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Harvard College 



Archibald Gary Coolidge 

€Um99 (41887 















J-truSOyt/IS ritOFBSV'R /.V THK rS'llKRXirY of rAMBHlli'.K 




JInn-n-i O.IK-o Librai 

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Gkneiial Topography and Site of the Holt Sepulchbe. 


Valub of the TraditioDary Evidence 2 

Dhutntod by the Example cf Elenthcropolia ... 5 

Dr. E. Clarke'B hasty conclusions 7 

General Topogn^>hy of the modern €^ ... 8 

Nomenclature and Directory .... 10 

Stieets and Quarters 11 

The Question stated 13 

I. Site of the Hippie Tower determined .... 14 

II. Position of the Gate Gennath 17 

Dr. Robinson's theory and ai]gument8 examined 18 

Conclusion 24 

III. Dr. Robinson's Acra not consistent with Josephus 25 

IV. ~ TyropoBon not discoverable ... 29 

No valley along the line indicated by him 30 

Testimony of Mr. E. Smith and Dr. Schultz ib. 

Large Se^'er on Mount Sion . . 31 

Brocardus no antiquary .... 32 

Arguments against this Tyropceon . 35 

The Pool of the Bath, not Hezekiah's . 36 

Probably the Amygdalon of Joeephus . 38 

'IV true Tyropoeon determined 39 

Re]ati\'e situation of Sion and Acra . . . 41 

Western Gates of the Temple 42 

Solomon's Causeway 43 

The Tyropceon identical with the Suburb . . .45 

TV Hill Acra, north of the Temple, identified 49 

Ijne of the Second Wall 54 

Traces of the Wall 56 

Objection considered 60 

Josephus— Tacitus — Saewulf 61 

Eusebius and S. Jerome 62 

Results stated 64 

.Mr. Fmlay's Theory stated 65 

— — examined 66 




HisrroRicAL Evidence for the Holy Sepulchre. 

Geoenl Aigmnents 

Continuity of the nasoeB 
Tba Fane of Venus 
Eaily Pilgrimages to Jerusalem 
Veneration of Sacred places . 

The Sepulchre a Cave 

— — described 

Testimony of Eusebius .... 

— — TTie Bourdeaux Pilgrim 

— — S. Cyrfl 

— -• Antoninus Placentinus . 

— — ArcuUus .... 

— — S. Wiffibald .... 

— — P^ischasins Radbertus 
Dr. ScfaultK's Theory 

The Hegumen Daniel 
Cave uncovered by Bonifeioe 
The Fire furnishes evidence for a Cave 
Mr. Feigusson's Theory and Authorities examined 

Scriptural aigumraits .... 
Onomasticon and Tlieophania of Eusebius 
life of Constantine .... 
Hie Bourdeaux Pilgrim . 
S. Cyril and Antoninus Martyr . 
The Paschal Chnmide . 


S. Willibald and Bemhardus Monachus 

The Transference assumed 

Moslem and Christian Witnesses examined 
SkwuE Albert of Aix. William of Tyre 
Smnmaiy and CoDdnsion . . 
Dr. Wilson's objections considered .... 

Dr. Shaw's judgment 

Description of the Churches around the Holy Sepulchre . 

— — Calvary ... 

— — - Place of the Invention of the Cross 




BY Pbofbbbor Wilub. 

•ACT. PAei 

I. Introductory Remaiks 129 

II. Chordi of the Holy Sqralchre in general ... 135 
IIL On the Holy Sepulchre and Rock-tombs in general . . 139 

IV. TYmc Tombt of the Judges 152 

V. The Tomb of Absalom 157 

VL Desoriptian of the Hdy Sepulchre .... 160 

VII. The former State and History of the Sepulchre . 170 

VIIL The Church of the Holy Sepulchre .... 197 

The Rotunda 198 

The Western Door 204 

The Chapel of the Apparition 208 

Hie Corridor and Prison 209 

The Southern Chapels and Campanile .... 210 

The Crusaders' Alterations 213 

Hie Choir and Lantern 215 

Hie Eastern Aisle and Chapels, with the Chapel of Hdena 

and the Invention, and the Old Convent of the Canons 219 

The South Transept and Chapels of Calvary . . 224 

The Stone of Unction 228 

Hie Entrance Front and Outer Buildings .... 232 

IX- The Original Form of the Ground .... 236 

X. Hie Basilica of Constantme 241 

XI. The Buildings of the Second Period, from A.n. 614 to a.d. 

1010, including the Narrative of Arculfiis . 257 
Xll The Buildings of the Third Period, from a.d. 1010 to a.d. 

1009, mduding the Narrative of Saswulf . . 269 


Note A. On the Imitations of the Holy Sepulchre in the Middle 

Ages .277 

B. On the Conflagration of the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre in 1808 282 

.. C. On the Authorities for the Plans and Sectbns in Plates 

II. and III 285 

Descriptioo of the ilates, with Additional Remarks . 289 



The TEBfPLE Mount. 


Ge&eral Survey of the Area of the Great Moek . 296 

Intoior. The Gates 298 

Tlie Dome of the Rock 301 

The Moek el-Aksa 305 

Vaulted Substructions 309 

The Gdden Gate 313 

Ezterkur. The Eastern Wall .... .314 

The Southern 317 

The Western 319 

The Northern 324 

Site of the Jewish Temple 326 

The Outer CkMirt 328 

Tba Royal Gknster 329 

The Inner Court . . i 330 

Jewish traditions of the Site 332 

Christian ditto 336 

The place of the Altar determined 341 

The present Platform marks the Inner Court 343 

Discrepant measures of the extent of the Outer Court 344 

Dr. Robinson's attempt to reconcile them . . . 345 

His hypothesis of Antonia examined .... 348 

— — of the Golden Gate .... 355 

Probably the Gate Shushan 357 

Substructions at the South did not belong to the Temple 360 

Probable Site of Ophd 365 

Justinian's Church of S. Mary described by Procopius . . 368 

Its identity with the Moek d-Aksa established by history 372 

Confirmed by its Architecture 379 

The Original Temple of the Knights Templars . 381 

The Substructions of d-Aksa planned for the Church . 383 

Hie Ruined Arch did not belong to the Bridge . . 387 

Tins Bridge is still found in the Causeway .... 392 

The Jews' WaiUng Place 398 

Results of the Investigatbn 400 

Difficulties of every theory 402 

The Tower Antonia. Historical Notices .403 

Its probable position 408 

Fidelity and accuracy of Josephus 411 

Our Lord's Prophecy fulfilled 413 



Hmn A. Mx. Wmgamim*9 Tbrnj of die Modi nT Onur, and die 

Aiddtaetan of tibe Done ol tbB Bodk . . . 416 
^^. & Gome nd TmmuAKk fi tbo Sfleond Wall imCB ito 

joDdioB wMi Aflflnii 4S8 

CL D.S. Gomdiooi 430 

wtmom tarn Wjjjm^ imd tarn Wa 

& BtBskmf9 €blB— IMtton hMM fc rod • . . 48S 

11»lVHd»ortfieYlig|ii. lMttkta«lll»AMMi9tei . 484 

Tlw MooBt of C»fM .487 

Rnonsni fimi in flamnit .... . . 488 

TViidition of die Fhee of AaonMon . ... 440 

Gm of M^^ aod odor localito . .446 

Tonbi of tfie FraplHfei 447 

TdbIm of die Kfldran 448 

AlMdom't Fillur 460 

TliB Walen of Jcrankm 463 

Tbe Poontaiii of the Virgm 455 

The Pool of l^loam 456 

Poumam of the Heafiiif;^ Bath. Adventure 457 

Poontam at the Giiirch of the Flagellation . .461 

B ea ervuii under the Temple Arafr— Historical Evidence 462 

Waten of the Haram 467 

Aqueduct of Heiddah 469 

The Serpenffl Pool 471 

The Fuller's FUd 472 

The Pool of Headdah between the two Walk . 473 

Identical with Sloam 477 

The Boyal Oatem 480 

The Pool of Betheeda, or Birket Israil^ ... 483 

The Pools of the Bath, and MamiDa .... 488 

Bir Ejiib, or the WeQ of Joab .... 489 

Tlie Pdtler's Fidd. The Tomb of Annas .... 495 

Pool of the Sultan 496 

Aqueduct of Pdntius Pilate 497 

The Pools of Solomon. The Gaidens of Eti^o . 500 

Various Saracenic Fountains 502 



Tombs of David on Mount Sion 505 

The Coenaculum, or Upper Chamber . 507 

Narrative of Benjamin of Tudela .... 509 

The House of Caiaphas 513 

Site of S. Stephen'fl Church 516 

The Cave of Jeremiah 517 

Tte Tombs of the Kings 518 

Other Sepulchral Excavations 523 

Results 524 

Modern Jerusalem and its Inhabitantb. 

Approach to JenisaleoL AssociallDns 
Desolations, Physical and Moral 


The Christians 

Dissensions and degrading Superstitbns 
The Imposture of the Hdy Ebe . 
F<nids of the rivBl Communions 
I. Orientals. 1. The Greeks .... 
iTie Orthodox Patriarch . 
Election of the P&triarch Cyril 
Great Mtina^jtery of 8. Constantine 
The Natii-e Christiana . 

2. llie Georgians . 

Theu- former importance 
The Convent of the Cross 

3. The Armenians 

Then- PWriarch 
Convent of S. James 

4. The Syrian Jacobites . 

5. ITie Copts .... 

The Convent of the Sultan 

n. Occidentals. 1. Latins 

Disputes with the Greeks 
American Congregational isle . 
Their Native Converts . 
Their Character . 
The English Missbn 
Caution necessary 
, Susfncions of the Natives 






Conduct of the Mission 591 

The Gdkge 593 

The Hospital 594 



NoTB I. Hie Ganseway^Critical exanunation of Passages . 601 

2. Aoooont of the Bmldhig of the Church of S. Mary from 

Procopi us (U)7 

3. The Place of the Asceonon acoordiiig to Lightfoot . 607 

4. Population of Modem Jerusalem 613 

5. Pkoselytism in the East 614 

Letter of Bishop Gobat5 615 

Malta Protestant CoDege 617 

Andent Lode and Key ... ... 618 


Frontispieoe. . . Tlie Via Dolorofia. 
YioNETTE. p. XL The Fountain of the 'N^ifrin. (Wood<cut). 
Chap. I. 1 The Holy Sepulchre. (Wood-cut). 

13 View of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (shewing 

the Christian Quarter). 
58 Porta Judidaria* 
n. 69 The Golden Gate. (Wood-cut). 

120 Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
128 Coin of Antoninus Pius— Temple of Venus. (Wood-cut). 
in. 129 Loniptudhial Sectbn of the Church of the Holy 
153 Plan of the Tombs of the Judges. 

157 Elevation and Section of the Tomb of Absalom. 

158 Ground Flan and Details of the same. 

289 Plans of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, &c [PI. 1.] 

290 Plans of the Church, &c [PI. 2.] 

IV. 294 The Temple Mount from the South. (Wood-cut). 
381 The Mosk el-Aksa. 

415 Coin of Hadrian. Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 
V. 431 Entrance to the Tomb of the Viigin. (Wood^nit). 
449 Tombs in the Valley of the Kedron. 
525 The Pool of Siloam. (Wood-cut). 
VI. 526 Arch of the Ecce Homo. (Wood-cut). 
528 P&rt of the Tower of David. 
600 Bird'»-eye View of the CSty. 
Ancient Lock and Key. 























notot^ rd 

. 1. 12 




2. 5 









from bottom 




- - 






last line 




Snpp. p. 61 




Palmcfi' Street. 


ncyte col. 2, 5 from 



note" last line 


text 5 


~ 5 


note ' Thia note 

236 Sect. IX. 









note* col. 

— — 1 

— 2 

notes col. 
note« col. 

Mekhemtf Mehkemeh. 

gold sflver. 

ought anght. 

pOg^ms pQgiim. 

directi dimtL 

Appendix (A.) Note C, p. 157. 
(fig. 1.) (fig. 12.) 

arch A arch H. 

South East 

North Sooth. 

East North, 

northern weitem. 

after below. inseri p. 58. 

insert, ride Holy City Vol. I. 
>, where it appears that Felix Fabri 
in 1480 (namely 70 yean before BonifiKsins) like- 
wne selected one of this group of tombs, as re- 
sembling the Holy Sepulchre. 

! truer i ride H.C. 
Vol U. p. 341. 
andVol. l.Snpp. 
p. 95. 
Vide Appendix Vide Note C. p. 157. 
North South. 

after alUr insert (33.) 

is more fally elucidated at p. 293^ 
under the description of Fig. 5. 
Compare the Plan, Fig. 1, with the correspond- 
ing sections in Fig. 11. Plate III. 

14 (HL Fig. 1) {("yl J:|-J •"<> 

6 or and 

4 South-east South-west. 

1. 7 from bottom S.E. S.W. 

1. .'» nbnr'srt nVnv'srf. 

2. la««t line 436 336. 
3 3TP *:«•• 
2 .'«H> 394. 

12 11. 

from bottom p. 274 p. 42. 

acquiesces agrees. 

18th 17th. 

40 41. 

Enchoridion Enchiridion, 

from bottom ^vcficToc nvijfitlov. 





site, it is offered in the consideration that the credit 
of the whole Church for fifteen hundred years is in 
some measure involved in its veracity. 

The interest which every Christian must feel in 
the establishment of a fact, which was appealed to in 
former ages as an evidence of our Lord's Resurrec- 
tion ^ might not unnaturally predispose us to believe 
it on insufficient grounds; and however we may pity 
or despise the credulity, we may well envy the sim- 
plicity of the devout pilgrim, who with real sincerity 
of heart gives himself up to the influence of those 
associations which these sacred localities are calculated 
to awaken, ignorant alike of arguments for or against 
their identity with the scenes of his Saviour's humilia- 
tion and glory, and undisturbed by any doubts. Grant- 
ing it to be a delusion, it is to him at least a pleasing 
and a profitable delusion, implicating him in no guilt; 
and he might reasonably regard the wisdom, which 
would rob him of his gratification, as folly, and count 
his ignorance the greater bliss. But were nothing more 
serious than this involved, the question would be one 
of comparatively little importance, and we might be 
content to relinquish the point, with a feeling of re- 
gret for ourselves, and of surprise at those who had 
taken so much pains to perform the thankless office 
of shaking our confidence in a harmless opinion so 
long and so fondly cherished. 

But when the moral character of one important 
branch of the Church, if not of the whole Church, 
is at stake, the question assumes a graver aspect, 
and we are boimd in charity, if not in gr|ititude, to 

St Cyril of Jenualem, Cat. z. 19. See Eusebius, Viu Constuitini, cap. ztUL 


weigh with the most suspicious jealousy the evidence 
which would convict of deliberate fraud and shameless 
hypocrisy, not only the Bishops and Clergy of the 
Church at Jerusalem, but the brightest lights of the 
umversal Church at a period which we have been taught 
to regard as " uncomipt," when Christianity was ''most 
pore and indeed golden'." For the plea of ignorance 
can hardly be admitted in their behalf, and would 
scarcely be an extenuation of their fault if it could. 
They were impostors, and not dupes, or they had 
sufficient evidence to believe that they had really re- 
covered the Sepulchre of our Lord. And it is remark- 
aUe that the strongest objection that has been lurged 
against the authority of the tradition is such as it would 
have been most easy to obviate, — such as an impostor, 
if he had any of the art of his profession, would have 
been certain to foresee and most careful to anticipate. 

Supposing Macarius to have failed in his endeavours 
to ascertain the true site, and his principles to have 
alloweil him to commit " a pious fraud ^" in the inven- 
tion of a fictitious one, it is inconceivable that he should 
have presumed so much on the ignorance or credulity 
of Constantine and all his contemporaries, to say 
nothing of succeeding generations, as to fix upon a 
spot which common sense or common observation would 
shew them to have been within the ancient city. So 
that instead of arguing against the tradition, as its 
impugners are accustomed to do, from the probable 

' Ova Hofnilia inTariably speak of Re^earcheA, the bishop Macarius and 
the Charch of the 4th century in these i his clergy are charged with ambitian^ 
and such -like terms, and of its bishops fraud, falsehood taid hypocrisy, of the 
&c., as ** godly learned men." most aggravated character— and '* no 

' In Vol. II. p. 80, of the Biblical injustice done them ** ! 



extent of the ancient city, it would be much more 
reasonable, in considering so very uncertain and diffi- 
cult a question as the topography of ancient Jerusalem, 
to take into account the fact, that less than three 
centuries after our Lord's Ascension, the place now 
called Calvary was said to have been without the second 
wall ; because, the more improbable the supposition, the 
better reason must then have existed for marking this 
as the spot ; since the fact of the place of crucifixion 
and sepulture being '' without the gate" is not a modem 
discovery; it is plainly so written in Holy Scripture, 
and all the ancient writers bear witness to it, and 
declare with one voice that the site then and now 
revered was formerly without the city, but brought 
within its bounds by a later disposition of the walls. 

It must be considered in examining the question 
that the nature of the case does not admit of demon- 
strative proof; the most we can expect is a high degree 
of probability ; and if we can divest our minds of an 
undue prejudice against traditionary evidence, we shall 
be ready to grant that there is a strong antecedent 
presumption on the side of a tradition which has anti- 
quity and imiversality in its favour, and relates to a 
matter of such vast importance : and that it is fairly 
entitled to regard, and worthy of some degree of credit, 
until its veracity be clearly disproved. On subjects such 
as these it seems safer and more wise, and is certainly 
more pleasant, to endeavour to reconcile apparently con- 
flicting testimonies, so as to believe as much as possible, 
rather than to set them in opposition one to another, 
as though they could by no possibility be brought to 
agreement. It is our duty to guard as far as possible 
against the opposite extremes of credulity and scepticism. 

CH. I.] 


And I cannot but think that there is something very 
unreasonable in the excessive prejudice of Dr Robinson 
against ecclesiastical tradition, which led him as a prin- 
ciple ^ to avoid as far as possible all contact with the 
convents and the authority of the monks ^" dming his 
investigations in Palestine. I am satisfied that he would 
have done more justice to his subject, and have added 
mnch to the authority of his work in the eyes of most 
of Us readers, if he had informed them of the opinion 
of the native Christians on the questions under dis- 

I will iUustrate this by reference to a point of some 
little importance, though not immediately connected 
with the present subject. 

In 1842 (October 7th and 8th) I visited Beit Jebrin 
with a friend' deeply interested, like myself, in the 
investigation of the antiquities of Palestine. We read 
and studied Dr Robinson's proofs of the identity of 
this village with the site of Eleutheropolis^ We were 
interested by his arguments, struck by his coincidences, 
carried away by the romance of his measurements, but 
not fully satbfied, not thoroughly convinced. Some time 
after, my friend, on his departure from Palestine, (Janu- 
arj* 10. 11, 1843) again visited this place, and again with 

' VoL I. p. 377. We shall we 
that this U not always the case. '' The 
oatiTC Arab popalation/* to whom 
^solely he applied for information,** 
arc very apt to adopt, not merely the 
traditkm* of monks, but the suggestions 
of traTellera, and to pass them ofT as 
aathoritatire. In 184S I was pointed 
out, on the sea of Tiberias, the site of 
BcthsaidA, where a friend and myself 
had cndcmvouicd to fix it in the pre- 

ceding year, by the very boatman who 
on my former visit had denied all 
knowledge of such a name ! He was 
a ntUive Mohammedan. 

' The Reverend John Rowlands, 
Fcliow of Queens* College, Cambridge, 
to whom this Work is so much in- 

3 See Bib. Res. Vol. ii. pp. 35&— 
362, and 39&— 420, for a full description 
and for a disctiaaioa of the question. 



[part U. 

the same result. He wrote me word, " I am not yet 
quite satisfied that Beit Jebrin is ancient Eleutheropolis. 
I hope you will find an opportunity at some future time 
to visit * Es-Safieh ' or * Alba Specula'/ and see whether 
that may not be Meutheropolis." Meanwhile I had 
discovered, fJrom a very intelligent Greek priest in the 
convent at Jerusalem, that the continued tradition of 
his Churchy written and unwritten, had delivered that 
Beit Jebrin does represent the Betogabra of Ptolemy 
and the Eleutheropolis of Ecclesiastical history, and thai 
they had no doubt of the fact. This placed the matter 
beyond all question in om* minds, and I wUl venture to 
say that there are few persons who would not consider 
Dr Robinson's arguments very much confirmed by this 
agreement ; while there may be some with whom this 
simple testimony of the Greek Church would have more 
weight than all his ingenious and learned arguments 
together; considering that the city to which the tra- 
dition refers was formerly an Episcopal See and a place 
of great importance in Palestine'. But since, on the 
other hand, no tradition, however venerable, has force 
to counterbalance the evidence of the senses and of 
existing phenomena, or the authority of history, much 
less of Holy Scriptiure, we are bound to examine objec- 
tions which appear to be weighty, and are by many 
supposed to be decisive, especially if they come recom- 
mended to us by learning and diligent research, and 
seem to have prevailed against the prepossessions of the 

> SeeBib.Ret.yol.ii.pp.363-d67. 

' Witneised not only by the cha- 
racter of the ruins still to be seen, (pp. 
365, 6), but by history and by the fact 
of its being assumed as a terminus in 

the old Itineraries and descriptloiit, 
e,g. Antoninus, Eusebius, and St 

B This Dr Robinson sUtes to haTe 
been the case with him, (Bib. Res. 

CH. l] 


It will be unnecessary to notice the arguments of 
Dr Clarke against the authority of the Holy Sepulchre ^ 
not only because it is evident that his indignation 
against what he calls '' the farrago of absurdities/' and 
his contempt for '' the credulity for which no degree of 
preposterousness seemed too mighty/' put it out of his 
power to consider the question calmly and dispassion- 
ately, and indisposed him for the investigation during 
his short visit to Jerusalem^, but because Dr Robinson 
may now be considered the champion of the opinion 
which that great traveller first published in England, 
and he has brought much learning and much research 
to the question, and done ample justice to the cause 
which he advocates*. But in order to prepare the way 

VoL II. pp. 09, 80; Biblioch. Smc 
p. 1S7.) This being to, be was sin- 
golarif unfortunate, when all the re- 
ceired traditions relating to the passage 
o( the Red Sea, the mountain of the 
Law at Sinai, the cave of the Nati- 
ritj at Bethlehem, the place of the 
CrudHxion and Burial, at Jerusalem, 
and of the Ascension on Mount Olivet, 
not to mentioD numberless others of 
less importance, failed to satisfy him. 

* Indeed he granu that the identity 
of the Holy Sepulchre "has every evi- 
dence but that which should result from 
a view of the sepulchre itself." Vol. 
IV. p. 30!l, 8vo. ed. i.e. he is satis- 
fied with the traditionauy evidence, and 
•ees no difficulty in the site. 

^ Really one cannot be sorry that a 
man who could write so indecently and 
irreverently as to call the pious Helena 
**an infatuated and superstitious old 
•Oman,** and the saints and fathers of 
the Ith century ** ignorant priests,'* 

should fall into the moostrons ab- 
surdity of placing Mount Sion south 
of the Valley of Hinnom ! Objecting 
to the received sites, he has the pre- 
sumption to assign others for the Cru- 
cttixion and BuriaL See his plan of 
Jerusalem at the commencement of 
Vol. IV. and pp. 324, 5, 6. The spot 
assigned for the former must have been 
within the ancient city ! But he does 
not seem to have read Josephus. He 
ran through Palestine, including Jeru- 
salem, in fifteen days. 

" Dr Robinson*s views were first 
published in his Biblical Researches 
in Palestine, London, l&il, defended 
in the Bibliotheca Sacra, a periodical 
edited by him. New Vork and London, 
1&43, and again in Vol. in. of the 
second scries of this same Quarterly, 
under another Editor, New Vork and 
London, 1846. To prevent confusion, 
1 refer to this last volume under its 
second title, '* Theological Review." 



[part n. 

for the topographical investigations on which I am now 
to enter, it will be well to take such a survey of the 
general position of modem Jerusalem, as also of its 
more prominent features, as may serve to familiarise 
the reader with the ground which we shall have to 
traverse; and furnish such a vocabulary as may pre- 
vent the necessity of circumlocution in any future refer- 
ence to the Quarters or Streets of the City'. 

That " the hills stand about Jerusalem," is a fact 
familiar to all ; and the Mount *? which is before Jeru- 
salem, on the East," is likewise associated with our 
earliest and most sacred recollections. My description 
shall therefore commence from these known and familiar 

The Eastern wall of the City, facing Mount Olivet, 
is the most direct of the foiu- sides. Its length is 2790 
feet, of which more than half (1525 feet) on the South 
is occupied by the Haram, or area of the Great Mosk. 
This wall overhangs the steep brow of the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, which continues its upward course to the 
North, some distance beyond the N. E. angle of the 
city, expanding gradually as it rises; then turning sharply 
to the West it runs up to the Tombs of the Kings. Be- 
low the S. E. angle of the wall, this valley inclines 

^ The authorities for the following 
description are, 1. Migon Aldrich 
and Symonds* beautiful Plan, 1841 ; 
2. the old Norman French description 
of the City, at the time of its capture 
by Saladin, first edited by Beugnot in 
the Assises de Jerusalem, Tome ii. 
p. 631, &c : then given by Schultz in 
the ZusHtse to his Jerusalem, Berlin, 
1845, p. 107, &c., which will be found 
in full in the Appendix t as will also 

3. Mejr^-d(n*s account, (a.d. 1496^) 
from the Mines d'Orient, Tome ii. p. 
125, &c. Vienne, 1811. The mea- 
snres are taken chiefly from 4. Dr 
Robinson's Biblical Researches, check- 
ed and corrected by the Trigonome- 
trical Survey, (No. 1, sup.) and from 
5. the careful measurements (so far as 
they go) of Mr Tipping, the results of 
which are given in the notes to Traill's 
Josephus, London, 1847. 


digfatly to the West, narrowing into a deep gorge 
between the ridge of Ophel and the Mount of OflTence, 
which is that continuation of Mount Olivet in whose 
rocky side is excavated the village of Siloam. South of 
this, the contracted valley again opens into a small 
plain, formed by the concurrence of two other valleys, 
which we must next trace up to their commencement. 
The more marked and better known of these is the 
Valley Ben-Hinnom, which following a serpentine course 
from this quarter, encircles the City on the South and 
West, where it expands into a plain around the Birket 
Mamilla. The third Valley between the two just de- 
scribed, (it must at present be anonymous) runs in a 
northerly direction through the City, and opens into a 
small plain without the Damascus Gate. In the mouth 
of this valley the Pool of Siloam is situated. 

The southern part of the ridge between the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat and the intermediate valley, is univer- 
sally allowed to be the Temple Mount, and the southern 
part of the broader ridge, between the latter valley and 
that of Hinnom, is generally conceded to be the Hill of 

To proceed now with the walls. From the N. E. 
anj^le of the City, nearly to the Damascus Gate (2200 
feet) the course of the northern wall is almost due 
West ; then verging some points to the South, over a 
high rocky ridge, it reaches the brow of the A'alley Ben- 
Hinnom, at the N.W. angle of the City, 1990 feet from 
the Damascus Gate. Hence, taking a south-easterly 
direction from the Valley Ben-Hinnom, 878 feet to 
the Jaffa Gate ; then due South to the S.W. angle, 
1 1401) feet) it bisects Mount Sion from West to East, 
and continues in an irregular line, with the same general 




bearing to the S. E. angle ; the measure of this i 
3720 feet : making the whole circuit of the n 
walls 12,978 feet, or 4326 yards, nearly two miles 
half. The walls may be said broadly to face th 
cardinal points; and the situation of the four 
towards the same quarters will much simplify t 
scription of the City. 

The western gate named of Jafia, and the n< 
of Damascus, have been already mentioned, 
southern gate, 600 feet from the S.W. angle of tib 
is appropriately named of Sion; the eastern, 2< 
north of the Haram wall, is called by the native 
Gate of St Mary." They have all of them otl 
signations, but with these we need not at ] 
concern ourselves. 

Two minute descriptions of the Holy Cii 
earlier by a French, the later by an Arabic writ 
furnish as complete a directory as can be desire 
will enable me to assign names to the principal 
of the City, which will be extremely serviceable 
progress of the inquiry: the more so as the i 
inhabitants have, for the most part, dispensed wi 
convenient practice'. 

From the Jaffa Gate a street leads due E^ 
Haram, cutting the three lines of bazaars a 
angles, in their southern extremity. The whole 
is called '' the Street of David/' though the pai 

' I>r Robinton, Bib. Ret. i. SM. 
note 1 . *^ Chitemubriand , in his Itini - 
ratrv, profeMCS to giTe the names of all 
the chief streets ; but our fViends, who 
had resided seTeral years in the city, 
and made frequent inquiries, had never 

been able to hear of any, 
one or two instances.** ChAtf 
names do not agree with the 
Arabic author; but were, 
those u»ed in his time by thi 


of the bazaar is elsewhere designated by the distinct 
appeOation of '' the Street of the Temple :" a distinction 
which I shall find it convenient to adopt. Another 
street, commencing at the Damascus Gate, traverses the 
whole length of the City from North to South, passing 
through the bazaars, and terminating near the Sion 
Gate. It cuts the Street of David at the South end 
of the bazaars, North of which it is called '' the Street 
of St Stephen," South, " the Street of Mount Sion." 

These two main streets divide Jerusalem into four 
quarters, exclusive of the Haram. They are, first, the 
Christian quarter (H^et en-Nasfira), on the N.W. ; 
the Mohammedan quarter (H^et el-Muslimin), on the 
N.K ; the Armenian quarter (Haret el-Arman), on the 
S.W. ; and the Jews' quarter (Hdret el-Yehud), on the 
S.E.: the two latter being situated on Mount Sion. 
The subdivisions of the streets and quarters are niuner- 
ous, but unimportant, not needing separate notice. The 
Christian quarter will claim our first attention, when 
1 have noticed one or two other features, and named 
a few more streets, in order to complete the vocabulary. 

Immediately within the Jaffa Gate, on the right hand 
side at entering, in the North-West angle therefore of 
the Armenian quarter, is the Citadel (El-Kal'ah) com- 
monly called by Christians the ** Castle of David." The 
open space about it, on the North and East, was for- 
meriy " the Corn-Market." Leaving this on the right, 
and proceeding a short way down the Street of David, 
we arrive at the end of " the Street of the Patri- 
arch." running through the Christian quarter from 
South to North, parallel to the Bazaars. Following this 
for nearly 800 feet, we find another street running at 
right-angles to it. parallel to the Street of David. 



[part n. 

continued with one or two angles to the Gute of St 
Mary, Eastward; and Westward, past the Franciscan 
Convent, to the North-West comer of the City. The 
Western part of this, as far as St Stephen's Street, is 
" the Street of the Holy Sepulchre ; " the Eastern is 
now "the Via Dolorosa ^" From the Damascus Gate 
another main street diverges from St Stephen's Street, 
until it meets the Via Dolorosa at a large ruined 
Bath, then, running parallel to the Western wall of the 
Haram, traverses the whole length of the valley, which 
has been noticed as intersecting the City, as far as the 
Street of the Temple. It here meets with an obstruc- 
tion, the cause of which will be presently explained, 
but is thence continued, in the same Southerly course, 
to the small closed gate, marked in modem plans as 
the Dung Gate«. This is " the Street of the Valley of 
the Mills ; " but it will be more convenient to desig- 
nate it "the Valley Street," and the Valley, "the 
MiU VaUey." 

With these data, we shall be in some measure pre- 
pared to enter upon the disquisition of the topography 
of the ancient City ; but as I am first to address myself 
to that part of the subject which affects the authority 
of the Holy Sepulchre, a somewhat more minute de- 
scription of its site, and of the Christian quarter in 
which it is situated, will be desirable. 

* It may be well to sUte that the 
Via Dolorosa is called by the French 
writer, la rue de Jotaphat, and the 
Eastern gate la parte de Joaaphat, 
This gate is commonly known to tra- 
Tellers as St Stephen*8 gate, but I call 
it by its native name, St Mary's Gate, 
to prevent confusion, as I have to speak 
of a street of St Stephen, which is in 

no way connected with this gate, but 
with the old St Stephen*s, now the 
Damascus Gate. 

' "Laposteme de la Tanerie" of 
the French description. The Arabic 
alone names the street, but carries it 
only to the Street of the Temple : the 
French description reckons it all one 
street to the gate, as indeed it ii. 


A line drawn along the course of the walls from 
the Jaffa to the Damascus Gate, do^-n the Street of 
St Stephen to the South end of the Bazaar, and up 
the Street of David to the Jaffa Gate, would describe 
the Christian quarter^ The parallelogram formed by 
the Streets of the Patriarch and St Stephen, West and 
East, and the Streets of David and the Holy Sepulchre, 
South and North, is divided into almost equal parts by 
Palm Street, forming a communication between the two 
former. The Northern part is occupied by the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and the Southern by the ruins 
of the Hospital of the Knights of St John. This will 
be enough for our present purpose. The question is. 
Was this space included in the second wall of the City, 
as described by Josephus, or was it not? If it was, 
the tradition of the site of the Holy Sepulchre falls to 
the ground, for obvious reasons; if it was not. then 
the tradition must be allowed to stnnd until some valid 
objection be shewn apiinst it. 

Ha\*ing thus ])roadly stated the (luestion. I luav 
refer to a former chapter for a description of Jeru- 
salem*, as it existed in our Saviour's time, before tlu^ 
erection of the third wall by Kin«^ A«;rippa. It will 
be sufficient here to state, that Aera was tlie hill sus- 
taining the I^>wer City, separated from Sion, the nuicli 
higher hill on which the Ui>i>er City was built, by the 
broad valley of the Tvropcron : that the (late (rennath 
was a pkiee in the North wall of Sion. near which the 
wall encom|mssing Aera had its be<rinnin«; : and that 

' WiUiMD of Tyre, Hint. Orient. i^iven in the Appendix to this Volume. 

Lib. II. XVIII. p. u\ of Uon^iirN s<i thut I need nut ftiiell the t'o(i:-ni>:i'> 

cd. thu« dcKriben IL by'uin*. 

* Vt>I. 1. p. I4fi, \c. : the orifTHial i^ 



[part II. 

this North wall of Sion commenced at the Hippie 
Tower, from whence it ran Eastward to the Temple 

The points to be determined then, are, 1, the site 
of the Hippie Tower ; 2, the position of the Grate Gen- 
nath, and the line of the Second Wall ; 3, the situation 
of Acra; and 4, the course of the TyropoDon; for, 
at present, I must assume Mount Sion and the Temple 
Mount to occupy the positions which the almost uni- 
versal consent of the learned has assigned them, as 
already described. 

I. I do not assume that the site of the Hippie 
Tower corresponded with that of the Tower of David 
at the N. E. of the present citadel, because I much 
question whether this can be clearly established ^ Not 
that I can for a moment admit the new and strange 
hypothesis' that would remove it to the N.W. comer 
of the present City, and find traces of it in the ruins 
of Tancred's Tower, called by the natives ELasr Ja* 
Ifid — ^the Tower of Goliath. I hope to be able to 
adduce proof that it occupied a space on the platform 
of the modem citadel, only at its N.W. instead of its 
N. E. angle. That it is to be sought for in this part 
of Mount Sion, is clear from Josephus's description of 
Jerusalem just referred to; where the Hippicus is as- 
sumed as the starting point of two of the City walls, 
i. e. of the wall that encompassed the Upper City, and 
of Agrippa's wall, which enclosed the New City. It 
was a square tower, twenty-five cubits on a side, solid 

^ 1 astumed this from Dr Robinson 
(Bib. Res. Tome i. pp. 453—457) in 
my first edition. D'Anville held it to 
occupy the site of the Tower Psephi- 

nus. Ch&teaubriand*sItin<$raire,Tome 
II. pp. 45 and 262. 

• This is Mr Fergusson*s hypothe- 
sis, which will be noticed elsewhere. 

dfi. LJ 

to the fici«rht of thirty cubits ; and near it, on the same 
Nortli wall, were the iowers of Phasaelus and Mariamne : 
the former a square of forty cubita, solid to the same 
height ; the latter also a square of twenty cubits, and 
solid to that height. Their total altitude was eighty, 
meljt imd fifty-five cubits respectively; but this alti- 
ttide was much increased, in appearance, by their 
pOfedtion ; for the part of the old wall which they oecu- 
pi^ wa« built on a lo% hill, and a kind of loftier crest 
of this hill rose to a height of thirty cubits more^, on 
which crest the towers were built^ and so received 
much additional height. 

Now the Northern wall of the modem citadel rises 
from a deep fosse, having towers at either angle, the 
baseii of which are protected on the outside by massive 
HBAOfuy sloping upward from the fosssc. The N*W, 
timer, divided only by the trench from the Jaffa Gate, 
is a square of forty-five feet : the N.E. or Tower of 
Da\id is seventy feet three inches long, by fifty-six 
feet four inches broad. The sloping bulwark is forty 
feet high, from the bottom of the trench ; but this is 
much choked up with rubbish. " To the lower part 
there is no known nor visible entrance, either from 

3 Ut Robinson (Bib. Res. Vol. i. 
p. 457) writes, "above the valley of 
the Tyropcron ;" but without any war- 
rant from JoscphuR, who says not a 
word of a valley, and never hints at the 
Tyropcpon being near the Hippicus. 
His words are: '* TrjXtKouToi dk dm-e^ 
ci -r^Iv [vvpyoi] t6 fiiye6oi, tto.Kv 
piti^ovc^ etpatifoirro 6ia Tdv Toirov. 
airro t€ yap to dpxaiov Ttl'^p^^ *** 

Kai Tov \6(l)ov KaQditep Kopvrpi'i Ttv 
ui/^TjXtrrt/oa TTpodueixev eh TpiaKoirra 
irrwei^^ inrkp i\v o'l irvpyot Kcifxevoi 
iroXv 3»;' Ti TOV fi€T€vopov irpo<T€\dp.- 
fiavovy J. W. V. iv. 4. Dr Robin- 
son, T. R. III. p. 442, n. 4, remarks, 
that " this thirty cubits is not assigned 
by Josephus as the elevation of the 
hill, but as the height of the wall 
above the hill." He was misled by 
Whiston's Translation. 



[part it. 

above or below; and no one knows of any room or 
space in it." The reason of this I am now able to 
explain. The lower part of this platform is solid rock, 
merely cut into shape, and faced with solid masonry; 
and a section through the rampart, just North of the 
Tower of David, shews a basement of rock forty-two 
feet high, surmounted by a rampart of fifteen feet, in- 
cluding the battlement ^ Who can doubt that this 
rock is part of the crest of the hill described by 
Josephus as thirty cubits, or forty-five feet high, still 
standing firm against the shock of time, which has 
brought down to the dust the proud towers of Herod, 
notwithstanding the forbearance of the Romans and 
Saracens'? And now, if we compare the dimensions 
of the two towers, Hippicus and Phasaelus, with the 
modem towers in the North side of the citadel, I appre- 
hend we shall have no difficulty in assigning the Hippie 
Tower to the N.W. angle ; for the square of twenty- 
five cubits, assigned by Josephus to this tower, does so 
nearly correspond i^ith the dimensions of the modern 
tower, as measured by our officers, that the sites must, 
I think, be identical ; and this supposition is much con- 
firmed by observing, that three sides of this comer- 
tower are determined by the form of the scarped rock 
on which it is based. I would further suggest, whether 
the Tower of David may not occupy the larger base 
of Phasaelus ? Its breadth, as determined by the cut 
rock, would nearly correspond with a side of its square, 
and the length may have been extended along the wall 

> The plan and section of Majors 
Aldrich and Symonds, have revealed 
these Important facta : the measures of 
the Tower of David are given by Dr Ro- 

binson, and agree with the officers* plan. 
^ See Vol. 1. pp. 189. 421, 423, 424, 
for the history of this Tower. B. R. 
I. 457, 459. 

CH. I.] 



when the tower was rebuilt, and the citadel assumed 
its present form ; at which time also the trench would 
be continued round the rampart, so detaching the third 
tower, Mariamne, whose base, with the continuation of 
the cliflF, might probably be recovered to the E^t of 
the Tower of Da^'id, under the accumulation of soil, — 
the iUbrU of former desolations. 

This removal of the Hippie Tower to the N.W. 
angle of the citadel from the N.E., where it was 
fixed by Dr Robinson, will not materially affect the 
quesftions at issue between us, as we should agree in 
drawing the North wall of Sion from this last Tower 
Eastward to the Haram, along a line South of the 
Street of David, and almost parallel to it^. The next 
question is. Where, in this line, was the Gate Gennath ? 

II. Dr Robinson, assuming the Street of David to 
follow the bed of the ancient Tyropoeon, and the Chris- 
tian quarter to occupy the hill Acra, consistently places 
the Gate Ciennath near the Hippie Tower*. " It must 
have been to the East of Hippicus," as he justly remarks, 
'* fi>r the third wall be^an at that tower ^:" and I agree 
with him in thinking that *• it was probably not included 
within the second wall, in order to allow a direct pas- 
sage between the Upper City and the country." But 
I cannot appreciate the only argument adduced in proof 

» See B. R. Vol. i. 4.i7. 4;»ll. 

* I inu>t except to the process of 
u^nientAtion adopted in proof of this: 
He wj* lir»t ^ Vol. i. p. 411), '» The 
second »all began at the f^te of (ten- 
nath {apparmtiif near llippicus)." 
Then p. 453, Jotephus, it is said, 
**aaaun:ed the ancient tower llippicus 
a» the staniog point in hiii description 

Vol. n. 

of ali tUe rity-wnlU." Then p. 461, 
*^This gate of (tennath in the first 
wall doubtlrsa was near the tower Hip- 
p cus.** And then (Vol. ii. p. ♦»/), 
"The second wall, as we have seen, 
began at tie gate of (iennath, near tht 
tower of llippirm,** &c. 

' n. R. I. p. 462, n. 1, and Jose- 
phuH, J. \V. V. IV. 4. 



that it could not be far distant from Hippicus, to wit, 
" because that })art of Sion was then high and steep." 
Indeed, it seems to me to disprove the very point which 
it is adduced to prove ; for how a city-gate could have 
an exit where the wall was carried along a rocky emi- 
nence thirty cubits high, I cannot comprehend ; and 
such we have just heard from Josephus was the case 
with this North wall of Sion, on which stood those 
three imposing towers of Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Ma- 

Connected with these within was the royal castle 
or palace of the first Herod, which was enclosed by 
the said wall on the North ; so that the Gate of Gen- 
nath must have been East, not of the Hippie Tower 
only, but of both the others, and of the whole space 
on the North wall of Sion, occupied within by the 
palace of Herod, which was very extensive, compre- 
hending not only " two immense chambers, so large 
and splendid that the temple itself could not be com- 
pared with them^" "large bed-chambers, each of which 
would contain beds for one hundred guests," and a vast 
number of other apartments, but " many porticoes one 
beyond another, round about; and green courts, and 
groves of trees and long walks through them, with 
fountains supplied by deep canals and cisterns*;" and 
abundant space for the encampment of soldiers^. The 
absurdity of supposing an exit for a city-gate through 
such a royal palace, and down a precipice of thirty 
cubits, is obvious, and need not be insisted on. 

Again. After the taking of the outer and second 
wall, which gave possession of the New and Lower City, 

* Ibid. I. xxi. 1. * Ibid. v. iv. 4. "' Ibid. ii. xv. 5, and xvii. 7, 8. 

CH. 1.] 



Titus made his advances towards the fortress Antonia 
in one quarter, and towards the Upper City in another. 
We have only now to do with the latter. A bank was 
raised against the Northern wall of Sion by the tenth 
legion, " at the pool called Amygdalon, as was done by 
the fifteenth legion about thirty cubits from it, at the 
high priest's monument*." Now the former of these 
two banks must have been somewhere East of the three 
towers, which " the Komans could not assail with their 
machines and towers^" on account of their great 
strength, aided as it was by the steep cliff*, which 
would probably continue some distance eastward, and 
present an obstacle to the erection of the engines; 
while the latter was also West of the second wall ; for 
not only would the existence of a sepulchral monument 
within the old city be unaccountable, whereas it would 
be quite natural within that which had been lately 
enclosed ; but while the crowded buildin^^s of the old 
city would have obstructed the operations of the soldiers, 
had the bank been raised within that wall, there would 
l>e no >uch impediment in this part, where the new city 
was tliinly inhabited, and the outer wall once taken, 
*• afforded an easy passage to the third or inner wall, 
throu<:h which Titus had hoped to take the Upper City^." 
Anil this statement is very remarkable, as proving the 
fallacy of the oft-repeated assertion of " the existence 

* Ib;d. v.xi. 4. 

' Bib. Re». !. 412; but Dr Robin- 
<M>n confoundjt these two banks, which 
were destroyed by the Jews, (J. W. v. 
\i. »»}. with those raised by four legions 
aj^aintt the terst wall, much later in 
the siege. Ibid. vi. viii. 2. Theol. 
Rer. p 447. 

" J. \V. v.iv. 1, VI. viii. 4, andix. 1. 

' Josephus says : Tavrri ydp to tc 
TptvTov rjif tpvfia )^dafia\toT€poVy Kat 
TO itvTepov ou crvvf}'frT€Vy d^eXfjcrdv- 
Ttcv Ka(y a p.}] \iav n Kaitn} iroXi^ 
avvwKKTTo T€i)(iT[eit/. oXX tiri t<J Tpi- 
TOP »jv firirireia, k.t. X. J. W. V. 
vi. 2. 

O o 



[part II. 

of populous suburbs in this part, which must already 
have existed before the time of our Lord^;" for this 
part is expressly excepted by Josephus, directly here, 
as elsewhere incidentally: here directly, in that he 
states that the first or outer wall was lower in this 
quarter, owing to the scanty population — (for the enemy's 
missiles from without would fall harmless in a space 
void of buildings) ; incidentally, in the passage where 
he relates how Cestius encamped his army within the 
outer wall, opposite to the royal palace ^ From both 
which remarks it is moreover clear that there was a 
considerable space between the outer and second wall. 
But if the Gate Gennath was near the Hippie Tower, 
this could not well be the case; since the second and 
the outer walls, (running Northward from these points 
respectively,) must have continued almost parallel for 
some considerable distance, within a few yards one of 
another^. The divergence must have been very gradual, 
if the second wall passed West of the Pool of the Bath, 
"across the higher and more level part of the broad 
ridge or swell of land between the Jaffa and Damascus 
Gates," which rises somewhat higher than the N.W. 
part of the modem city*; and the outer wall "perhaps 
a little within the line of the present wall, along the 
brow of the upper part of the Valley of Hinnom*.*' 
And if such had been the disposition of the walls, I 
cannot imagine that Josephus would have mentioned 

1 B. R. II. 69. B. S. p. 195, note 4. 
The populous part of the New City was 
on the north, not on the west, as is else- 
where admitted by Dr Robinson. B. S. 
p. 193. See Josephus, J. W. v. !▼. 2. 

' J. W. II. xix. 6. comp. Vol. i. 
p. 166. 

^ This I conceive Dr R. would ad- 
mit, to judge at least by his descrip- 
tions; for he has never yet aided the 
description with a plan of the andeot 

« SeeB. R. 1.462,361,391. 

» Theol. Rev. p. 447. 

CH. I.] 



it as a peculiarity of the second wall, that it was not 
joined to the inner wall at this part, for it evidently 
was; nor that Titus would have chosen for his first 
assault this particular part of the outer wall, where he 
would be within easy reach of the missiles discharged 
from the second wall also; and, the breach effected, 
would have to march his soldiers through it, in face of 
a fire from the same rampart^. 

But to this it is answered, that on the building of 
the wall of Agrippa, the second wall had been allowed 
to fall to decay in this part^: and the proof is, that 
when Titus had taken the outer wall, the Jews forthwith 
commenced repairing the second. But then it is very 
strange that Titus not only did not at once avail himself 
of this breach to take the second rampart, but that he 
allowed the Jews to proceed with their building undis- 
turbed. It would have been much more to his purpose 
to prevent the erection of this new work, than to de- 

* Dr Robiiiiu)n, ibid., supposes the 
place of Titus> tirst attack 2(K) or 300 
feet »outh of the present N.W. comer 
of the city-wall : my deductions are 

• Theol. Rev. p. 44«. This view 
is supported by the assertion of Jo- 
•ephus. that on the capture of the 
outer wall, one p»rty of the Jews 
^i^tyi^arTo Ttiv tfi/io\»;i', ** fortified the 
rampart-" 1 may adopt the words of 
Schwrif^hauser on Herodotus, ix. 70. . 
'. ara^KTe\ K t^'i Tov^ irvfiyovK itppd- I 
^atrro cwv ycvi't'aTO apitrrov to t«i- I 
X!»t) *' Mihi hoc loco ^pd^aa^ai t«J , 
'Tttxvt si|fnificare videtur protegere^ i 
defrtyirre murum ; nempe ut ipti pro- 
pugnataret quasi <ppayn6^ esjtent, qtw 
munu (U/endereiur.^* Lex. sub voc. | 

<ppd(r<Teiv. Conf. .Esch. Sept. Cont. 
Theb. V. 63. <f>pd^ai ir6\i(rfia. This 
argument, if valid, would not be con- 
sistently urged by one who objects to 
remove the gate Gennath eastward, 
because thus we should uncover 800 
feet of the north wall of Sion ; seeing 
that this broken wall would expose the 
whole of that front of Sion, and all the 
Lower City. Having found "strong 
and almost conclusive evidence (on p. 
4ir>) that the second wall protected 
the whole northern side of Sion," one 
is astonished to find directly opposite, 
on p. 447« that this portion of the second 
line of fortification " was in a state of 
neglect or dilapidation," but, "Diruit, 
icdificat, niutatquadratarotundis"! See 
Hell. Jud. V. vii. 3, and Vol i. p. 179. 



[part n. 

molish the wall which he had taken. But the truth is, 
the second wall was not in this state of decay; and 
the objections to the proximity of the two walls are 
therefore valid. 

Indeed, if the words of Josephus are to be allowed 
any intelligible signification, they must be taken to 
declare that for which I am contending, viz. that there 
was a considerable interval between the outer and 
second rampart, and a large piece of the Sion wall 
immasked by the second, within the line first assailed 
by Titus, between the Hippie and Psephine Towers. 
" The second wall," he says, " did not join, but there 
was a clear passage to the third or inner walL" It is 
admitted by Dr Robinson, that "the want of jimction 
spoken of in the second wall seems necessarily to refer 
to its junction with the first, or old wall on Sion ;" for 
" the phrase cannot, of course, refer to any junction of 
the second with the outer wall, since the outer wall 
began at Hippicus, and the second at the gate Gennath, 
on the East of that tower*:" and as the assumption 
of dilapidation cannot be admitted without, or rather 
against authority*, I conclude that the reason why 
" there was in this quarter an easy approach^ .... to the 
inner wall of Sion," is, that this same inner wall was not 
here covered by the second wall*. 

I come to the last and most remarkable proof of all, 
that the Gate Gennath was near the Hippie Tower. 
On the taking of the outer wall, " the party of Simon, 

• Theol. Rev. p. 446. 

« J. W. II. XX. Vol. I. p. 167. 

^ The unauthorised insertion of Dr 
Robinson, "to the Lower City and" 
shows exactly how Josephus would 

have expressed himself, had he known 
of a gap in the second wall. 

^ So Dr Schultz understands and 
translates the phrase t6 devrepop oi 
trvvrjiTTev. Jerusalem, p. 68. 

ctL l] thb gate obnnath. 23 

we are told, manned the wall from the monument of 
John quite to the gate by which water was brought into 
the tower Hippicus*." The position of the monument 
is not determined; but ''the gate must of course have 
been quite near to Hippicus." "It follows decisively 
and conclusively, that there was a gate in the first wall 
adjacent to Hippicus :" but does it follow that " the 
second wall had its junction with the first or old wall on 
Sion at that gate ''? and must we necessarily admit the 
sequence of the "direct corollary, that this gate, by 
which water was brought into Hippicus, was the gate 
Gennath "? Let us consider the circumstances. 

Simon held the Upper and Lower City*; and would 
no doubt man so much of the second and first wall as 
was now exposed to the attack of the Romans. I see 
no reason why his line of defence may not have ex- 
tended along the Sion Wall, from the Hippie Tower to 
tlie junction of the second wall, — however far to the 
P^st ; and then along the second wall to the monument 
in (juestion, whence the party of John would continue 
the Hnc ; for it is certain that, at this stage of the siege, 
his faction was in possession of the part of the second 
wall opposite the monuments of Kinji: Alexander, whcre- 
cver they were. Besides, as the Gate (iennath had a 
di>tin<^ishinf^ name, it needed no periphrasis to describe 
it : and there is no necessary conuexicm between a Water- 
gate and a garden-gate. It happens also that we do 
know of another anonymous gate, hard by the Hippie 
Tower ; and I could much ratlicr believe the identity 
of the water-j^ate with that obscure gate through 
which the Jews made a sally u])()n the Romans while 

^ J. \V. V. \ii. :i. Dr Robinson, " J. \\ . v. vii. 2, \y and »cc the ac- 

T R. p. 4 47—4411. ' count in Vol. i. p. 17'J. 



[part n. 

attacking the outer wall^; (a gate, therefore, on the 
South of Hippicus, in the West wall of Sion, conducting 
probably to the aqueduct or pool in the Valley of Hin- 
nom ;) and that from this point Simon's line of defence 
was continued along the North wall of Sion to the part 
over against the monument of John, which I cannot 
hesitate to assign to a position thirty cubits East of 
the Almond Pool, identical with the modem Pool of 
the Bath*. 

That Josephus '' assumed the tower Hippicus as the 
starting point in his description of all the city-walls," is 
not a correct assertion ; for he says expressly that the 
second wall ''had its beginning near the gate Gennath," 
the position of which he leaves undetermined ; yet the 
assumption that it was " doubtless near the tower of 
Hippicus," so far from being supported by any evidence 
from this author, is negatived by those incidental pas- 
sages which have been now adduced ; and had it been 
near he would probably have said so, as it is quite true 
that this is *' assumed as the starting point of all the 
walls except the second." 

» J. W. V. vi. 6. 

^ This identity is acknowledged by 
Dr Robinson, T. R. p. 448, and by Dr 
Schulu, p. 30. It would be a matter 
of great importance to determine the 
position of John*8 monument. The 
arguments and deductions of Dr Ro- 
binson, (T. R. p. 448) appear to me 
equally unsound. He places it west 
of the Pool, not more than 200 or 250 
feet distant from it. But the tower 
of David (the Hippicus of Dr Robin- 
son) is somewhat less than 200 feet 
distant from this same Pool, and the 
Water-gate, (according to his theory, 

identical with the gate Gennath), waa 
between the two: so that the gate 
must have been very dose both to 
John's monument and the tower. I 
do not then see what space there was 
for Simon to build_much less to de- 
fend ; nor how the gate Oennath could 
have been east of the Hippie tower, as 
is admitted. The position assigned to 
John's monument by Dr Schulti, is 
free from these objections, but does not 
entirely fall in with the statement of 
Josephus, referred to in the text. Dr 
Schultx would place it near the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, p. 68. 

CH. l] acra and the lower city, 26 

III. To proceed now to Acra, and the Lower City. 
The simplest plan will be to compare the language of 
Josephus with the topographical notices of Dr Robinson, 
and see how far they are consistent. 

In the language of Josephus, the ancient city '* lay 
upon two hills, over against each other, separated by 
an intervening valley, at which the houses terminated^" 
And his language throughout plainly implies that the 
city comprehended the whole of the two hills, Acra as 
well as Sion — that Acra was in fact a distinct hilL But 
Dr Bobinson's Acra is "the continuation, or rather 
the termination of the broad ridge or swell of land 
which lies North of the basin at the head of the Valley 
of Hinnom, and extends down into the city, forming its 
N.W. part. Indeed the N.W. corner of the city-wall is 
directly on this ridge ; from which spot the wall de- 
scends immediately towards the N.E., and also, though 
less rapidly, towards the S.E. To the whole ridge, both 
without and within the city, a comparatively modem 
tradition has given the name of Mount Gihon*/' The 
principal part of this high rocky ridge is without the 
city, on the right of the Jaffa road, which traverses its 
Southern edge, so that Dr Robinson's Acra is not a 
distinct and isolated hill, as Josephus has ever been 
understooil to declare, but the termination or declivity 
of a swell of land^. 

' Jo^ph. J. W. V. vi. 1, quoted " The whole interval between this gate 

bj Ih- Robinson, B. R. Vol. i. pp. [the Damascus] and (rihon, [called by 

4«»a, 1». I him more correctly Hinnom, in the 

* n. R. I. p. %<1. In a note here passage quoted above], is occupied by 

belays: *' The name of Gihon, as ap- a broad hill or swell of land rising 

pl»ed to this ridge, seems to be first somewhat higher than the N.W. part 

mentioned by Brocardus about a. d. ' of the city itself." 

liK3 " ( cap. ix. in p. 31*1 ). In p. 361, 1 » " Instead of being isolated, Acra 

he had thus spoken of this same ridge : I is merely the South-Eastem end. or 



[part n. 

Agaiu, Josephus asserts that the two hiUs on which 
the City stood, " were everjnvhere enclosed from without 
by deep valleys^ ;*' but the wall enclosing Dr Robinson's 
Acra '' ran from near Hippicus northwards, across the 
higher and more level part of Acra*," leaving without 
towards the north-west, not a deep valley, but a broad 
ridge or swell of land, which is continued to a consider- 
able distance^. 

Further, Josephus invariably speaks of Sion as higher 
than Acra^. " Of these two hills that which contains 
the Upper City is much higher. It was called the citadel 
by king David; by us, the Upper Market-place. But 
the other hill, which was called Acra, sustained the 
Lower City," and occupied " the lower hill*." But Dr 
Robinson's Acra is considerably higher than Sion*. The 
Jaffa Gate, it will be remembered, is at that Tower 
which was proved to occupy the site of Hippicus, and 
its situation at the north-west angle of Mount Sion is 
as high as any on this hill ; but " when one enters the 
Jaffa Gate, and takes the first street leading North" 

point of the long swell, which forms 
the high ground on the North-west of 
Jerusalem, and sinks down gradually 
towards the Temple as it enters the 
city." Bib. Sac. p. 189, note 1. 

^ J. W. V. iv. L " The only topo- 
graphical notice of Josephus,'' says 
Dr Robinson, "as to which 1 have 
doubts," the language of which "is 
not literally exact." B. R. p. 414. 

' Vet in another passage he seems 
to bring it lower down ; p. 3U2, note 1, 
and so lays his second wall open to the 
same objection that he urges against 
mine, in the Th. Rev. p. 450. 

* Sec Dr Robinson's Plan of Je- 
rusalem, Vol. II., and Bib. Res. as 


* Dr Robinson cavils at the word 
" invariably," and says Josephus men- 
tioiM the fact once. I ask, do not the 
terms of constant occurrence if ^^m* 
iroXiff, or dyopd, and t} KaTw iroXit, 
K. \. imply the same ? 

» J. W. V. iv. 1, &c. 

^ This is now universally admitted. 
Dr Robinson, B. R. i. p. 458, sayi : 
that " the highest part of this ridge ii 
higher than Sion." Mr Wolcott, Bib. 
Sac. p. 30, " the site [of Tancvd'g 
tower in the N. W. angle] is perhaps, 
the highest in the city." Bartlett*t 
Walks, p. 13, " the highest part of the 
city ; " and Kraffl, p. 6. 


(t. e. to the supposed Acra,) '' immediately from the 
acyacent open place, he has before him a considerable 
ascent, though afterwards the way is more level quite to 
the Latin Convent^." Indeed, this north-west angle of 
the modem city-wall is considerably higher than the 
highest point of Mount Sion ; insomuch that the groimd 
here will be found nearly on a level with the top of 
the Armenian Convent on Mount Sion, which is by far 
the loftiest building in Jerusalem, and as the native 
rock is here visible above the surface of the ground, 
the theory of rubbish can have no place. 

Lastly. The broad valley which had once parted 
Acra from Moriah was filled up by the Asmoneans, 
and these two hills became one ; whereas the valley 
between Dr Robinson's Acra and Moriah has not been 
at all filled up, except by the accumulation of dSbris, 
but remains most distmctly to this day, as he himself 
constantly testifies. 

Josephus writes** : *' Over against this (Acra) was a 
third hill, naturally lower than Acra, and parted formerly 
from the other by a broad valley. However, in those 
times when the Asmoneans reigned, they filled up that 
valley with earth, with the view of joining the City to 
the Temple." But according to Dr Robinson the valley 
between Acra and Moriah, though '* greatly filled up with 
the rubbish accumulated from the repeated desolations 
of nearly eighteen centuries," is ** still distinctly to be 
tnieed :" still *' Moriah is separated from Aera by the 

* B R. 1. p. .T.*l. Thia i* not quite west angle of the modem wall, without 

coTTcc*. ; from being more level at first, 
II tcci»n;e« Meepcr an you approach the 
< AM Nuova and liatin convent, and 
•till ''iorc K) beyond, towards the north- 

which is the large terebinth-tree. p. 

* J. \V. V. iv. 1. See the Greek at 
the end. 



[part n. 

valley which runs from the Damascus Gate;" so that 
" all the western entrances of the Mosk are reached by 
an ascent, and some of them at least by steps ^" Now 
I cannot think that a valley filled with earth by the 
Asmoneans, and greatly filled up with the rubbish of so 
many centuries, would still exist as one of the principal 
features of the City; especially while another valley, 
more distinctly marked in olden time, and never design- 
edly filled, has been obliterated for at least six centuries, 
which we shall presently see Dr Robinson conceives has 
been the case with the TyropcBon. At least the traces 
of the valley between Sion and Acra might be expected 
to be more distinctly marked, than of the valley be- 

> Bib. Res. i. pp. 414, 393, 394. 
To avoid the obvious difficulty, Dr 
Robinson omits the word " formerly,** 
and inserts the word << partly,** p. 413, 
i. e. Josephus says, that the valley had 
formerly separated the two hills, but 
was filled up ; Dr Robinson, that it 
still separated in the time of Josephus, 
and had been only partly filled up. 
Again, p. 410, professing to follow 
Josephus, he says, ^^ they threw earth 
into this valley, intending to connect, 
&c.,*' and again omits the word for- 
merly separated. After this, it is some- 
what hard to charge me with a petitio 
prindpiiy because I follow Josephus 
implicitly, in the sense in which he has 
been understood by all writers who had 
no theory to support. Theol. Rev. p. 
427. Or if it be a question of inter- 
pretation, I submit that we are not 
competent expositors, swayed as we 
must needs be by private partialities ; 
and I appeal to two eminent scholars, 
deeply read in tliis question, and quite 

impartial, to decide, first. Whether 
Acra was a distinct hill ; and secondly, 
whether or no it was joined to the 
Temple-mount by the filling up of the 
intermediate valley. See Lightfoot, 
Prospect of the Temple, cap. i. Works, 
Vol. IX. p. 214, « the valley between 
well raised and filled up with earth ;** 
and Chorog. Cent. cap. xxii. iv. Vol. 
X. p. 47 and 52, 8vo edition. Compare 
Reland*s Palestina,p. 846, 852, "valle 
replet& ut urbem Templo conjungeret,** 
and p. 853: <<£rat etiam Templom 
conjunctum urbi a parte Acrae : nam 
vallem inter A cram et Moriam reple- 
verunt Chasmonsi eum in finem immi- 
nut& Acrie altitudine.** Jos. de BelL 
VI. 6. [al. V. 6.] They evidently un- 
derstood Jo8ephus*s language of the 
Tp/xo« \6<poi {6uipy6fi€vo^ aKXrf irpo' 
Tepov, and TtiV ffxipayya ext*><ra¥) to 
imply that they were no longer sepa- 
rated : but Dr Robinson says, '< There 
is not a word about a valley obliterated, 
and two hills made one.'* Th. R. L c 

CH* l] the tyropceon. 

tire^i Aem and Moriah ; which is fiir from being the 
case if the topograiihy of Dr Robinson is correct, 

IV- Far I never could find any traces of the vaJlej 
wbtcfa Dr Robinson calls the Tji^opceon; that which 
«eparaU<d between Sion and Acra. He did not hinjself 
fti fii^ discover it, as he had expected. He examined 
the high ^ound between the Pool of Mamilla and the 
Dauuu!K*us Gate, to see ** whether perhaps the valley of 
the *rj*ropaK)n extended up at all beyond the City in 
that diret'tion* There is, however, no trace of any 
TaUey, or of any depression in this quarter, before 
nrndmig the decli\i^* stretcbiiig down to the Damascus 
Gale*/" He afterwards satisfied himself that he had 
dlsMTorered it in a ''depression or shallow Wady, stUI 
iMilj to be traced, coming down from near the Jaffa 
CNrfe/' in an easterly direction until it joins the Mill 
Valley, and *' then continues obliquely down the slope, 
but with a deeper bed, in a southern direction, quite to 
the Pool of Siloam, and the \^alley of Jehoshaphat\" 
In other words, the Mill Valley, i. e. " the broad valley 
running down from the Damascus Gate to the Pool of 
Siloam*," is supposed to receive another valley from the 
West, just South of the Street of the Temple. And this 
latter valley, with the continuation of the former, repre- 
>ents the Tyropceon. 

But here, as elsewhere, it is difficult, unaided by a 
plan, to comprehend exactly where Dr Robinson would 
draw the line of the TyropoDon, though it is a matter of 
some moment to ascertain. When writing in his own 
person, he carries '* the street which leads down directly 
Kast from the Jaffa Gate, (i.e. David's Street) along the 

' Bib. Res. I. p. 353. ^ Ibid. p. 383. -• Bib. Res. i. p. 393. 


bed of the ancient Tyropoeon*;" and elsewhere this 
street " now occupies the lowest line of depression be- 
tween the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Mount 
Sion-:" but then the testimony adduced to support this 
view, gives much wider latitude to this valley, and allows 
us to find it anywhere between the north brow of Sion 
and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. I have confi- 
dence in the accurate ol^servation, in the correct me- 
mory, and the fair statement, of Mr Eli Smith, and am 
content to adopt his account, which I am able to con- 
firm by actual survey. " Draw a line along the ridge 
from the north-west comer of the city-wall, so as to 
pass just upon the north side of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre; and another along the northern brow of 
Mount Sion from the citadel ; and there would be a 
decided depression between them, into which water 
would run from both. This is according to the best of 
my recollection 3." 

The accuracy of this statement may be seen by 
an extract from a letter of my friend Dr Schultz, now 
residing at Jerusalem, in reply to a communication of 
mine, enquiring how the waters of Patriarch Street, 
and the streets to the North of this, flow off in rainy 
weather? These streets running into Patriarch Street 
steeply from the North, I named Copt Street and Greek 
Street, from the great convents of those two Commu- 
nities situated in them respectively. *' I have examined 
the question about the wat^r running down Patriarch 
Street, Copt Street, and Greek Street. The receptacle 

> Ibid. p. 388. I must express my surprise that Dr Ro- 

' Th. ReT. p. 419. < binson did not see, or seeing did not 

3 Ibid. p. 434, being an extract acknowledge, how very discordant this 

from a MS. letter of Mr £. Smith. I ' testimony is with his theory. 

en. I.] THE TYROP(EON. 31 

of the rain-water of all these streets is a large cistern 
belonging to the tannery opposite the palace of the 
Knights of St John. Its mouth, I mean the mouth to 
receive the water, is on the eastern side of the outer 
court of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, near the 
entrance of a small Greek Convent there. In rainy 
days, the water is rushing down that small street, [PaJm 
Street] which leads from Patriarch Street (ruga balnei 
Patriarchal of the Crusaders) to the open Court Yard 
of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre*." 

Xow from these notices it appears that the lowest 
Une of depression between the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre and Mount Sion, is not the Street of David, 
but Palm Street, immediately to the South of the 
Church ; so that we have here no evidence for the Tyro- 
p(Eon of Dr Robinson, but decidedly against it. Indeed 
it is admitted that " this raWne has become gradually 
and wholly filled up with the ruins and rubbish of 
ei|]^hteen centuries^" — which Brocardus will reduce to 
thirteen, for ** the valley was eonipletely filled up' in 
his day, though ** vestiges of its former coneavitv still 
remained*'.*' And 1 find another argument against this 
ravine in the course of a large and very ancient sewer -^ 
which traverses Mount Sion from South to North, makes 
a sharp angle to the East, near the Castle of David, 
and runs past the premises of the Jews' Society on 
Mount Sion to the bazaars. For surely had there been 

* MS. letter cUted JeruMlem, May | by Dr Robinson, ibid. 

H, ia47. ^ I shall again fall in with this 

* Th. Rev. p. 4V.4. drain below ; it is fully described (as 

* BrocarduA, cap. viii. " Nunc vo- an aqueduct) by Mr Johns, in a paper 
raf(o ipsa tou repleu est, relictis umen in Mr Bartlett*s Walks, with a section 
Tcatigiis prioris concaviutis.** Cited and Plan. pp. HJ — 90. \%i Kd. 



[part II. 

" a narrow ravine, immediately under the northern brow 
of Sion, serving as a drain for the waters falling on the 
adjacent part of Sion, and also for those on the southern 
declivity of the ridge*;" this cloaca maxima would have 
followed that natural course, to the saving of consider- 
able labour and expense. 

And with respect to the evidence of Brocardus, and 
those who follow him, I may in passing, express my 
regret that the first attempt to identify the topogra- 
phical features of ancient Jerusalem, as described by 
Josephus, should have failed so decidedly; and still 
more that the failure should have been perpetuated 
through so many centuries, o^ving to the repute in 
which the tract of Brocardus was held in the Convents*. 
It may be laid down as a rule, that not\iithstanding his 
" most diligent investigation of its ancient disposition," 
he is invariably wrong where he follows his own judg- 
ment; as the plans which have been framed on his 
notions abundantly prove. It is only as a witness to 
the existing traditions of his day that he can be allowed 

» Th. Rev. p. 419. 

' See the notice of this writer in 
the first Appendix a. to the Biblical 
Researches, p. 9, Vol. in. I did not 
intend to represent the theory of the 
Tyropceon adopted by Dr Robinson as 
new or singular, but I did not think 
that he would care for the support to 
be derived from Brocardus, (Theol. 
Rev. p. 434) who is followed by Adri- 
chomius and Villa! pandus, and they 
again by Lightfoot and other writers ; 
whose plans, presently referred to, I 
for one should be very sorry to adopt. 
But the important difference between 
Brocardus with his followers, and Dr 

Robinson, is this : that although thej 
drew the Tyropcron from the Ja& 
gate, they did not place the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre on Acra, but od 
Gihon, and saw no inconaistency be- 
tween the tradition and the topogra- 
phical notices of Josephus. See Bro- 
cardus, as quoted B. R. i. p. 891, on 
which I would remark, that the assig- 
nation of the valley is worth no moie 
than the '' modem tradition ** of Oihon. 
Both own the same author. Both an 
equally wrong. Dr Robinson mentiant 
another ^* supposed but fabulous val- 
ley,** of this untrustworthy antiquary. 
Th. Rev. p. 435. 

CU. I.] 



any authority: and it is only by comparing his tract 
with earlier notices that it can be ascertained whether 
be is a faithfiil witness, for he occasionally altered ex- 
isting traditions to support his own theories — a most 
evil example, and of very mischievous consequence. 

The testimony then of Mr Eli Smith, and of Dr 
Sdiultz above adduced, go to prove that the supposed 
valley along the Street of David (acknowledged by all 
to have been long since filled up) has no real existence^; 
and I shall presently have occasion to shew that much 
earlier writers than Brocardus were so profoundly igno- 
rant of any valley running in that direction, that they 
r^farded the site of the Holy Sepulchre as a declivity 
of Mount Sion. 

For the depression along Palm Street is extremely 
smaU, enough to carry off the rain-water, but no 
more. The ground occupied by the Christian quarter 
is not unaptly called '*a rocky projection or promon- 
tory setting in from the West*:'' ** being the south- 
eastern end or point of the long swell, which forms the 
high ground on the north-west of Jerusalem, and sinks 
down gradually towards the Temj)le as it enters the 
City ; this lower extremity being more steep and rocky 
than the higher portions^'' The effect of this is, that 
the whole ground North of Sion declines equally to the 
EaaI. so that Patriarch Street, the three lines of bazaars, 

' With regard to the drawings ap- 
pealed to br Dr Robinson, (T. R. p. 
433), I remark : that an Mr Bartlett 
had b«en led to expect the valley, and 
drev u in hi« Terj pretty fancy sketches, 
•o I>r Robiiuofi, vishing to find it in 
Mt Roberts' drawingp saw it. I quote 
OD fmndly author. " It certainly is 
tmpo«ible in any representation of the 

Vol. II. 

City, not drawn by a Tyropcronist, to 
discover this valley.... V^e look for it in 
vain in the unsuspected drawings of 
Roberu." Dublin Univ. Mag. Sept. 
1845, p. 2till. 

* Schulu, Jerusalem, p. 96. comp. 
pp. 30, 63, cited in Theol. Rev. p. 428. 

^ Bibl. Sac. p. 189, n. 1. 


and St Stephen Street running from South to North, are 
completely level ; Da^-id Street, the Street of the Holy 
Sepulchre, and those between them, to wit» Greek 
Street, Copt Street, and Palm Street, passing from 
West to East, deep declivities ^ The brow or crown of 
the ridge so often mentioned, may, as Mr Smith inti- 
mates, follow a line drawn from the N.W. angle of the 
city-waJl North of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and this would form the water-shed*; or there may be, 
as Dr Schultz suggests, a bay running in from the Mill 
Valley, between Sion and the Church ^ forming a 
crevasse in the rocky promontory, along the line indi- 
cated by the drain; but there is certainly no distinct 
valley, nor is it now pretended that there is. But when 
it is remembered that the T^TopoBon was a marked 
feature in the topography of ancient Jerusalem ; in the 
first instance dividing, as it would seem, two cities one 
from the other, and ever afterwards presenting a distinct 
line of separation between the two hills of the incorpo- 
rated city, it seems scarcely credible that the accumu- 
lation of rubbish and such like accidental causes should 
so far have obliterated it, as to leave no distinct traces 
behind, but permit us to doubt where, between Sion 
and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the bed of this 

* This iB admitted, Bartlett*s Walks, : the water (I think) would he fimnd 

2Dd Ed. App. p. 247, (cited in T. R. j flowing off quite rapidly towards the 

p. 433). Dr Robinson himself, p. 429, South ; certainly nerer towards the 

says only, << this strong averment must ' North.*' Dr Schults has collected Aii. 

be taken with some grains of qualifica- 
tion;'* but his qualifications do not 
affect my argument : and in p. 431 he 
writes, ''now although these two streets 
[Patriarch street, and St Stephen's] for 
some distance North of Sion, may be 
apparently nearly level, yet after rain, 

' See the extract from his letttr 
above, p. 30, and compare Th. Rev. 
429, 432, where note 2, see Mr Wol- 
cott's letter. 

' Dr Schults, p. 54, as quoted in 
Th. Rev. p. 428, note 1. 


vmlley lay; a doubt resolved by the flow of the rain- 
water against the course assigned it by Dr Robinson. 

Lastly, I find a strong objection in the very lan- 
guage of Josephus to taking such a valley, supposing 
it to exist, for the TyropoBon. He is by no means a 
looee writer: indeed his expressions, so far as I have 
been able to test them, are remarkably close and accu- 
rate : and if he had been speaking of this imaginary 
rectangular valley, made up indeed of two valleys, I am 
persuaded that he would not have described it as one 
extending (icadificeO down to Siloam ; because it was, and 
still is, the Mill Valley that extended down through the 
City in a most unmistakable line of continuity, as 
Dr Robinson, in common with all other writers, abun- 
dantly testifies. 

On these grounds then — that the gate Gennath 
must have been some distance East of Hippicus ; that 
the Acra of Josephus is a complete contrast in altitude 
and character with the ridge North of Sion ; that no 
distinct valley now exists, nor can be proved ever to 
have existed, between this ridge and Sion, T am obliged 
to reject the topographical identifications of Ur Robin- 
son, and to propose a theory more consistent with the 
representations of the Jemsh historian. 

But nothing has yet been said of the Pool of Heze- 
kiah. which, if rightly placed by Professor Robinson, 
would bring that part of the modern city, and so the 
Holy Sepulchre, within the ancient walls, which could 
scarcely have passed between the Pool and the Se- 

The following is the Professor's notice of the Pool 
of Hezekiah ; ** The Reservoir, now usually so called, 
lie> home distance north-eastward of the Jaffa Gate, 

3— -2 



[part II. 

just west of the street that leads north to the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchred" It lies, m fact, in the angle 
which David Street makes with Patriarch Street, and 
Copt Street winds round it on the West and North. 
With regard to its name, and the authority of the trar- 
dition which assigns it to Hezekiah, it is admitted that 
*' the native name is Birket el-Hummam, the Pool of 
the Bath*;" and that " no tradition exists, or ever has 
existed, in respect of this Pool, except on the lips of 
the monks." In confimation of which I may remark, 
that I inquired diligently of the most learned Jews, of 
the most intelligent Greeks, of native Christians and 
Mahommedans, and never in one instance did I receive 
the name which Frank travellers now give it. The Pool 
of the Bath, or the Pool of the Holy Sepulchre, are the 
only names by which they know it. 

On what authority then do the name and the tradi- 
tion rest ? It is singular that with so strong a prejudice 
against '' monkish traditions," especially if they happen 
to be "comparatively recent," Dr Robinson should 
here follow a tradition which, above all others in Je- 
rusalem, is " monkish " and " comparatively recent." 
Quaresmius, a monk and superior of the Frank Convent 
at Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, appears to be the first writer who dignified this 
Pool with the name which he has adopted; and he 
speaks with great hesitation. It was commonly known 
as the "Pool of the Holy Sepulchre;" he thinks that 
this is the pool spoken of in Isaiah xxii. 9, and believes 

> Bib. Rc». I. p. 487. 
' Bib. Res. ibid, and Bibl. Sac p. 
196 : <^ from the circumstance that its 

waters are used to supply a bath in 
that vicinity." 

CH. I.] 



that aflusion is made to it in 2 Chron. xxxii. 30^. With 
sDch an origin this tradition was handed down by the 
Latin monks, and received from them by English tra- 
rellers, until it found its way at last into a modem plan 
of the city, though in a somewhat corrupted form*. It 
was not so much as mentioned by the writers of the 
middle ages; and but for a passage in Josephus, I 
should conclude it to be of later date, for I could 
discover nothing in its structure to denote any great 
antiquity ^ 

The Chronicles of the Crusades are very explicit in 
their account of the fountains and pools on which the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem were dependent for their sup- 
ply of water in that thirsty land. They severaUy enu- 
merate those most celebrated, but one undertakes to 
give an account of alL He mentions the position of 
four very clearly, three of which still exist, the fourth 
has disappeared ; but this of the Bath has no place in 
his list : indeed, he virtually denies all knowledge of its 
existence, for he says, " besides these four there is no 
mention of any other pools in or about the city^." Yet 

* Hit words are: •"*... in tracivitatcm 
e«ie Altenun piscinam celebrem. prster 
ProbAtiaun, que est « latere occiden- 
tali ( Orientali ? ) castelli, parumque ad 
AquiloQem inclinan&, ab eoque distat 
centum gressus, et a glohoso Christi 
Sepulcfaro duemtoi circiter, et ab eo 
ro«ia«fii/rr piscina S. Sepulchri dici- 
txiT -De hoc piscina arbitror loqui 
Uominuxn ( £sa. xxii. 9) illis yerbis, 
El congregastis aquas piscins infe- 

nont Ad eamdam credo fieri allu- 

viooeru illU Terbis 2 Paral. xxxii. 30, 
Ipae t%x llesechiaA.** &c. Elucid. 
TcrT» Sanctr, Lib. vi. cap. viii. p. 4. 

"* It is marked in Mr Catherwood's 
truly monkish plan, as "the pool of 

* The large stones which Dr Ro- 
binson heard of may ha>;e belonged to 
any other building. 

* "* In JeniMilem autem vel circa, 
piscinae alia? non leguntur." Mar. 
Sanutus, Lib. in. Pt. 14, cap. x. He 
bad mentioned Siloaro; one above that; 
one by the Temple called by him the 
Sheep-pool, and now Bethesda ; and 
one by the Church of St Ann, of which 
sec the text forward. 



[part II. 

its situation agrees so well with the Amygdalon or 
Almond-pool mentioned by Josephus^ which I have shewn 
reason to believe was without the second wall, that I am 
disposed to conclude that it is noticed by that writer. 
It probably owed its origin to Herod the Great, and 
may have been designed for the supply of his palace, 
from which it would not be far distant ; and if this be 
so, the silence of the writer in question must be ac- 
counted for either by its being disused in those times, 
or not improbably filled with rubbish. 

Some of the ^Titers above referred to, do indeed speak 
of the Pool of Hezekiah ; and however clear it may be 
that they were mistaken, yet I think it would have been 
well if Dr Robinson had informed his readers that his 
Pool had a rival, which certainly could shew a much 
earlier title to this dignity, — especially as he does refer 
to the passages — rather than leave them to conclude 
that his monkish tradition was as ancient and undisputed 
as they would argue it to be, from the fact of its being 
so confidently received by one who objects to traditions 
of the 13th century as comparatively recent, and is so 
very suspicious of those which date as far back at least 
as the commencement of the fourth. 

There existed formerly near the church of St Ann, 
within the St Mary^s Gate, on the Eastern side of the 
city, a large pool celebrated by all the writers of the 
age of the Crusades*, and supposed at least by the latter 
to be the " Inner Pool" made by Hezekiah, and cele- 

• See above, pp. 19. 24. 

» Gesu Dei, p. 573; WiU. Tyr. 
viii. 4, fin,; Jac. de Vit. c. 63. Ma- 
rinuj* Sanutus (1321), Lib. iii. Pt. 
14, cap. X.; Brocardus (1283), c. 10. 

Thene passages are referred to by Dr 
Robinson, note 1, on p. 490, but not 
a vord about Hezekiah. He merely 
says, "it was called piscina interior, 
and is now apparently destroyed.** 

CH. l] 



brmted in Scripture history. There seem to be insuper- 
aUe objections to this tradition, which will be stated in 
a subsequent chapter ; nor does it appear to be of suffi- 
cient antiquity to demand much respect; but it has 
been mentioned here to shew what very slender autho- 
rity there is for the claims of this Pool, when so late as 
the 14th century it was not so much as mentioned, and 
the name which he assigns it given to another. 

Not that it is on this authority that Dr Robinson 
builds ; " for thus connecting the Reservoir with Heze- 
kiah, he was guided solely by its correspondence, in 
position and character, to the scriptiu'al accounts of the 
Pool constructed by that monarch*." Whether this 
correspondence is so very obvious, will be seen in a sub- 
sequent chapter, when I come to speak of the waters of 

Having now endeavoiu*ed to dispose of aU the argu- 
ments which have been adduced by Dr Robinson in 
support of his theory of Acra, the Lower City, and the 
Tyropoeon, and stated what appear to me insuperable 
objections to its reception, it will be incumbent on me 
to state, and to attempt to prove my own. 

If the course of the valley of the Tyropoeon can be 
ascertained, the position of Acra will be easily deter- 
mined; so that I shall invert the order of my argu- 

I. There is then one and onli/ one remarkable and 
well-defined valley passing entirely through the city, to 
which there is frequent allusion in the Professor's topo- 
jn^phical notices ^ as commencing near the Damascus 

• Bibl. Sac. p. Vje. 

* See p. 345 : from the Jaftk gate 
he ** driceruiefi to the Damoitcu* gnte^ 

Again, p. ^/k), looking tor the Tyro- 
pcron, he finds no valley or depression 
" before reaching the declivity stretch- 



[part II. 

Gate, and ninning in a Southern direction to the Pool 
of Siloam. He indeed places '' the ancient hills of Sion 
and Aera on the West of this broad valley, and on the 
East the lower ones of Bezetha and Moriah ;" but this 
position will be found untenable, if it has not been 
proved so already. The fact is, what he calls Bezetha 
is the Aera of Josephus, and this *' broad valley running 
down from the Damascus Gate to the Pool of Siloam" 
is the Tyropoeon. I proceed to the proof of these 
most important points in the topography of ancient 

That the character of this broad vaUey, so conspi- 
cuous a featxu'e in the topography of the present City 
as to force itself upon the notice of all travellers, 
answers to the description of the Tyropceon of Jose- 
phus, will already have appeared, not more from my own 
notices than from the citations which have been made 
from no friendly ^Titers*, and from the impartial testi- 
mony of the Arabic historian who names the street that 
traverses the whole length of this valley, the " Street of 
the Mill- Valley'." It extends from the Damascus Gate . 
on the North, to the Pool of Siloam on the South of 
the City; it divides the modern city in two parts, as 
the Tyropojon did the ancient, having on the West the 
high hill of Sion, and the declivity of a still higher 
ridge ; and on the East a lower hill which I call Aera, 

ing down to the Dftmascus gate.** But 
see pp. 12. 27) 28. above, and B. R. pp. 
383. 392. 3. 433, note 1. 

1 I again quote the Dublin Univer- 
sity Magazine : ^* There really can be 
no doubt of an evident well-defined 
valley extending northward from the 
back (i.e. West) of the Mosk of Omar 

to the Damascus Gate. It is strikingly 
distinguished m Mr Roberts* large pic- 
ture of Jerusalem, &c.** p. 260. But 
all writers notice it. 

' Dr Robinson reckons it aU one 
street. Bib. Res. i. p. 393, and Bib. 
Sac. p. 33, note 1 . See above, p. 18, 
note 2. 

CB. l] 



jollied at the South to the Temple Mount But was 
8odi the relative situation of Sion and Acra, of Aera 
and Moriah? 

Now I think it will be clear from the following con- 
siderations that the hill Acra lay North-west of the 
Temple Mount, and not due West. 

It must never be forgotten that Jerusalem was 
originaUy two distinct cities united together by David. 
The intermediate space, or the Valley of the Tyropoeon, 
inclosed with walls to effect this union, is called in 
Scripture Millo, and elsewhere both in Scripture and in 
Josephus "the suburb^," as belonging strictly to neither 
part of the City, but usually comprehended by the 
Jewish historian with Acra under the common name of 
the Lower City. 

In his description of the Temple we have the follow- 
ing full and very clear account of the gates of the 
outer court on the western side : — " In the western 
quarter of this outmost bound there were four gates : 
the first leading to the king's palace, the valley being 
filled up for the passage: two others led into the 

' For Millo, *ee Vol. i. p. 24, note 
I. It is identified with the Tyro- 
pcroo by Brocardus, who is followed 
bj Adrichomius and others. Lightfoot 
C^virde geographia sacra optime meri- 
tus,*^ as keland calls him,) in a com- 
ment on a passage of Josephus, which 
will be prcacntly quoted, says, " These 
ntifurb* that he roeaneth were indeed 
that part of the city which u in Scrip- 
ture called Millo, which was the valley 
SI the west cod of Mount Moriah in 
which Jerusalem [i. e. Acra] and Sion 
mtr. and saluted each other ; replenish- 
ed w;th buildings by David and Solo- 

mon in their times, (2 Sam. v. 9, and 1 
Kings xi. 27 ), and taken in as part and 
suburbs of Sion, and so named always 
in after times.*' And again : " Millo, 
which was an outer place and the sub- 
urbs of Sion, distinguished and parted 
from Sion by a wall, yet a member of 
it, and belonging to it" Josephus 
rather makes it belong to Acra ; though 
it is true that in the passage in ques- 
tion '* he maketh Acra as another city 
from the suburbs/* In Scripture, Millo 
appears to be called once "the city 
of David/* See 2 Chron. xxxii. 5, 



[PAET n. 

suburbs; and the other into the other city, having 
many steps down into the valley, and many up again 
to the pitch or coming up^" 

Now if we can determine the situation of the first- 
mentioned of these four gates it will throw considerable 
light upon the question under discussion; for that the 
suburbs lay between the first and fourth gate, is suffici- 
ently evident from Holy Scripture. Nor can any reason 
be assigned for their being taken by Josephus in any 
other than the order in which they stood. 

In the account of the placing of the porters under 
the first Temple, we read that " To Shuppim and Hozah 
the lot came forth westward, with the gate Shallecheth, 
by the causeway of the going up ;" and again, " at Par- 
bar westward four at the causeway, and two at Parbar*." 
Now this causeway, without all doubt, could be none 
other than that mentioned among the great works of 
Solomon, as '' the ascent by which he went up unto tibe 
house of the Lord 3." 

* Ant. XV. xi. 6. 'Evdk tois e<nre- 
pioi9 fiepeai tov irepi^oX-ov irvXat Te<r- 
aap€9 ifpea^aaaif, i} fikv eh tcl /3a- 
criXeta Tcivovaa, r^9 iv fitatp fpapayyov 
€lv 6io6op aVeiXff/u/iAevijv, ai 6k 6vo eU 
TO irpod<rr€ioUf »| \onnj Sh els Tt|i/ oX- 
Xijv troXiu. ic. T.X. I follow Light- 
foot's translatioD. Is Dr RobiDson 
serious when he charges me with 
** seeking to change the relative posi- 
tion of these western gates**? Theol. 
Rev. p. 424. 

« 1 Chron. xxvi. 16, 18. 

* 1 Kings X. 6, and 2 Chron. ix. 4. 
Again I appeal from Dr Robinson to 
scholars who wrote before controversy, 
and had no theory to support, for 

the interpretation of the words "^5"^? 

ra^ttf, n^l rr^DD in the Bible, 

and irpoatrreloif in Josephus. A 
full investigation of the various pas- 
sages elucidating the subject wiU be 
given in the Appendix. Lightlbot 
says: '•The word 'Shallecheth,* by 
which name this gate was first 
called in the time of Solomon, doth 

signify 'a casting up.* Now this 

gate is said, in 1 Chron. xxvi. 16, to 
have been by * the causeway going up,' 
which going up is that renowned ascent 
that Solomon made for his own passage 
up to the temple. And the causeway 
is that that Josephus meaneth, when 

CR. I.] 



Such a causeway, connecting the N. E. brow of Sion 
with the Temple Mount, is distinctly to be seen at this 
day*, and is traversed by the Street of the Temple, 
leading down from the bazaars to the principal gate 
of the western wall of the Mosk, immediately without 
which is the Cadi's office, or Mekhem^ ; and it is a sin- 
gular fact, that the very street, which Dr Robinson 
represents as following the bed of the valley of the 
Tyropoeon^, is carried along the ridge of an artificial 
mound ; for the mound is clearly artificial, and not acci- 
dental, as he imagines*. About half-way between the 
bazaar and the Haram there is a path southward, by a 
very steep descent to the bed of the valley, doum which 
it leads between prickly pears, to a small gate in the 
city-waU seldom opened^, and so to the Pool of Siloam ; 
while nearer to the Mosk there is an equally steep 
descent to the North, into a street which follows the 
same valley up to the Damascus Gate. 

Hy this causeway the aqueduct from the pools of 
Solomon, after skirting the eastern brow of Sion, crosses 
the bed of the Tyropccon to the Mosk^: while deeper 

he saith, *■ a gate led to the king*«« house 
from the temple, the valley betwixt 
being hlled up for the passage/ which 
was a very great woik, for the valley 
was large and deep.** Vol. i. p. 1065, 
fol. ed. 

• See above, Vol. i. p. 24. 

» See above, pp. 29, 3(). 

« Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 3J*3. The 
existence of a valley running into Mill 
Valley from the went, just south of the 
causeway, is purely imaginary. The 
west extrnnity of the causeway joins 
the North-east angle of Sion. which is 
a rock. Besides, how could the atiue 

duct cross such a valley here, so as to 
reach the causeway ? But in Bib. Sac. 
p. :{3, note 1, he acknowledges that he 
" had only imperfect notes of an im- 
perfect observation " of this moimd. 

^ Towards the latter end of the long 
summer of 1H42 it was opened, and a 
guard stationed there ; but merely for 
the purpose of facilitating the intro- 
duction of water to the city from the 
Bir Eyub. When the rains came it 
was again built up. It is marked in 
many plans as the Ihing-gate. 

^ How then can Dr Robinson call 
it a low mound ? and say that it ** runs 



[part U. 

still in a large sewer which traverses the whole of Sion, 
and discharges itself into an immense chamber beneath 
the bed of the valley, near the covered arcade which 
conducts to the baths ^ The upper part of this sewer 
was discovered near the Castle of David by Mr Johns, 
architect of the Jews' Society, in digging for the foun- 
dations of their Chiu*ch'. It was 40 feet below the 
surface of the ground, (rubbish intervening,) partly cut 
through the rock and partly built, broken in in several 
places. In its course it is joined by several branches, 
and from the bazaars it is still used as a sewer. It is 
mentioned by Mejr-ed-din as a gallery solidly vaulted, 
which he ascribes to David, and which gave its name to 
the street above. An exaggerated tradition of the 
passage as "a large street" is still current among the 
Moslem inhabitants, and parts of it are still occasionally 

The Palace of Solomon may have occupied the same 
site on the north-east angle of Mount Sion, where stood 

to the gate of the Haram merely from 
the bate of SioD as it there exists, and 
never had a connexion with the brow 
or summit of that hilL** Theol. Rev. 
p. 611, 612. From Mr Wolcott's ac- 
count of the aqueduct, it is clear that 
it passes under the foundations of the 
houses built on the N.W. brow of 
Sion, and there reaches the causeway. 
Bib. Sac. pp. 32, 33, and notes. 

* I am indebted for these interest, 
ing discoveries to the worthy consul- 
general of Prussia, Herr Von Wilden- 
bruch, who, during his visit to Jerusa- 
lem in 1842, was attended by a very 
intelligent kawass of the Pasha, who 
communicated to him the fact about 

the aqueduct, and shewed him its 
course down the causeway : I after- 
wards engaged the services of the same 
man to conduct me about the city, and 
give me further information on these 
points. A full account of the aqueduct 
from the pools will be given when I 
come to speak of the waters. 

' See his account in Bartlett's 
Walks, p. 87, &c He Ukes it for an 
aqueduct; and Dr Robinson is angry 
with me for calling it a sewer. Th. 
Rev. p. 637, n. 1. I can only say that 
I inspected it when it was open, and 
that inspection and its present use con- 
vince me that I am right, as I hope to 
prove when I return to it below. 

CH. l] 



the palace erected by the Asmoneans, and afterwards 
occupied by Agrippa'; and the causeway conducted 
from this palace to that gate of the Temple known by 
the name of '' Shallecheth,'^ "the gate of the casting 
up, or embankment^" 

And now having fixed this gate, as Dr Robinson 
himself also does^ opposite to Sion, we must look for 
the other three North of this, two leading " to the 
suburb," and one " into the other city." Dr Robinson's 
first gloss on this remarkable passage, is this : ** two 
conducting to the subxu'b (or new city), on the North, 
and the remaining one leading to the other city. By 
this 'other city' can be meant only the Lower City, or 
Acra*." Now, not to insist upon the facts that the his- 
torian places the two gates leading into the suburbs 
next to that by the causeway, and that he never in a 
single passage calls Bezetha the suburb, but always '' the 
new city"," and that it had no existence when the 
Temple was built ; it is obvious to remark, that as Be- 
zetha lay upon the North side of the Temple, it could 
by no possibility be approached from its western gates, 
which arc here in mention : and it was so far from being 

' J<mtph. Ant. xx. viii. 11. 

* **So, saith Kirachi (Michol in 
^J^), it is rendered by the Chaldee 
Parmphnut in the sense of TOtIL*?!-" 
Ligfatfoot, VoL I. p. 1055. He further 
Mjs^that in the time of ilerod*» temple 
tt was called the Gate of Coponius, 
probably from Copouius, general of the 
horse and ruler of Judea under Cyre- 
oiut goYemor of Syria, who arrived 
about the time of the finishing of 
Herod*s temple. 

* Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 412. Theol. 

Rev. 424. He suggests that this pas- 
sage was by the bridge, the remains of 
which he fancied he had discovered : 
but the language of Josephus implies 
an embankment, such as that of Solo, 
mon clearly was. 

" Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 412. Bib. 
Res. ii.p. HH. 

• J. W. Lib. V. 4. 2. It was pro- 
perly a suburb before Agrippa enclosed 
it, although I am not aware that it is 
ever so called by the historian. 



[part II. 

united to the Temple, or having gates leading into it 
from the Temple, that it was separated from it, as is 
miiversally allowed, at least by a deep trench ^ Besides; 
the Tower of Antonia, which lay at the north-west 
angle of the temple-court, and certainly gave its name 
to Acra, was without doubt comprehended in the Lower 
City. Now if " by this other city," in this passage of 
Josephus, can be meant only the Lower City or Acra, 
as Dr Robinson himself grants, is it not plain that the 
northernmost of these western gates must have led into 
that city, as the order of the historian would lead us to 
conclude ? 

Neither does the latest interpretation of this passage 
proposed by Dr Robinson appear more satisfactory than 
the first. According to this, the two suburban gates "led 
probably by a street along or near the valley to the 
ancient gate now known as that of Damascus ; and so 
conducted to the suburb beyond, or also to Bezetha on 
the right," while " the fourth was South of these, and 
led down into the same valley, and so up the ascent to 
* the other city,' which can only mean the Lower City 
or Acra'." The objections to this, are that, 1st, the 
order of Josephus is reversed, who mentions the subur- 
ban gates between the other two; 2dly, that in this 
case none of the western gates led into the suburbs, 
but only into a street leading to the suburbs ; as 3dly, 
the foiuiih gate (and indeed all the temple-gates) would 

1 Dr Robinson, (B. Res. i. p. 432), 
nays that Antonia, (which he places 
between Bezetha and the temple,) was 
''separated from the hill Bexetha on 
the north by a deep artificial trench, 
leftt it should be approachable from that 
hilL" Yet here he makes it to be 

approached by two gates from the 
western side of the temple. So agmin, 
p. 433, he joins Bexetha to Moriah, 
and separates Acra from it, contrary 
to Josephus. 

« Theol. Rev.p. 424. 


ultiiiiately do; and 4thly, if Acra lay wholly West of 
the Temple, so that its western gates were opposite to 
Acra, then it would be equally true of aU the three 
gates that they led into " the other ;" i. e. '' the Lower 

If then we adopt this, his third hypothesis, never 
formally withdrawn, (which it is no part of my duty to 
reconcile with the others,) and assume that the three 
gates led into the Lower City^, then it will be necessary 
to suppose that the historian here calls some part of 
that Lower City by the distinct name of " the suburb," 
which is the very point which I am maintaining ; and it 
is then clear that the part so distinguished must have 
been next to Sion, on the North, not only from the 
order in which the gates arc mentioned, but for the 
foregoing consideration, that the fortress Acra, identical 
with Antonia*, which lay Northward of the Temple, 
was undoubtedly included in the other city which it 
designated ^ We must then look for "the suburb" 
West of the Temple, and for the two plates leading to 
the suburb, in the intermediate space between the for- 
tress Antonia and the causeway. 

And in this conclusion we are again confirmed by 
the language of Holy Scripture, with reference to the 
porters. The gate next Shallecheth is the Parbar gate, 
i. e. ** the gate of an outer place," or *• the gate of the 
suburb*;" and there is an incidental allusion to this 

* So Bib. Res. ii. p. Hid. and Bib. 
Sac. p. 188. 

* This identity will be proved be- 
low, cap. ir, when I speak of Antonia. 

^ I would suggest whether the di- 

or the suburbs, may not have been 
marked by the wall built by the As- 
moneans to cut off the garrison in the 
fortreas Acra from the market. Ant. 

XIII. V. 11. 

fision between Acra proper and Millo, ■ • " The word Parbar admittcth of a 



[part n. 

same gate in the book of Kings, where the suburbs are 
again mentioned. It is said of Josiah that ''he took 
away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to 
the sun, at the entering in of the house of the Lord, by 
the chamber of Nathan-meleeh the chamberlain, which 
was in the subxu'bs^" The other gate into the suburb, 
and that into the Lower City, would appear to have 
a common name in Scripture, derived from the " house 
of Asuppim,'* or treasiu'e-houses of the temple, which 
extended between them, and united them ; and there- 
fore although that next to Parbar " did lead also into 
the suburbs as well as this, as is apparent from Jose- 
phus, yet is it not called by the same name Parbar : the 
reason of this may be given, because it bare a name 
peculiar and proper, suitable to that singular use to 
which it was designed, or to that place where it was 
set, rather than suitable to that place whither it gave 

But the observation, that the street which led to the 
" other city " descended by a flight of stairs from the 
gate of the temple, and then ascended to the other city, 
may suggest the objection that the valley that separated 

double construction : for it either nig- 
nifiesH]! "^^^^y an outward place, as 
many of the Jews do construe it ; or it 
concurs with the signification of the 
word ^ parvar,' (which differs but one 
letter from it, and that very near and 
of an easy change) which betokeneth 
^suburbs,* both in the Hebrew text, 
2 Kings xxii. 11, and in the Chaldee 
tongue, as David Kimchi averreth 
there." Lightfoot, Vol. i. p. 1066, 
where he shews it to have been next 
to Shallecheth. This learned author 
places Sion north of Acra, which is 

a source of endless confusion with him. 
This is the more to be regretted, at 
with accurate data his learning aod 
laborious research might have led to 
imporUnt results. He was misled, like 
the Rabbies, by a misunderstanding of 
Psalm xlviii. 2, which the Chrooidet 
of the Crusades, Sandys, QuaTeamius, 
&c., ought to have corrected : but he 
prefers the error of the Rabbiet to the 
truth of the Christians. 

