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■ riir Phllowpbrr ataoold cod wtih Ifcdkina.— iba FbyMclMi connwoc* with PbtlOMi^r " 

im^ |orfmfs. 



[Tic rigkl nf tratulation it r«en:eil.\ 



The design of thin book U to represent the oonditioa of 
the Art of Medicine and il» practitionem at stiocesslve 
periods of liiatory. In the execution of the plan, it lins 
naturally happened lliat the characters of the men who 
have diructly, or indirectly, exerted the greatest influence 
iu mouhliiig the tiiedicid art have been uiiiong the chief 
subjects of research and delineation. Henoe the volume 
has asjiumed a lighter, more btographical, and pmbably 
more popular form, than might perhaps have been expected 
in a work of this nature. 

There does not j'et exist in the English tongue a single 
complete History of Medicine ; nor does tliis book aspire 
to supply the de6ciency. In order to do ho, an account 
must have been given of the growth of the sciences on 
which the Art is built, iQ5t«ad of merely indications of 
their Influeucc ; to do which with any fulness, at least 
five or six volumes each as large as iliis one would be re- 
quired. It is, indeed] a task well worth attempting ; for 
Uie Standard History (Sprengels) is now nearly out of date ; 
and it is time that justice should bo dona to our great 
modem anatomists, physiologists, and pathologists ; but 16 
u a task which, for it^ due execution, demands au amount 
of l^ure at tlie diH]M>&al of few who cultivate Medicine 
aa n profuiMjion. In the mean time this lees ambitious 



attempt may serve us a pioneer, and hy dii-cctiiig alteDtiou 
U> a comparatively new field of study, may be the nieaus 
of encouraging others better qualified to devote tliomaelves 
to tbat important, but laborious and difficult undertaking. 
Witb Bucli a result I abould he well satUfied ; feeling tliat 
t)ie labour bestowed uq thi» production lias nob buoii lost. 
At tbe «ame time, I cannot but regret having l>een com- 
[lelled to omit all mentioD of many names which might 
well clatiu a place in even the briefest Hketcti of a History 
of Medicine. I am, also, painfully conadoua that, owing to 
my endeavour to be as brief u^ {icssible iu the expre&jion 
of ray own opiuiona, I incur great risk of being misunder- 
utood by many of my readers, unleaa they jktuko these 
pages with a desire to fill up the outline rather than to 
oomploin of ita incompleteaeEs, or to dwell on the errore 
which they may detect. That these errors are not raoro 
numerous, u> due to the kindness of two friends who have 
given me tlieir assistance in the irksome task of preparing 
for the press a volume, which has occupied in its composi- 
tioOt uiust of the leiburc hours during severnl yeara of a 
busy profLfUiional lif& 

J. KB 




Ailiua » PhyunAB— Darius uid I><a)aetdM>-Cue of Tetophoi — ValiM at 
F«)i£re<)— £fcul*iiiu]i mkI lutSou — Sumooial t)u)8i«Reof Th>y— How 
Ocrmons Mrt«d — Ronw vemw Oiveee— TIi« Vlim JAna — PLHwoiiliun Mad 

CUAFTBtt ir. 


TlMs«sBippocmtica~LaTe-ridaien— Sicrad DlaMMS— Fkeedom uid SlftToy 
— Tow (i Purity — EIciMata und Himoun — Orook Pliyna — "^Kf^ ^"■^ 
m^iM— abiMU— HcAliim ?i>ir«r of NMiirv— S|>int MwtifcatfttUMis — 
Frincipla of Cgiitnri«i — Bin]jlrici — MetlKxUnU— Scntlble Sy4<m — i>og- 
aiuut*— Allopath V tuid Ucmsoimtlijr — Qenvt&l Cultun — IVjmpU of 
iRaralupIiu — HI* Dewrii'titv Powtir — His IndiicUvi JitotlicMl — DUSeriovn 
Diligfuc^^Pollow Ustnra— BmIsj Wat«r— SiwpmJ IVsutnieDt— Aj'lior- 
Ihbh ........ .... 



Lottttr of Diwit*— Tho Budo ScLooI — Cbrul'p MinKutoiu Ol lH i C&rit- 
Ukiiltf whI Mudioiue — MnliuLl PraetJw iu Iloiij«— tilxwt Story inta 
Pliny— AncLei'LaflM' l!ain<«n|Mth;— IIi> TmTeli^l')i«u]iia ngnio— Thr 
PbW— CoMlTsria Pnatnkriu ourantur ....... (j7 



Cburcii Mimalee—C banns and Amutubt— Monlu aad Mwliriua— Thr Um- 
piMl — KomftD Influimoe — The [)ocIm« of vli? Bni|ur»— Julian tii« Ajum- 
I4l4~-Sanu<ta Cod<|uwU — Rbaaee tnk«ii m bin wunl — Uttbiul Soott — 
Jnwpb Wolff— Modem Persian Phjw«aiii-S*llii»« I'not nf U«y«o»«iKt 
Pb;Mciui>-Cbm, hta Mm nf Chrutiui Ptity-I'untkhment PliyrieiaiUl 
» en IkUe to— Tkeriacttin- OrtJiodoj M&UHne >1 

HiiliD«iBUiii — EU Blrtli— briy Biuekttoi— Life ■! LmpiiK — Ilii Vander- 
Ingi— Oliemloal DiMa*arie^Bcp«iiiwnta with CiDoh(in»— M«iii'cinM 
ftann Dummk tike thnm tb<7 prodai.-* — Ane«>e — Ipecttcann^-Sulphur'^ 
"IWrtor Rmetio — Te* — Pinil Trial of Homieojaitiiy -BeJIflJimaiv in Ecw- 
letiiiA PeTpr— OomiKirri with Vncrinutifiii —Action ot Snudl J)o«»— 
DSpplcr'M 7hf!i)Tj — 3Ar^'» Theory— Hahncmiitiiis Tripod — Ptwrlng of 
Aeonitt — Taetlmoni la tevov of AwntM — Tlie Orviuion— The word Ho- 
■D'XojtnthJe 6nt and— EamcBoimtbr define))— Oppoiwci by (lie DniKginU) 
^Bmimow'i SkeUli 4f H"''"^"'"'" — His Duuestiu LUt.' — RIclit«r*8 
BeaorlptloD of Halinniiani]— Hii Materia Mtiiifa— AanaiU) pro*ud 
by Dr. Q«Tit*!l — fkmjilior in Cholaia— Dr. Quin »t Tiwiinowiu — Dr. 
Pliricluiuuin at VieiiD& — UfthuemAnn'i Lifp at Contlieu— Letter to 
Stapf— lunata on Pari t; of DoetrlDa— DcftUi nf hl« fint Wife — Seoond 
MMTiafD— Life in P»ria— Death— Diflbdon ai Homttopkthjr— In Qcr- 
nuuijr^DiacnneiJ in Rndea Pulivntnt — InAiulrin—InKitplin— BroDfht 
to Sntrkod l<y Br. (Juiii— C»m«pan<leDce IwIwm:!] Collesie ot Pltfildau 
ituil Di. Quin — OppwilUan it enrniintonKl-— Sir W. IIiiioi]lini'B Optoioii. — 
Briumrt. — Rtuori — HrDiuvniii — BxpcKrUot MiHlir-jnv — Itftplumof ApuUo 
— WtitcT-Cure — U««neriuii — Cla.UTojauc« — Muveiuuiit-Cuiii — AIimiii on 
SpMili«»— Metlicnl Bdamtion— Abora^nabic'a Opinion— A Lihcnl IWn- 
Hvticiii fl«nned. SS8 



AsouUPius, from a Slatne in the Lonvre 1 

HirpoosATXB, from ft Btirt 19 

OAltir, from ftn ancient Dioecoridian Manuscript in the Imperial Libnu7of 

Tiennft 67 

DiDBCOBivxs, ibid 91 

JiBon Cakdar 127 

pARACBUtrs 157 

Lord Bacoi 177 

Yaji HxLXOira, from a Print prefixed to his 'Works, 1682 .... 197 

Haktxt, bom a Kctore by Benoel, in the Collection of Dr. Mead 2(I5 

SyiTi™ SI LA BoE, from a Picture by Van Dalen, junior .... 219 

Stsihhah, from the copy of the Bust prefixed to hia Works 247 

BoKSHAATZ, from a Painting by Mandelaar 277 

Hallir 307 

QcLua 319 

JobrBbowh 33fi 

JiKKxa S53 

Hahhihavk, from a McdiJlion by David 333 


Page 12, last line, /or theme-lionoureil, read thcnoe hononr&l. 
Pngc 34, line 8 from top, for The, rend She. 


tCn*r 1. 

condition till the dawn of the Grecian era. Le Clerk,' 
indocd, carries us back as far as the time of ArJInm, the 
title of his/««WA cliaptor Iwiiig "LepreiTiier Huiiiiim a 4t4, 
eu certain seus, le premier M(?dicin." • • • Tliat Adam, 
when ill or hurt, employed such npplianccs to relieve himself 
Its his instinct or reason su^'gested, may be mimitted ; but 
in this he did not differ from a dog wLicU, when 8i*.'k, eats 
gmas ; and we might just as welt claim the title of Doctor 
for " Cffisar " or " Dash," as for our great progi-nilor. 

Even ainon-i! the Egyptians, the iiiobt uivilized natitm of 
remote antiquity, the art of medicine seems to liave been 
kept in a state of restraint so abject, as effectually to pre- 
vent its jirogress. Egypt, in its very youth, seems to have 
had all the rigidity of old age, and where everything was 
i-egulated by atiingent and severe rules, metlicina was 
not exempted from the stiffening process. " Doctors re- 
ceived their salaries from the treasury ; but titey were 
obliged to conform in the treatment of a [>atient to the 
rules laid down iu then* books, kie death heivy a capital 
crime, if he uus found to lutve been, truited in anr/ (Aher 
«wy."* So says Herodotus. How this Bj-Btem worked is 
best Ulustratcd by a fiict related by tlie same uuexc*;ption- 
able authority. The following occuiTence took place aflcr 
incdiduo had existed iis a Htate-ari for at least five liiuidred 
years. " It happened that King Darius, as he leaped from 
his horae, spraiued lus foot. The sprain was one of no 
common severity, the aucle-bone was forced out of the 
socket." In fact, it was a didocation. "Now Darius had 
already at his court certain £^y]Uiaus, whom ho reckoned 
the best skilled physicians in all the world ; to their aid. 

* Hintoiro de U Mriinin*, p« DmIjj} 

MtmiilaRd bj ttio Bod ooinfvteol tM- 
tliontica « «cr7 I«*ned wut tntU- 
woiiliy kuOor; of Hit porkd U wbiob 
it Tiier*. 
' TicDiAtoryof UcTQilotiu. Anew 

En^ltiili venion, cdilrd, wilh OD|Mintd 
Fk'vttM, ^4.'. , bj (Icurge Itawliiuon, 
U.A., utiaUd tij GoiDHol 8ir Bcufjr 
lUwIiiuOD, nnd Sir J. 0. Wilkiiwun, 
P.B.a Undon: IMd. VaI 11. 
NoM tv pkite 13C, W ftu- G. VTil- 



thervfore, he had i-eeonrse ; but they twlstwl the toot so 
clumsily an<i used such vioIuDue, that tliey only made the 
iiiucliief greater. For seven da^-s and se^'en nightei the 
King lay withotit sleep, so grievous was the pain he 
suflercd. Oti the eighth day of his indisposition, one who 
liad hem-d, before leaving Sardis, of the skill of Deniocedes, 
the Crotonion, told Dnritis, who commanded that he should 
be brought with all speed into his prewnce. When, there- 
fore, tliey bad found him among the slaves of Crates, 
quite uncared for by any one, they brought him just as lie 
was, danking Ids fetters, and all clothed in rags, before the 
King. Aa soon as he was entered into the presence, 
Darius asked him if ho knew medicine, to which he 
aiLswered 'No,' for he feared that if ho made Iiiraself 
known be would lose all chance of agnin beholding Greece. 
Darius, however, perceiving that he dealt deceitfully, and 
really understood the art, bade tho^ wbo had brought 
him to the prusenoe — go fetch the scom;gea and pricking 
irons (or blinding irons to i>ut out his eyes). Upon this 
Democedes made confessions, but at the same time said he 
had no thorough knowledge of medicuie — he hiul but 
lived some time with a pb>'^cian, and in this way had 
gained a slight smattering of the art. However, Darius 
put Idmself imder his care, and Democ£<les, by using the 
remedies customary among the Greeks, and exchanging the 
violent treatment of the Egj'ptians for milder means, first 
eiiahled him to get some sleep, and then in a very Uttio 
lime restored him altogether, after he had quite lost tlio 
ho]w of ever having the use of his foot."' What a picture 
of the triumph of Greek intellect, in the pei-aon of n. ragged 
slave, over Egj'jitian stolidity, patronised by the greatest 
monarch of his age, surrounded by all the pou>p and terror 
of absolute power ! 

Without further comment we leave the pre^historic fi>sKil 

< Op. dt. VuL II. pp. SLft, Dl«. 

H 2 


[OllAP. I, 

ago, aepnmted as it is by o. vast chnam from the living pre- 
sent ; for the old notion tliat the Greeks derived their legen- 
dary lore from f^-pt- — and it is with Greek legends we 
mast begin our inquirj- — is now well-nigli exploded ; 
indeed, it is no less revolting to reason to ascribe to 
Egji^tian thought the parentage of Grecian Rcienoe, than 
it Ib to tfiatc to imagine sueh a fignre wi the bright, 
aiiy, and curvilinear Apollo to have been bom and bi-ed 
in the land of |>yramid8 and ttiummies. At> £g>'pl wa^ 
the land of rigidity and death, so Greece was the land 
of liberty and life. The living force there embodied itsfllf 
in heroic Kougs and deeds during remotest ages, and after- 
wards took the form of philosopliy and political organi- 
zation ; and when its original native development had been 
broken up by internal divisions and the rude strength of 
Kome, it still continued to act upon the course of the world's 
history, modifjnng nil its important changes, even Cbris- 
tianity ituelf, and powerfully affecting the thooght, feeling, 
and action, of all European civilized communities down to 
the present hour. Indeed, the charactemtic peculiaril^- of 
this force Is ibi continuity; and to comprehend itso|>cratioiL 
upon any part of medicine we muat trace it from its source. 
Tlint tjouroe is in blie high table-laud of legend, a land 
envelo[>ed in impenetrable mist, a laud of unrealities, but 
of infinite significance, because of real belief to the Gi-ecks. 
This is the couelusion at M'hich modem history has at 
length arrived ; that what ia of importance to determine is, 
not whether tlio beautiful tales of entei-prise and adventure 
which constitute the m^'thology of Orceoe have any basis 
of actuiU events— an inquiry impossible to prosecute with 
any success — but whioli of these stories the Greeks 
believed, and how tbeir ikith in their legends afiected 
tlieir character and history. TIic function of science in 
this matter is to esUmate and onalyxo tlie belief itself, not 
the IhiDg believed in. The abemility of attempting tiie 

Caxr. I.j 


latter is well illustrated by tbe following ex&mple taken 
from tlie province of medicine; — "Soiue," says Pliny, 
" snpjwse that Achiltoj? cured Telephus by the ptftnt cftlled 
Ajchilea, others think that it was by verdigris, whicli is 
much employed in plai>it4^r8 ; and for this reast^n they ndd 
thai Achilles is painted scraping the verdtgris off the point 
of the spear into the wound of Telephug."* Of tlie fact of 
tbe cure of Telophus by Achilles, Fliny expresses uo doubt. 
Now who was Telephua f He was the grandson of Aphei- 
daM, king of Tegeji, who was tlio son of Arkas, of tlmt 
ilk, — thai is, of Arcadia. And who was Arkas ? " Tbe 
beautiful Callisto, companion of Artemis (Diana) in the 
cliase, had bound herself by a vow of chastity ; Zens 
(Jupiter), eithei' by persuasion or by foi-ce, obtained a 
•violation of the vow, to the grievous displeasiire both of 
Hiir<! (Juno) and Artcmia The former diangod (!uUisto 
iut^j a bear, the latter, wlten she was in thut lihape, killed 
her with an arrow. Zeu3 gave to the unfortunate Callisto 
u place among the stont, as the ron-ttellntion of the bear : 
he also preserved the ebild Arkus, and gave it to the 
Atlantid nymph Mena to bring up."* What should we 
think of an astronomer incoqiorating this stor^' in a treatise 
upon the constoOatiooB, as if it were an observation of on 
eclipse? Tet this tale of Arkas rests upon the »anie 
evidence as the cure of his gront-grandsou by Achilles. 

Such attcm))ts at inter|>retation of alleged facts in a 
purely fictitious story, are worse than a waste of time and 
lalwur, for tliey give an air of reality to what is in itself 
notliing. As well might a botanist, writing two thousand 
years hence upon the leguminous plants, attempt to account 
scientifically for there onoe having existed a bean of enor- 
mous sizn, and ^vo a learned refutation of all pofisible 
objectiona to its prodigious growth, and to its having been 

Pliny. Book XXT. Chat>. 9, 

* Umte*ii UiOMf at Qrwcc VoL I. 
pp. S4], 243. 


ascended by a man of diminutive stttluw, in order to explain 
tho story of "Jack and the Bimn-stalk." Sudi a Aviiti^r 
would not b« guilty of a greater perversity of iut«Uuct 
than arc those who attempt to gathci' ficicnco out of the 
fltad. But wbiln, on tlic one Iiojid, we Khoultl cointnit a grave 
error if we strove to extract solid fiicta out of empty fables, 
we should, on the other, be much more in the wrong if we 
diaregnrded the legendary lom altogether. There may be 
no grounds fur Wlicving tluit tiuch a person as IlerculoEi 
ever existed, hut the belief of the Spartans that they were 
lineal descendants of this dcniijifiHi, exerted » jiowerful 
influence upon the events of Qrcece and the biutory of the 
world. It was in a great measure in virtue of this divine 
descent that Si>arta claimed tbe leadership of the Greek ooii- 
federatjon against Xerxes, and it was out of this admitted 
claim, that the most iin{>ortant post in battle was yielded to 
the Spartans. Had tlie other tribes refused to award wlutt 
was then considered a legitimate di^tiuctiuii, it is by no 
uiean» improbable that in consequenue of the aftrout, the 
Ijacedajraonian contingent wonM have withdrawn from the 
oonibuty a,% at the battle of CuIIoilen, the Maedoualds' 
Uurcatened to march off without fighting for a similar roa- 
Bon; and had this uecurred then, most likely Greece would 
have succumbed to the Per^iiun monareb, and uascenl Europe 
become a satrapy of the great oriental despot's dominions. 
"Tlie deHcent of the Spoitiin king, Leouidjw/' nays Mr. 
Orote, " from Hercules, rests upon no better evident than 


■ *■ Ai if k Cklc bnd hnag over Uie 
coudcUb of Clujios the dlspMritliHis a( 
tiui onler nl battle inrolrix) ibo At- 
Dldoa of B point dI beoour, e>t«etn«l 
of (be tiUiiMt [mportuiM in thin ■b- 
gultf ftruf, Uipugli in way oilier ■ mure 
quuBtioD oi idb prvwdetuM. The Mot- 
doiuUdjs w ibe moM ponrful nnd 
nnuioni'n* of Uw cUn*, bail cli>iai«d 
from tlw Ui^DBiDg ol tlii' csiipiitioa 

llw jaMlege >il holding (he right of 
tho wbob UToy. Lodiiel iinil J^fipin 
had wsIvmI urj dinimtv uf tliin cbuni at 
ifao battle ol FrestoD ; Uie ILuHloiuldB 
liwl idxi )vl tha li^t mt FUUrk, uj 
DDw tlie loft «raa awiguwl to thu (mond 
mim&Bie, wliii^h tlivf n:garlt«l not only 
iw wi aSnnt but M All evil AiiieiLi"—Kr 
W. Soon'i IUm of ft anudbtbor, 3nl 
$<Hes Vol. Itl. i>. 230. 

Ciur. LI 

VAwre OP pbdigrbb: 

that of Hippocrates from .^sculapiuB." ' Tbo belief enter- 
taJucU by his contemporaries in the pedigree of HipiKvrates 
is an important &ci in medicine, a ftict which wc cannot 

Justly appreciate wittiout tracing his geuealog)' into tiie 
fDytbiad period of Greek history. Indeed, we must sumy 
thifl region if we wish to arrive at a correct opinion of the 
tiniation iu wliicli the art of medicine and tts practitioners 
weru held among the Greeks. 

Wc have already spoken of Arcadia, the land of Arkas. 
In tliis romantic diritrict, Uio Switzerland of Gi«ccc, stands 
Mount Peliou, now described by au eye<wituess aa " beau- 
tifiilly vnriegatcd, with groves and gardens, and glittering 
with townii and villages;'" but in ancient times a desolate 
rugioii, full of caves and impeuetmble tliick«t«. Here 
lived Chiron "the wide-ruling oflspring of Cronos,' the 
son of Uranoa," " the wild centaur who ruled iu the glenit 
of Peliou," who " bred Asclepiod (.j£sculnpius) the geutlc 
artificer of freedom-from-pain, tliat strengthens the limU-*, 
tlie derni-god that warda oif diseflsee."* So sings Pindar 
in tljc third Pythiau ode, and then goes on to toll the 
KUiie tale we quoted frvm Orote ajyropw of Arkas, of 

fllie birth of i&culapiuA : how lie was the Run of the 
nymph Coroiua and Apollo ; how both mother and child 
had veiy nearly been fiacrificed to the vengeance of the 
gods, and how Apollo snatched the iufiint irom the funeral 

I pile and carried il off to this remote and bccuto cave, the 
retceat of Chiron, "thejustest of all tlie Centaurs,"* that 
ho might learn to cure the manlfuld disensea that afHict 
mortals. " 80 ho rescued those who sought \m nbode, some 

> OnU, Oi>. «t. V«L I. ^ S9». 

3 tMnK» Gbntal Invtk, V»L 
tl. ifc 67. 

> H««<nL Thia Cronoa wu ili« 
joniijcrrt cna of Butli mtul Bvkita, 
wtiii in tli«tr lain t\<nag from CIuumi : 

iBtnli vna iha fintbon, "tiio locare 
'■Mt ol kU tbo intui<rtBliii ud bxtb 

btuv liku li«neU (in toe) ttMTtj 
B««v«ii, llial W mif^it alidUrr bar 
tuonniL on ail «!<]<■, ami pn sh« ni^l 
In a HKUra taU (or Itie lileocd jchIil" 
— Thccstmr, lnuala(«d by UuiJtB, |i|t. 

* Bono-. lUnd. Book XI. lino Sftl. 

' tiaiur. 

riiAcrmoNBHS kki^ikk uippockates. 

(CnAP, L 

&oia sores of spontaneous origin, Koniu from wounds in- 
flicted either by the gleanilitg hraas, or the far-burk'd stone, 
Bome whoaj £i"amea were wasted by thn Rummer's fire or 
winter's cold. Tlio gentle charm gave relief to some; to 
others he administered the soothing potions, or round their 
limbs ho bound the plfuster made from herbs ; while others 
again, he reHtured to heiUlh by cutting otf the llnih." Bub 
he carried his skill too far, nnd iiad the imprudence to 
restore a dead iriAn. to life, for which he vrsA slain by one 
of the godH.' We venture to aflinn tliat the dii<cipleii 
of .^3cidapius have, by this time, amply retrieved this act 
of impiety, and left a handsome balance in favour of Pluto. 

-idisculapjas was worshipped with great solemnity in 
various parts of Gweoe, suuh as Tiikka, Cos, Coidos, and 
especially at Epidaunis. In these places niagni6oeui tem- 
ples were erected to his honour, surrounded by sacred 
groves, and hung round with the offurings of thoso who 
had been rescued from death or suffering by his power. 
The remains of some of these temples are still extant,' 

Although .£soulapius is probably as mere a fiction of the 
Greek imagination aa Jupiter or Nwptune, yet the fact of 
his having two rcgularJy-bom sons at tlie Kiege of Troy, 
gives to him & certain air of flesh and blood reality. Not 
that there is any better evidence of the actual existence 
either of the father jfE-fculapius, or of hin Bonx, Maciiaon 
and Podaliriiis, than there is of tim fiihulous inhabitants of 
Olympus ; but the gojuus of Ilomcr has given so marked and 
interebting an individnality to his heroes, nnd has secured 

> Plnilv giiTM, M ttie Ttaaon of 
&eaU|itiM' rMUmtJuB oC s ^ad maa, 
tliat be wu Uapwd by the oBcr of a 
hige Mwurd. Vpa» lUs Ike firakt 
GinMB Glide, pratiMor Bovrkk, of 
Beifin, oWmM, "Mannia id i^pl^n 
^ealaiMam Ivcitm tvctnxlor fat 5«tin; 
Ptndwi (mUmt ipaiu*, (|u«ni Imps! 
wtnti NWit - luwl duliie n inMlJcumii 

■ruU moribuB imfectn qui tinMoraa 
Modiri> ncBtrucpie ooauuBOM raat." 
TIiIr ia a rory BvMfang cWge ■ffuml 
llie cinlickl proriwdon, Ixtth andinit 
and Bu it wf Mtar l«uiU 
a( fMliul fact iliAii tJ>« **«n of Cliiiea, 
the Cv«UiB( ) I holivm' ml. 

> [>odwftirii Tnnb, Vol. II. p. 257, 
CUrk'sTtmrsU Vnl. III. |>. CftO. 

ur. 1.1 

jEscrurius akd his soits. 

for them bo permauent and positive a pinre in civilized 
tradition, that, iu the teeth of the mo«t sutisTiictory mtiuU 
Utmonstration to the uontrju-y, we ding to the old belief 
that Achilles, and Hector, and Troy, and the diviuo Sca- 
uiiuidcr, were just as real as Fompcy and Casar of Rome 
and the Tiber. These legends have become facta to dm, 
because thfty were facts to the Greeks. And when we ad- 
duce Homer as evidence for the status and adilcvnTienU of 
thene sons of .^Esculupius, we are giving the best put^iblu 
proof, if not of the facts themselves, at least of the 
universal l:K.-Iiof iu them as such, during the long period of 
the accepUmcc of the Homeric testament. Indeed it may 
|1>e questioned whether, in those seminaries where clas^c 
^saming is nio«t exclusively cultivated, Homer dop« not 
exercise asjMjweiful au iufluence upon the Cuth and feelings 
of the students, as the Scriptures from which they profess 
to derive their rules of this life, and hopes beyond it, ' 

The first iiitroductiou of these two mm of iEscnlfipina 
occurs in the second book of the Iliad. They are repi"©- 
sentcd in the account of the marshalling of the clans as 
the leaders or oliiefUiins of the people of Trikka, a district 
in the north-west of Thessaly. 

" All vbo in Trikk* dirdt, and ia Jklialiu, Ibe citjr 
Of Eiinrliw tli« £chnlUti, and Dunj-knoU'd Ittioao ; 
Two Mu of JEMulkpiua, Podaliriua Kod ftltcluoii, 
£xm1)iM|i in the boBllnz art, wen tmr tlttu tb« ludan^ 
Ami IhiAy ■icioolUy-bolloir'il ahiiM w«n nn^ beoMth ibnr cuidkOM."* 

Thus it »p[)?ars that tlie first niUitory surgeons mentioned 
in Greek history are ranked by Homer among the great 
tenilei's in right of their birth and influence. That his Hkill 
in medicine did not prevent this sun of iEscuIapius from 
figliting bravely at the head of his clan, apijeors from 
the pa.*^<«ge in the fourth book, which describes how 

) 8«e Okdirtono't BoBXW. V. XcYmoiu 16SS. Book II. linoi 

3 noiBer'sllin^l. f*iUifullr CnuttlAtol 729 to 734. 
into unihjniad EcgUidi lle(«r, hf P. 




rOBAP. I. 

Meneliias, the brother of Agamemnon, king of Kycena\ was 
wounded by im arrow fnim the how of Alexftridtr, in 
isxccution of a plot contrived by llio guils who Hided with 
(he Trojans. Agantemuon is in a dreadful (>taie of uJarni 
nnd dietresH when he sees his brother carried off the field, 
lUid bitterly reproaches hiinsoil' for having placed liini in a 
post of 80 much danger, and then he turns to tlie divine 
lierald, Tulthybius, and thua addn^ssos him :— 

' ' TxJUiyliiu I with atmoat >[iecd 
Hnoltiui'n liithor iiunnon, 
Tlie wn if JiMo]»yii<u, 
CliirantiNii unbUulitb'J 1 ' 
Stnight uiul lio rLut AtrmiB* tDii, 
Tbv wlilw H«iielltui, 

At wlioiii Mimo okilfiil juvhcr- hiuiil hub niiu'J an arrow Iniljr. 
Glory t« hioi, but «'ne to us. 
Or LTcian or TroiAn." 
Ha afmke ; nor diaobtdleut 
The huraU hum! tiii biitdin^ 
Bill (peil lo go alflikg the limt 
Of <)apper-gn«vi.>d Ackaiaui, 
Tccring to we Macbaon'fl forni, 
And Honn Mpiod tlM hero 

8laiii3ifl|t: and nil aioiiii(t ««r |x>ur'<l ih« diitlJoil ttovt battalioiu 
Of mcN, wbn with hint ooaii«(iiiMl fmia eoonvr-fuodiag Tnkka. 
Tbare aoar Wors hu fun* h» atooi!, 
Ami wingtd Mwoto vtlvr'il : 
" Uine 1 ton «f SaoaUiiiiM ! 
Kiag ^giiiiutMnim oalleth, 
Qaick miut tban rltit Attviu' mod, 
TIt« warlili* Moaetltis, 

At whom maoa akilfol arehar-lianil lulh tuoi'iJ aii arraw Iriilj' 
(ilory to bitn, bat wo« lo ua, 
Ur l^don, or TVoian." 

Heapakc, and almn);!^ iliJ b«alir Uii) liAro'a IwarL wilkia tiui. 
So Uiry, rMurnlnK. hied alotm 
Adiaia'* ampla army 

I Tliem ia m anit<lAa>'T aUrni Uu 
Mid ken t«ml«rwl " wahlaiaUhMl. " 
gMM^gUi U woiuu tliai Uiore wan tio 
xm BMk of ii>|KiK BUgl^ whUt at 
other lino il b uMol in ihi wium v^ 

rdtaoilaml amMn|ill>li»t]. IVliaia ■■ 
tJia aMHlara Uauiiiiiru nf dhivalry it 
WQuM ha** beiw rvuJitnal "mum n- 

CUJLX. [.] 



AmU the cram]. Rot wbvn tlw^ came wlme aalinri] UuuiJbTM 

Wu wflBAiled, ftod in dttlo thick 

Aimiiiil liim nil tlio tKilitosit 

Wen ptber'd, and mbUt nf th»in 

Bw godlike tnAn vm ttandiii)i ; 

Pint vooM Uacluum iinll Um alioft 

Fmin tli«wclI'Rttiiig^n!lf, 

But tliat ttie pointed Ittrin were mftpt and tanglad m lie iln** ii. 

Tbon (ran hi> inisl usInjrtvnM h» Um glnllo all vmbniderJ, 

The nuh, and lialdrio ondeneatlit 

VTIiieh nuitli* ol wqipor Inbmir'd. 

Bill vkcn Im «v Uw wonnd, vheniD If^leil Uic ntitieiBg ftmw, 

Ho ntck'd tnm it tii« blood, and apnintl wtUgiii it miki aflnmp?iii«ttta, 

Whidi (riendly-luutad dtinm onoc walo lilt ^ro imparted." 

Tliat MnchaoD, the son of .^sculapius, this kuight "aang 
rejmicJie" was alBO " aana peur " auema plain, from a passnge 
in the eleventh book of the Iliad, in which this mig-lity uiuii 
of war, aa well as medicine, is representtid as stajnnj; the 
ndvanoo of Hector himself and rallying the Greeks in their 
extremity ; and he requires to be disabled by an arrow from 
the bow of the skvdking Alexander, who always plays the 
mean and shabby parts, Hhootiug down heroes fiium behind 
rocks, and running away £cum a personal eacountor. So 
Alexander plants a triple-barbed arrow in Machaon's right 
sliouldt-r, and effectually cripples the hero of Trikka. When 
tlie valorous Ajchatons ^w their defender from Ileetor aud 
their healer of wounds in this sorrowRil plight, they wei-e 
sore afraid lest the tide of Iwittie :fliuidd roll back, and their 
brave champion and tihetAeni of the jieople should be over- 
tftken aud slain : so Iilomtrneu-s cntled out to godliko Nestor, 
who oould be ill-&)ianji] at such a itionient, 

'* Ktator, deleoa' fto^geoj, gnat glory of tbe Auludaiia, 
Haats, mount npon Hty riLnriot : besiile tbm tnka Mnnliaon, 
And qaioUj' to tbe ^Unyi drire tke ungle-fciated tiunea : 
Sonilx a nfct cfatnirKva", skilful to cat out arrov^ 
And ovonpnaul aMiuapweiita indt, Au(A immg fiyhUr^ vtUw." ' 

Keutor did as he was requested, and bore away to the 
Greek t»mp tlie wotmded Macbaon. These arc all the 
> 0i).<:U.Bo«kIV.Utiiwl»ilo31». 




[Omai-. t. 

glimpses we get of tlie mok and esttiniitioii of the iirt of 
inoilicjnc ami itft pmciitionors in titc great paiiornnia tlcpictitd 
by Homer, tlie only exponent we poescss of tlie thought*) 
mid feelings of the Ancient OreekR. It ia impossible DOb to 
be struck with thu contrast that it prraents to the datun nf 
thu juune cIush in Inter &gGs. Tliu liiebtilungcn Lifil timy 
be caUed in a rough way the Huniwic poem of Gennaiiy ; 
it gives almost the only accredited tradltiouB of the pre- 
historic Tcutonio epoch, Jiut m Homer does of a i^orreHpond- 
ing period of the Greek em. Nuw what a miserable posi- 
tion the nHHlicnl men here ocmpy as compared to Mnchaou 
and hia brother I Take for example the fourth adventnre of 
the hero Siegfried, when lie goes ou a cluvabxms errand to 
encounter the Saxou army which is advancing against his 
bout, King Qunther, father of the incomparable beauty 
Krietnhildenj witl» whom he, like all the world, was in love. 
The brave Siegfried accomplished prodigies of valour, and of 
course overthrew the Siucuus, killing hundreds with his own 
hand and taking many wounded prisoners. In Homer's 
lime the}' gave no quarter ; but we have now got into the 
Christian era. Had thii» adventure been conceived and 
narrated by a Greek of the Homeric age, be no doubt would 
bftTC sent out witii it some sUirdy son of i£sculapias to t«nd 
the wounded ; but no auch attendant accompanied Siegfried, 
so that his wounded luul to be taktm all the way Itovk to 
King Guntber's land before their wuundx were drrimi,-'], aiid 
then what an uoberoic posture do the PhyMctans occupy I 

' I>ninUidU0»M Aanta bot Vu r^ 
Won St «• Udte Mha mA te » 


■itwudfcfii^lfDU— if lfc<T and IW bfraa ■lb> UW UUU'* •«>mI ' 

With what iodigDaUoa and Bit»ri!>«h/nMit !•» ()m olhirr 

Chaf. 1. 1 



descendant of .^cula}iiu.s,' and himself a physician, bave 
heard the question proposed by a Frenchman of the st^vpn- 
teentli ceutmy of the ChiiKtian era, *' Is tlie art of medicine 
[derogatory to nobility?" He certainly would not have 
set about proWng that there was no degradation to nobles 
in tlie exercise of the divine art of hetding by citing, like 
the learned interrogator, instaucea to show that there were 
many phyaician-s ranked among the saints, that numerous 
popes, emyjerors, and kings praetiBcd medicine as well ns 
not a few queens and other " Dam€s de qualih','' and even 
Reveral gods and goddesses."' Aristotle, had ho thought 
tlie subject worthy of serious entertainment, would doubt- 
88 have raised some such preliminjuy questions as the 
'■following : — -Is there auy just conception of mans nohilitj' 
that can in any degree, or at any point, clash with the 
proper exercise of aa art which we honour the great gods 
themselves for ha^^Tlg practised t — Is not the highest epithet 
of honour we can bestow upon a man "godlike," or "god- 
bom f "—Do not the eons of the gods take the first rank 
among the heroes — ^tho nobility of Greece t How then can 
dislioiiour o)me from sharing the attributes of the only 
rcoognized fountain of honour ? 

Snch an argument would probably have satisfied both 
tlie reason and the feelings of the Atlieiiiiins nt the time of 
Aristotle ; but it ceased to be suillcietit after the Invaaian of 
Christianity. The first great Christian orator overthrew 
it when, standing upon the vniry ts\)oi where Socrates bad 
stood three hundred years before, he proclaimed to tlie 
inhahitanti of Athens the God whom in ignorance they 
woi'shippeJ, aiid taught tlicm that their fidse gods were 
demons. It could be no compliment to a mail to be told 

* " Arittotle vu t}i« wn of Nioo- 
taoeliiu, ■ dtbcn a( Stn^ra nad 
FlunAba (PlitMtuib) : mi'I KiMinh 
cliu* wu ilMocudod from Nii>ofnaekiU| 

Uiv •on ol AluLauii, lh« ton oS Stea- 
la|iiu>. " — DiogcDP* LA«rtio*, UAiubtail 
l.y V. I) Yonge, B.A., p. ISI. 
■ U CMt, Op. ciL. FreUcv. 



be was descended iu a direct line froiu adfiinou of dubious 
position ia the land of spirits.* 

The promulgation of the doctrines of Cliristianity con- 
verted the Greek mythob(,'y into a denmnology. Heiioe 
the necessity of an entii-ely new source of nobility. Tlie 
purely Christian, view exalted every human being who 
aocept«d the Gospel of Christ into an Iieir of tho kingdom 
of Heaven. Aeeording to it every Leliever held his patent 
of nobility dii-ect fi-om the Almighty. But the great doc- 
trine of humility and the insigniBoauce of niaterinl objccta 
of ambition and desire, as compared to spiritual, was iar 
too repugnant t«> men's pride and habits to obtain more 
tlian very partial, tem]iorflry, itnd llteoretiuil aeceptauoe. 
Beside it rose, or rather had alretidy rison, in stupendous 
magnitude, its permanent antagonist tho worship of strongih 
and foroRj represented by thu Koniaa empire. Betweuu 
these two, Christianity cutting away the ground on wliicU 
she had raised such exquisite fabrics of philosophy and 
poetry, and Rome reducing her sons to slavery, Greece lost 
hur life. 

Tlie life of Greece was distJngnished from that of all 
other nations by having incor[toraCcd into it, as a part of 
its most intimatt! nature, tho clement of art. Other peoples, 
a<t the Itinmns, put on art as oil adurninent to their mature 
power ; as a man in England, who has made his fortime by 
Spinning cotton, orders a Correggio or a Turner, as well as 
B handsome carriage. Bub Uie Greeks were a nation of 
Biiists ; by superioiity in att, whether by the art of tliiuk- 
uig as philosopheni, or of speaking as orators, or by the art 
of medicine as ]>hy8iciaiis, or any other art, an Athenian 
became great in his social and political position. Such a 
oouditiou of society never existed before, and the infitiite 
distance at whicli we in EUigland are at profiuit remuved 

' "Tb« thin^ wbicU tbo (hmtilai toOod/"— S«- fkul'i. lA KpbUc la Uiq 

Cur. I.] 



&om it, may bo (^timuted by tlie fiiot lliat wlieu il wm 

projxjscd to rjiiji»e a t>tatue to Jenner in a couHpicuous part 
of London, tliero -wait a clamorous voice raised against it 
in the HouHu of Cunimons, as if it were absurd to i^Uukso 
insigniilcaiit a pei-»onage as Jenner by tbe side of tlie li^ro 
of Scind. Tliiii conid not have occurred at Athens) in tlw 
time of FcrinleSj or indeed dunng any jHcriod of its oxisl- 
eDoe as a civilized ciipitat. 

This contrast Ls not brought forward to reproach the age 
Vie live in, but on account of its hiHtorical significance, to 
bring into prominent view the £iot that we are even now 
more lloman tlian either Greek or Christian — that force 
and power ai'e our divinities. Hueii a condition may l>e 
the only possible one at present for a great nation, but 
surely thei-e is no offence in hopefully anticipating a futnre 
wliich shaU combine more of the Greek eienitnt of art, and 
be penetrated by more of the CtiriaUau eleiueiit of peace, 
so as at once to repress and reBnc tlie lloman element of 
foroe which now lords proudly over the whole earth, and 
ftoems to defy the Almighty lunia-If to accompliiili hia 
promise of a season of ptrpetual resj>it« from the pressure 
of the iron hand of war, a promise announced at the close 
of the rude Pa^au age, and whose fulUhiient lias been hourly 
expected to commence for nearly two thousand years. 

At this stage of the history of medicine wo encounter 
what the geologists would term a fJudt. There is an 
abrupt tenninaUon of the Homeric era, and all trace of 
medicine is lost for Bevenil hundred years. " Strange to 
say," says Pliny,' "it was concealed in tfiickest nvjhi from 
tlie time of tlie Trojans to tliut of the Felo^M-'uneiuau war." 
Wtien it revisits Oic light, it finds Greece a changed country. 
No longer are the tales about Time being tho yoinigcat son 
of Earth and Huaveu, thenibelvus gods and children of 
Chaas, accepted by the leading intullects among the Greeks, 

< PHn/, lah. SXIX. Cbkp. 1., aoeta ibariscuUl IkMiore tuQM kd ^il»- 
L^awtwl by L« Cttirk, |i. 7S. "A pauuiiwHm klliuii.'' 
tTnjaiilii tvaiiMribiu, rairiuu Jii-tn, iu 


PHACrrnONHKS »K»^»kK hippocrates. 

[Cii*r J. 

but a wl)oUy new order of men hns taken tlie place of the 
old pnot<; — " the wise men " have come on to tlie Btage, 
The l)eauUful snnny-haired boy we left dreaming Iieside the 
great god Neptune, and wat^liing the approach of Aph- 
ritfltto and ApoUo, and enjoying the glorious traii(« of the 
rosy dawn of gciiiias— when all tliat tho eye saw and the 
ear heard was received with delight, and without any dis- 
position to doubt — 'has groiRTi into a young man, hm gone 
to college, has boeu taught to question everything, has 
entered, in short, the age of Scepticism. Still it la the 
same youth, the poet-toy is father of this philosophic nian ; 
there i.i no decline of imagination, but there is a quickened 
faculty of analysis and reasoning superinduced upon the 
primitive exuberant loam of the mind. We now stand on 
the threshold of the scientific era, we can scarcely he said 
to have entered it; for the methods of investigating the 
natural phenomena, whioh were becoming reoognized as 
beiug, at least in some degree, not the immediate actions of 
gods and goddesses, but forces of nature, were too vogue 
to lead to any practical progress : they were gropings after 
another sort of cosmoimnv than tliat of Homer and Hcsiod, 
but purely lentjitive gropings. — "What was the origin of 
all things ? " Water," was the reply of Tbalcs, the oompiinion 
of Solon; "or rather the clement of Hiiidity — always the 
same in its essence, hut capable of assuming an iuSnitc 
variety of forms."' Hia attempts at solving the physical 
problems indicate the name kind of intellectual effort as he 
displayed in a more appraprintc field, when, in answer to 
the question. ** What is ditlictdt ?" he replied, ** To know thy- 
self;" and, "What is easy?" "To ndvls<« annihpr.'^ Tlio 
following paiisage pnwentH ft striking coolrntit between lite 
Greek mind of this and the Homnrie period : '* Ood in the 
most ancient of all things, for he had no birth : tlio world 
is the most beautiful of thinga. for it is the w«rk of i\o^ ; 
phu» is tbe greatest of things, fur it oonUiDs all things : 

* OnU, l)]>. dL Vol IV. ^ M9. 

Ciup, I.} 


intclloct is tlie swiflest of things, for it runs llimtigh every- 
lliing: limo is ilm wu>est of tilings, fur it finds out cvery- 
tbing." The following lines remind one of Goethe ;— 

" It is not taunj woida tk&t rcftl vi&lon prgv«a; 
Bnolhe lalhor onewiM tlinnght, — 
Salaot one worlby oliject. — 
So iball ymi heat Uic cndhait jfnte of rHIj men rc p rorc" ' 

At some tlistanco aflor Tliales came Pytlmgoras, whose 
mind vraa of the saiati com^w^te cliaracier, but »how«d 
evidence of more advanwrnfint. On the one hand, he in- 
dulgml in flpcciilniionH ahout the universe, of Uio mine 
general and altogether unpractical nature as those of 
Hkoles ; wliilc, on the otlica- hand, he applied himself to 
Uia study of geometry, and made some important dis- 
coveries in that scienoe — as, for example, the proposition 
DOW known as the 47th of the 1st book of Euclid, that 
the square of the hypotheneuae of a right-angled triangle 
is equal to the Kquores of the other two sides. He is said 
to have been so delighted with his success, as to have sacri- 
ficed a hecatomb of oxen — a curions illustration of the 
feelings remmniiig in their childhood state after Uie intel- 
lect had attaineil to man's maturity. 

Wliile Pythagoras tended towards the two extremes of 
speculation aliout the world and the cultivation of pure 
fi<aencH, Iiis dfscijjle, Rniivedixjles, seems to have lx>cn among 
the first to t«jucti upon the application of ecieiico to the 
wants of his nfj;e. He was a physician ; and although it 
is more than 2000 years ^noe ho lived, he contrived to 
execute a task similar to one wbic^ at present h pu^Kling 
the ingenuity of modem engineers. "When a pestilence 
attacked the people of Selinus by reason of the bad smells 
arising fixim the adjacent river, so that the men died and 
the women bore dead chil<lren, Enipedoclcs contrived n 
|iliu», and brought into the sanu! channel two other ri*-ers 

' Di«gen. LuTl. Op. eit. p. 19. 



rBLAcnticmM mcvukk si 

[Ou». L 

III Mn ';wn «x(«nM, and no by mixiag Ifllir wftten with 
ItiAb fff Uw bilier rivn-, b« nwetened Uu Hreiun.'" For Uiis 
tlifl |MXi|»lo of HRliniw mloreil lilm tui a f^. If some 
m<rtl'-rri K/dixtUicleN wmM do tlw miui to ibc Tbaiiipe, evcii 
Afc ili<i [HiKllo fxi>vum; no il'titlil. the jmiple of LodcIoq 
WUliM lioiiKUr liiiii AfUtr llivir rnHhion. 

If. is tiii|fDrtAiit tu nota that the voni Pkitonnjihrr was 
aIkiiiI lliU (Htrini) liivfhlrd mul a[>|ilie<l i<> tli« leiidcnt of 
ih'it'V llii<tif(lil.. Tlmlwi tint) Snlori wltl* cnllud " the ■^visc," 
Itiii llwir MwsiJfMitrpi, (Jfih'riij^ lltu rvgioii of jihyaioiil K]iecu- 
IaDuu «ikI ilUcftvory, rM^tfiiiiMMl their own iguoroncc, and 
nAund nny llilu luit tlio ino<le«t ono of *' lovers of wtadoni." 
It WM to tltli olnM of npoculntiotiH nbnut tbo origin of 
t|i« world, UiAi at ibat ttui<* Itie hmw PhUoBopiiy was con* 


Atoiig witli Uw pmgreM of Urt-ck intdloei towards a 
iltwTliiiiiiHiloii of th« pbyticnl cnusi« of uvi>iit3, wo fui<l, 
nut tmimltimll)-, a nuiMTKriAtion on tlic pru1< of some of 
tJinw iMirly Uiinkcn, of nit the old Micfs in the gods. 
TliiiH, fi>r «tnn)|ttf<, Ilin^mm,' cnllf^d tlw AUieist, was once 
M » tevtm wlH>n« tlio fiit> WM VQF}- low, iiiid there was 
nil wood III hoiid ojcoept a sUtue of Hereuks. This 
W piU>lK<d into ibe wauiiig fliunes. and exdaimed, 
" Bmvo, Hcimlm, this is the thirteenth mid last of thy 
UKnirK^'* Wlwt a (UHtaooa we hare now drifted from 
the ttcrmWw <^ HutiKr I We ban anke to Uw bgynnh^ 
of the nodetn m of apefhtioa and inveatifplioa, Ute 
«n of Socnt««> Platos wd— itie Fatixr of Uedidae— 


TriL 11 ^ IM. 




VneiM Hippomitia— liote-ftcknewi 9»emA DLnaan— Prwioro utcl SUrerjr — 
Vav of I'nritj— Hemrala luwl Humonra — Grvek Pbjuca— V-'X^ ^^^ mSfm 
Oh w to- Hading Povor of N*t))T«— Spirit UiuiifefLUtioD*— 1*011 rip )o of tioti- 
ttario— &DfMcB— Ibtbodlsta— gwsLblft STttctn— DogiutiM*— Ailo|alli)r ud 
BcwciwpathT— Ociw«»10al>MP--^to|il«cJ JwriifflBB— Hi8l> ew i ip l i »»t<yrir 
— Bi»lDduotiT« Method— Hi* SoTMnii Di%n)ov— FoQovNAttira— BulvjWftkr 
— fhugic&l Treotoi^nt— A[JMrknu. 

Oy tbe eouib-eaMem coast of Asia Minor, there is a deep 
indentation known by the name, of the Ceramic Gulpb. At 
the entrance of tliis long bfty in the island of Cos. It is 
rather sionUer than the Isle of Wight^ being nineby-fivft 
square ratlat in esleot, and of somewhat the name shape. 
On tbe opposite shore, to tlie right, looking eastwanl, on a 
point of the main hmd, stood its great rival the t^^wu and 

c 2 



[Cbaf. 11. 

tcmplo of Onidus. Cos was a fertile coimlry, carrying on 
on extoiisivL' trade in winQ and ointmente, and maiiuCictur- 
ing a peculiar kind of dreaa wliicb weut by its name [Coa I 
Vestea). Its chief town was beautifiiUy sittiaLed on tlio 
nortli-eaet s'ldo, and li-vi an excellent harbour. In the 
immediiite neighbour] lood etoud tlie Asciepieuin, or temple 
of i5iscul«piuB.' HerB, about the year 460 R.C., were born 
Apelles, tlie greatest punter of his ago — |iossibly of uuy 
age — and Hiyipocrales, the second of liia name, called the 
Great : his grandfather, the first Hippocroten, waa Uio 
grcat-gi-andson of Sostratus tlie Third, whose ancestor, the 
first Sostratus, was the graiidaon of the Homeric hero, 
PodfiUrius, son of ^^cuhipius.* 

AVe may fairly nasunie that Hippocrates and Apelleswene 
early oonipnnionB ; and, powiibly, some of the peculiarities 
of the style of the great physician may be due to the 
inHuence of the great paiiit*-r. TTippocrates' Oescriptivo 
faculty, in -whioh, in hia own department, he has never been 
even appnwiched in excellence, is wholly destitute of literary 
merit. It has the severity of ^ flfiked trutB? ^ He ace a_ffiAth 
the eye of an artbt, but t^-Ils what he sees in the plainest, 
inoBt unartiBtij ijn.ethod. For ex;im]>le. tjiRe lus iticture of s 
dying foce : "a sharp nose, hoUow eyes, cfiI1ap»ed temples ; 
the GAI8 cold, contracted, and their lobes turned out ; the 
akin about tho forehead lieiug rough, distendc<l, and parched ; 
tlie colour of the whole laco being green, black, livid, or 
lead-coloured." This still goes by the name of the fades 
Bippocratica, or " the dying lace, by Uipjincratcs." If wo 
comjMre this picture of a dying man with tiiat drawn by 
Shakesijere, we shall at once ]lcrcl:^ive the points of resem- 
blance and contrast: "After T saw him fumble with the 
sbcetei, and play with the flowers, and smile upon his 

) 8nat]i*B daa^cul DM., ATt. Cob. 

* Tbe gMultie vorki oi lUppoemioa, 
tnuniflU'l bj Fnncu Adiuu, dj^lcii- 
liAMi 80c. |i. 23. Dr. A<laiik« tu hud 

not the prafbaion nlono nf vhich lie U 
•oicniit ui oniuncnt, bnl biun«mt]r it- 
pvlf, lUuUr a <l«bt uf Kratiludu \>s Itk 
luluiinblv rv^ivol vl IlipiiucntiM. 

BM. <M.] 



fuiger-cnd.% I kne^v tliore was but one way ; for bis noae 
was 05 sharp be a [)eu, oud he babbled uf green &ids."' 
Both these pictures give the perma.Dent and oniTersal, 
strip|icd of the accidental ; they hoik exhibit a perceptum. 
of tfie type, which is the first step in art ; but while ilipix>- 
crates contents himself with thia and jots it down, as 
becomes a physician, to os^i him and his foUowcrs in 
recognizing tho indications of approaching death, Sbako- 
tipere oonipletoa it by giving furin and finish to the 
wording, ho as to mtisfy the mind with the picture itselt 

VMicn old enough to go to Hchool, Hip]K>crates was sent 
lo Seliinbiin, iu Tlinicu, on thu cuabt of tk« Propontis. not 
far from where Oonslantinoplc now stands. Here be came 
under tlio tuition and dtscipliuo of Uorodicus, a man of 
gi-eat celebrity in his day, wlio seems to have l)oen the first 
to institute a rcguhir system of exerciso and regimen, not 
uuly for thu use of his pupils, but for invalids. He was 
the Priesnitz of Greece, and as Euch incurred the ridicule of 
Plato,* wlm describes him as sending his patients on a walk 
n-oin Atliens to Megam and bock without a rest, a disianoe 
of fifty-two English miles. Tliia ia probably a caricature. 
He is blamed, however, by Hippocrates — at least, in one of 
the Hi])[K.iiTatic treatises' — for attempting to cure fevers by 
cxerdse ; and Plato hito the blot in the whole system of 
this kind of treatment — no less applicable to the modem 
Water-cure than to the metltod of Herodicua — when ho 
observes,* that this way of going on may do very well for 
rich people, who caa afford to spend their life in tAking 
care of it ; but that when a mason or carpenter fiiUs ill, he 
Bends for a physician to cure bim then and there by some 
immediate expedient, otherwise he must litan'e. Kot- 
witlistanding the objections to the cxtravagana>s of tbit) 

■ DmUi oI Pnbua, Untj V, 

* niAMlTTu, in ]inBci|iio. 

' KoA of Bi-iilcmic*. 


[CB&r. U. 

OynuuujiuDi, it was doubtlcas an cxcolknt training for tlie 
young llippoaates, as his inaatcr iiisiatetl uijoa rigid ab- 
stinence fi-om all deleterious food and habits, 

Aftor leaving Uerodicm, lie went to Qorgins, a celebrated 
orator and philosoplier in Simly, and to Duiiiooriliis of Ab- 
dcra, wlio seenia to have been quite an encydopsedia of 
leai-ning. His knowledge "embraced, not only the natural 
bcicnoes, ntatliematics, mechanics, grammar, muT^tc, and pbi- 
loflophy, but vanous otker u&efiil aria ;"' and be was, besides, 
a founder of an atomic theory, which wc shall have to con- 
sider more in detail in tlio Acqucl. 

Having fimsLed iutt university education^taken hia de- 
gree, as we should now term it, Hippocratfis returned to the 
study of medicine at tlie schools of Cuidos and his native 
Cos ; and in tiioe^bow long it took we can fortn not even a 
conjoctorc — he acquired a reputation as a physician, which 
gradually increased till it ripened into a splendid renown, 
and bore his name over Greece to foreign courts. Pcrdikkas, 
the young king of ilacedonia, was supposed to be dying of 
consumption, and nippocrafce.<t was sent for. After carefidly 
observing the patient, the physician noticed on aggravation 
of tlie febrile aooession every time a certain huly, of the 
name of Phila, in the employment of tlie youth's father, 
approached. Hippocrates pronounced the consump^on to 
be love, and that Phila alone couhl euro him. The iwue 
justified the prediction.* 

It is strange that several of the roost celebrated euros in 
tiisbory should be of a nroilar complexion. Krosiatratus 
detected the love of Antiochus for Stratonike by Uw follow- 
ing device. The young man wa» wa«tifig away, snd no 
one could divine tba cante. Endatnitu jmt liin luuid u|Min 
the chest of the invalid, sod arrang«d Uiot tlM attracUvu 
tttiaidBnUiof the 0i.nurt should file paul blm. Wlmn Hirato. 

DicL. Alt. "Il*- 

^^^^F^*^WbB| VhBv It* 

i.e. 400.] 

Lo^'&slCK:;Gss.-sdCSED disbasbs. 


nike o^peorciJ, tJio heart of Antiochus throbbed so violcutty 
as to reveal the cause of nil his illness.' 

Aviceona, tlie Arabian, is repurteJ to bave guDcd great 
reput^ Then be himitelf was quite a youth, by maldng just 
sueli a hit-* 

If it require such men as Hippocrates and Aviccnna to 
make tlic discover)', there must now be many suflferera from 
this complaint undergoing daily examination i^ath stetho- 
8cope8,aad all tbeiiigt;uiuus tnudem substitutes for tliedisoorri' 
iug eye which sees at a glance what no scJeuoe will ever reveal. 

No wonder tliat, witJi Huch a reputjition, his advice should 
be sought by the Athenians at the time the plague committed 
6udi deadly havoc iji their city. Although tba Cict ia not 
mentioned by the great historian of tbe event, Thucydidea, 
tliere are good grounds for the general belief that Hippocrates 
, mm consulted, aud recommended the lighting of large Hres 
all about the city to stay the progress of the infection." 

By this wo icani what a vast step Iiad boeu made in re- 
cognizing diseaae as a natural result of certain physical 
caiises, not the baneful act of some incensed god or gotfdeea. 
Indeed, in this respect, Tlippocratps wa<» fur in advance, not 
oiUy of [lis own age, LiuL of muc-h later pericxJs. Nothing 
can be more emphatic than his rejeution of supernatural 
influences as causes of any diaeii.^ whatever. 

We may take, as proof, what lie siiys uf Epih'iwy, w!iich, 
from its mysterious character, was called par e.£ceflence " the 
^«icred diseftM." * " It is thus with regard to the disease 

I Plvlanh, (iooImI by Bpreugvl, Vol. 

I.. ^ S40. 

■ S|>ms«l. To)- [I*, p. 4Q0. 
' Oilea i*>7*> ^u wiMvl iiwd fnr iha 
(Ira* t** uf an amuiftllc kiiul, piaimbly 
MHie iiiucicB of pine. 

* AreUniB givM Uie ftiltoiriny explft- 
I tanitok 0I the craUicl in hU CbapCer 
■on Kpiltfa; : — "Than 'u a ton of ig' 
\tMai03, iM, in lu clMraoter, for It 
tpmu b) attack Umm who aStatl th« 

' laertii,' u it lahf \it from ntko* 
mnrooi. «!tbcr tnm if iiia4Riitu4c (f':^ 
what k prwl Is forrtd), or Itdih lliu 
ritm lint Iwiii^ in liiu |ai««>r nl nion, 
tint at (Joil, or fruni tJic nuLiun tlot a 
detuou hail pubireil iiitu tlie (latiFUt, 
or (nni mil put bi|Rither, tlinl il Iim 
b«i!n BO coUaU." ~~ AnUMM on tlie 
Okuna uul Sijiiu of AtM* or Omnie 
DImmv. Tnulalwl from Uiu (irvek, 
hj T. F. lUy&pIda, M.B.. IS37, p. S3. 



[cu4P. n. 

called sacred ; it apfKATB to mo to be in nowise morti 
divine or more cfacred tliiui otlitir dlseasee, bat Las a uataral 
cause from which it originates, like other affectiims. Men 
regard itB nature aud cause a^ divine from i^ionuioc, and 
wonder because it is uub at uU Idee other diseases . . . 
Bub if it is to be rixki>nod di\-ine because it is wonderfal, 
instead of one there are many diseases which would be 
■acred . . . And they who first re&rred this disease to 
the gods appeared to me to be just such persons as the 
conjui'ors, niountebiinka, and cltarlatnua now are, who give 
thumstilves out fur being excessively religious, and as know- 
ing more than other people. Such persons, then, using the 
Divinity as a proiuxl and screen of tlieir own inability to 
afibrd any assiutaucu^ have given out that this uiiKtajw is 

In anotlier place, R[>caking of an afledion pecuUar to the 
Sc}-thians, aud wliich they attributed to a god, he observes : * 
" To me it apjiears ihat such atff ctions are just as much 
divine an all othci's are, aud that no one disease is cither 
more di'vine or mora human than another ; but ail are alike 
divine, for each has its own nature, and no one arises without 
a natural cause." 

What a sad oontrasi to this true and admirablo cxposi- 

Uon of the causes of disease do we find in the writings 

of some of the most justly venerated Fatliers of the Churcli 

who lived five hundred years later than Uip|>ocratcs. " It 

is demoius" 8*^8 Origen, " whicli produce fainino, unfrui^ 

fulnciis, corruptions of the air, and pestilenoe. They 

hover, concealed in clouds, in the lower atmosphere, and 

are attarcted by tbe blood and incense wltich Uie heathen 

offer to them aa gods."' "All dtavnaus of Christians," 

enys Angustin, " ore to be aiwribed to those demoDS : 

chiefly do thry tonnent frf-wh-lwptiw-d nirintinns, yea I 

even the guiltleaa naw-lioni Inlanti."* 

•■ Adu»' Ui|4wc_, Vul. II |>. aa. " 11. ff. TAft. 

> OyL(«L,Val. I. ■•. aid. *Aa|piiUn,(leni*tnit I}anioii.,c S, 

* thi|pa, maM CkUum, Ul*. Vtl. |>. 371 n|>m«»l, \<il II , t>. Sku. 

».a i(M.] 



Besides being mu^lit Tor by tlie republic of Allioiia, to 
which be doubtless wns pivud to render any aid be oould, 
Hippocrates -was invited by tbe great King of Persia, but 
refused to go. Tb«r8 seents uo reason for disbelie^-ing 
this ; it rests upon resjiectiible testimony, and is qiiito iii 
accordance with the practice of the Persiau uiynmidi 
and the sentimeuts of On.>ck pbyHicions. For oxunipk^ 
thei-e exists a veiy carious correspondence betweat King 
Darius and Heraclitus of Kpbesus. The royal misaix-o 
ruua thus, after a flourish : — *' King Darius, the son of 
Hystaspes, wishes to enjoy the benefit of hearing you dia- 
course, oud uf receiving some Grecian instruction. Cume^ 
tht-rcfore, quickly to my sight and to my royal paloco," Sx. 
To wbicli tiio rfs|>ondc3it, without a word of thauka, 
replies, " I will uover come to Persia, since I am quite oou- 
tented with alittlc, and Uva as best suits my own inclina- 
tion." ' 

Tliat Hippocrates woa of the same mind may bo 
gathered front various passages of bis works. For ex- 
ample^ when ^xiaking of tho diflcrcnoo between tho 
Asiatics and the Greeks, ho says ; "For ihcso rerusons it 
op]>ears to me tho Asiatic race is feeble, and, further, owing 
to their laws ; for monarcliy prevails in tho greater (uirt of 
Aida ; and wheu uien are not their own masters, nor indo- 
pendent> but ore the slaves of others, it b not a matter of 
eoii-sidcration wth them bow they may ooqiiiro tnilitoi-y 
di!<(:i])line, but how they may seem not to be warlike ; for 
the dangers are not e(]ually shared, since they must serve 
as soldiers, perhaps endure fatl;^c, and die fur their 
masters, far fi'om their cliildreii, their wives, and other 
friends ; and whatever noble and manly acUons they may 
perform lead ouly to tho aggrandisement of their masters, 
whilst the fruits which they rciap are dangers and death."* 
What a noble picture of a free t>ver a slave State I No 



[CiAr. II. 

■wonder that the mind whidi conceivej it should revolt 
frum the idoa of serving a tyrant !' 

It was proliiibly a profound respoct for nicuUi] and mora] 
ns well as jx.'liticsU liberty that kept Hippocrates free from 
the Hliglit&'^t Uiint of priestly Hssumpiion in circumRtiuiccji 
which would have made it iilinost ptLrdonable. Altliougli 
be waa of the order of priests, bora and bred iu the 
temple of the god from whom he was WHeve«I to be de- 
scended, and himself reverenced as a divinity, yet, atninge to 
nay ! all Ills writings are cliaraet<!rizud by wontlerfiil modesty, 
•and hifl claims to credit invariably rest upon appeals to tlie 
reason, and n ever either to tbo pawi ona, o r to re«i)qct_for 
blmd autbority Indeed, the most et riking feature of this 
great man's mind was/Comrnon -sense.' j We may hc-sitatc 
io award him tlie attribuic of geninx — certainly ho is not 
pre-oiuiueut among men of genius ; and if wu compare his 
writings with thoae of Bucon, for example, we feel dis. 
apyioiiit<;d at the al>sence of this quality ; but fur si>nsR, at 
leasts be etjuals Btieon, or perhaps any man that ever lived. 
Uippocnites had tlie , sense to aee throuph the supei-stitJoo 
of his age, and the more imcontmon sense to let it alone, 
testifying, by his speech and life, to the truth ho iKJieved in, 
and leaving to otbers the espoaure of errotfi. It was his 
common-sense that led liitn to give such miauto details of 
bow the physician, should conduct himself, even to tho 
arrangement of bi-s dress. " Tlie robe," he says, wimn 
dcRcribing an operation, " ia to be thrown in a neat and 
orderly manner over the elbows and shoulitcre, equally and 

■ Is cur ovB daji wi \unt had ui 
emopla oi r eekliTMcd Ktolcfnst rt- 
fiubig Io ntuni bmn Auerica, UIs 
adopted, Ui FfMiee^ lu« nAtirv eaaRtiT, 
altliuugti l«iii|4«<l lijr k |jnrauiial knil 
BftU«riiiK fti'iMTkl from lli« Bmperor Kin- 

' Tint tocm oomiaoB-wnM U vtleii 
vndentiml u WiiqE «<|uifaleDt to "tbe 

anrtfo amount ol intelligniicc." in- 
Ktcad of reprwcntiuB. tm h Uoui, tbc 
temvt ntniMwnu, ot uiUTijreiJ fanilty 
of aftuvliuixlinn trut.ti, hj lui inttiitivu 
prwoetu, anil jiTonuuuduH aa infallilile 
jvilgneiit uyaa otctt pruininuion tWL 
coma lesltirafttol; vitliin tlie ipliri^ at 
ita jurwliMi(ui.~8oe Sir W. UoaiU 
tgo's uditioo of Reid. 

B.O. 460.] 



fiyraroetricnl!y."' Here we get a ^impao of the ck^rntit 
aDcl fastidious Oret^ grooeiiil in figure, DiovcuKot, tlrcsa; 
and language. 

Tliia fine attention to decorum of a ttire is a nntnnil 
attendant of the high sense of moral puritj- ^lucU Hippo- 
crates inculcated in~his writings and displayed in bis life. 
" 1 Bweai- by the physician, Apollo," — bo runs the vow wliicTi 
be exacted from the aspimnt to the miniatty of the tempts 
over which he presided — " and -lilsculapius, and Hyytoa, ntid 
Panacea, that, according to my ability, i will keep this oath 
and this stipulation .... I will follow that system of 
i-cgimen which, according to my ability and judgment. I 
consider for the benefit of my [tnttents, and abstain from 
whatever is deleterious and misciiievous. I •wiii give no 
deadly meditnne to any one if a-sked, or suggest any such 
counsel .... With purity and holiness 1 will pass my 

life and practise my art Lito whatever houses I 

enter, I will go into them for the beneGt of the sickj aud 
will alwtain from every voluntary act of mischief and cor- 
mption ; and fiirtiier, from the oeduoUon of females or 
malcK, of freemen or slaves. Whatever, in connection with 
my professional practice, or not in connection with it, 1 see 
or hear in the life of men which ought not to be spoken of 
abroad I will not divulge as reckoning that all such should 
be kept secret. WTiile I continue to keep this oath invio- 
late, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice 
of the art, respected of all men in all times ; and should 1 
trespass and violate this oath may ihe reverse be my lot"' 

If the respect of oil times be a voucher for the fidelity 
with whicli this vow was kept by its framcr, no man has a 
better claim than Hippocrates to the Homeric epithet of 
" the unblemished." Yet, strange as it may appear to 
those unr«ad in thehwtory of medicine, not even the reputa- 
tion of Hippocrates saved him from an accusation, invented 



ICtut. II. 

by tbo malice njiJ jfolousy of his profi?s^ionnl enemies, of o 
urinie of aluioet incredible enormity, taldng oU the cii^cum- 
stancea of the case into consideration. They accused faini 
of having set fire to the librarj- of the Teiuple of CnJdus 
after lio had extiTictcd all its treasures. According to this 
Ke&ding of his character, he was base enough to purloin 
all that was valuable from a rival adiool for his owu 
milfish pur])ORe ; and to tlicll he added the crimes of Bocri- 
lege and arsun — iu Mhort, that ho was a uuscreant whost- 
career would have tenninatcd on a fraJJows, had he not saved 
hia igiiottiinious life by a timely ilighi.' This may be a 
leesoQ to ua not to ]>laco iuiplidt couildence in tbe aocusa- 
dons that rivals of the present day are in the habit of 
proetaiming against those who have tbe courage to avow a 
beliuf iu uicdical novelties, especially if such novelties should 
have tJie unpardonable sin of popularity. 

The oharactcr of Hippocrates, his political opinions, and 
Lis social position, are comparjitively easy for us to a])pre- 
ciate. It is much more diificult to represent, wit h .any 
accuracy and distinctness, bis notions about physical and 
motapt^'sLcul snl^fiiiB ; we combine 1E1jb^wo7 for it'Wiis not 
Uie way Iu his day to sepanitu them. Froiri his own 
writings it would be iuipossible to obtain materials for a 
juat ooncc}itiou of liow he dealt with those problems, and 
we are conipcUod to grope our way by tlie side-lights — 
faint enough — of Ids oonteraporaries and immediate prcdc- 
oessors and successors. Here we encounter the ditCcuIty 
of delineating a mist or vapour. We can get no distinct 
outlines in ancient physics. It is very diificult to apprehend 
the ideas of Aristotle upon this subjeet, and even ho — the 
most scioDiific mijid of his, or perhaps any age — is obscure 
when ho treata of matter. Tltc notions of this great 

' riinj, «'liaseonutabo()ii:|7Mit«rt 
ul litcnuj ff^moMlut, tMUtlou ibc 
«toi7 witlivut* token of ilbWUvf. IU«. 

Nkt. .VXlX.,nlfir»4ltot>7SpivD£dAniI 




Uiinker seem to be, thai tliere nro two fimdjunental ooncep- 
tJons about existence of aiiy kiiid, tiie one — existence pos- 
sible, the other — existence actual. The first is what we may 
coU the mw material— prlniicviil matter, ilevoid of all quali- 
ties, and without form ; the ecoond is what we may call 
formative force, by which the poesible is oonverfced into Itio 
setoal.' The machinery by wlucli all that is actual is 

liaised nut of this passive ocean of the [losaible, according 
to the Pythagoreans — and their doctrines lield Bway pcno- 
raJly on this subject with slight modificatioos — was what 
tiiey caUed '* the contraries ; " — these were heat and cold, 
dryness and moisture. But these oontraries oould not 
reside in mere formless matter ; something more defiitite 
was required. Hence they arrived at Fire, Wnter, Air, 
and Earth, the four Elements Eamiliar to us at the present 
di^.* Such is probably something like the general coq> 
oeptaon of the nnivcrsc held by Hippocrates, although it is 
not unlikely ho may have accepted some of the notions 
of his teauher, Democritos, wliich were a sort of dim ante- 
type of what in modeni pliiloeopby is known as the 
fttomic theory, bat which bear a nearer resemblance to 
" the Vortices " of Descartes. " Atoms and vacuum 
were the banning of the universe," according to De- 
mocritus. "The atoms were infinite in magnitude and 
number, and were borne about throu«;Ii the universe 
in endless revolutions. Thus they produced all the 
combinations that exist — fire, water, air, and coi-th ; for 
that all these tilings are only combinatioas of certain 

.atoms, which combinations are incapable of being eSect«d 
"by external circum stance!*, and arc unchangeable by reason 
of their solidity."' This theory of atoms, in constant 
revolution in oil simce and in oU bodies, is one which we 

• The BUilw ttt Arutotif, Uliutniad 
w tUi BiMjn uid Kous, by Sir A. dnnt. 
V«l. L, p- 1»- 

' Ooellw Laoaac nn tba CiuTaM^ 
qugWd tjj Ailowa, p. 133. 
1 Did^B. Lani., p. SUt. 



rCuir. II, 

shall find turning iij> so frequently iti a vai-iety of fonns 
in medicine, that it i» of prroat iotercst and iuiportanco to 
be acqoainted with tlie exact form the idea is said, by the 
earliest writers, to bave assumed in the mind of itfl original 
pTO|Hmnder. In tbia vmy wc may avoid one great soui-ce 
of historical error, which consists in tHidng for identical, 
opinions of different ages whicli happen to go by the same 
name. To wliat ejctent Hipfiocmtea agreed with ordiflerod 
from the pbiloftopbem of his age, in rwi>ect to the guneral 
theoricA of the origin of matter, we cannot form even a 
conjecture ; bnt we know from various passages that he 
held fiume doctrine of elements, and probably it was the 
one commonly received at the time. The foUowing quota- 
tion' Galon ooiinidera to be from a genuine treatise : " In 
the universe there are four elements — fire, air, water, and 
earth ; and in the living body, there are four humours— 
blaek l/ile^ yeUmi- hiif., htnod, mid pUejjm. Out of the 
eceeeag, or titjivieiicy, tm mi^projxyriion of Uiese four Am- 
moura then ariw diseoHeg , by restoring the correct pro- 
partuyn, r/tj*ea*<?* are cured." ' Here we have the fir«t 
exposition of tlic great doctrine nf tlie h iiiuonrB; a doctrine 
which has, more than any other or all othei-K put together, 
afiocted the development of medicine as a practical art. 
It in, as we aee, of as purely bypnthetical an origin as that 
of the four elementa, and as unworthy of reliance in the 
treatuient of diafinsea, aa the other in ilie ounstnictiun of nill- 
vaye ; yet it is by no means altogether exploited even now, 
and both in the popular and professional mind exerts a 
powerful influence in perpetuating the reign of purgatives. 
How directly this hypothcais affected the practice of Hip- 
pocrattrs, M'e may illusti'ute by a sentence from Ids treatise 
upon tlic foo<l proper in acute diseases. Speaking of an 
acidolated drink, he says, " In a word, the acidity of 
vinegar agrves rather wltti those who arc troubled with 

■ On Uw If &ian uf Man. 

» Spnngcl, V«L I., p. S77. 




bitter biK than vhh thow vbow bile '» bbck; lor tBa 
bitter -pnnofit is dimolvad in i( and fhrnad Co jsUa^ bg 
heiuff Mmtpmdni «• it"' TUt m, tbm ia • rertocatiaii 
of the bah&oe of the hma/mn, hy the coawB W oa of jdlow 
bile into pUegm. Tim even Ute wise, emtioM^ prMtaeal 
pftdksopfaer IB VDaUe to Titfaaiud aliogetiMr Un hiflaniw 
of preraiSiig opiznoB. 

Tb« iDaoeBncT of the Gmk nodona npoa pbydcs was 
mnng to 1^ ■baewiw of ntttoials on wfcocb to anploj 
Uieir &ealtia of obaerrmiaaD and lefledwa, not to may 
defect of meaul power. Tb^ bul jnat emergied froin Uie 
** dim valer woedd " of TbaJe^ and with nooeriuii itepi 
bqpn to explora tbe nafgin of the diy kad. No fisoe 
of nwcnhliini advuEteed Ibem over tbe «ariaoe of tbe eulb. 
Tbej coaM and d*d disoover all tbe properties of drdes 
•od iriangk* with, or even wiiboot, the fadp of a [ueoe of 
cbaOc and a board. Tbeir gucoelry exerciieB the tDlellects 
of oor own di^, but tJicdr knowledge of gK^rapbj ww 
tAmtmt notiuBg. No amooai of Hi in king ooold ever in- 
form tfanu tbat tlier* exirted racb a plaoe as Britain : to 
know of it aitd its ahxpe required that Mther one of them 
■bonld go tliitber, ur a Briton ooma tbenee to tcU ihem 
about tt^ Before tius was poaBJUe^ a tbooaand diaooveriea 
cofUkected with navigation >iad to be made, and Time was 
one of the ■*—■"■*■ p e quir ed Sat the solution of racfa {mo- 
\ikmm. Hie vagnenea^ then, of the Greek phymcn, was 
tbe necowary remit of tbe period in which tbe early phi- 
loaopben lived ; not of a diflicaltj inlierent in tbe tmbjoct. 
It is tbe revcne with metapbyaical speculations. We know 
tbe relatton between uiind and matter no more than the 
Grceka ; we have tbe sune data as they had ; knowledge 
hare ia not enmnlatiye; no amount of railway Joame^'s, or 
electric tekgraphs^ or stearo printing, or even parliiunen- 
tary debates, ilieds one ray of additional ligbl u|K)n ilie 

•■ IfitPK-t P- W2- 



[CUu-. II 

questions which nvery thoiiglitful man asks, "Wliat iu tlm 
soul ? Aniere does it resitltj i Uow does it act upou ttie 
body, and tUo body on itJ" These questions are jiiBt aa 
lilicly t(t Im) witiely aiiswerad by Aristotle as they would 
now be by a Prime Minister of England or the President 
of the United States of America — the two most enlight- 
ened nations in the world, in their own opinion. 

Let it not bo supposed that we can give the quea- 
tion the go-by a.s ha\'ing nothing to do with medicine; 
the notions which pravailed about the soul have had 
onomious iniluenco in modifying both medical theory and 
practice, from the earliest to the latest times. We nuLst 
gmpple with the difficulty, and tlio sooner the better, for 
it is tdnipler in the first tliiui in the latter stages of its ex- 
isteiio& Historically, therefore, we are bound to examine 
these notions, and to ex]>ound them as best wc can ; but 
in our attempts we are eiuljaiTjissorl by the wont of 
projier lau^^uage ; we have no c^pnjssions iu the Euglish 
tongue which exactly correspond ^^-ith the woi'ds in con- 
stant use among the Oi-ecks, and winch have given their 
names to ecliools and sciences. \Vbat ai*e we to uuderstaiid 
by ^fx^ (psyche) a^dirvtvfiai — from the fonnerof which 
wo derive Psychology, &om the latter, Pneumatics — two 
very distinct 6])heres of science, and yet the two words at 
the time of Hippocrates represented ideas by no means so 
dissimilar (u; wo should suppose from their subsequent 
derivativis. We caiuiot suj>gest a better explanation of the 
meanmg of the word ^i^ than that given by Sir A. 
Qnmt, in the following paisnge of his clear and able 
treatise, to which we have already referred': — "If we 
ask now what were Aristotle's opinions as to the nature of 
the human soul, as {ar as they iufiuenced his ethics ? wc 
are met at once by a difficulty. For the Aanstotlejan wonl 
^vxv ^*^'^ [let exactly correspond with our wonl Suul. 
' (tout'c Aiiit(-tl<', |< 2$(!. 

W.O. itO.] 



It implies buth mcffe am) lesa More, as having on oiie 
eidu, at al) events, a r]iix>ctly pbysical cO[U)«clion ; less, M 
DOl in itself implying any religions associntions.' Wo 
cannot tmnalate irvx^} ' vital principle,' because Uionj^li it 
ia this, it is a great deal b«side ; nor ' mind,' becoii-se thi» 
would leave out as much at the one end as the former 
tronslatiuu did at the other. Ln shorty we cannot irandaie 
^nr^7 at all ; we can only see what AnstotLu mt:aut by it. 
He meant (advancing, as he shows us, from the more or 
less distinct viewit of his predecessors), in the iintt place, 
to oonoeivo of the "^vx^, ^ n vital pnneiplQ maaifesttog 
itself, ^ in an ascending scale, through v^ctable, ammal, 
and human life. . . . Anstotle doubts, but nii the 
whole concludes, that the i/ry;^^ is the proper subject of 
physical science.' This lie justifies by the fact,^ that tli6 
physical phenomena, anger, de-sire, and the like, are insepar- 
able from the bodjf and Scorn mateiial considerations. 
'The -^vxi).' says Amtotle, 'is to the body, as 
form is to matter,' as the impression to the wax, as sight 
to the eye, ... . it is the e^cUnf^ t/ie fitialt aiul 
the formal cause of the bmly . . The ^j^ 

therefore, is inseparable from the body, at all events, some 
of its parts, if it be divisible. Nothing, however, binders 
that some of its porta may be separable from the body, as 
not being actnalitit-s of the Iwdy at all. Moreover,* it is 
not oertuin whether die ^if)(^ 6c not the adualUy of ilie 
body in the mnw way timt the milor U of the boat.' " — 

It is not easy to form a definite notion of Aristotle's 
idea uf tliis ifru^^. But we do not find later writers a bit 
more dear ; in fact, tiie subject docs not admit of definite- 
nesa ; it is in its nature beyond the limits of linear conoep- 

* Sordgr, "nljtfiou to tb* nparna- * Da AnimA. n. It. % 

fausl'* woulil IjcBUuni Mirw-t pLi>M: * Do AaiiuL I. L 18. 

ior ibe vArd *'*(ia1'' (Inra tiol iiwo*' ' ]In AniinL I. i. II, 

Mrilf inplr the OMcefnioii of obU- ' D* AainUL 11 IT 7. 

KiiioB to It DiTfai* Bfritif, vhkh the * Do itvamk. IL i. IX. 



[CnAT. IL 

tions. &IiUou proWbly had thetie p4issages of Aristotle in 

his minJ when he ^^Totc ; — 

'* Suin ti|tbl M aeoeanrr U Ui tifv, 
An<l ■Ininrt lifo itMli. if it ba troo 
TLnt 1vsl>l U lu tha iviil, 
Thi ali im er*ry part." ' 

And hure we asct>nd anolher step which idenliiies the '^tr^g, 
or tha Houl, with life, or Uio vital principlo. 

" And the Lord God formed uian of tlie dust of the 
gpimnd, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ; 
and man became a living soul."* We are here introilaced 
to another element in addition to body and soul ; we have 
" the broatli of life," or the living or vital breath, or jftieumot 
or Hpiril. What lUo exact ufficu huld by pneuma, or spirit, 
WAR in the opinion of the ancients, it ia very ditRcult to 
deternnnc ; it was in some way Rasential io life. " The soul, 
^v^i), s1ip[K-d into the body along with the pueunin," ' 
according to some Hippocratic fcreftUs^ According to tlie 
Stoica, " lite soul la sensible, and is a spirit wliich is bom 
witli us ; consequently it U <i body, and continucH to exist 
after doftth." . "Tlie soul is a wanu spirit 

(or t*uouma) ; by il ve have our breath (or life), and by it 
we are moved."* Sleep, according to Plato,* is the re- 
Uxeit teonon of thu pueuraa — tlte liluckvned speed of a train 
when some of tlie steam is let off; d«ath its entire c eooa 
tiou— tfao train ^stopping when there is no more steam 
to be liad at. alt, tlio fuel exhausted, tlie vital breath no 
longer goMnUad. Aooonlijig to Krasiabmtus this pneuoui, 
or spirit, is doable ; the one divisioa occupies the Im-nst as 
the breath of life, or vital air ' as wv iwir call it ; the other 
iDhabits the brain as the aoul^ipirit.' 

PriMi*. v<i. 1^ Ml 


■.It. 400.1 



PerliAps the Euglisli woi'd wliicli would best reju-esent 
cither ^^u^^tf or -jrvivfia, is one of most mifortunHte associ- 
ations — Ghost. Ghost is tho Saxon rendering of tJie Lntin 
Spirit and tht* Greek Pneuina — (yet how difierent is a trea- 
tise on Gtio»ts from one on PueumaticD '). In our Eughali 
Bible, the tcnns Holy Spirit and Holy Ghnst are used indis- 
ctiininately ; and when we ooinpftre tlm notious of the 
Greeks a>xiut spiritis w« shall find tliem to be exactly those 
ent^Ttftined by ghoRt believers in the pi^jsent day. Tliey are 
visihlo and inipa]pable, to be »een and heard, but nut to be 
touched. Thus Achillea, having been favoured with an 
interview by Patroclus, after that hero had b«n slain by 
Hector, makes a speech atuL 

** HiU baiiDg uJiJ. witli kviufii hnmla hv (troMi'tl him to htrocliis, 
Tint fnil'd to fnirh liim J for till gliMt, Ilk* uiMik« to naXaa iafsnial, 
Blmkinj) ilopMtoJ." 

"Alas, poor Ghost ! " exclaims Unnilct, when bis father 
makes a soniewliat similar and hasty exit. 

Achilles, too, philcwophizea upon ghosts, and observes: — 

" Vt (pirit* I tkon within t)i« nnrU of Aldm rmufMb 
A tent itod imagr, fvl witliin muitiag ia aeiu« entirely.'' 

B)* the last phrase is meant, of course, tKit it cannot lie felt — 
Uiat it produoeH no sensation. The conception of gliosto or 
spirits thufl exhibited by Hotner and Sliakspere, is like that 
expressetl by Mr. Tennysoi] ; at the same time somewhat 
lilfercnt from it. For example, let U3 compare with the 
^|Ni8&age ju8t rjuoted the fnllowing lines : — 

Ko R]<irit CT«r l^iiiio tbe \axiA 
Tlial KtAfi }iiro from the utlvc luxl 
Vhc» lint ba wmlk'd wlien cluiiit in clay T 

Ka >UubI ftliiukt of aome one Imt, 

Itut ht, the t^ril Mnuflf, tii«]i «aiiM 

Vlien til the nens of Hou b numb: 
RjMl » spirit, 0t<ax to (hart." * 

And at another part of the same poem, he .«ay3 : — 

" CDUf, bcwitoom in tliine a/far /arm." ' 

■ la MtmcrUin, xcL ' IK. Ixulx. 

n 2 



[Ojur. II. 

It is very rctuflrkflble, and shows how etiliivly Lanva is 
lilts fidJ of Hpecuktion, thai from Uie time of Hrtiner to ike 
present (Uy there hns uot Ueeri the ali^'Iitest ]>TO^i-e«j in a 
physicftl theorj- of ghosts. They ]iover Rtili in a miH region, 
between earth mul heaven, ef|iiaily disowned by both. 
They are uo part of either religion or science, and yet tlifir 
very tenacity of life, siidi as it is, gives them a certain his- 
torical importance. It is much easier, however, to imagine 
iliseuibuOied upiriU, lh:u) it is to I'ealize einbotlii^d tmes ; 
that ifl, what the Hpirit, ghost, pneuaia, or vital principle 
does in the body. Out of the body it represents the 
perished teuement, 

It was ri^ht mid natural for the great and unfortunate 

Raleigh to write : — 

•* Ho, vmi t tha body's gnmt, 
t'i>oti ft tluti)tl«H emuMi : 
Fuiu- not to toDcli tlie Lot, 
The Tnitb dtail be Uij wuTUit." 

VEk so\i\, or spirit, vits to represent him afle]- his death. 
This is legitimate enough ; but we come back to the ques- 
tion, what does ii do in the body ? 

To get a satisfactory reply to this we must go back 
to the notions the ancients entertained of where the 
Boul, or spirit, came firom. One of the most provaJont 
theories^ — a parent spring of subv;quent speculation and 
belief — on this subject was, that tlie ori^'iri of ttie 
■world was God, or eterual fire ; that this universal and 
intelligent principle of heat and light penetrates all matter, 
acting upo'n it aooonling to fixed laws of growth and decay; 
that ibe soul or spirit of man is a portion of this everlasting 
llame, inliabitinga body, which it preaidee over, and i^njartis 
from injury to the best of its ability ; and that it "although 
untaught uad uninstructed, doe* what it proper," to euro dis- 
euses wliich befall tlie l>i«ly. Thus "nature," or this inlcHi- 
gent soul of tJie world, b the pliysiiiian <»f iliMJuxM.' lUiieu 

> Ccliat. lib. I., rn-bmt. 





comes the term "vis medicnliix nnLui-xo," tlio healing power 
of nature, derived, as we aet*, from a |}iiiitlieistic tlieory 
utterly n-pugiiant to science, and yet pni-TuIcd with n, certain 
l^isfuclo-jtietiKtical air by WTiters of llie present day, who 
would be greatly shoeked at being suiiposed capable of pro- 
iiting heretical, to say uothiiig of blasphemous doctrines. 
it it not Ik> thought that we have here to do ouly witli an 
errooeoua and antiquated mode of expressiou, ati when we 
Bpeak of the sun's journey round the cmth ; and that all 
that is niennt by the licnling power of iitittire is, that the 
tody tends to recover from dise««« witliout the iulervention 
of haman effort or skill. This is not the case : we have in 
titis plirase the perpetuation of one of the most uiifiehievoaa 
figments that Liive ever retarded the i) of science. 
Bonic-times it takes one name, sometimes another ; now it is 
Pneumo; by-and-by, it will be Aruhniua; then Vital Principle; 
but at bottom the idea conveyed by these various expres- 
sioas is identical — that there is a aoniething, different from 
the immortal soul ontltc one hand, an<l the nioi-tal bo^Iy on 
the other, endowed with intelligence and oi>pointed uh a sort 
of inteniul guardian angel to avert dangers and cure the 
-tnaladies of the body over whicli it pR-sidcs. Now if this 
^angel be Hujiposed to bea diitut emanation from tliu Almighty, 
the notion is impious for it lands ua in tlie conclusion that 
the representative of Omnipotence is subject to oontinuni 
defeat nnd overthrow by the most paltry caiiBCs. It is a 
reproduction of Urt gods of Horner, witliout their power 
or dignity. ]f, on tlie other hand, there is no such claim 
made, then Uie hypothesis is simply uimeoe:^8fl.ry. u»e.lesa, 
absurd, and oppased to uU scientific progress ; fur it intro- 
duces \nUt evt-ry problem connected with the restoration of 
the healtli of an animal the unknown quantity z, as a 
co-operating cause witti or against the phytuciiui, according 
US he takes a right or wrong view of a he is treating. 
For example if tlie body be aU<ickc<l with apoplexy, and 



[Cbu. U. 

if this inteUigeDt guardian spirit be so instruetf^l by direct 
revelatioD as to know tbat bleeding h mi^^hitrvous, then 
wben the lancH is plungctl into tbe vein it will fttrive to 
reatrain tbe flow of tlie vital fluid; and aguu, if it knows 
that a copious nweaf is, salutary iu fever, we aball faav« 
its efi*ective ocMiperation when we ^ve a potaenfc a drop of 
Aconite. Thus it will uNcillaut for and agattiut the (flbris 
of the medical operator, and make all positive obeerva- 
tions upon the effects of drugs in dUeoM an impossibility. 
We have fteen a revival of something of the kind, in 
the niDdem Spirit-rapping ; and by the caJm ubeerver 
the idea of disembodied spiriU aflocting physical cliangea 
is ntjccted ou this ground, titat if such undt^ierniinable 
agencies were at wurk, their prej>euce wuuld frustrate 
all caloulations of engineent, who, if thty failed in any 
attempt^ would only have to lay the blame upon countei^ 
plotting spiritu i and if we oticv admit such agents at all, 
ve go bock at one k-ap into tbe dark ages, and have old 
women galloping past express trains on tb«ir brooinstidcs ; 
and when wc are " dead asleep," we shall find ourselves, likn 
the crew in tbe "Terapesti" " all clapped under hatches, where 
with litrange and several noises of roaring, Ehrieking, howl- 
ing, jingling chains, and more diversity of sounds, all 
horrible," we shall be awakened to be tormented or amused 
aoconiiug to the accidental suprc-macy of faataintic or ma- 
lignant spirits; and a "Midsummer-Night's Dream" will 
become a waking reality. 

Hic only reason why tbe Bcnlence of lianishment 
passed years ago upon spirits, as active agents in the 
ordinary affairs of life, was not rigorously applied bo 
those supjxised to exert a power over living bodies is, 
that there is an undefined sense of mystery about lift*, and 
this mysterious sentiment naturally n.ss4X'iaics itself with 
tbebu|ifma(.urttl, aud ha«a sort uf gratiticutiou iu tbe region 
ofgb'tets aud demons ; but if we subject the idea to a rigid 

thv. HQ.} 



exuninatinn, we shnJl discover that there is no moiv niystf^ry 

iu the gixiwth of a man^ or a horse, or a tree, tbaii of a 

rode ; rather there Is as much mystery in botb — it is alt 

nyster)'— the mystery being represented in one word — Force, 

That is, aud whence oonieii Force ? Tliis is tlie ultunato 

'mystery, the starting point of all speculatious a1x)ut matter, 
the creation of things, &o., &c. It was infinitely tnorecon- 
BtHtent in the oncientA to endow the whole world, animate 
and inanimate, witli life, than it is in the moderns to draw 
an arbitrary line between the two provinces, and require 
a different kind of machinery to account for the one &om 
that which suffices for the other. We must either admit 
apirita into winds, and waves, and trees, or banish them 
from the bodies of animals. Science requires that we shall 

'luxept the httter alternative, and give up all belief iu Pueuma, 
Archaeus, and Vital Principle, as in Jupiter and ApoUo. 
That is, we must give up the conception of an intelligent in- 
ternal independent exisLeuce, watching over the welCire of 
the body and acfing u[}on it. Tliisidea is untenable, being 
irreconcilable with progresa 

But must we give up the whole world of spirits? Must 
we disbelieve in a something between an immortal soul 
and a morUI body diHUsed through every part of the 
latter— some nerve-spirit f The assumption of such on 

jiexistence, so long as it does not outrage physiati laws, is 

^ perfectly hanolesj ; it is an hypothesis impossible to establish 
or to overthrow. Wc may believe in such subtle existences, 
incorporeal, yet defined ; and may conceive of them acting, 
like upon like, one spirit upon another spirit ; and we 
may imagine them receiving impressions from agencies iii- 
appi-eciable by the senses ; we may even go one step 
further and suppo<*e them, in their turn, acting upon sensi- 
tive nervous systems, and tims becoming a kind of cor- 
poreal power. All this is harmless speculation so long as 
they transgress no physical law, nor usurp the place of 



[Cnif. 11. 

mind, will, and conscience. What tlie exact opinions of 
Hippocrates upon ibis subject were, it ia impossible to 
gather fiiim his writings ; most {irobably he did not 
attempt to define them to himself, but accepted a certiuii 
vague notion of a -^vj^i), or irvcvjia, which, in some un- 
known Hiid uiiknowublc way, exerted a constant influeaoe 
upon all organic bodies. 

We have now dw«lt at siiflScient length upon tho 
subject, giving it much gT-enter proportion tbaii it occu- 
pica in. the writings, or than it occupied in the tbutiglits 
of the great physician of antiquity ; but not greater 
than tfl due to ita importanoo as a oorwtanlly-recun-ing 
influenoB iu the efforts of the huuiau uiind to arrive at 
Bomo solution of the pi-oblems which tnntiilize its cfforta 
to rcconcilo tlic seemingly contradictory experience of a 
creature, who " thinks he was not made to die," to whom 
imoMtttality necms an ultimate fact of consciousness, bat 
who ii3 linked to a body, liable to a thousand casualtlefl, 
and subject to a death by which this verj' conttciousnoss 
appears to be annihilated — the myateiy of the union of 
Life and Mortality. 

There still remain for our oonsideraiioDf the aervioes 
of Hippocrat*s in improving the practice of tlie art 
of medicine. He belongs to no sect, although claimed 
by each aa its exclusive posseasion. Fmm the earliwft 
times tliere were three principal mcdicat sects ; and as the 
distinctive attributes of tbeso divisions depend u]ion the 
preponderance of cei-tain elements of chiirnctcr common to 
all ages, we find them represented throughout the entire 
history of the art down to the pi-esent day. They used to 
go by ttie uonwB of the Dugnm tints, or Itattonalisto, Ui« 
Empirice, and the Methodista. Ijit ua see iu what nepect 
Hippocrates Agreed with and dilfei-ed fi-om each and all of 

The fiindamenUd principle of the Dugmathits was, tlial 

>.<!. 4M.] 



"we cannot cure a disease unlcea we know ita cause. Tn 
ilie words of Celsus, " they held it im|>u«6iblo that luiy odd 
should know how to cure diseases, if he be ignoruut of tho 
causes whence they proceed."' A very plauidlde | 
iioa I But what itrc wc to undL-r&taud by tho cfLuaeH of 
disease? If all thiit 1:3 uieaut be the external ctrcumstiuices 
wliich induce unbeollby conditions of the imnian body, then 
the statement is incontrovertible : it is true that ague would 
never bave been got tid of by dniiiiiug the [leKtiferous marsh, 
nnle^itbad bci^n known that Awnmps produce tliat disease. 
But the T>i)giiiatist went a steji further ; not only would he 
suy tltat ague it! caused by a swamp, but it is caused by the 
swamp increaMn^, to a mischievous amount, the radiod 
nwisture of the bnriy ; and it must be eiire*3 by opposing to 
it bonie remedy which shall iiivrease the ntdicnl dryness or 
Iteat, so a.s to neutralize tJic predominant t<&mpenunent. 
This was mere gues»-work, and such v*aiii liy|)otlieaes atill 
bold their place in modern nie<licine. Wu may rea<l in the 
newest books that leprous nflcctioiis of the skin are owing 
io an add state of tbe blood, and that the proper cure of 
the disease is tbe adminiatmtion of alkalis. All such vague- 
ness liippocrntes rejected, for the following conclusive 
reasons, worthy of debbL-rate oonsidemtion even by Members 
of the College of Fb>'sieians of London. " I wish," he says, 
"the discou]-se to revert to tbe new method of those who 
prosecute their inquiries iu the art by bypotbesls. For if 
hot or cold, or moist or dry, be tliat which proves injurious 
to man, and if the person who would treat him properly 
must a[iply cold to the hot, hot to the cold, moist to 
the dry, and dry to the moist (on the principle of coii- 
tiaricK), let me be presented witli a man — not, indeed, one 
of a strong constitution, but one of the weaker—and let 
him eat wheat, such as it is supplied from the thrashing- 
floor, raw and unprepared, with raw meat, antl let liim 

1 Col«ak, Lib. I., Vntatt. 


driiik wKter. ^ luniig Huoh a diet, I know thst lie irill 
•ujEir madi oad MTeirl^, for he will cxperieooe pains, bis 
body will beonttus wenlc, and liU bowels deranged, and be 
will not iiubMst Iqji^. Wlmt remedy, titen, is to be 
vi'Ud for ono m Hitmitud — hot, or cold, or moist, or dry J 
for il 'u dear it miut be one of these. For according to 
Lbin principle, if it in one of iheao which is injuring tbs 
ptti«nt> it U to be reriMv^ by its contrary. But the 
Mar«iit and moflt obvious retnedy is to change the diet 
wliicb iiiB pemoii used, and insU'ad of wheat to give bread,' 
an'i iiiiioad of raw flcHh builud, and to dt-iuk wine in addi- 
tion to tiioM : for by making these changes it is impofisible 
but that he mufit get hotter unless completely dtRorganizedi 
by time uid diet. What then nliall we say I whetlier tbatJ 
w be inflnred from oold, these things bf>ing hot wei-e of use 
to hint, or tlie ruvene ? I ahould think this question must 
prove a puz/Jcr to whotnaoever it ia puL"' An opiuion in 
which we doubt not hiH readers entirely coincide. 

Wo (ind, then, that Hippocrates, so far from couuteoano- 
ing the doctrine of curing diseases by applying the con- 
traries to tlwir supposed causes, condemns the notion as 
utterly abHuril. But let im not ru^li into the opposite 
error, and hecauae Hippuumtea is uppoiied to tlie dogma of 
eoniraria contrari-i», awnime that he is in fiivour of ita 
o|ipOHito, nmHia simUibiis cu-rantur. In the above quo- 
tation he is nliown as objecting to assuniitig ima^ary 
causes at all, as subjects of treatment, and cimsequently, 
lie woold object as much io the principle of similarity as 
oppontiou. It is true there is a renmrkabte passage in 
favour of the doctrines now known as HommoiKathic in 
one of the Hippocratic treatises, which, although of ques- 
tionable authenticity, is of undoubted antiquity, and has 
received the greatest respect from all commentators. On 
it our learned countryman. Dr. Adoins, remarks : " It thus 

> Hipine. an AnacBt Met), p. 159- 



appeam tli»t ide ])rincipleB both of Allopathy and Homoeo* 
pftthy are recognizwl by the author of this treiitise."' 

Although Hippocrates dealt in this Riimmnjy style with 
the obvious faltw reasooiiigB of the Dogmatists, iuiposiii^ 
theiu with Socratic couciseuess aud subtilty, yet he was 
Very far indeed frr>m rojrctinj; inference and induction, and 
the application of a strictly -pliiloflophic method in detLling 
with difficulties which he vras unable to sunuuunt by 
previous experience. So that when Celsus says lie was 
the first to w-piu-ate medidnw frotn jihilosopliy, lie must 
meau by the latter term tlie Kigtiilication it bad at ttia 
time of Hippocrates, not at the time when ho lumself 
wrote ; much Jess what we moan by plnlosupliy. In fact^ 
as we shall see by-nud-by, Hii>pocratea uueousdouiiJy dis- 
eovereil the inductive method, and used it as far as ha 
possibly oould, being as much allied tn the Dogmalista, 
whose errors he so mercilessly exposes, as to the Empirics, 

The Empirics suffer from the prejudice of what the name 
by which they were calhsl aiine afttTwarcU to signify. The 
term is now deservedly used as one of reproach. But 
originally it meant rather wliat we should now call the 
school of experiment and c-xperic-not\ They held that '' it 
is much bettvr to soi'k relief from things certain luid 
tried, thai is, from such remedies as experience in the 
method of curing hns taught us, as is <lone in other arts ; 
for that neither a husbandman nor a pilot are tpialified for 
tlieir but(ine<t8 by reasoning, but by practice ; and that 
these disquiaitdons liave no connection with medicine, may 
be inferred from the plain fact, that physicinos, whose 
opinions on these matters have been directly op])usite to 
one another, have, notwitlistatiding, equally i*efltored their 
patientA to henltli : iti&t this su(.-(«8s was to be asa-ibed to 
their having derived their methods of cure, not liroiji tlie 
occult causes (such &n changes in tlte elements), or the 
' A'Unu' Hlpi<oe. p. 77. 



[CuAr. II. 

natural fictions (chftngea in tlic temperaments) about wUich 
they are divided, but frorn experiments, according as they 
Bucoeeded in the course of their pructioe."' Now, a]- 
tiiuugU liippucrutes anys that " ex[)erieQCt> ia faUocduus," 
and therefore "judgment difficult," he iFould be the last 
man to diiiOJii'd expcritineo nltoguthcr. Indeed, it in ini- 
poKsibIn to ouncelve of medicine making a single step 
without experiment or experience unle^ we had a reveht* 
tion. The ^jueMtion ia, what the kind of experiment and 
t\[)eiience ih to bo? If vra hiive noUiing but these to- 
guide us, how are we to act in new clrcuinstanceB? The' 
experience which tnught us how to treat a sword-cut will 
not Fielp uR to cure ttio gout. To this the Kiupiric would 
ix'ply that the ybjectioii, so fai- as it went, was an inhereut 
dirticiilty in the acquisition of all knowledges of matters 
beyond Uie iinraediale confiuiousuess of the human mind ; 
and that we must make the best of it by accuniuliiting 
experience and registering it so aa to make it available, 
and \iy se[>arating what is essential fi-oni whnt ia nmdental 
in the couditious of evei-y case of cure. This tliey called, 
technictilly, " Histoi-j'." When we have no exact parallel 
to fall back upon in any puz^ing case we must take 
the one nearest to it. Thus the art of medicine formed a 
(rijwwf, consisting of observation, history, and analog}-. * 

If The Knipirics did not embrace the whole truth, they 
at least propouiided docirines Ix'th true and mcjst im- 
portant ; and it is probable that the severe criticism they 
have met with is owing more to the violent and exdusivo 
^>irit uf the teaehens, than to tiie reprehensible charact«i' of 
the teaching. They seem, like not a few modems, ia have 
slighted large cultivation and exalted the tecUnical above the 
general endowraentfi of the plij'&iciau. Tliis circumstanos 
accounts for the adntuuble obsei-vation of Celsus, which 

■ Celnw. <»|<. rit. 

' OMiea do S'i'cx. Le Clttr, Op. dt. 

Ih US. Synagfii, Op. ril.TvL I. p. STS. 

B.C. 460.] THE METHODISTS. 45 

■would otherwise be irrelevant : — " Although many things 
are taken into the study of the arts which do not, propeily 
speaking, belong to tlie arts themselves, yet they may 
greatly improve them by quickening the genius of the 
artists. Wherefore the contemplation of nature, though 
it cannot inalce a man a physician, yet may render him 
fitter for tlie practice of medicine." ' What an admirable 
rebuke to tliose who raise the cry of "Cui bono?" when- 
ever it is proposed to liberalize the profession of medicine by 
giving a higher character to University medical degrees! 
" Can logic," say these medical Falstaffs, " set a leg ? No. 
Or an arm ? No. Or take away the grief of a wound ? No. 
Logic hath no skill in surgeiy then? No." Wherefore, as 
I am going to be a pure sui'geon, " rll none of it." 

Between the Empirics, or experimentalists, on the one 
side, and the Rationaliiits, or speculators, on the other, arose 
another sect who maintained, according to Celsus, " that 
the knowledge of no cause whatever bears the least 
relation to the method of cure ; and that it is sufficient 
to observe some general symptoms of diseases ; and that 
there are three kinds of diseases, one bound, another 
fluent, or attended with some kind of discliarge, and 
the third a mixture of the two." That these kinds of 
disterai)ers are sometimes acute and sometimes chronic, 
sometimes at their stage of development, sometimes at 
their acme, sometimes at their decline. " That one kind of 
treatment is required in acute, another in chronic ; one 
when a disease is developing, another when it is at its 
acme, and, again, another when it is declining into health." 
That the observation of these things constitute the art of 
medicine which they define as a certain way of proceeding, 
or method. Hence they got the name of Methodists. The 
corresponding eolyriquet in modem English is, perhaps, 
Routinists. They differ from the Empirics in holding experi- 

' Celaus. Op. cit. 



[Cbji». U. 

materiiUs for his aphorisniH. The histories of the cases 
were recorded in three dSffereiit styles ; some were upon 
votive tablets, others were formnl descriptions hy hterary 
visitors, and the third were drawu up by the physiciaus them- 
selre». Of the iiiscnjitioiis on votive tablets there are but 
four spedmens extiint, found on an ielnnd iu the Tilier. As 
they are of Iho higliefit hislorical interest, and as we »re 
uot iLware of thei-u beiug a version of them in any English 
work, wc shall tinn-slate the GennaD one, made by 
Sprcngel, who oIho at the sanic place j^ves the origiLal. 

I. "In these days the orucle spnke to a certain blind 
man of the name of Cajiii : be wjis to go to the altar and 
to pray, then maJse n circuit from right to left, Uy his five 
fingers U])on the dtivr, raise lus Iiuud luid place it upon his 
e^-es. Tlius, in the presence of the people, loudly rejoicing, 
he r^!;ained his health. This manifestation of Omnipotence 
happened under the Emperor Antoninus. 

II. " The oracle spake to the blind soldier, Valerius Aper : 
he was to come and mix the blood of a white cock with 
honey, make an eye-salve, and smear his eyes with it for 
tliree days. He recovered his siglit, and came and re- 
turned thanks to the god before all the people. 

III. "Julian appeared to be in a hopeless state after an 
attadc of spitting of blood. The god, by uie»ins of the oracle, 
ordered him to eotne and take a pine-cone from the idtiir, 
and to eat this mixed with honey for tlirce days. He was 
cured, and came and thanked the god before all the i>eopte. 

IV. "The son of Luciiw, who Iny hopelewt with n, etitch 
in his side, was ordered by the god, in a night viiuun, to 
come and Uike ashes from the altar, to mix them with 
wine, and lay them on the side; He was rescued, and 
thnnk<;d the goil before all tlie people, and the people 
wished him joy."' 

It will be admitted tJiat, if this l>e a fair sample of the 

* Huutlmmnrk. Dc Inmiufntla 
Arti* UtdiDU) per Bxinllivmn Xtn- 

lorun In VLu FutitlcM at Ttniik. 
4h^ U|<iLi 1T10. Unetod tor Kpnnml. 

S.O AM.] 



ciirea recorded on tJie tablets, and we linve no reason to 
suppose it is not, it would lie about as bojit^Ie^s to extmet 
trustworthy obsen-atious from theai as from tUecoIunuiB in 
the newspaper which publish Uie success of Professor Hol- 
loway ; nor shall we find anything in the next class of 
much greater value. 

The most celebrated literary man of antiquity, who de- 
scribes the prooeedings in the temple of .(EficulnpiuH, and 
oeltfbratea (lie oui-es there performe<l, is the omtor J\jistide8. 
We find Iiini ftonstautly referred to, and we may estimate 
his fitness for the task by the following Piwciinens taken 
from one of his orations. Speaking of /Esculapius, he says, 
" There are that say they have been raised from death by 
liitn." "But also some, both men and women, lay to hia 
account that limbs of the body have been given them by 
the providence of the god, titeir natural ones luiWng been 
destroyed." ** But to me, on the other hand, not a part of 
the body, but the whole bitdy, having jiix-iifn'cd and com- 
pacted it together, he himself has given as a gift, just as 
Promffitheus, according to the legend, is said to have formed 
man." " And how extraordinary ni-e tlie visiona be sends ! 
telling some to drink gj'psum, some hemlock, some to stiip 
naked and bathe in coM water ; me, loo, indeed, lias hti 
honoui'ed in this way — curing catarrhs by river and &fa- 
baths, and fits of prostration by lotii; journeys ; and when I 
was nuable to breathe, ordering nie to read and write." ' 
lljegod evidently saw be had to do with a hypochondriacal 
rhetorician, and doubtless he treated him in a very judi- 
cious manner ; but it would bo as difficult to extract solid 
facts fixini this narrative as sunbcania from cucumlM'ra. 

If, however, the clinical records kept by the predecessors 
of Hippocrates were at all like his own account of cases, 
then, indeed, they must liave afforded a large field of 
profitable study. Take the following case in iUusuatiou : — 

■ Ariitidn Ont. in JUralap, 



[CHAr. II. 

** In LarisKsi, a rnaii wUi wiis bjiliJ was suddenly seized 
with pain in tbe right tliigh ; nooe of the things whlcli 
were adii)inLstercd did Itim any good. On iho first day 
fever, a<iute, of Iho anient tyiw, not agitated, but the 
pains persisted. On the i>ecoud day the paius in the thigh 
abated, but the fever incrcoflcd ; nnniewhat tossed about ; 
did not^leep; extremities cold. • • • On the third 
day the ])aiii of Uie thi^h ceased ; dt;rangemeut of intellect, 
conftmioD, nnd much toiuiing alx>ut. On tlte fourth, about 
noon, he died." ' " 1 Iwlieve," says Dr. Adams, *' this to he 
a faithful report of a disea-so which on three several occasions 
I have rnet with during an active profeaaional practice of 
thirty years, aiul whicli I fuiee not seen described ds^ 
xvftere." ' What e.xju;tue&> of ulservatiou and description 
does this diaplay I A Greek, traveUiug in Thossoly, ia 
called to attend a man t^ken suddenly ill ; the illn&Ha is of 
a most unusual kind ; be makes a few notes of it, which 
are preserved, and a case ia i-ecognized hy this brief record 
to be of Uie 8ftme kind, by a phj-sician in Aberdeenshire, 
aft*tr an intcr\'al of 2i00 years 1 If Hi])pocrfttea enjoyed 
the advantaj,'e of duecriptions at all ajiproachiiig in graphic 
conciseness in the records kept by his progenitors, we 
almost cease to wonder at his niarvellouH excellence ; for 
certainly, when we compare liia tiicattstic pictures, which 
by a few lines convey an indelible impression of actuidity, 
with the tcflious elaboration of petty insigni^cant detail 
that cbamcterizes inoet modern medical writing, and giveflJ 
the same impreaaioii to the mind that a flat^ featut%Iess face 
would to the eye if seen through a magnifying gln^, wo 
are half dispoeied to believe that Hipiwcrntes was as superior 
to physicians of our day, in his Dp|>ortunities of acquiring 
knowledge, as lie undoubtedly \a in the way in which he osed , 
them. " Several sections of the work are perfect maater- 
pieces — such, fur example, as the purtfi whieb relate to dis- 
I KpiO«mi«i^ Book II. CaM 3, * Atkow' Uifpoo. p. 5fi7. 

I.a 40ft] 


locations at tbe shoulder and bip-Joiot ; and more especially 
tbe latter, in which it appears to me, Hippocrates litis giveu 
a fuller and vwre cmnpUte history of ever^thi-nif rd^tiiluQ 
to tfte mhjtct than ia to be found in any »in<;le work, even 
to the pifM-ixi day."^ Tbetie are the words of a practical 
flui-gwiu, and » fearued and trustworthy man. 

While tlte descriptions of the injuries aud discofius wliich 
Hippocrates has left us are so ncciirate and complete that 
the Hubsequeitt experience of twenty -four centuries has 
found nothing to niter, and yielded little tt> add ; and 
while the observations on climate and diet, both as they 
affect the sick and those in health are so enliglitened aa to 
be useful to the present day ; tbe nUea for the administm- 
tjon of medicine are altogether useless, being founded upon 
exploded theories of the animal formation nnd constitution ; 
and the treatment pursued, beyond the adoption of suitable 
diet and regimen, can be desci'ibed by no milder epitlwt 
than utterly barijaroas. It is impossible to ai-rive at any 
other conclusion than this, if we take the trouble carefully 
to read through bis undoubtedly genuine work^ which ore 
not numerous. We shall go over the list ; — 

I. On Airs, Waietv, aiul }*luc€8. — 'Hiia treatise Dr. 
Coray divides into six chapters. The first is introductory, 
and points nut how essential it is that a phytueian should 
make bimiielf aur|u»iiited witl) the situation and exjHifiure of 
the cities where he practises !iis art, what tlie kind of water 
is, the nature of the soil, and the habits of the jx'ople. 
The second diapler describes the dlBVircnt winds tliat pre- 
vail in Gi-eece, and their effects on pcaTson* exposed to 
thotn. Tlie third, the voiioua kinds of water, and bow 
tliey affect tlie health of the inhabitant.'^ of tlie districts ' 
where they are. The tuorth is ou the nature uf the treasons 
of tlic year, in their relation to befUbh and sickness. Tlie 
Hllb and sixth present tbe contrast bet\reen the climate and 

^ Aduu* Hi[>i>ue. p. &67- 

E S 

53 HlPPlWRATRf. [Chif. II. 

iitstitvitioiis of Grveoe aud Asia, in the fonuation of their 
rvHiKH-tivo cliameteristics. Hippocrates attributes an im- 
lUMiso iiitliu'tiTO to climate, as producing, on the one hand, 
lut'U of valour and enter^>rise, who preferred death to 
slrtYory ; aiul eiii^'iidcriiig, on tlie other, an effeminate and 
i>>\ranny nu-e, the willing slaves of any tyrant. Strange 
to say, Hip)Kvmt«.<s ts ctMisurv^l for thia by two of bis 
abhtit uuKlem cslK\ators^Littr^, a Frenchman, and Dr. 
Adttnts, a harvly C;de\lonian — who seem to be of opinion 
tliat it is the discipline tktt makes the soldin-, not the 
a^tldter tlu> disi.>ipUne. On the side of the old Greek ttrfus 
tlte iiKHleni Wndiman and Scot, we ha^-e tlte great English 
Bart^i. who says, "A man way truly make a judgment 
that the i>r:uct(>al (vint of grvatut.<iss in any State is to have 
It iiitr of uiilitan.' nun ; theretonf. let any prince or State 
tltittk $4.>lvrly of his fv^rces, exce^U his militia ty uatitta 
\x K^ J^HHl and valiant st^ldicrs*"' "As for mercenaiy 
Rtrvvis alt exampU's show tliat whatsoever State or prince 
«loth rest U{vn theuu he may spread his feathers Set a time, 
l>ul Ite will mew ttwrn so^m alter.''' ' How triumphantly 
WS-'Jcv 1S^7 would luvtia lia^"*? Uvu uame^L iu reAitationof 
this last ^^lie*r\-atiou ; Simv that c»;al year, what fright^ 
coiTTolvrativ'iv of tlw- juvLrtiHtii of the great thinker ! wh;it 
a Uissv^ti lo hecvl the th«.Hij:lib> cf the wise, wtiether uttertj 
to ^iay in a new^vi^vr. v>r in the market -i^v oJt* Atheius 
»wo thvHBSMid years a^* ; ' 

W»> tt«\l ■say uo tuv'te of th» first creaci^ of Hippoccate* 
ihatt iLiac tt ts sv> pfe-t'tuinenGly Juok-ious^ ** chat^" ta thie 
*v*rvBs of Or. A>.i*t'.!i#* "as the j^reswiCis day tE woold Kf diiiR- 
cttU to vte«ec« v'lir attth*.'r in a siu^x ecr.x of jud^piKas.'' 

11. t^'6 t-'irf i*'".v.'<.>.<*4\'at — TIlcs Kvi treiits of the vaiu* 
of t«f s>itut'Cotu* v'f oteeatje. wfci*5 tbsy tn-iiokte ia resj"*ec« 

am-i- 11. >■ Villi '1(0 •■v* mt 'II i».>i, v»ii 

I.C. wo.] 



to the course and isswe of the case. It is compiM from 
the records kept in the temple of Cob, anJ exIiiljltH Hip[Ki- 
cratos' power of iDdactioa. It is probably tlie earlieHb 
example of tliis method of reasoning tlmt cxi»te — certainly 
the oldest in mediciue — and it has never been Burpaased, 
never perhaps equalled, by any of hia Buooessors. Hie 
following may he taken as samples of the work : — 

" It is well when the patient is found by hU phy- 
sician reclining upon either his right or his left side, having 
his hands, neck, and legs slightly bent, and the whole body 
lying in a relaxed state, for thus the moat of persons in 
health recline, and these are the l)e»t of jpostures which 
most resemble hoaltliy persons. But to lie upon one's bock, 
with the hatids, neok, and leg^ extended, is fur less Oi.vour- 
nble. J^nd if tjie patient incline forward and sink down 
to the foot of the l>ed, it is a still nnn"e dangerous symptom ; 
but if ho be found with hiH feet nakwl and not hufliciently 
warm, and the hands, neck, and legu iotwed about in a dis- 
orderly maimer and naked, it is bod, for it iurlicatcs 
aberration of intellect. It is a dewlly spnptom also, when 
the patient sleeps ounstantly with his mouth opctn, having 
his legs strongly bent and plaited together, while he lies 
upon his hack ; and to lie upon one's belly when not 
habitual to the patient lo sleep thus wliile in good healUi, 
indicates delirium, or pnin in the abdominal regions. And 
for a patient to wish to sit erect at tlio acme nf a diaea^, 
is a bad symptom in all acute caaeA, but {mrticutarly so lo 

"Respecting the movements of the handu, I have these 
oibservaUoiw to make: when, in acute feveni, pneumonia, 
phrenitis, or lioadache, the hands are waved before the facir, 
hunting through empty space, as if gathering hlU of stniw, 
picking the nap from tlie coverlid, or tearing chaff from 
Uie wall,— all such syuiptonw are bad and deadly." 

"Those swcatA are the bc!it, in all acute diseiues, which 



[Ciup. II. 

ooouv on the critical daya^ and completely carry off the 
fever ; tbose are faTOurable, toes which, taking plane ovca* 
the whole body, show that the man is bearing the disoaee 
better. But those tbnt do nob produce this elfeci aro not 
beneSciaJ. The worst are cold sweftt<», confined to the 
head, fnoe, and neck — these, in an acute fever, prognosticate 
death ; or iu a milder one, a prolungatiou of the disease. 
And sweats which occiir over the whole body, with the 
diaroctors of those confined to the neck, are in like man- 
ner bad. Sweats attended with a miliary eruption, and 
taking place about tlie neck, are bad. Sweats In the form 
of drops imd nf %-apour, are good. Oue ought to know 
the entire chanictcr of swejiti, for some are connected with 
prostration of strength in the bod^', and 8omc with inten- 
sity of indanmtation." 

" All dropsies oi-ising from acute diaesse are bud ; for they 
do not remove the fever, nod are very painful and fatal." 

" With regard to sleep — aa is usual with us in healtli, 
the patient should wake during the day aild sleep durinj; 
the nights If this rule Ik; anyways lUtered, it is so far 
worse ; but there will be little lianu provided he sleep iu 
the morning, for the third part of the day ; such sleep as 
takes place after this time is more unfavourable, but the 
worst of nil is to get no sleep, either nijiht or day ; for it 
fitUows from thi.s synipiom, that tliis insoninoleney is con- 
nected with Borrow and pains, or that lie is about to 
become delii-ioiis."' 

Such aiv: a few specimens of the c-areful way in which 
Hippocrates went over Uie various fuiictiunM uf the body, 
and noted the diRei'ence^ between their healthy and morbid 
phenomena, and tlte indications afibrded by tlie latter of 
the coui'se and tcrniiuation of the cmtx in which they were 
present. These sentences have been recognized as so 
truthful by subsequent writers, as to form a part of the 

' A<Unis' Hippoe. Prnfcrpilies. 


staple of medical literature ; they display a rare combina- 
tion of powers of observation, deacription, and generalization. 

The first deficiency noted by Lord Bacon, in his re- 
view of medicine, is "the discontinuance of the ancient 
and serious diligence of Hippocrates, which used to set 
down a narrative of the special eases of his patients, and 
how they proceeded, and how they were judged by recovery 
or death.'" "This, in fact," wisely writes Dr. Adams, 
"constitutes the great superiority of the ancient aavana 
over the modern, that the former possessed a much greater 
talent for apprehending general truths than the latter, who 
confine their attention to particular facts, and too much 
neglect the ob8er\'ation of general appearances. I trust no 
one will be offended if I venture to pronounce, regarding 
the present condition of our professional literature, that (to 
borrow an illustration from the logic of Kant) it is alto- 
gether eyclopic — that is to say, it wants the eye of philo- 
sophy ; for although we have learned to examine particular 
objects with greater accuracy than our forefathers did, the 
sphere of our mental vision, so to speak, is more confined 
than theirs, and cannot embrace the same enlarged views 
of general objects." ' 

We now come to the reverse of the medal, and we shall 
find that while Hippocrates, so long as he pursued the plan 
of careful observation and induction, was a mighty archi- 
tect constructing an edifice of cyclopaean magnitude and 
strength, which the lapse of centuries has rather consoli- 
dated, like a vitrified fort, than impaired ; so soon as he 
left this sure method, and resorted to speculation aa a 
guide, he became weak as other men. "For," again to use 
the words of Bacon, "the wit and mind of man, if it 
work upon matter, which is the contemplation of the 

' Of the Profidenee and Adrance- 1838. P. 171- 
tnent of Learaitig. Sj Francis, Lord ' Adams' Hippoc, p, 232. 

Vemlam. Edited by B, Montague, Esq. 



[Ciup. n. 

creatures of Ood, worketh accoi-ding to llie stiiff, and is 
limited thereby ; but if it work iipou Itself, as tlie spider 
worketb his web, then it is endless, and brings forth, 
indeed, cobwebs of leanilng, admirable for the fineness of 
Ihi-end and work, but of no substance or profit.'" The 
test of true induction Is expciieuce ; any proposition con- 
cemJug mutter, which will not stimd this, if legitimately 
applied, must have been a fiiUc or insnffident inference from 
facta, or an imaj^ination not derived from facts at oU. To 
this latter order belong most of the rules laid donii by 
Hippocmtes for the selection and administration of active 
remedies. He imngined the existence of certain humoiire — 
black bile, yellow bile, &c., — and he imagined that disease 
depended upon changes, either in the juat prt^portion of these, 
or that thej' wandei-ed out of llieir natural chnnnels, and 
invaded tlie territories of their neighbours, — that this pro- 
duced a disturbance in the animal economy ; that the per- 
turbation thus set a-going went tiirough a stage of 
"ooction/' or cooking, and ended in a "crisis," or judg- 
ment ; — tiiat is. Nature's judgment of the patient, according 
to whidi he was cither nhsolved, if innocent — that is, if 
if strong enough — and returned to the world of life ; or 
condemned, if guilty — that is, if weak — and consigned to 
Pluto's dark domain. The plan Hip|>ocrateii stiiadily pur- 
Bued was, if possible, to obtain a verdict for the patient by 
assisting the iiTO|icr coction of the humours, and gellJng 
the judgnie-nt on u propitious day. Henoe the doctrine 
of critical da^'S applicable to a limited class of disorders, 
such aa ievent, but applied by him to all acute diseases. 
Nov, as tliese humours had no exlstenoe, it is impos^ble 
they oould have had any action, and ,it follows tliat this 
great physician waDy ibugfat with shadows. Unfortu- 
Dately, it wmk not the nir he beat, but the body of the 
pftticnt he tormented with dnigs, or knife, or fir& His 
* AdfuenHM «l Lwi^ ^ II. 




grand nile of practice was not coniraria corUrariin, or 
twulia tinutibus curantur, but fofhw Xaiuret that i% 
imitate her o]>erAtiona in effecting fintt a proper coction, 
llieii a favourable criHiH. His wiw, ho^vcvpr, the very 
reverse of what is now called tlie expectnut nietltod ; or, 
" the con tempi fttion of death." Tbc drugs ho used were 
of frightful, ofioii fatal, virulence ; and these temhlc wunpons 
were euipluyvd, as we see, not in aooordanee with any 
legitimate deduction, hub in obedience to a fi^cnt about 
liumours whicli existed only in his ima^nation. We diall 
now adduce tbe proof of this by oontiuuiug the exami< 
nation of his writings. 

III. The treaU»6 wliose title is rendered by Dr. Adams, 
Regimen in AcuU Diaetues, should rather be called tlie 
management of such : for, besides the diet proper for these 
CAiKB, it alHO mention.'ii drugs and veneaectioit. It is true 
that the principal part is devoted to barte^f-waitr, so tliut 
hy ftomo it is quoted uiidcn* this title, and yet the actite 
disenscs included *' Pleurisy, Pneumonia, Phrenitia, and 
Apoplexy." It looks like a burlesque upon medicine to 
writ« a book upon barley-water as a cure for apoplexy and 
inflammation of the lungs and brain ! Yet it is a serious 
treatise, giving the most minute directions how it is to be 
made and administered. "Barley-water, then, appears to 
me to be justly preferred before all the other preparations 
from grain in these diseiiaes, and I commend tliuse whu 
made thii choice ; for the mudJage is smooth, consistent, 
pleasant, moderately diluent, quenches thirst, if this be re- 
quired, find has no astringency " It was bis great remedy 
in acute disease, but he had recourse to the powerful aux- 
iliary of blood-letting, when a ca.«« was obstinate, and the 
administration of black hellebore, the &vourit« purgative in 
his days. In the treatment of pneumonia or inflammation 
of the longs, he reconimeuds bleeding from tlie arm till the 
patient fninta, if the pain pais upwards to the cla\'iclc. 



(CHAt>. II. 

Oa tlie use of water be makes the following observa- 
tions : — " I liavi! notliing further to add as to the pfFifcta of 
lA'ater wlieu u&ctl us a drink in acute diiieaHes ; for it 
neither soothes tlie cougb in Pneumonia, nor promotes 
expectoration, but does less than the others in this respect, 
if used alona through the complaint. But if taken be- 
tween Ox^Tnel and Hydromel in small <pmntity, it pro- 
motes expectoration from the change which it occasions in 
the qualities of tlicsn drinks ; for it produces, its it were, a 
oortaiu overflow. Otherwise, it does not quench the thii^t, 
for it creates bile in a bilious temperament, and is injurious 
to the hypochondrium ; and it does the most harm, and 
does the least good when the bowels are eni])ty, and it 
iocrenses the swellinf^ of the spleen and liver when they 
are in an inBamed Htate ; it jrroduoea a gurgling noiso in 
the intestines, and swims on the stomach ; for it passes 
slowly downwards, aa being of a coldish and indigestible 
nature, and neither proves hucative nor diuretic" 

Now it is quite certain that many of the staiementa 
here made are incorrect, not being inductions from expe- 
rience, but inferecices from notions then prevailing about 
things being in their oatuxe hot or cold, moist or diy. 
Water was held to be cold, tlieroforo injurious as repressing 
the process of "coction," henon indigestible, and the fertile 
source of all sorts of discomforts. Xyw, we know, by- 
ample experience, that water does not produce all these 
calaiuitous ounsequences, and, in fact, that it is so&ly 
substituted for IfirUtf-wnier ; and we also know that the 
pain in Pneumonia, going upward to the collar-lione, has 
no special significance, and, tliereforc, cannot, when present, 
justify the ble«diugof the patient to fainting. These oro 
examples of the hypotheticiil indications which Hippo- 
crates allowed to mislead him. 

