his principal magazines at M'Dowell's mill, 
or fort. And after Braddock's defeat a large part of his dispirited 
and destitute troops returned by that route, and were quartered at 
Shippensburg and Carlisle. In 1755 the Province of Pennsylvania 
made a broad wagon road from F rt Loudon w^estward, which Gen- 
eral Forbes and Colonel Bouquet and others used in their western 
expeditions. Upon that road, for the greater part of its length, the 
present Chambersburg aud Pittsburg turnpike was built. 

Colonel Samuel Miles, in his manuscript, says: 

"In the year 1758, the expedition against Fort Du Quesne, now 
Pittsburg, was undertaken, and our batallion joined the British 
■army at Carlisle. At this time Captain Lloyd had been promoted 
to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, but retained his company, of 
which I had the command as Captain Lieutenant, and was left some 
time in command of the garrison at Shippensburg. On my march- 
ing from thence with s brigade of wagons under my charge, at 
Chambers', about eleven miles from Shippensburg, the men muti- 
nied, and were loreparingto march, but by my reasoning with them, 
and at the saiTie time threatening them, the most of them consented 
to resume their march to Fort Loudon, where Lieutenant Scott was 
with eight or ten months' pay. While the army lay at Ligonier, 
we were attacked by a body of French and Indians, and I was 
wounded on the foot by a spent ball. In November of this year 
(November 25th, 1758) the army took possession of Fort Du Quesne, 
under the command of General Forbes, a poor, emaciated old man, who 
for the most part of the march was obliged to be carried in a horse 
litter. In the year 1759 I was stationed at Ligonier, and had 
twenty-five picked men, out of tiie two batallions under my com- 
mand." Miles'' Manuscript, second volume, new edition of Penn- 
sylvania Archives, pages 559-60. 

This extract establishes the fact that, as early as 1758, transporta- 
tion by wagons was also done from Shippensburg, past Mr. Cham- 
bers' settlement to Fort Loudon, though there was another and older 
route across the country, directly between those points. 

22 Iluitorical Sketch of Fr<inh!in Counti/. 


In 17G4 BtMijainin CIj.uuIxm's I;ii(l out his town t)f ('hainl)er.slHirg 
at tliis point. The settlement, tliouj^ii over thirty years old tlien, 
must still have been (juite small. The town plot was south of the 
Fallinpr Sprinjr and east of the Conoeodieague, and looked more for 
a southern than a western extension, as is evidenced by the improve- 
ments towards the south. Colonel Chambers, in his advertisement 
in the Pennsylvania Onzptte, printed at Philadelphia, in 1764, in 
which ho announced tliat the drnwinf/ for lots in his new town 
would take jilacc on the 2Sth of June, inst., says that "it is situated 
in a tvrH thnhered part of the country." This statement made only 
thirty-four years after he settled in the county, stroni^ly negatives 
the traditionary report that when the first settlements were made in 
tliis valley it was a, prairie country, devoid of timber, except alonjj 
the streams, 


It was to be expected when the first nuitterings of our revolution- 
ary contest werelieard, that the Scotch- Irisli people of this valley 
would be amongst the earliest to rise up against the threatened op- 
pression, and prej^are for the struggle. Accordingly, we find that as 
early as thel2thof July, 1774, the citizens of Cumberland county met 
at Carlisle, John ISIontgomery, Esq., of Irish nativity, in the chair, 
and adopted resolutions condemning the act of Parliament closing 
the port of Boston, recommending a General Coiu/rcssi from all the 
Colonies, the abandonment of the use of British merchandise, and 
api)ointing deputies to concert measures for the meetingof the GJen- 
eral Congress. The news of the battles of Lexington and Concord, 
fought on the 19th of April, 1775, was received with a thrill of in- 
dignation all over Pennsylvania. In the distant county of Cum- 
berland, the war cry was no sooner sounded than its freemen rallied 
in thousands for military organization and association, in defence of 
their rights. A writer in the American Archives, volume 2, page 
510, dated Carlisle, May 6th, 1775, says: "Yesterday the County 
Committer from nineteen townships met, on the short notice they 
had. About 3000 men have already associated. Tlie arms returned 
are about fifteen hundred. The committee have voted five hundred 
efficient men, besides commissioned officers, to be taken into pay, 
armed and disciplined, to march on the first emergency ; to be paid 
and supported as long as necessary, by a tax on all estates, real and 
personal." Next morning they met again, and voted that they 
were ready to raise fifteen hundred or two thousand men," should 
they be needed, and put a debt of ,£27,000 per annum upon the 
county. That was doing nobly for a poor backwoods county. 

During the summer of 1775 various companies from the county of 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 23 

Cumberland marched to join the army of Washington at the seige 
of Boston. One was from this place, under the command of James 
Chambers. Captain Chambers was in a short time made a Colonel, 
and he, and the company he took from here, remained in the ser- 
vice until near the close of the revolutionary war. 

The Pennsylvania Assembly, in November, 1775, appointed dele- 
gates to represent the Province in Congress, and expressly instructed 
them "that they, in behalf of this colony, dissent from and utterly 
reject any propositions, should such be made, that may cause or 
lead to a separation from our mother country, or a change of the 
form of this government." 


On the 18th of June, 1776, a Provincial Conference of committees 
of the Province of Pennsylvania, met at Carpenter's Hall, in the 
city of Philadelphia. Cumberland county sent the following depu- 
ties to that conference, viz. : James M'Lene, Colonel John Allison, 
John M'Clay, Dr. John Calhoun, John Creigh, Hugh M'Cormiek' 
William Elliott, Colonel William Clark, John Harris, Hugh Alex- 
ander, Of these, we know that Messrs. M'Lane, Allison, M'Clay, 
Calhoun and Creigh, were from this county, and perhaps some of 
the others also. 

That conference, on the 19th of June, 1776, Resolved "that a con- 
vention should be called to form a neiv government, on the author- 
ity of the people only ;" and on the 24th of June, adopted unani- 
mously, an address to Congress, in which they declared that on be- 
half of the people of Pennsylvania they were "willing to concur in 
a vote of Congress declaring the United Colonies free and independ- 
ent states." 


The people of Cumberland county, of all nationalities, Irish, Ger- 
man, and English, were among the first to form the opinion that 
the safety and welfare of the colonies did render separation from 
the mother country necessary ; and on the 28th of May, 1776, pre- 
sented their memorial to the Colonial Assembly, setting forth their 
opinions and asking "that the instructions given to the Pennsyl- 
vania delegates in the Continental Congress, in 1775, to oppose any 
action that might lead to a separation from Great Britain, may be 
withdrawn,^^ and the instructions were withdrawn, and our dele- 
gates in Congress allowed to vote as they thought the best interests 
of the country required. 

The County Committee, in a letter to the President of Congress, 
dated August 16th, 1776, said : "The twelfth company of our militia 
marched to-day, and six companies more are collecting arms and 

24 Historical Sketch of Fran/din Cminti/. 

are i>ivp:iriiii^ to murt-li." All this was done hi .six weeks after in- 
tlepeiideiiee was declared. The followinu- persons eoininaiided tliir- 
teeii of those companies, viz.: John Steele, Samuel I'ostletliwaite, 
Andrew (Jalbreath, Samuel M'Cune, Thomas Turhott, Jame.s M'Con- 
nell, William Huston, Thomas Clarke, John Hutton, Robert Cul- 
bertson, Charles Lecher, Conrad Schneider, Lieutenant Colonel 
Frederick Watts. These all, officers and men, were inured to hard- 
ship and experienced in warfare, and but a few days were recjuired to 
get ready to meet their country's enemies wherever their services were 
required ; and duriuf? the whole revolutionary contest, the people of 
the Cumberland valley did their full shaiein raising men and money 
for the public servi<!e, and I have referred to their conduct and servi- 
ces because we, of the county of Franklin, althouj^h not then organ- 
ized as a county, are justly entitled to a part of the honor of their 
deeds, and because I look upon their deeds as part of the history of 
our county. 

Thelievolutionary War was closed by the Treaty of Paris, between 
Great Britain and the "United States of America," signed on the 
3t)th of November, 1782, which was ratilied by Congress in April, 
1783, and during its continuance the Province of Pennsylvania 
contributed its full share of men and money towards the carrying on 
of the contest. Of the latter essential, [money), I see by the accounts 
of the Provincial Treasurer, the county of Cumberland was called 
upon to furnish the following, viz. : 

Her quota of the five million tax, . £17,225 18s. 6d. 

" " fifteen " . 111,968 10 3 

" " forty-five " . 159,o.5o 2 6 

" " firsteii<ht monthly taxes, 638,220 10 

'« " second " " 638,220 10 

£1,565,190 lis. 3d. 
It was impossible for the people of the county of Cumberland to 
pay all this immense taxation, and from the same authority, out of 
which I have copied the above statement, I learn that on the first 
of October, 1782, the county owed thereon £442,463, 17s., 5d., in Con- 
tinental money, equal to £16,986, 2s., 9d. of State money, of the 
value in specie, of £5,899, 18s., lid. Whether this debt was ever 
paid, I know not. I only now refer to it to show the vast difference 
that then existed between the paper money of the country and 


On the 9th day of September, 1784, an act of Assembly was passed 
erecting the county of FrankIjTN out of the south-western part of 
the county of Cumberland, leaving all of Hopewell township in 
Cumberland county. The act of Assembly gives the following as 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 25 

the boundary line between the two counties, viz. : "Beginning on 
the York (now Adams) county line, in the South mountain, at the 
intersection of the lines between Lurgan and Hopewell townships, 
thence by the line of Lurgan township (leaving Shippensburg to 
the eastward of the same) to the line of Fannett township; and 
thence by the lines of the last mentioned township (including the 
same) to the line of Bedford county." 

Nothing is said about dividing Hopewell township, and it must 
therefore have all been left in Cumberland county. There were, how- 
ever, some doubts about the line near the town of Shippensburg, and 
on the 29th of March. 1790, an act was passed defining that part of the 
line and declaring that it should run " so as to leave the tract of land 
belonging to the late Edward Shippen, Esq., whereon the town of 
Shippensburg is erected, within the county of Cumberland." 

The proposition for the erection of a new county had agitated the 
public mind for some time. At the July session of the General 
Assembly, in the year 1784, a petition was presented, signed by John 
Rannells, John Johnston, James M'Camraont, John Scott, Dr. 
George Clingin, Samuel Royer, Pat. Campbell, Patrick Vance, Nat. 
M'Dowell, Richard Brownson, Geo, Matthews, Oliver Brown, Jas. 
Campbell, Thos. Campbell, John Colhoun, John Holliday, John 
Crawford, Josiah Crawford, Edward Crawford, John Boggs, Jere- 
miah Talbot, William Rannells, Joseph Armstrong, James Broth- 
erton, Benjamin Chambers, Benjamin Chambers, Jr., Joseph 
Chambers, James Chambers, William Chambers, and a large num- 
ber of other citizens, asking that the division liae should be fixed 
at the Big spring, or where Newville now is, so as to put Hopewell 
township in this county; and asking the Legislature to fix the 
county seat "at the most suitable and convenient place"— which to 
them, of course, would be at Chambersburg. 

The contemplated act of Assembly had been published, and was 
not satisfactory to the people of Lurgan township, for at the next 
session of the Assembly, held on the 21st of August, 1784, one hun- 
dred of them remonstrated against its passage "because the militia 
batallion and the religious society to which they belonged would be 
divided and thrown into different counties, and the social inter- 
course requisite in these respects, would be greatly obstructed," not 
to mention the burdens that would grow out of the erection of a 
new court house, prison, &c. They therefore asked to be left 
within the boundaries of Cumberland county. 

The people of Greencastle and the southern part of the county 
thought that the seat of justice should be located there. Two hun- 
dred and thirty-four of them, on the 21st qf August, 1784, presented 
their petition, asking that the question of the selection of the county 
seat be left to a vote of the people, allowing two or more places for 
the election to be held at. 

26 Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 

They representi-d that the town of Greencastle had been laid out 
about eifjjliteen months, on the (•rossiii<;r of tlie main road from Fort 
Pitt to Ikdtimore, and the Carhsle road leading tliroiijrh Maryhmd 
and Virginia, and is eciuallj' as central as Chambers' town ; that 
there are already twenty houses in Greencastle, and a number more 
building; and it is much better situated to draw the trade of the 
back countries from Maryland, which at present goes chiefly to 
Hageibtown, and is so considerable, as to enable more than thirty 
persons, inhabitants of that place, to carry on business in the 
commercial line. The command of this trade would, we api)rehend, 
be a considerable ad%'antage, not only to this county, but to the 
commonwealth in general." 

The Chambersburgers were successful ; the county was formed as 
they wished it, and the county seat was fixed by the Legislature, 
at Chambersburg. 



Some persons may, perhaps, think that here ray labors as the 
historian of the county of Franklin should have commenced, and 
that all I have already given is outside the record. But, would the 
history of this Union be complete without including in it our colo- 
nial history ? As well might we reject from the history of our town 
all that is connected -with it prior to its laying out, in 1764, as to re- 
fuse to incorporate in the history of our county those things con- 
nected with its settlement and its people prior to its erection as a 
county, in the year 1784. The one is so intimately connected with 
the other that due notice must be given to all the i)romiuent inci- 
dents connected with each, in order to make up a complete whole. 


Franklin is one of the "southern tier," or border counties of the 
State. In its earliest records it was designated as the " Conoco- 
cheague Settlement," from the name of the principal stream of 
water flowing through it. It is bounded on the east by Adams 
county; on the north-east by Cumberland and Perry counties; on 
the north and north-west by Juniata and Huntingdon counties ; on 
the w^est by Fulton county ; and on the south by the State of Mary- 
land. Its greatest extent from north to south is thirty-eight miles, 
and from east to west thirty-four miles; containing an area of 
seven hundred and fifty square miles, or four hundred and eighty 
thousand acres. The population in 1870, according to the census 
returns of that year, was forty-five thousand three hundred and 
sixty -five, or about sixty persons to the square mile. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 27 


Our valley lies about six hundred feet above the tide level. The 
eastern part of it is broken and hilly. The South mountain, which 
forms the eastern boundary of the county, rises from six to nine 
hundred feet above the central part of the valley. The northern 
and north-western parts of the county are mountainous. The Kit- 
tatinny, or north mountains, as the first range west of the Cumber- 
land valley is called, stretch through much of that section of the 
county. Their most prominent elevations are Parnell's and Jor- 
dan's Knobs, each of which rises to the height of about twelve 
hundred feet. In the south-west are the Cove mountains with its 
prominences. Clay Lick and Two-top mountains. Beyond these the 
Tuscarora mountains, running from south west to north-east, rise to 
the height of seventeen hundred feet, and form the boundary be- 
tween our county and the counties of Fulton, Huntingdon and 


The Tuscarora creek rises in the north-western part of the county, 
and runs in a northern direction, by the town of Concord, through 
the Tuscarora mountains, and unites with the main branch of Tus- 
carora creek in Juniata county. The West Branch of the Conoco- 
cheague creek also rises in the same section of the county, on the 
borders of Perry county, flows south-westwardly through Amber- 
son's and Path valleys, past Loudon, and unites with the east branch 
of the Conoeocheague about three miles north of the Maryland line, 
receiving in its course many smaller streams. The East Conoeo- 
cheague creek rises in the South mountain, in the eastern part of 
the county, flows first northward, and then south-westward, receiv- 
ing many tributaries, the principal of which is the Falling Spring, 
at Chambersburg, unites with the West Branch, and empties into 
the Potomac at Williamsport, Maryland. The Conodoguinnet rises 
in Horse valley, and flowing north-east, passes through the moun- 
tains at Roxbury, and thence into Cumberland county, and empties 
into the Susquehanna. The Antietam creek has two branches, both 
rising in the South mountain, in the south-eastern part of the 
county. They flow in a southern direction, and uniting near the 
Maryland line, empty into the Potomac. Cove creek drains the 
south-western part of the county, between the Cove and Tuscarora 
mountains, flows south through the Little Cove, and empties into 
Licking creek. The waters of the northern third of our county, 
containing about one hundred and sixty thousand acres, or two 
hundred and fifty square miles, except a part of those in Amber- 
son's valley, are drained towards the Susquehanna. Those of the 
remaining parts of the county flow into the Potomac. 

28 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


Much the greater part of the laiul in our couiitj' is lime-stone. 
Tlie limestone lands east of the Conococheague are well watered, 
fertile, and in a high state of cultivation. They are estimated at 
one hundred and eighty thousand aeres. Along the base of the 
South mountain, and between it and the limestone lands, is a strip 
of territory from one to two miles wide, known as (he "pine lands," 
which for the most part is said to be equal for fertility and certainty 
of product to any in the countj', and is estimated to contain twenty 
thousand acres. It is composed of sand, mixed with clay, and 
Avater-worn pebbles. West of the Conococheague the slate lands 
prevail, mixed however, here and there with limestone. They are 
estimated at one hundred and sixty thousand acres, and are not 
generally so fertile as the limestone, but more easily cultivated, and 
abounding in pure streams of water, and in luxuriant meadows. 
The experience of late years leads to the conclusion that these lands 
when generously treated with lime, or other fertilizers, are as de- 
sirable and as productive and remunerative, all things considered, 
as the higher priced lands of the limestone regions. The moun- 
tainous districts, on the eastern and western boundaries of the 
county contain about one hundred and twenty thousand acres of 
land, much of it quite valuable because of its excellent timber, and 
other large bodies of it very valuable because of the inexhaustible 
quantities of iron ore contained in them. 


A minute description of the many and varied formations in the 
geological structure of our county would consume too mucli space 
for this sketcli. The South mountain consists almost entirely of 
hard, white sandstone. The valley west of it contains the great 
limestone formation. Several belts of different colored slates, and 
sometimes sandstones are found, here and there, intermixed with it. 
West and north-west of the east branch of the Conococheague creek 
the slate lands predominate, though even among them, at various 
places there are belts of limestone found. The south-western part 
of the county is of the same geological character. The mountain 
ranges in the west and nortii-western sections of the county are 
composed, mainly, of the Levant white, red, and gray sandstones. 
We have no coal in any part of the county, but iron ore abounds 
along the base of the mountains on both sides of the county, and in 
Path valley. 


At the time of the organization of our county in 1784, the State 
Constitution of 1776 was in force. It provided that the State should 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 29 

be apportioned for representatives in the General Assembly every 
seven years. They were to be elected annually and could not serve 
more than four years in seven. 

It also provided for the election of a body called the "Supreme 
Executive Council," one of whom was to be elected for each county, 
to serve for three years, and no Councillor could serve for more than 
three years out of seven. They were Justices of the Peace for the 
whole State. 

The President and Vice President of the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil were to be chosen annually, from the members of the council, by 
the joint votes of the members of the General Assembly and the 
council. The council met annually at the same time and place as 
the General Assembly, and the President, or in case of his absence, 
the Vice President, exercised the executive functions of the Com- 

It also provided that delegates to Congress should be elected an- 
nually by the General Assembly, and might be superseded at any 
time, by the Gt^neral Assembly appointing others in their places. 
And no delegate could serve more than two years successively, nor 
be reappointed for three years afterwards. 

Sheriffs and Coroners were to be voted for by the people annually, 
two for each otfice to be returned to the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil, who appointed and commissioned one of the persons thus re- 
turned. No Sheriff or Coroner could serve more than three years 
in seven. 

Prothonotaries, Clerks of Courts, Registers and Recorders were to 
be appointed by the Supreme Executive Council, to hold during 
their pleasure. 

One Justice of the Peace was to be elected for each ward, town- 
ship or district, to be commissioned by the Supreme Executive 
Council, to serve for seven years. 

The County Courts of Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions, &c., were 
composed, generally, only of such of the Justices of the Peace of 
the counties as were specially appointed and commissioned to act as 
Judges of said courts, three of whom formed a quorum. 

In Philadelphia, and some of the older and larger counties of the 
State, the Presidents of the county courts were gentlemen learned 
in the law. 


The first general election in our county was held on Tuesday, the 
12th day of October, 1784, in Chambersburg, there being but one 
voting place for the whole county, and to it all those who desired to 
vote had to come. The county was entitled to elect one member of 
the Supreme Executive Council, and three representatives in the 
Legislature. James M'Lene was elected Councillor, to serve for 

30 irisforiral Slcetch of FranlcUn Coiinfi/. 

tlnvo years, and Jaim-.s Johnston, Abraham Sniitli and Jatnes 
M'Calmont were elected Representatives. Jeremiah Tal hot. Sher- 
iff; John Rhea, Coroner; and James Poe, Jolin Work and John 
Beard, County Commissioners. 'J'iie vote for County Commission- 
ers was as follows, viz. : James Poe, 822; John Work, 421 ; John 
Beard, 339. 


By the aot of the 13th of Soptombor, 17S"), the county was divided 
into two election districts, the ./([■/•Si' district composed of the town- 
ships of Antrim, Peters, (xuilford, Lurgan, Hamilton, Letterkenny, 
Franklin, (or Chamber.-iburg) Washington, Southampton and Mont- 
gomery, to vote at the court house in Chamhersburg ; and Fann^tt 
township, the second district, to vote at the house of the widow 
Elliott, in said township. 

By the act of the 10th of September, 1787, our county was divided 
into four election districts, the /?/-.s^ district composed of the town- 
ships of Guilford, Franklin, Hamilton, Letterkenny, Lurgan and 
Southampton, to vote at the court house in Chamhersburg. The 
second district, Fannett township, to vote at the house of widow 
Elliott, in that township. The third district, composed of Antrim 
and Washington townships, to vote at the house of George Clark, 
in Greencastle; and the fourth district, Peters and Montgomery 
townships, to vote at the house of James Crawford in Mercersburg. 

These provisions, drawn from the acts of Assemblj', show that our 
forefathers were enabled to exercise the inestimable ijrivileges of the 
ballot only at a great sacrifice of time, trouble and expense. Now 
we have our voting places often within a stone's throw of our resi- 
dences, and rarely, even in the rural districts, more than a few 
miles away, and all of easy and speedy access ; then the voters were 
compelled to travel many weary miles, over new, rougli, and un- 
broken roads, and ford or swim unbridged and dangerous streams, 
if they (iesired to cast their ballots for or against the men or meas- 
ures of the day. 

At the second county election held in October, 1785, James 
M'Calmont, Abraham Smith and John Rhea were elected members 
of the Assembly; Jeremiah Talbot, Sheriff; and Jolin Johnston, 


The eleventh section of tlie act of Assembly, for the organization 
of a count.' npointed James Maxwell, James x.I'Cammont, Josiah 
Crawford, David Stoner and John Johnston trustees to procure two 
lots of ground for the sites of a court house and prison for the new 
county; and the twelfth section directed that the county commis- 
sioners shovd pay over to the said trustees a sum not exceeding one 

Historical Sketch of Franklii^ County. 3l 

thousand two hundred pounds ($3,200) to be by them expended in 
the erection of the necessary public buildings. 

On the 28th September, 1784, Col. Benjamin Chambers, for the 
nominal consideration of ten pounds, or twenty-six dollars and 
sixty-six and two-third cents, conveyed to the county of Franklin 
the lot on which the court house now stands, to be used as a site for 
a court house and public buildings, and no other; and the lot on the 
north side of East Market street, opposite the present "Washington 
House," for the site of a county prison. 

Messrs. Maxwell, M'Camniont et al., the trustees appointed by 
the Legislature to build a court house and jail for our county, con- 
tracted with Captain Benjamin Chambers to put up the former, and 
with David and Joshua Riddle to put up the latter. When these 
buildings were contracted for and what were the prices for erecting 
them cannot now be told, as all the records in relation thereto have 
been destroyed. The first payments on the covirt house were made 
in 1792, amounting to about £700, and its whole cost, so far as I can 
judge by the drafts granted Captain Chambers, was about $4,100.00. 
It was not finished until 1794. 

According to the advertisement of the trustees, the contract for 
the prison was to have been given out on the 10th of September, 
1786. When it was made I know not. It was gotten under roof 
about 1791. In November, 1796, the sum of £337 10s. was paid on it, 
but it was not finished until about 1797 or 98, as appears by the ex- 
penditures made on account of it. 


This building was of brick, two stories high, and about fifty feet 
square. It stood immediately west of the present building, its 
eastern wall being about four or five feet distant from the western 
end of the present court house, and it was occupied by the courts 
and public offices whilst the new building was being erected. It 
was then torn down, and the portico and steps of the present build- 
ing were put up on part of its site. It was well and substantially 
built, presented a rather pleasing appearance, and was fully suffi- 
cient for those early times. The main front faced Market street, and 
there was a heavy cornice all around the building. There were a 
cupola and bell on the building. The spire was surmounted by an 
iron rod, with a large copper ball on it next the top of the spire ; 
then above that a "Rooster," and above the latter a smaller ball. 
The main entrance was on the southern front, but it v ^-,not used 
for many years. A door in the western end, near the southern cor- 
ner, was the usual place of entrance. Opposite this last door was 
another door in the eastern end, opening into the yard. The court 
hall occupied all the lower floor. Along its southern sid/fiwas a tier 

32 Jlistoricdl Sketch of PnttifcHa Coiinfij. 

of seats for spectators, some three or four in niiinbor, rising' Ijij^h up 
tlie whII. These were put in after the buildinj; was completed, and 
they crossed over and closed up the main door in the south side of 
the room. Between these seats an<l the bar, which occupied nearly 
one-half the floor, there was a si)ace of about ten feet in width, 
paved with red brick. The bar was raised some two or three steps 
above this pavement, and the Judj^es' seat, which was on the north 
side of the room, was some two or three ste{)s above the bar. The 
traverse jury l>ox was on the east side of the bar, and the grand jury 
box on the west side, adjoining the stairs leading to the second story, 
in which there were a grand jury room and two traverse jury rooms. 


The first jail built by tlie county was of stone, two stories high, 
about forty by sixty feet in size, and stood on the north-east corner 
of Second and Market streets, where Peifter & Doebler's coach shop 
now stands. It was often crowdeil with poor "debtors" in those 
early days, men who were so unfortunate as to be in debt and have 
no goods nor money with which to pay their liabilities. To honest 
men it was a fearful place; but rogues laughed at its nail-studded 
doors, iron bars and thick but poorly-constructed walls. Between 
the date of the formation of our county in 1784, and the completion 
of the "old stone jail " in 1798, persons charged with the commis- 
sion of grave offences in this county were kept in the jail at Carlisle. 
The county accounts for those years contain many items for tiie ex- 
penses of taking jjrisoners to Carlisle, keeping them there, and 
bringing them here for trial. Persons charged with offences of a 
minor grade were kept here in a temporary prison, and there are 
also numerous charges for "repairs" to that prison— for " iron for 
bars," for "leg bolts, manacles, &o.," and for the pay of those who 
acted as "guards" at the prison. Tradition says that this prison 
was an old log house on the lot now the property of Levi D. Hum- 
melsine, on the west side of South Main street. That it was some 
such insecure place is evidenced by the expenditures made upon it 
above referred to, and also from the fact tliat in 1785, the commis- 
sioners of the county paid Samuel M'Clelland £2, os., 6d. for " un- 
derpinning the prison." There were no brick buildings here in 
1785, and only three stone ones, viz.: Chambers' fort, John Jack's 
tavern and Nicholas Snider's blacksmith shop. AH the rest were 
of logs, small and inconvenient, and it must have been one of the 
worst of these that was used as a prison at first, for only such an 
one would have needed "underpinning," and require bars, leg bolts, 
manacles, and guards to keep its inmates safely. 

Nor were prisoners then allowed to spend their time in idleness 
whilst in jail, as at the present time. They were kept at labor, as is 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 33 

evidenced by the numerous expenditures for "picks and shovels" 
and "wheel-borroughs," and for the pay of the superintendents and 
keepers of the "wheel-borrough men." 


Between the years 1784 and 1809, a period of twenty-five years, 
Edward Crawford, Esq., held the offices of Prothonotary, Register 
and Recorder and Clerk of the Courts, and for twenty-two years he 
had his office in a building which he erected for the purpose, at his 
residence on east Market street, on the site now occupied by the law 
office of Messrs. Kennedy & Stewart. In Lhe month of October, 
1806, the first county offices were finished and occupied. The bviild- 
ing stood about twenty feet east of the old court house, facing on 
Market street, and cost about $2,500.00. It was of brick, two stories 
high, and about forty feet long by twenty-five feet wide. The Pro- 
thonotary and Clerk's offices were in the western end, and the Reg- 
ister's and Recorder's offices in the eastern end, the building being 
divided by a hall in the centre. In the rear of each office was a 
small vaulted room for the preservation of the records and papers of 
the offices. On the second story, were the offices of the County 
Commissioners, County Treasurer, Deputy Surveyor, &c. This 
building was torn down when the new courthouse was commenced, 
about the year 1842. 


I have already stated that the "county courts" in those days were 
held bj^ such Justices of the Peace of the county as were specially 
commissioned to act as Judges of the said courts. Three of them 
formed a quorum to do business. They then held their offices for 
seven years; and by the 5th section of the act erecting our county, 
it was provided that the commissions of all Justices residing within 
the boundaries of the new county should continue in force until the 
expiration of their several terms. How many such there were I 
know not. I give, however, the names of such of them as acted as 
Judges of our courts after our county was organized. 

The fifth section of the act erecting our county provided that the 
Courts of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions should be held four 
times in each year, and that the Quarter Sessions should sit three 
days in each session, and no more. 

This act was approved on Thursday, September 9th, 1784. On 
Saturday, September 11th, 1784, Edward Crawford, Esq., was ap- 
pointed and commissioned Prothonotary, Register and Recorder and 
Clerk of the Courts for our county. He was also at the same time 
commissioned a Justice of the county courts of our county. I sup- 
pose he was at the seat of government (Philadelphia) at the time, 
looking after the passage of the law creating our county, for on the 
same day he appeared before the Supreme Executive Council, and 

34 IFintoricnl ShctcJi of FranJclhi Count}/. 

■was sworn Into olTiee and jjot his commissions. On the next Wed- 
nesday, September loth, 1784, four days afterwards, ho was at home, 
and the first court lield in our county was convened tliat day, be- 
fore Humphrey Fullerton and Thomas Johnston, Esq's, Justices for 
Antrim township, anil James Finley, Esq., a Justice of Letterkenny 
township — all of them former Justices and Judfjjes in Cumberland 
county, whose commissions were in force, and who were therefore 
qualified to hold court in Franklin county. There were no jurors 
present, no causes, civil or criminal, for trial, and I incline to the 
opinion that there were no lawyers present butone, John Clark, Esq., 
of the York bar, who was married to a daughter of Nicholas Bitting- 
er, who lived near Mont Alto Furnace. jNIr. Clark was most likely 
here casually. He had been a Major in the Pennsylvania Line in 
the revolutionary war, had been a member of the bar of longstand- 
ing and of extended reputation, yet he was, on his own reijuest, 
admitted to the bar of our county. Had there been any "brother 
attorney" present, entitled to the privileges of his profession, Mr. 
Clark would not have been compelled to request his own admission. 

The second session of our county court, beiug the ^rs^ business 
session, was held on Thursday, December 2d, 1784, in the second 
story of John Jack's stone tavern house, which stood where A. 
J. Miller's drug store now is, up until the fire of 1864. The Judges 
present were William M'Dowell, of Peters ; Humphrey Fullerton, of 
Antrim; and James Finley, of Letterkenny ; Edward Crawford, 
Jr., Prothonotary and Clerk ; Jeremiah Talbott, Sheriff. The 
grand jury were thirteen in number, viz. : James Poe, Henry Pawl- 
ing, William Allison, William M'Dowell, Robert Wilkins, John 
M'Connell, John M'Carney, John Hay, John Jack, Jr., John Dick- 
son, D. M'Clintock, Joseph Chambers and Joseph Long. 

The courts were h<-ld up stairs, and tradition says the crowd was 
so great as to strain the joists of tlie floor, causing great alarm to the 
Court and bar, and others in the house. Whether this tradition is 
true or false, I know not, but it is very probable that the incident 
did occur. That the courts were hehi in John Jack's house for 
several years, whilst the court house was being built, and up until 
1789, inclusive, is conclusively shown by the following extracts from 
the county expenditures, found in the annual accounts of the Com- 
missioners for the years named, viz. : 

1785. "By an order to John Jack for the use of his house 

to hold courts in, &c.," £12 7s. 6d. 

1789. "By a draw given to ISIargaret Jack (.John's widoAv) 

for the use of her house to hold courts in," . . £ 9 

1790. "Order to Mrs. Jack for firewood and cantlles for 

the court," £ 4 4s. 5d. 

A change was then made, for in — 
1790. "An order was issued to Walter Beatty for prepar- 
ing a p^ace for court," £15 68. 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 35 

Where this place was I know not, but it was no doubt some tem- 
porary selection. Walter Beatty was the sub-contractor, under Cap- 
tain Benjamin Chambers, for the building of the court house. The 
court house and the old stone jail were then being built. The latter 
must have been gotten under roof at least in 1791, for that year the 
Commissioners paid Walter Beatty "for preparing for the court to 
sit in the prison, £15, 19s." In 1792 they also paid Captain Benjamin 
Chambers, on the court house, £1,074, 10s., Sd. ; and that it was not 
finishe J in 1793 is shown hj the fact that the Commissioners, by order 
of the court, paid that year to Walter Beatty, £10, 10s. "for detain- 
ing his hands from work on the court house." The Judges took 
possession and occupied the court house for county purposes before 
it was finished, and ordered Mr. Beatty to be paid for the lost time 
of his hands, as aforesaid. 

At the second session of our courts, on motion of John Clark, Esq., 
Robert Magaw, Thomas Hartley, James Hamilton, Thomas Duncan, 
Thomas Smith, Ross Thompson, Ralph Bowie, James Ross, James 
Riddle, Stephen Chambers and John M'Dowell were admitted to 
practice the law in the courts of this county. 

Our county courts, as thus constituted, continued to administer 
justice until the adoption of the constitution of 1790. That instru- 
ment went into force, for most purposes, on the 2d of September, 
1790, but the third section of the schedule to it extended the commis- 
sions of the Justices of the Peace and Judges then in office until the 
first day of September, 1791. 


The following list gives the names of the Justices of the Peace 
who were Judges of our county courts for this county, from the 9th 
of September, 17S4, to the 2d of September, 1791, with the townships 
they were appointed from and the dates of their respective commis- 
sions, which ran for seven years : 

William M'Dowell, Peters, November 13th, 1778. 

Humphrey Fullerton, Antrim, April 18th, 1782. 

Thomas Johnston, Antrim, April 18th, 1782. 

James Finley, Letterkenny, March 1st, 1783. 

Edward Crawford, Jr., Chambersburg, September 11th, 1784. 

James Chambers, Peters, September 17th, 1784. 

George Matthews, Hamilton, February 4th, 1785. 

John Ranuels, Guilford, March 1st, 1785. 

Noah Abraham, • Fannett, October 31st, 1785. 

John M'Clay, Lurgan, November 2d, 1785. 

Richard Bard, Peters, March 15th, 1786. 

Samuel Royer, Washington, March 27th, 1786, 

John Scott, Chambersburg, August 4th, 1786. 

John Boggs, Chambersburg, August 4th, 1786. 

James Maxwell,* Montgomery, August 26th, 1786. 

* Commissioned President of the Courts. 

3G Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Jolin ITarrinji:, 8()\»tli:mii)t()n, Xovcmljor Ist. 1786. 

John Andrew, (Juilfbrd, April Kitli, 1787. 

John iVIartin, ChjiMil)ersburg, December St h. 1787. 

James >r!ix\vell, jMontuomery, September 17th, 17SS. 

William Henderson, (Jreeneastle, September l'")th, 17K8. 

James MH'almont, Letterkenny, September li;{tl, 1789. 

Christian Oyster, Chambersburg, July Kith, 17!»(). 

Thomas Johnston, Antrim, September 2!)th, 1790. 


By the second section of the act of the 13th of April, 1791, the 
State was divided into ^t'e judicial districts. The fourth district 
was composed of the counties of Cumberland, Franklin, Bedford, 
Huntingdon and Mifflin. And the third section of the same act fur- 
ther provided that a President Judge, learned in the law, should be 
appointed by the Governor for each district, and not fewer than 
three nor more than four Associate Judges should be appointed for 
each county. They were each to hold during good behavior. 

On the 17th of August, 1791, Governor Mitflin appointed the fol- 
lowing i^ersons Associate Judges of our courts, to hold from the first 
of September following, viz. : 

James M'Dowell, Peters, First Associate. 

Janies Maxwell, Montgomery, Second " 

George Matthews, Hamilton, Third " 

James M'Calmont, Letterkenny, Fourth " 

On the 20th of August, 1791, Governor Mifflin also appointed 
Thomas Smith, Esq., President Judge of this judicial district, who 
continued to serve in that position until his appointment as an As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, on the 31st of January, 1794:. 


The following is a statement of the first tax laid in this county, 
in 1785 : 

Districts. Collectors. 

State Tax. 


nty Tax. 

Antrim, Samuel M'Cullock, 



. 7d. 


Is. 4d. 

Franklin, William Shanon, 





19 11 

Fannett, Nathaniel Paul, 





19 10 

Guilford, Peter Fry, 





8 2 

Hamilton, William" Dickson, 





7 8 

Letterkenny, George Stinger, 





18 9 

Lurgan, Gavin MorroM^, 




16 4 

Montgomery, Thomas Kennedy, 




. 51 

7 4 

Peters, Hugh M'Kee, 






Washington, Frederick Foreman, 





15 2 






4 6 

Being, for state purposes, 




. $6,694 91 

for county " . . 




. 1,115 27 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

The following is a statement of the property assessed in 
county in the year 1786 : 





















































2, 10s. 
2, 15 















2, 10 










2, 15 












2, m 





















2, 17J 


1— 1 














2, 10 















$6,315.96, distributed thus : 
Franklin, . 
Fannett, . 
Guilford, . 
Hamilton, . 


£2,368 9 8 $6,315 96 

To-day, though there is no state tax upon real estate, the taxes 
paid by the people of this county are as follows, viz, : 

For state purposes on money at interest, &c., . $ 6,144 00 
For county purposes, 56,015 97 

*ty wa 

3 £2,368, 9s. 

8d., equal to 



lid., or, $885 08 




246 48 




' 511 07 




' 542 35 




566 47 




774 54 



' 296 81 




* 685 04 




' 726 98 




418 07 



' 663 07 

$62,159 97 
From tax returns made in 1786 and 1788, for the township of 
Franklin^ which was made up of the town of Chambersburg, and 

38 Historical Sketch of Franklin Countfj. 

some seven tracts of laud ailjoiniri}^, I ^atlier the following: results, 
viz. : That there were in the said township, in the said years— 

1786. 1788. 

Improved lots, 96 134 

, Unimproved lots, 40 24 

Horses, 98 105 

Cows 115 126 

Oxen, 6 4 

Bulls, 1 

Slaves, 20 18 

Servants, 6 6 

Chairs, 1 

Physicians, Four, viz. : Dr. Abraham Senseny, Dr. John Jack, Dr. 

George Sloan and Dr. Alexander Stewart. 
Attorneys, Three, viz. : Andrew Dunlap, James Riddle, .John 

Merchants, Four, viz. : John Calhoun, Patrick Campbell, Samuel 

Purvianceand Edward Fitzgerald. 
Justices and ex-otticio .Judges of the courts, Four, viz. : .Tohn Boggs, 

Edward Crawford, Jr., John Martin and John Scott. 
Inn Keepers, Twelve, viz.; Hugh Gibbs, John Martin, William 
Morrow, Wm. Shannon, Jacob Von Statinfelt, Benj. 
Swain, Fred'k. Reimer, George Gressinger, Wm. Bevis, 
Wm. Cowan, Benj. Swain and John Caldwell. 
Estimating six persons to a dwelling, the population of Cham- 
beisburg in 1786, should have been five hundred and seventy-six 
persons, and in 1788, eight hundred and four persons. 

The following lands were also assessed in the s^id township of 
Franklin in the years 17S6 and 1788, showing conclusively that it 
embraced more territory than the mere i)'ot of the town of Cham- 
bersburg, viz. : 

John Alexander, 194 acres. 

George Chambers, 58 " 

Benj. Chambers, Jr., 105 " 

Joseph Chambers, 297 " 

James Chambers, 100 " 

John Kerr, 300 " 

Thomas M'Kean, 100 " 

1154 acres. 


Colonel Benjamin Chambers, as I have already stated, laid out 
Chambersburg in 1764. The town plot was entirely east of the 
creek and south of the Falling Spring. Third street, now the bed 
of the railroad, was its eastern limit, and it did not extend further 

GEO. A MILLER ^ SONS hardware store, cor main ^- queen sts. , v// 




Historical Sketch of Franldin County. 39 

south than where Mr. James Logan resides. The lots south of that 
point were laid out by John Kerr, taken from his farm of three 
hundred acres, and for a long time that part of the place was called 
"Kerr's town." 

That part of our town north of the Falling Spring was laid out by 
Colonel Thomas Hartley, of York, in 1787. He purchased the land 
from Joseph Chambers, Esq., whose farm of near three hundred 
acres lay north and east of the town. Edward Crawford Esq., also 
subsequently bought of Mr. Joseph Chambers, the land between the 
railroad and the eastern point, and Market and Queen streets, and 
laid it out into town lots. 

In 1791 Captain Benjamin Chambers, who had a farm of over one 
hundred acres along the loest side of the Conococheague creek, laid 
out that part of the town. 

Our town in those days (say from 1784 to 1788) presented a very 
different appearance from what it now does, or from what it did be- 
fore the great fire of 1864. There were no bridges of any kind 
across the creek. The east bank of the stream through the town 
site, with the exception of a few places, was quite steep, and covered 
with a forest of cedars, oaks and walnuts, aud a thick undergrowth 
of bushes. There was quite a depression between Market street and 
the hill upon which the Baptist church stands, and a number of 
fine springs of water issued out of the bank at various points, and 
poured their crystal treasures into the creek. 

West of the creek was the farm of Captain Benjamin Chambers. 
The road from Strasburg and the north-western parts of the county 
came in on the same route it now does, but passed down to the 
"lower fording," at Sierer's factory, crossed the creek there and 
entered town by West Queen street. 

Main street was not then of)ened north of the Falling Spring. 
The ground between the spring and the present residence of James 
G. Elder, Esq., was a deep swamp. The road towards Carlisle and 
the upper fording," at Heyser's paper mill, left Main street at King 
street, passed westward out King street to the Falling Spring, crossed 
it just eas^t of where Mr. Martin Ludwig lately resided, passed north 
and east along the west side of the spring, over the old Indian burial 
ground, through the Presbyterian churchyard, skirting the base of 
the hill on which the church stands, and connected with the road 
in front of the church. The present pike leading to Carlisle was 
not then made. Indeed, there was no road from this to Shippens- 
burg east of the Conococheague. Persons going to Shippensburg 
and points east went out the Strasburg road and branched off by the 
Row road. Mr. George K. Harper, who came to our town between 
1790 and 1793, informed me that at that time Strasburg was a much 
more important point than Chambersburg ; that the mail for the 
north and east went from Chambersburg by way of Strasburg, and 

40 Historical Sketch of Franklin Counfi/. 

that, because tlie transportation and travel over the mountaiJis were 
doiiH by liorses alone, there was more life aiul enerjry at Strasbur-^ 
than at Chanii)i'rsburi?, as many as one hnndred and fifty pack 
horses, loaded with mereliandize, arrivin<j; or departing at a time. 

At the i)eriod of which I speak tiie streets of llie town were nearly 
in the same condition as M'hen laid out, altliou.!j:li some twenty to 
twenty-four years had passed since their dedication to public use. 
Pavements were few and of the worst kind, made to suit tlie conve- 
nience or fancy of the persons by whom they were constructed. 
The court house and the new jail were going up slowly. Immedi- 
ately around the "Diamond" there were but few improvements. 
John Jack's stone house, in which the courts were held, was the 
best building there. John Martin ke]>t tavern in a low, two-story 
log house, about twenty by twenty-five feet in size, where Mrs. 
Watson resides. The lot where Ludwig's building now is was 
vacant, and remained so until 1795, when Stephen Rigler built the 
stone house on it so long known as Noel's hotel. Hugh Gibb kept 
a tavern in a small, two-story log house which stood where the 
National Bank now stands. A small blacksmith shop stood where 
the Franklin County Bank now stands, and Samuel Lindsay owned 
and occupied a small log house which stood on the lot the Repository 
hall now occupies. The other lots facing the diamond were then 

There were about one hundred and thirty-five dwellings in the 
town, but as the whole population of the county had to come to 
Chambersburg to vote, for several years after the organization of the 
county, a liberal provisi">n in the shape of taverns was made for its 
accommodation. In addition to those named already, Owen Aston 
kept a tavern in the Geo. Goettman property, on the south-east cor- 
ner of Main and King streets for a while, and was succeeded by 
Jacob Von Statteufield ; Nicholas Snider, where the Montgomery 
hotel is; Benj. Swain, where the late Rev. B. S. Schneck lived ; 
Wm. Morrow, where Peter Bruner now lives ; Thomas Sliannon, 
where Captain Jeffries lives; Wm. Shannon, where the Union 
Hotel stands; George Graesing, where Mrs. Fohl lives ; Wm. Thorn 
and Geo. Wills, opposite the Academy, on east Queen street; 
John Smith and David Fleming, at John Stevenson's old property, 
west Queen street; Frederick Reamer, ^ecA's old property, south 
Main street; William Bevis, on west side of south :Main street, 
corner of the alley, in the house now belonging to Mrs. Byers. 
Besides these there were several otiiers wiiose location I don't 
know with certainty. 


We have now the Cumberland Valley railroad, running through 
our valley, from the Susquehanna to the Potomac, with branches 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 41 

and connecting roads to Dillsburg, South Mountain, Mont Alto, 
Mercersburg, and Path Valley at the Richmond furnace; and we 
have daily postal communications with Pittsburg, Harrlsburg, Phila- 
delphia, New York, Baltimore, Washington city, and even points 
more distant, and also receive, almost daily, the news of current 
events in Europe and Asia, and other more distant parts of the 
earth. But it was not so in the times of which I am now writing, 
as is evidenced by the following resolution passed by the Congress 
of the United States on the 20th of May, 1788, viz. : 

^'■Besolved, That the Post Master General be and he is hereby di- 
rected to employ i^osts for the regular transportation of the mail be- 
tween the city of Philadelphia and the town of Pittsburg, in the 
State of Pennsylvania, by the route of Lancaster, York town, Car- 
lisle, Chambers' town and Bedford, and that the mail be dispatched 
once in each fortnight from the said post offices, respectively." 
Journal of Congress, volume 4, page 817. 

It is remarkable that Harrisburg, the capital city of our now great 
Commonwealth, is not even mentioned in this resolution ; and 
nothing that I know of so emphatically shows the progress we have 
made as a nation, in the past eighty-eight years, as the difference 
between the postal facilities contemplated by this resolve of Con- 
gress and the iDostal facilities we now enjoy. 

From the Hon. James H. Marr, Acting First Assistant Postmaster 
General, I learn that a post office was first established at Chambers- 
burg on the 1st of June, 1790. I had an idea that we had a post 
office here at a much earlier date. The settlement was then sixty 
years old ; the town had been in existence twenty -six years and the 
county nearly six years, and it is surprising to think that our ances- 
tors did so long without governmental postal facilities. The same 
authority informs me that the following persons filled our post office 
in the earlier years of its existence, viz. : 

John Martin, .... Appointed 1 June, 1790. 

Patrick Campbell, 
Jeremiah Mahony, 
John Brown, 
Jacob Dechert, . 
John Findlay, . 
William Gilmore, 

1 July, 1795. 
1 January, 1796. 
5 July, 1802. e 
7 April, 1818. 
•20 March, 1829. 
24 November, 1838. 

I hope to be able to state hereafter when the several other post 
offices of our county were established. 

The Shippensburg post office was first established 13th May, 1790, 
but a few days before ours. Prior to these dates our people had to 
depend upon private carriers to get their mail matter from older 
offices, or await the semi-monthly coming of the post rider referred 
to in the resolution of Congress just given. 

42 Historical S'/ccfch of Franklin County. 


The Constitution of tlie United States went into operation on the 
first Wednesday of ^farch, 1789. What number of tlie people of our 
State were then entitled to vote I know not; but amongst the pro- 
ceedings of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, un- 
der date of the 31st of December, 1788, the returns of the election of 
members of Congress held just before, are given, from which it 
appears that but 15,774 votes were polled in the whole State, and 
thiit the highest candidates upon the two tickets received the fol- 
lowing number of votes resj)ectively, viz. : 

Fred'k. Augustus Muhlenberg, of iSIontgomery, . 8,707 
John Allison, of Franklin, 7,067 


From the organization of our county, in September, 1784, to July 
14th, 1790, there was no newspaper published in Franklin county, 
and all the sheriflfs proclamations, notices of candidates for oflHce, 
of real estate offered for sale, estrays, runaway negroes, desertions 
of bed and board by wives, &c., &c., were published in The Carlisle 
Oazette and RcpoHitory of Knowledge, printed at Carlisle, Cum- 
berland county. 

It has been claimed that a paper called the Franklin Minerva was 
published at Chambersburg before the year 1790 by Mr. Robert Har- 
per. I doubt the truth of this claim. No copy of the paper now 
exists, by which to determine the doubt, but the fact that Sheriff 
Johnston, in July, 1790, published his proclamation in the Carlisle 
Gazette, shows almost to a demonstration that there was no news- 
paper here about the beginning of June, 1790, when that proclama- 
tion was first inserted in the Carlisle Gazette. Again, I do not think 
that Robert Harper was then here. An examination of the assess- 
ment lists of the county shows that his name appears for the first 
time as a taxpayer in Franklin township (Chambersburg) in the 
year 1794, so that it is most likelj' became here sometime in the 
previous year, perhaps about the time he formed the partnership 
with Mr. Davison, hereafter referred to. It is known that William 
Davison commenced the publication of his paper at Chambersburg 
on the 14th of July, 1790, under the name of 'T/ie Western Adver- 
tiser and Chamberslnii-g Weekly Neivsjia2:>er,'''' and the assessment 
lists for 1791 contain his name as one of the taxpayers in Franklin 
township for that year. Mr. Da'i'ison afterwards, about the year 1792 
or '93, formed a partnership with Mr. Harper, which continued until 
the fall of 1793, when he died, and Mr. Harper became sole owner 
of the paper. On the 12th of September, 1793, Mr. Harper changed 
the name of the paper to that of " T/ie Chambersburg Gazette,''^ under 
which title it was published until the 2oth of April, 1796, when he 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. \ 43 


again changed its name to that of the ^^ Franklin Meposit'^^y.^' It 
was, when first established, a small, three column concern, i '^bout ten 
by sixteen inches in size, and cost fifteen shillings per year. ' It was 
almost wholly made up of advertisements and extracts from foreign 
journals, for those were the days when Napoleon was stirring? up the 
nations of the old world generally. \ 

In the year 1800 George Kenton Harper became the sole t^ditor 
and proprietor of the Repository, and conducted it until January, 
1840, when he sold out to Mr. Josepli Pritts. So indifferent ^erfl 
the post oflfice arrangements for the carrying and delivering of 
newspapers from 179-1 to 1828, that the Harpers (Robert and Geo'ge 
K.) employed their own "Post Riders," who once a week role 
through large sections of the county to ensure the certain and speety 
delivery of the Repository at all points where it could not b 
sent through the mails. 

For much of the subsequent history of the Repository ana 
other newspapers which were heretofore published in our county, I 
am indebted to an article written by B. M. Nead, Esq., and pub- 
lished in the Repository on the 27th of March, 1872. 

"As above seen," says Mr. Nead, "Mr. Harper gave up the con- 
trol of "?%e Franklin Repository'''' to Mr. Pritts in the year 1840. 
Mr. Pritts served an apprenticeship and worked as a journeyman at 
the printing business in Cumberland, Maryland, from which place 
he removed to Chambersburg about the year 1820. In 1823 he be- 
came the editor and proprietor of a Democratic paper styled the 
'''■Franklin Republican,^'' started in 1808 by William Armour, who was 
followed in its editorship by John Hershberger, John M'Farland and 
John Sloan, whose successor Mr. Pritts was. This paper Mr. Pritts 
continued to edit until the year 1828, when the anti-Masonic excite- 
ment arose. He then gave up the publication of the Franklin Re- 
publican, bought the Ant'i-Masonic Press, a paper which had been 
established by Mr. James Culbertson, and started a new paper, 
strongly advocating anti-Masonic principles, under the name of 
"TAe Anti-Masonic Whig.''^ This paper Mr. Pritts continued to edit 
until the year 1840, when he purchased the Repository from 
Mr. Harper, and united the two papers under the name of 
the ^'■Repository and Whig.'''' In 1840 Mr. Benjamin Oswald, 
of Kittanning, Pennsylvania, was associated with Mr. Pritts in 
editing the paper, and in 1S41 Wm. R. Rankin, Esq., filled the same 
position. In 1842 Wm. H. Downey bought Mr. Pritts' interest in 
the paper, and continued to publish it until 1846, when he sold out 
to Mr. Wm. Brewster. Mr Pritts continued about the office, as a 
general superintendent, adding weekly to its spiciness by his wit 
and satire, until the year 1848, when he died. The paper was then 
in the hands of Messrs. John F. Denny, Hugh W. Reynolds and 
D. O. Gehr. On the 1st of February, 1849, Mr. Reynolds withdrew, 


44 Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/. 

and the remaininj? partners carried on the paper until 1st of ^fay of 
that j'ea?", when they sokl out to Messrs. John W. Boyd, of Hagers- 
town, and David K. Stover, of Greeneastle." 

"On the 4tli of July, 1849, Messrs. Henry A. Misli and Lewis A. 
Shoemaker started a paper called "■The Franklin Intclli()(nccr,^^ and 
contit;ued its i)ublioution until IS.")!, when it was purchased by 
Stover & Boyd and merged in the Rcpositor)/. In the spring of 
" So2 Mr. Stover became sole proprietor of the Jicposiiori/, and on the 
jfirst of May of that year Col. A. K. M'Clure purchased a half inter- 
est in the paper, and in September following obtained the entire 
coKtrol of it." 

'/On the 4tli of July, 1S53, R. P. Huzelet, who for some time had 
boen issuing, semi-monthly, a ten by twelve advertising sheet, called 
"The Omniljus,^^ began the publication of a paper called " TAe Trans- 
cript." In October, 1854, Geo. Eyster & Co. became interested with 
Mr. Hazelet in the Tranncript, and continued to publish it until 
)ecember, 1855, when they sold it to Washington Crooks & Co., 
'who about the same lime purchased the Repository ivonx Col. M'- 
Clure. They consolidated the two papers under the name of the 
'■^Rejiository and TranscriptJ'' A few years after they sold out to G. 
H. Merkline & Co. About 1861, A. N. Rankin, one of the latter 
firm, got sole control of the paper. Soon after Snively Strickler, 
Esq., became proprietor, and in 1803 he sold it to A. K. M'Clure and 
H. S. Stoner, who again changed the name to " Tltc Franklin Repyos- 

"On the 19th of April, 1861, G. H. Merkline & Co. started the 
Semi- Weekly Disj)atoh. It continued till June, 1863, when it was 
purchased by Messrs. M'Clure & Stoner, and merged in the Reposi- 
tory. On the 30th of July, 1864, the Repository otflce, and every- 
thing connected with it, was destroyed when our town was burnt 
by the Rebels. It was started again soon after in the lecture-room 
of the Presbyterian church, from which it was issued till June, 1866, 
when it was removed to its present location." 

"On the 1st of July, 1865, ' The Repository Association ' was formed, 
and the paper was issued under its auspices, with Messrs. M'Clure 
and Stoner as editors and publishers. On the 30th of May, 1868, 
they retired and Messrs. Jere Cook and S. W. Haj's obtained con- 
trol of it as editors and publishers. On the 1st of July, 1870, Mr. 
Hays retired and Mr. H. S. Stoner took his place, and the paper was 
published by Messrs. Cook and Stoner until the loth of August, 
1874, when it went into the hands of Major John M. Pomeroy, its 
present owner and editor. It has now reached the ripe old age of 
eighty-seven years. It is Republican in politics, and has a circula- 
tion of about 2,200. 

The first English Democratic paper that I have been able to hear 
of, published in our county, was called "TAe Franklin Republican,''^ 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 45 

and was started by William Armour about tlie year 1806. He was 
succeeded by Frederick Goeb, or Geib, and Ricliard White. Tliey 
published two papers, one in German and one in English. The 
German part of the office was owned by Goeb, and White owned 
the English part. About the year 1808 John Hershberger bought 
these gentlemen out. 

About this time George K. Harper was publishing a German paper 
in the same office with the Repository, called '^ Der Red'dche Regis- 
trator''''—^^ The True Recorder." This paper Mr. Harper sold to F. 
W. Schoepfiin about the year 1814, who removed it froQi the Repos- 
itory office and conducted it as a Democratic paper until his death, 
in 1825, when it passed into the hands of Henry Ruby, who had 
learned the printing business with Mr. Schoepfiin. He published 
it until 1881, when he discontinued it. 

Mr. Hershberger conducted "2'Ae Franklin Republican'''' as the 
Democratic organ of the county, at the same time publishing the Ger- 
man paper formerly issued by Mr. Goeb. After several years he sold 
both papers to Mr. James M'Farland, by whom the German paper 
was discontinued. Mr. M'Farland sold the '■'Republican'''' to John 
Sloan, about the year 1816, who continued to publish until his death, 
in 1831. Some time after Joseph Pritts married the widow of Mr. 
Sloan, and thus obtained control of the printing office. Mr. Pritts 
was then a strong Democrat, and greatly enlarged and improved the 
paper, and as a reward for his devotion to his party and its interests 
was appointed county treasurer for several years. 

In the year 1828 the anti-Masonic excitement reached its height, 
and Mr. Pritts, being dissatisfied with the course of the Democratic 
party in relation to the United States Bank, and on other political 
questions, and being actuated by a dread of the pernicious influence 
of secret societies upon the future of the country, with large num- 
bers of his former Democratic associates, joined the new party and 
purchased the ''Anti- Masonic Press,''' a paper which Mr. James Cul- 
bertson had shortly before established here. This paj)er Mr. Pritts 
conducted for a short time, as only he could conduct a newspaper, 
in the interests of the anti-Masonic party, when he purchased the 
^'■Franklin Rep>ository''^ and consolidated the two papers. 

When Mr. Pritts ceased to publish the Republican as a Democratic 
paper the Democratic party were left without an organ in our county. 
But in the year 1831, or thereabouts, Messrs. Henry Ruby and James 
Maxwell started a new Democratic paper called '' The Franklin Tele- 
graph:'' After publishing it for about six or seven years, they sold 
it to Messrs. Michael C. Brown and Hiram Kesey, who, in 
the year 1841, sold it to John Brand, who changed the name 
to '■'The Chambersburg Times:' In 1843 he sold out to Frank- 
lin G. May, who, in 1845, associated Mr. Enos R. Powell with 
himself in the conduction of the paper. In 1848 Mr. May retired 

46 I Lint orient Sketch of Franklin Countij. 

uiid Alfred 11. Sinilli took his place, and the name of the paper was 
changed to " T'/ie Cwm/;er^r/«(Z Vallcij Sentinel.^'' In ISol Messrs. B. 
F. Nead and John Kinneard became the proprietors, with Joseph 
Nill, Esq., and afterwards Dr. William H. Boyle, as editors On 
the 1st of July, isr)2, the paper passed into tlie hands of Messrs. 
John M. Cooper and Peter 8. Dechert, and was merged into '■'The 
Vattvy S'j)irif,^' which paper these gentlemen had removed from 
iShippensburg to Chamhersburg about a year previously. In 18")7 
Messrs. Cooper & Dccliert sold the jiaper to Messrs. George H. Men- 
gel & Co., Dr. Boyle continuing as editor. In 1800 Messrs. Mengel 
and Ripper became the owners, Dr. Boyle continuing as editor. 

In April, 1858, Messrs. R. P. Hazeletand David A. Wert z started a 
paper called " The Independent.''^ In 1859 they sold it to W. I. Cook 
and P. Dock Frey, who changed its name to "7Vie Timcs.^' Mr. Cook 
retired in a short time, and gave place to Mr. M. A. Foltz. In 1800 
Messrs. Jacob Sellers and Wm. Kennedy bt^cume the owners of The 
Times, and published it as a Democratic paper. In 1S02 Messrs H. 
C. Keyser and B. Y. Hamsher purchased the Valletj Spirit from 
Messrs. Ripper and Mengel, and shortly after Mr. Kennedy associa- 
ted himself and his paper with them, and the name of the paper 
was changed to that of " The Spirit and Times,^' and published by B. 
Y. Hamsher & Co. In 1808 Mr. Kennedy retired and the name of 
the paper was again changed to " 7'Ae Valley Spirit.'" In July, 1H07, J. 
M. Cooper & Co. again became the owners. lu Seiitember, 18G7, it 
passed into the hands of ISIessrs. Augustus Duncan and Wm. S. 
tStenger, who continued its publication until 1870, when they sold 
out to Mr. Joseph C. Clugston, the present proprietor. It is now 
edited by John M. Cooper, Esq., is Democratic in jjolitics, and has 
a circulation of 2,160. 

The following newspapers are now also being published in our 
county, viz. : 

The ''Public Opinion,'''' at Chamhersburg. It was established in the 
year 1809 by its present editor and proprietor, Moses A. Foltz. It is 
Republican in politics, and has a circulation of about 1,700. 

The " Mercersburg Journal,'" published at Mercersburg, is owned 
and edited by M. J. Slick, Esq. It is neutral in i:)olitics, and has a 
circulation of about 500. It was established in 1840. 

"The V'dlage Record" is published at Waynesboro', by W. Blair, 
who is editor and proprietor. It was established in 1847, has a cir- 
culation of about 1,000, and is neutral in politics. 

"The Valley Echo" is published at Greencastle, by George E. 
Haller, editor and proprietor. It was established in 1807, has a cir- 
culation of about 500, and is neutral in politics. 

"The Keystone Gazette" is a new weekly paper, the publication of 
which was commenced at Waynesboro' in our county, about the 1st 
of September last, by Messrs. J. C. West and W. J. C. Jacobs, edi- 

historical Sketch of Franklin County. 47 

tors and proprietors. It is Democratic in politics and claims a cir- 
culation of about five hundred. 

The "Saturday LocaV is a weekly newspaper recently started at 
Charabersburg, by Joseph Pomeroy & Co. It is neutral in politics. 


On the first of October, 1794, President Washington left Philadel- 
phia for the western part of this State, called thither by the troubles 
known in our history as the "Whisky Insurrection." He was ac- 
companied by General Henry Knox, the Secretary of War ; General 
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury; Hon. Richard 
Peters, Judge of the District Court of the United States for Penn- 
sylvania; Mr Dandridge, his Private Secretary, and others of his 
official family. On Friday, the 4th ot the month, the party reached 
Harrisburg, and on Saturday, the 5th, Carlisle, where aconsiderable 
part of the army was already assembled. The President remained at 
Carlisle until the 11th inst. During that time he had several inter- 
views with commissioners from the insurgents, who wished him to 
disband the army, assuring him that the people of the insurrectionary 
counties would obey the laws withoutmarching the troops out there. 
He refused to accede to their request, yet he assured them that no 
violence would be done, that all that he desired was to have the 
people come back to their allegiance. 

On the morning of Saturday, the 11th inst., the Presidential party 
left Carlisle and reached Chambersburg that evening. Whilst 
here they stopped with William Morrow, who kept a tavern in a 
stone house which stood on south Main street, on the lot recently 
owned by Dr. J. C. Richards, dec'd., now the property of Peter Bru- 
ner. The President and party went south from this, through Green- 
castle, to Williamsport, Maryland, and from thence to Fort Cumber- 
land ; but as they did not reach Williamsport until the evening of 
Monday, the 13th, the presumption is that they remained in our 
town over Sunday, the 12th inst., as it is well known that President 
Washington was very averse to doing any work on the Lord's Day 
which could be avoided. 


For three or four years prior to the date of President Washing- 
ton's visit to our town, the larger part of the people of the counties of 
Fayette, Allegheny, Westmoreland and Washington, in our State, 
had been in open rebellion against the general government, because 
of the United States excise tax upon whisky. The tax was origin- 
ally only four pence per gallon, and was subsequently reduced be- 
low that sum. The people of that section of the State were mainly 
the descendants of Scotch-Irishmen, who hated the name and office 

48 Jfistoricdl Sketch of Franklin County. 

of ail exciseman. TIkm'o were no teniperance societies then in ex- 
istence, and to nialte an«l drink whisky was common, and was not 
regarded as disreputable by any one ; and the fame of their "Old 
Mononjrahela" was proverbial east and west. The only surplus pro- 
ducts of the people of that region were corn and rj-^e, and it would 
not pay to transport them to the eastern markets by pack horses, 
the only means they had. A horse could carry but four bushels of 
rye over tlie miserable roads then in existence, but he could carry 
tlie product of twenty-four bushels in the shape of whisky. They 
therefore made whisky everywhere. Almost every farmer had his 
"still." They thought that as they had cultivated their lands for 
years, at the peril of their lives every hour, and had fought the 
savages unaided most of the time by the government, which gave 
them little protection, they had a right to do as they pleased with 
the surplus products of their labors. And so they made it into 
whisky, knowing that it could be easily shipped east to a market 
where it would find a ready sale. They denied tlie right of the 
government to tax it, refused to pay the tax, tarred and feathered 
the tax collectors, and compelled them to resign theiroflfices or leave 
the country. So wide spread was the opposition to the enforce- 
ment of the law, and so inflamed the state of the jiublic mind, that 
it was found necessary to send a large body of troops out to the in- 
surrectionary districts to bring the people to reason and obedience. 

The opposition to the enforcement of the excise laws was not con- 
fined exclusively to the people of the western counties of the State 
There were many persons east of the mountains who were very 
hostile to the excise laws, and who sympathized wilh the alleged 
grievances of their western friends and kinsmen. General James 
Chambers, in a letter from Loudon Forge, to A. J. Dallas, Esq., 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, under date of Sej)teiiiber 22d, 1794, 
says: "On the IGth inst. I arrived in Chambersburg, and to my 
great astonishment I found the Rabble had raised what they Caled 
a Liberty pole. Some of the most active of the inhabitants was at 
the time absent, and upon the whole, perhaps, it was best, as mat- 
ters has Since taken a violent change. When I came hear I found 
the magistrates had opposed the sitting of the pole up, to the utmost 
of their power, but was not Supported by the majority of the Citty- 
zens. They wished to have the Royators Subject to Law, and (Mr. 
Justice John Riddle, John Scott and Christian Oyster) the magis- 
trates of this place informed me of their zealous wish to have them 
brought to Justice. I advised tliem to Call a meeting of the inhab- 
itants of the town on the next morning, and we would have the 
matter opened to them, and Show the necessity of Soporting Gov- 
ernment, Contrassed with the destruction of one of the best govern- 
ments in the world." 

The meeting was held in the "Coorthous"— Mr. John Riddle 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 49 

delivered "a very animating address" to the people — Resolves were 
passed and drawn up for the people to sign, pledging them to sup- 
port the Justices in their efforts "to bring the Royators to tryal," 
and General Chambers continues: "I am now happy to have in 
my power to request you, Sir, to inform his Excellency, the Gove- 
nour, that these exertions has worked the desired Change. The mag- 
istrates has sent for the men, the very Same that Errected the pole, 
and I had the pleasure of Seeing them, on Saturday Evening, Cut 
it down ; and with the Same waggon that brought it into town, they 
were oblidgeed to draw the remains of it out of town again. The Cir- 
cumstance was mortifying, and they behaived very well. They 
seem very penetant, and no person offered them any insult. It has 
worked such a change, I believe we will be able Shortly to Send 
our Quota to Carlisle." 

Liberty poles were also erected at Carlisle and other places, and 
the people everywhere in the eastern part of the State were very 
reluctant to turn out at the cill of President Washington against 
the "whisky boys," whose grievances they believed, for the most 
part, to be well founded. Secretary Dallas, in his report to the 
Senate, under date of September 10th, 1794, said: "According to 
the information I have received from several parts of the country, 
it appears that the militia are unwilling to march to quell the in- 
surrection. They say that they are ready to march against a foreign 
enemy, but not against the citizens of their own State," 

The troops called into the field under the requisition of President 
Washington, dated the 7th of August, 1794, numbered 12,950, and 
were from Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
Those from New Jersey and Pennsylvania assembled at Carlisle. 
Governor Thomas Mifflin, of Pennsylvania, and Governor Richard 
Howell, of New Jersey, had command of the quotas of their re- 
spective States — met them there, and in company with President 
Washington reveiwed them. The Pennsylvania troops were in one 
Division of 5,196 men, under the command of Major General Wil- 
liam Irvine, It was composed of three Brigades, the first com- 
manded by Brigadier General Thomas Procter, the second by Briga- 
dier General Francis Murray, and the third by Brigadier General 
James Chambers, of our county. General Chambers' Brigade was 
composed of 1,762 men, 568 of whom were from Lancaster county, 
550 from York county, 363 from Cumberland county, and 281 from 
Franklin county. These troops passed through our county by way 
of Strasburg, from whence they crossed the mountains to Fort Lyt- 
tleton on their march to Pittsburg, which place they reached in the 
month of November folio whig. Happily the supremacy of the 
laws, and the enforcement of order, were secured by this display of 
power on part of the General Government, without firing a gun, and 
without any of the sufferings or losses incident to a state of actual 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Countij. 

war. On Tuesday, the loth of November, 1794, tlie Pennsylvania 
troops left Pittsburg on their return home. They marelied by way 
of Greensl)urg, Ligonier, Bedford, Sideling Hill, Fort Lyttleton, 
Strasburg and Shippensburg, to Carlisle, where they were disbanded. 


According to the assessment 
of our county numbered two tl 
two, divided among the several 









Peters, . 



lists for the year 1786, the 
lousand three hundred and 
townships as follows, viz. : 

















Totals, 1,370 522 430 2,322 

In 1793 our taxables had increased to three thousand five hundred 
and seventy; and our whole population has been as follows, viz. : 

In 1790 15,655 

" 1800, 19,638 

" 1810, 23,173 

" 1820, 31,892 

" 1830, 35,037 

" 1840, 37,793 

" 1850, 37,956 

" 1860, 42,126 

" 1870, ♦. . . . 45,365 

So that we have not quite tripled our jDopulation in the last 
eighty-six years. 


The following statement of the votes cast in our county at several 
of the earlier elections for Governor may be of interest as showing 
the progress of the county in population : 

Evangelical Lutheran Church of creencastle pa. 

Rev. Fred'i^ Klinefelter pastor. 
' erected 1875, — dimensions — ^8 x 85 feet. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


In 1790. 

For Governor, 

Thomas Mifflin 


1508 votes 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair 

193 " 

For Senator, 

Abraham Smith 

985 " 

Robert Johnston 

565 " 

For Representatives 

James Johnston 

1656 " 

(two elected) 

James M'Lene 

1564 " 

For Sheriff, 

Henry Work 

792 " 

James Irwin 

554 " 

For Coroner, 

George Clark 

1648 " 

George Stover 

1640 " 

For Commissioner, 

James Poe 

818 " 

Daniel Royer 

588 " 

In 1799. 

For Governor, 

James Ross 

1413 " 

Thomas M'Kean 

992 " 

In 1802. 

For Governor, 

Thomas M'Kean 

1368 " 

James Ross 

686 " 

In 1805. 

For Governor, 

Simon Snyder 

1369 " 

Thomas M'Kean 

1228 " 

The election districts and vote at this last election were as follows, 
viz. : 

Snyder. M'Kean. 
395 366 






Green castle, 












There were no turnpikes, no canals and no railroads in those days. 
All transportation of merchandize, such as groceries, iron, salt, &e., 
was, as already stated, by pack horses, from Winchester, Hagers- 
town, Chambersburg, and other points in the east, across the 
mountains to Bedford, Fort Cumberland, Hanna's town, Pittsburg, 
and other points in the west. The people of all sections of the 
country, east and west, had long before this realized the fact that 
the pack horses of the day were not equal to the demands of the 
times in furnishing transportation facilities. The Provincial great 

52 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

roads, opened by Pennsylvania and Vir;jcinia for the use of (Jeneral 
Braddock's army, from Loudon town and Winchester to Fort Cum- 
berland, were originally poorly and hastily constructed, had become 
much out of repair, and so far as the needs of I'ennsylvania were 
concerned, were useless beyond the town of Bedford. Accordingly, 
attention was turned towards making better roads. Private citizens 
subscribed money for this purpose, many of the townships along the 
lines gave jiecuniary aid, and in ITSi) tlie first wagon that passed over 
the mountain barriers separating the east from the west, went from 
Hagerstown, Maryland, to Brownsville, Pennsylvania. It was 
drawn by four horses, contained two thousand pounds of freight, 
and was near a month passing over the road, a distanceof aboutone 
hundred and thirty miles. 


The first turnpike company incorporated in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, was "The Philadelijhia and Lancaster Company," April 9th, 
1792. In a few years quite a number of others were incorporated, 
but it was not until about the years lSl-i-'21, that the making of 
turnpikes seized hold upon the public mind. During those years 
the State became a large subscriber to the stock of various turnpike 
companies, I suppose because the Legislature thought that the 
public treasury should aid in the making of improveiiients designed 
for the public benefit. The Carlisle and Chambersburg road received 
nearly $100,000 from the State; the Chambersburg and Bedford road 
$175,000; and the Waynesboro', Greencastle and ISIercersburg road 
about $25,000. The State got but few, and very small dividends on 
these investments, and some twenty-five years ago these stocks 
were sold by the State Treasurer at the nominal prices of from fifty 
cents to a dollar per share. The roads, however, remain ; and in the 
days of wagoning and staging they were of vast use to the people, 
repaying them an hundred fold the public moneys invested in their 

We have now eightj^-eight miles of turnpike in our county, viz. : 
Waynesboro', Greencastle and Mercersburg, forty-two miles ; Cham- 
bersburg and Bedford, nineteen miles ; Chambersburg and Carlisle, 
eleven miles; Chambersburg and Gettysburg, nine miles; Green- 
castle and Maryland line, five and a half miles; and Waynesboro' 
and Maryland line, one and a half miles. 


The first stage coach line from Chambersburg to Pittsburg was 
established in the year 1804. The doom of that mode of travel was 
sealed when the locomotive scaled the heights of the Alleghenies; 
but in their day the old Concord coaches were the most speedj' and 
most pleasant means of passing from the east to the west, and those 
who can remember will bear me out in saying that the arrival or 

Wstorical Sketch of FranJdin County. 53 

<ieparture of half a dozen coaches of the rival lines, with horns 
blowing, streamers flying, and hoi-ses on the full run, was one of 
the most inspiring of scenes. It was witnessed about twice a day, 
at any time, in our good old town, some thirty yeai-s ago. 


We have now three railroads in our county, viz. : The "Cumber- 
land Valley," which embraces the old "Franklin Railroad," and 
extends through the valley from Harrisburg to the Maryland line, 
a distance of about sixty-eight miles; the "Mont Alto Railroad," 
twelve and thirty one-hundredths miles long; and the "Southern 
Pennsylvania Railway," twenty-one and four-tenth miles in length, 
making a total railroad mileage in the county of about fifty-nine 
and thirty-four one-hundredths miles. The Cumberland Valley 
Railroad was incorporated in 1831. Work was commenced upon 
it in 1835, and in August, 1837, it was opened from Harrisburg to 
Carlisle, and in November, 1837, to Chambersburg. Thomas G. 
M'CuUoh, Esq., was its first President. Upon his resignation Hon. 
Frederick Watts, of Carlisle, succeeded him, and served for some 
twenty-five years. In 1850 the road was relaid with heavy T rails, 
at a cost of about $270,000. About the year 1865 a consolidation with 
the Franklin Railroad was efTected, whereby the Cumberland Val- 
ley Railroad was extended to Hagerstown, Maryland. In 1873 
Thomas B. Kennedy, Esq., of Chambersburg, succeeded to the 
Presidency of the road, upon the resignation of Judge Watts. It 
now has a continuous line of road, 94 miles in length, from Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, to Martinsburg, West Virginia, whilst the total 
length of the main line and its connections is one hundred and 
twenty-five miles. The Cumberland Valley Railroad is most sub- 
stantially built, with convenient and tasteful station-houses, clean 
and neat cars, first-class engines and rolling stock, and accommo- 
dating and gentlemanly conductors and other employes ; and there 
is no better constructed or better managed railroad in the Common- 
wealth than it is. The total cost of the road has been about $2,500, 
000 ; and its property is now worth fully $3,500,000. 


By an act of Assembly passed the 24th of February, 1806 the State 
was divided into ten judicial districts, Adams, Cumberland and 
Franklin counties being the ninth district. By the 15th section of 
the same act the Associate Judges of the courts were reduced ft-om 
four to tivo in each county, as their commissions expired On the 
first of March, 1806, Hon. James Hamilton, of Carlisle, one of the 
most distinguished lawyers of the State, was appointed President 
Judge of this district, and served until the 13th of March, 1819 when 
he died suddenly at Gettysburg whilst holding court. ' 

64 HUitorical Sketch of Fran/din County. 


By the act of the 11th of Mnrcli, 1809, the Soutliorn District of the 
Suinome Court, composed of tlie counties of Cuinberlainl, Frankhn, 
AdaniH, Bedford and Huntinjijdon, was created, tlie sessions to be 
held annually at Chambersburg. This act was repealed and the 
district abolished by the act of the 14th of April, 1834, reorganizing 
the Supreme Court, but during the intervening twenty-live years, 
the Supreme Court sat annually' in our old court house, and Chief 
Justices Tilghman and Gibson, and Justices Yeates, Breckenridge, 
Duncan, Huston, Rogers, Tod, Smitli, Iloss, Kennedy and Ser- 
geant, delivered there some of the ablest and most important judi- 
cial o2)inions to be found in our State Reports. 


The first bank established in our county was started in the year 
1809, under "Articles of Association," with a capital of $2-50,000, in 
two thousand five hundred shares of SlOO 00 each. It was called the 
"Chambersburg Bank," and was simply a private organization, re- 
ceiving deposits and discounting notes, drafts, &c. Edward Craw- 
ford was President and Alexander Calhoun, Cashier, and the follow- 
ing i)ersons were the first Board of Directors, viz. : John Calhoun, 
jMatliias Maris, John HoUiday, Jacob Whitmore, John Shryock, 
"NVm. M. Brown, Jacob Heyser, Patrick Campbell, (of Peters), Peter 
Eberly and James Riddle. It continued to do business under these 
articles of association until the year 1814, when it was merged into 
the "Bank of Chambersburg," under the Omnibus a(;t of that year, 
next referred to. 

On the 21st of March, 1813, an act was passed by the Legislature 
"Regulating Banks," which divided the State into twenty-seven 
districts and provided for the creation of forty-one new banks, with 
a capital of over $17,000,000. It gave the county of Franklin two 
banks, one to be called the "Bank of Chambersburg," with a capi- 
tal of $000,000, the other "The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of 
Greencastle," with a capital of $250,000. Governor Snyder vetoed 
the bill, but at the next session, on the 21st of March, 1814, it was 
"log rolled" through, notwithstanding the veto. 

The 'Bank of Chambersburg," now the "National Bank of Cham- 
bersburg," has been in full operation ever since, and deservedly 
ranks as one of the best conducted and most reliable banking insti- 
tutions in the State. 

"The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Greencastle" was duly 
organized under its charter of 1814, but from some causes now un- 
known, soon got into trouble, and about the year 1818 failed most 
disastrously, entailing financial trouble and ruin upon almost every 
person connected with it. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 55 

In addition to tlie National Bank of Cliambersburg, wliicli has a 
capital of $260,000, we have now in operation in this county, the 
National Bank of Greencastie, with a capital of $100,000 ; the Na- 
tional Bank of Waynesboro', capital $75,000; the Franklin County 
Bank, at Chambersburg, with a capital of $65,000; and the Farmers' 
Bank of Mercersburg, with a capital of some $20,000. The last two 
are banks of discount and deposit alone, owned by individuals. 


About the year 1818 the first attempt was made to introduce water 
into our town. It was taken from the Falling Spring, about a half 
mile east of the railroad bridge, being forced thence to the reservoir 
(which was where the dwelling of Samuel Myers now is) by the 
power of the stream acting upon the buckets of a large water wheel 
placed in the current. The pipes extended through Market street 
to Franklin, a short way on Second street, and on Main street from 
King street to German. There were no fire plugs — nothing but 
hydrants for family use — and the reservoir being small, the works 
were wholly useless in times of fire. The pipes soon rotted out, and 
by the year 1823 the whole thing was abandoned. Being very prim- 
itive in all their appoiutments, these works could not have been 
very expensive, although some of our old citizens say that they cost 
about forty thousand dollars. 

Our present excellent water works are the property of the borough, 
constructed through the energy of our Town Council. They are said 
to be well built, and reflect great credit upon all connected with 
their erection. Their total cost is about fifty-five thousand dollars. 


The manufacture of writing and printing paper was commenced 
at Chambersburg, or Chambers' town, as it was then called, by John 
Scott & Co., in September, 1788, and for about eight years thereafter 
the newspapers at Pittsburg, and west of the mountains generally, 
were supplied from this point. The paper was transported upon 
pack horses, hundreds of which could at any time, as late as 1796, be 
found loading with merchandize at Strasburg, Loudon, Mercersburg 
and Chambersburg, for the western country. 


straw paper was manufactured at Chambersburg as early as 1831 , 
by George A. Shryock and Dr. Samuel D. Culbertson. It never got 
into general use in the mercantile community, being too brittle for 
wrapping ; but in the shape of binders' boards, and in other styles 
of manufacture, it met with large sales, and proved very remuner- 
ative to those engaged in the business. 

56 iriftfnrical Sketch of Franklin Counly. 


]{y the CoiiHtitutions of 177'! ami 17!)() (each) it was provided that 
a system of Public Free Schools sliould he founded in each county, 
for the instruction of the poor ; and this was done by the public 
paying those who kept private pcii/ so.hools to instruct the indijrent 
poor who were sent to them. It was not, however, until about the 
j'ear 18:16 (or forty years ago) that the present magnificent Common 
School System of our State was established. At first it was bitterly 
opposed in many parts of the Commonwealtii, and many years 
elapsed before it was generally adopted. In our county there were 
last year two hundred and fifty-four schools, kept open an average 
of six months, haA'ing in them one hundred and ninety male, and 
seventy-two female teachers. The number of male scholars in these 
schools was six thousand three hundred and seven, and of females 
five thousand two hundred and twenty-eight. The total receipts 
were $86,860.42, and the expenditures ?82,()2;].4"), of which 849,698.47 
Avere applied to the payment of teachers' salaries, and the balance to 
other expenses. 


In addition to the facilities afforded by our common schools to the 
youth of our county, both male and female, to obtain a complete 
education, we have the ''Mercersburg College" at Mercersburg, in a 
department of which Theology is also taught, of which Professor 
E. E. Higbee, D. D., is Principal ; the "Chambersburg Academy" 
at Chambersburg, of which Professor J. H. Shumaker is Principal ; 
the "Kennedy Academy" at Welsh Run, of which Rev. J. H. 
Fleming is Principal; the "Wilson College" (for females) at Cham- 
bersburg, of which Rev. W. F. Wylie, A. M., is President; and the 
"Mercersburg Female Seminary" at Mercersburg, of which Rev. J. 
H. Hassler is Principal. Besides these there are a number of other 
private schools of a high grade in various parts of the county, 
where both a common and classical education may be acquired. 


In the late war of the Rebellion our county suffered more, and 
our people lost more, than any other county in the northern Stjvtes. 

Ours was the debatable ground over which friend and foe alike 
passed at discretion in the carrying out of their military operations, 
and by each were our people caused to suffer. Under the authority 
of a Union Governor of Pennsylvania, the horses, saddles, bridles, 
&c., of our rural population were seized and taken for the public 
use, and many of these seizures have never been paid for. The 
Confederate troops raided upon our county several times and stripped 
our people of their horses, their wagons, their carriages, their cattle, 

HistoriGal Sketch of FixinMin County. 


their merchandize and tlieir money; and m 1863, Lee, the great 
captain of the hosts of tlie rebellion, with tlie pride and flower of his 
following, near one hundred thousand strong, invaded our county 
and held it in his undisputed control for tliree weeks or more. 

During all the years of the rebellion the people of the border 
counties were in all things loyal to the government. Upon us the 
waves of the rebellion beat, and our suflferings and losses were the 
protection of the people of other parts of our Commonwealth. Dis- 
interested, unprejudiced and sworn appraisers have, for the third 
time, said that the losses of the border counties were $3,452,515.95, 
distributed as follows, viz. : 

Somerset county, $ 120 00 

Bedford " 


Franklin " 


Adams county, 


Cumberland and Perry counties. 

6,818 03 
56,504 98 
846,053 30 
1,625,435 55 
489,488 99 
216,366 15 
211,778 95 

$3,452,515 95 
And yet the representatives of the great State of PennsylvaniaX 
Lave hitherto turned a deaf ear to the petitions of our plundered ! 
people, many of wliom lost their all. Not one penny has ever been ' 
given to the peoples of any of tliese districts, save to the burned out 
population of Chambersburg, who, after much tribulation and many 
years waiting, obtained less than fifty per <^V)it. of their losses. 

In the great fire of 30th July, 1864, by which the town of Cham- 
bersburg was destroyed, the following buildings were burned, viz. : 
Residences and places of business, ... . . 278 

Barns and stables, 98 

Out-buildings of various kinds, 178 

Total, . . .549 

The total losses of the people of the town have been appraised at 
$1,625,435.55, of which near $785,000 was for real estate alone. The 
county was also a great sufferer, and her losses are not included in 
this estimate. Our beautiful court house, which, in 1843, cost us 
$44,545 16, was totally destroyed, and the rebuilding of it cost our 
people $52,083.25, though the old walls were used. But the greatest 
loss our people sustained was in the destruction of the large mass of 
our public records, which were burned with the court house. Their 
loss is irreparable. They never can be restored, and it is only 
among the legal fraternity that the magnitude of the calamity is 
duly appreciated. I have known more than one case where minors 
have lost their whole estates, by reason of the destruction of these 

58 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

records, and their consequent inability upon coming of age to prove 
who were their guardians, or the bail of these guardians; and in 
other cases where the names of the guardians were known, but have 
become insolvent, the moneys in their hands have been lost, because 
of inability to prove who their securities were. 


Nine-tenths of the first white inhabitants of the Cumberland val- 
ley wer6, as has already been stated, Scotch-Irish, with some Eng- 
lishmen and pure Scotchmen amongst them. They were generally 
of the better class, brought up to regard the laws of God and man ; 
the most of them being members of some church. They were, 
therefore, desirable additions to the population of the country ; good 
citizens, Avho generally lived at peace with each other, and when 
they did violate the law, their crimes were not of a very heinouS 
character. Their morality was regulated by the ideas of the age in 
which they lived, and in those days many things were thought quite 
proper and right which would not now meet with approval. The 
use of strong liquors was general amongst them, and to an excessive 
indulgence in them, was attributable most of their departures from 
the rules of right and good conduct. Hence the crimes that our 
courts in early times were most often called upon to try and punish 
were petty larcenies, assaults and batteries, riots, &c. The higher 
crimes, such as arson, burglarj"^, robbery and murder were of rare 
occurrence among the inhabitants of this valley. Indeed, I do not 
know of a single instance, in this county, at least, where a Scotch- 
Irishman was convicted of either of these offences. There have 
been but five capital convictions in our county, so far as I have any 
record, since its organization, over ninety-two years ago. Four of 
these were for murder and one for rape. 

At a court of Oyer and Terminer, held at Chambersburg, in No- 
vember, 1785, before Hon. Thomas M'Keau, Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, John Hanna, of Franklin township, and Josiah 
Ramage, of Letterkenny township, wex-e severally convicted of 
murder in the first degree. 

The names of the grand jurors who found the indictments were as 
follows, viz. : James Maxwell, foreman, William M'Dowell, Thomas 
Johnston, George Matthews, John M'Clay, James Findley, John 
Allison, James Watson, Frederick Byers, William Scott, Elias 
Davidson, Richard Beard, Charles M'Clay, Nathan M'Dowell, 
James Chambers, Patrick Maxwell, William Rannels, Matthew 
Wilson, James Moore and James Campbell. 

John Hanna was charged with having murdered John Devebaugh, 
on the 22d day of June, 1785, near the Catholic church in Cham- 
bersburg, by striking him with an iron stone auger. The names of 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 59 

thejui'ors who tried him were Robert Wilson, John Cunningham, 
John Lawrence, John Gaff, Robert M'Karland, Robert Patton, 
James Withers, Matthew Ferguson, William Strain, John Young, 
Thomas Lucas and James M'Farland. The crime was committed 
in the heat of passion, growing out of a sudden quarrel, and strong 
efforts were made for his pardon. Such was the influence brought 
to bear in his favor that the Supreme Executive Council at its next 
meeting, on the 17th of December, 1785, refused to issue a warrant 
for his execution. 

Josiah Ramage was charged with having killed his wife, Mary 
Ramage, on the 24th of March, 1785, in Letterkenny township, by 
striking her on the head with a pair of fire tongs. The names of 
the jurors who tried him were John Young, James M'Farland, 
James Withers, Robert Davidson, William Berryhill, Robert M'- 
Farland, John Lawrence, Daniel Miller, John Cunningham, Wil- 
liam Strain, Robert Wilson and Gean Morrow. 

The cases of Hanna and Ramage were again before the Supreme 
Executive Council on the 6th of April, 1786, when it was ordered 
that they should be executed on Wednesday, the third day of May, 
of that year; and they were on that day hung by Jeremiah Talbot, 
the first Sheriff of the county, who was paid by the county in the 
year 1788, a fee of £9, 4 shillings therefor. 

A negro slave, named Jack Durham, the property of Andrew 
Long, of this county, was convicted of the crime of rape, at a court 
of Oyer and Terminer, held on the 3d day of June, 1788, before Hon, 
Thomas M'Kean, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Wm. 
Augustus Atlee and George Bryan, his Associates, and on the 21st 
of June of that year the Supreme Executive Council ordered that 
his execution be "made and done" on Tuesday, the 8th day of July 
following. John Johnston, the second Sheriff of our county exe- 
cuted Durham, and was paid by the county a fee of £7, 10 shillings 

The crime was committed at Southampton township, upon the 
person of one Margaret Stall. The jury valued Durham at thirty 
pounds, Pennsylvania currency, or $80.00, which was paid his owner 
by the Commonwealth. The names of the jurors who tried him 
were John Ray, George King, Robert M'Culloch, James Erwin, 
Robert Parker, Edward Crawford, Robert Culbertson, John M'Mul- 
lan, Henry Pawling, John M'Clellan, William Henderson and Jo- 
seph Chambers. 

On the 12th day of November, 1807, a man named John M'Kean 
was convicted of the murder of his wife, in Washington township, 
on the 30th of August previously, and was executed by Jacob Sny- 
der, Esq., Sheriff of our county, on the 22d day of December, 1807. 
He was the last man executed in this county. 

The jury who tried M'Kean were Thomas Anderson, Henry 

GO Historical Sketch of Franklin Counti/. 

Davis, Joliii Witherow, Christian Kryder, James Smith, David 
Jolin, William Brewster, James M'Cunly, (of James), John Holli- 
day, David Koniiedy, John Trvin and Jacob Smith, of Lurgan. 

John Murtau^h, an Irisli raih'oad liand employed in tlie making 
of tlie "Tape-worm," as tlie raih'oad Ieadinj?from Gettysburf; to- 
wards IIaj;erstown was called, was convicted at the April sessions, 
1S3S, of the niurder of one of his fellow workmen, named James 
!M'Glinchey, and sentenced on the 7th of April, 18;5H, to be hung, 
but he became insaneafter his conviction, was several times respited, 
and finally died in prison. 

Ramage and Hannawere hung on the hill north of the present 
residence of Jacob Nixon, and Durham and M'Kean east of the 
present residence of AVilliam M'Lellan, Esq., about where the new 
residence of James A. M'Knight has been built. Hence that hill was 
called for many years "Gallows Hill." 

INInch of the criminal business of our county for the last fifty years, 
indeed the most of it, even up to and including the present period, 
has been caused by the j^resence of the large number of colored peo- 
ple amongst us. Our Commonwealth having:, as early as 1780, passed 
"An act for the gradual abolition of slavery" within her borders, it 
became a common occurrence for the free negroes of Maryland and 
Virginia to leave those States and remove to Pennsylvania, and our 
county being immediately upon the dividing line between the free 
and the slave States, they were content, as soon as thej' got north of 
that line, to settle down and remain where they were safe from the 
oppressive laws of their former condition of servitude. In many 
instances the executors of deceased slave owners, who had manu- 
mitted their slaves, brought the new freedmen, sometimes number- 
ing thirty or forty in a lot, within the borders of our county, and 
there left them to provide for themselves. To these causes it is ow- 
ing that we have had so many colored people amongst us. Some of 
them were sober, industrious and economical, but the greater part 
of them were improvident, lazy, and addicted to the use of strong 
drinks whenever they could get them. Hence they were quarrel- 
some and riotous, and through their improvidence and laziness were 
frequently before our courts for fighting or stealing, or were the in- 
mates of our poor house, from want, in all cases taxing our treasury 
for their punishment and support. 

To Pennsylvania belongs the lasting honor of being the first one 
of the "United Colonies" to acknowledge before God and the na- 
tions of the world, the duties and obligations resting uijon her to do 
justice to the colored people within her borders, by providing for 
their equality before the law as men; and by giving to them and 
their descendants the right to enjo^' the inestimable privileges of 
life, liberty, and happiness, for which the war of the revolution 
was then being waged with Great Britain. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 6f 

On the 5th of February, 1779, when General Joseph Reed was 
President of the Supreme Executive Council of our State, George 
Bryan, Esq., Vice President, and James M'Lene, Esq., a Councilor 
from the county of Cumberland, the Council called the attention of 
the General Assembly of the State to the subject of the abolition of 
slavery in Pennsylvania, in language so remarkable, because of its 
being so much in advance of the sentiments of the people of other 
sections of the land at that day, and so different fi-om the views held 
even now by a great many of our people, both north and south, that 
I feel constrained to give it here. 