* 2 Kings xxiii. 11. See Lightfoot, 
Vol. 1. p. 1056. 

3 See Lightfoot, Vol. i. pp. 1066-7. 




Acfi from the Temple had been filled up'» I answer. 
it ?a.H the hitl of Acra that had been united to the 
Mount of the Temple, and not the part of the Lower 
Citj oppoiiite to the Northernmost gate on the WeMern 
ii(te of the area ; for that side was bounded, as it still 
^ by a deep valley, except at the North-West angle, 
wiefi* I presume that tlie junetion was effected. And 
irhen to aO this H is added, that in the passage in 
. qu^don JosephuB is describiDg the Temple as it stood 
H in Herod's time, when the New City did not exists (as 
" certainly it did not in the time of the kings, though the 
^te Parbar did,) I think it will be clear that the con- 
clusion abo% e arrived at is correct : viz. that the hill 
Acts was not the ridge immediately West of Moriah*; 
for that here lay "the suburbs/' sometimes indeed 
eoinprehended with Acra under the common appeUation 
of the T owor City, but sometimes distinguished from it 
by a peculiar name\ The real point at issue is, whether 
the hill Acra were to the West or to the North-West of 
Moriah ; for, as in the parallel case of Bezetha or the 
New City, the to\>Ti about the hill Acra — in short all the 
space included in its wall — was reckoned to the hill. 

Now, that the high ground of Acra lay North of the 
Temple, appears from the language of Josephus, in his 
account of the New City^. " This third wall," he writes. 

' See above, p. 42, and notes. The 
words of Josephus are, ^adfxlari iroX- 
Kals Kcrree t( eU Ttji/ (pdpayya otei- 
AruutVr}, Kai dtro Tai/XTjs dvw trdXiv 
rri -rnp -vpoafiacriv. Who can doubt 
that thU is the same <pdpay^ men- 
tiooed in the earlier part of the same 
pa«saf;e, vhich see at p. 42, note 1 ; 
!- e. the TyropiPon ? 

* As mainuined by Dr Robinson, 

Vol. II. 

Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 393. Theol. Rev. 
p. 417, et seq. 

^ Jevtrish War, vi. vi. 3, compared 
with vii. 2, presents a remarkable ex- 
ample of this : in the former passage 
Acra is distinguished from dpxeTov, the 
fiouXevTiipiov, and '0(p\i; but in the 
latter, the Lower City is reckoned as 
far as Si loam. 

^ Bell. Jud.v.iv. 2. 



"Agrippa drew round the superadded city, which 
all exposed; for [the city], overflowing with inhabitants, 
gradually crept beyond its bounds ; and the people 
joining to the city the region which lay to the North 
of the Temple close to the hill (of Acra), advanced 
considerably ; so that even a fourth eminence was sur- 
rounded with habitations, that which is called Bezetha, 
situated opposite to the Antonia, but separated from it 
l^ a deep-dug trench, that the foundations of the Antonia 
might not, by joining the eminence, be easy of approach 
and of inferior height." 

And this last observation is alone sufficient to 
prove that the hill to the North-West of the Haram 
cannot in any case be Bezetha; because, so far from 
being separated by a trench from the Temple-Mount, 
(on which the tower Antonia was situated,) it is actually 
joined to it ; and this junction, while it is decisive 
against its being Bezetha, is a confirmation of the 
evidence for its being Acra, which was artificicdly con- 
nected with the Temple, as has been fully shewn. The 
filling up of this valley, by which the junction was 
efiected, would seem to have been part of the same 
work as the demolition of the fortress and the lowering 
of the height of Acra ; and it was a work of immense 
labour, and occupied a long space of time^ I think 
that the traces of it remain to this day plainly visible, 
in a ridge which slopes do^Ti from the traditionary 
site of the house of Herod to the outer inclosure of 
the Mosk, and which is crossed by the " Via Dolorosa," 
as it approaches the Seraiya, or House of Pilate*: the 

* Ant. Lib. xiii. c»p. vi. ?ect. 7- I these operations, I will be more explicit 
« As Dr Robinson complains (Th. | when I come to speak of Antonia. See 
Rev. p. 420) of this slight allusion to ' also above, pp. 27, 28. 

CH. I.] ACRA. 51 

Arch of the "Ecce Homo" stands directly on this ridge. 
I presume then that the rock thrown down from Acra 
18 the substratum of this sloping ridge, which is certainly 
a remarkable feature, and that it is here that ''the broad 
ralley which formerly separated between Acra and Mo- 
riah was filled up by the Asmoneans, with a view to join 
the Temple to the city." 

Further, the description of this hill, as given by 
Dr Robinson himself, exactly answers in other respects 
to the account of the hill Acra given by Josephus ; for 
it is still surrounded on all sides by deep valleys, though 
they are, of course, greatly filled up with rubbish. " Its 
Western side, near the gate of Damascus, is very steep ; 
as are also the Northern and Southern sides in this 
quarter*." But more of this, when I come to describe 
this part of the second wall. 

The last consideration that I shall urge against 
Dr Robinson's theory, and in favour of my own, is this, 
that if my hill Acra were the true Bezetha*, as he holds, 
then was Josephus greatly mistaken in his account of 
the City; for, while great part of Acra was excluded 
from the second wall, about half Bezetha must have 
been included in it, as may thus be proved. The second 
wall, which ** encircled the Northern quarter of the City, 
reached as far as Antonia*:" but Antonia was on the 
North of Moriah*, and the second city -wall joined 
the East wall of the fort ; for it was not until he had 
taken the second wall that Titus could bring his en- 
gines against the tower itself. That the second wall 

» Bib. R«. I. p. 392. " Ant. xv. xi. 3. B«ll. Jud. i. iii. 

* B. R. ibid. This position is de- 
fenaed, Theol. Rev. p. 438. 
» Bdl. Jud. V. iv. i. 

3; V. 4. and v. v. 8 
' Bell. Jud. V. xi. 


followed the course of the Mill Valley, down to the 
comer of Antonia^ is to me an incredible supposition, 
for so the wall would be commanded from the steep hill 
without. Besides which, as Antonia lay on a hill, not 
in a valley, the only way in which the wall could reaqh 
it, was "across the high ground of Bezetha," in Dr 
Robinson's acceptation. So that, in fact, the ancient 
City, according to this writer, instead of consisting of 
two hills separated by an intermediate valley, would 
comprehend only one entire hill (Mount Sion), divided 
from Acra (not a hill, but " the continuation or rather 
termination of a broad ridge or swell of land") by 
a Tyropoeon, of which no traces remain; and then 
another broad valley, and great part of the hill Bezetha, 
which Josephus tells us was not enclosed until the time 
of Agrippa. 

Where then, it will be asked, is Bezetha, or rather 
the hill included in BezetlA ? for the New City was very 
extensive, and encompassed the Lower City on three 
sides. I answer, exactly where Josephus places it — 
North of the Temple, and answering to his description 
in every respect. There is a hill distinct from Acra, 
not mentioned by Dr Robinson*, lying between it and 
the valley of the Kedron, covered to this day with ruins 
and cisterns, and bearing evident traces of having been 
thickly peopled. The highest point of this hill, nearly 
North-East of the summit of Acra, is now without the 
city-walls, and planted with olives; while the South, 

Dr Robinson throwR out both | so good as to illustrate this work. 

these suggestions. Bib. Res. i. p. 4^2, 
' He eren implies a doubt of its 
existence, Theol. Rev. p. 440. I would 
therefore beg to refer to the very faith- 
ful sketch of my friend who has been 

made before he had studied the topo- 
graphy of Jerusalem : it is alto dis- 
tinctly marked on the Officers* eon- 
toured Plan. 

CH. I.] BBZBTHA. 53 

or lower part, is within the walls, and reaches down to 
the trench now known as the " Pool of Bethesda." For 
the hill of Acra does not slope down to the valley of the 
Kedron; the skirt of Bezctha, on which stands the 
church of St Ann, being interposed^; and the valley 
between the two ridges may still be traced down from 
the Gate of Herod to the Western extremity of the 
above-named pool*. The steep brow of Acra rises 
abruptly on the West of this valley, and the traditionary 
house of Simon the Pharisee overhangs the declivity. 

In approaching the city from the North by the 
Damascus road the two hills are so distinctly marked, 
that it is impossible to mistake them, and the correct- 
ness of the Jewish historian's language is most clearly 
proved; for the hill Bezctha does most completely 
"overshadow" Moriah from this quarter^ and when 
covered with buildings must have entirely obsciu-ed the 
view of the Temple from the North, which the other hill 
neither does nor could ever have done, being as it is to 
the North-West of the Haram^ 

There is however one objection to this hypothesis, 
the only one that I am aware of, and it shall be honestly 
seated ; viz. that this Acra is higher than Moriah, where- 
as Josephus says that the height of Acra was reduced 
by the Asmoneans so as to become lower than the 
Temple'. But first, in addition to all other difficulties, 

* Could I>r R. BuppoM that I intend 
the «roe bj the summit and the Kkirt 
ti this hill ? and that I meant to imply 

* Bell. Jud. Lib. iv. cap. v. sect. 
8. Another feature immarked bj Dr 
Robinaon, and therefore, as usual, de- 

thas its skirt and not the jiunimit over- I nied. 1. c. p. 440. 
shadows the Temple ? or is he merely " As Dr Robinson also perpetually 

canning in note 2. p. 439, of the writes, Th. Rev. p. 438—441. 
Theol. ReT.? ' J. W. v. iv.l. 

* Sec Scbulu*s Jerusalem, p. 32. ' 



[part II. 

this same objection applies to Dr Robinson's Acra in 
a much greater degree ^ and next, I am not at all sure 
that the language of Josephus requires this construction. 
The object of the Asmoneans was to remove the annoy- 
ance of the fortress, the original Acra, which stood in 
a commanding position at the North- West of the Temple; 
and the result of their labours was, that the Temple out- 
topped aU the buildings in its neighbourhood, but not 
necessarily the whole hill and all the buildings upon it*. 
The fact is, that unless Josephus is allowed some lati- 
tude, and we are permitted to resolve this difficulty in 
some such manner as this, we are reduced to the alter- 
native of supposing that Moriah is not correctly placed; 
for there is not a hill in the neighbourhood which is not 
higher than that now occupied by the Great Mosk: 
and then we have to seek new axioms before we can 
advance a single step in the topography of Jerusalem; 
for this point is commonly assumed, and allowed by 
. general consent, as one of the very few data on which 
we may build. 

We may now return to the point from which we set 
out, and endeavour to trace the course of the second 
waU. Let us then place the gate Gennath in the 
Northern waU of Sion, somewhere near the entrance 
to the bazaars from the West: The second wall, com- 
mencing here will nm in a Northerly direction parallel 

* For it is the highest part of the 
city. See above, p. 26, n. 6, and com- 
pare with those authorities, Bib. Res. 
I. p. 392, n. 1. 

' Rubbish does wonders in Jeru- 
salem, and it will do something, but I 
fear not enough, here. The ruined 
church, said to occupy the site of the 

house of Simon the Pharisee, ttandi 
near the top of this hill, and ia now 
below ground, and surrounded on aU 
sides with heaps. Heads of gmtewayi 
are level with the present street, &c 
More will be said of this levelling of 
the hill, when I come to speak of An- 
tonia, in a subsequent chapter. 

cH. l] the second wall. 55 

to the three arcades of the bazaar, and to the Street 
of St Stephen, — but a little to the West of this line. 
It will be carried along a sloping ground, which is a 
disadvantage ; but the Tyropoeon must be crossed ; and 
since Acra is North of Sion, the waU must run in that 
direction along the declivity to the upper and more 
shaUow part of the valley, near the Damascus Gate. 
The disadvantage would be obviated in some measure 
by artificial defences. The "VaUey Gate" and "the 
comer Gate," and "the turning of the wall," fortified 
with towers by Uzziah', and "the broad wall*," were 
probably found in this part of the wall. And it is not 
unlikely that those two chambers constructed of large 
stones, stiU to be seen near the Damascus Gate, may 
have belonged to one of these fortified gates, and have 
aided to strengthen the wall in this its weakest and 
most assailable part : it here reached the hill Acra, 
round which it was carried until it met the wall of 
the fortress An tenia. 

It is singular that the language of Josephus alone, 
a{jart from all other considerations, induced a friend, 
who hiis been before mentioned, to draw the wall within 
a few feet of this line, whieh we afterwards found 
evidence to prove it had taken. In that part of Mount 
Sion where I have placed the gate Gennath, there 
is a dip in the hill, so marked, that in passing from 
South to North, by the Street of Mount Sion, com- 
mencing near the Sion Gate, you have little or no 
de<«cent at all to the bazmirs^ : while from any other 

" 2 C'hron. xwi. !l. ' l>r KobiuAon ought not to deny 

* Neheni. iii. K , xii. ;(K. ! the existence of thu depression, which 



[part II. 

point West of this there is a steep declivity, — tike higher 
brow of Mount Sion described by Josephus. Near the 
bazaars then is a favourable position for the gate Gen- 
nath, and for the commencement of the Second Wall ; 
and near this there is a tradition of a Gate leading 
into Sion, marked still by two columns, reverenced by 
pilgrims as that through which St Peter passed to the 
house of St Mark^ I would not attach much im- 
portance to this fact taken alone ; but, as a link in a 
chain of evidence, it is worth something. 

Again, immediately without the bazaar, on the West, 
is a sudden rise to Sion, near the top of which is to be 
seen the head of an old gateway, so much choked up 
with rubbish that the key-stone is nearly on a level 
with the street ; it bears marks of antiquity in its struc- 
ture, and in the size of the stones, which are much 
worn by exposiu-e. It appears to have formed a round 
arch, and might probably be excavated with success, if 
permission could be obtained: I attempted to get be- 
hind it in a dyer's shop, but it is all blocked up. If this 
were a city gate at all, it belonged to the second wall, 
not to the first, and must have been very near the angle. 
Its present state most clearly indicates that the natural 
surface of the ground in this quarter must be much 

is also plainly to be seen without the 
city, running in, a little east of the tomb 
of David. Dr Schults, in his accurate 
description of this part of Mount Sion, 
has remarked it, without any hint from 
me, (Jerusalem, p. 9, ) and it is clearly 
marked in the Officers' contoured Plan, 
both without and within the city. He 
is too much in the habit of denying 
what escaped his own observation, or 

of saying, as here, that the descriptioos 
of others are exaggerated. TheoL Rcr. 
p. 443, note 4. 

* Does Dr Robinson mean to in- 
sinuate that I atuch any importance to 
this story ? or does my language imply 
that I value the tradition, except for 
the simple fact of the gate ? I. c. notes 
4 and 5. 

CH. l] the second wall. 57 

below the present level'. Let us proceed further to- 
wards the North. 

On the 18th of December, 1842, I was walking over 
the ruins of the Hospital of the Knights of St John, 
when, on looking down from the top of one of the 
chambers, among some prickly pears on the South side 
of the building, I discovered a solid and compact mass 
of masonry of a totally different character from any I 
had before seen in Jerusalem. The workmanship was 
much better, and the stones much whiter and harder 
than those used in the hospital or in any modem 
building. On a closer examination I found it to be 
the pier of a gateway, with the spring-course of the 
arch stiU entire. The mass had never been distiurbed 
on the inside, i. c. on the North ; whereas on the South 
side there was every appearance of a wall having been 
removed — the mass being now supported by stones of 
another character, very clumsily inserted. The pier 
may be eight or nine feet deep, and fourteen or sixteen 
hi«^h from its present base : but its present base is level 
with the roiif of the hazaar. which is about the same 
height from the ground. Corresponding with this pier, 
about ten feet to the North, is a wall of much later 
ilate. and a spring-course of an arch answering to the 
other, but constructed of much smaller stones, of an 
entirely different character. I should judge from this 
that the ancient mass had been turned to account in a 
later building, now ruined, and had formed one side of 
a vaulted room. ITie stones are not large, varying from 

• 8eeSchultz'8Jeru8Aleni,pp. Hl,2. I They take it for the gmte Oennath ; 

and Lord .Vugent, Lands Claniical and | but I agree with Dr R. in placing the 

Sacred, Vol. ii. pp. 54, 5, where it a ; gate (rennath in the tir^t wall. See also 

vetT faithful drawing of the atones. Krafit, p. 29. 


two to three feet long, but the construction is very 0oGd« 
An attempt was afterwards made to eflTect an entrance 
from the bazaar to examine the lower part» but, as usual, 
without success; A frequent inspection of this singular 
and venerable pier left little doubt on my mind tliat it 
belonged to a gateway of the second wall, although I 
can scarcely hope that this meagre account i^iU be suf- 
ficient to bring the reader to the same conclusion. 
Following the line still towards the North, at the *'Via 
Dolorosa" we come to another traditionary gateway, 
nmrked in the plans as the " Porta Judicii ;" and then 
at the Damascus Gate, where the wall would beod to 
cross the Tyropoeon, we have the two chambers of Cy- 
clopean architecture noticed by Dr Robinson. 

Now without venturing to hope that this cumulative 
evidence will work the same conviction in the minds of 
others that it has in my own, I think I may safely 
affirm, without fear of contradiction, that no other 
course for this part of the second wall can be 8he»Ti, 

which has so much to be said in its favour, and bo litUa 
against it ; and it has above all this advantage, that ift 
satisfies every demand of the wall of Josephus. It hM 
a northern and a southern part^ it has, as we flhafl 
afterwards see, for some distance a circular course', flnd 
it starts from a point in the ancient wall of Sion SOBM 
distance East of the Hippie Tower. 

And now where does it leave the Church of iSbm 
Holy Sepulchre ? In the angle formed by the first uA 
second wall, " nigh unto the City," and " without tbm 
gate," probably in a " place where there were gardensV*' 

^ J. Vl^. V. viii. 2. I irpotrapKTiov kKifuu 

^ Ibid. V. iv. 2: KVKXovfitvou to I ' John xix. 20, 41 ; Heb. xiiL SL 

CH. I.] 



for the gate Gennath (i.e. *' the gate of the gardens**') 
led into this quarter; and where tve know there were 
tombe ; for the monument of John the high priest was 
m the angle which was described by that fact^ : and it 
is surely a wonderful confirmation of the Christian tra- 
dition, that these circumstances, incidentally recorded 
by a Jewish writer with a totally difierent view, should 
til concur in shewing, not merely the possibility, but 
even a probability, of its truth. If '' undesigned coin- 
cidences" are worth anything in such arguments, the 
Holy Sepulchre is justly entitled to the full benefit of 
these, which it is impossible for scepticism itself to 

And it is a great satisfaction to ^le to find that 
this evidence for the course of the Second Wall has 
proved satisfactory to travellers who have examined the 
ground since it was first adduced®; and that although 
they may not admit the antiquity of some of the monu- 
ments which 1 have indicated, they still find sufficient 
warrant for the main fact, while Dr Sehultz has perhaps 

* So 31 ilman ukes it to mean : I 
chink with great probability. Hist, of 
the Jewiu III. !fi. Sec BuxtorTs 
Kabbin. Lex. voce Jl^J- 

* This mo^t important fact is proved 
bj the foHowing passages in the tifth 
book of the Jewish War, vi. 2; vii. 3 ; 
ix. 2; xi. 4. "The monument men- 
tioned was no doubt a tomh, (as Herod's 
monument, Uelena*s monument, the 
Fuller*! monument, were all tombs). 
This shewn that there were tombs in 
this pan— that they were the tombs of 
•ome distinguished pennons, such as 
that of the high priest, and of Joseph 
of Arimathea, which were handsome 

monuments, and probably enclosed in 
gardens. The few houses that stood 
in this part were probably private 
villas of such great individuals, with 
which their gardens were connected, 
and in which they had tlieir private 
monuments." J. R. It is perhaps 
worth lemarking, that there were many 
such gardens, outside the new wall, on 
the North, when Titus commenced his 
attack. J. W. V. iii.2. 

^ 1 may mention among those who 
have published since my first edition, 
Dr Schulu, Tischendorf, KrafH, 
Strauss, and Lord Nugent. 


discovered other vestiges of the ancient wall along the 
same line^ And these traces of the old wall of Jeru- 
salem, though only lately recovered after an oblivion 
of two or three centuries, are no doubt the same that 
were formerly appealed to as witnesses of the fact that 
Calvary was without the ancient city*: While the Gate 
of Judgment, standing throughout as an isolated fact, 
has greatly perplexed antiquaries; but now, viewed in 
connection with the other links in the chain of evidence, 
it assumes an importance which alone it could not 
command ; and I am disposed to believe that a careful 
siu-vcy of the ground between this and the Damascus 
Gate, immediately West of St Stephen's Street, might 
lead to the recovery of more links in that direction, 
along a line indicated by a steep bank which skirts the 
street on that side. 

I can answer nothing to the objection taken to the 
extreme narrowness to which the ancient city is thus 
reduced at this quarter, except that the superficial 
width of the area is somewhat increased by the in- 
equality of the ground ; that the same objection applies 
equally to the other hj^pothesis; and that such objec- 
tions can have no force against this array of facts and 
deductions, unless passages can be adduced from any 
ancient authority in proof that the complement of the 
Upper and Lower City was wider than this theory 
allows. But the only passages bearing on the subject 

' I speak doubtingly, because I 
think that Professor Willis has a theory 
which will better dispose of the great 
portal, the ruins of which Dr Schultz 
describes as other vestiges of the second 
wall : their situation will be indicated 
below. SeeSchulu,p.60i Rrafftjp.SO. 

< Hierosol. Perig. a F. J. Dublivlio, 
Nervio. a.d. 1599. p. 13. *' Inter hunc 
autem Calvariae montem etyeterem op- 
pidi murum, cujus adhuc vestigia de- 
monstrantur, erat vallis cadayerum,** 

CH. I.] 



tend rather to confirm the view which I have taken. 
The most natural interpretation of a much controverted 
passage in Josephus represents the direct line of Sion 
facing the curved line of Acra, as is actually the case 
with the two hills as I have arranged them^: and Ta- 
citus describes the walls as ''oblique by art, and curved 
inwardly, that the flanks of the besiegers might be ex- 
posed to the missiles of the besieged^." It is observed, 
moreover, by a writer of the 12th century, who ascribes 
to Hadrian the extension of the City to the Tower 
of David, that the former course of the Western wall 
might still be seen from the Mount of Olives, and the 
subsequent augmentation of the City in that direction^. 
And I think it is a strong confirmation of my view that 
this writer, and others who wrote before the study of 
Josephus' topography had been revived®, are so entirely 

* S«« Bell. Jud. V. iv. in Appendix. 
He describes Acts as dutpUvpTox; an 
exprnsioo as to the exact meaning of 
which the learned are not agreed in this 
C€nnection. It is used to describe the 
form of the moon in the middle of its 
sectMid or third quarter, commonly called 
*' gibbous,** greater than half, less than 
full. See Suidas ad voc. quoted by 
Reland, Palrstina. p. 853. Dr Robin, 
too (Bib. Res. i. 410) gives it quite a 
new sense : he supposes it may mean 
nothing more than that Acra was " slop- 
ing oo both sides/* i. e. ^^ was a ridge 
running down into the city** ! Is this 
repeated or contradicted in Bib. Sac. p. 
189, note 1, and Theol. ReT.p.4I7,n.5? 

* See his description in Appendix 
to Vol I. Hist. V. 10, 11, &c. 

» S»wulf. A.D. ll«l. **Adrianus 
imperator qui .^lius Tocabatur, re- 

ediHcavit civitatem Jerosolimam, et 
Templum Domini, etadauxit civitatem 
usque ad turrem David, qua* prius 
multum remota erat a civitate, sicut 
quislibet a Monte Oliveti videre potest 
uhi ultimi occidentales muri civitatis 
prius fuerunt, et quantum postea ad- 
auctus est.*' Recueil de Voyages, 
Tome IV. p. 840. 

• *' Ista Ecclesia (s. S« Sepulchri] 
sita est in declivio Montis Syon sicut 
civiias.'* Sffwulf, 1. c. p. 839. " In 
eodem quoque [s. Monte Syon] sed in 
devexo quod ad orientem respicit, sita 
est. Sancts Resurrectionis Ecclesia, 
form& quidem rotunda : quae quoniam 
in dedivo dicti montis sita est, ut clivus 
eidem emiiiens, et contiguus, ecclesia* 
pene superat altitudinem, et eam reddit 
obscuram." Will. Tyren. viii. iii. 
p. 747. 



[part ir; 

ignorant of any valley between Sion and the termination 
of the ridge which forms the Acra of Dr Robinson, that 
they view it all as one hill, and regard the declivity 
occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre as the 
North-Eastern declivity of Mount Sion: consistently 
with the description of Eusebius and St Jerome ^ And 
if captious criticism should object that the effect of this 
would be to place Golgotha within the Upper City, 
I answer, that I am not contending for the strict pro- 
priety of the description of the writers in question*, but 
merely adduce their testimony to prove that neither 
those who had studied Josephus in earlier times, nor 
those who had not in later, could see any points of 
agreement between his topographical descriptions and 
the notices of Dr Robinson. 

But there is a remarkable coincidence of expression 
between Eusebius in his account of the New Jerusalem, 
as he calls the Church of the Resurrection, and Jose- 
phus in his description of the Old City, which may be 
thought both to justify the language of the writers just 
cited, and to furnish an additional argument for the 
conclusions already arrived at. Eusebius describes the 
New Jerusalem as facing (or opposite to) the Old, 
which had been brought to desolation ^ If it be ad- 
mitted, as I think it must, that as the New Jerusalem in 
this description is identical with the Christian Church of 
the Resurrection, so the Jewish Temple was taken as 

I Onomast. «ub voce Golgotha ; ov 
Kal SeiKwrai ev AlXia 7rp6i toI? 
Poploi9 TOO Xiuv opovij *'ad plagam 
septentrionalem Montis Sion.** 

• Yet what could be more natural^ 
when the ruins of the old wall had 
sloped off' the steep ridge of Sion, and 

so shaded off* the line between it and 
the northern declivity ? 

^ Vita Constantini iii. xxxiii. t6 
trwn'ipioi/ fiapTvpiov »j via KaTttrKtv- 
a'^cTo 'lepowoKiifiy dimirp6ot,tir*n Tp 
trdXai PouiuevTi, k. X. ...toiJx»i d' ov» 
dvTiKpv^^ K. \. 

OB. l] thbory tbstbd. 63 

the representative of the Old, the description is per- 
fectly accordant with fact ; the Church of the Holy Se- 
pulchre actually faces the site of the Temple. Now the 
Old City, according to Josephus, was so arranged on its 
two lulls that its two parts faced each other\ But 
if the hill Sion faced the hill Acra — to which the 
Temple Mount was united — ^and if the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre also faced the Temple, that Chiu-ch 
cannot certainly "stand directly on the ridge of Acra*:" 
the declivity which it occupies must, in the view of the 
Jewish and Christian historian, have been more nearly 
connected with Sion than with Acra, as the Onomas- 
ticon of the latter, followed by St Jerome, and confirmed 
by the mediieval authors, so plainly implies. 

One other observation shall conclude these remarks. 
Both ancient and modem writers describe the city as 
occupying two eminences. It is so with Josephus®, 
although, when he comes to define and specify, some 
subsidiary hills appear. So again with Tacitus", then 
with William of Tyre\ Can any one doubt that they 
intend the two ridges divided by the Mill Valley ? and 
would it not then be preposterous to place the Upper 
and Lower City on one ridge, and on the same side of 
that Valley ? Even Dr Robinson's own language makes 
it clear that this Mill Valley is the grand division be- 

* Bell. Jud. V. iv. 1. avTrj ^kv j ^ Hi>t. lib. VIII. cap. iii. " Siia est 
v-wipcvoXot^utvdtmwpoawwo^iKTKrro^ I in montihus diiobuw... quorum fastigia 
». \. ('onf.Ant. XV. xi. 6. i intra niuri ambitum ex parte plurima 

* Where I>r RobinMnN theory continet, modica valle distincta, qu« 
place* it. Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 3tU. I etiani urbem per medium dividit. Ho- 

* See Bell. Jud. v. iv. 1, so often ' rym alter qui ab Occidente est Syon 
refrrred to. \ appellatur ;... Alter vero qui ab Oriente 

' Taritut Hint. v. 10. Duos colles, , eHt. mons Moria dicitur," ^c. 
immentum editor, claudebant muri,^c. 



[part II. 

tween the two parts of the modern City, as I TnaintAin 
it was also in the ancient > ; and I trust that abundant 
reason has now been shown for such an arrangement of 
the hills and valleys, the gates and walls of the Old City, 
as saves the site of the Holy Sepulchre from the most 
formidable objection that has yet been brought against 
it. The results of the investigation may be thus stated : 
1. The Hippie Tower occupied the site of the N.W. 
tower of the modern citadel. 2. The place of the Gate 
Gennath was some distance 'East of that Tower near the 
South extremity of the present Bazaars, from which 
point the Second Wall ran to the Damascus Giite, just 
West of the line of St Stephen's Street. 3. Acra is the 
hill to the N.W. of the Temple-Mount ; and, 4. The 
TyropoBon is the IVIill Valley, extending from the Da- 
mascus Gate to the Pool of Siloam. 

The continuation of the second wall from the Da^ 
mascus Gate to Antonia is a matter of perfect indiffer- 
ence as regards the Holy Sepulchre; the consideration 
of which may be deferred until I come to consider the 
exact position of that fortress at which it terminated. 

Still the present site of the Holy Sepulchre may — 
or as I maintain must — ^have been without the circuit of 
the ancient City, and yet wrongly determined : or the 
site having been rightly determined in the first instance, 
may have been transferred at a later period to this 
place. The evidence therefore for the truth and for the 
continuity of the tradition shall be adduced in the 
following Chapter. But as the necessity of discussing 
the former of these questions would be obviated if a 

1 Bib. Res. i. p. 383 «nd 393; '<the 
part of Jerusalem lying between the 
▼alley of Jehosthaphat and the valley 

running down from the Damascus Gate 
to the Pool of Slloam may be regarded 
as one lidge." 


new and ingenious argument, lately advanced, could 
be established — tending to prove that Constantine 
could by no possibility have mistaken the spot, nor 
have been deceived by Macarius — I may be permitted 
here to notice Mr Finlay's hypothesis*, which would 
indeed meet all topographical difficulties, and so have 
saved me this discussion. 

His argument is this^ The statistical information 
collected and preserved in the archives under the 
Roman Empire was so minute and perfect, that '' every 
private estate was surveyed. IMaps were constructed 
indicating not only every locality possessing a name, 
but so detailed that every field was measured. And 
in the register connected with the map, even the 
number of the fruit-trees in the gardens, the olive- 
trees in the groves, and the vines in the vineyards, 
was set do^Ti." The provinces, colonies, and mimici- 
{Kilities were surveyed witli the same accuracy. Plans, 
engraven on brass, were deposited in the imperial 
Ucjnster Office, and copies on linen were placed in 
the hands of the local administrators, and in the 
I)ro\'inciaI archives. St Luke is witness that the census 
wa** applied to Judea by Augustus, who is known to 
have paid particular attention to these surveys, which 
were further improved by his successors, and repeated 
at inter\'als of fifteen years. 

Constantine would therefore find in the Imperial 
archives all the materials necessary for determining 
with exactitude the site of any public building in Jeru- 

• (>n the Site of the Holy Sepulchre, 
by Cfcorj^e FinUy, K.R.C^. liondon, 

' The wgument in contained in pp. I 

Vol- II. 5 

35 — Oof the pamphlet referred to, with 
references to the authorities, which I 
need not repeat. 


salcm ; and the cxaminatioii of comparative maps and 
registers would enable him to discover the garden of 
Joseph and the Sepulchre, to trace the property through 
the hands of successive holders, and to identify its posi- 
tion with the Temple of Venus, which must have been 
inserted in the registers. Eusebius makes no mention 
of tradition, because he knew that documentary evi- 
dence alone could determine this question; and he 
makes no mention of the documentary evidence, because 
its consultation was the natural and ordinary course to 
pursue. Such is the argument. 

Now I will not fall into the error of Mr Finlay, who 
depreciates all other evidence, historical, traditionary, 
and topographical, in order to make way for his own 
demonstration ; for I should really be too happy to 
dispense with the necessity for other proof, if I could 
be satisfied ^vith that which he offers ; or if I thought 
that objections would be silenced by his argument. But 
I am quite sure that I only anticipate the exceptions of 
others, when I state against this hypothesis those which 
occur to myself. 

If it were even certain that this minute survey of 
property was extended beyond the limits of Italy, and 
was actually applied to Jerusalem and its environs by 
Augustus and his successors, we should still require 
proof that the documents sur\'ived until the time of 
Constantine, before we could allow the force of de- 
monstration to the argument above stated. That the 
CQCumenieal census, mentioned by St Luke, had refer- 
ence to persons, not to property, is evident from the 
journey of St Joseph and the Blessed Virgin to Beth- 
lehem, the city of his family, whereas such property 
as they possessed would have been at Nazareth, their 

CH. l] 



Offdiiiary place of residence'. A property-tax was how- 
ever levied in the country, for the first time*, a few 
years later, under the presidency of Quirinius, in the 
tenth year of Archelaus; and then, if ever, the survey of 
Jerusalem and its suburbs was taken. But whatever 
may have been the training of the Corps of Civil Engi- 
neers under the Roman Empire, I cannot believe that 
their maps and plans would exhibit anything like the 
precision and accuracy of one of our Ordnance Surveys, 
or that they would comprehend the suburban villas and 
gardens of the Jewish aristocracy : nor do the Peutinger 
tables, and other specimens of Roman engineering, war- 
rant the belief of such minute fidelity. 

Again, the disturbances occasioned in Palestine by 
the taxing of Quirinius would probably deter the govern- 
ment firom a repetition of so very unpopular a measure 
among a people so inflammable ; and the fact of " the 
taxing" being mentioned by Gamaliel as an era, after 
an inter\al of twenty years'^, indicates that from this 
cause, or some other, it had actually not been repeated. 
But the taxing of Quirinius took place at least twenty 
years before the time when we find Joseph of Arimathea 
in jK>ssession of the garden*, and we must not take it 
for granted that he had then held it so many years, 
nor that he retained possession until another survey was 
made. It is therefore far from certain that his name 
ever actually appeared in the plans and registers. But 
let us grant this, and concede all that Mr Finlay asks ; 

' Luke ii. 1—5. Sec Gre«weir« 
DisACTtations on the Hannony. Vol. i. 
p. Ml. 2. Second Edition. 

' JoAcphus Anu xviii. i. 1 ; Gres- 
mt\h 1. c. p. MO, 4. 

' Act* V. 37. C-ompare Josephus 
1. c. 

* i. e. in the lOth year of Archelaus, 

AD. 14. 



— ^that linen copies of those surveys were deposited at 
Jerusalem and Caasarea, besides the original oa brasen 
tables at Home. One copy was unquestionably burnt in 
the sedition that preceded the siege of Titus, or in the 
sack of the City by the Eomans, for these conflagrations 
are expressly said to have consumed the repository of 
thd archives'; as for the other copy, it is very un- 
likely that the Jews would spare the state-records in 
the capital of the province, (when it was in their hands 
in the revolt under Hadrian,) being, as they were, so 
many monuments of their hated servitude ; and the ori- 
ginal tables, if laid up eitiier in the Temple of Concord, 
or in the Imperial palace at Home, prolmbly perished 
by fire in the twelfth year of Conunodus*. 

On the whole then, while admitting the bare possi- 
bility of Air Finlay's hypothesis as an additional argu- 
ment in favour of the received site, and rejoicing if he 
or others, not satisfied \vith the historical evidence, are 
led to a right conclusion by another line of reasoning, 
I am glad for myself to have the traditionary argument 
to fall back upon, and to be able to prove that topi)gra- 
phical facts make nothing against it. I cannot think 
that the necessity of my defence is superseded by 
]VIr Finlay's discovery, and I shall therefore proceed 
to examine the site of the Holy Sepulchre, having, as 
I trust, proved in this Chapter that the site itself was 
without the range of the Old City. 

' ndl. Jud. II. xvi. 1. aiid vi. vii. I Romani in anno, cited above in Vol. 
See Vol. I. pp. 103 and 18A. p. 190. 

- A. D. 191. Sec CIinU>n*s Fasti I 



If the attempt that has now been made to deter- 
mine the position of Acra and tlie course of the Second 
Wall has been successful, we are justified in the con- 
clusion, that the tradition relatin|^ to the Holy Sepul- 
chre, so far from being invalidated by the consideration 
of its locality, is much confirmed ; since the probability 
iji jj^eat that a fictitious site would have been fixed far 
enough away from the ruins of the ancient city, to obnatc 
those apparently strong objections which only a diligent 
examination of the Jewish historian proves to be insuf- 
ficient : for the ruins in the time of Constantine would 
plainly mark the extent of the old city^ and prevent 

* Kusebius, writing about a.d. 32<), 
tMy% : *• To thU Tet7 time indeed the 
remnAHtx of the conflagration which 
took place in various parts of the city 

are obvious to their sight who travel 
thither." Theophania, p. 242. See 
further testimonies in Vol. i. p. 243, 
note X 


any such mistake as the opposite theory supposes. Im- 
posture would most likely have found the site without 
the range of the third wall also, in order to be as safe 
as possible ; while, on the other hand, the intelligence 
which determined that its situation within the third wall 
was no objection to its identity, would conclude that 
its position within the second wall was so ; and the 
historical knowledge implied in the former conclusion, 
would form a strong presumption in favour of accurate 
information with reference to the Sepulchre. 

Besides which, it deserves to be considered, that 
the very name assigned to the place where our Lord 
suffered would tend to preserve the memorial of the 
site among the natives ; and to suppose that the site 
was lost, is to suppose nothing less than that the 
very name of a peculiar feature in the topography 
of Jerusalem had irrecoverably perished; which does 
not appear to have been the case with any other 
hill, or with any valley in the neighbourhood. It is 
inconceivable that, while Mount Sion, the Mount of 
Olives, and the valley of the Kedron, retained their 
distinctive appellations, that hill which the Christian 
population would not fail to regard with the deepest 
interest at least, if we may not say reverence, should 
have lost its name — a name, be it remembered, univer- 
sally received in our Saviour's time, and the memorial 
of which was preserved in the Tvritings of the Evan- 
gelists ^ The Christian Church, as we have seen, had 

* Dr Robinson speaks of '* the pre^ names of places continued current in 

scrvation of the ancient names of places 
among the common people ** as the most 
satisfactory kind of tradition, but does 
not apply it here. " The Hebrew 

their Aramean form long after the 
times of the New Testament, and main* 
tained themselves in the mouths of the 
common people/* &c. &c VoJ. i. pp« 



never been absent from Jerusalem for more than a few 
years at the utmost, probably not more than two^; and 
noidtl any Christian who had once known the place 
Gulgt>tJiu faO to identify it after ever 80 long a period, 
howeTer aceideut or design might have altered its 
character ? It must be remembered too, that the effect 
of this part of the New City being thinly inhabited ^ 
would be that its features would undergo UtUe or no 
alteration by the overthrow of Jerusalem *, 

Subsequently, the very attempt to obliterate the 
memorial of our Lord's Resurrection, would serve to 
perpetuate the tradition of the site* For it matters 
tittle whether the temple of Venus, erected over the 
spot with this design, waa the work of Hadrian or no, 
if the tradition of the design was authentic* It avails 
DOtliing to urge that Eusebius merely ascribes it to 
impious men, wbUe later iiTitcrs specify the founder of 
.Elia^; because even if it were demonstrable that 
Hadrian had no hand in it, the fact itself would not be 
affected, that the idol fiine was set up to desecrate and 
to obliterate the site. Yet it is very far from impro- 
bable that this was done by the direction, or at least 
with the sanction of Hadrian, especially if the renegade 
Aquila retained any influence in his councils after his 
apostacy from the Christian faith ^; for while we have 

375, 6. Strange that the most interest- 
injE and important place in all Jerusa- 
\em fthould form an exception to this 
rule ! That Golgotha or Calvary should 
be no more known in the beginning of 
the fourth century I 

3 See VoL I. pp. 202, 3. 

- See above, p. 20. 

* St Cyril of Jerusalem says of the 

place, " Though it now be adorned, and 
that most excellently, with royal gifts, 
yet it was before a garden, and the 
tokens and traces thereof remain.'*'* 
Cat. XIV. r». 

^ Vet Dr Robinson insists on this 
as if it were a matter of the last conse- 
quence. See Vol. II. pp. 73, 74. 

•• See Vol. I. p. 2t«. 



[part n. 

the testimony of a writer contemporary with Eusebius 
to a similar pollution of the Mowit of the Lord's House 
under the same Emperor ^ we have a much earlier 
record of a shrine dedicated to Venus at Jerusalem, 
in a continuous series of coins, commencing with 
his immediate successor Antoninus Pius*, nor have we 
any intimation of its existence at an earlier period: 
and since in the time of this Emperor "the cruci- 
fixion and burial of our Saviour was almost in the 
memory of man," we may conclude, with Dr Clarke, 
that " this powerful record of the means used by the 
pagans to obliterate the rites of Christianity, seems to 
afford decisive evidence concerning the locality of the 
tomb, and to place its situation beyond the reach of 

And it is worthy of remark, that neither Eusebius, 
nor any of the >vriters of that century, imply any di£B- 
culty in ascertaining the locality. They all speak as if 
it had been a well-kno>vn fact that the fane of Venus 
covered the Holy Sepulchre. The only difficulty was 
to clear it from the heaps which had been raised over 
it*; and the expressions of astonishment which the 

^ The author of the Jerusalem Itin- 
erary ( A.D. 333), speaking of the tem- 
ple-area, says, ''Sunt ibi et status 
Hadriani. Est et non longe de statuis,** 
&c. Itin. Uieros., p. 598. ed. Wes- 
seling, A.D. 1735. See more fully, Vol. 
I. p. 239— 242, and Dio Cassius, lxix. 

' See a fuller notice of this coin (a 
copy of which is given at the close of 
this Chapter) in Vol. i. p. 240, and 
the references. 

s Clarke's Travels, Vol. ii. p. 310. 

* So far is it from being true that 

<' the balance of evidence would i 
to be decidedly against the probable 
existence of any previous traditioD,** 
that I am persuaded an impartial read- 
er would find it impossible to avoid 
the conclusion, from the language of 
Eusebius and others, that such a tradi- 
tion did exist. It is taken for granted 
throughout. And this explains whj 
St Helena is nowhere said to have 
acted in consequence of any known tra- 
dition. "Divine suggestion*' is never 
said by the earlier writers to have 
gfdded her to the »pct, as is implied. 

OH. II.] 



success of the undertaking called forth would be amply 
justified by the state of complete preservation in which 
it was found after so long an interval, especially as 
they might not unreasonably have feared that the 
concealment of the spot had been preceded or attended 
by an attempt at the destruction or defacement of the 
Sacred Cave. Whether it be a reasonable argument 
against the existence of such a tradition that ''no 
pilgrimages were made to it" before, covered as it was by 
an idol temple^ is for the consideration of those who 
urge it* ; but can any devout believer bring himself to 
suppose that the ''many Christians who came up to 
Jerusalem from all parts of the earth before the age 
of Constantinc, to behold the accomplishment of pro- 
phecy in the desolations of the city, and to pay their 
adorations on the summit of the Mount of Olives*," 
would be indifferent to the scene of the Crucifixion 
and Resurrection ? They would, without doubt, enquire 
for this siiered spot, and be pointed to the idol-temple 
whieh had been ereeted to polhite it; wliile the con- 
tinued opposition of the civil magistrate, breaking out 
in frci|uent persecutions, woukl make them despair of 
all attempts to recover it, until the eonversicm of 
Constantine and the pious zeal of his venerable mother 
brought about this happy eonsunuuation. The Holy 
Sepulehre was recovered as soon as circumstances 
allowed of it. 

And should any be disposed to quest i(m the pro- 

bat simply to have disposed her or her 
•on to recover it, while the diligent 
riKjuiry among the ancient inhabiunts, 
i* only mentioned by later writero. 
Neither Euscbius, nor St Cyril, nor 

St Jerome, who would be best informed . 
say a word about it. B. U. Vol. ii. 
pp. 76, and 14, 15. 

' Bib. Res. II. 7B. 

'■ Ibid. p. 77, from Eusebius. 



[part n. 

bability of the Holy Sepulchre being regarded with 
reverence before the time of Hadrian, considering such 
veneration as a symptom of later superstition and 
corruption, it must be remembered that, right or wrong, 
the Christians of the apostolic times were certainly in 
the habit of trcasiu*ing up the relics of the saints and 
martyrs^ ; and the same fond feeling would lead them 
much more to preserve the memorials of our Saviour's 
Passion and Resurrection, as they did, we know, of His 
miraculous Nativity'. So that if the erection of the 
idol-shrine was later than Hadrian 3, the greater chance 
there would be of a correct tradition of these sites, 
as mere tradition would have less to do with the 
preservation of them — religious veneration more. 

With this strong presumption in favour of a right 
conclusion, we find the Holy Sepulchre placed exactly 
where the impugners of the tradition, in accordance 
with the sacred writers, fix its situation, with reference 
to the ancient city-walls, as far as their course can 
now be ascertained*. Under these circumstances the 

^ Sec e,g. Martyrium Sti Ignatii, 
sect. vi. p. 254, ap. Pat. Apost. Op. Ed. 
3» llefelc, A.D. 1847; (Conf. S.Chry- 
sostomi Serm. Paneg. in S. Ignatium. 
Tom. V. pp. 504, 5. Edit. Eton. a.d. 
1612;) and Martyrium Sti Polycarpi 
sectt. xvii. xviii. Ibid. p. 292, 4. 

^ Justin Martyr, (a.d. 150,) Dial, 
sect. 78) Op. p. 175, speaks of the Cave 
of the Nativity at Bethlehem, in a man- 
ner which implies that it was well 
known ; and Origen, (a.d. 230,) cont. 
Celsum, I. 51, p. 30, ed. Cantab. Spen. 
ceri, states that pilgrimages were then 
made to it. 

-'' As Di Robinson wishes to make 

iu II. 9. 

* So Clarke writes,— that Golgotha 
was without the city, and Tery near to 
one of its gates, (Vol. 11. p. 552), and 
the tomb of Joseph '< in a garden '* in 
the place where our Saviour was cru- 
cified ; and then, with strange inooa* 
sistency, he removes them far apart, 
marking the place of Crucifixion od 
Mount Sinn, outside the modem gate, 
and the place of burial in the deep Val- 
ley of Hinnom, and on the opposite 
side! Dr Robinson writes: "We 
know nothing more from the Scriptnret 
than that they (Golgotha and the Se- 
pulchre) were near each other, wiihtmi 

GH. n.J 



tnuiition would require the very strongest arguments 
to disprove its veracity — such arguments as certainly 
never have been, and I am persuaded never wiD be, 
adduced; unless indeed, as has been anticipated^ the 
demolition of the Holy Sepulchre itself should prove 
that the supposed cave is nothing more than a mass 
of masonry ; and even then it would prove nothing 
against the authenticity of the site ; since Dr Robinson 
asserts that " the monks themselves do not pretend that 
the present Sepulchre is anything more than an imi- 
tation of the original*." I should be curious to know 
his authority for this assertion, which I believe to be 
erroneous; but it is fair that the monks should have 
the benefit of their candour. At present the native 
rock is so entirely incrusted within and without with 
marble as to be wholly invisible ; and thus the ap- 
pearance of the Sepulchre itself furnishes another 
objection to its identity with the place of our Lord's 
sepulture : nor shall I be ashamed to avow my sym- 
pathy with those who have felt rej^rct at the trans- 
formation"; a feeling which I hope is not inconsistent 

thr gaU, and nigh to the city^ in a Jre^ 
tjufntrd itpot.'"' Vol. ii. p. 80. 

* I)r Clarke, some years after his 
rUit, learnt with peculiar satisfaction 
of the total de>truction of the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre by Kre ; expecting 
that thus the in)]N>8ture would be un- 
masked, lie was however disappointed , 
as the Holy Sepulchre alone escaped. 
See below, p. 8«. 

" Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. XW. 

' I cannot forbear adopting the ele- 
gant and touching language of Lord 
LUeamcre to the same effect : 

Oh ! for that garden in it« simpler guise. 
Where she the earliest of Hi« mourners came,— 
Came ere the stant of Syria's eloudless skies 
Grew |iale before their morning burst of flame. 

Oh ! if the lichen now were ftre to twine 
O'er the dark enlranee of that rock-hewn cell. 
Say. ^hould we mw* the gold-encrusted shrine 
ih inci'HM? fumes' intoxicating «pell? 
Would not the whi»|iering bretse, a» evening 

Make deeper music in the palm-trees' shade 
Than choral prayer or chanted ritual's swell ? 
Can the pnmd *haft« of Helerui's colonnade 
Match thy time-hallowed stems, Oethscmane's 

holy glade ? 

Pil>jrimagi. Stanzas 81 , 9.1. 

Sandys, p. 125, applies the lines of 



[part II. 

with admiration for those who "did what they could" 
to honour the spot so consecrated, and refused "to 
offer to God of that which cost them nothing." 

But granting that the adornment was in bad taste, 
and that the marble case of the cave would be better 
away, it were rash to deny the existence of the rock 
within the case, because we cannot see it^ The great 
thickness of the walls, and the form of the interior, 
which does not at all correspond with the ground- 
plan of the exterior building, would form a presumption 
in favour of an irregular cave within; while nothing 
short of infatuation could have led an impostor, con- 
trary to the plain letter of Scripture, to assign the 
Sepulchre to a building of his o>vn erection, when so 
many caves in the neighbourhood of the city offered 
themselves to his choice. It has been urged as a 
general objection to the sacred localities in Palestine, 
that "nothing is done without grottoes*;" so that fic- 
titious sites were always affixed to caves : it would be 
strange indeed if the Holy Sepulchre, which is so 
plainly declared to be a cave, should prove an exception 
to this rule ! For myself, I not only believe that there 
was originally a rock grave on the spot now shewn, 
but am prepared to maintain, even against the incre- 
dulous monks, that the rock still exists beneath the 

Juvenal with reference to the fountain 
of iEgeria : 

Quanto preestantius cssct 
Numcn aqua;, &c. 

Sat. iii. V. 

* Yet this in the sum of Dr darkens 
argument. Vol. ii. p. 544. Dr Ko- 
binson is so satisfied with the conclu. 
siveness of his arguments against the 
site, that he thuiks it superfluous to ex- 

amine the Sepulchre. See Vol. ii. p. 
80, n. 1. He only « looked in for a few 
moments** upon the church, once on 
£a8ter-day, when he *^ could not enter 
the Sepulchre." Vol. i. p. 330. 

' See Maundrell, under April 19, 
and quoted in Bib. Res. ii. p. 79, 
note 1. 

CH. n.] 



casiiig ; and I shall adduce a chain of witnesses to this 
fact, when I have first briefly described the present 
Sepulchre, according to my notion, leaving it, as I am 
permitted to do, to Professor Willis to trace its history 
through its various changes, as he best can. 

The Sepulchre then may be described as a " grotto 
above ground," consisting of two chambers, whereof the 
outer one, constructed of solid masonry, is called the 
Chapel of the Angel ; while the inner one, entered by a 
low door, is the very cave hewn out of the rock, where 
was the tomb of our Lord and Savioiu: Jesus Christ. 
The spot where the Sacred Body lay is " on the right 
side " of the cave at entering', now covered with mar- 
ble to protect it from injury; the removal of which 
woidd probably show a ledge or couch, such as are 
seen in other ancient tombs, cut in the native rock, 
and only large enougli to admit the body. The tomb 
was designed by Joseph for his own burial, so that it 
had but one receptacle, as is the ease with many other 
rock graves in the vicinity of the city* ; and as it had 

' Mark xvi. 5; comp. John xx. 12. 

* St Matthew calls it *'hi» own 
new tomb, which he had hewn out in 
ihePock,'*xxvii. 60. Dr Clarke might 
be describing the Holy Sepulchre itself 
where he writes of that which he would 
ftubttitate for it,a9 *' the identical tomb 
of Jeiiu» Christ.*' Vol. ii. p. 554: 
**The large stone which once closed 
its mouth had been, perhaps for ages, 
rolled away. Stooping down to took 
into t/, we observed within a fair 
tcpuichre^ containing a repository upon 
•rffi^ tide onlyy for a singU body : where- 
as, in most of the others, there were 
two. and in many of them more than 

two." He could not have described 
more clearly the received Sepulchre to 
which he objects! So before, he de- 
scribes the subterranean chambers in 
the same neighbourhood, as "hewn 
wixh marvellous art, each containing 
oney or many repositories for the dead, 
tike cisterns canned in the rock upon 
the sides of those chambers. The doors 
were so /orr, that to took into any one 
of them it was necessary to stoop, and 
in some instances to creep upon hands 
and knees," pp. 349,50. Nothing can 
be more exact, only that now the Holy 
Sepulchre is not subterranean. These 
graves are in the valley of Hinnom. 



[part n. 

known no occupant before, so we may be well assured 
that it knew none after it had been so honoured, but 
was preserved inviolate by its believing owner, who 
would provide himself another resting-place, probably 
in the same sacred garden. Indeed, there are still 
shewn at a small distance from the Holy Sepulchre 
two tombs in the rock^ called the tombs of Joseph 
and Nicodemus; which certainly bear the marks of 
antiquity, and serve further to prove that sepulchral 
excavations existed here in ancient times. 

The Greeks believe that the Holy Sepulchre was 
formerly a rock grave, excavated in a mountain-side, 
as is the case with those e. g. in the Valley of Hin- 
nom, but that the whole space about it was, by order 
of the Empress Helena, reduced to the level of the 
base of the cave, so that the cave stood erect in the 
middle of an even ground; that she further cased its 
four sides externally with marble, so as to give it the 
appearance of a building, and that the roof of the 
monolith was then pierced in several places to allow a 
vent to the smoke of the many lamps which continually 
burned within ^ 

This is probably the correct account, for the tes- 
timony of Eusebius is conclusive as to the existence 
of a cave, and such a cave as that which is now shewn ; 
for it can hardly be supposed that a writer of that 
date would speak so confidently as he does in the fol- 
lowing passage, unless the fact on which he was insist- 
ing had been generally known and universidly received. 
His description is as follows : " The grave itself wcu 

* They are accurately delineated by 
Lord Nugent, Lands Classical and 
Sacred, Vol. ii. p. 34. 

' Dositheus Hist. Pat. fiifi. B'. kc^. 
A', irap. i€\ Compare Shaw*8 Travelt, 
Vol. I. p. 264, 2nd Ed. 1757. 


a cave which had evidently been hewn out; a cave that 
had now been cut out in the rocky and which had ex- 
perienced (the reception of) no other body. For it 
was necessary that it, which was itself a wonder, should 
have the care of that corpse only. For it is astonishing 
to see even this rock, standing out erect, aud alone on 
a level land, and having only one cavern within it ; lest 
had there been many, the miracle of Him who over- 
came death should have been obscured^*' Such is the 
testimony of a bishop of Palestine who lived at the 
time when the Sepulchre was recovered, and who is 
regarded as a credible witness of facts, and not over 
credulous; it is, moreover, an incidental reference of the 
most unsuspicious character, and such as would gene- 
rally be considered most satisfactory; for he is speak- 
ing on another subject, and introduces mention of this 
quite incidentally, not at all with a view to establish 
the identity of the spot, but as an argument for the 
truth of the Resurrection. 

Coeval "mih Eusebius was the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, 
who \'isited Jerusalem while the IVIartyry of the Resur- 
rection was in the course of erection, and he describes 
the Sepulchre as a cnjpt, distant a stonc's-throw from 
the little hill Gol<^otha^ 

Very little later than Eusebius was St Cyril, who 
furnishes fuller details of the adornment, while he dis- 
tinctly attests the existence of a rocky cave. In forcing 
a Christian interpretation on the language of the Canti- 
cles, after the fashion of those times, though it will 
appear strained and fanciful to our notions, he thus 

> Theophania, p. 199. in a.d. 326, and dedicated a.d. 335, 

* Idn. Uierosol. ed. Wesseling,pp. and the writer was at Jerusalem a.d. 
:iiia, 4. The Church was commenced ; 333. 



[pABT n. 

speaks : " ' The elefl of the rook/ he calls the deft 
which was then at the door of the salutary Sepulchre, 
and was hewn out of the rock itself, as it is customary 
here in the front of Sepulchres, for now it appears 
not, the outer cave having been hewn away for the 
sake of the present adornment ; for before the Sepul- 
chre was decorated by royal zeal there was a cave in 
the face of the rock^" 

Then, after an interval of two centuries, a western 
pilgrim tells us that the very monument is cut out of 
the native rock. The rock is described as "Uke a mill- 
stone, and infinitely ornamented: so that the monu- 
ment itself is in fashion as a Church covered with 
silver, and an altar is placed before the monument*." 

Very much more distinct is the testimony of Ar- 
culfus, towards the close of the same centiuy ; but as 
it will be adduced by Professor AVillis, I shall only 
cite so much as refers to the fact of such a Sepul- 
chre as at present exists, and such as had been de- 
scribed by preceding authors: and this testimony is 
the more important because in the inter^'al between 
this and the last-cited author, the Church of the Holy 
Scpulclu-e had been desolated by the Persians and Jews', 
and it is necessary to prove that the Sacred Cave was 
not destroyed. He distinguishes between the Monu- 
ment and the Sepulchre; extending the former name 
to the whole cave, and confining the latter to that ex- 

» S. Cyrilli Catech. xiv. ix. p. 208. 
£d. Bened. This writer was certainly 
an eye-witness of the changes which he 
describes, for he was bom at or near 
Jerusalem, in a.d. 315, ordaued Dea- 
con by Macarius a.d. 334^ Priest by 
Maximus a.d. 345, and delivered his 

Lectures in Lent, a.d. 347 or 348. Vid. 
Dissert. Op. praefix. col. xci. 

' Antonini Placentini Itin. xviii. 
p. 356, 7* ap. Prsfatt. ad BoUandunu 
Tom. I. He wrote cir. a.d. 600. 

' A.D. 614. See VoL i. p. 300, &c 

CWL il] arculfus. 81 

caration where the body was deposited. The Monu- 
ment he aptly terms a round hut (tegiurium) cut out 
in one and the same rock, cased externally with choice 
marble, having a gilded roof, on which stood a large 
Cross of gold. The door was on the East ; the cham- 
ber was a foot and a half higher than the ordinary 
statnre of a man; the Sepulchre was on the North side of 
the chamber, excavated in the same rock, raisied three 
palms above the floor of the hut. It was a single, not 
a double grave ; not cut in shape to fit the body, but 
a simple couch for one corpse, opening on the South, 
with a low overhanging roof skilfully wrought*. 

The interior of the cave was not at that time over- 
laid with any kind of adornment, but exhibited the 
native rock in its original state, and still bore through- 
out the traces of the tools used for its excavation ; the 
colour of the rock appeared to be a mixture of white 
and red. The existence of the cave was appealed to as 
a fulfilment of Scripture Prophecy ; for the prophet, 
sj>eaking concerning the Lord Jesus buried in it, says, 
" He dwelt in the lofty cave of an exceeding strong 
rock :'* and its adornment is thought to be foretold by 
the same prophet, where he writes, '* and His resting- 
place shall be glorious^.' 

Entirely consistent with the account of the French 
bishop is that of the English Saint, WiHibald, in the 
folloi^-ing century^. Again we have the Sepulchre cut 

* Adamnan wrote cir. a.ii. W- ' andViilg. In this last passage the word 

>ee his tract ( compared with R«de) in 
(rretscri Dp. Tom. iv. pam 2, p. 255, &c. 
and for the author, see above, Vol. i. 
pp. 320, 21. 

^/^n^O is rendered ?) dtmiravtri^ airrov 

T \ : 

and srpuJchn/m rjtLS. 

" Sti Willibaldi Ilodtrporicon. ap. 
Canisii The.-*, cd. Basnage, Tom. ii. 
1% xxviii. \l\, xi. 10 in LXX. p. HI, 12. 
Vol. II. (I 


in the rock ; the rock standing erect on the ground, 
square below, contracted above, surmounted by a Cross ; 
with the door at the East; the couch for the body 
cut in the rock of the Sepulchre, on the North side 
and on the right of the entrance. 

And here it will be well to introduce the descrip- 
tion of the Sepulchre by Paschasius Badbertus in his 
Commentary on St Matthew ^ which he professes to 
have taken from the accounts of many travellers of 
that time^ It will shew the then commonly received 
opinion of the plan and structure of the Sepulchre, 
which the Commentator considered necessary for the 
right understanding of the Evangelic narration of the 
Sepulture and Resurrection. Citing the words, "and 
he rolled a great stone to the door of the Sepulchre, 
and departed," he remarks, "Whence we may under- 
stand that the Monument of Christ was not so cut 
as are monuments in this land, because it is said to 
have had a door. Hence we believe that to be true 
which many who have seen it have delivered, that there 
was a round house beyond the door of the Monument 
within, cut in a very spacious rock, of such altitude 
that a man standing within could scarcely touch the 
roof with his out-stretched arm, and that door is on the 
East, to which that very great stone was rolled. Con- 
cerning which Monument," he proceeds, " since we have 
begim to describe its form and character for the un- 
derstanding of the visions, it is necessary that we 
enlarge. For its entrance was, as I said, on the East; 
and to those who entered from thence, the place specially 

* Lib. XII. ap. Magna Biblioth. | Coloniae, 1618. The date of this writer 
Vet. Pat. Tom. ix. para 2; p. 1229. ( is a.d. 848. 


prepared for the reception of our Lord's body was to 
the right, on the North side, seven feet in length, and 
higher than the rest of the pavement by three palms. 
Which place did not open from above, after the man- 
ner of common sepulchres, but on the south side, 
along the whole of which the qorpse could be inserted. 
Whence that of St Mark may be more clearly under- 
stood, that ' the women entering in, saw a young man 
sitting on the right :* for the place of the Lord's body, 
where the angel sat, was on the right ; neither was it 
divided, but continued throughout, as being all cut in 
one and the same rock." 

The passages heretofore cited prove incontestably, 
first, that the Monument in question was a rocky cave, 
and next, that the Sepulchre invented or recovered 
by Macarius is that which continued to be an object 
of Christian veneration up to the end of the ninth 

But in the earlier half of the eleventh century an 
event occurred, which is sometimes supposed to have 
materially afTected the site. The theory of the entire 
transference of the tradition at this period from another 
locality to that which is now venerated, will be noticed 
in detail hereafter; I shall only here deal with that of 
Dr Schultz^ who imagines that the rocky cave of the 
Sepulchre was wholly destroyed, by order of the Khalif 
Hakem. and that a close imitation of it was subsequently 
erected on the exact spot ; an imitation so close as to 
exhibit the very peculiarities which marked the original 
to be a new and unfinished grave. 

I am not aware what authority my friend has for his 

* Schulti's Jerusalem, p. 99. 




[part II. 

hypothesis, for he cites none ; and none that I have con- 
sulted afford it any countenance, except perhaps William 
of Baldensel, who however does not venture to fix the 
time of the destruction of the original monument ^ It 
is true, indeed, that an attempt was made to destroy the 
cave by fire, though the Church only was included in 
the Khalif's sentence; but it should be remembered 
that the writer to whom we owe this fact, himself in- 
forms us of the failure of the attempt, the circumstances 
of which were detailed in Europe by a French Ecclesias- 
tic, who was present at what he described: and since 
we have the narrative from a contemporary chronicler, 
a compatriot of the traveller, who had opportunities of 
personal intercourse with him, (for they resided not more 
than twenty miles apart,) I can no more doubt the main 
particulars than if we had them from the tongue or pen 
of an eye-witness ; and I apprehend that few historical 
facts rest upon surer evidence*. But the question still 
remains, whether we find any traces of the rock at 
a later period, and whether we have any reason to 
believe that it still exists beneath the marble wainscot- 
ing with which the Sepulchre is cased within and with- 

' This writer (a.d. 1336) is the 
earliest 1 have met with who called in 
question the existence of the actual 
Rock-tomb. lie calls the Sepulchre, 
" parvula domicula,** and says of it: 
**lllud vero advertcndum est, quod 
monumentum illi saiictissimo loco su- 
perpositum, non est illud in quo corpus 
Christi sacratissimum examine primitus 
est immisstum ; quia sacro attestante 
eloquio, monumentum Christi erat ex- 
cisum in petra viva. Illud vero ex 
petris pluribus est compositum de novo 
conglutinato cnmento, minus artifici- 

aliter, et minus quam deceat, ordinate.** 
lie argues that the Christians would 
not have left any part of the true mo- 
nument to be insulted by the infiddi ; 
but adds '< Venintamen, quicquid titde 
hoc, ipse locus Sepulchri Christi fior- 
maliter moveri non potest, aedremaiiik 
et remanebit immobilis in vtemiim.** 
Guiliclmi de Baldensel, Hodivporioon 
ad Terram Sanctam, Ap. Canitii Tbe- 
saurum, Tom. iv. p. 349. 

' See the particulars in detail in 
Vol. I. p. 346, &c., and the panagct 
in note 3, p. 349. 


out. Numberless H-ritcrs might be eited to prove the 
current belief in the existence of the rock within the 
casing, but as they might all have been mere dupes, I 
confine myself to those who declare that they have seen 
it. They are, from the nature of the case, compara- 
tively few ; for implicit faith needed not, nor sought for 
ocular demonstration, and it were very illogical to 
argue against the existence of the rock, because the 
unquestioning belief of pilgrims has prevented express 
notices of the sight; for the incrustation of marble, 
which concealed it from view, seems never to have been 
removed until the 16th century. 

The Russian pilgrim Daniel visited Jerusalem during 
the reign of King Baldwin II., and as he is the first to 
describe the tomb after its adornment by the Franks, 
his account is important and interesting^ "Under 
this same open Roof (of the Rotunda) is the Lord's 
Sepulchre, after the following fashion : — as it were a 
small cave cut out in the rock, liaving small doors. One 
can creep in bv bending down on the knees. The height 
is that of a short man, and all beautiful ; four cubits in 
length and in breadth. Hut when you have crept into 
that cave by those small doors, on the right-hand side 
there is a ledge cut out in the very rock of the cave. On 
that ledge lay the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
that ledge is now covered with a marble casing : and 
there are made on the front three circular apertures*, 
and by those apertures you may see that sacred rock ; 
and there all Christians kiss. The sacred ledge where 

* This »ritcT MAS prevent at the * These three apertures arc nolicetl 

fcrmiony of the Holy Fire on Ea.>ter again by other writers, as e.g. Willi- 

K\c A.D. 1130. and repeated his visit brand de Oldenberg (a.d. 1211) ap. 

*• » mote quiet time l^conis .Ml.itii Opuscula, p. 117. 


the body of Christ lay is in length four cubits, and in 
breadth two cubits, and in height a cubit and a half." 
Then, after some further account of its adornment, he 
concludes : " Such is the Lord's Sepulchre ; this cave 
such as I have described it, after having diligently in- 
quired from those who have been on the spot from of 
old, and have thoroughly known the holy places." This 
may be said to represent only the popular belief of the 
time; but he had ingratiated himself with the Latin 
guardian of the Sepulchre ; " and he, having seen my 
love for the Holy Sepulchre of the Lord, and for him- 
self, and having moved the slab which was on the top 
of the Holy Sepulchre, broke off a small piece of the 
sacred Rock for a blessing for me, and charged me with 
adjuration to tell it to no one in Jerusalem." 

I think that this passage alone, coupled with the 
fact that many pilgrims from this period downwards 
adopt the very language of Adamnan or Bede in de- 
scribing the Holy Sepulchre, might suffice to establish 
the identity of the Sepulchre of the 12th century with 
that of earlier times, as regarded its outward features ; 
and it would be equally tedious and unnecessary to 
accumulate proof of what has not even yet been ques- 
tioned, viz. that the Sepulchre of the Crusaders is the 
same as that which is now shown. But one witness, who 
had ocular proof of the existence of the rock in the 
16th century, must be cited for the very curious parti- 
culars which his narrative contains. 

Father Boniface of Kagusa was Guardian of the Holy 
Sepulchre from a.d. 1550 to 1559 ; and again from a.d. 
1563 to 1565. During his former presidency, in a.d. 
1555, he superintended considerable repairs about the 
Sepulchre, of which he afterwards wrote a fidl account, 


when Bishop of Ragusa, in a.d. 1570. From this I ex- 
tract the following particulars'. 

The fabric of St Helena, which enclosed the Sepul- 
chre of our Lord, was threatening to fall, when Pope 
Julius III., at the instigation of the Emperor Charles V. 
and his son Philip, ordered Boniface, then Superior of 
the Franciscan Convent, to undertake its restoration. 
The necessary funds were supplied by the Emperor, a 
firman was obtained from the Sultan Suliman, an^ the 
work commenced. " In order that the new structure 
might prove firmer and more durable, it was judged 
expedient to level the ancient one with the ground ; on 
the demolition whereof, the Holy Sepulchre of oiur Lord, 
cut in the rock, offered itself plainly to our eyes; 
whereon two angels were seen depicted, one of whom 
said, in writing, ' He has risen. He is not here ;' the 
other, pointing >vith his finger to the Sepulchre, ' Behold 
the place where they laid Him ;' which pictures, when 
Hrst they felt the influence of the air, in great part 
vanished. But when it became necessary to move one 
of the slabs of alabaster with which the Sepulchre was 
c*overed, there clearly appeared to us that ineftable place 
whereon the Son of ^lan rested for three days." The 
discovery of relies, and other circumstances, are not to 
my purpose : but the remark that " many Christians, 
hi)th of the West and of the East, were present on this 
occasion/* is important as a guarantee for the truth of 
the narration. 

The rock was then again concealed from sight, both 
to prevent, it is said, the superstitious devotion of the 

■' Th:s rurion* df>cumcnt. tir>t edited bv (Jrctscr. \b cited bv QuarcMnir.5, 
Toin. II p. .'»li. 



[part n. 

Orientals, and the injury which it would otherwise have 
sustained from mutilation ^ ; but some favoured pil- 
grims were occasionally gratified with small fragments, 
on the same condition as the Monk Daniel in the 12th 

The last evidence that I shall adduce for the exist- 
ence of the native rock within the marble casing, is that 
furnished by the fire of 1808 ; which is the more satis- 
factory, because the writers from whom I quote had 
themselves no doubt of its existence, and consequently 
never thought of the bearing of their statements on this 
question*. 1 need not enter into the details of that fire. 
It will be sufficient for my purpose to state, that the 
heat was so excessive that the marble columns which 
surrounded the circular building, in the centre of which 
stood the sacred grotto, were completely pulverized. The 
lamps and chandeliers, with the other vessels of the 
Church, — brass, and silver, and gold, — were melted like 
wax; the molten lead from the immense dome which 
covers the Holy Sepulchre poured down in torrents; 
the Chapel erected by the Crusaders on the top of the 
monolith was entirely consumed; half the ornamental 
hangings in the ante-chapel of the Angel were scorched; 
but the Cave itself, though deluged with a shower of 
lead, and buried in a mountain of fire, received not the 

* So Sir John Maundevile, cir. a. d. 
1350. "And it is not longe sithen the 
Sepulcre was alle open, that Men 
myghte kisse it and touche it. But 
for Pilgrymes, that comen thidre, 
peyned hem to breke the Ston in pece» 
or in poudre, therfore the Soudan hathe 
do make a Walle about the Sepulcre, 
that no man may towche it."' Voiage, 

&c.p. 91. Lond. 1727. 

' The Latin account of this fire 
written by an eye-witness, is given by 
Gt^ramb, Pelerinage k Jerusalem, &c. 
Tome I. p. 125, &c. The Greek ac- 
count is contained in 31 ouravieff^s His- 
tory of Jerusalem, Chap. xlv. Vol. ii. 
p. 3«)«, &c. The agreement is com- 

CH. n.] 



slightest injury internally; the silk hangings and the 
painting of the Resurrection remaining, in the midst of 
the volcanic eruption ^ unscathed by the flame, the 
smell of fire not having passed upon them^. 

Thus were disappointed the expectations of Dr 
Clarke, who some years after his visit heard of this 
accident with peculiar satisfaction, expecting that the 
imposture would be thereby unmasked. Neither was it 
considered superstitious, at that time, to regard the 
escape of the Holy Sepulchre as an indication of the 
existence of the rocky cave within the marble casing 
imper>'ious to the eye^; and there arc modern travellers 

' I borrow the expressions of the 
Latin's account, p. 129 : ^* LVglise res- 
scmble k une foumaise...le saint S^- 
pukre est inonde' d*une pluie de plomb 
...«e trouve enseveli sous unemontagne 
dc feu qui semble devoir Tanifantir a 
jamais ; TcRlise offre Ic specucle d*un 
«olcan en fureur.*' &.C., A:c. 

* Mr Wilde, however, declares that 
the marble slab •hich cover* the pro- 
per sepulchre, was cracked by the heat 
*t this time, Travels, Vol. ii. p. 201, 2; 
xnd I am charged with obstinate stu- 
pidity or wilful dishonesty, for not 
knowing, or suppressing this fact. Dub- 
lin I'niT. Mag. Vol. xxvi. p. 277- I 
can only say, that never having else- 
*here heard this story, I cannot believe 
It without authority ; and Mr Wilde^ 
»ho travelled in a.d. 1838, gives none. 
Quaresoiius (a.d. Ift3tl) declares it to 
be only the semblance of a fracture, 
made purposely, to save the marble from 
the rapacity of the inlidels. Elucid. 
T. S. Torn. II. p. 510. 

As I have been much misunder- 

stood on this subject, it is right to say, 
that I neyer intended to conyey the 
impression that the destruction of the 
Holy Sepulchre was prevented by mi- 
raculous intervention. I adduced the 
fact in proof of a rocky cave, as 1 do in 
the text, and considered this natural 
cause sufficient to explain its preserva- 
tion, which others, perhaps, have 
ascribed to miracle. 1 quote from the 
(ientleman*s Magazine of November, 
18011, p. 1000: "Of the identity of 
the Sepulchre, no doubt is entertained ; 
and surely a spot so remarkable may 
be contemplated with religious awe, 
without the imputation of enthusiasm. 
Amid the conflagration of the Church, 
which happened Oct. 12, 1808, the 
Sepulchre, though under its roof, was 
perfectly preserved ; which indeed from 
its nature, as being hewn out of a rock, 
might have been expected. But may 
we not innocently indulge the idea, 
that it is under especial protection from 
on high ?" 



[part II. 

who assert, that in some places '* the solid grey lime- 
stone rock is distinctly to be seen*." 

Against the testimonies that have now been ad- 
duced, we are to set the suspicions of William of Bal- 
densel, of Korte, Dr Clarke, and others ; the assertion 
of Hottinger (for he cites no proof) that Cyril Lucar 
and the then Patriarch Theophanes discovered and ac- 
knowledged the imposture^; and the equally astounding 
and unsupported declaration of Dr Kobinson, concerning 
the incredulity of the modern monks. 

I must now endeavour to do justice to Mr Fergus- 
son's elaborate argument, in support of an hypothesis 
entirely subversive of all received theories of the topo- 
graphy of Jerusalem ^ which may certainly claim the 
merit of originality, and of boldness amounting to 
temerity. I will first state the points which he en- 
deavours to establish, so far as they bear on the subject 
before us. Nothing doubting that the veritable Sepul- 
chre was recovered by Constantine, he is disposed 
rather to aid the arguments advanced in support of this 
fact. He thinks that suflicient weight has not been 
attached to the " intellectual philosophy," which in the 
age of Constantine " still existed among the educated 
classes, when men reasoned on events with almost as 
close an induction as we now use." He distinguishes 
between the "historical criticism" of the first three 
centuries of the Christian era, and the legendary in- 

' So wade, p. 203, " the aides of 
the door, as well as the part above it, 
are hewn out of the solid, &c." M. 
Noroff told me the same. 

' AnalectaHistorico.theologica, Ap- 
pend, ad Dissert. VI 1 1-'"^. p. ooo, cited 

in Le Quien*s Orieiis Chris. Tom. iii. 
col. 518. 

3 An Essay on the Ancient Topogra- 
phy of Jerusalem, &c., by James Fer- 
gusson, F.R.A.S. liOndon, 1847. 

CH. n.] 



veniion of a subsequent period^. He extends such a 
charitable judgment to Eusebius, as to rank him " last of 
the historians," though " not quite first of the fabulists ;" 
and is anxious to " vindicate Constantine and his friends 
from the obloquy" which the invention of the cross and 
the miracles attending it '^ necessarily entail;" and is, 
consequently, inclined to give more credence to the 
fact that they knew where the Sepulchre really stood. 
He is even disposed to allow some weight to Mr Fin- 
lay's argument* for this conclusion ; indeed, he desires 
no better support for his assumption than that furnished 
by this pamphlet. And what is that assumption ? In 
his own words, it is " neither more nor less than that 
the building so well known among Christians as the 
Mosk of Omar, is the identical Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre erected by Constantine •." 

Bold theories require bold arguments for their sup- 
I)ort ; and a geometrician who undertakes to construct 
**an equilateral right-angled triangle"" (which is impos- 
sible) is not likely to be staggered by ordinary diffi- 
culties. Accordingly, whatever can be done to sustain 

* Eswij, p. 8*2— ftl. 

* Which see above, p. 05. One 
thing is very amusing. Mr Finlay 
dedicates his brochure ''*' to his brother, 
Jaji. Mac CJregor, E^q. :" for this he is 
uken to task by Mr Fergusson, who 
MTt : ** perhaps the best description of 
Mr Finlay *B argument is contained in 

his dedication That Geo. Finlay 

should be the brother of Jas. Mac 
Gregor, is a conclusion I should not 
have arriTcd at, nor would any one 
rl^, I believe ; and though he ought 
to know best, 1 must confess my inabi- 

lity to comprehend it.*' p. 87, note 1. 
This may serve as an indication of Mr 
Fergusson's qualifications for estimat- 
ing and clearing up such difficulties as 
surround the questions which he has 
undertaken to elucidate. 1 adduce it 
on this account ; for as he has the mo- 
desty in his preface ( p. xvi.) to promise 
some "sterling reasoning/* it is a 
matter of interest to see how this en- 
gagement is ful tilled. 

'• Essay, p. 7*». 

■ See this pheenomenon in Mr Fer- 
pus!«on> Essay, p. 122. 


his views, — by suggesting the corruption of MSS., in the 
way of mutilation, interpolation, or omission, — ^by varia- 
tions in the original, or alterations in translating, — ^is 
resorted to without scruple, sometimes without notice, 
always without authority: of all which we shall find 
abundant, and sufficiently palpable examples, as we fol- 
low him through his catena of testimonies, the examina- 
tion of which is no longer " a mere work of supereroga- 
tion," since IVIr Fergusson has answered the question — 
" AVho has ever doubted the identity of the present site 
with that selected under Constantine ? ' " 

But first I must mention some otlier notions of Mr 
Fergusson, as connected with this question ; though their 
complete refutation must be deferred to a subsequent 
chapter. The Jewish Temple, according to his view, 
occupied a square of 600 feet at the South-West angle 
of the present Haram. About 150 yards from the North- 
East angle of the Temple was the place of crucifixion*, 
over which was built the Church of Golgotha. The 
present Golden Gateway is the propylajum to the Atrium 
of Constantine''s Basilica. Mount Sion was a small knoll 
about the middle of the level area of the Haram, nearly 
corresponding in situation with the platform now oc- 
cupied by the Mosk of Omar, which Mosk is the Martyry 
of the Resurrection, — the hollowed Sakhrah, or Sacred 
Rock of the Moslems, being the very Sepulchre itself. 

Now the main argument adduced in support of this 
new and startling theory, is the architecture of the Dome 
of the Rock, which, it is said, can only belong to the 
date of Constantine. This argument belongs to the 

Dr Robinson, Bib. Rcm. Vol. ii. p. 71. ' E.ssay, p. 78. 

en, II.] MR ferousson's argument. 93 

Temple-area, and when we come to examine it, we shall 
find that it halts throughout, and fairly breaks down at 
the last. But I am here prepared to maintain that, if 
the architectural argument were without a flaw — if the 
Mosk were as perfect a specimen of Constantinian 
architecture as could be devised, still, if historical evi- 
dence is worth anything, IVIr Fergusson's theory cannot 
hold. I am convinced that it would be quite as easy to 
prove that the present St Paul's was a pagan temple, or 
that Westminster Abbey is the identical St Paul's that 
was burnt down in the fire of London ; in short, there 
18 nothing so extravagant that might not be proved by 
such a process of historical criticism and architectural 
reasoning as that adopted by Mr Fergusson, who him- 
self allows, that " it is rather a startling fact, to find in 
a building so often burned down, — according to the 
chroniclers, — the very original ceiling with which it was 
erected fifteen centuries ago**/' 

'^riie ** scriptural narrative," and '* the testimony of 
subsequent writers, botli Christian and Mohammedan," 
are appealed to witli almost as much confidence as the 
arcliitecture ; and to these I must advert. With regard 
to the former, it is admitted that " the indications of the 
New Testament are so slight, that nothing positive can 
be concluded from them directly in favour of any 
system*." The topographical argument, when considered 
in laying out the ancient Temple, will he found to be 
directly opposed to this new theory, and it is difficult 
to notice the scriptural objection to the received Sepul- 
chre, because I know not what idea Mr Fergusson — 
fiho, it should be remembered, has never been at Jeru- 

^ Ensay, p. U>7. * P- 7». 



[part II. 

salem — has formed of it ; I know only that it must be 
an erroneous idea^ He says, the Evangelists all agree 
that those who came to look for the body, ** looked down 
into the Sepulchre." The statement is not correct, 
though the words are marked as a citation. The dis- 
ciples are said to have stooped down, in order to look 
in*; and this description is entirely consistent with the 
present tomb, with its very low door — still low, though 
probably somewhat heightened for the accommodation 
of the pilgrims ; nor can I imagine any period when it 
would have been possible to look in without stooping 
nearly to the ground ; much less when it would have been 
necessary " to stand on tip-toes to have looked in." 

We will proceed to Eusebius, who witnessed the 
recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, and assisted at the 
dedication of the Church of Constantine. His descrij>- 
tion of the site, of the Sepulchre, and of the buildings 
about it, are wholly irreconcilable with Mr Fergusson's 
hypothesis, as they are consistent with the established 
tradition. It has been already shewn, by an incidental 
agreement with the language of Josephus, how cor- 
rectly the New Jerusalem is placed by Eusebius oppo- 
site to the Old ; the other notice that " the Sepulchre 
is situated in the northern parts of Sion," has been 
also explained^; and a glance at the plan will shew that 
it is true as regards the received Sion and the actual 
Sepulchre. But this relative position of the Sepulchre 
and Sion docs not suit Mr Fergusson's hypothesis; 

> Mr Fergusson places the tomb 
*' several feet above the level qf the 
Church,** and speaks of a " pavement 
and /illing-up,** of which no previous 
writer had any idea, and for which he 

cites no authority, p. 88. 

' 'rapaKv\lfa9 /SXeirei, Luke xxiT. 
12; John xx. 5. vapiKv^tv ctv tS 
fiurjfxelov, John xx. 11. 

« Above, pp. 62, 3. 

en. il] opposed to busbbius. 95 

so the difficulty is disposed of by a very summary pro- 
cess. The Greek of the Onomasticon, supported as it is 
by the literal translation of the Latin of St Jerome, is 
pronounced " at best a mere assertion — [as all the state- 
ments in the Onomasticon necessarily are] — without any 
detail or circumstantial evidence by which to test its 
credibility, and just such an expression as any meddling 
monk or commentator, copying the book after the first 
Crusade, might easily alter, supposing it to be a mistake, 
if he found it so completely at variance with the known 
locality of the place as it then stood*." In other words, 
the notice of Eusebius and St Jerome agrees entirely 
with the present sites, but not at all with Mr Fergusson's 
theory of Mount Sion and the Sepulchre ; therefore, 
without the authority of a single MS., and in defiance 
of all rules of historical criticism, the passage is to be 
set aside as an interpolation. It is enough to state — 
I cannot be expected to refute — such an argument. 
Thus much for the site. 

Then for the Sepulchre itself. It was, according to 
Eusebius, a " rock standing out erect and alone upon a 
level ground^" as the present Monument docs, but as the 
Sakhrah neither docs nor ever did ; and it was dressed 
up with columns and other adornments, (according to 
the received custom of the Romans^), which could not 
have been applied to the rough unshapen rock in the 
Mi>sk of Omar, sunk as it is in the very pavement. 

But the historian's notice of the buildings about the 

• Essay , p. 90. 

^ See Theophania as cited above, 
pp. 78, 79. 

' Abandant example* of the style 
of ornament employed in Roman Se- 

pulchres, will be cited by Professor 
Willis. For the adornment of the Se- 
pulchre, see Eusebius^ Vita Constan. 
tini, Lib. iii. cap. zzxIt. 



[part If. 

Sacred Cave, docs not less strongly militate against Mr 
Fergusson's views. We need not go beyond the propy- 
laeum, which he places at the Golden Gate^ How 
could he fail to see that Eusebius, in the very same 
short chapter in which he describes that gateway, re- 
marks that it opened upon the very middle of the wide 
market-place ^ — as must have been the case with the 
propylajum of the ancient Basilica, (supposing it to have 
stood East of the present Sepulchre, and the modem 
bazaars to occupy the position of the ancient market) 
— while the Golden Gate opens upon a narrow ridge 
above the deej) Valley of Jehoshaphat? 

And when to all this it is added, that we have no 
evidence whatever that Constantine built any Church 
over the Holy Sepulchre, but rather the express testi- 
mony of Eusebius to the contrary, it will be granted 
that Mr Fergusson has slender support indeed from the 
pages of Eusebius. Besides the adornment of the Cave, 
already mentioned, nothing more was then done to the 
Sepulchre, except that the open court in which it stood 
was paved Avith marble and a peridrome of columns 
carried round it on three sides ^. On the fourth side, 
i. e. on the East, was the Basilica. AVhen then we arc 
told that the Church of the Anastasis, with its very 
ceiling, as erected by Constantine fifteen centuries ago, 

» Essay, p. 99. 

'Vita Constantiiii, Lib. iii. cap. 
xxxix. iiriTra<riv ai avXtioi irvXai* fieO' 
av 6ir* oifTi/v fi€<rt}i irXaTeiai dyopdi 
Ta Tov iravTOiTTpoTrvXaia, The passage 
in the Laudes Constantini is not irre- 
concilable with this; Tijs 'Efipaicov /3o- 
(nXiK^i coTi'as iv fxdato, kut avro St} 
TO trmWipiov fxapTvpiof oiiKOif irXovfTiuti 

KaT€K6<rfi€i. cap. ix. p. (SSO. 

^ Vita Con. cap. xxxy. After de- 
scribing the adornment of the Sepulchre 
itself, he proceeds: Aufiatve d* i^ij^ iiri 
irapfAeyedri ywpov, elv KaOapov aidpiop 
dvaTreirrafievov' o» dt/ XiBot Xaftwpdv 
KaTearTptofieifOi ^ir' €dd<f>ov9 ixovfiet 
fiaKpoTv irepidpSfxoi^ errowv tK TpcrXcv- 
pov ireptexofxcvov. 


is sfatfiding to this hour, it is not surely unreasonable to 
require some evidence that this Emperor did erect a 
Church over or around the Sepulchre ; and if no such 
evidence can be adduced, however admirably the ar- 
chitecture may suit that period, the "startling fact" 
becomes pure fiction. 

The Bordeaux Pilgrim, coeval with Eusebius, meets 
with no better treatment at Mr Fergusson's hands. 
In passing from the part of Mount Sion occupied by 
the palace of David and the only one of seven syna- 
gogues that had escaped desolation, to the gate of 
Neapolis, the Pilgrim had Golgotha on the left and the 
Palace of Pilate on the right ^. Now, taking the Palace 
of David and the Synagogue to mean, as is most pro- 
bable, the Sepulchre of David and the Coenaculum, and 
supposing the Neapolis gate of the Itinerary to be Na- 
blouse or Damascus gate (and it is not easy to believe 
that it can be any other), then the notice of the Pilgrim 
exactly falls in with the actual sites. But granting all 
that Mr Fergusson assumes, which is not a little, they 
cannot be brought to agree with his theory ; for although 
he has the whole disposing of all the sites indicated, he 
is ^adly perplexed about this aforesaid gate, suggesting 
that it may be the Xablouse or Damascus Gate, or the 
gate of the New City, — i.e. the New Jerusiilem of Eu- 
M*bius, at the South of the llaram, — or of the New City 
of Josephus. far to the North of the Temple^! It were 
surely much better at once to cut the knot, and " un- 
hesitatingly to reject the testimony of an anonymous 

• Itinrrarium IlirrosoL p. Wl. Ed. i ories, the ch<»icc of which is left to the 

^'«»eling. I rciider, see E>»ay, pp. 92, 1*22. 

' For ihe*e three irreconcilahle the- • "Quo tene&m vuliu* rauiAntcm Prou?a iwkIo!'" 

Vol. II. 7 



[part U. 

pilgrim ^" as is afterwards proposed: it is at least a con- 
venient method of disposing of '' puzzling" passages in 
this or in any other author. 

Of St Cyril's testimony I find no distinct notice in 
Mr Fergusson's pages, though he is an important witness, 
as he could certainly remember the recovery of the 
Sepulchre under Gonstantine. He wrote at a time when 
the traces of a garden were stiU visible around the 
Sacred Gave', and the particulars which he mentions of 
the position and character of the Rocky Cave, are per- 
fectly intelligible of the existing Tomb, but not at all of 
the Sakhrah. The position he describes, as ** not within 
the ancient walls, but within the outer wall which was 
afterwards added';" — as I have endeavomred to shew 
was the case with the present site, but certainly not 
with the supposititious one. " The Sepulchre," he says, 
''consisted originally of a double cave, of which the 
exterior was cut away for the sake of the present adorn- 
ment*." The ante-chapel of the actual Sepulchre, caUed 
the Ghapel of the Angel, constructed of solid masonry, 
shews how naturally an outer cave would cover the inner 
chamber; but I cannot comprehend how there could 
ever have been an exterior cave to the rough rock in 
the great Mosk, the surface of which rock still remains 
almost in its natural state. 

We come now to Antoninus Martyr, who meets 
with no more respect than his predecessors firom Mr 

» p. 93. 

' Catechesis, xiv. sect v. p. 206. 
ed. Bened. Commenting on Cant ▼!. 
10, he writes, xifiroc yap fiv Bttov 
i<rravptiOii...Kal to. aCfifioKa tovtov 

fi€V€i Kal Tct Xct^avo. 

' See the Commentary on Cant it 
14. in Catech. xiv. ix. p. 80a 

* Catechesis, xiv. ix. Sec above, 
p. 80. 


Fergu86on\ The date assigned to this Itinerary is the 
latter part of the 6th, or the commencement of the 7th 
century. The distances are commonly given in the 
paces of the writer, — a convenient, but not very satis- 
fiu*tory mode of measurement, adopted alike by ancient 
and modem travellers, the result of which is utterly 
delusive, unless the author remembers to inform us of 
the value of his paces in known measiu*cs, which An- 
toninus has neglected to do. Mr Fergusson, however, 
has done it for him, assuming each pace (gressw) to be 
five feet, (two feet more, at least, than can be allowed 
to a man of ordinary stature,) and then argues that the 
distances of the Itinerary do not correspond with those 
of the present sites. Besides which, the numerals, as 
10 so usual, having undergone some change, he adopts 
tboee that best serve his purpose, without the slightest 
reference to the authority of MSS. or the value of 
versions. It vnll afterwards be seen that the measure- 
ments, loose as they are, are not inconsistent with the 
existing localities. 

There is however one distance not stated in paces 
by this writer, strangely suppressed by Mr Fergusson, 
which proves incontcstably that he could not be writ- 
ing of the imaginary (iolgotha within the precincts of 
the Haram. Having described the altar of Abraham, 
by the side of the rock of Golgotha, where it is still 
>hewn, Antoninus proceeds to notice a crypt or cavern 
hard by, where might be heard the sound of flowing 
waters. He adds, that if you cast in an apple, or any- 

* EMfty. p. 12B.129. The Itine 
nry is ^ven in the Acu Sanctorum 
M&ii. Torn II. p. X. in Pr^fatt. ^tc. 

Tom. 1. p. 354, et seqq. and in Ugolini 
Thenaurus, Tom. vii. p. Mcct'iii. 




[part II. 

thing that will float, you may recover it at the foun- 
tain of Siloam. It was a fortunate inadvertence of Mr 
Fergusson to omit the important particular, that the 
writer computes the distance between Siloam and Gol- 
gotha at a mile^ — in how much closer agreement with 
the old than with the new theory, a glance at the plan 
will shew. I ynil only further remark from this author, 
that the order in which the Sacred Places are visited, 
— commencing with the Sepulchre and the neighbouring 
sites, passing thence by the Tower of David, the Coena- 
culum on Mount Sion, the Church and Hospitals of St 
Mary (now El-Aksa), to the site of the Temple and Pilate's 
Palace, — while it is quite consistent with the received 
topography, is unintelligible oh the other hypothesis. 

We now arrive at an important epoch in the histoiy 
of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, — its destruction by 
the Persians under Chosroes H.* This fact is vouched 
for by the Paschal Chronicle, composed at that very 
time (for this is the last important event recorded in 
it,) and by other contemporaneous \^Titers. How then 
does Mr Fergusson dispose of this inconvenient fact, 
which is stated with fuller particulars, and rests on more 
satisfactory evidence than half the historical events 
which have met with universal credence in the world? 
He sets it aside as an impudent falsehood, so barefaced as 
to carry its own refutation on the face of it, too absurd 
to deserve notice. His words are, ** The age is fertile 

• " Intra Siloa et Golgotha credo 
esse milliarium." sect xix. The omis- 
sion is the more remarkable because 
Mr Fergusson dwells particularly on 
the preceding passage, and quotes as 
far as these words, p. 128, n. 1. An 

anonymous Greek writer in Leo AIU* 
tins (Su/i/utK-ra, p. 85) gives the dis- 
tance between the Holy Sepulchre aod 
Siloam as one mile. 

' See the history and authoritiei eind 
above, in Vol. i. pp. 300, 1, and i 

m. II.] ARCULFUS. 101 

in falsehoods, but I have not met with one more start- 
ling than this^.'* No reason is alleged for the falsifica- 
tion, no proof adduced, no motive assigned ; but the 
testimony of chronicles, letters, and histories, is coolly 
set aside as of no value, simply because it is fatal to 
the extravagant theory that has been propounded, and 
must be maintained at all hazards. I protest against 
a system of criticism which must reduce all documentary 
evidence, to waste paper, and shake the very foundations 
of history, sacred or civil. 

To proceed now to Arculfus, who describes the 
Church as restored by Modestus, Vicar of the See during 
the captivity of the Patriarch Zacharias. The value of 
this narrative is admitted, but the force of its statements 
is evaded by the same process that has been applied to 
earlier writers. Let the follo^nng notices be compared 
or contrasted, and it will be seen how far his description 
of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre will suit the Dome 
of the Rock*. The Church, according;: to Arculfus, was 
a round building with twice four entrances, — to wit, 
four to the X.K. and four to tlic S.E. The door of the 
cave wan at the Kast, and the place where the body was 
laid was on the North side of the rocky chamber. But 
the Dome of the Rock is an octajjfon, with four doors 
fiieini; the cardinal points; the entrance to the cave is 
at the S.K., and there is no rocky couch on the North of 
the chamber, to correspond with the Se])ulchre. Tliis 
nii;rht suffice, had not Mr Fer^usson furnished another 
r*I>ecimen of criticism which is too bold to be passed over 
without noticed Arculfus not only jj^ave a description 

' K«tMiy. p. 12J*. <frct!*cri Op. Tom. iv. pan* ii. p. 2.'»*>. 

• .<« the dcwription antl plan in * Kni^ay, p. I '»4, ^. 


of the sites to Adamnanus ; he also rudely sketched the 
plan of the sacred buildings on a waxen tablet, in illus- 
tration of his narrative. It is acknowledged that this 
plan, which has been preserved, bears a much closer 
general resemblance to the group of buildings connected 
with the actual Sepulchre, than to the plan conceived 
by IVIr Fergusson. A startling fact certainly, but one 
in which his ingenuity discovers a most convincing 
proof of the position which he maintains. He shall 
state the solution of the difficulty in his own words. 
The plan of Arculfus and that of the present Church 
" are so similar, that the conclusion appears to me inevit- 
able, that the plan [of Arculfus] is not one taken from 
the Church, but the one from which the present Church 

was built We know, from continued reference to it, 

how popular and common this tract was, between the 
time of its composition and the Crusades; and one copy 
at least must have been found in Jerusalem, if not many. 
Let us then assume that the Christians were turned out 
of their original Sepulchre and Golgotha by the Maho- 
metans. Nothing can be more improbable than that 
they had a correct plan of the localities:... but here they 
had one, and when compelled to transfer their Sepulchre 
to a new locality, can anything be more probable than 
that they should take the plan known to all the Latin 
world at least, and fixing on a rock for their ' Golgothana 
nipcs\..that they should have arranged the other local- 
ities with reference to it as they found them set down 
in this plan ?" I have nothing to oppose to such rea- 
soning as this — it is past all argument, it would account 
for anything and everything. The whole assumption is 
overthrown by the simple fact, that the Church of the 
11th century was erected, not by the Latins, but by 

GH. JL] 



Greeks, who probably never heard of the tract of Ar- 

Another specimen of that reckless disregard of diffi- 
culties which distinguishes the pages of Mr Fergusson's 
Essay must be noticed before we take leave of Arcul- 
fiia. There is undoubtedly considerable difficulty in 
his description of the Mosk then used by the Infidels — 
a difficulty which will be considered in its proper place. 
He narrates that '' the Saracens had erected a house of 
prayer on the site of the famous /Temple, which was 
placed in the vicinity of the eastern wall*." This de- 
scription Mr Fergusson applies to the Mosk El-Aksa. 
Bat El-Aksa stands on the southern wall, and does not 
occupy the site of the Temple, even in his view of the 
case ; and since, according to his theory, the whole 
pile of buildings connected with the Holy Sepulchre lay 
between the site of the temple and the eastern wall, 
no writer could say that the Temple stood near the 
eastern wall. But these difficulties disappear in a loose 
translation, and the IMosk stands where the theory 
requires it, "in the in)mediate vicinity of the southern 
wall, within the enclosure of Solomon's Temple '* ! Why, 
at this rate, any passage in any book will be "sufficient 
in itself to settle the whole controversy." 

It is very considerate in Mr Fergusson to assiu*e us 
at this stage, that " as far as the argument has hitherto 
gone, there has been no flaw whatever in the evidence :" 

' Adamiunm de Locis Sanctis ; 
compared with Bernhard, both cited 
■ad both mistranslated bj Mr F. in his 
£■■■7, pp. 146, 7. The description of 
the buUdimg^ in which all the difficulty 
lies, I do Dot quote, because I shall 
have to consider it in speaking of the 

Great Mosk. The point here in ques- 
tion is the site. The words are "in illo 
loco ubi tern plum constructum fuerat, 
in vicinia murt ab orienle locatum.** 
" Ubi templum in vicinia muri ab ori- 
ente locatum,** &c. Adamnanus et 
Bemhardus, 1. c. 



[part II. 

we might otherwise have judged differently; and it must 
be admitted, that if confidence in error is equivalent to 
demonstration of truth, his positions are unassailable. 
We come now to St Willibald, and Bemhard the Monk. 
And here Mr Fergusson discovers a curious anomaly, 
which seems for a time to have occasioned some per- 
plexity even to him. " The older traveller describes the 
new, the later the old Sepulchre M" Two solutions of 
the difficulty occurred to his inventive mind. The first 
was, that the transference of the site from the Dome of 
the Rock to the present spot took place previous to 
St Willibald ; but then how came it that Bemhard, 
eighty years later than Willibald, described the old 
Sepulchre ? This ground was therefore abandoned, and 
recourse was had to the other expedient of supposing 
an interpolation in the narrative of St Willibald*. But 
why not solve the difficulty by an interpolation in Bem- 
hard ? Was it not equally easy " to take it for granted" 
that the transference took place before St Willibald's 
journey, and that Bemhard was interpolated; as to "take 
it for granted" that it took place after Bemhard, and 
that Willibald was interpolated ? No doubt it was, and 
a bold theorist, having so many centuries of the dark 
ages at his disposal for any frauds that he might please 
to palm upon them, might as well have begged his fact 
in the 8th as in the llth century; but it so happens 
that there are two distinct narratives of St Willibald's 
journey by different hands, in one of which the accoimt 
of the Holy Sepulchre is omitted : this, therefore, is 

> Essay, p. 159. 