To do him justice, however, we should observe that it is 
evident he, himself seems to have been fully aware of the 



immoue sapcriorily of his knowledge of tbe sympioois; 
oooree, aiid Icrniination of the various disorders be de-. 
Kiibes over his ability to trvat tbem, as we sfaall see by 
cnnlinuing tlic catalogue of hts writing. 

IV. Tfie First aiid Tftinl Books of the Kjtidemua, — 
Tb«re are ta all aeveo books wlucb have oome down to us 
under this title, but of these only two are recognixed 
.lo be genuine ; ami mwt n>markable prwliictions they are. 
They oousi»t of furty-two admirably dniwu-up coses, and 
out of this number no less than twenty-five ended in death. 
This, in itself, preeenta a sinking contrast to tbe oases now 
. generally published, which too ufteit weni intended ratlier to 
advance the interest of Uie narrator than tlie art of medicine. 
Still more extraordinaiy is it to 6nd that, with one exception,' 
there is no mention whatever uimle of the treatment of all 
.tiiese The exception cannot po!«!;tbly be related 
in order to illustrate \m succuKful Lreatnieiitv but because 
it was a de|Hirture from his ordinary routine ; for after 
describing an acute fever, attended with dry cough, delirium, 
and which did not abnte under the use of warm applica- 
tions, he sa^'s : " 1 opened a vein on the eighth day, and 
much blood of a proper character flowed ; tbe pain 
abated, bnt tbe dry cough continued." Tbe caae went on 
ribr Uiirty-four days, when "he sweated all over." "It is 
^possible," he addt, "that the eincuation of the apittii 
lirou^ht nltout the recovery on the thirty-fourth day." It 
[was not a cure by blood-letting on the eit/fitJt, but a 
I recOTTry by a natural crisis on tbe thhiy-fourih day. It 
IS suggested by Giilen, that the reason of mention being 
made of venesection in this cakc is, tlmt tlie ordinary 
practiott of Uip|K>cnites was to bleed upon thu fourth day, 
^and that in this particular instance, for some rejuton or 
|othf»', he delayed it to the eighth. It may lie so; but 
[aurely it is most worthy of observation, that tlu^ — thu 
• Cue VUI. Book ». 



[Caup. n. 

■wiseet of physicians, Hiieient or nindem, who was so 
thoroughly impressed with the difficulties of his art, and 
who, therefore, we may suppose waa most anxious to aa- 
certiiin, and lay down rules forits yiracHt-o, should Ik; almost 
entirely silent in reference to the use of such powerful 
appliances as bleeding and purging to the verge of deebruo- 
tion. This was not his wii-y when he knew what to tench, 
OS we leorn from hia surgical papers : for example, take the 
following ; — 

V. Ore Injuries of the IleaA. — -Besides giving a descrip- 
tion of the different forms of the skull, the acddenta to 
which it is liable, the means the physidau must take to 
ascertain the precise place and kind of fracture or wound, 
Hippocrates gives exact directions for the treatment, both 
medical and surgical. After describing how the preliminary 
examination is to he made, and an incision, so as to expose 
the bone supposed to be fractured, he proceeds : — " If you 
perceive an iudentatioa left, in the bone by the blow, you 
muH scrajH; the dint itself and the surrounding bones, lest, 
as often hapj«ns, there should be a fi-ncture and contusion; 
or a coiituaion alone, combiued with the dlut, and escaping 
observation. And when j'ou scrajje the bone with the 
ra8{Kttory, and it appears that tlie wound in ttie bones 
requires the operation, you must not postpone it for three 
daj-Si, hilt do it during tins period, more especially if the 
weather be hot, and you have had the management of the 
case from the commencement." " If you suspect, but do not 
know, the bono is bmken or contiised, then apply to the 
scraped part a black pigment (the Ujchnical nairie Is given), 
and ha\-ing wi|>ed it off, you will distinguish the coutused 
part by its absorbing the colour, while the surrounding 
bone can be cleaned. You must again scmpe more deeply at 
Uie black part, and by thus doing, you uiay i-euiove the 
fissure wKicli has been caused by the fnicture. But if the 
fracture extends deep, and does not seem likely to disappear 




when serried, such an accident requirm tnphiaing,"* 

Then we liAve minnte dincttoos as to bow the trepan is to 
be applied, and delineations of the instruments. Now, no 

■jOne will maintuD that Hippocmtes tliought it was an 
thing, or (HW leas requiring full instruction.% to treat 
an acute disease, such as iuilamiiiHLiou on the Inngs or brain, 

[than a bbw on the hea«l. Itidevd, be say», " 1 would mors 
espacially ooinmend the pli}*s)cian who, in acutd discAses, by 
wkicK the bulk of irutni-itul ofv ctU off, oonducto the treat- 

tnwot better th«a others."' It cuuld not then be in- 
diffinooe, aa to the best method of treating those forty-two 
of deadly pleurisies and levers, which he so gr^hi- 
\y describes, that induced Uippocnlw io abstain fimn 

Mattering a word upon therapeutics, and confined him |o 
pntfaology alone. Uis reticence must be from a diSerent 
OKQBe; and tliis cause will disclose it&elf when we imalyn 
the greatest of all bis works — his famous Aphorisms. Bft> 

Itween them and the works just quoted, intervene books 
VI. **The Sui;gery," iu whidi all surgical apiuiratus is 
minutely catalogned and described; VI]. '^ FFSCtazes ; " 
VIIL ** Articulations;" and I X. " Mochlicus." TheaenreaU 
either anatomical' or surgical tmitises, adiiiitted, even at the 
present day, to be mosterpieoes of exact and exliaustix'e 
^dctMripttons of the accidents to whidi bones and joints are 
liable. The marvellous thing about Uietn hy bow Hippo- 
crates contrived to acquire such accurate knowledge of tbe 
human frame. It has been n questJon keenly dchnt^xi by 
tiie leikmed, whether or not the fatber of medicine ever 
prosecuted the uiudy of anatomy by dissecting tbe bodies 
rf men. On tbe one hand, it is urged that tbe feeling of 
his age Mould have been so outraged by a violation of tlie 
dead, tliat lie could not have ventutvd to do It, even hnd 
lie been so dis]H>!iod ; while on tl»e other hand, we liave i>roof 
podtive of bis (wwAessing knowledge so minute, as oould 

> laiuritt of Uw Bfd, 14. ' Be|fai«B in Aooto DixMC^ S. 



[Gh**. II. 

TJie practitioner who. at the presient day, gave a imtient 
such A rlose of hcllelKin!, or verairum aUmm, as made 
him die convulspil, wouW be sent to prison for man- 
(ilau^'btsr ; and y«t it was a frequeut occurreuce, even in 
the hand^t of tUo most skilful and cautious physician <^ 

The Ajjboriams stand forth aa an imperishable memorial 
of man's grentneas and its limitations ; the acliievemcnts of 
Hi])pocratea in the province to which he had access were 
almost superhunuiD ; be spared no labour in masteriJig all the 
knowledge of his time ; the judgment he diBplaji* in arrang- 
ing it is matchless ; and his deductions have stootl unscntlied 
the test of two thousand years. But one thing he could not 
do ; no foroe of intellect, no ingenuity, could enable him to 
construct a s^'stem of adniiiiistering ramedits which was of 
the slightest value, because he had not access to any facts 
fi-oin which to make his inferences; and in the absence of 
fficts, he was obliged to have recourse to Sction. He be- 
queaUied to posterity a i)Qrfcct miuiual of the natural his- 
tory of disease, — he stated the problem he could not solve. 
"Such are Uie causes, such the course, and such the temiinn- 
tion,a1as! ofall the diseases of my day; but if you ask me how 
to core them, then I must close my month, — I did my best, 
witli the rough means at my disposal. AflA>r me, |«r1iapt!, 
there may arise one who can give the answer to this riddle ; 
and not till then sluill niy full merit be perceived ; for the 
dreadful fiiilures in the practice of tlie art which I can fore- 
8ee, but citinot avert., will diTig doupti its credit and expose 
its cultivalors to universal dishonour." Such, we imagine, 
migtii have been the reverie of Hippocrates, when survey* 
ing the past and speculating upon the future of medicine. 
But well for him it was, timt the degradation which was 
npproacliing did not come within the sphere of his vision, 
but lingered till, full of years and honoui-s, he was can-ied 


to the tomb along with all his mighty contemporaries ; and . 
when darkness fell upon the land of light and liberty, of 
poetry, art, medicine, of almost everything which raises 
man above the beasts that perish, it enclosed no braver, 
better, nobler man than the great HiPFOCRATBa. 



l4.-tt«T of Di<tclni — TI18 BndH SdiuQ^OhriaL'i Miraculous GorM — Ohristtaaitj 
Mid M<KLi«iiiB— ModinU Prastica in Sobk— Qboffi 6ioTj Crom 7Uii;r — Ajds> 
piwiiw' Bvinnopatliy — Hia Trnreb— Fnenni* Bffin— TUo PuU« — Contnrift «m* 
tmiia eunuiUir. 

In medicine, as in politics, the defects of a ^tem or tJteory 
may be so effeclimlly conoealed b^ a firat-raie administrator, 
as to escape dctectioo, so lo&g as sucb an one is at tbe 
hctm; but when the vessel is made over to Iuss-comj>etcot 
SUOOeesorS) then tlie flaws becuitio inanifuist. The pliy^i- 
cians vho auooeeded the great Hippocrates fimmli a strik- 
ing illuatmtion of tbia generaJ remark. One of tlie first 
and most celebrated of thes>e ivaa Diodes, who tivcd 
between three and four hundrtwl years before the Christian 
era. There existw a letter wliich ho wrote to Antigoiius, 
tbe general, who, on the death of Alexander tbe Great, 

* Bs Teta«lnu> ooilioe DioauriiUitiio 
BibliotlKat Com. : Vindob.: fruinavork 
ooUtluJ, " YeUmni UlnatHuai t*Iiilo*>- 
I'lmio, povtwum, rlutcmm ul oratoram 

ima^nn ex vctuniit nnmaiu, iremni[«," 
Ac. Dviunipta'kP. B«llAfiv,Ji«, Kointv, 

r 2 



[oh*t. ra. 

bectune master of the greater part of Aaia Miuor. Tlie date 
of this epistle in probably about tbc year 31 2 V.C., anrl it is 
beiideJ — " On tbo Preeen-ation of Healtti." Th« following 
extracts will show what his notions upon Piitliology and 
Tliurapeutics were : — " We divide the limnan body iuto four 

parts When a diw^jisy is about to fix in the bead, Jt 

is usiiallj' announced beforehand by a vertigo, pain in the 
Lead, beavineae in the eyebrows, noise in the ears, and 
throbbing of the temples ; the eyes water in the morning, 
Attended with dimness of sight ; the sense of smell is lost, 
and tlio guiria become swelled. When any such symptoms 
occur, the head ought to be purged ; Bot^ indeed, by any 
fltrong medicine, but, taking the tops of hyssop and sweet- 
maijoram, pomid them and boil titem in a poi. with half 
A hentiiui of roiLst or rob ; rince the mouth with this in 
Che morning before eating, and evacuate the kuTtinure by 
gargling." Quito Hippocratic I — evacuate the humours out 
of the head, where th«-y ai-e doing nusclucf, by gargling with 
maTJoram tea ! " The liead also sJiouId be warm, by covering 
it in such a manner as that the phlegm may be readily 
discharged. Those wlio neglect these fiymptoma »re apt to 
be seized with the following disorders : — jTitlainiuations of 
the eyes, cataracts, pain of the ears as from a fracture, 
Btrumous affootions of the neck, R|than-Jua of the brain, 
catarrh, quinsey, running ulcers callctl achores, caries, en- 
largement of tlie uvula, defluction of tlie luurs, ulceration 
of the head, pain in the teeth. . . . When some diseaHQ 
is about to fall upon the cheut, it is usually aanouuoed. 
by some of the following symptoms : — thei-e ore profuse 
Bweata o\*er the whole body, and particularly uliout the 
dieet,] the tongue is rough, expectoration bitter or biUous, 
pain suddenly sciiting the aides or shoulder- blades, fi-equont 
yawning, watdifulneas, ojipressed resptniliou, thirst after 
Bleep, despondency of uiinil, coldness of the breast and arms, 
trembling of the hands. These sy niptnms may bo relieved in 

A. ■>. 200. 



theroUowing inanuor : — Procure vomitinw afler n moderate 
nieaL without iiieUieine ; voiniting aLsu when the stontncb is 
empty will answer well ; — ^to produce whidi, first swallow 
soiiiu stnull ratlliihes, cresses, rocket, mtut^tl and punOaiDf 
and then, by driiiltiiig wami water, procure voiuiting. 
Upon those who neglect these Byiuptoiii3 the following 
diseases are apt to supervene : — pleuri^-, perii)neumonia, 
melancholy, acute fevers, irenzy, lethargy, jirdent fevers, 
attendwi with hiccough.'" When we read this singular 
docuniuiit, we caai scarcely believe tliat it was written by a 
man whose reputation endured for four hundred yeara Galen 
ineiitioDH Dioclefl, along witli his idol Hip]>ocraieA, as the 
grvatest of uiediotl authorities. Ccelius Aui-elianas ' quotes 
him more frequently than be does Hippocrates ; and in giving 
an account of the opiuions, he generally places the two names 
in immediate conjunction. In regard to the authenticity 
of the letter, Dr. Adams says, " All we shall say on this 
point is, that the evidence against the uutliority of this 
epistle appears to us to he very inconclusive. '" 

When Oi-eece fell into subjection under Philip and Alex- 
ander, Mind went into ex'\}e; and H& first asylum was the 
eity of the latter conqueror. Alexandria had a ci\'ilization 
quit* different from that of Athens. When the sun sinks in 
the desert, there is at firet total tiarkness ; atler a brief in ter\'fll, 
a pide light shimmers over its surface before night comt^n on : 
this stningc ap|«arance is called the afier-g^ow, Alexandria 
was the after-glow of Atheos, Literatui\} and science were 
cidtivated under patronage, and produced corresjxtnding 
fruits, rich and corrupt. The Ptolemies were the first of 

nelA, tnuiKlalcd fmm tLo Uroek, wIUi 
■ Cununoutar; coDtinciu); n cutiploiq 
Vi«w of th« KnOtrloHjic pnMWMnI li; 
the QvnIu, KomanB, and Anhikti*, on 
oU SubJKta «OBni!cte(l witli Modipioa 
ouil S(uvtT7. Q. Fnut. A-lains. Vcl. I, 
].. 188. 

■ Fall). JEfiiuiU, Itooh i., Seet-e. 

' OculU Aurelioiii, 8iuc«n«i*, madici 
Tetarti, Mcta Mtlhoilk'I, At Morbti 
Acatii «t CfaraniiiiB. Lib. VIII. fioli 
ex onuubu Ki«tIi[>dtooniiii aaipiji vu- 
penllUA, J. Cmndoi Amman. M.D. 
AinaUHua, 1709, 

* Tba Sena Book* ol Fknlua S^i- 



[CUAV. 111. 

Toytil patrons. Tliey foi'ined libmriew and nmBeuuiB, and col- 
lected men of learning; tliey did all they could to inwease 
kno'w]e<3ge ; and had it. been possible to rear pbilosopbers as 
prize-cattlo are bred, Alexandria would liuve been umivalled. 
Here, for the first time, those addicted to literature lived in 
dovcr ; tbey were fed and lodged out of tbc royal exclicquer ; 
they were treated like 8ilk-worin8,aiid iliey S])un thoir cocoons. 
Tbey were great in criticism and burlesque, but the spirit 
waa either dead or corrupt. Medicine took to the prosecu- 
tion of anatomy. Herophilus and Krasistratus are sqioken 
of by Oalen and Celsns an possessing a more accurate know- 
ledge of the human frame than any physicians tliat lived be- 
fore tbeir time. It was tliua acquired : " Tliey procured a'imi- 
nals out of prison by royal permission, and, iliascctJng them 
alive, contemplated, while they were yet breathing, the parts 
which nature had before concealed— exatuiuiug their position, 
colour, figure, size, order, hardness, softncM, smoothness, and 
roughness."' In short, they dissected living nieu, — crimi- 
nals, perhapB, in the eye of the hiw, or a lawless tyrant, but 
probably political offendcre, and at all events laeu of like 
feeling with thf^msQl^-ea. Tertullian' Bays of one of these 
celebmted anatomists, that " in order to know men lit: liated 
thcm"^ — ^a very devilish initiation I CeUus reports the prao- 
tice, without reprobation, "as being considered far the best 

Tho natural result of tliiH bnitAl proceeding, combined 
with an entire laxity of morals and excessive voluptuousness, 
was the utter degradation of the art and practitionera 
of rae<;Hcine. Indeed, howctiulJ men who had been taught 
to look u])on a human being undergoing the agonies of 
varions prolonged surgical operations, for the amusement 
or instruction of the operator, be very much concerned 
about the fiite of their [mtients — so long as they were paid. 

< OelmiK. Frff. p. 7. xTnitarclnr, ipii liomiuciii odit ul umi- 

* '•BaroplulaiiUo, ntedinuanl U- m(."— 'TwUllltui de AiumH, o. 10. 
si OK, <itti iwEemtei omnit vi ntttnni QaoUd iy SpniasvL 

B.O. 312. 
A.l>. 3i>l>. 



And we find ft cliaracteristie reply of one of the iiio«t dis- 

tinguislied pUyaicinns of this sciiooJ put upon record. He 

was uked by a man whom he was attending, if there waa 

any hope. He quoted the answer of Achillea to Lycaon, 

wiio Iiad piteouftly tyuobed tbe knees of the fBnxsious hero, 

and iutplured liim lu Kjmre h'la life : 

*' Ditt ftin Uion ! nhy thus to wailing yield efcoe T 
Desd al«o lit Pkirovliu, irlio tluin Ihum wu gruktl; betlcr.*' ' 

This answer waa given by Knlifiaas, who may be lookeil 
upon as tbe founder of the " rude scbool " — a school which 
has hod several most successful disciples in England, and 
is far from extinct there now.' 

In Alexandria, at this period, was introduced the distiuo 
tion betwecu Physicians and Surgeons, Tbe practice of the 
latter, if it included lithotomy, was sometimes of rather 
an equivocal cli.iriicter, although highly remunet'ative. For 
when, in 1 4i4 n.i"., Trypbon nnptred to tlie throne which, 
two years previuusly, lie had secured for Antiocbus VI.. be 
waa induced to consult a celebrateil lithotoniist, who, under 
the pretext of giving liiin relief, contrived to operate so 
dexterously a.s to make a vacancy in the succession.* 

We are now eouiing in sight of that great event from 
which human history takes a fresh departure. Christianity 
at first must have acted injuriously upon medicine. The 
divine Founder of our Faitli appeared not onlj- in the 
character of a preacher, or piiiphet, but very conspicuously 
in that of a Hwiler, or, in feet, of a KEDICAL UAS, — we 
nse tbe expiiession with all re\*erenee. One of bia appella- 
tions, that of Sanour, is translated into German, by the 
word Heilaud, or Healer ; and to tbe common eye of the 
time, his work was the curing of the sick. Most of tlio 
deeds recorded of Him in tbe Gospels, were instanoea of 
I BoDiv'i niftd. Book XXI. l«tlioa«, to Aenn tbon " to put oal 

* A pnbmut ot the imctlra of ibelr lotit^uM!" 
^lifiic IB s avnlMni nDivvr^tjr I^Hhei ' lit. Lib, 5ff. 

[J|I> rtQilMiU, when thvjr find |*lieiLta 



[Chap. m. 

tbe restoration of health or life. That tliia was the im- 
pression made upon Uis contemporaries, appears from tho 
followiiig letter, written by Kiug Abganw, of Arabia, and 
triinslated out of the Syriac limguaga by EuseUus.' 

"Abgarus, priiioe of Etles&a, sends, greeting, to Jcsua 
the excellent Saviour, who has appeared in the borders of 
Junisaleui. I have heard the reports resjiecting tUee and 
thy cures, as performed by thee Trithout medidnes, 
and without the uae of herbs. For, aa it is siiid, thou 
causest the bUad to see ag^iin, the lame to walk, and 
thou cleanseat the lepers, and thou castest out impure 
spirit) and demons, and tbou healest those that are tor- 
mented by long disease, and thou ratsetit the dead. And 
hearing all these tilings of thoe, I conchi<led in my mind 
one of two things^ — either ttiat tliou art Ood, and, having 
descended from Heaven, these things ; or else, doing 
them, tliou art the Son of God. Therefore, now I liave 
written and besought thee to vidit ine and lo Iwid the 
dis&ise with which I am afflicUd." "This epistle," 
observes Eusebius, " he thus wi-ote whilst yet somewhat 
(i. e. partially) enlightened by the rays of divine truth." 
Although the genuineness of this letter is much questioned, 
yet tho fact of its approval by Euscbiuc!, shows his sen- 
timents upon the subject of its contentsf. 

But the power of '* lieoling all manner of diseases" was 
not restricted to the great Author of our Salvation ; it was 
given by Kim to his disciples, and their miracleg in tliat 
direction were aa wonderful as his own. Let us consider 
how this "gift " muHt luive worked upon medicine aa a human 
art and scieuoe. Take, for example, one of tho of 
the early converts, the Evangelist Luke. He, according 
to uuiversal tradition, was a physician. If, afler his oon- 
vereiou, he continued to exercise liLs calling for bis support, 

■ The BcduiBfltic&l HuiUiry of Kium- 
biuB Puniibiliiu, trwuUteJ ttam tiu 

(Jmtk hr tli« lUtr. C. R Cnai, A.M. 

a a 819. 
*.». SOO. 



he n»]st have been placed ia a very embarrassing dilemma. 
Suppose Itim sent for to see some great man, such as 
King AbgaruH, who, b(?ing 111, called him in to cure him, 
how was he to act? If, as one possessLug tlie gift of 
direct healing, would he be justified in taking a fee? If, 
on the otliCT haud, ho prouciibcd, an Hippocrates would 
have done, was he not therein doing despite to the mi- 
roculous endowment ? 

In short, medicine, as an art based upon the natural 
and ordinary course of events, was superseded for a time by 
the extraordinary and preternatural puwer of oertaiti men. 
Had this power coutinued in the Church, then the medical 
professioQ must have entirely disappeared ; for who would 
have gone through the painful, un<i!crtiun, and exptuiaivo 
methods of ireatmeut, then and Bince in vogue, if all that 
was required to be done was to send for a holy man 
to pronounce certain words, and so end the distress T 
It may be objected, that the cure required faith on the 
part of the patient. This was, certainly, not always the 
case; aa, for example, — when a youth was cured of fever at 
the intercessioo of his father ; for the distance and the 
probable delirium of the patient made any intt^Uigent and 
mental ciTort impossible for him ; and It is clearly inap- 
plicable to the greatest of all cures — the restoration of those 
already dead — by no menus a very uncommon occurrence.' 

When we consider the iuextricable confusion at this 
period between the natui-al and supernatural cures, and how 
the fact of Uiere being i-eul miracles of healing must have 
engendered a swarm of impudent prettrndcrs who, of course, 
would glory in their contempt of science, we cannot be 
surprised at the antagonism which existed in the first cen- 
luries between Christianity and Medicine ; or that, while 
" Galen, and the best heads of Greece and Rome,"' despised 
alike the doctrine and the teachers, confounding them with 

> Buebiu, p. aOi.] 1 Stmagg], T«l. 11. p. Wi. 

it.<L aia. i 

4LA.9O0. ( 


Ocnnputation, fwri millions and a quarter of inlmhitantiS, 
l^ipareuUy a proiiiiKing Held uf practice. But wben 
we auijyse tliese numbers, we find tliAb there were only 
10,000 of what we should call gentry; there 'nrcre 
], 250,000 I'mpulnce, and a1>out a million of slaves. This 
populace, or Plebs, were alwf^a paupers in feeling ; a large 
proportiou of (liem actually received public alms, all of 
tliem gratuities in the form of dieap bread and free. 
admission into tlie tlieatres, wlioro tlicy witnessed coimbate 
betwe<!ti gladiators, and wliere they not utifrciiucntly saw 
ibe noblest men oud women, torn to piece» and devoured 
by wild benAta From a mob fed on unearned bread, and 
glutted «-ith wglitfl of horror, it would liavu been folly to 
expect one spaik of getiuiue feeliug, or u sentiment of 
independence. They were dragooned into outward order 
by a powerful ffenedarmerie, chiefly foreigners, who pa- 
trolled the streets iu great force, and arrested all they 
found there at night.' 

The condition of the slaves was most deplorable. "The 
way in which the Greeks treated their slaveH woh far more 
humane than among the Romans. The general notion of 
the ancients respecting slaves was, that they were entirely 
the property of tlieir masters, who might make any use 
they thought fit of them, according to their pleasure, and, 
if they chose, liill them. . . . Throughout the republic, and 
with few exception* up to the time of the Anlonine.-^, the 
master held absolute control ovei' the slaves. He could 
practise the most cruel barbarities on them, or oven kill 
tliem with impunity. So that slaves were looked upon as 
pieces of goods, and tyrannical masters had serious doubta 
whether they should be considered as human beings at 
alL"* There was no middle class in Rome. 

■ Oallus ; or, Roman Sovtmv ot lUe 
lime uf A u^LuiLaii, bj Vmt. W. ElMkor, 
tnuobtwl tv U» Ber. P. Jl«mUc, 

M.&. Fkrkcr, 1849. 
• Ibid. 



[Cm p. III. 

Uie Jews, the eariy fathers, on their part, were annoyed 
at tlie influenoB of jiliilusophers. Thus, we Bad in 
£uschiu» the fullowing pasifage quoted from one of the 
CImstian writere of that period :— '* They ahaudon the Holy 
Scriptures for the study of geometry ; as, beiiig of the earth, 
they talk of the earth " [« play upon the Greek woi-ds from 
which gcmiiftry, or earth ttieagu'i'enMnt, is derived], "and 
know not Him that cometh from ahnve. Kuclid, therefoi-e, is 
industriously moasured hy them; Aristotle and Theo])hra8tus 
are also admired ; and as to Oalcn, he is even, perhaps, woi'- 
shipped by some."' The ojiiKwition of rdigioii and science 
was, at tliat period, absolute and in-ocoucilalle. The 
foundation of all science^ tho reliability of a material 
cause producing a material effect, and a material effect 
involvin}^ an antecedent material cause, was undermined 
hy spiritual agencies, acting dii-cctly upon matter, and sus- 
pending what wc eall ita laws. This subserviency of the 
material to the moral, of matter to spirit, was an excep- 
tional mode of announcing an eternal fact. Sliould similar 
occun-cnces ever reappear, it would he as impa^wihlc to r(icon- 
cilo them with science as it wat> in the case of the uiiracles. 
While mediciuc, as a practical human art and science, 
was paralyhecl in the East by tho appearance of tho Great 
Physician, anJ his wonder-working disciples ; it was ex- 
posed in Rome, the metropolis of the world, to influences of 
a very destructive and wholly diflerent character. It is not 
till Hxe time of the Empifc th'^t medicine can be snid to 
have existed in llome at all ; and the medical celebrities of 
this period in the hiator}* «f the art, beloog chiefly to 
tike second aud sulwe<pient centuries. It is impossible to 
imagine a great city worse calculated for the honest 
and indejKiulent practice of tlie rnudical profession than 
Rome was under the emperors. It wan then ne»rly as 
jtopulons as London now ia, containing, by the soiaUest 

* BuwUins, !>. 203. 

n.e. 319: 

A-Bt 200. 



computation, two millions and a quarter of inhabitants, 
appareutly a promising field of prnctioe. But when 
we analyse tliem numbers, we find that there were only^ 
10,000 of what wo sliould call gcuiry ; tliere were 
1,250,000 populace, and about a million of slaves. Tliis 
populace, or PUhs, were alwoj's paupers in feeling ; a large 
proportion of them actually iijceived jmblic alms, all of 
them gratuities in tlie form of cheap bread and free. 
admission into the theatres, where they witnessed combats 
between gladiators, and where iXwy not unfrequently saw 
the noblest men and wom^n torn to pieces and devoured 
by wild beaatH. From a mob fed on unearned bread, and 
glutted with sights of horror, it would have been folly to 
expect one spark of genuine fetiUnjj, or a sentiment of 
iiidependenoe. Tlu^y wcro ilragooned into outward order 
by a powerful gensda-nnerie, chiefly foreigners, who pa- 
trolled the streets in great force, and arrested all ihey 
found there at night.' 

The condition of the slaves was most deplorable. " Tlie 
way in whi«A the Greeks treate<l their slaves was far more 
bumoae than among the Romans. The general notion of 
the ancients respecting slaves was, that they were entirely 
the property of tlieir moateni, who might make any use 
they thought tit of them, according to tlieir pleasure, and, 
if they chose, kill theui. . . . Throughout the republic, and 
with few exceptions up to the time of the Antoninei, the 
master held absolute control over the skives. Hq could 
practise the most cruel barbnriliea on them, or even kill 
them with impunity. So that slavufi were looked upon as 
pieces of goods, and tyrannical masters had serious doubts 
whether tliey should be considered as human beings at 
aU."' There was no middle class in Rome. 

* Qnllus ; ar, Ranmn Roen«s of tbe 
lYlowof AuirnaUu, hj Pinf. W. Ileokcr, 
ftUd by tlie U«r. P. MoHmUc, 

M.A. I>arkBr, 1M». 



[Ob«p. tn. 

tlie Jews, tlie early fatliera, on tlieir part, wore niinoyed 
ai the mflucnoo of jiliilosophers. TJjua, wo fiud iu 
EuscbiuH the following post^agc quobe<) from one of the 
Christian writers i>f UiJit p<'rioJ : — " Tiiey abandon the Holy 
Scriptures for the atiiily of geometry ; as, beiug of the earth, 
they talk of tlie earth " fa play upon tlie Grt-ek woitls from 
which geometry, or earth ■measiuvment, is derived], "and 
kiiow not ITim that cometh from above. Euclid, therefore, is 
industriously measured bj* them; Aristotle and Theophrastus 
are also admired ; and as to Giden, he Ls even, perhaps, wor- 
shipped by some.'" The opposition of religion and science 
was, at that period, alisoluto and in-iHwricilaljle, The 
fiiuiidation of all science^ Ihu i-uLiability of a material 
cause i»t>ducing a material efiect, and a material effect 
involving an antetwdent material cause, was undermined 
by spiritual af,^nde!s acting dirucUy upon nialter, and sus- 
pending what we call its laws. This subst;i-vieDCy of the 
material to the moral, of matter to spirit, was on. excep- 
tional mode of announcing an eternal fact. Should similar 
occun-ences ever reappear, it would bejis impossible to recon- 
cile them with Bcience as it was in the case of the miracles. 
Wljile mcdiciuo, as a practical bamau art and science, 
was paralysed in tlwi E(wt by the appearance of the Great 
Physieian, and his wonder-working disciples ; it was ex- 
posed in Rome, the metropolis of the world, to influences of 
a very destructive and wholly different chai*acter. It is not 
till tlte time of the Empire thit medicine can bo said to 
have existed iu Rome at all ; and the medical celebrities of 
this period in the historj* of the art, belong cbictiy to 
the aeoond and aulxteiiuent centuries. It is impoesible to 
imagine a great taly worse calculated for the boaeet 
and indci>endent practict^ of the medical profession than 
Rome waa under the emperors. It was then nearly as 
populous as London now is, containing, by the smallest 

' BuMkiiu, !>. 303. 

■.0. aifl. 



computation, two millinnn and a qnarler of inhaliiliwits, 
appnreatly a pronii»iiig field of practice. But when 
we iiiial^'se tlicsb nnmbeta, we find tlmt tlicrc were only 
] 0,0U0 of what wo should call gcntty ; ttiore were 
1,250,000 populftoe, and about a million of Blavcs. This 
populace, or Pleba, were nlwaj-s |«iuperB in feeling ; a largo 
pruportiou of tliem actually n^ceived public alios, all of 
fcbcm gratuiticit in the fonn of dicap bread and free 
admission into the theatres, where they witncsHcd coinbata 
betweun gladiators, aud whore tliey aut unfretjuently saw 
the noblest men and women torn to pieceg and devoured 
by wild boosts. From a mob £hI on unearned bn^ad, and 
glutted willt sights of horror, it would have been fully to 
expect one spark of genuine feeling, or a sentiment nf 
independence. Tbey were dragooned int-o outward order 
by a powerful gpiisdarmerie, chiefly foreigners, who pa- 
tjvlh'fl the streets in great force, aud arrested all they 
found there at ni^hi.' 

The condition of the slaves was most deplorable. " The 
way in which the Greeks treated their Rlavw was far more 
humane timn among Uie Romana. The general notion of 
the ancients respecting slaves was, that they were entirely 
tlte property of tlieir masters, who might make any nse 
ittey thought fit of them, according to their pleiieure, aud, 
if tbey chose, kill tbeni. . . . Throughout the rejiublic, and 
with few exceptions up to the time of the Autouinea, the 
master held absolute control over the slaves. He could 
practise the most cruet barbarities on them, or even kill 
them with impunity. So that slavfis were hiokcd ujwii aa 
pieces of goods, and tyrannical masters had »erious doubts 
whether they should be oonaidorcd as human beings at 
all."' Thero was no middle cluss in Rome. 

OnllNH ; ax, Ram&D Koencd of Xkc 

tof Aigoetiw, I7 Pnvf. W. IlMker, 

it«d br Uic ficT. P. MtiaJlo, 

M.A. PftrW, !&(». 



[CHir. m. 

the Jews, itm early rHttmrs, on their ]>iu-t, wore nnuoyed 
at the iofluence uf philosophtir». Thus, we ilnd in 
Eusebiu.t the following passage quotctl from ono of the 
ClirisUau writers of that period : — " They ahim Jon the Holy 
Scriptures for tlie study of geometry ; aa, bciug of tiie eaa-th, 
they talk of tho earth " fa play upon tlie Gi-eek words from 
which geometry, or cartK w.eafiui'ement, is derived], "and 
know uot Him that conictb fioui above. Euclid, therefore, is 
industriously measured by them ; Aristotle and Theophrastna 
am alflo mhnired ; and as to (ialeo, he is even, perhaps, wor- 
shipped by aomo."' The opjiosition of religion and science 
wiw, at that period, absolute and irreooncihible. The 
foundatioa of all Kuience, the reliability of a mateiial 
cause producing a material effect, and a material effect 
involving an antecedent material cause, was undermined 
by Bpiritujil agencip*:, acting directly upon matter, and sus- 
pending whiit we call iU hiws. This suliserviencj' of the 
n^aterial to the moral, of matter to spirit, was an excep- 
tional mode of announcing an eternal fact. Shuuld similar 
occurrences ever leajipenr, it would be as impossible to roeon- 
dle them with science aa it was in the case of the mimcles. 
While medicine, as a practical humaa art and science 
•wafl pftralysed in the East by tlio npijearancc of the Great 
Physician, and liig wonder-working ditici[>tcs; it was ex- 
posed lu Rome, the nietrO|Ki1is of the world, to iuHucncee of 
a very destructive and wholly different chamcter. It 1b not 
till the time of the Empire tlii.t medieiue can. be said to 
hare existed in Rome at all ; and the medical celebrities of 
this period in the history of the art, belong chiefly to 
the u«ODd Rod subsequent centuries. It ia im^xifisible (o 
imagine a great city worse calculated for the honest 
and indejx:ndent practice of the mediail profession than 
Rome was under the emperors. It waa then nearly aa 
populous lu Loudou now is^ conlaiuing, by the smallest 
* Swvbtei, p. S0& 

«.& Sl«. 

!.». SCO. 



OoiDpulabioD, two millions aud a quarter of inlmbiiants, 
apparently a promising field of practice. But wlicn 
ve analyse these imtnbens ve find that there were only 
1 0,000 of what we should call gentry ; there were 
],S50,000 [>opu]ftce, and about a million of slaves. This 
populace, or Plebs, were always paupers in f«;]ing ; a large 
pnaportiou of them actunlly received public alms, all of 
them gratuities in the form of cheap bread and free, 
admission into the theatres, where they witnessed combata 
between gladiators, and where they uut unfrequeiitly saw 
the noblest men and women torn to pieces and devoured 
by wild lieasts. From a mob fed on unearned bread, and 
glutted with siglits of horror, it would have betm folly to 
expect one spark of genuine fettling, or a sentiment of 
independence. Tliey wore dragooned into outward order 
by a powerful gengtUvrmerie, chiefly foreignew, who pa- 
trolled the streets in great force, and arrested all they 
found there nt ni^jht." 

The condition of the slaves was most deplorable. " Tlic 
way in wbicli the Greeks treated their slaves was &r more 
humane than ntnong tlie llomans. The genera] notion of 
the aneieuts respecting slaves wa*i, that they were entirely 
the property of their mastfu-a, who might make any nse 
they thought fit of them, according to tlicii- pleasure, and, 
if they chose, kill them. . . . Throughout the republic, and 
with few exceptions up to the time of the Antoninw, the 
maaier hold absolute control over the slaves. Sb could 
jwactise the most cruel barbarities on them, or even kill 
^them with impunity. So that slaves were looked upon as 
'pieces of goods, and tynumical ma&tei's hod serious doubts 
whetlier they should be considered as human beings at 
all."' Tliere was no middle class in Rome. 

■ QtSbu ; or, Bomwi Bcriw* of Uin 
Tiineof Aiij^iitaa, \ij Prof. W. Ilwlivr, 
tnuuhietl hj the Bev. V. M«UaJie, 

M.A. Parlur, lfl49. 
- IbUl. 



[ciup. ni. 

tlie Jews, the early fatbere, mi their [Hirt, were niinoyed 
at tho influence of philosopherB. Thus, we find in 
Eosebius the following pa&^a^ quotetl from one of the 
Christian writers of that periotl : — " They almiiJon the Holy 
SuriptoreB ior the study of geometry ; as, beiug of the eaitb, 
they tjilk of tlie earth " [a play upon the Greek words from 
which (fannr.trTf, ur earth Tneasurementf i« derived], "and 
know not llini that cuuieth from above. Euclid, therefore, is 
industriously measured by them; Aristotle and Ttiwphrastus 
are ahw atlmired ; and as to Giden, ho is even, perha|)8, wor- 
shipped by some." ' The opposition of religion and science 
was, at tlint period, abHolate and irreconcikhle. Tho 
fitundatinn of all science, the reliability of a material 
cause producing a material effect, and a material efiect 
involving an antecedent material cause, was undemiined 
by spiritual af,'cncies, acting directly upon matter, and sus- 
pending wliat we call its laws. This subserviency of the 
material to the moral, of matter to spirit, was an excep- 
tional nio<le of announcing an eternal fact Should «4iniilar 
oocuntincefi ever leajipear, it would be as impossible to n;eon- 
cile them with science as it was in the case of the miracles. 
While medicine, as a praotical human art and sdence, 
was paralysed in the East by the appearance of the Great 
PhyHiciitn, and bis wonder-working diydjiles ; it was ex- 
posed in liome, the metropolis of the wt^rld, to loflueuocs of 
a very destnictive and wholly differont chai-acter. It is not 
till the time of the Eiuptro thit medicine can be said to 
have existed in Itome at all ; and the medical celebritiws of 
this period in the lihitoi^' of tho art, livlong chieHy to 
the second and sabseqnent centuries. It is imposaible to 
imagine a great city worse calculated for the honest 
and inde|M.-udent practice of the medical profession tlian 
Kume was under the emperors. It was then nearly as 
IKjpubus as London now is, containing, by the smallest 
■ Bmbiu, p. 20S. 

a.0. m. 1 

A.DL 200. j 



[jOOniputn.tion, two millions and a quarter of inbaliiiants, 
Appareutly a promisiDg field of prnctioe. 13ut when 
we ADAlyse ttieee numbers, wc find tliat there were only 
10,000 of wliat we bUouIU call gentry ; there were 
1,250,000 jKumlace, and about a million of slavwt. This 
populace, or Plelie, were always paupers in feeling ; a large 
proportion of them actually received public alms, all of 
them gratuities in the form of cheap bread and free, 
admission into the theatres, where they witnessed combats 
between gladiators, and wbere they uut uu£-equent]y saw 
the noblest men and women torn to pieces and devoured 
by wild l)easts. From a mob fed on unearned bread, and 
glutted witli Rights of horror, it wouhl have been folly to 
expect one spark of genuine feeling, or a sentiment nf 
iiidependenoe. They wore dragooned into outward order 
by a powerful gip/iwiarmme, chiefly foreigners, who pa- 
trolled the streets in great force, and an-estcd all they 
found there at nif;ht^.' 

The condition of the slaves was mofst deplorable. " Tlie 
ray in wliich the Greeks treated their slaves was far more 
faiimaoe than lunong tlte IJonians. The general notion of 
the ancients respecting slaves was, that they were entirely 
the proper^ of their mastera, who might make any use 
they thought tit of them, acconling to their pleasure, and, 
if they chose, kill them. . . . Throughout the republic, and 
with few exooptiona up to tlie time of the Autonincs, the 
master held absolute control over the alnvcs. He could 
tise the most cruel barbarities on them, or even kill 
Cthcm with impunity. So tliat slaveH were looked upon na 
pieces of gooils, and tyraiaiical mastera had serious doubts 
whetlier they should be considered as hnmau beings at 
all."* There was no middle class in Rume. 

Time of AU|,iurtiis b; Pnrf. W. Iteokor, 
tnu^Mod \>3 \ht Itev. P. MeUalfe, 

M.A. Pkrlur, ia49. 



[ouAp, in. 

The position of the physician innst have been a d^a^llug 
one. Galea found it intoieruble, although he was probably 
caresiffiil, and as much respected as auy man not of the military 
or ruling cast could lie. He only stayed in the city for tliree 
yfiaj"a at a time, and oiia of the rwisona of his quitting it was 
the intense animosity of his profession out of spite at his 
splendid auccess and renown. It is clear there could have 
been no satisfaction in practising among a vulgar, brutal, 
greedy, lieeutlous, pauper pypulaco ; and as for the slaves, 
they had no life to be saved ; their bodies were their 
masters', and physicjaus were even required to perfonn 
tlie most Iiorrible mutilation.*^ upon them'; "since we are 
Rometimea oompeUed, against our will, by persons of high 
rank, to perform this operation," — writes Paulus ^Egtneta.' 
Among tlie upper ten thousand alone, and the straiigera 
who congregated to the capitol, coidd anything Hko a 
satisfactory jiractice bo sought. 

But these upper ten thousand of Rome, although 
imraenaely rich, some highly cultivated and probably well- 
bred, must liavQ been a most disiigrocabln class of yiatients 
for many reasons, of which two will suffice. They must 
have been domineering, and lliuy wore Bupcrstitious — a 
combination tlie moat unfavourable pos.^ible for the success 
of a high-minded physidan, and the best soil imaginable iur 
the growth of quackjt. Xlie Komau magnates could nut 
bnt be dominetiring to their physicians, many of whom 
were slaves. The great men were, or had Vieen, or expected 
to be, governors of provinces, whore, far fi'om the emperor's 
control, they ruled, with absolute authority, barbarians 
whom they despised. Nothing reveals the sentiments with 
which a Roman of the l>est |X)s>iible type regarded his 
subjects, better than the younger Pliny's letter to the 
Emperor l^jan. This Pliny belonged to one uf the best 
families in Borne, Educated by his learned uncl^ the 

> Puulu* EgloeU. Vol. II. r- ^~^- 

ac. 31S. 

».P. K'CI. 



uaturaliat, brought up to tbe bar, an intimate £iend of 
Taatus, addicted to the stiidy of philosophy and history, 
and mixing in tlie moBt refuted and Iciirncd society of hut 
day, — if from any one we might expect huiuanity, liberality, 
and freedom from superstition, it was from tlie younger 
Pliny. In ln-iUtr CVII. of Book X., there oocura the oele- 

hbrated passage wherein the blaiuelessness of the lives of the 

' Cliristiana in his proWnce is narrated. He then adds :— 
" From thcBC circunist-anees, I thought it more necessary to 
try to gain the truth, even by torture, from two women 
who were said to officiate at their "worship ; hut I could 
discover ordy an obstinate kind of superstitiou, canied to 
great exccas." These women, whom this elegant scholar 
exposed to the indignity and hornble anguish of public 

^torture, were the deaconesses of tbe Christian church— 
* honorable ladies," in the eyes of SU Paul. 

One wDidd nnturaUy expect that a gentleman so indig- 
nant at " obstinate fiU|»erstition," wouhl be remarkaljly free 
from it himself; on tlie contrarj*, in various passages scat- 
tered Uirough his cori-csi>ondcncc with Iiih friend.'!, there ia 
abundant evidence of his belief in the most absurd dreams 
and omens of all kinds ; and he rehitca, witltout an cx- 
uon of doubt, the following ghost story, \rhicli is 

'"interestlag, not only as an evidence of Pliny's supersti- 
tion, but as nn example of the unchangeable foi-m of what 
we may call tbe ghost-legend ; for the following talc 
is exactly like what we find cuiTent among gliost-be- 
lievers at the jiresent day : — " TIjere was at Athens, a 
very large and spacious houae, but uf evil report and fatal 
to the inhabitants. In the dead of night tbe clankiug of 
iron, and up(m a closer attention the rattling of cliatns, was 
beard ; first at a great distance, and aftFci'wards ver^' near. 

'A spectre immediately apjieared, i-epresenting an old man, 
emaciated and squalid, his beard long, his biui' staring, 



[Cait. III. 

Ixilto upon his \egn, chains upon liin hands, whicli he rattleJ 
as he carried. From tlieae oiruunLstonues, the inhnbifAnt), 
in all the agouies of fear, coDiinued watching duiin^ 
several melanclioly and dreadful night-'. Such conatant 
waiuhings brought on ilistemiiers, tllncsB wafi incrca.'^d by 
fear, and death enmied ; for even in the day, when ^e 
BpGctrcs was not visible, the reproiontatinn of tlie irnagn 
wandcTwl licfitre their eyes; so that the tciTor wna of 
longer coutiuuaiic« than the ]ireseiice of the spectre. At 
length the house was deserted, and left entirely to the 
presence of the apparition. A hill, lnjMever, was posted 
up to signify that the bouse was either to K-i sold or let, in 
ho])ea that aoine jierson ignorant of the cnlamity might 
uSer for it. Athonodurus, the philosopher, came at that 
time to Athens ; he read the biU, the price surprised him ; 
he siiitpected sonio bad cau^e to occasion the cheapnes.s; and 
upon euquiiy, was informed of all the circumstances, by 
wliich he waa bo little deterred, that they were stronger 
inducement to hire it. When the evening came on, ho 
ordered a bed to be prepared for him in the cluof ajmrt- 
ment. He colled for lighta, his table, book, and pen. He 
Bent all his servants into the further partK of tlie house, 
and applied his eyes, his bands, and his whole attention to 
writing, lest, as ho had heard of apparitions, his mind, if 
nnempbyed, might suggest to him idle fears, and represent 
false appearances. The begiiitung of the night was as 
silent thc'i-e as in other placeH. At length the inm clanked 
and the chains rattled. Athenodorus neither lifted up bis 
eyes nor quitted bis pen, but collecting bis resolution 
fitoplKtd his eare. The noise increased ; it approached, as it 
Was now heard at tlie tlireshold of the door, and imme- 
diately after wnthin the room. The philosopher tunied 
back his head and saw the figure, which he observed to 
answer the description that he had i-eceived of it. The 

^l 20?' I * flHOST STOBV PUOM PLINY. T« 

apparition stood ntU), and beckoned with a finger, like n 
person who calls anoth<>r. Athenodorus si^ified, by the 
tnotion of Ilia hand, that the gho«t tUiould etay a little, and 
agiun immediately applied himself to writing. The spectre 
rattled his chains over the head of the philosopher, who, 
looking hack, aaw him beckoning as before, and immediately 
tiikjiig up a light, followed lu'm. Tiio ghost went forward 
in A slow pace, as if encumbered with the chains, and after- 
waxds, lurniug into a court belonging to the Iioubc, imme- 
diately vanished, leaving the philosopher alone ; who, find- 
ing himself thus deserted, pidled up 8ome grass and Ichtcs, 
and pliuxx] them ns a Rignid to tind the Kpot of ground. 
The utix.t day, he went to the magtstrates, informed them 
of the event, an<l desired tliat they would order the place 
tu be dug up. Uumiui bouet) were found buried there, and 
bound in chains. Time and the earth had mouldered away 
the flesh, and the skeleton only remained, which woa pub- 
licly buried; and after the rites of sepulture, the house was 
no longer haunted. I give credit to these cii-cuui stances, 
aa reported by others."' 

When we recoUect that of the upper ten thousand n 
very considerable number were suoceftsftil military a<lven- 
turers, who had returned to Rome enormously rich from 
extortion in the provinces over which they had Ijeen 
placed ; that they were idle, ignonmt, and given up to every 
kind of delmueliury, the liruithi] source of distvin[>(:rs ; and 
that, besides the [>erinHneDt residents, there were computed 
to be about SO.OOO strangers in the city, wc cannot wonder 
tliat Rome iihould be the paradise of quacks. The extra- 
vaganoe of some of tht^e gentry is almost incredible. 
Atbemeus ' mentions one wUu Blylod liimsolf Jupiter, 

' PUiit'i Letun, tnudaud by Lutd 
Omry. Vol. II. p. 173. 

■ Atfceamu. Vol H. p. 4M. " Ho 
oontpeOed ftU «hp maw to bv ouml l>y 

blm of vliat is ealbil the Kkcral Sin- 
uw, to «nt«r tnto & vriiWri A^reenieiit 
Ibai if litnj i>n.-OPvi«<I tliej woold be 
kb) aliiT**. Anil Ui«T foUoPcd hini, 



[Chap. m. 

and made it a condition with his patients that in 
the event of his curiiig thorn they shoald submit to his 
will in all tliiiij^. Ho dressed somn up as the les-scr gods, 
and so used to bold a court of Olympua in Syrncuse. It 
was the fiisliion in Rotoe for physicians to make thmr 
rounds attenilcd by a retinue of followers^ and Martial 
describes! Iiow hia doctor carae with his disciples to see 
him : — " A hundred frozen bands tire laid upon me ; I 
had no fever — now I have ! " he esclainia,' 

Even in men of great renown, who tixercised a 
long and powerful, and on the whole beneficial in- 
fluenoo on medicine, there was a sad dash of the quackisli 
element, and in none more than in Asclepiades. He was 
bom in Bithyuia, and after practiHing a while in Alex- 
andria, he finally tietUed in Rome, where he aoqulred 
enormous fame by hi-s general talents, especially his elo- 
qucnopi to which his friend Cicero* boars witness. He waa 
evidently a very hold and iudei>endent thinker as well as 
practitioner. He maintained that the body was formed 
out of corpiiscules which were endowed with the power of 
motion, and that out of the action and reaction of those 
arose the vital phenomena, while the im]K*rfect performance 
of their career produced disease ; t*o thai all Hippocrates 
had written about Nature and critiail discharges was little 
better than nonscnso, for Umc Nature did harm as well as 
good.' And as for a soul, he saw no necessity for it at 
all. To him we are indebted for the brief exposition of 

»&• immnjc ttin ditmt of lltmrulc^ uii! 
being ckllod na«(il«a ; Boother in the 
dltM tif TAcTCury, wiUi oimk, and cA' 
doMUfi, imJ wingB. Kiit JupiUr Me- 
aM&sloi bimnU, dul in piirpli% muI 
luvtng « goUvD otovd upon Ut hni, 
Rad ]iiilitiii|t » iKwptn, and Wog iliod 
with iIiii|«rB, wnl about witli hu cbo- 
ra»ca III gofU." 
1 " lAOj^io'xun : M^ ^ oomitAtui 
imitlaiu iwl mc 

Veaivti, centum SjrRiiDiirlii-, di*- 

Cmluin Ria Utigtne maDosAqni- 

]<in« g«l&tay. 
Kon balnil fvbram— Spiunuket 

anno luboo." 

Mnrii^. Lib. V. K]>, », 

* U« Orularc. Lih. I. Mclioi ami- 

* " Non Miuiwr nnhl««t lutbLntxd 
fUam nn*^'*— Ca-llu* Aural, p. 110, 

■'*'■ Q,l?" I ASCLBPrADKS* DOMCmrATHY. 81 

A. I>. sUv- I 

a physician's duty — " Ty cuie safely, promptly, aud plva- 

JR^jfcting the Hippocratic llioory of diseoee, with logical 
consiateiicy he ahaiiJoncd the practice founded o& it, aud 
tnamlamed Umt the ndmiuisti-aUon of powerful drug^a, 
instead of expelling the evjl from the Lody, induced nu 
unnatural noxious coodition. He truHteJ much to diet aud 
the proper xisc of friction and exerdae. He waa also 
skilled in various iiio<ie8 of bathing, and was tlic ilrst who 
employed the shower-bath. His choice of medicines seems 
8ometinie« to have been dictated by the homceopathio 
formula ; for example, be used to give iivine in cases of 
kthargy, although he aliO gave it in pKrenltis to produce 
leep. His knowledge of liOi]iuio|Kltliy, however, was 
probably of the vague aud popular diameter expresjod by 
the following lines of Antipbancs, who lived n,c. +04, and 
whose poem contains tlic fullest and earliest announeeTiient 
of the doctrine we have inet with. One would almost 
Buppone it must have beeu known to Sluikespcre when be 
wrote hie fiutious passage to tfae some eScct. Antiphanes' 
lines are as follow ; — 

" 'iVli« the hair, It i» woll wridtio, 
Of tlic ilog bj vrhicli jou'rc bitlen ; 
Work off «ne wloe ^y bb brotbcr, 
And OBO Iftbonr with luiothor ; 
Honu with borna^ ami noiw wtUi notae ; 
One erier wlih hi* folloVii rmcc ; 
Ituiill with innalt i «u with wm ; 
Fu-'liQQ wiih facUoD ; atn with mre ; 
Couk Willi oook, noil rtrifa with tirih ; 
BluiiuniriCh biuliiaB, and irlfi; irjili wife."^ 

The nanieof Galkn is probably better known in conneo- 
tlon with medicine, than tbut of any other man. Hia 
icfluenoe liaw bt-eu enormous, extending jwiramount over a 
period of fifteen hundred years at tlie Icfwt. He was born 

' "Tulo, flito, jamiadB."— C«lii«, p. 110. ' Albcnrus. Op. ciL 




[Caxi. in. 

A.D. 131, ftt Pergamus, n town in Asia Minor, celebrated, 
like ilio birth-plooc of bis great prcdcoessor, for a Temple 
of .^Esculapius. His fotlicr, by name Nicou, was " of sur- 
passing ekill in geometry, nrchitectare, astronomy, orith- 
mctic, and logic ; but was best known on account of his 
justice, modesty, and goodness," a*xording to his distin- 
giiisbeJ, but nitber rhetorical son.' Nicon must have 
been somewliat Bupersiitious, for he was induced by a 
dream,' to devote Oalen to the study of medicine. After 
studying iu his native place for ROme years, and obtaining 
houours in tbo schooU of philotHjphy, he began his travelu, 
which were for scientific purposes, such as tlie investi- 
gation of aspholte by the Dead Sea, not a safe or easy 
undertaking in those days. He then spent some time at 
Alexandria, the great school of anatotn}' at that period ; and, 
returning to his native town ut the age of twenty years, 
became physician to the temple, where, among his other 
duties, he had to attend to the accidents which uccitrred at 
the public gomes. Hero ho remained till the nge of tbirty- 
fuur, when, iu consetjueuce of a political distm'baDoc, he 
left Pergamus and went to Home. The first tiling he did 
when ho got there, wau to go to one of tho gymnasia or 
fbndng-schools, and, in a wrestle, he got a Gilt, which 
dislocated his slioulder. He himself gave directions how 
it was to be set, telling the atteudauta not to mind how 
loud ho holloed out &oro the pain, bnfc to do to him 
what he did to others. The operation was quite suo- 
cessfiil. Tie very soon acquired great renown in Rome^ 
diiefly through Ids accuracy in ]irogiiij»ti eating the courso 
that cases would take, and he was called, in by all tho 
grandees. His feee seem to have been very Iiandsome. 
For cnring the wife of the consul Boetbius, he reoeived 
About ^350, — a large sum, oven in Home, where evety- 

* SvEodttj-BiAClCBMehriuU. Ub. 

* I>« U«dri»li U-tb<Klo. Uh. IX. 



tiling was very dear. ADOth>er cure be made wati very 
celebrated ; it was that of a distingiilslied philasopher, 
Kudemius, who liod brought on an Uluete by an exoes^ve 
dose of UioriiLcuin Strange to say, it wait by adiniDiK- 
tering tbis very medicine in proper measure, that Galen 
restored him I 

■« Tike tt halt," Iw. 

At this time, lie gave public lectures in Rome ; but veiy 
soon bis splendid renown eseitcd such diabolicjil hntred in 
the mindMof hiBprofesaionidbrt'thn'nj that he found his life 
110 loiigtu* safe. It seems that anuther Greek i>hysician, along 
with bis two assisttmts, had mdiially been poi^oued by their 
rivals, out of en^-y at their (*iieceaH.' So at the a^'e of thJiiy- 
)<even be was again atlrift, and wandered over many landy in 
pursuit of natural UisUuy, Atlengtli be rctumi'd to Rome, 
at the requisitiou of the Emperor Commodus, to be \ds phy- 
sician. However, be did not stay long there — probably he 
found little to liis tast<; in that corru])t capital ; and lifu-ing 
been warned in a dream to return to bis native country, 
be obeyed the omen, and spent the remainder of his bfe in 
the place of Ids birth. The e.\acl date of Iiis death is un- 
certain, but it i& believed not t«j have occunod before he had 
attained the age of seventy years.* 

" Speech is silver, silence is gold," says the provei-b. Hip- 
|>ocrates, the t}*pe of a physician, was sparing of words : 
Oalen was a man of ulvdr sjwech, copioua to diifuscness. 
Le Clerk enumerates about two hundred treatises of his 
writing, which have been preserved. In fact, he was more 
of a ati"(int than of a practitioner ; and biu influence is in 
a considemble measure due to Iiis having written a sort of 
encyelojaedia of mmliail liteniture. He was to the medi- 
cine of the iive centuries which intervened between 
the Age of Hippocrates and Ids own, what the poet 

* Ot lilt. Proi>t. 

• Le Cl«rk uul Sprengvl. 
11 2 



iQaxt. UI. 

is to hia CTft : — ^lie rang out the old, he completed the record. 
Hia ]>0!^iiiv6 nildiltuns to the pructico of the art are in- 
coiiiparnbly lesa iniportout thau liis coiitributioua to its 
literature; and tltc uino^'nt.iona of oil enduring character 
which he introduced wcixt mUior the result of thouglit than 
observatloii. He was the first to make the important 
division, firniiliar to us now, of the causes of di»eaae into 
" remote " and " proximate/' and to divide the former into 
the " predisposing" and "eKating ; " meaning, by predis- 
^svng, those which produoed some cliEUige in the oondition 
of u person which made hini liable to noxious influence, as, for 
example, exhaustion or debility; by exeiiing, these noxious 
influences themselves — ns pcstjlent vapours ; while, by the 
^om/niatc causes, or those in immediate connection with 
the disease itself, he meaut the unnatural notions which 
were thus induced, and which gave rise to i»aia imd 
general disturbana'. Although casentially eclectic, and 
grievously displeased at the rampant hostllitita of the pre- 
vailing sects of Dogmatists, Mothodists, &e., he was evi- 
dently deeply imbued with the doctrines of the school 
called Pneumaiic, ffrom pnewitM^ which we have ah-eady 
largely diacuBsed as a physiological speculation, but which 
has also hod a lasting and powerful inBnence in pathology. 
With him the pneuma was different from the soul, but in- 
strumental as a medium for the action and reaction of soul 
and body. The soul resided in the brain, to which the 
spirit, or pneuma, had acoess by means of the fonmiina, 
wliicli he believed to communicate between the nostrils and 
the interior of the skull.' Hence the use of alemuta- 
tories ; the sneezing was supposed to clear the vcntricules 
of the brain, and allow the soul to be refreshed with 
pneuma, or spirit, of a better kind. How very material 
hia notions of the spirit were, may be gathereil from his 
description of the sense of Kight,' in which he sjicaks of the 
> I>e Uu Futlun. Lib. TU. ' Ibid. UU X. 

B.C. 813. 

A. 0.1100. 



pneunia aa nctuaUy retained In it* place by the meclianiail 
distribution, of tbo parts, aiid as receiving the rays of light 
and passing them on to thn optic nerve.' How far Onlen 
concurred with the Pneumatic sect in regarding this spirit 
aa itself liable to derangement, go as to act on the whole 
eystem like a poison, it is not easy to make out. This 
view is thns expressed by Aretasus, a writer supposed 
to have lived about the aaiue time, and \v!ioRe admirable 
descriptions of disease, from their retr e s h iug conciseness aud 
graphic powor, present a strong contrast to the vicious 
elaboration of style common at his time: — "My opinion," 
lie says, when spejiking of Cynanche, " is, that it Js merely 
a diseaae of the breath (jmeitma, apirif), from its being con- 
verted by some action into a very hot and acrid statt!, without 
any intlauiinatlon of the body ; and there is notliiug so very 
extraordinary in this notion,for the suffocation from mephitic 
caves is exceedingly severe, without there being any bodily 
disease, and persons die merely from a single inspiratioa 
before the bo«.ly can be in any way affected ; and agmn, 
a person becomes rabid from the tongue of a dog merely 
breathing on him in expiration, without his being bitten at 

According to tliis theory, an exciting cause, such as the 
poison of hydrophobia, might act primarily upon the 
pneuma, or spirit; this, in its turn, upon the brain or other 
organs, bo as to cause death without any tttBturbiuice 
or alteration of the body itself. Against such spiritual 
diseue, it is plain, that the ordinary material remedies 
would be i^Kiwerless. One cannot physic a ghtist. 

Whether Oaten coincided with this notion or not, he was 
certainly not a hit less fanciful in Ins pathology. Thus, he 
divides infhimination into the following kinds: — Ist. The 
simple, which is caused by excess of blood alone in any 
part. 2nd. When pneuma enters along with the blood 

' 8preiif«l. Vol. II. p. 155. ' ARltcoti, p. 9. 



[Cuir. III. 

3rd. When yellow bile gains admiBsioD, it b ei^aipelatoua. 
4th. When phlegm, it is scirrhous or cancwous. 

Gfllcn'.s greatest innovation -vras the introduction of the 
itidicalioiis ailurJed by the ptilsti ; and his chnpters, or ratlier 
treatises, upon tlie pulse, are wonderjul examples of per- 
verse ingenuity. He gives tables of the various kinds of 
puke, us, for example, — 

I . Lone, broul, high, Inrge J 

3. Long, hrwl, modemto; 
■ 3. liAiig, broad, lew (tiuinilb) ; 

4. Long, motlcrnU, hi^ti ; 
£. Iiooj, modcnU, niCHterato, ulender; — 

and 80 on, enumerating tweutj'-sevcn varieties of this 
qualitff alone — that is, of the aejisation of Uiu movement in 
respect to its fulness. 

Tlien we have another table — 

1. Qdck, quick, slow ; 

5. (^iiir-k, quick, <{Di«k ; 

3. Quifik, 'Illicit, moderate, &c.,— 

also extending to twenty-seven varieties in respect ta the 
rapidity of its beat Besides the fuhieKS, Rtrt^ngth, and 
rate, there are a multitude of other dihtioctions which it 
haa been found almost impossible to translate, such as capri- 
zan«, or jniupiug like a goat.' Of the reality of these 
noimnal differencxw there is no doubt ; but the objection to 
this attempt to tabulate them iu the way Galen has done, 
is, that no two physicians would agree whether to call a 
pnlse " long, brood, large," or " long, broad, moderate." If 
these qualities were fixed by a dynamometer, then such 
tables would have at least an objective and positive foun- 
dation to begin with, instead of u merely- arhitraiy one. 
TImj pulse is, undoubtetUy, a most important inde.x of the 
state of the health ; but it requires the ctUtivated tact of 
long exiwricnce to interpret its signification, It cannot be 

> I>« UiSerail. Pub. Lib. I. 

be. 811 

*.D. 200. 



teml off like a (;nsnmf-t*r. Gakn iiseirl to vmint thnt he 
never was mistaken in lii« proguosia If Llii» bo inic, it 
was owing to his exiemive pmctioe, not to such compile* 
ttonH of dubious indicatiotis as he presents us with in theao 
chapters. Were it so, there would have been reason in the 
question of Martial, possibly jjut ironicAlly, but reported 
as a oompliment, " How does it liappen tlial ray prog* 
oostications are not so good as yours? for 1 have read the 
proj^nostics of Hippocrates rs well as you." Whether or 
not GaJen poeseaaed the wonderful gift of infallibility which 
Le daiins — " never having found himself wrong, with the 
help of God, in hi.q prediction," ' — (he seems to have been 
a Moiiothci«tj though not a. Christian) — it is quite certain 
that bis prdctice of medicine had all the fatal faults of his 
idol Hippocrates, besides a large contingent due to liitnself. 
He arranged medicines according to what ht* called their 
"qualities," by which t^rm he did not mean their action 
upon the body, but their inherent heat or coldneas, dryness 
or moisture. Thu8, a medicine was warm in the first} 
second, or tiiird degree ; and moist or diy in a similar ratio : 
BO a mediclna might be hot iti the first and moist in the 
second degree^ and if we met wttli a diwasc which was 
cold in the first and dry in the second degree, then we 
should administer- to the subject of it this remedy,' We 
shall best ilIu«(jTite the working of this folly by a few quo- 
tations from Paulus ,£g^neta, who follows Galen and his 
school, and has left a volume on Matdrta ^edioa, from 
which we extract the following : — 

"(7i«(tw (rock -rose). — It is an astringent shrub of gently- 
cooling powers. Its leaves and slioot^ are so (Leuiocativo 
as to agglutinate wounds ; but the flowers are of a more 
drying nature, being about the second degree ; and kence, 
when drunk, thoy cure d^'senteriea and all kinda of fluxes." ' 

> CummMt. 2, in UK I. QaoteJ ' D« Pwull. B'ita\'\. Lib. V. 

bf Spranfal. Vol. II. ^ IS0. * l\alu» .Ggincu. Vd. HI. p. 74. 



[Ctur. lit. 

" Lapides (atones). — All kiiula ktc. dosiocativr, like enrtli, 
bub tlie HoEanatitis, or bload-^tone, it> a^trlugeiii and desio- 
cative to a consitkrable degree, so tljat it agrees with 
trachonia of the eyelids," &c." 

What an extensive generalization I — All stones— that is, 
all mineral substances — are disposed of as dry, and may be 
used in moist diseases ! Lead, antimony, iirsenic, mercury, 
are intereliangeable quantities, or what Qaleu would call 
" suceedanea." 

" F(miiculurii (fennel) ia Ideating in the tliird degree, 
and desiccative in the first ; it therefore forms milk, and 
reUeves suffusioas of the eye. " ' 

" Ferrum (iron). — Wlien frequently estinguishol in 
water, it imports n considerable desiccative power to it. 
Wlien drimk, therefore, it agrees with affections of the 
Hpleen."* And bo on. 

Given a disease, determine its chai-acter as hot or cold, 
moist or dry, by an eifort of imngination ; htiviiig done so, 
select a remedy which has been catalogued an possessing 
opposite qualities. This ia tiro famous principle of GtUen — 
" c&ntrwria contrariis cumntur" — held in reverence among 
UB to the present day. But Oalen, besides treating disease.'* 
in this metliodic way, was fond of nostrums, and used to 
p«rchfl«e them for large 8um.s. Indeed, hia prescriptions 
bear a strong rcsemhlanoe to those of itinerant quacks. 
For example, under the head of " dysentery," he gives for 
indiscriminate selection, according to taste, nine recipes, 
most of which are incorporated in tlie fonnuliD of Paulus 
.^^iceta, of which the following are specimeos :'— 

*' Of tlio ubi« of niAUa, p. Iv.; of galU, p. ii.; «f popper, p. i. BwIum In 
n dw powder, iui-.1 Kprinklo upon tli« condliDCDU, or gira to drink in water, or a 
«liit», wiU«i7 win*." 

< riitdu Aicfneu. Vol. m. p. 2!!0. 

f iMrt. voL m. p. «a. 

' JKA. Vol. lll.p. 3»1. 


These are compound remedies : — 

" The troehiak from ^Tpiian thorn, that of Philip, that from hartahoni, 
that from .... and the trigonis." 

The pills from Macei* are excellent remedies. The follow- 
ing is an admirable one : — 

" Of opinm, of saffron, of Indian lycnm, of acacia, of ehtunach, of frankin- 
cenm, of galls, of hjpocystis, of pomegranate-rind, of myrrh, of aloes, eqsal 
parts, give in water to the amount of three oboU." ■ 

So we enter the region of polypharmacy, wliich, although 
begun by Qalen, did not reach its fiill extravagance till a 
later age. 

• PauluB .Sgineta. Vol. I. p. 628. 





Clinrcb MinclM — CItwiM Uid Amulel*— Monka and Hedieiae — The HMi[iiUl — 
BotDftit IndiMUW— Tlie DmUhig of the Smjiir^— >riiliikn ike Apoatato— Sftnnu 
Conqneatt—Bliun token M Iti* wonl — Mliliacl Swtt— Joncph Wultf — Hodero 
Fmiui i'bjmdiutt— 8«ttin£ Price of I^iwyen &iuJ PfaysKl&tu — Ckirii^ hii* If)» 
of ChmtUn Dut; — Funuhiuent Phjuciaas wen linblg to — Theri&cuui— Ortlio- 
dox Mtdicinc. 

The History of the Art of Medicine has hitherto flowed 
along a single channel. We have traced it from its source in 
cloud-oappod OIympa% the habitation of the goda of Greece ; 
we have watched it loitering in primitive purity about the 
temples of .^sculapiuti, till it found its westward way to 
Rome ; where, polluted by tlie filth of that vicious me- 
tropolis, we liave seen it converted into a stagnant pooL 
Here it loses its simple chaiucter ; like the rest of human 
history, it becomes broken up ; it is no longer a continuity, 
but a fiuooesMon of complications — for it enters tije revo- 
lution of a thousaud years' duration, a millennium of 
troubles and sorrows such as the world never before en- 
dured. The whole period was one of gestation, with prema- 
ture efforts at production ; until, aflcr incretlihle throes 



[Ca*r. IV. 

As a cure for Uie gout^ tUe i-eiiioily wtu> a plaot over wLicIi 
tiic following words were to l« pronounced ;^ 

" J>n, SoUotb, AiJoDsJ, Bloi." 

Ilti prescribes for a quotidian ague, an amulet consisting 

of an olive Ica^ on wbicli were written in ink ibe following 

lottors: — 

"KA. POJ. A." 

Such being tlie practice of one of the foremoflt men of 
his age, and that not by any means the worst oj^, we 
might nliiioat leave to the ininginatiuu the proceedings of 
the ignorant and vulgar practitioners of medicine. 

Facta, however, liore as eb+ewliere, exceed tlie poweia 
of fictiou to iuveut. For example, wheu a man gut a 
splinter in his eye, he was to lay his hand on the injured 
oi^n, and repent tlirec times, " Tetmw reaonco brct/an 
grtsso," and after each time to spit on the ground. If a 
bone stuck in a person's throat ttiree times, nine timeo 
" Os gorgonis basio " was to be repeated, and then the bone 
was to be plucked out. To cure a stye on the eyelids, 
the points of nine barleycorns were to be rubbed upon the 
piirt, and on each application the words " Fuge, fiige, h'ithc 
«« diokei," weie to be ejiiculated. When tlio stye was on 
the right eye, it was to be rubbed with tlie three fingei-s of 
the led hand \ three times the patient was to spit, and three 
times he was to utter "A'ec inula paHt, nee lapis laiiam 
fert : iiec huio morbo caput ci'e^eiU, aut el creveret 
iaheacat." For the cui-e of enlarged uvula, a grape wai to 
be g^ven, with the foltowiug aeutencu tbrioe uttered, " Uvo, 
Ufam emendai." As an efficacious cure of the colic, a gold 
plate was to bo worn, witli the following character!} in- 
scribed upon it: — 

1 flfcwuteL Vol. II. p. iiZ. 



The unavoidable rewnlt of onoe admitting the unknown 
and unknowable power of preternatural forces into the 
practice of medicine is irrationality and extravagance; 
and, even in the present day, a stjechJ reference to the 
inevitable evil of such a proceeding ia not altogether out 
of place. 

The Cliurch, considered as an embodiment of belief in 
the prt'teruuLura], w;is in its openitiou purely untugi^iUKtic 
to the development of the scioncc as wi^ll as thn art of 
medicine. It mode the accumulation of data for scientific 
purposes difEcult, if not impossiLle, and it superseded the 
necessity of the practice of the art We must use other 
words when we regard the Church as a great organization. 
In this aspect it afforded essential aid, both to medical art 
and sdcnce. The monk ia ao out of place in the present 
day, that it is difficult for us to realize a state of nmttera 
in which he could be anything else. But when we reflect 
upon the condition of Europe during the first ten centuries 
uf the Christian era; when we read it^ history and fiud a 
battle in every page — and such battles ! — not fought for 
victory and tlie restoration of the balance of power, but 
in which nation encounters nation for the purpose of 
mutuid exterminjition, the &e<|uent issue being the extiuo- 
tinn of the vanquished, which disappears like a ship Kiink 
at sea, never to be seen again ; when wo contemplate this 
Kucoe!«ion of sanguinary conflicts, literally occupying the 
whole tlieatre of history, we cannot be surprised that it 
should have occun*ed to mm of sane mind that there was 
no chance of living a holy life in such a world; and that 
to do so they must withdraw fiou) the tumult into strict 
seclusion, and dedicate their time to meditiitiou, prayer, 
and acta of charity and benevolence. For, at this period, 
mercy in the battle-field waa almost unknown. Rlnughtcr 
or slavery were the only alternatives left to the eonijuercd. 
Here the office of the holy man, who waa known not to 



ICb«. it. 

be a figbtiug owu, came inU> play : res|»ecteU by both sides, 
he coulJ«r consolation and iiUe^'inUon to aU. 

Altliuugli it was not uutil tlio middle of tbe dark ages 
that moDftsticisiii assumed its full proportion, j-et we liiid 
it in existence At the beginning of om* era. Tlie first 
monks who fiud a place in history were Jews, and went 
by tlio name of Bssenes. Josepluis' t4.-lls iw that tliey 
lived a life of self-drnial, despising all bodily gratilication, 
and aliBoluti-ly refraining from Uie acseuinulatJou of wealth ; 
that they had all theii- possessions in common, managed by 
curators or trustees ; and he tlien adda, " Only tlieHO two 
tilings are done amoug tlieiu at every one's own free will, 
wliieh are, to assist those who want it, and to aIiow mercy — 
for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succour 
to Budi an deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to 
bestow food on those that are in distress ; but they cannot 

{pve anything to their kindred without tliti curators 

They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of 
peace; what«»ver they say, also, is firmer tbstu ati oaih. 
.... They also take gn;ut pains in studying the writings 
of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for 
the advantage of their soul and body, and they in/^uira 
a/lei' Bucit i-oois und Tuedicinal atones ae inay cuve their 
d I afewi^rs,"— and, we may add, not their own distempers 
only, but also those of all to wliom they Itad access ; hence 
they got tiic name of Therapeutic, or healurd. 

This honourable appelbtion, given to tUu members of 
the earliest momustic iusLiUition, was equally merited by 
their Christian successors during a period of some centuries 
at least ; for we find tJiat TbL-otlore, Archbi^iop of Canter- 
bury, who died A.u. (i!)0, issued (imctical dircctiiins to the 
mouks as to how tbey sbould treat their patients. This 
prebte's manoul of medicine contamed, among other rules, 
an injimction against blood-letting "while the moon was 

> W«n of tli« Jews. Book U. Ctuj . 8, 

LC 300-1200.] 



waxing." ' If he bad added " and when it was waning," 
there is little doubt that be woukl have contributed 
greatly to tlie saving of bumnn life. CoiTying out tbo 
original conception of a " Holy Lif?," tlie cloistered 
fraternities were, in tbe maui, devoted to dointf good, 
especially to curing Uie sick : in a conipnratlvoly short 
pcriotl, notwithstanding the faith of a few, and the 
fnnaticlinn of many, the Huli^titiite for genuine 
vitality began to dugeucrate and dticiiy, while the monks 
themselves sank into tlie grossest pollution. " Nothing ia 
nioi-e incon trove t-tible tlmn that the nau'ed order, both in 
Uie west and the east, wjis coniiiowed principiilly of men 
who were illiterate, stupid, ignorant of everything per- 
taining to rebgion, bbidinouii, superstitious, and flagitious. 
Nor can any one doubt tbttt those who wish to be regarded 
as the falliers of the Universal Church, were the principal 
causes of these evils. Nothing, cerUninly, cnu be thought 
of, so filbby, d'iminal, and wicked, as to be deemed 
incompatible with tbcir characters by the supreme directors 
of religion and its rites ; nor was any government ever so 
luaded with vices of every kind, as that wliieli passed for 
the most lioly." These are the words of Moslieim,' who 
ifl distinguished for the temperance of bis language^ its 
much as by his general tnistwortliiness. He is spcsdtiiig 
of the tenth century, and we see how tlic gold has bccoino 
dross. It is interesting to observe, that, coincidentally with 
the coiTuption of morals, these Tlierapeuta?, or heelers, lost 
tbeu' credit as medical men, and brought ^ucli disgrace upon 
tbe Church by tlieir mistreatment — their Timla 'pnucin — 
that, by the council held at Alontpelier in 1 IG2, medicine 
was formally divorced from theology, and the prnctioe of 
tlie healing art &om that time forbidden to a priest.' 

' B«a.. BmIuIbk. BUt. V. 111. p. 
374. (JnoM brSpnagel, VoLH. p. 


* Mcvboitn, EoelouMt. HiiL ^ 259. 

OilrVou alwB7« calk bttn tbi,' " candid 
Hid juilklotis." 

» Oomment. B«ir. Pra.n«ir.ll. ji. 980. 
Quoted bj SpKiiguL Vul. tl. |i. 480. 

n 2 



[Cha». it. 

Of the practical benefita 'which flowed from ilie religious 
or siipei'stitious sentiments of the dark ages, perhaps 
the greatest was the inMitution of ho^pifcalH for the sick 
poor. WV may will Lhewe OHtJililishmeiitH a direct out- 
coioe from Christianity. The idea that all men were 
breihren, aiid, as Biich, to be treated with brotherly love, 
did not exist in Pii<^iin times, aud could not find such aa 
expoueut afi an ediiice for the eht-Lter and healing of the 
poor in the name of God. That it was a state dnty to 
attond to the care of those wlio could oot afford to pay for 
medical Ber\'ice, was, aa we shall pre-sently show, a Roman, 
not a Christian niaxlm. And if we wish to see how 
Christianity lias tiuiiKligurud the thoni into tlie rose, we 
should pjiss fi-om an English workhouse, where the pauper 
iiiinab.t4, when HI, are treated with the coarsost physic and 
niost [terfuuctory attendance, to au hospital of the Sititers 
of Ctiarity, where poverty and sickness become claims to 
the most tender nursing, the most delicate ikre, and the 
most fikilfiil mfidicatlon of tlio age. The hospital was at 
finst an appendagw to the Tnouastery, and mo3t of the 
great free hospitals in Europe attest, hy the names they 
bear, their religious origin. 

Besides its hoapital, the monastery had also its garden, 
■where plants believed t<^i possess healing' virtues wtro 
assiduously cultivated ; and tliis source of medicines was 
8o irujiortant, that CharIemax''io issued an edict requiring 
the monks to grow squills and other medicinal plants for 
the benefit of tho district in which they held theii- pos- 
BesBions. Tho church of the dark ages was the depository 
of all tho learning that existed. Wo are, perhaps, too 
prone to undei-value what it has done for us, to cry out 
ujjou its ignorance, forgetting that it was less ignorant 
than its surrounding multitudes. 

Tho church, we may observe, was at once centmlizing 
and centrifugal. It centred iu the bishops of Rome, among 

A.I.. SOO-1200.] 



whom were many devoted to science arul literature, and it 
was owing to the zcnJ of the higlier clergj'.thst, in the twelfth 
century, in various parts of Eurojw, schools were opened, 
which afterwarJs eulai^ed into universities. At firsts all 
learning was embraced under the heads of the Seven Liberal 
Arts, three of which constituted what was called tlicTriviuni, 
and the remainder the Qtmdrlvium ; to the former bdonged 
gnunmar, rhetoric^ and dialectics ; to the latter, arithmetic^ 
inUMic, georu«trj', and astronomy : to these were afterwards 
added, theology, jurLsprudencc, and medicine. Tlie aevea 
first constituted the /luntltf/ of philosophy, and the remain- 
ing throe completed the four " faculties." Heuoe came the 
degrees or doctorships.' Jt was by no means uncoiAmou 
for ecclesiastics to study medicine tlieoratically wilhuuf. 
any intention of pi-actising it.' Thfedicine then implied a 
liberal education. It was reserve*! for modern times and 
this country to discover that the doctor In medicine was 
to bo regarded as little above an artizan, and tlie uni- 
versity education he had gone through to be stigmatized 
as pvo/es8i&)uil .' It seems not to bo considered at tlie 
present day that there are some professions — and medicine 
one of thcra — for which a man is peaJly unfitted without 
audi an amount of general culture as to deprive the epithet 
pro/e«»ional of all its reducing signification. 

Without its centralization, the ohuR^h eouM not have 
been so poweiful a guardian and promoter of learning. 
We may call this its ppiscopal aspect : its contrifiigal or 
diflusive power was the monastic. The monkish impulse 
was to seek out the inaccessible, remote, and i-epuUive, ia 
order to fiod an appropriate abode for the cultivation of 
the ascetic forms of self-denial and saoifice. Into regions 

1 l[(i«}i«im. Tol. n. p. 110. «onnn tnntom iwlfcrtareHtn nfllcjna 

' Popa Sylveelcr II. •!}»:—" |f*e Bemper fujiorini."— Ihi Ch(«ii«, IJim. 

Be auotiirv qii* rasdicoruia annt, Pnuic Script. Vol. II. BinvDgd, Vol. 

ttwUn relia, preMTtJm eum DcienliiLiu 11. p. 46t, 



[Chat. IV. 

sbunned by the moat adventurou^t trader, or the moat 
ambitiotis conqueror, the monk mn^le hia lonely way, and 
carried "witli him li'ia tiirch of knowledge. What but 
religioiis enthusiasm could have impelled men of learning, 
twelve hundred yeoi-a before the invention of Hteiim-sliiiia, 
to the remote shores of the Scottish lona, an island one 
mile broad by two miles long ! Yet, here were to be found 
a library of classicivl authors, and men of the greaiest eru- 
dition of the age.' But for the moiiasturics, it is very 
doubtftil if we Rhould now possow a copy of Galen, or Uvy, 
or Cicero, With an itifinitc superfluity of rubbish, the 
roouks of old preserved a very large proportion of all 
tliat'waa precious in literature for our use. !fc is but fiiir, 
when we execrate their misdeeds, to oominemomte their 

II. By the expression *' prolongation of the Roman 
empire," we mean to indicate the influenceB which have sur- 
vived tJie extinction of that great power. The Roman empire 
may be likened to one of thope animals which consist of a 
central Btomach and heart, and a multitude of tubes going 
out to the circumference where they terminate in oijen 
mouths. Into tbn»e moiiihfl their noimshmeni ia con- 
tinually sucked and no earned inwards ti> theJi' stomachs, to 
be digested and propelled ontward again in the form of blood. 
Tlie CN'cnmfercDCG of the Roman empire was surrounded 
by barbarians, and the greatness of Korae depended upon its 
power of imbibing these tribca and nations, drawing thera 
to its centre, and converting^ tliem into its own people. 
Tliey were ab3.irbed as Gauls, or Germans, or Scythians, 
and returned as Romans. So long aa it possessed this ca- 
pacity of aasimilatton, it grew in vigour and strength, as in 

I BuehutaB, K«r. Soot. QanUil hy 
CKbbMi. Vol VI. p. SIS. 

* TUe limt UtM^ l,j tlic writ«ni 
of high repalAtioa in tke Juk *gM uv 
not to Im numuil hav. TkoM who do- 

siru furttier Inbmnatiim on tliiii dis- 
KUnUiig topic w« refer tn Uia wtitinp* 
of llntvriu^ irho lived ui Uio Iwolftli 

A.i>. 20O-1200.] 



magiiitttde ; but wbcn tbc quantity to be thus dispiseJ of 
beoune eatoessive, Uien tbe decline began. The decay was 
{com within, and the nourisliioent of the system failed ; it 
became a consumptive giant, buge and feeble, certain to fall 
before its own fjiinteflt effort, or an enemy's slightest blow. 
StUl, tlie Kuijiire survives in ittt institution!). 

Rome ha.t inscribed its name over Kurope, to the present 
day, in roads, language, and laws. In Kiigland, the Roman 
roads, running with military directness, present a suggva- 
tive oontrast to tlic pariKh, or peace roads, which wind in 
and out in graceful recognition of the rights of the posses- 
sors of the floiL It is the stmight line of force bc&ide tlw 
Gurvee of freedom. Rome Hvck »till in ita language ; for, 
beaideB bong the eoiirce of vo many nioderu tunguus, 
Latin was till within a century the general vebide of 
learning and science. To the present day it is used in 
teaching medicine in various parts of Euro|ie, and nio&t of 
the cdebratcd uiedical works of the generation imme- 
diately preceding our own n^ere written in Latin.' 

Among the ]aw!4 which have an especial bearing upon onr 
immediate task, arc those which regulated the practice and 
])rofession of medicine. It was not till the time of Nero 
tliat we find mention made of tlie Archiatcr, or FhysicJan- 
io-Chief ; and at a later period of the empire, whon the 
grades of precedence were fixed with the most HCnipulous 
precision, we discovo-r the social rank occupied by these 
inedictd dignitaries. Alt the nia^iBtratca of tlie empire 
were divided mto thi-ee cla«t«s — firsl^ tlie llliistrious; 
second, the Respeutablc ; third, tlic Honouralile. The ap- 
pellation Illustiious wan confined to men of the highest 
i-auk, such as the seven ministers who exercised their 
ascred functions about the person of the Knn>en»r. The 
term Honourable was shored by all nicmbens of the Kcnate 
and governors of provinces. A little lower than the first, 
and higlier tlian the last, were tlie 8j>edabUea — correspond- 



[Oh4P. IVi 

iiig, perhaps, to our right honourable. This was the title 
of thp Arcliiatcr ; tind, in point of rank, he was equal to 
the litiko of tlioso days — thut is, to tlic general of an in- 
depenJerit army.' 6t;sides these physiciftns-in-chief, wlio 
were, as wc should say, appointed by the Crown, there 
was iu every town and province a oertajn number of 
medical officers elected by the people. Out of tliia 
corabination n college was formwl, and when a pliyaiciaa 
was chosen by the popular voice, he had to pass an exaini- 
uatioii before this medical boArd, previous to etiti'^Hng 
upon luB duties. AfUjr being duly a[)pointeil, he received 
a tixed salary from the State, in coiisideratiou of which 
he bad to render gratuitous service to the poor.' In aJdi- 
ti<m to his salary he enjoyed miuiy privileg&s, such m im- 
munity Irom coa^cription, certain advuutagcti iu actions at 
law, kc. He was, however, in immediate subjection to 
die medicnl college of his district, which had the power to 
punish hiin for improper practice; and when we remember 
what the recognized canons of medicine then were, and 
the unscrupulous ebaractor of the age, ■wo. can liava no 
doubt that tljia power was oilen exercised with malicious 
severity in order to get rid of a dangerous rival. The fol- 
lowing edict is a proof that the morality of tlio medical pro- 
fession did not atiind very high ; and is likewise a curious 
anticipation of the statute of mortmain afterwards passed, 
to curb the avarice of the [jriests. " AVIiat is Btipulated for 
as a rcmunemtion during health, may be accepted by the 
physician; but not wliat those in danger of death promised 
for their recovery.^ 

Of the physiciaus of renown who graced the decline of 
tlic empire, the most celebrated are Oribaaius (a,d. 350), 

> ae* iJiblxin, Vol. III. 

* It i«, I believe, im baoinnly in Ic- 
gUlstioo, ItiiU in Itritiun tha jthyn- 
ctM i* rvqutrcd to do Mitain tute- 
Borrin In Uttmyijt writing ovriiflnCcs 
fur tJie puliUo TvgiiiLnu-, withimt any 
r.-muncntiau foi tis trouble aji<i loo 

of liioe. SucL cratiiiluuii wrvicv in ex- 
itrted ncitli«r from the di^i^j nor tljo 
Utrjen. The fanuei hun Uic^ir liiirUI 
foi:*— *rW 3utro tlia Itner wf ! 

» C«]. Tliewlc*. Lih. 8. Quoted by 
Simjogel, Vfrl. U, p. 232. 



Alexander of Trallea (A.d. 3G0), Mtiua (a.d. 400), and 
Pauliis iEgineta (a.d. 420). Tliese were all compilers, 
rather tliau ortginnl authors. Oribimius vn-ote no less than 
seventy books, of which seventeen are still extant. We 
cannot have a better prrw>f of thi? servility of the sdentific 
iiiiiul of this ]ioriod, than Is afforded by the statement of 
Dr. Freind, who has bestowed more attention on this stage 
of the history of medicine than any other writer : that in 
all these volumes he found but one instance of the slightest 
deviation fixwu the descriptive anatomy of Galen, whid), be 
it observed, was taken chiefly from the dissection of apes. 
The exception referred to. occurs in a description of the 
salivary glands.' Oriba-siutt was the first to deacrilje a 
cnriouB form of madneas called Lywitithropia. " Those 
labouring under Lycantliropia go out during the night, 
imitating wolves in all things, and lingering about sepul- 
chres until morning. You ntay recognize Huch jvereons by 
these marks, — thuy are pale, their visions feeble, their 
ej'es dry, tongues very dry, luid Uie flow of the saliva 
stopped ; but they are thirsty, and their logs have incur- 
able ulceration, from frequent falls. LycnnUihropia it; a 
species of mehmcholy." It was probably a man aiHscted 
■with thia form of insanity, who ia described by St. Luke 
in the following passage : — " And when he went forth to 
laud, there met him out of the city a cort^ain man which 
had devils long time, and ware no clotbeH, neither abode 
in any bouse, but in the tomb*,"' We need hardly observe 
that the term "having devils" refers strictly to the sup- 
posed, or alleged, of an niTection ; and thiit it is for 
science to decide, from the reported symptoms, concerning 
tlie disease itself. Forrestns, who lived in the sixteenth 
century, seems to have been the last to descriVie, aa an 
eye-witness, this dreadful afftiction, in tlie person of "a 
poor hnsbandinan that still haunted about graves, and kept 

' OtilMiiu, Ub. XXIV. gnol«l lij 
Fnind, " Oivtoir ol Flijnc." Sm p. 6 

of Preneh Inuwktion in 4l», 
■ Clup. riii nr. 27. 



[Cbap. IV. 

in ehurch-yarda, of & pale, black, ugly, ttnd feniful look." ^ 
As this form of insanity is described likewise byAvjcwiua, 
it was probably known to tlie Ambinus, and may liavo 
given rise to the Ohonl of the "Arabian Ni^dits." 

AJthmigh tlie positive contributions of the physicians 
of this period to medical sdence and art, were altc^ether 
insigni6canti yet the personal influence of some of them 
was very great, and of none greater than that of Oribasius. 
His life would form the plot of a most interasting roinanoe. 
He was bom nt Fergainus, or SardiH, imd studied under 
t1i(! philosopher Zenc. He was from his youth au iiitimato 
friond nf Julian, wlio afttirwnnls became ciiipci-or, and lias 
Lad the di'eadful att^'ma of apostate affixed to bis natne. Ori- 
basius is said to liave assisted Julian to the throne. This 
Btatement, however, is a most questionable one ; for Julian, 
as Emperor, heaped all manuer of lionom-s and favours upon 
him. Now, supposing Julian to have been really JndebteU 
to Oribaeius, would not the alleged treatment of the i^ysi- 
ciao be an example of uia^niuiiinity and gratitiulo rare in 
any rauk, but incredible in an emperor and apostal*" i Among 
the services in which Julian employed hiui was one whicli 
has remained famous to the present day. The apostato 
to Paganism wa.<; anxious to restore the altars of the old 
gods, and among tho most celebrated of thicse was Daphne, 
situated five miles from Antioi'lj, Thither he despatched 
Oribasius to inquiiv of the oracle tho issue of an expe- 
dition he was about to uiidcrtokQ. But otlier pilgrims had. 
been at Antioch, telling of one Stephen, & martp- ; and when 
Oribasius questioned the omcle in the name of the Emperor, 
the answer be got was, that the oracles were now all silent 
Nay, more, wl>en Julian himself, ou the day of the annual 
festival, hastened to adurc the Apollo of Daphne, instead 
rf the grateful pomp of victims, libations, incense, and. 
hecatomV>s of &t oxen, supplied by the wealth of Antioch, 
the £ni[)eror complains that he found only a single goose 
I Da M<>tIjLi Corobrl, c. IS. QaotedlnBiutun's AaoUtuyof Mciuolioly, p. 89. 

.!>. 200-15100.] 



pTovidet!, at the expense of a priest, the pale and solitary 
inbahitant of this deoiyed temple.' 

That the Kcnperor Julian was oa the most intimate 
footing with the phy.iician Orihnsins is manifest from the 
correspundence which pjiased lietwevn them ; and that the 
two were on a par in point of ertidulity is pretty certain, 
from a letter of Julian to Oribasius, which lias been pi-e- 
Bsrved. It is entitled "Julian to Oribasius, of Pergamna." 
After a reference to Homer, the Emjwror proceeds: — " Me- 
thought that, growing; in a va%t saloon, I saw a noble tree ; 
it was agedj and leaned ominously towards the earth ; fi-om 
its roots there seemed to spring a Insty young tree. I was 
afraid it would I>e uprooted, involved in tlie impending ruin 
of lliti parent ti'uuk. I di'uw near, and Umnd the old tree 
fallen prostrate to the ground, while the sucker was still 
erect^ though loosened in its earth. This sight seemed to add 
to my concern. ' What a stately tree tliis has been ! ' 1 ciied ; 
'but this, itsi offshoot, is it not to perish with it? ' On this 
an unknown personage came forward and said, 'Fear not 
for the young tree ; aee, tlie earth yet dings al>out the uld 
roots ; this sucker from them is unharmed, and will grow 
up strong.' Such was tny dream 1 what will come of it 
Qod knows. But I am most desirous to leani at what 
period that wretched eunuch mi on foot the vile reports of 
me ; let nic havo cxplinit information." ' Tliua we Bee 
two philoaophcrs who wens too wary to believe the 
evidences of Christianity intensely occupied with the inter- 
preUtion of a dream ! We havo quoted this letter, mainly, 
to show that, although the superstitions of the Christian 
undoubtedly acted moat injuriously upon medicine, it would 
have been as bad for the aciencu, nnd much worse for the art, 
had there been a restoration of Pagauisui. Indeed, Julian 

> UiUwn, Vol. IV. p. 221. Inwlaljoii, not barium had acMM to 

- Jnliui'N KjnrtlcA I am iwlut-Ud Uw woifc wheuca it b dvrived. 
to mytaiaA Dr.Irriiie for tbi* etep^ai 



ICiur. IV. 

himself was ao impressed by the practical benefits of Oiiris- 
iiauity, ttmt he exhorts his Pagan adbereuU to imitate the 
Cbristinus, whom he contemptuQU-^ly call» GiiUleatLS, in their 
hospitals and other works of cliarity. 

Ah OriltasiiEH had mouiit'ed witli Julian, bo he futl at his 
death. He waa banished to a barbarous distriut, where, 
however, he gained so great a repute by his medical skill as 
to be had in the highest reapeotj and at length, dc-spite his 
Pagauisru, he was recalled to tliB Cuurt^, in the reign of 
Valcnttnian III. Oribasins died at Conatantinoplu, full of 
yeara and honours, about the middle of the fifth ciintury. 

As the other writers we have named contributed nothing 
either to tlie fact« or theories of medicine, but were only 
useful in saving the accumulations of former centuries &om 
duipcrsion and waste, it would not suit our space to make 
further aeknowlpdgment of their service. 

III. We now come to that stage iu our art in which the 
Arabians play their part. Tliey were the fii-»t religious 
conquerors in the west. Mahomet, the founder of an 
empire, wliich, iu one form or otiier, swayed Europe for 
COO years, urged his followers by the promise of 
an eternal paradiiHi to tho destruction of tho enemies 
of truth. Ue fought, not for territorial agraudiaoment, 
like the Romans, but for the advancement of a Faith. 
His language wan, "Tho sword is the key of heaven and 
of belt ; a drop of blood shed in the cause of God, a night 
spent in anna, is of more avail tluui two months of fasting 
and prayer : whosoever falls in battle, his sJtiH are for- 
given ; at the day of judgment hi» wounds shall be as 
re»plendcnt as vermilHon, and as odoriferous as musk, and 
tho loss of his limbs shall be supplied by the wings of 
angels and cherulnms." ' Against the primitive tribes 
reared in the desert^ inured to all its hard.<)liips, and 
animated by ferocious zeal, the effete govcrurnents of tbo 
> AbuUeda ia ViU lUion. <jii«t«d hj Uibboii, Vul. II. p. SW. 

A.ft. 20O-120O.] 



tjrae bad no chanoe. Tliey were Iratnpled down by tbe 
Arabs, wbo rushed like a torrent, scorcbing {tonvtis) as 
tUey went, from one end of Europe to the other. Fi-om 
such a ni«e of fimatical warriors we should Liirdly expect 
much regard for science, leomiug, or art ; and yet 
•we find they have done them essential service. Tlie 
I Arabian, or Saracen epoch, coincides with the darkest 
period of western hisUiry, estondiug from the Beventh to 
the thirteenth century ; and, although the first " Com- 
niandera of the faithful " were too much absorbed in the 
propagation of their relI[{ion by the sword, to attend to 
the claims of civilization, yet very soon there aroBS a 
raco of KalilH, who recognized the importance of learn- 
ing, and advanced it with all their power. Tlie famed 
historian, Abulplmragius, Bi>eflking of Almamon, who 
liv<^d abnut tlie end of the eigUth and bej^iniiing of the 
ninth century, says, " he was not ignorant that tlwy are tbe 
elect of God, his best and most useful servants, whose Irveg 
are devoted to the improvement of their rational faculties." 
. . . "The teachers of wisdom are the true luminaries 
and legislators of a world which, without their aid, would 
again sink into ignoranoe and barbartBm." ' Acting on this 
behcf, tlie wise ruler used his iufluenoe in founding schools 
and collecting Ubniries over the whole of liis dorninions 
from Bagdad to Cordova, At tbe former place, no fewer 
than 6000 students received inBtruetion, and there were 
70 public libraries opened in Andalusia alone. How many 
are there in the Spain of to-day ? When we enquire 
what was taught at these schools, we return, again, to tiia 
great source of tliouglit — the old philosophers of Greece. 
Afler the land of their birth had l)cen converted into a 
province of Rome, after the Itomau had given way to tho 
Goth, and the Goth to the Saracen, still erect and kingly 
Btai]d the noble Greeks, oeknowlctlgcd by these wild cou- 
I <^u)M hy QibboD, Vol. X., p. it. 



[cuAf. rv. 

writings. His preference of a physician of learning to one of 
mei-e practical skill ia so remarkable :ifi to he worth giving 
in his own words. In a letter to this dame Al Muu&6r 
entitled, " What kind of phyHician is to lie miule choice of 
aud approved," he wiys : — "If he has beeu very industrious 
in ft diligent perusal and esaminntion of the hooks of the 
ancient physicians, and hna carefully read and compared 
their writings, we may juBtly form to ourselves a good 
opinion of him. . . . We ought to be satisfied aa to 
whether he haa prnctiHcd in populous cities, where thoe 
were gnat numbers of patieuta, an wtll fis of physicians ; 
, . . but if it were found be wert; failing in one of 
tlicso qualifications, it were rather to ho wished ho were 
wanting iu the practical part (I do not mean to be utterly 
unacquainted with, at least, sonic part of it), than to know 
nothing at nil of the h-arning of tho ancientfi. Far he that ia 
ivell vereed in, and katk well dlyented the wrlihigsof tJie 
ancient pkyaiciuTis, will, with a little kelp of practice, 
easily attain to wkttt others, who are tohoUy strafnQerB 
to this braiicft of Ifnirning, can never he able to com' 

Rhazes' most important contribution to modem science is 
his account of tht> Hnudl-pox, a diHcfuw which he was the first 
to describe. Hia patlioloyy i« i»ainfuUy Galenic: — "Every 
man, from the time of his birth till he arrives at old age, 
is continually tending to drj'ncs!^ ; and for this reason the 
blood of infants and chiUlnjn is much nioiater than the 
blood of young men, and still more so ilian that of old 
men. And besides, it is much hotter, as Galen. tesLities in 
his commentaries on the Aphorisms. . . . Now, the 
small-pox arises when the blood putrefies and ferments, so 
that the superfluous vapours are thrown out of it, and it 
is changed from the blood of infants, which is like must, 
into the blood of young men [wrfectly ripened ; and the 
1 Ubct kil AlBuuiMRm. Op. eiL, p. Jft, 

Ji.&.»00-ia00.] MICnABL SCOTT.- JOSEPH WOLFF. 


small-pox mAy Im compared to the fennentatioDS and the 
hi!»ing noise wlijcb tako place in coust at timt time." We 
have liere the doctrine of the dry oud the moist, tbo hot 
and tlie cold, &c. ; aud the treatment was, both by RUazes 
and tbo other Ambiiin pL^'siciaiis, directed in aooordonce 
with tliia purely viaiouarj' hypothesis. 

Greater even than Rhazcs, in his LnflucDcc upon medicine, 
over whidi, tlmiugh his writings, he exercised a sort 
of despotic autburity for about six liiuidred years, M'as 
Avicemin, called Scheikh Reyes, or the prince of physicians. 
Ho was bom in Bokhara, whither his father bad gone with 
a son of the same Al Munsur, to whom Rhazes wTote tbo 
^isile we have quoted. A^'icetina became celebrated, at a 
very early age, for the extent uf his acquireuiento in all 
branches of knowledge, including dialectics, geometry, 
and a^tronotny. He relates himself, that he frequently Bpeai 
the whole night in Ktudy, ajid drank wine to keep him- 
self awake— without, however, entirely succeeding ; for ho 
ocoasiunally hipaed into slumber, and fotmd the problems 
solved in bis dreams that bad exhausted his waking efforts 
to ovei-conie. ITis cai-eer was a chequered one ; he rose to 
the rank uf vizier, and wns then thrown into prison ; w*as 
again reinstated In his I'Hiik and honours, and anuu a fugitive 
from, wc may hope, iniusttce, he cscaiied, disguised a.s a 
monk, to iKjialiau, where ho acquired great renown. Ho 
died at the ago of fifty-eight, in the year 103(1. His 
enormous influence la almost entirely due to his literary 
talents. He translated into Arabic the wyrks of Aris- 
totle, and from this Arabic translation they were rendered 
into Latin, by Midmel Scott, in the twelfth century. This 
is the same Mjcbael Scott' whose tomb is shown in Melruse 
Abbey, and whose memory has been perpetuated by bia 
great namesake — Walter Scott — in the " Lay of the Lost 
Uiualrel." It is interesting to observe how the torch of 

1 U}dA{«wHK of Bi^nphf : Art •• H. SooU.'* 




[Chap. IV. 

knowleilge is transmitted from Iniid to land in successive 
ages. Who would imiifiine, that in remote, inaccessible Bok- 
hara, — known to us cliiefly as the scene of the murder of two 
BriUiih oflicore by the king of tliat country, find aa having 
called forth the intrepij adventure of the niisaionary, 
Joseph Wolff, to mnko inquisition into the alaughter, — that 
in such a spot tlie sacred 6rc of loarning should be 
cheiished, and that fniiu it a ray of light should be sent 
to ilasb over the darknes3 of Europe ! 

l^e medical ^'stem of Aviceiiua is in uo way different 
from that of Galen. Discnaes and medicines were both 
classified as moist and dry, hot and cold, in certain ar- 
bitrary degrees ; we even find, in some of the ^vritings of 
Avicenna's schoolj if not in his own, a numerical npeciAea- 
tiou of the exact degree of heat, cold, dryuettis, and mois- 
ture in different substances. For example : — 





CkHftiamii. . 

. 3L 


■ ■ 4 

... 1 

... 1 

Bofft . . . 

. 3ij. 

... 3 . 

.. I 

... 1 

... s 

liuUgo. . . 

. 3L 

... » 

.. 1 


-,. 1 

Emblioiu . . 

. 3ii. 

... 1 

. t 

... 1 

... 2 



Tliis prescription has an equality of cotdnww an<l 
wiimith ; but as the quantity of the diy doubles that of 
the uioiBt, the whole is dry in the fii-st degree I' 

We feel inclined to smile at this as n piece of antiquated 
nonsense ; but it affects the practice in Peraia to the present 
day. Sir John Malcolm, speaking of the Persian plijuicians, 
says * : — "Tliey class lx>th their diseaseB and their remedies 
under four heads — hot, cold, moist, and dry : each may con- 
tain one or two of these qualities j and the great principle 
they maintain is, that a disease must be cured by a re- 
meily of an opposite qmdity (cmUraria contrariit). He adds 
ill a note : " Mr. Jukes, in a MS. on this subject, observes, 

> SpniMtel, Vol. II., f. 384. 

) Hiatory of Pcnu. hj Sb JahD 
Mulcolm, Vol U.. p. HI. 



thai when he was at Ittpalian in 1 HO 4-, ulceratal sore throats 
were very common, anJ tlmt lie ap|)itthead<«l mawy {tatients 
died becaufic the ph^'Bicians decided it woa a 'hoi diseaso,' and 
therefore was to bo curcrl by bleeding, and all other oooting 
remedies. He mentions also some cases of dy«;nter}', in 
whidi he in vain recommended mercury. It was a fmt 
remedy, ilie FerBian physlciami said, and could never be 
proper when the disease was alao hot." Such are the fruits 
borne by that famous theory of Qalen's, oxpixissctl by the 
maxim contraria contrariw cuturitur ! and yet we hear 
our medical phUosopbers of the present day propounding 
the strange doetrine, that it i^ of no great coDBcquence 
whether medical theories be true ur fiOse, that all tliat 
eonoenis us ih tlie accumulation aju) arraiigimtent of facts.' 
There can be no greater mistake than to suppotie, that the 
avoidance of speculation secures a practitioner from error. 
Men of mind nm&t s{>ecu]ate, because Bpeeulation is a name 
for thought: men of no mind follow the speculations of 
otheni, as the Persians did those of the Greeks ; and the 
leas U>ey speculate, the more Uktly are they to become en- 
thraUed by a superannuated theory, wliicli a keener intelli- 
genoQ would have exploded, when it was found to be use- 
After tho practical commentary afforded by our 
quotation from Malcolm, we shall have no scruple in agree- 
ing with Sprcngel, that if we abstract the additions made 
l^ the Arabians to the Materia Medica, we ehaU fiud 
that all else they did for the Art of Hedtctno, coni<i.<4ted in 
preventing the knowledge anil wisdom of the Greelui — to 
which tiiey had succijeded by right of conquest — from perish- 
ing in the great catastrophe of history, the breaking up of the 
Roman Empire by the Northern nations, whose influence 
upon medicine we have now to consider.' 

I "Tbadamm loag poai in Hedi- 
<-ino when HMflMns merely tbooRiiiml 
i-uuUI claia jiroloiigvd aU«iitioH," — 

Sir John Fothec : Britiali ukI P«T«!Kit 
M«lic&l tLBfitm, m«. p. 230. 
* Spraogal, Vol II., |>. 471. 

I 2 



[Chap. IV. 

While tlie remote and predisposdug cause of the downfall 
of the empire of Rome was the faihire of its own vitality, 
the immediate cause of iU di^tructiun was the diHplacument 
of the nations that inhabited the north of Asia. It was 
this diRlocation tliat set in motion a tide of harbariona, 
which^ rolling in a south-west direction, broke in a suooes- 
sion of ift'aves upon the first great resistance they encouo- 
tered. The Roman empire, still powerful in itw orgwiixa- 
tioDj threw bock fur a time the lussaultti of this muviug 
sea ; but as billow succeeded billow, its strengtii proved 
inadequate to sustain a contest ever renewed by a fresh 
a^rgressor; and after a long andHm^xesi^ti'nr^L-, *.)n- h 
old ship was brenelied and blie 
into it. Then the old world b 
to liegin. This new one con* 
life of privation and exertion- 
reared their flocks and hen 
ideas of manhood, holding t' 
each one wa« free to come ar 
avenge wrong. For the moe 
for strength and bravery; ax 
of Rome. Rome depende«l » ^ 

the 8ui>eriority of their arm.-? 
the Gotlu and other northei 
i^oratit of military tjiciics 
to make steel weapons of v 
due to the commander w 
8uoce«8 as a leader. They 
nianufectured article. Th 
titese opposite forces was tl 
until ignorance became ii 
material was gradually w< P^' 
Then they were irresistibh 
col strength. We cannot w 
It was their right. Tltey valued men ,m,w.>-. ^ . 



aliilily to do work. Whpn they marie cflptives — -which they 
did by the thousand — the pricti they put upon the slave de- 
l>ended ttpon hit) strength and skJU iii niecbiLnic.9, A smith 
8ohl liigh, a lawyer very low. It is rather retnarkiible, 
liowever, that a physician brought a hauds^^ime Buni. These 
barbarians, in their ijjrnoriince, nit*'d the uscfiihieiw of the 
medical men of tlio civilizied States tliey overran at a much 
higher rat* tbau haa been commoa since, or probably than 
was deserved. "The barbarians, wlio despised death, might 
]ic apprehensive of disease; and the haughty cunquemr trem- 
bled in the presence of hi* captive, to whom he ascribed, 
perhaps, an iinagiiiaiy jiowpt of prohmgiiig or prei*ervJLg 
his life."' TliiB recalls the incident in the liislory of DariiiN 
which we recounted, on the authority of Herodatua, in the 
first cliapter. 

Although, in their ignorant credulity, the Qotbs, the 
Vandals, the Huns, the Visigoths, the Franks, the Lom- 
bards, and the other tribes and nations wliicb successively 
occupied the fragments of the Kom&n world which ihey 
broke In pieces, might occasionally, and vrith the uneertmnty 
and ciipricu of barbarianH, lavi.'^h rewards ujwn tbeir medical 
captives ; yet it isi plain that luedtcinej an na art and scieaoe, 
miint have been simply non-existent among them ; for they 
liad for its cultivation neither time, taste, nor opportnnity. 
So long as they were an army of invasion, they were lield 
together by common danger ; but when they became on army 
of occupation, then the feeble bond of military allegianoe v,-as 
dissolved, and society was rerluced to its primitive elemeutfl^ 
ever}' man defending hiuisidf and not recognizing any 
obligation to the public welfjirv. In speaking of the 
Franks after they had settled in France, Gregory of Tours" 
says : — " No one any lunger resjiects his king, hia duke, or 
his count ; each man loves to do evil, and freely indulges 

' Oibbcm, Vol. VI., p. K9. 

I U VUI., c 30, in Tom. II.. PV- 

325, 32fl. Quolocl by QjblwQ, Vol. 
VI., p. 374. 



[UiiiP. IV. 

litfl criminal indinatioi^.'i. Tliu most gentle correct^ion pro- 
vokes an imm(» tumult, and the rash mogiritrate who 
presuiQes to oensure or restrain hiii seditious subjects, 
BcliJom escapes alive from tlieir revenge." This was tlio 
oouditioD of things atout 540. No doubt, for a time, 
under the vigorous adrainistmbion of Charlomagne, there 
was nmch more central autliority and restraint ; but how 
eomplftely this dciKJudiid upuu the action of his own great 
mind in reducing to order the elementary confusion of tho 
times into which he was thrown, is illustrated by the 
rapid dissolution of Im empire within Italf a century after 
hifl deatli. Fmm that period till the final settlement of 
the German Ewpiro uuder Otho I., alxtut tlm middle 
of the tenth eenturj', there was little else than anarchy dis- 
ceniibk iii Europe. No wonder that the arts of peoco 
should have sought a refuge fi'om the perpetual strife that 
choraoterized tlieso ages, far away in the remote kingdom 
of Bokhara, or iu the cloltsteni of the monastery, wUleh 
the religiouK feeling of the age prot«ct«d &om the invasion 
of the soldier. 

Wlieu tliure waa no law of sulGcicnt force to protect Uie 
weak and restrain the strong, the feudal system arose. 
This is the first step out of absolute anarchy. It divides 
a kingdom into an iufiiute number of uiiuute States — what 
we might call atate-moleculca — each conmsting of a castle 
occupied by a successful warrior, who secures the service of 
his retainers to fight with him agwnst his neighbours, 
at the price of protecting iheui In their turn from all 
violence, except his own. It a fundamentally opposed to 
the idea of law as a power fi'om above, in whose eyes the 
gr«ai and tho email are on a level of absolute equality. 
By the universal conscience uf humanity, the murder of a 
fellow-creftture is a crime of the greatest enormity. Tho 
Sixth Commandment is the one of all most readily 
adtnitt^^ to be of Divine authoiity. Let us ttee bow the 

A.v. 2fto-i2oo.] cLovrs, ma idea op cnarsrrAN dittt. 


Cliris^u Fnrnks iiiteqintbed tliis onlioancu. We call 
tUem Christiaii, Iwcause they bad embraced Cliriatianity ; 
but if tlia anecdote told of the way iii which tbcir iii'st 
leader, Clovis, wiia converted, bo true, and if his nations of 
Chiistian duty were sliared by his followers, the appellation 
is Ijardly merited. Cloviii vraa oifirried to Clotilda, niece 
of the King of Burgundy. In the diatress of the battle of 
Tolbiac, he invoked to his aid the Qod of Clotilda and the 
Cliri^tians ; and having gained the day, be made a public 
profession of Chiistianity, and had its doctrines explainetl 
to him. When tlie priest entrusted with the duty dwt^lt 
with pathetic eamustness u{k;d the death and liuflWiugti of 
Christy the royal neophyto exclaimed, " Had I been present 
at the head of my valiant Franks, 1 would have revenged 
hia injuries ! " ' His zeal against heresy was so strong, 
that before ho marched to the conquest of Gnu), he ^sned 
the foUuwing proclamation : — " It grieves me to see that 
the Arians still posses^ tlie fiurcat portion of Gaul. Let 
us march against them with the aid of Go<I ! and, having 
vanrjuished the hercUcH, we will possess and divide tbcii- 
fcrtUe provinces," ' Such is a fiur specimen of the kind of 
Christianity wlticli animated the Pranks, and we aluUl now 
see how it affected their criminal code. 

In the eye of the law, all freemen arc oqniU ; it is as 
great an affront to its majesty to alay the poorest and 
feeblest, aa the most influential of its subJecU. The 
Fi-anka, however, had a graduated t^calc, according to which 
<Ufferent lives had each its particular value np]iQrtiouod. 
A man of the highest rank was rated at si.'c hundred pieces 
of gold ; a noble of lesser account might be legidly murdered 
fur three hundred ; while a vuuunon Roman (for to this 
baseness had tliat long-dreaded name come down), might 
bt; knocked on the htnd for fiily.^ What tim upset prioo 

» Oi1.l»n, Vol. YT., p. SSO. 

* (]i«epry of Tmtnt. L. II.. c, 87, in 

•Rnu. n., p. 181. QoMwl i-y Gabon. 
> UibboB, V«l. VI., p. US. 



[Chai-. IV. 

of a physician was, we arc not informed, but we may bo 
sure, that unlesa these lawless soldiers were restrained by 
personal fears or superatition, they would tliiuk n.' little of 
putting tlieir medical attendant to diath, as oi' liniij,'iiig a 
cat. Indeed, we have aii hiutorical illustration of it. In 
the year 565, the Queen of Burgundy died of the plague, 
na most people did at tliat time. Her most Chribtian 
Majesty, to exhibit her perfect acquaintniica with ibe Gofijwl 
of the forgiveness of injuries, asked her husband. King 
Guntruin, as lior dying requeat, to put her physiciftQ to 
death, for not being suiEclently attentive to her. This 
jiious wish the royal widower punctuiilly fulfilled, after the 
obsequies of the deceased quecu liad been jierfonued accord- 
ing Ui the ritual of the Christian Church.' 

Wu cannot more effectually delineate the state of inediciue 
at this period, than by quoting one of the laws by which its 
pr»ctioe was restrained, and which were in general force over 
Euro[^ till the eleventh century. " If a phyaician injure 
a nobleman by blood- let ting^ he shall pay n fine of a hun- 
dred Bolidcs ; but if the nobleman die after the operutioo, 
the physician Bhall be given up to bia relaUves, to do with 
him what they please.'" ' They might impale, flaj-, or 
crucify him, without a word of remonstrance from public 
law or opinion. From this point there can be no further 
descent for medicine in the social scale; and before we 
proceed to iiifiuire into the technical development of the 
art at this period, we may repeat the observation foroed 
upon our attention in every page of history, that tlie feudal 
system was eaaentially the power of the sword, as opposed 
to the power of the law ; and it is, we mny add, the prolon- 
gation of this antiquated and unchristian institution into 
modem civilization, which haa displaced the medical art 

' 6regoi7 of Tovn. (junto! bjr 
Bgntgd, Vol II., p. 274. 

' UtidCDbrt(, Col. Lctx- AiLtiq- 

WiMgath, UL 1., p. 304. QnctCtl 
by Sprvuxvl, TdL II., |). (83. 

i.i>. 2(w-iaoo.i PtrmsmreNT pitysiciaks wbre uablb to. isi 

from the Jofly position it held among tlie refined Athe- 
nians, who oonaidered it a disgrace to be seen wiLli weapona 
on their persons, except on a fieJd of battle. 

If we confiue the tenu tecknical m. inediciiie, to the 
administration of medicine, tlie whole of the period we 
are now surveyiog is represented by one name — 
DioscoRiDES. Wliat Galen was to the art as a whole, to 
ita theories and practice, Dioscarides was to its Mut-erla 
Mcdi&i. For luure than £fleen hundred years his was the 
only work upon the subject held or an auttiority ; and 
Diosoorides was do lesH slavishly copied in liis department, 
than was Galen sen-Tlely obeyed in the otbei- branches of 
the art of medicine. It was the faaluon to find eveiything 
in Dioscorides. Jt waa « firm beliel^ as late as the six- 
teenth century, that not a plant grow in Germany, France, 
or England, whicli had not been dtiscribed by Dioseoridea 
Even when potatoes were introduced into Europe, the learned 
finind no difficulty in discovering them in Dioscorides. 
DioscorideH is supposed to have livod in the first century 
of the Chribtian era. He was a Cilician by birth, and 
wrote in corrupt Greek, which had this great advantige 
over a pure idiom, that it was impusfiible to fix with cer- 
tainty the exact meaning of many phrase*. This gives a 
latitude to the interpretation without which the book 
would hare been deficient in the rectuii^ite elasticity. 
The ambiguity of the language was improved by rode de- 
lineations of the plants dc-schbed ; and between the two, 
we can easily understand that there could be no ijoswbl© 
diftiuuLty in recognizing the Ukeneas of the potato, tea, 
tobacco, coffee, or any other plant, from the hyssop of the 
wall to the cedar of Lebanon. The book ia in the form 
of a dictionary, arrangt^d according to the order of the 
Greek alphabet ; and, under the initial letter, we have 
first ttie different names of the plant, then a description of 
its apiMjaranco, and laatly, its modiranal uses. In the last 



[Our. IT. 

division, there is a specification of its "qualities," ns hot 
or uiilii, aud its appropriateness, accordingly, for uold or 
]iot ditiorden). For uxaiupLc, tbe article Iris conKists uf a 
list of synoDyins, next a descriptidii of the aword-UUc leiif, 
the variegated flower from whiuli it derives ita Damo, the 
root and other parts of the plant ; then follow direcUons 
for its use, derived Irorn Its Luiug of a warming cbanicter, 
and iliBTcfure fitted to relieve coughs and to attenuate 
humours difficult to get rid of 

Tlte clmrncteristic foaturea of tlio Therajjeutica of these 
fifteen oenturiee were thes« : medicines wore sclecttid in 
oocordanoG with purely arbitrary aamniptiona of their 
being in their nature eiUier hot cr uuld, or luui^jt or dry, 
and the confidence in a compositjon was, for the mo$t 
|jart, in direct ratio to the number, variety, and wimt wa 
may call, the outKjf-the-waynesa of its Lngi-edients. Tlie 
ujore didiailt any 8u!wt«Ece was to get, the more good it 
waH sure to do. Like barbaric kiug^, the trust of pliyKiciaiis 
■was in the multitude of their forces, however motley, oou- 
fiised, and unknowm. One of the most favourite of their 
preiBirations, whiuli weut by the name of Tlieriacuni, was 
comjjoaed of the following aubstances : — Sc|uill8, hedy- 
ohroum, cinnamon, tx)mmon pepper, juice uf pop[iieii, dried 
rosea, wiiter-geruiandcr, rape seed, lU^Tian iris, agaric, 
liquorice, opolMdaam, myrrh, saflVon, ginger, rhajjoiitieum, 
cinquefoil, cahimint, horehound, stone-parsley, cassidony 
costuM, white and long pepper, dittany, flowers of sweet 
rush, imJi) frankincense, turpentine, matitich, black cat^da, 
spikenard, Howers of poley, atorax, parsley Heed, scseli, 
ahei>berd's ]>ouoh, bishop's weed, geruiander, ground pine, 
juice of h}'])ocistis, Indian IcaC Celtic nai-d, Bpignel, gen- 
tian, anise, fennel-seed, Leuuiiim eaHli, roiwted chalcitis, 
amomum, sweet Hag, balsumum, Puutic valeriani, St. John's 
wort, acacia, gum, cardamani, carrot seed, gidbanuin, saga- 

) PdJacetl UloMOridK AinarUi do MolirUi M«dicA, Ub. V. Colon- I52». 

*.». 800-lMO.] 



pen bilamon, opoeonax. castor, centaurj', cleuiaiiH, Attic 
hoaey, and Faleminn wine. Sixty-fux ingi-cdiioita com- 
posed this mixture, oiid with tlio exception of tlie last, we 
may safely affirm that the pbysiciana who prescribed it, 
were entirely igiiuraut of the etTects of any one of them, 
either takoii by those in health, or given to the sick. The 
lepuied virtues of this compound were commeria urate witli 
its multifaxioosoeBS. 

1st It waa to be taken twice n-day for seven years, by 
thone bittcu by venoutoua animals, or who liod taken 

2nd. It was to be taken by people in a dangerous state 
&x>ni some obsciu^ cause i-eseinbling poisoning.* 
3rd. For coughs and piiiiis ui the cbetit. 
itb. In Ha'mopt}^siB. 

5lh. For flatulence, tormina, and celiac afTeettons. 
6th. It removes rigors, coldness, and vomiting of bile. 
7th. It promotes menstruation. 
8th. For loss of voioe. 
9th. For ditteflA» of the liver. 
1 0th. For diseafles of the spleen. 
1 1 th. For cancerous atf«ctioiis of these organa. 
12th. For nephritic complaints. 
13th. For dysenteric attacks. 
1 4th. For dimncis of viHion. 

IdUi. It is also used as a dentifrico, and many take it 
flCt new moon after digestion, for the sjJco of prophylaxis.' 

This is a fair apecimea of the compound retiiedies in 
ordinary use at the time of 'which we speak ; and in pro- 
portion as phj-sicians confided In tliese, did they distrust the 
simple [lowerful subBtauoes which may be said to form tho 
staple of the medicine of to-day. Of mercury, a auWtauce 
18 important in tho practice of modem medicine as gun- 
powder in modern warfare^ and as destructive, Faulus 
• ful. JR^a. VpI. hi., p. Sll. 




iEgLDeta says, that " wlieu swallowed, it brings on tbe saoie 
83Tnptoms as litharge, and the same remedies arc to be 
used in this case."' Aricenna says, that " Mercury M'hidi 
has been killed (tluifc is, oxidated) or sublimated, (that w to 
Bay, atteiniated,) produces ^ravo syiiiiitonis, such as pain of 
the howelB, bloody flux, and so forth."' 

We may sum up the history of this period in a few 
words : it took its Psychology', Physiology, and Anatomy, 
from Aristotle as represented by Galen and Aviceuua, its 
theories of the practice of pliyaic from Galen, and ita 
Materia Medtca fi:x}ui Dioscorides. 

Let us remember that this is orthodox medicine. Tliis 
in the only system which can put forward a claim to lje 
tried by the great rule of Catholic faith, "Quod semper, quod 
ubiqus, ei quod ab omnibus tradituni est" It was 8en\per, 
that is, it endur«d for fifteen hundred years; it -wajiubiqiie, 
it extended from the wall of China to the western shores 
of SjMiin ; it was ab ottinihue traditum, in so far, that 
where the greatest of Galon's suocessors ventures in the 
mildest way to differ on the most insignificant ]H>int 
from the sovereigns of ntedicine, thta difference la picked 
out by niodeni hiatorians as a feat of heroic independence ; 
was, beside-s, the system of legal authority in the Roman 
provinces, any controversion of it entailing most serious 
penalties. The systems which have sprung up since are of 
mushroom growth. Nob one of them huM had tiio slightest 
pretension to any one of the three requisites of Catholic 
/irthodoxy. So far from having been ahoays believed in, 
a new one has displaced its predecessor before the latter had 
obtained the prescriptive right of a generation of believers, 
and tliis new one has had to^vc way to its successor, after 
even a sliorter reign. As for the ubique, that geueralEy 
meant one school, or at the most, one country, — iwyer tlie 
whole civilized world ; and the tain omnibua is more 
■ Puttw AipiLcU. Vol. II., p. 3S8. ' Ibid., Lib. tV., p. 113. 

A.I). 200-1200.] ORTHODOX MEDICINE. 126 

appropriate to the vehicle that goes by that name, than to 
any recent system of medicine. If we adhere to orthodoxy, 
we must accept Galen and his temperaments, Bioscorides 
and bis Tberiacs ; these are irreconcilable with modem 
ideas : if, on the other hand, we accept progress, then we 
must say iarewell to Orthodoxy. 




Bnger BftOeft— Hla Kati<tn*li»y — Th* PWloKriilief'a Stono — Hia relation (0 lie 
ChiLiYli— Knglish Svnting giDkiuM — Jerome Cnr<]u> — rhilomiibor wd Qn&nk 
— Uu AlgobiK ud AfltTfllog]^— Vlalte Seotbuid uid Kiis1a>(1— IUh oI 11 Uiddto 
daw in Ituly^Mihn^ — Salerao — Gononl Tnrbulenoe — BoLbcr-kDicbts— The 
Cbriatiau Lady— Hid Cliuc — TUu lunit— QI>Sacr«l MajeMjr— TuuubiuH far liu 

It wa« in the yenr of Our Lord, 1 1 G2, at ft council held 
ul MontpeUicr, a^^ bus been ulreacly meutioued, iliat a decree 
was passed forbidding the practice of raedidne to the 
monks. This may be looked upon ns the first step in the 
procesBof the divd'ceof medicine and tUechurcli; which ib 
took miiDy years to couKUUimiite ; fur, till the middle of the 
fourteenth ccntuiy, all physicians were ecclesift-stics — in so 
tar, at Inost, that Iwih had the samo education, habits of 
tliuught, and liocial putution. Indeed, the former bad 110 title 
to the appellation of physicians or investigators of nature ; 



[Cm*!-. V. 

tliej ought ratber to have beeti called tlio me<lical clergy, 
for they ctiltivnted the study of medidno in exactly tho 
same Bpii-it as the eocieeiasties studied theology ; and Qjilcn's 
works were tlioir Scriptures. To the superficial observer 
from the dote of the Montpellicr council, till tl»e period 
of Luthor and Paracelsus, the despotism of opinioii and 
tradition must have seemed absolute. 

"The noon-day of Pat>al dominion exlendR througli the 
thirteentli century. Koine iospirud during this age all the 
terror of her ancient name. She was once more the mis- 
tresK of the world, and kinga were her vasaols." ' 

It was now that the canon law was promulgated, wtiicb 
was nothing more thnn all the ncU of Papal usurpation 
thrown into a s^'stematic form. This code, of course, required 
canon lawyers, " who, though nianj' of them layraen, would, 
with the usual higotry of lawyers, defend eveiy [in^tcnsion 
or ahusa to which their received titaitdard of autliority gave 
sanction." ' 

These are the words of ITallani. and are not quoted for 
tlie sake of a wuwr at the profwwiou of law, hut to show 
that at this period there existed apparently no fi-eedom in 
any cnrjvoration. Freedom to^ik reiiige in individual minds 
— iu the iuipr^^ablc human bouI. We find the surfaoo of 
these dark ages dotted over by men of gigantic growth, 
towering, like palm trees in the duseii, alone and unsup- 
ported ; in their solitary grandeur testifying to the un- 
exhausted richness of the Boil, and predicting the general 
fertility— of which they were the firBt-fruits— that should 
cover Europe after the dea|»otism of opinion, already sapped 
at its foundation by a multitude of unseen forces, had 
fallen before the sledge-hammer of Luther and the axe of 

The most remarkable of these solitaries of this period 
was Roger Bacon. His history may be taken m iu every 
I miiui-a maw a«w, rot n.. p..i. > lua., vol il, ^4. 

