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[" Wee have forbidden the severall Faotoryes from wrighting words in 
this languadge and refrayned itt our selves, though in bookes of ooppies 
we feare there are many which by wante of tyme for perusall we cannot 
rectefie or expresse."— Sm^t Factors to Comi;, Feb. 26, 1617: L O. Beoords : 
O. C. No. 450. (Evidently the Court had complained of a growing use of 

ovofJMTa dkX,* ©cm Ttva, icai Ka$* Ikootov €9v(k l8i(afiaTa, dSvvara cfe 
dXXo I^Ovos 5wl <l>ii}V7Js (rrjiMivtarOat." — lAMBUCHUS, De 2fysUrv^, vii. cap. v. 

%.e. ''For it is by no means always the case that ti^nslated term» 
preserve the original conception ; indeed every nation has Sqjpe idiomatio 
expressions which it is impossible to render perfectly in the language of 

''As well may we fetch words from the Mhiopians, or. East or West 
Indians, and thrust them into our Language, and baptize all by the name of 
English, as those which we daily take from the LcUine or Languages thereon 
depending; and hence it cometh, (as by often experience is found) that 
some English-men discoursing together, others being present of our own 
Nation .... are not able to understand what the others say, notwith- 
standing they call it English that they speak."— R. V(ERSTKGAN), Restitution 
of Decayed Intelligence, ed. 1673, p. 223. 

" Utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris, 
Nee manet ut fuerat, nee formas servat easdem, 
Sed tamen ipsa eadem est ; VOCEM sic semper eandem 
Esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras." 

Ovid, Metamorph, xv. 169-172 (adapt.). 

"... TaJcelMsasagoodfare-weUdmugHofTSjig\\Bh.'lrL^SA^ 
To the Header (be/ore Ten^^s Relation of East India), ii. 1463 (misprinted 1464).. 

"Nee dubitamus multa esse quae et nos praeterierint. Homines eninj 
sumus, et occupati officiis; subsicivisque temporibus ista curamus." — C| 
PUNH Secxjndi, Hist, Nat. Prae/atiOy ad Vespasianum, 

" Haec, si displicui, fuerint solatia nobis : 

Haec fuerint nobis praemia, si placui." 

Martialis, Epigr, II. xci. 





•• I' 




p.. s-f 

[Dedication to Sir George Udny Yule, CB,, K.O.SJ,] 

G. U. Y. 









H. Y. 


The objects and scope of this work are explained in the Intro- 
dactorj Bemarks which follow the Preface. Here it is desired to 
say a few words as to its history. 

The book originated in a correspondence between the present 
writer, who was living at Palermo, and the late lamented Arthur 
BuBNSLL, of the Madras Civil Service, one of the most eminent of 
modern Indian scholars, who during the course of our communica- 
tions was filling judicial offices in Southern and Western India, 
chiefly at Tanjore. We had then met only once — at the India 
library ; but he took a kindly interest in work that engaged me, 
and this led to an exchange of letters, which went on after his 
return to India, About 1872 — I cannot find his earliest reference 
to the subject — he mentioned that he was contemplating a vocabu- 
lary of Anglo-Indian words, and had made some collections with 
that view. In reply it was stated that I likewise had long been 
taking note of such words, and that a notion similar to his own 
had dso been at various times floating in my mind. And I pro- 
posed that we should combine our labours. 

I had not, in fact, the linguistic acquirements needful for 
carrying through such an undertaking alone; but I had gone 
through an amount of reading that would largely help in instances 
and illustrations, and had also a strong natural taste for the kind 
of work. 

This was the beginning of the portly double-columned edifice 
which now presents itself, the completion of which my friend ha^ 
not lived to see. It was built up from our joint contributions till 
his untimely death in 1882, and since then almost daily additions 
have continued to be made to the material and to the structure. 
The subject, iudeed, had taken so comprehensive a shape, that it 
was becoming difficult to say where its limits lay, or why it should 



ever end, except for the old reason which had received such 
poignant illustration: Ars longa, vita brevis. And so it has 
been wound up at last. 

The work has been so long the companion of my horae subst- 
dvae, a thread running through the joys and sorrows of so many 
years, in the search for material first, and then in their handling and 
adjustment to the edifice — for their careful building up has been 
part of my duty from the beginning, and the whole of the matter 
has, I suppose, been written and re- written with my own hand at 
least four times — and the work has been one of so much interest 
to dear friends, of whom not a few are no longer here to welcome 
its appearance in print,* that I can hardly speak of the work 
except as mine. 

Indeed, in bulk, nearly seven-eighths of it is so. But Burnell 
contributed so much of value, so much of the essential ; buying, in 
the search for illustration, numerous rare and costly books which 
were not otherwise accessible to him in India ; setting me, by his 
example, on lines of research with which I should have else pos- 
sibly remained unacquainted ; writing letters with such fulness, 
frequency, and interest on the details of the work upi to the 
summer of his death ; that the measure of bulk in contribution is 
no gauge of his share in the result. 

In the L^e of Frank Buckland occur some words in relation to 
the church-bells of Eoss, in Herefordshire, which may with some 
aptness illustrate our mutual relation to the book : 

"It is said that the Man of Rosa" (John Kyrle) "was present at 

the casting of the tenor, or great bell, and that he took with him an old 

silver tankard, which, after drinking claret and sherry, he threw in, and 

had cast with the bell." 

John Kyrle's was the most precious part of the metal run into the 
mould, but the shaping of the mould and the larger part of the 
material came from the labour of another hand. 

At an early period of our joint work Burnell sent me a fragment 
of an essay on the words which formed our subject, intended as the 
basis of an introduction. As it stands, this is too incomplete to 
print, but I have made use of it to some extent, and given some 
extracts from it in the Introduction now put forward, t 

* The dedication waa sent for press on 6th January ; on the 13th, G. U. Y, 
departed to his rest. 

t Three of the mottoes that face the title were also sent bv him. 


The alternative title (ffobson-Jobson) which has been given to 
this book (not without the expressed assent of my collaborator), 
doubtless requires explanation. 

A valued friend of the present writer many years ago pub- 
lished a book, of great acumen and considerable originality, which 
he called Three JEssaySy with no Author's name ; and the result- 
ing amount of circulation was such as might have been expected. 
It was remarked at the time by another friend that if the volume 
had been entitled A Book, by a Chap, it would have found a much 
larger body of readers. It seemed to me that A Glossary or A 
Vocabulary would be equally unattractive, and that it ought to 
have an alternative title at least a little more characteristic. If 
the reader will turn to Hohson-Johson in the Glossary itself, he 
will find that phrase, though now rare and moribund, to be a 
typical and delightful example of that class of Anglo-Indian 
argot which consists of Oriental words highly assimilated, perhaps 
by vulgar lips, to the English vernacular ; whilst it is the more 
fitted to our book, conveying, as it may, a veiled intimation of 
dual authorship. At any rate, there it is ; and at this period my 
feeling has come to be that such is the book's name, nor could it 
well have been anything else. 

In carrying through the work I have sought to supplement my 
own deficiencies from the most competent sources to which friend- 
ship afforded access. Sir Joseph Hooker has most kindly 
examined almost every one of the proof-sheets for articles dealing 
with plants, correcting their errors, and enriching them with notes 
of his own. Another friend. Professor Robertson Smith, has done 
the like for words of Semitic origin, and to him I owe a variety of 
interesting references to the words treated of, in regard to their 
occurrence, under some cognate form, in the Scriptures. In the early 
part of the book the Eev. George Moule (now Bishop of Ningpo), 
then in England, was good enough to revise those articles which 
bore on expressions used in China (not the first time that his 
generous aid had been given to work of mine). Among other 
friends who have been ever ready with assistance I may mention 
Dr. Eeinhold Eost, of the India Library; General Robert 
Maclagan, E.E. ; Sir George Birdwood, C.S.I. ; Major- 
General E. H. Keatinge, V.C, C.S.I. ; Professor Terrien 
DE LA Couperib; and Mr. E. Colbornb Baser, at present 
Consul-General in Corea. Dr. J. A. H. Murray, editor of the 


great English Dictionary, has also been most kind and courteous 
in the interchange of communications, a circumstance which will 
account for a few cases in which the passages cited in both works 
are the same. 

My first endeavour in preparing this work has been to make it 
accurate ; my next to make it — even though a Glossary — ^interest- 
ing. In a work intersecting so many fields, only a fool could 
imagine that he had not fallen into many mistakes ; but these 
when pointed out, may be amended. If I have missed the other 
object of endeavour, I fear there is little to be hoped for from a 
second edition. 


5th January 1886. 


The twofold hope expressed in the closing sentence of Sir Henry 
Yule's Preface to the original Edition of this book has been amply 
justified. More recent research and discoveries have, of course, 
brought to light a good deal of information which was not 
accessible to him, but the general accuracy of what he wrote 
has never been seriously impugned — while those who have 
studied the pages of HcAson-Jobson have agreed in classing it 
as unique among similar works of reference, a volume which 
combines interest and amusement with instruction, in a manner 
which few other Dictionaries, if any, have done. 

In this edition of the Anglo-Indian Glossary the original text has 
been reprinted, any additions made by the Editor being marked 
by square brackets. No attempt has been made to extend the 
vocabulary, the new articles being either such as were accidentally 
omitted in the first edition, or a few relating to words which 
seemed to correspond with the general scope of the work. Some 
new quotations have been added, and some of those included in 
the original edition have been verified and new references given. 
An index to words occurring in the quotations has been prepared. 

I have to acknowledge valuable assistance from many friends. 
Mr. W. W. Sesat has read the articles on Malay words, and has 
supplied many notes. CoL Sir R. Temple has permitted me to 
use several of his papers on Anglo-Indian words, and has kindly 
..Bent me advance sheets of that portion of the Analytical Index to 
the first edition by Mr. C. Pabtbidoe, which is being published 
in the Indian Antiquary. Mr. R S. Whitewat has given me 
numerous extracts from Portuguese writers; Mr. W. Fostek, 
quotations from unpublished records in the India Office ; Mr. W. 
IsviNB, notes on the later Moghul period. For valuable sugges- 
tions and information on disputed points I am indebted to Mr. 


H. Bevbridge, Sir G, Birdwood, Mr. J. Brandt, Prof. E. G. 
Browne, Mr. M. Longworth Dames, Mr. G. E. Dampier, Mr. 
Donald Ferguson, Mr. 0. T. Gardner, the late Mr. E. J. W. Gibb, 
Prof. H. A. Giles, Dr. G. A. Grierson, Mr. T. M. Horsfall, 
Mr. L. W. King, Mr. J. L. Myres, Mr. J. Platt, jun., Prof. G. 
U. Pope, Mr. V. A. Smith, Mr. C. H. Tawney, and Mr. J. Weik. 


l\th Noveniber 1902. 



Dedication to Sib George Yule, C.B., K.C.S.I. ... v 

Preface .......... vii 

Preface to Second Edition ....... xi 

Ihtboductory Remarks ....... xv 

Note A. to do. . . . . . xxiii 

Note B. „ . . . . . . XXV 

NoTA Bene— IN the Use of the Glossary— 

(A) Regarding Dates of Quotations . . • . . xxvi 

(B) Regarding Transliteration xxvi 

Fuller Titles of Books quoted in the Glossary . . . xxvii 

Corrigenda xlviii 


INDEX 987 



Words of Indian origin have been insinuating themselves into English 
ever since the end of the reign of Elizabeth and the beginning of that of 
King James, when such terms as calicoy chintz, and gingham had already 
effected a lodgment in English warehouses and shops, and were lying in 
wait for entrance into English literature. Such outlandish guests grew 
more frequent 120 years ago, when, soon after the middle of last century, 
the numbers of Englishmen in the Indian services, civil and military, 
expanded with the great acquisition of dominion then made by the Company ; 
and we meet them in vastly greater abundance now. 

Vocabularies of Indian and other foreign words, in use among Euro- 
peans in the East, have not unfrequently been printed. Several of the 
old travellers have attached the like to their narratives ; whilst the pro- 
longed excitement created in England, a hundred years since, by the 
impeachment of Hastings and kindred matters, led to the publication 
of several glossaries as independent works ; and a good many others 
have been published in later days. At the end of this Introduction will 
be found a list of those which have come under my notice, and this might 
no doubt be largely added to.* 

Of modem Glossaries, such as have been the result of serious labour, 
all, or nearly all, have been of a kind purely technical, intended to facilitate 
the comprehension of official documents by the explanation of terms used 
in the Revenue department, or in other branches of Indian administration. 
The most notable examples are (of brief and occasional character), the 
Glossary appended to the famous Fifth Report of the Select Committee of 
1812, which was compiled by Sir Charles Wilkins ; and (of a far more vast 
and comprehensive sort), the late Professor Horace Hayman Wilson's Glossary 
of Judicial and Revenue Terms (4to, 1855) which leaves far behind every 
other attempt in that kind.t 

That kind is, however, not ours, as a momentary comparison of a page 
or two in each Glossary would suffice to show. Our work indeed, in the 
long course of its compilation, has gone through some modification and 
enlargement of scope ; but hardly such as in any degree to affect its dis- 
tinctive character, in which something has been aimed at differing in form 
from any work known to us. In its original conception it was intended 
to deal with all that class of words which, not in general pertaining to the 
technicalities of administration, recur constantly in the daily intercourse of 
the English in India, either as expressing ideas really not provided for by 

* See Note A. at end of Introdaction. 

t Profenor Wilaon's work may perhape bear re-editing, but can hardiv, for its purpose, 
be laperseded. The late eminent Telugu scholar, Mr. 0. P. Brown, interleayed, with 
criticiBmB and addenda, a copy of Wilson, which is now in the India Library. I have 
gone through it^ and borrowed a few notes, with acknowledgment by the initials C. P. B. 
The amount of improvement does not strike me as important. 



our motlier-tongue, or supposed by the speakers (often quite erroneously) to 
express something not capable of just denotation by any English term. A 
certain percentage of such words have been carried to England by the 
constant reflux to their native shore of Anglo-Indians, who in some degree 
imbue with their notions and phraseology the circles from which they had 
gone forth. This effect has been still more promoted by the currency of a 
vast mass of literature, of all qualities and for all ages, dealing with Indian 
subjects ; as well as by the regular appearance, for many years past, of Indian 
correspondence in English newspapers, insomuch that a considerable number 
of the expressions in question have not only become familiar in sound to 
English ears, but have become naturalised in the English language, and are 
meeting with ample recognition in the great Dictionary edited by Dr. Murray 
at Oxford. 

Of words that seem to have been admitted to full franchise, we may give 
examples in curry^ toddy^ veranda, cheroot, loot, nahob, teapoy, sepoy, cowry ; and 
of others familiar enough to the English ear, though hardly yet received 
into citizenship, compound, batta, pucka, chowry, baboo, mahout, aya, nauU^,* 
first-chop, competition-toa/^, griffin, &c. But beyond these two classes of 
words, received within the last century or so, and gradually, into half or 
whole recognition, there are a good many others, long since fully assimilated, 
which really originated in the adoption of an Indian word, or the modifica- 
tion of an Indian proper name. Such words are the three quoted at the 
beginning of these remarks, chintz, calico, gingham, also shawl, bamboo, pagoda^ 
typhoon, m/msoon, mandarin, palanquin,f &c., and I may mention among 
further examples which may perhaps surprise my readers, the names of three 
of the boats of a man-of-war, viz. the cutter, the jolly-boat, and the dijigy, as 
all (probably) of Indian origin.! Even phrases of a different character — 
slang indeed, but slang generally supposed to be vernacular as well as vulgar 
— e.g, 'that is the cheese* ;% or supposed to be vernacular and profane — e,g, 
*I don't care a dam^X — are in reality, however vulgar they may be, neither 
vernacular nor profane, but phrases turning upon innocent Hindustani 

We proposed also, in our Glossary, to deal with a selection of those 
administrative terms, which are in such familiar and quotidian use as to 
form part of the common Anglo-Indian stock, and to trace all (so far as 
XX)6sible) to their true origin — a matter on which, in regard to many of the 
words, those who hourly use them are profoundly ignorant— and to follow 
them down by quotation from their earliest occurrence in literature. 

A particular class of words are those indigenous terms which have been 
adopted in scientific nomenclature, botanical and zoological. On these Mr. 
Bumell remarks : — 

"The first Indian botanical names were chiefly introduced by Garcia 
de Orta {CoUoguios, printed at Goa in 1563), C. d'Acosta {Tractado, Burgos, 
1578), and Rhede van Drakenstein {Hortus Malaharievs, Amsterdam, 1682). 
The Malay names w^ere chiefly introduced by Rumphius {Herbarium Amr- 

* Nautchf it may be ui^ed, is admitted to full franchise, being used by so eminent 
a writer as Mr. Browning. But the fact that his use is entirely misuse, seems to justify 
the classification in the text (see GLOSS., s.vA A like remark applies to compovnd. See 
for the tremendous fiasco made in its intended use by a most intelligent lady novelist, 
the last quotation s.v. in Gloss. 

t Gloss., s.t. (note p. 659, col. a\ contains quotations from the Vulgate of the passage 
in Canticles iii. 9, regarding King Solomon's /frcu/um of Lebanon cedar. I have to thank 
an old friend for jointing out that the word palanauin has, in this passage, received 
solemn sanction by its introduction into the Revised Version. 

t See these words in Gloss. 


hctnmsey completed before 1700, but not published till 1741). The Indian 
zoological terms were chiefly due to Dr. F. Buchanan, at the beginning of 
this century. Most of the N. Indian botanical words were introduced by 

It bas been already intimated that, as the work proceeded, its scope ex- 
panded somewhat, and its authors found it expedient to introduce and trace 
many words of Asiatic origin which have disappeared from colloquial use, 
or perhaps never entered it, but which occur in old writers on the East. 
We also judged that it would add to the interest of the work, were we to 
investigate and make out the pedigree of a variety of geographical names 
which are or have been in familiar use in books on the Indies ; take as 
examples Bombay, Madras, Givardafui, Malabar, Moluccas, Zanzibar, Pegu, 
Sumatra, QuiUm, Seychelles, Ceylon, Java, Ava, Japan, Doab, Punjab, &c., 
illustrating these, like every other class of word, by quotations given in 
chronological series. 

Other divagations still from the original project will probably present 
themselves to those who turn over the pages of the work, in which we have 
l»een tempted to introduce sundry subjects which may seem hardly to come 
within the scope of such a glossary. 

The words with which we have to do, taking the most extensive view of 
the field, are in fact organic remains deposited under the various currents 
of external influence that have washed the shores of India during twenty 
centuries and more. Rejecting that derivation of elephant* which would 
connect it with the Ophir trade of Solomon, we find no existing Western 
term traceable to that episode of communication ; but the Greek and Roman 
commerce of the later centuries has left its fossils on both sides, testifying 
to the intercourse that once subsisted. Agallochum, carba^us, camphor, 
sandal, musk, nard, pepper (Wire/w, from Skt. pippali, *long pepper'), ginger 
(^tyyi^pis, see under Ginger), lac, costus, opal, malabathrum or folium indicum, 
beryl, sugar {adjcxap, from Skt. sarkara, Prak. saJdcara), rice (Upvia, but see s.v.), 
were products or names, introduced from India to the Greek and Roman 
world, to which may be added a few terms of a different character, such as 
Bpax/taret, ^apfidyes {sramanas, or Buddhist ascetics), ^;Xa ffayaXLpa koI <r<urafi[va 
(logs of teak and shisham), the ffdyycLpa (rafts) of the Periplus (see Jangar 
in Gloss.) ; whilst dindra, dramma, perhaps kastira (* tin,' Kaafflrepos), kasturl 
(*musk,' Koardpiov, properly a different, though analogous animal product), 
and a very few more, have remained in Indian literature as testimony to the 
same intercourse.t 

The trade and conquests of the Arabs both brought foreign words to 
India and picked up and carried westward, in form more or less corrupted, 
words of Indian origin, some of which have in one way or other become part 
of the heritage of all succeeding foreigners in the East. Among terms which 
are familiar items in the Anglo-Indian colloquial, but which had, in some 
shape or other, found their way at an early date into use on the shores of 
the Mediterranean, we may instance bazaar, cazee, hummaul, brinjaul, gingely, 
mjffUnoer, grab, maramut, devxiun (dogana, douane, &c.). Of others which are 
found in medieval literature, either West- Asiatic or European, and which 
still have a place in Anglo-Indian or English vocabulary, we may mention 
amher-gnB, chank, junk, jogy, Jcincob, kedgeree, fana/m, calay, bankshall, mudiliar, 
tindal, cranny. 

* See ibis word in Globs. 

t See A. Weber, in Indian Antiquary, ii. 143 «oy. Most of the other Greek words, 
which he traces in Sanskrit, are astronomical terms aerived from books. 



The conquests and long occupation of the Portuguese, who by the year 
1540 had established themselves in all the cliief ports of India and the East, 
have, as might have been expected, bequeathed a large number of expressions 
to the European nations who have followed, and in great part superseded 
them. We find instances of missionaries and others at an early date who 
had acquired a knowledge of Indian languages, but these were exceptional.* 
The natives in contact with the Portuguese learned a bastard variety of the 
language of the latter, which became the lingua franca of intercourse, not 
only between European and native, but occasionally between Europeans of 
different nationalities. This Indo-Portuguese dialect continued to serve such 
purposes down to a late period in the last century, and has in some localities 
survived down nearly to our own day.t The number of people in India 
claiming to be of Portuguese descent was, in the 17th century, very large. 
Bernier, about 1660, says : — 

"For he (Sultan Shuja', Aurangzeb's brother) much courted all those 
Portugal Fathers, Missionaries, that are in that Province. . . . And they 
were indeed capable to serve him, it being certain that in the kingdom of 
Bengale there are to bo found not less than eight or nine thousand families 
of Frangnisy Portugals, and these either Natives or Mesticks." {Bernier, E.T. 
of 1684, p. 27.) 

A. Hamilton, whose experience belonged chiefly to the end of the same 
century, though his book was not published till 1 727, states : — 

" Along the Sea-coasts the Portuguese have left a Vestige of their Language, 
tho' much corrupted, yet it is the Language that most Europeans learn first 
to qualify them for a general Converse with one another, as well as with the 
different inhabitants of India^ {Preface, p. xii.) 

Lockyer, who published 16 years before Hamilton, also says : — 

"This they (the Portugueze) may justly boast, they have established a 
kind of Lingua Franca in all the Sea Ports in India, of great use to other 
Europeans, who would find it difficult in many places to be well understood 
without it." (An Account of the Trade in India, 1711, p. 286.) 

The early Lutheran Missionaries in the South, who went out for the 
S.P.C.K., all seem to have begun by learning Portuguese, and in their diaries 
speak of preaching occasionally in Portuguese. { The foundation of this 
lingua franca was the Portuguese of the beginning of the 16th century ; but 
it must have soon degenerated, for by the beginning of the last century 
it had lost nearly all trace of inflexion.! 

It may from these remarks be easily \pderstood how a large number of 

* Varthema, at the very beginning of the 16th century, shows some acquaintance 
with Malayalam, and introduces pieces of conversation in that language. Before the 
end of the 16th century, printing had been introduced at other places besides Goa, 
and by the beginning of the 17th, several books in Indian languages had been printed 
at (}oa, Cochin, and Ambalakkadu. — (A. B.) 

t **At Point de Galle, in 1860, I found it in common use, and also, somewhat later^ 
at Calecut."--(A. B.) 

X See "Notices of Madras and Cuddalore, &c., by the earlier Missionaries." Longman, 
1858, «aj*i;m. See also Manual ^ &c. in Book-List, infra p. xxxiz. Dr Carey, writing 
from Serampore as late as 1800, says that the children of Europeans by native women, 
whether children of English, French, Dutch, or Danes, were all called Portuguese. 
SmiUCs Life of Carey ^ 152. 

§ See Note B. at end of Introductory Remarks. ** Mr. Beames remarked some time 
ago that most of the names of places in South India are greatly disfigured in the forms 
used by Europeans. This is because we have adopted the Portuguese orthography. 
Only in this way it can be explained how Kolladam has become Coleroorij Solamandaiam, 
Coromandefj and Tuttukkudi, Tvticorin," (A. B.) Mr. Bumell was so impressed with 
the excessive corruption of d. Indian names, that he would hardly ever willingly venture 
any explanation of them, conaideriDg the matter all too uncertain. 


onr Anglo-Indian coUoquiaUsmS) even if eventually traceable to native 
sources (and especially to Mahratti, or Dravidian originals) have come to 
us throngb a Portuguese medium, and often bear traces of having passed 
through that alembic. Not a few of these are familiar all over India, but 
the number current in the South is larger still. Some other Portuguese 
woids also, though they can hardly be said to be recognized elements in the 
Anglo-Indian colloquial, have been introduced either into Hindustani 
generally, or into that shade of it which is in use among natives in habitual 
contact with Europeans. Of words which are essentially Portuguese, among 
Anglo-Indian colloquialisms, persistent or obsolete, we may quote goglet, 
framy plantain, muster^ caste, peon, padre, midry or maistry, almyra, aya, cohray 
masqutlo, pom/ret, cartuez, palmyra, still in general use ; picoUa, rolong, pial, 
fogass, margosa, preserved in the South ; hotel, brab, foras, oart, veUard in 
Bombay ; joss, compradore, linguist in the ports of China ; and among more 
or less obsolete terms, Moor, for a Mahommedan, still surviving under the 
modified form Moorman, in Madras and Ceylon ; Gentoo, still partially kept 
up, I believe, at Madras in application to the Telugu language, mustees, castees, 
bandeja (* a tray '), Kittysol (* an umbrella,* and this survived ten years ago in 
the Calcutta customs tariff), cuspadore (^ a spittoon '), and covid (' a cubit or 
ell*). Words of native origin which bear the mark of having come to us 
through the Portuguese may be illustrated by such as palanquin, mandarin, 
nangelin (a small weight for pearls, &c.) m^onsoon, typhoon, mango, mangosteen^ 
jack-fruit, batta, curry, chop, congee, coir, cutch, catamaran, cassanar, nabobs 
avadavat, betel, areca, benzoin, corge, copra.* A few examples of Hindustani 
words borrowed from the Portuguese are chdbl (*a key'), bdola (*a port- 
manteau '), 6aft« (* a bucket'), martol (*a hammer*), tauliya (*a towel,' Port. 
toalha), sdbun (*soap'), bdsan (* plate' from Port, bctcia), llldm and nlldm (*an 
auction'), besides a number of terms used by Lascars on board ship. 

The Dutch language has not contributed much to our store. The Dutch 
and the English arrived in the Indies contemporaneously, and though both 
inherited from the Portuguese, we have not been the heirs of the Duteh to 
any great extent, except in Ceylon, and even there Portuguese vocables had 
already occupied the colloquial ground. Petersilly, the word in general use 
in English families for * parsley,' appears to be Dutch. An example from 
Ceylon that occurs to memory is burgher. The Duteh admitted people of 
mixt descent to a kind of citizenship, "and these were distinguished from 
the pure natives by this term, which survives. Burgher in Bengal means * a 
lafter,' properly bargd. A word spelt and pronounced in the same way had 
again a curiously different application in Madras, where it was a corruption 
of Vadagar, thename given to a tribe in the Nilgherry hills ;— to say nothing 
of Scotland, where Burghers and Antiburghers were Northern tribes (veluti 
Gog et Magog !) which have long been condensed into elements of the United 
Presbyterian Church ! 

Southern India has contributed to the Anglo-Indian stock words that are 
in hourly use also from Calcutta to Peshawur (some of them already noted 
under another cleavage), e.g, betel, mango, jack, cheroot, murigoose, pariah, 
bandicoot, teak, patcharee, chatty, catechu, tope (*a grove'), curry, mulligatawny, 
congee. Mamooty (a digging tool) is familiar in certain branches of the 

* The nasal termination given to many Indian words, when adopted into European 
QBQ, M in palanquin, niandarijij &c., must bo attributed mainly to the Portuguese ; but 
it cannot be entirely due to them. For we find the nasal termination of AchiUy in 
MAbommedan writers (see p. 3), and that of Cochin before the Portuguese time (see 
p. 22&% whilst the conversion of Paaei, in Sumatra, into Facem, as the Portuguese call 
it, is alieady indicated in the Bama of Marco Polo. 


service, owing to its having long had a place in the nomenclature of the 
Ordnance department. It is Tamil, manviUi, * earth-cutter.' Of some very 
familiar words the origin remains either dubious, or matter only for con- 
jecture. Examples are hackery (which arose apparently in Bombay), floricaUy 

As to Hindustani words adopted into the Anglo-Indian colloquial the 
subject is almost too wide and loose for much remark. The habit of intro- 
ducing these in English conversation and writing seems to prevail more 
largely in the Bengal Presidency than in any other, and especially more than 
in Madras, where the variety of different vernaculars in use has tended to 
make their ac([uisition by the English less universal than is in the north 
that of Hindustani, which is so much easier to learn, and also to make the 
use in former days of Portuguese, and now of English, by natives in contact 
with foreigners, and of French about the French settlements, very much 
more common than it is elsewhere. It is this bad habit of interlarding 
English with Hindustani phrases which has so often excited the just wrath 
of high English officials, not accustomed to it from their youth, and which 
(e.g,) drew forth in orders the humorous indignation of Sir Charles Napier. 

One peculiarity in this use we may notice, which doubtless exemplifies 
some obscure linguistic law. Hindustani verbs which are thus used are 
habitually adopted into the quasi-English by converting the imperative into 
an infinitive. Thus to hunow^ to lugowy to foozilow, to puckarow, to dumbcow, 
to sumjoWy and so on, almost ad libitum^ are formed as we have indicated.* 

It is curious to note that several of our most common adoptions are due to 
what may be most especially called the Oordoo (Urdu) or *Camp' language, 
being terms which the hosts of Chinghiz brought from the steppes of North 
Eastern Asia — e.g. "The old Bukshee is an awful haliadur, but he keeps a 
first-rate bdbachee" That is a sentence which might easily have passed 
without remark at an Anglo-Indian mess-table thirty years ago — perhaps 
might be heard still. Each of the outlandish terms embraced in it came from 
the depths of Mongolia in the thirteenth century. Chick (in the sense of a 
cane-bUnd), daroga, oordoo itself, are other examples. 

With the gradual assumption of administration after the middle of last 
century, we adopted into partial colloquial use an immense number of terms, 
very many of them Persian or Arabic, belonging to technicalities of revenue 
and other departments, and largely borrow^ed from our Mahommedan pre- 
decessors. Malay has contributed some of our most familiar expressions, 
owing partly to the ceaseless rovings among the Eastern coasts of Ihe 
Portuguese, through whom a part of these reached us, and partly doubtless 
to the fact that our early dealings and the sites of our early factories lay 
much more on the shores of the Eastern Archipelago than on those of 
Continental India. Paddy, godowriy compound, bankshall, rattan, durian, 
a-muck, prow, and cadjan, junk, crease, are some of these. It is true that 
several of them may be traced eventually to Indian originals, but it seems 
not the less certain that we got them through the Malay, just as we got words 
already indicated through the Portuguese. 

We used to have a very few words in French form, such as boutique and 
mort-de-chien. But these two are really distortions of Portuguese words. 

A few words from China have settled on the Indian shores and been 
adopted by Anglo-India, but most of them are, I think, names of fruits or 

* The first five examples will be found in Oloss. BaiUlo, is imperative of hanH-nH, 
*■ to fabricate ' ; lageu> of lagd-'nA, * to lay alongside,' &c. ; sumjh/lo, of mmjIvA-na, * to cause 
to understand,' &c 


other products which have been imported, such as loquotf leechee, choto-chow^ 
cumquat^ gtrueng, &c. and (recently) jinncfaAaw. For it must be noted that 
a considerable proportion of words much used in Chinese ports, and often 
ascribed to a Chinese origin, such as mandarinj junky chop, pagoda, and (as I 
believe) typhoon (though this is a word much debated) are not Chinese at all, 
but words of Indian languages, or of Malay, which have been precipitated in 
Chinese waters during the flux and reflux of foreign trade. 

Within my own earliest memory Spanish dollars were current in England 
at a specified value if they bore a stamp from the English mint. And 
similarly there are certain English words, often obsolete in Europe, which 
have received in India currency with a special stamp of meaning ; whilst 
in other cases our language has formed in India new compounds applicable 
to new objects or shades of meaning. To one or other of these classes belong 
cvtery^ buggy, home, interloper, rogue (-elephant), tiffin, furlough, elk, roundel 
('an umbrella,' obsolete), pish-pash, earth-oil, hog-deer, flying-fox, garden-house, 
mud^rat, nor-weeter, iron-wood, long-draioers, barking-deer, custard-apple, grass- 
cutter, &c. 

Other terms again are corruptions, more or less violent, of Oriental words 
and phrases which have put on an English mask. Such are maund, fooVs 
rack, bearer, cot, boy, belly-band, Penang-lavjyer, buckshaw, goddess (in the 
Malay r^on, representing Malay gddts, *a maiden'), compound, college* 
pheasant, chopper, summer-head,* eagle-wood, Jocfco^^-copal, bobbery. Upper Roger 
(used in a correspondence given by Dalrj'mple, for Yuva Raja, the ' Young 
King,' or Caesar, of Indo-Chinese monarchies), Isle-o^-Bats (for Allahabad or 
Ilahdbdz as the natives often call it), hobsorirjohson (see Preface), St JoMs^ 
The last proper name has at least three applications. There is " St. John's " 
in Guzerat, viz. Sanjdn, the landing-place of the Parsee Immigration in the 
8th century ; there is another " St. John's " which is a corruption of Shang- 
Chtuing, the name of that island off the southern coast of China whence the 
pore and ardent spirit of Francis Xavier fled to a better world : there is the 
group of *'St. John's Islands" near Singapore, the chief of which is properly 

Yet again we have hybrids and corruptions of English fully accepted and 
adopted as Hindustani by the natives with whom we have to do, such as 
timkin, port-shrdb, brandy-parai, apU, rasid, turrUet (a tumbler), gilds {^ glass,* 
for drinking vessels of sorts), rail-ghdrt, lumber-ddr, jail-khdna, bottle-khdna, 
buggy-khdna, *et omne quod exit in' khdna, including gymkhana, a very 
modem concoction (q.v.X and many more. 

Taking our subject as a whole, however considerable the philological 
interest attaching to it, there is no disputing the truth of a remark with 
which Bumell's fragment of intended introduction concludes, and the appli- 
cation of which goes beyond the limit of those words which can be considered 
to have 'accrued as additions to the English language': "Considering the 
long intercourse Avith India, it is noteworthy that the additions which have 
thus accrued to the English language are, from the intellectual standpoint, of 
no intrinsic value. Nearly all the borrowed words refer to material facts, 
or to peculiar customs and stages of society, and, though a few of them 
furnish allusions to the penny-a-liner, they do not represent new ideas." 

It is singular how often, in tracing to their origin words that come within 
the field of our research, we light upon an absolute dilemma, or bifurcation, 
i.e. on two or more sources of almost equal probability, and in themselves 

* This is in the Bombay ordnanco nomenclature for a large umbrella* It represents 
tbe Port* sombrero I 


entirely diverse. In such cases it may be that, though the use of the word 
originated from one of the sources, the existence of the other has invigorated 
that use, and contributed to its eventual diffusion. 

An example of this is &oy, in its application to a native servant. To this 
application have contributed both the old English use of hoy (analogous to 
that of pueTf gargcyn^ Knabe) for a camp-servant, or for a slave, and the Hindi- 
Marathi hhoi^ the name of a caste which has furnished palanquin and 
umbrella-bearers to many generations of Europeans in India. The habitual 
use of the word by the Portuguese, for many years before any English 
influence had touched the shores of India {e,g. bdy ds sonibreroj b6y d^aguoHj 
hdy de palanqtiy)y shows that the earliest source was the Indian one. 

Cooly, in its application to a carrier of burdens, or performer of inferior 
labour, is another example. The most probable origin of this is from a nomen 
gentile, that of the Kolis, a hill-people of Guzerat and the Western Ghats 
(compare the origin of slave). But the matter is perplexed by other facts 
which it is difficult to connect with this. Thus, in S. India, there is a Tamil 
word kuliy in common use, signifying * daily hire or wages,' which H. H» 
Wilson regards as the true origin of the word which we call cooly. Again, 
both in Oriental and Osmali Turkish, kol is a word for a slave, and in the 
latter also there is kuleh, 'a male slave, a bondsman.' Khol is, in Tibetan 
also, a word for a slave or servant. 

Tank, for a reservoir of water, we are apt to derive without hesitation, 
from stagnuniy whence Sp. estanc, old Fr. estang, old Eng. and Lowland Scotch 
itank, Port, tanque, till we find that the word is regarded by the Portuguese 
themselves as Indian, and that there is excellent testimony to the existence 
of tdnkd in Guzerat and Rajputana as an indigenous word, and with a 
plavisible Sanskrit etymology. 

Veranda has been confidently derived by some etymologists (among others 
by M. Defrdm^ry, a distinguished scholar) from the Pers. bardmada, *a pro- 
jection,' a balcony ; an etymology which is indeed hardly a possible one, but 
has been treated by Mr. Beanies (who was evidently unacquainted with the 
facts that do make it hardly possible) with inappropriate derison, he giving 
as the unquestionable original a Sanskrit word baranda, * a portico.' On this 
Burnell has observed that the word does not belong to the older Sanskrit^ 
but is only found in comparatively modem works. Be that as it may, it 
need not l)e doubted that the word veranda, as used in England and France, 
was imported from India, i.e. from the usage of Europeans in India ; but it 
is still more certain that either in the same sense, or in one closely allied, the 
word existed, quite independent of either Sanskrit or Persian, in Portuguese 
and Spanish, and the manner in which it occurs in tlie very earliest narrative 
of the Portuguese adventure to India (Roteiro do Viagein de Vasco da Gamcty 
written by one of the expedition of 1497), confirmed by the Hispano- Arabic 
vocabulary of Pedro de Alcala, printed in 1505, preclude the possibility of 
its having been adopted by the Portuguese from intercourse with India. 

Mangrove, John Crawfurd tells us, has been adopted from the Malay 
nianggi-manggi, applied to trees of the genus Rhizophora. But we learn from 
Oviedo, t^Titing early in the sixteenth century, that the name mangle waa 
applied uy the natives of the Spanish Main to trees of the same, or a kindred 
genus, on the coast of S. America, which same mangle is undoubtedly the 
parent of the French tnanglier^ and not improbably therefore of the English 
form m>angrove* 

* Mr. Skeat's Ei^/m» Diet, does not oontain mangrove. [U will be found iirfaifl OoneUe 
jBt^mological Diet. ed. 1901.] 


The words bearer, TncUe, cotuxUy partake of this kind of dual or doubtful 
ancestry, as niay be seen by reference to them in the Glossary. 

Before concluding, a word should be said as to the orthography used in 
the Glossary. 

My intention has been to give the headings of the articles under the 
most usual of the popular, or, if you will, vulgar quasi-English spellings, 
whilst the Oriental words, from which the headings are derived or corrupted, 
are set forth under precise transliteration, the system of which is given in a 
following " Nota Bene." When using the words and names in the course of 
discursive elucidation, I fear I have not been consistent in sticking either 
always to tlie popular or always to the scientific spelling, and I can the better 
understand why a German critic of a book of mine, once upon a time, re- 
marked upon the etvxis ichuxinkende yulische Orthographie. Indeed it is 
difficult, it never will for me be possible, in a book for popular use, to adhere 
to one system in this matter without the assumption of an ill-fitting and 
repulsive pedantry. Even in regard to Indian proper names, in which I 
once advocated adhesion, with a small number of exceptions, to scientific 
precision in transliteration, I feel much more inclined than formerly to 
iiympathise with my friends Sir William Muir and General Maclagan, who 
have always favoured a large and liberal recognition of popular spelling in 
such names. And when I see other good and able friends following the 
scientific Will-o'-the-Wisp into such bogs as the use in English composition of 
sipdbi and jangal^ and verandah — nay, I have not only heard of bagiy but 
have recently seen it — instead of the good English words * sepoy,' and * jungle,' 
* veranda,' and ' buggy,' my dread of pedantic usage becomes the greater.* 

For the spelling of Mahraita^ Mahratti, I suppose I must apologize (though 
something is to be said for it), Mardthi having established itself as orthodox. 


1. Appended to the Boteiro de Vasco 
«ia Guna (see Book-list, p. xliii.) is a 
Vocabulary of 138 Portuguese words with 
their corresponding word in the Lingua 
d^. CaliaU, i,e. in Malayalam. 

2. Appended to the Voyages, &c., du 
Sieur de la B<mIIaye-le-G<mz (Book-list, 
p. xxxii.)) is an KxpUcaiion de pluneurs 
nwU dont rinUlligence est tUcesgaire au 
Leeteur (pp. 27). 

3. Fryer's New Account (Book-list, 
p. xxxir.) has an Index Explanatory^ in- 
dudiitf Proper Names, Names of Things, 
and Names (^Persons (12 pages). 

4. "Indian Vocabulary, to which is 
prefixed the Forms of Impeachment." 
12njo. Stockdale, 1788 (pp. 136). 

5. "An Indian Glossary, consisting of 
some 'iliousand Words and Forms com- 
monly used in the East Indies .... ex- 
tremely serviceable in assisting Strangers 
to acquire with Ease and Quickness the 
Language of that Country." By T. T. 
Rol^rtB, Lieut., kc, of the 3rd Regt. 
Native Infantry, E.I. Printed for Mur- 
ray & Highley, Fleet Street, 1800. 12mo. 
(not pag^). 

6. "A Dictionary of Mohammedan 
Law, Bengal Revenue Terms, Shanscrit, 
Hindoo, and other words used in the East 
Indies, with full explanations, the leading 
word used in each article being printed in 
a new Nustaluk Type," &c. By 8. 
Roasseau. London, 1802. 12mo. (pp. 
lxiv.-287). Also 2nd ed. 1805. 

* 'Boggy' of course is not an Oriental word at all, except as adopted from us by 
Orientals. I call sepoy, jungle, and veranda, good English words ; and so I regard them, 
just as good as ailigator, or hunncane, or canoe, or Jerusalem artichoke, or cherobt. What 
woald my friends think of spelling these in English books as aXagarto, and huracan, 
and ranoo, and girasole, and shttrulfu t 



7. Glossary prepared for the Fifth 
Report (see Book-list, p. xxxiv.), by Sir 
Qharles Wilkins. This is dated in the 
preface "E. I. House, 1813." The copy 
used is a Parliamentary reprint, dated 

8. The Folio compilation of the Bengal 
Regulations, pubhshed in 1828-29, con- 
tains in each volume a Glossarial Index, 
based chiefly upon the Glossary of Sir C. 

9. In 1842 a preliminary '' Glossaiy of 
Indian Terms, ^' drawn up at the E. I. 
House bv Prof. H. H. Wilson, 4to, un- 
published, with a blank column on each 
page '*for Suggestions and Additions," 
was circulated in India, intended as a 
basis for a comprehensive official Glossary. 
In this one the words are entered in the 
vulgar spelling, as they occur in the docu- 

10. The only important result of the 
circulation of No. 9. was *^ Supplement 
to the Glossary of Indian Terms, 
A-J." By H. M. Elliot, Esq., Bengal 
Civil Service. Agra, 1845. 8vo. (pp. 447). 

This remarkable work has been revised, 
re-arran|j^ed, and re-edited, with additions 
from Elliot's notes and other sources, by 
Mr. John Beames, of the Bengal Civil 
Service, under the title of '* Memoirs on 
the Folk-Lore and Distribution of the 
Races of the North-Westem Provinces of 
India, being an amplified edition of " (the 
above). 2 vols. 8vo. TrUbner, 1869. 

11. To "Morley's Analytical Digest of 
all the Reported Cases Decided in the 
Supreme Courts of Judicature in India," 
Vol. I., 1850, there is appended a 
'* Glossary of Native Terms used in the 
Text" (pp. 20). 

12. In "Wanderings of a Pilgrim" 
(Book-list, p. xlvi.), there is a Glossary of 
some considerable extent (pp. 10 in double 

13. "The Zillah Dictionary in the 
Roman character, explaining the Various 
Words used in Business in India." By 
Charles Philip Brown, of the Madras 
Civil Service, &c. Madras, 1852. Imp. 
8vo. (pp. 132). 

14. "A Glossary of Judicial and 
Revenue Terms, and of Useful Words 
occurring in Official Documents, relating to 
the Administration of the Government of 
British India, from the Arabic, Persian, 
Hinddst^nf, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bcng^i, 
Uriy^ MartCthl, GuzartCthi, Telngu, Kar- 
n^ta, T^mil,' Mayal&lam, and other lan- 
guages. By H. H. Wilson, M.A., F.R.S., 
Boden Professor, &c." London, 1855. 
4to. (pp. 585, besides copious Index). 

15. A useful folio Glossary published by 
Government at Calcutta between 1860 and 
1870, has been used by me and is ouoted in 
the present Gloss, as *' Calcutta Glossary." 
But I have not been able to trace it again 
so as to give the proper title. 

16. Ceylonese Vocabulary. See Book- 
list, p. xxxi. 

17. **Kachahri TechnicaUties, or A 
Glossary of Terms, Rural, Official, and 
General, in Daily Use in the Courts of 
Law, and in Illustration of the Tenures, 
Customs, Arts, and Manufactures of 
Hindustan." By Patrick Camegy, Com- 
missioner of Rai Bareli, Oudh. ovo. 2nd 
ed. Allahabad, 1877 (pp. 361). 

18. "A Glossary of Indian Terms> 
containing many of the most important 
and Useful Indian Words Designed for 
the Use of Officers of Revenue and Judi- 
cial Practitioners and Students." Madras, 
1877. 8vo. (pp. 265). 

19. "A Glossary of Reference on Sub- 
jects connected with the Far East" 
(China and Japan). By H. A. Giles. 
Hong-Kong, 1878, 8vo. (pp. 182). 

20. "Glossary of Vernacular Terms 

used in Official Correspondence in the 
Province of Assam." Shillong, 1879. 

21. << Anglo-Indian Dictionary. A 
Glossary of such Indian Terms used in 
English, and such English or other non- 
Indian terms as have obtained special 
meanings in India." By George ClifFord 
Whitworth, Bombay Civil Service. 
London, 8vo, 1885 (pp. xv.— 350). 

Also the following minor Glossaries con- 
tained in Books of Travel or History : — 

22. In "Cambridge's Account of the 
War in India," 1761 (Book-list, p. xxx.) ; 
23. In "Grose's Voyage," 1772 (Book- 
list, p. XXXV.); 24. In Carraocioli's " Life 
of CliTO" (Book-list, p. XXX.); 25. In 
"Bp. Heber's NarratiTe" (Book-list, 
p. xxxvi.); 26. In Herklot's "Qanoon-e- 
Islam (Book-list, p. xxxv.) ; [27. In 
"Verelst's View of Bengal," 1772; 28. 
"The Halasran Words in English," by 
C. P. G. Scott, reprinted from the Journal 
of the American Oriental Society: New 
Haven, 1897; 29. "Manual of the Ad- 
ministration of the Madras President," 
Vol. III. Glossary, Madras, 1893. The 
name of the author of this, the most valu- 
able book of the kind recently published 
in India, does not appear upon the title- 
ni^. It is believed to be the work of 
C.D. Macleane; 30. A useful Glossary of 
Malayalam words will be found in Logan, 
' ' Manual of Malabar. "] 



(Br A. C. BURNELL.) 

The phonetic changes of Indo- Portuguese are few. F is substituted for p ; 
whilst the accent varies according to the race of the speaker* The vocabulary 
varies, as regards the introduction of native Indian terms, from the same 

Grammatically, this dialect is very singular : 

1. All traces of genders are lost— e. 17. 
we find gua poeo (Mat. i. 21) ; sua nonu 
(Id. i. 23] ; iuajilho (Id. i. 26) ; sua jilhos 
(Id. ii. IS) ; sua olhot (Acts, ix. 8) ; dias 
(Mat. ii. 1); o r^y (Id. ii. 2); hum toz 
tinka ourido (Id. ii. 18). 

2. In the plural, « is rarely added ; gene- 
rally, the plural is the same as the sin- 

3. The genitive is expressed by de^ 
which is not combined with the article — 
e.g. couforitie de o tempo (Mat. ii. 16) ; 
iMpois d^ o morte (Id. ii. 19). 

4. The definite article is unchanged in 
the plural: como discipulos (Acts, ix. 

5. The pronouns still preserve some 
inflexions: Eu^ mi; nos, noMotros; minha^ 
nouosy &c. ; tu, tit vouotros ; tvua^ vos- 
8O8; EUe^ ellOf ellotrot, elieSf sua^ tuasy 
loy la. 

6. The verb substantive is (present) 
ienty (past) tinika, and (subjunctive) seja, 

7. Verbs are conjugated by adding, for 
the present, ti to the only form, viz., the 
infinitive, which loses its final r. Thus, 
te folia ; tefrze ; te vi. The pjast is formed 
by adding Ja — e.g. ja falla ; ja olha. The 
future is formed by adding ser. To express 
the infinitive, per is added to the Portu- 
guese infinitive deprived of its r. 

* Unfortunately, the translators of the Indo-Portuguese New Testament have, as 
much as possible, preserved the Portuguese orthography. 



(A.) The dates attached to quotations are not always quite consistent. In 
beginning the compilation, the dates given were those of the publication 
quoted ; but as the date of the composition^ or of the use of the word in 
question, is often much earlier than the date of the book or the edition in 
which it appears, the system was changed, and, where possible, the date 
given is that of the actual use of the word. But obvious doubts may some- 
times rise on this point. 

The dates of publication of the works quoted will be found, if required, 
from the Book List, follo\nng this Not(t bene. 

(B.) Tlie system of transliteration used is substantially the same as that 
modification of Sir William Jones's which is u.sed in Shakespear's Hindustani 
Dictionary. But — 

The first of the three Sanskrit sibilants is expressed by (.<?), and, as m 
Wilson's Glossary, no distinction is marked between the Indian aspirated ^•, </, 
and the Arabic gutturals Wt, gh. ALk), in words transliterated from Arabic, 
the sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet is expressed by {f). This is tlie 
same type that is used for the cerebral Indian (t). Though it can hardly give 
rise to any confusion, it would have been better to mark them by distinct 
types. The fact is, that it was wished at first to make as few demands as 
possible for distinct types, ajid, ha\dng begun so, change could not be made. 

The fourth letter of the Arabic alphabet is in several cases represented 
by {ih) when Arabic use is in question. In Hindustani it is pronounced as {s). 

Also, in some of Mr. Burnell's transliterations from S. Indian language;*, 
he has used (r) for the peculiar Tamil hard (r), elsewhere (r), and (7) for tlie 
Tamil and Malayalam (Jc) when preceded and followed by a vowel. 



Abdall&tif. Relation de I'Egypte. See 
De 8&ey, Silvwtn. 

Abel-Stoiuat. NouTeauz Manges Asia- 
tiqiies. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1829. 

Abren, A. de. Date, de Malaca, from the 

Panuuo Portuguez. 
Aboll^iaxi. H. des Mogols et des Tatares, 

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Petereb., 1871. 

The. A Weekly Renew, &c. 


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Medecinas de las Indias Orientales. 

4to. Burgos, 1578. 
■ K Hist. Rerum a Soc. Jesu in 

Oriente gestarom. Pbris, 1572. 
Joseph de. Natural and Moral 

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by C. Markham. 2 vols. 1880. 
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Plants, and Animals described by the 

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malium, Libri XVII. 

i5jL. Aln-i-Akbaxi, The, by Abul Fazl 
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VoL i. ; [vols. ii. and iii. translated by 
CoL H. S. Jarrett ; Calcutta, 1891-94]. 

The MS. of the remainder disappeared 
at Mr. Blochmann's lamented death in 
1878 ; a deplorable loss to Oriental 

(Orifi^.). The same. Edited in the 

origiluJ Persian by H. Blochmann, 
M.A. 2vols.4to. Calcutta, 1S72. Both 
these were printed by the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

AitchiMn, C. U. Collection of Treaties, 
Eongements, and Sunnuds relating to 
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Ajai]h«l-Hind. &e Kerreillefl. 

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Aloali, Fray Pedro de. Vocabulista 

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[All, Mrs Meer Hassan, Observations on the 

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[Allardyoe, A. The City of Sunshine. 

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[Allen, B. C. Monograph on the Silk Cloths 

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Angria Tulagee. Authentic and Faithful 

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Arbnthnot, Sir A. Memoir of Sir T. 

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Arch. Port. Or. Archivo Portuguez 

Oriental. A valuable and interesting 

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The quotations are from two articles 

in the Appendice to the early volumes, 

viz. : 

(1) Relazione di Leonardo da Ca' 

Masser sopra il Commercio 
dei Portc^besi nell' India 
(1506). App. Tom. II. 1845. 

(2) Lettere di Giov. da Empoli, e 

la Vita di Esse, scritta da 
suo zio (1530). App. Tom. III. 



Arnold, Edwin. The light of Asia (as told 
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Assemaai, Joseph Simonius, Synis Maro- 
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Ayeen Akbery. By this spelling are dis- 
tinguished quotations from the tr. of 
Francis Oladwin, first published at Cal- 
cutta in 1783. Most of the quotations 
are from the London edition, 2 vols. 4to. 

Baber. Memoirs of Zehir-ed-din Mu- 
hammed Baber, Emperor of Hindustan. 
. . . Translated partly by the late John 
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B.C.S., a brother of James and H. 
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Bacon, T. First Impressions of Hindustan. 
2 vols. 1837. 

Baden Powell. Punjab Handbook, vol. ii. 
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Bailey, Nathan. Diction. Britannicmn^ 
or a more Ompleat Universal Etymol. 
English Diet. &c. The whole Revis'd 
and Improv'd by N. B., ^i\6\oyos. 
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Baldaens, P. Of this writer Bumell used 
the Dutch ed., Naauwkeurige Beschry- 
vinge van Malabar en Choromandel, 

folio, 1672, and Ceylon, folio, 1672. 

I have used the German ed., contain- 
ing in one volume seriatim, Wahrhaftige 
Ausfuhrliche Beschreibung der beruhm- 
ten Ost-Indischen Kusten Malabar und 
Coi-omandel, als auch der Insei Zeylon 
. . . benebst einer . . . Entdeckung 
der Abgt)terey der Ost-Indischen Hey- 
den. . . . Folio. Amsterrlam, 1672. 

Baldelli-Boni. Storia del Milione. 2 vols. 
Firenze, 1827. 

Baldwin, Capt. J. H. Large and Small 
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[Ball, J. D. Things Chinese, being Notes 
on various Subjects connected with 
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Ball, V. Jungle life in India, or the 
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Bdnyan Tree, The. A Poem. Printed for 
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(The author was Lt.-Col. B. A. Yule» 
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Baxbaro, loeafa. Viaggio alia Tana, &c. 
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N.B. — It is impossible to discover 
from Lord Stanley of Alderley's Pre- 
face whether this was a reprint, or 
printed from an unpublished MS. 

Baxbier de M^ynard, Dictionnaire G^ogr. 
Hist, et Litter, de la Perse, &c. Ex- 
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E. Africa and Malabar in the beginning 
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Lisbon Ed. livro de Duarto 

Barbosa. Being No. VII. in Collec^ao 
de Noticias para a Historia e Geografia, 
&c. Publ. pela Academia Real das 
Sciencias, tomo ii. Lisboa, 1812. 

Also in tom. ii. of Ramusio. 

Baxretto. Relation de la Province de 
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Originally pub. in Italian. Roma, 1645. 

Barros, Joao de. Decadas de Asia, Dos 
feitos que os Portuguezes fizeram na 
Conquista e Descubrimento das Terras e 
Mares do Oriente. 

Most of the quotations are taken from 
the edition in 12mo., Lisboa, 1778, 
issued along with Oouto in 24 vols. 

The first Decad was originally printed 
in 1552, the 2nd in 1553, the 3rd m 1563, 
the 4th as completed by Lavanha i» 
1613 (Barbosa-Machado, Bibl. Lusit. ii. 
pp. 606-607, as corrected by Figani6re, 
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In some of Bumell 's quotations he 
uses the 2nd ed. of Decs. i. to iii. 
(1628), and the 1st ed. of Dec. iv. (1613). 
In these there is apparently no division 
into chapters, and I have transferred 
the references to the edition of 1778, 
from which all my own quotations are 
made, whenever I could identify the 
passages, having myself no convenient 
access to the older editions. 

Barth, A. Lcs Religions de I'lnde. Paris. 

Also English translation by Rev. T. 
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Bastian, Adolf, Dr. Die Volker des Oest- 
lichen Asien, Studien und Reisen. 8vo. 
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Beale, Rev. Samuel. Travels of Fah-hian 
and Sung-yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from 
China to India. Sm. 8vo. 1869. 

Beames, John. ComparatiTe Orammar of 
the Modem Aryan Languages of India 
&c. 3 vols. 8vo. 1872-79. 

See also in List of Oloitariei, 


LL-Col. A. View of the Origin 
and Conduct of the War with Tippoo 
Snltaun. 4to. London, 1800. 

{BeUdiar, Gapt. Sir E. Narrative of the 
Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, during the 
years 1843-46, eniployed surve^ng the 
Islands of the Eastern Archipelago. 
2 Tols. London, 1846.] 

B«]lew, H. W. Journal of a Political 
Mission to Afghanistan in 1857 under 
Major Lumsden. 8to. 1862. 

[The Races of Afghanistan, being A 

Brief Account of the Principal Nations 
inhabiting that Country. Calcutta and 
London, 1880.] 

Belon, Pierre, du Mans. Les ObBervatloiiB 
de Plvsievrs Singularity et Choses 
memorables, trouu^es en Grece, Asie, 
ludee, E^pte, Arabie, kc. Sm. 4to. 
P^s, 1554. 

, DescriptiYe Ethnology of, by Col. 
. T. Dalton. Folio. Calcutta, 1872. 

Bengal AwTinal or Literary Keepsake, 

Bengal Obitoaxy. Calcutta, 1848. This 
was I believe an extended edition of De 
Rozario's * Complete Monumental Regis- 
ter,' Calcutta, 1815. But I have not 
been able to recover trace of the book. 

Bemoni, Girolamo. The Travels of, 
<1542-56), orig. Venice, 1572. Tr. and ed. 
by Admiral W. H. Smyth, Hak. Soc. 

[Bemeaatle^ J. Voyage to China, includ- 
ing a Visit to the Bombay Presidency. 
2 vols. London, 1850.] 

Beachi, Padre. See Gooroo Paxamarttan. 

[BeTeridge, H. The District of Bakaiganj, 
its History and Statistics. London, 1876.] 

Bhfttan and the History of the Dooar War. 
By Surgeon Bennie, M.D. 1866. 

Bird's Onxerat. The Political and Statisti- 
cal History of Guzerat, transl. from the 
Persian of Ali Mohammed Khan. Or. 
Tr. Fund. 8vo. 1885. 

Bfrd, Isabella (now Mrs. Bishop). The 
Oolden Chenonete, and the Way 
Thither. 1883. 

Bixd'a Japan. Unbeaten Tracks in J. by 
Isabella B. 2 vols. 1880. 

Birdwood (Sir) George, C.S.I., M.D. The 
Industrial Arts of India. 1880. 

[ Report on The Old Records of the 

India Office, with Supplementary Note 
and Appendices. Second Rieprint. 
London, 1891. 

[ and Foster, W. The First Letter 

Book of the East India Company, 
1600-19. London, 1898.] 

[Blaeker, LI -Col. V. Memoir of the British 
Army in India in 1817-19. 2 vols. 
London, 1821. 

[Blaaford, W. T. The Fauna of British 
India: Mammalia. London, 1888-91. 

Bliim«ntritt» Ferd. Vocabolar einzelner 
Ansdriicke and Redensarten, welche 
dem Spamachen der PhilippinBchen In- 

seln eigenthiimlich sind. Druck von Dr. 
Karl Hckert in Leitmeritz. 1882. 

Blutean, Padre D. Raphael. Vocabulario 
Portuguez Latino, Aulico, Anatomico, 
Architectonico, (and so on to Zoologico) 
. . . Lisboa, 1712-21. 8 vols, folio, with 
2 vols, of Supplemento, 1727-28. 

Bocarro. Dec&da 13 da Histori^i da India, 
composta por Antonio B. (Published by 
the Royal Academy of Lisbon). 1876. 

Bocarro. Detailed Report (Portiiguese) 
upon the Portuguese Forts and Settle- 
ments in India, MS. transcript in India 
Office. Geog. Dept. from B.M. Sloane 
MSS. No. 197, fol. 172 seqq. Date 1644. 

Bocharii Hieroioicon. In vol. i. of Opera 
Omnia, 8 vols, folio. Lugd. Bat. 1712. 

Bock, Carl. Temples and Elephants. 1884. 

Bogle. See Markham's Tibet. 

Boilean, A. H. E. (Bengal Engineers). 
Tour through the Western States of 
Bajwara in 1835. 4to. Calcutta, 1887. 

Boldensele, Gulielmus de. Itinerarium 
in the Themunu of Canitius, 1604. v. 
pt. ii. p. 95, also in ed. of same by 
Basnage, 1726, iv. 337 ; and by C. L. 
Grotefend in ZeiUchrift des Histor. 
Vereins fur Nieder Sachsen, Jahrgang 
1852. Hannover, 1855. 

Bole Pongis, by H. M. Parker. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Bombay. A Description of the Port and 
Island of, and Hist. Account of the 
Transactions between the English and 
Portuguese concerning it, from the 
year 1661 to the present time. 12mo. 
Printed in the year 1724. 

[Bond, E. A. Speeches of the Manager and 
Counsel in the Trial of Warren Hastings. 
4 vols. London, 1859-61.] 

Booganii, Oesta Dei der Francos. Folio. 
Hanoviae, 1611. 

Bontins, Jacobi B. Hist. Natural et Medic. 

Indiae Orientalis Libri Sex. Printed 

with PiBO, q.v. 
[Boee, S. C. The Hindoos as they are: A 

Description of the Manners, Customs, 

and Inner Life of Hindoo Society in 

Bengal. Calcutta, 1881. 
Boeqnejo das PossessSes, &c. See p. 8092>. 
[BoBwell, J. A. C. Manual of the Nellore 

District. Madras, 1887.] 
Botelho^ SimSo. Tombo do Estado da 

India. 1554. Forming a part of the 

SnbBldioB, q.v. 
Bonrdhier, Col. (Sir George). Eight 

Months' Campaign against the Bengal 

Sepoy Army. 8vo. London, 1858. 
Bowring, Sir John. The Kingdom and 

People of Siam. 2 vols. 8vo. 1857. 
Boyd, Hugh. The Indian Observer, with 

Life, Letters, &c. By L. D. Campbell. 

London, 1798. 

Brigga, H. Cities of Gujarashtra; their 
Topography and H" 
4to. Bombay, 1849. 

opographv and History Illustrated. 


Brigg*8 Firiehta. H. of the Rise of the 
Mahomedan Power in India. Trans- 
lated from the Or^. Persian of Mahomed 
Kasim Firishta. By John 6rig(j^s, Lieut- 
Col. Madras Army. 4 vols. 8vo. 1829. 

[Brinckman, A. The Rifle in Cashmere : A 

Narrative of Shooting Expeditions. 

London, 1862.] 
BrodkB, T. Weights, Measures, Exchanges, 

&c., in East India. Small 4to. 1752. 
Broome, Capt. Arthur. Hist, of the Rise 

and Progress of the Bengal Army. 8vo. 

1850. Only vol. i. pubhshed. 

Broughton, T. D. Letters written in a 
Mahratta Camp during the year 1809. 
4to. 1813. [New ed. London, 1892.] 

Brace's Amials. Annals of the Honourable 
E. India Company. (1600-1707-8.) By 
John Bruce, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 3 voK 
4to. 1810. 

BmgBOh Bey (Dr. Henry). Hist, of Egypt 
under the Pharaohs from the Monu- 
ments. E.T. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1881. 

Buchanan, Gaudius, B.D. Christian Re- 
searches in Asia. 11th ed. 1819. 
Originally pubd. 1811. 

Buchanan Hamilton, Fr. The Fishes of 
the Ganges River and its Branches. 
Oblong folio. Edinburgh, 1822. 

[ Also see Eastern India. 

[Buchanan, Dr. Francis (afterwards Hamil- 
ton). A Journey . . . through . . . 
Mysore, Canara and Malabar . . . &c. 
3 vols. 4to. 1807.] 

Burckhardt, J. L. See p. 315a. 

Burke, The Writings and Correspondence 

of the Rt. Hon. Edmund. 8 vols. 8vo. 

London, 1852. 
Burman, The : His Life and Notions. By 

Shway Yoe. 2 vols. 1882. 
Bumes, Alexander. Travels into Bokhara. 

3 vols. 2nd ed. 1835. 
[Bumes, J. A Visit to the Court of Scinde. 

London, 1831.] 
Bumouf, Euff^ne. Introduction k I'His- 

toire du Bouddhisme Indien. (Vol. i. 

alone published.) 4to. 1844. 

Burton, Capt. R. F. Pilgrimage to £1 
Medina and Mecca. 3 vols. 1855-56. 


■ Memorial Edition. 2 vols. London, 

Scinde, or the Unhappy Valley. 2 

vols. 1851. 

Bind Revisited. 2 vols. 1877. 

Camoens. Os Lmiadas^ Englished 

by R. F. Burton. 2 vols. 1880. And 

2 vols, of Life and Commentary, 1881. 
Goa and the Blue Mountains. 1851. 

[ The Book of the Thousand Nights 

and a Night, translated from the Arabic 
by Capt. Sir R. F. Burton, edited by L. 
C. Smithers. 12 vols. London, 1894.] 

Busbequii, A. Gislenii. Omnia quae extant. 
Amstelod. Elzevir. 1660. 

[Busteed, H. E. Echoes of Old Calcutta. 

3rd ed. Calcutta, 1857. 
[Buyers, Rev. W. Recollections of Northern 

India. London, 1848.] 

Cadamosto, Luizde. NaTo^^a^io Primeira. 

In Collec^ao de Noticias of the Aca- 
demia Real das Sciencias. Tomo II. 
Lisboa, 1812. 
Caldwell, Rev. Dr. (afterwards Bishop). A 
Comparative Grammar of the Dra- 
vidian or South Indian Family of Lan- 
guages. 2nd ed. Revd. and Enlarged, 

Caldwell, Right Rev. Bishop. Pol. and 

Gren. History of the District of Tinne- 

▼elly. Madras, 1881. 
, Dr. R. (now Bishop). Lectures on 

Tinnevelly Missions. 12mo. London^ 

Ca' Masser. Relazaone di Lionordo in 

Archivio Storico Italiano, q.v. 

CSambridge, R. Owen. An Account of the 

War in India between the English and 

French, on the Coast of Coromandel 

(1750-1760). 4to. 1761. 
Cameron, J. Our Trooical Possessions in 

Malayan India. 1865. 
Camoes, Luiz de. Os Lusiadas. Folio ed. 

of 1720, and Paris ed., 8vo., of 1847 

are those used. 
[Campbell, Maj.-6en. John. A Personal 

Narrative of Thirteen Years* Service 

among the Wild Tribes of Khondistan. 

London, 1864. 
[Campbell, Col. W. The Old Forest Ranger. 

London, 1853.] 
Capmany, Ant. Memoriae Hist, sobre la 

Marina, Comercio, y Artes de Barcelona.* 

4 vols. 4to. Madrid, 1779. 
Oardim, T. Relation de la Province dn 

Japon, du Malabar, &o. (trad, du 

Portug.). Toumay, 1645. 
[Carey, W. H. The Good Old Days of 

Honble. John Company. 2 vols. Simla» 


Carletti, Francesco. Ragionamenti di— 

Fiorentino, sopra le cose da lui veduto 

ne' suoi Viaggi, &c. (1594-1606). First 

published in Firenze, 1701. 2 vols, in 

Camegy, Patrick. See List of Olosaarieg. 
Carpini, Joannes de Piano. Hist. Monga- 

lorum, ed. bv D'Avezac, in Recueil de 

Voyages et de M6moires de la Soc de 

G^ographie, tom. iv. 1837. 
Carraccioli, C. Life of Lord Clive. 4 vols. 

8vo. No date (c. 1785). 

It is not certain who wrote this 

ignoble book, but the author must have 

hoen in India. 
Castanheda, Femao Lopez de. Historia 

do descobrimento e conquista da India. 
The oriji^inal edition appeared at 

Coimbra, 155M561 ^in 8 vols. 4to and 

folio), and was reprmted at Lisbon in 


1833 (8 toIb. sm. 4to). This last eii. 
is used in quotations of the Port. text. 

Castanheda was the first writer on 
Indian affairs {Barhosa MaehadOf Bill, 
Lusit., ii. p. 30. See also Fiwinitre, 
BihliograiJiia Hist. Port., pp. 165-167). 
He went to Goa in 1528, and died in 
Portugal in 1559. 

Castafieda. The First Booke of the His- 
torie of the Discouerie and Conquest of 
the East Indias. . . . Transld. into 
English bv N. L.(itchfield), Gentleman. 
4to. London, 1582. 

The translator has often altered the 
spelling of the Indian words, and his 
version is very loose, comparing it with 
the printed text of the Port, in the ed. 
of 1B93. It is possible, however, that 
Litchfielil had the first ed. of the first 
book (1551) before him, whereas the 
ed. of 1833 is a reprint of 1554. (A.B.). 

Catbay and the Way Tfaiiher. By H. 
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tinuously paged. ) 1866. 

[CaferoQ, F. F. A History of the Mogul 
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CaTenagh, Lt.-Gen. Sir Orfeur. Bominis- 
oences of an Indian Official. 8vo. 1884. 

C«ylonefle Vocabnlajy. List of Native 
Words commonly occurring in Official 
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Columbo, June 1869. 

[Gluunberlain, B. H. Things Japanese, 
being Notes on Various Subjects con- 
nected with Japan. 3rd ed. London, 

Chaxdin, Voyages en Perse. Several edi- 
tions are quoted, e.g. Amsterdam, 4 vols. 
4to, 1735 ; by Langl^ 10 vols. 8vo. 1811. 

Chanioek'8 Hist, of Mazine Architectnze. 
2 vols. 1801. 

Gharten, Jtc., of the East India Company 
(a vol. in India Office without date). 

CSiandoir, Baron Stan. Aperf u sur les Mon- 
naies Busses, kc, 4to. St. P^tersbourg, 

[ChevezB* N. A. A Manual of Medical Juris- 
prudence for India. Calcutta, 1870.] 

Gulden, R. A Dictionary of the PaU 
Language. 1875. 

Chitty»S. C. The Ceylon Gazetteer. Cey- 
lon, 1834. 

Chow Chow, being Selections from a Journal 
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land. 2 vols. 1857. 

Ciesa de Leon, Travels of Pedro. £d. by 
C. Harkham. Hak. Soc. 1864. 

Giazice, Capt. H. W., B.E. Translation of 
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don, 1881. 

Glavijo. Itineraire de TAmbassade Espa- 
gnole k Samarcande, in 1403-1406 (ori- 
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I. Srvnevevsky). St. Petersburg, 1881. 

— Embassy of Ruy Gonzales de, to 

the Court of Timour. E.T. by C. 
ifarkham. HaK. Soc. 1859. 

Cleghozn, Dr. Hugh. Forests and Gardens 
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Coast of Coromandel : Regulations for the 
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CobarruTiaJi, Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana 
o Espafiola, compvosto per el Licenciado 
Don Sebastian de. Folio. Madrid, 1611. 

Cocks, Richard. Diary of , Cape- 
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Edited bv Edward Mauude Thompson, 
"^ ' Hak. Soc. 

2 vols. 


Cogan. See Pinto. 

Colebrooke, Life of, forming £he first vol. 

of the collection of his Essays, by his 

son, Sir E. Colebrooke. 1873. 
Collet, S. The Brahmo Year-Book. Brief 

Records of Work and life in the Theistic 

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ColUngwood. C. Rambles of a Naturalist 

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Colomb, Cant. R.N. Slave-catching in the 

Indian Ocean. 8vo. 1873. 
Colonial Papers. See Sainshmy. 
Competition- wallah, Letters of a (by G. 0. 

Trevelyan). 1864. 

Complete Hist, of the War in India (Tract). 

Conti, Nicolo. See Poggins ; also see India 
in the ZVth Century. 

[Cooper, T. T. The Mishmee Hills, an 
Account of a Journey made in an 
Attempt to penetrate Thibet from 
Assam, to onen out new Routes for 
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Cordiner, Rev. J. A. Description of Cey- 
lon, &c. 2 vols. 4to. 1807. 

Comwallis, Correspondence of Charles, 
First Marquis. Edited by C. Ross. 3 
vols. 1859. 

Correa, Gaspar, Lendas da India por. 
This most valuable, interesting, and 
detailed chronicle of Portuguese India 
was not published till in our own day it 
was issued by the Royal Academy of 
Lisbon— 4 vols, in 7, in 4to, 1868-1864. 
The author went to India apparently 
with Jorge de Mello in 1512, and at an 
early date began to make notes for his 
history. The latest year that he men- 
tions as having in it written a part of 
his history is 1561. The date of his 
death is not known. 

Most of the Quotations from Correa, 
begun by Bumell and continued b^ me, 
are from this work published in Lisbon. 
Some are, however, taken from "The 
Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama and 
his Viceroyalty, from the Lendas da 
India of Gaspar Correa," by the Hon. 
E. J. Stanley (now Lord Stanley of 
Alderiey). Hak. Soc. 1869. 

Cozyat, T. Cmdities. Reprinted from 
the ed. of 1611. 8 vols. 8vo. 1776. 



Conto, Diogo de. The edition of the De- 
cadas da Asia quoted habitually is 
that of 1778 (see Banofl). The 4th 
Decade (Couto's first) was published 
first in 1602, fol. ; the 5th, 1612 ; the 
6th, 1614 ; the 7th, 1616 ; the 8th, 1673 ; 
5 books of the 12th, Paris, 1645. The 
9th was first published in an edition 
issued in 1736 ; and 120 pp. of the 10th 
(when, is not clear). But the whole 
of the 10th, in ten books, is included in 
the publication of 1778. The 11th was 
lost, and a substitute by the editor is 
given in the ed. of 1778. Couto died 
10th Dec. 1616. 

Dialogo do Soldado Pratioo (written 

in 1611, printed at Lisbon under the 

title Observa^Ses, &c., 1790). 
Cowley, Abraham. His Six Books of 

Plants. In Works, folio od. of 1700. 
Crawford, John. Descriptiye Diet, of the 

Indian Islands and adjacent countries. 

8vo. 1856. 

Malay Dietionaxy, A Grammar 

and Diet, of the Malay Language. 
Vol. i. Dissertation and Grammar. 
Vol. ii. Dictionary. London, 1852. 
— Journal of an Embassy to Siam 
and Cochin China. 2nd ed. 2 toIs. 
1838. (Firsted. 4to, 1828.) 

Journal of an Embassy to the 

Court of Ava in 1827. 4to. 1829. 
[Crooke, W. The Popular Religion and 

Folk-lore of Northern India. Ist ed. 

1 vol. Allahabad, 1893 ; 2nd ed. 2 vols. 

London, 1896. 
[ The Tribes and Castes of the 

North -Western Provinces and Oudh, 

4 vols. Calcutta, 1896.] 
Ciumingham, Capt. Joseph Davy, B.E. 

History of the Sikhs, from the Rise of 

the Nation to the Battles of the Sutloj. 

8vo. 2nded. 1853. (1st ed. 1849.) 
CuTmingham, Major Alex., B.E. Ladak, 

Physical, Statistical, and Historical. 

8vo. 1854. 
CiniBingham, M.-Gen., R.E., C.S.I, (the 

same). Reports of the Archaeological 

Survey of India. Vol. i., Simla, 1871. 

Vol. xix., Calcutta, 1885. 

CycladM, The. By J. Theodore Bent. 8vo. 

Dabistan, The ; or. School of Manners. 
Transl. from the Persian by Dsvid Shea 
and Anthony Troyer. (Or. Tr. Fund.) 

3 vols. Pans, 1843. 

D'Aeanha, Dr. Gerson. Contributions to 
the Hist, of Indo-Portngaese Numis- 
maties. 4 fascic Bombay, 1880 seqq. 

Da Gama. See Roteiro and Correa. 

D'AIbnquerqne, Afonso. Commentaries. 

Folio. Lisboa,1557. 
CommentarieB, transl. and edited 

by Walter de Grey Birch. Hak. Soo. 

4 vols. 1875-1884. 

Dalxymple, A. The Oriental BeperUny 

foriginally published in numbers, 1791- 
97), then at the expense of the £.1. Co. 
2 vols. 4to. 1808. 
Damiani a Q6eB, Diensis Oppugnatio. Ed. 

De Bello Cambaico. 


Dampier'8 Voyages. (Collection including 
sundry others). 4 vols. 8vo. London, 

[Danven, F. C, and Foster W. Letters 
received by the E.I. Co. from its Servants 
in the East. 4 vols. London, 1896-1900.] 

D'Anyille. EclairciaBemens sur la Carte do 
rinde. 4to. Paris, 1753. 

Darmeeteter, James. Ormazd' et Ahriomn. 

The Zendavesta. (Sacred Books of 

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Davidson, Col. C. J. (Bengal Engineers). 
Diary of Travels and Adventures in 
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Davies, T. Lewis O., M.A. A Supple- 
mental EnfirliBh Glossary. 8vo. 1881. 

Davis, Voyages and Works of John. Ed. 
by A. H. Markham. Hak. Soc. 1880. 

[Davy, J. An Account of the Interior of 
Ceylon. London, 1821.] 

Dawk Bungalow, The ; or, Is his appoint- 
ment pucka? (By G. 0. TreveJyan). 
In Eraser's Mag., 1866, vol. Ixiii. pp. 
215-231 and pp. 382-391. 

Day, Dr. Francis. The Fishes of India. 
2vols. 4to. 1876-1878. 

De Bry, J. F. and J. ^'Indien Orientalis." 
10 parts, 1599-1614. 

The quotations from this are chiefly 
such as were derived through it by Mr. 
Bumell from Linschoten, l^fore he had 
a copy of the latter. He notes from the 
Biog. Untv, that Linschoten's test is 
altered and r6-arranged in De Bry, and 
that the Collection is remarkable for 
endless misprints. 

De Bussy, Lettres de M., de Lally et autres. 

Paris, 1766. 
De Candolle, Alphonse. Origine des 

Plantes Cultivees. 8vo. Paris, 1883. 

De Castro, D. Joao de. Primeiro Roterio 
da Costa da India, desde Goa at^ Dio. 
Segundo MS. Autografo. Porto, 1843. 

De Castro. Roteiro de Dom Joam, do 
Viagem que iizeram os Portuguezes ao 
Mar Roxo no Anno de 1541 . Paris, 1883. 

De Gnbematis, Angelo. Storia dei Viag- 
ffiatori Italian! nolle Indie Orientali. 
Livorno, 1875. 12mo. There was a pre- 
vious issue containing much less matter. • 

De la Boullaye - le - Ctooz, Voyages et 

Observations du Seigpieur, Gentilhomme 
Angevin. Sm. 4to. Paris, 1653, and 
2nd ed. 1657. 
De la LonMre. Historical Relation of Siam 
byM.' £.T. 2 vols, folio in one. 1693. 



DeQa Tomtia, Maroo. Pablished by De 
Oubernatis. Florence, 1878. 

DeQaYalle^Ptoiro. ^agside ,ilPel- 

legrino, deacritti, da mi medeomo in 
Lettere Familiari . . . (1614-1626). 
OimiiaUy pnbliahed at Rome, 1650-58. 
The Editaon quoted is that pablished 
at Brighton (but printed at Turin), 
1843. 2 Tola, in small Sto. 

From the O.K. Tr. of 1664, by 

O. Hayexs. 2 vols. ed. by E. Grey. 

HAK.SOC. 1891.] 
DeDaB. Relation de Hziquisition de Goa. 

1688. Also E.T., Hull, 1812. 
De Momfiurt) H. An Exact and Curious 

Soxrey of all the East Indies, even to 

GantoQ, ibe chief e citie of China. Folio. 

1615. (A worthless book.) 
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Hak. Soc. 1868. 
[Dennji, N.B. DescriptiTe Dictionary of 

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De Orta, Garcia. See Oarda. 
De Baej, SflTestre. Chrestomathie Arabe. 

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DeeidfUi, P. Ipolito. MS. transcript of 

his NarratiTe of a residence in Tibet, 

beloDffinff to the Hakluyt Society. 

Dtcriimario della Lengua CasteUana com- 

paesto por FAcaaemia Real. 6 vols. 

folio. Madrid, 1726-1739. 
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2nd ad. 1805. (list of Glossaries, No. 6.). 
Dies, Friedrich. Etymologisehes WOiter- 

bach der Romanischen Sprachen. 2te. 

Aoflgabe. 2 toIb. 8to. Bonn, 1861-62. 
DileiiilDa, The. (A novel, by Col. G. 

Chemey, R.E.) 3 toIs. 1875. 
D^HtTBllso. The Dipavamso: edited and 

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Diplend AiaU. See Amaii. 
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India which terminated the War with 

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D'Ohsaon, Baron C. Hist, des Mongols. 

La Haye et Amsterdam. 1834. 4 vols. 
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Also Latin in Grynaens, Novus Orbis. 
Dom, Bembard. Hist, of the A&hans, 

translated from the Persian of Neamet 

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2to1s.8vo. 1884. 
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[Dowglai, J. Bombay and Western India. 

Tvoh. London, 1893.] 


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Dosy and Engelmann. Glossaire des Mots 
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Leide, 1869. 

Gosterlingen. VerUarende Lijst 

der Nederlandsche Woorden die mit het 
Arabsch, Hebreeuwsch, Chaldeeuwsch, 
Perzisch, en Turksch afkomstig djn, 
door R. DoEy. S* Gravenhage, 1867. 

Supplement aux Dictionnaires 

Arabes. 2 vols. 4to. 

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Dnmimond, R. niostrations of the Gram- 
matical parts of Guzarattee, Mahrattee, 
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Political (E. B. Eastwick). 1849. 

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Dn Tertre, P. Hist. G^n^rale des Antilles 
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[Edwardes, Major H. B. A Year on the 
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Elgin, Lord. Letters and Journals of 
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Elliot. The Hist of India as told by its 
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Elliot, Sir Walter. Coins of S. India, be- 
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Elikhinstone, The Hon. Mdimt-Btowmit, 

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Forbes, A. Kinloch. See BAs K&Ul. 

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Fraser, James Baillio. Journal of a Tour 

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Frere, Miss M. Deccan Days, or Hindoo 

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Garcia. CoUoqnios dos Simples e Drogas 
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Algumas Froctaa aohadas nella . • . 



oomposioa pek> Dontor Qftrda de Qrta. 
FhTsioo del Bei JoSo 8°. 2a edicfio. 

{Printed nearly pa^e for page with the 
ongiiial edition, which was printed at 
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most Talnable book, full of curious 
matter and good sense. 
Qazein de Tugy. Pturticularit^ de la Re- 
luion Husulmane dans Tlnde. Paris, 

In my Inditn. By Phfl. Robinson. 
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niar, Francis. Yoyig^ d'Ezplomtioii 

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€Ml6i» Herbert A. Chinese Sketches. 1876. 
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€a«i^, Bev. Q. B. Mem. of Warren Hast- 
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Oluimm ■igilHj by T. B. (Blount). Folio 

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flo a v , A. de. loniada do Aroebispo de 
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_ r, James. The Sugar-Cane, a Poem 
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8ee p. 4m. 
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One of those would-be funny moun- 
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armnt-Dnff, Mount-Stewart Elph. Notes of 

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[Oxibble, J. D. B. Manual of Cnddapah. 

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[Gxienon, G. A. Bihiur Peasant life. Cal- 
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Grose, Mr. A Vi^ytge to the East Indies, 
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The first edition seems to have been 
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[Qrome, F. S. Mathuri, a District Memoir. 
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Guenreiro, Feman. Beladon Annual de 
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Comp. de J. ... en (1)600 y (1)601, 
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Gnndert, Dr. Malay&lam and English 
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Haafher, M. J. Voyages dans la P^ninsule 
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Hadley. See under Moors, The, in the 

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Several of the additions are from 
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HaUied, N. B. Ck>de of Gentoo Laws. 4to. 
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Hall, Fita Edward. Modem English, 1873. 

flflpitM^^Mij Alexander, Captain. A New 
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The original publication (2 vols. 8vo.) 
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tions are from both ; they differ to a 
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of the references have now been checked 
with the edition of 1744.] 



Hamilton, Walter. Hindustan. Geographi- 
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Hammer -Pnrgatall, Joseph. Oeschichte 
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Hanbnxy and Fltiokiger. Pharmaoogra- 

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There has been a 2nd ed. 
Hanway, Jonas. Hist. Ace. of the British 

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[Hazoonrt, Capt. A. F. P. The Etimala^ran 

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London, 1871.] 
Hardy, Berd. Spence. Manual of Bnd- 

dmsm in its Modem Development. 
The title-page in my copy says 1860, 

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Hazrington, J. H. Elementary Analysis 

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folio. 1805-1817. 
BtLUgf Martin. Essays on the Sacred 

Language, Writings, and Beligion of 

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Havart, Daniel, M.D. Op- en Ondeigang 

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Heber, Bp. Beginald. NazratlTe of a 

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But most of the quotations are from 

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Hedgas, Diary of Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
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Hehn, V. Knltaxpflanaen und Hansthisrs 

in ihren Uebergang aus Asien nach 
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Heiden, T. Venraerlyke Schipbrenk, 1675. 

Herbert, Sir Thomas. Some Yeares 
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Heiklots, G. B. Qanoon-e-Islam. 1832. 
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Heylin, Peter. Cosmographie, in 4 Books 

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Heyne, Benjamin, ^nusts on India. 4to 

Hodges, William. Travels in India during 

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[Hoey, W. A Monograph on Trade and 

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Hofbneister. Travels. 1848. 

Holland, Philemon. The Historic of the 
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Tr. into English by P. H., Doctor in 
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PaJmtTO, W, Gifford. Narrative of a 
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Western Arabia. 2 vols. 1865. [New 

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PandDxang Hari, or Memoirs of a Hindoo^ 
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von. lo26. The aathor was Mr. Hock- 
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known. Ilie quotations are partly from 
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with a preface by Sir Bartle Frere, 
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parently from a 1-voI. issue in 187/. 
^ 4 Ser. N. It Q. xi. 439, 527. The 
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tiie ed. of 1873.] 

Paidab Hoiaa and Qaeries. a monthly 
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PadUso, Fra P. da S. Bartolomeo. Vianrlo 
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PadUso, E.T. by J. R. Forster. 8vo. 1800. 

[Paaroa, N. life and Adventures in Abys- 
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Pagolflttt, Fr. Baldnod. La Pratioa di Mer- 
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Pemberton, liajor R. B. Boport on the 
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Pennant's (T.) view of Hindooeian, India 

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1844. (Said to be written by the late 

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Fhilalethee, The Boooawen'e Voyage to 
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Philippi, R.P.F., de Sanctma. Trinitate, 
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PhilUpe, Sir Richard. A MUUon of Facte. 
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innumerable absurdities. 

PhiUhw, Mr. An Account of the Religion, 
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Pletet, Adolphe. Lee Originea Indo-Euro- 
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Pigafetta, and other contemporaryWriters. 
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Poggivs De Varietate Foitiiiiaa. The 

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Polldk, Lt.-Gol. Sport in BritiBhBuimali, 
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Pxidluun, C. An Hist., Pol. and Stat. 
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[Pzia^le, A. T. Selections from the Consulta- 
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The Diary and Consultation Book of 

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Pxinaop, H. T. Hist, of Political and 
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2 vols. 1825. 

Propagation of the Oospel in the East. In 
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Poadanb Ttade Report. Report on the 
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Pnrohas, his PUgrimes, Ac. 4 vols, folio. 
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There is a smaller first sketch of 1611, 
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[B4j«n<lraUda MItra, Indo-Aryans. Con- 
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BaTonshaw, J. H. Gaur, its Ruins and 
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BaTsrtr. Major H. G. TabaUt-i-NUzi, 
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immense number of editions of the ori- 
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in 6 vols. 1798. 



', A T^ue. (By Col. Qw>rge GhM- 

n^, R.E.). 8 Tols. 1878. 
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Also sometimes quoted from the 
French version, riz. : — 

Abraham. La Porto OuTorto . . . 
'on la Vraye Representation, ko, 4to. 
AoBsterdam, 1670. 

Hie author was the first Chaplain at 
Pnlicat (1681-1641), and then for some 

Siara at Bataria (see Havart, p. 132). 
e returned home in 1647 and died in 
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was brought out bv his widow. Thus, 
at the time that the English Chaplain 
Lord (q.v.) was studjrinf the religion of 
the ffindus at Surat, the Dutch Chap- 
lain Bcger was doing the same at Puu- 
cat. Tne work of the last is in erery 
way Tastly superior to the former. It 
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omia% to its publication after his death, 
ihore are a few misprints of Indian 

words. The author had his information 
from a Brahman named Pftdmanaba 
{Pcuinuinahha^f who knew Dutch, and 
who gave him a Dutch translation of 
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Bofcoizo da l^agom de Vasoo da Gama em 
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The 1st ed. was published in 1888. The 
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iSBw Do Castro. 

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Boyle, J. F., M.D. An Essay on the An- 
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Illustrations of the Botany and 

other branches of Nat. History of the 
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Bnhrak, Wilhelmus de. Itinerarinm in 
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Bnmphius (Greo. Everard Rumphf.). Her- 
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Bnssoll, Patrick. An Account of Indian 
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Bycant, Sir Paul. Prssont State of the 
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Saar, Jobann Jacob, Ost - Indianiscbe 
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Sadik T'l*^^*^"^, The Geoffraphical Works 
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Sainsboxy, W. Noel. Calendar of State 
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Sanang Sotion. Oeschichto dor Ost-Mon- 
goien . . . von Ssanang Ssetzen Chung- 
taidschi der Ordus. aus dem Mongol . . . 
▼on Isaac Jacob Schmidt. 4to. St. 
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[Sanderson, G. P. Thirteen Years among 
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San Soman, Fray A. Historia GeiiAral 

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Schnken, Walter. Ost-Indische Reise- 
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Scrafton, Luke. BeflexioxiB on the Govern- 
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Beir Mntaqherin, or a View of Modem 
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year 1118 to 1195 of the Hedjirah. 
From the Persian of Gholam Hussain 
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Seton-Karr, W. S., aud Hugh Sandeman. 
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18^. 5 vols. 8vo. (The 4th and 6th 
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Shaw, Robert. Visits to High Tartarv. 
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Shenring, Revd., M.A. Hindu Tribes and 
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Sherwood, Mrs. Stories from the Church 
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Sherwood, Mrs., The life of, chiefly Auto- 
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Shipp, John. Memoin of the Extraordi- 
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** We have also used the second edi- 
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See Propagation of the 


mot. OOL. 

32 5. — Apollo Bunder. Mr. S. M. Edwardes {History of Bombay^ Town 
and Island^ Census Report^ 1901, p. 17) derives this name from 
* Pallav Bandar,' ' the Harbour of Clustering Shoots.' 

274 a. — ^Orease. 1817. '* the Portuguese commander requested permission 
to see the Gross which Janiere wore. . . . " — Rev, E, FeUoweSy 
History of Ceylon^ chap. v. quoted in 9 ser. N, db Q. I. 85. 

276 h.—Fwr « Porus " read " Portus." 

380 5. — For " It is probable that what that geographer ..." read ^ It ia 
probable from what ..." 

499 5. — The reference to Bao was accidentally omitted. The word is 
Peguan hd (pronounced hd-a), "a monastery." The quotation 
from Sangermano (p. 88) runs : *' There is not any village, how- 
ever small, that has not one or more large wooden houses, which 
are a species of convent, by the Portuguese in India called Bao.** 

511 a.— ^or"Adawlvt"r«i4"Adawlat." 

565 a. — Mr. Edwardes (op. cit, p. 5) derives Mtaagong from Skt matsya- 
grdTMLy " fish- village," due to " the pungent odour of the fish, 
which its earliest inhabitants caught, dried and ate." 

655 6.— JVw " Steven's " read " Stevens*." 

678 a.— Mr. Edwardes (op. eit, p. 15) derives Parell from pdd^ " the Tree* 
Trumpet Flower " {Bignonia suaveolens). 

816 a.'^For " shd-hdsh " read " skdh-bdsh:* 

858 h,—Far " Sowar " read " Sonar, a goldsmith." 

920 5.— TiiBn add : 

1784. — "Each temperate day 

With health glides away, 

No TliiBngS * our forenoons profane." 

—Memoirs of ihe Late War in Asia, hj Afi Officer of 
Colonel Bailli^s Detachmenty ii. Appendix, p. 293. 

1802. — " I suffered a very large library to be useless whence I 
might have extracted that which would have been of more service 
to me than running about to Tiflins and noisy parties."— Af «<«»//«, 
to /. W, Sherer, in Kaye, Life of Lord Metcalfe, I. 81. 

♦ [In note "Lancheons.'T 







AHAnA a A word used by old 
Spemifih and Portugese writers for a 
* rhinoceros,' and aaopted by some of 
the older English narrators. The 
origin is a little doubtfuL If it were 
certain that the word did not occur 
earlier than c 1530-40, it would 
most probably be an adoption from 
the Malay hadjak. *a rhinoceros.' The 
word is not used by Barros where he 
would probably have used it if he 
knew it (see quotation under OANDA) ; 
and we have found no proof of its 
earlier existence in the Iangua«^ of 
the Peninsula ; if this shoula be es- 
tablished we should have to seek an 
Arabic origin in such a word as ahadai^ 
dbid, fern, dbida^ of which one meaninc 
is (v. Lane\ *a wild animal.' The usual 
form ahaia is certainly somewhat in 
favour of such an origin. [Prof. Skeat 
l>elieve8 that the a in ahada and similar 
Malay words represents the Arabic 
article, which was commonly used in 
Spanish and Portuguese prefixed to 
Arabic and other native words.] It 
will be observed that more than one 
authority makes it the female rhino- 
ceros, and in the dictionaries the word 
is feminine. But so Barros makes 
Ganda, [Mr W. W. Skeat suggests that 
the female was the more aangerous 
anifnal^ or the oue most frequently 
met with, as is certainly the case 
with the crocodile.] 

1541.—" Mvnes of Silver, Copper, Tin, and 
Lead, from whence great quantities thereof 
were continoally drawn, which the Merch- 
ants carried away with Troops of Elephants 
and Rhinoceroses {em eaJUcLS de denies e 
badas) for to transport into the Kingdoms of 
Somau, by us callea Siam, PomUoco^ Sarady, 
(Savady in orig.JL Tangu, Prom, Calatnin- 
kam and other Provinces .... "-^PitUo 
(orig. cap. xli.) in Cogan, p. 49. The king- 
doms named here are Siam (see under 
SABHAU); Pitchalok and SawatU (now 

two provinces of Siam) ; Taungu and Prome 
in B. Burma; Calaminham, in the interior 
of Indo-China, more or less fabulous. 

1644.— "Now the King of Tartary was 
fallen upon the cit^ of Pequin with so g^reat 
an army as the like haa never been seen 
since Adam*s time ; in this army . . . 
were seven and twenty Kings, under whom 
marched 1,8O0lOOO men .... with four 
score thousand Rhinoceroses " {dondej)artir/U> 
com aitetUa mil badas). — Ibtd. (ong. cap. 
Gvii.) in Cogan, p. 149. 

[1560. — See quotation under LAOS.] 

1685. — "It is a very fertile country, with 
great stoare of prouisioun; there are ele- 
phants in great number and abadas, which 
18 a kind of beast so big as two great buls, 
and hath vppon his snowt a little home." — 
AfendozOf ii. 311. 

1592. — "We sent commodities to their 
king to barter for Amber-greese, and for the 
homes of Abath, whereof the Kin^ onel^ 
hath the traffique in his hands. Now thus 
Abath is a bsast that hath one home 
only in her forehead, and is thought to be 
the female Vnioome, and is highly esteemed 
of all the Moores in those puts as a most 
soveraign^ remedie against poyson.*' — Bar- 
ker in Hakl. ii. 591. 

1698.—" The Abada, or Rhinoceros, is not 
in India,* but onely in Bengala and PcUane,** 
—Linschoten, 88. [Hak. Soc. ii. 8.] 

" Also in Bengala we found great numbers 
of the beasts which in Latin are called JViin- 
ocerotety and of the Portingalles Abadas." — 
Ibid, 28. [Hak. Soc. i. 96.] 

c. 1606. — ". . . ove portano le loro mer- 
canzie per venderle a Cinesi, particolar- 
mente . . . molti comi della Bada, detto 
Rinoceronte . . ."^CarleUiy p. 199. 

1611. — " Bada, a very fierce animal, called 
by another more common name Rhinoceros. 
In our days they brought to the Kinff Philip 
II., now in glory, a Baida which was long at 
Madrid, having his horn sawn off, and being 
blinded, for fear he should hurt anybody. 
. . . The name of Bada is one imposed by 
the Indians themselves ; but assuming that 

* i.«., not on the W. coast of the Peninsula, 
called India especially by the Portuguese. Bee 
under INDIA. 




there is no language but had its origin from 
the Hebrew in the confusion of tongues . . . 
it will not be out of the way to obMnre that 
Bada is an Hebrew word, from Badad, 
* solus, solitarius,' for this animal is pro- 
duced in desert and very solitary places." 
— Cobctrruviaaf s. v. 

1613.—" And the woods give ffreat timber, 
and in them are produced elephants, tedas 
. . r^Oodinho de JBredia, 10 v. 

1618.— "A China brought me a present of 
a cup of abado (or black imeooms home) 
with sugar cakes. — Cocks* s Diary ^ ii. 56. 

1626. — On the maigin of Piffafetta's C(mgo, 
as griyen by Purchas (ii. 1001), we find: 
'' Rhinoceros or Abadai." 

1631.— "lib. y. cap. 1. De Abada seu 
Rhinooerote. "— Bon^u iTu^. Nat, ei Med, 

1726.— "Abada, s. f. La hembra del 
Rhinooeronte."— />t6e. de la Lengua Cat- 

P. dlhkdrij the business of distilling 
or selling (strong) waters, and hence 
elliptically the excise upon such 
business. This last is the sense in 
which it is used by Anglo- Indians. 
In every district of India the privilege 
of BeUing spirits is farmed to con- 
tractors, who manage the sale through 
retail shopkeepers. This is what is 
called the 'Abkary System.' The 
system has often been attacked as 
promoting tippling, and there are 
strong opinions on both sides. We 
subjoin an extract from a note on the 
subject, too long for insertion in 
integrity, by one of much exjierience 
in &ngal— Sir Q. U. Yule. 

June^ 1879.— " Natives who have ex- 
pressed their views are, I belike, unani- 
mous in ascribing the increase of drinking 
to our Abkaree 83rstem. I don't say that 
this is putting the cart before the horse, 
but they are certainly too forgetful of the 
increased means in the country, which, if 
not the sole cause of the increased consump- 
tion, has been at least a very large factor in 
that result. I myself believe that more 
people drink now than formerly ; but I knew 
one gentleman of very long and intimate 
knowledge of Benp^ who held that there 
was as much drinking in 1820 as in 1860." 

In anv case exaggeration is abundant. 
All Sanskrit literature shows that tippling 
is no absolute novelty in India. [See the 
article on "Spirituous Drinks in Ancient 
India," by Rajendralala Mitra, Indo-Aryang, 
i. 889 eeqqJ] 

1790.— "In respect to Abkairy, or Tax 
on Spirituous Liquors, which is reserved for 
Taxation ... it is evident that we cannot 
establish a general rate, since the quantity 
of consumption and expense of manufacture, 
etc., depends upon the vicinity of principal 

stations. For the amount leviable upon 
different Stills we must rely upon officers 
local knowledge. The pubhc, indeed, can- 
not suffer, since, if a few stills are sup- 
Sressed by over-taxation, drunkenness i> 
iminished."— In a Letter from Board oj 
Revenue (Bengal) to Government, 12th July. 
MS. in India Ojfice. 

1797. — " The stamps are to have the words* 
*Aboaree licenses ' inscribed in the Persian 
and Hindu languages and character." — Ben- 
gal RegulatiorUf x. 33. 

ABISOWA. Proprly P. db-o- 
hatoAj * water and air.' The usual 
Hindustani expression for 'climate.' 

1786.— "What you write concerning the 
death of 500 Eoorgs from small-pox is 
understood .... they must be kept where 
the climate [&b-o-liaw&] may best agree 
with them,"— Tippoo^a Letters, 269. 

ABYSSINIA, n.p. This geogra- 
phical name is a 16-century Latin- 
isation of the Arabic Habash, through 
the Portuguese ^6esB, * bearing much 
the same pronunciation, minus tlie 
aspirate. [See HT7B8HEE.] 

[1608.— "Theoountreyof the Abexynes, 
at Prester John's land.^ — Linschoten, Hnk. 
Soc. i. 88. 

1617.— "He sent mee to buy three 
Abasailim."— iSir T, Roe, Travels, Hak. 
Soc. ii. 446.] 

A.O. (i.«. * after compliments*). In 
official versions of native letters these 
letters stand for the omitted formalitie^s 
of native compliments. 

ACHANOCK, n.p. H. Chdnak and 
Achdnak, The name by which tlie 
station of Barrackpore is commonly 
known to Sepoys and other natives. 
Some have connected the name with 
that of Job Chamock, or, as A. 
Hamilton calls him, Channock, tlie 
founder of Calcutta, and the quotations 
render this probable. Formerly the 
Cantonment of Secrole at Benares w^JLs 
also known, by a transfer no doubt, us 
Chhotd (or < Little') Achan&k. Two 
additional remarks may l)e rele\^itly 
made : (1) Job's name was certainly 
Ghamock, and not Channock. It is 
distinctly signed "Job Chamock," in 
a MS. letter from the factory at 
"Chutta," i.e. Chuttanuttee (or Cal- 
cutta) in the India Office records, 
which I have seen. (2) Tlie map in 
Valentijn which shows the village of 
T^jannok, though published in 1726, 
was apparently compiled by Van der 



Broecke in 1662. Hence it is not 

Jrobable that it took its name from 
ob Chamock, who seems to have 
entered the Company's service in 1668. 
When he went to Bengal we have not 
Iteen able to ascertain. [See Diary of 
HedgeSf edited by Sir H. Yule, ii., xcix. 
In some "Documentary Memoirs of 
Job Chamock," which form part of 
voL Ixxv. (1888) of the Hakluyt Soc., 
Job is said to have " arrived in India 
in 1655 or leae.*^ 

1677. — "The ship Falcone to ffo up the 
riTer to Hnghly, or at least to Chaimook." 
—Court's Letter to Ft. St. Geo. of 12th 
December. In Notes and JBxtrads, Madras, 
1871, No. 1., p. 21 ; see also p. 23. 

1711.— "Chaaook-Reach hath two shoals, 
the upper one in Ghaaook, and the lower 
one on the opposite side .... you must 
from below Degon as aforesaid, keep the 
starboard shore aboard until you come up 
with a lime-Tree .... and then steer oyer 
with Chanock Trees and house between the 
two shoals, until you come mid-river, but no 
nearer the house.''— rA« English, JHlot, 55. 

1728.— "'t stedeken Ttajaanook."— To^ 
entifUj y. 153^ In Val.'s map of Bengal 
also, we find opposite to Oegli (Hoogly), 
T^Jjumok, and then CoUecatte, and Cdleula, 

1758. — "Notwithstanding these solemn 
aasmanoes from the Dutcm it was judged 
expedient to send a detachment of troops 
.... to take possession of Tanna Fort and 
Ghaxnoc's Battery opposite to it."— Nar- 
rative of Dutch attempt in the Hoogly, in 
Malcolm's lAfe ofClvee, ii. 76. 

1810.— "The old village of Aohaaook 

stood on the groimd which the post of 
Barrackpore now occupies." — M, Oraham, 

1848. — "From an oral tradition still pre- 
valent among the natives at Barrackpore 
... we learn that Mr. Chamock buut a 
bungalow there, and a flourishing bazar 
arose under his patronage, before the 
settlement of Calcutta had been deter- 
mined on. Barrackpore is at this day 
best known to the natives by the name 
of Chanook."— Jft« Bengal ObUuaryy Calc. 
p. 2. 

AOHAB, 8. P. achdr^ Malay dchOr^ 
adopted in nearly all the vernaculars 
of India for acid and salt relishes. By 
Europeans it is used as the equivalent 
of * pickles,' and is applied to all the 
Atoies of Crosse and felackwell in that 
kind. We have adopted the word 
through the Portuguese ; but it is not 
impossible that Western Asiatics got it 
originally from the Latin acda/ria,— 
(See PlifL Hid, Nat. xiz. 19). 

1568. — *'And they prepare a conserve of 
it {Amaeardiinn) with salt, and when it is 
greeo (and this they call Adhar), and this 

is sold in the market just as olives are with 
us." — OardOf f. 17. 

1596.— linschoten in the Dutch gives the 
word correctly, but in the English version 
(Hak. Soc. ii. 26) it is printed Machar, 

[1612. — " Aohar none to be had except one 
jar."— Danversj LeUerSy i. 230.] 

1616.— "Our /ufe6a««o'« (Jntibasso) wife 
came and brought me a small jarr of Aohar 
for a present, desyrinff me to exskews her 
husband in that he accented hymselfe to 
take phisik."— Codb, i. 135. 

1623. — "And all these preserved in a way 
that is really very good, which they call 
aodao."— P. deUa Fo^ u. 706. [Hak. Soc. 
ii. 827.] 

1653.— "Achar est vn nom Indistanni, 
ou Indien, que signifie des mangles, ou 
autres fruits oonfis aveo de la mouUirde, de 
Tail, du sel, et du vinaigre & I'lndienne."— 
De la Boullaye-U-Gouz, 531. 

1687. — "Aohar I m«sume signifies sauce. 
The^ make in the ^cut Indies, especially 
at i^m and Pegttf several sorts of Achaii as 
of the youDff tops of Bamboes, Ac. Bambo- 
Achar and Mango-^ cAar are most used." — 
DampieTt i* 391. 

1727.— "And the Soldiery, Fishers, Pea- 
sants, and Handicrafts (of Goa) feed on a 
little Rice boiled in Water, with a little bit 
of Salt Fish, or Atchaar, which is pickled 
Fruits or Roots."— ^4. MamUton, i. 262. 
[And see under KEDOEBEE.] 

1783.— We learn from Forrest that limes, 
salted for sea-use against scurvy, were used 
by the Chulias (ChooUa), and were called 
atohar {Voy<»ge to MerfpU^ 40). Thus the 
word passed to Java, as m next quotation : 

1768-71.— "When men it (the mango) Is 
made into attiar: for this the kernel is 
taken out, and the space filled in with 
ginger, pimento, and other spicy ingredi- 
ents, after which it is pickled in vinegar." 
-^Stavorvnus, i. 287. 

ACHEEN, n-p. (P. Achin [Taiii. 
AUaiy Malay Ackek^ Ach,iK\ *a wood- 
leech'). The name applied by us to 
the State and town at tne N. W. angle 
of Sumatra, which was lone, and 
especially during the 16th ana 17 th 
centuries, the greatest native power on 
that Island. The proper Malay name 
of the place is ilc^. The Portuguese 
generafiy called it Ackem (or frequently 
by the adhesion of the genitive preposi- 
tion, Dachem, so that Sir F. Greville 
below makes two kingdoms), but our 
Acheen seems to have been derived 
from mariners of the P. Gulf or W. 
India, for we find the name so given 
(Achln) in the Ain-i-AJcbari, and in the 
GeDg. Tables of Sadik Isfahan!. This 
form may have been sumested by a 
jingling analogy, such as Cfnentals love, 



with Machin (Macheen). See also 
under LOOTY. 

1549.— '* Piiatarum Aoenoram nee peri- 
culum neo suBpicio fuit." — S, Fr, Xav. 
EpigU. 387. 

1552. — "But after Malacca was founded, 
and especially at the time of our entry into 
India, the Kingdom of Pacem began to 
increase in power, and that of Pedir to 
diminish. And that neighbouring one of 
Achem, which was then insignificant, b now 
the greatest of all."— JBarrtw, III. v. 8. 


" Occupado tenhais na g^erra infesta 
Ou do sanguinolento, 
Taprobanico * Achem, que ho mar 

Ou do Cambaico occulto imiguo noeso." 
CanUfes, Odeprejixed to Garcia de Oria. 

c. 1569.— "Upon the headland towards 
the West is the Kingdom of Assi, governed 
by a Moore King." — Caeaar Fredenke, tr. in 
Hakluyt, ii. 855. 

c. 1590.— "The zabdd (civet), which is 
brought from the harbour-town of Sumatra, 
from the territory of Achin, goes by the 
name of ^Sumatra-zabdd, and is by far the 
best."— ^i«, i. 79. 

1597.—" do Pegu oomo do Da- 

ch!Sm"—King*s Letter, in Arch. Port. Or. 
fasc. 3, 669. 

1599.— "The iland of Sumatra, or Tapro- 
buna, is possessed by many Eynges, enemies 
to the Portugals ; the cheif is the Kinge of 
Dachem, who besieged them in Malacca. . . 
The Kinges of Acheyii and Tor (read Jor 
for Johore) are in lyke sort enemies to the 
Portugals. ''-iSir Fulke OreviOe to Sir F. 
Walsingham (in Bruce, i. 125). 

[1615. — " It 80 proved that both Ponleema 
and Governor of Tecoo was come hither for 
KohfAiL*'— Foster, Letters, iv. 3. 

1628.— "Acorn which is Sumatra."— P. 
deUa ValU, Hak. Soc. ii. 287.] 

c. 1635.— "Aebin (a name equivalent in 
rhyme and metre to 'M^hfn') is a well- 
known island in the Chinese Sea, near to 
the equinoctial line." — i^ddik Is/ahdnl (Or. 
Tr. F.), p. 2. 

1780.— "Archin." See quotation under 

1820. — "In former days a great many 
junks used to frequent Achln. This trade 
is now entirely at an end." — Oraw/urd, H. 
Ind. Arch. iii. 182. 

ADAM'S APPLE. This name 

i Porno d^Adamo) is given at (3oa to the 
ruit of the MimusopsElenaiy Linn. {Bird- 
wood) ; and in the 1635 ed. of Gerarde's 
HerocUl it is applied to the Plantain. 
But in earlier oays it was applied to a 
fruit of the Citron kind. — (See Marco 

* This alludes to the mistaken notion, as old as 
N. Conti (0. 1440), that Sumatra srapro6aii«. 

PolOy 2nd ed., i. 101^ and the follow- 
ing : 

c. 1580.— "In his hortis (of Cairo) ex ar- 
boribus virescunt mala dtria, aurantia, Ii- 
monia sylvestria et domestica poma AHa^mi 
vocata. — Pnwp. Alpiwus, i. 16. 

c. 1712. — "It is a kind of lime or oitron 
tree . . . it is called Pomiini Adaml, bemuse 
it has on its rind the appearanoe of two bites, 
which the simplicity of the ancients imagined 
to be the vestiges of the impression which 
our forefather made upon the forbidden 
fruit. ..." BltUeau, quoted by Tr. of Albo- 
querque, Hak. Soc. i. 100. The fruit has 
nothing to do with zamJboa, with which 
Bluteau and Mr. Birch connect it. See 

ADATI, s. A kind of piece-goods 
exported from Bengal. We do not 
know the proper form or etymology. 
It may have been of half -width (from 
H^ ddha, *half '). [It may have been 
half the ordinary lengthy as the 
Salampore (Salempoory) was half the 
length of the cloth known in Madras 
as Punjum. {Madras Man. of Ad. iiL 
799). Also see Yule^s note in Hedged 
Diary, ii. ccxl.] 

1726.— "CoMm (probably Kasidri in 
Midnapur Dist.) supplies many Taffatshe- 
las (Alleija, Bhalee), Qinggangs, AUegias, 
and Adathays, which are mostly made 
there." — VcUentijn, v. 159. 

1813. — Among piece - goods of Bengal : 
"Addaties, Pieces 700" (i.e. pieces to the 
ton).— Milbum, ii. 221. 

ADAWLUT, s. AT.—K.^'addtlat, 
* a Court of Justice,' from 'cmW, * doing 
justice.' Under the Mohammedan 
government there were 3 such courts, 
viz., Nissdmat 'Adalat, Diwdni Ad&lat, 
and Faujddri 'Ad&lat, so-called from 
the respective titles of the officials 
who nominally presided over them. 
The first was the chief Criminal 
Court, the second a Civil Court, the 
third a kind of Police Court. In 1793 
regular Courts were established under 
the British Government, and then the 
Sudder Adawlnt {Sadr 'Addlat) became 
the chief Court of Appeal for each 
Presidency, and its work was done by 
several European (Civilian) Judges. 
That Court was, on the criminal side, 
teimed Nizamut Adawlat, and on the 
civil side Dewanny Ad. At Madras 
and Bombay, Foujdarry was the style 
adopted in lieu of NizamtU. This 
system ended in 1863, on the introduc- 
tion of the Penal Code, and the institu- 
tion of the High Courts on their 



present footing. (On the original 
nistory and constitution of the Courts 
see Fifth, Report, 1812, p. 6.) 

What follows applies only to the 
Ben^ Presidency, and to the ad- 
ministration of justice under the 
Company^s Courts beyond the limits 
of tne Presidency town. Brief par- 
ticulars re^rding the history of the 
Supreme Courts and those Courts 
wmch preceded them will be found 

The grant, by Shah 'Akm, in 1765, 
of the Dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and 
Orissa to the Company, transferred all 
power, civil and military, in those 
provinces, to that body. But no im- 
mediate attempt was made to under- 
take the direct detailed administration 
of either revenue or justice by the 
agency of the European servants of 
the dompany. Such superintendence, 
indeed, of the administration was 
maintained in the prior acquisitions of 
the Company — viz., in the Zemindary 
of Calcutta, in the Twenty-four 
Pergunnas, and in the Chucklas 
(Chuckla]!) or districts of Burdwan, 
Midnapoor, and Chittagonc, which had 
been transferred by tne Nawab, 
Kaaim 'All Khan, in 1760 ; but in the 
rest of the territory it was confined to 
the a£;ency of a Resident at the 
Moorsnedabad Durbar, and of a 
'Chief* at Patna. Jiistice was ad- 
ministered by the Mohammedan 
courts under the native officials of 
the Dewanny. 

In 1770, European officers were 
appointed in the oistricts, under the 
name of Supervisors, with powers of 
control over the natives employed in 
the collection of the Revenue and the 
administration of justice, whilst local 
councils, with superior authority in all 
branches, were established at Moor- 
shedabad and Patna. It was not till 
two years later that, under express 
orders from the Court of Directors, 
the effective administration of the 
provinces was imdertaken by the 
agency of the Company's covenanted 
servants. At this time (1772) Courts 
of Civil Justice (MofiuMil Vewanny 
Adawlut) were established in each of 
the Districts then recojrnised. There 
were also District Criminal Courts 
(Fowdary Adatdut) held by Cazee or 
Mnfty under the superintendence, like 
the Civil Courts of the Collectors, as 

the Supervisors were now styled ; 
whilst Superior Courts {Sudder Dewanny, 
Sudder Nizamut Adawlut) were 
established at the Presidency, to be 
under the superintendence of three 
or four members of the Council of 
Fort William. 

In 1774 the Collectors were recalled, 
and native 'Amils (Aumil) appointed 
in their stead. Provincial Councils 
were set up for the divisions of 
Calcutta. Burdwan, Dacca, Moor- 
shedabao, Dinagepore, and Patna, in 
whose hands the superintendence, both 
of revenue collection and of the 
administration of civil justice, was 
vested, but exercised by the members 
in rotation. 

The state of things that existed 
under this i^stem was discreditable. 
As Courts of Justice the provincial 
Councils were only " colourable imita- 
tions of courts, which had abdicated 
their functions in favour of their own 
subordinate (native) officers, and though 
their decisions were nominally subject 
to the Governor-General in Council, 
the Appellate Court was even a more 
shadowy body than the Courts of first 
instance. The Court never sat at all, 
though there are some traces of its 
having at one time decided appeals on 
the report of the head of the Ehalsa, 
or native exchequer, just as the 
Provincial Council decided them on 
the Teport of the Cazis and Muftis." * 

In 1770 the Government resolved 
that Civil Courts, independent of the 
Provincial Councils, should be estab- 
lished in the six divisions named above,+ 
each under a civilian judce with the 
title of Superintendent of tne Dewanny 
Adatdut J- whilst to the Coxmcils should 
still pertain the trial of causes relating 
to the public revenue, to the demancG 
of zemindars upon their tenants, 
and to boundary questions. The 
appeal from the District Courts still 
lay to the Governor-General and his 
Council, as forming the Court of Sudder 
Dewa/nny; but that this might be real, 
a judge was appointed its head in the 

Jerson of Sir Elijah Impey, the Chief 
ustice of the Supreme Court, an ap- 
pointment which became famous. For 
it was represented as a transaction in- 
tended to compromise the acute dis- 

* Sir James Stephen, in Nuruxmar and Impey, 
t These six were increased in 1781 to eighteen. 



sensions which had l)een going on 
between that Court and the Bengal 
Qovemment, and in fact as a bribe to 
Impey. It led, by an address from 
the House of Commons, to the recall 
of Impey, and constituted one of the 
chaises in the abortive impeachment 
of that personage. Hence his char^ 
of the Sudder Dewanny ceased m 
November, 1782, and it was resumed 
in form by the Governor-General and 

In 1787, the first year of Lord Com- 
wallia's government, in conset^uence of 
instructions from the Court of 
Directors, it was resolved that, with an 
exception as to the Courts at Moor- 
shedabad, Patna, and Dacca, which 
were to be maintained independently, 
the office of judge in the Mofussil 
Courts was to be attached to that of 
the collection of the revenue ; in fact, 
the offices of Judge and Collector, 
which had been divorced since 1774, 
were to be reunited. The duties of 
Magistrate and Judge became mere 
appendages to that of Collector ; the 
administration of justice became a 
subordinate function ; and in fact all 
Regulations respecting that administra- 
tion were passed in the Revenue 
Department of the Government. 

Up to 1790 the criminal judiciary 
had remained in the hands of the 
native courts. But this was now 
altered ; four Courts of Circuit were 
created, each to be superintended by two 
ci\al servants as judges; the Sudder 
Nizamut Adawlui at the Presidency 
being presided over by the Governor- 
Gteueral and the members of Council. 

In 1793 the constant succession of 
revolutions in the judicial system came 
to something like a pause, with the 
entire reformation which was enacted 
by the Regulations of that year. The 
Collection of Revenue was now entirely 
separated from the administration of 
justice ; Zillah Courts under European 
judges were established (Reg. iii.) in 
each of 23 Districts and 3 cities, in 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa ; whilst 
Provincial Courts of Appeal, each con- 
sisting of three judges (Reg. v.), were 
estabhshed at Moorshedabad, Patna, 
Dacca, and Calcutta. From these 
Courts, under certain conditions, 
further appeal lay to the Sudder 
Dewanny Adawluts at the Presi- 

As regarded criminal jurisdiction, 
the judges of the Provincial Courts were 
also (R^. ix., 1793) constituted Circuit 
Courts, liable to review by the Sudder 
Nizamut. Strange to say, the im- 
practicable idea of placing the duties 
of lx)th of the higher Courts, ci\dl 
and criminal, on the shoulders of the 
executive Government was still main- 
tained, and the Governor-General and 
his Council were the constituted heads 
of the Sudder Dewanny and Sudder 
Nieamut. This of course continued 
as unworkable as it had been ; and in 
Lord Wellesley's time, eight years 
later, the two Sudder Adawluts were re- 
constituted, with three regular judges 
to each, though it was still ruled (Rec. 
ii., 1801) that the chief judge in eacii 
Court was to 1)e a member of the 
Supreme Council, not 1)eing either the 
Governor-General or the Commander- 
in-Chief. This rule was rescinded by 
R^ X. of 1806. 

The numl)er of Provincial and Zillah 
Courts was augmented in after years 
with the extension of territory, and 
additional Sudder Courts, for the 
service of the Upper Provinces, wei*e 
established at Allahabad in 1831 (Reg. 
vi.), a step which may be regarded as 
the inception of the separation of the 
N.W. Ptovinces into a distinct Lieu- 
tenant-Governorship, carried out five 
years later. But no change that can be 
considered at all organic occurred 
again in the judiciary system till 
1862 ; for we can hardly consider 
as such the abolition of the Courts 
of Circuit in 1829 (Reg. i.^ and that 
of the Provincial Courts of Appeal 
initiated by a section in Reg. v. of 
1831, and completed in 1833. 

1822. — "This refers to a traditional storj- 
which Mr. Elphinstone used to relate . . . *. 
During the progress of our conquests in the 
North- West many of the inhabitants were 
encountered flying from the newlv-occupied 
territory. * Is Lord Lake coming V was the 
enquiry. * No/ was the reply, Hhe Adaw- 
lut is coming.' " — Life of EphinsUmtj ii. 131. 

1826.—" The ad&wlnt or Court-house was 
close by,"— Pandurang Hari, 271 [ed. 1873, 
ii. 90]. 

ADIGAR, s. Properly adhikdr, 
from Skt. adhikdrin, one * possessing 
authority ; Tam. adhikdri, or -kdren. 
The title was formerly in use in South 
India, and perhaps still in the native 
States of Malabar, for a rural headman. 
[See quot. from Ix)gan below.] It was 



aIw in Ceylon {adikdramay adikdr) the 
title of chief minister of the Oandyan 

1544.—" Fac te axnem et humanum cum 
isti Genti pfaebeas, turn praesertim magis- 
tntibns earom et Praef ectis Pagonmi, quofl 
AdgBZM Tocant"— ^. Fr. Xa/o. BpiSiL llS. 

158S. — " Mentre che noi erauamo in questa 
dttif i'analiroDo sh la measBa notte all' im- 
prooiao, mettendoui il fuooo. Erano questa 
d'nna ettUt nicina, lontana da S. Thom^, 
doue stanno i Portpgheni, un miglio, aotto 
k wofta d*uii loro (^pits^o, che risiede in 
dettecittk . . . etqnesto Gapitano ^ da loro 
dbiamato Adicazio/— Ba26t, f . 87. 

1651.— "There are two who are the 
zreateat and biffhest officers in the land. 
They are called Adigan ; I may term 
them Chief Judges, "--^iflrfun;, 48. 

1726.— " Adigaar. This is as it were the 
«eooiid of the Duaave.^* — Valentign (Ceylon), 
NamaofCtgUxrSy Ac, 9. 

1796.—" In Malabar esiste Qg^di I'uffizio 
.... moiti Kdriakdrer o mimstri; molti 
Adhbeizi o ministri d'nn distretto . . . " — 
FraPaoUno, 237. 

1803.— "The highest officers of State are 
the Adigan or Pnme Ministers. They are 
two in number." — PercivaVt Ceylon^ 256. 

[1810-17.— " Announcing in letters .... 
\a» determination to exercise the office of 
Serr Adikar."— PTt/Av, Mytoor, i. 264. 

1887.— "Each amsam or parish has now 
beades the AdhikSzi or man of authority, 
headman, an accountant." — Logan, Man. of 
Malabar, i. 90.] 

ADJTJTAKT, s. A bird so called 
(no doubt) from its comical resemblance 
to a hnman figure in a stiff dress ]>acing 
dovly on a parade-ground. It is the 
H. kargild^ or gigantic crane, and 
popular scavenger of Bengal, the 
Lqioptilus argala of Linnaeus. The H. 
name is by some dictionaries derived 
from a supposed Skt. word hoMa-gila^ 
*bone-swallower.' The compound, 
liowever appropriate, is not to be 
found in Rmtlingk and Roth's great 
Dictionary. The bird is very well 
described by Aelian, under the name 
of Ki$Xa, wmch is perhaps a relic of the 
still preserved vernacular one. It is 
descnbed by another name, as one of 
the peculiarities of India, by Sultan 
Baber. See PELICAV. 

"The feathers known as Marabou or 
Comercday feathers, and sold in Calcutta, 
srs the taU-ooverts of this, and the L^. 
/fftwirica, anotiier and smaller species '* {jer- 
dm). Ilie name marabout (from the Ar. 
mnribUj 'quiet,' and thence *a hermit,' 
throogh the Port, marabvio) seems to have 
heea giren to the bird in Africa on like 
I to that of adjutant in India. [Comer- 

ooUy, properly Kumarkh&li, is a town in the 
Nadiya Distnct, Bengal. See Balfour, Oyel. 
i. 1082.] 

c. A.D. 250.— "And I hear that there is 
in India a bird JT^to, which is 8 times as 
biff as a bustard ; it has a mouth of a 
frightful sise, and long legs, and it carries 
a huge crop which looks like a leather bag ; 
it has a most dissonant voice, and whilst the 
rest of the plumage is ash-coloured, the tail- 
feathers are of a pale (or ^p-eenish) colour." — 
Aelian, de Nat. Anirn. xvi. 4. 

c. 1680.— "One of these (fowls) is the 
ding, which is a large bird. Each of its 
wings is the length of a man; on its head 
and neck there is no hair. Something like 
a bag hangs from its neck ; its back is black, 
its breast white ; it frequentlv visits Kabul. 
One year they caught and brought me a 
ding, which became very tame. The flesh 
which they threw it, it never failed to catch 
in its beak, and swallowed without ceremony. 
On one occasion it swallowed a shoe well shod 
with iron ; on another occasion it swallowed 
a good-sized fowl right down, with its wings 
and feathers."— JBo&T, 821. 

1754. — " In the evening excursions .... 
we had often observed an extraordinary' 
species of birds, called by the natives Argill 
or HargiU, a nati^ of Bengal. Thoy would 
majestically stalk along before us, and at 
first we took them for Indians naked. . . . 
The following are the exact marks and 
dimensions. . . . The wings extended 14 
feet and 10 inches. From the tip of the bill 
to tiie extremity of the claw it measured 7 
feet 6 inches. ... In the craw was a 
Terapin or land-tortoise, 10 inches lon^; 
and a large black male cat was found entire 
in its stomach." — Ives, 183-4. 

17d8.— "The next is the ^reat Heron, the 
Argali or Adjutant, or Gigantic Crane of 
Latham. ... It is found also in Guinea." 
—Pennant's View of Hindosta/n, ii. 166. 

1810.— "Every bird saving the vulture, 
the Adjutant (or argeelah) and kite, retires 
to some shady spot." — wiUiamson, V. M. 
ii. 8. 

[1880.— Ball [JungU Life, 82) describes the 
" snake-stone " said to be found in the head 
of the bird.] 