' *< I have been forced to abandon 
that ground, and to assume that it is an 
interpolation of the elerenth century, 

and, as such, highly instructlTe, and 
useful alHO, in illustrating the topogim- 
phy of the Sepulchre." Essay, p. 18S. 


taken as decisive evidence that it is interpolated in 
the other I 

But in truth, all the discrepancies between these two 
writers are accounted for by observing, that both men- 
tion facts unrecorded by the other ; both, when checked 
by Paschasius Radbcrtus, are proved to be entirely con- 
sistent with the idea of the Sepulchre then current in 
Europe; and both, when equated with the fuller and 
earlier description of Arculfus, are found to coincide 
in all points in which agreement was possible, with three 
unimportant exceptions, which Mr Fergusson does not 
fail to remark and exaggerate^; Ist, an epithet used by 
Arculfus in describing the Church of Calvary is omitted 
by Willibald*; 2dly, the stone before the door of the 
Sepulchre is said by the latter only to represent the 
original; and 3dly, in St WiUibald "we have on Calvary 
only the similitude of the Cross," — which Arculfus leaves 
us to infer, when he says that the cross on Calvary was 
silver \ and describes the true cross at Constantinople* I 

Finally, an incidental notice of Bernhardus con- 
ceniing the arranjrenient of the Churches connected 
with the IIolv Seimlehre, clearly proves that he is 
describing — not such a j)lan as ]\Ir Fergusson conceives, 
but one nearly similar to that which still exists; for he 
remarks that the four Cluirehes, — i. e. the Sepulchre, 

* The remark on the wordn ^' Deata variir locus ; *' but because he doeii not 
Helena collocavit ilium locum intun in happen to ynj ** pruffratuiis ecclrsia,** 
llieruNalein" is too pitiful to need com- ; as Arculfus does, therefore Mr F. 
ment. ** If trait»lated literally, it would . concludes that it was **a hhed^ answer- 
appear that it was supposed that He- I ing perfectly to the description giren 
lena brouf(ht the sacred places into the 
City ; and nut that »he extended the 
city to them ** * Essay, p. Uil. 

* St WiUibald expressly notices 

of it by William of Tyre, Moratorium 
vulde modicum.* ** Essay, 1. c. 

^ Adamnanus de Ix>cis Sanctis. 
Lib. I. cap. iv. 

ecdeaia in illoloco t|ui dicitur Cal- ' Id. liib. in. cap. iii. 




Oolgotha, St Mary's, and another, were united by their 
respective walls S and grouped round an open court, 
laid out as a garden*. 

There are certain questions and forms of argument 
that are '' such silly things, that very easiness doth make 
them hard to be disputed of in serious manner." I find 
myself involved in such a difficulty when I come to 
notice Mr Fcrgusson's — arguments must I call them ? 
for the transference of the Sepulchre, and proofs of the 
probability of the transference. They consist entirely of 
declamation against the corruptions of the Church during 
the dark ages, which I am not concerned to deny ; and 
of citations of various instances of gross imposture, which 
I have no wish at all to defend; and the conclusion 
follows, that '* such things, instead of being improbable, 
were of daily occurrence ; and things ten thousand times 
more absurd and improbable than this, were done and 
asserted and believed, with an implicitness of faith which 
we have now-a-days a difficulty in comprehending." 
Nay, any one who considers the dark superstition of the 
times, " will admit that the removal of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, so far from being an improbable event, was almost 
a matter of coiu*se ; and he may rest satisfied with the 
moderation that left it still at Jerusalem, and has not 
transferred it to Italy or Spain 3." " Indeed, had the 
Khalif (Harun cr-Kashid) sent the Emperor (Charle- 
magne) the Sepulchre itself on the back of the elephant 

* ^'...qaatuorecclesismutuissibimet 
parietibus cohffrentes.** Mr Fergusnon 
applies thii only to Golgotha and the 
Basilica of Constantine. Essay, p. 163. 

' "Inter priedictas iiii«" ecclesias 
est paradisus sine tecto." This must 
have been in the place of the south 

transept of the present Church. A 
reference to the Restored Plans of the 
Buildings" (plate VI.) in Mr Per. 
gusson*s Volume, will show how irre- 
concilable is the above desciiptioo with 
his theory. 

"> Essay, pp. 166. 166. 


be presented him with, all Europe would have received 
it with transports of joy;" "and it has always been a 
matter of wonder to '* IVIr Fergusson ** that the San Se- 
pulchro neither accompanied nor followed its sister cave 
(of Loretto) in her peregrinations*." 

Now, all this may be perfectly true, and yet, I sup- 
pose, it must be admitted that there are sites, both in 
Europe and Asia, which did not undergo transmutation 
in those ages, however favorable the darkness might be 
to such a process ; and the question is, have we a right 
to assume, in the first instance, without any evidence 
whatever, that the transference took place, and then 
account for it by the ignorance of the times ? Let 
Christians well consider the legitimate consequences of 
such a theory, and they will pause before they adopt it. 

But now, When did the transference take place ? It 
is admitted, that it is not possible to ascertain this " in 
a manner entirely satisfactory : those who committed 
the fraud were not likely to betray their secret, and, in 
fact, did not\" But *' the proposition is this," — that 
*• after the biirninf]^ of the Basilica of Constantine by 
Muez (a.d. 9G\i) the Christians were forced to abandon 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and between the 
years 1031 to 1048, did rebuild a Church to represent 
that one from which they had been ejected, where it 
now stands^" This is *' the most distinct view he can 
form of the matter ; for he docs not think the materials 
admit of any one bein<2^ ([uitc certain about it^." 

A few difficulties involved in this supposition shall 
be stated, vnth Mr Ferorusson's replies. And, first, WTiat 
motive could induce the Moslems to deprive the Chris- 
tians of their Holy Sepulchre, after leaving them in 

• pp. \M\, ]!>:. |. i:.7 '- p \li\. r p. 176 



[part n. 

undisturbed possession of it for three centuries ? " It 
is, perhaps, hopeless to attempt to inquired" But does 
not history record the total destruction of the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre by the Khalif Hakem, a.d. 1010 ? 
Certainly. " All the historians of that age narrate the 
total destruction of the Church of the Sepulchre by 
El-Hakem's order, and its being rebuilt between 1031 
and 1048*." How then do you account for the fact, 
that the building remains at this day in a state of per- 
fect preservation, — ceiling and all ? This question Mr 
Fergusson docs not directly answer. He leaves us to 
conclude for ourselves, that all who witnessed or re- 
corded the demolition of the Church under Hakem, were 
fools or liars — most probably both: it is a "startling 
falsehood ;" like the destruction of the Chiu'ch by the 
Persians and its restoration by Modestus, "most ex- 
tremely apocryphal." It must be so, for " the architec- 
tural evidence is so strong as to settle the matter; 
and here we find nothing whatever to contradict it'"! 
Which last assertion must be qualified, if it be not 
negatived, by the admission immediately preceding, that 
"all the historians" — yes, all, Christian and Moslem, 
Greek, Latin, Syrian and Copt, — " all narrate the total 
destruction of the Church*." Indeed, the circumstan- 

» Essay, p. 176. 

' p. 176. He adds, "and though 
they do not assert it, it may be assumed 
that they, or at least some of them, 
understood it to be on the same site as 
the old one, though this is by no means 
clear." I look in vain for symptoms 
of a suspicion that the site had been 
changed ; but it is certain that not one 
of all the authors had the slightest 
doubt of its identity, which is the rea- 
son why "they do not assert it.*' 

=» p. 177. 

* In p. 178, Mr Fergusson says 
that some of the authors— he only cites 
Ademar — make a distinction between 
the Church of Constantine and the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre ; and he 
maintains that the former, and not the 
latter, was demolished by Hakem. But 
he misrepresents Ademar, who calls it, 
" sepulcrum ;*' ** basilica Sepolchri 
Domini ;^' "basilica Sepulchri glo- 
riosi : '' it is much better to say plainly. 


tiality of the narrative, as collected from the writers of 
Tarious creeds or rites, is so minute that we have the 
names, — not only of the renegade who instigated, and 
of the Khalif who commanded its demolition, — but of 
the Copt Secretary who wrote the order, of the Moslem 
Governor who executed it, and of the French Bishop 
who witnessed its execution \ 

Again, was there no difficulty in concealing the fact, 
or in silencing objections ? Even if all the various re- 
Ugionists agreed in the fraud, and if the Latin monks 
of Jerusalem, having one copy of the tract of Adam- 
nanus in their possession, lent the incorrect plan of 
Arculfus to the Greeks, that they might build a bad 
imitation of the original pile, would the pilgrims look 
on in silence? would no whisper of the cheat be blown 
westward ? It is admitted that ** the question still re- 
mains of the practical difficulty of successfully perpe- 
trating the pious fraud." How then is the difficulty 
diijposed of? It is set aside with the remark, "This, 
however, appears to nie but a very trifling affair." As 
for any pil<::rim who might detect the fraud, — " If such 
a pilgrim did exist, he probably was a priest, and con- 
sequently, for the honour of his cloth, would not betray 
the secret ; or if a layman, were he inclined to tell tales, 
means could easily be found to silence him, if necessary:'' 
and again, considering the credulity of the times, " we 
nceil scarcely wonder that this absurdity escaped ex- 
posure ^'' Now it is a remarkable fact that the rage 
for pilgrimage was never so rife in Europe as at that 

** it is pretty clear how it should have 
httn written, though the authors may 
hate intended it differently." 

^ It is not necesaary to repeat these 

here; they will be found in Vol. i. pp. 
34t>— 3,>4, and notes. 
• Essay, p. IJl. 


time which Mr Fergusson has unhappily fixed on for the 
transference of the site^- and it has been already stated 
that the destruction of the Church of the Kesurrection 
was witnessed and reported in Europe by a French 

Fifty years after the completion of the New Church 
the first Crusade put the Christians in possession of 
the city; and Mr Fergusson amuses himself with the 
thought of "the puzzlingly ludicrous position of the 
Church of Jerusalem, when they found that they were 
in possession of two Holy Sepulchres." They might 
have returned to the old one ; but they were pledged 
to the cheat, and "found themselves under the necessity 
of adhering to the worst, and what they must then have 
known to be the false one*/' It were superfluous to 
remark that the dilemma is purely imaginary ; and that 
there is not the remotest hint of such a difficulty in 
any writer of any Creed. 

But Mr Fergusson "has hitherto stated the argu- 
ment only in the strongest possible manner against his 
own views, as if no pilgrim or writer of the middle ages 
suspected the real truth of the matter, that the Dome 
of the Rock was originally the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. So far however is this from being the case, 
that the converse is much nearer the truth." I confess 
that of all the startling assertions in the volume, not 
one occasioned me so much amazement and, I will add, 
concern as this. It seems scarcely possible to believe 
that the writer is in earnest. For on what is this asser- 
tion grounded? "It is true, indeed, that no writer 
states broadly the fact of there being two Sepulchres in 

' See Vol. I. p. ar»3, n. 7- ' Es«ay, p. 174. 


Jenmlem, but almost all of them were aware that this 
building (the Dome of the Rock) was a Christian build- 
ing;" and again, '' the Mahometans do not lay claim to 
the building of it, so far as I can trace, till long after- 
wmrds, and then seem merely to have found it convenient 
to forget that the Christians had built it ; whereas the 
Christians are quite positive in their traditions, as we 
shall presently see." 

To dispose first of the Mohammedans. Can Mr 
Fergusson produce one historical notice, or a single tra- 
dition from among them, in confirmation of his theory ? 
We happen to possess no work on the subject composed 
previous to the Crusades ; but the histories of Jalal-ad- 
diD (c. A.D. 1475) and of Mejr-ed-Din (c. a.d. 1495) abound 
" in all manner of traditions and assertions from earlier 
authorities," extending nearly as far back as the era of 
the Hegira. Among all 'these various testimonies not 
the slightest intimation can be found that the Dome of 
the Rock was originally a Christian building. Its erection 
by the Khalif Abd-cl-Mclik Ibn-Merwan is attested with 
a consistency of af^reement, perfectly marvellous amid 
the discrepancies of other conflicting traditions. 

To pass then to the Christians, whose traditions are 
so positively appealed to by Mr Fergusson. Let it be 
premised, that from the time of the first Crusade, the 
Dome of the Rock came to be known among the Franks 
as the Temple of the Lord, the neighbouring Mosk 
El-Aksa as the Temple of Solomon, — a distinction of 
name, without a difference, which I shall attempt to 
explain in discoursing of the Temple Area. 

The first witness adduced by Mr Fergusson in proof 
that the Christians of the 11th century were aware that 
this Saracenic Mosk was a Christian building, (which 



[part n. 

he assumes could only be the Church of the Sepulchre,) 
is Saewulf, who describes it as the Temple of the Lord, 
erected over the Holy of Holies where the ark was 
placed, two engine-shots distant eastward from* the 
Sepulchre of the Lord^ This needs no comment. Albert 
of Aix is scarcely a more hopeful ally to Mr Fergus- 
son ; for he holds with SaBwulf, that the building in 
question occupied the site of the Holy of Holies, and 
adds the attestation of many, that this Temple was after- 
wards rebuilt by modern Christians, on the exact site of 
Solomon's temple*. This writer and James de Vitry 
alone of all the historians, mention the tradition that 
the Christians had ought to do with its construction: 
the one point in which they all agree is this— -that who- 
ever rebuilt it, it certainly occupied the site of Solo- 
mon's Temple \ Let that suffice for their testimony. 

The best informed and most able historian of the 
Crusades is, without controversy, William of Tyre, a native 
and inhabitant of Jerusalem during its occupation by the 
Franks in the 12th century. To a scrupulous man his 

* Saewulf in Recueil de Voyages, 
Tome IV. p. 840. Essay, p. 180. Mr 
Fergusson, with consistent laxity, trans, 
lates '* quantum arcus balista bis jac- 
tare potest,'* *Wiro bow-tkotg.*'' (p. 180.) 
He had misrepresented Scewulf before, 
in p. 103, where he says that this writer 
claimed the erection of the Temple of 
the Lord for Justinian. This is so far 
from true, that he expressly denies it : 
<^ Quidam autem dicunt civitatem fuisse 
a Justiniano imperatore restauratum, et 
templum Domini similiter sicut est ad- 
huc: Bed illud dicunt secundum opi- 
nionem, et non secundum veritatem .*" 
here he repairs that error to commit a 

greater injustice, as though Sswulf 
knew Consitantine to be the builder, 
but did not say so, because ^'he had 
said just before, that he and his mother 
had built the Church of the Holy Se- 
pulchre." p. 181. 

' Ap. Bongar, p. 281. Essay, p. 
181. It must be mentioned, that the 
quotations from the Gesta Dei an 
grievously mistranslated in the text, 
and garbled in the notes of Mr Fer- 
gusson's book. 

• See e. g. Fulcherius Camot. p. 
397. Oesta Franconim, p. 673. Jaco- 
bus de Vitriaco, p. 1080. Phocat ap. 
Leo. AUat p. 23. 



testuDony would be rather troublesome ; but Mr Fergus- 
son digpoees of him with as much ease as he had of earlier 
writers. Being better acquainted with Saracenic history ^ 
than the other writers of his day, he was fully aware of 
the Saracenic origin of the Dome of the Rock. *' He 
anerts twice over that it was built by Omar Ibn-Khatab, 
and appeals to the inscription on the walls in testimony 
of this*." These inscriptions — for there were many — 
represented in mosaic work within and without the 
Mosk, were supposed to be as old as the building, and 
descended to minute particulars, — the author and the 
expense of the imdcrtaking, the time when it was com- 
menced and finished, being therein recorded. An 
awkward fact, one would think, for Mr Fergusson's 
theory, the force of which he evades by a new expedient. 
Though the worthy Archbishop, in the two passages in 
which he records the fact, is as grave and sedate as 
usual, Mr Fergusson discovers in his statements " an 
earnestness that looks very suspicious ; and I cannot help 
thinking (he adds) that as Archbishop of Tyre, he was 
in the secret, and consequently anxious to conceal it ; 
and this appeal to inscriptions, which Christians had not 
access to in his day**, and could not read if they had, 

* He had composed a Saracenic 
hittorj from the time of Mohammed, 
vhich he refen to in hit extant work, 
Lib. I. capp. i. and iii. It i» now un- 
happily lost. It was entitled *'■ Ge^u 
Orientalium principum.** 

^ sw 3Ir Fergutson, p. \S2 ; but he 
doct not cite the particulars of these 
tnscriptiona, (not ** the inncription," as 
he writes). ''Extant porro in eodem 
tenipli cdifirio, intus et extra, ex opere 
mttaaico, Arabici idiomatis literarum 

Vol. II. 

vetustiHsima monumenta, quK illius 
temporis e«se creduntur ; quibus et auc- 
tor et impensarum quaiititas, et quo 
tempore opun inceptum, quoque con- 
summatum fuerit, evidenter dedama- 
tur.** WilL Tyr. Lib. i. cap. ii. p. 
830. ('ompare Lib. viii. cap. ii. p. 

* This is another inexplicable mis- 
take of Mr Fergusson. William of Tyre 
was actually bom at Jerusalem, and 
liTed there many years during its occu- 




[part U. 

appears to me about as clumsy an argtunent as could 
well be used to prove a bad case." 

I think I may stop here. The intelligent reader 
would perhaps have been abundantly satisfied, had I 
done so long ago. Most persons who are open to 
reason would imagine that the bare fact, that Constan- 
tine built no Church over the Holy Sepulchre, was 
pretty conclusive against a Church of his standing over 
it at this day, whatever may be the force of the archi- 
tectural argument. The very first step of Mr Fergus- 
son's proposition is inadmissible. He assumes, without 
any warrant, '' that Constantine did erect two separate 
churches, one a basilica, the other a round church, and 
that this last did contain the rock in which was the 
Sepulchred" This cannot be granted : it is directly oon- 
trary to historical fact : to admit it, is to run counter to 
the express testimony of Eusebius, who was an eye- 
witness of what he describes, an active agent in the 
works which he has immortalized. 

Again, the fact that the Propylffium of Constantine's 
Basilica opened upon the market-place, in the midst of 
the city, while the Golden Gate crowns the brow of the 
deep valley of Jehoshaphat, would prove to most men 
that Constantine's buildings, whatever they were, did 
not occupy the place assigned them by Mr Ferg^usson. 
This would have sufficed for his argument ; and one or 
two instances, of the many which I have adduced, of 

pation by the Franks. He wan Bucces- 
sivdy Archdeacon of Tyre ( a.d. 1 167), 
Chancellor of the Kingdom, (Lib. xxx. 
cap. ▼.) and consecrated Archbishop of 
Tyre in a. d. 1174. (ibid. cap. ix.) He 
commenced his history in a.d. 1183, 
( Lib. X. cap. iii. ) and brought it down 

to the end of a. d. 1183. He wu ptU 
Boned at Rome, at the inataaee of the 
Patriarch Almaiic, probaUy in the 
following year, 1184, three yean bctee 
the conquest of Jerusalem by *^i«^«« 
Le Quien, O. C. Tom. i ii. coL 1814, &c. 
> Essay, p. 108. See abore, 

CH. n.] MR FBROU8SON. 115 

his manner of citing and translating his authors, — ^would 
hftTe demonstrated how very untrustworthy a guide he 
is to the fountains of historic truth. But I have foUowed 
him earefolly through all his authorities in the vain 
hope of finding a single fair quotation ; and, failing in 
this, I have exposed his unfairness ; I hope with temper 
and moderation, for I have no desire to repay his dis- 
oomtesy in kind. But now he must allow me with all 
honesty to enter a strong remonstrance against the line 
which he has, unwittingly or wilfully, pursued. The 
wildest and most extravagant theories that were ever 
propomided, on this or any other subject, may be treated 
with toleration, however ridiculous, if honestly held and 
fairly maintained by their advocates ; but when an over 
psrtiaiity for a preposterous fancy so warps our judg- 
ment, or darkens our perceptions, as to incapacitate us 
from appreciating evidence, or to indispose us to receive 
the truth, there is an end of forbearance — we need to 
be recalled to moral consciousness by a full exposure 
of our errors. The greatest wrong that can be done to 
any department of history, is to attempt to poison the 
fountains from which it must be drawn. Nothing can 
justify' it — neither boldness, nor cleverness, nor zeal for 
truth : for all which the author of the Essay must have 
fuD credit. Thus much by way of protest. I need only 
add, that I have not thought it needful to cite other 
writers than those referred to by Mr Fergusson, or I might 
have shewn from the Patriarch Eutychius^, and from 
other authors, that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 

■ See Eaijchii Annales, Tom. ii. ; and the Holy Sepulchre existing toge- 
pf^ 4Sl.-4S9,citcdin Vol. i.pp. 337.B, I ther between a. d. 813 and 829. Rutj. 
vImr vc find the I>ome of the Rock ' chius died in a. d. 940. 



the Dome of the Eook, and the Mosk El-Aksa, had each 
a separate and independent existence previous to the 
date assigned to the transference : but if any doubt 
remain on the subject, the Architectural History of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, from the pen of Pro- 
fessor Willis, will so fully establish the identity of the 
present site with that of the original Sepulchre, that 
it were superfluous to pursue the subject any further in 
this place. 

I am not aware of any other traveUer or writer of 
celebrity who has declared against the main Ecclesiasti- 
cal tradition of Jerusalem, since the publication of the 
Biblical Eesearches, with the exception of Dr Wilson ^ 
who, however, has advanced few original objections, all 
of which have been anticipated in this or the preceding 
Chapter. He admits that the conclusions of Dr Robin- 
son, "though they have obtained the acquiescence of 
multitudes of his readers, both in Europe and America, 
have been assented to but by few traveUers who have 
visited Jerusalem," since their publication. For himself, 
he decides against the authenticity of the traditionary 
site, which he thinks must have fallen within the Second 
Wall; whereas "the intimations in the Scriptures make 
the impression on his mind, that the Crucifixion and 
Burial of Christ took place, not merely beyond any par- 
ticular wall of Jerusalem, but beyond any distinct parts 
of the city which might lie beyond that wall." The situ- 
ation of the Gate Gennath, near the Hippie Tower, 
which he adopts from Dr Bobinson, (an impossible posi- 
tion, as I have endeavoured to prove) and the Pool, so 
doubtfully attributed to Hezekiah, are the two topogra- 

* Lands of the Bible, Vol. i. p. 434. 


phical arguments which, in his opinion, countervail 
against the authority of the received site^ 

With respect to the historical evidence, ''after a 
careful examination of Dr Robinson's authorities, he is 
inclined to say that he has perhaps pressed them some- 
what beyond their legitimate bounds;" and he moder- 
ates with sufficient impartiality between these ancient 
writers and their critic ^ But as if to compensate for 
this service, he attacks Macarius with more than usual 
vehemence^, suggesting motives of deception with an 
ingenuity of suspicion surpassing all preceding writers 
on the same side^; the most novel of which is, that '' the 
search may have been commenced at this site, simply to 
get rid of the idol-fane'' — as though there was no other 
method but an impious fabrication to accomplish this 
object, under an Emperor who made it his business 
everywhere to demolish the monuments of pagan super- 
stition ^ Will Dr Wilson allow me to suggest whether 
these evasions of historical evidence be not dictated 
rather by prejudice than by reason ; and to add my 
conriction that he has done equal injustice to the early 
Church, and to his own candour and judgment in his 
strictures on the conduct of Alacarius. And surely he 
must have imbibed little of the spirit of the primitive 
Christians, when he could suppose that they were likely 
to pay more marked honour to the resting-place of their 
human teachers ** than to that grave in which the body 
of the blessed Saviour had been without seeing cor- 

' pp. iSfi, 437. I in a respccuble book. 

^ pp. 43&..440. ^ Lands of the Bible, Vol. i. pp. 

* The ciution in p. 442, n. 1 . from | 442, 3. 

** a vigorous writer in the North British > * Vita Cbnstantini, Lib. ui. cap. 
Review," might well have been omitted liv. 


ruption, and which had yielded its charge on the morn- 
ing of the resurrection." I do not believe that the 
Christians whom he would regard as nearest to the 
primitive model, would so prefer a monument of human 
corruption, to a witness of our Lord's Resurrection — an 
earnest and pledge of the general Resurrection through 
His almighty operation. I am equally convinced, that 
if the Church of the fourth century did know the actual 
Sepulchre, — a fact which Dr Wilson thinks "may be 
reasonably admitted" — no motives whatevejr would have 
induced them to substitute a fictitious one ; and that, if 
they did not, they would have shrunk from the idea of an 
invention with perfect abhorrence. I will conclude this 
historical discussion in the words of the sober-minded 
Dr Shaw^ who writes, that notwithstanding the changes 
and revolutions which the sites have undergone, " it is 
highly probable that a faithful tradition has always been 
preserved of the several places that were consecrated, 
as we may say, by some remarkable transaction relating 
to our Saviour or to His Apostles. For it cannot be 
doubted, but that, among others, mount Calvary, and 
the Cave where our Saviour was buried, were well known 
to His disciples and followers ; and not only so, but that 
some marks likewise of reverence and devotion were 
always paid to them." 

The remainder of this chapter may be devoted to 
an historical notice of two of the principal sacred 
localities within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

Immediately opposite to the entrance of the cave, 
which faces the East, is the Greek church, occupying 

' Travels, p. 277, 2nd £d. 4u>. Lond. 1757. 



^^art of the site of the basilica of the Emperor Constao^ 
tine'p but differently arranged, with its apse towardB the 
East, It is tbe finest chureh in Jerusalem, excepting 
■Bpnly that of St James, attaebed to the Armenian convent 
^"on ^fount Sion. It was erected by a Russian architect, 
in the year 1809, after the fire, and is of large dimen- 
skmfl, eurmounted by a cupola of considerable altitude, 
and adorned, bs the Oriental churches mo§tly are, with 
handMuiie chandeliers and strings of lampB altcrnatecl 
with ostrich-eggs, hanging in festoons from the ceiling. 
The ieonostams, surmounted by the rood, is handsomely 
I canned, as are the ambons and the patriarchal thrones, 
I immediately without the bema on either side. The 
icons, with their gilded aureoles, are in the usual taste, 
executed by Russian artists, and far from pleasing* The 
aisles lu^ excluded from the church, and being con- 
nected at the East ends run completely round the 
Choir, forming the means of communication between 
the various chapels and the sacred localities common to 
all Christians. 

The chiurch of the Franciscans is a comparatively 
mean building, to the North of the Holy Sepulchre, 
called the Church of the Apparition ; the Armenians 
worship in one of the galleries of the rotunda ; the Sy- 
rians have a small chapel under the gallery, at the West 
of the Sepulchre ; while the Copts have their altar in 
a small shed, scarcely large enough to admit the ofliciat- 
ing priest, at the back of the Cave itself. There are 
also apartments about their respective chapels, assigned 
to the monks of these several rites, who wait continually 
on their ministry at the sacred places, and live immured, 

^ Euseb. Vit, Const, in. xxxvi. 


as it were, within the walls ; while other chapels^ com- 
memorative of events connected with our Saviour's 
Passion, in various parts of the building, occupy the 
remainder of the sacred enclosure, which is of consider- 
able extent. 

The only entrance is at the South transept from 
a paved court, through the westernmost of two handsome 
door-ways, with an architrave representing in bas-relief 
our Lord's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, and other 
subjects. The first object that attracts attention within 
the building is the Stone of Unction, where the pilgrim 
may turn to the left into the round church which 
encircles the Holy Sepulchre, or to the right into the 
South aisle of the Greek church, which has been lately 
noticed. Proceeding a few paces up this aisle, he finds 
on the right a flight of eighteen steps leading up to the 
low vaulted chapel of the Holy Golgotha. Here, if he 
be an Oriental, he will put off his shoes from his feet, 
and approach with reverential awe the scene of our 
Lord's last Passion, and draw near on bended knees to 
the very spot of the Crucifixion. If he be an English- 
man or American, the attendant priest will look for no 
such deportment; he will expect nothing more ihan a 
look of indifference, or at most of idle curiosity ; he will 
be prepared for sceptical objections, and an apparent 
predetermination to disbelieve. It is sad to think that 
a person in Frank habit kneeling at Calvary and the 
Sepulchre of Christ, and offering up his devotions at 
these sacred spots, venerated by Christians of all nar 
tions for fifteen hundred years, should be as it were 
a monster to those who witness it: but such is the 
fact. And what then will the curious traveUer see? 
He would observe that the stairs by which he ascended 

CH. IlJ 



to this pl^orm are rut* for the moet part, hi the aoUd 
rock, amd that the floor of the chapel ia formed by 
teveUiiig the mme. At the East end, on the North 
fdde of this double chapel, he wiU see a platform raised 
aboitl a foot atiil a half from the floor', covered with 
white marble ; and under the altar of the orthodox he 
will observe a hole in the marble, commumcating mth 
a deep bore in the solid rock, in which he will be told 
that our Saviour's Cross was erected. Near this, on 
hii* right, he will see another incision in the marble, 
showing a fissure in the rock, said to have been occa- 

icd by the earthquake which occurred at the time 
of the Crucifixion^, If he examine it minutely, he will 
perceive that "the insides do testify that art had no 
band therein, each side to other being answerably rug- 
ged, and there where inaccessible to the workmen ^" 
TTie continuation of this cleft may bo seen in the Chapel 
of the Forerunner, below Golgotha, where, previous to the 
fire of 1808, were shown the tombs of the first two Frank 
kings of Jerusalem — Godfrey and his brother Baldwin. 

The tradition relating to the place of Crucifixion, 
would appear to be as old as that of the Holy Sepulchre; 
for although there is perhaps room to doubt whether we 
have distinct notice of it in Eusebius, yet St Cyril, only 

^ Sandys says this platform is " ten 
fett long and six broad/* Dr Clarke 
roust either have observed very super- 
HciaTly, or have greatly misuken his 
informant, when, in speaking of *^ the 
modem altar," he said, '* This they 
venerate as Mount Calvary, the place 
of Crucifixion ; exhibiting upon this 
contracted piece of masonry the marks 
or holes of the three crosses, without 
the smallest regard to the space neces- 

sary for their erection.*' Vol. ii. p. 546. 
The tradition is, that the penitent thief 
was on the right, the impenitent on the 
left, and that the rock rent between 
him and our Saviour, "a figure of his 
spiritual separation,** writes Sandys. 

^ It is said to have been rent at the 
feet of the centurion, and to have pro- 
duced the exclamation. Matt, xxvii. 

* Sandys* Travels, p. 127. 



[part n. 

a few years later, makes mention of it in many passages, 
and apparently delivered the greater part of his Cate- 
chetical Lectures in the church erected over the site^ 
He speaks, too, of the rent in the rock as ascertained in 
his day, at that particular spot'; not as if that were the 
only rent, but that its proximity to the Place of Cruci- 
fixion invested it with peculiar interest. 

It has been objected, very unreasonably, that the 
Place of Crucifixion is too close to the Sepulchre to 
allow of its being the true site. Had it been further 
distant a stronger argument might have been adduced : 
for it is expressly said ** in the pUice where he was cru- 
cified there was a garden, and in the garden a new 
sepulchre 3." Not that it is necessary to suppose that the 
place of execution was in the garden : it was probably 
a public thoroughfare without the city-wall; and the 
traveller in Syria and Palestine will see nothing forced 
in the conception that the garden-fence might haye 
passed between the two sites*. 

* *•* He was crucified for our sins 
truly : shouldest thou be disposed to 
deny it, the very place which all can 
see refutes thee, even this blessed Gol- 
gotha, in which, on account of Him 
who was crucified on it, we are now 
assembled" (Cat. i v. 10) ; "one never 
can weary of hearing concerning our 
crowned Lord, and least of all in this 
most Holy Golgotha. For while others 
only hear, we have sight and touch 
too:'* and presently, " Thou seest this 
spot of Golgotha!** &c Cat. xiii. 
22, 23. The later lectures were de- 
livered in the Church of the Resurrec- 
tion. SeeCat. xviii. 33, (14); xx.4. 

' " This Holy Golgotha, rising on 
high, and showing itself to this day, 
and displaying even yet how because 

of Christ the rocks were then riven.** 
Cat XIII. 39,(19). 

^ John xix. 41. 

*■ I would mention Jaffa especially, 
as a case in point. Here the gardens 
come up very near the walla, haring 
wide public thoroughfares passing 
through them. Damascus, Tripoli, 
and Beirout, will furnish other ex- 
amples. Dr Robinson says that the 
place of Crucifixion <<was piobaUy 
upon a great road leading from one of 
the gates. And such a spot would 
only be found upon the westcni or 
northern sides of the city, on the roads 
leading towards Jaffa or Damascus.** 
(Vol. II. p. 80). And the place now 
shown must have been exactly in such 
a spot. 

ctL il] invention of the cross. 123 

Descending from Golgotha, and passing up the aisle 
towards the East, we come to a wide staircase leading 
down by twenty-nine steps to a Chapel of the Armenians, 
where they show the throne of St Helena* ; and then by 
thirteen more into the cave where the Cross of our Lord 
is said to have been discovered. Here the rock over- 
hangs the chapel, which is formed in its cavity, and 
a fissure in the rock may be seen as you descend the 
stairs, said to be the continuation of that on Golgotha^ 

The Invention of the Holy Cross, which is comme- 
morated in the English calendar on May 3rd, would 
seem to be historically connected with St Helena's visit 
and the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre ; and a writer, 
who is least disposed to admit the reality of the disco- 
very, is forced to acknowledge, that " notwithstanding 
the silence of Eusebius, there would seem to be hardly 
any part of history better accredited than the alleged 
discovery of the true Cross ^." 

The silence of Eusebius indeed seems to be taken 
for granted without sufficient reason ; for, although he 
certainly does not narrate the discovery in his own 
|>erson, yet the terras employed by Constantine in his 
letter to Maearius, which he has preserved, seem " clearly 
to imply the Invention of the Cross^." For however 
they may be explained as having reference only to the 
entire presenation of the unmutilated Sepulchre, yet it 

* The stone chair which the pil- 
gnins brnve dignified by this name, was 
placed there, as Qtiaresmius mentions, 
( cir. A- D. 1625, ) to senre as a throne for 
the Armenian Bishop. Elucid. Terr. 
Sanct. Tom, ii. p. 422. 

* Quaresmiua, Tom. ii. p. 408,9, 
gives another account of this tissure, to 

which I shall hare occasion to refer in 
speaking of the waters. 

^ Robinson> Bib. Res. Vol. ii. pp. 
15, IB, and again p. 76. 

* This is an admission of Mr Isaac 
Taylor, in his Anc. Christ. Part vii. 
p. 29H. 



[part II. 

is improbable that the Emperor should speak of that as 
a monument of our Saviour's Passion^ which the historiaa 
so much more aptly describes as a witness of Hi<? Resur- 
rection, a trophy of His victory over deaths It were 
much simpler and more satisfactory, to explain Constan- 
tine's language as alluding to the Invention of the Cross, 
and then the expressions of astonishment beconxe per^ 
fectly intelligible; for while no doubt whatever is im- 
plied as to the success of the attempt to recover the 
Sepulchre, the discovery of the Cross was obviously so 
unexpected, as to fill all who heard of it with amaze- 
ment and grateful devotion. The first distinct mention 
which we find of the Holy Cross is by St Cyril of Jeru- 
salem, in his Catechetical Lectures, (a. d. 347),. where 
he refers to it as one of many witnesses to our Lord's 
Crucifixion. There he testifies not to its discovery*, but 
to its existence ; and in language which would imply 
that it had been known for many years, for it had been 
already " distributed piece-meal to all the world^" 

The circumstances connected with the discovery are 
to be gathered from the writings of the fathers who 
flourished at the close of the fourth, and the opening of 
the fifth century*, who write of it as of a well-known and 
generally-received story ; with such variations as are to 
be expected, when an event of a marvellous character 

* In Con8tantme*8 letter we have: 
Td yvtipieua tou dyitoTaTov ixelvov 
irddov9'„,T6v Itpdv iKtlifov Toiroy d^p' 
ov TOU atoTtiplovirdOovi irlimv cis (^co« 
irporiyay€v. But in the language of 
Eusebius, Tij« vumnpla^ dvafrrdvew^ 
fiaprvpioy . . . dtrrpov Tf\v tov Vi»Tr\po^ 
dvd<rra<riv fiapTvpovfitvov ... r^v Kara 
rov Qavdrov awrtjpiov i/iKt)i/. Vita Con. 

Lib. III. capp. xxviii. xxx. xxxiiL 

' Except in his letter to Constan- 
tiu8, A. D. 351 ; the genuinencM of 
which is disputed bj some learned 
writers. See Vol. i. pp. 250, 1. 
» Cat. iv. 10 ; x. 19 ; xiii. 4. 
* The passages are collected in 
Gretser*s great work, De Sancta Cmoe. 
Opera, Tom. ix. ap. init. 

CH. n.] 



is reported by various authors in various countries far 
removed from the scene of its occurrence. 

St Ambrose is the first extant writer who gives 
a detailed account of the undertaking, which he ascribes 
to St Helena. In his discourse upon the death of 
Theodosius^, he takes occasion to eulogize the mother 
of Constantine, and relates the success of her endeavour 
to possess herself of the Holy Cross. His narrative, 
divested of the flowers of oratory, is simple enough, and 
contains no account of any miracle •, unless the very 
preservation of the wood deserves to be so considered. 
This father, in agreement with St Chrysostom, relates 
the discovery of three crosses, and that the cross of our 
Lord was distinguished by the title affixed to it by 
Pilate^; not by the restoration of a sick person to 
health, or of a dead corpse to life, as we find in 
later writers. 

* S. AmbroAii Orat. Funeb. de 
obitu Theod. Imp. Opera, p. 137. 
edit. P*m. 1529. 

* EuMbius speaks of miracles 
wrought at the Holj Sepulchre, but 
does DOC connect them with the disco- 
rery of any site. I>r Robinson (Vol. ii. 
p. 7^) attempts to discredit the sacred 
localities by mention of the miracle. 
But taking for granted that the mira- 
culous part of the story was false, yet 
an interral of serenty-tive years and 
many hundred leagues, in an age when 
printing was unknown, allows ample 
room for the intervention of erroneous 
statement, apart from fraudulent design. 
Dr Wilson (Vol. i. p. 442) assumes the 
allegations concerning the discovery of 
the Crow, to have resulted *^ from gross 
delation, or rather from gross fraud ;*' 

and then disposes of the Sepulchre by 

7 So St Chrysostom ( a. d. 394 ), 
and St Ambrose (a. d. 395). Paulinus 
and Sulpicius Severus (a. d. 400), nar- 
rate the restoration of a corpse to life. 
Rutinus (400), Socrates, Sozomen, and 
Theodoret (about 440), speak only of a 
sick woman restored to health. St Am- 
brose, who is followed by later writers, 
adds moreover, that a further search 
was made for the nails : two were reco- 
vered, of which one was converted into 
a bit for a horse, while the other was 
set in a crown and presented by Helena 
to her son Consuntine ; which, Theo- 
doret says, was handed down to his 
successors as a precious heir-loom. 
Lombardy and Russia are rival claim- 
anu for this relic. 



[part n. 

St Helena would appear to have been guided in this 
case, as in the ease of the Holy Sepulchre, by the re- 
ceived and continuous tradition of the native Christian 
Church, which reported that the instrument of our 
Lord's crucifixion had been cast aside, in the hurry of 
the preparation of the Passover', into a pit near the 
place of execution, which she caused to be examined, 
and three crosses were actually discovered: and how- 
ever strange or startling the fact may appear, it is better 
to suspend the judgment, if we are not satisfied with the 
evidence, than to impute so great a crime as imposture 
and fraud to men who, for ought we know to the con- 
trary, may have been eminent saints. It seems scarcely 
credible that the search would have been conmienced 
at all without some reasonable prospect of success, 
grounded on a probable tradition : and the desire to re- 
cover such a relic, if possible, was not unnatural, and 
quite in accordance with the spirit of the age ; which, 
however, was satisfied with the possession and legitimate 
use of such memorials, and did not exalt them into idols 
— ^for St Ambrose expressly declares that when " she 
found the title, she adored the King, not the wood ; for 
that is the error of the Gentiles, and the vanity of the 
wicked. But she adored Him who hung on the wood, 
(whose name was) written in the title*." 

It is not my intention to notice the other tradi- 

1 The death of the two malefactors 
was hastened in consequence : our 
Lord*s burial in the neighbouring 
tomb, because it was '' nigh at hand ; " 
and the postponement of the embalm- 
ing, all prove that the proceedings were 
hurried. See St John xix. 31, 32, 42. 

^ ''Invenit ergo titnlum, 
adoravit, non lignum, utique qnia hie 
Oentilis est error, et vanitaaimpiomm. 
Sed adoravit ilium qui pepeodit in 
ligno scriptus in titulo.** St Amlmwii 
Orat. Funeb. ut sup. 

i^. n« j 



lionary sites within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
becao^ the three which I have dwelt upon at length 
are incomparabljr the more important, and belong to 
an age much anterior to that which is claimed for 
the remainder- Indeed, the most probable account of 
these chapels and oratories would appear to be, that 
they were first fixed by deYotion, merely with a view 
to commemorate such eu^cumstances attending that aw- 
ftil icene^ as the Evangelists were inspired to record* 
without any idea of identifying the spots; and that 
the simplicity of pUgriras in later ages has assigned 
the tiunsactions to these particular localities^ In the 

* As **the C»lT?wy" so ftequetitly 
ieen m EomaD Catholic e^tJixtrles— 
««|i«el4ll]r %n itie TjfoX tad Southexn 

* If uij thmk thftt the ni<vre in- 
BlH§< lit pfi^riiDa, in what will be con* 
M^nd the dajkeat ages, placed confi- 
daiee in the minm- ttjudhionn, let the 
foUoving pA«tag^a undeceive him. St 
J^otne ipeaks thus of a tradition which 
happou to be rDe&tioned by the Bm- 
deaiu pilgrims ai early as 333 : ^^ Sim- 
pfidam fratres inter ruinas templi et 
altwia. 11 ¥e in portarum exitihus qua? 
SiJoK ducunt, mbia eaxa momtr^titeSi 
Za^bari^ lai^guine putsnt ease polluta. 
Xon condeniaamiia frrorem^qni de odio 
Judmorum^ et fidd prelate descendit.'' 
Comment m Matt, %%iv. Opera, Tom. 
tv. pp. 112, 113, ed. Betied. And 
mojcfa tater, m the age of the cru^oden^ 
** H*e intra urb^m a Hdelibuet vene- 
natm'^ Plagetiaim Jesu Chdsti, atque 
caranatio, »c deriiiio, et ciEtcra qua? 
pro fiobis pcftuLit i »ed non faHie nbi 

/u^nmt num: diprho^ci possuni^ cum 
drita^ tpaa iolien$ poxiea 

FrancoruiDj p. 573. So Radii ^1, (a.», 
1583)^ after speaking of the place of 
the A«cen8}Qfi on the suTnmit of Mount 
QliTetf proceeda, *^ Ad destfam m «o. 
dem iiionte, exiant ruins directi lem- 
pli, in quo ntmnulli volant, duofl Tiros 
post ARcensionem Domini apostoUm 
apparuisae, et diilsne ; VH Galila;!, 
qtiid admiramini? Actor, i, Sedi^tm 
S. Lficas manifeitte sctibat^ in eodem 
loco tIbos fuiiae, nmt video quo funda- 
mentOf in alt urn maf^s retiiotuni id 
rejici debeat," Peregrin, p. 7^. So 
again, ColovjcuAj (a, d, 15UB,) of the 
beautiful Gate of the Temple, shown, 
at his day, at the West of the Haram, 
*' Ego imnen ejuse antiquam Uistm mm 
facile credideHmt sed aliajn poliui et 
recentlorem ; nam tempi urn fundi tua 
evewum, et moniem i^loriah copipla- 
natum esse hist&ricorum ieiftimonio 
ct^miat: ex quo facile coUij^ere eKt 
etiam Portam hone parem cum tempio 
Tuinam pnsMm fuiwe." 1 tin. pp. 301 , 
f * The pilgrims were not all idiot* ; 
Lbcy reasoned , and questioned, and al- 
lowed the authority of Holy Scrip- 
turC| fill! J RK much a» we do. 



[part II* 

former view, they may still be not without their use to 
one who is more intent on turning to good accQunt a 
visit to these sacred scenes, than disposed to ridicule 
and despise feelings which he cannot understand or 
appreciate. The same may be said of other traditionary 
sites in and about the Holy City ; and for himself, the 
writer will not hesitate to avow that he never passed up 
" the Dolorous Way" without looking with deep emotion 
at the " Church of the Flagellation," the " Arch of the 
Ecce Homo," and the "Impression in the Wall;" or 
that he even felt it a pleasure to sojourn and a privilege 
to suffer in the house of Saint Veronica, not because he 
attached any importance to the traditions in question, 
but for reasons which need not be explained, in which 
he hopes that many of his readers would sympathise ; 
nor does he envy the man who could pass by in disgust 
these and such-like mementos — for this at least they are 
— and returning home, not only feel, but write, " enough 
of such absurdities ! ^ " He is not aware that the view 
here advocated is in the slightest degree superstitious ; 
if it be, he humbly trusts that such superstition will 
not be visited more severely than the extreme of ir- 

' Bib. Re«. 1. 344. Dt Wilson 
(Vol. 1. p. 426) shows better feeling; 
and justly asks— «< Who, in such a 

locality, should seek to exdude from 
his view the scenes of that day of otct- 
whelming terror and infinite grace ?" 

Tim Church or group of Churches which is the sub- 
ject of the following pages, was m its original form 
i5rt'<^Hl by the Emperor Constantine for the piouB pur* 
pme of protecting and venerating that Sepulchral cavern 
wMeh wag believed tti have been the very Tomb in which 
tfpt* !^*>ft;, of imr Lord wim laid. The buildings received, 
in accordance with the custom of that period, the name 
of the Martyrium of the Resurrection. They have long 
since disappeared, and others have been in turn erected 
and destroyed on the same site, until at length they have 
been brought to the state in which they now are. But 
during all ages of Christianity, and under all their vicissi- 
tudes, these structures have remained the great centre 
of pilgrimage ; to obtain this site, the best blood and 
wealth of Europe was poured forth in the Crusades, and 
before and after that hopeless struggle to retain Christian 
possession of it, no diflSculties, dangers, or insults, were 
powerful enough to deter the crowds of pilgrims who 
annuaUy went forth to visit the scenes of their Saviour's 
sufferings and triumphant Resurrection. Whether or 
no these sacred events took place upon the spots that 
Vol. II. 9 



[part II, 

were so confidently assigned as their true localities, 
has been of late years very warmly contested. But this 
is not essential to the question. Those who erected 
the buildings, and those who visited them, were alike 
convinced of the genuineness of the traditions; and 
therefore the influence of these buildings upon Eccle- 
siastical Architecture is wholly irrespective of the en- 
quiry into the true localities. And it is as a branch of 
the history of Ecclesiastical Architecture alone that I 
purpose to treat the subject at present. 

But, considering the vast influence that was exer- 
cised during the middle ages by the veneration for 
sacred localities of all kinds, as well as for relics, and 
the numerous Churches which were erected solely for the 
purpose of affording objects of pilgrimage, by distinguish- 
ing such sacred localities and making them as it were a 
mark for pilgrims ; it is evident that the buildings upon 
that spot which was of all others the most sacred, must 
be of exceeding interest in teaching us the principles 
upon which such Martyria were arranged. 

In saying this, I by no means intend to throw doubts 
upon the truth of that tradition which has fixed the site 
of the Holy Sepulchre within the Church in question ; 
for I am myself fully convinced of the genuineness of 
that site. But that question has been treated by much 
abler hands than mine, and requires an investigation of 
the entire topography of the City, which I am not 
qualified to undertake, if even it were included in the 
Architectural question, which it is not, as I have endea- 
voured to shew*. 

' Since these pages were written, an 
attempt has been made by Mr Fergus- 
son, in his Essay on the Topography 

of Jerusalem, to shew that not oolj the 
present site is not genuine, but that the 
Martyrium of Constantine was erected 

en. tm] 



It is very carious and interesting, but at the same 
ttme most melancholy, to trace the process by whieh 
the cravings of the simpleminded and ignorant crowd 
of pUgrims to behold and to touch every spot where 
some event of the sacred narrative took place, led to & 
gradual aceumulation of local appropriation^ wliich has 
ended in a confident indication not only of every place 
where every historical event hapi>enedj but also of places 
eomieeted with the parables, which we have no reason 
to believe were other than fables invented for our edi- 
Sc^ation. A visit to the ** House of the Rich Man," or 
m ^ght of the ** Stone which the builders rejected," are 
vefy Wkpt to excite the wrath and disgust of our better 
informed but somewhat hasty modern travellersj and 
lead them to denounce the Monks and PUgriuis of the 
middle ages as a pack of knaves or credulous fools, and 
the entire body of local tradition as a system of pre- 
meditated imposture, no one portion of which deserves 
the least credit. 

This is an error in the opposite extreme, by which 
much valuable truth is rejected. It is, unfortunately, 
impossible to deny the credulity, or even the imposture 
in many eases ; neither can we wonder at the disgust 
and indignation which must arise in the mind of every 
sincere and right-thinking person at the sight of such a 

in another part of the city, and is no 
other than the present Mosque of Omar. 
B«t this theory is, in my opinion, per- 
fectly untenable, although, if it were 
true, it would not very seriously interfere 
with the following dissertation. How. 
ever, leaving the topographical part of 
the coDtroTCTsy in the hands of my 
friend the author of the Holy City, I 

shall make a note of Mr Fergusson's 
statements as I proceed, and now shall 
merely express my regret that he should 
have permitted himself to fling abuse 
and contempt so unsparingly upon 
preceding authors. His hypothesis is 
certainly quite new, and nobody is 
likely to dispute the credit of it with 



mass of absurdity and falsehood, and of mean and low 
passions and feelings, fostered into full activity in a land 
and in a city that ought to excite far different and 
holier feelings. But however difficult it may be to 
separate the after-growth of credulity from the true 
original tradition around which it has accumulated, it 
must be remembered that it may have preserved to us 
the memory of the spot where some great and leading 
event took place ; and, for example, I am not prepared 
to reject the traditional site of the Sepulchre, because 
I find close to it an altar absurdly pretending to mark 
the very place where the soldiers divided the vestments. 

With respect to the Church which is the immediate 
object of this Essay, Eobinson has well and calmly stated 
the difficulties that at first sight present themselves to 
the mind of a traveller. " The place of our Lord'^s Cru- 
cifixion, as we are expressly informed, was without the 
gate of the ancient city, and yet nigh to the city \ The 
Sepulchre, we are likewise told, was nigh at hand, in a 
garden, in th^ place where Jesus was crucified*. It is 
not, therefore, without some feeling of wonder that a 
stranger unacquainted with the circumstances, on arriv- 
ing in Jerusalem at the present day, is pointed to the 
place of Crucifixion and the Sepulchre in the midst 
of a modem city, and both beneath the same roof. 
This latter fact, however unexpected, might occasion 
less surprise ; for the Sepulchre was nigh to Calvary. 
But beneath the same roof are further shewn... variou3 
other places said to have been connected with the 
history of the Crucifixion, most of which it must have 

' Heb. xiii. 12; John xir. 20. The i Matt xxvii. 32. 
same is a1»o implied in John xix. 17 ; I ' John xix. 41, 42. 

cii- III J tKTAQUDcrroftr remarks. 133 

bean diffieult tu identify, even after the lapse of onlj 
three ceataries*; and particularly so at the present day, 
mllcr the desolation and numerous changes which the 
whole place has undergone ^^" 

The difficulty thus laid down with respect to the 
locAUly, is discussed in another part of this volume. 
The places, which are to this day so confidently and 
eredulously pointed out within this Church, may he 
numerated as follows : (1) the Holy Sepulchre* (2) The 
bdle in the Rock in which the Cross was fixed. (3) The 
Iwim on each side iu which the thieves' crosses were 
&%ed. (4) The spot upon which the Crucifixion or actual 
umiling to the Cross t^K>k place, which the Latins assert to 
tmte been done previomly to the elevation of the Cross. 
(S) The stone upon which the Body was laid after it was 
taken down from the Cross, and where it was wrapped 
tQ linen with spices. (6) The place where the soldiers 
divided the vestments, (7) The spot where the friends 
of our Lord stood afar off during the Crucifixion. (8) 
Where the women stood during the anointing of the 
Body, &c. (9) AV^here the women stood over against 
the Sepulchre. (10) AVhere our Lord appeared to Mary 
Magdalene as a gardener. (11) Where He appeared 
to the Virgin jVIary. (12) The Prison in which He 
was detained while the preparations were making for 
the Crucifixion. (13) The place where the Crosses were 
discovered by Helena. (14) The place where she sat 
while the digging was proceeding for that purpose. Be- 
side these places, which are distinguished by altars and 
especial chapels, or else by stones let into the pave- 
ment, there are some relics removed from other places. 

Bib. Res. Vol. 11 p. ai. 


such as the column of Flagellation, of Mocking, &c. 
Some of the places above enumerated have no connexion 
with the Scripture narration, but belong to legendary ad- 
dition, as N^. 11 and 12. But it will appear in the 
course of the following history, that with the exception 
of (1) The Sepulchre, (2) the hole for the Cross, and 
(13) the place where the Crosses were found, not one 
of the above sacred localities or statums are mentioned 
by any writer previous to the conquest of Jerusalem by 
the Crusaders, at the end of the eleventh century, and 
the hole for the Cross appears for the first time in the 
narration of Arculfus in the ninth century ; for before 
this time we only hear of Golgotha (or Calvary) in ge- 
neral terms, which, as Robinson has observed, is scriptu- 
rally connected with the site of the Sepulchre. The 
place where the Crosses were found belongs to the le- 
gend of their discovery, and thus, after all, with this 
exception, the original tradition of the Sepulchre stands 
alone and separated by many centuries from the heap of 
credulous rubbish which has so disgusted and repelled 
modem travellers and writers, and which has mainly 
induced them to seek arguments for the rejection of 
the Sepulchre itself. Many of the holy places or sta- 
tions probably arose from the mediaeval practice of 
dramatising the sacred narratives, or presenting them 
in the most palpable forms of representation to the 
senses of the ignorant crowd. We may therefore re- 
gard such stations as having been at first established 
as memorials, or altars, for the purpose of fixing the 
succession of leading events more certainly in the me> 
mory, and that in time they came, by an easy transition, 
to be considered as having been placed upon the very 
spots upon which each event happened. 

CH. eel] 



1 mil now proceed to the Arehitectural History of 
Uie Church, the investigation of which has formed the 
8olg*ect of Lectures that I have deUvered at Cambridge 
and at the Royal Institution in London, at various times^ 
but hai* been eonsiderably matured by the information 
which these Lectures have procured for me from the 
ktiidness of many of my friends; and, amongst others, 
from the excellent author of the preceding pages, whose 
knowledge of the locality, and extensive researches into 
the literature of the subject, has been of great service to 
me. I have gladly, therefore, availed myself of Ms kind 
request that I will append thefcic pages to his valuable 
faistorv of the Holy City. 


The buildings on thia site have been repeatedly 
ruined and rebuilt, and otherwise altered from time to 
time ; but the principal changes which we shall have to 
consider may be briefly recapitulated as follows ^ 

The first edifices that were erected to do honour to 
this place were those of Constantine, which were dedi- 
cated in the year 335. These were ruined in the Per- 
sian invasion of Chosroes, in 614, and restored by Mo- 
destus fifteen years afterwards. Jerusalem was taken 
by the Mahometans in 637 ; but the sacred buildings in 
question were not injured by them at that time. In 
1010, they were, however, utterly and purposely de- 

' The History of the Holy City in 
the prerious volume has already de- 
uiled these events as they occurred, but 
of course mixed up with the general 

narrative. My object in the following 
Essay requires that I should separate 
the history of this church entirely from 

the history of Jerusalem. 


stroyed by the order of the Kalif Hakem. Thirty years 
afterwards, permission was obtained by the Emperor 
Constantine Monomachus to rebuild them, which was 
effected under the Patriarch Nicephorus, about fifty 
years before the entry of the Crusaders. 

They, during their reign in Jerusalem, greatly in- 
creased the buildings ; and, after their expulsion, no 
important changes took place until the unhappy fire» 
which, in 1808, so greatly damaged the Church, as to 
necessitate the entire reconstruction of its central por- 
tions. All these successive changes I shall proceed to 
examine at length. 

Each successive restoration of these buildings in- 
troduced changes of form and style, in accordance with 
the methods of building that happened to prevail at the 
moment ; and we have, therefore, according to the 
statement just made, five distinct periods of the building 
to examine, namely, (1) the buildings of Constantine ; 
(2) those of Modestus; (3) those of Monomachus; (4) 
those of the Crusaders ; and, finally, (5) those that at 
present exist. 

Now, although the historians relate that in the Per- 
sian invasion, and at the demolition by the Mahome- 
tans in 1010, the buildings upon this site were, as it 
were, uprooted from the earth ; it must be remembered 
that the destruction of a complex mass of building, like 
that in question, is by no means so easy : nor is it ever 
effected by a hostile force, so as to obliterate the foun- 
dations, for the ruins of the vaults and walls necessarily 
protect the lower part of the buildings. When a building 
is taken down by friendly hands, the materials are care- 
fully removed as fast as they accumulate. But this sys- 
tematic process is not likely to be carried on by men 


working under the infiuence of malicious violence, Tihose 
sole purpose is to dbfigurc, and render untenable, the 
object of their fury. They are satisfied when the perfect 
^Ttictiire is converted into a Tnisshapen heap of ruins. 
But those who, when the storra has passed, return with 
friendly hands to clear away the rubbishy and rebuild 
the fallen walls, are sure to find the original foundations, 
luueh of the lower part of the walls, and many of the 
^nults, still entire. The original plan of the buildings, 
therefore, can never be lost, under such circumstances; 
but it may be departed from during the rebuil^ling, for 
two opposite reasons. In the first place, the funds 
may not be sufficient to reconstruct the whole of the 
buildings* or even to construct the part of them which 
has been selected, on so magnificent a scale as before* 
Or, on the other hand, the funds may be so large as to 
tempt an increase of magnitude and grandeur. It is 
true, however, that buildings founded, as these are, upon 
a rock, require so little depth of foundation-building, 
that they are more easily eradicated, and afford less 
temptation for the employment of old foundations in re- 
building, than structures which are erected upon ground 
that requires deep trenches to be made, and massive 
subwalls to afford a footing for the superstructure. Such 
substructures necessarily escape a hostile destruction. 
In our present building, the original levelling and cut- 
ting dowTi of the rock will be found to afford the best 
traces of the former dispositions. But all these causes 
have influenced, from time to time, the remarkable 
group of buildings which I propose to examine. The 
authorities from which our knowledge of the arrange- 
ments of the buildings are derived, are the numerous 
pilgrimages and chronicles of the middle ages; and, by 



[part II. 

comparing and collating these, and by a constant refer- 
ence to the site, I hope to be able to shew, that a 
tolerably consistent architectural history of these vicis- 
situdes of plan may be drawn out. 

As the Churches in question form an exceedingly 
complex group, and we are necessarily better acquainted 
with the more recent structures, than with the older 
ones, we must take the history in a reverse order, and 
begin with the fourth period, namely, by describing the 
whole as it stood from the time of the Crusaders, until 
the fire of 1808 ^ which however has not affected the 
plan of the buildings. 

The Church, in its general plan, may be described 
as a Romanesque cruciform structure, having a circular 
nave to the West, a North and South transept, and a 
short Eastern limb or choir terminated by an apse. An 
aisle rims round the circular nave, on three of its sides. 
Also there is an aisle at the end of each transept, and 
on the East and West sides of each transept ; and an 
aisle passes round the apse, and has chapels radiating 
from it, in the usual manner. Projecting from the Ekwt 
end, but lying to the South of the central line of the 
edifice, is a chapel, termed the chapel of S. Helena. 
The Eastern aisle of the South transept is occupied by 
chapels in two floors, the upper floor having the chapel 
of the Crucifixion. The principal, and at present the 
only, entrance to the Church, is at the South front of 
this Southern transept. Moreover, the triforium of the 

1 Plate 2 is a Plan, and Plate 3 a 
longitudinal section of the Church and 
its chapels as they appeared during the 
fourth period ; this plan is based upon 
a most elaborate survey, for which I 

am indebted to the kindneas of my es- 
rellent friend J. Scoles, Esq., who laid 
it down in the year 1825. In Appendix 
(A) I have explained my aathorities 
for the sections at length. 



Church is an entire floor, extending over the whole 
of the side-aideSj and was, on its first completion, ac- 
cessible from one end to the other, and, indeed, £dl 
round the Church ; but was subsequently obstructed by 
party oralis, erected for the accommodation of some of 
the Tarious sects who have divided the Church amongst 

The circular nave or Rotunda was wholly erected with 
eircular arches, but the Eastern part of the Church with 
pointed arches; having, however, round arches in the 
windows, according to the usual practice at the early 
period of the pointed style. In the centre of the Ro* 
tunda is placed the principal object, for the protection 
and veneration of which the entire stnicture was plan- 
ned; and before I proceed to the detailed description of 
that structure, I must investigate the arrangement and 
hfetory of the Sepulchral Cavern, which had so vast an 
influence upon it. 



Lv the centre of the Rotunda, as I have already 
said, there stands a small Chapel or edicula, twenty-six 
feet in length, and eighteen in breadth, having its in- 
terior divided into two small apartments, the inner one 
of which is said to be the actual Sepulchral Chamber 
'* hewn out of a rock," in which the body of our Lord 
was deposited. Its present appearance, which is, at first 
sight, that of an artificial construction of masonry, is 
explained by saying that the architects of Constantine 
levelled the ground all round the Cave, leaving that 


portion of rock, within which the chamber had been ex- 
cavated, to stand up as an isolated block, and that the 
exterior and interior of this block has been cased with 
ornamental architecture, so as to give it its present 
artificial appearance. 

To enable my readers to judge of the probability 
of this account, I must digress into a short examinar- 
tion of the arrangement and form of the Jewish and 
Roman Sepulchres; for it must be remembered, that the 
Sepulchre in question, originally formed for a wealthy 
Jew, "his own new tomb," "wherein never man be- 
fore was laid," was altered into its present condition 
by a Roman emperor, more than three centuries after- 

Every traveller bears witness to the innumerable 
rock-sepulchres which exist in the valleys round about 
Jerusalem. The general mode of construction is, in the 
words of Robinson, that "a door in the perpendicular 
face of the Rock, usually small and without ornament, 
leads to one or more small chambers excavated from 
the rock, and commonly upon the same level with the 
door. Very rarely are the chambers lower than the 
door, the walls in general are plainly hewn ; and there 
are occasionally, though not always, niches or resting- 
places for the dead bodies. To obtain a perpendicular 
face for the door, advantage was sometimes taken of a 
former quarry ; or an angle was cut in the rock with 
a tomb in each face ; or a square niche or area was 
hewn out in a ledge, and then tombs excavated in 
all three of its sides. All these expedients are seen 
particularly in the northern part of the valley of Je- 
hoshaphat, and near the Tombs of the Judges. Many 
of the doors and fronts of the tombs along this valley 




•re now broken away, leaving the whole of the interior 

But the interior arrangementB are minutely de* 
scribed by the accurate Sehultz, as follows. " Amongst 
the Sepulchres of Jerusalem we find two modes of 
arrangement, which, however, resemble each other in 
one respect^ that they are both divided into two parts. 
A low door gives admission to a small vestibule, within 
which a similar door, opposite to the first, leads to the 
£«pulehral chamber. Thus far the two kinds are alike ; 
but their difference is that in one, the niches (or ioeuH^ 
are cut out of the rock with their longest dimension 
fmrjjemiicnlar to the sides of the apartment, as in the 
plan %. A. Thus a moderately sized chamber is suffi- 
cient to afford room for ten or twelve bodies. 


Pig. a 


In the second, narrower niches (or loculi) are hewn 
out of the two sides of the cavern, on either side one, 
having the long dimension parallel to the side of the 
apartment, (as in fig. B.), and in these either the body 
was laid or a sarcophagus placed. The side of the 
room opposite to the door has very' frequently a little 
niche that would receive the body of a child, and often 
a place for a lamp. This latter mode of arrangement. 

' RobiiuoD, Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 

' I employ this word loculus as a 
conTenirnt general term for the re- 
ceptacle of the body in a sepulchral 

structure, whether that receptacle be a 
grave, a chest, a cavity in the rock, or 
any other of the forms that are to be 


which occurs amongst others in the Tombs of the Kings, 
was, in my opinion, reserved for the sepulchres of rich 
and distinguished persons*." 

It appears, from this description, that the dead were 
always deposited in a cavity hewn out of the sides of 
the chamber, but that in one case they were laid at 
right angles to the side of the room in a long deep 
loculua, and in the other case, parallel to the side of 
the room in a shallow loculus. 

These two classes of receptacles are to be found 
in the rock-sepulchres of other nations. The first kind, 
however, is by no means so common as the second. 
The Egyptians appear to have occasionally employed 
such cavities for the deposit of their mmnmies, and 
they occur in the tombs of Petra. Later, in the Chris- 
tian catacombs of Rome, the discovery of a few loeuli 
of this form in the cemetery of St Ciriaca, is mentioned 
as a most unusual arrangements 

But the second position of the body, which b by far 
the most usual amongst all the nations of antiquity who 
employed the sepulchral chamber, is the one which 
interests us the most, as it was undoubtedly the form 
of the so-called Holy Sepidchre'. 

It is scarcely necessary for me to remind my readers 
that the Jews simply laid their dead in the tomb, 
swathed up in linen, with aromatics, but without em- 
ploying either the elaborate embalmment of the Egyp- 
tians, or their complex coffins. Those Romans who did 

* Schultz, Jerusalem, p. 07> 

' Monumenti primitivi delle Arti 

Christian!, Rome, 1844, pp. 110, 225. 
' Throughout thin dissertation I 

employ the term " Holy Sepulchre'* to 

designate that which is exhibited under 
that title in the church in questUNi, 
without necessarily auuming it to be 
the genuine sepulchre of the gospda. 

cm* III.J 



not bum the corpse^ deposited it in a coffin, or stone 
Siireophag^, which was closed mth a lid ; and this was 
the practice of the Greeks* But it is also knowti that 
the earlj Greeks, EtrurianSj and other nationsj deposited 
their demd> dressed in the armour or robes of state which 
thej wore when H>Tng, and simply Ijiid them thus upon 
II stone or bronze couch, protecting them» like the Jews, 
from spoliatiou or from wild beasts only by securtug, 
and sometimes concealing, the doors of the sepulchral 

It is evident that the form and arrangement of these 
sepulchral chambers must have been designed with 
especial reference to the manner in which the bodies 
of their future tenants were intended to be deposited 
witblEi them. In many instances the sarcophagus, couch, 
or otJier resting-place, is hewn out of the solid rock, and 
thus nii^t have been left standing out from the floor, 
or projecting from the sides, when this apartment was 
first excavated. When the stone couch was employed, 
its surface was either level, or merely hollowed out an 
inch or two in depth, to afford a resting-place; and 
a raised part is often left at the head, to serve as a 
pillow, or a round cavity cut for the same purpose. 
Such couches are found in the Etruscan rock-tombs, and 
in those of Greece and Asia Minor. I am not now 
speaking of the stone benches in such tombs, which 
ser\'ed as resting-places, or shelves, for the cinerary urns, 
&c. In the Jovish tombs of Syria, however, the recess 
in the side of the chambers appears to have been always 
employed. But even this admits of great variety*. In 

* Many of the rock Hepulchres 
aroand Jerusalem belonged to Romans 
or Greeki, Pagan or Christian, the 

inhabitants of the city after its oc- 
cupation by the Romans, and it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to distinguish the 



[part II. 

its simplest form, it is a rectangular opening or cavity 
in the face of the rocky side of the tomb, the bot- 
tom of it being usually higher than the floor of the 
chamber; and its length and depth just sufficient to 
admit of a human body being deposited in it. Often 
its upper surface or soffit is curved into an arch, 
which is either segmental or semicircular; and this, 
too, is its usual form when a sarcophagus is deposited 
in it. 

Loculi ^ of this description are sometimes cut in the 
sides of the chamber, one above the other, in two or 
more tiers. 

Lastly, the bottom of the cavity is often excavated 
so as to form a sarcophagus, or stone-coffin, so deep as 
to allow a horizontal stone to be placed upon its edges ; 
thus the arrangement practically resembles a sarcopha- 
gus placed in an arched recess sufficiently deep to en- 
close it completely. 

As a Syrian example of this latter form, I may 
quote certain rock tombs that exist near Khan Kes- 
rawan, between Sidon and Tyre; for the drawings of 
one of which I am indebted to Mr Scoles. 

Fig. X is a plan of this tomb, and fig. Y a section. 
As in Dr Schultz's description, wc have first a low 
door-way, two feet nine inches square, which was for- 
merly closed by a stone-door, the sockets for whose 

genuine JewUh sepulchre from the 
latter. But to this latter class appear 
to belong the catacombs on the Hill of 
Offence south of Jerusalem, which are 
said to resemble the tombs of Asia 
Minor, and some of which have Greek 
inscriptions. Also some at least of the 
architecturally decorated catacombs and 

tombs, of which more below. 

^ The only example of uroophagi 
at Jerusalem is in the so-called *•* Tomb 
of the Kings,** wherein they were placed 
in semicircularly arched recesses in tbe 
sides of the apartment The- general 
rule of the Jews appears not to have 
been to employ coffins of any kind. 


pivota ^till remain (K). The form of this m a perfeetlj 
mn^k and unomamented square, as shewn in elevation 

Fig. X 

i i >i i 

Ptff. Y 

in fig. Z. This admits to a little vestibule, C, the floor 
of whieh is sunk, probably to receive moisture; and 
from which a second entrance, opposite to, and rather 
lower than, the first, admits to the sepulchral chamber 
D, the dimensions of which are but five feet three 
inches in length, and about four in width. It is only 
four feet nine high, and is flat-ceiled. Each of three 
sides, however, has a sepulchral loculus, E, F, F, for the 
reception of a body. As the three are alike in form, 
the elevation of one of them, G, in fig. Y, corresponds 
to the section of the other, H, in the same figure. 
Vol. II. 10 


An arch, G, pierced in the side of the chamber, is 
the opening to the locnlus ; and the lower margin of 
this arch is two feet above the floor of the chamber. 
But at the bottom of this arch a sunk receptacle (as 
at H) is formed, eighteen inches in depth, to receive 
the body, as shewn by the section ; and herein lies the 
principal difference between this sepulchral chamber and 
Schultz's second class of Jerusalem tombs. (Fig. B, 
above). They each have their antechamber and recessed 
loculi ; but in the latter class there is no hollow or chest 
sunk in the bottom of the arch, so that the body was 
simply deposited thereon. 

In the present example, as no ledge appears at the 
back or sides of the loculus to afford a resting-place for 
a horizontal slab to cover the bodies, it may be inferred 
that they were left uncovered ; and that the stone-door 
of the outer chamber was the only means by which the 
sepulchre was secured, unless indeed the vertical arches 
of the loculi were closed mth masonry. 

The arch of the loculus opposite to the door is nar- 
rower than the others, on account of the dimensions 
of the apartment. But as the cavity expands behind 
the opening, it is still long enough to receive the corpse 
of a full-grown man, but not if enclosed in a coffin. 

Tliis form of a loculus occurs in various other dis- 
tricts. Texier^ has given drawings of a rock-chamber 
at Nacoleia, in Asia Minor, the general arrangement 
of which is similar to this, but it has no vestibule, and 
the rude ornament of the doorway shews it to bel<Hig 
to a very early period ; while another sepulchre at the 
same place, with a similar doorway, has stone couches 

Texier, Description de TAsie Mineur, PL 57. 

K. m.} 



tgaiftut the walk in lieu of these arched recesses luid 
square chests of stone. He has also given engra\ing8 
of ftnatho* sepulehi*al excavation at Nacoleia, with these 
arched recesses, the front of which has a deep portico 
with rude eolumns. 

At Urgur® a chamber occurs which has on each 
of three sides an oblong rectangular opening, about 
eighteen inches from the floor, instead of an arch. The 
ofie opposite to the door is provided with a deeply 
souk cavitj% like those under the arebes of fig. Y, above. 
But the lateral openings have only a shallow sinking 
at the bottom of their recesses* A rude early portico 
and atrium, of slightly Egyptian character, m in front 
of this mvem. 

The arched recess, with the hollow chest or utone 
coffin below, (as in figs, X, Y, Z) abounds in the Chris- 
tian catacombs both of Rome and of Naples, where 
it appears to have been reserved for the richer or 
more distinguished persons. The fortunate discovery 
of an inscription attached to one of these ^, in which 
the monument itself is mentioned, has taught us that 
its proper name was arcosolium. In these, however, 
the cavity is covered by an horizontal slab, which is 
supported by a narrow ledge at the back and sides, 
and rests in front upon the front wall of the loculus^. 


* Tcxicr, PU. 1*2, 1*3. 

* The ioscription is preserved in the 
jwilUfw Rondanini at Rome (Mon. 
Prim. d. Ani Christiani, p. 85.) The 
fgatn emplojed the word solium for 
the urea, or sarcophagiis, in which they 
enckMed the dead body, and the Chris- 
tians applied the same term to the chest 
in which relics of their martyrs were 

kept under an altar. (lb. p. 96.) Solium 
is also a balh^ wnicb a sarcophagus re- 
sembles. The compound word Arco- 
solium very fitly represents the peculiar 
form of sepulchral monuments to which 
it was applied. 

* 3Ir Wilde, in his Narrative of a 
Voyage to Madeira, &c. ( Dublin, 1840, 
Vol. II. p. 123) has paid particular 



[part II. 

Its use was not confined to the Christians; for in the 
sepulchres of the Villa Corsina, near Rome, there are 
some examples, some of which, it is true, have the 
solium occupied by cinerary urns ^ but in others it is 
plainly intended for an entire corpse. 

It will of course be understood that the difference 

attention to the forms and arrange- 
ments of sepulchres ; for which his pro- 
fessional and scientific studies as a 
surgeon seem to have given him an 
especial predilection. In his journey 
from Tjre to Sidon, he explored the 
tombs, represented in figs. X, Y, Z. 
He describes them as an extensive 
series of catacombs, cut in the face 
of the white sandstone rock. His 
view of the interior of one of these 
chambers exactly corresponds to Air 
Scoles' architectural drawings ; but Mr 
Wilde says, ^< The moment I entered 
the first of these tombs (exhibited in 
the engraving), I was struclc not only 
with the resemblance, but the exact 
similarity they bore to the Egyptian 
catacombs, especially to those of Sack- 
ara and Alexandria. Like them, they 
have a low square doorway, opening 
into a chamber, varying in size from 
ten to fifteen feet square, containing 
three horizontal sarcophagi, or places 
for bodies, one on each side ; the door- 
way, or entrance, fills up the fourth 
side, the whole carved out of the solid 
rock, which like that of £gypt is soft, 
and easily excavated.** Of the caU- 
combs of Sackara he says, *' This tomb, 
to which the Arabs give the name of 
Bergami, is one of vast extent and 
matchless elegance of design and finish ; 
all carved with the greatest precision 
out of the solid rock. Its outer hall or 
apartment is of great size, and adorned 

with massive pillars on either hand. 
Off the sides of this portion of the 
tomb are a series of small chambers, 
their walls covered with hieroglyphics : 
in form they are for the most part 
square, and have in general three niches 
for the bodies; one opposite to the 
door, and one on either side. Tw» 
square wells lead down to a great depth 
into a lower tier of sepulchral chambcn, 
similarly coated with phonetic writing.** 
(Vol. I. p. 872.) Upon comp a ring the 
accounts of different traveUers and 
writers, I cannot, however, aatisiy my- 
self how far the similarity of the Egyp- 
tian loculus to the Sjrriao is to be 
interpreted. The question respecting 
which 1 should be exceedin^y grateful 
for exact information is this : Does the 
Arcosolium, in its exact form and 
arched opening, as in the Christian 
catacombs of Rome, and in the Syrian 
tomb of the above woodcuts, exist In 
the tombs of Egypt ? Vide Wilkinson. 
Manners and Customs, Vol. ii. fai 
series, p. 397 ; Pococke, Vol. i. p. M; 
Clarke, Vol. in. p. 286, 4to editioB. 
Clarke says distinctly of the traall 
chambers of the Alexandrian cataeoaili» 
that <' each contains on either side ef 
it, except that of the entrance, a i 
for the reception of a mummy t 
chambers are about nine feet aquan. 

* See Bartoli, Ant Septdcri, tav. 
9, 11, 13. 





iween the arcosoHuvi and a sarcophagus placed in a 
niche or isolated, is simply that in the former the solinm 
^k a part of the structure, very often indeed part of the 
n||Oli^ rock, and therefore it shews its front only ; hut 
the sarcophagus is an isolated chest, and often move- 
_ib]e, and has three finished sides at least, and when 
H|ot placed against the wall, is ornamented on four sides. 
B The arcosolium is plainly the prototype of tlie me- 
" diaeval monuments that are constructed in the side^walls 
I of churches. 

I In the Etruscan sepulchres there is no example of 

^^ genuine '^arcosolium/' When a sarcophagus is em- 
\ ployed, it is always placed against the walls of the 
^Upattment. or isolated^ but never fitted into a recess 
^lather arched or square, and the same may be said of 
the iitoDe-couehes. But recesses, both arched and rect- 
angular, without the hollow chest, are sunk in the 
sides of the Etruscan chambers, and in the vertical 
£EU^es of rock, for the reception of bodies 2. 

* The descriptions which travellers 
give ( without drawings ) are so anibigu- 
oi», chat I cannot affirm that the recess 
always occurs in the Jewish tombs. 
Scholtz seem£ to imply this in the de- 
scription I baye quoted above, in which 
case he must be supposed to mean that 
the tombs near Jerusalem in which 
the recess does not occur, belonged to 
foreigners. Doubdan, in the following 
paange, clearly states that the body 
was either deposited in a stone chest, 
■nffidently deep to admit of a horizon. 
tal ooTcr, or else simply laid upon the 
surface of a kind of altar left in the 
rodu, and hollowed about an inch. But 
he »ys nothing about the recess in the 
floor of which these receptacles were 

formed; and similarly Clarke, Vol. ii. 
p. 252, 4to edition, comparing the tombs 
of Telmessus with those of the Hill of 
Offence, south of Jerusalem, is equally 
ambiguous. I must leave this question 
to be answered by actual observers ; for 
as the tombs of Asia Minor are of both 
kinds, as already stated, it is impossible 
to say which he alludes to. The draw- 
ing of one of these tombs in the Hill of 
Offence, which is given by Zuallaido, 
and copied by Cotovicus, represents a 
simple rectangular loculus, hoUowed 
in the side of the apartment, like 
those of the ordinary Christians in the 
Roman catacombs. But more of this 

'-'' Some of these tombs (on the 



[part II. 

Besides the ordinary kinds of single chambers which 
Schultz has explained, there are at Jerusalem many 
of a more complicated and remarkable construction, 
which have been described with more or less precision 
by travellers. They resemble the simple chambers in 
the forms of their receptacles (or loculi) for the dead, 
and differ from them only in consisting of a number 
of apartments connected in various ways by passages 
and staircases, instead of having merely a single cham- 
ber with its vestibule ; and they are moreover dis- 
tinguished by an ornamental fagade of architecture, 
the style of which is, in them all, Greek, and often 
with a strange intermixture of Egyptian principles, the 

North of Jenisalem) consist of simple 
low-arched grottos, of an oblong form, 
leading fVora the antechambers. There 
are also others similar to those of Tel- 
messus, Laodicea and Tortosa, having 
ledges at the sides ; and again, others 
having niches for the bodies, repre- 
senting the segment of a dome (arch ?) 
like those in the royal sepulchres, 
( Tombs of the Kings)." Wilde, Vol. ii. 
p. 308. Of the southern tombs, however, 
namely, those on the Mountain of Of- 
fence, mentioned by Clarke, with the 
Greek inscriptions, Mr Wilde (Vol. ii. 
p. 336) says they invariably correspond 
to the type of the eastern tomb, having 
horizontal benches for the bodies ranged 
along the sides. 

^* Les Juifs, au moins les plus riches 
et considerables, avoient coustume de 
choisir des leur vivant le lieu de leur 
sepulture, qui estoit pour Tordinaire un 
petit cabinet ou caveau, quails faisoient 
taillcr a la pointe du ciscau dans quel- 
que rochc vivc, de la grandeur d*un corps 

de six ik sept pieds en quairtf, et Tentr^ 
fort petite. Dans ce caveau ou cabinet 
ils faisoient tailler 2k costd et de b 
mesme roche un cercueil, creui^ avee on 
petit relais a un bout, pour hautser on 
peu la teste, de la mesme longneot de 
six ik sept pieds, et environ deux de 
largeur, ou ayant mis le corps mort en- 
velopp^ de son suaire et couvert d^une 
table de pierre, ils bouchoient la poite 
d*une autre grande pierre qu*ils faisoi* 
ent sceller avec du ciment, et Tappuj* 
oient av^c une autre plus petite. 

"hes autres se contentoient, aulieade 
cercueil, de laisser un banc de la mcmt 
roche en forme d*autel, creua^ seulemait 
d*un poulce, sur le quel on estendoit 
le corps, sans etre couvert d^une autit 
pierre. Voili la forme de U pUn 
grande partie des sepulchres de ce 
pays-Ik, et particulierement de celuy de 
Nostre Seigneur,** &c. Doubdaa, le 
Voyage de la Terre Sainte, p. 65, Sad 
ed. 1661. ( He began his travek Nov. 
26th, 1651.) 



txaci period of whicli it is hy no means easy to de- 
terRiinc The names given to many of these larger 
icpulchrcB have plainly no authority, such as, the Tombs 
of the Prophets, of the Judges, of the apostle Jameg, 
and of Jeho^haphat^ and others* 

The tombs so dtstinguished by names, are not the 
only oncai of this kind near JerusRlem. Robinson (for 
exumple) describes another in a state of decay, at some 
distance S,E, of the Tombs of the Kings, and states 
that ftevend others of a similar character may be traced^. 

For the clueidatiou of my subject, I shall venture 

Co Imy before my readers a description of two of the 

hrger dass of tombs, namely, of the Tomb of the 

Judgtis, as a specimen of the excavated catacomb ; and 

^if the Tomb of Absalom as a monolith. 

^y * BUm mad drsiwlDga of the T<tmbi 
of dbe Ringi maj be fciunil in vimidus 
wOTtft, M r Wtlde f V'ol . 1 1 . p, :m) ) h45t 
BcMribed ihtm at leti/^th, &»d with 
tosne pATtiruUrs omitted bj othet tra- 
vtUeni^ ** There arc no troughs or mtoi 
m M&f of the chambeTa of this iubietn.- 
vetm fTuusoIram, but simply ledg:e3 cir 
nde« like tho«e of the regal sepal- 
ckvo in Alia 31m(iir." He proceeds 
to describe mitiyiely the sarcophagi. 
TW b«e plan appears to be th^t 
9i r«ttienr«td, which ii published 
fa RolitQMKi. Vol. t, p. 534>. CassAji 
jlfvcs plMO* and acctions^ which^ com^ 
pftt«d vtth tho«e of more retetit travel- 
las, cpipear to be sadly drei^ned up 
imm FCTj ftCaiitj and macoitate notcff. 
S«« aM Bartlett, p. I2lf, and mojit of 
ibt pktinrtque works on Jerusidcm. 

Cau&a ha4 alao glvet) plooi of the 
tombs of the apostle Jame^ «nd of Je- 
ho<iaphat ; but I regret to my thzvt the*c 
lira* i 1^1^ of C asf ftw ex h i bi c c v ery symp- 
tom of havmg beet) in ad e up froq) very 
ha^ty ^ketchei. A plan and deseriptioii 
of the tomba of the prophets k given 
by Lord Nygent, in hi» " Landa Clas- 
si cai »n d S^acred . " Sh n tv dea eri be« the 
ro<^k'sepylchre» of Latikea (the ancient 
Laodicea), and addft that those near 
Jebilee, Torto«a, and i he Serpent Foun- 
tain, together with those thnt are com* 
monly called the Roynl Sepulchre* at 
Jetu !U I em } ... are of th e I i ke w cwr k m ansbip 
and contrivance with the t^r^jfttv of 
LoHki^m (Shaw'* Travels, Second Ed. 
p, ^fi3). Consult aUo "^^ Aifincoun, 
Hbtoirede TArt pa? lea MonumentK.'' 
» Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. KW, 





The remarkable catacomb which is known by the 
name of the Tombs of the Judges, is an excellent ex- 
ample of the various modes in which the niches, or 
places of deposit for the dead, were arranged, when a 
considerable number were to be provided for, and a ' 
series of chambers formed vdth due regard to sym- 

The kindness of my friend, Mr Scoles, to whom I 
have so often had the pleasure of referring in these 
pages, has enabled me to lay before my readers his 
complete architectural elucidation of this hypogeum^ 
which, as far as I know, has never been attempted 
before, although the tomb itself is commonly referred to. 

Plate 4 contains a plan and two sections which will 
completely explain the whole'. 

Fig. 13 is a vertical section of the I Mr Wilde (Vol. ii. p. 306) 

whole, from West to East, and it shews 
that there are two floors in the eastern 

In flg. 13, which is a general plan» 

scribes a tomb which appears to be 
the one in question. He tella ns that 
each of the deep locnli !■ slightly 
arched at top, as Mr Scolea* drawing 

the lower floor is laid down in dotted shews, and adds that each hat a square 

lines, and the section in fig. 12 is I groove hewn in the rock nmnd the 

taken in the centre of the upper plan • entrance of it, for the reoeptioo of a 

along the line A, B, D, while the door. They are more probaUj far a 

section of the lower chambers is taken single slab to be cemented againat the 

also along their central line E...K, front of it. These square iinkinga are 

which is necessarily considerably to the ' indicated in the drawings. 

North of the sectional line of the upper *■* The bodies must haTO been pot 

chambers. ' into these holes without any i 

Fig. 14 is a transverse section of the ' I would say that, firom the appearance 

principal chamber B, and its southern j presented by the hewn auifaec^ the 

chamber C, taken from North to South, j rock was first roughly cat with an in* 

The same letters of reference are em- ; strument in the form of a pick, with a 

ployed in all the figures. flattened point, and then amootlicd by 

B The entrance faces the West^, and ha«i a veatibtilc 

|V|A) thirteen feet by nine feet, the opening of which in 

\ ^tpui in width and height to the Yestibiile itf^etf, and 

ii anniented with a simple arcfaitnive moulding but- 

mauBted hy a Greek-looking pediment having twroteria 

«t the corners and in the centre. Within is a simaU 

door of natrow proportions^, also decorated with an 

kBrcliitraTe and pediment. 

^B This door opens to a chamber (B) very nearly square, 
flmfSVlj feet in depth, nineteen across from North to 
r pttWliy and eight feet one inch in height. Its ceiling i» 

petfectly flat. 
1^ The North jqde is seen (in elevation) in %. 12. It 
^M oceupieil by two tiers of receptacles or loctdi, the 
^Vection of which is ehewn on the left hand of the trans- 
^¥erse section, fig, 14, These drawingj^ will yhew that tlie 
^■wer tier eonsista of seven plain cavities excavated in 
^fee rock, on the level of the floor, and perpendicularly 
to the side of the room, and each seven feet in length, 
two feet nine inches in height, and one foot eight, inches 
wide. The upper tier is formed of three arched re- 
cesses, the floors of which are raised three feet nine 
inches above that of the room. Their arch is seg- 
mental, and they are two feet six inches deep, so. that 
each of them would receive either a swathed corpse or 
a small sarcophagus. 

The back of each recess is also pierced by two deep 
loculi rather narrower than those below, but in other 

a. mJ] 



•ome fine-grained tool, like a comb- 
pointed chisel. A similar appearance is 
exhibited on some of the rocks but of 
vhJcb are formed the sepulchral cham- 
bers in Egypt.** WHde,Vol. ii. p. 308. 
* This entrance is engraved by 

Caiisa8,(with some inaccuracies) under 
the title of Tomb of the Kings of 
Judah, and his representation is copied 
in the Pictorial Bible, and in Kitto*8 
Pictorial Sunday.Book, No. 932. 
3 6.9" high and 2.6" wide. 


respects similar. Thus it appears that this system 
unites the two methods of depositing the body which, 
as already stated, are usually employed in this neigh- 
bourhood, namely, the long and shallow loculus with a 
raised floor, upon which the body was laid parallel to 
the side of the room, and the narrow and deep loculus 
in which it was laid at right angles to the side of the 

This room (with the exception of a deep loculus 
opening to some smaller ones which are seen in the 
North- West corner,) contains no other receptacle. But 
in the middle of its South and of its East side is a narrow 
door^ each leading to a room about eight feet square, 
and containing (as the plan shews) three deep loculi on 
each of three sides. But these two rooms differ in other 
respects. The Southern room, the floor of which is two 
feet lower than that of the great room, is shewn in 
section at the right end of fig. 14. This section also 
exhibits an elevation of the eastern side of the room ; 
and as the southern and eastern sides of the room are 
arranged in exactly the same manner, the section of 
the southern side, compared with the elevation of the 
eastern which is close to it, completely explains the 
forms and depths of the loculi. The lower ones, three 
on a side, are similar in form and dimension to those 
of the great room. Above them is an arched receptacle 
of the same depth as those of the great room, but it is 
lower, and has no deep loculi pierced at its back. The 
room itself is only six feet six inches high. 

The Eastern room D, Ls arranged in a totally dif- 
ferent manner as far as its upper loculi are concerned ; 

' 4'. 8 ' high, r. «" wide. 





but a^ its djiiiensions are aliotit the sAtne ns those of the 
Soatheni room C, and its lower loculi arranged in the 
s&me mmmer, three on a side, the two rooms appear 
ttjiirtlj alike on the plan^. 

But the section of the Eastern room (fig. 1) shews 
that at the level of the upper loculi the aides of the 
room are set back ^ two feet nine inches^ so tks to allow 
ispiiee for four loculi instead of three on each side, in 
adflition to the space in front, which may be supposed 
sl»a to have been intended for the reception of bodies 
hud parallel to the walls, as in the arched reecs&ea of 
the upper tier in tlie rooms already described. 

It remains only to describe the lower floor, of which 
the plan is shewn in dotted lines in fig. 13, and the section 
in fig* 12- In the North-east comer of the great room B, 
a staircase leads down to a small vestibule E, whicli has 
more of architectural arrangement about it than any 
other apartment of this catacomb ; for there is a sunk 
recess on three of its sides, headed by a segmental arch 
which reaches to the top of the room, and the ceiling 
springs from these arches in a slightly domical form, 
every other apartment in the catacomb being flat- 
roofed. These recesses are solely intended for ornament, 
for they are too shallow and too small to receive bodies, 
being only a foot in depth and four feet long, and the 
apartment itself including them is but six feet across, 
and about five feet high. 

^ The loculi of the South room are 
I . 4" wide, R*. 1" deep, and 3'. 3" high, 
and those of the West room 1'. 10" wide, 
8 . T deep, and 2'. 6" high. 

^ The section only shews this setting 
back on the eastern side of the room, 
but the same contrivance is adopted 

on the North and on the South sides 
of the room, so that there are four 
loculi in the upper tier of each side, 
making, in addition to those below, 
twenty-one loculi in this apartment. 
The floor of the upper tier is only 3'. 5" 
above the floor of the room. 


The north and south sides have each one opening 
eonununicating with a deep narrow loculus. Its east 
side has a low door, only two feet six high, which opens 
to the sepulchral chamber F. The floor of the sepul- 
chral chamber is two feet six inches below the sill of 
this door, and similarly the floor of the vestibule is two 
feet three inches below the sill of its door of entrance. 

In this sepulchral chamber another mode of distri- 
bution is adopted, for there is but one tier of loculi. 
The chamber (eight feet ten inches square, and six 
feet two inches high), has on each of three sides an 
arched recess (G, H) forming a loculus of the shallow 
kind, the bottom of which is two feet six inches from 
the floor of the chamber. The back of each is pierced 
with three or with foiu* deep narrow loculi, as in the 
first chamber B. 

The eastern arch A, has also, as the plan shews, 
sepulchral recesses pierced on its north and south sides. 

This lower story appears to be a complete sepulchre 
in itself, having its own vestibule. It is very well worth 
observation, that of the four principal chambers of this 
catacomb no two are arranged precisely in the same 
manner, and that great pains appear to have been taken 
to distribute the loculi with regard to symmetry and 
variety in design. Whether the arched recesses of the 
upper tiers were intended for the reception of bodies or 
for sarcophagi it is difl5cult to say, but they appear too 
short for sarcophagi. 

The staircase in the south-western corner of the 
principal apartment B, leads down to an unfinished 




^ ^ 








. I 


iiu] TOMB OF ABSALOM. 157 


To complete this sketch of the Jewish Bepulchres, I 
aust iwlvert to the isolated tombs, koowa by the name» 
Absalom aod Zachariah* ivhich are placed on the east 
le of J^rtisalem, immediately opposite to the southern 
ttrcniity of the Temple Area, as shewn in the general 
of the town. They are, in the words of the accu* 
lie Rohin^K^n, '' situated in the narrowest part of the 
JaUmy of Jehosaphat, where a shelf, or ledge of rook, 
ad*t do^Ti from the East, and terminates in an almost 
^ndieular face just over the bed of the KJdron/' 
Tomb of Zaehariah is on the South, and that of 
^bs^om about 200 feet to the North of it, and slightly 
re^tirard. Each tomb is square, and stands North and 
>uth- Tlie drawings will completely explain the tomb 
of Absalom, at least as far as it rises above the ground, 
for its lower part is now buried to a considerable height 
in a mass of debris and of stones, which have been 
cast at it by the Jews, who, believing it to be really the 
Pillar of Absalom, (mentioned in 2 Samuel xviii. 18), 
have been in the habit, from time immemorial, of shew- 
ing their horror at his rebellious conduct by casting a 
stone and spitting as they pass by it^ 

The lower part, however, is a mass of solid rock 
about twenty feet square, which has been completely 
detached from the cliff behind it, by working away a 
passage ten feet in width at the sides, and nine at the 
back, so as to leave the tomb standing in a square 
recess hewn out of the cliff, as shewn in the plan and in 
the section. This square mass has a pilaster at each 

Holy City, p. 376, Ut Edit. 


angle, and a quarter colunin attached to it» and also 
two half columns between; these columns have looks 
capitals, and the pilasters Greek-lbdking . ant»-capitals. 
Their bases are buried in the rubbish. They sustain an 
entablature of a singularly mixed character; its frieze 
and architrave are Doric and have triglyphs and guttsB. 
The metope is occupied by a circular disk or shield. 
But in lieu of the regular cornice, there is one which 
resembles the Egyptian cornice, consisting of a deep 
and high cavetto, and a bold torus below it. The 
exact altitude of this lower story cannot be ascertained 
for want of excavation, but IVIr Scoles estimates it at 
about twenty-five feet ; above it is a square attic, rather 
more than seven feet in height, and surmounted by a 
simple cornice. 

Upon this again is placed a circular attic, and the 
whole is finished by a peculiarly formed roof, which is 
exactly delineated in Plates 5 and 6, as well as the 
profiles and details of the architecture. 

The parts above the Egyptian cornice ore built of 
masonry, but below that line the whole is worked out 
of one piece of rock. The four fronts are of the 
same size and design, but the front towards the city 
is better executed than the others. 

In the rocky part a chamber is formed, of which the 
plan and section is given in the drawings, as far as Mr 
Scoles could ascertain them ; the lower part of the 
chamber being unfortunately so encumbered with rub- 
bish, and with the stones that have been thrown into 
it, that its lower arrangements and altitude cannot be 
made out. It is not quite eight feet square, is placed 
nearer to the South side than to the others, by which 
room is obtained for arched recesses on the North and 
West. On the East, a low door immediately above 

coiTUCB gives access to a stair of entttince. The 
Ihiekness would admit of an arched reces§ on this side, 
but if it exist, it must be lower thao the others and 
entirely concealed bj the rubbish* The ceiling of the 
chamber is flat, and decorated with an ornamental panel* 
and a Greek moidding as a cornice. The obstmeled 
state of the lower part makes it impossible to see whether 
there be any proN-ision for the reception of the dead 
in the recesses, which, to judge bj the upper parts, 
are deep enough to receive a body; the northern one 
being two feet three inches. It is probable, from the 
Ui^ual lowncss of these sepulchral chambers, that another 
apartment e^tists below this with a more ample entrance, 
if indeed this entrance has not been walled up. In the 
ehajiiber that remains above-ground there is no apparent 
means of introducmg a dead body, much less a sarco- 

But my principal reason for introducing this monu- 
ment, besides the pleasure of presenting to the public, 
for the first time, these accurate drawings of Mr Scoles, 
is, that it affords to us, close to the walls of Jerusalem, 
an example of the very system which appears to have 
been pursued by the architects of Constantino in the 
decoration of the Holy Sepulchre ; with this difference, 
that in the latter case, the cave had existed for centuries 
before they began their external operations ; whereas in 
the former case, the chamber and the external form were 
probably parts of one design. Moreover, Constantine 
clothed the rock with an artificial casing of rich mar- 
ble, and in our present example, the ornaments are 
worked out of the solid limestone. But they each 
exhibit an example of the detaching of a complete 
monolithic representation of a structure, by the levelling 



[part n. 

awaj' of the original rock on all sides. The unmerciful 
ridicule and contempt which has been cast upon those 
who have ventured to suppose such a process possible, 
in the case of the Holy Sepulchre, is at once disposed 
of, by thus shewing that examples of this process exist 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem ; for the 
tomb of Zachariah is exactly formed in the same man- 
ner. And whatever may be the age of these works, 
they certainly are prior to the time of Constantine. 
But away from Jerusalem there are many examples, 
especially in Asia Minor ^ Robinson also found ''several 
isolated monuments, the counterparts of the monolithic 
tombs in the Valley of Jehoshaphat" at Petra*. 


The Holy Sepulchre itself is in its present state, as 
I have already stated, a small chapel or edicula in the 
centre of the Rotunda, about twenty-six feet long and 
eighteen broad. As the diameter of the interior of the 
Rotunda is sixty-seven feet, the chapel stands quite free 
in the midst of it. 

The Eastern end is square, and the Western po- 
lygonal. The external aspect of it has been completely 
altered by the repairs that followed the fire of 1808 ; 
for the original exterior casing of marble, greatly 
damaged by that fire, has been of necessity entirely 
removed, and a new one substituted of a totally dif- 

> Vide especially Texier, Pis. 197, 
198, lor a monolithic tomb, detatched 
from the rock precisely in the same 
manner as that of Absalom, and 

wrought into the form of a Doric temple. 
« Robinson, Vol. i. p. 621. They 
are sketched in one of Roberts** Tiews 
of the Necropolis of Petra. 



ll de»igii> Tlie comparison of its present plan with 
ttat of it^ former state proves also, that at least the 
EftMern half of it has been completely rebuilt, so as 

^ also to change the interior*. 

H Butj in fact, the interior of the Chapel is divided 
into two apartments. The only entrance is at the 
East, where a small door admits to the first apartment, 
which is called the Chapel of the Angel; for here, as 
they say, the Angel sat upon the stone that was rolled 
from the door of the Sepulchre, And, accordingly, a 
stone about a foot high and two feet square is exhibited 

^jn this Chapel, as the identical stone in question, or 

^■Uher as a piece of it. 

H At tfie Western extremity of the Angel's Chapel, 

^1 uaiTow low door opens to the second or inner apart- 
metit, which is the Sepulchre itself, a quadrangular 
room, about six feet by seven, and eight or niae feet 
in height. 

This inner apartment is asserted to be the original 

' Figf. 6, 7, 8, Plate 2, shew the 
Oupel of the Sepulchre, m it has ap- 
peared at different periods; Fig. H, 
the supposed original arrangement of 
Coostantine ; Fig. 7, is that of the 
Crusadera, as given by Bernardino 
and as it remained until 1808. Fig. 8 
is its present plan; for which I am 
indebted to Mr Scoles. 

In these three figures the same 
letters of reference axe used : A, the 
altar of the Sepulchre, B the rock- 
duunber, C the low door, D the Chapel 
of the Angel, having the stone in the 
midst, £E stone benches, FF candela- 
bra introdaced into the present struc- 
ture, G a platform of approach to the 
Sepulchre, raised three steps above the 

Vol. II. 

floor of the rotunda, H the Chapel of 
the Copts. 

The probable rocky part of the 
structure is distinguished from the 
masonry and marble covering by dif- 
ferent shading. In Fig. 6, the sepul- 
chral chamber, not having been lined 
with marble, appears larger than in 
the others. In Fig. 8 a narrow stair- 
case is shewn to the right and left of 
the entrance of the Angel Chapel, 
which serves to give access to the roof. 
For tliis information I am indebted to 
a Russian plan. It is probable that a 
similar staircase existed in the earlier 
building, although Bernardino has 
omitted it. 