A.i\ ISM-ISM.] 



rcRpccl representative, and is well worthy of our attentive 
consideration. Roger Bacon, called the wonderful doctor 
— Lodor Afi-rahiliv — waa bora in the year 1214 in the 
neiglibouriiood of Ilcliester. His family must have had 
considerable wealth, for he expended Viwt sums, equal to 
^SOOO or jP10,000 of modem money, upon his exptiri- 
menta, and pari at least of his Qimuoes v>»n derived from 
home. He went at a very early age to Oifurd, vvhei-e he 
soon achieved u great reputation by liis acquirements in 
langimgen and the leaminf^ of the andents. Ho nmde liim- 
self familiar with the 'WTitlogs of Aristotle iu the original 
— a most nu-e feat in those days, wlwn the works of this 
pioneer of physical philosophy were generally known only 
through the gross misiutcrpretatious of the Arabian writeni. 
After 5i»entling some time at Oxford, be went to the Um- 
veraity of Paris, which was then the metropolis of learn- 
ing. It was here pixibably that he cumpused his great 
works, and made his wondei-ful discoveries.' Tlic learned 
V. Cousin, with & display of nationality somewhat amusing, 
labours tu show that Baoou was almost a Kreiiehuiaii. But 
it is plain that in the thirteenth century the learned class 
was a nation of itself; its members spoke a common lan- 
guage, were actuated by common sentiments, had conimon 
privileges, and kept altogether apart from the rest of tlie 
commimity. What connection, for example, had John 
SooluB Erigena, John the Irishman, with the barbarians 
who then inhabited Ireland? or what resemblance is there 
Itetween John Duns Scotns and the marauding savage of 
the Suottish marches T These two Scott) would both be in- 
linitely more at home in Paris, than in their native bogs 
and moors. And so it nas with Koger Bacon. His 
nation was the learned ; the con.Hanguinity of thought was 
then fiu- moiv of a tie than the accident of the place of 

Roger Bacon was the earliest inductive philawphcr. 

' Boccr Baeoa. Jvunuil ilot SvTiinti, V. Cvtuin, 131S, p. 129. 



[CttkK V. 

WonJorful OM [us discoveries are, tliej are not so remark- 
alilo A8 the indrpcndnico of raiDd wliinli enabled htm to 
inuko tbeiii. Ue o]i«nB liis Great WorP thus: — "Tiiere 
are four itnpcditncrita to knowledge ; first, too grent de- 
pendi-noe upon autliority ; second, iillowing too great 
wuiglit to cu.'ttom ; thinl, the fear of ofiending tbe vulgar ; 
fodrtli. the iifTectAlion of concealing ignorniice by the dia- 
(ilny of a specious appenmnoe of knowledge." Sueh phrnseii 
are triiisina now : tlicii they were tremendous protests 
^niual »n authority which hud set H» foot on the neck of 
kings. Even the aainta and others, he adds, arc subject 
to the common infirmities of human nature. In his liold- 
neas, he nnliciiKLt^ some of the recent forms of raCiooaliem ; 
fat ofler doaciibing a kind of bitumen called nialta, which 
burnvfl tlxrough armour, he suggests tluit pos,sibIy Gideon 
had this sulwtance in his pitchers when he defeated the Mi- 
dianitefl in so ndraculous a manner. Nor is this said out 
of aiiy disrespeot to revelation, for he wrote a large book in 
order to explain his philo90[>liy to the pope (ClemeDl IV.). 
Hia words are : — " If it were not for the reverence which 
I have for tbe \-ionr of Jesus Clirist, I would nut have 
undertaken what I do."" 

Stich was tl>c spirit in wliich Roger Bacon worked — one 
of tevereiuyi for the church, and of free inquiry in all direc- 
taous. His tichiex'enieutfi arc almost incredible, both in 
humbiT and iuijiortance. He was tl>e firet nMronotner of 
hifi ago : he dt'teott!>d the error of tlie Julian Calendar, and 
recomuiended a mwo couipteta tvcttficntion than tLat 
thrae oanturiee afWwarda efiectvd ouder Qn^vry, Ha 
deaoribea tho aphertcol form of the earth. Bo inveali- 
gated tlie phenomenon of the Udea. In optica be dis- 
(xnx'Tvd the u^ of magitifving gUasee and of the camera ob- 
st,*uT«. In ctiemistry, or alchemy a» it was then called, his 
diaooverks van aiill more wonderful He defxribre a mix- 
ture of cfaaroool. tutrv, anU «ttl)>hur. which, wK'a iguitvU. 


oxplodcs wit]) fipiy coruscations, and a noise like thunder. 
This, no doubt, was a sjiecies of gunpowder; tbat it was a 
oontrivauoe for |»ropelling projectiles is an error. There 
are many explosive compounds, but few, or only one, ■which 
can be used for tins purpose. 

It would be folly to exjwot that Lis discoveries iu cbcmis- 
tiy sliould not be mingled with superstition. He gravely 
relates how a plooghman in Sicily foimd a jar fuU of yellow 
water, npon drinking which hiB whole nature was so cutii-ely 
changed, that from u duwu he became a courtier, handsome 
and clever, and lived eighty ycara in the service of the 
oomi. Tliis was the effect of potable gold, whicli, lie snys, 
does wondeni when well prepared and thorouglily drawn oul 

Of course, he believed in the Pliiloeopher'a Stone, which 
he desoribes as " that medicine which iaketh away all the 
impurities and comiption of a baser metal, so as to make 
it into purest silver and gold ; and is thought by wise men 
to bo able wholly to remove the comiplions of the human 
body, so as to prolong life for many ages. Tliis is the ' cor- 
pus ex clemeni'tB i^emperatum.' "' This passage deserves our 
attention. It implies not only the notion, expressed more 
«t length in his other works, that the diminished longevity 
of man, which he assumes from Scripture to have been at 
one tJnie many liuniL'cd years, arises from the coiTuption 
of the race, but also that the consequences of tlie fall can 
only be overcome by the progressive improvement of succes- 
sive generations of men. So that, in his eyes, evidently, tlie 
philosopher's stone was no vulgar, wonder-working chann, 
but a substance which improved the constitution — made the 
generation which partook of it more healthy — to be tlie pro- 
genitors of more healthy children. Thus, instead of a de- 
gradatJon, tbei-e should be a gradual elevation of the race. 

It is altogether out of the question to go over all ilogcr 
Bacon's isugestions and discoveries; those we have adduced 

1 Opn* Ui^un, jv 472. 

K S 



[CUAV. V. 

are enough to show tlie origiuaUty and lioUness of his 
mind, «nd his fate shows that this great man was bom 
out of his due time. He was cited bo Home, judged, con- 
demned, and imprisoned for many yeara. He died in 1292. 
Roger Bacon may be compared to Aristotle. It is rather 
Htnrtling when one makes this comparison of Uie men, to 
contrast the consideration in -which they were lield when 
alive. We are inclined to ask, What is to be mat^Ie of hii- 
man advancement, if this is the result of 1600 years of 
progress i The answer which suggests itself in favour of 
the Middle Ages is thia : the culture of Greece was an 
exceptional phenomenon ; it was like an txpei-inient car- 
ried on upon a small scale, with all tlio conditions under 
the command of the operator, to ascertain to what 
perfection an individual plant oould be reared. What 
we may coll the Rose of Pericles, was a specimen of unsur- 
passed, and possibly unsurpa.s.'iable, perfection of culture; 
but lifter this effoi-t, there was no other, and the plant de- 
cayed ; while, on the other hand, men like Roger Bacon 
were the premature efTort"! of a nascent civilization, con- 
fined to no particular pbice or time, but embracing the whole 
uf EuroiJC, and extending onward to the present day. 
Tbe Church may be said to have done right in condemning 
Bacon, becanse the great function which that institution 
was tlicn performing, was the aggregation of iuilividuala 
into cominuiiities. It cliiiiued dominion over the king, 
as ovei" the serf; it proclaimed the brotherhood of all 
mankind; and if any individuals opposed this claim, by 
promulgating some new opinion, it was necessary there 
should be a conflict — the Church must either take the light 
to hang in its own temple, or extinguish it. In tliecase of 
Roger Bacon, the lamp turned out to be too big for the 
church, and so it had to be broken. The breaking of such 
lamps scattered the sparlu, and increased the conflict be- 
tween inde|>endent thinking and submission to authority, 
which ended — or, at least, hsJted — at the Reformation, The 

1.1.. 1200-1500.] HIS BBLATION TO THE CHUBCH. 


great fkct, however, remaiDcd^ that men were no longer to 
form schools, and think merely for themselves — thoy were 
to think fur the masses. These masses were to bo drawn up, 
even at the sncriQce of the centres of illuuiiuatiou, and the 
lesson WAS impercx^ptibly communicat^f], that now isolated 
progress was inipoysible ; and that, before the great thinkers 
of the uge could assume their proper place, the grand social 
probleni must be solved, of reconciling individual freedom 
with stibmissiou to law. 

It may be asked, What has all tins to do with the 
liLstoi^* of medicine J. Much, every way. Medicine, aa a 
seience, was concerned in it ; atill more, medicine as a prac- 
tical art. MeUiciue moved along the lines of civilization 
as the electric wire accompaniea the i-aili-oad. An the 
civilization of Italy and the South of France differed from 
that of the North, so did the development of medicine in 
these respective n^ons. This we must csaminc more closely ; 
but before doing so, let us observe thu-t, as members of the 
Univer^ty, as a medical clerg}', pliyaiciaus departed to a 
hopeless distance from the true idea of medical or liealing 
men. They occupied them.selves with the questions of the 
ecJioolmea, and neglected entirely t!io practical duties of 
their profeNsiun. We cauuot have h uiore pointed proof of 
this, than aiTorded by Dr. Thomas Linacre (bom 1 460), 
the founder of tlie College of Physicians of London — that 
depository, or dormitory, of the oiediud clergy. "la the 
|>rime of his youth," snys Hecker, " he had been an eye< 
wiinees of the events at Oxford, and survived even the 
second and third eruption of the sweating sickness (an 
epidemic of which we shall speak more afWwards, but 
which, wo may here observe, spread more constemaUon, and 
committed more havoc tlian any former plague in Kngland) ; 
but in none of his writings do wo find a single word of 
this disease, which is of 5ucli permanent importance!." ' How 
■ UmW, p. ISf. 




thw great physician — pTiysicIan to Henry VII. and Henry 
VIIT. — occupied biinseir, is told by Kmsrnus ; who says, that 
this Greek and Latin schoUir, mathematician, aoii physician, 
at the age of sixty, omitting the stndy of other UiingH, (the 
sweating sickness for example,) had for the lost twenty 
years been torturing hiraBelf in gi*ammar, and that he 
wonld consider himself happy if it were permitted him to 
live until he had certainly established how the eiglit |>ftrU 
of speech were to be distinguislied.' Nor was Linacre 
peculiar in this ; for, on the contrary, " tlie restorers of the 
medical science of ancient Greece, who were follower! by 
the most enlightened men in Kurope, occupied theniselvea 
Rither with the ancient terms of art, than with actutd ob- 
servation, and in tlieir critical researches overlooked tlio 
huportaiit events that were passing before their eyes." Wo 
cannot laippose the medical clergy had lost their human 
feelings ; they must have felt tlie deatli of their relatives, 
friends, and neighbours, as keenly as the ixide multitude 
who were di'ivcn almost, or altogether, to distraction by 
the dreadfid pestilences which fonn one of the historical 
features of those agca. Not from want of feeling or indiffer- 
ence to the calamity, hut from a sorrowful conviction " tl)at 
no physic afforded any cnre,"* must they have abdicated 
Uidir office of standing bt;tweeu the people and the pltigue. 
And never was tliere a time when medical aid was more 
needed. Besides " the black deatli, or tJic great mortality 
which depopulated Europe in the middle of the fourteenth 
centurj', paralysing the mentil powers, and inducing panics 
which led to the most frightful atrocities against the sup- 
poeed authors of the plague — tbe unfortunate Jews, who 
were slaughtered or burned by thousands, (in Mayence 
alone 1 2,000 are said to have been put to a cruel death,"") 
— there wexv ao Jess than five eruptions of tho sweating 

I RlDKiraib Qnotod I7 Hedcer. 
> Ibkur. 

* n«ek«r, 11. U. 



Bickness in the fuurteentb and fifleentJi centuries. This 
disease first Appeared in England, and bence vras called ttio 
li)ngliB}i diseasti. The reiwoii for ttiis preference is thus given 
by Dr. Kay, the founder of Caius College : — " Cause thereof 
:ione other there is than the evil diet of these tliree coun- 
tries (England, Brahmtit, iittd the cuafits), wliioh distroy 
more mentts and drynkkea without al ordre, oouveuient 
iiiiic, reason, or necessity, than cither Scotlondc or al other 
countries under tlie sunne, to tlie. great annoyance of their 
own bodies and ^iittes ..." So be goes on to stiy that 
if ./Esculapins himself were to come to life, be could not 
8avc men having so nmcb "»weatin^ stuffe, so many pvill 
humours laid up in store, from this diapleasiwt^ fearful, aiid 
IJcsUlcut disease." ' So fearful, indeed, was it, that it nJto- 
getlier appalled the people, who neglected the gx-eat Chm-ch 
festivals of JlUcliaelmas and ChrUtiuas, and gave tliemselves 
up to despair. 

This sweating sickness broke out afterwards in various 
countries of Eurojie, and produced similiar results : — "The 
alarm which prevailed in Qermauy surpasses all description, 
and lionlered on maniacal despair." Here it was treated, 
as we may say, vtore GeriiMiiico; that ifl, when one was 
taken ill, be or she was put to bed, covered with feather 
bedii and fura ; a stove was heated to furnace-pitch, windows 
and doors were closed, and to prevent untoward movements 
for relief on the part of the patient, some per^tons in health 
got OD tbe top of them ; and so the sufferer generally 
perished — etexved to death, as it is asserted. Tliis folly 
worked its own cure ; for some of the most strenuous advo- 
cates of this coarse HoiTiceo|)athy having duui, there was a 
revulsion against this plan ; and a more nitiunal system was 
udvised t/y two artisans, who had come to Stettin from 
Englaiid, where they hiid learned tlmt a cooling metliod 
hod been more helpful lium tlie beating one.' 



[Chap. V. 

Here we arrive at a mosb itnportanb fact tn tlie History 
of Medioine. The people Lad cutiie to dJKtrUfit their pliy- 
Kicians, and the phj-sicians to di.strust their physic. When 
piteoualy implored for aid, tbey replied that nunc could Iw 
given, because thef^e diseiUM-s ^vere the result of the evil 
conjunction of tlie stars. " Wo, the mcmlwrs of the College 
of PliyaiuiiuiH at Paris, havj[tg, after mature cousideratiou 
and cunsultatiou on the present mortality, conect^>d tho 
advice of tJie old masters " (who knew nothing ahout it), 
"we are of opinion, that the consteUations, witli the aid of 
nature, strive, by virtue of tlieir divine iniglit, to ]}rotect 
and heal tlie human race." . . . ^ 

As tliere was no help to lie got from these medical clergy, 
and an Dieu will not submit to die like sheep without some 
effort to save themselves, it naturally happc-ncd tliat there 
aroee a multitude! of quacks, who took upon tluMn tliooffico 
led vacant by the jihysidauH ; and thus the medical ])rofet>.siou 
separated itself into two parts, all the learning gathering 
about the negative pole, while all the active practical ha- 
maiiity appeared at the opjiosite- — a fatal scparaliou for the 
art as well as for its victims ! Fur, let us repeat, there never 
was a time wheu wise iiiedlcat oWrvation and counsel 
were more wauted. Besides the dreadful epidemics, that 
swept like a bhist of the destroyer's nostrils over all Europe, 
other poisons had been generated by the dissolution of 
morula, of nioii) ]H;n)ianeut openiLion, if not so suddenly 
destructive — more uiiscbievous from the contamination of Iho 
conslitution. Against such diseases, men rc<|uirL-d protection 
luid antidotes. Antidotes were fitfentd, but g»-neraily not 
by tiie hand of the skilful, prudi^ut physician, but by tliat 
of iho rash, false, gi-ccdy Empiric. This was a great evil 
onder the sun, an evil which ondurcs to tlio present day. 

BBtWHen the leai-ned iuibeeiles on tlte one hand, and the 
^gMnni Empirics on the other, there arose a sort of mixed 

.». 1300-1500.] 



race at this period, very peculiar, and wcU worthy of at- 
tentive eitady. The most remarkable example; of tbiRkinil of 
hybrid between a philosopher atid a quack, is Cardan, who 
was at once one of the most renowned of the mathematicians 
and of the astrological practitioners of medicine of hia age. 
He was born, according to his own autobiography.' in 
Pavin, A.». 1501. His fotber was a Milanese, of good 
&mily, who, accxirding to hiB son's doseription, was dLstin- 
gui&hed by peculiarities which may, in some degree, accoimt 
for the extravojfanccs of his oSspririg. Ho couhl sec as 
well in tlie dark as in the light, and had a fainihor spirit 
whose society gecius to have superseded tliat of his wile, 
the mother of Httlc Jerome. At least, his two parenta 
lived a[»art, and, by hia own account, lie waa subjected to 
very rough, usage at the hands of hia father. However, 
veradty was by no means Jerome Cardan's forte, and idl he 
says must be taken cum f/mno salis. Hia boyliooii was 
afflicted with various forms of disease, and till his nine- 
t««nLh year he attended Lis father in what is denominated 
the capacity of a scn-ant ; but, po.-aibly, he merely served 
as a page, which was conmiou enough then, and far from 
dishonourable. When nineteen, he went to the gj-nmasium, 
and devoted himself to LaUn, dialectics, and mathematics. 
His father was carried off by tlie i>Iague, and the j-outii 
was left to struggle on through poveity in his strange career. 
At twenty-one he gave public Itctures on KucMd, and was 
chosen Rector of tlm University of Padua — an honour bis 
penury forced him to resign. He took hia degree in his 
twenty-fourth year, and applied hicn.'ielf to the practice of 
medidne with such success that soon he aciuired an immense 
i-eputation. In the year 1550, he made a journey aJl the 
way to St. iVndrew's, in Scotland, at the request of Arch- 
bi^op Hamilton, whom he aUls AmuUhon. He is said 
to tiave cured him of sou\ti aOcctlou of the eliest, for which 



ICiur. V. 

lui received a fee like a n>yii] rausoin. He was aflerwanis 
invited to Faviii, Milan, aad Bolo^a ; yet he never seems 
to have been what we should call comfortably off, for we 
licar of hi3 lying in prison for a year for Ixis debts. He 
died in llie yeju* 1 57G, for tlic sake, as it was said, of ful- 
filHug Us Qwu astrological prediction. 

Such is an outline of his cnrccr. When wc examine it 
more closely, we find it made u]) of two aspects so entirely 
dissimilar, as to btj generally coiwidi'red mutually exclusive. 
He was, undoubtcnily, a great matlicmaticion. On this 
head, we shall quote the words of Professor Flay&j.r': — 
" The name of Curdau is famous in the history of Algebra 
. . . Bt'fore this time, very little advance had been made in 
the solution of any equations liigber than the second degree ; 
exc-ept that, »s we are told, about the year 1508, Sapio 
Ferrei, Professor of Mathematics at Bologna, had found out 
a role for resolving one of tlie cases of cubic equations — 
which, however, ho concejdud, or coumiunicated only to a 
few of his scholars. One of these, Florido, on the strength 
of the secret he possessed, agreeable to a practice then 
common among m.itheiii:ittciaiis, challenged Turtalea of 
Brescia, to contend with bim in the solution of Algebraic 
probloma Florido had, at first, the advantage, but Tor- 
tttlea, being a man of ingenuity, discovered hia rule^ and 
ftlm another much more general, in consequence of which 
he came utf iil lost much more victoiious. By the report 
of this victory, the curiosity of Cardan was strongly ex- 
dted ; for, although he was himself much versed in the 
mathematics, he had not been able to discriver a method 
of resolving equations higlier than the second degree. By 
the most earnest and importunate solicitations, he wrung 
from Tiirtalea the secrete of his rules, but not till Ite had 
bound himself by promises and oaths ne\'er to divulge 
them. Tartalea did not commutiiuatu tlie demonstrations, 
1 tr^minrs Dlantallou W lU Bnejrclopadi* Briuulea^ p. 411. 

i.ti. 1200-1500.] MATHEJtATICIA^t AND QITACE. 


which, however, Canlan soon fnund out, and extended in a 
very itigemous ftiid sj'steiimtic matiner to all cubic equntions 
whatsoever. Tbuu possessed of an importanb discovery, 
wliich "was at least in a great part his own, he soon for- 
got Uis promises to Toriolea, and published the whole in 
1 545, not couoealing, however, wbat he owed to the latter. 
. . . Thus was first published the rule which still bears 
the name of Cardan, and which at this day marlvs a point 
in the progress of Algebnitc inveiitigatioD wkicli all tho 
efforts of succeeding analysts have hai-dly bcL'n able to go 

Thus high stunds Cardan in the history of science : let us 
now consider the other aipect of his character. He woa an 
out-and-out asti-ologer ; his fiiith in astral influunccs wa^i 
founded on a theor)* of oriental origin, stUl holding its 
ground in the east— that there was one pervading vitality 
diffused through the whole universe, entwining all tlio 
parts in the bonda of sympathy ; that the various organs 
of the human body were related by more near or more dis- 
tant affinity with the diSereub planets ; and hence, that 
the portions of these stara at the hour of birth icifluenoed the 
organism of the neiiv-byru member of this great circle, and 
absolutely 6xed his inevitable clinractfT. Cardan himself 
unfortunately, was born when Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter 
were in a pju'ticular conjunction; and Iience he was fore- 
doomed to be an unsteady, envious, calumiiious man, unable 
to keep any secret, to forget any injury, or to reverence re- 
ligioii. No prediction is more likely to be the means of itA 
own fiilBlmcnt than such an one as this. For any man to 
believe himself doomed to be bad, will make liim bod ; and 
we are only tiui-iirised that, notwitimtanding such a sen- 
tenoe of death hung round Ins neck while in tbo cradle. 
Cardan contiived to inaku no nmch of his life. 

He had, beside^ an absolute &uth in dreaiuR and visions, 
and liad iutcrviews with a demon wlio foretold comiti;; 



{Cba*-. V. 

evoita He said ho hod four special gifts, for which he was 

tliJinkful : — 

. I. He could at pleasure ilirow Litnfielf into an erabs^y or 


11. He could see wiUi his eyes, cot his fancy, any visicn 
lie please il. 

ni. All fiiture event-* were revealed to him in di-eams. 

IV. It wiis also given fco him to know the future by 
certain appearances in his naibi. 

The " gifts " clearly indicate a condition of the nervous sys- 
tem allied t(> soninanibulimr ; and, doubtless, when lie thought 
Lis noils told hiui anything, he had produced a stnUt of 
hypnotism in him&elfj hy steadily gazing at his finger- 
lips. In short, ho wjw all his life half mud. Proiierly 
■poakiug, he was not an impostor ; lie believed iu himself, iuid 
addressed not the ignorant, but the learned. Still he had a 
certain uninistakabk da»h of quackery in him, and employed 
very questionable methods of getting into practice. Uis first 
book was entitled, "De Malo Medcndi UaUj" the fallacies 
of the faculty, as we now say. The book was clever, gave 
the profesMou great oflence, was much talked of, and brought 
the writer into notice and extensive practice. One of his 
fin^ great patients waa the son of a senator, named Spon- 
drato ; the child hiul suffcrei] fi-oni convulsions, and was 
under the care of a well-known physidan, Lucca dclla 
Croce. When Cardan saw the boy, he pronounced the 
complaint to be Opisthotonoa, a word unknown to the other 
attendants ; and on being a-sked how he would cure it, he 
replied by a string of quututiuns from Hippocnitcs and 
Galen. The long and short of it was, that he ousted his 
colleagues, and cured the disease. Uis fame soon spread, 
and he became one of the moat renowned men of his age. 
It waa not, however, as u physiciftn he was aOobrated, 
but as a magician. Melville, in hii^ memoirs, says that the 
Archbishop Hamilton fell dangerously ill, with loss of 



epeecb, and was teUeved to be in a hopeleas state, but was 
rescued by the lud of on Italian mo^cian callrd Cardan. 
When be p.\ssed through London, he was consulted about 
the health of Edward VI., not as to his treatmeuf, but that 
he might cast his horoscope and foretell his late. Cardan 
gave him a long^h life, and the king died in a few months. 
Cardan excused his faiJure hysajing that he had not given 
Buflident attention to the case — hardly likely, when we 
cousider the magnitude of the venture. 

His journey to Scotland was the (icnie of his renown ; and, 
perhapn, with the view of keeping its memory freah, he pro- 
cured, wht-n there, a suit of clothes made according to the 
Cxshion of that countr}*, which be continued to wear afler bis 
return to Rome, where lie was seen by the famous De Tliou, 
"dreGsed aa no other mortal." To "the garb of old Gaul,'' 
let us add his own account of bis gait : — " For n few steps he 
walked with a slow, measured tread, as if at n funeral ; then 
broke into a run, as if flying from the police." If a gauut 
figure in kilts were to conduct buttself in such a fashion in 
the streets of London at the present day, he would un- 
doubtedly attract a mob ; and we cannot hut think Car- 
dan rather liked a little mobbing, for be was the vainest of 
men, and preferred any kind of nodce to none at all. He 
boasted himself as the seventh phyHieian from the time of 
Adam, only one worthy of the name being horn in a tiiou- 
sand yea».' 

Such was Cardan, of whom Bayle ohserves that thoi« 
is a saying about no genius being without a do&h of 
folly ; but that here we have an example of folly with a 
dash of genius — the quantity of tlic folly so greatly pre- 
ponderating. Characters Uke Cardan exist at the present 

1 ?w Okfrlu'i life, *ee lili ««n 
AnWhiopEpliy, Vit» Propri*; Usjlo'« 
Dioluauir7 ; ui<l Morlay'* Li{« nf Cai- 
liUL, Soow of hi> wockii an IniuiUUii 

iiilA Bnglialt, tom* into Freiicli : Uic/ 
occup; t«n fotio volumui. Tli«ir titlg 
k " IlicroDTmi Conluii UpgraC^HuiU." 



rClUP. V. 

tiation of the French misrule over the kingdomB of 
INaplea aad Sicily. The sufferings of the Sicilians under 
the violence of the French became intolerable, and a revo- 
lution was pknncd by l>r. Giovanni di Proccda.' "This 
nobleman was Lord of the Isle of Proceda, in the Gulf of 
Naples, also Lord of Framonti and PistiUone. His high birth 
did not prevent hia devotion to medicine, which was tjien 
cultivated by the greatest noblemen."* 

The revolution which he had planned to carry out wisiely, 
■with the aasistanoe of the Emperor Paleologm, wa.s effected 
in a fashion neither he nor any other mortal contemplated. 
A French soldier made a rude asisault on a young Sicilian 
bride, in the presence of her betrothed. The insulter was 
instantly stabbed to the heart, and n shout arose, " To arms 1 
Death to the French I " The war-cry was taken up by 
every native In the city, and in a few hours 4000 French- 
men, were slain in the streets of Palermo. The example 
thus set was copied to the letter in all the towns of Sicily ; 
and on the 30th of March, 12S2, the revolution of Dr. 
Proceda was anticipated by the celebration of the " SidlinTt 

That a physician should be found taking bo prominent a 
part in a, great political movement, would exoits no sur- 
priao at the time and place of its occurrence. In many of 
the Italian republics, during the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries, the power was chiefly ju the hands of 
the middle classes ; and it is probable that the physicians 
oocupied a high and influential pwition among them. 
GaJvanis Fhunma describes Mihui in 1288, as having a 
population of 200,000, among whom were 000 notarieR, 
SOO physicians, 80 schoolmasters, and 50 transcribers of 
mannscTipts or books. Milan was about this period at 
a pitch of gior}' which had not been equalled since the 

I SisnoBilI. Vol in. p. 457. 

■ "^ol «taii »lpn cuItiT6« par la* 

pin antuk-Solgn«ii»."— -tbUl., Vol. 


A.K. i2oa-iJM>n.) 



Greek repnbliet. The ina^rnificence of ite buildings and 
tbe greatness of iU public works attest, even to tbe present 
day, tlic genius and opulence of iU inhabitants. Tbe Navi- 
glio Grande, wbicli spreads tho waters of the Ticino over the 
plaius of Loiubardy, wan begun in 1179; and, afler varJouH 
interruptions, was eompletod aboait the year 1 260. " Men 
who meditated,^ and appliml to the art« the fVuiLs of t1idr 
btudy, already practiHed that sdentific agricultufe of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany, which became a model to other nations ; 
and to this day, the districts formerly free and aIwa>H culti- 
vated with intelligeuoe, are easily distiuguished from the half- 
wild districtfl which had remained subject to feudal lords."' 
Ttuit the 200 physicians exeroHed an important influ- 
eiiou on tills community, we cannot doubt ; for besideti 
being, as we have seen, many of them men of good lamily 
■~^k matter of much consequence tu Italy at that time 
— tbey were likewise of liigh standing in intelligence and 
edu<Mition. This we learn from the statutes of the medical 
Bcliool of Salemo, of date 1 140. A candidate could not 
ba admitted to examination, until he had attained twenty- 
one years of ago, and he refjuircd to have studied for 
seven years ; and he liad to sliuw publicly hi^ proficienc}'' 
in Cla]«n, Avicenna, or Hippocrates, and in the analytical 
books of Aristotle: Another sti^tute siiys : — " Stiioe it is 
im{}o&sible for any one to make prc^re^ in medicine with- 
out a knowledge of logic, we will and command tliat no 
one be admitted to the atudy of medicine, until he has been 
for at least three years engaged in the study of lope." * 
After pajwing the requisite e?cami nations, before he re- 
ceived the privilege of practising tlic art of tnedicine, ho 
was required to take an oatli, that he woidd inform the 
autliorities if be discovered any a]>otheeary adulterating 
any of the drugs lie expoaed for sale. There was a very 
Btrict ordinance agaimtt any kiud of ossociatiou or ctmuec- 
> SianianiiL Op. eiU ^ SpieagaL Op. dt. 




{Cn*?. V- 

tion hetwc<m pbystcnans and druggists ; nor was a pIiyHiciau 
himself to dispense his own medicine. From these statutes 
•wc K'arn, that the physician of that period in Itiily was well 
entitled to the ]Mi£ition of a cultivated gentleman ; and we 
know, from other som-ces, that he associated, on terms of 
intimacy, with the leading men of his age and coimtry. 
Tlie fruits (jf this education aud sixual position are dis- 
oerntblt! in tliu early cultivation iu Italy of the scienoes 
connected witU medicine, and in the Jissistanoe derived by 
them from tlie fine arts. For ex^imple, some of the eariieBt 
anatomical plates were e.\ecutL>d by Leonartlo da Vinci, pro- 
bably about the end of the fifteenth century. They maybe 
seen iu the BriLiah Museum.' Tliore is uo reason to believe, 
however, lliat in the actual practicu of medicine, any of the 
early Italian physicians advanced beyond tbe i->recepte of 
Galen and his hoIiooI ; and we know that many of them de- 
voted themselves to aatrology. That alchemy, too, was much 
in vogiie,, may be learned from «, satire of Petrarch, en- 
titled, *' Tbe Remedy for Both Fortonea "'—that is, for Good 
and Bad. It consists of a dialogue between Joy and Reason. 
The former paints the bright, the latter tlie dark side, of 
the various projects started. Joy ((oquitur) : I hope it will 
go well witb alchemy I Reason : Tell me whatever oomcs 
of it but smoke, aahes, aweat, sighs, words, deceit, and 
shame. That is the use of idcliemy, through which we never 
saw one poor man grow rich, but many a rich one brought 
down to poverty. You would tiy to be rich, but never 
would become so ; for tliis art is nothing hut lying and 
deceit. It will fill youi- houw* witli strange guests, who 
will eat up your substance, and laugh at your folly, — and 
will land you in jail, to keep company with rogues."' 

* Orijpml DMiAVd at tli« ntoat 
tuDoas Masten of iiit ihliifomo. Bo- 
nun, Plorentiac, Mid VoncUan RirlKmU. 
Ky J. CluuulHirbiD. Loniion, 1813. 

* Pmiotacit P«inut», VvB dor AiTiwi 

border Glnck, 163S, clu^. eixxili., k 
0«nn>ii tnumUtioa et k work o( 
rutRUMb'e. 1 bttvo nob wen the ori- 
l^D»i of tJiia curioBi dialogue. 

i.i>. 1300-1500.1 



It 18 impossible to read the ilctails of ItAlian lifo at tim 
period — that is, from tho year 1 200 to 1 500 — without being 
amazed at its incougruities. On the oue band, we have 
[voductions of genius, by Leonardo da Vinci, Micliaol 
Angelo, and others, surpassmg everytbiug of the prusent 
day ; and we naturally figure to ounelve», iliat men 
engaged in auch laborious and exquisite works of art, per- 
formed their tasks in pc;ace and tranquillity. We know 
that even literature sickeus at the Bound of the trumpet ; 
much more should we expect paiuLliig and sculpture to do so. 
A poet like Dante might write a book by anatcbea on a 
journey, or in flight; but an artist such as Micliacl AngeJo 
could not carry his cauvas and palut, his mai*bles iind chisels 
about with liim. When we look at the masterpieces of the 
Italians, we naturally iiguro to ourselvoa that tliey were 
produced in homes, secure from strife and violence. But 
what is the (acti Probably hardly a week passed without 
some sctjne of bloodshed occurring in the street where they 
dwelt. A man could not leave his hou^ without encoun- 
tering the risk of being attacked by a band of asfiassinB. 
The feudal lords, when tbey came to live in cities, retained 
all the habits of their casblea " Their hom^ea were fortresses 
— thick walls, high and narrow windows, a mawave door of 
oak, secured with iron bars, promised to resist more tlian 
one attack ; and if they were at last forced, a high square 
tower still served as rofiige. From theee palaces of the 
nobles, bauds of assas^ms were often seen issuing to rob 
or murder dtizens, who were treated as enemies; chains 
were prepared to be thrown atrroHS llie Btreet, and in an 
instant to form banicudes — behind which were seeu ranged 
several hundred wiirriors."' Such were the scenes which 
daily met the eye of the artist or phpidan : tliat tlie 
power of refined thought should survive the contact with 
brutal violence^ though against preconceived notions, is Imrne 
' SiniKiodi. op. cit. 




[CHAt. V. 

out by historical evidence. Wliile the Burroimiiing savage 
life did not destroy the powers of thought or prevent the cul- 
tivation of the iutellect, for we find, oocasiomdly, » hi<^h seosi- 
tivenesB of the imagination assodated with grossness of con- 
duct, such a state of things must have blunted the feelings to 
human Bufierinj^, and have acted more injuriously on medi- 
cine in its {wculiarly human relations, than in its scientific 
aspecta. Accordingly, it tihuuld not uui'prise us to 6nd that 
■ome of the most distinguished cultivators of anatomy were 
in tlio habit of acting in a manner which we Bhould feel to 
be an outrage on humanity. For example, Gabriel FaJlopia, 
bom 1523, and Justly celebrated, was in the liabit of ob- 
taining criminals ixvux the court to dissect. It is but fair io 
state, that be poisoned them first, as he tells us in tlie follow- 
ing remarkable paesagu : — " For the prince ordered a man 
to be given us, whom we killed in our fashion, and dissected 
(fjuem ncstroviodointerfecimus et iUum anatomizavimua). 
I gave him two dradims of opium. He, having a quartan ague, 
liad a {>aroxyBm which prevented the opium taking effect. 
Tlie man, in great exultation, begged of us to try once more, 
and if lie did not then die, to ask the prince to spare his life 
We gave him other two drachms of opium, and he died."' 
lu Italy, the natural savagonoss of the feudal life was 
chequered by the genius of art, and modified by the 
action of a multitudo of towns and citicK ; but in Ger- 
many, and in the northern part of France and England, 
fcudalijun prencnted itself simply as one remove &om 
absolute btrbnrism. The military wen who held pos- 
MsaioQ of the lauds were hardly better than bands of 
robbers. " At this epoch, about the twelfth century," 
eaye Gutzot, "there was war everywhere. . . . Not only 
were strong castles constructed, but all things were made 
into fortifications, haunts, and d^i'i^nsive habit»tion."* Coui- 

fort, IflCM, p. {S3. 

* Onitol'i JDtary nf tiu ClviluBliiiti 
of Fntncu. 

«.». I200-1600.] aOKBBR KKIOnTS.— THE OHRISTIAH LADY. 119 

paniea of Knighta t«ok up tlieir abode in tbe ruins of the 
Roman amphitheatres nt Aries and Nismea, wIiBre they forti- 
fied tbeniaelvcs, and whence they sallied forth to rob tbe 
passing travellers. Tiiey must have lived by plunder, as 
there was no other means of subsistence in their power. 
In answer to the inquiry of an archbishop, how ho would 
maintiun himself and his household upon a bairen rock, 
he pointed significantly to the meeting at tbe foot of bis 
fortress of /our roads ' (that was his pursuit of qjimlriviuw) 
— <uid yet, even in. the heart of this universal violence and 
reckless disregard of all the claims of general humanity, 
there was working the ineKtinguishable spirit of Chris- 
tianity. Being in its essence spiritual, its high prerogative 
was, and is, to operalo ujKiu the every-day actions of men, 
and to mould the existing human lifo into something 
purer and hotter. It diffcra wholly in tbia respect from the 
Paganism it BU|)Orseded. Belief in the gods did not infuse 
morality into the Roman empire. What morality there 
was, c^me fi-om a different source. But ftnidalism was 
affected in it6 essence by a belief in Clirist. Beeidee 
inaugurating the great movement of the Crusades, which 
probably did more to civilize Kurope than any other event, 
— by bringing niultitudeH under tlie doinuiion of au idea or 
mintiment, the esaimtially devulgarizing agent iu the world, 
— Giristianity found for itaelf a kind of exponent in chi- 
valry. Tliis, with all its defects, wa.s a religion to these 
robbers. It was in itself a noble thing ; it recognized 
tratli, and reverence for the plighted word, to be of para- 
mount cbligatJou. Tliis is a wonderful step in huuian 
prc^rees beyond the Greeks. So also is the high estimate 
in which women -were held. Noble womanhood exercised a 
great influence on the rude fighting life. Take, as a sped- 
men, the fullowing passage from the autobiography of 
Guibert dc Nogcnt, who lived in the castle of Beauvaisia, 

• nklluni MuUU Aga, \\>L 11. p 1S4. 



(Cnit. V. 

in the eleventl) ceuUiry : — " I Iiave Baid, God of mercy and 
holiness, that I wowltl return thanks to thee for thy good- 
nefls. Fimt, T especially return thanks to thee for having 
given uie a chiLStti and luudust mother^ and one 611ed with 
fear of thee. With rc-gard to her henuty, T should praise it 
in a worldly and extravagant manner, did 1 place it any- 
where but in a face armed with a severe chastity. The vir- 
tuous expression of my mother, her rare speech, her always 
tranquil countenance, were net made to encourage the 
levity of those wlio beheld her . . . and what is very 
rarely or scarcely ever aeen in women of a high rank, she 
was as jealous of preserving pure the gifts of God, us sbe was 
rcscr\'ed in blaming women who abused them ... It 
was far less from experience, than troia a kind of awe with 
which she was inspired from above, that she was accustomed 
to detect sJn. How great were the examples of modesty 
which she gave 1 Living in great fear of the Lord, with 
an equal love for her neighbours, efipecially ihone which 
were poor, she managed us pmdently, ua and our property ;"' 
for slie was a widow. Thus, in the heart of these feudal 
castles, there bloomed that exquisite flower, the Cliristiun 
laily, refining its i-ude inhabitants, and softening them by its 
heavenly fragrance. What a contrast her life to theirs I 

At that period, the men of the higher classes had but 
two oocujMiiions — war and the chase. The two were 
closely allied ; for war was no longer the tjcience it had been 
among tlic Romans ; it was rather the fighting of armed 
marauders. " A very large proportion of the rural nobility 
lived by robbeiy." Tlie eiiaseof a merchant or a boar was 
much the same ; both involved conflict, for the merchant, in 
place of tu-sks, had a convoy of " lances ; " both were for the 
Bake of booty ; and both were regulated by a code of honour. 
Indeed, we have an instance of a nobleman, one of the family 
of the Visconti, in the fifteenth century, who so entirely assi- 

' Uuicbt'* UiitoTjr of Uw Civili(au«n of Fr»nca. 

4.9. 1 300-1 SflO] 



Diilated tbe Luman and the bestinl cliaj^e, thnt lie cnnsctl all 
iho cruniuab to be given np to hiin, started tbem in the 
■ I'i, and bunted them with dogs. When legitimate game 
■ ii V convicts — ran short, he obtained a supply by 
- his coiupauiona.' Tliin piission for tbe excite' 
I \ luid the chase, was & cbaracterisUc feature of the 
' uiinUtd the want of scope which otherwiae Tnusb 
II I I-- t-lii'lr castles intolerable from ennui, and engen- 
Irt'l .1. Hiitisfactioii iu a merely animal existenct-, tliat 
t-ntirvly disqualiiiod the male inmates for all intellectual 

Tbe chase may be said to have hod its beginning at 
this period ; and it bos continued a power in Europe ever 
Hince. In the habits it has created and the influence 
it has exercised in nimlern social life, is presented a great 
contrast to tlie ci\'ilissetl life of Rome. It deserves to 
be recorded, like chivalry, as a new exhibition of hnninn 
nature, — not, of counie, tlie mere hunting and killing of 
wild animals, wliicL is as old as Nimrod ; but in the recog- 
nition of this occupation as ebaractcristic of the noble. 
Henoe comes the exjiression, the nobU sjiort of fox-hwitting, 
— not that the thing was noble, but thnt it was the pursuit 
of nobles. This idea would have been hardly intelli^ble to 
a Roman. In a letter from Fliny to Tacitus we have the 
description of a boar-hunt. " You will laugh, aa well you 
uiay. Your friend, your Pliny, the man you know so 
well, even I, have taken tliree swinging boars. Pliny, say 
you ? Yes, Pliny, the inilividual Pliny ; without any great 
interruption of my indolence or studies. Tlie nets wcro 
spread, and 1 sat down close to them ; but instead of boar- 
speur or javelin, X was armed with my pencil and my 
pocket-book." "If a feborough-bred fox-hunter," breaks 
out the indignant translator, Lord Orrery, " wera to read 
the curious narrative contained in this epistle, he would 
I Sitmon'li. Op. dt. 


niB KINO. 

(CHiP. V. 

imme^llat^y conclude itiat our author had not the least 
spirit or taste id field diTorsions. . . . The sages of 
antiquity wore rather poacliers thau Bport«men. . . . It is 
observable that th« aucieuts knew nothing of the proi>er 
dress for hunting. Tliey were eniirtUj igjwraid of the 
velvet cap, the jockey-boote, the suaffle-bridle, the black 
cravat, the green coat, and those other ornaments which 
set off and distinguish a true sportsman."' This ia not 
written in burlesque, but in perfuct seriousness ; and we 
could not have a better illustration of the iliilVrcnce between 
the Ronian and German view of the chose. It is not for 
us happily to decide wlncli is tlio wiser ; but we may observe, 
that whenever » pastime {puss-thne) becomes tlio occufKi- 
tion of a man 'a life, it shows a more curious estimate of tho 
value of Time and Life, than PUny's entire ignorance of velvet 
cap, jockej'-bouts, snafllu-bridle, green coat and black cravat. 

In such a community, nothing could l)e more out of place 
than a ph)-sician ; and, accorilingly, we axe nut surprised to 
find tliat there were then very few physicians in Germany — ■ 
probably not so many as in Milaii. Barber-surgeous were 
the rude rej)re8enUitives of medicine among this rude race. 

Of the many rich legacies left to its sucoessors by 
the Middle Ages, the greatest was the Kino. The king 
of that period was as (llirt>rent from the de-'^irot, as he was 
from the patriarch, or head of the clun. He alono re- 
presented law, as above mere individual will and force. 
He was thus the countcrpoiw of the domineering noble^ 
the sanctuary of the ojipressed, the great jdsticb op 
PEACE ; making a people and a kingdom, Qotwithstanduig 
the existence of an exacting church, and a roultitude of 
turbulent indeixtndent barons. All whose interest did not 
coincide with that of the feudal lord or the arrogant 
churchman, clustered about tlic king. For his security 
and llietr defeiioc, he did his best to amalgamate into a 
' Ptio/e Leltun, traii«l*toil by Lord Onw? 

*.!.. ]«00-16«.) 



national unity the difTercnt tribes ami languages spread over 
the country ■wliicli lie ruled. Tlie more perfect this fusion 
die more glorious has benn the result. Franco affords 
a Hpletidid exani|)l« of tlie early development of nationality ; 
and, owing to tbiii instinct cf self-presen'atiou, France bas 
withstood all the convulsionn she ban undergone 

In gathering round him all the lay and uofeudal forcefl, 
it was natural for the king to cultivate the learned cliusses. 
He secured them to himself, an he did the boroughs, by grantr- 
irig thera certain privileges by charter. Tho uriverMty of 
Paris enjoyed many immunities by royal favour, and the 
de^T'ees it conferred gave political rights as wcU as social 
advantages. To be a member of any royal college was 
then a great beneOt, and one partaken of largely by 
members of the medical faculty. Besides this general 
favour shown to physicians in virtue of their learning, they 
often exercised a powerful inflnenoe by their peraonal at* 
tondnnce upon royalty. It has been the policy of kings, 
for the most part, to select as their medical advisers, men 
of general eminence in their profession, and to confir on 
them marks of honour by which they have been ele- 
vated into the class of lesser nobility ; and, on the whole, 
when we look over the list of physicians to royalty, 
there ia no reason to be aahamed of such representaCivea 
at Court. Tliere have, however, been some notorious 
exceptions to this rule. We have an example of the 
danger a king incurs by emjiloying a greedy adventurer, 
iu the eud of the wily, cruel, superstitious, powcrfiil 
monarch, Louis tJic Xlth. When he was getting old, be 
feared to lose his [K)wer and bis life, tavi clung to both 
with convulsive tenacity. Having dismissed his ordinary 
physidana, he called to his aid one of the name of Coltier 
lie Poligny, who is said to have ordered him to bathe in 
the bluod of yuung children, ami to drink it to renew hia 
youth. Philip de Cumiues, tlie great contemporary autho- 


rity, tells us : — " He had abo; 

James Coltier, to whom in fiv< 

crowns ready money, besides i 

his nephew, and other good • 

Yet this doctor used him 

given his servant such liiiiL_ 

stood in such awe of liiir 

begoue. It is true he ca---- 

not change him as ]v-. li; 

because he had told l)i 

prudently — " one d;i\ , 

turn me awiiy, as y- 

(with an oath) y<>u 

with which expii--' 

he did nothing !■ 

needs be a gn-jit 

all along by so r 

quality'" Oiii 

and tells us i; 

his ccmffssfij'. 

touclu-d tnr ' 

before yvoi- 

coiift.'K>ii'ii . 

in tin; Mi ' 

king, b.v: 

in tliij . 



to i;n. 




Hh 8to — Oia Hum— Bu Vudmnf^—IIn tmrnam Swmri~BM O td a nii tlf I* 
Hwoic TwrtBiwiW- BfiiWfuy ftad Afofivtf — IDs AmauaL 

The opinions expressed by penoos to all atipearuice eqnaUy 
capable of forming a just eatimate of Paracelsos, are so 
ccHiflicting, that it is an unusnallj difficult task for tlie 
hisUuian to fonn an impartial and Batis&ctoty judgment 
in regard to & man vhose tiktrt it waa to live a conaderable 
portioa of Im life in a blaze of notorirlji and to sink belbre 
his deatli into obecurity. 

Acxjording to Von Hclmont, be " was tbe forcnmner of 
true medicine, God-sent and armed viib knowledge to 
d«a:>m|w«e bodies by fire, aod hia exotdlent cures put all 
Germany into commoUon."' Again tbe aame atitlior 



(Our. VL 

declorns, tlmt lie was "fche jewel of all Germany, and the 
abuse dii'ectetl agaicat him was not worth a deaf nut ;"' 
while, on the other hand, liis countj^Tnan, the no leas 
eclchrated Zimraermann, thus delineates his character aud 
a};pearaiice : — "He lived like a hog, looked like a carter, 
found his duef plejwure in the sodety of the lowest and 
most debauched of the i-abhie, w«£ dnmk the greaturit part 
of luB life, and seemed to liave composed all he wrote in this 
condition."' Since Sprengel wrote h\s History of Modi- 
cine, from which the biographios of ParncelHus in the various 
encj'dopaMliaa and biogni]>hi(:al dictionaries are for the 
most part derived, there have appeared three treatises in 
Germany, all distinguiBhed by a more careful research into 
the iacts of his life and the scope of his doctrines than 
showa itself in the severe and superficial narrative giveu by 
Sprengel. Tlie first of thoso is hy Professor Sclmltz * of 
Berhn, published in 1S3I ; the seeorid by Dr. Leasing,* 
the third, and most remarkable, is ooutained iu the fint 
volume of Dr. Rademachcr'-s work.* Tlie name of Radc- 
macher is now well known over Germany as the pmtnul- 
gator of a uew system of medicine based on that of Para- 
celsus. So that the man who looked like a carter, and 
lived like a hog, and wrote only when dnmk, is nob a 
mere plmnlum of the Middle Ages, but an actual present 
force affecting the medicine of to-Jay. 

One of the very few incontcstible facts, or at least 
uncoutested statements, about Fanicelsuis is, tliat he was 
bom in the j'car 1493. Beyond this point all is confusion 
and debate ; his name, Ids lineage, his birthplace, hia ver^' 

■ Hapiot-ininilorrar, CAp, li. 

^ L«Mdn(t, Litbdi P)inc«Uui. 

3 0io EvKHvabiotiMliv Mnlitin «lw 
T. Fkntdnu dunnctvlt *oii 0. H. 
Fchtili, Dool. utd Prof, ke., Berlin, 

* P]inc«tiiisHb LotMinnadDenkon, 

vcn Dr. M. B. Lcmd;. Berlin, 1S39. 

* ReehtfcTtifnng dcr ron der 
goUliTtdii minfcuuiteii TereiAndic- 
rcchtcD Erfahnui^-luiUclirv dcr nlWn 
•cWdv-Kuutiscr Qvfaviuia-txle, tun 
J. 0. Badaiiuicbvr, Berlin, ISIS. 

«.!■. HD»-15n.] 



ses,' are niat*<T9 of (lispute. Ho styled himself Philippua 
AureoIii5 Tbeophrastus Bumbost vou Hobeulieim ; and the 
name by wKicIi ha is noor known has been supposed to 
have been adopted, with his usual presumption, for the sake 
of distinguishiug huuself as the arch-refonuer of medicine 
— the superior and disphiecr of Celnis. A much more pro- 
bable deri^-atioii, howover, ia now the received one ; repre- 
Beutinj^ the word ParacfJsufl to be a rude rendering into 
Greek and Latin of bis patronymic Von Hobenheim. As 
to his lineage and birthplaec, his opponents, Haller, Krastus,' 
and others, aflinii tliat he sprung &otD the dregs of the 
people, and that he was bom in Oais, in the canton 
of Appenzal ; while he himself and his upholders maintain 
that be was deseeiidod froni a good fajnily of the name of 
Bombast von Hobenheim, Ui Einsedobn, two German miles 
from Zurich. 

Of the miscellaneous career of this singidar man, I have 
attempted, in the following narrative, to put together the 
most credible facts, in the order of their occurrence. 

In the village or small town of Einsedehn, or Hohen* 
huun, — or in Latin, Eremus, — theiTi lived, by the prac- 
tice of the medical art^ a certain William Bombast von 
Hobcnhciin, a relation of the high iomUy which bore 
that patcouymic. This William was married to the Lady 

' "PonMlnia woa htld, and luid no 
heard. Vliy no licArdI BecuiiM — t«y 
bii opprntnu— lie *u not & muu Be- 
cSituu: — K>;hix frivnilii— badurril itaS. 
Ill fm-our of Lliafoniiw pr««iua[iliun, we 
«n tald h« IuUhI woinen ; while in de^ 
fenoB at fail nuuihooil, Ilia own wonU 
aro (\iifttod— ' Wjf bouil baa oiare Bipe- 
ri#nc« thAD fell yoiu-Mtioola' (Pragment 
Had. p. 1-tl, Vorrv<l« uber dus Ttuch. 
hngnuiun. B. 203). Aodilis U-Iunipb- 
avtij wkod. Would not ii autit, canadinu 
of Imving Smd dq>rive>) of tlie pQWsr 
of growia^ ft tittani, Iw too laucli alive 
to 111* (lugradAtitrn tic had »u9«n>), noi 

to aroid all aUumon to ttio lubJHt T As 
lo liiu uvunioD lo wcmon, it wan titA all 
nwatu, liut ddIj nine be dialllted ; and 
Uiero i> notliing so vpr? extiaordiiinrj 
in UiU. ftluniuvcT, hill likenom, pnin(«d 
bjr TinbiTvtli) n /ear l>L-fon> liij aleatli, 
roimmntB tiiu with • »-cIl • gmwii 
Ijfanl."— Browiauy's P&tiicelnia. Note, 
Pl 204. 

* Of Uu cnxHbilitr of Snwtim ai ft 
wituMB nc'i'iift Patacolmit. we may 
judge by tbe folloainj; wtitMies : B«l- 
Titiun taimt vix. ervlu, vix enJiii «• 
ng'to tale tuuiutroiu sdidtnt."— D« 
Mcdii:. Nov. 



fCu^r. VI. 

Saperintendcnt of Uic hoHpitnJ attAchcd to the convent of 
EinsedeliD. In the year 1493, they had a son, whom they 
called Philip Aurcolus Theophraslm, He was their only 
child, and received from hitt fiithor, at home, the rudiments 
of Lntin, and whatever else he could teach. It swma 
doubtful if be ever attended any rcgiiliu* sclionl or imiver- 
uty ; and, perhaps, conBiderlng the iiii^truetion then given 
at suyb places, he did not incur a great loss. Certain it is 
that lie soon took to roaming over the world ; that ho 
visited Italy, Gertnany, and Sweden, where be served in 
the army ; ' nay, that after exhaosting Europe, he pursued 
his travels into Asia and Eg_ypt. How he maintained 
himself during this vagahond pilgrimage is a matter of 
coujocture — probably by necromancy, and performiiig quack 
cures— that is, by proclaiming that he had discovered cer- 
tain specifies, and making a bargain with those who 
em]>loyed bim as to the amount he was to receive if ho 
divulged his secret', or effected a cure. He was also a 
diligent chemist, investigating at the various mines tlte 
processes of the preparation of the metals, and riifJting 
numerous experiments iu regard to their medicinal virtues. 
Its well as in order to discover the grand secret — tlie 
philosophcr'a stone. It was as a chemist that he lived 
with Sigismoud Fugjijer,' a member of a most influeutial 
and wealthy Cmiily of that name, which was celebrated 
in Germany almost as the Medici in Italy, for its patronage 
of art and of such scieuoe, as there was. His cures, i-eal or 
pretended, became noised abroad, and he wna sent for, from 
fiir and near, to pi'escribo fur all the gi'eat men of his day; 
among his patients was Era^imus, who addresses him, Para- 
cd«tt9 EremUwt or of Eremus. "We read iu one of his works, 
that at the age of thirty-thit« lie could boast of lia\Tng 
cured thirteen princes, whose case^ had been dcclai-ed hojie- 

' Vorrvilc niu SiniuJbtiL'h. 

■ lindi uil Untbvt's BnDyclofiaNlia. 
Alt, Pnfgm. 

i.t>. U&S-ICII.] 



leas by the Galenic pliysicians of the time.' At this 
period be seems to have reached his zeotth, aiiil at the 
recommendation of (EcoI;inipjidiu8,' an enthusiastic reformer 
of the church, he was appointed Professor of Physic and 
Surgery in the Uuiversity of Biisle, in the yenr I62C. 

Paracelsus commenced hie career of acMlttinicteacliing by 
cointiiitthig pubHcly to tlie flameti the works of Oalti:i and 
Rliases, e;cclaiiuiug that they did not know ho much as Am 
ahoo latchota. " A physicinn," he saySj " must he a traveller. 
Diseases wander hither and thither, worhl-wide, and remaia 
not stationary at one place. If a man wishes to learn 
much of disease, let him travel far ; if he do bo, he will ac- 
quire great experience. Countries are the leaves of Nature's 
code of law, patients the only books of the true pbysiciftu. 
Beading never made a physician — only practice.'"* Tiiia 
kind of discourse he delivered, not as was then the universal 
custom, in the Latin tongui?, but iu the vernacular German, 
a language at Uiat tini» raw and unsultud for Hcietitific 
discourae ; for to the lahoura of Luther aud the other 
Reformers, German owes, in a great raeasure, its present 
foruj, and admirable adaptation to all the purposes of Htera- 
ture. Such rhodoeuoiitade, uttered with all the uncouth ex- 
travagances of a mountebank, although for a time it might 
excite the wonder of the multitude, could not sustain the 
interest and attention of earnest students ; and the con- 
sequence was, that his class-room, at firet tilled to over^ 
flowing, was soon de8ert«d. Indeed, it would appear that 
by this time he bad fallen into habits of excessive intem- 
pernnoe. Rijiemachor, who excuses and defends his idol 
to the utmost of his ability, observes upon this point, that 
Paraoelsiis only stimulated Ids energies by a rational indul- 

1 Vtimtle ram SpitUIlmcb. 

'"Abnut Ibiii time uoae Oat at 
Lntliar'* aduool one CBMliunpaHius, 
lihca mi^litj uid fierce ^nt : who. 
u kU nutur lud goal beycnd tbc 

charcfa, wont lAjroaii tib Biuier."— 
Life of Bisltop PijJier, i)iiDt*d hj 
' liiwIttinAchrr, p. 41. 




[CnAT. VI. 

geoce in wiue ; and his apologist sska, whether in the 
writings said to huvo been composed in this state of ine- 
briation, vc can discover auy proofs which justify such a 
serious accusation. The an.swer is, that direct testimony 
in regai-d to & ftict is of more weiglit than auy presumptive 
reasoaing about its possibility ; and Oporiuus, a man of grcai 
natural talent, who lived 'with tiim for a long time as his 
secretary or famiilns, and difitingniHhcd himself, after leav- 
ing FaraoelKUs, by Iiis ucquiruinents in Greek, Eays, in a 
letter preserved by Brucker, that during two years Pajacel- 
Bus was drunk every day, never undressed hini.self, and went 
to bed with bis famous swoid by his side, wliich be used 
occasiunatly to draw and flourish about the room, to tlid 
infinite alarm of the niudi-enduring Opurinus.' This sword, 
which cftiised so much dismay to his poor secretary*, became 
the popular attribute of Paracelsus, and is thus described in 
Hudibras : — 

" Bauhurtn kept a derirs UH, 
Shut in the pumnid of Lis sirartl, 
TbAt tnoi^t him all tbc cnnning pnuika 
Of put anil falcn mountcbiuOu." 

The reason of his final departure from Ba$lo was not, 
howe\-er, tlie empty ebuw-room, but a circumstance bigblyj 
characteristic of tfie man and his times. There was a cer- 
tain ecclesiastical dignitary, Cornelius von Lichtenfela, who 
■was a mart>'r to tbc gout. In bis agony and despair he 
sent for Paracelsus, and agreed to give him 100 florins if he 
eased him of his stifierings. Paracelsus administered three 
pills ofbis/autiunum, and as tite canon soon felt bimiwlf well 
and comfortable, the doctor claimed his stipulated fee ; but— 

"VlmtliailaTilmtfill, Ibadaril » ninl irouki be; 
mien \li« deri] (ot well, tkt deril * aunt wm lie ; " 

and Uie churchman refused to pay more than the usual 
Hiun fur a doctor's visit Upon tliis, I'ni-acelsus took bini 

> VibtOporiu. Ai^enL lMi^ 

i.v. II9S-UI1.] 



into court ; but the judge decided against the professor, wlio, 
losiug command uf liiti temper, expressed Iiis indignation 
and asioniftltment id sucb violent abuse of tbe legal func- 
tionary, that the matter had to be taken up by tbe town 
council, and ended in tbe expulsion of Paraceisos from 

Tbts incident reveaJs tbe ignoble Hide of the cbai-acter of 
Piki-acebus. Ue may have been a man of great genius ; 
be may Imve really pofaesaed invaluable specifics ; but 
fvam this anecdote, whiub is not denied by his wartni>M 
admirers, we must pronounce litm a quack. It is against 
both law and usage to bargain with a patient Hnffering 
[mtn, or in fear of death, as to tbe remuneration tlie phy- 
sician ibi to receive in tbe event of giving relief or of 
saving life. Tlie transaction establishes, beyond a doubt, 
that it was ibc habit of Paracelsus to pursue this illegal 
and disreputable course ; otherwise, while holding a position 
of so much importance and respectability aH a Professor- 
ship in tlic University of Baale, be would not have in> 
curre^l the odium of so disreputable a compact. We again 
rej>eat that Paracelsus was a quack. 

Once more let loose upon the world, be recommenced his 
wanderings, which were brought to a premature termina- 
tion in 1541. Wherever he went, be excited the regular 
faculty to a state of violent hatred by bis real or pretended 
cures, and bis unmitigated contempt of tbe doctors and 
their systems — not wholly nndeservcd. At Salzburg, he 
had pven offence in bis usual way ; and the result was, 
that "he was pitched out of a window at an inn by the 
doctor's servants, and bad his neck broken by the fall." 
In confirmation of this story of hLa melancholy end, we 
know that the great anatomist, Soemmering, found a frac- 
ture, wbicli must have taken place before bis death, extend- 
ing through tlie base of Paracelaua' skull. 

1 SprBBifIt T«l- in., 1. 4tf. 

U 2 



(Cbat. VL 

That a raan, whose life was such a disreputable and in- 
coherent medley, should not only excite a powerful sensfition 
in his day, Lut exert an influence over human tiiouglit 
and action for centuries after his death, may well be a 
matter of surprisie. The explanation may be, that the maa 
and Uie age were fitt«il for each other. He appeared with 
the sixieenLh century. By a s.low anrl steady accumulation 
of causes, the system of thought received by tradition from 
the ancient philosophers, had come to be felt inhulficient for 
the purpos&s of tlie times. There had been a great expan- 
sion of experience ; men had travelled further, and had made 
many observations and discoveries which could not be fitted 
into the received systems of the univei-se. The most learned 
man of tlie twelfth ccntiiry, Peter the Lombard, had de- 
scribed the earth as a square table, and the heavens as a solid 
dome.' The schoolmen had employed their erudition and 
intellect in reasoning from propositions which they had as- 
sumed as facts, and not in inquiring into the gi-ouuds of 
their belief in them. They discussed, with amazing subtilty, 
the relation of the soul to the body; and wrote learned dis- 
quisitioufi on the iuipoiiant questions — whether Adam feJt 
pain when the rib was taken out of his side ; whether Eve 
was made of the whole rib, or ordy the bony pjirt; and 
whether, at the i-eaun-ectiou, Eve would have a rib too many, 
or Adam a rib too few." So long aa intellectual cultivation 
was confined to monasteries, sucli exercises of ingenuity wero 
not unnatural. But when nationi* were founded, when hin- 
gunges were nittile, when new Kuroi>e rose, then it was dis- 
covered tliat the old bottle of thouglit. forms was insufficient 
to confine the fermentation of its contents. Tlie crisis had 
arrived, and the catiistrophe could not Ire postponed. At 
&tich a mument) all that was wauted was a man of sufficient 

) Hbt. LiUr. daUFmiice. VvLVn., tinct. 7, ul. 10, qiicit«d \>y Sprvagd, 
p. 15$. Vol. n., II. MJi. 

I AlbcrtdK Mngnaitn t Sentent. ili<- 

A.V. imOfiU.) HIS C0NF0£3kUTr 10 ms AOL 


inlierent sclf-ooti Hdence and audacity to prouounce the wn- 
tpnce of dissolution. " Were there n single man," says Bacon, 
" to be found with a firmness sufficient to efface from his mind 
the theories and notions %'ul^rly received, and to apply his 
iuteUect free, and without prevenlion, tliw best hopes might 
be cntcrtainal of his su<«css." Such a man waa Paraeelsua. 
His burning of the bookit of ChUen was but symbolical of 
Iiis absolute rejection of his doctriues. Of tlie hurooval [t^ 
thology, whitth hnd been so long implicitly received, he says, 
"What you call humours are not diseases" — the dJBease 
does not consist in a deficiency or excess of bhick or yellov 
bile — *' that is the disease which makes these humours. How 
can a physician think to discover the disease in the humoura, 
when the humours spring out of the disease ? It is not the 
snow which niakf.8 the winter, but the wtotor the anov ; 
for although the snow is gone, the winter remains. You 
mistake tlift product of disease for disease itself."' It 
would bo impOKsible to put more clearly and effectively one 
of the radical vices of Galen's system. Again, he says, 
contrai'ia contTariie cu niiUur — that is, hot remediea cui-e 
cold diseases ; — lliat is false, tbc whole design is false, tlicm 
is no proof of a disease being hot^ or a I'omcdy being cold.* 
Thus Paracelsus undoubteclly stmcW the weak j>oint of 
the prevailing system ; he struck it with boldness and success. 
He held it up and said : It is nonsense, no matter though 
all the wise men that ever lived may have called it sense, I 
appeal to your undent tandings, whetlier it is not nonsense to 
suppose a disease to be cold, or a remedy to be hot, and to 
RuppoRf! that the one will eountcract tlic other. Besides, 
he said : Do you find it answer — can you cure the gout, or 
tlie plague, or any other disease in this way ? CeiLoiuly not. 
The whole system is false, and can lead to notliing but 
miserable failure. And look at the receipts they give you I 
" Open one of their herbiils (Looks on licrb^), and you will 

Fwt. IL, p. 134. >Scli«li2,<. 44. 



[Chip. VI- 

tLere find how one Iierb lias fifty or ono hundred virtues ; 
that it will cure so many forms of disease. But open their 
receipt books, and you will find forty or fifty such herbs in 
one receipt against one disease."' 

Pai'Jicelsua, not content with simply rejecting the sj^tetn 
of the ancients, a system handed down from Hipiwcrates, 
and reverenced with supen^titiuuK awe for more than 200(1 
years, treated the whole docti-Jne of their elements and 
Immoiirs, tiieir crises and purgations, with iho nio«t uu- 
initigated scora and contempt. In its place ho proposed 
ft system of his own, of which it is very ditficult to give 
nn intelligible description. One of the greatest obstacles toj 
a right understanding of what Paracelsus means, lies in 
the hinguage he uses. Not only has he a v<ic.'ibulary of 
Lib own, where we meet with such words as cutriim, 
limbus, ani<ulus, with significations peculiar to Para- 
celsus, but he seems to have dictated his writings with 
an indistinct utterance to aa amanuensis who was both 
ignorant of the subject and the language. For example, 
instead of (Edema we have Undimia, instciid of the well- 
known vei-ae of Ovid, " TolUre nmloauvi 7iescit medi- 
cimt -podaffruvi ;" which means that there is no cure in 
medicine for the gout ; wc have " X'esdt tartarium noades 
CMrart po<la{fry.m," which means — nobody known what.* 
In short, if we were to suppose an illitera^* person at- 
tempting to write down a soliloquy of Coleridge's, which 
the poet delivered with his intellect confu.scd by opium, 
and (if the supposition he not too extravagant) his speed) 
thickened by wine, we might form some faint conception 
of the stylo in which tlie writings of PaxaceUws were 
composed. We can hardly wonder that the cultivated 
and respectable Sprcngcl should manifest contempt for 
sueli a man ; but wc cannot help regrutting ttmt lie should 
not have bestowed more pains upon the explanation uf tlie 

> IK) Pt«til. lib. I., p. 311. ) 8pnaael, Vol. in., p. UV. 

A.D. U&3-1M1.1 

ms stna. 


docirineB of a writer who, howe^-er much liis mode of life 
may have shocked tlie respectabilities of bis own aacl our 
times, did yet inaugurate a new era of medicine. 

What adds to the difficulty of giving a Hticciuct and 
lucid account of blio sy»ituni conUiinud in the various 
writings ascribed to Paracelsus, is that many of them are, 
undoubtedly, spurious. Besides Ihe difficulties of the words 
aud style, tliere is such obscurity, that it often seems 
aa if there had been an intentional elfurt at myHlifica- 
tioD. If so, he has iu this rtwpect been emiueiitly suc- 
cessftil. There ia, however, one prominent and funda- 
mental idea> which stands out in sharp contrast witb the 
dociriueg uf his predecessors, and round which all the other 
parts of the system may be grouped. This one idea is, 
that disease does not depend upon a change in tbo so-called 
humours ; — not on an excess or deficiency of black bile, 
yeJIow bile, phlegm, or blood, nor is it to bo cured by 
getting lid of the peccant or faulty element ; but that 
diseaKe is an actual existeuoe, an entity, that settles like a 
blight upon the body ; tlmt this blight, or possession, or 
parasite, has its uwu hiws of growth Like a plant, and is 
to be opposed by something of a nature similar to its own ; 
and that the character of the disease, or morbid plant, is 
decided by the original constitution of tite Iwdy : — "as the 
v^talion of a district depends upon its soil, so," says lie^ 
"do we find diflertnt iwrsona liable to different kinds of 
complaints." ' But how, it may be asked, are we to dis- 
uover the diffcivu^t kinds of remedies which, from their 
inherent Bimilarit^', are i)ro[>er for the destruction of this 
morbid principle t To answer this question, we must 'enter 
into some explanation of bis general theories. 

Mcilicine he represents as consisting of three parts — 
pliilobophy, astTOnomy, and alchemy. The notion of a 
tiii-eo-fold unity pervades all his spccuLitious, founded oa 

> 8«tiulu, ■■ 38. 



[CsAr. VL 

the idea that eTeiytblDg in nature must have a mystic 
analogy with the Trinity in Unity. Thoa, roan oonsisia 
of spirit) sou], and txxly ; and the world of three eleinent« 
— water, air, and earth ; to which three correspond mer- 
cury, sulphur, and salt. 

The term ■philoaopkij, he applies to the knowledge of 
Nature ; a knowledge which we acquire by intuition, 
and a profound love and reverence for Nature. For he 
oonsiders that all Nature itt a spiritual existence, clothed 
with a material form ; tliat the soul of man lias the 
iiaumlty of direct or intermediate couadonsneas of this 
soul of Nature ; that Adam possessed this as an orij^nal 
attribute, so that, by looking at an animal or plant, 
the Bpirit of tiuch animal or plant was revealed to his 
eyea, and he was empowered to give it the true name, 
which, in H«.-brew, waa not only an appellation, but a 
symliol ; that thlii inhei'ent faculty, witli which oar first 
jmrent was dowered by his Heavenly Father, could be re- 
stored to his degenerate oEipring if they were penetnited 
by an inteiuw lovo ; and that, under the influence of this 
love, tho objwt of study — for exaniple, a sick feltow- 
creature— became transparent like a cr^-stal, to the gaze of 
tlio true phy wcian. " A man," he says, " who, by ab- 
Btrnction from all sensuous influences, and by child-like 
Bubmission to the will of God, hns made himself partiiker 
of the Heavenly intelligence, becomes possessed of the 
philosopher 'h stone ; he is never at a loss ; all creatures on 
earth, and powera in heaven, are subintssive to brm ; he 
can cure all di^ieases, and himself live as long as Le 
chooi^s, for he holds tho elixir of life which Adam and 
the early fathers of tho earth employed before the flood, 
and by which they attained so great longevity.'" 

B}' asti-onomy, he meant the relation and iuOuence of 
ibe heavenly bodies upon the Iniman constitution, Tliose 

) Areliidax., lib. 9., p. 813. 



oonstitnted a macroooRm, this the microcosm. There was a 
mystic influence continually flowing from the stars ahove, 
upon the spiritual, or siderial, body of man. But Paracel- 
sus, while believing in seme emanation from the stars and 
profound connection between them aiid tlie lires of uien^ was 
opposed to the pre^'ailiiig astrolo;gy of Jtis age, and treatetl 
the indications derived from the position of the consteUa- 
tion9 with a fine ridicule. The futility of casting natiW- 
ties he deiiioiistratea by tlie simple observation — " Many 
children are bom here and elsowherc at the same moment, 
and, tJierefore, under the taunc eonatcllat-ions, and yet of 
theaj the great majority turn out fuols, and here and there 
onlj' do we find one turning out wise and good — how then 
can we im])uto the folly of the many, or the wisdom of 
the one to their stars?" It was then the univei-sal prac- 
tice^ na prevails in India to the present day, to regulate 
blood-letting by the stars : it was considered unsafe to 
bleed when certain planets were in the ascendant^ while, 
on the other hand, blood-tetting was the only care when 
other stars were in the place of those. On this, Paraeelsus 
obser\'e8, " Go to a battle-field and you wilt find many ineu 
wounded under the same position of the heavenly bodies ; 
but how difTcrenlly does it fare with them I Would this bo 
so if the stars controlled or indicated the effects of blood- 
letting?"' Thus we find manly sense, and bold disbelief 
of popular superstition combined with mystic vagueness 
both of opinion and language. 

The word Alchemy is now generally Applied to the pursuit 
of the Philosopher's Stone, by meaais of which baser metals 
were to be converted into gold. But Paracelsus used it !n 
an entirely difTcrcnt sense. " Take it not amiss," he says, 
"that the alchemy I teacli yields neither gold uor silver; 
bnt look upon it as the key which opens the arcana of medi- 
cine to you." " Aldiemy mokes no gold, it makes arcana, 

I Da Vnt InfloenUi Renm. 




and directs tbem against diseoBe.'' ' " Wliat is it tljat ripeos 
the pears t what is it that hrings the graixis to maturity J 
Nothiug but Nttture'ft alciieniy." "As tbo matter of the 
pear exists in the blossom, but is of no Hse till it be 
ripened, bo medicine must be extriicted by the uluUeniy of 
the physician." " Aa the gnun has to gu through a process 
of decomposition, before it springs into a phmt and j-ielda 
iia harvest; so must medicinal snbstanws l>e BubniitteJ 
to the I'esolving action of hcjit, in urder that out uf tliis 
fennentation tliere may come forth the arcana. What fire 
performs in the kitchen, that is alchemy."' "Wlint is 
nldieniy ? A preparer of medicines, a puilfier of medicines, 
giving them perfect and entire, so that the physician may 
fully aeoompIiHh his art..'"' "The thinl pilJar of medicine 
is alchemy ; not lliat alchemy which muiies gold and silver 
(for these blockheads swarm in nil countries), but the 
alchemy whicli instvucLs iia how to separate each myafce- 
rium into its own reservaculmn." * Such are a few of the 
definitions ho gives of Lis notion of alchemy. It is evident 
that he derived them from observing the proeesscH by which 
the smelters at the mines sepnrated the metals. These pro- 
cesses we know he studied diligently and applied to the pre- 
])uration of his iiiedicines. It is probable that he employed 
the powerful metals, mercurj-, copper, arsenic, autimony, 
much more than was usual among the regular faculty ; 
and doubtless it was through their instrumentality that he 
effected his cures. Indeed, one of the accusations made 
against liitn wa», that he did not shrink from giving 
poisons. But the result of liis treatment in the cure of 
diseases which the antiquated school of tnidition pro- 
nounced certainly nioilal and incurable, gjive him and 
Ills disciples such confidence iu the power of medicines to 

' Tmct. II., 65, 
a Sehftla, B. 18. 
* FngaHBt. Utdic. da run^r&intii. 

* Buch vooTerpcntliin. 

4.W. n>3 1511.] niS ALCaKMY AND HBttOlO TRHATUBXT. 


avei-t ttie fetal issue of all diHordcrs of tbe liaman frame, 
that be breaks out, " Wilt Hum love tliy neiglilxmr ? Tell 
liim not, tliwe is no help for thco ; but, only say, ' I can- 
not Jo it ; I do not umlerstjind it."' 

So mucli for Ills notions about alcliemy, or the art of 
procuring powerful remedies : to muk'retnnd liia method 
of applying them, we must examine his iMtliology. The 
pathology of ParaceUus affords an instructive illustra- 
tion of how much easier it is for a man tu [lerocive the actual 
errors of bis oonteinpomries, than to enumcipate hiniself 
from the spirit of the age out of which thewj errors spring. 
Tlie radical vice uf the Oalenio sysieiu consisted in found- 
ing the explanation of the symptoms of diseases, not upon 
observations of morbid apj^eftmnces, but upon imaginary 
changes in equully iumg^naiy constituents of the body — 
th« so-called humours. Tlie a1j«ui*dily of this Pai'acelsus 
sow and exposed with trenchant sarcasiu. But bis sub- 
stitute was equally defective, and far more incoherent. 
He assumed tliut disease was an immaterial entity, a sort of 
evil spirit, composed or genemted out of three co-efHctents, 
which be callcf] salt, sulphur, and nicreury. Ki-om liis 
employing names of'lrtie cheinlail sulj^tances, it is generally 
supposed that ho introduced a dieroical pathology, and 
meant to express that a disease arose from excess or de- 
ficiency of the inorganic materials out of which the body is 
composed. This, however, seems to be altogether an erro- 
neous conception of his doctrines. The taruis lie applied 
Were purely arbitrary sjTabols, and might as well have 
been X, Y, Z, as salt, aul]ihur and mercury. "Salt," he 
says, "gives form and colour to all creatures. Sulphur 
^vea body, growtli, nutrition, &.c., and these two are the 
Either and the motln^r which beget all creatures with the 
help of the stani ; tJmt i.% sun and moon by sulphur and 
salt bring forth mercury. Meicury, however, when bom, 

> Bftdwwclwr. ■■ i». 



tCiUF. VL 

requires fur its dally growth and nourisLiiient, the presence 
of sulphur and !KiIt." Again, "evpry body (coqjuB) con- 
Bist<4 oi three things, mercury, sulphur, salt."' Now dis- 
ciiHO he looked upon ns a corpus or entity, and it likewise 
consisted of tliese three things, or in other words, was tlve 
resultnnt of three co-opemtiug forces. Perhaps under this 
verbal mystification, the meaning at the bottom of his mind 
was, that disease required for its production the combination 
ofanextenial influence and au tntenml snsa'ptihility ; or, 
in modem phrat)et*l<)gy, an exciting aud prediNp'»>ing ciLUse, 
and that when these two met a third force, or wliab ■»© 
call the proximate caus^ the corpus delicti or body of 
offence, was geuerated. 

The reference to tlie stars repi'csents the notion out of 
which his pathology grew into a therajieutic fij'Btem. Tliis 
microcoftin, this body of disease, was subject to its own laws 
of birtli, gi'owth, and rleath, like any other body, and it 
titood in tlie same relation to tlie external world as other 
separate, independent, immateriiU entities. Tliis relation was 
one of correspondence, there being some mysterious connec- 
tion between the phenomena of external nnture and these 
spiritual bodies. As nu exautplo of Ids strange illustra- 
tionK aud analogies, we find him describing epilepsy as 
the earthquake' of the microcosm,' caused by the ebuUl- 
tion of the vital spirit, and apoplexy as the thunder- 
l>oIt. Tho reason that lunacy is increased at tlie period 
of new and full moon, is, tlwt the brain is the inia-o- 
cosmic moon. Jaundice arises from astral impres^onn, 
and through tht* .imaginative power of the siderial 
Iwly (durch Einbildingskrafl des syderischen Leibo*),* 
whatever that may be I In shorty if we are to perform 
radic;d cures, wo must stud}' the physiognomy of disease^ 
OS we read the character of a man by perusing his coun* 

) SehulU, k. 31, S3. 
* Uwt. Auem., lib. 1, |>. 4B7. Da 
CftdM., p. ftS4. 

* The microcaMn hffre k Lbo Ink!; «( 
nuw, not tlie bodj of diacaw. 

* V«B 4*11 P4fteuehteti, •. £22. 

'.I). KftfrlSll.] 



tcnanoe. We must know — become personally ac<i^uaiiif«<l 
with diseft-scs— nnt only vnih their Byniptoms, but wlUi 
tbeinselves ; so lliat by nn iiitiiniiie knowledge of them wo 
may become acquaiuteU with the whole of their cosraical 

Tlie pathology of Paracelsus, wo Uiud see, assumed, 
oa the pai't of tlie phyaicinn, a power of direct, intuitive 
knowledge of n disease as a whole ; and honoe he iTiaio- 
taincd that the true physicinn, tlie man gifted with the 
power of bealiog, was, like the puet, bom, not made ; 
that human instructioD could do little for such on one, 
and nothing at all for a man wiio had no such natur-al, 
or rather pi'eternatural gift. This power, however, was 
to be kept alive and tniltivati^d by tlie physicinn's keep- 
ing hiraseli" responsive to imture ; for so long as he was 
in this relation, he saw and knew & disease at a glance, 
and he could toll uith eqiml facility and cei-iainty to what 
plaut or uiiiieral this spii'ituiU, existence bore the closest 
resemblance ; so that, being similar in kind, but stronger 
in degree, the one might subdue the other. " Thus," he 
Bays, "go the arcana," by whiuli he nieana the apeciflc 
antidotes, "against the enemy, as one combatant against 
another, like two champions ranged one against another ; 
both cold or both hot, both anned with the same weapons, 
so they engage in their deadly duel. "What is this arca- 
num i Simply the airing pnwer, whatever that is. If the 
disease be of a meclianical nature, so must the remedy be. 
What is the arcanum of the stone? We shall not find it 
in the hummirs, or in the hot or cnid character of the disease, 
but in tlie knife. Tlie kiiifu in tliti nrcaiunti of the stone. 
What is the arcauum of miuda ? It is neither coffee nor 
Aaliva, but bloodlettting ; that is the arcanum of mania. 
Every disease has its own proper arcanum. Tliat is the 
thing to be discovered, and diseases should be studied and 
registered according to their arcana ; that is, every disease 




should be called by the name of its specific aiitKlote. The 
arconunij hownver, is not the visible outwiirtl thing, the 
plaut or mineral that we look upon, but the indwelling 
spirit." Tlie arcana of the t'lorjiciits are na invwil.Ie aa 
the soul of man. What we LelioM is only the outer Bheli. 
" Arcanum is tlio whole or total virtue of a tHng." " Arcana 
are ibe virtue and the power, &e."^ In fact, it is what 
now goes by the name of djTiamisra. 

Sucli i8 our reading of the famous system of Taracel- 
808. It is imposaihle not to be struck with its relation 
to bumccopatby. ParaceUus, like Hahnemann, e^cposes 
the absurdity of the traditional system ; not content with 
thin, he maintains that, beiuy an unnatural monster, 
disease in not to be lefl to the so-called Uws of nature, 
but is to be expelled vi et armifi ; that the force and 
the arms to be employed against this monBter must be 
simihir in nature to that uf the demon. It is a spirit of 
evil. " Wc must summon to our aid a spirit of good ; we 
must discover for every form of disease its own arcanum, 
or pro[Krr spucjfic." So far, the two systems agree. Para- 
celsus might have called his theory of cure by the name of 
liomtBOpatiiy. He made many remarkable observations in 
anticipation of future discoveries. " Before this woHd 
comes to an end, many wonderful occurrences, which are 
now ascribed to the devil, will be made known, and tliea 
it will be seen they are only the i-esult of natural causes.'* 
This is said in explanation of the explotjtons in mnies, 
which wei^e then a«cribeU to the niaaceuvrus of the Berg- 
geister, or spirits of the mountain. But far as this bold 
conjecture of these tipirits of the mines, which were the 
terror of the workers of the Hartz Mountains, being in 
tlie lapae of ages revealed as of eiirthly origin, was from 
the inductive process, ■with its triumphant result, by 
which Sir H, Davy won immortal renown by the discovery 

4.D. U93-I541.] HIS AECANUM. 175 

of the safety lamp which goes by his name, so far were 
the speculations of Paracelsus, about the possibility of 
finding specific antidotes for diseases, removed from the 
patient research by which Hahnemann realized and put 
into practical working order the system which now goes 
by the name of homceopathy. That Hahnemann achieved 
what he did is owing to the general advancement of the 
method of philosophy firet proclaimed and explicitly pro- 
pounded by Lord Bacon. Before the rise of this great 
luminary, the ghosts of the Middle Ages withdrew — 
splendid gigantic figures vanishing with the morning mists 
— receding into the remote regions peopled by the demi- 
gods of antiquity. Let Paracelsus pass too. His life was 
none of the purest, but he had something of the giant 
nature. He was a prodigal son, but a scion of a royal race. 

wu» aiwii. 



III! nirth-)i]«oe-^Eu'ly BJiwalian— Noriiiu nrfiiiiiuiii^liloltu, Triliun, f>[«cn«, 
Fori <ft ThraUi— Truth the Oitiiglitor o( TErua, not nf Antliorily — Scaonce Ui« 
Ilularyof Hatum — fiagKtiTw inattuicw— Sxpvrimontuin Crucu— {"kUkiIokj- anil 
TbenpAatio — Oe&nsnmM in Hedidne— Baean'a Povt uf Olajr. 

Paeacelsus died in 1541. Twenty years after this date, 
on the 22nd of Jnnitar)*, loGI, FmnciH Boaiu was bora in 
a country liouKe in the nuiglibourliuiKl of LondoD, ^tuatod, 
in fiict, ^«twt^en the Tliamet* ami Ibe Strand. He waa 
the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the great seni 
in the roign of Queen Kli^Alieth, and of Ann, second 
daugUler of Sir A. Cooku, a lady cwlebrated for her learn- 
ing. At the age of seventeen, y^mng Bacon had already, 
nt the University of {'lunViridge, read and rojccted 
Aristotle, " not for the worthleeaneaB of the author, tc. 




they treated of. Matbematical reasoning was very ekUl- 
fully applied ; and no men whatever, in tlie smiio circum- 
siauoes, are likely to have peifomied more tlian the aiicieiit 
pliUosophere. The philosophers, again, who studied the 
motion of terrestrial 'bofliefn, cither did not observe at nil, 
or observed so slightly, tlmt lliey could obtain uo accurate 
knowledge, and, iu general, they knew just at) much of ttie 
&cts as to be misled by them."' These arc the vords of 
Profeasor Playfair, an excellent judfjo ; and lie juids that 
the ancients, while they ob»erved the htMveiis, were satijalied 
with dreaniing over the earth. 

Bacon's task was to rouse men from this dream, and to 
teach thetn the true method of investignttug the nntural 
world. Ilis success has been so great, tliat while by his 
oonteraporar}* biographers he waa styled the chancellor of 
learning, by the preiient age he may he called tlia chancellor 
of tJie laws of physics ; for he still presides over the court of 
last appeal for all question>3 connected with the investigatioQ 
of the properties of matter ; and it u* a presumptive ground 
for the rejection of any conclusion, that It has not been 
arrived at according to the principles of the Baconian plii- 

" Man, the servant and inter|trctcr of nature, does and 
underatands so far as he may have observed, respecting the 
oi-dcr of natiUMi in things or in hia mind ; and further ho has 
neither knowledge or power." * Tliis is the firat aphorism 
in Bacon's Xovurn Organum, or new organ or inatmment 
for the reconstructiou and advancement of sdenoe. The 
novelty of it he pouits out iu vai'ious passages to consist iu 
requiring man, in his intercourse with nature, to be as a 
little child, conscious of his ignorance^ anxious to be taught, 
ready to receive instniction from all natural facts. This is 
in contradiction to what he calU the atUUtjxUlon of tJus 

t DisMiUtion en PhjnlM) ftdenee, 
pnfMid to tbc HicjdoiaBlia Bri- 

' ICoY. Oif.. Aph. 1. 


[^)RD nACON. 


mmd — the metliod generally pursued by tbe aacient philosc 
pben, when apeculating about matenal objects. They began 
by assuming certain nxioins, and frtxii these axiuiiiH lliey 
deduoed what nature must do. Tbey looked wiUiiii, aiid 
found prKionccivcd notioufi, wliicb ihcy mistook for innate 
ideas, and iu accordance wltb wliicb they presumed tliat 
thft operations of nature would b«? pcrfonne<l. Bacon, oi 
tbe other hand, bade men look out of ibeiiiadives, ant 
mould ilieir iiotiouH upon the testimony of tbeir sei 
and on them alone.' But he found tlmi this rule, 
obvious to us now 88 the right one for man tn obey ii 
liU iiitcTcoursB with uature. was not to be followi 
witliout gtcht effort and tlie removal of many im-^i 
pediments. ^H 

The obstiicles which obstruct nia:i in the simple appre- 
licnsion of truth. Bacon classifies into four gi"cat divisioni 
under tliu heads of hhfa Tri-lms, Sjiccus, Fori, et Tlmdriy- 
wbiol) may be reudered : Idola Triiras, the illusions com^ 
mon to the whole race of man, in virtue of the cour^titutioD 
of his mind ; IdoUt Sp^'cMS, the illations of a man's own 
den, bred out of li'is peculiar nature, habits, and pursuit* j 
Idota Fori, the illusions derived from common talk — tli«^| 
inaccuracy of lariguage producing innccurafce coneeptiou^ 
and this inact'urm^y iKiing ins>'pn,ralih* from the tiiCk of thu 
vulgnr; hwUy, IJoJti Thuitrl, the illusions derived 
syificma invented by the nchools— the imaginary or 
world occupying the place of the actual world. Tho first 
class — " Lllusious comniou to the huuuui race" — he divides 
into seven orders, the mont imi>oi-t;uit of which are tbe 
illufflons which arise from tho fact, that " tbe mind of mni 
IB not like a ])lain mirror which reflects the images 
things exactly as they are ; but is like a min-or of 

' But tliv wuiuw* UiMOMlra Mma- 
Ukm*, u Id Antrvnomr, nqutn «>r- 
raetioD, Mid ia Apfaoriam x. II, B««oii 

olMrns, *'It ia fnlHly awerteJ Uiafc] 
hunuui fecu^e la the luvuure of tlijngi 




uneven eurfuce, wltich combines tto o^vn figure witb tlio 
figures of the objects it repiTsenta;"' — that is, exact 
observutaon is in ifaalf a difficulty, fi-om what Bacon calls 
tlie uuevenness of tbo miTid. When a man thinks he 

l^eBcribes what he baa seen or felt, he only describes the 
impression compounded of tlie external object and his own 
iiiteriiul image, derived from the texture of his mind : when 
a man speaks of a fact, lie in general speatct only of hU 
own belief, derived from tliia impression. Another Bpeciiw 
of illufiiona springs from the pre-occupation of the mind 
with it» own images, so that the outer world either does 
not gain ndnntinnce; or the impre^on made by the senses 
itt m modified by ilic prtvexisting conoejHiona of tlie object, 
au to luse its resuwblanou to the thin^' seen, and appeal' like 
the tiling supposed. A good illustration of thia ia atforded 
by tbe conaent of Poloniua to the obHcrvation of Hamlet 

rfcbout the cloud : — 

llai»/el. Da jma mw jonilnr cloud tliil in iklraoat in Uuj nhnpe of % dmti f 

Pol, hj iho iDAas, it is lUi« B amttl, lutWd. 

fian. Mcthiiiltn it in like ft wwmL 

Pol. It ia buLcil Itko a. vcuel 

//unit. Or lili« a whiil* T 

Pol. TerylUcsttwluUa." 

In this abort dialogue nifky be found examples of other 
Idola Tribns ; for instance, it illuati-atea the power of au 
affinnation — wliat might be called the arlvantage of the 
initiative — the mind ia apt to acquicsco in a auggestion. 
'* It is more easily moved by affirmativea tliau negalivue." 
It would not be easy to over-rate the power of suggestion 
upon minds in a ]>assivc condition. It \h exhibited in ex- 
treme burlesque in the so-called electro-biologj', where the 
patientfl are first made purely passive, and then images are 
suggested. Hud Hamlet thrown Polonius into this con- 
dition, lie would not oiJy have suen a cluud like a weasel, 
or a camel, but he would have seen the camel, and the 
■ Nov. Org., &vh. 1], 




weasel, and tlio wbale. Besides, Polomus, utterly 
different about the fonn of tlift cloud, and in the most^j 
uncritical and utiscientific uiood of mind, wiie most auxiou^^J 
to jjleasc Hamlet at the motnent : and lie more readily 
Bcquiesoed in bis suggestions. Another of the Idola Trihun, 
and one of the most iiuportaut, is that " what a man 
would most wish to be true, that he most readily] 
believes." For the human underHtanding does not oon-j 
sifit of what Bacon calls Luinen Skviiin, dry light,] 
or pure conception ; but is composed of a mixture ofl 
will and affection. " Henoe the rarity of an impnrtial | 
judgment ; for man rejects what is difficult, from impatiencaj 
of inquiry ; what is sober, becauM it narrows his hopes ; 
the deejier things oF nature, from euiwrstition ; the light of 
experience, from arrogance Hud piide, lest the mind should ' 
seem to be occupied with things low and fluctuating ; ia 
fine, passion JmbnoH and infccta the understanding iu in-' 
numerable ways, ajid iu bucb aa are Bomctimes imper- 
ceptible." Such are some of the effects of the Idola^ 
Tribu8 — illusions common to all men. 

The Idola Specus are thu illusions to which men are 
subject in virtue of tUeir peculiar mental constitutions, op 
their habits and pursuits. Some minds are too mudi 
alive to resemblances, and are led by CUse analogies into ^| 
premature generalizations ; while others have too sharp au ^^ 
eye for differences, — and waste the powers of the reason iu 
making endless distinctions. 

Another of these spectres of the den is the tendency of' 
inost men to rido their bobby, whatever it may be. 
Thus, the chemist can see notliing in the animal economy 
)>ut a eompeudions and locomotive laboratory : all vital 
actions are reducwl by bira to chemical processes ; while 
on the other band, the electrician finds in bis electricity 
a subetituto for gravitjition, and in galvanism a satis- 
&ctory expUnatJon of all llie wonder* of tlie aniraid and 
vegetable creation. "It were a good caution," ubservea 

1 ■ 





Plftj-falr, "for a man wlio studies Noturo, to distrust tliose 
tiiiugs willi wliidi lie is riuist conversant."' Tbat is, not 
to allow his zeal for any pursuit to claim for its special 
province universal power and dominion. The caution 
given by Bacon on thia licod, Uas beeu appUcaUe in every 
period vi' science. 

Passing over the Idola Fori, or illusions from the vague- 
ness of the language in populiir use when applied to 
purposes of science or philosophy, we arrive at the liloia 
TUeatri, or the deceptions hred out of the systems and 
schools. " Philosophy, aa hitherto pursued, has taken 
mucJi from a fffto things, or UitU from a great iiumy." 
Such is the succinct dotcriptiou of tlie methods adopted 
by the two great classes who had hitherto managed the 
scientific atage — the Sopliistical, who, from a \ery few 
facta, (as, £br example, the action of fire upon water,) 
fabricated the entire system of the tiniverae, and pro- 
duced it before die credulous multitudca ; and the 
Empirical, who made no uid of experiments, and out of a 
meagre and undigested mass of factd, drew a phantas- 
magoria to occupy the stage for a time, Sudi were the 
alchemists uf his day ; and from the time of fiaoon to tlie 
present hour we have not beeu without examples of these 
Idola Theatri. 

The power of systems to eucliain the reason is, in some 
measure, due to respect for what is old. We are apt 
to delude ourselves into the belief that what has long 
existed, is venerable on account of its maturity. Whereas, 
wliat is old to us, ns being long pa^^ is projiortionatcly 
new, or young, in reference to the es]JerieDce of the race. 
Thas, the most ancient conclusions, having been formed 
with the smallest opportunity for observation, are the 
least trustworthy ; while the most modem are the most 
experienced, the most venerable, and in reality, the most 

• Op. eiU 



[Obap. til 

andent. ** It would, indeed, be disgracefiil to mankind iC 
after such parts of tbe material world bad been laid open 
which were unknown in former times — bo many aeas 
traversed, so many con-nfcries explored, eo many stars 
diaoovered, — philosophy, or tbe uitelligiblc world, should 
be circumscribed by the some boundaries as before." 

Then, as touching anthoritie^j, Bacon maintains that 
it is the greatest weakness and cowardice to yield abject 
subiniaaiun to authors, and to withliald his due from Timo 
• — ^tho author of authors, and so of all authority. *" Truth 
is the daughter of Time, not of Authority. No wonder 
that the.Ho spells — authority, traditionfl, have bo bewitched 
men, that th^ have not dared to bold direct iuteruourse 
with things." Such is the magnificent aasertion. of the 
birth-right of man to be, in the deepest sense of the words, 

"Thftbiirof oil tbe agei." 

Tbe earth la entailed upciii him — lie is tlia Intimate 
p< iBsesaor, for his own benefit, of all the post — the 
unchnliengcable proprietor of all systems and notions 
of former ages, to make of them what he can and 
what he may. His right to reject, to change, or to 
appropriate, is not liable to question. Thus does Bacon 
utterly dony that wc should submit to the authority of men, 
however great and good : the father of modem philo- 
sophy is one of the Grst who liave ventured to assert^ in the 
fullest acceptation of tho expression, the right of private 
judgment. " For thsciples tlo owe unto Uieir masters only 
a temporary beHef, or a susj^nsion of their own judgmentj 
nntil thoy be iUlly instructed ; and not an absolute i^g< 
nation or perpetual captivity."' 

Having chased away the phantoms which interpose 
themselves between the mind's eye, and the objects of 
tbe actual outer world. Bacon introduces his method of 


making the best use of the direct apprehension q 
fuots around u», 80 UiAt they may yiehl oil ibeir ^ 
tioal fruits for the benefit and use of man. Science^ 
he says, is history- — the history of natora. In com- 
piling this history, lie wuuld havo us divide it into three 
daasea. First, the history of those phenomena of nature 
which are uniform ; second, of the extraordinary or appa* 
rently anomaloas factu ; third, of tho processes in tlie 
different arts. " We are not to wonder at finding the pro- 
ct^ises of the art^ thus enrolled among the material of natural 
history. The powera which act in ttie processes of nature 
and in those of art, are predaely the sam^ and are in tho 
latter case diiected by tlie intention of man towards par- 
ticular objecfci. In art, as Booon observes, man does nothing 
more than bi-iug things nearer to one another, or put them 
farther apart The rest is performed by nature, and od 
most occasions, by n)eans of which we are quite ignorant. 
Thus, when a man Hrea a pistol, lie does notliing but make 
a iiieco of flint approacli a plate of hardened steel witli 
a oertun velocity. It is nature that does the re^t — that 
niaki^ the small rcd'hot and fluid globules of steel which 
tLe flint has struck off, communicate their Are to the gun- 
powder, and by a process but little understood, let loose 
the elastic fluid contained in it, so that an explosion is 
produced, and the ball propelled with astonisbing velodty. 
It is ob\'iou5 tbat, in this instance, art only ^vea certmn 
povers of nature <t jHirticuiar direction."^ 

It is plain that uiudtcino falla into this third di\-t3ion of 
tlie history of nature : medicine beiug tlm art by which 
such a particular direction is given to certain powers of 
nature as to enable them to arrest disease, mitigate pain, 
or prolong life. How then is it possible with regard to 
mediciae to use the words nature and art in opposition 1 
All medidne, all remediol appliances, whelber diet, drugs, 

■ rU)!;!!!. Op. at. 




exercise, Imtliing — in short, everything curative (except"' 
magic) niiwt resolvu itwelf into giving the jwwers of nature 
a particular dirtKrtiun. We ttre loot in wosder at finding 
the m&dical pliilosopliera of tlio present day setting upthU^^ 
new IdoJon — tbe s^Hteiii of "Nature in Medicine."' There ^^ 
is a natural bistory of disease — that is, we may write down 
the consecutive chnnges whieli a body undergoes under tfaej 
influence of disease : such a history constitutes patliology. 
Uut the only natural history of the use of remedies, iiccord-j 
xng to the Baconiftn, iise of the term, is the historj' of alii 
the prooe«)es discovered by the human intelledj and coL-j 
levied out of human experience, by which the purely' 
patho3of»ical phenomena ore modified, in accordance with 
a distinct design. That this is a just ropre»entAtion of j 
Bacon's views in regard to practical medicine may be' 
learned from what he has -written of iti deficiency : " Tliat 
physicianH have nnt^ pfii-tly out of their own practice, partly 
out of the constant probations reported in books, and [uirtly 
out of the traditioDH of Empirics, set down, and delivered! 
over certain experimental medicines for the cure of parti-i 
ciihtr dificasea."' 

Thus wTote B;u;on of natural medicine : — To him it 
ap]U'an,'d as a [jracticol method of employing all the po'wers 
of nature for the j-ellef of the bodily ills of the human race. , 
So far is be frotn giving any countenance to the new school 
of natural medicine, which is nothing but letting ill alone, 
and leaving nature to work the torment and destruction of] 
the human race I 

The object of this natural hiatorj- of facta, or phenomena. 
is aomethiiig very dilfcreut from the obtaining of a mere 
iudei or catalogue. It is to ascertain what Bacon calls the 
form — ^what we may call the radical cauae, or tlutt aome- 

> Bee t^r JoliuPorbw'iiWDrii, "Iftt- 
tura and Art in ihe Van ei Dbcue." 
A fuller ciphnfttlon of nr uoksing 

will U fanoa in the ajndwUag jugw 
' IdvuMUMiit of Lcftreing, p. 175. 




thing whose existence is necessary for the production of the 
observed pbenoraena. To find out this secret, we muat ar- 
range the fticts in such a way as to present to one another cer- 
tain |H)ints of contrast and agreement. The contrast Bup[ihes 
U8 with what Bacon calls negative insUnces. For example, 
BuppoRo we ore inquiring into the form or radicnl cause of 
tmn-sparency, and we ooutrofli unbroken and [louuded glaae, 
w8 should obtain an im}>urtant negative instance in the 
fiict, that the transparency was destroyed by the breaking 
up of tlie gloss into small fragnioni<* ; the negative instance 
Bupplied by tliis experiment would direct attention tc the 
state of the cohesion of the particles, and we should then 
proceed to accumulate other negative instances where this 
oohe»on was modified, until we excluded all hut a few 
facts common to all the instauces of the phenomenon uud^ 
investigation ; from these few, we should then select one 
aa the moat probable, and try whether it met every ease 
where the phenomenon appeared. Baoon laid great stress 
upon this primary process of exclusion : — "It may," he 
8ay8, *' perhaps " (observe only " perhaps "), " be competent 
to angels, or superior intelligences, to determine the form 
or essence directly by afiirmations, fi'om the fii'st considera- 
tion of the subject. But it is certainly beyond the [xiwer 
of man, to whom it is only given to proceed, at first by 
negatives, and in the last place to end in an afiimiative, 
after the exclusion of everything else." ' 

The aihruiative is approached first, as we sec, hj' exclud- 
ing a large number of impossible causes ; and then by 
selecting out of the remaining 2X>s»ille, thoM which we 
imn^ne most probable, to be submitted to further invesrtiga- 
tions by experiment. Coleridge ob8€r\'es upon tliis : " Bacon 
demands what I have ventured to call the iutellecLual or 
mental initiative as the motive or guide of every philoso- 
phical experiment; some well-grounded purpose, some dis- 

^ ' Not. Org., Ub. a, Apk. U. 



[opip. vn. 

tiiict impression of tlie probable result, gome self-consistent 
antici^Mition, as the ground of the prud&ns questio (tlie well- 
oonsidcrod interrogation), the fore-thouglitful query, which 
he affinna to be itself the first half of the knowledge or 
csphmatian aought. With him an idea in jihyBics is an 
exttci'inient proposed \ an <^pcrinicnt fmccesaful, aa idea 
reali/Aid, a question anawei-ed in the attirmative." ' 

Thus we sec that hypothesis or ingenioua conjecture, by 
which tlio voriouH possible answers to be given to our ques- 
tiouiug of nature uru otitic IpaltHl, is an essential part of the 
Ryertem of induction propounded by Bacon. We aro to 
approach nature with due reupect, nob rudely asking of her 
uuineauiug queatioiis^ tilse we shall have tlie fuol'b answer, 
nnd hfHT nothing but the echo of our iMt-uttcred syllable. 
Wo aro to meditate well how to frame our speech buforo we 
enter into the teiuple of the oracle ; wu may then expect to 
get no ambiguous reply, but just such an answer as covers 
our question. 

The form^ or t-adicaZ cauaee, p-tmarj/ facte, or laws — ■ 
these terms being used interohangeably in physics — are of 
various depth and extejisiun. Thure arc laws Or general 
Bicta which EiWJon would call collective instances. These 
may be looked upon as invaluable generalizations, out of 
which practical directions are derived, and firooi which we 
st^p to the ultimate fbrm or universal law. Somo of tha 
most remarkable exam[jle8 of such general Cicifi or inter- 
mediate laws of natirr^ are exhibited in Kepler's three 
great discoveries : — Ist. Tluit the pinneta move in cllipticoJ 
orbits, having the sun for theu: common focus. 2iid. Tliat 
the planets dascribe etpuil areas in equal times. Aud 3rd. 
That the squares uf the periodic times of the planeta, are as 
tho cubes of their mean distanoes Erom the sun. To arrive 
at these Ihcts, Kepler had to employ the nietliods first of 
exclusion, aud next of ingenious h^'pothcsis, which, with 
' Tbe Friend. Vol III., p. 1«7. 




enormouH labour, he verified liy ciilculation. The facts 
themselves \.-ere most importAnt, iind practicoJiy useful ; and 
out of them Newton arrived at his general law of gravitation. 
To this order would Ixilorig any law that indicated Uie 
genera] relationship between morbid actions and curativo 
agencieiss as for example, the law proposed tc' account for 
the action of specifics, and known aa simUia BiinilUms 

For to medicine is denied the mo3t potent of all the 
weapons of the inductive phdosophy, the InManiw, Cnicis, 
which comes into play when, in the courae of omr investi- 
gation into the causes of a phenomenon, we can reduce 
the possible explanations to two. AH that then remains to 
be done, is to look out for some &ut included in tho pheno- 
mena, whidi is explained by one and not by the other 
of the supposed causes. This choice between the two ij 
like that whicli a traveller has to make when he comes to 
the int«rHectIon of one road with another ; and as he is 
relieved from his dilemma by a cross indicating the 
direction of both roads, so is the investigator of edenco 
enlightened by this kind of experiment ; and benoe it 
has received the name of the experiment, or instance, of 
the cross, or tho crucial experiment. For example, many 
of the motions of the planets arc equally well accounteil 
for by the system of Ptolemy, in which the earth is as- 
sumed to be the centre, and by that of Copernicus, where 
the sun occupies that position ; but there is one particuliLr 
group of phenomena, known to astronomers as the digref^ 
aion of the planets from the plane of the ecliptic, which 
cannot be reconciled with the Ptolemaic titcor}', but finds 
HQ instant ex[>Ianation if we adoirt tliat of CojKruicufi. 
Such an observation would be called by Bacon, Instantia 
Crucis. The expervment-um. crude conaista in making two 
ejtperiments exactly like one another in every particular 
but one. Tliis, however, is impossible, unless we can 



[Ch»p. vn. 

command all tlie oonditions of both experiments, vhich 
cannot be done in medicnne. Sajt^ose tlio qiiefltion wo 
want to resolve is the efficacy of some particular remedy 
in tlio cure of a given disease. The two fncU are tlie course 
of the diserLse wlit-n tlie minedy ia adiiiinistered to tJie 
patient, and the course of tlie diseiuse witliuut the remedy; 
but the othei* cauiies which combine in producing a 
recovery or tht reverse, and in modifying the pMgresa 
and event of every particuhtr ca^t;, are ho iLumf^rous and 
lucontrollable, that it ia impossible to Institute a cracial 
experiment — that is, two experiments, corresponding in 
every condition, except tho one in question.' 

Although the inductive method, as proposed by Bacon, has 
not led directly Ui the greatest discoveries in therapeutica, 
it would be utijuat to his memory not to give him credit 
for a large shai-e in the genend advancement of the art of 
medicine, by the clear and emphatic way in which be 
pointed out ita defects, and laid down the rules, by 
attending to which we may attain the greatest amount of 
security and certainty. As one of the euggestiuns of 
Bacon, in regard to tlie form or principle of colour, was the 
genn out of which Newton 'a great discovery of tlic com- 
positioa of light ai-ose, so we may venture to a&irm that 
the greatest improvements in medicine have been mode 
in accordance with the Uireclions given by Bacon for the 
succeesful prosecution of the study of the art of healing. 

Thus, in regard to anatomy, he observes : — " As for the 
passages and ]>ores, it m true, which was anciently noted, 
that the more subtle of tlieiii appear not in anatomies, 
because they ore shut up and latent in dead bodies, though 
they may be oi>eu and manifest in life." ' The passages 
which are o])en in living, and closed in dead bodies, are tliQ 
arteries. To thcnt Bacon directed the special uttent^ou of 

l*h}iIiJr'RDlFEi;rutiob, Mill's Lfl^'-, ' AdvADcencDt cf Larninj;, [i. 171. 





the investigator ; and while he agreed with Colsus in dis- 
approving of the diaseotion of living men, yet he could Hce 
no reason why the cxpcrinientii required to det«ruiine ilie 
use of these vessels sliould not be nmde on the lower 
onimitls. It was by pursuing the investigation of these 
vei-y artcriea, according to the letter of instraction given 
by Bacon, that Harvey lujide Ilia discovery of tlie circulation 
of the blood. 

In regard to patholog}', he writes: — "As for the foot- 
steps of disease, and tlieir devastations of the inwai-d parts, 
• . . they ought to have been exactly observed by multi- 
,1udes of anatomies, and the contributions of men's Acverul 
cq>priences, and carefully set down, both historically, ac- 
cording to the appearances, and arilticiolly, with a reference 
to the diseases and syuptouis which result irom them, io 
case when the anatomy is of a defunct patient ; whei'eas, 
now they are passed over slightly and in silence."' 

Here we have an exact description of what modem 
morbid anatomy and pathology are occupied with ; but 
two hundred years elapsed between the injunction by 
Bacon and its successful fiiliilment. Of medicine, in gene- 
ral, he observes: — "Of all substances which nature hath 
produced, man's body is the most extremely compounded; 
for we see herbs and plants are nourished by earth and 
water ; beasts for the most part, by herbs, and fruits ; man 
by the flesh of beasts, bkds, fislies, herbs, grains, fruits, 
water, and the manifold alterations, dressings, and prepara- 
tions of the several bodies, before they come to he his food 
and alimftnt. Add hereunto, that beasts have a more simple 
ordej of life, and less change of affections to work upon 
their bodies ; whereas man, in bis mansion, sleep, exercise, 

patfsion^ liath iuiinite variation This variable 

compofrition of man's body has made it an inBtrunient easy 

to distemper, and therefore the poets do well to conjoiu 

> Adv«K«ineot of L«»mbg, p. 1T3> 



[CUAT. VI [. 

muRic and inedlcine iu ApoUo, because the cSicG of inodidue 
is but to tune this curious harp uf man's Ixidy, and to 
rcduco it to haniiony. So that the subject, being so vari- 
able, hath uiadQ the art by a consequence inore conjectural, 
and tiie art, being conjectural, hath made so iinidi tlie more 
phue to be lefl fur imposture. For alitiost all other arts 
and Miiences are judged by acts or 'maaterpiecea, as I may 
term them, and not successes and events. The lawyer is 
jiidfjed by the virtue of his pleadings, and not by the jiwuo 
of the cause. Bub the physician hath no particular arts 
demonstrative of bis ability, but is judged most by the 
event. This is the reason why the pli^-sician, seeing tiiat 
it bcfiillctli to bim, even as to the fool, in liis own profea- 
uoQ, and modest merit outstripped by impudent presump- 
non, IB apt to give himself up to other pur^ulta beeides 
those of a purely professional ehoracter. Though natural, 
this is not commendable ; for nothing can be raoi'O variable 
tban faces, and yet memory can retain them and distinguish 
them; nothing mnre \-ariahIe than voices, yet men can dis- 
oom theiii ; nothing more variable than the sound of words, 
yet they have been reduoid to a few sbnplo letters; so 
that it is not owing to the incapacity of the mind of man, 
but because ho baa not closely obKorveKl ilie varieties of 
diseases and adapted his remedies aoeordiugly ; as the poet 
saya: — 

" ' Bt quouJiua viuiaiit morht ruiKtiimua iirt«i 
MiUu nuJi specie* millo sUuttB unint.' " ' 

To examine minutely the vaiious forms of disease, anc 
to adapt to each its own particular remedy, is the general 
instruction given by Baci>ri fur advancing medicine. 

The foUowing pasjsage, although uttered with rhetorical 
emphasis, probably expresses Bacon's delilieraU estimate of 
Galeu and Ids system : — '' Tliia is the man that would 
screen the ignorance and sloth of physicians &om tlieir 



deserved rcproonh, and preserve tliem unattackeil : wlilUt 
liimaelf most ftxhly aud uutiqually picteuds to perfect tbeit- 
art and fill up tbelr uffice. TtiU is the man that, like the 
raging dogstar or thi; plague, devotes mankind io deaUi 
add destruction by dfuouncing certain triben of diseases to 
be incurabJe, takiug away all giunmering of Loj*, and 
lea\ing uo room for future indiLstry. This is the uuin who 
makes bis own fiction of mixtures to be nature's aole 
|)rcrogntive," — tluit is, the fiction of the t«iu]«irauieut^ 
and the humours — the improper mixture of elements, an 
eioesB of black bile, yellow bile, and so fortli, were 
nothing but a Hction of Galen's, by wbiub he atttiniptvd to 
explain and conti-ol the operations of nature, which he did 
not understand. " Let him then be dismissed, and take 
along with him the whole train of bis associates— these 
dispensatory compilers fi-om the Arabians, who have shown 
such folly in their theories, and from their supine and jejune 
(xiujectures amasi^ together such a heap of promises instead 
of real lielps from vulgar remedies."' This passage is taken 
from the appendix to the " Instauratio Magna," where 
Bacon inveighs against Aristotle, and many other wortliies ; 
but it is in entire uorrcspondcnco with what he says, both 
in the English edition of the " Advancement of Learning " 
and in the subsequent enlarged Latin version of the samo 
work. " In the inquirj' of diseases they do abandon tbo 
cures of many, some as in their nature incurable, and others 
as past the period of cure ; so thai Sylla and the triumvira 
never proscribed so many to die as they do by their 
ignorant edicts ; whereof numbers do escape with Iwss 
difliculty than they did in the Koman proscriptiona."' Tu 
this oensure be adds, in the Latin edition, the following sug- 
gestion I—" A work is wanting upon the cures of reputedly 
incurable diseases, that physicians of eminence and resolu- 
tion may be excited and encouraged to pursue the matter as 

wnrl» of tli« Dio«t evincnt [iIuIomi- ' AilTUiceiuvcii ot ljt»tti'to^ p. I M. 
plien, luurjmit ami auxtQtu. Tnui»- 



(ClAT. VU. 

iar as Uio nature of things will permit ; since to pronuunco^ 

diseases to te incurable is to exhibit ignorance and 

mas, OB it ■were, by law, and screen ignonme(> from rei>roacb." 

But most of all Bacon's hopes for the faLure of utediciue, 
turned upon the discovery of specific remedies : — " I find a 
deficienet) in the receipts of propriety respecting tiie ciire 
of particular diaeanes." Of this tUficiency of the appro- 
jnifite, he writes more deHnitely in the Latin edition ; — 
"They Lave no particular meiiiciuea whicli, by a specific 
property, are adapted to particular diaeaseH." " I rcmeuiber 
a learned Jew physieiau \*lio used to say, ' Your European 
ph^'sicianH are like bifihopi<, they have the keys of loonng and 
binding, nothing more.' It would be of great consequence 
if phytdciaiis, etninent for leaniuig and prautical skill, would 
compile a work of approved and experienced medicines in 
particular diseases. "' Again, he says : — "The part of phj-sic 
which treats uf authentic and positive remedies, we note an 
defioient." We might multiply quotations to tliia effect ; it 
w «K)ugh, however, to observe, that whenever Bacon comes 
across medicine in any ]>art of hltt works, he points out, as 
the great defect, tlio want of certain authentic, pa<iitive^ 
specific medicines for the cure of well-ascertained diseasee. 

Bacon died in 1 62(5 ; in 1038, twelve years afterwards, 
the Countess of Cinchona, the Queen Regent of Peru, was 
cured of ague by the bark of the cinchomi tree, and by her 
cure the most striking illustration was given of the t^-uth 
which Bacon hati lieen uttering ail his life, that medicine was 
to be improved by the discovery of remedies for the cure of 
particular dhwases. The method be proposed for tliis ad- 
vancement of the healing art was tho careful collection of 
all woll-cstiihlished cures, aueh ns this of ague by bark ; in 
short, an accurate and complete register of all Bpecific medi- 
cines. If he did not propose to apply his method of iuduo- 
Uon to a collection of such instances, and thus to flAoertain 
the law of specifics, it was doubtless because, tn his day, 

1 Edition H39. 




tiiG aoeumiiloUon of gadi fiictn was too small to enootinige 
tlie bope of the snooeaBfuI application of lua inducbive 
AetbofL Towards such a law, however, all Iiis efibrta 
tended, and in its discovery Bacon would have recognized 
the consummation of tlie theory of tlte medical art. 

If we were to conclude our study of Bacon here, and to 
pass from the condderation of his intellectual achie^'emente, 
as exhihited in such works aa " The Advancement of Learn- 
ing," and the "Novum Otyjanum," to the next names we 
encounter in the History of Medicine, we should feel the 
shock of ft great, unbroken, sudden descent. But between 
these high tablcvbnds of Bacon's mind and the lower levels 
in which be worked for the every-<lay world, there was a 
middle region, both of Bcntimcnt and speculation, which 
allied him with tho men of his age, and affords another ex- 
ample of the impoi-taut lesson, that no man, however greiU, 
can come into the world except by submitting to the con- 
ditions of time and place ; and that even the greatest have 
very much more in common with tlio leafit, than a supej-Cisal 
observer is apt to suppose. It is only the difference between 
Ihdr stature and that of their fellows tliat is extraorclinaiy ; 
all elfie is oomnion to them and their oontcnipomrics. But as 
a^ pass, time spares the peculiar and the wouderful, and 
dissolvcfl tlie rest. So that Bncon, and Hoch aa he, are 
^placed in aerial perspective ^ distance raises tlieir feet of 
cUy off their mother earth, and realizes in a sense the old 
fehlc of th»^ir translation ta tlie upper regions, inhabited 
by demi-gods. With Bacon, unfortunately, the clay is so 
apparent that there is no danger of our yielding to him the 
adomtion doe to a divinity. Even if it he true that he 
cointiiitt<!<l tio offence against momiity (as is maintained by 
u well-known writer'), we should be restmined from idolatry 
by much in his leaser writings entirely at variance with the 
pliilofiopliic scepticism which his greater works insist ujKin 
OS the indispensable portal to the exact observatiou and 

I Mr- dcjiwortlt Diton. 




[CttAF. V] 

successful investjgation of nature. " It is affirmpd," he 
without the cspression of any doubt about the credibility 
of the offirmatioD, "both by audent imd modern oba 
tion, tliat iu furaaws of copper and brass, wlierc clialdt 
{vUriol) is often cost in to mend the working, tlieru riset 
Buddeoly » fly, which movctb as if it took hold of the 
of the funiace — sometimes It is seen moving in tlie 
below, and didli presently as soon as it is out of the fur-' 
UQce ; whicli is a noble instauce, and worthy to be weighed ; 
for it showeth, that oa well violent heat of fire aa the genUe . 
heftfc of living bodies, will vivify if it liath matter propori^| 
tionable. Kow, the great axiom of vjvification is, thai" 
tliere must be heat to dilate the eplrit of the body, au 
active spirit to be dilated, matter viscous or tenacious to 
hold in the spirit, and that matter to be put forth and 
figured ;"' that is, formed into some figure. We have else- 
where in Ilia works, another similar axiom : — " Let this boj 
hiid for a foundation, which is nimt tture, that there is ii 
eveiy tangible body a spirit or body pneumatical, iuclosedl ant 
covered with the tangible parts, and tliat from this spirit,' 
that is, from the escape of the spirit, "is tlic beginning of 
all dissolution and consumption, white the antidote against 
these is the detaining of this spirit." * Here we reach the] 
watcrblied of Bacon's mind. On tlic one adc run the 
streams of scientific enquiry, widening as they adviUTiua| 
through the 6etd3 of time, and enriching them for golden 
harveeta : on ttie other side, we hear the rush of torrenta, 
but see only spray, or the outline of those filiadowless 
bodies, those .-^piritfl or ghosts, which have flitted about tronx 
the earliest period in a rep^on inaccessible to science, and 
which ever and anon startle the practical evety-day world 
afresh by Rome spiritual manifestation, proclaimed by some 
new semi-Bacon, some one who has more affinity vrith the 
superutitious Bacon, than with Bacon the philosopher. 

' Sjira SjUktuu, «M. * Uhtory of Life had Uatit, 

kkil Ij lUwlof. 


llAnror'* O|iliuoa of lUran— Vui Helmont'x BirttiplAM fuul Ru-lj PurauiU— 
H« RtnillM MeilinM— liftlon hUa klm— Arahmu — Uu— Blood-lottiD^ in 
rteiiri]^— Ilia Averaon to Blood-ktttug— Harrcy— Hin 8taili«i— Onickbnintd 
—^irioimi to Charles t.— Prwenl M th« B&ttJs of Bd«eUn— Bia Diseoveriei 
— Oklen'* Nolioiv alioiit Ihc Ooune of Uie Blood — BtLrvcj DiK>aT«n Iku Oinii* 
iMion — Bix PaKtriptioo «f lt>— Ho ntgiMU Lb« tnw tlwoi? o<f BoqnntiiMt. 

Ab Abraliiiui bad two Bona, — the one Uie prvgenitor of 
that etKlurinj; ntcc, whnne wcfllth at the pmsont day goes 
fiir to sustain Uie politiml Hyettrns of Europe ; tlic other 
the father of t!ie «'aiwiering tribes whidi have refiuwd to 
enter within the pale of civilized life, and prcaer^'e till 
now the vagnuit habits of the wild Ishninelf — ho Baoon 
tray be said to have luvi two $ucce6sorR» — the one the diiid 
of thft promiAc, transmitting the rich and prolific QruitA of 
true pliiloflophy to reinoteet times ; the firat to reveal tite 
wondere diwloeed to the e^-e (reed ii-oiii the distorting 
glassea of antiqiintod notions ; — the other, the representa- 
tive of Baconn niyiHiciAni, and loose ex|>crtinentHtJon. 
> Pram a piial pt«fiie<i (o liia mrlus I K2. 



[Crap. 71U. 

The nanio of tlio f!i«t is William Harvey ; of the second, 
Joban BaplisU von H«IiDont. Not, that either of these vcre 
professed disciples of Bacon, although we think that the in- 
flucnoo of tlio greatest English pliilo&opher may be traced 
upon the greatest English physiologist. On this point we 
aro at isaao with Dr. Willis, the translator of Harvey's 
books, who, in the biographical ekctch prefixed to that work, 
makes the fuUowing uWr^'ations : " Harvey, besides being 
phyncian to the king and household, held the same re- 
sponsible situation in the families of the most distingoished 
lunong the nobles and men of eminence of Lis time ; among 
others, to the Lord Chancellor Bacon, whom Aubrey informs 
us * he esteemed much for his wit and style, but would not 
allow to be a great philosopher. Said he to m^ 'He 
writes philosophy like a Chancellor,' speaking in derision. 
Harvey's penetration never failed him : the philosopher of 
fitct cared not for the philosopher of pi'escription ^ he who 
was dealing with things, and through his own inherent 
powers exhibiting the rule, thought little of liim who was 
at work upon abstractions, and who only iiiciiJctited the 
nilo &ora the use ho saw otliers making of it. Bacon has 
many admirers, but tlierc are not wanting some in these 
present times, who hold wiUi Uii^ illustrious couteinporaij, 
that * he wrote philosophy like a Lord Chancellor.' " ' In 
reply to this singular passage, we would miggest that pro- 
bably the gossiping Aubrey entirely misunderstood Harvey's 
expreraion, " He writes philosophy like a Lord Chancellor." 
Perhaps ho was not aware that among the learned men of 
his day he ivaa called the chancellor of learning as well as 
of law, and most likely it was in tliis sense, and not in do- 
ririoD, that Harvey used the phrase. Tliat " the philosopher 
of fact cared not for the philosojjher of prescription," is a 

> Tbe woti« of WUliuQ HiUT«;, 
U-D-, imniiUtei] froBi tfao Latin, viUt 
■ lib) uf tbc Mitbor, bff BoLert WiUu, 

M.D., 1647. rriotodfartheSjilaikaiB 


-».». 1377-16W.] UAaVBTS OPINION 0? BACOlt. 


gmtuiboiis ARRunipiion, disproved by the liigh terms in 
which Harvey refers to BojCOD, quoting an expression of 
bis Ortjanuni : " Wherefore, I tbink it ftdviaable lo atote 
what &uite may follow our indtistiy, and iu the words of 
the lejimed Lord Verularn. ' * to enter upon our second 
mintage.'" Wo might quote ninny iJassagea from Har%'ey'H 
writingB to hIiow tlio respect ho bore to Aristotle, and 
Diber " pbUosu[>bers of pi-e&criptioQ," as Dr. Wtllia oon- 
lemptuouiily denominates Lord Bacon ; but it will be more 
profitable, whoit we come lo consider the inotliod of rcscarcb 
pursued by Harvey, to compare it with the rules laid dovu 
by fiacon. 

In no sense can Yon Helraonl be ooDf'idered n^ a diiiieiple 
of Bacoa. In common with Bacon, he repreeented one oHpcct 
of the spirit of his age ; inasmuch as he was a mystic and 
experimenter, a man of great learning and keen in^glit, 
admirable for hin boldness in rejecting the false although 
supported by ail the authority of antiquity, and for 
expofiing with much subtUty and wit the theories held in 
almost unqueataoned reverence at the Ume he lived. His 
life WHS a romance, and more worthy of study and expo- 
ution, in my opinion, than tliat of bis mure fiunoiis prede- 
cessor Paracelsus, in as far as, while perliajis equally gifted 
with geniiiK, he vtm a truer and better man. 

Van Helniout was born at Brusaeb in tbe year 1577, 
seventeen years after Bacon. His parents were noble, 
and he was heir to great posftcssions. He pursued in 
Louvain the UHual course of fwholastjc philosophy. Had 
he followed tbe common custom, he would then have taken 
bis degree and lofl tbe university, as Bacon did. But, 
poBBBmed by a noble ardour for learning, he beaimc the 
pupil of a celebrated Jesuit^ Martin del Beo, who gave 
instruction in all tbe knowledge of the age, not forgetting 
magio. The young student did not find in this oourso 

' lIuTcj't. Vi'otki, \>. 270. 



[Ciup. Vlll. 

tlie satUffictivn lie craved, and gave himself to the exami- 
nation of the doctriiiea of the Stoics, but found they too 
&iled to satisfy his waals. Becomiog accidentally ao- 
quiionled witli the writings of Thomas h Kompia and 
Joiin Tauler, he from that day iuloptcil what goes by 
the vague term of ray&tidam. That is, th*^roughly coa- 
vinced that there was a apintoal world in intimate and 
eternal union with the spirit of man; that this spiritiml 
world was revealed to that human soul which sutuiitted 
to receive it la Imniility ; and that the doctrines of Clirifl- 
tianity were not to be looked upon as a ayBtem of phi- 
losophy, hut as a rule of life, he resolved to follow them 
to the letter. The consequence of this resolution wns, that 
lift devoted himself to the art of mcdieinc, in imitation of 
the Great Healer uf the body aa well as of the aoul ; and aa 
the prejudicea of hit time and country made his rank and 
wealth an obstacle to liihi entrance into the medical profes- 
siou, he made over all his property, witli its honours, to liia 
sister ; that, " laying aside every weight, he might run the 
race that was set before him.'" 

He enteretl on his new studies with all the zeal of his cha- 
i"act«r, an<.l very soon had so coinpletely mastered the writings 
of Hippocrates and Galen, aa to excite the surprise of his 
oontemporaries. But although styled a dreamer, and having 
a mind eajsily moved to belief In spiritual manlfi^tiition, he 
was not of a credulous nature in regard to matters belonging 
to the senscfl. And as he believed that Chrmtianity waa to 
■be practised, and to be found true by the test of experi- 
ment, so he believed tliat the doctrines of Hippocrates and 
of Uolen were to be sul jected to a similar trial. An oppor- 
tunity soon occuri-ed to bimseIC He caught the itch and 
turned to Galen for its cure. Galen attributes this disease 
to overheated bUo and sour phlegm, ami says that it Is to be 
cured by purgatives. Van Helmont, with the Imijlicit fivlth 
■ I^JITrlt^t, \'oi. IV,, p. 21»S. 