"We think," said they, "we are loudly called on to evince our 
gratitude in making our fellow men joint heirs with us of the same 
inestimable blessings we now enjoy, under such restrictions and 
regulations as will not injure the community, and will impercepti- 
bly enable them to relish and improve the station to which they 
will be advanced. Honored will that State be in the annals of man- 
kind which shall first abolish this violation of the rights of raan- 
kind ; and the memories of those will be held in grateful and 
everlasting remembrance who shall pass the law to restore and 
establish the rights of human nature in Pennsylvania." 

On the first day of March, 1780, the representatives of the Key- 
stone State of the Union, in General Assembly met, in the city of 
Philadelphia, close by the Congress of the United Colonies, then 
also in session there, passed Pennsylvania's act for the gradual abo- 
lition of human slavery. The struggle for national independence 
was then still undetermined. Continental currency had depreciated 
so much that one dollar of specie would purchase three thousand of 
currency. The British on the east, and the savages on the west, 
pressed hard upon the struggling patriots. The national govern- 
ment was without credit; the army and the navy were without the 
material needed to conduct the war to a successful ending ; and all — 
army, navy, and people— were sadly straitened for the necessaries of 
life. And yet, Pennsylvania's representatives, undismayed by their 
surrounding, and unheedful what the representatives in Congress 
of the slave-holding States of the nation might think of their action, 
gave utterance to their views of slavery, and the conclusions they 
had come to about it, in language so beautiful and so forcible, that 
justice to their memory impels me to extract the Preamble to the 
law they then enacted, long though it be, as I am satisfied that the 
great majority of the people have never seen or read it. 

I. "When," say they, "we contemplate our abhorrence of that 
condition, to which the arms and tyranny of Great Britain were 
exerted to reduce us ; when we look back on the variety of dangers 
to which we have been exposed, and how miraculously our wants, 
in many instances, have been supplied, and our deliverance wrought, 
when even hope and human fortitude have become unequal to the 

62 Hisloricnl Sketch of Franklin Counb/. 

conflict, we are uiiavoidiilily Knl (o a serious ami j;nitefiil sens-eof the 
manifold blessiii>;s wiiii-ii we luive uixleservediy received from the 
hand oC that lieiiit^ from wijom every j^ood and perfect gift cometli. 
ImpresHcd with these ideas, we conceive that it is our duty, and we 
rejoice that it is in our power, to extend a portion of that freedom 
to otiiers wliich hatli been extended to us, and release from that 
state of thraldom, to which we ourselves were tyrannically doomed, 
and from which we have now every prospect of beins delivered. It 
is not for us to en(juire why, in the creation of mankintl, the in- 
habitants of the several parts of the earth were distinguished by a 
difference in feature or comi)lexion. It Is HufficUnt to knoiv that 
all are the work of an AlmUjhtij hand. We find in the distribution 
of the human species, that the most fertile, as well as the most bar- 
ren parts of the earth are inhabited by men of complexions differ- 
ent from ours, and from each other; from whence we may reason- 
ably, as well as religiously, infer, that He, who placed them in their 
various situations, hath extended equally His care and protection to 
all, and that it becometh not us to counteract His mercies. We 
esteem it a peculiar blessing granted to us, that we are enabled this 
day to add one more step to universal civilization, by removing, as 
much as possible, the sorrows of those who have lived in undeserved 
bondage, and from which, by the assumed authority of the kings of 
Great Britain, no effectual, legal relief could be obtained. Weaned 
by a long course of experience, from the narrow prejudices and parti- 
alities we had imbibed, we find our hearts enlarged with kindness 
and benevolfnce towards men of all conditions and nations; and 
we conceive ourselves at this particular period extraordinarily 
called upon, by the blessings which we have received, to manifest 
the sincerity of our profession, and to give a substantial proof of our 

II. "And whereas, the condition of those persons, whohave here- 
tofore been denominated negro and mulatto slaves, has been attended 
with circumstances, which not only dei)rived them of the common 
blessings that they were by nature entitled to, but has cast them 
into the deepest afflictions, by an unnatural separation and sale of 
husband and wife from each other, and from their children, an in- 
jury, the greatness of which can only be conceived by supposing 
that we were in the same unhappy case. In justice, therefore, to 
persons so unhappily circumstanced, and who, having no prospect 
before them wherein they may rest their sorrows and their hopes; 
have no reivsonable inducement to render their service to society, 
which they otherwise might, and also in grateful commemoration 
of our own happy deliverance from that state of unconditional sub- 
mission to which we were doomed by tlie tyranny of Great Brit- 
ain." Therefore be it enacted, &c. 

How different these ideas and purposes from those entertained by 

Historical Sketch of Iranklin County. 63 

many persons, esiiecially in the southern States, at the present day. 
Notwithstanding the fact that the constitution of the United States, 
the supreme law of the land, gives to all men, of every class and 
color, equal rights and privileges, its provisions are wholly disre- 
garded in many sections of the Union, to the everlasting disgrace 
of the nation and the States permitting it. 

It is to be deplored that the criminal business of our county has 
so greatly increased of late years. It is now a vast and constantly 
increasing burthen to our people. Twenty-five years ago the oflflce 
of Prosecuting Attorney was one that a lawyer in full practice cared 
not to accept, because, whilst it gave considerable trouble to the 
holder of the office, the fees received from it afforded no adequate 
compensation for the labor connected with the discharge of its duties. 
But now the office of District Attorney is amongst the most desira- 
ble and lucrative positions in the gift of our people, all things con- 
sidered. Much of the increased expenditure in our criminal courts 
is attributable to the indiscriminate entertainment by magistrates of 
charges for petty offences that should never have been dignified by 
being brought before a court and jury. 


In the early days of the settlement of the Cumberland valley, 
whilst this part of it was yet in Lancaster and Cumberland counties, 
there were quite a number of our citizens who figured prominently 
in the military matters of the day. Indian forays, murders, pur- 
suits and fights were quite frequent, and numerous lives were lost 
in them. Of those brave and hardy pioneers, in most instances, we 
know nothing but their names. They were more active in making 
history than in writing it ; and of many of them we have no records 
except such as are traditional. Of others the historians have spoken 
here and there, and it is their deeds and fame that I wish to rescue 
from oblivion. 

Among the earliest of these of whom we have any reliable account 
is Colonel James Smith, a native of Peters township, in our county. 
In May, 1755, whilst engaged with others in opening a road from 
Fort Loudon to Bedford, he was captured by the Indians. He was 
subsequently adopted into the Caughnewaga tribe, remained with 
them until 1759, then escaped to Montreal, and got home in 1760. 
In 1763 he was actively engaged against the Indians as a captain of 
rangers. He next served as an ensign in the English Provincial 
army. In 1764 he took service under General John Armstrong, and 
was a lieutenant in Bouquet's expedition against the savages. In 
1765 he was the leader of a band of settlers who burnt the goods of 
some Indian traders because they had with them powder and lead, 
which they feared would be sold in the west to the Indians, and be 

64 Historical Sketch of Franklin C'nwifi/. 

used aj^iiinst tlie frontier settlements. A number of the residents in 
the neijj:hboriu)0(l of Mereersburg and Fort Loudon, who had noth- 
Ini; to do with tliis buruinj^, were arrested by the British troops and 
confined at Fort Loudon. Smith and his "boys" rallied to the 
rescue, and soon took more of tlie sohUers (Higlilandei>s) prisoners 
than tliere were of tlieir friends confined at tlie fort. An exchange 
was efiected and Smith's neif^hbors were released. 

In 17()!> some settlers were arrested and confined in Fort Bedford for 
their alleged former participation in the destruction of the goods of 
the Indian traders. Smith raised a company, marched to Bedford, 
captured the fort and all its ^sarrison, and liberated the men. Some 
time afterwards he was arrested for this act, and in the struggle his 
travelling companion was shot and killed. He was charged with 
the shooting, was arrested and imprisoned at Bedford, and subse- 
quently taken to Carlisle for trial, the offence having been com- 
mitted in Cumberland county. A body of six hundred of his old 
companions and neighbors assembled as soon as they heard of his 
arrest, marched to Carlisle and demanded his release. Smith refused 
to be released, made a speech to his friends, and counseled then! to 
return home, which they did. He remained in prison for four 
months, was tried before the Supreme Court at Carlisle, in 1769, and 
acijuitted. Shortly after he was elected and served for three j'ears 
as a County Commissioner in Bedford county, then removed to 
Westmoreland county and served there three years in the same 
office. In 1774 he was captain of a company operating against the 
Indians. In 1776 he commanded a company of rangers in New 
Jersey, and with thirty-six men defeated a detachment of two hun- 
dred Hessians, taking a number of prisoners. In 1776 he was elected 
a member of the Convention of Pennsylvania from Westmoreland 
county. In 1777 was elected a member of the Assembly from that 
county, and re-elected as long as he desired to serve. In 1777 Gen- 
eral Washington off't^red him a commission as major, l>ut not liking 
the colonel of the battalion, he declined it. Whilst serving in the 
Assembly he applied for and got leave of absence to raise a battalion 
of rifle rangers to serve against the British in New Jersey. Jiimes 
M'Cammont, of this county, was the major under him, and when, 
afterwards. Colonel Smith was taken sick, took the command of his 
troops and did good service. In 1778 he was commissioned a colonel, 
and served against the western Indians. In the expedition against 
the F'rench Creek Indians he commanded a battalion of four hun- 
dred riflemen, and did good service. In the year 1788 he removed to 
Bourbon county, Kentucky, where he served in the State Conven- 
tion and in the Legislature continuously till 1799, and died about 
the beginning of the present century. 

Major General James Potter was another of these ancient wor- 
thies. He was a son of John Potter, the first SherifTof Cumberland 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 65 

county. In 1758 he was a lieutenant in Colonel Armstrong's bat- 
talion from this and Cumberland counties. On the 26th of July, 
1764, he appears in command of the company of settlers who were 
pursuing the Indians who murdered the schoolmaster and children 
at Guitner's school house, a few miles south-west of Marion. He 
subsequently removed to what is now Centre county, where he pur- 
chased a large body of land, and built a stockade fort, widely known 
in those days as "Potter's Fort." He was appointed a brigadier 
general April 5th, 1777, and a major general May 23d, 1782. He 
was Vice President of the State in 1781, and a member of the Coun- 
cil of Censors in 1784, and on one occasion came within one vote of 
being made President of the State. In the year 1789, having received 
an injury, he came to his daughter's, Mrs. Poe, near Marion, to have 
the advantage of the advice and attendance of Dr. John M'Lellan, 
of Greencastle. He died there in the fall of that year, and was 
buried in the Brown's Mill grave-yard. No monumental stone 
marks the place of his repose. 

Major James M'Calmont (or M'Cammont, as he wrote his name) 
was another of the celebrated men of this region of our State in the 
last century. He was born in Letterkenny township, in this coun- 
ty, near where the town of Strasburg now stands, in the year 1739. 
He grew up surrounded by all the dangers and excitements of a 
frontier life. With the hills and dales of his native district, and all 
the wild recesses of its neighboring mountains, he was perfectly 
familiar. His soul delighted in the free air of the woods. He was 
skilled in the use of the rifle, and fear was an emotion unknown 
to his nature. His swiftness of foot was most extraordinary, and 
obtained for him the cognomen of "Supple M'Cammont." He was 
generally selected as the leader of the parties called into service to 
pursue the savages whenever they made an incursion into the 
neighborhood of his place of residence; and so successful was he in 
tracing the route of their retreat, or discovering their haunts ; and 
so summary was the vengeance inflicted upon tliem through his 
efforts, that he soon became quite celebrated as an Indian scout, and 
was acknowledged by the savages as a daring and formidable foe. 
He was an ardent patriot, and when the revolution broke out hast- 
ened to enter the service of his country. When the British occu- 
pied Philadelphia he had command of a troop of rangers, whose 
business it was to preveut the Tories of the interior furnishing pro- 
visions to their friends in the city. Whilst on duty one time in 
New Jersey, he captured a number of Hessians, whom he induced 
to locate near Strasburg, and whose descendants are there yet. He 
served as major of the sixth battalion of the Cumberland county 
troops in the revolutionary army, under command of Col. Samuel 
Culbertson of this county, and also as major of a battalion of rifle 
rangers, under Colonel James Smith, and was known as a brave 

GG Historical Sketch of Franklin County 

aiul accomplished solilier. He was one of the trusti;es appointed 
by the Legislature to build a court house and jail for our county. 
He was a member of the House of Representatives from tin-* county 
for the years 1784-'8.5, 1785-'SG, 1786-'87, and 1787-'88; and in 1789 
was appointed one of tlie Judj^es of our courts, and reappointed 
fourth Associate Judf^e, under tlie constitution of 1790, on the 17th 
of August, 1791, which position he held until his death, on the 19th 
of July, 1809. He was then seventy-two years of age, and lies 
buried at the Rocky Spring church. 

Another of our ancient wortliios, whose daring adventures have 
been pored over by every school boy in the land, was Captain 
Samuel Brady, the celebrated Indian scout. He was born at Ship- 
pensburg in 1756 or 1758. Though not a native of our county, yet 
on our soil many of his earlier days were spent in roaming our hills 

and dales. 

"He knew each jiatliway through the wood. 
Each dell unwarmed by sunshine's gleam ; 

Where the brown plieasant led her brood. 
Or wild deer came to drink the stream." 
The first drum-tap of the revolution called him to arms, and he 
commenced his services at Boston, and w^as in most of the principal 
engagements of the war. At the battle of Princeton he served under 
Colonel Hand, and at the massacre of Paoli he barely escaped cap- 
ture. After the battle of Monmouth he was promoted to a captain- 
cy and ordered to Fort Pitt to join General Broadhead, with whom 
he became a great favorite, and by whom he was almost constantly 
em[»loyed in scouting. The murder of his father and brother in 
1778-'79, by the Indians, turned the current of his hatred against the 
treacherous red man, and it never died out. A more implacable foe 
never lived. Day and night, year in and year out, he lived only to 
kill the Indians. Being well skilled in all the mysteries of wood- 
craft, he followed the trail of his enemies with all the tenacity, 
fierceness and silence of a sleuth hound. Most of his exploits took 
place in Ohio, north-western Pennsylvania, and western New York. 
He was a dread terror to the Indians, and a tower of strength to the 
whites. He commanded the advance guard of General Broadhead's 
troops in the expedition against the Indians of the upper Allegheny 
in the year 1780, and he and his rangers aided greatly in defeating 
the savages under Bald Eagle and Corn Planter, at the place now 
known as Brady's Bend. Of his famous "leap" of more than 
twenty-five feet across the Cuyahoga river, and his other numerous 
and daring adventures and hair-breadth escapes, I will not speak. 
The books are full of them. He died at West Liberty, West Vir- 
ginia, about the year 1800. 

Colonel Joseph Armstrong was an early settler in Hamilton town- 
ship, in this county. In 1755 he organized a company of rangers for 

Historical Sketch of P)-anklin County. 


the protection of the frontier against the incursions of the Indians. 
The names of his subordinate officers are now unl^uown, but the 
following is the roll of the men who composed his company. 


John Armstrong, 
Thomas Armstrong, 
James Barnet, 
John Barnet, 
Joshua Barnet, 
Thomas Barnet, Sr., 
Thomas Barnet, Jr., 
Samuel Brown, 
Samuel Brown, 
John Boyd, 
Alexander Caldwell, 
Robert Ciildwell, 
James Dinney, 
William Dinney, 
Robert Dixson, 

*William Dixson, 
James Eaton, 
John Eaton, 
Joshua Eaton, 

*James Elder, 
George Gallery, 
Robert Groin, 
James Guthrie, 
John Hindman, 
Abram Irwin, 
Christopher Irwin, 
John Irwin, 
John Jones, 
James M'Caraant, Sr., 
James M'Camant, Jr., 
Charles M'Camant, 
James M'Camish, 
John M'Camish, 
William M'Camish, 

Robert M'Connell, 
John M'Cord, 
WilUam M'Cord, 
Jonathan M'Kearney, 
John Machan, 
James Mitchell, 
John Mitchell, 
Joshua Mitchell, 
William Mitchell, 
Jon. Moore, 
James Norrice, 
John Norrice, 
James Patterson, 
Joshua Patterson, 
William Rankin, 
Jon. Rippey, 
Barnet Robertson, 
Francis Scott, 
James Scott, 
Patrick Scott, 
William Scott, 
David Shields, 
Matthew Shields, Sr., 
Matthew Shields, Jr., 
Robert Shields, Sr., 
Robert Shields, Jr., 
Jon. Swan, 
Joshua Swan, 
William Swan, 
Charles Stuart, 
Daniel Stuart, 
John Stuart, 
Devard Williams, 
Jon. Wilson. 

He was a member of the Colonial Assembly in 1756-'57 and '58. 
He commanded a company of militia, (most likely the company of 
rangers above named) under General Broadhead at the destruction 

*Wni. Dixson was the grandfather of Col. W. D. Dixon, of St. Thomas town- 
ship, and James Elder was the grandfather of Col. James G. Elder of Cham- 

68 lEstorical Sketch of Franklin Count)/. 

of the Indian town of Kittanning, on tlie Stli of September, 1756. 
Was paymaster of the Colony in the l)uil(lin<xof the great road from 
Fort London to Pitt«burg, and in December, 1776, raised a battahon 
of troops in the county of Cumberland (the 5th battalion) and 
marched with them to the defence of Philadelphia. The following 
persons commanded the companies of his battalion, viz. : John An- 
drew, Samuel Patton, John M'Connell, William Thompson, (after- 
wards a brigadier general), Charles Maclay, James M Kee, Jolin 
Martin, John Eea, (afterwards a brigadier general), John ]Murphy, 
George INIat thews and John Boggs. This battalion was raised in 
Hamilton, Lettorkenny and Lurgan townships, and tradition .says 
that they were the flower of the valley, brave, hardy and resolute 
Presbyterians, nearly all members of the old Rocky Spring church. 
Captain Maclay's comjiany numbered one hundred men, raised in 
old Lurgan township, each man over six feet in height. This com- 
pany suffered severely in the surprise of Brigadier General John 
Lacy's command at "Crooked Billet," in Bucks county, on the 
morning of the 4th of May, 1778. Captain Maclay and nearly 
one half of his men were killed, and many were wounded. General 
Lacy, in his report of the battle, says "that the wounded were 
butchered in a manner the most brutal savages could not equal ; 
even while living, some were thrown into buckwheat straw, and the 
straw set on fire and burnt up." And this report is borne out by the 
testimony of persons residing in the vicinity, who saw the partially 
consumed bodies in the fire. 

Another of these ancient worthies, whom it would be a gross in- 
justice not to mention in this connection, was the Rev. John Steele. 
He was called to the charge of the Presbyterian churches of East 
and West Conococheague, now Greencastle and Mercersburg, about 
the year 1751 or 1752. He came to our county at a time when the 
country was greatly disturbed by the incursions of the hostile Indi- 
ans of the west. Though a man of peace, and engaged in teaching 
the doctrines of his Divine Master, yet his heart burned within him 
at the sufferings inflicted upon his parishioners and neighbors, and 
he speedily organized a company of rangers for their defence, of 
which he was unanimously elected the captain, and w^as commis- 
sioned by the colonial government. After the disastrous defeat of 
General Braddock in 1755, the Indians again swept over the western 
and south-western jiart of our county, murdering and iilundering 
the settlers, and Mr. Steele's congregations were for a time almost 
broken up and dispersed. Frequent mention is made of Mr. Steele 
and his men in the history of those troublous times. Rev. D. K. 
Richardson, in his Centennial Sermon in relation to the Presbyterian 
church of Greencastle, delivered August 15th, 1876, says: "At one 
time he was in charge of Fort Allison, located just west of town, 
near what afterwards became the site of M'Cauley's Mill. The con- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 69 

gregation had assembled in a barn standing on the farm now owned 
by Adam B. Wingerd, Esq. They brought their arms with them. 
When Mr. Steele entered the rude pulpit which had been erected, he 
hung his hat and rifle behind him. The male members of the con- 
gregation sat listening to the gospel message with their arms at their 
side. While in the midst of his discourse, some one appeared and 
quietly called a member of the congregation out, and told him of 
the murder of a family of the name of Walker, by the Indians, at 
what is now known as Rankin's Mill. The awful story was soon 
whispered from one to another. As soon as Mr. Steele discovered 
what had taken place he brought the services to a close, took, down 
his hat and rifle, and, at the head of the members of his congrega- 
tion, went in pursuit of the murderers." 

His "meeting-house," on the West Conococheague, was turned 
into a fort, was stockaded for defence, and often was the refuge of 
the neighboring people when the country was invaded by the In- 
dians. It was afterwards burned by the savages ia one of their 

About the year 1763 or 1764, Mr. Steele took charge of the Presby- 
terian congregations of Carlisle and lower Pennsborough, where he 
spent the remainder of his days. When the revolutionary war 
broke out the people of this valley responded to the call of their 
country with zeal and unanimity. Eleven companies were raised in 
Cumberland county in a few days. Hon. George Chambers, in his 
tribute to the early Scotch-Irish settlers, says: "The company in 
the lead in July, 1776, from Carlisle, was that under the command 
of the Reverend Captain John Steele, pastor of the Presbyterian 
congregation worshipping in or near Carlisle. In the Indian wars 
he had acquired military training and experience, which were now 
at the service of his country against the army of his late, but now 
rejected, royal master." 

One of the most prominent of the military families of our county 
in those early days was the "Johnstons," of Antrim township. 
James Johnston, senior, settled about two and one-half miles east of 
Greencastle, near where Shady Grove now is, about 1735. He died 
about 1765, leaving a large estate and four sons and several daughters. 
Colonel James Johnston, the eldest son, was a soldier in the revolu- 
tion, and commanded a battalion from this county at various points 
in New Jersey. He died about the year 1814. Colonel Thomas John- 
ston, the second son, was adjutant of the detachment of troops under 
General Wayne which was surprised and slaughtered by the British 
at Paoli, September 20th, 1777. He twice served as colonel in the 
revolutionary war. He died about the year 1819. 

Dr. Robert Johnston, of Antrim township, the third son, was ap- 
pointed surgeon to Colonel William Irvine's battalion, from this 
county, on the 16th January, 1776, and served his country in that 

70 Ulstorinal Sketch of Franklin Counti/. 

capacity (Iirouijliout the whole war of the revolution. Tie was 
present, as smxeon in tlie soutliern (iepartinent, at tiie sur- 
render of the Hritisii army under Lord Cornwaliis, at Yorktown, 
Virginia, in October, 1781, and in ITiH) was appointed collector of 
excise for Franklin county. He wan also subsecjuently appointed 
by President Jefferson, with whom he was very familiar, United 
States revenue collector for western Peniisylvania. His acquaint- 
ance with the leading officers and men of tlie revolution was very 
large, and many of them were wont to spend much of their time at 
his hosjiitable residence, about two and a half miles south of Green- 
castle. Tradition says that President Washington stopped there 
and dined with the family when going westward to inspect the Ma- 
ryland and Virginia troops called out to aid in suppressing the 
whisky insurrection of 1794. Lieutenant General Wintield Scott 
was also, in his youthful days, a visitor at "Johnston's," as well as 
many others of his compatriots, and of the literati of those times. 

Robert Johnston made a visit to China about the commencement 
of the present century, and brought back many rare curiobities from 
that fjir distant country. He died about the yt-ar 1808. 

John Johnston, the youngest son, at the age of twenty years, 
raiseil a troop of horse and marched them to Lancaster, but their 
services not being needed, they returned home. He subsequently 
removed to Westmoreland county, where he died, about the year 182o 

Another of our native-born military men of "ye olden time," and 
one whose patriotism, zeal and braverj' did honor to the place of 
his nativity, was Brigadier General James Chambers. He was the 
eldest son of Colonel Benjamin Chambers, tin- founder of Cham- 
bersburg, and in .Tune, 1775, marched, as the captain of a company 
of riflemen raised in Chambersburg and vicinity, to the siege of 
Boston. The battle of Bunker Hill was fought June 17th, 1775, and 
Dr. Egle, in his recent history of Pennsylvania, says : "W^ithin ten 
days after the news of the battle of Bunker's Hill reached the Pro- 
vince of Pennsylvania, her first rifle regiment was officered and 
completed, many of the companies numbering one hundred men. 
It was commanded by Colonel William Thompson, of Cumberland 
county, whom Lossing, by mistake, credits to Virginia. The com- 
panies were severally under the command of Captains James Cham- 
bers, Robert Cluggage, Michael Doudel, "William Hendricks, John 
Lowilen, James Ross, Matthew Smith and George Nagel. The reg- 
iment, upon its organization, at once marched to the relief of Bos- 
ton, where they arrived about the last of July. They were the first 
companies south of the Hudson to arrive in Massachusetts, and 
naturally excited much attention. They were stout and hardy 
yoemanry, the flower of Pennsylvania's frontiersmen, and, accord- 
ing to Thatcher, " remarkable for the accuracy of their aim." This 
command became, in January, 1776, t\\e first regiment of the army 

JSistorical S/cetch of Franklin County. 71 

o/ the United Colonies, commanded by General George Washington.^'' 
Two companies of this battalion, Captains Smith and Hendricks, 
were subsequently ordered to accomijany General Arnold in his 
unsuccessful expedition to Quebec. Their term of service was for 
one year. 

This regiment was enlisted under a resolution of Congress, dated 
June 14th, 1775, authorizing the raising of six companies of expert 
riflemen in Pennsylvania, ten in Maryland and two in Virginia, to 
join the army at Boston. "Each company to contain one captain, 
three lieutenants, four sergeants, one corporal, one drummer and 
sixty-eight privates. The commissions of the officers bear date 25th 
June, 1775. 

The companies rendezvouzed at Reading, where the regiment was 
organized by the election of Wm. Thompson, of Carlisle, colonel, 
Edward Hand, of Lancaster, lieutenant colonel, and Robert Magaw, 
of Carlisle, major. It marched at once to Boston by way of Easton, 
through northern New Jersey, crossing the Hudson river at New 
Windsor, a few miles north of West Point, and arrived in camp at 
Cambridge, according to the latest authorities, in the beginning of 
August, 1775. At this time the regiment had three field officers, 
nine captains, twenty-seven lieutenants, one adjutant, one quar- 
termaster, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, twenty-nine sergeants, 
thirteen drummers and seven hundred and thirteen rank and file fit 
for duty. 

Captain Chambers' company was the only one in the regiment, 
so far as I know, that was raised within the bounds of our present 
county. I therefore was very anxious to get a complete roll of it, 
believing that our people would be pleased to have a knowledge of 
the names of the first patriot soldiers who left our county to battle 
for the independence of the United Colonies. For a long time I 
searched in vain for this roll, at Harrisburg, at Philadelphia, and at 
Washington city, and I feared I would not succeed in getting it. 
But recently the rolls of the regiment were found among the papers 
of Colonel Hand, of Lancaster county, who succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment upon the capture of Colonel Thompson, and 
through the kindness of Hon. John B. Linn, Deputy Secretary of 
the Commonwealth, I am able to give the complete roll of Captain 
Chambers' company. It is as follows, viz. : 


James Chambers, Captain, Arthur Andrews, Sergeant, 

James Grier, 1st Lieut.. Alex. Crawford, Sergeant, 

Nathan M'Connell, 2d Lieut., David Boyd, 

Thos. Buchanan, 3d Lieut., John Brandon, 

David Hay, Sergeant, Johnson Brooks, 


IHslorical Slcclch of FrankUn Count)/. 

Jsiiuos Bf; ck, 
Tlioniaa P-?atty, 
David Biddle, 
Michael Benker, 
Archibald Bro\vi», 
lilack Brown, 
John Brown, 
Wm. Burnett, 
Timothj' Campbell, 
\Vm. Campbell, 
Benj. Carson, 
Wm. Chestney, 
John Derniont, 
Joseph Eaton, 
John PZverly, 
Abijah Fairchild, 
James Furmoil, 
John Fidd, 
Wm. Gildersleeve, 
Richard Henney, 
Peter Hogan, 
George Houseman, 
John Hutchinson, 
Thomas Hutchinson, 
Charles Irwin, 
Francis Jamieson, 
Rob't Joblier, 
Andrew Johnston, 
George Justice, 
Andrew Kieth, 
Lewis Kettleng, 

Michael Kelly, 
Thomas Kelly, 
Silas Leonard, 
David Lukens, 
Thos. Lochry, 
Patrick Logan, 
Nicholas L<j\vrie, 
John Lynch, 
John M'Cosh, 
James M'Eleve, 
John ISr Donald, 
Michael M'Gibson, 
Cornelius M'Giggan, 
Jas. M'Haftey, 
John M'Murtrie, 
Patrick M'Gaw, 
Thomas Mason, 
Patrick Xeale, 
Wm. Parker, 
David Riddle, 
Thomas Rogers, 
Nicholas Sawyer, 
Jose])h Scott, 
Jacob Shute, 
Moses Skinner, 
Timothy Stiles, 
Patrick Sullivan, 
James Sweeney, 
James Symns, 
Thomas Vaughn. 

On the 2Gth of August, 1775, Captain Chambers commanded a de- 
tachment of four hundred men, drawn from the Cumberland county 
companies, sent out to Prospect Hill and Ploughed Hill, near Bos- 
ton, to protect a force of about two thousand men who were erect- 
ing a redoubt upon the latter hill. On the 7th of March, 1776, he 
was promoted to the lieutenant colonelcy of his regiment, vice Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Hand, appointed Colonel in the place of Colonel 
Thompson, who had been commissioned a Brigadier General on the 
first of the month. He was soon after ordered to Long Island, in the 
vicinity of New York. He was in the battle of Flatbush, on the 
22d of August, 1776, and also in that at King's Bridge. In his re- 
port of the operations at Flatbush he says that "Captain John Steele 
acted with great bravery." On the 30th of August, 1776, the Penn- 
sylvania troops were selected as a corps-de-reserve to cover the rear 

Jli'storical Sketch of Iranklin Couniy. '' 73 

of the patriot army in their retreat from Loi^g Islaud. That body 
was composed of Colonel Hand's regiment, of which Chambers was 
Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel Hazens', Colonel Shea's and Colonel 
Hazlett's regiments. On the 26th of September, 1776, Mr. Chambers 
was commissioned colonel of his regiment, in place of Colonel Hand, 
appointed brigadier general. In June, 1777, he was in' New Jersey, 
and was one of the first officers to enter New Brunswick with liis 
command and drive the enemy out. On the 11th of September, 
1777, his command was opposed to the Hessians under General 
Knyphausen at Chadd's Ford and Brandywine, where he was woun- 
ded in the side, together with two of his captains, Greer and Craig, 
and Lieutenant Holliday, also of his regiment, was killed. He was 
also in the battle of Germantown, October 4th, 1777 ; and in that of 
Monmouth, June 28th, 1778 ; he led the attack at the battle of Bergen 
Point, July 20th, 1780, and his regiment was complimented for their 
bravery by General Wayne, in general orders, on the 23d of the 
same month. He was at White Plains, West Point and other points, 
in active service, up to the time of his resignation, in 1781. Having 
seen more than six years constant service, he needed rest. After his 
retirement he was three different times appointed to the command 
of a battalion in his native county. In 1794 he was appointed to 
the command of the third brigade of the Pennsylvania troops called 
out to quell the whisky insurrection, and in 1798 was again ap- 
pointed to a similar command in the Pennsylvania troops called out 
in anticipation of a war with France. 

He was the second Justice of the Peace and Judge of our county 
courts, appointed September 17th, 1784, and served until the consti- 
tution of 1790 went into force in 1791. He was also a member of the 
"Society of the Cincinnati," instituted by the officers of the Ameri- 
can army. He died at Loudon Forge, his place of residence, April 
25th, 1805, and was buried with military honors in the resting 
place consecrated by his father, the cemetery of the Falling Spring 
church at Chambersburg. 

I have found it extremely difficult to make up a connected, reliable, 
or satisfactory history of the military organizations that originated 
in our county during the revolutionary struggle, or of the officers 
and men connected with them. Their terms of service, at first, 
were generally very short, ranging from six months to a year, and 
the changes in their regimental organizations, because of deaths, 
desertions, sickness, promotions and expiration of service, were so 
frequent that it has been impossible, with my limited sources of in- 
formation, to trace the history of any particular company or regi- 
ment for any great length of time, in a satisfactory manner. It 
would be foreign to my purpose to notice the whole early military 
operations of the Province of Pennsylvania, and yet it is necessary 
that I shall briefly refer to some part of them in order to understand 

74 IFiatoric.ftl Sketch of Fninh-Hn Count//. 

tlmt whic'li 1 wish to elucidate, to wit: the carli/ militari/ history of 
that section of country noiu forming Franklin county. 

The first battalion, or regiment, tiiat went out of Cumberland 
county was formed in June, 177o, as already stated, and was com- 
manded by Colonel William Thomjjson, of Carlisle. Colonel 
Thompson was born in Ireland, emifjrated to America and settled 
near Carlisle, and there followed his profession of a surveyor. Prior 
to the revolution he served in tlie war between England and France, 
and in the Imiian wars. He was a commissioned officer in the In- 
dian expedition that destroyed Kittanning in 17-5(3, and was captain 
of a troop of light horse in 1758. In 1774 he commanded a company 
of rangers in Westmoreland county. He was commissioned colonel 
of the first battalion of Pennsylvania militia 2oth June, 1775, and 
brigadier general ISIarch 1st, 1776. As has been heretofore stated, 
his regiment reached the patriot camp at Cambridge, near Boston, 
August 18th, 177;). Thatcher, in his military journal, says of these 
men: "Several companies of riflemen, amounting, it is said, to 
more than fourteen hundred men, have arrived here from Pennsyl- 
vania and Marylan«i, a distance of from five hundred to seven hun- 
dred miles. They are remarkably stout and hardy men, many of 
them exceeding six feet in height. They are dressed in white 
frocks or rifle shirts, and round hats. These men are remarkable 
for the accuracy of their aim, striking a mark with great certainty 
at two hundred yards distance. At a review a company of them, 
while on a quick advance, flred their balls into objects of seven 
inches diameter, at a distance of two hundred and fifty yards. They 
are now stationed on our out lines, and their shot have frequently 
proved fatal to British oflflcers and soldiers who exposed themselves 
to view, even at more than double the distance of a common mus- 
ket shot." General Thompson was ordered to Canada in April, 1776, 
and was captured by the British at "Three Rivers" on the 4th of 
July of that year. He was paroled and allowed to return to his 
family in 1777, but was not regularly exchanged until the 25th of 
October, 1780. 

Sir Henry Clinton, the commander-in-chief of the British forces, 
then released General Thompson, Colonel Magaw and Lieutenant 
Laurens, prisoners in his possession, in exchange for Major General 
De Reidesel, of the Brunswick troops, a prisoner in our possession. 
He died on his farm near Carlisle, September 3d, 1781, aged forty- 
five years, and was buried in the grave-yard at Carlisle. 

Robert Magaw, of Carlisle, was major of this battalion, his brother 
Wm. Magaw, of Mercersburg, surgeon, and Rev. Samuel Blair 

As everything connected with the history of this regiment, the 
first that left the Cumberland Valley, must undoubtedly be of great 
interest to our people, I here insert an article from the pen of Hon. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 75 

John B. Linn, Deputy Secretary of the Commonwealth, published 
in the '■'■Philadelphia. Weekly Times''^ of the 14th of April, 1877. 


"The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has in its temporary pos- 
session a very interesting relic of the revolution. Itis the standard 
of the First Pennsylvania Ritle Battalion, Colonel Wm. Thompson, 
of Carlisle, which was raised upon the reception of the news 
of the battle of Bunker Hill, and entered the trenches in front 
of Boston on the 8th of August, 1775. It was in all the skirmishes 
in front of Boston, and before the British ev^acuated that city it was 
ordered to New York to repel their landing there. Colonel Thomp- 
son was promoted brigadier on the 1st of March, 1776, and Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Hand, of Lancaster, succeeded him. The term of the 
battalion expired on the 30th of June, 1776, but officers and men in 
large numbers re-enlisted for three years or during the war, under 
Colonel Hand, and the battalion became the First Regiment of the 
Continental line. It was at Long Island, White Plains, Trenton 
and Princeton, under Hand. On the 1st of April, 1777, Hand was 
promoted brigadier, and Lieutenant Colonel James Chambers, of 
Chambersburg, became Colonel. Under him the regiment fought at 
Brandywine, German town, Monmouth and in every other battleand 
skirmish of the main army until he retired the service, January 1st, 

Colonel Chambers was succeeded by Colonel Daniel Broadhead, 
and on the 26th of May, 1781, tlie First regiment left York, Pa., with 
five others, into which the line was consolidated, under the com- 
mand of General Wayne, joined Lafayette at Raccoon Ford on the 
Rappahannock on the 10th of June ; fought at Green Springs ou 
the 6th of July; opened the second parallel at Yorktown, which 
General Steuben, in his division orders of 21st of October, says "he 
considers as the most important part of the siege." After the sur- 
render the regiment went southward with Wayne, fought the last 
battle of tlie war at Sharon, Georgia, May 24, 1782, entered Savannah 
in triumph on the 11th of July, Charleston on the 14th of December, 
1782 ; was in camp on James Island, South Carolina, on the 11th of 
May, 1783, and only when the news of the cessation of hostilities 
reached that point was embarked for Philadelphia. In its services 
it traversed every one of the original thirteen States of the Union ; 
for wliile in front of Boston, October 30th, 1775, Captain Parr was 
ordered with a detachment of this battalion up to Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, to defend that point. I noticed this standard on 
exhibition at the Museum during the Centennial, but supposed 
it "the banner with a strange device" of some revolutionary militia 
battalion. I identified it the other day at the rooms of the Histori- 

7G Historical Sketch of Fran/din Count}/. 

cal Society from a description eoiitained in a letter from Lieulenant 
Colonel Hand to Jasper Yeates, in possession of General Hand's 
granddaughter, Mrs. S. li. Rogers, of Lancaster. It is dated : 

"Prospkct Hill, 8 March, 1776.— I am stationed at Cobble Hill 
with four companies of our regiment. Two companies, Cluggage's 
and Chambers' were ordered to Dorchester on Monday ; Ross' and 
Lowdon's relieved them yesterday. Every regiment is to have a 
standard and colors. Oir standard is to be a deep green ground, the 
device a tiger partly enclosed by toils, attempting the pass defended 
bj' a hunter armed with a spear, in white on crim.son tield ; the 
motto 'Domari Nolo.' " 

The i^resent owner of tlie standard, I am told, is Thomas Robin- 
son, Esq., grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Tliomas Robinson. The 
latter, it appears by our records, entered the service January 5, 1776, 
as captain in Colonel Wayne's Fourth Pennsylvania (one year) 
battalion, served the campaign in Canada and was j>romoted June 
7, 1777, lieutenant colonel of the First Pennsylvania Continental 
Line. He served until the close of the war and was mustered out 
of service in 1783 as lieutenant colonel of the Second Pennsylvania. 
He became custodian of the standard, because Colonel Broadhead 
did not accompany the regiment South and Colonel Robinson wa.s 
in actual command when the war closed. 

Ilarrisburg, April Gfh, 1877. John B. Linn." 

In the early part of December, 1775, the second Pennsylvania bat- 
talion was formed. It was first under the command of Colonel 
John Bull, and subsequently under that of Colonel John Philip 

In the latter part of the year Congress called for four more battal- 
ions, which were fully organized in January and February', 1776. 
They were commanded as follows : 

The second by Colonel Arthur St. Clair. 

The third by Colonel John Shee. 

The fourth by Colonel Anthony Wayne. 

The fifth by Colonel Robert Magaw. 

The sixth by Colonel William Irvine. 

With the regiments of Colonels St. Clair, Shee and Wayne, the 
people of this valley had no connection. They were raised in other 
sections of the State. 

Colonel Magaw's regiment was made up of companies from what 
is now Cumberland county, and from adjoining counties. There 
were none from the territory now embraced in our county,' that I 
have been able to hear of. Colonel Magaw and his M'hole command 
were captured by the British at Fort Washington, Long Island, on 
the 16th of November, 1776, and was paroled, but not exchanged 
until the 2r)th of October, 1780. He died at Carlisle January 7th, 

IRstorical Sketch of Franklin County. 77 

Colonel William Irvine was born at Fermagh, Ireland, ou the ^ n 

8d of November, 1741. He was educated at the University of Dub- ^..^ 
lin, studied medicine and was a surgeon in the British navy, in 17^,- '^ 
In 1763 he settled at ^arlisle in the pursuit of his profession. "Tie ^^ ^ ^^ 
wa^ a delegate from Cumberland county in the Provincial Confer- I •: 
ence which met at Philadelphia on the 15th of July, 1774, and recom- 
mended a general congress of the Colon'es. On the 9th of January, 
1776, he was appointed colonel of the sixth regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania troops. On the 8th of June, 1776, he was captured at the bat- 
tle of "Three Rivers," Canada. On the 3d of August, 1776, he was 
released on parole, but was not exchanged until the 6th of May, 
1778. The sa^me year he was appointed Colonel of the second Penn- 
sylvania regiment. May 12th, 1779, was appointed a brigadier gen- 
eral and served under General Wayne during that and the following 
year. In 1781 he was stationed at Fort Pitt, in command of the 
north-western frontier. In 1784 he was a member of the Council of 
Censors. In 1785 he was the agent of the State looking after her 
publiclands, and recommended the purchase of the "Triangle," thus 
giving Pennsylvania an outlet upon Lake Erie. In 1786-'88 he was 
a member of Congress, and of the State Constitutional Convention 
in 1790. In 1794 Governor Mifflin appointed him and Chief Justice 
M'Kean, commissioners to reason with the leaders of the whisky 
insurrection. He also served in Congress from 1793 to 1795; was 
president of the "Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati," and died 
at Philadelphia on the 29th of July, 1804. 

Colonel Irvine's regiment was composed of eight companies, 
numbering six hundred and seventy-nine officers and men, viz. : 

Company one, Cai3tain Samuel Hay, Officers and 92 men. 


' ' Robert Adams 



" Abraham Smith, 



*' William Rippey, 



" Jas. A. Wilson, 



" David Grier, 



" Moses M'Lean, 



" Jeremiah Talbott, 


The regimental organization was as follows, viz : 
Colonel, Wm. Irvine, commissioned January 9th, 1776. 

Lieut. Colonel, Thomas Hartley, " " " " 

Major, James Dunlop, " " " " 

Adjutant, John Brooks, " " " " 

Surgeon, Robert Johnston, , " " " " 

Surgeon's Mate, John M'Dowell, '/ 
Quartermaster, James Calderwood. 
" Wm. Nichols. 

" Robert Hoops. 

78 Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/. 

But three of theso ennipanics, viz: Abraham Smith's, Wilh'am 
Rippey's aiKlJtMViiiiah Tallmtt's, are claimed to have been from that 
section of country now embraced in FrankUn county. 

Captain Abraliam Smitli, it is said, resided in Lurgan township, 
Cumberland county, just north of the present boundary line of our 
county. He owned a considerable tract of Ian<i there, none of M'hich 
however, was ever taxed in our county, according- to the assess l>ook9 
in the Commissioners' office. The people of that section of the 
county point with pride to his mtilitury record, and claim him as 
having gone out from among them. He and his company were 
with Colonel Irvine's regiment throughout its varied service in the 
war of the revolution. Nothing can be determined from the names 
of the men com|)osing his comjrany, as to where they were from, 
for an examination of the roll shows that the names upon it are the 
same as those of residents of other parts of the county than Lurgan 

On the 5th of July, 1777, an Abraham Smith, of Cumberland 
county, was elected Colonel oi the 8th battalion of the militia of that 
county, and it is claimed that he was from Lurgan township. How 
the fact was, I have not been able to determine. That there were 
two Colonel Abraham Smiths in Cumberland county, is most likely, 
one the military man, the other the civilian. Former writers have 
generally, though mistakenly, I think, confounded Abraham Smith 
of Lurgan^ with Abraham Smith of Antrim, and given to the for- 
mer the honor and credit of having filled the offices undoubtedly 
held by the latter. 

The following are names of the officers and men of Captain Abra- 
ham Smith's company, in Colonel Irvine's regiment: 


Captain, Abraham Smith; commissioned January 9th, 1776. 
First Lieutenant, Robert White; commissioned January 9th, 1776; 
resigned February 9th, 1776. 
Second Lieutenant, John Alexander; promoted February 10th, 1776. 
Second Lieutenant, Andrew Irvine; commissioned Feb. 9th, 1776. 
Ensign, Samuel Montgomery ; promoted June 1st, 1776. 
Ensign, Samuel Kennedy ; commissioned June 1st, 1776. 


John Beatty, William Scott, 

Samuel Hamilton, William Burk. 

Hugh Foster, 


William Burk, Seth Richey, 

George Standley, William M'Cormick, 

John Moore, " William Drennon. 

William Campbell, 

John Fannou, Drummer. William Cochran, Fifer. 

JUslorical SJcelch of Franklin County. 



David Armor, 
John Brown, 
Patrick Brown, 
John Blakeley, 
John Brannon, 
Philip Boyle, 
Josiah Cochran, 
Bobert Craighead, 
Anthony Creevy, 
William Cochran, 
James Dunlap, 
Thomas Drennon, 
William Downey, 
Hugh Drennon, 
Daniel Divinney, 
Pat. Flemming, 
William Gwin, 
Alex. Gordon, 
Robert Gregg, 
Thomas Higgins, 
James HoUiday, 
Thomas Holmes, 
John Hendricks, 
Benj. Ishmail, 
Robert Jarrett, 
Thomas Johnson, 
Samuel Love, 
George Lucas, 
Nicholas Little, 
James Lowrey, 
Daniel M'Kissoek, 
John M'Collam, 
William M'Cormick, 
Michael M'Garra, 
Bryan M'Laughlin, 
John M'Fetridge, 

Michael M'Mullin, 
James M'Kissoek, 
Adam M'Breas, 
John M'Dowell, 
Samuel M'Brea, 
Robert M'llno, 
Alex. M'Kenny, 
John M'Kiugham, 
John Montgomery, 
Alex. Moor, 
Robert Miller, 
Hugh Milligan, 
Moses Powell, 
Nath. Points, 
John Rannell, 
Seth Richey, 
Patrick Rogers, 
John Rannell, Jr., 
Peter Runey, 
Alex. Reid, 
Barthol Roharty, 
Thomas Smith, 
Patrick Silvers, 
Thomas Scott, 
George Simpson, 
Robert Swinie, 
John Stoops. 
Ad. Sheaver, 
William Stitt, 
Peter Sheran, 
Charles Tipper, 
John Todd, 
Mich. White, 
James White, 
John Wilson, 
John Young. 

Ninety-three oflaeers and men. 

In November, 1777, this company was under Captain Samuel 
Montgomery, and numbered but forty-three men— oflQcers and pri- 
vates—the men being captured, or killed, or incorporated into other 
companies. I find the names of many of the men in Captain John 
Alexander's company. 

80 Historical Sketch of Franklin Countif. 


Captain Rippey resided in Shippensburfr, but the most of the men 
composinf? liis company were from tlie atijoinin<? townsliip of Lur- 
gan, now in Fraul<lin county. Colonel Irvine's regiment, ihesixth, 
with the first under Colonel J. P. DeHaas, the second under Colonel 
Arthur 8t. Clair, and the fourth under Colonel Anthony Wayne, 
were formed into a brigade in the suinnierof 1770, and sent to Can- 
ada under General Sullivan. On the 21st of July, 1776, many of 
Sullivan's command were captured at the Isle Au Noix. Among 
them was Captain Rippey, but he was so fortunate as to escape. 
Colonel Irvine was captured at Three Rivers, Canada, on 
the 8th of June, 1776, when the command of the regiment devolved 
upon Lieutenant Colonel Thos. Hartley, who, after the disaster at the 
Isle Au Noix, fell back to Crown Point and Ticonderoga, and win- 
tered there. These battalions were enlisted for one year from .Janu- 
ary 1st, 1776, and at the expiration of tlieir terms of terviee, nearlj' 
all of the men re-enlisted in new regiments for three yearsor during 
the war. In the month of March, 1777, Irvine's regiment re-en- 
tered the service as the seventh regiment of the Pennsylvania line, 
under Lieutenant Colonel David Greer, its original commander. 
Colonel Irvine then being a prisoner of war. After the close of the 
war Captain Rippey lived at the Branch Hotel in Shippensburg, 
where he died September 22d, 1S19, aged seventy-eight years. 

The following are the names of the oflBcersand men of his com- 
pany : 


Captain, William Rippey; commissioned January 9, 1776. 
First Lieutenant, Wm. Alexander; commissioned January 9th, 
1776. Promoted to Captain June 1st, 1776. 
First Lieutenant, Alexander Parker ; commissioned June 1st, 1776. 
Second Lieutenant, John Brooks. 
Ensign, Wm. Lusk. 


John Hughes, John M'Clelland, 

Robert Watt, William Anderson. 


William Gibbs, George Gordon, 

Jeremiah M'Kibben, Nath. Stevenson, 
James M'Culloh, 

Daniel Peterson, Drummer, Wm. Richards, Fifer. 

>. -Jet- 




'O, PA 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 



Jacob Anderson, 
Robert Barckley, 
Barnerd Burns. 
Robert Caskey, 
Henry Cartwright, 
Robert Cortney, 
Jacob Cbristyardinger, 
Benjamin Cochran, 
Hugh Call, 
John Collins, 
William Dougherty, 
John Davison, 
Joseph Divine, 
Anthony Dawson, 
Thomas Dycke, 
James Finerty, 
Hugh Forsyth, 
Hugh Ferguson, 
Thomas Falls, 
William Gorge, 
Henry Girden, 
Thomas Gell, 
Jacob Glouse, 
Nathan Hemphill, 
Robert Haslet, 
John Hendry, 
William Henderson, 
James Hervey, 
Cumberland Hamilton, 
Neal Hardon, 
George Hewitt, 
Jacob Justice, 
Robert Irvine, 
John Johnston, 
Christopher Kechler, 
Francis Kain, 
John Kelly, 
William Lowry, 
Daniel Lavery, 
David Linsey, 
James Lynch, 

Josiah M'Call, 
John M'Michael, 
James M'Comb, 
William M' In tire, 
John Moor, 
James Mullin, 
Thomas M'Call, 
Philip Melon, 
Alexander M'Nichols, 
James M'Coy, 
James M'Con, 
David M'Clain, 
John M'Donell, 
Daniel M'Clain, 
John M'Gaw, 
Charles Malone, 
George M'Ferson, 
William Nicholson, 
John Ortman, 
John O'Neal, 
Thomas Pratt, 
Thomas Parsons, 
Aaron Patterson, 
Charles Rosbrough, 
John Rosbrough, 
John Rogers, 
Thomas Reed, 
Robert Robeson, 
Basil Regan, 
John Stoner, 
Henry Scott, 
Alexander Stephenson, 
Nath. Stephenson, 
James Smiley, 
William Thompson, 
John Tribele, 
Jacob Trash, 
John Van Kirk, 
William Winn, 
John Wright, 
Peter Young. 

John Madden, 

Ninety-nine officers and privates. 
Many of these men, in November, 1777, were incorporated in 
Captain Alexander Parker's company. 

82 ITistoricnl Sketch of Franklin Connti/. 


Thif« conipiuiy was recruited in Chambersbur!^ and its vioinity, by 
Captain Talbott. He was a native of Talbott county, Maryland, 
and removed to Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, before the com- 
mencement of the revolutionary struRfjjle, and settled at Chambers- 
burg. On the 2oth of September, 1777, Captain Talbott was appointed 
major of the sixth battalion of the Pennsylvania troops, and served 
in that position until the proclamation of ponce. In March or April, 
1777, ISIajor Tall)ott was assi<j;ned to the recruitinjj service, and such 
was his popularity tiiat in a few weeks he enliste<l sixty men in 
Chambersburg and its vicinity, paying a bounty of twenty dollars 
to each recruit. 

After the close of the war, upon the formation of our county, 
Major Talbott was, at the first, election for county officers, held Octo- 
ber, 17S4, elected Sheriff" of the county, and M-as re-elected in 1785 
and in 178(5. On the od December, 1787, he was appointed Lieuten- 
ant of the county, and served until 1790. Sherifl" Talbott owned the 
brewery on the bank of the Conococheague creek now carried on 
by Charles Ludwig. He also owned two lots of ground on West 
Queen street— one improved, the other unimproved. His dwelling 
house was on the site of that now owned and occupied by Judge 
John Huber. It was of stone, and part of the western wall is still 
standing, having been used in the erection of the present dwelling. 
In addition to this property, Sheriff Talbott owned a tract of one 
hundred acres of land in Hamilton township, and had one horse, 
three cows and one female negro servant. The tax lists for 178G-1788, 
and 1789, show that he then resided in Chaml)ersburg, as he was 
taxed there during those years for all the foregoing property, except 
the one hundred acres of land. About 1789 Sheriflf Talbott became 
pecuniarily involved, and on the 16th of December, 1789, Sheriff 
John Johnston, his successor, sold his Hamilton township farm, 
and the 17th of June, 1790, sold his Chambersburg property. He 
died on the 19th of January, 1791, and was buried in the Presbyte- 
rian grave-yard at Chambersburg. After his death his widow and 
children removed to the vicinity of Mercersburg, but he never re- 
sided there, nor at Greencastle. 

The following are the rolls of his company at three different 
periods : 


Captain, Jeremiah Talbott; commissioned January 9tb, 1776. 
First Lieutenant, John M'Donald; " " " 

Second Lieutenant, Alex. Brown; " " " 

Ensign, William Graham; " " " 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 



John M'Collam, 
John Wilson, 

James Ciippels, 
Samuel Mitchell. 


"William Campbell, 

Robert Hunter, 

John Milton, Drummer. 

John Chain, 
John Reuiston. 
John Killin, Fifer. 


Robert Asten, 
John Bradley, 
William Black, 
John Church, 
George Coghren, 
Francis Clark, 
Robert Carnahan, 
Charles Conna, 
John Campbell, 
Joseph Chambers, 
John Dinning, 
William Evans, 
John Faulkner, 
Hugh Fairess, 
James Gardner, 
Daniel Gibson, 
William Heaslett, 
John Heatherington, 
Duke Handlon, 
John Higgens, 
Kern Kelley, 
Stephen Lyon, 
Jacob Lewis, 
Hugh Lilley, 
John Marten, 
Robert Mollon, 
Benj. Morison, 

Charles M'Roun, 
Archibald M' Donald, 
Matthew M'Connell, 
Thomas M'Creary, 
Lawrence M'Creary, 
Charles M' Mullen, 
Thomas Mitchell, 
Charles Marry, 
Patrick Marray, 
Able Morgan, 
Archibald Nickel, 
Andrew Pinkerton, 
Samuel Power, 
John Pollock, 
James Quarre, 
William Shaw, 
Mike Sesalo, 
John Shoemaker, 
James Sloan, 
John Totton, 
John Thompson, 
Hugh Thompson, 
William White, 
John White, 
John Welch, 
Robert Watson, 
Isaac Wiley. 

James M'Farlan, 

Commissioned and non-commissioned olHcers and privates, 69. 

In January, 1776, Captain Talbott's company numbered sixty-nine 
officers and men. By April, 1777, it was so much reduced that it 
required sixty men to bring it up to the regulation standard. The 
following are the names of the men then added to the company, 
viz. : 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

John M'Cullum, 
John Foster, 
John Wilison, 
Rol)ort Hunter, 
William Gihbs, 
Thomas Whitely, 
Hun;h Thomson, 
William Foster, 
Phelix O'Neal, 
John Crowl, 
John Fulerton, 
Patt. Boyle, 
Thomas .Sherry, 
John Cavenaugh, 
Robert Burns, 
Andrew M'Gahey, 
William M'Calley, 
Isaac Shackey 
Christopher Row, 
Francis O'Harrah, 
Thomas Dunn, 
Daniel M'Cartey, 
Barney M'Gillegan, 
John Fergison, 
Michael Black, 
John Brown, 
Gilbert Berryhill, 
Hugh Casserty, 
Charles Conner, 
George Corohan, 
Edward Hart, 
The following is the company's 

Jeremiah Talbott, Captain, 
Andrew Irvine, Lieutenant, 
Joseph Torrence, " 
John M'Cullam, Ensign, 
William Gibbs, Sergeant, 

John Shoemaker, 
James Garlant, 
James T^oe, 
Jacob Weaver, 
Conrad Carcass, 
Patrick Murrey, 
John Kellenough, 
John Johnson, 
Charles Kelly, 
John M'Kinley, 
Michael Sitsler, 
John Smith, 
Peter Smith, 
Joseph West, 
Patrick Guinn, 
Patrick M'Cullum, 
Michael Danfee, 
William Campbell, 
John Feaghander, 
John Robinson, 
Peter M'Kinley, 
John Smith, (tanner), 
Thomas Aston, 
William M'Donald, 
Patrick Doyle, 
James Ralls, 
Henry Vaughan, 
John Milton, 
Michael Brown, 
William Autrican. 

roll as it stood November 30th, 

Robert Hunter, Sergeant, 
Thomas Whiteley, " 
Hugh Thompson, " 
John Smith, Corporal. 


Jacob Weaver, 
Francis O'Hara, 
Charles Conner, 
William Foster, 
Daniel M'Carty, 

Patrick Marry, 
Felix O'Neal, 
Charles Kelley, 
James Rawls, 
George Coghran, 

Hlslorical Sketch of Franhlin County. 85 

Jos. West, James Lee, 

Hugh Cassady, John Johnson, 

John M'Kinly, Andrew M'Grahy, 

Michael Pitzler, Edward Hart, 

Patt. Boyle, John Carray. 

Nine offieei's and twenty men; total, twenty-nine. 

In the early part of 1776 three new battalions were organized, 
commanded respectively by Colonels Samuel Miles, Samuel J. Atlee 
and Daniel Broadhead, and they were marched to Long Island 
with the battalions of Colonels Shea, Magaw and Cadwallader. 

By the 16th of August, 1776, thirteen companies of men, fully 
officered and equipped, had left Cumberland county for the seat of 
war, and six other companies were preparing to go. Of these the 
companies of James M'Connell, William Huston, Robert Culbert- 
son and Conrad Schneider were from the territory now Franklin 
county. I have not been able to find their company rolls, nor any 
record of their actions during the war. 

On the 16th of November, 1776, Fort Washington was captured by 
the British, and over twenty-three hundred Pennsylvania troops, 
commanded by Colonels Magaw, Cadwallader, Atlee, Swope, Watts, 
and Montgomery were taken prisoners. Among them was John 
Crawford, of our county, a brother of Edward Crawford, Esq., our 
first Prothonotary. On the 19th of April, 1775, Mr. Crawford was 
commissioned by John Morton, Esq., Speaker of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly, a second lieutenant in the fifth battalion of associators of 
Cumberland county, and after his capture was held as a prisoner of 
war at Flatlands, Long Island, until some time in the year 1780. 

In the latter part of the year 1776, or the beginning of the year 
1777, the first battalion of Cumberland county militia was com- 
manded by Colonel James Dunlap. The lieutenant colonel was 
Robert Culbertson of our county. This battalion had in it the com- 
panies of Noah Abraham, of Path Valley, Patrick Jack, of Hamil- 
ton, and Charles Maclay, of Lurgan. I have not been able to find 
the rolls of the companies of Captains Jack and Maclay ; but Cap- 
tain Abraham's company, which was from all parts of Path Valley, 
was made up as follows, viz, : 

Captain, Noah Abraham. 

First Lieutenant, Archibald Elliott. 

Second Lieutenant, Samuel Walker. 


1st. James M'Connaughy, 3d. Robert M'Connell, 

2d. Joseph Noble, 4th. Thomas Clark. 



irtstorical Sketch of Franklin CofUnt}/. 


Robert Alexander, 
.faiiu's Alexander, 
David Armstrong, 
Jolin Adams, 
William Adams, 
James Allen, 
John Brown, 
James Bogs, 
Nathaniel Bryan, 
Allen Brown, 
William Birchanan, 
John Bell, 
Daniel Colbert, 
William Carty, 
John Canady, 
James Carmady, 
Samuel Campbell, 
Patrick Davidson, 
Andrew Douglas, Sr., 
Patrick Dougherty, 
Henry Delmer, 
Alex. Douglas, (weaver), 
George Dixson, 
Abram Elder, 
Francis Elliott, 
William Elliott, 
David Elder, 
Samuel Elder, 
George Farmer, 
John Garven, 
Charles Gibson, 
James Harvey, 
James Howe, 
Andrew Hemphill, 
William Harvey, 

Henderson Harvey, 

Alex. Hopper, 
Adam Humburg, 
John Johnson, 
Joseph Kilgore, 
Alex. Long, 
William M'Lellan, 
William M'Ibbins, 
John M'Lellan, 
John Means, 
Nathan M'Colley, 
James Montgomery, 
Alexander Meor, 
Samuel M'Cauley, 
James M'Lellan, 
Hugh M' Curdy, 
Alexander M'Connell, 
James Mitchell, 
John M'Lellan, Jr., 
Samuel Mears, 
James Mackey, 
Robert M'Guire, 
Henry M'Gee, 
John Mackey, 
John Montgomery, 
James Nealy, 
David Neal, 
James Park, 
Henry Varner, 
William Wright, 
Robert Walker, 
Samuel Watson, 
William Woodrow, 
Samuel Woodrow. 


The second battalion, commanded by Colonel John Davis, had in 
it the company of Captain Charles Leeper, of Lurgan township. 

The fourth battalion, commanded by Colonel Samuel Lyon, had 
In it the company of Captain James M'Connel, of Letterkenny. 

The sixth battalion was officered as follows, viz. : Samuel Cul- 
bertson, Colonel; John Work, Lieutenant Colonel ; James M'Cam- 
mont, Major; John Wilson, Adjutant; Samuel Finley, Quarter- 
master ; and Richard Brownson, Surgeon. 

Hislorical Sketch nf Franklin County. 87 

Company No. 2, of this battalion, had the following oflBcers: Cap- 
tain, Patrick Jack ; First Lieutenant, William Reynolds ; Second 
Lieutenant, James M'Lene; Ensign, Francis Gardner. This com- 
pany was from Hamilton township. 

Company No. 3, the following : Captain, Samuel Patton ; First 
Lieutenant, John Eaton ; Second Lieutenant, David Shields; En- 
sign, William Ramsay. This company, I believe, was from Letter- 
kenny township. 

Company No, 4, the following: Captain, James Patton ; First 
Lieutenant. Thomas M'Dowell; Second Lieutenant, John Welsh; 
Ensign, John Dickey. This company was most likely from Peters 

Company No. 5, the following : Captain, Joseph Culbertson ; First 
Lieutenant, John Barr; Second Lieutenant, William Cessna; En- 
sign, Hugh Allison. This company was from Lurgan township. 

Company No. 6, the following: Captain, William Huston ; First 
Lieutenant, William Elliott; Second Lieutenant, James M'Far- 
land ; Ensign, Robert Kyle. This company is believed to have 
been from Montgomery, Peters and Hamilton townships. It was to 
this company that the Rev. Dr. John King, of Mercersburg, made a 
patriotic address as they were about to leave their homes for the 

Company No. 7, the following: Captain, Robert M'Coy ; First 
Lieutenant, James Irwin ; Second Lieutenant, Samuel Dunwoody ; 
Ensign, Walter M'Kinney. This company was from Peters town- 

Company No. 8, the following : Captain, John M'Connell; First 
Lieutenant Joseph Stevenson ; Second Lieutenant, George Steven- 
son ; Ensign, James Caldwell. This company was from Letterken- 
ny and Lurgan townships. 

The eighth battalion, commanded by Colonel Abraham Smith, of 
our county, had for Lieutenant Colonel, James Johnston; Major, 
John Johnston; Adjutant, Thomas Johnston; and Quartermaster, 
Terrance Campbell, the last four of whom were of this county. 

Four of the companies of this battalion were from our county, 
certainly, and perhaps more. The company officers were as follows, 
viz. : 

Company No. 1, Waynesboro' — Captain, Samuel Royer; First 
Lieutenant, Jacob Foreman ; Second Lieutenant, John Riddles- 
berger; Ensign, Peter Shaver. 

Company No. 2, Lurgan township— Captain, John Jack; First 
Lieutenant, James Brotherton ; Second Lieutenant, Daniel M'Lene; 
Ensign, .lames Drummond. 

Company No. 3, Antrim township — Captain, James Poe; First 
Lieutenant, Jos. Patterson; Second Lieutenant, Jacob Stotler; En- 
sign, James Dickson. 

IlUiorical Sketch of Franklin Couniif. 

Company No, 8, Lurgan township— Captain, Joiin Rea ; First 
Lieutenant, Albert Torrence; Second Lieutenaot, Alex. Thomson; 
Ensign, Hugh Wiley. 

No rolls can be found of these several battalions, nor can I tell 
where their services were rendered. I have seen returns of them as 
late as May, 1778, but cannot say when their services ceased. 

In the year 1779, because of some troubles with the Indians, some 
troops were sent from our county westward. They were mustered 
into service on the 22d of June of that year, at Ligonier, by Colonel 
John Thomson, D. M. M. G. of P. M. The following is the roll of 
the company from Path valley : 

Captain, Noah Abraham. 

First Lieutenant, Nathaniel Stevenson. 

Second Lieutenant, Adam Harman. 


Josepli Ferguson, 
Campbell Lefever, 

James Hamilton, 
John Roatch. 


Daniel Colbert, 
Neal Dougherty, 
Fred'k Doughertj', 
Patrick Dougherty, 
Thomas Knox, 
Daniel Lavrey, 
William Love, 
Redmond M'Donough, 
Matthias Maiers, 
The following are the officers and men of the company from 
Letterkenny : 

Captain, Samuel Patton. 

First Lieutenant, Ezekiel Sample. 

John Maghan, 
John Millisen, 
James Megraw, 
Isaac Miner, 
James Russell, 
John Robison, 
James Ray, 
William Walker. 


John Kincaid, 

John Bran, 
Thomas Crotley, 
Richard Cooper, 
George Hunter, 
Samuel Howard, 
John Hart, 
William Lowry, 
George Lamb, 
John Lytle, 


William Speare. 

Henry Marshal, 
John Matthiasweaver, 
Lorans M'Ready, 
John Parker, 
William Patterson, 
Ab'm Rosenberry, 
William Sharpe, 
John Welsh, 
Henry Williamson. 

Historical Sketch of Fi-anklin County. 89 


In the year 1794 President Washington called for five thousand 
one hundred and ninety-six men from Pennsylvania, as her share 
of the army called out to suppress the Whisky Insurrection, then in 
existence in the south-western part of our State. The quota of our 
county was two hundred and eighty-one men, who were gotten to- 
gether with considerable difficulty, because the mass of the people 
of this valley sympathized to a greater or less degree with their fel- 
low citizens who were resisting the collection of the excise taxes. 

Our quota was, however, furnished after some delay ; but I cannot 
tell into how many companies these men were divided, nor by whom 
they were commanded. Having been in the service of the United 
States, they were doubtless paid by the general government, and 
their pay rolls should be in the War Department at Washington 
city, but I could not find them there, nor any evidence that they 
ever had been there. Neither could I find them at Harrisburg, 
though a careful search was made for them. Large numbers of 
papers in the War Department at WashingLon city were destroyed 
by fires aljout the years 1798 and 1801, as lam informed, and it. is 
believed that those relating to the army services in the Whisky In- 
surrection were among them. 

Brigadier General James Chambers, of our county, commanded the 
third brigade of the Pennsylvania troojas in the Whisky Insurrec- 
tion. It was composed of one thousand seven hundred and sixty- 
two men, five hundred and sixty-eight of whom were from Lancas- 
ter county, five hundred and fifty from York, three hundred and 
sixty- three from Cumberland, and two hundred and eighty-one from 
Franklin county. The troops marched to Pittsburg, were in service 
about one month, marched back again and were discharged, with- 
out having fired a shot or lost a man. 

THE WAR OF 1812-'14. 

The war with England for the establishment of the right of the 
vessels belonging to the people of the United States to navigate the 
waters of the world without molestation from any foreign power, 
was declared by Congress on the 12th of June, 1812. Before that 
time the British government had claimed authority to search all 
merchant vessels found upon the high seas, to ascertain what kinds 
of goods, wares and merchandize they carried ; and to seize and 
impress all such seamen found upon them as were claimed to be 
natives of the British Empire, or at some previous period owed alle- 
giance to the British government. 

This claim the government of the United States resisted, as un- 
founded under the laws of nature and of nations, and the English 
government persisting in exercising the right, notwithstanding the 

90 Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/. 

remonstrances of the United States autliorities, Congress declared 
war, and called upon the people of the country to rally to the defence 
of " free trade and sailor's rights." 

The hardy yoenianry of this valley responded with alacrity to the 
call of the constituted authorities of the luition. Like their patriot 
sires of the days of 177(t, they were ready and eager for the contest, 
and during tlio years 1812, 1813 and 1814, thirteen companies of men 
were organized within our county and went into service. 

Even hefore the formal declaration of war was proclaimed by the 
Pi'esident, " the Franklin County Light Dragoons," forty one otfi- 
cers and men, under Captain Matthew Patton ; the " Mercersburg 
Rifles," seventy-two officers and men, under Captain James M'Dow- 
ell ; the " Concord Light Infantry, thirty-two oflticers and men, un- 
der Captain Michael Harper; the " Chambersburg Union Volun- 
teers," fifty-one otticers and men, under Captain Jeremiah Snider, 
and the "Antrim Greens," (riflemen), sixty officers and men, under 
Captain Andrew Oaks, through Major William M'Clellan, the 
Brigade Inspector of this county, tendered their services to Governor 
Simon Snyder, as part of any quota of troops that might be called 
for from Pennsylvania. 

Three several detachments of troops left our county during the 
war of 1S12-'14, at three different periods. The first left about the 
5th of September, 1812, and was composed of the "Union Voluu- 
teei's," of Chambersburg, under Captain Jeremiah Snider; the 
"Franklin Riflemen," of Chambersburg, under Captain Henry 
Reges; the "Concord Light Infantry," under Captain Michael 
Harper; the "Mercersburg Rifles," under Captain Patrick Hays, 
and the "Antrim Greens," under Captain Andrew Oaks — total, two 
hundred and sixty-four offlcers and men. The quota of our county 
was five hundred and seven otflcers and men, and the deficiency, 
two hundred and forty, was made up hy a draft from the militia. 
The whole detachment was under the command of Major William 
M'Clelland, the Brigade Inspector of the county, and marched to 
the north-western frontier by way of Bedford, Pittsburg and ISIead- 
ville, which latter place was reached about the 20th or 25th of Sep- 
tember, 1812. There the assembled troops were organized into four 
regiments, two of riflemen and tW'O of Infantry. Of the first regi- 
ment of riflemen Jared Irwin was elected colonel, and of the second 
regiment William Piper was elected colonel. Of the first regiment 
of infantry Jeremiah Snider was elected colonel, and of the second 
regiment John Purviance was elected colonel. These four regiments 
were formed into a brigade under the command of Brigadier Gen- 
eral Adamson Tannahill, Dr. Samuel D. Culbertson, of Chambers- 
burg, was appointed Surgeon-in-Chief of the brigade, and Dr. George 
Denig, Assistant Surgeon, 
Upon the election of Captain Jeremiah Snider to the colonelcy of 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 91 

the first regiment, his lieutenant, John M'Clintock was elected 
captain of his comj)any, and George K. Harper was promoted to 
the position of lieutenant, vacated by Captain M'Clintock. 
The Roster of the first regiment after its formation was as follows : 

Colonel, Jeremiah Snider. Quartermaster, BernardNWolflT. 

First Major, James Warner. Sergeant Major, Andrew Lindsay. 

Second Major, John Scott. Forage Master, Hugh Greenfield. 

Surgeon, Samuel D. Culbertson. Wagon Master, Stephen Rigler. 
Adjutant, Owen Aston. 

The companies of Captains M'Clintock, Reges and Harper were 
in Colonel Snider's regiment, and those of Captains Oaks and Hays 
in Colonel Jared Irwin's regiment. After the organization of the 
brigade it marched to Buffalo, about the middle of October, 1812, 
and arrived there in November. It remained at Buffalo, in winter 
quarters, until some time in the month of January, 1813, when the 
men were discharged. 

The followiog are the rolls of Captains Jeremiah Snider's and 
Henry Reges' companies, as they were when they left Chambers- 
burg, September 5th, 1812. 


Captain Jeremiah Snider. 
Lieutenant, John M'Clintock. 
Ensign, Owen Aston. 


First, John Stevenson, Third, John Colhoun, 

Second, Alex. Allison, Fourth, Andrew Colhoun. 


First, Robert Haslett, Third, H. Ruthrauff, 

Second, William Tillard, Fourth, John Reed. 


Wiliam Donaldson, Henry Bickney, 


Timothy Allen, John Cummings, 

John Andrews, Robert Foot, 

Joseph Barnett, George Faber, 

Samuel Beatty, Isaac Grier, 

David Blythe, Peter Glossbrenner, 

A. L. Crain, Hugh Greenfield, 

Andrew Clunk, George Heist, 

Daniel Clouser, Horace Hill, 


Historical Sketch of Pranklin County. 

John Hunter, 
Thomas Harvey, 
Daniel Hood, 
John Hutcliinson, 
Andrew Lindsay, 
Spencer M'Kinney, 
James Murray, 
Alex. M'Coiinell, 
Elisha Nabb, 
Jacob Phillipy, 

John Plummer, 
Btejdien Ritrler, 
William Shannon, 
George Sinijjson, 
Moses H. Swan, 
"William Taylor, 
Joshua Wilson, 
James Wilson, 
David Wilson, 
Bernard Wolff. 


Captain, Henrj' Reges. 
First Lieutenant, Jeremiah Senseny. 
Second Lieutenant, John Musser. 
First Sergeant, Peter Fleck. 


John Boyle, 
John Baughman, 
Robert Cunningham, 
John Cook, 
Edward Crawford, 
Arthur Dobbin, 
John Denig, 
John Essig, 
Isaac Erwin, 
John Favorite, 
John Gelwicks, 
William Grice, 
Joseph Good, 
John Gilmore, 
Philip Grim, 
Christian John, 
George W. Lester, 
Josiah Lemon, 
Isaiah Lanier, 
Robert M' Murray, 
John Mumma, 

Hugh Mannon, 
Hugh INI'Connell, 
Hugh M'Anulty, 
John Martin, 
Benjamin Matthews, 
James M'Connell, 
William Pollack, 
Richard Runnion, 
John Radebaugh, 
John Robinson, 
John Reilly, 
Jacob Snyder, 
Joseph Stall, 
Henry Smith, 
Thompson Schools, 
Joseph Severns, 
Daniel Sailer, 
John Withney, 
James Wise, 
George Wilson, 
George Zimmerman. 


Captain, Andrew Oaks. 
Lieutenant, Thomas Wilson. 
Ensign, George Zeigler. 

Hisiorieal "Skelch of Franldln Vounly. 93 


First, Peter Cramer, Third, Jacob Fletter, 

Second, Jacob Gudtner, Fourth, James PenneL 


First, William Dungan, Third, Jacob Garresene, 

Second. George Sharer, Fourth, Thomas Brady. 

Fifer, Henry Sites. Drummer, Jacob Poper, 


Henry Blendlinger, Jam«s M'Curdy, 

Joseph Byerly, Samuel M'Laughlin, 

George Bettes, William Ovelman, 

William Bolton, Thomas Plummer, 

Samuel Bender, John Snyder, 

William Carroll, William Scully, 

Patrick Dungan, John Sreader, 

Evan Evans, George StutT, 

William Foster, Samuel Smith, 

Thomas Fletcher, George Shaffer, 

John Gaff, George Uller, 

William Gordon, Christian Wilhelra, 

John Garner, Samuel Weidner, 

Richard Keller, Daniel Weidner. 
Samuel Martin, 


Captain, Patrick Hays. 
Lieutenant, John Small. 
Ensign, Samuel Elder. 


First, James M'Quown, Third, Jacob Williams, 

Second, Jacob Small, Fourth, George Spangler. 


First, Joseph Herington, Third, Daniel Leer, 

Second, John Donothen, Fourth, Jacob Cain. 

Fifer, John Mull. Drummer, Jacob Wise. 


James Bennet, John Clapsaddle, 

Isaac Brubaker, Henry Cline, 

Samuel Craig, William Cooper, 

Joseph Cunningham, Samuel Campbell, 

John Crouch, Alex. Dunlap, 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/, 

Frederick Divelbiss, 
David Dei trick, 
John Dunhip, 
James Elder, 
Peter Gaster, 
Jacob Groscope, 
John Harris, 
Jacob Hodskins, 
Jonas Hissong, 
"William Hart, 
John Hallin, 
John Hastier, 
John Heart, 
James Halland, 
Abraham Hodskins, 
Peter Kyler, 
John King, 

Robert M'Quown, 
Robert M'Farlantf, 
William M'Quown, 
John Mo wry, 
James M'Dowell, 
Charles M'Pike, 
Campbell Montgomery, 
William M'Curdy, 
Samuel Martin, 
Charles Pettet, 
Henry Suflcoal, 
William Suffcoal, 
William Stewart, 
Peter Teach, 
Henry Weaver, 
Daniel Welker, 
James Walker. 


Captain, Michael Harper. 
Lieutenant, William M'Kinzip, 
Ensign, John Campbell. 


First, William Irwin, Third, John Widney, 

Second, James M'Kinzie, Fourth, Hugh Barrack. 


First, Jeremiah Baker, Third, Samuel Campbell, 

Second, Francis M'CuUough, Fourth, James Ginnevin. 


John Cannon, 
Joseph Dever, 
Barnabas Donnelly, 
David Evans, 
Barnabas Fegan, 
Jer. Hockenberry, 
James Hockenberry, 
Peter Hockenberry, 

In the early part of the year 1814, the General Government hav- 
ing made a call upon the State of Pennsylvania for more troops, 
Governor Simon Snyder, about the beginning of February of that 
year, ordered a draft for 1000 men from the counties of York, Adams, 
Franklin and Cumberland — Cumberland county to raise 500 men, 
and the other counties the balance. The quota of Franklin county 

George Irwin, 
James Linn, 
Samuel Phillips, 
Isaac Scooly, 
William Smith, 
Richard Scott, 
James Taj'lor, 
Peter Timmons. 

JPstx)Tical Sketch of FronMin Coxmfy. 95 

was ordered to assemble at Loudon on the 1st of March, 1814. 
What was its exact number I have not been able to ascertain. 

At that time Captain Samuel Dunn, of Path Valley had a small 
volunteer company under his command, numbering about forty 
men. These, I am informed, volunteered to go as part of the quota 
of the county, and were accepted. Drafts were then made to furnish 
the balance of the quota, and one full company of drafted men, 
under the command of Captain Samuel Gordon, of Waynesburg, 
and one partial company, under the command of Captain Jacob 
Stake, of Lurgan township, were organized and assembled at Loudon 
in pursuance of the orders of the Governor. There the command 
of the detachment was assumed by Major William M'Lellan, 
brigade Inspector of the county, who conductedjt to Erie. It moved 
from Loudon on the 4th of March, and was twenty-eight days in reach- 
ing Erie. According to Major M'Clelland's report on file in the 
auditor general's office at Harrisburg, it was composed of one major, 
three captains, five lieutenants, two ensigns and two hundred and 
twenty-one privates. 

Dr. Wm. C. Lane, in a note, says: "Captain Jacob Stake lived along 
the foot of the mountain, between Roxbuty and Strasburg. He 
went as captain of a company of drafted men, as far as Erie, at 
which place his company was merged into those of Captains Dunn 
and Gordon, as the commissions of those ofHcers anti-dated his 
commission, and there were not men enough in their companies to 
fill them uji to the required complement." 

Upon the arrival of these troops at Erie, and their organization 
into comjDanies, they were put into the fifth regiment of the Penn- 
sylvania troops, commanded by Colonel James Fenton. Of that 
regiment, James Wood, of Greencastle, was major, and Thomas 
Foe, of Antrim township, adjutant, the whole army being under 
the command of Major General Jacob Brown. 

Adjutant Poe is reputed to have been a gallant ofiicer, one to 
whom fear was unknown. On one occasion he quelled a mutiny 
among the men in camp, unaided by any other person. The 
mutineers afterwards declared that they saw death in his eyes when 
he gave them the command to "return to quarters." He fell mor- 
tally wounded at the battle of Chippewa, July 6th, 1814, and died 
shortly afterwards. 

The following is a copy of the roll of the company of Captain 
Dunn, on file in the War Department at Washington City. 

Captain, Samuel Dunn, March 1st, 1814. 
First Lieutenant, James M'Connell. 
Second Lieutenant, Robert Foot. 
Third Lieutenant, John Favorite. 
Ensign, William Geddes. 


Hlatorical Sketch of Franklin Countx/. 


First, John Snively, 
Second, Samuel Baker, 

Third, James M'Henry, 
Fourth, Jolin M. Shannon. 


First, Tlionipson Schools, 
Second, William Nevill, 

Third, John Witherow, 
Dtuinmer, John Boggs. 

Levi Black, 
John Brandt, 
Jesse Beams, 
George Bryan, 
Frederick Boreaugh, 
Anthony Bates, 
John Barclay, 
John Brewster, 
Hugh Baker, 
John Beaty, 
William Buchanan, 
Andrew Barclay, 
James Connor, 
Samuel Creamer, 
John Cunningham, 
James Compton, 
Barnabas Clark, 
Thomas Cummings, 
Benjamin Davis, 
Samuel Davenport, 
John Doyle, 
James Elliott, 
Robert Elder, 
Joseph Fingerty, 
Abraham Flagle, 
Jacob Frush, 
Jere Gift, 
Hugh Henderson, 
Nehemiah Harvey, 
Edward Heil, 
Henry Halby, 
Thomas Hays, 
♦Robert Hunter, 
John Humbert, 
Henry Hess, 


Robert Johnston, 
Enoch Johns, 
John Krotzer, 
James Keever, 
Michael Kester, 
James Kirkwood, 
Benjamin Long, 
David Lightner, 
Tobias Long, 
Noah Macky, 
John M'Connell, 
Robert M'Connell, 
James Morehead, 
John M'Dowell, 
fAdam Myers, 
George Macomb, 
John Miller, 
William M'Clure, 
Samuel Mateer, 
William Moore, 
John Marshal, 
James M'Kim, 
Absalom M' II wee, 
John Murray, 
Joseph Noble, 
John Noble, 
John Over, 
Joseph Phipps, 
Thomas Penwell, 
George Plucher, 
Mathias Panther, 
William Reed, 
Charles Runion, 
William Ramsay, 
Philip Roan, 

♦Afterwards Colonel of the 50th Regiment. fStill Living. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


Jacob Stevick, 
Peter Shell, 
Samuel Swope, 
John Shell, 
John Smith, 
John Swanger, 
Jacob Staley, 
William Sheets, 
John Stewart, 
Barney Shipton, 
John Stake, 

David Trindle, 
William Woods, 
Richard Wright, 
John Walker, 
George Wrist, 
William Williams, 
William Westcott, 
John Young, 
Robert Young, 
John Young, 
*Jacob Zettle. 

"This company," says Dr. Lane, "was originally armed with rifles. 
These were exchanged at Erie for regulation muskets. The com- 
pany was at the battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane, and 
guarded British prisoners from the frontier to Greenbush, now 
Albany, New York. These prisoners numbered more than 220 pri- 
vates and 22 officers— among the latter General Royal. Dunn lost 
men in both of the battles named, was in service with his company 
for about seven months, and was mustered out at Albany, New 

The following is a copy of the roll of Captain Gordon's company, 
also on file in the War Department at Washington city. 


Captain, Samuel Gordon. 
First Lieutenant, William Dick. 
Second Lieutenant, William Patton. 
Third Lieutenant, James Burnes. 
Ensign, William Miller. 


First, Hugh Davison, 
Second, Charles Miller, 

Third, James Scott, 
Fourth, Josiah Gordon. 


First, Joseph Arthur, 
Second, James Hall, 
Drummer, Joseph Shilling. 


Thomas Allen, 
William Alsip, 
Martin Beard, 
Henry Baugher, 

Third, John Podman, 
Fourth, Philip Mason. 
Fifer, William Burgiss. 

Benjamin Bump, 
George Burr, 
Frederick Beverson, 
John Baker, 

*Still Living. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Count); . 

Micliaol Borer, 
Jacob Baker, 
PetcT ]}aker, 
Mieliael IJear, 
Adain Brown, 
Conrad Croft, 
John Coon, 
John Craig, 
Kic-lianl Cahil, 
^\'il]ianl Clem, 
Jnhn Carver, 
AVilliim Clark, 
Richard Donahoe, 
William Divelbiss, 
John Dowman, 
Edward Detrick, 
George Davis, 
Samuel Dean, 
Jacob Decmer, 
John Davis, 
Adam Duncan, 
Jacob Eby, 
George Ensminger, 
William Edwards, 
Nathaniel Fips, 
Joseph Flora, 
John Fislier, 
Michael Fritz, 
Henry Geiger, 
George Glaze, 
Moses Getrich, 
John Greenly, 
John Graham, 
John Huber, 
Joseph Hoffman, 
William Hardin, 
George Harmony, 
James Hardy, 
John Hawk, 
Peter Harger, 
John Irwin, 
David Johnston, 
John Jeftery, • 
Nathaniel Kiri^f, 
Jacob Keefer, 
William Kline, 

William King, 
Peter Keefer, 
Maltiiew King, 
James Logan, 
Benjamin Lewis, 
Jacob Liepert, 
John M'Colley, 
John M'Connell, 
Alexander M'MuUen, 
Peter Myers, 
William Miller, 
John M'Neal, 
John M'CIay, 
Philip Myers, 
William Mahaffy, 
Murdoek Mitchell, 
John M 'Curdy, 
Robert IM'Clelland, 
Daniel Mentzer, 
G. M. Miller, 
George Miller, 
George NefT, 
Joseph Neal, 
Nathan Phijjps, 
Abraham Piaceare, 
William Pearslake, 
Thomas Poe, 
Erasmus Quarters, 
Andrew Robertson, 
William Reeseman, 
John Ritter, 
Adam Rankin, 
Adam Ream, 
Christopher Sites, 
Frederick Stumbaugh 
Jacob Staufer, 
Nicholas Smith, 
Jacob Smith, 
Henry Satin, 
Joseph Tice, 
James Thompson, 
Henry Unger, 
William Wolf, 
William Whitman, 
Henry Weaver. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 99 

On the 24th of August, 1814, the battle of Blaclensburg was fought, 
and the Americans, under General Winder, were defeated by the Brit- 
ish, under Major General Ross. The same day the enemy entered 
Washington city and burned the Capitol and other public buildings. 
When tlie news of these events reached our quiet town the people 
were greatly aroused, and, report says, they at once despatched a 
messenger to the National authorities at Washington city to learn 
if more troops were desired, and whether volunteers would be 
received. The government gladly accepted the proffered aid, and 
directed that all the troops raised should march at once for Balti- 
more, as it was feared that the invaders would next make an attack 
upon that city. 

The messenger arrived here at midnight, and found a large 
number of the citizens anxiously awaiting his coming. The bells 
were rung, the town ai'oused, and the drum and fife called the people 
to arms. Id a few days seven companies were fully organized and 
equipped and on the march to Baltimore. One of these was a troop 
of cavalry from Mercersburg, under Captain Matthew Patton, which 
marched to Baltimore, but was not accepted, as cavalry were not 
then needed. Upon learning that they would not be received as 
cavalry, many of the members of this company disposed of their 
horses and joined the infantry. 

The following are the rolls of the companies of Captains John 
Findlay and Samuel D. Culbertson, of Chambersburg ; Thomas 
Bard, of Mercersburg; Andrew Robison, of Greencastle ; John 
Flanagan, of Waynesburg, and William Alexander, of Fannetts- 
burg, as they remain on file in the War Department at Washington 
city : 


Captain, John Findlay, 

First Lieutenant, John Snider. 

Second Lieutenant, Greenberry Murphy. 

Ensign, John Hershberger. 


First, Joseph Severns, Fourth, Jeremiah Senseny, 

Second, Andrew Rea, Fifth, Jacob Fedder. 

Third, Henry Smith, 


First, John Robison, Third, Jacob Heck, 

Second, George W. Lester, Fourth, Jacob Bickley. 


Jacob Abrahams, James Buchanan, 

John Berlin, John Brindle, 

Peter Bonebrake, William Bratten, 

John Baxter, Benjamin Blythe, 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

John Baughinan, 
Jolin Buclier, 
Jacob Bittin<?er, 
Abraham Burkholder, 
Frederick Best, 
Daniel Grouse, 
Joseph Campbell, 
James Carberry, 
Conrad Clouse, 
Joseph Cope, 
John Clugston, 
M'Farlin Cammel, 
Conrad Draher, 
Daniel Dechert, 
William Dugan, 
James Dixon, 
John Eaton, 
Simon Eaker, 
Benjamin Firnwalt, 
Henry Fry, 
Thomas Fletcher, 
Henry Ganter, 
Jacob George, 
John Gillespy, 
Jacob Glosser, 
John Gelwicks, 
Michael Helman, 
Thomas Hall, 
William Harman, 
James Huston, 
Daniel Helman, 
Isaac Irvin, 
Thomas Jones, 
William Kinneard, 
David Keller, 
Thomas Kaisey, 
Jacob Laufman, 
John Lucas, 
Reuben Monroe, 
Robert M'Afee, 
Daniel M'Allister, 

William M'Kesson, 
William M'Kean, 
William Mills, 
Samuel M'Elroy, 
Soyer M'Faggen, 
John Mi lone, 
David Mentzer, 
Jacob M'Ferron, 
Cammel Montgomery, 
David Mumraa, 
Ludwick Nitterhouse, 
Samuel Nogel, 
John Nitterhouse, 
Jacob ISfefT, 
John Nixon, 
John Porter, 
Edward Ruth, 
Jacob Reichert, 
John Radebaugh, 
Elijah Sargeant, 
Charles Stuard, 
Samuel Shillito, 
Daniel Sharp, 
William Sipes, 
Jacob Spitel, 
Ross Sharp, 
Joseph Suttey, 
John Tritle, 
John Todd, 
Joseph Wilson, 
Benjamin Wiser, 
James Walker, 
Jacob Wolfkill, 
Josiah Wallace, 
David White, 
Matthew Wright, 
James Westbay, 
Hugh AVoods, 
William White, 
George Young, 
George Zimmerhian. 


Captain, Samuel D. Culbertson. 
First Lieutenant, John M'Clintock. 
Second Lieutenant, George K. Harper. 
Ensign, John Stevenson. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 



First, Andrew Calhoun, 
Second, John Calhoun, 

First, Hugh Greenfield, 
Second, James Wilson, 

John Arntt, 
Henry Burchett, 
John Besore, 
Samuel Brand, 
Matthew Besore, 
George Beaver, 
James Crawford, 
Holmes Crawford, 
Augustus Capron, 
William Cook, 
James Campbell, 
Edward Crawford, 
Edward Capron, 
Peter Crayton, 
John Devine, 
William Denny, 
Joseph Duffleld, 
John Denig, 
John Dougherty, 
Joseph Erven, 
Benjamin Fahnestock, 
William Ferry, 
Isaac Grier, 
Jacob Grove, 
Henry Greenawalt, 
William Grove, 
Paul Hoeflich, 
John Holmes, 
Wm. Heyser, 
Joseph Housem, 
John Hutchinson, 
George Harris, 
Herman Helfmire, 
John Hinkle, 
Michael S. Johns, 
William Jamison, 
George Jasonsky, 
John Kindline, 
Jacob Kelker, 

Third, Stephen Rigler, 
Fourth, Alex. Allison, 


Third, Samuel Beatty, 
Fourth, John Andrew. 


Andrew Lindsay, 
William M. M'Dowell, 
John M' Bride, 
Patrick Murray, 
John M'Cormiek, 
George B. M' Knight, 
Thomas G, M'Culloh, 
Henry Merklein, 
John Nunemacber, 
William Nochtwine, 
George Oyster, 
John O'Neal, 
Samuel Porter, 
William Reynolds, 
James D. Riddle, 
Philip Reges, 
John Reed, 
Samuel Ruthrauff, 
Willam Richey, 
Adam Roemer, 
George Simpson, 
William Schoeplin, 
John Snider, 
Samuel Shillito, 
William Shane, 
Daniel Stevenson, 
Jacob Smith, 
David Tritle, 
Robert Thompson, 
Abraham Voress, 
Bernai-d Wolff, 
Jacob Widefelt, 
John Weaver, 
John Whitmore, 
John B. Watts, 
James Warden, 
Joseph Wallace, 
George Willison. 


Historical Sketch of Franklia Count)/, 


Captain, Thomas Bard. 
First Lieutenant, James M'Dowell. 
Second Lieutenant, John Jolinston. 
Ensign, Joseph Bowers. 


Third, Thomas Smith, 
Fourtli, G. Spangler. 


First, William Smith, Third, William M'Dowell 

Second, Thomas Grubb, Fourth, Thomas Johnston 

Fifer, John Mull. 

First, A. T. Dean, 
Second, G. Duffield, 


John Abbott, 
John Brown, 
Archibald Bard, 
Robert Carson, 
John Coxe, 
John Campbell, 
Samuel Craig, 
John Cox, Jr., 
John Donnyhon, 
Joseph Dick, 
Joseph Dun lap, 
Peter Elliott, 
Jeremiah Evans, 
John Furley, 
Leonard Gaff, 
John Glaze, 
Joseph Garvin, 
James Garver, 
William Glass, 
Henry Garner, 
William Hart, 
Joseph Harrington, 
James Hamilton, 
James Harrison, 
Frederick Henehy, 
John Harrer, 
William Houston, 
Samuel Johnson, 
John King, 
John Liddy, 
James M'Dowell, 
John M'Clelland, 

Thomas C. M'Dowell, 
William M'Dowell, Sr., 
George M'Ferren, 
James Montgomery, 
James M'Neal, 
Augustus M'Neal, 
Samuel Markle, 
John M'Ciirdy, 
Robert M' Coy, 
John M'Culloh. 
John Maxwell, 
William M'Kinstry, 
Matthew Patton, 
Charles Pike, 
David Robston, 
William Stewart, 
Thomas Speer, 
James Sheilds, 
David Smith, 
George Stevens, 
John Sybert, 
Thomas Squire, 
Conrad Stinger, 
Samuel Witherow, 
Tliomas Williamson, 
William Wilson, 
Joh» Werlby, 
John Witherow, 
James Walker, 
William Rankin, 
Thomas Waddle, 
Christopher Wise. 

Historical Sketch of FranUin County. 



Captain, Andrew Robison. 
First Lieutenant, John Brotherton. 
Second Lieutenant, James Mitchell. 
Ensign, Jacob Besore. 