Rock-cave, which was shaped and pared down on the 
outside by Constantine's architect, and the surface of 
the rock levelled all round it, so as to leave it stand- 
ing up in the midst, like an artificial construction. 
The outside was then also decorated with a marble 
casing and with columns, which casing has been de- 
stroyed and reconstructed in various forms, until it has 
assimicd its present appearance. As for the Angel's 
Chapel in front of it, it is confessedly a building of 
stone, and has never been described as a rock-cavern, 
like the inner room, by any writer of authority, 
although some travellers have assumed thid, and per- 
haps the inferior priests who shew the Sepulchre may 
say so. But in examining the traditional accounts of 
the whole of these buildings, and the pretences that 
are put forth by their guardians with respect to them, 
it is quite necessary to confine ourselves to the writings 
of educated men. The marvellous tales of the priests 
who shew the wonders of the spot to the pilgrims, 
are about as worthy of attention as the histories that 
are delivered by a Cathedral verger in our own country, 
some of which are nearly as preposterous as the legends 
of the Holy Land, although not so revolting, because 
the subjects of them are not so sacred. 

The wood-cut at the beginning of this volume shews 
its present appearance, which is that of a Kusso-Greek 
Chapel, in a very bad taste, surmounted by a swelled 
dome, of a form, happily, peculiar to the Kussian 
Churches. In the drawings of Breydenbach, and others 
from his time down to the fire of 1808, the Western 
part of the Chapel has a simple arcade against its 
sides, the columns of which are seen in the Plan, 
Fig. 7, from which it appears that there were nine 


arches. These arches are not only drai^n as pointed 
arches by Bernardino (who very rarely repreaents pointed 
arched,) but he mentions one of them expressly (that 
aver the Eastern door) as a pointed arch, " arm oUma,** 
(pL 44). But Breydenbach, Le Brun, and otherB, draw 
them ns senucireukr arches* Nevertheless I incline to 
think, that the fact of one observer drawing the arches 
io the pointed form, is conclusive against all the others, 
who might so probably have missed that peculiarity at 
a period when the pointed arch had not been made an 
olgeet of attention. The columns, as Bernardino tells 
us, were different in diameter and in form ; some were 
cylindHcaL, some octagonal, some spiral, and their plinths 
were of different heights^ as if they had been taken 
from the remains of other structures. The arcade only 
extended from K to K Westward^ and the height of 
this part of the Chapel was little more than fifteen 
feet*, and was surmounted by a single cornice. The 
port to the Eastward of KK was a foot lower, and had 
a similar cornice. The Eastern face contained the only 
door, and this was square-headed, but had a pointed 
arch or pannel over it, sunk a few inches. A platform 
G nine feet wide, shewn in the plan, and raised about 
a foot above the general pavement of the Rotunda, led 
to this door, and there was a stone seat E on either 
side of the doorway. The Eastern half of the Chapel 
has been now wholly rebuilt, and the Western re-cased, 
so as to alter its appearance entirely, and to increase 
its height. But this arrangement of the platform and 
seats has been preserved, as the plan, Fig. 8, shews, 
although they have been constructed in a more com- 

Twenty-one palms, (Bernardino, p. 44.) 



modious and handsome form, and the platform is also 
now flanked by two large candlesticks at FF. But 
to return to Fig, 7, or to the Chapel at the period of 
that plan. The Western half was surmounted by a 
light pavilion, erected over the sepulchral chamber. 
This consisted of a plinth of white marble, on which 
were placed twelve small columns in pairs, of the finest 
porphyry, with white marble bases and capitals of metal, 
of irregular design, (according to Bernardino, which 
may be rendered as applying to mediaeval work). Upon 
these stood six pointed arches of wood, and a cornice 
of multiplied mouldings, capped by a cupola of lead. 
This little fabric, nineteen feet high in all, and eleven 
in diameter, appears to have been of exceedingly mean 
design and disproportionately smaU dimensions, though 
perhaps scarcely deserving Dr Clarke's epithet of a 
"dusty pepper-box." The present dumpy dome which 
replaces it, is not worth much more consideration. 

The original Angel Chapel was, as the plan (Fig. 7) 
shews, a small parallelogram, ten feet by five, with a 
semicircular apse to the West. The parallelogram was 
vaulted with a groined vault, the apex of which was only 
ten feet from the floor, and the apse was still lower. 
The Eastern door was eight feet five inches to the 
crown of its pointed arch, but the Western door, which 
gave admission to the inner or sepulchral chamber, was 
only three feet four inches in height, and the passage 
was cut obliquely on account of the arrangements of 
the Sepulchre within'. Its pavement and its walls were 
covered and lined with marble, and there were two 
small windows on either side, and an ambry in which 

The above meaftures are reduced from Bemardiiio*M palnitt. 





kept some of the sacred vessels for the service 
of the Sepulchre*. 

The present Angel Chapel (D, Fig, 8) is an entirely 
new stmetiire, of slightly increased dimensions, and of 
a different form* The principal interest of comparing 
the two plans, is to prove that the apse of the old 
one wiLs certainly no part of the rock ; for the present 
chamber completely encroaches upon that apse, and it 
18 not likely that the rock itself would have been med- 
dl(?d with by the modem architect, if he had found it 
in his way. In the middle of the Chapel is fixed the 
stone whereon the Angel sat, upon which it is scarcely 
worth whOe to waste words, as it has been repeatedly 
changed. It is, manifestly, only a representation even 
of the one which Bede aDudes to, as will be shewn 
below K 

The inner apartment, or Cave of the Sepulchre, was 
not aifected by the fire of 1808. It is a four-sided 
chamber very nearly square, six feet eight inches Eng- 
lish in length, and six feet one inch in width, ac- 
cording to IVIr Scoles. Its vault is eight feet six from 
the floor. More than half of this chamber on the 
North side is occupied by a kind of altar or pedestal, 
two feet ten inches in height, which covers and pro- 
tects the real Sepulchral couch, where the body of our 

' Quaresmiuft, Tom. ii. p. 510. and 

3 " The stone which now stands in 
tike ante-room of the tomb, and which is 
set forth to be the great stone that was 
rolled to the door of the Sepulchre.. .is 
a square block of white marble, yet the 
holj fathers declare this to be the 
identical stone ; and it is exhibited as a 
costly spectacle, and kissed, and vene- 

rated accordingly. When strictly ques- 
tioned on the subject, however, the 
guide informed us that the true stone 
was stolen by the Armenians, and it is 
exhibited by them in a chapel that oc- 
cupies the site of the palace of Caia- 
phas, on Mount Zion, but that the 
polished block of marble served their 
purpose equally well.** Richardson, 
Vol. II. p. 335. 



[P4RT II. 

Lord was laid. The entrance to the chamber is on the 
East, and close to the side of this altar. 

The sides of the chamber are not exactly at right 
angles to each other; its North-EIastem and North- 
western angles being slightly acute, and the others the 
reverse, according to Bernardino's plan, and to his verbal 
description quoted below*. 

The chamber is asserted to be hewn out of a rock, 
but its surface is so covered with ornamental decora- 
tion, and blackened with the smoke of the lamps which 
are continually kept burning therein, that no part of 
the rocky surface appears to be visible ^ Quaresmius, 
who is certainly not inclined to weaken or withhold 
evidence, and would have mentioned the rock if he 
could, says that the sides of the chamber within and 
without are clothed with squared slabs of marble of an 
ash colour, and the roof incrusted with rough mortar ; 
but that he doubts not that it was once covered with 
the most elegant Mosaic work', of which traces and re- 
mains might be still seen, as far as the thick black smoke 

> " II vano del S. Sqwlcro ^ per li 
suoi angoli acuti et ottusi pal. otto e 
meio luDgo, e otto larga..." p. 32. " II 
S. Sepolcro c quattro palmi, e di qui 
alia volta sono otto; talche in tutto 
fiono palmi dodici, e la porta e quattro 
palmi e mezo.** Bernardino, p. 44. In 
MrScoles* plan (Fig. 8) this peculiarity 
is omitted ; but that gentleman informs 
me that he thinks it probable it may 
exist, and that it may have escaped his 

* Cotovicus, for example, says the 
interior surface of the cave is hidden 
by its marble covering, and as for the 
roof, the smoke of the fifty lamps, 
which bum there day and night, has 

so obscured it, that no ooe can teU 
whether it be rock, or plaster, or maible 
covering, p. 180. F. Fabri however, 
in 1483, declares that he found rocky 
surface exposed about the door of the 
cavern, (see the next section below). 

* Quaresmius, p. 504. Baldenae1,in 
J336, testifies to the existence of these 
ornaments, in his description of the 
sepulchre, the <*parvula domnncnla,** 
into which, on account of the lowness 
of the door, which is to the East, it is 
necessary to stoop hi entering. Above, 
it is vaulted in a semicircular form, and 
decorated with mosaic work, and with 
gold and marble, having no window. 
Canisii Thes. Tom. it. p. 349. 



of the lamps would allow. As to the Holy Sarcophagus 
itself, he informs us that It was covered with white mar- 
ble aIab0^ bj Father Bonifacius (a* d, 1535), after much 
coDsideratioiit in order to protect this sacred tomh from 
the droppings of lamp-oO and other uncleanness, and 
from the indiscreet zeal of the faithful, who were con- 
tiuomlly knocking off small particles to carry awaj. 
The upper slab was in one piece, but was marked across 
to make it appear as if broken* to deceive the Turks^ 
who would ccrtaiidy have appropriated so beautiful a 
piece of marble, if they had seen it entire ^ It is 
used m an altar for daily mass. This is Quaresmius' 
aocotint, and it is worth remarkingp because it proves 
tliat the best informed writers do not pretend that the 
attar, which is shewn as the Sepulchre, is the real tomb, 
but only that it covers the real tomb". What the form 
of tbe Sepulchre beneath really is, or was, is a curious 
sobjeet of enquiry, which we shall presently examine. 
The inner chamber remains now much in the same 
state as it did before the fire of 1808; unless, in- 
deed, the decorations have been renewed or repaired, 
which, comparing the plans, Figs. 7, 8, appears to be 
the case. 

Modem travellers are too apt to assume that the 
altar exhibited in the inner chamber is asserted to be 
the original Sepulchre ; and probably the priests who 
shew the wonders of the place, are not very careful to 

* It vUl be shewn in the next sec- 
doiL, that the sepulchre was covered 
with marble for the first time, after the 
destmctioo of the church by the Caliph 
Uakem, and that the covering by Father 
Booifsdus was a mere repair. 

^ Qoaresmitts, p. 510; alsoWilde*s 
Madeira, VoL ii. p. 295; and Schultz, 

Jerusalem, p. 98. 

" Cotovicus similarly tells us, that a 
marble altar occupies the greater part of 
the chamber on the North, and contains, 
shut up within it, the place where the 
Lord's body rested, ^' altare marmoreum 
id ver6 locum quo Christi corpus jacuit 
sepultum...occlu8um continet.*' p. 181. 



explain thitt, if they themselves are even aware of its 
history. But the effect of their exhibiting an altar, 
which is plainly a construction of marble slabs, as the 
representation of a tomb which we have the words of 
Holy Writ to assure us was hewn out of the solid rock, 
is, and always has been, to provoke incredulity, censure, 
and doubts as to the genuineness of the spot itself. 
William dc Baldensel, a traveller, even so early as a.d. 
1336, describes the "domuncula" or chapel in question, 
and the place of the Lord's Sepulchre, on the right hand. 
But he adds, that '* it must be remarked, that the mo- 
nument placed over that most holy spot is not the very 
one in which the sacred Body was originally laid, for 
that, according to holy Scripture, was hewn out of the 
living rock ; even as many monuments of the ancients, 
and especially those in the neighbourhood, were formed. 
But this is made of numerous stones, put together 
with fresh mortar, and very rudely, so as to appear 
scarcely decent ^" He then goes on to account for this 

I *<...ln medio ficclesis panruU 
domuncuU est, in quam propter ports 
Uemissionem versus Orientem, intrare 
oportet corpore incurvato: supra ver6 
testudinata est ad modum semicirculip 
opere Mosaico, auro et mamioribus de- 
omata, nullam habens fenestram, can- 
delis lampade illustrata. In hujus do- 
niunculs parte dextra locus est Domi- 
nies Sepulturs, attingens eztremitates 
prsdicts cass in longum, scilicet ab 
Oriente versus Ocddentem, cujus lon- 
gitudo novem communium palmarum 
est, latitudo verd tam monwnenti^ quam 
spacii csteri ipsius domunculs resi- 
duum, in latitudine circa sex palmas 
communes utrobique se extendit ; circa 
12 palmas potest esse altitudo domun. 
culs supradtcta". Ulud vern adverten- 

dum est, quod nwnumentum ilH ganc- 
tissimo loco superpoaitum, noo est iUud, 
in quo corpus Cbristi sacratisaimnm 
exanime primitus est immissum ; quia, 
sacro attestante eloquio. monumentum 
Chrinti erat excisum in petra liva, 
scilicet, quomodo antiquonim iiiooa> 
menta, et prscipue in his partibui fieri 
communiter consueTerunt ; Ulud rm 
ex petris pluribus est compotitum, de 
novo conglutinato csmento, minus ar- 
iificialiter et minus quikm deceat, ofdi- 
nat^...Veruntamen quicquid sit de hoc, 
ipse locus sepulchri Christi fomuditer 
moveri non potest, sed remansit et re- 
manebit immobilis in sternum.** Gui- 
liclmi dc Baldensel, Hodoeporicoa ad 
Terrain Sanctain. a.d. 1336. Canis. 
Thes. Tom. iv.p.348. From the mmn- 




in his own way, by saying that if any part of the original 
monument had remained, the Christians never would 
baTe abandoned the spot to the Pagans, and bo on; 
and that, after all, if the Sepulchre be gone, the place 
wb^% it stood can never be moved. 

Clarke ^-isited Jerusalem in 1801, therefore before 
the fire. He relates that *' there are no remains what- 
sciever of any ancient known Sepulchre, that with the 
mart attentive and scrupulous examination he eould 
|io».^]bly discover. Tlic sides of the chamber consist 
of thick slabs of that beautiful breccia vidgarly called 
verd^antique marble, and over the entrance, which i» 
ruggeil and broken owing to the pieces carried oiF as 
relia»» the substance is of the same nature*/' 

Eichardson, a very intelligent deseribert who visited 
iJie Church in 1822. states that "the tomb exhibited is a 
Nuncopbagus of white marble, slightly tinged with blue, 
SOX feet one inch and three quarters long, three feet 
three quarters of an inch broad, and two feet one inch 
and a quarter deep, measured on the outside. It is but 
indifferently polished, and seems as if it had been at 
one time exposed to the pelting of the storm, &c.... 
The sarcophagus occupies about one half of the se- 
pulchral chamber, and extends from one end of it to 
the other. A space about three feet wide in front of 
it, is all that remains for the reception of visitors, so 
that not above three or four can be admitted at a 

The North side above the altar or tomb was occu- 

oer in which the word monumentum in 
used (which I have marked in Italics), 
It is plain that, he empJoys it for the 
altar or locolus only, and does not in- 
tend to apply it to the entire sepulchral 

« Clarke's Travels, 4to. Vol. ii. p. 

3 Richardson's Travels along the 
Mediterranean, &,c. 1822, Vol. ii. p. 



[fart II. 

pied by a picture representing the Resurrection ^ In 
the interior view of the Sepulchre, which Le Brun has 
engraved, this picture is shewn, and the altar appears 
detached from the ends of the apartment by a small 
space ; but this is inconsistent with the accounts of other 
trayellers. He shews the roof in the form of a common 
groined vault, and states that there were forty-four silver 
lamps kept constantiy burning, and aU suspended from 
the roof. Of these lamps thirteen belonged to the 
Latins, twenty-one to the Greeks, four to the Armenians, 
and four to the Copts. The smoke was let out by three 
holes in the vault. And as there was no opening from 
the chamber but these holes and the littie door of en- 
trance, the heat and closeness of the atmosphere were 
overpowering*. At present these openings are replaced 
by some open work of marble, of the most chaste and 
elegant workmanship, according to Mr Wilde, who adds, 
that the top of the chamber is evidently of modem con- 
struction, but that the sides of the door as well as the 
part above it are hewn out of the solid grey limestone- 
rock, which is there distinctly seen. K this be correct, 
the marble lining described by Quaresmius and others 
has been removed since the fire^ 



Comparing the above account with the description 
of the rock-tombs given in the previous sections, it 

* Zuallardo'8 and also Le Brun's 

' Le Brun. Quaresmius, Tom. ii. 
p. 611. 

^ See Wilde's iMadeira, &c. Vol. 

II. p. 203. He is wrong in Mjing that 
the altar was cracked in 1806 ; Quares- 
mius has told us it was marked or 
cracked even in his time to deceive Che 
Turkft. See ahove, p. 167. 


mttut certainly be concluded that the appearance of 
the Holy Sepulchre at present, and as it existed before 
1808» as Kttle resembles a genuine Jeiiish cave-sepul- 
clire 88 possible. But it waa not always so miserably 
metamorphosed. If we trace its history through the 
writers that mention it from Euaebius downwards, it 
will appear, that although its exterior was by Constan- 
tine*8 orders di^uiaed under a mask of architectural 
ornament to do it honour, yet that its interior waa 
reverently left in it« original cavern form, and that the 
pi^esent state of the interior is not earlier than the time 
of the Crusades. I shall have occasion below to refer 
fuUy to the principal writers and pilgrims for the 
explanation of the history of the entire group of build- 
ings around the Sepulchre; but I have thought it 
best, in the first place, to extract from them all that 
relates to the Sepulchre itself, in order to keep the 
history and description of that principal object entirely 

Notwithstanding the importance which Eusebius 
attaches to the sacred cave, his information with respect 
to its decoration is very scanty, for he merely says that 
" the Emperor's magnificence decorated it, as the head of 
the whole work, with choice columns, and he ornamented 
it with great care in every possible manner." From the 
Lectures of St Cyril we learn that the rock was pared 
and shaped down by the Emperor's orders : " The entrance 
which was at the door of the Salutary Sepulchre... 
was hewn out of the rock itself, as is customary here in 
the front of Sepulchres. Now it appears not; the 
outer cave or vestibule having been hewn away for the 
sake of the present adornment ; but before the Sepul- 
chre was decorated by royal zeal, there was a cave in 


the face of the rock." (Lect. xiv.) In another place 
he appeals to the '' stone which was laid at the door of 
the Sepulchre, which lies to this day by the tomb." 
(Lect. xiii. 39.) This is all the information which we 
possess of the state of the Sepulchre from the time of 
its arrangement by Constantine, to the first attack upon 
it, which was that made by the Persians, (a. d. 614). 
But we know, from the innumerable examples that 
remain, that the practice of both Komans and Greeks 
was to make the most remarkable of their sepulchral 
monuments in the form of a smaU edifice or temple, 
either wholly constructed of separate stones, or else 
wholly or partly monolithic. 

It was therefore in perfect accordance with their 
usual habits, that the artbts first commissioned to do 
honour to the Sacred Cave, then a mere excavation 
in the fifce of a cliff, should conceive the design of 
converting it into an isolated edicula, and shaping it 
by paring down the surrounding rock, so as to leave it 
standing up in a manner that admitted of an archi- 
tectm*al casing. We are told that it was decorated 
with choice columns. From the form of the Western 
part, it is pretty certain that it was a circular or poly- 
gonal building, probably consisting of two stories, in 
accordance with the usual practiced 

> In the plan, Plate 2, Fig. 6, which 
is a conjectural representation of its 
state at this period, 1 have shewn it as 
decorated with columns in the simplest 
manner ; namely, by converting it into 
a dodecagonal temple with a peristyle. 
The West end of the chapel, in Figs. 7 
and 8, indicates that the rock was hewn 
into a portion of a dodecagonal figure. 

The apse, which appears in its Eattcm 
side, being a classical form, is not im- 
probably a reminiscence of Coaican- 
tine*s architecture, or erected on his 
foundation, and the number twelre, in 
accordance with that of the apostles, is 
also a very probable number to liave 
governed not only the form of the rocky 
polygon, but also the number of the 


The particular effect of the sacking of Jerusalem by 
the Persians, upon the condition of this little edifice, is 
uot rektcil by the historians- Eutychius, however, in- 
fomis uB that the destruction of the sacred buildings was 
e^'stematically carried out, and that the Jews in enormous 
numbeFS had foDowed the Persians, to gratify their ven- 
geance against the Christians, by assisting in this work* 
The Church of the Sepulchre was destroyed by the help 
of fire, and it is needless to say that it was plundered of 
its riches, and that the edifice in question must have 
been reduced to a misshapen and ruined bloekp In the 
subsequent restoration by Modestus, it seems to have 
preserved its character of a little sepulchral chapel, 
The earliest description of it that follows this restora* 
timk\ is that of Arculfus, (a. d. 697), which is sufficiently 

iimi mxnmmded it, Iiui^, 
£ajcbiti# mentiQcia twdre ccitumn», the 
Dumber of tbe apostleat a« having been 
plm«cd by Comtamine roiuad the *pse 
df tbe B*«ilic^» u will be eeeti below. 

* The creduloiii oairative of Anto- 
aiiYui Placentinus U of uncertam date, 
lying bttween the time of Jusdnian, 
vhtnu be pienUons, ind the Mohamtne- 
d«s coaqucftta, to which he does not 
allud e. But i t Appears doubtf ni w h et her 
it is to be placed before or after the 
Pexvijin Midt of JeruAaleni* HU entire 
de*cn|iti<Fn ot the buiidlngi about the 
Sepulchre correipotidci in lO tnany par- 
tiealafi with thAi of Arculfus, that I 
am mdined to place hitn after Modes^ 
tas. Hia account of the Sepulchre is 
aa foUovt i ^'^ The monument, in which 
o«r Jjotd^m body va« laid, in hewn out 
of tbe natural rock.... The stone which 
ckacd the Sepulchre still li^ before it. 
Hie colDar of the tiooe, which mm 

hewn out of tiolgotha, cannot be din* 
tin^iahed, for it is ornamented with 
gold and gems. The rock of the Se- 
pulchre it&elf ijt like milUtone, and 
prodigiously decorated with gold and 
gfiuiB, CTowniij girdlci, belts, aod other 
ornaments suspended from Iron rods. 
The yeptilchre itself is in the fashion 
of a church, and covered with silver, 
and hefore it is placed an altar.'' This 
liittt^anum is to he found in the Acta 
Sanctorum, Man, Tom* tt. p* %iL ; 
and in UgoHni Thesau. Tom. vu. I 
subjoin the original text...,*'- Jngrensi 
iumus in sanctam civitatem, in qua 
adoravimus Domini monumentum,... 
Ipsum monumcntum, in quo corpus 
Dotnini positum fuk^ in naturalem ei^ 
crisum est petram, Luccma^ hydriA, 
qu3? illo tempore ad caput ejus poeitm 
f^ieral^ ibidein atdet diu no>ctuque:.,, 
L^apis vero, unde clausfun i^it monu- 
mentum jpsum, est anie illud monumen. 



[part II. 

minute, and shews that it then was very diflPerent from 
the chapel in its more modem form. Having described 
the round church, he proceeds to state that in the 
middle of it is situated ''a round cabin {teguriumy, cut 
out of a single piece of rock, within which there is space 
for nine men to stand and pray. The raulted roof is 
about a foot and a half above the head of a man of no 
short statiu*e. The entrance of this little chamber is to 
the East. The whole of its exterior mrface is covered 
with choice marble, and the highest part of its outer 
roof, ornamented with gold, sustains a golden Cross of 
no smaU magnitude. The Sepulchre of the Lord is in 
the North part of the chamber, and is cut out of the 
same rock as it, but the pavement of the chamber is 
lower than the place of sepulture ; for there is an 
altitude of about three palms from the pavement to 

the lateral edge of the sepulchre By the Septd- 

chre, properly so called, is meant that place in the north 
part of the monumental chamber, in which the Body, 
wrapped in linen clothes, was deposited, the length of 
which Arculfus measured with his own hand as seven 
feet. Which sepulchre is not, as some erroneously 
imagine, hollowed out into a double form, (t. e, in the 
shape of the body), having a projection left from the 
solid rock, between and separating the legs and thighs. 

turn. Color vero petrs, quae ezcisa est 
de Golgotha (non dlgnoscitur) : nam 
petra ipsa ornata est auro et gemmis : 
et postmodum de ipsa petra factum est 
altare, in loco ubi crucifixus est Domi- 
nus. Petra veto monumenti velut mola- 
ris est et infinite omata : virgis ferreis 
pendent brachialia, dextroceria, (Deje- 
trocherium, vide Du ('ange, Gloss.) 

murens, monilia, annuli capitulani, 
cingella, baltei, corons, imperiimi ex 
auro vel gemmis, et omamenta phiri- 
ma. Et ipsum monumentum in w»o^^im 
ecdesis coopertum ex argento: et ante 
monumentum altare positum.** 

' Teourium. Locus sednsiu ac 
supeme tectus, a tegere Toce dedncta. 
Du Cange, Gloss. 


but is simple and plain from the head to the feet, and 
h a coueb affording room for one man lying on his 
back. It is in the manner of a eave, having its opening 
at the side, and oppositi^ the South part of the monu- 
mental chamber. The low roof is artificially wrought 
above it 

*' In this sepulchre twelve lamps, according to the 
number of the twelve holy Apostles, bum day and 
night continually, of which four are placed below in the 
iimer part of that sepulchral couch, and the other eight 
above, over the margin on the right aide.,...<.-,niig 
cumber of the Lord's monument, not being covered 
nitbin by any ornaments, exhibits to this day the marks 
of the workmen's tools by which it was excavated. The 
colour of the rock of the monument and sepulchre is 
not uniform, but a mixture of red and white*." 

' *-* In medio tpMido htijius iiitCTioris 
rocnDds domfis rotundum inest in una 
eademque petra excUum tegurium, in 
quo postunt ter terni homines stantes 
onre, et k Tertice alicujus non brevis 
stature stands hominis, usque ad illius 
domuncals cameram, pes et semipes 
mensuia in altum extenditur. Hujus 
ttgujioU introitus ad Orientem respicit, 
quod totam extrinsecus electo tegitur 
mannore, cujus exterius summum cul- 
men anro onuttum, auream non parvam 
SQStentat crucem. In hujus tegurii 
aqailonali parte sepulchrum Domini 
in eadem petra interius excisum habe- 
tur, sed ejuadem tegurii pavimentum 
hnmilins est loco sepidchri. Nam k pa. 
Timentoejus usque ad sepulchri niargi- 
Dem lateris, quasi trium mensura alti- 
tndims palmonim haberi dignoscitur... 

...Sepulchrum veto propria dicitur 
ille locos in tegurio, hoc est, in aqui- 

lofiali parte monument, in quo domi^ 
nicum corpus linteaminibus involutum 
conditum quievit, cujus longitudinem 
Arculfus in septem pedum mensura 
propria mensus est manu. 

Quod videlicet sepulchrum non (ut 
quidam falso opinantur) duplex est, et 
quandam de ipsa maceriola petram 
habens excisam, duo crura et femora 
duo intercedentem et separantem : sed 
totum simplex k vertice usque ad plan- 
tas, lectum unius hominis capacem 
super dorsum jacentis praebens spa- 
tium in modum speluncs, introitum 
k latere habens ad australem partem 
monumenti e regione respicientem, cul- 
menque humile desuper eminens fa- 
brefactum: in quo utique sepulchro 
duodense lampades, juxta numerum 
duodecim sanctorum Apostolorum sem- 
per die ac nocte ardentes lucent, ex 
quibus quatuor in imo illius lectuli 




He adds, that the stone which was rolled from the 
mouth of the cave was then broken in two pieces, of 
which the smaller part, bound with iron, stood in the 
great Rotunda before the door of the tegurium or 
chamber, serving for the purposes of an altar, while 
the larger part, similarly iron-girt, and as an altar, was 
fixed in the Eastern part of the same Church. 

Willibaldus*, in a. d. 766, describes the Sepulchre 

lepulcnUis loco inferius positae; alia 
vero bis quatemales super marginem 
ejus superius conlocatae ad latus dexte- 
rum, oleo nutriente prsfulgent...supra- 
dicUe igitur £cclesie foimulam, cum ro- 
tundo tegurioloin medio c^jus conlocato, 
in cujus aquilonali parte dominicum 
habetur sepulchrum, subjecu declarat 
pictura, nee non et trium aliarum figu- 
ras ecclesianim, de quibus inferius 
intimabitui....Sed inter hiec de illo 
supri memorato lapide, qui ad ostium 
monuraenti domlnici, post ipsius Do- 
mini sepultionem crucifixi, multis tni- 
dentibuB viris advolutus est, breviter 
intimandum esse videtur. Quern Ar- 
culfiis intercisum et in duas divisum 
partes refert; cujus pars minor ferra- 
mentis dolata est, ct quadratum altare 
in rotunda supra scripta ecclesia ante 
ostium saepe illius memorati tegurii, 
hoc est dominici monumenti, stans con- 
stitutum cemitur: major vero illius 
lapidis pars »que circumdolata est, 
et in Orientali ejusdem Ecdesis loco 
quadrangulum aliud illud altare sub 
Hnteaminibus stabilitum exut.... Illud 
dominici monumenti tegurium, nullo 
intrinseciis omatu tectum, usque hodie 
per totam ejus cavaturam ferramento- 
rum ostendit vestigia, quibus dolatores 
sive excisores in eodem usi sunt opere : 
color vcr6 illius ejusdem petrie monu- 

menti et sepulcri, non unui led duo 
permixti videntur; ruber utique et al- 
bus, inde et bicolor eadem ottenditnr 
petra....** Mabillon, Acta Sanctorum. 
Ssc. 3. pars 2, p. 604. 

1 <' Illud sepulchrum fuerat in petra 
excisum ; et iUa petra ttat super tenani, 
et est quadrans in imo et in summo sub- 
til is. Et Stat nunc in summitate illiui 
sepulchri Crux: et ibi deiuper nunc 
a?dificata est mirabilis domus ; et in 
Orientali plaga in ilia petra sepulchri 
est janua, per quam intrant homines 
in sepulchrum orare. £t ibi est intus 
lectus, in quo corpus Domini jacebat ; 
et ibi sunt in lecto quindecim cra- 
teres aurei cum oleo ardentes die noc- 
tuque. Ille lectus, in quo corpus I>o- 
mini jacebat, stat in latere Aquilonis 
intus in petra Sepulchri ; et homini est 
in dextra manu, quando intrat in sepul- 
chrum orare. Et ibi ante januam 
sepulchri jacet ille lapis magnus quad- 
rans in similitudinem prions lapidis 
quem Angel us revolvit ab ostio monu- 
menti." (Hodoeporicon S. Willibaldi, 
Canisii Thes. Tom. ii. p. 111. The 
^< quadrans in imo** refers to the square 
form of the chamber within, to which 
Arculfus does not allude, but roerelj 
describes the external form of the '* te- 
gurium** as round. *^ In summo sub- 
tilis** appears to allude to the pa?ilioo 


cmmi^ly, adding nothing of importance to the above 
description; and Bernardus in a» d, 870t refers for the 
desciiption of the Sepidehre to Bede, who in his tract, 
'*De Locis Sanctis,*' has merely abridged Areulfiis. Epi- 
pbatiiiis mentions, but docs not describe, the Sepulchre, 
And these are all the authorities that exist previous to 
the destruction of the ehurehes by Hakem in a,d, 1010, 

It win at once be admitted, that the minute de- 
scription which ArcnlfuB has given of the interior of 
the chamber, shews it to have presented a very different 
appeiirance from the present one. It was then whoUy 
uncovered in the interior, and exliibited the rocky sur- 
face of the cavern, and the sepulchral heulus in its 
original perfection* 

Comparing the description of this hculus with the 
Tftrious kinds which I have endeavoured to describe in 
Section III., it must be concluded^ that it was an arch- 
like receptacle sunk in the face of the rock, the bottom 
of which was either flat or only slightly hollowed as a 
couch, and its margin raised three palms, or about two 
feet, above the floor of the chamber. It resembled, in 
short, the arco-solium of figs. X, Y, Z, (Sect. III.) sup- 
posing the hollow solium to be filled up, so as to leave 
a level bed for the reception of the body*. And this 


of fine worknuuiship, which was erected 
orer the Sepulchre, and was surmount- 
ed bj the Cross. 

• It is not Tery clear whether we 
are to understand from Arculfus that 
the bottom of the cavity was simply 
fiat like a shelf, or whether a hollow 
place vas sunk into it so as to form a 
si&allow flaubottomed chest to prevent 
the body from being displaced, which 
appears on the whole most probable, 

Vol. II. 

for Arculfus only contradicts the asser- 
tion that there was a sunk cavity in the 
shape of a human body. Quaresmius 
distinctly asserts that the bottom of 
the Sepulchre was like a chest, large 
enough to contain a human body, as 
he was told by those who had seen it 
when it was laid open (that is, during 
the repairs of Bonifacius in 1566): 
**• Locus est ad instar arcs, cujus am- 
plitudo humanum corpus commode 




[part IL 

form of loculus has been shewn to be of common 
occurrence in Judea and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Jerusalem. The pains which Arculfus takes 
to guard against misapprehension are very remarkable, 
stating that the loculus or Sepulchre proper is not 
hollowed to the excici shape of the body; that it is 
cavern-like in form, situated on the north side of the 
chamber, but yet having its opening at its side, and 
facing the south part of the chamber. All these parti- 
culars correspond with the common form above ex- 
plained. And this explanation is confirmed by other 
authorities. Thus Paschasius Radbertus» who died a.d. 
851, describes the Monument, in his Commentary on St 
Matthew's Gospel', on the authority of many who had 

cspere potest, ut inteUexi ab illii qui 
ipium videnrnt antequam illis tabulis 
operiretur et quando fiiit opertus/* p. 

Mr Wilde, on the authority of Mr 
NicoUyson, relates that an old Oreek 
priest told him, that on the morning 
after the fire of 1808 he went into the 
tomb, and that as the white marble 
coating was broken across and not yet 
replaced, he saw beneath it a plain 
trough or sarcophagus hewn out of the 
floor of the church. Wilde's Madeira, 
&c. VoL II. p. 295. 

Schultz also thinks that a hollow 
sunk cavity, like a sarcophagus, is un- 
der the altar-slab of the present Sepul- 
chre. A cavity of nine inches or less 
in depth, would satisfy the above de- 
scriptions, provided we suppose, which 
is consistent with the Jewish practice, 
that the body was not to have been 
covered with a horisontal lid. 

* <<Monumentum Christi non iu fuit 
pnecisum ut hac in terra monumenta 

fonnantur, eo quod ostium habniwf 
memoratur. Hinc venim esse crcdi- 
mus, quod multi tradiderunt qui com 
viderunt, quod domus fiierit itiUiiNb, 
post ostium monumenti intua, inAa 
rupem vastissimam prscisa, tantae al- 
titudinis ut intra stans homo vix maim 
extenta possit ejus culmen attiDgere, « 
est illud ostium ab Oriente, cui I^iifl 
ille magnus valde advolntus atque 
oppoaitus fuiL Non mnlti aiqaidan 
lapides sed unus et ipse magniia....Ca- 
jus monumenti, quia co^imus fjonnam 
et modum positiooia ad inteUigentiam 
narrare visionum, necesae eat ezplite- 
mus. Erat enim, ut dixi, intnitos 
ejus ab Oriente, ac deinde iUac b^ie- 
dientibus, erat a dextris ille locos fai 
parte Aquilonis, qui specialitor Ho- 
minici corporis receptu pantus est; 
septem quidem pedibas Umgm, tnvm 
vero mensura palmanim rdiqao pavl- 
mento eminentur. Qui non vulgarium 
more Sepulchrorum deauper patalas 
idem factus est locus, aed a latere me- 


■^Ipp it* Dearly m the words of Arculfus, and is careful 
" fo «sp^iti that the Sepulchre differed from those which 
were employed in his time. For, in the first place, it 
had a door, that it was a "round house," and within 
excavated from a mighty rock, and so on ; then, after 
degtcribing the laeulm, he adds, " This is not formed after 
^the common manner of Sepulchres, with the opening 
^pbdve, but the opening is entirely along the side, by 
which the body can be laid therein"*" The capacity of 
the chamber was somewhat greater in Arculfus' time 
than it now is, but perhaps not more than may be ae- 
counted for by the space occupied by the artificial 
lining of the chamber, and the construction of the 
altar which covers the loeulus. A space of about 
three feet wide iu front of the altar, at present, as we 
have shewn, admits three kneeling persons and the 
attendant priest. And this, with the additional eight 
inches that would probably be given to each dimension 
were the lining removed, might have contained the nine 
men of Arculfus, who prayed in a standing position. 

The round form which Arculfus gives to it can only 
Bpply to the exterior, although he does not allude to 
the square shape of the chamber ; for it cannot be sup- 
posed that its form would have been so completely 
changed by the artificial lining ; and indeed Willibaldus 
alludes to the square shape. 

The difference between its ancient and present state 
may therefore be siunmed up as follows. It was ori- 
ginally somewhat more capacious, had no lining of 


hdtano, per totuoi a qua parte Corpus 

poaset iroponi.** (Mag. Bibl. Vet. Pa- 

crain. CoL Agr. 1618. t. 9. n. 2. p. 1229. ) 

' Later writers use exactly the name 

phrases. Marinus Sanuto, in 1321, 
has '^Qui locus non desuper sed a 
latere meridiano totus patulus est, unde 
corpus inferebatur.** L. iii. p. 7* 


marble, and the receptacle of the body was an arched 
recess hewn out of the side of the room : whereas, now 
it is wholly lined with marble, and the so-called re- 
ceptacle of the body is an altar, within the room, and 
constructed of marble slabs. I say within the room, for 
the vault or ceiling extends over the altar, as may be 
seen in the drawings of Le Brun and of Bernardino. 
It must also be remarked, that Arculfus makes no 
allusion to the Ante-chapel of the Angel ; and it will 
appear, by comparing his descriptions with some of the 
succeeding ones, that this Angel Chapel was a subse- 
quent addition. 

The event which affected the ancient arrangements 
of the Sepulchre described by Arculfus, was the demo- 
lition of the Church by Hakem^; and this was not, 
like the former destruction by the Persians, part of 
an indiscriminate and furious attack upon the entire 
city, by a victorious and barbarian army, but was the 
deliberate and systematic purpose of a Mahonmiedan 
ruler to annihilate the great Christian sanctuary; and 
his orders were carried out so minutely, that an attempt 
was even made to eradicate the rock-chamber and its 
Sepulchre, which are the immediate objects of this 
chapter. The cotemporary historian Glaber relates that 
the agents of Hakem " endeavoured to break in pieces 
even the hoUow tomb of the Sepulchre with iron ham- 
mers, but without success;" and Ademar states that 
" when they found it impossible to break in pieces the 
stone of the monument, they tried to destroy it by the 
help of fire, but that it remained firm and solid as 

' See Part i. p. 348, above. I pulchri tumulum fcrri tnditibm qnti- 

* " Ipsum quoque concavum Sc- I Hare tentantes minime valuenint." Gla- 


^B Soon afler this, the eaprieioiis humour of the tyrant 

^iras utterly changed, and he ordered the demolished 

•tmeture to be rebuilt and restored as well as it eould 

be^ Thk was undertaken in the very year of its 

deshraetiou, a. Hi 1010, according to some authors, but 

William of Tyre places the rebuilding in 1048. We 

have, however, no aecouuts of it from the pens of any 

travellers who visited it, until after Jerusalem fell into 

tbe hands of the Crusaders in 1099. They undertook a 

comj^ete rebuUding and rearrangement of great part of 

tlie Church, which will be fully considered below. The 

I chaB^as which were made in the Sepulchral Chapel will 

. fippear from the passages of various writers which foUow. 

^m Smwui£ deseribes the whole group of edifices in 1102, 

"aridently before the Crusaders had begun their alter- 

atiotis; and of the portion in question he says, **In the 

midst of the Church is the Lord's Sepulckre, g:irt about 

with a strong wall and covered over> lest rain should fall 

upon the sacred Sepulchre, for the Church overhead is 

open to the sky^" 

But the words of Phocas^ (a. d. 1185) are, "The 
cave which was employed for the Sepulchre of the 
Lord's body is divided into two parts, in one of which is 
deposited the stone which was roUed away from the 
door ; in the other, on the North part, a polished stone 

rai. in,] rOEMEE state and history of SEPDLCHiiE. 181 

bci Rod. Hist Bouquet, Tom. x. p. 34. 
^ L^idem vero monuraenti cum nul- 
Utcnas possent comminuere ignem 
copionun tupcndjiciunt, sed quasi 
adamaa immobiliji mansit et solidus.*' 
Ex Chroo. Ademari. Bouquet, Tom. 
X. p. 152. 

' See Part i. p. 351, above. 

* ^*^ In medio autem istius ecclesix 

est Dominicum sepulchrum muro for- 
tissimo circumcinctum et opertum, ne 
dum pluit pluvia cadere possit super 
sanctum Sepulchrum, quia ecclesia de- 
super patet discooperta." Relatlo de 
Peregrinatione Saswulfi. Tom. iv. Re- 
cueil de Voyages. Par. 1839. 

' A pud Leonis Allatii ^vfAfxiKra. 
Lib. I. p. 21. 



[part n. 

as long as the apartment is raised a cubit : upon this 
the Giver of Life was laid.... This is ornamented round 
about with pure gold, the gift of my noble master the 
Emperor, Manuel Porphyrogenitus Comnenus." 

A writer, describing Jerusalem as it existed before 
it fell into the hands of the Saracens in 1187, proceeds 
to the Sepulchre. And after stating that round about 
the monument was the circular Church open above, he 
adds, *' And within this monument was the rock of the 
Sepulchre, and the monument was covered with a vault 
at the chavech of the monument, and so also above 
the altar without, which was called chavec; and there 
they chanted always at break of day^" 

Willibrandus ab Oldenborg in 1211 gives some use- 
ful particulars respecting the state of the interior of 
the Sepulchral chamber, which he says was covered on 
all sides with white and polished marble, and had within 
it the very stone upon which the Holy Body was laid; 
which, entire and covered with marble, is open in three 
places to the touch and kiss of the pilgrims'. The 

* *^ £t dediins cest le monument 
estoit la pierre dou sepulcre, et li mo- 
numens couven a voute au chavech de 
eel monument, ausi com au chief de 
Tautel par dehors, que Ton apeloit 
chavec ; ]k chantoit en chascun jour 
au point du jour.** In Beugnot^s '^ As- 
yises de Jifrusalem,** Tome ii. p. 531. 
Chavec (or cheveiy the apse or round 
termination of a church,) is here, in 
the first place, applied to the western 
end of the Sepulchre, and secondly, to 
the apse in the Angel Chapel. 

'In cujus medio, (sc. Ecclesiae 
Sancti Sepulchri) quia tota est rotunda, 
intravimus monumentnm Dominicum ; 
quod admodum ampltp et quadrats 

cists depositum, ex omni latere albo 
et polito marmore contectum, in se ha- 
bet ipsam petram, cui iUud aaerotaBC- 
turn corpus Domini, in ara ends 
torridum, fuit impositum ; qus etiam, 
integra et marmore contecca, in tribnt 
locis patet tactui et ostculii peregfino- 
rum, de quo Marcus ait, ei po §ut nu U 
eutn in rmmumento de peMra e tnim . 
In illo etiam vidimui locam ad dale- 
ram, in quo Angelus appaniit tribnt 
M ariis, et tangit Sanctus M aran diccM, 
Et introeuntes in mwnumentmw^ vMr- 
runi juvenem a dexirit sedeniem e»- 
opertum stola Candida. Et nota, quia, 
erga monumentum ipsa eoclcda dcc 
habet nee unquam habuit tectum : ifa 



ter arrangement is also mentioned by the RussiaD 
^^bbot^ Daniel, who visited Palestine about 1125, and 
Belated that the rocky ledge, a slab (cut out of the 
Mame rock aa the cave) upon which the Body of our 
Lord wad laid, is now covered with marble, and there 
wre in the front three circular openings, by means 
rf which you may see and kiss the holy stone. He 
addsr that the outaide of the cave is wrought with mar- 
ble and with twelve columns; and that it has a fair 
Upper story upon columns, with a dome covered with 
dotb of silver, gilded over, and surmounted by a sOver 
iiMge of Christ, rather above the size of life, placed 
there by the Franks^* 
H These descriptions compared with that of Arculfus 
md others prior to the operations of Hakem, prove 
that the Sepulchral chamber had now assumed an ap- 
pearance not very diasimilar from that which it still 
bears, although it is impossible to say whether the 
Crusaders were the first so to fit up its interior with 
a marble Uning, and a marble altar-like covering for 
the loculus, or whether they found this already effected 

at i]M«m tectum ad dispositionem et 
fioniiain dericalia corons sit abrasum ; 
^.jic et pradictum tectum est abrajium, 
■t inter ipanmmonmnentum etsuumali- 
qaaodo eootectum, nullum medium esse 
Tideatnr et ccelesti gratia custodiatur.** 
ICiB. WiUebrandi ab Oldenborg. Ap. 
LeooisAilat. £vfifiiKTa, pars i. p. 147. 
' Robinson informs us, that this 
Hq[nmcn Daniel was a Russian abbot, 
CByo6fi€¥ot) vho visited Palestine in 
the beginning of the twelfth century. 
His journal is one of the earliest docu- 
ments o( the old Slavonic language, and 
was first printed at 8t Petersburgh in 

1837. (Robinson, Bib. Res. Vol. in. 
App. p. 6.) I have been favoured with 
a translated extract from his description 
of the Sepulchre; but the obscurity of 
some parts of it make it very difficult 
to understand his entire meaning. 
S3rmeon S3rmeonis in his Itinerarium, 
A. D. 1322, relates that the Sepulchre is 
covered entirely with white marble, so 
that it can only be seen and touched 
by means of three small holes in its 
Southern side. (Itincraria Sym. Syme- 
onis , et Will . de Worcestre. Nasmith, 
1778. p. 70.) Rudolph von Suchem con- 
firms this in 1336. ( Reyssbuch , p. 845 ) . 



[part IL 

by those who had rebuilt the round Church before their 
arrival. The Angel Chapel, distinctly mentioned and 
for the first time by Phocas, (a.d. 1186) is not alluded 
to by Sajwulf, whose rough description of the strong 
wall and roof that protected the Rock-cave, without 
mention of columns or decoration, appears to shew, what 
indeed is most probable from the pointed arches, that 
the decoration, inside and out, of the cave, was the 
work of the Crusaders, and that moreover the Angel 
ChapeP was a subsequent contrivance. And although 

■ The plan, tig. 7. and the draw- 
ings of Bernardino and othem, shew 
that the Angel Chapel was probably 
added as an after-thought, to the front 
of the apse, when the Western part of 
the Sepulchre was completed. The 
cornice of this M^estem part was higher 
than that of the Angel Chapel, and 
carried completely across from K to K, 
(tig. 7.) The position of the columns 
at this point, compared with that of the 
apse within, shew that the arcade was 
continued in front of the apse, so that 
two additional columns must have 
stood, one on each side of the apse ; 
and the East front of this chapel, as it 
then stood, must have had an arcade of 
one large circular arch over the apse, 
and one small pointed one on each 
side. Thus the Sepulchre presented a 
form similar to that shewn in Fig. 6, 
with this difference, that instead of the 
open colonnade of large dimensions, 
which 1 have assigned as characteristic 
of the Constantinian period, the edifice 
was surmounted by an arcade in close 
contact with its sides, and supported 
by the diminutive bhafts of medisval I 
architecture. Thus there were twelve ; 
columns and twelve arches, and this I 

explains the description given abore 
fifom Daniel, 112S. And it wai alao 
surmounted by the upper pavilioD and 
its dome. 

Instead of the Angd Chapel, it ap- 
pears to have beeq protected by a wall 
of enclosure, as Ssewuirs detaiptioo 
implies, and this may serve to interpret 
the somewhat obscure descriptioD which 
Edrisi gives of this building. Hit 
geography was written in the reign, 
and under the patronage of Roger, 
Kingof Sicily, and finished, a.d. 1151. 
I shall have occasion to refer to this 
author below, and will now only quote 
that, << Upon entering the Church, the 
spectator finds the Holy Sepulchre, a 
considerable edifice, having two doort^ 
and surmounted by a cupola of a very 
solid construction, very itroog, and 
made with admirable art.** He had 
previously mentioned the great dome 
overhead, therefore this cupola is the 
smaller one, which surmoonta the upper 
story of the Sepulchre. Of thew two 
doors, it afterwards appears, that ooe 
faces the North and the other the 
South. It is not improbable, that such 
doors were placed in the wall of en- 
closure, for it will appear below, that 

cft* iil] formbr stats and history of sbpulchke. 185 

the two daroniders, Glaber and Adeniar, assert that the 
attempts to destroy and uproot the Rock were vain*, 
the change of the internal arrangement of the loctJus 
and the disappearance of the low arch above itj so 


iii« ebttreh fsteir hftd two doors. North 
Htd South, for th« cofivenitfiec of *d- 
tnlititig And dkmiBsltig the pilgrifnt ; 
ftnd m thtve doon of the Sepukhrv ve 
I by Edn^ to be placed oppoftiie 
I of the Chujcb, the J w£te 
contrived with reference to 
ffBtcm, for the purpoie of 
r f^uSHjr matihallitig the pilgrim- 
aowd. The Ang^l Chapel ^ u already 
ifeii«d« i* diMioctly toentiooed by Pho- 
(at, Ibt d«te of whoae timet Is iii)fc»r* 
iBQttely uficertaln, bat U ^%ed hy hb 
idlior, All*titi«« ahoot a. o. llSi'if that 
il, Ivo y«n» before th« takiag of Je- 
nskaleza by S^adin, 

Bat every «Ttc& deactibei thii ]ittle 
cdifM^ after ht& own fancy, and henc^ 
great obscuri ty ia inti-od u ced , For c% - 
wmjAM, Felii Fabri, (jt.p. I4fl3j, an 
rsee«diiigly tninuie and gonsippingde- 
MTiber, take* it into his head to ai^iign 
three entrwieea to the Chapel of the 
Sepiilciire, which would have per- 
pleied it» exceedingly, if he had not 
pnceeded to explain that by the first 
he iindei^tandt the parage between 
(he two low walU^ or rather rtone scau, 
vbieb I bare desmbed as flanking ibe 
eotrann (o the Angel Chapel (EE, 
Fiff. 7); and he denominaiea the space 
between these low wallj an atrmium 
m the ChapeL Hit second door is 
thoa the door of the Angel Chapel, 
and hif third door, the entrance from 
the latter Ch«pel to the cave itself. I 
fsxsakm ibU merely m an example of 
dhe &acifii] idea* which we have lo 
guard agaioil in uivesligations ot thiii 

kind* I iubjoin the piaaage, m th« 
book 11 rare, A Tcry litnitcd itaprea. 
iion haa been lately printed by a lile- 

raiy society at Stuttgart 

'* Tria quodammodo babet mim 
Sanctum Sepulchmm, Priniiani cat in 
acriolo, mihi *pelunca prima, quod 
atriolum babet nmrum oon allioretn, 
niai quod homo iittua exiitens potc«t 
auper ventreui jacere in muro, et per 
ecdeaiam ciraimspicere* Unde aliquo- 
ties super ipaum munun sedi, et mer- 
ces negotiatorum in pavimento iuferiu* 
penpexi* Verum introitu* in arriolum 
ncm e&t pmpe ostium, quia Euper caput 
iagredientii nihil est, cum careat lu- 
period limine. Sed inter duo* muioi 
se respicientes e«t ingreasnsj ^m si 
efisent aklores et llitien auperpooeretur 
ostium fieret. Secundum ostium est 
de atriolo in primatti epeluncam moiiu* 
menti. Et hoc ostium janua dauditur 
et aerii ohfirmatur...,-.Tertium ottium 
est de ilia capella vd prima ffpelunea 
in secundam speluncam, In quA e»t Do^ 
mitiicum sepukhrutn/* (Vol. i. p, 330*) 

^ The AJohammedan rulerup during 
the Crusaders' siege of Jerusalera, did 
not believe that the rock had been 
previously obliterated by Hakem \ for 
they sterioitfily deliberated upon the 
policy of detsiroying it utterly at that 
time, by rooting up the very rock of the 
Sepulchre, so as to remove for ever the 
object for which the Christiani strived 
to obtain possewiiou of the City* This 
waA about ninety yenM after tbe at* 
tempt of Hakem to cfTecf the *iwnc 
tbbjg. Sec above, Part j. p. 367- 



[part n. 

distinctly described by Arculfus, must lead to the G<m- 
clusion, that if the agents of Hakem did not succeed 
or persevere in actually levelling the rock, they could 
scarcely have failed so to have disfigured and damaged 
it, as to make it necessary, even for the sake of de- 
cency, to cover it with marble. The arched recess 
above the loculus was probably knocked to pieces, or 
at least so much so as to admit of the vaulted roof 
above being carried clear over the whole apartment, 
thus obliterating the recess-form altogether. And by 
covering the actual stone couch with marble slabs, it 
became converted into the appearance of an altar, and 
indeed was from that time employed for mass^ Father 
Fabri, the most minute of all describers, relates that 
during his vigils in the Church of the Sepulchre in the 
year 1480, he determined to examine carefully whether 
any rocky surface remained uncovered in any part of 
the Sepulchral Chapel or chamber, and for this purpose 
he took a lighted candle, and curiously scrutinized every 
part of it within and without. He found the outside 
wholly covered with marble. Similarly, the door of the 
Angel Chapel and the walls on each side within pre- 
sented a marble surface. But he found the waU, which 
is opposite to the entrance of this Chapel, and in which 
the little door to the Sepulchre is formed, to be a naked 
rock, in one piece without joints, and still shewing the 
marks of tools. In its upper parts, indeed, it was broken, 
and repaired with stones and cement. Whence he 
draws the conclusion, that the Holy Sepulchre had been 

' Another hypothesia may be, that 
the recessed loculus actually exists, in 
whole or in part, behind the North side 
of the present casing, and that the 

altar now exhibited is vacant, and 
stands not over, but in front ofy the 
true Sepulchre. 



formerly destroyed, but not altogether rooted up^ and 
beii had been repaired, and covered with marble to 
rent the pilgrims from knocking off little pieces to 
carry away as relics, and that for the same reason the 
&tmb with three openings, already described^ waa placed 
ID front of the eepulchral couch to hinder the pilgrims 
from boring holes in it with iron tools, as they were 
wont to do in order to get off portions* He lays great 
itresH upon this indiscreet £eal of the pilgrims, which he 
tefls ua m^as carried to so great an excess in all i^es, 
tlui many people think it impossible that they can 
have left in that place a piece of the true rock so big 
as a gT^in of miUet*, The presence of uncovered rocky 
i»tirface in the sides of the door is also testified by 

* I iobjom ^e eotire origfn&l pM* 
H^, frtroi ihe Siuttgwt EditioDj Vol- 
I- p. 33J, 6, ** Accepi candeUm *ccen- 
mti m Ecjclesb Sancti SepulcbHi dum 
IB ea rigikr^ro, el ad Domini cum mon- 
mneiituiu acDBAi^ f uricnissime perflcru- 
allquid ODD maimore tectum 
[ Tidere, ci ab cittra per circui- 
tanLf latam Lnveni mMn)<}re te<:tum. 
loffcsiut perprunum oaijam amaionin 
txpdlm pAhetes uuiutque Uteris m&r. 
mm TEstiiJii itiTetii, aed parietem tnie 
fsdon meatn, qui diridit Bpeluticatn 
laleriffl-ciD mh interiore^ in quo e^i 
ogtioltim ul U^minicum aepulchrum, 
oddam iuTeni, H »dhibito 1 amine pe- 
trsun puietem vidK ntm quadrii eom> 
pwttacn, led integranir in qua. instru. 
feTTeorum si gnu manifcste 
at. In, ftupetiori tsmen patte 
ffidetiir Tuptun fuiAs^i qus lapidc el 
czineni0 e»t reurciiA. K jl q uib U!( v i deba . 
i«r mthi, quod Dominlcum iepulehrum 

liiiiie£ illqttAndodeitrucmii], aed qihd* 
qiiam CI toto autum^ el jsm itat r«. 
paratunii et si cut bodte Mutj it» Metit 
pluv quBiii ducentoa anno«i, nifl Jain 
est diligtntiua in&rtnore vestitumi ne 
peregTinl de parktibui iapiUoa eruaui 
pTO Tcliquiia^ H propter eandem c^usam 
dcpo^ita fuil % Sancto Septilcbro ta- 
bula cum tribua foraminibua, de quo 
aupi-a habetyr, quia peregritti faramiua 
cym matruinentia ferreia forabant ad 
accipicndum aliquid» tjuamvis pere- 
grini semper con all tuerint recipere 
particular de ^&ncto Sepokhro, Qum- 
quam tamen admiaAum est eia^ aed alii 
Ispides pnrriguntuT loc»3 verar petrVp 
Sfuipef emm afisunt Domini co «epul' 
ehm cuatodes ; qui prohibent corrodefe 
volentefl. Ideo non vatet, quod illi 
dicunt de indltcreta devotione fideliutHf 
qur^ et ai habesnt lllatD indiacretam 
devationem, tamen nozi admitiitur eii 
fit indiiicrete agani." 


by Dr Clarke, who mentions the nigged and broken 
state of the entrance, but describes it as arising from 
the pieces knocked off as relics from the marble 

It is clear, however, from the words of Fabri, that 
there was a prevalent opinion in his time that the rock- 
cave under its marble covering was in a very mutilated 
condition, which appears to me to be very probable. I 
suspect that the original rocky roof of the cavern has 
disappeared. But as the real extent of the damage 
done, and the state of the rocky nucleus of the present 
building cannot be ascertained without uncovering it, 
more words nee^ not be wasted upon this discussion; 
the only purpose of which has been to shew, that the 
present improbable Sepulchre is a mere casing of the 
twelfth century, and that its form, as described by earlier 
witnesses, was in perfect accordance with the other se- 
pulchral monuments of Judaea. 

The inroad of the Charismians, in the thirteenth 
century, was productive of fresh acts of violence and 
injury to this Church, and especially to the Sepulchre 
itself. The letter which was sent by the Patriarch of 
Jerusalem to Europe, contains the following passage, 
dated Aeon, Nov. 25, 1244. 

" With sighs we inform you that sacrilegious hands 
have inflicted manifold defacements upon the Sepulchre 
of the Resurrection. The marble pavement that encir- 
cled it has been torn up. The mount Calvary, where 
our Lord was crucified, and the whole Church, has been 
defiled beyond description. The sculptured columns, 
which were placed for ornament against the Sepulchre 
of the Lord, they have carried off, and sent, in token of 
victory and contempt for the Christians, to the Sepul- 




chrc of the wicked Mahomet- And they have violated 
the tombs of the kings in the said Churchp and have 
scattered their bones ^" 

Tliia curious aneedote may serve to explain the irre- 
gular form of the columoB shewn in Breydenbach's cut, 
and mentioned by Bernardino, as they were probably 
taken from other ruined structures to replace those that 
were carried off as above related. The rough state in 
which Baldensel found this monument in 1336, and 
which excited his disgust^ may perhaps have arisen 
from this or similar assaults which had not then been 
repaired, or from the gradual state of ruin, which the 
difficulty of obtaining permission to repair it from the 
Mohammedan rulers, would neccsBarily have brought it to, 
The last repair, (always excepting the Greek works 
t& 1810), was by Father Bonifacius in the sixteenth 
eentury* A letter written by himself is extant, p\ing 
an account of this, and it may be found at length in 
Quaresmius*. This Bonifacius, as he himself says, being 

' " Cum suspiriin intimamus, quod 
in tepalchrum Resurrection! s Domini- 
oe nanus sanilegas extcndentes, illud 
mnlcipliciter deturparunt. Tabulatum 
marmoreum quod circumclrca erat po- 
situm funditus evertentes, et montem 
CalTaris, ubi Christus exiitit crucifix- 
oa, et totam ecdesiam, ultra quam did 
▼aleat, in omni turpitudine quantum in 
se fuerat, fcedavenint. Columnas vero 
sculptaa, qus ante sepulchrum Domini 
cnnt ad decorem posits, sustulerunt : 
illas in Christianorum contumeliam ad 
lepalcrum scelerattssimi Machometi in 
tignnm victoris transmittente*, et yio- 
lads sepulchris felicium Regum in 
eadcm ecdesia collocatis, eorum ossa in 
Chrisdanorum injuriam disperserunt." 

Letter from the Patriarch of Jerusalem, 
&c. to Europe, describing the inroad of 
the Charizmians, dated Aeon, Nov. 25, 
1244. Matt. Paris, p. 657. Wats. 

' " Pater Bonifacius Stephanius, Dei 
dono et Apostolics sedis gratia Stagni 
Raccusini Episcopus, universis has lit- 
teras inspecturis salutem in Domino 
sempitemam. Cum anno saluds nostra? 
MDLV. fabrica ilia celeberrima ab 
Helena Sancta, Magni Constantini ma- 
tre, jam olim strucU S.D.N.R. Sepul- 
chrum in orbem claudens, non sine 
Christians pietatis injuria, ruinam 
minaretur, ac jam ferm^ collapsa esset, 
fe. re. Julius Papa tertius ^quem ad 
banc rem perficiendam stemi nominis 
ac perpetus memoris invictissimus 



[part II. 

in the year 1555 Prefect of the Convent of St Francis 
at Jerusalem, it happened that '' that celebrated fabric, 
formerly constructed by St Helena, which encloses the 
Sepulchre of the Bedeemer, was then threatening ruin, 
and, in fact, was nearly falling," whereupon Pope Julius 
III., at the request of the Emperor Charles V. and of 
his son Philip, commissioned him to repair the sacred 
place; the Emperor having assigned for the purpose a 
considerable smn of money, and the permission of the 
Turkish Sultan having also been obtained at great ex- 
pense, and after much negotiation. '^It plainly appeared 
necessary that the structure should be taken down to 
the very ground, in order to make an effectual and 
enduring restoration. And when it was destroyed, the 
Sepulchre of the Lord, cut in the rock, appeared openly 
before our eyes : on which two Angels were seen painted 
above, of which one was saying (in an inscription), He is 

Carolus quintus Romanorum Impera- 
tor, nee non Deo gratus Philippus ejus 
filioB inclytus precibui pulsarunt) in- 
stantem niinam dolens, nobis, qui id 
temporls Conventus Sancti Francisd 
de Obseryanda lerosoljrmis Prsfec- 
tum Apostolica auctoriute agebamus, 
obniz^ prsM^epit, ut sacrum coUa- 
bentem locum quamprimum refici in. 

itaorarique curaremui Cdm igi. 

tur ea stnictura solo sequanda necessario 
▼ideretur, ut, qus instauranda denud 
moles erat, firmior surgeret, diutumior- 
que permaneret, ea diruta, sanctissimi 
Domini Sepulchrum in pelra excisum 
nostris sese oculis aperti videndum ob- 
tulit : in quo Angeli duo depicti super- 
poaiti cemebantur ; quorum alter scripto 
dicebat : Surrexity non est Me ; alter 
▼erd Sepulchrum digito notans, Ecoe 

locus ubi potuentnt eum. Quorum ima- 
gines, ubi primCim vim aSris senserunt, 
magna ex parte dissolutiB sunt. Cto 
▼erd lamina una alabastri ex lis, qnibos 
Sepulchrum operiebatur, et quaaHelena 
sancta ibi locaverat, ut super its sacio- 
sanctum Misss mysterium celebraie- 
tur, necessitate urgente, oommoTenda 
esset, apparuit nobis apertus loan ille 
ineffabilis, in quo triduo Filina hominis 
requievit ; ut plan^ coeloi apcrtoa viden 
tunc nobis, et illis, qui nobiscom ade* 
rant, omnibus videremur, &c &c. itc 
Datum Stagni in edibua nottria, tab 
die 13 Maii, anno h Chritto nato supim 
septuagesimum millesimo quingcnte- 
simo.** (Quareamiua, Tom. ii. p.ftl2. 
He copies it from Oretaer's *^ Apologia 
pro sancU Cruce.*' Op. Oretacri, 17SI. 
Tom. 1. p. 64.) 


f-iidi, ffe tB not A^e, and the other, pointing with his 
finger to the Sepulchre, above the inscription, Bdwld the 
piaee wliere the^j laid Him I But when these figures were 
expensed to the air for a little while, they faded away 
almoet entirely. It was found ahsolutely necessary to 
remove one of the alabaster slab3 with which the Sepul- 
chre was covered, and which Saint Helena had placed 
there to enable the mystery of the Mass to be cele- 
bratecL And when this was taken away, there appeared 
open to OB all who were present, tiiat ineflahle place in 
which the Son of Man rested for three days " 

He goes on to relate that he found therein a piece 
of wood eareftilly ^Tapped in a gndartum, which latter, 
however, fell to dust as soon as it was exposed to the 
air: this wood, he supposes to liave been a piece of the 
true Cross^ and he placed a part of this in the Chapel 
of the Apparition near the Sepulchre, where it was long 
preserved. It is very clear that the fabric which was 
the subject of this repair, was not the great Eotunda, 
but merely the little chapel which encloses the Rock- 
tomb, or rather as much as remains of it; and it is 
evident that the works, which he attributes to S. Helena, 
are simply those of the Crusaders. It is not so easy to 
determine how much, after all, was done to this little 
building upon this occasion. If it was wholly taken 
down and rebuilt, its original form was exactly pre- 
served, for a rude wood-cut given by Breydenbach in his 
travels (a.d. 1502), corresponds exactly with the draw- 
ings of ZuaUardo, Bernardino, and Le Brun, making 
due allowance for the style of execution; and this cut 
represents even the wooden chapel which the Copts had 
set up against the western end of the structure. Pro- 
bably the part that was entirely taken down and recon- 



[part II. 

structed was the Angel Chapel, which has been shewn 
to be an artificial structure, without a rocky nucleus; 
and also the marble lining of the rock-sepulchre must 
have been reset. The slab with three openings in front of 
the tomb is not mentioned afler the time of Bonifacius, 
and seems then to have been replaced by an unpierced 
one, as at present. 

But it is a curious fact, that Father Bonifacius, 
when describing the rock sepulchres that still exist in 
the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, relates, that among 
them he found one in all respects similar to the Holy 
Sepulchre, which he shewed to his Franciscan brethren, 
that they might rejoice therein, and exhibit it to their 
successors and the pilgrims ; ''and I must know the truth 
of this resemblance," adds he, " because I saw the very 
spot where the Holy Body was laid, when I restored 
that sacred place from its very foundations, and de- 
corated it with the most brilliant marbles, under Paidus 
IV. and Charles V., &c.^" This cave, he says, was amongst 
a number, which were termed the Retreat of the Apostles; 
and Zuallardo describes certain cavc-sepidchres on the 
Mount of Offence, opposite to Sion, on the north side 
of Jerusalem, one of which he asserts to be that which 
Bonifacius had pointed out ; and he has given a sketch 
of it, froih which and from his description it appears 
that the locidus or receptacle of the body is not in the 
form of a chest or modern tomb, but is a cavity cut 
out of the side of the chamber, extending from one end 

* p. Bonifacius, De perenni cultu 
Terrie Sanctae lib. 2. ms quoted by Qua- 
resmius, p. 283. The book iuelf is very 
scarce, and I have not been able to 
obtain a sight of it. Robinson was 
equally unsuccessful. (Bib. Res. Vol. 

III. App. p. 13.) 

Pope Julius III. reigned from lAM, 
and Paul IV., from 15A6. PhiUp IL 
succeeded his father Charles V. in 
1556, and 1556 is the year when the 
repairs began. 



^■D the other, its* bottom being flat and raised about two 
^feet above tbe floor, and its upper surface or soffit 
wUbo flat and parallel to the lower one, with just space 
enotii^h between them for the body to be pushed bito 
its place. In fact, it precisely resembles the form of the 
ordinary receptaeles for bodies^ which are to be seen in 
the Christiaii catacombs of Rome. This, if the upper 
stir&ee were curved into the form of an arch, would 
correspond exactly ivith the descriptions of Arculfus and 
other early writers, which, as I have already she^Ti, cer- 
tainly represent the sepulchral cavity as a eavem-like 
opening excavated out of the roeky waU of the chamber, 
and not as an altar-totnb, standing within it^ as the pre- 
sent structure is arranged*. 

' Cofiirieai (p. IBl ) c<mt|^1etel]f t- 
i iliifr ti««,imd even bomiWB Zual- 
bnio*ft cut of tbe nid Hill Tomb to 
rcpT«»etit the Holj Sepulchfe, adding, 
chsi if 31 evident that it w%j« nm afief the 
fMohkm of a ftqiAare totub open mt mp, 
m mmaf think. M>d as it is alwa]?ii re- 
pnacfited ; but vm cut in the ntmh 
■dff of the cave, and open lo the ^yth, 
wiMfV the h&df WM mitnedno that tho«« 
mho Juokfd in through the small dmir 
of the cmrt^ luig^ht esvilf »ee the place 
•here the hodj had lain, and ^Iso the 
(incti eloibcs and ibc napkin, all which 
thev could not hare done if it had 
been a hoUciw tomb. In dc^rribing the 
iftci UNitha of Macri, the ancient Tel- 
MIMM, Claike tajv^ (VoL u. p, 252). 
'^ A wnall rectangular optninn^, scarcely 
1b^ ca<»gh to pau through , admitted 
ii» 1^ the ioterioT — ^w fa ere ve found a 
•^mtre chjimber with one or more re- 
ccptaclo for dead bodies, shaped like 
bbthi, epon the aides of the apannient, 
aiul ncalif chinetied in the bodjr of the 

Vol. II. 

rock f* and afterwirda (p« ^9), related 
that on tbe ftideii of the Hill of Oficoce, 
facing Mount Simi, he found a numbei 
of excavations in ibe ro«k, similaj- to 
ihose of Telme^^fiu?^ (described in the 
above p^uu^e), each chamber cinstain.. 
ing one or many repositories for the 
dead} like cisterns carved in the rock 
upon the tildes of thoiie chiyjibetii. 
^' The Repiilchrew themselves arf sia^ 
tmnefi in the mid^i ^f gnrdeng.^'' ''One 
particularly attracted our notice * from 
itA extraordinary coincidence vith all 
the circum^tanceA attaching to tbe his- 
tory of our S.ivlour*a tomb : the lafge 
stone that mice cloned it^ mouth, had 
been, peihapi* for ageu. rolled away, 
^^looping doihn to look into it, weob* 
aeiTcd within, a fair sepulchre, contain- 
ing a repository upon one side oaJy, for 
a single body, whereaa in tnoait of the 
ather!4 there were two, and in tnany of 
them more than two/' (p, j^5). The 
toitib which Bonifaciu» indicated a.! 
the likeness of the Holy gepukbre, as 




Before I quit the subject of Rock-tombs, I most de- 
scribe another, which still remains in the neighbourhood 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and which affords important odL- 
lateral evidence for its genuineness. This rock-tomb (or 
rather as much of it as remains), is now included within 
the Church (see Plan, Fig. 4, No. 6). At the extreme 
west end of the Rotunda, in the wall of the side-aisle, 
there is an apse, and from the south side of this apse a 
low door opens to a small apartment, so low that there 
is scarcely room to stand upright, and which may per^ 
haps hold three men at once ; the eastern side of it is 
the wall of the Rotunda ^ but the other sides are hewn 
out of the natural rock, and in this rock sepulchral 
cavities arc excavated horizontally in the sides. On the 
floor also arc the openings of graves simk downwards 
in the earth. These tombs have been attributed to 
Nicodemus and to Joseph of Arimathasa. Some later 
writers suggest them to have belonged to the time of 
the Crusaders. But Schultz, from whose ''Jerusalem*' 
I have transcribed the description of this cavern, ssr 
gaciously remarks, that although the graves on the floor 
may probably be due to the Crusaders, the sepulchres 
in the face of the rock are so precisely like those which 
are to be seen throughout the Necropolis in the en- 
virons of Jerusalem, that there can be no doubt that 
they are the remains of a rock-tomb, formed long before 
the Church was built, and probably belonged to an 
old Jewish sepulchre of an age prior to the destruction 
of Jerusalem by the Romans. 

he had seen it during the repair, was 
amongst this very group, and perhaps 
the identical one that Clarke selected 
from observation alone, as the sacred 

cave itself. 

* A view of this tomb ia given by 
Lord Nugent, Lands Qaiaical mi 
Sacred, Vol. ii. p. 34. 




The rocky sides of this chamber ar^ not exactly in 
the direction of the cardinal points, and it appears to 
be a portion of a rock-chamber^ of which the Eastern 
{xutd have been cut away* and intruded upon by the 
process of hewing away the face of the rocky clift* in the 
brovr of which it was originally excavated. For, as the 
section of the Church shews (Plate 3), the rock rises 
Mgb affainst the extemd wall at the West, and the 
ptesent level of the floor has heen obtained by sinking 
into the rock* Thus an important corroboration is 
afforded of the historj^ of the present ch'sposition of the 
Holy Sepulchre. For instead of supposing the cavern 
io have been originally formed in a little hillock of 
lock, as eome imagine, the very nature of the ground 
at present shews that the rock, which now riscB behind 
the Western wall of the Church, was once extended so 
much farther Eastward as to bring the natural brow of 
its eiilf to the front of the Holy Sepulchre, which was 
thus naturally formed in the face of this cliff in the 
usual manner. The Sepulchre just described under the 
name of Joseph of Arimathaea, was possibly part of a 
catacomb with many apartments and vestibules like that 
of the Judges, and at all events its entrance was formed 
in the face of the cliff. South-west of the entrance of 
the Holy Sepulchre^. 

' I hATe already suted, that through- inconsistent with Sacred history, may 
oot thu disMTtation I have applied afford some slight arguments in its fa- 

the term Holy Sepulchre to that which 
ii exhibited under this name in the 
church, without intending to assume 
its identity with the Sepulchre of the 
Gospel narratiTe, which must princi- 

vour, but it could hardly be supposed 
that those who first asserted this cave to 
be the genuine one, would have selected 
one which was at variance with the gos- 
pel account. From the sacred narrative, 

paUy be determined by topographical ' however, we gather that the true Sepul- 
To shew that the ar- I chre was an apartment hewn out of the 

rangemems of this Sepulchre are not rock, and not a mere grave in the rock ; 




[part II. 

But as this question of the original form of the 
ground can hardly be made intelligible until the whole 

for the disciples are described as 
'* entering into it,** in a manner that 
shews the entrance to have been per- 
fectly easy, when they were not hindered 
from going in by feelings of awe and 
reverence. But those who were lo 
hindered were compelled to stoop, 
(John XX. 5, 11) in order to look in, 
whence we may either infer that the 
door was low, or that the stooping 
posture was necessary to allow the 
light to enter ; but not that the cave 
was at a bwer level than the entrance, 
for then the disciples would have been 
said to have <*gone down into** the 
Sepulchre, instead of simply " entering 
it,** which is the phrase always used. 
The vision of angels " sitting, the one 
at the head and the other at the feet 
where the body of Jesus had lain,** 
(John XX. 12) is sufficient to shew 
that the Sepulchre was of that form in 
which the body was laid parallel to the 
side of the apartment. Also it was, more 
probably, deposited upon a stone couch, 
than in a hollow soros, or sarcophagus. 
For as the linen clothes appear to have 
been folded and laid in the place where 
the body had been, they could hardly 
have been seen by the disciple, who 
merely stooped down and looked in at 
the door, (John xx. 5) if they had 
been placed at the bottom of a stone 
chest, but would easily have been seen, 
if lying upon a stone couch. The 
vision of angels sitting may be thought 
to contradict the arched recess above 
the stone couch ; at all events this 
recess could not have been very low, 
but in many of these rock tombs it is 
sufficiently high to allow space for 

persons to sit, as for example, in the 
arches represented in the Tombs of the 
Judges. Plate 4. 

There is no allusion in the scripture 
to a vestibule or outer cave, but oo the 
other hand there is nothing to contra- 
dict its existence, and the common ar- 
rangement of the Jewish sepulchres 
makes it probable that there was one. 

The cave in the Sakhrmh under the 
dome of the Mosk of Omar, which Mr 
Fergusson supposes to haTe been the 
true Sepulchre, has no resemblance to 
any sepulchral chamber, either in Jem* 
salem or elsewhere. It is in form an 
irregular trapesium, the aycrage height 
seven feet and supeifidal area about 
600 feet. In the centre of the cocky 
pavement is a circular slab of marble 
which wnen struck returns a boUow 
sound, clearly indicating a well or ex- 
cavation beneath, (Bartlett*s Walks, 
p. 164) and there is a corresponding 
opening in its rocky roof. It is wholly 
below the surface, and the access to it 
by a flight of steps ; there is no pro* 
vision for the reception of a body either 
in the form of recess, or stone couch, or 
any other of the wonted indicattons of 
sepulchral purpose which characterise 
such chambers. But, on the cootrBij« 
the aperture in the roof correspoiiding 
to the other in the floor shew a pm p o ae 
which it would be difficult to oonncct 
with a sepulchre, but which I ahall 
endeavour to explam in the £«ay on 
the Temple. 

It does not seem to hare occnnred 10 
Mr Fergusson that sepulchral cavemi 
have characteristic airangementa and 
forms that mark their dettioatioii, and 


Church, and especially Mount Calvary, has been de- 
scribed, I will reeerve its fuller explanation for a sepa^ 
mte section* and will now proceed to describe the 
poop of buildings that surround the Sepulchre. 



1 HAVK in the preceding sectioua entered at great 
length into the history and description of the Chapel of 

it fi oot «ixougb to pw^ 
^m a mae hole, m ■ roek, like thai of 
fll9$«Uir»li« vbicb b not only defieUtit 
Im amf ^ ihe tiiusl indicailDiu of mch 
, bat 11 rFen contradictory in 
pmlcului to tbe examples of 
iwk tepttldiFes «itli vhicfa it j« tur. 

Manawa, Mr FerguiBcm (JeruM. 
km,, p. HU> *»erU that the Evangel- 
ka all afnee chat thoftf that came to 
: fer like bod]r of Christ, *^< Inoktd 
into the Sepulchre^** ajid he 

k cboe latter wofde as if he were 
the exact vortb of holy writ^ 

I I aeed hardly say i&Dot the case. 
T<> **«ttwp diiinj," in oider to look 
mm MM aportmetit ia not neiarssarily to 
'^hok down Into.*' Again^ he says with 
efitti rcdk]esi]e«fli, that in the modem 
hn^mg dw totsb is Mreral fe«i above 
&e pftTcmeat of the Church, and if 
Am fCTSS3i«!it and the filliitg.up were 
nvrcd ibey muil ha^e Btood oo tip- 
tarn m hare looked ia. Benurdlno^a 
dawio^, which app^^r to be this 
flcndemKaV aythoHtT;, are partly in 
MCtaim aad partly in deration^ and his 
wnod-engTatO' by ^onTcrtizig the out- 
■idc into modern anict deration and 

exaggerating the msidc ha^ co£itriT«d to 
raise the floor of the cave about two 
feet above the pavement of the Church i 
hilt BemarditioS figure* (B2, ^) fe- 
present tlve nialljer very dii'erently, 
if the fact were so^ it h&^ no br&r. 
ing upon the question, for the rough 
rock about the £^piijchre mutt have 
been lo levelled m to change the re* 
lation of the outside to the floor of the 
chamber, which after all, like most of 
Uiese sepukhieSf was probably about 
the ft»me level aa tbe till of the outer 

31 r Fergu^Aon hafithus utterly failed 
in shewing either the probabiJity of the 
^akbtah cave having beeti intended for 
a lepukhre, or in demonstrating the 
ah^^urdity of nuppoi^lng the so- called 
Holy Sepulchre to be other than ^i 
artiflcial construction. Ui^ opintoni 
conconing the archi Lecture of the 
Aiosk of Oraar^ which he believei t0 
be the church of Constantine, shall he 
cooiidered in their proper place, 

I will only remark apon the total 
absurdity of locating a place of com- 
mon execution and sepulture clou 
undet- the walla and upon the same pi at^ 
form as the fsaored Temple of the Jewi«, 



[part II. 

the Holy Sepulchre. The buOdings that are attached 
to and partly surround it, will be understood by a 
comparison of the plans (Plate 2), with the sections 
(Plate 3) which represent the Church as it appears to 
have remained from the expulsion of the Crusaders in 
1187 to the fire of 1808, which I have termed the 
fourth period of the buildings. But it will be re- 
membered that the Crusaders found the Rotunda and 
some other buildings already erected, and that their 
works consisted of additions to those which already ex- 
isted, and in some necessary alterations. The works of 
the Crusaders are therefore distinguished from the 
earlier ones by a dificrent and lighter tint on the Plan« 
The Holy Sepulchre (1, 2, Plate 2)^ stands in the 
midst of the Rotunda, which was about seyenty-three 
feet in diameter', and the height of its walls about 

* The numbers which are introduced 
in parentheses in the text, are references 
to the plan, Plate 2. 

« The diameter of the central part 
is at present sixty-seven feet English, 
and the total interior diameter, measured 
from the walls of the surrounding aisle, 
is one hundred and twelve English 
feet. These are the measurements of 
Mr Scoles. The interior wall was so 
damaged by the fire of 1808 that it has 
been rebuilt, but this rebuilding ap- 
pears to have consisted in a mere casing 
of the interior surface, retaining the old 
vaults and triforium around ; hence the 
present diameter is less than the origi- 
nal one. But the diameter of the side- 
aisle was imaffected by the fire. Ber- 
nardino assigns 156 palms to this di- 
ameter (p. 33), and declares (p. 1) that 
he employs the '^canna ordinaria** 
which is used in the kingdom of 

Naples. If 166 palms are equal to 
112 English feet, it follows thai Us 
palm is equal to .718 £Dglish feet 
The nearest value to this in the ovdinaiy 
tables is the Roman canna d'architet- 
tura = .733 English feet, whidi appean 
to have been the measnie employed by 
him. The difference is easily aoeonDted 
for by the inaccuracy in the length of 
his measuring-rod. The icale wliidi 
is engraved on his plate is wholly at 
variance with the meaaures stated bt 
his text, and is clearly an engravoli 
blunder ; but if a new scale he drawa, 
by dividing the diameter of the i 
church upon his plan into 100 ] 
it will be found to correspond with all 
his measures. The diameter of the en- 
tral rotunda is stated to be one hmdred 
palms by Bernardino, that ia, leTcnty* 
three English feet. The diameter of 
the present one is only sixty-aeTcn. if 





«atty-eight, so that probably the height and diameter 

were intended to be equal. The walls are divided in 

the usiuU manner into three stories^ ground-floor, tri- 

forium, ftnd clerestory. 

^^ The numljer of piers on the ground-plan are cigh- 

^meBOi some of which are round pillars with eapitak, 

liMeSv and pedestals, and the others simple square piers. 

These two different forms are disposed of as follows. 

On the Norths the West, and the South, respectively, are 

placed a pair of square piers upon which rests an arch 

of A rather wider span than those that are interposed 

! between them* and which are sustained by the pillars. 

The East is distingmshed by a pair of larger and loftier 

pi^r^ aS a more complex character, sustaimng a wider 

(4) that rises into the triforiura of the Church, and 

serves as an arch of passage between the Rotunda 

and the Choir ; which latter part was erected by the Cru- 

ve reduce Bernardino's measures to 
Efiyliah, we find that the lower pillars 
stood oo pcdesuls five feet high ; and 
the piUan, including base and capital, 
were screnteen feet high. The entire 
height from the pavement to the floor 
of the txiforium was thirty feet, and as 
the whole height of every upper story 
was three-quarters of the one below it, 
the trifbrinm^pace was twenty-two feet, 
and the derestory-space sixteen feet ; the 
total height from the pavement to the 
topof the wall was therefore about sixty- 
ei^it feet. The precept for making a 
OBperior oider of columns one- quarter 
leas hi proportion than the inferior 
Older, is borrowed from Vitruvius (1. 5. 
c 1, and c 7)- Whence we may infer 
that the good father Bernardino only 

actually measured the lower story, 
which he gives in detail, and that he 
guessed at the height of the others by 
assuming them to have been erected 
upon a Vitru vian principle ; a very com- 
mon assumption with the architectural 
writers of his age. 

**I pilastri dunque della cupola 
maggiore itono alti da terra palmi sei e 
tre oncie. Le base due, le colonne 
sedici, e otto oncie, li capitelli quattro, 
e dieci oncie, e dalla superficie de capi* 
telli insino alia cornice sono palmi nove, 
e tre oncie, la cornice e palmi due, talche 
in tutto son palmi quarant* uno, e de 
gV altri ordini la quarta meno i^ pro- 

portione la cupola d alta palmi cin- 

quanu e in tutto sono di altezza 

palmi cento quaranta quattro." p. 96. 



[part II. 

sadersy whereas the Rotunda is the work of the Greek 
Emperor Monomachus, and was in existence before they 
obtained possession of Jerusalem. The large arch in 
question, in the original building, probably opened into 
a short chancel terminated by an apse, which apse the 
Crusaders removed, and erected their piers against the 
chancel-walls, in the manner shewn by the Plan, and 
which will be explained more fully below. 

The western face of this arch which fronted the 
Holy Sepulchre, appears to have been more highly or- 
namented with columns than the rest of the Rotunda. 
Unfortunately, the only view of the decoration of 
the arch is that given in the Travels of ZuaUardo^ 
which is evidently very inaccurate ; but it may be con- 
cluded that the piers of the arch were ornamented with 
tiers of columns in a manner somewhat analogous to the 
lower part of the West front of St Mark in Venice*, a 
Church erected in the Eastern style like that of our 
Rotunda, which resembles it also in the alternate dis- 
position of single arches on plain piers, and of groups 
of arches on pillars having bases and capitals. The 
Plan and Elevation will shew the order in which these 
pillars and arches are set between the piers. The 
pillars are represented in Le Brun's engraving with 
regular pedestals and Corinthian capitals ; but from the 
usual inaccuracy with which the artists of his time repre- 

' This view appears in the Traveb 
of Furer, a.d. 1565. It has been sug- 
gested to me that this and other similar 
engravings of the holy places were 
made for sale to the pilgrims, and 
thence copied into books of Travels. 

* S. Mark was founded a.d. 977 or 

in 1043, and was finished in 1071, ex- 
cepting the upper part of the West 
front. The rotunda of the Sepulchre 
was begun soon after 1010, and cairied 
on to its completion about thirty years 

CH. Ut] 



iHrnlcHl mediaeval buildings, we may infer that thiss only 
means that they had foliated capitab and pedestals of 
fiome kind or other^. 

The number of arches in the triforium are exactly 
equal to that of the pier-arches below, each over each, 
but the altematioo of square piers and round pillars fol- 
lows a different law. A plain arch, on piers, stands 
over iMieb ^milar plain arch below, at the cardinal 
potutB^ west, north, and south* Between these, however, 
tbe ftrches are disponed in pairs, with a pillar and pier 
alternately, as shewn in Plate 3, so as to make up, 
on the whole, ten square piers and eight round pU- 
lafd** Above the triforium is a clerestory-wall, in which 
are sunk arched panels, one over each of the arches 
below. These panels were ornamented with figures 
in mosaic, on a gilt ground*, having their names in- 
scribed over their heads, and holding tablets in their 
left hands, on which certain sentences were written, 
which may be found in Quaresmius. On the east and 
west sides, in this writer's time, the figures had all 
fallen to pieces; but on the south, towards the west, 
there remained the story of Tobias and the fish; 
and thence followed in order the Prophets Ezechiel, 

' Pedestals sometiroes occur in 
Greek churches, as in St Sophia and 
the church at Mistra. See Couchaud, 
^lises Byzantines de la Gr^ce. 

* The ten piers are exclusive of the 
piers of the eastern arch. This ar- 
rsngement of piers and pillars is de- 
scribed in the Italian original text of 
Zoallardo, who sutes that the church 
has ^ due chiostri, 6 anditi, 1* uno sopra 
r a]tro ; bora di due colonne quadre et 
uD pilaatio in mexio, et bora di due o 

tre, et una colonna.** p. 188, ed. Rom. 
1 587. But the sense is quite perverted in 
the French translations of this author. 

^ ^* Fatte di lavoro mosaico indo- 
rato,'' Zuallardo, p. 190. In Canina's 
great work, Dei Templi Christian!, a re- 
stored view of this church is attempted, 
but evidently very hastily and rashly 
executed. Amongst other unwarrant- 
able features he has inserted windows 
instead of the mosaic pannels of the 



[part II. 

Daniel, and Hosea; the Emperor Constantine, in a niche, 
in imperial robes, bearing in his right hand a cross and 
in his left a globe marked with a cross ; the Prophets 
Joel, Amos, and Obadiah. On the north side were the 
shattered remains of some effigies of the Apostles, with 
their names, as SS. Thomas, James, Philip, Matthew, 
Bartholomew, and Simon ; and in a niche in the middle, 
opposite to the Emperor Constantine, was the Empress 
Helena, similarly robed in a royal dress, bearing the 
cross and the globe, and having an Angel above. The 
names of the Emperor and Empress were repeated in 
Latin and in Greek. Those of the other figures and 
their accompanying sentences were in Latin only^. 

The roof of the Rotunda was of wood, built of 131 
squared cedars, in the form of a single cone truncated 
at the top, where the light was admitted through a 
circular aperture, twelve feet, or perhaps more, in dia- 
meter. And this was the only opening through which 
light entered into this part of the Church; but the 
example of the Pantheon at Rome shews that such 
a mode of admitting light from a single aperture at 
the crown of a dome, is amply sufficient. The wood- 
work of the roof had been ornamented with gilding and 
silvering. The top of the roof, or margin of the aper- 
ture, was 106 feet above the pavement. The ravages 
of the unhappy fire of 1808 were especially destruc- 
tive to the Rotunda, for its wooden roof fell a prey to 
the flames, and excited their fury to such an extent, by 

* I copy this description from Qua- 
resmius, (p. 368) who describes the de- 
corations of the whole church, as far as 
they remained, very minutely; other 

travellers merely allude to them ; but 
his residence at Jerusalem enabled him 
to collect these particulars at leirare. 

el] tbr cHCacE. ^^^f 303 

enabling them to ealeine and split the stone-work and 
nmrble columns, that it became necessary wholly to re- 
build the inner waU which we have been considering. 
Probably this rebuilding is a mere casing of the old 
nucleus ; and an experienced observer may yet find in 
the aisles and triforium traces enough to discover the 
exact dimensions of the parts I have been describing ; 
for the diameter of the new Rotunda is about six 
feet leas than that of the old one. The design is 
unfortunately wholly different, and of a most heavy 
and barbarous character, as may partly be seen in the 
vignette at the beginning of this volume, which shews 
the wall of the Rotunda in the back-ground. This hea- 
finess may be due to the fact of its bebg a casing of 
the old work. 

A vaulted eide-aisle encircles the Eotunda, but is 

cut off eastward by a straight wall that extends north 

and south from the piers of the great eastern arch in the 

manner shewn by the Plan. The aisle is concentric to 

the Rotunda for rather more than a semicircle westward, 

and this portion of the aisle is bounded by a thick wall 

containing three small apses (5, 7, 8) about twenty-three 

feet in diameter, of which the northern and southern 

are not placed exactly upon the diametral line, but so 

that the whole apse lies to the west of that line. This 

wall appears to have remained from a very early period, 

as it naturally would do, and may be supposed to have 

belonged to the church of Modestus, if not even to the 

original Basilica of Constantine. The three apses are 

expressly mentioned by Arculfus (a. d. 697) as also 

containing altars, but when the altars were removed or 

abandoned does not appear. The southern apse (5) 

was in the last century assigned to the Abyssinians, and 



[part U. 

is now, together with the adjoining aisle, in possession 
of the Armenians. 

The western apse (7), with the adjacent tomb of Jo- 
seph of Arimathaea (6) ah-eady described, is in the hands 
of the Syrians. The northern apse (8) has a door opened 
in its wall, and serves as a passage to the offices outside 
the Church, as well as to a cistern (10), termed the well 
of St Helena, which furnishes an abundant supply of water 
without any apparent spring or well, as Quaresmius re- 
lates ^ Near this door stands (or did stand before 1808) 
a marble font (9), square on the outside, but cut into the 
form of a rose within, the baptisterium of the old Church, 
in the words of Quaresmius^. In the triforium at the 
extreme west point was the original west door of the 
Church, by which it was entered from the contiguous 
street, before the Mohammedans obtained possession of 
the city. When they converted this Church into a source 
of revenue, by taxing the pilgrims, they carefully walled 
up every entrance to it excepting one door (56) in the 
south transept, to enable them more conveniently to 
collect the tax and prevent any person from evading it. 
The level of this western street is so much higher than 
the floor of the Rotunda, that it was found more con- 
venient to make the entrance into the triforium at once, 
than to descend to the lower level by steps from the 
street. The arch of this doorway may still be seen in 
Patriarch-street ; and is marked in the plan of Jerusa- 
lem which accompanies this work. A sketch of it by Mr 
Arundale, which is lying before me, shews the southern 

* "NuUus est fons vel puteus." 
Quar. 371. 

' <^ Pre foribus ostii est mannoreura 

vas quadnim, fonnam rose intus pre tt 
ferens.** Quar. 371 . It is marked in Bcr- 
nardino*s Plan (24) as the Greek iaaiL. 

CH- lit] THB CHUBCtI* ^^^™^ 20S 

half of till? hood or porch supported partly on corbels 
and partly on a coluiiiii, the lower part of which is en- 
veloped in masonry; and the northern half of this porch 
i& aljso walled up and concealed by a bridge which crones 
the street at Uiis point, connecting the two halves of the 
Greek convent* My section in Plate 3 exhibits its pro- 
bable original arrangement. 

This doorway is mentioned by Qnaresmius (p, 370), 
and also by Edrisi, in whose time it was in use, and as 
be says, " The Church is lower than this door, and there 
is no descent to the lower part from this side \ but on 
the north side is a door which is called the door of St 
Mary, leading to a staircase of thirty steps ^;-' The exact 
position of the staircase I have not been able to discover ; 
but it was plainly recjuired for the purpose of affording 
access from below to the triforium, as well as to enable 
persons who came in at the upper west door from the 
street, to descend and enter the church at the door below. 

The side aisle of the Rotunda has been already de- 
scribed as being concentric only in its western half; for 
the portions of this aisle immediately in contact with the 
straight wall which bounds the whole to the east, are of 
a square form, evidently contrived with respect to the 

' From the French translation of | lamps, and other matters of value for 
Edrisi by Jaubert, Paris. 1836. A ! the nervice of the church. These par- 
north triforium door and staircase are i ticulars appear from the account of the 
BkcntioDed by Bernardino, p. 3f>. Part fire in 1808. (See VV. Turner's Journal 
of the triforium on the north was in { of a Tour in the Levant, 1820. Vol. ii. 
later times fitted up for the use of the i p. 597.) The southern part was, and 
I ^rinf with four apartments, one of i still is, enclosed to serve as the great 
which contained an altar of St Dida- church of tlie Armenians; and here the 
cos ; behind which were two rooms, fire of 1808 began. There is a stair- 
ooe for the accommodation of pilgrims, case (HJ) in the south-east comer of 
aad another which served as a sacristy the aisle of the Rotunda, which leads to 
in which they kept their tapestry, this Armenian church. 



[part II. 

chapels, which are erected both on the north and south 
extremities of the aisle. On the north wall a door (16) 
opens to a single chapel, but from the south wall pro- 
jects a range of three chapels (65, 62, 61), the access to 
which from the Church is now blocked up, but it ¥ras 
formerly maintained by a door (66) in the south wall of 
the aisle, exactly opposite to that in the north wall (16) 
which still leads to the north chapel. 

This north Chapel is termed the Chapel of the Vir- 
gin Mary of the Apparition^ y because the tradition of the 
place is, that on this spot our Saviour appeared to his 
mother after the Resurrection. The floor is three or 
four steps higher than the pavement of the* Rotunda, 
and it has a recess to the east which was furnished with 
an apse, previously to the late repairs, as shewn in my 
Plan, but is now square, and in this recess is placed the 
Altar, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and serves 
as the High Altar of the Latins in this Church ; for the 
Greeks have possession of the real High Altar in the 
Choir of the Crusaders. The apse was semicircular 
within, but polygonal without, in the usual form of the 
Greek apses ; and in fact this Chapel is mentioned by 
Sa3wulf in 1102 ; and being therefore in existence before 
the Crusaders began their buildings, was evidently the 
work of Greek architects. 

On each side of the above-mentioned Altar is placed 
a subordinate Altar, >vith a recess or niche in the wall 
above it*. The niche over the northern side altar is 

' Sacellum Sanctie Marie VirginiK 
de Apparitione (Quaresmius, p. 568). 
It is a quadrangular apartment, twenty- 
one feet four inches broad, and twenty, 
eight feet long, according to Mr Scoles, 

exclusive of the altar recess, which u 
nine feet broad, and seven feet deep. 

' These recesses are about three feet 
high, and two wide. (Bemaidino, 31.) 
The side altars alio recal Greek ar- 





nad once to hare contaitied a piece of the true erosa^. 
Tlic niche above the southern Bide-altar contains a 
portjon of a eotiunn, nine inches in diameter, and about 
tlirce feet hig-h*, of fine porphyry, which goea by the 
n&me of the Column of the Flagetlatimi, professing to he 
a piece of the column to which our Saviour was bound 
atid scourged by the order of Pilate ^ 

md weif pt«bftblf thf 
1 ild^iabla of tfae Ea^iem Htu&I. 
In the Diidille of th« chmpcl there i» a 
fivj mJTble *Ub of three feet 
ir, inserted in the pavement, to 
mmk the tt»ditlan»1 spot whe^e the 
titftg cratiCi vef« laid after theif diM^a. 
^mrf hf & He]eo% md where the mi- 
n«li VM wroitfbt by whieJi the true 
CkOH wu distmgtmhed frcim the othen. 
( QuATesmlm, p. 363. ) 

*' Q Muewiii tu ittliUjet thit thli piece 
of the irwe Crow »i* left there bf the 
Emperor Metmcliitji, when he brought 
back thut relie front Pertilap ifi the ytar 
fSS, apoa vbich occmiion it won divided 
ujEo pieee&^ »nd variously diitribined, 
ooe of ihem being left at Jcruajdem, 
Bm tbU piece wu loKt at the battle of 
T'ihedm \ and when Father Baiiitkrius 
foiiad^ m already related, a relic in the 
Be|m]chTe during it* repdr in 1S55, 
wbleh he ^ded to be a piihce of the 
true Cro«9, he depo«ited it m chl?i 
Biehe, vhenee, as they saj, it w»s 
sittkn by the Anneni&nK. A% at[ 
eveocaf it ia not there now. (Quarr&- 
DiiQi^ pp. 383, 6U.) The existence 
«f Ehe ehapel ii oot mentlotted before 
Uig; and the aboTe-mentioned tmdi- 
tiDCi* nsnceming the depo&it of the 
Ovii here by IJeraclius, the pJace 
what. Hcleita cauted the three erodes 

CD be laid after they ware dug yp, fte, ; 
are manifestly of nubaequent Invention^ 
&s well aa the tale which FnliH telU, 
that tJiU chapel Rtatid^ oti the nite of a 
house in which the Wti^n took reftsge 
after the CntcifiJtion. < Vol, u p* tm.) 

* Aka pjihiii tre e tncto, e di diA* 
metro tin pahjso. (Bern. p. 31 ). 

* A coliimti, which was part of the 
itructureof the Church at Mount i^ion, 
[b tticntion^ with the legend in ques- 
tion by St JertJiiie, by the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim J Arculfui, and others. )t was 
broken by the Atohammedant^ but the 
pieeei are laid to hare been careftiliy 
collected ahotit the yewr 1 556* presented 
respectively to Pope Paul IV., Ferdi- 
n^id the Etuperor, Philip tl. of 8pam, 
and to the Venetian Republic, &c, &c. 
One fragment, hofte^er. »&« at the 
aanie time rMerved at Jerusalem, and 
located in the oicbc where it is now to 
be seen. A rival column of fUgeUation 
i^ preserved at Rome, in the church of 
S, Praxede; but 1 muit refer rny readen 
to Quaresin litis for a dbcUfisi(Mi of their 
respective claims to authenticity. 45*- 
wulf, in 1120^ immediately after the 
Crusaders* conquest, mentions a column 
of Bagel lation which wa* then placed 
between the Career Chritti and the 
place of tlie InventioQ of the Cfou. 



[part U. 