*.i.. 1577-1B2R1 



of hw wmplc nature, prociiro<l tlie preserilwd TneJicines^ am! 
took them 09 ori3fretl by Oa]«ii. Mna, no cure of the itvli 
followed, but frrent cxhau»tinn cf his whole body : ' so Gnlen 
was not to be trusted. Tliis was a serious discovery ; for:f 
he couKl not trust Galen, by whom the whole medical 
worM swore, to whom was he to turn? He iunied to 
PamcelsuB ; and althounh disgusted with the exfcravagnnco 
of this iUiteritte and unscrupulous reformer, be fouud 
himself so far agreed with him, as to demand that Modicino 
Bbould be reconstructed, since what was believed in as truth 
had turned out to be fiUse; and so Van Helraont resolved 
to work out for himself a solution of the great problem to 
whieh he lind dovotefl his life- 
Van Heliuont's system may be called »pirUu<il vital' 
tWTU The primary cause of all organization was Archania. 
By ArcJuBua, man is much more nearly allied, he says, to 
tlie world of spirits and the Father of spirits, than to the 
external world, Arch(ru8 in tlie creative spirit which, 
working upon the raw material of water or fluidity, 
by means of "a ferrneni" excites oU the endless actions 
which result in the growth and nourishment of the body. 
Thus, iligestion is neither a chemical nor a mechanical ope- 
ration i nor is it, as was then supposed, the tSaCba of heat, 
for it is arrested, instead of aided by fever, and goes on in 
perfection in fishes and cold-blooded animals ; but, on 
the command of Arck(ru&, an acid i» generated in the 
Rtomach, which dissolves the food. This is the first digeft- 
tiun. The second consista in the neutralization of this 
acid by the bile out of the gall bladder. The third takes 
place in the vessels of the mesentery. The fourth goes on in 
tlie heart, by the action of the vital spirits. The fifth mm- 
sists ill the oonversion of tlie arterial blood into vital Hjjirits, 
chiefly in the brain. The sixth consists of the preparation 
of nourishment in the laboratoiy of each organ, during whicli 
' Ttn Hsbaoov Opun oouul Ori. U«i. 



(Our. VIII. 

opention An^cewt, present ewrj-wliuro, is itadf regenerated, 
and mipeiiii tends tlie luotuentary regeiieratiutt of the whole 
frame. If for digestion we subntitute Ihe word nutrition, 
we cannot fail to be struck by the near approach to accu- 
racy iu this description of the succession of prooeeses by 
wliich it is brought about. 

Vaa Heimoiit'8 |)atliology was quite con^itent witli hia 
physiology. Aa life and all vital action depended upoa 
ArcJuvm, so the perturbation of At-chama gave rise to 
fevers, and derangements of the blood iind sccrcttona. 
Thus, {^ut was a disease not conJined to the part in which 
it showed ik^elf, hut was the result of ArrJitvUB. 

Tt will be seen tliat by this theory the entire system of 
Giden was nonsuited. There is no place for the elements 
and the humourfi. Indeed, Van Helmont denied tlie exist- 
ence of four domcniR. He threw out fire as an element 
altogether, and reverted to the notion of ThrdeH, tliat out 
of fluitUty, with the assistance of Arcfui-u^ acting by 
means of a fermttU^ all matter n?ceived its form. He was 
tho fintt to Uiio the word Gas,^ and to distinguish between 
diSercnt kinds of gnsos. 

Given mch a theory oi disease as ho advocated, one would 
be puKzled to construct fur it a corrcsiwnding system of 
theraiieutics. It is plain, that if disease did not arise fi-oni 
an esoeaa of eitlier black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, or blood. 
It would not answer to use tluj great remedies of his day 
— purgatives, derivatives, aud blood-letting. Rejecting tho 
maxims, he rejected the practice of Giden, and bin objections 
founded on the futility of the system, even now adhered 
to, are imRiiswernble The following jHissages are npnu 

' Tlkc ctymalafEy of 0<u tut* been 
iDwih dianawd, mA it ii naatX to 
derive it tnm Oritt, It ■otmi to 
ua la Im) ■ word iuvenud, mt de- 
rived. Tlw twMlor of Van Tlalnciit 
will find s nuinW of naw vocdi^ nA 

M »Im, Ons, Ac Wbeo Iu um 
then for tJic lint ti>ii«, Im dtwrilw* 
tlior nuMilnr, h U Iber vera uhi- 
tnry ayubirli^ wliMti I Uliort tliia 



tlie treatment of pleurisy : — " You adopt venesection, and 
endeavour by means of Revulsion to withdraw the blood 
fi:t}m tbe vetia asygoSf as if it oontamed Uw disease." 
"Again, they call tbe process derivation— draiaing off, — 
when they open a vein, which is suppoRcd to feed or conduct 
to the affected part. Alaa i how fertile ore tbe scliouls in 
words and tecluncalilies wbicb, viewed by tbe light of nature, 
are simjJy ridiculous I For, granted tbab the vein at tbe 
elbow Hbould part witb every drop of its blood, and Uie 
vena aaygoa be thereby en»j)Lied — yet the schoohi ought to 
know that tlicrc would immediately ensue on equal redistri- 
bution of blood throughout the veins ; so that, aJthouglt the 
vein which was opened were entirely emptied, which ia im- 
possible, them straightway would occur an equoliwition of the 
blood through the whole web of the veins. Whcnix' it is quite 
dear that the talk about revuUion and derivatimi^ is mere 
drivel ; for even if you concede their assumed effects, all 
that Uiey really produco will be a triiling delay," 

A few lines further on he exclainis : — " Wholly irra- 
tional is the technical treatment — the usuai routine. No 
doubt you can lessen, nay, even arrest the flow of a 
rushing stream in a speciGc direction, if you make a lateral 
opening in one of its banlts, and thus effect a nearer and 
steeper descent towards the lower level*. But what 
oartJily good do you gain by getting rid of so maay ounces 
of blood, and at Ibo same time cau-^ing a vast loss of vital 
power ? For is it not tbe £ict, that the moment yoii cIorc 
the vein which you have opened, the bliK>d will flow a^aiu 
to its ai>pointcd \}\aiiXi—rMtsl fiow , so long as the cause of 
its movement exists t Were it not better to attack the 
fountain-head, seeing that venesection in pleiuisy will not 
suffer us to cherish any hope, except that which springs 
from exhausted pouwra 1 

" Nature, it is true, missing sadly her wonted strength, 
and buuknipi in blood, will not maai&st the abnoimaL 



[Cbjf. vm. 

The irLcidenU of his life are of the most common-place. 
His Either, Tliomaa Harvoy, was an opulent yeoman of Kent 
His mother wan " a ^dly, harmless woman ; n chaste, loving 
wife ; a charitable, quiet neighbour ; a comfortable, friendly 
matron ; n pro\-itlpnt, diligent housewife ; a cnrefiil, teuder- 
lieaxted mother." So runs the epitaph wriltoa by her son.' 
He was bora at Folkestone, in the year 1578, oneyeax after 
Van Hcbnoat, and eighteen years nflcr Lord Bacon. At 
the age of sixteen, he went to Cambridge ; and three years 
aflerwarJs, took the Ucgivo of B.A. He then began Lis 
mcdieal Rtudies at the iiunous University of Padua, under 
Fabriciufi of Aqu£ipendeut«, for whom he cntcrtfunod the 
highest re3i>ect, and who put him on the sure path of 
his great discovery. After ha%-ing spent hefcween three 
and four yearn at Padua, he returned to England and took 
\m degree ot H.D. at Cambridge. Five years afterward^ 
he was admitt^'d a.^ a Fdlow of the CoEegc of Physieiana. 
At the age of tiiirty-ouo ho waa appointed Phy,sidan to 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; and in the year IGlo, when 
tliirty-scven years of age, he began his course of lectures 
upon the motions of the blood. There is no report of these 
lectunjH, but it w believed Ihey contained the auhatauce of 
wbat he publisljed thirteen ycare afterwards, in Latin, 
of which the English Imnalation is " An Anatomical PI**- 
quisition ou the Motion of the lleart and Blood in AiiiniulH." 
Thin book, wliich is a milestone on our road, Wars d[ite 
16S8. It is dedicated to King Charles I., who took a 
deep interest in Harvey's discovery, and five years after- 
wards appointed him physician to his royal jwrson. This 
woa some recompense for the treatment he received from 
his ooUeagues on aooount of the novelty of his views, 
" I have heard Har\-ey say," writes Aubrey, " that after Ids 
book on the circulation of the blood came out^ be ft^ll 

' llftrv^y'ii lAtv, ji, xviiL, 5at*. 



miglitDy in his practjco. It was believed hy the vulgar 
ibnt he was cmckbrained, and oU tho physicianB were 
ngainsl liim." ' Hia sovereign, however, acted very difler- 
ently, for he DOt only went over with him the experi- 
ments u|rf)n the circulation of the blood, hut affoitl*^d hira 
must iiii]>oriiUit iisHistancu in hia invuKti^'atiuii into gene- 
ration, hy placing at bis diKpotuii all the does which were 
killed in the royal forest, that he might study their ana- 
tomy. This is not the only time thai the innovator in 
medical science hoK found aheltor in a royal palace from 
the vulgar antAgonism of his profes.sion. 

In his cajjacity of physician to tlie king, Harvey waa at 
Edgehill upon Sunday, the 23rd of October, 1642. Had 
ft man, looking upon the scene that presented itself ou 
the afternoon of that day, been sutldeTdy endowed with a 
knowledge of the future, what strange reflections lie must 
have made i Tliere was King Charles I., with his handsome, 
melancholy fece, anxiously watching the nnccrtidn battle 
mging between his portion and tlie small town of Kinc- 
toD J while beyond lay tlie vast expanse of woody Warwick- 
shire, richly coloured by the sharp frost which was to chill 
many a poor wounded man before the sim rose on the follow- 
ing morning. A little a^nide, " under a hedge/* might be 
seen an elderly man reading a book. This waa Harvey ; 
and be.'ydfi him were two boys, of whom he had charge : 
the eldtr waa aflt^'wai'ds Chailes II.. tho younger, James 
U, 'Wbat a singular group ou tliis hnttlc-field I It was 
no affectation on the part of the physician, nor any indif- 
ference to the fate of his sovereign, that induced Hai-^-ey to 
read his hook while the fight, wliicii was to begin Uiu ileci- 
rion of the fete of hia royal friend and jjatron, was going on 
within his view ; it was simply, that at the time he was more 
interested in the subject of generation than in any political 
Cfttftstrophe whatever. Had he not been so possessed \^ith 

■ Aubnij'i U\iii at Mamemi PerKUU. londoiit ISIS. 



(Cuip. VIII. 

love for tlie Hutjocl of liU iDvestigHtion, the great, open 
secret of the circuliition would not Iiavo been revealed to 
liiin. Trutli dumaiids tlie duvoi'ion of u whole lifu for sucli a 
re^tiUitioii in return. The polillclau and iu»n of scieuce havu 
notliing in common : to be great in cither Rphcren of action, 
a man must dJsown the i>ther. Harvey, and inea of his 
stamp, an* not in their nature indifferent to ordinary btuoaD 
affairs ; they are dimply always pre-occupied ; they are so 
intent on the point towards which they are pressing, as 
to be unconticioufl of the scenery. The book Harvey 
was reading on the battle-field of Edgehill, was \tay 
likely his favourite, " Fubricius' Treatise upon Genera- 
tion." For a few days aflor the battle, he aocompanied the 
king and army to Oxford, and during hit; very brief stay 
there, Aubrey says, *' I remember he came several limus to 
tiur Colh'go (Trinity), to Gwirge Bathm-fit, B.D., who had a 
heti tu Itatch eggs iu hia chamber, which they opened daily, 
to see the progress and way of generation." ' This, doubt- 
less, was the subject of his study and meditation, when, 
before hia eyes, a king was fighting for his kingdom, and 
the kiag'ii sons were looking on. 

Four years afterwards, in I did, at the ripe age of sixty- 
eight, he quitted the service of the king — for which, indeed, 
now that the king could no longer supply him with does 
out of Windsor Forest^ he could have had little taste. He 
was, doubtloss, tliaukful to have done with a soldier's life, 
for which he was eminently unfit, both in chamcter and 
apiJeorance ; for he was " of the lowest atature ; oIiva«ter 
complexion ; round-faced little eye, round, very black, 
full of spirit ; his liair blade as a raven, but quite white 
twenty years before he died." ' 

In the year U)5l,wlieriaeventy-thrce years of age, he piib- 

• Anhnty. Op. dt. 
' Avbnor. 0|>. dt. Tbc nolico »f 
lW*ev 1^ Aitbnj n «liurt, uil ow- 

taini littl« miUtor of uit«net bFynnd 
Uifl t»w fnrta wliioli kkve iimkJ labt 

*.». 1577-1628.] 



lished, at tlie solicitation of his frien<lfl, hia great work on 
Oeneratioa ; ' and allerdue Ijonours tendered by the CcUv^ 
of Pliysicinns, b^it gracefiiUy declined by Harvey, who hod 
enriched that body with a handsome gift, he died at the 
age of aeventy-nine years in June, 1 G57. 

The greatoess of the work of Harvey does not consist 
in the discovery of the circulation of the blood. That dia* 
covery was knocking at the door of the human iutelligence, 
and must very soon have gained admittance, even if Harvey 
had never been bom. The great merit of Harvey lies in 
the lesson be gave to all future ages, of a noble indepen- 
dence of mind, prepared to follow truth at all hazards, while 
yet imbued with a profound respect for tlie authority of 
his teachers. He was not, like I'aractilaus and Van Uelmont, 
a bold reformer, cai-eless of opposing the errors of the great 
men whose names were pronounced with reverence by bis 
oontemporaries, or rejoicing in confronting them ; on the con- 
trary, it is with painful effort tliat he proceeds to convict the 
"divine Qalen " of inconsequence in his reasoning ; while, 
at the same time, with a noble inconaiatency, he quotes hia 
words OS of paramount authority. It is diificult fnr us to 
realise what it cost Uarrey to emancipate hmiself from the 
rgolden fetters of opinions taught and held by men whom 
bo was almost ready to worship. It was years after he 
had convinced not only himself but many eyewitnesses, 
by nndeniahle experiments of the truth of his discovery, 
tliot he gave his short treatiK to the world. Eight yeara 

' A put of bl« Uboon wu ]o«t bj 
tko ilctlmultvHUcMi at a uiob. He 
myt, " WtuUt 1 Npc«k of ihuM UliDg*, 
Ivl K"^tle tnindi forgiTo nw if, ncnll- 
iug tliB trrspanlilo iujuriu I hars 
I taSktxd, I iicTo giT« wul Ut ■ n^ 
' Tii\M ii the lAnM at nij aornw : 
whilKl in aib<n(Ui>M an Us BikjMt7 
bliu kinc, Huriiu our bte liwbiM ud 
more Ibao i>ivil van, aul oolj witfa 
tha ponniaioa Irat ti; coauutnd of 

PiLrliumoDt) oertaln m^ma haads 
strit>|>v<I. nut only 1117 hutuc of nil iu 
funiilorv, but «likt u a auUjuct of 
far gmtvr r«gn»t wHh me, m; cnemleB 
itb>ilnct«d trout mj' mnHnui the froltfl 
of atMoj jwn of toiL Whence il ban 
«0OM bo pMaif thut tuADf oWrvftlioni, 
INUtirailarir on tli« gencratiiui ot 
inNeU, lum perUied, with dctnmeiit, 
1 vctttun lu mj, to tlio Kvpuliiio of 
UUen."— Op. dl., p. 482. 




after his friend, \Afrd Baoon, had published his JVoncvi 
Organum — his new iustnuDait for opminf the door to 
discovery — Harvey executed the task, snd restored ** the 
conuneroe of Uic miiid and Uiii^Si" putting aside as nn- 
finitfal the " commerce of the mind and opiiuOBS." Up to 
his time, in anatomy and ph}rsiologT, hdiamniff was teekiff — 
man saw what Oalen aaid was Uiere. The final appeal was 
to Oalen, not to feci. It ts doubtful, cootiidering Harrey's 
dislike to contention, and his lore of a traninil, unambitious 
pursuit of science, whether be would have written his book at 
aD, had he not been supported by the new philosophy wlu<^ 
had been so recently published, with soch pomp and cir> 
munatanoe, by the superb Lord Cliancellor of Kngland. 

Harvey's treatise on the drculation of the blood occupies 
dgbty octavo pages of moderately-sized print It is still 
a model of dear, elaborate, elegant, and sdentlfic expo- 
sition, perfectly inteDigible, and highly intereMing. even to 
one possessing nothing beyond the most ordinary acquaint- 
ance with technical terms. It opens with an introduction, 
showing how nnflatisfactory ore all the views which have 
prevailed from the time of Oalen to that of the last writt-r, 
Fabridus, upon the subject of the pulse and Uic action of the 
heart. The notion they had it is difficult for us even to un- 
denttand — impossible for os to believe, since the revolution 
cfiWted by Harvey's tract. It was, that the pulse resulted 
from the contraction and dilatation of the arteries which 
contained a mixture of blood and air ; that the air was 
obtained by suction, and hence that the dilatation of the ar- 
teries, like the expnnsion. of a pair of bellows, was tlie active 
prooesB, and the collapse the return to the passive condition of 
these tubes. In shorty it was the idea of a genera] respira- 
tion, carried on all through the body ; whidi, however, not 
being suffiduut for " the veutilation and refrigeration of the 
blood," t«iuircd to bo supplt^meiited by lungs placed about 
the heart. Such was the vague ideu handed down from * 


Oa]en, who on tliis subject w full of contradiction ; for whilo 
in one place he poRitJvely affirms tliat " tlic arteries contain 
only blood/" in another portion of his writings he says, 
" Show us anothef vtastel which draws the absulutcly perfect 
blood from the lipart, iind diatrihutca it, as tlie urteri-es do tfis 
spinis, over tlie body." * We npwl not jmuse to inquire 
whetlier any per»on liad antici|>ated Harvey in his discovery. 
Many had groped about the truth, vaguely hinting as they 
vaguely believed, like the man hiilf-ix-stored to sight 

(who saw men like trees wulkiug. Harvey was the first to 
and cause to be accn, the whole operation. To him i^ 
due the whole honoiu' of that Let us listen to his own 
words : — 

"When T first gave my mind to vivcscctions, as a raeana 
of discovering the motions mid uses of the heart, and sought 
to discover Lhestj from actual iuspcctiou, and not from the 
writings of others, I found the task so truly ai-tluous, »i 
fall of difficulties, that I whs almost tem[>ted to think, with 
FniuastoriuH, that the motion of tliu heart was only to be 

^comprehended by God ; for I could neither rightly peroeiv^ 
at first, when the fti/stoir and duistole took place, nor when 
and wliere ountraction occurred, by reason uf the rapidity 
of the motion, which in many animals is accorupli&bed in 
the twinkling of an eye, coming and going like a flash of 
lightning, so that tlie tfyetvle presented itself to loe now 
from this pointy now from that ; the diasloie the sumo ; 
and then everything was reversed, the motions occurring, as 
it eeemed, variously and confusedly together. My mind 

^as therefore greatly uusettled, nor did I know what I 
should myself conclude, nor what believe from others. At 
lengtli, by using greater and daily diligence, having frequent 
reomuw to vivesections, employing a variety of animals for 
the purpose, and collating numerous observations, 1 thought 

1 Oalan'B Worfea : *'l)iiod MUfni* 
tur io uterita" ut tJaa title af 
' itie duii'ter ia wbicb the doctrini) in 

* U«ka'« Worin, ifRiiul Knaa- 

tntiu, I>« FlocUU, lie 

r 2 


[Crap. Tin. 

thai I had attained to the tniib, that I slioald extricate 
tnyself oiid escape from tbis labyrinth, and tbat I 
dboovered wbat I so much desired, botb tbc motion and 
the use of the heart and arteries, — since which time I have 
not hesitated to expose my views upon these subjects, not 
only in private to my friends, but also in public in my 
anatomical lectures, oiler the manner of tbc academy of 

" Tbese views, as usual, pleased some more, others leas 
some cliid and calumniated nie, and laid it to me as a crim4 
that I bad dared to deport from the precepts oud opiuions 
of all anatomists ; others desired further ojtplanation of tl 
novelties, wbicli, they said, were botli worthy of consider 
tiun, and might, jwrchaucu, be found of signal At"*, 
length, yielding to the requests of my friends, that all 
itiiglit be made jiartieipators in my labours, and partly 
moved by the envy of otlier>i, who, receiving my views 
with nncandid minds, and uuder^tauding them indifferently, 
have essayed to traduce me publicly, I have been moved 
to commit these things to the press, in order that all maj 
be enabled to form an opinion both of mc and my hibours." ' 

In the succtieding chapters he desa-ibes with minute 
fidelity the way in which the heart rises into on erect 
position, strikes on the chest, and at that moment dischii 
its blood into the arteries, producing the throb of the 
pulse. Having done this, he explains what has taken 
I^aoe : — " First of all, the auricle contracts, and in the 
course of its contraction throws the blood (which it con- 
tains in ample quantities, as the head of the veins, the 
storehouse and cistern of the blood,) into the ventricles, 
which, being filled, the heart moves itself straightway, 
makes all its fibres tense, contracts the ventricles, and 
performs a beat, by wliieli beat it immediately sends the 
blood supplied lo it by the auricle into the arteries ; tlie 

> IlATvcy'a Work*, p. 18. 

i.B. 1677-1828.] DBSCaiFnON OF THB CIBCULATION. 


right Tentricle seiiding its charge into the luiig^ by the 
vessel which is called vena arterio«a, bnt which, in stmcture 
aad functioQ aud in all things else, is an artery ; Uie lell 
ventricle sending lin charge into the aorfo, and through 
this, by the arteries, into tlie body at hirgc." * 

Tliis, then, is the couimi of tim blood witliin tho heart, 
from the two cisterns of veuous blood — the auricles ; it 
flows into the two ventricles^the right ventricle sends its 
charge into the lungs, the left into the aorta. What 
becoues of the blouU sent by the right veutriule iutu the 
lungs ? " The blood percolates the substance of the lungs 
&om the right ventricle of the heart Into the pulmonary 
veins and left ventricle." This is the lesser circulation. 
"What becomes of the blood discharged by the left ventricle 
into the. aorta ? The answer to tliis question is given in 
the eighth chapter, wliich, as one of the must interesting 
historical documents in medical literature, we shall give 
entire: — 

" Thus far I have spoken of the |)n&sage of tho blood 
irom the veins into the arteries " — that is, the {kdrcolatioa 
thrcmgh the lung;? — " and of the manner iu which it is trans- 
mitted and distributed by the action of the heart, — points to 
which some^ moved either by the authority of Oalen or Co* 
luuibus, or the reaaouings of others, will give in their adhefti(»i. 
But what remains to he said upon the quantity and source 
of the blood which thus pusses, is of so novel anil unbeai-d- 
of a character, that I not only fear injury* to myself from 
tlie envy of a few, but I tremble lost I make mankind at 
large my eiieuiies. So much doth wunt and custom, that 
become as another nature, and doctrine unce sown tliat 
hath struck deep root, and respect for antiquity, influence 
all men. Still the die is cost, and my trust is in the love 
of truth, and the candour that inheres in cultivated minds. 
And, sooth to say, when 1 surveyed my mass of tviJence, 

> UVT<;'» Worita, p. 31. 



[CiiAi-. VIU. 

whether derived from vivescetioiia and my various re- 
Htxtiuiis on tlit-m, or from the ventricles of the heart and 
the vessels that enter into and issue from them, the symme- 
try and ftizc of these conduits — for Nature doing nothing 
in vaiii, would never have given tbeai so large ft relative 
size withnut a purpose, — or from the urrangemont and 
ititiiimte structure of the valves in particular, and of the 
other parts of the heart in general, with many things 
besidee, I fretiuently and seriously Lethouglit me, and 
long revolved in my mind, wliat might ho the quantity of 
blood whidi was transmitted, in how i^hoji a time its 
passage might be effocted, and the like ; and not finding 
it [Xissihle that tliis could be siipjiHod by the juices of the 
tn^sted aliment without the veins on the one hand 
becoming drained, and the arteries on the other getting 
rupturtsl through the excessive cliargc of blood, unless the 
blood should sojuebow fuid its way from the arteries into 
the veins, aud so return to the right aide of the lieart ; 
I began to tldnk whether there might not be a motum, a8 
it ivere, va. a circle. Now tins I afterwards found to be 
true ; and I finally saw that the blood, forced by the 
action of the left ventricle into the ai-teries, was distributed 
to the body at large, and its several pnrtfl, in the same 
manner as it is sent through the lungs, impelled by the 
right ventricle into the pulmonary artery, and that it then 
paused through the veins and along the vena paiKi, and so 
round to the left ventricle in the manner indicated. Which 
motion we may be allowed to call circular, in the same 
way as Aristotle says that the air and the rain emulate 
the drcuhir motion of the sui>erior bodies ; for the moist 
earth warmed by the sun eva^wrates; the vapours drawn 
upwards are condensed, and descending in the form of rain 
moisten the earth again, and by this armngement are gene 
rations of living things produce*.! ; aud in like manner, 
too, are tempests and meteors engendered by the cii"- 



culnr motion, and by tliu tippronch and recession of the 

*' And so in all likelihood does it come to pass in tho 
IxKiy, through tho motion of the blood ; the various parts 
are nourished, cherialied, tjiiickened by the warmer, more 
perfect, vaporous, spirituous, and, aa I may say, oUmentivc 
blood ; which, on the contrary, in contact witli these parts, 
becomes cool, coagulated, ind, so to speak, effete ; whence 
it rctunis to its sovereign, the heart, or to the inmost home 
of tho body, there to recover its state of excellence or per- 
fectioQ. Here it rvsumus its duo fluidity, and i-ccei^'CB an 
infiision of natnm! heat — powerful, fervid, a kind of 
treasury of lifr, and ia impregnated with spirits, and, it 
might be said, with balsam ; thence it is a^u dinpcrscd, 
and all this depends on the motion and action of the 

"The heart consequently Is the bcf^ning of life ; the Bini 
of the microcosm, even an the Sun, iu his turn, might well 
bedesij^ated the heart of the world ; for it i^ the hearty by 
whose \-irtue and pulse the blood is moved, perfected, made 
apt to nourish, and is pi*eserved from corruption juid coagu- 
lation ; it is the household divinity wliich, dischar^ug its 
function, nonrishe-s, cherishes, quickens the whole body, and 
is, indeed, tho fuuudation of life, theisuurue of all acticm. 
Sut of the»>e things we shiill speak more opportunely when 
we come to speculate upon the tiiial course of this motloa 
of the heart. 

" Hence, »nce the veins are the conduits and vessela that 
transport the blood, they are of two kinds — the cavfi and 
the aorta; and this is tiot by reaiMJti of there being two 
sides of the body, as Aristotle lias it, but because of the 
difTerence of office ; nor yet, as is comnmuly said, in conse- 
. quenoe of any diversity of structure; for iu many miimals, 
an I have smd, tlie vein does not ditfer from the artery in 
the thickness of its tissues, but solely in virtue of their 


[Chap. VUL 

aeveral destiiiies and uses. A vein and an artery, bottilH 
styled vein by the andcuts, and that not undcsenedly, aa 
Oalen has remarked, because the one, the artery to wit, is^A 
the vess»J which carries the blood from the heart to the body™ 
at loi-^'c ; tlio other, or vein of the present day, bringing it ^ 
back from the general systwn to the h^eart ; the fonner 
the oonduit from, the latter the channel to, tlic Iieart ; 
latter coutaios the cruder, effete blood rendered niifit for' 
nutrition ; the former transcuits the digcbted, perfeut, pecu-. 
liorly nutritive fluid."* 

On reading this document now, one is apt to 
Harvey of timidity iu imagining that by its publication he 
could possibly make " mankiud his enemy." Alas ! hiaprog'-! 
noetiattion of evil waa more than frilfilled ; — by the world'] 
at large be was scouted as a crackbrained fcol ; and by hif 
own colleagues, in whose love of truth and candour, as 
having cultivated minds, he reposed his trust, he was avoided 
aa a heretic. la deriiiion be was colled " Circulator/' or 
quack, and there woa a corrent nie<Ucal proverb—^'* Maltii 
cum, Q(deno errare quam cum ITarveio esse chcuUUor.' 

Thus, in the year 1 G2S, two years after the death of Lord' 
Bacon, WiUi the solution of the greatest problem in vital 
raecbauics g^veu to the world. Harvey, after this, devoted] 
himself to the study of Oeneratiou, and greatly advanced tha] 
knowledge of that mysterious subject. IIo also studied, and 
probably wrote upon one of the most puzzling problems of 
vital chemistry — Respiration ; and he seems to have had] 
a true, altliough necessarily vogue idea, of tliis process; for he 
says : — " If any one will carefully attend to these circum- : 
stances, and consider a little more cloncly the nature of air, 
he will, I think, allow iba-t air is given, neither for tlia ' 
' cooling/ nor the uutrition of animals ; for it is an estab- 
lished feet, that if the f\xftui has once respired, it may be 
more quickly guflbcfttcd, than if it hail beou entirely excluded 

> H&rrey's Wwfcv, p. 47. 




4.9. 1677-1628.] OM BB8PIBATI0N. SIT 

Jrom the air : it is as if heat were rather enkindled vdthin 
the foBtUB, thaa repressed by the influence of the air. This 
much, by the way, on the subject of Bespiration ; hereafter 
perhaps, I may treat it at greater length." ' That Harvey 
should have sxispected the truth, to be revealed long after- 
wards, that heat was enkindled by respiration, is a most 
remarkable proof of his genius. For Chemistry may be 
s^d not to have been bom till after the words just quoted 
were written. Harvey published his work on Generation 
in (he year 1651, and at that time Bobert Boyle was 
twenty-five years of age. Boyle has been called the 
Father of Modem Chemistiy, and we are now on the 
threshold of the chemical era of medicine. 

' Hftirey's Worka, p. 680. 



DE9 CAllTte. — SYLVlUa DK LA BOR — nOBEnt BOYI^. 

Dm C^rtM' tiinb-nu mill; in tlcUattd—'RiM (l«ath la Rweden— Bin Phyidei) 
FliiIoH>|ihr— Hia VorUooi— Fuiiliiy of his Physlad gpwruUtiona— Pj-ItIob Ae 
la Bcv— Oay Vttm — tT*o nod AbuM of AntimiHir — DiAlomv on BlooH-lattJDit 
bet»ii<^ii Willis aixl Vnu Bvlinunt — SjrLrliu' Theorj of Digottlon— Quy htin'i) 
l>»liiutioB of CardinAl M&min — Itcinulce'* Pnlw nf ToTacwi — Sob«rt RojIq 
—His Staulim— Inr^liiMUrtD towivlit Molifin«i — Ju«t IMimnto ni Chttmuitrr— • 
ObjeoUmia to Cniutiouiid ^Mmptiocu — KxpnClAtianfroinSpMilias — (JI)j«otiaiui 
to SpeeifiM wuiroeiL — Tito Doae of » Siwciiir.— Buj^le tlw Bx|>otin<ler of tlio 
HoMiiitD Syvtein of U«didD>«. 

Des Cartes wiis boni id 1590, Sylvias in 1014, twelve 
years before Bacon's death; and Boyle in 1G27, the year 
Baoon died. 'Ren4 Des Cartes, or Latinised, RcnatasOarteaiiis, 
"was a gentleman of Brittany, a military' man, possetwing, 
in the highest degree,' sny» his disiini^ished countrj'man, 
"our defects and our qualities; deai", firm, resolute, some- 
wliat rash; thiriking in his dosct with the same intrepidity 
with which he fought under the walls of I'rague." ' Ho 

> C. Vu Daica, jiuior, del. «L 

> Victor CouiiiM'i Butorr t>f Modem 




[Cmr. IZ. 

passed the greater part of hia life a voluntary exile in 
Holland, where he conceived he might enjoy ^n'eater liberty 
than he could in France. He died in Sweden, wliither 
he had gone at the invitation of Queen ChriRtina ; and 
ho is said to have been s:icrificed to the rigour of the 
SwediKh clioiftte, as administered by his eccentric hostess, 
'who insisted upon stud^'ing with him at five o'clock in 
ii» inomiiig.' "To Des Cartea," wiys Playfair, "belongs 
the hoDour of being the first who ventured on the solu- 
tion of the most arduous problem which the matctial world 
offers to the consideration of philosophy. For this sola- 
tiou, he sought no other data thau niatter and -moftcm, and 
with them alone proposed to explain the Btnicture iind con- 
stitution of the universe. The matter which he required, 
too, was of the simplest kind, possessing no properties but 
extension, irapenebnihility, and iywrtta. It was matter in 
the abstnict, without any of its peculiar or distinguislung 
characters. To explain these chai'actei's was, indeed, a part 
of the task which he proposed to himself; and thus, by the 
simplicity of his assumptions, he added infinitely to the diffi- 
culty of t!ie problem which he uudertook to resolve."' " He 
begins," saj-s Whewell, "with his celebrated assertion, '/ 
ihink, ihem/ore I ain,' which appears to him a certain and 
immovable principle, by means of which be may proceed to 
something more. Accordingly, to tliis he soon adtls Uie idea. 
and hence the certain existence of God and his pcrfiietioim. 
He then asserts it to be also manifest, that a vacuum in any 
part of the universe is impossible ; the whole must befdled 
with matter, and the matter must be divided i]ito ct^uol 
augidar parts, tins being the moat simple, and Uierefore 
the most natural supposition.' This matter being in motion 
the parts are necefaarily ground into a spherical form, and 
the comers thus rubbed off (like filings or sawdust) form a 

Uiognplilokl DioUon&ry. 
Pniimtatty CUHiuUoai to Ka- 

a;<.'to]Kv<]Iji Briianoira, p. C8. 
' friucipik, p. 58. 



second or more subtle noatler.' There b?, besides, a tliird 
kind of mntter, of porta moro coarse and less fitU'd for 
inotioii. Tbc fii'st matter makes Lumuiou» bodies, as tlie 
fixed stars ; tlio second is the traDS[Mir6Dt substance of tbe 
skies; the third, the material of opaque bodies, as the earth, 
[ihtneta, and comets. We may suppose, also,' that the 
motions of these parts take the form of revolving circular 
currents,' or vortices. By this means, the first matter will 
be collected to the centre of each vortex, wliilt; the second, or 
subtle matter, surrounds it, and by it* centrifugal effort 
constitutes light The planete are carried round the sun by 
the motion of the vortex,* each phmct being at such a dis- 
tance from the sun as to be in apai't of the vertex suitable 
to its solidity and mobility. The motions are prevented 
being exactly circular by various causes ; for instancy a 
vortex may be pressed Jnto an oval shape by contiguous 
voiiicf^. Tlie SMtclIites are in like maimer cjirried round 
their primary phiiitftti, by subordinate vorticM; while the 
comets have sometimes the liberty of gliding out of one 
vortci: into tlie one contiguous, and thus travelling in a 
sinuous course fi-om system to system through the universe." ' 
Although Des Cartes himself styled lus Ikinous theory of 
vortices " A Philosophical Ilomaoce," ' yet it exerted a power- 
ful influence upon the course of speculation both in phy- 
dolog}' and pathology. Pes Cartes was one of the earliest 
and most zealous supporters of llarvey, and while he 
accepted and defended tlie explanation given by our patient 
country-man of the cattse of the circulation of the blood, he 
added to it his own imaginative hypotliei^is as to the produc- 
tion of animal heat. This he conueive<l to be owing to a 
fermentation of the blood in the heart ; he oompares it to 
the chemical action of an acid upon a metal, and the cause 

I Priociinm p. f9. 

' niA.. p. 6*. 

» lUd., p. 81. 

* [bid., e. UO, p. lU. 

» Wtewell'i Hi«tory of lh« Pliysic*! 

" Sit WirUuiin IIikiniltAn'n Diiaerta- 
Uuiu oil VltiiMaphf, p. 3UI. 


[Catr. IX. 

of the fermentaMon he ascribes to an cUicr (or Uie gns of 
Van Helmont), a spint of some kind tlmt niaJizes the 
fluid. As the blood proc«e>Lt ia its coutve, it beooroes m<»« 
and more divided by tlits spiritual agency, and at the 
Hunimit of its cai-ver in the liniiii, the tspirit has at length 
efiected its final divorce irom. the bodily element, and is 
at liberty — we may preftnnio to enter into the court of 
the soul itself, which D<m Curtca enthroDcd in the pineal 
gland, for the fanciful reasun that iliis was the only part 
of the brain which was not double. 

Such is the career of the emancipated spirit ; but what 
bepomes of the earthly cumpiinioii in iinn dissolved alliance ? 
This forsaken hali^ being matter, as we have seen, must be 
composed of atomit, or rather fi-agnienta, of various shapew 
and sizes, all hurried along in u [wrpetual whirl by the vor- 
tices. Of tliese fi-agnitTitfl sorae are round, some triaiiguUr, 
Bome square. When a round atom arrives at the mouth of a 
round hole or pore, there is nothing to prevent its entrance ; 
it is swept in by the force of the current, and finds itaelf 
at ease, and so mo>-ea on till it h taken up by the part re- 
quiring tho nourishment it can atford. But, if instead of a 
round atom, a square one should be foi-coil into a round 
hole, tliere occurs in the person of man all the evil oon- 
sequenccR tlmt result tn the piilitical frame when a round 
body is ]]ut into an office which Nature designed to be 
occupied by a sijuare one, and we have t^iruclimi of the 
pores. Out of Des Cartes' physical romance this ini[Kir< 
tant doctrine took its rise — a doctrine which, undoj- various 
modifications, bug held sway in medicine, and powerfully 
affected the practice of tlie art.' 

We may dismii^s the consideration of Des Cartes' coB- 
tributton to medicine, with the words applied by Plavfair 
to liis influence ou physical science. " The philosophy of 
, Dos Cartes oould exphiin all things equally well, and might 

• Spwngwl, V»l. IV., p. •!% 

x.i>. lfi»8-lflM.] PL'TILITY OP UIS SPRCULATtONS. 


have beea acoonimodaUd as well to the system of Ptoleniy 
orTycho, as to tliat of Copernicus. It forms, tLercfore, no 
link in the chain of phj-siual discovery ; it served, the cause 
of tnitb only by esplodiag enx»rs more pernicious than It- 
Kelf, by exiiausting a sonrce of deception wliicli might liiive 
misled other adveiilurera in science, and by leaving a 
Btriking proof how little advancement can be made in plii- 
losophy by pursuing any patli but that of esperimeut and 
induction."' For philosophy, in the last sentence, wc may 
substitute medicine, and add, tJiat Des Cartes' viaions of atoms 
aud pores were of great indirect benefit, by BetUug men to 
determine, by actual microscopic inspection, whether they had 
a counterpart in reality. Thus, while exploding the enors 
of Gulen, aud his elements and humours, by ii physical theory 
even of the moat fantastic kiud, he at the same time instigated 
the liberated intellect of liis iige, to cultivate a fertile field 
of improvement in anatomy and pathology. 

Dea Cartes' " starting pritieipk — that all philosophy 
begins in an analysis of tlie human c^jiisciouaness — is the 
foundation of all subsequent psychological investigationa 
down to the present day." * Ke is, therefore, considered the 
founder of modem mental philosophy; he was, besides, one 
of the greatest mathematicians that ever lived, being the 
first to apply algebra to the solution of geometrical problems; 
— so wo cannot wonder that, when this trunsceudent 
genius proclaimed the laws of physics, his utterances should 
be received with profound respect, and accepted as reve- 
lations of truth. But it is difficult to adapt our minds 
to the ooiidltions of the period when Francis de la Boe 
Sylvius intruduced into medicine his chemical theories, 
which received more attention, and exerted longer and 
deeper influence tlian the brilliant reveries of Des Cartes. 

I WiMert. Encjclqi. BriU, p. 99t. 
* An Hi»loricil am) Cntiual V^e" 
of tlto SiKctiUtix: PhiloMpby of Jlwmpc 

in Iha KineWath CmiLqi?, 1? -f- !>■ 
MorrcU, 'induitit., p. lifi. LaDdun. 



[CSAf. IX. 

To realize, in any degree, liow tlie moat absurd and ftii^ 

chievouR chemiciJ notions of Sylvius were not only admitted, 
but greedily accepted by the medical world of hia Um^ we 
must bear in mind that it had pas.<jed, or was passing, from 
a state of despotiitm into one of anoreliy. Oalen was still on 
aulboriiy with the orthodox. In tlie yoar IGlfi, one year 
after Sylvius was born, the Royal College of Ph^-sicians of 
Paris unanimously passed a decree, whereby "chemical 
medicirien were condemned, and interdicted from all phar- 
macopujias, and all judges were implored to inflict severe 
chastasemont on flU who prescribed, administered, and ex- 
hibited those poisonous medicines." ' 

Dr. Ouy Patiu was the fashionable physician of Paris 
at the time of Sylvius, His letters have been pne- 
Borved, and form a most curious collection of medical and 
general gossip. The first is dated I 030, the last 1 072 ; so 
tliL'y erabrace a period of forty-two years. The first was 
written when Sylvius was sixteen years old, the last when 
he was fifty-eight. We liave thus an opportunity of com- 
paring the estravaganees of the orthodox ecbool with those 
of the heterodox or innovators. These latter went by the 
derisive name of what we may cslU " chemikers." Tho 
chemikcre were all who used antimony, and the other now 
powerful remedip-R introduced to the notice of the medical 
world by Van Helmont luid the professed chemists. How 
these chemikers were looked ujjon by their orthodox 
brethren, we learn from tlie celebrated letters of Ouy Patin. 
A few specimens, which are too characteri.'itically written to 
bear translation without loss of force, may be taken as fairly 
representing the opinions he maintained during his whole life. 
"On tient ici pour charlatans oeux qui donncnt dc I'anti- 
roonie ou vln ^m<^tique ; il y en a quelqnes una des notrcs 
qui s' en eebapiHint, niai.s ils en sont Jiais et iH^prUes, et 
voudroient que ce Eibi & recommencer ; la plupart sont moines 
1 Note l« a«y Friia, ToL 1, p. ISl. 

A.9. 1M9-1U0.) rSB AKD ABCSB OP dXTlMOKT. 


froques ou d^froqu^ circulalorea et affirt^je, chiinist^s, souf- 
fleurs, tipoihicaires quclqucs gens de la cour qui s'y vantenb 
d'avoir des 8ccret£, et taiiqtia-m, aaini eatultatU i^iter simiaa: 

.Auni n' y rciutsiiuient-lts ]>oiQt et toute Icttr favcur ne duro 
gabre." ' Not content with these regular attacks upon 
ihis cbemikers, be no\'cr &ils, in meatioiiing a death, to 
attribute it, if possible, to tlieae miso^ants. " Tlie Duchess 
of Lorraine has just died hero of Aorri'vw and antimony," 
writes he:, and rnliLs., " the grandees are unfortiiiiaio in 
their medical advisers ; the court physiciaus are aithtrr 
ignorant or charlatans — very often both." 

" Tlic Count d' Alaia was ono of tho most learned gnnlle- 
men of France. He had by him ' uu medicastre chiiuiste,' 
whom he had brought from Provenoc. This man told him 
ihare was nothing the matter with him. When hia malady 

(gaiaed gruuiid, oiie of mj was culled in, who prouyimced it 
to be suffocative catarrh, and said that the Count must be 
bled at onoe, and a consultation held. This the I'roven^al 
refused ; and called, instead, two other workmen of his own 

ijudney (deux autrea ouvriers tola que lui), and gave autJ- 
mony. * Cujus vapore maligno statim estinctus fuit et 
per stibium Stygins ebrius hausit aquas.'* 

"A few days ago there died here a very rich woman. 
Mad. de Breton ViJliers, She had a shivering, and coraphiiiied 
of her head. They put her to Led, and gave her a laxative 
lavement, containing four ounces of aotimouial wine. They 
afterwards gave her some of the same poison by the moutli. 
There followed a copious evaeiuilioii, a ihkIi of blood to 
the and death in six hours. 1 hold it for certaijL that 
the antimony killed her. The charlatans pretend she died 
of an ahsceas in Uie brain." Here fi^llow tliu names of 
the four operators. " It was the iin>t of the four who 

> VoL L, p. 17*. 

* Tli« ticailljr njiant ■» mia* *x- 
Ukgniabwl him, »ihI, rlrutik with Um 

■Ubut dnught, b« had ta ilriok Uu 



[Caxr. IX. 

recouut«d tbo story to me. JTon sine aeiisu peccaii." — " Et 
voUk ootnme oca MM. left antimoniaux se joiicnt de la vie ilea 
lioininos, ci o^mmf; im|iriidemueiit. il8 envoieul en I'autru 
moude leur pauvrca niatndes, &veo leur poisoD, sous ombro 
d'avoir des remedes secrets pariicullei-s, qui itoat dcs tannes 
de dmrtatfLDB, n quibua deoipitmiur idiota iam iof/tUi 
guam tunicati.^ 

In 1054, he writes — "Antimony, which ia hardly ever 
frpokcn of now, except with dutefitation, got a ileadly Llow 
lioro yesterday, in the person of one of the nieinliers of the 
o^unctl of the court, whose dnu^^lit^T died ut the ago of 
fourteen years, carried off by a double dose of antimony." 

Sucli arc a few spcdmeDs of tho iiu'ms in whicli this 
most polite, nccoiupUshed, clever, fiidhionable, orthodox phy- 
sician denounced those of his brethren who hod the auda- 
raty to administer the now popuhir nui-sory remedy — 
antimouial wine. Surely, if histui-y tvactie» one U)in<; 
more than another, it is to beware of dograaUsm and 
intolerance. The orthodox of to-day are the heretics of 
yesterday, and will become again the liL'reiics uf to-morrow ; 
and tho tanguaj^ they used towards those who intro- 
duced or employed a new method or medicincj will be found 
appropriate against theniaelvcs im 800u as the novelty lias 
worn off. This faitiou* Guy PatJn, for example, who is bo 
unsparing of tlie autinionia.its, tho charlatans the chcmi- 
kers, the mtmntehaidcs^ and w foiih, has ex[>w^d hituself 
to the severest censure by the severity of his own treatment. 
He de-'wribes how he treated a gentlemen ill of rheumatism ; 
whom he bled aixty-four tlmta in ei'jht mouths, and then 
purged, "which gave him great relief, and Anally curod 
him." "The idiot«," he adds, " who do not uudenstaud our 
metliod, abscribe tlie cure to the purpng ; but if tho 
im{»etaosity of the va^tbond humours had not Ixvn ru- 
pruBHed by the bluod-Icttiug, the purging would Lave done 

> op. tiL, LuUni £&3. 



no good." Now.a-<lay8. tliere ore many " idiotfl," who 
would deny that the recovery was due either to Uie blood- 
letting or the purging ; and who would rather wonder 
that the victim survived thlfl vignmiis ortbodnxy. Even 
among his own contempoi"arie8, there wen? those who de- 
nounced the practice of blood-letting as always useless, and 
generally mtschiovous. For example, a cclcbi'atcd Bomaa 
physician. Dr. Lucia Auloiiio Portto, wrote a book, entitled 
" Erasistratus : sivc de Sanguinis Missionc;" which is in 
Um form of a dialogue betwet'ii Willis, Van Helmont, and 
others ; and the objections to blood-letting are thus fotx:;ibIy 
8et forth :— 

" WUlia (foquittir). — In tlioao dyscracias of the blood, in 
which the nobler and more active principles— such as tlio 
B]>iritfi, the volatile salts, and sulphur— are depressed or oon- 
gnmed, while the atiueous and terrestrial particles ore in 
excess, blotnl is not to be drawn, but, on the contrary, to be 
preaerved as the tri'jisury of life. But wlien the active 
principles aro depressed by the incipient or existing plethora, 
whether in man or beast, the first and most oominon indi- 
cation is to let blood." 

To this Van Helmont rejiliea : — " But this benefit will 
be derived &om blood-letting, either never, or at most once 
or twice, in the course of life : for, as you, Willis, say, after 
drawing blood onoe or twice, the necessity of repeating the 
o|>eratiou in inevitable ; and the mora blood you draw, the 
more does the abundance of blood increase ((luo pUi» mitUw 
eo plus aanffuinia eopia creaeit)." Again, be mys, "Ac- 
cording to you, Willis, unless there is a)» arcesa of vitalitj/f 
bluod-lettmg is always injurious. Cut in pleurisy there is 
never an excess of vitality— nob even Methusalom had too 
much life ; and if you perfoim venesection in this disease, you 
must always du harm."^ This argument iiiapplicablf] to all 
idiflainoiations as well as to pleurisy. 

A discuaaion between the Roman and French ductohi 

* AulMntn. VuSect 1489, f. 46. 




[Cmp. IX. 

would have been most edifying. They were both men of 
knovlc^lgc and wit, and tlie theory And practice of the ono 
were as much opjiosed to Uiose of tlie otlier an are any 
of the conteudiQg systtras of the present day. Each must 
have looked iipon the otlier as daily prosecuting a system 
not of cure, hut of inanshiufjhter. 

The great leader of the chemical sect was Sylvius de la 
Boe, a Frenchman by extraction and a Dutchman by a<lop- 
tion. He was born in llJl-t, and studied nnd practised 
medicine in Amsterdam, where he became familiar with tlie 
views both of Des Cai-tes and of Van Helmonts He com- 
pounded out of tlie opintoDB of these two original thinkers 
a q-stem of bis own, of great simplicity and of easy appli- 
cation to prac^ce. In the year 1658 he occupied tli© 
chair of medicine at Leyden, and was the most popular 
teacher of his nge. He was the first to introduce the plan 
of giving lectures upon individual cases treated by himself 
in the Hospital, and was thus the founder of clinical in- 
struction, hei ua observe how falhicions his apparently 
adiuirahle method may be in the hands of an itige- 
nious theorist. Sylvius de La Boe treated all his ^>atients 
according to his chemical method, and demonstrated its 
excellcnoe to the satiidactioti of hin pupils, thuti giving* 
it a position which it coulj not otherwise have taken. 
Seeing is belie\-ing ; hi^ pupils flocked round his beds, saw 
bis treatment, and believed his exiihinatioiis. The foun- 
dation of his S}'stem was the assumption that almost all 
vital action is a kind of fermentation. Tliis fermentation 
was diflerent from Lliat of Van Hefmont, being rather n 
purely cliemical reaction between an indefinite number and 
quantity of acids and a correspouding number and quantity 
of alkalies. The process begins as soon aa food enters the 
stomach, the first reaction being caused by the acid saliva 
and pancreatic Huids meeting the alkaline bile. As the. 
digestion goes on, there is a farther devcl<^mcnt of acids 
find alkalie.3, and liberation of volatile spirits. These spirits 



SA-e agnin received into tlie chyle, wliicti is composed of a 
fine oil and a weak acid neutralized by an alkali. Out 
of tills the blood is perfected in the spleen, by the addition 
of a liaudsome conliitgent of vital spiritB. The blood thus 
made he naturally regarded as a most unstable chemical 
compound, kept in a wtate of perpetual ebullition by the 
vital heat ; of which [>erforii]auc8 the heart ia tiie centre, 
the buwl of the aniuiaJ retort, whence pruoetxi the vessels 
wlucli convey tho heatcil liquor Co the distant parts. In 
the brain tlie process of distillation is complutixl, and the 
auiiual spirits are thence diflusetl by the nerves over the 
body, to endow every part witli ita own sensibility and pecu- 
liar properties. The spiritH tliat feed the glanrls unite, in 
turn, with the iicid of the blood; and this forming a sort of 
naphtha, or animal oil, is dissolved by the lymph, which Is 
made up of a combination of viUkl spirits and acid. 

This physiology has the merit of taijnplidty, and is 
easily converted into an equally simple pathology. Does 
not every brewer know how ajit his brt-wst is to go wrong, 
— to bow many accidents tho fumieutalion h liable 1 So ifc 
is witli the chemical works in the human body. " Thus," he 
says, " I consider the cause of intorniittcnt fevers to be, tlwt 
noinc paii of the |mncreatic juice stagnates in one or mora 
of the pancreatic ducl«, and as its habit is — nwiii »uu — it 
bcoomea acrid." This acid nciimony ia dissolved by the 
lympli, and poured into tho small intestines. Here it conies 
in Contact wJtli the bile, and straightway an effer^'escence 
ensues, from which there arises a paroxysm of oold. This 
aci'iinony finds its way naturally, sooner or later, to the 
lieai't, and thence is distributed over the system. — This, then, 
ia the cause of ague- — an acrimony produced by a stopipage 
of the pores of the pancreas Iroin some confusion among tba 
vortices 5 la Des Cartes, giving rise to a fennentalion A la 
Van Helmont. Given the cause— and such a cause — can 
anything be simpler than the true method of treatment? 



[Cbat. IX. 

Surely tlie obvious antidote for on over acid or acrimomoas 
state of the blood is, to pour into it on alkali which will 
neutnilizti tbis condition. Tliis was his metliod of cure. Ha 
iwsumed tbat tbe blood was too ncid or too alkiiUne: for the 
former condition be gave largely of stalts of aiuraonia, and 
for an exceas of nlkaUus be gave opium in equal profusion. 
He also employed tbat dire poison, that lioiror of Guy 
Pntin, Antiuiouy, to rid Uie systetu of its exoess of eilbi:r 
alkaline or acid substanecl, wUicli were derailing tlie power 
of diHtiUaiion. 

Sprengul, after giving aa example of some of tbo receipts 
rendered pojiulur by Sylvitis, breaks forth : " And so the Uvea 
of tliouBanda were tiacriiiced fur t1io mka of an empty 
diiiuera ! But the spirit of tlio age, Hvi fasliiou, willed 
tbat the physician should see nothing in the animal economy 
l)ut fonnt-ntiiig elements and chomical procesRes ; and T)etter 
fat' tliab tbe piitiuiitti tdiould die in ibu fashion ibau live 
aiXonUvg to tfte unydom of the aiwlents " I How fiir tbo 
spirit of tbat ago differs fi-om the spirit of this, is a question ! 
we shall not venture to moot. 

Wbilo wo agree with Sprengel that it is deplorable tbat 
human livvs should be sacrificed to idle chimeras, we uiust 
avoid the error he seems to commit, of confinring Sylviua' 
de la Boe and Ids school, for not following "tlie wisdom of 
theandeuts." The anelenl*, or tbe school of tradition, weiie 
represented by Galen and his followers ; and it would have 
beeu as iinposBible for a man of iree and vigorous tiiougbt^ 
who saw all around hun uew fonca of diseoKe, engendered 
b)* new habits, or imported from newly. discovered coun- 
tries lying beyond oceans unknown to tbe ancients, to 
accommodate his system of treatment to the theories of 
Oalen, as it wus to reconcile the geography of Columbus 
witii tliat of Arist«tle or Strabo. Thase who, like Guy 
Putin, acqniesoed in traditional medicine, did not Ihin/i 
about it at all. In the wliule coiTespond^uui of Fatin, 

i.». 1590-1050.] DBPnnTIOK OF A CAKDUfAL 


lountlng to more than 600 lettere, all, or nearly all ad- 
,to his professioatil colle:^ues in tbo provinces, there 
is hardly a single nilusion to any iroprovement in modiciDe 
or any Bcientific discovery; tUe staple consists uf light talk, 
court acaudal, and abuse of antimony and the Ciirdtnol 
Mazarin— "anwiKii ruhrum capax ct vorax mnniuvi bciie- 

jieiorwm." ' Now, much as we shrink from the violent 
empirical method of the chemists, we must consider it 
better for the progiess of the art and of our i-aoe, than tlie 
indolent acquiesoencc in routine practice. It had tl>e alne 

fywd ?Mm of progress — bcliclj and vitality. Pushing forward, 
even on the wrong road, is better than sleejiiug in the 
aUwgb of despond. This vigorous experimentation with 
>werful drugs was the only way to arrive at powerful 
ics — at least, tJie only way tlieu known. Besides, we 
must not forget, when we wondtfr at tlie gr«at clumsy 
limbs of these foasil authorities in medicine, that they were 
not out of place then and there, as they aits here and now. 
In the struggle for existence that fiercely raged about tliero, 
they held their own by virtn© of superior strength and 
better adaptation to the cii'cumstauoes and the conditions of 
the period. Otbera of feebler nature went to the wall ; 
multitudes became extinct ; and so those that remain stand 
out in sharp singularity as if they were monstrous produc- 
iona. To their companions, they were giants ; to us, by 

-the extinction of their contemporaiy specimens, tliey have 
the appearance of monsters. The very fact of their having 
lived, held their own, and become fotsilj is a claim npon ua 
to treat them witli rt!.tpect. 

At the same time it must be admitted, that it ia difficult 
to eoncefte such a claim to some of the writers of this period, 
whoso works Lave come down to us ; those, namely, whose 
chief interest consists in crhibiting the utter anai-chy of the 
time, when reasonings of no fiirce could yet have possessed 

t op. du, LHtra 632. 



rCnip. II. 

BO nitich infiuenoe. This olservatioii does not apply to 
Sylvius de la Boe, fur he was a man of great impree^dveness 
of character, and was respected by able men for half a oen- 
tiirj-. Nor to Guy Putin, whom Don Beuaveiitura tliua 
desuribeb : — li vtait Hatyriq^ue depuis la tete jusqu' au pieds 
. il avait dans la-risage I'air de Ciceron et diuis I'csprit 
]e diaract^re de Rabelais.' But the remark applies to 
another "writer of this period, whose book is quite s 
curiosity. It is entitled, " A Short Ti-eatisc on Human 
Life, Health, Hickneea, and Death, by Cornel. Bonteke."* 

His pathology and therapeutics are of the simplest 
kind. " The scurvy, rightly understood, is tlie only disease 
of man, and the root of all others, whatever men may 
call theui." ' Against this one root of evil, there was one 
paiiac*a — Tohacco. " It is remaikable that tlie tliree things 
of greatest impoi'taQoe to man should have beert simulta- 
neoualy discovered, viz., the cinrumnavigation of the globe, 
the cii-culatiou of tlie blood, and the smoking of tobacco." 
" Before telling of the powers of Kmoke, and how it curee 
scurvy, we must 6r8t remove the prejudices which have 
hitherto im|)cdcd it8 progri-Jis. H is aaid that suiokiug 
dries men up and makes them unfntitfid, that it ouiscs sick- 
ness, &o. But to smoking is inipiited blame which should 
attach to othei* cauiies. If a man, enjoying pleasant coni|iaoy, 
Rmokfts and drinks brandy, and is in consequence 'seedy,' 
is that the fault of tobacco ? Before smoking was introduced, 
men drank brandy with a similar result In like inamipr. 
If a man wastes his time, and smokes, bis friends tell him 
to leave off tobacco-,sinoking, an if smoking were the cause 
aud not the consequence of lus idleness I Trui^ those not 

1 itlot dea Sdc^utw NatimlH Art 

' Knne AUmtllnnjt nn dem Mca- 
MbUdioi I«b<o, Gkwuiilbelt, Ennk- 
hsit, tiiid Tod iltirrli Ccirticl. Itonuka, 
1608. Tli« miw* Uouteke, or Uliuutcd 

BonltHut, U nud to he tmumtitod ant 
of ltaOD7 Kub, frr Caw. Re bnTtDg 
b*en bom nt Uiu tiga of tfaa Bonny 
C««t Sve tlie oiiuc ui PAnonUw, 
p. U9. 
> [bid., J). 10&. 

A.D. 16M-1S50.] 



usRtl to it are made ill by lolxicco-smoking, but that is 
from uot imderstfiiwling its proper ilso. There are plenty of 
things which, at fir»t tDJuricua, become plea»mt and useful 
by habit — aad the art of Hmoking U to be acquired by 
practice alone ; for if, instead of inhaling the Bmoke wa 
Bwatlow it, it acta injuriously on the jriistric juices. As to 
drying peopk uy, it does not make tht-m half so bot as a 
day's banting ; so how can it dry them up ! One could 
write a large book upon tlie thou^anii servioca rendered by 
bobacco ; but in one word, the Bmokiug of the precious leaves 
is the beat medicine against the scurvj' that is to be found 
in the world; and tlu« scurvy is the root of all diseases 
of mankind. Smoking, too, is a remedy wliicli can be 
employed at all times ; -wo can enjoy this healing Virginian 
herb from early mora to late even. Like the vital air, 
we can breathe it in all Un^es> places, conditions, and 
oompani^. Is one ansions at heart, dcai^ joyless, nialadet 
weak, torpid and stiS" uith scurry f has one ]Miin in the 
bead, eyes, teeth, or anywhere ? is the eight wwik or dim ? 
is one sleepless I has one colic, gout, stone, itcb, thinness, 
corpulency, flatulency, worms ? — the smoke of the Virginian 
tobacco is the true remedy against all these disurdursj 
which are the twig*, and leaves, and fruit of scurvy ; while 
at the same time this glorious healing plant, tobacco, 
eradicates and destroys Uie bidden roots uf the tree of 
scurvy, whence all diseases shoot." This is a condensed 
repreaentAtion of Bonteke's Message to Humanity. 

It is a great relief to turn from these absurd extrava- 
ffattb, to the works of Robert Boyle. The Honourable 
Robert Boyle was tlie seventh son of the Earl of Cork. Ho 
was bora at LJsmore, in Ireland, on the 25th of January, 
1620. Bacon died on the 9lh of April of the same year. 
Boyle enjoyed all the advantages of audi au education as 
he was entitled to from his fiither's rank. After Eton, he 
went abroad, under the care of a French tutor ; and in the 



[Cni.r. IX. 

year 1641 woa employed in acquiring the langnage, And 
studying " tlic new paradoxes of tbo great atargazur, Ga^ 
lileo, whose iugenioua books," he slyly rewarlu^ " jierUaps 
because tbey could not be ao otherwise, were confuted by 
a decree fi*om Rome." ' He returned from his tmvels in 
164>4, and fuund himself in posaeaaicn of an ample patri- 
mony by tlie death of his par^ntA. From that time, be 
devoted himself to study and the investigation of natural 
phenomena, i« accordance with the method liiid down by 
Lord Bacon. He excelled in all departments of iutellt-ctual 
achievemeut. Although he did not make metaphysics his 
sijocial study, he yet wrote two tracts, which, nccorfling to a 
mostoompetent authority, Dugald Stewart," "display [lowets 
which might have placed their author on a level with Des 
Carteti aud Locke, had not his taste and inclination deter- 
mined him more strongly to other pxuBuita;" while, in 
pliymcs, he has been ranked an the father of esperiraental 
pIiiloBO[ihy ; and M. Lihes. in liis " Histoii-e Philosopliique da 
Progres do la Physique," devotes a whole chapter to the in- 
fluence which Bo_>']e exerted upon the development of this 
branch of philosophy, and ohaerves that " it is impossible to 
Bay to what degree of obligation chemistry is to limit its 
acknowledgment to Boyle. Searching every inlet which phe- 
nomena presented, trying the whole material world in detail, 
and with n disposition to prize an error prevented, as much 
as a tnith discovered, it is impossible tn say how many were 
led to diiicover what exists, by being previously warned by- 
Boyle not to search for what has no existence." Another 
•writer says of him, that he was " one of the greatest phi- 
loaophere, as well as best men, that our own or, indeed, any 
country has produced."* We have a very high testiniony 
given to Boyle by Boerhave, the oracle of Medicine of the 
sucueetling generation. *' Mr. Boyle, the ornament of his 

' Tliu uorliR i>i iltc llr.u. Ratiert 
Qoyk, la tub. IW. London, 1772. 

* Prelimiwuy DiMurL., ji. 1S9. 

* BaqMofi. BiriL 


age njod country, euoce<?<le<l to the genius and inquiries 
of the great chancollor, Venilam. WhicU of Mr. Boyle'a 
works shall I recommend i All of them. To bim ve owe 
ttie secrets of fir^ air, water, animals, vegetablett, fossils ; 
so that from his works may bo deduced the whole sj'Gtom 
of natural knowledge." So complete a man was lie, tliiit 
bcades being devoted to tbo examination of natuiv, be woh 
also the most delightful companion, from his inUmat« 
ncquainbonoo with every department of kariiing, and from 
the wit^ copiou&aeis8, luid kindly humour of lub couver- 
satioQ, mingtod at times willi gentle satire. 

It is well worth our while to bestow earnest attention 
on all that) Boyle says about medicine; for ho Miems to have 
studied it with more than lus ordinary avidity, and to 
have bad a strong InelinatJon to pi-actiae it aa u prof&ssiun. 
What Lis sentiments in regard to it were, may be gathered 
fixiva the following passage ; — 

*' And though I ignore not that it is a much more 
iibtltionahle juid celebrated practice in young genllumeu to 
kill men than to cure tbeoi ; and that mistaken mortals 
think that it is the noblest exercise of virtue to destroy the 
uohleBt workmanship of nature (and, indeed, in some few 
cases the requisiteness and danger of destructive valour 
may nutke its actions become a virtuous patriot), yet, when 
I consider the character given of our great Miister and 
£xamplar in that Siiripturo wliich sayeth ' that he went 
about doing good and healing all mnnner of sickness and 
all manner of diseases among the people,' I cannot but 
think snch an employment worthy of the very noblest of 
his disciples ; and I confess, that if it were allowed to me 
to envy creatures so much above us as arc tlie celestial 
spiritfi, I would much more envy that welcome angel's 
diaritablu employment, who at set Umes diffused a heal- 
ing virtue through tlie troubled waters of Bt-tbtsda, than 
ttrnt dreadful angel's GiCal einploymeiil, who in one uight 




defitroycd a hundred and fourscore thousand fighting 
men." " 

It is unfortunate for Boyle's influence fhat he should 
have ■written in a atyle of such prolixity as to make the 
perusal of his works, afc the preBunt djiy, h most serious 
task. The cause of this diffuseaess is evidently the haste 
he was in to make the most of a life he knew to be very 
precarions, and expected to be short. He waa always an 
invalid, and wrote aa one anxious, before he pussed away, 
to give to maukind the fruits of his reading, exi>eriment8, 
observations, and reflections. He ^\TOte for the sake of 
instructing; not to perplex or diuzle, as was then so much 
the fasluon. TliLs style of writing he condenins with the 
greatest severity. 

" If judicious men, skilled in chemical affairs, sliould 
once agree to write clearly and jJainly of them, and 
thereby keep men from being stunned, as it were, or im- 
posed upon by dark or empty words, it is to be hoped 
that these men, finding that they can no longer nrriie 
impyrtineutly and absurdly without being laughed, at for 
BO doing, will be rpduccci ('ither to write nothing, or bookf) 
tliat may tiiach us something, and not rob men, as formerly, 
of invaluable time ; and so, ceasing to trouhle the world 
witti riddles or impertinences, we shall cither by their 
books receive an advantage, or by their silcneo escape an 
inconvenience." Again, elsewhere, he observes, ijarcaatically, 
" As for the mj-stical writers scrupling to communicate their 
knowledge, they mighty less to their own dispara^cmeui and 
to the trouhle of their readers, have concealed it by Mrritiug 
no books than by writing bod ones." ' 

Tliese admonitions, from the greatest chemist of his age 
to his brother chemists, were highly requisite then, alLhough 
now-a-days the error is, perhaps^ on the other side. In tlw 
eflbi'te made to be inteUigiblo^ Uiora is a risk of scientific 
» Vol U., p. 201. a ibid.^ p. 521. 



writing becoming aoperficirU, — the present mode of reading 
■wliile we run or ride being decidedly opposed to earnest study. 

Then is another admonition about chemistry, which 
is fttill worthy of serious consideration. " It is not so sxire 
as both chynusta and Aristotelians ai-e wont to think it, 
that eveiy Befmingtjj singular and distinct substancti that 
is separated from a body by the help of fire, was pre-ex- 
isting in it as a principle or element of it." ' It was then 
the fashion to find the so-called elements, salt, sulphur, and 
mercury, in all bodies. "We have passed that stage, but it 
is still doubtlul wliether, in the chemical analysis of organic 
matter, the chemists do not make what they find. 

Certain it is, and most reniarltable, that Boyle, notwith- 
standing his vision of the wondem that his Art of Chemistry 
might effect, was utterly opposed to any possible appUca- 
iion of its potent machinery to tho solution of tlie great 
mysteries of medicine. The reason he thus ^ves: — "I con- 
sider the body of a living man, not as a rude heap of Hmba 
and liquors " — not a retort full of chemical mixtures, as Syl- 
vius did, — but "as an engine consisting of several parts, 
80 set togctlier that there is a strange and conspiring 
communication betwixt them, by virtue whereof a very 
weak and inconsiderable impression of adventitious matter 
upon some one part may be able to work on some otlier 
distant part, or, perhajs, on tlie whole engine, a change far 
exceeding what tlte same adventitious body could do upon 
ft body not 80 contrived."' He gives, as illustration, tho 
powerful effects caused by the pressure of a finger on the 
tri^er of a gun; for, as successive clianges in the rela- 
tion of the parts follow this slight disturbance, and result 
in a dangerous explosion, so, in the animal economy, 
where part is knit to part by a tissue of sympatliy, a 
gentle impression on one part may give rise to a whole 
tnun of actions in the body, resulting in the most violent 
> Op. eh., T«L I., p. 493. > Opt dt., ToL U., p. US. 


[Chip. IS. 

perturbation of Ha organs ajid functions, Tliis makes 
cliciuistiy iaapjilicable. A chemical remedy can act ooly 
QpoQ the subatances presented to it; ib cannot touch the 
springs of life aad tune the discordiuit notes. 

What, then, did Boyle look forward to for improving 
medicine I We shall first see bow he tried to cull tlie 
pliysicians off the wrong aceut, and then Iiow he l&X them on 
to where lie believed they would find the direction for piip- 
euiiig to a succesafid issue the true problem of liOio to ott7«, 

*' I cannot forbear to wjah that divers learned physicians 
■were more concerned than they seem to be, to advance the 
cunitivc part of tlieii- profession, without which, three, at 
least, of four others may prove, indeed, delightful and bene- 
fidal to the physician, but will be of very Uttle use to the 
patient whose relief is yet the principal end of physic ; 
whereunto the physiolo^cal, [Hithotogical, and semciotie^ 

porta of that art ought to be referred 1 had much 

rather that tlie physician of any friend of mine should 
keep his patient by powerful medicines from dying, thau 
tell me pimctually when he shall die, or show mo in the 
ojiened carcnsa why it may be 8upi>08ed he livod no 
longer." ' In another phice, he quotes Celsus with great 
approval, to the effect "that it matters not what causeth 
thu diseiise, hut what removes it" Iti short, Boylo saw 
that the great errur to wliich the scientific and learned phy- 
sicians of idl times wore liable, was, to take grcixter pleasure 
in osoertaining tlio cerUiinties of diseases, their gcjieeis, pro- 
pagation, mutual uffmitieiif, natural ierniination, and morbid 
alterations of the \>ody, than in attftmjtting to obtain the 
greatest posaiblo comniand over tlie umxit^ttntiea on wliich 
the restoration of the sick and tlje relief of suffering de- 
pend. It is more to the tiutc of the man of science to 
Iw A pohtical economist tlinn a pi-acfcical politician. Heuoe 
it is oue of the general iu)|>edimenLi to the progress of 

k VoLIL. p. lU. 

i.u. 15i»^l«fiO.] ON THE VIRTUES OP SIMPLS3. 


medicine, that the curative branch rather repels than at- 
tracts minds of a. highly scientific tendency, of wbo»o 
active cooperation it stands in need, to register its £aict» 
and ascertain its laws. 

A s[)ecial hindrance to the advancement of medicine, is 
tlie system of prescribing many ingi-e<lients in one receipt. 
On this bead, Boyle anticip(it«8 to a great extent what 
has since been written, and i» almost as energetic aa any of 
our more modern writera. 

"It seems a great impediment to the further discovery of 
tiie virinea of simples, to ooofound so many of them iu 
compositions; for in a mixturo of a great umuber of iu- 
gredienta, it is hard to know what is tlio operation of each 
or any of then), that I fear then; will scarce, in a long timei 
be any jinigress made In the discovery of tim virtuets of 
(dinple drugs, tiU tliey cither be oftencr employed singly, or 
l>c but few of them cmploypil in one remedy.' Again ho 
returns to the charge : — " I fear that when a multitude of 
simpltis are heaped together into one oompouud medicine, 
though there may result a new crisifi, yet it is very hard 
for the physicians to know bufoi'ehand what that will be ; 
and it may sometiinea prove rather hurtful than good, or 
at least by the coalition the virtues of the chief ingredients 
may lie ratlier imiKuredihan improved. . . . Though 
I hiul not the respect I have for Uathiolus and other famous 
do(?tnrs that devised the compositions, whereinto ingredients 
are thrown by scores if not by biwdreds, yet, however, I 
would not reject an effcctuiJ remedy, because I thought it 
proved so rather by chance, than by any skill in the con- 
tiiver ; and I think a tvise man may use a remedy tliat 
uoue but a fool would have devised." Such are Boyle'a 
opiiuons on the use of compound medicines : it was not by 
them tluit the art of healing was to be improved. Nor was 
it by reverliug to " the wisdom of the andcuts," as Sprengel 
■ Vol. U.. t>. IM. 



[Caxr. IX. 

suggests ; or hy irorsbipping the "vis medlcatrix natune," 
as our modem Qchool inculcate. His words on thi» head are 
very etriking. " Tliougli, in a right scn^o, it bo true lliab 
ttie physician is nature's inmijiter, auJ is to comply with 
her, wlio aims always at the beat ; yet if we take this in 
the sense tliose expressioos are vulg&rly used in, 1 jn&y 
elsewhere acquitint you with my excejitions at them; and in 
the uieantimo I couff-ss to you that I know uot whether 
tbcy have not done hai'm, and hindered the advancement of 
physic, &8<anating tho minds of men, and keeping iliem 
from thuse uflectual oouraea whereby they may poteally 
alt^r the cng;Inc of tlic body; and, by rectifyinj:; the motion 
and texture of its parts, both consistent and tluid^ may 
bring nature to their bent^ and accustom her to such couve- 
nient courses of the blood and other juices, (ind sudi fife 
times and way8 of cvacuatin;^ fwhat is noxious or super- 
fluous) as may prevent or cure stubboru diseaiies mora 
happily than the vulgar Methodists are wont to do."' 

Boyle does not leave ua in any doubt as to the helm bj 
which the ves.s(>l is to be steered. Fitr from denying the' 
power of natufe, he was one of the greatest iuvestigatorB 
of her Iddden forces; but, once discovered, they are to be 
used, not obeyed ; not submitted to as eternal laws to whicl 
we owe subjection, but employed under the direction of' 
reason for the benefit of the human race. And what are 
these forces which are to regenerate the art of healing, and 
restore it to its pristine dignity tui exercised by the Mes- 
senger of good- will to man 1 They nre—Sj^ecifics. 

hy the term specific, Boyle distinctly states that ho doe« 
not mean a nostrum or pnnaeea, which is to cure all diu- 
eases, or any disease whatever, infallibly, and as by magic \ 
all he means is, a remedy which most commonly relicve»tbaj 
patient, lessening the diseaise by reason of some unknown 
property or peculiar virtue. One gi-eat Klumbling-Uoek iu 
• Ofi. dL, Vol. II., ]>. \m. 

*.i., 15»6-lflM.} A SPECIFIC SW A KtJSTRUM. 


the recognition of specifics lie thus tries to remove. 
" Finding at every turn that tlie main tiling wblch does 
prevail with learned physicians to reject specifics, is, that 
they cannot clearly conceive the distinct manner of the 
speciiic's worlung, and think it utterly improbable that sudi 
s medicine, which must {mujjs throagh digestions in the body, 
•ad be whirled about by the mass of the blood to all the 
parte, should, neglecting the reet^ abow iteclf friendly to the 
bi-ain, for instance, or the kidneys, or &I1 upon this or that 
juice or tumour, rather than any other. But to this 
objection, which 1 have propoued as plaiinible as I can make 
it, I »luUl at prudent but briefly offer these two things. 

" First, I would demand of the«e objectura a clear and 
satisfactory, or, at least, an intelligible explication of tlie 
manner of working of divers other medicaments that do 
not puM) for Kpecifics. Why the glass of antimony, though 
it acquire no pungent, or so much as manifest taste, 
whereby to vilioite the palate, is l)oth vomitivo and 
caihartic ? For I confess, that to me even many of the 
vulgjir o|>erations of common drugs iseem not to have been 
hitherto intelligibly explained by phynicianH, who have yet, 
for aught I have ulisen-ed, to seek for an account of the 
manner of bow diuretics, sudorifics, isc, perform their 
operationB." Again, "The «ime objection that ia urged to 
prove that a specific cannot befriend the kidneys, for 
vxample, or tboat, rather tJian any other parla of the 
body, lies against the noTiiousness of poisons to this or that 
determinate part ; yet experience manifests that some 
jioitioiu! do respect some particular parts of the body, without 
e<tually (or at all sensibly) offending the rest ; and we see 
that cantharides, in a csertain doee, are noxious to the 
kidueys and bladder, and quicksilver to the throat and 
glandules therealK>nts, stramonium to the brain, and opium 
to the animal spirits and genus ner^'osura."' Had ttie 

■ Yet IL. p. 1»I. 




[Cnir. IX. 

reigning teachers of medicine accepted ihese propositiona 
of Boyle, and worked them out to their natural oonse- 
quenoeB, tbey would have inevitably anliclpated a later 
system, for they would have gone on experimenting 
with BLtbstances which had a spcciftc relation to the parts 
of ihe body affwted with disease, and they would have 
been forced to give the medicines in small quantity, to pra* 
vent the aggravation which would othei-wise have been ex- 
cited Indeed, this idea is clearly discemihte in the systetn 
of epecifios recommended by £oyle. Here is the earliest 
vindicaUon of the use of minute doseu, and the true ex- 
planation of the principle of their efficacy : — ■ 

" To show you that a distempered body ia an engine 
disposed to receive alterations upon such impres&ions as 
will make none on a sound body, let me put you in mind 
that thoHO subtle streams that wander through the air 
before considerable changes of weather disclose themselves^ 
ore wont to be painfully felt by many sickly persons, and 
more constantly by men that have bad great bruises or 
wounds, in the parts tliat have been so hurt ; though neilher 
are healthy men at all incommoded thereby, nor do those 
themselves that have been hurt feel anytluug in their 
sound porta, whose tone or tcx.tura has not been altered or 
enfeebled by outward violence." ' 

Here we have distinct expression of the doctrine of morbid 
sensitiveness to the action of specific influences — a plain 
and simple corroboration of the belief that a dose which 
produces no effect upon a person in health, may act cner> 
getically upon tlie frame of what Boyle calls " a diyteiuiHsred 

He repeats elsewhere the answer to the objection against 
the efficacy of small iloses in the following words: — "Whereas 
it is objected that so small a quantity of the matter of a 
specific, as is able to retain \tt> nature when It arrives at 

•.D. IC0S-18SO.1 

DUS8 09 A Brscma 


tbe port it ehoulil work on. inu»t have little or no powt^r 
left to relieve it ; this difficulty will not staggor tiiose who 
know bow unsafe it is to measure the power that imtitral 
agents may have to work upon such an engine as the 
human body, by tlielr bulk rather than by their subtilty 
and activity." The force or curative power of a apecific la 
to be measured by its adaptation to the disease, and the 
degree of intensified eenaitiveneBa which the organ affected 
with tlie disease for which it is a specific, has reached. 

•Such ai-e some of the arguments he advances in fovour 
of Uie credibility of specifics ; but Boyle was far too much 
of the inductive philosopher to claim a verdict for his client 
on merely Rpcculati\'o grounds. He not only gives his 
reanons for believing tliat there ia nothing in tbe nature of 
things to warrant the suuimury rejection of spectOcs, but 
he puts forward what he considers valid proofii for believing 
in the reality and cfliatcy of tbia class of medicinal agents. 
Among Uiese proofs is, " Tbe concurrent suffrage of niany 
eminent phywcians, including Galen ; and this testimony 
from physicians in favour of specifics is of more weight from 
their unwillingness to admit cui-es they cannot explain." 
He then gives various examples of the evidence of medical 
auUioritics on this pointy and quotes from the travels of 
Dr. 1^80^ in South America, who gives some remarkable 
instances of the action of specifics in arresting tlie poisons 
of timt region. 

To quote the words of that writer, " I saw divers, as it 
were in an iuatant redeemed from death, who had been 
poisoned by the eating of venomous muabrooms and other 
unwhole-some things, only by drinking a recent infuHion 
of the root of Jaborand, whilst myself and othei's of 
Qnlen's disciples blnahed to see the ineffectual cndeavonrs 
of all our alexipharmacy, treacles, and other antidotes. So 
that I afterwards suffered myself to be joined in consulta- 
Uou with these barbarous coUeagtiea, not so much to be 

R 2 



[Chaf. IX. 

ftrbitcni of the condition of our men by Ihoir pulse, aa to 
gain their assistance and counHcl in the above-mentioned 
way, viz : — the prescribing of proper medicines." ' Thai is, 
this learned physiciim aiwisted al cousultations, not so 
much to afford the advantage of hia scientific knowledge 
of dia^osis to thcf^e barbarians, aa to receive their aid in 
applying the specific remedies. Surely a more honourable 
course than the " odi prvfanum 'vulyui," too often practu 
nctw-a-days. Boyle observes, upon thisi instance : — *' I 
aider thai some pnisoD8 that prr>duce sncli drcadiul symptoms 
in the body, are frequently cured by their approprie 
antidotes, which must therefore have a aanative power, 
great enough to Burmount the efficacy of the venonioua 
matter." ' And he pushes the axgunient to the effect that 
there iH no esBential difference between a disease caused by 
a poison, and one naturally incident ; and if a persoi 
poisoned can be cured by an antidote direct and specific^' 
wliy should not a person ill of a natural nilment be so 
likewise ! In corroboration, he qnotes Dr. Willis, on« of 
the most celebrated phyHiciaiia of his day in England, wh< 
calls the Jesuit's powder, i. e. Peruvian Bark, the nobl( 
medicino wc know, and adds: — "Although I will not] 
dispute whether it be so certain and gafe a specific forj 
agues, as it is believed by divers eminent doctors, yet X] 
think it can scarce be denied to be a specific medicine ta] 
stop the Bts of agues, since it does that more eSectuollyd 
than phj-sicians were wont to do;" — an affirmative, certi- 
fied by the cxpei-ience of the two centuries that have 
elapsed since it waa written. Tliat we should use one spe-'l 
cifio at a time; is laid down by Boyle as an obvious, eveaJ 
aoU-evidcnt maxim. For if we use more than one, it 
be imiKssible to arrive at a certain knowledge of the power^ 
of anj* one. " By heaping up or blending simples into one 
compounded remedy, I see not how, in many ages, men wilL] 
> On dt., Vol. n., p. 155. » Vol. v., |>. 80. 

A.i>. 159S-1050.] ONE MBDICINB AT A TIME. 245 

be able to discover their qualities of good and bad, tbat 
ore comprised under the name of the rruitei'id medica ; 
whereas, when a pby^cian often employs a simple, and 
observeH the effects of it, the relief or prejudice of tiie 
patient may very probably, if not wtli medical certainty, 
be ascribed to tlie good or bad quaUtiee of that particuLir 
remedy." ' 

But it may be objected that a disease, being a complicated 
action, may require a variety of remedies to antagonizu 
its total opernttoD on the system. Tu this objection Boylo 
replies, that many s^Triptoms arise irom a single cause, and 
that if we cnn find out a B[>ecific antidote for the cause, on 
tliat beizig destroyed, tlie morbid phenoineua will decline of 
themselves. '* Diseases are not always so differing in their 
nature and efisence as they are coumionly tliou^bt ; but the 
sauie morbific matter for essence may produce very different 
symptoms, which may be taken for aevernl diseases, accord- 
ing^ to the condition of the parts tliat it rtaiden in, or 
works upon, in all or moat of which it may be subdued 
by the same remedies, which may destroy ita texture, giv- 
ing it a more innocent one "* 

When we remember that this great philosopher lived 
when the virtues of Bark were still arih judicv, and before 
the discovery of Vacanation, we are lost in admiration of 
his wonderfiil penetration. And yet^ in all that Boyle wrote 
upon the subject of medicine, be avowedly only amplified, 
expounded, and illustrated by new facts maxima and prin- 
dples laiil down by his great preoejitor Lord Bacon. These 
two earliest iiuitructors in the right metliod to be pursued 
for the liberation of the Art of Healing from tlie yoke of 
prejudice and blind authority, and for promoting ita growth 
to the full stature of its normal development, entirely 
a^l^reed both as to what must be given up and what must 
be worked out. PhysicianA are deaircd to give up tlie 
t Op. dt.. Vol v., p. LIB. ' Of. at., VoL 1., p.. 81. 

14(1 BOBBRT BOTLE. [Cuap. IX. 

blending of many inediuines iu one pn<scription ; they are 
dedred to give up searoUmg for inKiginary causes of dis- 
eftae — such as acidity of the blood — and treating these 
DUpposititioua cauueH with equally suppofutJiiouH antidotes, 
ail^r tb€ fasliiou of the chemists oiid the schoul of Sylvius ; 
they are desired to give up a blind and inJKtuaied respect 
for Qaleu, siidi as waa professed by the College of France 
and the iasLiunable Guy Pntin. The^* must neither be 
diecaples of Galen, bleeding beoiuse he bled, and giving 
purgatives because he saya the humors must be cleanaed ; 
nor must tlmy be discipleti of Nature, as KipjMXxates was, 
merely imitating tlie natural crisee and evaciiations of the 
morbific actions in tlio body. Tliey must do sometlung 
qoite different : they mu«t search out HubstauoeG which 
exercise a directly curative power — a power of neutralizing 
the causes of diaeafio without producing any disturbing 
effect on the body. Haviitg found these medicines, which 
arc known by the name of Specifies, they must give one, 
and one only, at a time, and cnreftUly observe its action ; 
they must, moreover, give it in u small dose, fur itd action 
must be preteruatucally energetic uiwn a part pretcruntu- 
rally sonsitive. 

Such is the Baconian s}*stein of Medicine as set forth by 



Pornutlon of Andemifn of Sdenoe^BonlU— UediaU MMbuilnt — IntrodnoHon 
ttt QtwhcM Bttric— Ibi cTcM upon the (leaenl Morttlity— Writbgs tg^iat H 
— CrDntwair* but Hlneni— RioluH Tollxit— ^jdralnm — Ilia Hirtli-plu* — Ills 
Uilitarj and MeJi<nl Cui<cr— HU Writini;*— His nhtim bo Hippwixta— Ilia 
ImitaUnn ol Nktor*— Tmtmwlol I'lpnrinjr— KhvumAUmi and Bloml •letting! — 
Va inun UIbpotw 8j»cill*»— SelwUnti of & RBrnwIy— Haald of BomiKipaUiy 
— Uiv xbtingv rnjnri f 111011^— Th« Bn^luJi llippncrato. 

It would soem natural to paaa at once from Boyle's 
eloqneot and ingenious defence of Specifics, to aa account 
of the introduction of the use of Cinchona Bark in the cure 
of ague ; and of the priociples and opinions in regard to the 
practice of liiu profesitiou, which cliaracterized Sydenham, the 
gre&t English physician of bis period. But the histm'y of 
every branch of humimity, besides advancing in one direction 
from its origin to its end, throws out latei-al ofi&hoots, of too 
great imjiortance to be ueglecUid. The cffslioot of the era 
' Prom Utc toytj of Uw bait ptttxei Id bift wdtIu. 



[Cup. X. 

wbich occupies our fttteotion at present, is known bjr the 
name of tnBthcmHiicail or mechanical medicine. 

After Hie libmntion of ilio European intellect by tliO 
reli^ous oontroversies, great discoveries, and daring thinkera 
(such afl Bacon and Descartes) of the sixteeuUi oenturyi 
there was a aiuiultauL-ouH (^fTort la voi-ious oouDtries to 
form a new order of aMOciatiou for the cultivation of phy- 
sical science. It is very interesting to observe how lead- 
ing mindti tend to anticii>ate events, and construct pUuis 
wbich, impracticahle fur the moment, realiw themselves 
ia the fulfihnont of time, and justify the wisdom of their 
authors, although their temporary fiiilure brought down 
the ridicule of more short-sighted contemporaries. Thus, 
in Italy, in 1603, there was founded the first Academy of 
Sdenoe, called Acaulcjuia di Lincei. Among Ihe many 
celebrated men who belonged to this academy was Galileo, 
whoHe fiimous work, *' II Sag^tore," it ha/l the honour of 
publishiug. But this firet attempt was premature ; it rou wl 
the jealousy of Rome, and the atsukuiy had to be dissolved. 
In the year 1 (j57, another Institution uf a similar chai-acter 
arose at Florence. It toolc the name of the AcoadonUa 
dfil Cimento, or Academy of £sperhncnts. The mem- 
ber* of tliia were the disciples of Galileo, and men of great 
renown, of whom Borelli was ono of the chief. Some 
years previously, in 1G22, Leopold's Academy of Natural 
Sdences had been established at Vienna. In IGCD, our 
own Royal Society was founded, under the presidenci' of 
Sir C. Wren, assisted by Robert Boyle, with the {patron- 
age of the restored House of Stuart, In England, as in 
Italy, there had been a germination suppressed by the 
cinl war, and it was not till ]>cacc was confirmed that 
science was honoured and pi-oclaimed. In 1066, the 
French Royal Academy of Sciences wa^ established at 
P&ria, by tlio minister Colbert ;' an Institution which ha«, 
perhaps, done more than any of its sisters to accomjilish its 

I PopaUr Baejclopaitlia, Art. AcwUiar, Sprenfel, Boj]t, ftc, !«. 

i.t>. ie24-ies«o 



design. Thus, wltlitn nine years, we have four similar In- 
stitutions fur the advuuccmcitt of scicncu, [t|>riagiiig up, for 
the &rtA time, and with resulting success, iu Italy, France, 
and England. Such a coninton result betokens the some 
causes, namely, increased huiuan iiiquisitivtness, and general 
freedom of iuquiiy on all subjecie, niatei'ial aa well aa 

No qncstion wan more suited to engage the attention of 
an "Academy of Exj>erimeuts " whose greatest uruaments 
were physicians, than the application of the nowly-dis- 
cuvered laws of mechanical philosophy to the motions of 
the animid frauie. What are the Unibs but solid rods, to 
which contractile ropes are fastened at various points, for 
the pur[)08e of moving them in certain directions ? Here 
ia a problem of levers, weights, and pulleys ; and there is 
no reason why the fonoulftj of on inanimate madiine 
should not apply to a living fabric. And wlrnt is the heart 
but a pump, continuidly rifcciviug and discharging a supply 
of fluid, provided with valves just such as a human con- 
trivance for the same object would have ? 

fiorelli * was not satisfied with giving the most perfect 
matLematical demonstration of the action of the muscles 
upon the bones : he pushed Ids inquuies into the causes of 
the swelling of the body, of the muscles, and the con- 
tion of their length. This he attributed to an in- 
ction of nen'e force from the brain, conducted by the 
nerves, which he represented as tubes. This theory ho 
applied to tlie origin of fever. Rejecting the chemical hypo- 
thesis, he pointed to ttie fact, that a fit of rage will excite 
a -^-iotent action of the heart, and hapten tho circulation 
of the blood, so as to produce a febrile paroxysm, adding 
that there ia no need to assume any derangement in the 
IponstitutioQ of the Uuod to account for the symptoms. 
'From this he deduced the important inference, that, as fever 
did not depend upon anything deleterious in tlic blood, no 

■ BoralU, De Mou Aniamtimn. Ii«Kpolj, liM. 



[Cmap. XJ 

good could come of evaouations, either by the bowels or 
skin, and that fevers ooiild be cured directly by the uae ot\ 
Cinchona bark, strengtbeoing the tone of tho solid parts. 
One of the most reaowned tuen of this 60I100I was SauctoHus, 
who vfaa bom in 1561, and died in 1636.' He was the 
first to discover tbe inHensible perspiration, and to investi- 
gate with scientific accuracy the loss sustaiueJ by the body 
through the skin. The attention eicited to this orgiin, as 
one of the great cmimctori(.'s, nnturally led to the employ- 
ment of Eudorifics more extensively than at any former 

Another great man of that Hme was Lorenz Bellini* 
fboni, IfitS ; died, 1704). He wns a pupil of Borelli'a, 
aod attempted to e:Eplaia the plieuonieua of fever by a 
reference to the laws of hydraulics. He showed how a 
change in the rate of delivery would derange the c^illary 
circulation, and oeensiou those perturbations of tbe system 
which tbe cliemiat attributed to fermentation. 

The mechanical philosophers deserve a very different tri- 
bute from tJiat due to the chemists. Medical chemistry of 
those days consisted of loose experimentation, and, if [>o»- 
sibje, looser rca-souiiig. Acids in tlie general were talked 
of, and assumed as well as couiiter-agenta wliich they called 
.ilkalies. These were ordered about, in and out of tho body, 
in the m^wt arbitrary fashion. But these great Italians, 
Borelli, Soiictorius, Lorenz Bellirii, and others, not only were 
men of gresit talent, bub pursued their investigation inbo 
the mechonica of the aninml sti-ucture by the most rigidly 
scientific methods ; and tlno rosultfl they obtained remain 
good to the present day. And although it was the fiishion 
at a later period for medical pretenders to employ the 
hj John 

Irving. I>ofi<.1oD, 1713. 

" I moat, in Kluirt,«>nfrai UuU tliMO 
Apbnrinu ol Sanrtoriiu, with tlicM 
of BippoenUdi, mra writ'tiigi of gntttr 
merit Uun aojr other in Um wbol* ;trt 
of Phpie ; uid avtii if ■• CDupftre tbe 

tnerib nf the two tog«tIier, tlie jm- 
fimiee will, pcrlmjM, )« r«*ilily pran 
to SKnctoriva."" BoerhiMvc'i locrtuK^ 
Vol. m..!*. Sfifl. 

' LwvBi Bellini, OpnaetilL L«^., 

4.h I<IS4-16fti).) 



JAr;gon of mathemuticti as a cloak fur tltelr ignorance, and 
thor« were some who expected extravagant rennlte firom the 
traiisftjreDCtt of nmtbematical reasoiilng to the practical 
art of medicine ;* yet, oa the whole, the lahours of this school 
werft highly beneficial, and acted like a balance-wheel uj>on 
the irregidar and violent mcveintjuts of the age ; and 
although they cannot he said to have direcUy favoured tlie 
reception of the first great specific medicine, yet un* 
doubtedly they prepared the way for a more impartial 
consideration of its merits, than it would have received 
either at the hands of the Galenists or of the Chemists. 
Nor must we forget that Itoberfc Boyle, the great advo- 
cate for specifics, would have naturally aIli»Ml himself to 
Tueu like £orelli, had it not hfippened that the rank of 
the Englishman precluded him from entering the medical 
profession. Had he done so, be would have united in 
liis person, not only two orders of social rank, but two 
rival schools of medicine. As it was, it pUnwed Pro^ndenoo 
to confound the wise by allowing the weak and foolish to 
be the channel of one of the greatest blessings confcm-d 
upon humaiiit}'. To speak of the introduction of Cin- 
chona in such hijfh terms may appear extravagant. We 
are now more familiar with it^ abut^c tlian its ueej and we 
do not stand in ttuch apprehension of fever and ague asour 
forefathera did. But let us look at the hills of mortality 
in England, before and after bark cauic into use. 

' ViiU Daiumllici. De Vau M&lh«- The dm of naloml pliilucMFphj i* <wn- 

BAtnin, %ro. LanAtin, I7(>7. Kat 
thai h« wnniitUd tkc uTornfenvd to 
in thii Uxt, but bo ntntM it u Umb 
curtint. Hla little wotk b (n tbe 
fDrm of a ilui1rijrn«i ui'] wiilbin villi 
■Docb ipiiit. Altkoiieb a oatnr*] gilu- 
loMpber huDROIf, lie mkkea ooa of hit 
gpetken mj, " What new prM«|tta 
hkrt the tutlunktiu M)de4 to ih« 
lift ^ Klut noip mwdy tataitttti t 
what iiiit>roroiDent In th« omn of the 
RickT" To which liaiBii>trei)l;,NMM. 

&D«d alnuMt «xctiMiT«ly tu an&tinin; 
and phyriolojtT', Mid hu a» more to do 
whli tlio pnctloe of mnlldnG Hum lu- 
tiwamtict hna vitli nrli^an, Aot htn 
we WMj nmuk, that tbe nm of ua- 
deintw Mmi» w l<e Uniiud to advane- 
itxg pomlive tcievct* — annlony, -chn- 
oiiatij, Ac- ; auil tluit their bttctniila to 
pfOmoto th« art nf moilirinc have gene* 
nllj (HOTcd mtJicr injnriooB Uiaa ad- 
raatax«oni to ita duTuhpfBcnt. 

rCHAr. X. 

In seven years beforo tlie use of bark, tliat is, &t>m tbo 
year 1629 to the year 163G, there died — 

Of moulw . ■ . SIO, or t in 3741 of all «lio ilSod. 
Of onnminption . . 15,S13, Or I in 8^ «f aU w1i« died. 
Ot agwt .... 10,4M,orlin 4| c< «I1 wlio 4ied. 

Tims ague woa almost as deadly as conBUinptioDj and 
carried off nearly a Fourth of the whole [lOpulatioD of 
England who died during ihese seven ytai-s in wbioli bark 
waa not used. The next seven yeai-s embrace from 1 653 
to 1 660, when bark was coinitig into use,* and the sub- 
joined table shows the difference : — 

There (li«i) of meaaiek 
Then died ot wummpttoa 
Tliere died at agM« . . 

9W, or 1 in U». 
S3,707, orlinSfr 
l&,t()lt, OT 1 in 6|. 

We observa the mortality of ague drops frLim 1 in 4 J 
to 1 iu G^. Let us paas over eighty yeant, during which 
time hark bad been in general uso, and take the seven 
years fi'om 1734 to 17*2. The result is as follows: — 

ThoTO died of mmlw. , 

Tlicrij diet! of coniumption 
Thort; ditxl of ogiie . 

1,937, «r I fnllS. 
i5,aii0, or lie 3^ 
31, or 1 mS767. 

It is riglit to observe, that these tables are not niade up 
to prove this fact, or any fact in partictdar. They wei« 
compiled for general purposes by Dr. Short, and published >n 
1750 ; and I have extrac'ted these three diseases to show 

' The follDwinK )blrartiMiiiiinnt up- 
f0Lnd in tiir LnuiJnn Tintu ot timt 
lieriwl, cntJtJii], " MerfuriusFoliLirits, 
ontiiiniKine tlie unm of I'orripi Intelli- 
gmot witli tbe Affaln now on Kuat, ia 
Thraa Nstioni. for tha InfornutLion of 
llw P<M|>1a. Prom Tburtdji/, Dvcemhor 
S, toTliorBiisy, Dspewtier IB, 1053:" — 
''TliePevor iJark, !vimiiini)tf onllH Uie 
Jnmit'a Povdcr, «hicli U ao Iiiiuoiu fur 
llitt cure of all nuinnor f>f Agnei^ 
bmu^litorfr bjr JamteTbonifuon, M«r- 
cluint, of Antwerp, ia U le lud riihtt 
ftt hit own lodtpflfi M Ika Bluk SpTMd 

R-ij(le, in the Hid LUJIc;, over agui 
lihick ntid VVbttii (?{iiirl, or &t Mr. Join 
CiD'ik'M, DuoLbgIIct, at the S)ii|>, in SUl 
Panl'n Cliarcli;«rd, villi Dir«<.-U<u)ii tag] 
]j»e: «liirh IlM-k nr I'owder is M 
to bo pi^Tfwtly true by Dr. Prujou ap 
other cmiiLaot Doeton And PbyricU 
nhu bavD nuidt wpcriflcec of iL" Thic^ 
ourioiia eflvm^uciueul provw thftt, la 
I0&?, tib« liivk niu K3irce, to tbat wa 
coidd tint export itn uw to be MiooBi>J 
in<w in Kii|(liui<l u tu aerioiulj adiMliI 
tho luorUvlitjp of igut for » oouidcr* 
ahla time kfterwondB. 


liovr little consiitnptton hnd Tniied in tlif^ Imvoc it Iiad 
committed, while measles varied considemblyj and ague hod 
almofit disnppcared. Ttierc m&y l>e other tcosodh for tills, 
but the use of 1>ark is the most obvious, and uone other 
has been suggested.' 

Peruviiui Bark, as tlie name implies, is obtained from a 
tree indigenous in Peru. AJthougb it is certain that tlie 
use of it in Europe was derived from the cure of tiie ague 
in the person of the Counlefis of Cinchona, the Vice- 
regent of Peru ; yet, according to Humboldt, the natives 
of the district have great dread of ita effects, believing it 
produces mortification. However this may b^ it was 
from the aborigines that the ^-ice- regal court acquired their 
knowledge of its powers over ague. Tiiia cure was 
efiPected in 1638. In . the following year, 1639, it was 
first used in Spain, whither it was brought by the Jesuits. 
It was much oppowed b}* the rejithire of the metlical pro- 
fesMOn, and would probably have been put down as 
quackery, had it not been for Pope Innooeat X., wlio 
ordered a trial to be made of it« power in ague. This 
trial was satis&ctory, and it was freely used in the Roman 
States. In 1653 a book was written against it by Cliif- 
tdius. " On the appearance of tlua publication," says Sir 
G. Baker, who has given the fullest historical accoxmt of 
the mattar in tlie EiigH^h languagit*,' " the author received 
tlie highest compliments from his brethren, as if he had 
rdieved the torMd of a monster or a pestilence." And 
popular prejudico for a llmo ran bo high against it, that its 
us« was confined to the Papal States. The date of its 
introduction into England, is 165S.* That it was not 
countenanced then, or till long afterwards, by *' the faculty," 

* Kew ObaervfttioBi on Civj, Tdwd, 
tad CountfT BIIU of |[ort4Ut}'. B; 
Dr. T. Short, 1750. — l>r._ Short vn- 
dkotlj enboiainfdUuK n)niiriin hiiiwclf, 
for \» abwrvea apon ttiia Ublv, in reiie- 
rcDM to the dimiiiiiibiMl tuaitelily from 
Hipie, " 'Hia to<ut bondkiAl remcdlc* 

or flpecificB in wme duauMH w«n iho 
•Uworetjr of duun, aol |ihilw»pli; ; a* 
Uw favfc for iirt«juilt*nlii."— p. S7. 
' SiiU. Bnker.Modualtncla. Loii- 

Jou, lais. 

* UortoB, Opera «iwi». Ltifpd., 



ICBai-. X. 

is pretty certain ; it was used by tbe boltl, aud we may 
presume the young and pualiing, bub looked cm with doubt 
and dislike by tbe ulder, ntore cautious heads of tbe pro* 
fessioD. In tbe year 1G5S, the death of a oeituin Alder- 
mnn Underwund, ' who had talccn the h&rk, mnde a 
great sttr in Londun. As if an alilnnnaii liad nevei' died of 
ague before ! — wbereati, according to tbe tables of mortality 
already referred to, there probably died of ague that year, 
over England, about ISOQ persons; including, doubtless, 
the normal proportion of aJdermen. Tbat tbe death of this 
alderman, and that of a certain Captain Potter, should be 
recorded bo eniphaticsJIy a» tbe con8C([uenc« of ague with 
b(irk, may be tiikeu as a ]>OHitivB pr<juf tliat the greatest man 
of his age did not titles bark, attbough ill of a tertian ague. 
J)r. Bates, physician to Oliver Croi^well, describes his fatal 
illness us "slow fever, that at length degeneraU;d into a 
bastard tertian ague." On examination uf bis body after 
death, tbe same authority tells us that the source of tbe 
distemper was the spleen, which " though sound to the eyes," 
was "filled with matter like to the lees of oil.'" Wbcthpr 
Cromwell's life could have been saved by tbe timely 
administration of Jesuit's jwwder, must remain among 
tbe (|ue«tiunB which can nevui' be Ruswcred. 

" Tb« most important man cannot stay. Did the world's 
history depend on an hour, that hour is not given. Whence 
it ooDiCB that these ivould itave hc&na are mostly a vanity ; 
and the world's histoty could never in lliu least be what it 
wotdd, or might, or should, by any manner of potentaality^ 
be, but simply and altogether what it is."* So writes Car- 
lylo of Mirabeau — and the paiisage is apjilicable to Crom- 
welL Had bark been projjerly adniinisteruJ to him, " Uia' 
life might have been prolonged, and he might have mado 
a will, and — but why purnuo u wim speculation I 

I RTiUdihuit, TheUfeof RTtkntiam, 
l>/ Dr. LuIhuh, [irefticil t>i \he tnnn 
luion of U> iiAtkA \tt Ur. (irocnbitl. 

' Rlmicbna Moimtm Nnpennuit is 
Anelu, bjr Dr. Oootk* Bata^ p. 93S. 
' CVIjild'a Krcucb Beimltitioii. 

i,D. l«il~l«8».] CROMWELL'S LAST ILLTiB^. 


There can be no doubt that this Dr. Bateti, who wns one 
of those who received Cromwell's succesnor, Chariot II., aud 
is described by an eye-witnwa of the scene, as " the Chief 
Physician, renowned in the skill of Physic and of Latinc/" 
would have felt himself jjoUuted hy Um presence of a 
certain Iticbard Talbot, whu did more than any one man 
to introduce the use of bark into Europe. 

Talbot's history is curious. Hu soems to have begun 
life as an ajiprentioe to an apotbtKary at Cambridge. In 
1663, he was a scholar of St. John's College, Cjimbridge, 
but whether he took u d<;^ree or not, does not appear. 
Frum Cambridge he went to the ooast of Estiex, where he 
acqiured a great reputation by the cure of ague. He then 
cfune tu London, where he seems to have had a large 
practice^ hut to have been looked upon as a sort of quack — 
at least, lus contemporary medical writers have not a good 
word to bestow on him. Lister calls him "a nusend>1e 
quack ;" Gideou Hiirvuy, " a debauched apothecary's ap- 
prentice."' Sydenhxun hints lus dislike of him. How far 
this antipathy was owing to profesidonal jealousy, ia an 
undecided question. That be did efiecb curui^ is certain ; 
that he did so in an unprofesuonal manner, equally certain. 
So we Diay^ without a breach of charity, suppose that 
he was heartily bated by the professiou, — really, for his 
greater succtsss ; avowedly, for his quackery. 

His success seems incontestable. Madame de Sevign^ 
gives the following account of his adventures in Paris In 

■ Hotna Compoattl, hj Thorn. Skin. 
ncr. M.D., p. 7a. 

* The DiiMtn a/ JMndon. Qidttm 
Uamj it fond of wnag itrong Ion. 
gvbge, SpcakiDg ot K Fnuch MttiMO, 
of rsiiioini til Loodon in hi* Jtaj, fce 
nj3 : — '* Hoventr, b« laUi the repif 
lUiiMt of » nuge«u hen, which uj 
Frauh Uoqnex, luHng only ktcM * 
barlier lea n ttrdnt aidntLa, and eon- 
lug iiil« Enshiul mitii « pol af 

turiimtino, k Iknoet, and » tioek at 
iinpnilcBoe, tJioll batct iuub of, vU. 
Uio ropu(«tion of a fawoiu mirguoa 
latel; <atat out of Pmine. Ily Uie fir«t 
ngnditnt )t« Is to rare' 7011 of Uiu 
ektiudt piur; bjr tho mwcuI ot Ibo 
(ever; utA by Um tliiii) IngnHimt ha 
Biokos jou b«Iie*e he U m grcut » V^'J- 
noun w h« ia B *iir|;eoti, wliuncM he ia 
oul; > HUBem of tlin« iofiedieiits." 
— Uaau ai*<lim Chtrur^tu. I6V8. 



rOBAT. X. 

1680. "Tlie English Plij-sician lias promised the King 
(Louis XIV.) in so positive a mnnnor, even on the forfeiture 
of his life, to cure liia Hi-jhiiess (the Daujjtiin) both of his 
vomiting iinj his fevers, that if he shoulJ foil, I believe, on 
my conscience, they would throw him out of the window ; 
tmd ou tho other hand, shmild his pralictions prove as 
true in thU cose as tliey tuive done hi mod otfters that lie 
hat had the fnamagement of, I shall be for having a 
temple erected to him, as to a second vEscnlapiiis, It is a 
pity tlint Molitire is dead; lie wouEd make aii excellent 
scene of Dagnin " (first physician to the King), "who is put 
at his wits' end at not being possesHed of the panacea, and 
UiO rest of tlie tribe, who ouitrot tell what to inaJce of 
the experiments, the secrets iind the almost divine prognos- 
tications of tliis little foreigner. The King will have him 
make up his iiiedidnes in bis presence, and trusts the 
management of the Prince wholly in his hands. The 
Daupbiuess is alrciidy much better, and yesterday the 
Count dc Grnmmont saluted Doguin with the following 
stanza : — 

" Tnitbot »i vBui(|notir dc tr£|>aB, 
Doguin De iui rinsU: piw, 
Lr Dauphist ait roDvaleMwate. 
Quoehacaa pbanU, Ifci-."' 

lUbot cured the Dauphin, and received 2000 louis d'or for 
the secret, besides an annual pension of 2000 fii^acs. 
Having become rich, Tall)ot hocanie respectable ; he was 
knighted, and, as Sir Richard, received the honours of n 
splendid fiineral, and a luunument at Cambridge. 

Tho^ can be no question that Talbot had. a strong 
tinge of. the qiiackish element. Still, we must do. bim 
thv justice of admitting, that he was not a fiilse pretender 
to knowledge, like most qoacks : his offence was against 
the minor morals of his profeasion. He evidently attempted 

> Lettras de U. ScTlgnC. L«u«r «lKt«d Ko*. 8, leSO. 

A.». I62I-US9.] 



to decoy the profession from the right scent, and to make 
people tliink that he had discovered Bpedfice of hiB own, 
when he was only usiog preparations of the bark. The 
style in which his book U written is enough to condemn 
hiin. " First administer," he says, " a oonvenient dose of 
a specified emcto*cathartic powder (which wkh coitimuuicated 
to me by the name of F^ifugum. Reverii). It is com- 
posed of three Herculean medicines, each of thera requiring 
twelve Beveral labours in their preparations : to whicli is 
added a fourth, which is not unfitly called Atbletica ; be-, like a powerful champion, it dissipates and expeli all 
Nature's eueniieii, Lc, kc, &o." * 

This is the jargon of quacks in all times. And not less 
distinctive ia the following wartuug against all shops but 
his own : — " Let me advise the world to beware of all 
palliative cures, and especially of that known by the name 
of Jeauit's i»owder, as it is given by unskilful liaudH ; for 
I have seen the most dangerous effects follow the giving of 
tliat medicine ttncomcted and wnj>rejxiretf." — And who 
can correct and prepare it, except me, Richard Talbot I And 
so he played his part. 

It is refreshing to pass from the career of Sir Richard 
Talbot to that of Sydenham. Thomas Sydenham was bom 
At Winford-Eftglp, his ancestral property, in tJhe county of 
Dorset, in the year 1624. He was of what is called a 
good family. At the age of eighteen years he went to 
Oxford, where his elder brother William was a gentleman 
commoner. When the civil war broke out, it is most 
probable that he served in the army, on the side of the 
Parliament ; — it is certain, that his two brothers did, the 
one as a Colonel and the other as a Major. In Novem- 
ber, 1644, Sir Lewis Dives was beaten by Major Fnmds 

> A BjUioul Aceout at llie C«ue> Spacifie iMiciiiM pnwribvd lor tli« 
Bod Cnn of Acvsi, vftfa tbalr BigDM, Con of aH aorta of A<ml Bj Bickud 
DiagDovtic ud FngMwtic ; aha, Mna Tklbot, Fjmtutro. Loodon, lt;;S. 



{Cbap. Z. 

deiuio tbua tbe 

form ; that at tbe be 



tbo diacaae 1 could not sufidue tbe milder (much leas the 
stronger) sort at all ; that I left no stone Qutui-ned to do 
80 ; tbat I repeated veuesections ; that I tried them not 
outy from tbo arm but from the neck and foot ; and thafc 
I did tbe same with blistccB, cuppings, clysters, and 
diaphoretics, of all kinds, under all forms, and Tritb all the 
parts where Ibey could be applied. At length, I deter- 
mined, after having bled from the arm, bhstered on the 
nape of the neck, and thrown up, during the first days of 
tbe dleeuiie, two or three clysters of sugar and milk, to do 
notliing whatever bcyoud forbidding the patient meat and 
fermented liquors, McanwhUey I ^vatched what vtiethad 
Nature might ttcix, with Uus ■kdention of aiiLduirig tlie 
9}finiitom« by treading in her footsteps. Now, whilst I 
80 watched the disease, it departed — slowly and safely — 
atiU it departed From thunoe, therefore, I considered 
ttiat this method should bo applied to all such cases as I 
might thenceforward have to treat ; a ikct of no amaU 
magoitiide, if we considered either the gr&%^ty of the 
symptoms, or the uuifomx survey of the treatment. 

"I often think tbat wo forget the good rule, /caf t?ui Unle; 
that wo move more quickly than we ought to do ; and that 
more could be left to Nature than we are at present in 
the habit of leaving her. To imagine that she always 
wants tbe aid of art, is an error — and an unlearned error, 
too."* Surely those ai-e the words of a disciple of Hippo- 
crates 1 

Speaking of epidemic couglis, he Bays : — " I consider 
that all forms of malignity that occur in epidemic diseases 
(be its speciiic nature what it may) consist and terminate 
in tbe excessive heat and fipirituousuess of tbe overstrained 
humours of the human blood, whicli are more or less averse 
to nature ; since it is only humours of this sort that are 
> Vol. I., pp. 213, S13. 

i.D. l«Si-lM9.] 



oompotent to produce tbe sadden cbanges of those discaaes 
which are called malignant." ..." With these prcmifles 
it would seem to follow that the StkI thing to bo doiio la 
to procure ilie elimination of tliese ]>article8 by sweatings, 
by which means tho dittcaso would be exterminated afc 
onoc.'" In this particuhir instance he proposes another 
plan, bat it is as on exception, — the evacuation of " the 
overstrained humours of the blood " being still the rule 
with bini, as witli Hippocrates. 

Here is his theory of tite nattirc of Plcnrisy, and the 
ti:«atment oorre«pojidiiiff therewith : — 

"After attentively considering tbe various phenomeDaof 
this diaeasc, I think that it is a fever originating in a proper 
and jieciiliar inflammation of the blood — an inflammation 
by means of wbich nature deposits the peccant matter in 
the ptenne. In ray treatment I have the following aim in 
view — to repress tlie intiammation of the blood, atid to 
divert those inflamed particlw, which have made on onset 
upon the lining membranefl of the riha (and which have 
lit up so much mischief), into their proper outlota. For 
thi» reason, my sheet-anchor is venesection. As soon as I 
am sent for, I bleed from the arm to ten ounces or 
more."' .... "Now, tdthough I like, in iha treatment 
of diseaaefl, to leave myself free to take away more or 
less in tlie way of blood- letting, according U> tbe circum- 
stances of the ease, I hare nevertheless rarely obser\ed 
tliat A confirmed pleurisy, in an adult subject, has been 
cured with the loss of much less than forty ounces of 

Hie old sanguinary plan I But ft is adopted with an 
expression of regret — under protest, as it were ; for be a^lds, 
" I have often tiiod to think out some plan of cure for 
pleurisy witlioat audi an ospcnse of blood. ... I 

> Vol I., p. as. 

* lUiL, p. S47. 

■ thii.t p. «9. 



- [Chai-. X. 

have, however, fiulcd in finding any treatment like ihe 
iiforesaid." * 

lie advances a step farther in Bheumatism. In the year 
1676, he pulilifiUcd the foUowing statement of liifl opinions 
about the nature and treatmeat of acute and chronic 
rheumatism : — 

" Both the sorts of rheumatism arise from inflammation. 
No one doubts the inflammatory nature of pleurisy, and 
the Llood of rlieumatism is as Hte the blood of pleurisy, 
OS one egg is like another. Heiwe, iM cure ia io be 
eourfkt in blood-letting." ... "As soon aa I am sent 
for, I draw blof>d from the arm of the edde affected to 
ten ounoes." . . . "The following day, I order the &ame 
amount of blood to be drawn ; and a day or two after, 
according to the strength of the patient, I bleed again. 
Three or four days after this, I bleed for the fourth time; 
and this fourth bleediug is generally the lost."' . . . 
*' Afl^r the bleedings, to the number aforesaid, the ptuna 
will bo much lessened ; they will not^ however, wholly go 
off; they will do tliis when the strength that ?ias heen 
lost <d<y)ig tvitk the loss of blootl, slmll be made good 
again." ' Three years after tliis was publislicd, Sydenham 
wrote a letter to Dr. Brady, giving an account of the 
change that had cOme over his views in regard -to the 
neoes&ity of blood-letting in rheumatism. The passoge is 
full of interest. " Bespecting the treatment of rheum&> 
tism, concerning which you put some queKtinas, I, like 
yourself, have lamented that it cannot be cured without 
great and rci)cated losstw of blood. This weakens the 
patient at the Ume ; and, if behave been previously weak, 
makes him more liable to other diseases for some yean. 
Then the matter that created the rheumatism falls upon the 
lungs, in case the patient take cold, or irom aay other 

1 V«L L, p. 25&. - D-id., p. S«l. * lUd., p. £&7. 



eliglit cause. By this, the latent diflposition exhibits 
itself in net and dt^d. For these reasons, I determined to 
try ■whether aay other method besides that of repeated 
bleedings would core the disease. Befiecting upon this, and 
arguing that the disease arose from inflammation, a fact, 
of which one proof out of many is the pleuritic character 
of the blood, I judged it likely that diet, simple, cool, and 
nutritious, might do the work of repeated bleedings, aod 
save the discomforte ai'ising therefrom. Hence, T gave tny 
patients whey instead of bleeding them.'" Three years 
before Sydenham had published that, " because the blood 
of rheumatism was like the blood of pleurisy, therefore 
rlieumatlsm was to be cured by blood-letting." Now, 
more mature reflection and extended observation lead him 
to try to cure rheumatism without blood-letting. If be 
auoeeeded in doing so, surely we expect him to cany out 
the analogy in favour of titsating pleurisy, too, in the 
same simple way. This letter is dated March 10th, 1G79. 
He was then in his fifty-sixth year, within ten years of his 
death, and within a much shorter period of the decay of 
his powers. — " Vita brevis, ars longa." It is this brevity 
of any individual life tliat makes art so long in conung to 
perfection. This open-minded and practical physician — • 
this man highly endowed by nature, and cultivated in the 
best school of philosophy and experience — tho friend of 
Boylo and of Loeke^ dared not take another step in tlie 
direction of simplicity. He has even to ajwlogize for 
recommending so unimposing a remedy as whey in rheu- 
matism. After describing how entirely it satisfied him 
in the cure of a certain Mr. Mattbews, whom he ti-eated 
for acute rheumatism with nothing but whey and bread, 
for eighteen days, he thus expostulates with hia critics : — 
"Should anyone despise this method for its simplicity, 
I would let liim know thai weak minds mdy ncorn 

) VgL D.. UUir U> fir. Biwlr. 



CCaw. X. 

things /or heing dmr and plain ; besides whidi, I am 
fuUy prepared to servo my kind at the price of a libtla 
discredit. I say thia, because if U were not for the pr^ 
judioe$ of the vulgar, tJiere are other diseaeea v^lch thirn 
irealment would suit." ' Pleurisy perhaps 1 " The usual 
pomp of medicine, exhibited over dying patients, is liko 
the garlands of a beast at the sacrifice." 

In spcaJcing of the treatment proper for epidemic oonghs, 
after condeuming the practice of t3ios© " who would force a 
sweat, and so think to terminate the causo of Uie di»eaae," 
Sydenham nmkes the following observatioaa : — " Kever- 
tbelesa, it must be owned tliat 8po7itaneou6 sweats oft«a 
did good — more, indeed, tlian anything else. Tltesif 
however, are very diferent things from forced one^." * 
What is the differencQ between spontaneous and enfofoed 
perspiration ? The former is or may be a eyniptom that 
a certain diseased action has terminated ; that the good 
forces have vanquished the bad, this victory being demon- 
strated by what ia called a critical discharge. The re- 
covcry and the fiernpiration wcro simultaneous ; but tho 
sweat ■was the consequence, not the cause of the recovery. 
If that wero the case, then, indeed, to induce sweating with 
the purpose of cure, would bs as sensible as to light bon-. 
ftres and ring bclla to secure, not to annotince, a victory. 

This little sentence, which dro|)9 |jarentlietically, bIiow^ 
that Sydenham was queationiug the whole theory of the 
evacuant or Hippocratic system of medicine. Thcso c%*bcu- 
ations, although they attended tho recoveiy, he hod souu to 
be unsafe and not conducive to cure. 

That disease must be got rid of in some way or other, 
and that the most obvious way, and the oldest — ^the evaca- 
ation of the miachief-making humours— was attended with 
great danger and difficulty, — to these conclusions Sydenham 
had arrived. Here follows the next step. Speaking of 

» Vol. n., ^ M. « VeL L, p. 228. 

A.i>. iau-i88d.] 



intermUteut fevers, he eays, " We must do one of two 
things; we must, by careful and anxious observation of th« 
processee by which NtUure relieves herself of this disease^ 
draw mdications as to the manner by whicL the incipient 
ffnnpntation may bo promoted, and the patient rcittored to 
health ; or else, uhs must discover a specific. By the 
hitter method we attack the malady directly." ' Hera 
ifl the alternative — either, with Hippocnitee, to observe and 
follow Nature, imitate her jnethoda of core, assist her to 
oi^en gate!), and build bridges for the enemy to retreat with 
03 little loss to the country it lias ravaged as may be ; or, 
to maxoh agaiustt the foe, and destroy it with a direct 
specific ! Discover specifics t How ? Bacon well observes 
Umt such disooYcrica aro made, " not in yeani, but in agos." 

Sydenham, has won immortal renown by his bold and 
intelligent use of one specific, discovered by accident from 
the tradition of savage**, and iiitroducwl by Jewuit priests: 
how much honour would bo duo to a man who ahould not 
only discover spectfica, but discover and disclose a method 
of their discovery t By Sydenham, at least, sucli a man 
would hAve been held in lilghest honour ; for he observes, 
" I have ever held tliat any acoession whatever to the art 
of healing; even if it went no fiirther than the cutting of 
corns, or the curing of toothaches, was of fer higher value 
than all the knowledge of fiuB points, and all the pomp of 
subtle speculations, — matters which are as useful to phy- 
sicians in driving away disease, as music is to masons in 
hiying hrickA." 

There is a society called by the name of Sydenham : lei 
us hope it apprcciatea and imitates his independence and 
candour, and welcomes every improvement in the healing 
artv come &om what quarter it may. As this old parlia- 
mentary soldier accepted a gift even from the hands of the 
Jeiiuits, let us hope that those who reign in its oounob 
> T>l. I., p.^1. 



(Cuip. X. 

may never, hy any exMbition of bigotry or intolerance, 
expose tliemselves to the bitter tamit of building up sepul- 
chres to the memory of the propliets long dead, while they 
cast stonen ab ibcir living descendants. 

In the following passage we have a broad intimation of 
■wliat medicine stands in need of to improve its usefulness. 
It bears a striking resemblance to the words of I^rd 
Bacon on the same subject. " Just as Hippocrates blamed 
those who, in their exceeding curiosity and officiousness, 
busied themselves more in speculations on the humaa 
&ame than in practical observations upon the lutentionii 
of Nature, so maj a prudent physician of the present time 
blame those who believe that medicine is to be promoted 
by the new chemical inventions of our day, more than by 
any oilier proeeaa whatsoever. To hesitate in our acknow- 
ledgments to chemistry for more than one valuable medi- 
cine, and for more tlian one method of satUfy-ing the in- 
dicatious of treatment would be ungrateful." . . . "The art 
is a useful one, hut Tiwst -ueeful wlixn covjined to tJie phar- 
Tnacopaiia. Blame, or if not blame, error lies at the doors 
of those who have so tortured and overheated their brains 
BH to believe, that the chief wejikuess of medicine is its 
want of great and officacious remedies, which nothing but 
chemical preparation will supply. Viewing the matter 
closely, we shall find it otherwise. Tfte chief we<il:nc«e of 
taa-dicmi w, no( our ignorance as to the vxujs and means 
hy vihich certain vmliaitwns may he saiMJied, hut owr 
ignorance of tlus particular indicatlonB tliat thus want 
BatUftfiTig. How I can, moAe a patient vomit, and how 
I OMt purge and sweat him, are matters which a drug- 
gist'i sJiopboy can tcU vis qf-ftaiid." ..." IF/ienj Aowetwr, 
/ must use one aoH of Tfiedicine in preference to another, 
requires an informant of a different ttTwZ — a man who 
has no littU practice in the arena of hu profeesum." ' 
< Vol n., ^ 17a. 

».!>. 1824-1639.] THB SBLBCTION OP A EBMKDY. 


Sydenham leaves his meaning a Httle obscore in tbe 
phrase, " when I mual use one sort of medxwne in prefer- 
ence to another ; " but it is very probable that if he did 
not mean to limit its application to specifics, yet tJiese 
meciiciuea were pointedly alluded to in tbe paiwage. 

In reference to tbe meauiug be applied to the word Spe- 
cific, there is an interesting sentence in his observations npon 
Ihe alleged specific action of mercury in the cure of lues. 
He inaiutaiuii that iu thui mercury is specific ouly by pro- 
ducing salivation, and adds these significant words : *' An 
indirect (mediate) specific it may be, hut only in a lonae 
sense of the tenu ; just aa I have hinted elsewhere, that 
a lancet Is a specific to a pleurisy. The bleeding cures the 
one disease, the ptyatism tbe otlier/' The knife, according 
to Paracelsus, was the specific for the stone, blood-letting 
for mania. Sydenham had advanced from Paracelsus to 
Bacon and Boyle. Ue no longer used tlie term specific to 
signify a medidne which cured a disease with more or less 
of certainty, but wished the name to be restricted to a 
medicine which cured a disease directly, without the intcr- 
ventioD of any evacuant or reviUsive process. Specific 
medicine is, in his eyes, something wholly different &om 
either Uippocratic or chemical medicine. 

la the following passage, Sydenham expres»jes the hope, 
not only of finding accidental specific's, but of inaugm*ating 
a specific method of Ireatineiit. " Befui'e I come to a close 
of this diBcussion, 1 must notice that whatever has been 
Raid concerning the duration of autuinnal intermittects, 
and whatever has been said concerning the time required 
for the despumation of tbe blood, apply only to the re- 
corded operatione of nature, under the in/tv/ence, aiid 
with Ote awpport of the commoTv^ace and usual tnedi- 
cinea " (what we should now call the allopatiiic). " By no 
means do I wish to express mj-self as if wise and learned 
physicians were to despair, as if they were bo tliink out 



[Ciur. X. 

no better modes of treatment, and aa if ihoy were to 
throw away the hope of discovering uobhu- ami more 
potent medicines for accelerating the care of diseaae. So 
&r am I from this, that I do not dcBpaii' of finding out, 
even inyseli^ eome such medicine aod some such metfiodus ' 
mitUnM." * This metliod of cure — the expresMon is im- 
portant — is by specifics. Of tliese, the only one Sydenham 
knew waa the Peruvian bark, and this one he employed 
with greater skill and succees th«a any of his contempo- 
raries, with the exception, alwayu^ of the quaokish Dr. 

The reason of Ha superior bucccss is given in the follow- 
ing passage : — " It seemB to me better to imbue tlie blood 
vritb the aforesajd drug (Peioiviau baik) mudei^ately, gradu- 
ally, and at long intervals before the fits, than to attempt, 
by a single blow, to cut short the paroxysm." To find 
out spe<a£cs, and to give them " moderately, gradually, 
and at long intervals t "—Purely we arc entitled to chum 
the English Hippocrates as llie herald of the now Bystem of 
medicine which ia now developing itself, two hundred yeara 
after this was written. Nay, he even seems to have antici- 
pated the objection most commonly made to the homaxtpAliuc 
method; for lie obsorves: '* Aa to tlie man who aocuses toy 
remedies of being simple and iuartiUcial, I may accuse lus 
manners and honesty in disliking that otbora should bo so^ 
when, for bis own part, he woultl Ijo glad tlint Iiiiiiacif, Iiis 
wife, or his childreu, might in case of sickness be cured 
by even tho most contcmptiblo moans. Such a tiiflcr do. 
ceives liimscUl 

" EquIlAiu in arun^^lae longo." 

The pomp and dignity of tha medical art is less seen in 
neat and elegant formula, than hi the cure of diseases."' 