AFGHAN, n-p. P.— H— ^/^/kln. 
The most general name of the pre- 
dominant portion of the congeries of 
tribes bevond the N.W. frontier of 
India, whose country is called from 
them AfgMniMn. In England one 
often hears the country called Af- 
gwnM^un^ which is a mispronuncia- 
tion painful to an Anglo-Indian ear, 
and even Afgann^ which is a still 
more excruciating solecism. [The 
common local pronunciation of the 
name is Aoghdn, which accounts for 
some of the forms below. Bellew 
insists on the distinction l>etween the 




AJbban and the Pathan (PXTTTAN). 
"Tne Afghan Ib a Pathan merely 
because he inhabits a Pathan country, 
and has to a great extent mixed with 
its people and adopted their language " 
{Ra4xs of Af.y p. 25). The name repre- 
sents Skt aioaka in the sense of a 
'cavalier,' and this reappears scarcely 
modified in the Assakani or Assakeni 
of the historians of the expedition of 

c. lOaO.— ". . . AlkhAiuaiidKhiljifl. .." 
—*Uiln in EUiU, Oi ; see alao 60, 114. 

c. 1266.— "He also repaired the fort of 
JakQf, which he garriBoned with AfghixkB." 
—Tdrikh-i-Firoxshdhi in do. iii. 106. 

14th cent. — The Afg>i«.Ti« are named by 
the oontinuator of Rashiduddin among the 
tribes in the vicinity of Herat (see N, de E. 
xiv. 494). 

1604.— "The Af|g^lia««, when they are 
reduced to extremities in war, come into the 
presence of their enemy with g^rass between 
their teeth ; being as much as to say, ' I am 
your ox.' " ♦— Boter, 159. 

c. 1566.—" He was afraid of the AfjBrhins." 
—Sidi *Ali, in J, As., Ist S., ix. 201. 

1609.— "Agwaiu and Potan8:'—W. 
Finch, in Purcftas, i. 521. 

c. 1665. — * * Such are those petty Sovereigns, 
who are seated on the Frontiers of Persia, 
who ahnost never pay him anything, no more 
than they do to the King of Persia. As also 
the Bal(mehe8 and Angans, and other Moun- 
taineers, of whom the greatest part pay him 
but a small matter, and even care but little 
for him : witness the A£front they did him, 
when they stopped his whole Army by cut- 
ting oflf the Water .... when he passed 
from Atek on the River Iridut to Gabool to 
lay siege to yandabar .... "—Bemier. £. 
T. 64 [ed. ConstabU, 205]. 

1676. — "The people called AngaiiB who 
inhabit from Candahar to OcUxml . . a 
sturdy sort of people, and great robbers in 
the night-time."— rat^mier, E. T. ii. 44; 
[ed. BaU, L 92]. 

1767. — "Our final sentiments are that we 
have no occasion to take any measures 
against the Afjghaxis' King if it should 
appear he comes only to raise contributions, 
but if he proceeds to the eastward of Delhi 
to make an attack on your allies, or threatens 
the peace of Bengal, you will concert such 
measures with Sujah Dowla as may appear 
best adapted for your mutual defence." 
—OawrVs LeUer, Nov. 20. In Ixmg, 486 ; 
also see BOHILLA 

1888.— "Professor Dom .... discusses 
severally the theories tiiat have been main- 
tained of the descent of the Af glia.iinM ; 1st, 

* This symboUcsl action was common among 
\tddar$ (Bildar), or native nawin, employed on 
the Ganges Canal many years aflpo, when they 
came b^ore the engineer to make a petition. 
But besides ffxass in month, the beldar stood oa 
oiM Ug^ with hands Joined before him. 

from the Copts; 2nd, the Jews; 3rd, the 
Georgians; 4th, the Toorks; 5th, the Mo- 
guls ; 6th, the Armenians : and he mentions 
more cursorily the opinion that they are 
descended from the Indo-Scythians, Medians, 
Sogdians, Persians, and Indians: on con- 
sidering all which, he comes to the rational 
conclusion, that they cannot be traced to any 
tribe or country beyond their present seats 
and the adjoining mountains." — Mphin- 
ttone's Caubool, ed. 1839, i. 209. 

AFBIOO, n.p. A negro slave. 

1682.— "Here we met with y* Barbadoes 
Merchant .... James Cock, Master, laden 
with Salt, Mules, and AfiriooB." — Hedges, 
Diary, Feb. 27. [Hak. Soc. i. 16.] 

[AG AM, adi. A term applied to 
certain cloths ayed in some particular 
way. It is the Ar. ^ajam (lit. "one 
who has an impediment or difficulty in 
speaking Arabic "J, a foreigner, and in 
particular, a Persian. The adj. 'ajami 
thus means "foreign" or "Persian," and 
is equivalent to the Greek fidp^apot and 
the Hind, mle66ha. Sir G. Birdwood 
(Rep. on Old Rec., p. 145) quotes from 
Hieronimo di Santo Stefano (1494-99), 
"in company with some Armenian and 
Azami merchants " : and (ibid.) from 
Varthema: "It is a country of very 
great traffic in merchandise, and par- 
ticularly with the Persians and 
Azamint^ who come so far as there.''] 

[1614.— "Keraeys, Agam colours."— F(W- 
Ur, Letters, ii. 237. 

1614. — "Persia will vent five hundred 
cloths and one thousand keraeys, Agam 
colours, per annum." — Ibid. ii. 23/.] 

AGAS-AGAB, s. The Malay name 
of a kind of sea-weed {Spherococcus 
lichenoides). It is succulent wnen boiled 
to a jelly ; and is used by the Chinese 
with birdsnest (q.v.) in soup. They also 
employ it as a ^lue, and apply it to 
silk and paper intended to oe trans- 
parent. It grows on the shores of the 
Malay Islands, and is much exported 
to China. — (See Orawfurd, Diet. Ind. 
Arch., and Milbum, ii. 304). 

AGDAUN, 8. A hybrid H. word 
from H. dg and P. dan, made in imitation 
of pik-ddn, talam-ddn, shamct-ddn (^spit- 
toon, pencaae, candlestick '). It means 
a small vessel for holding fire to light 
a cheroot. 

AG-GABI, 8. H. 'Fire carriage.* 
In native use for a railway train. 




A0ini-BOAT, 8. A hybrid word 
for a steamer, from H. aga/n^ 'fire,' 
and £ng. hoal. In Bombay Ag-hOt is 

. . .Agin h(m,t.**—Oak/idd, 

L 84. 

[AJHAB, a. Ar. plur. otjinsj ' goods, 
merchandise, crops, etc. Among the 
Mogols it was used in the special sense 
of pay in kind, not in cash.] 

Fc. 1666. — " It (their pay) is, however, of a 
different kind, and not thought so honour- 
able, bat the Jtoutindars are not subject, 
like the MansebcUirs (Mnnsabdar) to the 
Amiaa; that is to say, are not bound to 
take, at a valuation, carpets, and other 
pieces of furniture, that have been used in 
the Kind's palace, and on which an un- 
reasonalue value is sometimes set." — Bemier 
(ed. OmsUMe), 215-6.] 

AK, s. 'H^.ak and arkj in Sindi Hk : 
the prevalent name of the madcl/r 
CKJDDAB) in Central and Western 
India. It is said to be a popular 
Ijelief (of course erroneous) in Sind, 
that Akbar was so called after the dky 
from his birth in the desert. [Ives 
(488) calls it Ogg.] The word appears 
in the following popular rhyme quoted 
by Tod (J2(i/«<Xon, L 669) :— 

Ak-ra jhoprS, 

Phok-rft bar, 

Bajra-rS rotX, 

Mot'h-ra d&l : 

Dekho Raja teri Marwar. 

(For houses hurdles of maddr^ 

For hedges heaps of withered thorn, 

Millet for breaa, horse-peas for pulse : 

Sack is thy kingdom, Raja of Marwar !) 

ATTALTgrgj or NUiang (Hhe naked 
one'X ^ A member of a body of 
zealots amonff the Sikhs, who take 
this name *trom being worshippers 
of Him who is without time, eternal' 
{WilMn). Skt. a privative, and hdL 
^time.' The Akalis may be regarded 
as the Wahabis of Sikhism. The^ 
claim their body to have been insti- 
tated by Guru Gk)vind himself, but 
this is very doubtfuL Cunningham's 
view of the order is that it was the 
outcome of the stru^le to reconcile 
warlike activity with the abandonment 
of the world ; the founders of the Sikh 
doctrine rejecting the inert asceticism 
of the Hindu secto. The Akalis threw 
off all subjection to the earthly govern- 
ment, and acted as the censors of the 
Sikh community in every rank. Run- 
jeet Singh found them very difficult 

to controL Since the annexation of 
the Fanjab, however, they have ceased 
to give trouble. The Akalee is dis- 
tinguished by blue clothing and steel 
armlets. Many of them also used to 
carry several steel ckaknu (CHUCKEB) 
encircling their turbans. [See Ihhetson^ 
Panjah Eth/nog.^ 286 ; Madagan^ in 
Panjab Census Rep., 1891, i. 166.] 

1882. — "We received a message from 
the Acali who had set fire to the village. 
.... These fanatics of the Seik creed 
acknowledge no superior, and the ruler of 
the country can only moderate their frenzy 
by intrigues and bribery. They go about 
everywhere with naked swords, and lavish 
their abuse on the nobles as well as the 
peaceable subjects. . . . They have on 
several occasions attempted the life of Run- 
jeet Singh." — Bwrnea^ TraveUy ii. 10-11. 

1840.— "The Akalis being summoned to 
surrender, re<^uested a conference with one 
of thetattacking party. The youn^ Khan 
bravely went forward, and was straightway 
shot uirouffh the head." — Mrs Mackensie^ 
Storms anaSunshinCf i. 116. 

AKYAB, n.p. The European name 
of the seat of administration of the 
British province of Arakan, which is 
also a port exporting rice largely to 
Europe. The name is never used by 
the natives of Arakan (of the Burmese 
race), who call the town Tsit-htw^j 
* Crowd (in conseouence of) War.' 
This indicates how tne settlement came 
to be formed in 1825, by the fact of the 
British force encamping on the plain 
there, which was found to be healthier 
than the site of the ancient capital of 
the kingdom of Arakan, up the valley 
of the Arakan or Kaladyne R. The 
name Aky^b had been applied, pro- 
bably by the Portuguese, to a neigh- 
bouring village, where there stands, 
about 1^ miles from the present town, 
a pagoda covering an alleged relique of 
(^kiutama (a piece of the lower jaw, or 
an induration of the throat), the name 
of which pagoda, taken from the 
description of relique, is Au-kyait-dati, 
and of this Akyab was probably a 
corruption. The present town and 
cantonment occupy dry land of very 
recent formation, and the high ground 
on which the pagoda stands must have 
stood on the snore at no distant date, 
as appears from the finding of a small 
anchor there about 1835. The village 
adjoining the pasoda must then have 
stood at the mouth of the Arakan R., 
which was much frequented by the 
Portuguese and the Chittagong people 




in the 16th and 17th centuries, and 
thus probably became known to them 
by a name taken from the Pagoda. — 
(From a note by Sir Arthur Phayre.) 
[Col. Temple 'WTites — " The only deri- 
vation which strikes me as plausible, is 
from the Agyattaw Phaya, near which, 
on the island of Sittw^ a Cantonment 
was formed after the first Burmese war, 
on the abandonment of Mrohaung or 
Arakan town in 1825, on account of 
sickness among the troops stationed 
there. The word Agyattaw is spelt 
Akhyap-taw, whence probably the 
modem name."] 

[1826.— '* It (the despatch) at len^h 
arrived this day (3rd Deo. 1826), having 
taken two months in all to reach us, of 
which forty-five days were spent in the 
route from Akyab in Aracan.' — Craw/urd, 
Ava, 289.] 

ALA-BLAZE PAN, s. This name 
is given in the Bombay Presidency to 
a tinned-copper stew-pan, having a 
cover, and staples for straps, which is 
carried on the march by European 
soldiers, for the purpose of cooking 
in, and eating out of. Out on picnics 
a larger kind is frec^uently used, and 
kept continuallv gomg, as a kind of 
])ot-aU'feu. [It has been suggested that 
the word may be a corr. of some French 
or Port, term — Fr. braisery Port, braz- 
eiro, 'a fire-pan,' brazOy *hot coals.'] 

ALBACOBE, s. A kind of rather 
large sea-fish, of the Tunny genus 
{Thynnu9 dlhaccra^ Lowe, perhaps the 
same as Thynnus macropterus, Day) ; 
from the Port, albacor or albecora. 
The quotations from Ovington and 
Grose below refer it to cUbo, but the 
word is, from its form, almost certainly 
Arabic, though Dozy says he has not 
found the word in this sense in Arabic 
dictionaries, which are very defective 
ill the names of fishes (p. 61). The 
word albcicora in Sp. is applied to a 
large early kind of fig, from Ar. al- 
hdkury 'praecox' (Dozy), Heb. hikkura^ 
in Mican vii. 1. — See Uobarruvia^ a v. 
Albacora, [The N.E.D. derives it from 
Ar. alrhukr^ *a young camel, a heifer,' 
whence Port, hacoro, 'a young pig.' 
Also see Gray s note on PyrarOy i. 9.] 

1579. — ' rhese (flying fish) have two ene- 
mies, the one in the sea, the other in the aire. 
In the sea the fish which is called Albooore, 
OS big as a veXmoik"— Letter from Ooa, by T. 
Stevens, in JUakL ii. 583. 

1592. — *'In our passage over from S. 

Laurenoe to the maine, we had exceeding 
great store of Bonitos and AlbooOTM." — 
Barker, in Hold, ii. 592. 

1696.— "We met likewise with shoals of 
AlbioOFM (so call'd from a piece of white 
Flesh that sticks to their I^eart) and with 
multitudes of Bonettoes, which are named 
from their Goodness and Uxoellenoe for 
eating; so that sometimes for more than 
twenty Days the whole Ship's Company 
have feasted on these curious nsh." — Oving- 
ton, p. 48. 

c. 1760.— "The Albacore is another fiah 
of much the same kind as the Bonito . . 
from 60 to 90 pounds weight and upward. 
The name of this fish too is taken from the 
Portuguese, importing its white colour." 
—Grose, i. 6. 

ALBATB088, s. The great sea- 
bird {Diomedea ezulans^ L.), from the 
Port. akairaZy to which the forms used 
bv Hawkins and Dampier, and by 
Piacourt (according to Marcel Devic) 
closely approach. \Aloa!t/ras 'in this 
sense altered to awi-^ cUbe-y albatross 
(perhaps with etvmological reference 
to albusy '* white,'' the albatross beinff 
white, w^hile the akatras was black.*) 
N.E.D, S.V.] The Port, word pro- 
perly means 'a x>elican.' A reference 
to the latter word in our Glossary 
will show another curious misapplica- 
tion. Devic states that cdcairuz in 
Port, means 'the bucket of a Persian 
wheel,' * representing the Ar. al-kddHSj 
which is again from Kadot. He sup- 
poses that the pelican may have got 
this name in the same way that it 
is called in ordinary Ar. sakka^ 'a 
water-carrier.' It has been pointed 
out by Dr Murray, that the alcatmz 
of some of the earlier voyagers, e,g.^ 
of Davis below, is not the Viomedect, 
but the Man-of-War (or Frigate) Bird 
{FregatuB aquiLus), Hawkins, at p. 
187 of the work quoted, describes, with- 
out naming, a bird which is evidently 
the modem albatross. In the quota- 
tion from Mocquet again, akatrva is 
applied to some smaller sea-bird. The 
passage from Shelvocke is that which 
suggested to Coleridge "The Ancient 

1564.— "The 8th December we ankered 
by a small Island called Aleatrana, wherein 
at our eoing a shoare, we found nothing but 
sea-birds, as we call them Qanets, but by 
the Portugals called Aleatrazvei, who for 
that cause gave the said Island the same 
laam&r— Hawkins (Hak. Soe.), 15. 

* Also see Dosy, s. v. aleaduz. AloadMS, accord- 
ing to Cobarruvlas, is in Sp. one of the earthen 
pots of the ncria or Persian wheeL 




1598. — **The dolphins and bonitoee are 
the hoondes, and the alcatnuPOM the 
hawkesy and the fliring fishes the game.*' 
—Ibid. 162. 

1604.— "The other fonle called Alcatnni 
l4 a kind of Hawke that liueth by fishing. 
For when the Bonitos or Dolphines doe chase 
the flying fish vnder the water .... this 
AJeatnRi flyeth after them like a Hawke 
after a Partridge."— i)am8 (Hak. Soc.), 158. 

c. 1006-10. — " Alcatrax sont betis oiaeaux 
ainsi oomme estoomeanx.'* — dioeguet, Voy- 

1672. — "We met with those feathered 
Harbingers of the Cape .... AlbetroMM 
.... they haue ^reat Bodies, yet not pro- 
portionate to their Wings, which mete oat 
twiee their length." — Fryers 12. 

1690. — "They have several other Signs, 
whereby to know when they are near it, 
as by the Sea Fowl they meet at Sea, 
especially the AlgatrOMM, a very large 
long- winged Bird/^Z>am;»0r, i. 531. 

1719.—" We had not had the sight of one 
finh of any kind, since we were come South- 
ward of the Streights of Le Mair, nor one 
ii«i-bird, except a diBConsolate black Albi- 
trOM, who accompanied ns for several days, 
hovering about us as if he had lost himself, 
till HalUy (my second Captain) observing, 
in one of his melancholy fits, that this bira 
was always hovering near us, imagin'd from 
his oolonr, that it mi^ht be some ill omen. 
.... But be that as it would, he after some 
fruitless attempts, at length shot the 
AlbitoOM, not doubting (perhaps) that we 
should have a fair wind after it. . . ." — 
Skdvodura Voyagf, 72, 73. 

1740. — " .... a vast variety of sea-fowl, 
amongst which the most remarkable are 
the Fenguins; they are in sisse and shape 
like a goose, but instead of wings thev have 
short stumps like fins .... their bills are 
narrow like those of an AlbltxtNM, and they 
stand and walk in an erect posture. From 
this and their white bellies^ Sir John Nor- 
bonmffh has whimsically hkened them to 
little children standing up in white aprons." 
— .4iuor'« Voyage, 9th ed. (1756), p. 68. 

1754.— "An albfttroee, a sea-fowl, was 
shot off the Gape of Good Hope, which 
measured 17) feet from wing to wing." — 
Ives, 5. 

" At length did cross an AlbatrOM ; 
Thorough the fog it came ; 
As if it hMl been a CSiristian soul 
We hailed it in Gkxi's name." 

The Anoient Mariner. 
c. 1861.— 
"Son vent pour s'amuser, les hommes 
PMnnent dee albatrot, vastes oiseaux des 
Qui suivent, indolents oompagnons de 
Le navire glissant sur les gouffree amers." 
Baudelaire, L*Albatrat. 

ALCATIP, s. This word for *a 
carpet' was much used in India in 
the 16th century, and is treated hv 
some travellers as an Indian word. 
It is not however of Indian origin, 
but is an Arabic word (katlf, *a carpet 
with long pile') introduced into Por- 
tugal through the Moors. 

c. 1640. — "There came aboard of Antonio 
de Faria more than 60 batefs, and balloons, 
and majithAias (q. q. v.) with awnings and 
flags of silk, and rich alcatlfu." — Pinjto, 
ch. Izviii. (orig.). 

1560.— "The whole tent was cut in a 
variety of arabesques, inlaid with coloured 
silk, and was carpeted with rich aleatifas." 
— Tenr^iro, Itin., c. xvii. 

1578.— "The windows of the streets bv 
which the Viceroy passes shall be hung with 
carpets (alcatifEulaa), and the doors deco- 
rated with branches, and the whole adorned 
as richly asDossible." — Archiv. Port, Orient., 
fascic. li. 225. 

[1598.— "Great store of rich Tapestrie, 
which are called aleatiffas."— ZtitKAoteii, 
Hak. Soc. i. 47.] 

1608-10.— "Quand elles vont k I'Eglise on 
les porte en palanquin . . . . le dedans est 
d'vn grand tapis de Perse, qu'ils appellent 
AleaSf . . . r^Pyrard, ii. 62 ; [flak. Soc. 
ii. 102]. 

1648. — " .... many silk stuffs, such as 
satin, contenijs (Cnttaaee) attelap (read 
oMelas), alegie .... omijs VS.. orhni, *A 
woman's sheet *] of gold and silk for women's 
wear, gold alacatijven . . . ." — Van 

1726. — "They know nought of chairs or 
tables. The small folks eat on a mat, and 
the rich on an Alcatief, or carpet, sitting 
with their feet under them, like our Tailors. 
— VaUntijn, v. Chonrni, 55. 

ALCOBANAS, s. What word does 
Herbert aim at in the following ? [The 
Stanf. Diet, recards this as quite dis- 
tinct from A^tcordn, the Koran, or 
sacred book of Mohammedans (for 
which see N.E.D. s.v.), and suggests 
ili-^orfin, *the horns,' or aUqirdn, *the 

1665. — "Some (mosques) have their 
Aloorana*8 high, slender, round steeples 
or towers, most of which are terrassed near 
the top, like the Standard in Cheapside, but 
twice the height."— JETer&er^ Travels, Srd 
ed. 164. 

ALCOVE, s. This English word 
comes to us through the Span, alcova 
and Fr. alcove (old Fr. aucvhe\ from 
Ar. aUkuhbahy applied first to a kind 
of tent* (so in Hebr. Ntmbers xxv. 8) 
and then to a vaulted building or 
recess. An edifice of Saracenic con- 




struction at Palermo is still known 
as La (hihaj and another, a domed 
tomb, as La Gubola. Whatever be the 
true formation of the last word, it 
seems to have given us, through the 
Italian, Oupola, [Not so in N.E.D,] 

1738.--"C5ubba, oommonlv used for the 
vaulted tomb of marab-buUa '^ [Adjutant. 1— 
JShaw*8 Travels, ed. 1757, p. 40. 

ALDEA, s. A village ; also a villa. 
Port, from the Ar. aUda€a^ * a farm or 
villa.' Bluteau explains it as * Povo^fto 
menor que lugar.' Lane gives among 
other and varied meanings of the Ar. 
word : * An estate consisting of land or 
of land and a house, .... land yield- 
ing a revenue.' The word forms part 
of the name of many towns and villages 
in Spain and Portugal. 

1547.— "The Governor (of Bafaem) Dom 
Joao de Castro, has given and ffives many 
aldeas and other grants of land to Portu- 
guese who served and were wounded at the 
fortress of Dio, and to others of long service. 
. . . ."— /SfiTwdo BoUlho, Cartas 3. 

[1009.— "Aldeas in the Country."— Z>a»- 
vers, LttUrs, i. 25.] 

1678.— "Here ... in a sweet Air, stood 
a Magnificent Rural Church ; in the way to 
which, and indeed all up and down this 
Island, are pleasant Aldeas, or villages and 
hamlets tiiat . . . swarm with people." — 
ValenJlijii, v. {Malabar), 11. 

1758. — "Les prindpales de ces qu'on ap- 
pelle Aidses (terme que les Portuffals ont 
mis en usage dans rinde) autour de Pon- 
dich^ri et <^ns sa dependance sont . . ." — 
D'AnvilUf AclairciaseTneMf 122. 

1780.— "The Coast between these is filled 
with Aldees, or villages of the Indians." — 
Dunn, N. Directory, 5th ed., 110. 

1782.—" II y a aussi quelques Aidses oon- 
sid^Srables, teUes que Navar et Portenove, 
qui appardennent aux Princes du pays." — 
Sannerai, Voyage, i. 37. 

ALEPPEE, n.p. On the coast of 
Travancore ; properly Alappuli. [Mai. 
(Uappuzka^ *tne broad nver'' — {Mad. 
Adm. Man. Gloss. s.v.)]. 

[AIiFANDIGA, s. A custom-house 
and resort for foreign merchants in an 
oriental port. The word comes through 
the Port, alfandega, Span. /undogfo, Ital. 
fondaeo, Fr. fondeqtie or jondique^ from 
Ar. al-funduk, ' the inn,' and this from 
Gk. iravioK€Xov or iravtoxeiov, ' a pilgrim's 

[c. 1610. — "The conveyance of them thence 
to the alfuidigue. "—>yran; della Valle, 
Hak. Soo. i. 861.] 

[1615.— "The ludge of the Alfimdiea came 
to invite me."— Sir T. Roe, Embassy, Hak. 
Soc. i. 72.] 

[1615.— "That the goods of the English 
may be freely landed after dispatch in the 
Alflmdiga."— Sorter, Letters, iv. 79.] 

• ALGIJADA, n.p. The name of a 
reef near the entrance to the Basse in 
branch of the Irawadi R., on which a 
splendid lighthouse was erected by 
Capt. Alex. Fraser (now Lieut. -Gene nil 
Fraser, C.B.) of the Engineers, in 1861- 
65. See some remarks and quotations 
under NEGBAI8. 

AUOFAH, s. Port, ^seed-pearl.' 
Cobarruvias says it is from At. al- 
jauhar, *jewel.' 

1404.— " And trom these baasars {alcaceriKis) 
issue certain gates into certain streets, where 
they sell many things, such as cloths of silk 
and cotton, and sendiUs, and ta/etanas, and 
silk, and pearl (alxofar). "—C/avO'o> § Ixxxi. 
(comp. Markham, 81). 

1508.— "The aljofar and pearls that (your 
Majesty) orders me to send you I cannot 
have as they have them in Ceylon and in 
OeuIIc, which are the sources of them : I 
would buy them with my blood, and with 
my monev, which I have only from your 
giving. The SinabafFs (sinaba/os), porcelain 
vases {porcellanas), and wares of th&t sort 
are further off. If for my sins I stay here 
longer I will endeavour to get everything. 
The slave girls that you order me to send 
you must be taken from priz^,* for the 
neathen women of this country are black, 
and are mistresses to everybody by the time 
they are ten years old." — Letiero/the Viceroy 
D. Frandsoo d' Almeida to the King, in Correa, 
i. 908-9. 

[1665. — "As it (the idol) was too deformed, 
they made hands for it of the small pearls 
which we call 'pearls by the ounce.'"— 
Tavernier, ed. Ball, ii. 228.] 

ATiTiAHABAT), n.p. This name, 
which was given in the time of Aklxir 
to the old Hindu Prayag or Priig 
(PRAAG) has been subjected to a variety 
of corrupt pronunciations, both Euro- 
pean and native. lUahdbdz is a not 
uncommon native form, converted 
l)y Europeans into Halahas, and further 
by English soldiers formerly into Isle 
o' bats. And the Illiabad, which we 
find in the Hastings charges, survives 
in the EUeeabad stillheard occasionally. 

* Query, from captured vessels containing 
foreign (non-Indian) women? The words are .is 
follows : " A$ escravaa que me dig qu4 Ihe maiufe, 
Umdoee de frtsas^ qoA as OenHas d'esta terra »7o 
pretas, e vumaeboM do munde oomo ckegdo a dez 




c 1008.— *'Ia Prcmnoe de Halalmw s'ap- 
peUdtantrefoifl JPH9X!p(Poorab)."--7A«iMM)£, 


[ „ " Klalrtii (where the Qemna 
(Jumia) falls into the Ganges." — Bernier 
(«L OmAOUU p. 36.] 

1726. — **Thi8 exoeptioDally great rirer 
(Gaogei) .... comes ao far from the N. 
to tiw S. . . . . and ao further to the dty 
Edabat."— VaUni^. 

1753w->**Mai9 oe qui interesse davanta«e 
d«Ds la position de Helabaa, c'est <f y 
retroaver ceUe de Tancienne Palibothra. 
Ancnne rille de I'lnde ne paroit ^aler Pali- 
^^raoaPo/m&X^Ttz, dans r Antiquity. . . . 
("est Mtisfaire nne curiosity K^ographique 
bteu plac^ qne de retrouver 1 emplacement 
d'oaeTiUe de cette consideration: mais j'ai 
lien de croire qu*il faut employer quelque 
critique, dans Vexamen des ciroonstances que 
TAntiquittf a foumi sur ce point. ... Je 
«uis done persuade, qn'il ne taut point cher- 
cher d'autre emplacement k P^oothra que 

eeloi de la ville d'HeUktMUi '"—DAn- 

nlU, Sdaircitsemens, pp. 53-56. 

(Here D'Anville is in error. But see 
Renoell'B Meaunrj pp. 50-54, which clearly 
identifies FaOibothra with Patiuu) 

1786. — " .... an attack and invasion of 
the Kohillas .... which nevertheless the 
aid Warren Hastings undertook at the very 
time when, under the pretence of the diffi- 
colty of defending Corah and HUabad, he 
sold these provinces to Sujah Dowla." — 
Artidu of Charge^ &<J., in Burke, vi. 677. 

„ "You will see in the letters from 
the Board .... a plan for obtaining Illa- 
bld from the Viaer, to which he had spirit 
eooogb to make a successful resistance." — 
ConMAUis, i. 238. 

AT.T.TLTA^ s. This appears to be a 
stuff from Turkestan called (Turki) 
alchali, alajah, or alftchah. It is 
thus described : ''a silk cloth 5 yards 
long, which has a sort of wavy line 
pattern running in the length on either 
side." {Bader^PcfweWs Purmb Hand- 
hwk, 66)^ [Platts in his Hind. Diet, 
gives ilidiA, "a kind of cloth woven of 
silk and thread so as to present the 
appearance of cardamoms {Hdchi),^ 
But this is evidently a folk etymology. 
Yusuf Ali (Afofk on SiXk Fabriei, 95) 
accepts the derivation from Akha or 
Aldeka^ and says it was probably intro- 
duced by the Moguls, and has historical 
associations with Agn, where alone in 
the N.W.P. it is manufactured. " This 
fabric differs from the Doriya in having 
a sabstantial texture, whereas the 
Doriya is generally flimsy. The 
coborsare generally red, or bluish-red, 
with white stripes." In some of the 
western Districts of the Panjab various 
kinds of fiancy cotton goods are 

described as LachcL (Francis^ Man. on 
Cotton, T>. 8^. It appears in one of 
the trade lists (see PIECE-Q00D8) as 

c. 1590. — "The improvement is yisible 
. . . . secondly in the SaUd Alohataa also 
caUed Tarhddn . . . "—Ain, i. 91. (Bloch- 
mann savs : '* Alcluih or AldchaA, any kind 
of corded stuff. Tarhddr means conkd, ") 

[1612.— "Hold the AUenui at 50 Bs."— 
Danven, Letters, i. 205.] 

1613.— <* The Ifabob bestowed upon him 
850 Mamoodies, 10 fine Bqfias, 90 TopseiUs 
and SO M\\nm"—Dov>ton, in Purchas, i. 
504. " Topseiles are TafcilaK ia stuff frmn 
ifecco)."- ^«», i. 93. [See ADATL PIECE- 

1615.— "1 pec. allela of 30 Rs. . . . "— 
Cocks*8 Diary, i. 64. 

1 648.— See Van Twist above, under AL- 
CATIF. And 1673, see ^r3/«r under ATLAS. 

1653.— "Alaims (Alajas)estvn mot Indien, 
qui signifie des toiles de cotton et de soye : 
meslM de plusieurs couleurs." — DelaBoui- 
laye-U'Oouz, ed. 1657, p. 532. 

[c. 1666.— "Alachas, or silk stuffs inter- 
woven with gold and silver."— Anticr (ed. 
ConstdbU), p. 120-21.] 

1690.— "It (Suratt) is renown'd .... 
both for rich Silks, such as Atlasses, Cut- 
taneee, Sooseys, Chilgars, Allajars ....'* 
—OvijigUm, 218. 

1712.— "An AlleJah petticoat striped 
with green and gold and white."— Advert, 
in Spectator, cited in Malcolm, Anecdotes, 

1726.— "Gold and sUver Allegias."— 
Valeniifn {Surat), iv. 146. 

1813.— "Allachaa (pieces to the ton) 
1200."— Jfi»ttra, ii. 221. 

1885.— "The cloth from which these 
pyjamas aro made (in Swat) is known as 
Alacha, and is as a rule manufactured in 
their own houses, from 2 to 20 threads of 
silk being let in with the cotton ; the silk aH 
well as the cotton is brousrht from Peshawur 
and spun at home"— M'Nair's Report on 
Explorations, p. 5. 

ALLIGATOB, s. This is the usual 
Anglo-Indian term for the great lacer- 
tine amnhibia of the rivers. It was 
apparently in origin a corruption, im- 
ported from S. America, of the Spanish 
el or al lagarto (from Lat. lacerta), 'a 
lizard.' The " Summary of the Western 
Indies" by Pietro Martire d'Angheria, 
as given m Ramusio, recounting the 
last voyage of Columbus, says that, in a 
certain river, "they sometimes en- 
countered those crocodiles which they 
call Lagaxti ; these make away when 
they see the Christians, and in making 
away they leave behind them an odour 
more fragrant than musk." {Ram, iii. 




f. 17r.)- Oviedo, on another pAge of 
the sanie volume, calls them *' Lagarti 
odragoni" (f. 62). 

Bluteau gives ^'Lagarto, Crocodilo" 
and adds : '* In the Oriente Conquistado 
(Part I. f. 823) you will find a descrip- 
tion of the Crocodile under the name 
of Lagarto" 

One often, in Anglo-Indian conversa- 
tion, used to meet with the endeavour 
to distinguish the two wetl-kno'wn 
species of the Ganges as OrocodiU and 
Alligator, but this, like other applica- 
tions of popular and general terms to 
mark scientific distinctions, involves 
fallacy, as in the cases of 'panther, 
leopard,' * camel, dromedarv,' 'attorney, 
solicitor,' and so forth. The two kinds 
of Gangetic crocodile were known to 
Aelian (c. 260 A.D.), who writes : " It 
(the Gkinges) breeds two kinds of 
crocodiles ; one of these is not at all 
hurtful, while the other is the most 
voracious and cruel eater of flesh ; and 
these have a horn^ prominence on the 
top of the nostril. These latter are 
used as ministers of vengeance upon 
evil-doers ; for those convicted of the 
greatest crimes are cast to them ; and 
they require no executioner." 

1493. — ''In a small adjacent island . . . 
our men saw an enormous kind of lizard 
(lasarto muy giunde\ which they said was 
as large round as a calf, and with a tail as 
long as a lance .... but bulky as it was, 
it got into the sea, so that they could not 
cateh it." — Lftter of Dr, Chaucay in S^tiect 
Letters of Columbus by Major, Hak. Soc. 
2nd ed., 43. 

1539. — *' All along this River, that was not 
very broad, there were a number of lizards 
(laffartoe), which might more properly be 
called Serpents .... with scales upon their 

backs, and mouths two foot wide 

there be of them that will sometimes get 
upon an a-ltnaiHa. .... and overturn it 
with their tails, swallowing up the men 
whole, without dismembering of them." — 
PifUOy in Cogan's tr. 17 {orig. cap. xiv.). 

1552. — " .... aquatic animals such as 
.... very great lisourds (lagaztos), which 
in form and nature are just the crocodiles of 
the Nile." — Barros, I. iii. 8. 

1568.— "In this River we killed a mon- 
stroiLs LagartO, or Crocodile ... he was 
23 foote by the rule, headed like a hogge. 
.... "—lob Hortop, in Hakl. iii. 580. 

1579. — " We found here many good 

commodities besides alagartow, 

munckeyes, and the like." — Drakfy Worfd 
Kneompassfdy Hak. Soc. 112. 

1691. — "In this place I have seen very 
great water aligaxtos (which we call in 
English crooodilee), seven yards long." — 

Master AfUonde KtUvet. in PwehaSy iv. 

1593.— "In this River (of Guayaquil!) and 
all the Rivers of this Coast, are great abun- 
dance of Alagaitoes .... persons of oredit 
have certified to me that as small fishes in 
other Rivers abound in sooales, so the 

Aloffartoet in this " — Sir Riehard 

Hawkins, in Purehas, iv. 1400. 

c. 1693.— 
" And in his needy shop a tortoise hung, 

An alligator stufTd, and other skins 

Of ill -shaped fishes. . ."— 

Romeo <t Juliet, v. I. 

1596. — " Vpon this river there were great 

store of fowle but for la^fartoa it 

exceeded, for there were thousands of those 
vgly serpents ; and the people called it for 
the abundance of them, the riuer of Lanr- 
t08 in their language."— /{o^A, ThelHs- 
coverie of Oviawiy in Hakl, iv. 137. 

1596. — "Once he would needs defend a 
rat to be animal rationale .... because 
she eate and gnawd his bookes .... And 
the more to oonfirme it, because everie one 
laught at him .... the next rat he seaz'd 
on nee made an anatomic of, and read a 
lecture of 3 daves long upon everie ardre 
or musckle, and after hanged her over his 
head in his studie in stead of an apothe- 
carie's crocodile or dride Alligatnr." — T. 
Naahe*s *Have loith you to Saffron WaJden.* 
Repr. in J. Payne Collier's Misc, Tracts, 
p. 72. 

1610.— "These Blackes . . . told me the 
River was full of Ali^tas, and if I saw any 
I must fight with him, else he would kill 
me."—/). Midleton, in Purchas, i. 244. 

1613. — " .... mais avante .... por 
distancia de 2 legoas, esta o fermoso ryo de 
Cassam de lagartlioe o crocodillos."- (?o- 
difiho de Ertdta, 10. 

1673.— "The River was full of Aligatora 
or Crocodiles, which lay basking in the Sun 
in the Mud on the River's aide. — Fryer, 55. 

1727. — "I was cleaning a vessel .... 
and had Stages fitted tor my People to 
stand on ... . and we were plaguea with 
five or six Allegators, which wanted to be 
on the Stage."— ^. IlamUton, ii. 133. 

" . . . . else that sea-like Stream 

(Whence Trafiic pours her bounties on 

Dread Alligators would alone possess." 
Oraitiger, Bk. ii. 

1881.— "The Hooghly alone has never 
been so full of sharks and alligatOlB as 
now. We have it on undoubted authority 
that within the past two months over a 
hundred people have fallen victims to these 
brutes." — Pioneer Mail, July 10th. 

ALUGATOB-PEAB, s. The fruit 
of the Laurus persecLy Lin., Perata 
grutistvnu^ Gaertn. The name as here 
given is an extravagant, and that of 
avooalo or avogato a more moderate. 




corraption of a^uaeate or ahwbcaU (see 
below), which appean to have been the 
natiTe name in Cential America) still 
sarviying there. The Quichna name is 
paUa^ which is used as well as agucuxUe' 
Dj Gieza de Leon, and also by Joseph 
de Aoosta. Grainger {Suaarcam, hk. 
I.) calls it "rich tabbaea^ which he 
says is '^the Indian name of the avoeatOj 
ofooeadOy avigato^ or as the English 
corraptly call it, aUigaior fear. The 
Spaniaros in S. America call it AquacaJte^ 
and under that name it is described by 
Ulloa." In French it is called avocat. 
The praise which Qiainger, as quoted 
below, "liberally bestows" on this 
fruit, is, if we might judge from the 
specimens occasionally met with in 
India, absurd. With liberal pepper 
and salt there may be a remote sugges- 
tion of marrow : but that is all. 
Indeed it is hardly a fruit in the 
ordinary sense. Its common sea name 
of 'midshipman's butter' [or 'sub- 
altern's butter *] is suggestive of its 
merits, or demerits. 

Though common and naturalised 
throughout the W. Indies and E. 
coasts of tropical S. America, its actual 
native country is unknown. Its 
introduction into the Eastern world 
is comparatively recent ; not older 
than the middle of 18th century. Had 
it been worth eating it would have 
come long before. 

1532-50.— "Thero are other frcdta belong- 
ing to the oountry, such as fragrant pines 
and plantains, many excellent guavas^ 
caymilos, agoacates, and other froits."— 
Cuaa de Leon, 16. 

1608.— "The Palta is a great tree, and 
carries a faire leafe, which hath a froite like 
to great peares; within it hath a great 
stone, and all the rest is soft meate, so as 
when they are full ripe, they are, as it were, 
bntter, and have a delicate taste." — Joaph 
de Acostay 250. 

c. 1660.— 
*^ The Agnaimt no less is Vemu Friend 

(To W Jndiet Venus Conquest doth ex- 

A fraffrant Leaf the AgUACata bears ; 

Her rroit in fashion ofan Egg appears, 

With sncfa a white and spermy Jnice it 

As represents moist Life's first Prin- 

Cawleyy Of Plantea, v. 

1680. — "This Tavoga is an exceeding 
pleasant Island, aboonding in all manner 
of fruits, such as Pine-anples .... Albe- 
OKioa» Paara, lUmrnes. *—Oapt. Sharpe, in 
Dampiar, it. 

1685.— "The Avogato Pear-tree is aa big 
as most Pear-trees . . . and the Fruit as 
big as a large Lemon. . . . The Substance 
in the inside is green, or a little yellowish, 
and soft as Butter. . . "—Dampier, i. 203. 

1786.— "Avogato, JSatm. . . . This fruit 
itself has no taste, but when mixt with 
suflar and lemon juice ^ves a wholesome 
and tasty flavour.'*— Z(0ui^er'« Lexiam, 8.v. 

" And thou green avooato, charm of sense. 
Thy ripen'd marrow liberally bestows't." 
Orainger, Bk. I. 

1830.— "The avocada, with its Brob- 
dignag pear, as large as a purser's lantern." 
—Tom Cfringle, ed. 1863, 40. 

[1861.— "There is a well-known West 
Indian fruit which we call an avocado or 
alligator pear."— 2V^, Anahuae, 227.] 

1870. — "The agnacate or Alligator 
pear."— iSSjuter, Honduras, 142. 

1873.— "Thus the fruit of the Persea 
ffraiissima was called Ahucatl' by the 
ancient Mexicans ; the Spaniards corrupted 
it to avocado, and our sailors still further to 
* Alligator peaxa.' '*— Belt's Nicaragua, 107. 


'aMgol, from 'dll 'lofty, excellent,' Skt. 
qolc^ a troop ; a nondescript word used 
for "irre^plar foot in the Maratha 
service, without discipline or regular 
arms. According to some they are so 
named from charging in a dense mass 
and invoking 'Ah, the son-in-law of 
Mohammed, being chiefly Moham- 
medans."— { JTtfaon.) 

1796.— "The Nezibs (Nujeeb) are match- 
lockmen, and according to their diftorent 
casts are called Allegolcs or Rohillas ; they 
are indifferently formed of high-cast Hindoos 
and Musselmans, armed with the country 
Bandook (bnndook), to which the ingenuity 
of De Boigne had added a Bayonet." — 
W, H, Tone, A Letter on the Maratta People, 
p. 60. 

1804.— " Allaagole, A sort of chosen light 
infantry of the Rohilla Patans: sometimes 
the term appears to be applied to troops 
supposed to be used generally for desperate 
service."— .?Vfl*«r, Military Memoirs of 
Skinner, ii. 71 note, 75, 76. 

1817.— "The AUygOOla answer nearly 
the same deeoription. — Blacker, Mem, of 
Operations in India, p. 22.] 

ATiMADTA, s. This is a word 
introduced into Portuguese from 
Moorish Ar. aUma^dlya, Properly it 
means *a raft' (see Dozy, s.v.). But it 
is generally used by the writers on 
IncBa for a canoe, or the like small 
native boat. 




1514. — "£ Tisto che non veniya neasuno 
ambascJAta, solo venia molte abadie, cio^ 
barche, a venderci galline. . . ." — Oiov, da 
Kmpoli, in Archiv. Stor, Ital,^ p. 59. 

[1539. — See quotation from Pinto under 

c. 1610.— "Light vessels which they call 
almadia."— Pymnf ddla Valle, Hak. Soc. 
i. 122 ; and also see under DONEY.] 

1644.— "Huma Alwiajjia. pera servi^ do 
dito Baluarte, com seis marinheiros que 
cada hum ven-se hum x(erafi)'B por mes 
. . . . x« 72." — Expenses of Diu, in Bocarro 
(Sloane MSS. 197, fol. 175). 

ALMANACK, s. On this difficult 
word see Dozy's Oosterlingen and 
N.E.D, In a passage quoted by 
Eusebius from Porphyry {Praejp, 
Evangel t. iii. ed. Qaisford) there is 
mention of Egyptian calendars called 
dXficifixiayd. Also in the Vocabular 
Arauigo of Pedro de Alcala (1605) the 
Ar. Mtm&k is given as the equivalent of 
the Span, almanaqae, which seems to 
show that the Sp. Arabs did use 
mandkh in the sense required, probably 
having adopted it from the Egyptian, 
and having assumed the initial alto be 
their own article. 

ALMTBA, 8. H. ahndri. A ward- 
robe, chest of drawers, or like niece of 
(closed) furniture. The wora is in 
general use, by masters and servants 
m Anglo-Indian households, in both 
N. and S. India. It has come to us 
from the Port, alxnario, but it is the 
same word as Fr. armoire^ Old E. 
ambry [for which see N,E,D,'\ &c., and 
Sc awmry^ orginating in the Lat. 
armariwm^ or -ria^ which occurs also 
in L. Gr. as dp/Mpii, ipfidpiw. 

c. B.O. 200.— "Hoc est quod olim clan- 
culum ex armario te surripuisse aiebas 
uxori tuae . . . ."—Plauivs, Men. iii. 3. 

A.D. 1460. — "Item, I will my chambre 
prestes haue .... the thone of thame 
the to aimer, k the tothir of yame the 
tother almar whilk I ordnyd for kepyng of 
vestmentes." — Will of Sir T. Cwmberlegej in 
Academy, Sept. 27, 1879, p. 231. 

1589. — " itemanelanfsettle, item ane 

almarle, ane Kist, ane sait burde . . . ." — 
Ext. Records Burgh of Olasgow, 1876, 130. 

1878.— " Sahib, have you looked in Mr 
Morrison's almirah?" — Life in Moftusil, 
i. 34. 

ALOES, s. The name of aloes is 
applied to two entirely different sub- 
stances : a. the drug prepared from the 
inspissated bitter juice of the AloS 

Socotrina^ Lam. In this meaning (a) 
the name is considered (Hanbury and 
Fliickigerj Pharfnacographia^ 616) to be 
derived from the Synac 'ehoai (in P. 
ahodX b. Aloes-wood, the same as 
Eagle-wood. This is x>erhap8 from 
one of the Indian forms, through the 
Hebrew (nL forms) ahdlim, cUckdlim 
and ahdldtky akhdldth. Neither Hippo- 
crates nor Theophrastus mentions aloes, 
but Dioscorides describes two kinds of 
it (Mat. Med. iii. 3). " It was probably 
the Socotrine aloes with which the 
ancients were most familiar. Eustathius 
says the aloe was called lepd, from its 
excellence in preserving life (ad. II. 
630). This accounts for the powder of 
aloes being called Hiera picra in the 
older writers on Pharmacy."— (JfVan<»« 
AdamfUj Names of aU Minerals^ PlantSy 
and Animuds desc. by the Greek authors^ 

(a)c. A.D. 70.— "The best Aloe (Latin 
the same) is brought out of India. . . . 
Much use there is of it in many cases, but 
principally to loosen the bellie ; being the 
only purgative medicine that is comfo^ble 
to the stomach. . . ."—Pliny, Bk. xxvii (PA. 
Holland, ii. 212). 

(b) ""HX^e di Kol NiK6di7/ios .... ^/wr 
fiiyfM fffi6pvrft KoX d\6rfs c^ei Xirpai 
iKarhv.^'—John xix. 39. 

c. A.D. 545. — "From the remoter regions, 
I speak of Tanista and other places, the 
imports to Taprobane are silk Aloes-wood 
(aX^), cloves, sandal- wood, and so forth." — 
Cosmos, in Cathay, p. clxxvii. 

[c. 1605.—" In wch Hand of AUasakatrina 
are good harbors faire depth and good 
Anchor ground." — Discription in Bird- 
loood, First LeOer Book, 82. (Here there is 
a confusion of the name of the island 
Socotra with that of its best-known product 
—Aloes Socotrina).'\ 

1617.—". ... a kind of lignum Alio* 
waies."— Cocib'x Diary, i. 309 [and see 

ALOO, s. Skt. - H. alu. This word 
is now used in Hindustani and other 
dialects for the ' potato.' The original 
Skt. is said to mean the esculent root 
Arwm campanulatum. 

ALOO BOEHABA, s. P. din- 
bokkdrOy *Bokh. plum'; a kind of 
prune commonly brought to India by 
the Afghan traders. 

[c. 1666.—" Usbec being the country which 
principally supplies Delhi with .... many 
loads of dry fruit, as Bokaza prunes^ . . . ' 
— jBcmier, ed. Constable, 118.] 




" PlantaiDB, Uie golden and the green, 
Malaya's nectar'd mangosteen ; 
Pnmea of Bokharm, and sweet nuts 
From the far groves of Samarkand." 

Moore, Lalla Bookh. 

ALPEEN, 8. H. cUjnfiy used in 
Bombay. A common pin, from Port. 
alfineU {Panjab N, do Q., ii. 117). 

AMATTj 8. A wet nurse ; used in 
Madras, Bombay, China and Japan. 
It is Port, ama (comp. German and 
Swedish amme). 

1839.—". ... A sort of good-natured 
booaekeeper-like bodies, who talk only of 
ayahs and *wt^li», and bad nights, and 
babies, and the advantages of Hodgson's 
ale while they are nursing : seeming in short 
devoted to 'suckling fools and chronicling 
small heer,'"— Letters from Madras, 294. 
See also p. 106. 

AMBABEE, s. This is a P. word 
Canuifi) for a Howdah, and the word 
occurs in Colebrooke's letters, but is 
quite unusual now. Gladwin defines 
Afnaree as "an umbrella over the 
Howdeh" (Index to Ayeen, i.). The 
proper application is to a canopied 
nowdah, such as is still used by native 

[c. 1661. — " Aurengsebe felt that he might 
venture to shut his brother up in a covered 
onlMury, a kind of closed litter in which 
women are carried on elephants." — Bemier 
(ed. ConslabU), 69.] 

0.1665.— "On the day that the King 
went up the Mountain of Pire-ponjale . . . 
being followed by a long row of elephants, 
upon which sat the Women in Mikdembers 
and Embaxys . . . "—Bemier, E.T. 180 
[ed. Constable, 407]. 

1798.— "The Rajah's Sotoarree was very 
grand and superb. He had twenty ele- 
phants, with richly embroidered ambazrehs, 
the whole of them mounted by his sirdars, 
— ^he himself ridmg upon the largest, put in 
the centre." — Skinner, Mem. i. 157. 

1799. — " Ifany of the largest Ceylon and 
other Deocany lElephants bore ambArls 
on which all the chiefs and nobles rode, 
dressed with magnificence^ and adorned 
with the richest jewels."— Z4/e of Colebrooke, 
p. 164. 

1805.— "Amauiy, a canopied seat for an 
elei^iant. An open one is otdled Mouza or 
Howda/*—I>id, of Words vsed in B, Indies, 
Tod ed. 21. 

1807. — " A royal tiger which was started 
in beating a larig^e cover for game, sprang 
up so far mto the umbany or state howdah, 
in which Sujah Dowlah was seated, as to 
leave litUe doubt of a fatal issue."— 
WiUiamucn, OrienL Field Sports, 15. 

AMBABBEH, s. Dekh. Hind, and 
Mahr. ambdrd, ambdri [Skt. amla-ydt- 
ikd], the plant Hibiscus canndbinus, 
affording a useful fibre. 

AMBOYNA, n.p. A famous island 
in the Molucca Sea, belonmn^ to the 
Dutch. The native form of the name 
is Amban [which according to Marsden 
means ' dew ']. 

[1605.— "He hath sent hither his forces 
which hath expelled all the Portingalls out 
of the fforts they here hould att Ambweno 
and Tydore "—Birdvxwl, First Letter Book, 

AirRTTW^ 8. The word is Ar. amln, 
meaning *a trustworthy person,' and 
then an inspector, intendant, &c. In 
India it has several uses as applied to 
native officials employed under the 
Civil Courts, but nearly all reducible 
to the definition of fide-comrnissarivs. 
Thus an ameen may be employed by 
a Court to investigate accounts con- 
nected with a suit, to prosecute local 
enquiries of any kind bearing on a 
suit, to sell or to deliver over posses- 
sion of immovable property, to carry 
out le^l process as a bailiif, &c. The 
name is also applied to native assis- 
tants in the duties of land-survey. 
But see SvMer Ameen (SUDDEB). 

[1616.— "He declared his office of Amin 
required him to hear and determine differ- 
ences."— JToa^er, Letters, iv. 351.] 

1817.— '* Native officers called aTuneens 
were sent to collect accounts, and to obtain 
information in the districts. The first 
incidents that occurred were complaints 
against these aumeens for injurious treat- 
ment of the inhabitants. . . "—Mill. Mist,, 
ed. 1840, iv. 12. 

1861.— "Ben^ee dewans, once pure, 
are converted mto demons ; Ameens, once 
harmless, become tigers; magistrates, sup- 
posed to be just, are converted into op- 
pressors."— Peterson, S^peeeh/or Prosecution 
m NU Dvrpan case, 

1878.— "The Ameen employed in making 
the partition of an estate.' — Li/e in the 
Mofussil, i. 206. 

1882.— "A missionary .... mighty on the 
other hand, be brought to a standstill when 
asked to explain all the terms used by an 
amin or valuator who had been sent to fix 
the judicial rents." — Saiy. Rev,, Dec. 80, 
p. 866. 

AITRBR^ s. Aj*. Amir (root cmir, 
'commanding,' and so) *a commander, 
chief, or lorc^' and, in Ar. application, 
any kind of chief from the Amlru' l- 
mUmininy Hhe Amir of the Faithful* 




t.c. the Caliph, downwards. The word 
ill this form perhaps first became 
familiar as appued to the Princes of 
Sind, at the tmie of the conquest of 
that Province by Sir C. J. Napier. 
It is the title affected by many Musul- 
' man sovereigns of various calibres, as the 
Amir of Kabul, the Amir of Bokhara, 
&c. But in sundry other forms the 
word has, more or less, taken root in 
European languages since the early 
Middle A^es. Thus it is the origin 
of the title * Admiral,' now confined 
to ^nerals of the sea service, but 
applied in varying forms by medieval 
Christian writers to the Amirs, or 
lords, of the court and army of Ec^t 
and other Mohammedan States. The 
word also came to us a^in, by a later 
importation from the Levant, in the 
French form, Emir or Emer. — See 
also Omrah, which is in fact Umardy 
the pL of Amir, Byzantine writers use 
^AfUpf *Afi,rjpas, *Afxvpdsj 'AfirfpaTos, &c. 
(See DtLcange^ Gloss, GracU.) It is 
the opinion of the best scholars that 
the forms AmdrfU^ AmmiraqliOy Admiral 
&c., originated in the application of a 
Low Latin termination -alis or -o/tiw, 
though some doubt may still attach 
to this question. (See Marcel Devic, 
8.V. AmxroL, and Dozy, Oosterlingen, 
av. Admiraal [and N,E.D, s.v. Ad- 
miral^. The a in admiral probably 
came from a false imagination of con- 
nection with admirari. 

1250. — *'Li grand amirauB des galies 
m'envoia querre, et me demanda si j'estoie 
cousins le roy ; et je le di quo nanin . . . ." 
— JoinvUUy p. 178. This passage illustrates 
the sort of way in which our modem use of 
the word adnural originated. 

c. 1345.— "The Master of the Ship is like 
a flrreat amir; when he goes ashore the 
archers and the blackamoors march before 
him with javelins and swords, with drums 
and horns and trumpets." — Ibn BattUa, iv. 

Ck>mpare with this description of the 
Commander of a Chinese Junk in the 14th 
century, A. Hamilton's of an English Cap- 
tain in Malabar in the end of the l/th : 

"Captain Beawes, who commanded the 
AlbemarlCj accompanied us also, carrying 
a Drum and two Trumpets with us, so as to 
make our Compliment the more solemn." — 
i. 294. 

And this again of an "interloper " skipper 

1683. — "Alley went in a splendid Equip- 
age, habitted in scarlet richly laoed. Ten 
Enfflishmen in Blue Capps and Coats edged 
with Red, all armed with Blunderbusses, 
went before his pollankeen, 80 (? 8) Peons 

before them, and 4 Musicians pla^ng on the 
Weights with 2 Flaggs, before him, like an 
Agent . . :*— Hedges, Oct. 8 (Hak. Soc. 
i. 128). 

1384. — " U Soldano fu cristiano di Grecia, 
e fu venduto per schiavo quando era fanci- 
ullo a uno ammiraglio, come tu dioessi 
*capitano di ^%mJ —Fresooibaldi, p. 39. 

[1510. — See quotation from VartheimA 
under XERAFuVE.] 

1615.— "The inhabitants (of Sidon) are of 
sundry nations and religions; governed by 
a succession of Princes whom they call 
Emen; descended, as they say, from the 
Druses." — Sandy s, lowmey, 210. 

AMOY, n.p. A great seaport of 
Fokien in Chma, the name of which 
in Mandarin dialect is Hiar-men^ mean- 
ing * Hall Qate,' which is in the 
Changchau dialect A-mwi*, In some 
books of the last century it is called 
Emwy and the like. It is now a 

1687.— "Amoy or Anhay, which is a city 
standing on a Navigable River in the Pro- 
vince of Fokien in China, and is a place of 
vast trade." — Dampier, i. 417. (This looks 
as if Dampier confounded the name of Xmay, 
the origin of which (as generally g^ven) we 
have stated, with that of A n-hai, one of the 
connected ports, which lies to the N.E., 
about 30 m., as the crow flies, from Amoy). 

1727. — "There are some curiosities in 
Amoy. One is a laiige Stone that weighs 
above forty Tuns .... in such an Eouili- 
brium, that a Youth of twelve Years ola can 
easily make it move."— /I . Hamilton, ii. 243. 

AM8H0M, s. Malayal. aiftMim^ 
from Skt. dmJah, 'a part,' defined by 
Gundert as " part of a Talook, f onnerly 
called hobiUy greater than a tara." 
[Logan {Mim, Malabar, i. 87) speaks 
of the amsam as a 'parish.^ It is 
further explained in the following 
quotation : — 

1878. — "The amahom is reallv the small- 
est revenue division there is in Malabar, and 
is generally a tract of country some square 
miles in extent, in which there is no such 
thing as a village, but a series of scattered 
homesteads and farms, where the owner of 
the land and his servants reside .... 
sejMirate and apart, in single separate huts, 
or in scattered collections of huts." — Rqpori 
of Census Com, in India, 

A MXJOK) to run, v. There is we 
believe no room for doubt that, to us 
at leasts this expression came from the 
Malay countries, where both the phrase 
and the practice are still familiar. 
Some valuable remarks on the pheno- 
menon, as prevalent among the Malays, 




were contributed by Dr Oxley of 
Singapore to the Journal of the Indian 
ArMpdagOy voL iii. p. 532 ; see a 
quotation below. [Mr W. W. Skeat 
writes — "The best explanation of tie 
fact is perhaus that it was the Malay 
national method of committing suicide, 
especially as one never hears of Malays 
committing suicide in any other way. 
This form of suicide may arise from 
a wish to die fighting ana thus avoid 
a 'straw death, a cow's death'; but 
it is curious that women and children 
are often among the victims, and 
especially meml^rs of the suicide's 
own family. The act of running a- 
muck is probably due to causes over 
which the culprit has some amount 
of control, as the custom has now 
died out in the British Possessions in 
the Peninsula, the offenders probably 
objecting to being caught and tried in 
cold blood. I remember hearing of 
onlv about two cases (one by a Sikh 
soldier) in alx>ut six years. It has 
been suggested further that the ex- 
treme monotonous heat of the Penin- 
sula may have conduced to such out- 
breaks as those of Running amuck 
and Latah.l 

The worn is by Crawfurd ascribed 
to the Javanese, and this is his ex- 
planation : 

' *A muk (J. ). An a-mvxk ; to ran a-muck ; 
to tilt ; to run fariooaly and desperately at 
any one ; to make a furious onset or chaise 
in oomhat "—(ifaiay Diet.) [The standard 
31a]ay, aooordinff to Mr Skeat, is rather 

Marsden says that the word rarely 
occurs in any other than the verbal 
form vMngdnvuk^ *to make a furious 
attack' (Mem. of a Malayan Family, 

There is reason, however, to ascribe 
an Indian origin to the term ; whilst 
the practice, apai-t from the term, is 
of no rare occurrence in Indian history. 
Thus Tod records some notable in- 
stances in the history of the Rajputs. 
In one of these (1634) the eldest son 
of the Raja of Marwar ran Or^muck at 
the court of Shah Jahan, failing in 
his blow at the Emperor, but killing 
five courtiers of eminence before he 
fell himself. Again, in the I8th cen- 
tury, Bijai Singh, also of Marwar, boi'e 
strong resentment against the Talpura 
prince of Hyderabac^ Bijar Khan, who 
nad sent to demand from the R&jput 
tribute and a bride. A Bhatti and a 

Chondawat offered their services for 
vengeance, and set out for Sind as 
envoys. Whilst Bijar Khan read their 
credentials, muttering, *No mention 
of the bride ! ' the Chondawat buried 
a dagser in his heart, exclaiming * This 
for the bride!* 'And this for the 
tribute!' cried the Bhatti, repeating 
the blow. The pair then plied their 
daggers right and left, and 26 persons 
were slain l)efore the envoys were 
hacked to pieces (Tod, ii. 45 & 315). 

But it is in Malabar that we trace 
the apparent origin of the Malay tenu 
in the existence of certain desperadoes 
who are called by a variety of old 
travellers amoachi or amaco. The 
nearest approach to this that we have 
been able to discover is the Malayalain 
amar-kkany *a warrior' (from amar, 
* fight, war '). [The proper Malayalain 
term for such men was Ghavery literally 
those who took up or devoted them- 
selves to death.] One of the special 
applications of this word is remarkable 
in connection with a singular custom 
in Malabar. After the ZiBJnorin had 
reigned 12 years, a great assembly was 
held at Tirunavayi, when that Prince 
took his seat surrounded by his de- 
pendants, fully armed. Any one might 
then attack him, and the assailant, if 
successful in killing the Zamorin, got 
the throne. This had often happened. 
[For a full discussion of this custom 
see Frazer, Goldm Bough, 2ud ed., ii. 
14 sq.l In 1600 thirty such assailants 
were killed in the enterprise. Now 
these men were called amar-kkdr (pi. 
of amar-kkan, see Gundert s.v.). These 
men evidently ran Ormitck in the true 
Malay sense ; and quotations below 
will "show other illustrations from 
Malabar which confirm the idea that 
both name and practice ori^nated 
in Continental India. There is indeed 
a difficulty as to the derivation here 
indicated, in the fact that the amiu:o 
or amouchi of European writers on 
Malabar seems by no means close 
enough to amarkkany whilst it is so 
close to the Malay dmuky and on 
this further light may be hoped for. 
The identity between the amoacos 
of Malabar and the amuck runners 
of the Malay peninsula is clearly 
shown by the passMje from Correa 
given below. [Mr Wniteway adds — 
" Gouvea (1606) in his Jornada (ch. 9, 
Bk. ii.) applies the word amoaqaeB 




to certain Hindus whom he saw in 
S. Malabar near Quilon, whose duty 
it was to defend the Syrian Christians 
\^'ith their lives. There are reasons 
for thinking that the worthy priest 
got hold of the story of a cock and 
a bull ; but in any case the Hindus 
referred to were really Jangadas/'] 

De Qubernatis has indeed suggested 
that the word amotichi was derived 
from the Skt. amokshyc^ ' that cannot 
be loosed ' ; and this would be very 
consistent with several of the passages 
which we shall quote, in which tne 
idea of being 'bound by a vow' 
underlies the conduct of the persons 
to whom the term was applicable both 
in Malabar and in the Archipelago. 
But amokshya is a word unknown to 
Malayalam, in such a sense at least. 

We have seen c^muck derived from 
the Ar. aftmaJb, 'fatuous' [(e.^. Ball, 
Jungle Life, 358).! But this is ety- 
mology of the kind which scorns 

The phrase has been thoroughly 
naturalised in England since the oays 
of Dryden and Pope. [The earliest 
quotation for "running amuck" in the 
N.E.D. is from Marvell (1672).] 

c. 1430. — Nioolo Ck>nti, speaking of the 
greater Islands of the Archipelago under the 
name of the Two Javas, does not use the 
word, but describes a form of the practice : — 

*' Homicide is here a jest, and goes with- 
out punishment. Debtors are made over to 
their creditors as slaves ; and some of these, 
preferring death to slavery, will with drawn 
swords rush on, stabbing all whom they fall 
in with of less strength than themselves, 
until they meet death at the hands of some 
one more than a match for them. This 
man, the creditors then sue in Court for the 
dead man's debt."— In India in the XVtk 
C. 45. 

1616.— "There are some of them (Ja- 
vanese) who if they fall ill of any severe 
illness vow to God that if they remain in 
health they will of their own accord seek 
another more honoiutible death for his ser- 
vice, and as soon as they get well they take 
a dagger in their hands, and go out into 
the streets and kill as many persons as they 
meet, both men, women, and children, in 
such wise that thej[ go like mad dogs, kill- 
ing until they are killed. These are called 
Amnco. And as soon as they see them 
begin this work, they cry out, saying Amnoo, 
Amnoo, in order that people may take care 
of themselves, and tney kill them with 
dagger and spear thrusts." — Barboaa, Hak. 
Soc. 194. This passage seems to show that 
the word amuk must have been commonly 
used in Malay countries before the arrival 
of the Portuguese there, c. 1511. 

1639.—" ... The Tyrant (o Rey Ache) 
sallied forth in person, accompanied with 
5000 resolute men {cinco mil Amonoos) and 
charged the Baiaes very furiously." — Pinto 
(orig. cap. xvii.) in Oogan, p. 20. 

1552. — De Barros, speaking of the capture 
of the Island of Beth {Btift, off the N.W. 
point of K&thiawar) by Nuno da Ounha in 
1531, says: "But the natives of Guzarat 
stood in such fear of Sultan Badur that they 
would not consent to the terms. And so, 
like people determined on death, all that 
night they shaved their heads (this is a 
superstitious practice of those who despise 
life, people whom they call in India Am&a- 
008) and betook themselves to their mosque, 
and there devoted their persons to death 
.... and as an earnest of this vow, and 
an example of this resolution, the Captain 
ordered a g^reat fire to be made, and cast 
into it his ime, and a littie son that he had, 
and all his household and his g^oods, in fear 
lest anything of his should fall into our 
possession." Others did the like, and then 
they fell upon the Portuguese. — Dec. IV. 
iv. 13. 

c. 1561. — In war between the Kings of 
Cidicut and Cochin (1503) two princes of 
Cochin were killed. A number of these 
desperadoes who have been spoken of in 
the quotations were killed. ..." But some 
remained who were not killed, and these 
went in shame, not to have died avenging 
their lords .... these were more than 
200, who all, acoordinp^ to their custom, 
shaved off all their hair, even to the eye- 
brows, and embraced each other and their 
friends and relations, as men about to 
suffer death. In this case they are as 
madmen — known as amouooB — and count 
themselves as already among the dead. 
These men dispersed, seeking wherever they 
might find men of Calicut, and amon^ these 
they rushed fearless, killing and slaying till 
they were slain. And some of them, about 
twenty, reckoning more highly oi their 
honour, desired to turn their death to better 
account; and these separated, and found 
their way secretiy to Caucut, determined to 
slay the king. But as it became known 
that they were amoncos, the city gave the 
alarm, and the King sent his servants to 
slay them as they slew others. But they 
like desperate men played the devU (/ostdo 
diabrunu) before they were slain, and killed 
many people, witii women and children. 
And five of them got together to a wood 
near the city, which they haunted for a 

good while after, making robberies and 
oing much mischief, until the whole of 
them were killed." — Corrca, i. 364-5. 

1666.— "The King of Cochin ..... 
hath a great number of gentiemen which 
he calleth Amoochi, and some are called 
Nairi: these two sorts of men esteem not 
their lives anything, so that it may be for 
the honour of their King."— Jtf". Cceaar Fre- 
derike in Purchag, ii. 1708. [See Logan^ 
Man. Malabar, i. 138.] 

1584.— "Their forces (in Cochin) consist 
in a kind of soldiers whom they call 




, who are under obligation to die 

at the King's pleasure, and all soldiers who 
in war loee their King or their general lie 
under this obligation. And of such the 
King makes use in uiffent cases, sending 
them to die fighting."— Letter of F, SasseUi 
to Francetool., Ga. D. of Tuscany, in De 
OubematU, 154. 

e. 1584. — "There are some also who are 
called Amoechi .... who being weary of 
Uving, set themselves in the way with a 
weapon in their hands, which they call a 
Oritt, and kill as many as they meete with, 
till somebody killeth them ; and this they 
doe for ih» least anger they conceive, as 
desperate men." — O. BaJbi in Pwrchas^ ii. 

1602. — De Couto, speaking of the Java- 
nese: **They are chivalrous men, and of 
SQch detennination that for whatever offence 
may be offered them they make themselves 
anumcM in order to get satisfaction thereof. 
And were a spear run into the stomach of 
soch an one he would still press forward 
without fear tUI he got at his foe. "~2>ec. 
IV. iii. 1. 

„ In another passage {ib, vii. 14) 
De Couto speaks of the amonoos of 
Malabar just as Delia Valle does below. 
In Dee. VI. viii. 8 he describes how, 
on the death of the King of Pimenta, in 
action with the Portuguese, "nearly 4000 
Kain made themselves amoncos with the 
usual ceremonies, shaving their heads on 
one side, and swearing by their pagoda to 
avenge the King's dea^." 

1608. — "Este es el genero de milicia de la 
India, y loe Reyes sefialan mas o menos 
AmoyOB (b fwiMAAii^ Que todo es imo) para 
su guarda ordinaria. — San RomaUj ffis- 
toria^ 48. 

1604. — " Auia hecho vna junta de AmooOf, 
con sus ceremonias para venir a morir 
adonde el Panical auia sedo muerto." — 
Ghierrero, Rdaeion^ 91. 

1611. — "Viceroy. What is the meaning 
of anumoos ? Soldier. It means men who 
have made up their mind to die in killing as 
many as they can, as is done in the parts 
about Malaok by those whom they call 
mmoaoos in the language of the country." 
— Couto^ Diaiogo do Soldado Pratico, 2nd 
part, p. 9.— (Printed at Lisbon in 1790). 

1615. — " Hos inter Nairos genus est et ordo 
quem AmoCM vocant quibus ob studium rei 
bellicae praecipua laus tribuitur, et omnium 
habentnr validissimi. "-Varric, Theaaurus^ 

1624. — " Though two kings may be at war, 
either enemy takes groat heed not to kill 
the Kii^ of the opposite faction, nor yet to 
strike his umbrella, wherever it may go . . . 
for the whole kingdom of the slain or 
wounded king would be bound to avenge 
him wiUi the complete destruction of the 
enemy, or all, if needful, to perish in the 
attempt. The greater the king's dignity 
axnong tiiese people, ^e longer period lasts 
this obhgatioii to furious revenge .... this 
period or method of revenge is termed 

Amooo, and so they say that the Amooo 
of the Samori lasts one day ; the Amoco of 
the king of Cochin lasts a life-time ; and so 
of others." — P. deUa VaMe, ii. 745 [Hak. 
Soc., ii. 380 M^.]. 

1648.— "Derrifere ces paHssades s'estoit 
cach^ un coquin de Bantamois qui estoit 
revenu de la Meooue et jouoit a Moqua 
. . . . il court par les rues et tue tons ceux 
qu'il rencontre. . . . " — rat^mi^r, V, des 
Indet, liv. iii. ch. 24 [Ed. Ball, ii. 361 seq.]. 

1659. — " I saw in this month of February 
at Batavia the breasts torn with red-hot 
tongs off a black Indian by the executioner ; 
and after this he was broken on the wheel 
from below upwards. This was because 
through the evil habit of ealing opium 
(according to the godless custom of the 
Indians) he had become mad and raised 
the cry of Amoele (misp. for Amook) . . . 
in which mad state he had slain five per- 
sons. . . . This was the third AnKxdc- 
cryer whom I saw during that visit to 
Batavia (a few months) broken on the wheel 
for murder." 

**Such a murderer and Amook- 

runner has sometimes the fame of being an 
invincible hero because he has so manfully 

repulsed all who tried to seize him 

So the Netherlands Government is compelled 
when such an Amodc-runner is taken alive 
to punish him in a terrific manner." — Waiter 
Schulzetu Osi'Iiidieche Jtetae-Besch/reilntng 
(German ed.), Amsterdam, 1676, pp. 19-20 
and 227. 

1672.—" Every community (of the Malabar 
Christians), every church has its own 
Anumchi, which .... are people who 
take an oath to protect with their own Uves 
the persons ana places put under their 
safeguard, from all and every harm." — P, 
Vicente Maria, 145. 

„ " If the Prince is slain the amonchi, 
who are numerous, would avenge him 
desperately. If he be injured they put on 
festive raiment, take leave of their parents, 
and with fire and sword in hand invade the 
hostile territory, burning every dwelling, and 
slaying man, woman, and child, sparing none, 
until they themselves faW^—Ibid. 237-8. 

1673.— "And they (the Mohammedans) 
are hardly restrained from running a mack 
(which is to kill whoever they meet, till they 
DO slain themselves), especially if they have 
been at JTodge [Hadgee] a Pilgrimage to 
Mecca."— Fryer, 91. 

1687. — Dryden assailing Burnet : — 
" Prompt to assault, and careless of defence. 

Invulnerable in his impudence. 

He dares the World ; and eager of a name, 

He thrusts about and justles into fame. 

Frontless and satire-proof, he scours the 

And runs an Indian Mnck at all he 
The Bind and the Panther, line 2477. 

1689.— "Those that run these are called 
Amonki, and the doing of it Rwvning a 
Muck."— Orin^ton, 287. 




1712.—" Amonoo (Tenno da India) val o 
mesmo que homem determinado e apostado 
que despreza a vida e n2o teme a morte." 
—BhUeaUj 8.v. 

1727.— "I answered him that I oould no 
longer bear their Insults, and, if I had not 
Permiasion in three Days, I would run a 
Muok (which is a mad Custom among the 
MaUaytM when they become desperate)." — 
A. HamiUon, ii. 281. 

** Satire's my weapon, but I'm too discreet 

To nm a muck, and tilt at all I meet." 
Poptf Im, q/Horacty B. ii. Sat. i. 69. 

1768-71.— ''These aots of indiscriminate 
murder are called by us mnolBB, because 
the perpetrators of them, during their 
frenzy, continually crv out amok, amok, 
which signifies hdL^ kUL . ." — Stavorinua, 
i. 291. 

1783.— At Bencoolen in this year (1760)— 
"the Count (d'Estainff) afraid of an in- 
surrection among the Buggessee .... 
invited several to the Fort, and when 
these had entered the Wicket was shut 
upon them ; in attempting to disarm them, 
they man^amoedj that is ran a muck ; they 
drew their creeses, killed one or two French- 
men, wounded others, and at last suffered 
themselves, for supporting this point of 
honour."— Forr«<'# Vayagt to Merguiy 77. 

1784. — " It is not to be controverted that 
these desperate acts of indiscriminate 
murder, called by us mnoka, and by the 
natives mongamoj do actually take place, 
and frequently too, in some parts of the 
east (in Java m particular)."— JbTarsd^ri, H. 
of Sumatra, 289. 

1788. — "We are determined to run a 
muck rather than suffer ourselves to be 
forced away by these Hollanders." — Mem. of 
a Malayan Family, 66. 

1798. — "At Batavia, if an officer take one 
of these amoks, or mohawks, as they have 
been called by an easy corruption, his 
reward is very considerable ; but if he kill 
them, nothing is added to his usual pay. . ." 
— Trandator of StavoriniM, i. 294. 

1803.— "We cannot help thinking, that 
one day or another, when they are more 
full of opium than usual, they (the Malays) 
will ran a mnek from Cape Comorin to the 
CasmsLti."— Sydney Smithy Works, 3rd ed., 
iii. 6. 

1846.— "On the 8th July, 1846, Sunan, a 
respectable Malay house-builder in Penang, 
ran amok .... killed an old Hindu woman, 
a Eling, a Chinese boy, and a Kling girl 
about uiree years old .... and wounded two 
Hindus, three Klin^, and two Chinese, of 
whom only two survived. ... On the trial 
Sunan declared he did not know what he was 
about, and persisted in this at the place of 
execution. . . . The amok took place on the 
8th, the trial on the 18th, and the execution 
on the 15th July, — all within 8 days." — /. 
Ind. Arch., vol. iii. 460-61. 

1849. — "A man sitting quietly among his 
friends and relatives, will without provoca- 
tion suddenly start up, weapon in hand, and 

slay all within his reach. . . . Next day 
when interrogated .... the answer has 
invariably been, "The Devil entered into 
me, my eyes were darkened, I did not know 
what I was about." I have received the 
same re^ly on at least 20 different occasions ; 
on exanunation of these monomaniaos, I have 
generally found them labouring under some 
gastric disease, or troublesome ulcer. . . . 
The Bugis, whether from revenge or disease, 
are by far the most addicted to run amok. 
I should think three-fourths of all the cases 
I have seen have been by persons of this 
nation."— Dr T. Oxley, in J. Ind. Archip., 
iii. 532. 

[1869.—" Macassar is the most celebrated 
place in the East for * running a mnok."* 
—Wallace, Malay Archip. (ed. 1890)„ 
p. 134.] 

[1870.— For a full account of many oases 
in India, see C?ieven, Med. Jtarieprudence, 

1878.— "They (the English) .... omve 
governors who, not having bound themselves 
beforehand to 'nm amuck,' may give the 
land some chance of repose." — Blackwood's 
Magctztne, June, p. 759. 

1875.— "On beinff struck the Malay at 
once stabbed Arshad with a irUs; the blood 
of the people who had witnessed the deed 
was aroused, thev ran amok, attacked Mr 
Birch, who was bathing in a floating bath 
dose to the shore, stabbed and killed him." 
— Sir W. D. Jerwi* to the E. of Carnarvon, 
Nov. 16, 1875. 

1876.— "Twice over, while we were wend- 
ing our way up the steep hill in Galata, it 
was our luck to see a Turk 'ran a ma4^' 
.... nine times out of ten this frenzy is 
feigned, but not always, as for instance in 
the case where a priest took to running a- 
muck on an Austrian Lloyd's boat on the 
Black Sea, and after killing one or two 
passengers, and wounding others, was only- 
stopped by repeated shots from the Captain s 
oistol." — narhley, Fice Yeart in Biugaria^ 

1877.— The Time* of February 11th men- 
tions a fatal muck run b^ a Spanish sfulor, 
Manuel Alves, at the Sailors' Home, liver- 
pool ; and the Overland Time* of India (81st 
August) another run by a sepoy at Meerut. 

1879.— "Running a^mnok does not seem 
to be confiQed to the Malays. At Ravenna, 
on Monday, when the streets were full of 
people celebrating the festa of St John the 
Baptist, a maniac rushed out, snatched up a 
knife from a butcher's stall and fell upon 

everyone he came across before he 

was captured he wounded more or less 
seriously 11 persons, among whom was one 
little child."— Pa// Mall Gazette, July 1. 

„ "Captain Shaw mentioned . . . 
that he had known as many as 40 people 
being injured bv a single 'amok' runner. 
When the cry '^amokl amok I' is raised, 
people fly to the right and left for shelter, 
for after the blinded madman's tri* has once 
Mrunk blood,' his fui^ becomes ungovern- 
able, his sole desire is to kill ; he strikes 




here and 13iere; he stabs fugitiTes in the 
back, his iru drips blood, he rushes on yet 
more wildly, blood and murder in his course ; 
there are shrieks and groans, his bloodshot 
e^es start from their sockets, his frenzy 
gires him unnatural strength ; then all of a 
sudden he drops, shot through the heart, or 
from sadden exhaustion, olutching his 
bloody irU,"—Mu8 Birdf Ocldan Ch&nonete, 

AJf ACONDA, s. This word for a 
great python, or boa, is of very obscure 
orisin. It is now applied in scientific 
zocuogy as the specinc name of a great 
S. American water-snake. Cuvier has 
^' L'Anacondo (Boa acytcUe et mtcrtno, 
L. — Boa aquaticoy Prince Max.X" (^R^gne 
Animaly 1829, ii. 78). Again, in the 
Official Report prepsured by the Bra- 
zilian Gk)vemment for the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876, we find : "Of the 
genus Boa .... we may mention the 

ntcurUt or sueuriuba (B. anacondaX 

whose skins are used tor boots and 
shoes and other purposes." And as 
the subject was engaging our attention 
we reaa the following in the St Jame^ 
GazeUe of April 3, 1882:--" A very 
unpleasant account Ls given by a Bra- 
zilian paper, the Vox d4> Povo of 
Diamantino^ of the proceedings of a 
hu^ water-snake called the tucuruyu^ 
which is to be found in some of the 
rivers of Brazil. ... A slave, with 
some companions, was fishing with 
a net in the river, when he was 
suddenly seized by a stusunmi^ who 
made an effort with his hinder coils 
to carry off at the same time another 
of the fishing party." We had 
naturally supposea the name to be 
S. American, and its S. American 
character was rather corroborated by 
OUT finding in Ramusio's version of 
Pietro Ma^ire d'Angheria such S. 
American names as Anacauchoa and 
Anaeaona. Serious doubt was how- 
ever thrown on the American ori^ 
of the word when we found that 
Mr H. W. Bates entirely disbelieved 
it, and when we failed to trace the 
name in any older books about S. 

In fact the oldest authority that we 
have met with, the famous John Ray, 
distinctly assigns the name, and the 
serpent to which the name properly 
belonfiffid, to C^lon. This occurs in 
his aynopsis Methodiea Anmalitmi 
Qvadrupeaum et SerpenHni Generis^ 
Ixmd. 1683. In this he gives a Cata- 

logue of Indian Serpents, which he 
had received from his friend Dr 
Tancred Robinson, and which the 
latter had noted e Museo Leydend, 
No. 8 in this list runs as follows : — 
"8. Serpens Indicus Bubalinusj 
AnAMLYtAMtL Zeylonensibus, id est 
Bubalorum aliorumque jumentorum 
membra conterens^'* p. 332. 

.The following passage from St 
Jerome, giving an etymology, right 
or wrong, of the word 6c«, which 
our naturalists now limit to certain 
^reat serpents of America, but which 
IS often popularly applied to the 
pvthons of £. Asia, shows a remark- 
able analogy to Rav's explanation of 
the name Anaeandata : — 

c. A.D. 395-400. — **Si qaidem draco mirae 
magnitudims, qaos gentili sermone JBocw 
▼ocant, ab to quod tarn grandes sint ut boves 
ffl^uHre soleantf omnem late vastabat pro- 
vinoiainj et non solum armenta et pecudes 
sed agncolos quoqne et pastores tractos ad 
se yi spiritus ab«)rbebat,"-~In Vita Scti, 
ffilarionis JSremitae, Opera Scti. Eos. 
Hieron. Venetiis, 1767, ii. ool. 35. 

Ray adds that on this No. 8 should 
be read what D. Cleyerus has said in 
the Ephem. German. An 12. obser. 7, 
entitled : De Serpente magno Indiae 
OrientaMs Urohubaium deglutiente. The 
serpent in (question was 25 feet long. 
Ray quotes in abridgment the descrip- 
tion of its treatment of the buffalo ; 
how, if the resistance is great, the 
victim is dragged to a tree, and com- 
pressed a^inst it ; how the noise of 
the crashing bones is heard as far 
as a cannon : how the crushed car- 
cass is covered with saliva, etc. It 
is added that the country people (ap- 
parently this is in Amboyna) regard 
this great serpent as most desirable 

The following are extracts from 
Cleyer's paper, which is, more fuUy 
cited, MisceUanea Curiosay rive Ephime- 
ridum Medtco-Physicarv/ni Germani- 
carwm Academiae Naturae Curiosorvm^ 
Dec. ii. — Annus Secundus, Anni 
MDCLXXXIII. Norimbergae. Anno 
MDCLXXXIV. pp. 18-20. It is 
illustrated by a formidable bnt in- 
accurate picture showing the serpent 
seizing an ox (not a buffalo) by the 
muzzle, with huge teeth. He tells 
how he -dissected a great snake that 
he bought from a huntsman in which 
he found a whole stag of middle 
age, entire in skin and every part ; 




and another which contained a wild 
goat with great horns, likewise quite 
entire ; and a third which had 
swallowed a porcupine armed with 
all his " sagittjlf eris aculeis." In 
Ambovna a woman mreat with child 
had been swaUowed by such a 
serpent. . . . 

** Quod si animal quoddam robuBtiiiB reni- 
tatar, ut spiris an^nis eneoari non possit, 
serpens creDris cum animali convolutionibus 
caud& SU& proximam arborem in anxilinm et 
robur corporis arripit eamque circumdat, 
quo eo fortius et valentius gyris suis animal 
comprimere, sufifocare, et demum enecare 
possit " 

*' Factum est hoc modo, ut (quod ex tide 
difi^nissimis habeo) in Regno Aracan .... 
taBs yasti corporis anguis prope flumen 
quoddam, cum Uro-bubalo, sive sylvestri 
bubalo aut uro .... immani spectaculo 
conp^redi visus fuerit, eumque dicto modo 
Occident ; quo oonflictu et plusquam hostili 
amplexu fragor ossium in bubalo oomminu- 
torum ad distantiam tonnenti bellici majoris 
.... a spectatoribufl sat eminus stantibus 
exaudiri potuit. ..." 

The natives said these creat snakes 
had poisonous fangs. These Cleyer 
could not find, but he believes the 
teeth to be in some degree venomous, 
for a servant of his scratched his hand 
on one of them. It swelled, greatly 
inflamed, and produced fever and 
delirium : 

"Nee prius oessabant symptomata, qiiam 
Serpentinus lapis (see SNAKE -STONE) 
quam Patres Jesuitae hie componunt, vulneri 
adaptatus omne venenum extraheret, et 
ubique symptomata convenientibus antidotis 
essent profligata." 

Again, in 1768, we find in the Scots 
Magazine, App. p. 673, but quoted 
from "London pap. Aug. 1768," and 
si^ed by R, Edmn, a professed eye- 
witness, a story with the following 
heading : " Description of the Ana- 
conda, a monstroUB species of serpent. 
In a letter from an English gentleman, 
many years resident in the Island 

of (jeylon in the East Indies 

The Ceylonese seem to know the 
creature well : they call it Anaconda, 
and talked of eating its flesh when 
they caught it." He describes its 
seizing and disposing of an enormous 
"tyger." The serpent darts on the 
" tyger " from a tree, attacking first 
with a bite, then partially crushing 
and dragging it to the tree .... 
"winding his body round both the 
tyger ana the tree with all his violence, 
till the ribs and other bones began 

to give way .... each giving a loud 
crack when it burst .... tne poor 
creature all this time was living, and 
at every loud crash of its bones gave 
a houl, not loud, yet piteous enough 
to pierce the cruelest heart." 

Then the serpent drags away its 
victim, covers it with slaver, swallows 
it, etc. The whole thing is very 
cleverly told, but is evidently a ro- 
mance founded on the description by 
"D. Cleyerus," which is (quoted by 
Ray. There are no tigers in Ceylon. 
In fact, "R. Edwin" has developed 
the Romance of the Anaconda out 
of the description of D. Cleyerus, 
exactly as "Mynheer Forsch" some 
years later developed the Romance 
of the Upas out of the older stories 
of the poison tree of Macassar. Indeed, 
when we find "Dr Andrew Cleyer" 
mentioned among the early relators 
of these latter stories, the suspicion 
becomes strong that both romances 
had the same author, and that "R. 
Edwin" was also the true author of 
the wonderful story told under the 
name of Foersch. (See further under 

In Percival's Ceylon ^1803) we read : 
" Before I arrived in tne island I had 
heard many stories of a monstrous 
snake, so vast in size as to devour 
tigers and buffaloes, and so daring as 
even to attack the elephant " (p. 303). 
Also, in Pridham's Ceylon and its 
Dependencies (1849, ii. 760 - 61) : 
"Pimbera or Anaconda is of the 
genus Python, Cuvier, and is known 
in English as the rock-snake." 
Emerson Tennent (Ceylon, 4th ed., 
1860, i. 196) says : "The great python 
(the *boa' as it is commonly desig- 
nated by Europeans, the ^anaconda' 
of Eastern story) which is supposed to 
crush the bones of an elephant, and to 
swallow a tiger " .... ft may be sus- 
pected that the letter of "R. Edwin" 
wa& the foundation of all or most of 
the stories alluded to in these pas- 
sages. Still we have the authority 
of Ray's friend that Anaconda, or 
rather Anacondaia, was at Leyden 
applied as a Ceylonese name to a 
specimen of this python. The only 
interpretation of tnis that we can 
offer is Tamil dnai-kondra lanatk- 
kdnda], " which killed an elephant " ; 
an appellative, but not a name. We 
have no authority for the application 
of this appellative to a snake, though 




the passages quoted from Percival, 
Pridham, and Tennent are all sug- 
gestive of such stories, and the inter- 
pretation of the name anacandaia given 
to Bay : ^ Bubalorum . . . membra 
conterens," is at least quite analogous 
as an appellative. It may be added 
that in Malay n-ni^lrA.iuia. signifies ** one 
that is weU-bom," which does not help 
us. . . [Mr Skeat is unable to trace the 
word in 3ialay, and rejects the deriva- 
tion from ancJeanda given above. A 
more plausible explanation is that 
mven oy Mr D. Ferguson (8 Ser. 
-Y. dk Q. xiL 123), who derives ana- 
aindaia from Singhalese Henakandayd 
(henay * lightning'; handa, 'stem, 
trunk,') which is a name for the whip- 
snake {PcuterUa fny€UTizans\ the name 
of the smaller reptile being by a 
1 blunder transferred to the greater. 
It is at least a curious coincidence 
that Ogilvy (1670) in his ^^Description 
of the African Isles" (p. 690^ gives: 
^^Anakandef a sort of small smikes," 
which is the Malagasy Anakaitdtfyy 'a 

1859.— '* The skiofl of anacondas offered 
at Banffkok oome from the northern pro- 
rincee.*— D. 0. King, in J. R. O. Soe,, xxx. 

ANANAS, s. The Pine-apple (Ana- 
nassa soHvcij LindL ; Bromeha AnanaSy 
L.X a native of the hot regions of 
Mexico and Panama. It abounded, as 
a cultivated plant, in Hispaniola and 
all the islands according to Oviedo. 
The Brazilian Nana^ or perhaps Nanas, 
BBive the Portuguese Ananas or Ananaz, 
This name has, we believe, accompanied 
the fruit whithersoever, except to 
England, it has travelled from its 
home in America. A pine was brought 
home to Charles V., as related by J. 
IVAcosta below. The plant is stat^ 
to have been first, in Europe, culti- 
vated at Leyden about 1650 CI), In 
Ensjand it first fruited at Richmond, 
in Sir M. Decker's garden, in 1712.* 
But its diffusion in the East was early 
and rapid. To one who has seen the 
hundreds of acres covered with pine- 
apples on the islands adjoining Singa- 
pore, or their profusion in a seemingly 
wild state in the valleys of the Kasia 
country on the eastern borders of 

* The BngUA CffeUm. tUtes on the authoiity of 
the Slotne MB& that the pine was bronght Into 
Bociuid by the Earl of Portland, in lOOa [See 
Am|1. JBrit, 9th ed., xix. IOC] 

Bengal, it is hard to conceive of this 
fruit as introduced in modern times 
from another hemisphere. But, as in 
the case of tobacco, the name be- 
wrayeth its true origin, whilst the 
large natural family of plants to which 
it oelongs is exclusively American. 
The names ^ven by Oviedo, probably 
those of Hispaniola, are laiama as a 
general name, and Boniana and Aiagiui 
for two species. Pine-apples used to 
cost a iMurdao (a coin difficult to 
determine the value of in those days) 
when first introduced in Malabar, saya 
liinschoten, but ^'now there are so 
many grown in the country, that 
they are good cheape " (91) ; [Hak. 
Soc. iL 191 Athanasius Kircher, m the 
middle of the 17th century, speaks of 
the ananas as produced in great abun- 
dance in the Chinese provinces of 
Canton, Kiangsu and Fuhkien. In 
Ibn Muhammad Wali's H. of the Con- 
quest of Asscmiy written in 1662, the 
pine-apples of that region are com- 
mended for size and flavour. In the 
last years of the preceding century 
Ciurletti (1599) already commends the 
excellent anan^as of Malacca. But even 
some 20 or 30 years earlier the fruit 
was grown profusely in W. India, as 
we learn from Chr. d'Acosta (1578). 
And we know from the Aln that (about 
1590) the ananas was habitually served 
at tne table of Akbar, the price of 
one being reckoned at only 4 dajtis^ 
or iV of a rupee ; whilst Akbar's son 
Jahangir states that the fruit came 
from the sea-ports in th_e possession 
of the Portuguese.— (See Am, i. 66-68.) 
In Africa too, this royal fruit has 

Spread, carrying the American name 
ong with it. "The Mananazit or 
pine-apple," says Burton, "grows 
luxuriantly as far as 3 marches from 
the coast (of Zanzibar). It is never 
cultivated, nor have its Qualities as 
a fibrous plant been aiscovered." 
{J.RG,S. XXIX. 35). On the He Ste 
Marie, of Madagascar, it grew in the 
first half of the 17th century as manasse 
(Flacourt, 29). 

Abul Fa^l, in the Ain, mentions 
that the fruit was also called kathal-i- 
safaf% or * travel jack-fruit,' "because 
voung plants put into a vessel may 
be taken on travels and will yield 
fruits." This seems a nonsensical pre- 

t Jr iB here a BidhiU prefix. See BUek'i Qmp. 
r, 189. 



text for the name, especially as another 
American fruit, the Guava, is some- 
times known in Bengal as the Safari 
dm, or Hravel manso.' It has been 
suggested by one of the present writers 
that these cases may present an un- 
common use of the word aafari in 
the sense of * foreign ' or * outlandish,' 
just as Glusius says of the pine-apple 
in India, ^* perefftinus est hie fructus," 
and as we begin this article by speak- 
ing of the ananas as having * travelled ' 
from its home in S. America. In the 
Tetoro of Cobarruvias (1611) we find 
" (^fari, cosa de Africa o Argel, como 
grenada" ('a thing from Africa or 
Algiers, such as a pomegranate ' ). And 
on turning to Doxy amd Eng. we find 
that in Saracenic Spain a renowned 
kind of pomegranate was called rcfiwmdn 
nafcuri: though this was said to have 
its name from a certain Safair Hm- 
Ohaid al Kildi, who grew it first. 
One doubts here, and suspects some 
connection with the Indian terms, 
though the link is obscure. The 
lamented Prof. Blochmann, however, 
in a note on this sufiK^stion, would 
not admit the possibiJuty of the use 
of safari for /foreign.' He called at- 
tention to the possiole analogy of the 
Ar. safprjal for * quince.' [Another 
suggestion may be nazardecT. There 
is an Ar. word, dsdflriy, which the 
diets, define as 'a kind of olive.' 
Burton {Ar. Nights, iii. 79) translates 
this as 'sparrow-olives,' and says that 
they are so called because they attract 
sparrows (dsdftr). It is perhaps pos- 
sible that this name for a >'ariety 
of olive may have been transferred 
to the pine-apple, and on reaching 
India, have been connected by a folk 
etymology with safari applied to a 
* travellwi ' fruit.1 In Macassar, accord- 
ing to Crawf uro, the ananas is called 
Pandang, from its strong external 
resemblance, as regards fruit and 
leaves, to the Pandaniu, Conversely 
we have called the latter screvj-pinej 
from its resemblance to the ananas, 
or perhaps to the pine-cone, the 
oripnal owner of the name. Acosta 
a^m (1578) describes the Pcmdanus 
oaoratissima as the ' wild ananas,' and 
in Malayalam the pine-apple is called 
by a name meaning * pandanus-jack- 

The term ananas has been Arabized, 
among the Indian pharmacists at least. 

as 'ain-unrnds *the eye of man'; in 
Burmese rum-no^ and in Singhalese 
and Tamil as aimdsi (see moodeen 

We should recall attention to the 
fact that pine-apnle was good English 
long before the discovery of America, 
its proper meaning beinff what we 
have now been driven (for the avoiding 
of confusion) to call a pine-eone. Thij* 
is the only meaning of the term 
* pine-apple' in Minsneu's Gadde into 
Tongues (2nd ed. 1627). And the 
ananas got this name from its strong 
resemblance to a pine-cone. This is 
most striking as regards the large 
cones of the Stone-Pine of S. Europe. 
In the following three first quotations 
'pine-apple' is used in the old sense : 

1568.— "To all such as die so, the people , 
ereoteth a chappell, and to ecush of tnem a 
pillar and pole made of Pins<ippU for a 
perpetuall monument." — Reports of Japan, 
in Hakl. u. 567. 

„ "The greater part of the Qua<l- 
rangle aet with savage trees, as Okes, Ches- 
nute, Cypresses, Pine-apples. Cedars." — 
Reports of China, tr. by A. Wules, in ffaJd. 

1577. — ''In these islandes they found no 
trees knowen vnto them, but Pine-apple 
trees, and Date trees, and those of maruey- 
lous heyeht, and exoeedyng hard^." — Peter 
Martyr, m Eden's ff. of Trauayle, fol. 11. 

Oviedo, in n. of the (Western) Indies^ 
fills 2^ folio pages with an enthusiastic 
description of the pin€<i/pple as first 
found in Hispaniola, and of the reason 
why it got this name (vtna in Spanish, 
pigruL in Ramusio's Italian, from which 
we quote). We extract a few frag- 

15S5.— "There are in this iland of Spa- 
gnuolo certain thistles, each of which bears 
a Pigna, and this is one of the most beauti- 
ful fruits that I have seen. ... It has all 
these qualities in combination, viz. beauty 
of aspect, fragrance of colour, and exquisite 
flavour. The Christians ^ve it the name it 
bears [Pigna) because it is, in a manner, 
like that. But the pine-apples of the Indies 
of which we are speakir^ are muc]# more 
beautiful than the pigne |i.e. inne-oones] of 
Europe, and have nothing of that hardness 
which is seen in those of Castile, which are 
in fact nothing but wood," kc, — Ramusio, 
iii. f. 136 V. 

1564.— "Their pines be of the bigness of 
tyro lists, the outside whereof is of the 
making of a pine-apjale \i.e. pine-cone^ but 
it is softe like the rinde of a cucomber, and 
the inside eateth like an apple, but it is 
more delicious than an^ sweet apple 
sugared."— ifduter John Havjkins, in Makl. 
iii. 602. 




1575. — ** Aiusi la plus part dee Saunages 
9'en nourriasent Tne Donoe partie de Tann^, 
coaaoBiB auflsi ils font d'vne autre espece de 
fmit, noOl^ Nua, qui est gros ooAe me 
niojrenne citroaille, et fait autour oomme 
▼ne pomme de pin. . . ."— ^. Thevet, Cotino- 
grapkie Vnivenelle, Hy. xzii. ff. 935 v., 
938 (with a pretty good cut). 

1590.— "The Pines, or Pine-apples, are of 
the same fashion and forme outwardly to 
thoee of Oastille, but within they wholly 
differ. . . One presented one of these Pine- 
apples to the Empeiour Charles the fift, 
which moat have cost much paine and care 
to faring it so farre, with the plant from the 
Indies, yet would he not trie the taste." — 
Jog. de Acotta, £. T. of 1604 (Hak. Soc.), 

1596. — *'. . . with diners sortes of excel- 
lent fruits and rootes, and great abundance 
of PinoMy the princesse of fruits that ^w 
vnder the Sun." — Raltgh, Ditc, of Ouiana 
(Hak. Soc.), 73. 

c. 1610. — "Anaaatfl, et plusieurs autres 
fruicts."— P. de Laval, i. 236 [Hak. Soc. i. 

1616.->*'The ananas or Pine, which 
sieems to the taste to be a pleasing com- 
pound, made of strawberries, daret-wine, 
rose-water, and suw, well tempered 
together."— Terry, in Purehat, ii. 1469. 

1623. — "The *iif^«aj is esteemed, and 
with reason, for it is of excellent flavour, 
though very peculiar, and rather acid than 
otherwise, but having an indescribable dash 
of sweetness that renders it a^^reeable. And 
as even these books (Clusius, &c.) don't 
mention it, if I remember rightlv, 1 will say 
in brief that when you regard the entire 
f mit externally*, it looks just like one of our 
pine-oones {ptgna), with just such scales, 
and of that very colour."—/*, delta Voile, ii. 
582[Hak-Soc., i. 135]. 

1631.— Bontius thus writes of the fruit :— 
*' Qui legitis Cynaras, atque Indica dulcia 

Ne mmis haec comedas, fugito hinc, latet 
anguis in herb&." 

lib. vi. cap. 60, p. 145. 

1661. — "I first saw the famous Quern, 
Pine brought from Barbados and presented 
to bis Majestie ; but the first that were ever 
seen in E^land were those sent to Cromwell 
House foure years since." — ISvelyn'g Diary, 
July 19. 

[c. 1665.—" Among other fruits, they pre- 
wrve large citrons, such as we have in 
Europe, a certain delicate root about the 
length of sarsaparilla, that common fruit of 
the Indies called amba, another called 
•»•<!*■ . . . ." — Bemier (ed. ConstahU), 

1667. — "le peux k tr^-iuste titre ap- 
peller rAnaJias le Boy des nruits, parcequ il 
est le phu beau, et le meilleur de tons ceux 
qui sont snr la terre. C'est sans doute pour 
cette raison le Roy des Roys luy a mis une 
ooaronne sor la teste, qui est oomme une 
marque essentieUe de aa Koyaute, puis quit 
la cfaeute du pere, il produit un ieune Koy 

qui luy suocede en toutes ses admirables 
qualitez."— P. Du Terire, Hist. OH. des 
Antilles HaJbiUes par Us Frangois, ii. 127. 

1668.— "Standing by his Majesty at 
dinner in the Presence, there was of that 
rare fruit call'd the Kirtg-j^ne, grown in the 
Barbadoes and the West mdies, the first of 
them I have ever scene. His Majesty having 
cut it up was pleas'd to give me a piece on 
his owne plate to taste of, but in my oj)inion 
it falls short of those ravishing varieties of 
deliciousneas describ'd in CSipt. Logon's 
history and others." — Evelyn, July 19. 

1673.— "The fruit the English call P»ns- 
Apj^ (the Moors Ananas) because of the 
R^mblance."— J^0r, 182. 

1716. — "I had more reason to wonder 
that night at the King's table " (at Hanover) 
" to see a present from a gentleman of this 
country .... what I thought, worth all the 
rest, two ripe Ananasaea, which to my taste 
are a fruit perfectly dehcious. You know 
they are naturally the growth of the Brazil, 
and I could not imagine how thev came here 
but by enchantment." — Lady m. W. Mon- 
tagu, Letter XIX. 


" Oft in humble station dwells 
Unboastful worth, above fastidious pomp ; 
Witness, thou best Aw^w, thou the pride 
Of vegetable life, beyond whate'er 
The poets imaged in the golden age." 

Thomson, Summer, 
The poet here gives the word an unusual 

form and accent. 

c. 1780.— "They (the Portuguese) culti- 
vate the skirts of the hills, and 'grow the 
best products, such as sugar-cane, pine- 
apples, and rice." — Kh&fl KhSm, in Elliol, 
vii. 345. 

A curious question has been raised 
regarding the ananas, similar to that 
discussed under CT78TASD-APPLE, as 
in the existence of the pine-apple to 
the Old World, before the days of 

In Prof. Rawlinson's Ancient 
Monarchies (i. 578), it is stated in 
reference to ancient Assyria : " Fruits 
.... were highly prized ; amongst 
those of most repute were pomegranates, 
grapes, citrons, and apparently pine- 
apples." A foot-note adds : " Tlie 
representation is so exact that I can 
hardly doubt the pine-apple being 
intended. Mr Layard expresses him- 
self on this point with some hesitation 
{Ninwek and Babylon, p. 338)." The 
cut ^ven is something like the con- 
ventional figure of a pine-apple, 
though it seems to us by no means 
very exact as such. Again, in Winter 
Jones's tr. of Conti (c. 1430) in India in 
the Ibth Century, the traveller, speak- 
ing of a place called Panconia (read 




mattraas of the aame size, and this all made 
of aUk-Btuff wrought with gold-thread, and 
with many decorations and fringes and 
tassels; whilst the ends of the cane are 
mounted with silver, all very gorgeous, 
and rich, like the lords who travel so."— 
C^rrea^ i. 102. 

1498. — "Alii trouveram ao capitam mor 
humas andaa d'omeens em que os onrrados, 
custumam em a quella terra d'andar, e 
alguns meroadores se as querem ter pagam 
por ello a elrey certa cousa." — RoteirOy pp. 
•^-.^. /.«. "There they brought for the 
Captain-Major certain aiidas, borne b^ men, 
in which the persons of distinction in that 
country are accustomed to travel, and if 
any merchants desire to have the same they 
pay to the King for this a certain amount. ' 

1505.—" U Re se fa portare in vna Barra 
quale chiamono Andora portata da homini." 
— Itctlian veneion of Doin MamteTt Letter to 
the K. of Castille. (Bumell's Reprint) p. 12. 

1552. — "The Moors all were on foot, and 
their Captain was a valiant Turk, who as 
being their Captain, for the honour of the 
thinff was carried in an Andor on the 
shomders of 4 men, from which he gave his 
orders as if he were on horseback." — Barroi^ 
II. vi. viii. 

[1574.— See quotation under PUNDIT.] 

1623. — Delia Valle describes three kinds 
of shoulder-borne vehicles in use at Goa: 
(1) reti or nets, which were evidently the 
simple hammock, nrancheel or dandy; (2) 
the andor; and (3) the palankin. "And 
these two, the palankins and the andon, 
also differ from one another, for in the 
andor the cane which sustains it is, as it is 
in the reti, straight ; whereas in the palankin, 
for the i^reater convenience of the inmate, 
and to give more room for raising his head, 
the cane is arched upward like this, Q. 
For this purpose the canes are bent when 
they are .imall and tender. And those 
vehicles are the most commodious and 
honourable that have the curved canes, for 
such canes, of good quality and strength to 
bear the weight, are not numerous ; so they 
sell for 100 or 120 pudaOB each, or alx>ut 
60 of our 8citdi"—P, delta VcUU, ii. 610. 

c. 1760.— "Of the same nature as palan- 
keens, but of a different name, are what 
they call andolas .... these are much 
cheaper, and less esteemed."— ^/rw-fc, i. 1.55. 

ANDBXJM, s. Malayal. dtuiram. 
The form of hydrocele common in S. 
India. It was first described by 
Kaempfer, in his Decas, Leydcn, 1694. 
— (See also his Amoenitates Exoticae, 
Fascic iii. pp. 557 seqq,) 

ANGELY-WOOD, s. Tarn. anjUi-, 
or aniali-maramy artocarpus hirsuta 
Lam. [in Malabar also known as /y?^ 
{(imni) (Logan, i. 39)]. A wood of great 
value on the W. Coast, for shipbuilding, 
house-building, &c. 

c. 1550. — ''In the most eminent parts of 
it (Siam) are thick Forests of Angolin wood, 
whereof thousands of ships mi^t be made." 
-^Pinio, in Cogany p. 285 ; see also p. 64. 

1598. — "There are in India other wonder- 
full and thicke trees, whereof Shippes are 
made : there are trees by Cochiin, tnat are 
called Awgpaiiif.j whereof certaine scutes or 
skiffes called Tones [Doney] are made .... 
it is so strong and hard a wxxMle that Iron in 
tract of time would bee consumed thereby 
by reason of the hardness of the woode." — 
LinKhoten, ch. 58 [Hak. Soc. u. 56]. 

1644. — "Another thing which this pro- 
vince of Mallavar produces, in abundance 
and of excellent quality, is timber, par- 
ticularly that called AncTolim, which is most 
durable, lasting many years, insomuch that 
even if you desire to build a great number 
of ships, or vessels of any kind .... you 
may make them all in a year." — Bocarroy 
MS. f . 315. 

ANGENGO, iLp. A place on tlie 
Travancore coast, the site of an old 
English Factory ; properly said to hi^ 
AAjurtefwu, Anchutenmiy Malayal ; 
the trivial meaning of which won hi 
l)e " five cocoa-nutij." Tliis name gives 
rise to the marvellous rhapsody of the 
once famous Abbe Raynal, regarding 
"Sterne's Eliza," of which we quoU* 
below a few sentences from the Sh 
pages of close print which it fills. 

1711. — ^* . . . Anjengo is a small Fort be- 
longing to the Sngh'jih Ba*t India Compan/f. 
There are about 40 Soldiers to defend it . . . 
most of whom are Tooazen, or mungrel Portu- 
guese." — Lockyer, 199. 

1782.— "Territoire d'An^inga; tu n'es 
rien ; mais tu as donn^ naissatice k Eliza. 
Un jour, ces entrepots . . . ne siibsisteront 
plus . . . mais si mcs ^critA ont quelque 
dur^e, le nom d'Anlinga restera dans le 
m^moire des hommes . . . Anjinga, c'est 
k I'influence de ton heureux climat qu'ello 
devoit, sans doute, cet accord presqu'in- 
oompatible de volupt^ et de d^noe qui 
accorapagnoit toute sa personne, et qui ^e 
m^loit k tons ses mouvements, &c., &c." — 
Hi»t. PhiloMphiqut de* Deux hides, ii. 72-73. 

ANICUT, 8. Used in the irrigation 
of the Madras Prasidency for the dam 
constructed across a river to fill and 
regulate the supply of the channels 
drawn off from it ; the cardinal work 
in fact of the ffreat irrigation systems. 
The word, which has of late yeai-a 
become familiar all over India, is 
the Tarn. comp. anm-kattu, 'Dam- 

1776. — "Sir — We have received your 
letter of the 24th. If the Kajah pleases to go 
to the Anaoat^ to see the repair of the bank, 
we can have no objection, but it will not bo 




coavcoient that yon ahould leave the ear- 
raoD at praeent. — Letter Jrom Couneu ai 
Maint to Lt-GoL Haiper, Comm. at 
l^ojofe, in B, I. Ptqten, 1777, 4to, i. 836. 

17M.— " Am the cultivation of the 'Rinjore 
ooontry appears, by all the surveys and 
repofti of oar engineers employed m that 
^errioe, to depend altogether on a supply of 
water bv tiie Oanvery, which can only be 
Kcored by keeping the Axdcut and banks 
in rspsir, we think it necessary to repeat to 
roa oar orders of the 4th July, 1777, on the 
mbject of these repairs."— ZAelp. of Ckmrt of 
Ihredon, Oct. 27tii, as amended by Bd. of 
Goatxol, in Byrke, iv. 104. 

1793.— "The Aanieat is no doubt a 
y«Mmt Imildimgj wheOier the work of 
.'War RcMk or anybody else." — dyrre- 

CKf between A. Host, Btq.y and O, A, 
Etq.f at Tanjoref on the subject of 
foniishing water to the N. Circars. In 
bdrympie, 0. R., ii. 459. 

1^)2.— "The upper Coleroon Anient or 
vdrisconstracted at the west end of the 
bdand of Seringham."- J/arMom, Peru A 

[188S. — "Just where it enters the town 
» a laige stone dam called Fischer's 
Anaikai.^— Z^^fc, Man, of Salem, ii. 32.] 

AHEEiB, HEEL, s. An old name 
for ind^RO, borrowed from the Port, 
anil T^ey got it from the Ar. di-ntl^ 
pron. ofiHnu; nU again l)eing the 
common name of indigo in India, from 
the Skt nUo, *blue.' The veiiiacular 
(in this instance Bengali) word appears 
in Uie title of a native satirical drama 
A'U-Don^n, *The Mirror of Indigo 
(planting^' famous in Calcutta in 1861, 
in connection vni}\ a cause ed^e, and 
vith a sentence which discredited the 
now extinct Supreme Court of Calcutta 
in a manner unkno^oi since the days 
'>f Impev. 

^ifed-waUa" is a phrase for an In- 
<ligo-planter [and liis Factory is " Neel- 

1501.— Amerigo Vespucci, in his letter 
franthe Id. of Gape Verde to Lorenzo di 
Kero Frsnoesoo de^ Medici, reporting his 
oieetii^ with the Portuguese Fleet from 
India, mentions amtmg ower things brought 
^'aaib and toiia,'* the former a maiiirost 
truMcriber's error for aniL— In BaldelH 
/l«u,«//ira«wie,'p. Ivii. 

1518.— In Barfoofot's price list of Malabar 
ve havs: 

'*Aiil nadador (i.e. floating; see Oarcia 
below) very good, 

Verfmula .... fananu 80. 

Anu loaded, with much sand, 

per/oiVBofa . . . famame 18 to 20." 

In Lubtm CoUeetion, ii. 898. 

152S.— "A load of aayll in cakes which 
veigfas ^ mannds, 353 tangas. "—/lemAmnfa, 

1568. — " Anil is not a medicinal substance 
but an article of trade, so we have no need 
to speak thereof. . . . The best is pure and 
clear of earth, and the surest test is to bum 
it in a candle .... others put it in water, 
and if it floats then they reckon it good." — 
Garcia, f . 26 v. 

1588.— "Neel, the churle 70 duckats, and 
a churle is 27 rottles and a half of Aleppo." 
—Mr John Newton, in Bail. ii. 878. 

1588.— "They vse to pricke the skinne, 
and to put on it a kind of anile, or blacking 
which doth continue alwayes." — Fitch, in 
ffakl, ii. 395. 

c. 1810.—". . . I'Anil ou Indique, qui 
est vne teinture bleiie violette, dont il ne 
s'en trouue quit Cambaye et Suratte." — 
Pyrard de Laval, ii. 158 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 246]. 

[1614.— "I have 80 fardels Anil Geree." 
Foster, Letters, ii. 140. Here Oeree is probably 
H. ^ri (from jar, * the root '), the crop of 
indigo gfrowing from the stumps of the 
plants left from the former year.] 

1622. — "E oonforme a dita pauta se 
dispachartf o dito anil e canella. "—In A rchiv, 
Pvrt, Orimt., fasc. 2, 240. 

1638.— "Lee autres marohandises, que 
Ton y d^bite le plus, sont . . . . du sel 
ammoniac, et de Tindigo, que oeux de pais 
apnellent Aml,"—Mandelslo, Paris, 1659, 

1648. — ". . . . and a good quantity of 
Anil, which, after the pliu;e where most of 
it is got, is called Chirchees Indu^o." — Van 
Twist, 14. Sharkej or Sirkej, 5 m. from 
Ahmedabad. "Cirquez Indigo" (1624) 
occurs in Sainsbury, iii. 442. It is the 
''Sercase" of Forbes [Or. Minn. 2nd ed. ii. 
204]. The Dutch, about 1620, established a 
factory there on account of the indigo. 
Many of the Sultans of Guzerat were buned 
there {Stavorinus^ iii. 109). Some account 
of the "Sarkhe^ Rozas^**^ or Mausolea. is 
given in H. Bngg's Citifs of GujardsfUra 
^mbay, 1849, pp. 274, seqq.). [" Indigo of 
Bian (Biana) Sicchese" (1609), Dawxrs, 
Letters, i. 28 ; "Indico, of Laher, here worth 
viij* the pounde Serchis,"—Dird-ioood, Letter 
Booh, 287.] 

1653.— "Indioo est un mot PortTigais, 
dont Ton appelle une teinture bleue qui 
vient des Indee Orientales, qui est de 
contrabande en France, les Turqs et les 
Arabes lanommentNil." — De la Boullaye^le- 
Gouz, 543. 

[1670.— "The neighbourhood of Delhi 
produces Anil or Indigo." — Bemier (ed. 
Constable), 283.] 

ANNA, s. Properly H. dfiau, dn<iky 
the leth part of a rupee. The term 
belongs to the Itfohammedan monetary 
system (RUPEE). There is no coin of 
one anna only, so that it is a mone^ 
of account only. The term anna is 
used in denoting a corresponding frac- 
tion of any kind of property, and 
especially in regard to coparceiuay 




shares in land, or shares in a specula- 
tion. Thtis a one-anna share is ^ of 
such ri^ht, or a share of |V ui the 
speculation ; a four-anTia is ^, and 
so on. In some parts of India the 
term is used as subdivision (^) of 
the current land measure. Thu& 
in Saugor, the anna =16 riisuf, and 
is itseu -^ of a kcmdia (EUiot, 
OI088. s.v.\ The term is also some- 
times applied colloquially to persons 
of mixt parentage. 'Such a one has 
at least 2 anncu of dark blood,' or 
* coffee-colour.* This may be compared 
with the Scotch expression that a 
person of deficient intellect 'wants 
twopence in the shilling.' 

1708.— " Provided . . . that a debt due 
from Sir Edward Littleton ... of 80,407 
Buoees and Eight Annas Money of Bengal. 
with Interest and Damages to the said 
English Company shall still remain to 
them. . ." — Earl of Oodolphin*t Aioard be- 
tween the Old and the l/ew £. I. Co., in 
Ghartert, &c., p. 858. 
1727. — " The current money in Surat : 
Bitter Almonds go 82 to a Pice : 
1 Annoo is .... 4 Pice. 

1 Bupoe 16 Annoes. 

• * * * * 

In Bengal their Accounts are kept in Piee : 
12 to an Annoe. 
16 Annoes to a Bupee." 

A. HaaniUon, ii. App. pp. 5, 8. 

ANT, WHITE, s. The insect 
{Termes bellieosus of naturalists) not 
properly an ant, of whose destructive 
powers there are in India so many 
disagreeable experiences, and so many 
marvellous stories. The phrase was 
perhaps taken up by the English 
from the Port./ormir/a» brancheu, wnich 
is in Bluteau's Diet. (1713, iv. 175). 
But indeed exactly the same expres- 
sion is used in the 14th century by 
our medieval authority. It is, we 
believe, a fact that these insects have 
been established at Rochelle in France, 
for a long period, and more recently 
at St. Helena. They exist also at the 
Convent of Mt. Sinai, and a species 
in Queensland. 

A.D. c. 250. — It seems probable that 
Aelian speaks of White Ants. ~" But the 
Indian ants construct a kind of heaped-up 
dwellings, and these not in depressed or flat 
positions easily liable to be flooded, but in 
foft^ and elevated positions. . ." — De Nat. 
Animal, xvi. cap. lo. 

c. 1328. — *'Est etiam unum genus 
parvissimarum farmicarum sicut lana 
cUftorum, quanmi durities dentium tanta 

est quod etiam ligna rodunt et venae 
lapidum ; et quotquot breviter inveniunt 
siccum super terram, et pannos laneos, et 
bombyclnos laniant ; et faciunt ad modum 
muri crustam unam de arenk minutissimA, 
ita quod sol non possit eas tangere ; et sic 
remanent coopertae; verum est quod si 
contingat illam crustam fran^, et solem 
eas tangere, ouam citius monnntur. — Fr. 
JordantUf p. 5o. 

1679.— '* But there is yet a far mater 
inconvenience in this Country, whicn pro- 
ceeds from the infinite number of white 
Emmets, which though they are but little, 
have teeth so sharp, that they will eat down 
a wooden Post in a short time. And if 
great care be not taken in the placte where 
you lock up your Bales of Silk, in four and 
twenty hours they will eat through a Bale, 
as if it had been saw'd in two in the middle." 
—Tavemier't Tunqvdn, E. T., p. 11. 

1688. — *' Here are also abundance of Ants 
of several sorts, and Wood-lice, called by 
the English in the East Indies, White Ante.^ 
— Dampier, ii, 127. 

1718. — '*0n voit encore dee fourmis de 
plusieurs esp^ces ; la plus pemicieuse est 
celle que les Europ^ns ont nomm^ fraimi 
blanche."— Z«<<rtt KdifUuUe*, xii. 98. 

1727.—" He then began to form Projects 
how to dear Accounts with his Master's 
Creditors, without putting anything in Uieir 
Pockets. The first was on 500 chests of 
Japon Copper .... and they were brought 
into Account of Profit and Loss, for so much 
eaten up by the White Ante.**— ^ . Hamiliaiiy 
ii. 169. 

1751. — " .... concerning the Organ, we 
sent for the Revd. Mr. Bdlamy, who de- 
clared that when Mr. Frankland applied to 
him for it that he told him that it was not 
in his power to give it, but wished it was 
removed from thence, as Mr. Pearson in- 
formed him it was eaten up by the White 
Ante."— /v. Wai. Cone., Aug. 12. In Long, 

1789.— "The White Ant is an insect 
greatly dreaded in every house ; and this is 
not to be wondered at, as the devastation it 
occasions is almost incredible." — Munro, 
Narrative, 31. 

1876.— "The metal cases of his baggage 
are disagreeably suggestive of White Ajiik, 
and such omnivorous vermin." — Sat, Review, 
No. 1057, p. 6. 

APIL,s. TransferofEng.* Appear; 
in general native use, in connection 
with our Courts. 

1872.— "There is no Sindi, however wild, 
that cannot now understand ' Basid ' (receipt) 
[Baaeed] and 'AdH' (appeal)."— JBicrtan, 
Sind Revisited, i, 283. 

APOLLO BUNBEB, n.p. A well- 
known wharf at Bombay. A street near 
it is called Apollo Street, and a gate 
of the Fort leading to it 'the Apollo 




Gate.' The name is said to be a 
corruption, and probably is so, but 
of what it is a corruption is not clear. 
The quotations given afford different 
suggestions, and Dr Wilson's dictum 
is entitled to respect, though we do 
not know what pdlawd here means. 
Sir G. Birdwood writes that it used 
to be said in Bombay, that ApoUo- 
bandar was a corr. of pa^io-bandar, 
because the pier was the place where 
the boats used to land pahoa fish. 
But we know of no fish so called ; 
it is however possible that the paUa 
or SaJble-fuiK ^Hilsa) is meant, which 
is so called m Bombay, as well as 
in Sind [The A^ (ii. 338) speaks 
of ^a kind of fish callea vcdwah which 
comes up into the Inaus from the 
sea, unnvalled for its fine and ez- 
Quisite flavour," which is the Hilsa.] 
On the other hand we may observe 
that there was at Calcutta in 1748 
a freuuented tavern called the Apollo 
(see Longy p. 11). And it is not im- 
possible that a house of the same 
name may have given its title to the 
Bombay street and wharf. But Sir 
Michael Westropp's quotation below 
shows that PaUo was at least the 
native representation of the name 
more than 150 years ago. We may 
add that a native told Mr W. G. 
Pedder, of the Bom1)ay C.S., from 
whom we have it, tliat the name 
was due to the site having been the 
place where the "po/i" cake, eaten 
at the Holi festival, was baked. And 
so we leave the matter. 

[1823.— "lieut. Mudge had a tent on 
ApoUo-greon for astronomical obaerrations." 
— OioeR, Narrative^ i. 327.] 

1847.— "A. littie after sunset, on 2nd 
Jan. 1848, I left my domicile in Ambrolie, 
and drove to the Ptiawi bandar, which 
reoeiTes from our aooommodatiye country- 
men the more classical name of Apollo pier." 
— WiUo%, Lands of the Bible, p. 4. 

1800.— ''And atte what place ye Knyghte 
to Londe, theyre ye ffoike . . 

worschyppen II Idolys in cheefe. Ye ffyrste 
is '^ifoiiO, wherefore ye cheefe londynge 
place of theyr Metropole is hyght ^pollo- 
^mtta:. . . . ."—Ext. from a MS. of Sir 
John MandeTille, lately discovered. (A 
friend here queries : ' By Mr. Shapira ? ') 

1877.— "This bunder is of oomparatiyely 
recent date. Its name 'Apollo' is an 
EoffUsh corruption of the native word 
Pmtoto (fishV, and it was probably not 
extended and brought into use for passenger 
tnffic tiU about Uie year 1819. . . . 7^— 
IfaeleoM, Guide to Bombay, 167. The last 

work adds a note : "Sir Michael Westropp 
gives a different derivation. . . . : Polo, 
a corruption of PdltoOy derived from Pdl, 
which tnier alia means a fighting vessel, by 
which kind of craft the locaJity was probably 
frequented. From Pdltoa or Pdltoar, the 
bunder now called Apollo is supposed to 
take its name. In the memorial of a grant 
of land, dated 5th Dec., 1743, the pdkhAdS 
in question is called Polio.** — High Court 
Reporttf iv. pt. 3. 

[1880. — "His mind is not prehensile like 
the tail of the Apollo Bimdar." — Aberigh- 
Machay, Twenty-one Days in India, p. 141.] 

APBIGOT, 8. Prunus Armeniamy 
L. This English word is of curious 
origin, as Dozy expounds it. The 
Romans called it Moiwm Armeniacwm^ 
and also (Perneum T) praecox, or * early.' 
Of this tne Greeks made rpaiKdKKiow, 
&c., and the Arab concmerors of 
Byzantine provinces took this up as 
birkdJh and harioJhy with the article 
at-hairkOky whence Sp. albarcoqvsy Port. 
aJbricoquey alboquorquSy ItaL atbercoccuy 
aWicocca, Prov. auSricot, arnbrtcoty Fr. 
airicoty Dutch aJbricocky abrikoosy Eng. 
(vpricocky apzicot. Dozy mentions that 
Dodonaens, an old Dutch writer on 
plants, gives the vernacular name as 
Vroege Perseriy * Early Peaches,* which 
illustrates the origin. In the C3rprus 
bazars, apricots are sold as xpvahiuiKa ; 
but the less poetical name of * kiH-jokris ' 
is given by saUors to the small hard 
kinds common to St. Helena, the Cape, 
China, &c. Zard dlU [aloe] (Pers.) 
'yellow-plum' is the common name 
in India. 

1616. — "I received a letter from Jorge 
Durois . . . with a baskit of apreoookes f or 
my selfe. . ," — Coolant Diary, i. 7. 

1711.— "Aprioooka—the Persians call 
Kill Franks, because Europeans not know- 
ing the Danger are often hurt by them." — 
Lockyer, p. ^1. 

1738.— ''The common aprioot ... is 
. . . known in the Frank language (in 
Barbarv) by the name of Matza Framoa, or 
the Killer of Christians." — Shaw*s Travels, 
ed. 1757, p. 144. 

^•R.A'R^ 8. This, it may be said, in 
Anglo-Indian always means ^an Arab 

1298. — " Car il va du port d'Aden en Inde 
moult grant quantity de bons destriers 
axraUns et chevaus et grans rondns de ij 
selles."— ifarco Pofo, Bk. iii. ch. 36. [See 
Sir H. TvJ.e*s note, 1st ed., vol. ii. 375.] 

1388. — ''Alexandre descent du destrier 
Arrabia."— itomiiuut^ d* Alexandre (Bodl. 




o. 1590. — "There are fine horses bred in 
every part of the conntry; but those of 
Oaohh ezoelL being equal to Azabs."— ^I», 
i. 183. 