The whole chapel of the Apparition is the chapel of 
the Latin convent of the Franciscan Friars, and is fitted 
up with seats as a choir for them. Their dwellings 
are immediately in contact with the northern and west- 
em sides of it, as the Plan shews. They took possession 
of this locality in 1257', but were not fully established 
until 1342, when permission for their residence was 
obtained of the Sultan, at the intercession of Robert, 
king of Sicily, and his queen. The Greeks had pre- 
viously established themselves in the large church, of 
which they have retained their hold to the present 

But to return to the square vestibule of this chapel. 
On its East side was a small chapel of St Mary Mag- 
dalen, fitted up in what appears to have been originally 
a doorway (1 7), and has in the late repairs been made 
to return to that purpose. Next to this follows an 
arch (18), which opens to a long corridor (21) running 
Eastward and in contact with the North transept of 
the great Church, but evidently belonging to an earlier 
period, for it has pillars and arches on its Southern 
side, the spacing and arrangement of which are totally 
at variance with those of the greater building with 
which it is in contact. This appears at once by the 
plan, and there can be little doubt that this is the 
remains of a cloister which bounded the open area upon 

* Quaresmiuff, Lib. i. p. 17H. 

' Willibrandiu ab Oldenburg, in 
1211, found the Church with the Holy 
Sepulchre, and all that it contained, 
under the charge of four Syrian priexts, 
who were not allowed to leave the walls, 
but were left unmolested by the Sara- 

cens, ( p. 148, Leonis AIL Opnsc) In 
fact, the whole City was under the rule 
of the Eastern Church, until the Latins 
wrested it from them at the time of the 
Crusaders* conquest, and when the Ut- 
ter were driven out, the Eastenu re- 
sumed possession of the Holy places. 


. tlLJ THU CRUfiCH. ^^^F 209 

"whtcfa the Crusaders' clioir aiid central cuik>1ii was after- 
wmnlj e-reetocl Thm eloLster leads to a small, low, dark 
ttpartnient (23). wherein our Sariour is reported to have 
been confined during the preparations for the crueifixion, 

■irlienc*e it is called the Prison of Christ, The earliest 

^rriler that notices this prison i^ Sieviiilf (a-d, 1102), who, 
coumerattng the Holy Places w hieh are to be seen in the 
atrium of the Church, meations the ** prison where our 
Lofd was confined, according to the Syrian tradition ;" 
and the next is Epiphantu^, a Syrian monk, whose de- 

, «cription of the Holy Land is of uncertain date, but 
apparently about the end of the twelfth century. This 
primjn however is not alluded to by any other authors of 
thig period. In the sixteenth century and afterwards it 
bef^omes one of the ordinary Hatiom^ It is needless to 
add that there is not the slightest ground in Scripture, 

I or even in probability, for supposing that such a prison 
was employed. 

It is of an irregular form, nineteen feet long, and 
in width sixteen feet at the West end, and eighteen at 
the East. It is only eight feet in height^, is three steps 
below the level of the corridor*, has no window, and is 
described as being excavated in the rock : — I presume 
only the lower part of it, which, as Zuallardo tells us, 
seems to have been intended for a reservoir of water. 
Its roof is supported by two rude pillars which divide 
it into three aisles as it were, and an altar is fixed 

«' against its eastern wall. 

The southern chapels, (65, 62, 61), which stand 
directly opposite to the Chapel of the Apparition, are in 

' La volta e alu da terra palmi undici. (Bern'*. 31.) 
* Cotovicus, p. IHl. 

Vol. II. 14 



[part II. 

number three, and these are placed in a series ; they 
have polygonal Greek apses, and their doors were so ar- 
ranged that in the original state of this Church, as S»- 
wulf describes it, a person standing in the last or most 
southern chapel could see through all the five chapels 
in order from door to door, reckoning in the five the 
Rotunda, as well as the three southern chapels, and the 
northern Chapel of the Apparition. This account is 
perfectly consistent with the plan, which shews, sup- 
posing the doors to be now open, that a straight view 
might be obtained in the manner described^. 

The middle of these chapels (62) is named the 
Church of the Trinity both by Sffiwulf and the writer 
in Beugnot, and both mention the baptismal font which 
it contains ; the latter adding that all the women of the 
city were married in this Church, and all the children 
baptized there. Afterwards it became the Chapel of St 
Mary Magdalene, and is thus mentioned by W. Wey 
in 1447^, and by Saligniaco, Breydenbach, Quaresmius, 
and others. It is now the parish-church of the Greeks, 
and called the Church of the Ointment-bearers, that 
is to say, of Mary Magdalene and her companions'. 
In the Pilgrim's Guide it is marked as the " Church of 
the Resurrection." The font (63) is indicated in the 
Plan in the latter volume. 

The Chapel to the south (61) is termed by* S»wulf 
the Chapel of St James, as also in the Greek plan in 

* In Plate 2, the eastern front of the 
chapels which form the west side of the 
court of the Church, is accurately laid 
down from Mr Scoles* measurements. 
The chapels themselves still exist, 
as do the doors, but I have no other 
authority for their interior arrangement 

than a wretchedly-cozistnicted Greek 
Plan in the lipovKMinrTdpiov by Chiy* 

' Itinerarium W^ Wey, in the Bod- 
leian. He says it was in pomfsiion of 
the Nestorians. 

' Mark xri. 1; Luke xziiL 58. 

the Pilgrifn*^ Guide. It appears to be only parted oW 
from the chapel of St Mary Magdalene, and is there- 
fore not mentioned by many writers, Quaresmius de- 
iKsribes the latter chapel as having on each side alters 
of St Nicolas and St Andrew, and adds, that 8ome have 
held tliat St JameSt the first biahop of Jerusalem^ called 
the brother of our Lord, eolebrated mass* and was 
coasecmted here^, 

ITie remaining chapel (65) of this group, which lies 
betwieen the chapel of St Mary Magdalene and the 
iotitli wall of the Rotunda, is, in fact, the lower story of 
the catnpianile of the church* Siewidf mentions it as 
tlie Chapel of 8t John, and in connexion with the 
Chapel of St Mary of the Apparition, which is placed 
to A similar manner on the north side of the Rotunda. 
He supplies a key to the aiTangements by saying, that 
even as S> Mary and S. John stood on either side of 
our Lrord during his passion, so are their chapels placed 
on each side of the church. It is also called the 
Chapel of St John the Evangelist, and of the Forty 
Martyrs, in the Pilgrim's Guided Other >vriters term 
it simply the campanile. 

This campanile, which seems to be gradually falling 
to decay, was a noble tower of five stories. Unfortu- 
nately, the drawings which are given by Breydenbach, 
Zuallardo, Bernardino, and Le Brun, differ so absurdly 
from each other in many respects, that it is scarcely 
credible that they are intended for the same object*. 

* Qaaresmiuft, T. ii. p. 576. 

' A tract in Leonis Allatii Opusc. 
p. 91, bj a member of the Greek 
ClniRli, dencribes the three chapels of 
tlM Atriom as those of the Anastasis, 
the Port J AlartjTs, and St James. 

" The models in the British Mu- 
seum appear to offer an exceedingly 
faithful representation of it. From them, 
and from Le Brun, I have principally 
derived the sketch in Plate 3. (Vide 




[part II. 

The three lower stories still exist, and have been sketched 
by Roberts and other modem artists, from whose repre- 
sentation it appears that the arches of the windows are 
pointed. The lower story has been just described as 
the Chapel of St John, with a polygonal apse ; the next 
story had on the sides that were free from buildings a 
single pointed arch, the space of which was occupied 
by three subordinate arches and a quatrefoil opening 
over them in the usual Romanesque manner. This arch 
is shewn in the modern sketches, but is walled up, so 
that the description of the filling-up is, in fact, conjec- 
turally supplied from Bernardino and Zuallardo; the 
third story ^ rises clear of the roof, and has two plain 
pointed >vindows on each face, which still remain : the 
eastern face has shafts. The fourth and fifth stories have 
fallen down, but were standing in 1678, when Le Brun's 
sketch was made. The fourth had two large arches on 
each face, each arch being subdivided into two, which 
rested on a single shaft in the middle, and had a quatre- 
foil over. The fifth story had each face divided into 
three arches, of which the side ones were panels only, 
and the middle was open as a window, and was sub- 
divided by a shaft like the arches of the fourth story. 
Brcydenbach (1483) represents the tower complete with 
a corbel-table, a parapet rising and falling in steps, and 
the whole surmounted with a leaden octagon dome* 
having gables on each face. But whether this is supplied 
from his fancy, or whether the roof really existed in his 
time, it is impossible to say. The sketches that succeed 
Breydenbach*s exhibit a gradual degradation. The roof 

> The third, fourth, and fifth story 
appear, in Plate 3, rising above the 
roof. It is difficult to ascertain the 

exact height, but it could not haie 
been less than 130 feet to the top of the 

] THE CHURCH. ^^^F 213 

^disappeared in ZuaUardo^s view, 1586; Lc Brim's, 
8, appears to be id the same state; but now the 
Jtwo upper stories have faUeo. 

^P There arc four buttresses, which project in the 

eBSt and west direction only, and rise nearly to the 

top of the fourth storj^ ; the general style of the archi- 

L^tecture appears similar to that of the churches in 

RKciIj; for example, to the campanile of the church 

colled La Martorana in Palermo*. 
^^ I have now described the Rotunda mth its adhering 
^^kapek, and vnth the corridor, which leads to the so- 
^Mlled Prison, All this group existed when the Crusaders 
^pbtered Jerusalem, erected especiaUy with reference to 
the great object which originated the whole mass of 
I bitildingB* namely, the Holy Sepulchre. But three other 
I prtocipal Holy Places were situated in the immediate 
J neighbourhood, besides several subordinate ones. To 
use the words of the eotemporary chronicler William of 
T^Te, " Previous to the entry of our Latin people into 
Jerusalem, the place of our Lord's Passion, called Calvary 
or Golgotha, and the place where the wood of the Life- 
giving Cross was discovered, and lastly, the place where 
the Tvord's Body, when taken down from the Cross, was 
anointed, embalmed, and ^Tapped in fine linen, were 
exceedingly small oratories on the outside of the great 
Church. But after, by the Divine assistance, our people 
had obtained possession of the city, the aforesaid Church 
appeared to them too small. Having therefore augment- 
ed it with the most solid and lofty work, working in and 

* Engraved by Gaily Knight, and 
by Gailhabaud in his Monuments 
Anckns et Modemes. See also Cou- 

chaud, Eglises Byzantines de la Or^ce, 
for a view of the tower of the Church 
I of the Virgin at Mistra. 



[part II. 

connecting the old with the new, they marvellously con- 
trived to include the aforesaid holy places ^" 

Of these places the Calvary or projecting rock, upon 
which it was believed the Cross was planted, is situated 
immediately to the east of 47 in the plan, and to the 
west of it is the place of Anointing (50). The place where 
the Cross was found by St Helena, is at the eastern 
extremity of the buildings (33), and on a much lower 
level, as the section (Plate 3) shews. 

These places were brought into the present connected 
series of buildings in the following manner. Removing 
the apse, which I have supposed to have closed the short 
chancel (4) of the Botunda, the present choir, furnished 
with its circumscribing aisle and radiating chapels, was 
erected to the east of it in the form then employed in 
many parts of western Europe, and with pointed arches. 
A central cupola was placed upon four piers, so adjusted 
in position that the south transept should include the 
place of Anointing, and range properly with the three 
south chapels, so as to form a court of entrance. Room 
was also then left on the eastern side to adjust the 
chapel of Calvary, in connexion with the new transept. 

' " Porrd ante nostrorum Latinonim 
introitum locus Dominies passionin qui 
dicitur Calvaria sive Golgotha, et ubi 
etiam vivificec Crucis lignum repertum 
fuisse dicitur, et ubi etiam de Cruce de- 
positum Salvatoris Corpus unguentis 
et aroniatibus dicitur delibutum et syn. 
done involutum, sicut mos erat Judsis 
sepelire, extra prsdictse ambitum erant 
Ecclesifip, oratoria valde modica. Scd 
postquam nostri, opitulante divini cle- 
mentis, urbem obtinuerunt in manu 
forti, visum est eis . prsedictum nimis 

I angustuni a^ificium : et ampliaU ex 
opere solidissimo et sublimi admodom 
Ecclesia priore, intra novum mdificiam 
veteri continuo et inserto, miiabilita 
loca comprehenderunt pradicta.** W. 
Tjrr. Lib. Tin. c. 8. 

King Godfrey also instituted Canam 
with Prebendsy and gave them habita- 
tions about the Church, Lib. ix. c 9; 
and caused bells to be caat for tlie 
Church. Alb. Aquensis, Lib. vi. c 
40. (p. 285.) 





The place of the Invention of the Crom was neces- 
fiarily excluded from the new church, which however 
WM so connected with the chapel of St Helena as to 
afford access to it by means of a door (28) and stairs 
I leading from the eastern aiale or '' procession path/' 
in a manner that wiU be fuUj explained as we pro- 
oee4i» and which indeed is shewn by the dilfereiit tints 
I o f the plan. 

^ft The great eastern arch (4) of the Rotunda commu^ 

^nieat^ immediately with the central lantern (43) of the 

choir. This lantern stands upon four noble piers, the 

centres of which are distant forty feet from east to 

wegt, and forty-three from north to south. 

The opposite faces of the piers were distant thirty- 
one feet ten inchest and their height including base and 
capital was fifty-two feet^ which, being by a singular 
ooineidenee the very dimensions of the tower-arches 
of Winchester and Peterborough, may at once give a 
correct idea of the magnitude of this church, and shew 
that its proportions were Homanesque^. Tlie form of 
ttese piers too was strictly Romanesque, having square 
pier-edges alternating with shafts in a manner that is 
§u£ciently familiar now to the merest tyro in archi- 
tecture ; but seems sorely to have puzzled the draughts- 
men and engravers of old, to judge from the various re- 
presentations which are given of them. In Bernardino's 
fkB the plinths only are seen. In Zuallardo's pkn the 

■ The pier* of Winchester tower ate 
Htf -three fees in height, from the Boar 
•f ib£ O^gaicpi, and ihcir opptMitc faces 
ibiTtr-tvo feet asunder, which are *iko 

:_ ._:_.^ 01 Peterborough. The 

cfaurcfa of S. Martin at Cologne has 
picn fifty -tire feet high, thirty feet 

apart. Thirty feet, more ot le^, li a 
very comioon width far large churcbfi, 
and may probabiy be deriired from the 
twenty cubit width of Solomon's Tem- 
ple; a i:ubit beiti^ fiboyt eightttn 


attached shafts ore distinctly shewn, but not very ac- 
curately, and they appear in some of Bernardino's 
elevations, but not in others, evidently not being under- 
stood by the engraver. In Le Brun's interior view of 
the choir they are delineated as well as could be ex- 
pected for that period, and his text describes them un- 
mistakeably. " By grouped columns I understand great 
columns composed of several smaller ones attached one 
to the other ; or rather, one great column which seems 
to have others attached to its outer surface. These are 
alternately square and round; and some of those in 
question are so large that they appear made up of ten, 
and even as many as sixteen, of these smaller one8\" 
The great eastern tower-piers have actually sixteen, if 
we reckon shafts and square edges, proceeding in order 
round its circumference*. 

Upon the pointed arches of these four piers was 
erected a circular tanibour-wall or lantern, resting on 
pendentives, and crowned with a cupola. The wall was 
ornamented with an arcade, which, as shewn in the 
section, consisted of sixteen arches decorated with 
shafts, three to each pier, and forty-eight in all, as Le 
Brun describes. The arches are circular, at least they 
so appear in Le Brun's view, (grievously distorted by 
his bad perspective,) as also in the model in the British 
Museum. They were alternately pierced for windows, 
and the outside of the wall had four broad pilasters 
opposite to the cardinal points respectively, with two of 
these windows between each. 

Breydenbach's view also shews the ruins of a small 

' Lc Brun, p. 28!i. Ed. 1714. ; the four great pointed arches above them, 

' These piers still exist, as well as ; but the cupola was destroyed bj the fire. 

mU Bk] TMLM OHUKOB. 317 

«died' kudtern on the top of the cupola. This oupola 
VBB — eended by a spiral external stair formed upon its 
•orlheiii snrfoce, as Le Bnm*s view shews it. The 
altitade of the crown of the cupoU from the payement 
ivas 166 pahns or 114 English feet The great tower 
avdies were pointed and had three orders of youssoirs as 
wen as all the arches and windows of this part of the 
Oiurch. This character, which never appears in the 
avdies of Greek medieval buildings, effectually iden- 
tifies these portions with the Crusaders, and separates 
them ttom the Rotunda and the chapel of Helena, in 
which the arches are simple. 

The eastern tower-arch opens to the presbytery of 
the cruciform structure, which is terminated by an apse. 
*The seats of the choir are placed under the central 
Isntem. It must be remembered that this Church was 
erected for the Latin service ; that when it was finished 
a convent of Augustinian Canons was placed in posses- 
sion of the whole; and that after the Latins were 
driven out by Saladin, the Greeks obtained this choir, 
and have retained it ever since. Accordingly it is now 
fitted in their manner with a huge Icanostasis, or screen 
with three doors, cutting off the apse and half the re- 
mainder of the presbytery where the high altar is placed, 
and having its side tables against the piers from whence 
the apse springs. But, apart from these characteristics, 
the Altar (38) stands e>ddcntly on its Latin site upon 
the diametral line of the apse ; and the Greek choral 
stalls under the lantern cupola arc in the very position 
that the Latins would have placed them, and probably 
did so'. 

* The length of the choir and pres- 1 ap»e wall, is ninety-eight feet» and the 
bytcry tugethcr, from the screen to the | breadth ia forty feet, more or 1cm. 



[part II. 

The western screen is fixed under the western 
arch (4) of the lantern, and divides the choir from the 
Rotunda, communicating on the same level with the 
platform which leads to the Holy Sepulchre. 

In the middle of the choir, the writer in Beugnot 
places a lectern of marble, called le Campos, where the 
Epistle was read. But SsBwulf tells us that the place 
called Compas was at the Caput, or extremity of the 
Round Church of the Sepulchre, and was held to be the 
centre of the world: an absurdity which is retained 
to the present day*. The extremity of the Rotunda, 
as it stood in SaBwulf 's time, exactly coincides with the 
middle of the Crusaders' choir. This supposed centre 
is first mentioned by Bemardus (a.d. 870)*. 

The western arch (4) which connects the Rotunda with 
the choir, is described by Quarcsmius as having been de- 
corated with mosaic work, of which sufficient remained 
to shew that above it, to the west, was a representation 
of the Annunciation, apparently in the spandrils of the 
arch, one containing the figure of the Angel, and the 
other that of the Virgin. The soffit itself had a mosaic 
of the Ascension, with inscriptions in Greek and Latin. 
The eastern apse and the vault of the choir were also 
decorated with mosaics of figures on gilt grounds. 

The apse had four double pillars sustaining pointed 

* This tradition appears to originate 
from a strange interpreution of the fol- 
lowing passage of the Psalms, which is 
quoted hy the various authors on this 
subject. Psal. Ixxiii. 12 : "Deus autem 
Rex noster ante sscula, operatus est 
salutem in medio terra; ;" or, in our ver- 
sion, Ps. Ixxiv. 12 : '^ For God is my 
King of old, working salvation in the 

midst of the earth.** Fabri tells an 
amusing story of one of his companioiis 
who paid a large sum for permiisiaD to 
ascend to the top of the cupola, in order 
to satisfy himself if he were really orer 
the centre of the earth, by obseiring 
whether or no the sun gave him a 
shadow at noon. 

trehes and resting upon seven marble gradations, which 

occupied the whole semicircle like a theatre ; and on 

their guntmit, at the eastern extremity, and under the 

eastern central areh, was placed the marble chair of the 

Palri^^h. The pavement was of the best and most 

ortiste workmanship, and had an altar in the midst, of 

I dabcirate conjitruction, decorated with precious marbles 

and small columns, but these had been so battered by 

the infidels, that Qimresmius relates there were scarcely 

left fragments enough to shew what it had once been. 

A smaller Altar, after the Greek fashion (namely the 

Attar of Prothesis), was placed on the north side (39), 

near the pier in advance of the High Altar, and dedi^ 

eated to the three Kings, 

^m On each side, and against the eastern piers of the 

Hbwer, were two platforms (40, 41), each ascended by 

^Bn «fceps> and each originally intended to receive two 

f{QT, as some say, one) marble Patriarchal chair, Tliese 

four chairs, according to the Greeks, were provided for 

the four Patriarchs of Constiintinople, Alexandria, An- 

tioch, and Jerusalem. 

An aisle surrounds the presbytery and apse, commu- 
nicating on each side with the transepts, and forming 
the usual procession-path of the Romanesque Churches. 
Three apsidal Chapels radiate from the aisle, and alter- 
nating with them are four doors, as shewn in the Plan*. 
Of the Chapels, the north-eastern (25) is dedicated to 
St Longinus ; and here was formerly preserved a relic 
which was believed to be the actual title which Pilate 
affixed to the Cross 3. The eastern Chapel (27) is called 

* The chapels are marked, 25, 27, I ^ This relic however was removed 
34, and the doors 24, 26, 28, 35. ' to Rome, where it may be seen in the 



[part «. 

the Chapel of the Division of the Vestments ; and the 
south-eastern (34), the Chapel of the Mocking ; in the 
latter of which is preserved under the Altar a column 
reported to have been brought from the house of Pilate, 
and upon which the soldiers seated the Saviour when 
they crowned him with thorns and derided him^ Of the 
four doors above-mentioned, the first on the north (24) 
was formerly the passage from the Church to the Dormi- 
tory and Convent of the Canons in the time of the Cru- 
saders. The second (26), in its original state, was pro- 
bably a window. The third (28) leads by a descending 
stair to the Chapel of St Helena. And the fourth, the 
last (35) on the south, to an ascending stair which con- 
ducts to the apartments occupied by the Greeks. 

But to return to the third door. This conducts by 
a long descending stair of thirty steps in a narrow 
passage partly formed in the rock, to the large Chapel 
dedicated to St Helena, the floor of which is fifteen 
feet nine inches below that of the Rotunda*. It is 
nearly square, being forty-three feet in width, and fifty- 
one in length from the foot of the stairs to the spring 
of the apse, which apse is six feet deep. The Chapel 
is divided icto three aisles by two columns on each 

church called **S. Croce in Gierusa- 
lemroe.'* Quaiesmius, T. ii. p. 397> 
Longinus is the name given in the spu- 
rious Gospel of Nicodemusto the soldier 
who pierced the side of our Saviour, and 
is accepted by the Romish Church. 

* Saewulf, in 1102, enumerates the 
loctu where the Cross was found, the 
marble column of Flagellation, the locus 
where the Lord was stripped of his gar- 
ments, the locus where the purple robe 
and aown of thorns were put on, and 

where the soldiers cast lots for the vest- 
ments. As this passage was written 
before the Crusaders' Church was com- 
menced, it appears that these iod are 
local, probably Syrian, tnditioiis, and 
were accommodated by the Crusaders 
in the Plan of their apse, as explained 
above. They are not mentioned, how- 
ever, by any other writers until the 
sixteenth century, as far as I have ex- 
amined them. 

' On the authority of Mr Scoles. 


ride* Tlicse carry pointed arches and a stone vault, 
hut the eentni! compartuicnt rises into a cupola, ha\4tig 
a low tatnbour and four windows^ which ai-e the only 
sfourccs of light to the ChapeL There is an admirable 
view of the interior in Roberts' Palestiue, which may 
be compared mth one engraved in the *'Univers/' From 
these it seems that the architecture of this Chapel is 
mamTe* rude, and crypt-like, the columns of a dwar&sh 
proportion, mth capitals apparently of early Byzantine 
diaracter, having the peculiar hemispherical form and 
reticulated ornament, surmounted by leaves, that often 
appciin« in that style. It waa not aflfected by the fire 
Iff 180a 

Tliis Chapel, in every respect in its plan^ resembles 
ft «$mali Greek Church, having a narthex or vestibule at 
the we^t end separated from the rest of the Church by 
square cruciform piers, a cupola iu the middle resting 
on four round pillars, and eastern apses (29, 30), which 
are in this case confined to two in number, on account 
of the steps (32) which descend to the Chapel of the 
Invention occupying the place usually assigned to the 
southern apse. Amongst Greek Churches many of a 
similar plan may be seen, as for example, La Martorana 
in PaleiTuo, the Church of Kapnicarea at Athens, (Cou- 
chaud. PI. 15), the Church of the Theotoeos at Con- 
stantinople, and many others. The vaulting is, however, 
diflTerently managed, and may have been reconstructed 
by the Crusaders. But I am of opinion that they found 
this Church in existence, and merely repaired and adapted 

it to their new building. 

The want of symmetrical position with respect to 

the Crusaders' apse, and the intrusion of the stairs into 



[part II. 

the narthexS also shew that this Chapel was in existence 
before the apse of the great Church was planned. 

The central altar is dedicated to St Helena, and the 
northern altar to the Good Thief, or to his cross*. On 
the North (31) side is a patriarchal chair of marble, 
usually said to be that in which Helena sat while they 
were digging in search of the Cross. 

The southern aisle of the Chapel, in lieu of an apse, 
has a descending stair (32) of twelve steps, and a door- 
way which leads to an irregularly-shaped apartment (33), 
about twenty feet across, excavated in the rock^, the 
floor of which is eleven feet below that of the Chapel of 
St Helena. The sides are disposed in the form of an 
irregular pentagon, and the low roof is partly artificial 
and partly formed by the overhanging rock. Quaresmius 
describes it as appearing to have been a reservoir of 
water. This is the place where the three Crosses, the 
crown of thorns and the nails, the title, &c. are sup- 
posed to have been found when the rubbish which had 

* According to the minute Fabri, the 
siden of the passage, in which the de- 
scending staircase is placed, are cut in 
the rock, the surface of which still forms 
the walls thereof. But the steps them- 
selves are of stone ; also the walls of 
the chapel itself are rock. " H«bc ca- 
pella est satis magna, alias parietes non 
habens nisi petras, in quibus est incisa; 
sicut et ipsi gradus de superiori eccle- 
sia inter parietes petrarum descend- 
ant,** (p. 293.) He had just stated that 
this descent was by " gradus lapideos.** 
Quaresmius (p. 408) makes them 29 
steps, " ex dolata marmore elaborati.'* 
In fact, the site of the chapel is a rect- 

angular, dry cistern, as it were, sunk in 
the rock, and the passage formed in an 
artificial cleft, cut into the western side 
of this cistern. In the original con- 
struction, I imagine the stairs were set 
farther west in this cleft, so as to leave 
the narthex free. Now, the steps are 
driven so far east by the Cruuden* 
apse, that they occupy the whole of the 
center of the narthex. 

' Quaresmius, p. 423. 

^ Richardson describes it as a low 
rocky vault and a murky den. Urge 
enough to contain thirty or forty per- 
sons wedged in close array. Vol. ii. 
p. 325. 


neenmvlated in this cavem was cleared out under the 
superintendence of St Helena a,d, 326 or 327. The 
apartment is accordingly named the Chapel of th^ Inven- 
tion 6/ tJis Orom; and in the North-eastern comer an 
altar is placed in a rude apse upon the sspot where the 

posed Cross lay hid for three centuries. 

On the North side of the descent is a fissure of the 
rock, which is quoted by some as one of the rents that 
accompanied the Crucifixion, but which Quaresinius 
declares to be mamfestlj an artificial opening, and no 
other than the proper canal or conduit which belonged 
to the original employment of this cavern as a cistern* 

another ingtance of the tendency to explain every 
^ipearanee about this spot in miraculous connexion 
with the events commemorated there, the dew-dropii 
that naturaUy hang on the surface of the damp walls 
md columns, were believed by the pilgrimg to be tears 
ahed by the yqtj stones in sympathy with the events 
that took place on this spot. 

The above description of the East end of the Church, 
with its chapels and appendages, may be compared with 
that given in Beugnot*, which explains admirably the 
arrangement of the Convent of the Canons. 

" At the chevet or apse of the choir there was a door 
on the right hand, by which the Canons entered to 

* Assises de Jerusalem, Tome ii. 
p. 531. Schultz's Jerusalem, p. 109. 
"A u cheves dou cuer a voit une porte, par 
la oil li chanoine entroient en leur offe- 
ciiies, a mein desire. Entre cele porte et 
nont de Calvaire avoit i. mout parfont 
foM^, ou en avaloit a degres. La avoit 
Die place que en apeloit Sainte He- 
laine. ttk trouva Sainte Helainne la 
cnris et les clous et le martel et la 

courone....Tout ainsi que li chanoine 
issoient dou sepulcre, a mein senestre 
estoit leur dortoirs, et k mein destre 11 
refrotois et tenoit au mont de Calvarie. 
Entre ces ii. offices estoit leur clistres 
et leur preaus. En un lieu du peel 
avoit une grant ouverture, dont onveoit 
en la chambre Elaine qui dessous estoit, 
car autrement n*i veoit on goute.** 


their apartments. Between this door and Mount Calvary 
was a door or passage, excavated downwards to some 
depth, where there were steps, and at the bottom a place 
called of Sainte Helaine, and there S. Helaine fowid 
the cross, and the nails, and the hammer, and the crown. 

And when the Canons issued from the Sepulchre, 

on the left was their dortoir, and on the right their 
refectory, against the Mount of Calvary. Between these 
two oflBces was their cloister, with the preau or court 
in the midst. In one place of this building was a great 
opening, through which could be seen the chamber of 
Helaine below, and this was all that could be seen of it." 

At present the space at the East end of the Church 
is occupied by a Coptic Convent, and, according to the 
description given me by Mr Williams of their buildings, 
I conjecture that they must contain the remains of the 
very dormitory and cloister above described ; for to this 
day their court is formed upon the roof of the chapel 
of St Helena, the cupola of which rises in the middle, 
and through its windows a view may be had of the 
chapel below, as Beugnot describes. On the South side 
a wall with pointed arches must clearly be the ruins of 
the refectory ; and on the North of that is a flourishing 
olive-tree, which is believed to be the very tree in which 
Abraham found a ram caught by the horns. 

But, to return to the interior of the Church. It will 
be remembered that the choir is placed under a central 
lantern cupola, and has a transept to the North and 
South. The North transept of the Church presents 
nothing remarkable, and I will therefore proceed to 
describe the parts that lie to the South of the choir. 
The South transept has several irregularities in its ar- 
rangement, which arise from the earlier buildings which 



existetl when it was erected, and to which its 
phli was made subservient. Tlie Chapels of Mount 
Calwarj, which lie on its eastern side, are those which 
hare principally afieeted it. 

The central portions of the Church are constructed 

in the usual manner in three stories, namely, pier*arch, 

triforium, and clerestory. The floor of the triforium is 

about thirty-three feet above the pavement of the Church. 

The triforium-gallery runs not only along the east and 

west walls of the South transept, but also across its 

iouthem walL This south wall of the transept contains 

t double-arched doorway (55, 56), and is indeed now the 

only entranee-front of the Church, On the inside, oppo- 

Kie to the middle pier of the door, is placed a double 

eoluron, which supports the arches and vault that carry the 

triforium-gallery across the South end of this transept** 

The eaatem wall of the transept has three arches 

between the lantem-pier and the south walL The most 

northerly of these arches (46) is as high as the other pier- 

irches of the Church, and opens to the sideaisle or 

ppocession-path of the presbytery. But the other two 

tidies are much lower, for behind them an intermediate 

Tiult is introduced, carry inn;' a floor *>nly fifteen feet 

above the iiavement of the Church. 

This intermediate or mezzanine floor extends con- 
siderably to the East; and by comparing the plan of it 
^%. 5) vrith the ground-plan of that part of the Church 
^iich lies below it, this somewhat complex arrangement 
*iD he evident^* 

' In t]» aoith tfatiicpc the trifanum 
jj%n«97 niiu or er th e an den t doi »ltr (2 1 ). 

^TbcKctiofi in Fij;. 10, Plate 3, will 
^if^jji the tnAzinfr In whirb the iUfhcc 

of the Rock forms pari of the floor of 
the upp«r chapchi, and how thin floor h 
carried on westward hj meimi of the 





The mezzanine floor comprises twd principal chapeb, 
called the Chapel of the ExaUatUm of the Cross (72, 73), 
and the Chapel of the Crucifixion (71), respectively; also 
a small lateral building (70) or porch, by which a flight 
of steps (54) descends to the court, so as to give in- 
dependent access to the chapels from ¥dthout. On the 
East side are some buildings occupied by the Greeks, and 
two small chapels (74), called the Chapels of Abraham 
and Melchisedech. The whole of this eastern appendage, 
and part of the Chapel of the Exaltation, rests upon the 
surface of the rock, which rises so high above the rest 
of the Church, as to form a pavement on the level di 
the mezzanine floor. But the remainder of the Chapel of 
the Exaltation and the entire Chapel of the Crucifixion, 
together with the porch, have their pavements (the mez- 
zanine floor) supported by the intermediate vault, and 
beneath them the space is occupied by a Chapel (47) 
which has received different names, out of which we may 
select that of the Chapel of Adam; and also by two other 
apartments (51, 52), and a small chapel (53) under the 
porch. We may now examine these chapels in detail, 
and begin with the North chapel of the mezzanine floor. 

About nine feet of the eastern end of the floor of 
this chapel is rock, which rises slightly above the general 
level, and has its upper surface covered with white marble 
slabs, which raise it altogether two feet above the pave- 
ment. Three feet from the front of this raised part and 
in the centre, is situated the hole, which is said to be the 
very hole in which the foot of the Cross was planted. 
The cavity is about two feet deep and six inches in dia- 
meter, but was lined and garnished with silver plates'. 

1 Qiuuresmius gives an engraving I tion : the plaUs bore date I80k The 
and varioiu particulars of this decora- | chapel is fifteen feet leren inches widi 

11* lit ] 



altar b placed above it* and the chapel Is in tlic 
tody of the Greeks. 

Two other holes are situated, the one to the right 
id the other to the left of the central oocj and six feet 
e inehes distant from it, measured from centre to 
ntre. They are set in a line about eighteen inehea 
ler eastward than the middle one. 
Notwithstanding their proximity, they are beheved 
to have been made to receive the crogseB of the thieves : 
the good tliief to the north, the bad thief to the south ^, 
This chapel (72, 73) is termed by the Latins the 
G^ptl of th€ ExaU€^i<m of ilis CrosSt to distinguish it 
from the neighbouring chapel (71) on its south side, 
which they call the Chapel of the Cniei^mit asserting 
at the Body was naUed to the Cross in the south 

Nrvecn the pieri, and tbirti^-slx feet 
bj|f. On the north side of the chapel 
iifiTTtav (4£ J led down to the Bide^aUle 
el the ehdlr, tad was the anly access to 
diii floof after the origmal cjCEcmal 
pwtb ftod stairt were blocked up by the 
UtihunmedAcs. But since the tire of 
iUB tbe tpace of these chapel a haa been 
wlMT^eA bf the ttdditJon of a gaJIerj 
ED front of the western wall, projeet- 
m^ amc feet into the »oiith transepL 
TMi gmllery contains two itaircasei, 
WplMiLndj Tor the conrcRietice of con< 
ducting; the crovd of pilgrims up one, 
■a^ dovn the other, in order. AUo the 
intem^ediAfc fioor of Calvary has beeti 
into the wuth aUle of the 
T, which is Eiow coniplete^sr covered 
bj it, fiom ttH opening in the south 
crtfitept CO the chapel of the Mocking, 
tb«* ^ortnifiLg a cctnTenient accej^i from 
Ebe cfa^pel of the Exaltation of the 
CiOMt, which belong* to the U reeks, to 

theft kitchen behind ^ and to their other 
d*'e)1ing apAnitient«, which arc above 
the kitchen, and al»o,bj means of stain, 
to their choir. A umall gangway ap- 
pears ulwiiys to have existed between 
the small door near the foot-hole of the 
Crosfl and the Uieek kitehen, Thi» ii 
(icen in the aection, Plate 3. The fire 
broke oiit m tbe Armeniati Church, 
which b in the weatern thforiutn of the 
south tmnaept (over (iti), oppoeite to the 
Chapeb of Calvary ; and consequently 
so damaged those Chapelt and the 
whole transept as lo necesaiiate much 
lebuilding, restoration, and change, by 
which theb venerable and ancient cha~ 
racter ha* been wholly deatioyed. 

' In all probability^ the three hole* 
were originally made to receive a rs- 
presentation of the Crurifixion* The 
south chape) ii narrower ihan the other, 
{ehirteen feet three tnch^ vide,) but 
about the same lengthy 

15— a 



chapel, and the Cross afterwards raised up and fixed in 
the hole of the northern chapel. 

The south chapel (71) is, nevertheless, an upper floor, 
raised upon a vault, and the apartment below it is used 
for a vestry, and appears to be held in no veneration 
whatever. This anomaly is alluded to by Quare8mius^ 
and he suggests that the earth beneath the pavement 
has been removed for the convenience of the structure, 
or because St Helena conveyed it to Rome, so that the 
spot above, upon which he would have us believe the 
crucifixion to have taken place, is yet in the true position 
in space, although the ground has been taken from under 
it. But, in fact, this especial tradition is not mentioned 
by any of the pilgrim-writers, until long after the ex- 
pulsion of the Crusaders ; and the probable explanation 
of its history is, that when the Latins, upon their return 
to the Church in 1257, found the Greeks in possession 
of the hole in the rock and its chapel, they set up a 
claim in the side-chapel to a spot of similar sanctity in 
connexion with the events that took place on this local- 
ity. And the same may be said of the absurd tradition 
mentioned below, that places the witnesses of the Cruci- 
fixion upon the upper landing of the porch which, was 
built by the Crusaders. 

The two chapels, as well as the porch, were elabo- 
rately decorated with mosaic-work and pavements of 
marble. These chapels, especially the northern one, 
suffered exceeding damage from the fire of 1808; for 
immediately to the East, on the spot marked (75) as 

^ Notandum, locum istum subtus 
excavatum esse, et non ob id negan- 
dum, ver^ locum esse crucifixionis ; 
nam id ita accidit, turn quia terra 

sacri montis ab Helena Romam aspor- 
tata fuit, turn quia alia adhibita pro 
templi stnictura. (Quar. 444) 

Ihe Gre«k kitclieii, there ^iood a wooden building in the 
form of a tower, in six or eeven stories, which served as 
a direllifii^ for the Greeks in charge of the Church, and 
of eonrse fell an iromediate prey to the flames*. The 
pf jrch (70) on the right hand of the entrance-doors in 
the court, is in the form of an elegant turret, in tno 
itoiics* aurmounted by a cupola. It is in the same 
ilyte as the front of the Church, and evidently the work 
of the Crusaders. The upper stoi^ has rich pointed 
urehe^, which were apparently open in the original de- 
iign- This story, the floor of which is on a level with 
that of the chapels of the Exaltation of the Cross and 
of the Crucifixion, was intended for a vestibule to them, 
■tad the external staircase (54) still remains which led 
Bfe this upper floor. The vestibule itself, not ten feet 
Square, has had an altar placed in it at some modem 
period^ and is dignified as the place or station where 
the Virgin and St John stood during the Crucifixion ; 
and hence is called the Chapel of the Virgin and St 
John the Evangelist. The first mention, however, of 
such a station, is by Sajwulf and the anonymous chroni- 
cler of the Crusaders^. They fix its position at the 
altar of Sta Maria Latina — a Church kno^vn to have 
stood on the south side of the street that bounds the 
front court of the Church of the Sepulchre. The loca- 
tion of this station in the porch at the stair-head, occurs 
in the later pilgrim-writers only ; and it may be sup- 
posed, that when the Christians lost Jerusalem, and the 
Church of Sta Maria Latina was ruined and abandoned, 
the station was removed to the porch. It is mentioned 
ver>' doubtfully by most of these writers, and there 

=» Account of the fire by the Latin I ^ Recueil de Voyages. Tom. iv. p. 
monks in Turner's Levant. | 842. Gcsta Dei per Francos, p. 573. 



[part IL 

seems to be some confusion between this chapel and 
the neighbouring Chapel of Adam, to which the same 
dedication is assigned^ The lower story (53) of the 
porch is converted into a chapel of the fourth-century 
saint called Maria Egyptiaca. 

Having now described the chapels of the mezzanine 
floor, it remains to examine the vaults below them. Of 
these, the southern vaults (51, 52) were apparently never 
used as chapels ; but the northern vault (47) has been 
already mentioned as the Chapel of Adam. A little 
consideration will shew that this chapel is placed imme- 
diately beneath the western brow of the rock, near the 
margin of which above, is the so-called foot-hole of the 
Cross. This is best seen in the section. Fig. 10 ; and 
In the general plan of the Church, Plate 2, the position 
of this hole is marked ¥dth a circle. The chapel has rq 
apse at its eastern extremity, and the apse is described 
by all travellers, ancient and modem, as being hewn 
out of a rock and not constructed of masonry. More- 
over, there is a fissiu*e in the face of it, which also ap- 
pears in the rocky surface above, close to the south side 
of the foot-hole'. This fissure is of coiu*8e appealed to as 
having been formed when "the rocks were rent" at the 
Crucifixion. It is easy to see that this projecting rock 
must have been artificially squared on its western 
face, which contains the apse, and also on its north- 
em and southern faces ; 86 that if the buildings were 

> To a much later period belong 
two similar stations, which are, or were, 
marked in the pavement by circular 
atones t the one in the south apsidal 
chapel (5) of the Rotunda, said to be 
the spot where Mary Magdalene and 
others '' beheld where He was laid,** 
the other in the aisle of the Rotunda 

(68), opposite the StoDe of Unctko, 
where the *^ acquaintance and the wo- 
men stood afar off beholding." (Qna- 
resmius, T. i. p. 496.) They are not 
mentioned by any early writer. 

' This is exhibited by means of a 
hole left for the purpose in the pave- 

HnnnMdf it would now appear like a wedge, rising gra^ 
f mBU^^m>ra the east; and bounded by these artificial 
vertical surfaces on the three sides of its western extre- 
mity. This shall be examined presently, when the de- 
scription of the buildings has been concluded. In the 
Biiildle ages, the term Calvary was applied to the entire 
i gQf&ee of this hill, extending from the place of Cruci- 
fixioti to the Chapel of St Helena and of the Invention ; 
but the term Golgotha w^as limited to the spot imme- 
diately below the western brow of Calvary, which we are 
now considering* or at least only included in addition the 
upper edge of this brow, where the Cross was planted. 
Hpnie ehapel is said by Quaresmius to have its vault deco- 
P%|ed with mosaic work, and its pavement with marble 
' ^bs and tesaelation. There is a small altar in the 
wpse. Bernardino denominates it the Chapel of Godfrey, 
from one of its most remarkable eharacteristies, namely, 
that it was chosen as a sepulchral chapel by the first 
Crusading kings of Jerusalem^, who thus chose their 
resting-place at the foot of their Saviour's Cross. The 
tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon, the first king, stood at the 
entrance of the chapel (48) against the north pier, and 

' The expressions made use of by 
WiU- of Tyre shew that, in his time, 
tlie tenn Golpotha was restricted to the 
lower ground immediately in front of the 
Rock upon which the Cross was fixed, 
to which the term Calvary was appro- 
priated. King Baldwin . . >' sepultus est 
inter i^odecessores suos pis recordatio- 
nis Reges sub Monte CaWarise ante 
locum qui dicitur Golgotha." W. T3rr. 
Lib. XIII. p. 851 : also Lib. ii. p. 816. 
Sxwulf also mentions ** Mons Calvarise 
. . sobtos est locus qui Golgotha di- 
citur.** The dedication or title of this 

chapel is somewhat uncertain. Ar- 
culfus alludes to it, but gives it no 
name; but Epiphanius tells us that 
"Beneath Calvary is the church and 
tomb of Adam,** and Quaresmius 
calls it the Chapel of Adam. The 
name has reference to a strange, but 
early, tradition that Adam was buried 
under Mount Calvary. This tradition 
is mentioned and condemned by Je- 
rome, (Comm. in Matth. Lib. iv. c. 
27,) and other early ecclesiastical 
writers. But the pilgrims Breyden- 
bach, Zuallardo, and Cotovicus, not 



[part n. 

the tomb of Baldwin I. (49), his brother and successor, 
exactly similar to it, against the south pier. Other 
kings were entombed against the south wall of enclosure 
of the choir. But these sepulchral monuments were 
subsequently defaced and injured by the Charizmians in 
1244, as already described; and by the Greeks^ because 
they commemorated Latin sovereigns; and it seems 
that, in the late restoration, they have been wholly de- 
stroyed or obliterated, from a similar motive*. 

In the pavement of the South transept there is a 
remarkable stone (50) fixed, not in the middle of the 
transept, but rather opposite to the middle of the 
present entrance-door. This, which appears simply 
to have been an ordinary marble slab, probably the 

only say that the head of Adam was 
found here, but some (as Bernardino) 
would have us believe that it is still to 
be seen in the fissure of the apse. In 
the Greek Pilgrim*8 Guide it is termed 
the Chapel of St John Baptist, and of 
Adam. Breydenbach, the Count of 
Solms, ( 1483,) and others, denominate 
this the Chapel of the Virgin Mary and 
St John. Zuallardo, the Chapel of St 
John the Evangelist and of the Unction ; 
and Cotovicus, the Chapel of St John the 
Evangelist. Remembering the promi- 
nent position which the Virgin and St 
John occupy in all mediaeval represen- 
tations of the Crucifixion, in which they 
are always placed one on each side of 
the Cross, we need not be surprised to 
find a chapel dedicated to them imme. 
diately at the foot of the Cross. 

' Quaresmius, 483. 

' See De G^ramb's Pilgrimage, 
which contains a good account of the 
fire and its consequences. The best 
representation of the two monuments 

of Godfrey and Baldwin is 
by Zuallardo. They were alike, with 
the exception that the first had twisted 
columns, and the second, plain, and 
the design consisted simply of a roof- 
shaped stone of tine porphyry, with 
vertical gable ends, and ornamented on 
its edge with carving and moldings. 
The inscription was placed on the 
sloping surface. The stone is sup- 
ported upon four dwarf columns, two 
feet six inches in height, which rest on 
a base or plinth of marble, about a foot 
high, of the same horizontal dimenaknt 
as the upper stone, that is to lay, eight 
feet by four. Within the chapel, on the 
right hand of the entrance, is a saico- 
phagus of white marble, which the 
Greeks say is the tomb of Melcfaiae- 
dech. The screen-wall, which oontained 
the door of this chapel, projected into 
*the south transept, so as to endoee 
the tombs of the kings, as shewn by 
the dotted lines in Plate 2. 

covi^ring of a grave, from its dimensions (about six feet 
bj tliree*), has been raised to tlie dignity of the Simie of 
t/nctwn^ upon which they say the Lord's Body was laid 
niien it was taken from the Cross and anointed. It is 
laid to be a greeo-coloured stone, but a slab of white 
nmrble ha^ been cemented upon it, to protect it from 
ttie depredations of the pilgrims, and borders of mosaic 
work set round it, with an iron railing and candlesticks. 
It in the first object that meets the eye upon entering^ 
the church* 

The earliest mention of the place of Unction is by 
Sawulf, who says that *' close to the place of Calvary 
is the church of Sancta Maria in the place where the 
Lord's Body, when take^ down from the Cross, was 
wrappetl up in a linen cloth with spices/' He fixes this 
^ehurch or chapel in the atrium of the Eotunda on the 
PIfeast side, to distinguish it from those on the West side. 
This church of St Mary therefore must be the small 
oratory over the place of Unction which is mentioned 
by William of Tyre, and also the quadrangular church of 
St Mary which Arculfus places in contact with the right 
(South) side of the Rotunda. As the Crusaders found 
this station established as one of the Holy Places, they 
probably did not essentially alter its position, and we 
may infer that the Church of St Mary stood on the site 
of the present South transept. The place is first men- 
tioned as a stone (a black stone) by Rudolph von Suchem - 
in 1336*. But it seems that a purplish stone, said 
to have been employed for the same purpose, had 
been long preserved at Ephesus, from whence it was 
conveyed to Constantinople by the Emperor Manuel 

' Palmi otto lungo e quattro largo. I * Reyssbuch der Heil. L. p. 844. 
( Bcnurdino, p. 32.) ' 



[part n. 

(c 1150) ^ The present stone is probably a paving- 
stone originally laid over some spot of the rock that 
became reputed as the ** locus Unetianis,*' and subse- 
quently the stone itself became covered up with ano- 
ther stone to preserve it*. 

The South or principal entrance-front of the Church, 
which is, as we have seen, the wall of the South tran- 
sept, has been so repeatedly drawn and engraved of 
late years by competent artists, that its appearance has 
become familiarised to us all. It is a pointed Roman- 
esque composition, which derives a peculiar character 
from its being attached to a flat-roofed building. The 
lower story is occupied by a wide double doorway ¥dth 
detached shafts supporting carved and molded arches, 
with a sculptured hoodmold. The outer order of vous- 
soirs has a radiating ornament, which occurs, amongst 
other examples, in the Church of the Martorana in Sicily. 
The second order of voussoirs is richly molded, and the 
inner shafts carry a transom ornamented with sculp- 
tiu-e. The western door (56) is the only one that 
remains open at present, the eastern (55) has been 
walled up, apparently ever since the Mohammedans ex- 
pelled the Crusaders. 

In the upper story are two rich windows, of similar 
decorations to the doorways below. But their arches 

^ Nicetas, Lib. vii. ; Quaresm, p. 
493; Du Cange Constantinopolis Chris- 
tiana, p. 81, Lib. IV. He placed it in 
the church of the Pantocrator at Con- 
stantinople, and near his own sepulchre. 

' The place, according to Quares- 
mius, was in the sixteenth century still 
ornamented with a rich mosaic work, 
and the stone itself was of a greenish 
colour. Brejdenbach does not allude 

to the Unction, but in stead mentioDia 
place, marked with a white stone, whcte 
the Mater Dolorosa sat, with the deafl 
Body of her Son in her boBom taken 
from the Cross. But his cotemponiy* 
Fabri, describes, in his peculiar way, 
his horror and remorse at disoovering, 
upon his first entry into this Church, 
that he had inadvertently trampled 
upon the stone of Unction. 




^e so eUghtly pointed^ that the hoodmoldH are very 
nearly sjemicireular. The string-courses of this front 
arc richly sculptured. 

\ Th^ western side of this court is formed by the 
eompanile and the range of chapels with polygonal 
apnea already described, and the southern side retains 
the hiiaes of a row of columns that once belonged to 
a eloister or portico. They stand on the top of a flight 
of steps that rise from, and extend entirely across, the 
oourt. On this South side of the court originally stood 
the buildings of the Knights Hospitallers, and the mo- 
nagtcries, male and female, of Sancta Alaria Latinai the 
history of which will be found in another part of this 

The western side of the court is occupied by a 
range of buildings, probably of no great antiquity, and 
in this side are three doors, of which the most northerly 
(57), close to the chapel of the porch, opens to a chapel 
dedicated to St Michael and All Saints, in possession of 
the Copts, and through which is the passage to their 
convent, which, as already described, occupies part of 
the site of the Crusaders' convent of Canons. The 
middle door (58) opens to an Armenian Church of 
St John^ and the southern door (59) to the Greek 
monastery of Abraham, which derives its name from 
the Chapel of Abraham'^s Sacrifice, attached to these 

One of the ancient traditions of this spot is that 
this sacrifice took place upon the mount of Calvary, 
and Antoninus Placentinus enumerates the place where 

' Of S.John the Baptist, according 
to W. Wey, Saligniaco, Breydenbach, 
aod Quaresniius; but the Pilgrim*8 

Guide of Chrysanthus makes it of S. 
John the Evangelist. 



[part ir. 

Abraham sacrificed, and that where he was met by 
Melchiscdech, amongst those which were visited by 
the Pilgrims by the side of the place of Crucifixion. 
Arculfus and Saewulf only mention the first. However, 
these two localities are still indicated by two Altars in 
a small Chapel (74) constructed behind the Chapels of 
Calvary ^ They are reached by means of a narrow pas- 
sage and staircase leading through' the Greek convent 
of Abraham ; and, to complete the list, the pilgrim is 
shewn the ancient olive at the back of the buildings, 
which he is told is the tree in which Abraham's ram 
was caught by the horns*. 


I HAVE now conducted my reader through the build- 
ings that surround the Holy Sepulchre, and must en- 
deavour, in the next place, to investigate the probable 
form of the rocky surface, as it existed before the 
buildings of Constantine and those that followed them 
were undertaken. 

For it is evidently shewn by the traces of hewn rock 
that we have encountered in various parts of our survey, 
as, for example, in the tomb called of Joseph of Ari- 
mathiea, in the Prison, in the Chapel of St Helena and 
the stairs that lead to it, in the Chapel of the Invention, 
on Calvary, and in the Chapel of Adam, not to mention 
the Holy Sepulchre itself^; by all these examples, I say, it 

* These are not exactly laid down 
upon any of the plans, but by descrip- 
tion must be located in the space indi- 
cated in my plan at (74). 

2 Quaresmius, T. i. p. 281 ; Zuai- 
lardo, &c 

» Vide PUte 2, Nos. 1, 6, 23. 28, 
30, 33, 72, 47. 




k »licwii that the site, originally rough and rockj, must 
have been levelled into platforms for the reception of 
^_lhe first buildings that were erected here; and it is 
^■leeeg^iuy that we should endeavour to discover what 
^pilie natural form of the ground was» Plate I. Fig. 1» m 
inteuded to illustrate thia point, and I shall refer to it 
throughout this Section ; I have traced upon it the out- 
lines of the principal buildings, namely, the Chapel of 
Helena at the east end, and the aiale-wall of the 
Itotunda at the west with its three apses; also the 
Prison on the north ■ and the apse of the Chapel of 
Adam w^th the outline of the three vertical faces which 
I at present bound the rock of Calvary on the south. 
I have also added the four streets which in the present 
town enclose the site. Upon these I have endeavoured 
^io represent the original undulating surface. 
w^ The area is bounded by four streets^ namely. Se- 
pulchre Street on the north, Palmer Street on the 
south. Patriarch Street on the west, and St Stephen 
Street on the east. Sepulchre Street had at its eastern 
extremity (I) the Porta Judiciaria, of which a column 
still remains to shew the position, and this street is 
described as a steep regular ascent from I to K ; which, 
considering the length of the street, would place K 
about thirty feet higher than I^ 

Patriarch Street is described as descending very 
gently and imperceptibly from north to south (from K 
to L). But at the point L, those who wish to reach the 
Church of the Sepulchre turn off from Patriarch Street, 
and after passing through a narrow lane (L M) with 

* For Sepulchre Street is 360 feet in | thirty feet for the elevation of K above 
len^h, from I to K, which, if the mean I. One in twelve is by no means a 
inclination be one in twelve, would give j very steep ascent. 


seyeral crooked turnings and a steep descent with steps, 
find themselves at the South end of the court of the 
Church, where, as we have ahready seen, was once a 
cloister. From this point three steps more lead down 
to the court and into the Church. Thus it is evident 
that the gradual slope of the Northern street is com- 
pensated for in the Southern street by a rapid descent 
with many steps, which shews that something like the 
brow of a cliff is situated between Patriarch Street 
and the court of the Church, for Palmer Street (M G) 
from this court to St Stephen Street appears to be tole- 
rably level, and so also is St Stephen Street from 6 to 
I, or at least their slope is a mere gentle inclination 
downwards towards the south-east. It follows from 
this, that the pavement of the Rotunda lies at about 
the same level as the Street of St Stephen, and that 
the point of Patriarch Street, which lies in contact 
with the Rotimda, cannot be less than from twenty to 
twenty-five feet above that pavement. I have already 
shewn that the western door of the Rotunda gave 
admission to the triforium of the Church ; and it seems 
that in the original state of the ground this abrupt 
slope at L must have extended northwards, forming the 
rugged brow of a cliff, in which the cave of the Holy 
Sepulchre C and the catacomb D (of which the so- 
called tomb of Joseph and Nicodemus was a part) were 
excavated. The architects of Constantine must have 
cut away the rock on the south, west, and north sides of 
the Sepulchral cavern, leaving it standing in a man- 
ner analogous to that in which the tombs of Absalom 
and Zachariah were detached from the rock that lies 
behind them^ 

^ Mr Fergusson, in a passage dis- I pressionand good taste, infonns us that 
tinguished by his usual felicity of ex- I "the out-and-out advocates for the 

Cll. Itl.] 



So far therefore from the cave having been origi- 
nftUy formed m an isolated rock that stood up from the 
level land, as it is usually represented^, the present 
state of the ground shews that this Sepulchre was exca- 
vated out of the face of the cliff like the common tombs 
of Jerusalem and elsewhere, described in the second 
section above ; and that its eonversion into an isolated 
monolith was the work of Constantine. And this ex- 
pkina Tery readily the concealment and preservation 

idfDtitf of tbi frpcsent Sqitilctre iniiBt 
iliftt It is & cave in i rack, but that Ibe 
rack has h^&i faaed with stone, kislde 
WdA out ; ad however, accardrng to tJH 
cbe ptdttii X have had iceeis to, Mr 
Wllimma* wnon^ othsu^ the rock , with 
it* OAing, i» in *ome placisi only two 
feet ihitK »nd riowber? more than five, 
ukd the caalug cannot be tefs than nlite 
b^Hti to a foot on each iide^ it would 
liiTc been eajifr for the impiou* men to 
have removed it In fo/o, than to have 
coTcred it up : h^if-a-doten men itould 
hare accomplished the job in a weekj," 
p, 8S, The teit, to which thl^ psi^^age 
if appended aa a note^ ibewa that by 
the **inipioui men" be nieanA those 
mcnd47oed by Eutebmii, sm having 
C(rrei«d up the Cave to conceal it^ and 
t0 afford a foandadon for the Temple of 
Venua. Mr Fct gtisson can flcurcdf re- 
qirire to be infornned that the advocates 
for the idoititj of the preaent ^epul- 
€htt aece*»aiil J suppose it to hate been 
wnmght, bjr Oonstantine'a orderi, into 
ftuch a form externally b!i would enable 
Ji m receive the ornamental casing ; m 
Indeed B. Cjril implies in the passage 
qnote^, amongst others^ by Mr Wil- 
lUmi^ to the Brit edition of the Hniy 
CUj, p. 295 I and although it in quite 
ime that bj ihis procfi^ the thickncsii 

of rack and caving has been in «om« 
places brought down lo lesi than three 
feet at the western coi^eri of the cham- 
ber, it is equally clear that the state of 
It ttmat have been very diifereni when 
** the impbiu men** operated tipoti it 
two centuries before, in the time of 
Hadrian. Indeed, I have endeavoured 
to shew that it woa only brought to 
ita pres«tii fcmi by a very laborious 
ex cavation. M r. Fergusson 's f u pposi - 
tion of from nine inch« to a foot for 
the thicknesR of the eating, would be 
irue if it were an oahlaring of Blone, 
but it is a htstri cation of marble alaba, 
far which three or four inches b an 
ample allowance. 

' Eusebius, in the Theophania, evi- 
dently describei the Cave aa he mw it, 
after the operations of Conatantine had 
taken place. ^Mt is astonishing to aee 
even this rock standing out erect and 
alone, in a level land, and having only 
one cavern within it/* Book iii.p. 199, 
of Lee's translation. If the above sup- 
pofliiion be rejected, we must conclude 
that the Sepulchre of the GoBpela waa 
originally detached from the Kock, 
!ike those of Absalom and Zachariah ; 
but the latter are evidently Pagan 
tombs, and not Jewish. 



[part II. 

of it when the agents of Hadrian heaped earth upon 
it and erected a Temple of Venus thereon; an operation 
of no difficulty, since they had only to cover up an 
opening in front of the cliffy 

But the rock of Calvary at E still stands up fifteen 
feet above the pavement, and it appears likely that 
in its original state this rock was part of a little swell 
of the ground that jutted out from the slope of Sepulchre 
Street, and probably always formed a somewhat abrupt 
brow on the West and South sides. This would afford 
a convenient spot for the place of public execution. For 
the south-western brow of the rock has just sufficient 
elevation to raise the wretched sufferers above the 
gazing crowd, that would naturally arrange itself below 
and upon the sloping ridge opposite (at M), which 
formed a kind of natural theatre with respect to the 
brow of Calvary, 

The ground immediately to the West of St Stephen 
Street (G I) appears at present to have accumulated. In 
its original state I have supposed it to have sloped 
down gradually eastward from the brow of Calvary and 
the little isthmus, F E, which connected that hill with 
the main slope of Sepulchre Street. It must be re- 
membered that the city wall, GI, formed the West 
boundary of St Stephen Street, according to the ac- 
counts of those who defend the authenticity of the 
present Holy Sepulchre, and with which I concur. 
The ground, however, between the Chapel of Helena 
(A) and this wall, is higher than St Stephen Street^ 
and is bounded by an abrupt descent, described as a 

> Fabri (p. 326) imagines that the 
opening of the outer cave of the Sepul- 
chre looked to the ^outh, which isi not 

impossible, and not iocontUtent with 
the view I have given above of the 
original state of the ground. 





ik of earih (not of rock), which shews its South fac< 
behind a certain tannery m Palmer Street (at N), and] 
its eastern £ice between the Chapel of Helena rnii 
the street, and upon this bank is erected the Coptic 
Convent, formerly the Convent of the Canons of the^ 
Sepulcbre, The part of the street of St Stephen 
occupied by a deserted bazar, is arched over (from 
H to J), and the raised ground is so much higher 
than the street at this point, that the garden*surfaee 
k carried over these arches without interruption, so 
that this end of the street appears like a tunnel or 
■boivaiioii* But this accumulation is plainly the na- 
tufal remtit of the form of the ground, which sloped 
downwanis to the wall* and, occupied by buildings 
that have fallen into decay, would necesaarily become 
haftped up in the comer, so as to admit of being levelled 

CTued into gardens', 


EusEBius relates^ that Constantine, being desirous 
to do honour to the place of our Lord's Resurrection, 
*t Jerusalem, commanded an House of Prayer to be 
-rected on that spot. For that certain impious persons 

^ That this ground is an accumula- 

is erident from Schultz's descrip- 

>f the ruined portal, (which I shall 

itly shew was the great porch of 

mtine's Basilica, ) for he tells us 

le pillars are half-buried in the 

, and that the hank of earth upon 

he Abyssinian nnona<<tery stands 

Vou II. 

rises behind them. 

" The work of Eusebius is so well 
known, that it is unnecessary for me to 
do more in this place than give such a 
mere abridgment of his narrative, as 
may serve to introduce the description 
of the Basilica, which I shall translate 
at length. 




[part II. 

(acting, as other authorities inform us, under the orders 
of the Emperor Hadrian ^) had formerly resolved to 
consign to obUvion that Salutary Cave, and had there- 
fore with much labour brought thither a vast quantity 
of earth, with which they filled up and levelled the 
whole place, and having paved it with stone, they thus 
concealed the Holy Cave beneath this heap of mate- 
rials. They proceeded, moreover, to erect thereon a 
temple of Venus, and offered there their sacrifices. 
But the Emperor Constantine commanded that not only 
the buildings and the statues should be taken down, 
but that their materials, and even the earth which had 
been heaped up there, should all be carried away to a 
great distance, because they had been defiled with the 
blood of the profane sacrifices. When this was done, it 
was discovered, contrary to all expectation, that the 
Sepulchral Cavern existed unharmed beneath. Then 
the Emperor ordered a magnificent House of Prayer to 
be erected round about the Salutary Cave, and wrote 
letters to the governors of the Eastern pro\'inces to 
forward the work, and amongst others, a letter (a.d. 326) 
to Macarius, the Bishop of Jerusalem, which is given at 
length by Eusebius, in which he expresses his joy and 
gratitude and admiration that the Token of our Savioujr's 
most Holy Passion, for so many years hid under the 
earth, should now so gloriously appear; and confessing 
this to be miraculous, he declares his firm determination 
that that Holy Place which he had disburthened of the 
vile idol, should be ornamented with magnificent struc- 

» Holy City, Vol. 
p. 71. 

. p. 240. Vol. II. 

' Writers who are interested in 

proving the authenticity of that 
drous relic which is known by the 
of **the true Cross,** endeavour to 

^- «"a 



He then exhorts the Bishop to provide all tilings 
nece^arv to enrich the beauty and excellence of 
tills BaNilica. He tells him that he has confided the 
wbslructures and decoration of the walls to DracilianuB, 
file deinity prefect, and to the president of the pro- 
lince, and hajs desired them to furnish workmen and 
•rtificers, and every thing that the Bishop may wish 
for, desiring moreover to be informed by him what 
eolumiis and marbles may be requisite. And for the 
umcr rooft which may be panelled, or otherwise orna- 
mented, he suggests that if panelled, it should be gilt, 

Eu^^ehjus in the next place presents us with a 
de^icriptian of the buildings, which, like most written 
de*9cr]pt tons of architectural works, is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to understand: for the ivriter waA unacquainted 
with architecture, and hence great obscurity and want 
of precision prevails throughout* It can only be made 
tolerably intelligible, by a comparison with the site, and 
by considering the arrangement of other buildings of 
Constantine. I will first endeavour to translate the 
description, and then to explain it. 

thmt Etu«biu8 meant to allude to it in 
thu letter, by the phrase ** the token of 
the I^saioo,'* (t6 yvtepifffia tov dyito- 
TCTov €Ktivov "wdOovi,) But when this 
wlitaiy sentence is compared with the 
entire narrative befofe and after this 
place, it must be concluded that, how- 
erer ill-chosen the expression may ap- 
pear, no other is meant by it than the 
CaTe. For it is clear, throughout the 
prerious narrative, that when the Brst 
design of erecting a Martyrium upon 
this spot was conceived, it was not sup- 
posed that the Cave itself had remained 
aniojnred, and that the discovery of it 

was so unexpected that its preservation 
was deemed miraculous. The£mperor*s 
letter is written in accordance with these 
feelings, and with the previous history ; 
and in the description of the buildings 
which follows, the whole arrangement is 
made subservient to the Cave, and there 
is not a word or allusion to the Cross, or 
even to Calvary. I believe therefore 
that the '^ token of the Passion ** in this 
place is the Cave, which, as the scene 
of the crowning event of the Passion, 
may well have been termed one of the 
witnesses to it, by a florid writer like 




[part U. 

Book III. Of the Life of Constantine. 

Ch. 34. Of the Hdy Sepulchre. 
FntfiT, the Emperor's magnificence decorated the Sacred Ca^e 
itself, as the head of the whole work, with choice columns and great 
decoration, and ornamented it in every possible manner. 

Ch. 35. 0/ the Court and Cloteten. 

He then proceeded to set in order an extensive space open to the 
sky, which he paved with polished stones, and enclosed on three 
sides with long cloisters^. 

Ch. 36. Of the WalU and Roof of the Baeiliea, and of the oma- 
mente and gilding. 
On that side of the court which was situated oppoate to the 
CavCj and towards the rising sun, was placed the Basilica': an 
admirable work, raised to a mighty elevation, and extensive in length 
and breadth. Its interior was lined with many-coloured marbles^ 
and the outer surface of its walls decorated with polished and closely- 
jointed masonry, as handsome as marble itself. The roof with its 
chambers was covered with lead, to protect it from the winter rains. 
The inner roof was decorated with sculptured panels, and extended 
like a vast sea over the whole Basilica ; and being gilt with the 
purest gold, caused the entire building to shine as if with rays of 

Ch. 37. Of the Double Aisles on €<u:h side and of the three Eastern 


Moreover on either side, double piers of double porticoes', 
above and below ground, extended the full length of the temple, 
and their ceilings were gilt. Of these porticoes, those in front were 
sustained by enormous columns ; those within, by square pilaa- 

' fiaKpoTv irepiipofxoii vtowv : the 
Greek ttoa^ and the Latin jvor/tcuf, ap- 
pear to be best rendered in English by 
the word cloister, ir/spiipofios, a con- 
struction that admits of free passage 
round about a building, is introduced 

here to shew that the stoa or cloisten 
on the three sides were placed in eon- 
tinuous connexion with each other. 

' 6 /3a<r/Xeiov ir««»«. 

' ^tTTfitfv (TTOMV dimytimm «r« kmI 
KUTaytiutv iiivfioi trapavrddtt. 

ni. 111.] 



tcROT piim^Ak ricbly ornamented*. Three doois turned towafds 
the Tiling mm admitted tho enteriDg crowd, 

Cl»* 38, Of ike ApM€^ and ik^ twdm adumns wUk eaintah. 

Oppoeito to these doors w^ th6 &p9e^, the head of the whole 
wnrk, niii^ to the veiy roof of the Basilica^ It was eturoaDded by 
twdre columns, the number of the Apostles ; and thtsy wero onis- 
DiiiUxl with lajge gilver capitala, which the Empoior dedicatod to 
(Wnt b^utiJiilgtft. 

Ch. ^. €^ th4 Atrium^ the Ejmirw^ and the Pcrtalt. 
Htnac, gomg forward to the entrances which were hefon? t!»e 
*iiipK he ioteiposed an open space, namely, between the BmUtm 
«W ikB portals : there were also receded chambers (exednB) on 
e^i side, the first or entrance-court, which had clobters attached 
*o rt, and lastly the gates of the court*. Beyond them, ia tlit 

«lmSi miovi TrafkfityiBtrip hntptl- 

* 'Eic^|9aff*t ^firavXtiou teal l^r- 

ifrww 4wl Tfltf rpd roa vrm Kt t fit if a's 

f 4r^Sif$oI "rap^ kKOTtpaj sal uuXtJ 
*^i»inj^ ffnoa* t' riri Tml-rrj, Kal rri 
T£ff£# al avkiUft Y-vXai. This Chiip- 
ter ifl the niMl obscure of the whole^ 
Taken UtetmUf, &■ it stands in the 
Greek, it trould plaee on each »ide of 
the BviliciL an iirium with iti doisters 
and Totibules, which i&not likeljf ; and 
ii, 1^«aida, contradicted by the tide of 
tlie Ciufrts', which girea us the atrium 
in the tiaguki number. Vales ius con- 
jectures ih^i the vap' itearwpa should 
be tramrpoied to the eloiftetaj e^oal 
T* tw^t Tttvxjj wop' iiedT€p^l. It ap- 
lo me tioi Impoaaible that we 

sbould temdnvav ^ l^d^a^ wQp' md- 
Ttfia fotr n*rav 6* itfratt^Qt wa^' txtiTvpa ; 
for the ejFedrm •le nienUofied in the 
title, but not in the Chapter itself j and 
the words l^c&pai and ivraoBoT re- 
aetnble each other sulEcientlji enpeei- 
all7 when written in capitals , to be 
mistaken for each other. Id the baai^ 
licfl at Tjre there were limilarly 
tJtedrs^ and chambers on either side of 
the basilica^ and connected with the 
front doOrj..,..,ffi.'ci^a¥ kqI qXulqv^ tou* 
Trap' kna-rEpa ^eyi'irrovr ^Ti.ff««Vff£en^ 

^atrikeim ari/re^^^uy^cV^ttiv, Kal toX^ ^>wi 
■rev fLcaou dIkov h<r^Xatv ijifM^evolrtS'^, 

(EiiB. EccL HiHl, lib, i. c, 4.) The 
ej-edra of the ancientA appeaxn to hoye 
he^ a recesA or chamber, partly open, 
and provided with leat?. ofteti ap- 
pended to a porticui ; like the apiea »t 
the west end of Fig, 2. I haire not 
attempted to delineate the €*0dra <^f 
the entt^ce-couru 


very middle of the wide market-plaoe, stood the propylsa or vesti- 
bules of the whole work, which being decorated in the most 
imposiDg manner, afforded to those who were passing a promise 
of the wonders within This temple did the Emperor con- 
struct as a Mart3rrium of the Saving Resurrection, See. 

In the above description, after the Holy Sepulchre 
itself, we are introduced to a paved court, surrounded 
with porticoes, or cloisters on three of its sides, and hav- 
ing the Basilica on its fourth or eastern side. We are 
told that this side was opposite to the cave, by which, of 
course, is meant the entrance to the cave ; for the history 
of the different states of the Holy Sepulchre in Section 
HI. above, has shewn that it was an isolated edicula 
having its entrance to the East, and hence it must be 
inferred that the court here described siurounded the 
cave of the Sepulchre, and that the cloisters were oppo- 
site the sides and back of the monument, but that the 
Basilica occupied that side of the court which faced the 
entrance. I think it most probable that the cloisters 
were semicircular towards the West, following the present 
outline of the outer walls ; for the excavation and level- 
ling at this end seems to indicate such a form, and the 
outer wall of Constantine's cloister would be so far pro- 
tected by the rock behind it, that it would probably 
escape obliteration. The rock shews at least that the 
court could not have extended farther West than the 
present building. In my restoration of the plan of the 
Basilica, (Fig. 2, Plate 1), I have delineated the cloistered 
court in this manner ; and the positions of the North and 
South apses, which lie wholly to the west of the centre 
of the Rotunda, and opposite to the Sepulchre, seem 
to indicate that they were framed with reference to 
the semicircular form, and not to the circular form^ 



whicb the Rotunda of after ages assumed. Thus it is 
not impossible that these apses were also parts of Con- 
fltantine'B cloister, for such semicircular recesses {or 
^^^ne) are of frequent occurrence in Homan buildings^ 
But the restored plan which I have ventured to give 
inu^t be considered as a mere diagram, shewing one out 
af many possible arraGgements that may be conceived 
in coincidence with the description of EusebiuSi whieh 
is far too loose, imperfect, and unteehnical, to admit 
of certain interpretation into the accurate language 
of descriptive geometry. It may fairly be doubted, for 
example, whether the plural employed for the cloisters 
that surround the three sides of the court in question, 
is meant only for the three cloisters, one on each side, 
or is intended to convey the description of a double 
(lister on each side. 

We now eome to the Basilica; and to understand 
this it must be compared with those biiUdings of Con- 
stantino, the plan of which is better known to us. The 
whole of this Emperor's architectural works have been 
carefully collected and described by Ciampini*. The 
plans of his churches are of two kinds ; the larger ones 
appear to have been in the form of a parallelogram 
with side aisles, as the Lateran, Vatican, and St Paul 
at Rome. Others were of a circular or polygonal form, 
but were intended either for baptisteries or mausolea ; as 
the Baptistery of Constantino, and the Mausolea of his 
daughter Constantia, and his mother Helena, all at 

' In the baths and temples at Rome, 
temples at Baic, Baalbec, Palmyra, 
palace of Diocletian at SpaUtio, &c. 

^ J. Ciampini, de sacris .^dificiis a 
Constantino Magno constructis. ( Ro- 
mse, 1693.) 


At Constantinople he erected many which have dis- 
appeared; but it is remarkable that several of these are 
designated by the Byzantine historians as of a dramical 
form, a word singularly descriptive of a church with a 
rectangular body and an apse at the extremity ; for the 
ancient dromos, or circus, was a parallelogram, square at 
one end, and circular at the other. St Sophia at Con- 
stantinople was, in its first state as Constantine built it, 
dromical, and so also were his churches of St Dynamis 
and St Agathonicus, in the same city. The great 
Church of the Apostles which he built for his burial- 
place was also dromical, and its sides were crucifarm\ 
The church which he built at Antioch was octagonal. 

There is nothing in the description of the BasiUca, 
or House of Prayer, at the Holy Sepulchre, that would 
lead us to suppose its form to have been different from 
the parallelogram which I have just shewn to be the 
usual plan which the Emperor followed. It had double 
side-aisles, which we are told were partly above and partly 
below the ground. The survey of the original form of 
the ground, however, completely explains this phrase by 
shewing that to the present day the rock rises fifteen 
feet on the southern side of the site, and is exhibited 
on all sides, proving that the floor of the church must 
have been artificially sunk so much below the general 
surface, as to justify the expressions of our Author. 

^ M. Couchaud, in his treatise on was octagonal, (Lib. iii. c. M,) but 
theEglises Byzantines de la Grece, has ' that is the onlj one so described bj 

fallen into the singular mistake of as- 
serting that £usebius tells us all Con- 
stantine*s churches were erected on an 
octagonal or circular plan, and covered 
with a dome, (p. 2.) It is true that £u- 
sebiuB cells us the church of Antioch 

him. The church of Paulinus at Tjre 
was a basilica, of the ordinary dromical 
form, with its entrance at the eut end, 
as appears from the description given 
by £usebius in the tenth book of his 
Ecclesiastical History. 


E. 1 
e TTortls which he uses, in telling us that the colon- 
ies in front had great columns, and those within bad 
square pedestals, have led some to suppose that the first 
^Brt were placed in front of the building outstdet and 
^the others inside* But I believe his meaning to be, 
that iJie columns occupied the front ranks within, and 
that there were smaller pillars on pedestals behind, sepa- 
rating the two side-aisles from each other. This was 
exactly the case with the ancient Basilica of St Peter 
at Rome, and I have accordingly so represented our 
BasUiea in the restored Plan. No allusion is made to 
a transept by Enscbius, who merely tells us that the 
doors were at the east end of the ehureb, and opposite 
to them, the apse. In placing a transept in my Plan I 
have therefore taken a gratuitous liberty, but have 
nevertheless followed strictly the precedent afforded me 
in the plans of the Roman basilicas of the Emperor ; 
and I have done so because the arrangement of the 
ground with reference to the form of Calvary appeared 
to indicate a transept, of which more below. To turn 
the doors of a church to the east, and the apse to 
the west, although contrary to the subsequent practice 
of Christendom, was the more usual in the time of 
Constantine ; St Peter's itself being so turned, and 
most others of that age. The obscurest part of the 
whole description is in the last chapter, which contains 
a huddled list of the architectural members about the 
entrance-court, which, after all, was probably nothing 
more than the usual cloistered court which I have shewn 
in the Plan*. 


' FortuDAtelj there is no ambiguity I tells us that the propylsum opened upon 
ia the conclaaion of the Chapter, which I the market-place ; a most valuable in- 



[part II. 

The Portal, or general entrance to the " Mart^um 
of the Resurrection/' as the whole group of buildings is 
termed by Eusebius, opened upon the market-place. 
Now the street which at present forms the eastern 
boundary, is occupied by deserted bazars, and the 
place, no doubt, has thus been devoted to merchandise 
from the time of Constantine. But at the very point 
where, in accordance with the explanation I have given 
above, the propyladum ought to be situated, there still 
exist the ruins of columns, which, as M. Schultz says, 
indicate the former presence of a Boman portal, of the 
original use of which however he does not appear to be 
aware. " If we pass through the deserted bazar," (at 
HL Fig. 1,) says he, (p. 60), "and beyond the southern 
end of it, we find three mutilated columns, which still 
remain erect, and project above the surface. A broken 
shaft of similar work lies on the ground. Behind the 
southernmost column, if we enter the neighbouring 
shops, we see in the one the lower part of a pilaster, 
and in the other the remains of a wall in the massive 
style of antiquity. These separate fragments correspond 
with each other, and suggest the conclusion that a great^ 
portal stood here." 

dication of the position of the Church, 
which completely oversets the opinions 
lately advanced by Mr Fergusson. 
This gentleman imagines that the 
golden gate in the eastern wall of the 
Temple area is no other than the pro- 
pylaeum in question, completely over- 
looking or neglecting this passage of 
Eusebius, which would compel him to 
fix the market-place in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat ; a location which, I need 
scarcely add, is ludicrously impossible. 

* In Fig. 2. I have determined the 
probable dimensions of the basilica from 
comparison with those of the church at 
Bethlehem. This church was erected 
over the supposed place of the Nativitj, 
at the same time as the Basilica of the 
Resurrection, and the Church of the 
Ascension. The Church of Bethlehem 
remains to this day, with its nave in plan 
so exactly corresponding to the age of 
Constantine, that we may be sure that 
it cannot have suffered rgiicntial altera- 





In the EuHebiaii description jnat quoted, there is not 
only no allusion to the Cross discovered by Helena, but 
no mention of Golgotha or Calvary. The unity of 
purpose in the Martyrium which pervades his whole 
nanutive is yery remarkable* From the aonouneement 
of the Emperor's first intention to the full completion 
of the edifice^ the one only object is to do honour and 
reverence to the Sepulchral Cave, and to that alone. 

UoA. Its nfsntepts indeed Hpp««r too 
oompLex: iti pbn for thmt period, aad 
mmt resicmbk the works of Jtistiakti^ 
to whom ih< i^bujlding of the Church 
li Atiigned bj Kutjchluft^ But, far «a 
tkb^rmtje dcjidipudti of its hl&iofy, I 
most refer mf readen to the paper? on 
IJbc ehitnrhes of Palesiine in the Ee- 
de»iolo|p&t of 31&rdi mnd April, lQ47f 
bf the Author of the Holj City. A 
^of good plan of the Church ig f^iTen 
bir Bernard! nOj but the usiua] difficulty 
qJf afeertAining the tXKi iOtlt of mea- 
■urmient which he Enadeuse of, ip-eally 
diminiihcs itn value. Fortunatelj the 
kirrdneiA of Charles Barrj, Esq. has 
tumbled me lo present my readen with 
the Eogllfih dimfrisions of the Church, 
which he nie^ured and planned with 
hb owD hatids. His plan a^^ees with 
BcmardiDo's. The interior dimensions 
■re aa folk^w u— 

Mtmurtd Emt imd We^L 

It in. 

\ridth of narthcK,, 11* It 

L«n|^ of »a ve w i thin wal Is. . . . H7 
Width of cratiaepi, ineludiog 

thIekneMOf west w&lK........ 33 7 

Loagth of eastern limb of the 

Cro««^ cxduiive of apse aO 7 

Radtitt of »pse ..,..* „... 14 

Tout length from apte wall to 

wetietudoor .,,.....,.,.. 175 B 

Mm*urtmentt fr&m NoriA to S&utk. 
ft. iifc 

Lenirth of narthei ,.,„....-- 5* 3 

Width of nave, ccnrral ai»Ie ...» Ml II 
Total width of mkvtj mcludtng 

■ide-aisiea .„* — ,,*,....*...*,> M 7 
Total length of transept, from 
northern apse to Jiouthem aps« 
induslve, ..=....... .,.....^ 117 7 

The nave ha« double Kide-a^isles, and 
ten pi«n in the leng^th^ forming a co» 
lonnade of eleven inter columns. The 
colunins are of the Corinthian order: 
the height at their shafts about siitteen 
feet three inche*, of the capitals one 
foot ten inches, of the architrave over 
them one foot three inches ; the diame. 
ter of the column is two feet one inch 
and a quarter^ and the height of the 
base and plinth thirteen inches aud a 
quarter ; the plinth is two feet eleveti 
inches square. 

1 found that the aiie of the present 
Church of the Sepulchre would admit 
a nave with double side- aisles of the 
same dimensions aa that of Bethlehem, 
within a foot or two of the width^ and 
accordingly I have so drawn ii. It is 
evident that the side walb are limited 
on the Bouth by the Rock of Calvaty, 
and on the north apparently by the 
rock in which the **■ prison" b exca- 
vated ; »lfo that the centre line of the 




[part II. 

And the plan admirably provides for that purpose by 
furnishing a house of prayer close to it, and by enclos- 
ing the sacred spot itself in a court beyond the altar 
of the basilica. 

The question that arises is, whether Calvary was 
altogether excluded and neglected, or whether it in- 
cluded itself, as a matter of course, from its known and 
scriptural proximity to the Holy Sepulchre. The only 
writer contemporary with Eusebius is the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim, and his visit to Jerusalem (a. d. 333) was made 
while the building was in progress, for it was begun in 
the year 326 and dedicated in 335. He says ''that 
on the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha, where 
the Lord was crucified, and about a stone's throw from 
it the crypt wherein his body was laid, and whence 
on the third day he arose. There, at present, by com- 
mand of the Emperor Constantine, a basilica is made, 
that is, a church of marvellous beauty, having at tiie 
side reservoirs whence water is drawn, and a bath 
behind where children are washed ^" 

entire building may be assumed to have 
passed through the Sepulchral Cavern^ 
which was its main feature. The walla 
of the present choir, however, are not 
exactly directed eastwards ; but the 
wall of the ancient corridor on the 
north appears, from Mr Scoles^s plan, 
not to be parallel to the others, and to 
be nearer to a true easterly direction. I 
have inclined the axis of Constantine^s 
Basilica so as to place it parallel to this 
line, and pass through the Portal in 
St Stephen Street. But my information 
on these relative positions is necessarily 
imperfect ; and 1 hope that I may have 
succeeded in directing sufficient atten- 

tion to these points to induce some fu- 
ture visitants to Jerusalem to examine 

^ *' A sinistra antem parte est moo- 
ticulus Golgotha, ubi Dominus cm- 
cifixus est. Inde quasi ad lapidem 
missum est crjrpta, ubi corpus ejus 
positum fuit et tertia die resuirexit. 
Ibidem modo jussu Constantini impe- 
ratoris basilica facu est; id est, Do- 
minicum mirse pulchritudinis, habens 
ad latus exceptoria unde aqua levatur, 
et balneum k tergo, ubi infimtei la* 
vantur.** (Itinerarium Hiaosolymi- 
tanum, Vetera Romanorum ItincnrUy 
Wesseling. Amst. 1736.) 

m. III.} 



We have here a cotemporary witness to the reoog- 
ulttoti of Golgotha, but no mention of the exact place 
or hole in which the Cross was planted*, 

St CyrU, alsOi who was ordained at Jerusalem by 
Macarius about 335, and became Bishop of Jerusalem 
m 35O5 has made in his lectures many allusions to the 
(rolgotha, which are the more interesting because the 
lectureti were delivered in the very Church we are con- 
sidering, and contain repeated appeals to the places 
which surrounded the preacher and his congregation^ 
as, for example, to ** this holy Golgotha, rising on high 
and showing itself to this day, displaying even yet how 
because of Christ the rocks were then riven, the neigh- 
bouring sepulchre, where he was laid, and the stone 
which was laid on the door, which lies to this day by 
the tomb^,** Other passages will be found in the note* 


• Easebius, in the Laudatory Ora- 
tkm for Constantine (c. 9), says that he, 
'-atthe place of the Lord's Martyrium, 
decorated with all kinds of magnificence 
a mighty house of prayer, and a sacred 
temple in honour of the Holy Cross ; 
and he ornamented the monument of 
the Sariour with decorations that are 
indescribable/* This seems to refer to 
a Chapel of the Crucifixion, in addition 
to the other buildings. W'e have no 
reason to suppose that Constantine in. 
tended to shew the same reverence 
for the site of the Crucifixion as for the 

* **The cleft (or entrance?) which 
was at the door of the Salutary SepuU 
dire...vas hewn out of the rock itself, 
as it is customary here in the front of 
sepulchres. For now it appears not 
the outer cave having been hewn away 
for the sake of the present adornment ; 

for before the sepulchre was decorated 
by royal zeal there was a cave in the 
face of the rock." (Cyril, LecUxiv. 9.) 

"This blessed Golgotha in which... 
we are now assembled.** (iv. 10.) 

" He who was crucified in this Gol- 
gotha." (IV. 14.) 

" The Holy Ghost on thfe day of 
Pentecost descended on the Apostles... 
here in Jerusalem in the upper Church 

of the Apostles And in truth it 

were most fitting that as we discourse 
concerning Christ and Golgotha upon 
this Golgotha, so also we should speak 
concerning the Holy Ghost in the up- 
per Church.** (xvi. 4.) 

" Though I should deny (the Cru- 
cifixion), this Golgotha confutes me 
near which we are now assembled ; the 
wood of the Cross confutes me which 
has from hence been distributed piece- 
meal to all the world.** (xiii. 4.) 



[part II. 

It is pretty clear from these expressions that if the 
exact seat of the Cross had not been fixed upon at 
this time, at least the site of Golgotha was supposed 
to be known, and apparently the rock rose up within 
the Church. It was in accordance with this hypothesis 
that I have ventured to introduce the transept and its 
southern chapel into the plan as one way in which 
this rock might have been displayed. The chapels, 
separated by a colonnade from the extremities of the 
transept, however, I have imitated from Constantine's 

** For though it (the Sepulchre) be 
DOW adorned, and that most excellently, 
with royal gifts, yet it was before a 
garden, and the token and traces there- 
of remain." (xiv.. 6.; 

" The diligent chanters of the Church 
who imitate the angel-hosts, and con- 
tinually sing praises to God, who are 
thought worthy to chant psalms in this 
Golgotha." (XIII. 2r».) 

'* Wherefore is this place of Gol- 
gotha and of the Resurrection not called, 
like the other churches, a Church, but 
a Testimony ? It was, perhaps, be- 
cause of the Prophet, who had said 
(Zeph. iii. 8.) On the day of my Re- 
aurrection at the testimony.'''' (xiv. 6.) 

*' The soldiers then surrendered the 
truth for silver, but the kings of this 
day have in their piety built this holy 
Church of the Resurrection of God our 
Saviour, inlaid with silver, and em- 
bossed with gold, in which we are as- 
sembled." (XIV. 14, 22. 23.) 

'*And after the holy and salutary 

day of Easter ye shall come all the 

days of the following week after the 
assembly into the holy place of the 
Resurrection, and there ye shall hear 
other lectures." (xviii. 33.) 

ThiM seems to shew, (according to 

Mr. Newman, from whoae tzmnslation 
of the Catechetical Lecturea I have 
selected the above passages,) that St. 
Cyril delivered his last five Lectnret 
in the AnoMtasit or Church upon the 
site of the Holy Sepulchre ; and Mr. 
Newman adds that St. Cyril delivered 
his first eighteen Lectures in the Ba- 
silica of Constantine or Church of the 
Holy Cross, (Euseb. Laud. c. 9) called 
also the Martyrium or Testimony, as 
being built close upon and in memory 
of our Lord*8 passion. 

He has overlooked the passage 
which I have quoted immediately be- 
fore this last, which proves that the 
fourteenth lecture was delivered in 
the Anastasis. There is therefore no 
reason to suppose that the last lectures 
were delivered in a different place from 
the first. According to my interpretation 
of the Eusebian descriptions diere was 
no church upon the site of the Sepul- 
chre, excepting the edicula of the Se- 
pulchre which stood in the midst of 
an open court. Moreover, Ensebius 
winds up his account of the buQding 
by calling it <^the Menriyrium of the 
ResurrecHoTiy** (L. 3. c. XL;) a name 
which appears to have been given to 
the whole buildin^^ 


* IIK] the basilica of CONSTANTINO, 255 

Basilica of St Peter at Rome, and havej tterefore, 
coCemporary similarity to support them. It is not im- 
possible that a representation of the Cross planted upon 
this Golgotha may have given rise to the improbable 
supposition of later ages, that the actual foot-hole 
of the Cross was known and preserv^ed; for the first 
mention of this hole occurs so late as the seventh 
eentury, in the work of Arculfus, and he only tells us 
that a great silver Cross was planted on the very spot 
where the original Cross once stood at the Crucifixion. 

The reser^'oirs of water mentioned by the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim, may be traced in several places. Some of them 
have already occurred to us. That called the Well of 
Helena, at the north-western comer, still supplies the 
inhabitants of the Church. The so-called " Prison " 
and the place of the " Invention of the Cross/* are each 
d^cril>ed as resembling ancient cisterns; and, lastly, 
there is actually an enormous reservoir (at Z Fig. 3,) 
still in existence close to the north side of the Portal 
of Constantine in the street of St Stephen, which now 
bears the name of the Treasury of Helena, and which 
Schultz (p. 61) declares to be the most ancient and 
remarkable cistern which he had seen in Jerusalem. 
Mr. Williams informs me that he conjectures the dimen- 
sions to be at least sixty by thirty feet; but being 
full of water, and only to be viewed by torchlight from 
a platform on one side, it is very difficult to mea- 
sure or even estimate its magnitude. It must be nearly 
upon a level with the excavation that is now occupied 
by the Chapel of St Helena. 

This chapel in my plan of the Basilica falls partly 
within and partly without, as if a crypt had once stood 
on its site, so contrived as to be accessible from within 


the nave, and when once entered, to afford a passage 
under the atrium to the cavern where the Cross was 
discovered. The greater part of the sides of the chapel 
are certainly of rock, but I think it likely that an 
examination of the contiguous buildings on the north 
and east sides would show that similar excavations were 
originaUy extended in those directions, so as to connect 
this crypt with the cistern caUed the "Treasury of 

There is no evidence to prove whether or no the 
cavern, at present shewn as the place of the Invention 
of the Cross, was the same in which that remarkable 
transaction took place. The historical evidence of the 
finding of the so-called three Crosses and Nails in tiie 
presence of St Helena and of Macarius, is so strong 
that it is impossible to doubt it. But it appears to 
me equally impossible to believe for an instant the 
genuineness of these relics, which, after all, were pro- 
bably pieces of timber and iron-work belonging to 
foundations of some former structure, which, having 
been accidentally turned up in the course of the exca- 
vations, were promoted by the excited imagination of 
Helena to the high office which they immediately as- 
sumed. From the silence of Eusebius we may infer 
that he disbelieved their authenticity. However, they 
exercised so remarkable an influence upon the world, 
and especially upon church architecture, that their his- 
tory is by no means to be lightly dismissed; for they 
were at once accepted by the Christian world as genuine, 
and venerated accordingly, to a degree which it is very 
difficult to believe or understand in our present state 
of feeling upon these subjects. 

FROM A.a 614 TO A.D, 1010. 

The MartjTpium of Constantine, described in the last 
ehaptar, was utterly ruined by the Persians in the 
year 614 : the buildings were set fire to, and studU 
miy demolished ; and we shall find reason to believe 
tkt, in the re-building, the original plan was consi- 
teahly altered : partly from the want of fund»» and 

Ipwtly from the changes which had taken place in 
the forms and arrangements of churches, and from 
tbe additional Holy Plaees which had accumulated 
found about the Sepulchre by the growing traditions 
of the spot. At all events, the description of the Mar- 
tyrium by Eusebius is exceedingly different from the 
^ description of the buildings on the spot during the 
f second period. The history of this period- informs us 
tiat the credit of the restoration is principally due to 
Modestus, the Superior of the Monastery of Theodosius, 
who, as Eutychius in the tenth century, relates, " came 
to Jerusalem and constructed the Churches of the 
Resurrection, of the Sepulchre, of the Calvary, and of 
St Constantine, as they now exists" The buildings on 
this spot had now, therefore, acquired the character of 
a group of three distinct churches, (the Sepulchre being 
included within the Church of the Resurrection); and 
diese churches were not architecturally connected or 
symmetrically disposed, whereas, in the original Mar- 
tyrium of Constantine, as I have shewn, the entire site 
was occupied by a symmetrical mass of building. 

Holy City, Vol. i. pp. 303, 4. 

Vol. II. 

* Eutychii Annales, Tom. ii. p. 219. 




The best and most satisfactory account of the plan 
of the Churches at this period is in the work of Adam- 
nanus^ which contains a most minute description, 
leaving scarcely anything to desire; and which, in its 
abbreviated form by Bede» was so entirely accepted 
during the early part of the middle ages, that the 
pilgrims commonly refer to it as an apology for not 
extending their own accounts. This description, how- 
ever, was extracted by the diligent cross-questioning of 
Adamnanus, Abbot of Columba in lona, from Arculfus 
the Pilgrim, who paid him a visit, and it was by the 
Abbot written down in the form in which it was pre- 
sented to the world ; he also induced Arculfus to 
draw him a rough plan of the churches upon a waxen 

* Our principal authorities for the 
state of the buildings during this period 
are the above^ited Arculfus, (circa, 
A. D. 697,) WiUibaldus, Bishop of 
Aicstadt, who was bom at South- 
ampton in the year 700, and made his 
pilgrimage in 765, the Pilgrim-monk 
Bemardus, a. d. 870 ; and Eutychins 
of Alexandria, who died in the year 
940. The absurdly credulous Itinerary 
of Antoninus Placentinus appears to 
belong to the beginning of this period ; 
but it is quite enough to say of this 
writer, that even the editors of the Acta 
Sanctorum are ashamed of the fables 
it contains, to which they apply the 
term "anile." 

' This plan is wanting in the greater 
number of the manuscripts both of 
Adamnanus and of thelLbridgement by 
Bede. In fact, I believe the copy of 
it which is to be found in Mabillon, 
(Acta Sanctorum, Ord. S. Ben*. Saec 3. 

Part II. p. 604) Adamnamu, aid 
also in Quaresmiua, is derived tarn 
Oretser*s edition of Adamnairat, aad 
he tells us that he took it from a Bd- 
gian manuscript. Oretser's text hat 
been corrected by Mabilloo from othv 
and better manuscripts; bat hit oopj 
of the diagram differs only from OicC- 
ser^s in being more neatly drawn ini 
with some differences of pToportkis; 
while Oretser^s has much more the air 
of a fac-simile of the originaL TUl 
original has probably suffered mndidiii- 
tortion, from being the result of a wedm 
of copies from one manuscript to M- 
other; but it has a singular leiao 
blance to the actual site when te 
allowance is made for the rough medMi 
of drawing, and the total want ofsedfc 
This Plan has been published so 
that I have not thought it wordi 
to reproduce it. Copies of it si 
grayed in the following works 


I shall now proceed to extract and translate from 
tract of Adamnanus all that belongs to the churches 

^ this site, omitting only his description of the Sepul- 
L^tfire itself, which I have already given in a previous 


*' Of the Church qfthe Sepulchre of the Lord, 

Concerning these things we diligently interrogated 
le holy Arculfus, and especiaDy about the Sepulchre 
of the Lord, and the Church constructed above it, of 
wbieh be delineated the form for tue upon a waxen 
tablet. This great Church, all of stone, of wondrous 
rotundity on aU sides, arisiiig from its foundation in 
three walls^ has a broad passage between each wall and 
the neJtt. In three ingeniotisly constructed places of 
the mtd^e wall tliree altars are disposedp one looking 
to the South, another to the North, and the third 
towards the West ; and this round and lofty diurch is 
sustained by twelve columns of wondrous magnitude, 
and it has eight doors or entrances formed by three 
walls erected in the intermediate spaces between the 
passages. Of these, four are turned to the South-East, 
and the other four to the North-East." Here follows 
the description of the Sepulchre already given in Sec- 
tion ViL above- And he then proceeds to say that 
tiiet^ are *' some things to be said concerning the 
buildings of the other sacred places." 

Wtr^iMtmi*M JeruaaJem, p. U9. Qua- 
nnaiai, T. ri> p, 505. Aeu Sancto- 

nai, CM'. S. B«n>. Sac. hi. p. 50A. He found tt ia a manuscrfpt la the 

Ofiafd 0|i* Ra£u. 17M. T. iv. 

p. 256. L&it!y, Dt* Gilei ha* given 
one which differ* from thli, in his 
tdliioB of Bede, Vol. vu p, I3y. 

IU>y&l Library at Parta, No. 2391 » 
17— S 


" Of the Church of St Mary. 
The quadrangular Church of Holjr Mary, the Mother 
of the Lord, is joined on the right side to that round 
Church described above, and which is caUed Anastasb 
or Resurrection, because it is constructed on the place 
of the Lord's Resurrection. 

" Of the Church of Calvary. 
" Another Church, of great magnitude (N) ^ is con- 
structed towards the East in that place which is called 
Golgotha. In its upper parts there hangs by ropes a 
certain brazen rota with lamps, beneath which a great 
silver cross is infixed in the very same place where 
formerly the wooden cross, on which the Saviour of 
mankind suffered, was fixed and stood. 

" Note. 
" In the same Church there is a cave cut out of the 
rofik beneath the place of the Lord's Cross, where the 
sacrifice is offered upon an altar for the souls of certain 
honoured persons, whose bodies meanwhile, lying in 
the street, are placed before the door (/) of the said 
Golgothan Church, until the holy mysteries for the 
defunct are finished. 

*' Of the Basilica of Constantine. 
'< To this Church, constructed on a quadrangular plan 
in the place of Calvary, there adjoins on the Eastern side 
that neighbouring stone Basilica (W), erected with great 
magnificence by the royal Constantine, caUed also the 
Martyrium, which was located, as they say, in the place 
where the cross of our Lord, with the other two crosses 

I Thix and the folloving letten of reference belong to Fig. S, Plate 1. 

' the thieves, concealed under the earth, was found bj 

! gift of the Lord, after two hundred and thirty-three 

Between these two Churches occurs that famouB 

(ff) where Abraham the Patriarch erected an altar 

jr the sacrifice of Isaac where now there stands 

a small wooden table upon wkieh people offer akng for 

the poor Between the * Anastasis,* that is, the 

above-described Church, and the Basilica of Constantine 
is a small court (S) extending as far as the Golgothan 
MChurch. in which court lamps are kept constantly burn- 
ing day and night. 

** Of the other Exedra in th£ Church of Calvary. 

' Between the Golgothan Church and the Martyrium 

eertain ' Exedra/ or apse (P), in which is the Cup-'* 

Arculfus goes on to describe as the Cup of the 

Supper, and also to state that he saw the " sponge " 

and the ** lance*," 

* I subjoin the original text of 
Adamnanui from Mabillon (Acta 
SiDctonim, SsK. iii. p. 2, 504), which 
he deriTed from the Vatican and Cor- 
bcian ManuscriptA and from Gretser*s 
editkjQ which is published in his Works. 
Rattsboo, 1734. T. iv. p. 254. 