There Ls one passage, and but one, where Sydenham 
stumbles over the homtpopathic formula in an inverted 
' yaL I„ p^ 88, « Vol. a, p. 181. 



furm, "Oertaia females^ suffering from the small-pox^ 
are unable to take syrup of poppies without vertigo, vo- 
miting, and other affections, which 'nntumUy are the 
€^«etio7is Vial eynip of jJ0jjpi<« would (Utay." ' Had 
he met with more inatacoes of this kind, he might Iiave 
rGg:istercd thera, and let th<;m guide him in search of the 
great object of his pursuit — specific medicines, lie might, 
but attached as he was to the UippocraUc method of evacu- 
ation, and the polypliarmacy of Galen, allopathic practice 
would be the rule with him, Bpeci6e the exception. He 
was wliat we should now call a bold practitioner ; he made 
vcrj- free with the blood of his patients. He recommends 
blood-letting in hyHteria, continued fever, pleurisy, bastard 
peripneumony (suffocative catarrh), rheumatism, erysipcka, 
quinsey; "bleed &cely from tJie arm " in amall-iwx; in St.. 
Vitus' danoe^ " bleed &om the arm to eight ounces, more or 
leas, according to age ;" after passing a day, "blood must 
be drawn the acsi day, and the catharsis repeated ; and so 
bleeding and purging must oltomate until the third or 
fourth time, provided only there be sufficient time between 
the alternate evacuations to ensure tho patient against 
danger," — danger, evidently, of sinking from exhaustion. 
I In like manner he bled to this point in chorea) In opb- 
Uholmia, " bleed to ten uujices ; if the disease do not jield, 
iTepcat the venesection once or twice." In dysentery, diar- 
rhccaand grii)cs, "bleed at once." In bilious colic, " bleed 
freely. If the disease have arisen from an ovei'-free use of 
the frnita of the season, or from any other imprudence in 
food, the stomach must be washed out at once by a large 
draught of milk and beer. After this, an anod^'no must be 
given, r/i* tiext day a vein mvM he opeited." * Surely a 
most sanguinary IreAtment of a very simple disorder 1 In 
hysterical colic, "if the patient be of a sanguine tempera- 
ment, and it be the first attack, blood may be token 
> TaL n., p. 103. ' Ibid., p. S58. 



[Ciup. X. 

&oni the arm before the emetic is given." " CUitma 
hystericus is similarly treated." la fiuor aibiM, "bleed 
from the arm to eight ounces." In harmmrhoids, " bleed 
to ten ounces from the arm." Hooping cough "is emly 
Bubdued by bleeding and repeated purging, and it is a 
disease otherwise most obstinate and iDcurable." For 
bleeding from the nase, " blond frequently." In Tomiting 
and spitting of blood, " bleed from the right arm to teii 
ounces. Next morning, give the common purgative potion. 
Bleed, aA occasion requires, once, twice, or thrice, at the 
intervals of a few days." On the treatment of common 
Maniaj be sa,y» : " In young patients, bleed from the ann 
to eight or nine ounces once or twice, with three days be- 
tween each venesection. Then bleed ftyjm the jugular vein. 
Alter thi& tlie treatment will consist wholly in the follow- 
ing purge, which must be given eveiy third or fourth day 
until convalescence ; observing only, that after the patient 
lias been purged eight or ten times, the exhibition of the 
cathartic may be omitted for a week or two." 

We need go on no longer ; enough Iwa l^een quoted, evenj 
before the last rcnmrkable passage; (which, if Hellebore 
bad been stated as the purgative to he used, might have 
been extracted from the wiitings of Hippocrates ;) enough, 
and more than enough, ia met with in turning over the 
practical papers of Sydenham, to justify fully the aj^pella- 
tion of the English Hippocrates. He resembled Hippo- 
orates in his energetic use of the lancet and the purge, and 
he resembled Galen in his love of compound medicines. 
To establish tlais, we may take the following prescriptioa 
—want of space forbids other examples, wliich abound ia 
bis wiiUnga. 

'M)j( RrcwTd.' 
" VnIc of the l«ATea of comnioa njuj^ort, kaaer ctutAurjr, wliit« liorebamid, 
gcrnuutdcr, nconliuiu, cilamint, ioT«r-(«vr, mudov auifn^ 6t, John*! irvrX, 

» VoL II.. V 271. 

A.I. H2I-1CSD.] 



goWm roil, wild tiijnw, mint, ugn, mt, St. BooeJict's thktlc, pouurrayiil, 
HuUivrn wooJ, o]lnmo^DiI^ Uuaey, lily of ihm rallef, (nil frcnh g^lhcml and cut 
ujj mhuII), of aneh • huiclful. Hog** livril, lb. iv.; mutton swi, lb. ij. ; clunt, 
u, ij. Sonl: In an wthtu jar av«r tli« h<it uibiw for twi:>lfi; hriura. Tlien t>uU 
until tlio lienor in oonnmed. StnUn uid laake into & UauMnt. Aavlnt Uio 
b«Uy uhI liTxracLondrM morniog and or^ntti^ u wbII m tb» lintba attttitmd, tar 
thirtjr or fort]' A^y* until omrBleaoonce." 

Surdy this is out of Qaleu or Dioscondes I 
But where, uiilesn, indeed, it wm out of the Old Tes- 
tament Scriptures,' did lie get the fullowlng method of 
cure ? It IH entitled, " De Mctfiodo Meilcndi Morhos, per 
Accubiiwrn Juniwis," and constated in putting to bed 
with the patient ono or inoivt youths, to Atruisb vital hcuit. 
hi the case of JIi-s. Htiulston, who, '* after a chronic fever, 
was fidling into a &tal-likc dinrrhcca, 1 caused her aon, 
a plump, hot lad of tliirtecn years of age, oud her ounte'a 
son, of idx or seven years, to go to bed to lier naked, 
and to lie, the one close to her belly, the other close 
to her bock. The very same course I look with Hr. 
Little, who had a fever about seven weeks, and at that 
time, August, 1 002, was so fiir spent that liis doctors 
judged hijn a dead man. I (uld his wife that nothing 
would preserve his life but the putting a boy to bed with 
hira ; so she procured a link-boy to lie close to him all 
nighty and t)ie next iiioniing I found his fever iihnost off. 
The wry same way I cured JBishop Monk's lady," — only 
in this case, aa the patient was the wife of a bishop, the 
doctor procured, not a link-boy, but a girl, who fell ill, as 
she thought, in contiequence ; but the lady recovered " very 
speedily both her unspiritcdness and coughing." It is evi- 

> "Ko* EiB| VkM urn flU mA 
Btrickvn ia ynm; aad Oqr errwtd 
liini with clutlMi, but he got n* h«u. 
Therelun hi* wrraiiU nal nntu him, 
Ld iboK be cougbt fte my binl thu 
kin; > pmivi vitfiii, uid let htr atand 
Wore tlie kinic and let ber ehorikh 
liiiH, ami k-t lt«r lio in tlij Luwom, thai 

mj ifinl Ihtr king mity gxt IteaU 8a 
iboT wu^lit for II fair damitel thraush- 
out till iLa «insl* of iRraol, iinil found 
AbI(iL«)[. iL Sbui]aniinlt«, hihI liroufbt 
Im tn tbo king. And tho daraiwl wai 
■rTj fnir, and cjiemhed Ui« luujb ani;l 
inini«U9«il iinla him."— UL U«ok nf 
Kioffi, fb. I. 



[Ckap. X. 

dont from various expressions be, that Sydenham be- 
lieved the goud derived from the cloxe proximity of a healthy 
kuman body, by one in a state of great extiauBbioii, was due 
to soiiietliiiig more thtm the lieat imparted. The heat was 
not simple caloric, tut animal heat nrxd vitftl spirits. His 
views on this subject would have jiredisposed him, had he 
lived Inter, to investigate, and probably to accept, the doc- 
trines of animal magnetism ; so far, at least, a» these have 
reference to the cure of disease. In shortj Sydenham, this 
modem idol of medicine, waH little better tlmn half a her&- 
iic ; OS such he was regarded by the College of Phj'sicians of 
his own day, who frowned on him, and did what httle they 
could, as their wont is, to binder his By so doing, 
it is not unlikely that tbey increased bis popularity ; and 
for this, as for their many aebs of unconscious useiulness, 
they deaer^'e ilje gratitude of posterity. " The great Syden- 
ham," says Dr. Lettsom, " for all his labours only gained 
the sad and nnjtist recompense of calumny and ignominy ; 
and that from cmnlHtion of some cf his collegiate brethren 
and others, whose indignation at lengtli arose to that height 
that tbey endeavoured to banish him, as guilty uf medicinal 
heresy, out of that illustrious society," — that is, the Royal 
College of Physicians. And if tlicy had expelled hitn, would 
they not have done their duty, and no more t It is for the 
College of Physicians to protect the altars of the gods ; it 
is for those who seek tu overthrow tbo old woiiiliip and 
introduce a new — it may be a better, it may be a worse 
■^to show their ancciity by running the risk of a mild 
course of persecution. To be abused when alive, and 
worshipped when dead, is one of " the orders of merit." 
Sydenham was no exception ; and, doubtless, when moiti6ed 
at the conduct of his intolerant colleagues, ho sought the 
refresliing society of such men as Boyle atid Locket, and 
received from them the sympathy his own body denied 

M.v. Ut^\B$i.] 



After all, we fiud a oertaiu fitaess in the title Sydciilmui 
has obtained, of the Koglisb lIipfiocm.t«s. It ui tru^ 
aa the writer of tbe artiirle in Bayle's *' Biographic Uni- 
vei-selle " observes, that tbe distance between tlic great 
Hippocrates and Sydenham is immcnae. There can be no 
question of equality : Hippocrates belongs to a difFer«it 
order of mind. But if we were to imagine the spirit of 
Hippocrates entered into the body of an Eng1i»broan of tbe 
sevenleeiibb century, a genuine able-bodiod, fighting, gouty, 
pnictical medical man, living at Westminster, *' atru^^ling 
for existence" amid ungenerous rivals, in an age of revolu- 
tions of all kinds, and much rough work and auooessfiil 
quaekery, the result of this strange union might be a cha- 
racter not unlike Sydenhnm's, accurate in observation, 
daring in prncticc^ full of self-reliance, tending to bold ge- 
neralities, in -which we may see the germ of aphori«niw ; 
resjtectful of the past, but acting wtrongly in the present 
and with rare iuiiepeudence ; disposed withal to a fine 
natural piety, and a reverent acknowledgment of the di- 
vine government of the universe. 

It would be pleasant to dwell on the diaracter of 
Sydenham in this aspect, and to speculate what the man 
would linve required to raise him to the position of the 
Knglish HippocratcH, in the fulU'st Beune of the np|>cl- 
lation; of Hippocrates, develoj)iiig with the cycles of the 
tiroea, and eombioing all that is noblest in the Gi-eek with 
all thai is best in the Knglieh tyjie of the human family. 
But cut bond It will be more to the purpose to leave 
Sydenbiun aa he is, a noble Bnglitih medical man of the 
seventeenth century ; and to consider, not what he was, 
but what he did. 

nis great success was due to the way in wlilcb he 
worked the new specific : of this there can be no doubt. 
As an ordinary practitioner, he waa fond of those strong 
mcasiu'cs which arc now known to be strong Hgatuat life 

T 2 



[C«AK X. 

— not against death. His practice is not to be copied. 

but it is well worthy of our most iittentive study. It is 
full of iDstructioD, both in its good and in its bad resu] ts. 

There is a world of common sense — motherwit as it 
was then called — iu Sydealiam, and we may deiive from a 
perusal of Lis writings tnauj uaefiil hiata. He was a 
great advocate for horse-cxerdse, and be givca many 
Btriking examplea of its curative cfficat^. He goes so far as 
to Bay, that he considers it as specific in phthisis as bark iu 
quartan agnc. But the grand contribution to t^e develop- 
ment of the Art of Medicine made by the English Hippo- 
crates was this : he proved that the tnie mode of cure was 
the direct one by specifics, and that all the indirect ones by 
revulsions or anod^'ue^ were precarious, mischievous, or 
only palliative ; and thus he stands midway between Hip- 
pocrates and Hahncmiinn. Ono hand he stretches to the 
ancient Greek, and the other he holds out to the modern 
German, and so he is a link in the apostolical sucoessiou 
of the living Church of Medicine. 



rCir«F. II. 

1h.-«'ii regarded as iuhereiit in their doctrines. Tliis eeenis 
to be irn error. They appear to have been what we may 
call polftT oppositos, tlicrefore organically identical, or at 
Ifflwt, very similar. TUey stnrted from opposite points anrl 
arriveti at Jinsiinilar concluwioas ; but tliey traversed nearly- 
the (iftme space, and the apparent opposition of their ideas 
is due ratlier to the method in which they are arranged, 
than to their essential contract. They are both repr{>sejtt«<l 
as the founders of srhoolfl, although there is nothing reiiUy 
novel in the speculationa of either, and they should be 
classed rather with medical prcuchere tlian with apostles. 

To the same ordfj belon(,'s Bocrhaave, tlic most celebrated 
teacher and practitioner of his age — almost of any age ; in 
whose ante-room one might liave encountered the repre- 
nentaiives of the Emperor of China, sent from "remote 
Cathay " to consult the great oracle of his time. Letters 
directed to "Dr. Eueihaave, Europe," used to be safely 
delivered into the hands of this modern Qalen. " II fniit 
ne confoiTner k la methode do Boerhnavo dnna In m^j. 
cine," wrote the decided Frederick the Great of Prussia, to 
the Royal Academy of Berlin.' 

Each of theise three men Wiis the exponent of a great in- 
tellectual movement, and each represented a difTereat aepeot 
of the progress of medical speculation. For thought may 
be said to move in line, rather than column ; and while 
Hoffmann commantled one wing, consisting of medical me- 
chanics, Stalil was at the head of the other wing, formed 
of vitalista ; while Boerlinave occiijiied the centre, composed 
of whnt might be called Rationalistti ivnd Eclectics. 

George Ernest Stahl was bom at Anspach, in tlie year 
1 660, when Sydenham wbk beginning to come into notice as 
a great practical wnter, Iwing then ii-bout thirty -six yews of 
age. After obtaining his degree of Doctor of Medicine nt 
Jena, in 1583, nnd occupying the post of Court Physician 

1 Mn<tatn« 4t 9US1. Vol t.. P. 151. 




at Weimar for a few years, Stalil was appointed, in 1094, 
to tlie chair of medicine at Hulle. For twenty-two years 
lie taught in that university : the only other medical pro- 
fessor being IIoffmanD, who lectured on anatomy, chemistry, 
surgery, and the practice of physic; while Stahl taught 
botiuiy, physiology, mttterut viedi&i, and the institutes 
of medicine. lu attempting to form a correct estimate 
of Stahl, wc must bear in mind that he was sole col- 
league to a niueh more lirilliant man than himself. Hoff- 
uiann was one of the juost popular teacLera of the age, 
and was tlic gi'eat glory of IXallc. Stahl was sot a popu- 
lar man. Haller callji liim homo aeria tt meUi/phifatcuSf 
"ji Bour metaphysician." 

In. ^'irtue of \m metaphyaical nature, he resented the 
attempt to explain the whole nature of man on tlie prin- 
cipleft of cheuiititry and niecUanics. Admitting that it 
was the true method to interrogate nature, and not to 
attem])t to dictate, he began his interrogation in his own 
consciousness. " What am 1 7 Am I a mechanical appa- 
ratus or a chemical laboratory? Are the motions that 
perpetually take place in this my fi-arae, to bo cxidainod 
by the fermentation of acids and alkalieri, or by the size of 
the atoms of the fluids in relation to the vessels through 
wliieh they p!iss ? Will tliis ex|>hiin liow 1 turn palo when 
I hear of the death of a fiienil, or why my fiice grows 
crimson when I am insulted? Will this explain bow my 
api»etite is tlestioyed by joy or sorrow, or why a man's 
hair will turn white in the couree of an hour under in- 
tense emotion ? These undeniable facte arc not explained 
to the sliglittat extent, either by chemistrj' or mechanical 
philosophy. The eOervescence of a mixture of acids and 
alkalies is no way under the influence of their feelings. 
No intelligence communicated to tlic retort will cither 
favour or control the cloud of bubbles that rinc and burst ; 
nor will the action of a pump be affected by ila change of 
owners. We oiuat look to something beyond the mecha- 



(nux9. s\. 

niflni if we wnnt to obtain a key to the mystery of the 
human organism." 

While the ao-called mechanicail scTiool strove to arrive at 
an expiaontion of the problems of organic structui^, by a 
careful exmninatioD of all the parts, by biking tlic wutch to 
pieoee^ prooeecling from without inwunlH, Stahl folluwed tha| 
opposite methoil, and worked &oiu witlun outwards. The 
body of man wtm not to him a curious aggregation of well- 
fiUirig parts, acting aikI re-acting on one another; it was 
an orgiinic whole, spriuging out of the iiiflueuce of mind. 

By a rapid analyRiR he arrived at the conclusion, that 
what W(3 feci witliin U8 and naniR the soul, is at once thc> 
Bubject of emotion and the iTioving power. It is the suiue 
mind or soul that thinks and feels, that is aware of danger, 
and contrives a meaiiH of resistance or escape — the very 
same aoul that raises the ann to strike, or mr»ves the legs 
to run. This soul, then, ts the liviny force in the body ; 
it not only etimulateb the uiuucles to contract, but it pre- 
sides over all secretions. What makeu the tears flow in 
Borrow, but the soul ? What parches the month in fear, by 
Bealing up the sources of the water of the irioutli, but the 
soul ? The sold is everywhere present ; it does everj'tliing. 
*' TIio body, as body, has no power to move ; it must 
always be put in motion by an immaterial principle. All 
movement is immaterial, and a spiritual act (ein geistiger 

StaUl felt this, and expressed his feelings on the subject 
with the passionate earnestness of a man who utters con- 
victions derived directly from consciousnesa. To him they 
were absolute truth, truth he had won for himself. It 
was characteristic of the loan^ that, as&uming the mystic 
language of in-spiration, he should be intolerant of con- 
tradiction, and should resent as an insult, the suggestioa 
that whether bis doctrines on the subject of the soul were 
true or false, at all events they were not new ; for that 

i.n. lfl«0-]742.] ROUGHLY HASDLRD BT HALLBR 


liis aoxJ no way differed from the Arcbseus of Van Hei- 
mont, or indeed from tlie Psyche of Aristotle. Wlicn Stalil 
was so addreased, he was wont " to curse and to Bwear," 
to deny that lie owed anything to the atic)ent«, nad to 
appeal to the direct consdousness of hia hearers for the 
truth itf his speech. In all thii^ he was natunO and true 
to liimself. Wliat lie uttered aa novelty, had^ at least, the 
cimrm of freshness He reproduced the thoughts of otliers, 
but they were tlio growth of his own mind; and the liitter- 
ne«s that mtugled with theui was duo m pai-t to what be 
felt to be tlie unjust reception of these sublime truths. 

Stahl baa been severely dealt with by some of the great- 
est medical writers, es]>eciiilly by Haller ; and, tindoubt- 
edjy, he drew upon hiTnaeH" welUdeserved chastisement by 
the extravagance of his assertions, and his contcmptuoua 
treatn^ent of bis great contemporaries. " The exact form 
of Uie semicircular canabi in the car, of the mailcue, the 
incus^ the stapes, and (what a uiagniltceut discovery!) the 
round bone, woxild doubtless, if unknown, make the phy- 
sical knowledge of the human frame very defective ! But 
medicine Htjuida in need of such knowledge, just as much 
OS it does of what became of tlie snow that fell ten years 

We can understand this extravagance in a man who felt 
himself called on to protest against the exclusive promi- 
nence given by his brilliant colleague and hU illustrions 
oontemporaries, to tlie knowledge of the mechanism of Itie 
body ; and who, glorying in bis ignorance, boasted that 
" be had had no time to saunter through class-rooms and 
W'riggle tlirnugli antiquarian libraries ^ " but it was natu- 
rally irritating to those he despised. 

As A theory of vital action in health, the lij'pothesis of 
Stahl is simple, and, to a certain extent, entirely satisfac- 
tory ; indeed, it is not till we attempt to explain by it all 
' rrtwnipt Mm^ SprcD^el, Vol. V., p. 309. 


[Chat. XI. 

vital mnnifMtiitions througliout the entire range of creation, 
thai we feel the dilemnm uf the posiUon of Stalil ; lor 
eitber we must be prej^ared to show some esaential differ- 
ence in Iho liutnan vitality from tliat of the lowest foroos 
of aainml life, or else to credit even polypeH and animal- 
culi with the possession of a soul — a oonclualon &om 
which we shrink. Stahl's theory of animation has been 
largely acoepted, especiJiUy in Enghind, where some of the 
most celtibrnted writci's, such as Darwiji (the elder), hav8 
pronounced in its favour. Indeed, Darwin's opening sen- 
tence in his fMmoua "Zoouoitiia" seems to have been 
tukuu irom Stalil : — "Tiie whole of tlie matter may be sup- 
{Kised to consist of two species or subsfcaiicc-s ; one of which 
may be termed spirit, and the otlier matter. Tlie former 
of these possesses the ]K>wer to ooinmcDce or produce motion^ 
and the latter to receive or communicate it."' But even if 
we accept this theory, a.s Darwin does, aa the foundation of 
the " laws of life," yet it would be dilBeult to make any use 
of it in practice. Perfect as a physiological hj-pothesis, 
it entirely fails as n pathological one. If all \-ital healthy 
aeliun is due to the immediate activity of the iiiteiligeul 
aoul, the uatural explanation of all morbid action is, the 
efibrt of this soul to defend its against the intrusion 
of some destructive force. It is thus Ingeiiiously set forth 
by Dr. Whytt, a celebrated professor of the University of 
Edinburgh, who died in I7ti6 : — "As the Deity seems to 
have implanted in our minds a kind of sense respecting 
morals, whence we approve of some actions, and disapprovft 
of others, iilniost instantly, and without any previous rea- 
soiuag about their Ktncss or unfitness, — a faculty of sin- 
gular use, if not absolutely necessary, for securing the 
interests of virtue among such creatures as men ! — eo 
methinks the analogy will ajipear wry easy and natural, if 
we suppose our minds so fi-amed and connected witJi our 
■ Diu-wEii't Zoonoioia. ilu. Lod'Ioii. 

A.P. 14CO-1743.] 



bodi€s, as that in oonaequcnce of a stimulus affecting any 
oi-gan, or of an unensy pcrcqition in it, they sliull imme- 
diately excite sucTi mottous in tlue or that organ or part of 
the body, as may be most proper to remove the irritating 
cause, and tijis without any previous naturtit uonviction of 
Biidi motions being neceaijiry or conducive to this end. 
Hence, men do not eat, or drink, or propagate their kind, 
from deliberate views of preserving themselves or their 
Bpecies, but merely in consequence of the uneasy sensations 
of hunger, thirst, &c." .... "There seems to lie in 
man one sentient and intelligent pnnoiple which is equally 
the source of life, sense, and motion, as of reason ; and 
which, from the law of its union with Iho hody, exerts 
more or less of its power and influence, an the differeut 
circumstances of tlie several organs actuated by it may 
require." , . , "It operates by the intervention of some- 
thing in the brain and nerves." ' 

If the sou! pen-ades all parts of the body, and com- 
nnuiicalea, by direct mdiation to every cell of which it is 
built, the ijower of aKsimilating appropriate nouriKlnnent, 
and of extracting its proper secretion from the blood ; if it 
gives the power nf contraction to tho muscles, and of secre- 
tion to tlie liver ; if, moreover, it so presides over the well, 
being of its living vesture as to repel, with instinctive per- 
ception and force, every source of danger ; it is manifest 
tliat there is hardly a possibilitj* of the body receiving any 
injury except irom mechanical violence. If what is noxious 
to any tissue or oj-gan, is instajitaneously perceived to be 
so, just as the palate perceives what is bitta* or snur ; and 
if every point has the power of preventing tho entrance 
of tliis mischievous intruder ; the great mass of the dis- 
orders of the frame could never exist. Surely tho soul is 
LBupposed to be immortal, and as iminortal must be incapa- 
ble of languor or fatigue ; for languor is the beginning 
■ WkjUoB ViU] Motioiu, p. £68. 



tCitip. X3. 

of death, and, if prolonged, IjPComeB exhaustion, wbidi, un- 
restoreJ, goes on to extinction of foeultj' and gtmcture. 
ThU iTTimortal soul, then, if it be the giiardiiin of every 
part of the body, must be RUppoBotl to be a perfect guar- 
dian, always equally vigilant and eqoally powerfuL If 
this be so, how docs it happen tlrnt, if you withhold food 
from a body of men for a couple of daya, you will find Uie 
gi-eat mnjority of tliem laid up with a fever ? The exciting 
cause of tLe fever was present, as well when the men were 
fed as when tliey were fasting — wliy ditl it tnke no eflect 
upou the well-fed army, and attack ouly the famished T Cun 
this bi:: explained by the soul-theory f The soul needs 
neither niBsit nor drink ; it in immaterial, immortal. Then 
it wHa uot the soul tlrnt oj>eue<l tlie gates of the citadel 
over which it is supposed to keep watch : who or what is 
it that plays traitor on such occasions} The reply to this 
question is, that the swid dues uot o[)erate directly upou 
tlic animal frame, but^ as Whytt expresses it, " tlirough the 
intervention of something in the brain and nerves." This 
"something" is what goes by the name of "the auimal 
spirits," a term jtreserved in popular language, and still in 
constant use, as when we say we are in "tow si>irifa," or 
" out of spirits." Althougli the term Animal Spirit was 
hy no means new, yet at this |«riod an attempt was 
made to give it a moi-e rigorous signification ; and the 
writings of the 17th and tSth eentm-y abound in defini- 
tiona of what is to be understood • by the expression. 
"The animal sptnta are the quintesscnoe of the blood and 
other juices ; the vehicle of which is l^-mph and water 
e-xtremcly dessicated and moveable, and extremely attenu- 
atetl by flowing tlu-ough vessels which from large become 
gradually smaller, being rarified by heat with a subtle 
vapour." ..." The ntrvotts fluid, or animal spitits. con- 
sists of phl^fm or water, oil, aninml salt, and earth, all highly 
attenuated and subtilized, and intimately mixed and iucor- 



pomted together."' We may observe tliat the terms aiiiiual 
spirits and nervous fluid ore used ns aynonomous. " It is 
evident," says Dr. Barry,' "from the structure of the 
«erv&s, and from their being deprived of their iufluenoe 
when obetructed by a ligature or diseases, that the exercise 
of their fimctiou depeu<.hi upon the motion of a nejrvons 
fiuid or animal aptrita through them." ... " This 
nervous fluid fiecma to be formed for more exteusive uses 
than sensation and motion." 

The celebrated Dr. Mead writes ; — " Tliis fliiid, so far 
as we caTi diRcovcr by its effects, ia a thin volatile liquor, 
of great force and elasticity ; bein^, indeed, most probably, 
a qimntity of the *' mineritl elastic ■mattur," incorponited 
with fine parLs of iliQ blood, separated in the brain, and 
lodged iu the fibres of the nerves. This is the instruineut 
of muscular motion and sensation, and a great agent in sc- 
cretiona, and, indeed, id the whole business of the animal 
economy. By the universal clastic matter I understand 
the subUo and active substance diffused throughout the 
universe, which our great philoso}»her, Sir Isaac Newton, 
supposes to be tEie cause of the refraction and refltctiou of 
the rays of light, and of the %'ibrations by which li^ht 
communicates heat to bodies, and which, reailily pervading 
all bodies, produces many of their actions upon one an- 
otbcr. This is the nature of the animal spirits." ' Between 
Uie idea that the animal spirits were a cjuiiitesseiioe evapo- 
rated by the heat of the body from all its parts, and ther^ 
fore con6mng, in a spiritual or ghostly fonn, all tlic ele- 
ments which the body contained ; and this notion of the 
animal spirits being a portion of the ether of the universe, 
the contrast is great, and warns us not to confound all 
the so-called vitalists in one categorj-. 

' Dr. Mftkolni Pleiuiii)i; on lh« Tin- 
lure of the Nerraua Plaid, ]» Zt. 
* A TrMliw OB 0>{MUon, by Dr. 

11*177, p. 147. 

* A M«cb«niaO Aeoountot rouauR,' 
br Dr. Und. 


[Cn*r. XI. 

Let us now consider how this h_vi>othuai8 of fjtahls 
stands related to pathoI<^7 luid iherapeutira. One im- 
portant &ct, well-nigh foi^tten by the t^emists, was 
brought into prominence by Siahl, viz., that man was a 
gpirit, and, as auch, subject to many disorders from which 
the lower animals are free ; and that, in dealing witli man 
as a Bubject of ex[)erin)unt or iiiveetigution, we shall be ted 
into certain error if we neglect the spiritual elemeute) of Itis 
coustitution. But, this fact admitted, stUI we want to 
know how the spirit acts in deranging the body. We 6nd 
this question discustied by Stahl's disciples. Perry' t«Us tu^ 
that tlio whole tribe: of nen'ous djseasca arisca from what 
he calls distempcrature of the aniinal spirits. X^et ub ob> 
serve that most ^rriters of liis school, although they so tar 
accept Stahl's notion of the soul tm the chief source of life, 
yet, when they come to work the problems of pithology, 
trunstbrm the soul, or the immaterial and undying part of 
man, into a miiteriaJ spirit Thus Perry speaks of the animal 
spirits being material, although subtle, and being subject to 
depravation and alterations of various kinds, and of the 
great indicfliioii fur the eure of diseases in which they are 
implicaU-'d being to strongtlien them. To strengthen the 
animal spirits I Here is a new theory of treatment. It 
dlfiers from the doctrine of humours taught by Hippo* 
crates and Giden ; it differs from the docti-ine of speafica 
taught by Sydenham, and from the doctrine of the che- 
niisU. It is the beginning of a great chimge in the prac- 
tioe of the art of medicine ; for by the term " to strengthen 
tbt) animal spii-its," is really mefint to .stimulate them; to 
«xcit6 them t^ make a gi-eater effort to resist or overcome 
the evil forces in the systeiu. This doctrine is the ud- 
avowed parent of subsequent systems. If Stohl is right, 
that the spiritual priueijilu presiding over every Bpecification 
of the frame Is the soui-cc of all vital motions, and if the 

* A TmtiH OB Vmu9, by Dr. C P«ttt, VoL t., f. M. 

*.t>. 1660-1742.) 



languid performance of this all-important office gives riae 
to imperfect and disordered BCticii, ttien it follows tbai the 
great seci-et of cure will cODsist lu Biimiiktiag the ooiuial 
spirita or nervous flind — for fclie expressions are used a« 
identical- —so tlmt it rrtiiy act with uiore force, and eet right 
the disorder, wherever it is. Out of Stabl's theory, then, 
we naturally glide into tlic doctrine of regarding enfeebled 
action of the nervous system as the great source of disease, 
aud the admioistratiou of stiiuulants as the great corre- 
spending remedy. It was reser\'ed for another generation 
to work oat tlie principles enunciated by Stahl to ilicir 
natural and logical development. For himself^ he accepted 
the traditional doctrine of accumulation and stagnation of 
blood, requiring the employmeut of blood-letting and 
evacuant remedies for their removal. He set his face 
a^iust the use of Cinchona bnrk as attended with mis- 
chievous cuusc-queuces, and only acting as uu astringeut in 
suppressing but not curing ague. Although he VfOA thus 
blind to the merits of tlie great specific mrdidne of his 
day, ho was in the habit> ns well as HunTiiiann, of selling 
various secret medicines; among which, according to Spreu- 
gel, who cites his authoritios for the statement, were " so- 
called balsamic pills, made of aloes, verabrum, and bitter 
extract," wbich he professed to be good in almost all dis- 
cuses ; also a stomach powder ; and both of these were held 
ritt very general estimation. Ho had also his own peculiar 
styptic, which Goet2 suspects was nothing tut refined spirits 
of wine.' 

This fact, for as such we may accept it, gives a shock to 
the notions vf the present day. For two of the tuo&t 
celebrated physicians and teachers of their age to sell secret 
medicines, and not to lose caste by doing so, shows that 

lAMUnrundATbuen ^Virfcuog and ntli- 
l«ii Ouliniuab. Esllo, 1710. Sprcngol, 
VoL v., p, 338. 



[Catv. XL 

such a proceeJing was not regarded in the same light theu 
as it is uow. Indeed, at a coitsiderably later date, we find 
meQ of good standing publishing cases cured by remedies 
kho naim; of which tliey conoealed. For example, in the 
year 1715, Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, a member of the Royal 
College of Physicians, and Corresponding M<-mber of the 
Royal Academy of Science of Paris, dedicated to tlw King 
of Britain, of that periodj George II., a work entitled, 
'* Address to the Public, containing Narratives of Ct-rtain 
Chemical Remedies in most Diseases." This book is full of 
caaea of cures eflcctcd by his secret remedies. It is plain, 
from passages iu Sydeuhatu, that he was sorely tempted to 
do so too J and in referring to the trinmpli of hiH virtue 
over his cupidity, he gives as the reason the broad ground 
of prcfurring the advantage of mankind to Lis own private 
profit — a re.aaon which, if applied to analogous cases, would 
do away both with the law of patents and of copyrights. 
Probably the true reason why secret I'emediea arc held in 
such disrepute is, that they are for the most part pure im- 
positions ; and, having become disreputable, no man of re- 
spectable character will have aiiytliing to do with them. 
But this triumph of r*sipcc lability liiis not been attained 
till this the nineteenth century. It did not exist, or bot 
feebly, in tlie seventeenth and eighteenth, and iu forming 
a judgment upon any case, we mast take tlie conditions of* 
time and place into consi do ration, if we wish to avoid tho 
most absurd and unjust opinion in reference to its morality, 
or rather in reference to the morality of the [jereon wbo 
performs the act. 

Frederick 1 [offmann was bom at Halle, where his ances- 
tors had for two centuries practised the medical profes«u]i, 
in 1600, the same year as his great colleague and ri\-al 
Kmest Stahl. He showed at an early age a decided pre- 
dilection for mathematics, and even before he euten»l the 
University of Jena, where be took his degree of Doctor 

.v. 1060-1743.] 



of Medicine in IGSI, he had distinguished liiinself in 
mathematical studies. After liaviiig passed eight years as 
Ldnd-phtfmcua at Halberstadt, he was, in tlie year 1694, 
appointed professor at tho newly-constituted University of 
Halle, where he taught with extraordinary Ruccess fur 
forty-eight years, winning for himself immense renown, 
and exercising a powerful influence at the Court of Prussia 
in favour of hia University, of which he was regarded 
as the great glorj' and support. He died in the year 
1742, at the age of eighty-two, full of wealtbj honour, 
and respect. 

Hoffman was an essentially successful character. Unlike 
the morose and metaphysical Rtah], lie was a man of rapid 
oliaervation, ftucncy, and promptitude, rather than of depth 
and power. His portraits give the impression of a large 
florid man, of a bappy temperament, who would be a good 
orator. He is altogether cast in the mould of a popular 
preacher rather than of a ph;y"sician. He was a very 
copious writer; bis collected works form six thick folio 
volumes, and at the time of their pubticatiun were more 
popular with the non-professional public than with the 
medical. Before he settled in llnlle-, he travelled in 
various parts of Europe, and visited England, where lie 
made the acquaintance of Kobert Boyle, with whom he 
stands in a certain relationship, .so far, at least, as consista 
in having taken a deep Jiitt^reHt in all |ihysical investiga- 
tion. It was in the nature of such a man to work in the 
opposite direction from Stnlil, who wrought from within 
outwards, i. e. fi'om without inwards. Stah] began with 
the soul — whence came life, whence came living action, 
whence came living organism ; Hoffman began with tho 
organism, recognizing as true all tlmt had been set forth 
by the mechanictU philosophers, of its wonderful attributes 
as a machine. His especial attention waa directed to the 
heart, the centre of tlie great movements of the whole 


[Cur. XL 

gystetn. It is the drcolktioa of the blood whioli prevents 
its paU«faoCi43si. and Eustatus not only its ovn Titality, but 
that of the vlioTe body ; ftffordii^ to eacb part not only 
Donriafament, but viU] power to appit^irtaie tlie food borne 
to it by thiE river of life. 

To guard tbe bnmfto frame from nckness and pain, we 
amat maiDtoin tbe drcnlatioo in itfi tnie ooui^e and regu^ 
larity. On farther investigation, we find tbat tbe great 
cause of iireguUrity in tbe circulation — bcnoe the great 
eause of disorder of tbe system — ia an unnatural contrac- 
tion of the vessels thniugfa which the Uoud is transmitted. 
Tlte action of tlie heart consiitts of a ^exisa of contnction!) 
and relaxations, and similar actions are repeated in the 
arteries ; but these arteries at their extreme ends may con- 
tract too strongly or spasmodically, and firom such a spasta 
of the extremities of the blood-vessels, arises an endless 
train of evil to tbe frame. 

" Universal pathology is much more rightly and more 
aasily deduoed and explained &om faulty microcosmic 
movements in the solids, than from various aifvctions of 
tbe vitiated humours ; " ' — cramp or spasm on the one 
baud, relaxation or atony on the other. Here was another 
ayetem differing from all tlie previous ones. When spasms 
oUodc tbe organs endowed with sensibility, as tJie nerves, 
tbey give rise to pain. Spasms may be either geneml or 
particuUr. If general, they produce fever, inflammation, 
hemorrhage, cataiTh, kc If particular, headache, jaundice, 
melancholy (spasm of the dura mater). On tlie other 
band, relaxation or atony m the fcrtUe source of a legion 
of disorders ; indeed, of almost all chronic diseases. The 
immediate effect of this relaxation or atony was cou- 
gestioD. Relaxation or atony of the vessels of the liver, 
causing congestion of that organ, waa^ in hia eyes, as well 

89Udorum M FlalJorua MMhaklnA 

Lart chftpter of Mcdicin& RxliosslU 

i,». 1660-1742.] 



as those of Stalil, the origin of innumerable evils. Vena 
portae, ixna nwt/omm / Bat let it be otwerved tlijit sptisms 
pass into atony. T]i€8e opposiias, like all oppositeH^ aro 
also siruilnr. What produces a i<pasm in the fin>t instance, 
produces iU reverse or a state of atony or relnxation in 
tlic second ; so Unit tho primary and the secondai-y ('fiecta 
of all agents upon the Iiuuiau frame are necessarily oppo- 
site or contrary. Hence from Hoffmann's pathology in 
deduced the curious paradox, that not only ia tlioro not 
tlie seeming diOei'ence which ihu wordis iiug^t between 
the two maxims, contraria cotitrariia, and similia »imi- 
tibus curantur, but that these two prQ|]Ositions arc, in one 
sense, identical. The remedy which cures a state of atony 
is one which produces a. contrary eficct or a statu of spasm. 
So up goen the contraria conirarita flog. But this some 
remedy, because it produces a spasm, also, in the next 
nunove, produces an atuny ; for spaitms cause atony^ and 
tlierefore, what produces atony, cures atony. Su let the 
now famous motto, shnUUt. siinUlhus, be also displayed. 
Not that HoffmaTin himself made this inference, although 
his gt'eat rival, Boerliaave, evidently liad a percejition of 
the truth in this matter. HofTmaim's therapeutics were 
OS simple and as unsatisfactory as his pathoh)gy. 

Ho preferred the use of a few strong medicines to that 
of the many comninnly employed in his time. All medi- 
cines could be chissed in four divJMons, viz. : tuiucH, sedtt- 
tives, evacuanta, and alteratives. This classification was 
accepted by almost all writers on materia medita in the 
eighteenth ceutur}*. Except under the vaguu head of 
Alieratives, into which division n>inedier> which will not go 
into any one of the otlier three divisions are promiscuously 
drafted, there is no place in Holfmaun's sy>iteni for Spe- 
cijicn. He seems, indeed, olive to the necessity of groimd- 
ing tlicrnpeuties on experiments ; for he lays it down as a 
rule that "experimeutal pliiloHophy and experiment can 

U 3 



[Chu>. ZI 

aloae advance our knowledge of the materia medUxi;'*^ but 
80 long as all he sought in his experiineuts, whs to deter- 
mine under which of hia Ueodinga the drug under exa- 
mination was to be catalogued, it Is munifust that the know- 
ledge obtained must be liniiled by the end he had in view. 
Tbu8, when he look Cinchona under his patronage, it was 
uot for the simple reason that sjtcistied Boyle and Syden- 
Iiaro, that experience and experiment proved to their sati*- 
fiiction Uiat it cured ague. The fact of its curing ague 
was enough for tlieiu ; the moile of its ujjeratiou they, la 
virtue of their being reared in the school of Bacon, put 
aaide aa irrelevant — or at all events premature. The only 
way of giving this latter question a satisfactory answer, 
according to their great teacher, was to collect " instances " 
of well-established cures efleeted by renicdiea as dirttct and 
speciOu as ague by baik ; and then, but not till then, to 
attempt to discover some attribute possessed in common by 
all the curative agents. But this was not HofTmann's plan 
at alt. He defended Citicliotia against SUiIil, uuL because 
there was ample evidence of its curing ague, hut because 
the return of the /ever-paroxijam was owing to vxaJniess, 
or aimiy — nnd Cincktma utw u Ionic. He grounded his 
treatrueut upon an liypotheais, not upon experiment. His 
logic was simple, and is easily thrown into the form of a 
syllogism. Tonics cure atonic disorders ; ague is atonic — 
Cinchona is a tonic ; therefore Cinchona cures ague. But 
if it be because it is a tonic that Cinchona cures ague; 
then of course all tonics will cure a^ues equally well, wliidi 
they certainly do not. Therefore, as tonics will not cure 
ague, ague cannot arini; from atony of the duodenum, or 
irom atony at all. Thus all bis thenipeutics, and, indeed^ 
all hia treatment, rests ujion conjecture, and upon conjecture 
alone ; and we cannot wonder that^ pursuing such an en- 
tirely fake metliod — a method diametrically opposed to the 
' Upp., VoL 1., [t 126. 



movemerta of tlic tiew jiliilosopliy, Rhould nrrive at the 
"lame aud ImpoUrnt coiidusluii," cxprcsEcd in his famous 
maxim—" Fvffe medicoa et niedtca meiita si vU esse 
SfdvuB." " Flee doctors and drugs, if you wish to be 

TbiB radical error of founding medication, not upon ex- 
periment, but on conjecture, is the reason of the rapid 
succession of rival adiools, 

" Liko clouds Hut raJce tba mountun'a itiniiiiit, 
Or w«vea ilutt own bo carbine hun), 
How fut haa tytttm (oIlovM tf/ttm 
ProiD kiuuluDe to the ■oil1««( Imul!" 

Tills is the reflectJou that forct-s itself upon the mind at 
this period of the history of medicine. After the hrcak- 
ing up of the Galenic Empire, the number of transitory 
monarchiea is immense. Hoffmann, cue of the gi-eatest of 
his day, has now gone int«> utU?r ohiivion ; his booUs, these 
great folios, are never read, and are only referred tg by tlie 
historian out of curiosity. 

We have already seen that Hoflmnnn investigated the 
machinery of the human frame, in order to discover its 
moving principle. SUihl announced tiii* moving or anima- 
ting power to be the soul — ^uj^ — anima. This Hoffmann 
disputed. " Not the soul,'' he said, " but a material sub- 
stance of extreme subtlety, something like uether — whatever 
that is, — something of a gaseous nature, secreted iji the 
brain, and jwured into the blooil, which it vivifies. This 
something, finer than all other matter, but not exactlj' 
spirit, or soul, or mind, is the moving principle of tho 
animal organization, — also called tlie uervous fluid. It 
is upon this that the contractility of the m\iscle3 depends ; 
it is this in excess that gives rise to spasm ; and a defoctivtt 
supply of this induces atony. 

" It [H to be observed," he saySj " that the most danger- 
ous diseases do not arise from accumulation of impuro 



{Cum. XL 

humours, but from a fine, volatile, subtle, vapourous mat- 
ter, ir it were i>osstble to extinguish this b^* a powerful 
mpdicine, this would be much better than evacuiitiiig," &c' 
But this fine volatile matter was, in Hoffinaiui's view, 
different, not only in form, but in nature from ordinary 
matter. This is proved by a treatine on the power of tho 
Devil over the body.' In this he argues tliat the Devil, being 
a spirit, has power over the "aer," "ether," or "fimdma 
catkoUcinu," which extends througliout space ; and that, as 
there is a similar fluid {Jluiduv^ ttero-«/iieficum) in our 
bodies, the Devil must have power there too ; in proof of 
wliich he quotes tlie instance of Job's boils, and adds, 
*' that this was a fact, and not an allegory, the great S[>an- 
heim demonstrated." The chain of logic is hero obvious 
enough. The Devil is a v\nr\i ; as a spirit he afloutd spirits, 
of which the ether is one; a similar npirit moves our 
bodie-s ; tlicrcforo, the Devil has |>owcr there too. But 
while the Devil, m virtue of bis spiritual nature, is thus 
related to the spirits of our bodies, surely, as the spirit 
of Evil, on the other hand; a sentient spirit, a sdieming, 
wicked spirit, he is identiud witli mind or soul, or immaterial 
existenue. And as thing!) equal to the same thing are equal 
to one another, if both the human soul and Uie human 
corporeal spirit be of the Manic nature as the Lad intelli- 
genoe that plots our ruin, then the soul of man and the 
spirit of niau must l>c idcnticnl, and there is no diiference 
between the soxil of Staid and the subtle fluid of HoffmaDn. 
The fiict seems to be, that whe^never men speculate in tbis 
transcendental region, tl^ty become vague iu their ideas 
and language. Then one of the great sourcws of eri-or is a 
eonfuston of terms in regard to what is materiid and what 
ia noL By the word material is sometimes meant matter 
as we know it ; at other times, matter as opjKMfed to infi- 

Wt, p. 101 . 

* D« DI»b«4I rotenUA k Coipcn. 



nitti extcnsdon ; thus a spirit as finite must be matciial — as 
invisible and impali>able, it. must be immat«ml. lu tliis 
■way, tlie contradiction between Stahl and Hoffmann is 

Hernin-nn Boerbaave was bom in December, 1668, 
eight years afler Hoirmarin and Stahl, at a village 
near Leyden, of which his fallier was the pastor. 
It was intended tlmt he, too, should enter tha (Jhurcb ; 
and, aftiT a course of instruction at home, he went 
to Leydeu, where ho sooa distinguished himself by 
his rapid acquirement of tlie Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and 
Clialdeo languages, besidca a knowledge of ancient, modem, 
and ecclesiaelical history. lie was early remarkable for 
Ida eaae and fluency of diction : in short, he was the 
prodigy of the university of hin day. "With euch endow- 
ments, and the object of ho much notice aa he must have 
beeUf it speaka much for his integrity and resolution that 
he dedtindd the profe8»tion for which he was intended, feeU 
ing himself not disposed thereto, and recommenced his 
studies, under circumBtaucea of some diffieulty, liaving to 
maintain himself by teaching mathematics till he had ac- 
quired sufficient knowledge and reputation in this new 
career, to be appointed, in 1 70 1, Lecturer on the Tlicory 
of Medicine. In the year 1709, he obtained the cltair of 
medicine and botany; in )7lo be wan appointed Beotor 
oi the University. Physician to St. Aagustine's Hospital, 
and Frofeaaor of Clinical Medicine in the name. In 1718, 
to hli previous appointments was added the cltair of clie- 
niistry. So that he taught tbe theory uf medicine, the 
practice of medicine, botany, and chemiittry in separate 
ooarses, besides ginng clinical lectares three limes a week. 
Had he devoted his time to teochiDg alone, it would have 
required both wonderful talent and energy to diwharge so 
many offices with respectable snooeflK. So far, however, did 
lie exceed this standard, that his lectmes were held in 
tsucfa esteem of excellence, as to lie translated into most 


[C«*r. XI. 

modem langUAges — evea into Arabic; and instead of de- 
Toting his life to it, tliis was merely tlie occupation of his 
leisure, for his time se^ms to have been neaily absorbed by 
Ihe practice of liis profession, if we may judge from the fact 
of his having accumulated a fortune of two milliou florins — 
(somewhere about i?200,000 sterling — in about thirty-five 
years. The unparalleled success with which Boerliaave 
dischni^ed all his duties obtained for him a reputation 
without precedent since the time of Galen, limited only 
by the boundaries of the civilised, we might almost say the 
inhabited, world. As might have been expected, he was 
too good a card to be overlooked by the academies of 
science and royal societies of his day, and wns by their 
own request enrolled a member of all the most celebrated. 
He died in the year ITSif, in his seventieth year. In 
summing np his character, his biographer sajTi of him : — 
" Boerluukve was the most remarkable physician of his age, 
perhaps the greatest of modern times ! a man, who, when 
we contemplate his genius, his oondiliou, the singular 
variety of his talents, his uufeigned piety, his spotless 
character, and the inij^ress which he left not only on 
contemporaneous practice, but on that of succeeding gene- 
rations, stands forth as one of the brightest names on tha 
pnge of medical liistory, and may be quoted as an example 
not only t« physiciana, but to mankind at lai^." When 
ho recovered from an illness iu the year 1722, there was a 
genera] illumination in Leyden, ivnd after his death a 
monument was erected to his memory in the clnirch of St. 
Peter. " When I first applied to the study of plij-sic," 
says Cullen, " I learned ouly tlie Rystem of Buerhuave : and 
even when 1 came to ttikc a Professor's chair in this 
University (Edinburgh), I found that system hero in its 
entile and full foree : aud I believe it still subsistw iti credit 
elsewhere, and that no other system of reputation lias been 
yet oHcrcd to the world." ' 

' CuUen'i Phyriology and No«»logT, Vol. I., p. 418. 

A.b. leSD 1712.] 



lliese qiiotAtions ar« not the expressions of any untisnal 
estitiiato of Boerbaave ; they are tlie iinnniiuous judg- 
ment of the agQ in wbich he lived. Shall we call Ihem 
extravagant} In one sense tliey are ; in another sense they 
are not. The inttuoncu of Buerhiiave was immense while 
it Uated — it was world-wide ; but it was like a ripple on 
the ocean — ^it had no dt-pth. He knew everj-thtng and did 
everything better than any of Iiia contempnmriesj except 
those who made one thing, not everything, their study. He 
•was familiar with the reseftrches of the great anatomists, 
of the chemists, of the botanists, of historians, of men of 
learning] but he was not a great aimtoniist, chemist, or 
historian. As to hia practice, we cannot pronounce a very 
decided opinion, except that he was a mau of judgment 
and independence. Here his reputation made his snccess : 
a prescription of his would no doubt effect many a cnre, 
although the patient had taken tlie remedy lie prescribed 
fifty times without any benefit. His greatness depended 
upon his iuexluiustible activity. Ho hod the energy of a 
dozen ordinary men, and so he was twelve times as power- 
ful as one. He mentions quite incidentally how he was in 
the habit of frequently spending whole nights in tiotnuicat 
excursions on foot ; and we know he had no time to sleep 
in the day. He took an interest in everj-thing, was always 
on tlio alert, had a prodigious memory, and indefatigable 
industry. Oji tlnwe great homely qualities, added to a kind 
disposition and an unaffected piety, his popularity was 
founded. It was all fiiirly won and nobly worn. It is 
startling, however, to find that a man whose nair^e one 
hundred years ago was familiar to the ear as household 
words, and of whom historians predicted that he woulil 
always be regarded as one of the greatest as well as best of 
men, an example to his race, shonid be alrnady almost for- 
gntten. An example is of no use unless it is known ; 
Boerhaave is now unknown. The reason is plain ; — be 



[CnAr. XI. 

yeas nol the founder of any ?}'stein, nor did be ronko any 
discover}'. He simply used with supreme bucccss the 
tliouglits and discoveries of othcra ; as soon as be ceased 
to live, bis intlucnco began llierefore to decline ; aud before 
his generation bad pnssed away, bis star Iiad waned before 
the ^niuB of CuUen, who sucoeeded in fixing the attention 
of Europe, and whoj in bis turn, was soon to be displaced 
by others. Tlius we nre taught, for the thousandth time, 
tho lesson we never shall learn, tlmt the popular estimate rf 
contcinporari&s does not decitle the vitality of a reputatJon, 
but that lasting iame depends upon the answer to tlie 
question : Wliat would the difference be in tlie world's his- 
turj', liad such a one oever been bom ? If we apply this 
test to Bocrbaavc, wc ah.iU bo forced to confess, tliat had 
his i«trticular light been lost to tlie medical world by his 
adherence to his father's profession, it would not now be 
poBuble to recognize any diminution in the general ra- 
diance of the nge. 

Tlie works by which he is best known are, " InBtitutionea 
Ucdicw in usus annum oxercitalionis domesticos," first 
published at Leydcn in 1708, and " Aphorismi de cogno- 
Bcendis ut curandia Morbia in usum doctrinte inedicina?," 
published in 1709. It is enough to show the e&timate in 
wliirli these works were held to say, that the great HaHw 
published a commentjiry on the "Institutions" in seven 
quarto volumes, and that Van Sweten illustrated iht 
** Aplioristns " with a commentary which extended to five 
quarto volumes. Thus, on these two works of Boerhanvo 
there are oommeutaries of twelve quarto volumes, by two 
of the moat celebrated physicians of their age. 

The perusal of "The Institutions" confirms the impres- 
sion of the chanicter of Boerhanve, wtiich one derives from 
the multitudo uf Ins successful entorjirises — that he was, 
above eveiything, a ninn of raj>id activity. He skims, 
%itb the swiftness of the swallow, the surface of all the 

A.II. U60-1742.] 




8ul>jocts with whicli he deals, leAving nothing- unootiwd, 
notiiinfj unexplained, entirely Batisfving tho curiosity, with- 
out awakening any doubts. He is the Macauiay of medi- 
cine. We can perfectly understand how delightfiil H most 
have been t« listen to a teacher who explained the slruo- 
ture and uses of all parts of the human frame ; then 
described their various fuTictions ; piissetl fi*oin that to 
consider the Uws of their healthy action; and concluded by 
giving a complete arrangement of diseases, and the modes 
of tlieii- cure. AH thij* fiocrhoave does with singular 
felicity of iUustratioo, bringing ecjuidly his multifarious 
knowledge of history and his daily experience gained in 
practice, to bear on the topic on hand. 

He was an eclectic. " At present," he saya, " physic 
may be learned without adhering to any particular MCt, 
by rejecting everytlung that is ofiered without denion- 
strfttion, ami by collecting and retaining only what has 
been ofibi-ed and approved to be real truth, both by the 
ancients and modems." ' He strongly insists upon the im- 
portance of distinguishing a fact from n conjecture about 
it. "Thus, if any should sjvy that the fixed salt of 
Xacheuius is proper in the beginniug of a dropsy, his 
aaaertion will be jtwtified by experience ; but if he pro- 
ceeds to explain the tnanner in which it oporatcfi, tt is very 
possible he may be altogether deceived." ' This is a hit 
at Ho6inann and the chetnista. " What is demonstrated 
to us by our senses, cannot be disproved by any age . ,. . 
Tlie circulation of the blood will be aa true and unde- 
niable a thousand yeare lienee aa it is at the present time."' 
Jn these and many similar passages we have the impor- 
tance of &ct6 or phenomena explicitly affirmed in the true 
Baconian spirit. Tlnw, in flpeaking of the Archa;ufl of Van 
Belmont, he observes, "One might as well confes-s his 
ignorance of the cause of any action, bb nttrtbute it to 
• Vol. I., V. «. * Ibid., ^ 41. » IWi, V- 48. 



[Cfltf. XI. 

some imaginftry and unknown being, of whose existence, 
nature, actions, and miLnner of opomtioQ, we have not the 
least knowledge or assumnce."' 

It is remarkable that Boerhaave, who was so thoroughly 
alive to the necessity of a rigid scrutiny of every expla- 
nation of a phenomenon, should have been bo perfectly 
satisfied that ike cause of iinimal heat was the attrition of 
the blood in its course of circulation. He seems impatient 
of contradiction in the matter, and utterly, almost con- 
temptuously, rt>j(>cLs tho notion of I>ower and others, who 
derived the animal heat ijoiu the nitre to which it was 
exposed in the air received into the hings — a conjectuK 
much nearer the mark than that of Boerhaave, 

It is really- amiL<iitvg how he disposes of the obvious 
ohjection to his theory, that if animal heat depended upon 
the mechanical friction of the particles of the blood, we 
should have a siraiiar ctfcct in all hyjninlic works. To this 
ho replies, that blnod is of a viscid and adlicsive nature, and 
that it cannot be forced through the small vessels without 
producing great friction of its particles, and consequent 
heat. " It is, therefore, by the excess of force in the hearty 
that the animal lieat is generated."^ Yet, wlien Boerhaave 
taught this, he knew that Borelli had demonstrated that 
tho sum of ths cavities of the branches of an artery is 
always greater than that of the main trunk, so that the 
rircnlation is ea.iier than would have been the case had 
they been of the same calibre ; and moreover Boerhaave 
was perfectly aware that so far from the blood getting hot- 
ter as it recedes fronj the centre, it gets cooler, which, of 
course, it would not wore liis hypothesis correct. Tliia ia a 
good illustration of the fatal (iicility Uiat is required for a 
popular tcicher. Boerhaave undertook to explain the func- 
tions of the animal oDconomy, and here Wiis a most impor- 
tant one, which it- was his business to explain. He Mas nut 
' Vol. I., p. Jio. • Vol. II., p. 2ia. 



there to excite doubts or to prosecute inquiries ; he vrna 
tliere as a preaclier to expound doctrities. Here tiien waa 
nn explanation wUicb, on the whole, seemed the best, and 
was, tiierefore, to be accepted as the true one, Veiy rarely 
is the fartilfcy of popular exposition unitefl to an equal 
amount of that earnc8i iuquiAitiveiiess wliioh miikes the 
discoverer. The former is the ex]>re8:jioD of a satiiiiied, 
tbe latter of an unsatisfied, state of mind. Eoerbaave was 
a niiin thoroughly satisfied with himself and everything 
about liim. 

We might give innumerable illustrntions of the superficial 
character of iioerhuave's method of dealing with the prob- 
lems he had to explain, and the curious arguments he used 
to controvert his opponents. For example, he tells us that 
a oelebntted Professor of his ua^ii University explained 
catalepsy by the supposition that It was caused by " a con- 
gelation of the animal Bpirits by a volatile, alkaline salt, 
in the ftanie manner as alcohol and i$al smmotiiac do, upon 
mixture, form a solid body. " Now, one might expect 
a disciple of Bacon to have dealt in a very summary way 
with such an byjiothesis as this, by denying the existence 
of any such asserted cau?e, or the efficiency of such cause 
if actually existing. But Boerhaave meets Uie clieiuist od 
liis own ground, and replies that the juict of the brain doea 
not manifest any phlogistic quaUty, hnt ejiingnighes a 
Jlame wlien, throvm upon it!* How much he was influ- 
enced by the mechanical and cliemical schooU, is showa 
by his notinn of the mode in which the nervous fluid is 
prepared. "The matter finiu whence tbe juices or spinla 
of the brain are prepared, is tbe viscid and tenacious 
serum of the blood, which, by passing tlirough many 
legrees of atU-nuation, at length acquires the subtteiy of 
s^rit, after its particles have been tni^alded or framed 
hy paaung frequently through tbe smallest series of vessels 
• VoL U., pw. 277. 



[0«AF. XI. 

ID Uie body ; passing from Llood iiito serum, from seruDi 
into lymph, fioni lymph of the first order inLo all the 
several orders ; till at last, losing the nature of lyinptt, it 
acquires the. suhtlf. one of a spirit / "' Tliis is certiunly 
spirit very muoh above pruof. It is, after all, much the samo 
notion, only worked out with mon; detail of chemical 
technicality, as that of Hoffmann, — and, indeed, of a great 
many more — thitt the spirit of uitoi is a distillation of tlie 
body of man, and that the regions beyond our investigation 
ai-e peopled with these volatile emanations, which retaiu 
the form of the buman frame, but are -without any of its 
other sensible pro^iertics^ — tlie ghost of Patroclus, as seen 
by Aeliillt;s, six thoiisaiid years ago, at the siege of Troy, and 
the ghost of the spirit-mpper as seen at Troy in the United 
States of America, iu thti present day. Ue speaks else- 
where approvingly of a notion, " that there is int*fi-nally 
oouceaJed a spirituous or nt-rvous man, whicli governs the 
whole machine."' What is this hut the ghost ?' 

We may give another striking illustration of the danger 
of being satisfied by an ingenious puperficial explanation 
of a strange cjecurrenw?. Hu mentions a fishj resenibliug a 
ekate, which, when touched, beuumbs the hand, and ex- 
plains it by the agitation of ihe skin, which is thrown into 
tremors by the tiubeuUneous muscle. " To me," he adds, 
"the whole aflUir scenss to be no great difficulty ; when a 
saw whiuh is very tight and short is sliarj>ened by a file, 
or a glaM bull is sawed by a knife, or a sliort tense cliord 
is scraped by the bow — all these oj>eratiou» give rise to 
such an inlulcrable slineking noise as to aet the teeth on 
tdffe. By tlie same reason, when the torjiedo fisli cxcitea 
tremors in its muscles, similar tremors are excited iu the 
nerves of the person who touclies it."' What was no 

1 Vol. lit., pu. fio;. 

* Boerluutve'i "nurr^iiui man" may 
Iw aaai|«red wilb Bwon'i "body 
pueumMioO," aw p. 190. It this 

bcHly pneamftticftl were litwratfid b; 
WDj proen>, would it Dftt illraotlj act 
npon the uditouii imui or pnenim I 
* Vol. III., (IU. 1&1. 

A.B. l«W-174tl 



difficulty to Boerljaave, was oue to Qalvftni, who made a voy- 
age along the shore of the Adriatic to examiue the electric eel 
■ — the curio8ily of the Italian iliscoverer nob being satJsGod 
■with the theory of the gi-eat Duloli doctor. Galvani, the 
discoverer, died in poverty, and left, his name emiieddcd in 
science ; Boerhaave, the pcpiiliir teacher and pliyaicifin, died 
iaiDieiiKely rich, and is now nearly forgotten : each tiad his 

It is to this facility of being satisfied that we would 
ascribe Uie apjiarvnt coutradictious in his writings. We 
have already quoted a passage in wliich be ridicules bbe 
notion of an Archojus,^ — a spirit dwelling in and governing 
thti body ; aad yet we find him sjiyiiig, that " the pbywcian 
operates by bia skill, not u[K>n the disease, but upon 
life, wftich Van HelmoiU txilled the Arch(Ens."^ In 
another place, speaking of perspiration, he .says that "the 
physician who i» master of the perspiration, has the secret 
for curing all chrunical as well as acute diseases," and tliab 
" the cure of a pleurisy consists in restoring the porvious- 
ness of obstnicte-d vessels."' 

One miglit attempt tu reconcile these passages, by sup- 
pusing lie meant that the primary action of any remedy 
was upon tbo Archmuft, the vital princi]ile of the nervous man 
within tlic frame; and that this, onoe set right, acted in tlio 
most effectual way to free the body of its disorder by open- 
ing the pores, &c In this case, all medicines would act upon 
tiie nervous system. But in contradiction of this, we Rnd 
that Boerhaave was a believer in the old theorj' of coiicoo- 
tion, and was essentially opposed to thp immediate i-estora- 
tion of healthy action by the inslnj mentality of an Archams. 
He says, under the head of the Siipts of Lisc^ise, that "wo 
may foiv-wc that another disease will follow when the dis- 
order and its ajTuptoms diminish without any due concoc- 
tion or critical evacuation of the morbific matter."* Ilere 
1 Vol. VLf par. 10S7. ■ Pw. i29. > VoL TI., pv. 954. 



[Cuv. XI. 

is a manifest recoguition of tLe old doctriiie of nippocrates 
• — hi!) coction nnd his crises I 

One of Boerhaavc's proininent therapeutic mnxim^ wai^< 
contrarieji art itjnoved by contrariM, or, " contraria eon^ 
trariis curaiituT." This, liowcver, he thus explains — "Not 
by such lueaDs as are direcUy opposite or contrary to tbo 
present disease, but by such remedies as will afterwards 
manifest their effects contrary to the cause of the disease" — ■ 
tliat is, whnst; ultimate action is a radical cure. "Paracelsus 
and Vau Helmoiit. ridicule the maxim contraria contrariit 
eiirantur, and point to the fact tli»t a fH>zen man would 
be killed, not cured by exposure to the influence of the fire; 
oold, a similar, being tlie pro[)er cure. But tliey do not 
reflect that in this case, remedies which cure or relieve oold 
by renewing heat must ]>roduc:e an opposite effect to 
cooling. In the same way, when we want to cool in fever, 
we do not give cold water, but i^ucli drinks ilk will produce 
cold as their ultimate, nut their primary action." ' Here 
we have the explicit admission of the opposite effects pro- 
duced by the same curative agent, its primary action being 
one tiling, and its secondary the conlrarj-. 

This is the fifth distinct Eignification of the maxim, 
eoniraria contrariis curantur. The firet is that of Hip. 
pcjci-atoa, who said, wg must proihice an opposite condition 
of the body to thnt in which the disease has occurred. If 
a man be too fat, he is to be made leaner ; and if too lean, 
we uiuiyt &tten him. The second is tliat of Galen, vho 
Raid disease arises from excess of moisture, drjTiess, beat, 
or cold. Remedies are in tlu-ir nature, moist, drj', hot, and 
oold. Oivo, then, hoi medicines in cold diseases, moist in 
dry, and so on. The third is that of Paracelsus, whose 
arcanum was a .-ipccific, or opposite of the disease, as the 
knife of cancer. The fourth was that of the Chemists, who 
ascribed diseases to an excess of acid or alkali in the 

» Vol. n., p«. 1088. 

i.i>. I«00-17«.J 



blood, and founded tlieir cunitivu system on tJio neutruJ- 
iziiig of this excoBS by givUig aa wad to mi alkaline, 
and on alkaline to on acid. Lastly, comes tliab of Boer- 
baavi!, who t^yn, " Glvu a mediclue, wbuse ultimate aciiou 
is curative of tlie cause of the disease, whatever ita 
imtnediato actiou may be. If a hot drink produce per- 
sjjiratloa in fever, then give a liot drink, for that will 
oool the body, wliich is what we waiit to do. If tlie 
primary action of 0|iium is constipating, and of rhubarb 
laxative, and the secondary the reverse, according to the 
principle of reaction, then opium may be the remedy in 
constipation, and rhubarb in diarrhcea." Thus we perceive 
that between the siisuLim of contntri'a ccntt-ariU, Jia un- 
derstood by Boerhaave, and that of aimilia simUlbus, 
there is no aoLa^nisui. 

Eeaides advoaitiiig the system of ratirvmd medication, 
that is, of finding out on opposite to the cnuse of the 
disease, Boerbaave acknowledges the specitic method 
which " removes the cause of the disease by tlie ad- 
miniatration of such things as are known to be efEcacioua 
only fi-om experiment." Uow imperfectly he appi-euiated 
it, however, we learn from hitt obser^'ation that, as bark 
ourea u^e directly, ho opium is a Bpecific for pain. Now 
opium does uut remove the cause of paui, and therefore it 
is not a specific accoriling to his own dcBnilion of the 
term. It is impossible to study Boerhouve wiiliuut a 
ft;eUug of surprise that so able a man should be so inao- 
curate in bis obaervnliouH, iind no loose in Ids reasoning^ ; 
and that be should have aciiuired so euormuus a reputation, 
without having contributed one groat &ct, or even one 
important suggestion, to the advancement of tlie art over 
which he may be said to liave presided for so long a 


nAi.Liai. — curxEN. — johs browm. 

Holler — HU Wdniltrttit Aeciuitvinenla m a Roy— His Tnveln— Pniftwor m 
UAUinedu — Hia Laboon — Dortrinc of [muhility— New Vt&tdtiaa of Lifu 
— Cullon— UIb Binh'plaog and Earl/ EJucalion— Profoaor at Ediulfor^ 
— Sr JauiM HaduDluili'K Doocrijitivii uf EwJioliur);)! Univcreit; — Ciilten'ii 
WtidcitD — Cm and Abiiae of Theory — Ihjiiiiiliuu ol Lift! — On Peruiiati It&rk 
— Dcuio iU fipoclfio Power— Johii Urowii — Piirore Hicitcil bj RU DoctrincW — 
Brunoutfm Riots al Gttttiugen — Brawn's Curve r^Ai-MunL of EUb System — 
E-xdtAliilitjr, KxhftiiMed ftod AMomnlMcil-- tli* ThcArr n( Life— Of HeaJlb — 
Of L>Ueae«— Of Tre&toi'aiit — Eia PreaoripUoos—Uia End. 

As we approouk the latter ntiiges of our long journey, we 
encounter ccrtiiin uainea wbich suggest tlie observation 
tliat giant« are confiuod to no one period of history. An 
iinpurtiid survey of successivo g«neratioris inevitably Iwgtta 
a conviction that thei'e is uo trath in the nutiou tbat the 
race of man developes itself at the expense of the indi- 
vidual mcmljers who compose it ; for in the whole nuige 
of men of prowt^«!t ftiid renown in the domain of medidn^ 
it would be difTiciilt to select one equal in capacity and 
attiunments to Haller, emphutic^dly described by Cuvier 

X 2 



[CaAf. III. 

as " Anatomiate, butiuii»te, po^tu Allumuud, savaiit presque 
uuivensel." ' 

Albert Ualler whs "bom afc Bcme, on the ICtTi of 
ber, 1 70S, uf iiii tiucient aud respectable family. H« was'' 
clistinguished alinust from liitt iufaiicy by bin exlraonliimry 
powers of atijuiring knowledge. At the ago of four 
years, lie usud tft expound p;i8sages of Scripture to his 
father'B t>tirvaut9; at c-igbt yetu-s old, be had written 2l)UU 
notices of the lives of pci-sons he had read about ; at ten, be! 
bad made a vocabulary of the Greek, Uebrcw, aud Cluildee 
laiiyuages ; at fifteen, he had composed tragedies, comedies, 
and an epic poem of 4000 versBs, which be onoe risked his 
life to rescue &om de&ti'uctiou, when Lis bouso was ou fire, 
but which he aftcrwai'ds himself £omtnitted to the flames 
"whun his judgment was more matur«. His uieiiiory M-oa 
most retentive. On one occasion be got nervous about it, 
thinking it impaired in conaequence of a fiiU, and to test it 
went over the names of all the rivera in the world thabj 
fall into the sea. Having satisficil hiiosoLf, by examining a 
map, that he had furgotteu none, ho v/&» comforted. This 
wafl at a late ]>criod of life, when ho was engaged in 
physiological studies.' 

At the age of fifteen, he went to the TJniversity 
Tubingen; and at sevonteeu, to Leydeo, where Boerhnave' 
■waa in the full blaze of his popularity. The young Haller 
was CDtircly captivated by tliis great teacher, and aftciv 
ward^ 88 we have already had occasion to mention, he 
published, with ConinientaricM of hia own, an edition of 
Boerhaave's Lectures. At the nge of eighteen, in the 
year 1726, hu took Iuh degree; and chose for the Bub- 
ject of his thesis, tlie supposed discovery of a new salivi 
ducb, which he demonstrated to be only a blood-veaseL' 
Ue then visited the great seats of learning, and innde 


Biogni'li. CiuT«rHU«. Art. Qai- 

' Ltben vod nernii, -Vvci HaUw, von 
0, J. 0. IQmBivniiaan. Zurich, 173S. 

A.O. 1708' ISOO.] 



the flcqnnintjince of the most emment men of lii« proCfsHion 
— in London^ of Sir Haiis Sloaiie and Cheseldim ; in Paris, 
of Jussenn, Wiuslow, and Ln Dran ; while iti Basle, lie 
studied mathematicd under BeraouUi. Aflcr this cxt«ii<tive 
tour, he returned to hifl native town of Beme, wliero lio 
occupied the posts of Physician to the Uoipital, and Prin- 
cipal Librarian in the Museum of Books and Medals. A 
Btar of 8Uch magnitude as Haller, was not likely to escape 
the notice of the Elector of Hamtver, and King of Eng- 
land, George II., who had jiwt instituted tlio University 
of Oottingen, in wjiich he oflered biiu the cliair of medi- 
cine, anatomy, and V»otany. Haller accepted the post, and 
WB8 duly iriRtallfiil an one of the many distinguished 
teadier^ in thai ''fHinous university." Here he purhuej his 
career of almost superhuman activity; writing lij^^ht reviews 
inoessantly, to the total amount it is said of 1 2,000 ; 
publialiing oeca«ionally such works as the " Life of Alfred 
the Great," showing great study of a remote and difficult 
period ; so tliat any one living in the literary world 
alone, would naturally have supposed tliat thia Haller 
was nothing but a litterateur, and one unusually busy 
and productive ; whereas the fuct was, that tho^ effurta, 
vhich would have exhausted ordinary men, were to bim 
only relaxation from his real work, which consisted in 
profound and original researches in anatomy and phy- 
siology. In the latter department his discoveries were 
so important^ and his method no new, that, as Hippocrates 
is called the father of medicine, Bacon the fatlier of modem 
philosophy, BoyEc the father of chemiatrj', — bo Haller lias 
Wen, and is still, honoured with the proud apjiellation of 
the lather of pbysiologj*. 

In the words of Oondorcet,' — " Haller was awar« 
that the science of pliysiologj', long abandoned to the 
spirit of system, had become an object of distrust to 
'■ feloee •*« M. <le Halttr," CBavra ConpliUK 4* CMiiIorc«u I. I., |ik UrB. 



[Cni». XT I 

natural pliilosophera, and it was with hira a ])riDcipaI 
object to remove this prejudice, ile hoped to i-eiider 
plysiology a Bulenct; iis certain as any other physical 
science ; a science by means uf wbicli philosophers might 
ftcqnire a knowledge of the constitution of man, and physi- 
cians find a basis upon which to found their practioc. For 
tins purpose it was neoeasary to estulilish the foundation of 
physiology upon the correct anatomy of man, a^ weD as 
upon tlie comparative anatomyj which has so frwjuently re- 
vealed to us secrets resjjecting the animal economy that the 
study of man himself Imd fiiilod Ui diHCOvcr. It was necessary 
to banish fram physiology both that kind of metnph^'sicsl 
wliich in all the sciences has long concealed real tgnorancttJ 
under scientific terras, and those mathematical and chemical ' 
theones rejected by mathematicians and cliuntists, and 
always employed with the greater confidence, and adopted 
with the greater reBpeot, in proportion as teachers or their 
disdples have been ignorant of mathematics and cheniistiy. 
It was necessary to substitute, in pince of all ttieae systemat 
gMieral facta ascertained "by observation and experience, to 
have the prudence to be satiJjfied with these fact«, and to 
submit to remain ignorant of their causes, and to know 
that ii] all the Bcienccs there are limits beyond which it is 
doubtful whether the human mind can ever penetrate, and 
which it certainly can only pass by the aid of time and a 
long series of labours." 

His work on physiology is written in Latin ; it consists^ 
of eight thick quarto volumes, and the research displayed 
in it may be gathered from the list he gives at the end, 
of books used in its ooniposition. This catalogue occupiea 
one hundred pages, and at the Iwginiung he obser\'es thai 
he has omitted eouiitlewi brochures, and has only enume- 
rated as works referred to, those which he hft<l in his own 
library ! Uad his book been nothing but a record of aU 
&cU and opinions kuowu up lu his time, it would have 

i.6. 1708-1800.] 

1118 LAiiumcs. 


been a wurk of tlie greatest vahie, nnd a montiment v( 
enormous knowled<;e. But it is far more tliaii this ; be has 
contributed origiaal obsei-vations to Almost every branch of 
physiology, and established a doctrine identified with his 
name, which has Burvived his decftttfic, and cuiitiiiiies to 
exert a powerfiil influence on medical speculation — being, 
indeed, the point of departure for most of the new 
systemB of medicine. Thia doctrine is called '* Irriia^ 

After having for sixteen years discharged liis duty 
in Gottingen, in the must biilliant style, having been 
enrolled a tnember of all learned societies, and honoured 
wiUi tliu title of R-irr>n by tlio Emperr>r Francis T,, Haller 
returned, in 1753, to Berne, where the remainder of his 
life was spent in the same unremitting toiL He ia said 
to liave actually lived in hia library, and to have prefjRod 
into his sen'ice hU wife, his children, and all his friends, 
to enable biui tu accomplish the aLmost incredible tasks 
be had undertaken. He died on the 12th of December, 
1777, aged sLxty-oine yearB; 

A glimpse at the scene of Holler's labours, given by one 
of the students of his university, is not without its iute- 
wet, Tlie writer is the Rev. A. Davidson ; lib correspond- 
ent, Dr. CuUen : — 

" There are in all thirty professors, ordinary and extra- 
ordinary. Several of them are verj' famous, and reckoned 
mea of ability ; but all of them, excepting the professors 
of physic " (of whom Holler was one), " teach in German. 
The student** are aljout six burtdriHl, made up of Danps, 
Swetle«, RtiHiKiaris, antl Gennans of all tlit- [litferent sovo- 
reigutiea of the empire, but chiefly Hanoverians, Saxous, 
and Prussians. The British are exactly equal to the Aluses 
in number, but arc not reckoned their most assiduous voui- 
ries ; five are Scots, viz, Luird Sutherland ami his com- 
panion Captain Grant, Lord Fiuuistlo, Mr. Murray, nephew 



[ctixr. xn. 

to tlie Duke of Atliol, Mr. Macrae, and myself; and four 
KngUsli, all commoncra. Wo Imvc here a very magnificent 
libroi'y, greatly augmented by the boTinty of the Duke of 
Kewcastle, of Mr. Pelliatn, and of Baron Mmichftusen. the 
Prime Minister of Hanover, who is tlie MaBceuaa of the 
University" (to whom, doubtless, HalLer owed his title). 
" We were recommended to Professor Haller by Dr. Flem* 
ming, physician^ at Ijondon. Tfie professor seeTns to be a 
"very atjreeahle worthy yentleinaTi, hiU so immersed in 
study that he ha/t no time to spare for company."^ This 
loiter is dated Gntlingen, 1 9th Nov., 1752. 

At the time Haller api»eared on the stage of medicine^ 
it WAS occupied by Si)iritualistH or Animists, who believed 
with Stahl that all thu nioveuientii of tbe animal frame wore 
the direct operation of the soul or of tlie animal spirite, 
whicli were a sort of material precipitate of the iminaterial 
essence ; and by mechanical philMophers, who sought an 
explanation of all tbe functions of tlie body in the form of its 
parfcH. The chemists composed a third party, which, over- 
looking the phenomena of the solid ]>art.';, bestowed its 
whole attention on the fluids, discovered acids and alkalies, 
invented fernicutatlotia of all kiudH, and attributed the 
motions of the frame to the restless activity of their cl»ft- 
mica] elements. One voice had been rai^d in favour of 
another reading of the great riddle, and that waa by 
Qli.%son^ who was the fii-st to the term IrriUihiUty to 
describe tliat property of nitiscles in virtue of which they 
contract on the application of a stimulus. Tbe opinions of 
Glisson failed to attract the attention of his contemporaries 
and immediate succepsors, to tbe degi"co their truth and 
novelty deserved ; they have been brought to light 
by the fuller exposition of Hatler. Ah eai-ly as the year 
1739, llaller had expresaed his opinions in reference 
to tbe causes of muscular contractility, in bis Comnieutaries 

■ OuUcu'i Life, p. 593. 



on Boerhaftvc's Loclurcs ; und again, more fiiHy, in tlift first 
edition nf liis Physiology, wliich appeared in 17-47; but 
tlie fullest account vrsa given in a memoir which he com- 
municated to the Royal Society of Oiittingen in 1752, 
whcu he detailed the i-esiilt of 1 90 exijeriineiils. Tlie fol- 
lowing extract from this important document affonls nn 
example of Haller's rJear and diatinct style of thought and 
expression i-^ 

" I come now to Irritability. It ia so differing from 
sensibility, that the parts that are most irritable are not 
sensible, and the moAt sensible paj-tn are not irritable. I 
will prove Wtli tlicso propositiooH by fact^ and I will de- 
monstrate, at the same time, that irriUibility dota not 
depend upon nerves, but upon the pi-lmordial constitvtityn 
of the parts which are susoeptible of it In the first place, 
the nerves, which are themwlvea the organs of rU sensa- 
tions, are destitute of irritability. This is astonishinf;;, but 
not tlie less true. If a nerve be irritated, the muscle on 
whicli it is diatributed is immediately convulsed. I never 
saw this experiment fail ; and I have often caused the dia- 
j)hragni and the muscles of the abdomen of a rat, as well 
as the anterior and [wstorior extremities of a frog, to 
become convulsed in the same way. Similar experiment? 
are rccordod by Swammerdam ; and, on making them, I 
found, as well as M. Owler, that the imtation of a nerve 
never comniunicHted iiioticu to any but the muscle (m 
which it was distributed, and that it did not agitate thoso 
which derived their supply of nerves from other sources. 

" I i-cmarked also, constantly, that tho eonvulsion of a 
muscle followed an imtation with the sc."U|iel, but not at 
all the nse of corrosive substanoes. But when the fleshy 
Hbres of a muscle are iri'itaU^d, there is no contraction in 
tlie trunk of the nerve. I have assured myself of this 
oflon in dogs, and still more in frogs: whatever irritntion 
I gave to a muscle never conununicated its ntotion to a 



[Cmr. XU. 

nerve. T then made tUe 5(!im(> expertment as M. Zinn, of 
Berlin. I applied a inatliematiuii instrument, divided into 
tliree sDiall points, along u nerve of a living dog, in sticb a 
way that it enabled me to perceive if tliere was the small- 
est cantractioD. I then irriUited tlie nerve, but it seeined 
perfectly immovable. These experiments prove, let me 
observe in passing, that the oscillatorj- force -which lias been 
attributed to nen'es ban no existence. 

" Neither the skin, wliich is the seat of touch, nor Ihe 
nervouR membrane of the stomach and intestines, has any 
irritability ; and we must take care not ta confound witii 
this property a kind of vermicular movement due to oorro- 
aion, which oil of vitriol or spirit of nitre commimicates to 
the nerves, arteries, membrane of the bladder, and gall-- 
bladder. This corrosion hns nothing in common with life ; 
it contimu« twenty-four hours after death, which |m>ves 
that it is not the result of sensation. Irritability in not in 
proportion to the sensibility of an organ. The stomach 19 
extremely sensitive — the intestines Ithss so ; and they are not 
liable to sucli violent pains in a living man ; yet I have 
found theiu more irritable than the atoinacb. Tlie heart, 
which is extremely irrital>Ie, is very lightly seosible ; and, 
on toucliing it in a man m-Iio has his senses, it is more likely 
to producfl a faint than a pain. 

" It is not enough, when a part m found to be aensibte, 
to conclude thence that it is ii-ritable : the dissectioa of a 
nerve, whicli destroys its sensibility, does not ilestroy its 
irritability. I have frequently repeated the cxperinieuts of 
Bellini, with a very different siinccsa fctinn is cominoijy 
reported. To do it, I seized the plin^nic nerve of a living 
animal, or one recently dead, for the experiment succeeds 
equally well with either. This compression, irritating the 
phrenic nerve, b<^ta a movement in the diaphmgm. If I 
tie tlte nerve, and irritate the inferior extremity, the same 
thing takes place ; if I cut it and irritate below the point 



of section where there i» no longer any seiiRihility, Binoe 
tbure is no oonuecUoo with the brain, the diaphra^i is 
equftll}' convulsed. By aitting the cmml nerve of a dog, 
the leg is duj)rivuJ of all eeusibility — it may Le dissected 
without causing paia. However, if the nen'e which has 
been cut is irritated, the muscles of the leg are still 
agitated ; thus, that leg is BtLU irritable, although in- 
aenslble." ' 

From this extract, it clearly appears that Haller confined 
the term TrritabHity to the property of muscles, in virtue of 
which they performed theia- contractions, under the influence 
of a stimulus conveyed by the nerves. Irritability differed 
from elasticity or ineclmnieal cuiitntctility on the one lumd, 
and from sensibility on the otlier. Haller regai-ded it aa a 
special endowment of tlie muscular fibre, carried into effect 
by its connection with the nervous syHtem. In the follow- 
ing passage, he refutes the notion of Stahl, that muacuhir 
irritability depends upon the preiience of the soul in the 
niusda :— 

" The soul is that being (s'(»*c) which feels itself — wliicrh 
represents to itself its body, and by means of its body the 
whole universe of things. I am myself and not anotbex, 
because that which is called I, or Me, is conscious of all the 
changes whieh occur to the body, which / call mino. If 
there be a muscle or intestine which makes an impression 
on another soul than mine, antl not upon jninc, the soul of 
this muscle is not my soul, it does nut belong to me. But a 
finger cut from my body, a morsel of flesh taken from my 
limbs, has no connection with me. / do not feel any of ii» 
changes ; it gives ciae in me neither to idea nor sensation ; 
it is not then inhabited by my soul ; if it wer^ I sliould 
feel its changes. / am not in that leg; it is entintly 
separated both from my soul, which remains eutire, and 
from thoijC of all other men. Its amputation has not 
I M^niolrti •]« BaUw, p, 43. 



{Chmt. XIL 

caiiMPfl tlio Ififlst hijtiry to my volition ; tins remains entire ; 
iny soul has lost none of ita force, but it no longer holds do- 
ipinion over tlint leg, and yet the 1^ continues irritable : 
irritiihility is therefore independent of the sou] and of 

The soul of Nelson was not rednced in size when 
bis ortn was amputated ; bo long as consciousness and 
personal identity remain, the dismemberment of the body 
does not nffect tbe soul ; but as each sBpftrntcd limb 
retains its irritability or vitiility for some tinid after it is 
severed from iill counectLou with the trunk, and its inmate, 
the soul, it is clear, according to Holler, that irritability or 
vitality does not de|wnil, as StJihl and liiw followers assert, 
m>on the presence of the »oul in any ])art of the body ; 
and if iiritability does not, then life does not, and we must 
seek a wholly now definition of this mj'sterj-. For 
although Haller confined the signification of the t*!nn 
IiTltahiUty to the property possessed hy muscles of con- 
tracting on the application of a stimulus, yet, by describing 
tliat property as d^'pending upon the primordial conslitu^ 
Hon of llio |mrt, he inaugurated a rcvnlutlon in the con- 
ception, of life ; for it was c^uickly observed that there was 
no difTerenoe in essential cliaracter betw(^en the contractile 
poWer of a muscle aud any other purtrly vital action ;— that 
if a muscle contracted not in ^*i^tue of an indwelling soul 
or vital principle, but simply because it was endowed by 
its original constitution with the property of contracting 
when stimulated, there was nt) reason why other organs, 
■ — why the glands, for focatnple, should not possess each one 
a simihir individual susceptibility of independent action ; 
and that thua every part of the atkiinal fnime might be 
endowed at. its original fonnation with a life of its own. 

This was a new aspect of the subject : according to it 
the body was not to bo regarded as a monait^y ruled 
■ HCirxrirw <)« Balltr, y. SS. 


by a T^al immatoriAl existence, winnh at one time «~as 
called Soul, at another Archsos, at anoth^ Vital Principle ; 
but it was rather to be looked upon as an a^omeratlon 
of an infinite number of minute autonomic states, each of 
which acted in accordance with its own peculiar consUtu- 
tioD, and all of which were united in certain congressional 
actions and influences, by the centralizing powers of the 
bnuQ and nervous system. Or, to vary the figure, the 
animal frame was a planetaiy system, oonsisting of a certain 
number of stars, each with its own indepeudeut orbit, hut 
each attracting every other, and all revolving round a 
common centre, so that the term Life ceased to mean an 
actual essence or thing, like Soul or Vital Principle, but 
became the name of an abstract conception, like Qnivitation. 
Life came to be defined as the result of two conditions — 
Irritability on the one hand, or the property of any part 
to be acted upon by that which should excite in it its 
specific action — I'aptitude k vivre ; — and a Stimulus on 
the other hand, or something by which the latent faculty 
of an organ waa called Into activity. Irritahility might 
be called life potential ; irritation, life actual. 

Not that Haller went so far as tliis. Sprengel,' indeed, 
says that Haller observed that organs were endowed 
with special impressioriabilities, to use an awkward 
word ; but I have not succeeded in finding the passage 
in Haller which bears out this remark of Sprengel. 
However, it is very probable that Haller held the notion 
speculatively, although he did not work it out to a full 
demonstration. Perhaps it was such an idea that in- 
duced him, in the following passage, to recommend cxjierl- 
ments with medicines on those in health : — "A mediciue in 
to be tested first by its effects upon the body in healtli, and 
that without any disturbing influence. Its smell and tiuito 
ascertained, small doses are to be taken, so as to dctcnuiiiu 
> VoL v., p. 389. 



[Cn^r. XII. 

ite effects upon the pulso, the animal heat, the respiration, 
und tlie excretions. After having ascertiunud its c-ffects upon 
the system iu healtlj, we wny proceed bo luuke our ex{>eri- 
raents with it upon tlie persons of those who ore iU." 

Thus, hy auothcr road do wo oome onoe more to the 
doctrine of Specifics. Bucon, and Boyle, «nd Sydenhaui 
Hxrived at the concltuion tliat, iu the ilisuovery of spediics 
lay tlie consutumation of art — becnusu uiediuinCH of thia 
daai alone curetl diit:ctly and radically without eufeehling 
the frame : they formed their opinion from a Burvey of the 
tliffui'ent methods of cure. Holier advanceil from tlie side 
of phyFtioIogy. Inasmuch, he said, as eacii pai't i» endowed 
with its own specific aptitude for receiving iinpressiona 
Itvm special properties — the stomach, for instance, to act in 
a certain way under the influence of tartar emetic, which 
producea no effect upon the eye ; let us aaeertaJn by esperi- 
uient what are the coms<poudencei* between ilie external 
world and our internal organism, — what thing» act, and 
how, and on what parts of our frame. If we only know 
for certain tlie rduiiunships between the Kpecifie proijerties 
of bodieR and tie spccitic capacities of reoeiving an improe- 
aion belonging to every part of our frame, we might adajA 
the one to the other, and so make thei-apeutics uiore 
simple and more certain. 

The transition from Haller to Cullen is like the passing 
from the Andes to the Alps. Wo are more struck with 
the diminished magnitude of the latter, than with their 
retii grandeur and altitude. For aller any other man 
of hifl time, Cullen could have stood his ground. He 
was, indeed, no ordinary character. Sir WiUiam Hamilton, 
who is certainly not addicted to unmerited paut^'ri<^ 
says of him, " Cullen ia one of those ilhistrious minds 
by whom St^otland, during llie jiast eentuiy, was niised 
from ooiiiparative insigniflcance to the very highest nink 
iii literature and science. In no department of mtellcctual 

A. I., noa-isdfl.] 



activity has Scotland beeii more prolific of clifttmgiuslied 
talent lltaii in ineilidiie, And as a medical |)hiloHOpher, 
ttie name of CuUun stands ia his Dative uouutry pre- 
eminent and alone." ' 




. t 

Willirun Cullen was born at the town of Hamilton, iti 
Scotland, ou tlje I Jth of April, 1710. He was the second 
son of a £iniily which constated of seven sons anil two 
dauj^hters. His futbtrr, btwides poBsessing a sraiJl \tro\wriy 
by inheritance fi-om a long; line of ancestry, which, in course 
of time, became the projicrty of William, followed the 
legal profession, and was factor to the Duke of Ilaiiiilton. 
Cullen rtw'ived Win early ediiciition at tlie Orninniar Seliool 
of Hamilton, aud aJlcrwai'ds studied at tlie Untvemty of 
Glasgow. After a very brief liieriuy cuniculuin. he was 
iipprentioed to a medicid practitioner in Glasgow, and 
was eiii'ly intvuduced into the practical mysteries yf tlie 
craft. In 172!), he left Glasgow; and, after throe years' 
abeeuoe at »ea, iu the capacity of surgeon to a ship, 

) Uinnlktioiu, b; Sir W. Uauiilton. 



[Cn^p. xn. 

returned to Scotland, and prosecuted his general and 
lucdical studies n.t Edioburgl] during three winter Bceaons. 
In the spriugof 173G, he settled at HamiltOD as a couuicy 
Burgeon. He had, however, too much amhition to remain long 
in the obscure seclusion oi his native town, iind after having 
token liis degree of Doctor of Medicine, he went to Glasgow 
in 174>4. Here he formed the bold dc&ign of establishing 
a great medical school, with tlie aHsiatauce of his friend, the 
celebrated William Hunter. The time, iiowever, was most 
inauspidous. The rebellion, or rimn^ took place the fol- 
lowing year, and men's minds were too much taken up 
with the battles of Preston-pans and Culloden, to give 
attention to m iiiaie a subject a^ Cullen's [>roJect. Cullen, 
however, was not the man to be baulked of Lis object 
by any obcttacles winch encrgj", talent, and patience could 
ovcrcimio ; and, in the summer of 1746, he made arrange- 
ments with the Professor* of Medicine to deliver a com-se of 
lectures on the theory and practice of medicine in the Univer- 
Bity of Glasgow. To this course he aft*:rwards added lectures 
on botany, materia raedlcsi, and chemistry ; and one of 
his pupils — afterwards his intimate triend — w,ia Joseph 
Bhick, the discoverei' of latent heat, and, indirectly, of the 
tnie method of managing steam, so as to make it that inatrn- 
ment of power which it lias become. 01as;,'ow, about this 
time, had the honour of haviug connected with its Univer- 
sity the munes of Adam Smith and Thomas Keid, and, 
altliough as utLBUccessiuI candidates^ the names, even more 
celebrated, of David Umue Eiml Kihnund Burke. Still the 
place for Cullcn was clearly Edinburgli ; and, after various 
misadventures, to tliis goal he arrived in the year 17i)(>. 
At iir^t he held the chair of chemistry in conjunction with a 
colleague, but at the same time tjiuglit cliuiail medicine. 
It was not till nine yeara later tliai he w<is appointed to 
tlie chair of medicine. Cullen's position at this time left 
little to desire. Uu high reputation attracted students 

i.i.. ir08-18<Ml-] 



from nil pArta of the world, whom his kindno»^s ronverted 
into devoted adherents acd personal friends ; while his 
high gencrnl attainments, aa a man of erudition and 
on'^inal powers of thuuglit, unnbled him to occupy a con- 
spicuous place ever in that galaxy of genius and talent, 
whidi made Edinburgh what Weimar was afterwards, and 
won for the anrient gi-ey metropoliH of the noi-th this api>el- 
hition — fken well deserved—of the modoin Atheiw. " In 
the present state of the Scotch Universitiefs" writes Adam 
Smith — no mean authority — "I do most sincerely look 
u|}on tliem an, in spite of all tlicir faults, witliout excep- 
tion, the best seminaries of learning that are to be found 
anjTvherc in Euroi*." Let us hear Sir James Mackintosh's 
eloquent d««cription of the period ; — 

" Ify arrival at Edinburgh opened a new world to my 
mind. That city was then the residence of many extraor- 
dinary men. Dr. Smitli, the first economical philosopher, 
and perhaps tlie most eloquent theoretical moralist, of 
modem times. Dr. Black, a man tMiually philosophical in 
his character and in his genius, the father of modem 
chemistry, though his modesty and his indolence will 
render his name celebrated rather by tlic curious in the 
bistoiy of that sdence, than by the rabble of its culti- 
vators. John. Home, the feebleness of whoso later works 
cannot rob him of the glory of being tho author of the 
best tragedy produced bj' the British nation — cortaioly 
«nce the death of Rowc — perhaps since the death of 
Otway. Henry Mackenzie, to whom wo owe (in my 
opinion) tlie most exquisite patlietic Gctions iu our lan- 
gm^e. Dr. Cullen, the most celebmtcd medical teacher 
and writer in Europe, whose system of medicine, just then 
beginning to be on tho wane, hud almost rivalled those of 
Boerhaave and Hoffmann, and whose accurate descriptions 
of disease will probably survive a long succeasion of equall)* 
spedouB systems. Dr. Kobertson, tlie most elegant and 



ICmmm. xn. 

t— Tftw mtaarngmadtr 

aad nlioiMl. tboo^ noi often rexy pnifamid, or 
Dr. Fcrgnm, not maeiemng of tht p«ai 
wfak^ be bad aeqiiiRd bj tint waaBdaaa tBtagy 
■ad ■!■>»* iEffokf of «tyle, wbich ■ee—Bd to beoome a 
tcttAa* of moraU Dr. Hotton, with vboee meka^byvtad 
vorks I knmit tbst I Mm ■naogtwinted, and of vfaosB 
eeiebtated eyftem of Geokig}' I am not a coc a pat f nt jmSga ; 
bat of wbose eitpenor powers I cannot doubt* afiflr r o a diog 
the admirabk aooooat of him by Mr. Playftir. Mr. 
BobiB«, one of tbe greatest matbenuitical pbOaaopfaas of 
bis age ; and but in seuiority, thoogli ia no otber reepect^ 
the JngfaaaoB, aeoompUshed, el^ant, and amiaUe Stewart^ 
my exoellcat friend, vboM jost fiuoe is now almost the 
only standing column in the temple of the Caledonian 
Uosea." ' ** I may truly say," be adds, " that it is not 
eaey to eooceive a University where industry was more 
general, where reading was more bsbionable, where indo- 
lenoe and ignorance were more disrepntatle. Every mind 
was in a state of ferrouitatiMi." 

It is refreshing to find sach testimony in &vuur of tbe 
Uui\'crsiiic8 of Scotland, wbidi it ia tbe ^^hioa wiUi 
some who hare not, as yet at least, acquired the fame of 
either Mackintosh or Adam Smith, to speak of in mthcr 
disdainful t«rms. 

"Among the 70,000 souls, or thereby, who then consti- 

> Uvnoira of the LUe of the Rigbl 
Bdcu Sir J&nM MAckialAri). To). [. 

To tluM auoM i tuf t« t«nniu«d 
to »dd tfc&t vt my fcnDdfatbar, whom 
VUbmor PUjiur tbu doeribM: — 
" Dr. ftrgatn «» isMMdvd "by Mr. 
BumU, emiiwiiUj qnmlUed bjT the 
fvni^xt bvnt of hU g*niia for aiptnin- 
isf the dadtinM of natural gihiluBuph}'. 
He had mtly turned hia uiiiiii to that 
awlijeet, uiil wfth snculftr tU^xoam 
Md pndilaii ti iboBght, eaurtuned 
xvrj miiufai uA flOBrnhtaaiT* vim 

of aciciiroek H« vm ilutiBgWuliad hj 
gnaX ferttUi; uf iDrention miil ikill 
in vintririDfi the nKMt impfcnita asi] 
ntirfMUWT experittuti. It It at*tt«r 
of Bndi rtgral ibu he dtd lul live to 
flonplot* man than aaa put of the 
ijDsbtts «f hb oouiM, Mid tliat his 
bhours mn mi ehort whu IheJr 
utility Mid exMllanee vw* »tii>ul to 
W full/ unfolded." ^fhThui'* Intro. 
(lucUiT/ Lcrture 1« hu Oonne of Kr- 
tnntl rUlMnpfaj, delirmd in 1602. 

«.n. i;oa-i8oo.] 



toted ttie population of Edinburgh, tliora was & greater 
proportionate number of raen of intellectual and literary 
eminence than in any other British community, not ox. 
oepting London." Tlieae arc the words of ono who is 
recognized by the world of letters h8 a most competent 
authority on suoli a subject.' 

la corroboration of this estimate of the school of E^iin- 
burgb, Cabiinis, a celebrated French author, writes : " Celle 
dTCdinbourg, illiistrt^e, presquc to^t-^-coup pai- une reunion 
dljomines ^minens, n'a pas aeulemciit jet»^ lo plus grand 
iJclAt, elle a v^riiablumeut formt^ beaucoup d'excellen-s prac- 
ticiens, doDt pleusieurs rendent, encore aujourd'hui, dsins 
prcsque toutes les parties do I'Europe, lea plus grands 
services ii I'hunuuiitt^.'" 

After Boerhaave, Cullen became the greatest medical 
authority of his day, — and waa rea[iected as euch by 
FnuicB, Qennaiiy, and ItjJy. Aithough bis peculiar doc- 
trines arc now antiquated, hia wTitings ore well worth 
our respectful and earnest attention, and fiiUy jufltify the 
reputation enjoyed by their author. PertinpH thoir most 
striking quality is the wiftdom they display in dealing with 
general propositions ; and, doubtless, upon this faculty of 
large common sense, mother- wit— or wiadom — (tor ai-e 
not the ttinus really ayQotLomouH?)^-depended Cullen 's 
success as a practitioner. Nowhere, perhaps, in medical 
literature, is there a better defeuce of the use of Theory 
than in the following passage :— 

'' Beaaoning in phyidc is unavoidable ; and to r«ider it 
^afe it is necessary to cultivate theory to its full extent. I 
maintain this by observing, that there is in human nature 
a strong propensitj' to seek for causes, and to aauigu them 
also on the aUgbtest grounds ; and mankind are very gene- 

1 IVaCuur Muana. In "Biitiih 
KoTDlite ud Their Style*,'* p. UJ. 

' Om-p d'dril war lea Rjlrolutions ct 
•nr U ftifomo He k U(fiirtne, ynt ?, R, 
CsWab. ^ 3S». Fkrie, ui ai, 1801. 
Y 2 



[ckAT. xn. 

nllr giUed ia tkeir a&sn I7 (Jkv ja^Bttt cT ones and 
tfeeta, I ami on. ■rired, tkat Aam b Dodaag more 
-malr tnH hhrtlMi tVriTi 1 iiiiM^ff iiflia ii 11 . 1 ill I 
ihm ftopeamtj m unmtSBikt. Seeft 
Awmtnte tfae hOaef, or ^ihe iwdi 
ii—onin^, but tfacy viU never ^laaaa de bmb to giw it a[v 
DOT eren to be reetni&eil in the oee of reMoctlmg. Tbe 
only remedy ibr the afaoae that ve know o( ii the i»»*VT"g 
nun better nasonei^ the exeraBi^ them maA on the par- 
tuohr tobjeoti they ve to be empkjcd in, aad directing 
their attentHO. to enry consideration that may infloeDca 
their determinatioaB. A phyaacian will aonedmeB raison 
in matters of law, but in doing so he gives oceannt to the 
Uwj'cr to smile at hu weaknem ; and I Iciww that a hwyer, 
in like manner, niay bo ridiculons in fata turn. In this cnae^ 
eacli profeeaioa will {lerocive the abuse in the other ; bat to 
correct It, neither Uio lawyer nor the {^yrioan will think 
of penuading hia neighbour to give up reasoning in gene- 
ral, 1ml may very properly adviae him to give it up with 
regard to a subject in wliicb he has not been sufficiently 
exerdiwcL But it is Mill doubtful if the advice would be 
followed ; and if there were any propriety in the pfa^-si. 
oioii'ii attempting to reason in law, the only means of 
rendet4ng it Hafe, wouH be to engage him in the study of 
that Bcicnco In itR full extent. 

"Now all this applies to physic, and, as I judge, vcty 
ttUctly, Such lA the general propemity I liave mentioned, 
Umt I liavc not, in oU tny life, known a single person 
belonging to the profi-Aiion that did not upon many occa- 
nonii WW rcAHoning ooiiccming it, and wlxat may &iirly be 
oallod theory. Every practitioner hiu) daily proo& of the 
proponwty and pr¥«umptton of hl& patients in this respect ; 
and among lIk.* pmutitioticn themselvet!, though they can de- 
chiro that ParacuUus waa aknave, that Helmont WB«a mad- 
mau, aud Dea Cutea a fool, aud iLat all theory is nonacnse 




— yet I Grid that they conatautly employ it tlietnselvee. 
This tuan U plethoric, and therefore must be blooduil ; that 
lumi's stoiuacli is foul, aud he must bo vomited ; a tliird 
man's blood is full of acrimony, and he must be purged. 
Everybody acquainted with practitioners must bo familiar 
with reasouinga of this kind. The [wrsoius who emjploy 
them may not, ]>erhai>fl, perceive that they ni-e using theory ; 
but I know that they are using it, and that of a bad kind, 
too. 1 have known a man deemed plethoric, wlio was only 
tat ; I have known a stomach supposed foul, when it was 
only sympathetically affected ; and 1 have known an acri- 
mony of the blood oilen concluded from what was merely 
a cutaneous afl*ection. In short, so far as my oUierva- 
tion goes, there is not any one pi-actitioner, even the most 
|}rofc8acd Kmpiric, who does not, upon many oceo^ons, use 
theory from a tincture of the school in which he was bred, 
or from the books he hits read. The abnse is, indeed, often 
veiy ffrcat, but I take the propensity to lie irrosistil>Ie ; 
and, in my opinion, the only [lossible means of correcting 
the abuse is by engaging men in the study of the theory in 
its full extent."' 

A few piigets fiirther on, we meet with LLiis striking ob- 
servaUon : — " Wo do and must assume that tlie facts of 
physic are more frequently the inferences of reason than the 
simple iibjeets of sense ; and, therefore, tlint the bringing out 
the facts that are necessary, and the ascertaining them to 
I>o sach, will alwaj-B proceed in proportion to our advanoo 
in the knowledge of system, and that, truly, an Emjnric 
system am hardly he per/ed till the Doffmatic U n^rly 
80."' That is, that until there is a true theory of cure dis- 
covered, there cannot be such a registration of facts as to 
be of much practical utility in medicine ; such a theory 
may be arrived at by conjecture and by tuducUon ; and 
this once reached, medicine will becajmble of being worked 
• Callwi'a nyMthes and SoMlugj, Vol. I., |i. 418. ' llnd., |>^ 4». 




by deduction m well as by iuduction. If the following 
passage be carefiiUy considereU, it will show that Cullen 
was fully prepared to welcome Jenner : — -" With regard to 
nosology, we can go somewhat further than m mineralogy,] 
for we can there fiud something annlogouJi to the propnga*] 
lion of seed in the living bodies. We observe this ia tt 
case of all contagious, particularly in those we call specifio ' 
contagions ; and as far as my observation goes, even in 
those that are not strictly specific, when we can traoe a 
disease to its contagion, we can in some measure fix its 
species. Thus, in the case of small-pox, & great many 
varieties have been marked, but they are varieties only of 
one species, a proof of which is, that from the same conU-i 
gion, tliat is, from tlie same Heed, all the essential circam* 

Btanoes are produced Thus a confluent small-pox 

may arise fi'om a conta^on of the mildest kind, and t'w*1 
versa. We believe, therefore, that the seed is but one, and 
(hat the clianga>i and the varieties are analogous to those 
produced in plants by culturoj that is, that they depend upon 
the state of the body into which the contagion is conveyed. 
This is tho solid foundation of inoculation, that we bave< 
now Icnnieil to modify the body in such a manner that the 
contagioD, when applied, will not give rise to these varieties 
and anomalies. I sliall add here what 1 think a curious 
corollary, viz., tliat the ttpcciiic nature of contagion, aud the 
dependance of the variety of the disease upon tlie nature 
of the body, aro presumptions in favour of all Kpecific con- 
tagions. Wlien we shall liavo acquired somo more experi- 
ence inth regard to the manners of fitting the body^ and 
of conducting the inoculation in other disca-scs as well as 
we now do in the sniall-pox, I am jwreuaded that the prao- 
tioe will be equally ajiplicable." ' Here is a prediction not 
yet fulfilled. But its fulfilment ia still anticipated by our 
best thinkers : if we could only so prepare the body — so 

t OnUcn** FhfuolngT and Nowloer, Vul. I., p. C52. 



till the ground — that the poison-swda which fall uiwii it, 
instead of Bpritiging up in rank and dcitdljr [uxariance, ns 
in the case of the fatal epidemics of scarlet fuver tiud other 
conUgions diseases, should only find juat euougb of ap- 
propriate nourishment to enable them to germinate, and 
having exhausted the adaptation of the syHtera to the 
whole species, should die down, leaving their sigu-wauual 
like vaccination, as a A'ee pass against tbo assaults of any 
of their tribe — when we achieve this, wc shall bo approadi- 
ing the coDsumm&tioQ of the art, not only of curative, but 
of preventive medicine. 

The principal charm by whicb Cnllcn captivated the 
medical mind of Europe, v/aa not the wisdom displayed in 
his writings, but the conipleteness aud ingenuity of hia 
system of therapeuticH ns deduced from hia pbysiology. 
Cullen starto with the following nccount of his notion of 
wlmt life is: — "Tliere is, seemingly, diffuHed over the 
■whole of nature a quantity of electric matter, which, how- 
ever, iu the ordinary' state of moat Iwdies, sbow» no dis- 
position to a peculiar mobility in passing from one to 
another ; so tliat, thougli it is present, it does not show any 
disposition to motion, but wc coa by certain artifices aocu- 
mulaio this electric matter iu more considerable quantity 
upon the surface of certain bodies, in consequence of whidi 
it can be put in motion from one bcidy to auother, exhibit- 
ing tlie various phenomena of electridty ; and it is agreed 
upon among philosophers to call this Excitement, and to say 
that electricity is excited, aud that such bodies arc excited 
electrics, and all bodies may be so either by being excited 
themselves, or by having such bodies applied to tliem as are. 
So, in our medullary fibre, there is a fluid which was preaonl 
in tlie germ, but was not exrited ; and it is iu the excited 
slate of this that I suppose life to consist ; and when it is 
no loTigcr excited in any degre^ we call it tbo state of 
death ; and T can suppose, aa in electriuity, it may exist 



[CuAf. Zll. 

in (liiTeront degroea.'' ' Again ; " From what is now said of 
tbo excitement and coUafise of the brain, it will ap|>ear 
thai wc suppose LiFK, so far as it is corporeal, to consist 
in the exciteinejit of Uio nervous system, and ospcciaily of 
the braiu, which unites tlie difiTerent parts, aud forms them 
into a wholo."* 

Life coiisiHts, nocording to this view, of a force gene- 
rated iu the nervous system diiTused tlirougk the aminol 
frame, jnst as electricity pervades inorgamc bodies ; the 
quantity of tliLs vital force vaiira according to certain 
cottditioiis, aud the knowledge of these conditions will 
enable ns to explain, as wtll as to obviate, morbid actions. 
Thus, this vital force will act as a powerful stimulus to any 
part where it is in excess, and may produce a state of cou- 
traction of the extreme vessels, while, on the other hand, 
an insuffident aupjily will induce relaxation. 

But, lu addition to this assumption of a vita! force |ier- ' 
meatiag the frame, Cullen assumed another force, which he 
cjiUed t he Vis Medicatrix Natura: ; and in the interaction of 
these two forces he found no easy explanation of the mo&t 
difficult problems in patliology. His most famous applica- 
tion of tills theory was to fevers, aud we may Uike hia 
treatment of them as an cxatn])Io and illustration of hia 
whole system of imthology and tlierafwutics. 

According to him, fevers ore, for the most part, 
the result of some depressing agent, cither external, as 
malaria — or internal, as grici^ anxiety, and such like 
emotJons. The first effect of these causes is, to pro- 
dtioe an imjwrfcct generation of vital force by tbo 
brtun ; less life pervades the frame ; in consequence, 
the extreme blood-vessels of tlie surface of the body 
fidl into a state of atony, collnpsc, or relaxation. Tbia 
condition alaniis the vigilant guardiim — the vw t/i^Zicairw;. 
She oomcB t^ the rescue, aud excites a counteraction in 
' C'lUIca's PbjHoia(0 uid Kuaulofjt, VuL I., {j^ ISl. ' XbiiJ., p. I;i5. 



these vessels to reni^y the danger ; but, like many atUea, 
sLe rather overdoca her part, and instcjul of simply restor- 
iog the lobt balimcQ and goacrously withdrawing, she 
exdtea a contraction or 6pa»ni of these fomierly-relaxeil 
veasels, which conBtituteB the cold stage of fevers. Having 
dune good to a certain point, and barm beyond it, it 
is clear that unless something caioe to counteract this 
dangeroiw sauative power, the unfortunate patient would 
die of nature's dootoiiug ; so the vital force bunies into the 
field, and turns the table on the vU ifiedicatrlxj by pro- 
ducing a flow of blood into the contnurted vessels, which 
Uisiends them ; and instead of the ould, shnvclled, sliivering 
surfiice, there comes the full, warm glow, passtug into iutenaa 
burning beat — tor^eacence — and all the well-known symp- 
toms of what is ooiamonly called /etw. The indication for 
the cure of fever is in strict accordance %'itli this theory of 
its cauau : we must relax tlie Hpasni of the extreme vessels — 
cut short the cold stage as rapidly as possible ; for, u[K)n the 
dumtion of this depends the amount of subse^^uent reaction. 
Thus CuUen explained the action of Peruvian bark. 
The [jassage in whidi be gives his explaiiation has con- 
siderable hibtorical intei-est, and may be worth quotlug ; — 
" As the foundation of the whole of my doctrine, I con- 
sider the PeruWon bark, which, like other writers, I nhall 
simply speak of under the title of the Bark, to be a 
substance in which the principles of bitter and astringent 
are conjoined. These arc sufficiently obvious, and seem to 
be uoivenully allowed. It may also have somewhat 
of an aromatic quality ; but this cerbnonly b not con- 
siderable, and 1 shall not take any further notice of it 
As a bitter and astringent conjoined, I consider the 
Bark as a powerful tonic, As we have before shown, 
these qualities in their separate state give tonic medi- 
dnee, so it will be readily allowed that, conjoined together, 
tbey may give one still more [uweriul ; and as such, we 




are now to consider tlic Bark in Its cffecta and virtues, ao- 
oordliit; as tliese nppcar in llie various cases of disease."' 

Tliat -we may understand the exact sense in wbtch Cullea 
oscfl the word Tonic, let wa hear his own definition: — 

'* We have already taken pains fco sliow that the tone of 
the moving Bhres may dejKud jmrtly on the mechanisni of 
these fibres, but 2>n)6«i>^y alio vpon the inhereni jwww or 
etaU of the nervous Jluid, as particularly incidified in these 
fibres. If this lant position bu well founded, it will fulluw, 
that whilst on differeut occasions the tone of the luoving 
6bre3 may be stronger or weaker, t}vat Tnay dejiend upon 
the state of the nervous power In tiie moving fibre being 
for the time different ; and as this power may be acted 
upon and vajHously diangi^d by subetjinoes applied to 
the body, we may alluw that there are substances which, 
applied to the moving fibres, may induce that <ttate 
of the nervous ]>ower, Tipon which their tone depeiida."' 
The t^iat of this uucumnionly cautious- worded paragraph, 
seems to be, that there arc substances which act oa the ner- 
vous system in such a way as to produce a greater qunntity 
of nerve-force in the muscles, so that these contract with 
nmro readiness and strength- CuUen does not make the 
assertion tliut ttiem is such a quality as nervous tonicity, 
and such medicines ns tonica, — he only says that it is highly 
prolmblo. Ijet us continue our former quotation. 

" Tlie fifKt (of the medicinal powers of Bai-k) to be taken 
notice of is, it« oiieration on the stomach. In many cases 
dyspeptic ajinptoms manifestly arise from a loss of tone to 
the muscular fibres of the stoinacli ; and in such cases, as 
other bittera are, so the Bark is a remedy, and one of the 
most powerful. Nobody doubts of its being a tonic with 
regard to the Biomach ; and it is equally well known that 
the state of the stomach is readily oouuuuuiciited to the 
rest of the system. It is to no instance, however, mor« 

> L'ulleii'tt BJjiMi* HutJiix. ' JUtl, ^ fii 

&.V. UOft'UOO.] 



reiiiarkaUe than in tlie case of iiiterinittent fever. Tliat the 
Bark In this uafie o])erat€s by a tonic power, exerted in the 
stomach, T hare endeavoured to ex]>lain in my '* First Liiun 
of Via Fractice o/Fhydic;" and have met with nothing in 
any writers to make me doubt of the truth of my doctrine. 
It may, indeed, have its imperfections, and may not suflB- 
ciently expliuu the whole variety of phenomena which may 
oocur in suuh a diversified and complicated nystern as that 
of the human body ; but in attempting any general doc- 
trine, we must begin with it as adapted to the mast general 
and ordinary course of timiys. Tliis, I hope, is done in my 
doctrine ruKpectiiig fevers, and of the u[>enition of the Bark 

in the cure of intemuttents." 

" We proceed, tlierefore, iijion the supposition that the 
Bark posBessea a toniu jKJwer, and that the action of thiti 
power on the stomach sufHciently esplaina ita operations in 
praventjng tlic recurrenco of the pai-osyBma of intcnnitt4?nt 
fevers; for I see no foundation for referring it to any 
mysteriouit and unexplained s])eclfic p<j\vcr ; wliich, how- 
ever, some wrLt<!ra seem still disposed to maintain."^ 

The book from which this extract is taken, was pub- 
lished in 178S. The celebrity of its author secured it a 
welcome i-eception, not only in England but on the Con- 
tinent. A few years after its appenxanoe, it wa& translated 
into GerioAU by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, who was at that 
time distinguished for his general accomplislinienta, and 
especially known as a chemist. The explanation of the 
action of the Bark in cuiing ague — a disease with wliich 
Halmemann, residing in Leipzic, was very familiar — seems not 
to have satisfie*! the mind of Cullen's translator, lie wafi 
probably struck with the fiequency of the occurrence of the 
conditional mood in the two passages above quoted. Cullen 
begins by assuming that there ma,y fpe what he calls muscular 
totie, — «ometluug different from Haller's initability ; again, 
■ UatorU JAtiich, V«L II., p. Vi. 



[Ciu». HL 

thai tiiiB tone may depend mwu the atate of the nervoua 
flitid in the muscles ; oguiu, that tliere tnay be sul^taaoes 
wliicli act on this tone, 90 as to increase it, and tienoe deserve 
the name o^ tonics. This being granted, he assumes t!iat 
fever may depend upon the contmctiun or spasm of the ex- 
treme vessels of the sm-Cace, followed by relaxation, &c. He 
assumes next, tliat there is Buch a sympathy between tliesc 
extreme vessels of tlie surbce and those of the Btomacli, 
that when tliu one Hat is affected withspamn, so is the other, 
and tluit the same medidne that affects the one affects the 
other. All these postulates being gi'ai^ted, be explains the 
action of Bark thus : — It exciter a touie state of the niusc^ 
of the stomach. This be $^Lppose9 because it is good in certain 
forms of indigestion, wliicb be suppoa*^ to be produced by 
insufficient coutractioa of the muscles of the stomach. This 
tonic condition of the stomach is then transferred to the 
extreme vessels of the amface, where, by forcing an earlier 
cotitractiou than would oUiurwise t^ike pliioe, It shortens the 
fltage of relaxation, aud so cures tbe fever. That a hundred 
objections should occur to the mind of an acute and thought- 
ful man when tnuislatiug these ])a.«siigeH, was almost inevit- 
able. He must huve been struck with tbt; length of tbu 
chain of reasoning, the number of links between the storting 
point and the conclusion, as well as by the intensely hypo- 
thetical character of the whole ; for Culleu does not eveu 
begin with a fact proved cltlier by miivcrsjil experience 
or by convincing ex[ieriment; and the conclusion, after all, 
expluins nothing. There is no less of uiystery in the power 
of Bark to act in a peoulinr way upon the nervous fluid, so 
as to excite a tonic state of the muscles, than in its power 
to act in a peculiar way u[>on the condition of the body 
in ague: both are equally uiysteriuus; but the latter is 
an acknowleged fact, the former a pure end tample hypo- 
thesis. It was the act of a disciple of Lord Bacon to 
prefer startiug from the taut, aud altt^mpUn^, by uxperi- 




ment, to diaoover whether thoi-c was nn^'tlimg in the nctton 
of Bark, wLea taken by bimscU^ to prodticu aoy uliniige 
in hia system, irhich might account for its power of 
curing agne. Hahnemann, accordingly, tpok a dose of 
Bark, and the result was to pmducn tho flret s^inptoins 
of ague. This led to the hold hypotlictical generalbcition, 
that poBably the power of curing a morbid condition 
possessed by any substance, was associated with a power of 
producing in the healthy person a state resembling tliat 
wliich it had the power to cure — and bo tlko idea of Iloinooo 
pathy stood revealed. 

It ia rather remarkable, that, if wo carefully compai^e 
CuUcn'a explanation with Hahnemann's inference, tliere i» 
no contradiction between thoni. CuUen may be [lerfectly 
correct. The power of curing ague possKSsed by Bark, may 
depend upon lU action on tbo nerves of the stomach, and 
on tho s^Tnjmthy bcbwetm the stomnch and Urn vc»tol8 of the 
surface. The curative virtue of all specifics may be suscep- 
tible of a rational explanation. But this does not in the 
least interfere witli the sim]iler and more pracUcal h_vpo- 
thesis of nahnenianu. Hahnemann saj-s : — Give mo a sub- 
stance that excites a certaui well-dffined set of symptoms, 
having a. roBcmbUmce to a natural disease, and it will euro 
this natural disease. Tliis, he says, is a IhcL Cullcn would 
rejoin ; — Suppose I admit your fact, I am not satisfied till 
you explain on what the operation depends ; you must link 
your therapeutic doctrine to a corresponding system of 
physiology and pathologj-, as I have done. CuUen might 
be answered tauntingly : You bavo dono it, and so over- 
done it, as to make all future attempts ridiculous, by the 
ridicule thnt has been poured upon your extravagant 
hypothcisea and innumerable theories; and to prove our 
words, wo shall select oa your critic tlie very best qualified 
we can imagine, for he understands the subject and detests 
youi'sclf — wo mean John Brown. 



rCir«». 131, 

hy a yonng professor, mode ho &rlous on attack with cudgels 
upon their opponcnU, that the police had to be called in, 
who with difliciUty dispersed the yonng zeAlots. Indignant 
at Iwing defeated, tliey collec-ted again the next day, car- 
ried the gitard-hou&e of pgiice by assault, and reniaineii 
masters of the sitiintion, from which it required a regiment 
of Hanoverian horse to diislod^ ihem. Had they been 
trained and armed, as our students happily are, with rifles. , 
even tliis tUthina ratio would have fkikd ; and who knows' 
whether the jewel of Hanover might nob have been prema- 
turely lost to the British Crown, and a Brunoniau dynasty 
esUiblishetl ! -Vs it wiw, a regular ^meute of all the students 
took place, to the number of 1 500. They marched out of 
Gottixigen, to show their sense of the insult done to tlieir 
body by the interference of the military, and nothing but the 
removal of the dragoons from the town could piu'-ify them. 

The author of the doctrines which cau-sed all lliis hubbub, 
was born in the year 1735 or 1736, the son of a Scotch 
peasant, who lived in Berwickshire. When a mere child his 
father died; and to comfort the little mournerj he was told 
the parent he had lotit was gone to heaven. Nest day the 
child was miased, and, after a long se-arch, waa found on the 
north bank of the Tweed, looking wistfully at Knglund : ho 
said, in his innocence, he thought that wa& heaven, where 
ho should find his father. The notion that in England a 
Paradise h to be found for the Scotch, is an iliuaion gene- 
rally dispelled by tlie experience they not unfrequently con- 
trive to obtain of the dream-land of their bovhood. 

Having acquired a great reputation for scholarBliip, he 
got the Hituation of tutor in the family of a Berwickshire 
Laird. Tliis he soon lost by lua irrepressible love of re- 
partee, and )m unoom promising pride. It was the fiishion 
in this gentleman's liouse for the tutor to retire after dinner 
when company was present. On one occasion witen the 
laird entcrtmned his neighbouring lairds, tlie wine being 

k.t>. 1708-lSOO.] 



iipOH tlie table, John Brown received a hint to go tti 
his OTATi apartments. He was, however, looked upoa as 
an oracle, fit to decide any ques^aon that was started. 
T)ie ootnpany, as was the faKliion then in Scothtnd, Jifler 
drinking a good deal of wine, began a theological discas- 
sion. and the question mooted was the rather large one of 
the Decrees of Proui-dence. Finding themselves gravelled, 
they thought they would apply to their oracle up-staire ; so 
a sen.-flnfc was de^^patched to Mr. Brown, with his master's 
compliments, to know what fie thought of the Decrees of 
Provui«i^c6. Our hero replied, " Tell tlie laird I think tho 
Decrees of Providence very absurd, tlmt make ho many 
blockheads lairds." Of course this response of the oracle ter- 
minated hia residence in Uiut laird's house. Then he went 
to Edinburgh as a lectui-er, attracted numerous followers 
by his genius, eloquence, and wit, but soon fell into habits 
of reckless dissipation. Then he publislied books, and 
finally came to Ijondon, where, in the midst of a desperate 
sfcrugglD with adverse circumstances, he was cut off by 
apoplexy in 1783, when fifty-two ye&is of age. 

In the year 1784, Mackintosh, then a youth of nineteen 
years of age, arrived in Edinburgh. He thuB describes the 
character and doctrines of Dr. Brown: — "A fow weeks 
before that time, Joha Brown — first a teacher, then a writer 
of barharoos Latin, as well as private secretary to Dr. 
Cullen, — had b^^come a teaclier of Medicine, and the founder 
of a new medical system, which, afler being destined, 'to 
strut and fret \U hour upon the stage,' and after the 
misemble death of its author, ex.citcd the warmest eontm- 
veiBies on the Continent of Europe ; and. combining with 
some of the singular novelties of philosophical speculation 
lately prevalent in Germany, seems likely ?till to make 
no inconsiderable figure in the revolutions of philosophy. 
This extraordinary man bad auch a glimpse into medical 
experience as couibled Mm to generalize plausibly, wiUiout 



[Cnw. XII. 

knowiii<; facts enough to disturb him by their imporluuate 
demands for expJanation, winch he never couli:! have given. 
He derived a powerfid geiiiiw from Nature ; bo displayed 
an original invention in his thecries, and au origiua] 
fancy in his decliimation. The nietaphj'si'aU character of 
his agf! and nation gave a symmetry and simplicity to bis 
speculations unknown to former theories of tnedicin'C. He 
had the usual turhulenee of an innovator, with all the 
pride of discover}', and the rage of disappoiut*sd ainhition. 
Conscious of his great powers, and very willing to forget 
the faults which obstructed their Ruccess, ho gladly imputed 
the poverty in which ho cnnatantly lived to the injustice of 
others, ratlier than to hia own vice^ Ilia natural eloquence, 
stimulated by so many fierce passions, and delivered from all 
curb by an habitual, or rather perpetual intoxication, was 
constantly em[>loycd in attackit on the systems and doclnnee 
whiuh hud been the luotit anciently and generally received 
among physicians, and efii>ecia]ly against thosw teaclicrs 
of medicine who were most distinguished at Edinburgh, to 
whom ho imputed as base a conspiracy and cruel persecu- 
lion, an those which Rousseau asci'ibed to all Kurope. 
They probably were not so superior to the common frail- 
ties of human nature, as to examine with patience and 
candour the pretensions of an upstart dependent whom 
they, perhaps, liad long considered as ignorant, and now 
might Itelieve to be ungi'Hteful. This now doctrine had 
great charms for the young ; it allured the speculative by 
its simplicity, and tlie jndoh'nt by its facility ; it promised 
iufidliblo EuoceH.'^ with little previous study or experienou. 
Both the generous und tlie turbulent passions of youth 
were flnttcred by an independence of established authority. 
The pleasures of i-evolt were enhanced by that hatred of 
their nuisters, as impostora and even aa tyrants, with which 
all the power of Brown's invective was employed to in- 
spire them. Scope and Lndulgeuco were given to all their 

».D. 1708-180fl.] 



jons. Tliey bad opponenbi to dotrat tis well as a 
lender to admire, withuut which no sect or faction will 
much flourish. Add to all tliL% timt Brown led the way 
in Bacchanalian or<^es, as well as in plauRtble theories and 
animating declamation. It will not seem wonderTul tliiit 
a man who united so many sources of influence shoul<i 
have many followers, independently of Iho rea.1 merits of 
his B^'i^tem, which were very great, but which had a sraall 
slmre in procuring converts. It ought not to bo omitted, 
that some of the most mischlevouH and effectual of the 
above allurements arose, not fram the subject, but from the 
teacher. Among these, every one will number personal 
invective ; and it is eqiuilly true that the system must 
have been grossly mimmderstood before it could have been 
rappowd to favour idleness or intemperance, though, as it 
was taught, it did in fiicb promote these viewa."* It is 
but fair to the memory of this reniarkabLe man to give a 
fuller exposition of his doctrines, drawn by a friendly hand.' 

"Animals and vegetablt-s were endowed with a princi- 
ple, the nature of which ib unknown, Tliit; principle, which 
is named ExcxtalAlUy, distinguishes llting beings from 
infliiimnte matter ; and Dr. Brown regards it as one, and 

" He has studiously avoided all inquiry concerning the 
««iuJM of excitability ; but supposes that it may be tttfcu- 
midtUed, or dlvxiniahed in quantity, that it may become 
more or less abundant ; and, in that poiut of view, he con- 
siders it as maJter. He calls llw agents which support 
life exciting powers, and distinguishes them into external 

' Mommni of Sir Juidm Mnckinbuli, 

MTT^ianii, hnwpror, itill more miB- 
|it«l«, and omttj M Uiom not in U)« 
prgfMMon » general iikft of tdo firiiid- 
pics of n Abdnht, in whicli nil who 
devolfl UmidmIm \a the pnnmit <A Mi' 

enee moat ful la XnietbA, Uk^ ivHtor 
hju tliMiiEht i>np<r to ftmclndr witli 
ft mimiiuf7 dnwii by M. Bcrtin, a 
Pmicli |ilij«ii?1*n Intlnmtfly ncqiui'mb^l 
with thd laihjart."— HxtnM^l fn>u Uw 
Life at Dr. Bnivii, written bj \m wm, 
uwl imliiod to Iiia works. 

z 2 



[CQ«r. Xlt. 

nnd internal. These powera, acting upon tlie excitability, 
maintiin life— or, in the language of Brunoniau docLtinc, 
profJuco exoitciueut. 