First, James Walker, Third, Thomas Wilson, 

Second, Andrew Snively, Fourth, Archibald Fleming, 


First, John Randall, Third, George Sackett, 

Second, George Bellows, Fourth, Alex. Aiken. 

Paymaster, William Carson. 


William Armstrong, Jr., 
John Allison, 
William Bratten, 
Robert Bruce, 
John Billings, 
Henry Beatty, 
Samuel Bradley, 
William H. Brotherton, 
James Brotherton, 
Robert Brotherton, 
Frederick Baird, 
John Boggs, 
Benjamin Core, 
Walter B. Clark, 
William Clark, 
George Clark, 
Frederick Carpenter, 
William Coffroth, 
James Camion, 
Jesse Deman, 
John Dennis, 
James Davison, 
William T. Dugan, 
Samuel Foreman, 
George Flora, 
David Fullerton, 
John Garner, 
Robert Guinea, 
Hugh Guinea, 
Edward Gordon, 

William Gallagher, 
John Gaff, 
Frederick Gearhart, 
Peter Gallagher, 
William Harger, 
John Henneberger, 
Joseph Hughes, 
William Irwin, 
James Johnston, 
Jonathan Keyser, 
Matthew Kennedy 
William Krepps, 
George Kuy, 
John M'Cune, 
Adam M'Callister, 
James M'Gaw, 
James M'Cord, 
William M'Graw, 
William H. Miller, 
William Moreland, 
John M'Connell, 
Samuel M'Cutchen, 
John Miller, 
Archibald M'Lane, 
Abraham M'Cutchen, 
John M'Coy, 
John B. M'Lanahan, 
John M'Clellan, 
Samuel Nigh, 
Robert Owen, 


Ilisforical Sketch of Franklin Countif. 

James Poe, 

John Park, / 

Jacob Poper, 

J. Piper, 

John Reed, 

Roger Rice, 

A. B. Ranlvin, 

John Rowe, Sr., 

John Rogers, 

John Shira, 

Charles Stewart, 

Adam Sayler, 

John Shearer, 

Samuel Statler, (of Emanuel), 

George Schreder, 

Henry Sites, 
George Speck man. 
John Snyder, 
Robert Smith, 
John Shaup, 
George Uller, 
WilHam Vanderaw, 
Thomas Welsh, 
James Wilson, 
George Wallack, 
Christian Wilhelm, 
Christian Wise, 
John Weaver, 
Thomas Walker, 
Alexander Young. 


Captain, John Flanagan. 
Lieutenant, William Bivins. 
Ensign, Daniel M'Farlin. 


First, Robert Gordon, 
Second, George Cochran, 


Samuel Allison, 
John Bowman, 
John Bormest, 
Christian Bechtel, 
David Beaver, 
William Barnet, 
Hugh Blair, 
William Call, 
James Duncan, 
Joseph Fulton, 
Jacob Fry, 
Loudon Fullerton, 
James Fullerton, 
James Getteys, 
George Gettier, 
Samuel Green, 
Peter Haulman, 
Daniel Haulman, 
James Harshman, 
David Heffner, 
Daniel Hartraan, 

Third, William Downey, 
Fourth, George Foreman. 

James Hay den, 
George Koontz, 
Daniel Logan, 
John Logan, 
William Moouey, 
Joseph Misner, 
James M'Cray, 
William M'Dowell, 
John Oellig, 

Maximillian Obermeyer, 
George Price, 
Robert Ray, 
Abraham Roberson, 
Adam Stonebraker, 
John Sheflfler, 
John Stoner, 
David Springer, 
Alex. Stewart, 

George Weagley, - ^ 

David Weaver. 

JrMstorical Sketch of Franklin County. 105 


Captain, William Alexander. 
Lieutenant, Francis M'Connell. 
Ensign, James Barkley. 


First, John M'Clay, Third, Peter Foreman, 

Second, Richard Childerson, Fourth, William Young. 


John Sterrett. 


James Alexander, James M'Connell, 

Thomas Childerstone, Robert M'Kleary, 

Edward Dunn, Hugh Maxwell, 

John Elder, Robert M'Millon, 

Noah Elder, John M'Allen, 

William Finnerty, John M'Kee, 

Andrew Foreman, James M'Kibben, 

Thomas Geddis, Joseph M'Kelvey, 

Thomas Harry, John Neal, 

John Harry, Peter Piper, 

John Hill, John Patterson, 

George Houston, John Ryan, 

Samuel Hockenberry, Wiliam Shutter, 

James Irwin, Arthur Shields, 

James Jones, John Vanlear, 

David Kyle, David Witherow, 

Robert Lewis, James Wallace, 

John Little, Peter Wilt. 

Upon the arrival of these troops at Baltimore they were organized 
into a regiment under the command of John Findley, of this county. 
The following is the roster of the regimental officers: Colonel, John 
Findley; Major, David Fullerton; Surgeon, Dr. John M'Clelland; 
First Mate, Dr. John Boggs; Second Mate, Dr. Jesse M'Gaw; Adju- 
tant, James M'Dowell; Quartermaster, Thomas G. M'Culloh; Ser- 
geant Major, Andrew Lindsay; Quartermaster Sergeant, William 
Carson; Paymaster General, George Clark, Esq. 

Upon the election of Captain Findley as colonel of the regiment, 
Lieutenant William Young was elected captain of the company in 
his stead. These troops marched on the 25th of August, 1814, and 
were in service until the 23d of September following, when they 
were discharged. 

106 Ilhtorical Sketch of Franklin Count)/. 


The annexation of Texas to the United States was the primary 
cause of this war. This was consunnnated on tlie 4tli of July, 1R45, 
by tiu' at'tion of the Legislature of Texas, {giving apjiroval to the 
bill i)asse(l by the Congress of the United States, for the union of 
the two republies. The Mexican autliorities became very indignant 
and withdrew their minister from Washington, with threats of war. 
The United States government felt itself bound to sustain the inde- 
pendence and territorial claims of Texas-and Mexico refusing the 
overtures of our government for a peaceable settlement of the boun- 
dary lines between the two countries, General Taylor, early in 1846, 
was ordered to advance to the Jlio Grande, the boundary claimed 
by Texas, and occupy the disputed territory. The Mexicans, under 
General Ampudia, on the 8th of May, 1846, were defeated by him 
at Palo Alto; and on the next day were a second time defeated at 
Resaca de la Palma, with a loss of near 1,000 men. On the 11th of 
May, 1846, Congress declared that war existed by the act of Mexico. 
The news of the commencement of hostilities occasioned the 
greatest excitement throughout this country. Ten millions of 
dollars were voted by Congress to carry on the war, and the Presi- 
dent was authorized to accept the services of fifty thousand volun- 
teers. Witliin a few Aveeks over two lumdred thousand men volun- 
teered for the war. In the spring of 1847 Captain Martin M. Moore, 
of Washington city, received authority to recruit a company in 
Pennsylvania, for the Mexican war. He opened a recruiting station 
at Chambersburg, and very soon enlisted a large company, paying 
a bounty of twelve dollars per man, with the right to each recruit to 
receive, when discharged, one hundred and sixty acres of land, or 
a treasury scrip, or certificate, for one hundred dollars, bearing six 
per cent, interest. This company left Cliambersburg on the 17th of 
March, 1847, numbering one hundred and twenty-two men, rank 
and file. The officei's were : 

Captain, Martin M. Moore. 

First Lieutenant, Charles T. Campbell. 

Second Lieutenant, Horace Haldeman. 

Third Lieutenant, Mead. 

This company marched to Pittsburg by way of Bedford, where it 
received some additional recruits. It was called company B, elev- 
enth regiment U. S. infantry. It reached Brasos Santiago, about 
tlie 17th of April, 1847, and was for a considerable time in garrison 
at Tampico, Mexico, where a number of the men died of yellow 
fever. From Tampico the company passed to Vera Cruz, and accom- 
panied our army to the city of Mexico. Peace was secured by the 
treaty of Gaudaloupe Hidalgo, February 2d, 1848, though not formally 
proclaimed until the 4th of July following. 

Captain Moore was dismissed from the service at Tampico, and 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 107 

thereafter the company was commanded by Lieutenant Charles T. 
Campbell. At the time of the signing of the treaty of peace this 
company was in the interior of Mexico, seventy-five miles above 
the city of Mexico. On the route home they met a number of men 
going out to join the company. On the return of the company to 
New York, about the 27th of July, 1848, it had but about twenty- 
four men in its ranks. I tried to get a copy of the roll of the com- 
pany, but the authorities at Washington city refused to give it for 
any purpose. 

Cai)tain Whipple and Lieutenant Hanson also recruited a number 
of men for this war in our county. The whole number recruited 
could not have been less than two hundred. 


The contribution of our county to the armies that fought for the 
preservation of the Union in the late war of the rebellion, was quite 
large, and very creditable to the patriotism of our people. A full 
and complete record of these gallant troops is to be found in "Bates' 
History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers," published by authority 
of the State of Pennsylvania, and it would therefore be useless to 
encumber the pages of this sketch with a statement of their names 
and the officers who commanded them. Besides, such lists, even if 
published, would by no means show who went out from our county 
in defence of their country in the hour of her need and peril; for 
many of them joined companies outside of the county, and their 
names and locations are only distinguishable by those who knew 
them. I shall, therefore, merely give the names of the companies 
and regiments, with their commanders. 

THREE months' MEN — 1861. 

In April, 1861, the second regiment of the three months' men was 
organized at Camp Curtin, under the command of Colonel Fred- 
erick S. Stumbaugh, of Chambersburg. In it were the following 
companies from our county, viz. : 

Company A, Captain Peter B. Housum, 77 officers and men. 
B, " John Dcebler, 73 " " 

" C, " James G. Elder, 73 " " 

This regiment was in service from the 21st of April, 1861, until 
the 26th of July, 1861. 


85th regiment— 6th reserves. 

On the 22d of June, 1861, this regiment was organized at Camp 
Curtin, under the command of Colonel W. Wallace Ricketts, of 
Columbia county. The only company in it from our county, was — 

108 Historical Sketch of PranJdin County. 

Company I), Captain William D. Dixon, 103 officers and men. 

On the 12th of .September, 18G3, Captain Dixon was promoted to 
the lieutenunt colonelcy of the regiment, which was mustered out 
of service, June 14th, 1864. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Cuitin, under thecommand 
of Colonel John H. Taggart, of Philadelphia, primarily for the 
three months' service, but not being accepted, were mustered into 
the State service for three years from the date of their enlistment. 
On the 10th of August, 1861, it was mustered into the United States 
service. The only comi)any in it from our county was: 

Company K, Captain John S. Eyster, 93 officers and men. 

The regiment was mustered out of service June 11th, 1864. 

43d regiment— 1st artillery. 

This legiment was organized at Camp Curtin, under thecommand 
of Colonel Charles T. Campbell, in May, 1861. Company B, Cap- 
tain Hezekiah Easton, was from our county. It had in it, during 
its term of service, three hundred and twenty-three officers and men. 
On the 27th of June, 1862, Captain Easton was killed at the battle 
of Gaines' Mill, and on the 25th of July, 1865, after four years and 
four months service, the battery was mustered out at Harrisburg. 

77th regiment. 

This regiment was organized in October, 1861, by the election of 
Frederick S. Stumbaugh colonel and Peter B. Housum lieutenant 
colonel, both of whom were from our county. The following com- 
pany was from our county, viz. : 

Company A, Captain Samuel R. M'Kesson, 219 officers and men. 

Parts of companies D, G, and H, were also from our county. On 
the 16th of January, 1866, the regiment was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Philadelphia. 

87th regiment. 

This regiment was originally organized in September, 1861, under 
Colonel George Hay. In September, 1S64, it was reorganized. In 
March, 1865, company K, Captain D. B. Greenawalt, of our county, 
eighty-seven officers and men, was assigned to it. The regiment 
was mustered out of the service June 29th, 1865. 

103d regiment. 

This regiment was organized on the 24th of February, 1862, under 
Colonel Theodore F. Lehman, and was reorganized and filled up in 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 109 

March, 1865, when company A, Captain Elias K. Lehman, eighty- 
eight officers and men, from our county, became connected with it. 
The war having closed, the regiment was mustered out of service on 
the 25th of June, 1865. 

107th regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Harrisburg on the 5th of March, 
1862, by the election of Thomas A. Zeigle, of York county, colonel, 
and Robert W. M'Allen, of Franklin county, lieutenant colonel. 
One company, viz : Company K, Captain A. Jackson Brand, was 
from our county, and had in it during its term of service one hun- 
dred and sixty -nine officers and men. There were also a number 
of Franklin county men in the other companies. The regiment was 
mustered out of the service July 13th, 1865. 

108th regiment — 11th cavalry. 

Colonels, Josiah Harlen and Samuel P. Spear. 

Lieutenant Colonel, George Stetzel. 

Major, John S. Nimmon. 

A large number of the men of this regiment were from our county, 

especially those in company D, Captains R. B. Ward and John S. 

Nimmon. The regiment was organized October 5th, 1861, and was 

mustered out of service July 13th, 1865. 

112th regiment — 2d artillery. ' 

Colonel, Charles Augeroth, Sr. 
Lieutenant Colonel, B. F. Winger. 

A large number of the men composing this regiment were recruited 
in our county. It was organized in January, 1862, and was mustered 
out of service at City Point, Virginia, on the 29th of January, 1866. 


126th regiment — 1862. 

This regiment was recruited in about three weeks time, and ren- 
dezvoused at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, between the 6th and lOth of 
August, 1862, when a regimental organization was effected, with the 
following field officers, viz : James G. Elder, colonel ; D. Watson 
Howe, lieutenant colonel ; and James C. Austin, major. Many of 
the officers and men had served in the second regiment, for three 
months' service. The following companies were from our county, 
viz. : 

110 Historical Sketch of PranfcUn County. 

Company A, Captain, Jolin Dicbler, 102 orRcers and men. 

About one-half of 
Company B, Captain, James C. Austin, 48 " " " 

" C, " Robert 8. Brownson, %) " " " 

D, " John H. Reed, 101 " " " 

*' E, •' William H. Walker, 99 " " " 

G, " George L. Miles, 98 

H, " John 11. Walker, 94 

«' K, " D. Watson Rowe, 101 " " ♦' 

The regiment was mustered out of the service at Hanisburg, on 
the 20th of May, 18G3. 

158th regimknt. 

This regiment was from Cumberland, Franklin and Fulton coun- 
ties, and was organized at Chambersburg in the early part of No- 
vember, 18B2, with David B. M'Klbben, of the regular army, as 
colonel ; Elias S. Troxell, of our county, as lieutenant colonel ; and 
Martin C. Hale, of Cumberland county, as major. The following 
companies were from our county, viz. : 
Company B, Captain, Elias K. Lehman, 108 officei's and men, 

D, " Archibald R. Rhea, 105 " " '» 

E, " Elias S. Troxell, 104 " " 

G, " Michael W. Trair, 102 " " " 

" I, " WilliaraE. M'Dowell, 102 " " " 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Chambersburg, Au- 
gust 12th, 1863. 



Colonel, John Irvin Gregg. 
Was organized 18th November, 1862. Company H, of this regi- 
ment, under command of Captain W. H. SuUenberger, was tro m 
this county, and had in It two hundred and three officers and men. 
It was mustered out of service at Richmond, V"a., August 7th, 1865. 


This regiment was organized ISth October, 1862, under Josiah H. 
Kellogg as colonel. Company G, Captain Lutlier B. Kurtz, one 
hundred and forty-seven officers and men, was from our county. It 
was mustered out of service August 16th, 1865. 


165th REGIMENT, 

Colonel, Charles H. Buehler. 
This regiment Avas organized 6th December, 1862, at Gettysburg. 
Company A, Captain Charles A. Funk, one hundred and one offi- 
cers and men, was from our county. It was mustered out of service 
at Gettysburg, 28th July, 1863. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. Ill 


182d regiment— 21st CAVAIiEY. 

Colonel, William H. Boyd. 
This regiment was organized at Chambersburg, about August, 
1863, for six months' service. The following companies were raised 
in our county, viz. : 
Company D, Captain Josiah C. Hullinger, 105 officers and men. 
H, " Samuel Walker, 92 

I, " Christian R. Pisle, 100 " " " 
K, " Robert J. Boyd, 83 

L, " George L. Miles, 102 

In February, 1864, the regiment was reorganized for a three years' 
service, under the former field and staff officers, and with the fol- 
lowing company officers from our county, viz. : 

Company D, Captain, Josiah C. Hullinger, 68 officers and men. 
" E, " Wm. H. Boyd, Jr., in part from our county. 

Company K, Captain Henry C. Phenicie, 189 officers and men. 

L, " John H. Harmony, 133 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Appomattox Court 
House, on the 8th of July, 1865. 


201st regiment. 

Colonel F. Asbury Awl. 
Part of company K, Captain Alexander C. Landis, of this regi- 
ment, was from our county. 

205th regiment. 

Colonel, Joseph A. Mathews. 
Part of company G, Captain Erasmus D. Wilts, of this regiment, 
was from our county. 

207th regiment. 

Colonel, Robert C. Cox. 
This regiment was organized at Camp Curtin, September 8th, 1864. 
About one-half of Company F, Captain Martin G. Hale, was from 
this county. The regiment was mustered out May 13th, 1865. 

209th regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Curtin on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1864, with Tobias B. Kauffman as colonel ; George W. 

112 Historical Skefch of Franklin Count)/. 

Frederick, lii'utoiuint colom-l ; and JoJin L. Ritclu-j-, of our county, 
as major. It had in it from our county the company of Captain 
John L. Ritcliey, ninety-two ofTieers and men. The regiment was 
mustered out of service on the Slat of May, 18(55, near Alexandria, 

210th regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Curtin on the 24th of Sep- 
tember, 18G4, with Wilh'am Sergeant as colonel. A large part of 
company D, of this regiment. Captain H. W. M'Kniglit. was from 
our county, and there were also many men from this county in the 
other companies of the regiment. The regiment was mustered out 
of the service May 30th, 1SG5. 


Captain, Charles F. Muehler. 
Captain, Alanson J. Stevens. 
A large part of this battery was recruited in our county for the 
seventy-seventh regiment liy Captain Peter B. Housum, and on his 
promotion to the lieutenant colonelcy of the seventy-seventh, 
the men were transferred to the company of Captain Muehler, and 
mustered into service November 6th, 1861. Captain Stevens was 
killed at the battle of Murfreesboro,and Captain Samuel M. M'Dow- 
ell succeeded to the command. It was mustered out of service Oc- 
tober 12th, 1865. 



Captain John Jeffries; ninety-four officers and men. Organized 
September oth, 1862. Discharged September 27th, 1862. 

Captaiii John \V. Douglas; eighty-five officers and men. Organ- 
ized September 1st, 1862. Discharged September 16th, 1862. 

Captain James H. Montgomery ; eighty-nine officers and men. 
Organized September 8th, 1862. Discharged September 20th, 1862. 

Captain George W. Eyster ; sixty-two officers and men. Organ- 
ized September 12th, 1862. Discharged October 1st, 1862. 

Captain John Denny Walker; sixty-tive officers and men. Or- 
ganized September 11th, 1862. Discharged September 27th, 1862. 

Captain K. Shannon Taylor; seventy-seven officers and men. 
Organized September Oth, 1862. Discharged September 25th, 1862. 

Captain David Houser; seventy -seven officers and men. Organ- 
ized September 15th, 1862. Discharged October 1st, 1862. 

Captain Thomas L. Fletcher; eighty-four otlicersand men. Or- 
ganized September 14th, 1862. Discharged October Ist, 1862. 

! V 


DR0WELL8CG0: I878.gruncastle pa 
If^iLL Factory. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 113 

Captain Charles W. Eyster ; one hundred and eighteen officers 
and men. Organized September 14th, 1862. Discharged October 
15th, 1862. 

Captain David Vance ; eighty-eight officers and men. Organized 
September ISth, 1862. Discharged October 11th, 1862. 

Captain Andrew M. Criswell ; fifty-two officers and men. Or- 
ganized September 15th, 1862. Discharged October 1st, 1862. 

Captain Christian C. Foltz; forty-seven officers and men. Or- 
ganized September 11th, 1862. Discharged September 2oth, 1862. 

Total aggregate of officers and men, four thousand nine hundred. 


Franklin county is exceedingly rich in iron ore&j^far more so, in- 
deed, than most people here or elsewhere imagine— and the manufac- 
ture of iron was commenced both on the eastern and on the western 
side of the county very many years ago. As early as 178n, as before 
stated, William, Benjamin and George Chambers erected the Mount 
Pleasant furnace, in Path valley, and by industry, perseverance and 
good judgment, made the business not only remunerative to them- 
selves, but highly advantageous to the people of the surrounding 
districts. Everything necessary to the economical production of 
iron, save coal, abounds in close proximity to our ore bed.-^ ; and I 
have heard a gentleman who has long'bet-n engaged in the manu- 
facture of iron, and who has visited and carefully inspected the 
great iron producing regions of the country, and who is qualified 
by his experience to judge, declare that nowhere, in the whole 
range of his observation, does he know of any section of country 
that is richer in its iron ore deposits, or that offijrs greater induce- 
ments to the investment of capital in the iron business, than the 
county of Franklin. In his opinion, long before another genera- 
tion shall have passed away, there will be dozens of furnaces and 
forges in our county, where now only one or two are to be found ; 
that millions of dollars will be invested as soon as the trade of the 
country returns to its normal condition, where only thousands are 
now invested ; and that long before the second centennial of our 
national existence shall have arrived, the development of the vast 
ore beds along the eastern and western- borders of our valley will 
most inevitably make ours one of the very largest iron producing 
counties of the Commonwealth. The iron made at our iron works, 
particularly that made at Stevens' old Caledonia works, and at 
Hughes' old works, now the Mont Alto works, has always main- 
tained an excellent reputation, and commanded ready sales, at re- 
munerative prices, because of its peculiar excellencies ; and there is 
no reason why that reputation shall not be maintained in the future. 

"Hughes' Furnace," now the property of the Mont Alto company, 
was built by Daniel and Samuel Hughes, in 1808. It was cold blast, 

114 HiHfoHcal Sketch of Fran/din Coiinfj/. 

mid wan wliat was known as a <juarter stack. The water wheol used 
was 30 tVet in ilianieter and throe feet breast. The product was from 
eighteen to twenty tons of pig iron i)er week. The iron was hauled 
by wagons to tiie Potomac river at Williamsport, Maryland, and 
thence taken b\' boat* to market. ISlo a foundry was built, and the 
entire product of the works was made into liollow ware and stoves 
and hauled by wagons to l^aitimore. In 1882 Mr. Huglies built a 
rolling mill on the West Antietum creek. Tlie wheel was thirty- 
six feet diameter and sixteen feet bieast. In 18oo a nail works was 
also built near the rolling mill. In IS64 the Mont Alto Iron compa- 
ny purchased the works and seventeen thousand acres of land. They 
enlarged the furnace, changed from water to steam power, and in- 
troduced new machinery. In 1866 they abandoned the old forges 
and rolling mill, and built a steam bloom forge near the furnace, the 
second largest of the kind in the state. Tlie product of the furnace 
is now one hundred tons per week, the largest known of any fur- 
nace of the same size, and using the same percentage of iron ores. 
In 1867 charcoal kilns were introduced, the first succes.rful ones in 
Pennsylvania. In prosperous times the company emjiloy five hun- 
dred men, seventy-five liorses and mules, and run fifteen steam 

The Mont Alto Railroad company, between April and October, 
1872, with home labor entirely, built a railroad from the Cumberland 
Valley railroad, near Scotland, to the worlds of the Mont Alto Iron 
company, twelve and thirty one-hundredths miles long, at a cost of 
two hundred and thirty-six thousand six hundred dollars, wliich is 
regularly run twice a day, for the carrying of passengers anil freight, 
and which has been of great convenience to the travelinjr public 
and to the iron company. They have also within the past three 
years opened up the gap, in the mouth of which their works stand, 
and laid out at great expense a beautiful summer resort, under the 
name of "Mont Alto Park." Every convenience has been provided 
for pic-nics an(i parties of pleasure seekers; and those who have 
once enjiiyed the cool sliades and delights of the place will not fail 
to return to them again. 

"Kichmond Furnace," formerly "Mount Pleasant," is the oldest 
iron works in the county, having been established in 1783. It was 
purchased from Daniel V. Ahl, by a company styled "The South- 
ern Pennsylvania Iron and Railroad company," who built a new 
anthracite furnace about the year 1S71, and constructed a railroad 
from the Cumberland Valley railroad, near Marion, to their works, 
nineteen miles in length, with a branch road to Mercersburg, over 
two miles long, the wliole improvement costing, including the in- 
dividual subscription, over seven hundi-ed thousand dollars. The 
original company became embarrassed, and their works, franchises, 
&c., were sold out, and a new company organized in the year 1873, 

Historiccd Sketch of Franklin County. 115 

under the name of "Southern Pennsylvania Railway and Mining 
company," of which Thomas B. Kennedy, Esq., is president. The 
furnace is not now in operation. When run to its full capacity, it 
employs about two hundred men. and turns out about fifty tons of 

iron per weeli. 

The "Franklin Furnace," situated near St. Thomas, in St. Thomas 
township, was built in the year 1828, by P. & G. Housum. It is 
now owned and carried on by Messrs. Hunter & Springer, and when 
in full blast, has a capacity of from forty to fifty tons of cold blast 
charcoal iron per week, and employs about seventy-five hands. 

"Carrick Furnace" is situated in Metal township, Path Valley, 
about four miles south of Faunettsburg. -It was built by General 
Samuel Dunn, in the year 1828. It is now carried on by R. M. 
Shalter, and manufactures about thirty tons of iron per week. 

We have also in the railroads now in operation, and in those pro- 
jected and destined to be naade at no very distant day, every facility 
for the easy, cheap, and speedy transportation of our iron products, 
north, south, east and west; and it only requires that our country 
shall get over its present monetary depression, and ti'ade and busi- 
ness once more have resumed their natural activities, to show that 
these opinions and predictions of my friend are true (in fact) and 
not merely the unwarranted conclusions of an incompetent judge. 

Though chiefly an agricultural section of the Commonwealth, our 
county has steadily, if not rapidly, progressed in everything that 
pertains to the happiness and prosperity of her people. The lauds 
within our borders have been largely cleared ; thoroughly cultivated; 
and improved in the most substantial manner ; and have corres- 
pondingly enhanced in value, and now no people in any of the nu- 
merous counties of this great Commonwealth are better housed and 
provided for in every respect ; live better or more comfortably than 
do our people, and none, either agricultural, commercial, or me- 
chanical, have suffered less, or lost less, from the great financial 
storms that have recently swept over the land, and left desolation, 
ruin and woe in their tracks, than have the people of this county. 


When our county was first settled the Scotch-Irish element was, 
as before stated, largely in the preponderance. Fully nine-tenths of 
our citizens then were of that nationality, interspersed with a few 
Scotch and English, and Germans. The former then filled all our 
offices of honor, of trust, and of profit. They were our law-makers, 
and our leaders in times of peace, and in the perils and dangers of 
war ; and to their credit be it said, that they discharged their duties 
nobly, and honorably, and well. They have died off*, and their de- 
scendants, in very many instances, have abandoned the avocations 

J16 HiHtovkal Shdcli of l-r<tnf:Hn Couiifi/. 

wiiicli tlic'ir Ibrefatliors (k'ligliti.'d in of tillinj^ tlie.soil, and ni;»Uin<j: 
the waste places to blossom as the rose, and have betaken them- 
selves to the pursuit of wealth and haj^piness in other channels, 
such as merchandize, medicine, divinity and law. The plodding, 
pains-taking, economical, law-abiding and stendy-going Germans 
have taken their places, and now, thousamls of acres, and lumdreds 
of farms, that fifty years ago were tiie i)osses.sions of the descend- 
ants of those who were their first owners, under titles from the pro- 
prietaries or the colonial authorities, know them no more. Their 
veiy names are almost forgotten in the land for which they did so 
much, and suffered so many privations; and if remembered at all, 
it is because of some deed of daring or act of bravery, that has gone 
upon the pages of history, and will serve to keep them in grateful 
remembrance long after all personal I'ecollections of them shall have 
passed away in the regions in which they lived, and acted, and 

OUR "men of mark" in politics. 

In this free countrj'' we are all sovereigns by l)irth, and the highest 
office in the gift of the people is open to the humblest son of the 
land. Each and every native born citizen has an equal right to as- 
pire thereto, and to all the other high places of honor and profit under 
the government. And the very fact that a man has thus been 
trusted and honored, and elevated by the people, has ever been con- 
sidered as honoring the district of country in which he was born. 
Viewed in this light Franklin county is entitled to a full share of 
the honors attaching to the great men of the nation. 

James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, was 
born in our county, on the 23d day of April, 1791. His birth place 
was a wild and romantic spot in the gorge of the Cov , or North 
mountain, about four miles west of Mercernburg. Previous to his 
elevation to the Presidency he had served ten years in the House of 
Representatives of the United States; and ten years in the Senate 
of the United States ; had been Minister to Rus Ja ; Secretary of 
State for the United States, and Minister to England. 

William Findlay, the fourth Governor of Pennsylvania, was born 
at Mercersburg, in our county, on the 20th of June, 1768. In 1797 
he was elected to the House of Represent Atives of Pennsylvania 
from this county ; and re-elected in 1804-'05-'06 and '07. On the 
13th of January, 1807, he was elected State Treasurer by the Legis- 
lature, whereujion he resigned his seat in the House ; arid from that 
date until the 2d of December, 1817, a period of neai'ly eleven years, 
he was annually re-elected State Treasurer, in several instances by a 
unanimous vote. In 1817 Mr. Findlay was elected Governor by the 
Republicans, and resigned the Treasurer's ofHce on the 2d of Decem- 
ber of that year. He filled the gubernatorial chair for three years, 

Historical SJcelch of Franklin County. 117 

was re-nominated in 1S20, and beaten by Joseph Heister. At the 
session of the Legislature in 1821-'22, he was elected to the United 
States Senate for the full term of six years, and after the expiration 
of his Senatorial service he was appointed by President Jackson, 
Treasurer of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, wliich position 
he held until the accession of General Harrison to the Presidency, 
when he resigned. 

During his term as United States Senator his brother. Colonel 
John Findlay, was the representative of this congressional district, 
in the lower house, for the years 1819 to 1827, and his brother, Gen- 
eral James Find ay, represented the Cincinnati district of Ohio, 
from 1825 to 1833, thus presenting the unusual spectacle of three 
brothers sitting in the Congress of the United States at one time, 
a spectacle only once paralleled in the history of the government, 
namely, by the Washburn brothers, within the last few years. 

Robert M'CIellaiid was born in Greencastle, in this county, on the 
1st of August, 1807. In 1831 he was admitted to practice the law in 
our courts, but removed to Pittsburg, and from thence, in 1833, to 
Monroe, in the then territory of Michigan. In 1838 he was elected 
to the State Legislature of his adopted State, and was elected Speaker 
of the House of Representatives in 1843. In the same year he was 
elected a member of Congress, and was re-elected in 1845 and 1847. 
In 1850 he was a member of the Constitutional Convention of Mich- 
igan. In 1851 he was elected Governor of the State, and was subse- 
quently re-elected. In 1853 he was appointed by President Pierce 
Secretary of the Interior, which position he retained during the 
administration of President Pierce. 

William Maclay, a native of our county, was a member of the 
Senate of t^e United States from this State, for the years 1789 to 

Samuel Maclay, also a native of our county, was a Representa- 
tive in the lower House of Congress from 1795 to 1797, and a mem- 
ber of the Senate, of the United States, from this State, from 1808 to 
1808, when he resigned. 

John Maclay, also a native of our county, was a magistrate in 
colonial times, and was a member of the Carpenter's Hall Confer- 
ence, at Philadelphia, "" om Cumberland county, in June, 1776. He 
was also a member of the Legislature fi'om this county for the years 
1791-'92, and 1793-94. He died in Lurgan township. 
. These gentlemen were brothers, born in Lurgan township, in our 
county, and received their education at a classical school taught by 
Rev. John Blair, pastor of the three "Spring" churches, wliicli 
was probably the first school of that character in the Cumberland 
Valley. A¥illiam removed to Harrisburg and married a daughter 
of John Harris, and died there in 1804. Samuel Maclay removed 

118 Historical Sketch of F''r(inf:fin Coimfif. 

to Mirtlin county at the close of tlie revolution, ainl tilled a number 
of important local oltices there prior to his election to Conj^ress. 

8iephen Ailams, also a native of our county, removed, at an early 
age, to the State of Mississippi, where he was subsequently elected 
to the House of Representatives of the United States, ami also to- 
the Senate of the United States. 

The foliowinji; jijentlemen, natives of our county, served in the 
House of Representatives c>f the United States, and in the other 
positions indicated, viz. : James M'Lene, served in Coni^ress in 
177y-'80, was a member of the Provincial Conference of Pennsyl- 
vania held at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, on the 2.jth of .Juner 
1770 ; was a raentber of the convention that formed the constitution 
of 1776, for the Slate of Pennsylvania; a member of the Supreme- 
Executive Council of Pennsylvania, from Cumberland county, from 
November 9th, 1778. to December 2Sth,1779; was elected to and 
served in the Council of Censors, from October, 1783, to October, 
1784; was elected in October, 1784, a member of the Supreme Exec- 
utive Council from this county, and served for three years ; and was- 
also a representative from this county, in the convention of 1789, 
which formed the State Constitution of 1790; he was also a member 
of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania from this Cf»unty 
in the sessions of 1787-'88-1788-'89-1790-'91, and 1793-'94. He died 
March 13th, 1806, and was buried at the Brown's mill graveyard. 

John Rea, a native of this county, represented the Franklin and 
Bedford district in Congress from 1803 to 1811, being the 8th, 9th, 
loth, and 11th Congresses. He was also in the 13th Congress, in 
the years 1813 and 1815. He was also the first Coroner of the county, 
elected in October, 1784, and served in the House of Representatives 
of Pennsylvania, for the years 1 785-' 86-1 789-' 90-1 792-' 93-1 796-' 97- 
l797-'98 and 1800-1801 ; and was in the Senate of Pennsylvania from 
1823 to 1824, when he resigned, and James Dunlop was elected in his 

William Maclay, also a native of our county, represented the 
Franklin, Adams and Cumberland district in Congress for two terms, 
from 1815 to 1819. He had previously represented this county iu 
the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, for the years 1808 
and 1809. He died in 1825. 

David Fullerton was elected to Congress from this district in 1819, 
and took his seat at the opening of the first session of the sixteenth 
Congress, December 6th, 1819, He I'esigned in the summer of 1820. 
He afterwards represented this county in the State Senate from 1827 
to 1839. 

Thomas G. M'Culloh succeeded him, and filled out his term in 
Congress. Mr. M'Culloh also represented our county in the House 
of Representatives of the State in the sessions of lS31-'32-1832-'33 
and 1834-'3o. 

Historical Skelch of FrcmJclln 'Count ij. 11^ 

John Findlay, of our county, represented this district in Congress 
from 1821 to 1S27. 

James Findlay, his brother, also of our county, was in Congress 
from the Cincinnati district of Ohio, from 1825 to 1833. 

Hon. Alexander Thompson, who was a native of this county, 
represented tlie Bedford district in Congress in 1824-'26, He was 
subsequently our President Judge from 1827 to 1842. 

John Thompson, also born in our county, was a member of Con- 
gress from Ohio from 1825 to 1827, and from 1829 to 1837. 

Thomas Hartley Crawford, a native of Ciiambersbui*g, wrs in 
Congress from this district from 1828 to 1832. He also represented 
the county in the lower branch of the Legislature in 1833-'34. Was 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Judge of the Criminal Court 
of the District of Columbia for many years. 

George Chambers, also a native of our town, was a representative 
of (his district in (Congress from 1832 to 1836. Was a delegate to the 
convention that framed the constitution of 1888, and a Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania by appointment from Governor 
Johnston from April 12th to December, 1851. 

James X. M'Lanahan, was born in Antrim townsiiip, in this coun- 
ty, in 1809. He served in the Senate of Pennsylvania from this dis- 
trict in 1842-'43 and '44, and represented the district in Congress from 
1848 to 1852. 

David F. Robinson, also a native of Antrim township, i-epresented 
our district in Congress for tire years 1854 and 1856. 

Wilson Reilly, a native of Quiney (formerly Wasliington) town- 
ship, in this county, represented this district in Congress in the 
years 1857 and 1858. 

Hon. John A. Ahl, who a few years since represented the Cum- 
berland district in Congress, was born at Strasburg, in our county. 
His father was a physician, resident there many years ago, and 
engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Hon. Wm. S. Steuger, our i^resent representative in Congress, was 
born at Loudon, in this county, on the 13th day of February, A. D. 
1840. He was three times elected District Attorney of our county, 
and held and discharged the duties of the office from 1863 to 1872. 

Hon. William A. Piper, a member of the present House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States from the State of California, was 
born in Amberson's Valley, Fannett township, in our county, in the 
year 1825. 

Hon. Alexander Campbell, a member of the present House of 
Representatives of the United States, from the State of Illinois, was 
also born at Concord, Fannett township, in our county, on the 4th of 
October, 1814. 

120 Historical Sketch of Franfdin C'oanfi/. 

There are no doubt otliers w ho were born in our county wlio from 
otlier States and Territories held places in the National govern- 
ment, but I have not had the time nor the opportunity to look \\\> 
their records. These names have been obtained through a cursory 
examination of some of the journals of Confi;ress, and from other 

Besides these, our county h;is furnished Speakers to both branches 
of our State Legislature in the persons tjf Hon. Thomas Carson, in 
the Senate, anil Hon. Frederick Smith, and Hon. .John Rowe, in 
the House. The lutter also held from oth May, 18-')7, to 1st May, 
1860, the important and responsible position of Surveyor General 
of our Commonwealth. 

Mesisrs. James M'Lene and Abraham Smith, who represented our 
county in the Supreme Executive Council of the State from 17S4 to 
1790, were both natives of the county and residents in Antrim town- 
ship. The latter, if I am correctly informed, was a brother of Wil- 
liam Smith, the founder of Mereersburg. He was Lieutenant of 
Cumberland county (or the years 17S0-'S1 and '82, and I am satisfied 
that he was a member of the House of Re})resentatives from our 
county in the sessions of 1784-'85-'85-'86 and '86-'87. He was then, 
and continued to be until April, 1803, the owner of a tract of near 
three hundred and fifty acres of land in Antrim township, which in 
1803, he sold to Jacob Snively, of that township, when he removed 
to Mereersburg, where he died. An examination of the assess 
books of the county from 1780 to 1704 shows also that he was 
taxed in Antrim township for three hundred and thirty acres of 
land, and horses andother cattle, all these years, and that he was the 
only man of his name assessed in the county. He was appointed 
Lieutenant of Franklin county on the 7th of April, 1785; was 
elected to and served in the Supreme Executive Council from 1787 
to 1790; was a member of the State convention that formed the 
State constitution of 1790, and rejiresented the Senatorial district, 
composed of Franklin and Bedford counties, in our State, for the 
years 1790 to 1794. In his deed to Jacob Snively he is styled Colonel 
Abraham Smith, a title most i^robably attached to his former posi- 
tions as Lieutenant of the County, as it is not claimed that he did 
any military service, and a comparison of his signature to that deed 
with the signature of Abraham Smith, Lieutenant of Cumberland 
county in 1781, shows that they were written by one and the same 

From 1790 to 187G, covering a period of eighty-six years, twenty- 
four persons have represented our county in the State Senate. Of 
these just one half (12j, viz. : Abraham Smith, Thomas Johnston, 
James Foe, Archibald Rankin, Robert Smith, John Rhea, James 
Dunlap, David Fullerton, James X. M'Lanahan, Thomas Carson, 
George W. Brewer and Calvin M. Duncan were natives of our coun- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 121 

ty : and two others— A. K. M'Clure and Chambers M'Kibben— were 
residents of the county at the times of their election. 

It is worthy, also, of a passing notice, that the two gentlemen who 
have filled the position of Clerk of the House of Representatives of 
the United States for terms longer than any others, should have 
been natives of adjoining counties, Franklin and Adams, in our 
State. Matthew St. Clair Clark was born at Greencastle, in our 
county, was admitted at our bar in 1811, and practiced the law here 
for several years ; was elected Clerk of the House of Representatives 
December 3d, 1822, and served until December 2d, 1833, and was 
elected again May 31st. 1841, and served until December 6th, 1843, 
making a total service of twelve years, six months and six days, the 
longest period the office has ever been held by one person. He was 
a whole-souled, genial fellow, an intimate associate of Clay, Web- 
ster, Calhoun, and all the great men who sat in Congress during his 
period of service, 

Edward M'Pherson is a native of Adams county, and after serving 
this district for two terms in Congress, filled the ofliee of Clerk of 
the House of Representatives for six consecutive Congresses— or 
from 1863 to 1875— being twelve years. Mr. M'Pherson's was there- 
fore the longest continuous service ; Mr. Clark's the longest actual 

Why may not we, as Pennsylvanians, and as citizens of Franklin 
county, justly feel proud when we look over this roll of "men of 
mark," and rightfully claim a portion of the honor that their deeds 
has reflected upon their country ? 


In the earlier years of our county's existence there were quite a 
number of trades and occupations carried on in various parts of the 
county that have long since been wholly abandoned, or are now 
very feebly continued. This result is owing mainly to the improve- 
ments made in the last one hundred years in machinery, whereby 
the great majority of the articles that were formerly made by hand 
are now turned out with the aid of machinery much more rapidly, 
more perfect, and greatly cheaper than they could be made at the 
present day in the old way. 

In the year 1787 a man named Mulholland commenced the 

manufacture of potash at Strasburg, which he continued till his 
death, in 1S08. 

In the year 1789 Patrick Campbell and Morrow engaged in 

the same business at Chambersburg, and continued it until 1797, 
when the firm was changed to Patrick & Terance Campbell. They 
had their manufactory in the stone house near the west end of the 
Wolfstown bridge. 

122 Jlistoricaf Sketch of Franklin Couniij. 

From about ISOO or ISOo to 1S25, Williuiu Druek.s and Anthony 
Van Pool mnnufactured iron shovels and pans, in Greencastle, did 
a large business, and made considerable money. 

The manufacture of mill-stones was established in Chambershurg 
about the year 1792, by James Falkner, Jr., and was extensively 
conducted for many years. The stones were brouf::ht here in the 
rough, upon wagons, were then shMped up and put together, and 
larjje numbers sold in the county, and to other points further west, 
to those having neetl for them. 

In 182(» George Walker and George lloupe carried on a " burr 
mill-stone manufactory' " on the Baltimore turnpike, about two 
miles east of Chambersburg. 

Andrew Cleary also manufactured mill-stones in Chambersburg 
as late as 1829, he being the last person who carried on the business 
in the county. His shop was on West Market street None of these 
avocations are now carried on in our county that I know of. 

In the latter part of the last century and in the earlier years of 
this century there were quite a number of oil mills in various sec- 
tions of the county, where oil was regularly manufactured from flax 
seed, much of which wasannuallj' raised by the farming community. 
There may yet be some places in the countj' where this business 
is carried on, but I do not know their locality if such there be. 

Flax niills were also quite numerous in those early days, where 
the hemii raised by the farmers was broken and preimred for use. 
For one oil or hemp mill that can now be found grinding or pound- 
ing away, there were ten then. 

In the last century there were few, if any, cut nails used. Almost 
all nails were then made by hand, upon the anvil, out of the iron 
bar. Every blacksmith did more or less of such work, and was 
looked to by his neighbors to suj^ply them with ail the nails they 
needed for fencing, shingling, house building, &c. Early in the cen- 
tury Hugh and Michael Green field established a large nail factory at 
Chambersburg, where thej' made all kinds of nails by hand. Their 
shop stood on the lot on which the Foundry of T. B. Wood & Co. 
now stands. In the year 1S19 the^' declined the business, and handed 
over the shop to John 11. Greenfield & Co., who continued it until 
about 1820. 

From 1808 to 1810 or 1812, there was a nail factory carried on by 
the County Commissioners in the Jail, the prisoners being the work- 
men. Large sums of money were annually paid to Col. Samuel 
Hughes, bj' the county, for ii-on to be manufactured into nails in the 
county nail shops. 

In the year 1814 Messrs. Brown & Watson established their "Con- 
ococheague Rolling Mill and Nail Factory." They made rolled 
iron, cut nails, brads, sprigs, &c., and were, I think, the first manu- 
facturers of cut nails in our county. 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 123 

In the year 1821 Christian Etter commenced ihe manufacture of 
cut nails in Chambersburg. His manufactory was located "on the 
north side of the Falling Spring, opposite the English Presbyterian 

Thomas Johns commenced the manufacture of augers of all sizes 
at Chambersburg, at a very early day. They were made by hand, 
out of flat bars of iron, were twisted in the common vise, the edges 
filed down and burnished upon a large emery wheel, and the inner 
surface of the twist Avas painted black. It required considerable 
skill and experience to make a perfect article. 

William Ferry also subsequently followed the same business ex- 
tensively for many years He had his manufactory at his dwelling 
on West Market street. 

Philip Sholl, at a very early period, carried on at Chambersburg, 
the manufacture of cards for fulling mills, and for all other purposes. 

George Faber, also, at a later period, followed the same business 
quite extensively. For man^? years he had his "card factory" on 
the lot where the Gillan property now stands, on West Market 
street, opposite Miller's Hotel. Mr. Faber gave employment to 
many females at "setting" or sticking cards. That work was then 
all done by hand, and it is said that many even of the better class 
of our females did not disdain to take work from Mr. Faber, and 
thus earn an honest jjenny. In after years he invented an ingenious 
ixiachine for sticking his cards, and did away with female labor. He 
removed to Pittsburg about the year 1824. 

Glove making was also carried on at this point for many years by 
a man named Rians, and others. 

About tlie year 1794, Anthony Snider commenced the manufac- 
ture of scythes and sickles where the upper brewery of David Wash- 
abaugh formerly stood, on West King street. 

John and Thomas Johns, about the year 1812, commenced the 
manufacture of sickles and scythes in Chambersburg, and carried 
on the business largely and successfully for a long time, down to 
near 1820. Their factory was in "Kerrstown," on South Main street, 
on the lot south of Heart's pottery. 

In the year 1820 a man named Jacob Smith commenced the man- 
ufacture of tacks of all sizes at Chambersburg. Each tack was made 
by hand, as no machinery for their manufacture had then been in- 
vented, or if invented had not been introduced here. 

The manufacture of hats, which were then all made of wool and 
furs of various fineness, was early commenced at various points in 
our county. John M'Clintock carried on in Waynesboro in 1810; 
John Rowe, Jacob Krepps and John Weitzel about the same time at 
Greencastle; John M'Murdy and Thomas Carson at Mercersburg; 
and Jacob Deckert and others at Chambersburg. In the year 1815, 
Mr. M'Clintock removed from Waynesboro to Chambersburg, and 

124 Historical Sketch of Fran/din Counttj. 

for many years these gentlemen and others at other j)()ints in the 
county carried on the trade quite extensively. Now there is not a 
wool or fur hat made in the county. The seething "k(>ttle" no 
longer sends up its steam clouds towards Heaven, its "planks" are 
riven and dry, the twanii: of the "bow" no longer is heard o'er the 
"hurl," and the song of the jolly "jour" at the midnight hour 
disturl)s not the repose of ttie guardians of the night. For 
thirty years past, since the introduction of silk and machinery, the 
shiny "stove pipe" has supplanted the easy wool and felt of our 
fathers' time, and the business has been wholly abandoned, except 
here and there, where large factories exist. 

Copper-smithing, too, is a calling almost wholly abandunod in our 
county. In former years it was laigely and profitably carried on 
here by Jacob Heyser and others. INIr. Heyser came liere from Ha- 
gerstown in the spring of 1794; at the same time William Baily, Jr., 
was carrying on the business in the shop occupied by his father for 
a number of years previously. Now copper stills and kettles and 
other articles are kept for sale by all our tinners and stove dealers, 
but they are generally obtained from abroad, from those who make 
them with the aid of the latest and most approved machinery. 

Wagon making and Mhip making were, for many years, carried 
on most extensively at Loudon, in our county, after the completion 
of the turnpike to Pittsburg, and the fame of Loudon's manufac- 
tures had spread far and wide over both the east and the west. Now 
there is not one wagon or one whip made at Loudon, where fifty 
years ago there were one hundred made. 

The old fiimily "spinning wheel," and the "domestic loom," by 
the aid of which our ancestors, one hundred years ago, were used 
to manufacture their yarn and thread, and weave the "linsey wool- 
sey" worn by their wives and daughters, and the corn-colored cloth 
worn by themselves, are now almost forgotten. They are "centen- 
nial curiosities'' in the present day, and few of our young i)eople 
know even what these machines look like, and fewer know how to 
use them. 


I have Ijeen very desirous of ascertaining, if possible, when the 
various townships in our county were organized and out of what 
territory they were severally created. The territory now embraced 
in Franklin county was first in Chester county until Maj' 10th, 1729, 
when Lancaster county was fo:med; then in I>ancaster county 
until January 29th, 1750, when Cumberland county was tbrmed ; 
and then in Cumberland county until September 9th, 1784, when the 
act creating our county was passed. 

The first authenticated action I have been able to find, looking to 
the bringing of this valley under the operation of the laws of the 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 125 

State, was the order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Lancaster 
county, made at November sessions, 173o# as before stated, dividing 
the valley into tivo townships — the easternmost to be called Penns- 
borough and the western Hopewell. This was done before the ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title to the land, which was effected b.y 
the treaty with the Five Nations, at Philadelphia, October 11th, 
1736. The government and the Indians had been upon good terms 
for years before, and both parties encouraged settlers to come hither, 
the agents of the Proprietaries giving them special licenses to take 
up lands as early as 1734. 

The division line between Pennsborough and Hopewell townships, 
as has already been stated, crossed the valley at the "Big Spring," 
about where Newville now is, and all the land from Newville to the 
Maryland line was thereafter in Hopewell township, Lancaster 
county, until May sessions, 1741, when "upon the application of the 
inhabitants of th^ township, presented by Richard O'Cain, Esq., 
the Court of Quarter Sessions of Lancaster county erectetl the town- 
ship of Antrim by dividing the township of Hopewell by a line 
substantially the same as that now dividing Franklin and Cumber- 
land counties, as has been hereinbefore shown. The territory thus 
formed into the new township of Antrim, was identical with ihat 
now embraced in our county, with the exception of the Little Cove, 
or Warren township, and the townships of Fannett and Metal. 

I have personally examined the records of Cumberland county 
with great care, and I have had the records of Lancaster county 
examined in like manner, by a gentleman of the Bar resident there ; 
but we have been unable to obtain any satisfactory information as 
to the time when, or the territory owi! of wA^■eA the townships of Lur- 
gan, Peters, Guilford and Hamilton were formed. I incline to the 
belief that Lurgan was created by order of the Court of Lancaster 
county, but no record thereof can be found. And if the other three 
townships were created by the action of the courts of Cumberland 
county, they must have been organized immediately after that 
county was erected, though no record of their formation has as yet 
been found. I therefore give but the earliest dates at which I have 
been able to find mention of them. 

ANTRIM— 1741. 

Antrim township was undoubtedly named after the county of 
Antrim, Ireland, from whence many of the early settlers of this 
valley came. Out of its original territory all our townships, except 
Warren, Metal and Fannett, have been made, and still it is the larg- 
est and wealthiest township in the county. In the year 1734 Joseph 
Crunkleton obtained his license, and in the year 1735 he, Jacob 
Snively, James Johnston and James Roddy made settlements. 

12(5 JliHforical Sketch of Frdiiklia Connti/. 

Mr. C'runkU'ton settled upon the laiula now ovvnul by Bonjirnuti 
Snively Hnd David Eshleivan, about two mileseast of where Greon- 
eastlo now stands. Mr. Snively upon the farm so lon>jr the residence 
of Andrew Snively, dtrc'd. Mr. Johnston on the lands now owned 
by Christian Stover and Henry VVhitniore, and Mr. Roddy oji the 
farm now owned by Andrew U. M'Lanahan, Esij., situali-d u\nn\ 
the Conoeochert«;ue creek. They were among tlie first, if not the 
very tirst settlers in tlie townshij), and had many Indians lor their 
neighbors when they first located. 

The settlement early took the name of " The Conocoeheague Set- 
tlement," and being fed from the older counties and the Old World, 
was of rapi(i growth. A Presbyterian church was organized as early 
as 1737 or 1738, under the name of " Tlie East Conocoeheague Pres- 
byterian Church." Their first church editice, known as the "lied 
Church," was erected at "Moss Sjjring," three-fourths of a mile east 
of Greencastle, and there they worshij»ped until the erectioi) of the 
present cliurch in Greencaslle, in the year 1830. 

In the year 1772, or ten years before Greencastle was laid out, John 
Crunk leton laid out a town on the road leading from the Conoco- 
eheague Settlement (now Greencastle) towards where Waynesboro 
now is, about two miles east of Greencastle, and named the town 
Crunkleton. Lots were sold subject to an annual quit rent ; three 
houses were built, one of which was kept as a tavern by George Clark, 
and in another a store was kept by John Lawrence. James Clark, 
one of the former Canal Commissioners of our State, passed his 
youth there. The town never got bej^ond its three houses; two of 
these have been removed, the street and the town plot merged into 
the farm of Benjamin Snively, Esq. Its very name is almost for- 
gotten, and strangers pass over its site without seeing any evidences 
that there a town once existed. 

LURGAN — 1743. 

I cannot tell certainly from what this townshi]^ took its name. 
Most likely it was called after the town of Lurgan, in the county of 
Armagh, province of Ulster, Ireland, eighteen miles south-west of 
the city of Belfast, the birth-place of James Logan, the secretary of 
William Penn, and President of the Supreme Executive Council in 

It originally extended across the eastern end of our county, 
from the top of the South mountain to the to2> of the Kittatinny 
mountain, and embraced all the territory now within the townships 
of Lurgan, Letterkenny, Green nnd Southampton. The earliest 
date at which I could find mention of it among the records of Cum- 
berland county is in 1751, but an original deed for certain lands in 
Green township has been shown me, dated December 1, 1753, in 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 127 

which it is set forth that the warrant for the land therein mentioned 
had been issued in 1743, and that it was then in Lurgan township, 
Lancaster county. Whetlier it ever extended eastward further than 
the present boundary of Cumberland county, I cannot say. Being 
the most eastern portion of our county, it was early settled. The 
original settlers were chiefly Scotch-Irish, though some Germans 
were also found in the township at a very early period. The "Mid- 
dle Spring Presbyterian Church" was organized about the year 1740. 
Their church edifice stands but a short distance east of the county 
line in Cumberland count3^ 

A Scotch-Irishman of the name of Thomas Pomeroy was one of 
the earliest settlere in this township. One of his early ancestors 
was a French Huguenot, and, at the time of the massacre of Saint 
Bartholomew's day, in. 1572, he was engaged in teaching a classical 
school in Paris. He escaped from the city on that terrible night, 
and with some other Huguenots crossed over to Ireland, where he 
settled. Nearly one hundred and fifty years afterwards Thomas 
Pomeroy, before mentioned, one of his descendants, left Ireland, 
the place. of his birth, and removed to Liverpool, England, where 
he engaged in commercial pursuits. From thence he emigrated to 
America early in the eighteenth century, and located in Lurgan 
township, about two miles east of where the town of Roxbury now 
stands, on a small stream, which rises in the neighboring mountains 
and is now known asRebuck's run. Pie was the great-great-grand- 
father of John M. Pomeroy, Esq., of our town. There he raised a 
large family, and died about the beginning of the revolutionary 
war. His son Thomas, the great-grandfather of John M., was there 
born in the year 1733, and settled near the ancestral home, living 
happily, and prosperously with his increasing family. On the 
morning of the 21st of July, 1763, Thomas Pomeroy left his home 
for the purpose of hunting deer. Returning after a short absence 
he found his wife and two children dead, having been tomahawked 
and scalped by a small party of lurking savages, who were doubt- 
less concealed nearby when he went away, A Mrs. Johnson, an 
inmate of the house, had an arm broken, her skull fractured, and 
the scalp torn off her head. She was left for dead, but showing 
signs of life, was removed to Shippensburg, where she received medi- 
cal aid. The bodies of these victims of fiendish cruelty were buried 
a short distance from the place of their murder, in a spot of ground 
on which the barn belonging to the late John A. Rebuck was sub- 
sequently erected. 

PETERS— 1751. 

This township was evidently named after Richard Peters, who 
figured so conspicuously in Colonial times in this State as the Sec- 
retary of the Colonial Governors Thomas, Palmer, Hamilton, Mor- 

12S IliKforicdl Sketch of FrioikUn Coantif. 

lis and Denny, from 1743 to 170:2. It appears first in tiio roconls of 
Cumberland eounty in the year 1751, and was most likely created by 
the courts of that county after its organization in 1750. It then em- 
braced all the territory in the present tovvnshij)s of Peters and 
Montfiomery, and also all that part of the present township of St. 
Thomas west of Campbell's run. Its earliest settlers were also 
chiefly Scotch-Irish, as is evidenced by their names, viz. : the 
Campbells, Wilsons, M'Clellands, M'Dowells, Welshs. Smiths, 
M'Kinneys, &c., itc, who were found in the township as early as 
1730. A Presbyterian church was organized in the year 1738, under 
the name of "The Upper West Conococheague Church," embrac- 
ing all the territory now occupied by the congregations of Welsh 
Run, Loudon and St. Thomas. The church edifice stood about two 
miles northeast of where the town of Merc^rsburg now stands, and 
was generally known as the "White Church." "Fort Loudon," so 
well known in "ye olden time," was in this township, and was built 
by Colonel John Armstrong in the year 1756. It was one of a 
chain of forts built by the colonial government after the defeat of 
General Braddock, to keep the Indians out of this valley. 

GUILFOKD— 1751. 

This townsliip also appears on the records of Cumberland county 
for the first time in the year 1751, and was most likely created by 
the <!ourt of that county. Its earliest settlers were mostly Irisli, or 
Scotch-Irish, though there were some English among them, f 
know not from whence it derived its name. There is a town called 
Guildford, or Gilford in the county of Surry, England, and it is 
stated in history that some of the English non-conformists of that 
region, when persecuted for their religious opinions, passed over 
to the Scots, in the province of Ulster, Ireland, and from thence re- 
moved to America. It may be that some of them, or their descend- 
ants were among the early settlers in this township, and that 
through them it got its name. On the records of Cumberland coun- 
ty, and in the early records of our county, the name is spelled Gil- 
ford, or GiUford. I have not found that the boundaries of the 
township were ever diflfereut from what they now are. The town 
of Chambersburg as originally laid out, was wholly within this 
township. The Presbyterian "Congregation of the Falling Spring" 
was organized here about the year 1735. 

HAMILTON— 1752. 

This township was undoubtedly named after James Hamilton, 
who was the Governor of the colony from 1748 to 1754, the very 
period within which it must have been created, and also from 1754 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 129 

to 1763, and from May to October, 1771. Its name first appears on 
the records of Cumberland county in 1752, and most likely it was 
organized by the order of the court of that county, about that time, 
or in the previous year, though no record thereof has been found. 
It originally embraced nearly all of the present township of St. 
Thomas which lies east of Campbell's run. Its first settlers were 
mostly Scotch-Irish, who made tlieir settlements at about the same 
time that settlements were made in the surrounding districts. 

FANNETT — 1761. 

This township originally embraced the territory now within 
the township of Metal. Path Valley, in which the greater part of 
the township lies, was in old times called the "Tuscarora Path," and 
the Indian title to the territory between the Kittochtinny moun- 
tains on the east, and the Tuscarora mountain on the west, was only 
extinguished by the treaty made with the Six Nations, at Easton, 
on the 23d of October, 1758. Long before that period, however, set- 
tlers had crowded into Path, Horse and Amberson's Valleys, at- 
tracted by the beauty of the lands within them. These intrusions 
are said to have commenced as early as 1744, but were in violation 
of the agreement between the Colonial autliorities and the Indians, 
and the latter made complaint to the government, and threatened 
to redress their grievances themselves if tlie intruders were not 
promptly removed. The government called upon the magistrates 
of Cumberland county to redress tlie wrongs of the Indians by ex- 
pelling the settlers. Accordingly, in May, 1750, Richard Peters, the 
Secretary of the Governor, attended by Benjamin Chambers, Wil- 
liam Maxwell, William Allison, John Finley and others, magis- 
trates of the countj' of Cumberland, went over to Path Valley, 
where they found many settlements. They had Abraham Slack, 
James Blair, Moses Moore, Arthur Duulap, Alex, M'Cartie, David 
Lewis, Adam M'Cartie, Felix Doyle, Andrew Dunlap, Robert Wil- 
son, Jacob Pyatt, Wm. Ramage, Reynold Alexander, Samuel Pat- 
terson, John Armstrong, John Potts and others brought before them, 
who were all convicted, and put under bond to remove at once out 
of the valiey with all their families,. servants and effects, and to ap- 
pear at court at Carlisle and answer such charges as might be made 
against them. Their houses, cabins, and other improvements were 
then all burned to the ground, by order of the magistrates. After 
the purchase of the land from the Indians some of these men re- 
turned and located lands in the valley, and their descendants are 
there yet. 

The first mention that I have found of the name of this township 
(Fannett) in the records of Cumberland county is in the year 1761. It 
was undoubtedly organized by the order of the Court of Quarter Ses- 

130 Jfisforif-al Sketch of Frnnldin Omnfi/. 

sions of tliat county, most probuldy in that or the preceding year. 
Its original shape was that of a long, narrow point; and it is said 
tliat it was named by its early settlers, who were mostly Scotch- 
Irish, after "Fannett Point," a promontory and light house in the 
county of Donegal, Province of Ulster, Ireland. 

liichard and John Coulter took uji a large body of land in the upper 
end of the township, near Concord, in the year ITIB, and Francis 
Ambtrson settled in tiie valley now called after him, "Amberson's 
Valley," in the year 17G3. Soon afterwards Barnabas Clark, after 
whom "Clark's Knob" is named, John Ward, Cromwell M'Vitty 
and others also settled in the latter named valley, and their de- 
scendants are now among its most prominent citizens. There are 
two post offices, one large steam tannery, two churches, (one union 
and one protestant Methodist), one general store, three blacksmith 
shops, one cabinet-maker shop, three carpenter shops, one wheel- 
wright shop, and four good school houses in this little valley. 


This township was formed out of tiie southern part of Lurgan 
townshii), by order of the court of Cumberland ciunty, about the 
year 1760 or 1761, and then included the territory now in Greene 
township. The first mention that I find of it in the records of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions of that county was at March term, 1762. 
What it took its name from I cannot say. Some affirm that there is 
a town, or district, of the same name in Ireland, and that the early 
settlers being mostly Scotch-Irish, the township was called after it. 
But I have not been able to find that there is any such place in the 
"Green Isle," and therefore cannot say that this statement is either 
true or false. Settlements and improvements were made in that 
region of the county shortly after the year 1730, though the office 
rights issued and surveys made do not date back earlier than 1736, 
the year the Indian title was extinguished. 

John B. Kaufman, Esq., our late county surveyor, who is a native 
of the township, and fully acquainted with the facts connected with 
its early settlement, says: "Several surveys were made and war- 
rants issued in 1736, 1744 and 1746, but they were not very numer- 
ous until 1750, though we find abundant evidences prior to this 
latter date thatsettlements had been made years before. When the 
P'rench and Indian war became serious in 1755, and the settlers were 
burnt out, or massacred, and could not remain in safety, many of 
them abandoned their improvements and removed eastward into the 
older settlements. Emigration was checked and almost totally 
ceased until about the year 1760 or 1762. Then there was a large 
influx of settlers, and by the time the revolution broke out the 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 131 

farming lands both in this valley and in Horse valley were largi-ly 
taken up. I cannot find either warrants or surveys in Letterkenny 
township prior to 1762." 

"From this date the office rights multiply rapidly, especially after 
the cheaper rates of £5 sterling per hundred acres were inaugurated 
under the application system. This system went into effect in 1766. 
All that was necessary, as long as this law was in force, was for the 
settler to make application to the Land Office for so many acres, 
bounded by certain lands. An order of survey was then issaed, 
and the apphcant, for a small fee for his application and order of 
survey, could take up a tract not exceeding four hundred acres, 
without paying for the laud a farthing, except the fees above 
named, and the expenses of surveying. It was expected that the 
land would be paid for after the return of the survey, and a patent 
then be taken out. This, however, was frequently not done, and the 
purchase money of many tracts has not yet been paid to the Com- 
monwealth. The land then cost twenty-two and two-tenths cents 
per acre ; hence it is not wonderful that as soon as the Indian trou- 
bles ceased the lands in Letterkenny were rapidly occupied. As 
this township is mostly slate land, now considered by many as in- 
ferior to the limestone and freestone, or pine lands of Green, South- 
ampton, Guilford, Antrim, &c., it may seem strange that the first 
settlers selected the slate lands, which were often quite hilly, in 
preference to the others. But when it is remembered that the slate 
lands were heavily timbered, and had abundant springs and mead- 
ows, and were smoother and easily cultivated ; and the limestone 
lands were nearly all quite destitute of timber, were often poorly 
watered, were broken by ridges of rock, and were in other respects 
uninviting and barren, the reasons for their preference are easily 

"Some settlers who had taken out warrants at an early day at £15 ■ 
10s. per one hundred acres, and paid a part of the purchase money, 
afterwards, when the rates were reduced, abandoned the old warrants 
and took out new ones and obtained patents on them. But as the 
Scotch-Irish of those days were acttial settlers, and not speculators, 
whenever they went to the trouble to obtain evidence of title they 
generally lived on their lands and retained them." 

"After tlie battle of Trenton some of the Hessians captured there 
found their way to this vicinity, and settling here, became useful 
and industrious citizens, and their descendants are amongst the most 
worthy and respectable of our people." 

" So much has been said in praise of the Scotch-Irish pioneer that 
I will not spoil a subject so well handled and oft repeated by en- 
larging upon it. And concerning the 'Dutchman,' who has taken 
his place, in a great measure, he has done his part so quietly that 
there is not much to say about him. When the Germans first made 

132 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

their ai)poar;inc'e the nhl pioneer did not always look upon them 
with much favor, and it is said that one of them who did not like 
'Hans,' wondered, reverently, of course, 'what God Almighty 
meant in making the Dutchman and letting him have the best of 
the land besides.' " 

" But the Scotch-Irishman, sturdy and strong, upright and fear- 
less, if not a very successful farmer, still performed a mission that 
cannot be easily overestimated, and as a descendant of a Swiss Ger- 
man, I can and do cheerfully give my meed of praise to the early 
settlers of the Cumberland Valley." 

Major James M'Calmont, so famous in early times as an Indian 
fighter, was born near Strasburg, in this township. Because of the 
massacre of certain of his neighbors and acquaintances, he became 
the sworn enemy of the savages. He was peculiarly fleet of foot, 
knew every nook and corner of the country, was a sure shot, and 
had many hair-breadth escapes in his contests with the Indians, 
many of whom are said to have fallen bjj^ his gun. He is said to 
have been very modest when speaking of his exploits, and never 
admitted that he had killed an Indian. He would say: "I shot at 
him," and it was i^retty well understood that when he shot at an 
Indian tliere was a savage that needed burial. 

"The Rocky Spring" Presbyterian Church is within the bounds 
of this tiiwnship. It was organized about the year 1738, and had a 
very large membership for many years. 


This township \vas organized by an order of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions of Cumberland county about April term, 1779, out of An- 
trim township. At January term, 1779, a petition of the citizens of 
Antrim townshiij was presented, praying for the division of that 
township, and James Johnston, Abraham Smith, Humphrey Ful- 
lerton, James M'CIenehan, Elias Davison and William Finley were 
appointed commissioners to examine and report upon the propriety 
of the division. I have been unable to find any record of the report 
of these commissioners, nor of the action of the court thereon. 
They should have rej^orted to April term, 1779, and most probably 
did, as the name of the new township — Washington — appears upon 
the record of the court immediately thereafter. It was called after 
General Washington, who was then " first in the hearts of his 
countrymen," as the leaderof their armies in the contest then going 
on for the independence of the United Colonies. The new township 
took from Antrim more than one-half the hitter's area, and em- 
braced all that territorj' now within the township of Quincy. 

Settlements weie made iu what is now Washington township as 








Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 133 

earlj^ as 1735-'4(). The tract of land upon which Waynesboro now 
stands was taken up in 1749. The first road from what is now Ful- 
ton county (then Cumberland county) through Peters and Antrim, 
and wliat is now Washington township, was laid out by order of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions of Cumberland county in the year 1768. 
At the April sessions of the courts of Cumberland county, in the 
year 1761, a petition of the citizens of Peters township was presented 
setting forth " that they have no prospect for a standing market for 
the produce of their country, only at Baltimore, and having no road 
leading from their toMaiship to said town of Baltimore, and flour 
being the principal commodity their township produceth, and 
having tivo mills in said township, viz. : John M'Dowell's and Wil- 
liam Smith's, they pray the court to appoint men to view and lay 
out a road from each of said mills to meet at or near the house of 
William Maxwell, and from thence to run by the nearest and best 
way towards said town of Baltimore until it intersects the " tempo- 
rury line,^' or ihe line of York county. The Court appointed Henry 
Pawlin, James Jack, John Allison, Joseph Bradner, John M'Clel- 
lan, Jr., and William Holliday, viewers, any tour of them to make 
report. No report was made unril April term, 1768, when the view- 
ers reported in favor of a road, for the accommodation of the i^eople 
of Petei'H, Air and Hamilton townships. The roads were to be 
'^bridle roads" from the mills to the boundaries of Peters township. 
They were to unite at or near James Irwin's mill, in Peters town- 
shij), thence crossing the Conococheague creek at the 7)iouth of 
Muddy run^ thence through Antrim township to the Gap, commonly 
called "Nicholson's," in the South mountain, and thence to the 
town of Baltimore. This is substantially the route of the present 
turni3ike from Mercersburg, by way of Greencastle and Waynes- 
boro, towards Baltimore, and the reason that none of these towns 
are named is because they were not then in existence. 

MONTGOMERY — 1781. . 

This township was formed out of the southern part of Peters 
township, by a decree of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Cumber- 
land county. At the October term, 1780, the petition for the division 
of the township was presented, and the court appointed James 
Maxwell, John M'Clellan, John Work, James Campbell, Adam 
Holliday and Thomas Campbell to examine and report upon the 
propriety of the division. They reported at January term, 1781, 
and their report was then confirmed, dividing the township as fol- 
lows, viz. : " Beginning at a pine on the Bedford county line, thence 
five hundred perches to the south branc:h of Smith's run ; thence 
down said run an easterly course until where it empties into the 

134 Historical Sketch of FrdnkHn Count if. 

West Conococheague creek ; thence south seventy one degrees, east 
nine hunth-ed and ninety-four perclios to the liahimore road, Jiear 
Charles Lowry's; theuce north eighty degrees, east one thousand 
one lumdred and forty perches to a buttonwood tree standing on the 
bank of the East Conococheague creek, at the mouth of Wood's 
run, being the whole extent of said division line— the south side to 
be called ' Montgomery.' " This name was undoubtedly selected in 
honor of Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, who had been 
killed in the attack upon (Quebec, Canada, on the 31st of December, 
1775. The first settlers were mostly Scotch Irish, though there 
were a number of Welsh in the south-eastern part of the township, 
from whom the jiresent village of "Welsh Run" took its name. 
They located between the years 1730 and 1735. The first Presbyte- 
rian church there was organized about the year 1736, about which 
time their first church edifice was erected, which was used until the 
year 1760, when it was burned by the Indians In 1741 the Upper 
West Conococheague Presbyterian (congregation was divided, and a 
congregation organized in the Welsh Run district, under the name 
of "The Lower West Conococheague Church." About 1774 they 
built their second church, which was used until the present beautiful 
structure ('The Robert Kennedy Memorial Presbyterian Church ") 
was put up on the site of the old church, and dedicated September 
30th, 1871. 

On the 1st of September, 1787, Mr. John Kennedy, one of the cit- 
izens of this township, and the owner of five lumdred acren of land 
in it, advertised through the Carlisle Gazette that he had laid out a 
new town at the forks of the east and west brandies of the Conoco- 
cheague creek ; that there were two hundred and twenty-six lots in 
his town, each of which was eighty-two and one-half feet wide by 
cue hundred and sixty-five feet deep ; that tlie streets were to be 
sixty and eighty feet wide, two of which were named "Water- 
street," (east and west) ; tliat the lots were to be disposed of by lot- 
tery on the 13th of November, 1787; that each lot must be inclosed 
with a rail or paling fence witliin three years, and a house of brick, 
stone, frame or log, at least twenty-two feet square, with a chimney 
of brick or stone, must be put up within five yeirs, and that the 
annual quit rent on each lot would be three bushels of merchantable 
wheat. No name was given to the new town, and the whole enter- 
prise must have been abandoned for some cause or another. A 
wharf and a warehouse were erected at the site of this town many 
years ago, and wheat and other grains purcliased and floated 
down the Conococheague in flat boats to the Potomac, and hy that 
river to Georgetown, whicli was then the principal marliet for the 
products of this region of country. The erection of the mill dams 
on the creek interfered with this trade, and it was long ago aban- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 135 

SOUTH A MPTON— 1 783. 

This township was organized out of the south-eastern part of Lur- 
gan township, by the order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Cum- 
berland county, about the year 1783. I have been unable to find 
the exact date of its organization, but as it appears upon the records 
of that county in that year, and does not appear earlier, it must 
have been organized about that time. Its earliest settlers were also 
Scotch-Irish, who located in that township (then Hoi)ewell, Cum- 
berland county) as far back as the year 1738. It is said that the 
township was called after the county of Southampton, in the south 
of England, in which there is a city, and important seaport, of the 
same name, containing about 60,000 inhabitants. 

FRANKLIN— 1784. 

This township appears on the records of our county in the year 
17S5, and was carried along upon the books of the Commissioners' 
office, for taxation pui'poses, as late as the year 1S22. I could find 
no trace of it on the records of Cumberland county, and therefore it 
must have been organized by an order of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of this county in 1784, or in the early part of 1785. It was 
formed out of parts of Guilford and Hamilton townships, and em- 
braced the town plot of Chambersburg, and seven tracts of land 
adjacent thereto in both townships, containing about 1,150 acres. 
The Borough of Chambersburg was erected by an Act of Assembly 
approved 21st March, 1803, with boundaries greatly less in extent 
than those of the township of Franklin, yet the assessments were 
made for the township for nineteen years afterwards, and how the 
township organization was then gotten rid of, and the surplus land, 
outside the borough limits, returned to the adjoining townships, I 
cannot tell. It may have been done by the order of our Court of 
Quarter Sessions, but as all the records of that Court prior to 1864, 
were destroyed when our town was burnt on the 30th of July in that 
year, I cannot speak with any certainty as to any action of that 
Court in relation to this township. It was undoubtedly named 
after our county. 

GREENE — 1788. 

This township was formed out of the eastern end of Letterkenny 
township, by an order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of our 
county in the year 1788. The records containing the action of the 
Court no longer exist, but there are contemporaneous records in the 
Commissioners' office which show that the township did not exist 
in 1787, and did exist in 1788. Besides this, the township officers 
have the township records of 1788, which show the election held 

136 Historical Sketch of Franklin Connti/. 

that year for their first township officers. These data render it cer- 
tain that the township was organized in 17ST, or in the early part of 
1788. It was nndoubtedly named after Major General Nathaniel 
Greene, of tlie revolutionary army, who but a few years before had 
so gallantly contested the possession of the Carolinas with the British 
troops under Lord Cornwallis. 

The original settlers in this township (then Hopewell or Lurgan), 
were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who came info it contemporane- 
ously with the settlement of the surrounding districts. I have not 
been given the dates of their settlements, and cannot therefore par- 
ticularize them. Among them were the Armstrongs, Thomsons, 
Bamages, Stewarts, Culbertsons, M'Clays, Hendersons, Criswells 
Bittingers, Fergusons, Bairds, Johnsons, &c., &c., who lived there 
many years, who are buried there, and whose descendants are among 
the most worthy in the township, and still adhere to the faith of 
their forefathers. A house built in IToo, one hundred and twenty- 
one years ago, is still standing, and in a fair state of preservation. 

The town of Green village stands upon the summit level between 
the Susquehanna and Potomac, the waters rising east of it flowing 
into the former, and those rising west of it flowing into the latter. 
Years ago a certain James M'Nultj^, a Roman Catholic, kept a tav- 
ern in the village, and the celebrated Lorenzo Dow frequently 
preached in his bar-room to crowded audiences, '■''subject to certain 
rules,'^ among which was one that he should not abuse the Catholics, 
and whenever Lorenzo in his haste or zeal forgot the ^^ru!es,^' out 
went the candle, and the preacher and his audience were left in the 

METAL— 1795. 

This township was formed out of the southern end of old Fannett, 
by the order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of this county, about 
the year 1795. As in the case of Franklin and Greene townships, 
no record of its organization can be found, because of the destruc- 
tion of the records of the court. But from the records referred to 
before, as existing in the Commissioners' office, (wherein tables con- 
taining the names of all the townships are found), it is certain that 
this township must have been created about 1795, for its name does 
not appear in 1795, and does appear in May, 1790. Its earliest settlers 
were chiefly Scotch-Irish, of the same religious faith as those who 
settled in the upper part of the Path Valley. Among them were 
the Elliotts, Walkers, Nobles, M'Connells, Kilgores, Alexanders, 
M'Cartneys, M'Curdys, Elders, Skinners, Campbells, Mackeys, 
Montgomerys, Armstrongs, &c., &c. A Presbyterian congregation 
was formed about the year 1767, composed of the Presbyterians of 
the whole valley. They early difTered as to the locution of their 
church edifice, and finally divided and formed two congregations, 

Historical Sketch of Fy-anklin County. 137 

that in the southern end of the valley taking the name of " The 
Lower Path Valley Presbyterian Church," built their church about 
one mile south of where Fannettsburg now stands. The congrega- 
tion in the northern part of the valley took the name of " The Upper 
Path Valley Presbyterian Church," and built their church edifice 
where the village of Spring Run now stands. The Reverend Amos 
A. M'Ginley ministered to both churches from 1802 to 1851 — nearly 
fifty years. When first called his salary was fixed at five hundred 
dollars per year, one-half of which was paid by each congregation. 
About the year 1820 or 1823, when times became very hard, money 
scarce and everything very high, the sessions of the churches metand 
added two hundred dollars to theirpastor's salary, one-half thereof to 
be paid by each congregation. In a few years, when times became 
better and prices lower, Mr. M'Ginley called the sessions of the 
chui'ches together and told them that they must take off the extra 
two hundred dollars, and he afterwards continued to preach for 
them until his retirement, in 1851, at his old salary of five hundred 
dollars. Few clergymen can be found in these days who would act 
so disinterestedly as did Dr. M'Ginley in this case. 

This township was undoubtedly so called because of the large 
quantity of metal to be found within its boundaries. 

WARREN— 1798. 

The " Little Cove," as this district was called in former times, was 
a part of Bedford county until the 29th of March, 1798, when an Act 
of Assembly was approved annexing it to our county, and making 
it a part of Montgomery township. It was formed into a township 
during that year, by au order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of our 
county, and called " Warren," in honor of Brigadier General Joseph 
Warren, who bad been killed at the battle of Bunker Hill, on the 
17th of June, 1776. Because of the destruction of our county records 
I have been unable to fix the exact date of the order of court organ- 
izing the township, but it must have been between the April and 
August terms of that year, for on the 3d of January, 1799, the 
County Commissioners paid Benjamin Williams six dollars, in part 
of his services for assessing Warren township. 

Settlements were made in this township as early as 1740. Quite a 
number of them were under rights from Lord Baltimore and the 
Maryland authorities, whilst the true position of the boundary line 
between Maryland and Pennsylvania was yet undetermined. There 
are no towns in the township. 

ST. THOMAS— 1818-1820. 

This township was formed out of territory taken from Peters and 
Hamilton. That part of the township east of Campbell's run was 

138 Historical Sketch of FrdnJdin Countij. 

taken from llainilton, that ^rNf" of tin' run from I'eiers. Tlu' pre- 
cise (late of its organization is in more donbt than tiie organization 
of townships formed in the last century. Tl»e records of our Court 
of Quarter Sessions, by whose order it was created, have been de- 
stroyed, and no contemporaneous record, either in tlie townsliip or 
elsewhere, has been found that would fix the date. The first assess 
book for the laying of a tax in it was issued in November, 1820, but 
citizens of the township claim that it was formed in ISIS. 

The early settlers in tho township were chiefly .Scotch-Irish, who 
went there between 178;^ anil 1737. There were also some Germans 
in the eastern or Hamilton part of the township at a very early 

The township, it is said by old residents, was called after Thomas 
Campbell, the founder of Carapbellstown, (or St. Thomas, as it is 
now called), by putting the prefix Saint to his given name, making 
the new name "St. Thomas." 

QUixNCY— 1S37-183S. 

This township was formed out of the northern part of Washing- 
ton township, by the Court of Quarter Sessions of our county, and 
embraces rather more than the one-half of tlie territory originally in 
Washington township. It was organized very late in the year 1837, 
oi* within the first nine months of 1838. The assess books for 1837 
were issued in November of that year, and no book for this town- 
ship appears amongst them, whereas it does appear among tliose 
issued in November, 1838. 

The country now embraced in the township was early settled by 
a mixed i)opuiation of Germans and Scotch-Irish. Frederick Fish- 
er located in 1737; George Wertz came from York county in 1745; 
Adam Small settled about the same time. John Snowberger, a 
Swiss, settled in 1750; John M'Cleary, of Scotland, in 1768, and his 
descendants occupied the same tract of land for one hundred and 
two years. Christopher Dull, Abraham Knepper, Adam Small, 
George Royer, John and George Cook, Samuel Toms, John Heefner 
and othei's were early settlers. 

William Hayman, Jr., says: "The first settlers \vere a hardy and 
industrious class of men, who came principally from Germany, or 
from other districts of this country settled by the Germans. They 
had no lofty affixes or suffixes to their names. There were no Gener- 
als, Colonels or "D. D's." amongst them; and as thej' were jjlain 
and economical in their style of living, having few luxuries, they sel- 
dom needed the "M. D's." They were peaceable, and strictly honest 
in their dealings with their neighbors and fellow men. They loved 
the institutions of the land, and were slow to favor innovations, think- 
ing tliatthe old and well-known ways were the best. They went in 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 139 

for the substantials of life. Their clothing was plain and comforta- 
ble, both in summer and in winter. Shoddy was unknown to them. 
Every farmer put out a small patch of flax for himself and his house- 
hold. The fields yielded abundantly, and the men served their coun- 
try as faithfully in raising produce for the sustenance of manl^ind 
as many who occupied public stations and bore arms." 

This township is very rich in iron ores and other minerals, and has 
in it some of the most productive farm lands in our county. The 
old residents say that it was called after John Qui.ncy Adams, the 
sixth President of the United States. 


The first settlement in our county, as has heretofore been stated, 
was made about the year 1730. Thirty-four years afterwards, or in 
1764, the town of Cliambersburg was laid out, and twenty years 
after that, or in 17S4, the county of Franklin was formed, and yet, 
it was not until six years later, or in 1790, that the people of the 
couDty were given a post office. Considerable settlements had been 
in existence for years before at Fort Loudon, Chambersburg, Mer- 
cersburg, Greenoastle, Waynesboro', Roxbury, Strasburg, St. Thom- 
as and other points in the county, whilst the population had in- 
creased from between three and four thousand in 1750, to nearly 
fourteen thousand in 1784, and numbered fifteen thousand six hun- 
dred and flfty-flve in 1790; and yet for nearly sixty years our ances- 
tors in this part of the Cumberland Valley had not a single post 
office among them. How they were able to transact their necessary 
public and private business, it is difficult to imagine. It is well 
known that letters were not near as numerous then as now; but 
how a people numbering nearly sixteen thousand, with a county or- 
ganization, and all the consequent public and private corres- 
pondence, could thus get along for six years I cannot conceive. Of 
course they had to depend upon the courtesy of travelers, or neigh- 
bors, or rely upon private post riders, for the transmission of their 
letters aud other postal matter. 

The Hon. James H. Marr, Acting First Assistant Post Master 
General, has certified to me the following list of the post offices in 
our county, with the dates of their establishment, respectively, and 
the names of the first post masters, viz. : 

Chambersburg, John Martin, appointed P. M. June 1, 1790 

Greencastle, John Watson, 
Mercersburg, James Bahn, 
Fannettsburg, James Sweeney, 
Brown's Mills, William Brown, 
Concord, Edward W. Doyle, 
Waynesboro, Michael Stoner, 

April 4, 1799 
Jan. 1, 1803 
March 30, 1809 
July 1, 1813 
Jan. 16, 1816 
Dec. 31, 1818 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Counfi/. 

\ Roxbuiy, William Reynolds, appointed P. M. 

^ St. Thomas, John Sliafer, 

Dry Run, William Cami)l)ell, Jr., " 

Fayetteville, John Darl)y, " 

Greonvillage, James ISI'Nulty, " 

Jackson Hall, John 8. Kerr, " 

Loudon, njenjamin 8tonger, " 

Upper Strasburg, William IM'Clellan, " 

State Line, David Brumbaugh, " 

Quincy, Jacob Byer, " 

Welsh Run, John Eldon, " 

Marion, William Martin, " 

Orrstown, James B. Orr, " 

Sylvan, William Bowers, " 

Bridgeport Mills, Martin Hoover, " 

Mont Alto, John Kuhn, " 

Scotland, George R. M'llroy, - " 

Spring Run, William A. Mackey, " 

Amberson's Valley, B. J. Culbertson, " 

Doylesburg, Philip T. Doyle, " 

Carrick Furnace, Geo. W. Swank, " 

Shady Grove, Frederick B. Snively, " 

Mount Parnel, John Mullan, " 

Clay Lick, Elam B. Winger, " 

Mowersville, Jacob Snoke, " 

New Bridge, H. P. Piper, " 

Mason & Dixon, A. B. Barnhart, " 

Richmond Furnace, W. Burgess, " 

Williamson, E. H. Hagerman, " 

Five Forks, W. H. Brown, " 

Rouzersville, C. H. Buhrman, •' 

Lehmaster's, C. Plum, " 




























March 27 


































































Alto Dale. See Funkstown. 

Bridgeport (P. O., Bridgeport Mills) is situated in Peters town- 
ship, at the intersection of the roads from St. Thomas to Mercers- 
burg, and from Loudon to Upton. It is a very old settlement. As 
early as 1730 or 1781 John, William, Nathan and James M'Doweli, 
four brothers, took up a large quantity of land immediately around 
where the village now is. Within a few years afterwards John 
M'Doweli built a grist mill, and in 1756 built the fort, which dur- 
ing those early days was so well known as "M'Dowell's Fort." A 
magazine was early established there by the Colonial authorities for 
the deposit and safe keeping for arms and munitions of war. About 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 141 

jRfty-flve years ago a stone bridge was built there over the West 
Branch of the Conococheague, and from that time the place was 
called Bridgeport. The town has grown up principally within 
the last twenty five or thirty years. The population is now near 
one hundred and fifty. 

Camp Hill is situated in Montgomery township, at tlie base of 
Casey's Knob, six miles south of Mercersburg. It was started by 
William Auld, Esq., about the year 1830, and took its name from a 
large camp meeting that was held there at that time. Its popula- 
tion numbers nearly fifty persons. 

Carrick (P. O., Carrick Furnace) is situated in Metal town- 
ship, on the road leading from Loudon through Path Valley north- 
ward, about four miles south of Fannettsburg. Carrick Furnace 
was built by General Samuel Dunn in the year 1828. It is now 
carried on by R. M. Shalter, and manufactures about thirty tons of 
iron per week. The population of the village is about one hundred 
aaid twenty persons. 

Cashtown is situated in Hamilton township, on the slate road 
leading from Chambersburg to Mercersburg, six miles from the 
former place. Its population numbers about fifty persons. 

Centre, or Centre Square, is situated in Lurgan township, on 
the road leading from Orrstown to Roxbury, The population 
numbers about one hundred and fifty persons. 

Chambersburg (P. O.) is situated at the confluence of the Cono- 
cocheague creek and the Falling Spring. Benjamin Chambers set- 
tled here about the year 1730. On the 30th of March, 1734, before 
the Indian title was extinguished, he obtained a license from Samuel 
Blunston, the agent of the Penns, to take up four hundred acres 
of landj on both sides of the creek, at the point where Chambers- 
burg now stands. He immediately built a saw mill at the mouth 
of the Falling Spring, and a few years afterwards erected a flour 
mill just south of his sawmill. In the early part of June, 1764, 
Colonel Chambers laid out the town of Chambersburg, and on 
Thursday, the 28th day of that month, held a lottery to dispose of 
the lots. The town grew slowly, and lots commanded but poor 
prices, as thirteen years afterwards, viz. : on the 12th day of July, 
1777, Colonel Chamberssold the lotTrostle's tavern now stands upon 
to Nicholas Snyder for one pound ten shillings, Pennsylvania cur- 
rency, (or f4.00 of our present money), upon the condition that 
within two years he should build a house upon it at \ea,Bt sixteen feet 
square, and forever pay an annual quit rent of fifteen shillings to the 
said Chambers, or his heirs or assigns. 

In September, 1784, by the act creating the county of Franklin, 
Chambersburg was made the county seat of the new county. Its 
population was then not more than four or five hundred. In 1786 
there were ninety-six houses here, and in 1788 one hundred and 

142 Historical Sketch of Franklin Countif. 

thirty-roiir. We have now about 1085 houses, of stone, brick anil 
framed timber, all of them substantially, and many of them taste- 
fully built and ornamented. We have fourteen churches, viz. : two 
Presbyterian, one Reformed, oneEnj^lish Lutheran, one Protestant 
Episcopal, two INIethodist Episcopal, one German Reformed, one 
Baptist, one German Lutlieran, one United Brethren, one Roman 
Catholic, and two colored Methodist. Our Court House is one of 
the best in the State, whilst our i)rison is a disji^race to the county. 

We have two banks, witii commodious banking rooms, a conven- 
ient and tasteful Masonic Hall, two Odd Fellow's Halls, "Re]>osi- 
tory Hall," for public meetings, concerts, &c., and seven of the 
most convenient and best conducted hotels to be found anywhere 
in the interior of the State. We have also an immense straw-paper 
mill, (Heyser's), a largesteam flouring mill, (W'umlerlich & Nead's), 
the Chambersburg flour mill, and the Ciiambersburg Woolen Mills. 
We have also the foundry and iron works of T. B. Wood & Co., and 
the furniture manufactory of Henry Sierer& Co., where everything 
in their lines of business is made, and we have water works and 
gas works. Our population is about six thousand eight hundred, 
and our municipal debt does not exceed ninety-five thousand dollars. 
The borough of Chambersburg was formed out of parts of the town- 
ships of Guilford and Hamilton, by an Act of Assembly approved 
21st March, 1803, and has been enlarged several times since by the 
action of the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

Chahlestown is situate in Peters township, on the turnpike 
leading from Mercersburg to M'Connellsburg, about three miles 
from the former place. It has a population of near fifty persons. 

Cheesetown is situated in Hamilton township, three miles north- 
west of Chambersburg, on the road leading towards Reefer's store. 
It was begun by Joseph Bowman about the year 1840, and has a 
population of near forty persons. 

Church Hill is a small village in Peters township, on the 
"Warm Spring" road. It has sprung up recently, and is located 
upon land formerly the property of the "Old White Church," from 
which it takes i*^s name. The population numbers about thirty 
persons, - •' ' 

Clay Lick (P. O.) is situate in Montgomery township, at the 
base of Clay Lick mountain, from which it takes its name. It was 
begun by Jacob Negley about the year 1831. Its poijulation is near 
one hundred. 

Concord (P. O.) is situated in Fannett township, in the upper 
end of Path Valley. It was laid out by James Widney, and the 
first sale of lots for building purjjoses was made by him in tlie year 
1797. It was doubtless called after Concord, Massachusetts, the 
place where, on the 19th of April, 1775, the British troops under 
Lieut. Col. Smith, first felt the temper of the continental minute 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 143 

men. The town now contains thirty-four dwellings, two churches, 
two stores, one hotel and one grist mill, and one hundred and 
seventy-six inhabitauts. 

Cove Gap is situated in Peters township, at the point where the 
public road leading out of the Little Cove, or Warren township, in- 
tersects the turnpike leading from M'Connellsburg to Mercersburg. 
Its population is about fifty persons. 

DoYLESBUBG (P. O) is situated in Fannett township, three 
miles south of Concord, at the mouth of Burns' Valley, on the pub- 
lic road from Concord to Dry Run. It was laid out by Philip 
T. Doyle, in the year 1851, and contains a large steam tannery, one 
store and eleven dwellings, with a population of about seventy per- 

Dry Run (P. O.) is situated in Path Valley, Fannett township, 
eight miles north of Fannettsburg. The first house was built by 
John Holliday, in the year 1833. James Stark built the second one 
about the year 1836. In 1838 Stephen Skinner laid out the town and 
called it "Morrowstown," (Morrow, being the maiden name of his 
wife). By this name it was known for many years. It had been 
called "Dry Run" before the town was laid out, from the fact that 
the stream which passes through the town frequently ceased to 
flow. The older name was preferred to that of Morrowstown, and 
has now come into general use. The population numbers one hun- 
dred and eighty persons. 

Fairview is situated in Southampton township, at the point 
where the road from Shippensburg to Roxbury crosses the Conodo- 
guinet creek. It was laid out by the late William G. M'Lellan, Esq., 
of Strasburg, about twenty-five years ago. Its population numbers 
ninety persons. 