^ De EccUsia Sepulcri Domini, 
**De quibos diligentius interroga- 
▼imixs sanctum Arculfum, praecipu^ de 
ScfmlcfaTO Domini, et Ecclesia super 
iUnd coDstmcta, cujus mihi formam 
in tabula cerata ipse depinxit. Qu» 
ntique grandis Ecclesia tota lapidea, 
mira roconditate ex omni parte collo- 
cau a fundamentis in tribus consur- 
gens pauietibus, inter unnmquemque 
parietcm et altcrum, latum habens 

spatium vis; tria quoque altaria in 
tribus locis parietis medii artific^ fabri- 
catis. Hanc rotundam et summam 
Ecclesiam suprf^ memorata habentem 
altaria, unum ad Meridiem respiciens, 
alterum ad Aquilonem, tertium ver- 
sus Occasum, duodecim 'mirse mag- 
nitudinis lapideee sustentant columns. 
Hsc bis quatemales portas habet, hoc 
est, introitus, per tres h regione inter- 
jectis viarum spatiis stabilitos parietes: 
ex quibus quatuor exitus ad Vul- 
tumum spectant, qui et Calcius dicitur 
ventus; alii vero quatuor ad Eurom 


Here follows the description of the 
** Teffurium** and Holy Sepulchre al- 
ready given above in Section vii. 



Thus we have a group of four churches, (1) the 
Ana^tasis; (2) the Church or Chapel of St Mary; (3) 
the Golgothan Church; and (4) the Basilica of Con- 
stantine. But the Church of St Mary appears to have 
been small and insignificant, for it is mentioned with 
no epithet of praise, either for magnificence or mag- 

"In eadon Tcrd EodetU qucdun 
m petra habetur ezdsa spelttnca, inM 
locum Dominicc Cruds, ubi super al- 
tarepro quomodam honoratorum ani- 
mabufl sacrificium offertur, quorum 
corpora interim in platea jacentia, po- 
nuntur ante januam ejusdem Oolgo- 
thans Eccletie, usque quo finiantur 
ilia pro ipsis defunctis sacrosancta 
mysteria. Has itaque quatemaiium 
figuras Ecdesiarum, juxta exemplar, 
quod mihi ut superius dictum est, 
S. Arculphus in paginula figuravit ce- 
raU, depinximus, non quod possit 
eorum similitudo formari in pictura, 
sed ut Dominicum monumentum tali, 
lic^t vili figuratione ; in medietate ro- 
tunds Ecclesis constitutum monstretur 
et qus huic propior Ecclesia vel qus 
eminus est posita dedaretur. 

" De Ecclesia B, Maria, 
" Csterum de sanctorum structuris 
locorum pauca addenda sunt aliqua. 
lUi rotunds Ecclesis supr^ sspius 
memorats, qus et Aruutasit, hoc est, 
Resurrectio vocitatur, ed quod in loco 
Dominicc Resurrectionis fabricata est ; 

* The " Note " is evidently intended to follow the chapter " De EedeHa (ktamit^ 
or the conclusion of the whole description, and 1 have accordingly transposed it in tta 

t This concluding sentence, "infra.. .stetit," is in Gretser's copy placed at the ead 
of the preceding article, and thus applied to th« Church of St Mary. I follow Mabflfca^ 
text, which also agrees with Bede*s abridgement. 

i dextra cohcret parte saocCs Mariae 
Matris Domini qnadrangnlats Ec- 

^< De Ecclesia CaivarUt, 
"Alia Terd pregrandis EccOeaia OrU 
entem yersiis in illo fkbikata cat loeo^ 
qui Hebraic^ Ctolgotha Todtator, c^jin 
in superioribus grandia qiusdam ana 
cum lampadibus rota in funilms pcndet, 
infra^ quam magna argentea cms infiza 
statuta est eodem in loco ubi qmmdaB 
lignea crux, in qua pasaut eat hmmiai 
generis Salyator, infixa stetiu 

**De Basilica CotutanHmL 
'< Huic Ecdesic in loco Calrariv 
quadrangulata fabricate structura, lipi- 
dea ilia vicina Orientali in parte oobsEm 
Basilica, magno cultu^ a Rcge Con* 
stantino constructa, que et Maitjiinm 
appeUatur; in eo, ut fertur, labricata 
loco, ubi Crux Domini, cum alib k« 
tronum binis crucibus sub team ab« 
scondita, post ducentorum triginta trimn 
cydos annorum, ipso Domino donintf, 
reperta est 

^^ Inter has itaque dualea Eederiai 
iile famosus occurrit locus, in quo Afan* 
ham Patriarcha altare oompoauit, i 




tutude as the others lu-o** It is not alluded to by 
ADtoninus Pkccntinus, or by Eutychim, who only speaks 
of three Churches whenever he has oecaaion to refer 
to thia group: namely, the Resurrection, the Calvary, 
and St Constiwitine ^- 

in«id Imponena lignonim strurOi ; et, ut 
bttic ImmolArct filiutn buuhIj ty&gu 
sanun afripult gltdiaio ; iibi Qutic 
nsHB h«betur ligne& non pirva, 
iri|Mr ^OVB pBupenim eleetncmfnic a. 
fVfnbi «iCeTU]ttiiF*..... Inter Ans&uumif 
hoc af « E^elojatn *upti tnemontam ei 
BMfUcam Cbo^unitnl qiis4>m paiet 

l^in i Uini In <qu» plateols die mt aocte 
impir liaipftdei Ac4eiit. 

** Infer Ukm qucKjiie OoliioihiLaafD 
Jktle«.E«ai tt Majtytiiim quR^*m ineAt 
Euidn in qiu «tt alix Domioi, qucm 
I >e baiedictuiD propri* manu in curna 
ffidie quam palereturp ip»e con viva 
Apottolu tradidit conTiradtibui. Qui 
uimieoi calix lextarii Oailid m^i. 
IB^ h»hct duasque ansulas in se e?( 
rimqite i^ite altriDi^cuA ciintinet coui- 
la quo ijtique cjiike in'^t 
quAiD aceto plenmu hjsiopo 
t^Botrnponentei Dominum cruciiigenteA 
«ltiU«rtiat OTi ejuf, Dc hoc eodem ca- 
E«, at fcrtUT, Domixius post Beanrrec- 
t^Acm cain Ap<fttoU« con vj van* hi bit, 
^ae S. Arculfus vldil, et UliuA fcri- 
aoli abi rteidfidiiua habetur operc-ull 
^mmtn pettusi maziu tetl^U proprm 

"^ iuncen miiiiU. 
** £t lUaiii cimsp«£ul«Dceain milidi, 
qel laocca latuA Dmnin^ in Gmce pert- 
4mtk ip*c pcrcu»erat. Uase eadem l^n- 

CM, in poTtScu ill! us ConJiUimtini Basi- 
lics ititertahiiberti; In cnice lign?^ cujiii 
haatil« in dua.^ luterebum est paftjs, 

■ It teema to br the a&nie which 
Sffiwulf ifterwarda placf d ovi?r the siooe 
of Unction, and which W. of Tyre 
men dona aa a amall oratory. If so, II 
may have been at M in the plan. Or 
perbapa it waa nearer to the cainpijiil*, 
mi tbe atone woald be considered m a 
moveable relic. 

= Eutychii Ann. pp. 212, 21». 243, 
Tfae earlieat testimonj of thh period of 
the butldingt ia given by Antiochuii 
tli« monk, who lived about 030^ tn the 
time of Hei&cllna, Deacriblng the 
buildings of Modcaiun, he mentioias 
three churchea in ttiii apot. *' Mo- 
destiia...,templa Salvatoris no*tri Jeau 
Cbriati, quiD quidcm barbarico igne 
conflagTarunt, in sublime crigit otnni 
promu* digna Teneratione, puta ades 
sftncii^e CiilvtiriAf ac tuncii» Hesurree* 
fionM; dmnum injiiip.r diffn&m ofnni 
hoHore retierandiE Crttcis^ qUE mater 
EcclEamnim eat*" Ant, >Ion. EpUt. 
ad Eujttachium Mag. Bib. Patr, Par. 
1644. Totti. xii, p. 10. 

WilUb«adus, A.D.766:— "^enit «^ 
tlierusalem in iUtim locum ubi in* 
vEnta fuerai S* Crux Domini. Ibi 
nunc est Ecclesta m UbJoco qui didtnr 
Calvaris locu*, et h$ec fuit priu* exom 
Hiemsalenu Sed beata If elena qnando 
invenit, eotlocavlc ilium locum intys 
intra Hieruimlein. Et ibi «tant irea 




Bernardus describes the group as of ''four churches 
connected together by walls, that is to say, one to the 
East which has Mount Calvary ; and {one in) the place in 
which the Cross of the Lord was found, which is called 
the Basilica of Constantino ; another to the South, and 
SL fourth to the West, in the middle of which is the Sepul- 
chre of the Lord." " Between these four Churches 

is a Paradise without a roof, the walls of which shine 
with gold, and the pavement with precious marble. In 
the midst of it is an enclosure of four chains, which 
proceed from the aforesaid four Churches, and in it is 
said to be the center of the world'." This enumeration 
of four churches agrees with that of Arculfus, if we 

cruces lignee foris in Orientali pUga 
Ecdesis gecua parietem, ad memoriam 
sancts Crucis Dominicc et aliorum qui 
cum eo crucifixi erant. 

** Ulc noD Bunt intus in Ecclesia, sed 
forig atant sub tecto extra Ecdesiam. 
£t ibi secus est ille hortus, in quo 
fuit Sepulchnim Salvatoris.** Acta 
Sanctorum, Ord. S. Ben., Siec. 3. 

* <* Intra banc civitatem (Hierusa- 
lem,) exceptis aliio ecclesiis, quatuor 
eminent eccleMie, mutuis sibimet pa- 
rietibus cohsrentes: una videlicet ad 
Orientem qu« habet montem Calvaris, 
et locum in quo reperu fuit Crux 
Domini et vocatur Basilica Constan- 
tini ; alia ad Meridiem, tertia^ bA Occi- 
dentem, in cujus medio estSepulchrum 
Domini, habens ix. colurapnas in cir- 
cuitu sui, inter quas consistunt parietes 

ex optimis lapidibos; ex quilma ix. 
columpnli, iv. sunt ante fisdcm fptini 
monument!, qus cum luis parietibot 
daudunt lapidem coram sepulcro posi- 
tum, quem Angelus revolvit, et super 
quem sedit post perpetratam Domini 
resurrectionem. De hoc sepulcro noo 
est necesse plura scribere» cum dicat 
Beda in historia sua inde sufficientia, 

qu« et nos possumus referre Inter 

praedictas igitur iy. ecdesias est Fora- 
d%8U9 sine tecto cujus parietes auro 
radiant ; pavimentum yero lapide stni- 
itur pretiosissimo, habens in medio sui 
confinium iv. catenarum, quae yeoiunt 
^ prsdictis quatuor ecclesiia, in quo 
dicitur medius esse mundus.** Acta 
Sanctorum, Ords 8. Ben. Tom. iii. 
p. 2; also Recueil de Voyages, Tom. 
IV. p. 789. Par. 183U. 

* I have substituted /tfur/A for teriia in translating this passage, as the readiest mode 
of correcting the evident obscurity of it ; for as it stands, four churches are mentkMicd 
and only three described ; but there are other obvious symptoms of careless tranacriptioa 
in it which arc not worth discusbion. 





ippose his soutbern chureh to be the Church of St 

^m The description which is given by Areulfus of the 
^Bonstructioii of the ItouDd Church and its entrances 
^%B very otjseurc and strange- Of ita three walla it 
uppears certain that the middle one was, properly 
speaking, the external wall* for it contajned the apses 
Hpiat still exist for the altars ; and the outer wall of his 
r^Apaisiption was probably an external peristyle or cloister, 
^B in the Church of St Fosea at Torcello^ 
■^ In the Plan^ (Fig, 3. Plate 1) I have dotted a eir- 
cukr wall (abed) in the probable position of this peri- 
style, and I have carried it concentrically round the 
Western end of the Church (6 c cQ, for the mere pur* 
pose of shewing that the rising ground and rock at the 
West makes it very improbable that the circuit was so 
auried round at this end Areulfus is but a loose 
deacriber, or rather, perhaps, his interpreter and amanu- 
ensis, Adamnanus, was not successful in extracting his 
meaning ; and, after all, his work was merely the 
result of recollections, recalled to oblige the Abbot 
after his return from the pilgrimage. His description 
of St Sophia at Constantinople may shew how far his 
usual expressions are to be literally understood ; for he 
actually uses the same words as in his account of the 
Round Church of the Anastasis. He says it is a " triple 

• Vide Agincourt, pi. 26, Gaily 
Rnight. Ecc Arch, of Italy, pi. 29. 
V. 1. The Totuid church or mausoleum 
of CoDttandm at Rome had also an ex- 
terior peristyle. (Ciampini, de Sac. 
£d. p. 135.) 

' This plan is drawn from tlie ac- 
count of Sswulf, to illustrate the state 
of the churches in the subsequent pe- 

riod. But that sute differed so little 
from the churches of Areulfus, that, by 
the help of a few dotted lines, I have 
made it also subservient to the iUus- 
tration of the second period, which we 
are now considering. The long range 
of chapels, A, B, C, I, are the principal 
points of difference between the two. 


stone church, rising from its foundations in three walls/' 
upon which the dome rests, and that there is " between 
each of the above walls a broad space ^" &c. 

By the outer space in this case he must mean the 
first narthex or vestibule of St Sophia, which extends 
only along the front. But the whole phraseology of 
this sentence is sufficient to shew how large a licence 
we may assume in explaining his descriptions. I presume, 
therefore, that the outer passage in the Church of the 
Anastasis was confined to the Ekistem half of the rotunda. 
His entrances to the North-east and South-east would 
differ but little in position from those of the subsequent 
Church, as shewn in the plan at D and H. The nature 
of the ground forbad a convenient entrance to the 
West, and the reverence due to the Sepulchre seems to 
have equally hindered a central Eastern Entrance. In- 
deed, an altar was placed opposite to the door of the 
Sepulchre at F, as Arculfus relates. The pilgrims were 
therefore naturally admitted at the South-west (at D), 
so that they might pass across in front of the Sepulchre, 
and after visiting it be dismissed in a similar manner at 
the North-east door (at H), to visit the other " holy 
places." But the quadruple construction of these en- 
trances is very difficult to understand. Perhaps by the 
three walls we must understand three piers ; and thus we 
get a group of four arches in the outer wall of the peri- 
style ; and the middle wall might only have had a single 

* " Cieterum de celeberrima ejus- ' camera. Haec arcubus tnffVilta gran- 

dem civitatifl rotunda mirae magnitu- 

dinis lapidea Ecclesia, qus ab imo 

fundamentonim in tribun consurgens 
parietibus triplex, supra illos altiiks 
sublimaU, rotundiraima et nimia pul- 
chra, simplici consummatur culminata 

dibus, inter singuloa supra memoratof 
parietes latum habet spatium, vel ad 
inhabit andum, vel ad exorandum 
Deum, aptum et commodum." L. iii. 
c. 3. p. 275. 



ltd usual What he calls the innep wall is, 
of mwrne, the circle of columns as at present; but 
Arculfua mentions twelve columns. I presume that in 
fact the Eastern apse F, which k shewn in Fig* 3, did not 
ejdst in the buildings of Jlodestus. If the plan of the 
eoUining be completed in the eastern half, in the same 
manner as it stands in the western, we obtain twelve 
columns divided into four groups by four pair of square 
pierx: which is a probable arrangement; for twelve 
eolumBs alone would scarcely have been sufficient to 
carry the wall. The present three western apses 
(J, K, L) are, in all probability, upon the same foun- 
dational as the old ones^. 

The Golgothan Church is described as a very large 
one, and can scarcely, therefore^ have occupied less 
ground than I have assigned to it at N in the outline, 
where it appears with three aisles. The cavern in the 
rock under the place of the Cross was, of course, the 
present apse of the Chapel of Adam, and the other 
exedra or apse, where the relies were kept, may have 
been placed at P, as I have indicated it. This Church 
was not rebuilt after Hakem destroyed the whole, for 
the Crusaders found only a small oratory over the place 
of the Crucifixion. Probably some remains of it are 
worked up into the present chapels, and may account 
for their irregularity of plan ^. 

'It may be supposed, on the other 
hand, that the inner circle of this 
church was smaller than the present 
one, and that the outer circle was of 
the same diameter; but I do not think 
this so probable as the explanation I 
bsfe given above. 

^ To complete the authorities I sub- 
join the account which Antoninus Pla- 
centinus gives of these buildings. 

"A monumento usque Golgotha 
sunt gressus lxxx. Ab una parte 
ascenditur per gradus, undo Dominus 
ascendit ad crucifigendnm. Nam in 



The so-called Basilica of Constaniinc was perhaps 
the existing Chapel of S. Helena (W); for I have shewn 
its similarity to the Byzantine churches ; and as SsBwuIf 
and others who describe this spot between Hakem's 
destruction and the Crusaders* works, speak of this 
Church as in ruins, it must have been erected during 
this second period. 

loco ubi fuit crucifizus, apparet cnior 
languinis. £t in ipso latere petrs est 
altare Patriardisp Abraham, in quo 
ibat offerre Isaac, quando tentavit eum 
Dominus. Ibi et Melchisedech obtulit 
sacrifidum Abrahe quando revertaba- 
tur cum victoria i cede Amelech, tunc 
ibidem dedit ei Abraham omnem de- 
cimationem in hostias. Juxuipsum al- 
tare est crypu, ubi ponis aurem et audis 
flumina aquarum, et jactas pomura aut 
aliud quod natare potest, et vadis ad 
Siloa fontem ubi iUud recipies. Intra 
Siloa et Golgotha credo est milliarium : 
nam Hierosolyma aquam vivam non 
habet, preter in Siloa fonte. 

(^ De Golgotha usque ubi inventa 
est Crux sunt gressus l. In Basilica 
Gonstantini cohaerente circa monu- 
mentum vel Golgotha, in atrio ipsius 
Basilicae, est cubiculum ubi lignum 
Crucis reconditum est, quam adoravi- 
mus et osculavimus. Nam et titulum, 
qui super caput ejus positus fuerat, in 
quo scriptum est 'Jesus Nazarenus 
Rex Judaeorum,' tenui in manu etoscu- 
latus sum. Lignum Crucis de nuce est : 
procedente vero sancta Cruce de cubi- 
culo suo apparet stella in coelo et venit 
super locum ubi Crux residet, et dum 
adoratur Crux stat super eam stella et 
adfertur oleum ad benedicendum am. 
pullis onychinis: hora vero qua tetige- 

rit lignum Crucis ampullai moz elmllit 
foras. Revertoite Cruce in locum suum 
et Stella pariter revertitur, et post reda- 
sam Crucem non apparet steUa. Edam 
ibi est Canna et Spongia de quibut 
legitur in Evangelio, cum qua Spongia 
aquam bibimus, et Caliz ooychioua 
quem benedizit Dominus in eoena, e 
alise multse Tirtutes : Species B. Maris 
in superior! loco, et sona ipaiua, et ligm- 
mentum quo in capite utebatur: et 
ibi sunt septem cathedrae marmoreae ae* 
niorum.** (Antonini Placentini Itine- 
rarium. Acta Sanctorum, Mail. Tom. 
II. p. 10.) 

The distances given in this passage 
are the only things worth attending to 
^<From the Sepulchre to Golgotha 
Lxxx. gressus," '' from Golgotha to 
the place where the Cross was found, 
L. gressus." Measuring upon Mr. 
Scoles' accurate plan of the church, I 
find the distance from the middle of 
the altar of the Sepulchre to the foot* 
hole of the Cross to be 143 English 
feet; and the distance from the said 
foot-hole to the centre of the apse in 
the chapel of the Invention, by a sin* 
gular coincidence to be also 143 English 

Grestus is the traveller's step 
(varying with the individual,) and not 
an established measure of length, like 


FEOM A.D. 1010 TO A.D, 1099, 


■*TOe buildings after their malicious mid systematic de- 
I stnietion by the fanatic Caliph Hakcm, in the year 1010*, 
This restoration seems to have been commenced or 
attempted almost immediately afterwards by Hakem or 
his mother, but was not effectually undertaken for 
several years, when the emperors of ConBtantinople» 
Romanus Argyrus, Michael the Paphla^onian, and Con- 
stantine Monomaehus, in succeeaion opened and con- 
cluded the necessary negotiations, and furnished the 
funds and architects, by which means the buildings were 
eompleted in a*d. 1048, or, at least, brought to the state 
in which the Crusaders found them. The best de- 
scription of this state of the chiu'ches is given by the 
traveller Saewulf, who performed his pilgrimage in the 
years 1102 and 1103, and whose account is contained 
in a manuscript preserved at Corpus Christi College, 

the passta. " Memorandum quod 24 
iteppjs tive gressus mei faciunt 12 
firgas,** quoth William Wyrccster: 
Nasmith. p. 83. It must be presumed, 
that Lxxx. is a transcriber's error for 
xxzx. ; and 40 paces for one, with 50 
paces for the other distance, are not very 
far from the truth, especially as we do 
not know the exact points between which 
the distance was measured. Mr. Fer- 
guMon, (p. 126,) confounds the << gres- 
nu** with the ^'passus,*' and con. 

trives to interpret this author so as to 
give 400 feet between the Sepulchre 
and Golgotha. Distances written nu- 
merically are never to be depended 
upon in manuscripts. 

> Vide Part i. p. 362 above, for the 
detailed history of these events. The 
Emperor Romanus died in 1034 ; Mi- 
chael, his successor, in 1041 ; and Con- 
stantine, who succeeded to the throne 
in 1042, reigned until 1054. 



Cambridge \ As he arrived at the Holy City only two 
years after the Crusaders' conquest of Jerusalem, he 
saw and described the spot before the operations of. 
enlargement and restoration, which they undertook so 
magnificently. It will be necessary, therefore, to give 
a translation of his entire description. I have con- 
structed the plan, Fig. 3, by comparing this description 
with the buildings that exist; from which, as I have 
already shewn, there is little or no difficulty in picking 
out the portions that were standing before the Cru- 
saders' works were added. 

"The entrance of the city of Jerusalem is to the 
West, under the tower of David the king, by a gate 
which is called David's Gate. The first place to visit is 
the Chiu*ch of the Holy Sepulchre, not only on account 
of the arrangement of the streets, but also because of 

its great renown above all other churches In the 

midst of this Church is the Lord's Sepulchre, girt about 
with a very strong wall, and covered over to prevent 
the rain frofn falling upon the sacred Sepulchre, because 

the chiu'ch overhead is left open In the court of 

the Chiu*ch of the Holy Sepulchre several holy places 
are to be seen, to wit, tlie Prison (V), in which, according 
to the Assyrian tradition, our Lord was incarcerated 
after he was delivered up. A little above this is the 
place (X) where tlie Holy Cross, with the other crosses, uxu 
found, and where, subsequently, a large Church (W) was 

^ MSS. Corpus Christi Coll. Camb. 
No. III. 8. Nasmith'i CaUlogue, pp. 
1 19, 120. This narrative was printed by 
Michel from Mr. Wright's transcript 
in the fourth Volume of the Recueil de 
Voyages par la Soci^t^ de Oeographie, 

Paris, 1839 ; but this transcript appear 
to have been hastily made, and al* 
though generally correct, has some 
omissions. 1 have collated and cor- 
rected the portion relating to this 
church with the original. 

en. rif,] BoirDmus of thk thibd period. 271 

built in honour of Queen Helena, but afterwards utterly 
destroyed by the Pagans ; below this, and not far from 
the prison, is seen a marble Column, to which our Lord 
was bound in the pretorium, and sorely scourged. Close 
to this is the place where He was stripped of His clothing 
by the soldiers ; and next, the place where He teas clad 
in a pnrpla robe and crowned with thomSj and they 
divided Bjs garments and east lots. 

" After this Mcm^i Calvary (N) is ascended, where 
Abraham the Patriarch, having made an altar [g\ would 
have sacrificed his only son in obedience to the Divine 
command ; and where, afterwords, the Son of God, 
whom he prefigured, was sacrificed for the redemption 
of the world. The rock itself of the mountain bears 
witness to the Passion, being much split close to the 
pit in which the Cross was planted, as it is wTitten^ 
*the rocks were rent,' Below is the place which is 
caDed Golgotha (N), where Adam is said to have been 

raised from the dead* Close to Calvary, the Church 

of S. Mary (M) stands in the place where the Lord's 
Body, taken down from the Cross, was wrapped in linen 
with spices before it was buried. 

" At the head of the Church of the Sepulchre, in the 
outer wall, not far from Calvary, is the place called 
Compos (a), where the Lord indicated with his own 
hand the centre of the world, as the Psalmist witnesses, 
* For God is my King of old, working salvation in the 
midst of the earth^.* But some say that it was here 
that He appeared to Mary Magdalen when she took 
Him to be the gardener. 

• Sec Sect. viii. above. 

' Ps. Ixxiii. 12. Vide Sect. viii. above. 



[part II. 

'' These most holy oratories are situated in tlie court 
of the Sepulchre on the eastern part. But two Cha- 
pels (I, C), in honour of S. Mary and S. John, adhere 
to the very sides of the Church, one on each hand, even 
as these witnesses of the Passion stood one on each 
side of the Cross. On the western wall of the Chapel 
of S. Mary is to be seen pamted on the outside a 
figure of the Virgin, by which Mary of Egypt... ...was 

marvellously consoled, as her life relates. 

'* On the other side of the Church of S. John is the 
beautiful Church of the Holy Trinity (B), in which is 
the place of baptism : to this adheres the Chapel of S. 
James (A), the apostle who first obtained the pontifical 
chair of Jerusalem. And these are so arranged, that 
any one standing in the last Church can see all the five 
churches from door to door. 

" Beyond the gate of the Church of the Holy Se- 
pulchre to the South, is the Church of S. Mary, which 
is called Latina, because there Monks perform the 
Latin service, and the Syrians say that the Virgin stood 
during the Crucifixion on the very spot where the altar 
of that Chiu'ch is fixed. 

**To this Church adheres the Church of S. Mary 
the Less, where nuns serve the Virgin and her Son; 
and close to this stands the Hospital where the cele- 
brated Church or Monastery is dedicated in honour of 
S. John Baptist 1." 

* Relatio de Peregrinaiione Sswulfi 
ad HienMolymam et Terrain Sanctam. 
Annis Dominicie Incamationis 1102 
et 1103. p. 83. 

^< Introitus civitatis Jerosolimam est 
ad Occidentem, sub arce David regis 

per portam quae vocatur porta David. 
Primum eundem est ad Ecdeiiam 
Saocti Sepulcri quae Martjrrium to- 
catur, non solum pro conditiooe plate- 
arum, sed €{\nk odebrior est omnibus 
aliis ecclesiis In medio 

CM* til. 1 



The most curious part of this description is that 

which rdat€S to the aeriea of chapels annexed to the 

Romul Churchy and which I have already explained in 

■Rto Vm. I ahall therefore merely refer to the Plan, 

Rg, 3» and to that explanation. These were apparently 

L_kiMi Ecdetlx tfi I>ciminicum Sepu)- 
B^inm tnttro finttssimo ctrcmncitiftuiti 
PlIifcrtBSi^Dcditni plyit, plana cadcre 
I patfoperSaoetuin Sepakhrum , quih 
f £nJntft defupcT paiel discoop«rt«. 
lifi E/cdeiiA ntu est in dedtvja montia 

**Ifl imu Ecdeilt: Daminid Sepul- 
eW ku muotur Muietbiima, afilictt 
^>f&abt D^dtnirtui noai^ Jesus ChHs- 

tta pan craditlowem iucarceratut full, 
*sttiuibi» Aistriis; ddnde paulo aa* 
foiui locus appiu-et ubi tanctA Crux 
fwnj iliti crucibu* iiivriita est, ubi 
pMn I& boDcire T«gin« Uelenic magna 
™B*ra]Ct» fait ecdeftift, sed poatmodum 
ipi^bfuudiiun ent detnisa; itifcTiu* 
tnj non louge a ca.rcere columpna 
■i^uinorra ccin»picituf ad quam Jeius 
Chhiinji Domicui noster in pretoriu li- 
pin flagrifl aHligcbatur duris^imU; 
J^^mloc^ssubi Dommus Nosterami'> 
^^exuebatuf ab Indumeniis \ dcjnde 
W hcas ubi induebatur ve»tc purpa- 
"^ i tniUtibu* et coTcinabatur »pmea 
""■"Di* et diiiserunt veatiments sua 
**en mitten les. 

**P(»iea a*cervditur io moniein CJal- 
'«nQm.i ubi Abraham patnarcha, facto 
^^* pritiA Jtlium Kuum jubentc Deo 
"^ smmolare voluit, ibidem po9tea 
'^ Ddr queni ip*e prefiguravit, pro 
^^"^pticiiue Djuudi Deo P*ifi immo- 
^ esi hofilia; M^opuliti atitem ejus- 
^ monu» Pai^icnift Dominica teatia 
Mli famro in qni Dominica Crux 
"^ iffiii iDultum scisanA, qui I «mc 

Vol. TI. 

id»iiira necem FabncatoHs aufferrvite- 
qulTit sicut in PasBicme kfritur, 'et 
petTJE »cis»BP sunt.* Subtua eat locua 
qui Oolgothtt vocatUT, ubi Adam a tor. 
rente Douiloici cruoris sup^ eum de- 
lapso dicitur esse a mortuijt refusdtatUK, 
ticut in Dommr Passionc legitur, *et 
mutta corpfpra sanctorum qui dontti* 
etant BurrexeTunt,' Sed in SRLtciittta 
beati Aui^uatini kiptur eum lepiiltum 
fuiBBC in Hebron^ ubi etiam pastmodum 
trek patriarchir Bcpultisunt cum uitorl- 
bui auii, Abraham cum 8ar^ Isaac 
cum Rcbecc4, Jacob cum Lia^ et onsa 
Jmeph^ (|U% illti Israel adportaTemut 
necum de Egjpto. Juxra locum Cal- 
vari«e, Eeclesia franctte Maris in loco 
ubi Curpui Dominicum, aruliutn a 
cruce antequam tfcpeliretur, fuit am. 
mfttiaatum et linteo slve sudario invo- 

'' Ad caput autem Ecclesi^ Saucti 
Sepulchri, in muro forinAccui non luug^ 
a loco t'iilvariffj e.n locus qui Cumpaa 
vocal ur, ubi ip!^e Don^inua nosfter Jesus 
Christus medium mundi proprifimanu* 
esse iignavjt atquc menAuravitj piwlm- 
biil testantc, '* Dam in us autem Rex 
nostcr ante aeciila ; opcratun cRt Ralut^m 
in medio lerra;;** acd quidam in illo 
loco Dominum Jesum Chriatum dicunt 
apparuis»e primo ^fars^ Magdaleni^r 
diim ipsa fltrndo cum quaraivit et pu- 
tavit eum hortulanum fuisse^ aicut 
EvatigeliBta narrat. 

*' lata oratnria sanctlsdma ccmtinctitur 
in alrio Dominici Sepulehri ad Ori«n- 




[part n. 

the buildings upon which the Greek Emperors ex- 
pended their pains and funds. For the other holy 
places appear to have been merely protected by smaU 
oratories, according to the description of William of 
Tyre already quoted. The Prison was probably then 
in the same state as it is now, a dry vaulted cistern 
in the rock. 

Of the place where the Cross was found, the same 
may be said. The Church or Chapel of S. Helena 
seems to have been in ruins, for Saewulf speaks of it 
as in this state; and the anonymous historian, whose 
Tract is printed in the " Gesta Dei," and who also 
writes at the same period, says of this spot, " Near the 
Sepulchre, a little on one side, there rises a rock, split 
and gaping open, as it is written " that the rocks were 
rent," and beneath it is Golgotha A little further 

talcm plagam. In lateribus vero ipsius 
ecclesise diuB capellsc sibi adherent 
pra>clarissima? hinc inde, Sct£, Marie 
scilicet Sciqtie Johannis in honore*, 
Bicut ipsi participes Dominicac Passionis 
8ibi in lateribus constiterunt hinc inde. 

'* In muro autem Occidentali ipsius 
capellfle Sanctje Mariae conspicitur im- 
ago ipsius Domini genitricis perpicta 
extcrius,queD Mariam Egyptiacam olim 
toto corde compunciam atque ipsius 
Dei genitricis juvamen efflagitantem 
in figura ipsius cujus pictura erat, per 
Spiritum Sanctum loquendo mirifice 
consolabatur sicut in vita ipsius legitur. 

"Ex alterd vero parte Sancti Jo- 
hannis ecclesiie est monasterium Sanctfe 
Trinitatis pulcherrimum, in quo est lo- 
cus baptisterii, cui adheretcapella Sancti 
Jacobi apostoli, qui primam cathedram 

pontificalem Jerosolimis obrinuit; ita 
com posits et ordinats omnes, nt qni- 
libet in ultimd stans ecdesiil onmei 
quinque ecclesias perspicere potest cla- 
rissime per ostium ad ostium. 

" Extrd portam £cclesi» Saocti Se- 
pulchri ad Meridiem est Ecdesia Sane- 
taj Mariflp, quie Latina vocatur, ed quod 
Latinc ibi Domino a monachis lemper 
rainistrabatur, et Assirii dicunt ipsain 
beatam Dei genitricem in crudfixiooe 
Filii sui Domini nostri stare in eodem 
loco ubi altare est ejusdem ecdesis. 
Cui ecclesi« alia adheret Ecdeos 
Sancts Maris, que vocatur Parra, aU 
monachae conversantur sibi Filioqte 
suo servientes devotissim^. Juxta quD 
est hospitale ubi monasterium habettr 
prjEclanim in honore Sancti JobanDii 
Baptista? dedicatum.** 

* The passages in Italics are omitted in the French transcript. 



is tlie |ikcc ealled of ' Calvary/ where the wood of the 
Cross was found by Helena the blessed,,* and where 
was founded by the same Queen a Church of wondrous 
loagnitiide and workmanship, afterwards destroyed by 
perfidious Gentiles. The ruins which e^st there attest 
the quality of the w^ork^'* 

I have already stated my opinion, that the ruins al- 
luded to by Saewulf and this anonyinous writer, are those 
of the present chapel^ which was merely restoreci and 
revaultcd by the Crusaders. Expressions of magnitude 
moat always be taken with caution, for all ancient 
writers exaggerate in this respect; and we have seen 
that the plan of the actual Basilica of Constantine was 
TCiy different from that of the chapel in question which 
bore its name in the Middle Ages. 

The Column of Flagellation, and the other places 
whkh follow in Sffiwulf 's narrative, were probably in the 
open air ; and even Calvary itself has no chapel given 
to it by SaewTilf ; but it is the first of the three oratories 
mentioned by William of Tyre, of which the second is 
the place where the Cross was found, and the third is 
tlie place of Anointing, which Sgcwulf describes as the 
ehujch or chapel of S, Mary, On the whole, however, 
the general plan of the buildings was not very different 

' 1 tubjotn part of thi^ pasAage at 
isDiftfa, '* Paalulum TC^motioT ab eoddm, 
M lodu dictm Calvana^, ubi lignum 

erit. Pars autem ligni predod in hii 
locis h. fidelibuA retenta, diligentl vctie- 
Taiione adoratur ei exaltatur.) JuxtA 

ieiiin trccent^simo oeboijesimo crucin uiventiDnem a Meridie i^t Eccle- 

itzto mono past Fa&sianem Chrisd a 

beau Helena, Jada prsroonstrante, in- 

tentmD est; ubi etiam ab eadem Re- 
gina ficdesia mirs magnitudinis et 
Opens fiuidata, postea k perfidis Genti- 
Ubos destructa est ; (ruins cujus adhuc 
existcmes indicant qualenam opus fu- I p. 573. ) 


sia GenetriciA l>ei qua? Laiifta nuncxi- 
patur, e6 qu6d a Latinis semper sit 
culta; ubi fertur eadem Virgo plo- 
rasse atque scidisse crines, cum vidisset 
Filium suum unigenitum patibulo 
aifixum *^ (Gesta Dei per Francos, 


from that which they had before the destruction, and 
it may be supposed that it had been intended to re- 
build or repair the other oratories as well as the Bound 
Churchy had not the Crusaders conceived and carried 
out their magnificent plan of uniting the whole under 
one roof, which I have explained at length in the former 
part of the Architectural History. 




It hi bagn Mwrted . hy aome writew that the Holy Sepoldire teflmm 
Am piimitlfB type of all other churches of a dnmlar ibrm^ If my 
i of the Basilica of Constantine be ooneot, it is plain that their 
I ia derti^yed^ because I hare shewn that no Round Chmdi at all 
m cneted at first dbont the Holy Sepulchre, but that the Bound 
Gfandi on that spot originated with Modestus, about the year G29L It 
ii tme, that in all probability the external fi>xm of the Sepulchre ww 
Howerer, the Mausoleum of Helena, and that of Constantia at 
are sufficient to shew that the circular fi>xm of Churdi ww 
adapted in the time of Constantine, and there is not the dig^teat reason 
to suppose that the imitation of the Sepulchre ever entered into the 
Noughts of the architects of these and similar buOdhigs; fi>r if it had, 
the fiwt would haye been handed down to us by the ecclesiastical writen 
of old. One such instance is recorded ; for Codinus relates that the 
Church of the Virgin at Constantinople, called of the Curator, apparently 
from the office of the person who superintended the building, was 
erected by Verina, the wife of Leo Macela, in the form of the Holy 
flepuldire '. But as the Church has disappeared, we cannot tell what the 
plan of it was ; but from the expressions employed it must hare been in 
imitation of the Sepulchre itself. In feet, the circular or polygonal fi>nn 
naturally occurs when a building is required for the preservation or 
enclosure of any single object, such as a tomb or a font ; and according 
lM|itisteiie9 have been erected in this shape from the period of Con- 
atantine downwards. But in the case of the Holy Sepulchre the buildings 
bad the double purpoee of enclosing that monument, and of providing a 
aeparata house of prayer in its neighbourhood, and hence the more 
magnifioent plan of placing it in the midst of an atrium surrounded by 
edonnades. In addition to which an opinion seems to have been enter- 
tained, that it would be irreverent to cover this monument with a roe£ 
This opinion is constantly alluded to by the medieval writers ; but I 
am unable to shew that it had an origin so eariy as Constantine, althoufl^ 

I Sec Quarterly Reriew, March, 

ifia, p. SM. 

* tit T^ bpotmpM Toir td^tw 


icvp(ov. (Codiniia, p. AS, cz Origiiiibns 
C. P. as quoted by Du Cange^ Con- 
staDtinopolis Christiaiuu p. 86L) 



[part II. 

it is not improbable that that was the case. Bat, indeed, the external 
decoration of the Cave and its isolation, rendered it quite of Boffident 
importance to stand alone. 

The opinion, that round churches were erected in imitarimi of the 
Sepulchre, seems to have originated in modem times from the known 
practice of the Templars, whose Order was founded nineteen yean after 
the conquest of Jerusalem) and whose round churches therefore were 
constructed in imitation of the Rotunda erected by the Greek JSmpeion 
in the third period of the buildings. But the imitation went no fitfther 
than the mere circular plan, which was even sometimes made polygoDsl, 
and these Temple-churches had also laige eastern chancels, in aoooidanoe 
with that which the Crusaders had added to the Church of the Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem ; but not planned on so magnificent a scale, or with any 
attempt at exact reproduction. I do not mean, howeyer, to deny that 
churches were erected in the Middle Ages with a more direct intentioii 
of copying the Holy Sepulchre than those of the Templars. One ex- 
ample of such a copy I have given, and another is to be found in the 
Church of S. Stefiuio at Bologna. 

This Church of S. Ste&no was founded, as they say*, by S. Petrauo, 
in 490, in imitation of the churches of the Holy Sepulchre and of Gsl- 
vary at Jerusalem; and, united to the Church of S. Peter which (fonndod 
in 830) was already there. The early existence of part of this tradikki 
is testified by the bull of Celestmo III. (1191—1198), in whidi he 
terms the Church of S. Stefano ''the Jerusalem of Bologna, which 
Petronius erected and constructed in imitation of the Sepulchre of oar 
Lord at JerusalemV 

The churches, however, which he built, were destroyed by the Hun- 
garians in 903, and afterwards rebuilt. They also suffered by fire in 1210^ 
and have been subsequently restored and modernised in various wayi; 

The present church or group of churches which goes by the geneal 
name of S. Stefano at Bologna, comprises six, which are packed together 
in so apparently irregular and unskilful a manner, that Agincourt, iB 
his History of the Decadence of Art, has given a plan of them as an 
example of the total want of skill and symmetry in the buildings of that 
age'. But if this plan be compared with that of the churches of the 
Sepulchre in their second period (Plate 1, Fig. 3), we must be ccmvinoed 
that the churches of S. Stefuio were really laid out in imitation of the 
churches at Jerusalem, and therefore that the tradition is not without 

1 Masini, Bologna Perlustrata, p.l24. 

' ''Cum itaque in lemplo gloriosi 
protomartjrris Stephani, quod dicitur 
Hierusalem de Bononia, quod servus 
Dei Petionius, ejusdem civitatis epis- 
copus, instar Sepulchri Domini nostri 

Jesu Christi in Hierusalem etedt it 
construxit." ( Acu Sanctorum, Oct T. 
II. p. 434.) 

^ Agincourt, Plate 28. The voik 
has been lately reprinted in this ONB- 
try, and can easily be referred to. 



f ulxhough the atylo c>f the remaming Imi! Jmgs shews I hat no 
rfff|«f l&eui <^iD be prior to the d^tmction of Bobgaa by the Htm- 
gamn3 in the tenth eentaiy* 

la the fifst place, tJiere is a round churcli supported on twelve piere 
k ii rude Lombard style, siu-mounted by a dereitory and a dome \ In 
tbe middle h a sepulchre construetedj as Masini and the guide-books 
fly', in imiUtion of the Holy Sepulchtie. However, Gaily Knight a view 
hhi:w% m this place a stone pulpit with & peeuliar canopy having ^1 
aJiar ovot it. The church is only half the diameter of tlio Rotnuda 
lA iexonlem, and the imitation is not to be 8upi>osed a very close 
urn, Tlus Bound Church hai on aisle, bounded^ iiowevet^ not by a 
aoDceatfte;, but by a polygonal^ waU of ei^ht very irregular aidm : this 
churdb i» called S. Sepolcro, On the north side b a small Romanesque 
likurcli with a centre and side-aisles, and three apae^. This is called 
8t Fletfo e Paolo, and occupies a simitar position to tho C]m|iel of the 
Appmtion at JeniaaJem ; but this did not prolmbly enter into the scheme 
of Imil^oii ; for this is the church said to have been founded before 
K Fetit>Diu3 commenced his opcmtions. On the east of % Bepolcro u a 
tfluBi-e church, now roofed over^ but whicli was evidently in its original 
m$e a doifitercd court. It is called ^^ Corte di Pilato/' and corresponds 
I& llie open court in its Jerusalem prototype. On the south aide of itj 
■ivl pATily of tlie church of S. Scpolcro, tliere stands an oblong churchy 
yie east end of which h raised upon a Romanesque etyptp called the 
crypt of S. Lorenzo. The body of the church extended much farther 
iFc^ward tlian the Round Church, Thia was the church of S, Sti-fano, 
It was rebuilt on a new plan, uniting two churches in one, in 1637» and 
was dedicated to the Crucifixion. Still it is plain that this crypt and 
its upper church were erected in imitation of the chapels of Adam and 
of Calyaiy. There is a sixth church at the east side of the cloister or 
** Corte di Pilato," which may possibly have been erected in imitation 
of the Basilica of Constantine ; but there is no tradition to the effect 
that the imitation was carried so far as this. This church was dedicated 
to the Trinity. 

On the whole^ I am of opinion that the similarity of plan is quite 
snfBcient to shew that these churches were partly contrived in imitation 

* A view of the interior is given by 
GaDy Knight, £cc. Arch, of Italy, 
Plate 20. The piers are not all of the 
same fonn ; the seven eastern ones are 
double or compound, and the seven 
western are simple pillars ; this is 
shewn in Agincourt's Plan. I visited 
the Church in 1832, but as my atten- 

tion was wholly directed at that time 
to the architectural details, I am un- 
able to recall any particulars relating 
to the arrangement of the plan that 
would elucidate the present question. 

* '* Un Sepolcro simile k quello di 
Christo Signer nosUx>." Masini, p. 


of those at Jerusalem. Of oonne, oonndering the imperfect Mt» of the 
art of drawing in those daya, it would be absurd to expect anytiiing 
like a copy or model in such imitations ; all that can be looked for 
is a general resemblance in the plan^ carried out according to inch 
architectural details and dimensions as were practised in the period and 
place where the imitation was made. Doubtless^ therefore, the churdies 
in question were erected at Bologna after the destruction of the dty by 
the Hungarians in 903, and the plans made from the accounts and 
recollections of some pilgrim or other with respect to the churdies at 
Jerusalem as they then existed. And this in consequence of the tmdition 
alluded to in the Bull of Pope Celestine quoted aboye, that S. Petronius 
originally erected in the Church of S. Ste&no an imitation of the Holy 
Sepulchre and Grolgotha. 

The most minute account of this transaction is to be found in the Life 
of S. Petronius, printed in the Acta Sanctorum from a monk's Chronicle, 
which is continued up to the year 1180 only*, and may probably therefine 
be of that age. This writer relates that the Saint built a Monasteiy in 
honour of St Stephen.. /'and that he with much labour completed a 
work marvellously constructed in imitation of the Lord's Sepulcfaie, 
according to the manner which he had seen and carefully measured with 

a measuring rod when he was at Jerusalem He erected another edifice 

with great variety of colunms, and with a court round about, with tiro 
orders of precious columns with their bases and capitals ornamented with 
various symbols, and so arranged that upon the lower order of columns 
another and more ornamental one was placed, and thus extended as 6r 

as the place which represented Golgotha or Calvary And in that place 

he fixed a wooden cross, which in length and breadth was entirely made 

in the likeness of the Cross." And then he proceeds to say, that hafing 

measured the distance from Golgotha to Mount Olivet, he made at 
Bologna an artificial mountain, which to this day is called Mount Olivet, 
and built on the top of it a Church dedicated to St John, and ako be 
made a reservoir to represent Siloe. If this artificial Olivet be the pre- 
sent Church of S. Giovanni in Monte, tlie distance is considerably less 
than the original ; for by a plan of Bologna, which is lying before me, I 
find it to be only 65G feet from one church to the other, whereas the 
distance of the original points at Jerusalem is 4500 feet However, the 
whole tradition appears to mo to be a very curious one, and worth invea- 
tigating, by examining the buildings on the spot with more care than 
has been hitherto bestowed upon them. 

The Sepulchre is more minutely described in a subsequent part of 
the Chronicle', under the year 1141, which states that " there is in the 
Church of St Stephen a sepulchre which was fabricated by S. Petranias in 

' Acta Sanctorum, Oct. T. ii. p. 459. ^ ibj^. p. 467. 

I III. iil] 
die likcjtcos 



riic likcjtcos of the Holy Sepulchrti, and that ov. the right-hand of its 
tstnuicif h ti chcsl in which the ^Ini had flepoaited innuinambk relic8> 
•nil on tlw IdVhnnd, another chest, wliich contains the hodj of S, Petro- 
ni«» lumaclf-'* This chest was opened in 1141, and the Saint " invented" 
m the j>hniE« is. This Chit^nicie fumbhes us with mm^s valuable infor- 
mlioii, which appears to have been ov«rlooked^ concemitig the djitefi of 
pit of t!ie e^ditani; buildiags. 

In tli« account of tlie alK>?e-mentioD&d " Invention" of relics of S. 
FtrtTonifis &nd otlier sainta\ it appears that in the year 1141 the Monks 
»p« hunting for a certain chest of relics of S. l&idore and othcri, which 
smne old men had informed them they had seen under the Am&o of the 
High Altar of the Chmdi of S* Peter, when it waa rebuilt ** 

Thia paasage fixea the building of the Church of S. Petef to within 
aiity or seventy years before this search, and tJiercfore to about the 

A ihort thne after this, the Abbot and Monks found it neceesaiy to 
pull doim itie Church of the Holy Cross, in which the Golgotha was 
omstmctcid by 3. Petronjua, In order to rebnlld it, and upon digg-ing under 
ihe pftTetnent they found other boxes of reUcs^, Thia narrative fumishea 
OS with the date of the Romanesque Crypt of §. Lorenzo, which occupies 
the place of the Gol^tha of Petronins, and is thus shevm to have beeit 
rebtiiJt about 1145. 

In consequence of some miraculous cur^ of £aver in 1907, which 
were suppoied to have been effected by water drawn from a well under 
the Altar of S. Petronius in this Church, the worship of this Saint grew 
into great popularity at Bologna, and the great church dedicated to him 
was in consequence commenced in 1390. 

I have thought it worth while to append the above notes to the 
History of the Sepulchre, because 1 am not aware that the similarity of 
plan between the Churches of Bologna and Jerusalem has been noticed 
before. The fashion of modem writers is to consider the Round Church 

» Acta Sanaonim, Oct. T. ii. pp. 

■• "...cum prsfati S. Isidori basi- 
lica Doviter aedificaretur, antiqui, qui 
tunc aderant, ab una parte earn per- 
vpexenint et prxdicto abbati atque mo- 
nachisea omnia multotiens retulerunt** 
h appean from the note, (p. 469. c.) 
that the chest or coffin of S. Isidore 
was interred deep in the ground in the 
Church of S. Peter, which is therefore 
in the above passage called the basilica 

of S. Isidore. 

' ^' Post aliquod itaque parcissimum 
temporis cum k prasdicts ecdesis ab- 
bate et monachis initum fuisset conci- 
lium ut £cclesia sancts Crucis, in qua 
Golgotha h. S. Petronio locus appellatus 
fuerat, k fundamento mums undique 
de8trueretur,et firmius reficeretur : quern 
vero ubl statuemnt, fodientes in pavi. 
mento ipsius Ecclesiae, pretiosas repe- 
ricrunt areas, &c..." p. 468. 


at Bologna as the Baptistery of the ancient CathedraL I have not been 
able to get sight of the works referred to by Mr. Gaily Knight and oihers 
on this subject, namely. An anonymous Tract on this Church in 1772, 
and a History of it by D. Celestine PetracchL 



The particulars of the Fire which so greatly damaged the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre in 1808 principally interest us, as enabling ua to 
discover what portions of the old structure may remain; and, for the 
information of future travellers to Jerusalem, I have thought it worth 
while to add some few notes upon this subject^ hoping that by thus 
directing their attention to it, an examination of the present stmctare 
may be made with an especial view to the separation and description of 
the old portions. I am aware of three principal authorities for the nar- 
rative, namely, the account which was published by the Frandscan^ 
the account similarly published by the Greeks, and a private letter which 
is inserted in the Pilgrimage of De Gdramb. They all agree in the main 
facts, but each party describes its especial effects upon their own portion 
of the church ; and it is only by comparing the different accounts that we 
can discover the real extent of the damage, or rather the parts that really 
escaped. It must be confessed, too, that both Greeks and Latins recipro- 
cally are apt to describe with some exultation the ravages of the fire upon 
the Holy Places of their opponents, and to contrast them with the mira- 
culous manner in which some of their own remained unscathed. 

The fire began in the Armenian Church, which ia in the triforium <^ 
the Rotunda (over 68, Fig. 4), whence it communicated to the great 
Cupola of the Rotunda, from whence it passed to the Greek choir, thence 
to their dwelling-places upon Calvary (75, Fig. 5), and to the Chapels of 
Calvary, where it ruined the beautiful marbles of that sanctuary as well 
as those of the chapel of the Madonna. 

From the aforesaid choir it also passed to the Gallery of the Latins 
over the north aisle of the Rotunda, reducing to ashes the four apart- 
ments and the altar of S. Didacus, and the other apartments, where it 
consumed the furniture appropriated to the pilgrims, and the carpets, 
lamps of silver and of other metals, and the omaments. The Turkish 
dwellings which were over the rooms of the Latins, were also burnt 
and fell in ruins upon their apartments. After five hours of violent com* 
bustion the great cupola fell, and crushed in its fidl the little cupola of 




lBs|^9l|)iikbi«, breaking to pieces the coIuniDS of porphyry which 
1 ft, OS well m the columns and marbles aroimd tlie Sepuklm% 

De Gemmb has given tlie copy of a letter horn &n Itdkn priest j an 

HwitnesB to the fire\ in which he dedarts* amongst other things, that 
lie little Convent of the Ftanciscans, and their Chapel (of the Apjm* 
ridon)^ oj well as the sacrist j% had escaped the least injury* The Chftp«l 
of the Angel had half ita velvet hangings burnt, but its walk and paviv 
mentfl were unjujured. Also the Chapel of tJie Cruclfiadon, whicli lje- 
knged to the Latins, was only slightly injured, but the Chapel of Qm 
Exalttttlon ireiy greatly. The Chapel of the Porch was al&o iminjurcd* 

The Pictcne of the Resurrection, which dosed the Sepulchre, was 
itved, and even the silk hangings and cords of the bunpa. But the Copts' 
Chapel waa wholly burnt. 

Mr. Turner' gives a transcript of the aeoonnt which was puhlisJied 
liy the FranciBcan guardians of the Churchy entitled, Brev^ IVotizia 
d^f Incendm ataiduto Ntl Tempio M SS^ Sepokhro di N.S.GXl ii 
^wnsA 11 Otitfhf^j ISOfi, This hiatoryj however^ the object of which was 
(0 solidi Mih^HTiptions for the repair of the fabric, confines its statements 
id the damage donej without particulariatng the parts that escaped, ojc* 
(cptuig oiily the interior of the Sepulchre, I have quoted some incidcntaJ 
InfbfrmaticFn from it m the course of the preceding pages, and beg to refer 
to the interesting work of Mr. Tnnier fbf the remainder. 

Lastly^ 1 have been ^votued with a tiansktion ^m the Russian letter, 
which was circubited by Callinleus, Patriarch of Conatantinoplej in order 
to obtain assistance, and which contains the Greek version of the afiair^ 
from which, as it has never been printed, I will give an extract. " On the 
ODth day of September, 1808', on Wednesday, at 8 o'clock in the evening, 
saddenly and unexpectedly an extensive conflag^tion took place within 
the temple of the holy life-giving Sepulchre, and consumed the whole of 
that wonderful, royal, and holy building, as well as the lofty cupola «, 
which was covered with lead, and the small Chapel which was built over 
the Holy Sepulchre itself: the upper galleries of the Catechumens', 
which went round it, under the large cupola, as well on our side as on 
that of the Franks and Armenians, are entirely destroyed ; for the beau- 
tiful marble piUars, on which these galleries were supported, were calcined 
and burnt. Both treasuries also (the great and the small), and all the 
cells, the holy ikons (or pictures of saints), the Cross erected on holy 
Golgotha, the holy Table and Altar of Sacrifice, and the -seats of the 

* Pddrinage a Jerusalem, &c. T. i. 
p. 125. 

• Journal of a Tour in the Levant, 
VoL II. p. 507. 

' The Greeks still use the old style. 

* Namely, that which covers the 

' Commonly called the Triforium- 
gallery in England. 



Patriarchs la the heavenly place, were oongnmed. When the marble 
columns on which the ardies rested were reduced to ashes, the aidies 
themselyes also which were aboye the Altar' were destroyed. The 
Ikonostasis of the Cathedral, and all the side Altars, together with all 
the images, and the two thrones of the Patriarch and Bishop, which were 
in the centre of the Cathedral, became the prey of the flames. Owing 
to the excessive heat, the lamps and the chanddiers with branches, and 
the rest of the utensils of the church, were melted like wax. In like 
manner, the whole of the splendid vestry, the gifts of so many pious 
monarchs, which were kept within the Temple, disappeared. The holy 
gates also were burnt, and the cupola, which was above the Cathedral, 
rent in twain*. 

'^ The only parts that were uninjured were the subterranean Cbapd 
of the Discovery of the Cross ', the aiaTe which surrounds the Chuidi, 
*the holy Chapel of the Sepulchre and its door K All the rest, as we have 
already stated, was burnt and disappeared." 

The narrative then goes on to detail the steps that were taken hj 
the Greek church to obtain authority from the Porte for restoring the 
building. The architect employed was by name Commenes, a native 
of Mitylene, and he sailed from Constantinople in the beginning of 
May, 1809, to commence the work. Difficulties and dilutes aroee be- 
tween the Greeks, Latins, and Armenians, concerning their reepective 
shares in the future building, in which each party was endeavouring to 
overreach and eject the others from the places they had respectively occu- 
pied in the ancient arrangement of the churches. Of such quarrels the 
less said, the better ; and I shall merely add, that notwithstanding these, 
and the delay caused by an insurrection of the Mohammedans, who 
attempted to stop the works by violence, the new church was completed 
and consecrated on the 11th September, 1810. It is added, that the cost 
of the building itself was only equal to one-third part of the sum ex- 
pended in satisfying the local authorities and conducting the lawsuits. 
Hence the entire restoration amounted to four millions of roubles. 

From these accounts it appears that the roof of the Rotunda was 
burnt, and its principal wall with the pillars and arches so much in- 
jured and weakened by the tire, that it was necessarily rebuilt How fiur 
the vaults of the gaUeiies suffered, or whether the present Rotunda is 

* Namely, in the apse. 

■ The central cupola over the choir. 
» The Chapel of S. Helena. 

* This appean to be the most pro- 
bable meaning of the words in the 
original, "GlavniaSviazi,** principaks 
conn€du:t V. coiligatiofies^ but it is 

an obscure expression, and the 
lation very doubtful. 

^ This enumeration only indadei 
the paru that the Greeks were inters 
ested in, and therefore omits the Chapel 
of the Apparition, &c. which beloogi 
to the Latins. 

CH, hl] of the holv sEpuLcnaB m 1808. 

% mw wallj or merely ft casing, must he left for ftituro ex&mkiatioii. The 
ffliler w«D with its a^iseiy the Latin convent and the row of etiapela 
viil Ibe CvDpaiiile, evidently escaped. Of the Crui^GTs' church, it 
tiut the central copola was split hy the fire. However, the 
► widli f^inaln, as 1 am informed by Mr. Scoles, and the pointed arches 
them are the originEd one». The small pillars of the apac and 
bt froml of the trffoiium were evidently calcined by the huming of tl\c 
w«odf*ti fittingB of the eboir and Ikonmia^ii. But to what extent the 
VAuli of thia choir suffered, or tlie ranlb that carrie^i the triforium, 
iMBaifiii to be inquired. Evidently, the north transept and outer eircum- 
favoce, namely^ the north clobter (21 ) with the prison, the prc»efiaaion* 
paUi {%i to M)i and the Chapel of Helena, were iminjui^. On the 
iOQtIl sdoj ikm entrance* front and the porch (53) were itniicathed ; but 
I^Aii Hit lit fmliicky wcKHien house for the Greeks which stood in the 
plw^ mark^ Grt^ KUch/rn^ [at (75) in Fig- ^,1 which in the Latin 
Mnutmt of the fire k deserilved as a tower in seven stories* This strneturo 
f^ the flamet^ and was the occasion of most serious damaf;^! to this 
^asHc^T of the church ; and lienee prolmbly the neceaaity for the changes 
that bav© taken place in Uie arrangements of the chapels of Calvary, 
which I have described at length in a previous page* Still the stone 
r^iltioif of these chapels must remain, and would repay an antiquarian 
iavesti^tion^ which 1 trust will also be extende^l to tlie examination of 
ill« ancient portak of tlua church, and to the remains of the Canona' 
C^mvent, which I have endeavoured to descrihe in the seventh Section. 



It may be necessary to give some history of the materials from which 
1 have Gonstmcted the Plans and Sections in Plates 11. and III. 

The only strictly architectural account is to be found in the work 
of Father Bernardino, "Trattato delle Piante et Immagini de Sacri Edifizi 
di Terra Sancta, IC20." This contains a detailed plan of the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, together with an elevation, two principal sections, 
and various other details. There is also an ample verbal description 
accompanied by written measures. To the entire accuracy of the plan 
I am enabled to bring the most satisfactoiy testimony ; for the kindness 
of my ezceUent friend, J. J. Scoles, Esq., has placed at my disposal an 
elaborate measured plan of this veiy church, which he made in the year 
1825, and which forms the basis of the engraved plan which accompanies 


this memoir. It will be found to agree with thftt of Bernardino in all 
the nameronB irregularities which necessarily belong to a gnmp of 
buildings erected from time to time upon a rocky and unequal foun- 
dation, and partly made up of the ruins of previous buildings. It is 
true that this plan was taken from the buildings after the fire of 1806; 
but the changes which were introduced in the subsequent rebuilding 
affect only the central portion, and although that stands on the old 
foundations, so that the style of architecture of the principal part of the 
Church is miserably changed, the plan is only slightly affected, and not 
at all changed in the outer walls and chapels, as will presently appear. 

But although Bernardino is the only author that has given drawings 
to scale, other travellers have given perspective views and ample de- 
scriptions, and from them wo are enabled to understand the true value 
of Bernardino's elevations. 

These, I regret to say, are utterly worthless. They represent the 
Church inside and out as constructed with circular arches^ cornices, and 
in many cases with entablatures of a classical character. It fortunately 
happens that the entrance-front of the Church, which is at the south 
end of the transept, is still in existence, and has remained unaltered, 
except by dilapidation and neglect, from the time of the Crusaders. And 
the same may be said of the campanile which stands at the side of it, 
only that the hand of Time has pressed more heavily upon it, and has 
shorn it of its upper stories, which are represented as complete in 
Breydenbach's excellent wood-cut, (aj>. 1490), and was yet standing 
although roofless, in the days of Le Bniyn (a.d. 1725). This fii^ade, 
however, from its picturesque character, has been made the subject 
of every traveller's pencil from Breydenbach to the present time, and 
it is only nccesssaiy to compare one of these well-known representations 
with Bernardino's unhappy elevation in page 23, to understand the 
process which his sketches must have undergone in preparing them for 
publication. Every arch in this elevation, both of the church and tower, 
is in reality a pointed one, the style of the whole being exactly such a 
pointed Greco-Romanesque as the Crusaders would naturally employ in 
the latter part of their occupation of the city, when this facade was 
erected, namely, about the year 1180. But in Bernardino's engraving, 
the round arches and the projecting cornices, totally un£uthful as a 
representation of the real building, have evidently been modelled by an 
Italian artist from the medieval campaniles and Romanesque structures 
of Italy ; the original drawings being probably of too rough a nature 
to be sufficiently understood. In the same manner the Chapel of & 
Helena, which has pointed arches on rude dwarfed columns, and which 
still exists, and has been engraved by Roberts and others, is shewn by 
Bernardino as a light Italian structure upon lofty and well-proportioned 
pillars with semicircular arches. The only conclusion that I can draw 
from a most careful comparison of Bernardino's work with every other 

rii. ttL] 



rity 18 tim, — that his plans, and all Ms details nnd explanat 10133, are 
iy hon^i and faithful, and may be implicitly relied on, go fai- as 
the anaDgementj dispotsition, tmd dim&mons of the building? are c^m^ 
cerned; but that he was unable to make drawiogi of Eit:hitectuTal 
decomtion, iLod that hii nide sketches were therefore dresaed Dp for 
piiblieatioiJ alter their arriyal in Italy ^ 

On« of llie greatest difficultiea that I have had to contend with, in 
tll« oadc&Toat to discover the original section of the Chufch^ has been 
Ai cotifbaiaii between round and pointed arches in the drawings of tra- 
TOUeta. The attention of antiquarians was not until lately ^ direct c^l to 
ihe pointed arch and to the important influence which tlie forms of 
iiches gwicrally, exercised ujion style ftnd history- In their rough 
ifefitc^f-s, thereforCj they never indicated the form exactlj% and the 
ntists Mid engraverej who prepared their drawings for publication, 
aatnrally made every arch of the ficmicirciilar form familiar to their own 
ej^, unless a veiy particular remark to the contrary wai to be found 
m the sketch : for travellers arc very seldom able to draw architecture 
with technical correctnegi; even if they can draw tolerably any thing 
ela&, which is not of^n ^e case. Le Bmyn was a professional artbt ; 
Jietj 89 we now know, he has repeatedly represented ruins and build* 
iigs in hm tmvels with round anhea, that atiil exist to convict him of 
tnar. The numerous ambiguities and differences which I have efi- 
martered on this head^ have almost led me to conclude that if in any 
given case one authority makes an arch pointed^ while every other 
represents it to be round, the first is right; because, before the present 
century^ an arch would of course be assumed by an engraver to be 
round, even if it had been awkwardly drawn as half-pointed or elliptical ; 
and unless it were sketched so pointedly pointed that the intention of the 
artist could not be evaded. 

Amongst the various articles that are manufactured by the Monks of 
Jemaalem for sale to the pilgrims, as memorials of their visit, are to be 
found models of the Church of the Sepulchre. These are very elabo- 
rately constructed, and many of them are in this country, in the hands 
of different individuals. Two may be seen in the British Museum ; one 
of which belonged to the original collection of Sir Hans Sloane. I find 
these models very exactly constructed, and giving internal evidence of 
their truth, in the manner in which the various galleries and arcades 
of the Church are shewn, and which a practised eye can alone appre- 

* Mr. Fergusson, however, warrant* 
Bctnaxdino*! accuracy to the fullest 
extent. <^ The most singularly correct 
work for its age that I have met with 
jDiywhcre.** p. 88. The scales upon 

Bemardino^s plates are wholly incon- 
sistent with the written measures in the 
text ; indeed, the worth of the book 
is greatly destroyed by the manner in 
which it is engraved. 


ate. They are not very exactly oonstructed to scale; but they are 
jgeniously contrived, so as to be capable of being taken to pieces, to 
ihew the various chapels and recesses. Thus the interior is modelled 
as carefuUy as the exterior. They are absurdly inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl, in various devices, and part of the construction of the building is 
modified to suit the cabinet-maker's convenience in putting the work 
together. However, the main point is, that the whole of the eastern 
part of the Church is represented in these models as having pointed 
arches, both in the pier-arches, the triforium, and in the great central 
lantern. The windows are all round-headed. This is so perfectly con- 
sistent with what might have been expected, and with the portions 
that have survived the fire of 1806, that I Jiave not hesitated to adopt 
their pointed arches in the general section of the Church, although 
Le Bruyn, who has given us the only view extant of. this interior, has 
made the tower and lateral arches semicircular. But he has done the 
same by the campanile, or rather given its arches an elliptical form : and 
yet the lower part of this campanile still stands with pointed arches 
of the most decided character. As to the great Rotunda, or circular 
nave, every authority concurs with the models, in making its arches 
semicircular. It must therefore be clearly understood, that although the 
plan of the Church, in Plate II., is based upon a veiy exact survey, and 
collated with Bemardino*8 and other authorities, yet that the section 
(Plate III) has been necessarily filled up in many parts from description 
alone : especially with respect to the relative altitudes of the pier-arches^ 
triforium, clerestory, 8ic. ; for which I have had to depend upon Bcr— 
nadino's written measures ; in which the sum is not always consistenfl 
with the items, and many of which he evidently only estimated by eye= 
But the most important part of this Section, namely, the relative levels <^m 
the Calvary, and of the Church of Helena, to the pavement of the Rotun 
has been supplied from the accurate measurements of Mr Scoles ; 
with respect to the general arrangement of the arches, galleries, 
buildings, in this Section, I have no doubt whatever ; beyond this d. ^^le- 
gree of accuracy I cannot pretend. 

The disposition of the triforium of the eastern apse is involved mn 
much obscurity. Bernardino represents an upper gallery of the f«:zll 
width of the semicircular aisle below, and his description in wor<ls, 
p. 37, seems to imply that arrangement. On the other hand, *lie 
models omit this gallery altogether. I am inclined to take the middle 
course, of supposing that there was a gallery in the thickness of the wal/, 
as I have shewn in the Section. The models also decorate the upper 
story of the apse ^vith an arcade of nine arches, alternately pierced for 
windows; and this agrees with the numerous arches shewn in Le Bruyn's 
sketch, but not at all with Bernardino's. 

An accurate research into the existing building by an architectnnl 
student, well versed in mediaeval structures, would, I am confident, detect 

/'/// /. 

! H 

^ ■ i,- ••-■» 4 I OPEN X 

,^«A-R... M.-ir BASILICA -J^ ■• ^J •] 

•I : : It,.......,, ^ <^ t 

I ■ • • • v-v-M feaaaaaaaaafl I couRi" ^4 

l^pMMi ■ ■ Mi ■■■■■■ ^ tT^ ^ 

^-'^ - 


«■•■ ■-• ^i' -ir ■:• ♦ ^'■' ■■ '■■' ■"' -y '■ ■■ ■ -■' 

,.... BS^^-... 


fldfident lanaim ct the Clmrch before the fire in 1808, repreaented 
in my 8f>ctioiMi^ to lonn a much more complete and more exact one ; 
ml I tmt that my attempt will induce some toivdler to set about 
enneCiBg my mistakes, and resolving the difficulties whioh 1 can only 
pntend to have poiiited out ; happy if in so doing I shall have succeeded 
ia exciting the interest that always attaches to an object of research 
oooe indicated. 


Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Plan of the supposed state of the ground at the time of the 
Cndfixion, (Sect. IX.) The outlines represent the present streets and 
tbe leading points of the plan of the Church. A, the Chapel of S. Helena ; 
^ the high ground to the west of the Holy Sepulchre, which was low- 
dtd hy Constantine's architects ; C, the cliff, in the face of which the 
cntrnce of the Sepulchre was formed ; D, the catacomb of which the 
tomb called of Joseph and Nicodemus is the remains; E, Mount Calvary. 
IV hollow between this point and C was the place filled up by Hadrian 
^ earth to conceal the Sepulchre ; F, the rock-cistern, called the 
"I^rison;" Gl, St Stephen Street ; 1 K, Sepulchre Street; K L, Patriarch 
^tm't ; L M, the steep descent, which leads to the Entrance Court of 
^he Church; MG, Palmer Street; GI was originally the line of the 
'iiy wall, an<l the gate called the Porta Jndiciaria was j)lace<l at I. The 
^inaining letters of reference shew the points through which the Sections 
'jf the ground in Plate III., Fig. 11. are taken. Those Sections should Ixj 
^n^pantl with the present Figure. 

^\ 2. Plan of the Basilica of Con^^tantine. (Sect. X). 

1*1? 3. Plan of the churches, as rebuilt l)y the Emperors of Con- 

^^^tinople, after their destruction by the Caliph Hakem in 1010; 

f^^nling to the description of Sicwulf, in 1103 (Sect. XII), and also in 

^V-tration of Arculfus (Sect. XI). A, the Chapel of S. James; B, the 

^V'l of the Holy Trinity; C, the Chapel of S. John ; D, the south- 

^t iloor of the Hound Church ; E F G, the three eastern apses, conjec- 

^'ally supplied ; H, the north-east door ; 1, the Chapel of S. Mary ; 

''K L, the three western apses of the Round Church or Rotunda; M, 

tlie Chapel or Oratory of S. Marj- over the Fnction Stone ; N, the Gol- 

gothan Church. The outline shews its probable extent in the days of 

;lrculfus ; P, the cirdra mentioned by Arculfus, in which relics were 

kept; Q, the steps lea^ling down to the Chapel of S. Helena (W) which 

/s called by Arculfus the Basilica of C'onstantine, and by Sffiwulf and 

Vol. II. 19 


William .of Tyre, &c., the ruins of the banlica of Constantine ; S, the 
jMiradiise or open court ; T, the corridoryor cloifltcr-walk which led finom 
the door II to the prison V. There was prohahly anollier corridor at R, 
leading to the Golgothan Church, a, the*CoiiijNit Weentre of the world ; 
abed, the outer circumference or outer wall of the triple' chnrch, if 
Arculfus'8 description .he literially correct ; biity on account of the great 
rise of the ground at the west of the churchy it is prohahle that this outer 
circle extended only through the eastern half dab, where it served as an 
external porticus. The middle wall of Arculfus with its tliree apses was 
the same as the present wall L K J in its western hal( and its eastern 
half was prohahly completed, as the dott^ Jine. shetre, in the form of a 
concentric circle, and may have had a fourth apse at F to contain the 
altar which he mentions. Tlie doors of the circular wall most haye been 
pLiced opposite the points D and H respectively, e, the well of St He- 
lena ; ff the outer door of the Golgothan 'church, before which the bodies 
of the dead were laid while the service was being petformcd in 'the apse 
of the church ; g, the altar of Abraham ; Y, the portal of Conatantine's 
basilica, the remains of which still exist ; Z, the poiAtlon of the dsten, 
now called the Treasury of Helena. 

Platk II. 

Fig. 4. General plan of tlic Church and its adjacent Chapels^ as they 
existed before the fire of 1808. The walls are shaded with four different 
tints, to indicate, (1) the ])arts Uiat are cut out of the rock, as far as I 
have been able to ascertain them ; (2) the buildings that existed before 
the Crusaders* kingdom was established ; (3) the Crusaders' buildings ; 
(4) the subseqaent buildings and appendages. The side-disles and lower 
parts of the Church itself are separated from the central higher parts liy 
a very light tint. 

1, The Cave of the Holy Sepulchre ; 2, the Angel's Chapel ; S, the 
platform which leads to it, which is raised three steps above the pave- 
ment of the Rotunda ; 4, the arch which connects the Rotunda with 
the choir of the Crusaders, now the Greek Church ; 5, the southern 
apse ; G, tlie tomi) of Joseph of Arimathca and Nicodemus ; 7> the 
western apse, into which its present door opens ; 8, the northern apae : 
this has a door which leads to the Latin or Franciscan convent^ also 
to 9, the Greek Font, and 10, the well of Helena; 11, the convent- 
kitchen ; 12, the refectory ; 13, passages and staircases to the dormi- 
tories which are above; 14, the Chapel of the Virgin Mary of the 
Apparition with its three altars and the seats of -the choir: a round 
stone in the middle marks the place where Chiist appeared to the 
Virgin ; 15, a space at present enclosed as a sacristy for the Latins ; 16, 
the ste]>s leading up to the door of Uie chapel ; 17^ this was originally 
enclosed to form a recess for an altar of S. -Marj' Mdgdalene, but is now 


the door of the sacristy ; 18, the arch which leads to the comdor (21 ) in 
the place of tlic north-west door of the Rotunda, corresponding to 67 
on the south ; 19, a stone in the pavement to mark the place where 
Mary Magdalene stood when our Lord appeared to her as a gardener ; 
20, a similar stone in the place where he stood ; 21, the corridor which 
leads to the prison (23) this was part of the original church hefore the 
Crasaders began their additions ; 22, an altar near which is a stone 
with holes in it, called the " bonds of Christ ;'' 23, an apartment hewn 
in the rock, probably for a cistern, kno^Ti as the " Prison- of Christ," 
1 do not know whether the roof be of rock, or an artificial vault. 24, A 
door which originally led to the dormitory of the Canons, at the east 
end of the Church, but which now merely conducts to a small apart- 
ment Part of this is marked in Bernardino's Plan as having been for 
many years the residence of an anchoret. 25, Chapel of S. Longinns ; 
2*), this opening appears to have been originally designed for a window, 
it now leads to a little apartment ; 27, Chapel of the Division of the 
Vestments ; 28, door leading to the descending stair of tlie Chapel of S- 
Helena. This stair of thirty steps of marble or stone. Is formed in an 
tttificial cleft of the rock, and the rocky sides of the passage still remain 
uncovered. 29, The Altar of the Good Thief; 30, the Altar of S. Helena ; 
31, the marble chair in which she sat while the search for the Cross was 
proceeding ; 32, the stairs by wliich to descend to the Chapel of the In- 
dention of the Cross ; 33, an altar fixed on the spot where the invention 
t^k 1^1 kt: '^A, the Cliapel of MockiriLr: 3o, door .ind staircase Icadini^ 
'■• '. ■ <ir. ik ai'artniciits, (See Fie:. •'5); 37, the patriarclial chair; 3J?, 
''■■■- 11;:1. Altar ; ')*k 30, tlie <^i'le altars. The (ireck Iconostasis, or H'l^h 
^■'•: :.•'". iih jMii.Tiii'j"-^ and throe doors, is jdaced wlierc the word Pres- 
^.y.-.ry !- uritti-n, liavini: the steps to the west of it; 40, tlie seat of the 
I'i*.'!.'-.:! <jf Jeni-alem ; 41, the seat of the otlier Patriarchs; 42, the 
A '*;: - h..;r-^tal!^ and sf-reen; 43, tlie Onnpus or centre of the world; 
-J4. ::. -.'Utli ( li'^r-stali:? and MTeeii ; 4.5, the stairs which led to the 
'^1/' .' •:.f ( iihary or nu-zzaiiiiie floor, (de^crihed helow under V'vj;. !> ;) 
4'. :\'. .ir h of tiie snutli transept, which opens to the south side aisle 
: t.c i]; 47. the ChajKl rd* Adam or of Godfrey; 4X», the tomh of 
*''i!r;, ie P>.i;ill.>n. hr-t kini,^ of Jerus<ilem ; 40, the tonih of his suc- 
"'••> 7. Ii.;iiv.iii I. 'i'ho douldewlotted line shews the screen which 
T r ■ • i t!i<- !■ unlary of the western part of the ("hapel of Adam. r>0, 
Ti.- -: I;. 1 f r'ii(r.ii>n; r>l, part of the side-aisle which lies Ix'neath the 
( . .; • ' • f *];<■ Ctu< ifixion ; .''r2, a vaulted room, now used as a vcstrj'. and 
v: \'y.y MUi'iT tlie ( hapel. The floor of the Chapel above is absunlly 
-J: '• y tl.e Latins to he the spot u[)on which our Saviour was nailed to 
tv ( r --. .Vi, An apartment under the porch of the chapels of Calvary, 
u-'] I' .1 f h;i:el of S. Mary of EgA'pt ; .'54, the stairs leading up to the 
p -r i. : •"•'. tlit <outh-ea^t door of the Church, now walled up; /iG, the 
-■■j'J.--.' < :T : <ir, which i< the only entranco that the Mohammedans 

V.I — 2 


the door of the sacristy ; 18^ the arch which leads to the corridor (21) in 
the place of the north-west door of the Rotnnda, corresponding to 67 
en the south ; 19, a stone in the pavement to mark the place where 
Maiy Magdalene stood when our Lord appeared to her as a gardener ; 
20, a similar stone in the place where he stood ; 21, the corridor which 
leads to the prison (23) this was part of the original church hefore the 
Crusaden hegan their additions; 22, an altar near which is a stone 
with holes in it, called the *' bonds of Christ ;*' 23, an apartment hewn 
in the rock, probably for a cistern, known as the ** Prison* of Christ" 
I do not know whether the roof be of rock, or an artificial vault. 24, A 
door which originally led to the dormitory of the Canons, at the east 
end of the Church, but which now merely conducts to a small apart- 
ment P^irt of this is marked in Bernardino's Plan as having been for 
many yean the residence of an anchoret. 25, Chapel of S. Longinus ; 
26, this opening appears to have been originally designed for a window, 
it now leads to a little apartment; 27, Chapel of the Division of the 
Vestments; 28, door leading to the descending stair of the Chapel of S- 
Helena. This stair of thirty steps of marble or stone, is formed in an 
tttifidal cleft of the rock, and the rocky sides of the passage still remain 
imoovered. 29, The Altar of the Good Thief; 30, the Altar of S. Helena ; 
31, the marble chair in which she sat while the search for the Cross was 
proceeding; 32, the stairs by which to descend to the Chapel of the In- 
dention of the Cross ; 33, an altar fixed on the spot where the invention 
took place ; 34, the Cliapel of Mocking ; 3.5, door and staircase leading 
to the Greek apartments, (See Fig. 5); 37, the patriarchal choir; 38, 
tte High Altar ; 36, 39, the side altars. The Greek Iconostasis, or High 
^^^^een with paintings and three doors, is placed where the word Pres- 
Mery ig written, having the steps to the west of it ; 40, the seat of tlie 
"atriarch of Jerusalem; 41, the seat of the other Patriarchs; 42, the 
^^'^ choir-stalls and screen ; 43, the Compas or centre of the world ; 
H the south choir-stalls and screen ; 45, the stairs which led to the 
^P^ls of Calvary or mezzanine floor, (descril)ed below under Fig. 5 ;) 
^» the arch of the south transept, which opeas to the south side aisle 
JJ the choir; 47, the Chapel of Adam or of Godfrey; 40, the tomb of 
^•^^ de Bouillon, first king of Jerusalem ; 40, the tomb of his suc- 
J^', Baldwin I. The double-dotted line shews the screen which 
JJj^'M the boimdary of the western part of the Chapel of Adam. 50, 
^ stone of Unction; 51, part of the side-aisle which lies beneath the 
7^1 of the Cnicifixion ; 52, a vaulted room, now used as a vestrj', and 
*^ilarly under the Chapel. The floor of the Chapel alwve is absurdly 
^ by the Latins to be the spot upon which our Saviour was nailed to 
^ Cross. 63, An apartment under the porch of the chapels of Calvarj', 
^ as a chapel of S. Mary of Kgypt ; 54, the stmrs leadinp^ up to the 
^^"^ ; 55, the south-east door of the Church, now walled up ; 50, the 
'^^^west door, which is the only entrance that the Mohammedans 



haye left open; 67, door leading to a chapel of S. Afichael and All 
Saints; 58, door to the Armenian Chnrch of S. John; 69^ door to the 
Greek Monastery of Abraham ; 60, the remains of a cloister whidi ap* 
parently occupied the north side of the court, or served aa a porch to 
the Monastery of S. Maria Latina; 61, the Chapel of & James; 02^ the 
Chapel of the Trinity, also called of S. Mary Magdalene and of the 
Ointment-bearers^ and now used as the Greek parish-church; 63^ the 
font ; 64, the present entrance ; 65, the Chapel of S. John, upon whidi 
the campanile is erected ; 66, the door into the side^usle of the Rotonda, 
now walled up ; 67» the arch which was originally the south-west door 
of the Rotunda before the Crusaders made additions to the Ghurch; 68» 
around stone which marks the place where the '^ acquaintance stood 
afiur off beholding" the Crudfizion. At this point the staircase com- 
mences which leads to the principal Armenian church; this occupies 
part of the triforium overhead. 6d^ The Chapel of Constantine attadbed 
to the Greek Monastery. 

Fig. 5. Plan of the chapels of Calvary upon the mezzanine floors 
which is in this part of the Church interposed between the gronnd-floor 
and the triforium. The exact relative position of this floor to the main 
building. Fig. 4, is shewn by the chapel of the Mocking 34, the atairoassv 
45, and the external staircase to the porch, 54 ; which three points are 
marked with the same figures of reference in the two plans. 

In Fig. 5, 70 is the porch, now blocked up; 71, the fiist chapel called 
the Chapel of the Crucifixion; 72, 73, the Chapel of the Exaltation of 
the Cross. The three holes to the east of the altar mark the position of 
the three crosses, and the circle behind the apse of the Chapel of 
Adam in Fig. 4 shews the position of the central hole corresponding to 
that behind the altar, 72. 74, The chapels of Abraham and of Melchi- 
sedech, of the exact plan of which I have no information. I only know 
by description that they occupy this comer of the building. 75, The 
kitchen of the Greek apartments, which has other rooms over it. 

Previously to the fiie of 1808, the mezzanine floor was reached by 
means of the staircase, 45, which is shewn in the general plan. Fig. 4, 
and the plan of Calvary, Fig. 5. This floor was also in the Crusaders' 
time reached by the external stair and porch, 54, 70, so that there was 
a way up and a way down for the processions of pilgrims. There was 
also a projecting gallery marked a 6 in Fig 5, which gave access from the 
Chapel of the Exaltation, 72, to the Greek apartments, 75, by means of 
two small doors, as shewn in the plan. Since the fire of 1808, however, 
these arrangements have been wholly changed, and the present plan is 
indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 5, for the information of travellers who 
may now risit this spot 

The ancient stair, 45, is destroyed as well as the gallery, a h^ and in 
its place a floor on the level of the chapels is carried over this part of 
the side-able reaching from cd&i the east to ef at the west This floor 


^■i* a doQTt m,tG fhs Greek dwcHiog^ and a stair on the south which 
^Bbada ^own to the m»rth choir^loor. The floor of the chaiteLs wliteb 
litTi&erly extended only to k and K is now also OMried westward into the 
nntli tpajoscpt by & projecting galleiy or screen j/^ h, which atandB partly 
upCiti the same place aa the old screen of the Chapel of Adam, (marked 
k^ d«abl&>^otted Linea in the ^enerzd plan at 48, 49). *rhis new gaOery 
tei S tlalivaije at A rising &oin a door In the transept at its ^lithem 
«o«i£T, nnder the triforiion-gftllery, and close to the blocked*up door, 
M. The new gallery has alio another staircaso at g which opens below 
upon a door in the north end of the screen at/jTi s^ that thn^ a double 
■eceai Is pnonded, one atair up and another down< 

Rg, 6. Conjectural Plan of the Holy Sepulchre as originally fitted 
up by CoQitantine. 

Fig, 7. Plan of the Holy Sepulchre from the Crn^d^rg' Conquest to 
Iht Fire of 1808^ copied from Bernardino, (with the exception of the 
tiut^ that divide the rock from the marble). 

Fig. 8, Plan of tli© present Holy Sepnlchrej (fifom a drawing by 
r. J- J. Soolea). 

TbeM three plana are aU drawn to the same scale and have the same 

en <rf Tefcrenc*. The rock ia shaded with a rough dark tint, and 

ilone or marble additions with a uniform and lighter tint A, tlio 

or actual i^epulchre; B the space in fi^nt of it, in which 

may stand ; C, the door, the sides of which appear itill to 

eithlHt an uncovered rocky surface ; Dj the Angel Chapel: the square in 

the midst professes to be, or to represent, the stone which originally 

doeed the mouth of the cave ; £E stone seats ; FF candelabra intro- 

dooed into the modem structure ; G the platform ; H the Chapel of the 

Copts. This, which previously to the fire of 1808 was a rough wooden 

ooDstroction that may be seen in the drawings of Breydenbach and 

oChera, is now permanently constructed of stone or marble. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 9. A section of the church from East to West The authorities 
ioir which I have explained in Note C. The lines of section are neces- 
aarily taken so as to lie behind each other, as no continuous line would 
paas through the different stairs of the Chapels of the Invention of the 
Groas, of Helena, and the principal church. The section of the Chapel 
of the Invention is taken from S westward through the stairs that lead 
down to it ; that of the Chapel of Helena, through its centre and through 
its stairs; and finally, the section of the principal church is taken 
through its centre and through the Holy Sepulchre from the eastern 
apse (27) to the western apse (7.) 

Fig. 10 is a section through part of the rock of Calvary and its 
chapels along the line x y (Fig. 4), which will explain the relative posi- 



lions of the upper and lower chapels and their relation to the rock in 
which the apse of the Chapel of Adam is formed. 

In these sections the rock is distinguished by a rough dark tint, and 
the masonry by a lighter and smooth tint. 

Fig. 11 is a set of east and west sections of the original state of the 
ground placed upon the same level, the positions of which are shewn upon 
the plan. Fig. 1. But these sections are drawn upon the same scale as 
that of the church in Figs. and 10. T V, a secti<m passing thxoag^ the 
foothole of the Cross upon Calvary, and therefore corresponding to the 
section in Fig 10. W, X, a section passing through the Sepaldm^ and 
corresponding to Fig. 0. Y Z, a section passing along Sepoldire Street, 
and representing it as a uniform slope, from which it probahly differs 
but little. 

With reference to the whole of the above figures, I nmst beg to 
remark, that many details are necessarily put in from description akne, 
and that those which represent the original state of the ground, must be 
considered as iUustrating my own views, although based upon pretty 
correct data. But I surrender them to the criticism of friture observ- 
ers, and shall be most grateful for corrections, or for additional infor- 

Plate IV. 

Plans and sections of the Tombs of the Judges, for which I am 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. J. Scoles. They are described at 
length in Section IV. In the last page of this section, line 17, for A 
read II. 


Plans, sections, and details, of the Tomb of Absalom, from the same . 
excellent authority, described in Section V. In this Section I have, 
however, inadvertently described the plan as l}ing with the door of 
entrance to the west, and must beg my readers to make the following 
corrections : 

In the second page of section V, line 3 from the bottom, for South 
read EaJtt. In line 2 for Xorth read South ; and in line 1, for East read 
North. In the third page, in line 10 from the top, for Northern read 

The mouldings and details in Plate 6 are marked each with a letter, 
and the same letters will be found in Fig. 16, shewing the position of 
each detail in the monument. The rock is distinguished by a rough 
dark shade, and the masonry by a light uniform tint, as before. The 
stones of the masonry carefully marked in from the originaL The 
accumulation of rubbish is also shewn, and it is to be hoped that future 
travellers will endeavour to supply the measures and details of the base 
of this curious monument. Cassas has restored it from pure fancy, 
without noting its encumbered condition. 



Wb are now to pass from the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, to the opposite hill of Moriah, and to 
endeavour, by a careful comparison of existing phseno- 
mena with the historical or traditionary notices of 
former times, to gain some light as to the true position 
of Solomon's Temple, and those that succeeded it. 
An accurate survey of the enclosure in its present 
state is indispensably requisite as the basis of the pro- 
posed investigation ; and happily materials for such a 
description are no longer among the desiderata of this 
branch of literature. We shall, indeed, meet with some 
perplexing discrepancies in matters of considerable im- 
portance ; but on the whole, considering that free access 
is now denied the Christian antiquary, and that the 
Frank writers of the period of the Christian domination 
were as loose and uncritical as the Arabic authors of a 



[part II. 

later date, we may congratulate ourselTes that our 
information is so ample, without at all approving the 
means by which it has been acquired^ Nearly all 
the points that are still open to question might be 
determined by careful enquiry among the Moslem 
inhabitants, or by a survey from the exterior, aided 
by a telescope, or by employing as proxy an intelligent 
native dragoman, who could be directed to the points 
of observation within the precinct, from which his master 
is excluded. 

The area abounds in Christian and Moslem traditions, 
(not more veritable than those that have clustered 
round the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,) the former 
of which owe their origin to the Crusaders, the fruitful 
inventors and subjects of legendary tales. These worth- 
less traditions it were wearisome to repeat, but it may 
be well to indicate the principal points of interest, in 
order to complete our nomenclature of the Holy City. 
This the lucid and minute description of an Arabic 
writer, compared with more modem surveys, will enable 
me to do with considerable accuracy. 

EUHaram-eS'Slierify The Noble Sanctuary, occupies 

' Mj authorities for the following 
description are, 1. Mejr^-din, (as cited 
above p. 8. note 1. na 3) p. 83, &c. 
cir. A. D. 1495. 2. All Bej, Travels in 
Morocco, A.D. 1 W, &c. Vol. ii. p. 214, 
&c ; where see the plan and section of 
the llaram, &c described in a table 
at the commencement of Vol. i. pp. 
35—39. 3. Dr. Richardson, Travels 
along the Mediterranean, &c. V^oL ii. 
p. 285, &c. A.D. 1818. 4. General 
Noroff, Travels, a.d. 1830, a Russian 
work of great merit, considerable por- 

tions of which the excellent author has 
obligingly translated into French for my 
use. 6. Mr. Catherwood*8 sunrey, only 
parts cf which have yet been published ; 
first in his own plan, then in a ▼&. 
luable letter contained in Bartlett'a 
Walks about Jerusalem, p. 161, &c. ; 
and lastly, in Mr. Fergusson^s £any, 
whose chief or only value oomaitts in 
the beautiful illustrations prepared by 
Mr. Arundale, who with Mr. Booomi 
assisted Mr. Catherwood in the suxrey 
in A.D. 1833. 





Spacious enclc^iire on the East side of the city, con- 

itined witiim four walls of unequal length*, nearly facing 
ic CardiJml points. The more ancient name of the 
hole enceinte, among Moslem writers, waBMe&jid-el-Jks<3^j 
the most distant Sanctuary" (to wit, from Mecca,) 
id this should be distinctly marked, bccauae, this name 
beiBg now exclusively attached to a particular Moak at 
the south of the eoclosurej modem writerB have involved 
B^mseUes in endless embarrassment by supposing that 
^^e EI*Aksa of the Moslem traditions is identical with 
that particul^ building, instead of being, as it is, the 
g eneral name of the whole Sanctuary* 
^P None but the disciples of Islam are permitted to 
~iet foot within this sacred enclosure, and the curious 
Frank is often repulsed from too near access with insults 
1 ©r blows, by the porters at the gates, or more ignobly 
I hy juTenile volunteers, who take especial delight in 
insulting a stranger under pretext of maintaining the 
inviolability of the Sanctuary. AU may, however, survey 
it without molestation from the roof of the Seraiy&h, 
the official residence of the Pasha, at the North-west 
angle ; and its general appearance cannot fail to recall 
to the mind several passages from the book of Psalms^, 
allusive rather than descriptive, from which it is evident 


* The measures are very perplexing. 
C^hcrwood makes the East wall 1520 
feet, the South 940, the West 1617 ; 
and the North 1020; and says that the 
walls stand at right-angles only at the 
Sottth-west comer. (Bartlett^s Walks, p. 
174.) The Officers* survey makes the 
1180. But more of this in the sequel. 

^ This is distinctly stated by Mejr. 
ed-din, L c. Tom. ii. p. 87- note *, 

where the translator remarks that the 
word Me*jid signifies the sacred cn« 
closure in its largest sense; i.e. the 
whole court, while Jamy is the Motk, 
properly so called. See also p. 93, and 
note *, where he remarks that Mesjid 
answers to the Greek lep6^ ; Jamp, to 
vaov; and again p. 377* It is a dis- 
tinction of the utmost consequence, m 
will appear hereafter. 

* e. g. Psalm lu. 8. xcii. 12—14. 



[part IL 

that, after the revolutions of so many centuries, the 
aspect of the outer court continues such as it was in 
the days of Solomon, and onwards under the prophets. 
A profusion of trees of various kinds, among which 
the olive, acacia, and cypress, prevail, affords a delicious 
shade to idle groups of women and children in gay 
dresses, sauntering listlessly about the court ; and where 
the olive-grove is thickest under the eastern wall may 
be found a quiet retreat for the devout Mosli in 
quest of seclusion, for purposes of religious meditation ; 
and the Christian, while he blesses God that his faith 
debars him from entering the guarded precinct, can in 
some measure appreciate the glowing rhapsodies in which 
the Arab poets have sung the praises of their Me^id-el- 
Aksa, in high-flown verse, such as Orientals alone can 
write, describing it as a terrestrial Paradise, only eighteen 
miles distant from heaven, the most highly-favored spot 
on earth for rain, and shade, and sweet water springing 
out of rocks and watering the earth'. 

There are public entrances to the outer court only 
on the West and on the North sides, those in the Eastern 
and Southern wall being no longer practicable. The 
names and positions of the Western gates are as follow*. 
The causeway named the Street of the Temple ter- 
minates in double gates, one of which is called Bab- 
eS'Salsala (the Gate of the Chain), formerly the Gate of 
David; the other, Bab-es-Sekine (the Gate of Tran- 
quillity.) These, according to our Arabic author, are 

* See the extravagant verses and tra- 
ditions from various sources in Mejr. 
ed-din, 1. c. Tom. ii. p. 378—387, 
describing the beauty of Jerusalem, 
and the excellency of works done there. 

* Their names as given by Mejr- 
ed-din and Ali Bey do not entirely 
agree. I prefer the former as more 

H, IV,] 




[the two prineipal gates, and most frequented, because 

hey lead towardg the nmrket-place and the chief streets 

the town. On the contrary, Mr, Catherwood speaks 

of the Bab-€l'Katmujh (the Gate of the Cotton Mer- 

ats), 230 feet North of the former, as the principal 

entrance. It is of solid construction, and derives ita 

name from the deserted Cotton Bazaar, into which 

^nl opens. The present gate owed its erection to 

H^fdUc-en-Nasir Mohammed Ibn-Kelafln, (a. ii* 737. a*d, 

1336-7,) as appeared by an inscription over the portal, 

|j tited by Mejr-ed-Din: but it was repabed at a later 

"period by Allab-ed-dln el-Bassir. During the time of 

the Frank domination there were but two gates on the 

I West side^ probably one at the causeway, and another 
lit this part : the gate that then existed was supposed to 
tepresent the " Beautiful Gate" of the Temple, in which 
the Apostles SS* Peter and John healed the impotent man 
m the name of their Divine Master ; — a tradition which 
has been duly transmitted to the more modern gate. The 
Frank who would desire a nearer view of the Haram 
than can be obtained from the Seraiyah, is recommended 
to try this gate, both because it is less frequented than 
others, and because, as an object of religious veneration 
to Christians, the Moslems are less suspicious of their 
close access to it. 

Bab-el-Hadid (the Iron Gate), 400 feet further to 
the North, is solid and handsome, the work of one 
Argdn-el-Kameli ; beyond which, at a distance of 200 

» So William of Tyre, Historia, 
Lib. VIII. cap. iii. p. 748. He men- 
tions the Porta Speciosa as one ; from 
which time it figures in all Itineraries ; 
but Quaresmius has proved that the 

tradition is of no value. Elucidatio 
T. S. Lib. IV. cap. xiv. Perig. x. 
Tom. II. p. 340, &c.; and see Coto- 
vicus cited above, p. 127) note 4. 



[PABT n. 

feet, we come to Balher^Naztr, (the Oate of the In- 
spector), anciently called the Gate of Michael the 
Archangel, because, according to the hesitating tradition 
preserved by our Arabic author, to this gate Gabriel 
may have bound the celestial beast Borak, on the night 
of Mohammed's memorable journey. Between this and 
the N.W. angle is another gate called Bab-eUGuamndy 
formerly the Gate of Abraham. It shares its present 
name with a minaret hard by, and derives it firom the 
quarter in which it is situated. 

Having thus arrived at the N.W. angle of the 
Haram, I must notice a peculiar feature which is here 
exhibited S viz. that its North face is formed "by the 
rock being cut perpendicularly to an extent of 20 feet 
in some parts ; while, within the area also, in the direc- 
tion of the Mosk, a considerable portion of the rock 
has been cut away" to the general level of the enclosure. 

I proceed now to the Northern gates*. Immediately 
East of the Seraiyah, 370 feet from the N.W. angle, is 
Bab^lr-Dewatdr^ (the Gate of the Secretary), once called 
the Nobility of the Prophets ; and 150 feet East of this 
Bab^lrHittdy (the Gate of Eemission of Sins), to, 
which are attached some obscure and conflicting Mos- 
lem traditions * relating to the children of Israel : and 
it is remarkable that this gate and the Bab-es-Sabdt 
(the Gate of the Tribes of Israel) at the Eastern ex- 

» See Bartlett'fl Walks, pp. 156, 
174, 6. The rock may be seen in his 
drawing of the Haram, p. 108. 

' In the time of the Crusaders there 
was but one gate on the North. Wil- 
lermus Tyrensts, 1. c. 

' The translator of Mejr-ed-din has 
Devadar. I have ventured to alter 

this, and to assume it to be the 
Persian word j^tli^l^J " Secretary, or 

keeper of the seals." Ali Bey names 
this gate '^Aatim,** the meaning of 
which I cannot conjecture. 

* See Mejr-ed-din, 1. c. p. 97, and 
compare el- Koran, cap. LL verse h&. 


lity of the Northern wall, as weD as the fosse that 
between them {Birket Isrcul), all bear traditionary 
ritness, in their Hebrew origin^ to the aoeient inh|ibit- 
airti of the Holy City. 

B The West and North sides of the encIosxu*e are 
environed by numerona colleges, convents, and cells, 
devoted to various sects and divers purposes, endowed 
by the Khalifs or Sultans of the several dynasties 

HUtat have successively held sway in Jerusalem. A full 

^■ccount of these religious fouBdations is contained in 

"Mejr-ed-din* ; but as it would be tedious and uninter- 
^ting to the general reader, I may dispense with the 
recital, and proceed at once to the principal object 

kof attraction within the enclosure — Kubbet-m-Sakkredi^ 

Wb^t The Dome of the Rock. 

^ Tills elegant structure occupies nearly the middle 
space between the Southern and Northern walls of 
the great enclosure, but is exactly one thirds or 320 
feet, nearer the Western than the Eastern wall. It 
stands on an extensive platform measuring 450 feet 
fix)m East to West, and 550 feet from North to South, 
paved in part with marble^, rising in general about 
fifteen or sixteen feet above the outer area, and ap- 
proached by three flights of stairs on the Western side, 
by two on the North, two on the South, and one on the 
Eiast side. The building itself is an octagon of 67 feet 
on a side, the walls of which are ornamented externally 
with variegated marbles arranged in elegant and intricate 
patterns. The octagonal lower story rises to a height 
of 46 feet, forming a basement to a circular wall, less 

^ Cap. xxi. L c. pp. 118— 124. i tlie courts were paved with white 

' William of Tyre says that both | marble, viii. iii. p. 74S. 