"He also gives the name of stiinuUnt powers to vltab- 
evcr can mnrlify the c^xcitability and produce a graater or 
lesser degree of excitement : when tlie exuitiiig, or utimu- 
lant, powers exert a moderate acbioa on the excitability, 
tiiey consume a suitable quantity of it, and prmluce the 
d*^ee of excitement in which healih cousisttt. Thus the 
mndornte action of the exciting powers, the due exhaustion 
of the excitability, and proper limitition of the exciteniMit, 
are synonomous phrases. 

"But when the exciting powera act with too -great 
eaergy, the excitability is too apeedily wasted, and the 
excitement proportionably increased ; in which onses, the 
body is said to be in that state to which ho gives the name 
of ttJienic d'latttesis: it does not yet, however, labour 
under sthenic disease, being only predisposed to it. 

" It is that intermediate state between health and diseaae 
which is named 2}re-dieposUion, and whicli ia sooner or 
later changed intothat of disease, according to the greater 
or le-sser energj- of the stimulant powers. The stlienic 
diathesis may be gratltially increa.scd from the slightest 
sthenic disease — as the sthenic catarrh, small-pox, the 
benign mea-des — to the highest inflammatory pneumonia ; 
and the excitement in then raised to the Iiiglicst degree of 
which it is susceptible. It cannot remain long in tbia 
state without becoming languid. The physician htw, then, 
two difficulties to encounter. If he employ too debili- 
tating a ti'eatment, he will reduce the excitement too much, 
and induce a state of great weakness ; he will occasion 
tliose diseases which supervene on intlammatory affections, 
when sufhcient caution has not been employed in the use of 
the antiphlogistic plan of cure, or when bleeding has been 
pushed too far. On the other hand, if ho be too timid in 

A.». 1706-1800.] Diaficn* AKD INDIRECT DBDIUTY. 


the U3(} or the deliDitatitig tnetlioJ, or employ too powerful 
fitliiiuli, Ije will give rise to a dtlTi^reut kind o( debility. 

"It is very essential, according to this doctrine, to difl- 
itinguiRh thesB two kiudts of debility ; for, Uiougli intriiiaic- 
ally tlio same, they require a different kind of treatment 

'■ That debility which is prodnctrd by too debilitating a 
method, or, in general, by the deiicieuey of existing jiowera, 
or by tlieir too feeble action, is named direct deh-HUy. In 
ftuch a cuse, the excitability ia 8n{)f>osed to be ncciimulated. 
Thus, the too feeble action of the exciting jiowers, the 
accumulation of the exciiability, and the direct diminution 
of tht) excitement, are synonomous expressions. There ia 
another kind of debility, octaisioned by the excessive action 
of the exciting powers, or by intensely strong stimuli, or 
by the too long continued action of these powers, even 
though their energy be not too great. 

"The excitability is then exhausted by the excess of 
stimuli, and tlm Bpccicu of debility in called indirect. 
Thus, the long-continued action of stimuli, or their moat 
tDtenae action, or their exliauution uf the excitability, and 
indii'ect debility, are equivalent terms. 

" lie distinguishes with great discernment the apparent 
debility occompitnyiug inflammatory ditieases, which it is 
of such importance to aiicertuiu. The proof, says he, 
that this debility is not real, is, that it yields to debili- 
tating remedies, while the employment of stimulants 
would be death, lie supposes that both direct and in- 
direct debility may be present at the same time in the 
Bame subject ; and this he names Mixed Debility. It re- 
quires a treatment adapted to the predominance of either. 

"In explaining his system. Dr. Brown used two Bcalea, 
of which the first, divided into SU°, shows the quantity of 
excitability given to a being at the comraencenieiit of exis- 
tence. The second points out the ascending and descending 
progression, winch the exciting powers obsarve in acting 
ou the excitability. 


[ClUP. XII. 




Fbrcnitiii, Pcnpueiimoiij. 

laSmumuiorf Cj- DjscntBry. 
aaocbe. lAakio, t«. 

HiU Saall-pei. 


Afoplexj. 0<Mfinut &ih11< 

T*Uj. pox. 

Plafrao. HjrdratliBnx. 

Hftlignrat Pcnr. PkthbliL 

■uutdiA. mdUtT. 

Bfawu—ttmi. Clil«lii>ii-|>ni. 
CilArHi. Opbtlulmii, , 

n» nnge of toed hahli 

if watiniMlly expaand ; u 
Ion ; M thkt ib« «xeilciaeitt 

lataniilHenl Po- TljnUna. 
rtn. Ki>l!rts\Ia. 

Mild Oolio. Haaorrhm^ 

JifKiMyaj. AuMwcriia*, 

HyiMobvmlnMu. kc 








ifMira scUoD of powerful 
Ntiniuli ; ai hoFit, «xortJM, food, 
&bariiliiD(«ii[ MikmI, TJolvnt imu- 
Hiona of Ui« uunil, contagion, 
wul tie lik«. 

Inilimrt daUK^, 

Ihm mat u sbovc ; Iml not 
lO tllAtexOeMirhi<^Ii inifuruain- 
fUrect dcUUlj; yetwLiDfc w-itli 
gn<Nt«r forct lluiii la ibo neitt 
nagoQi dueosu. 

Thit Mne M shore, but not 
acting vilb tliat tajvo wliidi itj- 
<lui>» higb fltlMnlc diatliHU : 
ye% stmUt tku in tto sUtM ol 

iJreatlj inmaMd 

Th* inilieatloti «f ear* is to nipport ttw 
ucitvmMit. The rcffn-UiM u* iHmerfuI 
BtitiiaH ; na nlfictrivtiy, aplno, wtli«r, 
■piriluui lit|iiDr*, wine, lou&k, (Hncliona 
buk, snake-not, mnplior, rich mu]«. 
Mid ttie liko. 

The indimtlwi of ^irc in t« diininuli 
tbc DXcitwneat : wliiili ii W bo vtriKird hj 
nrojdinn powerful rtlmuU, buJ umiJn;- 
Injt iliglil or dc^wtiro rtimali ; u lying 
'^ Dool in bed, tnuir|uillit]r nf mind, IiIomI- 
'u^ piu;;iD#, w^M» diet, and tbe likv. 

Ltn tncreuod 

Tbt indicAtioia of mm ii. w aliorti, to 
dimiiiiab the exdtcauint, but witL mon 

with propriety, nuktd from thirty to fifty ilegncs in tli<i snle: far |>«r(c^( boallL, wYilth 
ft toHj degTMa, ranlf ooeun ; in touw^uenoe of lli« rarixtiin nf tbs stimuli to vhieEi nuui 
drink, ud ihe p*niAiit of tlic mind ; irldib •niutiiOM net vith raon power, Ktnetiracc witb 
niontjr 4iicliul« betmwn tLlrtr itod flftf deglMiL 

Adgficlencjof tlie i>flniiili ne- 
Oowiry Id Ibo ini«int>!iiHD(.'o of 
good boalth : onJ mi improper 
ai)|>licnUan of iKiwnrK, wbirJi, 
tbouiih Ktuniilont, do act Miinu* 
Uta in % rattcii^t dogrcc. 

DidwtiTC ■tbnoli nlon«; tm 
AM sparing, mil not of 
quftlitj, fear, and tbe 

Defvctavo feliaiili alone. 



Direct dobili^. 

Hieinilieiitiaa of wtv in to inereaw l\wi 
«xcil«ninit. Tbu rviuclieii an puvcrfnl 
Mlnmli, neh h» itn vxhibiietl for the oure 
nf indirecl dehilitj; lint irith this differ- 
war^ that hnr* it ia narMNuylA b«|pn 
witli » anall denree of ■ttmuliu, and ia- 
emut It gruludlly. 

Tkc liidiaitiini of cnro i* htn tba *un« 
lu above : but utimnli anot b<t applied 
■onicwbat imini cautiuualy. 

Tlio indication of cure 1« lb« iarac bent 
nbo ; bat ilill Kr(-«t*r oautiou i« neCM- 
tuy in tlie apjilicntiun of stimuli. 



[Chai*. XIL 

"The escitemcnt will bo at 0^, and the excitability at 
SO**, io&tantly previous to tho exciting powers begiuuiug to 
act. Life, or excitement, will only take place at the 
moment tbe exciting powers begin to act on the excita- 
bility. The exciting powers, in consuming the excitability 
from 80" to ^O*", will increase the excitement, or life, to 
40°, which ooiresponds to the 40* of the excitability. 
Tlio excitability, waatfid to the M°, and excitement in- 
creased to the same proportion, constitutes the most powei> 
ful degree of life compatible with health.' But the exdte- 
ment, when pushed beyond this degree, tends only to 
weaken itself, and decreases with the excitiibility fix>in 
40" to 0' which marks the period of life. This stale may 
nfford a sufficiently accurate idea of the progress of tho 
excitability and excitement in a person who leads a tem- 
perate life, on whom the exciting powers constantly exert 
a Buitablo dfigrce of Eiction. 

" Hence, It appeuxs that the excitement of a being at the 
commencement of life ia yet fbeble, aiiU that his exdta> 
bility is accumulated, or not sufficiently wasted, by the 
action of exciting powers ; or, in Bburt, that liiO is in a state 
of direct debility, wliich requires only slight stimuli ; wliilo 
the old man — or he who has brought on premature old 
age by excesses — has arrived at that exhaustion of the 
excitability and diminution of excitement, which charac- 
terize indirect debility, and require powerfiil stimuli — aa 
BpirituouB liquors, succuloat food proportioned to the 
digestive powers, wine, &;a It will readily be perceived, 
from what has been said, that moderate stimuli produce ft 
suitable degree of excitement. That when too feeble for 
the support of life, they allow the excitability to accumu- 
late and produce afitlienic diathesis, pre-disposition to 
asthenic diseases, and, in short, idl the disea-ses which depend 
I 8«<d Pamgrapb 2fi oi tlu HloiuniiU ol Mediduo. 

A.i>. I7OM8O0.] 



Upon direct debility. When the exciting powers, called 
hurt/id ex^iititiff povxrs, are inn great, tiny produce, as has 
been already ob-served, asthcDic i^redisposition, and all the 
di^aseii of that class. Lastly, these same powers, ofler 
they have occfiflioned the higliest excitement of whicU the 
system is susceptible, end in indirect debility, and give 
lise to the astlieuic dlscji^es which depend upon it. It is 
this transition from the highest excitement to indirect 
debility, which it is of such iniporianoe to prevent, by 
proper management iu iuQaininatory diseases, wliieh, from 
the violence of the infiammation alono, are about to degene- 
rato into asthenic diaoaaes. 

" The same asthenic [wwers which contTibute to liejilth, 
produce sthenic or asthenic diseases, according as they 
Btimulate nioro or less. The same hurtful powers, capable 
of producing asthenic diseases, may Le employed as reme- 
dies in Bthenic diseases, and vice verad. l>r. Brown allows 
only two dinthescH, t^thenic, and asthenic. He divides dtM-aaes 
into atfienic and oMltenic, and these into univnrml and looaL 

" Universal diseases are always preceded by that inter- 
mediate state already mentioned, colled Frodispoaition. 
This state du|K:tids u|)on the same causes wliicli ^ivo rise to 
the subsequent disease. The sthenic or asthenic local dis- 
eases are never preceded by predisposition. Univental 
diseases at first attaek the whole system, but niuy direct 
their juincipal effect upon one part, as in peripneuniony, Sx. 
Such a local affection, however, is merely a consetjuence of 
the disease ; whereas, in the diseases which he nimies local, 
the injury of a part or organ always precedes the affection 
of the whole system, which is proportioned to the sensibility 
of the part primarily attncked. 

" lufljimmation is also distinguished into sthenic universal 
and ailienic locai : into astheiUc univerml and astfienio locul. 
In Ids work he cxpkina the causes of these diifcrcnt dis- 
eases, their distuiguislilng symptoms and the remedies adapt- 



[Ciur. zn. 

ed to tb^ cara. Dr. BrowTt, fiir from considering fever as 
an effort of nature to free licntelf froni some noxious cause, 
Kganls it as a disease, entirely depending npon debility, in 
wliidi it is always necessaiy to employ Btimulimt remedies. 
Ue raiikj^ among the )>yre:ticu tbe diseaaes called inflamma- 
tory fevers, and excludes them alu^ether from the duB of 

" He concludes the reasoning part of his work with the 
fMllowiug words : — ' A-s al) the ntotion» of the planet^ which 
latter were formed to remain and i-ontinue ihdr oountes for 
ever, de[>eiid on this [>rinciple — to proceed Kiraightforward 
in the manner all projectiles move, and then, by the influence 
of gravity whieh afTmts thimi all, to be pulled downward, 
and thereby, upon the whole, thrown all into circular mo- 
tions,— so, in the lesser and living; bodies with which 
greater hodiea are fiUt^d, — tliat in, animals and plants, of 
"whioh the whole species rvinain, tliough the individuals of 
each species die — ^whatever is the cause of their functiona, 
whatever gives commencement and i>orfcction to these, the 
same weakens and at lost extinguish)^ them. It is not, 
therefore, true that sonio powers arc contrived by nature 
for tho pi«scrvation of life and healtli, ottiers to bring ou 
diseaaeB Olid de:ith. The tendency of them all, indeed, is to 
support life, but in a forced way, and then to bring on 
death, but by a spontaneons operation." ' 

"The following ingenious illustnilion of the Brunonioa 
doctrine, by Mr. Christie, and the scale drawn up by Dr. 
Lynch ' — both foimerly Dr. Urown's pupils — efi likely to 
facilitate the comprehending of this doctrine, have been 
introduced here. 

" Suiii>o»e a fire to be made in a grate, filled with a land 
of fuel, not vety combustible, and which could only he kept 
burning by means of a machine containing several tubes 
placed before it and constantly pourbg sti^eams of air into 

■ 8m prngnpli S27 «( the BleutuiU ui UediciM. * 8c« p 3U. 



it. Suppose, also, a pipe to bo pluced in the bnck of the 
chinmcy, through which a constant supply of fircsh Hid was 
gradually let down into the grate to repair the wasto occa- 
sioned by the flame kept up by the air machine. 

" The gmte will represent the human frame ; tlio fuel in 
it the matter of life, tlie excitability of Dr. Brown, and 
the sensorial power of Dr. Darwin. The tube beliind, 
supplying fresh foel, will denote the power of all living 
eysteius constantly to regenerate, or reproduce excitability; 
while the air amchine, of several tubes, denotes the various 
sttniuU applied to the excitability of the body ; and the 
flame drawn forth in conse<iuence of thai application, 
represents life, the product of the exciting powers, acting 
upon the excitability. 

"As Dr. Brown has de£ned. life to be a forced slate, it is 
fitly represented by a fiame, forcibly drawn forth from fuel, 
little dLspotsed tu oonibustioD, by the couHtnat application of 
streams of air poured into it by the different tubes of a 
machine. If some of these tubct are supposed to convoy 
pure, or deplUo<,nsticated air, they will deiiuto the highent 
class of exciting powers — opium, niuiik, camphor, spirits, 
wine, tobacco, iSx., the (liffu**lbte stimuli of Dr. Brown, 
which bring forth fur a time a greater quantity of life than 
usual, as the blowing in of pure air into a lire will tempo- 
rarily draw forth an uncoiiunon quantity of ^me. It 
others of Uie tubcH be supposed bo convey common, or 
atmospheric air, they will rvpre^eut the ordinary exciting 
powcrsi, or stimuli, applied to the human frame, such as 
hoatj light, air, food, drink, &c., while such as convey 
impure or intlammable uir, may be used to denote what 
have formerly been termed aedatlve powers, 6uch as 
poinons, coniitgions, miafimata^ foul air, Ssc. 

"The reader will now probably be at no loas to under^ 
stand the seeming paradox of the Bnmouian system. 
That food, drink, and all the powera applied to Uio body. 



(CnAP. HI. 

though tliey sujiport life, yet consume it ; for be will 
see that ilio application of thc^ poweni, iliough it brings 
forth lifi!, yet, at the saiuc time, wastes tiie excitability, or 
matter of life, jiwt as the air blown into the fire brings 
forth more fiiimc, but wastes the fuel or matter of life. 
This is conformable to tlie comuiou sa^-ing, ' The more a 
tfpark iR blowu, the brighter it bums, aod the sooner it is 
spent.* A Roman jioet lias given us, without intending it, 
jin excellent illu-sbmtiou of the Brunouion eyBtemj when he 

* ftoluca, TuiK, Venus oonaaiDiinl. corpora ngita, 
Sutl vitam fnciubt txUtica, viiu, Vcniis.' 

* Wine, inuintb, and love our vigour drun, 
Tot wine, varmUi, Iot« our life nutaiti.' 

" Kqually easy will it be to illustrate Ibe two kinds of 
debility termed direct and indirect, which, according to 
Brown, are tho cau»eH of all disco-ses. If Uio quantity of 
stiuiulua, or exciting power, is proportionate to the quantity 
of the excitability — that is, if no more excitement Is drawn 
forth than is equal to the quantity of excitability pro- 
duced, the huninii fi'ame will be in a sUkte of health, just 
as the fire will be m a vigoroutt at^tte when no more air is 
blown in than is sufficient to consume the fresh supply of 
fuel constantly poured down by tliotuljc behind. If a suffi- 
cient quantity of sLiniulus is not applied, or air not blown 
in, the excitability in the tnan, and the fuel in the fire, will 
aocumidate, producing direct debility ; for the man wit] 
become weak, and the fire low — carried to a certiun dc 
tliey will occasion death to the first, and extinction to the' 
laat. If, again, an over-proportion of stimulus bo applied^ 
or too mucli air blown in, the exdtability will soon,be ex- 
hausted, nnd the matter of fuel almost spent. Heuoe will 
arise indirect debility, producing the same weaknt^s in the 
man and lownessin the fire as before, and C4|ua]ly t^rtniiiat* 
lug, when carried to a certain degree, in death and extinction. 

*.t. 1708-1800.1 DANOER PROM BrDDBS PRKPINft. 


" As a]l the iliseases of tlie body, according to Dr. Brawii, 
arc occasioned by direct or indirect debility, in consequence 
of too much, or too little stimuli, m all tlie defects of tbo 
fire must arise from direct or indirect lowness, in conse- 
quence of too much or too Httlc nir blowing into it. As 
Brown taught thnt one debility was never to be cured by 
another, but both by the more judicioua application of 
stimuli ; so will be found the case in treating the effects of 
the fire. If tlie fire has become so low, or the man weak, 
by want of the needful quantity of stimulus, more must 
be applied, — but veiy gently nt first, and increased by 
degrees, lest a strong stimulus, applied to the accumulated 
excitability, should produce death, as in the case of a limb 
benumbed by cold (timt is, weakened by tlie accuniulatiuos 
of its excitability, in consequence of the usual stimulus 
heat), and suddenly held to the fire, which we know from 
experience is in danger of mortification ; or, as in the case 
of the fire, become very low by tlie aocumulation of the 
matter of ftiel which the feeble flame, assailed by a sudden 
and strong bUst of air, would be overpowered and put out, 
instead of being nourished and increased. Again, if the 
man or the tire have been rendered indirectly weak by the 
application of too mndi stimulus, we are not suddenly to 
withdraw tlie whole, or even a great quantity, of the ex- 
citing powers, or air — for then the weakened life and 
diminisiied flame might sink entirely ; but we are, by little 
and little, to diminish the overplus of stimulus, so as to 
enable the excitability or matter of fiiel gradually to recover 
its proper proportion. Thus, a man who has injui-cd hia 
constitution by the abuse of sprituous liquors, is not Eud- 
denly to be reduced to water alone, as is the practice of 
some pliysiciau8, but he is to Iw treated as tlie judicious 
Dr. PitKurn, of Edinburgli, is said to have treated a high- 
land cliieflain, who applied for advice in thU situation. The 
dudiur gave hiui no medicines, and only exacted a pro- 



[Cmap. xn. 

inise of him that lie would every tlay put in as much wax 
into the wooden queicli, out of wliich he drank his whiskey, 
as woiUd reoeivo the impression of hia arms. The wax 
tiius gradually acciunulating, dimtmshed daily the quantity 
of whiskey till tlie wliole queicli was filled with wax ; and 
Uic chiefbiin was thus gradually, and without iujurj- to bia 
constitution, cured of tlie habit of drinking spirits, 
analogies might he puiittued farther, but my object is solely'' 
to furnish some general ideas to prepare the reailer for en- 
tering more easily into the Branonian theory, which I think 
be will be enabled to do after perusing what I have satd. 

** The great excellence of that theory, as applied not only 
to the practice of physic, but to the genenil conduct of the 
health, is, that it impresses upon the mind a sense of the 
impropriety and danger of going from one extreme to 
nnolher. The human frame is capable of enduring great 
varieties, if time be given it to accotnmodate it to different 
states ; all the mLschicf is done in the transition from one 
state to nnother. In a state of low excitement^ wo an> not 
raahly to induce a state of high excitement^ nor when 
elevated to the latter are we auddeoly to descend to the 
former, but step by step, and as one who, from the top of a 
high tower descends to the ground. From hasty and violent 
changes the human frame always suffers ; it« particles are 
torn asunder, its oi^ans injured, the \'itid principle impaired, 
and iliscas<\ uflen death, is the inevitable conseque-noe. 

**I have only to add, thai though in tliis illustration 
of the Brunonion system, written several years 
I have Fpoken of a tube eoneUintly [wuriug in frcsh^ 
fuel, because I could not otherwise convey to tlie reader 
a familiar idea of the power possessed by all living 
aystems to renew their excitii-hility when exhausted, yet it 
may be pro|>er to inform tlie student, that Dr. Bronti sup- 
posed eveiy linng svstem to have received at the begin- 
ning its determiuate proportion of excatalnlity ; and tliere- 

*.i>. 1708-1300.1 



fore, although lie spoke of the exhaustion. Augmentation, 
and even renewal iif ilic excitability, I tlo not tliink it woa 
his intecttion to induce his pupils to think of it as u kind 
of fluid substance existing in the animal, nnd subject to 
the !aw by which such substances are governed. Accord- 
ing to him, excitability was aii unknown somewhat sub- 
ject to peculiar laws of its own, and whose different states 
we were obliged to describe (though inaccurately), by terms 
borrowed from the qualities of material substajicea." 

This full and lucid explanation ailbrds ample materials 
for forming a dispnfisionate opinion on the fiystcm of 
Brown. Such a jud^^ciit it wiis difficult to arrive at, 
when it was first promulgated, as so much of the person- 
ality of the man ent^ri-ed into the impression made by 
his doctrines; and although there might be Brunonians^ 
who were not extravagant in their views and reckless 
in tlieir advice, we can scarwly class the founder of the 
school in Uiis category. We frequently see disciples out- 
heroding their master, but John Brown's pn»ycriptiou» 
seem a earicatiuw of his system. For example, here is one 
written in reference to a hypochondriac patient, about 
whose ease he was consulted : — " For breakfiuit, toast aud 
rich soup made on a slow fire, a walk before breaHast, and 
ft good deid afler it ; a glass of wine in the forenoon, /rrmi. 
XsTne to time ; gttod broth or soup tu dinner, with meat of 
any kind he likes, but always tlie most nourishing ; several 
glasses of port or pimch to be taken aft«r diiuier, till 
mme enlivening effect is perceived from them, and a dram 
(of whiiikcyf) after everything heavy; one hour-and-n- 
half after dinner, another walk ; between tea-time and 
supper, a game with cbeer&l company at cards or any 
other play, never too prolonged ; a little light reading ; 
jocose — humourous company, avoiding that of popular Pres- 
bir-terian niiuialcrs and their adumers, and all hypoeiiUa 
and thicveii of every duscription . . . Lastly, the 



company of amiable, Liindsoii]^ ancl deUglitfu] young 
women, anil an enlivening glasa." ^ 

We can hardly wonder that a system which aeemed to 
lead to such excesses should excite the fili^ugest opposition 
in the minds of all moderate and sensible persons, and 
that the enthtmasm for it among the young and ardent 
should soon hum down ofler the death of its vebeoient 
apostle. Had Brown been a man of sobriety, he might 
have placed bin doctrines ou a much more enduring footings 
and liave himself achieved a great and pennanent renown. 

Brown was the Faracelsus of Scotland. He was giflcd 
with great geiuus, but the victim of the most d« 
vice. His career of folly impaired the power of his 
latioas. These, if read with attention, will be found 
larly iugenluus and captivating, &om tlieir logical coherence 
and simplicity; but they are radically fallacious as a gait 
to practice. On applying to bis main doctrine the gran^ 
touchstone of experience, it was found not to answer, and 
lins become entirely extinct, leaving, however, as genuine 
thoughts alwa^*!) do, an influence behind, which we find 
incurponited in succeeding s^'stems. " Brown was wrong," 
writes Fletcher, " in considering hia excitability as im- 
parted to every man in a certain proportion at birth, and 
not rather continually reneweil ; he was wrong in making 
it iu every part of the body of the aame nature aad not 
cverjTvhero different ; and, above all, he was wrong in 
allowing hia doctrine concerning astlienic disea^xs, including 
most cases of inflammation and fever, to lead to tlie moat 
pernicious employment of general stimuli, to the neglect of 
blood-letting in practice. . . . And these errors are 
too often held in remembrance, . . while the real 

merits of his theory are forgotten or tiDder\-fllucd. 
*< ' ThM «vil tluit mna do li*M k/tcr thwD. 

nwgood iaoft LnUfitd with tbar InnM.'** * 

' l>l'. pit., p. nix. UwloBj, #<]it«i] l.y Dr. DitmUIp muI 

■ FlcUber'a BloiD«iiU tif a«iwnl ra- Dr. Kil»«II, ji. 47, 1812. 





VnM anil DisGgnnDg SIImiI* «I Small -pox —Jeiuxjr'K Bulj Training— Hi* Per- 
aonal Apyetnaee — Hia Ufc is QlannwtarshiK— John Hucter an Hod([«lioga 
and Ifon-fli^mesa— Hi* Hsmog*— Um I^tienm— VifScultiea of ttie fnves- 
tifition— Tb« JProfM^n dhoomsw hlm~B» vi^ta Lcodoit— Dcdmea Lan- 
dau ud £10,(l'00 s-jreKT— Danger ot Vaooiulua ftnra Falae Prionda— DU- 
eoMiod In Fuliajuent— Snnla voted to Jtunoi^OppoHiiinn bo ancauntcred 
— Dr. Uot^sf mi ita Hemn— Hcwley-chaHt; anggoau the propor Bcwsrd 
— Dr. Bowley t««ki> Dr. Mwelej— Vacninalinn apmada to Ur<]>,-w) — Proncb 
Claim tonaidereil— ^vn.niir'i' Unath and Mnnuinent. 

The name of Jemier will for cvor be honoured, as the 
discoverer of the meaiis of preventing the most terrible 
j>e8tiience of modem times. lb will seem no oxAggcration 
to speak thas of the flD]all-pox, if one considers the long 
period it has prevailed, its almost universal diffusion over 
the globe, the number of the vietim» it has destroyed, 
and the permunrnt injury it has inflicted on those whose 
lives it has spared. U is believed that small^pox has 



fCair. Xin. 

exiited from the remotest ages in Chiiu and HindiHtan.' 
It ii certain Utat it appeared in Antna in the Beveoth 
centuiy along with Habuioet — whether truisported thitbo' 
hy liiimAH tnlerootiiiie:, or moving in obedioifle to that 
nysteriuus law of progrosB wliich n^iuUtes the advance 
of epidemics from east to west, is unknown ; and that 
when the Sarnccns invaded Karope, they brought with 
them an ally more destrucUve than themnelveci} and one that 
remained in oocupalton long after their expulsion. The 
dread of tlte ><mAll-pox wad so great in the East, that 
(he pcrfion affected was alj&ndo>ie<l by his fneu<lfl, rehi- 
tivett, and QeigUboiin). On one occasion, the capital of 
Thibet was deserted for throe yeant by all its inhabi- 
tants, cxoept the victims of this disease, who, of cnurae, 
were left to periaL Similar scenes took place in Ceylon 
and in Russia. In one year two miU'ion pernans ar« 
reported to have died of small-pox. In Iceland, in 1 707, 
it destroyed sutteen thousand persons— oue-fourtli of the 
whole population.' It has be«n calculated lliat there 
perifihed of this diseaite annually in Europe alone 210,000. 
So much for its diffusion and deadlines: it is more diiK- 
cult to form an accurate estimate of the evUs, when not fatal 
to life, which it kfl behind it. Some conception of its effects 
may ha formed from the fact, that of the inmates of a 
blind asylum, t hire-fourths had lost theii- sight in con- 
sequenoo of «niall-pox.' And to this we must add the 
amount of dittfiguration it occasioned ; which was so great 
that Addison give» as tlie example of the greatest shock he 
can conceive, the effect prorluced upon a pretty woman on 
first viewing her face in a mirror immediately afler she haa 
recovered from an attack of small-pox. Surely the man 
who succeeded in suTrxluing this t«n-ib1e dragon, had he been 
ft Oroek, and lived in tlie age of mythology, would have 

' Mmk'* Ill»tM7of Ihf Small-pOT. 
' Ttavrb in ili* Iilud ol ImIabiI, 

hy Sir GMffge )JjM'lc«nii«. 1811). 
* Moon-'s Kflply, pp. rtl-ffll. 




come down to ns as one of tlie demi-gods. But times are 
cUangcil, and the life of this fiDgliahmaa wan BuiHuieut]/ 

Edward Jenner was the third son of a clergj'iuan of tite 
Church of England. Ho was bom in May, 1 749, at Berke- 
ley, in Gloucestershire. It became a most important fact in 
the world's history that Jenner was bom and reared in tha 
■vale of Gloucester, a district celebrated for cows. Had he 
been bom in nny other than a daiiy county, it is very 
unlikely he would have made his great discover^' ; for he 
was a man of obtten'atioD and induction, not of erudition 
and speaihittve geniuB. Whether anyone else would have 
ct^cupied Ills niche in the Temple of Famn, m a qu&stinn we 
need not entertain ; certain it is, that the facts irom which 
be started had been long known, and were as ready for 
otheis as for him. His discovety was one of those open 
secrets of nature which, when once announced, seem co ob- 
\*iou3 and simple, that the oflrouteJ «'orld exclaims, " We 
knew it all befaro." At a very early age ho showed 
a strong taste for natural history, collecting nests of the 
dormouse, fossils (rom the great oolitic formation on which 
he lived, and other objects of this kind. Afler the usual 
school-education of a boy in bis circumstances, he was 
aent to the neighbourhood of Biistol, to be instructed in 
the practice of his fiitnro profession under the care of a 
Mr. Ludlow. Let us hero remark, that two of the most 
celebrated British phj-sicians, Cnllen and Jenner, were both 
very early initiated in the practical part of their art ; and 
without wishing to generalize from what some may consi- 
der cases of exceptional genius, let us suggest the question, 
whether the essentiid — that i», the practical — faculty would 
not be in danger of being sacriBced to the very important^ 
but not quite essential clement of medical education, if 
tlie student were obUged to go through a long general qirri- 
culuro before being admitted to bis professional studies I Of 

A A 2 



[CnAr. XIII. 

oouree, if it were possible to combine literatore imd scienoe 
with technical instruction, it might be a great advantage. 

While enguged iu aBsitttiug Mr. Ludlow, an inddeni oo 
curred which gave rise to Jenuer'a £rst anticipation of his 
great discoverj'. A young conntrywonian came for advice, 
and mentioned that she cx>uld not take smaU-pox, bcoariee 
ahe liad had cmv^ttox. This was the local tradition, known 
as a tradition by many, and treated by the learned as 
a popular delusion. But the words sunk deep into the 
mind of young Jenner ; and when he want to London, in 
1770, one of the subjects on wliich he conversed with his 
teacher, John Hunter, was the posBibility of substituting 
Vttocinatiou fur inoculation. " Dont think, but tr>'," was 
tlie characteristic reply of the great British phj-siologiat and 
surgeon, who, whioi a youth, bad been assisted by CuUen, 
and now iu his tuiu Iwfriended Jeuuer. hx speaking of 
Hunter, Jenner always called him " the dear man," and 
preaer\'cd all his letters with venerating care. 

It seems to have been in the year 1773, or 3772 (for 
there is rather a confusion of dates in the life of Jenner), 
that he returned to his native county, and settl*sd as a 
country Kurgeon in the small town of Berkeley. The fol- 
lowing deHcri]>tJon of bis personal appeanuico at tliat time 
is given by his friend Edward Gardner : — " His height was 
rather under the middle size ; his person was robust, but 
active, and well-f jnoed ; in his dress he was pariieularly 
neat ; and everything about him showed the man intent and 
serious, and well-pret>9'red to meet the duties of his calling. 
When I first saw him it was at Frampton Green. I was 
somewbat his junior in years, and liad heard so much of 
Mr. Jenner, of Berkeley, that I Iiad no small curiosity to 
see him. He was dressed iu a blue coat and yellow but^ 
tons, buckskins, wcll-polislied jockey-boots, with hjiudsome 
Bil\-er spurs, and he carried a smart whip with a silver 
handle. His boir, after the fasliion of the times, was dune 




up m A club, and he wore a broa<l -brimmed Lat. We were 
introduced oa that occnaion, and 1 was doliglatcd &iid nston- 
isbed. I wan prepai'ed to find an accomplished man, and 
all tlie country spoke of him as a skilful surgeon, and a 
great naturalist ; but I did not expect to find him so much 
at Lome on other matters. I, who had been Hpendiiig my 
time in cultivating my judg^uent by abstract study, and 
emit from my boyhood with tlie love of song, had (wugbt 
my amuBcment in tlie rosy fields of imagination, waa not 
less sur{>rised than gratified to find that tl>e aucieut afiiuity 
betwfxn Apollo aud ./Eaculapius waa ao well-maintained in 
his person." 

Gardner, till his death, which occurred while he was 
yet a youth, remained Jenner's most intimate fiiend, 
and the one to whom he confided bis first anticupations 
of future fama. It was in the year 1780, when riding 
cm the road between Bristol and Qlouoester, that Jenner, 
after going over the whole fiict^ of the origin of cow- 
pox in a disease of the horse, and of its communicatioo 
to the miJkers, to whom it gave security against small-por, 
with deep aud anxiouH emotion ment40U<jd his ho[)e of 
being able to propagate tluit variety Ixom one human being 
to another, till ht^ had diRst-minated the practice all over the 
globe, to the total oxtiuctiou of the BinaU-pox. "Qard- 
nor," he said, " I have entrusted a moat important matter 
to you, which I firmly believe will prove of essential bene- 
fit to the human race. I know you, aud should not wish 
what I have stated to be brought into conversation ; for 
should anything untoward turn up in my experiments, I 
should be made, particularly by my medical brethren, the 
subject of ridicule, for I am a mark iAey all eftoot at." 

We can hardly imagine any motive but enry, tbat could 
TDoke Jenner a professioDal target ; fur a more purely in- 
oficnRive man did not exist, — nay, more, a man more ovet^ 
flowing with all kindly human sympathies. Tlie follow- 



[Oiur. XII L 

ing description suggeabs a pastoral poem of the highest 
character : — 

"In following the calls of his profeaaon, through the 
' alleys brown ' and shady lanes of the beautiful vale 
where he i-esideil, he kept a constaut eye to the varying 
Bcenes which were passing before him : he bad the keenest 
reliali for picturesque beauty, aad in his excursions alike 
gratified his taste in this respect, aad increaaed his know- 
ledge by |)ur»uinj,' the details of natufal history. Ue thus 
contrived to combine the labours of bis profession with^ 
the tniest pleasure and instruction. On such occasions, be 
encouraged hia friends to join lum in hia rides. 1 hava. 
known, and do now know, those who have been favoured 
with Buch happiness, who have accompanied Mm for twenty 
or thirty miles in a morning, and listened with the higiie 
interest at one time to the overflowing of his mind, while 
with a vivid and imaginative fervour he shadowed forth 
hia own feelings, or with a paintci-'s eye and poet's tongnai 
delineated the beauties around him. He would then 
descend to les^iuipassioned themes, and explain, with the 
most captivating dimplicity and ingenuity, the coconouiy of 
vegntablcs and animals, or the various productions that 
came within observation." ' 

If Jenner had not hajype^ied to make his great disonvery, 
which he would not have done had his lot been cast iu a 
les»-pasfcoral district, bis name would now, almost cer- 
tainly, Ix! entirely unknown. Surely there ia at 
time many an " inglorious" Jenner going his daily round 
of usefulness, and as he passes from the mansion of the 
noblemah to the cottage of the labourer, leaving beluad 
liirn, a lessou of pure humanity, simple and elevating — a 
bond of true Christian union between classes which the 
harsh maxims of political economy, cheap selling, cheap 
l>roductioD, and dear buying— organized sellisbnoas — teudj 
' Borm'a Lifa of J«iiD«r, pp. 13, 11- 




in our day luora and more to ditnuiite. Surely we do not, in 
oiir estiiTiate of modern civili/aiioii, give Kufiicteitt value to 
the inedicul elemeut — tlie most God-like function that caa 
be exercised by a human buing — diacliargixl in its ideal 
perfection only by the Sox of SIax.' 

We cannot wonder that such a youth as Jenuer, fall of en- 
ergy and sentiment, should, soon after ho Hcttled and found 
simscif on tho roiul to indepcndenct% hiivo Kulimiitnc] to the 
^oonuuon law of huniauity in such coudilioLis, and fallen in love 
with all the ardour of his temperament. Hcconummicated 
the fiiet bit his friend, )[r. Hunter, and aftcrvvai'ds liad to con- 
vey to that man of sense the mortiiyiug intelligence that Iiis 
suit bad not prospered, and that henceforth he was doomed 
to drof; out his life in loneliuGGs and miBcry. The letter 
John Hunter wrote in reply is so ctiaracteriiitic, that it 
deaerves quotation. 1 1 runs au follows : — 

" Dkah JvirttzK, — I OTti I wu at A lon to ncooani for jaar >Uenee, and I vaa 
mnrj tor tho cauv. 1 can bufil} ixiuceivc haw you tniiat fcvl, forjtou luTO two 
mon* lo conl«iii3 w^lh, rut., tJi&L of doing (linppoaAleil in lora, tuid tKil of 
dlfoateJ ; but both wUI vtv oat, perliaiMi tbc 6aA soodmL I own I was 
I when I ittxd yoQ vrerc to be married to ft vomui of foitime ; tut let tur 
BO, ntvtr numii Act. I iIluII «uijjIoj jtni with teil4,i!)ius^ fur I ilo nut know tiow 
Ui I may tnial uiiDe. I «ruit yaii M get a liwli^hog in tha l«^iiDiDg of w-iuler, 
■ad vogh hun, [mt bim in jrour i^knlen, auil I«t bin bare •utno Icutc*, haj, m 
■tmv, le Mver bbniett witli. which he wiU do, then wrigh him in epiiag, and 
■uo what bv hna ImI. Snwuilly, 1 vftnt you to kill odw ftt the hcfinniiiK of 
vinUr, to aoe bov fat be in ; nntl another in atiring, to we what he baa leat of his 
bt. Thirdly, ««b«u i1i« wmchur it very cold, and about the moatb of January, 
I omld wiati you votild rooko n hole in one of their bellioi, ami pat the thar- 
ni(tmet«r ilovn into the [lelria, and aM the Iwlglit of tli« mon^ury ; thun turn il 
npwudi tovaidi the dtapbngMi, and ebaerre the bout therr. &a much lU 
^jreantt f»ir licdgehogii.— Landna, 1778."* 

This was John Hunter's receipt for treating a case 
of love-aickness : it might be quoted SlU the hedgehog-cure. 

t "The profMBoon of the Unman 
Healer being radically a wen*] one, uul 
Wnneettd with the lii^tihtiiil )>ri«BtltocKl^ 
or, mlker, being in Ibdf th« oqIcodm 

nnit ncme of all piierthoodi and divi- 
ned conqueiita here b«doir."^T. Oar- 
* Uaroa'a Life, p. 63. 



{Chap. Xni. 

In the case of Jenner, it waa jierfeetly succeasfiil ; for, some 
years laior, lie writes to another correspondent, — " My place 
of residence, tlioogU unfinished, is extremely comfortable ; 
and I con assure you the last year of my Ufii, dating it 
from Miu'cli, Ijaa been tlie happiest boyond all oomparisoa 
I ever experienced ; and I will take it upon me to aver 
(nay, I -would swear it), that if yon could be lucky enougli 
to connect youmelf with a wonmn of such a disposition as 
kind fortuno hu» at last given me, you will find a vast 
fidditiou to your stodc of happiness." He hod followed] 
Hunter's ad\'ice — let his first object of Attachment go, and 
occupie<d himself with dissecting hedgehugs, and similar 
pursuits. The hedgehog-cure is worth the serious atten- 
tion of all who are in the position in whicli Jeniier 
found himself in the year 1778 ; and may the issue be as 
fortunate I His wife was a Misa Kingcote, a lady of good 
fiunil}', with whom he led a life of uninterrupted domestic,, 

All the time that he was pursuing his studies in natural 
history, many of which were very ituportant, the grand 
object of his life was never out of his mind. "While the 
vaccine discovery was progressing,- the joy I felt at th« 
prospect before mo of being the instniment destined to 
take away from t3ie world one of its greatest calamities, 
blended with tlie fond hopo of enjoying independence and 
domestic peace and happiness, was often so excessive, that 
in pursuing my favourite subject among tho meadows, I 
have sometimes found myself in a kind of reverie. It is 
pleasant to me to reculleot, that these reflections always 
ended in devout acknowledgement to that Being from 
whom tliis and all other mercies flow." It was not till 
the year 1798, that he had prepared his narrative of tho: 
process of vaccination. it is t^bort, and a lesson to those - 
who hasten to divulge their most trifling observations, lest 
tliey should be robbed of their claims to originality. 




Jenner 6r3t commonicated his belief in vaccination to 
Hunter in the year 1770; and, although Hunter men- 
tioned it annttally to liis class, yet Jenner published no- 
thing about it tlU nearly thirty yeara afterwards, having 
fipent the whole of that time in rigidly examining the facts 
of the ease, and making the inierencea which were re- 
quired, in order to substantiate the discovery and render it 
immediately available. Some one defines genius as the 
capacity of patient labour. Jenner's career might be 
quoted id Ctvour of this delimtion. The result of all hia 
labours of thirty years, ia thus quietly told : ' — " My inquiry 
into the nature of the cow-pox eommencGd upwards of twenty- 
five years ago. My attention to this singular disease was 
lirst excited by observing, that among ihosa whom in thu 
country' I was colled upon to inoculate, many resisted 
eveiy effort to ^ve them the small-pox. These patients I 
found had undergone a disease tliey oiU the cow-pox, con- 
tracted by milking cows affected with a peculiar eruption 
on their teats. On inquirj*, it appeared that it had been 
knowQ among the dairies from lime immemorial^ and 
that a vague opinion prevailed that it was a preventive of 
the smoU-pox. This opinion I found was comparatively 
new among them ; for all the older larmers declared they 
bad no such idea in their younger days— a drcumstance 
that seemed easily to be aocount«d for, from my knowing 
that the common people were very rarely inoculated for tho 
smaU-poK, till that practice was rendered general by the 
improved method Introduced by the Suttons ; so that tho 
working people in the dairies were seldom put to the test 
of the securing powers of tlie cow-pox. 

" In the course of tho investigation of this subject, which, 
like all others of a complex and intricate nature, pre- 
sented many difficulties, I found that some of those who 

' The Origin at the Varan* Inoco- 
UlioD. Ky Rflwud JenBAT, M.D., 

P.R.a, kc L(ma<m, 1S01. 



[CsAP. XUI. 

seemed to have undergone ibe cow-pox, nevertheless, oit 
inoculation mtb tlia small-pox, Mt iU influence jusb as if 
DO disense bad been communicated to tKem by tbe oow. 
This occurrence leil me to enquire among tbe medical prM> 
titjoncrs in the comity around me, who all agreed iu thJa 
sentiniont, that the cow-pox was not to be relied upon na\ 
a certain pnjventive of the small-|iOx. This for a whild 
damped, but did not extinguish my ai-dour; for, as I pro- 
oeedud I hnd the satisfuction to learn that the cow wjis 
(fubject to some varieties of epontaneous eruptions upuu Let 
teatft ; that they were all capable of communicating aorel 
to the hands of the milkers ; and that whatever 80ro \raa 
derived from the animal was called in tbe dairy cow-pox. 
Thus I Hurmounted a great obstacle, and in consequence 
WOB led to form a distinction between the&Q diseases^ one of 
which only I have denominated the true, the others the 
spun-oiia cow-pox — as they posseaa no specific power over 
ibe constitution. This impediment to my progi-cas was 
not long removed, before another of far greater niagoitude 
in its appearance started up. There were not wauting in- 
stances to pTX)ve that when tlie true cow-pox broke out 
among tbe cattle at a dairy, a person who had milked an in- 
fected animal, and had thereby aiipareutly gone through the 
di3e:isc in common with othars, was liable to receive small- 
pox afterwards. This, like the former obstacle, gave a 
paiiitul check to my fond aud aspiring hopes ; but reflect- 
ing tliat the operations of nature ore generally unifonn, and 
that it was not probable the human coustituiiou (having 
undergone the cow-pox) should in some imttances be per- 
fectly shielded from the small-pox, aud in many others 
remain unprotected, I resumed my labours with redoubled 
ardour. The result was favourable ; for I now discoverod 
that the virus of the cow-pox was liable to undei-go pro- 
gressive changes from the same causes j>redsely as that of 
the small-jiox ; aud that when it was applied to tbe humfta 




skin in its degenerated Ettaie, it would produce tlie uloerative 
cffocte in m great, a d^ree as when it was not dccom]>o3ed, 
&iul soiiieiiiiitiH far greater; but having Lost its ajKcifio 
pi-opertie9, it was lacupable of produdug that change upon 
the htmiaii Jranic which is requisite to render it unsus- 
ceptiblo of the vcir'toloutt cmiUttfiwi : so that it Ixicojuo 
evident, a person might niilk a cow one dity, and ha\'iug 
caught the disease, be for ever secure ; while another per- 
Bon, luilking the same cow the next day, might feel the 
iu£ii£aoe of tbe virus in such a way aa to produce a itore 
or sores, and in consequence of this, might experience on 
indisposition to a consiilcrablo extent ; yet, as has bocu 
observed, the specific quality being Lost, the constitution 
would receive no peculiar impression. 

"Here the close analogy between the virus of small-pox 
and of cxiW'pox beoomex remarkably coaspicuous ; since the 
former, when taken from a recent pustule, and imme- 
diately used, gives the i)erfect small-pox to » person on 
whom it is inoculated ; but when taken in a far-advanced 
rBtoge of the diseaae, or when (alttiough taken early) previoualy 
to its insertion, it he e^^posed to inich agcntA a^, aeoording 
to tbe (^tablished Itiws uf nature, cause its decompositiou, 
it can no longer be relied on as effectual. This obtn>rv*atiua 
will fully explain the aource of those errors which have 
been committed by many inoculators of the cow.pox. 
Conceiving the whole process to be so extremely simple 
as not to admit of a mwtake, they have been heedless 
about the state of the vaccine virus ; and finding it limpid, 
as part of it will be even in an advanced stage of the [>us- 
tule, when tlie greater portion faaa teeu converted into a 
Bcab, they have felt an improper confidence, and sometimes 
mistaken a spurious pustule, whicli the vacdne fluid in this 
state a capable of exulting, for that which possefises the 
perfect character. 

" ihiring tbe iuvoBiigatioD of the casual cow-pox, I was 



CCkir. xm. 

struck with the iilea, tbat it iiiiglit be practicable to propar 
gate the disease hy iuoculatioD, after the maimer of the 
small-pox, first from the cow and finally from one fatunHi 
being to anotlier. I anxiously waited some timo for an 
opportunity of putting this theory to the test At length 
the period arrived. The first experiment was made upoa 
a lad of the name of Fhippu, in whose arm a little vaccine 
virus was Inserted, taken from the hand of a yoang woman 
who had beeu accidontally affecteJ hy a cow. Notwith- 
standing the resemblance which the pustule thus excited 
on tlie boy's arm bore to variolous inoculation, yet as the 
indispoBition attending it was barely perceptible, I could 
soarcfly persuiide myself the patient was secure from tbe 
small-pox. However, on his being inoculated some moDtlia 
afterwards, it proved that he was secure. Thia onae 
inspired me with confidenoe ; and as soon as I could again 
fiimiah myself with virus from the cow, T made arrange- 
meats for a series of inoculations. A number of chiidrea 
were inoculated in suceesaion one from tlie other, and niter 
several montlia hod elapsed tlicy were exposed to the 
infection of small-jiox — some by inoculation, others by 
variolous effluvia, and some in both wu^'s ; but they all 
resisted it. Tlic result of these trials gradually led lue 
into a wider field of experiment, which I vent over, not 
only witli great attention, but with painful soUcitude. 
This became universally known through a treatise pub- 
lished in June, 17&8. The result of my fiirther experience 
was also brought forward in subsequent publications in the 
two succeeding years, 1799, and 1800. The distrust and 
scepticism which naturally arose in the minds of medical 
men on my first announcing so unexpected a discovery ha« 
now neariy disappeared. Many hundreds of them, from 
actual experience, have given their attestations that the 
inocuktivc cow-pox proves a perfect security against the 
Bniall-]iox : and 1 shall probably be within compass if I 



say, tliousaodB are ready to foDoT tJbeir example ; for the 
rKope that this inoculatioa Ims now takou is imiuenso. A 
hundred thousand persons, upon the smallest computation, 
have been inocuUtcd in these realms. The numbers who 
have pnrtakea of its benefits throughout Europe and other 
ports of the globe are incalculable : and it now becoinett 
too manifest to admit of controversy, tliat the annihilation 
of the small-pox, the mo^t dretulfu] scourge of the human 
species, must be the final result of tln.s practice." 

Tltis memoir waft published in 1801, and in it Jennor 
omits, wiklt cliaracteristic magnanimity, all allusion to the 
discourngeraentsi ho had experienoed in hia endea^'ours to 
obtain the reoogtiition of his duwovery. Before Ids first 
publication, " he luR Berkeley, with Mrs. Jennor and his 
^daughter, on the 24th of April, 1798. They slept the 
first night at Cirencester ; nest day they proceeded to 
Benson, and the following afternoon they arrived in Pall 
Mail, where they dined witli Mre. Jeimer's relative. Mr. 
LaJbroke. Dr. Jenner remained in London till the 14th of 
July ; on that day be quitted it, and arrived in Cheltenham 
the some evening. I am thus particular," says his biogra- 
pher, " in specifying the dates, which I have ascertained by 
a reference to his juurnol, becauiw they are connected with 
a remarkable fact in the history of vaccination. Ik will 
Bcarcely be believed, that with all his efforts and those of 
hia friends, ho was unable, during the period of nearly 
thrco months that he continued in the metropolis, to pro- 
cure one person on whom he could exhibit the vaccine 
disease. I remember, he often stated that his patience 
had been exhausted on that occasion, and that he had 
actually quitted the capital without having accomplished 
the object of his journey ; but it was not till lately 1 dis- 
covered that he had so much cause for feeling disappointed." 
Jeuner's patience had been tried for twent^'-fivo years, 
while he was making his investigations among the meadows 


[cba?. xin. 

of Lis native vale ; but three months passed ui London 
during the season wore it out. Nor can we wonder, when 
we consider the bittenieHs of hifl [lisAp{K>intmcnt. He 
came to Loudon not an unknown adventurer, but alreadj' 
authenticated m a man of accurate scientific observntion. 
Mis pa]>erH had been read and applanded by the Koyal 
Society, of which body he became a member. The dis- 
covery he wished to exhibit was in strict accordance with 
physiology and pathology, and one which Jolin Hui)t<?r, the 
founder of the greatest anatomical museum in the kingdiHn, 
had speculatively recognized : so much for its antecedent 
probability. There was nothing very strange or para- 
doxical about it to repel inquiring raimls — -nothing in the 
diacoveiy, and nothing in the discoverer. Nor was it one 
which even the most ignorant and indifferent could affect 
to treat with unconcern, if true. A discovery which pro- 
fessed to eradicate the small-pox could not be slighted. 
How then did it liappen, that iu Loiidou, among all the 
physicians and mirgcons, none was found of zenl and 
euterprise KulTicient to put Jenner's method to the teat, and 
acq_uire fur himHelf, if not the renown of the discoverer, at 
least the distinction of having verified a most important 
and till then disputed truth, or exploded a dongeraus dt'lu> 
won 1 Doubtless the reason was, that the men to whom ha 
applied were all too busy with their hospitals and their 
private patienta to give up their valuable time to this 
ingenious Country Doctor, whf>, doubtless they whispered, 
was beconiiiig a deckled bore ; and so Jenner relumed, his 
object unattiiined; and having carefully prepared his treatise, 
be published it that very year. 

In the incnii time, the celebrated surgeon, Mr. CHne, ha^l 
auooeeded in his rejxrtitiou of Jenner "s experiments ; and 
with the instinct of a successful metropolitan practitioner, 
wrote at once to the author of the discovery to come to 
London, take a liouse in Qro«venor Square, and moke 




jpl 0,000 a-year. This was the prnctical view of tlte value 
of the djacuvery I Jftnner's reply b interesting : — " I fc is very 
clear, froiu your rcprcseDtatioa, that there is uow an opening 
in towu for any plij-sician whose repntotion etoctd ftur in 
the public eye ; but here, my dear friend, ia the rub. Shall 
I, who, even in the morning of my days, sought the lowly 
&nd 8e<iuestered patlis of life, the valley, and not the 
mountain; sliall 1, now my evening is fiiat npproactiing, 
hull! myself up uj^ an object for fortune and fame 7 Admit- 
ting it as a certainty that 1 obtain both, what stock should 
I add to my little store of bappine^ ? My fortune, with 
what flows from my profession, is sulUcient to gratify my 
wishes : indeed, so limited is my ambition, and Oiat of my 
nearest connections, that were I preduded from future 
practice, I should be enabled to obtain all I want. And 
as for fame, what is it i A gililcd fcuM, for evar pierced by 
the aiTows of malixfnancy. The name of Jolm Hunter 
stamps this ol«ervation with the signature of truth." The 
letter goes oa to say. that although bimself indiQ'erent to 
the allurements of wealth and Gime, fte is keenly sensitive 
in rej^rd to the piT)grcs.i of his discovery, and that he 
fears that it will fall into the bands of persons incapable 
of can^-ing on his method with the requisite care, and that 
for this he will be liehl answerable. We shall seo that bis 
fears were but too well grounded : but not, alas [ his hopes 
of escaping obloquy and abuse by courting seclusion, and 
refusing tlie glittering prize of hia merit 

The first serious risk encountered by vaconation was 
fi*om the indiseretidn of two of its earliest advocates, Dr. 
Pearson, and his colleague, Dr. Woodvillo. Tlicy wore tlic 
physicians to the Small-pox Hospital, -and there made 
experiments with the vacane matter iu so careless a 
manner, that iliey mixed the small-pox and the vaccine 
disease, and produced a sort of hybrid which was capable 
of pro<lucing true 6U)all<pox ; and when they believed they 




were disseminating innocnons Taccine, they irere really 
spreading ita deadly sisler-dUeoBC. The consequenoe vna, 
llmt an alonn was raised tlmt tho pretended discovery 
good for nothing ; and it required all Jenner'e penetraiioQ 
of ralnd and vigour of character to detect and arrest 
this dreadful calamity. He went to London, expostulated 
with the great men there, and exposed their errors. By 
so doing, he succeeded in rescuing his discovery from de-^ 
structinn, and in securing for himself the life-long hatred 
of those whom he had been obliged to correct. 

Having thus escaped shipwreck at the outset of its 
career, tlie triumph of vaccination wna rapid and complete. 
Many persons of high rank and inHueuce in society, took 
up the subject as one of national importance ; and, in tha 
year 1801, a proposal vaA mooted for biinging it before 
the notice of Parliament. Among the corree[M>udence 
published by Dr. Baron, there is a curious letter &om 
Lord Sherboume, to this effect :— 

LoMi Siictuioviuni to Db. Jsinnft. 
Hv Dkjui Di>CT0K,--Miui5 thaok* fur jour einnuiutUiUK] toUer. I wo ' 
to My E do not know Mr. Addington, crcii by ufhl. Tliey l*tl mo the king 
nKOTvriii^ very fiut, uiJ v« nmy cxpvct a Urowiim-room iKNiti, wliich I will attond (J 
and I will Uieu aiteak U Mr. I^LL U P»lri«t OntUn ^cte i:SO,000 for Itm 
f>ntri«liHcrt, Mm truo ixiUiut, Jenniar, ilewrvM maob niure — ] ua mm uc4 tcM ; 
*ntl IcMwonM i<- [wrfMtly Httaliliy to think of. I perfwrUy rwellect Ontittut'a 
bauin««i — il wwtetilfld aiuon^t hla trituiitio ]iroiioii« £100, 04(1 fijr Lue ; tktor* 
mbLiVB Id Hik eikin^h, ud fMrisg Uutt mm nhould not be gnmtcd, om of Us 
moirt portiraLu* frionil* wim to gpt u]i nftentiiri!" and ]ir»[xwi' il.10,OUO, willed vat 
ixninodlaUly greuUNl, uid he took X4i,QO0 fm prompt paTmcnt. 
I WD, my dMT Doctor, 

Tuurn nry truly, 


So it was arranged that the matter should be brought 
before Parliament by a petition from Jenner, which waa 
accordingly done on the 17th of March, 1802. Tlie 
I'riniQ Minister of the day, Mr. Addlngton, informed the 
House that he liad taken His Majesty's pleasiu-e on the con- 

\.TK 1749.18BS.) 



teuts of the petitiou, auJ that His Majesty »trongly 
reoommended it to the considcrntJon of Parliniiicnt. It 
was refeiTed to a ooiiiinittee, of wbicli Admiml Berkeley 
was cbairiQiLu. The report of the coiumitt«e avus bi'DUght 
up on the 2nd nf Jnne. The chairnmn stated, t!iat it 
Wiis usual in biich cnxs to enaiiiiiie only the [letiticmers' 
witues»e:j, but that, in this instance, tbey bad sifted every 
case that told againat Ur. Jenner, and Uie result vrtu, 
that bis discovery was the greatest ever iiiodo for the pro- 
oervation of the human Hpecietj. The Chancellor of the 
Exchequer spoke of vaccination an " the greatest, or one of 
the most im|K)rtaiit, diHcoveries to liuinan sodety, that has 
been made since the creation of iiuui." Mr. Courteoay 
said it appeared in evidence Uiat *' 40,000 men were 
annually preserved to the State by Dr. Jeuner's discovery ; 
by thin ^'^00,000 were annually brought iu to tbo Kx- 
chequer." It appeared, moreover, that Dr. Jemier had 
actuidly expended i^6000 Id prosecuting his discoveries ; 
and that, by the evidence of the first nioilical jiractitionerB 
in tbo kingdom^ he might easily have mmle i^l 0,000 a-year 
had be kept it a secret. Ad lionourable member suggested, 
that had lie done bo, thoro would have been no need of 
ooming before Poi-liamcut at all. That was evidently the 
right view for Jenner to have taken : he »kotil4 hav4 sold 
&w dUcovery in the d^areet marirH. 

Of the fact of vaccination being one of the greatest dis- 
^coveries, and perhaps the most directly beneficial, ever made, 
there was no question ; nor waa there a doubt exjircascd an 
to Jonnor's loss from his liberality ; so tlutt all the House 
bad to do, was to consider how they were to reward the 
man " whom the king delighted to honour.*' The House of 
Conimonjti, as the nation's treasurers, had power to give 
only a money reward ; and the que&tion was, what sum 
would adequiitely represent tlie gratitude of the richest 
}□. in tbi2 world to it« greatest benefactor. As Lord 

B B 


COhap. ZIII 

Sherhminip puti it^ if Grnttan luid received ^30j00< 
&om poor Ireland, "as a tetttimoDy of tlie national gratitude 
for great national services," which cuDsisttiJ iii persuading 
An Iri^i PAiliniiient, "that the King's Most Exocllc^t 
Ui^jesty, aiid the Lords and Cuiumons of Ireland, are the 
only rowel's competent to make laws to bind Irehuid," 
what mm of money should be voted to Jenner for pro-] 
serving the lives of 40,000 Englishmen every year fl 
Here was a sum given, to the House of Commons to bo 
worked by the rule of three. The answer Uiey gave waa 
jpl 0,000, from which is to be dtiducted -i^GOOO of expen- 
diture, leaving" to the fortunate author the haudsume feofl| 
fi-om the British ration of ^4000, for an annaal saving ^^ 
of 40,000 lives. Thf- Chancellor of the Exchequer waa i 
evideutly somewhat a&liamed to oifer this shabby fee, but^^| 
a» a makeweight, added, that the di^cnssion " had given ' 
a reward to Hr. .Tenner that would l.-ist for ever." The 
hutinur of attending tlie Jiritisli nittiou was to be a do- 
duction from the amount of acknowledgment. It is lair to 
add that Grey, Wilberforce, and others, wished the sum to^M 
ho. doubled, but tlitir motion was lost by a majority of^^ 
three on the other side. The wise economists aui'iwl their 
point, and showed how much more profitable it was to bo 
a political agitator tliaii a national benefnctor. 

It is true that a grant of double the amount w»s voted 
on a subsequent oocasion ; but it is a matter of surprise that 
no title of honour aliould have been conferred upon Jenner. 
There can be no doubt that had he, instead cif only 9amna^ 
forty thousand British liveu a y.-nr, succeeded, in the capa. 
city of general or admiral, in ilcdroying an equal number 
of the king's enemies, Ld would have been raised to the ■ 
peerage, with an annual income at least as gnmt as the ^| 
ca[Hlal sum ho received from the State. " How is it," hia " 
biograplter asks, " that merit such as his is so inadetiuately 
rewarded 1 Why this disparity between military and civil 

*.ii. 1?4»-1823.] 



heroes 1 " Several causes tend to produce Uiiit rcsnlb. One 
of them is the remote tnulitioiial sentiment derived from 
tbe period uf the Nonnan Conquest, that war and the chose 
are the two occupations proper for gentlemen, and that 
labour is for serfe. This feeling, ns now expressed, no longer 
exists ; but It has left its trail behind, which setisibly, 
thoagb unconsciously, affects British thought and action. 
Another and deeper cause may be thus expressed : — As the 
strongest iustinrt in the individual is self-prcscn-aticm, so 
a corresponding sense of national preser^'ation is the moat 
eafiential sentiment for a nation, as such, to cherish. Par- 
liament and royalty are the legitimate organs for the 
expn?8sion of this national instinct ; and it devolves upon 
them to be the exponents, not of the rights of humanity at 
large, but of tlie rights and privileges of the nation In par- 
ticular. Henoe, those who add to the power, the wealth, 
or the glory of one nation, to tho exctunon or detriment of 
other nations, are the proper objectw of national reward. 
When we say — tho proper objects of national reward, we 
mean upon tlie ground of the present idea of a nation, as a 
unit always in the attitude of self-defence, alwa^-s prepared 
to strike to avoid the risk of being struck. The Jews afford 
the best type of tliis intense national sentiment j it may be 
a question whether it is not in some degree repugnant to 
Christianity. At all events, if the time that the poet things 
of shall ever oome, when 

" the commOD mdm of innut ihidl hold a frttfnl ratlin In «■«, 

Anil tho kltuU; «ith ah»U BlDintfcr, lapt In mivenal lft«, 

Wbca Um vaT'dmni tlirota no Innfpir, An<t tlic t«lUv-fla^ nra forl'd, 

In At PaHiamtni of man, the fedontian of the world ; "■ 

— if this time ever come, there is little doubt that such 
a Parliament will award very different promotion to ni«i 
of the stamp of Jenner, firom what was allotted him by 
the British House of Commons. 

I Tdinjaan. 




{Ch*p. nn. 

After llift iiationftl recognilion of vaccination, and «veo 
before it, tUw practicti rapidly sjiread over England, being 
r^onsly aiioptcd by many clorgymcn and ministers of 
religion^ wlm did tbeir utiiiOHt, by jiersaasion and example, 
to induce their flocks ' io excliiioge tlie dangerous plan of 
small-pox inoculation for tlie new and safis metliod of 
Jenner. Associations, too, of various kinds, both general 
and local, were formed for keeping up a supply of vnooiae 
roatLer, and promoting the mloption of the practice hy 
gratuitous vacciuation, and by the publi«Ltion of tracts and 
handbills, in whioli the auperiority of the new to the old 
plan was set forth. Those a-^jtooiations contained a large 
proportion of tint non-niedical elvmoiit ; iin<l, indeed, it may 
be said of voucinalion, that it owud the position it rapidly 
gained, mnch more to the efforts of public>spirited noblemen, 
clergy, and gentleineii, than to the ineiidiora of the medical 
profession. While Jenner only niet with cold support 
or covert 0])position from such men as Drs. Pearson and 
*Wood>-ilIe, who, as physiciaus of the Small-pox Hospital, 
should have been most forward in appreciating the mag- 
nttudo of his discovery ; he and his sj'stem, and all who 
adopted it, wfre made, by some of his brethren, the butt 
of attacks which equal in extravagance anything we have 
yet met with in the History of Medicine. 

Among the moat energetic and unscnipnlous of hia 
opiKinents wiw Dr. Moseley, a man of some reputjition, 
whoso works upon tropical diseases and the eifecta of coRue 
had gone tlirough, the one four, the other five editions. 
The Bishop of Rromore b<yirs testimony 1.o bis merits, 
reoording the fact that "the public and ourselves are under 
infinite obligations to hitn for bis generous attempt to 
dispd the prevaUinff (i^vsion." 

The title of Dr. Moselcy's book ' indicates the 

* A TrcBiiie t>n tbc Lao BotUIb, or 
Cow-iux. Kj ll«njMnin Moaels;, H. P. 

2ii4mLii. London. 1S06. 

.l^ 1749-1S23.I 



of its contents. It is cnllnd a treatise on Luas BoviUa^ or 
cow-pox. The motto on the title-page is so inconslstirnt with 
the spirit of tbe work, as even to shock iw by its jjrofaiiity. 
Dr. Mosiiley jirefeccs Kis attack on Jcnncr and his foUowers 
with tliese sncrod words : — " Fatht-r, for;^ive them, for they 
know uot what they do/' We Mhall let this wilighteued, 
candid, and tolcratit phj*sician, this "generous" dispdler of 
a delusion, speak for hinuelf. The preface of his second 
edition opens thus : — 

"I tJiought then (I71»S)a« I do now (1805), that expe- 
rience is not neecssai-y to know that oow-]>ox o*fmo( he a 
preveutive iigainsl siiial]-pox ; for on the principleti of patho- 
logy and Rnalngy, from tlie laws of the animal economy, 
and the want of reciprocity between the two diseaaes, it is 
imposetblu to believe, without an entire subveraiou uf our 
reason, that either should render the huimin frame unsus- 
ceptible of thy other. The intrwUiction of a brwtial humour 
into the human fnune beiitdeH, was not, in my mind, a mutter 
of indifierence ia respect of liiture health ; and, from analo- 
gous circumstances, I was uot without apprehension th».t in 
some habits the most dreadful consetjuences might entme. 
Time and experience have at length proved that i was not 
influenced by erroneous conjectures. BlinUneas, Inmeuess, 
and deforrait}', have been the resalt in innnmerahle in- 
siflnoes ; and Us fatal venmn Itas removed vmnyan in/ant 
vntiniel^ fixim the world. Haoy gf the clergy who have 
taken so active a part in fffomnlgating cow-pox doctrine, 
ar« to be excused, as their profession doea not eeem to 
furniKh their abundant zeal with sufHcient engagement. 
Therefore, if on this occasion they have gone a little out of 
tlieir road, it is only hoped tliat they will return into it as 
iiist as possible. It is Ukewtse hoped, when any medical 
dispute slialJ arise hereafter in the world, tliat they will 
wait until it is over before (key jitin the wrtniff e'tde of Uu 



[Omat. XIIL 

Surely this ia a very Hibernian view of the duty of 
the clergy, to wait till they know for oertain wluch is tbe 
wrong side, and tUca join tJiat ! So macb for the preface: 
the book itself oj^na thus ; — 

"In the year 1758, the cow-pox inoculation mazuft 

seized the |:ieopla of Kuglaud en fnasee Great 

eventa are foreboded. Some pretead that a restive, greasy- 
heeled horse will kick down all the gallipots of Galen ; 
otliem, that the people of Knglajid are becoming like the 
ixUuiMtants of a wilderness beyond the l&nd of Catbay, 
seen in ]333 by the rare and inimitable Sir John Mande- 
ville, who, he says, were 'wild, with horns on their beads, 
very hideous, and speak not, but rout as swine.'" * . . . . ^j 
" Can any person say what may be the consequence of ia-^| 
troduoing a bestial humour into the human frame after a 
long lapse of yeare ? Who knows, besides, what ideas may 
arise in the course of time from a hcstud fever luiviug 
eKcited its incongruous impression on the braiu ? Who 
kno\s'8 but what the hurnan character may undergo Htranga 
mutations from quadrupedaii sympatby ?"* 

Who, indeed ^ 

Not content with suggesting these dire conseqoenoee to 
the human body by the introduction of a bestial humour 
into it, Dr. Moseley charitably represents tliat the vaccinaturB 
are most unscrujjulous and tyrajinical in thtiir proceedings ; 
and givee, as an example, the following aitecdote : — " A very 
respectable apothecary has informed me, that when he re> 
lated to one of the cow-pox enthusiasts several instances of 
small-iiox after cow-pox occinring in his om'd practice, tho 
enthusiast told him he would be i-uined if he did not bold 
his tongue. The cuw-[>ox: medical men, he said, were nu> 
merous and powerful ; that they had tlieir eye on any 
person who made observations against the cow-pox, and 
Uial they w&re determined to do ail the mjury tJiey 

Op. dt., t^ 8. 

op. dt, p. tl. 

k.v. 17411 1828.] 



to any nuin icfw ghould mtiix knottm tmy case of mUcfiiej 
or faitare. This is cow-pox philosophy !" ' 

Here is & picture of the Jeniicrian soct, drawn by an 
oilvcrsary : — tbe very tact of believing in Jenner coiTupted 
tiieir piinciplea of religion niid philosophy. This wos 
written in tbe prenmit century! It seums almost iuci'ediblu 
tluLt )>a«8ion oould eo blind judj^ent ; but ko it was, so it 
is, and bo, wc fear, it will be till the final judgment, when 
ihu highest reason and the widedt charily shall resume 
their reign over our race, restored to the Paiadiue they lost 
by man's first disobedience to the commands of Uim in 
whose image he was created. 

It tK, perhaps, unfiur to Dr. Hoeeley to deny hiiu 
" melting charity ;" for in tbe following passage be s])oaka, 
more in sorrow than in anger, of the [jerpetnitoni of this 
heinous offence against humanity. 

" Although I am reiuly io admit that tlie cow-pox is not 
contagious, yet I know ilmi the cow-|»>x mania in ; and that 
tlio malady, wliether aritung from tlte empty ventriules of 
the b[-ain, or from the thickness of the os frvjitia, maketi tbe 
diRtcmpcred — to nuni not stcehd against the infimiitUs of 
t/ieir feUuitr-creatures — more objects of pity iliaii of resent- 
ment ; more proper tliau any inft^cted Irom tlie Le^'ant> to 
perform solitary quarantine on beds of straw with a regu- 
Uted diet usiud ui such cn^en, than for the rational pursuits 
of society."' Returning to the charge of intolerance, 
Moseley observes, " Mr. Birch, an excellent surgeon, ni the 
so/d athodl of tnikodoxy^ and an eaennff to siirffi*k(l 
tjwtdt«rif, has met with as little civility."' 8u Jeuner, 
and all who believed iu vaccination, were quacks I The 
aafs adiool of orthodoxy consisteil of those who a^lherod to 
iuocnlation, although it was proved by statistics that, while 
vaocinatiou was never attended hy (aUd c^msL-queuoBS, tlie 
mortality in amall-pox inoculation was one in three han- 
■ O)!^ oiL, p. <4. ' Op. di, p. sn. > IKd, 



[CoA*. xur. 

lired. Notwithstanding this well-attested foot, orthc 
or the old system- — -not very old either — whs snie ; the 
new |»raclioe waH medicail heresy, quackery, nnd dnngt-roos, 
because new ; go dangerous tliat "Zacchia" is of opinion 
that whether a child should die or not from cow-pox inocQ- 
lation, the peraon who deviates from a certiMU, secure, and 
well-known path into one that is uncertain, new, and doabtiiil, 
ouglit to do penance at the Old Bailey- Nay, he even in- 
sinuatea that a small pilj^magc at the cart's tail would be 
very proper for thoao sinners whose crime has beeo in- 
creased by disorderly behaviour in defence of it.' Accord- 
ing to this "generous opponent of a prevailing delusion," 
instead of a Pari i amen taiy grant when alive, and a statoe 
after his death, Jenner should have been whipped at tbe 
tail of a cart along the Strand. 

To deter the pnhlic from accepting the dimgeroua gift 
offered by tttia wily Gtouccbter (turgeon, Dr. Koaeley gives 
a catalogue of the horrible consequences that attend mc^ 
cination. The first on his list is the " Fades IiaviU<if or 
cow-pox face," of which he gives the following description : 
— " The face swollen, with the eyes distorted by strabisoius ; 
tumefactions or abscesses about the itygoma, orbits of the 
eye, and cheeks ; the nose flattened, the front tauriform, 
and the coimtenance so changed that people have with 
much reason given tliis sort of fiu» the appellation of tlie 
ox.&ce." ' 

Tlie clergy and ministers of religion were among tbe 
diief offendprs, and one of tlip foremost was Rowland Hill. 
&> against Rowland Hill, Dr, Mi«e)ey hints the following : 
— " Instead of saints and societic-s for the BUppression of 
vice arising from hia immaculate doctrines, we shall see a 
set ofdeiMical medical disci]>Ies is.suing from Surrey Chapel, 
with lancets in their Lands instead of religious books ; 

> D« RnnritMii Htilmnini 

tt left * M«iH«Tf, op. cit, p. 127. 

x.i>. 174fi>18S3.) 



aiul inHbead of going forth and ijn>aohing fait)), tliey will be 
practlsJDg good works ; aod by iittetnpting to explain a 
new way to heaven by pustules, eschars, and the time for 
takiug matter, tlipy may be entirely loHt." 

Another conspicuous opponent of Jenner wna Dr. 
Rowley, member of the University of Oxford, of the Royal 
College of Pliymcians of London, &c., &c.' He iliiift de- 
scribes, with what truthfiJDess we know, the introduction 
of vaccination to public notice: — "The cow-pox was forced 
into tlie world with the utmost vehemence, pomp, and 
o&t«ntatioD. It was too hot to hold : ilierefore, the refined 
artists struck biiskly wliile the iron was hot. Many men 
of the strongest passions, but not, perhaps, of the strongest 
reflection or soumlest judgment, were first siezed with the 
cow-pox mania." . . . . " Wlioever had not taken 
the oaths of supremacy and allegiance to vaccination, wers 
iguominiously treated as traitors to the Iloyal Vaooinating 
Stat«, as rebellious subjects to the Jenncrian despotic 
power. Threats and t^Tanny cleared away pladd invwtiga- 
tion. Their empire was to be universal." ..." Earth 
trembled and heaven profusely sUed tears at tho wi-etclied, 
Ber\-ile, unhappy state of maukiiid. llcsuson waa trampled 
on. Chimera rode in a triumphal car, surrounded by Para- 
sites. Justice seemed paralysed with aatonistuuent." . . . 
" Time coolly attended the result." Time, the edaxTerttm, 
tire devourer of .'iliams. And by the side of the avenger of 
tbe Bmall-pox unmoved, amid this crash of elements, stood 
the philosophic Dr. Rowley. " It seems tbe vacdnatora 
have been flying in tlie face of heaven in iutrcdiicing a 
beastly disease, and heaven holds them in derision^ the 
Lord Iflugheth them to scorn."' Dr. Rowley was not alto- 

kf^unit 8in>Jt-pox InfectiaD ; to which 
an added tbo mods of trcnttns ibc 
bauUy ae* iljif m jvoduvwl fruiu 

Cav-pox, explained by two coloand 
rop|>er-|iUl« <tD>gnTi)is>'-" 
' 0|). ait., p. 75. 


[Coat. Zllt 

fgt^her m mi pported in his oppontaoD to Uie pterailing md 
and impious flelnBkni ; ibr ** lo tin boocNir vi our Colh^ 
of Phjmdjuis in I»ndoQ, tbejr did not coantenanoe Taeei- 
nnticin ; that learned oor|K}r»te bodj bad too much di^ 
oemment and good Bcinae to fvedpitatdy oommit thetnAelTef^ 
to futon animadversions through want of sagaaty and 
foresight" "Thank bearen ! " exduued » otAsert-atire^ 
" we have a Honse of LoTda." " Thank beavcii t " let tlie 
chorus be, " we lia%'e a College of PhyBictana ! " Whe« 
would medicine be at this momeut but fur Uie pemistent 
resolution of this venerable corporatiui not to patroiiiBs 
any novelty, but to follow the excellent udvioe given bj 
Dr. Koeeley to the clergj' : " Wbioi any niedicad dispute 
ariwB in the world, wait until it is over before yoo join 
the wrong side of the queHtlcm " 7 

D«^ite the violence of such opponents as Br. ACc 
and Dr. Rowley — some of whom went so far as to 
nonnce voocination as the veritable AnticIinHt which watl 
to come in the Utter days — -and although the ColI<^ of 
Phyaicians shook its witie head and discountenanced an in- 
novation recommended by a country physician, and taken 
up by ignorant people, wbo conUl not be expected to 
understand tlie Buhject, the advantages of vaednaiton w«t« 
60 i^alpubW, and the evidence tn its favour ao irresistible; 
that it rapidly spread, first over England, and then t6 
America, Germany, Italy, France, aiid the world at large. 

It was uuide known to America by Dr. Waterbouse, in 
an article published on the 12th of Karch, I7dd, in the 
ColunU/'mn Sentinel, entitled, " Something Curious in the 
Medical Uiie." Thus, with clianicterbtic eagemeBs, did the 
AmerioanB graip a discovery but just made known in the 
land of its birtli ; and at a meeting of the American 
Academy of Arta and Sciences, presided over by John 
Adams, President of the United States, the subject was 
att4!ntJvely considered, and no time was lost in endeiivonriog 

A.u. 1749-1SSS.7 



to procure vaccine matter. Most unfortanately, the first 
obtoineil was froni the vitiated source at the SmoU-pox Hos- 
pitoJ ID London. Tito conscqueacQ was, that the dangerous 
hybrid waa introduced into America. It was 8ume time 
before tho niistiike was disooverod and the mischief cor- 

The merit of introducing vaccination into Germany aiid 
the European Continent, Ls due chiefly to Dr. De Carro, 
who, in ft letter dated tlic 1 +th Septt'mbcr, 1 "lliJ, detailing 
his success, thus describes hluiuelf : " I am from Oeut^va ; 
I hare studied and taken my degree at Edinburgh, and 
practise medicine at Vienna, since six years.'" It is not 
without its sigoiiicaQce, tlint the blessings of vacciuatioD 
should have been introduced into the ca]Mt<d of the great 
German Empire by a Swiss who had studied under CuUen 
in Scotland. It su^^ts the i-ealization of the poet's idea- — > 
tho true confederation of States which the advance of scieuoe 
and humanity may bo deistined ultimately to obtain. Nor is 
it without ite peculiar interest to the history of medicine, 
that this cosmopolitan, De Oarro, was the channel by whidi 
the greatest medical birth of Time was brought from distant 
Britain and laid in the cradle of medicine, — the Ituid in 
which,more than two thuusand yeare before, the Erst impulse 
had been given to living medical thought, which now 
returned to ita place of birth, comiiletinp the lesser European 
circulation, and was about to extend over the surfiioe of 
the globe. 

In the year 1 803, iJe Carro writes to Jenner : — " Mon- 
sieur La Font, a French phytuciau, established at Salonico, 
in Maocdoiiia, has been one of the most active vaccinators 
I know on the Contiueut ; his hist letter, of tlie Srd of June, 
mentions that he but, since the last autumn, vaccioated 
1130 persons. He first lieard of your discovery on the 
occasion of Lord Elgin travelling in Greece with Dr. 



[Odap. XI II 

BcoU ; during whicli journey hU Lordship and the Doctor 

took a particular care of propagating vaccinntiuu. The 
Eiiglisli Consul at StUonica went to AtLens to me«t Lord 
Klgiii, where he saw a great number of young Atbeniana 
with vaccine pustules." ' A statue of Jeiiuer on the acro- 
polis would be a beautiful hifitorical pendant U> the titatue 
of Hipi»ocrat<s at Oxford. 

Jenuer indulged in the dclightfiil imagination that vao> 
cination would enulicat« sniall-pos ; tlrnt tltis dragon h&V' ' 
ing got its death wound, would coil itself up in lis lair 
and die, and be unknown hereafter in the world's histoiy. 
AlaH for the eontmsb between the ideal and the possible, in 
the cxecutiuu of a project that jdvoIvl-s human motives aS 
the largest element in its practicabilit)' ! Jcnner spoke truth 
when he said vaccination could eradicate small-iiox. Uis 
statemeat is justified by the following facts ; — " In Anspacb, 
in Bavaria, in the years 1797, 98, 99, 6ve hundred died' 
yearly of small-pox. and in tlio year 1800 no less than 
1D09 ; whereas from 1809 to 18J8 — a period of nine 
years, there was not a single death from that disease ;^ 
although it provailod epidemically in the neighbourhood. 
In Copenhagen, in twelve years before the introduction of 
vaccination, 5500 persons died of snmll-pox ; from tlia 
ymvr 1802 to the year 181H, a period of sixteen yearm, 
oiler vaccination iiml been peremptorily insisted upon, only 
15H poreons died of sraoU-pox over the whole of Deuniark. 
Lezay Mftnerzia, prefect of the Rhine and Mowl depart- 
ment, iiubliahed in his report for the year 1810, that in 
his district not a uugle case of small-pox had occurred since 
\'aocinatioa had become general ; and, in uonsequeuce, the 
population hnd incr«ia£cd by the number of 9911. In 
Rouen, the mortality had deci-eased fiOO armually from the 
effects of vncciuatiou. lu Glasgow, 15,500 persons bad 
been vaoonated, and during the ten years preWous to the 
> op. at., ^ tzi. 

A.P. 174»>18S3.1 



date of the report, no individuat of that number had 

taken the small-pox." ' 

If such feet* are admitted — and even by t^ose who are 
most despondent of tlio ultimate success of vaccination 
they are not impugned — how does it happen that small- 
pox still rages i The answer to this is given by Dr. Q. 
Gregory, of the London Stnall-pox Hospital, aud we refer 
it to the consideration of puliticnl oBoonomiflta, whose busi- 
neas it is to reconcile the greatest amount of human liberty 
with hunum happiness and progress. " Vaccination can be 
maintained only by having small-pox constantly beforo our 
eyes ;"' — that ia, in this free country, where it is the un- 
disputed privilege of every Englislimim to go to destruction 
and take his iaraily with him, in any way he plcoscs. It is 
true that a recent Act of Parliaiueut has sought to deprive 
him of this birthright ; and for so doing, and doing it very 
ineflectuajly, it lias been assailed by some of the fricaidH of 
our (flovious constitution. 

It would be a pleasant task to recount the triumph- 
ant progress of vn^nation all over the globe, but for 
tliis we have no spaoe. We cannot, however, leave the 
subject without adverting to the fact, that in the "Di^ 
tionnairf! dcs Seienccs Mddicalcs," an attempt is made to 
rob Jenner of the merit of his discovery, M. Huseon, the 
verj- able author of this article, begins by observing, " It 
appears that it was in France, in the year I7S1, that the 
first idea of the pofisibility of the transference of an onip- 
tioa &om the cow to man arose ; that this idea, expressed 
by a Frenchman in the presenco of an Knglish |)hy>ucian, 
was communicated to Edward Jenner," who worked it out 

< Tli^LnndcnanHKiliuburgbMAtithl; 
JcinrnaJ of MfdicKl Rcamm, tdiWd br 
J. B. C«rniMk, M.D., tor tho jtu 
1SI2, pp. Sti-iS. I Lavi> ukon iliKht 
libartiMwith Uip text of tbiiii|uotDtioii, 
wliicli 1 oouKidrr nijTMlf at libeit; lo 
do, at I wroU the nrtiel« kI Dr. Cor- 

mtdCt nqaeet. U iras after J liarf 
openl;«T(nnd mj 1»lief to DttLDcnuuiti* 
but b^vrt ihe fleoreo of Ortncum had 
httm braed agBlnct homoopKtUitjL 

* Cjelopi. of PncL Usd. Art. 



[cnai'. xm. 

lo sucli reflults as we have Been. The giA«d FreDcbmon 
who suggested the idea, waa the Protiestant minister of 
Montpelier ; the English phyacian a certain Dr. Pew, who 
yfOB sojouraing in the neighbourhood. The difficulties in the 
way of receiving this as the true geii€si« of vaccination, are 
numerous. Tho first is, that n year before the spark had 
been emitted, at which, on this hypothesis, Jenner kindled 
his torch, hu (Jeniter) had L^xpressed his hopes to Gardner, 
in the memorably conversation referred to as having taken 
place on their ride along (lie Gloucester Road. The second 
is, that tliere is no evidence of any communication whatever 
having takon plai» between Dr. Pew and Jcnncr, an<l very 
strong probability that none ever did. And if it were 
freely spoken of iu France in tho year iVSl, is it not the 
reverse of a complinient M. Husson pays to his clever 
cotmtrymcn, to let an infer that tliey had so little zeal for 
knowledge, so little interest in the uiitigatiou of a plague, 
that not one of them took the trouble to act on this 
revelation, and to inatitute experiments to ascertain ita 
tmtli, as was done in England? We beUeve M. Husson, 
ill this article, is no less unjust to France than he is to 

Jenner died in 1823 ; he died, like Nelson, in battle 
with his oountry's foe, and in the anos of victory. It is 
mt!et that hht statue should now for ever stand in the 
centre of the meiropoliK of the British Empire, and faia 
name be aa^ociated with Trafalgar: it Is well that England 
has learned to honour her heroes of pca<% aa well as her heroes 
of war. " rronounco meditatively the name of Jenner, and 
ask, What might we not hope, wliat need we deem unattain- 
able, if all the time, the effort, the skill, which we waste 
in making ourselves mhterablc through vice or error, and 
vicious tlirough mieery, were embodied and marshalled to a 
^rstcniatic war against the existmg enk of nature ? " ' 







HftKiveiiiaDD— IlisIMrth— fiu'ly BdncDUon— Ufo at Lripng— His Wauderiivs — 
Cbendol DiMOToriM — BxporinunU with Oindwoa— BUdioan con IHnun 
Ilk* tboM thoj proOuw — Anwnic— Ipaotmuui — Sutpknr — ^IVrtai Bmotic — Ten 
— Pint Trial of Hom»oi»tlif — BelWlinuw in K.-arlHtii>a FeT«r — CaniiNuvl 
irMh Vaecinatian —Action nf AtttU Do i wi Dftpplcf'* Thi>orf~Ji>rf^rt Thmry^ 
HahneiDUtn'ii TVipod — Pmrinit tiJ Aconite — TesLiuiou^ in fartiar of Acanib)— 
The OrKwoii — The irord Hiwnn'ipftUiir finit nMd— HoiiKmpftUijr dcfinod — Op- 
powd bj th« Dngptrt^— Bninnoir'H f'Suteb «t Hnluieiiuiu) — flU Dnmertio 
Life — Eiflitfr'n Pi«eri|rtJon of Uali&cBuuill — Hu Materia Mfdiea—Aeca\t» 
proved liy Dr. Ufiiiol— C«iii|)bcr in C1]»l«n— Dr. Qnin at TUchnowll*— Dr. 
Pl«iiicbiu&iiii ftl Vifiau—UAhDWUiknri'a laf« at Cn.-llKiu— Ii«U«r lo Stapf — 
Inricff on Purity nt Doctrine^ D«iUi of fai* Ural Wife — 8«vuni] Mwt»s« — 
Lire ill P^Li — Dnttli — Ditfiuinn n( HgoKPopttth/ — In UennMij— DtKiuMx] In 
IImIpm rarlli»ni»ni — In AnotrU — In tCnpIc* — Bn>nf;bt tn Knfrtnnd hjr Dr. tjwin 
•^Comvpondonc* li^twcrQ College at Plijndcian* Mid Dr. Quin — (>|>poaition it 
euixiuDlered — Sir W. HainiltoD'a C^itDiun — B[>tl<vue — lUaari — UmiBnia 
— Brfrtmnl NtdiAtn* — Okptura of Apollo—WfiWr-Cnre— Ueomariiini — Ckir- 
*a|MM» — llov«meiit-CuTo— Alifton on K|x^lif>i — Utdicfel Iblnnttoa — Abur- 
(Tomfaie's OpniMt — A LJhcmi Bducation duCDOfl. 

Baitcel Uahkemakn seems to have anticipated iht< interest 
whicl) would bo felt in the events of liia life, before lie had 
achievtxl such a repulatiou as to wiuruut liis expecting liis 

' n<HP m MadkUim bj- Dftrid. 



lOaAr. XIV. 

same to be placed ou Ihe ruU of liifttory ; for among Uie 
papers be leR beliind liim, was one, dated August, 1791, 
to the following effect : — 

"I was bom on the lOtli of April, 1755, in one of the 
fiureet regions of Genmiuj', at MeisisieD, in Cur-Saxony, 
This may have contribntcd much to my admiration of 
nature during my growth to manhood. Bly &tber, Chris- 
tian Gottfried Hahiiemami, and my mother, Johanna Cturis- 
tinn, li^e Spiess, taught me to read and write whUc at play, 
lly fether, who died four years ago, was a painter in the 
porcelain maniifucture, and bad written a little work oa the 
art. Hf liad the soundest ideas on what was to be reckoned 
good and worthy in man, and had arrived at them by 
his own independent thought. He sought to plant them ia 
rae, and impressed on me, more by actions than by words, tba 
great lesson of life, ' to act and to l)e, not merely to seem.' 
When a good work was going forward, there, often nnob- 
served, he was sm-e to be helping, hand and heart. Shall 
I not do likewise ? Tn the Unest distinctions between the 
noble and the baso, he decided, by his actions, with a jufit. 
ness that did hoiioiu' to the nicety of his sense of right 
and wrong. In this, too, he was my monitor. There was 
never the smallest contradiction between his conduct ocd 
the lofly sentiment^ he cntei'tained of the origin, destiny, 
and dignity of man. From this 1 derived an internal 

"To speak of external circumstonoes, I passed several 
years in the stadt schtte, and when I was about sixteen 
years old, began to attend the Fur^eiisciiule of Meissen.' 
Tttere was nothing unusual about my progress, unless 
it was that my much-respected rector, Hugistvr MUller, 
who is still oliN-e, loved mc as if I hod been hw own 

' In BuoD} then ato eostmnn 
■nhool* (uluiUtehile) in tttl tho i^riiJiea 
of tht kin^om : ia adilJUon to thrte 
Utcn an two Pnfiee)f (ckools {Panitit 

ft^Aufc) ; one of Hvtm is Uul tt Utunn, 
hen «poki)D ot It WW founikd u 
thn IMnnnation oq *h«t mu the Afm 

A.a. i;S5-18J0.] 



Bon, and aooorUed me an amount of liberty in my 
studies, for wliich I am thotikfui ; aiid ilmt iu acquii-iiig 
German and tbe dead languages^ I was always among 
the most diUgent and conscientious. In my twelfth year, 
he selected me to instruct other pupils in tlie rudi- 
mciittt of Greek ; tind at his own houiH^ among liis privato 
boarders, lie used to make me translate passngea out of old 
outlioi-s, and frequently took my tntiislation in preference 
to his oivn. He permitted me — and I wan tbe only one so 
favoured, on account of tbe delicacy of my health, which 
hod fiuffered from over-study — to omit some of the regular 
taeka of tbe school, and to pass the hours they would have 
occupied in gen^^ml i-eadiug. He permitted me to have 
access to liim at all huur^ of the day ; and, strange to say, 
uotwithfitauding the mauifest preference my miister showed 
mo, yet I was a (avourite with my fellow pupils." . . 
" My iaihcr waw altogether op[)OHed to my studies ; ho 
wished me to pursue some culling uiuru in accurdauoe with 
his income, and fi*ei^uently withdrew me from school. I 
■was permitted, however, to remain for eiglit years at the 
request of ruy teachers, who permitted me to attend with- 
out requiring from me tbe usual fees paid by the scholars." 

Hahnemann omits an anecdote of this period of his life 
that has been elsewhere preserved. His piu'etits were very 
poor, and his father, objecting to the extrnvagaut consump- 
tion of oil bo burned when preparing his lessons, deprived 
him of the fiuuily himp, esoept at stated hours. This set 
the boy's ingenuity to work, and he contrived to make a 
huji]> of his uwn out of clay, and persuaded his mother to 
supply him with oil out of her stores ; and so, with "stolen 
dames," he pursued lii» course. 

"At the period of Easter, iu tbe year 1775, my father 
allowed me to set out for Ijeipjdg, and gave me twenty 
crowns — tlie last money I ever received from him. He 

c c 



[Cnir. ZIT. 

liad, Out of a banily-«amed pittance, otLer cfaUdren to 
and edDCat«— excnae enough for the beat of &tbeni." 
In Leipzig he obtaiocd bis UvcUbood by translating 
books and gi\'iiig Icsroiis in French and Gennan. During 
the two years lie iKUfsed iu Leipzig, besides diligMitly 
attending classrs during the greater part of the day, and 
giving instructions to his pupils in the evoung, be trans- 
lated from Krigllsh into Geriiiiui the following works : — 
" Steadman's Phj-siolc^cal Essays/' "Nugcnt's Kssay on 
Hydrophobia," " Falconer on the Waters of Bath," in two 
volumes, and " Ball's Modem Practice of Phj-sic," in two 
volumes. The only time left him for this very oonsidenihle 
Ainount of work, was in the night ; and he used to net up 
altogether every alternate night. Not only was be able to 
support liimBclf in independence by his own excrtionfl, but 
he actually contrived to lay by a sum of money sufficient 
to pay his joujiiey to Vienna, and to have niuiutaiuoii Uim 
there, had be not been robbed of some of it. Aa it ■was, 
he studied with Br. Quariu, of whom he speaks in thtt 
most enthusiastic t^nna. *' To him," ho B&ys, " I owe 
my claims to be reckoned a physieiuTi. I had his love and 
his friendship ; he singled me out to take with him to aee 
his private pjitiente. He loved and instructed me as if I 
had been his only pupiL" Notwithstanding Dr. Qoarin's 
kLndn&<*9, having lost all that remained of his hard-earaed 
capital, he was glad to accept an offer made to him by 
a Baron Bntckeniltal to aocompany him to Hcrmaust&dt in 
the capacity of his medical attendant and librarian. Here 
he sjient nearly two years, and fleems to have been gratiBed 
with the way he pnssed his time, "acquiring somo addi- 
tional languages and collateral Information, and axrangiiig 
on unique collection of antique coins." From Hermoiistadt 
be went to Krlangeu, and took the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine on the 10th of August, 177i). 




" Tlie lonj^ug of a Swiss for liia craggy AIj« ib not mora 
irresristible thun that of a Cur-Saxon for hia fatlierlaml." 
So be returned to his oativo country, and began his 
career as a medical practitioner in Hetstadt^ a little town 
among the mountains of Sfimnsfeld. HahniCmami found 
the place untenable ; for he felt cramped within nnd with- 
out ; and Bo, in less than a year, he left it and setikd 
in Dessau, a town of considerable size and importance. 
TIus Huited btin better, and he spent his spare time in 
working at chemistry. He was tempted to leave it within 
the year, however, by an offer which no German can resist 
— a Government appointment ; and so he went to Gommern, 
near Mn^ebui^, as Diatrict Physician. Here, the foot 
of a physidan had never yet trod ; it was virgin-«oil, 
and utterly miproductivc beyond the Government salary ; 
m be profited by his leisure, and fell in love with a certain 
Henrietta BUckleriu, whom he sliortly afterwards married, 
and with whom lie enjoyed for a short time bbe pleasures 
of a nuul exifttenoe. 

Ambition, however, was too strong a pasnon in hiit 
bosom, to allow him io n^t satisfied with the obecore, still 
life of a village ; like most men of bis type, he pushed io 
the capita], and m the year ITSl, at the age of thirty 
3'ear8, he found himself in Dresden. Here, he was taken 
by the hand by Dr. Wagner, a physician of coiisiderable 
local influence, who got him appointed as bis /ocum tencnn 
at the hospital to whidi he was attached — " a wide tield 
for the exercise of benevolcnoe," as Hahnemann observes ; 
but men don't live upon fields of benevolence- — at least, 
doctors dont ; and Hahnemann probably made more by 
his pen than by his prescriptions. He spent four years in 
Dresden, and wrote during that time eighteen treatises on 
%-ariou8 subjects, chiefly chemical ; among these was the de- 
scription of a new salt of mercury, called Mercnrius Solu- 
bilis, which soon became a very popular preiKuation with 

cc S 



[OBAr. XIV. 

the nitiJical profesuon in OermaDy, and was, and etiU 'la, 
known a« MervuHm SolubUis Hahjiemanni. Notvritb- 
stauding " tlie struggles for exifiieuce " bo niusl have uuder- 
goue, HahiitMimni], writing in 1791, with Im trials fresh ia 
bis mind, speaks of the yenvs in Dresden or ha\'iiig passed 
rapidly and pleasantly in the quiet of his family circle, and 
in constant and Uonuurable, if not in lucrative oocupatJOD. 
Among the friends he meutious as having coutributud to 
this result, was the Director of the Royal library. Ado- 
lung, who did what in him lay to make Uabnemann'a 
residenve in Dresden agreeable and instructive: for the 
magnet docs not attract iron more certainly than minds 
imbued with a love of letters antl knowledge attract 
one another; and wherex'er Ilahnemana went be found 
fiienda. Still, all this would not do : he must live. And ao 
from Dresden, the Court capital, he went to Leipzig, the 
literary metropolis of Germany in the yeai' 17S9, at ibe 
age of thirty-four, with a large experience, and a consddcr- 
able reputation na an anthor and a chemist. In 1 79 1 , he 
was elected a tnemher of the Leipzig Suouty of Economiod 
Seience, and cf some kind of royal society, or academy, 
which went by the naine of Kurfiirstlich-MainzischB Acft-, 
deinie der Wissenschaft.' 

Hahnemann's diarj- ends at the point where Mr life in 
history begins. While pursuing the usual occupation of his 
Imsiux: hours, translating Kng)i>)h worka itito German, lio 
performed tliat task upon CuUen's Maievia Medica, The 
paHsage to which we referred in a previous chapter, where 
CuUcn describes tlie action of C'Lnchona hark, excited , 
Halmetnann's curiosity as to how this mil>E>tance acted in' 
curing ague. By way of experiment, he took four drams 
of it in successive dusei;, Iteing at the time in the enjoy- 
ment of his usual health. In the course of a few days^ lie 

> ChriAlw Friwlorieh SuuimI Ibh' denllmfcnoetiierPrHinde. V«n daor 
»DnMu:iJB U«|rai>luMJi*a Iknktu&n. wJnur FTCuado tud Venbnr. Ii«i|i^ 
Am den Pkiiierw aoiuer bunUi«, usd 1&61. 



experienced all the symptoms of ngue.' Aa this h[i|)- 
petitid JD I«i])zig where the diseiLse is very coinniou, the 
ocCTin-cuce may have heeii merely a curious coincidence ; 
such it has been pronounced to be, just as tbe belief in 
Gloucestershire, that the milkers who had had the cow-pox 
could not Lake the small-pox, was generally regarded as an 
example of popular credulity. As Jenner was not satisfied 
with this account of the tradition, neither was Habnemann 
with such an explanation of liis s}'mptoms. Tbey might 
be fortuitous, but they might also be the real effiKAs of the 
Cinchona Bark. The latter conjecture v/nn at least wortii 
testing by farther experiment and observation. 

There were two Avays of doing so ; the one to cxfl- 
mine eollecttona of reported cures, in order to as(%ri(uu 
whether among them any notice was to be found of in- 
Htances in wblch' the remedy employed was known to 
jmsseaa the property of exciting sympttuna in the healthy 
similar to those wliiuh it cured iu the sick ; the otli<;r was, 
to ascertain, by experiment on hLmself or others, what were 
the effects of medicinal substances when taken liy those in 
healtli, and then to adnituister them to those who were 
ill, and whoHC iUueas presented symptoms similar to those 
which these suhstonces caused. Both roods were long and 
arduous; but Hahnemann was well prepared for the pur- 
suit. Hti was master of all the languages in which the 
records of medicine arc kept, and he had access -to good 
libraries ; and so by industry, of which he bad no lack, he 
could iDveetigat« tbe traditional side of the questiou, and 
then wait for an opportunity of testing it exju'-rimcntally. 

Tho result of his hiatorieat researches is given in the 
" lutroductioQ to tbe Orgaoou of Medicine," aud presents 
a curious illustration of erudition and ingenuity. He has 
collected, from an iminenjte variety of sources, testimony in 

I HahiWKMin'a Locter u HofEland, DB<lg«nii, nnHtrilictitleol tlie"LMwr 
pnbUiksd lalS08; repHblitlwl iii hu WriUninioffABiiiiillIalinciiiaafi." Lod- 
LtMcr Writing*. TrutUhid bf t/t. -\-~m. 182 1. 



[Cii*». XIV 

Kgard to tbiB twofoU action of upwards of tliirty medi- 
cinal substances ; one set of authorities proving the power 
of ouriatu drugs to produce symptoms, similar to tbose 
reported by other authors to have been cured by the very 
same meann. For example, in the " Cyclopicdia of Practioii] 
Medicine," edited by Forbes, Tweedy, and Connolly, under 
tbe head "Fever," we meet w^itb tbe following obeervfr* 
lions : — " Araenical solution is the anti-i«riodic [or af^u^ 
curiny] medicine ou which, next to quinine, most reliance 
may ho placed." ' Assuming this as one fact, that araenic 
oureB ague, Hahnemann would ask, Is there evidence of 
ariKDic causing any or all of tho symptoms which go by 
the name of ague ? If arsenic were given for nothing bnt 
ague, it might be difltcult to obtain a reply to this que^ 
tion; but arsenic ia given hu"gely in medicine, capeciaUy for 
(Useuties of ibe skin. On<} of the i-ecogulsed authoritien 
upon tbe subject of iiguo In Dr. Boudin, who gives tbe 
following evidence About arsenic. After quoting a similar 
experience to that of M. Biott, he says: — "For my part 1 
saw au intermittent quotidian fever supervene, which 1 was 
obliged to combat w-ith quinine, in a patient to whom I 
had givc-n for ichthyosis about five grains of u-Benio in 
twelve days . . . This oocurred when there was no ague 
in tbe pkco."' So that there is, on the one hand, abun- 
daub evidence of tbe efficacy of anienic to cure ague ; and« 
oo the otlier, most rei>|>eGtabIe testimony to the efiect that 
arsenic pro<luces ague. 

Let us pursue tbe quest, and ascertain what is believed 
by tbe btsst medical authorities about the action of ipeca- 
cuanha in asthma. 

Dr. Copland says : — " Ipecacuanha is one of the best 

intHlicinQs that can be resorted to in asthtua ; " ' and 

l)r. Pereira — no mean authority: — "In asthma, bene6t 

' JbMfthp. of Prtci. M«d., Vol. n. . 
^ 9S6. 
■ TrutteilmnimaUUnilctnM. 

|iu J. C. U. lloHilia. 
• HiM. PncL Med. 

Phm, 1848. 

p. Hi. 

i.b. 1755-1850.] MBDICIK^ CUBB WHAT THEY CAUSB. 


is obtuned from ipecacuanlia. Dot only when g^vcn so 
as to occasion nausea, but alao in small and repeated 
doses."' The most emphatic testimony, however, in favour 
of tbiH medicine in a^hmii, iti that of tho aocoinplislied Sir 
John Forbes, who writes ; — " Akenside ' waa a great advo- 
cate for the emiilojinent of ipecaconnha . . . Ho Bays, the 
luedidne proved equally beneficial, whether it produced 
vomitiug or merely nausea." It id probable It would have 
proved still more successful had it produced neither. Ipe- 
cacuanha is certaiiUy a remotly of considerahlo power in the 
asthmatic paroxysm ; but this seems altogether independent 
of iIh emetic properties. Practitioners of experience, with- 
out subecrihing to tho doctrine of UovueopfUkyf will cer- 
tainly think more bivourably of it (i. e. of ipecacuanha as 
a remedy in asthma), on account of its peculiar tendency to 
iTidtice fits of ofithma in the predisposed. Long before the 
time of Ilahneniaun, the main principle of his doctrine 
was recognized by practical men in tlie adage, "Nil prodest 
nisi leditur idem."* It would have been a great euoouroge- 
mcnt to Uahaemann, had he known that so intelligent and 
influential a plij^sician as Sir John Forbes was thus to coun- 
tonoooe Itiii eiTorts. Of tlie p^wur of ipecacuan to cure 
asthma, for a time at least, there can be no reasonable 
doubts alter such testimony in ita &Tour. Ipecacuan 
relieves asthma in the same way that quinine and arsenic 
cm« ague ; that is, diiHictly or specifically, without exciting 
any other action in the system. It cures it by operating 
only on the affected organ, not on the rest of the body. 
Now tills direiTt antidote to asthma, is well known (o 
cause asthmatic attacks in miuiy persons. "Uow sin- 
gular," says "Dr. itarahall Hall, "that ipecacuan, taken 
into the bronchia, should exdte aathma." * " If I remain," 

* Dr. Peraln'a BtsmtiiU of Uat. 
Med.. 2inl pd., Vol. II.. p. U29. 

* U«>liuaJ TnoMwi., VvL I., p. M. 

* Encyclop. of Praakk) Hwjieine, 



rcair. ZIT. 

wrilea Mr. Roberts, of Dudley, " in a room where tlic pre- 
paration of ipecacuan is going on,' I ain sure to bare s 
regulai- attack of nstlinio. la a few seconds, dyspoeo*^ 
comes on in a riolent degree, ftttended pritli wheezing, and 
great weight and anxiety about the precordia. The attack 
generally ia£ta about an hour." * We may give one 
more illustration of this generally-admitted effect of 
ipecacuan.' " A careless workman dropped the cloth 
that is hung over the mouth when pounding ipecaciuu 
into powder, and inhaled the dust for three hoim. 
After the interval of an hour he was attacked Tciih 
suffocation, and elomire of the larynx j he became of a 
death-hue, and lull into a state of fearful exhaustion trom 
want of air. The parosyHma went on increasing creiy 
minute. His medical attendant hied liinn, and gave asaa- 
ftetida, with temjiorary i-cUef j but iu five hours the attack 
returned, and he waa in the most imminent danger of suf- 
focation. He eventually recovered, hut for some days was 
subject to asthmatic paroxyama." ' After reading this, one 
can have Uttte doubt that if ipecacuan cures, it also oaueea ^ 

That Hidphur cures a very unpleaaant complaint, which 
the detractors of Scotland pretend to be better known 
than liked in that favoured country, is a fact of general 
notoriety. That sulphur, when used in the form of baths, 
pTodnces an eruption Bindlar to the one alluded to, ia 
equally well known to those who are in the habit of em- 
ploying the Qeniian sulphureous waters ; it is there known 
by the niioie of the Badefriesel.* 

Of the value of tartar emetic in the cure of inflamma- 

■ Pmtn, be. cit,, p. 1427. 

' Die WlrkuDg der AmwimitUb 
und Glfta in gfiaoTidcn Uiien8i>)ieD 
KOrper mci Dr. Kail Wibowr MAuoben. 
1833. An, iiinUiiKbln vork f»r all >tD- 
■leats i>f lb« nsbjed of whicli it InmU. 

* Rnat'a Uogiulnc, Bond S2, Heft 1. 

* " Sulplinreous Lfttliti o!t«i prodiMe 
the verjdiiwMW vbicb thej ore em- 
jilnjct) to cun>."*—K rimer llnfulatid'* 
Jouruk), p. V. 1834. 

A.b. 17C5-18S0.] IP8CACCAN AND SCLFlItTR. 


tion of the Inngs, there is no more doubt than of the 
relief given by ipecacuan in asthmn. Dr. Williams — 
than whom, at present, there is in Britain no authority 
greater with the medical profession on affections of the 
cheat— thus teetifiea : — " Next to blood-letting, tartar 
emetic ia, perhaps, the most powerful remedy that we can 
employ for the cure of acute pulmonary inflammation." ' 
And a greater even than Dr. Williams — Laennec, the dis- 
averer of the stethoscope, and the first to ascertain, with 
ientific certainty, the character and course of diseases of 
the lungs — gives tlie following evidence : — *' In general, the 
effect of tartar emetic is never mors rapid, or more efficient, 
than when it gives rise to no evacuation." . , . alter 
its administration, " at the end of twenty-four, or forty- 
eight hours at most, we perceive a marked improvement in 
all the K^onptoms. And aometim<^, even, we find patients 
who aeem doomed to certain deatli, out of all danger, alter the 
lapse of a few hours only, without ever having experienced 
any crisis, any evacuation, or, indeed, any other obvious 
change, but the ra]>id and progressive amelioration of all 
tbe symptoms. In sucli cases, the stethoscope at once 
aocountM for the sudden improvement, by exhibiting to us 
all the Bigns of reaoluiion of the inflanunation. These 
striking results may be obtained at any stage of tbc diKcaso, 
even after a great portion of the lung baa undergone the 
purulent iniiliration.''' This is an example of true and 
direct cure of a disease by a medicine. The operation of 
the drug is to arrest the progress of the morbid action in 
the lungs without producing any fusible effect upon the 
rest of the body — to arrange what is disordered without 
deranging what is right Sudk cui-es come under the head 
of specdfies, along with those effected by quinine, arsenic, 
and sulphur. 

' Ojdop. of PracL Med., Vol. HI., * Forb«'i TwnitUtJoii of tMone*, 

p. 49& p. 2&5. 



[Cbat. UV, 

Let lu OQW Inquire vbat the eflects of this suiia tertw 
emetic are when given to animals ; and oo thw bead w* 
tiave tlie very beet authority at oar dispofla^ for the great 
French physiologist, Hagendie, has made the action of this 
drug the subject of special experiment. He arrired at tbe 
following rtunilt, after describing other diauges it prndneed 
in animab ** which he pcusODed with it'' He goes oa to say, 
" The langs present the appearance of the greatest alterationi 
they are of an onmge colour if the animal is yonn^, violet 
if it is older ; the tissue is tiepatised,* gorged with blood at 
some parte, and at othen very anal<^us to tbe tawot 
the spleen." ... In whatever way introduced, "ii 
specificaUy in injlaraing the lurujs."' M, 
who has written the best monograph on this drug, «a) 
"Ite effect on tbe respiratory organs is to produce dit 
culty of bi-eatbing in dogs, which were in perfect he 
before its administration : tlie luiijrs were found hcpatiz«d.^ 
One would imagine tlmt admitting iU action in man to be 
similar, &r fi^in being useful, its administration would be 
jtarticultirly pemicioTie in th« treatment of pneumonia."' 
After reading these drewiful cfTccta of ontimony, we fied 
inclined to agree with Guy Patin, wbcai be exclaima> ** £t 
voila comrae MM. les AntJuiouieux se joueut de la visdos 
homiXMS et comme imprudcmmeut il envoient en I'autre 
moiide leur pauvrcs malades avec leur poison 1 1 " No 
doubt, if Mngendie and LepelletJcr arc to be believed, tartar , 
einetiu duett produuu pneumonia. ^H 

We csmnot resist giving une more illustration. esiMJcially^^ 
addressed to the "Domestic Kngiishwoman." Dr. Cophmd, 
tbe learned cyclopeodist, relates the following cure effected 
by tea — that mucl^moligned herb ;•— " la the summer o^H 
1 820, I wai requested by a practitioner to see U»e daughter^" 

' This i» Um t«liBii»l «i|irMnoii for 
tike fti^MTMiM pfttdoowl oa the laitip 
bjr infliuDiu^aa. 

* L'lafluoDiw iW rlltn6ti>iu< nir 

t'HonUDe. 163S. 
■ po rKmploJ da Turin Mibit, al 





of ft dergyman, residing in Wwtminster, labouring under 
most \ioIeat nervoiw palpitation, wJiicli had resisted the 
means advised by several physicians who had been oou- 
sulted. . . . Finding that ilie usonl remedies for nervous 
palpitation had been prescribed without any relief, I sug- 
gested that a strong infiuion of greeu tea should be given 
throe or four times^ a day, and continued for a few daya. 
Belief immediately foUowed, and perfect recovery in two or 
three days.'*' Is it possible that l>r. Copland had read the 
following narrative ? — " Dr. Newaham made experiments on 
himself and other two persons, to determine ttie action of 
green tea. He iufu&ed im uimoe of it io boiling water for 
twenty minutes, and dividing tt into tliree equal parts, 
drank one himself^ and gave the other two to bis fjienda 
to drink ; the effects observed by all, were, oppression of 
the cbest, palpitation of the heart, increaAed irregular pulse, 
anxiety, and general trembling."' Need we ask if Dr. 
Cuplttud had read ilml We all know that Dr. Copland has 
read everything; but is it not strange that, knowing so 
well 08 he did that green tea converts a strong man into 
a nervous girl, he should have sought, by giving it^ to 
convert a nervous girl, if not into a strung man, at least 
into a healthy woman ? It is strange, and it ia not strange; 
strange, if he wholly disbelieves the fundamental doctrinu 
of Hahnemann ; not strange, if^ like Sir John ForI.>es, he 
believes in it as a method at least partially applicable in 

Such are a few of the many instances that any one who 
examines the records of medical experience, with the object 
of testing the conjecture of Hahnemann, encounters as ho 
turns o^iir the pages of practical men ; and, indeed, the 
facts had already suggested to at least one phj-sician, of the 
name of Stahl (a Done), an anticipation of Hahnemann's 

• DiM. «( IhL Ifod.. Fut IV., p. 


[OBAr. XTT. 

doctrine. "The rule," he says, "generally ncted on, lo 
treat by means of oontraries, is quite false, and tlie revetee 
of what ought to be : I am of opinioa that dhseasoB wiD 
be cured by remedies that produce a similar afTectioa — 
bums by exposure to the fire," &c.' 

It was not till soven years after he had made his ex- 
|;erimeat with Cinchona that Halmemann publi.shed his 
first trial of the applicntion of the method in jimctioe in 
" Hufelaml'« .Touriial," the greatest medical [Miriudical then in 
Qenuany. The ease ia of ao great historic interest that we 
fthall give it almost entire. " L , a compositor, twenty- 
four years of n^, lean, of a pale, earthy complexion, badi 
worked at the print jag-]>ress a year and a half before 
oame to me ; and then, for the first time, he had suddenly 
felt great pain in the left side, which obliged him to keep 
his bed, and which, after several days, went away under 
the use of ordinary medicines. Ever since that. howe\*er, 
he had experienced a dull, disagreeable senfation in the 
left hyj>Dchonilrium. Some months afterwards, havii^ 
overloaded hh* stoniaoh with sweet lieer soup, fla^ 
with caraway (lai us remember he was a Uerman), he 
attacked with a severe colic^ the violence of which be 
ctould uot expi-eas ; nor could ho say whether it wilb 
exactly the aame ua the colioodynia which suoceoded it. 
The attack passed off this time, I don't know how, but 
he ohser^'cd that after it he could not bear certain kiuds of 
foud. The misohiuf incrumuxl unoh»urved, and tlie colico- 
dynia^ with its destructive symptoms, took firm root. . . . 
The course of a scvcro attack was as follows : — Four bourse 
or foiur hours and a balf^ after eating of such food (t. e. 
carrots, cabbages, and other vegetables, and finite), having 
pronoudy felt quite well, a peculiar movement was felt 
about the umbilical region ; there then occun-ed suddenly, 

' J<>.UuuiMl,OnBiDnit.d* Artbrit. VIII. , |>, in. 
Urn tart., quMti Brorb-BudiiiK. 178S. 

.». 17fi&-18».] 



always At tbe BAme place, a pinohiDg, oh if by pinccra, 
atteoded wiib the most mtFolemble pain, which Listed half 
or a whole minute, and each time raddenly went away 
with hurhorygmus extending to the right groin, about the 
region of tbe ececum. When the attack was very bad, tlie 
pinching and borborj-gmti-s returned with greater fi-equency, 
and even in the worst attjtcks became almost constant. . . . 
The iiQea9ixe«8 and pains increaaed from hour to hour, and 
the abdomen swelled and became painful to touch. An in- 
clination to vomit, and a sense of oonstricUon of tbe dicst, 
attended these attacks of pain, and respiration was short 
and difficult, accompanied by cold sweat, and followed by 
total exhaustion. Wlic^n thus nffected, he coidd not swallow 
even a drop of liquid, much less any solid food. TIiub he 
lay, stupified and unconsciou.s, with swollen face and pro- 
truded eyes, and witliout Bleep for many hourtt. Ailer from 
sixteen to twenty-four hours, the spasm and pain gradually 
sabsided. It took three or four daya to restore the 
strength, and then he complained only of the dull, fiied 
pain at the left hypochondriac region, but his appearance 
was sickly. . . . 

" Tlie case was now urgent, for the attacks occurred 
after the snuiilest quantity of vegetable food, and idl tho 
remedies I liad prescribed had entirely failed, la these 
circumntanoes, I determined to give him as a remedy a 
substance wliich produced symptoms very like those he 
suffered from. This was veratm.'n album, which produces 
griping pain, anxiety, constriction of the chesty loss of 
strength, &k., and which I therefore thought calculated 
to give him permanent relief I gave hira four powders, 
each containing four grains, and I told him to take one 
powder daily, but to let me know at once if any violent 
symptoms appeared. This he did not do. He did not re- 
turn until five days aflt'rwards. He had taken two pow- 
ders a-day. Afl>er the seoond powder, without his liaviiig 



[CsAP. XIV. 

eaten auyUuDg to bring on a paro^sm, be was attacked 
with ft regular fit of his old coUa NotwithstaiidiDg, be 
took the other two powders (taking tlius sixteen grains 
of vciutrum in less than two daya), upon which tliis artj- 
ficial colic, if I taay so express it^ increased to such a 
dreiidlhl extent, that, in his own worda, he wrestled with 
death, covered with cold sweat, and almost suilbcated. He 
required throe days to i-ecruit, and then called ujK>n me. 
I reprimanded him for his impradence, but at the same 
time I expressed my hopes of a happy issue. The result 

confirmed my prediction For six months he has 

had no attack, and can eat with impunity the articles 
which used to bring on the pain, lie has taken no other 
medicine since the veratrum, and he also lost the pain at 
the hyi^tochondriac region." ' 

Tills is the Qxhi example we have met witfi In the Histoty 
of Medicine, of the direct cure of a disease by a medicine 
selected with reference to a rule arrived at by inductton^ 
not in Bocordanoe to tradition or analogy. And the prooesa' 
Habuemaiin pursued was tliis. Having conjectured that 
the symptoms of ague wliieh he experienced after taking 
Gincbonn were due to that suli^tance, and tliat pofisihly it 
was owing bo this ague-producing power Uiat the Bark 
cared ague, be collected " instances '* of other dired or ape~ 
o(*£c curea — that is, of cures effeded lolthotLt the interpo- 
aUion of any oltemical or meciianical change in Vie body, 
— of <*W3/ crisis or rnxj/^imtion. Re arranged these " in- 
flteooes " aide by side, to ascertain whether the mcdiciuM 
that had cured the diseases iu tliis way were kuo^vn to 
have caused, when given in other circumstances, symptoms 
similar to those they now relieved. Having satisfied lum- 
eeU' that the cures all agretid in this feature, while diHering 
in every other, he made the imluct'ion that the diseases so 
cured by the medicines were cured in virtue of the same 



power in the medicines which produced Bymptoms like 
those tliey cured. Ho then converted the indnMion into 
a deductufit, and said, !3iledicincs will cure afieciionB liko 
those they cause. Tliis deduc^ou or rule he applied to the 
solution of the problem of thia case of coUcodynia. He 
carefully obsen'ed the symptoms, aod sought out a di'ug 
which he knew produced a similar concatenation of morbid 
phenomena : thia drug he administered, and the result was 
a rapid, permauent cure, without any critical discIuuTi^o — 
but with a frightful tenxporary aggraixitioii. 

Tills case waa published in the third volume of " Hufelnnd'a 
Journal;" and in the fourth volume of tlic same celebrated 
periodical, Ilahnemanu published an essay entitled, "Are 
the obstacles to certainty and simplicity in practical medi- 
dne insuperable?" " Dare I confess," he says, *' that for 
many years I Iiave never presctibed bub a single medicine 
at once, and have never repeateil the doso until the action 
of the former one hod ceased ; a venesection alone, — a, 
purgative alono, oud always simple ; never a couiijound 
remedy, and never a twcond until I had got a clear notion 
of the operation of th« first T Bare I confess that in thia 
maimer 1 have been very successful, and have pven satis- 
faction to my patienta, and seen things which otherwise 
I never should have seen?" From tliia, it appears iliat 
Hohnemoun wa.s for years groping, as it were, among 
spocihcR, before he discovered the key to their sucoei>sful 

Two years later, an opportunity occurred of testing the 
rule on a much larger scale ; and on this occasion 
Hahnemann advanced a step turther, in two directions. He 
gave a mu<^ smaller dose of the medicine, and he adminis- 
tered it both with the view of curing the diseai^o, not only 
in tliose whom it had alreoily affected, but giving security 
likewise to those exposed to its attacks. This time the 
disease waa an infec^us oue, b«ng no otiier than the 



rcKtf. in 

mnch-ilreaOeU (Warkt fever. UaUueuann ^vcs the lbDo«- 
ing flccoimt of bis trial. In July, 1799, wliea Ute souiet 
fuvt-r was most prevaleui and fatal al Konigslutter, when 
lie was then in practice, the mother of a hu^o Cimily bad a 
counterpane sent home by a sempstress who had a boy in 
her room just recovered from scarlet fever. A week aAet^ 
wards, she fell ill of sore throat, and other threatening aymp- 
toma. Several days afterwards, her daughter, ten years of 
age, was ueized in the eveuiug with severe pain in the sto- 
mach, and shivering. She passed a restless night. "Id the 
morning I found the follotving symptoms : pressive bead* 
ache, dimuesii of siglit, tongue coated with uiucus, some 
ptyallsm ; submaxillary glands hard, swollen, painful to the 
touch ; Bliooting pain in the throat, both when swallowing, 
and at other timea ; no thirst ; pulse quick and small ; 
TeBi>iration hurried and anxious ; although polo, the &kin 
■was burning hot ; &be complained of a sense of futigne and 
of dejectiou ; her eyes had an odd expression, being wide 
open and stai'ing, but dull ; her face was pale, with sunken 
features. Knowing, from experience, how little good was 
done by ordinary treatment, I sougtit," writes Halinemaan, 
**in aooonlauce with my new synthetic principle, a remedy 
whose peculiar mode of action was cftlcolated to produce in 
the hefdthy body most of the murbid symptoms which I 
saw combined in this disease. My niemorj*, and my writ- 
ten collection of the peculiar cficcts of some medicines, in- 
duced me to select Belladonna as the substance wfaiob, more 
than any other I knew, produced the counterpart of the 
symptoms presented by this formidable disease. ... I 
gave this girl of ten years old, who was already affected 
with the first symptoms of scarlet fever, a dose of this 
medicine." The dose he gave this time was not^, as of the 
veratnim, two grains, but l-432,OO0th of a grain of the 
ealrnot. She slept tnuiquiUy, and on the following morning 
mobt of the symptoms had disappeared without a critical 



dischorge. The sore throat alone remained, and it, too, 
gradually went off". She hi»d a second dose of Ixilladonna 
tlia Bticond day, and an occaeioiml dose during her oonva* 
Icsceiice, which went on favourably, and teiHiinHted in per^ 
ftct recovery. Two other children were attacked by scarlet 
fever in the same house. Being anxious to preserve ilie 
oilier children, he fell upon the following plan, as expressed 
in his own words: — ''I reasoned thus: a remedy ■which 
can check a disease at its outset must be a preservation 
from that disease ; and the following occiuTcnce corroborated 
this idea. Some weeks before, three children of another 
family lay ill of very bad scarlet fever ; tlie eldest daughter 
alone, who, up to that period, bad, been taking belladonna 
for au affection of the fingers, to my great astonishment 
did not catch the infection." So be gave a dose of bella- 
donna every third da}- to the remiiining five children of 
the family, and tliey all remained well, although exposed to 
the emanations from their sititers, who lay ill of the disease. 
*' In the mean time, I was called in to attend another family, 
where the eldest son was ill of scarlet fever. I found him 
in the height of the fever, and with the eruption on the 
diest and arms." There were other three children, four 
yenn, two years, and nine months old respectively ; to these 
belladonna was administered, and none of them took the 
fever. " A number of other opportunities preaY*nte<l them- 
selves to me to tiy this epeciijc preventive, and I never 
found it to faiL" 

It i« a curious coincidence that, in the very year Hahne- 
mann JiscDvcit-'d tlie virtues of belladonna in giving seairity 
against scarlet fever. Be Carro should have introduced 
vaccimUion to the notice of the European Continent. 
Knowing, as we do, the difiiculty that Jenner encountered 
in getting his discovery tested, we cannot be eurpri.4ed thai 
even greater obstacles lay in the way of Habnernann. 
Notwithstanding oil difficulties and obatixictiona, a very 

U D 



ICbmt. xrv. 

considerable Dumber of medicnl practitioner* in Qcnnaiij 
put this remecly to the test ; And the result anived at was, 
tliat out of S717 {)erH0Ti3 exposed to the infuctJun of scarlet 
fever, and who had taken Belladomm as a pi-eventive. only 
ninety-ona took tlit; disoiiHe.' In this country bclladouna 
is now generally adiiiiiiiHtered iik gdioolfi whtire Hcarlet fever 
appears. It is not so certain a ]ireserv&tive from this 
disease as vncdnation is from smnll-pox, for several reaaons. 
Ono ia, that scarlet fever is not nearly so sharply defined 
in its specific or individual chai'acter as small-pox is. 
The word covers a considerable group of diseaaea, prii- 
8eutiiig many varieties. For exainpEe, in its roost deadly 
form, the scarlet eruption from which it derives its namo 
is oflen wholly alisent. Small-pojc is like a species j scarlft 
fever like a genus. It varies according to the conditions 
of time and place, and iucUide.9 many species, — at leact> 
many varieties. And so also with the medicine: the action 
uf belladonna is not nearly so specific as that of vaccine 
matter. Vaoduia is a little sinall-pox ; not so ia Bella- 
doninwt, to coin a word, a liUh scarlet fever. Tl»e morbid 
action of belladonna includes a HtUe scarlet fever — that is 
all. However, there is a disposition, both with tbe public 
and the medical professiou, to give belladonna a fiiir UiaJ ; 
and ('veiitually its reputation as a preservative against 
scarlet fever, when properly atl ministered. ui«y become as 
well-estithlishc'd as that of cow-pox against 8nialI-]Kflc. In 
the year 1960, an Act of Parliament may be p.isscd, ea- 
forcing, with suitable petialties, the nd ministration of bella- 
donna to all ehJltlren exposed to the infection of scarlet 
ferver. Thus it may couie to pass, that, one after another, 
the beads of the H^dra^miaiim will be crushed, and thu 

> Sm Bufebunr* Jtrortial (or 1812. 
1830, 18», 1S3S: BiUloth. Mea., 
t. LXV.; B«<nie MM., t. II. ; naltH. 
im ScMBMi UM., t. II. 1 Jouni:il <ie» 
Vngtit, t. I. ; Dr. A. T. TlaroiAn** 

M»tcriit Uodlnj JeumU OoiDpKm., 
t XSVITI, : Bi»l*ii Ib^tin., b.1. 
XXV., K<lii>Ur£h Mod- ud SuisiaU 
Juiinial tur 1S43. 


ins eventually be recognized os more power- 
waudj thnu llercules with his affriglitiug «lub. 
FDium's experiments witli belladonna in swirlet 
*% publislied at Ootlia, in tbe year 1 80 1 , in the form 
ttisc, and excited much interest, and no little oppo- 
"I Germnny. In the same year, he replied to the oH- 
i-aiH»l ag» ]i\ti stittcnienta on tlio ground that ho 
I do!»e of bellftdouca must be ^werless, in an article 
-«nfeland'a Journal,"' to the following effect : *' You oak 
t^ect can 1-1 00,000th of a <puin of hdltidonna 
The word 'can' is rvpugnaat to nie.and apt to ]«ad 
.tsconceptiona. Our compendiums have already decided, 
tieally, whiit certain doses of medicine can do ; and 
it is well known tb«t our Materia Medica owes its 
to aiiytbing but scientific experiments, and well- 
exi>erieuce. Instead of tUu Materia Mtdioa, let U8 
k Nature what effect has 1-I0l>,000th of a grain of 
/nat Btit this is too vague a question to obtain 
answer : we must state the uU, ipionwdo, qwindo, quibwt 
iliis — that is, all the conditions in which tho proposed 
dose is administered. A hard dry pill of e-xtroct of bella- 
donna ]in)duccs in tlie strong and per/cctli/ hmUkij la- 
urer no effect. But it does not follow tbut a groin of 
i9 extract would be too w<nk a dose to affect the same 
I] if, instead of lieing in health, he were ill, and if the 
ID, instead of being ^ven iu the form of solid extmct, 
dissolved. Tho most robust man will be violently af- 
fected by one grain of bolUdonna thoroughly dissolved in 
two pounds of water, with a little nloohol to prevent ita 
decun)|H>sition. Tliese two pounds will contain about 
10,000 drops; now, if one of these drops be mixed Mtth 
other 3000 drops (six ounces) of water, and a little alcohol, 
le teaspoonful of this mixture, given every two hours, 
wiU produce manifest effects iu the same man, if, instead of 
I Uoltiluul'a JoBiiul, Vol. V[., port 2. 1801. 