1826. — *' Azabi are exoessively scarce and 
dear ; and one which was sent for me to look 
at, at a price of 800 rupees, was a skittish, 
oat-legged thing."— i7«&er, i. 189 (ed. 1844). 

c. 1844. — A local magistrate at Simla had 
returned from an unsuccessful investigation. 
An acquaintance hailed him next day : * So 
I hear you came back re ivfeetAV <No 
suoh thing/ was the reply ; *■ I came back on 
^7 firrey Arab I ' 

" . . . . the true blood-royal of his race, 
The silver Arab with his purple veins 
Translucent, and his nosmls cavemed wide, 
And flaming eye. ..." 

The Banyan Tree, 

is an Europ^ean form, perhaps through 
Malay [which Mr Skeat has failed to 
trace], of Rakhaina, the name which 
the natives give themselves. This is 
believed by Sir Arthur Phayre [see 
Joum, A 8, Soc, Ben. xii. 24 seqq.} to 
be a corruption of the Skt. rdk- 
shcuoy Pali rakkhoiOy i.e. * ogre' or 
the like, a word applied by the 
early Buadhists to unconverted tribes 
with whom they came in contact. 
It is not impossible that the *Apyvp^ 
of Ptolemy, which unauestionably 
represents Arakan, may disguise the 
name by which the country is still 
known to foreigners ; at least no trace 
of the name as 'Silver-land' in old 
Indian Geography has yet been found. 
We may notice, without layinff any 
stress upon it, that in Mr. Bears ac- 
count of early Chinese pilgrims to 
India, there twice occurs mention of 
an Indo-Chinese kingdom called 0-li- 
hi-loy which transliterates fairly into 
some name like Argyri, and not into 
any other yet recognisable (see J,R.A.S. 
(N.S.) xiiL 660, 662). 

c. 1420-80.—" Man deinoeps cum mense 
integro ad ostium Bafthanl fluvii pervenis- 
set.'^— i\r. CwUif in Poggiui, De VarietaU 

1516. — '^Dentro fra terra del detto regno 
di Verma, verao tramontana vi ^ vn altro 
regno di Gkntili molto grande .... con- 
fina similmente col re^o di B^ala e col 
regno di Aua, e chiamasi Ar&caa."— JBarkMo, 
in Ramusio, i. 816. 

[c. 1585.— "ArTiiam": See CAPELAN.] 

1545. — "The^ told me that coming from 
India in the ship of Jorge Manhoe (i^o was 
a householder m Goa), towards the Port of 
Ghatigaon in the kingdom of Bengal, they 
were wrecked upon the shoals of RatrtiTti 

owin^ to a badly-kept watch."— jPinto, cap. 

1552.— ** Up to the Om of Negraee . . . 
will be 100 leagues, in which spaoe are these 
TOpulated places, Chocoril^, BacaUL Airacfto 
Cifv, capital of the kingdom so styled. ..." 
— Barrotj I. ix. 1. 

1568.— "Questo Be di Baehan ha il suo 
stato in me»o la coeta, tra il Begno di 
Ben^^ala e quello di Pegb, ed ^ il i 
nemico che habbia il Be del Peg^ ' 
de* Federiciy in RamusiOf iii. 896. 

1586.— '<. . . . Passing by the Island of 
Sundiua, Porto grande, or the Countrie of 
'nppera, the Elingdom of Beoon and Mogem 
(mngg) • • * . our course was S. and by E. 
which Drought vs to the barre of Negrais." 
— i2. Fitehj in Hail, ii. 891. 

c. 1590.— "To the S.E. of Bengal is a 
large oountrv called Arkniig to which the 
Bunder of Chittagong properly belongs." — 
Oladtrin*t Ayeen^ ed. 1800, h. 4. [Ed. JarreU. 
u. 119] in ong. (i. 888) ArUumff. 

[1599.— Airaoan. See MACAO. 

[1608.— Bakfaang. See CHAKPA. 

[c. 1069.-AnuaLn. SeePBOHE. 

[1659.-Araoan. See TALAPOIN.] 

1660. — ^'Despatches about this time ar- 
rived from Mu'azEam Khan, reporting his 
successive victories and the flight of Shuja 
to the country of Bakfaaog, leaving Bengal 
undefended. '^i[%4f^ Khdn, in miioL vii. 

fc. 1660.— ''The Prince .... sent his 
eldest son, Sultan Banque, to the King of 
Baoao, or Mog."— Vernier (ed. Cdnttcile), 

c. 1665.— "Knowing that it is impossible 
to pass any Cavalry by Land, no, not so 
much aa, any Infantry, from BengaU into 
Bakan, because of the many channels and 
rivers upon the Frontiers ... he (the 
Governor of Bengal) thought upon this ex- 

Seriment, viz. to engage the Hollander* in his 
esign. He thereK>re sent a kind of Am- 
bassador to Batavia."— ^«rater, E. T., 56 
[(ed. C(m»tabUy 180)]. 

1678.—". ... A mixture of that Baoe, 
the most accursedly base of all Mankina 
who are known for their Bastard-brood 
lurking in the Islands at the Mouths of the 
(Ganges, by the name of Bacamian." — 
Fryer, 219. (The word is misprinted Bue- 
caneera; but see Fryer's Index,) 

1726.— "It is called by some Portuguese 
Qtrakan, by others among them Ananum. 
and by some again Bakan (after its capital) 
and also Mog (Mngg)."- Ko/eiU^ v. 140. 

1727.— " Araokan has a Convenienoy of 
a noble spacious Biver." — A. HanviUon^ 
ii. 80. 

ABBOL TBI8TE, s. The tree or 
shrub, so called by Port, writers, ap- 
pears to be the NyUantkes arbor trutu^ 
or Arabian jasmine (N. O. JamnMuae\ 
a native of the drier parts of India. 



[The quotationB explain the origin of 
the name.] 

To. 1610.— "Many of the traM they caU 
tetrtM. oi whioh they make saffron." — 
Pynsdde LamL, Hak. Soo., i. 411. 

,. "That tree called triflte, which ia 
pfoauoed in the East Indies, is so named 
Decamse it blooms only at night."— /&»i. ii. 
362 ; and see Bnmell's Unaduitai, Hak. Soc. 
iL 58-62. 

1624. — "I keep among my baggage to 
■how the same in Italy, as also some of the 
tree tlifM (in orig. Alitor Triaot, a misprint 
for TriMo) with its odorif erons flowers, which 
blow every day and night, and fall at the 
approach of day.— P. ddla ValU, Hak. Soc. 

ASCOT, n.p. Arkdty a famous 
fortress and town in the Madras terri- 
tory, 65 miles from Madras. The 
name is derived by Bp. Caldwell from 
Tarn, drhad, the 'Six Forests,' con- 
firmed ^y the Tam-Fr. Diet, which 
gives a form drvhddu^^'BvK. forgts' 
r'the abode of six ]Eti8his in former 
days. There are several places of this 
name in the southern districts besides 
the town of Arcot near Vellore. One 
of these in Tanjore would correspond 
better than that with Harkatu of Ibn 
Batuta, who reached it on the first 
evening of his march inland after 
landing from Ceylon, apparently on 
the shallow coast of madura or 
Tanjore."— JlfflMircw Ad, Man, ii. 2111 
Notwithstanding the objection made 
hy Maj.-Gen. Cunnin^am in his 
dfeog. of Ancient India^ it is probable 
that Arcot is the 'A/>jcaro? paaCKtioif 
2Qpa of Ptolemy^ 'Arkatu, residence 
of K. Sora.' 

c. ia46.--"We landed with them on the 
beach, in the country of Malsar .... we 
arrived at the fortresB of HarkfttIL where 
we pasaed the night."— /6a Batuta, it. 187, 

1785.— <* It may be said that this letter 
waa written by the Nabob of Aroot in a 
moody hmnoar. . . . Certainly it was ; but 
it is in such humours that the truth oomes 
oai."— J^KTib'tf Speedi, Feb. 28th. 

ARKOA, & The seed (in common 
parlance the nut) of the palm Areea 
caiechu^ L^ commonly, though some- 
what improperly, called ^betel-nut' ; 
the term Betel helongiiu; in reality 
to the leaf which is chewed along 
with the areca. Though so widely 
cultivated, the palm is unknown in 
a truly indigenous state. The word 
is MalayaL adakka [according to Bp. 

Caldwell, from tuLai 'close arrange- 
ment of the cluster,' kay, 'nut' 
N,E,D.], and comes to us through 
the Port. 

1610.-- '*When they eat the said leaves 
(betel), thev eat with them a certain fruit 
whioh is called eqfolo, and the tree of the 
said eofolo is caUed Arsoha. "—Far<A«ma, 
Hak. Soo., 144. 

1516. — "There arrived there many aam- 

buooe [Sambook] with areea."— 

BarbotOj Hak. Soo., 64. 

1521.—" They are always chewing Aracoa, 
a oertaine Fruit like a Peare. out in quarters 
and rolled up in leaves of a Tree called 
Beitre (or Vettele), like Bav leaves; which 
having chewed th^ spit forth. It makes 
the mouth red. They say the^ doe it to 
oofmfort the heart, nor could hve without 
it."— Pig€{feUa, in Pv/rcfuu, i. 88. 

1548.— "In the Renda do Bad, or Betel 
duties at Ooa are included Betel, arsaua* 
jacks, green ginger, oranges, lemons, fiffs, 
coir, mangos, citrons." — Botelho, Tombo, 48. 
The Port, also formed a word ariqueira for 
the tree bearing the nuts. 

1563.—". . . and in Malabar they call it 
pac (Tam. pdk); and the Nairs (who are 
the gentlemen) call it areoa."— 6(arcM D'O,, 

c. 1566. — "Great quantitie of Archa, 
which is a fruite of the bignesse of nutmegs, 
which fruite they eate in aU these parts of 
the Indies, with the leafe of an Herbe, which 
they call BetUlL"—C. Frtderiie, transL in 
Rail. ii. 350. 

1586.— "Their friends come and bring 
gifts, cooos. figges. aiiecaes. and other 
lrmia,"—Fttch, in Rail., ii. 895. 

E 1624.—" And therewith they mix a little 
es of sea-shells and some small pieces of 
an Indian nut sufficiently common, which 
they here call Foufel, and in other places 
Axeca; a very dry fruit, seeming within 
like perfect wood ; and being of an astringent 
nature they hold it good to strengthen the 
Teeth."— A delia Voile, Hak. Soo. i. 86. 
Mr Grey says: "As to the Port, name, 
Foujd or Fojtl, the origin is uncertain. In 
Sir J. Maundeville's lYavels it is said that 
black pepper "is called Fulful,'* whioh is 
probably tne same word as " i^ou/e/." But 
the Ar. Faufal or F^fdl is 'betel-nut.*] 

1689.—". ... the Neri which is drawn 
from the Axegilies Tree in a fresh earthen 
vessel, is as sweet and pleasant as Milk" — 
Ovington, 237. [Neri—tL, and Mahr. n^r, 
'sap,' but neri is, we are told, Ouserati for 
toddy in some form.] 

American weed (N.O. Pa^veraceae) is 
notable as having overrun India, in 
every part of which it seems to be 
familiar. It is known by a variety 
of names, Firinghl dhatHra^ gamboge 
thistle, &c. [See Watt, Diet. Earn. 
Prod., i. 306 teqq,'] 




name, which seems more {)roperIy to 
belong to the splendid bira of the 
Malay Peninsula {Argiuomus giaantetu, 
Tem., Pavo arguSj Lin.), is confusingly 
applied in Upper India to the Hima- 
layan homed pheasant Cer%om%8 (Spp. 
saiyra^ and melanocephala) from the 
round white eyes or spots which mark 
a great part of the bird's plumage. — 
See remark under MOONATJIh 

ABBAGK, BACK, s. This word 
is the Ar. 'arcLky properly * perspira- 
tion,' and then, first the exudation 
or sap drawn from the date palm 
CaraJb <U-tamar) ; secondly any strong 
arini, 'distilled spirit,' * essence,' etc. 
But it has spread to very remote 
comers of Asia. Thus it is used in 
the forms ariki and arki in Mon^lia 
and Manchuria, for si)irit distilled 
from grain. In India it is applied 
to a variety of common spirits ; in 
8. India to those distilled from the 
fermented sap of sundry palms ; in 
E. and N. India to the spirit distilled 
from cane-molasses, and also to that 
from rice. The Turkish form of the 
word, rdiiy is applied to a spirit 
made f roiii grape-skins ; and in syria 
and Eaj-pt to a spirit flavoured with, 
aniseed, made in the Lebanon. There 
is a popular or slang Fr. word, riquiqui^ 
for Drandv, which appears also to be 
derived from aratt (Marcel Devic). 
Humboldt (Examen, &c., ii. 300) says 
that the woixl first appears in Pigafetta's 
Voyage of Magellan ; but this is not 

c. 1420.— "At every yam (post-house) 
they give the travellers a' sheep, a goose, a 
fowl .... 'arak. . . r—Shah RvWs Em- 
bassy to China, in N. k E., xiv. 396. 

1616. — "And they bring ooooa-nuts, 
huxraca (which is something to drink) . . . ." 
"-Barbosa, Hak. Soc. 59. 

1518. — " — que todos os mantimentos asy 
de pSo, oomo vinhos, onaeas, arrozes, 
cames, e pescadoe." — In Arditv, Port, 
Orient,, fasc. 2, 57. 

1521.— "When these people saw the 
politeness of the captain, they presented 
some fish, and a vessel of palm-wine, which 
they call in their language maca. . . ." — 
Pigafetta, Hak. Soc. 72. 

1544. — "Manueli a cruce .... commendo 
ut plurimum invigilet duobus illis Christian- 
orum Carearum pagis, diligenter attendere 
.... nemo potu Omusaa se inebriet . . . 
si ex hoc deinoepa tempore Punicali Oriaoha 
notetur, ipsos ad mihi suo gravi damno 
luituros."— &h'. Fr, Xav. Epistt,, p. 111. 

1554. — "And the excise on the orraqwu 
made from palm-trees, of whioh^ there^ are 
three kinds, viz., cvro, which is as it is 
drawn ; orra^fiia, wnich is ptetv once boiled 
{potUdfi, qu. distilled f) ; aharab {xaraa) which 
IS boiled two or three times and is stronger 
than orrafua.**—S, Botelho, Tombo, 50. 

156S.— "One kind (of oooo-pahn) they 
keep to bear fruit, the other for the sake of 
the ptra, which is vino mosto; and this when 
it has been distilled they call arraoa." — 
Garcia />'0., f. 67. (The word ncrO, used 
here, is a very ancient importation from 
India, for Commas (6th century) in his 
account of the oooo-nut, confounding (it 
would seem) the milk with the toddy of that 
palm, says: "The ArgelUon is at first full 
of a very sweet water, which the Indians 
drink from the nut, using it instead of wine. 
This drink is called rhcneosura, and is 
extremely pleasant." It is indeed possible 
that the rhonco here may already be the 
word arrack). 

1605. — "A Chines borne, but now turned 
lauan, who was our next neighbour .... 
and brewed Araoko which is a kind of hot 
drinke, that is vsed in most of these parts of 
the world, instead of Wine. . ." — E. Scot, in 
FurchM, 1. 178. 

1631.—". . . . jecur .... a potu istius 
maledicti Arao, non tantum in tempera- 
mento immutatum, sed etiam in sub8tanti& 
SU& corrumpitur."--Va<r. BonHus, lib. ii. cap. 
vii. p. 22. 

1687.—" Two jars of Araek (made of rice 
as I judged) called by the Chmese SamJtu 
[BajBMhooy—Ikanpier, i. 419. 

1719. — "We exchanged some of our wares 
for opium and some axnick. . . .** — Robiiuor^ 
Cntsoe, Ft. II. 

1727.—" Mr Boucher had been 14 Months 
soliciting to procure his Phirmaund ; but 
his repeated Petitions .... had no Effect. 
But he had an Englishman, one jSuun, for 
his Interpreter, who often took a laige Dose 
of Azraok. . . . Swan got pretty near the 
King (Aurungseb) .... and cried with a 
loud Voice in the Persian language that 
his Master wanted Justice done him" (see 
DOAI).— ^. Hamilton, i, 97. 

Rack is a further corruption ; and rack- 
punch is perhaps not quite obsolete. 

1603.— "We taking the But-ends of Pikes 
and Halberts and Faggot-sticks, drave them 
into a Backe-hoiise.' — i?. Scot, in Ptirchas, 
i. 184. 

Purchas also has Vraca*and other forms ; 
and at i. 648 there is mention of a strong 
kind of spirit called Back-opee (Malay dp%=: 
«fire'). See FOOL'S RACK. 

1616. — "Some small quantitie of Wine, 
but not common, is made among them ; they 
call it Raack, distilled from Sugar and a . 
spide Rinde of a Tree called IcLgra 
[Jaggwy]."— rerry, in Purchas, ii. 1470. 

1622.— "Well send him a jar of rack by 
next conveyance."— Letter in Sain^ury, 
iii. 40. 




1027. — *' JaTa hath been fatal to many of 
the English, bat much throueh their own 
distemper with Baek."— PMr^uu, PUgrin^ 
offe, 698. 

1848.— "Jos . . . finally insisted upon 
baTing a bowl of zmok pUBolL . . . liiat 
bowl of nek ponoh was the cause of all this 
history."* — VoKUy Fair, oh. vi. 

ABSENAIi^s. Anoldandingenioufi 
etymology of this word is arx navalxs. 
But it is really Arabic. Hyde derives 
it from tan-ihdnahj 'domus terroris,' 
contracted into tandnah^ the form (as 
he says) used at Constantinople 
(Syntagma DiaserU., i. 100). But it is 
really the Ar. ddr-al-find^a^ 'domus 
artificii,' as the quotations from Mas'- 
udi clearly show. The old ItaL forms 
danena^ daninaU corroborate this, and 
the Sp. atar€^naj which is rendered 
in Ar. by Pedro de Alcala, quoted by 
Dozy, as dor a cinaa. — (See details in 
Dozy J Ooiterltngen^ 16-18.) 

A.D. 943-4.— "At this dav in the year of 
the Hijra S82, Rhodes {Roaat) is an arsenal 
{ddr-fixd'a) where the Greeks bnild their 
war-vessels. "—Ifaf'AiL ii. 428. And again 
"ddr-Mi'at al fnaraJbibf" 'an arsenal of 
ships, iii. 67. 

1573. — " In this city {Fez) there ie a very 
great building which tney call Pani^naj 
where the Chnstian captives used to labour 
at blacksmith's work and other crafts under 
the superintendence and orders of renegade 
headmen . . . here they made cannon and 
powder, and wrought swords, cross-bows, 
and arauebuases. "—Jformo/, Dete. Oenaral 
d€ Affrvcoy lib. iii. f . 92. 

1672.—*' On met au Terduum deux belles 
^^res \ Tean."— ^atotiM Oallandf Joum., 
1. 80. 

ABT, EUBOFEAN. We have heard 
much, and justly, of late years regard- 
ing the corruption of Indian art and 
artistic instinct by the employment of 
the artists in working for European 
patrons, and after European patterns. 
The copying of such patterns is no 
new thinff, as we may see from this 
passage cS the brightest of writers 
upon India whilst still under Asiatic 

c. 1665.—". ... not that the Indians 
have not wit enouffh to make them success- 
ful in Artsj they doing very well (as to some 
of them) m many parts of India, and it 
being found that they have inclination 
enough for them, and that some of them 
make (even without a Master) very prettv 
workmanship and imitate so well our work 
of Europe, mat the di£Ferenoe thereof will 
hardly De discerned.*'— .BemiCT-, E. T., 81- 

82 [ed. 

Cmutafti^ 254]. 

ABTIGHOKE, s. The genealogy of 
this word appears to be somewhat as 
follows : The Ar. is al-^^mdiof (per- 
haps connected with f^arashy ^rough- 
skinned') or al-kharakaf ; hence Sp. 
alcarchofib and It. earcioffo and arciocco, 
Fr. artichatUy Eng. artickoke. 

c. 1348. — "The Incense (bemsoin) tree is 
smaU .... its branches are like those 
of a thistle or an artichoke (al-kbaxBhaf)." 
—Ihn BatuiOy iv. 240. Al-kharshaf in the 
published text. The spelling with A instead 
of M is believed to be correct (see Am^, 8.v. 
Alearchqfd) \ [also see N,E.D, s.v. Artichoke]. 

ABYAN, adj. Skt.Jrj^a,* noble.' A 
term frequently used to mclude all the 
races (Indo-Persic, Greek, Roman, 
Celtic, Sclavonic, &c) which speak 
languages belonsinc to the same family 
as Sanskrit. Much vogue was given 
to the term by Pictet's publication of 
Xe9 Origines Indo-Europ4mne*^ ou Us 
Aryas Primitifs (Paris, 1869X and this 
writer seems almost to claim the name 
in this sense as his own (see quotation 
below). But it was in use long before 
the date of his book. - Our first quota- 
tion is from Ritter, and there it has 
hardly reached the full extent of ap- 
plication. Ritter seems to have derived 
the use in this passage from Lassen's 
PerUapotamia. The word has in great 
measure superseded the older term 
Indo-CrermaniCy proposed by F. Schlegel 
at the beginnmg of the kst cen- 
tury. The latter is, however, still 
sometimes used, and M. Hovelacque, 
especially, prefers it. We may ol)8er\'e 
here that the connection which evi- 
dently exists between the several 
languages classed together as Aryan 
cannot DC regarded, as it was formerly, 
as warranting an assumption of identity 
of race in all the peoples who speak 

It may be noted as curious that 
among the Javanese (a people so remote 
in blood from what we understand by 
Aryan), the word drya is commonly 
used as an honorary prefix to the 
names of men of rank ; a survival of 
the ancient Hindu influence on the 
civilisation of the island. 

The earliest use of Aryan in an 
ethnic sense is in the Inscription on 
the tomb of Darius, in which the king 
calls himself an Aryan, and of Aryan 
descent, whilst Ormuzd is in the 
Median version styled, 'God of the 



B.O. o. im,-'"Adam Ddrfvanuh KhtMafOr 

ihiya wmarha Pdrio, Pdr- 

aahiyd putra, Ariya, Axi^Y chiira." ue. " I 
(am) DarixLB, the Great liiag, the King of 
Kinffs. the Kinff of all inhabited oonntries, 
the King of thia great Earth far and near, 
the son of Hystaipes, an Aohaemenian, a 
Persian, an AxiAlit of Arian descent.'* — In 
RaiDlinKnCa fferodotut, 3rd ed., iv. 260. 

"These Medee were called ancienUy by 
all people f^^*i«, but when Medda, the 
Colcnian, came to them from Athens, they 
changed their name." — Herodot,, tU. i^ 

1835. — " Those eastern and proper Indians, 
whose territory, however, Alexander never 
touched by a long wajr, call themselves in 
the most ancient period AriaiM (Alter) 
(MoMo^ ii. 22, X. 46), a name coinciding 
with that of the ancient Modes." — RiUer^ 
T. 468. 

1888.— See also RUter, Tiix. 17 seqq. ; and 
Potto's art in Ench A Ory£ber*» Auntc., ii. 
18, 46. 

1860. — " The Azyan tribes in conquering 
India, urged by the Brahmans, made war 
against uie Turanian demon-worship, but 
not always with complete success. — Dr, 
J. Wilton, in L^fe, 450. 

1851.— *' We most re<}uest the patience of 
our readers whilst we g^ye a short outline of 
the component members of the gpreat Arian 
family. The first is the Sanskrit. . . . The 
second branch of the Arian family is the 
Persian. . . . There are other scions of the 
Arian stock which struck root in the soil of 
Asia, before the Arians reached the shores 
of Europe. . ."— (iVq^. Max Muller) Bdxn- 
hurgh Review, Oct. 1861, pp. 312-813. 

1868. — "Sur les sept premieres civilisa- 
tions, <}ui sont cellos de I ancien monde,,8ix 
appartiennent, en partie au moins, k la race 
axiaiie.''- (7o6i«€aie, De VliUgaUU de* Races 
Humainea, i. 864. 

1866.—" I belieye that all who have lived 
in India will bear testimony .... that to 
natives of India, of whatever class or caste, 
Mussulman, Hindoo, or Parrae, 'Aryan or 
Tamulian,' unless they have hiid a special 
training, our European paintings, prints, 
drawings, and photographs, plain or coloured, 
if they are landscapes, are absolutely nnin- 
te]^l)le."— rW^, Miuum to Ava, 69 (publ. 

1868.—" The Azyan tribe»-for that is the 
name they gave uiemselves, both in their 
old and new homes — brought with them 
institutions of a simplicity almost primitive." 
— Whitneyy Or. A Ling, Studies, ii. 6. 

1861. — " Latin, again, with Greek, and the 
Celtic, the Teutonic, and Slavonic lan- 
guages, toeether likewise with the ancient 
dialects of India and Persia, must have 
sprung from an earlier language, the mother 
of the whole Indo-European or AlTan family 
of speech."— /W. Max MUller, Lectures, Ist 
Ser. 82. 

We alao find the verb Aryanize : 
1868.—" Thus all India was brought under 

the sway, physical or intelleotoal and moral, 
of the fUien race; it was thoroughly 
Aiyaalwd."— »e**towy, %. «. 7. 

A8HBAFEB, a. Arab, askraflj 
* noble,' applied to various sold coins 
(in analogy with the oloT EngUah 
'noble'), especiaUy to the dindr of 
Egypt, and to t he Go ld Mohnr of 
India. — See XEBAFINB. 

c. 1660.— "There was also the sum of 
600,000 Falorv aahmfliMi equal in the 
currency of Persia to 60,000 royal Irak 
tom&Da,—Mem. of ffumayuH,12b. A note 
suggests that Falory, or ^lori, indicates 

AftflAMj n.p. The name applied 
for the last three centuries or more to 
the great valley of the Brahmaputra 
River, from the emergence of its chief * 
sources from the mountains till it 
enters t^e great plain of BengaL The 
name Aadm^ajia sometimes Ashdm is 
a form of Ahdm or Ahom^ a dynasty 
of Shan race, who entered the country 
in the middle ases, and long ruled it. 
Assam politically is now a province 
embracing much more than the name 
properly included. 

o. 1680. — "The dominions of the Rajah 
of Aaiiatn join to Kamroop ; he is a very 
powerful prince, lives in great state, and 
when he cues, his principal attendant^ both 
male and female, are voluntarily buried alive 
with his corpse."— 6'tediiniir*« Ayeem (ed. 
1800) ii. 8 ; [Jarrett, trans, ii. 118]. 

1682.— "Ye Nabob was very busy dis- 
patching and vesting divers principal officers 
sent witti all possible diligence with recruits 
for their army, lately overthrown in A sham 
and SUlet, two large plentiful countries 8 
days' journey distant from this city (Dacca).'* 
-'Hedges, IHary, Oct. 29Ui ; [Hak. Soc. i. 48]. 

1770.— "In the becpnning of the present 
century, some Bramins of Bengal carried 
their superstitions to Asliam, where the 
people were so happy as to be guided solely 
Dy the dictates of natural religion."— 
Rajfnal (tr. 1777) i. 420.1 

1788.— "M. Chevalier, the late Governor 
of Chandemagore, by permission of the 
King, went up as high as the capital of 
Assam, about the year 17&2."—Reiineirs 
Mem,, 3rd ed. p. 299. 

ABSMAYy 8. An African throw- 
ing-spear. Dozy has shown that this 
is Berber zaghdya^ with the Ar. article 
prefixed (p. 223). Those who use it 
often seem to take it for a S. African 
or Eastern word. So Godinho de 
Eredia seems to use it as if Malay 
(f. 21v). [Mr Skeat remarks that the 
nearest word in Malay is Meligij ex- 




plained by Klinkert as ' a short wooden 
throwing-spear,' which is possibly that 
referred to by G. de Eredia.] 

e. 1270. — "TlierB was the King standing 
with three ' ezortins ' (or men of the g:uard) 
by his ade anned with javelins [ab Ivor atm- 
gajM 'HL — CkrmdeU of K. Jama of Aragon, 
tr. by Mr. Foster, 1883, i. 173. 

c 1444. — •* . . . Tliev have a quantity of 
, which are a kind of light darts." 
, NoMgofSo pririuira, 32. 

1562.^" Bat in general thev all came 
armed in their fashion, some vnm ajwigaias 
and shields and others with bows and 
quivers of arrows."— -Borrtw, I. iii. 1. 

" Hum de esoodo embracado, e de aiftglla, 

Outro de aroo encorvaao, e setta ervada." 
CkeaUkty i. 86. 

By Barton: 
" this, taxge on arm and aaiigai in hand, 

that, witii his bended bow, and venom'd 

1586. — "I loro archibugi sono belli, e 
booni, come i nostri, e le lance sono fatte 
con sJcone canne piene, e forti, in capo 
delle qnali mettono vn ferro, come uno di 
quelli delle nostri ngaflrlie.' — Bo/^', 111. 

1600.— "These they ose to make Instru- 
ments of wherewith to fish .... as also to 
make weapons, as Bows, Arrowes, Aponers, 
and Aisagajein." — Disc, of Ovinea, from the 
Dutch, in Purehatt ii. 927. 

1608. — "Donoques voyant que nous ne 
poavions passer, les deux hommes aont vena 
en nageant aupi^ de nous, et .ayans en 
leurs mains trois Lancettes ou Asagayes." — 
Htnttman^ 56. 

[1648.—" The ordinary food of these Cafres 
is the flesh of this animal (the elephant), and 
four of them with their Assegais (in orig. 
ageagayes), which are a kind of short pike. 
are able to bring an elephant to the grouna 
and kill it."— Taveraier (ed. Ball), u. 161, 
cf. iL 205.] 

1666. — "Les autres armes offensives (in 
India) sont Tare et la fitehe, le iavelot ou 
aagaye . . . ."—Thevenoty v. 132 (ed. 1727). 

1681. — " .... encontraron dies y nueve 
hombres basos armados con dardas, y asa- 
g&yaa, assi llaman loe Arabes vnas lan9as 
pequefias arrojadizas, y pelearon con ellos." 
— Martiniez de la Pwnte, CompendiOj 87. 

" Alert to fight, athirst to slay, 
Thev shake the dreaded asMgai, 
And rush with blind and frantic will 
On aO, when few, whose force is sk^." 
iKouUeMo, by Ld. Stratford de 
Reidiffty Timeif March 29. 

ATAP, ADAP, 8. Applied in the 
Malayo-Jayanese regions to any palm- 
fronds used in thatching, commonly 
to those of the Nipa {ifipa fruticamy 
Thunb.). [il tap, according to Mr Skeat, 
is also appliea to any roofing; thus 

tiles are called aiap batu, ^ stone ataptJ] 
The Nipa, ** although a wild plant, 
for it is so abundant that its culture 
is not necessary, it is remarkable that 
its name shoula be the same in all the 
languages from Sumatra to the Philip- 
pines." — (Orawfard^ Did. Ind, Arai, 
301). At6p is Javanese for * thatch.' 

1672.— '<Atap or leaves of Palm-trees 
. . . /'—BaUUuus, Oejfton, 164. 

1690.— " Adapol (quae folia sunt sicca et 
vetusta) . . . "—Aumphiru, Herb. Amb. 
i. 14. 

1817.— "In the maritime districts, fttap 
or thateh is made .... from the leaves at 
the nuw."— jRo^Km, Java. i. 166 ; [2nd ed. 
i. 186]. 

1878.— *< The universal roofing of a Perak 
house is Attap stretohed over bunboo rafters 
and ridj^e-poles. This atiap ia the dried leaf 
of the mpan palm, doubled over a small stick 
of bamboo, or nibonff." — MeNair, Perak^ dftc., 

ATLAS, s. An obsolete word for 
' satin,' from the Ar. afhuy used in that 
sense, literally *bare' or *bald' (comp. 
the Ital. raso for 'satin'). The word 
is still used in Qerman. [The Draper's 
Did. (s.y.) says that "a silk stuff 
wrought with threads of gold and 
silver, and known by this name, was 
at one time imported from India." 
Yusuf Ali {Mon. on SUk Fabrics, p. 
93) writes : ^^ Atlas is the Indian satin, 
but the term satan (corrupted from the 
English) is also applied, and sometimes 
specialised to a tnicker form of the 
fabric. This fabric is always sub- 
stantial, %.e, never so thin or netted 
as to be semi-transparent ; more of the 
weft showing on the upper surface 
than of the warp."] 

1284. — "Cetto m6me nuit par ordre du 
Sultan quinze cents de ses Mamlouks furent 
revdtus de robes d'atlaa rouges brod^es. . ." 
—Makridy t. ii. pt i. 69. 

„ <*The Sultan Mas'ud clothed his 
dogs with trappings of a^las of divers colours, 
and put bracelets upon them." — FaJehr\ 
p. 68. 

1505.— "Raso por seda rasa."— Atlis, 
Voeabular Arauigo of Ft. P. de Ateala. 

1678.— "They go Rich in Apparel, their 
Turbats of Gold, Damask'd Gold Atlas Coats 
to their Heels, Silk, Alajah or Cuttanee 
breeches."— .FVyer, 196. 

1683.— "I saw ye TaffatUs and AtUsses 
in ye Warehouse, and gave directions con- 
cerning their several colours and stripes." — 
Hedges, Diary, May 6 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 85]. 

1689.— (Surat) "is renown'd for ... . 
rich Silks, such as AtUsses .... and for 
ZarbaftB [Zerbaft] "—Ovin^foii, 218, < 




1712.— In the Spectator of this year are 
advertised "a ptirple and sold Atlu gown " 
and "a scarlet and gola Atlas petticoat 
edged with silTer." — Cited in MeUcotm*» 
Anecdotes (1808), 429. 

1727. — ** They are exquisite in the 
Weaver's Trade and Embroidery, which 
may be seen in the rich Atlaases .... 
made by them."<-^. ffamiUon^ i. 160. 

c. 1750 - 60.—" The most considerable 
(manufacture) is that of their atlaases or 
satin flowered with gold and silver." — Orote, 
i. 117. 

Note, — I saw not long ago in India a 
Polish Jew who was called Jacob Atlas, and 
he explained to me that when the Jews 
(about 1800) were forced to assume surnames, 
this was assigned to his grandfather, because 
he wore a black satin gaberdine !—(^ . B, 

ATOLL, s. A group of coral islands 
forming a rin^ or chaplet, sometimes 
of many miles in diameter, inclosing a 
space of comparatively shallow water, 
each of the islands being on the same 
type as the atoll. We derive the ex- 
pression from the Maldive islands, 
which are the typical examples of this 
structure, and wnere the form of the 
word is aiolu, [P. de Laval (Hak. 
Soc. i. 93) states that the provinces in 
the Malaives were known as AtoUon,'] 
It is probably connected with the 

Singhalese dtuly 'inside' ; [or etula, as 
Mr Gray (P. de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 
94) writes the word. The Mad. Admin. 

Ma/n, in the Glossary gives Malayal. 
aUdlam, *a sinking reePj. The term 
was made a scientific one by Darwin 
in his publication on Ckirel Keefs (see 
l)elow), but our second quotation shows 
that it had been generalised at an 
earlier date. 

c. 1610.—" Estant au miUeu d'vn AtoUon, 
vous ToycE autour de tous ce grand banc de 

Sierre que jay dit, qui environne et qui 
efend lee isles oontre Timpetuosit^ de la 
mer."— Pynmi de Laval, i. 71 (ed. 1679) ; 
[Hak. Soc. i. 94]. 

1732. — " Atollon, a name applied to such 
a place in the sea as exhibits a heap of little 
islands lying close together, and almost hang- 
ing on to each other." — ZeidUr*s [{Qterma^) 
Universal Lexicon^ s.v. 

1842. — "I have invariably used in this 
volume the term atoU, which is the name 
given to these circular groups of coral islets 
by their inhabitants in the Indian Ocean, 
and is synonymous with 'lagoon-island.'" — 
Dartoin, The Structure, <fe;., ^ Coral JRe^, 2. 

AUMIL, s. At, and thence H. 
*dnUl (noun of agency from *amaly * he 
performed a task or office,' therefore 

*■ an agent '). Under the native govern- 
ments a collector of Revenue ; also a 
farmer of the Revenue invested with 
chief authority in his District. Also 

AUMILDAB. Properly 'amalddr, 
' one holding office ' ; ( Ar. *amal, * work,' 
with P. term of agency). A factor or 
manager. Among the Mahrattas the 
'AmcUddr was a collector of revenue 
under varying conditions — (See details 
in fVilson), The term is now limited 
to Mysore and a few other parts of 
India, and does not belong to the 
standard system of any Presidency. 
The word in the following passage 
looks as if intended for 'amalddTy 
though there is a term Mdlddr, Hhe 
holder of property.' 

1680. — " The Kauldar or Du^Kxm [Dewan] 
that came with the Ruccas [Boocka] from 
Golcondah sent forward to linffappa at 
Oonjiveram."— F<. St. Geo, Cons,, 9th Novr. 
No. III., 38. 

c. 1780. — ". . . . having detected various 
frauds in the management of the Amuldar 
or renter . . . . (M. Lally) paid him 40,000 
rupees."— <Vot«, iii. 496 (ed. 1808). 

1793. — ''The aumildan, or managers of 
the districts." — Dirom, p. 56, 

1799. — " I wish that you would desire one 
of your people to communicate with the 
AiwilH^r of Soondah respecting this road." 
— A, Wellesley to T. Munro, in Munro's Life, 
i. 835. 

1804.— "I know the character of the 
Peehwah, and his ministers, and of everv 
Mahratta •miiH^r sufficiently well .... 
— WelliTigtoii, iii. 88. 

1809.— "Of the auinil I saw nothing."— 
Ld, Valentia, i. 412. 

AUBUNG, 8. H. from P. aurana, 
' a place where goods are manufactured^ 
a dep6t for such goods.' During the 
Company's trading days this term was 
applied to their wctories for the pur- 
chase, on advances, of native piece- 
goods, &C. 

1778.—". . . . Gentoo-factora in their 
own pay to provide the investments at the 
different AumilgB or cloth markets in the 
province."— Orwd, ii, 61. 

1789. — "I doubt, however, very much 
whether he has had sufficient experience in 
the commercial line to enable him to manage 
so difficult and so {important an avnuig as 
Luckipore, which is slmoet the only one of 
any magnitude which supplies the species of 
coarse cloths which do not interfere witt\th» 
British manufacture."— C<7mtoa//u. i. 485. 

AVA, n.p. The name of the city 
which was for several centuries the 




capital of the Burmese Empire, and 
WHS applied often to that State itself. 
This name is borrowed, according to 
Crawfurd, from the form Atoa or Avxik 
used by the Malays. The proper 
Burmese form was Eng-ioa, or <the 
Lake-Month,' because the city was 
bmlt near the opening of a lagoon 
into the Irawadi ; but this was called, 
even by the Burmese, more popularly 
A'lDd, 'The Mouth.' The city was 
founded a.d. 1364. The first European 
occurrence of the name, so far as we 
know, is (c. 1440) in the narrative of 
Nicole Conti, and it appears a^in (no 
doubt from Conti's information) in the 
great World -Map of Fra Mauro at 
Venice (1469). 

c 1490. — "Having sailed up this river for 
the space of a month he arrived at a city 
more noble than all the others, called Ava, 
and the circomference of which is 15 miles." 
—Conti, in India in the ZVth Cent, 11. 

c. 1490.— '* The country (Pegu) is distant 
15 days' journey by land from another called 
Ava in which grow rubies and many other 
precioas stones." — Bier, di Sto, Stefanoy u. s. 
p. 6. 

1516. — "Inland beyond this Kingdom of 
Pegu .... there is another Ein^om of 
Gentiles which has a Ein^ who resides in a 
very ^reat and opulent city called Ava, 8 
days' journey from the sea ; a place of rich 
merchants, in which there is a gpreat trade of 
jewels, rubies, and spinel-rubies, which are 
gathered in this Kingdom." — Barbosa, 186. 

c. 1610.—" . . . .The King of OvA having 
already sent much people, with cavalry, to 
relieve PorSo (Prome), which marohes with 
the Pozfio (?) and city of Ovi or Anvi, 
(which means 'surrounded on aU sides with 
streams') . . ." — Antonio Bocarro, Decada, 

1726.— "The city Ava is surpassing 
great. . . . One may not travel bv land to 
Ava, both because this is permitted by the 
Emperor to none but envoys, on account of 
Uie Kubies on the way, and also because it 
is a very perilous journey on account of the 
tigerm."- ra/en<V»} V- {Chonm,) 127. 

AVADAVAT, s. Improperly for 
AmadavaJt. The name given to a 
certain pret^ little cage-bird (Estrelda 
cmandavfL, L or 'Red Wax -Bill') 
found throu^out India, but originally 
brousht to £urope from Ahmaddbdd 
in Guzerat, of which the name is a 
cormption. We also find Ahmadabad 
represented by Madami: as in old 
maps Aitardbdd on the Oaspian is 
represented by Strava (see quotation 
from Correa below). [One of the 
native names for the bird is Idl, 
*niby,' which appears in the quota- 

tion from Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali 

1538.—". . . . o qual veyo d'Amadava 
principall cidade do reino." — In S, Botelho, 
Tombo, 228. 

1546. — "The greater the resistance they 
made, the more of their blood was spilt in 
their defeat, and when they took to flight, 
we gave them chase for the space of half a 
league. And it is my belief that as far as 
the will of the officers and lascarys went, 
we should not have halted on this side of 
Hadavi ; but as I saw that my people were 
much fatigued, and that the Moors were 
in great numbers, I withdrew them and 
brought them back to the city." — D. JoSo 
de bistro's despatch to the City of Goa 
respecting the victory at Diu. — Correoy iv. 

1648.— "The capital (of Guzerat) lies in 
the interior of the country and is named 
Hamed'Ewal, i,e. the City of King Earned 
who built it ; nowadays tiiey call it Anub- 
eZaDoror Amadabat."— Fait Twitt^ 4. 

1673.— "From Amidavad, small Birds, 
who, besides that they are SDotted with 
white and Bed no bigger than Measles, the 
principal Chorister beginning, the rest in 
Consort, Fifty in a Cage, make an admirable 
Chorus."— -Fj:y«r, 116. 

[1777. — ". . . a few presents now and then 
— china, shawls, congou tea, avadavatfl, and 
Indian crackers."— 2%e Sckool for Scandal, 

1813.—". . . . amadavats, and other 
songsters are brought thither (Bombay) 
from Surat and different countries." — Forbes, 
Or, Mem, i, 47. [The 2nd ed. (i. 82) reads 

[1832.— "The lollah, known to many by 
the name of haver-dewatt, is a beautiful 
little creature, about one-third the size of 
a hedge-sparrow." — Mrs Meer UoMan Ali, 
Obaervat. ii. 54.] 

AVATAB, s. Skt. Avaidra, an 
incarnation on earth of a divine Being. 
This word first appears in Baldaeus 
(1672) in the form Autaar (Afgoderye^ 
p. 52), which in the German version 
generally quoted in this book takes 
6ie corrupter shape of AUar. 

[c. 1590.— "In the citv of Sambal is a 
temple called Hari Mandal (the temple of 
Vishnu) belonging to a Brahman, from 
among whose descendants the tenth avatar 
will appear at this spot." — Aln, tr. Jarrett, 

1672. — ''Bey den Benjanen haben auoh 
diese zehen Verwandlungen den Namen 
daas sie Altaxe heissen, und also hat Mats 
Altar als dieser erste, gewfthret 2500 Jahr." 
-'Baldaeus, 472. 

1784.— "The ten AvatAn or descents of 
the deity, in his capacity of Preserver."— 
Sir W, JoMs, in Aaiat, Res, (reprint) i. 




1812.-^" The Awatan of Viahnu, by 
which are meant his descents upon earth, are 
usnally ooonted ten. . . ." — Maria Orahcan, 

1821.— "The Irish Avatar."— JBynm. 

1845.— "In Vishnu-land what Avatar ?" 
— Brovming^ Dramatic Romances. Wcrka, 
ed. 1870, iv. pp. 209, 210. 

1872. — ". ... all which cannot blind us 
to the fact that the Master is merely another 
avatar of Dr Holmes himself ."—iSo/. Review^ 
Dec. 14, p. 768. 

1878. — "He .... builds up a curiouB 
History of Spiritualism, accordmff to which 
all matter is mediately or immediately the 
avatar of some Intelligence, not necessarily 
the highest"- ^ouimy, May 16th, 1726. 

1876.—" Bahsac's avatara were a hundred- 
fold as numerous as those of Vishnu." — 7&u2., 
April 24th, p. 421. 

AVERAGE, & Skeat derives this 
in all its senses from L. Latin averioy 
used for cattle ; for his deduction of 
meanings we must refer to his Dic- 
tionary. But it is worthy of considera- 
tion whether awrage, m its special 
marine use for a proportionate contri- 
bution towards losses of those whose 
goods are cast into the sea to save a 
^p, &c., is not directly connected 
witn the Fr. aoarie, which has quite 
that signification. And this last 
Dozy shows most plausibly to be from 
the Ar. *awdr, spoilt merchandise.' 
[This is rejected by the N,E,D., which 
concludes that the Ar. *awdr is ** merely 
a mod. Arabic translation and adap- 
tation of the Western term in its latest 
sense.''] Note that many Eurooean 
words of trade are from the Arabic ; 
and that avarie is in Dutch avoHj^ 
averijy or ^wn)'.— (See Dozy, Ooder- 

AYAH, s. A native lady's-maid or 
nurse-maid. The word has been 
adopted into most of the Indian 
vernaculars in the forms dya or dyd, 
but it is really Portuguese (f. aia, 
*a nurse, or governess'; m. ato, *the 
governor of a young ftoble'). [These 
again have been connectedf with L. 
I^tin aidiis^ Fr. aidey *a helper.'] 

1779. — ** I was sitting in my own house in 
the compound, when the iya came down 
and told me that her mistress wanted a 
candle." — Kilmutgar*s evidence, in the case 
of Grand v. Francis, Ext. in Echoes of Old 
Calcutta^ 226. 

1782.-<A Table of Wages) :— 

*' Ccnnmak 10 (rupees a month). 


Oct. 12. 

.5,"— India Gazette, 

1810.— '* The female who attends a lady 
while she is dressing, etc., is called an 
Ayah."— WUliamson, >. M, i. 887. 

1826.— "The lieutenant's visits were now 
less frequent than usual ; one day, however, 
he came .... and on leaving the house I 
observed him slip something, which I 
doubted not was money, into the hand of 
the Ayah, or serving woman, of Jane." — 
Pandwrang Hart, 71 ; [ed. 1878, i. 99]. 

1842.—" Here (at Simla) there is a great 
preponderence of Mahometans. I am told 
that t^e ffons produced abeolute consterna- 
tion, vinble m their countenances. One 
Asrah threw herself upon the gfround in an 
agony of despair. ... I fired 42 ffuns for 
GHiuzni and Cabul ; the 22nd (42nd T) gun— 
which announced that all was finished— was 
what overcame the Mahometans." — Lord 
EUenhorougK, in Indian Administration 295. 
This stuff was written to the great Duke of 

,1878.—" The white-robed ayah flits in and 
out of the tents, finding a home for our 
various possessions, and thither we soon 
retire."— /Vofcr** Mag., June, i. 99. 

1879. — "He was exceedingly fond of his 
two children, and got for them servants ; a 
man to cook their dinner, and an ajrah to 
take care of them."— i^t« Sloies, Indian 
Fairy Tales, 7. 


•RAH^A^ s. This is the word usually 
applied in Anglo-Indian families, by 
both Europeans and natives, to the 
children^-often in the jplund form, 
hdbd lOa (tosf=*folk'). The word is 
not used bv the natives among them- 
selves in tne same way, at least not 
habitually : and it would seem as if 
our word hahy had influenced the use. 
The word bdbd is properly Turki= 
* father ' ; sometimes used to a child 
as a term of endearment (or forming 
part of such a term, as in tne P. Bdbd- 
jdn, * Life of your Father '). Compare 
the Russian use of hatvMia. [Bdbdfi 
is a conunon form of address to a 
Fakir, usually a member of one of 
theMusulman sects. And hence it is 
^)j|^ generally as a title of respect] 

[1686.— "A Letter from the Pettepolle 
Bobha."— Pnn^/«, Diary, Fort St, Geo, iv. 

1826.—"! reached the hut of a Gossein 
. . . and reluctantly tapped at the wicket, 
calling, ' Baba, Maharaj.' **—PanduraHg 
ffariled. 1873, i. 76]. 

[1880.— " While Sunny Baba is at large, 
and might at any time make a raid on 
Mamma, who is doring over a novel on the 
spider chair near the mouth of the ther- 




mantidote, the Ayah and Bearer dare not 
leave their charge/' <— AherigK-Maekoofy 
TwaUy-ame Ba^ p. 94.] 

BABAaOOBEB» a. H. Bdbdghan, 
the white jjgate (or chalcedony?) of 
Oambaj. [for these stones see ForheSj 
Or. Mtm. 2nd ed. L 323 : Tanemier^ ed. 
BaUy L 68.] It is apparently so called 
from the patron saint or martyr 
of the district containing the mines, 
under whose special protection the 
miners place themselves hefore de- 
scending into the shafts. Tradition 
alleges that he was a prince of the 
^reat Ghori dynasty, who was killed 
in a great hattle in that region. But 
this prince wUl hardly be found in 

1516.— <* They abo find in this town 
(limadnra in Onaerat) much chalcedony, 
which thejr call bahagore. Thej make 
beads with it, and other things which they 
wear about them." — BarbotOj 67. 

1564. — "In this country (Guzerat) is a 
profoaion of BlhMghflll and earnelians ; but 
the beet of these last are those coming from 
Yamaii.''->iSH2» *AU KapuddM, in J.A.S.B. 
T. 463. 

1590. — "By the command of his Majesty 
gnun weights of b&blffhilxl were made, 
which were nsed in 'weighing."— <^{n, i. 85, 
and note, p. 615 {Bloekmann). 

1818. — "On the summit stands the tomb 
.... of the titular saint of the country, 
Baba CHior, to whom a devotion is paid more 
as a deitf than as a saint. . . ." — Ooplandy 
inTr. LiiSoe. Bo,, i. 294. 

1849. — Among ten kinds of earnelians 
specified in H. Briggs's Cities of Ghaardiktra 
we find " Bawa Crari Aldk, a yeined kind."— - 
p. 183. 

•RAintg^ n.p. This name is given 
to the I. of Perim, in the St. of 
Babelmandel, in the Quotation from 
Ovington. It was probably English 
sea-slang onl^. [Mr Whiteway points 
out that this is clearly from aJUbabo^ 
the Port, form of the Ar. word. Jofto 
de Castro in Boteiro (164IX p. 34 says : 
*' This strait is called by the neignbour- 
ing people, as well as those who dwell 
on the shores of the Indian Ocean, 
AlllAbo, which in Arabic signifies 
•gates.' T 

[1610.— "We attempting to wprk up to 
the Babt."— -Ameerf, Letters, i. 52.] 

[1611.— ''There is at the Bahb a ship 
oome from SwahelL"— iMi. i. 111.] 

169a— "The BaUM is a smaU idand 
<^)ening to the Red Sea. . . . Between this 
and the Mam Land ia a safe Rtfsage. . ."— 
Oeimgttm, 4BS. 

[1769. — "Yet they made no estimation of 
the currents without the Babs"; (note), 
"This is the common sailors' phrase for the 
Straits of BabehnandeL"— Brvce, Travele to 
diaoover the Source qf the NUe, ed. 1790, 
Bk. L cap. ii.] 

BABEB, BHABUB, s. H. habar, 
Ihdba/r, A name given to those dis- 
tricts of the N.W. Provinces which 
lie immediately under the Himalaya 
to the dry forest belt on the talus of 
the hills, at the lower edge of which 
the moisture comes to the surface and 
forms the wet forest belt called Taral 

iSee TEBAI.) The following extract 
rom the report of a lecture on Indian 
Forests is rather a happy example of 
the danger of "a little learning^ to a 
reporter : 

1877.— "Beyond that (the TarSI) lay 
another district of about the same breadth, 
called in the native dialect the Bahadar. 
That in fact was a great filter-bed of sand 
and Tegetation." — London Morning Paper 
of Vm, May, 

BABI-BOUSBA, s. Malay habi* 
(»hog*) rUea ('stag;'). The 'Stag- 
nog,' a remarkable animal of the swine 
genus {Sus haJbiruna^ L. ; Babiruna 
alpirus^ P. CuvierX found in the island 
of Bourou, and some others of the I. 
Archipelago, but nowhere on conti- 
nental Asia. Tet it seems difficult 
to apply the description of Pliny 
below, or the name and drawing given 
by Cosmas, to any other animal. The 
4-homed swine of Aelian is more pro- 
bably the African Wart-hog, called 
accordingly by F. Ouvier Phaeochoerus 

c. A.D. 70.— "The wild bores of India 
have two bowing fangs or tuskes of a cubit 
length, g^wing out of their mouth, and as 
many out of their foreheads like calves 
homes."— P/tny, viii. 52 {HoUanSs Tr, 
i. 231). 

c. 250. "Aiyet ^ AliKtfy iv 'Ai0uaTl^ 
ybf€C$ai . . . . fc TerpdKepws." — Aelian, 
be Nat, Anim, zvii. 10. 

c. 545.— "The Choirelaphus (*Hog.staff') 
I have both seen and eaten." — Cosmos In- 
dicopletates, in Cathay, kc., p. dzxv. 

1555. — "There are hogs also toith hemes, 
and parats which prattle much which they 
call noris (harj),''^OaIvano, Discoveries qf 
the World, Hak. Soc. 120. 

* This word takes a ludicroofi form in Dampier : 
"All the Indians who spake Malayan .... 
lookt on those Mmingians as a kind of Barbarians ; 
and upon any occasion of dislike, would call them 
Bolfb9, that is Hoga."— L 51ft. 




1668. — " Quadrupee hoc inusitatatae 
figurae monstrosis bestiis ascribunt Indi 
quod advenae speciei animalibus, Poroo 
scilicet et Cervo, pronatum putent .... 
ita ut primo intuitu quatuor oomibuB juxta 
se positis yideatur annatum hoc animal 
Baby-Bonssa."— /*iM>, App. to BonHus, 
p. 61. 

[1869.— "The wild pig seems to be of a 
species peculiar to the isumd (Celebes) ; but 
a much more curious animal of this family 
is the Babimsa or Pig-deer, so named by 
the Malays from its long and slender lem^ 
and curved tusks resembling horns. This 
extraordinary creature resembles a pig in 
general appearance, but it does not dig with 

its snout, as it feeds on fallen fruits 

Here again we have a resemblance to the 
Wart-hogs of Africa, whose upper canines 
grow outwards and curve up so as to form a 
transition from the usual mode of growth to 
that of the Babirtisa, In other respects 
there seems no affinity between these animals, 
and the Bahirusa stands completely isolated, 
having no resemblance to the pigs of any 
other part of the world." — WaUacf, Malay 
Archip. (ed. 1890), p. 211, seqq, 

BABOO, s. Beng. and H. BcOm 
[Skt. wipra^ *a father']. Properly a 
term of respect attached to a name, 
like Mader or Mr,^ and formerly in 
some parts of Hindustan applied to 
certain persons of distinction. Its 
application as a term of respect is 
now almost or altogether confined to 
Lower Ben^l (though C. P. Broni'n 
states that it is also used in S.t India 
for *Sir, My lord, your Honour \ In 
Bengal ana elsewhere, among Anglo- 
Indians, it is often used with a slight 
savour of disparaffement, as characteriz- 
ing a superncialiy cultivated, buti too 
often effeminate, Bengali. And 
the extensive employment oj 
class, to which the term was a] 
as a title, in the capacity of clei 
English offices, the word has 
often to signify *a native clerk' who 
writes EngBsh.^ 

1781.— "1 said . . . From my youth to 
this day 1 am a servant to the £iv[li^. 1 
have never gone to any Rajahs or Ba^boOfl 
nor will I go to them."— Depn. of Jkicntd 
Sing^ Commandant. In yarr. of Inturn, at 
Banaras in 1781. Calc. 1782. Reprinted 
at Roorkee, 1853. App., p. 165. 

1782,—** CwiUoo Baboo" appears as a 
subscriber to a famine fund at Madras for 
200 Sicca Rupees.— /n<£ta Gazettey Oct. 12. 

* * Here Edmund was making a monstrous ado, 

About some bloody letter and Conta 

LeUera of Simkin the Second, 147. 

[* " Mr Burke's msthod of pronouncing it"] 

1803.— *<. . . Calling on Mr. Neave I 
found there Baboo Dheep Nanain, brother 
to Oodit Narrain, Rajah at Benares.'* — Lard 
ValaUia*8 Travels, i. 112. 

1824. — **. . . the immense oonvent-liko 
mansion of some of the more wealthy 
BaboOB. . ."-i7«5er, i. 31, ed. 1844. 

1834.- ''The Baboo and other Tales, 
descriptive of Society in India." — Smith k 
Elder, London. (By Augustus Prinsep.) 

1850. — "If instruction were sought for 
from them (the Mohammedan historians) 
we ^ould no longer hear bombastic Baboos, 
enjoying under our Government the highest 
degree of personal liberty . . . rave about 
patriotism, and the degradation of their 
present position." — Sir n. M. Elliot, Ori^. 
Preface to Mahom, Historiatu of India, m 
Dowson's ed., I. zxii. 

c. 1866. 
** But I'd sooner be robbed by a tall man 
who showed me a yard of steel, 

Than be fleeced by a sneaking Baboo, with 
a peon and badge at his heel." 

SirA.C, Lyall, The Old Pindaree. 

1873.— "The pliable, plastic, receptive 
Baboo of Bengal eagerly avails himself of 
this system (of English education)^ partly 
from a servile wish to please the Sahib hgit€^ 
and partly from a desire to obtain a Govern- 
ment appointment." — Fnuer*t Mag., August, 

[1880. — ** English officers who have become 
de-Europeanis^ from long residence among 
undomesticated natives. . . . Such officials 
are what Lord Lytton calls White Baboos." 
—Aherigh-Machay, TtoeiUy-one Daye, p. 104.] 

N.B.— In Java and the further East lObS, 
means a nurse or female servant (Javanese 

BABOOL, s. H. hoML baMr 
(though often mispronouncea hdhid^ 
as in two quotetions below) ; also 
called Mkar, Jl thorny mimofia 
common in most parts of India except 
the Malabar Coaat ; the Acacia arahicay 
Willd. The Bhils use the gum aa 

1666.— "L'eau de Vie de ce Pato .... 
(ju'on y boit ordinairement, est faiote de 
ja{frt ou Sucre noir, qu'on met dans I'eau 
avec de I'^oorce de I'arbre Babonl, pour y 
donner quelque force, et ensuito on les dis- 
tile ensemble." — Thomvot, v. 60. 

1780.— "Price Current. Country Produce : 
Bable Trees, laige, ^ pc. each tree." — 
Hickey*a Bengal Gazette, April 29. [This is 
IMld, the Bengali form of the word. J 

1824.— "Rampoor is . . . chiefly remark- 
able for the sort of fortification which sur- 
rounds it. This is a high thick hedge . . . 
of bamboos . . . faced on the outside by a 
formidable underwood of cactus and bAbool. " 
—Beber, ed. 1844, i. 290. 

1849.— "Look at that great tract from 
Deesa to the Hfila mountains. It is all 




aand ; sometimes it has a little ragged doth- 
ing of blbul or milk-bash."— 2^ Leaves 
from Young Egypt, 1. 

BABOON, s. This, no doubt, comes 
to OS tlirouffh the ItaL hahuinoj but 
it is probable that the latter word is 
a oormption of Pers. mavmS/n FHhe 
auspicious one 1 and then applied by 
way of euphemism or irony to the 
baboon or monkey. It also occurs 
in ItaL under the more direct form 
of maimone in gaUo-maimoney 'cat- 
monkey/ or rather * monkey-cat' [The 
N^.D, leaves the origin of the word 
doubtful, and does not discuss this 
among other suggested derivations:] 


nn.pp. Two ports of Canara often 
coupled together in old narratives, 
but which have entirely disappeared 
from modem maps and books of navi- 
gation, insomuch that it is not yiite 
easy to indicate their precise position. 
But it would seem that ifacanore, 
MalayaL VakkanSrj is the place called 
in Cuiarese Bdrk&Tj the Barcoor-peUah 
of some maps, in lat. 13" 28|'. This 
was the site of a vei^ old and im- 
portant city, ''the capital of the Jain 
kings of Tulava .... and subse- 
quently a stronghold of the Vijiyanagar 
Kajas.^ — Imp, Uazet, [Also see Stuart, 
Man. S. Canara, ii. 264.] 

Also that Bareelore is a Port, corrup- 
tion of BomUt [the Canarese BasarHrUj 
'the town of the waved-leaf fu; tree.' 
{Mad. Adm, Man, GlosSy s.v.).] It must 
have stood immediately below the 
'Barsilur Peak' of the Admiralty 
charts, and was apparentlv identical 
with, or near to, the place called 
Seroor in Scott's Man of the Madras 
Presidency, in about lat. 13** 55'. [See 
Stuart, Und. ii. 242. Seroor is perhaps 
the Shirlir of Mr Stitart {ibid. p. 243).] 

c. 1330.— "Thence (from Hannaur) the 
tntTeller came to B&sarllr, a small city. ..." 
^AhvJlfeda, in Gildemeitter, 184. 

c 1348.— '* The first town of Mulaib&r 
that we Tisited was Abn-SarQr, which is 
small, situated on a great estuary, and 
abounding in oooo-nut trees. . . . Two days 
after oar departore from that town we 
arriyed at Flkaafbr, which is laif^e and 
situated on an estuary. One sees there 
an abundance of sugar-cane, such as has 
oo equal in that country."— 76» BattUa, 
!▼. 77-78. 

o. 1420. — "Duas praeterea ad maritimas 
arbea, alteram Paiduailiiriam . . . nomine, 

XX diebus transiit." — OorUiy in Poggius de 
Vcar, Fort. iv. 

1501.— "Bacanut," for Baoanur, is named 
in Amerigo Vespucci's letter, giring an 
account of Da Gama's discoyeriea. first 
publiahed by Baldelli Boni, // Miliorut, 
pp. liii. ieqq, 

1516. — ''Passing further forward .... 
along the coast, there are two little riyers 
on which stand two places, the one called 
Baoanor, and the other Braoalor, belong- 
ing to the kingdom of Narsyngua and the 
ryince of ToHnate (Tulu-iUfda, Tuluva or 
Oanara). And in them is much good 
rioe grown round about these places, and 
this is loaded in many foreign s£d|w and in 
many of Malabar. . . ."— Air6a», in Lisbon 
Coll. 294. 

1548.— "The Port of the River of Bar- 
oalor pays 500 loads (of rice as tribute)."— 
Botelho, TombOy 246. 

1552. — ''Haying dispatched this vesael, 
he (V. da Qama) turned to follow his 
yoyaWe, desixing to erect the padrOo (yotiye 
piUar) of which we haye spoken; and not 
finding a place that pleased him better, 
he erected one on certain islets joined (as 
it were) to the land, givinff it the name of 
Sancta Maria, whence these islands are 
now called Saint Mary's Isles, standing 
between Baoanor and BaticaU, two notable 
places on that coast." — De Barrot, I. iv. 11. 

„ "... the city Onor, capital of the 
kingdom, Batical^ Bendor, Braeelor, Bsl- 
oanor."— 7&u2. 1, ix. 1. 

1726.— "In Baneloor or BasMloor have 
we still a factory ... a little south of 
Basseloor lies Baquanoor and the little 
River Vier."—Fa/«nft>i, v. (Malabar) 6. 

1727.— "The next town to the Southward 
of Batacola [Batoul] is Baroeloar, standing 
on the Banks of a broad River about 4 Miles 
from the Sea .... The Dutch have a 
Factory here, only to bring up Rice for their 
Garrisons .... Bacoanoar and Molkey lie 
between Bazoaloar and Mangalore, both 
having the benefit of Rivers to export the 
large quantities of Rice that the Fields 
produce."—^. Hamilton, i. 284-5. [Molkey 
IS MulHy see Stuart, op, cU, ii. 259.] 

1780.— "St Mary's Islands lie along the 
coast N. and S. as far as off the river of 
Baoanor, or Callianpoor, being about 6 
leagues ... In lat. 13° 50' N., 5 leagues 
from Bcbcanor, runs the river Banalor." — 
Dunn's N, Directory, 5th ed. 105. 

1814.— "Baroelore, now frequently called 
Cundapore." — Forbes, Or. mem, iv. 109, 
also see 113 ; [2nd ed. II. 464]. 

BAOKDOBEyS. H.5a^-«2or(' bridle- 
cord ') ; a halter or leading rein. 

BAOKSEE. Sea H. hakn: nautical 
'aback,' from which it has been formed 




BADEG^A, n.p. The TamU Vada- 
gar, i,e. * Northerners.' The name &as 
at least two specific applications : 

a. To the Telegu people who in- 
vaded the Tamil country from the 
kingdom of Yijavanagara (the Bimaga 
or Nandnga of the Portuguese and 
old travellers) during the later Middle 
Ages, but especially in the 16th century. 
This word first occurs in the letters of 
St. Francis Xavier (1544), whose Parava 
converts on the TinneveUy Coast were 
much oppressed by these people. The 
Bodega language of Lucena, and other 
writers regaraing that time, is the 
Telegu. The fiadagas of St. Fr. 
Xavier's time were in fact the emis- 
saries of the Nayaka rulers of Madura, 
using violence to exact tribute for 
those rulers, whilst the Portuguese 
had conferred on the Paravas "the 
somewhat dangerous privily of being 
Portuguese subjects." — See OaldweU^ H, 
of TinneveUy^ 69 seqq. 

1544. — "Effo ad Gomoriniim Promonto- 
rium oontendo ebqne nayicuUtf deduoo xx. 
cibariiB onustaa, nt miMiis illis subveniam 
Neophytis, qui Bagadamm (read Bada- 
oamin) acerrimonim Christiani nominis 
nostilun terrore perculBi, relictis vids, in 
desertas izisulas se abdidenint." — S, F, JTav. 
EpiHt. I. vi., ed. 1677. 

1572. — ** Oens est in regno Bisnagae quoe 
Badagas yocant.'* — E, AcosUif 4 b. 

1737._^(*In e& parte miasionis Camatensis 
in quA TeUmgou, ut aiunt, lingua riget, aeu 
inter Badagoa, qninque annos Tersatus sum ; 
neque quamdiu vi^erunt yires ab ilUk dileo- 
ttsmmd et Bancti88im& Miasione Pudecherium 
veni."— In Iforbert, iii. 280. 

1875.— «* Mr C. P. Brown informs me that 
the early French missionaries in the Guntur 
country wrote a vocabulary *de la langue 
Talenga, dite vulgairement le Badega. ' — 
Bp. Caldwell, Ihavidian Orammear, Intr. 
p. 88. 

b. To one of the races occupying the 
Kilgiri Hills, speaking an old Canarese 
dieJect, and being apparently a Cana- 
rese colony, long separated from the 
parent stock.— (See Bp, CaldweWs 
Grammar^ 2nd ed., pp. 34, 125, &c.) 
[The best recent account of this people 
IS that by Mr Thurston in BuUktn of 
the Madras Mueeurriy vol. ii. No. l.J 
The name of these people is usually in 
English corrupted to Bnighen. 

BADGEEB, s. P. bdd-gir, * wind- 
catch.' An arrangement acting as a 
windsail to bring tne wind down into 
a house ; it is common in Persia and 

in Sind« fit is the BddhaiM of Arabia, 
and the MaJUcaf of E^rpt {BufUm^ Ar. 
Nights^ i. 237; Lane^ Mod, Egypty 
i. 23.] 

1298.— "The heat is trefmendonB (at 
Hormus), and on that account the honsea 
are built with ventUators {verUiert) to catdi 
thewmd. These ventilators ara placed on 
the aide from which the wind comes, and 
they bring the wind down into the nouse 
to cool it?^— Marco Polo, ii. 450, 

[1698. — A similar ananffement at the 
same place is described by Lituekoieii. i. 51, 
Hak. ^.] 

1682.— At Oamron (Oomliroon) "meet 
of the houses have a square tower whidi 
stands up far above the roof, and which in 
the •upper part towards the four winds baa 
ports and openings to admit air and catch 
the wind, which plays through these, and 
ventilates the whole house. In the heat of 
summer people lie at night at the bottom 
of these towers, so as to get food rest." — 
Nieukof, Zee en Lant-Reite, ii. 79. 

ri798.— "The air in it was continuaUy 
refreshed and renewed by a cool-sail, made 
like a funnel, in the manner of M. du 
Hamel." — Stavorimit, Voyage, ii. 104.] 

" The wind-Unoer on the Emir's dome 

Can searcely win a breath from heaven.*' 
Moore, Fire-warAippan. 

1872.—'*. . . . Badgixi or windcatchers. 
You see on every roof these diminutive 
screens of wattle and dab, forming acute 
angles with the hatches over whidi they 
project. Some are moveable, so aa to m 
turned to the S.W. between March and the 
end of July, when the monsoon sets in from 
that quarter." — BvTUm*t Sind Revieited, 254. 

1881. — " A number of square turrets stick 
up all over the town ; these are badgin or 
ventilators, open sometimes to all the winds, 
sometimes omy to one or two, and divided 
inside like the flues of a great ohimne]^, 
either to catch the draught, or to oan^ it 
to the several rooms below." — Pi4meer Mail, 
March Sth, 

BADJOE, BAJOO, s. The Malay 
jacket (MaL bdju) [of which many 
varieties are dfescribed by Dennys 
{Disc. Did, p. 107)]. 

[e. 1610.— ** The women (Portuguese) take 
their ease in their smocks or B^fua, which 
are more transparent and fine than the most 
delicate crape of those parts." — Pyrard de 
Laval, Hak. Soc. u. 112.] 

1784.— "Over this they wear the ba^joo. 
which resembles a morning gown, open at 
the neck, but fastened dose at the wrist, 
and half-way up the arm." — Mareien, H. of 
SttwuUra, 2nd ed. 44. 

1878.— "The general Hala^ costume .... 
consists of an inner vest, having a collar to 
button tight round the neck, and the bajn, 
or jacket, often of light coloured dimity, for 
undresfi."- J/cAiatr, 147. 




1883.— "They wear above it a short- 
deered jacket^ the tain, beautifully made, 
and often Tery tastefully deoorated in fine 
needtowork."— Jfut Bird, Golden Ohenon- 

l^AlCT^ a. H. heLy Mahr. hail^ from 
Skt vOmi, the Tree and Fruit of AegU 
marmeUm (OorreaX or * Bengal Quince,' 
as it is sometimes called, after the 
name (Marmeim de Benguala) given it 

S' Garcia de Orta, who first described 
e virtues of this fruit in the treat- 
ment of dysenteiT, &c. These are 
noticed also by P. Vincenzo Maria and 
others, and have always been familiar 
in India. Yet they do not appear to 
have attracted serious attention in 
Europe till about the ^ear 1860. It 
is a small tree, a native of various 
parts of India. The dried fruit is now 
imported into England. — (See Hanbury 
and Fladnger, 116) ; [ff^aU, Earn, Diet. 
L 117 Meqq,']. The shellv rind of the 
M is in the Punjab made into carved 
snuff-boxes for sale to the Afghans. 

1563.— "And as I knew that it was 
called tali in Ba^aim, I enc^uired of thoee 
natiTe physicians which was its proper name, 
cir^oie or beH, and the^r told me that ciri/ole 
[snpAald] was the ^ysician's name for it."— 
Garcia Dt 0., ff. W. v., 222. 

[1614. — "One jar of E^le at ru. 5 per 
mannd.'* — Fo$Ut, Lettertj ui. 41.] 

1631. — Jac. Bontius describee the bttl as 
wMhan cj/donium {i.e, a quince), and speaks 
of -its pmp as good for dysentery and the 
Aolarae immanem orgasmMm. — ^lib. tl. 
ei^. viiL 

1672.— "The Bill plant grows to no 
mater height than thiat of a man j^this is 
moorreetl all thorny .... the fruit m size 
and iMM-Hnwa^ and nature of rind, resembles 
a pomegranate, dotted over the surface with 
little dark spots equally distributed. . . . 
With tta fnut they make a decoction, which 
is a most efficacious remedy for dysenteries 
or flnxee, proceeding from excessive heat. . ." 
—P. VineauBOj 353. 

1879. — ". . . On this plain ^ou will see 
a large tal-tree, and on it one big Ml-fmit.'* 
—Jtfut Stoke$, Indian, Fairy Talet, 140. 

BAPTA, s. A kind of calico, made 
especially at Baroch ; from the Pers. 
bdfta^ ' woven.' The old Baroch baftas 
seem to have been fine goods. Nothing 
is harder than to find intelligible ex- 
planations of the distinction Detween 
the numerous varieties of cotton stuffs 
formerly exported from India to Europe 
under a still greater variety of names ; 
names and trade being generally alike 
obsolete. Baftas however survived in 

the Tariffs till recently. [Btfia is at 
present the name appliea to a silk 
fabric. (See quotation from Yuaiif 
Ali below.) In Ben^l, Charpata and 
Noakhali in the Chittagong Division 
were also noted for their cotton baftas 
{Birdvjood, Indudr. ArU, 249).] 

1598.— "There is made great store of 
GottonLinnen of diners sort . . . Boffstas." 
—LintckoUn, p. 18. [Hak. Soc. i. 60.] 

lieOM.—'' PaUa Kaasa of the £Bnefit 
Totya, BtJbL*'—Birdvfood, Fird Letter Book, 
73. Wehavealso *< Black BalIatfea.'—iW. 

[1610.— "Ballata, the oorge Rs. 100."- 
Danvers, Letten, i. 72.] 

1612.— "Baftas or white Gallicos, from 
twentie to fortie Royals the corge,** — Oapt. 
Sarit, in PurcluUy i. 847. 

1688.—". . . tiaserans qui y font cetfce 
Borte de toUes de cotton, que Ton appelle 
baftas, (^ui sont les plus fines de toutes 
celles qm se font dans la Prouince de 
Guzaratta."— ifomid^f^, 128. 

1653. — "Baftas est un nom Indien qui 
signifie des toiles fort serr^ de cotton, 
lesquelles la pluspart viennent de Baroche, 
▼ille du Royaume de Guzerat, appartenant 
au Grand kogol."— 2>0 la B, U Gmtz, 615. 

1665.—" The Baflas» or Oalionts painted 
red, blue, and black, are carried white to 
Agra and Amaddbad, in regard those cities 
are nearest the places where the Indigo is 
made that is us'd in colouring."— ToMnuer, 
(E. T.) p. 127 ; led. Ball, ii. 6]. 

1672.—" Broach Baitas» broad and 
narrow." — Fryer, 86. 

1727.— "The Baroack Baftas arefamoos 
throughout all India, the country raoducing 
the best Gotten in the World."— i4 . Hamilton^ 
i. 144. 

1875.— In the Calcutta Tariff valuation of 
this year we find Piece Goods, Ootton : 
• ft • • 

Bafbahs, score, Ba. 80. 

[1900.—" Akin to the pot tharu is a fabric 
known as Bafta (literally woven), produced 
in Benares ; body pure silk, with buHt in 
halabatun or cloth ; . . . used for a»igari^aSf 
hotty and women's ^jamat (Musulmans)." — 
rusafAli, Mon, on Silk Fabriet, 97.] 

It is curious to find this word now 
current on Lake Nvanza. The burial 
of King Mtesa's motner is spoken of : 

1883.- "The chiefs half filled the nicely- 
padded coffin with bnfta (bleached calico) 
. . . after that the corpse and then tiie 
coffin was filled up with more bolta. . . ." — 
In Ck, Misty. Intelligencer, N.8., viu. p. 548. 

BAHAB, 8. Ar. baKdr, Malayfil. 
bhdram, from Skt. bhdrck^ *& load.' A 
weight used in large trading trans- 
actions ; it varied much in oifferent 
localities ; and though the name is of 




Indian origin it was natuialised by the 
Arabs, and carried by them to the far 
East, being found in use, when the 
Portuguese arrived in those seas, at 
least as far as the Moluccas. In the 
Indian islands the hahdr is ffenerally 
reckoned as equal to 3 peciUB (q.v.), 
or 400 avoirdupois. But there was 
a different bahdr in use for different 
articles of merchandise ; or, rather, 
each article had a special surplus allow- 
ance in weighing, which practically 
made a different bahdr (see PIOOTA). 

SMr. Skeat says that it is now uni- 
ormly equal to 400 lbs. av. in the 
British dominions in the Malay Pen- 
insula; but Klinkert gives it as the 
equivalent of 12 pikuU of AgBX-t^gBT ; 
6 of cinnamon ; 3 of Tripang.] 

1498. — " . . . and begged him to send to 
the King his Lord a \mgai of cinnamon, and 
another of olove ... for sample " (a modra). 
--Roteiro de V. da Oama, 78. 

1506. — '* In Cananor el suo Re si b sentil, e 
qui nasce sz. (%.«. zenseri or * ginger ') ; ma li 
ez. pochi e non cusi boni oome quelli de 
Colcut) e suo peso si chiama baar, ohe sono 
K. (Cantari) 4 da lisbona."— /2e^a2um« dt 
Leonardo Ca' Jicuser, 26. 

1510. — "If the merchandise about which 
they treat be spices, they deal by the bahar, 
which bahar weighs three of our cantari."— 
Vartkema, p. 170. 

1516. — " It (Malacca) has got such a quan- 
tity of ^old, that the gjeat merchants do 
not estimate their property, nor reckon 
otherwise than by baluirs of gold, which are 
4 quintals to each bahar."— Air2>a«a, 193. 

1562,—" 800 bahares of pepper."— Cajte>i- 
Aedttf ii. 301. Correa writes bares, as does 
also Couto. 

1554.— "The baar of nuts (twz) contains 
20 fara^olas, and 5 maunds more of ^oota ; 
thus the baar, with its ptcotOy contains 20^ 
fara^las. . . ." — A. Nunes, 6. 

c. 1569. — " After this I saw one that would 
have g^ven a baire of Pepper, which is two 
Quintals and a half e, for a little Measure of 
water, and he could not have it."— (7. 
Fredericke, in ffait, ii. 858. 

1598.— "Each Bhar of Sunda weigheth 
830 fatten of ChmsL^—Linschoien, 34 : [Hak. 
Soc. i. 113], 

1606. — ". . . their came in his company 
a Portugall Souldier, which brought a 
Warrant from the Capitaine to the Gouemor 
of ManiUia, to trade with vs, and likewise 
to giue John, Rogers, for his pains a Bahar of 
Clones."— MiddUton's Voyage, D. 2. 6. 

1613.— "Porque oa naturaes na quelle 
tempo possuvfio muytoe bAres de ouro." — 
Godinho de Eredta, 4 v. 

[1802.— "That at the proper season for 
gathering the pepper and for a Paltam 
weij^hing 13 rupees and 1^ VitsMtn 120 of 
which are equal to a Tulam or Maund weigh- 

ing 1,732 rupees, calculating, at which 
standard for one bazom or Candy the 
Sircar's price is Rs. 120."— Prod, at Malabar, 
in Logan, iii. 348. This makes the barom 
equal to 650 lbs.] 

BAHAUDUR, s. H. Bahadur, 'a 
hero, or champion.' It is a title affixed 
commonly to the names of European 
officers in Indian documents, or when 
spoken of ceremoniously by natives 
{e.g. "Jones Sahib Bahddur"\ in which 
use it may *be compared with "the 
gallant officer" of Parliamentary 
courtesy, or the lUtutrissimo Signare of 
the Italians. It was conferr^ as a 
title of honour by the Great Mogul 
and by other native princes [while 
in Persia it was often applied to slaves 
(Burton, Ar. Nights, iii. 114)]. Thus 
it was particularly a^ffected to the end 
of his life by Hyder Ali, to whom it 
had been given by the Raja of Mysore 
(see quotation from John Lind«iy 
below [and Wilks, Mygoor, Madras 
reprint, i. 2801). Bahddur and Sirddr 
Bahddur are also the official titles of 
members of the 2nd and 1st classes 
respectively of the Order of British 
Inaia, established for native officers 
of the army in 1837. [The title of 
Rdi Bahddur is also conferred upon 
Hindu civil officers.] 

As conferred by the Court of Delhi 
the usual gradation of titles was 
(ascending) : — 1. Bahddur ; 2. Bahddur 
Jang; 3. Bahddur ud-Daulah; 4. 
Bahddur ul-mulk. At Hyderabad they 
had also Bahddur ul-Umrd (Kirk- 
patricky in Tvppoo^s Letters, 364). 
[Many such titles of Europeans will 
be found in North Indian N. A Q., 
i. 35, 143, 179 ; iv. 17.] 

In Anglo-Indian colloquial jHirlance 
the worddenotes a haughty or pompous 
personage, exercising his brief authority 
with a strong sense of his own im- 
portance ; a don rather than a 
swaggerer. Thackeray, who derived 
fromhis Indiai^ birth and connections 
a humorous felicity . in the use of 
An^lo-Indian expressions, has not 
omitted this serWceable word. In 
that brilliant burlesc^ue, the Memoirs 
of Major Oahagan, we have the 
Mahratta traitor Bcbachee Bahauder. 
It is said also that Mr Canning's 
malicious wit bestowed on Sir John 
Malcolm, who was not less sreat as 
a talker than as a soldier ana states- 
man, the title, not included in the 



Great MpgiiFs repertory, of Bahauder 

Bahddur is one of the tenas which 
the hosts of Chlngiz Khan brought 
with them from the Mon^l Steppes. 
In the Monffol cenealpgies we hnd 
Yesugai Bahadur^ Uie father of Chineiz, 
and many more. Subutai BahMur, 
one of the great soldiers of the Mongol 
host, twice led it to the conquest of 
Southern Russia, twice to that of 
Northern China. In Sanang Setzen's 
]X)etical annals of the MoiLgols, as 
rendered by I. J. Schmidt, the word 
is written BaghaJtuTy whence in Russian 
Boffoiir still survives as a memento 
probably of the Tartar domination, 
meaning *^ hero or champion.' It 
occurs often in the old Russian epic 
fiallads in this sense ; and is also ap- 
plied to Samson of the Bible. It 
occurs in a Russian chronicler as early 
as 1240, but in application to Mongol 
leaders. In Polish it is found as Bo- 
hatyr^ and in Hungarian as Bdtor, — this 
last beinjg in fact the popular Mongol 
pronunciation of Baghaiur. In Turki 
also this elision of the guttural extends 
to the spelling, and the word becomes 
Bdtur, as we find it in the Diets, of 
VamWry and Pavet de Courteille. 
In Manchu also the word takes the 
form of BatuTUy expressed in Chinese 
characters as Pa-tu-lu ; f the Kirghiz 
has it as Baiyr; the Altai-Tataric as 
PcuUtyTy and the other dialects even 
as Magaihyr. But the singular history 
of the word is not vet entirely told. 
Benfey has suggestecl that the word 
originated in Skt. bhaga-dhara (* happi- 
ness-possessing'). J But the late 
lamented Prof. A. Schiefner, who 
favoured us with a note on the 
subject, was strongly of opinion that 
the word was rather a corruption 
^Hhrough dissimulation of the conso- 
nant," of the Zend bagha-puthra * Son 
of GJod,' and thus but another form 
of the famous term Fagbfor, by which 
the old Persians rendered the Chinese 
Tien-tsz (*Son of Heaven *), applying it 
to the Emperor of China. 

* At Ixnd Wellesley'B table, H^or Malcolm 
mentioned as a notable &ct that he and three of 
hia brothers had once met together in India. 
"Impoeaible, Malcolm, qaite impossible!" said 
tlie Govemor-OenenL Malcolm persisted. "No. 
no,** said Lord Wellesley, " if four Malcolms haa 
m^ we should have heard the noise all over 

t 8ee CkituBt Reeorder, 1876, %ii. 8M, and Kova- 
k/UW's M<mgol Diet Na 1068. 
: Orient nnd Occident, L 187. 


1280-90. — In an eccentric Persian poem 
purposely stuflfed with Mongol expressions, 
written by Purbaha JSml in praise of 
Arghun Kh&n of Persia, of which Hammer 
has griven a Grerman translation, we have 
the following : — 

" The Great Kaan names thee his Ulugh- 
BUekchl [Great Secretary], 

Seeing thou art intekchi and Behtdir to 

Well-beloved, the yarligh [rescript] that 
thou dost issue is obeyed 

By Turk and Mongol, by Persian, Greek, 
and Barbarian ! " 

Oack, der Gold, fforde, 461. 

c. 1400. — "I ordained that every Ameer 
who should reduce a Kingdom, or defeat 
an army, should be exaltedby three things : 
by a title of honour, by the Thigh [yX's 
tail standard], and by the Nakkdralgrea.t 
kettle drum]; and should be dignified by 
the title of Bahandur."— 7tmoter'« IngtUutesy 
283 ; see also 291-293. 

1404.— "E elles le dixeron q aquel era 
uno de los valiStes e Bahadures q'en e) 
linage del Sefior am&"—Clavij0f § Ixxxix. 

,, " E el home 8 este haze e mas vino 
bene dizen que es Banadur, que dizen elles 
por homem rezio." — ^Do. § cxii. 

1407.— "The Prince mounted, escorted by 
a troop of Bahadurs, who were always 
about his peTaon."—Abdurrazak't Hist, in 
Not. et Ext. xiv. 126. 

1536.— (As a proper name.) "I4aq ille 
potentissimus Rex Badur, Indiae universae 
terror, a quo nonulli regntt Pori maximi 
quOdam regis teneri affirmant. . . ." — Letter 
from John III. of Portugal to Pope Paul 

Hardly any native name occurs more 
frequently in the Portuguese Hist, of 
India than this of Badur — viz. Baha- 
dur Shah^ the warlike and powerful 
king of Guzerat (1526-37), killed in 
a fray which closed an interview with 
the Viceroy, Kuno da Cunha, at Diu. 

1754.— "The Kh-geeite Tartars ... are 
divided into three Hordasy under the 
Government of a Khan. That part which 
borders on the Russian dominions was under 
the authority of Jean Beekf whose name on 
all occasions was honoured with the title of 
Bater. "—/Tanway, i. 239. The name Jean 
Beek is probably Janibei^ a name which one 
finds among the hordes as far back as the 
early part of the 14th century (see Ibn 
BattOa, ii. 897). 

1759.— "From Shah Alum Bahadre, son 
of Alum Guire, the Great Mogul, and suc- 
cessor of the Empire, to Colonel Sabut Jung 
Bahadre" {i.e. Clive).— Letter in Long, . 
p. 163. ^' 

We have said that the title Behauder 
{Bahadur) was one by which Hyder 
Ali of Mysore was commonly known 
in his day. Thus in the two next 
quotations : 




1781. — '* Sheikh HuBsein upon the guard 
tells me that our aniq|Y has beat the Behan- 
der [i.«. Hyder Alij, and that peace was 
making. Another sepoy in the afternoon 
tells us that the Benander had destroyed 
our army, and was besieging Madras. — 
CaptivUn qf Hon. John Lindnyt in Livti of 
tke Lindaayt, iii. 296. 

1800.— "One lac of Behandxy pagodas." 
— WelUngUyii, i. 148. 

1801. — "Thomas, who was much in liquor, 
now turned round to his gowan, and said — 
* Gould an;^ one have stopped Sahib Bahan- 
door at this gate but one month ago ? * * No, 

no,' replied they ; on which " — Skinner, 

MU. Mem, i. 236. 

1872.—". . . the word 'BahAdnr' . . . 
(at the Mogul's Court) . . . was only used 
as an epithet. Ahmed Shah used it as a 
title and ordered his name to be read in the 
Friday prayer as 'Mujahid ud dfn Mu- 
hammad AbtE na^r Ahmad Sh^ Bahddur. 
Hence also * Kamjaani Bahadur,' the name 
by which the £. 1. Com^ny is still known 
in India. The modem * Khan Bahddur ' is, 
in Bengal, by permission assumed by Mu- 
hammedan Deputy Magistrates, whilst Hindu 
Deputy Magistrates assume * R^ BalULdur ' ; 
it stands, of course^ for ^ KhjCn-i-Bahddur, ' 
'the courageous Kh^n.' The compound, 
however, is a modem abnormal one; for 
*Khin' was conferred by the Dihli Em- 
perors, and so also * Bah^ur ' and * Bah^ur 
KMn,' but not *Kh^ Bah^ur.'"— Pro/. 
Blochmann, in Ind, AfUifptary, i. 261. 

1876. — "Reyerencing at the same time 
bravery, dash, and boldness, and loving their 
freedom, they (the Kirghiz) were always 
ready to follow the stanouird of any batyr, 
or hero, . . . who might appear on the 
• stage."— S-AwyAsr'a Turkutan, i. 33. 

1878. — " Peacock feathers for some of the 
subordinate officers, a yellow jacket for the 
successful general, and the bestowal of the 
Manchoo title of Batnni, or 'Brave,' on 
some of the most distinguished brigadiers, 
are probably all the honours which await the 
return of a triumphal army. The reward 
which fell to the share of ' Chinese Gordon ' 
for the ^art he took in the suppression of 
the Taiping rebellion was a yellow jacket, 
and the title of Baiuru has lately been 
bestowed on Mr Mesny for years of faithful 
service against the rebels in the province of 
Kweichow."— -So^urrfay Rev., Aug. 10, p. 182. 
„ "There is nothing of the great 
baliawder about him,"— Athenaeum, No. 
2670, p. 851. 

1879.— "This strictly prohibitive Pro- 
clamation is issued by the Provincial Ad- 
ministrative Board of Likim . . . and 
Chang, Brevet- Provincial Judge, chief of the 
Foochow likim Central Office, Taot'ai for 
special service^ and Bat'ora with the title 
of * Awe-inspinng Brave ' " — ^Transl. of Pro- 
clcanatum agairui the cuUivatUm qf the Poppy 
in Foochow, July 1879. 

BAHIK W UTTEEA, s. Qvi],hdhtr- 
watu. A species of outlawry in 

Guzerat; bdhiruxUid, the individual 
practising the offence. It consists *' in 
the Rajpoots or (Ixassias making their 
ryots and dependants quit their native 
village, which is suffered to remain 
waste; the Grastia with his brethren 
then retires to some asylum, whence 
he may carry on his depredations with 
impunity. Bein^ well acquainted with 
the country, ana the redress of in- 
juries being common cause with the 
members of every family, the BaJUr- 
wuUeea has little to fear from those 
who are not in the immediate interest 
of his enemy, and he is in consequence 
enabled to commit very extensive 
mischief." — Col. Walker, quoted in 
Forbes, Rds Mdla, 2nd ed;, p. 254-5. 
Col. Walker derives the name from 
bdhir, * out,' and wdt, *a road.' [Tod, 
in a note to the passage quoted below, 
says " this term is a compound of hdr 
(hdhir) and wuUan (vxUan), literally 
ez patrid."'] 

[1829. — "This petty chieftain, who enjo^red 
the distinctive epithet of outlaw (barwaHia), 
wasoftheSonigurraclan." . . . — Per».Nan'., 
in AmuiU of Raj, (Calcutta reprint), i. 724.] 

The origin of most of the bri^ndage 
in Sicilv is almost what is here 
described in Kattiwar. 

BAIKBEE, s. The Bombay name 
for the Barkixig-deer. It is Guzarati 
hekrl; and ace. to Jerdon and [Blandf ord, 
MammcUia, 533] Mahr. bekra or bekar^ 
but this is not in Molesworth's Diet. 
[Forsyth {Highla/nds of G. L, p. 470) 
gives the Qond and Korku names as 
Bherki, which may be the original]. 

1879.— "Any one who has shot tiaikri on 
the spurs of the Ghats can tell how it is 
possible unerringly to mark down these little 
beasts, taking up their position for the day 
in the early dawn." — Overt, Time^ of India, 
Suppt. May 12, 76. 

BAJBA, s. H. bdjrd and bdjrl (Pe- 
nicillaria smcata, Willden.1 One of 
the tall millets forming a ary crop in 
many parts of India. Forbes calls it 
bahjiree (Or, Mem. ii. 406 ; [2nd ed. i. 
167X and bajeree (i. 23)]. 

1844.— "The ground (at Maharaipore) 
was generally covered with bajiee, full 5 or 
6 feet high,"— Lord Ellenborvugh, in Ind, 
Admin, 414. 

BAEIB-KHANI, s. P.—H. hdqir^ 
khdnty a kind of cake almost exactly 
resembling pie-crust, said to owe ita 
name to its inventor, BdHr Khdn, 



[1871.— "The best kind (of native cakee) 
are tMLka kanah and ^theer mahl' (Sheer- 
WMuiy—Ridddi, Ind, Domed, JScan, 386.] 

Malay halachdn; [ace. to Mr Skeat 
the standard Malay is Uackan^ in 
full hdaehan.] Tne characteristic 
condiment of the Indo-Chinese and 
Malayan races, composed of prawns, 
sardines, and other small fish, allowed 
to ferment in a heap, and then mashed 
up with salt. [Mr Skeat says that 
.it is often, if not always, trodden out 
like grapes.] Marsden calls it 'a 
species of caviare,' which is hardly 
fair to caviare. It is the ngdpi 
(Ngapee) of the Burmese, and trdsi 
of the Javanese, and is probably, as 
Crawford says, the Roman garum. 
One of us, who has witnessed the 
process of preijaring ngdpi on the 
island of Negrais, is almost disposed 
to ag[ree with the Venetian Gaisparo 
Balbi (1583X who says "he woidd 
rather smell a dead dog, to say nothing 
of eating it" (f. 125«). But when 
this experience is absent it may be 
more tolerable. 

1688. — Dampier writoB it Bftlft^hftun. 
ii. 28. 

1727. — "JSaninjay is famous for making 
fU"*^**^l>g. A Sauce made of dried Shrimpe, 
Cod-pepper, Salt, and a Sea-weed or Graas, 
all well mixed and beaten up to the Con- 
fdsteocy of thick Mustard." — A, ffamiKorif 
ii. 194. The same author, in speaking of 
Pegu, calls the like sauce Proci (44), which 
was probably the Talain name. It appears 
also in Sonnerat under the form Prox 
(ii. 305). 

1784. — " Blachang ... is esteemed a 
great deUcacy among the Malays, and is br 
them exported to the west of India. ... It 
is a species of caviare, and is extremely 
cffensive and disgusting to persons who are 
not accustomed to it." — Margden.** H. of 
•SarMoCm, 2nd ed. 57. 

[1871.~Riddell {Ind, Domat. Earn, p. 227) 
gives a receipt for Ballachpng, of which the 
basis is prawns, to which are added chillies, 
Alt, ganic, tamarind juice, Ace.] 

1883.—'*. . . blachang— a Malay pre- 
paration much rehshed oy European lovers 
of decomposed cheese. . ." — miss Birdj 
Golden Ckersoiuae, 96. 

I n.p. ; 

hdldy 'above,' H. Mahr., &c., gMU, 'a 
pass,' — ^the country 'above the passes,' 
ue, above the passes over the range of 
mountains which we call the ^ Western 
Ghavte." The mistaken idea that 
ghat means '.mountains' causes Forbes 

to give a nonsensical explanation, cited 
below. The expression may be illus- 
trated by the old Scotch phrases re- 
garding "below and abovie the Pass" 
of so and so, implying Lowlands and 

c. 1562.— "All these thinj^s were brought 
by the Moors, who traded in pepper which 
they brouffht from the hills where it grew, 
by land m Bisnega, and Bala«ate, and 
dambay. "—Oorreo, ed. Ld. Stanley, Hak. 
Soc. p. 344. 

1568. — ^*R. Let us get on horseback and 
go for a ride ; and as we «o you shall tell me 
what is the meaning of Ntzamoika (Nisama- 
Inoo), for you often speak to me of such a 

" 0. I will tell you now that he is King in 
the Ba^^alate (misprint for Balagate), whose 
fatherl have often attended medicallv, and 
the son himself sometimes. From him I 
have received from time to time more than 
12,000 pardaos ; and he offered me a salary 
of 40,000 pardaos if I would visit him for so 
many months every year, but I would not 
accept." — Garcia de Orta, f. 83». 

1598.— "This high land on the toppe is 
very flatte and good to build upon, called 
BalBgatte.'*— X^'fucAoteTi, 20; [tiak. Soc. 
i. 65;cf.i.235]. 

„ "Ballagate, that is to say, above the 
hill, for Balla is above, and GaAe is a 
hill. . . ."—Ibid, 49 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 169]. 

1614.— "The coast of Coromandel, Bala- 
gatt or Telingana." — Sainsburyj i. 301. 

1666. — "Balagate est une des riches 
Provinces du Grand Mogol. . . . Elle est 
au midi de oelle de Candich." — Thevenot,' 
v. 216. 

1673.—". . . opening the ways to BaU- 
gaot, that Merchants might with safety bring 
down their Goods to Fort/'—Frtjer, 78. 

c. 1760. — "The Ball-a-gat Mountains, 
which are extremely high, and so called from 
Bal, mountain, and gatty flat [!1 because one 
part of them affords large and delicious 
plains on their summit, little known to 
Europeans." — Orote, i. 231. 

This is nonsense, but the following 
are also absurd misdescriptions : — 

1805.— "Bala Ohant, the higher or upner 
Gaut or Gkaut^ a range of mountains so called 
to distiDguish them from the T&yen Ghauts, 
the lower Ghauts or Passes.'*— />J<r^ of Words 
used in E, Indies, 28. 

1813.—" In some parts this tract is called 
the Balla-Oaut, or high mountains ; to dis- 
tinguish them from the lower Gaut, nearer 
the sea."— i^or6ej, Or, Mem. i. 206 ; [2nd ed. 
i. 119]. 

BALASOBE, n.p. A town and 
district of Orissa ; the site of one of 
the earliest English factories in the 
''Bay," established in 1642, and then 
an important seaport ; supposed to be 




properly BdUivara, Skt. hdUiy * strong,* 
isvara, 'lord,' perhaps with reference 
to Krishna. Another place of the 
same name in Madras, an isolated peak, 
6762' high, lat. 11* 41' 43", is said to 
take its name from the Asura Bana. 

** When in the vale of Balaser I fought, 

And from Bengal the captive Monarch 

Drydetif Aunmgz^ ii. 1. 

1727.— "The Sea-shore of Balasore being 
very low, and the Depths of Water very 
gradual from the Strand, make Ships in 
BallaBOre Road keep a good Distance from 
the Shore ; for in 4 or 5 Fathoms, they ride 
3 Leagues oS"—A, HamUUm, i. 397. 

BALASS, s. A kind of ruby, or 
rather a rose-red spinelle. This is 
not an Anglo-Indian word, but it is 
a word of Asiatic origin, occurring 
frequently in old travellers. It is a 
corruption of Baldkhshi^ a popular 
form of Badakhshiy because these rubies 
came from the famous mines on the 
Upper Oxus, in one of the districts 
subject to Badakhshan. [See Va'ml)&y^ 
Sketches, 266 ; Ball, Tavemier, i. 382 n.] 

c. 1350.— "The mountains of Badakhshan 
have given their name to the Badakhshi ruby, 
vulgarly called oZ-Balakhsh. "—Ibn Batuta, 

1404. — "Tenia (Tam^rlan) vestido vna 
ropa et vn pafio de seda raso sin lavores e 
6 la cabe^a tenia vn sombrero blaco idto 
con un Balaz en cima e con aljofar e 
piedras." — Glavijoy § ex. 

1516.— "These UalaBaes are found in 
Balaxayo, which is a kingdom of the main- 
land near Pegu and Bengal." — Barbosoj 213. 
This is very bad geography for Barbosa, who 
is usuaUv accurate ana judicious, but it is 
surpassed in much later days. 

1581. — "I could never understand from 
whence those that be called Pftlftftwi come." 
—Caemr Fredericke, in HakL ii. 872. 

[1598.—" The BallayeBes are likewise sold 
by weight." — Linschoten, Hak. Soc. ii. 156.] 

1611.— "Of Ballaoe Rubies little and 
gjeat, good and bad, there are single two 
thousand pieces" (in Akbar's treasury). — 
Bawkitis, in Purchcu, i. 217. 

[1616.— "Fair pearls. Ballast rubies."— 
Foster, Letters, iv. 243.] 

1653. — "Les Boyaumes de Pegou, d'oh 
viennent les rubis tialets."— 2>« la Baullaye- 
le-Qouz, 126. 

1673.— "The last sort is called a Ballaoe 
Ruby, which is not in so much esteem as the 
SpineU, because it is not so well coloured." 
—Fryer, 215. 

1681.—". . . ay ciertoe balazes, que 
llmana candidos, que son como los ctia- 
mantes."— ifarfin«2 de la Puente, 12. 

1689.—". . . The Balace Ruby is sup- 
posed by some to have taken its name from 
Falaiium, or Palace ; . . . . the most pro- 
bable Conjecture is that of Marcus Paulus 
VenetuSy that it is borrow'd from the 
Country, where they are found in greatest 
Plentie. . . "—Omngton, 588. 

BALOONY, s. Not an Anglo- 
Indian word) but sometimes regaraed 
as of Oriental origin ; a thing more 
than doubtful. The etymology alluded 
to by Mr. Schuyler and by the lamented 
William Gill in the quotations below, 
is not new, though we do not know 
who first suggested it. Neither do we 
know whether the word halagani, which 
Erinan (Tr, in Stberia, E. T. i. 116) tells 
us is the name given to the wooden 
booths at the Nijnei Fair, be the same 
P. word or no. Wedgwood, Littr^ 
[and the N.E.D.] connect hcUcony with 
the word which appears in English as 
baJk, and with the Italian halco, 'a 
scaffolding ' and the like, also used for 
* a box ' at the play. Balco, as well as 
palco, is a form occurring in early 
Italian. Thus Franc, da Buti, com- 
menting on Dante (1385-87), says : 
^^Bdlco ^ luogo alto done si monta e 
scende." Hence naturally would be 
formed halcone, which we have in Giov. 
Villani, in Boccaccio and in Petrarch. 
Manuzzi ( Vocabolario It.) defines hodcone 
as=finestra (T). 

It may be noted as to the modem 
pronunciation that whilst ordinary 
mortals (including among verse- 
writers Scott and Lockhart, Tennyson 
and Hood) accent the word as a dactyl 
(bdlcdn^), the crime de la crime, if we 
are not mistaken, makes it, or did in 
the last generation make it, as Cowper 
does below, an amphibrach (hdlcdny) : 
"Xanthus his name with those of 
heavenly birth, But called Scamander 
by the sons of earth ! " [According to 
the N.E.D. the present pronunciation, 
" which," said Sam. Rocers, " makes me 
sick," was established about 1825.] 

c. 1348. — **E al continuo v'era pieno di 
belle donne a* haloo&L"— (Ttov. Villani, 
X. 132-4. 

c. 1340-50.— 
" II figliuol di Latona avea g}k nove 
Volte guardato dal halcon sovrano, 
Per i^uella, ch'alcun tempo mosse 
I suoi sospir, ed or git altnii oommove in 

Petrarca, Rime, Pte. i. Sonn. 35, 
ed. Pisa, 1805. 




c, 1340^.— 
'' Ma A com" nom talor che mange, a parte 
Vede ooaa che eli ocehi, e^ cor alletta, 
Co^ colei per cn'io eon in prigione 
Standosi ad un balcone, 
Che fh sola a' suoi di cosa perfetta 
Cominciai a mirar con tale deslo 
Che me steaso, e 1 mio mal poee in oblfo : 
I'era in terra, e 1 cor mio in Paradiso." 

P€traroiiy Rime, Pte. ii. Canzone 4. 

1645-52.— "When the King mis to do 
Justice, I observe that he cornea into the 
Baloona that looks into the Piama." — 
Ta^vmiar, K T. ii. 64 ; [ed. BaU, i. 152], 

1667.— <* And be it farther enacted. That 
in the Front of aU Housee, hereafter to be 
erected in any such Streets as by Act of 
Common Council shall be declared to be 
High Streets, Balconies Four Foot broad 
with Rails and Bars of Iron . . . shall be 

placed "—Act 19 Car. II., cap. 8, 

sect. 13. (Act for Rebuilding the City of 

'' At Edmonton his loving wife 
From the baloOoy spied 

Her tender husband, wond'ring much 
To see how he did ride." 

John Gilpin, 

** For from the lofty balodny. 

Rung trumpet, shalm and psaltery." 

Lay of the Latt Minttrel, 

" Under tower and halodny, 

By earden-wall and gallery, 

A gleaming shape she floated by. 

D^d pale Detween the houses high." 

Tennyson's Lady qfShalott. 

1876.— "The houses (in Tnrkistan) are 
generally of but one story, though sometimes 
there ia a small upper room called bala-khana 
(P. bala, upper, and khana, rooin) whence 
we get ooTnleoaj^—SckuyUr's Turkistan, 

1880.—" Bdld kkOnd means * upper house,' 
or 'upper place,' and is applied to the room 
built over the archway by which the chdppd 
iJkdMd is entered, and from it, by the way, 
we got our word ' Baloony.' "—MS. Journal 
in Persia of Captain W, J. GiU, R.E. 

rowing Teasel formerly used in various 
parts of the Indies, the basis of which 
was a laroe canoe, or 'dug-out.' There 
is a Manr. word balydntDj a kind of 
barge, which is probably the originaL 
[See Bombay Gazetteer, xiv. 26.] 

1539. — ''E embarcando-se . . . paitio, eo 
foiiio aooompanhando dez ou dose baldos ate 
a Ilha de Upe. . . ."— PtiUo, ch. xiv. 

** Neste tempo da terra para a armada 

, e cal' luses cruzar vimos. . ." 
Malaea Conquiatadoy iii. 44. 

1673.— "The President commanded his 
own Baloon (a Barge of State, of Two and 
Twenty Oars) to attend me."— ^ryer, 70. 

1755.— "The Burmas has now Eighty 
Ballongs, none of which as [tic] peat Guns.^' 
— Letter from Copt, R, Jachsonf m DcUrymple 
Or, Repert. i. 195. 

1811.— "This is the simplest of all boats, 
and consists merely of the trunk of a tree 
hollowed out, to the extremities of which 
pieces of wood are applied, to represent a 
stem and prow; the two sides are boards 
joined by rottins or small bambous without 
nails ; no iron whatsoever enters into their 
construction. . . . The pftK^*"« are used 
in the district of Chittagong." — Solvyju, iii. 

BAL80BA, BUBSOBA, &c., n.p. 
These old forms used to l)e familiar 
from their use in the popular version 
of the Arabian Nights after Galland. 
The place is the sea-port city of Basra 
at the mouth of the Shat-al-'Arab, or 
United Euphrates and Tijms. FBurton 
{At, Nights, x. 1) writes Sassorah,'] 

1298. — "There is also on the river as vou 
go from Baudas to Kisi, a great city called 
Bastra surrounded by wockIs in which grow 
the best dates in the world." — Marco Polo, 
Bk. i. ch. 6. 

c. 1580. — "Balsara, altrimente detta 
BasBora, h una citUi posta nell' Arabia, la 
quale al presente e signorepfgiata dal Turco 
. , , h citut di g^n negocio di spetiarie, di 
droghe, e altre merci che uengono di Ormus ; 
h abondante di dattoli, risi, e grani." — Balbi, 

f. sy. 

[1598.— "The town of Baliora; also 
Basflora."— Xtn«rAotoH, Hak. Soc. i. 45.] 

" From Atropatia and the neighbouring 

Of Adiabene, Media, and the south 

Of Susiana to Balsara'B Hayen. . ." 

Paradise Regained^ iii. 

1747.— "He (the Prest. of Bombay) further 
advises us that they haye wrote our Honble. 
Masters of the Loss of Madrass by way of 
BuBflOro, the 7th of November."—^. St. 
David Consn,, 8th January 1746-7. MS. in 
India Office. 

[Also see CONOO.] 

BALTY, 8, H. bdltly *a bucket,' 
[which Platts very improbably con- 
nects with Skt. vdrty 'water*], is the 
Port balde. 

bAlWAB, s. This is the native 
servant's form of 'barber,' shaped by 
the 'striving after meaning' asodhodTj 
for hdhodld, i,e, 'capillarius/ 'hair-man.' 
It often takes the further form bal-bnr, 
another factitious hybrid, shaped by 
P. hUridan, 'to cut,' quasi 'hair-cutter.' 
But though now obsolete, there was 




also (see both Meniruki and VuUers s.v.) 
a Persian word hdrhdTy for a barber or 
surgeon, from which came this Turkish 
term " Le Berber-hsjchi^ qui fait la barbe 
au Pacha," which we find (c. 1674) in 
the Appendix to the journal of Antoine 
Galland, pubd. at Paris, 1881 (ii. 190). 
It looks as if this must have been an 
early loan from Europe. 

BAMBOO, s. Applied to many 
gigantic grasses, of which Bamhusa 
arundinacea and B. vulgaris are the 
most commonly cultivated ; but there 
are many other 8j)ecies of the same 
and allied genera in use ; natives of 
tropical Asia, Africa, and America. 
This word, one of the commonest in 
Anglo-Indian daily use, and thoroughly 
naturalised in English, is of exceedingly 
obscure origin. According to Wilson 
it is Canarese hdnM [or as the Madras 
Admin. Man. {Gloss, s.v.) writes it, 
hortibu, which is said to be "onoma- 
topaeic from the crackling and ex- 
plosions when they bum"]. Marsden 
inserts it in his dictionary as good 
Malay. Crawfurd says it is certainly 
used on the west coast of Sumatra as 
a native word, but that it is elsewhere 
unknown to the Malay languages. The 
usual Malay word is milvh. He thinks 
it more likely to have found its way 
into English from Sumatra" than from 
Canara. But there is evidence enough 
of its familiarity among the Portuguese 
before the end of the 16th century to 
indicate the probability that we adopted 
the word, like so many others, through 
them. We believe that the correct 
Canarese word is banvm. In the 16th 
century the form in the Concan appears 
to have been mambu^ or at least it 
was so represented by the Portuguese. 
Rumphius seems to suggest a quaint 
onomatopoeia: " vehementissimos edunt 
ictus et sonitus, quum incendio com- 
buruntur, quando notum ejus nomen 
BaTnbUy Bamlm, facile exauditur." — 
(Herb. Amb. iv. 17.) [Mr. Skeat 
writes : " Although buluh is the stan- 
dard Malay, and bambu apparently 
introduced, I think bamhu is the form 
used in the low Javanese vernacular, 
which is quite a diflferent language 
from high Javanese. Even in low 
Javanese, however, it may be a bor- 
rowed word. It looks curiously like 
a trade corruption of the common 
Malay word samambuy which means 

the well-known * Malacca cane,' both 
the bamboo and the Malacca cane 
being articles of export. Klinkert 
says that the sarruinibu is a kind of 
rattan, which was used as a walking- 
stick, and which was called the Malacca 
cane by the English. This Malacca 
cane and the rattan 'bamboo cane' 
referred to by Sir H. Yule must surely 
be identical. The fuller Malay name 
is actually rotan samamhu, which is 
given as the equivalent of Calamus 
Sdpionwmy Lour, by Mr. Ridley in his 
Plant List (J.B.A.S.y July 1897).! 

The term applied to tdbdshlr (Taba- 
sheer), a siliceous concretion in the 
bamboo, in our first quotation seems 
to show that barnbu or mambu was 
one of the words which the Portuguese 
inherited from an earlier use by Persian 
or Arab traders. But we have not 
been successful in finding other proof 
of this. With reference to aakkar- 
mambu Ritter says : " That this drug 
(Tahashir), as a product of the bamboo- 
c€ine, is to this day known in India by 
the name of Sacar MamJbu is a thing 
which no one needs to be told" (ix. 334). 
But in fact the name seems now entirely 

It Ls possible that the Canarese word 
is a vernacular corruption, or develop- 
ment, of the Skt. vansa Jor vamhha\^ 
from the former of which comes the 
H. bdns. Bamboo, does not occur, so 
far as we can find, in any of the earlier 
16th-century booii, which employ canna 
or the like. 

In England the term baihboo-cane 
is habitually applied to a kind of 
walking-stick, which is formed not 
from any bamboo but from a species 
of rattan. It may be noted that some 
30 to 35 years ago there existed along 
the high road between Putney Station 
and West Hill a garden fence of 
bamboos of considerable extent ; it 
often attracted the attention of one 
of the present writers. 

1563.— "The people from whom it {(aba- 
i(hir) is ^ot call it Mmr-mambum .... 
because we canes of that plant are called 
by the Indians mamba." — (/arcia, f. 194. 

1578. — "Some of these (canes), especially 
in Malabar, are found so large that th» 
people make use of them as boats {embar^ 
ccueion^s) not opening them out, but cutting 
one of the canes right across and using th& 
natural knots to stop the ends, and so a 
couple of naked blacks go upon it . . . each 
of tnem at his own end of the mamba [in 
orig. m&Hm'\ (so they call it), being provided 




with two paddles, one in each hand .... 
and so upon a cane of this kind the folk 
pass across, and sitting with their legs 
clinging naked."— C Ae^ta, Tractadoy 296. 


**. . . and many people on that riyer 
(of Cranganor) make use of these canes in 
place of boats, to be safe from the numerous 
Crocodiles or (Jaymoi'M (as they call them) 
which are in the riyer (which are in fact 
great and ferocious lizards)" \lagarU)»\. — 
/M. 297. 

These passages are curious as explaining, 
if they hardly justify, Ctesias, in what we 
haye regarded as one of his greatest bounces, 
yiz. his story of Indian canes big enough to 
be nsed as boats. 

1586. — "All tiie houses are made of canes, 
which they call BamlXM, and bee coyerea 
with Strawe."— /*tteA, in HakL ii. 891. 

1588. — ". . . a thicke reede as big as a 
man's legge, which is called Bambu." — 
LiKKkoten, 66 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 195]. 

1606. — "laya multas producit arundines 
groosas, quas Manbn yocant." — Prima Pars 
t^e»c, IttH,. Navalis in Indiam (Houtman's 
yoffogel p. 86. 

c. 1610. — " Les Portugais et les Indiens ne 
86 sement point d'autres bastons pour porter 
leurs palanquins ou litieres. lis I'appellent 
partout Bamboo."— Pymref, i. 287 ; [Hak. 

1615. — "These two kings (of Camboja and 
Siam) haye neyther Horses, nor any fiery 
Instruments : but make use only of oowes, 
and a oertaine kind of pike, made of a 
knottie wood like Canes, called Bambnc, 
which is exceeding strong, though pliant 
and supple for yse. — De Mo^farlf 33. 

1621.— "These Forts will better appeare 
by the Draught thereof, herewith sent to 
your Worships, inclosed in a Bamboo."— 
Letter in Purehat, i. 699. 

1623. — " Among the other trees there was 
an immense quantity of bambd, or yery 
large Indian canes, and all clothed and 
ooyered with pretty green foliaee that went 
creeping up them. — P. della Voile, ii. 640 ; 
[Hak. Soc. ii. 220]. 

c. 1666. — " Cette machine est suspendue k 
nne longue barre que Ton appelle Pambou." 
— Tkerenot, y. 162. (This spelling recurs 
throughout a chapter describing palankins, 
thongh elsewhere the trayeller writes 

1678. — "A Bambo, which is a long hollow 
cane."— /Vy<r, 34. 

1727.— "The City (Aya) tho* great and 
populous, is only built of Bamboa canes." 
— ^. BamiUm, u. 47. 

1855. — "When I speak of bamboo huts, 
I mean to my that post and walls, wall- 
plates and rafters, floor and thatch and the 
withes that bind them, are all of bamboo. 
In fact it might almost be said that amonjg^ 
the Indo-Chinese nations the staff of life is 
a Bamboo. Scaffolding and ladders, land- 
ing-jetties, fishing apparatus, irrigation- 
wheels and scoops, oars, masts and yards. 

spears and arrows, hats and helmets, bow, 
bow-string and quiyer, oil-cans, water-stoups 
and cooking-pots, pipe-sticks, conduits, 
clothes-boxes, pan - boxes, dinner - trays, 
pickles, preseryes, and melodious musical 
instruments, torches, footballs, cordage, 
bellows, mats, paper, these are but a few 
of the articles that are made from the 
bamboo." — YiUe, Mitfion to Ava, p. 153. 
To these may be added, from a cursory 
inspection of a collection in one of t^e 
museums at Eew, combs, mugs, sun-blinds, 
ca^es, grotesque candngs, brushes, fans, 
shirts, sails, teapots, pipes and harps. 

Bamboos are sometimes popjularly 
distinguished (after a native idiom) 
as male and female ; the latter em- 
bracing all the common species with 
hollow stems, the former title being 
applied to a certain kind (in fact, a sp. 
of a distinct genus, Dendrocalamvs 
8trtctu8)y which has a solid or nearly 
solid core, and is much used for 
bludgeons (see LATTEE) and spear- 
shafts. It IS remarkable that this 
popular distinction by sex was known 
to Obesias (c. B.C. 400) who says that 
the Indian reeds were divided into 
male and female, the male having no 

One of the present writers has seen 
(and partaken of) rice cooked in a joint 
of bamboo, among the Khyens, a hill- 
people of Arakan. And Mr Mark- 
nam mentions the same practice as 
prevalent among the Chunchos and 
savaee aborigines on the eastern slopes 
of the Andes (/. R, Geog, Soc. xxv. 
155). An endeavour was made in 
Pegu in 1856 to procure the largest 
obtainable bamboo. It was a little 
over 10 inches in diameter. But 
Clusius states that he had seen two 
great specimens in the University at 
Leyden, 30 feet long and from 14 to 16 
inches in diameter. And E. Haeckel, 
in his Visit to Ceylon (1882X speaks 
of bamboo-stems at Peridenia, "each 
from a foot to two feet thick." 
We can obtain no corroboration of 
anything approaching 2 feet.— [See 
Gray's note on Pyrard, Hak. Soc. 
i. 330.] 

BAMO, n.p. Burm. Bha-maw, Shan 
Manmaw; in Chinese Sin-Kai, * New- 
market.' A town on the up})er 
Irawadi, where one of the chief routes 
from China abuts on that river; re- 

f,rded as the early home of the 
arens. [(McMdhon, Karens of the 
Ooldm Cher., 103.)] The old Shan 




town of Bam6 was on the Tapeng B., 
about 20 m. east of the Irawadi, and 
it is supposed that the English factory 
alluded to in the quotations was there. 

[1684. — "A Settlement at Bammoo upon 
the oonfines of China." — Pringle, Maaraa 
Cmt,, iii. 102.] 

1759. — **Thi8 branch seems formerly to 
have been driven from the Establishment at 
Prammoo," — DalrympU, Or, Rep.y i. 111. 

BANANA, s. The fruit of Muta 
paradisaicay and M. sapientum of 
Linnaeus, but now reduced to one 
species under the latter name by R. 
Brown. This word is not used in 
India, though one hears it in the 
Straits Settlements. The word itself 
is said by De Orta to have come from 
Guinea ; so also Pigafetta (see below). 
The matter will be more conveniently 
treated under PLANTAIN. Prof. 
Robertson Smith points out that the 
coincidence of this name with the Ar. 
handUy ' fingers or toes,' and handnay *a 
single finger or toe,' can hardly be 
accidental. The fruit, as we leam 
from Mukaddasi, grew in Palestine 
before the Crusades ; and that it is 
known in literature only as mava 
would not prove that the fruit was 
not somewhere popularly known as 
'fin^rs.' It is possible that the 
Araos, through whom probably the 
fruit found its way to W. Africa, 
may have transmitted with it a name 
like this ; though historical evidence 
is still to seek. [Mr. Skeat writes : 
" It is curious that in Norwegian and 
Danish (and I believe in Swedish), 
the exact Malay word piMTUfy which 
is unknown in England, is used. 
Prof. Skeat thinks this may be be- 
cause we had adopted the word banana 
before the word pimng was brought 
to Europe at all."] 

1563.— "The Arab calls these muM or 
amuaa; there are chapters on the subject 
in Avioenna and Serapion, and they call 
them by this name, as does Rasis alsok 
Moreover, in Guinea they have these figs, 
and call tnem bananas." — OarctOy 98 v. 

1598. — "Other fruits there are termed 
Bananaj which we think to be the Miuet 
of "Eaypt and Soria . . . but here they 
cut them yearly, to the end they may bear 
the better." — Tr. of Pigc^eUa*s Congo, in 
Harleian CoU. ii. 553 (also in Purcfuu, 
ii. 1006.) 

c. 1610. — "Des hannet (marginal rubric 
Bannanei) que les Portugais appellent figues 
dlnde, and aux Maldives Quella.**—Pyrard 
de Lavaly i. 85; [Hak. Soc. i. 113]. The 

Maldive word is here the same as H. ixlA 
(Skt. hadala). 

1673.— "BODAnoes, which are a sort of 
Plantain, though less, yet much more 
grateful."— /ryer, 40. 

1686.— "The Bonano tree is exactly like 
the Plantain for shape and bigness, not 
easily distinguishable from it but by the 
Fruit, which is a great deal smaller." — 
Dampier, i. 316. 


Terms of abuse, which we should 
hesitate to print if their odious mean- 
ing were not obscure "to the general." 
If it were known to the Englishmen 
who sometimes use the words, we 
believe there are few who would not 
shrink from such brutality. Some- 
what similar in character seem the 
words which Saul in his rage flings 
at his noble son (1 Sam. xx. 30). 

1638. — "L'on nous monstra k vne demy 
lieue de la ville vn sepulchre, qu'ils appellent 
Bety-chnit, c'est k dire la vergogne de la 
fiUe decouverte."- lfa7Mi«&to, Paris, 1659, 
142. See also ValerUijny iv. 157. 

There is a handsome tomb and 
mosque to the N. of Ahmedabad, 
erected by Hajji Malik Baha-ud-din, 
a wazir of Sultan Mohammed Bigara, 
in memory of his wife Bibi Achwt or 
Achhats and probably the vile story 
to which the 17th-century travellers 
refer is founded onlv on a vulgar 
misrepresentation of this name. 

1543. — " Bety-ohnit ; dat is (onder eer- 
bredinge gesproocken) in onse tale te seggen, 
u Dochters Schaemelheyt."— Fait Tvfitty 16. 

1792.— "The officer (of Tippoo's troops) 
who led, on being challenged in Moon 
answered {Aaari que logiu\ * We belong to 
the advance —the title of Lally's brig^e, 
supposing the people he saw to be their own 
Europeans, whose uniform also is red ; but 
soon discovering his mistake the com- 
mandant called out (Feringhy Banchoot I— 
chelow) * they are the rascally English ! 
Make off ' ; in which he set the corps a 
ready example,"— Dirom't Narrative, 147. 

BANOOOK, n.p. The modem 
capital of Siam, properly Bang-koky see 
explanation by Bp. Pallegoix in quota- 
tion. It had been the site of forts 
erected on the ascent of the Menam 
to the old capital Ayuthia, by Constan- 
tine Phaulcon in 1676; here the 
modem city was established as the 
seat of government in 1767, after the 
capture of Ayuthia (see JUBEA) by the 
Burmese in that year. It is uncertain 
if the first quotation refer to Bancock. 




1552. — ". . . and Bamplaeot, which 
stands at the mouth of the Menam." — 
Barros, I. ix. 1. 

1611.— "They had arriyed in the Road of 
Syam the fifteenth of August, and cast 
Anchor at three fathome high water. . . . 
The Towne lyeth some thirtie leagues yp 
along the Riuer, whither they sent newes 
of their arriyall. The Sabander (see SHAH- 
BUMDEB) and the Governor of Kanoock 
(a place sdtuated by the Riuer), came backe 
with the Messen^ra to receiue his Majesties 
Letters, but chiefly for the presents ex- 
pected."— P. WUliamMm Floris, in Purckat, 

1727.— The Ship arrived at Benoook, a 
Castle about half-way up, where it is cus- 
tomary for all Ships to put their Guns 
ashore."—^. Bamiltan, i. 8^. 

1850. — "Civitas rogia tria habet nomina: 
. . . ban mHk6k, per contractionem Baii£fk0k, 
pagus oleastiorom, est nomen primitivum 
ouod hodie etiam vulgo usurpatur." — 
PalUgoiXj Oraan, Linguae Thai,, Bangkok, 
1850, p. 167. 

BANDANNA, b. This term is 
properly applied to the rich yellow 
or i^ silk handkerchief, with diamond 
spots left white by pressure applied 
to prevent their receiving the dye. 
The etymolo^ may be gathered from 
Sbakespear's Diet., which gives ^^Bdn- 
dhnu : 1. A mode of dyeing in which 
the cloth is tied in aiflferent places, 
to prevent the parts tied from receiv- 
ing the dye ; ... 3. A kind of silk 
cloth" A class or caste in Guzerat 
who do this kind of preparation for 
dyeing are called Bamhdrd {Brvm- 
mand), [Such handkerchiefs are Known 
in S. India as Policat handkerchiefs. 
Cloth dyed in this way is in Upper 
India luiown as Chunri. A full ac- 
count of the process will be found in 
Joum, Ind. Arty ii. 63, and S, M. 
Hadiz Mon. on Dyes and Dyeing^ 
p. 36.] 

c. 1990. — "His Majesty improved this 
department in four ways. . . . TlUrdlyj in 
staffs as . . . BAndhnUn, ChhUU. Alchah," 
—A^ i. 91. 

1752.— ** The Cossembasar merchants 
baring fallen short in gurrahs, plain taffa- 
ties, ordinary baadaimoeB, and chappas."— 
In Long, 81. 

1818.— '^Bandannoea . . . SO0."—MilInim 
(list of Bengal Piece-goods, and no. to the 
ton), ii. 221. 

1848.— "Mr Scape, lately admitted part- 
ner into the great Calcutta House of Foele, 
Fake, and Cracksman . . . taking Fake's 
place, who retired to a pincely Park in 
Sussex (the Fogies have long been out of 
the firm, and Sir Horace ^ogle is about to be 
raised to the peerage as Baron Bandanna), 

. . . two years before it failed for a million, 
and plunged half the Indian |>ublic into 
misery and ruin." — Vanity Fair, li. ch. 25. 

1866.— "* Of course,' said Toogood, 
wiping his eves with a large red Mp'^ft^ft 
handkerchief. 'By all means, come along, 
Major.' The major had turned his face 
away, and he edso was weeping." — LaM 
GknmicU of Barset, ii. 862. 

1875.— "In Calcutta Tariff Valuations: 
'Piece goods silk: Bandanah Choppahs, 
per piece of 7 handkerchiefs . . . score . . . 
115 &." 

BANDABEE, s. Mahr. Bhanddri, 
the name of the caste or occupation. 
It is applied at Bombay to the class 
of people (of a low caste) who tend 
the coco-palm gardens in the island, 
and draw toddy, and who at one time 
formed a local militia. [It has no 
connection with the more common 
Bkdnddriy *a treasurer or storekeeper.'] 

1548. — ". . . . certain duties collected 
from the bandarys who draw the toddy 
{sura) from the aldeas. . . ." — S, Batelho, 
Tambo, 203. 