Fannettsburg (P. O.) is situated in Metal township, on the old 
" Tuscarora Path," twelve miles north of Loudon. Settlements 
were made at this point as early as 1787, but the town was laid out 
by William M'Intyre, on the 25th July, in the year 1790, and took 
irs name from the township of Fannett, of which it then formed a 
part. The lots were sold at the price of four to six pounds, subject 
to a quit rent of seven shillings and six pence e^^..... A number of 
these quit rents yet exist. There is one church (Methodist) and a 
public hall in the town, and two churches, oue Presbyterian and 
one Reformed, near the town. The j)opulation numbers about three 

Fayetteville (P. O.) is situated in Greene township, on the 
turnpike road leading from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, six miles 
east of the former place. Settlements were made in this neighbor- 
hood at a very early day. Edward Crawford owned a very large 
tract of land — a thousand acres or more — but a short distance south 
of where the village stands. In the year 1768 a petition was pre- 

144 Hiatorical Sketch of Franklin Counfi/. 

sented to the Court of Quarter Sessions of Cunibi-rlantl tM)Uiity, from 
citizens of Peters, Hamilton and Guilford townships, for a public 
road leading from James Campbell's, near Loudon, through Chani- 
bersburg, to the county line in Black's Gap. Edward Crawford, 
Josiah Cook, George Brown, William M'Brier, William Hoiliday 
and Nathan M'Dowell were appointed viewers, who reported favor- 
ably, and ut January term, 1772, the road was granted. Us route 
was nearly that of the present turnpike. Samuel Beiglital bought 
the property now known as the " Renfrew Mill " estate from John 
Penn the elder and John Penn the younger, proprietaries, in the 
year 1792. Jaeob Burkholder owned the land that Greenwood now 
stands upon, about the same time. In the year 1810 David Eby 
built the merchant mill, saw mill and several dwelling houses, and 
called the place "Milton Mills." In 1824 a school house was built. 
In 1826 John and Benjamin Darby bouglit the mill property, dwel- 
ling houses, &c., from the Bank of Chambersburg. Shortly after 
the Daibys purchased they laid oil' lots fronting the pike aud began 
to build houses. The "arcade" was built by John Darb}', Jacob 
Koontz and Miss Whitmore. They then applied for a post ottice, to 
be called "Milton Mills," but their application was denied, unless 
they would agree to change the name of the village. A family 
council was held, lots were cast, and the name of " Fayetteville " 
selected, in honor of General La Fayette. 

Findlayville, about a half mile west of Fayetteville, and now in- 
corporated in it, was laid out by Colonel John Findlay, of Cham- 
bersburg, ab(Hit the yeur 1830. He sold a number of lots, and some 
buildings were j^ut up, but the name never took. The places are 
now united under the one name — Fayetteville. There are live 
churches in the place — one Lutheran, one Covenanter, one United 
Brethren, one Winebrennarian and one Presbyterian. There are 
also two hotels, one town hall, three dry goods stores, one grocery 
store and two drug stores, and two schools, one of which is graded. 
The population is about six hundred. 

FuNKSTowN (P. O. name Mont Alto) is situated in Quincy 
township, on the road leading from Fayetteville to Quincy, five 
miles south of the former place. John Funk was the first settler, 
and built the first house in the town in the year 1817. The town 
was called after him, though of late years an effort has been made 
to change the name to Alto Dale, but it does not take with the peo- 
ple of the neighborhood. There are three churches in the town, 
viz.: one Reformed, one Methodist and one Brethren in Christ. 
The population of the village is about three hundred and sixty-five. 

Germantonvn is a small village in Greene township, situate on 
the public road leading from Scotland to Fayetteville, about mid- 
way between the two places. It contains a population of about fifty 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County, 145 

Grrencastle (P. O.) is situated in Antrim township, at the in- 
tersection of the Cumberland Valley railroad and the Waync^sburg, 
Greencastle and Mercersburg turnpike road. The land on which 
the town stands was taken up on a warrant issued to Samuel Smith, 
September 7th, 1750. He conveyed to John Smith, 4th November, 
1761. John Smith conveyed to John Davison, 6th November, 1762, 
and he sold to William Allison, 2oth April, 1763. A patent was 
issued to William Allison, 26th July, 1766. and by his deed, dated 
3d May, 1769, he conveyed the tract (three hundred acres) to his son. 
Colonel John Allison, who laid out the town in 1782. He named it 
"Green-Castle," some think in honor of Major General Nathaniel 
Greene, of revolutionary fame; but it is more likely that it was 
called after Green-Castle, a large fishing station, where there is a 
fort and harbor, in the county of Donegal, Province of Ulster, 

Colonel Allison divided his town plot into two hundred and flfty- 
six lots, of equal size, and numbered them from one to two hundred 
and fifty-six, inclusive, and put the price of each lot at three pounds, 
or eight dollars. He then made a lottery, and every j^erson who 
purchased a ticket was entitled to a lot somewhere in the new town, 
and the drawing or lottery was held to determine what lots the 
ticket-holders should get. There were no blanks. Every ticket 
was bound to draw a lot; the only chance or uncertainty being 
whether it should be located on the public square or on a back street. 
Whatever number a ticket-holder drew he got the lot bearing the 
satne number on the i:)lot of the town, and received a deed therefor 
from Colonel Allison, subject to an annual quit rent of ten shillings 

There are six churches in the town, viz.: one Presbyterian, 
organized in 1737 or 1738, one Reformed, one Lutheran, one United 
Brethren, one Methodist Episcopal and one African Methodist. 
The edifices of the first three churches named are of the most com- 
modious and tasteful character, whilst the others named are suffi- 
cient for all their wants There is also a fine town hall in the place, 
for the holding of lectures, concerts, &c. The town was made a 
borough by an Act of Assembly passed March 2oth, 1805, and has 
now a ipopulation of seventeen hundred. 

Greenvillage (P. O.) is situated in Greene township, on the 
Harrisburg turnpike, five miles from Chambersburg. It was laid 
out by Samuel Nicholson in 1793. He purchased of Reuben Gilles- 
pie forty-five acres of land at fifty dollars per acre, " at the intersec- 
tion of the Chambersburg and Strasburg roads." This land, and 
others around, was located as early as 1748. Jonathan Hirst built 
the first house where the town now stands, on the north-east corner 
of the intersection of the present turnpike and the Scotland road. 
It stood until the year 1844. The " village " takes its name from the 

14(1 Hisforical Sketch of Franklin Connfi/. 

towiisliip, whirh was called after General Nuthuiiicl Greene, of the 
revolutionary army. There is one hotel, two churches and two 
stores in tiie place, and the ])0})ulatlon nuinl)ers three hundred 

Ghki:xwooi)(P. O., Black's Gap) is situated in GreiMie township, 
on the Chanihersburfi: and Getlyshurjj: turn|)ike, ei^ht miles east of 
Chatnhorsburjr, at the entrance of Black's Gap, in the South moun- 
tain. Settlenif-nts were made in the neighborhood at a very early 
day. The Blaek's Gap road was laid out in 17o0, and was made by 
Robert Black, the great-grandfather of Robert Black, Esq., of Green- 
wood. Conrad Brown made the first improvement at this point 
about the year 1S14. 

Jacksox Hai.l (P. O.) is situated in Guilford township, on the 
road leading from Chambersburg to Mount Hope and Waynesboro, 
five miles distant from the former place. It was commenced by 
Jacob Snj'der, in the year 1S12. It is called after President Jackson, 
and contains one store and about twenty-eight inhabitants. 

Lennhrrville is situated on the Warm Spring road, in Hamil- 
ton township, just south of Cashto^vn, of which it may be consid- 
ered as a part. It was started by and named after Henry Lennher, 
who resides and keeps a store there. 

Loudon iP. O.) is situated on the Chambersburg and Bedford 
turnpike, in Peters township, near the base of the Cove mountain, 
fourteen miles west of Chambersburg. It is a very old place, and 
was the scene of manj^ a stirring incident in old Colonial times. It 
is mentioned in history as "Loudon town," as early as 1756. In 
that year. " Fort Loudon " was built by the Colonial government, 
for the protection of the frontier settlers against the incursions of the 
Indians. It stuod about a mile south-east of the pres-nt town, and 
was frequently garrisoned by British and Provincial troops. Before 
the making of wagon roads over the mountains it was a great point 
of dei)arture for pack-horse trains for Bedford, Fort Cumberland 
and Pittsburg. The present town was laid out by Johnston Elliott, 
in the year 1804. For half a century, and particularly from the 
completion of the Pittsburg turnpike, in the year 1819, it was a 
great place for the manufacture of wagons, wagon gears and whips; 
but after the opening of the Pennsylvania railroad to the Ohio its 
business rapidly fell away. It now has one hotel, two graded 
schools and three chuiches, and a population of three hundred and 
fifty. The Southern Pennsylvania railroad passes by the town, and 
aftbrds the citizens much greater facilities for all purposes than they 
formerly had. 

Mainsville (formerly Smoketown) is situated in Southampton 
township, on the road leading from Shippensburg to the old South- 
ampton iron works, and about two miles south of the former town. 
It was laid out by Wm. Mains, Esq., about ten years ago, and con- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 147 

tains a church, store and blacksmith shop, and a population of about 
forty persons. 

Marion (P. O.J is situated in Guilford township, on the great 
road from Chambersburg to Greencastle, sis miles south of the 
former place. Settlements were made in the neighboi'hood as early 
as 1748, and a tavern was kept near the south end of the town long 
years ago. The village was commenced about the year 1810. It 
was first called Independence ; but when a jaost office was estab- 
lished there, it was called Marion, no doubt after General Francis 
Marion, the "Swamp Fox of the Carolinas," so dreaded by the 
British and Tories of the Sovith in revolutionary days. The first 
store opened in the place was in the year 1822, by Major Cook. The 
present population is one hundred and twenty-three. 

Marion Station is situated in Guilford township, on the Cum- 
berland Valley railroad, six miles south of Chambersburg, and about 
half a mile east of the town of Marion. A new village is springing up 
there. A warehouse now owned and conducted by Diehl & Co., was 
built there in the year 1862, since which seven or eight new and ele- 
gant dwellings have been put up, a German Reformed church is also 
being built, and Andrew A. Statler is building a large dwelling and 
store near the station, on land purchased from Jacob Myers, at the 
rate of $900 per acre. A sale of lots has also recently been had, and 
a number of dwelling houses are now under contract. It is a very 
desirable point for a private residence. 

Mason and Dixon (P. O.) is situated on the Cumberland Valley 
raih'oad, in Antrim township, immediately at the State line, where 
the public road from Middleburg to Welsh Run crosses the railroad. 
There are a warehouse, a store and several dwellings at this point. 
Population about thirty persons. 

Merceksburg (P. O.) is situated on the Waynesburg, Greencastle 
and Mercersburg turnpike, at the northern line of Montgomery 
township. Much the larger part of the town is in Montgomery 
township, and a small part of it is in Peters township. It is a very 
old settlement. Locations were made in the neighborhood as early 
as 1730, and it is stated that a man named James Black, built a mill 
at or near where the town now stands, about the year 1730. His 
improvement was at first called "Black's town." The settlers 
around were nearly all Scotch-Irish, and by the year 1738 a Presby- 
terian church was organized under the name of "The West Conoco- 
cheague Church." Subsequently William Smith bought out Mr. 
Black ; the date of that purchase I have not been able to ascer- 
tain, but it was as early as 1750. The property subsequently passed 
into the hands of William Smith, Jr., a son of William Smith, by 
inheritance from his father, and was known during the troublesome 
times from 1750 to 1764 as "Squire Smith's town," the proprietor, 
William Smith, then being one of the Justices of the Peace for Cum- 

14S ]IititoriccU Sketch of Fran Id in Counfi/. 

berlaiui county. An extensive trade was carried on with the Indians 
and first settlers on the western frontiers from this point during 
those years. It was nothing uncommon to see from fifty to one 
hundred pacli horses there at one time, loaded with merchandise, 
salt, iron, and other commodities rea(Jy to be transported over the 
mountains to the ISIonongaliela country. As is usual in frontier set- 
tlements, there were many unruly sj>irits to be found about the 
l^lace, and on more than one occasion they became participants in 
riotous anil illegal proceedinirs that led to trouble with the Colonial 
authorities, and with the British troops stationed at Fort Loudon. 

The town was laid out in 1780 by William Smith, Jr., the lots 
being subject to an annual quit rent of ten shillings. He called it 
Mercersburg, in honor of General Hugh Mercer, of the revolutionary 
arm}', who fell mortally wounded at the battle of Princeton, Janu- 
ary 3, 1777, and died a few days afterwards. General Mercer was 
an eminent i)hysician, and resided for a number of years in the 
neighborhood of Davis' Fort, south of Mercersburg, near the jSIary- 
land line, where he practiced his profession. 

Having enjoyed some military training and experience in Europe, 
and having a taste for military life, he was early in 1756 appointed a 
captain in the Provincial service, in which he continued for some 
years, rising to the rank of colonel. On the 13th of July, 1757, he was 
appointed and commissioned by the Supreme Elxecutive Council, one 
of the Justices of the Peace for Cumberland county. He was inti- 
mately acquainted with General Washington, who had a high re- 
gard for him, and upon the breaking out of the revolutionary war. 
Congress, in 1776, upon the recommendation of General Washington, 
who had served with him in Forbes' campaign in 1758, appointed 
Dr. Mercer a brigadier in the army of the United States. Whilst 
the army was encamiied near New Brunswick, New .Jersey, General 
Mercer had shown great kindness to the father of Mr. Smith, or to 
Mr. William Smith himself, it is not known which, but in remem- 
brance of that kindness, Mr. Smith named his new town Mercers- 

The town now contains seven churches, viz. : one Presbyterian, 
one United Presbyterian, (formerly Associated Presbyterian), one 
Reformed, one Lutheran, one Methodist Episcojml, one United 
Brethren and one Bethel. Mercersburg College, under the care of the 
Reformed church, is located there, the President of which is Rev. E. 
E. Higbee, D. D. There is also a Female Seminary there, under the 
care of Rev. Jacob Hassler. "The Farmers' Bank of Mercersburg" 
was established in 1874, Mr. George Steiger is its President, and 
William M. Marshall, Esq., its Cashier. Fairview Cemetery was 
laid out in 1866. The population of the town at the present time is 
about twelve hundred. 
MiDDLEBURG (P. O., STATE Line) is situated in Antrim township, 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 149 

immediately at the Maryland State line, on the great road leading 
from Greencastle to Hagerstown, Maryland. It was laid out by 
Jacob Strickler, about the year 1812, and takes its name from the 
fact of its location midway between the towns named. The town is 
regularly laid out, and at present has two churches, one Reformed 
and one United Brethren, two stores and a town hall in it. The 
population is about two hundred. 

The town was originally called " Spiglersburg." A man named 
Jack Wolgamot, built the first house in the place. He was a reckless, 
rollicking fellow, and often had the constables after him, with a 
warrant for his arrest for the non payment of his debts, contracted in 
Maryland and in Pennsylvania. For the purpose of escaping the oflfl- 
cers of the law, he built his house, which is still standing, across 
the State line, as he thought, one-half in Maryland, and the other 
half in Pennsylvania, so that when an officer came, all he had to do 
to put him at defiance was to slip across the line into the other State, 
take his seat and laugh at the baffled officer. He, however, made a 
mistake as to the true location of the State line, and built all of the 
house in the State of Maryland, except the chimney, which is in 
Pennsylvania. But as this error was not discovered for many years 
after the house was put up, his ruse served his purjDoses on many an 
occasion, when he did not wish to have the company of those officers 
who had warrants against him. 

Mont Alto (P. O). See Funkstown. 

Mount Hope (P. O. name Five Forks) is a small village situated 
in Quincy township, on the road from Chambersburg to Waynes- 
boro, four miles north-west of the latter place. There is a store, 
grist mill, and a blacksmith shop, and a population of about eighty 
persons in the place. 

MowEKSViLLE (P. O.) is a small village in Lurgan township, 
about three and a half miles east of Roxbury. It was started by Jo- 
seph Mowers, Esq., fifteen or more years ago, and contains a store, 
blacksmith shop, carriage manufactory, &c., with a jDopulation of 
about forty persons. 

New Franklin is situated in Guilford township, on the road 
leading from Chambersburg to Waynesboro, four miles south-east of 
the former place. It was commenced by Balthazar Kountz, in 1795, 
and John Himes, Sr., built the next house in 1827, It now contains 
one store and seventy-seven inhabitants. 

New Guilford is situated in Guilford township, three miles east 
of New Franklin. It contains a population of about sixty persons. 

Orrstown (P. O.) is situated in Southampton township, on the old 
State road frona Shippensburg to Strasburg, five miles west of the 
former place. Settlements were made in that neighborhood as early 
as the year 1738, and for many years prior to the completion of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, down to within a very few years past, a very 

I')0 Historical Sketch of Franklin Connttj. 

hiriic luiinber of liorses and cattle were amuially i)ass»Ml alorin the 
State roail from the jjcreat west to the markets of the east. The 
town, which is one of the most beautiful in tlie county, was laid out 
in 1833, by John and William Orr. They called it at first South- 
ampton, after the township; but in 1835, when api)Iication was made 
for a post office to be called Southampton, the Post Office Depart- 
ment refused the grant for the reasmi that there was already an 
office of that name. Hon. Cieorge Chambers, who was then in Con- 
gress, named theoffice ^^Orrstown," and the name has sinceattached 
to the town. It was incorporated as a borough in the year 1847, and 
Ui>w contains one hotel, two stores, one carriage factory, and four 
churches, viz. : one Lutheran, one Presbj'terian, one United Breth- 
ren, and one Winebrennarian. The population is three hundred 
and twenty-five. 

PiKF.svii^LE. See Rouzersville. 

PLiKas.-vnt HalIj is situated in Letterkenny township, on the old 
State road, about two and a half miles east of Strasburg. It was 
laid out by Joseph Burkhart about the year 1840. It contains one 
store, one wagon-maker's shop and a blacksmith shop, and several 
dwellings. The population is about thirty persons. 

QuiNCY (P. O.) is situated in Quincy township, about four miles 
directly north of Waynesboro, on the road leading to Fayetteville. 
Mauy of the earlier settlers in this section of our county were Ger- 
mans, as is shown by their family names. As it had been the 
jjolicy and practice of the agents of the proprietaries, in the early 
years of the past century, to send the German emigrants into York 
county, (which then included what is now Adams county), it is 
very likely that many of those Germans came over the mountains 
from York county, and settled down in the eastern part of our 
count3'', instead of coming up through Lancaster county by 
way of Harris' Ferry, (now Harrisburg), as all the other early 
settlers of the Cumberland Va'ley did. They made settlements in 
what is now Quincy township as early as 1737, and many of their 
descendants are to be found there yet, 

Richmond (P. O., "Richmond Furnace") is situated in Metal 
township, at the termination of the Southern Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and Iron Company's railway, four miles north of Loudon. 
The locality was formerly better known as "Mount Pleasant Fur- 
nace," the oldest furnace in the county. The furnace has been re- 
built by the present owners, and it and the village is now called 
"Richmond," after Richmond L. Jones, who was president of the 
company at the time their railroad was built. There is a large 
warehouse, a store, a number of dwellings, and a population of 
about sixty persons in the place. 

Rouzersville (P. O.) or Pikes ville is a small village in "Wash- 
ington township, on the turni^ike leading from Waynesboro to Em- 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 151 

mittsburg, Maryland, three miles east of Waynesboro. It contains 
a church anrl store, and a population of about thirty persons. 

RoxBURY (P. O.) is situated in Lurgan township, upon the banks 
of the Conodoguinet creek, at the base of the Kitatinny mountains. 
It was commenced by William Leephar, about the year 1778. He 
built a grist mill about the year 1783. "Sound-well Forge" was 
built at Roxbury by Leephar, Crotzer & Co., in 1798, and " Roxbury 
Furnace" by Samuel Cole, in the year 1815. The Hughes' ran these 
works at one time, and the last persons who carried them on were 
Messrs. Fleming & Sheffler, in 1857. In the old "pack horse " times 
there was a considerable amount of business done at Roxbury. For 
many years past, however, the town has not improved much. There 
are two churches in the place — the " Union church," built in 1815, 
and the "Methodist Protestant," built in 1873. Population about 
two hundred. 

St. Thomas (P. O.) is situated In St. Thomas township, on the 
Chamhersburg and Bedford- turnpike, eight miles west of Chan*- 
bersburg. Settlements were made in the neighborhood of where 
the town stands as early as 1737. Thomas Campbell laid out the 
town about the year 1790, and for many years afterwards it was 
known by the name of "Campbellstown." It is only, however, with- 
in the past thirty or thirty-five years that tlie toion began to be gen- 
erally called " St. Thomas." Within the recollection of the writer it 
was frequently called by itsold name — " Campbellstown." There are 
two hotels, three stores and two groceries in the town. There are 
also four church edifices, occupied by five denominations, viz. : one 
Reformed, one Methodist:, one Brethren, and one used by the Pres- 
byterians and Lutherans jointly. The population numbers about 
four hundred. 

Scotland fP- 0-) is situated on the Conoeocheague creek, in 
Greene township, about five miles north-east of Chamhersburg, and 
a short distance south of Scotland station, on the Cumberland Val- 
ley railroad. It contains two churches, (one Covenanter and one 
United Brethren), three stores, a grist and saw mill, a planing mill, 
and a population of about two hundred and twenty-five persons. 

Shady Gbove (P. O.) is situated in Antrim township, on the 
Waynesburg, Greencastle and Mercersburg turnpike, two miles east 
of Greeucastle. A warrant for the land on which it stands was 
granted to Thomas Miunock in 1752. The town was started by 
Melchi Snively, Esq., in 1848. There are now one store, twenty- 
four dwellings and one hundred and twenty inhabitants in the place. 

Shimpstown is a small village situated in Montgomery townshij), 
three miles south of Mercersburg, on the road to Clay Lick. Popu- 
lation about fifty persons. 

Smoketown is a small village situated in Greene township, one 

152 Historical Sketch of Franklin Countij. 

and a half miles south-east of Scotland. It contains a i)()i)ulation of 
about seven ty-five persons. 

Snow Hill, or Schnekbkrg. is situated on Antietani creek, in 
Quincy township, one mile south of Quiney. Since the decline of 
Ephratn, in Lancaster county, it is tlie principal institution of the 
German Seventh-day Baptists of the United States. The society 
have u farm of about one lumdred and thirty acres, with a grist mill 
upon it. They have also a large i)rick building, for the brothers and 
sisters, two stories high and oiie hundred and twenty feet long. 
They have also a church in whicli worship is held weekly, every 
Saturday. Their annual religious meetings are held here. Their 
whole property is worth about twenty-five thousand dollars. There 
are only about eight male, and seven female members remaining 
upon the i^remises — all old people — and as there are no accessions to 
their numbers, the society must soon become extinct. 

Spuing Run (P. O.) is situated in Fannett township, on the main 
road through Path Valley, six miles nortli of Fannettsburg. There 
are two churches, one Presbyterian and one United Brethren, two 
stores, one tannery, and several shops, and a population of about 
fifty persons. 

Spbingtown is a small village, chiefly of farm bouses, situated in 
Metal township, one mile north of Fannettsburg. A small fort or 
block-house stood here during the troublous tiuies of 1750-176-1, to 
which the settlers in the neighborhood frequently fled for refuge 
during the incursions of the hostile Indians. Population about 
twentj' persons. 

Stoufferstown is situated in Guilford township, one and one- 
fourth miles east of Chambersburg, on the Chambersburg and Get- 
tysburg turnpike. The oldest house in the place was built by Pat- 
rick Vance, about 1773. Daniel Stouffer built the "Falling Spring 
Mill," or "Sto.iffer's Mill," about 1792, and the village has grown 
up around it during the last twenty-five or thirty years. The pojju- 
lation is now about two hundred. 

Strasburg (P. O., Upper Strasburg) is situated in Letterkenny 
township, on the old State road leading from Shippensburg to Fan- 
nettsburg, near the base of the Kittochtinny mountains. It was 
laid out by Dewalt Keefer, in the fall of 1789, and was called after 
the city of Strasburg, in Germany. After the completion of the 
Three Mountain road it became quite a business place, and so long 
as transportation was done by the old-fashioned "Conestoga wagon," 
and horses and cattle were brought from the west to the east in 
droves, Strasburg, because of the absence of all tolls on the road, 
and because an abundant supply of feed was to be had at low rates, 
was able to hold its own, but all improvement was at an end. It 
has three churches — one vised by the Lutheran and Reformed con- 
gregations, one Methodist and one United Brethren, in which the 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 153 

Presbyterians worship at stated times. It has also one hotel, one 
steam tannery, one saw mill, two stores, two blacksmith, two shoe- 
makt^r, two cabinet-maker, one tailor and one saddler shops, and 
two hundred and ninety-three inhabitants. 

ToMSTOWN is situated in Quincy township, at the base of the South 
. mountain, one mile south-east of Quiucy. It was started by a man 
named John Toms, sixty years ago or more. It contains one store, 
and twenty-five or thirty houses. Population about two hundred. 

Upton (P. O.) is situated in Peters township, on the Greencastle 
and Mercersburg turnpike, four miles west of the former place. 
The first improvement was made by Alexander White, where the 
hotel is now kept, in the year 1812. The town was commenced by 
George Cook, in the year 1840, but the greater portion of it has been 
built since 1860. The post office was established in 1836, and the 
name "Jacksonville" was selected for it, but disapproved by the 
Post Office Department, as there was already an office of the same 
name. At the suggestion of Miss Elizabeth Watson, of Greencastle, 
the name of "Upton" was taken for the office, which has also 
attached to the village. There are one store and hotel, and several 
shops in the pjace. Population about one hundred and eighty. 

Waterloo is a small village situated in Washington township, 
near the turnpike leading from Waynesboro to Emmittsburg, Ma- 
ryland. It is a short distance south of Pikesville, or Eouzersville, 
of which it may be considered as forming a part. 

Waynesboro (P. O.) is situated in Washington township, on the 
line of the turnpike road from M'Connellsburg to Baltimore. It is 
one of the most beautiful and flourishing towns iu our county. The 
land upon which the town stands was taken up by John Wallace, 
Sr., in 1749. A settlement gradually grew up, in after years, at the 
point where the town now stands, and was called " Wallacetown." 
In the year 1797, John W^allace, Jr., formally laid out the present 
town, and called it " Waynesburg," in honor of General Anthony 
Wayne—" Mad Anthony "—of the revolutionary army. The price 
of lots on "Main street" was fixed at five pounds specie, and on the 
cross streets at six pounds, with an annual quit rent of one dollar on 
each of them. The land around Waynesboro is among the most 
fertile and valuable in our valley. On the 21st December, 1818, the 
town was incorporated into a borough, by the name of "Waynes- 
boro." There are two hotels, two drug stores, four dry goods stores, 
four hardware stores, and eight churches in the town, viz. : the 
Trinity Reformed, St. Paul's Reformed, Lutheran, Methodist Epis- 
copal, Presbyterian, German Baptist orDunker, Reformed Mennon- 
ite and Catholic. There are also a town hall, a Grangers' hall and 
an Odd Fellows' hall, and three large manufacturing establishments 
in the place, viz. : " The Geiser Manufacturing Company," makers 
of grain threshers, reapers, mowers, &c. ; "Frick & Co.,'' steam en- 

1-j4 Historical SketcJi of Franlclin Onint)/. 

yine and boiler woi-ks, and "(ii'or>i:e F. liidy it Co.," liiinlKT mami- 
facturers. .lolin Ikdl has also for years carried on a larjje jiottery at 
this poiut. The j)oi>iihitiou of the town is about fifteen hundred. Run (P. O.) is situated in Montgomery township, on the 
road leadiii.u: from Mereersburfi: to Haj^erstown, Maryhmd, six miles 
from the former place. David Davis, an emigrant from Wales, 
l>iireliased a large tiact of land along the stream near by, between 
the years 173(5 and 174U, and being joined by a number of others 
from his native hmd, the settlement received the name of " Welsh 
Run." The village now contains one store, one tannery, one black- 
smith shop, one wagon-maker shop, one physician's office and one 
hundred and fifty inhabitants. " Kennedy Academy," (Rev. J. H. 
Fleming, i)rinc'ii)al), is situated here, as is also the "Robert Ken- 
nedy Memorial Presbyterian Cluirch." 

WiT.LlAMSON (P. O.) is situated in 8t. Thomas township, on the 
line of the Southern Pennsylvania railroad, five miles south-west of 
Marion. It was commenced about the year 1870, by Samuel Z. 
Hawbaker, who then owned the land around, and who built the 
principal buildings in the ])lace. There is a store, a grist and saw 
mill, and about fifty inhabitants in the place. 

Willow Grove is situated in Guilford township, on the Spring 
road, about three miles south-east of Chambersburg. It was started 
by John StoufFer, about the year 1850, and contains one grist mill, 
one straw paper mill, and about one hundred and fifty inhabitants. 


In the olden time, as appears by the Colonial Records and Penn- 
sj'lvania Archives, there existed an officer called the "County Lieu- 
tenant," who figured prominently in all the military affairs of the 
State. He was appointed by the Supreme Executive Council, and 
held his office at the pleasure of that body. The office was some- 
what like that of a Brigade Inspector, but the powers of the incum- 
bent were greatly larger than those of this latter named officer, and 
his duties much more diversified. By the act of 17th March, 1777, 
(now obsolete), it was provided that "the President in Council, or 
in his absence the Vice President, should appoint and commission 
one reputable freeholder in the city of Philadelphia, and one in each 
county, to serve as lieutenants of the militia; and also any number 
of persons, not exceeding two for said city, and in the several coun- 
ties any number not exceeding the number of battalions, to serve as 
sMft-lieutenants, who were severally to have such rank as the Presi- 
dent or Vice Presidetit might confer upon th<?m. In the absence of 
the County Lieutenant, any two of the sub-lieutenants had power 
to jDerform all his duties. 



--^j^.^..^-.--- — 






Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 155 

By the act of the 20th of March, 1780, now also obsolete, they were 
each requh-ed to give bond, witli good securities, in the sum of 
twenty thousand pounds. They were to divide the several counties 
into miUtia districts, to contain not less than four hundred and 
forty, nor more than one thousand militia-Tneo ; cause the said 
militia to be enrolled ; divide each district into eight parts, or compa- 
nies ; flx the time for holding elections for officers— one captain, one 
lieutenant and one ensign, for each company, and one lieutenant 
colonel and one major for each battalion of eight companies. They 
were required to collect the militia fines, through the sub-lieuten- 
ants, who were to settle every three mouths, whilst the lieutenants 
were required to settle every six months, or forfeit the sum of ten 
thousand pounds. The fine of an officer for non-attendance at com- 
pany exercise was the price of three days' labor, and the fine of non- 
commissioned officers and privates for such absence was the price of 
one and a-half days' labor. At battalion trainings the fine of a field 
officer for non-attendance was the price of eight days' labor, and 
other commissioned officers four days labor, and privates two days 
labor. All fines were collected under warrants from the County 
Lieutenant by sale of all the goods of the delinquent, or by impris- 
onment in jail for ten days for each fine. 

The county lieutenants bought the arms for the militia — had 
them marked with the name of the county, battalion and company, 
and appraised all private arms and horses that went into service — 
paid for those arms that were lost or horses that were killed. When 
the militia were called out into service they gave them notice of the 
time and place of assembling, held and-heard appeals, and granted 
relief, forwarded the troops called out to their points of destination, 
providing in the meanwhile for their support. 

The county lieutenants were the representatives of the State gov- 
ernment in military matters in the several counties, and had very 
arduous and important duties to perform in the troublous times of 
the revolution. To them the Supreme Executive Council issued 
their orders direct, and they enforced them through their subordi- 
nates — the sub-lieutenants— one of whom was attached to each bat- 

The pay of the county lieutenants was the value of one and a half 
bushels of wheat per day, and the pay of the sub-lieutenants, the 
value of one and a quarter bushels of wheat per day, to be paid 
out of the militia fines collected. On the 7th of April, 1785, Colonel 
Abraham Smith, of Antrim township, was appointed lieutenant of 
our county, and served until after his election as councillor, when 
he resigned on the 2Sth November, 1787. On the 1st December, 1787, 
Major Jeremiah Talbott was appointed lieutenant for this county, 
and served until the abolition of the office under the constitution of 
1 789-' 90. 

156 JTiaforical Sketch of Franklin Connfi/. 


I'lie year 1859 has become colebrMtod in tlit> annals of our conntry, 
becanse of tho anti-slavery raid tlien made by Joiin lirown and his 
followers into the ancient Commonwealth of Virjj^inia against human 
slavery. The exciting, and oft-times bloody, struggles which took 
place in Kansas, between the advocates of slavery, and the free-state 
men of the nation, whilst that region of country was being settled 
up, have become historical. John Brown was amongst the most 
active and ardejitof the free-state men of Kansas, and owes his cog- 
nomen of "Ossawatomie Brown," to his participation in one of the 
fearful fights that took place there. So utterly hostile was h^ to 
every thing that in any way gave sanction to human slavery, that 
he became disgusted even with the Constitution of the United States, 
and in the month of May, 1858, was one of a band of about fifty 
ultra anti-slavery mpn who assembled at Chatham, Canada West, 
and made a new constitution of forty-eight articles, and a schedule 
"for the proscribed and oppressed people of the United States." 
That convention, on the 8th (hiy of May, ISoS, unanimously elected 
John Brown commander-in-chief of all the forces that might be 
called into the field under their constitution. At the same time J. 
H. Kagi was elected Secretary of War; Richard Realf, Secretary of 
State; George B. Gill, Secretary of the Treasury; Owen Brown, 
Treasurer; and Alfred M. Ellsworth and Osborne Anderson mem- 
bers of Congress. 

From that time forward the energies of John Brown were devoted 
to the making of preparations for the destruction of slavery. Money 
was collected and men were enlisted, both in the east and the west. 
John Brown and two of his sons, under the name of Smith, visited 
Virginia at various times between May, 1858, and June or July, 1859, 
and Harper's Ferry was finally selected as the point for commencing 
operations. The money collected by Brown was devoted to the pur- 
chase of arms and munitions of war, and the payment of the 
travelling expenses of those "choice spirits" whom he had persuaded 
to join hiiTi in his enterprise, who were instructed to come to Cham- 
bersburg in twos and threes, and there quietly take boarding, so as 
not to attract attention to their movements. Of course all this was 
done silently and secretly, no person but Brown and his followers 
knowing ivho they were, where they came from, \\o\ what was their 
purpose in coming to Chambersburg. 

I. Smith, alia^ John Brown, was first seen at Chambersburg 
about June or July, 1859. He was accompanied by one or two of 
his sons. They got boarding for awhile at one of our hotels, and 
afterwards in a private family' in one of the back streets of the town, 
and professed to be engaged prospecting for minerals in the moun- 
tains of Maryland and Virginia, skirting the Potomac river. Their 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 157 

absences were frequfrit— sometimes shorter, sometimes longer— and 
they never spoke of where they had been nor what they had been 
doing. In a short time, about July or August, 1859, a number of 
boxes were forwarded here through the commission house of Messrs. 
Oaks & Caufman, consigned to I. Smith & Sons. These boxes were 
most carefully secured, so that their contents could not be seen, 
being in many cases double boxes. They were represented by the 
Smiths to contain picks and mattocks, and other tools for mining, 
and they were hauled away from the warehouse by persons em- 
ployed by Smith, who were resident in sections of our county remote 
from Chambersburg. Smith (or Brown) himself came several times 
with a two-horse wagon and took away part of the goods consigned 
to him, and the purchases made here by him. 

There was nothing whatever in the conduct of Smith, nor of any 
of those who were with him here, nor, indeed, in the character of 
the freight he was receiving, to induce Messrs. Oaks & Caufman, or 
any of their employes, to think that he and those with him were 
not what they professed to be, nor that their consignments were not 
what they said they were. 

It is now known that those boxes contained Sharpe's rifles and 
pistols, carbines, swords and pike heads, and ammunition suited to 
the fire arms named ; but then all these things were most carefully 
concealed from the most prying and inquisitive eyes. 

The people of Chambersburg were greatly censured because they 
did not find out what these boxes really did contain, whilst they 
were passing through the warehouses here, and because they did 
not discover the objects and purposes of Brown in time to' have 
prevented his useless and murderous raid. But Brown told no one 
here what he had in view, and his consignments came as any other 
consignments did, and were delivered to him by the carriers without 
a suspicion in regard to them. Besides, Brown, whilst here, openly 
purchased mattocks and picks, and other articles such as he said 
were in his boxes, and such as he would have had need for had his 
business really been such as he stated it to be. His every act served 
to prevent suspicion, and to make those dealing with him believe 
that he was only what he professed to be; and when his aiad effort 
had failed, and the truth became known as to who he was and what 
his purposes had been, none were more surprised than were the 
people of Chambersburg. 

Shortly after Brown appeared in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, 
under his assumed name of I. Smith, he rented a small farm in 
Maryland, a few miles from the ferry. There he took the goods he 
received at Chambersburg, thus gradually collecting a considerable 
quantity of arms and ammunition, and a body of twenty-two men, 
of whom seventeen were white and five colored. The resolute and 

loS nisforicaf Sl^ctch of Frdnldin Connfi/. . 

(lariiij;- cliaractorof IJrowii was well cahMilatotl to make liiiii a leatler 
in such an enterprise, and to inspire confidence in his followers. 

His first effort was made Sunday evening, October 10th, 1850- 
Before leaving his mountain retreat to commence operations, he 
made an address to his followers, concluding thus : " And now, gen- 
tlemen, let me press one thing on your minds. You all know how 
dear life is to you, and how dear your lives are to your friends; and 
in remenil)ering that, consider that the lives of others are as dear to 
them as yours are to you. Do not, therefore, take tl)e life of any 
one if you can possibly avoid it; but if it is necessary to take life in 
order to save your own, then make sure work of it." 

To all of those taken prisoner by Brown, and who inquired as to 
the object of the proceedings, his answer was," "Tb free the slaves,^'' 
and to the question, by what authority he was acting, the reply was 
made, " By the authority of God A/.iniyhty.^' 

The result of Brown's mad undertaking is well known. Within 
forty eight hours of its commencement, it was cruslied into nothing 
ness by the troops of the general government, under Colonel Robert 
E. Lee, and those of the Htate of Virginia, under Colonels Baylor, 
Shutt, and others. Of Brown's whole band of twenty-two men, ten 
whites and three negroes were killed — three whites, two of whom 
were severely wounded, and two negroes, were taken prisoners, and 
four escaped, two of whom, J. E. Cook and Albert Hazlett were 
subsequently captured. John E. Cook, who with two or three 
others had attempted to escape north, along the South mountain, 
was captured in Quincy township, in our county, and was confined 
in jail here for some time before his surrender to the authorities of 
Virginia. In his pocket book was found a commission in the fol- 
lowing form : 

No. 4. He.\dquarters War Department, No. 4. 

Near Harper's Ferry, Maryland. 
Whereas, John E. Cook has been nominated a captain in the 
army established under the Provisional Government. iVbw, The>*€- 
fore, in pursuance of the authority vested in us, we do hereby ap- 
point and commission said John E. Cook, captain. 
Given at the office of the Secretary of War, this day, October 15, 1859. 
H. Kagi, John Brown, 

Secretary of War. Commander-in-Chief. 

Brown was convicted November 2d, 1859, and sentenced to be hung 
December 2d, 1859; Cook was convicted November 10th, 1859, and 
sentenced to be hung December 16th, 1859, along with Edwin Cop- 
pee, white, and Shields Green and John Copeland, colored. 
Hazlett was captured at Carlisle aud surrendered to the Virginia 
authorities, and subsequently tried, convicted and hung. The other 
executions took place at the times appointed. When the union 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 159 

arn}ies captured Eichmond they released from the penitentiary 
there, a colored man named Jerry Myers, who had been tried and 
convicted as an accomplice of Brown's, and sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life. He denied that he had ever aught to do with Brown's 
movements. After his liberation he came to Ghambersburg, where 
he lived until his death, several years ago. 

Looking back at the undertaking of John Brown, and all its sur- 
roundings and attendant circumstances, one cannot fail to be im- 
pressed with the belief that he was not in his right mind. No sane 
man would have attempted what he did with such inadequate prep- 
arations as he had made. Neither he, nor those acting with him, 
could have reasonably hoped for success had they for a moment 
seriously considered the jjower of the State upon which they made 
their raid. 

John Brown, upon being asked why sentence should not be passed 
upon him, said : " I deny everything but what I have all along ad- 
mitted, the de)<ign on my port to free the slaves. That was all I in- 
tended. I never di<l intend murder, or treason, or the destruction 
of property, or to excite or incite slaves to rebellion, or to make 
insurrection. This court acknowledges, as I suppose, the validity 
of the Law of God. I see a book kissed here which T suppose to be 
the Bible, or, at least, the New Testament. That teaches me that 
'all things whatsoever I would that men should do unto me, I 
should do even so to them.' It teaches me further, to 'remember 
them that are in bonds as bound with them.' I endeavored to act 
up to that instruction. I am yet too young to understand that God 
is' any respecter of persons. I believe that to interfere, as I have 
done, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it is deemed necessary 
that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of jus- 
tice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, 
and with the blood of millions in this slave country, whose rights are 
disregarded by wicked, cruel and unjust enactments, I submit; so 
let it be done." 

Of John Brown's bravery, no testimony could be more emphatic 
than that of his ojDponents. Governor Wise, who saw him after his 
conviction, said: "They are mistaken who take him to be a mad- 
man. He is a bundle of the best nerves I ever saw, cut, and thrust, 
and bleeding, and in bonds. He is a man of clear head, of courage 
and fortitude, and simple ingeniousness. He is cool, collected and 
indomitable, and inspired me with great trust in his integrity as a 
man of truth. He is as brave and resolute a man as ever headed an 
insurrection. He has coolness, daring, persistency, stoic faith and 
jDatience, and a firmness of will and purpose unconquerable. He is 
the farthest possible remove from the ordinary ruffian, fanatic or 
madman." Colonel Washington, also, said that "Brown was the 
coolest man he ever saw in defying death and danger. With one 

IGfl ' Hintorical Skefch of FrankHn Counf//. 

8()i> (lead by his sido, and another shot throngli, he felt tlie pulse of 
his dying son with one Imnd, held his rifle with the other, and com- 
manded his men with tlie utmost composure, encouraging them to 
be firm, and to sell their lives as dearly as possible." 

I have referred to this chapter in the history of our country, be- 
cause in our county town of Cliambersburg, unknown to our i)eople, 
this great opponent of human slavery had established his base 
for the receii)t of supplies for his undertaking; liere he lived for 
several months; here his followers secretly and silently asseml)led : 
here the oflice of his war department was established, and from 
hence went out his orders north, south, east and west, and from 
hence his chosen band of little over a score, went off upon that 
desperate, dare-devil enterprise, in which nearly all of them ren- 
dered up their lives to the furtherance of the cause they had so 
blindly espoused. Unaided by any others than those leagued with 
them, without the countenance of tliose surrounding them, and 
with no hope of assistance from the anti-slavery element of the 
country, like llie gallant six hundred at Balaklava, thej' 
"Rushed into the jaws of death" — 

and went down into bloody graves, martyrs to a desperate and 
hopeless undertaking. 


We have had four Constitutional Conventions in Pennsj'lvania in 
the past one hundred years. 

The delegates to the first Convention were elected July Sth, 1776, 
in pursuance of a resolve of the Provincial Conference of Pennsylva- 
nia, which met at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, June 18th, 1776. 

Among the members of that Conference from Cumberland county, 
were James M'Lene, Colonel John Allison, John M'Clay, Dr. John 
Calhoun and John Creigh, all of whom, T believe, were from the 
region of country now in our county. 

The Constitutional Convention metat Philadelphia, July loth, 1776, 
and passed and adopted a constitution, which was signed September 
28tli, 1776. There were eight delegates from Cumberlantl county, only 
one of whom, James M'Lene, Esq., was, I believe, from our county. 

The second Constitutional Convention convened in Philadeli)hia, 
November 2-lth, 1789, and framed a new constitution, which was sub- 
sequently adopted by the people of the State. The members fiom 
Franklin county were James M'Lene and George Matthews. 

The third Constitutional Convention metat Harrisburg, May 2d, 
1837. After several adjournments they reassembled at Philadelphia, 
November 28th, 1837, and adjourned finally February 22d, 1838. The 
constitution, as amended, was adopted by the people at October 
election, 1838, by one thousand two hundred and thirteen majority. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 161 

This convention was composed of senatorial and rerresentative 
delegates. The senatorial district composed of Frankuu, Cumber- 
land and Adams counties, was represented by James Dunlop, of 
Franklin county, and Levi Merkle, of Cumberland county. 

The representative delegates from Franklin county were George 
Chambers, of Chambersburg, and Joseph Snively, of Antrim. 

The fourth and last Constitutional Convention met in the hall of 
the House of Representatives, at Harrisburg, November 12th, 1872, 
and on the 27th of the same month adjourned to meet in Philadel- 
phia on the 7th of January, 1873. This convention was composed 
of one hundred and thirty-three delegates— twenty-eight from the 
State at large, and one hundred and five from the senatorial districts. 

The nineteenth senatorial district, composed of the counties of 
Cumberland and Franklin,, was represented by Samuel M. Wherry, 
of Cumberland, and J. M'Dowell Sharpe and John Stewart, of 

The new constitution was submitted to the voters of the Common- 
wealth at a special election held 16th December, 1873, and was 
adopted by a majority of one hundred and forty-four thousand three 
hundred and sixty-two votes. 


Under the constitution of 1776, delegates to the Congress of the 
United States were appointed by the General Assembly of the State, 
to serve for one year, and were liable to be superseded at any time. 
One of our citizens was twice appointed, viz. : 

James M'Lene, 3d March, 1779, to 13th Nov., 1779, to fill a vacancy. 

James M'Lene, 13th November, 1779, to 13th November, 1780. 

Under the constitution of the United States, which went into 
force on the first Wednesday of March, 1789, members of Congress 
were required to be elected by the people. They were thereafter 
elected by a general ticket throughout the State. At the first elec- 
tion, held in October, 1789, there were eight members of Congress 
elected, the highest vote for the successful candidates being that of 
Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, of Montgomery county— eight 
thousand, seven hundred and seven votes ; and the highest vote for 
the unsuccessful ticket being seven thousand and sixty-seven, for 
John Allison, of Franklin county. 

I am not sufiieienlly well acquainted with the residences of the 
members of Congress elected between 1789 and 1802 to determine 
which ones, if any of them, were from our county. 

On the 2d of April, 1802, an act was passed dividing our State into 
eleven congressional districts. By that act the counties of Franklin 
and Bedford were made a district, to elect one member. The fol- 
lowing persons were elected, and served for the following years, viz. : 
21 <= J . 

162 Historical Sketch of Franldin Counii/. 

I8O3-I8O0, John Rea, of Franklin, . 


1807-1809, " " 

1809-1811, " " 

1811-18l;5, William Piper, of Bedfonl, 

Vlllth Congress. 





ACT OK 20th march, 1812— 5TH district— CUMBERLAND, FRANK- 

1813-1815, Robert Whitehill, Cumberland; Dr. William Crawford, 
Adams; John Rea, Franklin, (1); Xlllth Congress. 

1815-1817, William Maclay, Franklin ; Andrew Boden, Cumberland; 
XlVth Congress. 

1817-1819, William Maelay, Franklin ; Dr. William Crawford Adams; 
XVth Congress. 

1819-1821, David Fullerton, Franklin, (2); Andrew Boden, Cumber- 
land; Thomas G. M'Culloh, Franklin (2); XVIth Congress. 

Perry county was created in March, 1820, and made part of the 
JF'ifth District, and so voted at the regular election in 1821, when 
Colonel John Findlay was first elected. 

1821-1823, James M'Sherry, Adams; James Duncan, (3), Cumber- 
land; John Findlay, (3), Franklin; XVIIth Congress. 


1823-1825, John Findlay, Franklin; James Wilson, Adams; XVIIIth 

1825-1827, John Findlay, Franklin; James Wilson, Adams; XlXth 

1827-1829, James Wilson, Adams; William Ramsay, Cumberland; 
XXth Congress. 

1829-1831, Thomas H. Crawford, Franklin; William Ramsay, Cum- 
berland ; XXIst Congress. 

1831-1833, Thomas H. Crawford, Franklin ; William Ramsay, Cum- 
berland ; XXIId Congress. 



1833-1835, George Chambers, Franklin, . 
1835-1837, " 

1837-1839, Daniel Sheffer, Adams, . 
1839-1841, James Cooper, " 
1841-1843, " " " . . 

XXIIId Congress. 
XXIVth " 
XXVth " 

XXVIIth " 

Historical Sketch of FranJdin County. 163 

ACT OF 25th march, 1843— 16th district— franklin, cumber- 
land AND PERRY. 

1843-1845, James Black, Perry, . . . XXVIIIth Congress. 

1845-1847, '' " " ... . XXIXth 

1847-1849, Jasper E. Brady, Franklin, . XXXth " 

1849-1851, James X. M'Lanahan, Franklin, XXXIst " 

1851-1853, " " " XXXIId " 

act of 1st may, 1852— 17TH district— ad AMS, franklin, FULTON, 

1853-1855, Samuel L. Russell, Bedford, 
1855-1857, David F. Robison, Franklin, 
1857-1859, Wilson Reilly, Franklin, . 
1859-1861, Edward M'Pherson, Adams, 
1861-1863, " " " 

XXXIIId Congress. 
XXX Vth 


1863-1865, Alex. H. Coffroth, Somerset, . XXXVIIIth Congress. 

(- A. H. Coffroth, (4), Somerset, •> 
1865-1867, { ^.jii^,^ jj. Kiontz, " } XXXIXth 

1867-1869, " " " XLth 

1869-1871, John Cessna, Bedford, . . XLTst 

1871-1873, Benjamin F. Myers, Bedford, XLIId 

1873-1875, John Cessna, " . XLIIId 

ACT OF 28TH APRIL, 1873— 18TH DISTRICT— franklin, PULTON, 

1875-1877, William S. Stenger, Franklin, . XLIVth Congress. 

1877-1879, " " " . XLVth " 

(1) Robert Whitehill and Dr. William Crawford, were elected for 
the Fifth District in 1812, but Mr. Whitehill died April 7th, 1813, 
soon after his return home, upon the adjournment of the Xllth 
Congress, of which he had been a member from another district, of 
which Cumberland formed a part ; and at a special election held on 
the 11th May, 1813, John Rea was chosen to fill the vacancy, by a 
majority of five hundred and twenty-three over Edward Crawford, 
of Franklin. He took his seat in the extra session of Congress, 
which met in May, 1813. 

164 Jlixtorical Sketch of Franldhi Count//. 

(2) David Fullorton resigned after the close of his first session in 
Congress, because his constituents disapproved of his votes upon the 
Missouri Compromise, and upon some otlier (juestions. On tlie 9th 
of October, 1820, Thomas G. M'CulIoh was elected to fill the vacancy. 
He took his seat l.'itli November, 1820, and served until the od of 
March, 1821. 

(3) At the regular election in 1820, James M'Sherry, of Adams, 
and James Duncan, of Cumberland, were elected ; but before the 
meeting of the XVIIlh Congress, Mr. Duncan resigned, and at the 
regular election in 1821, John Findlay, of F'ranklin, was chosen his 
successor over Thomas G. M'CuUoh. 

(4) At the opening of the first session of the XXXIXth Congress, 
Mr. Cotlroth was awarded a seat on a 2J7-lma-fncie case, and served 
during most of the session, but Mr. Koontz obtained the seal on a 
contest, and was sworn in July 18th, 18GG. 


Under the constitution of 1770, which was in force when the 
county of Franklin was organized, there was no State Senate. The 
State was governed by an Assembly of the Representatives of the 
freemen of the State, and by a President and Council. Councillors 
were elected for three years. The following persons served as Coun- 
cillors for this county, viz. : 

James M'Lene, from 1784 to 1787 

Abraham Smith, " 1787 to 1790 

Under the constitution of 1790, the Supreme Executive Council 
was abolished, and it was provided that the government of the 
State should be carried on by a Governor, and a Senate and House 
of Representatives, all of whom were to be elected by the people, 
the Governor to hold oflfice for three years. Senators for four years, 
and Representatives for one year. The following are the senatorial 
districts in which Franklin county has been since 1790, and the 
names of the various persons who have represented this district in 
the Senate, with their terms of service. 


Abraham Smith, of Franklin, from Dec, 1790, to December, 1794 

Thomas Johnston, " " " 1794, to " 1803 

James Foe, " " " 1803, to " 1807 

Archibald Rankin, " " " 1807, to " 1811 

By the act of 21st March, 1808, Frankliji county was made a sen- 
atorial district, and given one Senator. 



" 1823 



" 1824 



" 1827 



" 1889 

Historical Sketch of FranhUn County. 165 

James Poe, from Dec, 1811, to Dec, 1819 

Robert Smith, .... 

John Rea, (resigned), ... " 

James Dunlop, .... 

David Fullerton, .... " 

By the act of 16th June, 1836, Franklin, Cumberland and Adams 
were made a senatorial district, to elect tivo Senators. The persons 
who served under this act in this district, were— 
Charles B. Penrose, of Cumberland, from Dec, 1837, to Dec, 1841 
Jacob Cassat, of Adams, from December 1887, to December 25, 1838, (1) 
Thomas C. Miller, of Adams, from Jan. 13, 1839, to December, 1841 

Under the constitution of 1838, the senatorial term was reduced to 
three years. The Senators were — 

William R. Gorgas, of Cumberland, . for 1842, 1843 and 1844 

James X. M'Lanahan, of Franklin, . " " " " " 

By the act of 14th April, 1843, Franklin and Adams were made a 
senatorial district, to elect one member. The Senators were — 
Thomas Carson, of Franklin, .... 1845,1846,1847 
William R. Sadler, of Adams, .... 1848,1849,1850 
Thomas Carson, of Franklin, .... 1851, 1852, 1853 

David Mellinger, of Adams, .... 1854, 1855, 1856 

George W. Brewer of Franklin, .... 1857, 1858, 1859 

By the act of 20th May, 1857, Adams, Franklin and Fulton were 

made a senatorial district, and given one Senator. The Senators 
were — 

A. K. M'Ckire, of Franklin, .... 1860, 1861, 1862 

William M'Sherry, of Adains, .... 1863, 1864, 1865 

David M'Conaughy, of Adams, . . • . 1866, 1867, 1868 

Calvin M. Duncan, of Franklin, . . . 1869, 1870, 1871 

By the act of 6th May, 1871, Cumberland and Franklin were made 
a senatorial district, to elect one member. Under it James M. 
Weakley, of Cumberland, served in 1872, 1873 and 1874. 

By the constitution of 1873, the senatorial term was again made 
four years. 

By the act of May 19th, 1874, Franklin and Huntingdon w-ere 
made a senatorial district, to elect one member. Under it the Sen- 
ator elected in this district in 1874, was to serve but two years. 

Chambers M'Kibbin, of Franklin, served in 1875 and 1876; Hora- 
tio G. Fisher, of Huntingdon, elected November, 1876, for four years. 

(1) Mr. Cassat died at Harrisburg during his second session in the 
Senate, on the 25th of December, 1838, and General Thomas C. Miller, 
of Adams county, was elected to till the vacancy. He subsequently 
removed to Cumberland county, and died there a few years ago. 

166 Historical Sketch of Franfclin County. 


Names of persons who have represented the county of Franklin 
in the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania: 
1784-1785, James Johnston, Abraham Smith, James M'Cammont. 
1785-1786, James M'Cammont, Abraham Smith, John Rea. 
1786-17S7, Abraluim Smith, James M'Cammont. 
1787-1788, James M'Leue, James M'Cammont. 
1 788-1789, James M'Lene, James Johnston. 
1789-1790, James Johnston, John Rea. 
1790-1791, James Johnston, James M'Lene, 
1791-1792, James Johnston, John Maclay. 
1792-1793, James Johnston, John Rea. 
1793-1794, James M'Lene, John Maclay. 
1794-1795, William Henderson, James Poe, Daniel Royer. 
1795-1796, William Henderson, James Poe, Daniel Royer. 
1796-1797, James Poe, William Henderson, John Rea. 
1797-1798, William Henderson, John Rea, William Findlay. 
1798-1799, John Scott, Andrew Duulop, John Spear. 
1799-1800, Daniel Royer, John Scott, Andrew Dunlop, 
1800-1801, John Rea, James Poe, John Statler. 
1801-1802, John Rea, James Poe, John Statler. 
1802-18ii3, Robert Peebles, James Poe, John Statler. 
1803-1804, William Fiudlay, Robert Peebles, Jacob Dechert. 
1804-1805, William Findlay, Jacob Dechert, James M'Connell, 
1805-1806, William Findlay, Jacob Dechert, James M'Connell. 
1806-1807, William Findlay, William M'Clelland, George Nigh. 
1807-1808, William Maclay, Robert Smith, Jacob Heyser. 
1808-1809, William Maclay, Robert Smith, Jacob Heyser. 
1809-1810, Jacob Dechert, James Smith, Archibald Bard. 
1810-1811, Jacob Dechert, James Smith, Archibald Bard. 
1811-1812, Robert Smith, James Smith, Jacob Dechert. 
1812-1813, Robert Smith, David Maclay, Jacob Dechert. 
1813-18)4, Robert Smith, David Maclay, Jacob Dechert. 
1814-1815, Jacob Heyser, Patrick Cami^bell, John Cox. 
1815-1816, Robert Smith, Jacob Dechert, David Maclay. 
1816-1817, Andrew Robeson, Stephen Wilson, Ludwig Heck. 
1817-1818, Andrew Robeson, Stephen Wilson, Ludwig Heck. 
1818-1819, Andrew Robeson, Stephen Wilson, Ludwig Heck. 
1819-1820, Andrew Robeson, William Alexander, Ludwig Heck, 
1820-1821, Samuel Dunn, John Stoner, Robert Croolts. 
1821-1822, John Holliday, Peter S. Dechert, John Flanagan. 
1822-1823, John King, John Holliday, Peter S. Dechert. 
1823-1824, Frederick Smith, Robert Smith, William Maclay. 
1824-1825, Frederick Smith, James Walker, William Alexander. 
1825-1826, Frederick Smith, James Walker, William Alexander. 


W^^csuMiiiu, „„„|^„.«Spffi»a. 


V t.mLMEs,Fm. 

^ "3 


-— ff?AN«'tfNCd.,PA- — 

V.£. Holmes, f^o. 

^^ ^x.ij!*®" 

WMorical Sketch of Franklin County. 167 

. 1826-1827, Frederick Smith, James Walker, Peter Aughinbaugh. 
1827-1828, Philip Berlin, Andrew Robeson, Benjamin Reynolds. 
1828-1829, Ludwig Heck, William Boal, John Cox. 
1829-1830, Frederick Smith, John Cox. 
1830-1831, Frederick Smith, John Cox. 
1831-1832, James Dunlop, Thomas G. M'Culloh. 
1832-1833, Thomas Bard, Thomas G. M'Culloh. 
1833-1834, Thomas H. Crawford, William S. M'Dowell. 
1834-1835, Thomas G. M'Culloh, Thomas Carson. 
1835-1836, Thomas Carson, John D. Work. 
1836-1837, John D. Work, John Flanagan. 
1837-1838, James Colhoun, Henry Funk. 
1838-1839, William M'Kinstry, Frederick Smith. 

1840, William M'Kinstry, James Nill. 

1841, Andrew Snively, Joseph Pomeroy. 

1842, Andrew Snively, Peter Cook. 

1843, Jacob Walter, Thomas Carson. 

1844, Jasper E. Brady, Thomas Carson. 

1845, Jasper E. Brady, Andrew Snively. 

1846, John Stewart, John M. Pomeroy. 

1847, Thompson M'Allister, John M. Pomeroy. 

1848, William Baker, Samuel Seibert. 

1849, William Baker, Samuel Seibert. 

1850, William Baker, John M'Lean. 

1851, David Maclay, John M'Lean. 

1852, David Maclay, George A. Madeira. 

1853, John Rowe, Charles T. Campbell. 

1854, John Rowe, Samuel Gilmore. 

1855, James B. Orr, James Lowe. 

1856, James B. Orr, James C. Boyd. 

1857, George Jacobs, John Witherow. 

By act of 20th May, 1857, Franklin and Fulton were made a dis- 
trict and given two members. 

1858, A. K. M'Clure, James Nill. 

1859, A. K. M'Clure, James Nill. 

1860, James R. Brewster; James C. Austin, of Fulton. 

1861, James R. Brewster; James C. Austin, " 

1862, John Rowe; WilUam W. Sellers, " 

1863, Jonathan Jacoby; William Horton " 

1864, J. M'Dowell Sharpe; WiUiam Horton, " 

By act of 5th May, 1864, Franklin and Perry were made a district 
and given two members. 

1865, A. K. M'Clure, J. M'Dowell Sharpe. 

1866, F. S. Stumbaugh ; G. A. Shuman, of Perry. 

1867, F. S. Stumbaugh; G. A. Shuman, 

J68 Historical Sketch of Franklin Counti/. 

1868, B. F. Winger; John Shively, of Perry county. 
18(59, John H. Walker; John Shively, " 

1870, George W. Skinner; D. B. Miliiken, 

1871, George W. Skinner; D. B. Miliiken, " 

By act of 6tli May, 1871, Franklin was made a district and given 
one member. 

1872, Thaddeus M. Mahon, 
1878, Thaddeus M. Mahon. 

1874, George W. Welsh. 

By act of 19th May, 1874, Franklin was given three members. 

1875, Hastings Gehr, M. A. Embich, Simon Lechron. 

1876, Hastings Gehr, M. A. Embich, Simon Lechron. 
1877-1878, Hastings Gehr, H. C. Greenawalt, William A. Burgess. 


President Judge — Thomas Smith, from 20th August, 1791, to 31st 
January, 1794. 

Associates — James M'Dowell, First Associate, 17th. August, 1791 ; 
James Maxwell, Second Associate, 17th August, 1791; George 
Matthews, Third Associate, 17th August, 1791; James M'Cammont, 
Fourth Associate, 17th August, 1791. 

4th district— 1794 — Cumberland, franklin, Bedford, Hun- 
tingdon AND MIFFLIN. 

President Judge — James Riddle, of Chambersburg, from 4th Feb- 
ruary, 1794, to latter part of 1804. 

Associates — James M'Dowell, George Matthews, James M'Cam- 
mont; James Chambers, from November 12th, 1795, until his death, 
April 25th, 1805, 

9th district — 1806— ADAMS, CUMBERLAND AND FRANKLIN. 

President Judge — James Hamilton, of Carlisle, from 1st March, 
1806, to 13th March, 1819. 

Associates — James M'Cammont, till his death, in 1809; James 
Maxwell, James M'Dowell; William Maclay, September 2d, 1809; 
Archibald Bard, April 2d, 1811 ; Isaac Eaton, January 9th, 1815. 

9th district- 1819— ADAMS, CUMBERLAND AND FRANKLIN. 

President Judge — Charles Smith, of Carlisle, from March 27th, 
1819, to April 27th, 1820. 
Associates — Archibald Bard, Isaac Eaton. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 169 


President Judge — John Reed, of Carlisle, from 10th July, 1820, till 
29th March, 1824. 

^ssocm!les— Archibald Bard, Isaac Eaton ; Jacob Oyster, August 
23d, 1823. 

16th district— 1824 — franklin, Bedford and somerset. 
FORMED 29th march, 1824. 

President Judge— John Tod, of Bedford, appointed June 8th, 1824; 
served till 25th May, 1S27, when he was appointed a Justice of the 
Supreme Court. 

^.ssociaiJ'^s— Archibald Bard, Jacob Oyster. 

16th district— 1827— franklin, BEDFORD AND SOMERSET. 

President Judge— Alexander Thompson, of Bedford, from 2oth 
June 1827, till 1842. 

Associates — Archibald Bard ; Jacob Oyster; Matthew Patton, from 
October 9th, 1830; William M'Kesson, from November 7th, 1832; 
Robert Smith, from December 12th, 1836. 

By the constitution of 1838, the terms of the Judges then Id com- 
mission were all shortened and terminated ; and thereafter the 
President Judges were nominated by the Governor, with the consent 
of the Senate, to hold for ten years, and Associate Judges to hold 
for Jive years. 

16th district— 1842— franklin, Bedford and somerset. 

President Judge— Jeremiah S. Black, of Somerset, from 30th June, 
1841, to 1st Monday in December, 1851. 

Associates — Robert Smith; James J. Kennedy, March 5th, 1842; 
Samuel Dun, March 5th, 1843; Henry Ruby, March 5th, 1847; John 
Orr, March 9th, 1848. 

By the amendment to the constitution of 1850, the Judges were 
all made elective. 

16th district— 1852— franklin, FULTON, BEDFORD AND SOMERSET. 

President Judge— FrauGis M. Kimmell, of Somerset, from first 
Monday in December, 1851. 

Associates— James L. Black, first Monday in December, 1851 ; 
Thomas Pomeroy, first Monday in December, 1851 ; John Huber, 
first Monday in December, 1856; James O. Carson, first Monday in 
December, 1856 ; John Orr, first Monday in December, 1857, 

170 Historical Sketch of Franklin Countfj. 

16th district— 1862— franklin, FULTON, BEDFORD AND SOMERSET, 

President Judge — James Nill, of Chambersburg, from first Monday 
in December, 1861, till his death, May 27th, 1864. 

Associates — John Orr, James O. Carson, first Monday in December, 
1861 ; W. W. Paxton, first Monday in December, 1862. 

16th district— 1864— franklin, fulton, Bedford and somerset. 

President Judge — Alexander King, of Bedford, from 4th June, 
1864, till his death, January 10th, 1871. (1) 

^ssoc«<!!e6— James O. Carson, W. W. Paxton; James Ferguson, 
froai first Monday in December, 1866; John Armstrong, from first 
Monday in December, 1867. 

Additional Law Judge— J). W. Rowe, from 18th March. 1868. (2) 

16th district— 1871— franklin, fulton, BEDFORD AND SOMERSET. 

President Ji/d(/e— William M. Hall, of Bedford, from February 
1st, 1871, till 17th April, 1874. (3) 

Additional Law Judge — D. W. Rowe. 

Associates— James Ferguson, John Armstrong ; James D. M'Dow- 
ell, from first Monday in December, 1871 ; David Oaks, from the 
first Monday in December, 1872. 


President Judge— D.yV . Rowe, of Green castle, from 17th April, 1874. 
Associates— 5 ames, D. M'Dowell ; David Oaks, till his death, De- 
cember 2d, 1874. 

(1) Judge King was appointed June 4th, 1864, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Nill. He was elected President Judge, 
October, 1864, and was commissioned December 3d, 1864, for ten 

(2) Judge Rowe was appointed Additional Law Judge, 18th 
March, 1868. He was elected to the same position in October, 1868, 
for ten years from first Monday in December, 1808. Under the con- 
stitution of 1873, Franklin county became a separate judicial district, 
to which Fulton county has been attached, and on the 17th April, 
1874, Hon. D. Watson Rowe, was commissioned President Judge of 
the thirty-ninth district, to hold for the balance of his term as Ad- 
ditional Law Judge, viz. , till the first Momiay of December, 1878. 

(3) Appointed 1st February, 1871, to fill vacancy caused by death of 
Judge King ; nominated and elected October, 1871, for full term of 
ten years. The district having been divided, Bedford and Somerset 
counties were continued as the sixteenth district, and Judge Hall 
continues to preside there. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 



Edward Crawford, Jr., 
Edward Crawford, 
Edward Crawford, 
Edward Crawford, cont 
Edward Crawford, 
Jonn Findlay, 
John Findlay, 
John Shryock, 
John Hershberger, 
John Hershberger, 
John Flanagan, 
John Flanagfin, 
Joseph Minnich, 
Mathias Nead, 
Mathias Nead, 

Mathias Nead, 
Thomas P. Bard, . 
James Wright, , 
Isaac H. M'Cauley, 
Abraham K. Weir, 
Hirara C. Keyser, . 
Abraham D. Caufman, 
K. S. Taylor, . 
William H. M'Dowell, 
George W. Welsh, . 
John A. Hyssong, . 
John A. Hyssong, . 

When Appointed. 
September 10th, 1784 
August I7th, 1791 

nued by proclamation, 




8th, 1800 



27th, 1809 

1st, 1818 

8th, 1821 

14th, 1824 

December 30th, 1826 

January 28th, 1830 

December 24th, 1832 

January 18th, 1836 

January 2d, 1839 

January 29th, 1839 

November 14th, 1839 

November 12th, 1842 

November 17th, 1845 

November 25th, 1848 

November 22d, 1851 

November 14th, 1854 

December 1st, 1857 

December 1st, 1860 

December 1st, 1863 

December 1st, 1866 

December 1st, 1869 

December 1st, 1872 

first Monday of January, 1876 


Edward Crawford, Jr., ..... September 10th, 1784 

Edward Crawford, Jr., ..... September 4th, 1790 

Edward Crawford, continued, . . . December 13th, 1790 

Edward Crawford, January 8th, 1800 

Edward Crawford, continued by proclamation, 1802 

Edward Crawford, " '' " 1805 

John Findlay, January 27th, 1809 

Peter Spyker Dechert, April 1st, 1818 

Joseph Culbertson, . . . . . February 8th, 1821 

172 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


When Appointed. 

John Findlay, Jr., 
John Findlay, Jr., 

January 14th, 1824 
December 30th, 1826 


Paul J. Hetich, 
Paul J Hetich, 
Joseph Pritts, 
Henry Ruby. . 
Henry Ruby, . 

John W. Reges, 
James Watson, 
Benjamin Mentzer, 
David Oaks, 
George H. Merkleln, 
George W. Toms, . 
Edward C. Boyd, . 
Henry Strickler, 
Henry Strickler, 
Hiram T. Snyder, . 
Adolphus A. Skinner, 
Adolphus A. Skinner 




























25 th. 


























1st Monday of Jan 




Edv^^ard Crawford, Jr., September 10th, 1784 

Edward Crawford, Jr., August 17th, 1791 

Edward Crawford, • January 8th, 180fi 

Edward Crawford, continued by proclamation, 1802 

Edward Crawford, " " " 1805 

John Findlay . January 27th, 1809 

John Findlay, April 1st, 1818 

John Shryock, February 8th, 1821 


John Hershberger, 
John Hershberger, 

January 14th, 1824 
December 30th, 1826 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 




Richard Morrow, 
Richard Morrow, 
Joseph Morrow, 
John Wood, . 
John Wood, . 

John Wood, . 
John M. Fislier, 
Josiah W. Fletcher, 
Henry S. Stoner, . 
Henry S. Stoner, . 
B. Y. Hamsher, 
William G. Mitchell, 
William G. Mitchell, 
Thaddeus M. Mahon, 
Bernard A. Cormany, 
Lewis W. Detrich, 
W. Rush Gillan, . 


When Appointed. 
January 28th, 1830 

December 24th 
January 18th 
January 2d 

January 29th 
November 14th 

November 12th 
November 17th 
November 25th 
November 22d 
November 14th 
December 1st 


1st Monday of January 




Jeremiah Talbot, 
Jeremiah Talbot, 
Jeremiah Talbot, 
John Johnston, 
John Johnston, 
John Johnston, 
Heury Work, 
Robert Shannon, 
George Hetich, 
John Hetich, 
John Brotherton, 
Jacob Snider, 
Jacob Merkle, 
W^illiam Alexander, 
Thomas Alexander, 
Jeremiah Snider, 
John Maclay, 
David Washabaugh. 
Archibald Fleming, 

October 20th, 1784, for one year. 
26th, 1785, " 
23d, 1786, " 
23d, 1787, " 
November 8th, 1788, " 
" 5th, 1789, " 

from October, 1790, to October, 1793. 
1793, " 1796. 

1796, " 1799. 

1799, " 1802. 

181(2, " 1805. 

1805, " 1808. 

1808, to Nov. court, 1811. 
Nov. court, 1811, to Nov. court, 1814. 
1814, " " 1817. 

1817, '• " 1820. 

1820, to June, 1823. 
16th June, 1823, to Nov. court, 1823. 
Nov. court, 1823, " " 1826. 


Historical SIcetch of Franklin Count;/. 

Joseph Culbertson, from 
David Washabaugh, " 

Ennion Elliott, '* 

James Burns, " 

George Hoffman, " 

William Gilmore, " 

Adam M'Kinnie, " 

John W. Taylor, " 

Thomas J. Earley, " 

William Skinner, " 

Jacob S. Brown, " 
William M'Grath, 

Samuel Brandt, *' 

John Doebler, " 

J. W. Fletcher, " 

S. F. Greenawalt, " 

John Sweney, " 

Nov. court. 

1826, to Nov. court. 


1S29, " 


1832, " 


1835, " 


1838, " 


1841, " 


1844, to October" 


Oct. court. 

1847, " 



1850, to Nov. " 


Nov. court 

1853, to Oct. 


Oct. court, 

1856, to Nov. 18th, 


Nov. 18th, 

1859, to Oct. 18th, 



1862, to November 



1865, to October, 



1K68, to November 

, 1871. 


1871, t > Jan. 4th, 


January 4ti 

», 1875, to 


John Rea, . - 
John Johnston, 
Conrad Snyder, 
Conrad Snyder, 
George Clark, 
George Clark, 
George Clark, 
Matthew Duncan, . 
Archibald Rankin, 
Archibald Rankin, 
James Campbell, . 
Andrew Robeson, . 
Robert Liggett, 
William Young, 
Thomas M'Kinstry, 
William Young, 
David Washabaugh, 
James Burns, . 
Allen K. Campbell, 
John Tritle, 
James M'Dowell, . 
William Slyder, . 
Alexander Hamilton, 
John M. M'Dowell, 
James Burns, 







November 20th 



















3 796 

































, 1882 



, 1835 



, 1838 



, 1841 



, 1844 




Historical Sketch of Fixmklin County. 



wereappointed by the County Commissioners until the act of 27th May, 

1841, provided for their election, in October of that year, to hold office 
for two years, from the first Monday of January after their election. 

The following is a list of the names of those persons who have 
been Treasurers of this county, with their years of service, 

Dr, George Clingan, ..!.... 1785-1790 

Matthew Wilson, 1790-1793 

John Riddle, . 1793-1796 

Patrick Campbell, . «, 1796-1806 

David Denny, . . . . . . . . . 1806-1809 

Jacob Heyser, 1809-1812 

Henry Reges, , • . 1812-1814 

John Hershberger, ' . . 1814-1817 

Jacob Heyser, 1817-1820 

William Heyser, 1820-1823 

Samuel G. Calhoun, . . . . . . . . 1823-1824 

Dr. John Sloan, 1824-1825 

Hugh Greenfield, . ,- __ 1825-1827 

Williann Hamilton, . . . , . . . . 1827 

Daniel Spangler 1827-1830 

Joseph Pritts, 1830-1832 

Henry Smith, ......... 1832 

Jasper E. Brady, , . 1833-1836 

George Garlin, Jr., . 1836-1839 

Henry Smith, . . * 1839-1842 


Joseph Pritts, . . . 1842-1844 

George K. Harper, 1844-1846 

George Garlin, 1846-1848 

William M' Lei Ian, . . . . • • , . 1848-1850 

Lewis Denig, 1850-1852 

Washington Crooks, 1852-1854 

Daniel K. Wunderlich, 1854-1856 

J. Smith Grier, . . . 1856-1858 

William D. M'Kinstry, 1858-1860 

John StouflTer, ......... 1860-1862 

George J. Balsley, 1862-1864 

James G. Elder, • . 1864-1866 

JohnHassler, 1866-1868 

George W.-Skinner, 1868-1870 

William Reber, 1870-1872 

Samuel Knisely, > . , . 1872-1874 

Hiram M. White, 1874-1876 

Elias K. Lehman, 1876-1878 

J 76 Historical Sketch of Franfdin Counii/. 


1785, James Poe. 

1786, John Work. 

1787, John Beard. 

1788, Bobert Boyd, James M'Connell, William Allison. 

1789, James M'^Connell, William Allison, Josiah Crawford, 

1790, William Allison, Josiah Crawford, Matthew Wilson. 

1791, Matthew Wilson, James Poe, Daniel Rover. 

1792, Matthew Wilson, James Poe, John Work. 

1793, James Poe, Daniel Royer, James Chambers, 

1794, Daniel Royer, James Chambers, George Hetich, 

1795, James Chambers, George Hetich, Heniy Work. 

1796, George Hetich, Henry Work, William Scott. 

1797, Henry Work, William Scott, William Allison. 

1798, William Scott, William Allison, James Irvin, 

1799, William Allison, James Irvin, John Holliday. 

1800, James Irvin, John Holliday, Nathan M'Doweli. 

1801, John Holliday, Robert M'Doweli, David Maclay, 

1802, R. M'Doweli, David Maclay. 

1803, R. M'Doweli, David Maclay, William Rankin. 

1804, R. M'Doweli, David Maclay, Archibald Rankin, Jacob Heyser. 

1805, William M'Clay, Archibald Rankin, Jacob Heyser. 

1806, William M'Clay, Jacob Heyser, Patrick Campbell. 

1807, Jacob Heyser, Patrick Campbell, John Royer. 

1808, Pat Campbell, James Smith, Jacob Dechert. 

1809, Jacob Dechert, John Rothbaust, Robert Crooks. 

1810, John Rothbaust, Robert Crooks, William Alexander. 

1811, John Rothbaust, Robert Crooks, William Alexander. 

1812, David Rankin, John Cox, Ludwig Heck. 

1813, David Rankin, John Cox, Ludwig Heck, 

1814, John Cox, Ludwig Heck, Isaac Eaton. 

1815, Ludwig Heck, James M'Doweli, John M. Maclay. 

1816, James M'Doweli, John M. Maclay, William Bleakney, 

1817, John M, Maclay, William Bleakney, Philip Berlin. 

1818, William Bleakney, Philip Berlin, William Ripi:)ey, Jr. 

1819, Philip Berlin, William Rippey, Jr., David Beshore. 

1820, William Rippey, Jr., David Beshore, Frederick Miller, 

1821, Frederick Miller, David Beshore, Andrew Thomson. 

1822, David Beshore, Frederick Miller, Andrew Thomson. 

1823, Andrew Thomson, James Walker, Jacob Wunderlich, 

1824, Jacob Wunderlich, Philip Laufman, David FuUerton. 

1825, Jacob Wunderlich, Philip Laufman, Benjamin Keyser, 

1826, Philip Laufman, Benjamin Keyser, William Heyser. 

1827, William Heyser, Benjamin Keyser, John Walker, 

1828, William Heyser, John Walker, Daniel Shaffer. 

1829, John Walker, Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh, 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. / 177 

1830, Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh, John Walker. '' 

1831, Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh, Jacob Walter. 

1832, John Radebaugh, Jacob Walter, Samuel Dunn. 
1S33, Samuel Dunn, Joseph Culbertson, John Cox. 
1884, Joseph Culbertson, John Cox, Tobias Funk. 

1835, John Cox, Tobias Funk, George Hoffman. 

1836, Tobias Funk, George Hoffman, George Johnston. 

1837, George Hoffman, John Johnston, John Johnston, (of George). 

1838, John Johnston, John Johnston, (of George), George Hoffman. 

1839, John Johnston, (of George), D. Washabaugh, Emanuel Hade. 

1840, John Johnston, (of George), D. Washabaugh, Emanuel Hade." 

1841, D. Washabaugh, Emanuel Hade, William Seibert. 

1842, Emanuel Hade, William Seibert, Garland Anderson. 

1843, William Seibert, G. Anderson, James Burns. 

1844, G. Anderson, James Burns, Jacob Oyster. 

1845, James Burns, Jacob Oyster, Thomas Pumroy. 

1846, Jacob Oyster, Thomas Pumroy, James Davison. 

1847, Thomas Pumroy, James Davison, George A. Madeira. 

1848, James Davison, George A Madeira, Dewalt Keefer. 

1849, G. A. Madeira, Dewalt Keefer, John A. Shank. 

1850, D. Keefer, John A. Shank, George S. Eyster. 

1851, John A. Shank, George S. Eyster, James Lowe. 

1852, George S. Eyster, James Lowe, John Alexander. 

1853, James Lowe, John Alexander, John Huber. 

1854, John Alexander, John Huber, Jos. Johnston. 

1855, John Huber, Jos. Johnston, Robert M'llvaney. 

1856, Jos. Johnston, Robert M'llvaney, Samuel Myers. 

1857, Robert M'llvaney, Samuel Myers, D. M. Leisher. 

1858, Samuel Myers, D. M. Leisher, John S. Nimmon. 

1859, D. M. Leisher, John S. Nimmon, J. A. Eyster. 

1860, J. S. Nimmon, J. A. Eyster, Jacob S. Good. 

1861, J. A. Eyster, Jacob S. Good, James D. Scott. 

1862, Jacob S. Good, James D. Scott, John Nitterhouse. 

1863, James D. Scott, John Nitterhouse, John Downey. 

1864, John Nitterhouse, John Downey, Henry Good. 

1865, John Downey, Henry Good, John Armstrong. 

1866, Henry Good, John Armstrong, Daniel Skinner. 

1867, John Armstrong, Daniel Skinner, Jonas C. Palmer. 

1868, Daniel Skinner, J. C. Palmer, William Shinafield. 

1869, J. C. Palmer, William Shinafield, E. K. Lehman. 

1870, William Shinafield, E. K. Lehman, J. B. Brumbaugh. 

1871, E. K. Lehman, J. B. Brumbaugh, S. M. Worley. 

1872, J. B. Brumbaugh, S. M. Worley, R. J. Boyd. 

1873, S. M. Worley, R. J. Boyd, Jacob Kauffman. 

1874, R. J. Boyd, Jacob Kauffman, W. D. Guthrie. 

1875, Jacob Kauffman, W. D. Guthrie, Samuel Coble. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Count >/. 

1876, Daniel Gelwix, James Patton, J. Watson Craig. 

Note.— James Poe, Joli 
during the years 1785, 1781) 

Robert Boyd, 
James Parks, 
William Scott, 
William Orbison, 
William Ward, Jr., 
Thomas G. M'Culloh, 
J. M. Russell, 
E. B. Mendenhall, 
Henry Reges, 
William M. M'Bowell 
Peter S. Deckhert, 
Daniel Spangler, 
Hiram Cox, . 
John Colhoun, 
Richard Morrow, 
Henry Smith, 
James R. Kirby, . 
I. H. M'Cauley, . 
A. H. M'Culloh, . 
John M. Fisher, . 
Thomas L. Fletcher, 
Jacob Sellers, 
William Gelwicks, 
Jacob Sellers, 
Samuel Longenecker, 
George Foreman, 
H. C. Koontz, 
H. C. Keyser, 
H. S. Shade, 
H. C. Keyser, 
Thomas M. Nelson, 

Work and John IJeard served as Commissioners 
nd 1787. 




































1785-1788, Unknown. 

1788, James Johnston, Benjamin Chambers, James Irwin. 

1789-1793, Unknown. 

1793-1794, Benjamin Chambers, James Irwin, John Rea. 

1794-1798, Unknown. 

1798-1800, James Ramsey, John Brown. 

1800-1801, John Brown, James Buchanan. 

Mk|j, j jiSaLJ^ 















































Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 179 

James Buchanan, Nicholas Clopper. 

Nicholas Clopper, George Hetich. 

George Hetich, William Scott. 

Nicholas Clopper, William Scott, Robert Smith. 

William Scott, Robert Smith, Thomas Brown. 

Robert Smith, Thomas Brown, John Gilmor. 

Thomas Brown, John Gilmor, John Holliday. 

John Gilmor, John Holliday, David Rankin. 

D. Fullerton, David Maclay, Henry Thompson. 

Henry Thompson, David Fullerton, D. Maclay. 

Henry Thompson, Robert Robison, Joseph Scott. 

Robert Robison, Josepli Scott. 

Patrick Campbell, David Eby, William Scott. 

David Eby, Andrew Robison, William Alexander. 

William Alexander, Sr., Andrew Robison, John Walker. 

John Walker, John Culbertson. 

John Walker, John Culbertson, James M'Coy. 

John Culbertson, James M'Coy, John Flanagan. 

James M'Coy, John Flanagan, Thomas M'Clelland. 

John Flanagan, George Hetich. 

Thomas M'Clelland, George Hetich, Thomas Waddell. 

George Hetich, Joseph Grubb. 

Thomas Waddell, Joseph Grubb, William Gamble. 

Joseph Grubb, William Gamble, Thomas Carson. 

William Gamble, Thomas Carson, John Walker. 

Thomas Carson, John Walker, Isaac Ward. 

John Walker, Jacob Negley, John Findlay, Sr. 

Isaac Ward, Jacob Negley, John M'Clintock. 

Jacob Negley. Archibald S. M'Cune. 

Archibald S. M'Cune, J. Allison. 

.1. Allison, James Colhouu. 

Jacob Heyser, Joseph Pumroy. 

Jacob Heyser, Joseph Pumroy, John M'Clintock. 

Joseph Pumroy, John M'Clintock, John Witherow. 

Jolm M'Clintock, John Witherow, Jacob Negley. 

John Witherow, Jacob Negley. 

Jacob Negley, William Fleming, David Lytel. 

William Fleming, David Lytle, John Orr. 

David Lytle, John Orr, J. B. Guthrie. 

John Orr, J. B. Guthrie, John Deardorff. 

J. B. Guthrie, John D. Work, John Deardorff. 

John Deardorff", John D. Work, Robert Wallace. 

Samuel Lehman, Robert Wallace, John Tritle. 

Robert Wallace, John Tritle. 

John Tritle, Jolan Johnston, Abram StoufFer. 

John Johnston, Abram Stouffer, Joseph Snively. 



Historical Sketch of Franklin Counti/. 

Abram Stouffer, Joseph Snively, Thomas Carson. 
Joseph tSnively, Thomas Carson, B. A. Doyle. 
Thomas Carson, B. A. Doyle, George W. Zeigler. 

B. A. Doyle, George W. Zeigler, James L. Black. 
G. W. Zeigler, James L. Black, W. A. Shields. 
William A. Shields, William Armstrong, David Spencer. 
William Armstrong, David Spencer, W. S. Amberson. 
D. Spencer, W. S. Amberson, John Bowman. 

W. S. Amberson, John Bowman, C. W. Biirkholder. 
John Bowman, C. W. Burkholder, D. H. M'Pherson. 

C. W. Burkholder, D. H. M'Pherson. William Fleagle. 

D. H. M'Pherson, William Fleagle. J. R. Brewster. 
William Fleagle, Andrew Davison, John Downey. 
John Downey, Andrew Davison, George Jarrett. 
John Downey, George Jarrett, D. K. Wunderlich. 
George Jarrett, D. K. Wunderlich. 

D. K. Wunderlich, D. B. Martin, W. S. Amberson. 
D. B. Martin, W. S. Amberson, M. Martin. 
W. S. Amberson, D B. Martin, Samuel W. Nevin. 
M. Martin, Samuel Nevin, Samuel Myers. 
Samuel W. Nevin, Samuel Myers, Joseph Mowers. 
Samuel W. Nevin, Samuel Myers, Joseph Mowers. 
Samuel Myers, Joseph Mowers, J. W. Winger. 
Joseph Mowers, J. W. Winger, John C. Trille. 
J. W. Winger, John C. Tritle, John A. Sellers. 
John A. Sellers, John Cressler, Samuel Taylor. 
John A. Sellers, John Cressler, H. R. Harnish. 
J. Cressler, H. R. Harnish, Samuel Taylor. 
Samuel Taylor, W. H. Blair, William M. Gillau. 


The act of assembly for the erection of the "house for the em- 
ployment and support of the poor" of our county was approved by 
the Governor, March 11th, 1807. The second section of the act i^ro 
vided that at the election to be held in October, 1807, five persons 
should be elected "to determine upon and fix the place on which the 
buildings should be erected," and also that there should be elected 
"three persons to be Directors of the Poor," one to serve for one 
year, one for two years, and one for three years, their terms to be 
determined by lot. 

William Allison, David FuIIerton, John Colhoun, Colonel Joseph 
Culbertson and John Maclay, were elected the Commissioners to fix 
the site for the Poor House ; and Robert Liggett, James Robinson 
and Ludwig Heck were elected Directors of the Poor. 

The Commissioners selected the farm of Thomas Lindsay (the 


Stock Farm & Res. of COL.Wm. D. DIKQ] 

NI.St TunMi.c Tp Ffnuifiiu r.n Pi / p n vnunuAc 1 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 181 

site of the present Poor House) as the place where the Poor House 
should be placed ; and in the year 1808 the directors purchased it for 
the sum of eight thousand two hundred dollars. The farm then 
contained one hundred and sixty-five acres, and had a stone farm 
house, barn, &c., upon it. This house was somewhat enlarged, and 
used until the year 1811, when the large stone building now standing 
was put up. 

In the years 1853-'54, the large brick house was erected at a cost of 
about twelve thousand dollars. The farm now contains about two 
hundred and ten acres. 

The following lists contain the names of the Directors of the 
Poor, their stewards, treasurers, attorneys, clerks and physicians, 
from the year 1807 to the present time, so far as they could be ascer- 

18 i 2 


James Robinson, Robert Liggett, Ludwig Heck. 
Robert Liggett, Ludwig Heck, Henry Etter. 
Ludwig Heck, Henry Etter, Isaac Eaton. 
Henry Etter, Isaac Eaton, Samuel Radebaugh. 
Isaac Eaton, Samuel Radebaugh. 
Samuel Radebaugh, Matthew Lind. 
, Matthew Lind, John Vance. 

Matthew Lind, John Vance, Philip Berlin. 
John Vance, Philip Berlin, John Snider. 
Philip Berlin, John Snider, John Rudicile. 
John Snider, John Rudicile, Matthew Patton. 
John Rudicile, Matthew Patton, D. Washabaugh. 
Matthew Patton, D. Washabaugh, J. Stouffer. 
D. Washabaugh, J. Stouffer, William M'Kisson. 
J. Stouffer, William M'Kisson, John Snider. 
William M'Kisson, John Snider, Thomas Yeates. 
John Snider, Thomas Yeates, Jacob Heck. 
Thomas eates, Jacob Heck, A. Thompson. 
Jacob Heck, A. Thompson, John Davison. 
A. Thompson, John Davison, Thomas Yeates. 
John Davison, Thomas Yeates, John Vance. 
Thomas Yeates, John Vance, John Coble. 
John Vance, John Coble, Samuel Dechart. 
John Coble, Samuel Dechart, Nicholas Baker. 
Samuel Dechart, Nicholas Baker, James Davison. 
Nicholas Baker, James Davison, John Radebaugh. 
James Davison, John Radebaugh, John Orr. 
John Radebaugh, John Orr, Jacob Oyster. 

1836, JoLn Orr, Jacob Oyster, John Whitmore. 

1837, Jacob Oyster, John Whitmore, William Linn. 

1S2 Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/. 


John Whitmore, William Linn, Samuel Campbell. 

William Linn, Samuel Campbell, Philip Nitterhouse. 

Samuel Campbell, Philip Nitterhouse, James Davison, 

Philip Nitterhouse, James Davison, Matthew Patton. 

James Davison, Matthew Patton, Upton Washabaugh. 

Matthew Patton, Upton Washabaujih, John Monn, Jr. 

Upton Washabaugli, John Monn, Jr., Samuel Lehman, 

John Monn, Jr., Samuel Lehman, John L. Detwiler. 

Samuel Lehman, John L. Detwiler, Daniel Bonebrake. 

John L. Detwiler, Daniel Bonebrake, Fred. Boyer. 

Daniel Bonebrake, Fred. Boyer, John Wise. 

Fred. Boyer, John Wise, David Hays. 

John Wise, David Hays, S. Detwiler. 

David Hays, S. Detwiler, Jacob Garver. 

Samuel Lehman, Jacob Garver, Martin Newcomer, 

Jacob Garver, Martin Newcomer, D. O. Gehr. 

Martin Newcomer, D. O. Gehr, James Furguson. 

D. O. Gehr, James Furguson, Josiah Besore. 

James Furguson, Josiah Besore, Jacob Weaver. 

Josiah Besore, Jacob Weaver, M. Gillan. 

Jacob Weaver, M. Gillan, Jacob Strickler. 

M. Gillan, Jacob Strickler, David Spencer. 

Jacob, Strickler, David Spencer, J. S. Latshaw. 

David Spencer, J. S. Latshaw, William Harris. 

J. S. Latshaw, William Harris, Samuel Seacrist. 

William Harris, Samuel Seacrist, John Doebler. 

Samuel Seacrist, John Doebler, John H. Criswell. 

John H. Criswell, John H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman, 

John H. Criswell, John H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman. 

James H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman, John Gillan, Jr. 

Martin Heintzelman, John Gillan, Jr., J. R. Smith. 

Martin Heintzelman, John Gillan, Jr., J. R. Smith, 

John Gillan, John Smith, Fred. Long. 

J. R. Smith, Fred. Long, Peter M'Ferren. 

Fred. Long, Peter M'Ferren, David Deatrick. 

Peter M'Ferren, David Deatrick, Jacob Kreider. 

David Deatrick, Jacob Kreider, Amos Stouffer. 

Jacob Kreider, Amos Stouffer, William Bossart. 

Amos Stouffer, William Bossart, Henry Lutz. 

William Bossart, Henry Lutz, B. F. Funk. 


Daniel Shroeder, 1808-1814 

Benjamin Gruver, . . 1814-1821 

Richard Morrow 1821-1827 

FFisforical Sketch of Fy-anklin County. 183 

Philip LauffQian, 1S27-1S30 

Andrew M'Lellan, . . 1880-1833 

Col. John Snider, . . 1833-1839 

David Fegley, 1839 

William J. Morrow, 184(M843 

Emanuel Crosland, 1843-1845 

Samuel Jeffries, 1845-1854 

David Piper, 1854-1856 

William Shinafield, 1856-1859 

John Bowman . . . 1859 

James Chariton, . . . • 1860-1864 

William M'Grath, 1864-1866 

John Ditzlear, 1866-1868 

David Piper, 1868 

Samuel Brandt . . 1869-1873 

Joseph Middower, 1873-1877 


David Denny, . '. . __ 1808-1814 

Unknown, . , 1814-1821 

William Heyser, 1821-1823 

John Sloan, . 1828 

Hugh Greenfield, 1824-1827 

Daniel Spangler, 1827-1830 

Joseph Pritts 1830-1832 

Henry Smith, 1832-1835 

Jasper E. Brady, . . 1835 

William Bard, . . . " 1836-1838 

Henry Ruby, . 1838 

Daniel Dechert, . . . 1839-1843 

William Flory, 1848-1845 

Daniel S. Fahnestoek, 1845-1848 

James Wright, 1848 

D. S. Fahnestoek, 1849-1856 

J. Smith Grier, I 1856-1858 

John W. Reed, . . . 1858-1861 

Charles Gelwieks, 1861-1869 

Alex. Martin, 1869-1872 

Thomas Metcalfe, I872 

H. B. Davison, ......... 1878-1876 


Elijah B. Mendenhall, 1808-1814 

F. Hershberger, . . 1814 

Matthew Lind, 1815 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Conntij. 