CCbif, riT. 

being in ItealUi, be ifl in a st&le of dlsensev lUiiJ lias a. uiurtntl 
seositivenetM to tlie action of belladonna." 

" To the ordioar^' practitioner it is incredible thnt a person 
when sick la Wolently atfected by a milUoutli pari ol' the 
Baine drug that be swallowed with impunity when be wai 
wdL Will ph^'sicians ever learn bow Intiaitely small may 
be tlie dose tliat is sufficient for cure, wben tbe system of 
tbe patieat Is raised to a condition of interise auJ murbiil 
sensitiveness? So powerfully do sucb Kniall quantities act 
tlien upon tbe over-sensitive fniate, tliat tlie most eerious 
disease is sometime^ qucncbed in a few hours." 

Although it is now airty years since this paper was 
published by Hufeland, during wUieh |>eriod a multitude 
of treatises upon the subject bas appeared, yet the ob- 
servations of Ilahnemann contain tbe cream of tlie whole 
matter. For tbe effective operation of minute du»Qs on 
the animal frame two conditions are requisite, — -the one; 
tlie mcchanica] subdivision of the substance ; the other, tlie 
exalted senBitiveneits of the [>atit:nt. Tlio cfiect of median- 
ical subdivision forms tbe subject of a curious |>aper by 
Profcsiwr Dopplcr of Prague.' His argument is, that tlie 
question of aizo is relative to tlie kind of operation under 
investigation. "Nothing created is either smtdl or greats 
except comparatively. Hence, in reference to medicinal 
action, we encounter at tbe Ihi-eshold of our inquiry tiit) 
question, Does a medicine act on tlifl fi-ame by its ponderable 
quantity, or by its HUiMirficial cjctcnt ? If the latter^ tlien 
Hahnemann may really in bis millionth of a grain have 
given a larger dose than his colleagues, who prescribed 
whole grains. A cubic inch of sulphur, broken into a mil- 
lion of eqnal pieces, each as big as a grain of sand, instead 
of exposing six square inches, exposes six square feet of aur- 
ftux ; aud if the operation be continued, at tlie third stage 
tbe surface of this inch will be two square miles; at the 

' lUum^rtner'* uki] tl<i!^> r'a Juura&l ol PIijtmok 1837- 

i.K 1T55-18M.] TnEOBY OK SMALL IK'SKa 


fifti), the size of Aiiatria ; at the ninth, the size of tlw sun 
au[l all liis satellites."' 

So inucii for the influence of the mechanical iJUHlriliutiou 
of the particles of a medi<-ine — its prepftration. This is, 
OS we sec, a calculable power ; Lut the other condition is 
incalculable. Who can tell the degree U> which sensitive- 
ness may be exalte<l ? Another German Professor, Dr. J. 
Jorg, one of tlie most distinguished opponents of Uuhne- 
inann, touches the puiut of the argument when he says, 
" Medicines operate most powerfiUly on the sick when tlieir 
symptoniB correspond with those of the disease. A verj' 
small quantity of arnica wUI produce * violent effect 
upon perauns whose oaopliagiis and Btomiich arc in a mor- 
bidly irritable state. When there is ijiflammation of the 
intestines, R very minute dose of mercury will produce pain 
and otl«>r R^inptoms. Yet why/' he exclaims, "should I 
waste time by adducing more examples of tlie umilar 
operation of drugs, since it is in tfte very liaivre of things 
thai a vhcdicitte must iuive a muck greater effect when it 
M admintJiteretJ to a perwn ahe*tdy 9xtffeAng under a» 
affkction gitnilar to that wKi<A tite nicdicine is capahln of 

Had "photography been invented when Hnhaemann 
wmtii this famous cs-say, it would have afforded him n 
striking ilhif<tratii>n of the condition of sensitiveness. Ho 
jnight have compared the healthy body to the metal plate 
before it has been washed, when it reflects the rays of Umj 
sun without its surface b^ng at all affected by his influ- 
ence ; and the unhealthy body to the same plate, when, by a 
dieniical prooesB, it*i surface lias l>een rendered so sensitive tt^ 
light, that the laintest ray makes on it an iudelible im- 
pression, An army well ft-d, and marching to battle in the 

■ On tbe TliiMt7 uf SraiUl DoMt. la 
Ui* Moood votuuio oi BiMayi Sc!»Dti8a 
Kud Lilcnry, bj Dr. Kununt BrowiL 
fidinbuj^ : OoiwUU«. IS5S. 

* U«(erlell«n en ciucr kQndJgen 
Hcilautullehrr, ka,, vod Dr. i. Jfir^ 
FnfieMor lui dec UnmnlUit xu Loiioiy, 



awM tn w of ridtary, pamm the w^ m i 

uhI tray waa tmcs with tbe on, Btro^ fcr tfae oovfliet 

Ttw Mine l eM t p ed bud retamH — drfhUed, dejected, Bkd 

fiuaUied ; «pefidi uiotlMr m^ am tbe vc^ iff»^ 4Md i«- 

MUnM iU rctre&t, & pnj to llw fever vUdi wM l»jr «a7 


Ltt oi ofafwrve Uut» in then eazfi«t papag^ m wtiA 
UfthMiiHuin fini stated tbe prineiplea of Us new asAad 
of cur^ Hum wu nothing atber in the seDiiiBentM or te 
buipia((« calculateil to give »Qenoe to the raediakl profeMOM. 
And j-el lio liad alr«adjr paid tbe peiulty of fiuD^ and 
liiul foufKl Uiat, in the wonls of Jenner, fae wss "■ gDded 
Lutt, for c^tT |Hvroed by tbe arrows of ntaltgnaacy.*' At 
l«ast, tlw nrivclties be bad promulgated had made liim m- 
pr>|nilar with ilie profisBion. In tbe some year in which (ha 
pamphlet wo bavu just referred to was published, there ap- 
paarad in " Uufilfind's JoumftI,'" a review on John Brown's 
" Klrint-nUi of Medicine. " The editor, tbe celebrated Hafi»- 
Und— sunmtnbd iti Ornnany, tbe Nestor of Medicine — pc»> 
flxea lo tha article, which was Hahnemann's, the fbUowiog 
not* ; — " TItoM observation!) are hy orie q^ the wuwf dU- 
tlngwMhtii phyiticiaTiM in Oermany, who, however, as bs 
btiiiwlf HXptx'SHes it, *i» bng as literary eAoiWMWtrie makes 
Ili(t bl>(bwnys unflafe,' will not pormit his name to aj^iear; 
wblcli, in my opinion, is a good plan, in oases where ren- 
vonit and not the authority of namcA are to decide."' This 
is Uio antiwar to tiiose who defend Uieir vituperatioo of 
Uabnemann by the rather huathenifib excuse, thai he waa 
Uie Brat to use violent Unguoge. Whatever may have o<s 
cninwl at n later stage of the controversy, incontrovertible 
dalu) iwtnblish, that ITiiliuemuDDs early writings, which 
Otintain the greater and the most obnoxious jwii-i of hxa 
ophilonH, worn entirt^ly free from such a hlenii;>h ; and, in- 
deed, the fact of Hufuliuid stAiiditig godfather to them is 

■ niif«1uid'« Jiiornal, Vol. v., put a, |k 91. 

i.». i7S5-MW>.] 

ni3 TRIPOD. 


ninple evidence for all acqiininteil with tlic posilioii of tliat. 
cniincut and popular pbytnician, that theru watt nothing 
beyond the novelty of the statements and of tlie doctiiueN 
in the writings of Uuliuetnnnii to amusH tlie aiitagunism, 
much lefia to excite Hm resi;ntuieut> of iLu profesiMou of 
which he wad at that time " one of the most dUtinguished 

It is iuteresitng to observe, at this stage of Hahnemann's 
progress^ that hiit a(yiuaintancc with tlie action of meilicines 
was derived fitmi his " written collection " of tlieir peculiar 
effects. He had spent much Ume in accuiuuktiiig the 
ireftsuiw supplied by history. He, too, waa to have a 
trijxid.* His system retjuircd an exhaustive and critical 
search through ihu whole douiaia of tlie old therapeutics ; 
out of which he extracted one of his pedimentat pillars, 
which in ancient times would have been called, teclinically, 
Jlialory. Two mora were required to coutplete the tripod, 
One Was expervment, the other observation. Histoi^* 
supplied him with a large number of facte bearing upon 
the specific action of remedies, and enabled him to select 
Belladonna for the cure of scarlet fever. But for the 
instances reoordcd by the generations tliat hod preceded 
him, he could not have uudertakeo, much less executed, ttie 
lajUc of a reconstruction of therapeutics ; for be would have 
had no materials io work with. So that' Hahnemnnn, 
whether his method be right or wrong, is essentially a 
builder and not a destroyer. The past was sacr«d to him 
■ — as it ia to every uiaii who bus a future. Although not 
discontented with the glorious inheritance to which we of 
the present are hi.s co-hcim, he was uusatt.sfied with the 
poBSeasion be had thus received, and resolveil to increase 
its value by ex[>eriment. It was not enough for luui that 
others had observed and recorded tlie effects of Belladonna 
and other medicinal su1»>tarices ; he was rctiolved to subrmt 

.> HIM 



flic matter to the test of his own personal 
Aocordiugly, four years later, tliat Is in 1 805. be pnh' 
lislicd a little work on "The positive etfccta of medionM; 
(»,«.) tlie e(fect8 produced by iliein in the healthy body."* 
In tbis volume are tbe obHer\'atiou8 on tweniy-fit'v sab- 
Rtnnocfi, most of them powerful vegetable mediciDes ; iir 
example : Acoiiitt^ Belliulouiia, Camphor, DigitaJb^ Hyo- 
cyiunus, Hellebore, Nux Vomicn, Opium, Veratrum, && 

To illuBtrate what h technically called proving a medi- 
cine, we may take tbe history of Aconite^ and show tb* 
BUooeaBivQ 8t<?pH by which it bria risen &oiu obscurity and 
inMgnifictmce to its pn^sent distinction. In the Mtil 
Mfifiru of DiofiRoride-s, which was the authonty for 
1000 years, tliero ara two plnuts described under tbe 
of eutovtTov. The title of Chapter LXXV. being vvpi 
tutovtrou, and of LXXVI. trepi ertpov aicovirov* all 
is recorded of its powers is: " Aconite kills paotl 
(twine, woh'ea, and all wild bensts, when mixed 
their food." "Hiis lioldfi gocxl, both of the aconite and 
iiie othfi' aconite.* In a commentary' on X>io8cori 
puUiMlieU in the year 1598/ Maihiolus relates that, in 
tbe year 1561, two robhera were given up to him to 
experiment upon. Such was the um then made of 
criminals. Re gave the first robber a drachm of the root, 
hut witltout luiy reault ; so he gave a preparation of tb» 
loaves, flowers, and seed, and in tliree hours lie had 
Balu&ctiun of perceiving moat decided effecta. Tliere 
general lassitude, feebleness, anxiety, and a weak pulse;. 
MatliioIuB tlicu gave him an antidote, upon which he ^Xf 

^ Vn^nunttt do Viribiu ktedEmraeii- 
lornm poaitiTi*, tin in wuid sorpofo 
bnouM ahufffHiii kS. B«hn«n»aD. 
BilMU P. f. <J«iR. LMtaoR, IVU. 

* P. DlaaooTid** U»t«ru Medicn. 
Ookmb*. IfiSS, |>. 510. 


mfguiei to Bir Alu McKab ' 

eeniiuuader of th« tanm In Ouad*, « 
oH VM Ivft for him iiitcrilHn] TUB 
McNah, t« Itnre in return bia cftnl m 
Ths nTIIKK McNu t 

* Uathiolua C(>iuui«uls in Die 

* b ll (lOdMUc UmI Uuk cu Un UmII, IfiSa. 

x.b. I-6D-16SU.1 



liibiWd convulsive movemeulfl of tlie eyes, moutli, and head, 
and full into a faint. Upon tliia, he had some 'wine. He 
tlitin turned on ]ii» side, and died. Matliiolus gave a 
similar do»e to the other robber, in whom, too, it produced 
convulsions, and great agitation of mind. He recovered, 
however, after seven houre, and was probably reserved for 
further esperiinents, as are the dogs and frogs of the pliy- 
nologists of our day, wlio fly at lower game than their 

The next writer quoted by Hahnemann is Claud Richard, 
who wrote a deficription of the Bezoard atone. He, too, 

es an aocouut of the effects of a drachm of aconite upon 
A robber. Tlio Hymptoms were much the aame as thiino 
observed hy Mathiolus.' 

The next authority ia Vincent Bacon, who, in the thirty- 
eighUi viilume of the "PliiloKophiral Transactions for tho 
year l73i," published a caw of poisoning with aconite. Ha 
read the following narnitive to the Rt>yal Society : — "On 
Monday night lost, being February the 5th, about ten, I 
was call«>d in haste to one John Crompter, a silk weaver in 
Spitaltields. When I came into the room, T found him 
lying on tho bed, his huud aupiwrted by a bystander, his 
eyes and teeth fixed, his nose pinclted in, his tiands, 
feet, and forehead cold, and all covered with cold sweat ; no 
pulse to be peroeived, and his breath so short as scarce to 
be distinguished. After the administration of sal volatile 
and some other medicines, he vomited, and said his liead 
was so heavy that he must needs lie down ; Ids pulse was 
then a little returned, though very much interrupted and 
irrt^guhir, sonictinica Ix^ating two or three strokea very 
quick together, and then making a stop of as long, or a 
longer time, than the preceding strokes altogether took up. 
On the following day he was much better, aud had been 
relieved by a sweat. The account he gave of the order of 

■ C. Richftid, ap. Salitiik, lib. VU., oU. 199. 


[Ciur. XIT. 

bis sufTeriiigs after swallowing the acotiit<^ which be had 
eaten by mistake in a salad, wu u follows : — Tio^ling of 
th« tougue aud jaws, sense of loOBCness of the teeib ; 
tingling then spread over all the body, aspeciaJljr 
extiemitieft i unsteadiness of tbe joints, particularly of 
knees and ancles ; twitching of the tendons, witb a feeling 
of interrnption of the circulation in the eKlt^mitiee ; giddi- 
ness, wiUi misty, wondering eyes," ' 

TUtfu comes Rodder, quoted by Albert in bis work on 
JurUprudcnee.* Bodder observed pain in the arras, and 
oardialgia, difiictUt breathin)^, heat, and thirst, fium aco- 
nite, introduced into a wound in a inan's thumb. 

MonetLH' rel»tes liow a nuin ate sou;e of the fresb plant, 
aud soon afterwards became Insane. Tbe suipiMo who was 
called in, to show his superior knowlege, ate a quanti^|^| 
of tbe leaves, and paid the heiLVy ]>cnalty of death for h^^ 
ignorance and presuiupUon. Another person to wbom h^_ 
gave it was affected with sickness and thirst. ^| 

Baron Stocrck, who was the first to write a monc^^rnph 
upon aconite, describes tbe dry leaves as producing an 
enduring sense of burning, stinging pain on the tongo^^ 
and other similar symptoms.* ^^ 

Qmeliu' b the Inst of Uahnoniaun's authorities. All be 
adds is, " Groat prostration of strength." ^^ 

It is a proof of tbe diligence and aocuratiy of Hafan^B 
manit, that be>*ond tbeae aouroes of Infonuation, the only 
oues which Wibmcr,* who has left no stone unturned where 
tlio smallest fragment of knowledge about poisons is to be 
obtained^ add:^ arc three quite iiisiguifiuaut observations. 

* Car* •[ « BMH who wm pr->i»unt<l 
Igr Mttng Uonlulood or Nttpvlhi*, mb- 
■W^wtod t» tfc* Sojkl Societj, lij Ur. 

t VI., ^ Ti». 

• U C. Tm. Ac QaadL 173». 

* On Ui« Cm of Stnmoniam, Hyw- 
eiuiiti, ukd AmiBitani. Lcaidon, 17^ 

* Soy. A**., N.C., VoLVl.. p. 3»t 

* Die Witiung Act Arui«i-MiU4^ 
nul UifU in OoniBikn Tin 
Efcryar, von l>r. Kari Wilqner. la,\ 
toInsih. Uunich, LS9S. 

i.t>. ir55-lM0.1 



contained in eiglit lines — tlie one from some Dutcliman, of 
the name of DuJdoii, wlio wrote a work on Muteria JJ&Uca ; 
the obhcre fi'om Hnin and Willift. Puaaibly Hahnemann 
may have »een Uieee observationH, and tliougfat them not 
of Bufficieiit itnportauoe to be incorporated in bis book. 

Such were all the material that existed for ascertaining 
the posiiive actiou of aconite upon a person in Jieolth. To 
tbis meagre catalogue, Uahnemanu added the effects of tlie 
aubstance upon himself. He arranged bis observations in 
a certain order, — beginning with the effects upon the head 
and brain, then passing to those of the face, the organs of 
sigbt^ Iiearing, &c, — and so on, throughout the whole of 
tlie body, till be came to the feet ; after which be frttites 
what he calls ita general effectA, such as crampSj syncopic, 
fever, && Tbeso effects ho denominated Rymploma — using 
this term in a eoutewbat novel eeuee. 

Of these s^iptoms he noted down one hundred and 
thirty-eight luore and \cs& imporlaut. Among the former 
were the first /our symptoms, which might have been 
called one single group of efTectH— '* Coldness of the whole 
body ; eohhu^s of the whole body, with heat of brow and 
ears, and a dry iulonial burning ; cold, stiflhess of the 
body, one cheek huniing-hot, the other pale and cold ; 
skivering, and dread of cold." This group of four symp- 
toms might read fever ; at least, it presents many of the 
first indications of an attack of fever. To these are added 
several symptoms resembling a feverish condition of the 
body, as for example, " Perspiration, with febrile ahivering." 

Ttie utility of aconite in subduing the fever of iuflamtna- 
tton, has become a popular notion in this country. It is 
some time now since it was acknowledged byscvciid of the 
oiiliodox scltool, and the obhgation to Hahnemann hand- 
somely avowed, by Pmfessor Maly in the year IS* 6, 
ns follows: — "Dr. Kinderwater says of aconite, that, ac- 
cording to tlie prevailing ideas, it is contra-indicated in 
inflammatory febrile alfectious, but that he cannot sgree in 

4 IS 


[CiiAr. XIV. 

this opinion, ils lio has fouod its utility in variotin acDt« 
diseiues. In regard to thia observAtion, while we recora- 
mend it to the notice of every physioiaa who has at heart 
the good of suffering humanity and the advancciiieut of 
the art of medicine, we feel ourselves compelled to oV 
eerve, first, thnt he did not always employ iiconite quite 
pure (that is, uucombined) ; secoMl, that he omits oil men- 
tion of that mfin to whom we owe the true knowledge and 
right use of this medicine. It waa Halmemann who first 
reoommended tbe use of aconite in pure iufluinmatorj- 
fevers, with or without eruption, aa well as in inflammatory 
diseaaea generally, in obedience to his principle, aiijiilixi aimi- 
libus, hy wbidi the effusion of blood, except in certain ex- 
ceptional cases, is wholly obviated. Even were wc under 
no other obligatiou to Hahnemann, by this single discovery 
he would, lilce Jcniicr, deserve to he ranked among the 
greatest benefactors of BuHering iiumanity."' 

When Uahnenianu published this little book, ho waa 
living in the small town of Torgau, the peculiarities of 
which. Recording to Brook,' are the possession of a tower so 
constructed that a carriage cnn drive to the top of it, and 
that the inhabitants brew excellent beer. So that wc can 
hardly be surpri.<icd that, after the publication of liis fii-st 
corisiderahltj work, eutitled, "The Organon of Specific 
Medicine," he should have returned to Leipsiig ; for it 
must have been manifest to him that the experiments, of 
which bis " Frogmenta " wore specimcnR, were altogethor 
incomplete; and thnt to render them trustwurthy, he must 
repeat them on various persons, so iis to ascertain not only 
how he, Samuel Halmemann, was affected by Aconite, 
Belladonna, &x., but what the efiecta of these substances 
were on the average of people. Such an average could 
only be obtained by multiplying the ejq>eriments, and 
noting the effects produced upou each of the exporinmntA^nii 

* MMliuiiiiaclio JnlnUlcberHwK. K. ' Brook'a Quetlccr 

fSBter. ».mU., 1840. 

».i>. 1765-1850.) 



comparing one series with another, and ao ariving al, u 
knowledge of what were peculiar to the individual, what 
common to all. To do »o, he required to live among lliose 
who would co-operate witb him ; and Ijcipzig was clearly 
the place hest adapted for securing all Iiih ohjbctB. 

Before proceediug with the description of the great 
ft.bric Hahnemann gradually erected and designftted "Ma- 
teria MefHca Pura," we must direct attention to liia 
" Orgawm," both on account of the influence it has exerted 
generally upon medicine, and because its publication en- 
tirely changed the position of ita author. Uiihnetiiann hii» 
be«u severely blamed for pretiuniptiou in chooauig the word 
Organon for his book, a.s if he wished to present himself 
aM the Bacon of medicine. Tina cliarge is unjust, n& a tittle 
ntieutioD to the meaning of the word will easily show. 
Bacon introduced a new organ, or instrument, Novuvi OT' 
yanurn, for the reooiistruction and advancement of science, 
Hahnemann believed that he, too, had found out a uew 
instrument for the discovery of ajiedfics. There was, there- 
fore, nothing impro[>er in his calling this new method the 
oigan of rational, or BpeclBc medicine ; meaning, that he 
wished to introduce this as a system for the better dis- 
covery and adnnu intra tiuTi uf Kpecifics. The uoveltiea of 
this method had been all made known in a wries of 
articles published in " Hufeland's Journal." They may bo 
Hummarily desci'ibed as — 

I. Kever to give any gubstance as a medicine w-htch had 
not been made the subject of experiment for nsocrtoining 
its adjon on the healthy body. This position was quite a 
novelty. It is true, in advamang it, he seeks llie shelter of 
the great name of Haller, who expresses his belief '* of the 
diversities of powers which lie hidden in plants, whose 
faces we know, but whose souls, as it were, we are ignorant 
of; ' but this is rather one of those " feiry talea of science " 
with which Ilaller noiirished his sublime and perpetual 
youth, than a direction for the guidance of discovery. 




2. Always to give but one mcdidnc at a time ; and never 
lo repent even Hint until llie action of the fini dose is ex- 
hBurted. XUe liojw of axriviug at greater fiirDpIicity in 
medicino had been expressed b<.^rore ; e&pecJally, as we bsva 
■een, by Lord Bauou, and, at a. much later period, in one of 
the fimt articles in "Ilufeland'a Joumnl;" but it was 
riLllii-r a vngue n^piratiuu than a difUnct purpoee. 

y. Always to select a ixrmtdy liOTnteo^xitltic to 
diRtinae. This was the lirsl time Halmenuuin nsed a ieroil 
which has now become " faniiliar to our ears as housdioU 
wonK" He nioaut by ib, as Le fully explain^ Uiai 
drug Helcctc^l for tho cure of a disease, aliould posseaa 
|iower of exciting a aeries of phonouiena similar to ibt 
mymptoms of the disease for wluch it was administered. We 
have alreivdy amply ilhistrnttd this projiotiition. It cannot 
be said tlial before llnhnuniunii it was ever reuognized as Uie 
method for ascertaining ttpecifica. So tiiat^ wlietber it be 
the right plan or not, ita author was fully entitled to deag* 
natc it by the name of a. new organ, or inBtrnmcnt, 
lucclicinc. It has girea its name to his system^ and 
much else hcfiides. 

4. Tlie lji»t proposition is, that, when we liavc selected a 
medicine which is homeopathic to a disease, we must gii 
it in a dose su miuutc that it shall ortly act on tlie 
morbidly susceptible of its action, raised to a condition of 
idioBjnicrosy by the disease whose likeness is repreisentcd 
by the piitioi/enetic efiects of the drug.' 

Tliat medicines wei-e often given in too lai^ge quantities, 
and that medicines selected according to the homoeopaihiu 
fonnula should be given in much smaller doses thim when 
intended to produce a physiological action, such as sweating 
or vomiting, was obvious enough ; but that the millioa- 
milliouth of a drop of the expressed Juice of a compora- 

' Tbe ward pttliopiiuitic u of fro- 
qnont onnunaet in tb« writiiiEs of 
Habncmran Mid hb Mbool : It tataaa 

the pow«T at a nitMlAtMe ta csciia 
morbid eoKlilion in « panMo Ib iMiix 

I.*. 17J5-18S0.] 


41 E 

tively inactive plant, sudi as crocus, should bave the power 
of quenching n diBeaae, aoeraed as improbable as that Dniry 
Lone Theatre, when ia fiamcs, should be cxliii^it>hed hy a 
fdxpenny squirt. Here was Ilftlmemann's great offence ; it 
waa this thai made liis wliule .syistcm the derision of Europe. 
Such is ttie outline of the fundamental propositions con- 
tained in the " Orgunon of Rational Medicine ; " — a book 
tlTiiiBlated into most modern languages, and on which 
there liave been more conimeutaiies and criticisms written, 
than upon any medical work that has appeared for many 
centuries. Its publiaition placed Halmcnmnn at the hea*l 
of a school ; he becAino a heresiarch ; his disciples clus- 
tered round him, and were cnUed Homoiopatliista. From 
this time Hahnemann's style became more dogmatic, and 
he returned the attacks made upon him by the profession 
with a bittorness f>f invective that widened the breach 
created by the novelties of his doctrines, and the pecu- 
liarities of his practice, which differed from that of all bis 
colleagueB in this- — that ho dispensed with the assistance 
of the apothecaries. It was plain that a war of mutual 
extermination would take place between Homoeopathy aud 
druggists, who, witli the keen sense of self-preservation, 
finding themselves in the same plight as the goldsmiths of 
Ephesns when Binnn was attacked, naturall}* enough iiad 
recourse tu siniilnr wcaiK>ns. Hahnemann, from the iirat 
time he made known his resolution to preach a minimum 
of drug niltninistration to blie sick, luid to run tlie gauntlet 
of these enemies, who had the satisfiiction of making 
liiin flee from city to city, until he found refuge at last 
under the wing of a reigning duke at the residence-town 
of Coltben. Tliis is parenthetical ; for, notwitbatandiug the 
petty vexations he had to encounter, he sjwnt eleven years 
in Leipzig, and so won Uie affections of \t& inhabitants, 
that when his statue was erected there, some years ago, 
by his disciples, tlie Town Council attended in due ftirm. 



(Cur. XTT. 

^uiU'd II HiLo, nnd did the hatioure^as tbeir way m to 

MH'lt-aultictitiualed Iiltoun. 

TUn following livi-ly sketcb of Hahnenutan, after he had 
Ihicm nix j'uara residi'iit iu Ijcipzig. ia given by Baroo Kuif 
HOW :'-^" It wiiB oil ft clear Hpring morning of the year ISlfi, 
tUftt I, n, young ftnd fivsh student of luw, was i 
with Bvidio of my companions along the cheerftil 
mull) of Lt.>i|iKig. Many noUibles wid not u few ori 
wont Uit«n to hv found among the professors and 
altiwhoil lo thti fmnoiui Uutvurslty ; und it was their cas- 
tttiii til Willie t»iit of aj\ evening in their antique oostuaK — 
Uii^ir licnd-dnisH a porukn nnd hag, Hilk-stockings od their 
h'gM luid buckh'N oil their shoeH, while the youngBtcra 
NWiiggun'd |tiuit tlii'tn, in Kt-Mstnu boota nnd pantaloons weH 
tpwikud uut with luve-tuMHelii, or iu military juck-boots with 
trotaendouB spun. 'ToU mo,' said I to a]Lotlier studeotk 
'M-ho JM tlinl old gentleman walking with his wife on his 
ann, tind followed by bis fuur rosy-cheeked daughters ; his 
ouuiitenauos Blrikas uio as remarkably intelligent.' 'That 
In tho oolebruiod Dr. Haliu^imaun, who takes a wulk ^-ith 
bin fumily every oveuing.' * What is there about this 
Itahneuiann, that makes him celebrated ? ' ' Why, be is 
Iho discoverer of the Homceopatliic syRtem, which is turn- 
ing old physio up-si de-do wu.' " Aflei' inoutionuig his own 
special rciuion.H for being irtcretited in mediciue, connected 
witli ft wciiknuiK of the oyc& of long standing, and saying 
that ho hiid eludicd the writings of thiiii medical ra- 
fbrraer, he gues uu to describe hiu personal npxtconuioe and 

"Hahnemann was, at that time, in his sixty-second 
year. His liaiv was white, and hung in clusters round a 
high and thoughtful bruw ; his eyes were uf piemug bril- 
liancy. His gait WAS upright, bin step £nii, and bis niove- 
inenta as ocUvo and lively, us if he were a man not abovo 

I Kin Blick auf Haimciiuinn. 

».». 1775-1850.] 



tbirly years old. The long pipe wiis seldom out of lifa 
band. His drink was water, milk, or whit* beer ; his food 
of the most frugal kind." Very unlike Panicelsua in all 
tliis I "He received me with extreme cordiality, and we 
became more intimate day by dny, so that in a few months 
a close friend-sliip sjirang up between ua. Cmtitude for 
the benefit I received fiom him, and veuem.tion for his 
character, attached me to him," 

" A very pec-ullar mode of life prevailed in Halmemann's 
hotute. Tlie uiembers of his fiuniiy. Lis ^>uliL'ut!>, and the 
students of the University who frequented his society, lived 
and moved in only one idea ; tliat was^ — Ho7ti(mjmthy. 
They all actively assiKted him iu leKting the efieL-U uf the 
medicines he was engaged in ptftviTtg, as it is called. His 
adhercjitfi were at this time the butt of ridicule, and all 
the more, as a persecuted sect, did tbt-y hang together and 
cling to their head. After a day Hpent iu hibour. Haline- 
maiin wae in the habit of recruitijig himself frum eight to 
t«n o'clock, by receiving a circle of intimate friends. All 
his pupils then had access to him, and were welcome to 
their glass of Leipzig beer and Llneir j>i|)e of tobacco. In 
the mifltii of their group, llie prcMiding gentus reposed, with 
a long Turkish pipe in his hand, telling stories of the 
incideuis of hts life, and conversing fredy upon all the 
topics of the day. He had a curious fondness for the 
Chinpge, rhiefly because it was recorded of them that the 
children iu China were educated in the strictest obcdienco 
to their parente. On this point Hahnemann had very 
strong opinions, and hia children afforded a pattern of the 
old German fashion of training, and were devotedly at- 
tached to tlieir father. From his pupils, too, Halmemann 
exacted Dot only diligence and iuielllgence, but the most 
rigid abiiUaeuce from all forms of vice. In one imstanoe 
which came tfy my own knowledge, he forbade the house to 

E B 



[Ciur. Xlt 

a ^otuig and clever medical siuilent^ on account of aa iMb 
proper iDtimiwiry be bod furmed." 

Such ui a graphic picluro by Baron Brunow' of the exter- 
nal life and habits of HaLnemann at iliiB period of liia camr. 
We have, by another aud inon: celebrated baud, a aketcfa of 
his muntal peculiarities. Jean Paul Biditer, like Halinemaiin, 
had known the privations of a scholar's life At Leipzig. 
"Hi» old schoottnaster, Schwarzeubach, himself a Leipzigtrr, 
liad been wont to assure him that he might live for nothing 
at Leipzig, so easHy vere " free tables," etlpendia, private 
tenching, and the like, to b': procured there by youths uf 
merit." Iti this be was disappointed, for " im all bauds 
he heard tlie sad saying, Leipala vuU expectaH (Leipxig 
preferments must be waited for). Now waitiug was <^ oU 
things the most incouvenient to Ricbter." ' Richter went t« 
Leipzig first as, a penniless student^ in the year 1780, £v« 
years after UahnomonD ; afterwards, as Jean Paul der einzig» 
(thb only), he returned thither, a star of the first mugaitude 
in the coii8tc[liitiou of Weimar. So it is possible be luay 
have met Hulinemoim ; at all events, be must have bt-en 
deeply impressed by the wiibinga of the reformer, for lie 
says of him :^'* Hahnemann, this extraordinary double- 
brain (iloppelkopf) of philosophy and erudition, whose sys- 
tem must eventually tend to tlie ruin of the common recipe- 
onimmcd brains (ReceptirHp/e), but which ns yet has 
been Little aoceittod by practitioners, aud is mure detested 
than examined." 

We have now tlie group of workmen : in the centtv 
was the aeitcner Doppdkopj of philosophy and erudition, 
nruund him hU enthusiastic Jxiuuds and pupils. Let us 

t lli«t>i«r erf tbu prm'iit Uumuui phi« nnd (Jrlahnounkint d««a>l 8^«a 

AnilMMvularnt iWC'ti^irtuf SI. JiunWaL un Kitdp den Kuin der gpinanwii {{«. 

* Ciu-ljilv'i UlaMllaniM. t«i>tirkit|)le niicb >it-li ciehm maai, sWr 

* Jwi Piiul Htcht«r, ()csUnat« BUl- ncwh »cot^ von don i^mctikcm mng/^ 
tor, 11 b(l., 63(1. "R&hD«mftnit, Uic- uoinin«ii uml tnelir vmhMlllSSl wi» ui- 
mt Mltcnur t)oppelkoi)f Yon PIiiImo- tcnucbt irt." 

A.tK I77fi-13i'>.] 

UFB AT IsmiQ. 


extuiiine their work, mid resume the fragment of ISOfi, 
In this the detiiil of Uie expcrinieiitB and observatioiin 
upon aconite consintA of 200 symptoms, 138 contributed 
by its notion od Hahtienianti, mid 06 derived from the 
records of poisoning. lu llie Materia M&Uca translated 
by Dr. (^uin, in whicli tlie 3yinptoin.s of Halmemann are 
incorpomted with tliose of Ins discaplGs, they number 280 ; 
more tliaa double, and tlie syiuptoms derived from uUier 
sources amormt to 109.^ In the 6rst and second publica- 
tions tliero is no \&ry great difference in the proportion of 
the symptoms discovered by experiment and those recorded 
by previous observera. In both the element of tradition 
or history is large, though uoi equal to tU&t of experiment ; 
tlie two i^dcfltals of the tripod art both there ; by-ajid-by 
we slinll have the itiird added. 

If we continue the examination of what we may coU 
our thi'ea'Jj we shall find the phenomena which present a 
rei>emblance tu fever much more prominent iu tlie Materia 
Mediea iban in the Fragmenia. In the latter work they 
do not exoeed se%'cn or eiglit symptoms, wliile in the former, 
in the German edition of 1S30,' they amount to thirty- 
tUreo. The way in which Haimemtuin managed his ex- 
periments was to distribute portions of tlio aubstanoe he 
was testing among thone who were fuiaisting him, and to 
require that they sliould take a succession of doses, and 
record their effects ; while he did so too. In tliis way he 
accumulated the evidence of iudependeut witnesses, com- 
paring one set of obsei-vationa with another, and all with his 
own, omitting what he thought accidental and triviid, and 
arranging those be considered trust^rortliy in n regular 
order. It became a question of vital importance to Iuh 
school to determine how fax these first exiu'riments of 

' Bfttioeinano'i MntcrU ktedioi, B>hn«iMHia. 
tnuuhioJ by Dr. QuId. Uge, 1S30. 

' Baliiv Armn-mittollebrg ron Sain. 

Dritta V«nn*lirt« Jiirf> 



Hiilmemonn and his pupils were dra^ving^ of eo Dfi d e aotj 
aud some year» ago a society wu instituted at Vieniw fix 
tcsiiug, critically and experimentally, the so-called protiktBt 
of Ualmemauu. ([ 

Oae of the Brst substances this society chose for exaioi* 
nation wiis Aconite. A cxmimttiuc woafomiedj con«sttngol 
Dr. Gt-rstel, a learueU an well as higUly-plulauthropic physi. 
ciao, who acted as chairman and reporter. Along with liim 
were aasociatod thirli'cn ph}'aiciiws, one of tliem a profenoi 
iu the University.' Kuch of these thirteen received n botth 
of tincture, not knowing what it was, and took it in variom 
doses from utie drop to fuur hundred drops ; they carefully 
wrote down all the efiecbj they observ-ed, and aeut in their 
reports to Dr. Qcrstel. Hd Arranged thero, and |Hiblisbod 
tlieiJi, eacli, for the most part, iu the very words of the ex> 
perimeutei-8, giving Ins name, no tliat any one who choOdes 
may verify for himsdf the authenticity of tJie reoui 
those who engaged in the work are, or quite recently 
in practice in Vienna, 'and wpre, so far, pabUc men. 
would be dilBcidt to concvlveof an ex|)orinieut made under 
more satisfactory conditions for obtaining reliable cvidenoe. 
The conclusion this society niTivcd at was that, among Iha 
Te^tilts of their ex|>erime>it« one of the most striking was, 
"that altufwt every one of the observations of Habuenii^a 
upon aconite was coniimied by tbem." The Keport oc^| 
]iiea 227 pages, and h the most satisiactory monograph 
upon liny medicinal substance that we are acquainted with 
in medical literature.' The experiments exteudiitd over • 
period of several months ; they were attended by gWH 
discomfort, and frequently by severe positive |uiin and suf*' 
ferlngs of all kinds ; and, on reading them tUi'ough, it is iMd 

' Dr. ZUlttrnviclg. 1 sm not nir« Ho]Dir«ps.thie. RiliUmi, Dra. FklaFh- 

wh«the( t« w yrnfattet in Vletink nr iranB, W&uk«. Hrin)]«, and Wt 

fnga: Vol I, 
■ (E«t«n«i«biMho Z^tKltiift (Or 


I. It 

i.1>. 1775 165a.J 



pa-nible not to be impressed witli n r^'spect for tlic Kcnl 
displayed fi)r Bcieiice by the experiiiientera. Tins is a very 
different way of setting about tlie discovery of tlie effects of 
a medicine, from that pm-sucd by Mrttbiolus, who poisoned 
robbers, or by Mfigeiidie, Tvlm poisoned dogs j or even by 
tbo»e physicians who tested aconite upon tlieir patients ; 
for, however great our svinpathy with the sufferings of 
others may be, it ia not to be oompared with the actual 
<>iidurance of pain in our own person. And besides the 
positive distress that this syst4?m of self-poisoning occa- 
sioned, it recjuired of the experimenters a life of great 
sflf-denial, and abstinence from everything in their diet 
and oocM|)nUon8 which could in any way interfere with 
the operation of the drug under investigation. If we are 
constrained to ivnder homage to those patient and self- 
denying physicians of Vienna for their labours in testing 
the effecta of aconite and two or three oilier medicines, 
what shall we tliink of Hahnemann, who has left a record 
of experiments with no less than one kund}-ed and 8ub 
medicinal nubstances 1 In fact, be spent his life, from the 
time he was forty-five years of age, in ibis systematic 
self-sacrifice. For it he gave up everything. Hahnemann 
may be accounted a fanatic, who devoted bis Ufe to a delu- 
loa ; but it is very difficult to imagine how he cim appear 
t<o any honest mind to have been " an immoral and licen- 
tious seoundrd," as somu of his adverfiune^s have described 
him. Knowing, as we do, Iww he »]>eiit almost every day 
in his long life, we ore at n loss to find tlie time for the 
prosecation of debauchery atid vice — putting aside all 
ether objections to this aingular re.-tdlug of hits characU:r. 
Paracelsus, with whom it is the fashion with some to liken 
htm, bos left no work behind him which bears evidence 
of long, sober, pataent kbour. So of liim we say, it may 
be tnie that he was a drunkard ; but Hahnemann has 
left ten volumes of Materia Medico, every pnge of which 

contrntlictfi the exiravagniit supposition of liis bcin( 
vtctiiit to low iodulgeace of any kiixl. A life of labour, 
of honest, self-denying toil, is, according; to the adnge of the 
monks, a life of prayer — Omre eai laborare. Such a life 
«-a.s Hiilmeinann's. A great writer Itas said, " The origin 
of all tUouglit worthy of the name, is love." ' Love, we 
may add, is the origin of all wark^ of a self-sustaining^ 
kind — of all work which ministers to the well-being of 
mankind, and not merely to the gratification of the work- 
man ; to originate and to execute suoh work demnnda lo\*e 
fur the ohject — so strong as to make the sacrifice of self a 
pU<]uture as well as a neces^dty. In llAlmenuknn'a ovm wordti, 
"The man who undertakes and earriftt fchrougli with stcad- 
fiiat resolutidu to benefit humanity — fur in my cafie Uiere 
could be no other motive, since beyond the miserable remu- 
neration given by the booksellers, which was no compen- 
sation fur such ft life of self-sacrifioe, T met only witli 
persecution — a man that f-o lives and works must be a good 
man at bottom."' Whenever wc find that a man haa been 
capable of such love as results in great achievements, even 
of a purely iutellectual character, like those of Bacon or 
HiihnemanD, we are disposed to look with extreme sunpicton 
on all who attempt to detract from his character, c»|iccia]1y 
when the accusations are made with an air of triumph, and 
nut of humility. Some regard J3 due to the feelings of those 
who, after a careful exuuiiuatiou of a man's character, have 
arrived at the conclusion that it is noble And no ways 
baetc, for nothing so saddens a pure mind a^ the discovery 
of uuwortliiness, in any degree, in the object of its reapeot- 
ful a<liuirabion. 

" Id love, if lova !>• Imo, !( [ove be vun, 
Faitlt \nd nnfnitli caa uo'er tw cqunl poven • 
Uoi'kiUi ID iinj^ht ii want of fallli in all. 

I Cul}l«'> Fntnoli RorvIutioD. not intended cref to he publuh* 

* In a iwim* Ivttor ta I>t. St&pf, 



*.K 1T75 1850.] fll3 PURITY AND IXDUSTRV. iO 

[t n Ui« little nft witiiin tlie Itile, 
TliiLi Ij-atul-by *iU uuk* tLo muaio uiut«, 
And, «v«r widening, ilowljr Mlcac* itll.* 

The day is probably not far off when tlie cliamckr of 
HalineiiiAnu wliall, by its nckuowle<i(j:f<i purity, put to 
sliiime liLs detractdi-s, who arc more givtjii, as Jean Paul 
observes, to detest tba man than to study Ilia works. 

Two pillars of the tripod— Z/iaiori/, or the recorded 
experience of the past, and Enperimeul, or the authen- 
tication and enlargttment of the knowledge tmnsmitteil 
by tradjiion,^we have now examined^ aiid have found 
Hahnemann worthy of our confidence, both as a scholar 
and as an experimenter. There remains tbe third pillar 
of tlie tripod, kuown of old a« Observation — which we 
should now describe as the practica] application of a theory 
baaed upon faots of tradliinn and experiment. Let us 
snppoae all that is written in these ten volumeK of Materia 
Mediea to be gospel truth : ]iow shall we make any use of 
it ? Tho number and variety of nyniptoinH thus recorded 
Is so great, tliat, like a lund-bird at sea, we grow weaiy, 
nnd long for some ship to rest on. At the first perusal, 
it seeinfl an iufiiilte scries of i>])urt diticonnected sentoiiceSf 
which defy our ingenuity to construe^ our patjence to 
read, and our memory to recollect them. It is more like a 
fount of typ<« out of whicli books are printed, tlian an 
ordinary volume. It ahnost required genius to spell \\'ord» 
out of this heap of letters. AfUr the tpord in once pro- 
Dounoed, it is not difficult to recognize that it existed there 
*A pOBse ; but before it is " syUabled " ite discovery seems 
ImpeleaH. It is this that deters many from the study of 
tliese records ; and there is no possibility of ever presenting 
A rigidly-scientific detail of the poisonous or pathogenetic 
effects of medicinal substances in an nttrnctive literary 



[Ciur. XIT. 

form. It Is a loxiron for ntudy and consultation, not a 
romoncQ for idle hours. 

A certAin human interest is given to the work, however, 
by the few brief hints tb»t Hahnemann gives as to tbe 
use of the mcdiciues ho haa tested — Uie infereuoes btt 
baa di*awn on the atrength of his general theoiy, Ihjil 
this or that Hubstance will be of value in afibctions pre 
wilting Bvinptoraa, perceived or fancied, similar to Uieaa 
recorded actions of the drug, as felt by himself, or described 
from the experience of others. In liis preface to aconite, 
be says, "Although the following syraptoma do not ex- 
press the entire significjition of this most procioug plant, 
yet they open to the thoiigtitful homreopathic physician 
the prospect of curiug that class of diseases for which the 
Old School employs its whole procesa of blood-letting and 
depletion, often fruitlessly, and alwaj'a with bad conse- 
queuces to the constitution of the patient. Aconite, ia 
the smallest dosea, will cure pure inflammatory diseases, 
&c."' Keuce it is now popularly called the Homoeopathic 
lancet, and its use is graduidly superseding those sangui- 
nary measures which were the fashion in the reigu of the 

The uiosb reinarkable hit HfUmeuinnn ever made, or tliat 
ever was made in medicine, was his recommendation of 
camphor in cholei-a- — remarkable as dJspla^'ing his intiuti\-e 
faculty of apprehending the type of disease from its de- 
scription, nnd itfl fac similn in the action of a drug ; re- 
Hiarknble, too, hisUjricatly, us having afforded an opnor> 
tunity of putting his system to the test in hospital under 
the inspection of a despotic Government. 

It was in the year IhSI tliat the cholera first invaded 
Europe ; it came, like all invaders and epidemics, out of the 
East, and the destruction it committed was terrible, lu 
I lUharaiaan't Anii«i-iniLl«llclir«, Vol. l-, p. 4U. 

A,^. 1775-1850.] 



Moscow there were (i305 cases, and of these 3533 were 
ffttal. Ill Hungary, above 8000 died onfc of 19,000 who 
were sei;^.' The constematiun wa^ universal ; medicine 
"waa paralyzed. AH systems and nietliods seetued equally 
tintLvniling to nrrci^t a disease of unexampled rapidity in its 
cour&u ; whuse vtotltDs passed froiu health to death iu a 
few boura. 

The adherents of the Hoinueopathic school proposed 
various medicines, as, for example, arsenic and voratrum.' 
In the mean time, Ualmeniaiii) had been tstudyiiig liia 
Sibylline books, and on the 1 0th of September, 1831, ha 
wrote a letter to the editor of n liomoeopathic Journal 
containing the following order : — " Every one, the instant 
any of his friends tnke ill of cholera, must immediately 
treat tliem with Ckitnphor, and not wait for medical aid, 
which, even if good, would be too late." Camphor, then, 
was the counler-nign to cholpra, if these books of Hahne- 
uiHun wera tiiie, and his iuterpretation of them eurrect. 
The very year, 1831, in which Hahnemann made his 
announcement of the unc of camphor, Dr. Quin was in 
Moravia, whither he had gone to study the dLseaae, and 
assist iu the treatment of those who were attacked with 
cliolcra. He, along with Dr. Oerstel (whone name we have 
already mentioned) and two surgeons, had the charge of 
all the cboIorA caseft in the town and neighbouring villages 
of TifMjhnowilz. His exiwrience of the efficacy of cnnipbor 
he thus relates : — " Je doia moi-meuie, la vie h TeBprit do 
camphre. Je fiis subitement attelnt du cholera pendant 
lo diner, et sans sjnnptAnu'H pnfcurseura. Je tombni sans 
oonnaissance. Immediatement transport^ dans un Ut, d^s 
que j'eus repris mes sens, je recourus & ce medicament, el. 
dfcs la sixifeme dos^ li:s crampea, Ics efforts pour vomir, la 

' Tmtiae on Kjudamie CtioUn, \>j 
Ih-. Rutbfrfnn) Bandl. Ltmiloti, 1B19. 

' Dr. P*ii, of ITflranberg, 



fOuAr. xvr. 

sensation de brfilure k I'esioinac, le sentiment d'an^ntisse- 
meiit, les vertigcs, la lenteur des pulsations du c<BUr, 
^taient scnsiblcment Himinti^ Les borbory^;ine9, le froid 
de la face et des extr^init^'i, leiir coulenr inarbrfe, ne oAI^ 
reat puH si proinptement ; cependant 'Ah dlsparurent peu i 

psu Bien que mes snutfraown nft ftisscnt que peu 

violentes relatives a eelles qu'on obeerve chez les nhoWrJquea, 
cppendant le dijbut fiit si 8ulHt,que j'al laeoDviction intime 
que si je u'avais p« avoir recours dc suite h I'tsprit de 
camphre, j'auiuis suoornb^ en peu d'heurea. Pendant 
pUwieura jours, j'ai conservep up cercle livide pen marqntf 
aiitoiir des ycui ; iin grand ^tat dc feiblease, des naus^ 
Mg&rcR avL-c vertigcs, cdplialalgin, coiistriutioii de poitrine, 
qui ni'obligeaient k prendre le grand air ou k m'^tendre 
8ur un Ut. Je dois observer qu'alors j'^tais occ«p<? depuis 
lo matin jusqu' au soir k soigner des choleriquea, toua les 
autres niiidecias ^tant olit^/* ' 

Tn reference to tliia, Hahnemnnn wrota to Dr. Quin :— 
"I am nnich obliged to you for tbe details of your re- 
searches npon the nature of tlio clmlera and of the appro- 
priate liomceopatliic treatment. You are right in the 
opinion you express, and it is one borne out by my own 
observations, that the worst fonn of cholera is presented 
by c&*e* of degenerated, cholerine. ... I Iia^-e already 
heard from Dr. Gerstel of your attack of the qiidcmi<^ and 
your cure by camphor. I congratulate you on your resto- 
ration, and I render thanks to Almighty God for having 
pre8er\'cd you to give aid to the unfortunate victims who 
80 sndly require your assistance. Yonr success in the 
treatment of cholom is more remarkable from your igao- 
mnce of the Moravian langoage. , . . 

" May the gr;icious God conduct you feafely to yonr own 

I Du TnuUiuanl nom<rx>iJ«Ui)f)iie du Ordituin <I» Leopold, Bo) ((m Btsl|ML 

A.». 1775-1850.] DR. QUIN" AMD THK CHOLBRA- 


liomo, and blnss your efforts to instnict yonr countrymen 
in tbe art of healinjj in cnnfurmity with the laws of Nature. 
" Your sincere ami afftctionate friend, 

" Samuel HAHyEMANN." 

"CoMlteo, iKh Febniary. 1633. 

Tbo Cliitsf Magistrate of the Tiscbuowitz sent Dr. Quin 
the following address : — 

"At the time of Dr. Quin's arrival here for the purpose of 
observing the epidemic of cholera, it lutd reached its gi'catcat 
maJignanc^'.in the \-illage8 that itutTOund the town and castle ; 
tliin waa sliown, not only by the numbera who fell ill, but 
by the Khorboetts of the interval butween the cummeDcement 
of the attack and iU fatal termination — oHen only a few 
hourB. It Itappencd that at the time Br. Qerstel nud 
Surgeous Httimiili and Linhart were all three confined to 
bed by illness." These were the only medical men in Uie 
place. "Although you yoiuiseir, upon your arrival, wero 
iittKcked with cholera, you nevertheless, during your con- 
valescence, with the most humane zeal, undertook the treat- 
ment of tliose ill of cholera during the period when Dr. 
Qerstel was obliged to keep lus bed, and tbia you did with 
Rucli success that not one patient died.' The authorities 
feet UieinHelveB under tlie obligation to make Uicir rwpecti'iil 
acknowledgments to you for the assistance yon aflorded, 
with such generous humanity, to the inhabitants of this 
district. "Eknest Dieble, Cklef MagMtmU." 

"TWlmowite, 30tb Nortimber, 1831." 

The following Table was sent to Dr. Quin by M. Dieble, 
along with the letter just quoted. 

InhabUaiili C**n of Chnim. 
0O71 080 


rniler AJlo|«Uiic trablnieLl 831 329 lOi 

Und«r &oiiMJK))>aiU6 UMUneU S7d 251 27 

Witli CniDphrtr alono 71 60 II 

No one who is acquainted with tlie opset of cholera can 
■ Tliin wais Ml acei'l«ot.— ihrM lUo-l (]w «)»; niter tli« npnrl «u sifnid. 



^CUiT. XIT. 

doubt, after rending Dr. Quin s graphic narrative thai bad 
it not been for caniplior, moat probably bis career would 
tlien ftiid tliei-c have tenninnted.' 

The same epidemic of cholera, in which Dr. Quin hail 
so Dearly perished in Moravia, was not long in advancing 
upon Vienniv. Among the hoBpitiils prepared for rtHX-iviog 
choIcra-paticnts, ww one which had just been opened by 
the SihUfrs of Charity of tlw- order of St. Vincent Ue Paul. 
The physician, Dr. Mayerhofer, was so impressed by what 
he had heard of tlic value of the homceopatbic medicloffi, 
that he gave them, although only partially. In tlie year 
1835, Dr. Fk'mchinann, whoso long services to hJa countir 
have been recently recognized by the Emperor's couferring 
npon him an order equivalent to our C.B., or kniglitbood, 
was appointed physician to this hospital. When the 
cholera returned, in the year 1836, he reaolved to give Uio 
plan of trt'atment rpcnmmondcd by Halnmniann a fair trial. 
The Itospital was visited daily by a Government ins^iector. 
The number treated was 732 ; of these, 438 recovered, 
and 244 died. He embodied hia ohBervations in a report 
prepared at the desire of Government, and presented it in 
person to Count Kolowrat.' 

"Upon comparing," says Mr. Wilde, "tJie report made 

' An LtiUreiting owrobotwtiw of 
tho lUtfiniiiita ipTOo tn th« Ust 
intsy Iw )i«ra rite>l, t*k*n frnn an ox.* 
tract at n Icllei pobliiilm] in Ute HtWU 
da Finw. Monitftt vritUn by BnrciH Ae 
Moiitbel (who wuH MiniBtci of thu lu- 
l«rior Ui ClinrtM S. of Prsnocl Ui Pr. 
Qujcn, onv oi the CoinniiAVou«ni np- 
poiated by iba OovvrnTueat of Lews 
HuUppo U) p> '*<tUi I'nltin<l tn inTMI- 
gau th« cholera. Tha letter u ilatRil 
ViMiBB, Feliniwy 26lb, 1832. " Voiu. 
ksvM oombivn d« {imiilyti^ii • Wit A 
Vionne Iff Bjttinif h«iniE«pa.tltiqiifl 
cl')liiha«nuuin. Un iHim qui cctM 
mCthoile n luiMnfi plosiaani |[ii(HMtuii 
Mc utficoKiMM ea dUnt itu «ontnira 

dw fuiwiti rtaitUU. C^uoiqu'il «n 
•oil, jki vn X. I» docteur Qiit^H ^n<s\ 
mfileviii Ani;liu*> Iioobid* iJ'caprit, »'cx- 
prinuLnt en (nxn^la a*M) tiiio beiUti 
r6ni(ir[iu«lilB. II revenait il« l^tnoiriia, 
oil il a'tlsil tvnitu &u moraeDl d« I'Ja. 
tiuimi (flu choli>nk) ponrftadicY U in«- 
kudio iluiB n premlftrs Inlfltuiit^ tt Auin 
Msdinna pcriixliw." Baron dc Mod l- 
bel t}iea re|>eau. nlni'mt won] for word, 
tho siviiniit of Or. Qnia's aiiack and 
(nroverjr, u given by liinuMilf in thg 
qaqtation uiUie lext.—JimttUt DtKX 
Maitd*t fM April IS, IMS, p. 2»8. 

* Kolinn Ub«r -lu Splul <lnr Harm- 
benis«n S«1)weMt«ni in QiuDpoT) 'oirt, 
voii Dr. Floiwhuiftui), 

A.B. 17TS-1M0.) 



of blie treatnic-iit of cholera in iliis hospit^jil with tlint of the 
same e|)idemic in other hospitalii in Vlciitia al a Biiniliir 
tinie, it apj)eared that, wliile two-thirds of those ti-eated by 
Dr. FleiBchinnnn recovered, two-thirds of those treated l»y 
the ordinary methods in the other hoapitols died." ' 

It will be obsei-ved that, in the adoption of camphor for 
tlie treatment of cholera, there was iio violence done to the 
feelings or prejudices either of medical prautiti oners or of 
druggists. Hahnemann advised that it should l>c given in 
several drops at a time for a doue. This, however, was 
quite the exception to his general rule of ]>ractice. As w« 
have already seen, he gave and recommended doses descen/l- 
ing from the niillioiith of a drop or a grain as a maximum 
to tJie deciUiouth as a uiioimum. AV'e can hardly u-oud>t.'r 
that, B&ciug tlie very existence of the most lucrative part 
of their profession threatened with extinction, tlip druggists 
should use their utmost endeavoui*^ against Ilahuemann. 
These efforts were so far siiccesoful ; it was found to be 
illegal for a physician to dispense his own medicines ; and 
as Hahnemann could not consent, by prescribing through the 
druggists, to tnL«>t the fate of his practice in the hands of 
his sworn fu«s, he came to the conclusion that he must quit 
Leipzig \ and the rest of bis Life was spent in exile from his 
dear Saxony. In the year 1821, he took advantage of 
the invitation given him by the then reigning Duko of 
Anhalt Coethen to take up his abode there. His relations 
to his patron appear, from a correspondence which has 
been publi^heil, to have been of the most intimate and 
friendly character ; * but, except for this, his life at thut 
period was one of pure toil, without almost any alleviation 
in the way of society or recreation. 

Halmemaun, wheo he went to Coethen, wns already 

I Aiutria: it« Litomrj, Scientific, nlivv of » VvjagO W MAdciift," &c.. 

Bud Medi») luhliluticin*, hy W. B. fcc. 1S43. 

Wilde, M.H.I.A., ViM-tviudont i>f ' HfthneiDUiD tin Uograph. Donk- 

Ror«l Ititb Ack1ciq7, AulJiorof "Nnr- HwL 1851. 





well advanoeil in yearn, beiog Kixty-cn ; be aecBft to &■«« 
been pervaJed with the oonvlctioa ttiftt iKere wvb « gna; 
work given bUo to tla, aotl that emy bomr ooi ^ni 
upon it wu wa*tc<L He bad the fedizig tbst bt wm 
tfie prophet of meduint — tliat iu liim bad been fTTMhJ 
A diaouvery of ibtintte iiujiortance, and tLat be ns n- 
HfjoiiKible ibr ibe way lUe truth ebould lie made knowm to 
the -worltl. '- 1 ackiiowleilge," be wrote to Or. Stmfl, 
" with lively g;ratitudL% the never-eoding grace wxtb wlnefa 
t!i« ouly Oiver of oU CSood baa upheld um*. amid all Um 
atlactcM of my eneiriie«, in strength and fresh ooorage ; and 
my only wiah here below in, that I may he pormifcied to 
diKplay. in a worthy mauner, Uie good which Ood eoaUad 
me to diMoovor— or rather, I should aay, revealed to 
for tlio mitigation of the BufTertng of luaokiud. Wbi 
tliia ut done, I will ghtdty die." The Iett«r from wl 
this is extracted i^ dntod April 15th, 1827; so tbat 
wm then aeventy-two years of age. Am tlie exprenkms 
he used are in entire com%pondeiioe with his actions, we 
may giv4} him the cre<lit of perfect sincerity. He lived 
tlio life of one al)sarbc;d in an idea to which lie bad de- 
voted himself tody Hud soul. That idea wiuj, the yroving of 
medicinal Bub.<itAncea and the cure of the sick by their opera- 
tions. ThiH idea so entirely ixiesessod hiin, that every other 
ctmsideration, all the new discoveries of medical scieuoe, by 
which greater accuracy was given to diagnosis, — as for 
example, the wliolc art of au.scu]tation — were as nothing. 
The taak given him to do wak to ascertain Uie precise 
action orHultHtiiiices whiu}i mighl; be of use in UiuraiMiutice ; 
to experiment with tbem himself, and to induce othern to do 
the same. But, severed as he was from all his mediad 
ftSRociates, tlie only way in which he could carrj" out 
tliis great object of Us life, %va« corre.s|]ondence ; and Uie 
labour thus impiwsed was so great, that for years he nevi;r 
left tlie house, except for some extraordinary reason. His 

A.T1. 1776-1860.] 



liottse was a verj' luimbk abode, with a garden attAcb<^d 
to it, in w]iidi be spent lib whole day in Bummer, 
copying and compai-ing the observations of his assiat&iits, 
and putting tho newly-discovevf^tl, or supposed virtues 
of tbc contributors, to tiic test of experiment, by giving 
tliem to patients wben tbeir syinptoma seemed to bim to 
reaemble with BuSicient aecuniey the effects he had noted 
don's as charaetetiRtic of the ueilicincs. His funic bad 
now become 8o great, that patients consulted liiai from all 
jjarts of Europe, and members of the medical profession 
made pilgrimages to hiK sbrine. On one occasion lie re- 
ceived a visitor who bad beard a great deal of Huiine- 
mann and his garden, and wlio bad imagined the garden to 
be as great aa its owner. When lie was uiiht^red into the 
presence of the " propliet of medicine," and found him seatt^d 
nt a table in a suiiiuicr-house, only a tavr yards from the 
houete, be exclaimed, "But where is the yardtnV To 
which Hahnemann replied, " Tkle is the garden." " Surely," 
rejoined the visitor, " not tliis narrow patch of ground?" 
" True it is vciy short and very narrow j but observe," said 
the sage, pointing upwarda to tho blue aky overhead, *' it 
i« of iiifinite iieif/kt." 

It will be seen from this that HfUinemann had n good 
deal of poetic feeling. Indeed, his letters are full of a sort 
of mj'stic piety, a continual reference to tlie Supreme and 
Eternal ; and tliia may account for some of his ph^sicid 
specuhttlons tending in the direction of Spiritualism. He 
found, in Uie prosecution of his experiments, that suh- 
stancca wholly inert in their ordinary form, t^uch as car- 
bonate (^ lime and charcoal, becoma puM-erful medicinal 
agents after having been triturated for a length of time 
with sugar of milk. TliLs led him to believe that, by the 
minute subdivision of particles and long-continued friction, 
the hidden immaterial forces became developed, and hence 
he named the process VyTtamizaiion — the liberation of 



[Cur. XIT. 

what Lord Bacon called the stMiii, or body pnmmaHea}, 
which ho rupresiuits as endoeed and covered with U» 

tangible parts. 

He was led to another bold specolation in rcTiird io Ute 
origin of cciUin diseasen, by ofaserv-iug a di6Weno^ not 
only in degre«, but also iu kind, between chronic asd 
acute. This difference he attributed to the action of a 
poison, whicli lie culled psottt ; and he held, that to coii 
tliis cifuis of morbid aSections, it was necessary to giw 
a snbstanco which not only corresponded with the aet«] 
manifest symptoms of the ]>articular attack of diseasQ under 
which the patient suffered at the time of examination but 
a medicine whi(.-li hud tlie power of radically cbangiue the 
constitution, and of dii-ectly autidoting the poison it con- 
tained ; and to tins class of medicines he gave the name of 
.<l7i()V;>80rTC«, or of antidotes to peotxi, or tbe hidden virus. 
The letters Uuhnemaiin wrote to one of his most in* 
tiiuate friends and enrliest disciples, Dr. Stapf, of NSrem- 
bei-g, and which are evidently of the most conjldentiaj 
character, afford a good idea of his views and occunaliom 
during liis residence at CoHhen.' 

Dr. Stapf invites Hahnemann to vuiit liim ; to which 
the latter replies, after due acknowledgment of the kiud- 
DOBS, — " 1 cannot accept your invit;itioii, for it is impo.'ssible 
for me to travel even a mile ; the sliort share of cxist«uce 1 
have yet to live must bo spent with rigid punctuality, &x>m 
which 1 cannot swerve a hairbreadth. All journeys ar^ 
from henceforth, impoKsible. I cannot even go to visit my 
married dnughter at Leipzig " — some thirty miles off. 
Thia quotation is given to exhibit what Bacon oommends 
in Uippoui-utes, " hi$ seriovs diUge^ice," Ui^ time was so 

froiu It gn*i numtwi' vhicli 1 b»ie in 
mj pofion, ii^iili <ne cliiofly bj Dr. 
HvriDft of riiilailvl|ilii«, kpJ obuined 
bj htm fniRi Dr. SUff. Or. Herin{ 

wvj ftn olii li>tiiiui1« of HaltnemianX 
ttlio, tliniujihant tli« oorrMpondeBaek 
■pnlu of hI(B in U)e highest teiu 
o( eHUtta ud na[c£t. 




A.D. ms-isso.] ms LBrraia 4S3 

entjrvly occupied, tliat he looked foi-ward to no journey but 
the last, to the "land of the leal" Tlie nature of bts 
occufuitions we learn from other letters ; as, for example, 
from the following, written likewise to I)r. Stapf : — " I 
am plenAod that you are going to taVa a. &thcrty interest 
in Conium Macidaium ; I have ali-eady done so, and will 
Ho 80 still more, and I hope something of more value will 
come out of our experimenta than the hundred volumea 
written about Stoerck'a treatise fJe Cicuta. 1 should like you 
to aak Dr. Rhul to take one of the three powdera, marked 
a, h, e, every second morning. Encb powder contains four 
globules of the important antipsoric medicine, Nutrum Mu- 
riaticum. I do nut wish him to know this, leat he should not 
observe the effects with sufficient attention, from not believ- 
ing it possible so common an article of food could pro<1uc8 
any pathogenetic action. It is also of consequence that 
Dr. Rummel and you should keep the modicinc to your- 
selves until we have made some important cures with it." 
This letter in dated June, 1 829, so that Hahnemann, 
when he wrut« it, was in his seveuty-fifUi year. Sucno 
years earlier, be wrote ; — " I am much pleased with Dr. 
Gross's refutation of the Anti-Organon. Grass seems to roe 
to grow in strength and courage. I regret, however, that he 
should spend so ujuch time and lieadwork on these sophis- 
tries. Believe nie, all these attacks only weary the assail- 
ants of truth, and, iti the long run, are no obstJide to its 
progress. We do well to let all these specious, but nugatory 
articles alone, to sink of Uieiiiselvea into the ahj-ss of ob- 
livion, and their natural nothingness. ... AH tliese 
controversial writiiigs are nothing but signsls of dUtrcas — 
alnrm-guns fired from a sinkmg ship. To mo, thay are sim- 
ply ridicuIouB, and not worth the time sjtent on their pe- 
rusal." Of another attack, he says : — " That tliose who iind 
their toes trodden on by the new ayatem should utter cries 
of rage and malice, is perfectly naturid ; the only remark 



[Cu». XIT. 

ft dispassionate man of seose makes apon st»ch outcries a, 
that thej sfaour the cafie to be Berious, aod that tticy wiafc 
to overwhelm a better B\^tem tban they practise, 
they fire too indolent to stiuly it, or too proud to odi 
that they are in the wrong. Bcsiilus, the piissiou displayid 
in the attack, and the obvious inaccuracies and fiilaelioods, 
prevent the public aocepUng sDch writcra as compctait 
judges iu the cause." 

" lie not dismayed by the bullets that are diacfaargri 
against us ; they do not hurt ua if we consider ttiem io b 
proper point of view ; still less can they injure tlie goud 
eiiuiM.*. Those who believe iu the tiuth of our doctrines, Ml 
in the ntutcks only the blindness of o zealot ; our opponeo^ 
on tlie other baud, enjoy it without any advanta^ to tfaem- 
jielvcs, for tlw public does not read it ; «o that I do not see 
why ixnyonc shouKl vex and worry hiinself al>out it. Wlut 
is true eauuot be minted into a falsehood, even by the most 
distinguished profes.sor." At a later peiiod, in lS36,be 
wTites : — " When it is ncces^iai-y for tlie defence of our divine 
art, or personal huTiour, to eugiige iu controvei*sy, my dis- 
ciples will take Lhis duty upon them. For my oicn pari, 
I I'eqmi'i no defence." 

Halmeniaun, wliile endeavouring to meet tbe assaults of 
his opponent'i, with the magnanimity of silent endurance, 
was stuug to tile quick by what he looked upon as the 
pervereeneai of his disciples. Iu one of hi^ letters, Aila* 
giving an account of his attendance on tbe dcatb-bed of 
his wif^ he says :- — " Some days before her death, I fell iU, 

in consequence of Ji.'s letter^aud, indeed, very severely 

so that I could neither speak a word to any one, nor read 
or write a line, lb was all I could do, twice a dity, to cr«ep 
from my den up to 'the mother's' bed-room (otherwise^ 
she would have mis'wd nie), without allowing ker to see 
muytUiug was the matter with me. Tlte agitation of the 
funeral, &c., brought bock a kind of nervous fever ; then 

A.I.. 1775-1850.] 



ciLDie the Bccuiuuldtion of luionswerej letters^ aud the iiit- 
poitunJty of patieuta." Tbe letter of B. which so agi- 
tated liiiQ, ooQtaineJ, doubtless, some Hc>moDo]HLtliic hcro> 
Bies. Of thcBe, he saya, in another letter, uIUt Imviiig 
spoken sUghtingly of the attacks made by the opponent* of 
his system : — " I am much more afraid of the odultenition 
of tbe Swaety, [i. e. the UouicFopathic Society], by ilie 
admission into it of persons only half-infuriuud. 1 greatly 
feiu" that inaccuracy amJ confusion will prevail, and I 
teg of you, ID eveiy possible way, to atem and cir- 
cumacribd tlie mischief; for if our art once ]o«es its aciea- 
tific precision — as it must Jo when tliese dli miitorum 
ffentium pi-ess into the place of better nieu — 'then I am in 
the greatest anxiety for tlte future of our systc^n, for it will 
lose that certainty on which ah)ne we depend for our 
8uoc«8. For this reason, I beg of you to reject from your 
Arckiv' all superficial oljservations of easy cures. I Wff 
of you to publish only the luotit accurate aud can-'ful ex- 
perience of well-tried Homujopatkists ; notbiog should ap- 
[>cjir there hut specimens of good practice." 

In another letter, he riiitoriites the Hiitiio adiiiouitiou on 
the necessity of carefulness : — " I beg of you, in the fortlj- 
coining Jjatin volumes, to he more particuhir in tbe seieo> 
tiou of the tiymptoms, espcraally those derived from alio- 
iwthic sources. Besides, it is absolutely indispenmhlt tliat 
yon give the most particular reference to the text from 
which the Bymptoms are taken ; for otherwise^ a reviser 
will not be able to find tiicm out for his own uwt," 

It is iniposeiblti fur Hahneuiann to conceal hi8 feelings, 
when hti speaks of what he conoeives the wrongs dune him 
by hi» own followers. He does bis best to preach pbilo- 
aopliy, but it is manifest ho wishes others to be more 
callous than he is hiui£«lf. I'hus, of two very able, ener- 

< ArAiv fur dtt Bamnvfalkitt tnu 8Upf woaiHlitor. 
tlu Mitia d tli« jcnirml «f wh'ioli 

F F 2 



(Cba*. HT 

gerio, ond independent pliyBicians, who had adopted 
IlomcDopatby, bub departed from bis directions in r^;ard 
to some minor points of practice, he Ttrites to Dr. 
Stapf: — "I see you are very much vexed by the be- 
haviour of • and . Now, in Heaven's naxne, be 

not ao. Towflrdii inyiwir, I feel it as iingmteftil, asraro- 
ing, and e^tiHtical, and it might cause us mucli annoyanoa ; 
hut ve will not, imd «liall not let it. We uiuett pass it aJ] 
I'cfore our iiitt'Uccl, and not suffer it to t^iuch our feelings 
if we are wtae. The more dt^picablti and shocking it is, 
the ]ees do I allow it to grieve me ; because this -would injure 
mi>, and would not alter the facts. It is a trial sent from 
above, by the AJl-wisu and All-good, who direct* everythii^ 
for tlio hctsc, if we will only accept the lesson it teaches, 
and ithn[H: our course for the future accordingly. I>o not let 
your nnuoyauco be expressed, lest oui' foes should pi 
ft acbism among ourselves, to the injury of our good canae." 
It IB tlic fiishion to charge Uahnemann with intolerance. 
H« was iolunuit of altiicks agninsb the systom iix>ni with- 
out, but not tolerant v>f what lie considered errors that 
CdnipromimHl the int<<grity of liis doctrines or the suoccss of 
his method. Uail lio boon more tolerant, he would have 
lw«» less povrorfuL He would then have hcen rntlter a 
jhtlitlcian titan a prophet, and be niiglit bave affected the 
^«n«rnl development of medicine indirectly, but he never 
would have fi<uudrd a school, and cstablislicd the greatest 
imtlioal BctX'vsiuii on record. 

\Vn bnvt* ahtiidy alluded to tlie death of Halinemaim's 
wiffi. Tliis bn|>pencd in IH30, and mode no change in his 
jinhitii of work. She had been a fiiithful partner to him 
In all tho vicissitudes of his career, for forty-nine yearn. 
"Had »lio lived one year longer, they might have oelehrated 
their gotdsTM Ilockzeit. but oUier nuptiuU awaitod him. 
Five years liU«r thci'e came to Cocthen, to be under 
hU caw, a lady of the name of Mdanic d'Hervilly. 

A.9. iyra-i8M.] 




Oohier, tlie ndopted rlaugbter of Loiiu Jerome Goliicr, for- 
merly AliiiiNti^r of Ju&tice, ami "President du Directoire 
Executif de la R»?pub!ique Fmncaise." Notw itlistanding 
the great dispaiity in their ^es, she formed a true atlacli- 
nieiii to the old man, which ended in their marrin^^. 
Soou alter, in the year 1835, they removed fi-om Coe- 
then to Paris, where Hahnemann passed the remainder 
of hifl life in the same eamesb toil that he had pur 
sued in liis retirement^ but relieved and enlivened by 
the pleasant and refined society that capital nflforded. 
He writes to his oM Jrieod Dr. Stapf, in 1838, "I find 
myself better and gayer here than I have been for the 
last twenty years, owing to my wife suri-ounding m-i 
with distinguished friontU of tlio circle to which she 
belongs. Many Germans who knew me formerly, find me 
many years younger, which I attribute to my loving nurse 
— my faithtul spouse — who desires to be kindly remem- 
bered, along with m3'self, to your esteemed family." 

Tnic to himself, he could not i>rove fjJsfi to any man. 
Nor did he : to the ]a^ he was faithful in all hmnati relu- 
t^on^ — 

"And Uut vkich ahanld ftMomjaU37 otd aff, 
Aa lionotir, \o\t, oUxtinnns, troof* of frieiula," 

were given him id ample meaHure. Withal he was not un- 
mindful that Lis departure waa at hand. "It is perhafw 
time," he oUwrved to a friend, in the spring of 184.3, 
"tliat I quit this eartli, tut I leave all, and always, in the 
liaudti of ray God." On the 2nd of the following July ha 
lay on hia deatli-bed, and hia wife, by waj' of comfort, 
whispered, "Surely some mitigation of fiufFering is due to 
you, who have alleviated the sufferings of so numy T" To 
which Hahnemann, with hj.i latest breath, made this reply: 
" Every man on earth works as Ood gives hira strength, and 
meetti from man with a corresponding reward ; but no man 
has a claim at the Judgment-seat of tiod. Qod owes ma 




noUiltifj: T owe Him mucli, — yea all." So lie iVieil, wj 
was boi-icd nitb tbc almost priracy at tbo oemeteiy d 

It has been the fate of many a medical system to pas 
tnto utter foi^etl\ilnes», so soon as it lost tbe support of ib 
inventor ; nny, it has not unfrequently happened, that tbe 
architect of Borao imposing structure, which for a time vn 
tlio QtlniiraUon and glory of n\\ tbc schools, lias had to 
emlura the mortittcaiioa of seeing thu fnbric wliich he 
fondly inu^,'ined was to perpetuate his name^ crumble into 
raina before bis eyes. The fate of HomreopAthy is almost 
the rovemo of thia. Its progress during tJie Kfe of 
Hahnemann was as nothing compared to its difiuson 
after hin death ; and the Kysbem aspires to an independent 
biatory of its own. It is curious to observe that ita career 
in difToi-ent comitries has teen marked by features of gnat 
«imihirity. At Hrst it has generally been, taken up by 
■ome bold and intelligent physicians, who have been rather 
almnucd than i^crsccuUKL by tlieir colleagues ; thun, as it 
attracted iiotic", the inutiml animosity between the inno- 
vating tninariiy and (wnscrvativc mnjority haS incrcaj^iL 
Thin majority, having for the most part ba<l soine power in 
ita bands, a-Mid It to oppress and injure tbe minority, whicli, 
nal a whit tht» worBu, proclaimed its wrongs to Uie worhl, 
and brouuhl the public to its rescue. 

To ilhwtrate tliis : In Gennany, in the year 1825, 
Hufvland, tlio most tniluentiul medical writer of tlie day, 
publihbi'd an arliele tijion Uomaopatliy, and gives the 
tiilluwiug rcivionH for doing ao : — "I consider it wrong 
and unworthy of science to tivnt the now doctrine with 
ridicule and contempt. It in in my nature to lend a 
helping band to the persecuted. Persecution and tyranny 
ill scieutitie nmtters are eftpcciuUy repugnant to me. 

. . . . [u udditiuu, thcit luij (/i« cslwm, v^iiiJt 

M.9. zn^jisa.] n\muxa> on habnemann. 


far many yeara I have entertained for the discovfrer, 
and uAitfA / ovxd him for his former v^ritinjjs, mul 
hU iinportant servuxs to the nudical aH : besides, seve- 
ral estimable and unprejudiced men had testified to the 
troth of the system ; among whom 1 may allude by nnmc 
to President Von W<ilfl', of Wnrwiw ; Me-diral Connciliors 
Bau of Giessen, and Widiiiaiiii of Munich." Hufuland, 
although 0{)posed to Uomieopathy, wished bo treat it with 
the courttfsy due to a utentific error advanced by men of 
learning, reputation, and high moral clmi-acter. The 
attention of this Archuticr — this Duke of Medicine — w«« 
directed rather to the theorj* of Hke-curing-Uke, than to 
36 minute doses ineuli-Med by Hahnemann. An an;ed 
shysician, occupying the exalted station enjoyed by Hiife- 
land, ran no risk by tlie intro<luction of Honi(Bopftihy, 
and fto he could afford to treat the aubjeut with equanimity, 
and his opponents with rcspcot. It was very different^ 
however, with ol woXXo*— tlie plel>a medica — the lower 
grades of the profession, who mode common cauM with 
the medica! tradesmen — the drug^Bts. To them it waa 
desti-uction. All they saw wiis, that if Homoeopathy 
spread, instead of having to Eupj'ly an unlimited amount 
of very costly medicines, from which a prodigious profit was 
derived, that one druggist would not bo able to live where 
ten now fctttened. It wag not in human nature to mibmit 
lamely to be thus extinguished without an effort; and we 
cannot wonder that> In their eyes, Homoeopathy should 
seem nothing but a fiaudulent system of giving no mcdi- 
dne. The popular aspect of HotiKBOpi»Lhy is tlic small- 
ness of the dose it administers, and hence the term Uo- 
mceopathic has become sjoonyroous with the ruliculously 

Tlie proverb nays that "any stick Is good enough to beat 
II Jog ; " and the first stick the Germnn apothecjiries took up 
wau a legal one. There was an enactment which prevented 



[Cur. ST. 

physicmiu) from coniponnding their own medicines; this ma 
brought to bear against TFahncmnnn, and, aJtiiot^ ht 
|tl(sa(lc<l tluit be never misetl even two medicinee, mod ihA 
ibo law WHS never intended for such a practice as Iua, y*i lk> 
adok came down on his back, and he luul to leave hofmf 
in OMinqueooe. In order to avoid such blows^ the adfa^ 
nnU of his s\-steni, when they gave advice to the patients 
vbo touglit their nid, made a iree gift of the medidne. 
Ena tlita, however, would not do; for oa the 13tii of 
Juno, ISSS, an order to the following effect was pubUsbed 
M DannRtadt :-^" There is no pernitssion granted to the 
bonumivithic ])h^-sicians to dispense their owu tnedicuuB. 
Tlio law ran niiike no difierencc between homcBopathie and 
utltrr filiysidnns ; both must alike prescribe oat of the 
rk)K>th(>carie*i' shop." Dr. Webej, physician to the Prinos 
of Sttlm»-Lich was fined tliirty dollam for giving medtdno 
gnituitinisly to his patients. 

ThU waa the nWiiw, and to it succeeded, in the oooim 
of Mhtttrfl^ lh» tvocfton. A petition -wm signed on the part 
of 1 SOO fomilics, praying the Qoveninient to interfere. The 
Qtn'vninienl dt-vtintHl. This increased the a^tatton ; and the 
matter l>elng brought before the Baden Land-iag, or Par- 
Uiiinvnt, waR tlio Hul)ic«i of an animated debate. The speecbeSj 
of Komo of tho nienibers would do no discredit to St. 
^*t<•plh■n'(l. Deputy Hotftier thus stated Uie case : — " The 
Krievaiuv t^oniplnined of ia undoubtedly one of the most im- 
purtanl wibjit'ta for t!>e conaidemtion of this Parliament ; for 
It iitTi.'»-t<* the ipiention whcUier a new medical Byfttcni, which 
thn'iitvuH wholly to overturn the old ones, shall he allowed 
to all'ord tlio evideuoe of experience as to whether it d c a er vCB 
ilio preft'rciice or not. Tlie decision of the matter before 
oa must pest upon the answer to two questions ; Jtrtf^ 
Has homwopnthy a claim to be a real scientific system? 
and taeond, Does it fniflur from a law which stands in tlie 
way of homteo]>athic physicians dispensing their own me- 

.9. 1775-lSBn.] 



dicines ? Both tliese quwtions must bo answered ia tlio 
affiniiAtivc. Tlio first ndmitB of no difference of opinion : 
even the allopatliic [jliysiciaus admit the affiimative. It is, 
indeed, very natiiral ilmt tliey and the apotlicc-iries sboukl 
employ t-very iiiciuis in tlu'ir i>ower to arrest the utorm ; 
bat that i» no lyaaon why the question of grievance should 
not be fairly discussed by the Parliament." The next speaker 
was Count Lehrbncb, who observed : — " In ttie Mid<lIo 
Ages it was the fiushion to burn witchen ; and if a steamboat 
had then made ita uppejironce, it would doubtless have been 
consigned to the Homes as a wizard of gigantic size. If 
Homo&opathy be charlatanrie, it will soon fall to the ground 
of itself How many poor people are now deterred from 
seeking medical advice for fear of the long apothecairit*' 
bills I What an advantage to them to ba cured fov nothing I 
Tliat the physician shouhl be controlled by tlie apothecary 
is absurd. The physician's highest intei-est is to cure his 
patient j the interest of the apothecary, on the other hand, 
like that of any other tradesman, is to make money by 
patients being long ill. The public voice calls loudly for 
this new aysiem, and it is the duty of the Chambers to see 
Uiat it iu not swamped." 

The result of the debate was the passing of the follow- 
ing resolution : — 

" It shall be allowed to physiaans to di»])CD&Q homoeo- 
pattiic medicines gratuitously." 

The matter, however, was not allowed to rest at ibift 
stage, but came before the Upper Chamber, of which the 
Prince of Solms-Lich, whose physician had been fined, waa 
a member. The prince observed, with much jwint^ "It is 
said that medical colleges alone can decide this matter, 
and that it 18 not for either homceopatbic physidans or the 
public to do 80. This is very plausible, and would be 
perfectly true if the said colleges were equally composed of 
homoeopathic ncd allopathic physicians. As long, however. 



[Coir. ur. 

as tilia tt not the cose, so long will these coU^ptn decUe id 
their own fiivour ; and ono may expect that their jn- 
judioe more ttian tbetr reason will infiaenoa timr jxidg- 
nient." Tlie Second Chamber oonGrmed the aenteooe of tW 

Emboldened by their success, the ndhereDta of the oev 
■yetem of medicine pushed forward, and actually obUuiwd 
a oointiibtston to inquire into the propriety of secufiog 
public instruction in Homceopathy. The comniismon ooi^ 
eluded itfl Report by the following recommcndAtiuns : — 

" 1. Tlrnt a cotninittee of pb^-sicians> experienced in both 
the allopathic and homoeopathic sjratcms, be ajipointed U» 
detcnnino the beitt way of giving instniction in the new 

" 2. That ])hy3icians be allowed to give their medimoes 

" 3. That only lioentied physicians be allowed to practise 
the homceopathio method ; and that those who propoao 
to do 80 be examined by the State authorities, to ascertMa 
thdir competence." 

The rea<ionB ^ven for these resolutions arc, the incraue 
in the number of the adherents of bom(BO|wthy, aod the 
right of the citizen to be protected against incompetent 

It is signed by the Fremdetit, Mitter-Uayer ; the Seore- 
tarj', Rutclunann, and Dr. Nordes v. Dnrrheimb.' 

While, in Northern Germany, the rod was taken &om tha 
hands of llm apotfaecanes by Parliamentary actiun, in Aus- 
tria, the rcdreas of the grievance was due to the late Eiopvnw 
and \m Miniiiter. We have a]rea<ly alluded to tlie incident 
when sjwuking of the diolcni ; but the facta connected 
with the establishment and management of the most im- 

* VbllMitdiga Sniamlang »1I«t V«r- ilia AnaAbnng da bu«iHeop*ll)iM:li«n 
luMilliiBlCeii unii Akleunluclic ilcr KikB- HeU-*orlaltrea. Van Dr. Tiij— iillili 
wen PMlcikt iiuJ PiLnuUdilt'* Ul>«r LVrltarubc. 1$3I. 

i.». i;7fi-lM0.] DB. PUISOUUANN'S HOSPITAL- 


portaiit lioittcoopatliic hospital in Ktiropp, aro of such his- 
torical iraportaDce, tliat wo »\ui\i iivni] oiirscives of an 
aJdresa delivered by Dr. Fleischniann al Vienna, in tlie 
year 1855, entitled, "A Contribution to the Histoty of 

Since the year 1818, the practice of Homceopathy had 
been forbidden to Austrian pbysicinns^ "in 183ti, tlie 
cholera broke out, and the Uospital of the Sisters of 
Clioi-ity was required by the Government to be opened 
for oUoltTa patit-uts. A requisition was made to me to 
utiderUke their treatment. J gladly accepted the charge, 
but previously obtained from Count Kolowrat, the Home 
Minister of the day, a [»erniit--flion to employ Homroopathy 
openly in the bofipital. Out of 732 of the patients 4^8 
were cured, and 2*4 died. When the epidemic wm over, 
I prepared a report upon its course, and the plan I had 
followed in its treatment Tliis report I pr»;Sfnt<'d to the 
Minister, and I putitioucd at the same time for the abo- 
lition of the prohibitions against the practice of Homceo- 
pathy, which bad very much iallen into disuse. Very 
shortly aftci'wards, there appeared an ordinance, signed by 
the Empci-or, gnuiting to every duly-qualified physiraan tiie 
right of freely practising according to the Homoeopathic 
method. Thus, at one blow, were struck off the fetters 
which had for eighteen years confined the Homceopnthic 
physicians in Austria, From that time, young physicians 
Iwgan to study the new system more, and to attend the 
hospital. The number of pupils eo increased, that on 
account of want of room they bad to be limited : and 
there is scarcely a province in Kurope where thtro is not 
some one Homoraptithic physician now in praetloe, who 
first learned to appreciate the truth by seeing its results in 
my hospital." There follow some details of the nuinWr of 
pftieuts, and the classes of diseases, ti-eated by Dr. Fleisch- 

■ A%tB. Uum. ZcU«»|^ Vol. U V- 1^8. 






mann in tiaa hospital. Besides cholera patients, tliere 
been admitted 17,313 cases; of these, 15,734 were cured, 
4-17 dismissed uncurvd, aud 1,073 died. Of tLe to|^| 
466 were considered incurable. Besides tJie fiill tflbtuw 
view of all the cases treated in his hospital for twenty 
years, Dr. FIci&chuiann gives a few exuniples of comrouD 
dangerous diseases, and the results he obtnined. Among 
them we find the following: — "Erysipelas, 514 coses; of 
wliioh 5 1 were cmiid, and 4 died of gangrene : Rheumatic 
fever, 1,417; of which 1,416 were cured, and one rh 
mained in the hospital when the rrport was made : Tntl^| 
mittent fever, 1,066 cases, of wliich 1,058 recovered, anT 
8 died. Inflammation of the lungs, 1,052 cnaes ; J, 001 
of wliicli were cured, and 48 died." 

The value of these statenients de{}ends entirely uj)on the 
trustworthiness of Dr. Fleischmann aa an observer and 
narrator of f«cUs. However, pnictising, as he Joea, a new 
system in public, and one now exciting no small degree of 
cariosity, he is, we may be aar©, pretty sharply looked 
oiler. At hLs hospital may be met, any day in the y< 
a good many English physiciaus, wlio are spending tl 
professional honeymoon on the Continent, befur« settlii 
down to the quiet routine of practice. TbenQ travelleia 
always caiTy their note-books about with them, and 
be to any foreign hospital-physidan, if he be detected 
giving a wrong name to a disuiise. 

Sir John Forbes, a great opponexit of Homaeopnthy, 
an article in the " British and Foreign Medical Tloview '* * 
t«ILs us that a friend of liia, a jjliysicinn, and no Homceo- 
pathist, attended Dr. FleiHchmann's hospital for thrve 
months, and carefully watclied the progress of the cases of 
pneumonia, &c. So far was he fi'om detecting error 
deceit, that he corroborated all Dr. Fleischmann 


i.n. 1775-1850.1 SIR JOUN FORBES AKD MH. WILDa 


Nor is there a kueiier critic than Mr. Wilde,' who hears 
wiiiilar testimony to that adduced by Sir John Forbes. 
*' Whatever the nppnnents of this system," he writes, " may 
[Hit foi-wanl Rgaiiist it, I am bound to say — and I am 
far from beioy a homceopatliic practitioner — that the oufes I 
wiw treatwl in the Vienna Hospital, were fully as acute and 
violent as those that liave conio under my observation el^o- 
wheie ; and the statistics show that the mortiJity is mticb 
1(^1 ttinn in other hospitals of that city. Kooltz, the Aus- 
trian protomedicus, has published those for 1838, which 
exhibit a mortality of but five or six jwr cent. ; while tliree 
Kimilar iiistitntioiw on Iho iiJh)pii(J)ic plan, t-nuinemted 
befoK it in the same table, i>how a mort;ility m bi^h as 
from eight to ten per cent.' 

Thus we see that in Germany, the countiy of its birth, 
Uoiuceopat)iy lias gone throu^^li the orthodox stages of ex- 
ternal development. First it was laughed at and ignored 
by tlie profession ; then it was to be ]>ut down as a 
nuisance ; by-and-by, It was reoogoized as too important for 
the former method of treatment, and too powei-fiil, on ac- 
count of the poiiular favour it bad rooeived, for the latter ; 
and now, it bos become one of the institutious of Germany, 
being taught in the Univeraity of Munich and elsewhere. 

It would not be in aocordani^ with the plan of this 
work to narrate the history of Homceopathy, how it spread 
from one countrj* to nnotlier, the opposition it encountered, 
the euthusiasin of its friends, and ita various fortunes. To 
do ju-iticeto this theme, would require as many chapters as 
there are pages left at our disposal; for there is hardly any 
portion of the habitabln globe where the system has not 
made ita way — and it is said to flourish best in the fresliest 
and most remote regions. In America, for example, ho- 

• Mr. Wil<l« is now rmi>1nf«(l for th» 
ieconJ Utop bjr Ouvemaicnl to ■ufi«riii- 
lend tilt it'i'h ceiLiui. A ynot of Ilu 
eliarectcr foi «ixuncj. 

> "8*« gracnJ Uibl« of tbu Viuniu 
bMpilAla at Ibg (ioii«lu»io« of tliia urli- 
cl».'"~WiIiic. Op. Qit., ji. 277. 




li-.GC<(^pathic pracUtioncn are nmabered by UwiEttdi; ai 
in Uke Slate of Midiigao* m few years ago, thu Li^uUrm 
[Htaaed an «ct requiring tbe Board of Brents of ib« Usi- 
Vfintity to iiulilute a cliJiir of Uoiuuiopatby. In Avtnli^ 
it u Haid to Iw almosL Die prevaiJiDg Ajniem. flat Am 
young ocnrntries should take it tip in this cealooi Vf, 
mtiwtrvniivc!! mny ooDMdtir " no grcAt atgnmenC fikr tbor 
wUdotn ;" vrhiUi liberals may ooDcIade tbe qaoUCion tf 
BeiitKlict's woi-ds, by adding, '' nor any great pn>of of Ikir 
folly." Tli« ihcta are referred to in onler to ahov lu* 
liopden it would bo, in our sliori spoo^ to enter into H* 
ntLfrntivu of the prajmgutiau of Ibe new s}>steiii. WcaIbII 
llM-Tcfon! content oursulvcs with briefly desicribi^g iia intn- 
(luoUoii into England. 

In the tiflh volume of the AixJdv,^ there is an extnci 
of n privnto lettor addressed by Dr. Nccker to Dr. Miilkr. 
Th« lultor w dated, Naplea, lOlh Mtireli, IS^G. Afts 
acknowledging that he owed his life to Ualinciuanii, Dr. 
Nuokur goM on to »ay, tlmt for four years he had been ptwv 
ti«ing tUd Hyatem of Honireopntliy siusxasfnlly at Naples; 
whora 1)0 went in tho suite of Enron Kollur^ General lo* 
toiitlaab of the AuHtrtan arm; ; that among bis medJcsI 
cullaagucA, who hiul been in tlie habit of watcliing his 
oiUMW forfuHi ytsarat was Dr. D. de HoratiiH, physician to 
q linen, and Dr. Romano: besides Dr. Quin and Dr. W, 
Iwu Kngliiih phyuuiuns, also attonded. So Utat we mty 
Kftfoly aitMimiti Llial, tw far back as the year ]bS4, bonnes 
f)|i»t,hy was much talked of at Knptcs. Indeed^ we are 
not li'ft, to LMnit-cturc iu this iiiiittcr, for we are well sap- 
pliad with the Nnitlos gossip of this period by Dr. Mudden, 
in hiR Menioira of IjoAy Blcs-sington.^ 

One of Ibe lejuleni of the Kngiish circle there was Sir 

I AnAii' Af dl« lloiB<ci>|AUii*clic dnncn of thfl Cnunlwa of Blwdngton, 
||«llhiiM(, ^ 45, |wl a. Ltiioif. Uj a. U. JJ^Ien, M.R.I.A. 3SU. 

*.». iir«-iefio.3 



'WUlIam QeU. He Iiad gone out to Italy in the year 
1814, in the suite of tlie Princess of Wales — tlie too-cele- 
bratitil Queen of George IV. Sir W. Gell was one of 
the ■witiiesMM fur the defence, and lie swore before tlie 
House of Lords that he Ic-fl Her Majesty's service on 
account of bumg altii^iked by gout. Id all tho allusions 
made to tiim by Moore, Bulwer, and other cclebritieif, 
be is represented m very gouty, iu.vom]>liHhed, and re- 
nmrkably pleasant. Oa the 1st of January, 1823, Sir 
Wm. Cell writes to Dr. Quin fi-otn Rouie, " I arrived 
here, notwithstanding my tnalndy and all the jirophedeB 
that I should not net out. ... I now HtutuUe over 
my garden, with two Ciines as supporters, for witljuut them, 
and particularly without high lictils, I walk in the 6h»|ie of 
tho %uro 7, in apitt of the Qertnan dovt(/r aud his reuic- 
dies." Again, on the 1 9th of March, he writcb, " My 
medicine is now come to an end, oud that brute of a 
doctor Necker will not »end any more, 8o that I am at 
pi-e«ent reduced to the Uduvi jxUustre; mid, I fiupi^ose, 
in consequence, have the gout in both my elbows, a knife 
iu my knee, and a nail iu my iu&tcp." Two years after- 
wawls, on the 4th of Januaiy, 1H25, be writes, "Don't 
imagine 1 neglect my Doctor (Necker), whuae poiaoned sugar 
I take every five days, with great success, ami the most 
innocent results." 

Dr. QuIn, we Icaru fiom these memoirs, was travelling 
in Italy in 1820, whither be returned the following year, 
1821, with the Dnchess of Devonshire, wIh) died in the 
spring of 1S24.' He resided, and practised for six years, 
in Naples, where be seems to have eiyoyed the professional 
confidence and private friendship of a large aud influential 
circle. Among tlic notables, was the lato Mr. T. Uwins, 
whose correspoudeuce has been reoently published, from 
wliicli the following extracts are taken. 

' Letur of Sir tf. CUl to Ui« Cfluatca of Blenuigloii, April £tk, 1SS4. 



[Caxp. XI7. 

In a ]ett«r to Lis brother, Dr. Uwins, be says : — 
" Necker's practice, or rather, HAhnemana's, ooca&ioned 
so inucb talk in tlio iiiedical world, iliat Dr. Quin 
fuuud it necessary last sumtuer to go into Gennany 
to study iL" ' Somewhat later, Mr. Uwins writes:^ 
" Quin 1)08 coine bai:k (from Oermany), if not a con- 
vert to the doutrine, at least so ikr impressed with 
its importance as U> continue hia study with much 
jierseverance and ardour ; nnd Quin is anytliing but a 
trifler. I am not sure whether this gyateni has yet reiurhed 
Kngland. AU the medical men here, with the exception 

of Quin, are loud agiunst it. Your fi-iend R , who, 

by the way, has a good deal of the old woman about hiin, 
gL'ts I'ed in the face, and almost foams at the mouth wlien- 
ever it is made a nialLer of con vendition. They till pre- 
dicted that the enterluin'nunt of it for one moment %ooiUd 
rum. my little friend, and they were already sJioufcing in 
triumph over his fallen reputation. So far from tliis being 
the case, however, Quin's [lopularity has greatly increased 
this Beason, and he has done- more than all the rest of tlieni 
together. Naples, March HtJi, 1S27." Again be writes ou 
the 3rd of May :—" You will soon have Quin in Ix)udoii, 

and I shall soon follow him Aflcr a season of tlie 

greatest succeKs, in whicli be has practised almost exclu- 
sively in famiUee of the highest rank, be has been invited 
by the Prince Cobourg to become his phyKician, wid he ia 
now attached to the royal huuHehold, with a handsome 
fiidarj', to which no conditions are annexed but the nece^ 
sity of hving at Marlborough Uousc, dining at the' 
Prince's table, and travelling iu his suite whenever he 
chouses to visit the Continent. The Prince ha« behaved 
in the moHt noble manner to lilm ; lie lays no rcsinetion 
on his practice, and puts no bounds on his opportunities 

' Memoir o! Tkomu Uwin*, B.A., EojbI Aotdemy, Jw., by Mn, Uwinik 
ktte Keeper fC tliv Kojml •jnllvriiw ai«J I«udoD, 185«. 
tilt NftUofiftl OiJlBtjr, Lil.<r»ri at U» 

4.D. 1755-1850.] 



of study ; but, on the contrary, promises to do all he can 
to increase his reputfltion, and encourage his piii-suiti. For 
a young ]iliy»iciiui of aix-and-twetity, this is a |)ieoe of no 
onlinury good fortune ; bub it must be ii^cullecteJ tbat 
Quin is no nrdiiinrj" man, find I can assure yon the Prince 
is m iriuch Miij.'nitiiTated Iiore on liiH ac(jui»itLon — on bin 
toKte and judgment in selecting suob a couucillor iu]d com- 
panion, as Quin is in bavlng obtnincd so honourable an 
appointment."' "The hite Duke of Cambridge," writt-d 
Dr. Mnddeu,^ "left no means untried to induce liiin to 
accept the post of physician to his family on Allopathic 
principles, but these eflbrts were in vain. Vet I re- 
member when Dr. Quin made a burfa of Halinemanrt 
and his infinitesimal do&c system. At an early period of 
his cai-eer in Naples, professing to w:-ite against this 
Homoeopathy, he went to Oennany to inquire into the 
system ; luid he who went to ntHjfl' remained to study, 
and lo become a convert to the new theory of medicine." 
Thus, iu the year 1827, an phy&icLin to the Frinoo 
Leopold of Saxe Cobourg, the present King of the Bel- 
gians — not as a diseiple of Hsilnienmnn, hut with very do- 
dded predilections in tJivour of his doctrines, which he hacl 
stndied at tlie fountain-head — Dr. Quin returned to Kng- 
land, and began to pnictise HontC80]>aLhy. He has con- 
tinued to do so from that time, with occasional alwent'tr*', 
when tmvelling with the King of the BelginrLi, or induced 
to go abroad for some special object, as in pursuit of the 
cholera in the year 1831, which tulventure had nearly cost 
liim his life, ns already told.' 

An early as IH32 ho had aoqiiii'cd so largo a practice 
aud reputation as to attract the attentiou of the CoU^o 
of Physicians, and this citadel of orthodoxy fired a gtiti 
across hia bowa in tlie following fiishion : — 

' Oji. cil.. Vol. ri., p. 40. p. 113. 

> Man. ufLMlyBlcMlogtof>,Vol.II., ' r. 427. 

o o 



[Cb^. sit. 

" Jan. lib, 18S3. College of PhjucMu, PaU MaU fiMt 
" yi9, tb«Oai]iiors nf tlic RopU CoDcp of Flijwcuuia, Lond<in, luviog n a i vd 
infeniuitlon that yon ue praiettain« pbyiic within iho rity of Loncloa. utd ttna 
nilM ttt the Mune, Ja herebjr aiimoniiili jrou to dcauil bum m doing, ukUI jot 
ahftU tkve braii dnl; eau&iaed uid Uceoatd tlunto, uiiil»i- tlio ««»'-i-t omI rf 
Ihc «kid CoUe^, olbi;nii!N: it will be the datf of Uu attid CoUwg* |o 
l^Bit 7011 lor llifl racoTvty at the pcboIUm tlierobjr iucumBd." 

"Tlie BoakI for euraining peniont vko hare tlw rei|Bunta qaoUficMlO*,! 

holdall al tbe CoIIogk m tbe fint Prid&jr bi STSi? montb. 
"To Df. Quill, ic." 

Then follow the signatures of the Censors. 

As this produced no effect upon the course of the lively' 
adveuturer, so inipatieul was the College, that before there 
was time fur a compliance with the notice, imotber ^c 
was 6red on tha lat of February, 1833 : — 

" Kr,— I am desLrfi hf the Coaaon of the Eojal CoHi^ of PIij-wicMuv l» 
•KpiWi iinir iiirfiriiu that lh«f have receiToJ no uuwer U> t&etr letter e£ JmL 
4th, odmoiiiBblne jon to dcsict from pnurtuiinjt plijnic until jriMi hsv* hoot dvlj 
tsamiDod. ^u Ctiuun' BoopI iiinto lot tiu purpoM ol wmiintiom on tW 
Ant Friday in vnrj moutb. 

'* I am, Sir, your olwdtent i«rTaiit, 

" To Dr. Qnin." " , BcgUtntf. 

Thus importuned, Dr. Qiun replied : — 

" StQK street, St. Jumb's, F«h. t/td, I J 
" Sir,— Tour Utter of the l«t coneDt iraa only dsllveivd to nw jwtvitlaj, mtti 
I btwt«D tu boR that JQU will lay hoion the Centgrs oC tli« ItoTnl (^Ik^ of 
FhjaioUnii, tlmt it wu out of no diflrMpcat to Ibaa lliat I did not ancwer ihi 
nBununim^ou uf Jan. 4tli ult., Iiut becauw 1 did uot conccirv that a 
of iIm natun nat to mo required an an«wcr. I liaro bow Uw koooKr 
admowled^ Ita nweliit, m well u thai of your lottoi- coitaiiuiig a npellt 
the lafonnnlion oonv^n] to ni; in their commuaiotion. 

" I bavq the honour to be, Sir, your obedient and bninUa wrraut, 

"FaaoBUO P. Qcix.* 

Strange aa it mny seem, this answer appeora to have' 
entirely satisfied the Roynl CoU^e of Physieiaiis ; for, 
from that day to this, a jveriod of nearly tliirty yeai^j 




they bave " not |ii-ooee(]«cl against " llie oflender, nor against 
any one of the luany wbo Iiave followed hU course, " for 
llie recovery of the penalties," «s they pronounced it their 
duty to do.' Unhneninnn's system waa so great a noveJty 
in Britoin nbout tbiti tiinu that ibs orthography was uii- 
f«ttled. " Homiso}>athie," wrote Sir D. Suiulford in 1830, 
" for the last twenty years baa caused no little senaatioa 
nmong our Teutonic ueiglibours, though its wry name bus 
as yet hardly penetrated into our insular regions.* 

For about ten years the medical profession remained 
in the same quiescent stJita as tho dignified I'epresentatives 
of their sensibilities. The accciMion of suverfd young 
energetic pbysicwns to the new school, the publication of a 
quarterly joumal devoted to the cause,* and the converaion 

* It was pmpbe(l«>1 by on« of tho 
Cbeihmv, a pdjraiei*!! of gniMt otaiotutK, 
Llikt H I Inmrrnpathy woalrl not iKrt 
ahn\tt two JVMTiL, il wu unnncMMij 
Ut take Ntepa mgairuil Dr. Quiu. Tlii* 
wa* Bs&rl} Uiiit/ yoan ^o. Now l1i«ro 
U k Bonvfflop&lhio Ho«p)Ul in IIil- Uo- 
IrapoliK, MiA bctwMO tiro uul three 
hnndred legdly - reEiitCTLil mt^kal 
pnctlUoaon pnotidtig Hunucopatby 
ihiwukoat Qmt BriUin, 

* BtUubiUKb B«view for J«u. ISSO. 
' Dr. Anuitt, who now botiti winic 

pToCiMorial cbuT in Vienna, puMialinl 
la 1848 tli« fir*l number of a perioilical 
euUtled, " Jahrrnbericlil Qber dii! Fort- 
Mhritt« and LfinnnsMt dei nooiiMpa- 
Uiio in In-nnd-Aiuluiile," from wbicli 
Ihe following eitncrl i> lakto :^"Mit 
inm, 1 Jutwt, lUfl, inUte fUr dio 
lIoiiueDpiithS« in Kugbwd vine nana mx 
be^nncD. Drci juigcc lUftniier, Ihyt- 
ttiUe, HvM/U, iind Dtatk acbMrten ^ch 
nil frisebfim Uutii# nuamiDM, nnd 
wnnlcii von di ui din trtgct d«r nencn 
Pakoe. Sie srandetcD <laa ' BritiA 
J»aTval<tf Ilomaopathg,' dtaMnontca 
Zweok war die b«sl«u An£AbM dar 
boawBOiiatliijrken literal ur . . . 

ihrsji LeBtm ror m fcihran . . Die 
Scbriftan mtd Lehrvn d«r ebsetuumtcii 
Tri«»— •»■ der bald lUafJe vvmcbwMid, 
am spUer Ihufj/«m |>tntx lu mochvD — 
trngvn muAnilig ani niM»t«u lur Ver> 
bruluBg d«r Hoin<mpaUii« in alio tfs- 
gendm b<d, w^rend daa Journal fOr 
ihreu Wobnortcn irelt«r anlfsmt^n 
wiikt*;, btM«t^n iii« wlM in ihroQ 
i>i>/i(Trciri'« irn. Lirerpool and Kdin' 
liiir^b uD^li nod nach diLra KrsU tou 
SchiiLnm and ein liauKBOiMUliiicliM 
geiiiuutm Pnlilienm." — P. 338. 

In rtfer«n<m lo tho EilinbiirKh Dlt- 
p^nnrjr, wo hAvo the iMtiuion; of 
ADolIier forei^ pliytinaii. Dr. Ualaa, 
Hn of tJiv o»Iabrated iKwtorof Ocnevn. 
In « panptilet i-iititli^ " Hamuxipathla 
Mt ane T4tit6 oa le< ttiu, Utb qu'lla 
Mnt," pobiUked at Qeuera, llie follow- 
ing paanp' oocur* : — "A RUnhonrg 
lea progrts de rilouiimpatliie ont UA 
encore plua mirpronnuU. ApporUe, Jl 
; A pen de ttm^, par de JennM mi* 
dieiaa [i.e. Itrt. R\MeU and Bladi\ 
ell* eouipt« aujininl'bui nit noiubn 
ctobmnt d« pmtiiriona Boarmux, oi 
k diapeowire, auT«rt ton* 1m joata 
peKdanl troia henna, rt doNwrti par 



[C«^. XIV. 

of one of tlie most eDiincnt proft^sson in tito great medial 
Uuivei-HJtjof EJiiiljuigli, roused the dtifendutij of ortbodox/ 
iuto activity, and made ilieai resolve uimii a more dc'odfcl 
policy. In the ypar I8-*«, Sir John Forbes wrote «n 
article iu the "British nod Foreign Medtcul Review,' 
whidi excited immense sensation. It lie^ria thus: — 
"Although the subject of homoiopathy has been bat litii* 
advei'ted to, anJ never rormally notioed, in tlie pages uf 
this journal, ws Imve not teen uoawure of its cbums to 
ftttention, not regardless of its remarkabla progress in 
eveiy country in Europe, both as a system of medical 
doctrine, and u sytittm of medical prncticv. We ongbt, 
prot-ably, to have noticed the subject long ago, — at any 
rate, we tan ix-fmin no longer from doing so now, when 
one of the pubLicatious, whose title heads this article, 
shows that the new doctiinc boa found its way into the 
halls of one om' most estimable Universities, nnd is ojwnly 
advocated and promulgated by its Professor of Patholog}"." ' 
This article acted as a sort of cballeoge to tlie two 
parties to engage in open controversy. It was acc«pted by 
Uiem both. Tlio adherents of homiHopatJiy were Iimit.E(l 
to tiie use of literary weapons, and they discharged a biihlc 
fire of pamphlets and "datt^table little books," addi«asc<i, 
like those iu the scvuiiteenth century, to the popular under. 
standing.* Tlie orthodox party, on the other hand, bnviiig 
command of oU tho strongholds, the colloges, the univei'sitic^ 

•liintre iii^diciiis no {wut jilan anOira 
»u gmiij uottitirc i\v* nialiule*. C'tuL 

qnfi f nviiU d« rnomirnpalhitf, ot c'wt 
k mam ^ue !<■ tiiua nunilrviix ilout 
j'lii M jonnwlk-meiil Um>i]ii pH<nrJu&l 
|ilu.i dp cinq UHnR, m'niiL riiticrrmiint 
crnirut! A U rfiritfi ep lae.leoin." — P. 
S8, Dr. MaUii \itn nUn ti> tht j«ur 

Practice of MadiciDc by W. Bfn- 
ilt-ntoi), M.D., PrafOMr Ot He«tidii« 
Uhi (icnoml pBlIiiiluf? in llic University 
of K-lliibur^h. Lonilon uiil lUiiibar):li, 

* TLe ciKulatiun nt tbaw la -nrj 
luV)- Some of "Shar]i'>Tnv(U" U^ra 
mctlvd wi nightli odiiion, mut ■* Lau- 
rie's DuQiwIic Mt-lioiue '* hua (ntja 
tlirongh not muoLi tliort of ttrrjiij 

Kv. 17K;-1850.] 



Sec, resolved to try tlie effect of force as well as argument. 
Jn Scoiknii, ■whore the banner uf insurrection had been 
raised by n Pj'ofvssor nnd a. Quarterly Joui-rml, this re&o'u- 
lion took the form of aii attempt to exi>el the Professior from 
the College of Physicians, and to deprive him of liia chnir 
in Umj Uuivei-sity ; and, imprcs-sed with the truth of the 
nioxiiu, that " prereutton is better Ihui cure," the exanuniitg 
medical bodies went so fiu' aa to exact from tlic candidates 
for degrees a profession of nu-faith, prascnf. or future, in 
Uomceopatby, as a condition of grautiiig a decree or di- 
ploma. The extravagixnce of bhia proecoding called down 
upon them the censure of the greatest ornament of Scot- 
laud — Sir William llaiuiltou, — whoae syHtem of meta- 
physics is now setting English philosophcr-t by the cars. 
His reproof is conveyed in the following savere words : — 
" I see that tlie medical examinei-s liave boen publicly 
accused of n'jecting a candidate, not for incompct^^nce, but 
on the confessed ground that he was supposed favourable 
to a raedical theory rising dangerously in opinion, and not 
in unison with the medical theory of his ^xatninci's. On 
such a step — aueft an injuatlce — tntck an alewtlitt/ — the 
old sectional cxaniinRrs would not linve ventured. If the 
charge bo well founded, an EiinburgL Sledical graduate 
nmy now be an ignorant, unable to fip*'ll his mother 
tongue, but inutil tint Lq a proficient, professing to think 
for himself. So certain, also, are now the opinions of a 
majonty toucldng the vei-y practice, and in the verj' body 
whtre liuretoforo medical scepticism wna always in pro- 
portion to medical wisdom 1 Our Gregorys and Tliorasoiw — 
what would they now say to this?"' 

As the Scotch Culiegt-s and Uaiversities were deaf to the 
voioe of tbeir great teacher, the folly and injustice of their 
conduct had to be checked by the Bribi»b Ijogislaturc ; and 
A Bill, which passed iu the year 1 S5S, uontaiued the 
following enactment: — "In case it bIuxU appear to tlie 

I SUciikiir'jM Oil riiili>in|il>/ nuJ LilcnitifiT, I? Kr Willinai lUuiillMt, Barl. 

Qeneral Council tlmt an attempt has be«n made by any hody, 
entitled under this Act ttt grant qualiBcationi), to itn)to« 
upon aoy candidate ofTeriog himself for exauiination, an 
obligatioa to adopt or refrain from adopting the practkv 
of any particular theory of medicine or surgery, aa a test 
or condition of admitting liim to examination, or of graotiiig 
a certificate, it shall be la'wful for [i. e. it ahall be tJie datj 
of] tbe said Council to represent tbe same to ber Hajeety'« 
Moat Honourable Privy Council, and the said Privy ConncU 
may thtiroupou issue an injuuction to such body so acting 
directing them to desist from such practice ; and in. tin 
event of their not complying therewith, then to order that 
sncli body shall cease to have the power of conferring any 
riglit to be registered under this Act, so long as they shall 
ooutiuue auoh prucUce."' Acts of ParUameut are not cde- 
brated for the perspicuity of their language, and generally 
require an interpreter. The meaning of what we have jnst 
quoted 13 simply this — that if the Scotch Colleges or Uni- 
veraitles persevere in refusing degrees to candidates who will 
not aLijure homceopatby, these colleges shall be deprived of 
their power of granting degrees, until such time as they 
learn to move in accordance with enlightened public opi- 
nion. So long as- they constitute a part of the great 
British nrmy of progress, they must march in step, and 
cannot bo allowed wliile in rank to dance tlta HJgblaad 

This was fo\t not only by pliilosophors and legislators, 
but by tlieir own colleagues in England, who anxiously 
dtsc<iuntonanoed this northern extravagance, as is shown 
by the following resolution, published by the Royal Coll^o 
of Surgeons of England : — " That the Council have alten- 
tively and repeatedly considered the \-ariouB oomnmnications 
wind) they luive received on tbo subject of homoeopathy; 
aud, afW mature deliberation, have resolved, Uiat it is not 

2nd Angivt, 1858. CIbom 

■ An Ad to B^rulaU tli« Qmlifiu- 
Uou of Pn«UtMa«fa is U«4icui« and 


xj*. 1755-1860.] ULAST AND OOVKTRR-BLAST. 


exptdifvt for Uiis eollogn to interfere in the matter." Pob- 
Bibly tbe College of Surgeons had eajojeJ the iidrnntage 
of a conaultaliou with tli« College of Physicians, and bad 
been informed by Ibo "learned, gravcj and potent aeig- 
nieurs." who constitute that venemble body, that the ntmost 
length it was safe to go, iu regard to this popular medical 
heresy, was to shake the head at it with myHterious eniplia- 
ais, aa they had done five-aod-tweiity years befoi-o. But there 
is a class of pergous who are descnbetl by the poet as rushing 
in " where angels fear to tread ; " and those who prefer the 
modemtioD of broad England to the intolerance nud exbro- 
vaganoe of Scotland, will prol>abIy he of opinion that tlw 
contrast to angeiic lie-sitjition is well illiistrat^^d in the sub- 
joined resolutions passed by " The Provincial Hwlieal and 
Surgical Association;" which called forth, as such thingft 
do, a rejoinder. Tho conipitrative merits of the two his> 
torical documents is left lo the judgmeDt of tlie reader. 



Tb« follovia^ Report tru Imnigbt 
u[i, and uunnimou-ily ftKrucl W. 

" Tour oommitlM Iiht*, xlur miwul- 
lation with nnmcmm mambnn of tha 
AaaMiiilimL, tnntun^l; ocntutteTetl blia 
ta^tf*. rtlrmA to tlicm, «nil hej n- 
Bpeetfnlly to mgfgA Uie ftdoption of 
lb« foUotririK nMhitioM : — 

"Tbrf il i> tlio opinion «[ tkU 
AnociMtion that llamrmfuitlif, u i>r»- 
pounded b^ Bahnenuvan, and |)niirli*»l 
bj bli fotlowent, U m ullcrljr opiMMd 
ta Bcdwea u<l patnuDti miim, u well 
m w Mmplvtolj at TariaoM wltb Uie 
npvrisDN of ibo ]i[c<]i»l Prof^wion, 
tbftt it Dnghl ta )>• in no waj nr <l<'gr«a 
pntcLued or ooantMMiiMd hj aiijr r«gn- 
Uilf-rdnottad madtcd ptnetitioncr. 



A Serieaol Enolutiou an Homao- 
patliy pused I17 thv Pnvine!sl Medical 
and SnrKti^ Amcpclatloii, at BrighloD, 
on tlie Hth nf Augmt, haTiiig becm 
read, it waa resolTcd — 

"Tbal lliia Society deeply wyrela 
that k boily nf patbincn belongln; to 
n libenl profcadon ahould nwrt to ia- 
voctiro in plaeo of tr([uine«t. 

"Tbat tke roerita of HomoMifathf 
heinx a ■iibjt^l oi liiapate lictwomi two 
porliiM in Ibe nedin] woHd of cqaal 
|rrof«moT]al urnnding, it i* iiDpoMritils 
that a reanlution nf nne of th«M pftrtitM, 
tliAt the news of the other ' oogbi to 
be in no degno eonnUnanoed,' can 
hare an; lniliianr« iu facilit»tLnj[ tho 
tctUcmiint of tlie (|UB«linn in iliqiuU, 

> I^Msed at n nutting lieM at DnslihiB on Iba 14lh of Auguat ISfil, rad pnlf 
Uifced In all the prindpal newvpapvia of the d*f ■ 




"Thm []ori'iH)|uit1ii(i pinu^itionM*! 
Utroogh Hit pnm, the pUtfiirm, kdA 
llie pnlplt, bavQ en^eoroureJ Co hup 
Opattnipt ii)icn llie |u-n?tk'oof Meilictn« 
nnd SurffriJ n« followeil Ij memlwr" of 
thin AmociacIOD and I7 tbo ProfoMDii 
at buf^. 

"That [ori1i<--8t; renMEia iliademgB- 
UiTj to Uie honour of in«nber» ft! tiiia 
AnocinUon to bclJ ocy kind of |»n?f«e- 
•innal iiit«rt«iirae trith Uocntsopatblc 

" Tliitt thor« nrc three cla««of prw- 
tilionvTB wlio ouglit not tfl In? motnlKr* 
of tliU Awwcitition ; vie. — liti, nal 
II<ira<0<>T*^tKia prtctiUcineni ; Srnl, thcne 
who |)raoti»«! Ilornrrojiiithy iu Gnmbiaa- 
tiiiii with {ithi>r ayst«ins of trMlmont ; 
mikI Srd, UiOB« who. under vurioiw pro- 
tMiCtt, incot in cotuutution, or hoM 
profcwonal intOTcwirao with th«iw wlio 
practSae Horon<opntli]t. 

" Tb»t * coniuittoe of ncTi-n Ix np- 
poiat«d to frame livvm in h«-an)nii« 
wilb Liiwe rDKolutioDS, to be stibmittficl 
to tlie ncit Annual nnliiijc of (be 

"Tiiitl tbc thmltsof the Am«iAtiaii 
are eniiDcntljr dnc, and are hi^rthy 
given, to tbo PpeBidont* and Follow* 
of ttiif' Itoytil Collowo of Physti'iaoji and 
Furgwn* of Bdinburich for tlieir ilvtvr- 
tninvd aland tLjuinst Hoi»n«|iat}tic dc 
luntana nii'l tni[.Nuit'ir«a. 

" Tb'tt thn lluiiik* of the Asodatlon 
WT »l»n due, nnd are hpreliy giiren, to 
Ibe UnivcTHitiM Af Blinlmr^tb and St. 
Andrew's tat iiitir r«aiilDt>on to ro- 
fuu tbplr diplomu to pnictilion«n of 
Itom'ToiMilhT, iiut the Ano<'tAt[cni f«el 
itu|»rat5relj atlln) on to cipri>« it« 
dinp|trciv>l of uijr School uf MedJuiue 
whicb mlaiD* nmon^ it« teachcn any 
one who lialda Uomcropivthia opjnian*. 

"That tbMO rMCJalioDk lie imiitod 
and tmnonlttfid t« all tba Mediral 
Ueeuinr Dodic* and Modlml B«hooU 
In lb« Uuiwd KingHou), und Ihnt tW/ 
likewise Iw inorrio'I in tbr> Timrt ni-wn- 
jisjupr, the Mormitff Poil, tiko AariA 
Jlrilith AtlrtriiMi; Samiukrt* jVncx 

" Tliat, in xtiftmatinnx lIomaMipfttlij 
an an ' irregubu- firvclice,' m a *dftln< 
cion,' and an 'ii]i]>nttnT«,' tlie Pntrin- 
nal Medical and i^ur^cal Aaeociation 
TNoriH to t«nne of abuM wbicb atv at 
the oommand of vwrj odd ; a&J which, 
wltils tbp; are in ervrj oaae iuexcu- 
alilt, imlauafiMmpaniod hji»i)nl», ar» 
upcHally ralui-lc3> wbcn oonplAjieil to 
Bilciir« a ncv doctrW in oppoaitioti to 
tho pTG^ytnL't'tTtsJ vicwa cd lb« |>enu^ 
by ■"licm micb t«nns are oawl. 

"Tb»t tbc difT«rencea bel«Mii Bo- 
inivo)>ai1iio pniatilionon and tbdr 
bralhrrn nf the old nhwl bdtifr nnplj 
diOervniva of opinion, a r«aolutii.iii tiol 
to hold ['ruftitaioaal inlarmunw witb 
them is iiAlliin^ more tlurn tJie an- 
nouiirdnent of an inafaililjr on Ibt |Mut 
of tbo mamberB of tbe Proviacwl 
Meilii'al and Surxical Assoeladn to 
ti^lernto Id otbon the aanw iDd«pmd- 
onov of jadgracat tbsjr ciUUu for 

" Tbat, wljite the lef^iIntuTMi of two 
of the tniut iminrtnnt StaU* of tha 
AtDvrimn rnimi (Pi^nniijlrania and 
Ofaiul bnre Riiuitcd chnrlcn of incor- 
poration to HmKeopAlbic L'ntr«nitiw 
— wbilo the Chamben of tbo Kingdom 
at Bamis, of tbo Omad Dvchj off 
Bnilen, and ntbcr Ovrmas Statca, liarg 
anlboTiud (iru^twnnbii'a of HociMtO- 
patbj in thupablin rnirtinitiM— vUl* 
the Iciperial Qorcinment oi AuatHa 
biut MJirtioned tbo MtaMiatiincat of 
l{')m<vripnthie hoKpitnlii in dilhnat 
farU of its domiDlona— wblk. Id R«r^ 
lin and Mokow, tlitukar bospilab ex'tnt 
— nni1, while one hundred bcb in lh« 
Ilcispilfll nf St. Marxncfil* (■ br«neh 
i>r tbc HfiUil Dieu in Pan<)aredornl«U 
to ptti<vit« who oro ojwdI; treated in 
HCOon'laRM with tbo Ifrimoyipatbic tg»- 
tein l^y Dr. Tnanor and bi« burial 
naafltanta,— it U to b« dqiloreJ tlkat SO 
liirpt a iwrllon of tlie midlcal body in 
Kn(:laud und flootbtnd abontd ant ooty 
vomtntt thmDMlrn to pcraona] nui. 
muaitte* apinat all wbn laaj enter- 
tain tb« ajTston, but tbonll mconl 

A.u. 1755-18SU.] BLA?T. 



jMUr, M ihf Britiib uad IrUi in«di- 
cil iierioiUcal]!, nu<l in sni^li ivthnr jnur- 
niiU M llie Counnl idk; unctl'iui aixn 
the reMmin«Eid&tion of tlM tmuA 


"Id propouuK thew nsDltttunM fcr 
tbv Mloption «f Ui< AstM'iAtKia, jrour 
eMunitiM u« uul<nu to utaM tlut 
th«7 arn kclnAtad Itjr a «lrong •uoM uf 
Ili« irui-orltttice of tlie ntbjMl in iU 
relation txtth t« hunuinllr And tnnni]«. 
Thtj moat ccinHcIentioiKily t«lleT« that 
tli« caanusuioa aflarded w the form of 
rfanrUUinij benia alluded to U dclri- 
meulal to llid Irw inlerwit* of ilie 
piitrliCi H H in nnljvpndvn nf that atriH 
intvRt-it; which oiijihl ta dunctenao 
pmctiliotien uf uediciDo, and wliicb 
faaaQTcriliMinjiiiiahcd tbe imfeiaion in 
tbcae kiii|doin«." 
"John Bobi ConuaflK, M.D. Edln., 

PelloT Bo;al Ooll^ Fliya. Bdin.. 

of PulBej. 
"Jahu ToiinaLL, M.D. Gdin., nf 

••IL H. BainuM, ILO. CkoUb., of 


tb«ir tbuik* to the Ro)-al Caliche of 
Phj'ui.-uiiiB of KJinliurfili (or hftvlng 
endMronreJ to ci(«l (row tbcir badj 
thow of iu Bfiiibfn who pnuitiM 
Houawimtty, and to the ITnirtnities 
irf Kdioburfch, Abetileco, anil Rt. 
Andniw's, tor bavioe indicntod an in- 
tention to denj theii <li|doutn U> t»erj 
sturlcnt whoahnll rrfiiw togiT«apiwlga 
tliat be will not pnblidj prafeaa him* 
■elf a convert to iU truth. 

" Piaall}', that thp ILritiiib Wnmao- 
patbic Sociccy baa norer, aa a bodx. 
ellb«T ' tlimuirU tbc prow, Hit pnlpit, 
or th« pliitfonu,' eiideaTourv! to buap 
crialcmpt upon tlntir nllnpnlhii; hiv- 
llircii, ibigir convialion bvlng that no- 
tbinj (niihl t^rnd more </i reUnI tbcir 
Cftiu« tban tbe um of taunia and in:t|>a- 
tottonB, in lien of the caln) atAtoinent 
of neb cviHcncc u» from timu to litne 
It luny le'.lu thi^ir power to (urawb." 
' ' Por and in tbn name o( 

T]ie Jtrilixb IlonniMiiHilhic Sccietf, 
"J'UHUKKICK P. tiVlS, M.D, Pr»- 
liilent. I'bmiinaii to the Loadoa 

IIODinMlatbic Ilo^t&l,'* iiC, tu. 


It was the faaliiou with drutnatijiU at tbo end of 
their piece, when the maaks had withdrawn from the stage, 
to terminate the performance by a few explanatory sen- 
tences, spoken in their own pt-oper person. In like raanuer, 
after having endeavoured to represent, with dispassionate 
accuracy, the successive acts of tlie great drnma — let us 
not call it tragedy^-of medicbe, I projwjse, in, the few- 
pages that are left, to explain, with all possible brevity, 
why I have brought this history to what to many will 
appear an abrupt, and to some, even, a grotesque conchi- 
mon. How comes it, for example, that no moition is 
made of the s}*8tems of Kaaori or Brouasais ? for botli 
these distinguished men were born long after Ualinemann, 
and both exerted, for a time, a powerful influence upon 
tnedicine. It 'm true that Bason introduced a modifi- 
cation of Brunonianisni into Italy. Like Brown, ho 
attributed all human maladies either to an cxccsfiive or 
defective amount of excitability. The ronner he encountered 
with depletion, chiefly by means of the lancet ; the Iait«r, by 
Btimulants. Unlike Brown, however, he conceived the vast 
ninjority of diseases to be due to an excess of excitement ; 
and so he sent forth his disciples, to the number, according 
to Thommasini,' of three hundred, to nhed the blood of their 
unhappy countrjTuen to an amount never before known in 
the records of even the mocit .sanguinary jteriods of medical 
history. Let one example of his practice mifiice : — " A. 