1644.— "The people ... are all Chris- 
tians, or at least the g^reater part of them 
consisting of artizans, carpenters, c/umdaris 
(this word is manifestly a mistranscription of 
bandaris), whose business is to gather nuts 
from the coco-palms, and eoriimbis (see 
KOONBEE) who till the ground. . . ."— 
BocarrOf MS. 

1678.— "The President ... if he go 
abroad, the Bandaiines and Moors under 
two Standards march before him."— Fryer, 

„ ". . . besides 60 Field-pieces ready 
in their Carriages upon occasion to attend 
the Militia and Bandarines." — Ibid, 66. 

c. 1760.—" There is also on the island kept 
up a sort of militia, composed of the land- 
tillers, and bandarees, whose living depends 
chiefly on the cultivation of the coco-nut 
trees."— G^/wc, i. 46. 

1808.—". . . whilst on the Brab trees the 
cast of Bhundarees paid a due for extract- 
ing the liquor."— -Bomftoy Regulation, i. of 
1808, sect. vi. para. 2. 

1810. — "Her husband came home, laden 
with toddy for distilling. He is a bandari 
or toddy-gatherer."— i/aria Gi-aham, 26. 

c. 1836.— "Of the Bhundarees the most 
remarkable usage is their fondness for a 
peculiar species of long trumpet, called 
Bhongalee, which, ever since the dominion 
of the Portuguese, they have had the privi- 
lege of carrying and blowing on certain 
State occasions. ' — R, Murphy, in Tr. Bo. 
Oeog. Soe, i. 131. 

1883.— "We have received a letter from 
one of the large Bhundairies in the cit]r, 
pointing out that the tax on toddy trees is 
now Rs. 18 (? Rs, I, S at.) per tapped toddy 
tree per annum, whereas in 1872 it was only 




Ke. 1 per tree ; ... he iii]ges that the Bom- 
bay toddy-drawers are entitled to the privi- 
lege of practising their trade free of liceofle, 
in consideration of the military services 
rendered by their ancestors in garrisoniDg 
Bombay town and island, when the Dutch 
fleet advanced towards it in 1670."— jTiW^ qf 
India (Mai/), July 17th. 

BANDEJAH, s. Port, bandeja^ 'a 
salver,' *a tray to put presents on.' 
We have seen the word used only in 
the following passages : — 

1621.— "We and the Hollanders went to 
viset Semi Dono, and we carid hym a bottell 
of strong water, and an other of Spanish 
wine, with a great box (or bandctja) of sweet 
bread." — Cochs's Diary ^ ii. 148. 

[1717.— "Received the Pkirmaund (see 
FuUHAUN) from Captain Boddam in a 
bandaye couered with a rich piece of Atlass 
(see ATLAS)."— Hedges, I/iary, Hak. Soc. 
ii. occlx.] 

1747.— "Making a small Cott (see COT) 
and a rattan BandJiJas for the Nabob .... 
(Pagodas) 4: 32: 21."— Aect, Expends at 
Fcrrt St. Davidj Jany., MS. Records in India 

c. 1760.— "(J5«<fO in large companies is 
brought in ready made up on Japan chargers, 
which they call from the Portuguese name, 
Baadejaha, something like our tea-boards." 
—Grose, i. 237. 

1766.— "To Monurbad Dowla Nabob— 

1 Pair Pistols . 216 o' 

2 China Bandaies 172 12 9 " 
— Lord Cf ire's Durbar Charges, in Longy 433. 

Bandeja appears in the Manilla Vocaiufar 
of Blumentritt as used there for the present 
of cakes and sweetmeats, tastefuUy packed 
in an elegant basket, and sent to the priest, 
from the wedding feast.* It corresponds 
therefore to the Indian ddli (see DOLLx ). 

BANDEL, 'n.p. The name of the 
old Portucuese settlement in Bengal 
about a mile above Hoogly, where there 
still exists a monastery, said to be the 
oldest church in Bengal (see Imp. 
Gaseteer). The name is a Port, corrup- 
tion of bandar, * the wharf ' ; and in 
this shape the word was applied among 
the Portuguese to a variety of places. 
Thus in Correa, under 1641-42, we 
find mention of a port in the Red 
Sea, near the mouth, called Bandel 
dos Malemos of the Pilots '). Chitta- 
gong is calleci Bandel de Chaiigao (e.g. 
m Bocarro, p. 444), corresponding to 
Bandar Chdtgdm in the Autobiog. of 
Jahangir {Elliot, vi. 326). [In the 
Diarjr of Sir T. Roe (see below) it is 
applied to (Gombroon], and in the 
following passage the original no doubt 
runs Bandar-i-Hvghll or Hngll-Bandar, 

[1616.— "To this Purpose took Bandell 
theyr foort on the Mayne." — Sir T, Moe, 
Hak. Soc. i. 129.] 

1631. — ". . . these Europeans increased 
in number, and erected large substantial 
buildings, which they fortified with cannons^ 
muskets, and other implements of war. In 
due course a considerable place grew up, 
which was known by the name of Port of 
BXisVL"— 'Abdul Hamld, in Sllioty vii. 32. 

1753. — '*. . . les ^tablissements formes 
pour assurer leur commerce sont situfe sur 
les bords de cette riviere. Celui des Portu- 
gais, qu'ils ont appel^ Bandel, en adoptant 
le terme Persan ae Bender, qui signifie port, 
est aujourd'hui reduit k peu de (mose . . et 
il est preaque coni%u k Ugli en remontant.** 
— D'Anville, Eclaircissefmens, p. 64. 

1782.— "There are five European factories 
within the space of 20 miles, on the opposite 
banks of the river Oangas in Bengal ; 
Houghly, or Bandell, the Portuguese IVesi- 
denoy ; Chinsura, the Dutch ; Chandema- 
gore, the French ; Sirampore, the Danish ; 
and Calcutta, the Kngliah." — Price's Observa- 
tions, Ac, p. 61. In Price's Tracts, i. 

BANDICOOT, s. Corr. from the 
Telegu fa/ndi-hokku, lit. 'pig-rat.' 
The name has spread all over India, 
afl applied to the great rat called by 
naturalists Mus malaharicus (Shaw), 
Mus giganteiis (HardwickeJ, Mu8 bandt- 
cota (feechfltein), [Nesocta bandicoUc 
(Blanford, p. 426)]. The word is 
now used also in Queensland, [and 
is the origin of the name of the 
famous Benaigo gold-field (3 ser. N. d: Q. 
ix. 97)]. 

c. 1380. — " In Lesser India there be some 
rats as big as foxes, and venomous exceed- 
ingly." — Friar Jordamts, Hak. Soc. 29. 

c. 1343. — "They imprison in the dun- 
geons (of Dwaiglr, i.e. Daulat&bad) those 
who have been guilty of great crimes. There 
are in those dungeons enormous rats, bigger 
than cats. In fact, these latter animals run 
away from them, and can't stand against 
them, for they would get the worst of i^. 
So they are only caught by stratagem. I 
have seen these rats at Dwai^Ir, and much 
amazed I was ! " — Ihn Batuta, iv. 47. 

Fryer seems to exaggerate worse than 
the Moor : 

1673. — "For Vermin, the strongest huge 
Rats as big as our Pigs, which biurow under 
the Houses, and are bold enough to venture 
on Poultry. "—^ryCT-, 116. 

The follo'wing surprisingly confounds 
two entirely different animals : 

1789.— "The Bandicoot, or musk rat, is 
another troublesome animal, more indeed 
from its offensive smell than anything elite.'* 
—Munro, Narrative, 32. See MUSK-BAT. 

[1828.— "They be called Brandy-cates.'* 
—Or. Sporting Mag. i. 128.] 




1879. — "I shall neTor loiget mv first 
night here (cm the Cooos Islands). As soon 
sa \h» Son had gone down, and the moon 
riaen, thousands upon thousands of rats, in 
fize equal to a tNUldiooot^ appeared."— 
Pollok, Sporl in B. BurmoA, &c., u. 14. 

1880.—*' They (wild dogs in Queensland) 
hunted Kangaroo when in numbers .... 
but usually preferred smaller and more 
eaalj obtained prev, as rats, bandioootfl, 
and 'possums.*'*— J9/ariiMKNf« ifo^., Jan., 
p. 65. 

[1880.— "In Enghmd the CoUector is to 
be found riding at anchor in the Baadiooot 
CTub."— jiftCT^A-J/aciwy, Ttotniy-one Days, 

BANDIOOY, s. The coll<>^uial 
name in S. India of the fruit of 
Hibuctu €ScuUntu8j' Tamil vendai-khdiy 
Le. unripe fruit of the vendat, called 
in H. bhendi. See BEHBY. 

BAKDO! H. imperative bdndho, 
*tie or make fast.' "This and prob- 
ably other Indian words have been 
natnraliaed in the docks on the Thames 
frequented by Lascar crews. I have 
heard a London lighter-man, in the 
Yictoria Docks, throw a rope ashore 
to another Londoner, calling out, 
Bando ! "—{M.-Gm. Keatinge.) 

BANDY, a. A carriage, bullock- 
carriage, huggv, or cart. This word 
is usual in botli the S. and W. Presi- 
dencies, but is imknown in Bengal, 
and in the X.W.P. It is the Tamil 
wimdif Telug. handi^ ' a cart or vehicle.' 
The word, as bendiy is also used in 
Java. FMr Skeat writes— "Klinkert 
has Mai. bendiy *a chaise or caleche,' 
but I have not heard the word in 
rtandard Malay, though Clifford and 
Swett. have bmdu, 'a kind of sedan- 
chair carried by men,' and the com- 
moner word tandu 'a sedan-chair or 
litter,' which I have heard in Selangor. 
Wilkinson says that kereta {i.e. hreta 
hmdx) is used to signify any two- 
wheeled vehicle in Johor." J 

1791. — "To be sold, an elegant new and 
fashionable Bandy, with copper panels lined 
with Morooco leather." — Mcumu Ccntritr, 
29th Sept. 

1800.— "No wheel-carriages can be used 
in G^mara, not eyen a buffalo-bandy." — 
Letter 61 Sir T, MunrOy in Life^ i. 243. 

1810. — " None but open carriages are used 
in Ceylon ; we therefore went in oandiaB, or, 
in phun VnglJBh^ ffiff*'** — Maria Oraham, 88. 

1825. — "Those persons who haye not 
European coachmen have the horses of their 
or gigs, led by these men. 

. . . Gigs and hackeries all go here (in 
Ceylon) by the name of bandy," — fffhn- 
(ed. 1844), ii. 152. 

1829. — " A mighty solemn old man, seated 
in an open bundy (read bandy) (as a gig with 
a head that has an opening behind is odled) 
at Madras." — Mem, of Col, MoutUain, 2nd 

I860.— "BuUock bandies, covered with 
cajans met us." — TenneiU*t Ceylon, ii. 146. 

1862.—" At Coimbatore I bought a bandy 
or country cart of the simplest construction. " 
— Markham*s Peru and Indxcty 398. 

BANG, BHANG, s. H. hhdnq, the 
dried leaves and small stalks of hemp 
{i.e. Cannabis indica), used to cause 
intoxication, either by smoking, or 
when eaten mixed up into a sweetmeat 
^see MAJOON). Hashish of the Ara1)s 
is substantially the same ; Birdwood 
says it "consists of the tender tops 
of the plants after flowering." {Bhang 
is usually derived from Skt. bhangay 
'breaking,' but Burton derives both 
it and the Ar. banj from the old (Joptic 
Ntbanjy "meaning a preparation of 
hemp ; and here it is easy to recognise 
the Homeric Nepenthe." 

"On the other hand, not a few apply the 
word to the henbane (hyoacyamn* ntger) so 
much used in mediaeyal Europe. The KiCmds 
evidently means henbane, aistinguishing it 
from Hashish al hardfish, *■ rascal's grass,' i.r. 
the herb Pantagruelion. . . The use of Bhang 
doubtless dates from the dawn of civilisation, 
whose earliest social pleasures would be in- 
ebriants. Herodotus (iy. c. 75) shows the^ 
Scythians burning the seeds (leaves and 
capsules) in worship and becoming drunk 
upon the fumes, as do the S. African Bush- 
men of the present day." — {Arab, Nights, 
i. 66.)] 

1568.- "The great Sultan Badur told 
Martim Affonzo de Soussa, for whom he had 
a great liking, and to whom he told all his 
secrets, that when in the night he had a 
desire to visit Portugal, and the Brazil, and 
Turkey, and Arabia, and Persia, aU he had 
to do was to eat a little bangne. . . ." — 
Garcia, f. 26. 

1578. — "Baojnie is a plant resembling 
hemp, or the Cannabis of the Latins . . . 
the Arabs call this Bangne *Axi**" (i.e. 
Hashish).— C. Aeosta, 860-61. 
' 1598.— "They have .... also many kinds 
of Drogues, as Amfion, or Opium, <>imfora> 
Bangne and Sandall Wood." — Linschoten, 
IdTlBak, Soc. i. 61 ; also see ii. 115]. 

1606. — "0 mais de tSpo estava oheo de 
baogae."— (?<mvea, 93. 

16S8. — " II se fit apporter vn petit cabinet 
d'or .... dont il tira deux layettes, etprit 
dans Tvue de Vo^on, ou opium, et dans 
I'autre du bengi, qui est vne certaine drogue 
ou poudre. dont lis se seruent pour s'exciter k 
la hix.\ire.^*—Mandeltlo, Paris, 1659, 150. 



1685. — " I have two sorts of the Ban^e, 
which were sent from two several placM of 
the East Indies ; they both differ much from 
our Hemp, although they seem to differ 
most as to their magnitude." — Dr. Hans 
Sloane to Mr. Ray. in EayU CorretpandeTiee, 
1848, p. 160. 

1673.— "Bang (a pleasant intoxicating 
Seed mixed with Milk). . . ."—Fryer, 91. 

1711.— "Bang has likewise its Vertues 
attributed to it ; for being used as Tea, it 
inebriates, or exhileurates them according to 
the Quantity they take." — LockyeTy 61. 

1727. — "Before they engage in a Fight, 
they drink Bang, which is made of a Seed 
like Hemp-seed, that has an intoxicating 
Quality." — A. Hamilton, i. 131. 

1763. — " Most of the troops, as is customary 
during the agitations of this festival, had 
eaten plentifully of bang. . . .**—Omit, 
i. 194. 

1784. — " ... it does not appear that the 
use of bank, an intoxicating weed which 
resembles the hemp of £urop«, ... is 
considered even by the most rigid (Hindoo) 
a breach of the law." — O, Forster. Journey. 
ed. 1808, ii. 291. 

1789.—" A shop of Bang may be kept with 
a capital of no more than two shillings, or 
one rupee. It is only some mats stretched 
under some tree, where the Bangeras of the 
town, that is, the vilest of mankind, assemble 
to drink Bang." — Note on Seir MutaqKerin, 
iii. 308. 

" The Hemp — with which we used to hang 

Our prison pets, yon felon g^ng, — 

In Extern climes produces BaAg, 
Esteemed a drug divine. 

As Hashish dressed, its magic powers 
' Can lap us in Elysian bowers ; 

But sweeter far our social hours. 
O'er a flask of rosy wine." 

Lord Neava, 

BANGED — is also used as a parti- 
ciple, for * stimulated by 6an^,' e.g. 
^^ hanged up to the eyes." 

BANGLE, 8. H. bangrt or hangrl. 
The original word properly means a 
rinjg of coloured glass worn on the 
wrist by women ; [the churi of N. 
India ;] but bangle is applied to any 
native rin^-bracelet, and also to an 
anklet or nng of any kind worn on 
the ankle or leg. Indian silver bangles 
on the wrist have recently come into 
common use among English girls. 

1803.— "To the cutwakl he gave a heavy 
pair of gold bangles, of which he consider- 
ably enhanced the value by putting them on 
his wrists with his own hands."— Journal of 
Sir J. Nicholls, in note to WdlingUm De- 
tpatchet, ed. 1837, ii. 373. 

1809.— "BaoglM, or bracelets."— ifan'a 
Graham, 18. 

1810. — "Some wear ... a stout silver 
ornament of the ring kind, called a bangle, 
or harroA [iard] on either wrist." — Willtam- 
wtt, V. M. I'm. 

1826.—" I am paid with the silver banirleB 
of my enemy, and his cash to boot."^vra>i- 
durang Hon, 27 ; [ed. 1873, i. 36]. 

1873. — "Year after year he found some 
excuse for coming up to Sirmoori — now a 
proposal for a tax on bangles, now a scheme 
for a new mode of Hindustani pronunciation. " 
—The True Reformer, i. 24. 


BANGUB, s. Hind, hdngar. In 
Upper India this name is given to 
the higher parts of the plain country 
on which the towns stand — the older 
alluvium — in contradistinction to the 
khddar rEhadir] or lower alluvium im- 
mediately bordering the great rivers, 
and forming the limit of their inunda- 
tion and modem divagations ; the 
kkddar having been cut out from the 
bdngar by the river. Medlicott spells 
hhdngar {Man. of Geol, of India, i. 404). 

BANGY, BANGHT, &c. s. H. ha- 
hangly Mahr. bangiy Skt. vihahgamd^ 
and whahgikd. 

a. A shoulder-yoke for carrying 
loads, the yoke or bancy resting on 
the shoulder, while the load is appor- 
tioned at either end in two equal 
weights, and generally hung by cords. 
The milkmaid's yoke is the nearest 
approach to a survival of the bangy- 
stafF in England. Also such a yoke 
with its pair of baskets or boxes. — 

b. Hence a parcel post, carried 
originally in this way, was called 
ba£g7 or dawk-bangy, even when the 

Erimitive mode of transport had long 
ecome obsolete. "A bangy parcel" 
is a parcel received or sent by such 


** But I'll give them 2000, with Bhanges 
and Coolies, 
With elephants, camels, with hackeries 
and doolies." 

Letters of Simpkin the Second, p. 57. 
1803.— "We take with us indeed, in six 
banghys, sufficient changes of linea." — 
Ld. ValetUia, i. 67. 

1810.— "The hKDgf'toollah, that is the 
bearer who carries the bangy, supports the 
bamboo on his shoulder, so as to equipoise 
the baskets suspended at each end. — Wil- 
liamtOTi, V. M. i. 328. 




[184S.— " I engaged eight bearers to carry 
my palankeen. Besides these I had four 
lMUigfay-&«re2izr«, men who are each obliged 
to carry forty pound weight, in small 
wooden or tin boxes, called petarrahi.** — 
TrattUn't aeeommt, Carey, Good Old Days, 


c 1844.— "I will forward with this bv 
hbaagy dAJt a copy of Capt Moresby s 
Surrey of the Red Sea." — .Sir O. Arthur, in 
lad. Admin, of Lord Ellenbormigh, p. 221. 

1873. — ** The officers of his regiment . . . 
subscribed to buy the young people a set of 
crockery, and a plated tea and coffee sendee 
(got up by dawk baag^liee ... at not 
much more than 200 per cent, in adyance 
of the Kiglish price." — The True RrfariMTj 

BAHJO, s. Though this is a West- 
and not East-Indian tenii, it may be 
worth while to introduce the following 
older form of the word : 

** Permit thy slares to lead the choral dance 
To the wild bandiaw's melancholy 
sound." — Grainger, ir. 

See abo Davies, for example of baj^ore, 
[and y,B,D for banjer]. 

BANfcSHALL, s. a. A ware- 
house, b. The office of a Harbour 
Master or other Port Authority. In 
the former sense the word is still used 
in S. India ; in Bengal the latter is 
the only sense recognised, at least 
among Anglo- Indians ; in Northern 
India the word is not in use. As the 
Calcutta office stands on the banks of 
the Hoogly, the name is, we believe, 
often accepted as having some in- 
definite reference to this position. 
And in a late work we find a positive 
and plausible, but entirely unfounded, 
explanation of this kino, which we 
quote below. In Java the word has 
a specific application to the open hall 
of audience, supported by wooden 
pillars without waUs, which forms 
part of every princely residence. The 
word is used in Sea Hindustani, in 
the forms bansdr^ and bangsdl for a 
• store-room ' {Rotbudc), 

BanhhaU is in fact one of the oldest 
of the words taken up by foreign 
traders in India. And its use not 
only by Correa ^c. 1661) but by Kinc 
John (i524X witn the regularly-formea 
Portuguese plural of woms in -a2, shows 
how early it was adopted by the 
Portuguese. Indeed, Correa does not 

even explain it, as is his usual practice 
with Indian terms. 

More than one serious etymology 
has been suggested : — (1). Crawfurd 
U^es it to be the Malay word hcmgaal, 
defined by him in his Malay Diet, 
thus : " (J .) A shed ; a storehouse ; a 
workshop ; a porch ; a covered pas- 
sage" (see /. Ind, Archip. iv. 182). 
[Mr Skeat adds that it also means in 
Malay 'half-husked paddy,' and 'fallen 
timber, of which the outer layer has 
rotted and only the core remains.'] 
But it is probable that the Malay word, 
though marked by Crawfurd ("J.") 
as Javanese in ori^n, is a corruption 
of one of the two following : 

(2) Beng. bankaidla, from Skt. hanik 
or vantkj 'trade,' and sdla, 'a hall.' 
This lis Wilson's etymolo^. 

^3). Skt. bhandasdla, Canar. hhan- 
dasdU, Malayal. pdndtmla, Tam. panda- 
sdlai or pandakaMai, 'a storehouse 
or magazine.^ 

It is difficult to decide which of the 
two last is the original word ; the 
prevalence of the second in S. India 
IS an argument in its favour ; and the 
substitution of g for d would be in 
accordance with a phonetic practice of 
not uncommon occurrence. 

c. 1345. — "For the laatdar there is in 
eyery island (of the Maldives) a wooden 
building, which they call bajaof&r [evi- 
dently for banjafAr, i.e. Arabic spelling for 
hanga^r] where the Governor . . . ooTlectB 
all the goods, and there sells or barters 
them." — Ibn BattUa, iv. 120. 

[1520.— "Collected in his bamgasal" (in 
the Maldives). — Doc. da Torreao Tonio. 
p. 452.] 

1524.— A grant from E. John to the City 
of Goa, says: "that henceforward even 
if no market rent in the city is collected 
from the bacao^B, vis. those at which are 
sold honey, oil, batter, betre (^i.e. betel), 
spices, ana cloths, for permission to sell 
such thinffs in the said bacads, it is our 
pleasore uiat they shall sell them freely." 
A note says : "Apparently the word should 
be bacofoes, or bancaoaes, or banga^aes, 
which then signified any place to sell things, 
but now particularly a wooden house?^ 
Arehiv. Portug. Or., Fasc. ii. 43. 

1561.—" ... in the benga^aes, in which 
stand the goods ready for shipment." — 
Ci^rrea, Lendag, i. 2, 260. 

1610. — The form and use of the word have 
led P, Teixeira into a curious confusion (as 
it would seem) when, speaking of foreigners 
at Ormus, he says : "hay muchos gentiles, 
Baneanes [see BANTAli], Bangasalyi, y 
Cambayatys "—where the word in Italics 




probably represents Bangalys, i.e, Beng&lis 
iHel. de ffarmuz, 18). 

c. 1610. — "Le facteur du Roy chrestion 
des Maldiues tenoit sa banqvetalle on 
plofltost oellier, sor le bord de la mer en 
risle de Maltf. "—Pymrrf cU Laval, ed. 1679, 
i. 65 ; [Hak. Soo. i. 85 ; alao see i. 267]. 

1618.—" The other settlement of YIer 
. . . with houses of wood thatched extends 
... to the fields of Tanjonpaoer, where 
there is a hangiliftl or sentiy's house without 
other defense/' — Oodinko de Eredia, 6. 

-"Bangmi], a shed (or bam), or 
often also a roof witiiout walls to sit under, 
sheltered from the rain or son." — Oojtpar 
WilUntf Voeabularium, &c., ins' Grayen- 
haage ; repr. Batavia, 1706. 

1734-5.—" Paid the Banlniha.n Merchants 
for the house poles, oounti^ reapers, kc., 
pecessary for housebuilding." — In WheeUr, 
iii. 148. 

1748.—" A little below the town of Wampo 
. . . These people {ammtuUnres) build a house 
for each ship. . . . They are called by us 
tMUOkiallB. In these we deposit the rigging 
and yards of the vessel, chests, water-casks, 
and CTery thing that incommodes us aboard." 
— A Voyage to the JB. Indiet in 1747 and 
1748 (1762), p. 294. It appears from this 
book (p. 118) that the place in Canton 
Riyer was known as ^^"^^^11 Island. 

1750-52.— "One of the first things on 
Arriving here (Canton River) is to procure a 
banoefidl, that is, a great house, con- 
structed of bamboo and mats ... in which 
the stores of the ship are laid up."— ^ 
Voyage, &c., by Olof Torten ... in a series 
of letters to I>r Linnssus, Transl. by J. R. 
Forster (with Osbeck's Voyage), 1771. 

1783.— "These people {Chulias, &c., from 
India, at Achin) ... on their arrival im- 
mediately buila, by contract with the 
natives, houses of bamboo, like what in 
China at Wampo is called baakahall, very 
regular, on a convenient spot close to the 
river." — Forregl, V, to Mergui, 41. 

1788.— "BankoaulB— Storehouses for de- 
positing ships' stores in, while the ships are 
unlading and refitting." — Indian vocdb, 

1813.— "The East India Company for 
seventy years had a large hanlhiaijil, or 
warehouse, at Mirzee, for the reception of 
the pepper and sandalwood purchased in 
the dominions of the Mysore Rajah." — 
Forbea, Or. Mem, iv. 109. 

1817.— "The bingnl or mendopo is a 
large open hall, supported by a double row 
of pillars, and covered with shinjg^les, the 
interior beinff richly decorated with paint 
and nlding. '-iZa^, Java (2nd ed.), i. 93. 
The Javanese use, as in this passage, cor- 
responds to the meaning given in Jansz, 
'Javanese Diet.: "Bfti^;ul, Vorstelijke 
Zitplaats" (Prince's Sitting-place). 

[1614.— "The oQstom house or hanViall 
At Masolpatam."— /oieer, Letten, ii. 86.] 

1623.— "And on the Place by the sea 
there was the Custom-house, which the 
Persians in their language call Benkial, a 
building of no great size, with some open 
outer porticoes."- P. della Valle, ii. 465. 

1673.—". . . Their Bank Bolle, or 
Custom House Keys, where they land, are 
Two ; but mean, and shut only with ordinary 
Gates at Night."— Fiyer, 27. 

1683. — "I came adiore in Capt. Goyer's 
Pinnace to ye Bankihell, about 7 miles 
from Ballasore."— iTec^tf, Diary, Feb. 2; 
[Hak. Soc. i. 65]. 

1687. — "The Mayor and Aldermen, etc., 
do humbly request the Honourable President 
and Council would please to grant and 
assign over to the Corporation the petty 
dues of BankMU Tolls."— In Wheefer, i. 20/. 

1727.— "Above it is the />«/eA BankehaU, 
a Place where their Ships ride when they 
cannot get further up for the too swift 
Currents."— i4. Hamilton, ii. 6. 

1789.— "And that no one may plead 
ignorance of this order, it is hereby directed 
that it be placed constantly in view at the 
Bankehell in the English and country 
languages."— /Voc/. against Slave-Trading in 
Seton-KojT, ii. 5. 

1878.— "The term < Baakeoll ' has always 
been a puzzle to the English in India. It is 
borrowed from the Dutch. The *SoU' is 
the Dutch or Danish *Zoll,' the English 
'ToU.' The BaakBOll was then the place 
on the * bank ' where all tolls or dhties wero 
levied on landing goods."— TWAoyx W/teeler, 
Early Records of B, India, 1%. (Quite 
erroneous, as already said ; and Zoll is not 

BANTAIC, n.p. The province 
which forms the western extremity of 
Java, properly BdrUan. [Mr 8keat 
gives iantany Crawfurd, Bantdn,] It 
formed an independent kingdom at 
the l^eginning of the 17th century, 
and then produced much pepper (no 
longer crown), which caused it to Ini 
greatly frequented by European traders. 
An English factory was established 
here in 1603, and continued till 1682, 
when the Dutch succeeded in ex})elling 
us as interlopers. 

[1615. — "They were all valued in my 
invoice at Bantanl" — Foster, Letters, iv. 93.] 

1727.— "The only Product of Bantam 
is Pepper, wherein it abounds so much, 
that they can export 10,000 Tuns per 
annum."— ^. BamiUan, ii. 127. 

BANTAM FOWLS, s. According 
to Crawfurd, the dwarf poultry which 
we call by this name were imported 
from Japan, and received the name 
"not from the place that produced 
them, but from that where our 




voTuers first found them." — (7)«c. Did. 
fi,v. Baniam). The following evidently 
in Pegu describes Bantams : 

1586.— "They also eat certain ooeks and 
hens called loritUy which are the size of a 
turtle-dove, and have feathered feet; but 
flo pretty, that I never aaw so pretty a 
bira. I brought a cock and hen with me 
as fiar as Chaul, and then, suapecting they 
might be taken from me, I gave them to 
the Capuchin fathers belonging to the Madre 
de Dioe."— Bo/fti, f. l25v,Y», 

1673.— "From Siam are brought hither 
little Champort Cocks with ruffled Feet, well 
armed with Spurs, which have a strutting 
Gate with them, the truest mettled in the 
World."— /Vy<r, 116. 

p.703.— "WUde cocks and hens . . . 
much like tiie small sort called C/utmporeSf 
fleverall of which we have had brought us 
from Camboja."— ^ati^ef, Diary, Hak. Soc. 

11. cocxxziu. 

This looks as if they came from 
^(q. v.). 

(1) BANYAN, s. a. A Hindu 
trader, and especially of the Province 
of Quzerat, many of which class have 
for aces been settled in Arabian ports 
And Imown by this name ; but the 
term is often applied by early travellers 
in Western India to persons of the 
Hindu religion generally. b. In 
Calcutta also it is (or pernaps rather 
was) specifically appliea to the native 
brokers attached to houses of business, 
or to persons in the employment of 
a private gentleman doing analogous 
duties (now usually called sircar). 

The word was adopted from Vaniya, 
a man of the trading caste (in Qujarati 
vdniyo\ and that comes from Skt. 
tamj, *a merchant.' The terminal 
nasal may be a Portumiese addition 
(as in poUanquin, rnaruMrin, Bassein), 
or it may be taken from the plural 
form vdwiydn. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the Portuguese found the 
word already in use by the Arab 
traders. Sidi 'Ali, the Turkish Admi- 
ral, uses it in precisely the same form, 
applyin£[ it to the Hindus generally ; 
and m Uie poem of Sassui and Panhu, 
the Sindian Bomeo and Juliet, as nven 
by Burton in his Sindh (p. 101), we 
have the form Wdniydn. P. F. 
Vincenzo Maria, who is quoted below 
alifiwrdly alkffes that the Portuguese 
called Uiese Hindus of Guzerat sag- 
naili, because they were always washing 
themselves *'.... chiamati da Portu- 
ghesi Bognaniy per la frequenza e 
^upeistitione, con quale si lauano piu 

volte il giomo " (251). See also Luillier 
below. The men of this class profess 
an extravagant respect for animal life ; 
but after Stanley brought home Dr. 
Livin^tone's letters they became 
notorious as chief promoters of slave- 
trade in Eastern Africa. A. K. Forbes 
speaks of the medieval W&nias at 
tne Court of Anhihvara as "equally 
gallant in the field fwith Bajputs), 
and wiser in council . . . already 
in profession puritans of peace, hut 
not yet drainea enough of their fiery 
Kshatri h\ood."—{Rds Mala, i. 240; 
[ed. 1878, 184].) 

Bunya is the form in which vdniya 
appears in the Anglo-Indian use of 
Bengal, with a different shade of mean- 
ing, and generally indicating a grain- 

1516. — "There are three qualities of these 
Gentiles, that is to say, some are called 
Razbuts . . . others are called Hiiwlitw, 
and are merchants and traders." — Barboaa, 

1552. — ". . . Among whom came cer- 
tain men who are called Baneanew of 
the same heathen of the Kingdom of 
Cambaia . . . coming on board the ship 
of Vasco da Gama, and seeing in his cabin 
a pictorial image of Our Lady, to which our 
pMOople did reverence, they also made adora- 
tion with much more fervency. . . ." — 
Bcarrosy Dec., I, liv. iv. cap. 6. 

1555.— "We may mention that the in- 
habitants of Guzerat call the unbelievers 
Banyftns, whilst the inhabitants of Hindu- 
stan call them HindiL" — Sidi 'Afi Kapuddtu 
in J. As., 1*« S. ix. 197-8. 

1563.— "A. If the fruits were all as good 
as this (mango) it would be no such great 
matter in the Baneanes, as you tell me, 
not to eat flesh. And since I touch on 
this matter, tell me, prithee, who are these 
BanaanOB . . . who do not eat flesh i . . . " 
—Garcia, f . 186. 

1608.— "The Gouemour of the Towne of 
Gfandeuee is a BaOBjUi* and one of those 
kind of people that obserue the Law of 
Pythagoras." — Jone*, in Purcha*^ i. 231. 

[1610.—" Baaeanei. " See quotation under 
Bi^KSHALL, a.] 

1623. — "One of these races of Indians is 
that of those which call themselves VaniA, 
but who are called, somewhat corruptly by 
the Portuguese, and by all our other Franks, 
Banians; they are all, for the most port, 
traders and brokers." — P, della Valle, i. 
486-7 ; [and see i. 78 Hak. Soc.]. 

1630.— "A people presented themselves 
to mine eyes, cloathed in linnen garments, 
somewhat low descending, of a gesture and 
garbe, as I may sov, maidenly and well 
nigh effeminate; of a countenance shy, 
and somewhat estranged ; yet smiling out 
a glosed and bashful familiarity. ... I 




asked what manner of people these were, 
so strangely notable, and notably strange. 
Reply was made that they were Bazdaas." 
—Lardy Preface. 

1665. — **In trade these Ha-winTia are a 
thousand times worse than the Jews; more 
expert in all sorts of cunning triclu. and 
more maliciously mischievous in their re- 
venffe."— TViwnittT, E. T. ii. 68 ; [ed. Balf, 
i. 136, and see i. 91]. 

c. 1666. — "Ausai chacun a son Tt%^ <ft Ti 
dans les Indes, et il y a des personnes de 
quality qui leur confient tout ce qu'ils ont 
. . . ."— r;«rCTMrf, V, 166. This passage 
shows in anticipation the transition to the 
Calcutta use (b., below). 

1672.— "The inhabitants are called Oui- 
zerattfi and BmjtJiB^—BaldaeuSj 2. 

„ "It is the custom to say that to 
make one B« (so they call the Gentile 
Merchants) you need three Chinese, and to 
make one Chinese three Hebrews." — P. F, 
Vincenzo di Maria, 114. 

1673.— "The Banyan foUows the Soldier, 
though as contrary in Humour as the Anti- 
podes in the same Meridian are opposite to 
one another. ... In Cases of Trade they 
are not so hide-bound, giving their Con- 
sciences more Scope, and boggle at no 
Villainy for an Emolument." — /Vy«r, 193. 

1677.— "In their letter to Ft. St. George, 
15th March, the Court offer £20 reward to 
any of our servants or soldiers as shall be 
able to speak, write, and translate the 
Banian language, and to learn their aritli- 
metic." — In Madras Notes and Exts., No. I. 
p. 18. 

1705.—" . . . ceux des premieres castes, 
comme les Balgnanw. "—LuiUiery 106. 

1813.—" . . . it wiU, I believe, be gener- 
ally allowed by those who have dealt much 
with Banians and merchants in the larger 
trading towns of India, that their moral 
character cannot be held in high estima- 
tion."— /Vftw, Or. Mem. ii. 466. 

1877.— "Of the Wani, Banyan, or trad»- 
caste there are five great families in this 
country."- jBi/rtow, Sind Revisited, ii. 281. 


1761. — "We expect and positively direct 
that if our servants employ Kun^ufi or black 
people under them, they shall be accountable 
for their conduct."— 7%< CouH of Directorsy 
in LonQy 264. 

17^.^** Resolutions and Orders. That no 
Moonshee, linguist, R^-n^n^ or Writer, be 
allowed to any officer, excepting the Com- 
mander-in-Chief."—^. William Proc.y in 
Longy 382. 

1776. — "We have reason to suspect that 
the intention was to make him (Nundoomarj 
Bansran to General Clavering, to surround 
the (General and us with the Governor's 
creatures, and to keep us totally unac- 
quainted with the real state of the Govern- 
ment." — Minute by Clattering ^ Monscm, and 
Francis. Ft. Williamy 11th April. In Price's 
TractSy li. 138. 

1780.— "We are informed that the Juty 
Wallahs or Makers and Vendore of Bengal 
ShoM in and about Calcutta . . . intend 
sending a Joint Petition to the Supreme 
Council ... on account of the great decay 
of their Trade, entirely owing to the Luxury 
of the Bengalies, chiefly the J^wg ^w («|>) 
and Sarcars, as there are scarce any of 
them to be found who does not keep a 
Chariot, Phaeton, Buggy or Pallanquin, 
and some all four . . .^— In HickyU Bengal 
Gazettey June 24th. 

1783.—" Mr. Hasting^' bannian was, after 
this auction, found possessed of territories 
yielding a rent of £140,000 a year."— 5wit«, 
Sp^^ <w* B. L Billy in Writingsy &c., iii. 

1786.— "The said Warren Hastings did 
permit and suffer his own banyan or prin- 
cipal black steward, named Canto Baboo, to 
hold farms ... to the amount of 13 lacs 
of rupees per annum."— ^rt. agst. Hastings^ 
Burkcy vii. 111. 

„ "A practice has gradually crept 
in among the Ra^wiftuff and other rich 
men of Calcutta, of dressing some of their 
servants . . . nearly in the uniform of 
the Honourable Company's Sepoys and 
Lascars. . . ."—NotiJkatioTiy in Setan Karr. 
i. 122. 

1788.--" Banyan— A Gentoo servant em- 
plojred in the management of commercial 
affairs. Every English gentleman at Bengal 
has a Banyan who either acts of himself, or 
as the substitute of some great man or black 
merchant." — Indian VoooSulary (Stockdale). 

1810.— "The same person frequently was 
banian to several European gentlemen ; all 
of whose concerns were of course accurately 
known to him, and Uius became the subject 
of conversation at those meetings the banians 
of Calcutta invariably held. . . ." — William- 
souy V. M. i. 189. 

1817. — **The European functionary . . . 
has first his banyan or native secretary." — 
Milly Hist. (ed. 1840), iii. 14. Mr. Mill does 
not here accurately interpret the word. 

(2). BANYAN, 8. An undershirt, 
originally of muslin, and so called as 
resemblinc the body garment of the 
Hindus ; but now commonly applied 
to under body-clothing of elastic cotton, 
woollen, or silk web. The following 
quotations illustrate the stages by 
which the word reached its present 
application. And they show that 
our predecessors in India used to 
adopt the native or Banyan costume 
in their hours of ease. C. P. Brown 
defines Banyan as **a Uxm dressing- 
gowny such as Hindu tradesmen wear." 
Probably this may have been the 
original use ; but it is never so em- 
ployed in Northern India. 

1672.— "It is likewise ordered that both 
Officers and Souldiers in the Fort shall, both 




on every Sabbath Day, and on eyory day 
when they ezerciae» iMore Bmglitk ajppaard ; 
in respect the garbe is most becoming as 
Souldien, and oorrespondent to their prof es- 
aon." — Sir W, Langhome*t SUmdvug Order ^ 
in Wke^er, m, 426. 

1731. — "The Bnaign (as it proved, for his 
fint appearance, being undressed and in his 
bansroa coat, I did not know him) came off 
from his cot^ and in a ver^ haughfy manner 
cried oat, *None of your disturbance, Grentle- 
men.' "—In Wheeler, iii. 109. 

1781.— "I am an Old Stager in this 
Gonntrv. having arrived in Calcutta in the 
Year 1796. . . . Those were the days, when 
Gentlemen studied Etue instead of Fcukion ; 
when even the Hon. Members of the Ooundl 
met in Baaym Shirta, Loo^ Drawen (q. v. ), 
and OoDJee (Congee) cape ; with a Case Bottle 
of good old Arrack, and a (buglet of Water 
placed on the Table, which we Secretary 
(a SkUfal Hand) frequently converted into 
Punch . . . " — Letter from An Old Country 
Cb^tem, in India Oazettey Feb. 24th. 

[1773.— In a letter from Horace Walpole 
to the Countess of Upper Ossory, dated 
April 30th, 1773 {Chtnntnfham't ed., v. 459) 
he describes a ball at Lord Stanley's, at 
which two of the dancers, Mr. Storer and 
Miss Wrottealey, were dressed "in l>anian8 
with furs, for winter, cock and hen." It 
would be interesting to have further details 
of these garments, which were, it may be 
hoped, different from the modem Banyan.] 

1810. — ". . . an undershirt, commonly 
called a hKl^B3L"—Wiiliams(m, V.M. i. 19. 

(3) BANYAN, s. 


BANYAN-DAY, 8. This is sea- 
slang for a jour maigre, or a day* on 
whidi no ration of meat was allowed ; 
when (as one of our quotations above 
expresses it) the crew had " to observe 
the Law of Pythagoras." 

1600.— "Of this {Kitckery or Kedgeree, 
q.v.) the European Sailors feed in these parts 
once or twice a Week, and are forcxl at 
those times to a Pagan Abstinence from 
Flesh, which creates in them a perfect Dis- 
like and utter Detestation to those Hii«i«<ftTi 
OajB, as they commonly call them." — 
iMnffton, 310, 811. 


1690. — "This Tongue Tempest is termed 
there a Bantllan-Ftght, for it never rises 
to blows or bloodshed."— (M'n^ton, 275. Sir 
O. Birdwood teUs us that this is a phrase 
-etill current in Bombay. 

BANYAN-TBEE, also ellintically 

BauDyan, s. The Indian Fi^-Tree 

(Fietu Indiea^ or Ftcus beng<densi8j L.X 

42alled in H. bar [or bargalf the latter 


the ^^Bourgade** of Bemier (ed. Con- 
gtabUy p. 309).] The name appears to 
have b«en first bestowed popularly on 
a famous tree of this species jo^wing 
near Gtombroon (q.v.), under which the 
Banyans or Hindu traders settled at 
that port, had built a little 
So says Tavernier below, 
original Banyan-tree is described by 
P. della Valle (ii. 453), and by 
Valentijn (v. 202). P. della VaUe^s 
account (1622) is extremely interesting, 
but too long for quotation. He c^ls 
it by the Persian name. liU, The tree 
still stood, within half a mile of the 
English factory, in 1758, when it was 
visited by Ives, who Quotes Tickell's 
verses given below. [Also see CUBEEB 

c. A.D. 70.— "First and foremost, there is 
a Fig-tree there (in India) which beareth 
very small and slender figges. The propertie 
of wis Tree, is to plant and set it selfe with- 
out mans helpe. For it spreadeth out with 
mightie armes, and the lowest water-boaghes 
underneath, do bend so downeward to the 
very earth, that they touch it againe, and 
lie upon it: whereby, within one years space 
they will take fast root in the nonnd, and 
put foorth a new Spring round about the 
Mother- tree: so as these braunches, thus 
growing, seeme like a traile or bonder of 
arbours most curiously and artificially made, " 
&c. — Plinia Nat, Mittoriey by PlUlemon 
Holland, i. 860. 


'' . . . The ^oodljr bole being got 
To certain cubits' height, from every side 
The boughs decline, which, taking root 

Spring up new boles, and these spring 

new, and newer, 
Till the whole tree become a porticus. 
Or arched arbour, able to receive 
A numerous troop." 

Ben Jonsorij Neptune* s Triumph, 

c. 1650. — **Cet Arbre estoit de mdme 
espece que celuy qui est a une lieue du 
Bander, et qui passe pour une merveille ; 
mais dans les Inaes il y en a quantity. Les 
Persans I'appellent Luly les Portugais Arher 
de ReySj et les Francais I'Arbre des Bani- 
aOM ; paroe que les Banianes out fait b&tir 
deasous une Paf ode avec un carvansera 
aocompagn^ de piusieurs petits ^tangs poiur 
se laver/' — Tavernier, V. de Perse^ liv. v. 
ch. 23. [Also see ed. ^aZ/, ii. 198.] 

c. 1660.— "Near to the City of Ormut was 
a Bannianii tree^ hein^ the only tree that 
grew in the Island.'*— Jtoucmicr, Eng. Tr. i. 

c, 1666. — "Nous vimes k cent on cent 
dnquante pas de ce jardin, I'arbre War dans 
toute son etenduS. On I'appeUe auasi Ber, 
et arbre des Banians, et arbre det racinet 
. . . "—Thevenot, v. 76. 



'* The fig-tree, not that kind for fruit re- 
But such as at this day, to Indians known, 
In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms 
Branching so broad and long, that in the 

TIm bended twigs take root, and daughters 

About the mother-tree, a pillared shade 
High OTor-arch'd, and eciioing walks be- 
tween." ParadUe Loat^ iz. 1101. 

[Warton points out that Milton must have 
had in view a description of the Banyan- 
tree in €ferar(F$ Herbal under the heading 
"of the arched Indian fig-tree."] 

1^2.— ** Eastward of Surat two Counea, 
i,e, a League, we pitched our Tent under 
a Tree that besides its Leafs, the Branches 
bear its own Boots, therefore called by the 
Portuaalsy Arbor de Raiz; For the Adora- 
tion the Banyans pay it, the Bansran-^rve." 
—Fryer, 106. 

1691.— "About a (Dutch) mile from 
Qamzon . . . stands a tree, heretofore 
described by Mandelslo and others. . . . 
Beside this tree is an idol temple where the 
BanTUlfl do their worship.'* — ValentiJR, 


" The fiair descendants of thysacred bed 
Wide-branchinff o'er the Western World 

shall spread, 
like the fam'd it*w**« Tn%, whose pliant 

To earthward bending of itself takes root, 
Till like their mother plant ten thousand 

In verdant arches on the fertile land ; 
Beneath her shade the tawny Indians 

Or hunt at large through the wide-echoing 


Tichell, Epistle from a Lady in 
England to a Lady in Avignon. 

1726. — "On the north side of the city 
(Surat) is there an uncommonly great Pichsj- 
or Waringin* tree. . . The Portuguese call 
this tree Albero de laiz, i.e. Boot-tree. . . . 
Under it is a small chapel built by a Bmyan, 
. . . Day and night lamps are alight there, 
and Benjans constantly come in pilgrimaee, 
to offer their prayers to this saint.' — 
VaUntijn^ iv. 146. 

1771. — ". . . being employed to con- 
struct a militiuy work at the fort of Trip- 
lasore (afterwards called Marsden's Bastion) 
it was necessary to cut down a baajran-toee 
which so incensed the brahmans of that 
place, that they found means to poison 
nim" («.«. Thomas Marsden of the Madias 
Engineers).— ifm. of W. Marsden^ 7-8. 

1809.— "Their greatest enemy {i.e. of the 
building) is the Baajaa-TrM."- J^. Va- 
lenUa, i. 896. 

* WaHngin is the Javanese name of a up. kindred 
to the banyan, Fieus beniamina^ L. 

" In the midst an aged i*»^"***» grew. 
It was a goodly siffht to see 

That venerable tree. 
For o'er the lawn, irregularly spread, 
Fifty straight columns propt its lofty 

And manj a long depending shoot, 

Seeking to strike its root, 
Straight like a plummet grew towards the 

Some on the lower boughs which crost 

their way. 
Fixing their bearded fibres, round and 

With many a ring and wild ooniortion 

wound ; 
Some to the passing wind at tisMs, with 

Of gentle motion swung ; 
Others of younger growth, unmoived, were 

Like stone-drops from the aavem's fretted 
Southey, Curse of KtkoMO, xiii. 61. 
[Southey takes his account from 
Williamson^ OrienL FieUL Sports, 
ii. 118.] 
'* Des Haniawg touffus, par les brames adorfe, 
Depuis longtemps la hmguenr nous im- 

Goufbds par le midi, dont Fardeur les 

lis ^tendent vers nous leurs rameaux 

Casimir Delarigne, Le Parioj iii. 6. 

A note of the publishers on the preceding 
paosage, in the edition of 1866, is diverting : 

"Un Joumaliste allemand a aocustf M. 
Casimir Delavig^ne d'avoir pris pour un arbre 
une secte religieuse de I'lnde. ..." The 
German journalist was wrong here, but he 
might have found plenty of matter for 
ridicule in the play. Thus the Brahmins 
(men) are Ahbar (!), Idamore {!!), and 
Empsael (!!!); their women NSala (f), Zaid« 
(!), andAftr2a(!l). 

1825.— "Near this village was the finest 
banyan-tree which I had ever seen, literally 
a grove rising from a single primarv stem, 
whose massive secondary trunks, with their 
straightness, orderly arrangement, and 
evident connexion with the parent stock, 
gave the general effect of a vast vegetable 
organ. The first impression which I felt 
on coming under its shade was, * What a 
noble pl£^ of worship!'" — ffeber. ii. 9S 
(ed. 1844). 

1884.— "Cast forth thy word into the 
everlivinpf, overworking universe; it is a 
seed-prrain that cannot die ; unnoticed to- 
day, it will be found flourishing as a banyan^ 
grOTe — (perhaps alas ! as a hemlock forest) 
after a thousand years." — Sartor Resartus. 

" . . . its pendant branches, rooting in the 

Yearn to the parent earth and gprappling 




Grow up huge ftema again, which shoot- 
ing forth 
In massy branches, these again despatch 
Their drooping heralds, till a l&bynnth 
Of root ana stem and branch ooouningling, 

A great cathedral, aisled and choired in 

The Baoysn Tree, a Poem. 

1865. — "A familj tends to multiply fami- 
lies around it> till it becomes the centre of a 
tribe, just as the baaywi tends to sorround 
Itself with a forest of its own offsjpring." — 
MaeJemoMf. Primitive Marriage, 269. 

1878. — **. . . des teagraJie soutenns par 
des lafdaes aSriennfls et dont lee branches 
tombantes engendrent en touchant terre des 
an jets nouveanx." — Rev, des Deux Mondes, 
Oct. 15, p. 882. 

BABASINHA, & The H. name of 
the widely^flpread Cenms WalUckiiy 
Cuvier. Thifl H. name (*12-hora') 
is no doubt taken from the number 
of tines beinff approximately twelve. 
The name is aJso applied by sportsmen 
in Bengal to the Kuoeivu$ DwoauceUvLf 
or Swamp-^Deer^ [See Blanfordy Mcmvm, 

[1875.— "I know of no flesh equal to that 
of the ibex ; and the naoo. a species of 
gigantic ant<^pe of Chineee Tibet, with the 
Dazxarsiiigli, a red deer of Kashmir, are 
nearly eqo^y good." — TFitem, Abode of 
Smow^ 91. J 

[BABBEB'S BBIDOE, n.p. This 
is a curions native corruption of an 
English name. The bridge in Madras, 
known as Barbttr^s Bridge, was built by 
an engineer named Hamilton. This 
was turned by the natives into AmbuXon^ 
and in course of time the name Ambuion 
was identified with the Tamil cumbattait, 
'barber,' and so it came to be called 
Barbm's Bridge, — See Le Fanv^ Man. 
ofiiu Salem Diat, ii. 169, note.] 

BABBICAN, s. This term of 
mediseval fortification ia derived by 
Littr^ and by Marcel Devic, from Ar. 
haHnxikf which means a sewer-pipe or 
water-pipe. And ons of the meanings 

S'ven by Littr6 is, "une ouverture 
ngne et ^troite pour T^coulement 
des eaox." Apart from the possible, 
but ui^ncedy nistory which this al- 
leged meaning may involve, it seems 
probable^ considering the usual mean- 
mg of the word as *an outwork before 
a gate,' that it is from Ar. P. hdh-khdruty 
* gate-house.' This etymology was sug- 
gested in print about 50 years ago by one 

of the present writers,* and cc»firmed 
to his mind some years later, when in 
going through the native town of 
Cawnpore, not long before the Mutiny, 
he saw a brand-new double-towered 
gateway, or gate-house, on the face 
of which was uie inscription in Persian 
characters: ^^ Bdb-Khdna-i-Mahomm&d 
Bakhsh," or whatever was his name, 
i,e. "The Barbican of Makommsd 
BakhshJ' [The N.E.D, sunests P. 
barbar-khdnak, * house on the wall,' 
it bein^ difficult to derive the Romanic 
forms in bar- from bdh-JdulncL] 

The editor of the Chron. of iL James 
of Aragon (1833, p. 4S3) says that 
barbacana in Spain means a second, 
outermost and lower wall ; i.«. a fausse- 
braye. And this aerees with facts in 
that work, and witn the definition in 
Cobarruvias ; but not at all with 
Joinville's use, nor with V.-le-Duc's 

c. 1250.— ''Tuit le baron . . s'aoorderent 
queenuntertre . . . f ^ist Ten nne f orteresse 
qui fust bien gamie de gent, si qui se li Tor 
fesoient saillies . . cell tore fust einsi come 
barbacaas (orig. ^auan cmtemurale*) de 
roete."— The Med. Fr. tr. of William qf 
Tyre, ed. Paul Parity i. 168. 

c. 1270. — *'. . . on condition of his at once 
putting mo in possession of the albarrana 
tower . . . and should besides make his 
Saracens construct a barbacana round the 
tower." — JoMet of Aragon, as aboye. 

1809. — *' Pour requerro sa gent plus sanTe> 
ment, fist le royn faire une iMurbaiqiiaiM de- 
vant le pont qui estoit entre nos dous as, en 
tel mamere que Ton pooit entrer de dous pars 
en la barbaquane 2k cheTaI."-n/omt>t/^, 
p. 162. 

1552. — "Louren^o de Brito ordered an 
intrenohment of great strength to be dug, in 
the fashion of a biarbican (baztNuA) outside 
the wall of the fort ... on account of a well, 
a stone-cast distant. . . " — Barros, II. i. 5. 

c. 1870. — **BarbacaMe. Dtf ense ezt^rieure 
prot^eant une entree, et permettant de 
r^unir un assez grand nonmre dliommes 
pour disposer des sorties ou prot^r une 
TetndtB.*^—ViolUt-le'Due, ff. d'une Forte- 

BABBIEBS, s. This is a term 
which was formerly very current in 
the East, as the name of a kind of 
paralysis, often occasioned by exposure 
to chills. It began with numbness 
and imperfect command of the power 
of movement, sometimes also a£fecting 
the muscles of the neck and power ca 

* In a Glossary of Military Tenns, appendad to 
FortUeaticnfor Offleen of the Amty andStmdenU ef 
MUUary HUtory, Sdinbuxgh, Blackwood, 1851. 


articulation, and often followed by 
loss of appetite, emaciation, and death. 
It has often been identified with Beri- 
beri, and medical opinion seems to 
have come back to the view that the 
two are/omM of one disorder, though 
this was not admitted by some oloer 
authors of the last century. The 
allegation of Lind and others, that 
the most frequent subjects of barhiers 
were Europeans of the lower class 
who, when in drink, went to sleep 
in the open air, must be contrasted 
with the general experience that beri- 
beri rarely attacks Europeans. The 
name now seems obsolete. 

1673.— "Whenoe follows Fluxes, Dropsy, 
Scurvy, Baxbien (which is an enenrating 
{dc) the whole Body, beiiiff neither able to 
use hands or Feet). €k>ut, Stone, Malignant 
and Putrid Fevers.*'— /Vy«r, 68. 

1690.— " Another Distemper with which 
the Europeans are sometimes aiflicted, is 
the BarbMirs, or a deprivation of the Vse 
and Activity of their Limbs, whereby they 
are rendered unable to move either Hand or 
Foot."— Ovinfftai^ 350. 

1755. — (If the land wind blow on a person 
sleeping) " the consequence of this is always 
dangerous, as it seldom fails to bring on a 
fit of ithe Barbien (as it is called m this 
country), that is, a total deprivation of the 
use of the limbs." — /vef, 77. 

[c. 1757.—" There was a disease common to 
the lower class of Europeans, called the 
Barben^ a species of palsy, owing to ex- 
posure to the land winds after a nt of in- 
toxication." — In Carey. Good Old Day*, 
ii. 266.] 

1768.— "The barbien, a species of palsy, 
is a disease most frequent in India. It d£9- 
tresses chiefly the lower class of Europeans, 
who when intoxicated with liquors frequently 
sleep in the open air, exposed to the land 
winds." — Lind on Diieatu of Hot CUtnates, 
260. (See BBBIBEBL) 

kdn%. The name of a small silver coin 
current in W. India at the time of 
the Portuguese occupation of Goa, and 
afterwards valued at 40 reis (then 
about b^d,). The name of the coin 
was apparently a survival of a very 
old system of coinage-nomenclature. 
Kdni is an old Indian word, perhaps 
Dravidian in origin, indicating ^ of 
of ^, or l-64th part. It was applii 
to m^jital (see JEETUL) or 64th part 
of the medi89val Delhi silver tanka — 
this latter coin being the prototype 
in weight and position of the Rupee, 
as the Kdni therefore was of the modem 
Anglo-Indian pice ( = l-64th of a 

Rupee). There were in the currencv 
of Mohammed Tughlak (1324.1351) 
of Delhi, aliquot parts of the tankay 
Dokdnis, Shask-kdnis, Hasht-kdfOs, Dwdz- 
dorkdnU, and Shdmdc^kdnUy represent- 
ing, as the Persian numerals indicate, 
pieces of 2, e, 8, 12, and 16 kdrOe or 
fUale, (See E. ThomcUy PoiUian Kinge 
of Delhi, pp. 218-219.^ Other frac- 
tional pieces were added by Firoz 
Shah, Mohammed's son and successor 
(see Id, 276 aeqq, and quotation under 
c. 1360, below). Some of these terms 
long survived, e.g. do-kdni in localities 
of Western and Southern India, and in 
Western India in the present case the 
bdrakdnl or 12 kdni, a vernacular form 
of the dwdzdorkdni of Mohammed 

1330. — "Thousands of men from various 
quarters, who possessed thousands of these 
copper coins . . . now brought them to the 
treasury, and received in exchange gold 
tankcu and silver tanka» (Tanga), shash-gdnU 
and du-gdn^f which they carriefd to their 
homeB."—Tdriihri'Firo2-Shdht\ in EliioL 
ui. 240-241. 

c. 1350— "Sultan Firoz issued several 
varieties of coins. There was the gold tanin 
and the silver tanJM. There were also dis- 
tinct coins of the respective value of 48, 25, 
24, 12, 10, 8 and 6, and one jitaly known as 
ehihal-o-hiuhl-gdnl, bist-o-panjgdnlf biH-o- 
chahdr-gdnif dtodtdak-gdnl, dah-gdnl, hadu- 

fAni, thdek-gdnlf and yak jUal."—Ibid. 

1510.— -Baxgaaym, in quotation from 
Correa under Pazdao. 

1554. — "E as tamatu brancas que se reoe- 
bem dos foros, sfio de 4 bargaais a tamgtu, 
ede24]eaeso baigaay. . . i.e. "And the 
white tangos that are received in payment of 
land revenues are at the rate of 4 baiganis 
to the tanga, and of 24 ImU to the baxgany." 
— A, Nunez, in StUmdioi, p. 31. 

„ ^* Statement of the Revenw^ tohicKthe 
King our Lard holds in the Island and City 
of Guoa. 

"Item— The Islands of Tlcoary, and 
Dicar, and that of Chordo, and JohJSLo, all of 
them, pay in land revenue {de faro) accord- 
ing to ancient custom 36,474 white tang^tas, 
3 baxgaania, and 21 leals, at the tale of 3 
bargniuiia to the ton^^ua and 24 ^eo^tothe 
baxguanim, the same thing as 24 bazarucos, 
amounting to 14,006 pardaos, 1 tdngva and 
47 leals, making 4,201,916 { reis. The Isle of 
Tifoary (Salsatte) is the largest, and on it 
stands the city of Guoa ; the others are much 
smaller and are annexed to it, they being all 
contiguous, only separated by rivers." — 
BoUlko, Tomho, ibid. pp. 46-7. 

1584. — "They vse also in Goa amongst 
the common sort to bargain for coals, wood, 
lime and such like, at so many taragmninea, 
accounting 24 basarucfides for one braganine. 



albeit there is noaoch money stamped/'— 
BarreL in Bail. ii. 411 ; (but it is copied 
from a. BalbCs Italian, f. 71v). 

BABOEEB, 8. H. from P. bdrgir. 
A trooper of irr^rolar cavalry who is 
not the owner of his troop horse and 
arms (as is the normal practice (see 
SILLADAB), Dut is either put in by 
another person, perhaps a native 
officer in the r^:iment, who supplies 
horses and arms and receives the 
man's full pay, allowing him a re- 
duced rate, or has his horse from the 
State in whose service he is. The P. 
word properly means 'a load-taker,' 
'a baggage horse.' The transfer of 
use is not quite clear. [*' According 
to a man's reputation or connections, 
or the number of his followers, woula 
lie the rank (mansab) assigned to him. 
As a rule, his followers brought their 
own horses and other eouipment ; 
but sometimes a man witn a little 
money would buy extra horses, and 
mount relations or dependants upon 
them. When this was the case, the 
man riding his own horse was called, 
in later parlance, a nlaitddT (literally, 
* equipment-holder 'X aJ^d one riding 
Fomebody else's horse was a hdr^ 
('burden-taker')."— fF. Irvine, The 
Army of the Indian Moghuls, J,BjL,S. 
July 1896, p. 539.] 

1844. — " If the man again has not the cash 
to parehase a hone, he rides one belonging 
to a natave officer, or to some priyileged 
peraon, and becomes what is caUed his 
inzSMr . . . ."—CalcuUa Rev., vol ii. p. 67. 

BABKINChDEEB, & The popular 
name of a small species of deer 
(Gertmlus aureus^ Jerdon) called in H. 
MJbor, and in Nepal rcUwdy also ccdled 
Btb/aced-DeeTy and in Bombay Baikree. 
Its common name is from its call, 
which is a kind of short bark, like 
that of a fox but louder, and ma^ 
be heard in the jungles which it 
frequents^ both by day and by nigbt. 
— (Jerdon), 

[1878.— "I caught the orv of a little 
texUag-dMr/'—CbenKr, Mitkmee ffilU, 

BABODA, n.p. Usually called by 
the Dutch and older English writers 
Brodera,' proper name according to 
the Imp. GazeUeeTy Wadodraj a large 
city of Guzerat, which has been since 
1732 the capital of the Mahratta 

dynasty of Guzerat, the Ghukwars. (See 

1562.— In Barros, <<Cidade de Barodar," 
IV. vi. 8. 

1555. — '*In a few days we arrived at 
BarHj; some days after at Baloudra, and 
then took the road towards ChampaMg (read 
OhamjM7iirr)r—Sidl All, p. 91. 

1606.— "That city (Champanel) may be a 
da^'s journey from DebenMlora or BaTodar, 
which we commonly call Verdonu"— Ccmto, 
IV. ix. 6. 

[1614.— "We are to ffo to Amadavar, 
Cambaia and Brothera.— Softer, Letters^ 
ii. 218 ; also see iv. 197.] 

1688.—" La Tille de Bzodra est dta^ dans 
nne plaine sablonneuse, snr la petite ririere 
de Wcutelj a trente Cm, on quince lielies de 
BrmttehM^—MandeUlc, 180. 

1818.— Brod«ra, in Forbet, Or. Mem., iii. 
268; [2nd ed. ii. 282, 889]. 

1857.— "The town of Baxoda, originaUy 
Barpatra (or a bar leaf, i,e. leaf of the 
FicMS indicOf in shape), was the first laige 
dty I had aeen.'*'-Avtob. <^Littfullak, 88. 

BAB08, n.p. A fort on the West 
Ooast of Sumatra, from which the 
chief export of Sumatra camphor, so 
highly valued in Ghina, long took 
place. [The name in standard Itfalay 
IS, according to Mr Skeat, Barus.] It 
is perhaps identical with the PantUr 
or Far^r of the Middle Ages, which 
cave its name to the Fane&ri camphor, 
famous among Oriental writers, and 
which by the peipetuation of a mis- 
reading is often styled Kai^Uri camphor, 
&c. (See GAMPHOB, and Marco PolOy 
2nd ed. ii. 282, 285 aeaq.) The place 
is called BaiTOWBe in tne E. L Colonial 
PaperSy ii. 52, 153. 

1727.— ''Banw is the next place that 
abounds in Gold, Camphire, ana Bensoin, 
but admits of no foreign Commerce." — A. 
EamiUony ii. 118. 

BABBACKPOBE, n^. The auz- 
iliary Cantonment of Calcutta, from 
which it is 15 m. distant, established 
in 1772. Here also is the counti^ 
residence of the Governor-General, 
built by Lord Minto, and much 
frequented in former days before the 
annual migration to Simla was estab- 
lished. The name is a hybrid. 

BABBAMUHXTL, n.p. H. Bdra- 
maluUly 'Twelve estates'; an old 
designation of a large part of what 
is now the district of Salem in the 
Madras Presidency. The identifica- 




tion of the Twelve Estates is not 
free from difficulty ; [see a full note 
in Le Fanu*$ Man. of Salem, L 83, 

1881.—" The l^ffn^iwy^h^i and Dindigal was 
placed under the Gk>Teniinent of MadmB ; 
but owing to the deficiency in that Presi- 
dency of civil servants possessing a com- 
petent knowledge of the native langnages, 
and to the imsatiirfactory manner in wmch 
the revenue administration of the older 
possessions of the Company under the 
Madras Presidency had been conducted, 
Lord Comwallis resolved to employ military 
officers for a time in the management of 
the Baramahl."— -4r&irfA7M)^ Mem. of Sir T. 
Mvmro^ xzrviii. 

BASHAW, s. The old form of 
what we now call pasha, the former 
being taken from bdiha, the Ar. form 
of the word, which is itself generally 
believed to be a corruption of the 
P. pdduhah. Of this the iirst part 
is «kt. potts, Zend, paitts. Old P. 
pati, 'a lord or master' ^comp. 
Gr. 8€<rr6rTfs). Pechah, indeea, for 
* Governor' (but with the ch ffuttural) 
occurs in I. Kings x. 15, IL CJhron. 
ix. 14, and in Daniel iii. 2, 3, 27. 
Prof. Max MuUer notices this, but it 
would seem merely as a curious 
coincidence. — (See Putey on Daniel, 

1554. — ''Hujusmodi Baaflanun sermoni- 
bus reliquorum Turcarum sermones oon- 
gmebant."— Bim6«9. Epist ii. (p. 124). 

"Great kings of Barbaiy and my portly 

Jllarlowe, Tamburkme the Oreai, 
1st Part, iii. 1. 

o. 1590.—*' Filius alter Osmanis, Vrchanis 
frater, alium non habet in Annalibus titulum, 
quam Alia iMUHHi: quod hcumu vocabulum 
Turcis caput significat." — Len,nclavutM, An- 
TuUes Sttltanonim Othmanidarum, ed. 1650, 
p. 402. This etymology connecting bdskd 
with the Turkish hM, *head,' must be 

c 1610. — "Un Bftifhft estoit venu en sa 
Gour pour luy rendre compte du tribut q^u'il 
luy apportoit ; mais il f ut neuf mois entiers 
^ attendre que celuy qui a la charge . . . 
eut le temps et le loisir de le compter . . ." 
Pmrd de Laval (of the Great Mog^), ii. 

1702. — '* . . . The most notorious injus- 
tice we have suffered from the Arabs of 
Muscat, and the Baahaw of Judda."— In 
Wh^ieUr, ii. 7. 

1727. — '*It (Bagdad) is now a prodigious 
laige City, and the Seat of a Beglerbea. , . . 
The BaanaWB of Banora, CwMra, and Muaol 
(the ancient Nineveh) are subordinate to 
him.**—^. HaudUon, i. 78. 

BASIN, s. H. heion. Peaae-meal, 
generally made of Oram (a. v.) and 
used, sometimes mixed witn ground 
orange-peel or other aromatie sub- 
stance, to cleanse the hair, or for other 
toilette purposes. 

[1882.— "The attendants present first the 
powdered peas, called basim, which answers 
the purpose of soap." — Mn, MearHattam. Alt, 
ObgervoHons, i. 828.] 

BASSADOBB, n.p. A town upon 
the island of Kishm in the Persian Gulf, 
which belonged in the •! 6th century to 
the Porti^ese. The place was ceded 
to the British Oown in 1817, though 
the claim now seems dormant. T%e 
permission for the English to occupy 
the place as a naval station was 
granted by Saiyyid Sultan bin Ahmad 
of 'Oman, about tiie end of the 18th 
century ; but it was not actually 
occupied by us till 1821, from which 
time it was the dep6t of our Naval 
Squadron in the Gulf till 1882. The 
real form of the name is, according to 
Dr. Badger's transliterated map (in H. 
of ImAne, dx. of Omdn), Bdsidu. 

1678.—" At noon we came to Basiatu, an 
old ruined town of the Portugals, fronting 
Congo."— -FVyw, 820. 

B A 88 AN, s. H. bdean, 'a dinner- 
plate ' ; from Port bacia (Panjab N. 
(t Q. ii. 117). 

BASSEIN, n.^. This is a corrup- 
tion of three entirely difTerent names, 
and is applied to various places remote 
from each other. 

(1) Wcudi, an old port on the coast, 
26 m. north of Bombay, called by the 
Portuguese, to whom it long pertained, 
'R^^^iwi (e,g, Baarros, I. ix. 1). 

c. 1565.— *'I>opo Daman si troua Basaia 
con molte ville . . . ne di questa altro si 
caua che risi, frumenti, e molto ligname." — 
Ceeart de' Federid in Jtannuno, iii. 387v. 

1766.— " Bandar BaMai."— If imi-i-^A- 
nuuU, Bird's tr., 129. 

1781.— "General Goddard after having 
taken the fortress of Bemi, which is one of 
the strongest and most important fortresses 
under the Mahratta power. . . ." — Seir 
Mviaqherin, iii. 827. 

(2) A town and port on the river 
which forms the westernmost delta-arm 
of the Irawadi in the Province of 
Pegu. The Burmese name Bathein, 
was, according to Prof. Forchammer, 
a change, made by the Burmese con- 
queror Alompra, from the former 




name Ktdhdn {i,e. Kuann\ which was 
a native corruption of the old name 
Kutima (see COSMUT). We cannot 
explain the old European corruption 
Per9€dm» [It has been supposed that 
the name represents the Betynga of 
Ptolemy {Geog. ii. 4 ; see MVrindle in 
Ind. Ant. xiii. 372) ; but (tWd. xxii. 20^ 
CoL Temple denies this on the ground 
that the name Baaaein does not date 
earlier than about 1780. According 
to the same authority (ibid. xxii. 19^ 
the modem Burmese name is Patheng^ 
l>y ordinary phonetics used for PtUhmgj 
and spelt Pusin or Ptuim, He dis- 
]»utes the statement that the change of 
name was made by Alaungp'aya or 
Alompra. The Taking oronunciation 
of the name is Pcuem or Patem^ accord- 
ing to dialect.] 

[1781. — " Intanto piaoiatto era alia OoDffre- 
guaone di Piopigando che il Reg^o di Ava 
fone allora ooltiTato nella fede da' Saoerdoti 
flooolari di easa Oonsregazione, e a' nostri 
deatino li Reffni di Mttiam, Maitaban, e 
Pegii.'*->QMimi, Paroto, d3. 

[1801. — " An ineffectual attempt was made 
it) repossess and defend Bassien b^ the late 
Chekey or lieutenant.'* — SymUf MiMtion, 16.] 

The form P«naim oocufb in DalrympUt 
(1759) {Or. JUperl., i. 127 and pauim). 

(3) Batimy or properly Wddm; an 
old town in Berar, the chief place of 
the district so-called. [See Berar 
OazeU. 176.] 

BATARA, s. This is a term ap- 
plied to divinities in old Javanese in- 
acriptions, &c., the use of which was 
spreEul over the Archipelago. It was 
regarded by W. von Humboldt as 
taxen from the Skt amxtdra (see 
AYATAB) ; but this derivation is now 
rejected. The word is used among 
R C. Christians in the Philippines 
now as synonymous with 'God' ; and 
is applied to the infant Jesus (Blum- 
erOnU, VocaJMar\ [Mr. Skeat {Malay 
Magie^ 86 seqq.) oiscusses the origin of 
the word, and prefers the derivation 
given by Favre and Wilkin, Skt. 
ehcatOra, *lord.' A full account of the 
« PdatUj or Sea Dyak gods," by Arch- 
deacon J. Perham, will be found in 
Both, Naiwm qf Samwak, I. 168 seqq.] 

BATAVIA, n.p. The famous 
capital of the Dutch nossessions in 
the Indies ; occupying tne site of the 
old city of Jakatra, the seat of a 
Javanese kingdom which combined 

the present Dutch Provinces of Ban- 
tam, Buitenzorg, Elrawang, and the 
Preanger Regencies. 

1619.— "On the day of the capture of 
Jakatra, 30th May 1619, it was certainly 
time and place to s^eak of the Govemor- 
Greneral's dissatisfaction that the name of 
Batavia had been given to the Castie."— 
ValentiJH, iv. 489. 

The Govemor-Qeneral, Jan Pieter- 
sen Coen, who had taken Jakatra, 
desired to have called the new fortress 
New Hoom, from his own birth-place, 
Hoom, on the Zuider Zee. 

c. 1649.— *< While I stay'd at Batavia, my 
Brother dv'd ; and it was prettv to consider 
what the jthUch made mepay for his Funeral. " 
—Tavemiar (B.T.), i. 203. 

GALA, &c.. n.p. Bhatkal. A place 
often namea in the older narratives. 
It is on the coast of Canara, just S. of 
Pigeon Island and Hog Ishuid, in lat. 
13 59', and is not to be confounded 
(as it has been) with BEITCUL. 

1828.—'* . . . there is also the King of 
Batigala, but he is of the Saracens."— 
Friar Jordanus^ p. 41. 

1510.— The " Bathaoala, a very noUe city 
of India," of Varthema (119), thoogh mis- 
placed, must we think be this place and not 

1548.— "Trelado {i.e. *Copy ') do Oontrot«i 
«ue o €k>nemador Gracia de Saa fez com a 
Raynha de Bataoalaa nor nfio aver Reey e 
ela rqfirer o Reeyno." — in 8. BcMho, Tcmbo. 

1599.—'* . . . part is subject to the Qneene 
of Batloola, who seUeth great store of pepper 
to the Portugals, at a towne caUed Onor. . ." 
—Sir Fulix Grevilie to Sir Fr. Walsingham, 
in Brwoe's Anna!*, i. 125. 

1618.—** The fift of March we anchored at 
Bataflhalft. shooting three Peeces to give 
notice of our arriuall. . . " — Wm. Hore, in 
Purefuu, i. 657. See also SaiTttburVf ii. 
p. 874. 

[1624.— ** We had the wind still contrary, 
and haying sail'd three other leagues, at the 
usiuki hour we cast anchor near the Rocks 
of Batteala."— P. della VaUe, Hak. Soc. ii. 

1727.— "The next Sea-port, to the South- 
ward of Onaar, is Bataoola, which has the 
veitiffia of a v§ry laige city. . . ." — A. 
ffamilian, i. 282. 

[1785.— ** Byte Koal." See quotation 
under DHOW.] 


A sort of boat used in Western InoiisL 
Sind, and Ben^. Port. bateU^ a word 
which occurs in the Roteiro de V. da 
Gama, 91 [cf . PATTELLOj. 


[1886.— *' About four or five hundred 
houses burnt down with a mat number of 
their Bettilos, Boras and ooats."— ^M^en, 
Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. 56.] 

1888.— "The Botella may be described 
as a Dow in miniature. . . it has invariably 
a sQuare flat stem, and a long grab-like 
heaa." — VaupelL in Trant* Bo, Oeog, Soe, 

1857.— "A Sindhi batt^la, oaUed Roh- 
ifUUi, under the Undal Kasim, laden with 
dry fish, was about to proceed to Bombay.'* 
—LuMlah, 347. See also Burton, Stnd 
RemnUd (1877), 32, 83. 

[1900.— "The Sheikh has some fine war- 
vessels, called \mXS\M" — Bent, Southern 
Arabia, 8.] 

BATTA, s. Two different words 
are thufi expressed in Anglo-Indian 
colloquial, and in a manner con- 

a. H. hhaia or hhdtd : an extra 
allowance made to officers, soldiers, or 
other public servants, when in the 
field, or on other special grounds ; 
also subsistence money to witnesses, 
prisoners, and the like. Military Batta, 
originally an occasional allowance, as 
denned, grew to be a constant addition 
to the pay of officers in India, and 
constituted the chief part of the excess 
of Indian oyer Englisn military emolu- 
ments. The question of the right to hcUta 
on several occasions created great agita- 
tion among the officers of the Indian 
army, and the measure of economy 
carried out by Lord William Bentinck 
when Govemor-Gkineral (G. 0. of the 
Goy.-Gen. in Council, 29tli November 
1&28) in the reduction of full haUa to 
half haitoL, in the allowances received 
by all reg[imental officers serving at 
stations within a certain distance of 
the Presidency in Bengal (viz. Barrack- 
pore, Dumdum, Berhampore, and Dina- 
pore) caused an enduring bitterness 
i^inst that upright ruler. 

It is difficult to arrive at the origin 
of this word. There are, however 
several Hindi words in rural use, such 
as hhat, bhantd, * advances made to 
ploughmen without interest,' and 
ohattOy bhantdy * ploughmen's wages in 
kinJl,* with which it is possibly con- 
nected. It has also been suggested, 
without much probability, that it may 
be allied to bahut, 'much, excess,' an 
idea entering into Uie meaning of both 
a and b. It is just possible that the 
familiar military use of the term in 
India may have been influenced by 

72 BATTA. 

the existence of the Europ^ military 
term bdt or bdt-money. The latter i^ 
from bdtj *a pack-saddle,' [Late Lat. 
batttim], and implies an allowance for 
carrying baggage in the field. It will 
be seen that one writer below seems 
to confound the two words. 

b. H. hattd and hOttd: agio, or 
difference iii exchange," discount on 
coins not cuhrent, or of short weight. 
We may notice that Sir H. Elliot apes 
not recognize an absolute separation 
between the two senses of Battlk. His 
definition runs thus; "Difference of 
exchange ; anything extra ; an exti-a 
allowance ; discount on uncurrent, or 
short-wei^t coins ; usually called 
Batta. The word has been supposed 
to be a corruption of Bharta^ increase, 
but it is a pure Hindi vocable, and is 
more usually applied to discount than 
to premium." — (Supp, Gloss, ii. 41.) 
[Platts, on the other hand, distinguishes 
the two words — BaUa, Skt. vritta, 
' turned,' or varta, * livelihood * — " Ex- 
change, discount, difference of ex- 
change, deduction, &c.," and BhattOy 
Skt. hhaJcta * allotted,'— "advances "to 
ploughmen without interest; plough- 
man^ wages in kind."] It will be 
seen that we have early Portuguwe 
instances of the word apparently in 
both senses. 

The most probable explanation is 
that the word (and I may add, the 
thing) originated in the Portuguese 
practice, and in the use of the Canarese 
word bhatt€t, Mahr, hhdt, * rice 'in 'the 
husk,' called by the Portuguese bate 
and batOy for a maintenance allowance. 

The word haUyy for what is more 
generally called paddy, is or was 
commonly used by the English also 
in S. and W. India (see Linschoteny 
Lucena and Fryer quoted s.v. Paddy» 
and Wilson's Glossary, 8.v. BhaUa). 

The practice of giving a special 
allowance for marUimmto^}egML from. 
a very early date in the Indian history 
of the Portuguese, and it evidently 
became a recognised augmentation of 
pay, corresponcung closely to our baita, 
whilst the Quotation from Botelho 
below shows also that bata and TnanH- 
mento were used, more or less inter- 
changeably, for this allowance. Tlie 
correspondence with our Anglo-Indian 
batta went very far, and a case singu- 
larly parallel to the discontent raised 
in the Indian army by the reduction 





of fnW-batta to YkaM-baita is spoken 
of by Correa (iv. 356). The manti- 
mento had been paid all the year 
round, but the Governor, Martin 
Afonso de Sousa, in 1642, *' desiring," 
says the historian, '*a way to curry 
favour for himself, whilst going i^inst 
the people and sending his soul to 
bell, OTdered that in future the 
manUmenio should be paid only dur- 
ing the 6 months of Winter {i.e. of 
the rainy season), when the force was 
on shore, and not for the other 6 
months when they were on board 
the cruisers, and received rations. 
This created great bitterness, perfectly 
analogous in depth and in expression 
to that entertained with regard to 
Lord W. Bentinck and Sir John 
Malcolm, in 1829. Correa's utterance, 
ust quoted, illustrates this, and a 
little lower down he adds : " And 
thus he took away from the troops 
the half of their mantvmerUo (half 
their baUOy in fact), and whether he 
did well or ill in that, hell find in 
the next world."— (See als6 %bid,f, 430). 
The following quotations illustrate 
the Portuguese practice from an early 
date : 

1502. — " The Captain-major . . . between 
officers and men-at-arms, left 60 men (at 
Cochin), to whom the factor was to give 
their pay, and every month a cnuAdo of 
wMTUimeniOi and to the officers when on 
service 2 cruzadoi. . . ." — Corre&y i. 328. 

1507. — (In establishing the settlement at 
Hozambiqne) " And the Captains took 
ooonsel among themselves, and from the 
money in the chest, paid the force each a 
cnuado a month for tna'nii$nentOf with which 
the men grreatly refreshed themselves. ..." 
— /Wa. 786. 

1511. — "All the people who served in 
Mftlaca, whether by sea or by land, were 
paid their pay for six months in advance, 
and also received monthly two eruzados of 
maniinietUOf cash in hand'* (%,e. they had 
doubU batta),—Ihid. ii. 267. 

1548.— *' And for 2ffarazet (see FASASH) 
2 pardaos a month for the two and 4 tangas 
for bata." . . .— iS. Botellu}, Ttmbo, WS. 
The editor thinks this is for biue, t.e. paddy. 
But even if so it is used exactly like batta 
or maintenance money. A following entry 
has: '*To the constable 38,920 reis a year, 
in which is ocnaprised maintenance {numti- 

1554.— An example of batae for rice will 
be found s. v. MOO&AH. 

The following quotation shows bcUtee 
(or haUy) used at Madras in a way 

that also indicates the original identity 
of battyy *rice,' and Mktta, * extra 
allowance ' : — 

1680.— "The Pe(ms and Tarryars (see 
TALIAB) sent in quest of two soldiers 
who had deserted from the garrison re- 
turned with answer that they could not 
light of them, whereupon the Peons were 
tiuned out of service, but upon Verona's 
intercession were taken in acain, and fined 
each one month's pay, and to repay the 
moneypaid them for Battee. . . .'* — Ft. tSl. 
Geo. Consn., Feb. 10. In NoUs and ExU. 
No. iii. p. 8. 

1707.—". . . that they would aUow Batta 
or subsistence money to all that should 
desert us."— In Wheeler, ii. 63. 

1765.—" . . . orders were acoordinffly 
issued . . . that on the 1st January, 1766, 
the double batta should cease. . . ." — 
Caraeciol'Cs Clive, iv, 160. 

1789.—". . . batta, or as it is termed 
in England, bdi and forage money, which 
is here, in the field, almost double the 
peace allowance."— A/tt»ro'* Narrative, p. 97. 

1799.— "He would rather live on half- 

y, in a garrison that could boast of a 
ives court, than vegetate on full batta, 
where there was none." — Life of Sir T. 
Munro, i. 227. 


The following shows Batty used for 
rice in Bombay : 

(1813. — Rice, or batty, is sown in June." 
—Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. i. 23.] 

1829.—" To the JSdiiar of the Bengal Hur- 
hum. — Sir, — Is it understood that the Wives 
and daughters of officers on half batta are 
included in the order to mourn for the 
Queen of Wirtemberg ; or will Aa^-moum- 
ing be considered sufficient for them?" — 
Letter in above, dated 15th April 1829. 

1857.— "They have made me a K.C.B. 
I may confess to you that I would much 
rather have got a year's batta, because the 
latter would enable me to leave this country 
a vear sooner." — Sir Hope Orant, in iTieidenU 
of the Sepoy War. 


1554.— "And gold, if of 10 nuUes or 24 
carats, is worth 10 cruzados the tael . . . 
if of 9 mates, 9 cruzados ; and according to 
whatever the mates may be it is valued ; 
but moreover it has its iMitao, i.e. its shrof- 
fage {^rrafagem) or agio (caibo) varying with 
the season." — A. Nunes, 40. 

1680.— "The payment or receipt of Batta 
or Vatom upon the exchange of Pollicat 
for Madras pagodas prohibited, both coines 
being of the same Matt and weight, upon 
pain of forfeiture of 24 pagodas for eyerv 
offence together with the loss of the Batta. ' 
—Ft. St. Oto. Consn., Feb. 10. In Notfs 
and Exts., p. 17. 

1760.— "The Nabob receives his revenues 
•in the sieoas of the current year only . . . 
and all siocaa of a lower date being 




esteemed, like the ooin of foreign provinces, 
only a merchandize, are bought and sola 
at a certain discount called batta, which 
rises and falls like the price of other goods 
in the market . . ."— ^. Wm, Oofu., 
June 80, in Long, 216. 

1810. — " ... he immediately tells master 
that the tefcta, t.«. the exchange, is altered." 
— WWamum, V. M. i. 208. 

BATTAS, BATAKS, &c. ii.p. [the 
latter, according to Mr. Skeat, being 
the standard Malay name] ; a nation 
of Sumatra, noted especially for their 
singular cannibal institutions, com- 
bined with the possession of a written 
character of their own and some ap- 
proach to literature. 

c. 1430. — "In ejus insulae, auam dicont 
Bathech, parte, anthropophagi oabitant . . . 
capita humana in thesauris habent, quae 
ex hostibus captis absoisaa, esis camiDus re- 
condnnt, iisque ntuntur pro nummis.*' — 
ConUy in Pogffius, De Var, Fort, lib. iv. 

c. 15S9.— *<Thi8 Embassador, that was 
Brother-in-law to the King of Battas . . . 
brought him a rich Present of Wood of 
Aloes, Oalambaa, and five quintals of Ben- 
jamon in flowers." — CogaiCs PintOt 15. 

c. 1555.— "This Island of Sumatra is the 
first land wherein we know man's flesh to 
be eaten bjr certaine people which line in 
the mountains, called Baeaa (read Batas), 
who Tse to gilde their teethe." — Oalvano, 
niteoveries of the World, Hak. Soc. 108. 

1586. — "Nel regno del Dacin sono alcuni 
luoghi, ne' quali d ritrouano certe genti, 
che mangiano le creature humane, e tali 
genti, si chaimano Bataeohi, e q^uando frii 
loro i padri, e i madri sono vechhi, si aocor- 
dano 1 vicinati di mangiarli, e li mangiano.** 
—a. BAOn, f. 130. 

1618. — "In the woods of the interior 
dwelt Anthropophagi, eaters of human 
flesh . . . and to the present day continues 
that abuse and eril custom amomr the 
Battas of Sumatra.**— ti'oeftnAo de JSredia, 
f. 2»i». 

[*rhe fact that the Battas are cannibals has 
recently been confirmed by Dr. Volz and H. 
▼on Autenrieth lOeogr, Jour., June 1898, 
p. 672.] 

BAWUSTTE, s. Corr. of bobday 
in Lascar dialect (Boebtick), 

BAY, The, n.p. In the language of 
the old Company and its servants in 
the 17th century. The Bay meant the 
Bay of Bengal, and their factories in 
that quarter. 

1683.— "And the Councell of the Bay is 
as expressly distinguished from the Councell 
of fitugly, over which they have noe such 
ix)wer.^'— In Sedges, under Sept. 24. [Hak. 
Soc. i. 114.] 

1747.—" We have therefore laden on her 
1784 Bales . . . which we sincerely wish may 
arrive safe with You, as We do that the 
Gentlemen at the Bay had according to our 
repeated Requests, furnished us with an 
earlier conveyance . . ." — Letter from-Ft. St. 
David, 2nd May, to the Court (MS. in India 

BA7A, 8. H. b(Ud [hafgd], the 
Weaver-bird, as it is caUed in books 
of Nat. Hist. Ploceus hcuya, Blyth 
(Fam. FringiUtdae). This clever little 
bird is not only in its natural state the 
builder of those remarkable pendant 
nests which are such striking objects, 
hanging from eaves or iMilm-branches ; 
but it is also docile to a singular 
decree in domestication, and is often 
exhibited by itinerant natives as the 
performer of the most delightful 
tricks^ as we have seen, and as is 
detailed in a paper of Mr Blyth*a 
quoted by Jerdon. "The usual pro- 
cedure is, when ladies are present, 
for the bird on a sign from its master 
to take a cardamom or sweatmeat in 
its bill, and deposit it between a lady's 
lips. ... A mmiature cannon is then 
brought, which the bird loads with 
coarse grains of powder one by one . . . 
it next seizes and skilfully uses a 
small ramrod : and then takes a 
lighted match from its master, which 
it applies to the touch-hole." Another 
common performance is to scatter small 
beads on a sheet ; the bird is provided 
with a needle and thread, and pro- 
ceeds in the prettiest way to thread 
the beads successively. [Tlie quota- 
tion from Abul Fazl shows that these 
performances are as old as the time of 
Akbar and probably older still.] 

[c. 1590.— "The baya is like a wild spar- 
row but yellow. It is extremely intelligent, 
obedient and docile. It will take small coins 
from the hand and bring them to its master, 
and will come to a call ^m a long distance. 
Its nests are so ingeniously constructed as^to 
defy the rivalry of clever artificers."-— A In 
(trans. Jarrett), iii. 122.] 

1790.— "The young Hindu women of 
BaniCras . . . wear very thin plates of gold, 
called tica*g, slightly fixed by way of orna- 
ment between the eyebrows; and when 
they pass through the streets, it is not 
uncommon for the youthful libertiiies, who 
amuse themselves with training Bayt's, to 
give them a sign, whioh they nndentand, 
and to send them to pluck the pieces of 
gold from the foreheads of their mistresses.'* 
— Atiat, JReuarchet, ii. 110. 

[1818.— Forbes gives a similar aeoount of 
the nests and tricks of the Baya. — Or. Mem,, 
2nd ed. i. 33.] 




BAYADEBB» s. A Hindu danc- 
ing-nrL The word is especially used 
by French vrriters, from whom it has 
been sometimes borrowed as if it were 
a genuine Indian word, particularly 
characteristic of the persons in question. 
The word is in fact only a Qfallicized 
form of the Portuguese hailadeira, from 
hatlar, to dance. Some 50 to 60 years 
ago there was a famous liallet (^led 
Le dieu et la bayadere, and imder 
this title Punch made one of the 
most famous hits of his early days 
by presenting a cartoon of Lord 
£llenborough as the Bayad^ danc- 
ing bef ore th e idol of Somnath ; [also 
see DAHCIHCMjfrlBL]. 

1518. — "There alw oame to the ffround 
many dancing women {ptolhera bailadelras) 
with their instnunents of muaCf who nuike 
their liTinfir by that busnees, and these 
danced and eang all the time of the ban- 
quet . . ." — Oomei, ii. 964. 

1520.— **XLVH. The dancers and danoer- 
eases (bayladores e bayladeixas) who come 
to perform at a Tillage shall first go and 
perform at the house of the prindiMl man 
uf the Tillage" {CfancoTt "^ QAjTK),—Foral 
//' KM* eoiha m ei dot Ckaieares t Ijomdores de 
*^4a Ilha de Ooa, in Arch. Port, Or,^ fasde. 5, 

1506.— "The heathenish whore called 
BalliadsnL who is a dancer."— /^t'lucAo^ 
74 ; [Hak. See i. 264]. 

1599. — "In hftc icone primum proponitnr 
Jitda BaTlladera, id est saltatriz, quae in 
pubtieis Indis aliisque solennttatibus saHando 
i>pectaciilam ezhibet."— />e Bry, Text to pi. 
xii. in Tol. iL (also see p. 90, and toI. Tii. 
26), etc 

[c. 1676.— "All the Baladines of Gom- 
broon were present to dance in their own 
manner according to custom." — Tavemi^. 
ed. Bally ii. 8S5.] 

1782. — "Surate est renomm^ par ses 
BaymdArM, dont le T^table nom est Divi- 
datri: oelm de Bayadere* one nous leur 
donnons, Tient du mot Bailadeiraa, qui 
signifie en Portugais DanteuMa,** — Sofftneral, 

1794.— "The name of BaUiAd«re, we 
ncTer heard applied to the dancinp^ girla; 
or saw but in Raynal, and *War in Asia, 
by an Officer of Colonel Baillie's Detach- 
ment ; ' it is a corrupt Portuguese word." — 
Mo<ir*$ Narrative qf LiUU*s Detackment, 356. 

1825. — "This was the first specimen I 
had eeen of the southern Bayaditett, who 
differ considerably from the nftch girls of 
northern Indui^ Ming all in the serrice of 
different temues, for which they are pur- 
chased yoangySeber, n. 180. | 

c. 1886. — " On one occasion a rumour 
readied London that a mat success had 
been adnered in Ptois by the perform- 
ance of a set of Hhidoo dancers, called 
who were supposed to be 

priestesses of a certain sect, and the London 
theatrical managers were at once on the 

SU ffive to secure the new attraction . . . 
!y father had concluded the arrangement 
with the Bayaderes before his brother 
managers arriTod in Pftris. Shortly after' 
wards, the Hindoo priestesses appeared at 
the Adelphi. They were utterly uninterest- 
injg. wholly unattractive. My father lost 
£2000 by the speculation ; and in the family 
they were known as the * Bny-em-dean ' 
ever Biter,**— -Edmund Vatetf Beealleetums^ 
i. 29, 30 (1884). 


H. bepdrif and byopdri (from Skt. 
vifdpdrtn) ; a trader, and especially a 
petty trader or dealer. 

A friend long engaged in business 
in Calcutta (Mr J. T. O^vy, of 
Qillanders & Co.) communicates a 
letter from an intelligent Bengalee 
gentleman, illustrating tbe course of 
trade in country produce before it 
reaches the hands of the EurQpean 
shipper : 

1878.—" . . . the enhanced rates . . . 
do not practicalljr benefit the producer in 
a markea, or even in a corresponding degree ; 
for the lion's share goes into the pockets 
of certain intermediate classes, who are the 
growth of the aboTe system of business. 

" Following the course of trade as it flows 
into Oalcutto, we find that between the 
cultiTators and the exporter these are : 1st. 
The Bappanee, or petty trader ; 2nd. The 
AunU-dar;* and 8rd. The Mahajim, in- 
terested in the Calcutta trade. As soon as 
the orope are cut^ BeplMiZTee appears upon 
the scene; he Tisits Tillage after Tillajge, 
and goes from homestead to homestead, 
buying there, or at the Tillage marts, from 
the lyots; he then takes his purchases to 
the Aurut-doTi who is stationed at a centre 
of trade, and to whom he is petiiaps under 
adTanoes, and from the AunU-dar the 
Calcutta Mahajun obtains his supplies . . . 
for CTcntual despatch to the capital. There 
is also a fourth class of dealers called 
Pkoreatf who buy from the Mahajun and 
sell to the European exporter, llius, be- 
tween the cultiTator and the shipper there 
are so many middlemen, whose participation 
in the tnule iuToWes a multiplication of 

Erofits, which goes a great way towards en- 
ancing the price of commodities before 
they reach the shipper's hands." — Letter 
from Baboo Nohohiunn Gho&e, [Similar de- 
tails for Northern India will be found in 
Hoevy Mom, Trade and Mawv^aetxre» of 
lAwhwWy 59 Kqq.'\ 

HA^AAH, s. H. &c. From P. hdzchr, 
apermanent market or street of shops. 
Tne word has spread westward into 

* Auruldar is drhat-dOr^ from U. drhaL, 
' agency ' ; phorea^B.. phariydf * a retailer.' 




Arabic, Turkish, and, in special senses, 
into European languages, and eastward 
into India, where it has generally been 
adopted into the vernaculars. The 
popular pronunciation is bdzdr. In 
S. India and Ceylon the word is used 
for a single shop or stall kept by a 
native. The word seems to have come 
to S. Euroj)e very early. F. Balducci 
Pegolotti, in his Mercantile Hand- 
book (c. 1340) gives Bazaiia as a 
Genoese word for 'market-place' 
{Cathay, &c. ii. 286). The word is 
adopted into Malay as pdsOr, [or in 
the poems patara], 

1474. — Ambrose Contarini writes of EaBan, 
that it is *' walled like Como, and with ba- 
zars {bazzari) like it."— iSamtmo, ii. f. 117. 

1478.— Joeafat Barbaro writes: "An Ar- 
menian Choza Mirech, a rich merchant in 
the baiar" {bazarro),—/^. f. 111*. 

1563. — '*. . . baiar, as muoh as to say 
the place where things are sold." — Oareia, 

f. im 

1.564.— A privilege by Don Sebastian of 
Portugal gives authority *' to sell garden pro- 
duce freely in the baiars (bazara), markets, 
and streets (of Goa) without necessity for 
consent or license from the farmers of the 
garden produce, or from any other person 
whatsoever."- XrcA. Part, Or,, fasc. 2, 157. 

c. 1566.— "La Pescaria delle Perle . . . 
si fa ogn' anno . . . e su la costa all' in 
contro piantano vna villa di case, e basaxri 
di pagha." — Cetare de* Federictf in Ramutio, 
iii. 3^. 

1606.—". . . the Christians of the 
Banr."— ti'outwa, 29. 

1610.— "En la Yille de Cananor il y a vn 
beau march^ tons les jours, qu'ils appellent 
Basare."- Pvmn; de Laval, i. 825 ; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 448]. 

[1615. — "To buy pepper as cheap as we 
could in the tnuser. — Foster, Letters, 
iii. 114.] 

[ „ "He forbad all the bear to sell us 
victuals or else. . ."—Ibid. iv. 80.] 

[1623.— "They caU it Beiail Kelan, that 
is the Great Merkat. . ."—P. della ValU, 
Hak. Soc. i. 96. (P. KalOn, 'great').] 

1638.— "We came into a Bonar, or very 
faire Market place."— fT. BruUm, in Hakl. 
v. 50. 

1666. — "Les Baiarda ou March^ sont 
dans une grande rue qui est au pi^ de la 
montagne. — Thevetiot, v. 18. 

1672.—". . . Let us now naas the Pale 
to the Heathen Town (of Madras) only 
parted by a wide Parrade, which is used for 
a Bniar or Mercate-plaoe. "—^ryer, 38. 

[1826.—" The Kotwall went to the banar- 
muitn.**—Pandttrang Eari, ed. 1878, p. 

1837.— "Lord, there is a honey 

repair thither."— 2Vnumr'< transl. of Maha- 
WMUo, 24. 

1878.— "This, remarked my handsome 
Greek friend from Vienna, is the finest 
wife-basaar in this part of Europe. . . . Go 
a little wa}r east of this, say to Boumania, 
and you will find wife-banar completely 
undisguised, the ladies [seated in their car- 
riages, the youths filing by, and pausing 
before this or that beauty, to busain with 
papa about the dower, under ner very 
nose."- .FVymo-'j Mag. N. S. vii. p. 617 
( Vienna, by M. D. Cvniway). 

BDELLIUM, 8. Tbis aromatic 
gum-resin bas been identified with 
that of t^e BaUamodenijnn Muhul, 
Hooker, inhabiting the dry regions of 
Arabia and Western India ; gxigal of 
Western India, and mokl in Arabic, 
called in P. ho-i-jahudOn (Jews' scent). 
What the Hebrew hdoUxh of the K. 
Phison was, which was rendered 
bdelUum since the time of Joeephus, 
remains very doubtfuL Lassen has 
suggested muA as possible. But the 
argument is only this : that Dioscorides 
says some called bdellium /tdSeXKw ; 
that AuideXxoi' perhaps represents Mad- 
dlaJccL, and though there is no such 
Skt word as rruumlaka, there might be 
maddraka, because there is maddra^ 
which means some perfume, no one 
knows what! (Ind. AUerth. i. 292.) 
Dr. Royle says the Persian authors 
describe the BdeUinin as being 
the product of the Doom pabn (see 
Hinau Medicine, p. 90). But this we ' 
imagine is due to some ambiguity in 
the sense of mokl. [See the authorities 

S noted in Eticucl Bibl. s.v. Bdel- 
inin which stiU leave the question 
in some doubt] 

c. ▲.D. 90. — *'ln exchange are exported 
from Barbariee (Indus Delta) costus, 
bdella. . . ."-Peripltu, ch. 89. 

C.12S0.— "BdallytbL A Greek word which 
as some learned men think, means 'The 
Lion's Repose.' This plant is the same as 
mo^^."— JEW El'BaUh&r, i. 125, 

1612.— "BdelUum, the pund . . . xxs."— 
Rates and Valuatiouns {ScoUand), p. 298. 

BEADALA. n.p. Formerly a port 
of some note for native craft on the 
Ramnad coast (Madura district) of the 
Qulf of Manar, Vada/tday in the Atlas 
of India. The proper name seems to 
be Veddlai, by which it is mentioned 
in Bishop (JaldweU's Hist, of TinneveUy 
(t>. 235), [and which Lb derived from 
Tam. veau, 'hunting,' and oZ, 'a 
banyan-tree' {Mad. Adm. Man. OUm. 





953)]. The place was famous in the 
Portuguese History of India for a 
victory gained there by Martin Affonso 
de Sousa (Gapitdo M&r do Mar) over a 
strong land and sea force of the Zamor- 
in, commanded bv a famous Mahom- 
medan Captain, whom the Portuguese 
called Pate Marcar, and the Tuhrat-al 
Mojahidin calls 'Ali Ibrahim Markar, 
15th February, 1&38. Barros styles it 
''one of the best fought battles that 
ever came off in India." This occurred 
under the viceroyalty of Nuno da 
Cunha, not of Stephen da Gkima, as the 
allusions in Oamdes seem to indicate. 
Cantain Burton has too hastily identi- 
iiea Beadala with a place on the coast 
of Malabar, a fact which has perhaps 
l>een the cause of this article (see 
Ludadgy Commentary, p. 477). 

1552.— *< Martin Affonso, with this light 
fleet, on which he had not more than 400 
soldien, went round Cape Comorin, being 
aware that the enemy wereatBoadalA . . . 
— Barrcty Dec. IV., ut. viii. cap. 13. 

15G2. — ''The Ooyemor, departing from 
Cochym, coasted as far as Cape Comoryn, 
doobled that Cape, and ran fbr Bttadaltfci 
vbich is a place adjoining the Shoals of 
Chilao [Chilaw] . . .*'— Correo, iv. 324. 

c. 1570. — " And about this time Alee 
Ibrahim Murkar, and his brother-in-law 
Kunjee-Alee-Murkar, sailed out with 22 
grabs in the direction of Kaeel, and arriving 
off Pfiil^lftli, they landed, leaving their 
grabs at anchor. . . . But destruction over- 
took them at the arrival of the Franks, 
who came upon them in their galliots, 
attackiog and capturing all their grabs. . . . 
Now this capture bv the Franks took place 
in the latter Ttat of the month of Shaban, 
in the year 944 [end of January, 15381"— 
TohfuiriU'MujaMieeti^ tr. by Kowlandson, 

" E despois junto ao Cabo Comorim 

Hnma fa^anha faz esclarecida, 

A frota principal do Samorim, 

<^ destruir o mundo nSo duvida, 

Veneer^ oo o furor do f erro e fogo ; 

Em si vertC Beadfcia o martio jogo." 

CaaOesy x. 65. 

By Burton (but whose misconcep- 
tion of the locality has here affected 
his translation) : 

" then wM nigh readied the Cape 'dept Co- 
another wreath of Fame by him is won ; 
the strangest squadron of the Samorim 
who doubted not to see the world undone, 
be shall destroy with rage of fire and steel : 
B«'ad4li'8 self his martul yoke shall feel." 
1814.— *<Vaid^i]ai, a pretty populous vil- 

Jage on the coast, situated 18 miles east of 

Mutupetta, inhabited chiefly by Musul- 
mans and Shihi^n, the former carrying on 
a wood trade."— ^ccoviU of the Prcn. of 
Ramiuid, from Mackenzie Collections in /. 
R. As. Soc. ill. 170. 

BEAB-TBEB, BAIB, &c. s. H. 
hety Mahr. bordy in Central Provinces 
hor, [Malay bedcvra or bidara Ghinoy} 
(Skt. hadara and vadara) Zizyphtufuju- 
ooy Lam. This is one of the most widely 
diffused trees in India, and is found 
wild from the Punjab to Burma, in all 
which region it is probably native. It 
is cultivated from Queensland and 
China to Morocco and Guinea. ''Sir 
H. Elliot identifies it with the lotus 
of the ancients, but although the large 
juicy product of the garden Zwtmhun 
IS by no means bad, yet^ as Maaden 
quaintly remarks, one might eat any 
quantity of it without risk of for- 
getting home and friends." — {Punjab 
FlantSy 43.) 

1588.-*' 0. The name in Canarese is bar, 
and in the Decan bte, and the Malays call 
them vidarcuj and they are better than ours ; 
yet not so good as those of Balagate .... 
which are very tasty."— (?ama De 0., S3 

[1809. — **Here is also great quantity of 

Km-laok to be had, but is of the tree called 
T, and is in grain like unto red mastic." — 
Danven, Letters^ i. 80.] 

BEABES, s. The word has two 
meanings in Anglo-Indian colloquial : 
a. A palanauin-carrier ; b. (In the 
Bengal Fresiaency) a domestic servant 
who has charge ol his master's clothes, 
household furniture, and (often) of 
his ready money. The word in the 
latter meaning has been regarded as 
distinct in origin, and is stated by 
Wilson to be a corruption of the 
Bengali wMra from Skt. vyavahdrty 
a domestic servant. There seems, 
however, to be no historiccU evidence 
for such an origin, e.g, in any ha- 
bitual use of the term vehdrdy whilst 
as a matter of fact the domestic bearer 
(or drddr-bearery as he is usually styled 
by his fellow-servants, often even when 
he has no one under him) was in 
Calcutta, in the penultimate generation 
when English gentlemen still kept 
palankins, usually just what this 
literally implies, viz. the head-man 
of a set of palankin-bearers. And 
throughout the Presidency the bearer, 
or valet^ still, as a rule, belongs to 
the caste of Kahdrs (see KUHi^, or 
palki-bearers. [See BOY.] 




c 17W.— " . . . The poles which ... are 
carried by six, but most commonly four 
bearen."— G^oK, i. 163. 

1768-71.— "Every house has likewise . . . 
one or two sets of bems, or palankeen- 
bearers." — StavorimMMj i. 528. 

177T.~"Le bout le plus court du IVilan- 
quin est ea, devant, et port^jpar deux Barat, 
que Ton aomme Bojn a la Cote (c'est a-dire 
wwfons, SeruiteurM, en Anglois). Le lon(g^ 
bout e^ par derri^re et porte par trois 
B9nM.'*—Anqiieiil du Perron^ Dete. Prelim. 
p. xziii. note. 

1778.— "They came on foot, the town 
having Baither horses nor palanKin-baaren 
to carry them, and Colonel Coote received 
them at his headquarters. . . ." — Omtei 
iii. 719. 

1803.— "I was . . . detained by the 
scarcity of beareia."- Xon2 VaUntia^ i. 372. 

1782.—". . . imposition . . . that a 
gentleman should pay a rascal of a Sirdar 
Bearer monthly wa^es for 8 or 10 men . . . 
out of whom he gives 4, or may perha^ 
indulffe his master with 5, to carry lus 
palankeen."— /iMttd Qazette^ Sept. 2. 

c. 1816*—" Henry and his Bearer."— {TiUe 
of a well-known book of Mrs. Sherwood's.) 

1824.—". . . loalled tomy«tre2ar-bearer 
who was lying on the floor, outside the bed- 
room." — Seely, MUora^ ch. i. 

1831. — ". . . le grand maltre de ma 
garde-robe, sirdar beehrah."— •/ao^u^mcm^, 
Uorrespandanee, i. 114. 

1876. — *'Hy bearer who was to go with 
us (Eva's ayah had struck at the last moment 
and stopped behind) had literally girt up his 
loins, and was loading a diminutive mule 
with a miscellaneous assortment of brass 
ix)ts and blankets."—^ True Reformer, 
ch. iv. 

BEEBEE, 8. H. from P. 6»&», a lady. 
[In its contracted form 6i, it is added 
as a tide of distinction to the names 
of Muflulman ladies.] On the principle 
of degradation of titles which is so 
gener^ this word in application to 
European ladies has been superseded 
by the hybrids Mem^Sdhib, or Madam- 
Sdhib^ though it is 'often applied to 
European maid-servants or other 
Englishwomen of that rank of life. 
[It retains its dignity as the title of 
the Bits of Canauore^ known as &bi 
VaUyOy HalayaL, ^jpreat lady,' who 
rulea ia that neighbourhood and 
exercises audiority over three of the 
islands of the Laccadives, and is by 
race a Moplah Mohammedan.! The 
word alaa is sometimes apfpliea to a 
prostitute. It is originally, it would 

seem. Oriental Turki. in Pavet de 
GourteUle's Diet we have *^Bib% dame, 
^useldgitime"(p.l81). In W. India 
the word is said to be pronounced bobo 
(see BurUm*9 Stnd). It is curious Uiat 
among the Sdkaldva of Madagascar 
the wives of chiefs are termed hiby/ 
but there seems hardlv a possibility 
of this having come from Persia or 
India. [But for Indian influmee on 
the island, see Encyd, BrOL 9th ed. 
XV. 174.1 The word in Hova means 
* animal.^— (St&TM'f Madag€ucatrf p. 263.) 

[o. 1610.— "Nobles in blood .... call 
their wives ByUs."- Pyranf de Lamly Hak. 
Soc. i. 217.] 

1611.—'*. . . the title BIU ... is in 
Persian the same as among us, sennorai or 
dofia." — Teiaxira, Relacion . . . de fforwuz, 

c. 1786.— "The word Lowndika, which 
means the son of a slave-girl, was also con- 
tinually on the tonflrue of the Nawaub, and 
if he was angry with any one he called him 
by this name; but it was also used as an 
endearing fond appellation to which was 
attached great favour,* until one day, Ali 
Zumihi Khan . . . represented to him that 
the word was low, discreditable, and not 
fit for the use of men of knowledge and 
rank. The Nawaub smiled, and said, 'O 
friend, you and I are both the sons of slave 
women, and the two Husseins only (on whom 
be good wishes and Paradise !) are the sons 
of a Bibi."— iTt^. of Hydur NaU, tr. by 
Miles, 486. 

[1793.— "I, Beebee Bnlea, the Princess 
of Cannanore and of the Laocadives Islands, 
kc, do acknowledge and give in writing 
that I will pay to the Government of the 
English East India Companv the moiety 
of whatever is the produce of my country. 
. . ." — EngagemerU in LogoHy Malabar, 
iii. 181.] 

BEEGH-DE-l^R, s. The old 
trade way of writing and pronouncing 
the name, bicko-de-mar (borrowed from 
the Portuguese) of the sea-slug or 
holothuria, so highly valued in China. 
[See menu of a dinner to which the 
Duke of Connaught was invited, in 
Ball, Things Chinese, 3rd ed. p. 247.] 
It is split, cleaned, dried, and then 
carried to the Straits for export to 
China, from the Maldives, the Gulf 

* The " Bahadur" ooold hardly have read Don 
Quixote I But what a cuiiooa parallel presentH 
itself! When Sancho Is bracing of his aau^ter 
to the " Squire of the Wood, and takes umbrage 
at the ftee epithet which the said 8qnira spiles 
to her (s IsMmUkA and more) ; the latter reminds 
him of the like term of apparent abuse (hardly 
reprodnoeable here) with which the mob were 
.wont to greet a champion in the bull-ring after a 
deft spear>thiust, meaning only ths highest fbnd* 
nass and applause I— Ffert ii. eh. IIL 




of Manar, and other parte of the 
Indian seas further east The most 
complete account of the way in which 
this somewhat important article of 
commerce is prepared, will be found 
in the Tijdxhr^ vocr Nederlandteh 
Indicy Jaarg, xvii. pt. i. See also 

MAN» 8. Sea-H. for * midshipman.' 

BEEQAH, s. H. bighd. The most 
common Hindu measure of land-area, 
and varying much in different parte 
of India, whilst in every part that 
has a l^ghd there is also certain to be 
a pucba beegah and a kuteha beeffoh (vide 
CUTCHA and PUCKAX the latter being 
some fraction of the former. The 
be«^ formerly adopted in the Revenue 
Survey of the N. W. Pl*ovinces, and in 
the Canal Department there, was one 
of 3026 sq. yards or i of an acre. 
This was apparently founded on 
Akliar's beegah, which contained 3600 
»q. Hahi gaz, of about 33 inches each. 
[For which see Ain, trans. Jarretty ii. 
62.]. But it is now in official returns 
superseded by the English acre. 

1763.— "I never seized a beega or benoa 
(^ bi^) belonging to Calcutta, nor have I 
ever impreaaed your gomastahs. . . NawOb 
Kdsim ^Alij in GUig's Mem, </ Hastings, 
i. 129. 

1823.—'* A Bggall has been oomputed at 
one-third of an acre, but its size dlfPers in 
almost erery prorince. The smallest B^ah 
may perhaps be computed at one-third, and 
the hugest at two-thirds of an acre.'*— 
Malcolm's Central India, ii. 15. 

1877.^« The Resident was gratified at the 
low rate of assessment, which was on the 
general average eleven annas or Is. 4^. per 
nooglh, that for the Nizam's country being 
upwards of four rupees."- ifeiuioiM Taylor, 
JSStny qfmsf Life, ii. 5. 

BEEQUM, BEQUM, &c. s. A 

Princess, a Mistress, a Lady of Rank ; 
applied to Mahommedan ladies,, and 
in the well-known case of the Beegum 
Swmroo to the professedly Christian 
(native) wife ot a EurOT)ean. The 
word appears to be Or. Turki. bigmi, 
[which some connect with Skt. hhaga, 
Mordy'l a feminine formation from 
Bw, * chief, or lord,' like Khdmm. from 
Khdn ; hence P. hegam. [Beg appears 
in the eaily travellers as Beage.] 

[1614.— ^'Narranse saith he standeth 
bound before Beage for 4,800 and odd 
mamoodies." — Foster, Letters, ii. 282.] 

5 06.— " Begum." See quotation under 

[1617.— "Their Company thai offered to 
rob the Beagam's junck."— iSir T. Roe, 
Hak. Soc. ii. 454.] 

1619.— " Behind the girl came another 
Begum, also an old woman, but lean and 
feeble, holding on to life with her teeth, 
as one might say." — P, delta Voile, Hak. 
Soc. ii. 6. 

1653.— "Bagnn, Reine, ou espouse du 
Schah."— Ds la BovUoye U Qouz, 127. 

[1708.— "They are called for this reason 
'BesroDL' which means Free from Care or 
Solicitude " (as if P. he-ghcaiL^ without oaro ' !) 
— Catrou, H, of the Mogul Dynaaty in India, 
E. T., 287.] 

1787. — **Amon^ the charges (against 
Hastings) there is but one engaged, two 
at most— the Begom's to Sheridan; the 
Rannee of Goheed (Gohud) to Sir James 
Erskine. So please your palate." — Ed, 
Burke to Sir O. EUiot. £. of Ld. Minto, 
i. 119. 

BEEJOO, s. Or * Indian badger,' as 
it is sometimes called, H. btjH [b" 

MeUivora indioa, Jerdon, f^ian, , 

Mammalioj 1761 It is also often 
called in Upper India the Gra/ve-ddgger, 
[gorJchodo] from a beUef in its bad 
practices, probably unjust. 

s. This Uquor, imported 
from England, [and now largely made 
in the country J, has been a favourite 
in India from an early date. Porter 
seems to have been common in the 18th 
century, judging from the advertise- 
ments in the Calcutta Gazette/ and 
the Pale Ale made, it is presumed, 
expressly for the India market, ap- 
pears in the earliest years of that 
publication. That expression has long 
been disused in India, and beer, simply, 
has represented the thing. Hodgson's 
at the beginning of this centur}^, was 
the beer in almost universal use, re- 
placed by Bass, and Allsopp, and of 
late vears by a variety of other brands. 
[Hodgson's ale is immortalised in Bo9i. 

1638.—". . . the Captain ... was well 
provided with . . . excellent good Sack, 
English Beer, French Wines, AraJt, and 
other refreshments." — MandeUlo, E, T., 
p. 10. 

1690.— (At Surat in the English Factory) 
.... Europe Wines and English Beer, 
because of their former awinaintance with 
our Palates, are most coveted and most 
desirable Liquors, and tho* sold st high 




Kates, are yet purchased and drunk with 
pleasure/' — Ovington^ 895. 

1784.— "London Porter and PaU AU, 
light and excellent . . . 150 Sicca Rs. per 
hhd. . . ."—In SestonrKarr, i. 39. 

1810.— " Porter, pale-ale and table-beer 
of great strength, are often drank after 
meals."— ira/iom«m, V. M. i. 122. 

" What are the luxuries they boast them 

The lolling couch, the joys of bottled 

From * The Cadet, a Poem in 6 parts, kc, 
by a late resident in the East.* This is a 
most lugubrious production, the author 
finding nothing to his taste in India. In 
this respect it reads something like a cari- 
cature of "Oakfield," without the noble 
character and sentiment of that book. As 
the RcT. Hobart Gaunter, the author seems 
to hare come to a less doleful view of things 
Indian, and for some years he wrote the 
letter-press of the "Oriental Annual." 

BEEB, COXJirrBT. At present, at 
least in Upper India, this expression 
simply indicates ale niade in India 
(see COUNTBY) as at Masuri, Kasauli, 
and Ootacamund Breweries. But it 
formerly was (and in Madras perhaps 
still is) applied to gin^r-beer, or to 
a beverage described in some of the 
/[notations below, which must have 
l)ecome obsolete early in the last 
A^enturv. A drink of this nature called 
Sugarieer was the ordinary drink at 
Batavia in the 17 th century, and to 
its use some travellers ascribed the 
prevalent unhealthiness. This is pro- 
t)ably what is described by Jacob 
Bontius in the first quotation : 

1631. — There is a recipe given for a beer 
of this kind, **not at all less good than 
Dutch beer. . . . Take a hooped cask of 
do aiMhonu (?), fill with pure river water ; 
add 21b. black Java sugar, 4oz. tamarinds, 
3 lemons cut up, oork well and put in a cool 
place. After 14 hours it will boil as if on a 
fire," ko.—Hitt. NaZ. et Med. Ifidi<u Orient., 
p. 8. We doubt the result anticipated. 

1789. — " They use a pleasant kind of drink, 
ealled Cknmtzy-beer, with their victuals; 
which is composed of toddj . . . porter, 
and brown-sugar ; is of a bnsk nature, but 
when cooled with saltpetre and water, be- 
comes a verv refreshing draught." — Munro, 
Narroiivt, 42. 

1810. — *'A temporary beverage, suited to 
the very hot weather, and callea Cknmtzy- 
beer, is in rather peneral use, though water 
Artificially cooled is commonly drumc during 
the repasts."— fTi/Zunfucm, F. M. ii. 122. 

BEEB-DBINKING. Up to about 
1850, and a little later, an ordinary 

exchange of courtesies at an Anglo- 
Indian dinner-table in the provinces, 
especially a mess-table, was to ask a 
guest, perhaps manj yards distant, to 
" drink beer " with you ; in imitation 
of the English custom of drinking 
wine together, which became obsolete 
somewhat earlier. In Western India, 
when such an invitation was given at 
a mess-table, two tumblers, nolding 
half a bottle each, were brought to 
the inviter, who carefully divided the 
bottle between the two, and then sent 
one to the ffuest whom he invited to 
drink with him. 

1848.—" ' He aint got distangy manners, 
dammy,' Bragg observed to his first mate ; 
'he wouldn't do at Government House, 
Roper, where his Lordship and I^dy 
William was as kind to me . . . and asking 
me at dinner to take beer with him before 
the Ck>mmander-in-Chief himself . . .'" — 
Vanity Fair, II. ch. xxii. 

185S.— "First one officer, and then 
another, asked him to drink beer at mess, 
as a kind of tacit suspension of hostilities." 
—Oai^d, ii. 52. 

BEETLEFAKSE, n.p. ''In some 
old Voyages coins used at Mocha are so 
called. The word is Bait-tU-fakiha, the 
'Fruit-market,' the name of a bazar 
there." So C. P. Brown. The place 
is in fact the Coffee-mart of which 
Hodeida is the port, from which it 
is about 30 m. aistant inland, and 4 
marches north of Mocha. And the 
name is really Batt-al-F(ikih, 'The 
House of the Divine,' from the tomb 
of the Saint Ahmad Ibn Musa, which 
was the nucleus of the place. — (See 
Rttter, xii. 872 ; see &ho BEETLE- 
FACKIE, MiUmm, i. 96.) 

^'Coffee . . . g^ws in abun- 
dance at Beetle-fdckee . . . and other 
parts." — Ovington, 465. 

1710. — "They daily bring down coffee 
from the mountains to BetolfiMiny, which 
is not above 3 leagues off, where there is 
a market for it every day of the week." — 
[FrtTich) Vowtge to Arabia the Happy, E. T., 
London, 1726, p. 99. 

1770.— " The tree that produces the Coffee 
ffrowsin the territory of Betel-fuioi, a town 
belonging to Yemen." — Rarinal (tr. 1777), 

BEGAB, BIGABBT, s. H. hegarl, 
from P. hegar, 'forced labour *[6« 'with- 
out,' flr(Jr (for hat), 'one who works'!; 
a person pressed to carry a load, or ao 
otner work really or professedly for 
public service. In some provinces 



hegdr is the forced labour, and bigdrt 
the preased man ; whilst in Karnata, 
beoari is the performance of the lowest 
Yillage offices without money payment, 
but with remuneration in grain or 
land (Wilson). C. P. Brown sajrs the 
word IS Canarese ; but the P. origin is 
hardly doubtful. 

[1519. — "It happened that one day sixty 
Ugaizis went from the Oomorin side towards 
the fort loaded with oyster-shells." — Ccutan- 
keda, Bk. V. ch. 88.] 

[1525.— '* The inhabitants of the Tillages 
are bound to supply begazins who are work- 
meTL,"—Arckiv, Port. Orient. Fasc. V. 
p. 126.3 

[1585.— "Telling him that they fought 
Hke heroes and worked (at building the fort) 
like bygairy ,"— Cbrreo, iii. 625.] 

1554. — " And to 4 beggoaryns, who serve 
as water carriers to the Porttupiese and others 
in the said intrenohment, 15 leals a day to 
each. . . :*—8. Botdho, Tombo, 78. 

1673.— "^oetmi, whither I took a Pil- 
grimage, with one other of the Factors, 
f'oor Peons, and Two Big g ereens, or Porters 
only."— J^ryer, 158. 

1800.— "The bygazxy system is not 
bearable: it must be abolished entirely." — 
Wdfington, i. 244. 

1815. — Aitchiton's Indian, Treaties^ &c., 
contains under this year numerous gunnudt 
issued, in Nep&l War, to Hill Chiefs, stimu- 
lating for attendance when required with 
"beffuees and sepoys."— ii. 889 segq. 

1882. — "The Malauna people were some 
time back ordered to make a practicable 
road, but they flatly refused to do anything 
of the kind, sa3dng they had never done any 
begir labour, and did not intend to do any. 
— (r^. tcanting.) 

BSHAB, n.p. H. Bihdr. That 

Erovince of the Mog;ul Empire which 
Ly on the Ganges immediately above 
Bengal, was so called, and still retains 
the name and character of a province, 
under the Ldeutenant-Govemor of 
Bengjal, and embracing the ten modern 
districts of Patna, Saran, Gaya, Shaha- 
l)ad, Tirhut, Champaran, the Santal 
Parganas, Bhagalpur, Monghyr, and 
Puiniah. The name was taken from 
the old city of Blllftr, and that de- 
rived its title from beinc the site of 
a famous Yihaia in Buadhist times. 
In the later days of Mahommedan rule 
the three provinces of Bengal, Behar 
and Oriasa were under one Subadar, 
viz. the Nawab, who resided latterly 
at Murshidabad. 

[c. 1500.— "Sarkar of Behar: containing 
46 Mahals. . r—Au (tr. JarreU), ii. 153.] 

[1676.— "Translate of a letter from Shaus- 
teth Caukne (Shaista Khan) ... in answer 
to one from Wares Cawne, Great Chancellor 
of the Province of Bearra about the English." 
—In Birdwoody Rep. 80]. 

The following is the first example 
we have noted of the occurrence of 
the three famous names in com- 
bination : 

1679.— "On perusal of several letters 
relating to the procuring of the Great 
Mofful's Phyrmaund for tn^e, custome free, 
in uie Ba^ of Bengali, the Chief in Council 
at Hugly IS ordered to procure the same, for 
the English to be Customs free in Bengal, 
Qrixa and Beaxra. . ."—Ft. St. Geo. Oons., 
20th Feb. in ^oUs and Exta., Pt. ii. p. 7. 

BEHXTT, n.p. H. Bekat. One of 
the names, and in fact the proper 
name,- of the Punjab river which we 
now call Jelum (i.e. Jhilam) from a 
town on its banks : the Hydatpea or 
Bidcupes of the ancients. Both Behat 
and the Greek name are corruptions, 
in different ways, of the Skt. name 
VitaM. Sidi 'All (p. 200) calls it 
the river of Bahra. Bahra or Bhera 
was a district on the river, and the 
town and tahml still remain, in 
Shahpur Dist. [It "is called by the 
natives of Kasmir, where it rises, 
the BedastOj which is but a slightly- 
altered form of its Skt. name, the 
Vitastd, which means * wide-spread.' " — 
McCrindle, Invasion of India, 93 seqq.] 

BTBAMPAUT, s. P.bairam,bairamt. 
The name of a kind of cotton stuff 
which appears frequentlv during the 
flourishing period of the export of 
these from India ; but the exact 
character of which we have been 
unable to ascertain. In earlier times, 
as appears from the first quotation, 
it was a very fine stuff. [From the 
quotation dated 1609 below, they ap- 
pear to have resembled the fine linen 
known as "Holland" (for which see 
DrapeT^s Diet. s.v.).] 

c. 1343. — Ibn Batuta mentions, among 
presents sent by Sultan Mahommed Tu^hlak 
of Delhi to the great Kaan, "100 smts of 
raiment called bairamlyali, i.e. of a cotton 
stuff, which were of unequalled beauty, and 
were each worth 100 din&rs [rupees]." — iv. 2. 

[1498. — "20 pieces of white stuff, Terr 
fine, with gold embroidery which they call 
Besrramles."- Comw, Hak. Soc. 197.] 