D. C. Dehart, 
James M'Kay, 
Henry Reges, 
Daniel Spangler. 
Richard Morrow, 
Hiram Cox, 
William S. Davis 
John Colhoun, 
James R. Kirby, 
John Smith, 
John W. Reges. 
Richard Morrow, 
Jacob Heck, 
Hugh B. Davison 
Charles W. Heart 
John W. Reges, 

Lyman S. Clarke, 
J. Wyeth Douglas, 
Suively Strickler, 
William S., Everett, 
E. J. Bonebrake, 
John R. Orr, 
James A. M'Knight, 
Frank MehafFey, 











Abraham Senseny, . . ... . . . 1808 

John Sloan, 1809-1814 

Andrew M'Dowell, 1815-1818 

George B. M'Knight, 1819-1820 

A. J. Dean, 1821-1823 

Samuel D. Culbertson, . 1824-1826 

Peter Fahnestock, 1827 

N. B. Lane 1828 

Andrew M'Dowell, 1829-1830 

Jeremiah Senseny, 1831-1832 

D. S. Byrne, . . . . . . . ' . ■ . 1833 

J. Bain, 1834-1835 

A. H. Senseny, 1836-1837 

John Lambert, 1838 

J. Evans, .- . . 1839-1841 

J. C. Richards, 1842-1843 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

William H. Boyle, 

John Lambert, .... 

N. B. Lane 

John King, .... 

John Lambert, .... 

A. H. Senseny, .... 

S. G. Lane, .... 

A. H. Senseny, . , 

W. H. Boyle, .... 

S. G. Lane, .... 

James Hamilton, 

J. L. Suesserott, . 

J. C. Richards, .... 

C. L. Bard and T. J. M'Lanahan, 

W. H. Boyle, .... 

T. J. M'Lanahan, 

S. G. Lane, .... 


Augustus Bickley, 

1844 ' 
1845- ,47 
. 1848-1849 




Elected 1873. 



Zachariah Butcher, Lancaster county, . . . . 1736 

Thomas Cookson, " .... 1743-1746 

Colonel John Armstrong, Cumberland county, . . 1750 

Matthew Henderson, of Cumberland county, to . . 1784, 

Matthew Henderson, of Lurgan township, . . . 1784-1796 

Daniel Henderson, . . . . . . . . 1796-1804 

Thomas Kirby, Chambersburg, 1804-1809 

Thomas Poe, Antrim, . 1809-1813 

Archibald Fleming, Antrim, 1813-1821 

William S. Davis, 1821-1824 

William Hamilton, Peters or Montgomery, . . . 1824-1829 

William S. Davis, Chambersburg, 1830-1834 

Seth Kline, Greene, . . ■ 1834-1836 

William S. Davis, Chambersburg, 1836-1837 

Samuel M. Armstrong, . 1837-1839 

Hugh Auld, Chambersburg, 1839-1845 

Augustus F. Armstrong, Chambersburg, . . . 1845-1847 

Hugh Auld, Chambersburg, 1847-1850 


By the act of 9th April, 1850, County Surveyors, were directed to be 

elected to serve for the term of three years each. The following 
persons have filled the office : 

186 Historical Sketch of Franldin County. 

Emanuel Kuhn, St. Thomas, lSoO-1856 

John B. Kaufman, Letterkenny, 1856-1862 

Emanuel Kuhn, Chambersburg, (1) .... 1862-1871 

John B. Kaufman, Letterkenny, 1871-1875 

John W. Kuhn, • . . 1875 

(1) Resigned April, 1871, and John B. Kaufman was appointed for 
the unexpired term. Mr. Kaufman wjis also elected for the full term 
in October, 1871. 


Prior to the passage of the act of 1850, providing for the election of 
District Attorneys, the "State's Attorney" or "Prosecuting Attor- 
neys" were the "Deputies" of the Attorney General for the time 
being, appointed by him, and removable at his pleasure. Our court 
records prior to 1842 having been burned, I have not been able to 
make more than a partial list of our former Piosecuting Attorneys, 
as follows: 

John Clark 1789-1790 

William M. Brown, . 1790-1802 

William Maxwell, Gettysburg, 1802-1812 

William M. M'Dowell, 1813 

Matthew St. Clair Clarke, 1819 

Frederick Smith, 1824 

Wilson Reilly, 1842-1845 

William R. Rankin, '. 1845-1847 

George W. Brewer, 1847-1849 

Hugh W. Reynolds, . . . .' , . . . . 1849-1851 


Elected under fhe act of 3d of May, 1850, to serve for three years, 
from first Monday of November after election. 

James S. Ross, 1851-1854 

Thomas B. Kennedy, ) io,,i icr- 

T o /^i 1 (•••.••■• 1854-180/ 
Lyman S. Clarke, J 

Lyman S. Clarke, 1857-1860 

George Eyster, . . . . . . . . ■. 1860-1863 

William S. Stenger, 1863-1866 

William S. Stenger ' . 1866-1869 

William S. Stenger, ■ . . . 1869-1872 

Theodore M'Gowan, 1872-1875 

Oliver C. Bowers, 1875 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County, 



Elected under the act of 10th April, 1867, to serve for three years. 
1867-1870, Addison Imbrie, William Boyd. 
1870-1873, W. H. H. Mackey, Elias Patton. 
1873-1S76, John Gilbert, A. H. Etter. 
1876-1879, J. C. M'Culloh, Lewis Lechron. 


Selected under act of 8th May, 1854 
1854-1857, James M'Dowell, 

Hugh J. Campbell, 
1857-1860, Philip M. Shoemaker, 
1860-1863, Philip M. Shoemaker, 
1863-1866, Andrew J. M'Elwain, 
1866-1869, Philip M. Shoemaker, 
1869-1872, Samuel Gelwix, 
1872-1875, Jacob S. Smith, 
1875-1878, S. H. Eby, \^ . 

to serve for three years. 

iry, $600 per year. 







Thomas Creigh, D. D., 
J. Agnew Crawford, D. 
John C. Caldwell, 
R. Lewis M'Cune, 

J. Smith Gordon, 

Samuel C. Alexander, 

Samuel C. George, 

David K. Richardson, 
Joseph H. Fleming, 


D., Chambersburg, 



Dry Run, 


Greencastle, - 
Welsh Run, 

Falling Spring. 
Central Church. 
Lower Path Valley 
, and Burnt Cabins.' 
Upper Path Valley. 

St. Thomas andRockj' 
. Spring. 


Welsh Run. 

A. Stewart Hartman, 

R. H. Clare, 

A. Hamilton Shertz, 
F. Klinefelter, 
P. Bergstresser, . 
D. Black welder, . 



Upper Strasburg, 

r First Church, Cham 
\ bersburg. 

I Second Church Cham- 
l bersburg, (German). 

Grindstone Hill. 



Upper Strasburg. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

N. J. Hesson, 
B. F. Allemau, 
H. B. Wintou, 
Hiram Knodle, 

William C. Cremer, 
H. I. Comfort, 
Carl Gundlach, 
H. H. W. Hibshman, 
J. G. Brown, 
E. E. Higbee, D. D., 
John H. Sykes, . 
Jacob Hassler, 

Isaac M. Hotter, 

William J. Stewart, 

Clearspring, Md., 










St. Thomas, 



Grindstone Hill. 

St. John's, (German). 



College Church. 


/Waynesboro & Mont 
I Al"to. 

St. Thomas. 


B. B. Hamlin, Presiding Elder, 
W. G. Ferguson, . Chambersburg, 

M. L. Smith, 

J. H. M'Cord, . 
H. C. Cheston, 
T. M. Griffith, 
E. W. Wonner. 
W. Moses, 
A. R. Bender, 






Mont Alto, 


r First Church, Cham- 
\ bersburg. 
f King Street Church, 
\ Chambersburg. 






Mont Alto. 

H. A. Schlichter, 
W. A. Dickson, 
W. B. Evers, 
W. H. Shearer, 
D. W. Proffitt, 
S. T. Wallace, 
William Quigly, 

H. Stouffer, Sr., 
W. Humberger, 
Augustus Bigley, 
J. Fohl, 
J. M. Bishop, 
W. H. Rebok, 


Chambersburg, Chambersburg. 

Spring Run, 




Spring Run. 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County.. 


H. C Swentzel, . . Chambersburg, Chambersburg. 



T. J. Fleming, Pastor, Chambersburg, 
Joseph Kalin, assistant, " 

J. M. Carveli, 

John Hunsecker, 

John O. Lehman, 
Peter Wadle, 
Philip Parret, 
Benjamin Lesher, 

Samuel Stoner, . 
Jacob S. Lehman, 

Henry Strickler, 
Jacob Frantz, 
Martin Hoover, . 
John Bouebrake, 

Joseph Wenger, 
Henry Lesher, 
Samuel Zook, 
Aaron Wenger, 

John Burkhart, 
Johu Bert, 
Noah Zook, 
Martin Oberholtzer, 
Michael Wenger, 
Peter Bert, 
William Tanner, 
Christian Stoner, 
Jacob Lesher, 






Chambersburg, Orrs- 
town & Fayetteville. 

Letterkenny township. 

Letterkenny township. 

Greene " 

11 11 

near Mercersburg. 



Guilford township. 

Montgomery township. 

Washington " 


















Historical Sketch of Pra 

Abraham Lesher, 
Isaac Shank, 
L. C. Wenger, 
Noah Myers, 
George Wenger, 
John Sollenberger, 
Eli Martin, 
Benjamin Myers, 

•iklin County, 



Guilford township. 



Joseph Gipe, Guilford township. 

David Buck, Quincy " 

Henry Kontz, . • Antrim " 

John Shank, " " 

Jacob Price, Washington " 


Adam Pile, St. Thomas township. 

Abraham Pile, ■ '' " 

John Lenard, ....... " " 

Daniel Miller, , Peters " 

Daniel Miller, Hamilton " 

David Bonebrake, Quincy " 

Jonathan Baker, Antrim " 

Christian Eoyer, " " 

Benjamin StoufFer, . • . . . Guilford " 

Jacob Oyler, Waynesboro. 

Jacob Snider, " 

Daniel Good, ,..,,. Washington township. 

Daniel Baker, " " 

Henry Etter Greene " 


John Riddlesberger, 
John Walk, 




The fact that an effort was made, years ago, under the leadership 
of Sidney Rigdon, one of the first Presidents of the Mormon Church, 
to build their promised new "City of Zion " within the borders of 
our county, has passed away from the recollection of most of our 
people. And yet such was the fact. Joseijh Smith, the founder of 
Mormonism, and Sidney Rigdon were intimate acquaintances for a 
considerable time before Mormonism was first heard of. Together 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 191 

they planned the great imposture which they subsequently brought 
into life as the " Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints." 
It was started at Manchester, New York, in April, 1830. In Janu- 
ary, 1831, Smith, who claimed to be the " Prophet of the Lord," led 
his followers to Kirtland, Ohio, which he then said was to be the 
seat of the City of the New Jerusalem. There they remained until 
January, 1838, organizing the church, appointing presidents, bishops 
and apostles, and sending out missionaries to all the ends of the 
earth. They built a large and costly temple, which it took them 
three years to erect. There they had a bank, run by Smith and 
Eigdon, which failed disastrously for its noteholders and depositors, 
and Smith and Rigdon fled to Missouri to avoid arrest. Their de- 
luded followers went after them, being called so to do by a new rev- 
elation from Smith, as prophet. They were soon driven out of 
Missouri, Smith and Rigdon having been tarred and feathered by 
the indignant Missourians, and came back to Commerce, Carthage 
county, Illinois, in 1840, where they founded the city of Nauvoo, 
and built a magnificent temple. There, in July, 1843, Smith pro- 
mulgated the revelation in relation to polygamy, making a plu- 
rality of wives one of the doctrines of the new church. It was not 
well received by many of his co-workers. Dissensions arose; the 
church split into factions; anarchy and lawlessness were wide 
spread. The people of the State of Illinois arose in arms against 
the doctrines and crimes of those who had thus come amongst them 
as fugitives from the neighboring State of Missouri. Smith and his 
brother Hyrura, and some sixteen others, were arrested and impris- 
oned at Carthage, the county seat, where, on the evening of the 
27th of June, 1844, Joseph and Hyrum Smith were killed by an 
armed mob. The death of their prophet caused much temporary 
confusion among the saints. Sidney Rigdon aspired to succeed him 
as head of the church, bu^Brigham Young was chosen first presi- 
dent, and Rigdon, being contumaceous, was cut off" from the com- 
munion of the faithful, cursed, and solemnly delivered over to the 
Devil, " to be buffeted in the flesh for a thousand years." fti a short 
time Rigdon, who had a considerable number of followers, seceded 
and came eastward to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where they estab- 
lished a paper through which to spread their doctrines. But public 
sentiment being against them, they resolved to remove to a more 
quiet neighborhood. * 

In September, 1845, the city of Nauvoo was cannonaded for three 
days by the forces of the State of Illinois, its inhabitants driven out 
at the point of the bayonet, and the city, with its magnificent tem- 
ple and public buildings, wholly destroyed. About the same time two 
of Rigdon's emissaries came through the southern part of our county, 
on the turnpike leading from Mercersburg to Greencastle. Stopping 
upon the bridge spanning the Conococheague creek, about a mile 

192 Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

and a quarter west of Greencastle, they looked over the farm of 
Andrew G. M'Lanahan, Esq., wliich lay spread out just north of 
'them, and said that " there was the place the Lord had shown them 
in visions was to be the site of the City of the New Jerusalem." In 
a short time afterwards Mr. Peter Boyer, a wealthy farmer of 
Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, came on and contracted with Mr. 
M'Lanahan for his farm of four hundred acres, at the price of four- 
teen thousand seven hundred dollars. Six hundred dollars were 
paid in cash, and on the 3d of April, 1846, Mr. M'Lanahan received 
five thousand four hundred dollars additional, gave a deed and took 
a judgment tor the balance of the purchase money — eight thousand 
seven hundred dollars — payable April 1st, 1847. The purchaser at 
once took possession, and in a short time Sidney Rigdon, Elders 
Hyde and Heber, Judge Richards, William E. M'Lellan, Hatch, 
Hinkle, Zody, Grimes, Ringer and others joined them. The 
band numbered from one to two hundred all told. The most 
of them went upon the farm, where they said that they intended to 
lay out a great city, build a magnificent temple and other needed 
public edifices. Quite a number of them located in the town of 
Greencastle, where they established a weekly newspaper, called the 
" Conococheague Herald," under the editorship of Mr. E. Robinson, 
the church printer. Among them were professional men, mechan- 
ics and farmers, and one or two who had been heavy capitalists in 
Pittsburg when they joined the band, but their riches had been 
squandered subsequently. Sidney Rigdon was their Prophet and 
High Priest. Every Sunday they held services in the barn on the 
farm, Rigdon generally doing the preaching; occasionally one of 
the elders held forth. Their meetings were largely attended by the 
people of the neighborhood, more from curiosity to hear what would 
be said than from any similarity of thought or feeling with them. 
They made few converts amongst our people — not, perhaps, over 
half a dozen in the whole county. They talked largely about what 
they intended to do — about laying out avenues and streets, building 
glass works, cotton mills, &c. But most of them lived in idleness 
the while, and all their plans soon came to naught. Their money 
yfas, soon spent; death swung his scythe amongst them and cut 
down quite a number of them ; others became discouraged and left ; 
they could not meet their indebtedness due to Mr. M'Lanahan on 
the 1st of April, 1847, and the farm was sold at sheriff's sale and 
bought in by Mr. M'Lanahan, in August of that year, who again 
obtained possession of it in November following. After this death- 
blow to their hopes and prospects all discipline and organization 
were at an end, and the band dissolved. A majority of them went 
to Salt Lake, whilst others joined the Gentiles and started life anew. 
In the pines, on the farm, a number of them lie buried, and the 
spot is known as the "Mormon Grave-yard." 

Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


Brigham Young died at Salt Lake City, August 29tli, 1877, aged 
sev'^enty-six years. It is thought by many that Mormonism will 
not long survive this event ; that there is no person among his fol- 
lowers who will be able to keep them together as he did ; that divi- 
sions and heart burnings will inevitably arise, no difference upon 
whose shoulders his mantle may descend, and that disintegration 
and dissolution must speedily follow. An historian cannot foretell 
the future. It is his province to speak of the ^ja>f, and Time alone 
will show what is to become of this great imposture of the nine- 
teenth century. 


James K. Davidson, 
William Grubb, 
Adam Carl, 
A. A. Miller, 

D. Bench Miller, 
Thomas M. Kennedy 
George Carl, 

A. S. Bonebrake, 

E. A. Hering, 
Isaac N Snively, 
Benjamin Frantz, 
J. Burns Amberson, 
John Ripple, 

A. H. Strifckler, 
G. W. B-teler, 
Ezekiel Hartzell, 
Henry K. Byers, 
William C. Lane, 
Robert 8. Browuson, 
Eliab Negley, 
D. F. Unger, 
Thomas H. Walker, 
Frank Oellig, 
John S. Flickinger, 
M. G. Alexander, 
John M. Van Tries, 
Robert W. Ramsey, 
George R. Caufman, 
Charles H. Garver, 
J. C. Gilland, . 
H. X. Bonbrake, 
Hiram Buhrman, 
Charles T. Maclay, 







St. Thomas. 


Caufraan's Station. 
New Franklin. 
Mont Alto. 
Green village. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Count)/. 

David Maclay, , 
T. B. Ufifsnider, 
William A. Hunter, . 
James M. Gelwix, 
Henry G. Cliritzman, 
William P. Noble, . 
Joseph H. M'Clintic, 
William A. Hiiichman, 
J. B. M'Donahl, 
Samuel B. Ickes, 
John H. Flickinger, . 
W. O. Skinner, , 
D. F. Royer, . . 
M. M. Gerry, 
John Montgomery, . 

A. H. Senseny, . 

B. Rusl) Senseny, 
Edgar N. Senseny, 
Jacob L. Suesserott, , 
Samuel G. Lane, 
William H. Boyle, . 

T. Johnston AI'Lanahan, 
John Seibert, 
S. F. Reynolds, (Eclectic) 
B. Bowman, (Homeoi)ath 
I. Y. Reed, " 

J. F. Nowell. 



Upper Strasburg. 

Welsh Run. 



Dry Run. 

Shady Grove. 





John Clark, . 
Robert Magaw, 
Thomas Hartley, . 
James Hamilton, . 
Thomas Duncan, . 
Thomas Smitti, 
Ross Thompson, . 
Ralph Bowie, 
James Ross, 
James Riddle, 
Stephf-n Chambers, 
John M. M'Dowell 
Andrew Dunlop, . 
William Bradford, Jr., 
James Carson, 
James Smith, 

admitted September term, 1784 
" December term, 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


Jasper Yeates, 
Samuel Riddle, 
David Watts, 
James Orbison, 
M'Steel Sample, 
*Thomas Hartley, 
*Thomas Duncan, 
*James Riddle, 
Andrew Dunlop, 
William M. Brown 
John Smith, 
*Samuel Riddle, 
George Smith, 
*John Clark, 
Richard Smith, 
James Duncan, 
John Cadwallader, 
George Armstrong, 
William Claggvtt, 
Jonathan Henderson, 
William Barber, . 
James Crawford, . 
Parker Campbell, . 
William Clark, . 
Paul Morrow, 
James Brotherton, 
Samuel Hughes, . 
Thomas Baily, 
Joseph Shannon, . 
George Jennings, , 
William Reynolds, 
John F. Jack, 
Josej)h Paiks, 
Robert Hasel hirst, 
James Kelly, 
S. W. Culbertson, . 
Robert Ha.ys, 
Wdliam Orbison, . 
William Maxwell, 
Jonathan Haight, 
James Daubins, •. 
William L. Kelly, (froa 
William Ross. 

admitted March ter 
" December ' 

" March ' 

m, 1 




New Jersey) 


















* Those gentlemen marked thus were re-sworn after the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1790. 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Alex. Lyon, . 
Otho Shroder, 
John T. .StuU, (from M 
Josiah Espy, 
James Carson, 
Thomas G. M'Culloh, 
Andrew Bo*;:gs, 
Samuel Leeper, 
David Snively, 
Upton Lawrence, .' 
George Chambers, 
Thomas H. Crawford, 
James M. Russell, 
John M'Con nelly, 
Andrew Caruthers, 
Elijah Mendenhall, 
William L. Brent, 
Wilson Elliott, 
Charles B Ross, . 
George Ross, . 
Daniel Hughes, 
George Metzger, 
Alexander Mahon, 
M. St. Clair Clarke, 
Richard W. Lane, 
John Larkel, 
James Buchanan, 
William Irwin, 
John Johnson, 
William S. Finley, 
James Dun lop, . * 
Paul I. Hetich, 
Samuel Liggett, 
James M'Dowell, . 
William Chambers, 
Frederick Smith, . 
Burr Harrison, 
Samuel Ramsay, . 
Hugh Torrence, 
Samuel Alexander, 
James Riddle, 
Robert ^L M'Dowell, 
John F. Denny, 
Joseph Chambers, 
EbeUitier S. Finley, 
John Williamson, 


admitted April 

term, 1803 


" 8th. " 

" term, " 

January 12th, 1807 

November 9th, " 
10th, " 




admitted August term, 
October " 



January term, 















April term, 



August term, 

August 24th, 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Archibald I. Findlay, . • . admitted April 21st, 

George Augustus Shryock, . . admitted August term, 

Jacob Madeira, admitted, 

Richard Bard, 

John A. Sterrett, 

Andrew Davison, • • • • 

Wiliiam Miller, Jr., ,...••• 

Thomas Chambers, 

David R. Denny, • • 

John S. Riddle, 

Reade Washington, . . . admitted August lOth, 

Tliomas Harbison, admitted, 

William S. Buchanan, 

Leonard S. Johns, 

Michael Gallaher, ....... 

Jasper Ewing Brady, . . . admitted August 14th, 
William M. Greer, . . . . . . admitted, 

James M. Reynolds, 

Andrew P. Wilson, 

James X. M'Lanahan, . . . admitted January 11th, 

James H. Hepburn, admitted, 

Jatnes Nill admitted April 8th, 

John M Ginley, adaiitted 

Daniel Denny, . . . . . . . . " 

Joseph Minniek, " 

Robert M'Lelland, , . . ' admitted November 15th, 
Humphrey Robison, • . . . . . admitted, 

Andrew Howlett, " 

Robert M. Bard, .... admitted January 14th, 

A. J. Durboraw, admitted, 

N. C. Snider 

John W. Reges, " 

B. Bordley Crawford, . 

James W. Buchanan, " 

WMlson Reilly admitted April 4th, 

Robert Quigley, admitted, 

C. S. Eyster, " 

James W. M'Kinstry, . ' " 

William C. Aughinbaugh, " 

William M'Lellan, . . . admitted October 2d, 

Joseph Nill, admitted. 

Experience Estabrook, ...... " 

John C. Williamson, " 

William R. Rankin, . " 

Theodore Friend, • '' 

George Chambers, Jr., . " 





















Historical Sketch of Franfdin County. 

juinea C. Moody, . 

Isaac H. M' Cm ley, 

Hugli \V. Reynolds, 

John A. Powell, 

E. Crawford Washington, 

E. i\r. Biddle, 

Frederick Watts, . 

Samuel H. Tate, . 

Alexander H. M'Ciilloh, 

Cyrus G. French, . 

W. V. Davis, 

Edward F. Stewart, 

Alexander F. Thompson, S 

William Baker, 

Hon. James Cooper, 

David F. Eobisoii, 

Jacob H. Heyser, . 

Benjamin Chambers, 

Lewis C. Levin, 
James S. Ross, 

Abner M. Fuller, . 

Louis M. Hughes, 

Alexander Thomson, 
George W. Brewer, 
John M. Ra(Jebaugh, 
Henry A. Mish, 
Robert P. M'Clure, 
John Scott, 
J. Parker Fleming, 
Alfred H. Smith, . 
Victorine N. Firor, 
Washington Crooks, 
Frederick INI. Adnms, 
John C. Culbertson, 
Frederick Smith, . 
John Cessna, 
Edward G. Behm, 
Thomas B. Kennedy, 
J. Randolpli Coffroth, 
Perrj' A. Rice, 
Ljanaii S. Clarke, . 
Henry L. Fisher, . 
Thomas M. Carlisle, 
Thomas B. M'Farland, 



admitted, 1840 
April loth, " 

admitted, " 







tted Ausust loth, 
January 17th, 


April nth, 

November 2d, 


Aujrust 17th, 
January 2oth, 




IRsforical Sketch of Frankliii County. 


John G. Letnon, . 
William Adams, . 
Boliver B. Bonner, 
David R. B. Nevin, 
John Dush, 
J. M'Dowell Sharpe, 
A. R. Corny n, 
William V. Davis, 
Andrew N. Rankin, 
Frederick Watts, . 
Thomas L. Fletcher, 
Columbus F. Bonner, 
James Buoiianan Boggs 
Thomas A. Boyd, . 
George F. Cain, 
Wiilliam J, Baer, . 
James P. M'Clintock, 
J. W. Douglas, 
William Carlisle, . 
Frederick S. Stumbaugh, 
James Allison, Jr., 
George Eyster, 
Hiram C. Keyser, 
A. J. Cline, 
John Kyle, 
Piiiilp Hamman, . 
F. A. Tritle, . 
Michael B. Doyle, , 
David H. Wiles, . 
A. K. M'Clure, . 
Israel Test, 
James H. Bratten, 
George W. Welsh, 
John Robison, 
George tSchley, 
A. K, Siester, 
H. J. C'ampbell, 
H. B. Cassidy, 
J. C. Kunkel, 
W. H. Miller, 
William S. Everett, 
D. Watson Rowe, 
Charles Sumner, 
J. D. W. Gillelan, 
C. A. M'Guigan, 
J. P. Rhodes, 





















( 1 

















































( ( 













15th, " 
II (I 

26th, " 
29th, " 

9th, 1858 


Historical Sketch of Franklin Count}/. 

John R. Orr, . 
Robert P. M'Kibbin, 
Calvin M. Duncan, 
Snively Strickler, . 
A. 1). Fuiguson, . 
William C. Logan, 
C. M. Barton, 
T. J. Nill, 
John W. Goettman, 
Charles H Taylor, 
Tliomas X. Orr, 
William Kennedy, 
J. A. S. Mitchell, . 
David W. Chambers, 
Henry G. Smith, . 
E. J. Bonebrake, . 
Hiram M. White, , 
George M. Stenger, 
Jonathan C. Dickson, 
T. J. M'Grath, 
Hastings Gehr, 
Leonard C, Piltinos, 
Benjamin K. Goodyear, 

William S Stenger, 

Jeremiah Cook, 

Ross Forvt'ard, 

George A. Smith, . 

John Stewart, 
Samuel Lyon, 

D. W. Thrush, 

Amos Slay maker, , 

George O. Seilhamer, 

William Etter, 

J. Montgomery Irwin, 

William H. Hockenberry, 

Joseph Douglas, 

William M. Mervin, 

John W. Taylor, . 

Jarrett T. Richards, 

K. Shannon Taylor, 

J. Porter Brown, 

Jacob S. Eby, 

S. J. Henderson, 

George Chambers, 

Stephen W. Hays, 

Theodore M'Gowan, 

admittt^d April 

12th, 1 80S 





1 1 











8th, " 

15th, " 

II 11 

2d, " 
20 th, 1S60 
14th, " 











18th, " 
• I i< 

21st, 186 J 
L'2d, " 
23d, " 
24th, " 
12t)i, " 
29th, " 
1st, '• 
2Sth, 1862 
23d, 1863 
18th, " 
2Sth, " 
16th, 1865 
17th, " 

November 7th, 



14th, 1866 

11 II 

22d, 1867 
25th, " 

Historlca.l Sketch of Franklin County, 


Claudius B. M'Kinstry, 
Amos S. Smith, 
Joseph M. M'Clure, 
John S. M'Cune, . 
Wm. M. Peni-ose, 
Adam Keller, 
J. B. Cessna, 

A. D. Merrick, 
F. M. Darby. 
Wm. F. Duffield, 
John D. DeGolly, 
Wm. U. Brewer, 
John A. Hyssong, 
John M. McDowell, 
T. F. Garver, 
John A. Robinson, 
Lewis W. Detrich, 
John C. Zeller, . 
Ed. Stake, ' . 
John R. Miller, . 
J. Alexander Simpson 

B. Frank Winger, 
Andrew M'llwain, 
W. T. Cressler, . 

C. Watson M'Keehan 
J. R. Gaff, . 
Josiah Funck, 
Cyrus Lantz, 
S. S. M'Lanahan, 
B. M. Nead, 
Jos. M'Nulty, 
James A. M'Knight, 
A. G. Huber, 
T. H. Edwards, . 
H. B. Woods, 
M. Williams, 
Andrew Gregg M'Lanahan 
Dan. H Wingerd, 
Wm. A. Morrison, 
A. G. Miller, Jr., 
Franklin Mehaffey, 
O. C. Bowers, 
John Adams M' Allen 
Jacob D. Ludwig, 
Joshua W. Sharpe, 
W. S. Alexander, 
Charles Suesserott, 

^ 26 


ted August 













27 th, 




















/ December 





















1 1 





25 th, 





August 17th, 

1 1 



1 1 



















August 11th, 




















On page 38, among the physicians in Chanibersburg in 1786-'88, 
read George CHnqan, instead of George Sloan. 


Abraham, Captain Noah, 
Academies and Colleges, 
Acreage of the County, 

" State, . 
Alexander, Captain William, his company, 
Antrim township, formation of, 
Armstrong, Colonel Joseph, 
Arts, the lost in the county. 
Assembly, first members of. 
Associate Judges, 
Attorneys, in 1786-'88. . 
" general list of, 

" ■ to Poor Directors, 
Baltimore, Lord, grant to. 
Banks in county, 
Baptists, Seventh Day, clergy .of, 
Bard, Captain Thomas, his company 
Blair, Rev. Sanairel, 
Brady, Captain Samuel, 
Brown John, his raid, . 
Catholic Clergy, 
Chambers, General James, 

'' his first company roll 

Chambersburg, when laid out. 

In 1 784-' 88 
Changes in population, . 
Chaplains to Poor House, 
Church of God, clergy in. 
Clergymen in county. 
Clerks, of Commissioners, 

" of the Courts, 

" of the Poor House, 
Colleges and Academies, 
Commissioners of county, list of, 







15, 125 















. 189 

' 70, 89 












30, 176 


Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Commissioners, Jury, list of, 
Common Schools, 

" " Superintendents of, 

Congressmen, first election of, 

list of, . 
Constitutional Conventions, 
Coroners, list of. 
Councillors, election of. 
County, organization of, 
" Auditors, 
" Commissioners, 
" Coroners, 
" Courts, 

" Criminal history of, 
" Lieutenants, 
" Surveyors, 
" Treasurers, 
Court House, first erected, 
Criminal history of county, 
Culbertson, Captain Samuel D., company r 
Cumberland county, when organized, 
Cumberland Valley, First settlement, 
" " Division of, 

" ^ " In 1730-'60, 

" " In the Revolution, 

" Railroad, . 
Deputy Surveyors, list of, 
Directors of Poor, list of, . . . 
District Attorneys, list of, . 
Dunn, Captain Samuel D., company roll, 
Durham, Jack, convicted of murder, 
Early settlements in county, 
Election districts, old, 
Elections, first, 
Episcopal clergy. 
Executive Council, Supreme, 
Fannet township, erection of, 
Fenton, Colonel James, liis regiment, 
Findlay, Captain John, company roll, 

" ," Elected Colonel, 

First regiment, Cumberland county, . 
First township, Cumberland county, . 
Flanagan, Captain John, company roll, 
Franklin county, acreage in, 

" " Area and location, 









29, 164 



30, 176 



































Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 


Franklin county, First election in, 

•' " Geological features, 

" " Organization of, 

" '' Population, 

" " Soil, topography, &c. 

Franklin township, erection of, . 
French and Indian wars of 1744-'56, 
Frontier forts, .... 


Gordon, Captain Samuel, company roll, 
Grant to William Penn, 
Green township, erection of, 
Guilford township, " " 
Hamilton township, " " 

Hanna John, conviction for murder, 
Harper, Captain Michael, company roll, 
Hays, Captain Patrick, 
Hopewell township, formation of, 
House of Representatives, members of. 
Independence, war for, 
Inn Keepers in 1786-'88, 
Irvine, Colonel William, his regiment, 
Irwin, Colonel Jared, his regiment, 
Jail, old, .... 

Johnston, James, Sr., 

" . Colonel James, 

" " Thomas, . 

" Dr. Robert, . 

Judges, President and Associate, 

" Under constitution of 1776, 

Judicial districts. 
Jury Commissioners, 
Justices in 1786-'88, 
Justices who were Judges, 
Land in the county, 

" State, . . ,. 

Lancaster county, organization of, 
Laws in force in l784-'88, 
Letterkenny township, organization of. 
Liberty poles, erection of. 
Lieutenants and Sub Lieutenants, 
Lost Arts, . . ... 
Lurgan township, organization of, 







37, 135 














22, 23 










35, 168 



5S, 168 














Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Lutheran clergy, list of, 

Magaw, Colonel Robert, 

Magavv, Dr. William, 

Maryland, Grant for, 

Mason & Dixon's Line, history of, 

M'Cammont, Major James, . 

M'Kean John, convicted of murder, 

Men of mark in politics, 

Mennonite clergy, list of. 

Merchants in 1786-'88, . 

Metal township, erection of . 

Methodist clergy, list of, 

Mexican War, .... 

Military Record, . . . . 

Militia, lieutenants of, . 

Minerals in county, 

Montgomery township, erection of, 

Mormonism, history of, . 

Murders, convictions for, 

Murtaugh John, conviction for murder. 

New Castle, location of. 

New England, extent of. 

New Jersey, grant for. 

Newspapers in Franklin county, 

Offices, Public, location of old, 

Paper, manufuctnre of, 

Patton. Captain Samuel, company roll 

Penn, William, grant to, 

•' " Landing of, . 

" " Death of, 

Pennsylvania, grant for 

" Location and price of, 

Physicians in 1786-'88, 

" " 1876, list of, . 

Piper, Colonel William, his regiment 
Poor House, history of. 
Population in 1786 and since, 

" Changes in. 
Post Offices, establishment of. 
Postal facilities in 1788, 
Potter, General James, 
President Judges, 
Presbyterian clergy, list of, . 
Prosecuting Attorneys, list of, 
Protestant Episcopal clergy, list of. 





































180, 84 










Historical Sketch of Pi-an/din County. 


Prothonotaries, list of, 
Provincial Conference of 177(5, 
Public buildings and offices, 
Purviance, Colonel John, his regimen 
Quincy township, erection, of, 
Ramage, Josiah, conv:ction of murder 
Railroads in our county. 
Rebellion, the war of. 
Reformed clergy, list of, 
Reges, Captain Henry, his company r 
Registers and Recorders, list of. 
Representatives, list of, 
Rippey, Captain William, his compan 
River Brethren, clergy of, 
Robison, Captain Andrew, company r 
Route from east to west. 
Saint Thomas township, erection of, 
Schools, common, establishment of, 
Scotch Irish, history of, .-^ 

Senators, list of, ... . 
Seventh Day Baptists, clergy of, . 
Sheriffs, list of, . . . , 

Slavery, abolition of, . . . 
Smith, Captain Abraham, iiis compan 
Smith. Co/one^ Abraham, 
Smith, Colonel James, . 
Smith, Captain John, survey by, . 
Snider, Colonel Jeremiah, his compan 
Stage Coaches, .... 

Stake, Captain Jacob, 
Steele, JReverend Captain John, . 
Soldiers, Three Month's Men, 
Six Month's Men, . 

" Nine Month's Men, 

" One Year's Men, . . 

" Three Year's Men, . 

" Nine Month's, drafted, . 

" Independent Batteries, . 

" Militia and Emergency Men 
Southampton township, erection of. 
Stewards of the Poor House, list of. 
Straw Paper, manufacture of. 
Superintendents of common schools, 
Supreme Court, .... 
Supreme Executive Council, 


y roll 

y rol 

y an 

d reg 









56, 107 




29. 166 











60 , 
























Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 

Surveyors, county, 

Swedish colony, 

Talbott, Colonel 3 Gvexniah, company rolls, 

Taxables in county, 

Taxes, early, 

Thompson, Colonel William, 
Towns and villages in county, 
Townships, formation of, 
Transportation last century, . 
Treasurers of Poor House, 
TroojDS in Whisky Insurrection, . 
Tunkers, list of their clergymen, 
Turnpikes, list and history of, 
United Brethren in Christ, clei'gy of. 
War for Independence, 
War of 18i2-'14, 
War with Mexico, . 
War of the Rebellion, . 
War Losses in Rebellion, 
Warren township, erection of, 
Washington, General, visit of, 
Washington township, erection of. 
Water Works, history of. 
Whisky Insurrection, history of. 
Young, Captain William, his company roll, 







70, 75 


15, 37, 124 














The object of this Appendix is to give brief descriptive, and in a 
naanner historical, sketches of the illustrations contained in Mr. 
M'Cauley's full and accurate History of Franklin County. The 
pictures are from the pencil of Mr. Denslow, and the sketches writ- 
ten by D. M. Kennedy, with one or two exceptions. They are 
entirely distinct from Mr. M'Cauley's work, and are intended 
only as minute descriptions which could not have been era- 
braced in so general a history as the foregoing. Many of the 
buildings illustrated have long been prominently identified with 
the local history of the county. Some contrasts have been 
embodied in the artist's work, such as the old and new Court 
House. In the residence of Dr. J. L. Suesserott we see a 
sample of the strong and massively built Flemish bond house, a 
style largely predominant previous to the M'Causland raid, in 1864. 
The more modern system of architecture appears in the neat and 
attractive homes of Mrs. Louisa Ludwig and Hon. W. S. Steuger. 
Handsome mercantile buildings are shown forth in the drawings of 
the houses of Brand & Speer, George A. Miller & Son, Hoke & Co., 
W. C. M'Nulty and others, while such a house as that of Colonel 
B. F. Winger strongly reminds us of days lang syne, when orna- 
mentation was secondary to utility. The historical matter has been 
very difficult to obtain, owing to the fact that so many records were 
destroyed by fire. We have given all that could be obtained from' 
the present proprietors of the buildings. We therefore commit 
drawings and sketches to the public, resting assured that they will 
appreciate our efforts to more fully carry out Mr. M'Cauley's contri- 
bution to historic lore through the medium of these illustrations. 
We feel certain that future generations will be glad to see how the 
business houses, churches and j^ublic buildings of old Franklin 
appeared in 1877. 

D. M. K. 


210 Appendix. 



In the year 1857, Mr. Henry Shepler and Rev. Joseph CUirk, of 
Chambersburg, associated themselves in a eo-partnership for the 
purpose of carrying on a general carpentry business, together with 
all classes of turning work, such as hubs, spokes, screws, etc. On 
what is now called Broad street they had erected a large frame mill, 
which was fitted up with all the new and imjiroved machinery 
necessary for the work purposed to be carried on. A brick engine 
house was added, with an engine of tliirty horse power, suflicient 
to drive the large lumber saws and all the machinery. Operations 
were immediately commenced, and the firm floated on the tide of 
prosj^erity. Some fifteen or twenty hands were continuously at 
work. Large contracts were undertaken, and the immediate neigh- 
borhood soon became a busy hive of unceasing industry. 

About 1859 Mr. J. P. Culbertson was admitted as a partner, and 
the firm name was changed from Shepler & Clark to Shepler, Clark 
& Co. Under the new management the business still further in- 
creased, until as many as forty workmen were employed. This 
state of affairs kept up until after the breaking out of the war, when 
rebel raids made it very uncertain whether a large lumber mill of 
one day would not be a large pile of ashes the next. After the battle 
of Gettysburg, in 1863, Mr, J. P. Culbertson was in Hagerstown 
and the defeated army of Lee captured him, together with a num- 
ber of our citizens. " On to Richmond " they were taken and were 
ushered into Libby prison. Some months later Mr. Culbertson re- 
turned from his forced visit to rebel realms, and shortly after his 
return. Rev. Joseph Clark had his arm crushed while hauling logs 
to the mill. This accident resulted in the death of Mr. Clark, 
which made a change in the firm necessary. An incorporated com- 
pany was then formed, which, after several years of existence, sold 
out the entire works and good will to Messrs. Shepler & Myers. At 
this time the business had become somewhat reduced, necessitating 
the emiDloyment of a limited number of workmen. However, trade 
brightened, and a very good run of business was the consequence. 
This firm continued the work until July 1st, 1877, when the junior 
member retired, William H. Shepler, a son of the senior partner, 
having purchased his interest. Messrs. Shepler & Son are now 
running the mill, with every prospect of continued success. 

The specialties to which they pay particular attention, are lathe 
work, turning all kinds of wooden screws, every variety of fine 
scroll sawing and carpenter work generally. The firm liave also 
added to their business a coal exchange. It is their purpose to sell 
the different kinds of coal, and also, for the benefit of farmers, to 
take their lumber and logs in exchange for any sort of coal or work 

Appendix. 211 

they may desire. Since the erection of the mill, the firms connected 
with its management have had a high standing in the opinions of 
the business men of the county. This opinion will certainly be 
sustained by the gentlemen whose names stand at the head of this 



The majority of the readers of this sketch will remember the old- 
fashioned, two story brick house which stood on the north-east 
corner of the diamond, before the fire of 1864. This house was 
erected in 1800 by a Mr. Eberly, and was owned by him and his 
heirs until 1855. At that time it was purchased by the preseat pro- 
prietors, J. Hoke & Co. Samuel Nisely commenced business on 
the corner about 1828. In 1832 James Kirby bought him out and 
ran the business until 1845, when David Oaks became the proprietor, 
and Avas succeeded in 1848 by J. Hoke. In 1855 Jacob and H, E. 
Hoke formed a partnershi]? and continued business under the pres- 
ent firm name. They dealt in a general assortment of dry goods, 
notions, groceries, &c. 

In 1863 Gen. R. E. Lee, with sixty thousand of his friends, bought 
out the entire line of groceries, and pai<l for their purchase in cur- 
rency of the Confederate government. After this bargain Hoke & 
Co. gave up the groceries and confined themselves to dry goods and 
notions. In 1864 the firm lost the house in which their store was 
located, and all goods which had not been shipped away. Shortly 
after the fire the present building was erected and the business re- 
sumed. In 1865 Mr. D. K. Appenzelier went into the store as a 
salesman, and ten years afterward was admitted as a member of the 
firm. Mr. Appenzelier has now the charge of the active business of 
the house. The wholesaling became a feature of their trade in 1864. 
Hoke & Co. are among the largest dealers in dry goods outside of 
the cities, and are doing an immense business at the present time. 


On South Main street, at the corner of the alley between Market 
and Queen, is located one of the oldest business stands in Cham- 
bersburg. As early as 1785, Samuel Calhoun kept a house of gen- 
eral merchandize, and since that time the room has never been 
exempt from barter and trade. Before the great fire of 1864, a large 
stone house occupied the position of the present three storied brick 
one. It was for many years the residence of Judge Thomson, but 
throughout his life this room was always used for mercantile pur- 
poses. The proprietors, in years gone by, were James Marshall, 

212 Appendix. 

James Rosh, David Oaks and John Armstrong, who kept what are 
now denominated "country stores." Myers & Brand kept a hard- 
ware store, succeeded by Brand & Flack, who bought the property 
and at the time of M'Causland's raid had a hardware store. After 
losing almost their entire stock, they energetically rebuilt the 
house that now occupies the lot. George A. Miller succeeded them 
in the business, and occupied the room until April 1st, 1877. At 
this time Messrs. J. S. Brand and John Speer went into a partner- 
ship to carry on a wholesale and retail grocery business. As the 
building was partially owued by Mr. Brand, Mr. Miller vacated 
and the new firm took possession. The store room, about ninety 
feet in length, was refitted entirely with a view to the grocery line, 
and the new firm are progressing very successfully, as they fully 


Third street, through which that which was orijiinally known as 
the Franklin Railroad runs, and which, since its absorption by the 
Cumberland Valley Railroad, has extended to Martinsburg, Va., 
at the time of the building of the railroad in 1838, was almost the 
extreme eastern boundary of the town. The elegant residences of 
Messrs. Nixon, Sharp, Duncan, M'Lellan, Hoke and M'Knight, to- 
gether with many others that now adorn tlie eastern section of this 
borough did not cast the faintest shadow on the misty future of the 
town. Tlie now attractive yards and gardens were then used as 
pasture lauds and for other agricultural purposes, and they who were 
wont to climb the Academy hill in pursuit of knowledge, and also 
often in other pursuits not so honorable, could look out all over the 
broad expanse of country and meditate of tilings other than the crea- 
tion of a town in a few years. The original settlement havingbeen 
in the neighborhood of the Woolen Mill, the village expanded from 
that center in all directions, but more rapidly toward the western 
end of Market street, as that was the direction of the bulk of travel, 
and by reference to a map made as late as 1858, it will be seen that 
comparatively few houses of any pretension were erected east of 
Third street, on either Market, Queen or Washington streets, but 
with the more recent advance of the town in an easterly direction, 
and the rapid growth of the village of Stoufferstown, the prediction 
is not a preposterous one that within the next decade the consolida- 
ted borough of Chanibersburg will measure from three to three and 
a half miles in width, in the direction from east to west. 

The very eligible locations for building, purposes that can be 
found east and south-east of the present borough limits, give prom- 
ise of a rapid extension of the town in those directions. A number 
of lots that have been laid out an4 sold by Dr. J. L. Suesserott on 
Washington street and Baltimore avenue have already been built 

Appendix. 213 

upon, and others that have been sold, and many more yet to sell by 
the same person, together with the lands of Frederick Byers, F. A. 
Zarman, Wm. Huber and others, will atford sueh a space for im- 
provement that when once occupied by houses that which was orig- 
inally the center of the town will hold a position in one extreme, 
for the insurmountable reason that the location of the Cedar Grove 
cemetery, the natural condition of the land west and north-west, 
and other causes will make building, to any great extent, in any 
other direction than that indicated impracticable. 

The present generation has seen Chambersburg extend itself to 
more than double its proportions of forty years ago, and now with 
its splendid water supply, gas works and railroad facilities, few 
towns in this State or any other State have a more brilliant future 
before them, surrounded as this is by one of the most fertile agri- 
cultural regions, which covers inexhaustible deposits of iron and 
other valuable ores, and bristling with timber that is suited for al- 
most any purpose. 


In the year 1832 Mr. A. Eeineman came from Zeigenhein, Prussia, 
to this country. The family came to Pennsylvania and located at 
St. Thomas. In 1834 Mr Reineman came to Chambersburg and be- 
gan- work on a small scale in the front room of a log house which 
stood where the residence of Mr. Frank Henninger now stands, on 
south Main street, a few doors north of the Reformed church. Af- 
ter living there two or three years he married and moved across the 
street to a house which he bought and still owns. Gradually getting 
trade he bought out a jeweler by the name of Holsey, who carried 
o-n bis business in a one story weather-boarded house which occu- 
pied the site upon which is now located the residence of Mr. H. M. 
White, on south Main, a few doors from the Diamond. A two-story 
stone house owned by Pritts and Gilmore was next bought by him. 
It stood one door north of his shop, where John Jeffries, Esq., now 
lives. In 1849 he sold this house and moved his store to the corner 
where Repository Hall now stands. It was then a two-story brick 
house, and had for many years been in the occupancy of a Mr. 
Scott, who was also a silversmith. Thence he went to the house 
built by Sheritr HoflTman on south Main, between Queen and Wash- 
ington streets. Here he remained for many years. His was one of 
the few houses which M^ere not destroyed by the rebels in 1864. In 
1869 he bought the property on the corner of the alley on south 
Main street, between Market and Queen streets, and removed his 
store there. In the same year he took his son, Mr. A. V. Reineman, 
into partnership with him. Three years afterwards Mr, A. V.' 
Reineman bought out his father's interest in the store and has been 

214 Appendix, 

carrying it on since. In November, 1877, the house was also bought 
by the son from ihe father, and the whole establishment is now in 
the possession of Mr. A. V. Reineman. 

When Mr Augustus Reineman came to Chambersburg he carried 
his entire stock and tools in a satchel. Nobody knew him, and it 
was an up-i)ill work to secure any share of the public patronage. A 
kind hearted gentleman heard of a clock which no jeweler had 
been able to put in running order for many years, and thinking it a 
good chance to test his skill took Mr. Reineman to see it. The 
owner of the clock was loth to allow him to try his workmanship, 
but after some talk the task was given him with the assurance that 
if he spoiled the time-keeper it would go hard with him. It is 
needless to say that the clock was put in perfect order and ran to the 
entire satisfaction of the owner. To this little incident, Mr. Reine- 
man is no doubt indebted for iiis success. Chambersburg was a 
small town then, and when it became known that this stubborn 
clock was again ticking away the hours, everybody had a clock to 
be repaired. Mr. Reineman has turned out many good apprentices 
from his workshop, and there are yet some of the old bulls-eye 
watches in the county whicli had their origin from his skilful 

The present proprietor is kept busily engaged, and also deals large* 
ly in all kinds of silver ware and ornamental jewelry. 


The site, south-east corner of Main and Q.ueen streets, Chambers- 
burg, now occupied by George A. Miller & Son, is one of the oldest 
hardware stands in tlie Cumberland Valley. The lot was purchased 
about the >ear 1815, by the late Barnard Wolff, Esq., who com- 
menced the general hardware business nearly fifty years ago. After 
a long time, during which the business was conducted with con- 
siderable pecuniary profit to its owner, it passed into the hands of 
his son J. G. Wolff, and afterward, by him sold to Huber & Tolbert, 
who continued until the fire in 1864. In September, 1876, arrange- 
ments were made by Geo. A. Miller & Son with C. H. Wolff and 
B. Wolff, Jr , sons of B. Wolff Sr., and present owners of the 
property, for the erection of a building on the old corner for their 
business. The drawings for the store were made by F. Keagy, Esq., 
architect, and built by Henderson and Gillespie, carpenters. The 
whole structure is 106 feet deep on Queen street, by 23 feet, on Main. 
The store room is 79 feet 9 inches by 20 feet 4 inches, with a ware- 
house 26 by 20 feet 4 inches for iron, in rear, divided from store by 
a glass partition. The interior fixtures are of yellovi' pine and black 
walnut, shellacked. The shelving is made adjustable. The building 
was completed by March, 1877. Geo. A. Miller commenced the 

Appendix. 215 

hardware business in Chambersburgin October, 1870, by purchasing 
the stock of Brand Flack & Co., occupying their old quarters until 
he removed to the present location. January 1st, 1876, he admitted 
his son, Geo. A Miller, Jr., into partnership with him, under the 
firm name of Geo. A. Miller & Son. They have now one of the 
best arranged stores in the valley, and carry a large stock of goods, 
embracing a very general assortment of Builder's Hardware, Cut- 
lery, Tools, Coach Trimmings, Saddlery Hardware, Shoe Findings, 
Paints, Oils, Iron, Steel, House Furnishing Goods, Wood and Wil- 
low Ware, Terra Cotta Pipe, Vases, <fcc., &c. They also have the 
agency for the following well known manufactories. Dupont's 
Powder Works, of Wilmington, Delaware; Calumet Sewer Pipe 
and Fire Brick Works, of Ohio ; Hall's Safe and Lock Co., of Cin- 
cinnati; and Saluvia (Fulton Co.) Tannery. 


The residence of Dr. J. L Suesserott, the house in which he was 
born almost 50 years ago, situated on the south-vi^est corner of Main 
and Washington streets, Chambersburg, was erected by his mater- 
nal grandfather, Jacob Dechert, three or four years^fter the incor- 
poration of the town into a borough in 1803. Mr. D., was a native 
of Reading, Pa., and migrated to this county about the year 1796, 
and established himself at once on the property where this house 
now stands. He was by occupation a hatter, for the purpose of 
which branch of industry he erected the building south of the 
corner, now in the occupancy of T. A. Mohr as a tin and stove store. 
After the erection of the corner house the intervening space was 
used as an open alley for a number of years, until the proprietor be- 
cause of his increased force of workmen, experiencing the want of 
more house room, caused the upper portion to be closed with an 
archway, leaving the lower part open until early in the year 1818, 
when he converted that also into a room for the accommodation of 
the post office, he having been appointed Post Master April 7th, 
1818, and continuing in that capacity until March 20th, 1829. After 
that the room was occupied as a finishing room for the hat estab- 
lishment by his brother Daniel Dechert, who succeeded him, and 
who continued to use it for that purpose until April, 1854, when it 
was converted into a physician's office by its present occupant. 

Jacob Dechert's name appears upon the list of the first borough 
council, which was elected in 1804, and although greatly disabled 
by an injury to one of his limbs, he continued to occupy a promi- 
nent position in the afTairs of the town until the time of his death, 
which occurred March 26th, 1829. 

The publishers of this work have secured a sketch of this house, 
not because of its possessing any particular architectural merit, al- 

216 Appendix. 

though being of brick, laid in the old Flemish bond, as is the one 
directly opposite as well as the one a few doors south, now owned 
and used as a dwelling by Mrs. L. M'Kesson, all of which were 
erected within a year or two of each other ; it is one of tho most 
substantial buildings in Ihe town. But it occupies another and 
more important position in the history of Chambersburg, it being 
the point where the fire that had been kindled by rebel vandals on 
the 30th of July, 1864, was arrested. 

The portion of the town south of this property, which covers a 
considerable space, with the exception of the houses that have been 
erected since the memorable burning, are of the old style of archi- 
tecture, and were, if we except three or four, all built after the one 
now under consideration, and constitute the only section of this 
now beautiful town that will be recognized by visitors who were 
familiar with it prior to its destruction. 

South Main street on that eventful occasion presented a scene that 
can scarcely be depicted. The street and houses were crowded with 
carriages, women and children who had been driven from their 
homes by the fiery element, which in lanibent flames licking each 
other, had formed a scorching archway over the streets north of 
Washington street. The retreating mass, still unwilling to yield 
their household gods without a struggle, with defiance on their 
countenances, withdrew inch by inch, as would a well organized 
army before a relentlfss foe. When the refugees that had collected 
into the house represented by our picture were about to depart, sat- 
isfied that it too must fall before the flood of destruction, the pro- 
prietor at the request of a sister now deceased, went to his desk to 
secure any valuable papers that might have been overlooked, and 
finding a traveling flask of witisky, which had. been placed there 
after- a former flight to save his horses from the raiding rebels, and 
feeling that he might need some medicinal agent, a«r he expected 
to have a large number of helpless women and children under his 
care, placed it in a side pocket, but it was scarcely there until it be- 
came a source of great anxiety to him, inasmuch as the rebels were 
appropriating the hats and handkerchiefs, and all other movable 
effects of the citizens, and as his handkerchief covered the flask, he 
expected that if it were taken the flask would soon follow, and be 
the caune of much injury. By a little extra care, however, he was 
enabled to protect it until his attention was engrossed by, to him, a 
more weighty consideration. His surgical instruments, which had 
been placed in a secret cupboard behind the hall door, had been dis- 
covered by the rebels, who were then swarming in and out of the 
office and hall, and in their efforts to force the locks of the cases 
they had thrown them on the floor near the open door. Noticing 
an officer near the front, on horseback, he accosted him as Colonel, 
and informed him that if called upon in the capacity of a surgeon 

Appendix. 217 

he would be unable to render any service, as his men were disabling 
him. The officer ordered them to lay the instruments down and 
come out of the house. This order was hardly complied with and 
the door closed until he countermanded it, saying that the instru- 
ments would be useful to the Conft-derac^y, and in their eagerness to 
recover them the men were about to break through the door, when 
the Doctor, with a dead-latch key, opened the same. They had 
scaTcely begun to gather them up when they were again ordered to 
lay them doAvn and come out, and instructions were given to close 
the door. The proprietor was then called to the side of the officer, 
who informed him that there were ten men with them who did not 
belong to the army who would save the balance of the town if 
$20,000 were immediately forthcoming. He, the officer, was politely 
informed that it was cruel to mock a crippled foe, and that he must 
know that he was demanding that which it was impossible to fur- 
nish. He then demanded $10,000, then $5,000, and was informed 
that not $5 would be paid. He then replied that it would all have 
to go. and rode away. 

A man without any mi'litary insignia was noticed near by, who, 
during a great portion of the time that the Rebels had been in the 
occupancy of the town, was seen to exert a great influence upon the 
men, was interrogated as to who the departing officer was, and he 
replied that he was Colonel Dunn. The flask that had caused so 
much anxiety was politely handed to him, with a request that he 
would sliare it with Colonel Dunn, and press the petition that the 
fire might be stopped. With great alacrity he started, but soon re- 
turned with a flat denial from Colonel Dunn. The whisky had 
how ever made a fast friend out of the individual, who iDroved to be 
a John Callon, from Baltimore, an independent aid on General 
Johnston's staff. Colonel Dunn soou returned to the scene and was 
again importuned, but as obdurate as evnr he advanced as far in a 
northward direction as the flames and heat would allow, and on 
being driven back by the same, said to his petitioner that he might 
now stop the fire if he could. The liouses on the north-e ast and 
north-west corners of Main and Washington streets were a mass of 
flames, as was all the northern portion of the town, as fiir as could 
be judged from this locality, and the cornices and roofs of the houses 
on the opposite corners were smoking and ready to ignite when the 
present proprietor of the one rej^resented in our illustration hurried 
three of his neighbors, namely. Miss Charlotte Oyster, Wm. H. 
Mong and P. Dock Frey through the house to the garret with buck- 
ets of water, who, by unsurpassed agility and energy, quenched 
the already developing flames, and with the assistance of a fiiendly 
rebel he got the only remaining fire engine to the scene of conflict. 

After the engine arrived, on two or three occasions, heartless 
rebels attempted to arrest its worl\:ing, but they were quicl^ly dis- 

218 Ap2)cndlx. 

posed of through the agency of the whisky-bought friend, who to- 
gether with some other rebels, who were not entirely lost to all 
feelings of humanity, rendered valuable assistance at the engine 
until the report reached them of the advance of General Averill by 
way of New Franklin, four miles distant, when a hasty departure 
of the invadi ng fiends was inaugurated. In the midst of tiiese 
rapidly passing events, after the owner of the property on the 
south-west corner had been sufficiently assured so as to venture to 
open up the rear of his premises for the purpose of procuring water, 
the other sources of supply having been exhausted, he was accosted 
by a young rebel who de.<ired his assistance in making his escape 
from his companions, and also to secure a mare which he represent- 
ed had been given to him by a sister in Mississippi, who had since 
died. Placing this would-be deserter as a 2;uard to protect his stable, 
which had on several occasions during the day been saved from the 
flames through the exertions of his new-made friend Gallon, he 
secured the services of a man whom he knew would be efficient, 
and at the proper tine had the sentinel at the stable transformed 
into a jDatit-nt at the hospital, and his mare was furnished with a 
secure abode. The disguise of the deserter, by the cropping of his 
hair and the donning of a patient's gown, was so perfect that he, to- 
gether with regular occupants of the hospital, were on the front 
pavement watching the departure of his former comrades. He was 
afterwards sent to General Coucli's headquar ers at Harrisburg, but 
the mare, instead of reaching the custody of the Federal authori- 
ties, as contiaband of war, was spirited away by one whose position 
under the government should have elevated him above the commis- 
sion of larceny. It is strongly surmised that she was afterwards re- 
covered by her original owner, for very soon after his discharge from 
military control, at Harrisburg, the animal, which had been dis- 
posed of to a crippled horse doctor, a patient in the hospital, was 
stolen from town and her subsequent history could not be follow^ed. 


King street west of Main was a thoroughfare of magnificent dis- 
tances before the year 18G4. Very few houses were built betvk^een 
Main and Franklin streets. The two-story frame house which oc- 
cupied the place upon which Mrs. Ludwig's cottage now stands was 
burned by the rebels. In 1865 Mr. Upton Washabaugh contracted 
with Mr. Samuel Seibert for the present edifice, and it was built 
during that year. The cottage is pleasantly located between the 
Falling Spring and the Conococheague creek, on the north side of 
the street. It is built of brick, two storitrS in height, with a middle 
gable ill the roof. The entx'ance is by a central hall, with a large and 
well lighted sitting room on one side and a handsome parlor on the 

Ap2Jendix. 219 

other. There are two rooms in the front building and one in the 
back down stairs, while on the second story there are five rooms in 
the front and two in the rear part of the house. The whole build- 
ing has been washed with a lead colored mixture and the doors 
and shutters painted to correspond. 

Its first occupant was Mr. Upton Washabaugh, and after his death, 
Mr. Luther B. Kurtz rented it and resided there for some years. In 
1871 the cottage was purchased from the Woolen Mill company by 
Mr. Martin Ludwig, who occupied it with his family until his 
death, since which time Mrs. Louisa Ludwig, his widow, has re- 
sided there. This residence is a specimen of the style of architec- 
ture which has been so popular in Chambersburg since the destruc- 
tion of so many of the old style houses. In the suburbs of town 
there are many of these residences erected, where our business men 
enjoy their leisure after work. Having been built so soon after the 
fire this is among the fiist of tlie cottage style, and can claim in 
future years to have borne its share in making the county seat a 
town of pleasant homes. 


In the Wentern Advertiser, publislied in Chambersburg in 1793 
appeared an advertisement signed by James Ross, in which he said 
that if suitably encouraged he would open a grammar .*chool, 
"which promises to be the foundation of a permanent seminary of 
learning." The school was accordingly opened in a small log house 
on west Queen street, near Water. Here the institution remained 
until in 1796 Captain Benjamin Chambers gave two lots, now cor. 
ner of Third and Queen streets, for the purpose of establishing ah 
Academy. On August 23d, 1797, a charter was granted, and a sub- 
stantial, though small, brick school house was erected by the Board 
of Trustees. James Ross moved his grammar school into it and the 
Academy became a fixed fact. Rov. David Denny took charge of 
the school in 18U0, and for twenty-six years was its Principal. In 
1825 the old house, becoming too small to accommodate the pupils, 
was removed and a large two-storied brick building was erected. 
It contained four large school rooms and a basement story, the east- 
ern side of which was occupied by the janitor, and the western as 
a drill room for the students during the war. Rev. D. V. M'Lean 
succeeded Rev. Mr. Denny. Rev. Dr. S. W. Crawford had char^ie 
of the classical department for several years previous to 1830, when 
he was called to a chair in the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Van Lear Davis, J. K. Shryock and Rev. Gracy filled the intervals 
from 1830 to 1850. Rev. James F. Kennedy was Principal from 1850 
to 1854. After this time Messrs. John Davis, Van Lear Davis, J. K. 
Shryock and Mr. Kinney taught, but as the building, with all records 

220 Ai)pGndix. 

of teaohers and pupils, \v(>re destroyed by the fire of 1SG4, dates 
and names, except those above given, have been irrecoverably lost. 
During the interval between the fire and tlie rebuilding of the 
Academy, Rev. James F. Kennedy, John M'Dowell, Esq., Andrew 
M'Elwain, Esq., and a Mr. Ewell taught select schools. In 1867 
measures were taken to rebuild the Academy, and in 1868 the pres- 
ent structure, a large three storied front and two-storied back build- 
ing, was completed. In September of the same year Dr. J. H. Shu- 
maker, having removed from Aeademia, Juniata county. Pa., open- 
ed the school. In 1871 an additional two storied biick building was 
erected to meet the growing wants of the Academy. From 18G8 to 
1876 three hundred and seventy-three pupils were connected with 
the institution. There are now ample accommodations for thirty- 
six boarders and seventy-five day pupils, with huge school room, 
separate class rooms, and every needed facility for successful study 
and instruction. The Chambersburg Academy under its present 
management has become well known throughout this and other 
States as a first-class school in every respect. 


This well-known hostelry, on South Main, between Queen and 
Washington streets, Chambersburg, dates back to the last century. 
The first landlord whose name we can trace was a man by the name 
of Markle, who was located there between 1790 and 1800. Follow- 
ing him came Mlcha^-l Trout, in 1800, who remained for three or 
four years. About the time that recruiting was going on for the 
war of 1812 this hotel was a great resort. An incident in its history 
may not be out of place here. The sign which swung on a post in 
front of the house had become very much dilapidated by rain, sun- 
shine and storm. The landlord knew an odd genius by the name of 
Frymeyer, who lived along the creek, near town. He asked Fry- 
meyer, who was a natural artist, whether he could paint an Indian 
Queen, and received an affirmative reply. Frymeyer asked who 
would sit for his drawing, and some one suggested Jane Holland, an 
employee of the house, who was gazing out of a second-story win- 
dow at the time. The artist immediately went to work, and Jane's 
portrait, as Queen of the Indians, swung out on the sign in a few 
days thereafter. It is said to have been a remarkably correct like- 
ness. After Mr. Trout, came David Radebaugh, John Kuiin, 
Samuel Lochbaura, John Mish, John Kuhn again, David Beaver 
and John W. Taylor. The terms of their occupancy the writer 
has been unable to find record of. After the destruction of 
the hotel, a two-storied brick building, by the fire of 1864, 
measures were taken to rebuild, and in 1865 a part of the 
present large and commodious three-storied brick building 

Appendix. 221 

was erected. David Taylor and Henry Feldman occupied the 
house as a hotel until in 1870, when Mr. George Ludwig 
bought the property. A half lot directly south of the building 
was purchased and an addition built to accommodate the increase 
in custom. Mr. John Fisher took the stand after its purchase by 
Mr. Ludwig, and is now running a first-class house. On the first 
floor of the hotel is the office, bar room, wash rooms, sitting 
r<>om, dining rooms, etc. On the second floor is a handsome parlor, 
and the remainder of this floor and the whole of the third is devoted 
to bed rcoms, of which there are forty. Bath rooms are also in the 
house. . Large stables are in the rear of the building, and altogether 
it is a model of the successful hotel of 1877. 


Previous to the flre of I8G4 there stood on the Diamond, next 
door to the Repository and Whig building, a two-storied brick house. 
Some years before the fire the store room in the building was occu- 
pied by a Mr. Riddle as a bookstore. Mr. William Cook purchased 
the stoie from him and conducted the business for some years. Just 
preceding the tire Mr. C. H. Bush had a tobacco store, and hi^ stock 
was burned. The building was owned by Col. D. O. Gehr and Miss 
Maggie Denny. In 1866 or 1867 Messrs. Austin, Elder & Fletcher 
purchased the whole lot from the Market Street corner to the old 
Mansion House lot. In 1869, Mr. Alex. Martin, having purchased 
a part of this lot, erected the three-storied brick building which is 
now located In the store room he opened a grocery store. 
After some time he sold out to Mr. Henry Reilly, from whom, in 
turn, Mr. W. H. M'Dowell purchased in 1871. Mr. C. Burkhart 
bought the building, and in 1874 opened a wholesale and retail store, 
with Mr. Lortz as a partner, under the firm name of C. Burkhart 
& Co. In 1876 Mr. Burkhart sold his interest in the store, and Mr. 
W. C. M'Nulty went into the business with Mr. Loriz, under the 
title of Lortz & M'Nulty. Then in the spring of 1877 Mr. Lortz 
retired and Mr. M'Nulty took the store himself. He has since that 
time been carrying on the wholesale and retail line in groceries, 
candy, etc. 


About the year 1775 a man by the name of M'Cune erected a two- 
story frame house on the south-eastern corner of Main and King 
streets, Chambersburg. Captain Owen Aston lived in it for some 
years, but all records are lost which would reveal its proprietorship 
until it came into the possession of Mr. Peter Cook. He occupied 
the house for many years, but, failing in business, the property was 
seized by the Sheriff and sold to Thomas G. M'Culloh, Esq. In 1843 

222 Appendix. 

Mr. George Goettman bought tlie lot, having thirtj'-two feet frorit- 
asie on Main street and one iuindred and eight on East King. An 
addition of a two storied brick building was built at the rear of the 
frame house, along King street. The frame building was changed 
to a rough cast one, Mr. Goettman died about 18oP, and liis widow 
continued her residence in the house. The fire of 1SG4 ended with 
Mrs. Goettman's house on that side of North Main street. The corner 
remained unimproved until Mr. Joseph Forbes obtaiiied a ground 
lease for three years, in April, 1877, and erected thereon a fiame one- 
storied building for the marble manufactory In which he and Mr, 
Earhart are now located. 

In 1775, Main st-eet only extended as far as King street. The road 
ran westward, out King, crossing the Falling Spring, thence north- 
ward between the Conococheague and the Spring. Passing along 
by the location of the present brewery, through the lot now owned 
by Benjamin Chambers Esq., then called the Indian burial ground, 
it passed through the Presbyterian cliurch yard, and came 
out directly In front of the church edifice. This tortuous course 
was occasioned by the fact that from Mrs. Goettman's property the 
land gradually sloped to the Spring, and on the opposite side was a 
large swahip extending along the water course for some distance. 


On the corner of East Baltimore and Washington streets, one 
square fi'om the Diamond, in Greencastle, is located the hotel 
whose name heads this sketch. This house of entertain- 
ment was opened to the traveling public in the year 1859, by J. 
Thomas Pawling. This gentleman having emigrated from county 
Antrim, Ireland, perpetuated the name of his native land by bap- 
tizing his hostelry in its honor. Avery flourishing business was 
done at this house during the reconstruction of the Cumberland 
Valley, or as it was then known, Franklin railroad. This change 
brought many strangers to Greencastle, the majority of whom 
availed themselves of the pleasant surroundings of the Antrim 

Since that time the house has been always open. In the spring 
of 1877 Mr. C. H. Shillito was granted a license to keep a public 
house at this location, and he had a complete renovation effected. 
The house was thoroughly remodeled and refitted. The only cattle 
yards and scales in Greencastle are under the proprietoivhip of Mr. 
Shillito, thus making it a resort for the cattle dealers and buyers of 
the southern end of the county. Ample stabling room is provided 
for those of the guests who visit the town in teams, while a livery 
stable provides teams for those who desire to hire. A restaurant is 
also connected with the hotel. 

Ap2^endix. 223 


A one story fi-ame house in 1844 occupied the lot on south Main 
street, between Mnrket and Queen, upon which is built the three- 
storied iron front building in which Mr. W. H. Eyster carries on 
the stove and tinware business. Some years after Mr. Van Lear 
Davis bought the property, removed the frame structure and erected 
a two-storied brick house in which he kept a book store. A Mr. 
Irvine succeeded him Avith a hardware store. Messrs. D. S. Fahne- 
stock and jr. S hafe r next purchased the property and ojjened a gro- 
cery storer* After them Mr. C. Burkhart became the owner, and 
established an ice cream saloon, which was destroyed in the fire of 
1864. In September, 1864, Messrs. L. B. Eyster and E. G. Etter 
bought the ground, erected the present building, and engaged in the 
stove and tinware trade. In 1866 this firm dissolved, Mr. L. B. Eys- 
ter retiring, and Mr. S. F. Greenawalt entered the establishment, 
under the firm name of Etter & Greenavvalt. In 1868 Mr. Greena- 
walt left the house and Mr. Etter continued the business alone until 
1870. Mr. L. B. Evsterthen bought the stock and continued the 
business until October, 1876, when his son, Mr. W. H. Eyster, be- 
came the proprietor, and is now enjoying a fair share of the public 
patronage. All sorts of plumbing, gas fitting, slate mantels, tin and 
stove work are the specialties of this house." 



On the 29th of June, 1775, Colonel Benjamin Chambers, the 
founder of Chamhersburg, and Jean his wife, conveyed the lot, (No. 
fi in the plan of Chamhersburg), situate at the south-west corner of 
Main and Queen streets, 64 feet wide on Main street, and 256 feet 
deep on Queen street, to Captain Williams Chambers, for the consid- 
eration of one pound ten shillings, Pennsylvania currency, or three 
dollars and fifty cents of our present money, on condition that he 
would build a house upon it, at least sixteen feet square, within two 
years, and subject to an annual quit rent of fifteen shillings. Wheth- 
er Captain Williams Chambers ever built that house is not known. 
On the 7th of May, 1778, Captain Chambers conveyed to Joseph 
Thorn, Sr., for the sum of £15. Joseph Thorn, on the 22d of No- 
vember, 17S3, conveyed to Dr. Alexander Stewart, for the sum of 
£36 specie. Dr. Stewart, on the 12th of April, 1785, conveyed the 
western quarter of the lot to James Caldwell for £40 specie, and on 
the 7th of April, 1789, sold the eastern three-fourths of the lotto 
Patrick Campbell, (Merchant), for £140 specie. And on the 19th of 
October, 1790, Patrick Campbell sold the property to John Colhoun, 
(Merchant) for £140 specie. John Colhoun owned the property until 
his death in 1822, and it is believed that he erected the substantial 

224 Appendix. 

brick building which stood upon it prior to 1804. Mr. Colhoun was 
one of the uierchauts in our town in 1784, when the county of 
Franklin was erected, and for many years carried on the merchan- 
dizing in a room situated where JNIr. Cressler's drui; store now is. 
About the year 1815 he was succeeded in business by two of his 
sons, James Colhoun and Andrew Colhoun. After some time 
Andrew retired, and James Colhoun continued business alone 
for a number of years. He was succeeded by Michael Grier and 
Holmes Crawford. About the year 1830 or 1832 Alexander Colhoun 
became the owner of the property under an Orphans' Court sale, 
and on the 12th December, 1832, he sold it to Rev. James Culbertson 
for $6,000, who on the 18th of November, lSo4, sold to James Col- 
houn for the same price, $6,000. Elihu D. Reed carried on the Mer- 
cantile business at this corner from about 1833 to 1837, and was suc- 
ceeded by Franklin Gardner for two or three years. After Gardner 
quit business, Walter Beatty and John M'Geelian carried on the 
dry goods business at this point for a number of years. Colonel 
M'Geehan then retired and Mr. Beatty continued until about the 
year 1853 or 1854, when Wm. Heyser, Sr., ])urchased the property 
from James Colhoun's administrators. Mr. Heyser held it until his 
death in 1863, when it passed into the hands of J. Allison Eyster. 
William Heyser, Jr , commenced the drug business at this stand in 
1854, and continued there in business until September, 1863, when 
the firm of Heyser & Cressler was formed, azid they were in the 
occupancy of the stand as a drug store when the town was burned 
by the rebels on the 30th of July, 1864. The present building was 
erected by J. Allison Eyster, in the year 1866, and Mr. Charles H, 
Cressler has occupied the corner room as a drug store from Novem- 
ber of that year to the present time. The business under his man- 
agement has been large and prosperous, and his well known knowl- 
edge and experience as a i)harniaceutist, and the varied and exten- 
sive stock always kept on hand by him, have made his establishment 
the leading drug store of the county, and > ielded him that generous 
return which is their legitimate fruits. He is now the owner of the 
property, having purchased it during the present year. 


On March 30th, 1734, Benjamin Chambers took out a license from 
the Penn proprietary for four hundred acres of land at the Falling 
Spring's mouth, and on both sides of the Conococheague, the pres- 
ent site of the town of Chambersburg. Benjamin Chambers, on 
July 12th, 1777, conveyed the lot, bounded now on the north by lot 
of Miss Susan Chambers, on the east by a sixteen foot alley, on the 
south by a sixteen foot alley, and on the west by North Main street, 
to Nicholas Snyder. The price paid was £1, 10s., currency, equal to 

Appendix. 225 

about four dollars of our prtsent money, and the provisioDS of the 
sale were that within two years Mr. Snider should erect a substan- 
tial dwelling house, at least sixteen feet square, and forever after 
pay an annual quit rent of I5s., to said Benjamin Chambers, his 
heirs or assigns, on the 28th day of June of each year. Mr. Snider, 
who lived in a stone house on the corner now owned by George 
Ludwig, opposite the Central Presbyterian church on the Diamond, 
erected a two-storied stone building on the site now occupied by the 
National Hotel At the death of Nicholas Snider, his son Jacob 
took the house at its appraised value, and kept a hotel known as 
the "White Horse Tavern." He had the building rough-east, and 
at his death Mr. Barnard WolfT, his executor, sold the property to 
John W. Taylor, on November 18th, 1851, for $2,265, who changed 
the name to the "White Swan Hotel," and bought out the annual 
quit rent on March 3d, 1854. On March 21st, 1855, John Miller be- 
came the owner of the stand. He added to his purchase a small lot 
immediately to the east of the hotel grounds, across the alley and 
opposite to Colonel Gehr's stable. An addition of a brick building 
was made by Mr. Miller during his occupancy of the premises. 
April 2d, 1860, Mr. Miller sold to Michael M. Grove and John R. 
Weist, Weist selling his interest to Grove on April 1st, 1861. Two 
years afterwards, March 31st, 1863, Mr. Grove retired, Mr. Daniel 
Tro.stle becoming the owner. On July 30th, 1864, the hotel went in 
the general conflagration, but nothing daunted, Mr. Trostle imme- 
diately began rebuilding. In the Spring of 1865 the house was 
opened under the name of tlie "National Hotel." February 20th, 
1875, Mr. Trostle died, and since that time the hotel has been under 
the management of his widow, Mrs. Martha Trostle. The building, 
a three-storied brick, contains forty-four sleeping rooms, besides the 
oflQce, reading room, dining room, parlor and sample rooms. The 
list of landlords since the hotel was first opened is as follows : — 
Jacob Snider, John W. Taylor, John Miller, James Montgomery, 
Thomas Grey, Weist & Grove, Michael Grove, Daniel Trostle 
and Mrs. Martha Trostle. Just previous to the burning of 
the town this hotel was a great resort for the army officers 
stationed here. There is quite a romantic story told about it, 
and vouched for by an officer. About the time that the hotel was 
made headquarters a young woman applied for employment as a 
waiter. Whenever the offieei's went to their meals this girl always 
waited on them. After the army left Chambersburg she followed 
it to Hagerstown, and obtained employment in the same capacity 
at a hotel there which the officers frequented. By some means a 
great deal of information was carried to the rebel lines, and finally 
this girl was caught in the act by a Lieutenant, whose suspicions 
had been directed towards her. 

The hotel at present is one of the best known houses in the Cum- 

226 Aj32Jendix. 

berland Valley and sustains a reputation second to none, anions: 
traveling men who come to Chambersburg. 


On April 1st, 1848, the executors of Dr. Andrew M'Dowell sold 
to David Oaks the property now owned by Mrs. Watson, located on 
the north-western side of the Diamond, Chamhersburg. A two- 
storied brick house then stood there. Mr. Oaks only held the prop- 
erty three days, and on April 3d, 184S, sold it to Benjamin Trexler. 
For six years Mr. Trexler retained it, when he, in turn, on January 
17th, 1854, sold out to John Reasner. Mr. Reasner, on March 15th, 
1857, sold to Alex. K. M'Clure, from whom Mrs. Charlotte Watson 
bought it on April 3d, 1858, and it has remained in her possession 
ever since. This is its connected history from the year 1848 until 
the present time. From whom Dr. M'Dowell bought I cannot say. 
The deed was not recorded, and therefore it is almost an impossi- 
bility to trace its history any further back than the year above men- 

The "Diamond Notion Store" was established in 1861 by James 
Watson & Son on the same spot it now occupies. The assortment 
was not large, consisting of wall paper and notions. In January, 
1864, Mr. James Watson retired, his son George having purchased 
his interest. Then the firm name was changed to J. & G. Watson, 
and thus it has been ever since. After Mr. George Watson's en- 
trance into business the store room was enlarged and improved by 
the construction of bulk windows. Just at the termination of these 
improvements came the raid of JM'Causiand and its consequences. 
After the fire the firm, with its well known energy, opened out in a 
hastily thrown together frame building on south Main street, be- 
tween Queen and Washington, In 1865 and tbe spring of 1866 the 
three-storied brick building now located on the ground was 
erected. In March or April, 1866, the firm re-occupied their old 
position, though in a much neater room, and betteradapted to their 
particular line of trade. Business moved along slowly, their sales 
averaging from three to four thousand dollars a year. In 1867 a 
"New York Store," in the ^ame style, opened out, and the Watson 
Brothers came before the public by means of jjrinter's ink, and ran 
their sales up to tliirty or forty thousand dollars per year. Since 
that time they have enjoyed a first rate run of custom, both in their 
wholesale and retail departments. 


On the 9th day of June, 1868, the Pi-esbytery of Carlisle, in accord- 
ance with a request of certain members of the Falling Sirring Pres- 

RES. OF JOHN R. Of?R. Market St. Ghamb9 PA 


J. C . CA 

"Antral w^si^/'f^'/jlgf ^^^^s^^.LJ 

Appendix. 227 

byterian Church, appointed a committee to visit Cham borsburg and 
inquire into the expediency of organizing a second Presbyterian 
church. This committee met in the Falling Spring church on the 
15th day of August following, and after a careful investigation of 
, the circumstances determined, and proceeded to organize what was 
at first called the Second Presbyterian Church of Chambersburg, 
Twenty-eight persons, twenty women and eight men, presented 
certiticates of membership in the Falling Spring Church, and were 
organized into the new congregation. An election for elders was 
then held, which resu'ted in the unanimous choice of James C. 
Austin and James A. Reside. 

The Commissioners of the county very generously, and without 
solicitation, oiTered the free use of the Court House to the new or- 
ganization as a place of public worship. On the morning of the 
24th of August, the Church held its first religious service, when the 
Rev. James F. Kennedy, D. D., preached. A Sabbath School was 
soon put into operation, and has been continued to the present time 
without intermission. 

After hearing several ministers as candidates, the Rev. I. N. Hays 
then serving the Middle Spring Church, received and accepted a 
call to the pastorate of the congregation. Mr. Hays soon entered 
on his duties, and was formally installed by a committee of the 
Presbytery on the 11th day of December, 1868. 

Immediately after the organization the purpose was formed to 
secure a permanent home for the congregation. A committee, pre- 
viously appointed, reported on December 12th that they had' pur- 
chased the lot on which the Franklin Hotel had stood ^before the 
burning of the town. As soon as possible, plans for a church build- 
ing were secured and adopted. A Building Committee, consisting 
of James C. Austin, James A. Reside and Col. O. N. Lull, were 
chosen, and proceeded at once to prepare the foundation. These 
men faithfully and vigorously pushed on the work. On the 25th 
day of May, 1869, the corner stone was laid with appropriate and 
solemn ceremonies. 

On Sabbath, December 12th, 1869, just one year after the purchase 
of the lot, the congregation met for the first time in the new lecture 
room, to worship and praise the Lord, at which time the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper was administered. The membership had by 
this time increased to the number of seventy. 

Early in 1870 the work of completing the large audience room 
was undertaken. In 1874 it was finished and was dedicated to the 
service of Almighty God on Thursday, the twenty-first of Seotem- 

The Rev. Mr. Hays labored as pastor of the church till May 24th, 
1875, when he preached his farewell sermon, and soon started for his 
newly-adopted home in Junction City, Kansas. 

228 Appendix. 

Tlie cliurch was without a pastor for a period of about three 
months, when the Rev. J. C. Caldwell, then of the Lycoming 
Church, of Williainsport, Pa., was called. He entered on his duties 
on the 13th of September, 1875, and was installed as pastor on the 
23d day of October following. 

Thfe church is now in a very prosperous condition ; has but a com- 
paratively small debt, and owns property worth about fifty thousand 
dollars. It has a membership of about two hundred in number and 
is steadily growing. 

COL. winger's residence— greencastle. 

This house, located on the Square in Greencastle, was built in the 
year 1812, by Mr. John M'Lanahan, and was at that time considered 
a fine mansion property. Fashions change, however, and the resi- 
dence so stylisli in those dnjs is now pointed out as a good, old- 
fashioned house. It is the oldest mercantile stand in the town, and 
has always been held in high esteem as a flrst-class business Icjcatiou. 

The "Farmer's Bank of Greencastle" occupied a portion of the 
house previous to 1818. The part allotted to trade is now occupied 
by a general store, the "Valley Echo'' printing establishment, bar- 
ber shops and law otfices. It has belonged to its present owner, 
Col. Benjamin Franklin Winger, for several years. 


Prior to the year 1822 the thoroughfare now called Market street, 
in Chambersburg, had but few buildings built along its westward 
course. At the corner of the Diamond, where the Central church 
is, stood the old hostelry known from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg as the "Green Tree Tavern." Westward there was a small 
weatherboarded house and the hotel stable between Main street and 
the alle^'. From the alley to the Conococheague there was a ravine, 
its western side slopiug to the creek. Of the history of the marble 
yard property the writer has been able to gather but little. The 
first mention found in the deed records reveals the fact that the 
Court of Common Pleas confirmed a sale made by Sheriff J. M. 
Maclay to Alexander M'Donald, of Baltimore, of the lot upon 
which the marble yard is now loca'ed, in the year 1822. 
By the death of M'Donald the property passed into the 
hands of a Robert Lemmon, whonj M'Donald had ap- 
pointed a trustee of this laud. On December 27tli, 1850, 
Wm. M'Lellau, Esq., became the owner, through a deed given by 
Lemmon and the other trustees. Mr. M'Lellan only held it three 
years, and on August 13th, 1853, sold the part known as the "King 
Marble Yard" property to James King. There was a two-storied 

Appendix. 229 

brick dwelling house and a frame shop on the land at the time of 
the fire, and they were both burned. After the fire some time 
elapsed before Mr. King rebuilt. A three-storied, rough-cast brick 
house now stands on the property, together with a two-storied frame 
work-shop. After being proprietor for almost a generation, Mr. 
King traded with Mr. James R. Brewster, of Newville, for some 
property near Fannettsburgh. On March 6th, 1874, Mr. Brewster 
took possession and held it until 1877. After Mr. King's departure 
Mr. Samuel P. Shull rented the shop and carried on the marble 
cutting. Succeeding in the trade better than he expected, Mr. 
Shull, on March 24th, 1877, purchased the lot from Mr. Brewster, 
together with the dwelling house to the west of the marble yard. 
An experienced marble worker, Mr. Shull is kept; constantly busy 
supplying memorial stones and monuments for the little hillocks 
which are consequent to the growth of the village of 1777 into a 
large and beautiful town a century after. During the war of the 
rebellion, those noble men, the Home Guards, heard that Stewart 
was coming on a raid. Just opposite Mr. Shull's yard they con- 
structed a barricade of sand bags. Down New England hill the 
rebels came, but the barricade belched no deadly fire in their faces. 
The guards had skedaddled and the sand bags were disgusted. 


Chambersburgh, in olden times, was a noisy, bustling post town 
on the through route between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. Lines of 
stages lumbered out daily for Baltimore and the two cities above 
mentioned. About the year 1815 the Harrisburg and Chambersburg 
turnpike company came into existence, and the pi-esent piked tho- 
roughfare was taken in charge. The stages from Harrisburg did not 
get into Chambersburg until they came to the Falling Spring church. 
To the North of the church edifice, as late as 1841, there were only 
the following named houses built: Mr. W. S. Chambers' stone resi- 
dence stood, as it were, in the country. Following the turnpike, the 
frame house owned by Mr. John Trostle was then a new house.' At 
the Point stood an old log tavern, which has, since that time, been 
modernized and changed to a dwelling house. Beyond the Point 
was a hill, which has been removed ; going still northward, the 
frame house on this side of the school house was built, and that 
neighborhood was slightly swampy. The old gate-house, kept by 
Mrs. Shiyock, stood across the road, at the line between Mr. C. H. 
Taylor's and Rev. J. A. Crawford's residences. Here was quite a 
hill, which, under the direction of J. Allison Eyster, was removed. 
Mr. Eyster bought the property at sheriff's sale, April 1st, 1861. It 
•was then partially a field and partially a garden for the gate-house 
keeper. In accordance with ideas of improvement, Mr. Eyster pro- 

230 Appendix. 

cured the removal of the gate-house to u situation one mile further 
north, and set a force of men ai work blasting and digging down the 
hill. After the fire of 1864 he began to build the present building. 
The residence is a handsome two-storied frame house, built in with 
brick, and presents an attractive apjjearance from the street. It 
contains in the front building, down stairs, four rooms, up stairs, 
nine rooms; in the rear part there is one room on the first door and 
three up stairs, one of which is a bath room. On Decetnber 9th, 
1871, Mr. J. A. Eyster conveyed to W. B. Brown, M. D., who estab- 
lished a Water Cure establishment. This project was unsuccessful, 
and the house was rented out. Hon. W. S. Stenger, on September 
4th, 1875, purchased from Dr. Brown, an<i now owns it. Well loca- 
ted, with very pi-etty front and side lawns, it is one of the most at- 
tractive homes in our town, 


[The following sketch, though not pertaining to the drawings, is 
of a historical character. I am indebted to Mr. S. H. Eby, of 
Greencastle, for it. — t>. m. K.] 

In compliance with a request made by you, I shall endeavor to 
furnish a brief history of the foul murder of a teacher and all his 
pupils, with one exception, which was perpetrated by the Indians, 
on the morning of the 26th of July, 1764. The region in which this 
brutal murder was committed was then in Cumberland county, 
(now Franklin), about three miles north of Gieencas'le, and ten 
miles south-west of Chambersburg. Enoch Brown was the school- 
master of the settlement. He is said to have been a man of liberal 
culture, particularly noted and respected for his truthfulness, integ- 
rity and christian character, in short, he was an exemplary teacher 
of his day. On the morning above named, he proceeded as usual to 
the log school house, which was a structure of the rudest character, 
opened it, and doubtless performed the various duties attendant 
upon the teacher to put things generally in readiness for the open- 
ing of the school. Tradition says that on the above named day the 
children were generally loath to go to school, even those that were 
particularly fond of going at other times, disliked very much to 
start on that morning. One boy, after leaving home, decided he 
would not go to school, but loiter in the woods, and hence he escaped 
the sad fate which befel his schoolmates. One by one the boys and 
girls came dropping in with dinner basket in hand, little thinking 
that this would be their last day of school. When the hour for 
opening school had arrived, they were told by the teacher to take 
their respective places in the room ; the roll being called only ten 
responded to their names, eight boysand two girls. The school had 

Apjoendix. 231 

been mucli larger in the early part of the summer, but the warm 
weather and seasonal duties had very much decreased the number 
of scholars. I have not been able to ascertain the names of all the 
scholars, bat have learned from a reliable source that no two were from 
the same family, so that there wt^re ten families from the settlement 
represented in this school. Eben Taj'lor, a lad about 15 j'ears old, 
was said to have been the largest boy, George Dunstan was some- 
what younger than Taylor, and Archie M'CuUough, the boy who 
survived his injuries, was the youngest child of the school. The 
names of the two girls were Ruth Hart and Ruth Hale. The ac- 
count given by A. M'Cullough is, that when the master and schol- 
ars met at the school house, two of the scholars informed him that 
on their way to school they had seen in the bushes what they sup- 
posed to be Indians. But the teacher, being a mao of courage, at- 
tributed this report to the timidity of the children, as such rumors 
had frequently, on former occasions, been in circulation on the fron- 
tier when no Indians were near. Shortly after the opening exer- 
cises of the school, a noise at the door attracted the attention of the 
teaelier, when it was thrown open, and to his astonishment three 
Indians stood upon its threshold. Knowing that there was no 
means of escape, and hoping to spare the lives of the children, he 
instantly stepped to the door, and in imploring tones besought them 
to kill him, to torture him, or to dispose of him as they deemed 
proper, but to spare the lives of the innocent children. One of the 
Indians replied, that in order to avoid detection they would be ne- 
cessitated to kill the children also, and instantly one of the three 
Indians sprang through the door, and fiercely attacked the teacher 
with a wooden mallet. The teacher had nothing with which to de 
fend himself but his hands; these were soon disabled or broken, 
after which a few severe blows about the head felled him to the floor 
in a dying condition. During the time the savage was brutally 
murdering Mr. Brown, the children were almost frantic, running 
to and fro through the house, and possibly some of them would have 
made their escape into the undergrowth which surrounded the 
house, but for the two Indians who remained on the outside to 
guard the door and give timely notice to the wretch within in case 
they were discovered. One by one the little urchins were stricken 
down by furious blows from the heavy mallet of the Indian, until . 
all but little Archie were stretched upon the floor, dead or dying. 
As no time was to be lost, the savage monster went hurriedly from 
one to another tearing off their scalps. Little Archie, who had 
tlius far avoided discovery, was concealed behind some wilted 
boughs, which previously had been placed in the great chimney, 
from which place of concealment he could see the horrible slaugh- 
ter of his schoolmates. The Indians, now supposing their work 
completed, were about leaving the school house, when one of them, 

232 Appendix. 

looking back, observed Archie secreted in the chimney corner, and 
rushing upon him, dealt him a single but fearful blow, and tearing 
off his scalp, left him for dead. Some hours after this bloody trag- 
edy had been committed, one of the settlers happened to come in 
the vieinity of the school house, and observing the unusual quiet- 
ness about the house at that hour of the day, it being about noon, 
his curiosity led him to the door, when behold! the horrible scene 
was presented to him. Ten lifeless bodies stretched upon the floor, 
weltering in their own blood, and little Archie, who was not dead, 
but blind from the blow he had received, moaning and crawlinit 
about among his dead companions, smoothing his hands over their 
faces, and running his fingers tlirough their hnir, as if trying to 
distinguish one from another by the touch. Archie M'Cullough 
recovered from his injuries and lived to an old age, but his mind 
was never quite right again. A few days after this dreadful massa- 
cre the whole neighborhood gathered to participate in the funeral 
obsequies. The teacher and scholars wei'e all buried in the same 
grave, being put into a large, rudely-constructed box, with their 
clothing on, as they were found after being murdered, 


Directly across the alley from the National House, on north Main 
street, Chairabersburg, stands the Montgomery House. Whe-n 
Nicholas Snider bought the National House property he also bought 
this one, and in course of time it came into the hands of Jacob Sni- 
der, who in March, 1794, sdM to his brother, Jeremiah Snider, father 
of our townsman, Mr. Nicholas Snider, to whom the writer is under 
obligations for many historical facts otherwise unattainable. Jere- 
miah Snider had been keeping a hotel on west Queen street, oppo- 
site the property now occupied by H. Sierer & Co., called the Harp 
and Crown. On the neWly acquired land he built a three-story 
brick tavern stand, brick back building, brick stable, one-story stone 
blacksmith shop on the corner of the alley, and other buildings. 
The hotel was known as "The Eagle," and had a large spread eagle 
for a sign. In 1823 Mr. Nicholas Snider was informed by his father 
that he might have the stone blacksmith shop, and in consequence 
of the gift Mr. Snider added another story to the shop and convert- 
ed it into a dwelling house. David Snider followed Jeremiah Sni- 
der as landlord of the Eagle. Though of the same name they were 
not related. John Aughinbaugh was landlord for a year or two 
previous to 1833, when Jeremiah Snider, of Bedford, rented the house. 

In 1836 Mr. Nicholas Snider became "mine host." The same 
year the Cumberland Valley railroad was opened for trade, and the 
first train which came through had on board all the volunteers from 
the Carlisle barracks, who were entertained by Mr. Snider. Mr. 