* SvUo aut« ittiMlB ddl* nooTs luo, 1&37. 
patolojpa UaUuu ooiuidonunMM. Hi- 



robust man was admitted into tlie hospita] the second day 
of his illness. He had considerable lever aud sharp paiu 
in the right side of the chest ; the pulse was strong, Dm 
breathing short PrescHplion : — Tioo pornuU of blood to 
be dmwii from the ami, and 1 8 grains of dirf'daiis to 
be takeD. On the third day, the pain contiuued, puke 
112: 18 ounces of blood to be drawn, and 2 4 grains of 
digitalia to be taken. The same evening, other 18 ounce* 
of blood to be drawn. On tJie fourth day, the eavne »ymp- 
tomn : 18 ounces of blood morning and evening, and 36 
ffi-ains of digitalis. On the fifth day, no change: to be 
twice bled, and to have two scruples of digitalis. On the 
sixth day, all the BjTnptonis were worse ; pulse ] 00 ; great. 
weakness : a pound of blood to be drawn, and two scni- 
ple8 of digitalis to be taken. On the seventh day, no 
change. Rf^peat tlie bloodletting and the digiUlia. On 
the ei{^)th and ninth day, worse : repeat tlte bloodletting 
to one pound. After thia operation the patient — di^ In 
fourteen dayn he had lust 15 pounds of blood, and taken 
220 grains of digitalis I'" 

R]i«ori treated 652 cases of pneumonia aft«r this fashion. 
Of tliesc 1 i7 died, giving a mortality of 22 per cent. 
Fli^isclimanu treated lOTiS cases of pneumonia. Of these 
48 died, aud the rest recovered, giving a mortality of leas 
than 5 per cenL This was in the HonKTopatliic Hospitnl 
at Vienna. At PariK, Dr. Tessier treated 40 caties of the 
same disease, on the piinciple of Halmemfluu, not of 
Basori. Of these 40, 2 only died, and the real recovered. 
Dr. Tessier was attached to the Il6tel Dieu, and he hns pub- 
lished ft All! narrative of Jiis cases; so that the professional 
reader can judge for himself how far his general conclusions 
are to be i-elied ou. Some of these are very striking. Ue 
says : — " I Imvc thus related 40 cases of pneumonia. It 
might be observed, perhaps, that I ought to have related all 
the caae« which I Itave ti-eated, in order to ftiniisb a com- 
> Eb'.e Oc4«lii«lit« iUr fnrl'i^Aia Anaeikasvit, Vol. 11., p. 5S, 


jilcte slfttistlcal aeries. I liave not adopted this method, for 
ilii) i»inii>lo I'cosou tliablhavc uot yet felt uutLunzed to]>lace 
tbe old-scUool treatment of pneumonia in sucli an evideut 
jioaition of inferiority, as it would undoubtedly Lave occri- 
]iied if 1 had reiaied every case. For it would bave l>cen 
fouud timt all the patients who came to my wards before 
suppuration liad set in were cured — excejit one."' 

Rusori is excluded because his system has periahed without 
leaving a trace of iU existence, except in the re-action it gave 
rise to n;;Riugt the use of the lancet. This reaction has takea 
n poative mid a negntive direction. The positive wc hnve 
ttiready Iarg«rly dosmhcd under TTomaopathy ; the negative 
we must notice, nfk-r exjikining the nhsence of BnuissaiA. 

Broussais, like Ra^ori, stiirled from the school of Brown. 
The £rat of the six hundred and scventy-ciglit propusi- 
tions which conaiituto the chief part of Iiis famous work 
h, that " the Hfe of iiu auinial is only mainUined by 
Oitemal stimulantii (lirown) and whatever exalts the 
vital phenomena ia stimulating.'" He soon l^-oke away 
from Brown and Rnsori, however ; for while they both 
regarded diaesse as an action pervading tlie whole fmnie, 
BroussaJs, on the conti-ory, proclaimed that the seat of 
tilmost every human malady, fi-om small-pox to bron- 
chitis, was the mucous inemlirane of the intestineR. 
luflammalion of thin, he culled. G»iitro-cnteril«.' This 
single word represented almost the sum total of his 
patliology. The art of the pli}'siuian couBisted in detecting 
a gastrfr-enterite. Tlie consequences that result iroai 
not recognizing this fans el oriffo mfUi, Broii?sais thus 
indignantly dejdores : — "Qu'on s«i figure dans toutes Ics 
parties du monde civilisd dus k^giuiuj de m^iiciiLs qui ne 

' Cliulcul Kruiuka un tin- IIiuIHiuhi- 
p^tiuf trttilmtni cif I'licuiiionin, t^y 
J. P. TcMicr, M.U. Tnnnkl^d hj 
C. J. llcni)K-l, M.P. NevYofk, ]8fi3. 

tiiimnte. Twp. Hi. MeiuiIoiiaa<lBrmr- 
Ict-fover lik»wuw; uui cntArrlial hi- 
flamniatinn of the <ycK iioac, UirMkl, 
ftiMl broiirbl.i, Ix-in in yuarnralm'tf, 



BOiip(;onnent pns mdnic TexisUnce Jes inflanimaUons gns- 
trHjiieH, tii ritiHuence do cea phlogmasies siir le ivsfce cIch 
nrgonea ; qo'on so ]os reprisente veniant jb flots dvu 
vomitifs, d?3 purgaUCt, des reuiMes ^bnuffii:it«, du viii, 
dii rulcoliol, des liqueurs iinpregndes de bitumo ct do 
pliospliure fiur la siirGice sensible des estoumcs phiogosds ; 
que I'on contcmple \cs suites de cette toriure niedicak, lea 
limitations, Ics treinbltnnent^ lea convulflioiiH, les d^lin-a 
t'reinStiques, les cm de doulcur, les pliysiognoinies grim- 
<;antes, hideuscs, le souftie bvAlant de tons les infortiitnti 
qui soUtcitcnt uno goutto dVnu pour dtaiicher la soif qui 
les d^vore siius pcmvoir obteiur autre chose qu'uue nuuvellii 
dose du poison qui lea n. r(?duit k ce cruel 6ttit .... 
et que Ion proriouce pnsiiite hi In rtiiSdieiuG a dt^ jiunju'ici 
plus miserable qu'utile h rbuuianil^."' 

As Bonkke snw Murvy lurking ot the root of every 
human nilmtnt, bo Broussais dettcted gastro-enierltc. Tho 
pftiiacca for tbis was not, bowever, tlie mild Virgiuian 
weed of the fontAStic Dutcbmau, but tlie lancet and tbt» 
leech. Brown killed Iiiuidredw by over-feeding, Brousstiis 
dew thousands by bleediDg and starving. But after lie 
came to Paris, and bad an o[ipoitunity of pulling lii« 
system to the test on a larger acale, he seeuia to bnve had bia 
eyes opened to the danger of such desperate raenKurey, and 
to have tended, like all wise prnctitioners, towards specific 
medicines, given, too, in small dotws. We find a striking 
illustration of this, in bis treatment of a severe case of 
cystitis, whicli be treated with tlie Tincture of Caiu 
tkaride^, ^vtng of thiit HiibstniKt-:, whose nction on the 
Or;gaii affev'tcd with iuiliiuiniatioti is notorious, one drop Jhr 
a doae in the course of n day for the first three day?), and 
then two drops for the next five days, when the patient 

^ Branwu*. lad dwpwr, «Dtltl«d 
"' Dc U Cwrtjtuilii Bii MWwIn," quote.! 
Vii) K-aouord, is Lis Lctlrva PhiloM- 

an I»"«b1»cJo. 



was dismiRsetl curcil.' BrouBaois, in this instance, Acied na' 
a disciplb of HalmeiiuLnii iiught have done; be abandoned 
the system lie had inveuteO, wbicli, except in en^ifling on 
the popular mind the notion tlmt when a person is ill it 
U from " an affection of the mumua 7nenif?ran«," except by 
introducing this vngue and seiuseleffS expression, and excitiii^^ 
by the fatal consequences of his sanguinary measnrea^ 
violent reaction in the diri^ction of expectant medicine, 
Broussjiis may be saiid not now to exert any inlluence 
u|)on the art. Indeed, to his credit be it said, thai Brotis- 
sais, in hm later days, made no secret of his predilec* 
tion in favour of the system of bis great rival Uahne- 
mann. Expectant medicine, however, has found believers ; 
iiud it deserves iittention, for this i-eoson, were there no other, 
that it has been popularly expounded by Sir John Forbes^! 
■whoso character, as one of the most highly cultivated phy- 
sicuuut of his day, entitles all he writes to uur serious con- 

Expectant medicine is well illustrated by Sydenham, io 
the following inissage : — afler having described how bo 
was baffled in the treatment of an epidemic, he says, " I 
watched what motliod Nature might take, witli the inten- 
tion of Hub<luing tlie symptoms, by treading in her footsteps. 
Now, whilst I so watched the dwease, it departed. From 
tlienoe, therefore, I considered that this method should be 
applied to all such cases as I might henceforth havo to 
treai."' To watch the course that diseases mn when 
undisturbed by any medicntiuu ; to observe, on the one 
hand, the conditions wliich promote recovery ; and on the 
other, those which rctai-d that desired end, and further a 
fintnl termination of the c&se ; having made acattsful invea- 

I BroutBus CUuiqiia. Journal Het)- 
dntii. Km., 40 mmI 43, 1895. 

■ Vf K«tiur» uwl Art la the Cm of 
DiiMM, l>7 Sir J(Ai» PorbM, M.D., 

D.C.L, OxoB., F.It.R.S., ke., tte. 
UmAaa : ChurHiill. 1867. 
• Vol. I., p. 212, 



ligation of tlifSG conditions, the duty of a phyaicJim is to se- 
curtj fur his patient )iU that arc favouruMu, and to remove 
the unfavourable, — this is all medicine can do, for the 
expenence of ti-cating diseases witli drugs haa given as 
itH final reauJt tbo conclusion thus forcibly expressed by 
Bichab: — " Incohdrent aasemhlage d'opinions elles menies 
Ineolidrenles, elles est peut^6tre do toutcs les Bcienoes pby- 
BiuIogiquCH celle oil &Q peigueiii le mieux tes travurs do 
I'espi'it humain : que dia ji ? ce ne point une science pour 
im esprit mfiLhodique, c'est un cnsomble iuforme d'tdi'-At 
Inexactes, d'observations souvent pueriles, de nio^'ens illu- 
soii-ca, de fonnulea, aussi bizarrement con^ues que fiisti- 
dleusement aasembltSes. ()a dit que la pratique de la mddi- 
cine est rebutaute, je dis plus ; elle n'est pas, syu8 oertaia 
rapports, oelle d'un honmie raiaonnable, quand on en pniac 
le3 principL'H daui> la plupart de noti [uuti^r«a niudicalcs." ' 

Sti-ong as these expressions are, tliey arc not stronger 
than the opinions expressed by Sir John Forl>e8, who says : 
" In a lajge pro]K>rtioii of cases ti-eated by allopathic phy- 
Hicians. the disease is cured by Natui*, and not by them. 
In a lesser, but still not a small proportion, the diitc&iie in 
cured by Nature iu spite of them ; in other wordit, their 
interference opposing instead of €is*isting the cure. Conae- 
(|uently, in a considerable proportion of dl-seaMS, it would 
fare cus well, or better, with patients, in the actual coudiiUun 
of the medical art, as mure generally practised, if all re- 
medies, ai least all activt revMdies, especially drugs, were 
abandoned." ' 

We have seen how, eight hundred years ago, medicine 
was divorced from Uie Ciiurch because of the failures — the 
disgraceful failures— of medical men. Tlie I'herapmtta!, ilie 
healers, men supposed to cure diseases, had tailed to do so, 
and were rejected as a scandal upon Christianity. Due of- 

1 Bii-hat AiiftUuule Ginfnla, tome 
L, J.. 9. 

' BriUidi Bill] Forcipi Metlical Ko- 
rww, Jan., 184«, {^ W7. 



the successors of these Therapeuto!, these men of healing, 
after tlic lapse of eight centuries, i-evives the cimrge, and 
repraacties his brctliren as uut being; men of care nt »ll, 
hut as hurting inslead of healing tlie sick ! lie- proj>oses 
that they should, therefore, abnmlon all their efforts in that 
direction, and content themselves with the humbler uphere 
of nursing, not healing, The non-medical public take Sir 
John at his word: "You abandon niedicim^s," they any, 
" you oease to be %vhnt we ciill ductons, no we abandon you^ 
and go off to water-cure establishments, ■where all the an- 
plianoes you advocate for the restoration of health are to 
be had in perfection." Here is another recoil froui the 
sanguinaiy and depleting syateina pursued by old physic, 
and one which deserves further notice. 

Before examining the claims of PrieMiiitz, we must take 
leave of the medienl nurses and their expectant system, 
parting from thmn in perfect amity: for why tdiould we 
— who believe with Sacon, with Locke, with Sydenham 
with IXahnemnmi, and with Alison (of whom more anon) 
that it is possible to ftcaf the siclc — quarrel with those wlio 
unhappily do not poHHess tlilH eiKwura^'iug faith, and besiovr 
all their ability in devlifing nuxiJiaries towards the same 
end i Let us nccept their aid ; let u^ lenm from them the 
best plan of diet, of exercise, of clothing, and of eveiy-thing 
that contributes to the welfare of the boily ; but^ at the 
same time, let us administer the remedies whidi ex]tenenoe 
has taught us to trust. Their unbelief in Mediciue is Uieir 
misfortune ; their belief in Nature is our gain. If they are 
satisfied with this negation, we may be surprised, hut we 
cannot cotuphiiu that they should be tliu!> euamuuied of — 
nothing. One truth will be rudely told them — that what- 
ever medical aceptios may say, men will not give thcm- 
selvtB up to death without an effort at recovery; and if 
their pilots desci't the helm, and lie down on their backs t<j 
gaze at ttie stars, antl predict fro::i them the wuatlier aud 



Ibe probable — or natural-^ coxirse of the ship-full of biiniftn 
life, tlie passengers will have little furbearauce with these 
avi-disant philosophers, but will be very apt to pitch them 
overboat-d, on Jolin Knox did the jMunted image of the 
Vii-giii, as a uhuI*>ss Incumbrance, a discoiufoi't — evott on 

If we deny the methods of Priescitz, of Mesmer, anil 
of Ling, a {ilaee among the K^'stems of medicine, it is 
becauftp, however useful each may be in its own province, 
no nno of thf^m singly, nor all of tliem oonil^ined, ore 
prepaxed to occupy the position of old physic, aguiust 
■which they protest, but the functions of which, if it were 
overthrown, lliey could not replace. Adiiiinible they may 
be as oiiupeli% but ibey are not qualiGed Tor what wu may 
call parochial purposes. As exceptional allies to regu- 
lar medicine, whether Uippocratic or Uahnemannic, they 
iire to be eflteemcd, besides possessing interest on other 

The Water-cure is so well-known, and has been so ably 
ndvocateU by physicians of credit — both with the public and 
their own profession — for intelligence, cultivation, and can- 
dour,' that it iieeda no defence or ex^waition here. Valuable 
SLS a curative method Id a considerable class of intmctablo 
and distressing maladie-s, it is even more important as dis- 
playing the advantages of HcUvLty and temperance in giving 
a new life to constitutions exhausted by too much mental 
exertion, too many cares and anxictieji, or too luxurious 
and indolent habits. Besides, it giv<?s an impulse to the 
renval of bodily purity, and thus might b« called the 

' Dr. Qnll;, m he wiu tint of the 
ftnt. so b« is cat of tht moat oele- 
limtod, apotllA of till! Wster-con- in 
tlii« oonntry, aaH hii wpU-lcnnwii tr«»- 
tin u «aturi(]«ml n KUuxlanl wurlc t>n 
lilt anbjed. A l»ok k> Dr. Biln&nt 
Imms CBlitki) '* llTdmiMUbr. nr Hjgi- 
enio Medidnc," ahon tia *utb« lo be 

a xoMMi tif cinltiv&tion And cnnilaiir, knd 
he occupies a ■onunrfaAt pecaliar po- 
HltloD in holding hy tlj« Hlppoontie 
Kbvgl, whik most nf the otlicT aillie- 
mits of Pneiiniti tmra raat in tlieir 
ItA vrttll UiC (nilloHlJ wbo C0DaUtUt4 

ibfl KbiMl oi llabnemauii. 
II tl 



Bajitiein of AjkAIo ; that is, the recagnition of pbysical 
culture as a part of Cliristinn duty — the reooil from the 
monkish error of mistaking tlegi-aJation of the body for 
Tictory over the fle&b. How for tbis movement has been 
assisted by the increased intai*csk token in Ibc history of 
Greece, £i'oai the power, Icaraiog, and cloqueooe, which 
have combined to make tliis generation better ecquaioted 
with the people from wliom we have derived bo much, 
IB a question not to be deeded here. We may born fk»m 
it^ however, tliat human progress is no delusion, Ibot 
all real ffood is alive and never becomes entirely extinct, 
though it be. like the swd, buried out of sight ; but that 
at its appointed time, when tiio world is fit for itA r«oeiv 
tion, it will revive. Perba|>s, we shall yet sec the Rose of 
P«riclee bloom in tlie Garden of Paradise restored. 

On the same ground that we esclude Priezmtx, muat we 
deny to Mcsmer a place iu the text of the "Book of Medi- 
cine." Even were we to admit the Claras of Mesmerism 
in their fullest extent, we should refuse to accept it as more 
than an auxiliary to Tborapcutica. It will hardly pretend 
to cure scui'vy, small-pox, and ague. It may perform 
wonders, and may answer in wonderfiil cases ; but it is 
unequal to D0[)e with the common ailments of meu, which 
ref|uii'e less ghostly mediattion than it oflers, Althougij 
we canuot receive M^smer in the character of a reformer 
of medidne, we may grant liim an audience as an ambas- 
Bodor — or, at least, a pilgrim — from a strange country, 
towards AvliicL the eyes of many earnest, cultivated, aud 
thoughtful men ore now directed ; a land of shoUowa and 
of dreams, which we may call the kingilom of tde^, where, 
if we arc to believe the ]>oct'a fancy, our spirits took their 
rise, and in which they are to set. 

'* Our Luth in bul « (Jrrp am] ■ fbi^UIug ; 
The ain] tluil Kimm villi us, out lif«'i •Uu, 
Bblfc bMl ebewltcn iu Mttinf, 
AnJ NBiath frum kfor ; 



Knt In »ntir« forgetfiilna*^ 
AnH nnt in nlt^r nn.k«<liteM, 
Bui tniiliiiit cIiuiIb of ^lory do «« ctunc 

Prom QoJ, wbo ta oiir liume." * 

" TUis little life of our 's," anys Shakespeare, "is rounded 
with a »Ievp." These words Gootlie».-oiwid«ie<l so jiregnaiit 
wiib deepest significance, that he says they grew into hook") 
in bis mind. " Sleep," says Teimyfion, •" knows not death. " * 
Have these expressions any Bpeci6c meauing, or are they 
vngue movements of these poets' minds, like the tones of 
an Beolian haj-p playe«] on by the sighing wind ? Saence 
might reply to this question somewhat in the following 
fiishion. Sleep, by some of our beat writers on phyeiology,' 
is re^jarded not as n negative, but a positive condition ; in 
Rl&ep, the first months of the existence of man and all 
mammalia are pii(«ed ; many animals, when they arrange 
themBelveti for repose, are observed to retiune the pListure 
they oMUpied during tlie pre-natal period; sleep has it« own 
conficiousness ; it receives impressions, and stores them up ; 
it has it€ own memory. It has been suggested that 
possibly some of the morveU of clairvoyance may depend 
upon a window being qjened into the chamber of this 
Bleeping imagery. Dming the sleep, the will of the aleejter 
is, as it. were, off guard ; and its place may be t:aken by 
the will of a person awoke ; who may on the one hand, by 
speaking or otherwise, command and control the character 
and succession of the images that ilit like realities across the 
Hieeper's purely passive consciousness, and induce the stale 
known by the absurd nnnie of " Electro-Biology," in which 
the patient acts tho dream which the operator suggests ; 
and may, on the otber hand, be the rt*ipient of the enio- 
tiouB tbat agitate the wind, or the thought that occupies 
the attention, of the sleeper. These thoughts and feelingii 
will natumlly take their colonr from the actual world of 

' Wcrdaworth. 
* InUnMiwn. 

* 8m BunliKb'i nipJaUyj, Vol. V., 

u K 2 



events ; and imnginativn, freed from tbe bridle of will and 
reason, will "body forth Ibe form of tilings unseen, and 
give to airy nothings u local babitatiou, and & name." 
Tbis process mny be called Clairvoyance. 

It may turn out, that between the extruvagancics of 
Bonie MtssiiicriKUs, who allow themselves to be wlurled 
away by the Uluaions of an over-indulged fiuicy, and 
tbe absolute Bcepticism of most, edentific physicians, 
there is a niidiile path, where the pliUosophei- — the 
iover of wisdou], one who acknowledges that wonder, 
though the child of ignorance, ia the parent of knowledge 
— may with caution pick his 8t«^i>3, reoeiving uottiiiig an 
true, except upon uioat ample evidence, and rejecting 
nothing as fklse, however iinprobabb it may be, unless 
it contradict — not our poor experience alon^— but »ouie 
iundamental principle of the moral or physical goverament 
of the universe. In the mean Lime, while we stand iilouf, 
and await the final verdict, we ma}- indulge the liupe that 
the day may be at hand, which, by disclosing the mysterious 
relations of one human being to another, and increasing 
our knowledge of the influence of certain natural objects 
and atmospheric phenomena upon highly -sensitive persons, 
will bring about a nearer alliance than yet exists between 
scieuoe and poetry, as well as the more perfect reconciliation 
of tliese with a well-grounded fiuth in the rcvelatiou of 
the supeniatuiid, more endangered, perhaps, by the timidity 
of its defenders, who often shrink from looking facts in 
the face, than by either the open or Rtcaltliy atuauItA of 
its opponents. If Mesmerism succeed in eslnblisliing ilH 
claiois as a perfectly hannleat hyimvlicj or sleep- producing 
power, it is difficult to over-estimate the benefit it will 
confer upon bumaniby. Tbe only agents hitherto known 
to possess the pro[>erty of inducing profound somnolence 
and extinguishing Hensibilit,y (o siifTering, ore, like opium 
and obloroform, of an intoxicating diameter, unplcnsiuit in 


tlicir imnie<liftte action, and dtranging, if not dangrrons, 
in their subsequent opcmtinn ; whorea.i, hy generjiJ ad- 
nmsion, Mesmerism, if it relieve \mm and produce sleep, 
doo8 BO by directly soothing nnd nob exciting the nervous 
system ; and may Iiave been the remedy oelebnited by 
Pindar as tlie gift of TXranos (Heaven) to /Ksculaptus, 
entitled — " Freedom from pftin that strengllicns the limbs," 
• — by which he rescued t}ie dead man from Phito, and 
thus incurred the anger of the gods.' 

The la'?t of the three auxiliariiWi is tlic " Movement-euro " 
of Ling. This is an intorf«ting revival of the proceaaea of 
regulated or systematic exercise practised by the Greeks 
in some of their gymnaisia, and approved both by Hippo- 
crates and Galen, as an imporUint method for preventing 
morbid congestion of blood in certain organs- "When we 
vMi to make a derivation fi'om the upper and middle 
parts of the body, we rub the extr^-niities," are the words 
of Cekua. For "we rub the extremities," probably, had 
he written more carefully, he would have substituted, " we 
])i-escribe tJint tlie lower extremities phould t)e rubbed ;" 
for it requires a particular training to actjuire the art of 
manipulating the body, so as to produce nil the desired 
effects. The problems connccktl with muscular ju"Uon, the 
amount of force exerted to raise the arm or the leg, the 
dij-ection of the forces, and the influence eommunicaled by 
the contraction of the niUKclcn to adjoining or underlying 
blood-vessels, were investigated by the Physicians of the 
School of Mechanical Medicine, Borrelii, Bellini, and others, 
to whom we have already referred ; but this important 
branch of medication soon afterwards fell into comparative 
neglect. Its invest igiit ion was revivL'd, at the clost-. of last 
century, by Pet<jr Henry Uug. a Swede by birth, and a 
man of entire deVotion to his object. On his death-bed he 
gnvo the following aooount of his stru^lcs, Iuh bopos, and 



Ilis fears:—" Often misunderstood, and often without means; 
for tliirtj'-five years I have devoted my life to tbe subject, 
without any hope of reward, immediate or ultimate. The 
King and Diet liave assisttid me in my struggles from time 
to tinje, but my henlth wiui unfortuoatfdy &ncrificed b«lbi« 
Uie hand of encouragvinent w&s held out ; tuid even now, I 
have only a few assistants to aid ine in carrying out my 
oi-igiiial idea. Death in about to put an end to all my 
activity, aur] wliiii I have done may vanish like a bubble, 
aliould tbe King aud Diet i-ufuse to liat«u to luy dying 
request, and deny tbcir support to the enlargement of tbo 
Iiiatitution, according to the scheme I have Ifud down. 
Out of nearly a hundred pupils whom I have eudeavaun>d 
to educate ns gj-nmasianihs, there are only two who are aU« 
to carry out my true scientific Idea ; and these two are in 
dulicite health." ^ 

The foundation of Ling's av-stem appears to be the 
axiom, that ni> cluuige uau be made in tlie position of any 
one nieiubor of the body without an effect being produced 
upon the whole frame. For examjJe, (f the ann be raised 
above tlie bead, less blood will be sent tlirough it, than 

Orwk i)«ctj^ Tboocntns, Blna, and 
Mowhtu, vitli aimvUtions. Of the 
nuuiavr tn wliicli be arfoin|ill«b«(l Uu« 
liMb, SSr Da^lHuvlfonl— tbKB «Ii4ia 
tlivnvM no mem tmtxptUnl Mitfcqntj 
— thu« tNpmani hw opiaion :— "Art 
u KD apt and ndoqwtW raprHMBlktlre 
o( *rt. TUe quftiat pailiCB of Bton'a 
* Lftmcnl for A/lonb,' itu iHBlniM 
of •Tbc TwKihBr TWu^ht,' lite ptrfaot 
gnM of 'The RiiBa«»y Lvra* «{ 
Motchai, the rooiMtie boutj of bis 
'Bnrapm' ituijr b* onjoTci] m mil 
in Cba^iiM'* Rngliali k* in tbrir 
Gr«clc." — SiIinliKiTjk lUne^ Vol. 
LXItl., p. »<}. Mr. Bolu) M«m« 
to b« uf • nnihr •[■biion, tor \>» h*a 
raiialilinkeil Iho work ia his niwiii-al 

' LId^'h Educaliinial kd<1 CunlWe 
SK?TTi«c)), bj M. I. Cliapmnii, M.A., 
Ouitalj., M,])., K(Iin. Tlic author Kija 
in hiK pmfiiec, that " h« LelicTM ho- 
naopaihg i» Hit Uv i>f mrin^ itiiwMO 
h^ drufi fiv«ti in awonluiM with tlub 
bw ; but ba ulmita. to the full, lliat 
tfc«t« an vthor mntiro agonoJM, of 
wUeh tb* ■fnkininiJ in OM. ..." 
lie i* " iiiilebtcd to Prtf^tfor Oeofgii" 
—one of the two pupils nfcrred to in 
tbe l«i;t— " for IUa knowledge, nicb lu 
il i«, of Lbe sabjoet." Dr. Cbupnaa 
jtivaa &n intcraitbc notlee In tbbi pun- 
|-.Ulel of ibc «I»tIoa of Ling"* sj^m 
to Ui«l iirswHwd In tbe Ujuiiuwiu of 
Atbon^— • aubjoet on wliicji li« u *eQ 
quAlifiad to •pnki for hefort Ui ttJap- 
tion of lMiu<M|«lh; — aow Cwaotjr jroMi 
njo— be iinUi4ti«() a. tirniklioiw «f tbt 





wlion tlie flrm is in a Jiurizoiital or ik-pend*mg poniilon ; 
the UockI wliicli does not go to the upright arm must go 
somewhere, and thug the total diHtributioa of the re- 
mainder will Thj necesfiarily nflected ; and the quantity of 
blood in any organ detennines the activity of its functions. 
Besides the jwwer obtnjiied by " the command of the 
|iipe«," »o to speak, it muHt not he forgotten that every 
musculai- contraction is attended with a certain develop- 
ment of nerve-force, wid that this excites a train of sym- 
pathetic ftction along the wii-es of the animal telegraph. 
Thus it happeus, that if we only knew the exact results of 
every motion, we might so regulate the movements of the 
body aji to produce either an excited or diminished action 
in any part at pleasure. If we could succeed in this 
endeavour, one of the greatest jiroblema in medication 
would be solved, by enabling the physician to relieve local 
congestion without gcnci-al depletion on tlic one hand, 
aiid rouse local torpidity without the adminbtration of 
general fitiinulontt^, on thu utlier. But, fair as tlie system is 
in theory, we fear it is most iiiuitcd in practical application 
as a method of cure ; for wc Icarn from tlio lips of its 
founder, that he could only coiiimunicaio the dexterity 
rt-quiivd for iUt successful use tu two per cent of Uiu 
pupils. Small comfort to a man ill of rheumatism at 
Vienna, to be told, timt if bo goes to London or Stock- 
holm, lie will there be nibbed int* heJtltb. He would 
naturally eselaira, "How can I get to either of tlieso 
places, when I can't move across the room f " " Aye, 
there's the rub " for him. 

For the snccessful application of Icing's Hystem as a 
method of cure, as great an amount of study and natural 
aptitude may be required as is needed to make a man 
a firet-rate musidan. But infinitely short of this is requi- 
site for the emjJoyuient of judicious gymnastic exercises iu 
the devt:loj)mcnt of tlic gruwing body. "In I'espect of 



etiucation," ituys Dr. Chaptniin,' "nil thinkers and observeM 
know tiic influcuco the iiiuid aud body exorcise on caehi 
other ; and, therefore, tbo due development of the physical 
powers exercises au immense iufluenoe iipou the duo 
de\'elopinent of tbe mind. If, then, exercises should be 
a part of cducAtiou, they should be applied according to 
D. Byston in accordance with the sclenoes of aiiAtoniy 
(lud physiology. The principle on which Uiey act is 
obvious. They stimulate equally to healtliy actiou all 
the parts of the body ; the circulation is ntade free and 
vigorous J oil the funcUons are performed \^'itli pro[ 
activity ; the normal health is maintained ; and the niate-'j 
rial for i\, healtliy longevity is fully sup]>lie«l. Such cxer- 
ci&eti are especially called for in the education of girUi, who 
should not be wnsp-shaped and indolent, with tender or 
twisted spines ; but should be able to run races, and ' hold 
their ovni ' in the course of Ufa. Si:- Jolm Forbts has 
mentioned a school wliicli cnnie under his own oWcrvation, 
in which 'ihera vxia not one girl uJio hotl been tliera two 
years tkut was twt more or less crooked.' .... Youth 
should be the period of the cxubenince of young life ; 
oltserving, and yet frolicsome, health-getting, and graoc- 
obtaiiiing, and strength-winning ; whereas, girK youth is 
iuiprisoned in buckram, set fast in stays, straight>lacedp, 
and sour-visaged. This is altogether wrong. Let Nature, 
and their nature, have free play, and let them have idl tho 
enjoyments, recreations^ and exercises that are suitable 
at their period of liie, and are consistent with virtue and 
modesty. Take their feet out of the stocks, and their 
hands out of the gyves, and their waists out of the prisons 
in which your false method of education haa placed them ; 
and your daughters will grow up in health, and streugtli, 
and beauty, and their suns and daughters will have 
a hcalUiy infimcy and childhood ; and so the humart stock. 

lop. dl., y. 1«. 



will bo improved generation after ^Deration. "' *' WIioso 
is just " {to hia chiidren., we may inteqiolatc) 

"tLongh Iiii wntlth, like it rirer, 
Tlov iloim, sh&U be >c)it1iel«as ; bis !iaiu« bIuU njaieo 
III ML o&pHdb ut beauty for ever." - 

We have unconsciously drifted towards the great proUcni 
of tbe duy — EducatioQ ; and I wDl conclude this rauihling 
Epilogue with some observatioiu on that question, in its 
Waring upon tlie fiiture prospects of tho art of medicine 
and its practitioners. 

Among modera physicians there is no one who, hy hia 
zeal and philanthrophy, aecured tho love of his fellow-dti- 
zcos in a higher degree than the late Professor Alison, of 
Edinburgh ; and few whoBe opinions on any subject con- 
nected with the future pro6))ects of medicine, carry more 
weight with the public and tlie profession. In concluding a 
sketch of the history of medicine, he wrote as follows : — " In 
lookitig forward to the farther improvement of tlae art, we 
can hardly expect that the most numerous class of remedies, 
those ■which produce sensible effects on the body," — -i. e. what 
are calltid allopathic, — " can either lie made to exert nmre 
power. Or Ikj directed with more accuracy towards the 
objwts which they are capable of accomplishing, than they 
may be at present by weU-infornied and judicious practi- 
lionera. Our hopes of tlie increasing usefulness and efficacy of 
our art must depend, partly on the improvmneni of Tiiedi- 
txil educatioji, and the more uuifurm diffusion through the 
mijmbers of the profession of the knowledge which we 
already possess ; and partly, also, on the progress which 
may yet be ex|H;cted iu two lines of inquiiy, in which our 
8UCW5W has been as yt^t only partial. Flnst, in the discovery 
of BpeelfieSi which may counteract the ditfercut diseases and 

I Let Di* direct aUodUoh to tbe od- 
minble met* publUhed hy tbe Luliea' 
Suittuj AfltD«iftii«[i uiMa tbU oU-im- 

portont aitbJMt. 

■ Agaiu«ninon nf jKachflmt, livui- 
li.l«d by PiofLiMt Bkckie. 



actions of which the body is suscepUbte, ns ofSoetually as 
the cinchona counteracts the iutennittent fever, citric acid 
the Hcurvy, or vucciuatiun the smnlUpos^ ; and aeeojuify, 
iit the iuvcstigatioa of tlie causes of disease, whether 
excma] or internal — i. e. of the conditions under which, 
either the vital actions of tho solids, or the vital properties 
of the fluids, of the body, become liable to deviationa 
from their oatural etate." ' I>r. Alison looked forward to 
improvement in the nrt of which he was so great an oi-na- 
nieiit, by a more perfect acqiiJiintaooe witli the Kdemal 
causes of disease — that is, what makes certain places un- 
healthy — a subject tliat falls within the province of the 
National Ai>sociattou for the Fromotiou of Social Science ; 
and the internal, or the chftng<»& produced by diMase upon 
the body itself — morbid anatomy, a contpaiTi lively new 
bmneh of accurate stuJy, but one wliich has ma«Ie surpnaing 
progress witliin the present century, and towards which the 
labours of the Vienna school, under Bokitaji^ky, have 
largely contributed. His greatest ex])octation8, Iiowever, in 
common with Bacon, Boyle, Sydenljaui and Hahnemaau, 
fire from the discovery of erpccific». ^Vs tliis is the text 
which it is one of the chief designs of tliis volonie to ex- 
pound, nothing more need be said about it now. So all 
that remains is, to consider his third and last ground of 
hdpo for the future of medicine — the iviirrovem^iU of 
medical educatUmj and its grenter diffusion among all the 
members of the profession. It ia generally reckoned that 
there is one medical man to e\'cry thousand of the |M>pula- 
tion. Let us suppose that the oensuft now ' making will 
show tlio people of Enghmd to be twenty millions. On 
this uomputtttiou, we shall have a borly of twenty thousiuid 
men occtipying the wliole country. Thei-e is not a village in 
England which is not visited by some medioal man; t-his medi- 

< niatcr; ot Medicine ; praKxvd to oLn, p. u. 
U>e Ebejdofndilk at PnKlMal U«di- ■ April, U0I. 



cal foroe penetrates ftU grades, enters the dwellings of men of 
all habits, ail perauarfons — conios to tlii;in, at their request, 
in the hours of their suffering and trial. Is it possible to 
over-estimate the influence for good that might be exerted 
by this perpetual and uuiverMal power ? la tt too much to 
say, thut tba civilization of a people, their bodily and Hpi- 
ritual elevation, might be as much affected by what we may 
call the medical elomeut, as either by the laws or the 
Church ? I believe that this is not an extnivaganb "mi^ni- 
fying of onr own office." T believe it is a tnith which will 
some day be made manifest ; and, if it be even only partially 
true, can any quetitiou be more iiuportant tJian the prepa- 
ratian of this ariuy of medical missionaries for tlieir great 

The general opinion cm the bwit method of elevating 
the practllionera of medicine is thus expret^^d by Dr. 
Abercromliie, whose reputation as a philo-iopher and phy- 
sician is second to none of the present century. It is 
cudoi'sed by l)r. Jolin Thompson, late Professor of Patho- 
logy of the University of Edinburgh, the accomplished 
author of various well-known works, among which is the 
" Lite of Cidten," to which we have had occasion to refer. 
I sh.-il] quote the whole pawsige. Tt is as follows: — 

"Dr. Abercroiiibie, in a letter to Professor Kussell,' 
dated 12th November, 182+, remarks — 'In making a 
complete ret'itvil of the cun-iculnm of nicdica.! study, it 
uppean^ to me that tlie improvement which is chiefly 
wanted, and by which the senatus tuay contribute, in a 
moet essential maimer, to rai»G the character of the medical 

I Mr fntbor ; whn, during his vbolc 
llfb, took tho ilwfrst intomt in tlve 
■ubjciet of UliB luttcr, iui<l van one of 
ttio (urvmoat is the Univonity at YAtn- 
liwgja—vfhtm he wm long k ilistlii. 
IpiEdiml and iwiKCted Isaahc^ tv iimiai 

Induing In obaloe and kIsiiw, befor* 
n itiidunt twKan hln ■triptlf-profea- 
UOuiil Nlu'ltt!!. As I venture to 
liiS'oi in anas meuttK from tte 
Dpini^in of Lbote vham I «tn honitd 
to m|>Mt, it i* l]ie VDni inc&iubeiib 
upon nt lo Btuo tliU taM. 



pi-ofeasion, is some pro^-ision for securing a liberal aiij ex- 
tensive previous education in literature and sdenoc : such 
an education as sliall enable the studeat to commence htA 
medical studies witli a mind stored with scientific know- 
ledge, and in pai-ticular, with a mind well tmined to }wbita 
of con-ect i-easouing and philosophic enquiry. The bmacbes 
most likely to contribute to this purpose appear to be the 
Greek and Latin languages, inathymatics, moral ]ihilo8ophy 
ftud logic, natural pliilust^phy and natural history.' " In 
short, that before a student begins his medical or profe»> 
Htouat studies, he shall take lie degree in artA. This is 
now the prevailing opinion, and such a curnculutn is dig- 
iiiiicd with the name of a lihend education, while tbo 
acquisition of so-called medleiU knowledge is contrasted 
with it as merely proft'ssiouol, and in ita nature inferior. 
Dr. Ahercrombie, it will he observed, does not insist on 
the necessity of these prollniinary actpiiroraeuts upon the 
ground tliat witbout tbciu the student could not uUfleT^ 
stand the subjects of medical study : were this his po- 
rtion, it would be unassailable, except by donying it to be 
V. Jaob. A student must know enough of language and 
of the elements of science to comjirehend his teachers ; 
this is a matti^r of course, but not here the question. The 
doeign of this prehminary course ia, to ti'ain tfie miiid to 
hnhiU of correct retuonlny and phUosophical iti^i/ iry. 
To tliiFi I object, that the exigencies of cxistenee req^uire 
the great majority of the medical profeation to have ae^ 
quired such a knowledge of their profession as enables them 
to turn it to practical and remunerative pur]>0fie6, at an age 
before wliicli there ja not tirao to have gone tlu-ough thia 
course of training. At the age of twenty-two^ we may 
aasutne, it is neccflsary for a youth to be independent of his 
pai-euta. To be so, he must have acquired a knowledge of 
what ? — Of anatomy, physiologj*, botany, chemistry, rargery, 
tlio theory of medicine, the pnicuoe of medicine, materia 



niediea, medical jurisprudence, and many otli«r stiVject-s ; 
besides a familiarity with tli« tecliaiciil purt uf Iiih fulunj 
profession, by iitteuding boi^pitaJs and assisting at opera- 
tions. All this he must know at two-and- twenty, else he 
cannot live. Suppose we allow five years for acquiring all 
the*e kuowledges, and tbat is little enough, this would give 
seventeen as the age at which a physician finished bis liberal 
ediicaiioa — ilie ago at whieh boys leave Eton and Harrow I ' 
We thus arrive at this alternative — either the libeml educa- 
tion of tliu practitioner of medicine must be a mere faroe, or 
it must be prolonged ii:to bis teclmJcal studieti. Ajtd why 
not be thus prolonged ? What are we to understand by 
tlie tc-rra liberal education 1 Ih it not Huclt nn cduea* 
tion as libtmtes, or frees the inindT "He is a free uiau 
whom the tru^ makes free." "The tnind of man ia 
not like a plane miiTor which reflects the images of 
tilings exactly as they are, but is lii-:e a muTor of aa 
uneven surface which conibiues its own figures with the 
figures of tlie ohjeeta it rupreaents," writes Bacon.' That 
i» a liberal education which gives Jreedom to the mind, 
diBdiarging its prf^jzidicfs — it? imperfect rej)resentation to 
itself of the external world, ^ving it at once materials on 
which to exercUe its judgment, and cultivating its power 
of forming a just judgment upon what is submitted to it. 
Will Greek and I-atiii ouly or at all insure tiiJH liberality, 
or liberalizing efficacy t The questicu is not, whether the 
study of the cltutsics is tlie best training for ttie opulent 
youth who passes bis ttnie, from tho age of eighteen to 
twentj'-one or twenty-two, at Oxford or Cambridge. That 
is a subject it would be entirely out of place to discuss 
here; but the question ia, whether the mind of a young 
raan may nob be trained " to reason correctly, and to in- 
quire philosophically," as well by the study of a bone or 

■ Although it vu the b^ at wkicli 
LoiJ Dmod Sainhod kit Vtinmiy 

• AilTmnccmeot of Lttniii(. 



A flowei-, an by tiiat uf r Greek verb, Ttiai it may be 
*so, is proveJ by tlw history of Culleii, Abercrombie, and 
Adams. To Cullen, as a pliilosoj^her, Sir W. Hamillon 
bears teetimony, as we have already iioti<»d. Aberoronibie'a 
works on the Intcllectuitl and Moral Powers are highly 
esleemed at Oxford. Adams, ilm traiiHlator of Hipiiocrutc*, 
was, be^'oud all questiou, the most learned medical man ot 
hie day iu Britain. And none of these men had as some 
would sny a liberal edttcUioii. They oU begaii their 
medical fitndies in early youth, aud had U> 8U[)[X)rt tbeiu- 
selves, from their entrance into the profession, by their own 
exei'iionn. So that it veems to mu tlmt it ia a secondary, 
uid compurativcly indifferent matter, what the subject of 
Btndy is, so long as it affords atiiHcicat stoope for th« 
exercise of the fiicultics of tbo miud, of observation* 
memor}', iinagjhatiou, and above all, judgment ; but what 
is of primary and paramount importance is, tlie spirit in 
which the study is pursued. It h this that diHtinguislH>iS 
between a liberal and lui illiberal cducatiou. That is Uberat 
which the mind jmrsues fi-om love of wisdom for its oxra 
sakv — uob as a bondwoman or sluve, to acquire gain for 
her master ; but as a spouse, a partner for life, t«mpontl 
rtnd eternal. Tliat is illiberal which is pursued for lucrv 
and profession, however dazzling or iinposing : though it 
conduct to the Woolsack or to the Bishop's Palaoe, it ia 
not the less illiberal U' it be pursued for the sake of 
emolument of any kind.' 

But how shall we make the medical a lihorol as woU as 
a professional education ? Hj/ securing proj>er toodWra. 
Education is more than a science ; like medicine, it is an 
art including many sciences. Tlie first condition roqoired 
to make a good teacher, let it be of anatumy, of botany, 
of chemistry, or of any other, the most ]iurcly tochnicnl 
subject — the essential rctiuisite is, that he sliould be a good 

■ I^n|iliTMo<l from Bmmib'ii AdrwienMjBt a( Lwinhig, jt. St. 


man ; that he should feel himself i-esponsible, not only for 
imparting accurate knowledge, but for exerting a healthy ' 
influence over the mind of the youths imder his tuition. 
If every country surgeon had such an idol as John Hunter, 
one whom he could entirely respect not only for his know- 
ledge but for his lofty and disinterested aims, we might 
have more men hke Edward Jenner. 

t r 



Abbrcbohbis, I>r., on medic&l 
education . . . . 

Abgams, tetter of . . . 
Accademia di Lined . 

del cimento 


Accubitum junioris, Sydenham 
Achilles' core of Telephua . 

interview with PatroclnB . 

philosophiies on ghosts , 


— MalhioluB on 

Adam a physician 
Adams, Francis (N.) . 
AdTancement of learning 

£scn]apius . 

a fiction , . 

his cures . 

— worshipped 

AlbertuB Mngnux (N.) . 
Alchemj of Paracelsus 
Alexander .... 

of Tralles . 

Alexandria, the after - glow 

Athena .... 
Algebra, Cardan on 
Alison, Professor, on medical edn 

cation .... 

on specifics 

Almamon, patron of knowledge 

letter of Rhazes to 

Amulets .... 
Aiiatomy in Alexandria 
Aniadns .... 
Antigonus' letter from Dioclea 









. 408 

. 408 


20. 60 

184. 191. 

182, 193 

1. 7. 20 



. 8,9 


. 10 

. 164 

. 169 

10, 11 

95. 105 





95, 96 



Antimony, Guj Fatin on 


22fi, 226 

ABtiochns' love for Stratonike 

VI. died of Lithotomy 

Antiphanes, versea by 
Antiquity, claims of , 
Antoninus, Emperor , 
Apelles .... 
Aper Valerius 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates 

62, C3 




peutical .... 
Aphrodite .... 

ApoUo .... 
— — baptism of 
Arabians, action on medicine 
Arcadia .... 
Arcana of Paracelsus . 
rchnus .... 

of Van Helmont . 

Archiatcr .... 
Arettens (N.) . 

on pnenma 

Aristides, account of cure 
Aristotle, descendant of JGscnla 
pins .... 

thoQgbtsoD vital principl 

Arkas .... 

Amett, history of homoeopathy (N. 

Arts, seven liberal 


not satisfied with Na 


Homceopathy of . 

Asia Minor 
Asiatic race compared with Qreek 
1 I 























BmriuuiTe, lua IndBclrj &SI7 

inflnefiM . , OT7 

in«iuitai . *»S 

ledurat . . SiiS 

na edoclie . , , SM 

ou saiaiBl 1i««t . , Sf»0 

■pirit com pored with 

BaMn 803 

oMltwtcd witbGalTUU S08 

DaVhnn ..... 11X 

Biatteke ..... SSS 

OBUbMOft . . SsS 

deriTmdvn rf iniDie (N.) . SM 

Botelll 32V 

B<>rle .... S17. 31» 

- Ilab«it, blrUiar. . . 233 

«af!j stwliM . . SSI 

VvpM %ivnn 00 . SM 

Bwrliuvv on • . 1S4 

^^— ^— ^^-^^^ on tlio wortli ti modi. 

oioe ..... SXS 

til ityle . KM 

Miiratkl ekmiiMiT SST 

siiupJe medloatlm S39 

__, — (tpodI!« . . SW 

ratiotiftl^ Af qiMiJla 741 

nD«Uda«a. 213 

dlaciplo o( Baoon In 

uwdidno .... fM 

Bronstia i!l$ 

Ills Bjirt^ni . . . 45V 

' recMiU . 481 

Itrnwti, JfAia .... SSS 

ooinpatnl vitk Ru»m]«m aS3 

F]ot«b<!r on , . . Zhi 

hU birth . SH 

on tlw docrata rf Pw»i- 

•leucQ 837 

dwribed t^ KUckintodt . SST 

hiiorgiu . SM 

vpUnt 3SII 

on Jtbilit; . ft41 

- tAlmLiu- Ticv of liii qntca J1I3 

onatiiDttU Stfi 

iOaatmiiin of Itia iloetriBB 847 

du^tr of toddeii ■tlrattU> 

Hon S4» 

pr««?ripUm 9Sl 

BtmtktT 103 



BrunnonuuiB at Qi5ttiiigeii . . 3tt& 
Itnissels, birtb-plac« of Van Bel- 
mont 199 

Jtiicbanan (N.) 
Borgnndy, Queen of 

Cfibania on Edinburgh 

CoiB veBtee . 

Uatendor, rectification of 


Cnmphor recommended 


his gifts . 

— — quackerj 


in cholera . 429 
127. 137 
. HO 
. HO 
Carlyle on dcnth of Klirsbeau . 25-1 

anecdote of Knox (S.) . 18 

Celsna . 41. 44, 45. 101 

Ceramic gulph . .10 

CbooB described by Milton . 1 

parent of earth and hearen . 19 

Chapman, Dr 472 

Charity, Sisters of . . .101 
Charles I., patron of Harvey . 206 

Chwlesof Anjou . . . . 143 
Charlemagne .... 118 

Elliot of . . . 100 

Charms . . . . »5, 96 

Chase, the 151 

Chemikere 224 

Chiron the Centaur ... 7 
Chiftelios on cinchona . . . 253 
Cholera, camphor recommended by 

Hahnemann in . 
Christ, his rairoculoua cures . 
Christian era, quarter giren in 

■ lady . 

orator, first great . 

proclamation of 

Christianity, its action on medicine 
Church, The, action on medicine . 

— as an organization 

miracles . . . . 

centralizing and centrifu- 


its treatment of R. Bacon 
Cicero, friend of Asclepiadea 
Cinchona, CuUen on 

Hoffinann on 

' its effects on mortality 

introduced by Jesuits 






Cinchona, the Countess of 

Cistus, virtues of . 


Cline, Mr., tetter to Jenner 

tries vaccination 


, 87 
, 467 
, 386 
, 366 
. 119 
, 119 
8. 20 
. 5S 
, C9 
. 429 

Clovis .... 

idea of Christianity 

Cnidos . . 


CosliuH Anrelianua 
Coethen, Hahnemann goes to 
Colbert, founder of French Academy 24S 
Coleridge on Bacon . . . 187 
College of Physicians discounten- 
ances Jenner .... 378 
Coltier, physician to Louis XI, . 164 
Coramodus, Emperor . . .83 

Common sense of Hippocrates . 26 

— defined by Sir W. 

Hamilton (N.) . . . .26 
Condorcet on Haller , . .309 

Cooradns 143 

Constantinople . . . .21 

Contraria contrariis cnrantur 42. 57. 

63. 88. 291 

of Boerhoave 305 

Cooke, Sir A 177 

CopeniicuE, system of , . 189. 223 
Corregio . .... 14 

Corry, Dr. 51 

Cos 8. 17 

Cosmogony of Homer and Hesiod . 16 

Cousin, V 129 

Criminals, dissection of . .70 

Crisis 56 

Cromwell, death of . . , 254 
Cullen .... 319. 321 

anticipations of Jenner . 326 

his birth . .319 

definition of life . . 328 

education , , .319 

physiology . . . 327 

schemes . . 320 

on cinchona , . . 329 

nosology . . , 326 

specifics . . . 333 

theoiy . . . .324 

tonics .... 330 

vis mcdicatrix . . 323 


— Sir Wm. II:kmillon on 



CallciJ, theorj of feTw . . .882 

tn>iMlat«(t hy IlahneinAnn . 331 

Cai-l«rc» Uullcr . .SOS 

Cjitlnpio profentanfll tenijeney • 65 

Dne^n 3E<I 

pfil>!iue, l«iiiple of . . .104 

Duioa ud Dcmocoiaa ... 3 

>HcrvclitiLi . , .25 

Duwin'i ZTOnDmix . . 282 

DftvJ>liOD*B Mcouut «f (jOliingm . 31 L 

D»vy 174 

P« Thau'* acconnl ot OoHm) . 141 

Death, th«l>Uclc . . ■ . Vdi 
Do Cami'i letter to Jeim«r . . 379 
DegTw^ Unlrant^ .101 

I>an««les 3 

Dumocrltiuot AMoni . . . S2 

- alocnio th<oi7 of S» 
Dea Carleii ft lualticmftticiaii . . 233 

l^ni . . . .219 

. comiMwd ■ wJtb Demo- 

crilos 29 


tal piiUcsophr . . ■ -329 
' -■ — Iu9 iibjric*! phi1(i»ophy S'JO 

• on obAnLCtioQ i>[ the 

porat S33 

. TortiflM . .231 

tho pivdtiation ol 

■oimal boat . £31 

DUcDTUB tlie Atboiat .18 

D!<i"W I«U«r %3 AntiffOniH . 08 

Dininc-rido . . 91. 131 

DUdd, ll«pworUi (K.) . . 19S 

Dmiwell 7 

DogTUtliti ... 40, 41. 49 
DonMllini Dii milhniMlits . 351 

JhffAtr, rrolMaor, thaory of imall 

>liMM 404 

PiTwUte, Dr. (N.) . . . 4fil 
DiwhsH of LoTTkilM, dMlJi of . 23fl 
Uvdann, Dr. fN.) . .451 

BirUi »Bd liekKii . .12 

Bd(B HIU, Buny at . . . SO? 

SrdMiluini •» . 258 

Ellabnnik, Vni'enit; of . . 321 

llni»i»of«Uij In . . 4.*3 

Bilnaaian, {ilij-ikal . IJi 

Bdontton, ncdicnl , 471 

■ iU inpoiteno* . 47* 

tiUend . . .47'* 

^f|4iui enrtjr tUU of mnlicitie S 

BtiumMB lfi» 

RIciDenta sf Hinioenitea . . 39 

rail bximouni . .29 

Biapedoc]« IT 

Einiurioi .40. 4U, 44, 45 

Bmpervra innpUUoften of mcdldaa li 
t'liiplHcal jihiloMtpb^ , , 181 

Rnitliah awtating (iekimji . . 13S 

Bnt, Pro«id«nt . 2Sn 

B|>i<l«ariu . . , . . 6 
K|>iileinir^ ItiptiMfktM ok . .59 

Bpilepaj the mend dlMon . 93 

EpiloitBO 45S 

Bnaiattaluii 70 

Iiy Piirtio . .327 

^^— ^— on poeura . . .31 
Rnutnna ..... 134 
Knutiia uii Pnnceliiu . . 159 

t'^M^D*'* 9S 

Euclid IT. 74 

Rnclentiiti nutd hj Qtlea . 83 

Kuwhiiw on ]tllet of Abssnu . 72 

Bx|)e<ituat mcilidiM) . . 469 

larthott . . .87 

Experiment part of tripod . . 47 

B]Lp«riiuontuiB enidi . . . 140 

Fxbrii-iiu i>tiiili«d Wf [lancj - - 309 

Paeu» Ilijipocik^ca 


PalsUfl^ dnth of (R.) 

FrsDol, telian of . 

FersunB, Dr. 

Fvnnvnt of Vaa Iloltneiit 

Pemim, action of . 

Feudal igrKlom, riw of 

lifr . 

VUliei im (Boolunpodint (It.) 
Flcwehauuin on cholent . 

at Vicuna 

■ Porba&OD 


FleMb«f on Bro«ti 

Ploui7'« ceoMiMlintl Uirtw? (If.) 

FDtim, Sir John 

' bi**;Bl«Ni . 



Forbes, Sir Johs, od Fleiactun&nn 

Forc« the nltimftte mystery 


PractareB, Hippocmtee on 


Freedom and slarery 

Friend, Dr. , 

Fngger .... 

Qajiu .... 
Galea .... 

a savant . 

an eclectic 

contempt of Christianity 

- - — fonnd nntrufltworthy by V. 

his birtih-place ■ 

his father 

his fees 

bia Btadies . 

his travels . 

lectures at Rome 

materia medica . 

on pnenma 

on the pulse 

— — on the causes of disease 

physician to Emperor Com- 


visite Rome 

writings of 


. 445 
. 39 

. 105 
. 61 
. 117 
. 25 
. 105 
. 160 

. 48 
. 67 
. 83 
. 84 
. 73 



Galileo, his II Saggiatore 
GalloB (N.) . 

Glas invented by Van Helniont 
Gell, Sir W., letters to Dr. Quin . 
Geography, Greek, imperfection of . 
Geometry, Greek, perfection of 
Gerstel, Dr., proves aconite 
Ghibellinea ..... 

Ghost 35 

Latin and Greek translations of 35 

Ghosts, theory of stationary . . 36 

historical importance of . 36 

Ghoul 106 

Gibbon (N.) . . .104 

Gideon, his pitchers . . 130 

Giovanni di Proceda . , 144 

Uoetbe 17 

Glasgow, aniversity of . . . 320 
Glisson on irritability . . 312 

Goils and Goddesses practitioners 13 

Gold, potable 


Goths .... 

Gottingen, account of . 

universitj of 

Grammont salutes Daguin 
Grant, Sir A. (N.) 
Grattan's reward compared 

Jenner's . 
Greece, the living force . 
Greek artists 



— — notions of spirits 
Greeks^what they believed 
Gregory, Dr. G., on small-pox 
Gregory of Tours 
Gunpowder, Roger Bacon's 
Guntnun King 


and the druggists 


. 131 
. 22 
. IIG 
. 311 
. 309 
. 256 
. 29 
. 370 

. 14 

. 14 
. 35 

. 381 
. U7 
. 131 
. 120 
. 143 
, 148 



— at Leipzig . 

— death of first wife 

— defines homceopathy 

— described by Brunnow. 416 

— described by Bichter . 418 

— first uses the word ho- 

Fragmenta (N) . 

goes to Coethen 

his birth 

his domestic circle 

his death . 

his father . 

his first small dose 

his garden . 
' bis habits . 

his Materia Medica 

bia Orgsnon 

his provings 

bis sagHcity 
■ his schools . 

his sensitiveness . 
' his serious diligence 

letter to Stapf . 
' life in Paris 
- on aconite . 

UaliDRmuin on rnnpkftr . 435 

. en cliolun . . . 425 

~ «o eoptroirenjF . . 433 

'■— ■ — «oo»d niuria^ . . 4S7 
ItallwL - ISS 

Bailor 807 

—^Cnneron . .303 

■ linliutii . . . .sot 

■ bu •utj' eMwr . . ftOg 
—^ \um tntveU . .300 

an initftUUiy . .312 

. on qMciliBi. . . • 3IS 

onthuMttl. . ■■' . SI* 

llnmiltOB, ArcbtiUUop of . 137 
Sir M'tllinm, on rejucAion 

of <»ndii]nU« .... 4SS 
— , on Ciiliea . . 318 

llninlet, exolftiiwtionOf . . 35 

Iliu-rf/ .... 181. 205 

M Kdirc nm . . . S07 

hii W>): on CircnUtion . SUiI 

hia eJnmtiun . . . SOS 

— his (ummtaf^ . . 204 

tHdmi Eichanl, on l^lbot !I55 

]Ik4w 133 

l!«rtot li 

Hdloboro htal .... 63 

UwojjWliw '*> 

HunwliUui' MKwcr (o Darius . . 25 
llvrlutl*, Fanwvlnuon . .105 

liefcnles 4 

hi* atttw 1>iintod 19 

KovdiffiM Donpsnil lo PritmtU . 31 
nEfodom an EciitiRii mwUQum . 2 

BcMod T 

]li[i]>ocnit««, liDrt of . . 10 

II calunuues afurai 3S 

d«HOn'lMl fiom Xmnik- 

fjtu 7 

<]co^ri|<tiv« power of . 60 

(ouslii ■*H\i (haJoiri . 59 

lib umIucUv« lacUioJ . 6$ 

IUh serinaa ilUigmoe . 65 

— — injiiriM of liHwl . . 80 

knnwioig! of anatomj. 8t 

noUoM of MDlraricft . S9 
noliuuH of ekwnnto . SB 
nDLiMw uf lihTriM iU 

All *ir*, fto. . . 01 

•in lurlr; VftUr . S? 



Eofeland on BelladonaA 
— - on Hahnem&nn 

Homboldt on cinchona . 
Hnmonrs, doctrine of 

tnisiJtoportion of 

the four 

Hnndertmark (N.) . 

Eant«r, John, letter to Jenner 

Hnsson claims Taccination 

Hutton, Dr. . 


Hygea and Panacea 

Idola Fori 



tendencies of 
■ eiatnples nf 

' illuBtrations of 


Iliad .... 

lona, monks in 

la Memoriam 

Instantia crucis 

Instaoratio Mngna 

Irritability, Glissoo on . 

Haller on . 

Iris described by Dioscoridea 


Italy, early civilization of 


Jack and the Bean-Stalk 

Jaundice of Paracelsus . . . 172 

Jenner . • .15. 3S3 

announcementof Taccination 3S7 

■ described by Gardiner . 356 

■ discountenanced l)j the pro- 


. 403 

. 406 
. 263 
. 30 
. 30 
. 30 
. 48 
. 359 
. 382 
. 322 
. 5& 
. 27 

180. 183 
. 180 
. 182 
. 180 
. 183 

180, 181 
. 181 
. 129 
9, 10 
. 102 
. 35 
. 181) 

178, 193 
. 312 

313, 3H 
. 122 
. 116 
. 142 

. 243 


his birth . 

early training 

first love 

first trial . 

hopes of vaccination 


patient investigation 

visit to London 

letter to Mr. Cline . 

life in Gloucestershire 


Jenner petitions Parliament 
with John Hunter 


. 303 
. 3.'i« 

Jorg, Professor, theory of smalldoses 405 

Josephus 98 

Jukes 114 

Julian 48 

the Apostate . . .106 

Juvenal (N.) .... 46 

Kalianax, reply to a patient . 


Kay, Dr 

Kepler's three great discoveries 

King Gnnter 

King, the .... 

Kings practitioners of medicine 

Knox, John, anecdote of (N.) 


. 71 
. 6.5 
. 135 
. 1S8 
. 12 
. 152 
. 13 
. 18 
. 12 

Lady, the Christian . . .149 

Laodicea 46 

Lapidcs, action of . . . .88 
Lariassa ..... 60 

Latham on Sydenham (N.) . , 254 
Lftwyers, price of . . . . 117 

Le Clerk 2 

Leonardo da Vinci . . . 147 

Lconiiiiui deacende^d from Hercules . 6 
Li.'saing OD Panictltnis . . . 168 
U'tlsoiP, Dr OH ^jdsnhjini . . 274 

L(-yil''n in cimnMl.inn with Boerhaave 296 
Lichtenfels' dispute with Paracelsus 162 

Li nacre 

Limbos, of Paracelsus 

Ling . 

his last request 

-^~~ system . 


Lister on Talbot 

Littrd 52 

Logic in surgery . ... 45 

Lovers of wisdom . . .18 

Love-sickness detected by Hippocrates 22 

Lucius 48 

Luke, the evangelist and phyucian . 72 
Lumen siccom . . .182 

Luther 128 

Lycanthropia . . .106 

Macdonalds, at Culloden . . 6 
Hachaon 8, 8, 10, 11, 12 



MocrocDtm ..... 169 

Mahomet 108 

Majesty, most ncr«d . .165 

Malcolm on Feraian pbjrBiciaiu . 141 
Wnly rrofcSBiir on aconite , . ill 
Mftn, birth-ri^litof .184 

MnrtiiJ, devriptionof a doctor's viait 80 
qii«stiiia of to Galen . 87 

MiLrtiTi rJelKeo . . - . 190 
Mntbiolua on atuiiite . . . 4ti9 
Hazarin, Cardinal . .231 

Mena 6 

Meoettua 10 

Mercury of Paracelsns . . . 171 
Meamer ..... 4R5 
Mesmerism ..... 466 

a harmieaa hypnotic . 468 

ita claims . . 468 

Metaphysice, Greek * , 31 

contra8t«d with 

physics 32 

Methodists . . 40. 45 

Microcosm . . . . .169 

Middle Ages 146 

Milan, population of , . .144 
Militar}' Burt'eimii .... 9 
MJIton, th(iugliLa on vital piinciple 34 
Mifftf^led, jutinn on medicine of , 94 

MochlicuB 61 

MoDasl«ry, the pirden of . 100 

Monk, the, his place . . .97 
MontfwlUer, icouncil of . . 99. 1'27 
MorrcuK OTi iiraiiili' . . .410 

Mortality affected hy bark . . 2.'>2 

nnd life . . . .40 

Mortimer, Dr., eecret remedies of . 2iiS 
MoBcley declaims agninxt vaccination 

373, 374 

on the faciea borilla 

MoDDt Felion 
Mythology and demonology 
of Greece 

Nativities, ParoctlsuB on 
Nature in medicine 

follow , 

judgment of . 














Nerve -spirit 

Nervous fluid . . , 

of Barry 

Nest«r .... 
Newton's discovery 

ca ccBpositLoo of light 
Na-on, fMtherof Galen 
Isii-biiluJij;!:!) Lieil 
Novum Organum, first aphorism of 

(Ecolampadius . . . . 

Omnipotence not subject to defeat 
Oporinus .... 
t>ribasius .... 

letters of Jnlian to 

Origen'e belief in demons . 
Origin of world . 
Orrery, Lord 
Orthodox medicine 


Oxford .... 
Oxymel .... 

Padua, Cardan at 

Pagan age . 

Pallida, cure of . 

PoracelKus . . . 142. 157 

Van Helmont on . 

Parliament discusses Jenner'. 


— votes money lo Jenner 

Patin Guy .... 
on Van Helmont . 

PtttrocluH .... 
Paula, cure of . . . 
Paulus ^gineta . . .76. 
Peareon tries vaccination 
Peloponneaian war 
Perdikkas .... 
Fergamus, birthplace of Galen 
Pericles .... 

rose of . 

Persia, king of, invites Hippocrates 
Peter the Lombard . , 
Petrarch . ■ . , 

(N.) . . , 

Fhiedrua (N.) . 

















































Bait of PanuelmM 
Sklibar^ HuaocUus diod lit 
SwMUi AjonisU* (H.) . 

'* Hum repnobQ " . 
ftkriour, Qviluul or Healar 
84ZDn .... 

Scbulti on Panoalviw 
BeieocK theluBUii; of satnro , 
Sdnilgt boro of 
Smtbuid, tiutlftn's jensnej to 
Swtt. Mkha«I . 

I' Diuui 

Seythuuifi, iliftUM [MKiiIi&r to 
Sectet nmMliae of Ovffmami . 

MoTtinur , 



BeUnu> .... 

&«iiiublo xjiU^n of Hippo«mt«9i . 4T 

Sfvign^ UmIuiui do. on T»1)>ot . 25tl 

Blulmpan, dtacriplionof •ijiag nuui 20 

— ^^-^ idea of ghoiita . . 3fi 

SheTbanrnc, Lord, IcUer to Jeanor . SRS 

Short, hUulila at moruUly. . S62 

SioUlMi vMfMn - . . , Hi 

Siifghnmi 12 

SimiliJi aimiUbus cunuiiiu . 07.189 
KimoQd] . . . . lU. 147 
Slavtti^ Gondttion of in BAme . ?£ 

81«»p, Burdaeh on (N.) . . .467 

ShokuiMTtt on . . . 4C7 

TwQujwn on . • . 4i)7 

Wontraortl on .407 

ill caonMtkun irilh UMnMriam 447 

Snal] iloMS, ]lo)-!c on . . Sl2 

gQuU-poxjln t«aland . . 8o4 

. BuMiit, . .354 

Uoon** hiilarj ol (».) . SM 

— noniUtrD!. . S5i 

SoentM . . . IS. 19 

BoiianMruig . . IdS 

Solon 11 

SofibUtial pUkMoidi; , . IS» 

eaMxito* .... :to 

8o>], Hilkc M 


—' Whytt on 

not ^i>x>> 

Spftrtoii, beli«i in Hereolea 
jirecedonoc . 

. -isa 

. 82 


. IM 

. an 



. s;* 

. MT 

- 2ST 
. 37* 

• isi 

. 8T> 
. 2tO 
. UD 
. U 

. » 

. I« 
. ITI 
. lU 
. «« 

•nerEdUc but ''■^"riifltfl Ml 
ejiitntib of . , in 

fotlower of Ilti>imniM SCS 
bornld of liaiiia>o|wthj' . STl 
hia pnligrue . , SiJ 

laU piaclW . . . 271 
imiuus Nttiin . , SAS 
intiiiuc? with Sojle . SM 

iocko . MO 

m«thml t4 cnre . S70 

SpasUSd nedlaJBo, Baoob m 
Spidfiti^ ^rdnbunon . 
Spmigel, o^wmtlMtt of 
StaU, hi* birtb . 
^— lii« (Jraeljiw 

aecwrt notrniu 

BjatfiQ . 

ritUmila* aaaUituj 

(our metafibjBdjui 

— — aoal 

Slocrck on MKOih* 



Style ol ftaUBlBm 

Sulpbnr of Pamoelm . 

Swtsatiuc atckseis . 

gydmbam . 

■ on blood-bilLing in pl«u- 




matiam . . . , ^ S85 

tpbotionof ramodUi S80 

— -iwdk* . . . MT 

— Hlrange prMCriptlona of 171 

tbe BBgUab Hippocnlca S70. 


iKatmnntitf rhcutnaUioa Idl 

writiitgi nf . . 259 

.S»lln .... 
.Sjlv» SylTanm 

t^rlviua do Ift Boo . 

——~^— hit origin 



SflviuB de la Boe, hia Bystem 


8preDg«l on 


. 2'28 
. 230 
. 2i2 

Tacitus' letter to Pliny . . .151 
Talbot, Richard .255 

Toltbybios 10 

Tartolea .... 138, 139 

Taoler, John 200 

TelephuB 5 

Tennyson, idea of ghoata 36 

Tertullian 70 

Tewier, Dr 466 

Teutonic period .12 

Thales 16, 17 

Tbaraee, purification of the IS 

The "Tempest" .... 38 

The wise 18 

The wise men . . . .16 

Themison 46 

Theodore, ArchbiBhop of Canterbury 93 
TheophrastuB .74 

Therapeuto) SH 

Theriocum 122 

Thomas & Kempia .... 200 
Thompson, Dr. ... , 47S 

Thucydides 23 

Tiber 48 

Tobacco, Bonteke on . . . 233 
Tolbiac, battle of . .US 

Tradition 47 

Trikka 8, 9 

Trinity in Unity . . 167, 163 

Tripod of Hahnemann . . 407 

the, of medicine ,44 

TriTium 101 

Troy, siege of .... 8 

Troth, daughter of time .184 

Tryphon 71 

Turbulence of Midaie Ages . . 147 
Turner 14 


" Unblemished" . . .10 

Underwood, Alderman, dies of ague 

and Bark 254 

DniverMLlchiircL, fathenof . 99 

{Tniv^nitien, rineof . . . 142 
IJnivjraitv stuJies . . , , 101 

Uirins on homceopathy in Naples . 448 

Vaccination claimed for a French- 
man 3S1 





. 877 

. 378 

. 108 

157. 197 

. 199 

— discovery of 
'- its diffosion 

— in Qreece . 

— opposed by Moaeley 

— opposed by Eowley 

— reaches America 

Valentinion III. 
Van Helmont 
a mystic 


Via ui»KliL-:itri.\. a pantheistic 

Vital principle 

Aristotle's thoujjhta 

Vortices of Descartes 

Votive tablets 

Warwick Castle 
Water-cnre . 
Whytt, Dr. . 

vital principle of . 

Wibmer's compilation 
Wight, Isle of, size of Cos 
Wilde, Mr. on cholera 

on homceopathy 

Willis, Dr. . 

on blood-IettJng . 

on Peruvian bark 

Wolff, Joseph, The Rev. Dr. 
Woodville tries Toccination 
Wren, Sir C. 

Zimtncrmanu on Paracelsus 





. 168 

Woodfall uiil KIniler, Pilnlen, Angel Court, Skiuwi Sttuet, London. 



Edit«d, with Notes. 8to. 

" Wmj valiubla facta and nuiny important mggMtioaB are broagbt together In U 
troatiae ; and we niaj add that much of the matter interpolated b^ tlie editon is ir 
dcflerriag of attention, b^ing derived tram aoarow bat little known iu this coimtt; 
— SritiA and Foreign M«dieal Review. 


" We heartll; recommend our readeiB to obtain thla work and stodf it — It tmk 
large viewB at larg« anbjocta, and the iiiuallDOM of the doaea it occaaionallj reeoi 
nienda does not affect the maor important topics on wluch Dr. RovoU eloqoent 
dilates." — Morning Poet. 


pp. 653. 

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ABBOTT'S (TtiT. J.> Philip Motgnte; or, ll»iinrfr«of ■ Chareh of 

CqkU^iI Miwlonarr In >''■ ^^'di AnArteaa C'iaulta. Poac Ito. ti.U. 

ABKRCROMDIK'S iJnua) Rimuititm concerning Um iulellMlnal 

rowtn mul Ui* larwtlpKiun of Tnjib. JVtoMM MiUtm. Fop, tm. 


P1kUoM>i<b; of Ui« Uonl Fe«liDS>< 7W{|U 

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PubologinI uid Pncrtical KoormrehM od Ibt 

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rmtDskt anil Spalii. fiva. S«.Di1 

BCBOON'S (Bcv. J. W.) Mtniflif of P«tri<-k ¥nrtr TjtltT, aatlior 
«r"Tk*Ulal>»f)>«( StoUaad." »«*>>< li<tMM. I^M(eva. 11*. 

BUKNf (LnorCoL.) French nd Englisb DicUoouj- of VvrH 
Ud UlUtaiT ToebalcAl Ttrou. Tkiri ClitlM. Cnmn Sro, IS*. 

BDBN&* (BoaiKT) Life. B7 Joas Oinaov Lockbaks. Piflh 

Milam. Fmjl e*o. 3*. 

BURR'S (0. D.t iDttnicUau in Pncticd SurreTiag, Topoffm- 
fitUai PIau UTvv'njr and ud (keicklBe Riwiid vlibMI iDJtnMDMIl;. 
n^W UWiK Wiulcula. Fnai 6>a. Ti. «. 

DUTTMAN"8 LF.XILOiX'S; a Cri-ical Kxwninallon rf tb« 
Uiai- ing ft a-ia-tmit i>mk Woraa 'tivOf is l|.iii.>r and HMiat. 
TiaimUUd bf bav, J. U. f uauAlk ti/ikUttttm. tnti, la*. 

BUXTON'S (Sir Powill) IftmoinL With Stiectiani fhim bis 
OrrHpondnDML By bll Son. Pnr&ttlt. RVU JUiUan. Svo, 1(U. 

BTRON'S (LotLxtt Life, Utlem, and Journ»la. Bjr Thohu Uoou. 

rkl*^ Cab-mtl HiiiiM. a YoIl Fc«p. Sro. 1%. 

^ Lif<^ Lellem, and Jouroala, By Tmohah Uookm. 

na^* JUMm. tVirtniiU. R»T>iaTn 9t. 

Ptetickl tfor)u. iitrary Edition. PorttaiL VoU. 


- Poeilc&l Workfc 
A«p.9<nv 30). 

rtwtiral Worki. FtapU't Biliiiom. FUtoc. RojralSvo. 9a. 

PotUcal Work* liandbo(di Edition. PorUmit. Croim 

6*0. b. 

- — PwUcal VTorlw. 

Childo Harold. 

CnvQ iro, ai«- 

Childe Htrold. 

Cruita ?vti, 10( Art. 

CWiMt /fJition. Plau*. 10 Toll. 

PadKt Ediiioti* 8 Valfl. Slmo. Si)«. 
ILIustratud wiLb 84 Wood EDgni^ii£>> 

IlliulraUd with 80 Vlsn«U«i en Stwl. 

- ChiMo irnmlJ. 

- Cbildo HuroW. 

- ChiUle ntrold. 

- Dremu. a Voti. 'iimo. 

- TftL«« and Paema. S4nio. 

PttJxl Bdilion. 19ma. 
PortraiL aad Vignettcfl. 
Portrait. ICmo. ft/. 

16B10. Is. 

Miacellaneou*. 2 Toll. S4ino. 6«. 

Doa Jiuui acid Ikppo. S Vols. 2<ino. S«. 

Beautiei. Poetry anil Prou. Portrait, Fcap.8*o. 34. 6</. 

CARNABTOM'S (Loan) Portugal, Gallida, aud ih« BB«<|iia 
Prom Mdiiu nudii durlny > JiMni«7 w lbi»« CnunirtM. 

ntatUHim. r-MtSro. lU. 
Ad<If«i oa tbg 

— RecolloctlsuB of iho Drusca of LeliaaoD. 

Areiinotog; of Borkcbin. 

ODIPBt^LL'S (Loii») Urea of tlie Lord Cliucellota ud KcDpers 

of Ui* Qraat a*al r>r Knulan.). From (b* lUrlltri Tlu^ to Ih* ItHili a( 
Iiord Kdon III 1630. fnHfiA RlUuia. 10 Vali. Crovn Svo. S(.»Mili. 

LlvoBof tlio Chief Juatl'oea of BngUnd. Prom iha 

Itanuil CoBiiiiMt to Ui« Uttxti «f Lord Teatanlio. J^etnJ UtiiMi. 

Skakipun'a Legal IcijuireaveaU Cooddaxvd. 

s*o. S<.M. 

— Life of Lord Ctanecltor Ba«oii. Poap. Sto. Sa.9d, 

(Okms) Hoil«rn India. A Sketcb of ilw SjiUm 

•(0*11 OonninnaL W|iii Km* AcMuac of llM Kktiva* uid Naltra 
laiUtutloM. 5«nri JUilva. Sro. 14>. 

— — ■ — Indb ai it maj bfli An OuUIm of % pnpMed 

0*««nunaD( nail Hnltaf. 9ra. u*. 

(Taos) SborlLii-w of the British PoeU. WliJiaa 

KaMf oa EinnlliA Pu«U7. pMitf**. At. 


CALVIN'S (JnBx) Ufe. With Gxtra<rtA from hia Corro*|iondeacc. 

Ujr TnoMAaU.DTKa. pDHuit. ttra. IIU. 

CALLCOTT'S (Laut) I.iUlc Anhnr's Ilistoir of SnglftDd. 
UiOU ThpaMfJ. VriUi »' WmiIcuU. Pe*^ Srn. b. M. 

CAEMiCHABL'S (A. N.) Qrcek Vuttit. Tbeir FunulioiM, 

- Irn-KiilarhilM, uil Darwu. Aarni BdUiem. pMCdra. Bt.Od. 

CASTLKKEAfni (Tbii DESPATCHES.fron tbefloiBii<«iieepi«Dt 
Dl U>«ciifllel>lc«re*r«r (Iik taia Vltn'>iini<.-kit)tr«*|r]i latlN ckn nl Id* 
Ufa. EdlladbjtlMll'Minaor l^ourouiaat. I'J Vota^era. Ut.tmtb, 

CATHCARTS (SirOrvkobI CgmmoQUriei on tbt ^Vu- in RubU 
ud titnnanr, t8ll-ia. Plana. 8*0. t«i. 

■ Miliur; O^mtions in KiiirrarU, whicb led to the 

Torminallxn otthe Eafllr Wai. &«Bad lUttim, Rvo. lit. 

CATAl.CASKI.I.B (0.6.)- Notice* of tb« Earlj FlomUli Palntats; 

Thali Ll>aa and Worka. Wnodcnu. FmI Sto. 13a. 


IN Cgli.tTUKIAt, At')!!' A. irlrh Ansmma nf tha Hannvn m>4 
Qii.tnof at I'la I'vipk, anil "t tbi; <.'hii'ic (■( lb« GO'll)*, 'tia >i>t- 
bolldliii! Apn, CVilmiiaoo*, CkktkIiIt, ['.I riitiant, Hip{in|rota4ii>i», Ac. 
Hap atid lliu'lratlac*. !!*«. 

CHANTRRT ^8IIl Fbahot). Winged Word* 00 Chunlrcy'* Wood- 

CHARMED ROH: (Tdb) ; or. The Slory of tho Little Bratbar ud 
S1«MT. Hy omi aricvm. PIiim, lemo^ b. 

OLAUSKVriTZ'S (Cau. Vo«) Canptign of IBIS, In Btudk. 
Trw)*UI*d (Vnni tha llinnBD by Ijoiui Ku.aaiiBiB. U»9. ^o. Id*. M. 

OLIVE'S (UU)) Ufe. B; Krt. 0. ILOwta, M.A. I'm! Sro. B«. 

COBBOLD'3 {Hkv. H.}I.) Pkiurm of lbs Cbin«n drawn bj tliein- 

■vliraa. Mllh M FlalM. Ci»*iiSto. Oa. 

COLCHKSTBR iUxi>). The DUrj uid CorrwpoadcnM of Cb«ri<« 

Al'biilt, LunI CoKhoitar. i<|Hak(t o-f Ilia ilmiim of CwiiMai^ lSltt-l«lT, 
h4ll-il bj IliS Son. f«rtr«lt. S Toll. ftro,. i-U. 

COLERIDGE'S (Samdil Tiiloi.) Tablo-TiUk. Fourth SdOion. 
Fortnlt. F»p 9*0. «#, 

(Hkhkt Niuiok) Introdactiau to lb« Greek 

aaade ro(W. nint tfMi,9*. Fnp. Bro. 6«. M. 
— (Sib Johk) o» I'liUic School EducitiOB, vUli 

UCMUI rnfi.riiK ■ tu CluU. TIW Aif'iiv*. t'cap. ftvu, u. 

COLONIAL LIDRJRY. (Soe Hons knd ColonUl Ubntr.] 
COOKEUT <T>(MiRBTii>|. Pounded ca lYindplM or Ecomomr snd 

PFUrEi{«l KnovlvdM MidMUplcd for frltais FkinlUw. Stm JUifBtL 

WciultiiU. Kfap.^o. bt, 

CORHWALLIS {Thi) Ptpen ftnd CorrwiMBdeBc* during tli* 

AniprWN War,— AdmX'UlriiUna In liidia,— Uabin vltli ImU^ and 
Peani^AutMa. IJlllad lir Caakua Rmm. Anibd JuKlua, VVMa. 

CRABBE'S (Rir. Oboboi) Life, Lelton, tad Jonmils. Br Ui S«>. 

PcrVBtl. FcBf . Bvn. »i. 

Poeiicftl Vforkt. CabinH Xditiom. Pt«te«. 8 Vota, 

F(ait.a*a. U<. 


CRABHB'S PoDtiol Wgrks. PwpUtBdUioa. PbtcB. Boral Svo. 7«. 
CUUZ0>"9 (Hon. RoRKKT) Vitit* to tli6 Monaat«rica of tbo LcTKnt* 

' Abkiku asp £»Biior>. A Tctr on th« Frontlen of 

CCNKINOHAU'S (Allik) Life of Sir David Wtrkic Witb hi« 

JuutihIii ftDd Critical ll«Diuka on VTorka uf Art. Portrait. 8 Vola. 
Uvo. *b. 

Pocroa and Sobjb. Now fint rollMted uul 

•natieed, •lib Ulssraplticia .■H<ritra. 'i\taa. 3i.<U. 

(CirT. J. 11,) HicMrj of the Sikhb. Prom 

Dm OTl«ln. of Uia HaUoh to lb* UatUo of Um SnUaJ. JlnW £hiiM. 
Mapa. 11*0. LOt. 

CROKEK'S <J. K) ProgreeuTfl Qeagrapb; for Cblldren. 

SUriea for Chiliiren, 8elect«d from tba Hfalorj of 

UiirIuii]. n/ftmi EUlUm. Woodeuta. IBrnD. ti.Oil. 

BoKwell's Life of Jobiuoii, InalndinE the Tour to the 

n«lirl4a. iivpb'i Aflitm. rartralM. K»fal»ni. IW. 

Lou> HtBTir'a Memoira of the Riaga of Oootfe lb« 

teMOd, rrm Um AtoaMiuo M tti* dMth at Qumd CivaLIm. £dlUd 
vithNoM. aitB»d BfUium. fonraii. 3 Tola. «vo. lli. 

Bways on ih« Early Period of tlia French RerolnUoa. 

BtpiliiltillCiiU t&aqiiarlutljltrrii)*. 8ru. 15<. 

— Illaloriial Knujr on lh« OuJUotine. Foip. 8»o. !«. 

CKOUTTKLL (Ouvma) and Joka Bunyan. Bj Rombt Sontntr. 
CBOTTB'S (J. A.) Notice! of (bo Early Flonub PiUiiicn: their 

LiTM and Woibk Womlequ. pMt 9vo. lat. 

CURKTON (ftiT. W.) Bcmaina of a veiy Anciesl Bc«cnuoD of 
111' Pom Ok^piU In Sirlae. hltbcfto unksDvn In Eiii«[«. DiMaicnd, 
Killlad, aiKt Ttanalalvit. 410. )U. 

DARWIN'S (CHAKLn) Jonnul of ReKftrcbe* into thtt Nfttnnl 
Hiitory and Oa>lo||j«rUiaC«uDirtaBTUIed during a VorBganund tiw 
Wul4. TmiA namMad. f^t»r«. 9*. 

OrigSn of Speeiea by lloani of Natural Selection ; 

or, tha HreatrratlonDr F^roand Baoa* Id Uie SUUff>»fnt Llle. .^rtvadk 
Tho94aM4. Poat BvD. lit. 

DAVY'S (Sta HmrBi,T) ConMlnUona in Trard; or, lA«t I3aya 
dC a f IkllMofilicr. t\fti Jbbnoa. Wa«d«iiu. F<*p. 9*4. St. 

SklinouiK ; or, Dajra of Fly Piahinf;. With some Aeooant 

of llw Uablca of Flibaa lalatiBliiK to Iha gmout Suliaa. .Piwrtk BItHn. 
WnadouU. Peap.Brc. fc. 

DELEPIBBKK'S (Octatb) IHilory of FkmUh Llmtiire and 
lu otlMiratad Jlutbura. Ftnoi tba Twalflb Canbirj [a Use ^raaanl U*j. 
Bre. fc. 

DBNM8' <Ok)Bii«) Ctli« Bfld CtmeUriea of Etraria. F1at«a. 

IVula. Bt«. 42>. 



DIXON'S (HspwoitTH) PcMonal nutory of Lord Bmos; fram 
DOa-BKKARI>'0 ; itia Uoat ExptdiUooi. CctIbIh, mi Eaqr 

Idrtlivd. whether «PMil «imU«mi cr vntr B»»dlo«»HT <» i^nli**- »T 
Li*UT.-Cui., II Lrtt:uixi(>i. niH MKlifitt WoodCFat*. PoalSTo. •>. 

DOMESTIC MODKRN COOKBRT. Pi»od«d on IMncipla* of 
Et(innnir*u4 Pncrlnl KnowMi^, aid i^ptsd fiw Pri'Ma y«n»lH—. 
JVnrXUUifR. WoodcuU. Fckp.Sro. b>. 

IMUGtAS'S (Obh«ui. 8ni Howim.) TrwtlM on tho Tfaeoi? 
TtwiIm on Mllitvy Bridgt*, wd th« PusigM of 

JtlTsn to MIlltiUT Openllniui. rtM SdlttM fUCH. i*i>. tU. 

• KiTtl W&rfkre witb Siesta. Seamd Edititm. 8ro. 

■ Kloilern BjnleoiR of PorUfication, wUli rpecial 19- 

trvfiitr l» Lbn NkVaJ, Llllonl, and tutinul DehoiM of EBflBiid. f UnA. 
B'u. !?#, 

DRAKE'S [StH Fiuiroia) U(^ Vvjiget, and Eiplolti^ bj 8«i lod 

DBUflCWATEK'S (Jouif) IIUiot; of Ihe Sieg* of Gibnitu. 
ine-i;83 WitJt * Hi^'-rlpllnn ud A«n<nit ol tbu QurboB Owa Um 

EarllMl Parindi. Pnal Svo. 2*. U. 

DDDLRT'S (KAKt. or( TietUra to the lau Biftbftp flf Llrndtf*. 

Sramd KdUiam. HVirlMit, dva. lOi.lM. 

T)DFPRItm'3 (l^Kt>) Lnttcn from High Ulltudea, beins mbm 
Acr.mnt'it* V'Fl.1 V>'> latend, ««.,la ISSSL Aw«t WMwi. 
WDodouli. Ft4t jvo. Si. 

DURHAM'^ (AxKtiLiL Siit Pciup) KkvbI Lifo »n*t Scrfiee*. fijr 

C'PT. AilXAVllIHllUM&tT. BTO. ftf. td. 

DYKK'3 iTaoMAS HO Ufa *ad LotUre of Joka Cilvia. Compiled 
ltam«uibearieB«<tm*. Fvrtnlt. pro. i^ 

>'nw Hlili^ry of Modern Eurojw, fKim ibe uLlic of 

<.''«n-tui|)tM|it> ttr «H* Tnri* lo iik cIm* ot tba Wu la DwCilmwL 
Voli 1 A 9. d««. A'^njlv ^MrJy, 

EASTI.AK^S (SiK CiiAKLxs] lulinn Schools of Fnintlnp. Pnm 
Ux 0«nnu> o( ReuiKK. BiHUd.allb NnM».<t tdUum, Utate 
miiHl rmin (ha OM MmIm*. > Vola, PiMt^re. JCm. 

EASTWICK'S (E. B) Handbook for Bombajr utd MidrM, wlUi 

DliKiimia for TmnaUJan, OtBeMT.&e. May. 1 Vol*. ^•tflT&tdK. 

EBCKT'3 (LiOHu) LenTc* from injr Joonial durittf tho SuoBur 

at lUI. /Wrsil KMnoB. PlatH. roal 8(D. S*. Bd. 

EDWARDS- (W. lit Voya^ up Ihe Bivo AmuoD, twiDdieflr ft 

villi to I'ara. pMt Bra. tt, id. 

EOEBTOS'3 (iro». CAn. Puincn) Jonma! of b. Winler's Tom la 
imu; >itJia Vtoiitd NapuL Wuednt*. a VoU. PoKSm, llv. 

ELDON'8 (Low) Public and I'lirale Utv, with Saltction- from 
hti Carrrapnodanca and DMri**. Br Huluoa Twim. nW iJiitil. 
Pnrlfslt. ) Vuk. rentSvu. lit. 

ELIOrS tttan. W. O. C) Khana of the Crimu. Being » Huw 
ndvB ttf an BrDt>aHr'r«B> PrrdarMk ihaOTMt In tteCMit of KAn 
a«rai. TtsMlawd fruia Uia Oannan. Pwt*a. la. 

KLLI3 {RsT. W.> Vlfita tv MadwcMur, including a Jaoraty to 

VU OpIUI, «I(I> do'Ipm of !l*iuriil HlBlorv. md PrilWt CMIImHm 
of ibahaplc. firtli 7'Ai:*>«W Map toi Wondenu. Sro. ]•■. 

- ' (Mrs.) Eilucniioa of Clunctur, vitb Uluu w Honl 

rrkUlnR. Fott»r», T(. a^ 

ELLESMKKCa <LoKr) Two &icpw of Vieou b; tb* Torki. 
TmulAUd n<>ni tn« ti«n9Jiii. roilSrc. Sf. B4. 

Seeonil Cunpai^ of fUdeuky in Picdmmit. 

TlMDithimor 'I'BiiHiiwuruKliacVMDporttioUkD. Fnn UieUnnnui. 
roriSra. s<.&r. 

— - CampAign ttt 1812 in BuMia. from the Gornuui 

ofOuctalCMlTmClauMirlEi. Hip. BYd. tOi. (M. 

Pilsrlmagv, tad eihor Poems. Crown ^^o. 9ti. 

£raaje on Hictory, Bioffraphj, Qcognph;, ud 

KLPHI>'ST0NB"3 (Hon. MoonTsteAHTy HUlory of India— the 
UiniiM) *nil Mkbontdui feruriU. >'oii^U A^Mnv WtMi ui ladaa. 

Mail. &vn. Itw. 

ENOLAND (HiarvRT op) froia tbe Peac« of tTtreobt to ilie ?««ee 

«r VanaUlw*. ITIS-KL U7 UiMJ Maim*. £*|ir«iv MUlUam, J VoU. 

B*<K va*. 

- PoptUar Kdition, 7 Vol*, l'o»l StO; SS*. 

From tlie Pir«t Inraii'Oa hj tbe Hoiaana, down to 

On Uth y>»t "f q<>M>n V1cl4>ria'« RBifo, Df Uu. Habuiik. lUuk 

uuiH. WnttlGuu. incia. fi(. 

Soolal, Polliical, and laduMiial, ia the IPth Cuniiirj. 

BrW.JnuianM. g Vol*. Hvaittm. 13*. 

Sni. !□■.«. 

Bl'SStA. /"i^ rftowMnct Woodcuta. 

P>ata*a. 10a. U. 
EOTHEN'; or, Ti*cc« of Travel btought Home from Ibe EuL 

.1 .N«r JSJiitam. f<Ml 8r», T(. ttt. 

BQSEINKIS (ADMiut) Journat of a Cruiso among th« Iilandi 

•r til* Wnurn Km^lOc, lHcIu>llni( tti« F^jM*, Uid etbcra Inhibited bf 
Um PnlpiMlvn Nrin« lUres, KlaMi. Bra. IBt. 

BSKIMAUX and Eajrliiih Vocabulary, for TraveU en in Uie Arctic 

KpKinriji. Ittoin. i-.6d. 

ESSAYS FltOM "THE TIMES." Belnf; a Selection fton tho 
■.i-naAiT P*nu vblfb btrt tpprAtvl Id that JcvruiL SivfA 
nmnni. I >o|*. Fup. Sro. Bt. 

EZBTEK'S (DiaBop or) Lvtiere to tho laU Cliarlea Baiter, on tbo 
TIixiiIkkImI pkru of ht* noek ''f th« Rutcfto CkChalto Ctivtcti; •lib 
KriL.ukiuD taruln Workno/Ur. UUncr uhI Dr. Uonnl, and e» mo* 
|i»ri* .i( tiia BtidcDu or Ur. Dojla. AcmrfiBliHta. in. Mi. 

FAIBY Rt.vO: A Colleotlon of TiLaa and Stcbibb. From Um 
OtfnuJi. hf J. E.. TiTwa- tUoatnlod tj KioaAa» Dqtu. SumI 
JMilwa. Fnap. 8*0. 

PALENEK-3 (Pkip.) Muek Maoual for the Uao of Panovri. A 
Tmiiiwoa tba Naturaanil Vilne of KitaiiM*. Stmml JUMeit. Vuu. 
Bra, U. 

FAJULY KBCEIPT-BOOE. A Colleclion of a Tbonwutd Talitabic 
aa4 Dtana K«««lpa. Uttf.tiro. b.M. 

PA2ICO(7BTS (Col.) HMtnr7 q{ YncaUa, fnm iU Hxacortrj 

loUMOI«MorilialIU>(;*ii|iir7. WliliMip. sn. IDa.M. 
PAI1BAH'» (Kxr. A. S.> ScteuM tn Theolog}-. SernMCtf PrcMthed 

bufoialll* Valym\<r r,t ijxloti, 8vihS(. 

(P. W.) Ori^B of Loimuago, btMi on Uodcni 

HiiatrahM. Fup, ((>«. 5i. 

FEATHEESTONHAUOH'S (G. W.j Tour tlinmgh ikc Sl»re Suies 
nf .Vnrih AD*n«, froni llw Klvsr fotnauu u T*uil tod Uia PrcaOcfa 
■t Uwloo. llkln*. t Vol». 8*<i. ttli. 

FELLOWS' (Sn ChiiowI TrnT*!* wiil Re.e»rcli«i in A«a lliuar, 
Dinrg p«nl«nlwl7 In Um Piovincaof I.jrdla. Km itliiiim. PUia». FoM 
Bvn. h. 

FBRGUSSOyS (J^n) Pilacw of Klnerdi uid PenepotU 
It«cfor*d t mn Kmif oa Aotlaat An]tTl*a ana Panlui AttUuetar*. 
Mfmieiila- Utk. IS«. 

llanHbnok of ArcbitcMlore. Being a Coucim 

and PopnUr Apniiiit nf Iha DIfli'rrni itiylH pnvalllng In all Ag«* 
and Ccuciiri'M lu tlie Wi>rld. With a DMcripiinii «r Um noM r»- 
markablo umllluKi. fWri* 7'aDi»uaiL WithHU) iUiuuailoiu. am Ma. 

FBSBIBR'a (T. P.) Cftrarui Journof* in Peru, Ar?liuik»uii, 
Uunl. Tn'klBULn, ati4 UeluMliiaun, «tUi DcaonpUMM cf UMbai, UsU, 
and CaiidahBT, &c St^mtJ biliina. Map. Btd. 3I(- 

Ui*M>ry of thw AfgUm. lUp. Sto. 21*. 

PBURRBACU'3 lt«inrirkslile 0<mnsn Crimai uid Trislc Trmu- 

Uud rn^ni Ilia CarniaiL try }jAf IMitr tioanov. Ura. lit. 

FISHISK'S U'Kr. Gkuh«i) eicmcBU of 0«omett]r, for Ui« Pm of 

ScliuDi*. FlftSKJ.I^m, IfWiD )•. «■(. 

First PriuclplM of Algebra, for the Uw of 8cho«b, 

Piftli £4ili.m. IMnln. If (U. 

FLOWEU OAHDKN (Tns). An Emt. ByUiT. Tnoe. Javk 

lUfihulid tiMa lilt "tjiiarlMir Raria*. Fcap.BTO. la. 
FOKilK:^' <!■' a.) lv«I;ina; iU Votnnota, Gstmi*. uid Olad«ra. 

IlluitrJii Ion*, fmi «*». 111. 

FOUD^ (ItiosAM') IfaiidliO')k for Sp&in. Ao'lkloxiii. RoodA, V»l«Deta, 

Calaluiiia, l)r>iia<la. llalllcta, Aincuii, Natarrr, kc. r*trj JJ.Wwi. 
V Voli. I'll*! fro, 3C><. 

Oathcringi from Spaio. Post 8vo. 6a 

FOBSTBU'S, (JuiiH>. Arrr*t of the Five Membcni 1>7 CbMlw Ifac 

rirai. A Cliaptar o( KngltOi Ilium y rnvrlifn. IVti Sro. lb. 

DebklM on tlie (}nii<l Uenionblrnuoc, 1611. With 

an InlndiiDr.irj Caaar on En^itali tntaiinn ruMt (Iid I'lautac***'* *"' 
Todar B'Taralgna. rcxi S*n. Il«. 

Olirer Crom»«tl, Diiulol Be Foe, Sir Kicliud Sl«le. 

ChaiUa Chixr'illl, Stniual r.ala. UloKrapMokl t:«Ay*. 7XW 
CdiiM. l^Ml»n>. 13*. 

FORSYTU'a (Wiurjiii) Hart«nsliia, or the Advoola : an mrtotkal 
Emmf on \be Ullka *D>t l>uilca of lo AdTocala. roai tra. Ui. 

Hiaiory of N»pnleoQ at Si. Helen*. Pn«w th* 

LaUaraand JOTiniaUcrSiallvtiiw)* Lgwi. rartnll and Mina. S Tola, 
Bre. 11m. 

PORTDNR-S (UoDBar) NArraliTe of Tiro TUiU Ut the Tea 
CounlriMDr CnlTra. t*4«nv tba jrtn 1MM9; atih fbll DaMErtpUaata 
of tba Td* riant. n>r<(AIX*m, Wv>d«nU. 1 Vota ■■OM H** IBf. 

CbiDMc luUud, on tbe Ci»t*t. and at Sea. A 

N4mllT«at4Tlunt VWIkullU^a*. WoodcuM. Bn. IU. 


FBA>'CE (HiVToBTOr). From th« ConqiiMt by iba Oiala U lbs 
UrtUiuf Loiuiruilpp*. Br Mn. Hakulu. MU AmmM. WmA- 
euu. link), fc. 

VKBN'CH (Tna) In Al^«n; Tbt Soldisr of the 7i>T«itrn I<e^oB — 
*nd tb' l'd»nr>*r«9f AUd^i-Ktillr. Tr»n«L»t«d by Lady Urn Uouhw. 
Piial Kvii It )M. 

OALTiiN'S (Pa&»n| Art of TnTel ; or, HinU on the Shift* uid 
CniitnvkncM tvaiUhU In WIU Coiinirl**. T^inJ ^ituk, Wuc^- 

OBOOftAPHlCAL tTiiK) Joaiml. PublUh»d by ths Knjni Oe«> 

0ERU.1NY (IlinoKr or). Prom ihe Innuion bj Mariua, to tic 
riMiHit tiiu*. Unih-pUmrfMr«.MA»»iijUi. yj/tmiikTIitntmHi, W«Od- 
niu. lUDm. St. 

0IBUUS"9 (Rdwiisd> HUI1M7 of tli« DceKna and Fall of Iba 

K' ni*M tmplra. A Jtfiw AAaH. fraeWrf ^ bla ABi(ible«i«pfa7. 
LkHifd. ■fill A«Ur,bT Ur. Wm. 8Hm. Hip*. SVolo. ftr^ IJa. 

^ (The gtadoni'a Giblxn): Bda^ w Epitomo af tka 

l>*r1ln,nndriilLlD0<HTorM>n<'li*K*nwtbN0f OMnUCMBinMUIiain. 
JlfDr. Wh ftami. Auit rh>»a»< WooteiM. rot Sra. f i^ M. 

6IPPAB1>^ (Kdwikd) Deed* of Naral Dftrittg; or, AnecdolM of 

iti« DrlHsh H«vr. IVaU. reap.Hro. b. 

GISBORSE^ (Taojua) &«ifi oo A^tculiore. 7%j'nf Sdiliom. 

I'Mt »i™. 

GI*ADSTUNE*S (W. E.) Prajcn tnunscd ftom tlie Liturgy for 
OOLOSMITM'S (OuTiHi Workn. A New Bdltioa Pniit«l fVon 

|l>« Lui HlUi'ia* raTlfad bi Iha Atilluir. Rdlloit Ii]f r*Tms Ciiianv- 
■ah. VICDflttR*. IVoli.sro. )U*. (Marr>T« HrlUihdMdc*.) 

OLBIO'S (Rbt. Q. R) (hnptisn* of the Britlch Ann; it WHhlBff> 

ten ud N*w orla«M. »4Ma<m. IK.W. 

Story of tha BaUta of Watorloo. Compiln) fWini PnbUo 

•Bd AnUMDlleSautCM. pMlSro. 0*. 

Sunllre ef 8lr Robert Sftle^ Brifade tn AffhanfMaD, 

vtU> *n Aecmiiil a'ltif E<^lIun «tid Dtftoot of J«ll»l4bU. Pou ew.Sk. W 

Life of Kolieri Lord ClUo. Po»t 8to. 5t. 

lite aad LeU«rB of 0«n«n) Sir Tlionuu Uunro. Post 

GORDON'S i9i « A iKX. I>Dpr> Sketfhe* of Qcnua Utn, *ai Smdm 

nmalliH W^rnf LHHTSUnn. rrmn Hi'-Grminc, Kuai Ovo. 9t. 

jLinr Dnrr) Ambcr-Wit«ti : the moit interoatinc 

IVfBl (ir Wlidienn (<T)tr kssvB, fram (he U«i»«n. Paal-nro. b. ^ 

Pnnck tn AlKien, J. The Soldinr of the Pottirn 

I.^iMi. 1. Tha Pritaotn vt AM^l-Kadlr. Trnm tbt FfMCk. 

-BeiMrfcahlo Oemui Crimea aod TriaU. From th« 

Oaraua. B»«. ISl 

OODQBR'S <II«f»t) Pomonal NBiraUre of Two To»n' IiBppi»fl- 

maol (n llaruh. Wo-di^iiC*- Phc^btu. ISi. 

G&AKT8 <Aa*RR.> Xutorian*. or tlio t>o«t Tril>» ; conUiatiig 

KfillpiiM af Heallly. Uwlr Uautx-n. Ciib'ina. aiK] CarwinoiiiM ; 
wllhSkctehMnf TrmVHl In Aavlnt Aliyili. ArTn(<n[i.ftDd HMSpnUuilai 

u«lUiatuaUaMer8«npiw«FrBplMi7. ninf AAitm. Fm|i in. Or. 



O&EXVTLLE (Tbs) FAFBHS. B«iaK tlia TubUc aod Prinii 
OtrmpnAeBw crOwiiaOraaTitl*, M* rrttnd* ui4 OMMBponmas, 
dailog m Mnod af M M«n.— t»>>»dtn4 bl« Diabt or FnuncAi. 
BTBns wW Ftm Urt of Um TNMirr. UltMi, vRk Kvu^ ky 
Mil'. J. Smith. 4 VoIb. S*o. lAi. mcIi. 


Br llm BHuurur LoiDuit. Auitt fiJitua, ravl»4bj]tcT.J. EJtvAJui^ 

llain. a*. 
GRET'S (SiB Okoihik) PoKnoaiui MTtholofry, and ADoknt 

Tl«JI(l"D>l llUlurf of lb* \»B ZMdand Kua. Wuwtcuu. Fast 

Bn. lOa-Sd. 
GBOTB'S (QioRdB) Htetoiy of Gn:ece. Prom tba RullMt Timci 

Ia th* duw i-r (he KeiieratlanCBatunipotitry vlih Iha4nalli c4 Alelasilar 
tbaO"Ml- Tturi KUiiiai. I^lrlr■>t■l>■l M*|M. tS'ois. Hn. I<l nuik. 

Pt&ui*a l>oatriiH on (be R>>UUi>a o( ihv E«rth, and 

Ari><o*l«'> Ciimniaoi II, nn ihu r>ii«'nii>, Snmui Uiinm. (•fy It M. 

(U«a) Jlvmvir of tba Lif« cf tbs Ul« A17 ScliefTar. 

Siermd JbttUm. Punnli. )■'•(»*<•. »>.«gL 

GU8TAV08 VA8A (Hiauvjr oO. King of Sweden. Witb KxUicto 
fhUD bit CMmpondmoa. raittaii Svo. lOi. lU, 

HALLAM-S (HukT] CotuUtntloul Hi*iory of Kngkad, frQm ike 

Ansa^tim of Uaarf tha Saraotfc i» tbo Dm(A ot Ot-'t^ Ua 8«am^ 

AvraU BdHmn. & V«la. 8vo. Sua. 
Htrtory of Buro|]e duiing tbe Middle Age*. 

nmikBMiiM. aval*. Snt. »■. 
IntrodooUon t« the LItenry HbU>i7ofKurope, dnring 

tUlflb. ITth, •DdUlliCeiiturtM foird Srfi|i»a. 9 Vols. Sra. tOh 
LlWiiir; Em*}! «ud QluKuWrv, Selected from tin 

[]Ul«rio»l Work*. Complete. CuaUlninir— HwtMy 

of KAglani, — H>4d1* Agva ef turo|«, ~ ■n<l'ru; llUivrj af 
Buietpa. fWnrr BdiKn, 10 Vnla. PnM 8td, fl> tMh. 

HAUILTON'S (JiMHl Wenderinpi in NorUiern Afi'k*, B«gU< 

CrTMI«,U>a<laal*«/Sl>ah.Ac. SvmJ £«tte«. TTaadtaM. INMt B>rab Ik. 

(Waltiiii) HindoeliiQ. GeognnihiaJlj, BUiiaticallj, 

Vti UljlartMlJ;-. Hap. I VuU. 4m. H* M. 

HAHPDKNS (Bieigr) Ph ilotophicKl Bridmoa tf Chrietiuiitr. 
«r tita CrMtlliilliy obMlnol to • SBrititura HavateHes tnm in Vol». 
UdaDMaiiblh* ractauf Maoita. e*a. 9«.W. 

HARCOlTltT'S iZtiwAUt Tkkvov) &keidi of AfAdoln; wUh lUp 
and tnaiaa. T'M »to. Bi. Si. 

HARTS ASM r LI.ST. (QMorUrlf aad AvniaOy.) $to. 

HATS (J. U. DuDMKoxD) W«tmi Uorlwi?. lU wild THW end 

HTva Anlmala. l^l•l flm. l>.fU: 
HKBBIt'S (UiiHor} Fwijii Scrmuna; ftn the T.<ftu>n«, 1Ih> Oe^Ml^ 

« Uw Kftitir. Inrrmr »nm-Ur to iIm V«a», ud ftf We*li-4*7 PaMitklB, 

«tiU rj^tn. I VoU, IVrti Hto I6>. 

Semen* rrcacked in Engrluid S*tnnJ Bttitian. five. 6«.(kt 

HfioM whiten and aiUfited for the Weekly Cbureh 

I'o6li«U VfotkM. . >'iyiA /wiifM*. Portrait. F»p. 8*0. 

— — -- Janmeir tbrAUgli the U|>p«r Province* of India, Pnu 
Oaliattolu Hontlai. wllfc* JminM}' ui Uailn* aod Um Saetlwra Pro- 
elaeta. Itnl/H JUttmi- 9 TeU- i'oU ave. Ut. 



In EngtiaU, 0«^BlU^ Vttitck, 


■ndlulUn. IHmo. St.tU. 

NOKTII GERMANY, H«lw»d, Bxtam, 

tttKbluloairituriuKl. Map. PtuiSvo. UU. 

SOUTH GEHMANY. IU»ri*,AaalrU, fiatibeTK. 

Hm Aiutriui ud DkwtaB Alff. Um Ttt*!. ud a« Pwub*^ Cmb QIb 
Id ihN BLaok Su. Hap. Foat Aro. lOi. 

PAINTIKQ. The OcnDM, Fl^iaWb. ud Dntfili 

IkliAata. UaMd on Kuolu. UlWd »j Da. Waa«». WiMdtMa. 
IVola. Peaiftra. >*<. 

'SWITZiCIELAlfU, Alps of Sktot, iiul riediiCDt. 

PMt 6to. tf . 

PKaNUE. Nflrmandy, BriiUny, the French Alp*, 

Ifca RImn L«lni. Hclue, IIIiariT. knd GusiiCke, I>aii(>hlDrj, I'raTcaet^ 
ttafriMM**. Map*- t^si^rg- ]^>>- 

PARIS AXD 1TB GaTiuM. SUp. Po*l 8vo. (A*«ar^ 

^-^ SPAiy, Andulu*!*, BoniU, Ona*iU, Val«iid«, 

CualoBto,OalLloia, ATTat(iMi,aiid N*T«m. Xaf*. I TcU. roatSva^KU. 

POIITUOAL, Lnww. fcc Hap. Poat «to. Oa. 

KOBTH ITALY, Satdinia, Ocnoa. Ihs Riviem, 

Yaal«L,L«ntunl)r. ■iiJTuicanji', Uap. pMlBrn. tt(. 

CENTRAL ITALY. YuiRtan, Sourn Tomaut, 

and Ilia Parii. Sr^rt*. Map. l^tihio. IU>. 

BUMR ARD ITS EaTiBKisa. Map. Pot era. 9r. 

SOL'TH ITALY, Naplei, P<?iii[>uii, IIvranluMa, 

TaniTlua. fre. Hap. 1>i«i8t«. IOl 

SICILY. Map. Poat8?«^ {fnthePrtu.) 

-^ PAINTING. The Italian BdiDola. Prom tlioOcnnu 

tf KiNii.ui CdlMd by Sir Ck^v-u dsri^Kx, U.A. Weodcsu. 
S VaU. l>Mt»To. ah. 


I'ainnvu IN IriLr. B; Mn. JtawwK. WAalaii» l*niteta. lb. 

- ITALIAN PAlNTRKa. A Snoar BinowrareAl 

Owtunn.*i. R; A I.jiDr. E>UtMlbr Hutu Wovitw. WlikaCban. 
Poatavo. a«.U. 

GBRRCB, iMiui lalamla, Albania, Tbwulr, and 

Macwdonta. U a|u. Pum Sto. U*. 

TrttKEY, Ualta, Aau Mitrvx, C«n7AiiTurartz, 

ArtMnU, yaaapntaaU. *e. Hap*. PaMBro. 

KQYPT. Thcb«a. tho Ntt«. Aloundrii, Oalr«, 

Ub pTTamldi, Jloont filbal, Ac. Hap. PmLBvd. 1A>. 

SYIIM&I'ALRSTINB. Mai)a.2V<»U. Pftat8T0.«fc 


•*«. M<. 

9**. U«. 

USNUAUK^ ^'oiwAT and Svuis. 


UA.KD-BOOK— RUSSIA, TKBBi.Li;tOAMiiPixi.aKi>. lUpa. PoM 

0*0. It). 

. KBNT AND SUSSBX. Hkp. Po»l8ro. 10«. 

SURREY, HANT*, ut<] bu or Wiobt. Maps. 


MattvpolU. Mip. ICmo. Ai. 

LONDON, V±MT xwB Vtmstn. 

A CotDpleM Giil4« t« tlio 

8emnd SJMom, 

VESTMIN3TEB ABDRY- WooJcnU. 16n», 1*. 
XNTIRONfl OF LONDOX. iUfa. Pod firo. 


P..aiavo. ft M. 


Bn. Ti-M. 


Uip. PMl 

Uap«. FMt 8<row 


(ar, OMrfotMirT. VTIrb UO lllt)iir»tioa<. 8 Vul«. Pom 8ti>. 9b. 

SOVTH WALE3. Map. Post 8ro. 


ARCHITECTUUE. In til AgM wd Coantriw. By 
4utm FHMViioii. i^Mrtt n««M»d. Wltb aW UaMMIaM, Bro, 

^ ART.? or THE Minni.R AGES. Bj M. JruB 

IjWkkTK, Willi VlNi DiiinUKIIoni. Sva. tA>. 

URADfi (SiB riL«iiin«) Hono ud bU Rider. FcturiJi TJuvtaitA. 
Rapid JouTDvysMrou ths l':atni>u *nd orcr tka Ando. 

IHMtSvo. Oi.U 

Dflteripiive "Rumyt. 2 Vola. Poat 8t». 18». 

■' Bubble* rrom tha jlniDnea of Nuna. Bjr ftn Ou Ha«. 

XMtAHNn. lOlDO. ft'. 

Eraigruit. /JwiA Brtittaii. Fap. 8»0. 2«. 8d^ 

Sukcn mi Token: <". tbe NsrUi-Wcxurb R«l)wi]r. 

Pwis*o, St.iu: 
■ DetooelM 8Ute of GrMt Britain. Po«t 8to. 'Ot. 

Paffgot *4 Preoek Sticks ; or, Sketcba of PsrU. 

XMtfMttm. tVaU. PuMRto. 13*. 

Ponelfhtln Ireluid. Seeond Bdiliom. itKp. Bro. IS*. 

(Sib Owmi) Pormt Beanei ud lacldatiU In CmumU. 

S-rmI lUMim. PwlAvD. 10*. 

Iliime Tnnr Ihroogt) tlw UaaHbetarinjf Diatiicit* of 

S»fiuti. nwJBAfM. a Vol*. pHlSfo. I3>. 

<3iK Rnutivii) Shan mnd Will; or. Tvo C1iapl«n on 

Futon Auililftrr VwW. AwJ JUiCMt^ AilariMi. F«p. Sta. 4<. 

IIEIRKSS (Tni) in Her Minority; or, The Procr«M of Chvactor. 

Bj Um Aatluir at " Bnnu'a JttdkXAL," S V«U. IKan. IH*. 
HERODOTUS. A New Ungliiih Venian, from the Text of Gais- 

roiD. EJtkil Hllh captnim N'>tr4 knd KMkjj. fiarii llin nt ramiit 

milrett of liif imiallon, liitti>Tlr«l anii •thJioitnphlnl, irlilali liaru ht»a 
cbtklnad I" ll« (itn^rMi "> cuiirl^irtn anit hliKiBlTpMckl dUdiTBn. 
Il)> Ue*. O. Kiwuoaos. wa^Mad br 0ia UuNT Kawu»*(>v >ad 8tB 
J.O. WiLUXoM. ^flMrf jUitHii. Ma|ii *ad Woaiilciit*. 4 ToU. 9n>. 

nEKVKY*3 (Loiu>) Uvmoini of Uia Beign of OoOTSQ thl S«00Dd, 

fnin 111* AccBMlan id ilin rmiili «f Qufun Caroltn*. EillUil, «(lb Mom 
brMD-CkOKKA. SiamJUauM. I\iftr*lt. SVcil^aro. Sli. 

IIESSP.Y (RtT. Dr.). Sandi;— II« Orig:iB, IIiat«T7, nod rn*cnt 
oblivion*. RvIdjc itn U«in|>Uii Leclurta tat MM. Stamd jSttMxni. 
BVT>. IM. 

HICKUAyS (VIx.) TreatUe on the Lair tad PftcUoe vf ITavol 

Conrti'lUnlaL Sto. IM.UL 

HILLAItD'SCa. a)SIxUoutli«i]iIUlr. 2ri>1ji. PmISto. ]S«. 

HOLLAXD'S fRxv. W. R) Pwilms and Hjmnii. Klecled uid 
■ilapUdtftUMi-utciaiSoUaiiltiaiorUitClwnl). Tiiri B**k». Mao. 

IIOLLWAY'd (J. 0.) UonUi in Norwrnf. F<»p. 8vo. 3«. 
U0KE7 BBS (Tux). An Eim.t. Bj- Rbv. Tnoiua Jmn. 

tt«pnaltdrroinlka"qiwr»rlT BwrlcT." rwp. 6T4. U. 

HOOK'S (Oris) Churijh DicUoiiarx. fn^luh HdUion. 8to. 16«. 

— -^ — — I>lscaumi on tlie Relic^^oii ControvaniM of tbft Du, 
Bto. »«. 

- (TnitoMu) Ufe. Djr J. Q. LocxBiiitT. 

" QuATIorljr Karlaw."*. L*. 

lUprloUd liram tbo 

nOOKElI'a (Dr. J. n.} Himaltvan Jonnwl» ; or, Xote* ofan Oriantal 

Nuiiimllhl In BoncBl. Iho dIkklB BiiJ N*p>l UlmabrM, Um KIimI* 
lla<iDulni, Ac. JMmrf HUlnt. W<B4e-iia. S«oti. rwlSro. 1th. 

TTOOPER'S (Ltnrr.) Ton Moatlu unoti!; tho TcnLi of the Tinki : 

rrutlttlu. Pitum,»n^. 14*. 

UorZ'S (A. J. nuwou) EB|;ll>h Cuhnln] of (be Kiaota-nlli 

HORACE (Works of). Ediud b; Du» Uiuiix. 
Woofeuu. CiwnRn. su. 

Wltb 900 

— (Life ftft. Br DtAS MruiAit. Woodcal*, uiil eolurtd 

Borkltnt. Bvo. 9*. 

Bj 1 Ladt. Feap. Sto, 


IIOCSTOUN'S (Hm.) Tuht Vofigv to Texu ul the Gdf rf 

Hiiko. PlatcA 3 Tola. PoalSro. »>. 



■d*si«d tor >U claMM ti Kt><l<n. FduBts. ruUlatoi In PmIk M 

f,« TTio«e'Wiit*»»ltIiB • »re In Ttow ftrfa-J 


■THE BIBLE 1!4 HPAIN. Df Oboui Boiaow. 
•JOURNALS IK IXDIA. Br Biioor llaam. 4 IWta. 

TRAVr-LS IN THR imi.Y LAND. D; Ctrruii lur ui4 HAMtn. 

MOKOCCO AND TUE MOOnS. Br J- D>'n»(i*n' H^T- 


^EW SOUTH WALK!*. By Mm. Ms""nrTU. 


■nCETCllBS OF PEKaiA. By tSiaJoim M*I«Oul. 
•0IP8IES OF SPAIX. OfOtaaia* Boninw. 

Itjr llRKKAKIf Mll.Tlt.IA. 4 I'trU. 

UlSSIONARV I.1KK IN CAKADA. Bf a%v. 3 . Jinan. 

•rtlOQLAND BPOItTS. Pj C«i.\m 9t. Jo»w. 

•I]AT1{I:K1N<)S rKUM SrAtX. Dr Ricn^ui ('oan. 


•POSTUQAL AM>OALLICIA. Br Lotts Cjuwautox. 

DUBII LIFE IN A118TKAI.IA. Hy 11. \V. lUruikTll. 



TIIU BIEOEOF OIBRAl-TAR. Uf Jonx H»i«iw4im. 

THE AMttr.R. WITCH. Ilj I.JlDV Ilti'* OoKirOH. 


LIl'-KoK EIR l-RA»<:i» DRAKK. Br -loini BAmm. 

TUE rtirNCU IN' ALOICnS. BjLidt DmrOoBMHt. 


LlToNIAM TALEIi. lly k Laot. 


•iTORV Ol* ll.\TTLE OF WATKIILOO. Bj lUv. O. R. flLna. 

THE WAYHine CROSS. DrCirT..Mti.»*x. 

CAMPAlQSfl AT WA8UIK0T0S. By ««v O.B. Oun). 
•LIFE OF LORD CLtVE- Br I1»T. 0. ». Gl.aio. 

•IllBTURICAL EffSATS. Br Lou Uxiuic. 

•LirR OP or.NF.RAi, Mt-KhO. PyKar.O.lLtitMO. 

HCUE (Till STOtiiD^t). A Hi*lor7 of Eoslsnd, tnm tb« In- 

▼■■IOC of J(itl<iaC«!a*r l-i Ilia Ravolullan a' Itas. By UivtP llfKB. 
Corrncllrig bl* urtnri, and oaniiousd to lS3tl> P\/liuiUli TJUnuoKl. 
Wvslcuu. FottBm. 

HCTCHIN'SOy (Col.) on tha most «xp<d[UaiM, ovrUin, ud 

vur UatboddTUax-fl.-eiklilX- rUn(Ju(i<<M. WtnHloiti. fvil 8*0. •*. 

HUTTON'S (H. E.) rriaclpU Orjeca,; &a InlroduoUgn to the Study 
iif OthK. Cninpralwnitlnff Gnmiatr. llalTlui, ».aA RK«rela»4kMk, 
Willi Vuo«biilan>ai. AerndSUIimn, IIohi. Sj, 

IRBT AND IfANai.BS' Trarels In K^Tpl, NubU, Bjri*, uid 
1lu1i1.1l7i.u1d. I'osttn-o. 1U.&/. 

JUIKS' (]{Kr. Tuovtt) VmUtn t>T Mm?. AX«w TraniiUtlon, vHh 

Hitlorlnl Pr^r-'if Willi IIV) W >i>.lcnla b/ Tkiaixi. ud WuLI'. 
INir^-ft^kM I'tooMMrf. Pxltlvo. •i*.e4. 

JAUESON'S (Mrs.) ^rly lullu 1'iiluura, froin Cimftbae t« Dm- 

MR", knd ll>a l>n>|{rMi at I'WnUBf la IMj. Jttm MditUm. Wllb 
Wu<hIi;iiI>. PhUiStii- l!t. 

JEBVlS-a (Capt.) Uwiiu] of OpenUooi in tlM ?i«ld. Totl 8ro. 
9m. u. 

JESSE'S (EMTiftD) ViiiU to BpoU of Iiiler«ft in tb6 Ticinitf of 
Wlii<tK"t Biiil HUM. Woudeuta. PoMSra, lb. 

Scene* tnd OccnpaUona of Country Lltt. TJurd EitUian. 

Woodcnu. Fnp. Bto. 0*. 

G1c4[iiiiigB in Ifstunl Uisbarj. Eigltih AViU'on. TcAjt, 

([t«L 6*. 

JOHNSON'S pR. SAMOBt) Lire. Bj J«neB Boavell. iDclQding 

tlla Toiir tr> lb* UabtidlH. KHItod h? Ih« Uie Mk CkiUS. /Voplf'f 
£iltHH. PortnlU. Hof»} 8ro. 10*. Mnril ; lit. eluUh 

™ Lirta of tli« inoat ontiiMtit EngrUb Poot*. F.diUd 

br Petu CiniiKiiMiii. S roU. <««. U>. U. (Mnrrat'* BrIUih 

JOHNSTOK'S (Wm.) Englind : Bocinl, Politictl, ud iDdtutrUI, 
InlfflhCantUTj. 1 Tola. FuilSra. 1^ 


Poatava. fi.M. 

JOTETT (UcT. II.) on St. PAnl'M Kpixtlei to th« TfawtlODUiiu, 
G*UU*«i^4adli«au>i. £«nul£>l>riiia. 2 V«t«. 8r*. S}^. 

JONES' (Rer. U.) Utorai? Koiunin*. With > Pieratorr Kvtico. 

Df Kdt. W. VTmwii.i, OD. RirUiiK. »•«. I*.. 

KEN'S (Duuor) Uh. B7 A Latkak. 5awm<j Kflition. PortralL 
tVoU. B*n. Ui. 

ExiMMition of tb* ApoiUea' Creed. Eslncted tttm hit 

"ftMllMofOiTiiMl^va." Ktw auiin. Fm|>. 1j U. 

ApproMth to Lh« H0I7 Altar. ExlncUd frum kli * Unniul 

«f Pr«r«r - Md " FracdM •( DI«1m Lsm." Ktw Sdktm. reap. »<r«. 


KINO'S (Urv. S. W.) lUIlui VMeyn of the Alt>«:» Toar 
lhniu(li all Ifaa BDiniitlla knd tta^ tni<i'tn%et "Vtis" ot Marttieni 
Jtadmnnl. Illu*mil<m4. Crovn^t*. >^. 

— — (Hit. C. W.) .Antiqno finnx ; their Origin, D»», mai 
ValiM.a< liiterpnunof Aii'IbsI Ulatorj, uid u Ill«iUmllTae4 Ancl«M 
An. lUiKlratitna fi«o- KU. 

KINO EDWARD VItr's Latitt Graninu; or, an InCroducl inn 

tolhalAtliiTaiiRH, lor Uial'MOfStbonb. F\/len>l3k JiiMcm. ISiao. 

FInt Lfttin Book ; or. Om Aoddoaea, 

flrcMi. uK Prnto'T, witk •■ Esrtiik TnnslBUan lor tte UMof J«sU* 
CUmm. /"mmA lUtbK. tttmo. b.U. 

KiyOI.ARCS (A. W.) niitOTT oF the Wir m tlie CritnM. 
BaMd ablHlT apM iIm PrtvaM Pmmm af Piuld II (tnlial t^i RaxIm. 
■ad olkw auttealle BiatfrUI*. Vuli. 1. ■nil It. >t>a. /■ HM fut nrl m. 

KKAfrS IJ. A.> Roirluh Root* >nil RamiftoiUoiis ; or, lli« 

D»TliBtlaa ani UMUlagofDlTvim Wnxl*. Fay. lira. 4*. 

KUOtiRR'S lUliitn Sehoala of Painting. Kdilcd, n-'iUi Not«^ by 

8n CiiULU E«iTi.A«i. nw fcrxfaiH. IVooitcnu. 3Voli. I*c«i 

Sra. 3M. 
Gornan, Dutcli, tod FlemiBh Schoali nf Pidntiiif. 

E4lto4. «1tb !i»tM br !>■■ Wuauf. Aism4 JUUuo. W««Mia. S 

Vola. PiMSto. i4>. 

LABARTE'S (ftl. JCLU) Hnadboak of tho Artaof UieHiadltAgw 

■&1 nonalMinc*. Willi SO0V<Mdeuta. Sro. lilt. 
LABORDB'S (iaow ds) Journey through Anhi« Potnm, to Monnl 
VInal. Biiil Ilia Kvuvatad Cllf of PMM^—Uia Edam of UN FrvklMMi. 
5u»4A:i.U.>*. WltbPUUa. Bva. lAi. 

LANE'S (C W.) Uamwn and dntonie dF iht Modem Ecrptlaat. 
A .Vf« JUMm, with AddlUOM Md IntproTMftvn** bj ibe AbjImf. 
Cdltbt tgr B. BrmBT Pimu. WtHdcnia. ^a Ui. 

LATIN ORAUHAB (Kna B»**u> Tlra'a). For Ika Um oT 

Schnoli. ^/tMMl UlliM. Itao. Sf-Cil. 

— ~ Pint Book (Ktm E»W4itD VfTn'?); or, ibe AceUai«e, 

STnux. and PninMlri with Boillah Trw^UiiM ffC JuU«ir Hirnn. 
rmai\ K-titioH. 13na. b.M. 

LATABD'3 (A. H.) NInereb odH Its QemAinti. Dcing a Nar< 
nllTa or BeaMKbM Mid l>lMiitsriH amMat Ida Ralna af AaaTrla. 
Wltb ■■ Aeennrnt of ih* Cbaldnn ChriMtowi of Kurlllaai lli« 1'eMJ<«. 
«r Par U -w twhl ppana ; awl an I{«i]iilr7 )i>lo Uir Uaiiocn and Aii* i-l 
tha Annhml Aaafrlant. £iMA CiJttM. PUlw ud W«9<l«ilU. ■ Vuli. 
Bra. Mt. 

— ' — — ^ NInoveh and BiibTton ; being Uio Rwnlt 

M ft 8«eoiid EXfMltlnn U AwtHa. ^»ri