1510.— "Fifty ships are laden every year 
in this place (Bengala) with cotton and silk 




stuffs . . . that is to say balram."— For- 

ri518. — *'And captured two Chaul ships 
iBaen with b6iz«ia60."—A^&umc«mu«, GarUu, 
p. 166.] 

1554. — *'From this ooiintry come the 
muslins called Candaharians. and those of 
Danlatftbfid, Berupatri, and Bairami.''— 
.Suit *Ali, in J,A,S,B,, v. 460. 

„ "And for 6 1)6iram60 for 6 sor- 
plioesy which are given annually . . . 
whicih may be worth 7 pardaos." — S, Bo- 
edho, Tombo, 129. 

[1609.— "A sort of cloth called Bynmj 
resembling Holland cloths."— Z/anvierfl, 
Lettert, i. 29.] 

[1610.— "BeantniB white will rent better 
than the black."— 76ttf. i. 75]. 

1615.— ''10 pec. byraiUB mil (see ANILE) 
of 61 Rs. per corg. . . ,"—CoeJb8*B Dtary, 
f. 4. 

[1648.— "Berania." Quotation from Van 
Twist, s. ▼. OINOHAII.] 

[c. 1700.-" 50 blew byrampantB" (read 
byrampants, H. pat, <a length of doth'). 
—In mtes and Querietf 7th Ser. ix. 29.] 

1727.— "Some Surat Bi^iaes dyed blue, 
sad some BaraniB dved red, which are both 
coarse cotton cloth.' —^. HamiUony ii. 125. 

1818.— "Bj^ama of sorts," among Surat 
piece-goods, in Milhumf i. 124. 

BEITOUL, n.p. We do not know 
how this name should be properly 
written. The place occupies the 
isthmus connecting Carwar Head in 
Canara with the land, and lies close 
to the Harbour of Carwar, the inner 
part of which is Beiteul Cove, 

1711.— "Ships may ride secure from the 
So uth W est Monsoon at Batte Cove (qu. 
BATTECOLE ?), and the River is navigable 
for the largest, after they have once got in." 
— Lockyer, 272. 

1727.— "The Portuguez e hav e an Island 
called Anjediva [see ANCHEDIVA] . . . 
about two miles from BatOOal." — A, 
Bamilton, i. 277. 

BELaAUM, n.p. A town and 
district of the Bombay Presidency, in 
the S. Mahratta country. The proper 
name is said to be Oanarese Vewnu- 
grdmd, * Bamboo-Town.' [The name of 
a place of the same designation in the 
Vizagapatam district in Madras is said to 
be derived from Skt. hilangrdma, *cave- 
vfllage,'— jyfod. Admin. Man, Gloss. s.v.] 
The name occurs in De Barros under 
the form "Cidade de BiUpan" (Dec. 
IV., liv. \'ii. cap 5). 

BENAMEE, adj. P.— H. be-ndmiy 
* anonymous ' ; a term specially applied 

to documents of transfer or other con- 
tract in which the name entered as 
that of one of the chief parties («.</. of 
a purchaser) is not that of the person 
r^lly interested. Such transactions 
are for various reasons very common 
in India, especially in Bengal, and are 
not by any means necessarily fradu- 
lent, though they have often been so. 
[" There probably is no country in the 
world e^ccept India, where it M'ould be 
necessary to write a chapter *0n the 
practice of putting property into a 
false name.'^ — (Mayne^ Hindu Law^ 
373).] In the Indian Penal Code 
(Act XLV. of I860), sections 421-423, 
'* on fraudulent deeds and dispositions 
of Property," appear to be especially 
directed against the dishonest use of 
this benamee system. 

It is alleged by C- P. Brown on the 
authority of a statement in the Friend 
of India (without specific reference) 
that the proper term is bandmi, adopted 
from such a phrase as bandml c^^t, 
*a transferable note of hand,* such 
notes commencing, ^hor-ndm-i-fvldna^ 
*to the name or i^dress of* (Abraham 
Newlands). This is conceivable, and 
probably true, but we have not the 
evidence^ and it is opposed to all the 
authorities : and in any case the present 
form and interpretation of the term he- 
ndmi has become established. 

1854. — "It is very much the habit in 
India to make purchases in the name of 
others, and from whatever causes the prac- 
tice may have arisen, it has existed lor a 
series of years : and these transactions are 
known as * Benamee transactions ' ; they 
are noticed at least as early as the year 
1778, in Mr. Justice Hyde's Notes."— Zd. 
Justice Knight Bruoe^ in Moore's Reports of 
Cases on Appeal before the P. C, voL vi. 
p. 72. 

"The presumption of the Hindoo law, 
in a joint undivided family, is that the 
whole property of the family is joint estate 
. . . where a purchase of real estate is 
made by a Hindoo in the name of one of his 
sons, the presumption of the Hindoo law is 
in favour of its being a benamee purchase, 
and the burthen of proof lies on the party 
in whose name it was purchased, to prove 
that he was solely entitled."— Abfe 6y ike 
Editor qf above Vol.y p. 53. 

1861.— "The decree Sale law is also one 
chief cause of that nuisance, the benamee 
system. . . . It is a peculiar contnvance for 
getting the benefits and credit of property, 
and avoiding its charges and liabiUtias. it 
consists in one man holding land, nominally 
for himself, but really in secret trust for 
another, and by ringing the changes between 
the two . . . relieving the land from being 




a tt a c hed for imy liability penooal to the 
proprietor."— ff^ ifof^y, Jofpo, ii. 261. 

1M2. — "Two ingredientB are neoeesi^ 
to make np the ofifeiice in this aeetion j§ 4Sa 
of Penal Code). First a frandalent inten- 
tion, and secondly a false statement as to 
the consideration. The mere fact that an 
aasisrnment has been taken in the name 
of a pen<n^ not really interested, will not 
be sufficient. Such . . . known in Bengal 
as bauunee transactions . . . have no- 
thing neoesttrily fraudulent." — J, D, 
Mwfn^a Comm. on the PauU GodUf Madras 
18^ p. 257. 

BENABES, n.p. The famous and 
holy city on the Ganges. H. Bandrcu 
from Skt. VdrdnaH, The popular 
Pandit etymolo^ is from the names 
of the. streams Parana (mod. Ba/md) 
and AHy the former a river of some 
size on the north and east of the cit^, 
the latter a rivulet now embraced within 
its area ; [or from the mythical founder, 
Bajd .B^Mfr]. This origin is very 
questionable. The name, as that of a 
city, has been (according to Dr. F. 
Hall) familiar to Sanscrit literature 
since B.a 120. The Buddhist l^;ends 
would carry it much further back, the 
name being in them very familiar. 

[c. 250 A.D.— ". . . and the E ii m^ii i 
from the Mathai, an Indian tribe, unite with 
the Chuiges." — Adian^ IndUca, iv.] 

c. 887.— "The Kingdom of P'o-lo-wit-te 
nrAiAna^ Bhuurit) is 4000 U in compass. 
On the west the capital adjoins the GUinges. 
. . .'^—Miouen ThjKung, in Pit. Boudd. ii. 

c. 1020.— "If you ^ from Btfri on the 
banks of the Ganges, m an easterly direc- 
tion, you come to Ajodh, at the distance 
of 25 parasangs ; thence to the great Benares 
(BlateM) about 20:*—Al'BtrQn%, in Bltiot, 
1. 56. 

1666.— "Banaioa is a laige City, and 
handsomely built; the most part of the 
Houses being either of Brick or Stone . . . 
bat the inconvenien^ is that the Streets 
are ^ery narrow." — Tavemier, E. T., ii. 52 ; 
rpd. Bali, i. 118. He also uses the forms 
BanazM and Baaaioiis, Ibid. ii. 182, 225]. 

BENCX)OIiEN, n.n. A settlement 
on the West Coast of Sumat^^ which 
long pertained to England, viz. from 
16& to 1824, when it was given over 
to Holland in exchange for Malacca, 
by the Treaty of London. The name 
18 a corruption of Maky Banghcvulu^ and 
it appears as Mangkoiiiou or fFMctmUdu 
in nuthier's Chinese geographical 
quotatioDS, of which the date is not 
given (Mare. Pol.^ p. 666, note). The 

English factory at Bencoolen was from 
1714 called Fort Marlborough. 

1501.— "Boioolii" is mentioned among 
the ports of the East Indies by Amerigo 
Vespucci in his letter quoted under BAD- 

1690.— "We . . . were forced to bear 
away to Baaooiili, another English Factory 
on tiie same Ooast. ... It was two days 
before I went ashoar, and then I was im- 
portuned by the GoTemour to stay there, 
to be Gunner of the Fort."— -Z>oiw»ter, i. 

1727.— "Benoolon is an English colony, 
but the European inhabitants not very 
numerous." — A, Hcanxltony ii. 114. 

1788. — "It is nearly an equal absurdity, 
though upon a smaller scale, to have an 
estaUishment that costs nearly 40,000/. at 
Benoooleii, to facilitate the purchase of one 
cargo of pepper." — ComwalUSy i. S90. 

BENDAMSEB, n.p. Pers. Banda- 
mSr. A popular name, at least among 
foreigners, of the River Kur {Araat^ 
near Shiraz. Properly speaking, the 
word is the name of a dam constructed 
across the river by the Amir Fana 
Khusruh, otherwise called Aded-ud- 
daulah, a prince of the Buweih family 
(a.d. &66), which was thence known 
in later days as the Bar^i-Amlr^ ** The 
Prince's Dam.'* The work is mentioned 
in the Geog. Diet, of Yakut (c. 1220) 
under the name of Sikru Fcmnd-Khus- 
rah Khwrrah and Kirdu Fcvnnd Khu&- 
rah (see Barb, Meynard, Diet, de la 
Ptrsey 313) 480). Fryer repeats a 
ri^^marole that ne heard about the 
miraculous formation of the dam or 
bridge by Band Haimero (!) ^ prophet^ 
'^wherefore both the Briage ana the 
Plain, as well as the River, oy Boterus 
is corruptly called Bindamire " {Frytr^ 

c. 1475. — "And from thense, a daies 
iomev, ye come to a great bridge vpon the 
j^n^idailisrr, which is a notable great ryver. 
libis bridge they said Salomon caused to be 
made."— ^ar&aro (Old E. T.), Hak. Soc. 

1021. — " . . . having to pass the Kur by 
a longer way across another bridge called 
Bend Emir, which is as much as to sajr the 
Tie {ligatwra^, or in other words the Bridge, 
of the Emir, which is two leagues distant 
from Chehil minar . . . and which is so 
called after a certain Emir Hamza the 
Dilemite who built it. . . . Fra Filippo 
Ferrari, in his Geoffraphioal Epitome, attri- 
butes the name of Bendemir to the river, but 
he is wronff, for Bendeniir is the name of the 
bridge and not of the river,"— P. della 
VaJTe, ii. 264. 




1886. — ** II est bon d'obsenrer, vue le oom- 
mun Peuple appelle le Bend-Emir en cet en- 
droit ah pultuu. c'est k dire le Fleave du 
Pont Neuf ; qu on ne I'appelle par son nom 
de Bend-Emir qae proche de la Digue, qui 
lui a fait donner ce nom." — Choardin (ed. 
ini), ix. 46. 

1809. — " We proceeded three milee further, 
and croeaiin^ the River Bend-emir, entered 
the real plain of Merdasht. "—i/brter (First 
Journey), 124. See also (1811) 2nd Journey, 
pp. 78-/4, where there is a view of the Bathd- 

1818.— '< The river Bund Emeer, by some 
ancient G^eographers called the OyruSj takes 
its present name from a dyke (in Persian a 
bund) erected by the celebrated Ameer 
Azad-a-Doulah Delemi/^—MacdoncUd Kin- 
neir, Geog. Mem. of the Fenian Empire, 59. 

1817.— • 
** There's a bower of roses by Bendameer*8 

And the nightingale sings round it all the 
day long."— Zo/to Rw)ih. 

I860.— "The water (of Lake Neyriz) . . . 
is almost entirely derived from the Kur 
(known to us as the Bund Amir River) . . ." 
^Abbott, in J.R.Q.S,, xxv. 73. 

1878. — We do not know whether the 
Band-i-AmIr is identical with the quasi- 
synonymous Pul-i-Kh&n by which Col. 
Macgregor crossed the Eur on his way from 
Shiraz to Yezd. See his Khorassan, i. 45. 

BENDAbA, 8. A term used in the 
Malay countries as a title of one of 
the higher ministers of state — Malay 
hamdahara^ Jav. bendarOy *Lord.' The 
word enters into the numerous series 
of purely honorary Javanese titles, 
and the etiquette m regard to it is 
very complicated. (See Tijdschr. v. 
Nederl. Indie, year viii. No. 12, 253 
aeqq.). It would seem that the title 
is properly bdnddrd, *a treasurer,* and 
taken from tlie Skt. bhdnddrin, 'a 
steward or treasurer.' Haex in his 
Malay-Latin Diet, gives Banddri, 
* Oeconomus, quaestor, expenditor.' 
[Mr. Skeat writes that Clifford derives 
it from Bendorhara-any *a treasury,' 
which he again derives from Malay 
benda, 'a thine,' without explaining 
Kara, while Wilkinson with more pro- 
bability classes it as Skt.] 

1509. — '* Whilst Sequeira was consulting 
with his people over this matter, the King 
sent his BaiiiUiara or Treasure-Master on 
hoard."— Valentijn, V, 232, 

1589.— * 'There the Bandara (Bendara) of 
Malaca, (who is as it were Chief Justicer 
among the Mahometans), (o supremo no 
mando, na konra e ne pistica dos mouros) 

* « The Greeks call it the Artua, Khondsmir 

was present in person by the express com- 
mandment of Pedro de Faria for to entertain 
him." — Pinto (orig. cap. xiv.), in Cogcai, p. 17. 

1552.— *' And as the Bendan was by 
nature a traitor and a tyrant, the counsel 
they gave him seemed good to him." — 
Cattanheda, ii. 359, also iii. 433. 

1561. — ^'Entfiomanson . . . quedizerque 
matfoi o seu bandara polo mao conselho que 
Ihe devo." — Correa, Lmdat, ii. 225. 

JL610.— An official at the Maldives is 
ed Mana'lMDAi&ry Tcbcourou, which Mr. 
Oray interpretsh— Singh, ran, *gold,' ban- 
dhara, * treasury,' ^hakhura, Skt., *an idol.' 
—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 68.] 

1613.— ''This administration (of Malacca) 
is provided for a three years' space with 
a governor . . . and with royal officers of 
revenue and justice, and with the native 
Bendara in charge of the government of 
the lower class of subjects and foreigners." 
— Oodinko de E^-edia, ot;. 

1631. — "There were in Malaca five prin- 
cipal officers of dignity . . . the second is 
Bendari, he is the superintendent of the 
executive {weador da fazenda) and governs 
the Kingdom : sometimes the Bendaiyi holds 
both offices, that of Puduca raja and of 
Bendari." — D'Alboouermie, CommaUarie* 
(orig.), 858-859. 

" principal sogeito no govemo 

De Mahomet, e privanca, era o BondAra, 

Magistrado supremo." 

Malaca ConqutMada, iii. 6. 

1726.— " BandaroB or AdoMinge^re those 
who are at the Court as Dukes, Counts, or 
even Princes of tiie Royal House."— Fo&ji- 
t^ (Ceylon), Names of Officers, dx., 8. 

1810.—" After the Raja had amused him- 
self with their speaking, and was tired of it 
. . . the bintara with the green eves (for 
it is the custom that the eldest bintara. 
should have green shades before his eyes, 
that he may not be dazzled by the greatness 
of the Raja, and forget his duty) brought 
the books and packets, and delivered them 
to the bintara with the black bahi, from 
whose hands the Raja received them, one 
by one, in order to present them to the 
youths." — A Malay* 9 account of a visit to 
Govt. House, Calcutta, transl. by Dr. Leyden 
in Maria Oraham, p. 202. 

1883.—" In most of the States the reigning 
prince has regular officers under him, chief 
among whom ... the Bandahara or trea- 
surer, who is the first minister. . ."—Miss 
Bird, Thf Gofden Ckersmiese, 26. 

BENDY, BIND7, s. : also BANDI- 
COY (q, v.X the form in S. India ; H. 
bhindiylbhmdi], Dakh. bhendi, Mahr. 
bhenkd; also* in H. rdmtur&i; the 
fruit of the plant Abehnoachua eaculentus, 
also Htbitcus esc. It is called in Arab. 
bdmiyah (Lane, Mod. Egypt, ed. 1837, 
i. 199 : [6th ed. i. 184 : BurUm, Ar. 




NighUj zi. 57]X whence the modem 
Greek fordfua. In Italy the vegetable 
is called comi d/i Greet. The Latin 
name Ahelmasckus is from the 'Ar. 
habb-ul-miuhkj * grain of musk' {Doasy). 

1810.— "The bendy, caUed in the West 
Indies obne, is a i>retty plant resembling a 
hollyhock ; the f mit is about the length and 
thickness of one's finger . . . when boiled 
it is soft and mucilaginous. '* — Maria Graham^ 

1813.— ''The baada {ffibisevs etcuUnhu) 
is a nutritious oriental vegetable.'*— J^or&«, 
Or. Mem. i. 82 ; [2nd ed. i. 22]. 

1880.—" I recollect the West Indian Ookroo 
. . . being some years ago recommended 
for introduction in India. The seed was 
largely advertised, and sold at about Ss. the 
ounce to ea^er horticulturists, who . . . 
found that it came up nothing other than 
the familiar bendy, the seed of which sells 
at Bombay for \d. the ounce. Yet . . . 
«ttroo seed continued to be advertised and 
eold at 8«. the ounce. . . ."^NoU by Sir Q. 

BENDY-TBEE, s. This, according 
to Sir G. Birdwood, is the Thespena 
populfua. Lam. [Watty Econ. Did. vi. 
pt. iv. 45 ieqq.'i, and gives a name to 
the ^ Bendy Bcaar* in Bombay. (See 

BENGAL, n.p. The region of the 
Gan^ Delta and the dmricts im- 
mediately above it; but often in 
English use with a wide application 
to the whole territory ^msoned by 
the Bengal army. This name does 
not appear, so far as we have been 
able to learn, in any Mahommedan 
or Western writing before the latter 
part of the 13th century. In the. 
earlier part of that centurv the 
Mahommedan writers generally call 
the province Lakhnaotiy cSter the chief 
city, but we have also the old form 
Bang^ from the indigenous Vanga. 
Already y however, in the 11th century 
we have it as VangcUam on the Inscrip- 
tion of the flreat Tanjore Pagoda. 
This is the olaest occurrence that we 
can cite. 

The allied City of Bengala of the 
Portuguese which has greatly perplexed 
gepgraphers, probably originated with 
the Arab custom of giving an important 
foreign city or seaport the name of 
the country in which it lay (compare 
the city of Solmandaloy under COBO- 
XAHDBL)* It long kept a place in 
mapsL llie last occurrence that we 
know of is in a chart of 1743, in 

Dalrymple's Collection, which identities 
it with Chittagong, and it may be con- 
sidered certain that Chittagong was the 
place intended by the older writers (see 
y'arihema and Ovin^ton). The former, 
as regards his visiting BangheUa^ deals 
in fiction — a thing clear from internal 
evidence, and expresslv alleged, by 
the judicious Garcia ae Orta : "iLs 
to what you say of Ludovico Varto- 
mano, I have spoken, both here and 
in Portugal, with men who knew him 
here in India, and they told me that 
he went about here in the garb of 
a Moor, and then reverted to us, doing 
penance for his sins ; and that the 
man never went further than Calecut 
and Cochin."— CbWoguioa, f. 30. 

c. 1260.— *< Muhammad Bakhtiy^r . . . 
returned to Beh^. Great fear of him pre- 
vaUed in the minds of the infidels of the 
territories of Lakhnauti, Behar, Bang, 
and Kj&mTiip.'*—Tabaidt'i-Ndnrit in Elliot, 
ii. 807. 

1298. — *'Bangala is a Province towards 
the south, which up to the year 1290 . . . 
had not yet been conquered. ..." {ko.). — 
Marco Polo, Bk. ii. ch. 55. 

0. 1300.—". . . then to BijaUr (but 
better reading Ban^fUft), which from of old 
is subject to Delhi . . . ."—Jiashtditddin, 
in EUiol, i. 72. 

c. 1345. — *\ . . we were at sea 43 days 
and then arrived in the country of Baj^Ua, 
which is a vast region abounding in rice. I 
have seen no country in the world where 
provisions are cheaper than in this; but 
it is muggy, and those who come from 
Ehoras&n call it * a hell fuU of good things.' " 
—Ibn BatutOj iv. 211. (But the Emperor 
Aurungzebe is alleged to have "emphati- 
cally styled it the Paradise qf NaUont.** — 
Note in Stawritivu, i. 291.) 

c. I860.— 
" Skukr skikan ihavxifid hama (HfiOn-i- 
Zln Jcand'i-Pibral Ink ha Bangtla mi 

ratoad." Hofiz. 

" Sugar nibbling are all the parrots of Ind 
From this Persian candy that travels to 
Bengal " (viz. his own poems). 

2498. — "Bemgala: in this Kingdom are 
many Moors, and few Christians, and the 
King is a Moor ... in this land are 
many cotton cloths, and silk cloths, and 
mu^ silver ; it is 40 days with a fair wind 
from Calicut."— -Roteiro de V. da Oama, 
2nd ed. p. 110. 

1506. — **A Banielo, el suo Be h Moro, e 
Ii se f a el forzo de' panni de gotton. . ." — 
Leonardo do Ca' Mauer, 28. 

2510.— ** We took the route towards the 
city of Baaghella . . . one of the best 
that I had mtherto 8een."-~Far<A«ma, 210. 



1516.—'' ... the Kingdom of my jmJft, 
in which there are many towns. . . Txhoee 
of the interior are inhabited by Gentiles 
subject to the King of Bengala, who is a 
Moor; and the seaports are inhabited by 
Moors and Gtontiles, amonffst whom there is 
much trade and much uipping to many 
parts, becaose this sea is a gulf . . . 
and at its inner extremity there is a yery 
great city inhabited by Moors, which is 
called BwigaU, with a yery good harbour." 
— J5ar6oja, 178-9. 

c. 1590.-— "Bvngaleh originally was called 
Bnng ; it deriyed the additional al from that 
being the name giyen to the mounds of earth 
which the ancient Rajahs caused to be raised 
in the low lands, at the foot of the hills."— 
Ayeai Akberv, tr. Oladwin, U. 4 (ed. 1800) : 
[tr. /ar»^ if. 120]. ' 

1690.— "Arracan ... is bounded on the 
Norths West by the Kii^om of Bengala, 
some Authors making Ghatiaam to be its 
first Frontier City ; but Teixeiroy and gener- 
ally the Portuffuete Writers, reckon that as 
a City of Btngmla; and not only so, but 
place the City of Bengala it self . . . more 
South than Ckaiigam, Tho' I confess a late 
French Geographer has put Bengala into his 
Catal^nie of imaginary Cities. . "—Ofring- 

BEirOAL, 8. This was also the 
designation of a kind of piece-coods 
exported from that country to En^nd, 
in the 17th century. But long before, 
among the Moors of Spain, a fine 
muslin seems to have been Known as al- 
bangala, surviving in Spanish aJbengcda. 
(See Dogyand Eng, s. v.) [What were 
called ^^ Bengal Stripes^ were striped 
gii^hams brought first from Bengal 
and first made in Qreat Britain at 
Paisley. {Dramei'a Diet. s. v.). So a 
particular land of silk was known as 
I* Bengal woun(L*' because it was " rolled 
in the rude and artless manner 'imme- 
morially practised by the natives of 
that country." {M%Ummy in Watt, 
Ecan. Did. vi. pt. 3, 185.) See 
N.E,D. for examples of the use of the 
word as late as Lord Macaulay.j 

1096.- "Tis granted that Bengali and 
stain'd CalUooes, and other Boat India 
Goods, do hinder the Consumption of Nor- 
wich stuffs . . . ." — Davenant. An Essay an 
the East India Trade, 81. 

BENGALA, s. This is or was also 
applied in Portuguese to a sort of cane 
carried in the army by sergeants, &c. 
{Bluteau). ^ ^ » «» 

BENGALEE, n.j). A native of 
Bengal [Babooj. In the following 

early occurrence in Portuguese, Bengala 
is used : 

1552. — " In the defence of the bridge died 
three of the King's captains and Tuam 
Bandam, to whose chaiige it was oommittad, 
a Bengali (Btngala) by nation, and a man 
sagacious and crafty in stratagems rather 
than a soldier (cayalheiro)."— iSarroi^ II.» 
Vi. iii. 

[1610.— ''Baagaia^." See quoUtioa 
from Teixeira under bANKBHALL.] 

A note to the Seir MtUaqhenn qnotea 
a Hindustani proyerb: BtiWgftH jangdU^ 
Kashmtrl boflri, i.e. *The Bengalee is eyer 
an entangfer, the Cashmeeree without 

[In modem Anglo-Indian parlance 
the title is often applied in provinces 
other than Bencal to officers from N. 
India. The following from Madras is 
a curious early instance of the same use 
of the word : — 

[1699.— <* Two B«iigaUM here of Coundl." 
— hedges. Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. cclxrii.] 

BENIGHTED, THE, adj. An eni- 
thet applied by the denizens of the 
other Presidencies, in facetious dis- 
paragement to Madras. At Madras 
Itself "all Camatic fashion" is an 
habitual expression among older 
English-speaking natives, which ap- 
pears to convey a similar idea. 

I860.—''. . . to ye Londe of St Thom^. 
It ys ane darke Londe, k ther dwellen ye 
Cimmerians whereof speketh Jj^imuntS 
Poeta in hys ®bS04itht A to thya Daye the! 
depen "^tnthvott^oxf^t ^ tnjshttb ffoUc" 

— Pragmenis <^ Sir J, Maundente,from a MS, 
lately aiscovered. 


kind of incense, derived from the resin 
of the Styrax beneoiny Dryander, in 
Sumatra, and from an undetermined 
epecies in Siam. It got from the 
Arab traders the name htbdn-J^dvl, i.e. 
* Java Frankincense,' corrupted in the 
Middle Ages into such forms as we give. 
The first syllable of the Arabic term 
was doubtless tdken as an article — 
lo bengioi, whence bengiai, henaoin, and 
so forth. This etymolcja^y is given 
correctly by De Orta, and 1^' Valentijn, 
and suggested by Barbosa in the quota* 
tion b^w. Spanish forms are oignjui^ 
menjui; Modem Port, beijoimy heijuim; 
Ital. behuinOy &c. The terms Jdwd^ 
Jdwi were applied by the Arabs to the 
Malay countries generally (eq)ecially 




Sumatia^ and their products. (See 
Maireo Poloy ii. 266 ; [Linkhc/ten^ Hak. 
Soc ii. 96J and the first quotation 

o. 1360.— "After a voyage of 26 days 
we anrved at the laZand of JSwa (here 
Sumatra) which givee its name to the JUmA 
incense (al-hihftn al-J&wX)."— Tftit iSoiuto, 
It. 228. 

1401.— **^Haye these thuiffs that I hare 
written to thee next tiiy heart, and God 
giant that we may be always at peace. The 
presents (herewith) : Bfluoi; rotoli 90. Leg- 
no Alo^ rotoli 20. Due paja di tapeti. . ." 
— Letter from the SoUUa^ of Effyjpt to the 
Doge Pasqiiale Malipiero^ in the Ijves of the 
Doges, Mtaratarif JioTim Italicarum Scriptoret, 
xzu. ooL 117a 

1498.— "JTanuncs . . . is from Calecat60 
days' safl with a fair wind (see BABNAU) 
. • • in this land there is much bcdjoim. 
which costs iii crusados the Jwnuallck, ana 
much aioee which costs xxv onizados the 
faraaaDa" (see TUAZAJJi).— Jtoteiro da 
Viagem de V, da Gama, 109110. 

1616.— "Bei^iay, each farasola Ix, and the 
rery good hex fanams." — Barbota (Tariff of 
Prices at OaUcat), 222. 

,, "Bei^uy, which Ib a resin of trees 
which the Moors caU lubanJavL^^Ibid. 188. 

16S9.— "Cinco qnintais de b«Uoim de 
booinas."*— Piato, cap. xiii. 

1603. — "And all these species of bei^uy the 
inhabitants of the oonntry call coiHin^m,t 
but the Moors call them lonaa Jaoy, t.«. 
* incense of Java' ... for the Arabs call 
incense /oium." — Oareia, f . 29r. 

1584. — " Belinlmiin mandolalo* from Sian 
and Bilros. Bekoinum, burned, from Bon- 
nia" (Borneo f).— .Barrel, in Hail. ii. 413. 

1612.— "Benjamin, the pond iiii /«.*'- 
itofet and ValuaHoun qf Merekandize (Soot- 
Uuidi pob. by the Treasury, Bdin. 1867, 

BENUA, n.p. This word, Maky 
hanuwetj [in standard Malay, according 
to Mr. Skeaty benuwa or 60711x01 
properly means 'land, country^' and 
the Mfuavs use orang-banwwa in the 
senae of aborigines, anplying it to the 
wilder tribes of the Malay Peninsula. 
Hence ^'Bennas'* has been used by 
Europeans as a proper name of those 
tribes. — See Orawfurd^ Diet, Ind. Arch. 
sub voce. 

KJ18.— "The natives of the interior of 
Viontana (UJoog-tana, q. v.) are properly 
those Bannas, black anthropophagi, and 
hairy, Uke satyn."— G^odtnAo de Mrtdioy 20. 

* On hti^iiy d4 bMiiiuw ("of flowers"), see De 
Orta, ff. 88, 30. 81. And on h^njuif d« WHMndcada 
ormmadoUhimamAOadof "of almond") id. 80v. 

t AhnkKsr cr KtmMam in Malay and Javansse. 

Otherwise called BeruwcUOf a small 
port with an anchorage for ships and 
a considerable coasting trade, in Ceylon, 
about 35 m. south of Columbo. 

o. I860.— "Thus, led by the Divine mer^, 
on the morrow of the Invention of the Holy 
Cross, we found ourselves brought safely 
into 'jxrt in a harbour of Senium, oallea 
Pervuis, over asainst Paradise."— Afori- 
gnolliy in Cathay^ u. 867. 

o. 1618.— "At the same time Barreto 
made an attack on Berbelim, kiUinff tiie 
Moorish modeliar [ModelUar] and sll his 
kinsfolk."— Boeorro, Deeada, 713. 

1780.— "Barbarian Island."— Danii, New 
Directory, 6th ed. 77. 

1886.— "Barbazyn Island. . . . There is 
said to be an anchoraffe north of it, in 6 or 
7 fathoms, and a small bav further in . . • 
where small craft may anchor."— JTionfrMiyAk 
6th ed. 661. 

[1869.— Tennent in his mapjfCty/oa, drd 
ed.).gives Barberyn, Barbeiy, BarMExy.] 

BEBIBEBI, & An acute disease, 
obscure in its nature and patholo^, 
generally but not always presenting 
oropsical symptoms, as well as paralytic 
weakness and numbness of the lower 
extremities, with oppressed breathing. 
In cases where deoility, oppression, 
anxiety and dyspnoea are extremely 
severe, the patient sometimes dies in 6 
to 30 hours. Though recent reports 
seem to refer to this disease as almost 
confined to natives, it is on record that 
in 1795, in Trincomalee, 200 Europeans 
died of it. 

The word has been alle«;ed to be 
Singhalese beri [the Mad. AmUn, Man. 
Glou. 8. V. gives baribart], * debility.' 
This kind of reduplication is really a 
common Singhalese practice. It is alsQ 
sometimes aUeged to be a W. Indian 
Negro term ; and other worthless 
guesses have been made at its origin. 
The Singhalese origin is on the whole 
most probable [and is accepted by 
the N.E.D.1 In the quotations from 
Bontius ana Bluteau, the disease de- 
scribed seems to be that formerly known 
as Barbieis. Some authorities have 
considered these diseases as quite dis« 
, tinct, but Sir Joseph Fayrer, who has 
paid attention to beriberi and written 
upon it (see The Practitioner^ January 
1877X regards Barbiers as "the dry 
form of beri-beri/* and Dr. Lodewijks, 
quoted below, says briefly that "the 
Barbiers of some French writers is in- 
contestably the same disease." (On this 




it is necessary to remark that the use 
of the term Barhiers is by no means 
confined to French writers, as a glance 
at the quotations under that word will 
^ow). The disease prevails endemically 
in Ceylon, and in reninsular India in 
the coast-tracts, and up to 40 or 60 m. 
inland ; also in Burma and the Malay 
region, including all the islands, at 
least so far as New Guinea, and also 
Japan, where it is known as kaJek^: 
[see Ghamberlaiit, Things JapanesBf 3rd 
ed. p. 238 seqq.]. It is very prevalent 
in certain Madras Jails. Tne name has 
become somewhat old-fashioned, but it 
has recurred of late years, especially 
in hospital reports from Madras and 
Burma. It is frequently ei)idemic, 
and some of the Dutch physicians re- 
mird it as infectious. See a ]>amphlet, 
Beri-Beii door J, A. LodevnjkA, ond- 
offlder van Gezondheit bij het Ned. In- 
dische Leger, Harderwijk, 1882. In 
this pamphlet it is stated that in 1879 
the total number of beri-beri natients 
in the military hospitals of Nether- 
lands-India, amounted to 9873, and 
the deaths among these to 1682. In 
the great military hospitals at Achin 
there died of beri-beri between 1st 
November 1879, and 1st April 1880, 
574 persons, of whom the great majority 
were dwangarbeiders, i.e. * forced 
labourers.' These statistics show the 
extraordinary prevalence and fatality 
of the disease in the Archipelago. 
Dutch literature on the subject is con- 

Sir Qeorge Birdwood tells us that 
during the Persian Expedition of 1867 
he witnessed beri-beri of extraordinary 
virulence, especially among the East 
African stokers on board the steamers. 
The sufferers became dropsically dis- 
tended to a vast extent, and diea in a 
few hours. 

In the second quotation scurvy is evi- 
dently meant. This seems much allied 
by causes to beriberi though different 
in character. 

G1568. — *'Our people sickened of a diaeaae 
ed bflrbcore, the belly and legs swell, 
and in a few days they die, as there diea 
many, ten or twelve a day." — Cauto, yiii. 
ch. 25.] 

e. 1610. — **Ce ne fut pas tout, car i'eus 
enoor oeste fascheuse mautdie de l&uende que 
lee Portuffais appellent aatrement berber 
et les Holtandais scurbut.^—Mocqit^ 221. 

1613.— "And under the orders of the 
said General Andr^ Furtado de Mendo^a, 
the disooverer departed to the court of Goa, 

being ill with the malady of the berebere, 
in order to get himself treated." — OixUnho 
de EredioL, t 58. 

1681. — **. . . Constat frequenti iUorum 
usii, praesertim liquoris saguier dicti, non 
solum diarriiaeas . . . sed et paralysin 
Beriberi dictam hinc natam esse."— I/oc. 
Bontiit Dial. ir. See also lib. ii. cap. iii., 
and Idb. iii. p. 40. 

1659. — "There is also another sickness 
which prevails in Banda and Ceylon, and 
is callcKl Barberi; it does not vex the 
natives so much as foreigners." — Sarr, 87. 

1682.— "The Indian and Portuguese 
women draw from the green flowers and 
cloves, by means of firing with a still, a 
water or spirit of marvellous sweet smell 
. . . especially is it good against a certain 
kind of paralysis oilled Beiebezy. "—Nieuhof, 
Zee en LaaU-Keize, ii. 88. 

1685.— "The Portuguese in the Island 
suffer from another sickness which the 
natives call b^ri-bdri."— iii&etn), f. 55. 

1720.— "Berebere (termo da India). 
Huma ParaJysia bastarde, ou entorpece- 
mento, com que fica o corpo oomo tolhido." 
— Bluteau, Diet. s. v. 

1809.— "A complaint, as far as I have 
learnt, peculiar to the island (Ceylon), the 
bexTi-bezTi; it is in fact a dropsv that 
frequently destroys in a few days. — Ld. 
Valentia, i. 818. 

1835.— (On the Maldives) "... the 
crew of the vessels during the survey . . . 
suffered mostly from two diseases; the 
Beri-beri which attacked the Indians only, 
and generally proved fatal." — Young^ and 
ChrutopkeTy in 2^. Ro. Oeog. Soc, vol. i. 

1887. — " Empyreumatic oil called oleum 
nigrum, from the seeds of Celattnu ntUant 
{Malkungnee) described in Mr. Malcolmson's 
able prize Essay on the Hist, and Treatment 
of Beriberi ... the most efficacious 
remedy in that intractable complaint." — 
Royle 0% Hindu Medicine, 46. 

1880.— "A malady much dreaded by the 
Japanese, called Kakki. ... It excites a 
most singular dread. It is considered to be 
the same disease as that which, under the 
name of Beriberi, makes such havoc at 
times on crowded Jails and barracks." — Miu 
Bird^s Japan, i. 288. 

1882. — "Berbi, a disease which consists 
in great swelling of the abdomen." — Blu- 
metUritt, Vocabular, s. v. 

1886.— "Dr. Wallace Taylor, of Osaka, 
Japan, reports important discoveries re- 
specting the origin of the disease known 
as beri-beri. He has traced it to a micro- 
scopic spore largely developed in rice. He has 
finally detected the same organism in the 
earth of certain alluvial and damp localities." 
— St. Jamet*s Oasette, Aug. 9th. 

Also see Report on Prison Admin, in Br. 
Burma, for 1878, p. 26. 

BEBYL, 8. This word is perhaps a 
very ancient importation from India to 




the West, it having heen supposed that 
its origin was the Skt. vaimryOy Prak. 
vel^wij whence [Malay haiduri and 
hiduri\, P. biUaur, and Greek pifpvXkos. 
Bochart points out the probable 
identity of the twro last words by the 
transpofiition of I and r. Another trans- 
position appears to have given Ptolemy 
his 'OpoH^ta 6fni (for the Western 
Ohats), representing probably the 
native Vaidurya mountains. In 
Ezekiel xxvii. 13, the Sept. has 
fiffp^XXLw, where the Hebrew now has 
ictnh4^ [another word with probably 
the same meaning being trnksm (see 
Professor Ridgeway in EncycL BibL 
S.V. Beryl)! Professor Max Midler 
has treated of the nossible relation 
between vaidHrya ana viddUiy 'a cat,' 
And in connection with this observes 
that ^we should, at all events, have 
learnt the useful lesson that the 
•chapter of accidents is sometimes 
larger than we suppose." — {India^ What 
<an U Teach tw^^'^p. 267). This is a 
lesson which many articles in our 
book suggest; and in dealing with 
the same words, it may be indicated 
that the resemblance between the 
Greek afXov/m, hildur^ a common H. 
word for a cat, and the P. biUaur, 
* beryl,' are at least additional illustra- 
tions of the remark quoted. 

c. A.i>. 70.— "Beryls . . . from India 
thev oome as from tiieir native place, for 
seldom are they to be found elsewhere. . . . 
Those are best aooonnted of which carrie a 
«ea-water greene."— P/tn^, Bk. XXXVII. 
«ap. 20 (in P. Holland, ii. 613). 

c 160.— "nwwrdra 4y i jSiJpwXXot."— 
PicUmjfj 1. vii. 

BETEL, s. The leaf of the Piper 
hetd^ L., chewed with the dried aieca- 
nnt (which is thence improperly ccdled 
heUHrnvl^ a mistake as old as Fryer — 
1673, — see p. 40^ (3w.nam, etc., by 
the natives of In<lia and the Indo- 
Chinese countries. The word is 
Malay aLiwm'/o, %.e, O0ru+i2a»^ simple 
or mere lea^,' and comes to us through 
ih& Port hetre and heUe, Pawn (q.v.) 
is the term more ^nerally usea by 
modem Anglo-Indians. In former 
times the otM-leaf was in S. India 
the subject of a monopoly of the 
E. I. CJo. 

1298.— <* All the people of this city (Gael) 
dw well as of the rest of India, have a 
<ciiatom off perpetually keeping in the month 
a oettain leal called Temlul .... the lords 

and gentlefolks and the King haye these 
leaves prepared with camphor and other 
aromatic spices, and also mixt with quick- 
lime. . . . — Marco PolOf ii. 368. See also 
Abdiaraezdi, in India in XV » Cent,, p. 82. 

1498.— In Vasco da Qama's Roteiro, p. 59, 
the word used is atomboTf i.e. al-tamhal 
(Arab.) from the Skt. tdvibUta, See also 
Acosta, p. 189. [See TEMBOOL.] 

1510.— "This betel resembles the leaves 
of the sour orange, and thev are constantly 
eating it."— Far<^wn«, p. 144. 

1516.— "We caU this betel Indian leaf." * 
—Barboaoy 73. 

£1521.— * Bettre (or vettele)." See under 

1552.—". ... at one side of the bed 
. . . stood a man . . . who held in his 
hand a gold plate with leaves of betelle. 
. . "—DeBarroSf Dec. I. liv. iv. cap. viii. 

1568.— "We call it betre, because the 
first land known by the Portuguese was 
Malabar, and it comes to my romembrance 
that in rortugal they used to speak of their 
coming not to India, but to Calecut .... 
insomuch that in all the names that occur, 
which are not Portuguese, are Malabar, like 
betre."— G^arcia, f. ^g. 

1582.— The transl. of CcutaSleda by N. L. 
has betele (f . 85), and also vitele (f . 44). 

1585. — A King's letter grants the revenue 
from betel (betre) to the bishop and clergy 
of Qoa.— In Arch. PoH. Or., fasc. 3, p. 88. 

1615.— "He sent for Coco-Nuts to give 
the Company, himselfe chewing Bittle and 
lime of Oyster-shels, with a Kemell of Nut 
called Arracca^ like an Akome, it bites in 
the mouth, accords rheume, cooles the head, 
strengthens the teeth, k is all their 
Phisicke."— iStr T. Roe, in Purchas, i. 587 ; 
[with some trifling variations in Foster*t ed. 
(Hak. Soc.) i. 19]. 

1628. — "Celebratur in universo oriente 
radix quaedam vocata Betel, quam Indi et 
reliqui in ore habere et mandere consueve- 
runt, atque ex e& mansione mire recreantur, 
et ad labores tolerandos, et ad languores 
discutiendos .... videtur autem esse 
ex wurootidi, quia magnopero denigrat 
dentes." — Bacon, Bistoria Viiae et Mortis, 
ed. Amst. 1673, p. 97. 

1672.— " They pass the greater part of the 
day in indolence, occupied only with talk, 
and chewing Betel and Areca, by which 
means their lips and teeth are always 
stained." — P. di Vincemo Maria, 282. 

1677.— The Court of the-E. I. Co. in a 
letter to Ft. St. Georee, Dec. 12, dis- 
approve of allowing "Valentine Nurse 20 
Rupees a month for diet, 7 Rs. for house- 
rent, 2 for a cook, 1 for Beetle, and 2 for 
a Porter, which is a most extravagant rate, 
which we shall not allow him or any other." 
—Notes and Sxts., No. i. p. 21. 

1727.— "I presented the Officer that 

• Folium, indicwm of the druggist is, however, 
not MeZ. but the leaf of the wild cassia (see 



waited on me to the Sea-aide (at Calicut) 
with 6 Eeqneens for a feast of bettltt to him 
and his companions.'* — A» HamiUon^ i. 806. 

The name of a kind of muslin con- 
stantly mentioned in old trading-lists 
and narratives. This seems to be a 
Sp. and Port, word heattUa or beatHhoy 
for *a veil,' derived, according to 
Gobarruvias, from "certain beataSy who 
invented or used the like." Beaia is 
a reUgieiue. [" The Betilla is a certain 
kind of white £. I. chintz made at 
Masiilipatam, and known under the 
name of OrgandiJ* — Mad. Admin, Man, 
QUm, p. 233.] 

[1566.— A score BsratUhas, which were 
worth 200 pardaofl^"— Corren, iii. 479.] 

** Vestida huma camisa preciosa 

Trauda de delgada beatilha, 

Qae o corpo crystallino deiza ver-se ; 

Qae tanto bem nSo he para esoonder-ae." 
C<mae9, Ti. 21. 

1598. — '*. . . this linnen is of diyers 
sorts, and is called Serampuras, Cassas, 
Comsas, BeattUliaa, Satopassas, and a 
thousand such names." — LinKhoten^ 28 ; 
[Hak. Soc i. 95; and cf. i. 56]. 

1685.— *' To servants, 8 pieces beteelaM." 
—In Wheeler, i. 149. 

1727. — '* Before Aurungteb conquered 
Vitiapore, this country (Sundah) produced 
the finest Betfeeelas or Muslins in India." 
—A, Hamiiton, i. 264. 

[1788.— "There are various kinds of 
muslins brought from the East Indies, 
chiefly from Bengal: BetellM, &c."— 
Chambers' CycLy quoted in 8 ser. Note* Js Q. 
iv. 8».] 

BEWAUBIS, adj. P.— H. he-wdris^ 
* without heir.' Unclaimed, without 
heir or owner. 

BETPOOB. n.p. Properly Vejopur^ 
or Bippur, [derived from Malaval. 
veppuy * deposit,' ur, 'village,' a place 
formed by the receding of the sea, 
which has been turned into the Skt. 
form Vdyupurdy 'the town of the 
Wind-god']. The terminal town of 
the Madras Railway on the Malabar 
coast. It stands north of the river ; 
whilst the railway station is on the 
S. of the river— (see CHALIA). Tippoo 
Sahib tried to make a great port of 
Beypoor, and to call it Sultanpatnam. 

Ilt IS one of the many places which 
lave been suffgested as the site of Ophir 
(Logany Malabar^ i. 846X and is probably 
the BeUiporto of Tavemier, "where 

there was a fort which the Dutch had 
made with palms " (ed. Ball, I 235).] 

" Chamartf o Samorim mais gente nova ; 

Viiffo Beis de Biptur, e de Tanor. . ." 

CamSet, x. 14. 

1727.—" About two Leagues to the South- 
ward of (kU«ul, is a fine Biver caUed Bay- 
port, capable to receive ships of 8 or 400 
Tuns.'*— ^. BamilUm, L 822. 

BEZOAB, s. This word belongs, 
not to the A.-Indian colloquial, but to 
the language of old oriental trade and 
materia msdica. The word is a cor- 
ruption of the P. name of the thin^ 
pddMxhr, 'pellens venenum,* or pdssahr. 
The iirst form is given by Meninski as 
the etymology of the word, and ibis ia 
accepted by Littr^ [and the NJS.D.}, 
The quotations of Littr^ from Ambrose 
Par6 show that the word was used 
genericall^r for 'an antidote,' and in 
5ii8 sense it is used habitually by Avi- 
cenna. No doubt the term came to u& 
with so many others, from Arab medical 
writers, so much studied in the Middle 
Ages, and this accounts for the 6, as 
Arabic has no p^ and writes hdzahr. 
But its usual application was, and is» 
limited to certain hard concretions 
found in the bodies of animals, to which 
antidotal virtues were ascribed, and 
especially to one obtained from the 
stomach of a wild float in the Persian 
province of Lar. Of this animal and 
the batoar an account is given in 
Kaempfer's Amomitates ExoticaSy pp. 
3d8 aeqa. The B«6oar was sometimes 
called make-Stone, and erroneously 
supposed to be found in the head of 
a snake. It may have been called so 
really because, as Ibn Baithar states, 
such a stone was laid upon the bite of 
a venomous creature (and was believed) 
to extract the poison. Moodeen SheriftV 
in his Suppt. to the Indian Pharma- 
copoeia, says there are various hexoar^ 
in use (in native maJt, mecL), distin- 
guished according to the animal pro- 
ducing them, as a goat-, camel-, nish-,. 
and snake-&0ax)ar ; the last quite distinct 
from Snake-Stone (q.v.). 

[A false Bezoar stone save occasion, 
for the establishment of one of the 
great distinctions in our Common Law, 
viz. between actions founded upon oon* 
tract, and those founded upon wrongs : 
Chandekr v. Lopu9 was decided in 1G04 
(reported in 2. Oroke. and in SmUh't 
Lading Caie$). The head-note xtm»— • 




"The defendant aold to the plaintiff a 
stone, which he affirmed to be a Bezoar 
stone, but which proved not to be so. 
No action lies agftinst him, unless he 
either kxusw that it was not a Bezoar 
stone, or warranted it to be a Bezoar 
stone" (quoted by Qrcm, Pyrard de 
LavaL, Hak. Soc ii. 484).] 

1516L— Barboaa writes pajar. 

[1528. — "Near this city (Lara) in a small 
mountain are bred some animals of the 
sixe Off a bac^, in whose stomach grows a 
stone they call baar/'— T(»irem>, ch. iii 
p. 140 

ri5M.— C&kstanheda (I. ch. 46) calls the 
ammal whence becoar comes bagoldaf, which 
he considers an Indian word.] 

c. 1580.—" . . . adeo ut ex solis 
nonnnDa vasa oonflata viderim, mazime apud 
eos qui a yenenis sibi carere student." — 
Protper Alpwtw, Pt. i p. 56. 

1589.— "Body o* me, a shrewd mischance. 
Why, had you no unicorn's horn, nor 
beaoar's stone about you, ha ? " — B, Joruon, 
Every M<m omt qfkis Mwnour, Act r. sc 4. 

[ „ "Beiarsivebaar"; see quotation 
under MACE.] 

1605.— The King of Bantam sends K. 
James I. "two bwaar stones. "—<Siiiiiw6ttry, 
i. 14a 

1610.—' ' The Persian calls it, par excellence, 
Panliar, which is as much as to say 'anti- 
dote ' or more strictly ' remedy of poison or 
venom,' from IkJuw, which is the general 
name of any poison, and j^d, ' remedy ' ; and 
as the Arabic lacks the letter jp, they re- 
place it by hf or /, and so they say, instead 
of PdsoAor, BdtahaTf and we with a little 
additional corruption Beiar."— P. Teixetroy 
JUlaeiones, <lv., p. 157. 

1613.—". . . . elks, and great snakes, 
and apes of baar stone, and every kind of 
gtanevirSa."—Oodtnho de Eredia, lOv. 

1617. — ". . . late at night I drunke a 
Uttle beiae stone, which gave me much 
paine most parte of night, as though 100 
Wormes had byn knawing at my hart; 
yet it gave me ease afterward." — Cocks* s 
Diary, i. 301 ; [in i. 154 he speaks of "besa 

1634. — Bontius claims the etymology just 
quoted from Teixeira, erroneously, as his 
own.— Lib. W. p. 47. 

1673. — "The Persians then call this stone 
Paill]iar» being a compound of Pa and Za- 
kar, the first of which is against, and the 
other is Poywon.^—Fryer, 288. 

„ ' ' The Monkey Beioan which are long, 
are the best. . . /*—Ilnd. 212. 

1711. — "In this animal (Hog-deer of 
Soinatra, apparently a sort of chevrotain or 
Traaulut) is found the bitter Baioar, called 
Peebra di Porco Siacea, valued at ten times 
Hs Weight in Gold."— Xocifcyer, 49. 

1826.— "What is spikenard? what is 
mmniaif what is pahnrY compared even 

to a twinkle of a royal eye-lash ? "—Hajji 
Baba, ed. 1835, p. 148. 

BHAT, s. H. &c. hhOi (Skt. bhattaj 
a title of respect, probaSly connected 
with bhariri^ * a supporter or master *\ 
a man of a tribe of mixed descent^ 
whose members are professed genealo- 
ffists and poets; a bard. These men 
in Rajputana and Quzerat had also 
extraordinary privil^es as the guar- 
antors of travellers, whom they accom- 
panied, against attsick and robbery. See 
an account of them in Forbe/s Bd^ 
Mdldy I. ix. &c., reprint 558 seqq.y [for 
Beninl, Ridey, Tribes <b Castes, i. 101 
seqq,; for the N.W.P., Crookey Tribes tt 
CaiteSy ii. 20 seqq, 

[1554.— "Bats," see quotation under 

c. 1555.— "Among the infidel BanyiLns in 
this country (Guzerat) there is a class of 
literati known as B&tfl. These undertake 
to be gpiides to traders and other trayellers , 
. , . when the caravans are waylaid on 
the road by BOshbiUg, i,e, Indian horsemen, 
coming to pillage them, the BcU takes out 
his dagger, points it at his own breast, and 
says : * I nave become surety ! If aught 
befals the caravan I must kill myself ! ' On 
these words the R&shbflts let the caravan 
pass unharmed." — Sidi *Al%, 95. 

[1623.— "Those who perform the oflSce of 
Pneets, whom they call Boti."— /'. delta 
Valle, Hak. Soc. i. 80.] 

1775.— "The Hindoo rajahs and Mahratta 
chieftains have generally a Bhaut in the 
family, who attends them on public occa- 
sions . . . soTinds their praise, and pro- 
claims their tities in hyperbolical and figu- 
rative language . . . many of them have 
another mode of living; they offer them- 
selves as security to the different goyem- 
ments for payment of their revenue, and 
the good behaviour of the Zemindars, 
patels, and public farmers; they also be- 
come guarantees for treaties between native 
princes, and the performance of bonds by 
mdividuals."- ^ori«i, Or. Mem, ii. 89 ; [2nd 
ed. i. 877 ; also see ii. 258]. See TRAGA. 

1810.—" India, like the nations of Europe, 
had its minstrels and poets^ concerning whom 
there is the following tradition : At the mar- 
riage of Siva and Paryatty, the immortab 
haying exhausted adl the amusements then 
known, wished for something new, when 
Siva, wiping the drops of sweat from his 
brow, shook them to earth, upon which the 
Bawtt, or Bards, immediately sprang up." 
— Maria Graham, 169. 

1828.— "A *Bhat' or Bard came to ask a 
gratuity."— -fff6«r, ed. 1844, ii. 58. 

BHEEL, n.p. Skt. BhiUay H. BhU, 
The name of a race inhabiting the hills 
and forests of the V indhya, Malwa, and 




of the N.-Westem Deccan, and believed 
to have been the aborigines of Rajpii- 
tana ; some have supposed them to be 
the *uXXtTat of Ptolemy. They are 
closely allied to the Goolies (a. v.) of 
Guzerat, and are believed to belong to 
the Kolarian division of Indian abori- 
gines. But no distinct Bhil language 

1786.— *' A mo8t infernal yell suddenly 
iasued from the deep ravines. Our guides 
informed us that this was the noise always 
made by the BheelB previous to an attack." 
--Forhes, Or, Mem. iii. 480. 

1826.—'* AU the BheelB whom we saw to- 
day were small, slender men, less broad- 
shouldered . . . and with faces less Celtic 
than the Puharees of the Bajmidial. . . . 
Two of them had rude swords and shields, 
the remainder had all bows and arrows." — 
ffeber, ed. 1844, ii. 76. 

BHEEL, s. A word used in Bengal 
— bhil : a marsh or lagoon ; same as 
Jeel (q. V.) 

[1860. — '*The natives distinguish a lake so 
formed by a change in a river's course 
from one of usual origin or shape by calling 
the former a lowr — whilst the latter is termed 
a Bheel." — Grants Rural Life in Bengaly 36.] 

1879.— "Below Shouy-doung there used 
to be a big bheel, wherein I have shot a 
few duck, teal, and snipe." — Pollok, Sport 
in B. Burtnah, i. 26. 

BHEESTY, s. The univei*sal word 
in the Anslo-Indian households of 
N. India for the domestic 6corre- 
sponding to the saJbkd of Egypt) who 
supplies the family with water, carry- 
ing it in a mossui^ (^^')> ^^ go^^tskin, 
slun^ on his back. The word is P. 
hihiMty a person of hihisht or paradise, 
though the application appears to be 
peculiar to Hindustan. We have not 
i)een able to trace the history of this 
term, which does not apparently occur 
in the Ain, even in the curious account 
of the way in which water was cooled 
and supplied in the Court of Akbar 
(Blochmann, tr. i. 55 9eqq.), or in the 
old travellers, and is not given in 
Meninski's lexicon. Vullers gives it 
only as from Shakespear's Hindustani 
Diet. [The trade must be of ancient 
origin in India, as the leather bag 
is mentioned in the Veda and Manu 
(Wilson, Rig Veda, ii. 28; IrutUiUes, 
ii. 79.) Hence Col. Temple (Ind, Ant., 
xi. 117) suggests that the word is 
Indian, and connects it with the 
Skt. visk, *to sprinkle.*] It is one 
of the fine titles which Indian servants 

rejoice to bestow on one another, like 
Mektar, KKallfa, &c. The title in this 
case has some justification. No class 
of men (as all Anglo-Indians will 
agree) is so diligent, so faithful, so 
unobtrusive, aha uncomplaining as 
that of the hikuihiU, And often in 
battle thejr have shown their courage 
and fidebty in supplying water to 
the wounded in face of much personal 

[c. 1660. — "Even the menials and carriers 
of water belonging to that nation (the 
Pathans) are high-spirited and war-like." 
—Bendery ed. Conttable, 207.] 

1778.— '^Bheestee, Waterman" (etc.)— 
Fergutaon, Diet, qf the Hindostan Language, 

1781.— "I have the happiness to inform 
you of the fall of Bijah Qurh on the 9th 
mst. with the loss of only 1 sepoy, 1 beasty, 
and a cossy (? Cossid) killed . . ."—Letter 
in India OazetU of Nov. 24th. 

1782.— (Table of Wages in Calcutta), 
Consummah . . .10 Rs. 
Kistmutdar . . . 6 „ 
Beaity . 6 „ 

India Gazette, Oct. 12. 
Five Rupees continued to be the standard 
wage of a Inhishti for full 80 years after the 
date given. 

1810.—". . . If he carries the water 
himself in the skin of a goat, prepared for 
that purpose, he then receives the designa- 
tion of BheeBty."— Williamson, V,M, iTz29. 

1829.— " Dressing in a hurry, find the 
drunken bheesty . . . has mistaken your 
boot for the goglet in which you carry 
your water on the line of march." — Cafnp 
Miaeriei, in John Shipp, ii. 149. N.B.— We 
never knew a drunken hheeity. 

1878.— "Here comee a seal carrying a 
porpoise on its back. No ! it is only our 
friend the bheesty."- /n. vnf Indian Garden, 

" Of all them black-faced crew. 
The finest man I knew 
Was our regimental bhitti, Ganga Din." 
R, Kipling, Barrack-room Ballads, 

p. 28.] 

BHIKTY, s. The usual Calcutta 
na me for the fish LaJtes caloarifer. See 

[BH008A, s. H. Mahr. hhus, hhusa; 
the husks and straw of \'arious kinds 
of com, beaten up into chaff by the 
feet of the oxen on the threshing- 
floor ; used as the common food of 
cattle all over India. 

a 829.—" Every commune is surrounded 
I a circumvallation of thorns . . . and 
the stacks of bhooe, or 'chaff,' which are 




placed at intervals, ^ve it the appearance 
of a respectable fortifiaation. Theee hhoos 
stacks are erected to provide provender for 
the cattle in scanty rainy seasons."— r<x2, 
Anmals, Calcutta reprint, i. 787.] 

[BHOOT, s. H. &c., hhfd, hhiUa, Skt. 
hMita^ * formed, existent,' the common 
term for the multitudinous ghosts and 
demons of various kinds oy whom 
the Indian peasant is so constantly 

[1623.— *' All confessing that it was Bnto, 
«.«. the Devil."— P. della Voile, Hak. Soc. 
ii. 841.] 

[1826. — "The sepoys started up, and cried 
'Bphooh, b^hooky arry arry,' This cry of *a 

fhost' reached the ears of the officer, who 
id his men fire into the tree, and that would 
bring him down, if there." — Pandnrang Hari, 
ed. 1878, i. 107.] 

BHOUNSLA, n.p. Properly Bhas- 
lah or BKondahy the surname of Sivaji, 
the founder of the Mahratta empire. 
It was aL«o the surname of Parsoji 
and Raghuji, the founders of the 
Mahratta dynasty of Berar, though 
not of the same family as Siyaji. 

1678. — "Seva Gi, derived from an An- 
cient line of Rajahs, of the Cast of the 
BounoeloM, a Warlike and Active Off- 
spring." — Fryer y 171. 

c. 1730.—" At this time two pargaiuUy 
named Pilna and Sdfia, became the jagir of 
Sfliti Bhoslall. Sivaji became the manager. 
. . . He was distinguished in his tribe for 
courage and intelligence ; and for craft and 
trickery he was reckoned a sharp son of the 
devil."— .fiA4/t KhOn, in Elliot, vii. 267. 

1780. — *' It was at first a particular tribe 
governed by the family of Bhoflselah, 
which has since lost the sovereignty." — 
Stir MtUaqhtrin, iii. 214. 

1782. — " . . . le Bomolo, les Marates, 
et les Mogols." — SoMurat, i. 60. 

BHYACHARRA,s. U.lhaydchdrd, 
This is a term applied to settlements 
made with the village as a community, 
the several claims and liabilities being 
r^fulated by established customs, or 
special traditional rights. Wilson 
interprets it as ** fraternal establish- 
ments.'' TThis liardly explains the 
tenure, at least as found in tne N.W.P., 
and it would be difficult to do so 
without much detail. In its perhaps 
most common form each man's nolding 
is the measiure of his interest in the 
estate, irrespective of the share to 
which he may be entitled by ancestral 

BICHANA, 8. Bedding of any 
kind. H. bichhdnd. 

1689.— "The Heat of the Day is spent in 
RcKst and Sleeping . . . sometimes upon 
Cotts, and sometimes upon Bechanah% 
which are thick Quilts." — Ovingtofii, 313. 

BIDBEE, BIDBT, s. H. Bidrl; 
the name applied to a kind of orna- 
mental metal-work, made in the 
Deccan, and deriving its name from 
the city of Bidar (or Bedar), which 
was the chief place of manufacture. 
The work was, amonost natives, chiefly 
applied to hooka-oells, rose-water 
bottles and the like. The term has 
acquired vogue in England of late 
amongst amateurs of *'art manu- 
facture." The ground of the work 
is pewter alloyed with one-fourth 
copper : this is inlaid (or damascened) 
with .patterns in silver ; and then the 
pewter ^und is blackened. A short 
description of the manufacture is given 
by Dr. G. Smith in the Madras Lit. 
Soc. Joum., N.S. i. 81-84; [by Sir 
G. Birdwood, Indust, Arts, 163 seqq.y 
Joum. Ind. Arty i. 41 wgo.] The ware 
was first descrbed by B. Heyne in 1813. 

BLLABUNDY, s. H. Ulahandl. 
An account of the revenue settlement 
of a district, specifying the name of 
each mahal (estate), the farmer of it, 
and the amount of the rent {Wilson). 
In the N.W.P. it usually means an 
arrangement for securing the payment 
of revenue (Elliot). C. F. Brown saj-ft, 
quoting Raikes (p. 109X that the word 
is bUa^ndly * hole-stopping,' viz. stop- 
ping those vents through which the 
coin of the proprietor might ooze 
out. This, however, looks veiy like 
a * striving after meaning,' and Wilson's 
suggestion that it is a corruption of 
hekrt'handly from hekr%, *a share,' *a 
quota,' is probably right. 

[1858.— "This transfer of responsibility, 
from the landholder to his tenants, is called 
* Jumog Laadna, ' or transfer of jumma. The 
assembli^ of the tenants, for the purpose of 
such adjustment, is called zunjeer buwlee, or 
linking together. The adjustment thus made 
is called the bllabundee."— «S^/eei7tan>, Journey 
through Oudh, i. 208.] 

BILA7UT, BILIiAIT, &c. n.p. 
Europe. The word is properly Ar. 
Wildyaty *a kingdom, a province,' 
variously used with specific denotation, 
as the Afghans term their own country-: 




often by this name ; and in India 
;again it has come to be employed for 
distant Europe. In Sicily II Regno 
is used for the interior of the island, 
JBA we use Mofusnl in India. WildycU 
is the usual. form in Bombay. 

TEE PANEE. The adject, hildyati 
or loildyatt is applied specifically to a 
variety of exotic articles, e.g. iildycUi 
haingan (see BBINJAULX ^ ^^ tomato, 
and most especially hildyati pdnl, 
•European water,* the usual name for 
soda-water in Anglo-India. 

1885.—" * But look at us English/ 1 urged, 
*we are ordered thousands of miles away 
from home, and we go without a murmur.' 
* It is true, Khudavmndj* said Gunga Puraad, 
' but vou mhels drink English-water (soda- 
water), and the strength of it enables you 
to bear up under all fatigues and sorrows.' 
His idea (adds Mr. Knighton) was that the 
effervescing force of the sooa- water, and 
the strength of it which drove out the cork 
so violenSy, gave strength to the drinker of 
iV*^Titne8 of India Mail, Aug. 11, 1885. 

BILDAB, s. H. from P. helddr, «a 
spade-wielder,' an excavator or digging 
labourer. Term usual in the Public 
Works Department of Upper India 
for men employed in that way. 

'* Ye liyme is alle oute ! Ye Maaouns 
lounge aboute ! 
Ye B^dars have alle stnicke, and are 

smoaking atte their Eese ! 
Ye Brickes are alle done ! Ye Kyne are 
^ Skynne and Bone, 

And ye Threasurour has bolted with xii 
thousand Rupeese ! " 

Ye Drenie of an Executive Engineere. 

name {BalUch or Bih&ck) applied to the 
race inhabiting the regions west of the 
Lower Indus, and S.E. of Persia, called 
from them Biluchistdn; they were 
dominant in Sind till the English 
conquest in 1843. [Prof. Max Miiller 
{Lectures^ i. 97, note) identified the 
name with Skt. mleckcluL, used in the 
sense of the Greek pdpfiapoi for a 
• despised foreigner.] 

A.D. 643.— "In the year 32 H. 'Abdulla 
bin 'A'mar bin Rabi' mvaded Eirm&n and 
took the capital Kuw^bhir, so that the aid of 
' the men of Etlj and Baloj * was solicited in 
vain by the Kirmfois."— In Elliot, i. 417. 

c. 1200.— "He gave with him from Kanda- 
har and I&r, mighty Baloohis, servants. . . 
with nobles of many castes, horses, elephants, 
men, carriages, charioteers, and chariots." — 

The Poem of Chand BardAi, in Ind. Ani, L 

c. 1211.—" In the desert of Khabis there 
was a body ... of Bnlvdiis who robbed on 
the highway. . . . These people came out 
and carried off all the presents and rarities 
in his possession."— '{7e&t, in Elliol, ii. 198. 

1556.— " Weprooeeded to Gwftdir, a trad- 
ing town. The people here are called 
Buiy ; their prince was Malik Jalaluddin, 
son of Malik Dm&r."— ^uit *Ali, p. 73. 

[c. 1590.— "This tract is inhabited by an 
important Baloch tribe called Ealmam." — 
Axn, trans. Jarret, ii. 837.] 

1613.— The Boloefaot are of Mahomet's 
Religion. They dealo much in Camels, 
most of them robbers. . . ."—N. HluUing- 
tan, in Purchas, i. 435. 

1648. — " Among the BCachumatists next to 
the Pattans are the Blotias of great 
strength" f? Wtldyat%l—Van Twist, 58. 

1727.— "Thev were lodged in a Caramn- 
Mray, when the BalloiRdi68 came with 
about 800 to attack them; but they had 
a brave warm Reception, and left four 
Score of their Number dead on the Spot, 
without the loss of one Dutch Man." — A, 
Hamilton, i. 107. 

1813.— i/t/&unt caUs them Bloaches (Or. 
G<m. i. 145). 

1844. — " Officers must not shoot Peacocks : 
if thev do the Beloochot will shoot officers 
—at least so they have threatened, and 
M.-G. Napier has not the slightest doubt 
but that they will keep their word. There 
are no wild peacocks in Scinde, — they are 
all private propert]^ and sacred birds, and 
no man has any right whatever to shoot 
them."— (?«i. Orders by Sir C. Napier. 

BINE7-NAB0B, s. This title 
occurs in documents regarding Hyder 
and Tippoo, e,g. in GJen. Stewart's aesp. 
of 8th March 1799: "Mohanmied 
Rezza, the Binky Nabob." [Also see 
Wilks, Mysoor, Madras reprint, ii. 346.] 
It is properly benM-nawdb, from Canar- 
ese benJn, *hre,' and means the Com- 
mandant of the Artillery. 

given to various beautiful birds of the 
family Paradisddae^ of which many 
species are now known, inhabiting N. 
Guinea and the smaller islands adjoin- 
ing it. The laigest species was called 
by Linnaeus Paradimea apoda, in allu- 
sion to the fable that these birds had 
no feet ^the dried skins brought for 
sale to tne Moluccas having usually 
none attached to them). Tne name 
Mamicode which Buffon adopted for 
these birds occurs in the form Manu- 
codiata in some of the following quota- 
tions. It is a corruption of the Javanese - 




name Manuk-dewU^ 'the Bird of the 
Goda^' which our popular term renders 
with sufficient accuracy. [The Siamese 
word for ' bird,' according to Mr. Skeat^ 
is nok^ perhaps from momokJ] 

c 1490. — " In majori Java avis pneoipiia 
TeiMritiir sine pedibas, ixurtar palnm bi, pluma 
levi, eanda oolonga, Hamper in arboribus 
quieaoena: earo non editor, pellis et cauda 
babentor pretioaoreB, qoibtifl pro omamento 
capitis utontor."— i\r. tkmti, m Poggvut de 
VarUtate Fortumat, lib. iv. 

1562.^" The Kings of the said {Molncoas) 
began only a few years ago to behere in the 
immortality of aoola, taught by no other argu- 
mant than thia, that thej had seen a most 
beantifnl little bird, which never alighted 
on the ground or on any other terrestrial 
ol^eet, but which they had sometimes seen 
to oorae from the sky, that is to say, when 
H was dead and fell to the ground. And the 
Machoraetan traders who traffic in those 
jaLands assured them that this little bird was 
a native of Paiadisa^ and that Paradise was 
the place where the souls of the dead are ; 
and on this account the princes attached 
themselves to the sect of the Machometans, 
because it promised them many marvellous 
thsQgs regarding this place of souls. This 
Httle bird they called by the name of Mant^- 
codiata. . . ." — Letter of Maximilian of 
TroMsyivanta, Sec. to the Emp. Charles V., 
in RamunOf i. f . 851v ; see also f . 352. 

c 1524.— **He also (the K. of Bachian) 
save us for the King of Spain two most 
beautiful dead birds. These birds are as 
laige as thrushes; they have small heads, 
loDff beaks, legs slender like a writing pen, 
and a span in length; they have no wings, 
Imt instead of them long feathers of different 
4X>loar8, like plumes ; their tail is like that of 
the thruah. All the feathers, except those 
<d the wings (?), are of a dark colour ; they 
never fly except when the wind blows. They 
told OS that these birds come from the terres- 
trial Paradise, and they call them *holon 
dimata,* [burung-demUOf same as Javanese 
MaaMni-dewatOj ntjmi\ that is, divine birds." 
—PigafHtay Hak. Soc 148. 

1596.—". . . in these Hands (Moluccas) 
onlie is found the bird, which the Portingales 
oaU Pauaroe de Sol, that is Foule of the 
Sunne, the Italians call it Manu codiatat, and 
the Latinists Paradi$ea8y by us called Para- 
dioe birdss, for ve beauty of their feathers 
which passe al other birds : these birds are 
never scene alive, but being dead they are 
found vpon the Iland ; thev flie, as it is said, 
alwaies mto the Sunne, and keepe themselues 
continually in the ayre ... for they haue 
neither feet nor wings, but onely h€«d and 
bodie, and the most part tayle. . . ."— 
J^MjeAotai, 85 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 118]. 

^^ Olha cl( j>eloe mares do Oriente 

As infimtas ilhas espalhadas 

« • « %i « * • 

Aqui as aureas aves, que nfto deeem 
Nunoa 4). tern, e w6 mortas aparecem." 

CamOet, z. 182. 

£ng. shed by Burton : 

" Here see o'er oriental seas bespread 

infinite island-groups and alwhere 

strewed • ♦ • ♦ 

here dwell the golden fowls, whose home 
is air, 

and never earthward save in death may 

1646. — " . . . the male and female Manu- 
eodiojttu, the male having a hollow in the 
back, in which 'tis reported the female both 
laves and hatches her eggs." — Evelyn's D^iaryt 
4th Feb. ^ 

*' The strangest long-wing'd hawk that flies, 

That like a Bird of Paradise, 

Or herald's martlet, has no legs . . . ." 

Hudibras, Pt. ii. cant. 3. 

1591. — " As for the stonr of the Manuco* 
diata or Bizd of Paradus, which in the 
former Age was generally received and ac- 
cepted for true, even by the Learned, it is 
now discovered to be a fable, and rejected 
and exploded byall men" {i.e. that it has 
no feet],— Rap, Wisdom of Ood Manifested in 
ike Works of the Creation, ed. 1692, Pt. ii. 

1705.— "The Birds of Paradioe are about 
the bigness of a Pidgoon. They are of vary- 
ing Colours, and are never found or seen 
ahve ; neither is it known from whence they 
come . . . ." — Funnel, in Dampier's Voyages, 
iii. 266-7. 

1868.— <^When seen in this attitude, the 
Bird of Paradise really deserves its name, 
and must be ranked as one of the most 
beautiful and wonderful of living things." — 
Wallace, Malay Archip,, 7th ed., 464. 

BIBD8' NESTS. The famous 
edible nests, formed with mucus, by 
certain swiftlets, Gollocalia nidifica, and 
C. Unchi. Both have long been known 
on the eastern coasts of the B. of Ben^, 
in the Malay Islands [and, according 
to Mr. Skeat in the islands of the In* 
land Sea (Tafo Sap) at Singora]. The 
former is also now known to visit 
Darjeeling, the Assam Hills, the 
Western Ghats, &c., and to breed on 
the islets off IVfalabar and the Concan. 

BISOOBBA, s. H. biskhoprd or 
biMa^d. The name popularly applied 
to a larce lizard alleged, and commonly 
believeo, to be mortally venomous. It 
is very doubtful whether there is any 
real lizard to which this name applies, 
and it may be taken as certain that 
there is none in India with the qualities 
attributed. It is probable that the 
name does carry to many the terrific 
character which the ingenious author 
of Tribea on My Frontier alle^. But 
the name has nothing to do with either 




bis in the sense of * twice,' or cobra in 
that of * snake.' The first element is 
no doubt biflh, (Q-v.) 'poison,' and the 
second is probably khioprd, *a shell or 
skull.' [See /. L. Kipling^ Beast and 
Man in India (p. 317), who gives the 
scientific name as varanus dra^nena^ 
and says that the name biscobra is 
sometimes applied to the lizard gener- 
ally known as the ghorpady for which 
see OUANA.] 

1883.— "But of all the things on earth 
that bite or sting, the palm belongs to the 
biflcotnnt, a creature whose very name seems 
to indicate that it is twice as bad as the 
cobra. Though known by the terror of its 
name to natives and Europeans alike, i^ 
has never been described in the Proceedings 
of any learned Society, nor has it yet re- 
ceived a scientific name. . . . The awful 
deadliness of its bite admits of no question, 
being supported by countless authentic in- 
stances. . . The points on which evidence 
is reqxured are — first, whether there is any 
such animal ; second, whether, if it does 
exist, it is a snake with legs, or a lizard 
without them."— Tribes on my Frontier, 
p. 205. 

BIflH, BIEH, &c., n. H. from Skt. 
vishay 'poison.' The word has several 
specific applications, as (a) to the 
poison of various species of aconite, 
particularly Aconitum ferox^ otherwise 
more specifically called in Skt, vatsa- 
ndbha, * calf's navel,' corrupted into 
ba>chndbh or baeh/ndg, &c. But it is 
also applied (b) in the Himalaya to the 
effect of the rarefied atmosphere at 
great heights on the body, an effect 
which there and over Central Asia is 
attributed to poisonous emanations 
from the soil, or from plants ; a 
doctrine somewhat naively accepted by 
Hue in his famous narrative. The 
Central Asiatic (Turki) expression for 
this is Esh, ' smell.' 

a. — 

1554.— *'Entre les singularity que le 
consul de Florentins me monstra, me feist 
gouster vne racine que les Arabes nomment 
Bitch : laquelle me causa si grande chaleur 
en la boudie, qui me dura deux iours, qu'il 
me sembloit y auoir du feu. . . . EUe est 
bien petite comme vn petit naueau: les 
autres {auteurst) I'ont nomm^ JVapdlvs 
. . "—Fiare Belon, Obtervations, <fcc., 
f. 97. 


1624.— Antonio Andrada in his journey 
across the Him&laya, speaking of the suffer- 
ings of travellers from the potoonoiu emaiia- 
UoiUI.--See Ritter, Afioi., iii. 444. 

1661-2.— ** Est autem Langur mon» 
omnium altissimus, ita ut in summitate 
ejus viatores vix respirare ob aSris subtilit- 
atim queant: neque in ob vlnilentaB non- 
nullarum herbarom ezhalatl<ma8 aestivo 
tempore, sine manifesto vitae pericnlo trans- 
ire possit." — PP, Dorville and OrueboTy^ in 
KircheTy China Illuttrata, 65. It is ourious- 
to see Uiese intelligent Jesuits recognise the 
true cause, but accept the fancy of their 
guides as an additional one 1 

(?) *'La partie 8up€rieure de cette mon- 
tagne est remplie d'ezhalaiaoDB pettilenti- 
ellM." — Chinese Itinerary to MlcuaOy in 
Klaprothy Magadn Asiatiqvey ii. 112. 

1812.— ** Hero begins the Esh— this is a 
Turkish word signifying Smell ... it 
implies 8omethin|f the odour of which 
induces indisposition; far from hence 
the breathing of horse and man, and 
especially of uie former, becomes affected.'* 
—Mir Izzet Ullah, in J. R, At, Soc. i. 283. 

1815. — *'Many of the coolies, and several 
of the Mewatteie and Ohoorkha sepoys and 
chuprasees now lagged, and every one com- 
plained of the bl8 or poisoned wind. I now 
suspected that the supposed poison wa» 
nothing more than the effect of the rarefac- 
tion of the atmosphere from our great 
elevation." — Frasery Journal of a Tour, dx,, 
1820, p. 442. 

1819.— "The difficultv of breathing which 
at an earlier date Andrada, ana more 
recently Moororof t had experienced in this 
region, was confirmed by Webb ; the Butia» 
themselves felt it, and call it bis Id huwa, 
i.e, poisonous air ; even horses and yak» 
. . . suffer from it." — IFe66'* Narrativey 
quoted in RiUtry Atien.y ii. 532, 649. 

1845. — "Nous arrivamee k neuf heures 
au pied du Bourhan-Bota. La caravane 
s'arrdta un instant . . . on se montrait avec 
anxi^t^ un gaz subtil et l^ger, qu'on nom- 
mait vapour i>eBtilentleIle, et tout le monde 
paraissait abattu et d^courag^ . . . Bientot 
les chevaux se refusent a porter leurs 
cavaliers, et chacun avanoe k pied et k 
petits pas . . . tous les visages bl^missent, 
on sent le cceur s'affadir, et les jambes ne 

rvent plus fonctionner . . . Une partie 
la troupe, par meeure de prudence 
s'arrdta . . . le reste par prudence aussi 
^puisa tous les efforts pour arriver jusqu'an 
bout, et ne pas mourir asphyxia an milieu 
de cet air charg^ d'acide carbonique," &c.. 
Hue et Odbety ii. 211 : [E. T., ii. 11?). ' 

[BISMILLAH, intj., lit. '<In the 
name of God " ; a pious ejaculation 
used by Mahommedans at the com- 
mencement of any undertaking. The 
ordinary form runs — Bi-'erm ^Udhi 
'r-mhTnani 'r-rahim^ ix. " In the name 
of Qod, the Compassionate, the Merci- 
ful," is of Jewish origin, and is used 
at the commencement of meals, putting 
on new clothes, beginning any new- 
work, &c. In the second form, used 



at the time of going into battle or 
alanghtering animals, the allusion to 
the attribute of mercy is omitted. 

[1535.— "As they were kiUed after the 
Portuguese manner without the bysmelai 
which they did not say over them." — CorreOt 
m, 746.] 

NUOGEB, n.p. These and other 
forms stand for the name of the 
ancient city which was the capital 
of the most important Hindu kingdom 
that existed in the peninsula of uidia. 
daring the later Middle Ages, ruled 
by the Rdya dynasty. The place is 
now known as Humpy (Hampi), and 
is entirely in ruins. [The modern 
name is corrupted from PampOy that 
of the river near which it stood. 
(iStce, Mysore^ ii. 487.)1 It stands on 
the S. of the Tungabhadra R., 36 m. 
to the N.W. of Bellary. The name 
is a corruption of Vijayanagara (City 
of Victory), or Vidyanagara (City of 
learning), [the latter and earlier name 
being changed into the former (Rice^ 
Ibid. L 342, note).] Others believe 
that the latter name was applied only 
fiince the place, in the 13th century, 
became the seat of a great revival of 
Hindnism, under the famous Sayana 
Midhava, who wrote commentaries on 
the Vedas, and much besides. BoUi the 
city and Uie kingdom were commonly 
called Iw the early Portuguese Naarsiiiga 
(q.v.X from Ncmuimha (c. 1490-1508), 
wno was king at the time of their 
first arrival. TRice gives his dates as 

c. 1420. — "Profectus hino est procnl a 
mari milliaribus treoentis, ad ci«4atem 
insentem, nomine BinnegaUain, ambita 
mUliamm sezaginta, circa praeniptos montes 
aitam."— Cbn/t, in Poggius de Var. For- 
tunae, iv. 

1442. — '*. . . the chances of a maritime 
voyage had led Abd-er-rasEak, the author 
of this work, to the city of Bi4)anagar. 
He saw a place extremely laige and thickly 
peopled, and a King possessing greatness 
and sovereignty to the highest decree, whose 
domimon extends from the frontier of 
Serendib to the extremity of the county 
of Kalbeagah— from the frontiers of Bengal 
to the environs of Maiahar/^^Abdurrazzdk, 
mlndiainZV. CenL,22. 

e. 1470.— '* The Hindu sultan Kadam is 
a very powerful prince. He possesses a 
numerous army, and resides on a mountain 
at Biftheneghwr. ^'—Athan, NikUin^ in India 

1516.— "46 leagues from these mountains 

inland, there is a very great city, which 
is called ByailAgher. . . ,"—BarhoM, 85. 

1611. — "Le Roy de Bisnagar, mi'on 
appelle aussi quelouefois le Rov de Nar- 
an^ est puissant. — Wytjliet, U, det Indea^ 

BI80N, s. The popular name, 
among Southern Anglo-Indian sports- 
men, of the great wild-ox called in 
Bengal gaur and gavidl (Gavaeus aaurus^ 
Jercfon) ; [Bos gaums, Blanfordl. It 
inhabits sparsely all the large lorests 
of India, from near Cape Comorin to 
the foot of the Himalayas (at least 
in their Eastern portion), and from 
Malabar to Tenasserim. 

1881. — "Once an unfortunate native 
superintendent or mistari [BEiaistzy] was 
pounded to death by a savage and solitary 
bison."— iSoty. Review, Sept. 10, p. 335. 

BLACAN-MATEE, n.p. This is 
the name of an island adjoining 
Singapore, which forms the beautiful 
* New Harbour * of that port ; Malav 
biddkan^, or blakang-matty lit. 'Deaa- 
Back island,' [of which, writes Mr. 
Skeat, no satisfactory explanation has 
been given. According to Dennjrs 
{Discr, Did,, 61 X ^' one explanation is 
that the Southern, or as regards 
Singapore, hinder, face was so un- 
healthy that the Malays gave it a 

--_-^__ion signifying by ^ ., 

that death was to be found behind 
its ridge"]. The island (Blacan-mcUt) 
appears in one of the charts of Godinho 
de Eredia (1613) published in his 
Malacca &c. ^Brussels, 1882X and 
though, from tne excessive looseness 
of such old charts, the island seems 
too far from Singapore, we are satis- 
fied after careful comparison with the 
modem charts that the island now so- 
called, is intended. 

BLAOK, s. Adj. and substantive 
denoting natives of India. Old- 
fashion^ and heard, if still heard, 
only from the lower class of Euro- 
peans ; even in the last generation 
its habitual use was chiefly confined 
to these, and to old officers of the 
Queen's Army. 

[1614.— ** The 5th ditto came in a ship 
from Mollacco with 28 Portugals and 3o 
msudkE.^-'Fottary Letters, ii. 81.J 

1676. — "We do not approve of your 
sending any persons to St. Helena against 
their wills. One of them you sent there 
makes a great complaint, and we have 




ordered his liberty to return again if he 
desires it; for we know not what effect 
it may have if complaints should be made 
to the King that we send away the natives ; 
besides that it is against our inclination to 
buy^ an;^ blacks, and to transport them from 
their wives and children without their own 
oonaent "^Court*t Letter to Ft, St, Geo,, in 
Notes and Ext», No. i. p. 12. 

1747. — ^'Vencatachlam, the Commanding 
Officer of the Black Military, having be- 
haved very commendably on several occa- 
sions against the French ; In consideration 
thereof Agreed that a Present be made him 
of 8ijc hundred Rupees to buy a Horse, 
that it may encourage him to act in like 
manner."—/^. St. David Cons,, Feb. 6. 
(MS. Record, in India Office). 

1750. — '* Having received information that 
some Blacks residing in this town were 
dealing with the French for ffoods proper 
for the Europe market, we told them if we 
found any proof against any residing under 
your Honors' protection, that such should 
suffer our utmost displeasure." — Ft, Wm. 
Cons., Feb. 4, in Long, 24. 

1753. — "John Wood, a free merchant, 
applies for a pass which, if refused him, he 
says 'it will reduce a free merchant to the 
condition of a foreigner, or indeed of the 
meanest black fellow.'"—^/. Wm, Cons,, in 
Long, p. 41. 

1761. — "You will also receive several 
private letters from Hastings and Sykes, 
which must convince me as Circumstances 
did me at the time, that the Duteh forces 
were not sent with a View only of defend- 
\D^ their own Settlements, but absolutely 
with a Design of disputing our Influence and 
Possessions; certain Ruin must have been 
the Consequence to the East India Company. 
The^ were raising black Forces at I^tna, 
Cossimbazar, Chinsura, &c., and were 
working Night and day to oompleat a Field 
Artillery ... all these preparations 
previous to the commencement of Hos- 
tilities plainly prove the Dutch meant to 
act offensively not defensively." — Holograph 
Letter from Glive (unpublished) in the India 
Office Records. Baled Berkeley Square, 
and indorsed "27th Deer. 1761." 

1762.— "The Black inhabitants send in a 
petition setting forth the great hardship 
they labour under in being required to sit 
as arbitrators in the Court of Cuteherry." — 
Ft. Wm. Cons,, in Long, 277. 

1782.— See quotation under Sepoy, from 

„ "... the 85th Regiment, commanded 
by Major Popham, which had lately behaved 
in a mutinous manner . . . was broke with 
infamy. . . . The black officers with halters 
about their necks, and the sepoys stript of 
their coats and turbands were drummed out 
of Uie Cantonments."— /n<iia Gazette, March 

1787. — "As to yesterday's particular 
churge, the thing that has made me most 
inveterate and unrelenting in it is only that 
it related to cruelty or oppression inflicted 

on two black ladies. . . ,'*—Lofd Minto, in 
Life, dx,, i. 128. 

1789. — " I have just learned from a Friend 
at the India House, y^ the object of Treves' 
ambition at present is to be appointed to 
the AdatUet of Benares, w^^ is now held by a 
Black named Alii Caun. Understanding 
that most of the Adaiblets are now held by- 
Europeans, and as I am informed y^ it is tho 
intention y^ the Europeans are to be so 
placed in future, I a^ be vastly happy if 
without committing any injustice you c^ 
place young Treves in y* situation." — Oeorge 
P, of Wales, to Lord Comwallis, in CC'r 
Correap, ii. 29. 

1832-3.— "And be it further enacted that 
... in all captures which shall be made 
by H. M.'s Army, Royal Artillery, pro- 
vincial, blad^ or other troops. . . ." — Act 
2 & 3 WiU. IV., ch. 53, sec. 2. 

The phrase is in use among natives, 
we know not whether originating with 
them, or adopted from the usage of 
the foreigner. But Kala Odmi 'black 
man,' is often used by them in speak- 
ing to Europeans of other natives. A 
case in point is perhaps worth record* 
ing. A statue of Lord William 
Bentinck, on foot, and in bronze, 
stands in front of the Calcutta Town 
ELall. Many years ago a native ofiELcer, 
returning from duty at Calcutta to 
Barracbpore, where his regiment was, 
reportect himself to his adjutant ^from 
wnom we had the story in later aays). 

* Anything new, Subadar, Sahib f said 
the Adjutant. * Yes,' said the Subadar, 

* there is a figure of the former Lord 
Sahib arrived.' *And what do you 
think of it r * iStifcift,' said the Subadar, 
^abhi hai kala admi kd «2, jah poUi 
ho jaegd jah achckhd hogd / ' (* It is now 
just Hke a native — * a blade man ') ; 
when the whitewash is applied it will 
be excellent.' 

In some few phrases the term has 
become crystallised and semi-officiaL 
Thus the native dressers in a hospital 
were, and possibly still are, called 
Black Doctors. 

1787.— * * The Surgeon's assistant and Bla4dc 
Doctor take their station 100 paces in the 
rear, or in any place of security to whidi 
the Doolies may readily oany the wounded." 
—RegulaHons for the H, C,s Troops oa ike 
Coast of Coromandel. 

In the following the meaning is 
special : 

1788.— "Jfbr Sale, That small upper- 
roomed Garden Honse, with abont 5 txig> 
ffahs (see BEEOAH) of ground, on the road 
leading from Cheringhee to the Burying 
Qronnd, which formerly belonged to the 




MoraviaiLB; it is very, private, from the 
number of trees on the ground, and havine 
lately received considerable additions and 
repairs, is well adapted for a Black Family. 
or Apply to Mr. Camac"— /» StUm- 
Aorr. 1. 282. 

BLACK AGT. This was the name 
^ven in odium by the non-official 
Europeans in India to Act XI., 1836, 
of the Indian Legislature, which laid 
down that no person should by reason 
of his place of oirth or of his descent 
be, in any civil proceeding, excepted 
from the jurisdiction of the Courts 
named, viz. : Sudder Dewanny Adawlut, 
Zillah and City Judge's Courts, Princi- 
pal Sudder Ameens, Sudder Ameens, 
and Moonsifi's Court, or, in other 
words, it placed European subjects on 
a level with natives as to their subjec- 
tion in civil causes to all the Compan^s 
Courts, including those under Native 
Judges. This Act was drafted by T. B. 
Macaulay, then Legislative Member 
of the Qovemor-Qenerars Council, 
and brought ^reat abuse on his head. 
Recent agitation caused by the ** Ilbert 
BiU," proposing to make Europeans 
subject to native ma^trates in regard 
to police and criminal charges, has 
been, by advocates of the latter 
measure, put on all fours with the 
agitation of 1836. But there is much 
that discriminates the two cases. 

1876.— "The motive of the scurrility with 
which Macaulay was assailed by a handful 
of sorry scribblers was his advocacy of the 
Act, ftuniliarly known as the Black Act, 
which withdrew from British subjects 
residont in the provinces their so called 
privilege of bringing civil appeals b^ore the 
Supreme Court at Calcutta.'*— TVew/yaTi'x 
Life ofMaeoMiay, 2nd ed., i. 898. 

[BLACK BEEB, s. A beverage 
mentioned by early travellers in Japan. 
It was probably not a malt liquor. Dr. 
Aston suggests that it was kuro-hij a 
dark-coloured aak^ used in the service 
of the Shinto gods. 

P616.-" One jar of Uaok beer.' 
LeiUen, iv. 270.] 


BLAOK-BUGE; s. The ordinary 
name of the male antelope {Antilope 
haoarUcOy Jerdon) [A, cervicaprOy Blan- 
fordl from the dark hue of its back, 
by no means however literally black. 

1090.— "The Indians remark, 'tis Sep- 
tember's Sttn which canted the black lines 
on the Antelopes* Backs.**— Chington, 139. 


[BLAGK JEWS, a term applied to 
the Jews of S. India ; see 2 ser. N. A Q., 
iv. 4. 429 ; viii. 232, 418, 521 ; Logmy 
Malabar^ i. 246 seqq.] 

fashioned expression, for Hindustani 
and other vernaculars, which used to 
be common among officers and men of 
the Royal Army, but was almost con- 
fined to them. 

popular Indian name of the common 
francolin of S.E. Europe and Western 
Asia {Francolinus vulgaris^ Stephens), 
notable for its harsh quasi-articulate 
call, interpreted in various parts of the 
world into very different syllables. 
The rhythm of the call is fairly re- 
presented by two of the imitations 
which come nearest one another, viz. 
that given by Sultan Baber (Persian^ : 
^Shlr daram, skahrak^ (Tve got milk 
and sugar ' I) and (Hind.) one given by 
Jerdon ; * Lahsan piydz adrak ' (* Garlic, 
onion, and ginger !) A more pious one 
is : Khudd teri kudrat, ' Qoa is thy 
strength ! ' Another mentioned by 
Capt. Baldwin is very like the truth : 
* Be quick, pay your aebts ! ' But per- 
haps the Greek interpretation recoraed 
by Athenaeus (ix. 39) is best of all : 
rpls ToTs KOKOJ^pyois xaxd * Three-fold ills 
to the ill-doers ! * see Marco Poloy Bk. i. 
ch. xviii. and note 1 ; [Burton, Jr. 
NighUy iii. 234, iv. 17]. 

BLAGK TOWN. n.p. Still the 
popular name of the native city of 
Madras, as distinguished from the JPort 
and southern suburbs occupied by the 
English residents, and the bazars 
which supply their wants. The term 
is also used at Bombay. 

1678. — Frver calls the native town of 
Madras **the Heathen Town," and "the 
Indian Town." 

1727.— *' The Black Town (of Madras} 
is inhabited by Oentotot. MahometafiSy and 
Indian C^uristians. ... It was walled in to- 
wards the Land, when (Governor Pit ruled 
it."— -4. ffamilUmy i. 867. 

1780.— "Adjoining the glacis of Fort St. 
George, to the northward, is a large town 
oommonlv called the Black Town, and 
which is fortified sufficiently to prevent any 
surprise by a body of horse." — Hodges^ p. 6. 




1780.—" . . . Cadets upon their arrival in 
the country, many of whom . . . are obliged 
to take up their residence in dirty punch- 
houses in the Black Town. . /' — Munro't 
Narrative, 22. 

1782.— "When Mr. Hastings came to the 
government he added some new regulations 
. . . divided the blaok and white town 
(Calcutta) into S5 wards, and purchased the 
consent of the natives to go a little further 
off." — Price, Some Observations, <fcc., p. 80. 
In TVxMJte, vol. i. 

[1818.— "The laige bazar, or the street in 
the Black Town, (Bombay) . . . contained 
many good Asiatic houses." — Forbes, Or, 
Mem., 2nd ed., i. 96. Also see quotation 
(1809) under BOMBAY.] 

1827.— "Hartley hastened from the 
Black Town, more satisfied than before 
that some deceit was about to be practised 
towards Menie GrsLy,'*— Walter Scott, The 
Surgeon's Daughter, ch. xi. 

BLAOK WOOD. The popular 
name for what is in England termed 

* rose-wood ' ; produced chiefly by 
several species of Dalbergta, and from 
which the celebrated carved furniture 
of Bom1)av is made. [The same name 
is appliea to the Chmese ebony used 
in carving (BaU^ Things Chinese^ 3rd 
ed., 107).] (See SISSOO.) 

[1616.— "Her lading is Blaok Wood, I 
thmk ebony."— Cocfti'a Diary, Hak. Soc. i. 36. 

[1818.— "Black wood furniture becomes 
like heated metal."— i'orftc*, Or, Mem,, 2nd 
ed., i. 106.] 

1879.— (In Babylonia). "In a mound to the 
south of tne mass of city ruins called Jum- 
juma, Mr. Rassam discovered the remains 
of a rich hall or palace . . . the cornices 
were of painted brick, and the roof of rich 
Indian blackwood."— ^<A«ia««m, July 6, 22. 

BLANKS, 8. The word is used for 

* whites * or ' Europeans ' (Port, hraiico) 
in the following, but we know not if 
anywhere else in English : 

1718.— "The Heathens ... too shy to 
venture into the Churches of the Blanks (so 
they call the Christians), since these were 
generally adorned with fine deaths and all 
manner of proud apparel."— (Zie^en&i^ and 
Plulscho), Propagatwti of the Gomel, Sx. Pt. 
I., 3rd ed., p.70r 

[BLATTY, adj. A coT T.ol'mlayail, 
•foreign' (see BILAYUT). A name 
applied to two pknts in S. India, 
the SoMMToJbia acida, and HydroUa 
zeylanica (see Mad. Admin, Man. Gloss. 
8. v.). In the old records it is applied 
to a kind of cloth. Owen (JVarmiitw, i. 
349) iises Blat as a name for the land- 
wind in Arabia, of which the origin is 
perhaps the same. 

[1610.— "Blatty, the corge Rs. 060."— 
Danvers, LetUrs, i. 72.] 

BLIMBEEt s. Malay al. vilimbi ; H. 
belambu [or hilamM; 1 Malay, hdlimbiruj 
or helivwing. The fruit of Averrhoa 
bilirrdn, L. The genus was so called 
by Linnoeus in honour of Averrhoes^ 
tlie Arab commentator on Aristotle and 
Avicenna. It embraces two species 
cultivated in India for their fruits ; 
neither known in a wild state. See 
for the other CABAMBOLA.. 

BL00D-8IJGEEB, s. A liarmless 
lizard (La4;erta cristata) is so called, 
because when excited it changes in 
colour (especially about the neck) from 
a dirty yellow or grey, to a dark red. 

1810. — "On the mom, however, I dis- 
covered it to be a large lizard, termed a 
blood-fllicker. "—3forto7t'« Life of Leyden, 

[1813.— "The large seroor, or laoerta, 
commonly lulled the bloodancker."— i^or6e9, 
Or. Mem. i. 110 (2nd ed.).] 

BOBAGHEE, s. A cook (male). 
This is an Anglo- Indian vulgarisation 
of bdioarchly a term originally brought, 
according to Hammer, by the hordes 
of Chingiz Ehan into Western Asia. 
At the Mongol Court the Bdtoarchi 
was a high dignitary, *Liord Sewer' 
or the like ^ee Hammer's Golden 
Horde, 235, 461). The late Prof. A. 
Schiefner, however, stated to us that 
he could not trace a Mongol origin 
for the word, which appears to be Or. 
Turki. [Platts derives it from P. 
ftattwr, * confidence.*] 

o. 1333.—" Chaque €mir a un b&werdjy, et 
lors(^ue la table a ^te dress^ cet omcier 
s'assied devant son mattre . . . le bdAoerdjy 
coupe la viande en petits morceaux. Cos 

Sens-Uk possMent une grande habilet^ pour 
€pecer la viande." — /fra Baluta^ ii. 407. 
c. 1590. — BftwtochI is the word used for 
cook in the original of the A\n {BlockmaniCs 
Eng. Tr. i. 58). 

1810.—". . . the dripping ... is returned 
to the meat by a bunch of feathers . . . tied 
to the end of a short stick. This little neat, 
cUanly, and cheap dripping-ladle, answers 
admirably ; it bemg in the power of l^e 
babachy to baste any part with great -pre' 
ciaion.*'-^Will{amMm, V. M. i. 238. 

" And every night and morning 
The bobachM shall kill 
The sempiternal moorgkee^ 
And well all have a grill." 

The iJawk Bungalow, 228. 





BdtDarcJu'khdnOy * Cook-house,' t.e. 
Kitchen ; generally in a cottage de- 
tached from the residence of a Euro- 
pean household. 

[1829.— "In defiance of all Bawnrchee- 
kbiana roles and regulations."— Or. Sport 
Mag,, i. 118.] 

BOBBEBY, 8. For the origin see 
BOBBEBY-BOB> A noise, a disturbance, 
a row. 

[1710.— "And beat with their hand on the 
month, makinff a certain noise, which we 
Portuguese caB babaxe. Babare is a word 
composed of hahoy *a child ' and dne, an ad- 
verb impl^ng *to call,*" — OrietUe Conquu- 
tadoj vol ii. ; CanquistOf i. div. i. sec. 8.J 

1830. — "When the band stmck up (my 
Arab) was much fxjffhtened. made bobbery, 
set his foot in a nole ana nearly pitched 
me."— Mem. qfCol. Mountain, 2nd ed., 106. 

1866.— "But what is the meaning of all 
this bobbny?"— rA« Dawk Bungalow, 
p. 387. 

Bobbery is used in * pigeon English,' 
and of course a Chinese origin is found 
for it, viz. pa-j», Cantonese, *a noise.' 
[The idea that there is a similar 
English word (see 7 ser. N. ds Q., v. 
206, 271, 338, 416, 613) is rejected by 
the N.E.D,'] 

BOBBEBY-BOB! interj. The 
Anglo-Indian colloquial representation 
of a common exclamation of Hindus 
when in surprise or grief—' Bap-rd ! or 
Bap-re Bap,'*0 Father!' (we have 
known a friend from north of Tweed 
whose ordinary interjection was 'Mv 
sreat-grandmouier ! '). Blumenroth's 
FKilijppine Vocabulary gives Nac(i/= 
Madre mia, as a vulgar exclamation of 

1782.—" Gaptain Cowe being again exam- 
ined . . . if he had any opportunity to make 
any observations oonoenung the execution 
of Nundoomar ? said, he had ; that he saw the 
whole except the immediate act of execu- 
tion . . . there were 8 or 10,000 people 
assembled : who at the moment the Raiah 
was tnmea off, dispersed suddenly, crying 
'Ah-bauparael* leaving nobody about the 
gallows but the Sheriff and hb attendants, 
and a few European spectators. He ex- 
plains the term Ah-baup-areo, to be an 
exclamation of the blaok people, upon the 
appearance of anything ver^ alarming, and 
when they are in g^reat pain."— Price** 2nd 
Lttter to £. Btirie, p. 5. In Tracts, vol. ii. 

„ " If an Hindoo was to see a house on 
fire, to receive a smart slap on the face, 
break a china basin, cut his finger, see two 
Emropeans boxing, or a sparrow shot, he 

would call out Ah-banp-aree ! " — From 
Report of Select Committee of H. of C, Ibid. 
pp. 9-10. 

1884.— "They both hastened to the spot, 
where the man la]^ senseless, and the syce 
by his side muttering B&pre b&pre."— TAc 
Baboo, i. 48. 

1868-64. — **My men soon became aware 
of the unwelcome visitor, and raised the cry, 
' A bear, a bear ! * 

"Ahil bap-re-bap I Oh, my father! go 
and drive him away,' said a timorous voice 
from under a blanket close by." — Lt.'Col. 
Leufin, A Fly on the Wheel, 142. 

BOBBEEY-PAGEI, s. A pack of 
hounds of different breeds, or (oftener) 
of no breed at all, wherewith young 
officers hunt jackals or the like ; pre- 
sumably so called from the noise and 
disturbance that such a pack are apt 
to raise. And hence a ' scratch pack ' 
of any kind, as a * scratch match' at 
cricket, &c. (See a quotation under 

1878. — ** ... on the mornings when the 
'bobbera' pack went out, of which Mac- 
pherson was 'master,' and I 'whip,' we 
used to be up by 4 A.M."— Lt/« in the Mofue- 
til, i. 142. 

The following occurs in a letter re- 
ceived from an old Indian by one of 
the authors, some years ago : 

"What a Cabinet has put together f 

—a regular bobbery-paok." 

BOCGA TIGBI8, n.p. The name 
applied to the estuary of the Canton 
^ver. It appears to be an inaccurate 
reproduction of the Portuguese Boca 
do Ttgre^ and that to be a rendering 
of the Chinese name Hu-mirij "Ti{;er 
Gkite." Hence in the second quotation 
Tigris is supposed to be the name of 
the river. 

1747.— " At 8 o'clock we nassed the Bog of 
Tytnan, and at noon the Lyon's Tower. '— 
A Voy. to the E. Indies in 1747 and 1748. 

1770.— "The City of Canton is situated 
on the banks of the Tigris, a large river. 
. . ."—Baynal (tr. 1771),.ii. 258. 

1782.—". . . . 2k sept lieues de la bouche 
du Tigre, onapper9oit la Tour du Lion." — 
Sonnerat, Voyage, ii. 234. 

[1900.— "The launch was taken up the 
Canton River and abandoned near the Boooa 
Tigris (the Bogue)."— rA« Times, 29 Oct.] 

BOGHA, 8- H. bocbd. A kind of 
chair-palankin formerly in use in 
Bengal, but now quite forgotten. 

1810.—" Ladies are usually conveyed about 
Calcutta ... in a kind of palanquin called 




a bochah . . . beins^ a compound of our 
sedan chair with the Dody of a chariot. . . . 
I should have observed that most of the 
gentlemen residing at Calcutta ride in bo- 
chaha"— TTi^/VamAm, V. M, i. 822. 

BOGUE, n.p. This name is applied 
by seamen to the narrows at the mouth 
of the Canton River, and is a corrup- 
tion of Boca, (See BOCCA TIGRIS.) 

BOIiIAH, BAX7LEAH, s. Beng. 
hdHXta. A kind of light accommoda- 
tion boat \i4th a cabin, in use on the 
Bengal rivers. We do not find the word 
in any of the dictionaries. Ives, in the 
middle of the 18th century, describes 
it as a boat very long, but so narrow 
that only one man could sit in the 
breadth, though it carried a multitude 
of rowers. Tnis is not the character 
of the boat so called now. [Buchanan 
Hamilton, writing about 1820, says: 
"The bhanliya is intended for the 
same purpose, fconveyance of pas- 
sengersj, and is about the same size as 
the Pand (see PAUNCHWAY). It is 
sharp at both ends, rises at the ends 
less than the Paim^ and its tilt is 
placed in the middle, the rowers stand- 
ing both before and behind the place 
of accommodation of passengers. On 
the Kosi, the BJiatUtya is a large fishing- 
boat, carrying six or seven men." 
(Eastern Indian iii. 345.) Grant {Rural 
Lifey p. 5) gives a drawing and descrip- 
tion of the modem boat.] 

1757.— "To got two boliaa, a Goordore, 
and 87 dandies from the Nazir."— /w», 167. 

1810. — "On one side the pioturesoue boats 
of the nattves, with their floating nuts ; on 
the other the bollof and pleasnre-boats of 
the English."— J/oria Graham^ 142. 

1811.— "The extreme lightness of its con- 
struction gave it incredible .... speed. 
An example is cited of a Gk)vemor General 
who in his Bawaleea performed in 8 days 
the voyage from Lucknow to Calcutta, a 
distance of 400 marine leagues." — Solvynt^ 
iii. The drawing represents a very light 
skiff, with only a small kiosque at the stem. 

1824.— "We found two Bholialll, or large 
row-boats, with convenient cabins. . . ." — 
Hcber, i. 26. 

1834.— "Rivers*s attention had been at- 
tracted by seeing a large beavliah in the 
act of swinging to the tide."— T^ Baboo, 
i. 14. 

BOLTA, s. A turn of a rope ; sea 
H. from Port. voUa (Roebuck), 

BOMBASA, n.p. The Island of 
Mombasa, off the E. African Coast, is 

so called in some old works. Bombdn 
is used in Persia for a negro slave ; 
see quotation. 

1516. — " . . . another island, in which 
there is a city of the Moors called Bombaia, 
very large and beautiful." — BarbosOf 11, See 
also ColonicU Papert under 1609, i. 188. 

1883.—". . . the Bombaasi, or coal-black 
negro of the interior, beinff of much less 
price, and usually only used as a cook." — 
WilU, Modern Penia, 326. 

BOMBAY, n.p. It has been al- 
leged, often and positively (as in the 
quotations below from Fryer and 
Grose), that this name is an English 
corruption from the Portuguese Bom- 
bahia, 'good bay.' The grammar of 
the alleged etymon is bad, and the 
history is no better ; for the name can 
be traced long before* the Portuguese 
occupation, long before the arrival of 
the Portiiffuese in India. C. 1430. 
we find the islands of Mahim ana 
Mumba-Jyexij which united form the 
existing island of Bombay, held, along 
with ^Isette, by a Hindu Bai, who 
was tributary to the Mohammedan 
King of Guzerat. • (See Rds Mdldy ii. 
350) ; [ed. 1878, p. 270J. The same 
form reappears (1616) in Barbosa's 
Tana-ikTayam^u (p. 68^ in the Estado 
da India under 1525, and (1563) in 
Garcia de Orta, who writes both Mom- 
baim and Bamhaim, The latter author, 
mentioning the excellence of the areca 
produced there, speaks of himself 
having had a grant of the island 
from the King of Portugal (see 
l)elow). It is customarily called Bam- 
bairn on the earliest English I^upeo 
coinage. (See under RUPEE.) The 
shrine of the goddess MxanbA-Devi 
from whom the name is supposed to 
have been taken, stood on the Es- 
planade till the middle of the 17th 
century, when it was removed to its 
present site in the middle of what 
18 now the most frequented part of 
the native town. 

1507.— "Sultan Ifahommed Bigarrah of 
Guzerat having carried an army asainst 
Chaiwal, in the year of the Hijra 913, in 
order to destroy the Europeans, ho effected 
his designs against the towns of Bassai 
(see BASSEIN) and Manbai, and returned 
to his own capital. . . ." — Mtrat-i-Akniedi 
(Bird's transl.), 214-15. 

1508.— "The Viceroy quitted Dabul, 
passing by Chaul, where he did not care 
to go in, to avoid delay, and anchored at 
Bombaim, whence the people fled when 
they saw the fleet, and our men carried off 




many oows, and caught some blacks whom 
they found hiding in the woods, and of 
these thev took away those that were good, 
and killed the rest." — Cottm, i. 926. 

1516.^" ... a fortress of the before- 
named King (of Guzerat), called Tana- 
mayamlm, and near it is a Moorish town, 
-very pleasant, with many^ gardens ... a 
town of very great Moorish mosques, and 
templee of worship of the Gentiles ... it 
18 Ukewiae a seaport, but of little trade."— 
Barifoaa, 69. The name here appears to 
combine, in a common oriental fashion, 
the name of the adjoining town of Thana 
(eee TANA) and Bombay. 

1525.— "E a Ilha de Mombayn, que no 
fonU Telho estaua em catorze mill e quatro 
«ento fedeas . . . J zii ij. iiii. « fedeas. 

**B 08 anos otros estaua arrendada por 
mill tnsentoe setenta e cinque pardaoe . . . 
j iii.* IzxT. pardaoe. 

"Fpy aforada a mestre Dioguo pelo dito 
govemdor, por mill c^uatro centos trinta 
Sous pardaos m^ • • • J luj*" xxxij. pardaos 
mSor—Tambo do JSSsUtda dd India, 160-161. 

1531.— '* The Gk)yemor at the ishind of 
Bombaim awaited the junction of the whole 
expedition, of which he made a muster, 
tatong a roll from each captain, of the 
Portx^^ueee soldiers and sailors and of the 
eaptiTe slaves who could fight and help, and 
of the number of musketeers, and of other 
people, such as servants. And all taken 
together he found in the whole fleet some 
S5o0 soldSers {hometit d'armas), counting 
captains and gentlemen; and some 1450 
Porti^^ueee seamen, with the pilots and 
masters; and some 2000 soldiers who were 
Malabars and Goa Canarines; and 8000 
slaves fit to fight; and among these he 
found more than 3000 musketeers (e»pingar- 
lietrot), and 4000 country seamen who could 
row {mOriiihnTOS de terra remeiros), besides 
the mariners of the junks who were more 
than 800; and with married and single 
women, and people taking goods and pro- 
visions to sell, and menial servants, the 
whole together was more than 30,000 souls. 
. . ."—Qnrett, Hi. 392. 

1538.— "The Isle of Bombay has on the 
sonth the waters of the bay which is called 
after it, and the island of Chaul ; on the 
N. the island of Baliete ; on the east SaJsete 
also; and on the west the Indian Ocean. 
Hie land of this island is very low, and 
covered with ereat and beautiful groves of 
trees. There is much game, and abundance 
of meat and rice, and there is no memory 
of any scarcity. Nowadays it is called the 
iriand of Boa-Vida ; a name given to it by 
Hector da Silveira, because when his fleet 
was cruising on this coast his soldiers had 
««at refrewment and enjoyment there." — 
J. de Castro, Printnro Roteiro, p. 81. 

1552.—". . . a small stream called Bate 
which runs into the Bay of Bombain, and 
whioh is reorarded as the demarcation be- 
tween the Kingdom of Guzurate and the 
Kngdom of Decan."— /iarro», I. ix. 1. 

1552. — "The Governor advanced against 
Bombaym on the 6th February, which was 
moreover the very day on which Ash 
Wednesday fell."— Cbwto, IV., v. 5. 

1554.—" Item of Masaguao 8500/<9ieM. 

" Item of Monbaym, 17,000 /«2ra«. 

"Rents of the land surrendered by the 
King of Oanbaya in 1543, from 1535 to 
1548."— ^S. BoUlko, Tombo, 139. 

1663.—" ... and better still is (that the 
areca) of Mombalm, an estate and island 
which the King our Lord has graciously 
granted me on perpetual lease."*— 6^ama 
De Orta, f. 91ir. 

„ "Sbbvast. Sir, here is Simon 
Toscano, your tenant at Biombaim, who has 
brought uiis basket of mangoes for you to 
make a present to the Governor; and he 
says that when he has moored his vessel 
he wHl come here to put up." — Ibid. f. 1349. 

1644.— "I>«m><MMt of the Port of Mom- 
baym. . . . The Viceroy Conde de Lin- 
hares sent the 8 councillors to fortify this 
Bay, so that no European enemy should 
be able to enter. These Ministers visited 
the place, and were of opinion that the 
width (of the entrance) being so great, 
becoming even wider and more unob- 
structed further in, there was no place 
that you could fortify so as to defend the 
entrance. . . ."— J5o<»rro, MS. f. 227. 

1666.— "Ces Tch^rons .... demeurent 
pour la plupart k Baroche, k Bambaya ot k 
Amedabad.^'— T^ftwno^, v. 40. 

„ "De Bacaim 2k Bombaiiiii il y a 
six lieues."— 7&ia. 248. 

1673.— "December the Eighth we paid 
our Homage to the Union-flsg flying on the 
Fort of Bombaim."— /Vy«r, 59. 

„ "Bombaim . . . ventures furthest 
out into the Sea, making the Mouth of 
a spacious Bav, whence it has its Ety- 
mology ; Bombaim, quasi Boon bay.*' — 

1676.— "Since the present King of Eng- 
land married the Princess of Porttufall, who 
had in Portion the famous Port of Bombesro 
. . . they coin both Silver, Copper, and 
Tinn."— Iteiwmier, E. T., ii. 6. 

1677.— "Quod dicta Insula de Bombaim, 
una cum dependentiis suis, nobis ab origine 
bonA fide ex pacto (sicut oportuit) tra^ita 
non fuerit." — KingCharles I J. to the Viceroy 
L. de Mendosa Furtado, in Deacn., dx. 
of the Port and Island of Bombay, 1724, 
p. 77. 

1690.— "This Island has its Denomination 
from the Harbour, which . . . was ori- 
ginally called Boon Bay, i.e. in the Portu- 
guese Language, a Good Bay or Harbour." — 
Ouington, 129. 

* " Terrs e ilha de que Bl-Rei nosso senhor ma 
fez mercd, aforada em fiitiota." BmfiUiota is a 
corruption apparently of emphyteuta. i.e. properly 
the person to whom land was granted on a leara 
such as the Civil Law called miiphyteuiia. " The 
emphyteuta was a perpetual lessee who paid a 
perpetual rent to the owner."Snifiish Cyd. 8.v. 




1711.— Lockyor declares it to be im- 
possible, with all the Company's Strength 
and Art) to make Bombay '^a Mart of great 
Business."— P. 83. 

c. 1760.—". . . one of the most com- 
modious bays perhaps in the world, from 
which distinction it received the denomi- 
nation of Bombayi by corruption from 
the Portugese Buona-B{ihiaf tnough now 
usually written by them Bombaim."— 6'rotw, 

1770.— "No man chose to settle in a 

1777), i. 389, 

1809.— "The largest pagoda in Bombay 
is in the Black Town. ... It is dedicated 
to Momha Decee . . . who by her images 
and attributes seems to be Parrati, the wife 
of Siva." — Maria Gmham, 14. 

well-known manufactiire, consisting in 
the decoration of boxes, desks, &c., 
with veneers of geometrical mosaic, 
somewhat after the fashion of Tun- 
bridge ware, is said to have been intro- 
duce from Shiraz to Surat more than 
a century ago, and some SOvears later 
from Surat to Bombay. The veneers 
are formed by cementing together fine 
triangular prisms of ebony, ivory. 
§^n-stainea ivory, stag's horn, ana 
tin, so that the sections when sawn 
across form the required pattern, and 
such thin sections are then attached 
to the panels of the box with strong 


the title borne for manv years by the 
meritorious but somewliat depressed 
service which in 1830 acquired the 
style of the "Indian Navy," and on 
30th April, 1863, ceased to exist. The 
detachments of this force which took 
part in the China War (1841-42) were 
Known to their brethren of the Royal 
Navy, under the temptation of allitera- 
tion, as the " Bombay Buccaneers." In 
their earliest employment against the 
pirates of Western India and the 
rersian Gulf, they had been known as 
" the- Ghrab Service." But, no matter 
for these names, the history of this 
Navy is full of brilliant actions and 
services. We will ^uote two noble 
examples of public virtue ; 

(1) In July 1811, a squadron under 
Commodore John Hayes took two 

larse junks issuing from Batavia, thea 
under blockade. These were lawful 
prize, laden with Dutch property^ 
valued at £600,000. But Hayes Knew 
that such a capture would create great 
difficulties and embarrassments in the 
English trade at Canton, and he 
directed the release of this splendid 

(S') 30th June 1815, Lieut. Boyce in 
the orig ' Nautilus * (180 tons, carrying 
ten 18-pr. carronades, and four d-prs.) 
encountered the U. S. sloop-of- war 'Pea- 
cock' (639 tons, carrying twenty 32-pr. 
carronades, and two long IS-prs.)^ 
After he had informed the American 
of the ratification of peace, Boyce was 
peremptorily ordered to haul down his 
colours, which he answered by a flat 
refusal. The * Peacock' opened fire, 
and a short but brisk action followed^ 
in which Boyce and his first lieutenant 
were shot aown. The gallant Boyce 
had a special pension from the 
Company (£435 in all) and lived to 
his 93rd year to enjoy it. 

We take the facts from the History 
of this Navy by one of its officerSi 
Lieut. C. R. Low (L 294^ but he 
erroneously states the pension to have 
been granted by the U.S. Govt. 

1780.— "The Hon. Company's schooner, 
Garinjar, with Lieut. Murry Commander, 
of the Bo mbay Marinas, is going to Archin 
{sic^ see ACaEEN) to meet the Geres and 
the other Europe shim from Madrass, to 
put on board of them tne St. Helena stores." 
—Hicky*t Bengal GazeUe, April 8th. 

BONITO, s. A fish {Thynniu p^ 
lamys, Day) of the same family {ScSmr- 
bridae) as mackerel and tunny, very 
common in the Indian seas. The name 
is Port., and apparently is the adj. 
bonito, 'fine.' 

c. 1610. — **0n y pesche yne quantity 
admirable de gros poissons, de sept on huit 
sortes, qui sont n^skntmoins quasi de mesme 
race et espeoe . . . oommes bonitaa, alba> 
chores, daurades, et autres." — Pyrardf i. 

1615.— '^Bonitoes and albioores are in 
colour, shape, and taste much like to 
Mackerils, but grow to be very laige." — 
Terry^ in PurehaSf ii. 1464. 

c. 1620.— 
*' How many sail of well-mann*d ships 

As the Bonito does the Flying-fish 

Have we pursued. ..." 
Beaum, d: FlH,, The Double Marriage^ ii. 1. 

c. 1760.— "The fish undoubtedlv takes 
its name from relishing so well to the taste 
of the Portug^cfic . . . that they call it 




Bonito, which aoBwers in our tongue to 
delidoufl." — Onm, i. 5. 

" While on the yard-arm the harpooner sits, 

Strikes the boneta, or the shark en- 
snares." — Grainger, B. ii. 

1773.— "The Captain informed us he had 
named his ship the Bonnetta, out of grati- 
tude to Providence; for once . . . the 
ship in which he then sailed was becalmed 
for five weeks, and during all that time, 
numbers of the fish Bonnetto swam close to 
her, and were caught for food ; he resolved 
therefore that the ship he should next get 
should be called the Bonjietia.*'—Bo9weflj 
Journal of a Tour, dx., under Oct, 16, 1773. 

BONZE, 8. A term long applied 
by Europeans in China to the Budahist 
clergy, but originating with early 
visitors to Japan. Its origin is how- 
ever not quite clear. The Chinese 
Fdn-migy *a religious person' is in 
Japanese bonzi or bonad; but Konpen 
prefers fd-tzty * Teacher of the Law,' 
pron. in Japanese bo-zi {Die ReL des 
Buddha^ i. 321, and also Schott's Zur 
Litt. dea Chin. BuddhimtuSy 1873, p. 46). 
It will be seen that some of the old 
quotations favour one, and some the 
other, of these sources. On the other 
hand, Bandhya (for Skt. vandya, Ho 
whom worshiD or reverence is due, 
very reverend^ seems to be applied in 
Nepal to the Buddhist clergy, and 
Hodgson considers the Japanese bonze 
(bonzdf) traceable to this. {EsKiys, 
1874, p. 63.) The same word, as 
handhe or bande, is in Tibetan similarly 
applied.--(See JattdU^** 2>icf., p. 365.) 
The word nrst occurs in Jorge Alvarez's 
account of Japan, and next, a little 
later, in the letters of St. Francis 
XaWer. Cocks in his Diary uses 
forms approaching boze, 

1549. — " I find the common secular people 
here less impure and more obedient to 
reason than their priests, whom they call 
UmwOB.*"— Letter of St. F. Jfawer, in Cole- 
ridge"* Life, ii. 238. 

1552. — "Erubescunt enim, et incredibi- 
liter oonfnndxmtur Bonzii, ubi male co- 
haerere, ac pugnare inter sese ea, quae 
dooent, palam oetenditur." — Scti. Fr. Xaverii 
BpitlL V. zvii., ed. 1667. 

1572. — " . . . sacerdotes ... qui ipsorum 
linguA Bomii appellantur."— J?. Acotta, 58. 

1585. — ''They have amon^ them (in 
Japan) manj priests of their idols whom 
they call BOQSOS, of the which there be 
great convents.'* — Parkeit Tr. of Mendoza 
(1589), ii. 800. 

1590. — "This doctrine doe all they em- 
brace^ which are in China called Cen, but 
with us at lapon are named B€aui.**—An 

Exct. TreaiiM of the Kirigd. of Chiruu <fcc., 
HaJkt. ii. 580. 

C.1606.— <*Capt. Saris has Bonseea."— 
Purehas, i. 874. 

1618.— '* And their is 300 bose (or pagon 
pristes) have alowance and mentaynance for 
eaver to praj for his sole, in the same sorte 
as munkes and fryres use to doe amongst 
the Roman papistes."— Cocibs'f Dtary, ii. 75 ; 
[in i. 117, b0B6] ; bosses (i. 143). 

[1676.— ** It is estimated that there are in 
this country (Siam) more than 200,000 priests 
called Bonsea."— ravemtfr, ed. Ball, ii. 293.] 

1727.—" ... or perhaps make him fadee 
in a China beniee in his Calendar, under the 
name of a Christian Saint." — A. HamiUony 
i. 253. 

" Alike to me encas'd in Grecian bronze 
Koran or Vulgate, Veda, Priest, or Bome.'* 
Purtuitt of Literature, 6th ed., p. 335. 

c. 1814.— 
" While Fum deals in Mandarins, Bomes, 
Peers, Bishops, and Punch, Hum — are 
sacred to thee." 

T. Moore, Hum and Fuin. 

[(1) BORA, BOOBA, s. Benjc;. 
bhada, a kind of cargo-boat used in 
the rivers of Bengal. 

[1675.— "About noone overtook the eight 
hmMB."— Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. 

[1680.— "The boora . . . being a very 
floaty light boat, rowinge with 20 to 30 
Owars, these carry Salt Peeter and other 
goods from Hugl^r downewards, and some 
trade to Dacca with salt; they also serve 
for tow boats for ye ships bound up or 
downe ye river." — Ibid, ii. 15.] 

(2) BOBA, s. H. and Guz. bohrd 
and bohord, which H. H. Wilson re- 
fers to the Skt. vyavahdri, *a trader, 
or man of affairs, from which are 
formed the ordinary H. words byohard^ 
byohariyd (and a Quzerati form which 
comes very near bohord). This is con- 
firmed by the quotation from Nurullah 
below, but it is not quite certain. Dr. 
John Wilson (see below) gives an 
Arabic derivation which we have been 
unable to verify. [There can be no 
reasonable doubt that this is incorrect.] 

There are two classes of Bohras be- 
longing to different Mohammedan 
sects, and different in habit of life. 

1. The Shi'a Bohrds^ who are es- 
sentially townspeople, and especially 
congr^te in Surat, Burhanpur, Ujjain, 
&c. They are those best known far 
and wide by the name, and are usually 
devoted to trading and money-lending. 




Their original seat was in Quzerat, and 
they are most numerous there, and in 
the Bombay territory generally, but 
are also to be found in various parts of 
Central India and the N.-W. Provinces, 
[where they are all Hindus]. The 
word in Bombay is often used as syn- 
onymous with pedlar or boxwaUall. 
Thej; are generally well-to-do people, 
keeping very cleanly and comfortable 
houses. [See an account of them in 
Forbes, Or, Mem. i. 470 eeqq, 2nd ed.l 
These Bohias appear to form one of 
the numerous SnI'a sects, akin in 
character to, and apparently of the 
same origin as, the IsmailiyaJi (or As- 
9ou8in8 of the Middle Ages), and claim 
as their original head and doctor in 
India one Ya'kub, who emigrated 
from Egypt, and landed in Csunbay 
A.D. 1137. But the chief seat of the 
doctrine is alleged to have been in 
Yemen, till that country was con- 

Eid by the Turks in- 1538. A 
exodus of the sect to India then 
place. Like the Ismailis the^ 
attach a divine character to their 
Mullah or chief Pontiflf, who now 
resides at Surat. They are guided by 
him in all thinss, and they pay him a 
percentage on tneir profits. But there 
are several sectarian subdivisions : 
DdUdi Bohras, Stdaimdni Bohras, &c. 
[See Forbes, Rds McUd, ed. 1878, p. 264 

2. The Sunni Bohras. These are 
very numerous in the Northern Con- 
can and Guzerat. They are essentially 
peasants, sturdy, thrifty, and excellent 
cultivators, retaining much of Hindu 
habit ; and are, though they have 
dropped caste distinctions, very exclu- 
sive and "denominational" (as the 
Bombay Gazetteer expresses itV Ex- 
ceptionally, at Pattan, in Baroaa State, 
there is a rich and thriving community 
of trading Bohras of the Sunni section ; 
they have no intercourse with their 
Shi a namesakes. 