Appendix. 233 

Nicholas Snider was succeeded by his brother, Geo. W., about the 
year 1838, and he kept the hotel until September, 1844. James 
Montgomery, father of Dr. John Montgomery, rented from Mr. 
Jeremiah Snider in September, 1844. From April, 1846, to April, 1847, 
Thomas Gi'ay was the proprietor, who was followed by Mr. Mont- 
la ornery again. In 1848 Mr. Snider died, and Mr. Montgomery, on 
March 29th, 1848, became the owner, purchasing from the adminis- 
trators of .Jeremiah Snider. In 1856 the building was leased to 
Charles Gibbs, who only remained one year, to be followed by Mr. 
Montgomery once more. From this period until his death, Mr. 
Montgomery continued running the business. After his death his. 
widow, Mrs. Margaretta Montgomery, was the proprietress, until 
the invasion and fire of July 30th, 1864. Immediately after the 
fire the present building, four-storied brick, having its offlces, read- 
ing room, dining room, etc., on the first floor, the parlor on the 
second, and the remainder of the house devoted to bed rooms, of 
which there are forty-two, was erected. The northern part of the 
house was, and is, occupied by Dr. Montgomery as a private resi- 
dence. Mrs. M. Montgomery continued the business until 1866 or 

1867, when Mr. W. C. M'Nulty leased the property. In September, 

1868, Daniel Miller went into the house, but shortly after sold his 
lease to Ephraim S. Shank. This lease expired September 21st, 
1871, when Elliott & Shenafield, afterwards Elliott & M'Call, kept 
until April, 1875. Since that time it has been under the manage- 
ment of Wm. H. M'Kinlej', w4io has lively competition with his 
rival across the alley. 


[The following sketch from the pen of J. M. Cooper, Esq., in the 
Chambersburg Valley Spirit of August 15th, 1877, gives the full his- 
tory of the Willoughby Grain Drill Works, at Greencastle, Pa.] 

"We spent a day in the fine old town of Greencastle lately, and 
put in most of the time looking through the establishment of J. B. 
Crowell & Co., which we found to be a hive of industry, and which 
we think it worth while to write the history of. 

Bradley and Chappel started a Foundry on South Carlisle street, 
in Greencastle, in 1845, and J. B. Crowell bought out Chappel in 
1850. The business was conducted by Bradley & Crowell from this 
date till 1857, when Franklin Keller was admitted to the firm. In 
this year the manufacture of Grain Drills and Hay Rakes was ad- 
ded to the ordinary business of the Foundry. This establishment 
was burned down in 1861, when a temporary structure was erected, 
in which the business was carried on. 

In 1860, the Rev. Mr. Emerson, at that time pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church at Greencastle, in connection with General Detrich 

234 Appendix. 

and \Vm. H. Davison, started a Steam Saw Mill and Sasli, Door 
and Blind Factoiy. In 1861, James C. Austin bought out Messrs. 
Emerson and Detrich, and he and Mr. Davison conducted the saw- 
mill and sash factory till the succeedinjj year. 

Bradley, Crowell and Keller dissolved partnership near the close 
of 1861, and in 1862 Mr. Crowell bought out Mr. Austin and entert-d 
into partnership with Mr. Davison, adding the Grain Diill and Hay 
Rake manufacture to the business previously done by Austin & Da- 
vison. In 187(1 the firm of Crowell & Davison was dissolved, and 
W. H. Davison's half interest was f)urchased by J. B. Crowell and 
Jacob DeardorfF, the latter having been in the employment of the 
old firm as clerk. In 1874 Joseph E. Crowell, of Ohio, a nephew of 
J. B. Crowell, purchased of him a quarter interest, the firm name 
making no change., but has coutinujed siuce 1870 un<ier the title of 
J. B. Crowell & Co. 

The present establishment is the result of a union of the two con- 
cerns whose historj^ we have briefly given. 

The Works, which were of wood and quite extensive, were de- 
stroyed by tire ill 1875. Fortunately the Patterns had shortly before 
been removed to a building constructed for tlieir reception and were 
saved from the general wreck. Temporary buildings were put up, 
in which the work was carried on without serious interruption, and 
preparations made for rebuilding on a more extensive scale than 

The new buildings, which are of brick, were finished some time 
ago and are now fully occupied. The main shop is nearly square — 
60 by 66 feet— three stories high, with a metallic roof, surmounted 
with an observatory, from which a magnificent view of the town 
and country and distant mountains is obtained The foundry and 
machine shops are in a building 90 by 50 feet in extent. The cupola 
is outside of the walls of the foundr.v, a capital arrangement for 
keeping the foundry clean and free from heat, and the tires of the 
smith shops are blown by the same steam machinery that supplies 
the blast to the foundry. The boiler and engine are in a building 
detached from the rest, in the construction of which every possible 
pr.ecaution against fire has been taken. 

The gruund, covered by buildings and piled up with lumber, com- 
prises about two acres. Crowell & Co. supply themselves with all 
the lumber they use except the pine. Their hickory, oak and wal- 
nut lumber comes from land owned or leased by them in their own 
section, and is cut on their own mill. 

Since the 1st of January last their carpenter shop has turned out 
over 700 window and door frames, and over 500 pairs of shutters and 
blinds, made to order, and not including sales from the stock of 
frames and shutters kept on hand for sale. A good deal of this 
work has come to Chambersburg, 

Appendix. 235 

Tbey built one hundred Wind Engines for the Stover^Company 
last year, and also made and sold a large number of Hay Rakes, 
Fans and other agricultural implements. 

They give, at the present date, employment to more than eighty 
hands, and usually run without stoppage, except at the Christmas 
holidays, during the entire year. 

But J. B. Crowell & Co's leading line of manufacture is Grain 
Drills, and we do them no more than justice when we say that they 
make thr best Drill that we have any knowledge of. They cut and 
bend their own Rims and make their own iSpokes out of their own 
selected lumber, and season them on their own premises, and make 
their own Castings out of iron selected for its adaptability to this 
purpose. Their wheels, at the same time that they are made with 
an eye to neatness, have the weight and strength required to carry 
the Drill over rough ground without giving way, and the whole 
machine is both neat and durable — handsome to look at and certain 
to last long. These Drills have the improved Willoughby gum 
springs, and also corrugated rubber rollers which form a force feed 
that insures a eoustant and regular flow of seed. 

Crowell & Co. make drills that sow grain alone, or grain and grass 
seed, or grain and fertilizers, or grain and grass seed and fertilizers. 
The purchaser can have his choice, Tlie grass seeder is detachable 
and can be taken off at pleasure. Or if a farmer purchases a Drill 
without the grass seeder, he can at any time afterward order the 
seeder and put it on himself. Ordinarily they make the Drill with 
eight hoes eight inches apart, but in some instances they have made 
them wider and with shafts, so as to be drawn by three horses, one 
inside the shafts and the others outside. Numerous experiments 
have been made with hoes closer together or farther apart, but these 
have only resulted in establishing eight inches as the best distance. 

The Crowell Drill is so constructed that it may be used with the 
hoes in a straight line, or zigzag, or alt^rnatelj' oscillating. Where 
there are large clods or rubbish on a field, the zigzag hoes, as is well 
known, clean much more readily than the straight; but here is an 
improvement that goes far ahead of the stationary zigzag The 
hoes alternately move forward and backward. While the odd num- 
bered hoes are going forward the even numbered hoes move back- 
ward. The motion is slow, and the distance traversed by each hoe 
is only seven inches ; that is, the hoe goes forward of the central line 
8^ inches and back of it the same distance. This motion greatly 
facilitates the cleaning process. At first it occurred to us that this 
oscillatory motion of the hoes might cause an irregular deposit of 
grain, but this thought was dissipated when we noted carefully how 
slow were the advance and retreat of the hoes compared with the 
progress of the drill over the ground. Besides, Crowell & Co. in- 
formed us that they had tested this matter carefully and thoroughly, 

236 Appendix. 

and had found by actual measurement and count that the variation 
did not exceed one grain in live inches on the ground. Tlie motion 
given to the hoes renders the tubes less liable to choke than in the 
old zigzag Drill. In fact they cannot choke at all. 

This Drill seems to be perfect in all its parts and combinations, 
and it is called for from distant parts of the country. Three car- 
loads have already been shipped to Kansas this season, and some 
are doing duty away in Texas. 

The season for buying and selling Grain Drills had just opened 
when we were at Crovvell & Go's, week before last, and it promised 
to be a good one. During the thrfo days of the week that had gone 
by, they had shipped fifty-five Drills, and they expected to ship 
more in the three days that remained of the same week. We be- 
lieve they are the heaviest receivers of freight on the line of the 
Cumberland Valley Railroad, and we learn that in the year ending 
June 1st, 1877, they paid the company over $5,700. 

In exploring Crowell & Go's shops we were surprised to find a 
man at work in a branch of manufacture entirely new to tiiis part 
of our State. He was making a Pipe Organ, aiid had previously 
made a Reed Organ, which was pronounced a good instrument. 
His name is Miller and he is a native of Denmark, where he learned 
his trade. He informed us ihat he had worked at this business in 
Philadelphia and Erie. He does not possess the necessary means to 
establish an Organ manufactory here, but Mr. Crowell informed us 
that there was some probability that a company might be foi'med at 
Greencastle, and the raanufaciure established. We hope that this 
will be done, and that success will reward the enterprise And we 
wish Franklin county had a few dozen more such men as J. B. 
Crowell, whose quiet energy and enterprise have made his fine es- 
tablishment what it is— a credit to the town of Greencastle, and a 
benefit to the surrounding country. 



This murder, the last that was committed by the Indians in this 
region of the country, occurred on what is now the farm of Mr. 
Peter Fahnestock, near Waynesboro', Pa. The year in which the 
murder took place, cannot now be ascertained, but I have repeated- 
ly heard my father state that it was the veri/ last murder committed 
by the Indians in this section of the State. I may add that I under- 
stand it to be the last committed by them in this valley, and so oc- 

Appendix. 237 

cnrring after the murder of the teacher and children nearGreencastle. 

The small log house in which the young women lived, was situ- 
ated near the mill now owned by Mr. Fahnestock, and was standing 
until within a f^w years. I have often seen it mj'self, and many 
others remember it well. Traditionary accounts differ a little in 
regard to one or two particulars in connection with their death. 
Mrs. Royer, as I understand, stated that an alarm having been giv- 
en that Indians were about, the two girls in question had each" a 
horse neatly ready for the purpose of escaping on horseback, when 
an Irishman came hurrying past and told them to be in haste, as 
Indians were near; that shortly after he had passed they were shot. 

The account as given by my father is as follows : that the girls 
in question were wa-hing clothes that day, when the Indians came 
upon them and shot and scalped them. The savages at once left, 
going westward. Two experienced hunters living in the neighbor- 
hood, one of whom had lived with Indians, gave pursuit. It ap- 
pears there were but two of the Indians. The hunters followed the 
trail towards Bedford, and on the second day, somewhere among the 
mountains, the pursuers, deeming by the freshness of the trail that 
they were drawing near the Indians, became more cautious; and 
noticing a small opening among the trees ahead, they carefully drew 
near, and there, in a small, open glade, where were several wild plum 
trees, stood the two Indians under the trees eating wild plums. 
The extreme caution exercised by the savages while eating was 
curious. They were perfectly quiet, and each would cautiously 
r.-ach up for a plum, pull it off', and then glance around the opea 
area, at the came time listening, and then eat the plum. 

The hunters in a whisper arranged their plan. They agreed not 
to fire until nearenougn to see tlieplum seed drop from the mouth of 
each savage. Then stealthily creeping on the ground they advanc- 
ed near enough, when, at a signal agreed upon, they both fired, and 
springing up they rushed forward to complete the work, if need be, 
with their knives. But it needed no completion. Each bullet had 
sped with deadly aim, and the two savages were still in death. 

The men obtained the scalps of the two sisters slain near Waynes- 
boro', and scalping the two Indians, they rapidly retraced their 
steps with the four scalps, and reached the house where the Miss 
Renfrews had lived, just as the funeral train was about to leave for 
the place of burial. The hunters approaching the coffin, quietly 
laid down by the corpses the two scalps taken from them, and then 
laid down along side of those the other two— the Indian scalps. 
This told the story. 

The remains of these two young women were buried on a quiet 
hill-side in view of the historic stream, Antietam. The grave can 
still be identified, and is within an enclosure now used as a burying 
ground by the Burns family, and near the grave of Miss Sarah 

238 Appendix. 

Burns. A flat stone, set edgewise, marks the grave itself; but there 
is no tojnbstone or in.scrii)tion to tell whose remains lie beneath. 

The only information as to the names of these two sisters, is 
simply their family name — Renfrew. 


*Franklin Furnace, located in St. Thomas townsliip, three miles 
due north of the town of St. Thomas, and at the foot of the moun 
tains, was built in the year 1S28 by Peter and George Housum. 
These men came from Berks county and put into active operation 
their knowledge of the iron business, learned in that section of the 
country. Their original purchase was the furnace property and 
thirteen hundred acres of land. The ore necessary to the running 
of the furnace was taken from the land which they had purchased, 
and mixed with other varieties, taken from the Shearer bank, near 
Loudon, and from banks near Greenvillage. From some cause or 
other, success did not attend their efforts, and about the year 1845 
they leased the property to Brine, Filson & Lowe. In 1848, an as- 
signment baving been made by the Housums, the Furnace passed 
into the hands of B. & W. Phreaner, from Lebanon county. They 
operated the works until the year 1855, wJien B. Phreaner was 
killed while engaged in raising a building. After his death, and 
while in the possession of W. Phreaner and the heirs of B. Phrean- 
er, W. Phreaner and Elmira Phreaner, liis sister, continued the 
business for several years. The heirs of B. Phreaner eventually sold 
their interest to Elmira, daughter of B. Phreaner, who intermarried 
with Charles Molly. A new firm was organized under the name of 
Molly & Phreaner. William Phreaner then sold his interest to 
Peter C. Hollar, and the firm name changed to Molly & Hollar. 

This firm was succeeded by M'Hose, Hunter & Co., and thesenior 
member retiring shortly afterwards, the present proprietors became 
the owners, and have held it ever since that time. At the time of 
the purchase by M'Hose, Hunter & Co., the connected tract consist- 
ed of about 1500 acres, but by subsequent purchases, has, from time 
to time been increased until at the present time it contains about 
5000 acres, of which, a tract containing 400 acres is farming land, 
and the remainder timber. 

At the present time the ores used are obtained from the Cressler 
ore-bank, near Shippensburg, and a small amount from the Neikirk 
bank, on the adjoining farm. It is brought by rail to Chambers- 
burg, and from that point hauled by wagons to the furnace. The 
fuel is all made from wood cut on the furnace lands, about 250 acres 
being annually cut over for that purpose. The timber is f iled by 
workmen constantly engaged in chopping on the lands of the fur- 
nace, and after culling out all that is valuable as lumber, the remain- 

Appendix. 239 

der is cut into four foot eorr] wood and burned into charcoal. About 
7500 cords are thus annually burned into charcoal and used in the 
furnace. The amount of iron manufactured from this use of fuel is 
about 1400 tons, although there has been over 16i<0 tons made 
at the furnace in one year. About 76 men are constantly employed 
in the various departments of the furnace, and the land, with the 
exception of 100 acres of the farming lands, are managed by the 
proprietors, and a store is carried on in the same connection, at 
which quite a trade is done with the surrounding farmers. Most of 
the men employed by tlie proprietors live in the houses belonging 
to the property, of which there are about 30 on the lands, A steam 
saw-mill is in constant use in the timber lands of the property, and 
also one run by water does a large amount of business. The iron 
made here commands the highest market price, being made cold- 
blast, and no higher tribute can be paid the furnace and its proprie- 
tors than the statement that with iron of similar makes from other 
furnaces, selling iu the market at $26.00, the iron made at Franklin 
Furnace is finding a ready sale at $31.00. The business is in a very 
prosperous condition at present. 

The firm now consistsof Messrs. John Hunterand Levi L. Spring- 
er. Both gentlemen aie first class men, and have the highest 
standing, both as regards the management of their works, and in 
their business relations. 


A century ago, on the banks of the Antietam, three miles east of 
Waynesboro', Pa., stood a little blacksmith's shop Here, in 1775, 
worked honest Joiin Bourns, who swung the hammer, and with 
lusty blows shaptd tlie heated iron into implements fit for tilling 
the soil. The war alarum rang over the country, and to John 
Bourns it brought the tidings that he too must do his share to free 
his fair land from the tyrant's yoke. After casting about for some 
means of contributing his share to the common cause, he deter- 
mined ti) try his skill on a wrought iron cannon. An extra pair of 
bellows was set up, and his brother, James Bourns, together with 
t-ome neighbors, called upon to give all necessary aid in keeping up 
a continuous hot fire for the purpose of welding. A core of iron, 
with a small bore, was first prepared, and bars of iron were welded 
one by one, longitudinally on this core. The welding having been 
accomplished successfully, a new drtling was made, and th°e bore 
brought to as perfect a degree of smoothness and circularity as was 
possible with the tools accessible. 

This small cannon was taken to the army and doubtless gave no 
uncertain voice in freedom's favor. On the eleventh of September, 
1777, the battle of Braudywine was fought, and our cannon was 

240 Appendix. 

captured and taken to England. John Bourns was afterwards draft- 
ed into tlie army, previous to the battle of Brandywine, and no 
doubt felt very badly wheii he found that his pet had fallen into the 
hands of the enemy. On accountof his great skill he was detached 
from active service and detailed to repair gun locks and mak«- bayo- 
nets for the use of the army. I have no recollection of reading of 
the manufacture of cannon for the Revolutiormry army earlier than 
the Franklin county one. 

John Bourns was the father of the late General James Burns, of 
Waynesboro', and he and William Burns, his brother, have related 
frequently the story heretofore given, to many persons. Readers 
will notice the change in the orthography of the names of the 
father and son. Mr. J, C. Burns, of Gettysburg, furnished the writer 
with the facts contained in this article. 


In order to give a history of the village of Shady Grove, situated 
three miles east of Greencastle, on the pike leading from Baltimore 
to Pittsburg, it is necessary to give a history of the Snively families 
who were the first settlers of this location. John Jacob Scbnebele, 
from Switzerland, emigrated to the United States of America and 
settled in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, between the years A. D. 
1707 and 1718, and was naturalized in llie city of Philadelphia on 
the 4th day of October, A, D. 1729, and died at the age of eighty- 
four years, leaving an offspring of several children. One of these 
children was Jacob Schuebele, who was born A. D. 1694, and died 
August 24th, 1766, in the seventy-second year of his age, leaving an 
offspring of seventeen children, whence the numerous families, now 
universally known as the Snivelys, have descended. Some of these 
families located in Antrim township. Many also emigrated to other 
parts. As Shady Grove's origin and history is solicited, I shall en- 
deavor to follow the generations down to the present day, by com- 
mencing with Joseph Snively, Sen. About this time the name was 
changed to Snively. I refer first to the old Patent Deed from Rich- 
ard and Thomas Penn, for a tract of laud called "Punk," which was 
entered in a land wan-aut, bearing date January 8th, A. D. 1753, 
by Samuel Menoch, who conveyed the same to Jacob Schnebele by 
deed dated 1756. Jacob Schnebele, by his last will and testament, 
gave the property to his son, Joseph Snively, Sen , who attained the 
age of 87 years. Joseph Snively, Sr., died on the farm he first settled 
on, leaving it to his son Joseph Snively, Jr., who also reached the 
age of 86 or 87 years. Joseph Snively, Jr., left the farm to his son, 
Samuel B. Snively. These lauds have been handed down from one 
generation to another until the present time, a period of about 130 
years, and that tract of land called Punck, was added to the origin- 

Appendix. 241 

al about ten years after the first grant. Upon a part of this 
tr^act the village of Shady Grove is located. These lands were 
deeded by Joseph Snively Sr., to his son John Snively, who by will 
devised them to his son, Melchi Snively, who sold the lot upon 
whicli the first building was erected in A. D. 1837. At that time no 
idea was entertained tliat it ever would become a town. In 1848 
the present residence' and store of Melchi Snively was built. After 
doing business a few years the village increased to such a size as to 
warrant an application for a post office, which was obtained. The 
place was called Sha'iy (rrove P. O., and since that time has become 
a village of about 30 liouses and shops. Mr. Frederick B. Snively 
has been Postmaster and merchant since 1856. Th'e avocation of 
the Snively families predominates, and has predominated in agri- 
culture, (with a few exceptions), in connection with stock feeding 
and stock raising; pursuits which are so closely allied to the pros- 
perity of agriculturists that they are inseparable. 


In producing a consecutive history of the well-known Steam En- 
gine Workfe at Waynesboro', it is found somewhat difficult to gather 
the correct data and to trace the successive business developments 
from the beginning. Mr. George Frick, who at present writing is 
the General Superintendent of the works, was also the founder and 
constant conductor of the business. His own biography is so inti- 
mately connected with our subject that it is necessary to use it in 
this connection. He was born in Lancaster county in 1826, and in 
the spring of 1838 his father settled in this county, in the vicinity 
of Waynesboro'. At eighteen years of age, about 1843, George Frick 
went to the inill-wright trade, and in 1845 commenced business in 
a small way for himself, on the place now in possession of Henry 
Good, about one and a half miles north of Quincy, in Quincy town- 
ship, where he continued about two years, and then moved to the 
mill property on the Antietam. about two miles south of Waynes- 
boro, now owned by D. F. Good. Here he engaged in building 
grain drills. In a year later he commenced business near the town 
of Quincy, occupying a woolen factory for a shop, and manufactur- 
ing threshing machines and other agricultural implements. It was 
at this place, in the fall of 1850, Mr. Frick built his first steam en- 
gine, a two-horse-power stationary, for his own use, and from his 
own patterns. In the following year he again removed to a country 
shop, about one-half mile north-west of the village of Ringgold 
Md., and about 300 yards from the Mason & Dixons Line. Here 
the engine above alluded to ran the machine shop for the manu- 
facture of steam engines and various mill machinery. In 1859 he 
commenced building the Geiser Grain Separator. The increase of 

242 Appendix. 

the business now necessitated better facilities, and in tiie follow! njr 
year, the entire business was removed to Waynesboro', and the 
manufacture of steam engines and grain separators continued on a 
larger scale. In 1865 he sold out the Grain Separator business to 
the Geiser Manufacturing Company, He immediately erect^Ml the 
]>resent commodious buildings justopposite the old works, and made 
Steam Engines and Boilers of all kinds a specialty. In 1870 he 
took C. F. Bowman, of Lancaster, into co-partnership, who d'ed in 
the fall of 1872. In February, 1873, a company was organiz-'d with 
a capital of $100,000, and facilities were largely increased, in order 
to supply the pressing demands of the trade. 

The works comprise two commodious finishing shops, well fur- 
nished with all the machinery, tools and appliances, usually kept 
in a flrst-class, well-conducted establishment of this character; a 
large boiler shop, with every thing necessary to produce work of all 
kinds and styles in this line; also steam forge shop, smith shop, 
iron foundry, brass foundry, paint shop, warehouse, pattern shop, 
and pattern house, with a very large collection of patterns used in 
manufacturing, and to which constant additions are being made. 

Eight years ago fifty workmen were employed, now the company 
has about one hundred employees. One moral feature is not out of 
place in this connection. The company employs only sober men, 
and when any of the workmen are persistent in the use of intoxi- 
cating drinks, such are suspended or dismissed. 

The manufactures produced by this company are the "Eclipse" 
Farm, "Eclipse" Portable, and "Eclipse" Stationary Steam En- 
gines, Horizontal and Vertical Stationary Engines, Steam Boilers of 
various styles, Circular Saw-Mills, Mill Machinery, and general 
machinist work. Their manufactures are shipped to almost every 
State in the Union, and even to the West India Islands. They en- 
joy the enviable reputation of making superior machinery in their 
line. In the short period of three years past they have sold nearly 
500 of their Eclipse Engines alone, and of the great number of 
boilers constructed, they have yet to hear of the first explosion. 
Their prospects are most promising, and bid fair for a very success- 
ful future. 


The tract of land now belonging to Mr. James K. Andrews, of 
which I write, is located in Hamilton township, along the Warm 
Spring road, and five miles south-east of Chambersburg. It con- 
tains about, one hundred and twenty-seven acres of gravel land, of 
which twenty-seven are in timber and the remainder in farming 
order. On the property there are erected a two-storied frame dwell- 
ing house, large stone and frame barn, and all the necessary out- 
buildings. It is bounded by lands of John N. Snider, Andrew Bard, 

Appendix, 243 

Israel Faust, Isaac Allison, Israel Faust, Jacob Picking and others. 
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in 1804, granted a patent to 
Andrew Dunlop, for a large body of land, of which this farm was a 
constituent part. A few years after, Dunlop sold the Andrews tract 
to James Speer. Speer was notable to pay for it, and an execution 
of judgment was issued. Jacob Merkle, High Sheriff of Franklin 
county, on April 14th, 1810, sold the farm to Thomas Poe, Esq. 
James Speer, Jr., purchased It from Poe, but only retained it until 
April 4th, 1812, when Frederick Wallick became the owner. For 
seven years it was in the possession of Wallick, when he sold, on 
March 24th, 1819 to Jacob Hatler. Hatler remained there for nearly 
half a generation, but sold to Michael Etter on March 21st, 1833. 
Two years afterwards, Etter became involved, and conveyed the 
farm on February 28th, 1835, to John Gird and Henry Bender to sell 
for the benefit of his creditors. No sale was made, however, and 
the property was re-conveyed to Etter. On April 2d, 1855, James J. 
Kennedy and James Nill became the owners, and on April 2d, 1858 
Judge Kennedy purchased Mr. Kill's interest, thus becoming sole 
proprietox'^ In the spring of 1860 Mrs. Sarah Andrews moved from 
New Village, Warren county. New Jersey, to our county, and on 
the sixth day of April, 1860, bought this property from Judge Ken- 
nedy. The frame house was then standing, but has since that time 
been thoroughly remodeled. In March, 1866, Mr. James Andrews, 
husband of Mrs. Sarah Andrews, died. Mrs. Andrews retained the 
farm until January 1st, 1876, when she sold to her sons, T. M. and 
J. K. Andrews. During the summer of 1875 the present large barn 
was built by the proprietors, the work being done by Frank M. 
Andrews. Mr. James K. Andrews bought out his brother's half 
interest on July 1st, 1877, and made extensive alterations in the 
dwelling house. 

The present proprietor is a thorough, go-ahead young merchant. 
At present he is engaged in the dry goods business, with E. Van 
Volkenburg & Co., importing and jobbing, 384 and 386 Broadway, 
New York City. In consequence of his business relations, he is 
necessarily, for the greatest part of the time, away from the county. 
His brother, Mr. F. M. Andrews, manages the farm. 

o. w. good's registered distillery. 

This property is, situated in Washington township, three miles 
east of Waynesboro, on the Waynesboro and Monterey turnpike. 
It's location is just at the foot of the South Mountain, on the Bed 
Run, and a mile and a-half from the Waynesboro' Station, on the 
Western Maryland railroad. John Downin began the manufacture 
of liquor in the present building, about the year 1858, and the name 
of Downin liquors is a guarantee of purity. A distillery was in op- 

244 Appendix. 

eration as early as 1812, and a point not nioi-e than one huiHired feet 
east of the present office, where the wagon house of Abram Shockey 
now stands. Tt is i^robable that this location was early selected on 
account of the pure water of a spring, which then as now. wns used 
in the manufacture of liquor. This spring is located near the turn- 
pike, at the foot of the mountain, whence it flows in a clear and 
limpid stream. During tlie heaviest drouth there was alwavs suffi- 
cient water to fill a four inch pipe. It is said, with how nuicli accu- 
racy I cannot say, that the Indians held these waters in high esteem, 
believing them to be medicinal in quality. 

Mr. G. is running the establishment steadily, using twenty-four 
bushels of grain per day. He fattens and ships six hundred hogs in 
each year. The distillery produces about six hundred and fifty bar- 
rels of i^ure liquoi's per annum, and there is a great demand for it on 
account of its reputation for purity. The short distance to the rail- 
road gives facilities for reaching markt^t not enjoj'ed by those who 
owned this property previous to the completion of the present enter- 


Mr. Shockey purchased this jiroperty, on which his homestead 
now stands, in 1862. The first purchase was about sixty-two acres, 
located in Washington township, near the South Mountain. In 
1863, Lee's army, while retreating from Gettysburg, encamped in 
that region of country. The damage resulting from this visit to 
Mr. Shockey he estimates at five thousand dollars. Since its pur- 
chase the present owner has built the warehouse occupied by Mr. 
O. W. Good, a wagon house, the rear part of the present house, the 
barn and all other buildings now standing, except the dwelling 
house and mill. Scarcely a fence or outside improvement was then 
in existence, where now are cultivated fields and commodious build- 
ings, making a tasty, convenient and valuable^ homestead. About 
1865, Mr. Shockey purchased twenty-four acres from the farm of 
Jacob Hoover, deceased. This piece of land was not the only addi- 
tion, as, in 1868, a second tract of twenty-four acres, directly south 
of the first, was purchased from Jacob Stoutfer. At that time there 
was a school house erected on this land. At his own expense, the 
proprietor has erected a church for the use of the German Dunkards, 
and with the church has given them an acre as a burial ground.' 
These purchases have increased the farm to 110 acres, in 1877, and 
has made one of the finest properties in the valley, having on it a 
church, school house, distillery, feed mill, warehouse, together with 
the water right to the spring mentioned in another article, and from 
which a new line of pipes has been laid. Mr. Shockey owns an- 
other fine farm, of 181 acres, located southwest of his homestead, 
and immediately adjoiniug a tract of 36 acres of fine timber. This 

Ap2:)Bndix. 245 

timber land is on the mountain side, and, being for the most part 
pine, is very valuable. The mill, under his ownership, has been 
extensively remodeled and new machinery introduced. 


In Antrim township ubout two miles from Greencastle is located 
the farm of Mr. Eshleman. This property was originally a part of 
the Crunkleton tract and contains about one hundred and fifty-one 
acres, of which fifteen are in timber. The first owner on record 
was Joseph Crunkleton, who took out his license in 1734. The tract 
then contained the lands now owned by Benjamin Snively and the 
farm under consideration. In 1853 Peter Eshleman and Jonas Reiff 
purchased it of the heirs of Jacob Snively. Peter Eshleman, in Feb- 
ruary, 1860, purchased the undivided half of ReifFand became the sole 
owner. David Eshleman, on June 28th, 1869, bought from Peter 
Eshleman, his father, and now owns it. The dwelling house is built 
of stone and contains nine rooms. It was built about 1801 by a Mr. 
Byere, whose first name I have been unable to learn. In the pres- 
ent year Mr. Eshleman has entirely remodeled the house. There 
ai'e several very fine springs on the farm, and it is well known as 
one of the oldest and most productive in the valley. 

Mr. Eshleman devotes his attenti<m to grain raising, although he 
has quite a large amount of stock on the farm. The land is at 
present in very fine condition. More than 18000 bushels of lime, 
burned on the place, have been used since it came into the posses- 
sion of the present owner. With fine buildings, good fencing, and 
land in the best condition, this tract is one of the most valuable in 
the county. 


The manufacturing business was initiated on this site in the year 
1860 by George Frick, in a small frame shop, foundry and black- 
smith shop. The trade was almost entirely confined to a few steam 
engines, mill gearing, Geiser separators and horse powers. After a 
period of six years the demand for the Geiser separator became so 
much greater that Daniel Geiser, B. E. Price, Josiah Fahrney and 
J. F. Oiler associated themselves in co-partnership under the firm 
name of Geiser, Price & Co. With a capital of about $20,000, they 
leased the real estate, buildings and machinery from George Frick. 
In August, 1866, they begaia business and were so successful that in 
1867 they bought the entire works. In 1868 the firm was increased 
by the admission of three new members, Daniel Hoover, John Phil- 
lips and J. S. Oiler. The business increased until they are doing a 

246 Appendix. 

trade now of 400 machines a year, amoutiting to about $185,000. 
On January 1st, 1869, the Arm became an incorporated organization, 
under tlie title of the Geiser Manufacturing Company, and witli a 
capital of $134,600, new buildings were erected, until at present tlie 
works cover nearly two acres of ground, with a capacity of four ma- 
chines a day. The highest number of hands employed at one time 
was 175. 

The names of the stockholders in December, 1877, are D. Geiser, 
B. E. Price, Josiah Fahrney, J. F. Oiler, Daniel Hoover, John 
Phillips, A. D. Morgan thall, A. E. Price, Joseph Price, Samuel 
Hceflich, John L. Loyd, Stover & Wolff, D. B. Mentzer, Fink & 
Bro., Daniel Hollinger, Samuel Newcomer and J. F. Emert, The 
company is doing a very large business. Their work is all of the 
best material and put up by the most skillful mechanics and it has 
attained a reputation second to none in agricultural machines. 
This company is the only one authorized to manufacture the Geiser 


The Renfrew family, one branch of which now owns the above 
named property, is one of the oldest in Franklin county. John 
Renfrew came to America during the latter part of the last century, 
and having heard of the wonderful beauty of the Cumberland Valley, 
came to it, settled first near the present village of Scotland, and even- 
tually settled on the Boyne farm. Thomas and John Penn, Esqs., on 
the 10th day of June, 1762, issued a warrant for the survey of a certain 
tract of laud called "Boyne," situated in Guilford township, Cum- 
berland county. On April 2d, 1774, this tract was surveyed for James 
Crawford, who, upon the 10th day of January previous, had conveyed 
it to Patrick Alexander, The jaroprietaries, on April 13th, 1774, for- 
ever released Patrick Alexander, his heirs or assigns, from the pay- 
ment of an annual quit rent in consideration of the sum of £25, 7s. 
After Patrick Alexander's death, his son Joseph took the property at 
its appraised value, and he on April 29th, 1784, conveyed to John 
Renfrew. This gentleman had been a soldier in the Revolution and 
bore to his grave marks of wounds obtained in the great struggle 
for liberty. He had one wound in his foot which caused a perma- 
nent lameness. About the year 1807 John Renfrew purchased of 
Jacob Gsell an additional tract containing six acres and thirty-two 
perches. Mr. Renfrew lived in the enjoyment of his possessions 
until the fall of the year of 1844. By the will of his father, John 
Renfrew became the next proprietor, and lived there until his death, 
which occurred in September of the year 1863. At his demise the 
whole estate was divided, but the old mansion remained and still is 
in the ownership of Hannah and Sarah E. Renfrew, his daughters. 

The Boyne farm is located at Turkey Foot, about seven miles 

Appendix^ 24? 

from Charabersburg and two miles south of Fayetteville. It lies in 
a beautiful region of country and contains about one hundred and 
thirty acres of the best quality of land. There are erected upon the 
place, a large two storied brick house, large bank barn, together 
with all the necessary outbuildings. At the homestead they have 
all the old deeds back even to the original patent granted by the 
Penn proprietary government. It will thus be seen that this prop- 
erty has been in the uninterrupted possession of the Renfrew family 
for nearly one hundred years^ and since it was patented has had but 
Very few changes. 

Joseph boyd's farm. 

This piece of property lies in Montgomery tow^nship. The laild 
warrant for it was taken out by Patrick and Hannah Maxwell. On 
March 24th, 1846, Mr. James Boyd went to this place. Mr. William 
Boyd, father of the present proprietor, moved from Dauphin to 
Cumberland county in the year 1807, and James Boyd was born 
near Newville in 1811, Where he resided until 1846, when he moved 
to this county, where he has resided ever since. The first orchard 
was set out in 1846, and the barn, which is seen in the sketch, was 
built A. D. 1851. In the year 1852 the tenant house was built and 
in 1859 the orchard was re-set. The mansion house was erected in 
1860. All the buildings now standing were erected and the im- 
provements made by the present pi-oprietor. 


On the Greencastle and Williamsport turnpike, two miles south 
of Greencastle, is the farm, mill and distillery of Mr. Robert John- 
son. The farm contains 124 acres of good land and the hiill and 
distillery are well known throughout the surrounding country. 
Dr. Johnson, who report says was blessed with four hundred and 
fifty pounds of a wife, was the first settler, and he took out a patent 
for all the country surrounding. About 1810 Dr. Johnson sold to 
Samuel Hunter, who twenty-five years later sold to Philip Weaveri 
Ten years afterwards Mr. Weaver sold to Joseph Whitmore, who^ 
after owning it for seven years, sold to Michael Zellers. Henry 
Miller, two years later, purchased it and kept it for five years, wheil 
Jolin H. Hartle became the owner. On October 29th, 1866, the pres» 
ent owner purchased from Hartle. The grist mill located on the 
property is a very old one, and Mr. Johnson has had it remodeled 
and steam power introduced. The distillery was built by Philip 
Weaver in 1838 and the mansion house in 1867. An addition of a 
bonded warehouse was made in 1867 and in 1872 the barn was 
erected. The distillery is known by the name of Spring Grove. 

248 Appendix!. 

Mr. Robert Johnson was born in Washington township, Frank- 
lin county, Pa., on June 22cl, 1825. In 1853 he was married to 
Margaret Stoops, of Quiney township, who was born January loth, 
1835. By this marriage Mr. Johnson has had seven children born 
to him, five boys, one of whom is dead, and two girls. In a pleasant 
country and a beautiful valley, Mr. Johnson has ever^'thing he 
could desire to enjoy life, which he no doubt does. 


The early history of the factory now owned by Mr. White, and 
a view of which appears in this Volume, is unattainable. Prior to 
1847 a small factory occupied the site of the present one. It was 
operated by a firm styled Carr & Crossley and owned by David 
Bigham. In 1846 this little concern was burned and Mr. Bigham 
erected the present well known building. It is ft)rty-five by sixty 
feet in dimensions and three stories in height, and is fitted up with 
the most approved machineiy for the manufacture of goods. Isaac 
Hawn was the first lessee, followed by VVni. Megary, who remained 
until 1855. la that year Messrs. Roberc Black and Samuel E. 
White purchased the property and operated it until 1860, under the 
somewhat unusual firm name of Black & White. In 1860 Mr. 
White purchased the entire interest and remained sole owner until 
his death, which occurred in 1871. Mr J. Burns White, his son, 
then leased the f roj^erty from the heirs and continued the manufac- 
ture of goods until 1873. At this time he became the owner, hav- 
ing purchased the shares of the other heirs, and the factory has beei» 
in constant operation ever since with a steadily increasing demand 
for the goods. Connected with it are some one hundred and fifty 
acres of ground much of which is still covered with valuable tim- 
ber. The dwelling is one of the most commodious and tasty private 
residences in the valley. It is built of stone and was erected many 
years ago by David Bigham, and entirely remodeled in 1867 by Mr. 
Samuel E. White. There is a fall of over nine feet, which can be 
increased to over eleven feet, and an average run equal to fifteen 
horse-power. The goods made here command a ready sale and are 
well and favorably known both at home and abroad. The principal 
articles manufactured are all kinds of knitting yarn, blankets, flan- 
nels, carpets, cassimeres and satinets. 

J. E. cook's farm. 

George Adam Cook, about the year 1745, emigrated to what is now 
known as Franklin county from York county. He took up, by 
warrant dated May 20th, 1776, a tract containing the farm at present 
owned by Jacob B. Cook. Mr. Cook settled upon this tract imme- 

Appendix. 249 

diately upon his entering the valley, and built where the present 
building stands, but the warrant was not granted until thirty-one 
years later. At that time there were but few residents thi'oughout 
what is now known as Quincy township. The settlers were few, 
and their bitter foes, the Indians, many. Numerous were the in- 
cursions made hy the redskins, and at one time Mr. Cook was way- 
laid on the farm now owned by Peter Whitmore. He. was driving 
his cows home, but the animals gave warning of the presence of the 
v/Wy savage, and he escaped. Afterwards he lost a horse, the In- 
dians shooting it in twelve places. This locality was a favorite 
camping place of the aborigines, especially adjacent to the place 
where the spring crosses the road. This fact is evidenced by the 
great numbers of arrowheads picked up in years past, and even yet 
turned up by the plow as it turns the furrows in the field below. 
There can still be seen on the farm, in full bearing, apple trees 
which were bi ought while saplings from York county, over 130 
years ago. 

The family name at that time was sjielled Koch, but has since 
been changed to Cook. Upon the death of George Adam Cook, the 
property descended by will to his son, Peter Cook, who was born in the 
present mansion house. This house was built about 1746, by G. A. 
Koch, remodeled in 1807 by Peter Cook, and again in 1861 by J. B, 
Cook. He raised a family of six sons and four daughters, and died 
at the ripe old age of 87 years. Two sons and two daughters are yet 
living. For over 130 years this farm has been in the possession of 
this family. Where, in 1745, George Adam Koch built his humble 
log cabin amidst the primeval forest, are now to be found cultivated 
fields, commodious houses, and all the comforts and conveniences 
brought by civilization in its onward march. 

The survey of the proposed Baltimoi'e and Cumberland Valley 
Railroad passes near the buildings. 


This property is located one mile southeast of Fayetteville and 
six miles from Chambersbnrg. Its early history is embodied in the 
original gi ant made to the Crawfords and mentioned elsewhere in this 
M'ork. John Crawford came into possession of the farm in question 
about the year 1796, having purchased a portion of it from his brother, 
and continued to own it until his death, whicli occurred about the 
year 1827, when it went into the hands of his son, Joseph Crawford, 
who has ever since made it his home. He is the youngest of twelve 
children, only one of whom, Mrs. M'Kee, of Chambersburg, beside 
himself, is still living. Mr. Crawford is one of the few men who 
can an uninterrupted residence on the same place for over 
half a century, during which time he has raised a family of five 

250 ApjyeTidiz, 

children, all of whom are now living. Four of these are at home, 
viz. : John, James, Mary and Agnes, and one ( Ann) resides in Iowa. 
All of the buildings now on the farm were erected by its present 
proprietor. The liouse was built in 1847 and the barn in 1841. There 
are about 280 acres included in this tract, and from the dwelling a 
beautiful view can be obtained of the surrounding country. In ad- 
dition to the buildings represented in our picture, there is a com- 
fortable tenant house on the place. A fine well of water close to the 
house and runninsj water in the fields. The Mont Alto Railroad 
passes through the farm, and as a desirable residence it is among the 
foremost in the county. 



This attractive and healthful resort, located five iniles south-east 
of Waynesboro' and two and a-half miles from Blue Ridge Summit 
on the W. M. R. R., has been made what it is by its present pro- 
prietor, Mr. V. B. Gilbert, a man of varied experience and great 
adaptability to the business in which he is now engaged. Having 
disposed of various enterprises upon which he had expended a 
number of years of his very active career, which began March 17th, 
1825, and after efFe<'ting a sale of the Waynesboro' hotel in the year 
18G7, he purchased the locality represented in our engraving, with 
the intention of living a private and retired life. Very much out of 
repair and dilapidated was the old wagon stand on the mountain 
when it passed into his hands, but fortunately for the comfort and 
enjoyment of its now frequent guests, both from city and country, 
it had found a proprietor, whose fondness for improvement would 
not let it continue in its antiquated condition, and the teamster of 
former days who was wont to crack his whip and jokes in front of 
the old hostelry would fail to recognize his former stamping ground. 
Renewed and renovated, even to the old mansion house, which had 
also to submit to the remodeling and improving process, he has 
made this elevated point on the South mountain, which commands 
a delightful prospect across the Cumberland Valley to the extent of 
30 miles, together with a view of all the different Mountain ranges 
as far as the eye can reach, one of the most attractive summer re- 
sorts in the State. This present delightful abode is surrounded with 
mineral springs, and is also provided with an abundance of the 
purest mountain water which supplies the hotel and bath houses. 
Provided with a profusion of the choicest fruit trees and grape 
vines and more than enough of land under the highest cultivation, 
mine host is at all times enabled to provide his tables with the best 
of viands. Very near to the mansion, on Red run stream, which 
abounds in speckled trout, is erected a very fine saw mill. The 

Appendix. 251 

park, which includes hill and dale, is made attractive by nu- 
merous spring's, many of which contain iron, magnesia and sulphur, 
and Its greatest attraction is one, unfailing in its character, which 
has a fall of 150 feet in less than that many yards. Mr. Gilbert, 
tired of frequent changes, has determined to make Buena Vista his 
permanent home, and with that ambition that belongs to those de- 
scended from an honorable ancestry, his constant aim is to preserve 
a reputation well earned, and one which he hopes to transmit un- 
sullied to those who may follow him. 

Valentine B. Gilbert is a son of the late John Gilbert, well known 
to the residents of the lower part of the county, who died, full of 
years and honors, whilst on a visit to his son Samuel in Ohio. His 
remains were brought back to Waynesboro' and safely placed at 
rest in the burial grounds of the German Reformed Church. The 
venerated mother of Mr. Gilbert still resides in Waynesboro'. 


[The following article from the Franklin Repository of May 2d, 
1866, written by the late G. A. Shryoek, Esq., will possess an al- 
most incalculable interest to those interested in the straw board 
manufacture in not only Franklin county, but elsewhere as well, 
being undoubtedly a full and authentic history of that branch of 
industry from its first conception. Comments are unnecessary and 
we copy verbatim.] 

The following article was written some time since, at the earnest 
solicitation of a number of friends of the author : 

The manufacture of paper from raw vegetable matter has much 
agitated the public mind, both in our country and Europe, since 
the scarcity of rags has rendered it impossible to keep pace with 
the consumption of paper in the various departments developed by 
literature and commerce Scores, if not hundreds, of persons claim 
to be the originators of the manufacture of paper from straw, wood, 
grass, corn huslvs, cane, &c. As I am one of this large family of 
claimants, I wish, through the medium of your paper, to give a 
history of the origin of tliis now indispensable article. I think its 
first introduction as Si staple article originated in Chambersburg in 
1829, as follows : 

Col. Wm. Magaw, of Meadville, Pa., was extensively engaged in 
the manufacture of potash, about 1825'-'28. As was customary, the 
ash hoppers were lined with long straw before the ashes were intro- 
duced. Magaw was in the habit of chewing the straw taken from 
the hoppers and pressing it on his hands, tlius discovering that it 
produced a substance united and fibrous, closely resembling the pulp 
out of which is made the ordinary wrapping paper. He concluded 

252 Appendix. 

that the material was adapted to the manufacture of jiaper. Aa T 
was as that time en<i:a<?ed in tlie manufacture of rag paper by the 
old method, at Hollywell Paper Mill, one and a half miles south 
of Chambersburg, Magaw wrote to me on the subject of his discov- 
ery. I encouraged him to visit Chambersburg, in July or August, 
1829, to fairly test the matter at Hollywell Pajjer Mill. The ex- 
periment was at that time and place made, and proved a decided 
success. I was so well satisfied of its practicability that I bought a 
large east-iron kettle of John V. Kelley, in Chambersburg, cribbed 
it with wood staves so that I could boil from seven hundred to one 
thousand pounds of straw at one filling, and made, for some weeks, 
from twenty to thirty reams per day. I was, at that time, intimate 
with John Jay Smith, Esq., Librarian to the Philadelphia Li- 
brary, and sent him quite a quantity of the straw paper as samples. 

Mr. Smith edited, I think, the Saturday Bulletin. His position 
as editor enabled him to give extensive circulation to the discovery. 
Not one claim was made to priority. The world was silent on the 
subject. The straw paper was distributed over this entire country 
and in Europe in pieces of from two inches square to a full sheet, 
and excited the astonishment of the paper manufacturers of the 
world. Mr. Smith had part of one issue of the Bidletin printed on 
straw paper; also a small lot manufactured into wall paper by Mr. 
Longstreth, in Third street, above Market, and had the hall of his 
residence, in Arch street, below Fifth, papered with the same. 
Both ground work and figure looked remarkably well. Mr. Smith 
then predicted that it would become one of the staple articles of the 
world, in opposition to those who laughed at the idea of straw tak- 
ing the place of rags. 

The material used at that time in the preparation of the straw was 
potash, exclusively, the supply of which was obtained by Mr. Smith 
from Grant & Stone, of Boston. I abandoned the manufacture of 
rag paper, and devoted my mill exclusively to the manufacture of 
straw paper for some months. In November, 1829, I visited the 
East to see a cylinder machine then in operation in Springfield, 
Mass., by Messrs. Ames. On my way I accidentally met with Mr. 
Lafflin, of Lee, Mass., at Hays' Pearl Street House, New York, and 
engaged him to build for me a small cj^linder machine at Hollywell 
Paper Mill, near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. This was cer- 
tainly the first machine that ever operated on that material. Within 
the first year I introduced the grooved wood roll for the manufac- 
ture of binders' and box boards, &c. These two manufactures were 
(as far as has been ascertained) the very first use of sti'aw paper as a 
staple article in our world. 

In the winter of 1829-'30 I purchased a steam boiler from Rush 
& Muhlenburg, of Philadelphia, of about fifteen horse-power, to 
cook the straw. The purchase was made by J. J. Smith, Esq. 

Appendix. 253 

With the new boiler machine I was enabled to make about from 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred reams of crown wrapping 
paper in twenty-four hours. I soon discovered that when the paper 
broke between the press roll and layboy it accumulated in (some- 
times) six or eight lamina round the press roll, and formed a solid 
and beautiful binders' board. I was thus led to introduce a gum- 
wood roll, instead of the top press roll, with a longitudinal groove, 
in which the pulp was not pressed. This soft pulp being removed 
with a piece of wood to suit, the board was stripped off the roll. 
Thus board after board was made and laid in packs ; then hung on 
poles, or spread out to dry. I bought a rolling mill from M. W. 
Baldwin, of Philadelphia, s* very superior one, and then introduced 
straw boards, by the efficient aid of J. J. Smith, into the Philadel- 
phia market, and it was alone by his energy that they superseded, 
in a limited degree, the junk or rope board. 

John Jay Smith, and many others, predicted that in a short time 
they would become (what they now are) one of the indispensable 
products of the world ; others said they were not worth as much as 
the stones in the street. I thus toiled and labored amidst adverse 
opinions, often almost brought to the pointof abandoning the man- 
ufacture. By observing the effect produced in removing the silex 
from the straw, by the use of potash, I experimented with lime, and 
found, by ajudieious use of that material, that it answered every 
purpose. I was then encouraged to extend my manufactures. I 
built a new mill-dam, widened the head race for nearly half a mile, 
built a new drying house, built additions to old Hollywell about 
ninety feet long by forty wide, three stories high ; four pulp en- 
gines; fitted all the second and third stories and attic for drying; 
new steam house with three tubs, eleven by eight feet. All this at 
an expenditure of about thirty-five thousand dollars. 

At the time under consideration M'Donald & Ridgley, of Balti- 
more, were the owners of Hollywell Paper Miil. Nicholas B. Ridg- 
ley visited Chambersburg in the winter of 1829-'30, and was so im- 
pressed with the manufacture of straw paper and boards, that he 
constituted me his agent to purchase from Wm. Magaw, of Mead- 
ville, the exclusive right to the manufacture for all the United States 
east of the Allegheny mountains. Magaw sent to Chambersburg, 
as his agent, Mr. Potter, a lawyer, then practicing in Meadville. 
He agreed on twenty-six thousand dollars for the above right. N. 
G. Ridgley arranged, in connection with the subscriber, to put Hol- 
lywell Paper Mill in the best possible condition, to fairly test the 
operation, and, when satisfied of its practicability, to build four 
mills, on? at Rochester, N. Y. ; one at Patterson, N. J., one at Old 
Chester, Pa., and one at Chambersburg. 

Encouraged at this time by the friendship of Mr. Ridgley and his 
vast means, I commenced and finished the improvements above 

254 Appendix. 

mentioned. When they were completed, Mr. Ridj^ley died of apo- 
|)lexy, and there being no written contract, I had to bear all the 
loss, and had everything swept away by M'Donald and the execu- 
tors of Ridgley. All the machinery connected with the manufac- 
tory at Holly well Paper Mill was made, under my direction, by the 
superior skill of John and Philip Nitterhouse, of Chamborsburg, 
the former of whom, now living in Chambersburg, is a witness 
to the truth of the above statements. Also, Hon. G. Chambers, B. 
Wolf, Esq.. D. Ward, E. L. Shryock and many others. In 1831 1 
received a proposition from Thos Chambers, Esq., to fornj a part- 
nership for the manufacture of straw paper and boards, at the mouth 
of the Falling Spring, where it empties into the Conococheague 
creek. He deputed me to ascertain from T. G. M'Culloh, Esq., Ex- 
ecutor of the estate of Samuel Purviance, the price of the old i)aper 
mill site, adjoining mills belonging to the Chambers' estate. 

The purchase was made. Thos. Chambers then concluded to build 
a furnace near Shippensburg, and handed over the old paper mill 
site, and partnership with me (by my consent) to S. D. Culbertson. 
The new firm was composed of S. D. Culbertson, Reade Washing- 
ton, Alex. Calhoun and G. A. Shryock. I to have one-third the oth- 
ers two-ninths each. The mill (the ruins of which now only re- 
main) was builton a much larger scale than contemplated by Cham- 
bers and Shryock. The new firm was G. A. Shryock & Co. In 
order to secure the entire water-right, the new firm leased all the 
mills on the bank for ten years, at twenty-four hundred dollars per 
annum. The driving part of the machinery was built by Donald 
Watson, of Baltimore, and the making portion by John and Philip 
Nitterhouse, of Chambersburg. Tlie mill had eight pulp engines 
and eight machines, easily making one thousand pounds per hour. 
The building was one hundred and fifty by fifty feet and fivestories 
high, had one hundred and two miles of drying poles, seventeen 
large dr3' presses, and every facility for the manufacture of boards 
and paper. The machinery was so perfect that the annual expense 
for repairs (except wire cloth and felts) did not exceed two hundred 

It is not difficult to tell the origin and progress of the manufac- 
ture of straw paper and boards, but who can tell the toil, labor, anxi- 
ety andmental agony endured for the first four or five years. As I 
am a christian man, I would not pass such another, though it were 
to buy a world of happier days. The single article of felting cost 
me over four thousand dollars before I ascertained what would best 
answer the purpose. In my life of experiments I made paper of 
every description of straw— wheat, rye, barley, oat and buckwheat 
—corn blade, all the grasses, com husks, white pine shavings, wil- 
low wood, refuse tan, also bleached straw, to resemble printing 
paper. But as rags of the best quality could then be bought from 

Appendix. 255 

two and a half to four and a half cents per pound, it would not pay- 
to bleach straw. I have also experimented on nearly all the veget- 
able growth of Texas, and had it not been for the Rebellion would 
now be manufacturing on Trinity River, in Texas, in connection 
with Colonel Hamilton Washington and Captain C. Washington, 
killed at Vicksburg. 

Remember, Mr. Editor, I only claim priority as one of the family 
of moderns, and do not pretend to occupy a place side by side with 
an old gentleman called Ptolemy Philadelphus, and Eumenes, of 
Pergumus, and their antecedents, neither Chinese or Japanese. But 
as to the introduction of straw paper and boards as a staple article, 
and operating by machinery, I claim to be the first, to which asser- 
tion let the living bear witness. 

Yours, respectfully, 

G. A. Shryock, 
No. 1213 Green street, Philadelphia. 


The little murmuring brook which has its origin on Kasey's 
Knob, a spur of the North mountain, and which now bears the 
name of Welsh Run, carrying its waters in a north-easterly direc- 
tion, to be emptied into the more turbid stream known as the West 
Branch of the Conococheague, had no special designation to dis- 
tinguish it from other rivulets of smaller size in the same south- 
western section of the county, prior to the year 1730. But about that 
time a body of emigrants from Wales made this locality their abode, 
and the stream acquired its name from their nationality. 

They were a church loving people, and in 1741 they organized the 
Lower West Conococheague Church, and built a rude log structure 
as a place of worship. This house stood at the bend of the creek, 
near the present residence of George Elliott, and was burned by the 
Indians in 1760. The next house of worship was built in 1774 on 
the ground where the present church building stands. It was a 
substantial edifice which stood for one hundred years, and was 
known as the "White Church," and the "Tent Meeting House." 

The present church was erected in 1871, and is a monument of the 
liberality of Elias D. Kennedy, of Philadelphia. In 1872 the con- 
gregation built, convenient to the church, a comfortable parsonage. 
The congregation having increased in numbers they erected in 1875 
a building for school purposes, which is named Kennedy Academy. 
To this new and excellent enterprise Mr. Kennedy also rendered 
material aid. The following are the names of the ministers who 

256 Appendix. 

have preached in the church since its organization. Rev. James 
Campbell, from Scotland, was the first minister, and continued to 
preach 15 years ; Rev. iHinlap followed, and supplied the church for 
a few j'ears about the time of the Indian War. Then, Rev Thomas 
M'Pherrin took charge of the church from 1774 till 1799. His death 
took place February 3d, 1892, at the age of 51, and hs remains lie 
in the graveyard near the church. Rev. Robert Kennedy a man 
and minister who exerted a great and lasting influence for good in 
the community, preached regularly one third of his time from 1802 
until 1811, when he resigned. Returning after 9 years, he contin- 
ued to supply the church until near the time of his death, which 
took place in October, 1843, at the age of 66. Rev. John K. Cramer 
was stated supply of (he church from 1855 to 1859. In 1870 Rev. A. 
S. Thorne took charge of the congregation, but continued only about 
one year. Rev. T. Creigh, D. D., pastor of the church at Mercers- 
burg, Pa., preached frequently at Welsh Run during the many 
years that the church was without a pastor. In the spring of 1873 
the congregation gave Rev. J. H. Fleming a call to become their 
pastor, which was accepted, and he was installed pastor of the 
church by a committee of the Presbytery of Carlisle on Octobt^r 
31st, 1873. Rev. F., still continues to fill the position, and the mem- 
bership of the church, which five years ago numbered 14, has now 
reached that of 65. The present elders of the church are Hugh B. 
Craig and John K. Keyser 

The original owner of the lands, Mr David Davis, gave to the 
church a farm which was sold years after, and the proceeds of that 
sale have long since disappeared. The ground now held and occu- 
pied by the. church as graveyard and church lot was bequeathed 
by Robert Smith about the year 1774. Said Robert Smith, 
having obtained a patent for a large tract of land, containing 300 
acres, and known as "Double Trouble," did, at his death will to the 
church three acres of ground. In 1795, Samuel, Oliver and Isaac 
Smith, sons of Robert Smith, deeded, for the sum of five pound.s 
specie, to John Rhea, Josiah Price and Robert Chambers, trustees 
of the church, and to their successors forever, the above named 
three acres of ground, which is yet occupied by the church. This 
deed, dated October 25th, 1795, is still in the possession of the Ses- 
sion of the church, is well and plainly written, and is justly regard- 
ed as an interesting relic of the early histoi-y of the church. The 
lot on which the Academy stands was donated by Flenry B. Angle. 
The name of the church was changed by a resolution of the con- 
gregation to "The Robert Kennedy Memorial Church." This was 
done in recognition of the kindness of Mr. E. D. Kennedy, who 
built the church, as well as in honor of Rev. Robert Kennedy who 
BO long and faithfully proclaimed the gospel in the old "Welsh Run 
Presbyterian Church." 

Appendix. 257 


Of the many fascinating summer resorts that adorn the great south- 
eastern boundary of the fertile Cumberland Valley, namely, the 
South Mountain, none promise to furnish greater attractions than 
the one in our sketch. Ready of access from Harrisburg, Hagers- 
town, Frederick, Baltimore aud Washington, it would seem as 
though even the stringent crampings of hard times would be unable 
to operate against the prosperity of this delightful resort. Pleasure 
seekers, and those in questof that greater boon, good health, can not 
go amiss in selecting the Blue Ridge Summit. Monterey, Clermont 
and Buena Vista vie with each other to afford the best of accommo- 
dations, and it rests with the proprietors of each to demonstrate 
which shall take the lead. The location occupied by the stately 
building represented in our picture was selected by David Miller, 
the father of the present occupant, in the year 1861. He was born in 
Lebanon county, in the year 1797. After his removal to this county 
he conducted the Monterey House for the period of five years, at the 
end of which time he purchased from Mrs. Gordon the site on 
which he erected the Clermont House in the years 1867 and 1868. 
He died December 8th, 1870, and the property has passed into the 
hands of David Miller, Jr., and his three sisters. Misses Sarah and 
Caroline, and Mrs. Catherine Waddell. The house, which, as will 
be seen, is three stories high, contains about seventy rooms and has 
accommodations for one hundred and fifty guests, and during the 
summer season the proprietors are overpressed with applicants for 
rooms. There are about 170 acres of land attached to this property, 
whose broad pastures, added to the mountain scenery, will ever 
make the Clermont House a favorite resort. 


The house which we represent is located on east Baltimore street, 
about 100 yards from the public square, and is built upon what is 
known on the town plot as lot No. 42. John Allison, the original 
proprietor, sold this lot to Wm. Scott in 1783, and from him it passed 
to John Rodeman iu 1791, who erected the front house now under 
consideration, in the year 1792. In 1797 he sold it to Robert McLan- 
ahan, and in 1801 Jacob Kreps became its owner. He continued to 
use it as a residence and hatter shop until the year 1829, when, on a 
sheriff's writ, it was sold to Polly and Sarah Weaver, who retained 
possession of it until 1842, when they disposed of it to Rudolph 
Heichert, who in the same year sold it to the Trustees of the German 
Reformed Church, who continued to use it as a parsonage until 1870, 
when it was purchased by its present occupant. Jacob Kreps erected 
the back building in 1818. This house, which has suffered but little 

258 Appendix. 

from the ravages of time, is built of logs, aud is weatherboarded. It 
is 48 by 24 feet, and the back building is 17 by 30 feet. Joseph H. 
Beeler is a native of Lancaster county, and moved to Greeneastle in 
1859, He is of German origin. His great-grandfather migrated to 
Berks county from Germany in the year 1758. His grandfather, 
John Beeler, was born on his father's farm in Bei'ks county, in 1776. 
And John Beeler, the father of Joseph H., was born on the same 
place in 1798. In the face of opposition and with a limited capital, 
Mr. B. opened his shop in Greeneastle in 1859, making some head- 
way under these adverse circumstances, he had the greater misfoi'- 
tune, in 1866, to have his entire establishment destroyed by fire. 
Still undaunted, he redoubled his energies, and can now bear testi- 
mony to the fact that liberal advertising, honest perseverance and 
strict economy in business must win in the end. He is now engaged 
in turning out work to the amount of from five to eight hundred 
dollars per month, at times employing as many as seven first-class 
workmen. Much of his work finds its way to the far west, whilst 
his reputation at home is such as to enable him to effect satisfactory 
sales. His wife, formerly Miss Ann Maria Stotler,- is a native of 
this county. They were married in 1871, and .ai'e surrounded by a 
family of four bright little ones. 


This very attractive place is located in Peters township, two and 
a half miles southwest of Mercersburg and a short mile from Leh- 
master's Station, on the 8. P. R. R., at which place there is a post 
office. This railroad runs within 200 yards of the mansion house, 
and the farm is bounded on the southwest by the West Conoco- 
cheas^ue Creek. The springs which supply the trout pools were 
formerly known as Dobbins' Springs. The land was first taken up 
by Robert Newell, in the j^ear 1742. It passed into the hands of 
General Thomas Waddle about the >ear 1800. In 1829 Thomas C. 
Lane became its owner, and in 1837 it was sold to Isaac Wanner, 
.and in 1859, at public outcry, to George Etter, the father of the 
present proprietor, who received his deed in 1862, having resided on 
the farm already for two years. The house and barn were built by 
General Waddle in the year 1812. If a Putnam and a Muhlenberg 
have made their names immortal by their prompt responses to their 
country's call, so also should the name of General Thomas Waddle 
pass down upon the page of history as one equally worthy of a 
country's gratitude and honor. Whilst this house, which has been 
remodeled by its present owner, in the year 1871, was being built, 
the nation called upon her brave yoemen to defend Baltimore. 
Hastily boarding up the windows of his unfinished house, General 
W. took up his trusty sword and marched to the front of the fray. 

Appendix. 259 

The foe had invaded hia nalive land and to protect it was also affording 
protection to his own fireside. The barn on this place was also built by 
General Waddle, but it, too, underwent a renewing process at the hands 
of Mr. Etter, in the year 1872. The house, which is built of atone is 64 
feet on the northern front and 33 feet deep. The barn is 92 feet long and 
50 feet wide. The farm which is chiefly of limestone, contains 217 acres 
about 25 of which are very choice timber. It is very productive, having, 
during the proprietorship of Gen. Waddle, at one lime produced as much 
as 42 bushels of wheat per acre. There is a fine orchard, and a viaeyard 
of 650 grape vines in bearing order on this place. But the enterprise 
which Mr. Etter has inaugurated, that of brook trout cultivation, is the 
most attractive to the lover of nature, or the casual visitor. His ponds, 
which are five in number, occupy a space of 100 feet in length by 75 feet 
in width. They average about 4 feet in depth, and are supplied by two 
fine springs, that flow at the rate of 400 gallons per minute. They con- 
tain at this time about three thousand fine brook trout, but Mr. E. 
estimates their capacity as far as oxygen and water supply is 
concerned, sufficient for the proper sustenance and full development 
of 10,000 trout in their difi'erent stages of growth. The food which 
he provides for this numerous family, per week, amounts to about 50 
pounds of beef scraps, and 8 gallons of thick milk to each 1,000 two year 
old trout. As will be noticed the expense of feeding is no small item, 
but up to this time Mr. E. has readily secured 50 cents per pound in the 
New York market, which he has supplied with 500 pounds for the last 
two seasons, and he expects to be able to furnish this spring (1878) about 
700 pounds, at a cost of $50 for feed. He has kindly furnished us his 
mode of procedure in propagating. 

The great grandfather of Mr. Etter, emigrated from Prussia, about the 
year 1750, to Dauphin county, where the grandfather of Mr. Etter, Henry 
Etter, was born in 1767. He died in Franklin County in 1828, having 
migrated from Dauphin County, in 1792, and is said to have been one of 
the first three persons of German descent who located in this county. He 
established himself in Guilford Township, and lived in an old fort which 
was erected as a defence against the Indians. At this place George Etter, 
father of Geo. W. Etter. was born in the year 1799. He died in Feters 
Township in 1864. 

In early times, what is now called Etter's Cemetery, situated within 
200 yards of the house, was known far and wide as Dobbin's Grave Yard, 
and within its enclosure lie the remains of many a sturdy settler, whose 
descendants have scattered far and wide, and perhaps forgotten the hardy 
pioneer, to whose labors and privations they are indebted for the com- 
forts they now enjoy. It is said that in the dark days of Indian warfare, 
the burial services were held with aitmed outposts guarding the mourners 
from the ambuscade of the dreaded savage. At one time it was contem- 
plated to erect a church at this point, but from some unknown cause the 
intention was abandoned, and Church Hill chosen instead. But the 
edifice there erected has long since yielded to the devastating march of 
time, and its name and location only exist in tradition. 

Mr. Etter was married to Mary Clapsaddle, Nov. 1859 ; they are enjoy- 
ing this delightful home surrounded by a family of five children, three 
sons and two daughters, who are all endeavoring to earn the content- 
ment that comes from a life well spent. 


Mercersburg College is the result of forces which date far back in the 
history of the Reformed Church in the United States, and its life an(J 

3fiO Appcndlr. 

growth are iatimately connected with her edncalinnal movements. It's 
first beginning was about 1880, as a High School, at \orli, Pa., in con 
uection with the Iteformed Theological Seminary, recently removed 
thither from Carlisle. Rev. Daniel Young, was the first High School 
Frolessor. He was an able and excellent man, but was in delicate health, 
and died within two years after his appointment. His successor was 
Rev. Fred. Aug. Ranch, D. D., a man of remarkable talent and earnest- 
ness. He came to this country in 1831, at the age of twenty-five, having 
already filled the position of Professor Extraordinary at the University 
of Geissen, in Germany, received an appointment as regular professor at 
Heidelberg, and published various classical, philosophical, and theologi- 
cal works, in Latin and iu German. In 1885, by order of the SynQd of 
Chambersburg, the Theological Seminary and High School were removed 
to Mercersburg, the latter was then erected into a college, with Dr. Ranch 
as Its first president, and Samuel A. Budd, A. M. as professor of Mathe- 

The State Legislature, in the session of 1835-G, granted a college char- 
ter, under the name of Marshall College. The Board of Trustees, rep- 
resentatives of Mercersburg, Zion's, Maryland and Virginia Classis, 
pushed the cause of the College with such vigor that in 183G, the present 
College building was erected, and houses for the professors were soon 
after built. The Goethean and Diagnothean Societies also erected beauti- 
ful halls, which are still standing. 

In 1850 Rev. J. Williamson Nevin, then professor in the Western The- 
ological Seminary, at Alleghany, Pa,, was elected Professor of Dogmatic 
Theology in the Seminary, and, on the death of Dr. Rauch, in 1841, suc- 
ceeded him as President of the College, Dr. Nevin received his early 
training in the Presbyterian Church, was a graduate of Union College, 
and studied theology at Princeton, under the venerable Dr. Hodge, being 
thoroughly indoctrinated in the tenets of the Presbyterian fathers. His 
association with Dr. Rauch brought him into contact with German phil- 
osophy, opening to him, as he has said, "a new world of thought." The 
"Church Question," as it was styled, received at that time much atten- 
tion trom the tUinkers of the Church. To it, Dr. Nevin applied his clear 
and massive intellect, and the result has been whaiis called "Mercersburg 
Theology." Thus the quiet village of Mercersburg, lying among the 
foot-bills of the Tuscarora range, in the south-western part of Franklin 
County, has become known wherever theology is taught or studied. 
Prom its Seminary came forth, as by inspiration, a stream of historical, 
christological theology, which, forcing its way through many obstacles, 
has spread out at length over the extent of Christendom. 

The "Mercersburg Theology" is as significant a term as the Augsburg, 
or the Westminster. It's promulgator and chief defender, Dr. J. W. 
Nevin, ranks with the great masters :n the church, and is held one of the 
foremost thinkers of the age. Through the controversies to which he has 
been challenged by men of fame here and abroad, the name of Mercers- 
burg has become imperishable. 

The work of the college was carried forward steadily, though at times 
Under financial pressure, until 1853, when Marshall College was removed 
to Lancaster, and consolidated with Franklin College, under the title of 
Franklin and Marshall College, the Theological Seminary remaining at 
Mercersburg. Nearly twelve years later, Rev. H. H. Harbaugh, D. D., 
of blessed memory, and Rev. E. E. Higbee, D. D., then professors in 
the seminary, men of observation and prudence, and fully alive to the 
wants of the church in her educational work, found that there was a 
strong desire for a college in this section, and a reasonable prospect of its 

Appendix. Ml 

success. They accordingly urged the Classis of Mercersburgto purchase 
the old college property, which hsad reverted to the citizens of Mercers- 
burg. The purchase was made, the school organized, and in 1865, the 
Court of Franklin Comity granted a very liberal charter to the Board of 
Regents of Mercersburg College. 

Rev. Thos. G. Apple, D. D., a graduate of Marshall College, and a 
student of Dr. Nevin's in theology ; a sound and logical reasoner, and 
very clear in the expression of his thoughts, was elected the first Presi- 
dent. He was assisted by an able faculty, and the fiist class through the 
regular course was graduated in 1871. The Theological Seminary was 
removed to Lancaster in 1870. Rev. Dr. Higbee then resigned bis chair 
(of Church History) in the Seminary, and Dr. Apple was elected to fill 
his place. To the Presidency of the College, left vacant by the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Apple, Dr. Higbee was elected by the Board of Regents. 

Rev. Dr. Higbee, who is now President, is a graduate of the Universi- 
ty of Vermont, and studied theology under Dr. Nevin and Dr. Philip 
Schaflf. He is a thorough classical scholar, and is eminently successful not 
only in imparting instruction to his students, but also in maintaining, 
with the aid of a faculty of able and energetic young men, the general 
discipline of the College. 

During the twelve years that have elapsed since its institution, Mercers- 
burg has been quietly, but steadily progressing in character and reputa- 
tion. It's standard of instruction is as high as that of the most renowned 
institutions of the kind in the country, and year by year it sends forth 
small, but thoroughly drilled classes of graduates. It has now a post- 
graduate course in Theology, in successful operation. It possesses abun- 
dant chemical and philosophical apparatus, and the college libraries, in- 
cluding those of its two literary societies, the Marshall and the Washing- 
ton Irving, number over four thousand volumes, and are constantly 
receiving additions from publications on both sides of the Atlantic, 


Tuis very elegant mansion, situated on East Main street, on lot No. 4 
adjoining the residence of the father of Mr. F. is constructed of brick and 
as will be seen is 3 stories high. It is elegantly furnished, even up to the 
roof, and furnished with all the modern conveniences. With a tank in 
the garret of a capacity of 35 barrels, it is supplied with hot and cold 
water troughout, and would be a credit to a large city, as it isto its proprie- 
tor. The dimensions of this house are 27 feet front by 100 deep. The 
lower room is used as a store room, and the balance, as the residence of 
Mr. Forney. At the rear end of the lot there is a very convenient stable. 
Mr. F. was engaged in tanning forabout 12 years, and a view of the estab- 
lishment will be found in this book, but he has also contributed to the 
prosperity of the town, by erecting a number of buildings, 5 of which he 
has now in the occupancy of tenants. Adam Forney, who is a son of 
Mr. L. S. Forney, was born Oct. loth, 1840. He married Ada, daughter 
of Wm. Dice, Esq., of Scotland, Pa., May 10th, 1870. They have two 
children, viz-, Wm. Dice, and Lillie. 

262 Appenillv. 


The bnil.linga repreaented in niir sketch consist of a stone log, cased 
with brick, and brick house, and also a very capacious barn. The J'arm 
which contains 17:{ acres of first quality of flint, gravel and limestone 
land, adjoining which Mr. Hege liaa another one ol" lOa acres, is situated 
a little south ol the Warmspring road, about six miles from Mercersburg, 
12 from Chamberaburg and U from Williamson Station on the S. P. K. K. 
The land was first taken up by a Mr. (Jlapsaddle, and was purchased 
from one of iiis descendants, George Clf.psaddle, about 03 years ago by 
John Hege, father of the present owner. Jacob H. at the time of the 
purchase was a boy. His father was born in Lancaster County Imt came 
to this county at the age of 14 years and resided with liis parents at 
Marlon. He married Mary, daughter of Jacob Lesher, near Greencastle. 
He resided on a farm belonging to his father-in-law until the death of 
Mr. Lesher which occurred on December 31st, 1813, when he purchased 
and removed on the property represented in the picture. At this time a 
cabin built of unhewn logs and roofed with clapboards, occupied a place 
now included in the front yard. This Mr. H. allowed to remain for about 
ten years, notwithstanding the fact that he had erected a larger log 
house 24 by 35 feet, the part of the present one that is now cased witii 
brick and forms the centre of the building. He also erected a stone 
kitchen, same width as the log house, and about 18 feet) long which also 
remains as built. Mr. Jacob Hege has made an addition, of brick, 17 feet 
long at the north end, which is also the same width as the log brick cased 
part. This is now occupied by him as a residence, the other portion being 
used by his son Jacob W. and his family. When this land was purchased 
by John Hege it was nearly all covered with heavy timber, only about 10 
or 5 acres having been cleared. The price paid for about 73 acres, was 
|G0 per acre, and afterwards he secured a large tract, some as low as $4 
per acre. At the time of his death, which occured in his 80th year, he 
was possessed of 700 acreu. He built a substantial log barn over 100 feet 
long with floors. This barn was torn away to give place to the one built 
by his son .Jacob in 18G7. The present brick barn contains 3 threshing 
floors, five long stables, one of which is 17 feet wide, constructed for the 
purpose of fattening cattle. The land which is somewhat rolling is well 
adapted to grain or stock raising, about 30 acres are still well covered 
with thrifty timber. There is a never failing well of good water, 23 feet 
deep, near the house. Two good cisterns, one at house the other at barn. 
There is a lime kiln of 700 or 800 bushels capacity on this place, the good 
effect of its product being demonstrated by the fact that the average yield of 
wheat is about 1,000 bushels, 1,000 bushels of corn, 1,000 bushels of oats 
as well as a goodly supply of hay. There is also a fine apple orchard in 
full bearing, and an abundance of small fruits. Jacob Hege was married 
Dec. 17th, 1844, to Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Weaver, of St. Thomas 
Township. They have two children Jacob W. and George. The former 
as already noted, living in part of the house represented, and the latter on 
the adjoining farm. Jacob W. was married to Mary, daughter of Joseph 
Kriner. They have had three children, viz: Elizabeth, John Henry, and 
an infant. John Henry is dead. George married Fanny, daughter of 
Samuel Etter, near Marion. They have one child named William Milton. 
The farm on which they reside contains IGo acres, which united with the 
other one, makes 438 acres. The Father of Jacob Hege and also his 
mother were buried on this farm in a family burying ground, known as 
Hege's graveyard. Hans Hege the progenitor of the Hege family, emi- 
grated from Schauff'hauscn, near Zweibrucken, at Ebcrstein Hoff, in Switz- 


Appendi.r. 268 

eriand. He landed in Philadelphia, Sept. 27th, 1727, having been a pas- 
senger on the ship "James Goodwill," David Crockett, Capt. He was 
accompanied by his brother-in-law Hans Lehman and about fifty-three 
other families. From Philadelphia they went to Rapho Township, Lan- 
caster County, and settled near Manheim. Mr. H. bought a farm there, 
where he remained all his life and was buried on his own place. 


This delightful place, late th£ residence, and old homestead, of the cel- 
ebrated Wilson family, is situated about seven and a half miles west of 
Chambersburg and about 3 miles from the village of St. Thomas. It 
was purchased by its present owner, Jan. 4th ia72, of James Shields of 
Mount Pleasant Borough, Westmoreland Co. Pa. , one of the heirs at law of 
the Wilson estate. The barn which is a very fine brick structure 102 feet 
long by 62 feet wide, was built in the year 1847, and the commodious 
house, which is also of brick 58 by 40 feet, was erected in 1848 by the 
surviving children of John Wilson, Sr., and Sarah his wife, but remained 
unoccupied as a residence until Feb. 1855. The deed from Wm. Steel, of 
Hamilton Township, at that time, Cumberland Co., Pa., to John Wilson, 
Township of Derry, Lancaster Co., Pa., bears date twenty— October A. 
D. 1779. The place then contained 212 acres ftnd allowance, and was 
sold for what would appear to be the enormous sum of nine thousand 
pounds. Remembering however that at that date the continental currency 
was at a very large discount, the price was probably much less than it 
would now bring without its valuable improvements. The family of 
John and Sarah Wilson consisted of seven sons and three daughters, viz: 
Moses, David, James, John, Alexander, William, Robert, Elizabeth W. 
afterwards Mrs. Shields, Florence, afterwards Mrs. Patton, and Sarah. All 
of these, with the exception of the two designated, continued in a state ot 
single blessedness. John Wilson, Sr., died Jan. 31st, A. D. 1826, aged 
about 76 years. Mrs. Sarah AVilson, after attaining the age of 96 years, 
3 months and 28 days, died July 1st, 1848. The children now all sleep 
with their fathers, Moses at the age of 80 vears, died Oct. 15th, 1861, David 
aged 78, died 27th Feb. 1862, James who died July 28th 1847, was 56 years 
■ old, John Jr., died March 10th, 1818 being yet in his 29th year, Alexan- 
der still younger, departed this life Sept. 24th 1823, at the age of 24 years, 
William attained the age of 71 years and died Jan. 29th 1869, Robert in 
the month of July, the 6th day, aged only 54, Elizabeth, Mrs. Shields, ex- 
ceeded the remarkable age of her mother and died March 23d, 1873, 97 
years old, Florence, Mrs. Patton, died March 6th 1855, aged 68 years and 
Sarah the munificient benefactress of Wilson College, in whose henor it was 
named, died Feb. 9th, 1871, aged 76 years. We have been thus careful to 
give this chronological list of deaths for the reason that amongst the many 
families and individuals who have resided in Franklin County none are 
more deserving to be kept in grateful rememberance than that of the Wil- 
sons. Not alone because of the aid that their honestly accumulated wealth 
afforded in establishing an institution of learning that is an honor to our 
county, but also because of the fact that one of the peculiar characteristics 
of these people was their unstinted liberaiity and humanity to the poor, 
and their fair and honorable dealings, not only with their many tenants, 
bui with the public generally. The old house around whose hearthstone 
this numerous family gathered for so many years, c©ntinued to be occu- 
pied by the surviving members until its destruction by fire in Feb. 1865. 
It will bo noticed that the present brick structure was erected in 1848, yet 

264 A'ppendix. 

notwithBtauding its allracUve appearance and couimodioua apartments 
the recollections of childhood days were so entwined around their heart- 
strings that nothing but the devouring element was able to cauae them to 
leave, for better accommodation, those made dear by memory's cariy hours. 
With the old building many valuables, consisting of money, bonds and 
notes, together with a lavish supply of bedding and other household goods 
were destroyed, and even title papers, in the iron safe, were so charred as, 
in some instances, to be rendered illegible, as was the case with the baJ- 
lance of the date on the first deed of this farm. 

John Walker, Esq., the present well and favorably known proprietor, 
was born in St. Thomas Township, April 24th, 1824. His grandfather 
Robert Walker was a native of Ireland and landed in Philadelphia, Aug. 
23d, A, D. 1786. On the first of September of the same year he located 
near Franklin Furnace, and soon after commenced the erection of the 
first ftiUing-mill west of Carlisle, employing as a power and appropriating 
the site now used by the saw-mill of Mr. John Heckman. He died April 
10th A. D. 1837 aged 78 years. George Walker, the father of John, was 
born Feb. 21st, 1790 and died June 13th, A. D. 1868 aged 78 years, leaving 
two children, one daughter, now Mrs, George Sprecher, and the owner of 
the place under consideration. John Walker has been twice married, his 
first wife was Sarah, daughter of Wm. Gillan, Esq., of Hamilton Town- 
ship, now deceased, to whom he was married March 12th, 1846. She 
died in 1869 at the age of 43 years leaving an interesting family of seven 
children, three sons and four daughters. His second wife, Sarah Shields 
of Hamilton Township formerly of Westmoreland County, is one of the 
descendents of the Wilson family, being a granddaughter of Elizabeth 
W. They were married in 1873, and have one child a son. Few men 
who have entered into the matrimonial venture, for the second time, are 
as fortunate as has been Mr. W. , at least the writer is acquainted with no 
one who has drawn two prizes of equal worth. At the time of the pur- 
chase of the farm, for which he paid |14,627.32 it contained 241 acres, but 
Mr. Walker, who has another farm but a short distance away, has reduced 
this one to 143 acres. 


In the year 1873 Dr. Ripple of Waynesboro', Pa., purchased the site 
on which his very convenient home is now located. At that time it was 
occupied by an old school building. The lot has a width of 83 feet, is 200 
feet deep, and the hosse standing back 65 feet from the pavement, is 
adorned with beautiful shade trees. It is 42 feet front by 30 feet deep, 
and has a back building 30 feet long attached. The paternal ancestors of 
Dr. R., three or four generations back, were natives of Germany, and 
their first settlement in this country, at a very early date was in Hagcrs- 
town, Md„ where they engaged in agriculture. In the year 1810 Lewis 
Ripple, the grandfather of the Doctor, purchased what is now known as 
the Monterey Springs property, at that time occupied by an old log house 
which was used a tavern stand. This Mr. R. removed and erected in its 
stead a commodious stone structure together with the necessary out build- 
ings. The property then became widely known as Ripple's Tavern. 
About SIX years after, the hotel building proper, was destroyed by fire, but 
was rebuilt by its proprietor who continued to keep a favorite place of ac- 
commodation for man and beast until about the year 1840 when he dis- 
posed of it to Samuel Buhrraan, and removed to Waterloo now Rouser- 
ville, where he again engaged in the hotel business and continued so era- 
ployed until the time of his deathi His family consisted of four sons 
John, James, Joseph and Lewis, and five daughters Elizabeth, Matilda, 

Appendix'. 365 

Harriet, Margareta and Julia Ann. Of tliese tlie two oldest sons John 
and James are dead. Joseph, the father of the Doctor, was born m the 
year 1813 and when he had attained a sufficient age he entered the employ 
of his father, taking charge of one of his teams, of which he had several 
for the purpose of conveying freight to and from the cities of Baltimore 
and Pittsburg. He continued at this business until about the year 1845 
when he engaged in farming near Beaver Creek Md. He was married in 
1835 to Mary daughter of Mr Sheeler who lived on the property now 
owned by Christian Shockey north of Rouzerville. Mr R. resided for 
some years iu Maryland after which time he purchased, from his father 
75 acres of land near Rouzerville, about the year 1850, upon which he re- 
mained until 1865 when he disposed of it to Christian Shocky and pur- 
chased the farm upon which he is now living, but which he sold, 
in the spring of 1876, to his sen. Dr. J. M. Ripple in whose possession it 
still remains. This farm is situated about one mile from Waynesboro', 
near the Baltimore and Pittsburg turnpike, and 3 miles from the Waynes- 
boro', station of the W. M. R. R. It contains 130 acres of highly culti- 
vated land, and is supplied with very attractive buildings which were 
erected in 1863 by James Brumbeck. The soil is limestone and is well 
adapted to the production of grain, or for stock raising. The surface is 
rolling and is well watered by two fine springs which empty into a stream 
running nearly parallel with the farm, the house is supplied by a well of 
excellent water. The capacity of the farm, which, by judicious culture, 
is being year by year increased, has been as much as 30 bushels of wheat 
per acre. Dr. J. M. Ripple, who graduated from Jefi'erson Medical Col- 
lege in the spring of|1868,and who immediately upon his graduation located 
in Waynesboro', was compelled to hew his own way to the honorable 
position which he now occupies, and the remarkable energy which he 
displayed in early life a£"ord3 the secret to his present success. He was 
married in the year 1873 to Margaret Lee, daughter ot Jacob B. Cook, 
Esq., of Quincy Township, and has two children Joseph and Martin. 


Whilst we are satisfied that our artist has done justice to the above 
named commodious place of entertainment we are certain that the guests, 
and they who chance to be made the recipients of the kind and generous 
attention of the gentlemanly host, Mr. M. G. Minter and his estema- 
ble family, can alone give full credit to this establishment. The hotel 
property is owned by Mr. Jacob J. Miller, who purchased it April 1st, 
1867 from Valentine V. Gilbert and Rebecca his wife. It is located on 
the north-west corner of the diamond, is built of brick and contains 30 
rooms. The dining room, that which is of so great importance in a hotel, 
is 18 by 40 feet, and has had gathered around its sumptuous tables as 
many as 83 regular boarders. The house can accommodate 75 guests, and 
the stabling has a capacity for the care of 50 head of horses. The lot 
occupied by a large portion of this property is what is known as No. 30 
on the general plan of the town, and was conveyed by John Wallace, the 
original proprietor, on the 37th day ot June 1798 to Michael Stoner, Sr., 
and Elizabeth his wife, from those parties to Christian Funk and Jose- 
phine his wife. From Christian Funk and wife it passed into the poses- 
sion of Francis Bowden and Mary Ann his wife. The deed from Bowden 
and wife to V. B. Gilbert, is dated August 1st, 1865. The hotel, which 
contains a large store-room, occupies a frontage of 84 feel and has a 
depth of about the same extent. It was built in the year 1818 by Michael 
* Stoner, 8r., and the east end, has ever since been used as a hotel. In its 

SGfi Appendiv. 

general appearaace, and all its appliances, it does full credit to the enter- 
prising town of Waynesboro'. 


Tlie region which is fringed by the South Mountain, so replete in min- 
eral wealth, and constituting some of the most productive farms in this 
county, appears to have been settled upon by sturdy Irish, and Scotch- 
Irish and their descendents at a very early period. The homestead which 
we represent in our picture is located about G miles south-east of Cham- 
bersburg, in Guilford Township, near the little village of New Guilford. 
It is about 2 miles from Fayettevillc station on the Mount Alto Railroad. 
The land was taken up by Richard Cowden in the year 1762, from whom 
it passed into the possession of the Wallace family, The first buildings, 
which remained until about GO years ago, were of stone and logs. These 
have disappeared and the present house which is also of logs, weather- 
boarded, with a brick extension, was built in the spring of 1820 by Rebecca 
DufiQeld, the grandmother of the present proprietor. It has on several 
occasions been remodeled by his father, Simon Duffield, and by himself. 
The barn which is built of stone, frame and brick, is 94 feet long and was 
erected by its present owner in the year 1866. The farm contains 110 
acres, 20 of which are well covered with excellent limber, viz: hickory, 
white and black oak. It is in a tine state of cultivation, and is adapted to 
the production of all kinds of grain. Having an abundance of lime-stone 
and the facilities for the conversion of it into lime, the time is in the far 
distant future when this will be known as any other than a fertile, thrifty 
place. The grandfather of the present well-to-do owner of this land, 
William DufiQeld, a native of Ireland, arrived in this country sometime 
during the Revolutionary war, and entered into the service of his adopted 
country. After the expiration of his enlistment he married into the 
Wallace family and raised a family of live sons and two daughters, viz: 
Simon (father of Pharcz) Josiah, Philip, James, William, Anne and Sarah. 
These all sleep with their ancestors, James the last one having died Jan. 
24th, 1878 at an advanced age. Josiah, the date of whose death is not 
known, encountered the perils of war at Baltimore in 1812. Simon Duf- 
field, who was born in 1780 on this farm continued to reside here until 
the time of his death which occurred in 1856. His mother also died in 
the same house having resided there during her widowhood. Pharcz 
DufBeld married Sarah Jane, daughter of George Cook, Esq., of Quincy 
Township, in the year 1849. He came into possession of this property by 
inheritance and purchase, in the year 1856. His children numbering six, 
consist of four sons and two daughters, viz: Cassius W,, John J., Mar- 
shall C, George P., Sarah E., and Ida J. 


The buildings represented in the sketch are situated in Waynesboro', on 
a lot on East Main street, which formerl}' belonge'l to the Gar'land estate. 

The tannery was erected in the spring of 1831, was remodeled and 
enlarged in 1858, and has a capacity of two thousand hides per annum. 
Philip Forney, Sr., great grandfather of L. S. Forney, emigrated at a 
very early date from France. His son Philip, (grandfather of L. S. 
Forney) was born Sept. 29th, 1724; was married May 18th, 1753, and had 
ten children. Mr. Philip Forney, Jr., died Ftb. 17lh, 178JJ, and his wife, 
Elizabeth, died August 10th, 1794. 

Adam Forney, (father of L. S. Forney,) was born June loth, 1754. 
He married Rachel, daughter of David Schrieber, who lived near Win- 
chester, Md., Oct. 26th, 1784. She was born Jan. 7lh, 1767. Their family 
consialed of ten children. 


Appendix. 2G7 

David Schrieber, Sr. (grandfather of L. S. Forney,) was a member of 
the Maryland State Legislature for many years. His son David, was, 
when a boy, pressed into service in the Continental Army under Gen. 
George Washington. He was afterwards educated, and appointed to a 
position on the U. S. Engineer Corps, which he held for a considerable 
length of time. He assisted in the survey of the Mason & Dixon's Line, 
and in the laying out of the National Eoad from Baltimore, Md., to 
Wheeling, Va. He held a government position until within a few years 
of his death. 

L. S. Forney was born in Hanover, York County, Pa., May 26th, 1805, 
and was the youngest, save one, of a family ot 10 children, 5 of whom are 
still living. Samuel the eldest of the surviving members, was born March 
8th, 1790, and now resides at Gettysburg, Pa. Mr. L. S. Forney was 
married Nov. 1st, 1882, to Mary, daughter of Jacob Hollinger. She was 
born Nov. 5th, 1811, and died Jan. 2§d, 1873. They had eleven children, 
three of whom died in infancy, the rest are still living. Although ad- 
vanced in years, Mr. Forney is still actively engaged in business. He has 
contributed very largely to the prosperity of the town in which he has 
spent so large a portion of his useful and unobtrusive life. His residence, 
situated on East Main St.,— one of eieven brick houses erected prior to 
1831, was purchased by its present occupant in 1854. 


This homestead is located about 3^ miles south-west of Waynesboro' on 
the public road leading to Hagerstown. At a very early date the land, of 
which this constitutes a part, was taken up by Henry Miller, the great 
grandfather of the present owner. Deeds in possession 'of the family, 
show that its proprietorship dates back to 1786, and it has continued in 
the Miller name ever since. Henry Miller who was a native of Germany, 
entered the patriot army and served during the entire period of the Revo- 
lutionary war. After his death the property passed into the hands of 
his son whose name was also Henry. At the death of Henry, Jr., it be- 
came the property of his son Samuel, and is still ownedby his heirs. He 
had three sons, John, Samuel and Henry. John Miller the father of 
Jacob J. is still living, at the age of 77 years, on part of the homestead. 
He married Eve Harbaugh about the year 1831. They have three chil- 
dren, viz: Jacob J. Daniel R. and Susan, now Mrs. Benjamin Funk. The 
farm represented by the illustration contains 163 acres. The buildings, 
which are very attractive, are of brick, and the barn which is 80 by 54 
feet, in it3 convenience and finish, is cousidered one of the best in that 
section of the county. It was built in 1873 and has a never failing well 
of water beneath a portion of it. The present owner of this place is the 
architect, ot and superintended the construction of all these buildings. 
Whilst the house was being erected in 1863 the memorable battle of 
Antietam was fought, and few can imagine the anxiety and consterna- 
tion of Mr. M. during these troublous times, but with a rarely equaled 
amount of energy he pushed forward the work to completion. The soil 
of this very productive farm is of limestone, and its greatest capacity 
has been as much as 45 bushels of wheat to the acre, but this was ex- 
ceptional. The average production is from 30 to 25 bushels. Mr. Miller, 
who is also the owner of that capacious and well known hostelry, the 
Waynesboro Hotel, moved upon this property shortly after his marriage 
which occurred Feb. 19lb, 1856. His wife was Elizabeth C, daughter 
of Harry and Susan Funk. The children of Jacob J. Millor and wife 
are seven in number, viz : John J. H., Adolphus B., Martha S., Charles 
Ottis, Daniel L., Mary Elizabeth and Etta Viola. 