[part II. 

than half its own diameter, adorned with tiles of glazed 
porcelain of bright hues and varied patterns. At a total 
height of 67 feet from the ground this wall is pierced 
with a series of 56 low lights of peculiar character, from 
above which the spherical dome of exquisite proportions 
rises to an additional height of about 40 feet, sur- 
mounted by a handsome gilt crescent. This Dome is 
covered with lead. Inscriptions, apparently executed in 
the porcelain, run completely round the lower part of the 
building, but they have been allowed to fall into a state 
of ruinous decay. There are four doors to the Mosk, 
facing the Cardinal points, and covered by handsome 
porches; that on the South being the most highly 

On entering the Mosk we find two concentric aisles 
of unequal widths running round the entire building 
and enclosing a space under the dome, which is occupied 
by the sacred Rock from which the building derives its 
name. Eight piers stand opposite to the angles of the 
octagon : these, together with sixteen columns, support 
twenty-four pointed arches, and separate the two aisles. 
The inner range, supporting the dome, consists of 
twelve columns and four massive piers, similarly con- 
nected by sixteen arches. The columns are composed 
of various precious marbles, with gilded Corinthian 
capitals, and all appear to have been taken from a more 
ancient building*. The circular wall, 66 feet interior 
diameter, which rests upon the inner range of pillars, 
is divided into two members answering to the triforium 

> Mr. Catherwood, 1. c. sutes the 
outer aiiile to be 13, the inner 30 feet 
wide, and the dome 66 feet in dia- 


' Both General NoroflT and Mr. 
(/atherwood remark this. 





and clerestory, and is richlj ornamented^ as is also the 
dome, with gilded stucco, in the Arabesque style ^, such 
as prevails in '^Alhambra;'* uniformity being presented 
tlirougbout each of the sixteen compartments into 
which it is distributed. The architectural details of 
this and the other buildings will require fuller notice 
when I come to the historical diBquL?ition, but at present 
I confine myself to a general survey* 
^P Under the dome is the remarkable limestone rock, 
"^rhich occupies the greater part of the inner area, and 
appears to be the natural surface of the rock of Mount 
Moriah* It is irregular in its form, and measures about 
60 feet in one direction and &0 in the other. It pro- 
I jects about five feet above the marble pavement of the 
Mosk, which is itself tw clve feet above the general level 
of the enclosure. At the South-East corner of this 
, rock is a descent by a flight of steps to an excavated 
chamber, irregular in form; its superficial area being 
about 600 feet, the average height seven. In the 
centre of its rocky pavement is a circular slab of 
marble, which being struck returns a hollow sound, 
clearly shewing that there is a well or excavation 
beneath*. This Mosk was converted into a Church 
during the Frank domination, under the appellation of 

' This is probably modern, for in 
^ time of the Crusaders, according 
to William of Tyre, the temple was 
*'intu8 et de forw marmoreis tabulis et 
^'Pcre Musaico decoratum.** 1. c. Qua- 
'nonius, commenting on this, says that 
» his days the interior walls were 
•Mte, »iln praesentibus melius dice- 
^^^deforiM quidem, insuperiori parte 
^''^^^eutis et floribus Damasceno arti- 

ficisexomatum esse ; et inlus totum al- 
bum, ut qui diligenter interius viderunt 
testati sunt: et credo, quia communi- 
ter sunt albae Turcarum Mesquits.** 
Elucid. T. S. Lib. iv. cap. xvi. Perig. 
iii. Vol. II. p. 110. A section of the 
Mosk, drawn by F. Arundale, Esq., is 
given by Mr. Fergusson, plate I. 

* I here follow Mr. Catherwood*8 
description in Bartlett*a M^alks, p. 167* 






" the Temple of the Lord :" and, fifteen years after the 
conquest, the sacred rock, supposed by the Christians 
to be the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite, and 
the place of the altar of David, was encased in white 
marble, and an altar erected upon it^ The rock still 
bears marks of the chiselling required for this purpose^ 
as a perpetual memorial to the Moslems, who are sorely 
scandalised by the profanation. 

Opposite the Elast door of the Mosk, at a distance 
of about 20 feet from the porch, is the small ** Dome of 
the Chain," or '< Judgment-seat of David," said to have 
been erected as a model for the Dome of the Rock'. 
It presents the same general architectural features, and 
the capitals of six slender columns that support the 
dome are also of the Corinthian order. Mr. Noroff 
supposes that it was designed for a foimtain^ ; but I am 
disposed to think that it is the building constructed 
by order of Abd-el-Melik to serve as a treasury for the 
funds that he collected for his great works in Jerusalem^. 
It was converted into a Chapel by the Franks, and 
dedicated to S. James*. 

Other domes, covering fountains, chapels, and cells, 
are scattered over the platform, and indeed over the 
whole precinct, marking the oratories of Moslem devo- 
tees, or some object of superstitious reverence connected 
with the false prophet and his successors. 

^ See above, VoL i. p. 383, and 
Will. Tyr. viii. iii. p. 748. 

• Catherwood 1. c. 

' Mejr^^in L c. Tom. ix. p. 89, 
and Tom. iii. p. 162. 

^ He seemR even to affirm that 
water was running in this and other 

fountains at the time of his visit in 

^ Mejr-ed-din, iii. 162. The trea- 
sure-house and the model cupola might 
well be identical, though it is not so 

^ So the Norman French writer in 
Beugnot, given in the Appendix. 

08- ir.] 



Proceeding southward from the raised platform, by 
a paved walk shaded by cypresses, we pass a large 
eircular fountain of marble, and at the distance of 350 
feet reach the Porch of the Mosk el-AJcsa, which occupies 
the remaining space of 280 feet to the sotithern wall 
of the great enclosure. 

The elevation of the Porch forms a beautiful facade 
m seven compartments, exhibiting a mixed style of ar- 
chitecture; Gothic features of the Norman and Early- 
poinled periods preponderating in the three inner 
ilirktons* the four exterior compartments being purdy 
Saracenic. The portico is of ample dimensions, covering 
the entire width of the Mosk^, The waD of the Moak 
is pierced with doors in each of the seven compartments, 
but the middle one only is in use- It gives entrance into 
tile body of the Mosk, which is distributed into a nave 
and triple aisles, with a transeptal arrangement at the 
South end. The nave is supported on either side by 
seven arches slightly pointed, above which is a double 
row of twenty-one mndows, whereof the upper are the 
%lits of the clerestory, the lower, pierced in the triforium 
^ce, open into the side-aisles®. It has a flat roof of 
timber, as have also the aisles nearest the nave, while 

* Tbc dimenstionit of this extensive 
^"OlTt obligingly cottimunicttted to 
*«bf Mr- Cmtherwood, Februwj U% 
**^, tad concnparcd »Uh hii Flan 
Pi^liihea bjr Mr. Feiguiison^ PUte V. 
^ tt follftw. The porch in 1S3 feet 
^^ ifltbo Ifflng by 30 wide^ indudin^ 
** ptcw. Total interior lenj^h of 
^'■kaOfeet : total width 172- Length 
*'*ii ie» feet 9 inches; the width 
'^ ^ 9 inehes; iide-aiileit IB fe«t 
Vou Ih 

each, exclusive of the columni, {the 
shafts of which are about 3 feet in di- 
ameter, the plinthi 4 feet squarei) 
the pieri^ (some at which are 10 feet 
thick,} pila^tcTB, &c, 

^ The longitudinal Kction in AU 
Bey will cotivej a general idea of thit 
building, but It4 detaiU are utterly 
worthleM. It teems to have been done 
Irom ntemory, and without accurate 
meaaurementi, TraTeU, Vol. if . p. 315. 



the other four aisles are lower, and vaulted in stone. 
The aisles are all, however, of an uniform width. 

The columns '' are very irregular in size, material, 
and architectural character, some being evidently Boman, 
while others are as plainly Saracenic ;" but the middle 
aisles on either side are separated from those nearest 
the nave by massive piers of irregular shape. 

At the intersection of the transepts is a beautiful 
spherical dome, rich with arabesque painting and gild- 
ing, pierced with two rows of lights. It is equal in 
diameter to the nave, and is supported by four arches 
resting on enormous piers, which are connected by a 
series of lower arches carried by handsome columns 
of brown marble. The capitals of these columns, as of 
those that form the aisles of the transepts, and of the 
pilasters attached to the piers, are all of the Corinthian 
order ; and although several are partially overlaid with 
a peculiar basket-ornament, in gilded plaister, all retain 
sufficient of their original features for identification, 
while from some the disguise has fallen away, and the 
capital has recovered its original character ^ Ali Bey 
describes these pillars as of a composite order, aod 
further remarks that the columns in the nave are of 
no architectural proportion, but the capitals are com- 
posed of plates or leaves of iron*. Mr. Noroff con- 

^ Mr. Arunda1e*8 drawing, (Plate ' lutes and pan of the abacas peering out 
II. in Mr. Fergusson^s book,) shews above the basket-work. This was fint 
three columns with the basket-capitals, pointed out to me by A. J. B. Hope, 

and three with the original Corinthian 
capitals, either restored or never mask- 
ed. In the former, the bulging-out of 
the basket-work suggests the existence 
of the foliation beneath ; but the point 
that proves it incontestibly is the vo- 

£sq. The basket-capital is given by 
Mr. Fergusson, in p. 109. 

' See his description of the SectioD 
in the explanation of the Plates pn- 
fixed to Vol. I. p. xzxviii. 


that these columns also have been taken from 
of ancient JeruBalem. 
Jljfdnat the South wall stands an elaboratelj-carved 
Mjhrab or Tribune, highly ornamented with variegated 
marble, as if it had formed part of a Christian altar^; 
4nd beneath the dome m the Miubar or gallery for the 

KLgers, of wood elaborately carved. 
The eastern transept gives entrance into a simple 
d very low vault about 85 feet long, called the Mmk 
m Omar; the western conducts to a much larger edifice*, 
flow known as the Mosk of Abu Bekr, which some 
Uobaxntnedau ^Titers beheve to be coeval with the con- 
qoeit of Omar, and to owe its erection to that Khalifa 
H b divided in the middle by a row of nine columns 
sapporting the vaulted roof; but what was formerly 
the weatemmost compartment is partitioned off and 
Torms two schools, the lower part of whose western wall, 
the exterior wall of the Haram itaelfj is formed of massive 
etones, apparently belonging to an ancient foundation. 

At right-angles to this Mot?k runq the long narrow 
Hosk of the Moghrebins or Western Africans ^ This 
I apprehend to be the Mosk described by Felix Fabri, 
as in course of erection at the time of his visit", (a.d. 
148|,) and to which he was admitted by the civility 
of the Mullah. Its position is not accurately described ; 
aidy it was near the wall, apparently on the west side 

' Thin U the remark of Dr. Rt- 
eWdscpQ, VuL 11. p. SWI. The Moslems 
ttjl k iUi«^ gre&t 3Iihrab or A liar of 
WM. Mejr-ed-din, Tom. it. p. 03. 
* IntcrioT diiucnsionSf ijidudmg the 
S«SioQl^, 230 fKt b J 5o. 

* T1m» 11 cilled in Ateir-ed-dm, 
(l< e* p. 88,) the AJos^k af the Alagh- 


rebioAi the Mmk now called bjr tfaii was not conspleted whet) this hia^ 
toriaa wrote. See the next pAge« 

'^ Interior dirnen«ionj 172 feet 
3 in. X 26 leet 9 m. 

^ EiriigAtotium, ( Edit. Ui3«Ier, 
StuttgiTdiffi, IB13.) Vol. II. p. 124 



[part II. 

of the Haram ; and an ancient and very accurate painting 
of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, probably 
executed in the 15th Century, now preserved in the 
Library of the University of Cambridge, has no building 
on this site; while Mejr-ed-din, only ten years later 
than Felix, (a.d. 1495) describes this Mosk as "the 
School of Efdhal, sometimes called the Dome of the 
Moghrebins," founded for their use by the son of 
Saladin; but, with the exception of the Minaret, not 
erected before the year 146|^.^ The name now appro- 
priated to this Mosk is by him assigned to the present 
Mosk of Abu Bekr, which would appear to be the large 
church-like building described by Felix Fabri, as the 
residence of the Moslem bishop, Thadi, as he styles the 
Mullah, hard by the unfinished Mosk ; which was, how- 
ever, then so far advanced as to be ready for its poly- 
chrome adornment. 

Near the northern extremity of this building, in the 
west wall of the Haram, is a gate of the same name, and 
probably coeval with the Mosk. To the north of the 
gate is a descent to a subterranean chamber, more in- 
teresting in an antiquarian view than for its traditionary 
associations, though it be the spot where Mohammed 
alighted from his ass El-Borak, after his ride from 
Mecca, preparatory to his ascent to heaven; as the 
identical iron ring to which he tied his celestial beast, 
still shewn in the wall, attests, to the confusion of all 
gainsayers. The curiosity which I have to notice is this. 

» Mejr-ed^in in Mines d*Orient, 
Tom. II. p. 86, compared with p. 123. 
In fact, those poor Africans seem 
to have been sadly put about : in 1808 
they had a small chapel, 30 feet by 

15 in the West wall near the North- 
west angle. Ali Bey's TraveU, Vol. 
II. p. 226. The Maleki sect occupied 
the present Mosk of the Moghrebins, 
when Mejr-ed-din wrote. 





that in the wall of this aubterraneaD cellar, which is 15 
(French) feet square, is to be seen " the upper paj^t of a 
mtigniiicent portal, the superior portion of which con- 
sists of a single stone 20 feet long^." This, Ali Bey, who 
describes it, believes to have been ''one of the gates 
of the Temple^/' 

Returning now to the porch of Kl-Aksa, beneath, 
or in front, of which lie the mtirderers of 8, Tlsomos 
a Beeket*, I must carry my survey to the East of this 
Iniilding, when I have first describeti the remarkable 
icmble %ault that runs under it from North to South, 
md terminates in a vestibule, formerly entered by a 
gTBod double gateway Ln the southern wall. The door- 
ways are marked by two pair of light Corinthian columns 
of white marble, stuck on to massive bevelled masonry, 
ttow partly embedded in the wali\ The vestibule is 
malted mth four low domes, of the late Roman period, 
ipringing from a monolithic column with a foliated 
ca[ntal^ belonging to no order. From hence is an 
Rseent hy ten steps to the western vault, separated 
from the eastern by a range of low square piers, con- 
nected by round arches. The passages are covered with 


U do not eompTctieiid how this cui 
bi if ^« buildmg h ordj 1 h feeE long. 

^TrmveUj Vol. u. p. 22e, compwcd 
^ the plan and eipl&uatiol:) prefj^ced 
a Ml. 

* Hdfcnden reUtes, tJint having bc^ii 
ifeitted to penanc« by Pope Alex- 
"i« III., they w€Dt to Jeruj^etri. 
** It ex prsefpto Papfl? in montf Etigro, 
(%^ JtbcKM uta J pamitentiam ugen- 
t«^ «tii«ru]it et ium Jetosolymis jicpulti 
•we mium Templi. Quorum super- 
•trifnio h*c efu Hie jaetnt nttVH 

qui martynwaverunt hmium Thmnam 
archi£piseopum Cantaanensem** Ap. 
Sarile'fl ScripUiTCi Ang. p. 522, 

^ The pl*n of these, givea by C4- 
thcrwoodj ( Plate V. of Mr, F^gusson'a 
Essaj)^ app^rs more trvithful than 
Mt, Tipping in Traiirt Jo^q^hui, 
Vol. I. p^ xiiv. ; where the dlmeuElons 
alao are given. But the engraT^ngs 
froTO Mr. TippitigV drawings in ih« 
ftatne volume are very faithful. 

^ Represented in Fei-guuon'i £•* 
*iiy* p, IJV. - - 



[part n. 

a low segmental vault, and extend the entire length 
of the Mosk above. The descent from the upper area 
to the eastern passage, which is secured by an iron 
door, is immediately in front of the portico, under 
the compartment East of the centre. The substructions 
therefore lie under the eastern half of the nave, and 
its adjoining aisle. There is probably a continued series 
of substructions extending along the southern wall 
from this passage to the south-east angle ; for although 
no modem traveller has yet penetrated into those lying 
between these and the extensive vaults at that angle, 
presently to be noticed, which are still open to within 
200 feet of this corridor, yet a closed door in the east 
wall of the vestibule would appear to indicate that 
there was once a communication between it and other 
similar substructions in this quarter. 

The date and design of the gate and passage will 
be investigated presently. The native Moslems call 
them "the Ancient Temple," and judge from their 
solidity that they may be remains of some construction 
of Solomon^ The earliest modem notice that we have 
of them, is that of Felix Fabric who remarks that 600 
horses might easily be placed in them; and it is perhaps 
not unlikely that the military knights of the Temple 
may have applied the vaults to so useful a purpose. 
They were seen from without by Maundrell^ and ap- 
pear in itineraries at intervals ; but an accidental breach 
in the southern wall allowed access to several FiUglish 

* So Mejr-ed^in, Tom. ii. p. 96. 

' In hui daj the citj-waU on the 
South was in ruins, and allowed free 
access to all these substructions. Eva- 
gratorium, Tom. ii. pp. 125 and 232. 

Benjamin Tud. p. 70, apparcntlj 
alludes to these vaalts as ** the Stables 
of Solomon.** 

' Maundreirs Journey, under date 
April 5, p. 100. 


vcllcn — the writer among the number — ^m 1842, and 
afforded ample opportunity to a clever artist to make 
accurate dramngs and measurements of the whole. 

Between the small Mosk of Omar and the south- 
^st angle of the Harara, at the distanee of 223 feet 
from the former, is a small oratory called the Altar of 
David*; and at a ftu^her distance of 71 feet is a double 
ofatoiy supported by eight piers, which is called the 
Mart of Science*. This extends nearly to the angle, 
where b the descent to a small square subterranean 
^^amber, called the '* Grotto of the Lord Jesus," in 
Brhieh is a limestone sarcophagus, called '*the Cradle 
Hlf Jesus.*' The ground-plan of this ehamberi Mr. Cather- 
» wood remarked, has much the appearance of a tower* 
Henee is another descent to those extensive substruc- 
tions that support this part of the platform, called 
^Py the Moslems, "the Pool, or Stable of Solomon®,'* 
^Th<»se vaults at present consist of fifteen rows of square 
pillars, from which spring arches supporting the plat- 
form : they extend about 330 feet towards the West, 
while Northward their width varies from 100 to 300 

« Mejr^.din 1. c. p. 83, 86. It is 
S4 feet square, according to Gather wood. 

* Ibid. p. 86. He confesses not 
to know the meaning of this name. It 
vat in his daj appropriated to the 
Hanbelites, at abio in Dr. Richard- 
MB*i time. Travels, Vol. ii. p. 309. 
The dimensions are 73 feet 6 inches 
long, bj 29 feet wide. 

* These mbstructions are described 
bf Bichardaon, Vol. ii. pp. 308—311; 
and hj Catherwood in Bartlett*s Walks, 
pu 370. See also Mejr-ed-din, Vol. 11. 
p. 96. Thii author names it *^ the 

Stable of Solomon ;*' Dr. Richardson, 
" Berca Solymm;' '« the Pool," Ac 

The following dimensions are ftoca. 
Mr. Catherwood. Thickness of east 
wall of the Haram, 8ft. 4in. ; length 
of substructions from East to West, 
329ft. 6 in., of which the gateway and 
its portals occupy 61ft. 6iD. at the 
westernmost extremity. The western- 
most passage extends northward from 
the gate 267 ft., including the south 
wall. The intercolumniation Tariet 
from 15Jfu to SOft. 


feet; but they are closed up both on the West and 
on the North by walls of more modem date than the 
architecture of the pillars and arches ; and I have no 
doubt that if the masonry on the West were removed, 
the passage of communication between this vault and 
the door in the east wall of the vestibule would be 
recovered. The roots of the olive-trees on the platform 
above have struck through the arches, and in some 
instances taken root again below. The ground rises 
rapidly from the South-east towards the North and West, 
so that the height of the southern arches is 35 feet, 
while the northern ones are but 10 feet high. The 
whole substruction appears to be of Roman origin. 
And this is confirmed by a large gateway with two 
portals, now blocked up with very thick walls, but 
still marked, as we shall find, in the exterior wall by 
three Roman arches, which formerly gave entrance to 
what are now the three Westernmost series of the 
vaults. Dr. Richardson remarks, that the columns of 
these substructions are about four feet and a half 
square, and consist of three stones each. Each stone 
is bevelled at the end and at the corners, so that 
the joints appear like those in revealed rustic. The 
stones, he adds, have been remarkably well cut, but 
they are much more disintegrated than they are likely 
to have been in the station that they at present occupy, 
during the period of eleven hundred years, and have 
a much older appearance than the arches which they 
support. The workmanship of the columns he thinks 
is decidedly Jewish. These vaults abound in Christian, 
Jewish, and Mohammedan legends, some of which are 
reported by Dr. Richardson. His attendants informed 
him that there are 3000 such columns under El-Aksa ; 

an, IT.] 



and eveii the large limits that must be allowed to Ori- 
unud hyperbole, will scarcely permit ub to understand 
iMs of the few that are found in the subterranean 
passages above deseribed, which he was not permitted 
to enter* 

In passing from these vaults towards the Golden 
Gate on the Norths Dr. Richardson saw ** in two places 
where tlie ground had been turned up, several fragments 
of marble columns, and wherever the sward was broken, 
the ground below exhibited a eonglomeration of rubbiBh 
of former buildings*.*' 

The last building that demands notice witMn the 
mrea is the Golden Gateway, now used as a Moek. It 
I stands at the distance of 1024 feet North of the south- 
cast angle, and exhibits many of the architectural 
features of the Mosk of Omar, but with some important 
variations in its constructive principles, which will scarcely 
allow us to assign it to the same date. Two columns 
with corresponding pilasters attached to the walls, sup- 
port a series of arches on which rest dome-vaults with 
pendentives, similar in construction to those of the sub- 
terranean vestibule on the South, and apparently of the 
same period. The capitals of the columns arc bastard 
Corinthian, not nearly so pure as those of the pilasters*. 

Between this Golden Gate and the Gate of the 
Tribes, is a sacred place of the Moslems on the western 
wall, named Coursi Suliman, in which they profess to 
shew the Royal Throne of the Son of David'. 

* Ridutfdson^s Travels, Vol. ii. p. 

' See Mr. Catherwood*8 view in 
Fergu88on*8 firaay, p. 96, and the Plan 
in Plate V., which makes this building 

67 feet by 37. Mr. Bonomi says it 
<^ once formed a stately portico of Ro- 
man workmanship/* (Robii]flon*s Bib. 
Res. I. 437, 8.) 
' Richardson, L c. 



[PABT n. 

I must now proceed to a survey of the exterior 
walls of the Haram which I shall commence at the 
North-east angle, and pass round in order to the East, 
South, West, and North sides. The Eastern and 
Southern walls have been constantly measured within 
these few last years, with strangely different results'. 
I follow the scientific survey of the Engineering Officers, 
to whose Field-Book I have had access, comparing the 
carefid observations of Mr. Tipping, which, if not con- 
ducted on the most approved principles, yet descend to 
the minutest particulars ^ Its extreme length is 1533 
feet^. Coiu-ses of massive, ancient masonry may be 
traced almost in a continuous line along the whole of 
the eastern side, on the brow of the steep Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, rising sometimes nearly to the height of 
the modem walls, in other places scarcely protruding 
above the soil. This may be accounted for in part by 
the inequality of the ground and the unequal accumu- 
lation of debris, in part also by the ruin of the wall, 
more complete in some parts than in others. At the 
N. E. angle of the Haram, e. </. several courses of 
ancient masonry form a corner tower, projecting slightly 
from the general face of the wall along a length of 
81 feet. Many of the stones measure from 17 to 
19 feet in length, whUe a few exceed 24 feet. They 
vary from 3 to 4 feet in depth, and from 5 to 8 in 

> Viz. by Dr. Robinson in 1838. 
By Lieutenante Aldrich and Symonds, 
of the Royal Engineers, in 1841. By 
Messrs. Wolcott and Tipping in 1842. 
By Mr. Eli Smith, (at Dr. Robinson's 
request, ) early in 1844. 

^ Mr. Tipping*8 measurements and 
observations are given in Traill^s JO' 

sephus, pp. xlii — xlvii. Hit views of 
these interesting remains are of great 
value from their extreme accuracy. . 
3 So the Officers* Field-Book; Mr. 
Tipping makes it 1 526 ft., nearly agree- 
ing with Dr. Robinson and £U Smith. 
Catherwood, (in Bartlett*s Walks, p. 
174,) makes it lfi20ft. 

CB* IV.] 



width. At a cUstance of S75 feet from the point where 
the southern angle of the N, E. tower recedes, the 
Golden Gateway projeets six feet from the wallj along 
a frontage of 53 feet It consists of a double circular 
archwaj of Koman coDstmction, but the detaCs of its 
architectural features are much disfigured by time, and 
by tbe process of blocking up the gateway, which was 
probably first done by Christians from devotional feeling. 
It was opened only on Palm Sunday, in commemoration 
of our Lord's triumphant Entry into the Temple through 
that identical gate, as the Christians of that day were 
p»erstiaded ; and on the feast of the Exaltation of the 
Cross, because it was through this gate that the 
Emperor Heraclius entered the city, bearing the Cross 
recovered from the Persians^ The Moslems continued 
the obstruction, apparently to add to the eecurity of the 
city against the wild Bedawin of the eastern desert*, 
and not from superstitious forebodings of a Christian 
enemy, as is sometimes represented. Forty feet South 
of the Golden Gate is a small Saracenic portal, now 
closed, which owes it origin to the period of the Frank 
kingdom, when it was called " the Gate of Josaphat." 
It was pierced for convenience of entrance to the 
enclosure when the Golden Gate had been walled up*. 

* See Oesta Francorum Expug. 
HieruB. in Bongar, Tom. i. p. 572, and 
the dtatioiis in Quaresmius, Tom. ii. 
p. 336, &c., and the Nonnao writer, 
dted by Bengnot, Assise de Jerusa- 
lem, Tom. II. p. 631. In Schulu, 
p. 111. 

* This is the only reason stated 
by Arabian writers. Mejr-ed-din, in 
Hinet d'Orient, Tom. ii. p. 96. He 

says, however, that they were closed by 
Omar, and shall never again be opened 
uitil the end of the world. 

' It is spoken of by Parchi (a.d. 
1322,) as the Oate Shushan, closed by 
large square stones. See more par- 
ticulars below. Mejr-ed-din, Tome 
II. p. 96, pkces it near the Gates of 
Mercy, opposite to the ascent to the 
platform, named the Stain of Bormk. 


South of this portal the indications of ancient masonry 
arc interrupted for a time ; and at a distance of 111 
feet from the Golden Gate the wall advances again 
two feet, and then continues in the same line, almost 
to the S. E. angle. One hundred feet South of the 
projection eleven shafts of columns protrude horizontally 
from the wall, in which they have been inserted ; they 
arc composed of porphyry and verd-antique. Three 
similar shafts are found somewhat further South; 
and after an interval one other projects much further, 
where the wall is pierced with a Saracenic arch. This 
is to allow access to the column, which is regarded 
with especial veneration by the Moslems, as the judg- 
ment-seat of Mohammed, in the last day, when the 
whole world shall be gathered together in the VaUey 
of Jchoshapat, and the invisible Bridge, suspended from 
this column and reaching to the opposite mount, shall 
conduct the elect to Paradise, but precipitate the 
reprobate with a double destruction into the torments 
of Gehennah. 

Proceeding further South the ground descends 
rapidly, and discovers several more courses of the 
Cyclopean stones: the last 60 feet project about six 
inches from the general line of the wall, furnishing a 
confirmation of Sir. Cathcrwood's observation concern- 
ing the chamber within, which he remarks has the 
appearance of a tower ^ 

This S. E. angle of the Haram is perhaps the most 
imposing object in or about Jerusalem, consisting of 

He caUs it « the Gate of Borak/' 
becau{»e the Prophet entered by it on 
his nocturnal journey : and the ** Gate 
of Expiations,** because he again made 

his exit by it It was alio then closed, 
A.D. 1405. 

' See above p. 311. 

en, iT.J 



enormous blocks of stone* rising to a heiglii of about 
70 feet, and based upon the brink of the valley, which 
han here a depth of 129 feet ahnost precipitous^. It 
wiH be rememhered that the entrance to the extensive 
vaultd through the Cradle of Jesus is at this angle^: 
ajid it is perhaps important to remark, that the lowest 
level of these vaults is considerably above the base of 
the exterior wall. The greatest height of the vaults is 
staled by Mr* Catherwood to be about 35 feet, flo that 
their floor must be an equal height above the ground 
without. This phienomenon must be accounted lor by 
suppoging that the native rock of Moriah has been here 
utifictAlly eut into a perpendicular angle, and merely 
faced with masonry, in the same manner as the Ca'^tle 
of David V; an arrangement which may be found in 
many parts of the City- walls ^ 

Proceeding witli our survey on the South side*", 
at the distance of 93 feet from the angle we find a 

' These measures are from Mr. 
Tipping in TrailPs Josephus, Vol. i. 
p. xIt. In p. xliii. he had directed 
attention to the fact, " that the Jews 
seem to have bestowed more pains upon 
the comers than upon any other part : — 
they exhibit greater care of finish, and 
a better choice of materials ; and *• the 
chief corner-stones* are of surpassing 
magnitude.** In p. xxxi. he gives the 
two faces of the South-east angle with 
his usual accuracy of delineation. 

* See above p. 311. 

* See above p. 16. 

^ It may be seen in the Sections in 
the Plan, that in some places the rock 
ia cut almost the whole height of the 
wall. Opposite the Cave of Jeremiah 

on the North, the wall is merely a 
facing of rock, and so again at the 
South-east angle of the Qity-wall. 
See Sections on the Plan. 

' The results of the measurements 
of this South wall are as follow : 

1. Mr. Catherwood in 1833, from 
his notes. 932ft., but in Bartlett, p. 
174, 940 ft. 

2. Dr. Robinson, in 1838, (see Bib. 

3. Lieutenante Symonds and Aldrich, 

1841, 637+340=877ft. 

4. Messrs. Wolcott and Tipping, in 

1842, (Bib. Sac. 1843. p. 23,) 915 fr. 

5. Mr. E. Smith, in 1844, 906^ ft, 
(Theol. Rev. Nov. 1846. p. 626. 

note 1.) 



[part II. 

Saracenic doorway, now built up^ which must formerly 
have given entrance to the vaults, though it seems to 
have escaped Mr. Catherwood's observation. Not so 
the three Roman arches conmiencing 200 feet West of 
the Saracenic doorway. They are 25 feet high and 
14 wide^ and formed, as we have seen, a grand 
gateway with two portals, having corresponding pas- 
sages through the vaults within, probably leading to 
the upper area'. At a total distance of 372 feet from 
the S. E. angle we meet with a breach in the wall 
extending 110 feet westward, occasioned " by a decay 
of masonry effected by a pressure of water from heavy 
rain ;" and at a distance of 55 feet from the Western 
termination of this breach, the modem city-waU starts 
off from the wall of the Haram at a right angleS at 
the precise point where is found the ancient double 
gateway under the Mosk el-Aksa, which is actually 
divided by this wall, so that one-half is included, the 
other excluded, from the modem city*. Part of the 
entablature may still be seen above the mass of 
modem masonry, by which the entrance has been 
blocked up; and the curious traveller may obtain a 
furtive view of the double corridor by climbing up to 
the iron grating in the same wall, which a mound of 

* Wolcott in Robinson^s Biblio- 
theca Sacra, Vol. i. p. 23. 

« So Wolcott, 1. c. but the Officers' 
Field-Book represents them as extend- 
ing only 30ft. along the wall. The 
statements will agree, if we suppose 
them to have measured from the mid- 
dle of the arches. 

' See above p, 312. 

* Thus the Officers* measurement 

gives 537 f^. of the South wall of the 
Haram, without the city ; Dr. Robin- 
son, 570. Messrs. Wolcott and Tip- 
ping, 550. (Bib. Sac. p. 23.) But ac- 
cording to Mr. Tipping 545, and in 
aU 916. (TraUl's Josephus, p. xlv.) 

* This is well shewn in Mr. Tip- 
ping's outline-drawing of the Gateway, 
and the other view. lb. p. xxii. 

mu sv.] 



dfhii win enable hini to reach without much difficulty^ 
Here a rude pile of Saracenic buildinge abuts upon the 
wall of the Mosk^ in one of the deserted chambers of 
whose basement-story, approached from within the city, 
the Western end of the frieze and architrave may be 
distinguished. From this chamber I effected a stealthy 
entrauce into the corridor, on two occasions^ under the 
gtiidance of Mr. Wolcott, through an accidental hole in 
the wall, which was afterwards discovered and secured 
bj the Moslem authorities. This mass of buOdings are 
merely offices connected with the Mosk'. 

The ancient cyclopean masonry was traced by 
Mr. Tipping from the S. E. angle of the Haram wall, 
beyond its point of junction with the modern city-waU, 
though only one or two courses are visible. *' With the 
West side of the gateway the bevelled masonry ceases ; 
aad up to the S. W. corner we have a fine lofty 
wait, with a row of windows [those of the Mosk Abu 
Bekr], and the upper part is of uniform and excellent 
masonry, similar to what may be seen in later Roman 
erections. But at the S. W. comer we find again the 
ancient bevelled masonry, equal to the colossal comer- 
stones at the other, and already -described angles. 
Indeed, the lowest course on the west face is the 
largest anywhere in the wall, measuring full thirty 
feet in length^." 

And here we reach some interesting remains, to 
which greater importance has of late been attached 

• Wolcott Id Bib. Sac. pp. 18, 19. 
The history of the discovery of this 
aperture is given by Mr. Tipping, in 
pp. zvi. and zvii. 

7 Catherwood, in Bartlett*s WsJks, 
p. 189. 

° Tipping, in TraiU^s Josephus, p . 



[part II. 

than to any others in the city^; and it is therefore a 
subject of congratulation that the pencil of a skilfiil 
artist has been employed to aid the descriptions of 
travellers, which must always fail to convey any satis- 
factory impression to the mind of the reader*. 

These remains consist of " several large stones 
jutting out from the Western wall, which at first sight 
seems to be the effect of a bursting of the wall from 
some mighty shock or earthquake;" but on further 
inspection " the courses of these immense stones, which 
seem at first to have sprung out from their places in 
the wall in consequence of some enormous violence, 
are found to occupy their original position." Three 
courses of these stones, commencing at 39 feet from 
the S. W. comer, have " their external surface hewn to 
a regular curve; and being fitted one upon another, they 
form the commencement or foot of an immense arch, 
which once sprung out from this Western wall, in a 
direction towards Mount Sion, across the valley of the 
Tyropoeon^." "The extreme width of the abutting 
stones is 51 feet : of these stones one measures 24 feet 
6 inches in length, and several of them exceed 5 feet 

' The merit of the priority of the 
discovery of these ruins, or rather of 
their importance in an archarological 
view, has been warmly and earnestly 
contested in America between Drs. Ro- 
binson and Olin, — and Europe and 
Asia have been called on for witnesses, 
in the persons of Mr. Catherwood and 
Mr. Nicolayson respectively. As I do 
not attach so much importance to them 
as either of the combatants, for reasons 
which will presently appear, the con- 
test seems rather amusing. I may 

mention, however, that my friend Mr. 
Young, formerly Consul at Jerusalem, 
assures me that when he saw these 
8tones on his first visit to the city in 
lR3fj, he was persuaded that they were 
the remains of the bridge spoken of by 
Joseph us ; he declared his convic- 
tion to Messrs. Nicolayson and Whit- 
ing, and was surprised that the ruin 
had not attracted more attention. 

^ I allude particularly to Mr. Ttp- 
ping*8 drawings, pp. zx. and xzv. 

» Bib. Res. Vol. i. pp. 351, 424. 

thickness. The e/iorrf of the remaining portion of 
the arch is 12 feet 6 inches, the dne 11 feet 10 inches, 
and the msint 3 feet 10 inches*/' Its total span, if 
restored, (according to the statement of an English 
engineer*,) would be 41 feet 7 inches^ suppoaing it a 
circular arch with a radius of 20 feet 9J inches* 

About 100 feet northward of the arch, Abu Se'iid^s 
home abuts upon the wall, and presents a barrier to 
further investigation in the same line. The ancient 
masonry, however, maj be traced quite up to this abut- 
ment, and is recovered at the Jews' WaOing Place, 
which extends along the line of wall between the Gate 
of the Moghrebins and that of the Chain, at the 
way, and is reached by *'a narrow lane, through 
a cluster of humble, one-storied tenements," Here 
occur some of the finest and best preserved specimens 
of ancient masonry in the Haram wall, consisting of 
••five courses of bevelled stones, and over these four 
courses of smooth-faced stones, little if at all inferior 
in size." " Owing to the continuous mass of houses 
built up against the west side of the Haram, it is next 
to impossible to inspect it any further ; but from some 
glimpses stolen here and there, among the houses, Mr. 
Tipping believes the west side to be the best preserved 
of the three, and that the covered bazaar (the Cotton 
Mart) has been, judging from the size of the stones, 
erected with ancient materials *.'*^ 

I of th 

* Tipping, in Traill*8 Joiephus, p. 
zxri. and Robinson 1. c. 

* Air. J. C. Brettell, who measured 
it in Jnne IS40. Mr. Young has fur- 
iitih«d me with his restoration. 

• Traill*s Joiicphus, p. xlvi. The 

Vol. n. 

promised careful delineation of the 
Wailing Place was never given, but it 
is well represented by Mr. Bartlett, 
Walks, p. 154. He also gives the 
spring-stones of the arch in p. IfiO. 



There is, howeyer, an important fact relating to this 
western wall, which has escaped the observation of all 
except Lieutenant Symonds, who surveyed the interior 
of the city in 1841, with the utmost care, and whose 
Plan, so far as I have been able to test it, will bear the 
closest scrutiny. It is this ; that the western wall is not 
continued in an unbroken line from its southern to its 
northern extremity, but presents two distinct angles in 
its southern half; the former at a distance of 180 feet 
from the S. W. angle of the Haram, at the point where 
the house of Abu Se'Ad Effendi abuts upon the Mosk; 
the latter, at a further distance of 320 feet NorUi, just 
South of the causeway at the Mehkemeh, or Town Hall 
of the city. It results from this, that the Jews' Wailing 
Place is 140 feet West of the wall at the ruined arch, 
and that the line of the wall from the causeway neariy 
to the N. W. comer is 90 feet West of the Wailing Place. 
The importance of this fact will appear in the sequel 
It was so wholly unsuspected by myself, so strongly 
confirmatory of my previously-formed theory, and so 
subversive of the opposite, maintained by Dr. Robinson 
and others, that I have taken great pains to test the 
acciu-acy of the survey in this part, although the skill 
of the OflScer, the scientific principles on which the 
survey was conducted, and the minute accuracy of the 
Plan in all other respects, scarcely allowed room to 
doubt that its departiu'e from all preceding authorities 
on this point had not been made without sufficient 
warrant. The result of my investigation and enquiry 
has served to justify this confidence, for not only do 
some ancient and modem drawings clearly indicate a 
contraction of the area at these points, and so serve to 

fTM. IT.] 


confinn the testimony of the Plan*, but the subseqnent 
ob-^ervations of Dr»Schultz, to whom I communicated this 
important discovery, with a request that he would test 
its accuracy on the spot, appear, though doubtingly, to 
lead to tlie same conclusion. At first indeed he was 
di£Eposed to question the accuracy of the Plan; he 
writes*: '* According to the measurements of your 
£tigioeering Officers, this wall does not run in a straight 
Ime- They have been able to go into the Mosk, 
I suppose : I am not allowed to do so, you know : but, 
aii far as I see, they must have made a mistake, not 
in their measurements, I am sure, but most likely they 
guppo^d that the house of Abu Se'fid EfFendi, lying 
towards the south-western angle of the outer court of 
the Moak, did not belong to the Mosk itself, as it really 
does ; or they have, which I think not quite so probable, 
taken the outer walls of Abu Se'ud's house and the 
Mehkemeh for part of the Moak^. The latter supposition 
is somewhat likely with regard to the Mehkemeh. If 
my survey is correct, the western wall of the outer 
court of the Mosk is straight and in one line, at least 

' I refer particularly to the ancient 
and accurate coloured drawing of Jem- 
aalem from the Mount of Olives, appa. 
rentlj executed in the early part of the 
iMh century, now preserved in the 
Cambridge University Library : to 
Breydenbach*8 large drawing, a. d. 
I48S, which is also very accurate : mo- 
dem drawing! also sometimes betray 
the fisct ; which, I may add, my friend 
Mr. Rowlands suspected at Jerusalem, 
before he saw the Plan. 

' Dated Jerusalem, March 1, 1847. 

' This teems to be the fact ; and if, 
aa he has just said, this house does 

really belong to the Mosk, they were 
right in doing so; and the error of other 
surveys is explained by their having 
excluded this house from the Haram. 
It is curious, however, that Mr. Gath- 
er wood, whose interior survey of this 
part of the enclosure seems to have been 
hastily executed, represents angles at 
the two spots required, though he gives 
no account of them. See his large Plan 
of the area in Fergusson's Essay (Plate 
IV.) I suspect that he ought to have 
carried out the west wall beyond those 
angles, instead of continuing it in the 
same line. 




[PAET n. 

from the south-western comer up to the Mehkemeh, 
that is, beyond the Jews' Wailing Place towards the 
North." Subsequently, however, he writes* : " I readily 
believe the Officers who measured Jerusalem in 1841, 
may be right in what they state about the south-west 
corner of the Haram, though it does not appear to me, 
when I look to it with my eyes only, having no instru- 
ments for ascertaining mathematically what we want to 

Further, the two angles in question and the increas- 
ing width of the Haram towards the North, will satis- 
factorily account for the difference that all statements 
shew between the north and south walls*; which, even 
according to the lowest estimate, is too great to be ac- 
counted for by an obtuse angle at the south-east angle, 
and we are informed that the angle at the south-west 
is a right angle'. 

For the completion of the sur\'ey it remains only to 
notice a few points without the northern boundary of 
the Haram. The Seraiyah, or Government House, with 
a barrack and extensive offices, stands on the north side 
of the north-west angle, "probably occupying in part 
the site of the ancient fortress Antonia*." " It rests 
upon a precipice of rock, which formerly swept down 
abruptly, and has obviously been cut away to form the 
level below, which also bears marks of having been 
scarped*." This rocky precipice, forming the base of 

* Under date, Beyroot, October 16, 

^ Mr. Catherwood makes the length 
of the South wall to be 940 feet, the 
North 1020 feet. Bartlett, p. 17"). The 
Officers' Survey gives the former as 877» 
the latter as 1180 feet. 

' Catherwood, in Bartlett*s Walks, 
p. 174. 

* Robinson's Bib. Res. Vol. i. 
p. 420. 

^ Bartlett, p. 158, represented in m- 
drawing, p. 108, of the same Work. 

be building, rises to a height of upwards of 20 feet, as 
seen in the interior Ewnfey^^ 

The Gates and Pool on this side hare been already 
noticed; but the latter will here require a fuller 
description. " It measures 360 English feet in length, 
103 in breadth, and 75 in depth to the bottom ; besides 
the rubbish which has been accumulating in it for ages. 
_Jl was once e\idently used as a reservoir;*' and apparently 
mrm fiUed with water : for large fragments of the cement, 
Plrhleh once cased the tank throughout, may still he seen 
on the wall, and the action of water is discernible upon 
it even in the upper parts. On the western side of its 
^ south-west angle, ** two lofty arched vaults extend in 
ird, side by side, under the houses which now 
that part. The southernmost of these arches is 
in breadth, and the other 19 feet." Notwith- 
standing the accumulation of rubbish within and before 
them, " yet 100 feet may be measured within the northern 
one, and it seems to extend much further. This gives 
the whole work a length of at least 460 feet, equal to 
nearly one-half the whole breadth of the enclosure of 
the Mosk; and how much more we do not knowV The 
vaults, even to the top of the arches, are cased with hard 
Roman cement, such as was commonly used in their 
baths, and the casing is much less decayed in the vault 
than in the tank itself. Whence this Pool received the 
enormous supply of water that was necessary to fill it, 
is a question of great interest, which will be discussed 
^hen I come to speak of the waters ; but the masonry 
of the Pool is of peculiar construction, and deserves a 
more detailed notice. It consists of three distinct 

• See above, p. 300. ^ Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 434, &c. 


layers of stones, one upon another. Of these the lowest 
is composed of coiirses of massive masonry, in which 
are inserted stones of a smaller size, which again form 
the basis of a thick layer of mortar, studded with the 
stones of the superficial coat, consisting of small 
pebbles, or quarries, set thickly, but not closely, so as 
to afford a strong hold to the exterior cement, which 
was profusely spread over these pebbles^. The east end 
of this pool is close to the city-wall, leaving only a 
narrow causeway between, which forms a communication 
from S. Mary's Gate with the Haram, through the Grate 
of the Tribes. 

Having thus again reached the north-eastern comer 
of the enclosure, where our survey of the exterior com- 
menced, I must endeavour to assign the various points 
which we have noticed, within and without the enclosure, 
to their respective places in the topography of the 
ancient city ; a difficult task indeed ; and if my deduc* 
tions from existing phsenomena should not prove more 
felicitous than those of earlier writers, I fear that the 
results will be far from satisfactory. In this case, how- 
ever, as in many others, it is much more easy to detect 
and expose the errors of others than to discover and 
establish the truth. Still, as it will serve to familiarize 
the reader with the bearings of the question, and to 
demonstrate the nature of the difficulties in which it 
is involved, I shall examine, by the way, some modem 
theories : and if I succeed in proving them to be un- 
tenable, because inconsistent with historical evidence 
or existing monuments, I shall at least have cleared the 
ground for a new hypothesis, which must then be sub- 

* Mr. Wilde has given a woodcut i of his descripdoiL Narrative, Vd. ii. 
sketch of this masonry in illustration ' p. 3U8. 

CH, tV J 



jected to the same test, and accepted or rqected on its 
own intrinsic merits. 

But as a few preliminary notes on the site of the 
Temple and its later history wiU much facilitate our 
subsequent enquiry, I shaU address myself to this, when 
I liave premised that in epeaking of the Jewish Temple, 
I must be understood always (unless the contrary be dis- 
tinetly stated) to refer to it in its latest aspect* as it was 
left by Herod the Great: For, as Josephus and the 
Babbinieal writers are well-nigh the sole authorities for 
any particulars of the arrangement and construction of 
the Temple, and as their accounts relate neither to the 
Teniple of Solomon, (though they undoubtecUy borrow 
much of their language, and probably something more, 
from that building,) nor to the restoration of Zerubbabel 
and Joshua, but to the Hcrodian structure, our enquiry 
is necessarily restricted to the last ; for it were a vaia 
attempt to recover, from the scanty records of the Scrip- 
ture-narrative, the particulars of the Solomonic Temple*. 
There is another observation which it is important to 
bear in mind in investigating this subject. It is this; 
that the technical language of ancient writers is liable 
to considerable misconstruction, and we must carefully 
guard against the notion, that the terms popularly em- 
ployed in a translation are exact equivalents to those 
of the originals. It may frequently happen, on the 
other hand, that the terms employed by the writers 
were not technical terms at all, but simply accommo- 

* Jocephus pablifihed his Jewish 
Wtf at Rome cir. a.d. 75, and his 
Antiquities at the same place, cir. a.d. 
93. The Tracts of the Mishna are 
of ▼arioos and mostly of uncertain date, 

but the earliest are subsequent to the 
destruction of Jerusalem bj Titus. 
The Middoth maj be referred, with 
considerable certainty, to the end of 
the second century. 


dations of ordinary language; for it must not be supposed 
that Josephus or the authors of Middoth, Yoma, and 
other Tracts of the Mishna, were professional architects, 
or thoroughly versed in the clerical language of the ma- 
sonic craft. 

With these preliminary remarks, I proceed to a 
general description of the arrangement of Herod's 
Temple, referring to the former volume for an account 
of the site and its original dedication to this sacred use\ 
and not designing here to enter into details of its archi- 
tecture, of which we know next to nothing*. 

The Temple, then, in its widest signification {to Upov), 
consisted of two Courts, one within the other, though 
the interior is sometimes further subdivided, and dis- 
tributed into four other coiuiis^. The area of the outer 
Court, (or Temple, as it is sometimes called,) was in 
great part artificial ; for the natural level on the sunomit 
of the Mount being found too small for the Temple 
with its surrounding chambers, courts, and cloisters, was 
gradually increased by mechanical expedients*. This 
extension was commenced by Solomon, who raised from 
the depth of the eastern valley a waU of enormous stones. 

> Vol. I. pp. 15, 16. a Leyden MS. of Josephus reads 

' Except that the Koyal Cloibter at iiXifidrraK TreVpat? for K<vrd Xifia Toic 

the South was Corinthian : Ant. xv. i ircVpatc, in the second passage here 

xi. 5. referred to. This would make very 

' Viz., sometimes into 1, tlie M^o- good sense, and the received reading 

men's Court ; 2, the Court of Israel ; ' makes none ; for the context shews 

3, the Court of the Priests ; 4, the ' that the embankment was not on the 

Inner Temple, as in Middoth; some- , South but on the East, as is further 

timestheCourt of the Priests is regarded ' proved by the passage in the Wars, 

as TplTov Icpov, as in Ant. xi. xi. 5. and by a comparison of Ant. xx. viii. 7 

* The process is described by Jose. , with xv. xi. 3. Besides, there was do 

phus. Ant. Lib. viii. cap. iii. sect. 9; I valley on the South, whereas the Valley 

and XV. xi.3: and Bell. Jud. v. v. 1. of Jehoshaphat is on the East. See 

Hrr. ECralil (p. 57, note 1,) says that Bib. Res. i. p. 429, note 2. 

en, IV.] 



boujid together with lead, within which he raised a bank 

iof earth to a level with the native rock. On this was 
ereeied a cloister^ which with its successors ever 
retained the name of "Solomon's Porch*," in memory 
of the great king who had first reared it on an artificial 
emlmnkment. This process was continued by subse- 
quent kings, so that the dimensions of the area were 
continually enlarged until the days of Herod the Great, 
who» not satisfied with a complete reconstruction of the 
Holy House* further enlarged the outer court to double 
its former extent^ and adorned it with stately cloisters', 
that it might be in better keeping with the Temple 
which he had erected. 

Of these cloisters the Eoyal Portico on the South 
deserves a fuller notice, as one of the most remark- 
able of all Herod*s magnificent works. It consisted of 
iy four rows of Corinthian columns, distributed into a 
^^ central nave and lateral aisles— if I may be allowed, 
for convenience, to use terms (intelligible to all, 
though not so applied until a much later period,) 
borrowed from Christian Churches, which certainly 
borrowed much of their architectural arrangement from 
this and other Basilicas. Each aisle was 30 feet in 
width and 50 in height, and the nave was half as 
wide again as either aisle ^, and double the height. 

* John X. 23 ; Acta iii. 11 ; v. 12. 
Lfigfatfoot^B Chorographical Inquiry 
Cap. VI. Sect. ii. Vol. x. p. 350, &c 
Pitman*s ed. 

* This is not admitted by Dr Robin- 
son (see B. R. Vol. i. pp. 418, 427, 
4^.) JosephuB says (Bell. Jud. Lib. i. 
csp. zxi. ap. init.) Uem-eKaiieKaTtp 
yovy rret t^« fiaatXeia^f avTov re tov 
ma69 iTrtCKtvactf Kal Ttiv irepl avTov 
dtfrrtix^o.TO xtipav t^v ovar\^ ivwXa- 

viaUf d/JLerpoti /jl^v y^i)<rdfktv<K to?« 
duaXoifiaviv dvvirepfiX^Ttp ik Tti iroXv- 

7 Fully described in Ant. xv. xi. 6. 

^ So also Dr Robinson understands 
the term evpo^ fikv i^fii6Xiov~-i, e, 45 ft. 
Bib. Res. i. p. 429. Kraffl, howerer, 
makes it 67 ft, and in all 127, instead 
of 30 X 2 + 46 =105 feet. Topographic, 
p. 70. 



[part IL 

thus rising into a clerestory of unusually large pro- 
portions. The shafts of the columns were monoliths 
of white marble, 27 feet in height, and of such 
ample circumference, that it required three men with 
their arms extended to compass them. They had a 
double base moulding and Corinthian capitals ; the roofii 
of the cloisters were of cedar elaborately carved. The 
cloisters on the other three sides of the area were only 
double, and their entire width only 30 cubits. This 
outer court had four gates on its western side, towards 
the city\ It had also gates in the middle of the South 
side^ and one entrance on each of the other sides'. 

Such was the first enclosure, in the midst of which 
and not far from it was the second^, to which was an 
ascent by a few steps. This court had a wall and 
cloister of its own, and was entered by one great gate 
at the East, and three at equal distances in the northern 
and southern walls. It was distributed into several 
members, assigned to the various orders of the Hebrew 
Community, but was all sacred ; and inscriptions in 
Greek and Latin, set on pillars about the wall, forbade 
foreigners under pain of death to violate the sanctity of 
the precincts The Women's Court, occupying the Elast 
of this second enclosure, was a square of 135 cubits, 
with gates in the middle of its four sides, and cham- 
bers at the angles, each 40 cubits square, assigned to 
different purposes*. It was on a lower level than the 

> See above, p. 42, note 1. 
" Ant. XV. xi. 6. 

' Proof of this wiU be adduced be- 
low. See Middotb, Gap. i. Sect. 3. 

* ToiOVTOt fikv 6 TTpWTO^ iTept^Xot 

fiif'€¥ fitatp ^e, dirext^y oif iroXii, devrc- 
potf ir/>o<r/9aT^« fiadfjuiriif oXiyow* k.X. 
Anu 1. c. 

^ oy ircp«7x^ ipxlov Xi6£you ip¥» 
<f»dKTov, ypa4»V K»Xv»ir ^Urtiwai t6» 
dWoeinf, davaTiKiis dirc<Xovfitfin|v rift 
^t)fi/a<* Josephui, L c Thii ii the tame 
with the ipviftoKTo^ Xldiyat Tplwiix"* 
fiiv {i^foVf K,\. Bell. Jud. ▼. ▼. 2. 

* The measures and dUtribatUais of 
the Temple, its coons and chambcis. 

CH, K] 



Court of Israel, which was accessible from its West 
mde, by an asccQt of fifteen semicircular steps through 
the large bnusen gates'. This Court was assigned to 
the Hebrew males. It extended in length along the 
whole breadth of the Court of the Women, but was 
only 11 cubits in width. To the West of this again, 
was the Court of the Priests, of like dimetisions, 
rising two cubits and a half above the Court of Israel. 
Immediately within this stood the brazen altar, its base 
being 32 cubits square, removed 22 cubits from the 
Porch of the Temple, and situated before its eastern 
door* The Temple proper {uaof) extended 100 cubits 
westward, lea\^ng a space of only 11 feet between the 
western wall of the imier enclosure and the Most Holy 
Place, thus givmg to the third or inmost court a total 
length of 187 cubits, with a width of 135. The arrange- 
ments made for the orderly performance of the saeriiieei^ 
the distribution of the Temple into the Porch, the 
Sanctuary, and the Most Holy Place, with the dimen- 
sions of each, and their furniture and adornment, the 
account of the surrounding chambers and their several 
uses, belong rather to a book of Jewish antiquities than 
to such a work as the present, and cannot here be 
detailed. I have collected as much as will aid me in 
attempting to ascertain the exact position of the Temple 
with reference to the present Haram. 

But before I proceed to this, another investigation 
will be necessary: for undoubtedly the task would be 
much facilitated by any trustworthy historical records 

is fullj given in the tract of the Mishna 
named Aliddoth (t.e. Measures), the 
19th Tract in the 5th Book, in cap. ii. 
teot. 5, chiefly, and cap. v. sect. I. 

7 BeU. Jud. V. V. 2. These were 
the Corinthian Oates, where the portent 
took pUce. J. W. VI. ▼. 3. 


or traditions respecting the old Temple ; especially could 
we find reason to believe that any of the stiU existing 
remains had been identified with the Temple at a period 
when its desolation was comparatively recent. 

The following remarks wiU, I apprehend, enable us 
to form a fair estimate of the comparative value of Jew- 
ish and Christian testimony on this subject : for that of 
the Moslem writers is clearly worthless, as they could 
know nothing of the localities prior to Omar's conquest^ 
except what they learnt from the others. 

First then for the Jews. It has already been noticed 
that, within about 50 or GO years after the destruction 
of Jerusalem by Titus and the slaughter and dispersion 
of the entire nation, they were again in a position to at- 
tempt a restoration of their civil polity, and to endanger 
for a time the Roman tenure of the country, and that 
their insurrection was not crushed without the most 
strenuous efforts on the part of the government*. In 
order to account for this, we must suppose that they 
had returned to their old seats very shortly after the 
desolation of the city, and had been permitted by the 
Roman garrison to establish themselves among its ruins ; 
as we have seen good reason to believe that the Chris- 
tians also had done^: and I can no more doubt that a 
continuous tradition of the site of the Temple was cur- 
rent during this interval, than I can question the same 
concerning the site of the Holy Sepulchre. 

The attempt of the revolted Jews to rebuild the 
Temple at this time^, intimates that the tradition of its 

■ For the insurrection under Ha- Kara lovialcay /3. Tom. vi. pp. 33S 

drian, see Vol. i. p. 2()7, &c. and 237, £d. Eton; where he speaks 

3 Vol. I. p. 202. of three attempts to rebuUd the Temple, 

3 Mentioned by S. Chrysostom, viz. under Hadrian, Constantine, and 

CH. IV.] 




site was still retained ; and it would be perpetuated 
after their reduction, and during the period of their 
jealous exclusion from the eity and its neighbourhood*, 
b>^ the Temple of Jupiter Capitoliuus, erected by the 
Emperor to desecrate the spot^ as in the parallel case 
of the Holy Sepulchre, polluted by a Temple of Astarte*: 
3o that however long the law of Hadrian continued in 
foree» there would be no danger of a breach in the tra- 
ilition. The Idol Temple was probably demolished in 
the time of Constantlne ; but two equestrian statues of 
Hadrian still marked the spot, and were seen by the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim a.o, 333, when the site of the Temple 
and Altar and the extent of the area seem to have been 
clearly determined^ At this period, too, the Jews were 
accustomed to resort once a year to the site of the 

Julian, utnerautnonties are quoted 
for the fint by Bishop Miinter, Trans. 
latioii in Bib. Sac. p. 431, note 3. 

* See the references in Vol. i. p. 21 3, 
notes 4 and 5. The terms of the law 
were Tcry stringent : thus Aristo of 
PeUa (ap. Euseb. H. E. iv. vi.) t6 
warn iQpm i^ eKtivov Kai t^v irepl ra 
'\tftoa6\vfLa yri^ irdfnrav eirifiaiveiv 
tlfyrraf vofiov ddyfian Kai diard' 
j^€iri» *A6piavou, »« dv fit] d' i^ qutoittov 
9tmftot€9 t6 iraTpiHov i6a<po^^ iyKtXeu- 
aa^arov. The parallel passage in the 
Apologj of Tertullian is well known, 
and proTes that the edict was still ri- 
gonmalj enforced, " Dispersi, pala- 
bondi, et coeli et soli sui extorres va- 
gantur per orbem, sine homine, sine 
Deo Rtgt, quibus nee advenarum 
jure terram patriam saltern restigio 
salutarc coDceditur.** Cap.xxi. p.20. 
JBd. Rigaltii, 1634. 

' iiion (jass. lxix. i'J. <« tov tov 

Oeou TOiroVf va6v Tta Au €Ttpo» dtrrt- 
ytipavT(K. The well-known coin of 
vElia Capitolina, representing Jupiter 
in a tetrastyle temple, is conclusive on 
this point. It is quoted by Vaillant 
and Eckhel, under the reigns of Ha- 
drian and his successors. See Doct. 
Num. Vet. Pars i. Tom. in. p. 443 : 
a copy will be found at the foot of this 

8 See Vol. I. pp. 240, 41 ; and for the 
coin, p. 128 of this volume. 

7 ** In sMie ipsa ubi templum fuit, 
quod Salomon aedificavit, in mannore 
ante aram, sanguinem Zacharic ibi 
dicas hodie fusum. Etiam parent yes- 
tigia clavorum militum, qui eum occi- 
derunt, in totam aream, ut pates in 
cera Hxum esse. Sunt ibi et status 
dus Hadriani.'* Itin. HienMol. ed. 
Wesseling, pp. 590, 91. 




[part II. 

Temple, and to anoint a pierced stone with oil^: and 
although it would appear that they ftbused this newly- 
recovered liberty to visit Jerusalem, and made another 
unsuccessful attempt to build the Temple^ which led to 
the re-enactment of the law of Hadrian^, yet the statue 
of the Gk>d or Ejnperor still stood to mark the qpot^; 
and many of the Jews, in the time of Julian the Apostate, 
would remember the annual visit of their countrymen to 
the pierced stone, which would enable them clearly to 
identify the site : so that I can have no doubt that the 
foundations which they began to open up, when at the 
instigation of Julian they commenced their third infatu- 
ated attempt, were really the foundations of the Tem- 
ple ^ and that this design to falsify our Lord's prophecy 

* '' Est et non longe de statuis lapis 
pertusus, sd quem yeniunt Judaei 
singulis annis, et unguent eum, et la- 
mentant se cum gemitu, et restimenta 
sua Bcindunt, et sic recedunt/* Ibid. 

* The second attempt mentioned by 
S. Chrysostom 1. c. and barbarously 
punished by the Emperor, outous 
ieiKVVfit oifx ara^ ovie SU, dWd xal 
Tpii inrixeipi'iaatrrat Kai payetrrai. 
Then, after detailing the attempt under 
Hadrian, he proceeds, ipat ttiV irpoi- 
Ttyv hrixftprjaiv twv dvaKr^virrtov *Iou- 
iatwv ; ^Xeirc 2i Kai ttiv ficT iKelmjv • 
^irl Koawrratrrivov irdXiv xoic ai/Toii 
lir€X'^ip^<fO-v' 6 ii TatSra avTwv diroTC- 
fi»» Kai t6 Tijs irapafco^c crvfi/SoXov 
iitdtiv airriov TtS atifiaTi irairraxov 
irtpifjyt, KaOdirep rivac ipatriTa^ Kai 
fiaoTiylav, did t^s tou atofiaTo^ irij- 
ptia-eat^ ^.travi KaTaiviKov^ irotSiVy ic.X. 
p. «t33. This event he speaks of as 
within the memory of man, toi9 ^i 
irp€<rfiuTepot9 tjfiuv yvaipifiov* and then 
proceeds to speak of the attempt under 

Julian, as koI toU tr^toipa i4ot« dijikmm 
Kai KaTaifHUfh. p. 834. 

' This is nowhere stated Midem 
verbis, but I find evidence of it in this, 
that while at the time of the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim's visit (a.d. 833), they were 
allowed to enter the city at least ooce a 
year, Eusebios, writing later, Comment, 
in Psalm, lviii. p. 267> No/uott yovw 
Ttov Kparoutrrwv i^ ixeipov trap *Iov- 
iaiwv idvot dmryoptvrai TOtc t^ocv 
iiriPaiveiu, draipaiTiiTov Tg^impUn^ 
hrai»povp.€vr\9 tolt tov moftov wapap' 
/ScJTotc' ii6 iti iri xal <nifi€po9 dfu^l 
fikv ToJ>c opo\n KVK\tf iraptovT€v irofifim^ 
Otv lan-avrai, fiiji* ^^ a^oirrov ri W- 
\ai vevofinrfievom avroit Itpdv iia^ot 
dtdffaerdat KaTa^iovfitvot. Coii£ Gre- 
gory Naziansum, Orat. xii. p. 202. 

^ See the passages quoted from 
S. Jerome, p. 388, note 8L 

^ 8ee the narrative and r ef erences 
m Vol. I. pp. 254, 5, And 8. Cfaiy- 
soetoml.c.p 834. 






cifily led •to ita more complete accomplishment^ bj 
the entire destruction of the ruins in the fiery erup- 
tion ^ It fieenia certain that the edict of Hadrian was 
again enforced subsequently to the time of JuUan^, 
probably until the Saracenic conquest ; and it is in this 
intenral that the Jewish traditions would suffer most 
materiidly. Yet I cannot but think that the main sites, 
such as Sion and the Temple Mount» would still be had 
in remembrance by a small remnant of mourners who 
might bribe the Roman soldiers, if not to connive at 
tlicir residence in the city^ at least to allow them to pay 
periodical visits to the ruins, as their forefathers had 

* Am mtkf be gatheted from S» 
ClirrKsttoiDV kn^stge, nftET rebdng 
tbe defcttC of Jiilian'i fttternpt^ in hli 
mtanA Homilf Agaimt the Jews. Cal 
yup idif tKBrjt th *ltp0v6\vfiat yvp.Vfi 
Si^ti ^d dffAtkia, p. 3S4 ; and m tine 
Srd.^ p. ^2r^ ipeiTtiov kyii^tTo vao-^^ 

? WhcD S, Hil«r7 wrote his Com- 
meiitaij on the Ps^ms the prohibition 
tru ii] fuU fofce. The date ui^tially 
anlgned to thii work is cir. a.B. 365, 
ealf two jt«n after the death of Juli&n 
the Apfkfuilep A,B. W^ \ his wnrda are 
(Trmct«. m Ps^lmum Lvm. sect* 7. 
Op. col. ISO). " Quinetiatn nunc in. 
jTei9u dTitAtis ejuridenii edicto Ko~ 
mail: TC|^ia luhihentur \^^ and a Uttk 
below, col. 133/' Aminsiidvitate Tcm* 
ploqne deserto, et lecimdum Homani 
T^0m edicta circumeuntei tantiua, non 
isuta ineuneet dvilAtcm," &c. In S« 
CtLr^HMiGOin/t time the edict was still 
ctxfdited. Thus he argue that if God 
liad willed the continuance of the Jew ^ 
iwh aaaificei he would not have altowed 
thero to he icatiered through the world. 

and ha^e made that cltj alone inaccei- 
tible to them, in which nnlj sacrifice 
enuM b« offered* Kirrii 'lou^afwVf a, 
p, 316— ai7. So, p.SISj oBt. ^ A 
Bv6^ Twv Butiimv dinjyaye, njV ^oXttf 
ttadeXmit^ Kal Tan/o-a* ai^-rijt dfiaToy 
iratru* ; and a little after, 4 ftkv oUttu^ 
ju,iifit TQETa dvtiTat rats *IoudiiJOiV li^a 

XiifA ^jdarof ytyottvM, Ma advov Outur 

^ So touebinglf described by S. Je- 
rome in Comment. In Soph, i, 15, 16, 
whete, referring to the parahle of the 
unthankful huabandmen (in Matt, xxz, 
3J>, 13,) he writea^ '^.,.uiique ad pr«^- 
sentem diem^ p^rddi coloni, pout inter'' 
fectioncm senrorum, et ad extrenium, 
Filii Dei, excepto planetu prohibentnr 
Ingredi Jeruaalem : et ul ruinam sus 
eia flere liceat civitAtij^ pretio re^li- 
inunt ^ lit qui quondam emerant «m- 
guinem Christie etnant lacrytnaa auas. 
Et ne iettis quldem ela gratuitua sit, 
rtdeaa in die quo capu est a Romania 
et duQta Jeroaalem, venire populum 


However, it is to the Christian community that we 
must chiefly trust for the preservation of the traditions 
relating to the Temple and its precincts ; and certainly 
their testimony is not less trustworthy than that of the 
Jews themselves; for the native Church, in the earlier times, 
consisting principally of Hebrew converts, would be as 
well versed in the Jewish antiquities of the city as the 
unbelievers ; while their continued residence on the spot, 
at least from the time of Hadrian, when the Jewish 
traditions were fresh, would cause these traditions to be 
handed on in an unbroken continuity of succession, 
however their disregard for the holy places of the Jews 
might lead to the desecration, and gradually to a partial 
oblivion, of the site. 

It will be worth while, then, to gather into one view 
the scattered notices of the Temple that occur in Chris- 
tian writings, before I adduce some points of agreement 
between the Christians and Jews of the middle ages, 
which I shall attempt to shew are entitled to some con- 

The Bordeaux Pilgrim has already been mentioned 
in connexion with the sacred stone, which was an object 
of annual pilgrimage and veneration to the Jews. He 
speaks also of two large pools on the side of the Temple, 
one on the right, the other on the left, evidently shewing 
that the limits of the area were then well defined'. He 

lugubrem, confluere decrepitas mulier- ' liceat-.-Ululant super cineres Sancta- 
culas et senes pannis annisque obsitos, arii, et super altare destructum, et super 
in corporibus et in habitu suo iram ' civitates quondam muni tas. et super d- 

Domini demonstrantes. Congregatur 

turba muerorum plangere ruinas 

Templi sui adhucfletust in genis, et 

lividabrachia, et sparsi crines, et miles 
mercedem postulat, ut illis flere plus 

relsos angulos templi, de quibus quon- 
dam Jacobum fratrem Domini pneci- 
pitaverunu** Op. Tom. in. ool. 16M. 
* *' Sunt in Hieruaalem piadnc 
magnae duo ad latus Templi » id est, una 




>tice8 Dioreover the crvpt where Solomon tortured the 

lemons ; the loftj angular tower whereon our Lord was 

&t by the Tempter ; and under the wing of the tower 

self, many chambers where Solomon had his palaee, 

ind the identiad one where he wrote his deseription 

"of Wisdom* which last was vaidted with a single 

stone. The wonderful reser\^oirs are ako mentioned in 

coimexjon with the Temple. In the very house where 

itood the Temple built by Solomon, on the marble 

before ^e altar was seen the blood of Zaehariah as 

though recently shed ; and the dints of the nails in the 

shoes of the soldiers who slew him could be traced over 

the whole area, as though they were fixed in wax* 

lere were two statues of Hadrian ; the pierced stone. 

iy anointed by the Jews, and bathed with their 

the house of Hezekiah, and the Judgment-hsU of 

^Piktei where our Lord was heard before His Passion* 

Kow granting at once the siniplicity, credulity* 

and barbarous Latinity of the western Pilgrim, we must 

at least conclude from this account, that the position of 

the Temple and the extent of its area was clearly 

ascertained in his days, and that certain localities 

^thin and about it were regarded with veneration by 

dristians and Jews, as associated with passages of 

Scripture history, I have no doubt that I shall be able 

^ ietifrmm, ftli^ ad e^inijitram, qiLu 

^«isqn fecit... Est ibi et crjpta, ubi 

^i^ODim dEfiioars torquebaL Ibi at 

Bfoim turrisi excelsiKiimw, abi Do- 

mioHi tAc^ndit, &c».. Jbi tat et lap la 

H^fitkm magnufi, 6tc^ Item bd caput 

■D^li, et ifib pinna lurris ipniun,^ stinc 

CiabiciilA plurima, ubi Salomon pala- 

Uum hMbehsLt, Ibi etiatn constat cubi- 

cvloSfin quoiedit et Mpientiam descrip. 

Vol. II. 

■it; ipie rero cubiculus uno lapide est 
tectua*'' Then after the passage quoted 
p, 333n. 7i 334 n. L ** Esc ibi et domui 
E^echiie Hegis Juda; partem dex^ 
tramf deor^um in valle, funi parieteSi 
ubi domui fuit Hire prs^torium Poutii 
Pilati. Ibi DummuR auditui est ante^ 
quam paterctui/' Itin. HieroioL ap* 
WesselJng, p. 589—^93. 





to identify several of these localities. At present I con- 
fine myself to testimony, and pass on to Eusebius. His 
notices of the Jewish remains of Jerusalem are not full, 
but very unequivocal as far as they go. A passage will 
be cited from his Theophania, in which he considers 
and answers an argument that might be brought against 
our Lord's predictions, from the actual state of the 
Temple, whose complete overthrow He had foretold ; and 
the reply concedes the fact that large fragments of the 
Temple, in the more extended sense of the word, still 
remained in situ\ This was about a.d. 320. 

Prudentius again, {dr. a. d. 394,) after the frustra- 
tion of Julian's design, speaks of the Pinnacle of the 
Temple and the Beautiful Gate as still standing' ; and 
S. Jerome, about the same time, notices an image of 
Jupiter and an equestrian statue of Hadrian on the 
place of the Holy of Holies ; the gate of the Temple that 
led to Siloam, and indeed the whole area of the Temple', 

' Theophania, B. iv. ch. 18, p. 247 
of Dr. l^ee^s tranBlation. See the pas- 
sage quoted in the text at the end of 
this Chapter. 

• " Pinna TempH. 
Bxcidio Templi veterii sUU pinna tupentcc, 
Stnictus enim lapide ex illo manet angulus 

In seclum sccll, quern spemunt edificantes. 
Nunc caput est Templi, et laterum compago 


Porta Speciosa. 
Porta manet Templi, Specioaam quam vod- 

Egregium Solomonu opus : sed roigus in ilia 
Christi opus emicuit; nam claudus surgere 

Ore Petri, stupuit laxatos currere greasus." 
Enchiridion Hist. 
I have no doubt that the Christian 
Poet, in this passage, refers to the " an- 

gulus turris excelsisaims/* which the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim mentiont as Uie 
scene of our Lord*s Temptation; and 
that this is identical with the "excdsoa 
angulos Templi," from which,acoordiiig 
to S. Jerome, the Jews precipiuted S. 
James. See the passages in p. 336|, 
note 1, and p. 33o, note 8. 

^ " Ubi quondam erat Templum et 
religio Dei, ibi Hadriani statua et Jo- 
vis idoium coUocatum est" Comment, 
in Isaiie Proph. cap. ii. comm. 8. Op. 
Tom. III. coL 25. And in expUinlng 
the abomination of desolatioo in MatL 
xxiv. 15, he writes, " Potest auten 
simpliciter aut de Antichriato aedpi. 
aut de imagine Cssaris, quam Pilatus 
posuit in Templo; aut de Hadriani 
equestri statui, que in ipso 


hi nuch a manner as to leave no doubt that its position 
and limits, with several of its leading features, were 
sufficiently marked in his day. But from this time 
forward I have not met with any clear notices of the 

§ until shortly before the Saracenic conquest, when 
oiims Placeotinua {eir. 000) distinctly aDudes to the 
of the Temple of Solomon*. It has been stated 
Omar, baring enquired for the Mosk of David, was 
eonducted, after some hesitation, to a neglected and 
polhtted site, where traces of ancient masonry stUl 
eidsted^. Over these he commenced the erection of 
his Sfo!*k, which with its more splendid successor has 
perpetuated the tradition unto this day. Tlie Patriarch 
Eutychtus (a. o, 940) accounts for the desertion and 
desecration of the site as follows* : ** When the Greeks 
embraced the Christian faith, Helena the mother of 
Con5?tantinc built Churehes in Jerusalem. But the 
Sakhrah and the parts about it were then covered with 

Sanctcrum loco usque in prssentem 
diem stetit. Abominatio quoque se- 
coodum ▼eterem Scripturam, idolum 
noDciipatiir : et idcirco additur, deso- 
ladoois ; quod in desolato Temple at- 
qne destructo idolum positum sit. 
Comment, in loc. Op. Tom. iv. col. 
114. See p. 127, note 4, for the pas- 
Ufe relating to the Temple area, and 
the gates leading to Siloam ; and p. 335, 
note 8. 

^ It it to be regretted that we have 
BO tmstworthj notices of Jerusalem be- 
tween S. Jerome (cir. 400) and Arcul- 
fbs (c. 097) > except such as are scatter- 
ed in the pages of Cyril of Scythopolis, 
Mid writer* of that class. Antoninus 
Jfartjr certainly wrote before the time 
of Mohammed, for he speaks of the 
Saracens as idolaters, and describes 

their idol, of snow-white marble but 
chameleon propensities (for it became 
black as pitch at the time of the festi. 
val), their priest, and rites in Mount 
Horeb ; but this writer is so obscure, 
and draws so largely on the faith of his 
readers, that his narrative serves rather 
to bewilder than to guide. Of the 
Temple he says, " Ante ruinas Templi 
Salomonis sub plates aqua decurrit a 
fonte Siloe. Secus porticum Salomonis 
in ipsa Basilica est sedes, in qua sedit 
Pilatus, quando audivit Dominum.** 
Sect. XXIII. Ugolini Thesaurus, Tom. 
VII, p. mccxvi. 

^ See the account in Vol. i. p. 316, 
and notes. 

^ Eutychii Annales, Arab, et Lat. 
Oxon. 1658, 4to. Tom.ii. pp. 286, 289. 




[part IL 

ruins, and were so left. Indeed, they had east soil 
on the rock, so that it became a large dunghill, and 
was altogether neglected by the Greeks, who did not 
reverence it as the Jews had done. Neither did they 
build any Church upon it ; because our Lord Christ had 
said in the Holy Gospel, * Behold, your house shall be 
left unto you desolate ;' and again, ' There shall not be 
left one stone upon another which shall not be cast 
down and laid waste.' On this account the Christians 
had left it in ruins, and built no Church upon it." 

Notwithstanding, however, this neglect and contempt^ 
it may, I think, be safely admitted that the ruins would 
not allow the tradition to pass into complete oblivion, 
and that Omar did succeed in recovering the actual 
site, as the universal consent of Christian and Jewish 
writers attests. Nor can I doubt that the venerated 
pierced rock of the Jews, mentioned by the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim*, is identical with the sacred Sakhrah of the 
Moslems, and that it marks the position — not of the 
Holy of Holies, as the later Christian, Jewish, and 
Moslem authors profess, but as an earlier Christian 
tradition consistently maintains — of the brazen altar* 

' See the quotation above, p. 334, 
note 1. 

* I find a curious confirmation of 
the idea, that the lapis pertusu* is iden- 
tical with the Sakhrah, and that this 
rock marks the site not of the Holy of 
Holies, but of the brazen altar, in this, 
that while the Bordeaux Pilffrim 
places the lapis pertusus non longe 
de statuis, S. Jerome states that the 
statue occupied the place of the Holy 
of Holies, see p. 338, note 3. The 
Christians in later times seem to have 

fallen into confusion, by supposing that 
the threshing-floor of Araunah the Je- 
busite, where David erected the altar 
(which they uniformly identify with 
the Sakhrah), became, in the arrange- 
ment of the Temple, the place of the 
Holy of Holies ; not, as it really did, of 
the brazen altar. Compare 1 Cbioo. 
xxii. 1, with the preceding Chapter. 
P. Lemming, in his Specimen of Ke- 
mal-ed-din, haa collected the Tariout 
traditions of this Rock, pp. xTi-^xxi. 



the Porch of the Tetnple ; for this confusion and 
djustment in detail, while the main tradition has 
E^mained fixed, is exactly what might have been an- 

rfpated, and remarkably parallel to what we have 

en in the case of the Holy Sepulcbre. 
The following considerations will, I think, mi this 
latter at rest, and establish an important starting-point 
for our further investigations. I find, then^ the following 
cnmous coineidenees result from a comparison of the 
raised platform of the modern Haram with the Rab- 
binical specifications of measures and with the notices 
of Josepbus. The general dimensions of this platform 
m given by Mr, Catherwood are 550 feet from North to 
Souths and 450 from East to West^. Now assuming 
the western boundary of this platform to be identical 
with that of the court of the inner Temple, and measur- 
ing Eastward 200 feet, (the approximate value of 133 
cubits) — the distance, i. e. of the brazen altar from the 
western boundary of the inner Temple*, — ^we come to 
the sacred rock, which I have mentioned as the probable 
place of the brazen altar, and idential with the lapis 
pertumig^ the object of Jemsh veneration in the time of 
Con^^ntinc* It is a happy suggestion of Professor 
Willis, that the excavated chamber at the South-cast 
corner of this rock, venerated by the Mohammedans as 

» Bii]t]ett*fl Walks, p. 165. Ano- 
ilicr itAtetnedt, privatelj m^v by tht 
•une gentleman, makes it 530 by 425. 
Mejr-ed.din (1. c. Tome ii. p. 93) 
makes it 253 ziraas from North to 
Sooth, and 189 from East to West: 
i. r. ( reckoning the ziraa, as 2*2 feet En- 
glish, ) 656 feet bj 416. AliBey(Tra- 
wtU, VoL IK p. 218,) gives it as 460 

Paris feet from North to SoutJi^ and 399 
from Ewt to West^ eleTated 16 feet 
above the general plane of the Haram. 
* Middoth, cap. v, sect i. p. 9Jb, 
states it thus, measuring westward: 
from the Altar to the Porch 22 cubits, 
total length of the Temple 100 cubits : 
behind the Most Holy Place to the wall 
II cubits. 



[part il 

the Noble Cave, is the cess-pool of the great Altar, 
the entrance to the canal through which the blood of 
the victims flowed off to the brook Kedron ; for at the 
South-east horn of the altar was a place in the pave- 
ment, one cubit square, where a ring was fixed in a 
slab of marble, by which was a descent into a pit or 
chamber, for the purpose of cleansing the drain and re- 
moving obstructions ^ The base of the altar was 48 feet 
(32 cubits) square, and to the East of the altar we should 
require 236^ feet (157 cubits) for the Court of the Priests, 
the Court of Israel, and the Court of the Women^ 
The sum of these numbers exceeds the measure of the 
present platform by about 20 feet; but considering 
the uncertainty of the reduction which I have followed^ 

* Middoth, cap. iii., secu. iL & Hi., 
Tom. V. p. 357. It is a singular fact 
that this descent still exists ; Ali Bej, 
writing of the excavated chamber, 
says, ** In the roof of the room, exactly 
in the middle, there is an aperture 
almost cylindrical through the whole 
thickness of the rock, about three feet 
in diameter. It is called the Place of 
the Prophet." Travels, Vol. ii. p. 221. 
There is a corresponding bore " in the 
centre of the rocky pavement*' noticed 
by Catherwood as the Bir arruah (see 
above, p. 303). The present entrance 
was probably formed at a much later 
period. It is a remarkable coincidence 
that Middoth places the entrance to 
this canal at the S.E. horn of the altar, 
and that both Ali Bey (Vol. ii. p. 
220) and Catherwood, 1. c p. 167, 
expressly state that the cave is in the 
S.E. comer of the rock. So again, 
Richardson, Vol. ii. p. 301. 

' Given thus in Middoth, com- 

mencing from the Bast : The Comt of 
the Women 135 cubits, whence was an 
ascent by 15 semicircular steps to the 
Court of Israel (cap. ii. sect. v. p. 341, 
2), which was 11 cubits wide; beyond 
which, 2.} cubits higher, was the Court 
of the Priests, also 11 cubits wide; then 
the base of the altar, (cap. ii. sect. vi. 
p. 344. Comp. cap. v. sect. L p. 375). 
3 Reland (Pabestina, p. 397) has 
remarked that the Rabbinical cubit 
sometimes exceeds that of Josephus 
one-third, as e.g. the former state the 
height of the altar to be 10 cubits, the 
latter 15; the gates, according to the 
former, were 20 cubiu high and 10 wide ; 
according to the latter, 30 high and 15 
wide. This he accounts for by suppo- 
sing that Josephus, writing for the Ro- 
mans, used the Roman measnies : bat 
then, as he truly remarks, hit specii- 
cations elsewhere coincide with those of 
the Tahnud ; mb e,g. when he states 
the height and width of the Temple to 


^■pd tbc roughness of both the ancient and modem 
^TOeasurements, I think this excess need not prevent us 
from concluding, with considerable certainty, that the 
present platfomi, in its width from West to Eastt re- 
presents the length of the inner Temple. Tlie 202^ feet 
(135 cubits) J assigned by the ]V!ishna as the width of the 
inner Temple \ cannot be m clearly accounted for, but 
it would appear from Josephus that the oblong parallel- 
agrani. formed by the courts above specified, stood 
within a square area ; so that there must have been a 
considerable space on the North and South, between the 
gates of the inmost court and the low wall of the 
tiered precinct*. If this view be correct, it is very 
possible that the existing platform may represent, in its 
length as well m in its breadth, the dimensions of the 
er Temple, understanding that expression in the 





be 100 cubits. I apprehend that the 
Hebrews in Roman times reckoned by 
Roman measure, and have assumed 
the cnbit to be equivalent to 1*5 ft. £n- 

* The Women*s Court was a square 
of ISA cubits, the Court of Israel and 
the Court of the Priests were each 135 
cubits loog by 11 cubits wide, so that 
they must have extended along the 
whole West side of the Women's Coun, 
(ice the particulars in Middoth 11. cc.) 

* Considerable confusion has arisen 
from the apparent discrepancy between 
the two accounts of the Temple, fur- 
uiahcd by Josephus in B. J. Lib. v. 
capi ▼., and in Ant. Lib. xv. cap. xi. 
The following remarks will clear them, 
and reconcile them both with the Mid- 
doth* According to the former ac- 
eoant,the second Temple or Holy Place 
was suironnded with a stone fence 

(ipv<paKT09 XiOivov) three cubits high. 
It was raised 14 steps above the first 
Temple, was square (rrr^ifyMvov), and 
had a wall of iu own, the apparent 
height of which from without was 40 
cubits, but within only 25; for the 
higher elevation of the stage reduced 
the apparent height of the wall. Above 
the 14 steps was a level space of 10 cu- 
bits, all plain ; then five more steps to 
the gates ; of which there were four on 
the North, four on the South, two on 
the East, and none on the West In 
the Antiquities, 6 iirrds 'rtpifioXot, 
which is identical with this, has only 
three gates on the North, three on the 
South, and one on the East ; the retsoo 
of which is, that the three gates of the 
Women*s Court, on the West, the 
North, and the South, are ezduded 
from the reckoning here, which were 
included before. 



[part U. 

wider sense of Josephus, not in the more confined 
sense of the Mishna^ 

I proceed now to the outer Court : and here* at the 
very outset, we encounter a most perplexing discrepancy 
between the historical notices and modem observation : 
a discrepancy far too considerable to be accounted for 
by any looseness of statement, or any accidental varia- 
tions. It is this : That according to the testimony of 
the Jewish historian, which is confirmed by the tra- 
ditionary account in the Mishna, the outer Temple was 
a square ^ whereas the length of the present area ex- 
ceeds its breadth, as we have seen, "by 573 feet, or 
more than one half ^" But this difference in the pro- 

^ It is clear tliat if the inmost Court 
of the Priests p where was the altar and 
Temple, was 135 cuhits wide, the 14 
steps, the level space between them and 
the wall, the other five steps, the trea- 
suries and cloisters described bj Jose- 
phus, must have occupied a consider- 
able space on either side, and all this 
Josephus reckons as the second Temple. 

' ToDto oe ijv t6 irav irepipoXoi, 
TeTrdptov trraiitov "vdv kvkXov exov, 
eKa<m|c yuviat ata^iov iii\KOt diro- 
Xafifiavovatii' Ant. XV. xi. 3. Mid- 
doth, cap. II. sect. i. p. 334. ^n 

HDJ* ry\^D ttron rvn n2,n 
.HDJ* r\M^Q van by 

' See above, p. 297. n. 2. In addition 
to the exterior measures of the wall 
there given, it may be well to put on 
record the following interior measures 
from various authors. Mejr-ed-din 
(Lc Vol. II. p. 93,) found the length 
to be from South to North (including 
the cloisters, but not the thickness of 
the walls) '* 669 ziraas ordinaires :*' this 
length was measured near the East wall : 

the width from East to West. "406 
siraas ordinaires d'architecture,** mea- 
sured apparently from near the Golden 
Gate. Now supposing thii liraa to be 
the Constantinople ptk or cubit, about 
2 2 feet English, the area would be 
1471 feet long by 893 wide. But Mejr- 
ed-din elsewhere gives three other state- 
ments (1. c. Tome v. p. IGO). Hafiz 
ben Asakir made it 7^ by 465 royal 
ells, *-^aunes de roi.'* The author of 
Mesir-ol-ghoram found it marked up 
on the North wall as 7B4 by 455, but 
whether in royal ells or others waa not 
specified : it was measured in hia time, 
and found to be 683 by 483 ( 
not stated ! ) Mejr-ed-din accounts for 
the discrepancies by saying that the 
measures, though the same in name, 
have varied in value from time to time: 
some have used '- Taune dite de fer** 
others " Taune de main^ (U longnenr 
du bras)** 1. c Tome ii. p. 91 Ali 
Bey writes (Travels, Vol. ii. p. 215): 
^' The Mussulman history aasigns to 
the ancient Temple of the Jews a 
length of 750 Ptk Stambouii^ or cubits 



portions of the Temple area and the modem Harani is 
not tile onlj, nor indeed the chief difficulty; for here, 
fit leaiit, Josephui3 and the Mishna are agreed. Not so 
with the dimensions, which the former reckons a stadium, 
or 608 English feet, on a side ; the latter, 500 cubits, 
or 760 feet — according to the reduction which I fol- 
low* Here then we encounter a variation in the Jewish 
aecounts^ which adds to the complication; and, what 
is still worse, neither of these statements at all falls 
in with the well-ascertained measures of the present 
Haram ; for we have seen that the lowest statement 
of the measure of its shortest wall, the South, exceeds 
tlie greatest Jewish measure by upwards of 100 feet^ 
These are some of the difficulties that encompass this 
subject; and the points to be considered are, First, 
whether the conflicting statements can be in any way 
Feconciled ; or, if not, which are entitled to the pre* 
ference : and Secondly, whether any are consistent with 
modem measurements. 

First, then, it may be well to enquire whether the 
dimensions of Josephus and the Mishna can be any way 
reconciled. It has been suggested by Professor Bobin* 
son that " the Rabbinical specification of 500 cubits or 
875 feet*, if to be reckoned only from portico to portico, 
would not vary materially from the results of (modem) 

of Conttantinople ; and a breadth of 
«©,Ctf. 1563ft Sin. (French), by 938 ft. 
Sin. in breadth. The new Temple is 
eompoaed of a large court, the length 
of which is 1369 feet, and the breadth 
845." Dr. Richardson was told by the 
eoonn of Omar £ffendi, that the di- 
mcDsioiis are 660 piks of Constantinople, 
or 1489 feet, by 440 piks or 995 feet. 
L«astly , Catherwood states the measures 

from the centre of the dome of the rock 
to the walls, as follows : North 760 + 
South 815 =: 1575 interior length (the 
exterior East waU being 1520 !) East 
620+ West 350 = 970 interior width. It 
wiU be observed that tlie proportions 
vary almost as mudi as the dimeosiona. 
* He assumes the cubit s 175 fi.^ 
I suppose it to be 1*5. See p. 342, 



[part n. 

measurements^;" and I was myself fain to adopt this 
explanation until fiirther examination has proved it to 
be untenable. If indeed the Babbinical specification 
were lower than that of Josephus, a plausible method of 
reconciliation might be sugg^ested^ on the supposition 
that they reckoned within, he without, the porticoes ; and 
as it is, I should be glad to believe that the excess 
of their statement over his, might be accounted for by 
the contrary supposition. But the language of Jose- 
phus is too precise to admit of such an interpretation. 
For not only does he broadly state that the outer 
Temple was a square containing a stadium a side ; but, 
in his very particular account of Herod's Hoyal Portico, 
he expressly gives its length from wall to wall, 
(identical of course with that of the Temple area,) as 
one stadium, and further adds, that this length was 
limited on either side by the Eastern and Western 
valleys, which did not allow the Portico to extend 
further'^. So in like manner the length of the Elastem 
cloister is limited to 400 cubits, very nearly a stadium, 
in two passages, describing Solomon's Porch ; the latter 
of which evidently refers to the latest phase of the 
Temple's existence, after its extension by Herod, and 
indeed not long before its destruction by the Romans'. 

> Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 430, I. 

' T(J 6k TCTapTov aifTov (tou iepou) 
fiiTunroVf to irpdv fieaijiJif^piaif, eTx« 

fiiv eir' ai/Tou Trjv ftaaiXuaiv arodv 

TpnrX^v Kara /i^X"^ CLtovaav dird t^5 
ktpa^ <f>dpayyoi iirl tiiv k<nrtpiov' ov 
yap r]V itcrelvaiy irpoatjrrepu) SvvoTotf' 
...eD/>oc eKarepav iroSat TpuzKoin-a,.. 
fiiJKOi ($6 <rrd6tov. Ant. xv. xi. 5. 

3 McyaXa? yap iyxtoaa^ (f>dpayyai, 
...Kai dvaPtfidaav eU tct paKoviovv irif- 

XCiS t6 u\f/o9y Icroiredovv t^ Kopv<ff^ tow 
opovi, €(p' rji 6 va6v mKo^ofktfTO, «caT€» 
o-Kei/aa-e. Ant. viii. iii.9. ItisobTious 
that the 400 cubits must be referred to 
the length of the work ; it were absurd 
to apply it to iu height. But the next 
cited passage is more clear. 1S,000 
men having finished the works about 
the Temple, which had occupied them 
many years, and being thus thrown out 
of employ, the people ^ccOov t^v ^a- 





ut while the entire consisteTicy of these particularg 
with his more general statemetit forbids me to adopt 
the explanation of Dn Robinson^ I regret that I have 
n€> other to offer, but must confe§s myself wholly at a 
loss to understand how the limits of the outer Temple 
could be so circumscribed. Were the Middoth only in 
question, the difficulty would be very unimportant ; not 
BO much because their measure exceeds that of Joae- 
phuSr for it would still fall far short of the existing area, 
but becaiiBC it might be supposed that they hatl adopted 
the proportions and dimensiona assigned to the pro- 
phetic Temple of the New Jerusalem in Ezekiers 
vision, without reference to fact : and no one, probablyi 
would maintain that his numbers are intended to re- 
present the actual dimensions of the ancient Temple, 
any more than the description of the prophetic Jeru- 
salem was literally true of the historical city, I am 
driven to the miserable expedient of suggestingj that 
the difference between Josephus and the Middoth 
proves that no reliance can be placed on either state- 
ment, and that the only satisfactory method for ascer- 
taining the probable extent of the outer Temple, is by 
an observation of the actual site. Yet, while I distrust 
the figures in which they disagree, I cannot reject their 
harmonious witness to the general form and proportions 
of the area ; viz. that it was a square, or at least so 
nearly a square as to appear so to the eye. 

The next question then that arises, is. How are we 
to account for the present proportions of the area, and 


vtXia Tn'if djfaToXiKnv <rrodv dvcyelpai ' 
nif 3« »| <rTod Tov fikv ej^coOtv lepov, K€i- 
fUmfi 34 iir <pdpayyi fiadela, rtrpaKO' 
vimm Wfixi>>y tow toixow exovaa 

epyov 2!oXo/ictfVc;9 tov fiaaiXtmt 'wpti- 
TOV 6«ifiafiivov t6 ovfnrap lep6¥. Ant 
XX. viii. 7. 



[PABT n. 

at which end has the addition been made ? — ^for I have 
shewn good reason to believe that the Temple did 
really stand within the present area, and I must be 
allowed to assume that the width of the Haram from 
East to West, limited as it still is by the Valley of 
Jchoshaphat on the East and by the Tyrop<Bon on the 
West, represents, at least approximately, the width of 
the Temple area. Dr. Robinson has accounted for the 
difference by an ingenious hypothesis', that the fortress 
Antonia covered the whole North side of the Temple, 
and that the space formerly occupied by that fortress 
was taken into the court of Adrian's idol-temple, and 
is now included within the Haram ; and this hypothesis 
he thinks is supported by the remark of the Jewish 
historian, that the circuit of the Temple, including 
Antonia, was six stadia^. Now, as it is obvious that 
this theory would most satisfactorily explain the mean- 
ing of this obscure passage, I regret that there is 
one insuperable objection to its adoption, which he 
had entirely overlooked when he originally proposed 
it^, and which I do not think he has fairly met when 
pointed out. It is obvious from numerous passages, 
that the whole of the North wall of the Temple was 
not covered by the fortress in question. 

First ; when Hyrcanus, aided by the arms of Aretas 
king of Arabia, had conquered his rival Aristobulus 
in battle, the latter fled to Jerusalem, and fortified 
himself in the City and Temple. The Arabians then 

* Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 430, &c. 
ReaMcrted aiid maintained in Theol. 
Rev. Vol. III. p. «16, &c. 

» Bell. Jud. V. V. 2. 'O ii vat kv- 
k\o9 auTMif [rctfv <rTwtap] civi^ <rradiou9 

' Or he would not have written 
"this conjecture... is supported by va- 
rious facts, while it is, so far as I know, 
contradicled by none,''* Bib. Res. i. 



Attacked the Tenaple, and only raisiHl the siege by 
>aimand of Scaurus^s, who accepted the allianee of 
rbtobuJus rather than of Hyrcanua, beeause the former 
the city in his power*. 

Again, shortly after, when Pompey had been received 

'Into the city and palaces by the Roman faction, he pro- 

^-ceeded to force the Temple, which was occupied by the 

^ndverse party of Aristobulus. To effect this, he en- 

Btamped hig army within a wall, which he had erected 

^Kon the northern quarter of the Temple, whence it was 

^isaailable; but here also it was defended with great 

^^towers, and an artificial fosse, besides being encompassed 

^Blrith a deep yalley. A bank was rai&ed with much 

■labour, and the fosse filled in, though but poorly, by 

reason of its immense depth, and on this were placed 

the engines brought from Tyrej with which the wall was 

battered mitil a breach was effected, through which the 

Temple was taken \ 

Thirdly ; when Herod the Great, three years after 
he had been declared king by the Roman Senate, pro- 
ceeded to invest the city occupied by Antigonus, he 
pitched his camp before the Temple, with the design 
of proceeding against it as Pompey had done. He 
accordingly drew three ramparts and erected towers 
round this part, and prepared timber. He then com- 

fiotroKviia, 'O ^k tUv *ApdfttM)V ftaciXcift 
Taaav tiiu <rrpaTuzv dyayaiV, Kal 

Tpoa^XtOV TU> Ifptp TOIf 'ApKTTO^OvXoV 

iTo\i6pKti, K.\. Ant. Lib. xiv. cap. 
ii.i«ct.l. See Vol. I. p. 105. 

* nofimfioc ik tleiaoiva t6v inro- 
9Tpd-ntyov iTffAxlfav crbv irrpaTtpj t»;i/ 
Tf ToXiv KOI Til /3a<riXcta i<^ovpti Kai 

Ta5 olKia'i Tae irp<i« t6 lepdp, Kal Baa 
r\v €^» irepi to l«p6if toxdpov* fcal...Ta* 
irepi^ iTttx^^ae xoopla...'n.Ofinr^io9 ik 
6<rc00€v trrpaTOTredeveraL icaTa t6 /5«>- 
p€iov Tov lepov fiepos^ B0e» ^y hriixa^ 
Xov. «c.X. Ant Lib. xiv. !▼. 2. Com- 
pare Bell. Jud. I. vii. See alto VoL i. 
p. 106. 


menced the assault, assisted by the Soman general 
Sosius and his legions. Having taken the first wall in 
forty days, the second in fifteen, he was thus put in pos- 
session of the outer Temple and the lower City : and 
the Jews fled to the upper City and the inner Temple, 
which were next carried. Then, and not till then* 
Antigonus, who was still in possession of Baris, de- 
livered himself up to Sosius ^ 

Further, when Cestius having fired Bezetha at the 
beginning of the Jewish war, had attempted for five days, 
without success, to force the upper City, he diverted 
his attack to the Temple, and sought to break into it 
at the northern quarter; the Jews being then in 
possession of Antonia. He was repulsed by the Jews 
from the cloisters; when the soldiers undermined the 
wall, and prepared to set fire to the g^te of the Temple^. 

Once more, when Titus had taken the outermost 
wall which put him in possession only of Bezetha, or the 
New City, " the Jews divided into several bands, and 
courageously defended the wall; John and his faction 
fighting from the tower Antonia, and from the northern 
cloister of the Temple ^" which would have been un- 
necessary, or rather absurd, if the whole space of Antonia, 
with its deep fosse, had been interposed between them 
and the enemy. The same remarks will apply with 
almost equal force in the last passage which I shall 
adduce. When Titus had taken the lower City, he re- 
laxed the siege for a while, in order to allow the Jews 
to surrender : he held an inspection of his army, in a 

» Ant. XIV. XV. 14 ; xvi. 1, 2. More ! * Bell. Jud. ii. xix. 6. See V6L i. 
briefly in Bell. Jud. i. xviii. See Vol j p. 166. 
I. p. 116. I ' Bell. Jud. ▼. TiL a 

CII. tv.] 



<x»nspietious place near the city, which was regarded 
with amazeiiient by the Jews from the old wall, and 
froni the northern quarter of the Temple*, 

Now, the force of these passages Dr, Robinson has 
attempted to evade^, by suggesting that *' the fortress 
Antoaia was so connected with the Temple, that it 
came to be regarded as an integral part of it, and was 
often comprehended with it under one general name*:** 
and accordingly that when, in the passages above re- 
ferred to, the historian mentions the Temple, not the 
Temple but the Fortress is to be understood. But* 
besides that we have no warrant for supposing that the 
hiiitorian allowed himself in a latitude of expression 
invohing such confusion, the explanation itself, if ad- 
mitted, would only remove the difficulty one step further 
back : for if it is certain that Aristobulns was in pos* 
sa^ion of the whole city and Baris at the time of the 
siege of Aretas, it is no lesa clear that Pompey was 
master of the same fortress and the city when he be- 
sieged Antigonus in the Temple^. However then the 

BeU. Jud. v.ix. 1. 