The history of the Bohras is still 
very obscure ; nor does it seem ascer- 
tained whether the two sections were 
originally one. Some things indicate 
that the Shfa Bohras may be, in accord- 
ance with their tradition, in some con- 
siderable part of foreign descent, and 
that the Sunni Bohras, who are un- 
questionably of Hindu descent, may 
have been native converts of the 
foreign inuuigrauts, afterwards forcibly 

brought over to Sunnism by the Quze- 
rat Sultans. But all this must be 
said with much reserve. The historj' 
is worthy of investigation. 

The quotation from Ibn Batuta, 
which refers to Gandari on the Baroda 
river, south of Cambay, alludes most 
probably to the Bohras, and may per- 
naps, though not necessarily, indicate 
an origin £r the name different from 
either of those suggested. 

c. 1348.—" When we arrived at Kandahar 
... we received a visit fxom the 'principal 
Mnsulmans dwelling at his (the pagan 
King's) Capital, such as the Ckildreti of 
Khojah Bohrah, among whom was the Na- 
khoda Ibrahim, who had 6 vessels belonging 
to him."— /fr» Batiitay iv. 68. 

c. 1620.— Nunillah of Shuster, quoted by 
Oolebrooke, speaks of this class as having 
been converted to Islam 800 years before. 
He says also: "Most of them sabsist by 
commerce and mechanical trades ; as is in- 
dicated by the name Bohrah, which signifies 
'merchant' in the dialect of Gujerat." — In 
As. Ret., vii. 388. 

1673.—" . . . The rest (of the Mohamme- 
dans) are adopted under the name of the 
Province or Ejngdom they are bom in, as 
Mogul ... or ^hisms thev have made, as 
Bukimy Jemottee, and the lowest of all is 
Bomh.'*— Fryer, 93. 

c. 1780. — "Among the rest was the whole 
of the property of a certain Muhammad 
Mokrim, a man of the Bohra tribe, the 
Chief of all the merchants, and the owner 
of three or four merchant ships." — M, of 
Hydur Naik, 98S. 

1810.— "The BorahB are an inferior set of 
travelling merchants. The inside of a Borak*t 
box is like that of an English country shop, 
spelling-books, prayer-books, lavender watenr, 
eau de luce, soap, tapes, scissors, knives, 
needles, and thread make but a small pert 
of the variety."— i/arta Oraham, 83. 

1825.— "The Boras (at Broach) in general 
are unpopular, and held in the same esti- 
mation for parsimony that the Jews are in 
England."— J7e&<T, ed. 1844, ii. 119; abo 
see 72. 

1853. — "I had the pleasure of baptising 
Ismail Ibraim, the first BohorA who, as far 
as we know, has yet embraced Christianity 
in India. ... He appears thoroughly 
divorced from Muhammad, and from 'Ali 
the son-in-law of Muhammad, whom the 
Bokordg or InUiaied^ according to the mean- 
ing of the Arabic word, from which the 
name is derived, esteem as an improvement 
on his father-in-law, having a higher degree 
of inspiration, which has in good measure, 
as they imagine, manifested itself among his 
successors, recognised by the Bdhoras and 
bv the Ansariyah, Ismaeliyah, Drus, and 
Metawileh of Syria. . . ." — Letttr of Dr. JoIm 
Wiiwti, in Life, p. 456. 

1868.—". . . India, between which and 
the north-east coast of Africa, a oonsider- 




able trade is carried on, chiefly by Bonh 
nterchants of Goxerat and Cutch." — Badger^ 
Inirod. to Vartkema, Hak. Soc. xliz. 

BOBNEO. n.p. 

This name, as 
applied to the great Island in its en- 
tirety, is taken m>m that of the capital 
town of the chief Malay State existing 
on it when it became known to 
Europeans, Brun^ Bum^, Brunai^ or 
Bumaij still existing and known as 

1516. — "In this island much camphor for 
eating is gathered, and the Indians value it 
hkdily. . . . This island is called Bomey." 
->Bar6o«, 203-4. 

1521.— "The two ships denarted thence, 
and running amon^ manv islands came on 
one which contained much cinnamon of the 
finest kind. And then again running among 
many islands they came to the luand of 
Boisao, where in the harbour they found 
many junks belonging to merchants from all 
the parts about Malacca, who make a great 
mart in that Borneo."— Cbrrea, ii. 681. 

1584.— " Camphora from Brimeo (mis- 
reading probably for Bnineo) neare to 
China.^'— AwTrf, in Ball, ii. 412. 

[1610.— "Bomelaya are with white and 
black quarls, like checkers, such as Poling- 
knytsy are."— Z>aiiiwr«, LeOers^ i. 72.] 

The doth called BoniAlaya perhaps took 
itB name from this island. 

[ „ "There is brimstone, pepper, 
BooxsMh camphor.'* — DaaiverSf LeUen^ i. 

1614.— In Saifubwry, i. 318 [and in Foster, 
Letters, ii. M\, it is written Bnznea. 

1727.— "The great island of Boinew or 
Borneo, the laigest except Cidifamia. in the 
known world-"— ^. HamUUm, ii. 44. 

BOBO-BODOB, or -BUDUB, n.p. 
The name of a great Buddhistic monu- 
ment of Indian character in the district 
of Kadu in Java ; one of the most re- 
markable in the world. It is a quasi- 
pyramidal structure occupying the 
summit of a hill, which apparently 
forms the core of the building. It is 
quadrangular in plan, the sides, however, 
oroken by successive projections ; each 
side of the basement^ 406 feet. Includ- 
ing the basement, it rises in six succes- 
fliye terraces, four of them forming 
oorridors, the sides of which are 
panelled with bas-reliefs, which Mr. 
Pergnsson calculated would, if extended 
in a single line, cover three miles of 

Sound. These represent scenes in the 
e of Sakya Muni, scenes from the 
Jatakas, or pre-existences of Sakya, 
and other series of Buddhistic groups. 
Above the corridors the structure be- 

comes circidar, rising in three shallower 
stages, bordered with small dagobas 
(72 in number), and a large dagoba 
crowns the whole. The 72 dagobas 
are hollow, built in a kind of stone 
lattice, and each contains, or has con- 
tained, within, a stone Budd]ia in the 
usual attitude. In niches of the corri- 
dors also are numerous Buddhas larger 
than life, and about 400 in number. 
Mr. Fergusson concludes fi*om various 
data that this wonderfid structure must 
date from a.d. 650 to 800. 

This monument is not mentioned in 
Valentijn's great History of the Dutch 
•Indies (1726X nor does its name ever 
seem to have reached £urope till Sir 
Stamford Raffles, the British Lieut.- 
Qovemor of Java, visited the district 
in January 1814. The structure was 
then covered with soil and vegetation, 
even with trees of considerable size. 
Raffles caused it to be cleared, and 
drawings and measurements to be 
made. His History of Java, and Craw- 
ford's Hid. of the Indian Archipelago^ 
made it known to the world. Tne 
Dutch Government, in 1874, published 
a peat collection of illustrative plates, 
with a descriptive text. 

The meaning of the name by which 
this monument is known in the neigh- 
bourhood has been much debated. 
Raffles writes it Bdro Bddo [Hist, of 
Java, 2nd ed., ii. 30 seqq.]. rCrawfura, 
Descr. Did. (s-v.), says : " Boro is, in 
Javanese, the name of a kind of fish- 
trap, and budor may possibly be a cor- 
ruption of the Sanscrit bvda, *old.'"l 
The most probable interpretation, and 
accepted* by Friedrich and other 
scholars of weight, is that of ' Myriad 
Bvddhas.* This would be in some 
analogy to another famous Buddhist 
monument in a neighbouring district, 
at Brambdnan, which is called Ghandi 
Sevov^ or the "Thousand Temples," 
though the number has been really 

BOSH, s. and interj. This is alleged 
to be taken from the Turkish bosh, 
signifying "empty, vain, useless, void 
of sense, meaning or utility " (Red- 
houst^s Did.). But we have not oeen 
able to trace its history or first appear- 
ance in English. [According to the 
N.E.D. the word seems to have come into 
use about 1834 under the influence of 
Morier's novels, A^esha, Hajji Baba^ 




&c For various speculationB on its 
origin see 6 ser. N, <fc Q. iii. 114, 173, 

[1843.— "The people flatter the Envoy 
into the belief that the tumult is Bash 
(nothing)."— Z<u2^ Sale, JoumoU, 47.] 

B08MAN, BOCHMAN, s. Boat- 
swain. Lascar's H. {Boebuck). 

BOTIGEEEB, s. Port, hotiqueiro. 
A shop or stall-keeper. (See 

1567.—** Item, pareceo que . . . o« boti- 
oaeiros nfio tenhSo as Imtioas apertas nos 
aias de festa, senSo depois la messa da 
ter^a." — Decree 31 of Council of Qoa, in 
Archiv, Port. Orient.^ fasc. 4. 

1727. — '*. . . he past all over, and was 
forced to relieve the poor Bofeickeein ,or 
Shopkeepers, who before could pay him 
Taxes."— i4. Hamiiton, i. JieS. 

BO TREE, s. The name given in 
Ceylon to the Pipal tree (see PEEPUL) 
as reverenced by the Buddhists ; Singh. 
ho-gds. See in Emerson Tennent 
{Ceylon, ii. 632 seqq,), a chronoloffical 
series of notices of the Bo-tree &om 
B.C. 288 to A.D. 1739. 

1675.— "Of their (the Veddas*) worship 
there is little to tell, except that like the 
Cingalese, they set round the hiffh trees Bo- 
gas, which our people call Pagoc^trtety with a 
stone base and put lamps upon it." — Ryklof 
Van GocMy in Valenitjn (Ceylon), 209. 

1681.- "I shall mention but one Tree 
more as famous and highly set b^ as any of 
the rest, if not more so, tho' it bear no 
fruit, the benefit consisting chiefly in the 
Holiness of it. This tree they call Bo- 
gahah ; we the God-tree,'*— Ktuur, 18. 

BOTTLE-TBEE, s. Qu. Adansonia 
digitatOy or 'baobab'? Its aspect is 
somewhat suggestive of the name, but 
we have not been able to ascertain. 
[It has also been suggested that it 
refers to the Babool, on which the 
Baya, often builds its nest. *' These 
are formed in a very ingenious manner, 
by long grass woven together in the 
shape of a bottle." (ForbeHy Or, Mem,y 
2nded., i. 33.] 

1880. — " Look at this prisoner slumbering 
peacefully under the suggestive bottle- 
tree."—^/! Baba, 153. 

[BOUND-HEDGE, s. A corruption 
of houndary-hedgey and applied in old 
military writers to the thick planta- 
tion of bamboo or prickly-pear which 
used to surround native forts. 

1792.— "A B<mnd Hedge, formed of a 
wide belt of thorny plants (at Seringa- 
patam)."— TFiZb, BiuoncalSbetches,m.2n.^ 

BOUTIQUE, 8. A common word 
in Ceylon and the Madras Presidency 
(to which it is now peculiar) for a 
small native shop or booth : Port. 
huUca or boteca. From Bluteau ^Snppt) 
it would seem that the use ot hUica 
was peculiar to Portuguese India. 

[1548.— Butioas. See quotation under 

1554.—** . . . nas quaes butioas ninguem 
pode vender senSo os que se ooncertam com 
o Bendeiro. "-^o^Ao, Tombo do Edado da 
India, 50. 

c. 1561.— ** The Malabars who sold in the 
boiecas."— Correo, i. 2, 267. 

1739.- ** That there are many batteoas 
built dose under the Town-wall.'*— /teswp-itt 
on FoHfM. of Fort St. Qwrge, in Whoder^ 
ui. 188. 

1742.— In a grant of this date the word 
appears as 'BaXXbCt^.—Sdectijoiu from. Reoordg 
ofS. Arcot Dislriei, ii. 114. 

1767*.-** Mr. Russell, as Collector-General, 
begs leave to represent to the Board that of 
late vears the Street by the river side . . • 
has been greatly encroached upon by a 
number of golahs, little straw huts, and 
boatlquee. . ."—In Long, 501. 

1772. — **. . . a BontiQue merchant 
having died the 12th inst., his widow was 
desirous of being burnt with his body." — 
Papen relating to E. I. Affaire, 1821, p. 268. 

1780.— ** You must know that Mrs. Hen- 
peck ... is a great buyer of Bargains, so 
that she will often go out to the Europe 
Shops and the Boaiiquea, and lay out 5 or 
600 Kupees in articles ti^t we have not the 
least occasion for." — India OaseUe, Dec. 9. 

1782.—** For Sale at No. 18 of the range 
Botiquea to the northward of Lvon's Build- 
ings, where muBterB (q.v.) may be seen. . . ' 
India OazeUe, Oct. 12. 

1834.— ** The boatiquei are ranged along 
both sides of the street."— CA.iCty, Oeyltm 
Gazetteer, 172. 

BOWLA, s. A portmanteau. £L 
hdoldy from Port, bauly and bahuy *a 

BOWLY, BOWBY, s. H. bdoU, 
and bdori, Mahr. bdvadi, C. P. Brown 
(ZUlah Diet. s.v.) says it is the Telegp 
bdvidi ; hdvi and bdvid% = * welL' TliLs 
13 doubtless the same word, but in 
all its forms it is probably connected 
with Skt. i»i;ra^ 'a hole, a well,' or 
with vdpiy *an oblong reservoir, a pool 
or lake/ There is also in Singhalese 
wmn, *a lake or pond,' and in inscrip-> 
tions vaviya. There is again Maldiviaa 




totftt, *a well,' which comes near the 
Guzerati forms mentioned below. A 
great and deep rectangular well (or 
tank dug down to the springs^ fur- 
nished with a descent to the water 
by means of long fli^rhts of steps, and 
generally with landings and logme 
where travellers may rest in the 
shade. This kind of structure, almost 
peculiar to Western and Central India, 
though occasionally met with in 
Nortnem India also, is a favourite 
object of private native munificence, 
And thougn chiefly beneath the level 
of the ground, is often made the 
subject of most effective architecture. 
Some of the finest specimens are in 
Guzerat, where other forms of the 
word appear to be woo and wdin. One 
of the most splendid of these structures 
is that at Asarwa in the suburbs of 
Ahmedabad. known as the Well of 
Dhai (or *the Nurse '^ Harur, built in 
1485 by a lady of tne household of 
Sultan Mohammed Bi^ara (that famous 
* Prince of Cambay celebrated by 
BuUer — see under CAMBAYX at a 
cost of 3 lakhs of rupees. There 
is an elaborate model of a great 
Guzerati hdoU in the Indian Museum 
at S. Kensington. 

We have seen in the suburbs of 
F^ermo a regular hdoU^ excavated in 
the tufaceous rock that covers the 
plain. It was said to have been made 
at the expense of an ancestor of the 
present proprietor (Ck)unt Ranchibile) 
to employ people in a time of scarcity. 

c. 1348. — *' There was alao a bUn, a name 
by whi<^ the Indiana designate a very 
spadoos kind of well, revetted with stone, 
and provided with steps for descent to the 
water's brink. Some of these wells have 
in the middle and on each side pavilions of 
stooe, with seats and benches. The Kings 
and chief 'men of the country rival each 
other in the constniction of such reservoirs 
on loads tiiat are not supplied with water." 
—Hm, Batuia, iv. 13. 

1526. — "There was an empty space within 
the fart (of Agra) between Ibrahim's palace 
and the ramparts. I directed a large w&in 
to be oonstracted on it, ten gez by ton. In 
the langoage of Hindost&n Uiey denominate 
a large well having a staircase down it wAin. " 
—Sober, Mem., m 

1775. — "Near a village called Sevasee 
Contra I left the line of march to sketeh a 
remarkable building ... on a near approach 
I discerned it to be a well of very superior 
workmaiiBhip, of that kind which the natives 
call BbonxM or Bhonlie."— ^or6«, Or, 
Mem. ii. 102; [2nd ed. i. 387]. 

1808.—" ' Who-80 digs a well deserves the 

love of creatures and the grace of God,' 
but a Vavidee is said to value 10 Kooas (or 
wells) because the water is available to bipeds 
without the aid of a rope." — R. Drummondf 
lUvMtrations of GuzeraJUee, dx. 

1825. — "These booleee are singular con- 
trivances, and some of them extremely 
handsome and striking. . . ." — lieber, ed. 
1844, ii. 87. 

1866.— "The wftv (Sansk. wdpeeid) is a 
laxge edifice of a picturesque ana stately as 
weU as peculiar character. Above the level 
of the ground a row of four or five open 
pavilions at regular distances from each 
other ... is alone visible. . . . The entrance 
to the wtv is by one of the end pavilions." 
—Forbes, Rds Mold, i. 267 ; [reprint 1878, 
p. 197]. 

1876. — "To persons not familiar with the 
East such an architectural object as a bowlee 
may seem a strange perversion of ingenuity, 
but the grateful coolness of all subterranean 
apartments, especially when accompanied by 
water, and the quiet gloom of these recesses, 
fully compensate in the eyes of the Hindu 
for the more attractive magnificence of the 
gh&ts. Consequently the descending flights 
of which we are now speaking, have often 
been more elaborate and expensive pieces of 
architecture than any of the buildings above- 
ground found in their vicinity." — terguuon, 
Indian and Hastem ArchUeGture^ 486. 

BOXWATiTiAF, s. Hybrid H. 
Baka%'{%.e, box) wdid. A native itin- 
erant pedlar, or vachman, as he would 
be called in Scotland by an analogous 
term. The Boxwdld sells cutlery, 
cheap nick-nacks, and small wares 
of all kinds, chiefly European. In 
former days he was a welcome visitor 
to small stations and solitary bunga- 
lows. The Bora of Bombay is often 
a hoxwOld, and the boxwOik in that 
region is commonly called Bora. (See 


a. A servant. In Southern India and 
in China a native personal servant 
is so termed, and is habitually 
summoned with the vocative *BoyI' 
The same was formerlv common in 
Jamaica and other W. I. Islands. 
Similar uses are familiar of pv^ (e,g. 
in the Vulgate Dixit Giezi puer Viri 
Dei. II Kings v. 20), Ar. woUad, 
TTotddpioy, gar^on, knave (Germ. Knabe) ; 
and this same word is used for a 
camp-servant in Shakespeare, where 
Fluelen says: "Kill the Poys and 
the luggage ! 'tis expressly against the 
laws of arms." — See also Groses Mil. 
Antiquities, i. 183, and Latin Quotation 
from Xavier under Gonicopoly. The 




word, however, came to be especially 
iised for * Slave-boy,* and applied to 
slaves of any ace. The Portuguese 
used Toop in tne same way. In 
* Pigeon English' also * servant' is 
Boyj whilst 'boy* in our ordinary 
sense is discriminated as ' smallo-boy ! ' 

b. A Palankin-bearer. From the 
name of the caste, Telug. and Malayal. 
bOyiy Tam. hOvi. &c. Wilson gives 
bhoi as H. ana Mahr. also. The 
word is in iise northward at least 
to the Nerbudda K In the Konkan, 
people of this class are called Kahdr 
mUl (see Ind. Ant. ii. 154, iii. 77). 
P. Paolino is therefore in error, as ho, 
often is, when he says that the word 

a as applied by the English and 
er Europeans to the coolies or 
fcuxhini who carry the dooly, "has 
nothing to do with any Indian lan- 
guage.*" In the first and third quota- 
tions (under bX the use is more like 
a, but any connection with English at 
the dates seems impossible. 


1609.—" I bought of them a Portugal/ 
Boy (which the HoUanders had given unto 
the King) . . . hee oost mee fortie-five 
DoUers."— Aee/tM^, in Purchas, i. 196. 

„ "My Boy Stephen Grovenor." — 
Hawkins, in Purckas, 211. See aLso 267, 296. 

1681.— "We had a blaci boy my Father 
brought from Porto Nova to attend upon 
him, who seeing his Master to be a Prisoner 
in the hands of the People of his own Com- 
plexion, would not now obey his Com- 
mand."— iTnor, 124. 

1696.— "Being informed where the Chief 
man of the Choultry lived, he (Dr. Brown) 
took his sword and pistol, and being followed 
by his boy with another pistol, and his horse 
keeper. . . ."—In Wkeelery i. 300. 

17M.—" Maped. From his master's House 
at Moidapore, a few days since, A Malay 
Slave Boy."— In SdanrKarr, i. 45 ; see also 
pp. 120, 179. 

1836.— "The real Indian ladies lie on a 
sofa, and if they drop their handkerchief, 
they just lower their voices and sav Boy 1 
in a very gentle tone." — Letters from Madras, 

1866.— "Yes, Sahib, I Christian Boy. 
Plenty poojah do. Sunday time never no 
work do."— 2V«w/ya», The Dawk Bungalow, 
p. 226. 

Also used by the French in the 

1872.— "Mon boy m'acoompagnait pour 
me setvir 2k Toocaaon de guide et d'inter- 
pr^te."— ^n>. des Deux Mondes, xcviii. 967. 

1875.—" He was a faithful servant, or boy. 

as they are here called, about forty years 
of age."—Thom»on*s Malacca, 228. 

1876.— "A Portuguese Boy . . . from 
Bomh&y."— Blackwood's Mag., Nov,, p. 578. 


1554.— (At Goa) "also to a naique, with 
6 peons (piOes) and a moeadam with 6 toroh- 
bearers (tochds), one umbrella boy (httm b6y 
do somhreiro ), two washermen {moAnatos), 6 
water-carriers (bdys d'aguoa) all serving \h» 
governor ... in all WO pardaoe and 4 
tangas annually, or 84,240 reis." — S. BotdkOy 
Tombo, 57. 

[1563. — "And there are men who carry 
this umbrella so dexterously to ward off the 
sun, that although their master trots on his 
horse, the sun does not touch any part of 
his body, and such men are called in India 
hoi.**— Barros, Dec. 3, Bk. x. ch. 9.] 

1591.— A proclamation of the viceroy, 
Matthias d'Alboquertjue, orders: "that no 
person, of what quality or condition soever, 
shall go in a palawmim without my express 
licence, save they be over 60 years of age, 
to be first proved before the Auditor-General 
of Police . . . and those who contravene 
this shall pay a penalty of 200 crusados, and 
persons of mean estate the half, the 
palanquys and their belongings to be for- 
feited, and the bois or mouoos who carry 
such paJ4mquys shall be condemned to his 
Majesty's j^eys."— -4rcAtP, Port. Orient,, 
fasc. 3, 324. 

1608-10.—". . . faisans les graues et 
obsenians le Sossiego k TEspognole, ayans 
tousiouiB leur boay qui porte Teur parasol, 
sans lequel ils n'osent sortir de logis, on 
autrement on les estimeroit moaros et miaer- 
ables." — Mocqud, Voyages, ^05. 

1610.—". . . autres Gentils qui sont 
comme Crocheteurs et Porte-faix, qu'ils 
appellent Boye, c'est a dire Boeuf pour 
porter quelque pesat faix que ce soit." — 
Pyrard de Laval, ii. 27 ; THak. Soo. ii. 44. 
On this Mr. Gray notes : " Pjrrard's fanciful 
interpretation 'ox,' Port, boi, may be due 
either to himself or to some Portugese 
friend who would have his joke. It is 
repeated by BouUaye-de-Gouz (p. 211), who 
finds a parallel indignity in the use of the 
term mulcts by the French gentry towards 
their chair-men."] 

1673.— "We might recite the Coolies . . . 
and PaUnkeen Boys ; by the very Heathens 
esteemed a degenerate Offspring of the 
BoUneores (see HALALCOBE)."— IVyer, 34. 

1720.— "BoiB. In Portuguese India are 
those who carry the Andores (see ANDOB)» 
and in Salsete there is a village of them 
which pays its dues from the fish which 
they sell, buying it from the fishermen of 
the shores." — BltUeau, Diet. s.v. 

1755-60.—". . . Palankin-boyiL" — /««, 

1778.— "Boyi de p^nquim, Kkhir.''— 
Oramatiea Indostand (Port.), Roma, 86. 

1782.—". . . un bambou arqutf dans le 
milieu, qui tient au palanquin, and sur 



» bouts duquel ae mettent 5 ou 6 oorteurs 
a'on appelle Bon^"— <SdMit«m^, I otyage, i. 



1785.— "The boys with Colonel Law- 
renoe's palankeen having straggled a little 
ont of the line of march, were ]ncked up b^ 
the Morattas." — Carracciolt^ Life of Clive, i. 

1804.— "My palanquin boys will be laid 
on Uie road on JAond&y. ''—Wellington, iii. 

1809.— "My b(^ were in high spirits, 
laughing and singing through the whole 
night."— I,rf. Val^iUia, i. 326. 

1810. — "The palankeen-bearers are called 
Bhoii, and are remarkable for strength and 
swiftnees. "—i/aria Grukam, 128. 

BOYA, 8. A buoy. Sea H. 
(Rodmck). FMr. Skeat adds: "The 
Malav word is also boya or hai-rop, 
which latter I cannot trace."] 

corr. of the Malayal. VdUunavar, 
* Ruler.' , 

[1887.— "Somewhere about 1694-95 . . . 
the Kadattunad Baja, known to the early 
English as the BoyajLore or Baonor of 
Baoagara, was in sexni-independent pcMises- 
sion of Kaduttanad, that is, of the territory 
lying between the Mah^ and K5tta rivers." 
—Logany Man. qf McUaJbatj i. 345.] 

BBAB, s. The Palmyra Tree (see 
PALKTBA) or Borassus Jlabelliformds, 
The Portuguese called this Palmeira 
InaTa ('wild' palmX whence the 
English corruption. The term is un- 
known in Bengal, where the tree is 
called 'fan-palm,' 'palmyra,' or by the 
H. name tdl or tdr, 

1623.— "The book is made after the 
fsahion of this country, t.e. not of paper 
whi<^ is seldom or never used, but of palm 
leaves, vis. of the leaves of that which the 
Portuguese call pdlmnm brama (nc), or wild 
vahnT—P. della Voile, ii. 681 ; [Hak. Soo. 

c. 1666.— " Tons l6s Malabares invent 
comme nous de gauche k droit sur les 
feulUes des Palmtrtu Bn,ynM."—Thevenot, 

1673.— "Another Tree called Brabb, 
bodied like the Oocoe, but the leaves grow 
round like a Peacock's Tail set upright."— 
rryar, 76. 

1760.— "Brabb, so called at Bombav: 
Pdlmira on the coast ; and Tall at Bengal." 
— /«f, 458. 

o. 1760. — "There are also here and there 
interspersed a few brab-trees, or rather wild 
palm-trees (the word brab being derived from 
Bxabo, which in Portuguese signifies wild) 
. . . tike chief profit from that is the toddy." 
— 6^tMe,i.48. 

[1808.— See quotation under BANDABEE.] 

1809.— "The Palmyra . . . here called 

the brab, furnishes the best leaves for 

thatching, and the dead ones serve for fuel." 

— Maria Oraham, 5. 

MIN, s. In some parts of India 
called Bahman; Skt. Brdhmana. 
This word now means a member of 
the priestly caste, but the original 
meamng and use were different. 
Haug. {Brahma und die Brat^momen, 
pp. 8-11) traces the word to the root 
&m, 'to increase,' and shows how it 
has come to have its present significa- 
tion. The older English form is 
•Rrfti^htna.iij which comes to us through 
the Greek and Latin authors. 

c. B.C. 830.—**. . , tQv i¥ Ta^CkoLS 
(ToifMrTiay Idetv S6o ^njffl, Bpaxf'S^fas i/t4>0' 
ripow, rdv fikv irpeap&repw i^vpnuUvoy, riot 
Hk ycibrepop KOfiifTrp^, au^xnipois 3* axoKov- 
$€iv futdTfrds . . .**-- ArisuAultu, quoted 
in Siraho, xv. c. 61. 

c. B.C. 800.— "'AXXiyi' ^ SuUpeaiw irouU 
nu irepl rCap <f>iKoff6^iaif 8i^ yiwrf ipdffKW, 
Cfif Tois fUp Bpaxf^oipas KoKel, roifs S^ 
Tapfidi^as [Zapfikvas^y — From Megaathcnes^ 
in Strabo, xv. c. 69. 

c. A.D. 150. — "But the evil stars have not 
forced the Brahmina to do evil and abomin- 
able things; nor have the ^^ood stars per- 
suaded the rest of the (Indians) to abstain 
from evil things." — Bardeganes, in CfureUm't 
Spicilegium, 18. 

c A.D. 600. — "BpoxMft»'€»; 'Ii'^i*^ 
iBvos awlnirrarov o0t koX ^pdxjM^ KoKcwrw" 
—SUphanits Byzantinus, 

1298.— Marco Polo writes (pi.) Abimiaiiiaii 
or Abraiaminf which seems to represent an 
incorrect Ar. plural {e.g. Abrdhamin) picked 
up from Arab sailors ; the correct Ar. plural 
is Bardhima. 

1444.— Poggio taking down the reminis- 
cences of Nicolo Conti writes Brammones. 

1666. — "Among these is ther a people 
called Brachmanes, whiche (as Didimus 
their Kinge wrote unto Alexandre . . . ) 
live a pure and simple life, led with no 
likerous lustes of other mennes vanities." 
— W. Watreman, FardU of Faciouns. 

" Brahmenei sSo os sous religioeos, ^ 

Nome antiguo, e de grande preeminencia : 

Observam os preceitos tSo f amosoe ^ 

Dlium, que primeiro poz nomo tf sciencia." 
CamOet, vii. 40. 

1678.— Acosta has Bragmen. 

1582.— "Castafieda, tr. by N. L.," has 

1630.— "The Branuuws . . . Orifen, cap. 
13 k 15, afiirmeth to bee descended from 
Abraham by Chetnrah, who seated them- 




selveB in India, and that so thej woro 
called Abralunaiies."— ix>rt2, Desc, <^ the 
Baman Rel.y 71. 

** Comes he to upbraid us with his inno- 

Seize him, and take this preaching Brach- 
xnaiL hence." 

Dryden, Aurungzeb€f iii. 3. 

1688.— '* The public worship of the pagods 
was tolerated at Goa, and the sect of the 
BradhmaiiB daily increased in power, be- 
cause these Pagan priests had oribed the 
Porfcnguese oflficers." — Ihydejif Lifeo/J[avier. 

1714.— "The Dervis at first made some 
soruple of violating his promise to the dying 
braehman."— rA« Spectator^ No. 578. 

devoted to Siva and let loose ; gene- 
rally found frequenting Hindu bazars, 
and fattened by the run of the Bunyas' 
shops. The term is sometimes used 
more generally (Brahmtny bull, -ox, or 
-cow) to denote the humped Indian ox 
as a species. 

1872.— "He could stop a huge Bramini 
tmll, when running in fury, by catching 
hold of its horns." — Oovinda SamOMtOy i. 85. 

[1889.—" Herbert Edwards made his mark 
as a writer of the BrahminM Bull Letters 
in the Delhi Gkisette." — Caladia jRw., app. 

aeems to have been an old name for 
Ghee (q.v.). In MS. " Acct. Charges, 
Dieting, &c., at Fort St. David for 
Nov.— Jany., 1746-47," in India Office, 
we find : 

" Butter .... Pagodas 220 
Brahminy do. „ 1 34 0." 

common Anglo-Indian name of the 
handsome bira Casarca nUila (PallasX 
or ' Ruddy Shieldrake * ; constantly 
seen on the sandy shores of the 
Qangetic rivers in single pairs, the 
pair almost always at some distance 
apart. The Hindi name is chakwdy 
and the chakwd-chakm (male and 
female of the species) afford a common- 
place comparison in Hindi literature 
for faithful lovers and spouses. " The 
Hindus have a le^nd that two lovers 
for their indiscretion were transformed 
irjt^J^jgj^mju^ Ducks, that they are 
*^bonaemnea to pass the ni^ht apart 
from each other, on opposite banks 
of the river, and that all night lonjg 
each^ in its turn, asks its mate if it 
shall come across, but the question 

is always met by a negative — " Chakwa, 
shall I come?" "No,Chakwi." "Chak- 
wi, shall I come?" "No, Chakwa." 
— (Jerdon.) The same author says the 
bird is occasionally killed in England. 


Milvus Pondicerianus of Jerdon, Hali- 
astur Indusy Boddaert. The name is 
given because the bird is regarded 
with some reverence by the Hindus 
as sacred to Vishnu. It is found 
throughout India. 

c. 1828. — "There is also in this India a 
certain bird, big, like a Kite, having a 
white head and belly, but all red above, 
which boldly snatches fish out of the hands 
of fishermen and other people, and in- 
deed [these birds] go on just like dogs." — 
Friar Jordanut^ 3o. 

1673.—" ... 'tis Sacrilege with them to 
kill a Cow or Calf; but highly piacular to 
shoot a Kite, dedicated to the Brachmins, 
for which Money will hardly pacify." — 
Fryer, 33. 

[1818.— "We had a still bolder and more 
ravenous enemy in the hawks and tarahminee 
kites."— i^ar6«f, Or. Mem., 2nd ed., ii. 162.] 

BBAHMO-SOMAJ, s. The Ben- 
gali pronunciation of Skt. Brahma 
Samdja, * assembly of Brahmists'; 
Brahma being the Supreme Being 
according to the Indian philosophic 
systems. The reform of Hinduism 
so called was begun by Ram Mohun 
lloy (Rama Mohana RJI) in 1890. 
Professor A. Weber has shown that 
it does not constitute an independent 
Indian movement, but is derived from 
European Theism. [Also see Monter- 
JVilhamSy Brahmanism^ 486.] 

1876.— "The Brahmo SomaJ, or Theisdc 
Church of India, is an experiment hitherto 
iinique in reUgioua history."— Co/fo^ Brakmo 
Tear-book, 5. 

BBANDIJL, 8. < Backstay,' in Sea 
H. Port, hrandal (Roebuck). 


8. Or sometimes simply Brandy. A 
corruption of bdrdni, 'a cloak,' literally 
o/uvto^ from P. ^rdn, * rain.' Bfixftni- 
Korti seems to be a kind of hybrid 
shaped by the English word axUj 
though Jnirtd and icurti are true P. 
words for various forms of jacket or 

[1754.— "Their women also being not less 
than 6000, were dressed with great coats 
(these are called baranni) of crimson doth, 
after the manner of the men, and not to be 




distinguubed at a distance ; so that the 
whole made a very formidable appearance." 
—B. ftflfadu' Siak, in Hanway, 367.] 

1788. — "BaxTannee— a cloak to cover one 
from the rain."— /lui. Vocab, (Stockdale). 

[The word B^r^TFi is now commonly 
ufied to describe those crops which are 
dependent on the annual rains, not 
on artificial irrigation. 

[1900. — " The recent rain has improved the 
baraai crope."— Pioneer Mail, 19th Feb.] 

and water ; a specimen of genuine 
Urdu, i.e. Gamp jargon, which hardly 
needs interpretation. H. panl, * water.' 
Williamson (1810) has hrandy-tkravh- 
l»i*ny(r.Af. ii. 123). 

p854.— " Tm sorry to see you gentlemen 
dnnking bnuidy-pawnee/' says he; "it 
Dlays ti^e deuce with our young men in 
India." — Thackeray, Newcomea, ch. i.] 

1866.—" The tanuidy pawnee of the East, 
and the *aangaree' of the West Indies, are 
happily now almost things of the past, or 
exist m a very modified form.'* — Wearing, 
Trtrpical RtsicUni, 177. 

•pTtAfy^ 8. A brace. Sea dialect. 

[BBA8S-KN00EEB, s. A term 
applied to a rechauffe or serving up 
again of yeeterda/s dinner or supper. 
It is said to be found in a novel by 
Winwood Reade called lAberty HacL 
as a piece of Anglo-Indian slang ; and 
it is supposed to be a corruption of 
bdH khana, H. 'stale food'; see 5 
ser. N. (k Q.y 34, 77.] 

BRATTY, s. A word, used only 
in the South, for cakes of drv cow- 
dung, used as fuel more or less all 
over India. It is Tam. varatH, [or 
virdfti\f * dried dung.' Various terms 
are current elsewhere, but in Upper 
India the most common is tipld. — (Vide 

BBAVA, n.p. A sea-port on the 
east coast of Africa, lat. 1** T N., 
long. 44" 3', properly Bar&wa. 

1516.—". . . a town of the Moors, well 
waUed, and built of ffood stone and white- 
wash, which is called Brava. ... It is a 
place of trade, which has already been 
destroyed by the Portuffuese, with g^reat 
slaughter of the inhaoitants. . . . " — 
Bottom, 15. 

BBAZDErWOOD, s. This name is 
now applied in trade to the dye-wood 

inifiorted from Pemambuco, which is 
derived from certain species of Caeaal- 
pinia indigenous there. But it origin- 
ally applied to a dye-wood of the same 
genus which was imported from India, 
and which is now known in trade as 
Sappau (q.v.). [It is the andam or 
bakJtam ot the Arabs (jBurton, Ar. 
Nights, iii. 49).] The history of the 
word is very curious. For when the 
name was applied to the newly dis- 
covered region in S. America, probably, 
as BarroB alleges, because it produced 
a dye-wood similar in character to the 
brazil of the East, the trade-name 
gradually became api)roj)riated to the S. 
American product, and was taken away 
from that of the E. Indies. See some 
further remarks in Marco Pclo, 2nd ed., 
ii. 368-370 [and Encycl Bihl i. 120]. 

This is alluded to also by Gamloes 
(x. 140) : 
" But here where Earth spreads wider, ye 

shall claim 
realms by the rvddy Dye-wood made 

renown'd ; 
these of the 'Sacred Cross' shall win 

the name : 
by your first Navy shall that world be 

found." Burton, 

The medieval forms of hraidl were 
many ; in Italian it is generally versi, 
verzinOy or the like. 

1330.— ''And here they bum the tiraiU- 
wood {verzino) for fuel . . ,"~Fr. Odoric, in 
Cathay, &c., p. 77. 

1552.—". . . when it came to the 8d of 
May, and Pedralvares was about to set 
sail, in order to give a name to the land 
thus newly discovered, he ordered a very 
great Cross to be hoisted at the top of a 
tree, after mass had been said at the foot 
of the tree, and it had been set up with the 
solemn benediction of the priests, and then 
he gave the country the name of ikineta 
Cruz. . . . But as it was through the symbol 
of the Cross that the Devil lost his dominion 
over us ... as soon as the red wood called 
Braiil beean to arrive from that coun^, 
he wrought that that name should abiao 
in the mouth of the people, and that the 
name of Holy Cross should be lost, as if 
the name of a wood for colouring cloth were 
of more moment than that wood which 
imbues all the sacraments with the tincture 
of salvation, which is the Blood of Jesus 
Christ."— iJorro*, I. v. 2. 

1S54.— "The baar (Bahar) of BraiU con- 
tains 20 f ara^olas (see FR.AZATiA)> weighing 
it in a coir rope, and there is na'pftoiaa (see 
PICOTA)"— ^. A^tines, 18. 

1641. — "We went to see the Basp-house 
where the lusty knaves are compelled to 
labour, and the rasping of BraiUl and Log- 
wood is very hard labour."— i?jr/y/i.'« Dxary, 




BREECH-CANDY, n.T>. A locality 
on the shore of Bombay Island to the 
north of Malabar Hill. The true name, 
as Dr. Murray Mitchell tells me, is be- 
lieved to be Ji,urj-khddi, * the Tower of 
the Creek.' 

BBIDGEMAN, s. Anglo-Sepoy H. 
brijmdn, denoting a military prUonery 
of which word it is a quaint corrup- 

BEE, BUNJABBEE, and so on. But 
the first form has become classical from 
its constant occurrence in the Indian 
Despatches of Sir A. Wellesley. The 
word is properly H. bawdrdy and 
Wilson derives it from Skt. hamj, 
trade,' kdra^ ' doer.' It is possible that 
the form bnnjdrd may have been sug- 
gested by a supposed connection witn 
the Pers. hiring, *rice.' (It is alleged 
in the Did, of Words used in the E, 
Indies^ 2nd ed., 1806, to be derived from 
brinjy *rice,' and aro, 'bring'!) The 
Brinjanries of the Deccan are dealers in 
grain and salt, who move about, in 
numerous parties with cattle, carrying 
their goods to different markets, and who 
in the days of the Deccan wars were the 
great resource of the commissariat, as 
they followed the armies with supplies 
for sale. They talk a kind of Manratta 
or Hindi patois. Most classes of Banjaras 
in the west appear to have a tradition 
<)f having first come to the Deccan with 
Moghul camps as commissariat carriers. 
In a pamphlet called Some Account of 
the Bunjarrah Class^ by N. R. Cumber- 
lege, District Sup. of Police^ Bcueinj 
Berar (Bombay, 1882 ; [N(yrih Indian 
N, <fc Q, iv. "163 Mqq.ji the author 
attempts to distin^ish between brinj- 
arees as * grain-carriers,' and bunjarrahs, 
from bunjdr, * waste land' ^meaning 
banjar or bdnjar). But this seems 
fanciful. In the N.-W. Provinces the 
name is also in use, and is applied to 
a numerous tribe spread along the 
skirt of the Himalaya from Hardwar 
to Qorakhpur, some of whom are 
settled, whilst the rest move about 
with their cattle, sometimes transport- 
ing goods for hire, and sometimes 
carrying grain, salt, lime, forest pro- 
duce, or other merchandise for sale. 
rSee Orooke, Tribes and Castes, i. 149 seqq.] 
vax^&r&S, as they are called about 
Bombay, used to come down from 
Bajputana and Central India, with 

large diuvus of cattle, laden with ffrain, 
&c., taking back with them aadt for 
the most part. These were not mere 
carriers, but the actual dealers, paying 
ready money, and they were orderly 
in conduct. 

c. 1505. — "As scarcity was felt in his 
camp (Sultan Sikandar Lodi's) in conse- 
quence of the non-arrival of the BaiU^^raSt 
he despatched 'Azam Huml^yun for the 
purpose of bringing in supplies." — NCanuU 
Cllah, in SUiot, vTlOO (written c. 1612). 

1516.— *' The Moors and Gentiles of the 
cities and towns throughout the country 
come to set up their shops and cloths at 
Cheul . . . they bring these in g^reat 
caravans of domestic oxen, with packs, like 
donkeys, and on the top of these long white 
sacks placed crosswise, in which they brincr 
their goods; and one man drives 30 or 40 
beasts before him." — BarboMy 71. 

1563.—". . . This King of Delv took the 
Balagat from certain very powerful gentooe, 
whose tribe are those whom we now call 
Venetaras, and from others dwelling in the 
country, who are called Coll^ ; and lul these, 
CoUes, and VenezanUf and Reisbutos, live 
by theft and robbery to this day." — Garcia 
Be O., f. 34. 

c. 1632.— "The very first step which 
Mohabut Khan [Khan Khanan] took in the 
Deccan, was to present the Bunjaras of 
Hindostan with elephants, horses, and 
cloths; and he collected (by these con- 
ciliatory measures) so many of them that 
he had one chief Bunjara at Agrah, another 
in Goojrat, and anoUier above the Ohats, 
and established the advanced price of 10 warn 

per rupee (in his camp) to enable him to 
I buy it cheaper." — MS. lAfe qf Mohabut Kkan. 
I (Khan Khanan)f in Bngg^s paper quoted 
I below, 183. 

I 1638.— "II y a dans le Royaume de Oun- 

ram vn certain peuple qu'ils appellent Vene- 

■an, qui achettent le bled et le ris . . . 

pour le reuendre dans VIndotthan . . . ou 

lis vont auec des Caffilat ou Caravances de 

cinq ou six, et quelque fois de neuf ou dix 

mille bestes de somme. . . ." — MandeUlo, 


1793.— "Whilst the army halted on the 

I 23rd. accounts were received from Captain 

I Read . . . that his convoy of brioJazxlM 

I had been attacked by a Ixxly of horse." — 

I Dirom, 2. 

1800.— "The BinJarriM I look upon in 
the light of servants of the public, of whose 
grain I have a right to regulate the sale 
. . . always taking care that they have a 
proportionate advantage." — A, Well^letff in 
Life of Sir T. Munro, i. 264. 

„ "The Brinjarries drop in by 
degrees."— If cZ/iM^toH, i. 175. 

1810. — " Immediately famng us a troop of 
Brinjareei had taken up weir residence 
for the night. These people travel from 
one end of India to the other, carrying 
salt, grain, assafcetida, almost as necessary 
to an army as salt." — Maria Graham^ 61. 




1813.— '* We met there a number of 
TaqJanmliA, or merchants, with large 
•droves of oxen, laden with TaJuable articles 
from the interior country, to commute for 
■salt on the sea-coast." — Forbet. Or. Mem, 
i. 206 ; [2nd ed. i. 118 ; also see ii. 276 Mqq,\ 
„ ' ' As the Deocan is devoid of a single 
nav^ftble river, and has no roads that admit 
<if ^eel-carriages, the whole of this ex- 
tensive intercourse is carried on by laden 
bnllocks, the property of that class of 
people known as Bonjaras." ~ ^cc. of 
Jhigin, Mitt,^ and Maamert of.,, Bun- 
Jdnu, by Cap*. JoHm, Brigffs, in TV. LU, 
Soc, Bo. i. 61. 

1825.—" We paased a number of Biin- 
JazTQM who were carrying salt. . . . They 
. . . had all bows . . . arrows, sword and 
diidd. . . . ESven the children had, man^ 
of them, bows and arrows suited to their 
strength, and I saw one young woman 
equipped in the same manner. * — Heber, 

1877.— "They were briojarries, or car- 
riers of grain, and were quietly encamped 
At a Tillage about 24 miles off; traoQng 
most nnsnapiciousl;^ in grain and salt." — 
Meado/w» Tojflor, Life, ii..l7. 

BBINJATJL, 8. The name of a 
v^etable called m the W. Indies the 
Sffg-plani, and more commonly known 
to the Engliflh in Bengal under that 
of hanguai (prop, baingan). It is the 
Solanum MdonaenOy L., very commonly 
coltivated on tne shores of the Mediter- 
ranean as well as in India and the 
East generally. Though not known 
in a wild state under tnis form, there 
is no reasonable doubt that S. Mdon- 
^ma IB a derivative of the common 
Indian S. inaanwrn^ L. The word in 
the form hrifija/tU is from the Portu- 
ffaese, as we shall see. But probably 
there is no word of the kind which has 
undergone such extraordinary variety 
of m^fications, whilst retaining the 
.same meaning, as this. The Skt. is 
ikanUtisiy H. bhdntd, baigan, baingan, 
P. badingdn, baiilgdn, Ar. badinjdiiy 
Span, atberengena, berengena^ Port, berm- 
^da^ Iningiaoj bringella, Low Latin 
mdangolusy merangoltUy ItaL melangola^ 
fndamanuiy mda wuana, &c. (see P. 
deUa VaUe, below), French aiibergine 
(from alberengena)y mdonqkne, meran- 
ghi€j and provincially beUnahi^ alber- 
ga%ne, albergine, alberaame. (See Ma/rcel 
DeviCf p. 46.) Littre, we may remark, 
explains (darmitarUe Homero f) aubergine 
as ^etpke de moreUe,' giving the etym. 
as ^'diminutif de auberge" (in the 
sense of a kind of peach). Melangena 
is no real Latin word, but a factitious 

rendering of meUmzanOy or, as Marcel 
Devic says, " Latin du botaniste." It 
looks as if the Skt. word were the 
original of all. The H. baingan again 
seems to have been modified from the 
P. badingdn, [or, as Platts asserts, direct 
from the Skt. vanga, vanganoy ' the plant 
of Bengal,'] and baingan also through 
the Ar. to have been the parent of tne 
Span, berengena, and so of all the other 
ffuropean names except the Englisli 
* egg-plant.' The Ital. mda insana is 
the most curious of these corruptions, 
framed by the usual effort after mean- 
ing, and connecting itself with the 
somewhat indigestible reputation of 
the vegetable as it is eaten in Italy, 
which is a fact. When cholera is 
abroad it is considered (e.g. in Sicily) 
to be an act of folly to eat the melon- 
zona. There is, however, behind this, 
some notion (exemplified in the quota- 
tion from Ixine^s Mod. Ewpt. below) 
connecting the badinjdn with madness. 
[Burton^ Ar. Nights, iii. 417.] And it 
would seem that the old Arao medical 
writers give it a bad character as an 
article of diet. Thus Avicenna says 
the badinjdn generate^ melancholy and 
obstructions. To the N. 0. Solanaceae 
many poisonous plants belong. 

The word has oeen carried, with the 
vegetable, to the Archipelago, pro- 
bably by the Portuguese, for the 
Malays call it berinjaid. [On this Mr. 
Skeat writes : " The Malay form brinjal, 
from the Port., not berinjaid, is given 
by Clifford and Swettenham, but it 
cannot be established as a Malav word, 
being almost certainly the £ng. irinjaul 
done into Malay. It finds no place in 
Klinkert, and the native Malay word, 
which is the only word used in pure 
Peninsular Malay, is terong or trong. 
The form berinjaid, I believe, must 
have come from the Islands if it really 

1554.~(At Goa). "And the excise from 
grarden stuff under which are comprised 
these things, vis. : Radishes, beetroot, gar- 
lick, onions green and dry, ^en tamarinds, 
lettooes, eonbaUngvaSf ginger, oranges, 
dill, coriander, mint, cabbage, sutea 
mangoes, brinjelas,^ lemons, gourds, cit- 
rons, cucumbers, which articles none may 
sell in retail except the Bendeiro of this 
excise, or some one who has got permission 
from him. . . ."—S. Botelho, Tombo, 49. 

o. 1680. — "Trifolium quoque Tirens come- 
dunt ArabeB, mentham Judalei crudam, . . . 
mala insaiia . . ."—Protper AlpiaMu, i, 66. 

1611.— "We had a market there kept 




upon the Strand of diners sorts of pro- 
uisions, towit . . . PallingvnieBi cucumbers 
. . ."—JV. Daunton, in Ptaxhaa, i. 298. 

1616, — "It seems to me to be one of 
those fruits which are called in good Tuscan 
peironeiani, but which by the' Lombards are 
called melaniaae, and by the vulgar at 
Rome marignatii ; and if my memory does 
not deceive me, by the Neapolitans in their 
patois moleffnane.**—P. della VtMe, i. 197. 

1678.— "The Garden . . . planted with 
Potatoes, Yawms, BersnJawB, both hot 
plants . . ."— jFVyer, 104. 

1738.— "Then follow during the rest of 
the summer, ccUabcuhas .... bddiiL-Jaiias, 
and tomatas." — Shaw*s Travels, 2nd ed. 1757, 
p. 141. 

c. 1740.— "This man (Balaji Bao), who 
had become absolute in Hindostan as well 
as in Decan, was fond of bread made of 
Badjrah ... he lived on raw BrlngeLu, on 
unripe mangoes, and on raw red pepper." — 
Seir MtUaqkerin^ iii. 229. 

1782.— Sonnerat writes Bdring^dM. — 
i. 186. 

1783.— Forrest speUs brinJallM ( V. to Met- 
gui, 40) ; and (1810) Williamson biringal 
( F. M. i. 133). Forbes (1813), bringal and 
berenjal {Or. Mem. i. 32 ) [in 2nd ed. i. 22, 
bungal,] ii. 50 ; [in 2nd ed. i. 348]. 

1810.— "I saw last ni^ht at least two 
acres covered with brinjaal, a species of 
Solanum." — Maria OraJuttfij 24. 

1826. — "A plate of poached ^gs, fried in 
sugar and butter ; a dish of baaenj&iui, slit 
in the middle and boiled in grease." — ffcmi 
Baba, ed. 1835, p. 150. 

1835. — "The neighbours unanimously de- 
clared that the husband was mad. . . . 
One exclaimed : ' There is no strength nor 
power but in God ! God restore t^ee ! ' 
Another said : ' How sad ! He was really 
.1 worthy man.* A third remarked: 
* Badingftns are very abundant lust now.' " 
—Lane, Mod. Egyptians, ed. 1860, 299. 

I860.— "Amongst other triimiphs of the 
native cuisine were some singular, but by 
no means inelegant chefs d*oeuvre, tari^jalB 
boiled and stuffed with savoury meats, but 
exhibiting ripe and undressed fruit growing 
on the same branch." — Tennent's Cevlofij ii. 
161. This dish is mentioned in the Sanskrit 
Cookery Book, which passes as by King 
Nala. It is managed by wrapping part of 
the fruit in wet cloths whilst the rest is 
being cooked. 

BBOACH, n.p. BJuirocfi, an ancient 
and still surviving city of Guzerat, on 
the River Nerbudda. The original 
forms of the name are BhHgu-kach- 
chhctj and Bharu-Kachehha, which last 
form appears in the Sunnar Cave In- 
scription No. ix., and this was written 
with fair correctness by the Greeks 
as Bapvydi^a and Bapydari. "Illiterate 
Guzerattees would in attempting to 

articulate Bhreeghoo-Kshetra (stc^ lose 
the half in coalescence, and caU it 
BarigacKe." — Drummondy lUus. of Guz- 
eratteey &c. 

c. B.C. 20.— "And then laughing, and 
stript naked, anointed and with his loin-cloth 
on, he leaped upon the pyre. And thiff 
inscription was set upon nis tomb: Zar- 
manochiaas the Indian from Barg^sS having- 
rendered himself immortal dfter the hereditary 
custom of the Indians lieth tiere.**^Nieolauf 
DamascenuSf in StrabOj xv. 72. [Lassen 
takes the name ZarmanochSgas to represent 
the Skt. i^dmandcharya, teacher of the 
SrdmanaSf from which it would appear that 
he was a Buddhist priest.] 

c. A.D. 80.— "On the right, at the very 
mouth of the gulf, there is a ^ long and 
narrow strip of shoal. . . . And if one suc- 
ceeds in getting into the g^, still it is hard 
to hit the mouth of the river leading to 
Bazygaza, owing to the land beii^ so low 
. . . and when found it is difficult to 
enter, owing to the shoals of the river near 
the mouth. On this account there are at 
the entrances fishermen employed by the 
King ... to meet ships as far off as Sy- 
rastrene, and by these they are piloted up 
to Barygaza."— Pen/)/i«, sect. 48. It i» 
very interesting to compare Horsburgh with 
this ancient account. '* From the sands of 
Swallow to Broach a continued bank extendi 
along the shore, which at Broach river pro- 

i'ects out about 5 miles. . . . The tide flow» 
lere . . . velocity 6 knots . . . rising 
nearly SO feet. ... On the north side of the 
river, a great way up, the town of Broafth 
is situated ; vessels of cdnsiderable burden 
may proceed to this place, as the channels 
are deep in many places, but too intricate to 
be navigated without a pilot.'* — India 
Directory {in loco). 

c. 718. — Bartis is mentioned as one of the 
places against which Arab attacks were di- 
rected.— See EUiotj i. 441. 

c. 1300.—". . . a river which lies be- 
tween the Sarsut and Ganges . . . has a 
south-westerly course till it falls into the^ 
sea near B9ixt.dx."—Al'Biriini, in EUiot^ 
i. 49. 

A.D. 1321.— "After their blessed martyr- 
dom, which occurred on the Thursday before 
Palm Sunday, in Thana of India, I baptised 
about 90 persons in a certain city called 
Parocoo, lO davs' journey distant there- 
from . . ."—Fnar Jordanus, in Cathay, 
&c., 226. 

1552.— "A great and rich ship said to- 
belong to Mele(}ue Gupij, Lord of Bazoche."' 
—Barros, II. vi. 2. 

1655. — " Sultan Ahmed on his part 
marched upon BarllJ."— 'Slicii 'Ali, 85. 

[1615.— "It would be necessary to give 
credit unto two or three Guzsaratts for some 
cloth to make a voyage to BmiolUM." — 
Foster, Letters, iv. 94.J 

1617.— "We gave our host ... a peece 
of baekar barodie to his children to make 



them 2 ooatoa." — Cacis's Diary, i. 330. 
[Baekar here seems to represent a port 
<XHmected with Broach, called in the Ahi 
<ii. 243) BhanJtora or Bhakor ; Bayley gives 
Bkakorah as a village on the frontier of 

1023. — "Before the hour of complines 
« • . we arrived at the city of Barochl, 
or Bfthmg as they call it in Persian, under 
the walls of which, on the south side, flows 
A river called Nerbedk."— P. ddla VaiUy 
iL529; [Hak. Soc. i. 60]. 

1648.— In Van Twist (p. 11), it is written 

[1676.— *' From Surat to Baroohe, 22 
<x)m.''—Taffemiar, ed Ball, i. 66.] 

1756.— "Bandar of Bhrtch."— (Bird's *»*. 
of) MiraU'Akmadi, 115. 

1803. — "I have the honour to enclose • . . 
papers which contain a detailed account of 
the . . . capture of Baroach." — WelHng- 
ioM^ii. 289. 

BXJOK, V. To i)rate, to cliatter, to 
talk much and egotistically. H. baknd. 
{A buek-dick is a chatterer.] 

1880.— "And then ... he ImdkB with 
A quiet stubborn determination that would 
fiU an American editor, or an Under Secre- 
tary of State with despair. He belongs to 
the 12-foot-tiger school, so perhaps he can't 
help it."— ^S Baba, 164. 

BUOEAUL, 8. Ar. H. baJkkdl, 'a 
shopkeeper ; ' a hwnya (q. v. under 
BAHYANX In Ar. it means rather a 
** second-hand' dealer. 

[c 1500L— "There is one cast of the 
Vaiiyasodled Banik, more commonly termed 
Baniya (grain - merchant). ^The Persians 
name them ^^^^^ • . ." — ^in., tr. Jarrettf 
m. 118.] 

1800.—". . . a haocal of this place told 
me he would let me have 500 bags to- 
monow.*'^WeUingtan, i. 196. 

1826.— " Should I find our neighbour the 
3aqiial ... at whose shop I used to spend 
m sweetmeats all the copper mone^ that I 
oonld purloin from my father." — ffajji Baba, 
«d. 1835, 295. 

BUCKSHAW, s. We have not 
been able to identify the fish so 
called, or the true form of the name. 
Perhaps it is only H. hachchdy Mahr. 
iaduM (P. bachoy Skt. vatBa\ 'the 
Toong ot any creature.' But the 
&onkani Diet, gives * ftouMz^— peize 
pequeno de qualquer sorte,*' 'little 
fish of any kind.^ This is perhaps 
the real word ; but it also may 
represent bachcka. The practice of 
manuring the coco-palms with putrid 
fish is still rife, as residents of the 
Oovemment House at Parell never 

forget. The fish in use is refuse 
bnmmelo (q. v.). [The word is really 
the H. bacnhrid, a well-known edible 
fish which abounds in the Ganges 
and other N. Indian rivers. It is 
either the Pseudoutropitu garua^ or 
P. murius of Day, Fith, Ind.y nos. 
474 or 471; Fau, Br. Ind, i. 141, 

1673.—". . . Cocoe Nuts, for Oyl, which 
latter they dunging with (Bnboho) Fish, the 
lAud-Breeses brought a pMoysonous Smell on 
board Ship."— jFVyer, 65. [Also see Wheeler, 
Early lUe.y 40.] 

1727.— "The Air is somewhat unhealth- 
ful, which is chiefly imputed to their 
dunging their Cocoa-nut trees with Buck- 
■hoe, a sort of small Fishes which their Seii 
abounds in." — A. ffamiUon, i. 181. 

c. 1760. — ". . . manure for the coco- 
nut-tree . . . consisting of the small fry 
of fish, and called by the country name of 
Bnokahaw."- (?roM;, i. 31. 

[1883.— "JlfoA^, rohu and batchwa are 
found in the river Jumna. " — Gazetteer of Delhi 

BUCKSHAW, s. This is also used 
in Cockt^s Diary (i. 63, 99) for some 
kind of Indian piece-goods, we know 
not what. [The word is not found 
in modem lists of piece-goods. It 
is perhaps a corruption of Pers. hvJbchah, 
*a bundle,' used specially of clothes. 
Tavemier (see below) uses the word 
in its ordinary sense. 

[1614.—" Percalla, Boxshaes." — Foster, 
Letters, ii. 88. 

[1615.— "80 pieces Bozaha gingams"; 
" Fer PuzshaWB, double piece, at 9 mas."— 
Ibid. iii. 166 ; iv. 50. 

[1665. — " I went to lie down, my boachha 
being all the time in the same place, half 
under the head of my bed and half outside." 
—Tavemier, od. Ball, ii. 166.] 


through P.— H. baUishish, Buonamano, 
Trin^geld, pourboire ; we don't seem 
to have in England any exact equiva- 
lent for the word, though the thing 
is so general; * something for (the 
driver) is a poor expression ; tip is 
accurate, but is slang; gratuity is 
official or dictionary English. 


(as they say in the 

Arabicke tongue) that is gratis freely." — 
Purchas, ii. 1^0 [N.B.D.]. 
1759.— "To Presents:— R. a. p. 

2 Pieces of flowered Velvet 532 7 
1 ditto of Broad Cloth . . 50 
BoziB to the Servants . . 50 0"* 
Cod of Entertainment to Jugget Set, In 
Long, 190, 



o, 1760.—". . . Biude money/*— /«!•, 61. 

1810.—". . . each mile wUl cost full one 
rupee (».«. 2t. Qd.), besides various little 
disbursements by way of Imzees, or pre- 
sents, to every set of bearers." — WUHaanton^ 
r. M. ii. 236. 

1823. — "These Christmas-boxes are said to 
be an ancient custom here, and I could 
almost fanc;^ that our name of hox for this 
particular kind of present ... is a corrup- 
tion of Imokihish, a ffift or gratuity, m 
Turkish, Persian, and Hindoostanee." — 
Heber, i. 46. 

1863.— "The relieved bearers opened the 
shutters, thrust in their torch, and their 
black heads, and most unceremoniously de- 
manded buzaes.' — fr. Arnold, Oai^ld, I 
239. , --V -^ 

BUCKTNE, 8. H. baJedyan, the 
tree Melia tempervivens, Roxb. (N. O. 
Mdiaceae), It has a considerable re- 
semblance to the nim tree (see NEEM) ; 
and in Bengali is called ma^nlm^ 
which is also the Skt. name, mahd- 
nimba. It is sometimes erroneously 
called Persian Lilac. 

DHIST. These words are often 
written with a quite erroneous as- 
sumption of precision BhvddOj &c. 
AH that we shall do here is to collect 
some of the earlier mentions of Buddha 
and the religion called by his name. 

c. 200.— "B/<ri 8k tQv 'Ir8«r ol rots 
Bot^rra T€i$6/uvoi xapayyiXfJiaa-iir' 6v 8i 
inrep^oK^v ircfiPbrrpros els Oebp Tertfi-j^Keun." 
Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromaton, liber I. 
(Oxford ed., 1716, i. 369). 

c. 240. — " Wisdom and deeds have always 
from time to time been brought to mankind 
by the messengers of God. So in one age 
they have been brought to mankind by the 
messenger called Bnddha to India, in another 
by Zarftdusht to Persia, in another by Jesus 
to the West. Thereupon this revelation has 
come down, this propliecy in this last age, 
through me, M&nl, the messenger of the 
God of truth to Babylonia.'*— The Book of 
M&ni, called ShOhHrkAn, quoted by AlbirSLnl, 
in his Chronology, tr. by Sachau, p. 190. 

c. 400. — " Apud G3nnno8ophistas Indiae 
quasi per manus hujus opimonis auctoritas 
traditnr, quod Buddam principem dogmatis 
oorum, e latere suo virgo generaret. Neo 
hoc mirum de barbaris, ouum Minervam 
quoque de cafnte Jovis, et Liberum patrem 
de femore ejus procreatos, docta finzit 
Graeoia."— <S(. Jerome, Adv, Jovinianttm, 
lib. i. ed. Vallarsii, ii. 309. 

c. 440. — ". . . Tiyrufovro Top t6 *B/iire- 
SoKkiovs Tov irap*''E\\ri(n 0cXo0'6^ov SirypM, 
did ToO Marixodov xP^ffruiPia-fUp {nrcKplraTo 
. . . To&rov 8k ToD Ziri/i^iaret; fuiSriT^t 
ylptrai BoiJddaf , xp&repw TepifiivOoi icaXoO- 

fupot . . . r. r. \. " (see the same matter 
from Oeorffins Cedrentu below). — Socraiitp 
Hitt. EccUs, lib. I. cap. 22. 

c. 840. — "An cert^ Bragmanorum seque- 
mur opinionem, ut quemaomodum illi aeotae 
suae auctorem Bnbdam, per Virginia latus 
narrant exortum, ita nos Christum fnisse- 
praedicemus? Vel magis sic naadtor Dei 
sapientia de viiginis cerebro, quomodo Min» 
erva de Jovis vertioe, tamquam liber Pater 
de femore? Ut Christicolam de viiginis 
partu non 'Solennis natura, vel auctoritas 
sacrae lectioms, sed superstitio Gentilis, et 
commenta perdoceant fabulosa." — BatreunM 
Corbeieruis L. de NaHvitate Xti., cap. iii. in 
L, D'Ackay, Spicilegium, torn. i. p. 64, Paris^ 

c. 870. — " The Indians give in general 
the name of Imdd to anything, connected 
with their worship, or which forms the 
object of their veneration. So, an idol is 
called hvtddr—Bil6duri, in BUiol, i. 128. 

c. 904.~"Bud&sai was the founder of 
the Sabaean Religion ... he preached to> 
mankind renunciation (of this world) and 
the intimate contemplation of the superior 
worlds. . . . There was to be read on the 
gate of the Naobihar* at Balkh an insorip> 
tion in the Persian tongue of which this la- 
the interpretation : * The words of Bndftiaf : 
In the courts of kings three things are 
needed. Sense, Patience, Wealth.' Below 
had been written in Arabic : 'Bodisaf lies. 
If a free man possesses any of the three, 
he will flee from the courts of Kings.'" — 
Miu^idl, iv. 46 and 49. 

1000. — " . . . pseudo-prophets came for- 
ward, the number and history of whom it 
would be impossible to detail. . . . The first 
mentioned is BJidhisaf, who came forward 
in India." — Alhir<inX, Ckronoloffy, by Sachau, 
p. 186. This name given to Buddha is 
specially interesting as showing a step nearer 
the true Bodkimttva, the origin of the name 
*l(adtra^, under which Buddha became a 
Saint of the Church, and as ehioidating 
Prof. Biax Miiller's ingenious suggestion ot 
that origin (see Chips, kc,, iv. IM ; see also* 
Academy, Sept. 1, 1883, p. 146). 

c. 1030. — " A stone was found there in 
the temple of the great Bndda on which an 
inscription . . . purporting that the temple 
had been founded 60,000 years ago. . . .^— 
ArUtbi, in Elliot, ii, 29. 

o. 1060.—" This madman then, Man6s (also- 
called Scythianus) was by race a Braohman, 
and he had for his teacher Budaa, formerly 
called Terebinthus, who having been brought 
up by Scythianus in the learning of the 
Greeks became a follower of the seot of 
Empedooles (who said there wore two fint 
principles opposed to one another), and when 
ne entered Persia declared that he had beea 
bom of a virgin, and had been brought up 
among the hills . . . and this Bndas (alias 
Terebmthus) did perish, crushed by an un- 
clean spirit." — Oeorg. Cfdrenvs, HitL Comp.^ 

• KaoUhir « Nsva-Vihara <« New Buddhist 
Monastery ') is sUll the name of a district adjoin- 
ing Balkh. 


Boon ed.. 455 (old ed. i. 259). This wonder- 
lol jumUe, mainly copied, as we see, from 
Socrates {»upra\ seems to bring Buddha and 
Manee together. "Many of the ideas of 
Manicheinn were but fragments of Bud- 
dhism."— £. B. Oowelly in Smith:» Diet, <if 

e. 1190. — "Very grieved was Sarang Deva. 
Constantly he performed the worship of the 
Arihant ; the Buddhist religion he adopted ; 
he wore no sword."— !%« Poem qf Uhand 
BardcU, paraphr. by Beamfty in hid. Ant, 
i. 271. 

1610.—". . . This Prince is called in 
the histories of him by many names: his 
proper name was Dramd Rajo; but that 
by which he has been known since they 
have held him for a saint is the Bodao, 
which is as much as to say *Sage' . . . 
and to this name the Gentiles throughout 
all India have dedicated g^reat and superb 
Fsgodas."— Covlo, Dec. V., liv. vi. cap. 2. 

[1615.— "The image of Dibottas, with the 
hudge ooIlosBO or bras imadg (or rather idoll) 
in it."— Cbcfa'* Diary, i, 200.] 

c. 1666.— "There is indeed another, a 
seventh Sect, which is called Baut^, whence 
do proceed 12 other different sects ; but this 
is not so common as the others, the Votaries 
of it bein^ hated and despised as a company 
of irreligious and atheistical people, nor do 
they live like the rest."— J5tfm*tfr, E. T., ii. 
107;[ed. C%»iutaMf, 3d6]. 

1685. — "Above all these they have one to 
whom they pay much veneration, whom they 
call Bodn ; his figure is that of a man."— 
Ribeiro, f . 406. 

1728. — "Before Gautama Bndhnxn there 
have been known 26 BiM£/ittm«— viz. : . . . ." 
^VaUntijn, v. (Ceylon) 369. 

1753. — "Edrisi n^us instruit de cette 
ciroonstance, en disant que le BalaJusr est 
adorateur de Bodda. Les Brahm^nes du 
Malabar disent que c'est le nom que 
Vishtnu a pris dans une de ses apparitions, 
et on oonnolt Vishtnu pour une des trois 
principales divinity Indiennes. Suivant St. 
Jerdme et St. CMment d'AIexandrie, Bodda 
on Bntta est le legislateur des Gymno- 
Sophistes de llnde. La secte des ShflmuuiB 
on Saman^ns, qui est demeurfe la dominante 
dans tous les royaumes d'au delk du Gan^e, 
a fait de Bndda en oette quality son objet 
d'adoration. Cest la premiere des divinity 
Chingnlaises ou de Ceilan, selon Ribeiro. 
Samano-Codom (see OAUTAMA), la grande 
idole des Siamois, est par eux appeM Putti." — 
D'Anville, iclairciuemens, 75. What know- 
ledge and apprehension, on a subject then so 
obscure, is shown by this greet (ieographer ! 
Compare the pretentious ignorance of the 
flashy Abb^ Baynal in the quotations under 

1770. — " Among the deities of the second 
order, particular honours are paid to Bnd- 
don, who descended upon earth to take upon 
himself the office of mediator between God 
and mankind."— i2ayiwi/ (tr. 1777), i. 91. 

" The BueboitU are another sect oi Japan, 
of which Bndio was the founder. . . . The 

spirit of Bvdzoism is dreadful. It breathes 
nothing but penitence^ excessive fear, and 
cruel severity. ' — Ibid, 1. 138. Baynal in the 
two preceding passages shows tliat he was 
not aware that the religions alluded to in 
Ceylon and in Japan were the same. 

1779. — "II y avoit alors dans ces parties 
de rinde, et principalement k la Cdte de 
Coromandel et k Ceylan, un Culte dont on 
ignore absolument les Dogmes; le Dieu 
Baonth, dont on ne connoit aujourdliui, 
dans rinde que le Nom et I'objet de ce 
Culte ; mais il est tout-k-fait aboli, si oe 
n'est, qu'il se trouve encore (^uelques families 
dlndiens s^par^es et m^pna^es des autres 
Castes, qui sont rest^es fiddles k Baouth, 
et qui ne reconnoissent pas la religion des 
Brames. "—Koya^« de M, GentU, quoted by 
W, Ckambert, in As, Bes. i, 170. 

1801.— "It is ffeneraUy known that the 
religion of Boadifiioa is the religion of the 
people of Ceylon^ but no one is acquainted 
with its forms and precepts. I shall here 
relate what I have heard u|>on the subject." 
— M. Joinville, in As, Res, vii. 399. 

1806.—" . . . The head is covered with 
the cone that ever adorns the head of the 
Chinese deity Fo, who has been often sup- 
posed to be the same as Boa6ah,"—'Scui, 
Caves qf SalsetU, in Tr, Lit, 8oc, Bo, i. 60. 

1810.— "Amonff the Bhuddisti there are 
no distinct castes/' — Maria Graham, 89. 

It is remarkable how many poems 
on the subject of Buddha have ap- 
peared of late years. We have noted : 

1. Buddha, Ejdsche Dichiung in 
Zwanzig Oesdngen, i.e, an Epic Poem in 
20 cantos (in ottava rtma). Von Joseph 
Vittor Widmann, Bern. 1869. 

2. The Story of Qautama Bnddha 

and his Greed: An Epic by Richard 
Phillips^ Longmans, 1871. This is 
abo printed in octaves, but each octave 
consists of 4 heroic couplets. 

3. Vasadavatta, a Buddhist Idyll; 
by Dean Plumtre. Republished in 
Things New and Old, 1884. The 
subiect is the story of the Courtesan 
of Mathura (" Vasavadatta and Upa- 
gupta"X which is given in Bumoufs 
introd. a FHistoire du Buddhisme Indien, 
146-148 ; a touching story, even in its 
original crude form. 

It opens : 

"Where proud Kathoura rears her hun- 
dred towers. ..." 

The Skt. Diet, gives indeed as an 
alternative Mathura, but Math&ra is 
the usual name, whence Anglo-Ind. 

4. The brilliant Poem of Sir Edwin 
Arnold, called The Light of Asia, or tike 
Great Benundaiion, being the Life and 




Teaching of Gautama, Prince of India^ 
and Fviinder of Baddhism, as told in 
veru by an Indian Bnddhist, 1879. 

BUDGE-BUDGE, n. p. A village 
on the Hooglily R, 15 m. below 
Oilcutta, whei*e stood a fort which 
was captured by Clive when advancing 
on Calcutta to recapture it, in 
December, 1756. The Impericd Gazet- 
teer gives the true name as BcM-baj, 
[but Hamilton writes Bhujor-hhuj]. 

1756.— "On the 29th Dwemher, at six 
o'clock in the morning, the admiral having 
landed the Company's troops the evening 
before at Mmjaiiour^ under the command of 
Uoutenant-Colonel Clive, cannonaded Bou- 
gee BongM Fort, which was strong and 
built of mud, and had a wet ditch round it." 

— /WM, 99. 

1757.— The Author of Memoir of the Re- 
volution in B^igni calls it Bosbudgia ; 
(1763), Luke Scrafton Bndge Boodjae. 

BUDGEBOW, s. A lunil>erin^ 
keelless barge, formerly much used 
by Europeans travelling on the Gan- 
getic rivers. Two-thircE of the len^h 
aft was occupied bv cabins with 
Venetian windx)ws. Wilson gives the 
word as H. and B. bajrd; Shakespear 
gives H. bajrd and bajra^ with an 
improbable suggestion of derivation 
from bajary *hara or heavy.' Among 
Blochmann's extracts from Mahom- 
medan accounts of the conquest of 
Assam we find, in a detail of Mir 
Jumla's fleet in his expedition of 
1662, mention of 4 bajras (/. As. Soc. 
Ben. xli. pt. i. 73). The same ex- 
tracts contain mention of war-sloops 
called bach'haris ^pp. 57, 75, 81), but 
these last must be different. Bajra 
may possibly have been applied in 
the sense of ' thunder-lx)lt.' ttiis may 
seem uusuited to the modem budgerow, 
but is not more so than the title of 
* lightning-darter ' is to the modern 
Bnrkimaaaze (q.v.) ! We remember 
how Joinville says of the approach 
of the great galley of the Count of 
Jaffa : — " Sembloit que foitdre cheist des 
dex.'^ It is however perhaps more 
prol)able that bajrd may have been 
a variation of baald. And this is 
especially suggested by the existence 
of the Portuguese form pajereSy and 
of the Ar. lorm baaara (see under 
BUOGALOW). Mr. Ed ve, Master Ship- 
wright of the Naval "fard in Trinco- 
malee, in a paper on the Native Craft 
of India and (Ceylon, speaks of the 

Baggala or Budgerow, as if he had 
been accustomed to hear the words 
used indiscriminately. (See J.R.A. S.y 
vol. i. p. 12). [There is a drawing of 
a modem Budgerow in Grants Rural 
Life^ p. 5.] 

c. 1570.— "Their barkos be light and 
armed with oares, like to Foistes . . . 
and they call these barkes Bazaras and 
Patuafl " (in Bengal). ^Castor Frtderickty E. T. 
in HakL ii. 358. 

1662. — (Blochmann's Ext. as above). 

1705.—" . . . des Bazaras qui aont de 
grands bateaux.** — LwUiery 52. 

1723. — "Le lendemain nous passlkmes sur 
les Baiaxas de la compagnie de France." — 
LeU. Edif. xiii. 269. 

1727. — ". . . in the evening to recreate 
themselves in Chaises or Palankins; . . . 
or by water in their Bndgfla^oea, which is 
a convenient Boat." — A. ffamilUm^ ii. 12. 

1737.— "Chaifres, BudgrowB . . . Rs. 
281. 6. 3."— MS. Aocaunffiym Ft. WiUiani, 
in India Office. 

1780. — "A gentleman's Bvgerow was 
drove ashore jiear Chaun-paul 6aut . . .*' 
^Hicty'g Bengal Gazette, May 13th. 

1781.— "The boats used bv the natives 
for travelling, and also by the Europeans, 
are the haSgmfHWB, which both sail and 
row."— -ffo^gw, 39. 

1783.—" ... his boat, which, though in 
Kashmire (it) was thought magnificent, would 
not have been disg^raoed in the station of a 
Kitchen-tender to a Bengal tmdgero.'*— C?. 
Fortter, J<mmey, ii. 10. 

1784.—" I shall not be at liberty to enter 
my tmdgerow till the end of July, and 
must be again at Calcutta on the 22nd of 
October."— iSir W. Joru»f in Mem. ii. 38. 

1785. — "Mr. Hastings went aboard his 
Bndgerow, and proce^ed down the river, 
as soon as the tide served, to embark for 
Europe on the Berrington.'* — In Seton^Karr, 
i. 86. 

1794. — " By order of the Governor-Gteneral 
in Council . . . will be sold the Hon'ble 
Company's Budgerow, named the Sona- 
mookhee* . . . the Budgerow lays in the 
nullah opposite to Chitpore." — Ibia. ii. 114. 

" Upon the bosom of the tide 

Vessels of every fabric ride ; 

The fisher's skiff, the light canoe, 
• •♦«•• 

The Bujra broad, the Bkofia trim. 
Or Pinnajces that gallant swim, 
With favouring breeze — or dull and slow 
Against the heady current go . . . ." 
H, H. Wilson, in Bengal Annuai, 29. 

* This iSonamukhi, ' Chrysosloma ') has con- 
tinued to be the name of the Viceitw's river yacht 
(probably) to this day. It was so in Lord Canning's 
time, then represented by a barge adapted to ba 
towed by a steamer. 




BUDGBOOK, B. Port, baaaruoco, 
A coin of low denomination, and of 
varying value and metal (copper, tin, 
lead, and tutenagueX formerly current 
at Goa and elsewhere on the Western 
Coast^ as well as at some other places 
on the Indian seas. It was also adopted 
from the Portuguese in the earliest 
Enfi^ish coinage at Bombay. In the 
•earnest Goa coinage, that of Albu- 
querque (1510X the leal or bazarucco 
was equal to 2 rets, of which reis there 
went 420 to the gold cruzado {Geraon 
da Ounha). The name appears to have 
been a native one in use in Qoa, at 
the time of the conq^uest, but its 
etymology is uncertam. In Van 
Noort's Voyace (1648) the word is 
•derived from baedr^ and said to mean 
* market-money' (perhaps bdzd/r-riikay 
the last word being usea for a copper 
coin in Cauarese). [This view is ac- 
cepted by Gray in his notes on Pyrard 
(Hak. Soc, ii. 68), and by Burnell 
UAntduden, Hak. Soc. ii. 143). The 
mcubraa. Admin. Mtm. Gloss, (8.v.) gives 
the Can. form as bajdror-rokkkoy * market- 
money.'] C. P. Brown (MS. notes) 
makes the yrOTd^badaga-rukOy which 
he says would in Canarese be *base- 
penny,' and he ingeniously quotes 
Shakspeare's "beggarly denier," and 
Horace's ^vilem assem," This is 
adopted in substance by Mr. E. 
Thomas, who points out that rukd 
or rukkd is in M^hratti (see Molewxnih, 
&v.) one-twelfth of an anna. But the 
words of Khafi Khan below suggest 
that the word may be a corruption 
of the P. huzurg, *big,' and according 
to Wilson, bvdrakfh (s.v.) is used in 
Mahratti as a dialectic corruption of 
^fuagSrg. This derivation may be 
partiallY corroborated by the fact that 
at Mocha there is, or was formerly, 
a coin (which had become a money 
of account only, 80 to the dollar) called 
kabir^ i,e, 'big' (see OvingUm, 463, and 
MiOnam, i. 98). If we could attach 
sjkj value to Pyrard's spelling — 
boumruques — this would be in favour 
of the same etymology ; as is also the 
form beaorg ^ven by Mandelslo. [For 
a full ezammation of the value of the 
budarock based on the most recent 
authorities, see WhiUwa/y^ Rise of the 
Port Power, p. 68.] 

1654. — Bazarucot at Maluoo (Moluccas) 
£0=^1 tanga, at 60 reis to tl^ tanga, 6 tangas 
=1 pardao. '^Os quace bazaroooa ae fas 

comta de 200 caixas" [i.e. to the tani?a).— 
A, NiLnes, 41. 

[1584.— BaiumichieB, Barret, in Hakf, 
See 8HB0FF.] 

1598.— "They pay two Basamkes, which 
is as much as a HoUander's Doit. ... It is 
molten money of badde Tinne." — Linschoten. 
52, 69 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 180, 242]. 

1609. — "Le plus bas argent, sont Basa- 
mc08 . . . et sont fait de mauvais Estain." 
— ffouimanti, in NavigcUion des Hollandoin^ 
i. 53t?. 

c. 1610.— "II y en a de plusieurs sortee. 
La premiere est appellee Bonsoruqnes, 
dont il en faut 75 pour une Tangue. II y a 
d'autre BousuraqaeB vieilles, dont il en »ut 
105 pour le Tangue. . . . n y a de cette 
monnoye qui est de fer ; et d'autre de oaJlin, 
metal de Chine " (see CALAT). — Pyrard, ii. 
39 ; see also 21 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33, m\. 

1611. — "Or a Viceroy coins false money ; 
for so I may call it, as the people lose by it. 
Foroopper is worth 40 xerafitM (see XEBA- 
FINE) the hundred weight, but they coin 
the basamcoos at the rate of 60 and 70. 
The Moors on the other hand, keeping a 
keen eye on our affairs, and seeing what 
a huge profit there is, coin there on the 
mainlana a great quantity of basamoOB, 
and gradually smuggle them into Goa, 
making a pitful of gold." — ComIo, Diatogo do 
Soldado Praiico, 138. 

1638.— "They have (at Gombroon) a 
certain Copper Coin which they call Beaorg, 
whereof 6 make a PeySy and 10 Peys make 
a Chay {ShOhA) which is worth alwut bd. 
English."— F. and Tr. of J, A, Mandelslo 
into the E, Indies, E. T. 1669, p. 8. 

1672.— " Their coins (at Taaor in Malabar) 
... of Copper, a Buaerook, 20 of which 
make a Fanam." — Fryer, 53. [He also spells 
the word Baarook. See quotation under 

1677. — "Rupees, Pices and BodgrookB." 
—LeUers Patent of Charles IL in Gharters of 
ike E. L Co,, p. 111. 

1711.— "The Budgerooks (at Muskat) are 
mixt Mettle, rather like Iron than anything 
else, have a Cross on one side, and were 
coin'd by the Portuguese. Thirty of them 
make a silver Mamooda, of about Eight 
Pence Value." — Lockyer, 211. 

c. 1720-80.— "They (the Portuguese) also 
use bits of copper which they call hmurg, 
and four of these biunirge pass for SLfaliis" 
—KhSfl Khdti, in Elliot, v. 345. 

c. 1760. — " At Goa the scoraphim is worth 
240 Portugal reas, or about 16(2. sterling ; 
2 reas make a basaraco, 15 basaracos a 
viwtin, 42 vintins a tanaa^ 4 tangos a pan^, 
2i^ pontes a pagoda of gold." — Qrose^ i. 282. 

1838.—" Only eight or ten loads (of coffee) 
were imported this year, including two loads 
of *Kopes* (see COPECK), the copper cur- 
rency of Russia, known in this country by 
the name of Bnghmkcha. They are 
converted to the same uses as copper." — 
Report from Kabul, by A, Bwmes; in Punjab 
Trade Report, App. p. iii. 




This may possibly oontain some indication 
of the true form of this obscure word, but 
I have derived no light from it myself. 
The budorook was apparently current at 
Muscat aown to the beginning of last cen- 
tury (see MUbwrUf i. 116). 

BUDLEE, s. A substitute in public 
or domestic service. H. haMl, 'ex- 
change ; a person taken in exchange ; 
a locwm. tenens^y from Ar. hadaly 'he 
changed.' (See MUDDLE.) 

BUDMAsH, s. One foUowing evil 
courses ; Fr. mauvais sujet; It. irudan- 
drino. Properly had-ma'dshy from P. 
body 'evil,' and Ar. ma!d^ 'means of 

1844. — ". . . the reputation which John 
Lawrence acquired ... by the masterly 
mancBuvring of a body of police with whom 
he descended on a nest of gamblers and cut- 
throats, 'budmashes' of every description, 
and took them all prisoners." — Bosworth 
SmUh'» Life of Ld, Lawreiux, i. 178. 

1866.— *' The truth of the matter is that 
I was foolish enough to pay these ImdmaahM 
beforehand, and uiey have thrown me over." 
—The Dawk BungaloWy by O. 0. Trevelyan, 
in Fratery p. 885. 

BUDZAT, 8. H. from P. hadzdty 
'evil race,' a low fellow, *a bad lot,' a 

1866.—'' Cholffumdelev. Why the shaitan 
didn't you come before, you lazy old 
budiart?**— rA« Dawk Bungalow^ p. 215. 

BUFFALO, s. This is of course 
ori^nally from the Latin bubcdttSy which 
we nave in older English forms, huffle 
and huff And hugky through the French. 
The preseAt form probaoly came from 
India, as it seems to be the Port. 
bufalo. The proper meaning of huhaluSy 
according to rliny, was not an animal 
of the ox-kind ()3o6/3aXis was a kind 6f 
African antelope) ; but in Martial, as 
quoted, it would seem to bear the 
vulgar sense, rejected by Pliny. 

At an early period of our connection 
with India the name of huffcUo appears 
to have been given erroneously to the 
common Indi^ ox, whence came the 
still surviving misnomer of London 
shops, ^huffcUo humps.' (See also the 
quotation from Ovington.) The buffalo 
has no hump. Buffalo tongues are 
another matter, and an old luxury, as 
the third quotation shows. The ox 
having appropriated the name of the 
buffalo, the true Indian domestic 
buffalo was differentiated as the ^tenter 

huffaloy a phrase still maintained by 
the British soldier in India. This ha» 
probably misled Mr. Blochmann, who 
uses the term ^ water huffahy in hi» 
excellent EngUsh version of the Atn 
(^e,g. i. 219). We find the same phrase 
in Barklei^s Five Years in Bulgaria^ 
1876 : " Besides their bullocks every 
well-to-do Turk had a drove of wUer^ 
huffatoes" (32). Also in CoUingwoo^s^ 
RamMes of a Naturalist (1868X p. 43,. 
and in Miss BirePs Golden Chertonese^ 
(1883), 60, 274. [The unscientific use 
of the word as applied to the American 
Bison is as old as the end of the 18thi 
century (see N,E,D,),] 

The domestic buffalo is apparently 
derived from the wild buffalo {BubaUiU 
ami, Jerd. ; Bos huhoUv^ Blanf ]), whose- 
favourite habitat is in the swampy sites, 
of the Sunderbunds and Eastern BengaL 
but whose hauntsextend north-eastmra 
to the head of the Assam valley, in the 
Terai west to Oudh, and south nearly 
to the Qodavery ; not beyond this in 
the Peninsula, though the animal is- 
found in the north and north-east of 

The domestic buffalo exists not only 
in India but in Java, Sumatra, and 
Manilla, in Mazanderan, Mesopotamia^ 
Babylonia, Adherbijan, Egypt, Turkey, 
and Italy. It does not seem to be 
known how or when it was introduced 
into Italy.— (See Hehn.) rAccording^ 
to the Encyd. Britt. (9th ed. iv. 4421 
it was introduced into Greece and 
Italy towards the close of the 6th 

c. A.D. 70. — " Howbeit that country 
bringeth forth certain kinds of goodly great 
wild boeufes: to wit the Biaontee, mained 
with a oollar, like Lions ; and the Vri [Urusl 
a mip^htie strong beast, and a swift, which 
the Ignorant people call Bvjles (ImbalOB), 
whereas indeed the Buffle is bred in Affrica, 
and carieth some resemblance of a calf» 
rather, or a Stag.'*— P/tiiy, by PL HoUaande^ 
i. 199-200. 

c. AJ). 90.— 
*' Ille tulit geminos facili cervioe iuTenoos 

lUi cessit atroz bnbalfUi atque bison." 

MartuUy De J^tectaeulis, zzIt. 

o. 1580. — '' Veneti mercatores linguas Bn* 
balomm, tanquam mensis optimas, sale 
oonditas, in ma^na copia Venetias mittont.*" 
—Protperi Alpiniy Hvst. Nat. AegypU, P. I. 
p. 228. 

1585.—*' Here be many Tigers, wild Boiii, 
and g^reat store of wilde Fonle. . ." — R. 
Fiiehy in HakL ii. 889. 

*'Here are many wUde troifM and Bl«- 
phants."— /6Mi. 894. 




'"Hie King (Akbar) hath ... as they 
doe crediUy report, 1000 Elephants, 30,000 
homes, 1400 tame deere, 800 ooncubines; 
ffach store of otinoea, tigers, Boflies, oooks 
and Hankea, that it is very strange to see." 
—Ibid. 386. ^ -o 

1589.— "The^ doo plough and till their 
ground with kine, bafalOB, and bnlles,"— 
Mendom'M Chifui, tr. by Parkes, ii. 56. 

[c 1590. — ^Two methods of snaring the 
huftdo are described in A%n. Bloehmwun, tr. 

1508. — "There is ahio an infinite number 
of wild bnflii that go wandering about the 
dGUiriB,*'—PigafeUaj B, T, in Harleian Coll. 
of Voyoffes, ii. 546. 

[1623.— "The inhabitants (of Malabar) 
keep Cows, or bnllallB.*'— P. della ValU, 
HiOL Soc. ii. 207.] 

1680. — "As to Kine and Bnffaloes . . . 
they besmeare the floores of their houses 
with their dung, and thinke the ground 
sanctified by such pollution." — Lord, Dit- 
caverie of the Baawm Iteligicn, 60-61. 

1644.— "We tooke coach to livomo, thro* 
the Qreat Duke's new Parke, full of huge 
corke-trees; the underwood all myrtilk, 
amongst whiich were many boffUOB feeding, 
a kind of wild ox, short nos'd, horns re- 
yened/'—Bvelyn, Oct. 21. 

1666.—". . . it produces Elephants in 
great number, oxen and bnlfaloeB'^ {bvfaros). 
—Faria y Sauza, i. 189. 

1689.—". . . both of this kind (of Oxen), 
and the BvffBloet, are remarkable for a big 
piece of Flesh that rises above Six Inches 
high between their Shoulders, which is the 
choicest and delicatest piece of Meat upon 
them, especially put into a dish of Palau.^' — 
Ovingtan, 25i, 

1806.—". . . the Bnfbla milk, and curd, 
and batter simply churned and clarified, is 
in eommon use among these Indians, whilst 
the dainties of the C^w Dairy is prescribed 
to valetudinarians, as Hectics, and preferred 
by vicioous (nc) appetites, or impotents alone, 
as that of the capnne and assine is at home." 
— Dntmmowi, Illm. ofG^zenUUej kc, 

" The tank which fed his fields was there. . . 

There from the intolerable heat 
The hnffUoes retreat ; 

Only their nostrils raised to meet the air. 

Amid the sheltering element they rest." 

Cwrte of Kehaana ix. 7. 

1878. — " I had in my possession a head of 
a oow bnilUo that measures 13 feet 8 inches 
in circumference, and 6 feet 6 inches be- 
tween the tips— the largest hnlfalo head in 
the world."— Potfoir, Sport in Br, Bttrmah, 
Ac, i. 107. 

BUOGALOW, 8. Mahr. hagld^ ha- 
gold, A name commonly given on the 
W. coast of India to Arab vessels of 
the old native form. It is also in 
common use in the Bed Sea (hakcUd) 
for the larger native vessels, all built 

of teak from India. It seems to be a 
corruption of the Span, and Port, hajdy 
bcuulj haixel, baxeUa, from the Lat. vas- 
ceUvm (see Diez, Etym, JV&rterh, i. 439, 
8. v.). Cobarruviaa (1611) gives in his 
Sp. Diet. ^^Baxel, quasi vi^ael" as a 
generic name for a vessel of any kind 
going on the sea, and quotes St. Isidor^ 
who identifies it with phoMltiSy ana 
from whom we transcribe the ^usage- 
below. It remains doubtful whether 
this word was introduced into the East 
by the Portuguese^ or had at an earlier 
date passed into Arabic marine use. 
The latter is most probable. In Gorrea 

Sc. 1661) this word occurs in the- 
orm vajer, pi. pc^eres (j and x being- 
interchangeaDle in Sp. and Port. 
See Lendas, i. 2, pp. 692, 619, &c.). In 
Pinto we have another form. Among^ 
the models in the Fisheries Exhibition 
(1883X there was "A Zaroogai or 
Bagaiah from Aden." [On the other 
hand Burton [At, Niakta, i. 119) de- 
rives the word from the Ar. haghlahy 
*a she-mule.' Also see BUDOEBOW.] 

c. 686.— "PAa*!/M* est navigium quod 
nos comipte tMlwfilTim dicimus. De quo 
Virgilius: PidtUqut phatefts.** ^ Jtodorw 
ffispaUntis, Oriffinum et Btymol, lib. zix. 

c. 1639.— " Partida a nao pera Goa, 
FemSo de Morals . . . segniio sua viage na 
Tolta do porto de Dabul, onde chegou a» 
outro dia as noye horas, e tomando nelle 
htt pagnel de Malavares, carregado de algo- 
dao e de pimenta, pos logo a tormento o 
Capitano e o piloto delle, os quaes oonfes- 
sarao. . . ."— Pi»to, ch. viii. 

1842.— ''As store and horse boats for that 
service, Capt. Oliver, I find, would prefer 
the large class of native boggalas, by which 
so much of the trade of this coast with 
Scinde, Cutch ... is carried on." — Sir Q» 
Arthur, in Ind, Admin. qfLord Bllenboroughy 

[1900. — '* His tiny ba^gala, which 
mounted ten tiny guns, is now employed 
in trade." — Bent, Soulkem ArdlMi, 8.J 

BUCK^Y, s. In India this is a 
(two- wheeled) cig with a hood, like the 
gentleman's cat) that was in vogue 
m London about 1830-40, before 
broughams came in. Latham puts a 
(?) after the word, and the earliest 
examples that he gives are from the 
second quarter of this century (from 
Praed and I. D'Israeli). Though we 
trace the word much further back, we 
have not discovered its birthplace or 
etymology. The word, though used in 
England^ has never been very common 
there ; it is better known both in 




Ireland and in America. Littr6 gives 
boghei as French also. The American 
bugay is defined by Noah Webster as 
"alight, one-horse, four-wheel vehicle, 
usiiaUy with one seat, and with or 
without a calash-top." Cuthbert Bede 
shows {N, d: Q, 6 ser. v. p. 446) that 
the adjective 'bufigy* is used in the 
Eastern Midlands for ' conceited.' This 
suggests a possible origin. " When the 
Hunterian spelling-controversy raged 
in India, a learned Member of Council 
is said to have stated that he approved 
the change until — — — ^^— began 
to spell buggy as ham. Then he gave 
it up." — (M,'G, Keatinge.) I have 
recently seen this spelling in print. 
fThe N.E.D, leaves the etymology un- 
settled, merely saying that it has been 
connected with oogte and btuf. The 
earliest quotation given is that of 1773 

1778.— "Thursday 3d (June). At the 
aeadona at Hicks's Hall two boys were 
indicted for driving a poflt-ooach and four 
•against a single horse-chaise, throwing out 
the driver of it, and breaking the chaise to 
pieces. Justice Welch, the Chairman, took 
notice of the frequency of the brutish cus- 
tom among the poet oriTers, and their in- 
■sensibility in making it a matter of sport, 
ludicrously denominating mischief of this 
kind 'Running down the Buggies.' — The 
Drisoners were sentenced to be confined in 
Newgate for 12 months." — GerUltman*s 
Meigaziney xliii. 297. 

** Shall I>(anal)d come with Butts and tons 
And knock down Epegrams and Puns ? 
With Chairs, old Cot^ and Buggies trick 

Forbid it, Phoebus, and forbid it, Hicky ! " 
In Hiciy's Bengal Gazette, May 13th. 

„ "... go twice round the Race- 
Oourse as hard as we can set legs to ground, 
but we are beat hollow by Bob Crochet's 
Horses driven by Miss Fanny Hardheart, 
who in her career oversets Tim Capias the 
Attorney in his Buggy. . . ." — In India 
OazetU, Dec. 23rd. 

1782.— "Wanted, an excellent Buggy 
Horse about 15 Hands high, that will trot 
15 miles an hour"— India (JateOe, Sept. 14. 

1784.— "For sale at Mr. Mann's, Rada 
Bazar. A Phaeton, a four-spring'd Buggy, 
and a two-spring'd ditto. . . ." — CcUcutia 
Oazette, in Selon-Karr, i. 41. 

1793.— "For sale. A good BuggT and 
Horae. . . "—Bombay Courier, Jan. 2()th. 

1824.—". . . the Archdeacon's lni|CS7 
-and horse had every appearance of issuing 
from the back-gate of a college in Cambridge 
on Sunday morning."— J/eMr, i. 192 (ed. 

[1837.— "The vehicles of the place (Mong- 

hir), amounting to four Buggiet (that is a 
foolish term for a cabriolet, but as it is the 
only vehicle in use in India, and as bugffy is 
the only name for said vehicle, I give it up), 
. . . were assembled for our use." — Mia 
Eden, Up the Country, i. 14.] 

c. 1888.— "But substitute for him an 
average ordinary, uninteresting Minister; 
obese, dumpy . . . with a second-rate wife 
— dusty, deliquescent — ... or let him bo 
seen in one of thoee Shem-Ham-and-Japhet 
buggiee, made on Mount Ararat soon after 
the subsidence of the waters. . . ." — Sydney 
Smith, 3rd Letter to Archdeacon Singleton.' 

1848.—" 'Joseph wants me to see if his— 
his buggy ia at the door.' 

" * What is a buggy, papa ? ' 

" *It is a one-horse palanquin,' said the 
old gentleman, who was a wag in his way." 
— Vanity Fair, ch. iii. 

1872. — "He drove his charger in his old 
buggy. "—^ True Reformer, ch. i. 

1878.— "I don't like your new Bombay 
buggy. With much practice I have learned 
to get into it, I am hanged if I can ever get 
out."— Overland Time* of India, 4th Feb. 

1879. — "Driven by that hunger for news 
whidi impels special correspondents, he had 
actually ventured to drive in a 'spider,' 
apparently a kind of buggy, from the 
'Tiigela to 0{nsA\ho\o"—Spedaior, May 

BUGIS, n.p. Name given by the 
Malavs to the dominant race of the 
island of Celebes, originating in the 
S.-Westem limb of uie island ; the 
people calling themselves Wvm, But 
the name used to be applied in the 
Archipelago to native soldiers in 
European service, raised in any of 
the islands. Compare the analogous 
use of TdUnga (q-v.) formerly in 

[1615.— "All these in the kingdom of 
Macassar . . . besides Buglet, Mander and 
ToUova."— Foster, Letters^i. 162.] 

1666.-" Thereupon the Hollanders re- 
solv'd to unite their forces with the Bou- 
quises, that were in rebellion against their 
Soveraign." — Tavernier, E. T. ii. 192. 

1688.— "These Buggasaes are a sort of 
warlike trading Malayans and mercenary 
soldiers of India. I know not well whence 
they come, unless from Macassar in the Isle 
of Celebes." — Dampier, ii. 108. 

[1697.—" . . . with the help of Bu|r- 
gesses. . . "—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. li. 

1758. — "The Dutch were commanded by 
Colonel Roussely, a French soldier of fortune. 
They consisted of nearl^^ 700 Europeans, and 
as many buggOMS, besides countiy troops." 
— Narr. of Ihttch attempt in Hoogly, in 
Malcolm:* Clive, ii. 87. 

1788.— "Bugrases, inhabitants of Cele- 
bes." — Forrest, Vnyafjf tn Afrrj^a\ p. .59. 




1783.— "The word Bnggen has beoome 
among Europeans consonant to aoldier, in 
the east of India, as Sepoy is in the West." 
— 7Wa. 78. 

1811.— "We had fallen in with a fleet of 
nine Boneee prows, when we went out 
towards Pulo Mancap.'* — Lord Minto in 
India, 279. 

1878.— "The BugiB are evidently a dis- 
tinct race from the Malaya, and come 
originally from the southern part of the 
Island of Celebes."— A/ciVatr, Perak, 130. 

BULBUL, 8. The word buUml is 
ori^nally Persian (no doubt intended 
to imitate the bird's noteX and applied 
to a bird which does duty with Fersian 
poetfi for the nightingale. Whatever 
the Persian bulbul may be correctly, 
the application of the name to certain 
species in India "has led to many 
misconceptions about their powers of 
voice and song," says Jerdon. These 
s|>ecies belong to tne family Brachi- 
podidae^ or short-legged thruishes, and 
the true huOmls to the sub-family 
Pyenonotinaey e.g, genera Hypsipetes, 
Hemixos, Alcurus^ Onniger^ Ixos^ Kda- 
artioy BMgtblayBrachipodiiLS, OtocompsOy 
Pycfumotus (P. pygcteusy common Bengal 
Bulbul ; P. haemorhousy common 
Madras Bulbul). Another sub-family, 
PhyllomUhinaey contains various species 
which Jerdon calls green Bulbuls. 

[A lady having asked the late Lord 
Robertson, a Judge of the Court of Session, 
*' What sort of animal is the btUl-bullt" he 
replied, "I suppose. Ma'am, it must be the 
mate of the coo-coo."— 3rd ser., N, ds Q. 
V. 81.] 

1784.— "We are literally lulled to sleep 
by Persian nightingales, and cease to wonder 
that the Ballml, with a thousand tales, 
makes such a figure in Persian poetry." — 
Sir W. /ones, in Memoirs, &c., ii. 37. 

1813.— *' The hallnil or Persian nightin- 
gale. ... I never heard one that possessed 
the charming variety of the English night- 
ingale . . . whether the Indian hnlbal and 
that of Iran entirely correspond I have some 
doubts." — ForheSy Oriental Memairt, i. 50; 
[2nd ed. i. 34]. 

1848. — ** 'It is one's nature to sing and 
the other's to hoot,' he said, laughing, 'and 
with such a sweet voice as you have your- 
self, you must belong to the Bullml faction." 
— Vanity Fair, ii. ch. xxvii. 

BnLaAB,B0LaAB,8. F.bulghdr. 
The ffeneral Asiatic name for what 
we caU 'Ruasia leather,' from the fact 
that the region of manufacture and 
export was originally Bolghar on the 
Volga, a kingdom which stood for 

many centuries, and gave place to 
Kazan in the beginning of the 15th 
century. The word was usual also 
among Anglo-Indians till the begin- 
ning of last century, and is still in 
native Hindustani use. A native 
(mythical) account of the manufacture 
is given in Baden - PoioeWs Punjab 
Handbooky 1872, and this fanciful 
etymology : "as the scent is derived 
from soaking in the pits (ghar)y the 
leather is called Balghdr'' (p. 124). 

1298. — "He bestows on each of those 
12,000 Barons . . . likewise a pair of boots 
of Borgal, curiously wrought with silver 
thread."— ifarco Polo, 2nd ed. i. 381. See 
also the note on this passage. 

c. 1333. — "I wore on my feet boots (or 
stockings) of wool ; over these a pair of linen 
lined, and over all a thin pair of Boiffh&li, 
i.e. of horse-leather lined with wolf skin." — 
Ibn Batuta, ii. 445. 

[1614.— "Of your BuUgaxyan hides there 
are brought hither some 160." — Foster, 
Letters, iii. 67.] 

1623.— Offer of Sheriff Freeman and Mr. 
Ooxe to furnish the Company with "Bnl- 
gaiy red hides."- Coiert Minutes, in Sains- 
bury, iii. 184. 

1624.— "Purefy and Hay ward, Factors at 
Ispahan to the E. I. Ck)., have bartered 
morse-teeth and 'tmlgan' for carpets."— 
Ibid, p. 268. 

1673.— "They carry also Bulgar-Hides, 
which they form into TEmks to bathe Uiem- 
selves."- >Vy«r, 398. 

c. 1680.— "Putting on a certain dress 
made of Bulgar-leather, stuffed with cot- 
ton." — Seir Mutaqherin, iii. 387. 

1759. — Among expenses on account of 
the Nabob of Bengal's visit to Calcutta we 

"To 50 pair of Bulger Hides at 13 per 
pair, Rs. 702 : : 0."—Long, 193. 

1786. — Among "a very capital and choice 
assortment of Europe goods we find "Bnl- 
gar Hides." — Gal. Gazette, June 8, in SetMi- 
Karr, i. 177. 

1811. — " Most of us furnished at least one 
of our servants with a kind of bottle, holding 
nearly three quarts, made of bnlgh^ . . • 
or Russia -leather." — W. Ousely's Travels^ 
i. 247. 

In Tibetan the word is hnlliari. 

BULKUT, s. A large decked ferry- 
boat ; from Teliig. SaUay a board. 
(C. P. Brown). 

BULLUMTEEB, s. Anglo-Sepoy 
dialect for * VoltmteerJ This distinc- 
tive title was applied to certain regi- 
ments of the ola- jBengal Army, whose 
terms of enlistment embraced service 




beyond sea ; and in the days of that 
4u*my various ludicrous stories were 
•current in connection with the name. 

BUMBA, 8. H. hambOy from Port. 
ifondMy 'a pump.' Haex (1631) gives : 
^^Bomhoy organum pneumaticum quo 
^ua hauritur," as a Malay word. 
Tnis is incorrect, of course, as 
to the origin of the word, but it 
shows its early adoption into an 
Eastern language. The word is ap- 
plied at ^medabad to the water- 
towers, but this is modem ; [and so 
is the general application of the word 
in N. India to a canal distributary]. 

^' Alija, dine o mestre rijamente, 
Alija tudo oo mar, nSo falte acordo 
Vao outroB dar & bomba, nao oeasando ; 
A' bomba que nos Imos alagando.' " 

GamlkSy vi. 72. 
By Burton: 
* * Heave ! * roared the Master with a 
mighty roar, 
'Heave overboard your all, together's 

the word ! 
Others go work the pumps, and with a 

The pumps ! and sharp, look sharp, before 
she fill!'" 

BUMMELO, s. A small fish, 
•aibounding on all the coasts of India 
and the Archipelago ; Harpodon 
Tuheretu of Buch. Hamilton ; the 
specific name being taken from the 
Bengali name nekare. The fish is 
A great delicacy when fresh caught 
Ana fried. When dried it becomes 
the famous Bombay Duck (see DUCKS, 
BOMBAY), which is now imported into 

The orimn of either name is obscure. 
Moleswortn gives the word as Mahratti 
with the spelling bomMl, or hombila 
{p. 595 a). Bwmmelo occurs in the 
Supp. (1727) to Bluteau's Diet in 
the Portuguese form bamhulim^ as 
*Hhe name of a very savoury fish 
in India." The same word bambtUim 
is also explained to mean ^humas 
pregoB na taya a modoj^ * certain plaits 
in the fashionable ruff,' but we know 
not if there is any connection between 
the two. The form Bombay Duck has 
an analogy to Dighy Gkicks which are 
^d in the London shops, also a kind 
of dried fish, pilcharas we believe. 
and the name may have originated 
in imitation of this or some similar 

English name. [The Digby Chick is 
saia to be a small herring cured in 
a peculiar manner at Dtghy, m Lincoln- 
shire : but the Americans derive them 
from Digby in Nova Scotia ; see 8 ser. 
N, db Q. vii. 247.] 

In an old chart of Chittagong River 
(by B. Plaisted, 1764, published by 
A. Dairy mple, 1785) we find a poiiit 
called BtmbeUo Point. 

1678.—" Up the Bay a Mile lies Maasi- 
gonng, a great Fishing-Town, peculiarly 
notable for a Fish oallMl Bvmbelow, the 
Sustenance of the Poorer sort"— Fryer, 67. 

1785.— "My friend General Campbell, 
Governor of Madras, tells me that they 
make Speldings in the East Indies, par- 
ticularly at Bombay, where they call them 
Bombaloes."— Note by Boawell in his Tour 
to (he Mebridea, under August 18th, 1773. 

1810.—" The Irambelo is like a large sand- 
eel ; it is dried in the sun, and is usually 
eaten at breakfast with kedgeree."— if aria 
Graham, 25. 

1813.— Forbes has Irambalo: Or, Mem., 
i. 53 ; [2nd ed., i. 36], 

1877.— "Bmnmalow or Bobil, the dried 
fish still called 'Bombay Duck.'"— burton, 
SiTid ReoiMUd, i. 68. 

BUNCUS, BUNCO, s. An old word 
for cheroot. Apparently from the Ma- 
lay bungkvLSy *a wrapper, bundle, thing 

1711.— "Tobacco ... for want of Pipes 
they smoke in BuicoB, as on the Coromdwiel 
Coast. A Bunco is a little Tobacco wrapt 
up in the Leaf of a Tree, about the Bigness 
of one's little Finger, they light one End, 
and draw the Smoke thro' the other . . . 
these are curiously made up, and sold 20 or 
30 in a bundle." — Lochyer, 61. 

1726. — "After a meal, and on other occa- 
sions it is one of their fipreatest delights, both 
men and women, old and young, to eat 
Finang (areca), and to smoke tobac(x>. which 
the women do with a Bongkoe, or dry leaf 
rolled up, and the men with a Gorregcrri (a 
little can or flower pot) whereby they both 
manage to pass most of their time." — 
Valentijn, ▼. Chcrom.^ 55. [Ocrregorri is 
Malay guri-gvri, * a small earthenware pot, 
also used for holding provisions' (KHnlai).] 

„ (In the retinue of Grandees in 

"One with a coconut shell mounted 
in gold or silver to hold their tobacco or 
boiurkoOMt {i.e. tobacco in rolled leaves)." 
— ValeHtiJn^ iv. 61. 

c. 1760. — "The tobacco leaf, simply 
rolled up, in about a finder's length, which 
they call a buncni, and is, I fancy, of the 
same make as what the West Indians term 
a segar; and of this the Gentoos chiefly 
make use."— ^Traie, i. 146. 




BUND, a. Any artificial embank- 
ment, a dam, dyke, or causeway. H. 
JfOML The root is both Skt. {bandh) 
4Uid P., but the common word, used as 
it is without aspirate, seems to have 
eome from the latter. The word is com- 
mon in Persia (e^g. see BENDAMEEB). 
It is also naturalised in the Anglo- 
dhinese ports. It is there appBed 
especially to the embanked quay along 
the shore of the settlements. In Hon^ 
Kong alone this is called (not bunOf 
butt praia ^Port * shore ' [see PRAYA]X 
prooably aaopted from Macao. 

1810.— "The great bond or dyke."— 
WiUiammm, V. M. ii. 279. 

I860.— "The oatiTee have a tradition that 
the deetmcticm of the bnnd was effected bv 
4 foreign enemy." — Tenmeni's Ceylon, ii. 604. 

1875.— ". . . it is pleasant to see the 
OuniaBe . . . being propelled along the bnnd 
in their hand carts."- rAom«Mi*< Malaoca, 

Ig76.— ". . . so I took a stroU on Tien- 
Tsin rmnSL^'—OUl^ River of Golden Sand, 
i. 28. 

BUNDEB, s. P. banda/Tf a landing- 

E^ e or quay ; a seaport ; a harbour ; 
I sometimes also a custom-house), 
old ItaL scala, mod. scalo, is the 
nearest equivalent in most of the 
senses that occurs to us. We have 
<c. 1665) the Mtr-handar, or Port 
Master, in Sind (EUtot, i. 277) [cf. 
Shabonder]. The Portuguese often 
wrote the word bandel. Bonder is 
in S. India the popular native name 
of ICasilliiiatam, or MaMi-hcmdar. 

c. 1S44.— "The profit of the treasury, 
which they call bandar, consists in the 
right of buying a certain portion of all sorts 
«f cargo at a fixed price, whether the ff oods 
be omy worth that or more; and wis is 
«aned the Law of the Bandar."--Ibn BaMa, 
IT. 120. 

c 1346.— "So we landed at the 
whkh is a lanre collection of houses on the 
seashore."— i^ici. 228. 

1562. — "Coga-atar sent word to Affonzo 
d'Alboquerqoe that on the coast of the 
main land opposite, at a port which is called 
Jtm-w^Amr Auffon . . . Were arriyed two am> 
bnnwiflnrn prthn King of Shinus."— BarrcM, 
II. iL 4. 

[1618.— "Besides the danger in intercept- 
ing oar boats to and from the shore, so., 
their firing from the Banda would be with 
much difficulty."— /V>s<«r, Letters, iv. 828.] 

1678.— "We fortify our Houses, have 
BaBdnrs or Docks for our Vessels, to which 
beloDg Yards for Seamen, Soldiers, and 
Stowfc"— /Vyr, 115. 

1809. — "On the new bnndsr or pier." — 
Maria Graham, 11. 

£1847, 1860. — See quotations under 

BTJNDER-BOAT. s. A boat in use 
on the Bombay ana Madras coast for 
communicating with ships at anchor, 
and also much employed by officers of 
the civil departments (Salt, &c.) in 
going up ana down the coast It is 
ri£Ked as Bp. Heber describes, with a 
cabin amidships. 

1826. — "We crossed over . . . in a stout 
boat called here a bnndur boat. I suppose 
from ^bundur* a harbour, with two masts, 
and two lateen saik. . . .**^H«ber, ii. 121, 
ed. 1844. 

BUNDOBUST, s. P.-H.-^oOTi-o- 
hast, lit. Hying and binding.' Any 
system or mode of regulation ; dis- 
cipline ; a revenue settlement. 

P768.— "Mr. Rumbold advises us . . . 
he {)ropo8es making a tour through that 
province . . . and to settle the Bandobust 
for the ensuing year."— ZeCfer to the Court of 
Directors, in verelst. View of Bengal, App. 

c. 1848.—" There must be bakut acheh'hd 
bandobiut {i.e. very good order or discip- 
line) in your country," said an aged 
Kh&nsama (in Hindustani) to one of the 
present writers. " When I have gone to the 
Sandheads to meet a young gentleman from 
Bildyat, if I ffave him a cup of tea, ^Ubuhi 
t&nki,* said he. Three months afterwards 
this was all changed ; bad language, violence, 
no more MnK." 

1880.— "There is not a more fearful 
wild-fowl than your travelling M.P. This 
unhappy creature, whose mina is a perfect 
blank regarding FaujdAri and Bando- 
• ^ . r—AU Baba, 181. 

BUNBOOE, 8. H. handuJb, from 
Ar. bundui. The common ti. term 
for a musket or matchlock. The history 
of the word is very curious. BunduJb, 
pi. banddii, was a name applied bv tlie 
Arabs to 'filberts (as some allege) be- 
cause they came from Yemce( BanadiJb, 
comp. Qerman Venedig), The nanie 
was transferred to the nut-Uke pellets 
shot from cross-bows, and thence the 
cross-bows or arblasts were called 
bunduJh, elliptically for iaus cU-b., 
'peUet-bow.' From cross-bows the 
name was transferred again to fire- 
arms, as in the parallel case of arque- 
bus. [Al-Bandukani, * the man of the 
pellet-bow,' was one of the names by 
which the Caliph Harun-al-Rashicl 
was known, and Al Zahir Baybars 




al-Bandukdari, the fourth Baharite 
Soldan (^.d. 1260-77) was so entitled 
because he had been slave to a Banduk- 
dar, or Master of Artillery {Burton, 
Ar, Nights, xii. 38).] 

[1875.— " Bandflqis, or orderlies of the 
Maharaja, carrying long guns in a loose red 
cloth cover." — Drew, Jummoo and Kashmir, 

BUNGALOW, 8. H. and Mahr. 
hcmgld. The most usual class of house 
occupied by Europeans in the interior 
of India ; being on one story, and 
covered by a pyramidal roof, which 
in the normal oungalow is of thatch, 
but may be of tiles without impairing 
its title to be called a bungalow. Most 
of the houses of officers in Indian can- 
tonments are of this character. In 
reference to the style of the house, 
bwigcUow is sometimes employed in 
contradistinction to the (usually more 

Sretentious) pucka house; by which 
Ltter term is implied a masonry house 
with a terraced roof. A bungalow may 
also be a small building of the type 
which we have described, but of 
temporary material, in a garden, on a 
terraced roof for sleeping in, &c., &c. 
The word has abo oeen adopted by 
the French in the East, and by 
Europeans generally in Cejrlon, China, 
Japan, and the coast of Africa. 

Wilson writes the word bdiigld, 
giving it as a Bengali word, and as 
probably derived from Banga, Bengal. 
This is fundamentally the etymology 
mentioned by Bp. Heber in his Journal 
(see below), and that etymolo^ is cor- 
roborated by our first quotation, from 
a native historian, as well as bv that 
from F. Buchanan. It is to W re- 
membered that in Hindustan proper 
the adjective *of or belonging to 
Bengal is constantly pronounc^ as 
banjgdla ,OT bangld. Thus one of the 
eras used in E. India is distin^ished 
as the Bangld[eTS^. The probability is 
that,iwhen Europeans began to build 
houses of this character in Behar and 
Upper India, these were called Bangld 
or * Bengal-fashion' houses; that the 
name was adopted by the Europeans 
themselves and their followers, and so 
was brought back to Bengal itself, as 
well as carried to other parts of India. 
["In Bengal, and notably in the 
districts near Calcutta, native houses 
to this day are divided into aih-chala^ 
ehau-4^hala, and Bangala, or eight- 

roofed, four-roofed, and Bengali, or 
common huts. The first term does 
not imply that the house has eight 
coverings, but that the roof has four 
distinct sides with four more projec- 
tions, so as to cover a veranoah all 
round the house, which is square. The 
Bangala, or Bengali house, or bungalow 
has a sloping roof on two sides and two 
gable ends. Doubtless the term was- 
taken up by the first settlers in Bengal 
from the native style of edifice, was 
materially improveo, and was thence 
carried to other parts of India. It is 
not necessary to assume that the first 
bungalows were erected in Behar.'* 
(Saturday Rev., 17th April 1886, in a 
re\'iew oi the first ed. of this book).] 

A.H. 1041=A.D. 1633.— "Under the rule of 
the Bengalis {darahd-i-Bangdliydn) a party 
of Frank merchants, who are inhabitants of 
Sundfp, came trading to S^t^^w. One kos 
above tiiat place they occupied some ground 
on the banks of the estuary. Under the 
pretence that a building was necessary for 
their transactions in buying and selling, they 
erected several houses in the F^Mg^M style. 
—Badshdhndma, in Elliot, vii. 31. 

c. 1680.— In the tracing of an old Dutch 
chart in the India Office, which may be 
assigned to about this date, as it has no 
indication of Calcutta, we find at Hoogly: 
'^ Ougli . . . UoUantze Lome . . . BaageUMT 
of Spedhuys," i.e. " lloogly . . TDutch 
Factory . . . Bungalow, or Pleasure-house." 

■ 1711 .— " Mr. Herring, the Pilot'*, Directions 
for bringing of Ships down the River of 

*' From OmII Oat all along the Hvghfey 
Shore until below the New Ckaney aunost 
as far as the Dutch Bnngelow lies a Sand. 
. . ."—ThcTTiion, The English Pilot, Pt. III. 
p. 54. 

\7\l,—''NaUy Bnn^o or Nedds Ban- 
galla River lies in this Reach (Tanna) on 
the Larboard side. . ." — Ibid, 56. The place 
in the chart is Nedds B«iigalla, and seema 
to have been near the present Akra on the 

1747.— " Nabob's Camp near the Hedge 
of the Bounds, building a Ffipgnl^nm, raising 
Mudd Walls round the Camp, maldng Gun 
Carriages &c. . . . (Pagodas) 55 : 10 : 73." 
— Aoct. <^ Extraordinary Charges . . . Janu- 
ary, at Fart St. David, MS. Records in India 

1758. — " I was talking with my friends in 
Dr. Fullerton's baagla when news came of 
Ram Narain's being defeated." — Seir Mtda- 
qherin, ii. 103. 

1780.— "To be Sold or Let, A Commodi- 
ous Bniunlo and out Houses . . . situated 
on the Road leading from the Hospital to 
the Burying Qround, and directly opposite 
to the Avenue in front of Sir Elijah Impey's 
House. . . ."—The India OaseUe, Deo. 23. 




1781-83.— "BnogelowB are buildings in 
India, generally raised on a base of brick, 
one, two, or three feet from the ground,land 
•coDflist of only one story : the pUn of them 
osoaUy is a large room in the center for an 
mating and sitting room, and rooms at each 
comer for sleeping ; the whole is covered 
witii one general thatch, which comes low 
to each side ; the spaces between the angle 
rooms are viranders or open porticoes . . . 
aometamee tiie center viranders at each end 
are converted into rooms." — Hodges. Travels. 

1784.— "TobeletatChinsurah . . . That 
large and commodious House. . . . Theout- 
bnildings are — a warehouse and two large 
haUU-connahSf 6 store-rooms, a cook-room, 
«nd a garden, with a bungalow near the 
house."— Ch/. Gaxetiey in Seton-Karr, i. 40. 

1787.— "At Barrackpore many of the 
BongalowB much damaged, though none 
entirely destroyed.'*— /fruf. p. 218. 

1798.—" ... the bfongalo, or Summer- 
house. . . ."— Dironi, 211. 

„ "For Sale, a Bnngalo situated 
between the two Tombstones, in the Island 
cf CovlAha,"— Bombay Courier, Jan. 12. 

1794.— "The candid critic will not how- 
•erer expect the parched plains of India, 
or tnmgalOM in the land-winds, will hardly 
tempt the Aonian maids wont to disport on 
the banks of Tiber and Thames. . . ."— 
Hugh Bojfd, 170. 

1809. — "We came to a small bnngalo or 
garden-house, at the point of the hiO, from 
which there is, I think, the finest view I 
•ever saw."— if aria OraJuim, 10. 

c 1810.— "The style of private edifices 
that is proper and peculiar to Bengal oon- 
aiats of a hut with a pent roof constructed 
of two sloping sides which meet in a ridge 
forming the segment of a circle. . . . This 
kind cs hut, it is said, from being peculiar 
to Bengal, is called by the natives Banggolo, 
A name which has been somewhatStered 
by Europeans, and applied by them to all 
their buddings in the cottage style, although 
none of them have the proper shape, and 
many of them are excellent brick houses." 
—BuehamaCs Dinagepore (in JSastem Indian 
iL 922). 

1817.— "The TorU-bangala is made like 
two thatched houses or bangalas, placed 
sdde by side. . . . These temples are dedi- 
cated to different gods, but are not now 
frequently seen in Bengal."— fTonT* fftn- 
doos, Bk. II. ch. i. 

c. 1818. — "As soon as the sun is down 
we will go over to the Oaptain's bungalow." 
—Mrs Skarwood^ Stones, Ac, ed. 1878, p. 1. 
The original editions of this book contain 
an engraving of "The Captain's Bungalow 
at Gawnpore" (c 1811-12), which shows 
that no material change has occurred in 
the character of such dwellings down to the 
present time. 

1824.— "The house itself of Barrackpore 

. . . barely accommodates Lord Amherst's 

•own family ; and his aides-de-camp and 

visitors sleep in bungalows built at some 


little distance from it in the Park. Bunga- 
low, a corruption of Bengalee, is the general 
name in this country for any structure in 
the cottage style, an^ only of one floor. 
Some of these are spacious and comfortable 
dwellings. . . ."— Jteter, ed. 1844, i. 83. 

1872.— **L'empIacement du bnngalou 
avait €i/$ choisi avec un soin tout parti- 
culier." — Rev. des Devuc Monies, torn., 
xcviii. 930. 

1875.— ** The little groups of officers dis- 
persed to their respective bongaloWB to 
dress and breakfast.' — The DUemmat, ch. i. 

[In Oudh the name was specially 
applied to Fyzabad. 

[1868.— " Pyzabad ... was founded by 
the first rulers of the reigning family, and 
called for some time Bungalow, from a 
bungalow which they built on the vexge of 
the stream." — Sleeman, Journey through Uie 
Kingdom of Oudh, i. 187.] 

BUNGALOW, DAWK-, s. A rest- 
house for the accommodation of travel- 
lers, formerly maintained (and still to 
a reiduced extent) by the pitemal care 
of the Qovemment of India. The 
materiel of the accommodation was 
humble enough, but comprised the 
things essential for the weary traveller 
— shelter, a bed and table, a bath- 
room, and a servant furnishing food 
at a very moderate cost. On principal 
lines of thoroughfare these bungalows 
were at a distance of 10 to 15 miles 
apart, so that it was possible for a 
traveller to majce his journey by 
marches without carrying a tent. On 
some less frequented roads they were 
40 or 50 miles apart, adapted to a 
night's run in a palankin. 

1853.~"D&k-lmngal0W8 have been de- 
scribed by some Oriental travellers as the 
<Inns of India.' Playful satirists {"—Ozit- 
,field, ii. 17. 

1866.— "The Dawk Bungalow; or, Is 
his Appointment Pucka?*— By O. O. 
Trevdyan, in FrasBt's Magazine, vol. 73, 
p. 216. 

1878. — "I am inclined to think the value 
of life to a dak bungalow fowl must be 
very trifiing." — In my Indian Garden, 11. 