208 Appendir. 


This farm, 'wliicli is now owned by Frederick B. Crawford, but occu- 
pied by his brother Milton, io situated in Guilford Township, about one and 
a half miles from Fayetteville and one mile from the Mount Alto Railroad, 
and is part of the original tract taken up by Edward Crawford, a native 
of Drumgavan, near Donegal, Ireland, and at that time (1740) known by 
the name of Clearfield. He erected the first buildings of log, which re- 
mained until about the year 1882, when the house was torn down and re- 
built, about 50 yards from the original site, by his grandson, James 
Crawford, using the same material. This building is still standing. The 
house and barn which we represent, and which are of brick, were built 
by James Crawford, the former in 1828 and the later in 1838, and have 
not received any alteration or change since then, except by the great 
mutator of all things earthly, old Father Time. The dimensions of the 
house are GO by 25 feet, and the barn 72 by 50 feet. The farm, which is 
ef limestone soil and very productive, contains 171 acres, of which about 
'SO are in choice oak and hickory timber. It has a fine stream of water 
running through it, and as an evidence of its productiveness we will state 
that its last year's crops (1877) consisted of 1,300 bushels of wheat, 2,500 
bushels of corn, 500 bushels of oats and about 80 tons of hay. The family 
history of these descendents of the first Edward Crawford deserves more 
than a passing notice at our hands. Whilst most of them have been un- 
obtrusive in their characters, yet as a family they have been noted for their 
intelligence, and for possessing that old styled gentility that unfortunately 
at the present day is giving way to the leveling influences of that reckless- 
ness that is inaptly denominated progress. Of the family of Edward 
Crawford, consistinir of nine children, viz: Martha, John, James, Eliza- 
beth, Ruth, Edward, Joseph and Mary, John and Edward were soldiers 
of the Revolution. John, who was a Lieutenant, was captured, together 
with 2,300 other prisoners, at Fort Washington, and was kept in custody 
on Long Island during the remainder of the war. We append to this 
article a letter written by him to his father, which demonstrates the fact 
that there were hard money men in his time as well as now. Edward 
Crawford will be still remembered by some of the oldest residents of the 
county as the clerk of the first court ever held in Chambersburg. Joseph 
was killed by the Indians. John and James inherited the farms and in 
179G John, in consideration of 300 pounds paid to his brother James, 
became proprietor, of the 341 acres held by said brother. James removed 
to Mercersburg where he died ; and in 1827 John died on the same larm 
on which he was born. His family consisted of eleven children of whom 
but two now survive, namely Joseph and Beckie, now Mrs. McKee, relict 
of the late Matthew Mckee. Holmes, one of the number, was for many 
years the honored head and front of the old Chambersburg Saving Fund. 
He also was a soldier of the war of 1812 and was present at the siege of 
Fort McHenry. For a long time a resident of Chambersburg, no one ever 
enjoyed a more unsullied reputation for integrity and for everything that 
goes to make up the christian gentleman. James Crawford, the father of 
the present OAvner, and also of the present occupant of the farm, died 
Jan. 18th, 1872. His family consists of three sons John E., Frederick 
B., and Milton. John Crawford died May 1875 and has also left three 
children, viz; Walter B., Jane Ann and Martha. Joseph Crawford, full 
of years, and revered by all who know him, is still living on his farm. 
He together with his brothers James and John inherited the farms which 
made up this very valuable tract of productive 'land. All of the original 
tract of land which was owned and occupied by the first Edward Crawford 

A2)pendic. 2G9 

in 1740, still remains in the possession and occupancy of his descendenta. 
First letter written by Lieutenant John Crawford, to his parents after 
he was taken prisoner. 

New, November 31st, 177G. 

Honored Father and Mother : — I am a prisoner here and without clothes 
or hard money, only what was on me when I was taken. I left my 
clothes with Eddy the other side of tho river, expect to get them again, I 
would be glad you could send me some hard jnoney as no other will pass 
here. I have the liberty of walking the streets. You need not be uneasy 
about me. I am well at present and live in hopes to see you yet. I am 
your dutiful son and humble servant. 

Lieutenant John Crawford. 

I was taken the ItJth inst., at Fort Washington with about two thousand 
three hundred more. 


This fine brick structure which is located near the east end of Seminary 
street, adjoining the borough of Mercersburg, is 30 by 37 feet with a back 
building 18 by 32 feet, and was erected by Mr. H. in 1877. The land upon 
which it was built was purchased in the same year from Mr. A. R, Snively. 
The farm of Mr. Hoke is located in Montgomery Township, about 3 miles 
south of Mercersburg. It was purchased from John Myers in 1866 by 
Michael Hoke, Jr., who willed it to its present owner in 1873. It con- 
tains 196 acres, is provided with a brick dwelling house and stone barn. 
There are 4 good wells of water, 3 at the house and 3 at the barn. The 
lime kiln on the place has a capacity of 1,100 bushels. The fencing is of 
very good quality. The grandfather of Mr, A. M. Hoke, Michael Hoke, 
Sr., was born April 35th, 1763, and died Nov. 15th, 1846; Elizabeth, his 
wife was born Jan. 11th, 1770, and died Aug. 30th. 1833; Michael Hoke, 
Jr. , was born Oct. 19th, 1808, and died Oct. 80th, 1875 ; Hannah Bossman , 
his wife was born June 33d, 1813, and died Nov. 13th, 1851). 

farm and residence of ADDISON IMBRIE, ESQ , GREENCA3TLE, PA. 

The very attractive place represented in the sketch, is situated just 
outside of the borough limits, on the turnpike leading from Mercersburg 
to Waynesboro'. The large and commodious house is constructed of 
brick, in the modern style, and in its internal arrangement is very con- 
venient. The barn, which is built of stone and frame, is intended 
to secure the product of the 75 acres of fertile land which serves to make 
np this place. Mr. Imbrie who is a son of John Imbrie, a now deceased 
citizen of Beaver County, came to this country in 1843, and engaged in 
merchandizing at Mercersburg. He moved to Greencastle in 1861, where 
he continued the mercantile pursuit until 1863, when he engaged in the for- 
warding and commission business, to which he atill devotes nearly all 
of his time. He purchased the place, which we have just attempted to 
debcribe,in the year 1875, and occupied it at once. 

270 Appendi.c. 


This substantial edifice, erected at a cost of $9,004.11 under the con- 
tractorship of John Waidlich, was commenced in the spring of lb07 and 
was consecrated to the service of the Triune God on the oth of July IHObi. 
Prior to the year 1740, the now widely extended denomination of Chris- 
tians know as the Evangelical Lutheran Church, was unknown in this 
section of the State, the first families having settled in what is now styled 
Franklin County in 1742. In 17G5 Bev. John George Eager, who resided 
at Cone w ego, YorkCounty, began to make semi-annual visits to the Luth- 
eran settlements, preaching the word, catechising and confirming the 
youth and administering the holy sacraments. The members of the de- 
nomination in the region of Mercersburg were organized into a congre- 
gation by Kev. John Ruthrauff about the year 1800. They worshiped in 
an old log house until the year 1813, when a stone church was built on 
the old site, conjointly by the Lutherans and German Reformeds. Rev. 
Ruthrauff resigned in 1827 and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Shultze, who 
served the cnurch for two years. In 1830 Rev. Mr. Baughey became the 
pastor and contiued in that'capacity until 1832, when Rev. Reuben Weiser, 
now the venerable Doctor of Divinity who resides in Georgetown, Colo- 
rado, took charge. During his ministry, the church building was re- 
paired at a cost of $1,000,00. The church membership at that time being 
GO. Rev. Weiser resigned in 1835, and left his pastorate in a prosperous 
condition. From 1835 to 184G, no stated pastor had charge of this flock, 
but at the end of this period, Rev. Michael Eyster, who had taken charge 
of the congregation at Greencastle, also preached at Mercersburg, He 
resigned in 1849 and in 1851 was succeeded by Rev. P. P. Lane, who 
also^resigned in 1853, after which Rev. M. M. Bachtel served the church 
for one year. In 1854 Rev S. McHenry was settled as pastor in the Mer- 
cersburg charge, which position he occupied until 1859, when he was 
immediately followed by Rev. G. Roth. In June 1860 the Sunday School 
was organized, and in the spring of 1863 Rev. Roth resigned, and was 
succeeded by Rev. A. M. Whetstone, Jan. 1st, 1866. Having been called 
to the Lutheran church at Somerset, Rev. W. took leave of his devoted 
people, and was succeeded, Feb. 1872 by Rev. A. J. Hessan, the present 
pastor. The church at this time has a membership of 210. The lot occupied 
by the church and parsonage was bought for the sum of $820, and during 
the summer and fall of 187G the parsonage was built at a cost of $4,800, 
under the supervison of Waidlich & Bros., who where also the architects. 
It was occupied in the spring of 1877. 


This very valuable plantation was taken up in two tracts, the north end 
consisting of about 108 acres was surveyed on a warrant in the name of 
Wm. Rankin, dated May 8lh 1751. The other consisting of about 210 
acres was surveyed on application of James McFarlan, the date of which 
was March loth, 1767. That taken up by Rankin was purchased by 
McFarlan Oct. 30th, 17G5, and after the location of the other it was all 
known by the name of the McFarlan tract. In 1804 John Wilson, the 
father of the celebrated Wilson family, became its owner. The first 
buildings, consisting of a log house and barn, were erected by James 
McFarlan, these remained, the barn until 1844 and the house until 184G, 
when the present substantial and attractive buildings were placed in their 
stead by the heirs of John Wilson. The house as will be seen is a two 
story brick edifice constructed in the form of au L. The barn which is 

RES.or PHAREZ DUF FIELD guilford twp. frmkun CO. pa?""?^^^ 


Appendix. 271 

one hundred and one feet long is also of brick. At the present time 
about eighty acres, of these three hundred and eighteen, are well set 
with thriving timber. As it is located on the dividing ridge between the 
Slate and limestone regions, the land is of good quality and is well 
adapted for either grain or stock raising. It is rolling in character and 
is well watered by a stream running through it. The largest production 
of wheat in one year was about 1,500 bushels. Mr. Croft became the 
owner of this place in the year 1871, having purchased it from Mrs. 
Elizabeth Shields of Westmoreland County, at that time the only surviv- 
ing member of the Wilson family, the price paid being |23,100.00. One 
very remarkable circumstance connected with Mr. Croft's relation with 
this place is the fact, that he resided on it, and conducted the farming 
operations, for ?>o consecutive years as tenant of the Wilsons, a strong 
evidence that his integrity was such as to merit the respect and confidence 
of his landlords. Mr. C. has always lent his aid in improvements of all 
kinds, but in no one thing has he contributed to the wellfare of his neigh- 
borhood in a greater desree than in his efforts to elevate the grade of the 
neat cattle of the county. His iirst purchase of thorough bred cattle 
was in the year 1873, the first pair "Albert" a herd book animal, got by 
the "Duke of Hewston," was from the farm of Charles W. Wordsworth, 
of Livingston County N. Y.. and "Edith" also a herd book heifer, got by 
the 4th "Grand Duke of Oxford," from the farm of James Wordsworth, 
of Genessee, N. Y. His second purchase was from the lierd of S. F. 
Letton, Paris, Ky., and consisted of a thorough Hbred animal named 
"Adina's Duke," sired by "Loudon Duke 2d." This animal was sold 
by Mr. Silas Corbin, of Paris, Ky. The fine south-down ram No. 271 
was purchased from John D. Wing, of Duchess County, N. Y. Thrown 
upon his own. resources very early in life, Mr. C. has worked his way, 
through many tribulations, up to the enviable position he now occupies. 


The works represented in our sketch are situated on South Railroad 
avenue, Greencastle, Pa. They consist of wood and paint shops, black- 
smith shop and warehouse. They have a capacity of about 50 new 
machines per annum, besides repairing, &c. Mr. H. employs 10 men 
besides salesmen through the country. His sales last year (1877) amounted 
to 53 new vehicles and 75 secondhand ones, and the value of the repairing 
was to the extent of $2,800. Four years ago, the successful proprietor of 
this large and growing business, commenced at this place, in these shops, 
but had been engaged in manufacturing carriages nearly all the time since 
he entered upon his trade at the age of 14 years. He employs none but 
first-class workmen and has everything done under bis own supervision. 
These buildings which are all trame, were erected 4 years ago and as 
soon as completed were occupied by Mr. H. A great deal of the work 
manufactured here is shipped west and south, to Maryland, Virginia, «&c., 
and in as much as all styles and classes of work are turned out, the re- 
quirements of even the most exacting can be met. The proprietor, not- 
withstanding his large sales endeavors to keep a supply of all kinds of 
vehicles on hand, and is prepared to repair, or construct new work on the 
shortest notice. The energy of Mr. Harper is very commendable when we 
consider that during the dark days of the Rebellion, whilst living at 
Greenmount, 10 miles from Gettysburg, he was stripped of all he pos- 
sessed. His property consisting of store j^oods was appropriated, his 
carriage works were used as a hospital, and all of his movable effects 
were consumed by the armies, both Union and Confederate. And as if 

272 ApTpendix, 

not content with thna reducing an nnoflendinp; citizen to penury, the das- 
tardly iavaders at last took his bodj', and carried it, as well as that of his 
aged father to be incarcerated in their hellish prison pens. Wni. Harper, 
the father of J. A., who during nearly his whole life liad followed farm- 
ing, was captured as a private citizen at Gettysburg, was taken to Salis- 
bury, North Carolina, and after having endured all the privations, and in- 
fernal tortures of rebel prison life, for the period of 18 months he died, 
with the sole comfort of having the attendance of his faithful son, J. A. 
Harper, who was captured whilst acting as Post-master at his home, 
Qreenmount. He was first taken to Staunton, Va., where he was kept two 
weeks, then taken in a box car to Richmond. Va., and thrown into 
"Castle Lightning," here he was stripped of all his valuables, money, etc., 
and on the same day was taken to Libby Prison, where he remained 4 
weeks. From there he was removed to "Castle Thunder," where he re- 
mained but a short time, when he was taken to Salisbury, North Carolina, 
and was put into the Rebel Penitentiary, where he was confined until 
Feb. 23d, 1865. His father, Wm. Harper, was taken sick directly after 
reaching Salisbury, and had the tender care of his son, who was acting 
as hospital steward, and when he died his remains were carefully buried, 
the son, under guard, being allowed to attend to the sad rites. Two 
brothers of J. A. Harper, George and William served in the Union army 
during the rebellion. William was in the cavalry that burned the Salis- 
bury Prison, only one day after his brother J. A. was removed with the 
other prisoners to Richmond. After the war he engaged in rail roading, 
and was a conductor on the unfortunate train that met with the fearful 
calamity at Ashtabula, Ohio, and is supposed to have been among the lost 
as he has never been heard of since. George is now living in Harrisburg. 
J. A. Harper, after his fathers death, was shipped back to Richmond and 
again incarcerated in Libby Prison, from there he was taken to "Castle 
Thunder," and from there down the river to Akiens Landing, and deliv- 
ered to a company of Union Cavalry, after having been in confinement for 
21^ months. During the time of his imprisonment the average number 
of deaths, amongst the inmates was about sixty per day. Leaving these 
sad scenes we will return to the consideration of Mr. J, A. Harper, as he 
is now surrounded by his interesting family. He was married in 1857 to 
Lydia Ann, daughter of Abraham Plank, who was born April 9th, 1834. 
They having seven children living and three dead. Those now living are 
as follows : Henry Clay, Sarah Virginia, Lillie May, Lydia Ann, Jacob 
Edward, Wesley Plank and Clinton Hayes. The dead were named 
Nettie E., Cora Bell and John A. 


These attractive buildings are situated in the promising vdlage of Leh- 
master's Station, in Peters Township, Franklin County, 10 miles, by rail 
road, west of Chambersburg, at the intersection of the public roads lead- 
ing from Greencastle and Mercersburg to Loudon. Five miles south-east 
of the latter place and 4 miles north-east of Merceisburg. The village 
consists of the buildings represented in the sketch, and has a PostofRce, 
Express, Ticket and Freight office, together with a store and nine other 
dwelling houses. It now covers about 12 acres of ground which was pur- 
chased March 2Gth, 1874 by Mr. P. formerly a resident of Sinking Springs, 
Berks County, Pa., but a native of Franklin County, from Jacob Lehmas- 
ter, from whom it derived its name. At the time of the purchase by Mr. 
Plum there were no houses here except the farm buildings of Mr L. The 

Appendix. 373 

warehouse, which waa erected in the spring of 1874, is a frame structure 
50 by 26 feet, with a slate roof, and is located on the south side of the rail 
road. It has a capacity of storing upwards of 5,000 bushels of grain, together 
with a large space for the reception of freight; and contains the Post, 
Ticket, Express and Freight offices, together with a ladies and gentlemens 
waiting room. Mr. Plum also erected his fine dwelling house during the 
summer of 1874. It is a brick building 33i feet front by 40 feet, is covered 
with slate and contains 3 rooms and 1 hall on the first floor, and 5 rooms 
and 2 halls on the second. Samuel Plum was born near Keller's mill in 
St. Thomas Township on the 29th, of Dec. 1837. He is a son of Chris- 
tian Plum, who was born in Adams County, Pa, His grandfather, Adam 
Plum, a native of Switzerland, located in Adams County when quite 
young and engaged in the pursuit of farming, to which occupation he 
reared his son Christian. The maternal grandfather of Samuel Plum was 
Jacob Qelsinger, a native of Berks County, who had married a Miss 
Christina Hershberger, and Mr. Plum's mother was Hannah, daughter of 
the above named. Whilst living at Sinking Springs, Berks County, Mr. 
Plum married Mary,daughter of Isaac Ruth of said place, and they have three 
children, viz: Lizzie, Willie and Irvin. Together with conducting the 
warehouse where he deals largely in lumber, coal, plaster, salt, etc., he is 
also Postmaster, Express and Freight Agent. During the year 1877 he 
shipped 600,000 feet ot lumber, 600,000 shingles, and a vast quantity of 
grain. Considering that his enterprise, as well as the entire village, is 
only four years old, we can safely predict a large degree of prosperity for 
the energetic pioneer and his earnest co-workers. 


The farm, upon which the buildings that appear in our illustration are 
located, is situated in Quincy Township, one and a half miles north-east 
of Waynesboro'. It has for its nearest railroad station Mont Alto. The 
buildings as represented, with the exception of the barn, were built by 
the present owner. The house which preceeded this one was constructed 
of logs and was one and a half stories high, with a stone back building, 
it was erected by Jacob Friedly, and was destroyed by fire in the year 
1867. In the same year Mr. M. caused the present fine brick structure, 
with slate roof, to be built. Its dimensions are 42 by 80 feet with a back 
building 24 feet long. The barn which is of stone is 40 by 85 feet, and 
is roofed with straw. This place consists of 165 acres of limestone 
land, somewhat brokeii and rolling, well adapted to the production of 
grain. It is well watered and under good fencing. The minerals to be 
found on this land are iron ore and baryta. Mr. Middour's fine stock of 
horses and cattle are supplied with pure water by means of a Stovar Wind 
Engine, a labor saving machine that is more appreciated the longer it is 
used. The average product of wheat on this place is 35 bushels per acre 
and that of corn 60 bushels per acre. Mr. M. is a son of Jacob Middour, 
Sr., who was born in the year 1780 and died in 1862. His maternal 
grandfather was John Hess, the date of whose birth was in the year 1 768 
and who departed this life in 1819. The property came into the possession 
of Mr. M. by purchase from his brother Samuel Middour in 1864. He 
was married in 1855 to Mary, daughter of David and Susan Shank. They 
have eight children. 

274 Appendix, 



This property is located on West Main street, in the thriving town of 
Waynesboro'. It is 3r» feet front by 60 feet deep and has an office at- 
tached. Tlie house proper was built in the year 1858, by John Ervin, 
and was bought by Dr. F. in 1870, and occupied by him in 
1871, when he built the office and made other improvements. lie 
is one of a family of seven sons and one daughter, children of 
Christian Frantz, who were named Isaac, John, Abraham, Jacob, Chris- 
lian, Samuel, Benjamin and Anne. Isaac, John and Anne are dead. 
Abraham, Jacob and Christian are farmers, and Samuel is a miller, re- 
siding near Waynesboro', Dr. Benjamin Frantz commenced the study 
of medicine with Drs. Martin & Jacob Muner, of Lampeter Square, near 
Lancaster, Pa., and finished with Dr. A. H. Senseny, of Chambersburg. 
He graduated from Jefferson Medical College, in the class of 184G, and 
located, and commenced the practice of medicine in Waynesboro', where 
he has enjoyed a lucrative practice ever since. He was married Oct. 13th, 
1849, to Mary A., daughter of Michael liyder, of Loudon, Pa. They 
have ten children living and one dead, viz: Samuel, Charlotte, Caroline, 
Joseph, Isaac, Abraham, Anne, John, Mary and Herman. Dr. F. was 
born Oct. 17th, 1834, near Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. Mrs. F. was 
born April 15th, 1830, in Franklin County, near Dry Run, in Path Valley. 
The progenitors of the Frantz family in this country, migrated at a very 
early date, in company with many tamilies who were driven from their 
native land, Switzerland, Palatinate, on account of persecution by the 
Lutherans and Catholics, who denounced their religious belief, they 
being "Anabaptists." They came to Lancaster County, having procured 
a grant for a settlement from the proprietors along the Peque Creek. 
The Frantz who first came here, probably as early as 1070 or 80, was the 
great, great grandfather of Dr. Benj. Frantz, and very many of his 
descendants are still to be found near where he first settled. Christian 
Frantz, the father of the Dr. came to this country in the spring of 1825, 
and purchased, and settled on, a farm formerly belonging to John Stoner, 
arnd now owned by John R. Frantz. It has remained in the Frantz name 
ever since. Nearly all the buildings on this place were erected by Chris- 
tian Frantz, who also made many improvements on the farm. In the 
spring of 1843 he ceased farming, and sold the place to his son John, and 
built for himself, a residence on land now owned by John Frantz's heirs, 
near Fair View Mill, now in the possession of John Philips, Esq., where 
he resided until his death, which occurred in Feb. 1862, at the age of 70 
years and some months. Mr. Frantz was ordained as a minister of the 
Reformed Menonite Church, while he yet resided in Lancaster County, 
and he spent nearly his whole time preaching, having stated meetings 
near Carlisle, Shippensburg, Chambersburg, Loudon, and near Hagers- 
town, Md., and was the only minister of this denomination in this county 
for many years. He frequently took long trips on missionary duty, 
through New York State, Canada, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and other 
states. Although he was the first of the denomination of which he was 
a member, who came to this county, he was shortly after followed by 
others, among whom can be mentioned the Fricks, Bakers, Lantzes, 
Beshores, Millers, etc. , etc. It was through his efforts that the church was 
established near Ringgold, Md., about the year 1827. There was also a 
house of worship erected in Waynesboro' in 1876. On account of his 
untiring efforts in advocating the doctrines of this church, which to most 
of bis hearers was before unknown, it is by many called the "Frantzite 
Church," and its members are called "Frantzites." 

I.O.Or. HALL. ^"^^iii 


Appendix. 275 


Wiiynesboro Lodge, No. 219 Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of 
Pennaylvania,was instituted at Waynesboro Feb. lGtb,l 847, in a room above 
"wbat was then known as Henry iStonebouse's Cigar Store, and the Lodge 
continued to hold their ineetings in that place until May 17th, 1848. 
During this time the Trustees were instructed to purchase a lot of ground 
upon which to build a Hall. At a meeting held Oct. 2d, 1847, they re- 
ported that they had contracted with H. Stonehouse for the ground, and 
their report being accepted, their action was ratified by the Lodge. 
September 2Sth, 1847, the following named persons were appointed to act 
as a building committee in the construction of the first Odd Fellows Hall, 
W. S. Holliuberger, H. H. Miller, D. B. Russell and Jas. Brotherton, Jr. 
The dimensions of the building under contemplation were 25 by 50 leef, 
and its erection was commenced when the Lodge was as yet financially 
very weak. They sent appeals for aid to sister Lodges in the State, but 
these met with little substantial response, and they were compelled to 
complete their work by issuing certificates of stock, bearing six per cent, 
interest payable semi-annually. The building was dedicated May, 17tli, 
1818, and was occupied from that time until Jan. 13th, 1873, whea the 
present Hall was commenced. It was completed about the last of Decem- 
ber 1873. The members constituting the building committee in the con- 
struction of this one were, W. F. Ilorner, W. A. Price, W. F. Grove, 
George Stover and W. J. Bikle. This structure is 26 feet front by 65 
deep, and is three stories high, Its cost was nearly 1^7,000 and it ia one 
of the finest buildings in the place. The first floor is occupied by J. P. & 
J. M. Wolf as a dry goods store, the second by the Village Record oflice, 
and the third by Waynesboro Lodge, No. "219 I. O. O. F. of Pa., 
Widow's Friend Encampment No. 71 I. O. O. F., and I. O. of Red Men, 
Uncas Tribe, No. 101. The inside of the Hall is elegantly furnished, and it 
is considered one of the finest buildings, for the purpose for which it is 
used, in the State. The Lodge, whose property it is, is very flourishing, 
having in addition to all the property vested here, about |1,500 of a sur- 
plus fund. The following list comprises its entire membership from its 
organization : 

The Charter Members were as follows: J. W. Stoner, H. Stone- 
house, J. B. Resser, Wm. C. Tracy, Frederick Harbaugh, Joseph 
Bender, John Null. The initiated were as follows: February 16th, 
1847, G. W. Rupp, H. S. Stoner, John Logan, John Shoemaker, Wm. A. 
Tritle, John P. Waggoner, M. T. Tracy, W. H. Morehead, M. J. Homer, 
Francis Bowden, James R. Weagly, David B. Russell; March 2, W. F. 
Horner, Geo. Bender, Henry Logan; March 23, R. F. Gibson; March 30, 
Geo. W. Knight; April 6, Elijah Durnbaugh ; April 20, James Brotherton, 
Jr., John Philips; April 27, Joshua Suman; May 4, Michael Haustine, Sr; 
May 18, W. S. HoUenberger ; May 25, J. L." Welsh, Morris Ilenlin; 
June 8, Charles Gordon; June 15, John Nead, Samuel P. Stoner; June 
29, Henry McFerren, Geo. Andrews, Peter Heefner, A. S. Adams, Wm. 
H. Miller; July 27, Martin Kissell; Aug. 3, James Fisher; Aug. 10, John 
Kuhn; Aug. 24, David L. Stoner; Sept. 7, M. M. Stoner; Sept. 14, 
Thomas Pilkington; Oct. 5, Wm. Blair, Absalom French; Oct. 12, 
Andrew S.Wilson, Samuel Ritter; Nov. 12, John B. Waynant ; Nov. 
16, Thomas B. Withers; Nov. 23, P. 11. Dougherty; Nov. 30, John 
Gehr, J. S. Zeigler; Dec. 7, Henry F. Davis, John C. Eckman: Dec. 14, 
C.G.French, Levi Saunders; Jan. 11, 1848, John H.Smith; Feb. 1, 
Martin Sheeler, JohnMcCush; Feb. 8, David Winkfeeld, Wm. Overcash; 
Feb. 15, David Kuhnley, J. B. Waynant: Feb. 22, Washington Parkhill ; 

376 Appendi.r. 

Feb. 2!), .lolin Mont/er; March 21, Daniel Minoch ; April 11, Gen W. 
Thorns ; May 2il, An(lrev\' (Jiill}' ; !»lli, Samuel Gilbert, JNLartin ,1. Heaty ; 
KUii, li. G. Kii3; ;2:M, .Toiui 8. Jioni:;; .Tune 27tli, Peter Benedict; Aug. 
1st, John Sweeney; Sept. IDlii, John H. Williams; Oct. lOMi, S. C. Putter; 
2Uh, Leonani Waller; Nov. lUh, Flenry Moore; 21fit, Levi Pickle; SHth, 
D. M. Eiker; Dec. 2filh, Abraham St.oner, F. .1. Filbert; -Tan. Ifitli, 1SH', 
C. Auj^ustus Smith; Feb. 27th, Geo. ,T. Jialsley, Tetcr Doch ; March (ith, 
Samuel Secrist; l:]th, Daniel Patter; April -Id, .Tohn Beck; 17th, .Tacob 
C. Sccrist, James A. Cook; Au?'. 28, Geo. A. Poole; Sept. 2.'ith, Hugh 
Logan; Nov. l:)tli, Peter Grumbine; 27th, Jacob Brenneman, Jr.; Dec. 
2.-)ih, Noah Sneider; Jan. Ist, ISrjO, John M. Winders, Jas. IL Clayton;, Edward C. Brown; Feb. 25Lh, 1851, W. L. Hamilton, John 
Grove; March 4th, liobert C. Flemminf,^ ; 2oth. Anthony Kunkle; April 
1st, Thos. N. Ilerr, Geo. S. Wight; 8th, John Miller; June 10th, Abra- 
ham Barr; Sept. oOth, W^ R. Kreps; March 2d, 1852, L. F, McComas; 
Kith, John Withers; June 8th, John Q. Schwartz; Feb. 4th, 185-3, AV. 
G. Smith; 15th, Ephriam Sellers; March 1st, Wm. Marshall; July 12th, 
1853, Adam Dysert ; Aug. 2d, Jerome Beaver; Oct. 18th, J. G. Grumbine, 
Henry Walter; Jan. lOib, 1854, Author Bennett; April 18th, D. S. Gor- 
don,; Sept. 12ih, Geo. Stitzel; Oct. 17th, David Shoop. Dec. 2Gth, J. P. 
VonStine; Feb. 13th, 1855, Jeremiah Cooper; Aug. 21st, Samuel 
Hawker; April 23d, 185G, E. S. Troxel; May 13th, Chas. Gordon; Dec. 
!)th, Felix J. Troxel, Samuel ]\Iorehead ; June 9th, 1857, Marks Feilheimer ; 
July 14th, Jos. C. Clugston; Dec. 1st, E. A. Herring; Feb. 2d, 1858, 
Joseph W. Miller ; March 30th, J. P. Waggoner ; June 1st, Jacob Swank ;' 
March 1st, 1850, W. F. Grove, Henry Dreyfoos, Geo. Stover; April 19th, 

F. Dougherty; Oct. 23d, 18G0, Samuel Bitter; Dec. 17th, 18G1, A. A. 
Lechlider; Jan. 7th, 18G2, F, Forthman; 14th, .Tos. H. Gilber, Sr., 
Henry Nuger; 28th, Eli Litle; Feb. 11th, H. F. Stover; 25th, Wm. 
Crilley ; April 23d, Philip Weisner; 29th, C. A. Bilde; July 15th, J. H. 
Welsh; 22d, J. R. Wolfersberger ; Feb. 17th, 18G3, P. Dock, Wm. A. 
Strealy; Feb. 2d, 18fi4, Henry P. Litle; Dec. 12th, 18G5, J. A. Royer: 
Jan. 10th, 18GG, G. F. Lidy; 23d, Harry C. Gilbert; 27tb, J. F. Remm- 
ger, "VV. A. Price; March 13th, Jeremiah j\L Cooper; Aug. 7th, John W. 
Bryson; 14th, Reuben Shoner, David J. Rhea; Jan. 15th, 18G7, Samuel J. 
Lecrone ; Feb. 12th, A. Burhman, L. D. French, Geo. AV. Mowen, Geo. 

G. Pilkington ; April Olh, Daniel Snively ; May 2l3t, Joseph Woolard ; 
23th, Jacob Hoover; Aug. 20th, Chas. it Dickie, John H. Miller; Nov. 
12th, Jos. Douglas, J. Ji. Russell; 26th, D. II. Ilafleigh, Jos. Walter, 
Lewis M. Leismycr; Dec. 3d, J. B. Brenneman; Jan. 7th, 18G8, W. R. 
Zeigler, J. L. Meredith; 28th, H. Dutrow; April 7th, R. C. Mullen; May 
5th, J. 11. Crilley; 19th, W. A. Foltz; June 2d, J. M. Ripple; May 28th, 
Emanuel Robinson: Sept. 15th, B. F. Burger; Jan. 5th, 18G9, C. M. 
Stroader; 12th, AV. .1. Bikle, J. Sheise; Feb. 9th, Francis Robinson, Wm. 
A. Haustine; March 9th, John H. Harris; April 20th, David Izer; May 
35th, Geo. W. Keagy, Samuel Miller; June 22d, Chas. Cooke Jason Bell; 
July 20th, Alfred ^Burhman; Oct. 19th, L. C. Brackbill ; 2Gth, Samuel 
Kuhns; Nov. 9lli, Upton M. Bell; IGth, John H. Gehr, Franklin Bender; 
Jan. 4th, 1870, A. D. iMorganthall ; June 7th, W. H. Crouse; 28th, A. A. 
French; July 2Gth, U. H. Balsley; Aug. 23d, J. W. Sourbeck ; 30th, 
Henry Stoner, Samuel C. Miller; Sept. 26th, Geo. J. Balsley, -Jr., W. O. 
P. Hammond; Oct., 4th, .Jacob H. Brown; 18th, Jno. F, Beckner; 25th, 
David M. Minor; Dec. 27th, Theo. G. Dock; Jan. 3d, 1871, Daniel 
Gilbert; 17th, H. S. Rider; 24th, Geo. W. Wood; 31st, Geo. Snively; April 
4th, Lewis W. Detrick: 11th, Samuel Neowcomer; 18th, Geo. M. D. 
Bell; 25th, A. H. Stonnhonse; June Gth, T. C. Resser; July 4th, J. M. 

Appendix. 277 

Lecrone; 11th, D. F. Rozer; Aug. 29tb, J. P. Lowell, A. N. Russell; 
Sept. 19tli, T. R. Qilland, J. O. Gilland. J. McDowell; Oct. 3d, J. Mor- 
ganthall; Blet, G. W. Baughman, Barton Manuel, F. J. Wolf; Jan. 23d, 

1872, Philip Wolf; April 2d, S. R. Frantz; 30th, G. B. Resser, W. B. 
Dock; June 4th, Geo. B. Beaver; Dec. 17th, J. Aliver Besore; Jan. 14th, 

1873, M. M. Gilland; March 4th, J. M. Wolf; 11th, C. G. Frantz; 25th, 
J. H. Gilbert, Jr.; May 18th, Samuel Johnston, June 17th, Geo. H. 
Russell ; Oct. 7th, David A. Miller, Jno. McDowell ; Feb. 3d, 1874, A. 
O. Frick; Jan. 30th, 1875, Samuel G. Horner; Feb. 9th, A, E. Canode, 
D. S. Barnhart; 16th, D. J. Binkley, D. E. Stine; 23d, C. F. Bell; March 
2d, Jacob Craly, B. F. Snyder; Sept. 7th, V. C. Bell; Nov, 30th, M. L. 
Rowe, R. W. Price; May 23d, Charles Sprenkle; June 6th, Lewis 


This attractive place was the residence of the late Abraham Barr, who 
purchased it from Mr. Jacob Funk, October Slst, 1848. It being part of 
the real estate of which John Funk, father of the said Jacob, died 
possessed, having inherited it from his father, John Funk, Sr. A consid- 
erable portion of this tract was, prior to the establishment of Mason 
& Dixon's line, in Maryland, as is shown by a patent deed made by the 
Right Honorable Lord, proprietor of the late province of Maryland, bear- 
ing date the tenth day of August, A. D. 1753, to a certain Jacob Gans, 
who deeded the same to John Miller on the 22d day of June, A. D. 1784. 
About three acres arc still in the State of Maryland; the balance, 212 
acres, are in Washington township, Franklin County, Pa., two miles due 
south of Waynesboro, on the Maryland line, while that beautiful 
stream, the now historic Antietam, flows through it, watering its rich 
meadows. It is supplied with three excellent springs of cold water, and 
quite near the house there is a good water power. The land is diversified 
in its character, being limestone, sandstone and soapstone. Having an 
abundance of first-class material for lime, it is not a matter of surprise 
that it is in good condition and very productive. 

Dr. Isaac Newton Snively is one of the lineal descendents of John 
Jacob Schnebele, who emigrated from Switzerland to Lancaster County, 
in the Province of Pennsylvania, about the year 1707. He was naturalized 
in Philadelphia, October 14th, A. D. 1729, in the third year of the 
reign of King George the II, and died at the age of eighty-four years. 
His son, Jacob Schnebele, was born A. D. 1694, and died August 24th, 
A. D, 1766, in his seventy-second year. He had two sons by his first wife. 
The second was Christian Schnebele, who was born August 15lh, A. D. 
1731, and died March 16th, 1795, in his sixty-fifth year. He was married to 
Miss Margaret Washabaugh about the year 17G1. He had eight children. 
His second child, *John Schnebele, (grandfather to Dr. Snively), was 
born February 25th, A. D. 1766, He was married to Miss Anna Hege, 
(grandmother to the Doctor), October 24th, A. D. 1794, and died in July, 
1844, in his seventy -ninth year. His wife, Anna, died August 17th, A. 
D. 1852, in her seventy-seventh year. Anna Hege was one of the de- 
scendents of Hans Ha^gy, who emigrated from Switzerland, in 
Schauffhausen, near Zweibruken, at Ebersten Hoff, to the American colo- 
nies, which are now the United States. With Hans Haggy came his 
brother-in law, Hans Leaman. They had families, and brought with them 
Henry Lesher and two of his sisters, orphan children. Henry was six- 
teen years of age. These parties being related and of the same neighbor. 

*The name Snively was originally Schnebele. 

"^78 Appendix. 

hood emigrated together. Filty-tliree families, numbering in all two 
hundred persona arrived at this lime. They came over in the ship James 
Goodwill, David Crocket, Captain, from Rotterdam, and landed at J'liila- 
delphia, Pa., ^^eptcmber 2fllii, A. I). 1727, where they -Tcre required to 
repeat and sign the following declaration: "We, sub3cril)ers, natives and 
late inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine and places adjacent, liav- 
ing transported ourselves and families into this Province of Pcneilvanin, 
a Colony subject to the Crown of Great Britian, in hopes and expectations 
of finding a Retreat and peacable Settlement therein. Do solemnly pro- 
mise and engage, that we will be faithful aad bear true Allegiance to his 
present Majesty King George The Second, and his Successors Kings of 
Great Britain, and will l)e faithful to the Proprietor of this province; And 
that we will demean ourselves peacably to all Ilis said Majesties Subjects 
and strictly observe and conform to the Laws of England and of this Pro- 
vince, to the utmost of our Power and best ot our understanding." (See 
"Colonial Records," vol. Ill, page 28o and 284, Sept. 2l8t and 27th, 1727). 
From Philadelphia they went to Rapho township, Lancaster county, Pa., 
near Manheim, where they settled. Hans Ilaggy had a son John who was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Pealman, and lived near Bridgeport, Franklin 
county. Pa. His third child. Christian Haggy, was born in 1751, and died 
May 13th, A. D. 1815. His wife was Mariah Stouffer. They had four 
children. The eldest was Anna Hege,-' grandmother to the Doctor on his 
fathers' 8 side. 

John Snively (Doctor Snively's father) was born near Qreencastle, 
Franklin county. Pa., January 12th, 1791), on the ancestral homestead 
now occupied by his brother Jacob's family, and farmed by his nephew, 
Benjamin F. Snively, Esq. This farm is a portion of the original tract 
patented by the original John Jacob Schnebele family in the days of the 
Penns, and has been handed down from father to son for over a century 
and a half. He was niirried to Miss Catharine Keefer, daughter of the 
late Jacob Keefer near Marion, Franklin county, Pa., who moved here 
from Lancaster county. John Snively died March 4th, A. D. 1853, in 
liis fifty-fifth year; his wife, Catharine, was born in Lancaster county. 
Pa., August 22d, 1803, and died September oOth, 1854, in her fifty-third 
year. John Snively had seven children, four sons are living, three of 
whom are physicians. The eldest, John K. Snively, is a farmer residing 
on the old homestead near Jackson Hall, Franklin county. Pa. The sec- 
ond is Dr. I. N. Snively. The third is Dr. Samuel K. Snively of Wil- 
liamsport, Md. The fourth is Dr. Andrew J, Snively of Hanover, ,York 
county. Pa. Dr. Isaac N. Snively was born near Jackson Hall, Franklin 
county. Pa., February 23d, 1839, where he spent his early life upon his 
father's farm, assisting in the various farm duties during the summer 
months, and attending the public schools during the winter. At the age of 
fourteen he was left an orphan, and started out in quest of em- 
ployment. Arriving in Chambcrsburg he entered the store of 
Hutz & Son as salesman, with his cousin, John P. Keefer, who 
very kindly gave him access to his fine library. He soon ac- 
quired a fondness for books whicu disqualified him for the duties of a 
clerkship, and he withdrew to enter the Fayetteviile Academy, then un- 
der the supervision of the Rey. Mr. Kennedy. From here he returned to 
Chambersburg and entered the private classical school of that noted 
teacher, the late Thomas J. Harris, in whose school he for a short time 
was assistant, and afterward taught in the public schools and took an ac- 
tive part in the Franklin County Teachers' Association. In 1857, he 
graduated at Duff's Commercial College of Pittsburg, Pa. In 1858, whilst 

*Tlio orii^inal waf IFaRKy now si)r'I!oil llrco. 

Appendix. 279 

teaching the Mt. Vernon school near Waynesboro, Pa., he commenced 
the study of Anatomy with Dr. Benjamin Frantz. In the spring of 1859, 
he became a pupil of the late Dr, John C. Richards of Chambersburg, l-'a., 
and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia in 1863. 
He commenced the practica of medicine in Chambersburg, and in 1863, 
when the Confederate army invaded our state, he went to Harrisburg be- 
fore the State Medical Board, and after passing the required examination, 
was commissioned hy the Governor of Pennsylvania, as assistant Surgeon, 
his commission bearing date June 20th, 1863. He was assigned by Dr. 
King, Surgeon General of Pennsylvania, to duty at Camp Curtin. He 
became acting Surgeon of the 20th Pa. Reg., Col. Wm. B. Thomas com- 
manding. He allowed himself to be mustered out of service with this 
regiment and returned to Chambersburg, where he associated himself in 
the practice of his profession with his late preceptor. Dr. J. C. Richards. 
Besides their regular practice they had charge of the Town Hall Hospital. 
September 8th, 18G3, the Surgeon General of Pennsylvania sent him a 
commission, assigning him to the 155th Regiment, Pa. Vol., then en- 
camped at Beverly Ford, Va., Maj. Ewing commanding. He declined 
this as well as a lucrative appointment on the Pacific Coast in a Marine 
Hospital, preferring to continue in the practice with Dr. Richards. De- 
cember 24th, 1863, he was married to Miss Alice B. Barr, daugnter of the 
late Abraham Barr, esq., near Waynesboro, Pa. They moved in the 
(lawyer) Smith property on Main Street, where, July 30th, 1864, they lost 
all their personal property (not even saving their ward-robes) through the 
burning of the town by the rebel hordes. The Doctor being out of town 
at the time, his wife barely escaped the flames of the burning building. 
Left destitute, in less than a week he was found on duty in the U. S. 
Army General Hospital, Beverly, New Jersey. He continued on duty here 
until the war was about closing, when he resigned to take the place of Dr. 
James Brotherton, Jr., of Waynesboro, Pa., who had lately died, where 
he has enjoyed a lucrative practice ever since. He was one of the founders 
of the present Medical Society of Franklin county. Pa., and was President 
of that society in 1874. 



This dwelling, which is a two story brick one, and is 30 feet long by 2G 
wide, was erected by the late Alexander Hamilton, in the year 1851. 
Having been purchased by its present occupant, it was remodled in 1868. 
It is located o.n East Main street, and is a good representative of the char- 
acter of the buildings in the thriving town of Waynesboro. Dr. Bering, 
who has met with marked success in his calling as a physician, is a native 
of Frederick County, Md. His paternal ancestory were Germans. His 
great grandfather and grandfather, both of whom had the surname Henry, 
were born near Basil, Switzerland. His grandfather visited this country 
in the year 1791, and being greatly delighted with the western world, re- 
turned to his native place and persuaded his father and his brother, with 
his family, to emigrate to America with him. This they did in the year 
1793. They purchased a large tract of land at Beaverdam, in Frederick 
County, Md., and built a flour mill, as well as a saw mill, where for many 
years they and their descendents conducted a successful business. These 
mills arc still in active operation. Henry Hering, Sr., died about the 
year 1810. The younger Henry married Mary, daughter of Rev. Daniel 
Sayler, of Frederick County, in 1799, and died in 1829. His wife sur- 
v'we'i. him .uatil Feb. 7ih, 1873, jbaving reached, within a few weeks the 

380 Appendix. 

advanced age of 1)8 years, and was a woman of remarkable mental and 
bodily vigor. Her father, Rev. Daniel Sayler, who was l)orn in Lancas- 
ter County, in 1750, and who acquired the homestead established by his 
father, Daniel Sayler, Sr., in 1760, died in 1840, at the age of 00 years. 
His father, Daniel Sayler, who was also a German, emigrated to this 
country with his family in the year 1743, and was compelled to consign 
some of his children to a watery grave whilst crossing the ocean. 

Daniel S. Hering, father of Dr. Hering, was born at Beaverdam, March 
Gth, 1800. He married Margaret Orr, daughter of Joseph Orr, of Sam's 
Creek, Carroll County, Md. Her father was an American by birth, but 
was of Irish parents, who came to this country before the Revolutionary 
war. Daniel S. Hering died in 1876, having been bereft of his wife Mar- 
garet in I860. His family was very large, so large that, although he was 
enabled to bring them up comfortably, he did not possess the means to 
provide each one with a liberal education, but he did succeed in giving 
them that which was next best, a thorough training in the way of indus- 
try and an ambition to become the architects of their own fortunes. Dr. 
H. having early acquired a fondness for the medical profession, but know- 
ing the great barriers in the way determined that by dint ot industry and 
perseverance he would reach the goal of his ambition. Applying himself 
for 3 or 4 years to a laboiious business, he realized sufficient means to en- 
able him to enter upon his studies. His preliminary course was conducted 
at Mountain View Academy, and in 1853 he entered the office of Dr. Sid- 
well in JohnsviUe, Frederick county, Md., and in 1854, became an office 
student of Prof. Miltenberger of Baltimore. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, March Gth, 1855. He located first in Frederick 
county, Md.. where he continued for two and a half years, when he re- 
moved to his present location in October, 1857. On the 19th of April, 1864, 
be married Frances M., youngest daughter of the lato Alexander Hamil- 
ton. His family is not as numerous as was that of his father, as he has 
but two children, a son and daughter. 


Animated by the same spirit of enterprise that actuated his neighbor, 
John Croft, Esq. , Col. Dixon has made his place noted for its production 
of fine cattle and hogs. Those that are represented in the sketch are of 
the purest breeds that intelligence and money could procure. The bull is 
called "Doubie Duke the 3rd." He is nearly pure "Duchess," with a dash 
of Oxford" blood, and was bred by Jonathan Tallcott, of Rome, Oneida 
county, N. Y. The hogs are known as the "Duroc" breed, and are 
greatly celebrated for their rapid development when being fed for the 
slaughter. They were bred by the Hon. Wm. Holmes, of Greenwich, 
Washington county, N. Y., and are the only ones, of this strain, south- 
west of N. Y. City. John Dixon, the greatgrandfatherof theCol., was of 
the house of Argyle, and was born on the north-west coast of Scotlanl. 
On account ot political troublee he was compelled to leave, with the bal- 
ance of the family, in the year 1690, at the age of 15 years. They fled to 
the North of Ireland, in order to keep out of the way of the friends of 
King James II., and about the year 1693, he came to this country, land- 
ing at Philadelphia, where he remained for some time. From thence he 
went to Donegal Meeting House in Lancaster county, from there to Car- 
lisle, then to Shippensburg, and finally in 1737, he located at the place 
where the buildings in our illustration now stand. He had seven sons. 
William, the grandfather of Qol. Dixon was born at this place, and at the 
age of seven years he was captured by the Indians and retained in their 

Appendix. 281 

custody for eleveu weeks, u good part of the time in a cave on au adjoin- 
ing farm, now owned by Jacob Bittner. Tlirougli the humanity of an old 
squaw be was returned to his parents, and because' of the kindness shown 
her on different occasions, she warned the family to leave for a safer place, 
for the Indians, who had gone away to hold a great council, intended to 
return in two moons and slaughter all the whites. The family took the 
warning and went back to Carlisle, where they remained tor about three 
years. William Dixon was a Sergeant in Col. Eoquet's command, and 
served to the end of the campaign. He was Avith Maj. Dunwoodie in the 
massacre, and was one of the three that escaped to Fort Loudon. The 
remainder, with the Maj., were all killed and scalped. He also joined a 
company, that was raised in the county, at the commencement of the war 
for Independence, and was made ensign of his regiment, which position 
he retained until the end of the war, having declined frequent offers of 
promotion, preferring rather to have charge of the colors. Wm. Dixon 
iiad four brothers in the army, one was killed at the battle of Monmouth, 
one at the battle of Brandy wine, one was killed by the Indians near the 
junction of the two Conococheagues, and the other one died from the 
effects of a bath taken in the Yellow-Britches Creek, whilst on his way 
home, from the arm J"-, after his discharge at the close of the war. The wife 
ofWm. Dixon was Nancy Dunlap, an aunt of James Dunlap, author of 
Purdon's Digest. Col. Wm. Dunlap Dixon was married to Martha, 
daughter of the late Wm. Gillau Esq, in June 1855. They have two 
children, one son and one daughter. The upper half of the place on which 
he resides came into his possession as heir at law, and the lower part by 
purchase. He acquired his military title, not in the way that many old 
time militia men "had greatness thrust upon them," but by actual and 
faithful service and promotion, in the 6th Regiment of Pa. Res. in the 
great war of the Rebellion. His commission as Capt., of Co. D bears 
date April 34th, 18G1. As Lieut. Col. Sept. 12th, 18G3. Brev. Col. and 
Brev. Brig. Gen. Mar. I3th, 18G5. And he was mustered out with his 
Regiment, June 11th 1864. 


Spring Dale Farm is pleasantly located, about one quarter of u mile 
south-east of Waynesboro. This farm is a part of the original tract of 
lands of Thomas Wallace, sold August 2Gth, A. D. 1828, to John Wallace 
as by deed of conveyance made by Daniel Royer, administrator of Thos. 
Wallace, December 22d, A. D. 1835, and by John Wallace to John Clay- 
ton by deed of conveyance made April Gth, A. D. 1837. At the death 
of John Clayton, taken by James H. Clayton, at the valuation and 
appraisment, as the eldest son and tieir at law, and sold to George Besorc 
by deed of conveyance made April ord, A. D. 1855, and which at the 
death of George Besore, descended to his daughter, Mrs. Dr. A. H. 
Strickler, in whose possession it still remains. This farm contains one 
hundred and thirty acres, is of the best quality of limestone land, is in an 
excellent state of cultivation, and very productive. The large brick 
mansion was built by Mr. George Besore, in the year 185G. He resided in 
Waynesboro and never lived on the farm. This is one of the most attrac- 
tive and most desirable properties in Washington Township, having a 
beautiful spring of never failing water close by the dwelling. 


The Stricklers of this county are of German or Swiss descent. Their 
ancestors came across the waters dt a very early period. The name is 

283 Appendix. 

found in all parts of Pennsylvania, in parts of Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and 
Virginia. Henry Strickler was the first of the name who located in 
Franklin County. He came from York County, near the Lancaster 
County line, at Columbia, in the year 1807, and settled near Grecncastle. 
Not many years afterward all the children (except David) of his brother 
Josepli, near Marietta, Lancaster County, followed and settled in this 
county. Their names Avere Samuel, Joseph, Henry, Benjarain and Eliza. 
Henry afterward moved to Ohio, Samuel, Jacob and Benjamin to Illinois. 
Eliza remained here and now resides in Mercersburg. 

The names of the ciiildren of the Henry Strickler who tirstcame to lliis 
county, were Martha, Elizabeth, Henry, Joseph, Barbara, Susan, Mary 
and Sarah. Martha never came to the county. Babara went from here 
to Ohio, Henry, Mary and Sarah to Illinois, and Susan to Cumberland 
County. Joseph resided near Greencastle during his lifetime. Ilcur}'- 
married Mary Price, near Waynesboro. His children were Jacob, Nancy, 
Susan, Henry, Abraham, Catharine, Mary, Hannah and Joseph. All 
these have gone to Illinois except Jacob, who lives near Chambersburg. 

Joseph Strickler, who lived near Greencastle during his lifetime, mar- 
r'cd Mary Snively. His children were Snively, Henry, Joseph B., and 
Abraham H. Snively was a lawyer by profession, practiced law in 
Chambersburg for a number of years, published the leading Republican 
newspaper of the county, the Rcjwsitory ^- Transcriiit, (now the Reposi- 
tory) lor a short time. Afterwards moved to Greencastle, and is now 
deceased. Henry graduated at Eastman's Commercial College, at Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., was a Sergeant in ihe 12Gth llegiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, in the war against the Rebellion, Avas severely wounded at 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., in December 18G2, and was ejected and 
served two terms as Register and Recorder of Franklin County. He is 
now Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue and resides in Chambersburg. 

Joseph B. followed merchandising in Grecncastle for some j^ears, was 
a let Lieutenant in the 2d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteersat the com- 
mencement of the war against the Rebellion, moved to Nemaha County, 
Nebraska, in 1872, and is now farming. 

Dr. Abraham H. graduated at the College of New Jersey, Princeton, in 
1803, graduated at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York 
City, in 18G0, and now resides in Waynesboro, prominently engaged in 
the practice of medicine. 

Dr. A. H. Strickler married Clara Anna, only child and daughter of 
George and Eliza Besore, of Waynesboro'. They have one child^ Harry 
Clark, now three years old. 

George Besore, the father of Mrs. Strickler, doscendsd from an old 
Hucuenoiic family. The name was originaly La Basseur. He was born 
in Washington Township, Franklin County in the year 1799, and during 
the greater part of liis lifetime resided in Waynesboro'. He married 
Eliza Snively, and is now deceased, having died August IGth, 1871, 

George Besore was well known as one of the strong pillars in the 
Reformed Churcli. Nature made him a man , Grace, a Christian Disciple. 
Me was a ruling elder in the Church, an office which he held for 
upwards of forty years. As a public man he was well known in tiie 
Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States. He held 
during his lifetime|varioii3 positions of trust in the Church, and had frcqucnl 
overtures to accept political honors, to which he never consented- With 
his brother Jacob, of blessed memory, who died in Baltimore many years 
ago, and Daniel (!rouse, George Harbaugh, Sr., and a few others, he lirsl 
moved in tlie building of a Reformed Church in Waynesboro. Tliis was 
a log structure and was erected on the gite of the present church, 

Appendix. 283 

and "vvas consecrated May 20th, 1827. It gave place to a brick 
building, which was dedicated to the worship of God June 21st, ]8o4, and 
was subsequently enlarged to meet the Avants of the congregation. In 
1871 the old brick church was lorn down and the present stately edifice 
erected in its stead. The ceremony of consecration was performed Dec. 
24th, 1871. Thus did Elder Besore, for the third time, render efficient 
aid in building, enlarging and rebuilding the liouse of God. He was 
prominent in the organization of the first Sunday School in the town, 
which occurred on the 10th, day of August, 1834. Of this school he was 
superintendent during its entire existence, within his lifetime, with the 
exception of an interval of a few years. The following is from his own 
pen. "The school had been started upon Union principles, teachers and 
scholars were received into the school from all denominations of Chris- 
tians. The school was however all the time imder German Reformed 
influence, and principally made up of German Reformed material. In the 
course of live years from its commencement the Lutheran members with- 
drew and organized a Lutheran School, a few years later the Methodists 
withdrew and formed a Methodist School, and several years afterward 
the Presbyterians also withdrew and organized a Presbyterian School." 
From this original school have gone forth some fifteen or more ministers 
of the gospel. Among these we can now recall the following: Revs. 
Henry Ilarbaugh, D. D., Samuel Gaus, D. D., G. B. Russell, D. D., C. 
C. Russell, Joseph H. Johnston, A. C. Whitmer, Geo. H. Johnston and 
S . S. Miller. Besides these there are several m other denominations. 

Elder Besore was in a certain sense proud of his school. In the erec- 
tion of the Theological Seminary at Mercer sburg, he served on the build- 
ing committee. He was long a member of the board of trustees of the 
Seminary, of the board of visitors, and Treasurer of the Seminary funds, 
also a member of the board of trustees of the College at Mercersburg, 
and afterwards at Lancaster. lie was a staunch friend of the Reformed 
Church printing establishment in its years of embarrassment. He was 
frequently a delegate to represent the charge in the Classis, and from 
Classis to the Synod, in Avhich capacity he served on many prominent 
committees, and took an active part in some of the most important debates 
before the Church. 


This very elegant and productive farm, well meriting the name by 
which it is .known, is located in Guilford Township, seven miles south- 
east of Chambersburg and within convenient distance to Fayettevillc 
station on the Mont Alto R. R. Its original owner was a member of the 
great Smith family but not the ubiquitous John. His name was Henry 
and the precise time at which he located this tract is unknown. But on 
the iOth day of June in the year 1762 it was purchased by John Cowdeu 
and Avas disposed of by his executors, John Andrews and John Reynolds, 
to John and ]\Iartin Wingcrt. At that time it contained 461 acres and 
was by them divided, Martin taking the upper tract and John the lower. 
Martin's portion at that time received the name of "Farmers Hope" 
Avhilst the original name, "Farmer's Delight," was retained by John. 
This portion passed into the hands of the heirs of its OAvncr about the 
year 1812 and was again divided between John Jr. and his brother 
Jacob. John acquiring the southern portion and Jacob the northern cacli 
having 150 acres. In the year 1812, by the last Avill and testament of 
Joliu Wingcrt, John Sullenberger, his son-in-law, came into possession 
of the property and he retained it until 1863 when it became the property 

384 AppenilU'. 

of Ilia son, the geutleman, who so successfully couducts its management, 
in all of its details. The buildings which consisted of a log house 30 by 
155 feet, and a bank barn 00 by 40 feet built of stone and brick, were 
erected in the year 1814 by John Wingert. The barn which is in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation, is the one represented in our sketch. The 
house was however remodled by its present owner in 1868. As it now 
stands it is of brick 50 by 30 feet 3^- stories high and contains all the 
modern convenieirces that add so much to the comfort of a country home. 
The barn although very capacious does not meet the requirements of this 
very productive place, notwithstanding the fact that 30 acres are still 
covered with a fine growth of first class timber. The farm land which is 
rolling, every foot of which can be put to good use, is of a heavy lime- 
stone cnaracter, and as the thrift of Mr. S. has fully proven, is well 
adapted to the cultivation of every variety of grain and the successful 
rearing of stock of all kinds. By means of a Stover ;Wind Engine, his 
fine herd of cattle, as well as his noble looking farm houses, are supplied 
witn the purest of water, from a never failing well, which is conveyed by 
means of pipes to proper receptacles at the barn. The enclosures of the 
fertile fields on this place are first class, consisting of fences of locust 
posts and chestnut rails, as well as living fences of osage orange, which, 
with Mr. S. has been a decided success. To give an idea of the capacity 
of this valuable homestead, we will state that it has produced, in one year 
as much as 1500 bushels of wheat, oOOO bushels of corn in the ear, 80 tons 
of hay and 150 bushels of potatoes. The product of his dairy, Avhich is 
supplied by 8 or 10 fine short horned cows is very large, and the butter, 
which is of first quality, is sent direct to Washington D. C. where it com- 
mands the highest price in the market. The orchard is supplied by 500 
bearing apple trees, 150 choice pear trees and the vineyard contains 200 
vines of the finest varieties of grapes. Of small fruits he has a profusion. 
His apiary consists of betwee'n 40 and 50 skeps of pure bred Italian bees, 
and its yield in one year has been as high as GOO lbs of honey. Mr. S. 
married Lizzie a daughter of JacobDeardofi'in the year 18G3 and if home 
surroundings, together with the means to perfect them, are all that are 
required to make people happy, certainly the occupants of this home 
should be content. 


The house represented in our sketch was built by Mr. J. J. Ervininl853 
and was occupied by Mr. Hoover in Oct. 1866, at which lime it was owned 
by Mrs. Margaret Kreps. Jan. 1871 it was purchased by its present 
owner who put it in complete repair in 1873. Daniel Hoover born Oct. 
19lh, 1833, is a son of David and Elizabeth Hoover who still reside iu 
district No. D in Washington Co. Md., about two miles from Lcitersburg, 
on a farm purchased by them 48 or 50 years ago. His grandfather's 
name was Christian Hoover. David H. father of Daniel was born in the 
year 1796 near Graceham, Frederick County Md. and is the only surviv- 
ing member of his family, being nearly 83 years old. His wife Elizabeth, 
a daughter of David Zentmyer, was born in 1803 near llarbaugh's church 
on Mason's & Dixon's line at the foot of the South Mountain — wcstside — 
where her father had been engaged in farming for many years. She haa 
a brother and sister, Jacob and Barbara, still living near the old home, 
and one brother John, living near Huntingdon, Pa. K.i the age of 33 
years Daniel Hoover left the parental roof and started out in lil'e for him- 
self. The Geiser Separator was, at that time, in its infancy, and the origin- 
al inventor, Peter Geiser having married Mary, sister of Mr. H. he took au 

Appendix. 285 

interest in the new machine and bought one of the first that were sold, it 
having been built at Smithsburg Md. by Wm. Frankinberry. He took it 
to Middletown Md. and engaged in threshing during the sea3on of 1856. 
After that he engaged in different pursuits, sometimes working on the 
farm, traveling in the interest of the Geiser machine as agent, and again 
following threshing until 1866 at which time he was married, and became 
a member of the firm of Geiser, Price & Co. as a silent partner and was 
employed as traveling agent. In January 1868 he bought one half of J, 
F. Oiler's interest in the firm and in Jan. 1869 they secured a charter and 
became an incorporated organization. From which time until Oct. 1870 
he was engaged as traveling agent. From that time until 1874 he occu- 
pied various important and responsible positions in the company. 
Since then, with the exception of 1875 he has been traveling in the inter- 
est of the Company. 


The parcel of ground consistmg of 1| acres, upon which these con- 
venient buildings are erected is located in St. Thomas Township along the 
S. P. R. R. about six miles from Mercersburg, six from Greencastle and 
ten from Chambersburg. It was purchased from S. L. Hawbecker Esq., 
and the store house which is of stone two stories high, 30 by 60 feet, and 
the brick dwelling, also two stories high, with a basement, 16 by 32 feet, 
were built in the year 1871. The business of general merchandising was 
commenced Jan. 1st. 1872. A Postoflice was established at his place 
Sept. 1872. Mr. H. who was not a novice, having, prior to this, success- 
fully conducted business at Hagerstown Md. has fully initiated himself 
into the confidence of the community, and the prosperous trade which he 
is enjoying is a sure guarantee of future prosperity. 



Asbury G. Blair, the proprietor of the first steam printing press in 
Waynesboro, Franklin County, Pa., is the eldest son of William Blair, 
Esq., editor and publisher of the Village Record. 

In 1874 he commenced the book and job printing business, which 
increased to such an extent as to require the use of steam. His facilities 
are first-class for commercial and pamphlet printing on lowest terms. He 
is established in a town where each business man seems to vie with his 
neighbor in placing Waynesboro at the head of the list for enterprise in 
the County. 


Prior to the year 1795 the mtmbersofthe Lutheran Church of this 
town had no place which they could call their own, but in connection 
with the German Reformed congregation used a union structure called 
the "Old Log church," which stood upon the present burying ground of 
the latter denomination and was the first" house of worship erected in the 
place. The corner stone of the first Lutheran church was laid, with 
appropriate ceremonies, on the loth day of Sept. 1793 as is stated in a 
copy of paper deposited in the stone, which document also gives the fol- 
lowing names of the earlier members. Nye, Bayer, Saylor, Bashore, 
Iloeflich, Gerard, Uochlerder, Simeu, Brundliuger, Zimmerman, Schaff- 

380 Appendix. 

ner, Klapsaddle, Wagner, Pcifer and Mann. The building was not 
finiahed until 1795 when Rev- John Ruthrauff took charge and served the 
congregation as iwstor, for forty years, preaching and conducting ser- 
vice in the. German language. The fust English pastor. Rev- John Beck 
was installed in 1831 and was succeeded by Rev. Jcr. llarpel in 183.J. 
During his ministry, that is in 1837, the church building was enlarged. 
Pastors succeeded in the following order ; Rev. Jacob J.Iartin 1830 ; Rev. 
Peter Sahn U. D. 1810 ; Rev. Michael Eyster 184o ; Rev. Christian F. 
Kuukle served as supply during part of 1850, when Rev. James M. Ilar- 
kcy was duly installed as pastor. lie was followed by Rev Edward 
Breidenbaugh in 1853 whose term of service was lengthened out to 13 
years. Following him in 18G5 Rev. Prof. Wm. F. Eyster ; 18G9. Rev. 
T. T. Everett, and in 1873 Rev. Frederick Klinefelter, the present in- 
cumbent was installed. In Aug. 1874 the congregation resolved to erect 
a new church edifice upon the site of the old one. The plans were drawn 
by Mr. S. D. Button architect, of Philadelphia and the contract was 
aAvarded to Messsr. F. & J. AVaidlich of Mercersburg. The lot is 318 by 
7G feet, the building of brick, its length including tower and recess 85 feet. 
The spire is 136 feet high and is covered with slate as is also the roof. 
The last service in the old church was held on the 14th day of March 
1875, and the first in the new lecture room was Feb- Gth 1 87G. The corner 
stone having been laid June 13th 1875. 


This elegant and two a half story brick house, constructed with all the 
modern improvemens, 36 by 48 feet, with a wing, having a porch its 
entire length, is situated on the south side of "West Main street. It was 
built by Rev. G. W. Glessner, a German Reformed Minister, who 
sold it to the late Alexander Hamilton. It was purchased by Rev. Oiler 
in 1870, and by him it was remodled. The lot on which it stands is 373 
by 300 feet, and has a two acre field in the rear containing a thrifty apple 
and peach orchard. There is also a very fine stable on the property. 
Rev. J. F. Oiler was born Jan. 18th, 1835, near Waynesboro. His father, 
Joseph Oiler, who was of the Catholic faith, was born Jan. 13th, 1794. 
His mother, Rebecca Oiler, daughter of David Stoner, of Washington 
Township, was born March 33d, 1803. Mr. J. F. Oiler was reared on a 
farm, but;;at the age of 30 years he engaged in school teaching, and after- 
wards, associated with Mr. Philips, under the firm name of Philips & 
Oiler, he embarked in the dry goods business iji which he continued until 
1853, when he left AVaynesboro and located on afarmncar Chambersburg, 
Avhere he lived for six years, during which time he was elected, in 185G, 
to the ministery in the German Baptist Church. After his election his 
mother was also received into membership in the same church. During 
his residence on this farm he lost his house with its contents by tire, after 
which he took up his abode near "Hopewell Mills" in Washington Town- 
ship, where he continued the pursuit of agriculture. He afterwards sold 
his farm and moved to his fathers, and purchased a part of his, and con- 
tinued farming until 18G1, when he moved to the village of Quincy, and 
bought the Eckraau homestead and continued merchandizing with farming 
until the fall of 18GG, when he, together with Daniel Geiser, J. Fahrney 
and Benj. E. Price, bought the establishment noAV known as Geiser Man- 
ufacturing Companya works, the style of the firm being Geiser, Price & 
Co. Ho acted as financial manager until the Geiser Manufacturing Com- 
pany was organized in Jan. 18G9, in which he has held important and 
responsible positions. Mr. Oiler is one of the successful men of Waynes- 



7"^^ ^^/«S'£/P MANUFACTURING C9 


Appendix. '387 

boro, always fayoring improvements and all that pcrtaiua to the general 
good of the people. Liberal as well as enterprising, he is one of those 
who remember that it is more blessed to give than to receive. He was 
married July 33d, 184S, to Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob lionebreak, near 
Waynesboro. Their family consita of seven children, three sons and 
four daughters, viz: Joseph J., Jesse R., John B., Rel)ecca A., Sudie E. 
Annie G., and Mary B. 


This attractive and very convenient residence was built by its present 
owner in the year 18G8. It is 3 stories high, constructed of brick, has a 
tower attached to it, and for artistic finish and everything that goes to 
make up the comfort of a home is seldom surpassed. It is located on 
tlie west side of Church street, nearly opposite the Lutheran church. The 
dimensions of this house are 58 by 33 feet, it is covered with tin and is 
provided with two cisterns, so as to preserve the winter water for sum- 
mer use. There is also a fine stable erected on the rear of the lot. Daniel 
Geiser was elected President of the Geiser Manufacturing Co. at the time 
of its organization in 1869 and has continued to hold the position, as well 
as that of general business manager, ever since. He is a man of remark- 
able energy, and his name is destined to live, in connection with the in- 
valuable grain separator, which his company manufactures, for ages to 
come. He was born March 11th 1834 near Smithburg Md. and was en- 
gaged in farming for some years, on a place adjoining the one on which 
he had been born, prior to 1860, when he came to Waynesboro and en- 
tered the employment of George Frick who was then engaged in building 
the famous Geiser Separator. In 1866 he became one of the firm of 
Geiser, Price & Co. who procured a charter in 1869 and acquired the 
corporate title of the Geiser Manufacturing Company. Mr. G. was mar- 
ried Nov. 34th 1848 to Anna, daughter of John Newcomer of Washington 
Co. Md. She died April 4th 1861 leaving one child named Mary- 
Catherine. On Oct. 30th 1854 Mr. Geiser remarried, his second wife 
Nancy, being a daughter of David Hoover of Washington Co. Md. and was 
born March 5th 1837. Three children are the result of this union viz. 
Chancy D., Clara E., and Norris D. John Geistr, father of Daniel, was 
born Nov. 3d 1784 in Washington Co, Md. He married Mary Singer who 
was born July 13th 1793. They are both dead, but have left a large family. 
The names of their children were as follows, David, who died when 
quite young, Susie, now deceased, Joha, Mary, these two are also dead, 
Catherine, Daniel, Peter, Martin, Elizabeth deceased, David, Famuel, 
Nancy and Sarah. 

Peter Geiser, who was the original inventor of the Separator and whose 
elegant residence is portrayed in connection with that of his brother, a 
two storied mansion with finished attic, is situated on "Geiser Hill" over- 
looking the town. Its dimensions are 34 by 34 feet. There is also a 
summer house 33 by 17 feet, attached to the rear. The conveniences as 
far as water supply to this house are only equaled by those who have 
the advantage of public water works. Two cisterns, situated in the 
rear of the dwelling and above the level of the ground floor furnish a 
bountiful profusion of water, and by their peculiar connection through 
two filters, one of sand and the other of charcoal and sand, the impurities, 
that accidentally contaminate the water as it falls from the clouds, are 
removed. The water can be stopped off in cistern No. 1 and by that means 
the winter water is kept in No. 3 free from the summer heat. Peter 
Geiser invented the self regulators for which are used on the grain sepera- 

28S Appendix. 

tor, now known as the "Goiser Grain Separator, Cleaner and Bagffer." 
Improvements have liecn made from time to time, by Peter and Daniel 
Geiser and patents liave been obtained on tlie same. Peter Geiser was born 
March (>l\\ lH2fi. He was married to Mary, daughter of David Hoover of 
Washington Co. Md. April 20tli 185o. She was born April ist lS%r,. 
Their children eleven in number are named as follow. John A., Wm- D., 
Jas. p., Dixon H., Libbie A., D. Singer, Joseph F-, M. Mintie, Harry E., 
Elvin T., and Elsie A. K. 


Near the Maryland rine,about one anda lialf miles south-east of Waynes- 
boro, is a very considerable cave, and, among the many, which abound 
in this portion of the county, this is probably the most extensive. This 
cave lies at the northern extremity of a higb ridge, running north-east by 
soutli-weet. The entrance is at the base of the ridge, and leads in a 
southerly direction, being not exactly parallel, with the course of the hill 
itself. The entrance of the cave is only large enough for two persona 
to walk in at once, by stooping a little. On passing through the entrance 
an apparent vestibule, of eay thirty feet in diameter, and fifteen to eighteen 
feet high is reached. Then ascending a few steps jviut opposite the en- 
trance, a defile averaging about four feet wide, and seven to nine feet 
high, extends to a distance of about one hundred yards, to a clear and 
beautiful stream of water, gushing up from beneath the wall of rocky 
formations, on the east side of the passage. This stream then takes the 
regular course of the cave, which seemingly becomes narrower, and the 
water shows considerable depth. 

Grossing this subterraneous stream, and clambering up a short distance 
a small room is found very interesting and beautiful, being ornamented 
with innumerable crystal formations — stalactites and stalagmites which 
sparkle profusely, when illuminated by the light of torches, or candles. 
Just over this little room there is an opening, into another passage, similar 
to the first, already described, leading to a distance of perhaps one hun- 
dred and thirty yards, when it becomes so narrow as to render further ex- 
ploration impossible. The cave, from beginning to end, is one of much 
interest. It is commonly known as "Needy's Cave." 

There is also a very remarkable series of underground passages, or 
miniature caves, under certain portions of the town of Waynesboro. The 
entrances, into these caves, are through arches in the foundation walls of a 
number of houses, of West Main Street, the south side. These arched 
entrances are used in summer, as refrigerators, being made very cool by a 
constant current of air from the caves. The best entrances are in the cel- 
lars of Dr. J. N. Snively and Mrs. Sarah Brotherton. 

Strange to say, these passages well represent the streets of a town, lead- 
ing in numerous directions, and often crossing each other at right angles, 
thus enabling visitors to start, at a given point, and prpceediug around 
again return to the place of starting. This is done frequently. 


This fine place, of 91 acres, is located on the Antietam creek, two miles 
east of Waynesboro, adjoining lands of Henry Bonebreak, father of Dan- 
iel, John M. Hess, J. Frantz, and others. Its nearest railroad station is, 
on the South mountain, about 3 miles distant. The land was first owned by 
Henry Thomas, from whom it passed to Philip Pveed. It was purchased 

Appendiv. 389 

from bim by Zaobariab Allbaugb, and, in 1816, it was deeded by Allbaugh 
to Conrad Bonebreak, grandfather of its present owner. In 1848 it was 
aobl by the heirs of Conrad Bonebreak to Henry, one of his sons, and 
father of Daniel, who in 1801 disposed of it to his son Daniel. The first 
l)uildings were erected by Zachariab Allbangh. These, which consisted 
of a log house, part of which was two stories high, the balance one story, 
rough cast, and a small stone bank barn, remained until the years 1850 and 
1800, when they were removed by Henry Bonebreak, to give place to the 
present fine structures. The house, which is built of brick, with a slate 
roof, is ?)0 by 50 feet, and was erected in 1859. The barn 50 by 96 feet, 
also of brick, with slate roof, was built in 1860. The average yield of the 
farm, is about 25 bushels wheat, and 50 of shelled corn, to the acre. It 
has a fine orchard of young apple trees. It bas been well cared for in 
the way of liming, the erection of necessary outbuildings, fencing, and 
general repairs to property. Conrad Bonebreak was born Feb. 24th 
1768, and died Nov. 11th, 1844. His wife Mary Thomas was born Feb. 
0th 1764 and died July 26th, 1835. Henry Bonebreak was born July 19th 
1798, and was married in Nov. 1829, to Anna, daughter of Wm. Stewart, 
she was born in 1804, and died Aug. 18C2. They had 8 children, viz : Lydia, 
Daniel, Catherine, Nancy, Henry, Julia A. Jacob, and Susanna. Daniel 
Bonebreak was born Nov. 29th, 1832. He was married in the fall of 1857, 
to Barbara A. Senger, who was born Jan. 25th, 1838, They have three 
children, viz : Ida A. Edwin H. and Alice. The property of Henry Bone- 
break Sr. was taken up by James McLanaban, in 1732, after which it went 
into the possession of Henry Thomas, from whom it was purchased by 
Conrad Bonebreak, in 1803, and is still in the Bonebreak family belonging 
now to Henry B. It consists of 24 acres. The house, which is a large 
and fine one, is built of stone, the barn is constructed of stone, and they 
wore both erected by Conrad Bonebreak, There is also a good saw mill 
and water power on this place. 


This property is located on the west Conococheague Creek, in Mont- 
gomerv Township, midway between Mercersburg and Upton, three miles 
irom either place, both of which arc provided with a Postofiice. The near- 
est railroad station is Mercersburg. The land upon which these buildings 
are erected, was taken up, at a very early date, by a man named Shefifer. 
By whom the power was first utilized, or by whom the first mill was 
biiilt, is unknown, but it is presumed to have been Shefier. In 1825 the 
mills were owned by William Brown, who disposed of them in 1820 to 
James Reynolds, in whose possession they remained for a number of 
years, and at his death he bequeathed the same to his nephew, the Rev. 
Proctor. In 1859 Mr. Proctor disposed of the property to Edward Hayes, 
who removed the old dwelling and built the present one in 1865. Hayes 
sold to Frederick Foreman who rebuilt the mill, and added a story to it, 
in 1875. The Messrs Speck purchased from Foreman in 1876, remodelling 
the house and erecting the back building. The main structure, which 
is of frame, is 30 by 32 feet, and there are 15 acres^f land belonging to the 
property. The mills manufacture a good grade of extra and family flour, 
most of which is shipped to the eastern markets. They have a capacity 
of 80 barrels per 24 hours, are driven by two five foot metal turbine 
wheels, under a head of 8^ feet head and full, and give employment to 
from 3 to 4 hands. 

2'JO AppcmUj'. 



This farm and residence is located in the nortU-castern part nl Peters 
Townsliip, eleven miles south-west of Cliambersbnrg, live miles cast ot 
Mercersbiirg, and one and a quarter miles from "Williamson Mills and 
Postollice. The S. P. \\. W. runs through tliis place giving it a Hag station. 
The buildings are situated on a commanding eminence, and although in 
tiie country, with constant communication with the outside world, no 
more desirable home need be wished for. This land wr.s held by two 
warrants, the first bears date December 2d, A. D. 171'!, in favor of James 
Glenn, and the second April 3d, A. D. 1787, in favor of Thomas Wason, 
who died in 1803, but the land was held by his heirs, until April 1st, A. 
D. 1813, when it was sold to Stephen Kieifer, by Archibald JJard, Esq., 
and John Wason, executors of the last will and testament of Thomas 
Wason, dec'd. Stephen KiefFer died July 3Gth, A. D. 1S4G, and the farm 
was held by his heirs until April 1st, A. D. 185o, when it was bought by 
Abraham, one of his sons, and is still owned by him. The first building 
was a cabin, built in 1787 by Thos. Wason, this was removed by his heir's 
in 1810 and the present stone house 30 by 50 feet, which was commenced 
in 1809 was finished in 1811. The log barn which was built by Thos. 
Wason in 1788, was destroyed by lightning on the loth day of July, 1839, 
and the present stone bank barn 45 by 90 feet was built by Stephen Kieffer 
in 1830, who also, in 1833, made a frame addition to the house. The out 
bnildings which were erected at different times ure in good repair. The 
farm contains 35G acres, 50 of which are well covered with timber, viz: 
hickory, white and black oak and locust. The soil is limestone and slate, 
well adapted to grain or stock raising. It is well supplied with water, 
and possesses an abundance of undeveloped iron ore. The highest pro- 
duct of the farm in one year was 1,GG5 bushels of wheat, 1,400 bushels of 
oats, 1,500 bushels of corn and 75 tons of hay. The lowest product was 
87G bushels of wheat, 395 bushels of oats, 800 bushels of corn and 30 tons 
of hay. There are two good orchards in full bearing condition on this 
farm. Jacob Kieffer, the paternal grandfather of Mr. K. was a native of 
Germany, and came to this country in 1740 and located in Berks County, 
ten miles from the city of Picading, in Maiden Creek Valley. lie was 
married to Susan Barnitt, and raised a family of four sous and one 
daughter, viz: Abraham, Jacob, Stephen, Daniel and Susan. Stephen 
was born Oct. 31st, 177G, and migrated to this county about the year 1807- 
He married his second cousin. Miss M. M., daughter of Abraham Kiejfer, 
who had settled in this county about the year 1790, but was born and 
raised near Womelsdorf in the Lebanon Valley. lie was married to a 
Mies Beaver. The father and maternal grandfather of the present Abraham 
Kieffer were pioneer wagoners on the route between Philadelphia and 
Pittsburg, and the latter," with his team, was prested into the ]>ritish 
service, but made good his escape. He also fought for the independence 
of his country. He died at the advanced age of 9G years and some months . 
having served for many years as ruling elder of the German Reformed 
Church, of which he was a prominent and exemplary member. Stephen 
Kieffer died July 3Gth, 1S4G, at the age of G9 years and several months, 
and his wife, who was ten years his junior, died at the age of 75 years. 
They were both consistent members of the German Reformed Church, 
Mr. K. having served as ruling elder for many years. The present 
Abraham Kieffer married Frances A. R., daughter of Jacob Hassler, late 
of Mercersburg, on the 17th of March, A. D. 1844. They have five 
children now living, one son and four daughters. Two sons dead, the 

Appendix. • ggl 

first aad third born. Among the pioneer settlers, of this neighborhood, 
we note the Sloans, the husband killed by the Indians and his wife taken 
captive from this farm, also the Wasons, the Bards, the ilcCoys, the 
McColloughs, the Dunlaps, the McClelands and the Ridenours. Some of 
these endured great privations, and many tortures, at the hands of the 
cruel savages. 


The members of the Reformed Church residing in, and around, Way- 
nesboro were originally connected with, what was then known as Besore's, 
now Salem Church, located several miles west of this place, then under 
the pastoral care of Rev. Jonathan Rahauser. About the year 1816, 
however, the members living at Waynesboro, came to feel the need of a 
congregation nearer home, and, accordingly, withdrew themselves from 
the Salem Church, for the purpose of effecting an organization here. 

The congregation, however, was not fully organized, and regularly 
supplied with preaching, until the year 1818, when the Rev. Frederick A. 
Scholl, who succeeded Rev. Mr. Rihauser at Salem, took charge of the 

At this time, the congregation worshipped in what is still known as the 
Union Church, on Church street, owned jointly by the Lutherans, Pres- 
byterians and Reformed, each occupying the building every third Sundav 

On account of some difficulty, or misunderstanding, between the three 
congregations, as to the time when each was entitled to occupy the church 
for divine services, and to avoid all strife, the Reformed people, in 1826, 
withdrew from the Union house, and built for themselves, a small log 
church, on a lot of ground donated, to the congregation by Conrad 
Detterow, one of the elders of the church at that time. This new build- 
ing was consecrated on the 20th of May, 1827. 

Inasmuch, however, as the services in the new church were still to be 
conducted excusively in the German language, whilst the children of the 
Reformed people were being educated in English, a demand now arose 
for services in the English language. To supply this, and thereby save 
the younger members of Reformed families to the church of their fathers 
It was resolved, by that portion of the membership preferin"- English 
services, with the permission of Classis, to call a minister who could preach 
m that language. Accordingly, in the year 1831, an effort was made, after 
due deliberation, to secure the services of such a minister. The choice 
fell upon Mr. G. W. Qlessner, then a student in the Theological Seminary 
at York, Pa., who, after being properly licensed and ordained, com- 
menced his labors here in the summer of 1831. 

About this time Rev. Mr. Scholl, pastor of 'the German conerec^ation 
closed his labors in the log church, and Rev. Mr. Glessner colmmenced 
preaching in tnat building. The membership rapidly increasing, under 
the ministry of the new pastor, it soon become evident that a larger house 
of worship was needed. It was consequently resolved to build a new 
church, of which the corner stone was laid in the spring of 1833, and the 
buildine: completed and dedicated to the worship of God on the 21st of 
June, 1834. This church was built of brick, in a neat and substantial man- 
ner, with an end gallery, and its dimensions were forty by forty-six feet 

On all ordinary occasions, this church was found large enough to accom- 
modate those who assembled for divine worship. But on special occasions, 
as the celebration of the Holy Communion, the want of more room soon 
made itself felt, and hence, in the years 1839, an addition of eighteen feet 

292 ' Appendix. 

was bailt to tUa rear cad of it, making the building now forty feet in 
widtli, by sixty-four feet in length. 

The Rev. Mr. Glessner resigned the pastorate of this church, and re- 
moved to another field of labor, in the spring of 1840. 

The Rev. J. 11. A. Bomberger was then elected pastor, and served the 
congregation from the spring of 1840, to the spring of 1845, when he also 
accepted a call to labor elsewhere. 

The immediate successor of Mr. Bomberger, was the Rev. Theodore 
Apple, a recent graduate of the Theological Seminary, at Mercersburg, in 
this county. Mr. Apple assumed the pastorate in April 1845, and resigned 
in the spring of 1847. 

At this time, a colony of about thirty-five or forty members, of this 
church withdrew from its coanectioa, and, having organized themselves 
into a separate congregatiou, built a house of worship near the residence 
of Mr. George Harbaugh, father of Rev. Dr. Harbaugh, known as Har- 
baugh's church. 

After the resignation of Rev. Mr. Apple the congregation recalled its 
former pastor, Rev. G. W. Glessner, who entered upon the duties of the 
pastorate a second time, in April 1847, and resigned in April 1851. 

In October of 1851, an election for pastor was held, which resulted in 
the choice of Rev. H. W- Super, who commenced his labors here in 
November, of the same year, and resigned in March 1854, but, alter an 
absence of one year, was recalled, returning in March 1855, and closed 
his labors finally in April 18G2. 

The vacancy, caused by the resignation of Mr. Super, was filled by call- 
ing Rev. Walter E. Krebs, who assumed charge of the congregation in 
October 1862, and resigned in August 1868. 

At au election for pastor, held in March, 1869, the Rev. H. H. W. 
Hibshman was chosen, as successor ot Mr. Krebs. Mr. Hibshman entered 
upon the duties of the pastorate in June, of the same year. 

The corner-stone, of the present stately and commodious edifice, which 
occupies the site of the two former buildings, was laid on the 7th of 
August, 1870, and the building dedicated to the worship of God, on the 
24th of December, 1871, under the name of Trinity Reformed Church of 

The Second Reformed congregation, of this place, was organized on the 
9th of August, 1873, by a number of persons who were previously mem- 
bers of Trinity Church, but withdrew from its connection, at this time, for 
the purpose of forming themselves into a separate organization. They 
subsequently built, and now occupy, a very neat chapel, on Main street, 
known as St. Paul's Reformed Church of Waynesboro. 

The R3V. H.'H. W. Hibshman resigned the pastorate, of Trinity Church 
on the 1st of October, 1877. 

The present pastor, is Rev. F. F. Bahner, who assumed charge on 
the 1st of December, 1877. 

people's register. 

The Centennial Register was first issued on the 5th day of January, 1876, 
and as will be noticed, should h.ave been included in the Newspaper Article 
in Mr. McCauley's History. From the beginning it has been owned and 
edited by J. G, Schaff'. At the end of about'fifteen months from its first issue 
the word Centennial was droped as mappropriate, and the word People^s 
substituted, and it now bears the title of People^ s Register. Under many 
discouragements and disadvantages, its projeotor has persevered, and is 
being rewarded by a steadily increasing circulation. The main object of 
the PeopWs Register is to chronicle the local news. 

Appendix. 393 


Mr. James P. Wolf, the senior partner of this firm, commenced busi- 
ness in Waynesboro, on the site of the present Odd Fellows Hall, in the 
summer of 1868, His rapidly increasing business soon required more 
extended accommodations, and the old building was made to give place 
to a new and more commodious one. The present elegant room 65 feet in 
length, is meeting the requirements for the present, but with a growing 
reputation, for fair and honorable dealing, in a town of remarkable busi- 
ness enterprise, it is possible that at some future day, even larger appart- 
ments will be required. On the 15th of April, 1876, Mr. W. received into 
partnership, his brother J. M. Wolf, since which time the style of the 
firm, has been "Jas. P. & J. M. Wolf." They have adapted the ''cash 
system," and are so greatly encouraged by the plan, that they expect to 
adhere to it. These young men are of German descent, and grandsons 
of David Wolf, Esq., who was born March 19th, 1765, and was married 
to a Miss Catherine Butterbaugh, and located in this county, two and a 
half miles south of Welsh Run, near the Maryland line, where their 
father, John Wolf, Sr., was born June 8th, 1813. He was mairied to Mies 
Elizabeth Zuch, May 14th, 1840. James P. Wolf, was born March 7th, 
1841, and was married Jan. 7th, 1868, to Miss Alice S. Funk. He entered 
the service"of his country, Oct. 34ih, 1862,. as a private in Battery "B," 
112th Reg't, Pa. Vol., 2d Artillery. Jan. 1st, 1863, he was promoted to 
Corporal, July, 11th, 1864, to Serg't, Feb. 12th, 1865, to 1st Serg't, May 
3d, 1865, to 2d Lieut., and was commissioned 1st Lieut., Dec. 21st, 1865. 
During this time he participated in quite a number of hotly contested 
engagements, in the "army of the James." And has now settled down 
in the peaceful pursuit of merchandising. 


The lot, now occupied bv the prominent building, of F. Forthman. on 
East Main St., Waynesboro, Pa., and occupied by him, as a residence and 
drug store, an engraving of which, we give in this work, was owned in 
1798, by John Wallace, who sold it to Jacob Stevens, on the 35th, of May, 
of the same year, and after numerous conveyances, it was sold to Sanders 
Van Rensellear, on the 13th day of April, 1840, who in turn sold it to 
John C. Frey, on the 10th day of May, 1844. It was afterwards sold to 
John Clayton, April lltb, 1845. On April 1st, 1847, Mr. Clayton dis- 
posed of it to Miss Martha Brotherton, and, by her, it was conveyed to 
John R. Sellers, on July 27th, 1860, he disposing of it, to P. Forthman 
on the 30th of March, 1867. 

Mr. F. Forthman commenced his business career in Waynesboro, Oct. 
3d, 1856, in the building opposite the one tfe now occupies, then owned 
by Mr. John Gilbert, deceased . He continued in business at this place, 
up to November 1867, at which time he removed to the building, erected 
by him, and in which his flourishing business is carried on. 

This drug house is finely located, and is one of the largest and fanest in 
the county, having all the modern appliances for conducting the business 
according to the latest rules of Pharmacy. 


This desirable home, and valuable landed property are situated in 

!294 Appendix. 

Metal Township, two miles north of Fannettsbiirg, and ten miles north 
of llichmond, the terminus of the South Penn Railroad. They are in the 
centre of Path Valley and in one of the loveliest spots of that beautiful 
vale. The farm was originally taken up by John Elliot and Richard 
Chillison, and was surveyed in pursuance of a warrant dated May 14th 
1755. The old mansion liouse was frame, and is near to and east of the 
Doctors present residence. This house was on the property when John 
Flickinger, the grandfather of the Doctor, purchased it. The house and 
barn, shown in the illustration, were built in 1855 by Joseph Flickinger, 
and the former was originally shaped as an L but is now nearly square, 
having been enlarged and remodled in 1875 by his son Dr. John S. 
Flickinger, the present proprietor. The surroundings were also improved 
at the same time. The dimensiops of the liouse 38 by 40 feet, brick, 
shingle and tin roof, with upper and lower porches. The farm contains 
225 acres, 50 of which are timber, consisting of locust, oak, chestnut, 
maple and walnut. The land is limestone, adapted to wheat and corn, 
surface generally level, except along the creek, where it is more hilly. 
Three lovely springs, come laughing and gushing up here and there from 
the fields, and one beautiful stream, which is shown in the illustration, 
called Marsh run, bends its graceful curves through the entire farm, and 
finds repose in the bosom of the grand old west Conococheague, the last 
named stream turning two mills erected by Dr. Flickingers.' father-in- 
law, the late John McAllen, Esq., a gentleman who was distinguished 
for his enterprise and public spirit, as well as for many estimable quali- 
ties of head and heart. Marsh run is full of trout, and the children of the 
family readily catch them in a dip which they call a net. No minerals 
have ever been developed on the property. The farm has produced In 
one year as much as twelve hundred bushels of wheat, and fifteen hun- 
dred bushels of corn. 

Dr. John S. Flickinger is the only son of Joseph Fli ckinger who was 
born near Lancaster, Pa., in 178fl, his father, John Flickinger, having 
emigrated from that couniy to Franklin, and after residing a few years 
near Greencastle located in Path Valley. They were of German descent. 
The Doctor's mother's name was Nancy Stotler, of the vicinity of Green- 
castle, said to be of French extraction, a lady of rare christian virtues, as 
all testify who knew her. 

The wife of Dr. John S. Flickinger, was Jennie S. McAllen, whose 
ancestors were good old Scotch Irish Presbyterians of the highest respec- 
tibility and merit, and occupyed a prominent position among the people 
of their region. Dr. Flickinger after pursuing his studies for several 
years at Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa., commenced the study of 
medicine with Dr. John C. Richards, of Chambersburg, where he re- 
mained three years, graduating in medicine at Pennsylvania College, 
Philadelphia, March 8th, 1850. Though inclined to go South, he yielded 
to the wishes of his father and sisters (now all dead) and located at his 
father's house, where he has practiced constantly for thirty-eight years, 
his practice extending through Path Valley and into Huntington and 
Fulton Counties. His marriage took place October ICth, 1867, and they 
have two children, Joseph M., and Edith S. The property has come down 
in regular descent from John Flickinger, the grandfather of the Doctor, 
who purchased it from Mr. Chillison in 1707. 


The first number of the Valley Spirit was issued in Shippensburg, 
near the close of the first week in July, 1847, by John M. Cooper and 



Carriage '^qr\^^ or THRUSH, PEf?L 


& ST0UGH,5HjppENSSUf?&, Pa. 


Appendix. 295 

Daniel Dechert, under the editorial management of the former. One year 
thereafter — July Ist, 1848 — it was removed to Chambersburg, when 
Peter S. Dechert, a brother of Daniel, was admitted to the firm. At this 
time the Oumberland Valley Sentinel — originally called the Franklin 
Telec/rapJi^ (in 1831, when it was started by Ruby & Hatnick,) and after- 
ward changed, with a change in ownership, to the Chamhershurg Times, 
and subsequently to the title above given — was the recognized organ of 
the Democratic party in Franklin County. But the Valley Spirit 
advanced rapidly in circulation and influence, and on the 1 st of July, 1852 , 
its proprietors purchased the Sentinel and added its material and subscrip- 
tion list to that of the Valley Spirit. In 1855 Daniel Dechert withdrew 
from the firm and removed to Hagerstown, Md., where he purchased an 
interest in the Mail. In 1857 the paper passed into the hands of Geo. H. 
Mengel & Co., a change made more for the purpose of effecting a settle- 
ment of old accounts than with a view to permanency. Mr, Cooper con- 
tinued to edit it, but having received an appointment in the Attorney 
General's office at Washington, under Judge Black, the local department 
of the paper was conducted by Dr. Wm. H. Boyle, who also contributed 
at his pleasure to the general editorial columns. Early in 1860 Mr. Cooper 
withdrew from the editorship, and from that time till 1863 it was edited in 
all its departments by Dr. Boyle, with an occasional contribution from 
Mr. Cooper. 

The entire ownership of the establishment having fallen back to J. M. 
Cooper and P. S. Dechert, they sold it in 1862 to H. C. Keyser and B. Y. 
Hamsher, who subsequently admitted William Kennedy to their firm. 
He retired in 1863, and Keyser & Hamsher continued to edit and publish 
the paper, (with a brief interruption caused by the burning of the town 
on the 30th of July, 1864,) till the summer of 1867, when J. M. Cooper, 
Augustus Duncan and William S. Stenger became its editors and pro- 
prietors, their purchase dating from the first of July in that year, thoup-h 
made a month or two later. The paper was published by J, M. Cooper 
& Co. from this time till July, 1869, when Mr. Cooper retired, leaving it 
in the hands of Duncan & Stenger, who sold it to Joseph C. Clugston on 
the 1st of June, 1876, when Mr. Cooper returned to its editorial chair. 
Mr. Stenger was elected to Congress in 1874 and re-elected in 1876, and 
the weight of his public and professional duties induced him to retire 
from the paper. 

At this date— April, 1878— Mr. Clugston remains the proprietor and 
publisher, and Mr. Cooper the editor. They are cousins and natives of 
the county, both of them having been born about two miles south-east of 
Marion— Mr. Cooper on the 16th of January, 1823, and Mr. Clugston on 
the 26th of March, 1834. Their ancestors were among the early settlers 
of Pennsylvania. Robert Cooper, whose name appears in the list of 
taxables in Antrim township in 1786, given in this book, was the editor's 
grandfather. He was a native of Chester county and came to Franklin 
before the Revolution, when about 17 years of age. John Clugston, whose 
name appears in the list of taxables in Guilford township the same year, 
was a greatgrandfather of both the editor and publisher. His son, Capt. 
John Clugston, their grandfather, owned and lived at the Big Spring, 
northeast of Brown's mill and southeast of Marion, near the close of the 
first quarter of this century. Mr. Cooper is a printer and much the larger 
portion of his life has been spent in that business, but Mr. Clugston, 
previous to his purchase of the printing office in 1876, had been a farmer 
and dealer in produce. 

The Valley Spirit has been one of the most successful "country 
journals" in Pennsylvania. It went upward from the start and has never 

296 Appendix. 

taken aay backward steps. Its circiilatioa at this time is -five hundred 
higlier tlian that of any other paper in Franklin county, and its advertis- 
ing and jobbing patronage is correspondingly heavy. In politics it is 
Democratic, but it aims to interest its readers of all sorts, and pays particu- 
lar attention to mittors of consequence to the farming community, recog- 
nizing agriculture as the foundation of all the worldly prosperity enjoyed 
by the people of Franklin county. The office is eligibly located ou the 
north-west corner of the Diamond, opposite the front of the Court House, 
and is well stocked Avith printing materials. Its presses have been run 
by water-power since November 1877, when a motor invented and pitent- 
od by <V. F. Eyster of Chambersburg was put in. 

The Valley Spirit Building, of which an accurate view is given in 
this book, is occupied on the first floor by Kindline & Gillan's Dry Goods 
Store, Ludwig & Go's. Jewelry Store and Smith's Shoe Store. The 
Printing OfQce occupies the second floor and part of the third, and the 
remainder of the third is occupied by an A.ssociation. 


William Stover, grandfather of Jacob P. was born in Switzerland, A. 
D. 1725. He migrated to Pennsylvania in 1754, and located upon a tract 
of land one mile east of "Shady Grove," now owned by Wesley Kuntz. 
He had seven children, viz: George, born 1748; William, born 1750; 
Margaret, born 1752; Michael, born 1755; Daniel, born 1757; Jacob, born 
1759; and Emanuel, born 1761. Dr. George, and Emanuel, married sisters, 
the Misses Hannah and Susan Pr'ce. Their great grandfather, a half 
brother of the then King of Prussia, of the House of Hapsburg, came to 
this country, from Berlin, Prussia, with one child. He left Prussia 
because of the war against the family. On his arrival here he located near 
Waynesboro. Dr. George Stover, sold his interest in the farm given to 
him and his brother Emanuel, to the latter, taking continental money in 
payment, and moved to Virginia, having bought a property there, but 
before he got to Virginia his money was worthless, and because of his 
failure to take the land purchased there, he was thrown into prison for 
debt. He had some other property, all of which he gave to effect his 
release. He had the following children, John, Elizabeth, Susan, Jacob, 
Polly, David, George, Catharine, Hannah, Abram, Anna, William, Sarah, 
Nancy, Joseph, Emanuel, Joel, and two others that died in infancy, 
making nineteen in all. Emanuel Stover at first engaged in tanning and 
carried it on for some time in connection with farming. He was after- 
wards engaged in distilling for many years, and died at the place upon 
which he was born, A. D. 1833, aged nearly 73 years. He had five sons 
and five daughters, viz: Elizabeth, Polly, Susan, John, Hannah, Jacob, 
Catharine, David, Daniel and Samuel. Jacob P. Stover was born, July 
9th, 1800. He married Elizabeth Emmert, locating at his present home, 
purchased of James McLanahan, near Greencastle. A log house and 
barn were the principal improvements, these have given place to the 
present ones. The barn was built in 1819, and was considered at that 
time, the best finished one in the county, but unfortunately on the 10th of 
July, 1876, it, together with the entire crop and much valuable machinery, 
was consumed by fire, causing a loss of about $3,000. It was rebuilt in 
the fall of the same year, by Mr. Stover, who was then in the 76th year 
of his age. The beautiful spring, now arranged into trout ponds, where 
hundreds of the finny tribe, can be seen sporting in the sunlight, was, 
until within a few years an unsightly swamp, but through th^e enterprise 
of bis youngest son, J. Mitchell Stover, who is, at this time, residing on 

Appendix. 397 

the home place, it has been made a great source of pleasure, as well as 
profit. Young Mr. Stover has also established a promising dairy trade, 
and is now furnishing the people of Greencastle with a pure article of 
milk. The "Stover Wind Engine" one of the greatest inventions, of 
the age is manufactured at Greencastle for the Eastern States, under 
the supervision of J. M. Stover, one of the partners of the "Stover Wind 
Engine Co." of Freeport, 111. In our illustration, just over the barn is 
seen a 12 foot engine, to which is attached a grinder, close under the 
floor of the granary, and wnich receives the grain from the garner above 
and discharges it, ground, into a large chop-chest beneath. This en- 
gine and grinder, at a cost of about |100, prepare all the grain needed 
for a large stock, at the same time, it can be arranged to draw, or pump 
water from the spring, or from a well, and supply the stock with pure 
fresh water, without leaving the yard. This invaluable machine has been 
tested alongside of every other Wind Mill of any note in use, and has 
gained great honors, at the leading State, and hundreds of County fairs, 
all over the United States, and Canada for the past six years. It also 
received the highest award, over all other competitors, at the Centennial 
Exhibition held in 1876. To the Stover family belongs the credit, of 
having produced and perfected this admirable labor-saviUjj machine, it 
having evolved from the brains of Emanuel and Daniel C. Stover, elder 
brothers of this family, after years of hard study. These gentlemen, who 
now reside at Freeport, 111., have discovered and patented a number of 
valuable features, not combined in any other wind engine in use. One 
of which, now considered almost indispensable, is the application of 
chilled iron antifriction balls, on which the entire weight of the engine 
rests, making the action sensitive to the least change of wind, and so 
quiet and steady, are its motions that after years of use it continues to do 
its work, without a jolt or a jar in heavy as well as light winds. 


This elegant place composed of parts of two large tracts, called "Bel- 
fast," and "Smith's Retirement," is situated partly in Washington, and 
partly in Antrim Townships, 4 miles west of Waynesboro, on the road 
leading from the Waynesboro and Greencastle turnpike, to the Marsh 
store, one and a half miles north of the latter place, and two miles south 
of the turnpike. Greencastle is six miles distant, and is the nearest R. R. 
station, nearest post office is Waynesboro. This farm was conveyed, by 
warrant and order of survey," to Elias Davison bearing date Aug. 1st A. 
D. 1766. By him conveyed to Henry Campbell, Feb. 21st, 1768, by Camp- 
bell to James Ferris, March 12th, 1773, by Ferris back to Campbell, 
Aug. 10th A. D. 1775, and, on the same date by Campbell to Gotlieb 
Evert. From Evert it passed to James McNulty, Oct. 5th, 1783, and from 
McNulty by deed of conveyance dated April 11th, A. D. 1794, to Daniel 
Mowen, grandfather of the present owner. Patent deed obtained by 
Daniel Mowen, Dec. 3d, A. D. 1 812, Book H. No. 8, page 369 . 

"Smith's Retirement" was conveyed to Abram Smith by patent deed 
Nov. 2d, A. D. 1785 and by him to Daniel Mowen, Feb. 2d, 1795. By 
public outcry it was sold by Jacob Snively, administrator of Daniel 
Mowen, dec'd, to John Lecron, Sept. 27th, A. D. 1824, and by deed of 
conveyance dated March 4th, A. D. 1851, by him to his son Simon, the 
present owner. The first buildings, which consisted of a small log shanty 
and log stable, were erected by Campbell, about 1769 or 1770. In 1802 
or 1803, these were removed by Daniel Mowen, who selected a site about 
300 yards nortfe of the old buildings, and had a swiss barn, 66 by 40 feet, 

298 Appendix. 

stone to 1st square, the balance logs, and a two storied stone house, 
with basement, 'SO by JJO, erected instead. This house is still standing 
but the barn was removed in 1857 by Mr. S. Lecron, when the one repre- 
sented in our picture was built. He also erected, in 1862, an addition of 
18 feet to the house, building of the same material and making it corres- 
spond, in height with the original. The house as it now stands, is 54 by 
iJO feet, and contains nine rooms and a basement kitchen. The barn 
which is also of stone, is 80 feet long by 54 wide. It is constructed with a 
view to good ventilation of the stables, and is a good substantial building. 

There are one hundred and lifty-one acres included in this tract of 
land, twenty-five of which are well set with white and black oak and 
hickory timber. The soil, which is somewhat broken, is rolling and is of 
clay mixed with sand. There is an abuudance of limestone, which can 
be readily utilized. About nine acres are good meadow with a fine stream 
of water running through it. As the land is all well drained it is well 
adapted to the cultivation of every variety of produce. The largest pro- 
duct of wheat on 20 acres, were 37j bushels per acre, and the largest crop 
in one year 1268 bushels on 40 acres, making a fraction less than 32 
bushels per acre. The general average of the farm is from 900 to 1,000 
bushels of wheat, 600 to 800 bushels of corn, 400 to 600 bushels of oats, 
and 40 to 50 bushels of rye. Mr. L., is feeding his farm by having all of 
his corn and oats consumed on it, purchasing the stock in the fall, and 
having it ready for the spring market. 

The paternal ancestors of Mr. Lecron, were of French origin, his 
father, John Lecron, who departed this life on the 14th day of Feb. 
1878, at the age of 84 years, was married in May, 1817, to Catherine, 
daughter of Daniel Mowen of Washington township. His grandfather is 
said to have left France, about the beginning of the French Revolution, 
tied to Poland, and from there to the United States, and settled in Lancas- 
ter county, about the year 1789, trom there his two sons, Simon and 
Jacob, migrated to AVashington county, Md., about the year 1790. Simon, 
grandfather of the present Simon Lecron, married Elizabeth Lydey, and 
died aged 48 years, in the year 1814, leaving eleven children upon a 
small estate. John, the father of Simon, who was the 2nd child, moved 
to Pennsylvania in the spring of 1819, and located upon a farm belonging 
to his father-in-law, in Antrim township, the same that is now owned by 
Daniel Lecron, brother of Simon. In the spring of 1825, he bought, and 
moved upon the "Belfast," farm in Washington township and continued 
there until his death. The maternal ancestor of Mr. L. located in Antrim 
Township at an early day, and is thought to have come from Switzerland. 
His son, Daniel Mowen, who was the maternal grandfather of Mr. 
Lecron, died in 1819 at the age of 54 years. Daniel's 3rd child, Catherine, 
mother of Mr. L., was born April 8th, 1790, and is now at the age of 
almost 82 years, still living. Her son Simon, who is her 2nd child, was 
born April 18th, 1820, and was married Sept. 7th, 1843, to Anna Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Jacob Middiekauff, of Beaver Creek, Washington Co., 
Md. They have eight children, four sons and four daughters. 


The position occupied by our artist, when taking his sketch, of these 
buildings, was on the banks of the historic Antietam, on an old road, 
vacated about 100 years ago, along which the soldiers of the revolution 
marched. The farm is located in Washington Township, three miles 
cast of Waynesboro, and four from the Waynesboro station, W. M. R. 


Appendix. 399 

R. It was taken up, Sept. 6th, 17G2, by George Martin, and named 
"Calidity." Jan. 14th, 1772, it passed into the possession of George Sliil- 
ley, who sold it to Robert Espey on March 11th, 1773. From him it w^as 
transferred to John McGuier, July 28th, of the same year. April 17th, 
1773, over a century ago, it came into the possession of John Burns, the 
grandfather of the present occupant. March 18th, 1803, Jamea Crooks, 
and James Downey, executors, of John Burns, dec'd, disposed of it to 
Jeremiah Bourns, father of J. Morrow Barns, who rented the farm, at the 
time of his father's death, Feb. 16th, 1847, and on June 21st, 1862, he 
became the sole possessor, of the estate. The present house was erected, 
about the year 1831 by Jeremiah Bourns, and is of bricls. There are the 
neceusary out buildings, and also a good saw mill, on the place, which 
was originally erected in 1774, over one hundred years ago. The farm 
contains 128 acres, of good soil, well adapted to grain, or stock raising. 
The surface is level. There is a never failing spring, and also a good 
water power which drives the saw mill. The product of the farm, in 
1877, was about 1200 bushels of wheat and corn, and it abounds in iron 
ore of excellent quality. In the year 1751, Archibald Bourns, with his 
wife and two young sons, accompanied his wife's brother, the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson, to Lancaster County, Pa., from the county of Lanark, in 
Scotland, their native land. Mr. Cuthbertson became permanent pastor 
to the Covenanters, at Octorara, in Lancaster county. Mr. Bourns set- 
tled in "Carrol's Tract," now in Adam's county, Pa., on the farm his 
wife had received as a gift from her brother, Mr. Cuthbertson, where 
Archibald died, leaving his sons, John, and James, still lads, to the care 
of their widowed mother. Mrs. Bourns re-married, her second husband 
being Francis Meredith, Esq., and her sons, now young men, found 
homes of their own, James settled in the wilds of Ohio, becoming pro- 
prietor of oarts of the land on which Cincinnati now stands. John wed- 
ded a daughter of Jeremy Morrow, of the vicinity of "Carrol's Tract," 
whose grandson became one of Ohio's early governors, and in honor of 
whom one of her counties is named. With his young wife, John Bourns, 
made his home on the Antietam, in the tspring of 1773, on the property 
above described. He established himself, mainly in the business of 
manufacturing sickles, erecting a shop, and mill, for the purpose, and 
also a saw mill. He put about sixty acres of land under cultivation. 
Here he, and his wife Esther reared their seven sons, and four daughters, 
and here both died, highly honored for their personal worth, and Chris- 
tian lives. They were both intered in, what was then called, the "Cove- 
nanter's" graveyard, two miles lower down the Antietam. Their chil- 
dren all survived them, excepting the eldest, their names given in the 
order of birth, being Margaret, Jeremy, John, Sarah, Archibald, Thomas, 
Elizabeth, James, Francis, William, and Esther. The eldest was born in 
1773, and the youngest in 1792, and the last born was the latest survivor 
of the eleven children; Mrs. Esther Wallace, who died in 187G. The 
latest living, of the sons, was General James Burns, whose death occur- 
red in 1875, he lacked but one day of being ninety years old. The gener- 
al, and his brothers, dropped from the family name the ancestral letter 
"O," and but one, of the connection, now retains it, writing his name in 
the old manner — J. Francis Bourns, M. D. of Philadelphia. Soon after 
the birth of his third child, in 1776, John Bourns was summoned to be a 
soldier, in the Army, of the Revolution. Before the close of the war, 
Mr. Bourns was appointed a Magistrate, and he continued to hold the 
office until his death, in 1803. His son Jeremy, became owner and occu- 
pant of the paternal homestead, and succeeded his father in the, still lu- 
crative, business of sickle-making, and also in the sawing of lumber, and. 

300 Appendix. 

he somewhat enlarged the work of the farm. Having erected new mills, 
with encouraging business prospects, Jeremy met with the misfortune of 
having the mills, together with his barn, totally destroyed by fire. Part 
of the heavy loss was that of about one hundred dozens of sickles, that 
were nearly ready for the coming harvest. He at once replaced the 
buildings, but his business was crippled for years afterward. Jeremy 
Burns married Sarah, daughter of John Renfrew, Sr. and granddaughter 
of Samuel Rea, in 1811, and their children were twelve in number, viz : 
Nancy, John, Francis, Samuel, Rea, Esther, Elizabeth, Jeremy, Morrow, 
Sarah, James Cuthbertson, Margaret Renfrew, and Hannah Jane, with 
three others, that died in infancy. Margaret R. died when a child, and 
Esther S. and Sarah in mature years ; while the rest are living. They 
have their homes in Franklin County, John Francis excepted, who for 
many years has resided, a physician, in Philadelphia. Their father died 
in 1847, and their mother in 1855. Endowed with more than common 
elevation, and force of character, both departed as they had lived, devo- 
ted and honored christians. Covenanters in church fellowship, they sleep 
in the before mentioned family burial place, with other beloved and hon- 
ored dead, awaiting the resurrection of the just. 


This valuable mill property is situated, on the east branch of Antietam 
Creek, about one and a half miles southeast of Waynesboro, and three 
and a half miles from the Waynesboro station, on toe W- M. Railroad 
and is crossed by the line of the proposed Baltimore and Cumberland 
Valley Railroad, connecting Baltimore with Chambersburg. The mill 
was built by Abraham Stover in 1831, it is driven by an overshot wheel of 
18 foot diameter. Samuel Frantz erected the mansion house in 1847, he 
also erected the barn and miller's house. The mill which is built of brick, 
is 50 by 58 feet, three and a half stories high, there are|three runsof burrs 
for wheat, and two for chopping. It has a capacity of about 12,000 barrels 
of flour per year. The water power, which in addition to the Antietam is 
furnished by two large springs, emptying into the dam, a short distance 
above the breat, is considered the best on the stream. It never fails, and 
because of the large amount of spring Avater, it never freezes. The brick 
mansion house is 33 by 36 feet, with a wing attached, 20 by 30 feet. It 
contains eleven large rooms, and the cellar which is arched has a well 
cemented floor. There is a brick summer house in the rear of the main 
building, 16 by 38 feet. The cottage, which is a frame structure, is 28 by 
26 feet. The bank barn is constructed of stone and frame. The entire 
number of buildings is fifteen, and they are all in first-class condition and 
present a fine appearance. The land, which is mostly meadow, is well 
adapted to the production of all kinds of grain, and also to the cultivation 
of tobacco. Although consisting of only 80 acres, it is considered one of 
the most productive farms, in the Township. It was purchased by Mr. 
Philips in June 1877, since which time its appearance has been greatly 
improved by painting, and other repairs. The stock in the barn yard is 
supplied with pure water, through pipes, from the forebay, and there are 
two good wells, one at the summer house, and the other at the cottage. 
Besides these there is a soring at the north-east corner of the farm, and 
running water in every enclosure, except one. The fencing, is nearly all 
post and rail. The buildings are all surrounded by fruit trees, and there 
are two thrifty orchards of the most choice summer, and winter, varieties 
of apples. The largest production in one year from this] farm was 650 

Appendix. 301 

bushels of "wheat, 500 barrels of corn, besides oats, etc., and about 80 tons 
of hay. John Eichelberger, the maternal grandfather of John Philips, 
who was of German descent, served during the Revolutionary war, and 
fought in the battle of Bunker Hill, etc. He married Mary, daughter of 
Michael Leonard. She died Feb. 22d, 1840, aged 88 years, he in the year 
1832. They both were buried in the St. John's Lutheran graveyard, at 
Hagerstown, Md. They had six children, viz : John, Peter, Jacob, Henry, 
Mary, and Catherine. Mary, mother of John Philips, was born August 
7th, 1792. She married Thomas Philips, July 25th, 1811, near Frederick 
city, Md. He was engaged in milling during, the greater portion of, 
his business life. He died at Hagerstown, Feb. 19th, 1844, in the 56th 
year of his age. His children were Mary Ann, Thomas, William, Israel. 
Mary, John, and Samuel. Mary Ann, and Mary, died in infancy. 
Thomas practiced medicine at St. Thomas, in this countv, and died Nov. 
29th, 1841, aged 29 years. William, is professor of Belles Lettres at Seton 
Hall College, South Orange, K J., which position he has held for about five 
years. Israel, died at Hagerstown, Dec. 29th, 1845. Samuel, is a pastor 
of the Presbyterian church. John, was born Feb. 17th, 1821, at Browns 
Mills, Franklin County. He was educated at a private school in Washing- 
ton Co., Md. At sixteen years of age, he engaged himself in the employ 
of Harper & White, dry goods merchants, Shepherdstown, Va., where 
he continued until twenty-two years of age. In 1845, he located in 
Waynesboro, and commenced merchandising, continuing until 1856, when 
he was elected Treasurer, of the Waynesboro Savings Fund Society, since 
changed to the First National Bank, of which he was elected cashier, this 
position he still continues to hold. He has been the President of the 
Steam Engine and Boiler Works, Frick & Co., since their organization. 
He married Susan S., daughter of John Clayton, Esq., of Waynesboro, 
Sept. 14th, 1848. Their children were six in number, but are not all 
living, Sallie, born June 19th, 1850, died June 4th, 1867. William D. 
born Jan. 18th, 1854, died April 22d, 1854. Minnie Bell, was born July 
3d, 1856, died Jan. 6th, 1863. S. H. Clayton, was born Feb. 5th, 1859. 
Margarette, born July 31st, 1861, died Feb. 6th, 1863, and Grace E. was 
born June 4th, 1864. Mr. Philips is highly respected by his fellow citi- 
zens, who have every reason to admire his strict integrity, and sterling 
mora] worth. 


This valuable business property and residence is located on lot No. 50, 
West Main street. The store room, with office, attached, has a depth of 
70 feet, and is 18 feet wide. Mr. R. commenced the hardware business, 
in partnership, with Martin Geiser, in- the year 1865, in a building on the 
south east corner of the Diamond. In 1866, the firm purchased the hard- 
ware store of Wm. H. Brotherton, and moved into the building, in the 
spring of the same year. The store room, at that time, was 18 by 30 feet, 
and was owned by Wm. Hammett and Brotherton's heirs. In 1870, Mr. 
Rinehart purchased the property, and, in the same year, he enlarged it, by 
erecting a two story back building, 18 by 40 feet, making the store room 
58 feet in depth. In 1872, he enlarged the iron house, to the extent of 21 
feet. In 1875, the front above the store room was remedied, by cutting 
the windows down to the floor, making twin windows, and adding a 
portico. The front had been remodled when the building was enlarged 
in 1870. In June 1871, Mr. Rinehart purchased the interest of his partner, 
Mr. Geiser, in the business, and contined alone until 1876, when he asso- 

302 Appendix. 

ciated with himaclf Daniel Trittle. In 1876, he made another improve- 
ment by erecting a warehouse 33 by 30 feet. The office 18 by 30 feet, was 
added in 1877, making the entire structure, store room, office, warehouse 
and iron house, all of which are connected, and under the same roof, 139 
feet long. In January 1878, Mr. Rinehart purchased the interest of Mr. 
Trittle, and is again conducting it alone. In 1878, the residence was re- 
modled, extending the portico, above the store room, the full length of 
the front of the building, and cutting the windows down, and making 
them double. There was also a one storied extension made to the dwell- 
ing, 13 by 30 feet. The main building is stone, and the back buildings are 
brick. There is a never failing well, on the lot, 50 feet deep. It is the only 
one, in the town, that has never failed. The value of the stock of goods, 
carried by Mr. K. is from eight to ten thousand dollars. Lewis Rinehart, 
grandfather of S. B. Rinehart, moved to this county, from Virginia, in 
1838, and settled about one mile east of Waynesboro, on a farm, now 
owned, and occupied, by his son Samuel. He had eight children, two of 
whom are living. He died July 7th, 184-1, aged 07 years, 3 months, and 
13 days. His wife died Jan. 33d, 1853, aged 73 years, 11 months, and 3 
days. Samuel Rinehart, father of S. B., was born May 13th, 1811. He 
married Catherine, daughter of Conrad Bonebreak, March 31st, 1831. 
She was born June 13th, 1807. They had eight children, viz: John, Susan, 
Mary, Samuel B., Lewis, Henry, Daniel, and Catherine. They are all 
living but Lewis, who died Feb. 9th, 1877. Samuel B. was born Jan. 
5th, 1839. He worked on the farm until about 1860, when he engaged in 
school teaching until 1865, when he commenced the hardware busmess, 
in which he has continaed ever since. He married Lizzie, daughter of 
Rev. Joseph F. Rohrer, of Washington County, Md-, Sept- 39th, 1868. 
They have four children, the three eldest of whom are named Elmer, 
Rohrer, and Archie Yard. 


The want of a suitable building, to accommodate the Public Schools, of 
Waynesboro, was for a long time felt. After much delay the Legislature 
was petitioned, and enacted a law, authorizing the school directors, to 
issue seven per cent, bonds, to run for twenty years. By the sale of 
these bonds, in connection with a fund of about |4,000, derived from a 
tax, levied some years before, to create a fund for building purposes, the 
work of building commenced. The lot, on which the school house stands, 
was purchased from Mrs. Helen Brotherton, and contains about two acres 
of ground. The plan and specifications were furnished by Mr. A. M. 
Herr, of Strasburg, Lanca,ster County, Pa., and the house was built by 
Mr. Elias Both, of Adams County, Pa. The board of directors under 
whose supervision, and control, the house was erected, and the schools 
organized were as follows : 

E. A. BERING, M. D., Pkks't. J. B. HAMILTON, Sec't. 

J. AV. COON, Treas'k. J. H. CREBS, 


For a description of this building, and its dedication, we copy the arti- 
cle on page 163, Penna. School Journal Nov. 1873, from the able pen of 
the Editor Proffessor J, P. Wickersham, entitled "A New School House, 
at Waynesboro." "Friday Oct. 4th, 1873, will be a day long remem- 
bered at the little town of Waynesboro. On that day, she dedicated her 
new school-house — a house of which her people have great reason to 
feel proud, Waynesboro is a pleasant town ot about 1,500 inhabitants, 
situated in the southern part of Franklin Co. For many years the good 

Appendix. 303 

people have been content to send their children, for five or six months of 
the year, to two school-houses, small, old, ugly, ill-suited to the purpose, 
and even unhealthy. At last, the intelligent and public-spirited gentle- 
men, whd now compose the board of directors, determined to build anew 
school-house. They secured a very fine location and purchased nearly 
two acres of ground. Inquiring of the State Superintendent, where the 
best modern school buildings of the kind suited to their town could be 
found, they were directed to several, and, among the rest, to that of 
Strasburg, Lancaster county, described in a former number of the 
Journal. They visited this house, and were so well pleased with it, that 
they took it for a model, and the house they have built is one of the best 
school-houses in the State of Pennsylvania. The whole cost is a little 
over $20,000. It has school-rooms, recitation-rooms, clothes'-rooms, 
play-rooms in the basement, a principal's-room, a director's-room, etc. — 
The house is substantially built and well finished. The furniture is of 
modern pattern. A full supply of apparatus has been procured. The 
building will be heated with steam. The grounds are being fenced, and 
laid out in walks. A portion of them has been set apart for a teacher'' a- 
house ; and next spring, shade trees, shrubbery ami flowers, are to be 
planted. The new faculty consists of a principal, salary $1,000 a year, 
and four assistant?,. The school depepartment is to be organized, and a 
considerable number of youths, from outside of the district, have already 
applied for admission as Students. The dedicatory services commenced 
at 3 p. m. A procession, consisting of scholars, clergymen, speakers, 
board ot directors, and citizens, was formed at the town hall, under the 
direction of Marshals Amberson, Strickler and Bickle, and, headed by a 
brass band, marched through several streets to the school-house. The 
stores and other public places, were all closed, and the people made the 
occasion a holiday. Arrived at the school house the whole of the second 
story, of which, the two rooms being thrown together, was completely 
filled, "W. S. Amberson, Esq., called the meeting to order, and prayer 
was offered by the Rev. W. H. H. Hibshman. Addresses were then 
made by Dr. Hering, president'of the School Board ; Dr. J. H. Shumaker, 
principal of the Chambersburg Academy, and State Superintendent 
"Wickersham. The audience seemed deeply interested in the exercises, 
and the children looked perfectly happy." 

The building is 60 ft. wide, and 73 ft. deep, two stories high, and has a 
basement or recreation rooms. The stories are 14 ft. high, with the ex- 
ception of the basement, which is 9 ft, high. There are four school- 
rooms, each 21h feet wide, and 47| feet deep, also four recitation rooms 
10 ft. wide and 27i ft. deep. The vestibule is 10 ft. wide, and the stair- 
way, which leads to the upper rooms, is G feet wide. The building was 
completed Sept. 1872. As above noted, the dedication took place October 
4th, and the schools were opened October 7th, of the same year. 


This fine plantation of 200 acres, is situated one and a quarter miles 
from Mercersburg. It was originally surveyed August 25th, 1789, in pur- 
suance of a warrant granted to Elizabeth and Frances Campbell, and was 
called "Sisterhood," which name it still retains. The buildinijs, aswill 
be seen in our sketch, are in ample proportion to the extent of this fine 
place. It was purchased by the father of its last owner, April 9th, 1836, 
from Adam McKinnie, and it came into the possession of his son in 1865. 
We regret not having the material for a more detailed history. 

304 Appendix. 


The land upon -which this business enterprise and residence are estab- 
lished, was taken up in the year 17G8, by John Horner, under the name 
of "Homestead." It is two and a half miles east of Waynesboro, and 
four and a half miles from Waynesboro station, W. M. R. R., nearest 
postofRce being Waynesboro. Mr. Horner, disposed of this property on 
the 37th day of March, 1790, to Philips Reed, and from Mr. Reed, it passed 
into the possession of John Baker, on the 28th of November, 1795. On 
the 4th day of March, 1811, he sold it to John Walter, who disposed of it 
soon after to Jonathan Keefer, and on the 1st day of April, 1824, Mr. 
Keefer sold it to John Keagey, from whom Gabriel Baer, purchased it Aug. 
13th, 1830, and it came into the possession of B. S. Baer, the present pro- 
prietor. May 9th, 1864. The date of the establishment of the woolen 
mill is not known, but about 80 years ago, a grist mill, was erected, 
which, is supposed to have been converted into a woolen mill, by John 
Keagey, about 50 years ago. It is driven by an 18 foot water wheel, on 
the never failing stream known as Antietam. The land, of which 22 
acres are attached to this property, is somewhat broken and is limestone 
and gravel in character. There are five dwelling houses on this place. 
The residence of Mr. B. is constructed of log, and is rough-cast. It was 
built about the same time that the mill was erected. The other buildings 
are of frame. The machinery in the mill is first-class, and is used in the 
manufacture of cloths, casimers, sattinetts, jeans, blankets, carpets and 
yarns. It was run by its present proprietor for about six years, but at 
this time he has it rented. Gabriel Baer, father of E. S. migrated from 
Lancaster, County, and purchased the property in the year 1830, and 
continued in the manufacture of woolen goods, until the spring of 1856, 
from which time he rented it away. His death occurred in 1859. Mrs. 
Gabriel Baer, who was a Miss Spangler, of York County, still survives 
her husband, and now resides with her son E. S. Baer. She was the 
mother of ten children, four daughters, and six sons, all of whom are now 
living. The property, came into the possession, of its present owner, by 
purchase at public outcry. It is well supplied with an abundance of fine 
fruits, grapes, peaches, apples, etc. It is under good fencing, principally 
post and rail, and has had one two story house erected on it, together 
with other improvements by Mr. E. S. Bear, since it is in his possession. 


' This farm is located in Quincy Township, two miles nort.h of Waynes- 
boro. The nearest railroad point is the Waynesboro station, on the W. 
M. R. R. four miles east of the latter place. The land was taken up in 
the year 1703, by William Erwiu, and was knows as the "Dry Berry" 
tract, from him it was purchased by Jacob Price Esq., grandfather of the 
present owner, who sold it to his son Jacob Price Jr., about the year 
1830. The first buildings, a log house and stone barn, were erected about 
the year 1780, by Jacob Price Sr. About the year 1823, he erected a 
brick house instead of the log one, which was enlarged in 1877, by Ben- 
jamin E. Price, and in 1877, the present owner removed the stone barn. 

Appendix, 30§ 

because of its being on the line of the railroad, and erected in its stead 
the present one, of frame and stone. The stone house on the upper tract 
was built about the year 1810. The brick house on tne lower farm, is 
two stories high, and has a high basement. It is 31 by 37 feet, and has a 
two story brick kitchen attached, 19 by 24 feet. The barn on the lower 
tract is stone below, and frame above, it is 54 by 68, the one on the upper 
farm is constructed of the same materials, and is 48 by 74 feet. The soil 
of these fine farms is well adapted to grain culture, and to the rearing of 
stock, a part of it is somewhat rolling. There are six springs, on the two 
farms, one under each house. The land is well drained, inasmuch as 
Mr. P. had a ditch constructed, in 1877, for the purpose of straightening 
the creek, which extends three fourths of the distance through the entire 
plantation. The fields are well fenced with post and rail fences, and ar 
well limed, there being an abundance of limestone on the land, which 
Mr. P. has converted into lime, in stacks, on the fields. The average 
yield of wheat per acre is 30 bushels. The ancestors of Mr. Price were 
of German origin, having migrated to this country at a very early date. 
His grandfather, Jacob Price Sr., was born in the year 1765, and died in 
1840, at the age of 75 years. Jacob Price Jr., was married twice, first to 
Susan Emmert, who was born Nov, 9th, 1805, and died June 27th, 1848. 
Her children were Benjamin E., Joseph, David E., Abraham, Jaceb, 
John, Ann, Maria, intermarried withB- F. Stewart, and Susan inter- 
married with Samuel Martin. His sacond wife, was Prudence, widow 
of the late Daniel Stover. Her children are Isaac, Prudence, and Wil- 
liam. Mr. Benjamin E. Price has one child, Kate, intermarried with A. 
S. Bonebreak. 


This prosperous establishment is located two and a half miles south of 
Waynesboro, and within five and a half miles of "Waynesboro Station" 
on W. M. R. R. The dwelling house was built about sixty or seventy 
years ago, it is constructed of log, rough-cast. An addition to the origi- 
nal house was erected in 1843-4, by Wm. Loughridge, making its 
dimensions now 60 by 24 feet. The barn was built by John Walter, in 
1850. It is 60 by 40 feet, mcluding granary. The lower partis stone, and 
has a frame superstructure. There are 45 acres of productive limestone 
land in this place, 12 of which are good meadow. The average capacity 
of the land has been about 20 bushels of wheat, and 40 to 50 of corn per 
acre. John Walter, grandfather of Henry, moved into this county from 
Adams County. He died in 1815. John Walter, father of H. was born 
in Washington Township, June 22d, 1808, and Henry was. born in 
Waynesboro, Dec. 14th, 1831. He was married March 22d, 1864, in 
Smithsburg, Md., to Lydia Newcomer. They have two sons, named 
Charles and Bruce. This property came into his possession by purchase 
from his father, in 1867. The saw mill on the place, was erected 60 or 
70 years ago. The water wheel, an iron submerged one, was put in 
by Wm. Loughridge. It is driven by a head and fall of 7 feet of water. 
In 1842, the industry of sawing and rubbing marble, by water power, was 
first instituted at this place. From 3 to 4 hands are constantly employed, 
and all kinds of work, from both domestic, and foreign, varieties of marble, 
is turned out at this establishment. 

306 Appendix'. 


Doubtless some of our readers may say "we thought this was to be a 
liistory of Franklin County, and here we see old mother Cumberland 
represented." Our apology, if one is required, is that Shippensburg is 
located on the line, between the two counties and is the entre-pot, and 
place of shipment of a large portion of the produce of this county. And 
the establishment of which we write, had a branch, for several years, 
located in Franklin County. Again, this manufactory is not merely of 
local interest, and advantage. But from the magnitude to which it has 
risen, from a small beginning, is one of the institutions of the lohole valley, 
and when it is considered that the present large business, is the outgrowth 
of a small shop, employing in 1854, but G hands, it must be admitted a 
record well worthy of preservation. Many of the vehicles, which have 
been turned out by this establishment, since its inception, numbering now 
about 3000, have found purchasers in other states ; and the reputation 
which has been built up, along with the factory, is part and parcel of their 
stock in trade. The business was established, in the spring of 1854, on 
the corner of Main and Washington streets, in Shippensburg, by J. C 
Walburn, and Q. W. Thrush, under the style of Walburn & Thrush, in a 
two story frame building, 30 by 36 feet, with a blacksmith shop, 15 by 15 
feet. Mr. W. was born in Lebanon County, but came here between the 
years 1840, and 1845. Mr. Thrush is a native of Cumberland County and 
served his time with Mr. H. R. Emmory. Dec. 15th, 185G, Mr. Walburn 
disposed of his interest to J. Whissler and the firm name was changed 
to Thrush & Whissler. Mr. W. however being a minor, soon sold out 
to F. B. Perlett, the name being again changed to Thrush & Perlett. 
Mr. Perlett being a graduate of Quimby & Co. Newark, N. J-, but for 
several years previous an employee of the firm in which he now became 
a partner. In 18GG, Mr. Perlett sold his interest, to E. C. Landis pur- 
chasing from Thrush & Landis the paint shop on Main street, where he 
done the painting for the new firm. The business steadily increasing, the 
branch, before alluded to, was established at Marion, in March 18G7, under 
the style of Perlett, Thrush, & Co. Finding a still more southern outlet for 
their work, they moved the shop from Marion, to Charlestown, Va., but 
shortly afterward disposed of it to Abram Stump, one of the firm of Per- 
lett, Thrush & Co. Mr. Perlett no tv again became a partner, the new 
firm name being Thrush, Landis & Co. In August 1873, E. S. Landis 
sold his interest to W- W. Stough, a former apprentice of the firm. Mr. 
L. removing to Coatesville Pa. The firm now consisting of Geo. W. 
Thrush, P. B. Perlett and W. W. Stough, and known as Thrush, Per- 
lett & Co., are enabled to manufacture anything, from the lightest track 
sulky, to the heaviest concord coach. In competition with other work, 
at county fairs, they have won many successes, and as they guarantee all 
of their work it is not auprising that they have received orders from 
Maryland, Virginia, Indiana, Illinois and even as far as Iowa. The 
factory is of brick, three stories high, GO by 50 feet, with a basement for 
the storage of coal, and iron, and was built in 1875. The first floor is a 
repository for finished carriages. The sscond for wood work, and up- 
holstering. And the third for painting, and varnishing. In 1877, they 
erected a two story frame blacksmith shop, 50 by 35 feet, which has, on 
its ground floor, four fires. The upper story being used for the storage 
of seasoned timber. Each department is under the immediate super- 
vision of a member of the firm; in the blacksmith shop having the effi- 
cient aid of their foreman Mr. H. Wingler ; all ofAvhom are practiced 
workmen. Forty-two finished artizans, most of whom are successfully 

Appendix. SOT 

(BTosecmti'iiii tlieir vocation in diffdreat parts of our country, can lookback 
to the Bliops of Thrush, Periett & Co. as the starting point in their busi- 
ness career. From a business of 25 carriages and buggies, in 1854, this 
firm has increased its sales to one hundred and fifty, in 1877, and during 
Uie present, year, 1878, they expect to turn out not less than two hundred, 
each, of which shall add, to the reputation of the firm. 


The valuable mill represented in our sketch, was built in the year 1852, 
by Hezekiah Easton, who eugageu largely in the purchase of wheat, and 
the manufacture of it iuto flaur, for the eastern market, for the period of 
^hree years, wiien he disposed of the property, to Jacob FrinKe, who was 
at, that time, engaged iu milling about two miles east of Waynesboro. Mr- 
Frieze, rented tlje mill to William D. Newman, who for some years car- 
ried on the business, and afterwards, in connection with J. G. Miley, pur- 
chased it from Mr. Frieze. The present owner, Adam N. Ryder, bought 
Et from Newman and Miley, in 1874, since which time he lias been en- 
gaged in conducting the bubiness in its several departments. Michael 
llyder, from whom has descended the numerous families, now living in 
Ohio, and in Lancaster, and Franklin Cuunties, Pa., who bear his name, 
located in Lmcastf-r County, at an early date. He is thought to have 
bi^en a native of England, but very little of his history is known to his 
otisring inasmuch as he ^vas lost about the lime of Gen. Braddock's defeat 
near Fort DuQaesne, and it is supposed that he fell in that unfortunate 
engagement. He lett a widtiw, and one child, a son, whose name was 
Micliael. He was born Sept. 24th, 1744, and died Sept. 7th, 1821. His 
wite v/as a Miss Magdalena Newman, who was born April 21st, 1747, and 
died August 2Gih, 1821. They had seven sons, and four daughters. 
Michael, the oldest, was born about the year 1770, and died at the age of 40 
years, leaving a wife and family, consisting of eight sons and three 
daughters. Plis wife's maiden name wasSaloma Worty, the date of whose 
birth was Aug. 24lh, 1773, and who died Oct. 5th, 1858. Michael Ryder, 
spcondson of these last named, and father of Adam N. Ryder, was born near 
EliEabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa., on the 18th of May, 1798. He is 
now residing in Loudon, Franklin County, and cime to this county in 
1822. Two years after his father's death, he was apprenticed to a Mr. 
Brimner, of Columbia, Lancaster County, to learn the carpenter trade, 
nt which occupation he worked for about eight years, but when he came 
to this county he was employed as a farm hand until 1824, when he con- 
tracted a marriage with his cousin, Mary Ryder, a daughter of Adam 
Ryder, whose advent into Franklin County, had been in October 1803. 
He had located near G reencastle, at what was known as the old hemp mill, 
where he worked at his trade, that of a blacksmith, for two years, when 
he purchased, and moved on a farm, on the road between Loudon, and 
Cove Gap, where he lived out the balance of his days, his death occuring 
Aug. 14th, 185G. His wife, who had been Elizabeth Longenecker, was 
born in Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Sept. 12th, 1786, and died 
in 1864. They had two sons, and five daughters. Michael Ryder, after 
his marriage with his wife Mary, lived for two years near Bridgeport, 
Franklin County, from whence he moved, to the neighborhood of Dry 
Run, in Path Valley, where he continued to reside until the year 1840, 
when he moved to the farm, two miles south of Loudon, where his son 
Michael W. now lives. Adam N. Ryder, was born Oct. 23d, 1832, and 
continued to reside with his father until the time of his marriage, which 
took place April 14th, 1874, at which time he took charge of his mill 
property. His wife was Miss Charlotte Bear. 

308 Appendix. 


This farm is located about thrfe miles noitli-east of Waj'ncsboro, near 
Ihe road, leading from "Hopewell Mills," to said plnce Waj-neshoro 
stati(m W. M. K R. , is the nearest railroad point, the nexl is Mont Alto, 
seven milts distant. It contains 340 acres of Vf^ry productive land, lime- 
stone and sandstone soil, the former predominating. The latter biding 
nearly all included in the beautiful meadow of 25 acres in "xtent. There 
are but about 3 acres, of this place, in timber, bm Mr. H. iias 175 acres of 
well timbered mountain laud, wherewith to meet the demands of 
bis large farm. A branch of the Anijetam, runs llirough the 
entire length of the meadow in front of the buildings. The soil of thie 
farm is well adapted to grain, or stock raising. The surface is roll- 
ing witii the exception of the 25 acres of meadow. There are two 
wells of never failing water on the premises, and a large cistern at the 
barn, for the purpose of watering the stock. The fencing is principally 
post and rail, and there is also on the place a lime kiln of 1200 bushels 
capacity. The product for the year 1877, was about 1900 busiiels wheat, 
100 bushels rye, 1000 bushels shelled corn, besides other grains. Mr. H. 
has grown as much as 90 bushels of clover seed, on about 35 acre?, in one 
year. The corn and rye, raised on this farm, is fed to stock, on it, and in 
that way its productiveness is kept up, and the horses, and oilier stock, 
raised make a very fair return, for the labor bestowed upon them. Fruir.«5 
in great variety, and abundance, are raised here, there being 8 fine apple 
orchards in full bearing. Thia la,nd was owned by a Mr. Horner, before 
Piiilip Hollinger, grandfather of Daniel, purchased it in the year 1707, 
but what improvements were made is not known. He was attracted to 
this place by its line meadows, having lived, prior to this, on tlie farm 
now owned by Samuel Kauffman, in Guilford Township. At the lime of 
the purchase by Mr. P. H., there was a lar£:e amount of timber land, a 
great deal of which be cleared off, and brought under cultivation. The 
tract then contained aVmut 180 acres in two parcels, upon which he erected 
buildings, intending to divide it into two farms, one for each of his sons, 
Samuel and John. In the year 1885, John purchased Samuel's portion, 
and built the house now occupied by his son Daniel. He also enlarged 
the farm by additional purchases, aad made other improvements. He had 
Jive children, all of whom are now living except Samuel, who died Dec. 
1876. At the death of John Hollinger, which occurred in the year 1866. 
Daniel became possessor of the remaining portion of this tract, not pur- 
chased by him, prior to his fathers death, and he has continued to add to 
it until it has acquired its present proportions. He has made great im- 
provements by building etc. The barn erected by him is one of the finest 
in the county, being 102 feet long, by 56 wide, built of brick. It was 
erected in 1871. TThe house, built by Philip, for his son Samuel, is still 
standing, and can be seen in the vignette, on the picture. Daniel Hol- 
linger's mother's family name was Grove. Her ancestors were from 
Holland, from whence they were driven, by religious persecution leaving 
a large estate. The original HoUingers, were also of German extrac- 
tion, but the date of the arrival of either family in this country is un- 
known. Daniel Hollinger, married Hannah, (laughter of John Singer, on 
the 24th of Dec. 1850. They have had eight children, six of whom are 
now living, viz: Simon G., Jacob R., John S., Lizzie A.. Laura A., and 
Hannah A. Simon G., married Alice, daughter of Jacob Middour, in 
Dec. 1877. The deceased members of this family are buried in the 
family graveyard, on the farm. Mr. Hollinger has an interest in the man- 
ufacturing firms of Frick & Co., and Geiser & Co. He is also a stock- 

Appentlix. BO?^ 

!i-older, in 'che Wdyneshoro Bank, has a half inturesl in a farm near 
Charabersburg, and owns two houses and lots in Waynesboro. 


This wi'ielj' known summer resort, is located upon the site of the old 
well estahli!,hed tavern stand, that was o«cupied by Lewis Ripple, grand- 
lather of Dr. S M. Hippie, of Waynesboro, in the year 1810. The build- 
ing at that time was a small log structure, and was situated on what was 
then known as the Baltimore and Pittsburg road. Mr. Ripple built a 
atone house, which he kept as a wauon tavern, until it was accidentally 
destroyed by fire, about six years after its erection. He rebuilt on the 
same "^site, and continued to keep it until about the year 184*], when be 
disposed of it to Samuel Buhrraan. In the year 1846 Mr. B. remodled 
.Hud enlarged the building, to the extent of 90 feet. The prosperity of the 
!iouse, as a favorite summer resort, was now fully established, but this 
was not destined to be uninterrupted, for in the month of February, 
^S49, the buildinir, together with all tiie furniture, was destroyed by fire. 
Undaunted by his great misfe«rtune, the energetic landlord erected the 
larije brick house, now known as the Monterey h'prings Hotel, during the 
years 18-19 and IS-iO. The present popular proprietor, purchased this fine 
"property, in August, 1877, and has accomodations for 200 guests, hut 
intends^ during the present year, to increase these, until not less than 500 
plea-^ure and lie-^Uh seekers, can find a comfortable abode with him. His 
terms for boarding, toiretlier with the other advantages afforded, are such 
a=i make this delightful place, sought after by all who desire to throw off 
the cares of life for a season. Amongst the numerous springs, to be found 
on this place, are some strongly impregnated with sulphur, magnesia, and 
ircm, whilst some are as free from any contamination, as any of the most 
sparklins,' mountain springs. The railroad facilities are such as to make 
Ihls resort accessible from almost any point. 


This well established and valuable store property, is located m the vil- 
lage of Rouserville, within one and a half miles of Waynesboro station, 
on the W. M. R. R., and on the pike leading to the town of Waynesboro. 
The site upon which this building stands was purchased, July 26th, 1873, 
hy its present proprietor together with the old one and a half story frame 
'ouildine, and stock ot goods, from Peter Rouzer with whoiD Mr. B. had 
been associated in business In the winter of 1874, he built his present 
convenient house, and still continues in the business of general merchant- 
dising. It is a frame structure 2 stories high 28 by 34 feet. Mr. Buhr- 
n'jan had been actively engaged in different occupations from the time he 
reached his majority. At the time of his fathers death, which occurred 
Feb 14th. 1881. he lell heir to the farm upon which his father had resided, 
and engaged in farming, which he continued to pursue, until he had 
reached his 29th year, when he grew impatient of restraint, his active 
energies demanding a larger field of occupation. In the spring of 1866, 
he rented his farm, and engaged in etorekeeping, in which he was very 
successful, for the period of 3 years, when he met with the misfortune of 
baviner his store house, and stock of goods, consumed by fire. He return- 
ed to the farm, where he remained for two years, but was not in his ele- 
ment, and on disposing of his stock, and farming implements, he moved 
to Rouzerville, where we now find him. Charles H. Buhrman, was 

310 Appendix. 

born in Frederick count}', Md-, ou the 1st day ot'June, 18-57. He mar- 
ried Anna M. Green of Frederick County., Md., Feb. 16ih, 18'i8. Tlu-y 
have 5 children living, 3 boys and 'i girls, and oce girl dt-ad. His moth- 
er, now in her 70th year, a ciinsisttut member ol the xMulhodiat liJpiscopaS 
4,'hurch, and a woman of eminent piety, is making her home with him. 
Henry Gordon her father, was of Scoicli descent, his father George Gor- 
don, who was born in this country, was killed by the Indians, in the year 
n~)5, near where the town of "Shady Grove" now stands, his wife with ;* 
small babe, a few days old, in her arn^s, made her esc-ipe on loot, wading 
the Mouocacy river and reached the Fort where Frederick city, Md., now 
stands. Samuel Buhrmau, father of Charles H. vas born nt^ar >lt. Zion, 
Frederick Co., Md., on the lOlh day ot September, 1812. He was a son 
of Henry aad Catherine Buhrman In the year 1843. l)e purchased, auci 
moved to the property known as Ripple's tavern stand, situated in the top 
of the South Mountain. He it was tiiat reni )deled antl enlarged the 
house, in order to accomodate a rapidly growing patronage, and after its 
destruction by fire in Feb. 1849, he erected the liirge brick structure, now 
so widely known as the Monterey Springs property. He died as above 
stated Feb. 14lh, 18G1, whilst yet in the vigor of manliood, greatly la- 
mented by those who were left to mourn their irreparable loss. 


This comfortable dwelling is adjoining the store property, of Mr* C 
H. Buhrman, and was erected in the year 1867. Its present owner camw 
to this place, in the spring of 1861. From the year 1804, until the Posi- 
office was established in 1872, this village was known as Flkesville. At 
the time of the advent of Mr. Rouzer he purchased three and a half acres 
of land, from Michael Qonder, upon which he erected a storehouse, and 
subsequently a hotel, blacksmith shop, wagon maker shop, and e\a\\l 
dwelling houses, and also sold lots, upon which Y^ftr^. built 10 dwelling 
houses. He built a warehouse, at Waynesboro station on the W. M. R. R., 
and opened a road to it. Mr. R. has been engaged in huckstering, in this 
neigliborhood for the last 24 years, and still claims some of his first cus- 
tomers. At this time he owns about 40 acres of land adjoining the vil- 
lage, which he purchased from Christian Shocl<ey and others. Daniel 
Rouzer, the grandfather of Peter, "was born in 1768, and died in 1852. 
Martin Rouzer, father of Peter, vpas born in 1801, in Frederick County, 
Md.. He married Rosanah Gerraund, in 1834, and raised a family of 7 
children. Peter Rouzer, was married to Miss Mary A. daughter of Dan- 
iel Haugh, March 19th, 1859. They had children as follows, Simon P., 
Mary J., David W., Charles A., Emma K., Clara M., Jennie K., Mary 
L., Harry W., Bessie J., Nettie R., and Samuel M. Seven of these are 
still living. David W., Harry W., and Samuel M., died in infancy. 
Martin Rouzer, brother of Peter, was a Captain in the 6th Kegt., Md., 
Vols., and was promoted to Maj., before the battle of Gettysburg. He 
was lionorably discharged on account of physical disability, in 1864. 
Peter Rouzer, vpill long be remembered as an active, energetic, business 
man of sterling integrity. The part he has taken in establishing the vil- 
lage, which justly bears his name, will be a matter of interest, and family 
pride, to all -who may be related to him by ties of consanguinity. 


The "Hopewell Mills" property, consisting of the mill, residence, and 
25 acres of the best quality of freestone and bottom land, is now owned 

Appendix. ' 311 

by Mr. Josiah Burger, father of John Burger. The mill building, whicn 
is 4o by oO feet, was erecied in 1843. It has a cap-tcity of 75 barrels of 
flour per day, requiring tliree hands, when run at full time. It is driven 
by two wheels 16 feet diame er, under a head of 25 ftet. The yielding 
capacity of the land is about 50 barrels of corn, and 30 bushels of wheat, 
per acre. The present mill, dam, and race, were constructed in 1845, at 
a cost of $14,975, and is considered one of the best water powers in the 
county. The tirat mill erected f)n this site, was built by Josiah Mentzer, 
in 1775, who sold it to Jacob Welsh in 1810. By him it was disposed of 
to John FuUenon in 1830, who sold it to Charles Hoch in 1842. He 
erected the present structure, as above staled in 1845, and sold to George 
Besore ot Waynesboro in 1852. Mr. Besore sold to Burger, Oiler & Co., 
in 1870, from this firm it passed into the hinds of J. F. Oiler, in 1874, 
from whom it was purchas<ed, in 1875, by its present owner. John 
Burger, the superintendent of these mills, is a grandson of David Burger, 
Esq., a builder and contractor, who built the "Mercersburg Seminary," 
and other important structures, and only son of Mr. Josiah Burger, of 
Quincy Township, in this county. He was born Feb. 4th, 1850, near 
'•Hopewell Mills," and was married Dec. 30th, 18^4, to Miss Elizabeth 
Benedict, of Quincy Township. His father was born in Qumcy 
Township, in 1825, and in 1847, he was married to Susan Oiler. They 
have six children, viz: Mary, John, Rebecca, Elizabeth, Prudence and 
Annie. The business transacted, at these mills, is conducted with marked 
ability by the energetic superintendent, and the product meets with prompt 
sales in every market that is reached by it. 


This very desirable property, is located in Green Township, adjoining 
the village of Sotland, and only a half mile south of the R. R. station, at 
said place. It is delighttully situated, and is supplied with an abundance 
of the purest water. The farm which contains 128 acres, is a portion of 
a very large tract of land, that was purchased by Alexander Thomson, 
a recent emigrant from Scotland, in 1772, to which he gave the name of 
"Corker Hill." Log buildings had been erected on this portion, prior to 
the purchase by Thomson, which remained until the year 1840, when the 
present house was erected on the site of the old one," by Samuel Garver 
Sr. who also built the barn in 1844. No alterations were made to these 
new buildings, until 1858, when the present owner, who had purchased 
the property in 1857, made an addition, of 16 feet, to the front house. As 
it now stands the house, which is of brick, is 43 by 26 feet, with a brick 
back buildinff. The barn is stone and frame, 72 by 48 feet with wagon 
shed attached. The other necessary farm bnildiugs, were erected at dif- 
ferent times. There are but a few acres, of this place that are not under 
cultivation, they being in timber. The soil is lime and freestone. The 
surface is gently rolling, and well adapted to the production of all kinds 
of gram, and also for grass. Of the many fine springs, to be found on 
this place, two are near the house, which by their unvarying flow, of 
very great forcp, furnish an unlimited supply of water. The fencing is 
chiefly of locust posts, and chestnut rails, and for the manufacture of posts, 
there is an abundance of materia, on the farm. The presence of large 
bodies of iron ore, as well as abundance of stone, for the manufacture of 
cement, is strongly indicated on this land. The largest product of wheat, 
in recent years, was 30 bushels per acre. Mr. G. has an apple orchard of 
about 300 trees, of the most approved varieties, just coming into full bear- 

313 Appendix. 

ing. He is of German ancestry, bis grandfalher, Clirislian Gurver, hav- 
ing migrated from Franklort on the Main, about the middle of the last 
century. lie located in Washington county, Md., where Samuel Garver 
Sr. , remained until 1832, wlicn he purchased this place. Samuel Garver 
Jr., was married in Sept. 1842, to the youngest daughter of the late David 
Goldsmith. They have i?ix cliiidren hU living. (Jue a physician practicing 
in Scotland, two in the legal profession, and one a clergj'man. His 
oldest daughter is married to a great grandson oftlie original purchaser 
of this farm. 


On the 15th day of September, 17G6, Alexander McConnell a man of 
remarkable energy, and enterprise. Iccated a tract of 100 acres, in the 
Path Valley, in what is now Metal Township, and about one n\ile stiuth 
of Fannettsburg. On the 9ih of Januarj , t-nsuini!, Eobt. McC'onnahee, 
also located a tract of the same size, immediately aojoinintr the one taken 
up by Alexander McConnt^ri. At this time, although the Indian difficul- 
ties were over, and nothing stood in the way of the adventurous pioneer, 
attracted by the rich limestont' lauds c)f this section, there was yel but a 
sparse population in the valle^', and the primeval forest, still covered a 
large portion of the surface. Neither history, nor tradition, have pre- 
served much of the lives, or characters, of either, Alexander McConnell, 
or Robt. McConnaliee, and even their burial jilaces are foruotten. That 
they were both ol Scotch Irish ancestry, their nam^s would indicate. The 
name of Alexander McConnell, appears on the roll of Capt. Abraham's 
Company, in the early part of 1777, and it is probable he participated in 
the war of the Revolution, althouizh to what extent, it is now impossihli- 
to tell. Sometime between 1767, and 1778, Alexander McConnell, became 
the owner of the adjacent tract, of Robt. McConnahec, altjiough at what 
time it is now impossible to tell, as no record, can novv be found. On 
April 14th, 1778, William Queery, of West Pennsborough, Cumberland 
County, purchased the entire property, of Alexander McConnell, and it 
remained in his possession, until his death, when it fell to his hf^irs, viz: 
his sons John, William, and Charles, and his widow. John and William, 
were residents of North Carolina, and Charles who had remained at home, 
purchased both their shares, and resided on the farm, with his wife, and 
mother, until March 29lh, 1788, when William Harvey, the maternal 
grandfather of the present owner, purchased the entire tract, of 200 acres. 
Mr. Harvey, resided on the place until his death, which occurred at an 
early age, leaving a family, of several children, all of whom however died 
in early life, like their father, victims of that fearful disease consumption. 
Only one of them, Elizabeth, was married, and she, was the mother of 
three children, one of whom died before her, another died while yet a 
child, leaving the present proprietor, while yet in early boyhood, the sole 
inheritor, and survivor, of the family. Mr. McCormick, was born Dec. 
31st, 1826, and was married in 1851, to Miss Margaret E. Park, of Metal 
Township, and their family now consists of three sons. Robt. H., James 
W., and William B. It is now impossible to tell, at what time, the first 
house, was built on this place, but it is likely that the first permanent res- 
idence, was built by Alexander McConnell, about on the site of the present 
residence, and is the same removed by Mr. McCormick, since bis occu- 
pancy. It was a two story log house, with a one story kitchen, and must 
hava been rather aristocratic in its appearance, compared with the usual 
homes of those early times. The farm at present contains 340 acres, and 
allowance, Mr. McCormick having addid 40 acres, by purchase ; is nearly 

Appendix. 313 

one liair well 3et in excellent limber; is one mile from Fannettsburg, and 
seven from Ricbmond Station, on the S. P. K. R. It is well situated, and 
watered, lyin.ii; mostly on the west side ot th« west branch, which flows 
llirouiih it. Several line springs are on the farm, and the one by the 
liouse, is one of the finest in the county, being of large volume, and very 
clear cool water. The soil is limestone, and well adapted to grain raising, 
oO bushels per acre liave been grown on the place. Fencing is mostly 
rail, with some post. The present house, and barn, wereboth erected by 
Mr. McCormick. Tlie barn, erected in 1861, is frame, with stone founda- 
tion, 101 by 55 feet, an imposing and substantial structure. The house, 
which is is brick, 30 by 40 feet, with a kitchen 16 by 18 attached, was 
built in 1874, and is a model of convenience and comfort. A fine orchard 
of choice (rnit, much of which is just coming into bearing, is no small 
attraction .of this pleasant home. "Blessed in his family relations, and 
surrounded by all that should make life, not only independant, but luxur- 
ious, Mr. McCormick, has reason to thank the "giver of all good, and 
perfect gifts," for more blessings than usually fall to the lot of man. 

"village record," 

Waynesboro, Pa. 

Established March, 1847. 

W. Blair Editor and Proprietor. 

Has a general home circulation. 


This fine farm, of 157 acres, of mixed soil, containing limestone, flint, 
and iron ore, is located, one half mile, east of the village of Quincy. Its 
nearest railroad point, is Mont Alto. 3 miles, distant. One portion of this 
land, was originally taken up, in 1801, by Anthony Snowberger, and was 
called "Snow Ilill," the balance, was from a tract, taken up, by Joseph 
Menfzer, that was known, as "White Oak Bottom." The first buildings, 
have all disappeared, and were replaced, by substantial brick ones, by 
Jacob Middour, about the year 1852. The house, represented in our 
picture, is 28 by 33 feet, the wash and bake house, which is also of brick, is 
18 by 26 feet. The bank bar.a, is 46 by 76 feet. The timber, to be found, 
in this place, is of a good growth, and consists, of oak, chestnut, pine, 
and hickory. The land is very productive, the wheat crop, of last year, 
amounting to one thousand bushels. Mr. Hemminger, purchased this 
property, in 1867, fromMr. George Middour. 


This very valuable property, is located, in St. Thomas Township, ten 
miles west of Chambersburg, one and a half miles from the village of St. 
Thomas, and four from Loudon, on the pike, leading from Baltimore to 
Pittsburg,. Lemaster's station, on the South Penn. R. R. is the nearest 
railroad point. There has been a post office in this hotel, for some years. 
The house, which is a large brick structure, 90 feet long, was built by Samuel 
Thompson, in the year 1815, but has been remedied, by the present owner. 
The farm, consists of 337 acres, six of which are covered with timber. The 
barn is constructed of stone, brick, and frame. Tne land is rolling, and is 

314 Appendix. 

well adapted to the cuUivallou of nil kinds of grain, and for the raising of 
stock. There are two wells of good water, and one sprinu;, on Uie place. 
The aiuuuut of wheat raised per year, runs from 1200, to 2000, bushels. 
]Mr. Gillan has resided on this farm, and conducied ihe hotel, tor ;12 years, 
and has been owuer of it for 17 years, iiaving paichased it in 18G1. His 
popularity over the county is such, lliut in referring lo anything in his 
neighborhood, it is only necessary lo 3 ly that it is near "Cliarles Gillan's." 
The most important, amongst other improvemeuls, made on this place 
was the erection of a "Stover Wind Ent:ine" for the purpose of pumping 
water Icr the stock. It could not be purcliased at any price, provided 
another equally good, could not be procurt-d. Mr. Gillan married Mary 
Jane 8mitb McDowell, a dau-hler of Maj. James McDowell. They have 
live children, all living, three sons, and two daughters. 

After the above was vvritten, and just as it was goinf into the printer's 
hands, the sad intelligence reached us that Charles Gillan died on Sunday 
March 24th, 1878. That he will be greatly missed, and long remembered 
in his neighborhood is a fact that is evident to all who knew him. '-Peace 
to his ashes." 


By permission of the Borough authorities, granted at tlieir special meet- 
ing held March 27th, 1878, we subjoin the following articles, from the 
plan of Dr. Wm. C. Lane, of Orrstown, on the burning of Chambersburg, 
and the flood on the 24th of November, 1867:— 

The one hundreth anniversary, of the founding of Chambersburg, was 
fearfully signalized by its almost total destruction. In the later ]iart of 
July, 1864, Gen Jubal Barley's division of the Conlederate Army, v\'as 
located near the town of Martinsburg, West Virginia. On the 28th of the 
month. Gen. John McCausland, Commanding a Brigade of Cavalry, en- 
gaged in guarding the approaches to the Shenani oah Valley, was ordered 
by Earley, to advance on Chambertburg, and demand a tribute of $100,000 
in gold, or $500,000 in greenbacks; to be paid in half an hour, and, in the 
event of the refusal or failure of the citizens to raise the ransom, he was 
forthwith to destroy the town by fire. Early on the morning of the 30th 
of July, McCausland's command, numbering 3,000 cavalry, and two bat- 
teries of artillery, approached the town. Plautiog their batteries on a 
commanding hill, west of it, at about C o'clock, A. M., Generals McCaus- 
land and Bradly Johnston, accompanied by the notorious Major Harry 
Gilmore, at the head of 800 cavalry, entered Chambersburg. McCausland 
immediately acquainted a number of citizens, who were convened on the 
Diamond, with the nature of his errand. Compliance with his extrava- 
gant demand being clearly impossible, the heartless work of incendiarism 
at once began, and, in a few sliort hours, the beautiful town was in ashes. 
The property, thus destroyed comprised about a dozen of squares, in thebest 
and most central parts of the town, including 278 residences, and places 
of business, and 271 barns, stables, and outhouses, of various kinds. The 
aggregate value of the property destroyed, including personal property, is 
not less than $1,700,000. The Rebel General McCausland, now defends 
this unparalled act of savagery, as a just and proper retaliation for the 
destruction of a few houses in Virginia, by General David Hunter, of the 
Union Army, but wilfully distorts Ihe facts of General Hunter's action. 
This retaliation, admitting all the facts of McCausland's defence, is uni- 
versally admitted to be, out of all proportion to the cause assigned ; and, 
although he may be justified by the exigencies of military discipline, in 

Appendix. 315 

obeyinij the cruel comiuand ot his superior (jfficer, yet the fiendish and 
inaligiiaat alacrity, a-j well as the atrocious inhumanity, with whicli ii was 
executed, admit ot neiiher palliation, nor deletice; and the name of 
McCausland, must ever remim associated, in common and irredeemable 
infamy, witii tliose incarnate fiends, Caligula, and the brutal Duke of Alra, 
whose unexampled terocity, he so conspicuously emulated in the destruc- 
tion of Cliambf rsburg. Nor is tliis the full measure of his infamy ; for, 
nothing but tlie dt^termined opposition, and siij^enor humanity, ot some of 
his officers, prevented him trnm m irking the destruction of the town, with 
horror s, befor*^ wliich, would pale the most heinous deeds, oi these libels on 
humanity. Inconceivably iKirrible as the fact may seem, yet, it is never- 
theless true, that General jMcCausiand, wis with difficulty persuaded from 
applying the midnight toich, to the liomes of Chambersburg's, sleeping 
citizens, and by this heartless crime, consuming them in their burning 


On the 24th of Novetnber, 1877, the town was visited by a freshet on 
the Conococheague creek, whicli exceeded in the height of the water, and 
the loss of property, any fnshet, of which we have any record. The 
water rose, within sev^en hours, to tiie height of fourteen feet above or- 
dinary water mark, and destroyed and damaged property, within that time 
to the value of $20,000. It carried away an irim bridge, whic"! spanned the 
creek, where the road crosses it at Heyser's Straw Board Mill; flooded the 
pump, and engine house, of the water works to the depth of 6 feet; tore 
out the western end of the Woolen Mill ; carried away a blacksmith shop, 
from the yard of Miller's Hotel property; flooded Miller's Hotel, to the 
deptli of 14 inches in the bar room ; caused the falling in of the northern 
end of the stone bridge, on Market Street; carried away the foundation 
walls from under the b.ack building, of the dwelling, of Mr. Ephraim Fina- 
frock ; damaged the western abutment of the alley bridge, at the brewery, 
to such an extent as to require it to be taken down and rebuilt; flooded 
the lower floor of Ludwig's Brewery ; rose to such a height at the Gas 
Works, as to shut off the supply of gas from the town ; caused a loss to H, 
Sierer & Co. of $10,000 in the destruction of buildings, and property car- 
ried away; tore out about seventy-five feet of the northern wing- wall of 
the Wolffstown bridge, and carried away the pier of the bridge, besides a 
lartre amount of damage to other property, by flooding and washing. 

The night of the 34th of November, 1877, will long be remembered by 
the citizens of Chambersburg as one of dread, anxie y, and gloom. Dread, 
at the idea of the fearful destruction, which they knew must follow such 
an unusual rise of the waters in the creek ; anxiety to know what the light 
of the next day would disclose; and gloom, at the darkness, which could 
almost be felt, and which could not be remedied, on account of the gas, 
being shut oft' by the flooding, of a portion of tiie Gas Works. At 11 
o'clock the fire bells rang a general alarm, which caused a feeling of terror, 
to strike through the hearts of the citizens, such as they had not ex- 
perienced, since the Friday succeeding the burning of the town, by the 
Rebels, in July, 1864. The alarm was occasioned by the falling in of the 
western wall of the Woolen Mill, which caused the burstingof an oil 
lamp, burning in the building, at the time, and which, set fire to a portion 
of the mill, but was speedily extinguished by the fire apparatus belonging 
to the establishment. This flood will long be remembered as an era in 
the history of the town, and one to which the "oldest inhabitant" of the 
distant future, can refer, to with a serious pride. 

^1^ Appendix. 


On the banks of the t,'rniid old Conooncli. Hgiu', an J not far from where 
it emerges a wild mountain stream, irom the r»icky and picturesque gorsjea 
of the far-tamed Soutli Mountain, Samuel Beckbel located a tract of laud 
as early as 1793. This tract passed into the possession of John R^ntrew, 
Dec. 30tb, 1806, the consi.leralinn being a little over eleven pounds Penn- 
sylvania currency. It is probable that prior to this timt-, little or no i.u- 
proviuir had been done, l>ut John Renfrew was a ftiring man, and under 
his energetic and untiring etforls, the primeval torest rapidly gave way to 
cultivated fields, and the sound of the axe and hiiiiuier awakui' d eci.oes 
new and strange in the dense uiidergrowtli triuiiinu tlu CinociclH ague, 
while that hitherto impetuous and uneducnfeil stream no haigei tl<iwed on 
in all of its wild freedom, bui held in bondage by ihe sturdy pioneer, was 
forced to turn the busy wheel witli scarce a murmur of reyret over its 
departed independence. The yoke John ]{enfrew imp'ised on tlie riotous 
stream has never been broken, and, although disastrous flood? attended with 
much destruction of property have occurr»'d, the water ixuvt-r which is no 
less than 16 feet fall, is still utdiz^d both for a i^riat, and sa.^ mill. Joljn 
Renfrew was married to Jan^ Rea, and died in 1844. His son Samuel 
married Hannah Lindsey, the fruits of this marriage were tour sons, Jojm 
R.,_ Robert A., David A., aad Samuel. After the death of his first wjte, 
which occured while the children were yet small, Samuel married as his 
second wife. Mariraret Andrew. Their only son, James, now livet. in 
Kansas. David lives in Butler C<mnty, Pa. Robert A. married Hannah 
A. Thomson, in 1849. They had eleven children, Samuel L., Thomson, 
Mary Elizabeth, D. L., Sallie A, Samuel T., John Agnew, Annie C 
Robert M., Sarah R., and Hannah Jane; Sauiuel L. died Am;. 9th 1850; 
Thomson died Dec. 20th, 1851; Sallie A. died Sept. 24th, 1857; Samuel 
T. died Feb. 18th, 1859; Hannah died Jan. 20ih. 1873. and Annie C. died 
March 4th, 1873. Hannah A., wife of Robert A., died June 3d, 1871. He 
survived her but a few years, dying June 20th, 1874. (){ the five children 
remaining on the home place, but one, David L , is married, he married 
Ida A. Breckenridge,in 1877. The farm contains 180 acres, of which 100 
is cleared. The house, a commodious and convenient mansion, is built of 
brick, previous to its completion the family lived in a log house that stood 
some distance below. The property is located two miles east of Fayette- 
ville, in Green Township, near the pike leading to Gettysburg. The 
postoffice is Black's Gap. Situated in a country of picturesque beauty, rich 
in agricultural wealth and convenient of access to the outside world, this 
old homestead is one of the most interesting of the many beautiful proper- 
ties for which Franklin County is justly famous. 


located at Waynesboro, was chartered April 2d, 1870. It is managed by 
twelve directors elected annually by the policy holders. The present 
ofBcers of the company are Simon Lecron, President, Jacob J. Miller, 
Vice President, A. H. Strickier, Secretary, and S. B. Rinehart, Treasurer 

It now carries insurance of over two mil'ion dollars of property, and 
has paid fire losses since its organization to the amount of over $35,000. 

All policies insure against loss or damage by fire and lightning, and 
are issued with, or without liability to assessment. 


This is one of the most pleasant and attractive homes in the neighbor- 
hood, as a glance at the illustration will show. Mr. Burns is a lineal de- 
scendant of Archibald Bourns, who emigrated from Scotland, about the year 
1751. For a more full account of his ancestry, the reader is referred to 
page 298 where the history of the old homestead is given in full. 


— o — 


The last word ot Uie third line ot the second paragraph, should read 
Classes iusleaa of "Classis." In the third para^rah, ot same page, the 
words ••Christian Scliolars," siiould be subsiitiUed to: ''Uie Ihinkt rs of 
the Church." 

Thi^ is located on l,>i No. 36 instead of '-yO" as printed. 


The biru was biilt lu 186t> iosiead ot -1866." The date of the deatli 
of Josiah Unffield is kno»vn, he hdving died in 1852. In next to the last 
line •'John J." sh 'Uld be tiimon J. 


The, name '•Schrieoer" wherever occurring should be Shricer The 
name "Winchester, Md." should be Westminster. 


The homestead lirst mentioned in Uns aittcle is not the home of Jacob 
J. Miller bat the old lumiestead of the Miller tamily, and is now occupitd 
by Franklin Miller, a cousin of Jacob J. Miller. It is not directly on, bat 
near the Hagerstown road. The father ot Jacob J. Miller does nut reside 
on ibis pro,)rtny, as is incorrectly slated, baton a portion of the farm 
mentioned in the article. He married Eve Karbaugh instead of Harbaugh 
as it is printed. Daniel R., tiie name of his second son, should read 
David R. The farm of Jacob J. Miller, the buildings of which are illus- 
trated is situated four miles south-west of Waynesboro, and the property 
was formerly owned by his father. The name of Mary Elizabeth should 
read Mai/ Elizabeth. The farm is nearly all a portion of a tract of 640 
acres called "Troxel's Square," and which was deeded by Richard and 
Wm. Penn, proprietors, during the last century. 


The second word in the tifth line should be known instead of "know." 
Conewago instead ot "Oonewego." The words "confined" instead of 
"continued" and "where" instead of loere both are typographical errors. 
Rev. Roth was succeeded by Rev. A. M. Wuetstone, Aug. 1st, 1873, in- 
stead of "Jan. 1st, 1866," as printed. /Rev. A. J. Besson instead of 

J. A. harper's CARRIAGE "WORKS, PAGES 271 AND 272. 

The distance of Greenmount from Gettysburg is fi'ee miles instead of 
''ten" as printed. 


"Drs. Martin and Jacob Muner," should reid Musser. Dr. Frantz was 
married Oct. 7th, 1849, instead of "Oct. 13th," as printed. The clausa 
"on account of persecution by the Lutherans and Catholics, who de- 
nounced their religious belief, they being Anabaptists," should read, o?i 
account of religious persecution. 

hall of I. O. O. F. OF WAYNESBORO, PAGES 275, 276 AND 277. 

It is a hard matter at any time to print a long list of names free from 
error, and particularly when furnished in a handwriting with which one 
is not familiar. There is therefore an unusually large number of errors 
here to correct: — 

In the names of the building committee "W. J. Hikle" should read 
as W. I. Bikle. The member admitted May 4th, 1847 was Michael Han- 

318 Errata. 

stiiie instead of ''Haustiup," Feb 8 li, 1848, Divid Wiakfie.ld insttad of 
'•Winkfeeld," May Dili, 1848, Marlin J. Benty ic3ti-ad ol "Kt-ai}," Feb. 
27lh, 1849, Peter hock iusiead ot •"Docii," Marcii l:5ili, Diuiel I'otte.r in- 
stead of "Patier," N )v. 27Hi, J'lCoL) B. LJrenaeiuui iuhtt^ad of "Jacob 
Brennfiiian," April Ist, 1801, Gi;orge d. Wright iusieaiJ ot "Wight," 
Jan. 14lli, 1802, Henry Ifur/er instead nf "Niiifer," Fel>. '7tli, 18U:5, Jno. 
A. Streaiy instead of "VVni," Jan. 27iii, 1806, J. F. .Re im/i «//.(/«;• instead 
of "Renimger," "W. A. Price" sliouid be spt-lh-d W. A- /Vije; insiead, 
Aug. 14lh, 1806, lieubtn bhover instead of "Slioner," Feb. 13ib, 1867, 
F. D. French instead of "L. U." Nov. 36ih, 1867, Jos. F. VVab< r instead 
of "Jos." Lewis M. Lei^inijsr instead ot '"L" i^-niyer," Jan. oili, 1864), C. 
iV. Schrader instead of "(J. *[ Stroader," Jan. 12ih, 1868, W. J. Bikle 
instead of" VV. J." Feb. 9th, 1859, Wm. A . Haii'^tine instead of"Hans»tine," 
Oct. 26tL, 1868, ^^an.U(lii(/6'//.sin!rtead ot "Kiifis," Oct. 2otli, 1870, David 
W. Minor instead of "David M." Dic 27tli, 1870, Tiieo. G. Dosh instead 
of ''Docli," April 11th, 1871, Samuel NeLCCDiner in-tead of "Neowcomer," 
July 4th, 1871, J. fA M. Lecrone, int-tead of "J.,M." July llih, 1872, D. 
F Royer instead of "Kozer," Dec. 17th, 1872,' J. Oiwe/- Besore instead 
of "J. Aliver. 


The name of the wife of Win. Di.Kon should be read "Agnes Duulap" 
instead of "Nancy Dunlap" as printed. 


On page 283 the date "1871" in the fourth line sliould read 1870, 
"Samuel Gans, D. D." on the same pa^e should read I) miel Gaus, D. D. 


Mr. Hoover married Miss Elizabeth Newcomer, daugt)ter of John, and 
Catherine Newcomer. She was reared near Ringtrold Washington Co., 
Md. They have had five children of whom Virtue Elizabetli, Ira N., and 
Percy Daniel are living, and Amon B., and Lester Snively are deceased. 
Tiie occupation of David Zentmyer, grandfather of Mr. Hoover, wa& 
tanning instead of "farming" as printed. 


We omited to mention that this was the only steam printing ofRce in 
Franklin County. 


The following came to hand too late for comparison with the original 
article, and we print it entire: — 

Prior to the year 1795 the members of the Lutheran Church of this place 
worshipped in connection withtlie German Reformed congregation, using 
the "Old Log Church," which stood upon the present burying ground ot 
the latter denomination, and was the first house of worship erected in the 
town. The corner stone of the first Lutheran church was laid on the 
13th day of Sept. 1792, as stated in a copy of paper depos.ted in the stone, 
which document also gives the following names of the earlier members: — 
Nye, Bayer, ?aylor, Bashore, Heotiich, Gerard, Hochlender, Simon, 
Brundlinger, Zimmerman, Schaffner, Klapsaddle, Wagner, Peifer and 
Mann. The building was not Hnished until 1795 when Rev. J)hn Ruth- 
rauff took charge, and served the congregation for forty years, conduct- 
ing service in the German language. The first English pastor. Rev. John 
Reck was installed in 1834 and was succeeded by Rev. Jer. Harpel in 1835. 
During his ministry, in 1837, the church building was enlarged. Pastors 
succeeded in the following order: Rev. Jacob Martin 1839; Rev. Peter 
Sahu D. D. 1840; Rev. Michael Eyster 1845; Rev. Christian F. Kunkle 
served as supply during part of 1850, when Rev. James M. Harkey became 

Errata. ' 319 

pastor. He was followed by Rev. Edward Breidenbaugh in 1852 whose 
term of service extended over a period of 13 years. Following bim, in 
lS6o, Rev. p. of. Wm. F. Eysler; 1869 Rev. T. T. Everett, and in 1872 
Rt-v. Frederick Klinefelter, tlie present incumbent. In Aug. 1874 the 
conijreuation resolved to erectarew church edifice upon the site ot the 
old. The plans and specifications were furnished by Mr. S. D. Button, 
arcliilect, of Phiindelpliia, and the contract was awarded to Messrs. F. 
& J. VVaidlicb of Mercnrsbury;. The building is of brick, its width 48 
feet, and lentitb. including tower and recess, 85 feet. The spire is 136 
feet liigb, covered witli slnte. as is also the roof. Tlie last service in the 
old church was iield on the 14tb day of March, 1875, and the first in the 
new, lecture room Feb. 6tli, 1876, the corner stone having been laid June 
IStii, 1875. 


The word '"Rev." wiierever it appears io this article should be substi- 
tuted with "Elder." "Mary B." in the last line should read "May B." 


He was born "M>irch 24r,li, 1824," instead of "March lllh," as printed. 
The first wife of Mr. Geiser died -'April 4th, 1851." instead of "1861." 


The date '-1850" in the seventh line on page 289 should be "1859," the 
new buildings having been erected the same years the old ones were re- 
moved. The JaraesMcLanahan tract now owned by Henry Bonebreak 
consists of "94" acres instead of "24" as incorrectly printed. Conrad 
Bonebreak, the gracdtather of Daniel Bonebreak, had four sons and three 
daughters nearly all of whom made their homes on the Antietam. 


In tlie last line, the eighth word should be "year" instead of "years." 

people's REGISTER, PAGE 292. 

AUhough not a subject of illustration we could not omit a notice of this 
tnterprising journal which had been overlooked by the editor of the 
"Historical Sketches," and we regret to see that in the fifth line the word 
"dropped" is misspelled and also the word "projector" in the seventh, 
the first being spelled "droped" and the second "projeotor." 


In the eleventh line tbe word "adapted" should be read adopted. 


"Atterward" in the fifth line on page 295 uhould be afterward. 


John Lecron, the father of Simon, did not die upon the "Belfast" farm. 
He resided there until the spring of 1849, when he bought a farm, one 
mile south, in Washington Township, where he lived until his death. 


The name "John Burns" in the fifth line on page 299 should be John 
Bourns. The date "1773" in the fifth line on page 299 should be "1774." 
The ninth line on page 300 should read Nancy, John Francis, Samuel 
Rea, Esther Elizabeth, and Jeremy Morrow. In the twelfth line page 300 
"Esther S." should read Esther E. 


This property is located in Montgomery Township, directly along the 
pike leading from Greencastle to Mercersburg, through a blunder it was 
was printed "Peters." Too late for the article^ the request was made, that 

320 Errata. 

the name of the late deceased owner, S. A.. Bradlfy, Etq., be attached to 
this article. We regret it vvas too late t<» make the cliapge. 


In the eighth line troni the close of the article "York County, " shouh) 
read Little York. 

THRUSH, PERLET «S. CO , PAGES 306 and 307. 

Mr. Thrush learned his trade with H. R Carmany instead of "Emmory" 
as printed. We received, too late, a suggestion to change the heading to 
Thrush, Perlett & Stough. 


The name "Worty" should be spelled Werty. 


The product of corn for the year 1871, on this place was 1500 instead of 
1000 bushels. The name of "Hannah A." in the fourth line from the 
bottom of the page should he Alice H. 


Martin Rouz(!r married Kosanah (je/via«':J instead of '"Germund." Peter 
liouzer was married to Miss Mary Jane, daughter of Samuel Haugh, Feb. 
17th 18.>9, their children were David W., Charles A., Emma K. Clara M.. 
Jennie K., Mary L., Harry W., Rosa I., Nettie R., and i^amuel M., of 
these David W., Harry W., and Samuel M., died in infancy. This should 
be substituted for the corresponding sentence in the original. 
W. H. M'CORMICK, pages 312 AND 313. 

The buildings removed by Mr. McCormick to make room for his present 
commodious residence, were not erected by Alexander McConnell, but by 
Wm. Harvey. The West Branch referred to is the West Branch of the 


Samuel Renfrew, son of John Renfrevv, died in the spring of 1854. 




H. PViepler & Son's Planing Mill 210 

J Hoke S: Co's Dry Goods Store 211 

Brand i^ Speer's Grocery Store 211 

Chambersburg, F.a-^t of Third Street 212 

A. V. Keineman's Jewelry Store 213 

(;eo- A. Miller & Sons Hardware Store 214 

Dr. J. L- Siiesserott's, Residence 215 

Mrs. IjOui-~a Ludwig's Residence 218 

Cbambersbui-g Academy 2ig 

Indian Queen Hotel 220 

^V. C McNulty's Grocery Store 221 

Forbes & Earhart's Marble Yard 221 

Antrim House 222 

W. H. Eyster's Store 22:5 

C H. Cressler's Drug Store 223 

National Hotel 224 

Diamond Notion House . 226 

Central Presbyterian Church 226 

B. F. Winger's Residence 22S 

S. P. Shull's .Marb e Yard 228 

Hon. W. S. Stenuer's Residence 229 

Massacre of School Children 230 

Montgomery House •.■.232 

Ciowell it Co's Shops 233 

N'urderof Renfrew Sisters 236 

Franiclin Furnace 238 

(ine of the iirst American Cannon 239 

Melchi Snively's Residence 240 

Frick & Co's Works _ 241 

J. K Andrew's Farm 242 

<.> W. Good's Distillery 243 

Abrara Shockey's Farm 244 

David Eshleman's Farm 245 

Geiser Manufacturing Co 245 

The Old Kovne Farm 246 

Jos. Boyd's Farm 247 

Robt. Johnson's Property » 247 

Woolen Mill of J. B. White 248 

J. B. Cook's Farm 248 

Jos. Crawford's Farm 249 

Buena Vista Hotel 250 

Manufacture of Straw Paper 251 

Robert Kennedy Memorial Church 255 

DavidMiller's Clermont Hotel 257 

J. H. Beeler's Residence & Manufactory,. 257 

Cleo. W. Etter's Oak Grove Fish Farm 258 

JSlercersburg College 259 

Adam Forney's Residence 261 

Jacob Hege's Property 262 

John Walker's Property 263 

Residence of J. M. Ripple, M. D 264 

Waynesboro Hotel 265 

Pharez Duffield's Property 266 

L. S. Forney's Tannery 266 

Jacob J. Miller's ResiJence 267 

Late James Crawford's Property 26S 

A. M. Hoke's Residence 269 

Addison Imbrie's Property 269 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church. ..270 

John Croft's Farm 270 

J. A. Harper's Carriage Works 271 

Samuel Plum's Property 272 

Jacob Middour's Property 273 

Dr. Benj Frantz' Residence 274 

L < >. O. F Hall at Waynesboro 275 

Dr. I. N. Snively's "Antietam Home" 

Property 277 

Dr E. A. Hering's Rei>dence 279 

Col Wm. D. Dixon's Farm & Residence. .280 

Spring Dale Farm 281 

Record of the Strickler Family 281 

S. W. Solenberger's "Farmer's Delight" 

Property 283 

Daniel Hoover's Property 284 

E. H. Hagcrman's Store and Residence 285 

A. G. Blair's Steam Job Printing Office 285 

Evangelical Lutheran Church 285 

Elder J. F Oiler's Residence. 286. 

Daniel Geiser's Residence 287 

, Waynesboro Caves 288 

D. Bonebreak's Farm .....288 

Montgomery Mills 289 

"Rock Dale" J. F. Kieffer's Residence 290 

Trinity Reformed Church 291 

People's Register 292 

Jas P. & J. M. Wolfs Store 293 

F. Forthman's Store 293 

Dr. J. S. Flickinger's Property 293 

Valley Spirit Newspaper 294 

J. P. Stover's Property 296 

S. Lecron's "Belfast" Farm 297 

J M. Burn's Farm 298 

J. Phillip's "Fair View" Place 300 

S. B. Rinehart's Store 301 

Public School Building of Waynesboro 302 

Mrs. M. A. Bradley's Property 303 

E. S. Baer's Property 304 

B. E. Price's Farm 304 

H. Walters' Property 305 

Thrush, Perlett & Co's Carriage Works.. ..306 

A. N. Ryder's Mill Property 307 

Daniel HoUinger's Farm 308 

Monterey Springs Hotel 309 

C. H. Buhrman's Property 309 

Peter Rouzer's Property 310 

Hopewell Mill & Residence of J. Burger. ..310 

Samuel Carver's Property 311 

W. H. McCormick's Farm 312 

Village Record Newspaper 313 

J. Hemminger's Property 313 

C. Gillan's Hotel and Farm 313 

Burning of Chambersburg 3'4 

The Flood 3^5 

The Renfrew Estate 3^6 

Waynesboro Mutual Fire Insurance Co 316 

S. R. Burns' Residence 3'^ 


Andrews, James K. 

Antrim House 

Baer, E. S. 

Beeler, J. d. 

Blair, A. G. 

Blair, W. I. O. O. F. Hall 

Facing Page 



Facing Page 

Bonebreak, Daniel 

Boyd, Joseph " " 

Bradley, Mrs. S. A. " " 

Brand & Speer " " 

Buena Vista Springs, V. B. Gilbert Pro- 
prietor Facing Page 112 





Kuhrnian, C. H. Facing I'age ici'i 

Burns, J. Morrow " '■ 298 

Burns. S. R. " " 75 

Central Presbyterian ("hurch. Chanibers- 

buri; Between Pages 226-7 

Ch am b'sburg Academy Facing Title Page 
Clermont Houie, Blue Kidge Sunj- 

niit Between I'ages 132-3 

Cook. Jacob B. Facing Page 6j 

County Court Houses, Frontispiece 
Crawlord Joseph Facing Page 138 

Crawford. Milton " " 139 

Cressler, C. H. " " 68 

Croft, John " " 

Crowell J. B. & Company. <ireeiicas- 

tle Between P,iges 112-13 

IJixon, Col Wm. D. " ' 180-1 

llufficld, Pharez Facing Page 271 

Eshleman, David " " 

Etter, George W. " " 

Evangeli4pl Lutheran Church Creencas 

tie ' Facing Page 

Fyster, Will H. 

Flickinger. Dr. John S. " " 

_ Forbes & Earhart " " 

Forney, Adam " " 

Forney, L. S " " 

Forthman, F. " " 

Franklin Furnace " " 

Franti- Dr. B. " " 

Frick, Jacob " " 

Wayne-boro Steam Boiler 

Works, Between " 

(jarver, Samuel Facing " 

Gillan Charles " " 

(Jeiser, Daniel " " 

Ceiser Man'f'g Go's Works, bwt 

Facing Page 221 



J 32 




Geiser, Peter 

Good, O. W.- 

Hagerman. E. H . 

Harper J. H. 

Hege, Jacob 

Hemminger, John 

Hering, Dr. E. A. " " 

Hoke, A. M. " 

Hoke & Co. " " 

HoUinger. D.^niel " " 

Hoover, Daniel " " 

Jlopewell Alills, Josiah and John Bur- 
ger Facing Page 

Indian Queen Hotel, Chambersburg. J. 
Fisher Proprietor Facing Page 

Imbrie, Addison " " 

I. O. O. F. Hall 

Johnston, Robert " " 

Kennedy Memorial Church and Acade- 
my, Welsh Run Facing Page 

Kieffer. of S. 

Lecron, Hon. Simon ^„ 
Ludvvig, Mrs. Louiae " " 151 
.McCoruiick, VV. H. " " 1S5 
.McNuhy, U . C. " " t^ 
.Mercersbiirg College KetAeeu •' 14-15 
Middour, Jacob Facing " 63 
.Miller, George .\. & Son " " ir. 
Miller, Jacob J. " <• 87 
Monterey House, V. E. Holmes Proprie- 
tor Between Pages 166-7 
Montgomery House Facing Page 9 
Montgomery Milb, F. & S. b Speck, 

Proprietors Facing Page 14 

National House, Chanib. " '• 21 

North, .A. J. " " 173 

Oiler Elder J. F. " " 13^ 

< 'rr, John K " '• 226 

Philips, John " " 80 

Plum, Samuel " " 3.! 

Price, Benj F.. •■ 't- £1 

Public School Building " " 56 

Reineman, A V. " " 74 

Renfrew, D. L " " 144 

Renlrew, Mrs Nancy " " 145 

Kinehart. S. B. " " 280 

Ripple, Dr. J. M. " " 150 

Kouzerville " " 154 

Ryder, A. N. " " 307 

Shepler, H. & Son " " 11 1 

Shock\ , .'\brahrm " " 244 

Shull,'S. P. " " 27 

Snively, Melchi " " S 

Snively, Frederick B. " " 8 
Snively, Dr. I. N. Antietam 

Home •' " 57 
Solenbcrger, Solomon W. " " 124 
Stenger, Hon. W. S. " " 119 
St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church 
and Parsonage Mercers- 
burg Between Pages 154-5 
Stover, [acob P. Facing Page 51 
Strickler, Dr. A. H. " " 281 
Suesscrott Dr. J. L. Lots " " 214 
Suesserott, Dr. J. L. Res. " " 215 
Thrush, Perlett & Stough 

Shippensburg Between Pages 294-5 

Valley Spirit Building Facing Page 294 

Walker, John " " 38 

Walter, Henry " " 100 

Watson, J. & G, " " 33 

Waynesboro Hotel " " 299 

White, J. Burns " " 17S 

Winger, Col. B. F. " " 92 
Wolf, James P. & J. .M.. L O. O. F.Hall 

Waynesboro Facing Page 273 




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