BUNGY, s. H. hhangi. The name 
of a low caste, habituallv employed as 
sweepers, ana in the lowest menial 
offices, the man being a house sweeper 
and dog-boy, [his wife an Ayalh]. 
Its members are found throughout 
NortJiem and Western India, and 
every European household has a 
servant of this class. The colloquial 
application of the term hungy to such 




servants is however peculiar to Bombay, 
[but the word is commonly used in 
the N.W.P. but always with a 
contemptuous significance]. In the 
Bengal Pry. he is generally called 
Mehtar (q.v.), and by politer natives 
Halalkhor (see HALALCOREX &c. In 
Madras totl ^see TOTY) is the usual 
word ; [in W. India Dher or Dhed], 
Wilson suggests that the' caste name 
may be derived from hhang (see BANG), 
and this is possible enough, as the 
class is generally nven to strong drink 
and intoxicating drugs. 

1826.— '* The Kalpa or Skinner, and the 
Bunghee, or Sweeper, are yet one step 
below the Dker.**—Tr, Lit. Soc. Bombay, 
iii. 362. 

BUNOW, B. and v. H. bando, used 
in the sense of * preparation, fabrica- 
tion,' &c., but properly the imperative 
of bandndy ' to make, prepare, faoricate.' 
The Anglo-Indian word is applied to 
anything fictitious or factitious, *a 
cram, a shave, a sham ' ; or, as a verb, 
to the manufacture of the like. The 
following lines have been found among 
old papers belonging to an officer who 
was at the Court of the Nawab -Sa'adat 
'Ali at Lucknow, at the l)eginning of 
the last century : — 

" Young Grant and Ford the other day 

Would fain have had some Sport, 
But Hound nor Beadle none had they, 

Nor aught of Canine sort. 
A luckless Parry * came most pat 

When Ford—* we've Dops enow ! 
Here Maitre. — Katcn avr Doom ko Kaui 

Juld 1 Terrier Inmnow ! ' t 
" So Saadut with the like design 

(1 mean, to form a Pack) 
To ***** t gave a Feather fine 

And Red Coat to his Back ; 
A Persian Sword to dog his side, 

And Boots Hussar 8uh-nyaK,X 
Then eyed his Handiwork with Pride. 

Crying Jfn^V myit bnnnayali ! 1 !"§ 
"Appointed to be said or sung in all 
Mosques, Mutts, Tuckeahs, or Eedgahs 
withm the Reserved Dominions." |i 
1863.— "You will see within a week if 

* I.e. Pariah dog. 

t " MehUr ! cut his ears and tail, quick ; fabri- 
caU a Terrier ! " 

X All new. 

§ *' See, / have fabrieaied a M^Jor !" 

li The writer of these lines is believed to have 
been Captain Robert Skirvlng, of Croys, GaUoway, 
a brother of Archibald Skirvinff. a Scotch artist of 
repute, and the son of Archibald Bkirving, of Bast 
Lothian, the author of a once famous ballad on 
the baUle of Prestonpana Captain Skirvlng 
nerved in the Bengal army fh>m about 1780 to 
1806, and died about 184a 

this is anything more than a banau." — 
Oakjieid, ii. 6S. 

[1870.—" We shall be satisfied with choos- 
ing for illustration, out of many, one kind 
of bemnred or prepared evidence." — Gfteeerf, 
Med. Juritprvd., 86.] 

BUBDWAN, n.p. A town 67 m. 
N.W. of Calcutta — Bardwdny but in 
its original Skt form Vardhamdna^ 
* thriving, prosperous,' a name which 
we find in Ptolemy (Bardamana\ 
though in another part of India. 
Some closer ' approximation to the 
ancient form must have been current 
till the middle of 18th century, for 
Holwell, writing in 1765, speaks of 
^^Burdwariy the principal town of 
Bvrdfmaan " {Hist. EverUs, &c., 1. 112 ; 
see also 122, 125). 

BUBaHEB. This word has three 
distinct applications. 

a. s. This is only used in Oevlon. 
It is the Dutch word burger^ •citizen.'' 
The Dutch 'admitted people of mixt 
descent to a kind of citizenship, and 
these people were distinffuiahed by 
this name from pure natives. The 
word now indicates any persons who 
claim to be of partly European descent^ 
and is used in the same sense as * hti^- 
caste ^ and * Eurasian' in India Proper* 
[In its higher sense it is still used by 
the Boers of the Transvaal] 

1807.— ''The mater part of them wet^ 
admitted by the Dutch to all the privileges 
of citizens under the denomination of 
Bjaacgliem."^Cordtner, Degc. o/CeyUm^ 

1877.— " About 60 years ago the Biurgli«r» 
of Ceylon occupied a position similar to that 
of the £urasiana of IncUa at the present 
moment." — Calcutta Review, cxvii. 180-1. 

b. n.p People of the Nilghenr 
Hills, properly Badagas, or 'North- 
erners.' — See under BADEQA. 

C. s. A rafter, H. bargd. 

BUBKXTNDAUZE, s. An armed 
retainer ; an armed policeman, or 
other armed unmounted empl^^ of a 
civil department ; from Ar.-P. bari" 
anddz, 'lightning-darter,' a word of 
the same class as jdn-hdZy &c. [Also 
see BUXEBBY.] 

1726.— "2000 men on foot, oaUed Bir- 
eandes, and 2000 pioneers to make the 
road, caUed Bieldars (see BILDAB)."— 
ValeiUijn, iv. Saratte, 276. 

179S.— "Capt. Welsh has saooeeded in 
driving the Bengal Bei^wndOMM out of 
-Comwallis, ii. 207. 




17 W,— "Notice is hereby gfiven that per- 
CIOI18 desirous of sending escorts of Imr- 
kandaies or other armed men, with 
merchandise, are to apply for passports." — 
In SeUmrKwrr, ii. 130. 

[1832. — "The whole line of march is 
guarded in each procession Iw Imrkhand- 
Smn (matchlock men), who firp singly, at 

intervals, on the way.' 
-4/i, L87.] 

-Mr* Meer Ifasaan 

MESBi &c.) n.i>. The name by which 
we desigiiate tiae ancient kineaom and 
nation occupying the central basin of 
the Iiawadi River. " British Burma " 
is constituted of the pro^^nces con- 
quered from t^t kincdom in the 
two wars of 1824-26 and 1852-63, viz. 
(in the first) Arakan, Martaban, Tenas- 
serim, and (in the second) Pegu. 
[Upper Burma and the Shan States 
were annexed after the third war of 

The name is taken from Mra&-m&, 
the national name of the Burmese 
X)eople, which they themselves generally 
pronounce Bam-mdy unless when speak- 
ing formally and emphatically. Sir 
Arthur Pha3rre consiaers that this 
name was in all probability adopted 
by the Mongoloid tribes of the Upper 
Irawadi, on their conversion to Buddh- 
ism by missionaries from Gangetic 
India, and is identical with that 
{Bramrmd) by which the first and 
holy inhabitants of the world are 
styled in the (Pali) Buddhist Scrip- 
tures. BrahmordeM was the term 
applied to the country by a Singhalese 
monk returning thence to Ceylon, in 
conversation with one of the present 
writers. It is however the view 
of Bp. Bigandet and of Prof. Forch- 
hammer, supported by considerable 
arguments, that Mran, Myan, or Mym 
was the original name of the Burmese 
people, ana is traceable in the names 
given to them by their neighbours ; 
e^. by Chinese Mien (and in Marco 
Polo) ; by Kakhyens, Mym or Mreny 
Shana, Mdn; by Sgaw Karens, 
by Pgaw Kw^ns, Paydn; by 

Pafounffls,' Paftfn, &c.» Prof. F. con- 
siders that Mran-nuf (with this hono- 
rific suffix) does not date beyond the 
I4th centiiry. [In /. R A, Soc, (1894, 
p. 152 9eqq^ Mr. St John sug^ts 
that the word Myamma is derived 

* Forehhamraer argues Auther that the original 
nsnie was Ran or Tan, with m\ md, or pa as a pro* 
« nominal accent. 

from myan, 'swift^' and 7?ut, * strong/ 
and was taken as a soubriquet by the 
people at some early date, perhaps in 
the time of Anawrahta, a.d. 1150.] 

1516. — "Having passed the Kingdom of 
Bengale, along the coast which turns to the 
Sonui, there is another Kingdom of Gentiles, 
called Bezma. . . . I^ev frequently are at 
war with the King of Fei^. We have no 
farther information respecting this country, 
because it has no shipping." — Barbosoy 181. 

[ „ "Vezma." See quotation under 

[1538.— "But the war lasted on and the 
Bram&s took all the kingdom."— Corraa, 
iii. 851.] 

1543. — " And folk oominff to know of the 
secrecy with which the force was being 
despatched, a great desire took possession 
of aU to know whither the Governor in- 
tended to send so large an armament, 
there bein^ no Rumis to go after, and 
nothing being known of any other cause 
why ships should be despatched in secret 
at such a time. So some gentlemen spoke 
of it to the Governor, and much importuned 
him to tell them whither they were going, 
and the Governor^ all the more bent on 
concealment of his intentions, told them that 
the expedition was going to Pegu to fig^ht 
with the Bnunas who had taken that 
Kingdom."— i&ta. iv. 298. 

c. 1545.—" How the King o/Bnmk under- 
took the eonqyiett of this kingdom qf Si&o 
(Siam), arid of what happened till his arrival 
at the CUy of Odi&"—F. M. Pinto (orig.) 
cap. 185. 

[1553.— "Brvmi." See quotation under 

1606. — "Although one's whole life were 
wasted in describing the superstitions of 
these Gentiles — the Pegus and the Bramas 
—one could not have done with tiie half, 
therefore 1 only treat of some, in passing, 
as 1 am now about to do." — Couto, viii. 
cap. xii. 

(1639.-.«Hi8 (King of Pegu's) Guard 
consiBts of a ffreat number of Souldiers, 
with them called Brahmans, is kept at 
the second Port."— i/a;wf«^^o, TraveUy E. T. 
ii. 118.] 

1680.— "Abticlbs of Commbrob to be 
proposed to the King of Barma and Pegu, 
in behalfe of the Ehiglish Nation for the 
settling of a Trade in those oountrys." — 
Ft, St. Geo. Oons.f in Ifotes and Extt., iii. 7. 

1727. — "The Dominions of Barma are at 
present very laxge, reaching from Moravi 
near TVsiuuxrta, to the Province of Ytt$utn 
in C*tna."— -4. UamiUon, ii. 41. 

1759, — « The Btou^bmahB are mudi more 
numerous than the Peguese and more ad- 
dicted to commerce; even in Pegu their 
numbers are 100 to 1."— Letter in Dalrymple, 
0. R.f i. 99. The writer appears desirous 
to convey by his unusual spelling some 
accurate rei>roduction of the name as he 
had heard it. His testimony as to the 




predominance of Burmese in Pegu, at that 
date even, is remarkable. 
[1763^ * * Bnrmah. " See quotation under 

[1767.— "Buraghmaarli." See quotation 

[1782.— "Bahmans." See quotation under 

1793.— ''Bnnnali borders on Pegu to the 
north, and occupies both banks of the river 
as far as the frontiers of Chin&,"^Renneirs 
Memoir, 297. 

[1796.— "Biiman." See quotation under 

[c. 1819. — " In fact in their own language, 
their name is not BnxmeBe, which we have 
borrowed from the Portuguese, but 
Biuaaaiak."^Sangermano, 36.]. 

BUBBA-BEEBEE, 8. K.baribm, 
* Grande dame.' This is a kind of 
slang word applied in Anglo-Indian 
society to the lady who clainis pre- 
cedence at a party. [Nowadays Bari 
Mem is the term applied to the chief 
lady in a Station.] 

1807.— "At table I have hitherto been 
allowed but one dish, namely the Bniro 
Bebee, or lady of the highest rank." — 
Lord Minto in India, 29. 

184^.— "The ladies carry their bnmli- 
bibiahip into the steamers when they go 
to England. . . . My friend endeavoured m 
vain to persuade them that whatever their 
social importance in the 'City of Palaces,' 
they would be but small folk in London." 
—Chow Chow, by ViscoiirUess Falkland, i. 92. 

[BUBBA-DIN, s. H. hard-din, A 
' great day/ the term applied by natives 
to a great festi\'al of Europeans, par- 
ticularly to Christmas Day. 

[1880.— "This being the Buzra Din, or 
great day, the fact of an animal being shot 
was interpreted by the men as a favourable 
augury."— J5aW, Jungle L\fe, 279.] 

BUBBA-KHANA, s. H. hara 
khdnck, 'big dinner'; a term of the 
same character as the two last, applied 
to a vast and solemn entertainment 

ment to designate the head of that 
department, local or remote. 

[1889.— "At any rate a few of the great 
lords and ladies (Buzra Sahib and Burra 
Mem Sahib) did speak to me without being 
driven to it, —I/uiy Dufferin, 34.] 

BUBBAMPOOTEB, n.p. Properly 

iSkt.) BraJi^maputra ('the son of 
Jrahma '), the great river BrahmptUr of 
which AfBani is the valley. Rising with- 
in 100 miles of the source of theGEuoges, 
these rivers, after being separated by 
17 degrees of loMituoe, join before 
entering the sea. There is no distinct 
recognition of this great river by the 
ancients, but the Dtardanss or Otoanes, 
of Curtius and Strabo, described as a 
large river in the remoter parts of 
India, abounding in dolphins and 
Liles, probably represents this 

one of its Skt. names, 

[1880.— "To go out to a buzra ._ , 

or big dinner, which is succeeded in the 
same or some other house by a laxger 
evening party,"— H''i£«m, Abode of Snow, 

BUBBA SAHIB. H.teM, 'great'; 
' the great Sd^ib (or Masteri' a term 
constantly occurring, whetner in a 
family to distinguish the father or 
the elder brother, in a station to in- 
dicate the Collector, Commissioner, 
or whatever officer may be the recog- 
nised head of the society, or in adepart- 

river unaer 

1552. — BarroB does not mention the name 
before us, but the Brahmaputra seems to be 
the river of Caor, which traversing the 
kingdom so called (Gour) and that of 
Comotay, and that of Ciro^ (see SILHET), 
issues above Chatigdo (see CHITrAGONG), 
in that notable arm of the Ganges which 
passes through the island of Sornagam. 

c. 1590.— "There is another very large 
river called Berhumpatter, which runs from 
Khatai to Coach (see COOGH BEHAB) and 
from thence through Bazoohah to the sea." 
—Ayeen Akberry (Gladwin) ed. 1800, ii. 6 ; 
[ed. /arr««, ii. 121]. 

1726. — "Out of the same mountains we 
see . . . a great river flowing which . . . 
divides into two branches, whereof the 
easterly one on account of its size is called 
the Great Baxrempooter."— ra^0>i<v%, v. 

1753.— "Un peu au-dessous de Daka, le 
Gauge est joint par une grosse riviere, qui 
sort de la f rontiire du Tfbet. Le nom de 
Bramanpontro qu'on lui trouve dans quel- 
ques cartes est une corruption de oelm de 
Brahmapntren, qui dans le langage du 
pays signifie tirant son origine de Brahma." 
—D'Anville, Eclairdssemens, 62. 

1767.— "Just before the Ganges falls into 
ye Bay of Bengali, it receives the Baram- 
putrey or Assam River. The Assam River 
IS larger than the Ganges ... it is a perfect 
Sea of fresh Water after the Junction of the 
two Rivera. . . ,"—MS. LeUer of James 
RenneU, d. 10th March. 

1793.—". . . till the year 1765, the Bur- 
ranwooter, as a capital river, was unknown 
in Europe. On tracing this river in 1765, 
I was no less surprised at finding it rather 
laiger than the Ganges, than at its course 
previous to its entering Bengal. . . . I could 
no longer doubt that the Burrampooter 
and Sanpoo were one and the same river." 
—Rennell, MetnUr, 3rd ed. 356. 




BUBBEL, s. U. hlMraX; Ovis na- 
huroy Hodj^n. The blue wild sheep 
of the Himalaya. [Blanford^ Mamm. 
499, with illustration.] 

BUBSAUTEE, s. H. bandti, from 
barsdt, 'the Rains.' 

a. The word properly is applied to 
a disease to which horses are liable in 
the rains, pustular eruptions breaking 
out on the head and fore parts of the 

[1828.—** That very extraordinary diaeaae, 
the bnnattae."— Or. Sport. Mag,, reprint, 
1873, L 125. -^^ f ^ 

[1832. — ** Horses are subject to an in- 
fections disease, which generally makes its 
appearance in the rainy season, and there- 
fore called bnirhsaatie. "^Mrs Meer Htusan 
Alt, ii. 27.] 

b. But the word is also applied to a 
waterproof cloak, or the bke. (See 

1880. — **The scenery has now been 
arranged for the second part of the Simla 
season . . . and the appropriate costume 
for both sexes is the decorous bnrBatti." — 
PionMT Mail, July 8. 

BUS, adv. P.-H. has, * enough.' 
Used commonly as a kind of inter- 
jection: 'Enough! Stop! Ohe jam satis! 
Basta, basta I ' Few Hindustani words 
stick closer by the returned Anglo- 
I ndian. The Italian expression, though 
of obscure etymology, can hardly have 
any connection wiSi bos. But in use 
it always feels like a mere expansion 
of it! 

1858. — **'And if you pass,' say my dear 
good-natured friends, *you may get an 
appointment. Bus ! (you see my Hindo- 
stanee knowledge already carries me the 
length of that emphatic monosyllable). 
. . /'—Oaifield, 2nd ed. i. 42. 

BUSHIBB, n.p. The principl 
modem Persian seaport on the Persian 
Gulf ; properly AbUshahr, 

1727.— *'Bowchi«r is also a Maritim 
Town. ... It stands on an Island, and has 
a pretty good Trade."— ^. ffamiltan, i. 90. 

BU8TEE, & An inhabited quarter, 
H Tillage. H. bastl, from Skt. va8= 
" dweU/ Many vears ago a native in 
Upper India said to a European assis- 
tant in the Canal Department : ^* You 
Feringis talk much of your country 
and its power, but we know that the 
whole 01 you come from five villages" 
(pdneh basti). The word is applied 

in Calcutta to the separate groups of 
huts in the humbler native quarters, 
the sanitary state of which has often 
been held up to reprobation. 

[1889.— ** There is a dreary bnfltea in the 
neighbourhood which is said to make the 
most of any cholera that may be going." — 
A. Kipling, City of Drtadjyd Night, 54. J 

BUTLEB, 8. In the Madras and 
Bombay Presidencies this is the title 
usually applied to the head-servant of 
anv English or quasi-English house- 
hold. He generally makes the daily 
market, has charge of domestic stores, 
and superintends the table. As his 
profession is one which affords a large 
scope for feathering a nest at the ex- 
pense of a foreign master, it is often 
followed at Maaras by men of com- 
paratively good caste. (See CON- 

1616.— **Yosky the batlar, being sick, 
asked lycense to goe to his howse \o take 
phisick."— Cocifc», i. 135. 

1689.—** ... the Bntlen are enjoin'd to 
take an account of the Place each Night, 
before they depart home, that they (the 
Peons| might be examin'd before they stir, 
if ought be wanting." — OvingUm, 393. 

1782.— ** Wanted a Person to act as 
Steward or Batlar in a Gentleman's House, 
he must vndergtand Hairdresaing.*' — India 
Gazette, March 2. 

1789. — **No person considers himself as 
comfortably accommodated without enter- 
taining a Duhash at 4 pagodas per month, 
a Bauer at 3, a Peon at 2, a Cook at 3, a 
Compradore at 2, and kitchen boy at 1 
pagoda." — Munro's Narrative qf Operations, 

1873. — ** Glancing round, my eye fell on 
the pantry department . . . and ^e batler 
trimming the reading lamps." — Camp Life 
in India, Fraser'i Mag,, June, 696. 

1879. — **. . . the moment when it occurred 
to him (t.e. the Nyoung-voung Prince of 
Burma) that he ought really to assume the 
guise of a Madras toiler, and be off to the 
Kesidency, was the happiest inspiration of 
his life."— -Stondord, July 11. 

English spoken bv native servants in 
the Madras Ptesiaency ; which is not 
very much better tlian the Pigeon- 
Thi gliah of China. It is a singular 
dialect; the present participle (s,g.) 
being used for the future indicative, 
and the preterite indicative being 
formed by *done'; thus I telling = 
«I wiU tell'; / thne teU='l have 
told'; done com« = * actually arrived.' 
Peculiar meanings are also attached to 




words; thus fomxly = *wife.' The 
oddest characteristic about this jargon 
is (or was) that masters used it in 
speaking to their servants as well as 
servants to their masters. 

BUXEE, s. A military paymaster ; 
H. hoJdiskl. This is a word of complex 
and curious history. 

In origin it is believed to be the 
Mongol or Turki corruption of the 
Skt. hhikskuy 'a b^gar, and thence 
a Buddhist or religious mendicant or 
member of the ascetic order, bound by 
his discipline to obtain his daily foo^ 
by begging .♦ Bakski was the " word 
commonly applied by the Tartars of 
the host of Cningiz and his successors, 
and after them by the Persian writers 
of the Mongol era, to the regular 
Buddhist clergy ; and thus the word 
appears under various forms in the 
works of medieval European writers 
from whom examples are quoted below. 
Many of the class came to Persia and 
the west with Hulaku and with Batu 
Khan ; and as the writers in the Tartar 
camps were probably found chiefly 
among the hakakis^ the word underwent 
exactly the same transfer of meaning 
as our cUrky and came to signifv a 
lUeratuSy scribe or secretary. TKus 
in the Latino-Perso-Turkish voca- 
bulary, which belonged to Petrarch 
and is preserved at Venice, the word 
icriha is rendered in Comanian, i.e. 
the then Turkish of the Crimea, as 
Bouid. The change of meaning did not 
stop here. 

Abul-Fa^l in his account of Kashmir 
(in the Amy [ed. Jarrett, iii. 212]) re- 
calls the fact that haMuiki was the title 
given by the learned among Persian 
and Arabic writers to the Buddhist 
priests whom the Tibetans styled lamas. 
But in the time of Baber, say circa 
1500, among the Mongols the word 
had come to mean surgeon; a change 
analogous again, in some measure, to our 
colloquial use of doctor. The modern 
Mongols, according to Pallas, use the 
wora in the sense of * Teacher,' and 
apply it to the most venerable or 
learned priest of a community. Among 

• In a note with which we were fiivoiired by the 
late Prof. Anton Schiefner, he expressed doubtn 
whether the Bakthi of the Tibetans and Mongols 
was not of early introduction through the Uigurs 
fhjin some other corrupted Sanskrit word, or even 
of prw-buddhistic derivation ftrom an Iranian 
source. We do not find the wonl in Jaeschke s 
TibetAn Dictionary. 

the Kirghiz Kazzaks, who profess 
Mahommedanism, it has oome to bear 
the character which Marco Polo more 
or less associates with it^ and means a 
mere conjurer or medicine-man ; whilst 
in Western Turkestan it signifies a 
'Bard' or 'Minstrel.' [Vamb^ry in 
his Sketches of Cetitral Asia (p. 81) 
speaks of a Bakhski as a troubadour.] 

By a further transfer of meaning, 
of which all the steps are not clear, in 
another direction, under the Moham- 
medan Emperors of India the word 
bakhski was applied to an officer high 
in military administration, whose 
office is sometimes rendered 'Master 
of the Horse' (of horse, it is to be 
remembered, the whole substance of 
the army consisted), but whose duties 
sometimes, if not habitually, em- 
braced those of Paymaster-General^ 
as well as, in a maimer, of Com- 
mander-in-Chief, or Chief of the Staif. 
[Mr. Irvine, who gives a detailed 
account of the Baknshi under the 
latter Moguls (/. R. A. Soc, July 
1896, p. 639 seqq.). prefers to call him 
Adjutant-General.] More properly per- 
haps this was the position of the Mir 
Bakhshiy who had other hakhshis under 
him. Bakhehis in military command 
continued in the armies of the Mah- 
rattas, of Hyder Ali, and of other 
native powers. But both the Persian 
spelling and the modem connection of 
the title with pay indicate a probability 
that some confusion of association had 
arisen between the old Tartar title and . 
the P. bakhshy 'portion,' bakhshidariy ' to 
give,' bakhshish, 'payment.' In the 
early days of the Council of Fort 
William we find the title Bnxee ap- 
plied to a European Civil officer, 
through whom payments were made 
(see Lona and Seton-Karr, passim). 
This is obsolete, but the word is still 
in the Anglo-Indian Army the recog- 
nised designation of a Paymaster. 

This is the best known existing use 
of the word. But under some Native 
Governments it is still the designation 
of a high officer of state. And accord- 
ing to the Calcutta Glossary it has been 
used in the N.W.P. for 'a collector 
of a house tax ' (?) and the like ; in 
Bengal for 'a superintendent of peons' ; 
in Mvsore for 'a treasurer,' &c. [In 
the N.W.P. the Bakhshiy popularly 
known to natives as ^Bakhsln TikkaSy 
'Tax Haklishi,' is the ju^i'son in charge 




of one of the minor towns which are 
not nnder a Municipal Board, but are 
managed bj a Panch^ or body of asses- 
sors, who raise the income needed for 
watch and ward and conservancy by 
means of a graduated house assess- 
ment.] See an interesting note on 
this word in Quatremh^ Js! des Mon- 
aoUf 184 9eqq,j' also see Marco Polo, 
Bk. i ch, 61, note. 

1296. — "There la another marrel per- 
formed by those Bacsi, of whom I have been 
speaking as knowing ' so many enchant- 
ments. ; . r— Marco Polo, Bk. I. ch. 61. 

c. 1800. — ** Although there are many 
Hft^viwMa^ Chinese, Indian and others, 
those of l^bet are most estbemed."— i2a«Aui^- 
MtUttm, quoted by D'Ohaaon, ii. 370. 

c. 1800.— "Bt sciendum, quod Tartar 
^Qoedam homines sui>er omnes de mundo 
honorant: bozltas, scilicet quosdam ponti- 
fioesydolorum."— Atco^tts de MowUcrucUy in 
Pertgrinatorta, IV. p. 117. 

c. 1808. — " TaOra yh^ Koin-^ra^it iwa- 
9l|Kwr Tp6f patriXia Bui^t^alar TpQros 64 
tQ^ UpOfuirfiaVf Toth^ofia rovro ^f eXXiyrffrreu. '* 
— Qtorg, Padiymeres de Andronico PaUuo- 
Icgo^ lib, TiL The last part of the name of 
this Kmimmptueia, 'the first of the sacred 
magi,' appears to be Bakhshi; the whole 
mrhaps to be iSTAo^'a-Bakhshi, or K^Uhin- 

o. 1840.— "The Kin^s of this country 
sprang from Jinghiz Khan . . . followed 
«xaetly the yoMoh ^or laws) of that Prince 
and tiie dogmas received in his family, which 
ooDflisted in revering the sun, and conform- 
ing in all things to the advice of the 
BakibiB."— iS^iAd^MflUin, in NoL et Extr, 

1420. — '*In this city of Eamcheu there is 
an idol temple 500 cubits square. In the 
middle is an idol lying at length, which 
measures 60 paces. . . . Behind this image 
. . . figures of BitW^^" as lar^e as life. . . ." 
— SKah Rukh*8 MiMsion to Cfktna, in Cathay, 
J: ociii. 

1615. — "Then I moved him for his favor 
for an English Factory to be Resident in the 
Towne, which hee willingly granted, and 
^re present order to the suzy, to draw a 
Firma both for their comming vp, and for 
their 'residence."— .%> T. Roe, in Pnrehas, 
i. 541 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 93.] 

c 1060. — ". . . obliged me to take a 
Salary from the Urand Mo^fol in the quality 
of a Phisitian, and a little after from 
DeMttkinend-Kan, the most knowing man 
of Asia, who had been Bakchis, or Great 
Master of the Horse.'*— ^(!mi<T, E.T. p. 2 ; 
{ed. ContiabU, p. 4]. 

1701.— "The friendship of the Biude iH 
not BO much desired for the post he is now 
in, but that he is of a very good family, and 
baa many relations near the King." — In 
WhMUr, 1. 378. 

1706-7. — "Bo the Emperor appointed a 

nobleman to act as the bakshi of Kl[ra 
Bakhsh, and to him he intrusted the Prince, 
with instructions to take care of him. The 
bakshi was Sultan Hasan, otherwise called 
Mir Malang."— Z>oir«on'« £Uiott vii. 385. 

1711.— "To his Excellency Zulfikar Khan 
Bahadur, Nurzerat Sing {Narrat-Jang i) 
Backshee of the whole Empire." — Address 
of a Letter J/roia President wnd Council of 
Port St, George, in Wheeler, ii. 160. 

1712.— "Chan Dhjehaan . . . first Baksi 
general, or Muster-Master of the horsemen." 
— ValeiUijn, iv. (Suratte), 295. 

1753.— "The Bnxsjr acquaints the Board 
he has been using his endeavours to get 
sundry artificers for the Negrais." — In L<mg, 

1756.— Barth. Plaisted represents the bad 
treatment he had met with for "strictly 
adhering to his duty during the Bnzy-shipof 
Messrs. Bellamy and Kempe"; and "the 
abuses in the poet of Bury,"— Letter to the 
Hon, the Court ofDiredorg, dx,, p. 8. 

1768.— "The Iraxey or general of the 
army, at the head of a select body, closed 
the procession.'* — Orme, i, 26 (reprint). 

1766.—" The Bnxey; lays before the Board 
an account of charges incurred in the Buxey 
Cknmah ... for the relief of people saved 
from the FcUmouth." — Ft. William, Cons., 
Long, 457. 

1793.— "The hokshey allowed it would 
be prudent in the Sultan not to hazard the 
event." — Dirom, 50. 

1804.— "A bnckBhee and a body of horse 
belonging to this same man were opposed to 
me in the action of the 5th ; whom I daresay 
that I shall have the pleasure of meeting 
shortly at the Peshwah's durbar." — Wef- 
lington, iii. 80. 

1811. — "There appear to have been dif- 
ferent descriptions of Buktshies (in Tippoo's 
service). The BnktBhies of Kushoons were 
a sort of commissaries and paymasters, and 
were subordinate to the sipahddr, if not to 
the Res&lad&r, or commandant of a battalion. • 
The Heer Buktahy, however, took rank of 
the Sipahddr. TheBuktshies of the Ehsham 
and Jyshe were, I believe, the superior 
officers of these corps respectively." — Note 
to Tippoo's Letters, lo5. 

1823.— "In the Mahratta armies the 
prince is deemed tiie Sirdar or Commander ; 
next to him is the Bukshee or Paymaster, 
who is vested with the principal charge and 
responsibility, and is considered accountable 
for all military expenses and disbursements." 
— Malcolm, Central India, i. 534. 

1827.—" Doubt it not— the soldiers of the 
Beegum Mootee Mahul . . . are less hers 
than mine. I am myself the Bukshee . . . 
and her Sirdars are at my devotion."— 
Walter Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter, ch. xii. 

1861. — "To the best of my memory he was 
accused of having done his best to urge the 
people of Dhar to rise against our Qovem- 
ment, and several of the witnesses deposed 
to this effect ; amongFt them the BlikBhi"-r 
Memo, on Dhar, by Major McMullm. 




1874. — *' Before the depositions were taken 
down, the ffomasta of the planter drew aside 
the BakBhl, who is a police-officer next to 
the daxog&J^—Govinda Samanta, ii. 235. 

BXJXEBBT, s. A matchlock man ; 
apparently used in much the same 
sense as Bnrklindanze (q.v.) now ob- 
solete. We have not found this term 
excepting in documents pertaining to 
the midme decades of 18th century in 
Bengal ; [but see references supplied 
by Mr. Irvine below;] nor have we 
found any satisfactory etymology. 
Buxo is in Port, a gun-barrel (Germ. 
Buckse) ; which suggests some passible 
word buxeiro. There is however none 
such in Bluteau, who has, on the other 
hand, ^^ButgeroSy an Indian term, 
artillery-men, &c.," and quotes from 
Hist. Orient, iii. 7 : " But{feri sunt hi 
qui quinque tormentis praeficiuntur." 
This does not throw much l^ht. 
BajjaVy 'thunderbolt,' may have given 
vogue to a word in analogy to "P. bark- 
arSdZy * lightning-darter,' but we find no 
such word. As an additional conjec- 
ture, however, we may suggest Bakadrisy 
from the possible circumstance that 
such men were recruited in the 
country about Bahdr {Buxar\ i.e. the 
Shdhabdd district, which up to 1857 
was a great recruiting ground for 
sepoys. [There can be no doubt that 
this last suggestion gives the correct 
origin of the word. Buchanan Hamil- 
iony Eastern India^ i. 471, describes the 
lar^ number of men who joined the 
native army from this part of the 

[1690. — The Mogul army was divided into 
three classes — SuwdrAfij or mounted men ; 
Topkkdnah, artillery ; Ahahdniy infantry and 

[" Ahsham — BandHqcki-i-Jangl—Bakaari' 
yah ica Bundelah Ahshdm, i.e. regular 
matchlock-men, BaksaxiyaliB and Bunde- 
lahs. " — Dastur - nl - *amal. written about 
1690-1 ; B. Museum MS., No. 1641, fol. 

1748. — "Ordered the Zemindars to send 
BuxexTies to dear the boats and bring them 
up as Prisoners." — Ft. William Cons., April, 
in Lcng, p. 6. 

„ "We received a letter from . . . 
Council at Cossimbazar . . . advising of 
their having sent Ensign McKion with all 
the Military that were able to travel, 150 
buxenries, 4 field pieces, and a large quan- 
tity of ammunition to Cutway."— 7Wrf. p. 1. 

1749. — * * Having frequent reports of several 
straggling parties of this banditti plundering 
about this place, we on the 2d November 
ordered the Zemindars to entertain one 

hundred boxeries and fifty pike-men over 
and above what were then in pay for thfr 
protection of the outskirts of vour Honor's, 
town."— Z«a«r to Courty Jan. 18, Ibid. p. 21. 

1755.— "Agreed, we despatch Lieutenant 
John Harding of a command of soldiers 25 
Bnxaxles in order to clear these boats if 
stopped in their way to this place." — Ihid.- 

„ "In an account for this voir we 
find among chaiges on behalf of WUliaia 
Wallis, Esq., Chief at Cossimbazar : 
"'4Buxerie8. . . 20 (year) . 240.' " 
MS. Records in India Office. 

1761.— "The 5th they made their 1a8€ 
effort with all the Sepoys and Baxentoft 
they could assemble." — In Long, 254. 

„ "The number of BuxerrUt or 
matchlockmen was therefore augmented to 
1500."— Orroc (reprint), ii. 59. 

„ "In a few minutes they killed 6 
boxerries."— i&i<2. 65 ; see also 279. 

1772. — " BackBenias. Foot soldiers 
whose common arms are only sword and 
tBLTget."— Glossary in Orose's Voyage, 2nd 
ed. [This is copied, as Mr. Irvine shows, 
from the Glossary of 1757 prefixed to An 
Address to the Proprietors qf E. I. Stock, in. 
HolwelVs Indian Tracts, 8rd ed., 1779.] 

1788. — " Buxenries- Foot soldiers, whos9 
common arms are swords and targets or 
spears." — Indian Vocabulary (Stockdale's). 

I860.— "Another point to which Cliy« 
turned his attention . . . was the organiza- 
tion of an efficient native regular force. . • • 
Hitherto the native troops employed at 
Calcutta . . . designated Buxazxies were 
nothing more than Burkanddz, armed and 
equipped in the usual native manner." — 
Broome, Hut. of the Rise and Progress of the 
Bengal Army, i. 92. 


note by Kirkpatrick to the passage- 
below from Tippoo^s Letters says Bydt 
Horse are "the same as Pinddriha^ 
Lootiesy and Kuzzdks" (s^ PINDABBY, 
LOOTY. 00S8ACK). In the Lifi of 
Hyder AH by Hussain *Ali Khan 
Kirmani, tr. by Miles, we read that 
Hyder^s Kuzzaks were under the 
command of '^Qhazi Khan Bede.'* 
But whetlier this leader was so- 
called from leading the^'Bede " Horse, 
or gave his name to them, does not 
appear. Miles has the highly intelli- 
gent note : * Bede is another name for 
(Kuzzak) : Kirkpatrick supposed the 
word Bede meant infantry, which, I 
Mieve, it does not' (p. 36). The 
quotation from the Life of Tippoo 
seems to indicate that it was the name 
of a caste. And we find in Sherrin^s 
Indian Tribes and GasteSy among those 
of Mysore, mention of the Bedar as a 




tribe, probably of huntsmen, dark, 
tall, and warlike. Formerly many 
were employed as soldiers, and served 
in Ryder's wars (iii. 153 ; see also the 
same tribe in the S. Mahratta country, 
ii. 321). Assumini^ -ar to be a plural 
sign, we have here probably the 
''jBedes" who gave their name to 
these plundering horse. The Bedar 
are mentioned as one of the predatory 
classes of the peninsula, along with 
Marawars, Eallars, Eamusis (see 
BAMOOST), &c., in Sir Walter Elliot's 
Iiaper (/. Ethnol Soc,, 1869, N.S. pp. 
112-13^. But more will be found 
regardmg them in a paper by the 
late Gen. Briggs, the translator of 
Ferifihta's Hist. (/. R A. Soc. xiii.). 
Besides Bedar, Bednor (or Nagar) in 
Mysore seems to take its name from 
this tribe. [See BieSj Mysore^ i. 255.] 

1758.—" . . . The Cavalry of the Rao . . . 
reoeived such a defeat from Hydur's Bedes 
or Kiizzaks that they fled and never looked 
behind them until they arrived at Goori 
Bundar."— 1/trf. of Hydur Naik, p. 120. 

1785. — "Byde Horse, out of employ, have 
committed great excesses and depredations 
in the Sircar's dominions."— Xetterj of Tippoo 
Sultan, 6. 

1802.— "The Kakur and Chapao horse 
. . . (Although these are included in the 
B«de tribe, they carry off the palm even 
from them in the arts of robbery) . . . "— 
H. ofTipA, by Hutsein *Ali Khan Kirmdniy 
tr. by Bifles, p. 76. 

[BYLEE, 8. A small two-wheeled 
vehicle drawn by two oxen. H. hahal, 
hahU, laUlf which has no connection, 
as is generally supposed, with haily 
'an ox'; but is derived from t^e 
Skt. vah, *to carry.' The bylee is used 
only for passengers, and a larger and 
more imposing vehicle of the same 
class is tne Bnt. There is a good 
drawing of a Panjab byUe in Kipung't 
Beast and Man (p. 117); also see the 
note on the quotation from Forbes 
under HACKEBY. 

[1841.— "A native bylee will usually pro- 
duce, in gold and silver of great purity, ten 
times the weight of precious metals to be 
obtained from a general officer's equipage." 
—Society in India, i. 162. 

[1854.— "Most of the party . . . were in a 
Ijoronch, but the rich man himself [one of 
the Huttra Seths] still adheres to the primi- 
tive conveyance of a Inrlis, a thing like a 
footboard on two wheels, generally drawn 
by two 'oxen, but in which he drives a 
nplendid pair of white horses, sitting cross- 
legged the while!'* — JUrs McLckenzie/ Ltfe 
in tie Mitsiony kc., ii. 205.] 

GABAYA, s. This word, though 
of Asiatic origin, was perhaps intro> 
duced into India by the Portuguese, 
whose writers of the 16th centuiy 
apply it to the surcoat or long tunic 
of muslin, which is one of the most 
common native garments of the better 
classes in India. The word seems to- 
be one of those which the Portuguese 
had received in older times from the 
Arabic (iabdy *a vesture'). From 
Dozv's remarks this would seem in 
Barbary to take the form kahdya. 
Whether from Arabic or from Portu- 
gese, the word has been introduced 
into the Malay countries, and is in 
common use m Java for the light 
cotton surcoat worn by Europeans^ 
both ladies and gentlemen, in dis- 
habille. The word is not now used in 
India Proper, unless by the Portuguese. 
But it has become familiar in Dutch^ 
from its use in Java. [Mr. Gray, in 
his notes to Pyrard (i. 372), thinks 
that the word was introduced before 
the time of the Portuguese, and 
remarks that kabaya in Ceylon means 
a coat or jacket worn by a European 
or native.] 

c. 1540.— ** There was in her an Embas- 
sador who had brought Hidalcan ridalcani 
a very rich Cabaya . . . which he would 
not accept of, for that thereby he would 
not acknowledge himself subject to the 
Turk."— Oo^an'* Pinto, pp. 10-11. 

1652.—". . . he ordered him then to 
bestow a cabaya. "—Co^tonAofa, iv. 488. 
See also Stanley's Cornea, 132. 

1554. — "And moreover there are given 
to these Kin^ (Malabar Rajas) when they 
come to receive these allowances, to each 
of them a cabaya of silk, or of scarlet, of 
4 cubits, and a cap or two, and two sheath> 
knives. "~-Sf. Botelho, Tombo, 26. 

" Luzem da fina purpura as eabayas, 

Lustram os pannos da tecida seda." 

CamdeSf ii. 93. 
" Cabaya de damasoo rioo e dino 

Dtk Tyria cor, entre elles estimada.'* 

Ibid. 95, 

In these two passages Burton translates 

1585.— "The King is ai>parelled with a 
Cable made like a shirt tied with strings 
on one side."— iZ. Fitch, in Hail,, ii. 386. 

1598.— "They wear sometimes when they 
go abroad a thinne cotton linnen gowne 
called Cabala. . . ,"— Linschoten. 70 {[BBk. 
Soc. i. 247]. 




c. 1610. — "Cette jaquette ou soutane, 
qa'ils appellent lAhasat (P. l-SbQs, * clothing ') 
ou Gaba^, est de toile de Cotton fort 
fine et blanche, qui leur va juaqu'aux 
ialonB."—Pyrard de LavaL i. 265; [Hak. 
See. i. 872]. 

[1614.— *'The white Cabas which you 
have with you at Bantam would aell here." 
—Foster, Letten, ii. 44.] 

1645. — " Vne Cabtja qui est vne sorte de 
Testement oomme vneiarge soutane oouverte 
par le devant, k manches fort laives." — 
CarcUm, Itel. de la Prov, du Japon, 5o. 

1689.— "It is a distinction between the 
Moors and Banntans, the Moors tie their 
Caba'a always on the Right side, and the 
Bannians on the left. . . .**—Ovingt<m, 814. 
This distinction is still true. 

I860.— *U afterwards understood that 
the dress they were wearing was a sort 
of native garment, which there in the 
oountry they call sarong or kabaal, but 
I found it very unbecoming." — Max 
HavelwxT, 48. [There is sopae mistake 
here, saxtmg and KaJbaya are quite 

1878. — "Over all this is worn (by Malay 
women) a long loose dressing-gown style of 
garment called the kabaya. This robe 
falls to the middle of the leg, and is 
fastened down the front with circular 
brooches." — McNair, Perak, Ac, 151. 

CABOB, 8. Ar.-H. kabdh. Tbis 
word is used in Anglo-Indian hoiise- 
bolds generically for roast meat. [It 
usually follows the name of the dish, 
e.g, murahi kdbdby * roast fowl'.] But 
specifically it is applied to the dish 
aescribed in the quotations from Fryer 
and Ovington. 

c. 1580. — ''Altero modo . . . ipsam 
{camem) in parva frustra dissectam, et 
veruculis ferreis aouum modo infixam, 
super crates ferreas igne supposito positam 
torrefaciunt, ouam suooo limonum aspersam 
avid^ esitant. — Prosper A Ipinus, Pt. i. 229. 

1678.— ^'Gabob is Rostmeat on Skewers, 
out in little round pieces no bigger than a 
Sixpence, and Ginger and Garlick put 
between each." — Fryer, 404. 

1689.— "Gabob, that is Beef or Mutton 
out in small pieces, sprinkled with salt and 
pepper, and aipt with Oil and Garlick, which 
have been mixt together in a dish, and then 
roasted on a Spit, with sweet Herbs put 
between and stuff in them, and basted with 
Oil and Garlick all the while." — Ovington. 

1814.— "I often partook with mv Arabs 
of a dish common in Arabia caUedKabob 
or Kab-ab, which is meat cut into small 
pieces and placed on thin skewers, alter- 
nately between slices of onion and green 
^nger, seasoned with pepper, salt, and 
&ian, fried in ghee, to be ate with rice 
and dholl." -Forbes, <)r. Mem. ii. 480 ; 
(2nd od. ii. 8*2 ; in i. 315 he writes Kebabs]. 

[1876. — ". . . kavap (a name which is 
naturalised with us as Gabobs), small bits 
of meat roasted on a spit. . . ." — Schuyler, 
Twrkistan, i. 125.] 

GABOOK, s. This is the Ceylon 
term for the substance called in India 
Laterite (q.v.X and in Madras by 
the native name Moomin (q.v.). The 
word is perhaps the Port, cabouco or 
cavoueo^ *a quarry.' It is not in 
Singh. Dictionaries. [Mr. Ferauson 
says that it is a corruption of the 
Port, pedras de cavouco^ 'quarry-stones,' 
the last word being by a misapprehen- 
sion applied to the stones themselves. 
The earliest instance of the use of 
the word he has met with occurs in 
the Tra/vels of Dr. Aegidius Daalmans 
(1687-89X who descri))es kaphok stone 
as 4ike small ^bbles lying in a hard 
clay, so that if a large square stone 
is allowed to lie for some time in 
the water, the clav dissolves and the 
pebbles fall in a heap together ; but 
if this stone is laid m good mortar, 
so that the water cannot get at it, 
it does good serWce ' (/. As. Sk. Ceylofi, 
X. 162). The word is not in the 
ordinary Singhalese Dicta., but A. 
Mendis Qunasekara in his Singhalese 
Grammar (1891), among words derived 
from the Port., gives kaSuk-gal (cabouco), 
cdbook (stoneX Materite.'] 

1834. — ''The soil yaries in different situa- 
tions on the Island. In the country round 
Colombo it consists of a strong red clav, 
or marl, called Cabook, mixed with sandy 
ferruginous particles." — Ceylon Qazetteer, 2h\. 
„ ** The houses are built with eabook, 
and neatly whitewashed with chunam." — 
Ibid. 75. 

1860. — " A peculiarity which is one of the 
first to strike a stranger who lands at Galle 
or Colombo is the bright red colour of the 
streets and roads . . . and the ubiquity 
of the fine ro<l diLst which i>enetrates every 
crevice and imparts it8 own tint to every 
neglected article. Natives resident in these 
loc^ities are easily recognisable elsewhere 
by the general hue of their dress. This in 
occasioned by the prevalence ... of lateritr, 
or, as the Singhalese call it, cabook." — 
Tennenfs Ceylon, i. 17. 

OABUL, OAUBOOL, &c., n.i>. 
This name (Kabul) of the chief city 
of N. Afghanistan, now so familiar, 
is perhaps traceable in Ptolemy, wh(» 
gives in that same region a people 
called Ka/SoXirat, and a city called 
Kdfiovpa, Perhaps, however, one or 
both may be corrol>orated by the 
ydpSos KafiaXiTTi of the Perij)lu3. The 




accent of Kabul ia moflt distinctly on 
the first and long syllable, but English 
mouths are very perverse in error 
here. Moore accents the last syllable : 

"... pomegfranates full 
Of meltizi^ sweetneaB, and the pean 
And sunniest apples that Caubul 
In all its thousand g^ardens bean." 

Light of the Harem, 

Mr. Arnold does likewise in Sohrab 
and RuBtam : 
** Bat as a troop of oedlan from Cabool, 

Cross underneath the Indian Can- 

It was told characteristically of the 
late Lord £llenborough that, after 
his arrival in India, though for months 
he heard the name correctly spoken 
by his councillors and his staff, he 
persisted in calling it CdbGol till he 
met Dost Mahommed Khan. After 
the interview the Governor-General 
announced as a new discovery, from 
the Amir's pronimciation, that Cdb&l 
was the correct form. 

1552.— Barroe calls it "a Cidade Cabol, 
Metropoli dos Mogoles.'* — IV. vi. 1. 

[c. 1S90.— "The territory_of Kilml com- 
pnaes twenty Twao^ia." — ^««i, tr. JarretL 
n. 410.] 

'* Ah Cabal ! word of woe and bitter shame ; 
Where proud old England's flag, dis- 
honoured, sank 
Beneath the Crescent; and the butcher 

Beat down like reeds the bayonets that 

had flashed 
Fran Plassey on to snow-capt Caucasus, 
In triumph through a himdred years of 

Tfie Banyan Tree, a Poem. 

GACOULI, s. This occurs in the 
Apnp. to the Journal d^Antoine Galland, 
at Constantinople in 1673 : " Dragmes 
de Caconli, drogue qu'on use dans le 
CXahue," t.e. in coffee (ii. 206). This 
is Pers. Arab. Jbdkula for Canlamom, 
as in the quotation from Garcia. We 
may remark that KdkuUi was a place 
4K>mewhere on the GuK of Siam, 
famous for its fine aloes-wood (see 
Ihn BattUa, iv. 240-44). And a 
bastard kind of Cardamom appears 
to be exported from Siam, Amomum 
scanJthoideSy Wal. 

1568. — "0. Ayicena ^ves a chapter on 
the imiTlH^j dividing it mto the bigger and 
the U8$ . . . calling one of them caeolld 
muibir, and the other eacolld cfguer [Ar. 
MoHr, fagktr}, which is as much as to say 

greoJter cardamom and snuUler cardamom," — 
Oarda 47 v. 

1759.— "These Vakeels . . . stated that 
the Rani (of Bednore) would pay a jrearly 
sum of 100,000 Hoons or Pagooas, besides a 
tribute of other valuable articles, such as 
Foful (betel), Dates, Sandal-wood, XaJcnl 
. . . black pepper, &c." — Hitt. of Mydur 
Naik, 183. 

GADDT, 8. i.e, tea-caddy. This 
is possibly, as Crawfurd suggests, from 
Catty (q*v.), and may have been 
originally applied to a small box 
containing a catty or two of tea. The 
suggjestion is confirmed by this ad- 
vertisement : 

1792.— "By R. Henderson ... A Quan- 
tity of Tea in Quarter Chests and Caddies, 
imported last season. . . ." — Madras Covr{n\ 
Deo. 2. 

CADET, s. (From Prov. capdety and 
Low Lat capitettmn^ [dim. of caputs 
'head'l Skeat). This word is of 
course by no means exclusively Anglo- 
Indian, but it was in exceptionally 
common and familiar use in India, 
as all young officers appointed to the 
Indian army went out to that country 
as cadeUy and were only promoted to 
ensigncies and posted to regiments 
after their arrival — in olden days 
sometimes a considerable time after 
their arrival. In those days there 
was a building in Fort William known 
as the ' Cadet Barrack ' ; and for some 
time early in last century the cadets 
after their arrival were sent to a sort 
of college at Baraaet ; a system which 
led to no good, and was speedily 

1763.—" We' should very gladly comply 
with your request for sending you young 
persons to be brought up as assistants in 
the Engineering branch, but as we find it 
extremely difficult to procure such, you 
will do well to employ any who have a 
talent that way among the cadets or 
others "^Court's Letter, in Long, 290. 

1769. — "Upon our leaving England, the 
cadets and writers used the great cabin 
promiscuously ; but finding thev were 
troublesome and quarrelsome, we brought 
a Bill into the house for their ejectment." 
— Life of Lord TeignmotUh, i. 16. 

1781.— "The Cadets of the end of the 
^ears 1771 and beginning of 1772 served 
m the country four years as Cadets and 
carried the musket all the time.'* — Letter in 
Hichy'i Bengal Gazette, Sept. 29. 

GAD JAN, 8. Jav. and Malay kdjdng, 
[or according to Mr. Skeat, Icajang], 
niwining * paliu-leaves,* especially those 



of the Nipa (q.v.) palm, dre&sed for 
thatching or mattii^. Favre's Diet, 
renders the word jeuUUs entrelac^ 
It has been introduced by foreigners 
into S. and W. India, where it is used 
in two senses : 

a. Coco-palm leaves matted, the 
common suDstitute for thatch in S. 

1678.—". . . flags especially in their 
Villages (by them <»lled Cajans, being Co- 
ooe-tree branches) upheld with some few 
Htioks, supplying ootn Sides and Coverings 
to their Cottages."— Fry«r, 17. In his Ex- 
planatoiT Index Fryer gives 'Cajan, a 
rx>ugh of a Toddy -tree.* 

c. 1680. — "Ex iis (foliis) quoc^ue rudiores 
mattae, Cadjaag vocatae, conficiuntur, qui- 
bus aedium muri et navium orae, ^uum 
f rumentum aliquod in iis deponere vehmus, 
obtegruntur." — Rumphius, i. 71. 

1727.—" We travelled 8 or 10 miles before 
we came to his (the Cananore Raja's) Ptalace, 
which was built with Twigs, and covered 
with CacUailB or Cocoa-nut Tree Leaves 
woven together." — A. Hamilton, i: 296. 

1809.— "The lower classes (at Bombay) 
content themselves with small huts, mostly 
of clay, and roofed with cadjan." — Maria 
Chraham, 4. 

1860. — "Houses are timbered with its 
wood, and roofed with its plaited fronds, 
which under the name of cao^ans, are like- 
wise employed for constructing partitions 
and fences. — Tennemt*» CeyUm, li; 126. 

b. A strip of fan-palm leaf, i.e. 
either of the Talipot (q.v.) or of the 
Palmyra, prepared for writing on ; 
and so a document written on such a 
strip. (See OUiAH*) 

1707.— "The officer at the Bridge Gate 
bringing in this morning to the Governor a 
Cajan letter that he found hung upon a post 
near the GJate, which when translated seemed 
to be from a body of the Right Hand Caste." 
—In Wheder, ii. 78. 

1716.— "The President acquaints the 
Board that he has intercepted a villainous 
letter or Cajan."— /6ui. ii. 231. 

1839.— "At Rajahmundry ... the people 
used to sit in our reading room for hours, 
copying our books on their own little oadjan 
leaves. — Letters from. Madrtu, 275. 

CADJOWAfS. [V.kajdtoah]. A kind 
of frame or pannier, of which a pair 
are slung across a camel, sometimes 
made like litters to carry women or 
sick persons, sometimes to contain 
sundries of camp equipage. 

1645.— "He entered the town with 8 or 
10 camels, the two CaJaYas or Litters on 
each side of the Camelbeing close shut. . . . 
But instead of Women, he had put into 

every CaJaya two Souldiers. "—Tat'erAicr, 
E. T. ii. a ; [ed. BtUl, i. 144]. 

1790. — "The camel appropriated to the 
accommodation of passengers, carries two 
persons, who are lodged in a kind of pannier, 
laid loosely on the back of the animal. Thi» 
pannier, termed *in the Persic Kidjahwah, 
IS a wooden frame, with the sides and 
bottom of netted cords, of about 3 feet long- 
and 2 broad, and 2 in depth . . . the 
journey being usually made in the night- 
time, it becomes the only place at his 
rest. . . . Had I been even much aoooa- 
tomed to this manner of travelling, it must 
have been irksome ; but a total want of 
practice made it excessively erievous." — 
Forder's Journey, ed. 1808, ii. lW-6. 

GAEL, n,p. Properly Kdtfal [Tanu 
kdyu, *to be not'], *a lagoon' or *Dack- 
water.' Once a famous port near the 
extreme south of India at the mouth 
of the Tamrapami R., in the Gulf of 
Manaar, and on the coast of Tinnevelly, 
now lone abandoned. Two or three 
miles higner up the river lies the site 
of Korkai or KdOcai, the K6Xxm 4fiT6pio9 
of the Greeks, each port in succession 
having been destroyed by the retire- 
ment of the sea. Tutikorin, six miles 
N., may be considered the modem and 
humbler representative of those 
ancient marts ; [see Stuart, Man. of 
Tinnevelly, 38 8eqq.'\. 

1298.— "Call is a great and noble city. 
: . . It is at this city that all the ships 
touch that come from the west." — Marco 
Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 21. 

1442.— "The Coast, which includes Ckli- 
cut with some neighbouring ports, and 
which extends as far as Eabel (read Kijrel) 
a place situated opposite the Island of 
Serendib. . . .**—Aodurraz£dk, in IfuUa m 
the XVth Cent., 19. 

1444.— "Ultra eas urbs est Cahila, qui 
locus majvaritas . . . producit." — Oonii, in 
Poggitu, De Var. Fortunae. 

1498.— "Another Kingdom, CaeU, which 
has a Moorish King, whilst the people are 
Christian. It is ten days from Galecut by 
sea . . . here there be many pearls." — 
Roteiro de V. da Oama, 108. 

1514.— "P&ssando oltre a1 Cavo Comedi 
(C. Comorin), sono gentili ; e intra esso e 
Qael h dove si pesca le perle." — Otov. da 
Empolt, 79. 

1516. — " Further along the coast is a city 
called Gael, which also oelongs to the King 
of Coulam, peopled bv Moors and Gentoos^ 
great toiders. It nas a good harbour, 
whither come many ships of Malabar ; others 
of Charamandel and Benguala." — Barbosa, 
in Lisbon Coll., 357-8. 


&c, n.p. The word is properly the 


Ar. Kdfir, pL Kofra^ *an infidel, an 
unbelieyer m Islam.' As the Arabs 
applied this to Pagan negroes, among 
others, the Portuguese at an early 
date took it up in this sense, and our 
'Countrymen from them. A further 
appropriation in one direction has 
since made the name specifically that 
of the black tribes of South Africa, 
whom we now call, or till recently 
did call, Caffres. It was also applied 
in the Philippine Islands to the 
Papuas of N. Guinea, and the Alf uras 
of the Moluccas, brought into the slave- 

In another direction the word has 
become a quasi-proper name of the 
(more or less) fair, and non-Mahom- 
medan, tribes of Hindu-Kush, some- 
times called more specifically the Sidh- 
puk or ' black-robed ' Cafixs. 

The term is often applied malevo- 
lently by Mahommedans to Christians, 
4Uid this is probably the origin of the 
mistake pervading some of the early 
Portuguese narratives, especially the 
RUeiro of Vcuco da Gama^ whicn de- 
scribed many of the Hindu and Indo- 
Chinese States as being Christian.* 

[c. IdOO.— " Uflr." See under lACK.] 

c 1404.^Of a people near China : " They 
were Christians after the manner of those 
ot Oithay." — Olavijo by Markham, 141. 

„ And of India: **The people of India 
are ChristiaoB, the Lord and most part of 
the people, after the manner of the Greeks ; 
and among them also are other Christians 
who mark themselves with fire in the face, 
and their creed is different from that of the 
•others ; for those who thus mark themselves 
with fire are lees esteemed than the others. 
And amonff them are Moors and Jews, but 
they are subject to the Christians." — Glavijoy 
(orig.) § cxzi. ; oomp. Jfarkhanij 153-4. Here 
we have (1) the confusion of Caffer and 
-Chrisfcian ; and (2) the confusion of Abyssinia 
{India Terfia or Middle India of some 
medieval writers) with India Proper. 

c. 1470. — '* The sea is infested with pirates, 
All of whom are Kofurs, neither Christians 
nor Mnasnlmans ; they pray to stone idols, 
and know not Christ.'* — Alhan, NUikin, in 
India in the XVth Cent., p. 11. 

1562.—'*. . . he learned that the whole 
people of the Island of S. Louren^o . . . 
were black GafirM with curly hair like those 
•of Moeambique."— Borrof, 11. i. 1. 

* Thus : " CAomondaria (i.& GoromBndel) he de 
ChrisUoOB e o rey Christioa" So also Ceykm 
Canutarm, MeUmia (Malacca), Pe^uo, &&, are all 
described as Christian states with Ghristian kings. 
Also the so-called Indian Christians who came on 
hoaid Da Gama at Melinde seem to have been 
Hindu banians. 

1563.— '< In the year 1484 there came to 
Portugal the Kins of Benin, a Cafflre by 
nation, and he became a Christian."— 
Stanley's Correa p. 8. 

'* Veriio OS CafrM asperos e avaros 

Tirar a linda dama sens vestidos." 

CamdeSy v. 47. 

By Burton: 
" shall see the Caifras, greedy race and fere 
" strip the fair Ladye of her raiment torn." 

1582.— *' These men are called Gafir«t 
and are Oentiles." — Castaiieda (by N.L.), f. 

c. 1610.— "n estoit fils d'vn Gafir« d'Ethi- 
opie, et d'vne femme de ces isles, ce qu'on 
appelle Mulastre. "—Pymrrf de Laval, i. 220 ; 
[Hak. Soc. i. 307]. 

Jc. 1610.—" ... a Christian whom they 
1 Caparoa.' — /&u/., Hak. Soc; i. 261.] 

1614:— "That knave Simon the Caifro, 
not what the writer took him for — he is a 
knave.and better lost than found."— <8Stnn«- 
6ttry, I. 356. 

[1615.— " Odola and (3ala are Capham 
which signifieth misbelievers.-"— <9ftr T, Roe, 
Hak. Soc. i: 23.] 

1653.—"; : . toy mesme qui passe jjour 
vn Kiaffer, ou homme sans Dieu, parmi les 
Mausulmans;"— i)« la Boullaye-le-Oouz, 310 
(ed. 1657). 

c. 1665.— "It will appear in the sequel of 
this History, that the pretence used by 
Aureng-Zebe, his third Brother, to cut olf 
his (Dora's) head, was that he was turned 
Kafer, that is to say, an Infidel, of no Re- 
ligion, an Idolater.'— ^«rni<^, E. T. p. 3 ; 
[ed. OonstabUy p. 7]. 

1678:— "They show their Greatness by 
their number of Sumbreeroes and Cofferies, 
whereby it is dangerous to walk late." — 
Fryer, 74. 

i, "Beggars of the Musslemen Cast, 
that if they see a CHiristian in good Clones 
. . : are presently upon their Punctilios with 
Qod Almighty, and interrogate him. Why 
he suffers him to go afoot and in Rags, and 
this ColTery (Unbeliever) to vaunt it thus ? " 
-Ibid. 91. 

1678.— "The Justices of the Choultry to 
turn Padry Pasquall, a Popish Priest, out of 
town, not to return again, and if it proves 
to be true that he attempted to seduce Mr. 
Mohun's CoBte Franck from the Protestant 
religion"— Ft. St: Geo. Cant, in Notes and 
JExts., Pt. i. p. 72. 

1759.— "Blacks, whites, Cofflries, and even 
the natives of the oountiy (Pegu) have not 
been exempted, but all univeraiuly have been 
subject to intermittent Fevers and Fluxes " 
(at Neg^s). — In Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 124. 

„ Among expenses of the (Council at 
Calcutta in entertaining the Nabob we find 
"Purchasing a CotttB boy, Rs. 500."— In 
Longy 194. 

1781.—" To be sold hy PritfoU SaU —Two 
GofErea Boys, who can play remarkably 




weU on the French Horn, about 18 Years of 
Age: belonging to a Portuguese Paddrie 
lately deoeaMcT. For particulars apply to 
the Vicar of the Portuguese Church, Cal- 
cutta, March 17th, 17S1."— The India Gazette 
or Public Advertiser, No. 19. 

1781.— "Run away from his Master, a 
good-looking CofErM Boy, about 20 years 
old, and about 6 feet 7 incke« in heighl. . . . 
When ?u went off he had a high toupie"—Ibid. 
Dec. 29. 

1782.— "On Tuesday next will be sold 
three CofErM Boys, two of whom play the 
French Horn ... a three-wheel'd Buggy, 
and a variety of other articles.'* — Ijtdia 
OoMeUej June 15. 

1799. — "He (Tippoo) had given himself out 
as a Champion of the Faith, who was U) 
drive the English Caifen out of India."— 
Letter in Life of Sir T, Munro, i. 221. 

1800.— "The Cafflre slaves, who had been 
introduced for the purpose of cultivating 
the lands, rose upon their masters, and 
seidng on the boats belonging to the island, 
effected their escape." — Symejiy Bmbauy to 
Ava, p. 10. 

c. 1866.— 
" And if I were forty years younger, and 
my life before me to choose, 
I wouldn't be lectured by Kafin, or 
swindled by fat Hindoos." 

Sir A. C. Lyall, The Old Pindaree, 

GAFILA, a Arab. JtdJUay a body 
or convoy of travellera, a OBXhYBJO. 

fq.v.). Also used in some of the 
ollowing quotations for a sea convoy. 

1552.— "Those roads of which we speak 
are the general routes of the CSafilas, which 
are sometimes of ^3, 000 or 4)000 men . . . 
for the country is very perilous because of 
both hill-people and plain-people, who haunt 
the roads to rob tnivellers. — Barrot, IV. 
vi. 1. 

1596.— " The ships of C%a/t>w (see CHETTY) 
of these parts are not to sail aloi^^ the coast 
of Malavar or to the north except in a oafllla, 
that thev may come and so more securely, 
and not be cut off by the Malavars and other 
corsairs." — Proclamation of Ooa Viceroy , in 
Archiv. Port. Or,, fasc. iii. 661. 

[1598.— "Two CBttsleai, that is companies 
of people and Camelies."— Ztn«:Ao/<»i, Hak. 
Soc. ii. 159.] 

[1616.— "A cafilowv consisting of 200 
broaddoths," ko.— Foster, Letters, iv. 276.] 

[1617.— " By the failing of the Qoa Cai&la. " 
—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc ii. 402.] 

1623. — "Non navigammo di notte, perch^ 
la cafila era molto grande, al mio parere di 
pih di ducento vasceUi."- P. delta Voile, 
li. 587 ; [and comp. Hak. Soc. i. 18]. 

1630.—". . . some of the Raiahs . . . 
making Outroades prey on the CaflUoea 
passing by the Way. . . "—Lord, BoMon's 
Religion, 81. 

1672. — "Several times yearly num< 
cafilaa of merchant barques, oollecte 
the Portuguese towns, traverse this clu 
(the Gulf of Cambay), and these al 
await the greater security of the full n 
It is also observed that the vessels v 
^ through with this voyage should m 
joined and fastened with iron, for so ( 
IS the abundance of loadstone in the bot 
that indubitably such vessels eo to p 
and break up." — P. Vincemo, 109. Acu 
survival of the old legend of the Loadi 

1673.—" . . . Time enough before 
Caphalas out of the Country come 
their Wares."- ^;y«r, 86. 

1727.— "/» Anna 1699, a pretty 
CaflUa was robbed by a Band of 4 or 
villains . . . which struck Terror oi 
that had commerce at TVitto." — A, Ham 
i. 116. 

1867.— "It was a curious si^ht to sc 
was seen in those days, a carnage entei 
of the northern gates of Palermo prec 
and followed by a large convoy of ai 
and mounted travellers, a kind of Kl 
that would have been more in place ii 
opening chapters of one of James's romi 
than in the fatter half of the 19th cent) 
—Quarterly Review, Jan., 101-2. 

GAFIBI8TAN, n.p. P. Kdfiri 
the country of Kdfin, %.e, of the p 
tribes of the Hindu Kush notice 
the article CaffOT. 

c. 1514.— "In Chegh&nserfti there 
neither grapes nor vineyards ; but 
bring the wines down the river 
KaferlsUn. ... So nrevalent is the 
of wine among them tnat every Kafa 
a khig, or leathern bottle of wine abou 
neck; they drink wine instead of wa 
—AiUobiog. o/Baber, p. 144. 

fc. 1590.— The KkBn in the TtfmiCi 
ALshang and Najrao are mentioned ii 
Ain, tr. Jarrett, ii. 406.] 

1603.—" . . . they fell in with a ce 
pilgrim and devotee, from whom they le£ 
that at a distance of 30 davs' journey '< 
was a city called Cappentam, into v 
no Mahomedan was allowed to enter . 
—Journey of Bened. GoSs, in Cathay, 
ii. 554. 

OAIMAL, s. A Kair chief 
word often occurring in the 
Portufi^uese historians. '^ It is Mal^ 
kaimal, % 

1504.— "So they consulted with 
Zamorin, and the Moors offered their a^ 
to send and poison the wells at Cochi 
as to kill all the Portuguese, and al; 
send Nairs in disguise to kUl any ol 
people that they found in the palm-w 
and away from the town. . . . And n 
while the Mangate Caimal, and the Ca 
of Primbalam, and the Caimal of Diau 
seeing that the Zamorin's affairs were ( 




frum bad to worse, and that the castles 
which the Italians were making were all 
wind and nonsense, that it was already 
August when ships mieht be arriving from 
Portugal . . . departed to their own estates 
with a multitude of their followers, and 
<ent to the King of Cochin their ollas of 
allegiance." — CorrtUy i. 482. 

1566. — " . . . certain lords bearing title, 
whom they call n^<Tna^l« " {mimilfs),—Daniian 
d^ (4oby Chroti, dfl Rel Doin Emmannel, p. 49. 

1606.— "The Malabars give the name of 
n»i«Mia {CaiwUUa) to certain great lords of 
vassals, who are with their governments 
haughty as kings ; but most of them have 
coafederation and alliance with some of the 
great kings, whom they stand bound to aid 
and defend . . ." — Gouvea, f. 27 v. 

" Fioarao seus OaJmaiB prexos e mortos." 
Malaea ConquiMada, v. 10. 

CSAIQUE, s. The small skiff used 
at OoDStantinople, Turkish kdiJt. Is it 
liy accident, or by a radical connection 
through Turkish tribes on the Arctic 
shores of Siberia, that the Oreenlander's 
kayak ia so closely identical? [The 
Slanf. Diet, says that the latter word 
is Esquimaux, and recognises no con- 
nection with the former.] 

OAJAN, s. This is a name given 
by Sprengel {Cajanus tndtciu\ and by 
lannsus (Gytisus cajan\ to the legu- 
minous shrub which gives dhall (q.v.). 
A kindred plant has been called 
DoliehM catjang^ Willdenow. We do 
not know the origin of this name. 
The Oo^n was introduced to America 
by the slave-traders from Africa. De 
C^doUe finds it impossible to say 
whether its native region is India or 
Africa. (See DHALL, CALAVANGE.) 
[According to Mr. Skeat the word 
IS Malay. jx^kacKaTtg, 'the plAnt 
which gives beans,' quite a difierent 
word m>m kajang which gives us 

OAJEFUT, s. The name of a 
fragrant essential oil produced especi- 
ally in Celebes and the neighbourii^ 
island of Bouro. A large quantity is 
exported from Singapore ana Batavia. 
It is used most frequently as an ex- 
ternal application, but also internally, 
specially (of late) in cases of cholera. 
Tne name is taken from the Malay 
kmp&'pyJt^ i.e. ^ lAgnwn aXbvmJ Filet 
(see p. 140) dives six different trees 
as pTodadng uie oil, which is derived 
from the distillation of the leaves. 

The chief of these trees is Melaleuca 
lettcadendroriy L., a tree diffused from 
the Malay Peninsula to N.S. Wales. 
The drug and tree were first described 
by Rumphius, who died 1693. (See 
Hanbury and Fliickiger, 247 [and 
Wallace^ Malay Arch., ed. 1890» 
p. 294].) 

GAKSEN, s. This is Sea H. for 
Cooavjain {Rod)ii>ck). 

GALALUZ,s. A kind of swift row- 
ing vessel often mentioned by the 
Portuguese writers as used in the 
Indian Archipelago. We do not know 
the etymology, nor the exact character 
of the craft. [According to Mr. Skeat, 
the word is Jav. kehdus, kalulus, spelt 
keloeles by Klinkert, and explained^ by 
him as a kind of vessel. The word 
seems to be derived from loeloes, *to 
go ri^ht through anything,' and thus 
the literal translation would be *the 
threader,' the reference being, as in 
the case of most Malay boat names, 
to the special figure-head from which 
the boat was supposed to derive its 
whole character.] • 

[1518.— Calaui, according to Mr. White- 
way, IB the form of the word in Andrade's 
Letter to Albugnterque of Feb. ttnd. — India 
Office MS.] 

1525. — ** 4 great lanchanu^ and 6 ftalalnim 
and manchuoi which row very fast." — Lem- 
branfOy 8. 

1539.— "The King (of Achin) set forward 
vrith the greatest possible despatch, a great 
armament of 200 rowing vessels, of which 
the grreater part were lancharat, Joanatu. 
and oalalnies, besides 15 high-sided junks. ^"^ 
^F. M. Pinto, cap. xxzii. 

1552.— "The King of Siam . . . ordered 
to be built a fleet of some 200 sail, ahnost 
all lancharas and oalalnies, which are row- 
ing-vessels."— JBorrM, II. vi. 1. 

1618. — "And having embarked with some 
companions in a calelui or rowing vessel. 
. . y—Oodinho de Eredta, f. 61. 


beautiful kind of rose-wood got from 
a Ceylon tree (Diospyrot qtutenta). 
Tennent regards the name as a Dutch 
corruption of Goromandel wood (L 118X 
and Drury, we see, calls one of the 
ebony-trees (D. mela/noxylon) "Coto- 
mandel-ebony." Forbes Watson gives 
as Singhalese names of the wood udu- 
midinya, Kalumederiysj &c., and the 
term Kalumadiriya is given with this 
meaning in Clough's Siujgh. DicU ; still 
in absence of further information, it 




may remain doubtful if this be not a 
borrowed word. It may be worth 
while to observe that, according to 
Tavemierj [ed. BaU^ ii. 41 the "painted 
calicoes'' or "chites" oi Masulipatam 
were called " Galmmdar^ that is to say, 
done with a pencil " (Kalam-ddr ?), and 
possibly this appellation may have been 
given by traders to a delicately veined 
wood. [The N.E.D, su^ests that the 
Singh, terms quoted above may be 
adaptations from the Dutch.] 

1777. — "In the Cingalese lana^uage Gala- 
minder is said to signify a black flaming 
tree. The heart, or woody part of it, is 
extremely handsome, with whitish or pale 
yellow and black or brown veins, streaks 
and waves." — Thwnherg, iv. 205-6. 

1813.—" Calamlnder wood " appears 
among Ceylon products in MUlmm^ i. 345. 

1825. — "A great deal of the furniture in 
Oeylon is made of ebony, as well as of the 
Ouamander tree . . . which is become 
scarce from the improvident use formerly 
made of it."— ^«6cr (1844), ii. 161. 

1834. — "The forests in the neighbourhood 
4^ord timber of every kind (Calamander 
excepted)." — ChiUy^ Gey Ion Qazetteer, 198. 

CALAMBAC, s. The finest kind 
of aloes-wood. Crawfurd gives the 
word as Javanese, kalambak, but it 
perhaps came with the article from 
Champa (q.v.). 

1510. — "There are three sorts of aloes- 
wood. The 6rst and most perfect sort is 
called CalamjMit." — Vartliemoj 235. 

1516.—" ... It must be said that the 
very fine calembuco and the other eagle- 
wood is worth at Oilicut 1000 maravedis the 
pound."— ^arftoao, 204. 

1539. — "This Embassador, that was 
Brother-in-law to the King of the Batas 
, . . brought him a rich Present of Wood 
of Aloes, Calambaa, and 5 quintals of 
Benjamon in flowers." — F. M, Finto, in 
Oogan's tr. p. 15 (orig. cap. xiii.). 

1551. — (Campar, in Sumatra) "has nothing 
but forests which yield aloeswood, called in 
India Galambuoo."— CiutoTiAoia, bk. iii. 
cap. 63, p. 218, quoted by Gran^furdj Des. 
Die. 7. 

1552.— "Past this kingdom of Camboja 
begins the other Kingdom called Campa 
4Ghami>a), in the mountains of which erows 
the genuine aloes-wood, which the Moors 
of those parts call Calambuc. "-Carrot, 1. 
ix. 1. 

[o. 1590.— "Kalaabak (calembic) is the 
wood of a tree brought from Zirbad; it is 
heavy and full of veins. Some believe it to 
be the raw wood of aloes." — Alfii ed. Blo<^- 
mann, i. 81. 

[c. 1610.—" From this river (the (Ganges) 
comes that excellent wood Calamba, which 

is believed to come from the Earthly Para- 
dise."— Pymrrf de Laval, Hak. Soo. i. 835.] 

1613.— "And the Calamba is the most 
fram^nt medulla of the said tree." — Qodinho 
de Eredioy f. 15r. 

fi615. — "Lumra (a black gum), eumlack, 
omback."— /Wcr, Letterx, iv. 87.] 

1618. — "We opened the ij chistes which 
came from Syam with callamback and silk, 
and waid it out,**— Gocis's Diary, ii. 51. 

1774. — "Les Mahometans font de ce 
^%l%y^^MVff des chapelets qu'ils portent k la 
main par amusement. Ce bois quand il est 
^hauff^ ou un peu frott^, rena un odeur 
agr^ble."— iVt^ftuAr, Z>«r. de VArabiey 127. 


CALASH, s. French calkke^ said 
by Littr6 tx> be a Slav word, [and so 
N,E.D.\ In Bavly's Diet, it is calatJh 
and cdioche, [The N.E.D. does not 
recognise the latter form ; the former 
is as early as 1679]. This seems to 
have been the earliest precursor of the 
buggy in Eastern settlements. Bayly 
defines it as * a small open chariot.' 
The quotation below refers to Batavia, 
and the President in (juestion was the 
Prest. of the English Factory at 
Chusan, who, with his council, had 
been expelled from China, and was 
halting at Batavia on his way to 

1702.— "The Shabander riding home 
in his Calash this Morning, and seeing the 
President sitting without the door at his 
Lodgings, alighted and came and Sat with 
the President near an hour . . . what 
moved the Shabander to speak so plainly 
to the President thereof he knewWt, But 
observed that the Shahbander was in his 
Glasses at his first alighting from his 
Calash."— ProcoA. "Munday, 30th March," 
MS. Report %% India Office, 

C ALAVANCE, s. A kind of bean ; 
ace. to the quotation from Osbeck, 
Dolicho8 dnends. The word was once 
common in English use, but seems 
forgotten, unless still used at sea. Sir 
Joseph Hooker writes : " When I was 
in tne Navy, haricot beans were in 
constant use as a substitute for potatoes 
and in Brazil and elsewhere, were 
called Calairances. I do not re- 
member whether they were the seed 
of PJuueoltLS lunoUus or viUgariSy or of 
DoUchos dnends, alias Gatjang*' (see 
CAJAN). The word comes from the 
Span, garhanzos, which De CandoUe 
mentions as Castilian for ^pois ckiche^^ 
or Gicer arietinum, and as used also 
in Basque under the form garhantzuoy 




[or aarbatzUy from ga/rau, 'seed,' arUztt^ 

1020. — " . . . from hence they make their 
proTition in aboundance, viz. beefe and 
poike . . . gmncBnoes, or small peaze or 
beanes. . . ,— Coda's Diary, ii. 811. 

c 1630. — '*. . . in their Canooe brought 
U8 . . . green pepper, caravanoe, Buffols, 
Hens, S«gs, and other things. "-r-<Str T. 
Herbert, ed. 1665, p. 850. 

1719.— "I was forc*d to eive them an 
extraordinary meal every^ day, either of 
Farina or calATUUMB, which at once made 
a considerable consomption of our water 
and firing." — Skelvoeie's Voyage, 62. 

1738.— "But garyaiiQOS are prepared 
in a different manner, neither do they 
grow soft like other pulse, by boiling. 
. . r—Skaw's Travels, ed. 1757, p. 140. 

1752.—". . . CallYaxuMS {Dolichos tin- 
eMi*)."—0^>eek, i. 304. 

1774. — "When I asked any of the men 
of IXory why they had no gardens of plan- 
tains and KalaTanaas ... I learnt 

that the Haraforas supply them." — Forrest, 
V.loN. Guinea, IQQ. 

1814. — "His Majesty is authorised to 
permit for a limited time by Order in 
Council, the Importation from any Port or 
Place whatever of . . . any Beans called 
Kidney, French Beans, Tares, Lentiles, 
CalliTUioeB, and all other sorts of Pulse." 
— Act 54 Geo. III. cap. xzxvi. 

CALAY, s. Tin; also v., to tin 
copper vessels — H. hMl kamd. The 
wotcL is Ar. kala% *tin,' which ac- 
cording to certain Arabic writers was 
so called from a mine in India called 
kala\ In spite of the different initial 
and terminal letters, it seems at least 
possible that the place meant was the 
same that the old Arab gec^praphers 
called Kalah^ near which the^ place 
mines of tin {al-kala^i), and which was 
certainly somewhere about the coast 
of Malacca, possibly , as has been sujb;- 
gested, at Kodak* or as we write it, 
Qoedda. [See Ain, tr. Jarrett, iii 48.] 

The tin produce of that re^on is 
well known. Kalang is indeed also 
a name of tin in Malay, which may 
have been the true origin of the word 
before us. It may be added that the 
amall State of Salangor between 
Malacca and Perak was formerly 
known as ^o^frvEalang, or the 'Tin 
Country,' and that the place on the 
coast where the British Kesident lives 

* It may be obseired, however, that kwSla in 
Halav indicates the estuaiy of a navlgsble riyer, 
and oenominstes many small ports In the Malay 
region. The JToZoA of the early Arabs is probably 
the KwXi x6Xif of Ptolemy's Tables. 

is called Elang (see Miss Bird, Golden 
Chersonese^ 210, 216). The Portuguese 
have the forms calaim and calin, with 
the nasal termination so frequent in 
their Eastern borrowings. Bluteau 
explains caladm as ' Tin of India, finer 
than ours.' The old writers seem to 
have hesitated about the identity with 
tin, and the word is confounded in 
one quotation below with TootnajniO 
(q.v.). The French use calin. In the 
P. version of the Book of Numbers 
'ch. xxxi. V. 22) t<Mi is used for * tin.' 
*'ee on this woril Quatrem^re in the 
JourruU des ScwanSj Dec. 1846. 

c. 920. — "Kalah is the focus of the trade 
in aloeswood, in camphorj in sandalwood, 
in ivory, in the lead which is called al- 
KalBi.*i. —JielaHwi des Voyages, Ac., i. 94.' 

c. 1154.— "Thence to the Isles of Lanki- 
&lius is reckoned two days, and from the 
latter to the Island of Kalah 5. . . . There 
ia in this last island an abundant mine of 
tin (al-Kalal). The metal is very pure 
and orilliant." — JBdrisi, by Jaubert, i. 80. 

1562.—"— Tin, which the people of the 
country call Calem." — Castankedct, iii. 218. 
It is mentioned as a staple of Malacca in 
ii. 186. 

1606.— "That all the chalices which were 
nei^er of gold, nor silver, nor of tin, nor 
of ffl^lftii", should be broken up and de- 
stroyed." — Gouvea, Synodo, f. 296. 

1610.— "They carry (to Hormuz) . . . 
clove, cinnamon, pepper, cardamom, ginger, 
mace, nutmeg, su^r, oalayn, or tin."— 
Relaciones de P. Tetxeira, 382. 

c. 1610. — " . . . money . . . not only of 
gold and silver, but also of another metal, 
which is called calin, which is white like tin, 
but harder, purer, and finer, and which is 
much used in the Indies." — Pyrard de Laval 
(1679) i. 164 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 23'4, with Gray's 

1618. — "And he also reconnoitred all the 
sites of mines, of gold, silver, mercury, tin 
or calem, and iron and other metals ..." 
—Godinho de Eredia, f. 58. 

[1644. — * * Gallaym. " See quotation under 

1646. — " . . . il y a (i.e. in Siam) plusieurs 
minieres de fta-lft^in, qui est vn metal metoyen, 
entre le plomb et I'estain." — Cardim, Rel. de 
la Prov. de Japon, 163. 

1726.— "The goods exported hither (from 
Pegu) are . . . KaUn (a metal coming very 
near silver) . . ."— Valentijn, v. 128. 

1770. — "They send only one vessel (viz. 
the Dutch to Siam) which transports Java- 
nese horses, and is freighted with sugar, 
spices, and linen ; for which they receive in 
return calin, at 70 livres 100 weight." — 
Raynal (tr. 1777), i. 208. 

1780.—" ... the port of Quedah ; there 
is a trade for calin or tutenague ... to 




export to different parts of the Indies." — 
In Dunuj N. Dirttiwy, 838. 

1794-5. —In the Travel* to China of the 
younger Deguignes, Calin is mentioned as a 
kind of tin imported into China from Batavia 
and Malacca.— iii. 367. 

CALCUTTA, n.p. B. KalikdtcL, or 
KaliJcattd, a name of uncertain ety- 
Inology. The first mention that we 
are aware of occurs in the Ain-i- 
Akbari. It is well to note that in 
some early charts, such as that in 
Valentijn, and the oldest in the 
English Pilotj though Calcutta is not 
entered, there is a place on the Hoogly 
Cakula^ or Calcvta, which leads to mis- 
take. It is far below, near the modem 
Fjilta. [With reference to the quota- 
tions below from Luillier and Sonnerat, 
Sir H. Yule writes (Hedges, Diary, 
Hak. Soc. ii. xcvi.): "In Orme*s 
Historical Fragments, Job Chamock 
is described as * Governor of the 
Factory at Qolgot near Hughley.' 
This name Golgot and the correspond- 
ing Gk>lghat in an extract from Mu- 
habl)at Khan indicate the name of 
the particular locality where the 
English Factory at Hugli was situated. 
And some confusion of this name 
with that of Calcutta may have led 
to the curious error of the Frenchman 
Luiller and Sonnerat, the former of 
whom calls Calcutta Golgouthe, while 
the latter says : * Les Anglais pronon- 
cent et ecrivent Golgota.^ "J 

c. 1590.— "KalikatA tea BaJtoya wi Bar- 
hakpwr, 3 MaJuU:*—Aln. (orig.) i. 408 ; [tr. 
JarreU, ii. 141], 

[1688. — "Soe myself accompanied with 
Capt. Haddock and the 120 soldiers we 
carryed from hence embarked, and about 
the 20th September arrived at Calcutta. " 
—IledgeSt Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. Ixxix.] 

1688.— "This avaridona disposition the 
English plied with presents, which in 1698 
chained his permission to purchase from 
the Zemindar . . . the towns of Sootanutty, 
Calcutta, and Goomopore, with their dis- 
tricts extending about 3 miles along the 
eastern bank of the river."— Ormr, repr. 
ii. 71. 

1702. — "The next Morning we pass'd by 
the English Factory belonging to the old 
Company, which they call Gtolgotlia, and 
is a handsome Building, to which were add- 
ing stately Warehouses." — Voyage to the E. 
India, hy Le Sieur Luillier, E. T. 1715, 
p. 269. 

1726.— "The ships which saU thither (to 
HugU) first pass by the English Lodge in 
Couecatte, 9 miles (Dutch miles) Tower 
down than ours, and after that the Franch 

one called Chandamagor. . . ." — VaUntijn, 
V. 162. 

1727. — "The Company has a pretty good 
Hospital at Calcntto, where many go in 
to imdergo the Penance of Physic^ but few 
come out to give an Aooodnt of its Opera- 
tion. . . . One Year I was there, and there 
were reckoned in August about 1200 
English^ some Military, some Servants to 
the Company, some private Merchants re- 
siding in tne Town, and some Seamen 
belong to Shipping lying at the Town, and 
before the beginning of January there were 
460 Burials registr^ in the Clerk's Books 
of Mortality."— -4. Hamilton, ii. 9 and 6. 

c. 1742. — "I had occasion to stop at the 
city of FirtCshd^mga (Chandemagore) which 
is inhabited by a tribe of Frenchmen. The 
city of Calcutta, which is on the other side 
of the water, and inhabited by a tribe of 
English who have settled there, is much 
more extensive and thickly populated. ..." 
—* Abdul KaHm Kh&n, in Elliot, viii. 127. 

1753. — "Au dessous d'Ugli imm^iate- 
ment, est I'^tablissement Hollandois de 
Shiiurara, puis Shandenuwor, ^tablisse- 
ment Francois, puis la loge Danoise 
(Serampore), et plus has, sur la rivage 
oppose, qui est celui de la gauche en de- 
scendant, Banki-bazar, oh lesOstendois n'ont 
pO se maintenir; enfin Colicotta aux 
Anglois, & quelques lieues de Banki-bazar, 
et du mdme odtiS." — D'AnvilU, JBclairGisse- 
mens, 64. With this compare: "Almost 
opposite to the Danes Factory is Banke- 
hanksal, a Place where the Ostend Company 
settled a Factory, but, in Anrio 1723, they 
quarrelled with the Fouzdaar or Governor 
of HughZy, and he forced the Ostenders to 
quit. . . ." — A. Hamilton, ii. 18. 

1782. — "Les Anglais pourroient retirer 
aujourd'hui des sommes immenses de I'lnde, 
s'ils avoient eu I'attention de mieux com- 
poser le conseil supreme de Caleoata."* — 
Sonnerat, Voyage, i. 14. 

CALEEFA, s. Ar. Khalifa, the 
Caliph or Vice-gerent, a word which 
we do not introduce here in its high 
Mahominedan use, but because of its 
quaint application in Anglo-Indian 
households, at least in Upi)er India^ 
to two classes of domestic servants, 
the tailor and the cook, and sometimes 
to the barber and farrier. The first 
is always so addressed by his fellow- 
servants (Khalifa-ji). In South India 
the cook is called Maistry, i.e, artiste. 
In Sicily, we may note, he is always 
called Monsii (!) an indication of whit 
ought to be his nationality. The root 
of the word Khalifa, according to Prof. 
Sayce, means *to change,' and another 

* "Gapitale des ^UbliBsements Anglais dans le 
Bengale: Le$ AnQlait prononoent et ierivent 




derivative, khdlif, * exchange or agio' 
is the origin of the Qreek KoKK^pos 
{Princ. of Philology, 2nd ed., 213). 


C.1253. — ". . . vindrentmaroheanteiirost 
lui nous distrent et oonterent que li roys 
[es Tartarins aroit prise la oitei de Baudas 
et I'apoetole des Sarrazins . . . lequel on ap 
peloit le calife de Baudas. . . ,**^J<nnvilte, 

12d8. — ** Baudas is a great city, which used 
to be the seat of the ClJif of all the Saracens 
in the world, just as Rome is the seat of the 
Pope of all the Christians." — Marco Polo, 
Bk. I. ch. 6. 

1552.—*' To which the Sheikh replied that 
he was the vassal of the Soldan of Cairo, 
and that without his permission who was 
the Borereign Califii of the Prophet Ma- 
hamed, he could hold no communication 
with people who so persecuted his fol- 
lowers. . . ." — Barrot, ll. i. 2. 

1738.— "Muzeratty, the late Kaleefa, or 
lieutenant of this province, assured me that 
he saw a bone belonging to one of them 
(ancient stone coffins) which was near two 
of their dnu$ {i.e. 36 inches) in length."— 
Shaw's Travel* in Bourbary, ed. 1757, p. 30. 

1747. — * As to the house, and the patri- 
monial lands, together with the appendages 
of the murdered minister, they were pre- 
sented by the Qhalif of the age, that is by 
the Emperor himself, to his own daughter. 
— Seir Mviaqherin, iii. 87. 

c. 1760 (?).- 
** I hate all Kings and the thrones they sit 
From the King of France to the Caliph of 

These lines were found among the papers 
of Pr. Charles Edward, and supposed to be 
his. But Lord Stanhope, in the 2nd ed. of 
his Miacellanies, says he finds that they are 
slightly altered from a poem by liord 
Rochester. This we cannot find. [The 
orwinal lines of Rochester {Poems on State 
AJ/airSj i. 171) run: 

'* I hate all Monarchs, and the thrones they 
From the Hector of France to the Cully of 

[1813.— "The most skilful among them 
(the wrestlers) is appointed khvleefti, or 
superintendent for the season. . . ." — 
Brouffhton, Letters, ed. 1892, p. 164.] 


Jtahyttn, a water-pipe for smokinff ; the 
t'ersian form of the HubUe-Blibble 


[1812.— ''A Persian visit, when the g^uest 
is a distinguished personage, generally oon- 
msta of three acts: fint, the kaleaan, or 
water pipe. . . ." — Morier, Journey through 
Persia, Ac., p. 13.] 

1828.— "The elder of the men met to 

smoke their calleoons under the shade."— 
The Kutzilbashy i. 69. 

[1880.— "Kallltoa." See quotation under 

CALICO, s. Cotton cloth, ordinarily 
of tolerably fine texture. The word 
appears in the 17th century sometimes 
in the form of Calicuty but possibly this 
may have been a purism, for calicoe or 
cadico occurs in Sfnglish earlier, or at 
least more commonly in early voyages. 
Wallaca in 1678, Draper's Did. p. 42.] 
The word may have come to us through 
the French calicot, which though re- 
taining the t to the eye, does not do so 
to the ear. The quotations sufficiently 
illustrate the use of the word and its 
origin from Calicut. The fine cotton 
stutfs of Malabar are already men- 
tioned by Marco Polo (ii. 379\ Pos- 
sibly they may have been all Drought 
from beyond the Ghauts, as the Malabar 
cotton, ripening during the rains, is 
not usable, and the cotton stuffs now 
used in Malabar all come from Madura 
(see Fryer below ; and Terry under 
CALICUT). The Germans, we may note, 
call the turkey CaleciUische Hahn, 
though it comes no more from Cali- 
cut tnan it does from Turkey. [See 

1579.— "3 great and large Canowes, in 
each whereof were oertaine of the greatest 
personages that were about him, attired all 
of them in white Lawne, or cloth of Caleoat." 
— Drake, World Enc&inpatsed, Hak. Soc. 

1591.— ** The commodities of the shippes 
that come from Bengala bee . . . fine Cali- 
ent cloth, PintadoH, and Rice." — Barker's 
Lancaster, in Hakl. ii. 592. 

1592.— ''The calicos were book-eaUoOB, 
calico launes, broad white calicos, fine 
starched calicos, coarse white calicos, 
browne coarse cidicOB."— /)«c. of the Oreat 
Ctarack Madre de IHos, 

1602. — ''And at his departure gaue a robe, 
and a Tucke of Calico vnrought with ^old." 
— LaruMStfr's Voyage, in Purchas, i. 153. 

1604.—" It doth appear by the abbreviate 
of the Accounts sent home out of the Indies, 
that there remained in the hands of the 
Agent, Master Starkey, 482 fardels of 
Calicos."- In MiddUton's Voyage, Hak. Soc. 
App. iii. 13. 

„ "lean fit you, gentlemen, with fine 
callicoes too, for doublets ; the only sweet 
fashion now, most delicate and courtly: a 
meek gentle callico, cut upon two double 
affable taffatas ; all most neat, feat, and 
unmatchable,"— Z^otAer, The Honest Whore, 
Act. II. Sc. V. 

1605.—". . . about their loynea they (the 




Javanese) weareakind of CSallioo-cloth." — 
£dm, Scot, ibid, 166. 

1608. — "They esteem not so much of 
money as of Calaoiit clothes, Pintados, and 
such like sta£fs."— ioA» Davis, ibid, 136. 

1612.— "Galioo oopboord claiths, the piece 
. . . xls." — Rates and VcUwUiouns, kc, (Soot- 
land), p. 294. 

1616. — "Angarezia . . . inhabited by 
Moores trading with the Maine, and other 
three Easteme Hands with their Oattell and 
fruits, for Gftlliooes or other linnen to cover 
them." — Sir T, Roe, in Purehaa ; [with some 
verbal differences in Hak. Soc. i. 17]. 

1627.—*' CsUcot, tela ddioata Indiea, H. 
Caliotid, dicta k Calectlt, Indiae regioM uH 
conficitvr." — Minsheu, 2nd ed., s.v. 

1673.—'' Staple Commodities are Galionts, 
white and painted."— i^«r, 84. 

„ "Galecut for Spice . . . and no 
Oloath, though it g^ve the name of Caleoat 
to all in India, it being the first Port from 
whence they are known to be brought into 
Europe."- /&ui. 86. 

1707.— "The Governor lavs before the 
Council the insolent action of Captain Lea- 
ton, who on Sunday last marched part of 
his company . . . over the Company's Cali- 
coes that lay a dyeing." — Minute in Wheder, 
ii. 48. 

1720.— Act 7 Geo. I. cap. vii. " An Act 
to preserve and encourage the woollen and 
fiilk manufacture of this kingdom, and 
for more effectual employing of the Poor, 
by prohibiting the Use and Wear of all 
printed, painted, stained or dyed GftUioOM 
in Apparel, Houshold Stuff, Furniture, or 
otherwise. . . ."—StcU. at Large, v. 229. 

** Like Iris' bow down darts the painted clue. 

Starred, striped, and spotted, yellow, red, 
and blue, 

Old calico, torn silk, and muslin new." 

Rejected Addresses (Orabbe). 

CALICUT, n.p. In the Middle 
A^ the chief city, and one of the 
chief ports of Malabar, and the resi- 
dence of the Zamorin (q.v.). The 
name Kolikddu is said to mean the 
* Cock-Fortress.' [Logan {Man. Mala- 
bar, i. 241 note) gives koli, * fowl,' and 
kottu, * comer or empty space,' or kotta, 
*a fort.* There was a legend, of the 
Dido type, that all the space within 
cock-crow was once granted to the 

c. 1343. — " We proceeded from Fandaraina 
to Kali]|11t, one of the chief ports of Mull- 
b&r*. The pe<^le of Chin, of Java, of Sail&n, 
of Mahal (Maldives), of Yemen, and Fars 
frecjuent it, and the traders of different 
regions meet there. Its port is among the 
greatest in the world."— /6» Batata, iv. 89. 

c. 1430.— "Gollicnthiam deinceps petiit, 
urbem maritimam, octo millibus passuum 

ambitu, nobile totius Indiae emporium, 
pipere, lacca, gingibere, dnnamomo oras- 
siore,* kebulis, ^oaria fertilis." — Conti, 
in Poggius, De Vox, Fortunae, 

1442.—" Calient is a perfectly secure har- 
bour, which like that of Ormuz brings 
together merchants from every city and from 
every country." — AbdurrazztUt, in India in 
XVth Cent,, p. 18. 

c. 1476.— "Caleoat is a port for the whole 
Indian sea. . . . The country produces 
pepper, ginger, colour plants, muscat [nut- 
meg?! cloves, cinnamon, aromatic roots, 
adnuA [green ginger] . . . and everything 
is cheap, and servants and maids are very 
good,"— Ath. Nikitvn.,, ibid, p. 20. 

1498.— "We departed thence, with the 
pilot whom the kinff gave us, for a city which 
18 called Qaaleeat.' — /2o^ro de V, da Oatna, 

" J a f6ra de tormenta, e dos primeiros 

Mares, o temor vao do peito voa ; 

Disse alegre o Piloto Melindano, 

' Terra he de Caleent, se noo me engano.' '* 
CamOes, vi. 92. 

By Burton: 
" now, 'scaped the tempest and the first 

fled from each bosom terrors vain, and 

the Melindanian Pilot in delight, 

' Calecut-land, if aught I see aright ! ' " 

1616.— "Of that wool they make divers 
sorts of Callico, which had that name (as I 
suppose) from Callicntte, not far from Goa, 
where that kind of cloth was first bought 
by the Portuguese." — Terry, in Purckas, 
[In ed. 1777, p. 106, Calliente.] 

CALXNGULA, s. A sluice or 
escape. Tam. kaUngal; much used 
in reports of irrigation works in S. 

[1888. — " Much has been done in the way 
of providing sluices for minor channels of 
supply, and calin^fiilahfi, or water weirs for 
surplus vents."— Ken^osami Row, Man, of 
Tanjore, p. 332.] 

CALPUTTEE, s. A caulker ; also 
the process of caulking ; H. and Beng. 
kdldpattl and kaldpcSti^ and these no 
doubt from the Port, calafaie. But 
this again is oriental in origin, from 
the Arabic kdldfat, the 'process of 
caulking.' It is true that Dozy (see 
p. 376) and also Jal (see his Index, ii. 
689) doubt the last derivation, and 
are disposed to connect the Portuguese 

* Not ' a larger kind of cinnamon/ or ' cinnamon 
which is known there by the name of crasaa' 
(eaneUae am grosaae araeUaiUurX as Mr. Winter 
Jones oadly renders, out ecaidia grossa^ i.c. 
' coarse ' cinnamon, alias oosvia 




and Spanish words, and the Italian 
ealafattare^ &c., with the Latin caUfaeerej 
a view which M. Marcel Devic rejects. 
The latter word would apply well 
enough to the process of wiching a 
veasel as practised in the Mediterra- 
nean, where we have seen the vessel 
careened over, and a great fire of 
thorns kindled under it to keep the 
pitch fluid. But caulking is not 
pitching; and when both form and 
meaning correspond so exactly, and 
when we know so many other marine 
terms in the Mediterranean to have 
been taken from the Arabic, there does 
not seem to be room for reasonable 
doubt in this case. The Emperor 
Michael V. (a.d. 1041) was called 
KaKxupAnp, because he was the son of 
a caulker (see Ducange^ Glass, Qraec^ 
who quotes Zonaras). 

1554. — (At Mozambique) ... "To two 
calafatteB ... of the said brigantineS) at 
the rate annually of 20,000 {reU each, with 
9000 reit each for maintenance and 6 
measures of millet to each, of which no 
oount is \ak.exi"—Simtio BoUUu>, Tombo, 11. 

c. 1020. — "S'il estoit beaoin de oalfEider 
le Vaisseau ... on y auroit beauooup de 
peine dans ce Port, principalement si on est 
constraint de se seruir des Charpentiers et 
des Calfadenrs du Pays; parce qu'ils de- 
pendent tons du Gouvemeur de Bombain." 
— Hovlier , , . des Indes Orient, y par Aleixo 
da Motta, in Thevenot's Collection. 

CALUAT, 8. This in some old 
travels is used for Ar. Jcfdlwat, * privacy, 
a private interview ' ((7. P. Brow7i^ MS.). 

1404.— *• And this Garden they call Talicia, 
and in their tongue they call it Calbet." — 
ClavijOf I dz. Gomp. Markham, ISO. 

[1670. — "Still deeper in the square is the 
third tent, called Calti«t-E[an6, the retired 
root, or the place of the privy Council." — 
Bemier, ed. ConstabU, 361.J 

1822. — "I must tell you what a good 
fellow the little Raja of Tallaca is. When 
I visited him we sat on two musnads without 
exchanging one single word, in a very re- 
spectable durbar; but the moment we re- 
tired to a Khilwntthe Raja produced his 
Civil and Criminal Reg^ister, and his Minute 
of demands, collections and balances for the 
Ist Quarter, and began explaining the state 
of Ids country as eagerly as a young 
Collector."— ^(pM'jMtoJMj, in Life, ii. 144. 

[1824.— "The khelwet or private room in 
which the doctor was seated. — ffctjh'i Babd. 
p. 87.] 

punishment of impalement ; Malayal. 
Kaluekki (pron. ettt). [See IMPALE. J 

1510.— « The said wood is fixed in the 
middle of the back of the malefactor, and 
passes through his body . . . this torture 
u called 'nnealvet.' "—Varthtma, 147. 

1582.— "The Capitaine General for to en- 
courage them the more, commanded before 
them all to pitch a long staflfe in the ground, 
the which was made sharp at ye one end. 
The same among the Malabars is called 
Galvete, upon ye which they do execute 
justice of death, unto the jpoorest or vilest 
people of the country." — CcutaftedOy tr. by 
N. L, ff. 142i;, 148. 

1606. — "The Queen marvelled much at 
the l^ing, and to content them she ordered 
the sorcerer to be delivered over for punish- 
ment, and to be set on the ealoete, which 
is a very sharp stake fixed firmly in the 

round ..." «c. — Oouveat f . 47* ; see also 

CALYAN, n.p. The name of more 
than one city of fame in W. and S. 
India ; Skt. Kalydna^ 'beautiful, noble, 
propitious.' One of these is the ])lace 
still known as KcUydn^ on the Ulas river, 
more usually called by the name of the 
city, 33 m. N.E. of Bombay. This is 
a ver/ ancient port, and is probably 
the one mentioned by Cosmas below. 
It appears as the residence of a donor 
in an inscription on the Kanheri caves 
in Salsette (see FergvMon and, Burgess^ 
p. 349). Another Kalsrana was the 
capital of the Chalukyas of the Deccan 
in the 9th-12th centuries. This is in 
the Nizam's district of Naldrug, about 
40 miles E.N.E. of the fortress called 
by that name. A third Ealyana was 
a port of Canara, between Mangalore 
and Kundapur, in lat. 13** 28' or there- 
abouts, on the same river as Bacanore 
(q.v.). [This is apparently the place 
which Tavemier (ed. Ball, ii. 206) 
calls Callian Bondi or Kalydn Bandar.} 
The quotations refer to the first Calyan. 

c. A.D. 80-90.— "The local marts which 
occur in order after Baryg^aza are Akabaru, 
Suppara, KftlUftnft, a city which was raised 
to the rank of a regular mart in the time of 
Saraganes, but, since Sandanes became its 
master, its trade has been put under restric- 
tions ; for if Qreek vessels, even bv accident, 
enter its ports, a guard is put on board, and 
they are taken to Barygaza. "—Ptfrip/iu, § 62. 

c. A.D. 545. — "And the most notable 
^aces of trade are these : Sindu, Orrhotha, 
kaniana, Sibor. . . .^'—Coamas, in Cathai/, 
Ac. J p. dxxviii. 

1673. — <*0n both sides are placed stately 
AldeaSy and dwellings of the Portuaal Fu 
dalgos; till on the Kight, within a Mile or 
more of Gullean, they yield possession to 
the neighbouring Seva GH, at which City 
(the key this way into that Rebel's Country), 




Wind and Tide favouring us, we landed." — 
FryoTj p. 123. 

1825.— '* Near Candaulah is a waterfall 
... its stream winds to join the sea, nearly 
opposite to Tannah, under the name of the 
CiaUianee river."— ^e6«r, ii. 137. 

Prof. Forchhammer has lately described 
the ^peat remains of a Pagoda and other 
buildmga with inscriptions, near the city of 
Pegu, called Kalyftni. 

OAMBAY, n.p. Written by 
Mahommedan writers Kaiibdyaty some- 
times Kinhdyat. According to Col. 
Tod, the original Hindu name was 
KhambawUi, *City of the Pillar*; 
[the Mad. Admin, Man, Gloss, gives 
stambfia-tirthay * sacred pillar pool']. 
Long a very famous port of Guzerat, 
at tne head of the Gulf to which it 
gives its name. Under the Mahom- 
medan Kin^ of Guzerat it was one 
of their chief residences, and they 
are often called Kings of Cambay. 
Cambay is still a feudatory State 
imder a Nawab. The place is in 
decay, owing partly to the .shoals, 
and the extraordinary rise and fall 
of the tides in the Gulf, impeding 
navigation. [See Forbesy Or. Mem. 2na 
ed. i. 313 seqq^. 

c. 951.— "From Kambijra to the sea 
about 2 parasangs. From Eamb^ya to 
Sdrabtfya (!) about 4 dBLya.'*—l8takhr%. in 
JBllioty 1. 80. 

1298.— ''Cambaet is a great kingdom. 
. . . There is a groat deal of trade. . . . 
Merchants come here with many ships and 
cargoes. . . ."—Marco Poloy Bk, iii. ch. 28. 

1820. — "Hoc vero Oceanum mare in illis 
partibus principaliter habet duos portus: 
quorum vnus nominatur Mahabar, et alius 
Gambetli."— ifartno Sajiudo, near begin- 

o. 1420.— "Cambay is situated near to 
the sea, and is 12 miles in circuit; it 
abounds in spikenard, lac, indigo, myra- 
bolans, and silk." — CmUi, in India in JiVth 
Gent., 20. 

1498.— "In which Gulf^ as we were in- 
formed, there are man^ cities of Christians 
and Moors, and a city which is called 
Qnambajra."— /^o^ro, 49. 

1506.—" In Combea h terra de Mori, e il 
suo Re h Moro ; el h una gran terra, e H 
nasce turbiti, e spigonardo^ e milo (read 
nt'Zo— see ANIL), lache, comiole, calcedonie, 
jrotoni. . . ."—Jid. di Leonardo Ca* Ma$8er, 
m Archivio Stor, lialiano, App. 

" The Prince of CambaVg daily food 

Is asp and basilisk and toad, 

Which makes him have so strong a breath. 

Each night he stinks a queen to death." 
Hudibras, Pt. ii. Canto i. 

Butler had eridently read the storie; 
Mahmud Bigara, Sultan of Guzerat, 
Varthema or Purchas. 

OAMBOJA, n.p. An anci 
kingdom in the eastern part of Ir 
China, once great and powerful : i 
fallen, and under the * protector 
of France, whose Saigon colony 
adjoins. The name, like so m 
otners of Indo-China since the ( 
of Ptolemy, is of Skt. origin, b 
apparently a transfer of the n 
of a nation and country on the ^ 
frontier of India, Kambi^ suppose 
have been about the locality of Ch 
or Eafiristan. Ignoring this, fant 
Chinese and other etymologies \ 
been invented for the name. In 
older Chinese annals (c. 1200 
this region had the nameof i^w-' 
from the period after our era, ^ 
the kingdom of Camboja had be 
powerful, it was known to the Ch 
as Ghin-la. Its power seems to 
extended at one time westward, 
haps to the shores of the B. of Be 
Ruins of extraordinary vastnesa 
architectural elaboration are numc 
and have attracted great attention 
M. Mouhot's visit in 1859; tl 
they had been mentioned by 
century missionaries, and some c 
buildings when standing in sple 
were described by a Chinese visi 
the end of the 13th century. 
Cambojans proper call them 
Khmety a name which seems to 
given rise to singular confusioi 
COMAB). The gum Gamboge 
bodiam in the early records [BiV 
Rep. on Old Rec., 271) so famil 
use, derives its name from this co 
the chief source of supply. 

o. 1161.—". . . although ... 
the belief of the people of R^m^nya 
was the same as that of the Buddha 
ing men of Ceylon. . . . Parakra 
king was living in peace with the 
Rim^^ya — yet the ruler of R^m((n 
forsook the old custom of providin 
tenanoe for the ambassadors . . . 
'These messengers are sent to go t 
boja,' and so plundered all their go 
put them in prison in the Malaya • 
. . . Soon after this he seized son 
virgins sent by the King of Ceylo 
King of Kimboja. . . ."—Ext. fr 
lonae AnnaU, by T. Rhys Da 
J.A.S.B. xli. Pt i. p. 108. 

1295.— "Le pays de Tchin-la. 
gens du pays le nomment Kan-pli 
Sous la aynastie actuelle, les livr< 
des Tib^tiuns nomment ce pays Kf 




tdil. . . .*'— Chinese Aecouni of Chdnla, in 
Abel RlmuMU, Nouv. Mil, i. 100. 

e. 1535. — "Pftanng from Siam towards 
China by the coast we find the kingdom 
of Gambaia (read CSamboia) . . . the people 
are mat warriors . . . and the oonntry of 
CaauxriJk abounds in all sorts of victuals 
... in this land the lords voluntarily bum 
themselves when the king dies. . . ." — Som- 
nutrio de' Itegni, in Ramtuio, i, f . 886. 

1552.— "And the next State adjoining 
Siam is the kingdom of Camboja, through 
the middle of which flows that splendid 
river the Hecon, the source of wnich is 
in the regions of China. . . ,**-'Barroty 
Dec. I. Lav. ix. cap. 1. 

" Yds, passa por Gamboja Meoom no, 

Que capit2o das agnas se interpreta. . . ." 
Ctmees, z. 127. 

neie.— "22 oattas camboja (gamboge)." 
— Fosfer, Leuen, iv. 188.] 

CAHEEZB, s. ThiB word (lamU) 
is used in colloquial H. and ^Tamil 
for 'a shirt.' It comes from the Port 
camiia. Bat that word is directly 
from the Arab kamMf, *a tunic' Was 
St. Jerome's Latm word an earlier loan 
from the Arabic, or the source of the 
Arabic word ? probably the latter ; [so 
N^.D, 8.V. Camisel The Mod. Greek 
Diet, of Sophocles has KafjJffiw. Gameaa 
is, according to the SUmg Dictionary^ 
used in the cant of English thieves ; 
and in more ancient slang it was made 
into ^ eommisnon,' 

c. 400. — "Solent militantes habere lineas 
quae fi^^miriaM rocant, sic aptas membris et 
adstricias oorporibus, ut expediti sint vel 
ad corsum, vel ad praelia . . . quocumque 
necesritas traxerit." — Scti, Hieronymi EpiBt, 
(Ixiv.) ad FaJnolam, § 11. 

1404. — ''And to the said Ruy Gonzalez he 
gave a biff horse, an ambler, for they prize 
a horse that ambles, furnished with saddle 
and bridle, very well according to their 
fashion ; and besides he gave him a n^-mlM^ 
and an umbrella" (see SOMBRERO).— 
Clavijo, § Ixxziz. ; Markham, 100. 

1464.— "to William and Richard inv sons, 
allmyfaircamises. . . ."—Will qf Riefutrd 
Strode, eft Newnham, Devon. 

1498.— "That a very fine cauma, which 
in Portugal would be worth 90O reiSf was 
given here for 2 /aiums, which in that 
country is the equivalent of SO reis, though 
the value of 30 m» is in that country no 
small matter." — Roteiro de V, da Oama, 77. 

1573.— "The richest of all (the shops in 
Fez) are where they sell camlBas. . . ."— 
Marmol. Detc Oeneral de Affriea, Pt. I. 
Bk. iiL f . 87v. 

CAMP, 8. In the Madras Presi- 
dency [as well as in N. India] an 

official not at his headquarters is 
always addressed as *in Camp.' 

OAMPHOB, 8. There are three 
camphors : — 

a. The Bomean and Sumatran 
camphor from Dryohalanops aromatica. 

b. The camphor of China and Japan, 
from dnnamomum Camphora, (These 
are the two chief camphors of com- 
merce ; the first immensely exceeding 
the second in market value : see Marco 
Polo^ Bk. iii. ch. xi. Note 3.) 

c. The camphor of Blumea baUami" 
fera, D.C., produced and used in China 
under the name of ngai camphor. 

The relative ratios of value in the 
Canton market may be roundly given 
as b, 1 ; c 10 ; a, 80. 

The first Western •mention of this 
drug, as was pointed out by Messrs 
Ham)ury and Fliickiger, occurs in the 
Greek medical writer Aetius (see 
below), but it probably came through 
the Arabs, as is indicated by the ph, 
or / of the Arab kdfur, representing 
the Skt. karpUra. It has oeen sug- 
gested that the word was originally 
Javanese, in which language kdpur 
appears to mean both ' liine ' and 
* camphor.* 

Moodeen Sheriff says that Jedfitr is 
used (in Ind. Materia Medica) for 
< amber.' Tdhasklr (see TABASHEEB), 
is, according to the same writer, called 
hdm-kdfur * bamboo - camphor ' ; and 
ras-kafilr (mercury-camphor) ^ is an 
impure subchloride of mercury. Ac- 
coming to the same authority, the 
varieties of camphor now met with 
in the bazars of S. India are— 1. MfUr- 
i-iaifuriy which is in Tamil called 
pach^iJi'ai {i,e, crude kamppuram; 2. 
Mratl kdfar; 3. cklnl; 4. haiai (from 
the BaJtta country?). The first of 
these names is a curious instance of the 
perpetuation of a blunder, originating 
m the misreading of loose Arabic 
writing. The name is unquestionably 
•anfMrl, which carelessness as to points 

converted into kaimri (as above, 
and in Bloehmann^s Aln, i. 79). The 
camphor alfanfuri is mentioned as early 
as by Avicenna, and by Marco Polo, 
and came from a place called PansUr 
in Sumatra, perhaps the same as Barus, 
which has now long given its name to 
the costly Sumatran drug. 
A curious notion of Ibn Batuta's 




(iv, 241) that the camphor of Sumatra 
(and Borneo) was produced in the 
inside of a cane, mling the joints 
between knot and knot, may oe ex- 

! plained by the statement of Barbosa 
p. 204), that the Borneo camphor 
as exported was packed in tubes of 
bamboo. This camphor is by Barbosa 
and some other old writers called 
'eatable camphor' (da mangiare\ be- 
cause used in medicine and with 

Our form of the word seems to. have 
come from the Sp. alcanfor and carifora^ 
through the French camphre. Dozy 
points out that one Italian form retains 
the truer name cafuroy and an old 
German one (Mid. High Germ.) is 
gaffer (Oosterl 47). 

c. A.D. 640. — "HygfTomyri o6fectio, olei 
salca lib. ij, opobalsami hb. i., spicanardi, 
folij singu. unc. iiii. carpobadaami, ama • 
boniS) amomi, li^ aloes, sing. unc. ij. 
mastichae, moschi, mxut. sonip. vi. quod 
si etia caphura non deerit ex ea unc. ij 
adjicito. . . ." — Aetii Amideniy Idbrorum 
XVI. Tomi Dvo . . . Latinitate donati, 
BasU, MDXXXV., Liv. xvi. cap. cxx. 

o. 940.^" These (islands called al-KamIn) 
abound in gold mines, and are near the 
country of Kansur, famous for its camphor. 
. . "—Mas'iUll, i. 838. The same work at 
iii. 49, refers back to this passage as "the 
country of ManaOrah" Probably Mas'fLdI 
wrote correctly FanfUrah. 

1298. — " In this kingdom of Fanmr erows 
the best camjpkor in the world, called Cam- 
fem Fantun"— Marco Poloy bk. iii. ch. xi. 

1506.—". . . e de H (Tenasserim) vien 
pevere, canella . . . camfora da manzar e 
de quella non u mama . . . "(i.e. both 
camphor to eat and not to eat, or Sumatra 
and China camphor). — Leonardo Ca* Mauer* 

c. 1590.— "The Camnhor tree is a hurge 
tree growing in the ghauts of Hindostan 
and in China. A himdrod horsemen and 
upwards may rest in the shade of a single 
tree. ... Of the various kinds of camphor 
the best is called RUhdhi or Qaig&ri, . . . 
In some books camphor in its natural state 
is called . . . BhtmsinV — Xin, Blochmann 
ed. i. 78-9. [Bhtm^nx is more properly 
hkinufnlj and takes its name from the demi- 
god Bhlmsen, second son of Pandu.] 

1623. — "In this shipp we have laden a 
small paroell of camphire of Baroiue, being 
in all 60 catis." — BcUarian LetieTj pubd. in 
Cocks** Diary, ii. 343. 

1726.— "The Persians name the Camphor of 
Baros, and also of Borneo to this day &afar 
CanfuHy as it also appears in the printed 
text of Avicenna . . . and Beilunensis notes 
that in some MSS. of the author is found 
Kafnr Famniri. . . .**—Valentijn,iy,Q7, 

1786.— "The Camphor Tree has been re- 
cently discovered in this part of the Sircar's 

country. We have sent two bottles of the 
essential oil made from it for your use." — 
Letter of Tippoo, Kiripatrici, p. 281. 

"Camphor, Bhimsaini (bams), valua- 
tion lib. 80 rs. 

Refined cake ... 1 owt. 65 rs." 
Table of Chutoms Duties on Imports into 
Br. India up Co 1875. 

The first of these is the fine Sumatran 
camphor ; the second at y^^ of the price is 
China camphor. 

CAMPOO, s. H. kampuy corr. of 
the English ^eampy or more properly 
of the Tort ^eampo.' It is used for 
*a camp,* but formerly was specifically 
applied to the partially disciplined 
brigades under European commanders 
in the Mahratta service. 

[1525.— Mr. Whiteway notes that Castan- 
heda (bk. vi. ch. ci. p. 217) and Barros 
(iii. 10, 8) speak of a ward of Malacca as 
Campu China ; and de Eredia (1613) calls 
it Campon China, which may supply a 
link between Campoo and Kampung, (See 

1803.— "Begum Sumroo's Campoo has 
come up the ghauts, and I am afraid . . . 
joined Scindiah yesterday. Two deserters 
. . . declared that Pohlman's Campoo was 
following it." — Wellington, ii. 264. 

1883.—". . . its unhappy plains were 
swept over, this way ana that, by the 
cavalry of riviJ Mahratta powers, Mogul and 
Rohilla horsemen, or campos and pultuns 
(battalions) under European adventurers. 
. . ,"—Qmrterly Review, April, p. 294. 

OANABA, n.p. Properly Kannada. 
This name has long been ^ven to that 
part of the West coast which lies l^elow 
the Ghauts, from Mt. Dely northward 
to the Goa territory ; and now to the 
two British districts constituted out 
of that tract, viz. N. and S. Canara. 
This appropriation of the name, how- 
ever, appears to be of European origin. 
The name, probably meaning * black 
country * [Dravid. kar, * black,* nddu^ 
* country 'J, from the black cotton soil 
prevailing there, was properly synony- 
mous with Karndiaka (see CABNATIC), 
and apparently a corruption of that 
word. Our quotations show that 
throughout the sixteenth century the 
term was applied to the country above 
the Ghauts, sometimes to the whole 
kingdom of Narsinga or Vijayanagar 
(see BISNAOAE). Gradually, and pro- 
bably owing to local application at 
Gk>a, where the natives seem to have 
been from the first known to the 
I Portuguese as Canarijs, a term which 




in the old Portuguese works means 
the Eonkani people and language of 
Goa, the name oecame appropriated 
to the low country on the coast 
between Qoa and Malabar, which was 
subject to the kingdom in question, 
much in the same way tliflt the name 
Carnatic came at a later date to be 
misapplied on the other side of the 

The Kanara or Canarese language 
is spoken over a large tract above the 
Qhauts, and as far north as Bidar (see 
CcUdweU, Introd. p. 33). It is only one 
of several languages spoken in the 
British districts of Canara, and that 
only in a small portion, viz. near 
Kundapur. Ttdu is the chief language 
in the Southern District. KaTiadam 
occurs in the great Tanjore inscription 
of the 11th century. 

1516. — '* Beyond this river commences the 
Kingdom of Nardnga, which contains five 
rery Urge provinces, each with a language 
of its own. The first, which stretches along 
the coast to Malabar, is Tulinate (i.«. Tulu- 
nddu, or the modem district of S. Canara) ; 
another lies in the interior . . . ; another 
has the name of TeUnga, which confines with 
the Kingdom of Orisa ; another is Canari, 
in which is the great city of Bisnaga ; and 
then the Kin^^dom of Charamendel, the lan- 
gxtage of which is Tamul." — Barbota. This 
passage is exceedingly corrupt, and the 
version (necessarily imperfect) is made up 
from three — ^yiz. Stanley's English, from a 
8p. MS., Hak. Soc. p. 79 ; the Portuguese 
of the Lisbon Academy, p. 291 ; and 
Bamuno's Italian (i. f. 299v). 

e. 1535.— "The last Kingdom of the First 
India is called the Province Canazim ; it is 
bordered on one side by the Kingdom of 
Ooa and by Anjadiva, and on the other 
side by Middle India or Malabar. In the 
interior is the King of Narsinga, who is 
diief of this country. The speech of those 
of Canazim is different from that of the 
Kingdom of D^can and of Goa." — Portu- 
guese Summary of JBatiem Kingdomtf in 
Ramusio, i. f. SE80. 

1552.— "The third province is called Ca- 
nari, also in the interior. . . ,*^~-C<uicmh€dat 
ii. 50. 

And as applied to the language : — 

"The language of the Grentoos is Ca- 
iiariL"— /Wrf. 78. 

1552.— "The whole coast that we speak 
of back to the Ghaut (Oate) mountain range 
. . . they call Goncan, and the people pro- 
perly Concanese (Cojiqttenijs), though our 
people call them CaaaxMO {Canarijs). . . . 
Ana as from the Ghauts to the sea on 
the west of the Decan all that strip is called 
Goncan, so from the Ghauts to the sea on 
the west of Canard, always excepting that 

stretch of 46 lesgues of which we have 
spoken [north of Mount Dely] which belongs 
to the same Caitard, the strip which stretches 
to Gape Gomorin is called Malabar." — Barros, 
Dec. I. liv. ix. cap. 1. 

1552.—". . . The Kingdom of Canard, 
which extends from the river called Gate, 
north of Ghaul, to Gape Gomorin (so far as 
concerns the interior region east of the 
Ghats) . . . and which in the east marches 
with the kingdom of Orisa ; and the Gentoo 
Kings of this great Province of Canard were 
those from whom sprang the present Kings 
of Bisnaga."— /&iV2. Dec. II. liv. v. cap. 2. 

" Aqui se enxerga U do mar undoso 

Hum monte aHo, que oorre longamente 

Servindo ao Malabar de forte muro, 

Gom que do Canard vive seguro." 

Cam/Set, vii. 21. 

Englished by Burton : 
" Here seen yonside where wavy waters 

a range of mountains skirts the murmur- 
inp^ main 

serving the Malabar for mighty mure, 

who uius from him of Caxiard dwells 

1598.— "The land itselfe is called Decan, 
and also Canara."— XtiwcAoem, 49; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 169]. 

1614. — "Its proper name is CharnathoLoa, 
which from corruption to corruption has 
come to be called Canara." — CoiutOy Deo. 
VI. liv. V. cap. 5. 

In the following quotations the term 
is applied, either inclusiveljr or exclu- 
sively, to the territory which we now 
call Canara : — 

1615.— "Canara. Thence to the King- 
dome of the fiflTtTi^-riw^ which is but a 
little one, and 5 daves journey from 
Damans. They are tall of stature, idle, 
for the most part, and therefore the greater 
theeves." — De Monfart, p. 23. 

1628. — "Having found a good oppor- 
tunity, such as I desired, of getting out 
of Goa, and penetrating further into India, 
that is more to the south, to Canara. ..." 
P. della Voile, ii. 601 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 168]. 

1672.— "The strip of land Canara, the 
inhabitants of which are called Canarins, 
is fruitful in rice and other food-stuffs." — 
BaldaeiUf 98. There is a good map in this 
work, which shows * Ganara ' in the modem 

1Q72.— "Description of Canara and Journey 
to Ooa. — This kingdom is one of the finest 
in India, all plain country near the sea, 
and even among the mountains all peopled." 
— P. Vincenzo Maria, 420. Here the title 
seems used in the modem sense, but the 
same writer applies Canara to the whole 
Kingdom of Bisnagar. 

1673.—" At Mirja the Protector of Caaora 
came on board."— /Vyw (margin), p. 67. 

1726.— "The Kingdom Canara (under 




which Onor, Battioala, and G^aroopa are 
dependent) oomprises all the western lands 
lying between Walkan {Konkan!) and 
Malabar, two great coast countnee." — 
Valeniijn, r. 2. 

1727. — "The country of Canaza is gener- 
ally governed by a Lady, who keeps her 
Court at a Town called Baydour^ two Days 
journey from the Sea."— -4, HamUtoHy i. 2w. 

CANABIN, ii.p. This name is ap- 
plied in some of tne quotations under 
Canara to the people of the district 
now so called by us. But the Portu- 
guese applied it to the (Jr(m^ant)people 
of Qoa and their lang[ua£;e. Thus a 
Konkani grammar, originally prepared 
about 1600 by the Jesuit^ Thomas 
Estevfto (Stephens, an Englishman), 
printed at Goa, 1640, bears the title 
Arte da Linqoa Canarin. (Se& A. 
B(umell) in Ind. Antiq. ii. 98). 

[1828. — "Ganareen, an appellation g^ven 
to the Creole Portuguese of Goa and their 
other Indian settlements." — Owen, Narra- 
tive, i. 191.] 

NAUGHT, s. H. from Ar. kandt, the 
side wall of a tent, or canvas enclosure. 

[1616.— "High cannattes of a coarse 
stuff made like arras."— iS»r T, Roe, JHary, 
Hak. Soc. ii. 825.] 

„ *' The King's Tents ture red, reared 
on poles very high, and placed in the midst 
of the Camp, covering a laige Compasse, 
encircled with Caaato (made of red calico 
stiffened with Canes at every breadth) 
standing upright about nine foot high, 
guardea round every night with Souldiers." 
--Terry, in Ptarchat, ii. 1481. 

c. 1660. — *' And (what is hard enough to 
beUeve in Jndoslan, where the Grandees 
especially are so jealous . . .) I was so 
near to the wife of this Prince (Dara), that 
the cords of the Kanates . . , which en- 
closed them (for they had not so much as 
a poor tent), were fastened to the wheels 
of my chariot."— 5«micr, E. T. 29; [ed. 
CoTUtable, 89]. 

1792.— "They passed close to Tippoo's 
tents: the canaut (misprinted canam) was 
standing, but the green tent had been 
removed." — T. Munro, in Life, iii, 73. 

1793.— "The canaut of canvas . . . was 
painted of a beautiful sea-green colour." — 
Dir(m, 230. 

[c. 1798.— "On passing a skreen of Indian 
oonnaughts, we proceeded to the front 
of the Tusbeah Khanah." — Atiatic Res., iv. 

1817.— "A species of silk of which they 
make tents and kanauto."— if tV/, ii. 201. 

1825. — Heber writes ccnmaut. — Orig. ed. 
ii. 257. 

.—"The khenauto (the space be- 
tween the outer covering and the lining 
of our tents)." — Mis$ Eden, Up the Country 
ii. 68.] 

CANDAHAB, n.p. Kandahdr. 
The application of this name is now 
exclusively to (a) the well-known city 
of Western Afghanistan, which is the 
obj ect of so mucn political interest. But 
by the Ar. geographers of the 9th to 11 th 
centuries the name is applied to (h) 
the country about Peshawar, as tne 
equivalent of the ancient Indian Oand- 
hdra^ and the GandarUis of Strabo. 
Some think the name was transferred 
to (a) in consequence of a migration 
of the people of Qandhara carrying 
with them the beg^u^pot of Buddha, 
believed by Sir fit. Kawlinson to be 
identical with a large sacred vessel of 
stone preserved in a mosque of Canda- 
har. Others think that Candahar 
may represent Alexandropolis in Ara- 
chosia. We find a third application of 
the name (c) in Ibn Batuta, as well 
as in earlier and later writers, to a 
former port on the east shore of the 
Qulf of Cambay, Qhandhar in the 
Broach District. 

a.— 1662.— "Those who go from Persia, 
from the kingdom of Horacam (Khorasan), 
from Bohi[ra, and all the Western Regions, 
travel to the city which the natives oor- 
ruptly call Candar, instead of Scandar, 
the name by which the Persians call 
Alexander. . . ." — Barroa, IV. vi. 1. 

1664.— "All these great preparations give 
us cause to apprehend that, instead of 
going to Kojckemire, we be not led to be- 
siege that important city of Kandahar, 
which is the Frontier to Persia, Indostan, 
and Usbeck, and the Capital of an excellent 
Country."— 5«r»i«r, E. T., p. 118; [ed. 
ConttahU, 852]. 

" From Araohosia, from Caiidaor east, 
And Margiana to tiie Hyrcanian cliffs 
Of Caucasus. . . ." 

Paradiee Regained, iii. 316 »eqq. 

b.— c. 1030.—" . . . thence to the river 
ChandrtOia (Chinib) 12 (parasangs) ; thence 
to Jailam on the West of the B^yat (or 
Hydaspes) 18 ; thence to Waihind, capital 
of TTa-Tifii^lii^f' ... 20 ; thence to Parshawar 
14.'. . :'—Al-Bir^ni, in EUiat, i. 68 (cor- 

C— c. 1343.— "Prom Kinbaya (Oambay) 
we went to the town of ESwi [KOnvi, opp. 
Cambay), on an estuary where the tide 
rises and falls . . . thence to Kandahir, 
a considerable city belonging to the Infidels, 
and situated on an estuary from the sea.'* 
— 76n Batuta, iv. 57-8. 




1516. — *' Further on . . . there ia another 
place, in the mouth of a amall river, whioh 
u called GhieindaTi. . . . And it is a very 
good town, a seaport.'* — Barbota, 64. 

1814. — "Caadhar, eighteen miles from 
the wells, is pleasantly situated on the banks 
of a rirer ; and a place of considerable trade ; 
being a great thoroughfare from the sea 
coast to uke Oaut mountains." — Forhetj Or. 
JTcm. i.206; [2nd ed. i. 116]. 

OANDABEEN, s. In Malay, to 
which language the word apparently 
belongs, hmwuri. A term formerly 
applied to the hundredth of the Chinese 
ounce or weight, commonly called by 
the Malay name idhil (see TAEL). 
Fryer (1673) gives the Chinese weights 
thus: — 

1 Caitee is nearest 16 Taiei 

1 Teea (Taie ?) is 10 Mom 

1 Mcbi9 in SOrer is 10 Qoaadreens 

1 Qnandreen is 10 Ca»h 

733 CatK make 1 Royal 

1 grain English weight is 2 cash. 

1554. — "In Malacca the weight used for 
gold, musk, &c., the cote, contains 20 foe/«, 
each tael 16 mazu, each maz 20 cmn- 
dmyiis; also 1 paual 4 mazes, each maz 
4 cmpangt; each cupong 5 cnmdnzyiiB."— 
A. Nunet, 89. 

1615.— "We bought 5 greate square 
postes of the Einges master carpenter; 
cost 2 mat 6 ocmdiiiui per peece."— Coob, 
i. 1. 

(1) CANDY, n.p. A town in the hill 
country of Ceylon, which became the 
deposit of the sacred tooth of Buddha 
at the banning of the 14th century, 
and was adoptea as the native capital 
about 15d2. Chitty says the name is 
unknown to the natives, who call the 
place Maha nuveniy ^g^reakt city.' The 
name seems to have arisen out of some 
misapprehension by the Portuguese, 
whicn may be illustrated by the quota- 
tion from Valentijn. 

o. 1580.— "And passing into the heart of 
the Island, there came to the Kingdom of 
Caadia, a certain Friar Pascoal with two 
companions, who were well reoeired by the 
King of the country Javira Bandar ... in 
so much that he gave them a great piece of 
ground, and everything needral to huild a 
church, and houses for them to dwell in."— 
CoutOf Dec. VI. liv. iv. cap. 7. 

1552. — " . . . and at three or four places, 
like the passes of the AIim of Italy, one 
finds entrance within this circuit (of moun- 
tains) which forms a King^dom called Caade.'' 
— Barrot, Dec. III. Liv. ii. cap. 1. 

1645. — "Now then as soon as the Emperor 
was come to his Castle in Caadl he gave 
order that the 600 captive Hollanders 
should be distributed throughout his coun- 

try among the peasants, and in the City." 
— y. /. Saar*s Ib^Uhrige Krieg$-Dien$ty 97. 

1681.—" The First is the City of Candy, so 
generally called by the Chriituins^ probably 
from Conde, which in the Chinffnlays Lan- 
giiage signifies SillSf for among them it is 
situated, but by the InhabifaEints called 
fftngodafful-neure, as much as to say 'The 
City of the Ghingulay people, 'and Mauneur^ 
surnifying the * Chief or Koyal City.'" — R. 
Knox, p. 5. 

1726. — " Gandi, otherwise Candta^ or 
named in Cingalees Conde Ouda^ i.e. the 
high mountain country." — Valentijn ( Ceylon), 

(2) CANDY, s. A weight used in S. 
India, which may be stated roughly at 
about 500 lbs., but varying much in dif- 
ferent parts. It corresponds broadly 
with the Arabian Bahar (q.v.), and was 
generally equivalent to 20 ]^imd8, 
varying therefore with the maund. 
The word is Mahr. . and Tel. khcmdi, 
written in Tarn, and Mai. kandiy or 
Mai. kantij [and comes from the Skt. 
khand, ' to divide.' A Candy of land 
is supposed to be as much as will pro- 
duce a candy of grain, approximately 
76 acres]. The Portuguese write the 
word candil. 

1563.— "A candil whioh amounts to 522 ' 
pounds " {amUeis). — Oarda, f . 55. 

1598.— "One candiel (v.l. oandiil) is little 
more or less than 14 bushels, wherewith 
they measure Rice, Come, and all graine." 
—Lintchotm, 69 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 245]. 

1618.— ''The Candee at this place (Bate- 
cala) containeth neere 500 pounds.' — W. 
fforej in Purcluu, i. 657. 

1710.— *' They advised that they have 
supplied Habib Khan with ten candy of 
country gunpowder." — In Wheeler, ii. 186. 

c. 1760. — Grose g^vee the Bombay candy as 
20 maunds of 28 lbs. each=:560 lbs. ; the 
Surat ditto as 20 maunds of 37^ lbs.=746| 
lbs. ; the Anjengo ditto 560 lbs. ; the Carwar 
ditto 575 lbs. ; the Coromandel ditto at 500 
lbs. &o. 

(3)CANDY(SU0AE.). This name 
of crystallized sugar, though it came no 
doubt to Europe from the P.-Ar. hand 
(P. abo skakar kandy Sp. azucar cande; 
It. candi and zucchero candito; Ft. sucre 
candi) is of Indian origin. There is a 
Skt. ■ root khandy ' to break,' whence 
kkanda, * broken,* also applied in 
various compounds to granulated and 
candied sugar. But there is also Tam. 
X»r-^anc^ A:a2a-X:am2a, Mai. kandt, kal- 
homdi,' ana kalkai^u, which may have 
been tjie direct source of the P. and 
At. adoption of the word, and perhaps 




its original, from a Dravidian word= 
*lump/ [The Dravidian terms mean 

* stone-piece.*] 

A German writer, long within last 
century (as we learn irom Mahn, quoted 
in Diez's Lexicon), appears to derive 
candy from Candia, " oecause most of 
the sugar which the Venetians im- 
ported was brought from that island " 
— a fact probably invented for the 
nonce. But the writer was the same 
wiseacre who (in the year 1829) 
characterised the book of Marco Polo 
as a "clumsily compiled ecclesiastical 
fiction disffuised as a Book of Travels" 
(see Introaiiction to Marco Polo^ 2nd 
ed. pp. 112-113). 

o. 1343. — "A oentinajo ei yende gien- 
giovo, canneUa, lacca, incenao, indaoo . . . 
Temno aoorzuto, zuochero . . . lacohero 
candi . . . poroellane . . . oosto . . ." — 
PegolotH, p. 134. 

1461.—". . . Un ampoletto di balsamo. 
Teriaca bosaoletti 16. Zuccheri Moooari (?) 
panni 42. Zuocherl canditi, scattole 6. 
. . .^^—Lisl of Presents from Sultan^ Egypt 
to the Doge, (See under BEN JAHIH. ) 

c. 1596.— "White sugar candy (kandX 
safed) ... 5} dams per Mr." — Aln^ i. dS. 

1627.— "^xujar Caadie, or Stone Sugar." 
— JtfinsA^ir, 2nd ed. 8.v. 

1727.— "The Trade they have to China is 
divided between them and Surat . . . the 
Gross of their own Cargo, which consists 
in Sugar, Sugar-candy, AUom, and some 
Drugs . . . are all for the SuraJt Market.** — 
A, MamiltoJt, i. 371. 

OANGUE, 8, A square board, or 
portable pillory of wood, used in 
China as a punishment, or rather, as 
Dr. Wells Williams says, as a kind of 
censure, carrying no dis^^race ; strange 
as that seems to us, with whom the 
essence of the pillory is disgrace. The 
frame weighs up to 30 lbs., a weight 
limited by law. It is made to rest on 
the shoulders without chafing the 
neck, but so broad as to prevent the 
wearer from feeding himself. It is 
generally taken ofif at night {Giles, [and 
see Gray, China, i. 65 seqq.]). 

The Cangue was introduced into 
China by the Tartar dynasty of Wei 
in the 5th century, and is first 
mentioned under a.d. 481. In the 
Kwang-yun (a Chin. Diet, published 
A.D. 1009) it is called kanggiai 
(modem mandarin hiang-hiai), i.e. 

* Neck-fetter.' From this old form 
]>robably the Anamites have derived 
their word for it, gong, and the 

Cantonese Idang-ka^ 'to wear the 
Cangue,^ a survived (as frequently 
happens in Chinese vernaculars) of an 
ancient term with a new orthography. 
It is probable that the Portuguese 
took the word from one of these mtter 
forms, and associated it with their own 
canga, * an ox-yoke,' or*porter*s yoke for 
carrying buraens.' [Tnis view is re- 
jected by the N,E.D. on the authority 
of Prof. Leg^ and the word is re- 
garded as derived from the Port form 
given above. In reply to an enquiry. 
Prof. Giles writes : " I am entirely of 
opinion that the word is from the 
Port., and not from any Chinese 
term.'*] The thing is alluded to by 
F. M. Pinto and other early writers 
on China, who do not give it a name. 

Something of this kind was in use 
in countries of Western Asia, called 
in P. doshdka QnUgnum), And this 
word is applied to the Chinese cangue 
in one of our quotations. Doshdka, 
however, is explained in the lexicon 
BurhOn-i-KcUi as *a piece of timber 
with two tranches placed on the neck 
of a criminal' (Quatremh-e, in Not et 
Extr. xiv. 172, 173). 

1420. — '*. . . made the ambassadors come 
forward side by side with certain prisoners. 
. . . Some of these had a doshdJta on their 
necks." — Shah Rukh's Mission to ChinOy in 
Cathay f p. cciv. 

[1526.— Castanheda (Bk. VI. ch. 71, p. 154) 
speaks of women who had come from Portugal 
in the ships without leave, being tied up in 
a caga and whipped.] 

c. 1540. — " . . . Ordered us to be put in a 
horrid prison with fetters on our feet, man- 
acles on our hands, and cottars on our necks. 
. . ."— F. M. Pinto, (orig.) ch. Ixxxiv. 

1585. — " Also they doo lay on them a cer- 
taine covering of timber, wherein remainetti 
no more space of hollownesse than their 
bodies doth make : thus they are vsed that 
are condemned to death."— i/^9n<fo»i (tr. by 
Parke, 1699), Hak. Soc. i. 117-118. 

1696.—** He was imprisoned, oongoed, 
tormented, but making friends with his 
Money . . . was cleared, and made Under- 
Customer. . . ."—^Mn/tf»-'«yoMma/ at Cochin 
China, in Dalrympte, Or. Rep, i. 81. 

[1705. — "All the people were under con- 
finement in separate houses and also in oon- 
gass "—Uedgesy Diary , Hak. Soc. ii. cccxl.] 
,, "I desir'd several Times to wait 
upon the Govemour ; but could not, he was 
so taken up with over-hailing the Goods, that 
came from Pido Condore, and weighing the 
Money, which was found to amount to 21,300 
Tale. At last upon the 28th, I was obliflred 
to appear as a Criminal in Congas, berore 
the Govemour and his Gnmd Council, 




attended with all the Slaves in the Ckmgaa." 
— Letter from Mr. Jama Conyngham, sur- 
yiyor of the Polo Condore massacrei in 
Lockvar, p. 98. Lockyer adds: "I under- 
stood the Congas to be Thmnbolts '* (p. 95). 

1727.— ''With his neck in the oongOM 
which are a pair of Stocks made of bunbooe." 
— A. Hamilton^ ii. 175. 

1779. — " Aussitdt on les mit tons trois en 
prison, des chaines aux pieds, une oaogne 
an oou.**—ljeUrea Bd\f, xxv. 427. 

1797.— "The punishment of the cha, usually 
oalled by Europeans the eaagae, is generally 
inflicted for petty crimes." — ^aUTUon^ JBm- 
hauy^ kc,, ii. 492. 

1878. — ". . . fmpper sur les joues a I'aide 
d'une petite lame de cuir ; c'est, je crois, la 
eeule correction inflig^ aux femmes, car je 
n'en ai jamais vu^aucune porter la cfl^igne." 
—LSon Bamset, A Tratvera la Chine, 124. 

[COONIMODE], n.^. K<myimedu\oT 
KunimedAi^ Tarn, k&ni^ ' humped,' mMv^ 
* mound*' J ; a place on t^e Coromandel 
coast, which was formerly the site of 
European factories (1682<] 6d8) between 
Pondicherry and Madras, about 13 m. 
N. of the former. 

1501. — In Amerigo Vespucci's letter from 
C. Verde to Lorenzo de' Medici, giving an 
account of the Portuguese discoveries in 
India, he mentions on the cocut, before 
MaiUvuT, "Conimal."— In Bakldli-Btmi, 
Introa. to II Milunuy p. liii. 

1561.— "On this coast there is a place 
called Caahameira, where there are so 
many deer and wild cattle that if a man 
wants to buy 500 deer-skins, within eight 
days the blacks of the place will g^ve him 
deuvery, catching them in snares, and givin^^ 
two or three skins for a fanam." — Correcu ii. 

1680.— "It is resolved to apply to the 
Soobidar of Sevagee's Country of Chengy for 
a Cowle to settle factories at Coorab(x>r (?) 
and Coonamdrro, and also at Porto Novo, if 
desired."—^. St. Geo. Cotuns.y 7th Jan., in 
NoUm and ExU.y No. iii. p. 44. 

J 1689. — "We therefore conclude it more 
e and expedient that the Chief of Conimere 
. . . doffoandvisit Rama Raja. "—In WheeUr, 
Early Rte.t p. 97.] 

1727.— "CoDiiymere or Conjemeer is the 
next Place, where the English had a Factory 
many Years, but, on their purchasing Fort 
St. David, it was broken up. . . . At present 
its name is hardly seen in the Map of IVade." 
—A. BamilUm, i. 357. 

1753.— "De Pondioheri, 2i Madras, la cdte 
court en g^n^ral nord-nord-est quelques 
degr^ est. Le premier endroit de remarque 
est Congi-medii, vulgairement dit Con^mer, 
2i quatre lieues marines plus que moins de 
Pondicheri."— D'-AitCT^te, p. 123. 

CANNANOBE, n.p. A port on 
the coast of northern Malabar, famous 
in the earljr Portuguese history, and 
which still IS the chief British military 
station on that coast, with a European 
regiment. The name is Kannitr or 
KannanUr, * Krishna's Town.' ' [The 
Madras Gloss, gives Mai. kanniiy *eye,' 
UTy * village,' i.e. * beautiful village.'] 

c. 1506.—" In Cananor il suo Re si ^ 
zentil, e qui nasce ze. (i.e. zemarij 'ginger ') ; 
ma Ii EB. pochi e non cusi boni come quelli 
de Colcut. — Leonardo Ca* Mauer, in Archiftio 
StorUo ItiU., Append. 

1510. — "Canonor is a fine and lai^ge city, 
in which the King of Portugal has a very 
stronff castle. . . . This Canonor is a port 
at which horses which come from Persia 
disembark." — Vart?iema, 123. 


" Chamartf o Samorim mais gente nova 

* • • * • 

FartS que todo o Nayre em fim se mova 
Que entre Calecut jaz, e Cananor." 

CamdeSf x. 14. 
By Burton : 

" The Samorin shall summon fresh allies ; 

* * * * • 

lo ! at his bidding every Nayr-man hies, 
that dwells 'twixt Calecut and Cananor." 

[1611.— "The old Nahuda Mahomet of 
Cainnor goeth aboard in this boat." — 
DanverSf Letters, i. 95.] 

OANONQO, s. P. kdnnn-go, i.e. 

* Law-utterer ' (the first part being 
Arab, from Qr. Kaytiw). In upper 
India, and formerly in Bengal, the 
registrar of a tahfUy or other revenue 
suodivision, who receives the reports 
of the patwdris, or village registrars. 

1758.— "Add to this that the King's 
Coonegoes were maintained at our expense, 
as well as the Gomastahs and other servants 
belonging to the Zemindars, whose accounts 
we sent for." — Letter to Courts Dec. 31, in 
Long, 157. 

1765. — "I have to struggle with every 
difficulty that can be thrown in my way by 
ministers, mutseddies, oongoes (i), &c., and 
their dependents." — Letter from F. Sykeg, 
in Garracciolxs Life of Olive, i. 542. 

OANTEBOY, s. A gold coin 
formerly used in the S.K part of 
Madras territory. It was worth 3 rs. 
Properly KarUhiravi hun (or pagoda) 
from Kanthiravd Bdyd, *the lion- 
voiced,' [Stt. kaTitha, 'throat,' rava^ 

* noise'], who ruled in Mysore from 
1638 to 1669 (a P. Brown, MS.; {Bice, 
Mysore, i. 803 J. See Dirom's Narrative, 
p. 279, where the revenues of the 




territory taken from Tippoo in 1792 
are stated in Canteray x>ago(las. 

1790.— "The full collectioiiB amounted to 
fire Crores and ninety-two lacks of Canteroy 
pagodas of 8 Rupees each." — DcUtympUj Or, 
Rq), i. 237. 

1800. — "Accounts are commonly kept in 
Ganter'raia Palams. and in an imagmair 
money containing 10 of th ese, by the Musul- 
mans called chvcranu [see CHUC&BUIII and 
by the English Canteroy Pagodas. . . ."— 
Bwhanan*8 Mysore^ i. 129. 

CANTON, n.p. The creat seaport 
of Southern China, the ciiief city of 
the Province of Kwang-tung, whence 
we take the name, through tne Portu- 
guese, whose older writers call it 
Cantdo, The proper name of the 
city is Kwang-ckau-fu, The Chin, 
name Kvxmg-tung (=^ Broad East') is 
an ellipsis for " capital of the E. Divi- 
sion of the Province lAang-Kwang (or 
*Two Broad Realms ')."--(^. Mcmle). 

1516. — "So as this went on FemSo Peres 
arrived from Pacem with his cargo (of 
pepper), and having furnished himself with 
necessaries set ofif on his voyage in June 
1516 . . . they were 7 sail altogether, and 
they made their voyage with the aid of good 
pilots whom they had taken, and went with- 
out harming anybody touching at certain 
ports, most of w)iicn were subject to the 
King of China, who called himself the Son 
of Sod and liord of the World. Femao 
Peres arrived at the islands of China, and 
when he was seen there came an armed 
squadron of 12 junks, which in the season of 
navigation always cruized about, gruarding 
the sea, to prevent the numerous pirates 
from attacking the ships. FemSo Peres 
knew about this from the pilots, and as it 
was late, and he could not double a certain 
island there, he anchored, sending word to 
his captains to have their guns ready for 
defence if the Chins desired to fight. Next 
day he made sail towards the island of 
Veniaga, which is 18 leagues from the city 
of Gantfto. It is on that island that all the 
traders buy and sell, without licence from 
the rulers of the city. . . . And 3 leagues 
from that island of Veniaga is another 
island, where is posted the Admiral or 
Captain-Major of the Sea, who immediately 
on t^e arrival of strangers at the island of 
Veniaga reports to the rulers of Gantfto, 
who they are, and what goods they bring or 
wish to buy ; that the rulers may send orders 
what course to take."— Ccwrea, li. 524. 

c. 1535.—". . . queste cose . . . vanno 
alia China con li lor giunchi, e a Camton, 
che h Cittk grande. . . ." — SommArio de* 
Regni, RctmunOf L f . 337. 

1585.— "The Chinos do vse in their pro- 
nunciation to terme their cities with this 
sylable, Fu, that is as much as to say, citie, 
as Taybin fu, Canton fu, and their townes 

with this syllable, Cheu." — Mendoza. Parke's 
old E. T. (1588) Hak. Soc. i. 24. 

1727.— "Canton or Quantung (as the 
Chinese express it) is the next maritime 
Province." — A. Hamilton ^ ii. 217. 

CANTONMENT, s. (Pron. Can- 
toonment, with accent on penult.). This 
English word has become almost aji- 
propriated as Anglo-Indian, being so 
constantly used in India, and so little 
used elsewhere. It is applied to 
military stations in India, built usually 
on a plan which is originally that of a 
standing camp or * cantomuent.' 

1783.— "I know not the full meaning of 
the word cantonment, and a camp this 
singular place cannot well be termed ; it 
more resembles a large town, very many 
miles in ciroumference. The officers' 
bungalos on the banks of the Tappee are 
laige and convenient," &c. — Fcrbes^ Letter 
in Or. Mem., describing the "Bengal Can- 
tonments near Surat." iv. 239. 

1825.— "The fact, however, is certain . . . 
the cantonments at Lucknow, nay Calcutta 
itself, are abominably situated. I have 
heard the same of Madras; and now the 
lately-settled cantonment of Nusseembad 
appears to be as objectionable as any of 
them"— Heber, ed. 1844, ii. 7. 

1848. — "Her ladyship, our old acquaint- 
ance, is as much at home at Madras as at 
Brussels — in the cantonment as under the 
t&ti\a."— Vanity Fair, ii. ch. 8. 

CAPAS8, s. The cotton plant and 
cotton-wool. H. kapas^ from Skt. 
karpasa, which seems as if it must be 
the origin of Kdfnraain, though the 
latter is applied to flax. 

1753. — ". . . They cannot any way con- 
ceive the musters of 1738 to be ant standard 
for judging by them of the cloth sent us this 
year, as the copaas or country cotton has 
not been for these two years past under nine 
or ten rupees. . . ." — Ft. Wm. Cons., in 
Lonffj 40. 

[1813. — "Guzerat cows are very fond of 
the capauBaia, or cotton-seed. "—Ar6««, Or. 
Man. 2nd ed. ii. 35.] 

CAPEL, 8. Malay al. ka'ppaL^ ^a 
ship.' This word has been imported 
into Malay, hdpaly and Javanese. [It 
appears to be still in use on the'w. 
Cfoast; see Bomhay Gazetteer^ xiii. (2) 

1498. — In the vocabulary of the language 
of Calicut given in the Roteiro Ga$nA 
we have — 

"Adoo; cap6lL"-p. 118. 

1510. — "Some others which are made like 
ours, that is in the bottom, they call capeL'* 
^Varthetna, 15i. 




GAPELAN, n.p. This is a name 
which was given by several 16th- 
century traveUera to the mountains in 
Burma from which the rubies pur- 
chased at P^u were said to come; 
the idea of their distance, &c., being 
very vague. It is not in our power to 
say what name was intended. [It was 
perhaps Kyat-pyen.] The real position 
of the *rubv-mines' is 60 or 70 m. 
N.E. of Mandalay. [See Baits Tawmier, 
ii. 99, 465 seqq.] 

1506. — ". . . e ^ui h uno porto appresso 
uno looo che si chiama Acaplen, dove li se 
trova molti rubini, e spinade, e zoie d'ogni 
9orte." — Leonardo di Ca* McLsser, p. 28. 

1510. — '*The sole merchandise of these 
people is iewela, that is, ruhies, whioh come 
from another city called Capellan, which is 
distant from this (Pegu) 80 days' journey." 
— Varthema, 21S. 

1516.— "Further inland than the said 
Kingdom of Ava, at five days joumev to the 
Bouui-east, is another city of Gentiles . . . 
called Capelan, and all round are likewise 
found many and excellent rubies, which they 
brip^ to sell at the city and fair of Ava, and 
whi<3i are better than those of Ava."— 
Barbota^ 187. 

c. 1535. — *'Thi8 resion of Arquam borders 
on the interior wil£ the great mountain 
caJled Capelangam, where are many places 
inhabited by a not very civilised people. 
These carry musk and rubies to the great 
city of Ava, which is the capital of the 
Kingdom of Arc^uam. . . ." — «bommarto de 
Reffni, in Ramusio, i. 334r. 

c. 1660. — " . . . A mountain 12 days 
journey or thereabouts, from Siren towards 
the North-east; the name whereof is 
Capelan. In this mine are found gi'oat 

?uantitie8of Ruhie8."—Tavernier (E. T.) ii. 
43 ; [ed. Ball, ii. 99]. 

Phillip's Mineralogy (according to Col. 
Bumey) mentions the locality of the ruby 
as '*the Capelan mountains, sixty miles 
from Pe^ue, a dty in Cejlon ! " — (J. As. Soc. 
BengaJ, li. 75). This wnter is certainly very 
loose in his geography, and Dana (ed. 1850) 
is not much better: "The best ruby sap- 

g hires occur in the CSapelan mountains, near 
yrian, a city of Pegu. — Mineralogy f p. 222. 

CAFUCAT, n.p. The name of a 
place on the sea near Calicut, men- 
tioned by several old authors, but 
which has now disappeared from the 
maps, and probably no longer exists. 
The proper name is uncertain. [It 
is the little port of Kappatt or Eappat- 
tangadi (MaL kdvalj 'guard,' jiUtLy 
'*' place,') in the Cooroombranaud Taluka 
of the Mahibar District. (Logan^ Man, 
of Malabar, i. 73). The Madras Gloss. 

calls it Gaupavd. Also see Gray, 
Pyrard, i. 360.] 

1498.— In the Roteiro it is called Capua. 

1500.— "This being done the Captain-Major 
(Pedralvares Cabral) made sail with the fore- 
sail and mizen, and went to the port of 
Capocate which was attached to the same 
city of Oalecut, and was a haven where 
there was a great loading of vessels, and 
where manv ships were moored that were 
all engaged in the trade of Calicut. . . ."— 
Gorrea, i. 207. 

1510. — **. . . another place called Capo- 

Stto, which is also subject to the King of 
leout. This place has a very beautiful 
palace, built in the ancient style." — Var- 
thema, 133-134. 

1516. — "Further on . . . is another town, 
at which there is a small river, which is oalled 
Caimcad, where there are manv country- 
bom Moors, and much shipping.'— Bartow, 

1562. — "And they seized a great number 
of grabs and vessels belonging to the people 
of Kabkad, and the new port, and Calicut, 
and Funan [i.e. Ponanyl these all being 
subject to the Zamorin. — Tohfat-uf-Muja- 
hideen^ tr. by Roir/andson^ p. 157. The 
want of editing in this last book is deplorable. 

KOLLEN, &c., s. Malay kdror-kora or 
kura-kura, which is [either a trans- 
ferred use of the Malay kura-kuray or 
ku'hlra, *a tortoise,' alluding, one 
would supnose, either to the shape or 
pace of tne boat, but perhaps the 
tortoise was named from the boat, 
or the two words are independent ; 
or from the Ar. kurkuTy pi. kardkiVj * a 
large merchant vessel.' Scott (s.v. 
Coracora), says : " In the absence of 
proof to the contrary, we may assimie 
Kora-kora to be native Malayan."] 
Dozy (s.v. Carraca) says that the Ar. 
kura-khra was, among the Arabs, a 
mercliant vessel, sometimes of very 
great size. Crawfurd describes the 
Malay kura-kura, as *a large kind of 
sailing vessel ' ; but the quotation 
from Jarric shows it to have been 
the Malay galley. Marre {Kata-Kata 
Malaym^ 87) says : " The Malay kora- 
kora is a great row-boat ; still in use 
in the Moluccas. Many measure 100 
feet long and 10 wide. Some have as 
many as 90 rowers." 

c. 1330.— "We embarked on the sea at 
Ladhikiya in a big kurkura belon^ng to 
(Genoese people, the master of which was 
called Martalamin."— 75» BaiutOy ii. 254. 

1849. — " I took the sea on a small ^cvr^ra 
belonging to a Tunisian." — Ibid. iv. 327. 




1606.~"Theforemoflt of those galleys or 
CazaooUas reoovered our Shippe, wherein 
was the King of Tamata."— ift^^eto»'« 
Voyage, E. 2. 

„ "... Nave conacensA, quam linguA 
patrift caraoora noncupant. Navi^i genus 
est oblOgum, et an^^ustum, triremis instar, 
velis simul et remis impellitur." — JarriCy 
TkeMumty i. 192. 

[1613.— "Cuira-cuira." See quotation 
under ORANKAY.] 

1627.— "They have Gallies after their 
manner, formed like Dragons, which they 
row very swiftly, they call them karkollen. ' 
—Purc/iat, PU^mage^ 606. 

1659.— "They (natives of Ceram, ko.) 
hawked these dry heads backwards and 
forwards in their kOiTdkomB as a special 
rarity."— JFa/<«/ SchulUen's Ott-IndMie 
Reiae, die., p. 41. 

1711. — "Les Philippines nomment ces 
batimens oaracoaa. C'est vne esp^e de 
petite galore k rames et it. yoTlea.**—Lettres 
Edif, iv. 27. 

1774.— "A ooroooro is a vessel generally 
fitted with outrigffors, having a high arched 
stem and stem, like the points of a half 
moon. . . . The Dutch have fleets of them 
at Amboyna, which they employ as guarda- 
coatoe." — Forrest, Voyage to N, QuineOy 23. 
Forrest has a plate of a ooroooro, p. 64. 

JL869.— "The boat was one of the kind 
ed kora-kora, quite open, very low, and 
about four tons burden. It had out-riggers 
of bamboo, about five ofiF each side, which 
supported a bamboo platform extending the 
whole length of the vessel. On the extreme 
outside of this sat the twenty rowers, while 
within was a convenient passage fore and 
aft. The middle of the boat was covered 
with a thatch-house, in which bandage and 
passengers are stowed ; the g^unwale was not 
more than a foot above water, and from the 
great side and top weight^ and general 
clumsiness, these boats are dangerous in 
heavy weather, and are not infrequently 
lost.'^— WaUace, Malay Arch,, ed. 1890, 
p. 266.] 

CABAFFE, 8. Dozy shows that 
this word, which in English we use 
for a water-bottle, is of Arabic origin, 
and comes from the root gharaf, *to 
draw' (water), through the Sp. garrdfa. 
But the precise Arabic word is not in 
the dictionaries. (See under CABBOY.) 

CABAMBOLA, s. The name given 
by various old writers on Western 
India to the beautiful acid fruit of 
the tree {N.O, Oxalideae) called by 
Linn, from this word, Averrhoa caram- 
bola. This name was that used by 
the Portuguese. De Orta tells us that 
it was the Malabar name. The word 
karanbal is also given by Molesw^orth 
as the Mahratti name ; [another form 

is karcmbela^ which comes from the 
Skt. karmara g^ven below in the sense 
of * food-appetizer n. In Upper India 
the fruit is called hamrangci, kamrakhy 
or khanvrak (Skt. karman^ karmdra, 
karmarakOy karmaranga)* (See also 
BLIHBEE.) Why a cannon at billiards 
should be called by the French caram- 
bolage we do not know. [If Mr. Ball 
be riffht, the fruit has a name, Cape- 
Gooseberry, in China which in India 
is used for the Tiparry. — Things 
Ghinese, 3rd ed. 263.] 

c. 1530. — *' Another fruit is the Kermerik. 
It is fluted with five sides," kc,—ErsHne's 
Baber, 825. 

1663.—" 0. Antonia, pluck me from that 
tree a Carambola or two (for so they call 
them in Malavar, and we have adopted the 
Malavar name, because that was the first 
region where we got acquainted with them). 

^* A . Here they are. 

"R, They are beautiful ; a sort of sour- 
sweet, not lyery acid. 

"0. They are called in Canarin and 
Decan camariZy and in Malay balimba . . . 
they make with sugar a very pleasant con- 
serve of these. . . . Antonia! bring hither 
a preserved carambola." — Oarcia, ff. 46r, 

1598.— "There is another fruite called 
Carambolaa, which hath 8 (5 really) comers, 
as bigge as a smal aple, sower in eating, like 
vnripe plums, and most vsed to make Con- 
serues. {/fote hy Paludanvs). The fruite 
which the Malabars and Portin^les call 
Carambolaa, is in Decan called Camaiix, 
in Canar, Camarix and Caraheli ; in Malaio, 
BolumbOf and by the Persians Chamazoeh." 
—LinKhoten, 96 ; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33]. 

1672.— "The Carambola ... as large as 
a pear, all sculptured (as it were) and divided 
into rios, the ndges of which are not round 
but sharp, resembling the heads of those 
iron maces that were anciently in use." — P. 
Vincenxo Maria, 352. 

1878.—". . . the oxalic Kamrak."— /« 
my Indian Garden, 50. 

[1900. — ". . . thatmostcurious of fruits, the 
carambola, called by the Chinese the yong- 
Vo, or foreign peach, though why this name 
should have been selected is a mystery, for 
when cut through, it looks like a star with 
five rays. By Europeans it is also known as 
the Cape gooseberry . — Ball, Things Chinese, 
3rd ed. p. 253.] 

CABAT, s. Arab kirrdt, which is 
taken from the Gr. Kepdnw, a bean 
of the Kcparela or carob tree (Ceratania 
sili^ua, L.). This bean, like the Indian 
rati (see BUTTES) was used as a weight, 
and thence also it gave name to a coin 

* Sir J. Hooker observes that the fiict that there 
is an acid and a sweet-fhiited variety (blimbee) of 
this plant indicates a very old cultivation. 




of account, if not actual. To discuss 
the carat fully would be a task of 
extreme complexity, and would occupy 
several pages. 

Under the name of siHqtia it was 
the 24th part of the golden solidus of 
Constantine, which was again =| of 
an ounce. Hence this carat was= 
rir of an ounce. In the passage from 
St. Isidore quoted below, the cerates 
is distinct from the sUiqua^ and = 
1^ nliquae. This we cannot explain, 
but the nXiqua Graeca was the irepdrcor ; 
and the gihmia as ^^ of a solidus is 
the parent of the carat in all its uses. 
[See Prof. Gardner, in Smith, Diet. 
Ant 3rd ed. ii. 675.] Thus we find 
the carat at Constantinople in the 14th 
century = A of the hyverpera or Greek 
bezant, which was a deoased representa- 
tive of the solidus ; and at Alexandria 
A of the Arabic <{tnc7r, which was a 
purer representative of the solidus. 
And so, as the Roman uncia signified 
iV of any unit (compare (mncey inch), 
so to a certain extent carat came to 
signify A. Dictionaries give Arab. 
kirrdt as "A of an ounce/' Of this 
we do not know the evidence. The 
Engltth Cyclopaedia (s-v.) a^n states 
that "the carat was oriffinally the 
24th part of the marc, or half-pound, 
amoncthe French, from whom the word 
came." This sentence perhaps contains 
more than one error ; but still both 
of these allegations exhibit the carat 
as Ath part. Amon^ our goldsmiths 
the term is still usea to measure the 
proportionate quality of gold ; pure 
gola being put at 24 carats, gold with 
iV alloy at 22 carats, with i alloy at 
18 carats, &c. And the word seems 
also (like Anna, q.v.) sometimes to 
have oeen used to express a propor- 
tionate scale in other matters, as is 
Olustrated by a curious passage in 
Marco Polo, quoted below. 

The carat is also used as a weight 
for diamonds. As tH of an ounce troy 
this ought to make it 3i grains. But 
these carats really run 151^ to the 
ounce troy, so that the diamond carat 
is 3^ m. nearly. This we presume 
was aoopted direct from some foreign 
system in which the carat vxts i\j of the 
local ounce. [See Ball, Tavemier, ii. 

c. A.D. 036. — '^Siliqiia vigesima quarta 
pars solidi ost, ab arbcnris semine vocabulum 
tenena. Gmrates oboli pars media est siliquS 
habexis tinam semis, nanc latinitas semi- 

obultt yocat ; Cerates autem Graece, Latino 
siliqua oomufl interpretatur. Obulns siliquis 
tribua appenditur, babens cerates duos, caloos 
qa&tVLor.—Isidori Ifispalensit Opera (ed. 
Paris, 1601), p. 224. 

1298.— "The Great Kaan sends his com- 
missioners to the Province to select four or 
five hundred ... of the most beautiful 
young women, according to the scale of 
beauty enjoined upon them. Hie commis- 
sioners . . . assemble all the g^irls of the 
province, in presence of appraisers appointed 
for the purpose. These carefully survey the 

Soints of each girl. . . . They will then set 
own some as estimated at 16 carats, some 
at 17, 18, 20, or more or less, according to 
the sum of the beauties or defects of each. 
And whatever standard the Great Kaan may 
have fixed for those that are to be brought 
to him, whether it be 20 carats or 21, the 
commissioners select the required number 
from those who have attained to that stan- 
dard."— iforco Poloy 2nd ed. i. 850-361. 

1673. — "A stone of one Cazrack is worth 
lOL"— Fryer, 214. 

ABA VAN, s. P. karwdn; a 
convoy of travellers. The Ar. iMla 
is more generally used in India. The 
word is found in French as early as 
the 13th century {lAttr^. A quota- 
tion below shows that the English 
transfer of the word to a wheeled 
conveyance for travellers (now for 
goods also) dates from the 17th century. 
The abbreviation van in this sense 
seems to have acquired rights as an 
English word, though the altogether 
analogous bus is still looked on as 

c. 1270. — " Meanwhile the convoy (la 
earavana) from Tortosa . . . armed seven 
vessels in such wise that any one of them 
could take a galley if it ran idongside." — 
Chronicle of James of Aragon, tr. by Foster, 
i. 879. 

1380. — *'De hac civitate reoedens cum 
earavanis et cum quadam societate, ivi 
versus Indiam Superiorem."— Friar Odorie, 
in Cathay^ &c., ii. App. iii. 

1384. — "Rimonda che I'avemo. vedemo 
venire una ^randisdma oarovana di cammelli 
e di Saracini, che recavano spesierie delle 
parti d' India.,"— Fresoobafdiy 64. 

0. 1420. — *'Is adolescens ab Damasco Sy- 
riae, ubi mercaturae ^ratiH erat, perceptH 
prius Arabum linguA, in coetu mercatorum 
— hi sexcenti erant — quam vulgo caroaaam 
dicunt. . . .'* — N, Conti, in Poggius de VariC' 
tote Fortunae. 

1627. — ** A Caravan is a convoy of souldiers 
for the safety of merchants that trauell in the 
East Countreys. "— if ijw/ieir, 2nd ed. 8.v. 

1674.— "Caravan or E[aravan (Fr. cam- 
vcme) a Convoy of Souldiers for the safety 
of Merchants that travel by Land. Also of 
late corruptly used with us for a kind of 




Waoon to carry passengers to and from 
ltoiaaoii"'--Glos»offraphiaf &o.| by J. E. 

wdnaardl ; a Serai (q.v.) for the recep- 
tion of Oaravaiui (q.v.)- 

1404.—" And the next day being Tuesday, 
they departed thence and going about 2 
leasees arrived at a great bouse like an Inn, 
which they call Carabanflaoa (read -«am), 
and here were Chacatays looking after the 
Emperor's horses."— C/am}o, § zcTiii. Comp. 
Marktutm, p. 114. 

p.628.— " In the Persian language they call 
these houses carvanoanw, which means 
resting-place for caravans and strangers.'* 
— TenrexrOf ii. p. 11.] 

1564.—*' I'ay k parler souuent de ce nom de 
Ckurbaohara : . . . le ne peuz 1e uommer 
autrement en Francois, sinon yn Car- 
tMUdiara: et pour le s^uoir donner k en- 
tendre, il fault supposer qu'il n'y a point 
dliostelleries es pays ou domaine le Turc, 
ne de Ueux pour se loger, sinon dedens celles 
maisons publiques appell^ Carbaohara. 
. . r—Obtervatvcms par P. Bdmi, f. 59. 

• 1564. — **Hic diverti in diversorium publi- 
cum, CaraTasarai Turoae yooant . . . vas- 
tum est aedificium ... in oujus medio 
patet area ponendis sarcinis et oamelis." — 
BvLihequiij Epid, i. (p. 35). 

1619. — *' ... a great bazar, enclosed and 
roofed in, where they sell stuffs, cloths, &c. 
with liie House of the Mint, and the great 
oaravanaerai, which bean the name of Lola 
Beig (because Lala Beig the Treasurer gives 
audiences, and does his business there) and 
another little oaraTanserai, called that of 
the Ohilac or people of Ghilan."— P. cUlla 
Valle (from Ispahan), ii. 8 ; [comp. Hak. 
Soc. i. 95]. 

1627. — "At Band Ally vre found a neat 
Oazrayansraw or Inne . . . built by mens 
charity, to give all civill passengers a rest- 
ing place gratis ; to keepe them from the in- 
jury of titieeves, beasts, weather, &c." — Her- 
bert, p. 124. 

CABAVEL, s. This often occurs 
in the old Portuguese narratives. The 
word is alleged to be not Oriental, but 
Celtic, and connected in its origin 
with the old British coracle / see the 
quotation from Isidore of Seville, the 
indication of which we owe to Bluteau, 
S.V. The Portuguese caravel is de- 
scribed by the latter as a * round 
vessel' (i.e. not long and sharp like 
a galley), with lateen sails, ordinarily 
of 200 tons burthen. The character 
of swiftness attributed to the caravel 
(see both Damian and Bacon belowj 
has suggested to us whether the word 
has not come rather from the Persian 
Oulf—Turki karavntly *a scout, an 
outpost, a vanguard.' Doubtless there 

are difficulties. [The N.EM, says 
that it is probably the dim. of Sp. 
caraha.] The word is found in the 
following passage, quoted from the 
Life of St. Nilus, who died c. 1000, 
a date hardly consistent with Turkish 
origin. But the Latin translation is 
by Cardinal Sirlet, c. 1650, and the 
word may have been changed or 
modified : — 

"Oogitavit enim in unaquaque Oalabriae 
regione perfioere navigia. . . . Idaotemnon 
f erentes Russani dves . . . simal irruentes 
ao tumultuantes navigia oombuaseront et 
eas quae Carav*lla« appellantur secuerunt." 
— In the Collection of Martens and Durand, 
vi. ool. 980. 

0. 688.-— "Caralms, parua soafa ex vimine 
facta, quae oontexta crude oorio genus navi- 
gii praebet." — Itidori Hispal. Opera. (I^aria, 
1601), p. 266. 

1492.— "So being one day importuned by 
the aaid Christopher, the Cathouo King was 
persuaded by him that nothing should keep 
nim from making this experiment; and so 
effectual was this persuasion that they fitted 
out for him a ship and two earavviii, with 
which at the beginning of August 1492, with 
120 men, sail was made from Qades." — Sum- 
mary of the B. of (he Western Indies, by Pieiro 
Martire in RamnsiOf iii. f. 1. 

1506. — "Item traze della Mina d'oro de 
Qinea ogn anno ducati 120 mila che vien 
ogni miso do' oaravelle con ducati 10 mila." 
—Leonardo di Ca* 'Masser, p. 80. 

1549. — "Viginti et quinque agilea naues, 
quas et oaravtUaa dicimus, quo genere 
nauium soli Lusitani utuntur. — Iklmiani 
a Goes, Diemeis Oppugnaiio, ed. 1602, p. 289. 

1552.— "lis ilu;b^rent les bord^es de leurs 
Karawellas; om^rent leurs vaisseaux de 
pavilions, et s'avanc^rent sur nous." — Sidi 
All, p. 70. 

c. 1615. — "She may spare me her mizen 
and her bonnets ; I am a carvel to her." — 
Beaum. d: FleL, Wit withtnU Money, i. 1. 

1624.— "Sunt etiam naves quaedam nun- 
ciae quae ad offioium celeritatis apposite 
exstructae sunt (quas caraellas vocant)." — 
Baoon, Hist. Veniorum. 

1888.— "The deep-sea fishing boats called 
MachoOs ... are carvel built, and now 
generally iron fastened. . . ." — Short Account 
of Bombay Fisheries, by D. G. Macdonald, 

CABBOY, s. A large glass bottle 
holding several gallons, ana generally 
coverea with wicker-work, well known 
in England, where it is chiefly used 
to convey acids and corrosive liquids 
in bulk. Though it is not an Anglo- 
Indian word, it comes (in the form 
Jbardba) from Persia, as Wedgwood 
has pointed out. Kaempfer, whom 
we quote from his description of the 



wine tnde at Shiraz, ^ves an exact 
etching of a carboy. Littr^ mentions 
that the late M. Mohl referred caraffe. 
to the same original; but see that 
word. Kardba is no doubt connected 
with Ar. iirba^ ' a large leathern milk> 

1712. — "Vasa Tit^ec^ alia aunt majora, 
ampnllaoea et ciroomduoto scirpo tunicata, 
quaeTocantKaxab^ . . . Y enit JToro^ una 
apnd Titriariofl duobuB mamudi, razo ca- 
Tvaa/'—KaetHpfer, Amoen. Exot. 879. 

1754. — "I deliTered a preeent to the 
Goremor, ooDAstixig of oranges and lemons, 
with several sorts of dried fruits, and six 
karboys of Isfahan wine."~J7a;iicay, i. 102. 

1800.— "Six cormbahs of rose-water."— 
Syme9^ &nb. toAva, p. 488. 

1818.— "Oteboyof Rosewater '*-'M%l- 

hum, n. 880. 

1875.—" People who make it (Shiraz Wine) 
generally bottle it themselTos, or else sell it 
m huge bottles oaUed *Kiiraba' holding 
about a dozen quarts." — Macgreoor, Jounuy 
thrtntffh Kharattan, &c., 1879, i. 37. 

from P. kdrkhdna, *a place where 
business is done ' ; a workshop ; a 
departmental establishment such as 
that of the commissariat, or the 
artillery park, in the field. 

1668. — "There are also found many raised 
Walks and Tents in sundry Places, that are 
the offices of several Officers. Besides these 
there are many great Halls that are caUed 
Kax^Eanayt, or places where Handy-crafts- 
men do work."— J5«r»ier, E. T. 83; [ed. 
ContiabU, 258]. 

c. 1766.— "In reply, Hydur pleaded his 
poverty . . . but he promised uiat as soon 
as he should have established his power, 
and had time to regulate his departments 
(KixUiftnaj&t), the amount should be paid. " 
— Hvuein Alt Khan^ History of Hydur 
Naikj p. 87. 

1800.—" The elephant belongs to the Kar- 
kana, butyou may as well keep him till we 
meeV'—WelliTigUmy i. 144. 

1801— "If the (bullock) establishment 
should be formed, it should be in regular 
' "— /Wa. iii 512. 

OARGOON, s. Mahr. kdrkan, *a 
clerk,' H. — P. kdr-kun, (fadeTidorum 
faetar) or ^manager.' 

[c. 1590.— "In the same way as the kar- 
kim sets down the transactions of the assess- 
ments, the mvkaddam and the pahoOri shall 
keep their respective accounts."— J^ia, tr. 
Jarretty ii. 45. 

[1615. — "Made means to the Corcone or 
Scrivano to help us to the copia of the King's 
lieenoe."— /"ot^^r, Letten, iii. 122. 

[1616.— " AddickRaia Pongolo, Goroon of 
this place. "—7Wd. iv. 167.] 

1826.—" My benefactor's chief oarpoon or 
clerk allowed me to sort out and' direct 
despatches to officers at a distance who be- 
longed to the command of the great Sawant 
Rao."-^Pandurang Hart, 21 ; [ed. 1873, i. 

0ABEN8, n.p. Burm. Ka-reng, [a 
word of which the meaning is very 
uncertain. It is said to mean * dirty- 
feeders,' or * low-caste people,' and it 
has been connected with the Kirdta 
tribe ^see the question discussed by 
McMakoUy The Karens of the Golden 
Ghersonesey 43 seqq,)], A name applied 
to a group of non-Burmese tribes, 
settled in the forest and hill tracts 
of Pegu and the adjoining parts of 
Burma, from l^ergui in the south, 
to beyond Toungoo in the north, and 
from Arakan to the Salwen, and 
beyond that river far into Siamese 
territory. They do not know the 
name Kareng^ nor have they one name 
for their own race ; distinguishing, 
among these whom we call Karens, 
three tribes, Sgaw^ PioOy and Bghai, 
which differ somewhat in customs 
and traditions, and especially in 
language. "The results of the labours 
among them of the American Baptist 
Itfission have the appearance of being 
almost miraculous, and it is not going 
too far to state that the cessation of 
blood feuds, and the peaceable way 
in which the various tribes are living 
. . . and have lived together since they 
came under British rule, is far more 
due to the influence exercised over 
them by the missionaries than to the 
measures adopted by the English 
(Government, beneficial as these doubt- 
less have been " (Br. Burma Gazetteery 
[ii. 226]). The author of this ex- 
cellent work should not, however, 
have admitted the quotation of Dr. 
Mason's fanciful notion about the 
identity of Marco Polo's Garajan with 
Karen, which is totally groundless. 

1759. — "There is another people in this 
country called Caxianners, whiter than 
either (Burmans or Peguans), distinguished 
into Buraghmah and Pegu CariamierB ; they 
live in the tooodif in small Societies, of ten 
or twelve kcmtes; are not wanting in in- 
dustry, though it goes no further than to 
procure them an annual subsistence." — In 
DalrympU, Or. Rep. i. 100. 

1799— "From this reverend father (V. San- 
germano) I received much useful informa- 
tion. He told me of a singular description 




of people called Garajrnen or Carianen, 
that inhabit different parts of the country, 
particularly the western provinces of Dalla 
and Bassein, several societies of whom also 
dwell in the district adjacent to Rangoon. 
He represented them as a simple, innocent 
race, speaking a language distinct from that 
of the firmans, and entertaining rude notions 
of religion. . . . They are timorous, honest, 
mild in their manners, and exceedingly 
hospitable to strangers. "~i9ymM, 207. 

c. 1819. — "We must not omit here the 
Cftrlaa, a good and peaceable people, who 
live disperMd through the forests of Pegh, 
in small villages consisting of 4 or 5 
houses . . . they are totally dependent upon 
the despotic government of the Burmese." 
^Sangermanoy p. 34. 

CABICAL, n.p. Etymolo^ doubt- 
ful ; Tarn. Karavckdly fwhich ls either 
kdraij * masonry ' or * tne plant, thorny 
webera' : kdl, * channel' (Madras Adm. 
Man, ii. 212, OUm, 8.v.)]. A French 
settlement within the limits of Tanjore 

CABNATIC, n.p. Kamataka and 
KdrnOtakoLy Skt. adjective forms from 
Karnoia or Kdrndta^ [Tam. Awr. 
*black,^ nddu^ * country*]. This word 
in native use, according to Bp. Caldwell, 
denoted the Telegu ana Canarese 
people and their language, but in 
process of time became specially the 
appellation of the people speaking 
Canarese and their language {Drav, 
Oram. 2nd ed. Introd. p. 34). The 
Mahommedans on their arrival in 
S. India found a region which em- 
braces Mysore and part of Telingana 
(in fact the kingdom of Vijayanagara), 
called the Karndtaka country, and 
this was identical in application (and 
probably in etymology) with the 
OaJiara country (q-v.j^ of the older 
Portuguese writers. The Karndtaka 
became extended, especiallv in con- 
nection with the rule of the Nabobs 
of Arcot, who partially occupied the 
Vijayanagara territory, and were 
known as Nawabs of the Karndtaka, 
to the country below the Ghauts^ on 
the eastern side of the Peninsula, just 
as the other form Ganara had become 
extended to the country below the 
Western Ghauts ; and eventually 
among the English the term Camattc 
came to be understood in a sense 
more or less restricted to the eastern 
low country, though never quite so 
absolutely as Canara has become re- 
stricted to the western low country. 
The term Camattc is now obsolete. 

c. A.D. 550.— In the Brihat-SaKhita of Va 
hamihira, in the enumeration ofpeoples a 
regions of the south, we have in Kern's tra 
lation [J. R. Am. Soc. N.S. v. 88) Kamal 
the original form, which is not given 
Kern, is Kam&ta. 

c. A.D. 1100.— In the later Sanskrit lite 
ture this name often occurs, e.g. in 
KcUhaaarUaOgara, or 'Ocean of Rivers 
Stories,' a collection of tales (in vei 
of the beginning of the 12th centu 
by Somadeva, of Kashmir; but it is 
possible to attach any very precise mean 
to the word as there used. [See refs. 
Tavmty, tr. ii. 651.] 

A.D. 1400. — The word also occurs in 
inscriptions of the Vijayanagara dyna 
e^. in one of A.D. 1400. — {^Bltm. of S. Inc 
Pafaeograpky, 2nd ed. pi. xzx.) 

1608.— "In the land of Kaxn&ta 
Vidyanagara was the King Mahendra 
Taranaiha^s H, of BuddtMuif by Schiej 
p. 267. 

0. 1610.— ''The Zamindars of Singa 
(Ceylon) and Kamiitialr came up with t 
loroes and expelled Sheo Bai, the rule 
the Dakhin."— /VruAta, in JSlliot, vi. 54S 

1614. — See quotation from Ck)uto ui 

[1628.— "His Tributaries, one of w 
was the Queen of Onmat."— P. della V 
Hak. Soc. ii. 814.] 

c. 1652. — "Gandicot is one of the sti 
est Cities in the Kingdom of Camaticf 
Tavemier, E. T. ii. 98 ; [ed. Ball, i. 284 

c 1660.— "The R^ of the Kanu 
Mahratta (country), and Telingana, 
subject to the R&L ot Bidar." — 'Amal-i-J^ 
in kniot vii. 126 

1673.— "I received this information 
the natives, that the Canatiek ooi 
reaches from Oongola to the Zoane 
Country of the Malaban along the 
and inland up to the Pepper Mounta; 
Sunda . . . Bedmvre, four Days Joi 
hence, is the Capital City."— i^y<T, V 
Letter IV., A Relation of the Can 
Country. — Here he identifies the " 
tick " with Canara below the Ghauts. 

So also the coast of Canara s 
meant in the following : — 

c. 1760.— "Though the navif^ation 
the Camatic coast to Bombay is of i 
short run, of not above six or seven dc 
. . ."^Cfrote, i. 232. 

„ "The Caznatie or provi 
Arcot ... its limits now are greai 
ferior to those which bounded the e 
Camatic; for the Nabobs of Arco' 
never extended their authority beyo 
river Qondegama to the north ; tiie 
chain of mountains to the west ; ai 
branches of the Kingdom of Trichi 
Taniore, and Maissore to the 8outl 
sea bounds it on the east." — Ihid, 11. 

1762.— "Siwaee Madhoo Rao . . 
this immense force . . . made an in 




into the Kaniatlc Balaghaut/'— ^iCM^tn Alt 
Khanj Histanf of Hydw Naik, 148. 

1792.—" I hope that our aoquisitioiM by 
this peace will give so much additional 
strength and compactness to the frontier 
of our possessions, both in the Cam&tic, 
and on the coast of Malabar, as to render 
it difficult for any power above the Ghauts 
to invade us." — tiwd Cdmwallu's Despatch 
from Seringapatam, in SeUm-Karr, ii. S>6. 

1826.— "Camp near Chillumbrum (Cama- 
tie), March 21st." This date of a letter of 
Bp. Heber's is probably one of the latest 
instances of the use of uie term in a natural 


(1). CAKRACE, n.p. An island 
in the upper part of the Persian Gulf, 
which has been more than once in 
British occupation. Properly KhftTftk. 
It is so written in JavherVs Edrid 
(i. 364, 372). But Dr. Badger myes 
the modem Arabic as el^Khdrij, which 
would represent old P. Khdrig. 

c. 830. — "Bluurek . . . cette iale qui a un 
faxvakh en long et en large, produit du h\6, 
dee palmiers, et des vignes." — IbuKhurdddbOy 
in J, A8, B6T. vi. tom. ▼. 288. 

c. 16«3.— "Partendoei da Baaora ri paasa 
200 miglia di Golfo col mare a banda deetra 
sino che si giunge nell* isola di CarichL ..." 
— C. Fedenci, in Ramusio^ iii. 88dp. 

1727.— "The Islands of Cazriok ly, about 
West North West, 12 Leagues from Bow- 
diier."—A. Hamxltcn, i. 90. 

1758.-— "The Baron . . . immediately 
sailed for the little island of Karec, where 
he safely landed; having attentively sur- 
veyed the spot he at that Bme laid the plan, 
which he arterwards executed with so much 
soooeas."— /«», 212. 

(2). CABBACE, 8. A kind of 
vessel of burden from the Middle 
Ages down to the end of the 17 th 
century. The character of the earlier 
carraei cannot be precisely defined. 
But the larger cargo-ships of the 
Portuguese in the trade oi the 16th 
century were generally so styled, and 
these were sometimes of enormous 
tonnage, with 3 or 4 decks. Chamock 
{Marine Architecture^ ii. p. 9) has a 

flate of a Genoese carrack of 1542. 
[e also quotes the description of a 
Portuguese carrack taken by Sir John 
Barrough in 1592. It was of 1,600 
tons burden, whereof 900 merchandize ; 
carried 32 brass pieces and between 
eOO and 700 passengers (?) ; was built 
with 7 decks. The word (L. Lat.) 

carr(vca is regarded by Skeat as pro- 
perly carrtca, from carricare^ It. caricarej 
* to kde, to charge.' This is possible ; 
but it would be well to examine if 
it be not from the Ar. fiardiahj a 
word which the dictionaries explain 
as * fire-ship * ; though this is certainly 
not always the meaning. Jyozy is 
inclined to derive carraca (which is 
old in Sp. he says) from kardkiVy the 
pi. of kuri&r or kurkUra (see CABACOA). 
And kuricura itself he thinks mav have 
come' from carncare^ which already 
occurs in St. Jerome. So that Mr. 
Skeat's origin is possibly correct. 
[The N.E.D. refers to carraca, of 
which the orimn is said to be un- 
certain.] Ibn Batata uses the word 
twice at least for a state baige or 
something of that kind (see (Mhay 
p. 499, and Ibn Bat, ii. 116 ; iy. 289) 
The like use occurs several times in 
Makrid (e.g, I. i. 143 ; I. ii, 66 ; and 
II. i 24). Quatrem^re at the place 
first quoted observes that the Itardkah 
was not a fire ship in our sense, but 
a vessel with a hign deck from which 
fire could be thrown ; but that it 
could also be used as a transport 
vessel, and was so used on sea and 

1888.—" . . . after that we embarked at 
Venice on board a certain cairack, and 
sailed down the Adriatic Sea."— jPnor Pa»- 
qual, in Cathay ^ &c., 231. 

1383. — "Eodem temix>re venit in magn& 
tempestate ad Sandevici portum navis quam 
dicunt carika (mirae) magnitudinis, plena 
divitiis, quae facile inopiam totius terrae 
relevare potoisset, si incolanun invidia per- 
misisset. — 2*. WcUsinghamf Hist, Anglic, 
by B, T. RUey, 1864, ii. 83-84. 

1408.—" The prayer beinj^ concluded, and 
the storm still going on, a light like a candle 
appeared in the cage at the mast-head of the 
caxraca, and another light on the spar that 
they call bowsprit \haupria) which is fixed 
in the forecastle ; and another light like a 
candle in una vara de espindo (?) over the 
poop, and these lights were seen by as many 
as were in the oairaek, and were called up 
to see them, and they lasted awhile and then 
disappeared, and all this while the storm did 
not cease, and by-and-by all went to sleep 
except the steersman and certain sailors of 
the watch."— Ctoryo, § xiii. Comp. Mark- 
hanij p. 13. 

1548. — "De Thesauro nostro munitionum 
artillariorum, Tentorum, Pavilionum, pro 
Equis navibus caracatis, Galeis et aliis navi- 
bus quibuscumoue. . . ."—Act of Edw. VI. 
in Rymetf xv. 176. 

1552.— "lis avaient 4 banjues, ^randes 
comme des ^Cttrrd^a. . . ."— <Suii *Al%, p. 67, 




1566-68.—". . . about the middle of the 
month of BamaEan, in the year 974, the 
inhabitants of Funan and Fandreeah [t.«. 
Ponany and Pandarftni, q.v.]» I^a^i^ sailed 
out of the former of these ports in a fleet of 
12 grabs, captured a caiaoea belonnng to 
the Franks, which had arrived from Bengal, 
and which was laden with rice and sugar . . . 
in the year 976 another party ... in a fleet 
of 17 l^bs . . . made capture off Shaleeat 
(see CHALIA) of a large caraoca, which had 
sailed from Cochin, haying on board nearly 
1,000 Franks. . . ."—Tohfut-iU-Mujakidecn, 
p. 159. 

1596. — "It comes as farre short as . . . 
a cocke-boate of a Carrick."— 7. Ncuh^ 
Have with you to Saffron WaldeUy repr. by 
J. P. Colliery p. 72. 

1618.— "They are made like eairacks, 
only strength and storage." — Beaum, iA 
Flet., The Cox&mb, i. 8. 

1615. — "After we had given her chase 
for about 5 hours; her colours and bulk 
discovered her to be a very g^reat Por- 
tugal carrack bound for Goa."— 2Vn-y, in 
PurchoB; [ed. 1777, p. 84]. 

1620. — "The harbor at Nangasaque is the 
best in all Japon, wheare there may be 1000 
secUe of shipps ride landlockt, and the 
greatest shipps or caxlokes in the world 
. . . ride before the towne within a cable's 
length of the shore in 7 or 8 fathom water 
at least."- Cociv, Letter to Baiavia, ii. 813. 

c. 1620.— "II faut attendre Ik des Pilotes 
du lieu, que lea Gouvemeurs de Bombaim 
et de Marsagao out soin d'envoyer tout k 
I'heure, pour conduire le Vaisse&u k Tur- 
umba [i.e. Trombay] oh. lea CaraqneB ont 
coustume d'hyvemer." — RoiOier . . . des 
IfuUs Or.f by Aleixo da Motto, in Thevenot, 

c. 1685.— 
" The bigger Whale, like some huge cairack 
Which wanted Sea room for her foes to 
play. . . ." 
Wallery Battle of the Summer Islands. 
1663. — ". . . pour moy il me vouloit 
loger en son Palais, et (^ue si i'auois la 
volont^ de retoumer a Lasbone par mer, 
il me feroit embarquer sur les premieres 
Karaqnaa. . . ."— i)« la Boullaye-le-Oouz, 
ed. 1667, p. 218. 

1660.— "And further. That every Mer- 
chant Denizen who shall hereafter ship any 
Goods or Merchandize in any Carrack or 
Galley shall pay to your Majesty all manner 
of Customs, and all the Subsidies aforesaid, 
as any Alien bom out of the Realm."— Act 
12 Car. II. cap. iv. s. iv. (Tonnage and 

c. 1680.— "To this City of the floating 
. . . which foreigners, with a little varia- 
tion from carrogoSf call carracas." — Vieira, 
quoted by Bluteau. 

1684.—" . . . there was a Carack of Por- 
tugal cast away upon the Reef having on 
board at that Time 4,000,000 of Guilders 
in Gold ... a present from the King of 
Siam to the King of Portugal."— C(W^«y, 82, 
in Dampier's Voyages, iv. 

CABRAWAT, s. Thia word for 
the seed of Carum earui, L., is (probably 
through Sp. alcaravea) from the Arabic 
karcmiyd. It is curious that the English 
form is thus closer to the Arabic than 
either the Spanish, or the French and 
Italian carvi, which last has passed into 
Scotch as carvy. But the Arabic itself 
is a corruption [not immediately, 
N.E.D.] of Lat. careum^ or Gr. Kd^ov 

CABTMEEL, s. This is, at least 
in the Puniab, the ordinary form that 
* mail-cart' takes among the natives. 
Such inversions axe not uncommon. 
Thus Sir David Ochterlony was always 
called by the Sepoys Loni-okhiar. in 
our memory an officer named Holrayd 
was always called by the Sepoys Royddl^ 
[and BroumhWy Lobritn. JBt another 
curious corruption Mcukintom becomes 
MakkhMl-tosh, 'buttered toast' 1] 

OABTOOCE, s. A cartridge ; kdrtiU^ 
Sepoy H. ; [comp. TOSTDAUNj. 

CABY0TA,8. This is the botanical 
name (Garyota urenSy L.) of a magnificent 
palm growing in the moister forest 
regions, as in the Western Ghauts and 
in £astem Bengal, in Ceylon, and in 
Burma. A conspicuous character is 
presented by its enormous bipinnate 
leaves, somewhat resembling colossal 
bracken-fronds, 15 to 25 feet long, 10 to 
12 in width ; also by the huge nendent 
clusters of its inflorescence ana seeds, 
the latter like masses of rosaries 10 feet 
lone and upwards. It affords much 
Toddy (q.v.) made into spirit and 
sugar, ana is the tree chiefly affording 
these products in Ceylon, where it is 
called KitiU. It also affords a kind of 
sago, and a wooUy substance found at 
the foot of the leaf-stalks is sometimes 
used for caulking, and forms a ^ood 
tinder. The sp. name urens is derived 
from the acria, burning tiiste of the 
fruit. It is called, according to Brandis, 
the 3f ^r-palm in Western India. We 
know of no Hindustani or familiar 
Anglo-Indian name. [Watt, {Econ. 
Diet. ii. 206) says that it is knovm in 
Bombay as the Hill or Scufo palm. It 
has penetrated in Upper India as far 
as Cnunar.] The name Garyota seems 
taken from Pliny, but his ap})lication 
is to a kind of date-palm ; nis state- 
ment that it afforded the best wine of 




the Eaat probably suggested the 

c. A.D. 70.— "Ab hiB oaxyotae mazume 
oelebntntur, et dbo quidem et suoo uber- 
rimaa, ez <^iiibDB praadpua Tina orient!, 
ixuqna capita, undo porno Domen,"— Pliny , 
xiii. §9. 

1681.— "The next tree is the EeOuU. It 
groweth stnishL but not so tall or big 
as a Ooier'Irut-TnB ; the inside nothixig 
but a white pith, as the former. It 
yieldeth a sort of Liauor . . . very sweet 
and pleasing to the Pallate. . . . The which 
Liquor they boyl and make a kind of brown 
sugar called Jaggory [see JAGGERY], &o. "— 
JCnaXj p. 15. 

1777.— "The Caryota urens, called the 
Sagner tree, grew between Salatiga and 
Kopping. and was said to be the real tree 
from which sapo is made." — Thuniferg, E. T. 
iv. 149. A mistake, however. 

1861.— See quotation under PEEPUL. 

GASH, s. A name applied by 
Europeans to sundry coins of low 
value in various parts of the Indies. 
The word in its original form is of 
extreme antiquity, ** Skt. karsha . . . 
a wei^t of silver or gold equal to viv 
of a Tula" (IViUiams, Skt. Diet.; and 
see also a Note on the KdrshOy or rather 
karshd^^noy as a copper coin of gj^t 
antiquity, in E. Thcmruu^s Pathdn Kings 
of Vdhi, 361-362). From the Tam. 
K>rm hdav.^ or perhaps from some Kon- 
kani form which we have not traced, 
the Portuguese seem to have made 
onxO) whence the English cask. In 
Singalese also hdgi is used for *coin' 
in general. The EngliE^ term was 
ap|>ropriated in the monetary system 
which prevailed in S. India up to 
1818 ; tnus there was a copper coin 
for use in Madras struck in England 
in 1803, which bears on the reverse, 
"XX Cash." A figure of this coin is 
given in RvjiUng. Under this system 
80 cashsl fanam, 42 fanams^ 
pagoda. But from an earl^ date the 
Portuguese had applied oaiaa to the 
small money of foreign systems, such 
as those of the Malay Islands, and 
mecially to that of the Chinese. In 
China the word cask is used, by 
Europeans and their hangers-on, as 
the synonym of the Chinese le and 
ttien^ which are those coins made of 
an allqy of copper and lead with a 
square hole in tne middle, which in 
former days ran 1000 to the liang or 
tael (q.T-X &^<1 which are strung in 
certain numbers on cords. [This type 
of money, as was recently pointed out 

by Lord Avebury, is a survival of the 
primitive currency, which was in the 
shape of an axe.] Rouleaux of coin thus 
strung are represented on the surviving 
bank-notes of the Ming dynasty {km. 
1368 onwards), and probably were also 
on the notes of their Mongol prede- 

The existence of the distinct English 
word cadi may probably have affected 
the form of the corruption before us. 
This word had a European origin from 
It. cauoy French cause, *the money- 
chest ' : this word in book-keeping 
having given name to the heading 
of account under which actual dis- 
bursements of coin were entered (see 
Wulgwood and N.E,D. s.v.). In Min- 
sheu (2nd ed. 1627) the present sense 
of the word is not attained. He only 
gives *^a tradesman's (Emthj or Counter 
to keepe money in." 

1610.— *' They haTe also another eoin 
called oas, 16 of whioh go to a tare of 
miyer."—V<grthema, 180. 

„ "In this country (Calicut) a great 
number of apes are produced, one of which 
is worth 4 oasia, and one oasM is worth a 
q%uUtruu>."—Ibid. 172. (Why a monkey 
should be worth 4 wtse is obscure.) 

1698.— "You must understand that in 
Sunda there is also no other kind of money 
than oertaine copper mynt called Gaiza» 
of the bignes of a Hollftdes doite, but not 
half so thicke, in the middle whereof is a 
hole to hang it on a string, for that com- 
monlie they put two hundretn or a thousand 
ypon one string." — X^nscAoteit, 84; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 118]. 

1600.— "Those (coins) of Lead arecaUed 
oazas, whereof 1600 make one mwi"—John 
Davis, in Pvrchat, i. 117. 

1609.— "lis (les Chinois) apportent la 
monnoye qui a le cours en toute I'isle de 
Java, et Isles ciroonroisines, laquelle en 
ISg^e Malaique est appellee Gas. ... Gette 
monnove est jett^ en moule en Chine, a la 
Ville de Chincheu. "—^ouftnait, in Nav. des 
Hollandais, i. 806. 

[1621.— "In many places thejr threw 
abroad Cashes (or brasse money) in great 
quantety."— CocJfet, Diary, ii. 202.J 

1711.— "Doodoos and Cash are Copper 
Coins, eight of the former make one 
Fanham, and ten of the latter one Doo* 
doo.'* — Loekyer, 8. [Doodoo is the TeL 
dvdduy Skt dvi, *two'; a more modem 
scale is : 2 dooggauniei=l doody : 8 doodies^ 
1 an7Ui.—Mad. Olou. s.y.] 

1718.— "Cass (a very small coin, eighty 
whereof make one VAno).**— Propagation qf 
ths Ooq)el in the East, ii. 62. 

1727.— "At Atoheen they hare a small 
coin of leaden Money called Cash, from 




12 to 1600 of them goes to one Maee^ or 
Mas$cie.'*'-A. Hamilton, iL 109. 

o. 1760-60.— "At Madras and other parte 
of the ooast of Coromandel, 80 ouches 
make a fanam, or Sd. sterling; and 86 
fanams a silyer pagoda, or 7s. 8d. ster- 
ling, "—ti'rofe, i 2S2. 

1790.— "So far am I from nving credit 
to the late OoTemment (of Madras) for 
oaoonomy, in not making the necessary 
preparations for war, according to the 
positive orders of the Supreme Groyem- 
ment, after having receiyed the most gross 
insult that could be offered to any nation I 
I think it yerr possible that every Cajh 
of that ill-judg^ saving may cost the 
company a crore of rupees." — Letter of 
Lord Comwallu to E. J. HoUond, Esq., 
see the Madras Coarier, 22nd Sept. 1791. 

[1792.— <* Whereas the sum of Raheties 
1^, 6 fanams and 80 khas has been de- 
ducted." — Agreement in Logan, Malabar, 
iii. 226.] 

1813. — At Madras, according to Milbum, 
the coinage ran: 

<( 10 CaiUl=l doodee; 2 doodeet=\ pice ; 8 
doodett=\ single fanam," &c. 

The followiii£[ shows a singular cor- 
ruption, probably of the Chinese town, 
and illustrates how the striving after 
meaning shapes such corruptions : — 

1876. — '*A11 money transactions (at 
Manwyne on the Burman-Chinese frontier) 
are effected in the copper coin of China 
called * change,* of which about 400 or 500 
go to the rupee. These coins are gener- 
ally strung on cord," &c. — Report on the 
Country through which the Force paMted to 
meet the Governor, by W. J. Charlton, M.D. 

An intermediate step in this trans- 
formation is found in Cocks's Japan 
Journal^ passim^ e.g., ii. 89 : 

" But that which I tooke most note of 
was of the liberalitee and devotion of these 
heathen people, who thronged into the 
Paged in multetudes one after another to 
cast money into a littel chapell before the 
idalles, most parte . . . being gin» or brass 
money, whereof 100 of them may vallie som 
lOd. str., and are about the bignes of a 3d. 
English money." 

CASHEW, 8. The tree, fruit, or 
nut of the Anacardiwm, occiderUale^ an 
American tree which must have been 
introduced earl^ into India by the 
Portuguese, for it was widely diffused 
apparently as a wild tree long before 
the end of the 17 th century, and it is 
described as an Indian tree by Acosta, 
who wrote in 1578. Crawrurd also 
speaks of it as abundant, and in full 
bearing, in the jungly islets of Hasting 
Archipelago, off the coast of Camboja 
{Enib. to Siarriy dx., i. 103) [see Teel^s 

note on Lin^ckoteny Hak. Soc. ii. 27]. 
The name appears to be S. American, 
acajov^ of which an Indian form, kdjU^ 
[and Malay gajus], have been made. 
The so-called fruit is the fleshy top of 
the }>eduncle which bears the nut. 
The oil in the shell of the nut is acrid 
to an extraordinary degree, whilst the 
kernels, which are roasted and eaten, 
are <][uite bland. The tree yields a 
gum imported under the name of Cadju 

1578.— "This tree ^ves a fruit called 
commonly Cain ; wmch being a good 
stomachic, and of good flavour, is much 
esteemed by all who know it. . . . This 
fruit does not grow everywhere, but is 
found in gardens at the city of Santa Cruz 
in the lUnffdom of Cochin." — C. Acosta, 
Traetado, 2^teqq. 

1598. — **Caja8 groweth on trees like 
apple-trees, and are of the bignes of a 
Peare. "—Z^njcAoton, p. W; [Hak. Soc. ii. 

nL623.— P. ddla VaOe, Hak. Soc. i. 185, 
calls it cagin.] 

1658.— In Piso, De Indiae vtriusgtie Re 
Naiurali et Medicd, Amst., we have a good 
cut of the tree as one of Brasil, called 
Acaibaa "et fructus ejus Acajn." 

1672.—". . . il Cagiu. . . . Questo ^ 
I'Amandola ordinaria dell* India, per il ohe 
se ne racooglie grandissima quantity, es- 
sendo la pianta fertilissima e molto fre- 
quente, anoora nelli luoghi pih deserti et 
inoulti." — Vincenao Maria, 854. 

1678. — Fryer describes the tree under the 
name Cheruae (apparently some mistake), 
p. 182. 

1764.— "... Yet if 

The Acajou haply in the garden bloom..." 
Gfrainger, iv. 

[1813. — Forbes caUs it "the chashac- 
apple," and the "co/tfi^-apple." — Or. Mem. 
2nd ed. i. 282, 238.] 

c. 1830.— "The caahew, with its apple 
like that of the cities of the Plain, fair to 
look at, but acrid to the taste, to which the 
far-famed nut is appended like a bud."— 
Tom Cringle, ed. 1863, p. 140. 

1875.— "GaJoo kernels.'*— ra&^qf Customs 
Duties imposea in Br. India up to 1875. 

OASHMEBE, n.p. The famous 
valley province of the Western Hima- 
laya, H. and P. Kaskmtr, from Skt. 
Bjihnira^ and sometimes Kdhn^ra^ 
alleged by Bumouf to be a contrac- 
tion of Kaiyapamira. [The name is 
more probably connected with the 
Khasa tribe.] Whether or not it be 
the Kaspatyrus or Kaspapyrus of Herod- 
otus, we believe it undoubtedly to l>e 
the Kaspeiria (kingdom) of I^lemy. 




Several of the old Arabian .geographers 
write the name with the guttural 
k, but this is not so used in modem 

c. 690.^" The Kingdom of Kia-ihi-mi-lo 
{Kaimxra) has about 7000 li of oircoit. On 
all sides its frontiers are surrounded by 
mountains ; these are of prodigious height ; 
and idthough there are paths affording ac- 
cess to>it, these are extremely narrow." — 
Hvoen, Tmmg {PU, Bauddh,) ii. 167. 

c. 940. — "Kashmir ... is a mountainous 
country, forming a hug^ kingdom, contain- 
ing not less than 60,000 or 70,000 towns or 
Tillages. It is inaccessible except on one 
side, and can only be entered by one gate." 
—Mas^iUli, i. 373. 

1275. — ** Kashmir, a proTince of India, 
adjoining the Turks ; ana its people of mixt 
Tatk and Indian blood excel all others in 
beauty."— iSoibeiriva Kaxvinif in Oildemeister, 

1298. — "KMdiimur also is a province in- 
habited by a people who are idolaters and 
hare a language of their own . . . this 
country is the very source from which 
idolatry has spread abroad." — Marco Polo, 
i. 175. 

1552.—" The Mogols hold especially to- 
wards the N.E. the region Sogdiana, which 
they now call Qnexiinir, and also Mount 
Caucasus which divides India from the other 
Provinces."— 5arro<, IV. vi. 1. 

1615. — "Chishmeare, the chiefe Citie is 
called Siriiudxar."— Terry, in Purchas, ii. 
1467 ; [so in Jioe't Map, vol. ii. Hak. Soc. 
ed. ; Ghiamer in Foster, Letters, iii. 283]. 

1664.—*' From all that hath been said, one 
may easily conjecture, that I am somewhat 
clumned with Kaehemiro, and that I pre- 
tend Uiere is nothing in the world like it for 
so small a kingdom." — Bemier, £. T. 128 ; 
[ed. OnutabU^]. 

" A trial of your kindness I must make ; 

Though not for mine, so much as virtue's 

The Queen of CassimeTe . . ." 

DrydetCs Awrungzebe, iii. 1. 

1814.— "The shawb of Caasimer and the 
silks of In^B."— Forbes, Or. Mem. iii 177; 
[2nd ed. ii 232]. (See KEB8E7MEBE.) 

CASI8, OAZIS, OACIZ, &c., s. 
This Spanish and Portuguese word, 
though Dozy gives it only as vrHre 
dirAten, is frequently employed by 
old travellers, and writers on £)astern 
subjects, to denote Mahommedan 
divines {muUas and the like). It 
may be suspected to have arisen 
from a confusion of two Arabic terms 
—hddi (see CAZEE) and kashUh or 
Jkans^ *a Christian Presbyter* (from a 
^yriac root signifying senuit). Indeed 
we sometimes find the precise word 

kashish {Caxix) used by Christian 
writers as if it were the special title 
of a Mahommedan theologian, instead 
of being, as it really is, the special and 
technical title of a Christian priest (a 
fact which cives Mount Athos its 
common Turkish name of Kashlah 
Ddgh), In the first of the .following 
quotations the word appears to be 
applied by the Mussulman historian 
to pagan priests, and the word for 
churches to pagan temples. In the 
others, except that from Major 
Millingen, it is applied by Christian 
writers to Mahommedan divines, which 
is indeed its recognised signification 
in Spanish and Portugese. In Jarric's 
TheMurus (Jesuit Missions, 1606) the 
word Cacizitu is constantly used in 
this sense. 

c 1810.- **Thereare700churohes (halWa) 
resembling fortresses, and every one of them 
overflowing with presbyters (kaahlflbAn) 
without faith, and monks without relk^on." 
— Description of the Chinese QUy of Khanzai 
(Hangclutu) in WasC^f*s History (see also 
Marco Polo, ii. 196). 

1404. — "The town was inhabited by 
Moorish hermits called CaxizeB ; and many 
people came to them on pilgrimage, and 
they healed many diseases. —JfarMayn'f 
Qlavijo, 79. 

1514. — ''And so, from one to another, the 
message passed through four or five hands, 
tUl it came to a Oasizi, whom we should call 
a bishop or prelate, who stood at the King's 
feet. . . ." — Letter of Oiov. de MhnpoU, in 
Arehiv. Star. Tlal, Append, p. 66. 

1538. — "Just as the Cryer was offering to 
deliver me unto whomsoever would buy me, 
in comes that very Cads Moulana, whom 
they held for a Saint, with 10 or 11 other 
Gaels his Inferiors, all Priests like him- 
self of their wicked sect"— F. M. PirUo 
(tr. by H. C), p. 8. 

1552. — Cads in the same sense used by 
Barros, II. ii. 1. 

ri558. — See quotation from Barros under 

[1554.— "Who was a Cads of the Moors* 
whidi means in Portuguese an ecclesiastic." 
—Castafieia, Bk. I. ch. 7.] 

1561.— "The King sent off the Moor, and 
with him his Casfi, an old man of much 
authority, who was the principal priest of 
his Mosque."— Ciwrai, by Id. Stanley ^ 113. 

1667.—". . . The Holy Synod declares it 
necessary to remove from the territories of 
His Highness all the infidels whose office it 
is to maintain their false religion, such as 
are the cacises of the Moors, and the 
preachers of the Oentoos, jogues, sorcerers, 
[feiticeiros), jousis, grous {i.e. joshis or astro- 
logers, and gurHs), and whatsoever others 
make a business of religion among the in- 
fidels, and so also the braroans and paHnts 



{tprubkHs, see PUBVOE)."— />eiTee 6 of the 

Sacred Council of Ooa, in Arch. Port Or. 

1680. — ". . . 6 f oi sepultado no campo 
per CadMl." — Primer e Honra^ kc, t. ISv. 

1682. — "And for pledge of the same, he 
woold give him his sonne, and one of his 
chief cmiplaines, the which they call CaeUL" 
—CartafUda, by N. L. 

1603.— "And now those initiated priests 
of theirs called Caahishea (CaaciioiB) were 
endeavouring to lay violent hands upon his 
property.'*— Benedict Oo&f in Cathay^ &o., 


1648.— "Here is to be seen an admirably 
wrought tomb in which a certain (SaaiB lies 
buriM, who was the Pedagogue or Tutor of 
a King of GvauraUe."^ Van Ttout, 16. 

1672. — "They call the common priests 
Caiis, or by another name Schierifi (see 
8HEsEEF)i who like their bishops are in no 
way distinguished in dress from simple lay- 
men, except by a bigger turban . . . and a 
longer mantle. . . ."—P. Viiuxnzo Maria, 66. 

1688. — " While they were thus disputing, 
a Gaeix, or doctor of the law, joined company 
with them.**— Diyfeji, L. of Xaviar, }^orltf 
ed. 1821, zvi. 68. 

1870.— "A hierarchical body of priests, 
known to the people (Nestorians) under the 
names of KiesniuiM and Ahma»y is at the 
head of the toibes and villages, entrusted 
with both spiritual and temporal powers." 
— Millingen^ WiM Life among the KomxU, 


priest of the Syrian Church of Malabar ; 
Malayal. kattandr^ meaning originally 
'a chief,' and formed eventually from 
the Skt. kartri. 

1606.— "The Christians of St. Thomas 
call their priests Cafaaares."— (^otcvra, f. 
28d. This author gives CSatatiaxa and 
Ca^aneira as feminine forms, * a Cassanar's 
wife.' The former is Malayal. kdttatti, the 
latter a Port, formation. 

1612.— "A few years ago there arose a 
dispute between a Brahman and a certain 
CaiiMinur on a matter of jurisdiction.*'— P. 
Vincenso Maria, 152. 

[1887.— "Mgr. Joseph . . . consecrated 
as a bishop ... a Catenar."- Zo^an, i/an. 
of Malabar, i. 211.] 

CA8SAY, n.p. A name often given 
in former days to the people of Mnn- 
neepore (Manipur), on the eastern 
frontier of Bengal. It is the Burmese 
name of this people, Kasd^ or as the 
Burmese pronounce it, Ka(h4. It 
must not be confounded with Oathay 
(u.v.) with which it has nothing to do. 
[See 8HAN.] 

1769.— In DdlrvmpU's Orient. Repert, we 
find Caany (1.116). 

1796.— "All the troopers in the King's 
service are natives of Cauay, who are much 
better horsemen than the Bnrmans." — Sym^t, 
p. 818. 

CA880WABY, s. The name of 
this great bird, of which the first 
species known (CastuiriuB gnUatvs) is 
found onlv in Ceram Island {MohL(xas\ 
is Malay hatavdri or kagwM; [accord- 
ing to Scott, the proper reading is 
^Qouruimfri, and he remarks that no 
Malay Diet, records the word before 
1863]. Other species have been ob- 
served in N. Guinea, N. Britain, and 
N. Australia. 

[1611.— "St. James his Oinny Hens, the 
ClUHHlwarway moreover. "— < JNTofc 6y Coryat. ) 
" An East Indian bird at St. James in the 
keeping of Mr. Walker, that wiU carry no 
coafes, but eat them as whot you will." — 
PeAckam, in Paneg. wrta on Coryat's 
Crudiites, og. 1. 8r. (1776) ; quoted by Scott.] 

1631.— *'De Emeu, vulgo Caaoaris. In 
insula Ceram, aliisque Moluocensibus vicinis 
insulis, Celebris haec avis reperitur." — Jac. 
BoniU, lib. v. c. 18. 

1669.— "This aforesaid bird CossebJtrea 
also will swallow iron and lead, as we once 
learned by experience. For when our Connes- 
tabel once had been casting bulleta on the 
Admiral's Bastion, and then went to dinner, 
there came one of these Coasebtoas on the 
bastion, and swallowed 60 of the bullets. 
And . . . next day 1 found that the bird 
after keeping them a while in his maw had 
regularly cast up again all the 60."—/. /. 

1682. — "On the islands Sumatra (?) 
Banda, and the other adjoining islands of 
the Moluccas there is a certain bird, which 
by the natives ia called Bmeu or Erne, but 
otherwise is commonly named by us 
Kasnaris."- iVteuA^, ii. 281. 

1706.— " The CaasawariB is about the big- 
ness of a large Virginia Turkey. His head 
is the same as a Turkey's ; and ne has a long 
stiif hairy Beard ujpon his Breast before, 
like a Turkey. . . . — Funnel, in Ddmpier, 
iv. 266. 

CASTE, s. ^' The artificial divisions 
of society in India, first made known 
to us by the Portugese, and described 
by them under their term caste, signify- 
ing * breed, race, kind,' which has been 
retained in English under the supposi- 
tion that it was the native name'' 
(Wedgwood, S.V.). [See the extra- 
ordinary derivation of Hamilton 
below.] Mr. Elphinstone prefers to 
write '"Cast." 

We do not find that the early Portu- 
guese writer Barbosa (1516) applies the 
word etuta to the divisions of Hindu 




society. He calls these divisions in 
Narsin^ and Malabar so many lets 
de genttosj i.e, * laws' of the heathen, 
in the sense of sectarian rules of life. 
But he uses the word oouia in a less 
technical way, which shows how it 
should easily have passed into the 
technical sense. Thus, speaking of the 
King of Calicut: "This King keeps 
1000 women, to whom he cives regular 
maintenance, and they always go to 
his court to act as the sweepers of 
his palaces . . . these are ladies, and 
of good family " (estas mom fdalgas e 
de boa casta. — In ColL of Lisbon 
Accuiemy, ii 316). So also Castan- 
heda: "There fled a knight who was 
called Femfto Lopez, horiiem de boa 
casta" (iii. 239). In the quotations 
from Barros, Correa, and Uarcia de 
Orta, we have the word in what we 
may call the technical sense. 

c. 1444.— "Whence I conclude that this 
race (casta) of men is the most agile and 
dexterous that there is in the world." — 
Vadaimo«to,t Nwoega^^ i. 14. 

1552. — "The Admiral . . . received these 
Naires with honour and joy, showing great 
contentment with the King for sending his 
message by such persons, saying that he 
expected this coming of theirs to prosper, as 
there did not enter into the business any 
man of the caste of the Moors." — Barrotj I. 
vi. 6. 

1561.— '"Some of them asserted that they 
were of the caste {ctuta) of the Christians. 
—Correa, Lendas, i. 2, 685. 

1563.— "One thing is to be noted . . . that 
no one changes from his father's trade, and 
all those of the same caste (cnuta) of shoe- 
makers are the same." — OaraOf f. 218A. 

1567. — " In some parts of this Province (of 
Goaj the Gentoos divide themselves into 
distmct races or castes {castas) of greater or 
leas diffnity, holding the Christians as of 
lower degree, and keep these so superstiti- 
oosly that no one of a higher caste can eat 
or drink with those of a lower. . . ." — Decree 
2nd of the Sacred Council of Ooay in Archiv, 
Port. Orient., fasc. 4. 

" Dons modos ha de gente ; porque a nobre 

Nairos chamados sao, e a menos dina 

Poleas tern por nome, a quem obriga 

A lel n2o misturar a casUk antiga. — 

CamOes, vii. 37. 

By Burton: 
" Two modes of men are known ; the nobles 

the name of Najrrs, who call the lower 

Polkas, whom their haughty laws contain 

from intermingling #ith the higher strain." 

1612.— "As regards the castes (castas) the 
great impediment to the conversion of the 

Gentoos is the superstition which thev nudn- 
tain in relation to their castas, and which 
prevents them from touching, communicating, 
or mingling with others, whether superior or 
inferior ; these of one observance with those 
of another."— (7of«<o, Dec. V. vi. 4. See also 
as regards the Portuguese use of the word, 
Gouvea, ff. 103, 104, 105, 1066, 1296; 
Synodoy 186, kc. 

1618.— "The Banians kill nothing; there 
are thirtie and odd severall Casts of these 
that differ something in Religion, and may 
not eat with each other."— iv. Withington, 
in PvrchaSf i. 485; see also Pilgrimage, 
pp. 9d7, 1008. 

1630. — "The common BramcoM hath 
eighty two Casts or Tribes, assuming to 
themselves the name of that tribe. . . ." — 
Lord^t Display qf the Batuans, p. 72. 

1673.— "The mixture of Casts or Tribes 
of all India are distinguished by the different 
modes of binding their Turbats." — Fryer, 

c. 1760.— "The distinction of the Gentoos 
into their tribes or Casts, forms another 
considerable object of their religion." — Ortm, 
i. 201. 

1763— "The Casts or tribes into which 
the Indians are divided, are reckoned by 
travellers to be eighty-four."— Orm« (ed. 
1808), i. 4. 

[1820.—" The Kayasthas (pronounced 
Kaists, hence the word caste) follow next." 
— W. Hamilton, Deter, of Hindottan, i. 109.] 

1878— "There are thousands and thou- 
sands of these so-called Castes; no man 
knows their number, no man can know it ; 
for the conception is a very flexible one, and 

moreover new castes continually sprii^ up 
and pass away." — F, Jagor, Ost'Indiache 
Hanawerk und Oewerbe, 13. 

Castes are, according to Indian 
social views, either high or low. 

1876. — "Low-caste Hindoos in their own 
land are, to all ordinary apprehension, 
slovenly, dirty, ungraceful, generally un- 
acceptable in person and surroundings. . . . 
Yet offensive as is the low-casUi Indian, were 
I estate-owner, or colonial governor, I had 
rather see the lowest Pariahs of the low, 
than a single trim, smooth-faced, smooth- 
wayed, clever high-caste Hindoo, on my 
lands or in my colony." — W, Q, Palgrave, in 
Fortnightly Aev., ex. 226. 

In the Madras Prea castes are also 
'Right-hand' and 'Left-handJ This 
distinction represents the agricultural 
classes on the one hand, and the 
artizans, &c., on the other, as was 
pointed out by F. W. Ellis. In the 
old days of Ft. St. George, faction- 
fights between the two were very 
common, and the terms right-hand ancl 
left-hand castes occur early in the old 
records of that settlement, and fre- 




quently in Mr. Talboys Wheeler's 
extracts from them. They are men- 
tioned by Couto. [See Nelwn, Maduray 
Pt ii. p. 4 ; Opvert, Orig, Inhab. p. 67.1 
Sir Walter Elliot considers this feud 
to be ^* nothing else than the occasional 
outbreak of the smouldering antagonism 
between Brahmanism and Buddhism, 
although in the lapse of ages both 
parties have lost sight of tne fact. 
The points on whicn they split now 
are mere trifles, such as parading on 
horse-back or in a palankeen in pro- 
cession, erecting a patTiila.l or marriage- 
shed on a given number of pillars, and 
claiming to carry certain flags, &c. The 
right-hand party is headed bv the 
Brahmans, and includes the l^arias, 
who assume the van, beating their 
tom-toms when they come to blows. 
The chief of the left-hand are the 
Panchalars [i.e, the Five Classes, 
workers in metal and stone, &c.], 
followed by the Pallars and workers 
in leather, who sound their long 
trumpets and engage the Farias." (In 
Joum, Ethnol Soc. N.S. 1869, p. 112.) 

1612.— "From these four castes are de- 
rived 196 ; and those again are divided into 
two parties, which thejr call Valanffa and 
Elange [Tarn, valangaiy idanMi], which is as 
much as to say * the right hand ' and ' the 
left hand. . ." — CoutOy u. s. 

The word is current in French : 
1842. — ''II est clair que les castes n'ont 
jamais pu exister solidement sans une veri- 
table conservation relieieuse." — ComUy Covrs 
de PhU, Positivty vi. 505. 

1877.— ''Nous avons aboli les castes et 
les privil^^ee, nous avons inscrit partout le 

Srincipe de r^alit6 devant la loi, nous avons 
onne le suffrage k tons, mais voilk qu'on 
r^lame maintenant I'^alit^ des conditions." 
• — E, de Laveleycy De la PropriStiy p. iv. 

Oaste is also applied to breeds of 
animals, as *a hign-caste Arab.' In 
such cases the usage may possibly 
have come directly from the Port. 
aUa casta, casta haiacay in the sense of 
breed or strain. 

CASTEES, 8. Obsolete. The Indo- 
Portuguese formed from casta the word 
caslicoy which they used to denote 
children bom in India of Portuguese 
parents ; much as Creole was used in 
the W. Indies. 

1599. — "Liberi vero natiin Indilt, utroque 
parente Lusitano, castisofl vocantur, in om- 
nibus fere Lusitanis similes, colore tamen 
modicum diffenmt, ut qui ad ffilvum non 
nihil deflectant. Ex ostisis deinde nati 

magis magisque gilvi fiunt, a parentibus et 
mestici* magis denectentes ; porro et meaticU 
nati per omnia indigenis respondent, ita ut 
in tertid. generatione Lusitam reliquis Indis 
sunt simiTlimi." — De Bry, ii. 76 ; {i^insGhotffi 
[Hak. Soc. i. 184]). 

1688.— "Les habitans sont ou Castises, 
c'est k dire Portugais naturels, et nez de 

rtre et de mere Portugais, ou Mestise»y c'est 
dire, nez d'vn pere Portugais et d'vne mere 
Indienne. " — Mandeldo. 

1653. — " Les Castissos sont ceux qui sont 
nays de pere et mere reinols (Beinol); ce 
mot vient de Casta, qui signifie Race, Us 
sont mesprizez des Reynols. . . ." — Le Oouzy 
Voyagesy 26 (ed. 1657). 

1661.— "Die Stadt (Negapatam) ist dm- 
lich volksreich, doch menrentheils von 
Mastycen Castyoen, und Portugesichen 
Christen.*'— H'ttrtisr SchuUey 108. 

1699.— " Castees wives at Fort St. 
George."— CeTutM of English on the Coasty in 
WheeUry i. 356. 

1701-2.— In the MS. Return of Pertms in 
the Service of the Rt. Honble, the b. L 
(hmpanyy in the India Office, for this year, 
we find, "4th (in Council) Matt. Empson, 
Sea Customer, marry 'd Castees," and Tmder 
1702, "13. Charles Bugden . . . marry'd 

1726. — ". . . or the offspring of the same 
by native women, to wit Midicet and Gasti- 
ces, or blacks . . . and Moors. " — Valentipi^ 
V. 8. 

CASIJABINA, s. A tree {Gasuar- 
ina muricaUi, Roxb. — N. 0. Ca^suarinea^e) 
indigenous on the coast of Chittagong 
and the Burmese provinces, and south- 
ward as far as Queensland. It was 
introduced into Bengal by Dr. F. 
Buchanan, and has been largely adopted 
as an ornamental tree both in Bengal 
and in Southern India. The tree has 
a considerable superficial resemblance 
to a larch or other finely-feathered 
conifer, making a very acceptable 
variety in the not plains, where real 
pines will not grow. [The name, ac- 
cording to Mr. Scott, appears to be 
1)ased on a Malayan name associating 
the tree with the Ga4Miowai7, as Mr. 
Skeat su^;ests from the resemblance 
of its neeoJes to the quills of the bird.] 

1861. — See quotation under PEEFUL. 

1867.—" Our road lay chiefly by the sea- 
coast, along the white sands, which were 
fringed for miles by one grand oontinuou.s 
line or border of caenarina trees."— iU. -Co/. 
LeitnUy A Fly on the Wheely 362. 

1879.-^" It was lovely in the white moon- 
light, with the curving shadows of palms on 
the dewy grass, the grace of the drooping 
casuarinaB, the shinin^r water, and the long 
drift of surf. . . ."—Mist Birdy Golden Cher- 
sonese, 275. 




katttt^ 'binding,' maram^ 'wood.' A 
raft formed of three or four logs of 
wood lashed together. The Anglo- 
Indian accentuation of the last 8yllai)le 
is not correct. 

1583. — "SeTen round timbers lashed to- 
gether for each of the said boats, and of the 
said seven timbers five form the bottom ; 
one in the middle longer than the rest makes 
a cutwater, and another makes a poop which 
is under water, and on which a man sits. . . 
These boats are called GatamsroiiL"— J3a/6t, 
Viagffio, f . 82. 

1673. — " Coasting along some Catta- 
mm-rmnm (Logs lashed to that advantage that 
thev waft on all their Goods, only having a 
Sail in the midst and Paddles to guide them) 
made after us. . . "—Fryer, 24. 

1686.—'^ Some time after the Cattamaran 
brought a letter. . . ."—In Whaler^ i. 834. 

1700. — " Un pecheur assis sur un oatlma- 
nm, c*est k dire sur quelques grosses pieces 
de bois li^es ensemble en mani^re de 
radeau."— Let^. Edif. z. 58. 

c. 1780.— "The wind was high, and the 
ship had but two anchors, and in the next 
forenoon parted from that by which she was 
riding, before that one who was coming 
from the shore on a Catanuuran could reach 
her,'*— Orme, iii. 300. 

1810.— Williamson IV. M. I 65) applies the 
term to the rafts of the Braalian fisher- 

1836. — "None can compare to the Cata- 
*"•**"■ and the wonderful people that man- 
age them . . . each catanuuran has one, 
two, or three men . . . they sit crouched 
upon their heels, throwing their paddles 
about very dexterously, but very unlike 
rowing.'* — Letters fiom AtadtxUf 34. 

1860. — "The Cattamazan is common to 
Ceylon and Coromandel." — Tennenty Ceylon, 
i. 442. 

[During the war with Napoleon, the 
word came to be applied to a sort of 
fire-ship. "Great hopes have been 
formed at the Admiralty (in 1804) of 
certain vessels which were filled with 
combustibles and called catamaxaBB." 
— <W. Stanhope, Life of PiU, iv. 218.) 
This may have introduced the word in 
English and led to its \ise as * old cat ' 
for a shrewish hag.] 

CAUT, 8. An astringent extract 
from the wood of several species of 
Acacia (Acacia catechu, Willd.), the 
JduUr, and Acacia sumo, Kurz, Ac, 
gundra, D. C. and probably more. The 
extract is called in H. kath, [Skt. kvath, 
'to decoct *], but the two first com- 

mercial names which we have given 
are doubtless taken from the southern 
forms of the word, e,g. Can. kdchu, 
Tam. kdsu, Malay kaaiu, De Orta, 
whose judgments are always worthy 
of respect, considered it to be the 
lycium of the • ancients, and always 
applied that name to it ; but Dr. 
Royle has shown that lycium was an 
extract from certain species of berheris, 
known in the bazars- as raadt Outch 
is first mentioned by Barbosa, among 
the dru^ imported into Malacca. But 
it remained unknown in Europe till 
brought from Japan about the middle 
of the 17th century. In the 4th ed. 
of Schroder's Pharmaco^. Medioo-chy- 
mica, Lyons, 1654, it is briefly de- 
scribed as CaJUchu or Terra Japonica, 
^^ genus terrae exoticae*^ (Hanbury and 
Flachiger, 214). This misnomer has 
long survived. 

1516. — " . . . drugs from Cambay ; amongst 
which there is a drug which we do not 
posse ss, and which they call pucM {aee 
FUTGHOCK) and another called cadhd.— 
Barbota, 191. 

1554.— "The bahar of Cato, which here 
(at Ormuz) they call'cadho, is the same as 
that of rice."— il. Nunes, 22. 

1663.— " CoDoquio XXXI. Concerning 
the wood vulgarly called Gate; and con- 
taining profitable matter on that subject" — 
Garcia, f. 125. 

1578.— ** The Indians use this Gate mixt 
with Areca, and with Betel, and by itself 
without other mixture." — Acotta, Tract. 150. 

1585.— Sassetti mentions catu as derived 
from the Khadvra tree, i.e. in modem Hindi 
the Khair (Skt khadira). 

[1616.-"010 bags Catcha."-Fort«r, Let- 
tersy iv. 127.] 

1617. — "And there was rec. out of the 
Adviz, viz. . . 7 hhds. drugs oacha ; 5 ham- 
pers pochok" (see PUTCHOCK).— Cocib'# 
Diary, i. 294. 

1759.— " JJorto/ [see HUBTAUL] and 
Cotofa, Earth-oil, and Wood-oil. "—ii^f of 
Burma Products in Dalrymple, Orientai 
Repert. i 109. 

c. 1760.— "To these three articles (betel, 
areca, and chunam) is often added for luxury 
what they call cachoonda, a Japan-earth, 
which from perfumes and other mixtures, 
chiefly manufactured at Goa, receives such 
improvement as to be sold to advantage 
when re-imported to Japan. . . . Anoliier 
addition too they use of what thev caU 
Catohoo, being a blackish granulated per- 
fumed composition. . . ."—Grote, i. 238. 

1813.—". . . The peasants manufacture 
catechu, or terra Japonica, from the Keiri 
[khair] tree {Mimota catechu) which g^ws 
wild on the hills of Kankana, but in 
no other part of the Indian Peninsula'* 




[erroneouB].— For6ef, Or. Mem. i. 308 ; [2nd 
ed. i. 198} 

CATHAY, n.p. China; originally 
Northern China. The origin of the 
name is given in the quotation below 
from the Introduction to Marco Polo. 
In the 16th century, and even later, 
travellers, Cathay was supposed to be 
a country north of China, and is so 
represented in many maps. Its identi^ 
with China was fully recocniBed by P. 
Martin Martini in his AUaa Sinensis; 
also by Valentijn, iv. China^ 2. 

1247.— '*Kitai autem . . . homines sunt 
pagani, qui habent literam specialem . . . 
homines oenigni et humani satis esse yide- 
antur. Barbam non habent, et in disposi- 
tione faciei satis concordant cum Monffalis, 
non tamen sunt in facie ita lati . . . meuores 
artifices non inyeniuntur in toto mundo . . . 
terra eorum est opulenta Talde. " — J. de Piano 
Carpinij Hist, MongtUorum^ 653-4. 

1253.— "Ultra est magna Gataya, qui 
antiquitus, ut credo, dioemuitur Seres. . . . 
Isti Catai sunt parvi homines, loquendo 
multum aspirantes per nares et . . . habent 
parvam aperturam oculonim/' kc, — Itin. 
WUkdmi de Ruhruk, 291-2. 

c. 1330. — " Cathay is a yery great Empire, 
which extendeth over more than c. aays' 
journey, and it hath only one lord. . . . — 
Friar JordanuM, p. 54. 

1404.—*' E lo mas alxofar [see ALJOFAB] 
que en el mundo se ha, se pesia e falla en 
a^l mar del Gatay. "— C^ri^, f. 32. 

1555.— ''The Yndians called CatheiM 
have eche man many wiuee." — WcUrematif 
Fardie of Faciountj M. ii. 

1598. — " In the lande lying westward from 
China, they say there are white people, and 
the land called Gatliak^ where (as it is 
thought) are many Christians, and that it 
should confine and border upon Persia,'* — 
Linschoten, 57 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 126]. 

[1602. — ". . . and arriued at any porte 
within the dominions of the kingdomes of 
Cataya, China, or Japan. " — Birdiroodj First 
Letter Book, 24. Here China and Caiava are 
spoken of as different countries. Comp. 
Birdtrood, Rep. on Old Rec., 168 note.] 

Before 1633.— 
** I'll wish you in the Indies or Cataia. . . ." 
Beaum. dt Fletch., The Woman's Prize, 
iv. 5. 

" Domadores das terras e dos mares 

Nao so im Malaca, Indo e Perseu streito 

Mas na China, Catai, Japao ostranho 

Lei nova introduzindo em saoro banho." 

Malaca Conr/mstada. 

1664. — "Tis not yet twenty years, that 
there went caravans every year from Kache- 
mire, which crossed all Uiose mountains of 
the great Tibet, entred into Tartary, and 

arrived in about three months at CSataia. 
. . ."— J5«niwr, E. T., 136 ; [ed. Oamekile, 

" Better fifty years of Europe 
than a cycle of Cathay.'* 

Tennyson, LockeUy Hall. 

1871.— "For about three centories the 
Northern Provinces of China had been de- 
tached from native rule, and subject to 
foreign dynasties ; first to the Kkiian . . . 
whose rule subsisted for 200 years, and 
originated the name of Kkiiai, Khata, or 
Cathay, by which for nearly 1000 years 
China has been known to the nations of 
Inner Asia, and to those whose acquaint- 
ance with it was got hj that channel." — 
Marco Polo, Introd. ch. u. 

GATS-ETE, s. A stone of value 
found in Ceylon. It is described by 
Dana as a form of chalcedony of a 
greenish grey, with glowing internal 
reflections, wnence the Portuguese call 
it Olho de gcUo, which our word trans- 
lates. It appears from the quotation 
below from Dr. Koyle that the Beli 
oculus of Pliny has been identified 
with the ccU's-eye^ which may well be 
the case, though the odd circumstance 
noticed by Royle may be only a 
curious coincidence. [The phrase billi 
H dnkh does not appear in Platt^s Diet. 
The usual name is lahaaniyd, ^like 
^rlic' The Burmese are said to call 
It kyoung, *a cat.*] 

c. A.D. 70.—" The stone called Belus eye is 
white, and hath within it a black apple, the 
mids whereof a man shall see to ghtter Uke 
gold. . . ,**— Holland: s Plinitt, ii. 625. 

c. 1340. — "Quaedam regiones monetam 
non habent, sed pro ea utuntur lapidibus 
quos didmus Gatl Ooulos."— Conit, m Pog- 
gius, De Var. Fortunae, lib. iv. 

1516. — "And there are found likewise 
other stones, such as Olho da gato, Chryso- 
lites, and amethysts, of which I do not treat 
because they are of little value." — Barbosa, 
in Lisbon Acad., ii. 390. 

1599. — "Lapis insuper alius ibi vulgaris 
est, quem Lusitani oUiOS da gatto, id est, 
oeulum felinum vocant, propterea quod cum 
eo et colore et facie conveniat. Nihil autem 
aliud quam achates est."— /><• Bry, iv. 84 
(after Linschoten) ; [Hak. Soc. i. 61, ii. 141]. 

1672.— "The Cat's-eyaa, by the Portu- 
guese called Olhos de Oaios, occur in Zeylon, 
Cambaya, and Peau ; they are more 
esteemed by the Indians than by the Portu- 
guese ; for some Indians believe that if a 
man wears this stone his power and riches 
will never diminish, but always inerease." — 
Baldaeus, Germ. ed. 160. 

1837. — "Beli oculus, mentioned by Pliny, 
zxxvii. c. 55, is considered by Hardouin to 




be eqmTalent to OBil de ohat— nAmed in 
India biUt te anktu^—RoyUi Hindu Medi- 
cine^ p. lOS. 

GATT7, & 
. Bn a weight used in China, and by 
the Chinese introduced into the 
Archipelago. The Chinese name is 
kin or chin. The word JfOtl or hall 
is ^LUayo-Javanese. It is equal to 
16 taels, i,e, li lb. avoird. or 625 
grammes. This is the weight fixed by 
treaty ; but in Chinese trsMie it varies 
from 4 oz. to 28 oz. ; the lowest value 
being used by tea-vendors at Peking, 
the highest by coal-merchants in 

[1554. — *'Gaie." See quotation under 

1598.— "Ererie Gatie is as much as 20 
PortingaU ooncee.''— ZA1ucMe3^ 34; [Hak. 
Soc. i. 118]. 

1604.— "Their pound they call a Gate 
which is one and twentie of our ounces." — 
Capt, John Davity in PureKtUy i. 123. 

1609.—" Offering to enact amonff them the 
penaltie of death to such as would sel one 
catfeie of spice io the Hollanders." — Keeling j 
ilrid. i. 199. 

1610.—" And (I prayse God) I hare aboord 
one hundred thirtie nine Tunnes, six 
Cathayes, one quarteme two pound of 
nutmegs and sixe hundred two and twenty 
suckettes of Mace, which maketh thirtie 
sixe Tunnes, fifteene Gathaires one quar- 
teme, one and twentie pound." — David 
Midldon, ibid. i. 247. In this passage, 
however, Caihayet seems to be a strange 
blunder of Pnrchas or his copyist for Cwt. 
ifttcieite ia probably Malay mJkat, "a measure, 
a stated quantity." [The word appears as 
SHckell in a letter of 1615 (Foster, ni. 175). 
Mr. Skeat sugsrests that it is a misreading 
for Pocnl. Sukatj he says, means *to 
measure anything' (indefinitely), but is 
never used for a definite measure. J 

h. The word catty occurs in another 
sense in the following passage. A note 
says that ^^ Catty or more literally 
Kiittoo is a Tamil word signifying 
iMitta " (q>v.). But may it not rather 
be a clerical error for batty ? 

1669. — "If we should detain them longer 
we are to give them catty." — Letter in 
Whedar, L 162. 

GATUB, s. A liffht rowing vessel 
used on the coast of Malabar in the 
early days of the Portuguese. We 
have not been able to trace the name 
to any Indian source, [unless possibly 
Skt. chaturOf 'swift*]. Is it not pro- 

bably the origin of our ' cutter * ? We 
see that Sir K. Burton in his Com- 
mentary on Camoens (vol. iv. 391) 
says : " Catur is the Arab, katireh^ a 
small craft, our * cutter.* " [This view 
is rejected by the N.E.D.^ which re- 
gards it as an English word from ' to 
cut.*] We cannot say when cutter was 
introduced in marine use. We cannot 
find it in Dampier, nor in Robinson 
Orutoey the first instance we have 
found is that quoted below from 
Anson's Voyage. [The N.E,D. has 
nothing earlier than 1745.] 

Bluteau gives catur as an Indian 
term indicating a small war vessel, 
which in a calm can be aided by 
oars. Jal (Arch^ologie NavaU, ii. 259) 
quotes Witsen as saying that the 
Gaturi or Alma^iiiaji were Calicut 
vessels, having a length of 12 to 13 
paces (60 to 65 feetX sharp at both 
ends, and curving back, using both 
sails and oars. But there was a larger 
kind, 80 feet long, with only 7 or 8 
feet beam. 

1610.— "There is also another kind of 
vessel. . . . These are all made of one piece 
. . . sharp at both ends. These ships are 
called Ghatnri, and go either with a sail 
or oars more swiftly than any galley, futtOf 
or brigantine." — Varthema, 154. 

1544. — ". . . navigium majus quod Yocant 
catiuram."— «Sc<t. Franc. Xav. EpiitoUUj 121. 

1549. — ** Naves item duas (quas Indi 
catures ^vxiant) summA celeritate armari 
jussit, vt Oram maritimam legentes, hostes 
commeatu prohiberent." — Goes, de Bello 
Camhaico, 1331. 

1552, — "And this winter the CJovemor 
sent to have built in Cochin thirty Catures, 
which are vessels with oars, but smaller 
than brigantines.'" — Castanheda^ iii. 271. 

1588.— "Cambaicam oram Jacobus Lac- 
teus duobos caturibUB tueri jussus. . . ." — 
Maffd, lib. xiii. ed. 1752, p. 283. 

1601. — " Biremes, seu Cathnris qtiam 
plurimae conduntur in Lassaon, Javae civi- 
tate. . . ." — De Bry, iii. 109 (where there 
is a plate, iii. No. xxxvii.). 

1688. — "Il^o man was so bold to contra- 
dict the man of God ; and they all went 
to the Arsenal. There they found a good 
and sufficient bark of those they call Gatnr, 
besides seven old foysts." — Dryden, Life of 
Xavier, in Works, 1821, xvi. 200. 

1742. — ". . . to prevent even the possi- 
bility of the galeons escaping us in the night, 
the two Cutters belonging to the Centurion 
and the Oloucester were both manned and 
sent in shore. . . ." — Anson's Voyage, 9th ed. 
1756, p. 251. Cutter also occurs pp. Ill, 
129, 150, and other places. 




GAUVEBY, n.p. The great river 
of S. India. Properly Tarn. Kdviriy 
or rather Kdveriy and SanBcritized 
Kdveri. The earliest mention is that 
of Ptoleniy, who writes the name 
(after the Skt. form) Xd^ripos (sc. rrora- 
/i6s). The Kafidpa of the Periplufl 
(c. A.D. 80-90) probably, however, 
represents the same name, the Xafiripls 
iliiropibv of Ptolemy. The meaning of 
the name has been much debated, and 
several plausible but imsatisfactory 
explanations have been given. Thus 
the Skt. form Kd'oiri has been ex- 
plained from that laug]aage by kdvSra 
* saffron.' A river in the Tamil 
country is, however, hardly likely to 
have a non-mjrthological Skt. name. 
The Cauvery in flood, like other S. 
Indian rivers, assumes a reddish hue. 
And the form Kdveri has been ex- 
plained by Bp. Caldwell as possibly 
from the Dra vidian kdvi, ' red ochre ' 
or kd {kd-va\ ' a grove,' and er-M, Tel. 
*a river,' er-i, Tam. 'a sheet of water' ; 
thus either *red river' or * grove river.' 

SThe Madras Admin. Gloss, takes it 
rom kdy Tam. * grove,' and ert, Tam. 
'tank,' from its original source in a 
£;arden tank.] Kd-viri^ however, the 
form found m inscriptions, affords a 
more satisfactory Tamil interpretation, 
viz. Kd'Viriy * grove-extender,' or 
developer. Any one who has travelled 
along the river will have noticed the 
thick groves all along the banks, which 
form a remarkable feature of the 

c. 160 A.D.— 
'* XapT^pov irorafjMv iK^oXdix 

Xaprjpli ifiTopiSv," — Ptolemy, lib. vii. 1. 

The last was probably represented by 

c. 545. — "Then there is Sieledeba^ t.«. 
Taprobane . . . and then again on the 
Continent, and further back, is Marallo, 
which exports conch-shells ; Kaber, which 
exports alabandinum." — Con^icu, Topog. 
Christ, in CaJthay, &c. clxxviii. 

1310-11.— *' After traversing the passes, 
they arrived at night on the banks of the 
river EftnolMXl, and bivouacked on the 
sands." — Amir Khuru, in Elliot, ii. 90. 

The Cauvery appears to be ignored in 
the older Europeaii account and maps. 

GAVALLY, s. This is mentioned 
as a fish of Cevlon by Ives^ 1776 
(p. 57). It is no doubt the same that 
is described in the quotation from 
Pyrard [see Gra'^s note, Hak. Soc. 

i. 388]. It mav represent the genus 
EquuUi^ of whicn 12 spp. are described 
by Day {Fiskes of India, pp. 237-242), 
two being named by different zoolo- 
gists E. caballa. But Dr. Day hesi- 
tates to identify the fish now in 
?[ue8tion. The fish mentioned in the 
ourth and fifth quotations mav be the 
same species ; but that in the fifth 
seems aoubtful. Many of the spp. 
are extensively sun-dried, and eaten 
by the poor. 

c. 1610. — "Ces Moucois pescheurs pren- 
nent entr'autres grande quantity d'vne 
sorte de petit poisson, qui n'est pas plus 
grande que la main et larg^ comme vn 
petit bremeau. Les Portugais I'appellent 
I^esche capallo. 11 est le plus commun 
de toute oeste coste, et c'est de quoy ils 
font le plus grand trafic ; car ils le tendent 
par la moiti^, ils le salent, et le font secher 
au soleil." — Pyrard de Laval, i. 278; see 
also 809 ; [Hak. Soc. i. 427 ; ii. 127, 294, 

1626.— ''The lie inricht us with many 
good things ; Buffols, . . . oysters. Breams, 
CavalloeB, and store of other fish."— ^V T. 

1652. — "There is another very small fish 
vulgarly called Cayalle, which is good 
enough to eat, but not very wholesome." — 
PUhppus a Sand. Trinitate, in Fr. Tr. 388. 

1796.— "The ayla, called in Portuguese 
cavala, has a good taste when fresh, but 
when ssilted becomes like the herring." — Fra 
Paolini, E. T., p. 240. 

1875.—" Qarunx denier (Bl. Schn.). This 
fish of wide range from the Mediterranean to 
the coast of Brazil, at St. Helena is known 
as the Cavalley, and is one of the bc»t table 
fish, being indeed the salmon of St. Helena. 
It is taken in considerable numbers, chiefly 
during the summer months, around the 
coast, in not very deep water : it varies in 
length from nine inches up to two or three 
feet."— .S». HeleiujL, by /. C. Mellits, p. 106. 

kdni, * property,* hence 'land,' [from 
Tam. Joan, *to see,' what is known 
and recognised,! and so a measure of 
land used in tne Madras Presidency. 
It varies, of course, but the standeurd 
Gavmy is considered to be = 24 manai 
or GronndB (q.v.), of 2,400 sq. f . each, 
hence 57,600 sq. f. or ac. 1*322. This 
is the only sense in which the word 
is used in the Madras dialect of the 
Anglo-Indian tongue. The * Indian 
Vocabulary' of 1788 has the word in 
the form Goxuiys, but with an unin- 
telligible explcuoation. 

1807. — "The land measure of the Jaghire 
is as follows: 24 Adies square=l Culy; 
100 Culie8=l Canay. Out of what is 




called charity however the Culy is in fact 
a Bamboo 2d Adies or 22 feet 8 inches in 
length . . . the Ady or Malabar foot is 
therefore 10 yV\» inches nearly ; and the CTisto- 
mary canay contains 61,375 sq. feet, or 
1^\^ acres nearly ; while the proper canay 
wcNild only contain 43,778 feet." — F, Buck- 
anon, Myaore^ Ac. i. 6. 

GAWNPOBE, n.p. The correct 
name is Kdnhpur, * the town of K&nh, 
Kanhaiya or Krishna.' The city of 
the Doab so called, having in 1891 
a population of 188,712, has grown 
up entirely under British rule, at first 
as the bazar and dependence of the 
cantonment established here under a 
treaty made with the Nabob of Oudh 
in 1766, and afterwards as a great 
mart of trade. 

CAYMAN, s. This is not used in 
India. It is an American name for 
an alligator ; from the Carib acayuman 
(LiUr^). But it appears formerly to 
have been in general use among the 
Dutch in the East. [It is one of 
those words "which the Portuguese 
or Spaniards very early caught up in 
one part of the world, and naturalised 
in another." (N.E.D.)]. 

1530. — "The country is extravagantly 
hot; and the rivers are full of Caimans, 
which are certain water-lizards (lagarti)." 
— Nunno de Ouzman, in Hamiuio, iii. 839. 

1598.— "In this river (Zaire or Congo) 
there are living divers kinds of creatures, 
and in particuuur, mighty great crocodiles, 
which the country people there call 
C9ainBlk."—PUmfeUa, in Harleian Coll. of 
Voyages, ii. 533. 

This is an instance of the wav in 
which we so often see a word belong- 
ing to a different quarter of the world 
undoubtingly ascribed to Africa or 
Asia^ as the case may be. In the 
next quotation we find it ascribed to 

1631.— "lib. V. cap. iii. De Crocodile 
qui per totam Indiam cayman audit." — 
Bonkiu, HUt. Nat. et Med. 

1672. — "The figures so represented in 
Adam's footsteps were ... 41. The King 
of the Caimans or Crocodiles."— ^a^cKo^ru^ 
{Oerm. erf.), 148. 

1692. — "Anno 1692 there were 3 newly 
arrived soldiers . . . near a certain ^bbet 
that stood by the river outside the ooom, 
so sharplv pursued by a Kaieman that they 
were oobged to climb the gibbet for safety 
whilst the creature standing up on his hind 
feet reached with his snout to the very 
top of thegibbet. "-Fa^en/yn, iv. 231. 

GAYOLAQXJE, s. Kayu=='^^'ood; 
in Malay. Laka is given in Craw- 
furd's Malay Diet, as "name of a 
red wood used as incense, Myridica 
iners,** In his Descr. Did. he calls it 
the ^^Tanarius major; a tree with a 
red-coloured wood, a native of Sumatra, 
used in dyeing and in pharmacy. It 
is an article of consiaerable native 
trade, and is chiefly exported to 
China" (p. 204). [The word, accord- 
ing to Mr. Skeat, is probably kayu, 
*wood,' lakh, *red dye ^ (see LAC), but 
the combined form is not in Klinkert, 
nor are these trees in Ridley's plant 
list. He gives Ldka-laka or Malafca as 
the name of the phyUanthus emblica.] 

1510. — "There also grows here a very 
great quantity of laoca for making rod 
colour, and the tree of this is formed like 
our trees which produce walnuts." — Var- 
thema, p. 238. 

c. 1560. — "I being in Cantan there was 
a rich (bed) made wrought with luorie, 
and of a sweet wood which they call 
Gayolaque, and of Sandalum, that was, 
prized at 1500 Crownes." — Oaspar Da OruZj 
m PwrckaSf iii. 177. 

1585. — " Euerie morning and euening they 
do offer vnto their idmles frankensence, 
benjamin, wood of aguila, and cayolaqne, 
the which is maruelous sweete. . . ." — 
Mendoza's Chinas i. 58. 

GAZEE, EAJEE, &c., h. Arab. 
Jbddi, * a judge,' the letter zwdd with 
which it is spelt being always pro- 
nounced in Inaia like a z. The form 
Cadi, familiar from its use in the old 
version of the Arabian Nights, comes 
to us from the Levant. The word 
with the article, al-Jbddi, becomes in 
Spanish alcalde ; * not alcaide, which is 
from kd*ld, *a chief; nor algiiacil, 
which "is from wazir. So Dozy and 
Engielmann, no doubt correctly. But 
in rinto, cap. 8, we find " ao guazil da 
justica q em elles he como corre- 
gedor entre nos " ; where guazil seems 
to stand for kdzt. 

It is not easy to give an accurate 
account of the position of the Kdsl in 
British India, which has gone through 
variations of which a distinct record 
cannot be found. But the following 
outline is believed to be substantially 

* Dr. R. Boat observes to us that the Aiabic 
letter vwdd is pronounced by the Malays like U 
(see also Crawfurd's Malay Grammar ^ p. 7). And 
it is curious to And a transfer of the same letter 
into Spanish as Id. In Malay kadi becomes kalli. 




Under Adawlut I have given a 
brief sketch of the history of the 
judiciary under the Company in the 
Bengal Presidency. Down to 1790 
the greater part of the administration 
of criminal justice was still in the 
hands of native judges, and other 
native officials of various kinds, though 
under European supervision in varying