TheoL RcT. Vol. m. p. 627. He 
however, only the three pas- 
sages which I cited in the tirst edition, 
and not the others to which I there re- 
fcRcd, and then carps at me for writing 
** numerous passages." I have now 
adduced those to which I then referred 
(1st ed. p. 328, note 2). 

< TheoL Rev. pp. 618, 9. I cannot 
find the slightest evidence for this hy- 
pothesis. It is simply assumed in all the 
passages adduced to support it. And 
it is curious that in the only two pas- 
sages said to itnpiy it, the Fortress and 
the Temple are distinguished in the 

most explicit terms: vi«. 1st, where 
Antonia is said to have been ^< the for- 
tress of the Temple as the Temple was 
of the city.** ^poupiov yap rrcicetTO 

Tff Tokei flkv TO Up6v, TC{» Upif ik f| 

'Airruivicu BelL Jud. V. V. a And, 
2ndly, where the circuit of the Temple, 
Antonia included, is said to be six sta- 
dia. See above, p. 348, note 2. Dc 
Robinson indeed admits (p. 619, note 
5) that " in the account of the proposed 
assault of Florus, and also utuaUjf in 
the account of the siege by Titus, Anto- 
nia is distinguished from the TempleJ** 
'' For his lieutenant, Piso, was icnt 
to fortify the city and palaces which 


^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

352 THE HOLY aXY. [PARt It fl 

former passage is open to the explanation offered by 
Dr. Robinson, the latter will by no mean» admit tif Hi 
for as the narrative does not permit us to aamma 
that Ponipey's assault on the North of the Temple 
was made from the fortress, so neither hare we imy 
authority for believing that such a fosse as that de* 
scribed by Josephus and Strabo, separated Bans from 
the Temple. The siege of Herod is no less concluHite, 
for here again the approaches were made on the North* 
and the outer Temple actually carried, while die 
enemy was in possession of the fortress*. The language 
relating to the sieges by Cestius and Titus as little ad- 
mits the sense which Dr. Ilobinson would put upon it', 

the dtiient htA delivered op, 01 It 
'mpot ^t^dfituoi TtjV (rrparidy ivtx^i' 

^^B ^viktia, AnL XIV. tv. 3. It i« ex- 
^^V preiftly stated that the pitrtj of Ant)> 
^r gotius hdd only the Temple irt\ Uf^^v 
H tcaTitXaft^dtfovai), ftTid we ihould have 
H hid 00 right whatever to include Bttru 
H under tbii name, even if it had not 
^t been e^ipreMly taid that the palaceA« tti 
^^K which Barii must be included, had 
^^^P b«en delivered up to Pompey . and for. 
^P tificd by him. Yet, xayt Dr Robiusoot 
H *Mt waii^ in fact, thia fortress Barii 
H that Foiopcy thus assailed from the 
H North, *■ p, «27, Similarly, Sablnus oc- 
^t cupied Antonia when the revoUed Jew* 
^^K divided into three bands, one of which 
^^0 COcmniped wp6t -r^ fi&ptlt^ to* Itpot^ 
■ mki^srr,. Bell Jt»l It lit 1. 

^m ' Uerod is suppoAcd by lir Bobin- 
H son to have f^iven up his attempt on 
H thi North of the Temple [Lr. BaHsJ, 
H and to have made his assault f^otn the 

^ L. c. pp. erlT^Jm. Wm nfvi 
to Cestiui, Pr RobuiMi] tnaiiitsinite 

ir«iT« t6 WfKftrdfiKTioir iirix^^* ttXltta 
T^ Ifpw means the northen» part of fht 
western wall of the Temple. Ms d«v j 
nies that there was a gate \n rhe Nonh H 
wall of the Temple, which, h« mp^ ™ 
I atmme (p. 6^, note S), ihongli m 

thority for it with its name ham Blid- 
doth. The silence of Jo^iephus U on 
valid argument afmitint it, for ht sayt 
nothing of a gate am ch« £«■«, whidi is 
also given in Middoth and tlaewbflv te _ 
the Mishna; an authority quit* m ^^"^M 
spcetable. to say the teaat, aa J«aepkw>fl 
How this northern gate Tedi was ip-^l 
proBched, I am not bouo^ to ahcwt hst^ 
1 can very well KmaglM an aicM 
bridge inch n now 1«t4i 10 liie oanh* 
em gate of the Uarun (&ali*il«at8ia^^ 
over the two vaiilied piaiaagfa* ^^fl 

etmipAed with ri. vlli. 1, is a vtisaahajH 
tlie banks alluded to are fiat the aaai^^| 

and why should th<t pUm he^ 'Th^^ 





fop not only is the northern wall of the Temple 
mentioned as the point of Ronian attack, but the 
noithern cloister as the Jewish line of defence*, and 
titie which challenged the admiration of the Romans*- 
In neither instance was the fortress in possession of the 
assailaiits* The conclusion seems to me inevitable, that 
the tower Antonia did not cover the whole northern 
firont of the Temple-areiu 

Now although it does not necessarily follow from 
this that the northern botmdEry of the modem Haram 
b coineident with that of the ancient Temple, yet I 
ihitik that the affirmative of this may be concluded with 
oonsiderable certainty from the following considerations. 
The great trench on the North of the Haram, 
bown as Birket Im'ofl, does so entirely answer to the 
dcgcription of the fosse on the North of the Temple, 
U given both by Strabo and Josephus, that I cannot 
question their identity*. Then, although I do not attach 

^b €if V. xi. 4 are destrorfd in r, xt, 
K lad Dcyer reconitnicted. 

* In the oue of the siege of Tims 
nhM\t three solutions of the difficulty 
oBbd—two by Dr Scliulti, and one 
^f Oi Hobixi5on, Dr Sehtilu (p. 59) 
'Ofpeiu thai j(j*eph«s may only be 
^«mng to the defence of the Tera- 
Pkbttm one po*t to another; in which 
**« the DOTthem portico wouM be the 
^ Ktaiioti ; or else as iignifjing the 
^^m which ran nonh wards ^ ie. the 
'Wen portico (whkh was probably In 
^^nt, ^t Anu XX. viii. 7)« Dr Ro- 
^tOfcii think* that dr6 t« t^^ 'Aiit«- 

••■t JEOl TIT* 'rpOtTHflKTlOV ^Todv TOU 

^K^ ^X^ftrvoi means only ihdt the 
^^^ tjf J oho*! pafiy now made Anto^ 
*ia lad thii notthetn portico (heir hend- 
V^fkrt. A glow that will probably 

Vol. U. 

he as iartsatisffrctorj to others ai Dr 
Schult^'it is to him. 

* Ipsic ponieuB, queis Tern plum 
ambiebatuT, e|rregium propugnaculum* 
Tacitus, Hist. Lib. v. sect, 13. 

ipxf-rai, -ra fikv aXka irdirra avvtw 

Xmw exovfrait' wtpu^xfrai yap aunji> 
^tdpuy^ tifpfid re tcm ^a&tjit^ iv^av 
dwoXitf^^avowfi ^6 Upov, XiWiVflB irept^ 
^dXw Knpr*pw9 irdvu T€^ftXi*Ffi^¥or.., 
Then after the paasage already cited, 
p. M% note 5t he proceeds, 'Awwrtf- 
Kf^fatf aal eirrtttida ^tydXai wvpy&i^ 
Kal Ta^po^ ik apmpvxTPt ^al 0aBti& 
ir€piel)^€To ^dpttyyi ...*.. *.+^iiXi» irXij^ 
edflffifv T^v T^dippov ltd ^@<K awit- 
pov^ jt, \. Ant. XIV, iv. I, f * Conf. BelL 
Jud Lib< I. cs.p. VII. and Strabotib 




[part n. 

SO much weight to the perpendicular rock at the north- 
west angle as is attached to it by Mr. Catherwood, who 
concludes that it " must of course be^ of the time of 
Solomon S" yet as a link in a chain of argument for the 
identity of the northern boundary of the Temple-court, 
with that of the present Mosk, it is fairly entitled to 
some consideration; for if not connected with the 
Jewish Temple, it is certainly difficult to imagine when» 
and by whom, and with what object, so great a work 
was effected. This is at the N. W. angle. Again; 
at the N. E. angle, not far from S. Mary's Gate and 
close to the Gate of the Tribes, we have those yeiy 
ancient stones which appear to have occupied an angle 
of a Jewish wall, and never to have been disturbed from 
their original position^. These then would seem to 
determine the limits and the direction of the northern 
and eastern walls of the Temple-area ; for it has been 
she>ni that they could not belong to the fortress 
Antonia; nor do I doul^t that in this venerable mass 
of masonry we se^TfTe remains of one of those impos- 
ing towers with which we know the Temple to have 
been fortified, particularly on the North side 3. 

Geograph. Lib. xvi. VoL ii. p. 1086. 
Hi/ yap ircr/swocs eve/OKCs tpvfia,, . ,to- 
<Ppov XaTOfiijrijv ^xw, ^dOoi fiev ^^n- 
KOirra trodtoVt irXoTos ie treintfKotrra 
Kal diaKoaiuiv' iK 6k tov Xldov too Xo- 
TOfir]Q€VTo% eireirvpyuiTo t6 tcIxo* tow 

» Bartlett'8 Walks, p. 175, note •. 
" The cutting away of the rock must of 
course be of the time of Solomon. It 
could need no repair, and is the only 
work (connected with the Temple) 
that can with absolute certainty be re- 
ferred to that monarch." 

' Described above p. 314, and Tery 
faithfully represented in an Outlioe 
Plate, from a drawing of Mr. Tipping, 
in Traill's Josephus, p. xUL 

3 Vet Dr Robinson sayi, Theol. 
ReT. III. p. 619, ''there is no i 
nor trace of any towers in 
with the wall of the Temple proper.'* 
Certainly not, if Josephus and Strabo , 
11. cc. when they mention the Temptey 
are understood to mean Antonia: bvC 
this is a mere petitio principiu The 
stotement is also directly opposed t9 
Ecdus. L. 1,2; and to seyeral passage* 

CH, tr,] 


Lo^tlj, the hypothesis of PrDfcssor Robmsoii ex* 
dudes the Golden Gateway from the Temple-area, 
which I feel obliged to include, in conformity not onJy 
with the traditions of ChristiaES, Jews, and Moslems, 
but alao with the notices of the Mishna, and with its 
own arehitectural features. This Gateway has been 
already described m situated in the eastern wall of the 
Honim enclosure, at the distance of 1024 feet from the 
S. E. angkj or 456 feet from the the N. E. angle ; for 
the Gate itself occupies 53 feet of the wall, projecting 
about 6 feet from its general line. Now we know 
from the Miahna, that there was a gate in the eastern 
wall, through which the priest, and all engaged in 
htiming the red heifer, went out with the victim to 
the Jlount of Olives, across a bridge or scaffold, erected 
for the purpose of guarding against defilement those 
^gaged in this service, or in that of the seape-goat*. 
It was named the Gate of Shushan*, in consequence 
of a representation of that royal city painted within 
% chamber of the Gate^ We find the existing gate 

b die books of Maccabeea and Jose- 
phtii, which Tueiititm the rortifii;atiou 
af the Temple. 

• Scf notice of this HIS ^22 

IWl Shekeliiii, tv\ 2, Tom. ii. p. 
Iffi, tnd m Tract Voma. tt. 4, p. 210- 
Sfi Also the note* of E. O, liaftenwra, 
"•d It M. Miimonidefl, 11* cc. Conf. 
fnib iiL sect. 6, Vol n, p.27€, w)d 
skt note of 4^1 •imon idea. See alw 
^^oot, Chorog. UenL cap, 3txxviji. 

' Mishna in Tract, iM id doth, cap.i. 
*«t3, Tom, F. p. 326, The reader 
■^( bcirirE of the Latin traaalation 

there pven of the clause; '\2JD 

nntyDn irb rHin^ myDQ 

for if the glo«9 of the triui«ktic»n, and 
of rHaitnotiide*, here and in cap, ii, I, 
were admiisible, k would altno&t foUi^v 
of necesiltf that the eastern j^ate wm 
ovCT againat the Altar und entrance to 
the Temple, ai Lightfoot understaodi 
1 1, 1 have looked in fain for authority 
in Uie Miahna, See Lightfoot** Proa- 
pect of the Temple, chap. liL VoL i%. 
pp, 219, 20. 

* Lightfoot, I c. saji ft is called 
the Kmg'% Gate, 1 Chron. i^. 111. Thii 
WM fcrtftinlf ^<^t9t«aid;** tml WM 



[PAftT U. 

mentioned from very early times, in Christian descrip- 
tions of the cityM and, as I have already intimated, the 
consonant traditions of Christians*, Jews^ and ModemsS 

perhmps the East gate of the Inner 
Temple, afterwards called the Gate of 
Nicanor. Midd.ii.4, Vol.v. p.327,i.«. 
the Corinthian Gate of Josephus, Bell. 
Jud. Lib. V. cap. v. sect. 3. I could 
rather believe with Abarbanel and 
others, that this Gate Shiuhan is iden- 
tical with the n^p "lyC^ of 2 Kings 
xi. 6, called in the parallel place 2 
Chron. xxiii. 5. TD^n 1JJW «•«. <A« 

A : - • - J- 
Gate of the Foundation; the reason 

of which would be obvious. See L*£m- 
pereur*s Plan of the Temple, prefixed 
to the Tract Middoth in his edition of 
the Mishna, Vol. v. p. 323. 

' This is, no doubt, the '* Porta 
Speciosa^*of Pnidentius (cited above, 
p. 338, n. 2.), and it retained the name 
there assigned to it for centuries. 
Antoninus PUcentinus (cir. a.d. 600), 
entering Jerusalem from the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat writes, " Portam civitatis 
(qua cohsDret portic specioss, quae fuit 
Templi, cujus liminare et tribulatio 
Stat) ingressi sumus in sanctam civita- 
tem." Sect. xvii. Ugolini Thes. 
Tom. VII. p. mccxiii. The transfer- 
ence of the " Porta Speciosa** to the 
West of the Temple is much later. 
Will. Tyrensis, viii. iii. p. 7-lB in 

^ To those already cited, add those 
adduced by Adrichomius, Theat. Terra? 
Sanctcp. Jerusalem, No. 156, p. 167. 
Those later than the Crusades are too 
numerous to refer to. 

» Benjamin of Tudela, a.d. 1160, 
calls it the Gate of Jehoshaphat, and 
places the Gate of Mercy on the West 

of the Temple area. See A8her*s ed. 
VoL I. p. 70. Rabbi Petachia, (etr. 
A. D. 1175,) speaki of it as "Hj/fff 
D^Orn *« "Gate of Mercy.*' He 
says that it was then blocked up with 
stones, and the Christians deuring 
to remove the obstruction, were mi- 
raculously prevented. Itin. in Ugolini 
Thes. Tom. vi. p. mccvlL Pardii, 
A. D. 1322, speaks of them, under the 
same name, as always closed by two 
iron doors. He thinks they may be the 
two gates built by Solomon, one of 
which was destined for bridqprooms, 
the other for mourners, or those who 
were under excommunication. But be 
speaks of the Gate Shushan, as a dis-> 
tinct gate (perhaps the Saracenic gate 
mentioned above), on this same eastern 
side, closed by large square stones, a 
bow -shot distant from the high closed 
Gates of Mercy. Zuntz, in Asher's 
Benj. Tud. Vol. n. pp.397, 8. Ishak 
Khelo, A.D. 1334, speaks of two Gates 
of Mercy, one on the East, the other on 
the West, of the Temple, so reconciling 
Benjamin of Tud. with R. Petachia. 
He gives the same account of the for- 
mer as Parchi. See Chemins de Je'm- 
salem, Ed. Carmoly, in his Collection of 
Jewish Travels, Brussels, 1847, pp.235, 
7, 9. Uri de Bid ( a. d. 1564) has the 
same tradition, and speaks of them as 
Jewish masonry. Tombeaux des Pa- 
triarches, ibid. p. 438, and Hottinger^s 
Cippi Uebraici, p. 41. 

* See Edrisi and Mejr^-din, cited 
below, p. 358, note 4, and 359, note 




represent it as a gate of the Jewish Temple. It was 
probably the place of the Beautiful Gate celebrated in 
the Acts, which the Sacred narrative would lead us to 

I^nneet with Solomon *9 Cloister*, 
I It doubtless suflered materially at the time of the 
Wmbustion of the eastern cloisters in the Jews* revolt 
against Sabinus, but may have been sufficiently restored 
lo be fit for use, although the cloiBter was allowed to 
I c ontinue in ruins*. 

^B NeiUier la there anything in its architecture that 
"iiiiljtates against this supposition ; for although the in- 
terior arrangement and decoration have undergone, as 
was natural, many changes in the lapse of ages, yet the 
ilrict]y constructive part is apparently as early as the 
Christian era, and has been so regarded by modem 
artists. The exterior waUs above the doorway on 
either face are mere patchwork, of much later date 
than the arches themselves, as is obvious to a mere tyro 
in architecture ; and the dome-vaulting of the present 
ehamber is certainly not earlier than Justinian ; but the 
capitals of the Corinthian piasters, in pure classical 
taste, may well be coeval with Herod's Temple : and the 
double archway in the exterior wall is not of later 
date'. Such, at least, is the opinion of Mr* Catherwood, 
and others, who have had the opportunity of exajnining 
its architectural features more closely than ordinary 
travellers arc permitted to do. They all agree in 
aa^gning it a Boman origin*; and if it did not belong 

^ S«c Acts iiL 2, 11. 

' iSee Joseph. AoL xvii. it. 11. 

«llJiid. II. liL 3; and conf. Ant 

' Thu» Mt^ fcTguMsofti remark* on the 
'^EuluCormtbiui pilBflten ;" he saja, 

" On the ouuide the ordir has i 

■ Bartlcti'i Walks, pp. l/l, 2, I7a 
And l>r Hobin8i]n> B. R. i. pp. 437, S; 
em bodying a. statement froni Aft. D#. 
tMmii the axchkei^U 



[part n. 

to the later Temple, it is impossible to say when it 
was erected : for no evidence whatever has been, or can 
be, adduced in support of either hypothesis advanced 
by Dr. Eobinson — that it served as an eastern gate to 
AntoniaS or that it formed the principal approach to 
Hadrian's Pagan Temple, when the area of Antonia 
was thrown into the Temple-area*. The theory of 
Mr. Fergusson, who ascribes a Constantinian origin to 
this antiquity, has already been disposed of, and will 
probably find but one advocate, to whose mind "it 
appears as clear as the sun at noon-day ^" 

The reasons assigned for the blocking up of this 
Gateway are variously stated by Christians, Jews, and 
Moslems*. Mejr-ed-din informs us that " these are the 

» Bib. Rc8. I. p. 437. The 
tion ** that the walls of the Haram were 
at this time rebuilt,** at least is equally 
unsupported. The Temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus does not seem to have been 
a very imposing building; to judge 
from the representation on the coin. It 
was probably only a tetrastyle shrine, 
like that of Venus on Calvary. 

^ This second theory is reasserted 
with great confidence in Theol. Rev. 
p. 626, where it is said that this Gate- 
way " is usually referred by architects 
to the time of Herod." The projection 
mentioned in confirmation of this is not 
noticed by Mr. Tipping or the Engi- 
neers ; nor is the break, mentioned by 
both these at 913 ft. from the S.E. an- 
gle, noticed by Dr Robinson, lie sup. 
poses that the projection, mentioned by 
Mr. £. Smith, (extending about 174 ft. 
along the wall, i. e. from 963—1137, 
about the middle of which stands the 
Golden Gate,) was the S. E. tower of 
Antonia, 70 feet high, mentioned by 

Josephus, J. W. V. vi. 8; but, he adds, 
'< it is not necessary to suppose that this 
tower extended over this whole projec- 
tion.** Ergo, cadit qusEtitio — ^the pio> 
jection, supposing it to exist, proves 

^ Fergusson*s Essay, p. 99. This 
author has, however, one remark woitby 
of notice. It is this, that the Golden 
Gate is evidently not meant for defence ; 
has no flanking towers ; is entirely open 
from side to side : *>* but was a propy- 
laH>n or festal entrance to some public 
building.** The inner face of the Gate- 
way still stands, and the arches appear 
to correspond with those on the outer 
face. See Mr. Catherwood*s sketch in 
p. 94 of the Essay. I could believe 
that the eastern cloister, 45 feet (SO cu- 
bits) wide, ran through this gateway ; 
and that the north and south walls are a 
mere blocking up of the intercolumniar 
space. The Gate is 70 feet interior 

* Edrisi merely speaks of it as the 

CB, IT.] 



gfiteg spoken of in the Koran, the interioti (i e. the 
a,) called the Gate of Merey; the exterior, (le. the 
easteraj the Gate of Torment, as opening on the V^ey 
so culled. They exliibit mthin the only remains of 
Solomon's work to be found about the enclosure. He 
learnt from an ancient, that thie Gate had been closed 
by Omar Ibn-Khatab, and shaH only be opened at the 
end of the world, when Jesus the Son of Mary shaU 
descend upon the earth* It appears,*' he adds more 
reasonably, ** that they have been blocked up for fear, 
and for the eecurity of the Sanctuary and the city, be- 
o^ttsa they open towards the desert, and woiJd not be 
of much ser>4ce, except to facilitate the entrance of 
the Bedawin^*' Consistent with the former part of this 
tradition is the story reported by Bonifacius^ who was 
assured by a learned Moslem doctor, that this Gate 
was kept closed for Bome great king, though he would 
not say what king. Nor does the latter part militate 
against another report of Quaresmius; only that the 
Christians have, with pardonable partiality, substituted 
themselves for the Bedawin, and by confounding the 
traditionary with the historical reason, have represented 
that this Gate is kept closed for fear of a powerful 
king who shall take Jerusalem and become Lord of 
all the earths 

Having thus disposed of the Golden Gate, and 
shewn reason, from it and from other considerations, to 

" Omte of Mercy," commonly closed, 
aod only opened on the Feast of Palms, 
A.D. dr. 1150. Jaubert*8 Translation, 
Vol.1, pp. 341, 344. So also Ibn-el- 
Wardi, p. 180, ed. Koehler. 

' In Mines d'Orient, Tome ii. p. 
96. He wrote A. D 1495. 

* In Quaresmius, Vol. ii. p. 332. 

7 Ibid. p. 340, after Rad2iviL Thaw 
is a curious coincidence, whether de- 
signed or not I cannot say, between thii 
tradition and Ezekiers notice of the 
Eastern Gate in his prophetic Tiiion, 
xliv. 1—3. 


believe that the northern boundary of the present area 
is identical with that of the Temple, we must submit 
Josephus and the Rabbies to another test, and consider 
what objections there will be to cutting off a space 
from the southern end of the present enclosure, so as 
to square the width determined now^ as of old, by the 
valleys ; for unless the two accounts, of the proportions 
in which these writers agree, and of the dimensions in 
which they differ, be wholly and entirely false, we are 
not at liberty to suppose that both its northern and 
southern limits are identical. 

Still the ancient remains on the South of the Ha- 
ram, commencing with the south-east angle, continued 
through the large substructions within the same, and 
the vaulted passage beneath El-Aksa, to the fragment 
of the massive arch at the western extremity, have 
been thought to present incontrovertible evidence that 
the outer court of the Temple did extend thus far'; 
and a coincidence has lately been observed between 
the measures of Herod's Royal Cloister, described by 
Josephus, and the substructions >vithin the S. E. angle, 
which seems to afford decisive evidence that the latter 
were arranged with a view to the former. As it is 
the only argument of any weight, I will here consider 
it; and if I am not able to answer it fully, I must 
leave the reader to determine whether the coincidence, 
remarkable as it undoubtedly is, may not, after all, be 

* Wr. Catherwood, e.g. gives up Temple extended as far North as at 

Josephus altogether. Bartlett's Walks , present, but carry Herod^s Royal Cloit- 

pp. 171, 173, and solves the difficulty ter along the south wall of the Hanun. 

by supposing that the Temple-area oc- ' Robinson's theory has been stated ; and 

cupied the whole modern Haram. Hrr. | Dr Schultz professes not to have di- 

Krafft and the Reviewer in the Neues rected- his particular attention to this 

Repcrtorium agree with nic that the . branch of the subject. 


CH- tV-] 



aeotd^tel, and whether this single fact can coiinter- 
rml agaiiist so many opposing difficulties. 

Professor Willis has ascertained, from Mr, Cather- 
wood's plan of the vaults ui question, that they would 
nmge perfectly with the triple cloister of Herod, sup- 
posing the side-aisles to have been carried over two, and 
the nave over three, intervals of the columns beneath; 
for, according to Josephus, the side-aisles were in width 
30 feet, and the nave an additional half-mdth, or 45 
feet*. Now it were merely splitting hairs to object 
that the internals betwctm the square piers, supposed 
to support the aisles, are not uniform^, and that one 
is a few feet below, the other a few feet above, the 
width required; for the actual coincidence is quite 
near enough to satisfy all requirements of the argu- 
ment* I find abo another coincidence, little less re- 
markable, viz. that the great gateway which once 
opened into these vaidts is so situated, that, supposing 
Herod's cloister to have been a stadium in length, as 
Josephus affirms, its position would exactly correspond 
with that of the gateway in the south wall of the outer 
Temple, called the Gate of Huldah in the Mishna^; 
which, according to Josephus, occupied the middle of 
the south front^. In this case, again, the western termi- 
nation of the stadium would fall in very nearly with 
the west side-wall of the vaulted passage, beneath 
£1-Aksa, where, according to Mr. Tipping, all traces of 

* Ant. XV. xi. 6. See above p. 329, 
note 8. Comp. Plate V. in 3Ir. Fer- 
^imon't Essay. 

' " The spaces between the ranges 
of arches are, as will be seen by refer- 
ence to the Plan, of inegular dimen- 
sions.*' Catherwood, p. I70. 

* Middoth, cap. i. sect. 3«, in Miahna. 
Tom. V. p. 326. 

* T6 6k nreraprov aiiTov fiertoirov, 
t6 Tpoi fieaijfifiptav^ cixe fiiv kuI avrd 
irvXaf Kara fieaov, ^ir* airrou 6i T*|ir 
/3aartXi#c»ji; <rr6av. Ant. XV. xi. 6. 


^'the Jewish bevelled masonry" cease, until they are 
recovered at the S. W. angle, near the ruined archway^. 
These are undoubtedly startling facts, and nothing but 
my respect for the Jewish authorities, and the great 
difficulties which the theory involves, prevent me firom 
accepting them as conclusive evidence to the point 
which they are adduced to maintain, and oblige me 
to assign a later date and another use to these sub- 
terranean works. 

To state the difficulties first : Immediately after de- 
scribing this Koyal Cloister of the outer court, Josephus 
proceeds to the inner, which, he says, was "in the 
middle, and not far distant from the former*;" evidently 
speaking with reference to the Royal Cloister, which 
he had just described. But he would hardly have 
written thus of the space that intervenes between the 
southern wall and the raised platform of the Haram. 
Again, the silence of Josephus is another serious objec- 
tion to the belief that these substructions existed in 
his time, for they must certainly have been among the 
most noticeable wonders of the Temple', as they now 
arc of the Haram. It is worthy of particular remark, 

^ In Tiaiirs Josephus, p. xlvi. 

' ToiovT<K fi^tf 6 TrputTOi wepi^oXoi 
r\v, €v fieaw ck dtr^x^oov ov irokv deOre- 
po9, K. \. Ant. XV. xi. 5. It has ap- 
peared above, p. 305, that there is a 
distance of 350 feet between tlie plat- 
form and the porch of £1-Aksa, which 
is 280 feet long, i.e. in all 630 feet to 
the south wall of the Haram. 

» Dr Robinson (Theol. Rev. p. 609) 
wishes to make tous virovofiov^ nrov 
Upov (in Josephus Bell. Jud. v. iii. I), 
and even those of the Upper City, 
(through which Simon endeavoured to 

escape, Ibid. vii. ii. 1,) do duty for 
these vaults. But first, this is the word 
that Josephus invariably uses for caTCS, 
mines, quarries, natural or artificial, 
(as e.g. aqueducts or sewers); and 
next, the latter is expressly spoken of 
as opvyfia, I.e.; Tacitus also, as dted 
by Dr Robinson (ibid, note 3), obviously 
alludes to excavations, "cavati sab 
terra montes,** which clearly cannot 
describe these vaults, but such caverns 
as those of the Sakhrah, and otbeiB to 
be afterwards noticed. 

CH* IV.j 


thtit the process, which he more than once describes, for 
enhirgiiig the platform of the outer court, differs essen- 
tially from the plan of these vaulted substructions. It 
consisted in erecting massive walls from the depth of 
the Tallejrs to the requisite height, and then filling in 
the cavity with earth, until the accumulated soil was 
level with the pitch of the hill*. And this expedient 
was adopted apparently only on the East side*. Or if 
it be sup[)osed that such works did exist on the South, 
the objection stUl remains in full force ; for an cmbaak- 
ment is described, and substructions are found* Bcsidea, 
irith what propriety could the historian write that the 
Boj^ Cloister eoidd extend no farther because of the 
valleys*, if he knew that it rested throughout on an 
artificial foundation, which had encroached upon the 
%-aIleys on cither side, and might have been similarly 
extended, at the pleasure of the architect ? Then, for 
the very remarkable coincidence of measures, it may 
be said that, if the arrangement of these piers points to 
a superstructure running East and West, as did the 
Royal Porch, the vaulted corridor beneath El-Aksa, 
which certainly appears to have formed part of the 

* 'SoXofiwv fieyaXaii epyaffian dirc- 
TciX*!*" dvoaQev to. irepl Tr\v aKpav^ 
«»cx€/x*S* ^* KUTtoQev iiiro t^s pt^T/s 
dpxofieiKKy rjv fiaOela ire/DiOeZ (pdpay^ 
Kara \i^a tois irerpaii fioXi^Sio deSe- 
fkivaiv irpov oWrfXas dtroXafiftavtav 
dro T^9 €<rio yvopa^^ koi irpo^aivoov eU 

fidd<n' T^s i* ipyacrlav ovtm (rvvatr- 

Tovtnii fit dxpov tov \6(f>ov, a-jrc/Dya- 
adfi€V09 aOrov ttji/ Kopv<pijv^ Kai Ta 
KOiXa Tutv -repi to tcix®* t/xirXiJo-as 
Ivawfiov Tols Kara ttjV kirK^dveiav ttjj/ 
dvm Kol Xelov hroitjerf. Ant XV. xi. 3. 
Conf. B. J. V. V. 1. 

* See BeU. Jud. Lc. tow di fiaai- 

Xc'ojs ZoXo/icoi'Of t3 kot* dvuToXat 

fiipot ^KTCixtorai/Tov, elT* iTeOri fita 
(TTod Tw ytofiaxi. Conf. Ant. XX, Tiii. 
7, cited aboTe p. 346, n. 3. Dr Robin- 
son truly says, B. R. i. p. 429, note 2, 
*•*• that Josephus speaks only of valleys 
on the East and West sides;*' and 
Niebuhr, in the place there referred Xo^ 
correcting Michaelis, says that there is 
no valley on the South. 

^ See the passage cited above, p. 
436, note 2. 



[part n. 

same general design \ as clearly points to one having a 
direction North and South. The argument from the 
triple gateway in what would be the middle of the 
South side, is also weakened by the existence of that 
double gate in the same wall, which is generally taken 
to be of the same date; since the existence of a second 
gate on the South is utterly ignored by the Jewish autho- 
rities ; who further inform us, that the Gate of Huldah 
was a double gate, and not triple, as is that in the place 
where it ought to be, supposing the premises correct*. 

Still more serious is the following objection. The 
first or old wall, which encompassed Sion on the South, 
was joined to the eastern cloister of the Temple, after 
passing OpheP, which is supposed to be the remainder 
of the ridge of Moriah, South of the Temple, descend- 
ing rapidly down towards the Pool of Siloam, between 
the Valley of Jehoshaphat and the Tyropoeon. Now 
the South-east comer of the Haram- enclosure "im- 
pends over the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which here 
actually bends South-west round the comer, having a 
depth of about 130 feet*." It is, then, impossible to 
imagine that the eastern wall was ever continued in the 
same line further South than at present; there must 
always have been an angle here, and most probably an 
angular tower ; so that had this been an angle of the 
Temple, it is clear that the Wall of Sion could not have 
joined its eastern wall, as Josephus asserts it did*: its 

' So Cathetwood in Bartlett, p. 171. 

^ Middoth, as referred to above, 

p. 133, note 3, says, nj^ 2V 

•Dmn JD m^in Josephus is 
cited in the same page, note 4. 

^ See Vol. I. p. 147, given in the 

original in the Appendix. For Opbel, 
see Bib. Res. i. pp. 390 and 460. 

* Ibid. pp. 420 and 429. 

^ Hrr. Krafi\ argues that the south 
wall of Herod*s Portico could not be 
North of this angle, because Josephtu 

CH. !▼.] 



point of juncture must have been West of this angle, 
and so it would have joined the southern and not the 
eastern portico, precisely as the present city-wall is 
attached to the south and not to the east wall of the 
Haram^ I cannot help suspecting, then, that in this 
massive comer we have a fragment of " the great out- 
lying tower," which must have occupied a space not far 
from the original Ophel ', in the first or old south wall 

detcribes the giddy height from the top 
of thii cloister at iu Eastern extrem- 
ity, aboTe the valley. This can only 
prove that ito Eastern end stood on the 
brink of the valley; since the very same 
thing is said of the end of the Wettem 
cloister. J. W. vi. iii. 2. See Topo- 
graphic, p. 72; and Bib. Res. VoL i. 
p. 429. 

^ I cannot compreliend Dr Robin- 
son's answer to this argument (TheoL 
Rev. p. «07, note 2), which I have now 
endeavoured to make more clear. He 
admits, "the Eastern portico was doubt- 
less extended to the South-east comer, 
where it was connected with the South- 
em portico, and also, according to Jose- 
phus, with the old wall," which was 
impossible at the comer, but not so 500 
feet North of the corner, where the 
junction would not be made <* under 
precisely the same circurasunces/ ' 

7 As commentators differ much 
about Ophel, the following remarks 
may not be out of place. 72y occurs 
but eight times in the sacred books as 
a substantive, with or without the ar- 
ticle. Of these passages five relate to 
this place at Jerusalem, and in none of 
these is the word translated by the 
LXX., but they represent it as ««^A, 
o^\, d<p\uy and 6<f>\d, and write it with 
the article, except in one place. The 

Scripture notices are as follows: Jo- 
tham built much on the wall of Ophel; 
2 Chron. xxvii. 3. Manasseh " com- 
passed about Ophel, and raised it up a 
very great height ;'' 2 Chron. xxxiii. 
14. The Nethinims dwelt in Ophel; 
Nehem. iii. 26 ; xi. 21. And it was 
apparently situated near <<the great 
tower that lieth out/' between "the 
water-gate" and "the horse-gate;** 
Nehem. iii 27, 28. In all these pas- 
sages the Authorized Version hM tower 
in the margin. In 2 Chron. xxvii. 8, 
the Targum has " the wall of the inte- 
rior palace y " But others," says Pa- 
trick, "understand by Ophel a high 
place or clift' where there was a tower." 
So also PooL See Barrett's Synopsis 
in loc. Gesenius and Lee make it 
" an eminence." But as Reland says, 
" Ophel pro monte vulgo haberi solet; 
dubito an sufficienti ratione.** See fur- 
ther in Palaest p. 855. That it was a 
large public building seems to be coun- 
tenanced by this, that it is connected in 
Bell. Jud. VII. xiii. with the /3ouXev- 
rr^piov; conf. vi. i. The other pas- 
sages in which it is used, vii. 2 Kings 
V. 24 ; Isai. xxxii. 21 ; Mic. iv. 8, all 
seem to imply a building ; the second 
(where it is joined with JH^). Mid third 
(where it is paralleled with VlJO), 
a Urge and fortified buUding. It may. 


of Sion, which having been joined to ihe southern ex- 
tremity of the eastern portico, about 500 feet North of 
this tower, ran South to this point, and here bent with 
the valley towards the West, until a more gradual slope 
allowed it to descend the ridge towards Siloam. And 
I would further suggest, whether traces of the eastern 
extremity of the Royal Porch may not, perhaps, be 
discerned in those shafts of porphyry and marble co- 
lumns which project from the Haram Wall, at intervals, 
between this angle and the Golden GateS particularly 
at a point where is a decided break in the eastern 
Wall ; the masonry of which wall. Dr. Bobinson has re- 
marked, has quite a distinct character in its northern 
and southern parts*. 

The first historical notice of this tower, posterior 
to the Christian era, appears to be that of the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim, who confounded it with the pinnacle of the 
Temple on which our Lord was placed by the Tempter; 
and found in it the corner-stone rejected by the build- 

possibly, have given its name to the I * Theol. Rev. p. 625, "the present 
quarter in which it was situated (as in { eastern wall of the Haram-area exhi- 

the similar case of Acra), although 
this is not clear : for certainly the de- 
scription of the old wall in BelL Jud. 
V. iv. 3 does not countenance the no- 

bits in the nonhem portion, as com- 
pared with all the southern part, traces 
of a difference of architecture and pro- 
bably of era.'* This argument may 

tion. Vet I have so marked it in the • tell either way ; but Dr Robinson 

Plan, in deference to a widely -received ought not to parade the indications of a 

opinion. tower, and the projections in the north- 

* Mr. Tipping regards them as in- I em half, without noticing the tower 

dications of '^ the Eastern Portico :** at the south-east angle, and the pro- 

but since the eastern cloister extended I jection of two feet in the southern half, 

all along the eastern wall,, why should Mr. Tipping remarks that South of the 

they appear here rather than elsewhere Saracenic doorway '* stones of the laig- 

in that line ? If, on the contrary, they est class cease ; yet the lowest course, 

belonged to the Southern cloister, they 
would be ready to hand at this particular 
spot. Sec TrailFs Josephus, p. xliv. 

though smaller, bear the not-to-be- 
mistaken stamp of antiquity." p. xliv. 

I m. !▼,} 


!s^ &e* Nor cam I doobt that, in whmt immediately 
'foOows, we have allusioo to some ancient renrnina, 
where the raulta eow exist ; for he irrites that •* at the 
bead of the corner/' aad under the pinnaele of the 
t0wer itself, are many chambers, where Solomon had 
Ua Palaee, and the one in particular in which he sat 
md described T\'isdom, was covered with one stone* ; 
for. comparing this with the modem accounts, I find 
that the legends of the vaults, as far back as wo can 
trace, and those that are still current, are mosilj con* 
nected with Solomon, that the whole work is esillad by 
his name, and the erection of the colttmns is ascribed to 
bim*. Now Dn Richardson remarks, that **the style 
of cutting and joining the stones of these piers is quite 

' ^Ibi est ■figiilii« tnnis rccselds- 

, abi Dwnimia «seend|t et dixit ei 
ift qm teotmbat eum* Et ut ei Damj- 
nus: Non tentabis Dominum Deum 
tuum, scd illi soli servies. Ibi est et 
lapis angularis magnus, de quo dictum 
est : Lapidem qus reprobaverunt £edifi- 
amtes. Item." &c as above, p. 337, 
note. Compare S. Jerome in p. 335, 
note 8, and Prudentius, 338, note 2. 

* See Mejr-ed^in as cited above 
p. 311, note 6; and Felix Fabri, £va- 
gnitorium,Tom.ii.pp.l25, 128. "Ibi 
erant viii. ordines columnarum, tes- 
tudines tnstentantes et superiora a?di- 
fida, qu« olim erant superacdificata, 
jam vero superius est viridarium oliva- 
Tvan ad latus Templi. Dicunt autem 
Judsd. et Saraceni quod ilia sub terra- 
nea habiuctila fuerint equorum Solo- 
monis stabula. Sed melius estdicere, 
qaod ibi fuerint Nethota, hoc est, pig- 
mentaria et apotheca aromatum." He 
imagines that the "domus saltus Li- 

bftn! '^ stood on these subitriieilorw* 
Benjamin of Tudela^ a^d^ U6II, calls 
them "the Stables of Sdomon," which 
foraied part of his house, unless he is 
writing of the passage beneath El-Aksa, 
as I have supposed above, p. 310, note 
2. It is more true of the latter than of 
the former, that '' immense stones have 
been employed in this fabric, the like 
of which is nowhere else to be met 
with." pp. 36 and 71. 

^ Richardson's Travels, ii. pp. 309) 
311. There is one very extraordinary 
coincidence, probably not accidental: 
the Bordeaux Pilgrim writes, immedi- 
ately before he speaks of the tower, 
<* Est ibi crypta ubi Solomon diemones 
torquebat,'* 1. c. p. 589. Dr Richard- 
son says, '^ between the first row of co- 
lumns and the wall on the right, whence 
I entered the colonnade, they shewed 
me a large slab that covers a stone chest, 
in which Solomon had shut up the 




[part n. 

different from any other architecture in Jerusalem, and 
from anything he had ever seen, except in the founda- 
tion-stones of the temple or castle at Baalbek." He 
adds, " The whole of this subterraneous colonnade is 
called HahmU or the Hidden; and when we compare 
the accumulation of rubbish in other parts of the town, 
with the depth of the rubbish in the Haram es-Sherif, 
I think there is little doubt that the columns once were 
above ground*. They rest upon rock or large coarse 
stones, regularly laid." To the arches he ascribes a later 
date, and calls them '' the same as those in the Sakhrah 
and el-Aksa." From all which I am disposed to believe, 
that if the piers arc in their original positions, they 
belong to a period anterior to the arches, and may 
probably have been connected with the chambers (not 
crypts) described by the Bordeaux Pilgrim, possibly 
ruins of the Ophel, or " interior palace,*' situated cer- 
tainly in this part ; but that the arches which they now 
support belong to a later date, and are, in fact, con- 
nected with another work, which will immediately de- 
mand our notice. 

It has been already related that the Emperor Jus- 
tinian, in compliance with the request of S. Saba, com- 
pleted at Jerusalem the Church of S. Mary, which had 
been commenced by the Patriarch Elias*. The archi- 
tect was Theodore, the most skilful mechanic of his 

' In confirmation of this, see his re- 
mark cited above, p. 31 1, that the stones 
are much more disintef^ted than they 
are likely to have been in their present 
position, &c. His notion that these 
columns are constructed of the " three 
rows of hewn stones," mentioned in 
''the inner court of Solomon's Temple," 

(1 Kings vi. 3r»,) or of the " three rows 
of great stones" mentioned in '*the 
order of Cyrus for rebuilding the Tem- 
ple," (Ezravi. 4,) is, of course, a mere 

' See in Vol. i. pp. 289 and 292, the 
account of Cyril of Scythopolia, a con- 
temporaneous writer. 

Of. tir,] 



time^, and tiia engioeering skill was called into requi- 
gitaon in the erection of this Cliurch, the full particulars 
of which are supplied by a contemporary historian, better 
rersed than any writer of antiquity in architectural tech- 
niealities and phraseology. I will first transcribe* and 
then comment on the narrative of Proeopius K 

** In Jerusalem, too, he dedicated a Temple to the 
Virgin^ to which no other can be compared, and whieh 
is called by the natives, the * New Church". I will de^ 
scribe its character, after premising that the city is for 
the most part hilly* The hiQs however are not of earth, 
bat rise up roughly and precipitously, with passages like 
a ladder^ stretching from the steep to the descent, 

*' Now it so Happens, that all the other buildings of 
the city are on one kind of ground, being either built 
on the hill or on the level where the earth expands. 
But iim Temple alone is not so placed. The reason is, 
that the Emperor Justinian ordered it to be built on 
the most prominent of the hills, with directions what 
character he required it to have generally, and what 
breadth and length. The hills however had not sufficient 
space for the completion of the work according to the 
Emperor's order ; but a fourth part of the Temple was 

' When the Persians under Chos- 
roei L were besieging the Romans in 
Daim, tbef designed to effect an en- 
tnuice into the city by a mine which 
was to pass under two walls of great 
strength with an intermural space of 60 
fieet. Theodore, being aware of this, 
sank a deep trench within the intermu- 
nl space, in the line of the enemy's 
mme, into which the Persian sappers 
feU, and became an easy prey to the 
Prooopius, de Bell. Pers. 

Vou n. 

Lib. II. cap. xiii. p. 121. See his com- 
mendation in Vol. I. p. 292, note 2. 

^ The passage occurs in his work, 
De iGdificiis Justiniani, Lib. v. cap. vi. 
Tom. II. p. 465. Paris ed. The origi- 
nal is given in the Appendix. I have 
adopted the translation of a friend, to 
avoid, if possible, the charge of colour- 
ing the statement in <' a paraphrase.'* 
See Dr Robinson in TheoL Rev. p. Ci06, 
note 3, and p. 414, note 2. 



deficient, towards the South and the East, just where it 
is lawful for the priests to perform their rites. Hence, 
the following device was conceived by the persons who 
had charge of the work. They laid the foundations at 
the extreme of the flat ground, and raised a building 
of equal height with the rock. When, then, they had 
brought it as high as its extremity, they placed over 
the intervening space arches from the top of the walls, 
and connected the building with the remainder of the 
Temple's foundation. In this way the Temple is in part 
founded on solid rock, and in part suspended ; the Em- 
peror's power having contrived a space in addition to 
the hill. 

'' The stones too of this building are not of such a 
size as we know elsewhere. For the workmen who had 
charge of the task, conten^g against the difficulty of 
the site, and labouring to gain a height equal and 
opposite to the rock, disdained all ordinary modes, and 
had recourse to strange and altogether unprecedented 
devices. They hewed therefore rocks of inunense size 
from the mountains, which rise to an extraordinary 
height immediately before the city, and having carved 
them skilfully, carried them thence as follows. First, 
they made wagons of a size equal to the rocks, and 
placed a single stone in each wagon; when oxen, 
chosen by the Emperor's order for their excellence, drew 
the stone with the wagon, forty to each. Then, as it 
was impossible for the roads leading to the city to bear 
these great wagons, they cut out to a considerable ex- 
tent the mountains, and made a passage for the wagons, 
as they arrived. Thus they completed the Temple to 
an extraordinary length, according to the wishes of the 

I*^*] CHURCH OF S, MARY. 371 

•' They also made its breadth in proportion, but had 
greatest difficulty to place a roof upon the Temple, 
By went round, therefore, all the wooda and thickets, 
and whatever spot they could he^ of as planted with 
of extraordinary height, until they found a shady 
rood producing cedars which reached ever so great a 
Llieif^ht, With these, then, they roofed the Tetnple, 
phaving raised its height equal in proportion to its widtii 

** So much waa accomplished by the Emperor Justi- 
m&n by the means of human power and art. His pious 
eonlideneet however, which requited him with honour 
and co-operated in this effort, went further : That is to 
say, the Temple had need of colunms all around,# not 
inferior in appearance to the beauty of the precinct, and 
of such a size as might be likely to support the weight 
of the superstructure* The place, however, being situ- 
ated inland, at a great distance from the sea, and fenced 
off with abrupt moimtains on all sides, as I have de- 
scribed, rendered it difficult for the contrivers of the 
Temple to introduce columns from elsewhere. But, as 
the Emperor was distressed at the difficulty of the task, 
God shewed a kind of stone in the nearest mountains 
well adapted for the purpose, whether it existed and 
was concealed previously or was now created. In either 
case, there is credibility in the account to those who 
refer the cause to GoA For though we, measuring 
everything by human power, believe many things have 
been excluded as impossible ; yet nothing could be either 
difficult or impossible to the God of all. 

'* Hence, then, extraordinary columns of great size, 
and resembling in their colour the brightness of flame, 
support the Temple on all sides, some from beneath, 




[part n* 

some from above ; and oihers about the porches which 
surround the whole Temple, except on the eastern side. 
Two of these stand before the gate of the Temple, of 
exceeding splendour, and inferior perhaps to no column 
in the world. From thence proceeds another porch, 
called Narthex, as I imagine from its want of width 
After this is an atrium raised upon like columns in a 
square. The intermediate doors are of such grandeur 
as to give those who enter an idea what a great spec- 
tacle they are about to encounter. The propyl»um from 
hence is of wonderful beauty, and has an arch raised 
upon two columns to an immense height ; while, as you 
go forward, two semicircular buildings stand facing eadi 
other on each side of the way to the Temple. There 
are two hospices on either side the other way, the 
work of the Emperor Justinian. The one is a lodging- 
house for visitors from a distance, the other a resting- 
place for the sick poor. 

" This Temple of the Virgin was endowed also by the 
Emperor Justinian with a revenue of large amount 
The works then of the Emperor Justinian in Jerusalem 
were of this kind." 

Thus far Procopius; and the first remark that I have 
to make on his narrative is this, that it is a subject of 
regret that his account of the site is not more definite, or 
is perhaps rather calculated to mislead ^ This difficulty, 
however, is obviated by a general agreement altogether 
consonant with existing phaenomena; for " there is nothing 
in subsequent history nor in the modern topography of 

^ For the position of El-Aksa is not 
" on the most prominent of the hills ;" 
but if by the words tva Spyioleiy toI* 
ltp«v9i BtfiiK, he means to describe 

<< the Mount of Offence,*' hedetcnnind 
the position of the Church very accn- 
rately, for that mount is towards the 
South-east of the Church. 





JerusaleiOi which iti the least corresponds to his descrip- 
tion, except the present Mosk el-Aksa*,"" It is a happy 
jircumstance that all agree ^ in almost the only point on 
Ifhich the language of Frceopius is at all ambiguous; for 
with what justice it can be said that " his account of the 
construction of this edifice is not very clear, and borders 
somewhat on the fabulous/* any reader may judge who will 
be at the pains to compare the passage just extracted 
Kith the description already given of the Mosk el-Akss 
Bud its vaulted substructioBsS through which, ^' by means 
ViC steps and an inelined plane/' the passage ascends 
^tma the double gateway on the South to the level of 
the area^. To me it seems one of the most minute, 
graphic, and intelligible architectural descriptions ima- 
ginable, worthy of the historian of S. Sophia at Con* 
9tantinople ; and if, as Dr. Bobinson imagines, " he did 
not write as an eye-witness >" this fact will account 
for any slight inaccuracy or confusion that may be dis- 
covered in his narrative. And I cannot help thinking 
that I detect an instance of this in the account of the 
Narthex, the vestibule, and the propylaeum, which the 
unusual arrangement of these members of the building 
may easily excuse, if he had really not been on the spot ; 
for I must identify with these, respectively, the double 

s Bib. Res. i. 439, 451. ii. 29, 30. 

* I ought perhaps now to except 
Mr. Fergusson. But his theory is so 
fcrj wild and fanciful, that his singu- 
laritj cannot affect the general consent. 
1 am glad to be able to quote the Rev. 
W. D. Veitch in agreement with me. 
" Since reading Mr. Williams* remarks 
«o this building, I feel little doubt of 
his being correct in imagining this to 
be the celebrated Church erected by 

Justinian and dedicated to the Virgin. 

The text of Procopius seems to me 

well to warrant all he desires to estab- 
lish from it.** Letter vi. in Church 
of England Mag. Vol. xxiii. p. 36. 
Urr. Krafft too is satisfied of its identity. 
Topographic, &c p. 71. 

* See above, pp. 306, 7, 9, 10. 

> Catherwood, p. 170, in Bart1ett*a 

Theol Rev. p. 608, note 3^ 


corridor the spacious haU, and the double Corinthian 
Gateway, still existing beneath El-Aksa. 

However this may be, in these substmctionB we 
find precisely such works, and employed for exactly 
the same purpose, as those described by Procopius ; and 
the vaults supporting the platform at the South-east 
angle appear to form part of the same plan S and cor- 
respond equally well with the description, but not at all 
with any known works of any other period '. They were 
probably constructed with old materiab, to support 
various buildings connected with the Church and hos- 
pitals^ ; and the late Roman Gateway^ with portals may 
safely be referred to the same date. Now although 
the unanimous agreement of all ardueologists in the 
general identity of Justinian's Church and the Mosk 
el-Aksa, might well supersede the necessity of proof, 
yet there are some points of identification, based on 
historical deduction and architectural observation, too 
remarkable to be passed over in silence ; and the vicis- 
situdes that have affected this venerable pile cannot but 
be interesting to the Christian antiquary. 

Almost the only writer to whom we could look for 
mention of this Church between the period of its 
erection and the Saracenic conquest, when it was seized 
and appropriated by the conquerors, is the credulous 

> So Catherwood in Bartlett, p. I7I. 1 was more extenaife than the 
Compare Bib. Res. i. pp. 448, 450. | Mosk el-Aksa.** Bib. Ret. i. p. 443. 

> Indeed Procopius calls these works 
irapdio^a Kal oXeos dyvioTa^ which he 
would scarcely have said had similar 
works existed previously on the very 

' As Dr Robinson writes, " it vciy 
probably had many side buildings, and 

* " Apparently of the late 
epoch.** Tipping in Traill's Jotcphus, 
p. xlv. A section of the vaulti ii given 
by Mr. Fergusson, p. 121, who ascribes 
them also to Justinian, and is, by aod- 
dent, right 

pUgriin of Placenza, (cir. a, d, 600), who accnrdingly 
aotleeB it, with hb usual complement of marvela. He 
ciJls it the Basilica of S. Marj*, with a large congrega- 
tion of monks, tnnumerabia tables for women, and beds 
for upwards of five thousand patients, or at leaat three I 
He connects it with the Prsetorium of Pilate and the 
BjtAilica of S, Sophia*; and places it before the ruins of 
the Temple of Solomon, within the porch of Solomon, 
by which name he probably designated the cloisters, 
with which Justiniaa had adorned his Church, according 
I to Procopius, But iu the Church was Pilate's seat^ and 
Ln quadrangular gtone on which the accused wa» raiscdi 
^Biiat he might be heard and seen by all* On that our 
Lord was raised, when heard by Pilate, and the surface 
of the rock retained the impression of Hig foot Now it 
b a remarkable fact, that in a niche at the South ex- 
tremity of the present Mosk ia a rough calcareous stonCj 

* " D* Sltm usque BaslUcsm S. 
Marie, ubi est congregatio magna mo- 
miclioniin, ac mulierum mens«e innu- 
mcfabiles^lecUlanguentium plus quin- 
que millia ad minus tria : et oravimus 
in Pretorio, ubi auditua est Dominus, 
ec in CO Basilica S. Sophis. Ante nii- 
nas Templi Solomonis sub platea aqua 
decnrrit a fonte Siloe. Secus porticum 
SaloDumis in ipsa Basilica est sedes, 
in qua iedit Pilatus quando audivit 
Dominum. Petra est quadrangula in 
qua reos levabatur, ut ab omnibus au- 
diretar et rideretur. In ea levatus est 
Dominns, quando auditus est a Pilato, 
ibique remansit imago, pedem habens 

modicum pulchrum subtilem Etiam 

dc ipsa petra molts fiunt virtutes : tol- 
lentes mensuram de ipso vestigio, 
ligant per singulos languores et sa- 
nantur." Anton. Placent. Itin. Sect. 

x:iiij* in Ug^iUtil The*. Tom. Vir, 
p. mccxvL 

* These places were similarly iden- 
tified before in Sect. iz. p. meczii.. 
where is the following manrelloua 
exposition of the 3d verse of Psalm 
cxxxiii. Close to the place of our Lord's 
baptism in the Jordan is the UttJe 
Mount Hermon. At the foot of the 
mountain a cloud ascends from the 
river and, in the first hour after sunrise, 
comes to Jerusalem, '^ super Basilicam 
S. Maris ad S. Sophiam, quB luit 
Praetorium ubi auditus est Dominus.** 
Here the dew descends like rain ; and 
the physicians coUect it: **et in ipso 
coquuntur omnes confectiones per zeno- 
dochia, nam multi languores sanantor 
ibi ubi cadit ipse roe. Ipse est rot de 
quo canitur, Sicut roe Hermon qoi de- 
scendit in Sion ! '* 




still venerated by the Moslems as bearing the print of 
a foot believed by them to be that of our Lord Jesns^ 
How this Chureh escaped destruction in the sack of 
the city by the Jews and Persians under Chosroes IL 
it is not easy to say; but certain it is that Eutychius' 
and other writers who specify the Churches then de- 
stroyed make no mention at all of this. It would 
therefore be standing, probably in its original state, in 
the time of Omar, and I think we may discover both 
its name and its position among the earliest traditions 
of the conquest, in the confused and conflicting records 
of the Arabian Chroniclers. We must not expect to find 
it under the name El-Aksa, which it now bears, for it 
was before said, that this name was at first common to 
the whole enclosure, and only afterwards appropriated 
to this particular building^. But I find mention made 
by the companions of Omar of a building, which must» 
I think, be identical with the S. Mary's Basilica de- 
scribed by the Christian writer last cited. When the 
Patriarch Sophronius was endeavouring to fulfil the 
Khalif *s order to conduct him to the Mosk of David*, 
he first brought him to the Church of the Besurrection, 
and then to the Church of Sion ; but as Omar was not 
satisfied of their identity with the object of his enquiry, 
he next led him to a great Chureh, near the gate which 
is called Mohammed's. Water was running down the 
steps of the gate, and along the street that led to the 

* It wa« pointed out to General 
Noroff, who supposed it to be the 
fellow to that shewn on Mount Oli- 
vet ; but was probably not aware of the 
other tradition. All Bey marks it in 
his Plan (No. 41 ) as Sidina Aaiza, Vol. 
I. p. xxxvii., in Vol. n. p. 218 as the 

Place of Christ : bat he does doc men- 
tion the foot-prinu 

* See Vol. I. p. 301, and references 
in the notes. 

' See above, p« 2S^, note 3w 
^ The narrative is given in Vol. i. 
p. 316, &c. 

CH. IV.] 



gate of the city, so that great part of the gate was 
uncier water; or, accordiog to another report, the en- 
trance was obstructed by rubbish accumulated on the 
steps of the gate, until it reached the narrow passage in 
which was the door, and on the steps until it touched 
the roof of the Porch. Here they were obliged to 
proceed creeping, until they arrived at the hill-top, 
where the vestiges of ancient buildings enabled them 
to identify the site of the Templet Now, since the Pla- 
centiue pilgrim, in the very middle of his description of 
the Basilica of S, Mary, speaks of water running down 
a street before the ruins of Solomon's Temple®, I think 
we may safely conclude that in the great Church of 
the Arabic imrrative we must recognise the Basilies of 
S, Mary, and that in the great Gateway and vaulted 
passages beneath we may probably find the counterpart 
of the gate of Mohammed', with its narrow passage and 
door leading to the upper area: I hope to be able 
hereafter to give some account of the water, and of 
its subsequent disappearance. 

But we have another mention of it by name, in 
connexion with two other ancient traditions. Sophro- 
nius, distressed at the conqueror's beggarly appearance. 

* See Mejr-ed-din in Mines d*Ori- 
ent. Tome v. p. 161, and compare 
Kemal-ad-din, ed. P. Lemming, p. 
54, and Jalal-addin as translated by 
Reynolds, p. 176. In the two last pas- 
sages the Church is called Mesjid Beit 
el-Makuddos, by which name it pro- 
bably came to be called, when appro- 
priated by the Moslems. 

* See the passage cited above in p. 
375, note 5. 

' It is certain that the great double 
gate under El-Aksa must have had steps 

to ascend to it, aa described in the 
Arabic accounts, though the mound of. 
rubbish now conceals them from view. 
Felix Fabri writes, '< Ibi tempore Chria. 
tianorum fuit ascensus per gradus lapi- 
deos ad altam portam, per quam erat 

ingressus in illam ecclesiam Didtur 

quod XV. gradus ad illam portam fue« 
rint per quos Virgo Maria et puer tri- 
ennis—ascenderat in Templum, 6lc,** 
Vol. II. p. 125. Comp. I>r Robiiison*a 
Bib. Res. i. p. 440. 





[PAET n. 

had intreated him to be decently habited, and appa- 
rently provided him two garments. At any rate, *'he 
had upon him two perfumed outer robes. Thus there- 
fore he prayed in the Church of Maria. Then he spat 
on one robe. And it was said unto him. Dost thou 
spit here, seeing this is the place in which She com- 
muned with God ? But this assertion Omar absolutely 
denied, as an invention of the Christians \" The other 
story, equally to the purpose, is also connected with 
the Khalif 's nasty propensity. It runs thus, '' As he 
was worshipping in the Church of S. Mary, the blessed 
Virgin, he spat on one of his garments. His com- 
panions suggested that there could be no reason why 
he should not spit in a place defiled by idolatry ; but 
he answered, that for the future the praise of God 
should be celebrated in that place'." Here then we 
have the announcement of his intention to appro- 
priate this S. Mary's Church to the disciples of the 
Koran, and the Khalif's prayer may perhaps have 
afforded the Moslems a pretext for claiming it*. In any 
case the Moslems shew in the Mosk at the present day 
the place where Omar prayed, and still preserve the 
tradition of the Presentation*. 

In prosecuting our historical inquiry we find that, 
during the Saracenic occupation, the building suffered 
severely on many occasions from the frequent earth- 
quakes to which that country is exposed; which fact 
will readily account for any debasemnts and barbarisms 
that may now be observed in its style and decoration, 

* Jalal-addin in Reynoldn, p. 182. 
' Kemal-ad-din, 1. c. p. 56. 
' See his care not to compromise the 
Church of the Resurrection in Vol. i. 

p. 315. 

* See Plates IxxL Ixxu in Ali Bey, 
and in Vol. i. pp. xzxvii. xxxTiii., and 
VoLii.p. 217. Richudson, pp. 904,5. 

CM, nr.] 



though the principal modiiieataoE m its arrangement 
was the result of design. El-Mahadi (a. d. 775 — ^785) 
found the Mosk in ruins ; " he commanded it to be re- 
built, ftiid saidt This Mosk was narrow and long, and 
was deserted of man. Diminish from its length and 
iQcrea£>e its width. And it was finished in his khalifat^/' 
No wonder that the result is a "piece of Saracenic 
patchwork^," in which the materials of the original 
Church hare been used up again and again, without much 
regard to taste, and have become so blended with purely 
Saracenic elements, that it would require drawings much 
more in detail than we yet possess to enable us to 
disentangle them. It is only marvellous that after such 
vieissttudes, and with such scanty materials, we should 
still be able to restore the plan of the original build- 
ing, and to determine with a gTeat degree of certainty 
bow the order of EIl-Mahadi was executed upwards of 
ten centuries ago. It was noticed that the double 
passage runs beneath the eastern half of the nave 
and its inmost aisle ^. This first led me to limit the 
original superstructure to one lateral aisle ; for the sub- 
struction is obviously complete in itself; and although 
the two other aisles on this side must certainly re- 
quire some artificial support, I would ventiure to assert 
that should that ever be discovered, it will prove to 
be of a totally different character from this vaulted 
corridor. Assuming, then, this as a datum, I find 
much to countenance it: For first, the three inner 

' See Vol. I. pp. 318, 319, and 
Jalal-addiD, p. 194. 

' FerguMon*8 Essay, p. 109. This 
aatbor supposes the Mosk el-Aksa to 
be the Dome of the Rock erected bj 
Abd el-Melik, and that the Church of 

Justinian has wholly disappeaied. 
*' On this point, howerer, as indeed on 
almost every other, he most beg letve 
to differ from all those who have pre- 
ceded him/' p. lia 
^ See above, p. 810. 



[part ILr 

compartments of the northern portico differ no less 
in constructive style and proportion from those of the 
two exterior on either side, than in their architectural 
decoration^. And the same difference is to be remarked 
in the roofs ; for while that of the nave has a low pitch, 
and those of the aisles next it are sloping like the 
lean-to roof of an early Church, the two exterior aisles 
on either side are covered with a flat roof of an entirely 
different character. 

Thus much for the exterior; but within are indi- 
cations yet more comancing : for here, as I have already 
remarked, from Ali Bey, the aisles of the nave have this 
peculiarity, that those nearest the nave on either side 
are higher than the other four, and have a flat roof of 
timber, like that of the nave, while the others are 
vaulted*. Then further, the irregular massive piers that 
separate the inmost aisles from the middle aisles, are 
just such as might have been formed out of the thick- 
ness of the original wall when broken through for the 
addition of the aisles. Again ; the transeptal arrange- 
ment has been noticed at the South end of the nave', 

* A very beautiful elevation of this 
North front, drawn by Mr. Arundale, 
is now before me, and from this I write. 

' See p. 305, and Ali Bey, ii. p. 
217. " The two naves nearest the cen- 
tre have a flat roof of timber, which is 
a little more elevated than that of the 
four naves of the extremities, the roofs 
of which are composed of square or of 
carved vaults.** Of "the central nave,'* 
he says, ''the roof is of timber without 
being vaulted.** 

« See above, pp.305, 6. Ali Bey, 
with consistent confusion of terms, after 
■peaking of El-Aksa as " composed of 

seven naves," adds, "two other navea 
branch ofT right and left, at right angles 
with the principal body of the edifice.'* 
Vol. II. p. 216. In the following page 
they are, " the collateral navet of the 
cupola.** M. Noroff is more bappy. 
"Le Temple est bati en croix. La 
partie inf^rieure de la croix se compote 
d*une longue galerie [nave] qui a deux 

rangs de colonnes de chaque cot6 

A Textrdmitd de la galerie les colonnci, 
suivant la forme de la croix, se apparent 

des deux cot^s Au desaus de Im tte 

de la croix s'elere la cupole," &c. 


which would be a strange anomaly in a Saracenic Mosk, 
whereas the cruciform plan of Churches seems to have 
been first adopted about the time of Justinian. It is 
veiy possible that the substructions of the eastern tran- 
sept may still exist within the doorway that once opened 
into the vestibule of the ancient gateway from the 
East^ for the doorway would appear to be coeval with 
the remainder of the work, and to indicate an extension 
of vaults in this direction. Lastly, the Church of Jus- 
tinian would pro1)ably have an apsidal termination for 
the Bema ; and traces of such an apse may yet be seen 
in the middle of the south wall, which exhibits from 
without evident marks of a breach filled up with later 
masonry ^ as in many examples of ruined apses in vari- 
ous parts of our own Cathedrals. 

From all these facts, I conclude that the original 
Church of S. Mary consisted of a nave with single aisles, 
a transept, and an a])se ; and tliat the reduction of its 
length and extension of its width, ordered hy El-]Mahadi, 
■was effected by the demolition of the apse, and the 
addition of two aisles on either side' ; the result of which 
was to give to the whole building a width equal to the 
length of the original transei)t ; and it will be found 
that a restoration conducted on this principle will give 
to the building a syninietrieal <fround-plan, ([uite con- 
formable to the ty])e of a Church of that period. 

It has been already stated that this Church, with 
the adjacent ])uildings. was appropriated to the ** Poor 
r'ellow-soldiers of Je.^^us Christ," by the Frank King, 
Baldwin 11. (a.d. lllOj, and that from it they derived 

* See above, p. :ilO. There is no ' PLin, in 3Ir.Ferj;usM)n'sE»5ay, Plate V. 

corresponding doorway on the West ■ 'As seen in the lithograph. 

side, though Mr. Tipping's plan so ; ''' A very fre(|uent practice of the 

represents it. See Mr. CatherwfK><l> Saracenn, as may he sicen in ('o>tf. 


THB HOLT omr. 

[part n. 

their new name of Templarg^ How the Church first 
acquired the name it is difficult to discover ' ; for the 
Christians do not seem ever to have supposed that it 
occupied the site of the ancient Temple. The most 
probable account to be given of the matter is this: 
That several buildings on this spot being supposed to 
occupy the site of a palace of Solomon, came to be 
called, respectively or indifferently, the Palace, Porch, 
and Temple of Solomon; but that the principal building 
of the group, viz. the Church, gradually absorbed the 
others, until all were comprehended under the general 
name of the Temple of Solomon \ But the Christian 
traditions connect it rather with the history of the 
Holy Virgin, than with that of our Blessed Lord *. 

During their tenure, the Warrior-Monks took g^reat 
liberties with the buildings: they walled up the great 
Mihrab in the southern wall, and converted it into ^ 

» Sec Vol. I. p. 396. William of 
Tyre, however, who coniiitently speaks 
of these buildings as " Palatium," says 
that the Templars derived their name 
not from this, but from the "Templam 
Domini," i.e. the Dome of the Rock : 
"Qui, quoniam juxU Templum Do- 
mini, ut prsediximus in palatio regis 
mansionem habent, Fratres Militis 
Templi dicuntur." xii. vii. p. 820. 

« I could almost believe that Jo- 
sippon Den Oorion had borrowed his 
idea of the Palace of Solomon (Cap. 
xcii. p. 429), at the side of the Tem- 
ple, from the buildings there existing 
at his time ; and that these buildings 
afterwards derived their name from his 
book; which was written in the 10th 
and generally received in the 1 1th cen- 
tury. Sec Lardner, Vol. i. cap. vi. p. 
209, &c. 

' Rahnondus de Agiles has, '* Tem- 
plum et porticuf Salomonis,** Oesta Dd 
p. 179. << Paladum Salomonis** in Alb. 
Aquen. VI. 20, 22. Ibid. p. 280. " Tem- 
plum Salomonis," Fulcherius, Carnot, 
pp. 397, 8 ; Jacobus de Vit. cap. 03, 
p. 1081. William of Tyre calls it «do- 
mus regia, qus vulgari appellatiooe 
Templum Salomonis appellatur.** viii. 
vii. p. 748. 

* For proof of this see Quaresmiua, 
who discusses the questions at large in 
£lucid.Terr. Stc.Perig.ii. capp.xyiii-. 
XX. Tom. II. pp.77 — 82. He was ap- 
parently the first to identify it with the 
Church of S. Mary, built by Justinian, 
and shews that it was not called origi- 
nally the Church of the PresenUtion, 
which Presentation also is that of S. 
Mary by her paicott, and not of oar 
Lord by S. Maiy. 

CH. ir;] 

CHt7fi€H OF S* aCART; 


gmnary, or to a more degnulitig purpose. To the 
We?*t of the Kibli they erected a large buildiog, and 
a great Chui'ch. Tliese were deiuolii^bed by order of 
Siiiadb, and the Mihrab was restored K But indubit- 
able traces of the Frank occupation, unpressed upon the 
front of the building, are still undcfaced by force or 
time* The three middle compartments of the Porch, it 
has been said, differ materially from the other four ; for 
while the arehes composing the latter are entirely open, 
tho^e of the former are filled in with light shafts, sur- 
mounted by plain cushion-capitals with their abacus; 
while round the great eentre-arch runs that peculiar 
moulding, vulgarly known as the ziz-zag, which im- 
presses a Norman character upon the hmlding. 

Thus much may suffice for the Church; but the 
substructions demand a few more words, in order to 
identify them with Justinian, and to prove that they 
did not belong to Herod's Temple, as Dr Robinson*, 
Mr. Wolcott ^, and Mr. Tipping ^, imagine ; nor yet to 
the supposed restorations of Hadrian, as Hrr. Krafft has 
more lately suggested *. Now, as it is only from Jose- 
phus that we learn the position of the southern gate of 
Herod's Temple, it is surely somewhat arbitrary to set 
at nought his authority to the extent that we are forced 
to do, if we admit this to be the gate described by him, 
as situated in the middle of the South side *® : for even 

* See the Arabic history, entitled 
The Two GardeoB, in Michaud's Bib- 
liographie des Croiiades, Tome ii. pp* 

* Dr Robinson, however, offers the 
choice of three periods. ^^ It may have 
been erected, or at least decorated by 
Herod, and perhaps rebuilt by Hadrian, 

or at the same time with the Chnich 
nnder Justinian.'* Bib. Res. i. p. 451. 

7 In BibUoth. Sac. Part i. p. 19. 

« In Train's Josephus. 

" Topographic JerusaUms, pp. 

^^ HuXav Kara fUaow. Ant XV. si. 
which I understand of a doable gate- 


THB HOLT omr. 

[part n. 

though we allow considerable latitude to his langtu^^, 
it wiU scarcely cover the condition of this gate, which 
is almost one-third nearer to the western than to the 
eastern extremity of the South wall '. On this account, 
then, I cannot recognise it as the Gate of Huldah, how- 
ever a respectable Rabbi of the 14th century may wish 
to do so '. Neither can I, with Herr Krafit, assign it 
to Hadrian, chiefly because of that inscription cited by 
him in support of his theory. '^It is found upon a 
stone in the outside soutiiem wall of the Haram, just 
by the East end of the lintel of the ancient subter- 
ranean gateway, under ihe Mosk el-Aksa ';" and reads 
as follows: — 




D D P P 

A convincing proof, Herr Kraffl thinks, that this Gate- 
way is rightly ascribed to the period of Hadrian ; for as 
the wall does not appear to have been disturbed, the 
stone is probably in situ. But then, unhappily for the 
theory, the stone is "inverted," the inscription stands 
'' on its head ^ ; and speaks, besides, not of Hadrian, as 

way in the middle, and not, as does 
Lightfoot, of two gateways equally 
removed from the angles and from 
each other. Prospect of the Temple, 
chap. VI. 

* See the measures above, p. S17> 
note 6. Dr Robinson makes very light 
of this difficulty, and is very superci- 
lious. Theol. Rev. p. (m, note 3. 

' Parchi, by Zuns. Asher's Ben. 
Tud. Vol. II. p. 397. 

' So Mr. Eli Smith in Bib. Sac i. 

p. 582, to whom we are indebted for a 
faithful copy of this inscription (for 
the I for L in AIL is probably a 
misprint) of which Kraffl has made 
sad work, 1. c. p. 73. Besides minor 
errors, he omits the first letter T, reads 
ITOAIL, as nOAH, and having thus 
introduced what he takes for Greek 
into a Latin inscription, he next trans- 
lates it as though it were nOAIC, 

« Bib. Sac., andKraffY.Lc. 

cm I?.] 



he imagines, but of AntoBiniis Piu3^ and tliereftire 
pro%*es, beyond question, that the wall and the gate are 
later than Hadrian or Antoninus; so much later, that 
the idtar, or shrine, or atatue, or whatever it was in 
which this stone was inserted, had fallen to ruin, when 
the materials were worked into this building: and if 
historj had been silent on the subject, yet the architec- 
ture of this great gateway, the deba**ed style of its 
mouldings and capitals, the composite order of the 
monolithic column, above all, the dome-vaults with pen- 
dentives in the vestibule, and the segmental arches in 
the passages, would force us to conclude that this later 
period was no other than the period of Justinian. 

To what use these and the other substructions were 
converted by the Templars, or how the buildings above 
were arranged for their accommodation, does not appear 
&om the Frank annals of the City during their oceupa- 
tion *, I have suggested that the name of ** Solomon's 

* This is another strange blunder 
of Herm Knffi, Seeing << Hadriano'* in 
the inscription, he concludes that it 
must belong to Publius ^Elius Hadri- 
anus, without waiting to enquire whe- 
iha he was ever called Titus Antoninus 
Pius, which he ceruinlj was not. On 
the eontrsry, it is very natural that, as 
Hadrian had assumed the name of 
Trajan from his adoptive father, so his 
adopted son Titus Arrianus Antoninus, 
who for his affection towards him was 
by the Senate sumamed Pius, should 
ttaume his names : and the insertion of 
these names would be particularly ap- 
propriate in the city named from him : 
and it ii observable that the nomen 
" MUuM*' is prefixed to that of Anto- 
ninus only on the coins of iElia Capi- 

Vou II. 

tolina and Cassarea of Palestine. (See 
Vaillantius de Nummis, Tom. i. p. 
237, &c.)i nor have I met with the 
nomen and cognomen " ^lius Hadri- 
anus/* ascribed to Antoninus Pins, 
except in this inscription. 

" The Frank writer in Beugnot 
(Sect. IV.) merely mentions this as "/i 
Temples Salemon \k ou li frere du Tern* 
pie menoient." £dii&i, also of the pe« 
riod of the Crusades, is somewhat more 
explicit. ^' lis [les Chretiens] ont con- 
vert! cette chapelle en on convent ou 
resident des religicux de Pordre det 
Templiers.** Of the Canons of the 
<<Templum Domini** (I>ome of the 
Rock), he says, speaking of that build- 
ing, << La porte Septentrionale est fltu^ 
vis-a-vis d*un jardin bien plants de di- 




[part IL 

Stables '^ may have been attached to the 8ubstructions» 
in consequence of the use to which they applied themk 
The Church was apparently used as a Palace, or Court 
of Justice, by the Frank Kings *, and afterwards as a 
Convent'. A new Church was erected on the West, 
around which would be grouped, as in European monas^ 
teries, the dormitory, refectory, and ^nfirmary, with 
their various offices ; partly consisting of ancient build- 
ings, partly of new constructions ; the former of which 
were purified, the latter demolished, as we have seen, by 

But here the question arises. What could induce 
Justinian to hang his church and hospitals on the hill- 
side, when the whole of the temple-enclosiu*e lay unoccu- 
pied immediately to the North of the appointed site ? 
But, independently of the clear testimony of Procopius 
that thus they were built, it is to be considered that 
the denunciations of our Lord were not yet fully aecom- 

▼enes esp^ces d^arbres et entour^ de co- 
lonnes en marbre sculpt^es avec beau- 
coup d*art. Au bout du jardin est un 
nJfectoire pour le« prfitres el pour ceux 
qui se destinent a entrer dans les or- 
dres.'* Par Jaubert Recueil de Voy- 
ages, &c. Tome v. p. 344. 

^ See above, pp. 310, 11, and notes. 

» See Vol. I. p. 399. 

* Edrisi, as quoted in p. 386, n. 6. 
This is confirmed by S. Bernard, (Ex- 
hort, ad Milites Templi, cap. v.) who 
speaks of their living in common in the 
Temple, which he thus graphically 
describes, contrasting its ornaments 
with those of Solomon's Temple. " Or- 
natur tamen hujus quoque facies Tem- 
pli, sed armis non gemmis : et pro an- 
tiquis coronis aureis, circumpendenti- 

bus clypeis paries operitur ; pro cande- 
labris, thuribulis, atque urceolis,doinus 
undique frenis, sellis, ac lancets oom- 

munitur Devotus exerdtus in 

domo sancta cum equis et armis com- 

moratur ipsiin ea die noctnque tarn 

honestis quam utilibus offidis occupan- 
tur.** Benjamin of Tudela (p. 59; states 
the number of Knights as 400, and im- 
plies that it was a hospital for sick 
likewise. So also R. Petachia calls it 
a hospital for the poor: VlCD^SlOT 
TiD Dtt^ U^'^^yrW Ugolini Thes. 
Tom. VI. p. mccviu ; and Ishak Khelo 
(a.d. 1334) says that in Christian times 
it was a hospital for the sick : ** now, 
a large market is held there.** Car- 
moly, p. 238. 

CH. IV.] 



pltahed in the view of the Christiana of those dayB\ who 
were, as we shall presently see, looking for their literai 
Terification by the gradual operation of the prophetic 
Word* Was it likely that stich an emperor as Justi- 
oiaii would venture to interfere with a site eonnected 
with such awful assoeiations in his mind, and in the 
minda of his adviticrs ? Besides which, the attempt of 
the a{>ostate JuMan to set up the ruins of former 
desolattons oti the spot which they had before occupied^ 
had been so strangely visited ^ that his example might 
well have led to the idea that the ground mthin the 
aneient enelosui*e was accursed; and we accordingly 
find that, on the capture of the City by OmaTi the 
sacred Rock was neglected, and polluted*^, and all but 
forgotteti ; from which I conclude that the church and 
hospitals of Justinian were built entirely without the 
enclosure of the Jewish Temple, and, consequently, that 
the present boundary of the Harara on the South is 
not identical with that of the aneient Temple. 

But there yet remains to be noticed the last broken 
link in that chain of evidence that has been adduced 
in support of the affirmative. It is found in the ruined 
arch at the South-west corner, which Dr. Robinson 
imagines " could only have belonged to the bridge, 
which, according to Josephus, led from the south part of 
the Temple to the Xystus on Sion'." 

Now if it did belong to such a bridge as Dr Robin- 
son supposes, it must have been a most stupendous 

* Matt zxiv. 2. Luke xiii. 35; 

* See Vol. I. pp. 254, 5. 

* Supn, pp. 339, 40, and see the 
references in Vol. i. p. 316, note 1. 

Eutychii Annales, Vol. ii. pp.286, 289. 
Elmac'mus, Hist. Saracen, p. 28^ and 
Will. Tyr. i. ii. p. 630, in Bongar. 
7 See Bib. Res. i. pp. 425, 6, 7- 




[part IL 

work — 350 feet in length, and at least 51 feet in width* 
composed of huge stones, stretching across the deep 
bed of the Tyropceon, (Still deep, though it "has 
doubtless been greatly filled up with rubbish ") to the 
<* abrupt precipice of rock, from 20 to 30 feet high, 
lying over against it*;" — and it does seem to me quite 
inconceivable, that Josephus, generally so minute in 
detail, should pass over, without a word of description 
or admiration, such an astonishing performance, in the 
passages where the bridge is referred to ; and that no 
traces of its intermediate piers and arches, nor of its 
western termination, can be now discovered. 

But there is a much greater difficulty in the way 
of the reception of this hypothesis, amounting in my 
mind to an absolute impossibility. This ruin is nearly, 
if not quite, level with the present bed of the Tyro- 
pceon, on the East side of the valley ; on the West side 
of which rises "the precipitous natural rock of Sion, 
from 20 to 30 feet high," the present base of which 
stands on a steep ridge of at least an equal height 
above the bed of the valley*. This ridge is now co- 

* See Bib. Res. i. p. 390. 

* I feel confident that the top of the 
perpendicular rock of Sion on the 
West can be little short of 80 feet 
higher than the spring-course of the 
arch on the East. Mr. Bartlett^s 
sketch (Walks, p. 160) gives a very 
good idea of their relative height ; but 
Air. Tipping's view *• from the Brow 
of Sion" ( Traill's Josephus, p. xx.), 
and Lady Louisa Tenison*s from the 
same point, a still better. In both these 
you look over the west wall of the Ua- 
ram, whose height Dr Robinson esti- 
mates at about 60 feet (TheoL Rev. p. 

610, note 2), into the enclosure, and 
see the ruined arch — much exaggerated 
in the latter — springing out near the 
bottom of the wall, as may be seen 
again in Mr. Tipping*s ''ElevAtkn 
of the Wall and Spring^toneSy** p. 
XX vi. ; and in p. xxviiL Dr Robinsoo 
ought not to represent me as saying 
" at most'* in the text, where I say " at 
least ;" and then charge me with in- 
consistency and stupidity, as he does 
in the note just referred to. The 
drawings of Mr. Tipping and Lady 
L. Tenison will prove that if Mr. 
Bartlett*s sketch does "represent the 

CHt IT.] 

nvwmn arch. 


^cred with prickly pears^ and appears to be fonued in 
great part from rubbish thrown down from the height 
above. Now whether " Solomon and his successors " or 
any others **at a period long^ antecedent to the days 
of Herod/' could have constructed such an arched 
bridge as this must have beeu^ which, springing from 
fio low a level on the East, would reach the very 
much superior elevation on the West, I must leave it 
to architects or antiquaries to determine: I can only 
eaj, it must have been veiy unlike any bridge I ever 
saw, and must have looked exceedingly awkward ^ : and 
some architects "do not suppose arches were in use 
in the time of Solomon, however far back the mere 
invention of the arch may go ^/' 

If »fixQ wall and SIcnt ai of eqiul alti^ 
bode," (vhkh I thtnk it do«i not,) it 
it ttot Aceunite. 

* 01- Robrnwrn, L c., who unhappilT- 
^pcan ui be too angTf with me to give 
tnj argumeniji & ftif i^aaidcndoD, 
I the dtfEcultj by seating that ^'the 
at in quentton U ao f&r from 
It^ng tFti m level with the bed of the 
vaJlej, thm the b eight of the concave 
tfuffaee of the uppe; courve above the 
^rotmd ta about 12 feet by measure^'* 
»nd that "the clevatitm of the bridge 
W^ natunJlf not much levi" thaii that 
Dff the whole wall, ■,«. BO feet. Tbie I 
CMuiot oompfehend. The base of the 
rum, i.e. the fiprmg of the arch is on a 
level with the prcatent bed of the valley 
— {whieh wai all 1 imd, and is plaio, 
hcjcud all eoEitiadictioti ;) tiow the m- 
diiu of the arch, aa le^toTed by Mr, Bret^ 
tcU, W011I4 he 3D a 0^ in., that ii the 
highest point of the concave auiface; 
and I Devcf saw a bridge with a ipace of 

40 feet between the concave lurTaceaitd 

the road above. If we suppose three 
archei, one above another, aa m s^ime 
ancient aqueducts, we rai^e the bridge 
too high on the £aat ; or If a bridge of 
ascending stepi, such as one sees In 
some old attempts at a reatontion of 
the Citjn, the only difficaltj would he 
the conBtmction. It never occurred, 
even to me, to redoce the "level of 
the whole bridge to that of the present 
fragment:^* but I imagine that the 
wcfltem arch must be on a level with 
the extern, to prevent lateml pressui«. 
At leaat in all bridges that I have seen, 
however the arche!! near the middle 
are higher than those at the side^ y«t 
the extremea are always on the same 
leveL Hn, KrafFt adopts my argument, 
(without acknowledgment, as usual), 
9» decisive against Dr Robinson't h jpo- 
th als of th e bridge. Topographle, p - 61- 
* Catherwood, Baitlett's Walka, 
p. 17«* 



[part n. 

Can, then, any other account be given of these stu- 
pendous stones? and does their appearance agree in 
general character with any described by ancient histo- 
rians, or by modem explorers ? They do ; and the grand 
substructure already described from Procopius may 
help us to solve the difficulty. Dr. Robinson himself 
is of opinion, that " the ranges of vaults," com- 
mencing from the East, '* extended not improbably 
quite to the western wall of the enclosure, where are 
now said to be immense cisterns ^ ;" and to these vaults, 
whatever was their original design or present use, I 
would propose to add another arcade at the western 
extremity, in order to bring in this arch ^ In so doing 

' Bib. Res. i. p. 450. It was wrong 
of Dr Robinson to misrqiresent mc as 
laying that ** this external arch once 
went to form a huge covered cistern 
above ground/* or that I ituut that 
" the vaulte within the west wall are 
cisterns." Theol.Rev. p. 611, note 11. 
I neither say one thing, nor insist on 
the other : but I adopt his report of the 
cisterns in proof that the vaults (which 
may or may not be used as cisterns, 
or may have been converted to that 
purpose,) extended thus far West. 
When 31 r. Gather wood (p. 171) sug- 
gests that '^ those portions of the vault- 
ing now walled up may have been used 
as cisterns," (Bartlett, p. 171), he 
never meant to suggest that the double 
gateway under El-Aksa was a cistern, 
nor could Dr Robinson seriously sup- 
pose that even I did. The cisterns at 
Constantinople may be similar in con- 
struction, and belong, as I am persuaded 
they do, to the same period, and yet have 
been designed for a widely different 

' I am happy to find that this ex- 

planation approves itself to Mr. Veitch, 
who has passed some years at Jem- 
salem, is well acquainted with the re- 
mains, and is besides no partial cntic — 
to say the least He writes (1. c. p.3&), 
'< This is the famous spring of the ardi 
supposed by Dr Robinson to mark the 
termination of a bridge once connecting 
Moriah and Mount Sion ; but with far 
greater probability supposed by Mr. 
Williams to be a portion of one of those 
arches on which it is known part of 
Justinian's Church was built.** Dr 
Robinson complains (Theol. Rev. p. 
611, note 1) that I do not explain why 
it is that this arcade, unlike aU the 
others, '^ commences at 39 feet from the 
south wall, and extends northwards 
only 51 feet." In truth, I thought thai 
the dilapidated state of the wall was 
a sufficient explanation, and. in any 
case, he can shew no more traces of the 
bridge than 1 can of the arcade, nei- 
ther ''the foundations of the piers," 
(Bartlett, p. 151,) nor " the western ter- 
mination, **(Bib. Res. p. 426). Mr. Ca- 
therwood, however, did uncooadoosly 

ca* IF.] 



I shaD be thus far borue out by Mr, Catherwood and 
his brother architects, as indeed I believe by all who 
liave examined them, viz. that they assign one date, and 
one general plan, to all the substructions of this south- 
ern side ', True, they refer them to an earlier period, 
*nd connect them with the Jewish Temple under Herod, 
as though the maesive blocks of stone described by 
Procopius m a sufficient draught for forty choice bul- 
locks, did not find their exact counterpart in these 
enormous substructions, which answer so precisely to 
bis description ; while all the superstructures along the 
whole line of wall which have any decided architectural 
character, (except the Saracenic Gate), vi^, the Roman 
arches, the vaulted hall and gateway, and the '* fine 
lofty waU*' of the Mosk Abu Bekr, (-of uniform and 
excellent masonry, such as may be seen in the later 
Bomau erections,*') connecting this gateway with the 
8-W. angle, lead directly to the same conclusion ^ 

renuzk the continuation of these sub- 
itnictioos South of the fragment, in 
the Schools at the West end of the Mosk 
Abu Bekr. See above p. 307. 

» See Catherwood in BarUett's Walks, 
p. 171. Mr. Bonomi in Bib. Res. i. 
p. 447. 

* Dr Robinson, Bib. Res. i. 423, 4. 
Mr. Wolcott, Bib. Sac. i. p. 19, and 
Mr. Tippmg, Traill's Josephus, pp. 
xnii, xlvi., seem to consider the be- 
velled stones as a sure indication of 
Jewish masonry; but, as Mr. Cather- 
wood writes, ( BarUett's Walks, p. 178), 
" What proof of antiquity is to be seen 
in this I am at loss to conjecture." It 
appears in medieval buildings, e. g. in 
the Castle at Banias. I am disposed 
to believe that the fuo-airrcc airrd^ 

i^taTafi€»w9 in Procopius may refer to 
this very bevelling. Even granting a 
Jewish origin to the huge bevelled 
stones (though in siie also they oonre- 
spond with those described by Proco- 
pius), why may they not have been 
taken from the old ruins, to be used in 
later buUdings ? In the TheoL Rev. 
p. 615, Dr Robmson cites bevelled 
stones at Hebron, Baalbek, Binilg 
HOnin, es-Shikkif, and Jebeil on the 
island Ruad, the ancient Aradus. How 
many of these can be shewn to be Jew. 
ish, except by assuming the bevelled 
stones as a proof? Some of them cer- 
tainly are not. His admission m note 6, 
L c. would explain aU, even with this 
assumption : the Romans imitated the 
stones which they found on the spot. 



[part n. 

And with respect to the Bridge, it is entirely gra- 
tuitous to force this ruined arch into service for that 
purpose, sineite there is yet existing an antiquity which 
may clearly be identified with the Bridge described by 
Josephus. I allude to the Causeway which has been so 
often before noticed, as joining the North-east comer 
of Sion with the Haram, and over which runs that part 
of the Street of David, which is sometimes distinguished 
as the Street of the Temple K The trutii is, that the 
original word, (yeipvpa), which we translate Bridge, as 
also its Latin equivalent {pons,) will answer equally well 
for a dam or embankment', so that the passages in 

^ See the account of thii Causeway 
aboTe, pp. 43, 44. It is a satisfaction 
to find that this Erdwall has taken 
iu place as an established fact in the 
Topography of Jerusalem, ( Dr Schulti, 
pp. 81, 106. Ur. Krafft, Reyxster in 
voce, and their Plans, and Mr. Fergus- 
son^s), and I have no doubt will main- 
tain it, notwithstanding Dr Robin. 
8on*s reclamations. Having owned in 
Bibl. Sac. p. 33, note 1, that " one of 
the chief streets passes over the whole 
length of the mound into the Haram,** s>o 
that ^< in passing down the street one is 
not usually aware of the mound at all/' 
that " he traversed the street that crosses 
it only once, and did not then note that 
the top of the ridge was occupied by a 
street,** that *' he had at the time no 
suspicion of the nature of the mound,** 
and "had only imperfect notes of an 
imperfect observation :** after these 
admissions in 1843, he undertakes to 
say in 1846 (Theol. Rev. };p. Gil, 12), 
that '^ the Causeway runs merely from 
the base of Sion/' that " its length be- 
tween Sion and the Haram is nearly or 
quite double ttie distance between the 

fragment of the arch and the opposite 
cliff of Sion,** and that <^ it is a low 
mound, apparently raised for the par- 
pose of introducing the aqueduct into 
the Haram.** Pretty strong deductions 
from *' imperfect notes of an imperfect 
observation,** and how wide of the truth 
has already appeared, and is proved by 
the very aqueduct itself, which, " after 
it has been for some distance carried 
along or through the steep face of Sion," 
under the foundations of the houbcs on 
its eastern brow (Mr Wolcott in Bibl. 
Sac. pp. 31, 32), crosses to the Haram 
some way beneath the surface of the 
Causeway. Certainly, by the course 
here adopted, ** insuperable difficulties '* 
may be raised to any theory. 

' I am sorry to be obliged to say 
that this has been much misrepresented 
by Dr Robinson. I had inadvertently 
spoken as though the Antiquities was 
written before the Wars; this was 
wrong; but did not affect the argu- 
ment, which was this — that the word 
was ambiguous, and must be explained 
by the periphrasia, Dr Robinson 
(TheoL Rev. p. 613, note 4) calls the 




wtkh Ihb mud onlj ocean prore naOang dUiar injt 
bufc then 11 ftrtanately onepMBage when ilie UBtoKka 
QBeB a periphniaa^ in deflcrihing ilie souiheniinoBt oi 
tlie fimr vestern gates to the outer Temple for he 8«j8 
that it led to the Upper City, the val^jr bdbog ent 
oH^ or faiternipted for the pMsage'; which it deaiilj 

wImm the ward y^^9pa 
I the **d$mr pMoagct,** and the 
«M wbmm the fiilkr nodee !• given, 
•«llM wmw dtMbtfml oiie»" and iaji, 
*w« mul asplain the mm doubtful 
phfMi ^ the /«# den and explicit 
«Mis* i #. he bcge tlie wliole quee- 
ttan ef iIm nening of yl^v^, end n- 
joetB the eKplaaatioD of it fumished by 
JoMphM himeelf. FiiTthcr)inp.61l9 
ha aaja that **yl^vpa, although in the 
and earlj poetic mage it b 
i omployed in speaking of a 
f, signifies nevertheless in the 
Attic and later prose-usage always and 
only a bridge,** in proof of which he 
refers to '* the Lexicons of Passow, of 
Liddell and Scott, &c." On looking 
at which I find the first sense, ^^Damm^ 
Erdwali,'* " a dam, mound of earth ; *' 
the third, '* die Brucke^*' "a bridge;*^ 

what kind of bridge must always be 

determined by the context, whether in 
Homer or elsewhere. (See also under 
y9ipwp6m). Sometimes it is a bridge of 
beau, sometimes of a fallen tree, &c^ 
** It appears that yi<pvpa is no less 
properly used of a solid embankment 
connecting the opposite sides of a valley 
than of a bridge with arches. In He- 
rodotus II. (Euterpe) 99, the expression 
d'M'oy€if>opm<rai ttiv Me/A<^iy doubtless 
means (aa Schweighauser and others 
take it) '* to fence off the dty from the 
inundations of the Nile by an embank- 
ment.** So Eusebius of Hadiiau : ye- 

Mat undcntood w an enibflikiMBt is 
IL E. 811, Ibr IMflindb ii Am mt^ 

aa Greedi obaenrea (on Lacnt. i«fl8> 

not • ngnlar river, hot an nrrmlMl 
tonent, whidr would tiMnAm ntt tn 
likdy to be apanned ^ hridffH. Ln* 
cntina, 1. c. imftaring the paaaji cf 
Homer nseajMnlft and amIm. Oomp. 
IL«.845. Pindar caUa tfM IbAbm 
[(^Corinth] w^rrev y^^spa (N«a* TI. 
87). The worda of Schwelgfaaiiaer on 
Herodotus are **ye<pvpa non modo de 
ponte proprie nominate didtur, scd et 
de aggere. ut 11. £.89.'* The derivation 
of y€<pvpa is hinted at as iip' iypod 
(Constantini Lex), but it would easily 
lose this primary sense. Font is simU 
larly used of an agger serving for transit. 
Tac. Ann. i. 63 applies it to an embank- 
ment across a marsh *' Pontes longoa 
(angustus is trames vastas inter paludea 
a Domitio aggeratiuy* P. Freeman. 
' T^« <f>dpayyov eit diodow oitmu^ 

\fffifi4ini9. Ant. xv. xi Dr Robin- 

son, 1. c renders the word " being taken 
offy separated, intercepted, so that the 
true sense is, the valley being inter- 
cepted for a passage.** But then ia • 
river ^< taken off, separated, intercept- 
ed,** by an arched bridge ? I find ye- 
<pvpa ^evypuvai vorafidv and ^Jhs^ 
vium ponte Jungere,** Pasaow, and 
Facdolati Lex. in voce. 



[part II. 

would not be by an arched bridge, but is by such an 
embankment as that which still exists, and gives access 
to the Gate of the Chain. 

That this Causeway answers the conditions required 
by the Bridge of Josephus will be clear, from a review 
of the several passages in which its situation with refer- 
ence to the Temple is indicated. 

The bridge is first mentioned in the account of 
Pompey's operations at Jerusalem. Before that general 
entered the City, Aristobulus and his party had '' seized 
upon the Temple, and cut off the bridge which stretched 
from it to the City, and prepared for a siege'." The 
Romans were then forced to proceed again regularly to 
the siege of the Temple on the north ; " the part to- 
wards the City being rendered precipitous by the inter- 
ruption of the bridge*.*** Notwithstanding the ambi- 
guity of the original, it seems to be fairly deducible 
from this passage, that the bridge was on the West or 
city side ; but this is all we gather from this context \ 

In the next passage its position is most clearly 
^ven in describing the situation of Agrippa's Palace, 

* T6i€p6yKaTa\afipdvov<rit KalTTiv 
Ttlvovaav dtr avrov yt<pvpa» ek Tt;V 
'K-6\iif iKKoyJfav eU iroXiopKiay eirrpe- 
'K-il6fi€voi, Ant XIV. iv. 1. Com- 
pare B. J. I. vii. EI« t6 Itpdv dv€x<^' 
p4i Kal nil/ trvvdirrov<rav (I'M-' airrou 
Tijv yi<pvpay oiroico>|f avrw, k. t. X. 

' 'Airtppciyei yap Kal tc irpdv Trfv 
xoXtv, T^ yetpvpa^ dvaTerpafifiivri^ 
€<p* oJr difiye Xlo/umftov. Ant. ut sup. 

* The words l<p' ov it^ye Uofimjio^ 
<*inteniipto ponte qu& parte degebat 
Pompeius** (as they are literally ren- 
dered in Hudson) might almost seem 
to bring this into doubt : for the histo- 

rian had just before said that Pompey 
was encamped within the wall which 
he had drawn round the North part of 
the Temple : so that the irdXit may 
here mean the K-atvoiroXi« (Bezetha), 
and the bridge one extending across 
the West end of the fosse (Birket Is- 
rail), as must have been the case in the 
time of Cestius, and is so still ; — then 
giving access to the gate Tedi, as now 
to the gates Dewatar and Hitta. Or 
the dam at the East end of the fone, 
if it then existed, might be the yi^vpa 
in question. 



iriiii the House of tiie AjndonJnabiV ^TUt 
hoaM WM aboYO fhe Xystns, at the eilrttmilj y of Hie 
Upper City, and a bridge joined the Temiile to iike 
X^rtm^^ Bubseqaenily we learn that it iraa ai ilie 
southern part of the outer Temple, irhere ivas a gate 
opening on the bridge; and elseniiere the Xystdi^ 
the Bridge, and the Tower of Simon, are brought toge- 
ther^ This Tower of Simon was probabfy part of ** thta- 
house of the Asmomsans^;" but in any ease, it is ibiP^ 
tain that this last-named Palace was above tiie Xyntim^ 
at the western extremity of the bridge that led to the 
Temple from the upper CSiy. But the passage flfomthe 
southern part of the Temple to the Palace on Sioa was 
Ibnned by an interruption of the valley*, i«L bytha 
Causeway, as it is called in Scripture', temunating in 

* I haTe before miggeiited itt iden- 
tity with the Palace of Monobaxus 
(Vol. I. p. 147, note 3), and it was here 
DO doubt that the Royal Hall was built 
by Grapte (a female relative of Izates, 
king of Adiabene, and so of Helena 
and Monobazus), occupied by the ty- 
rant John and the Zealots until he was 
driven from it by Simon's faction, who 
then held it. Jewish War, iv. ix. 11. 
It was at this same palace near the 
Xystus, on the West of the Temple, 
that Agrippa the younger erected his 
banquetting-hall, commanding the 
Temple. Ant. xx. vii. 1 1. See Vol. i. 
p. 158. 

» Bell. Jud. II. xvi. 3. " Airrij ydp 
f|ir i-rdifw TOO l^v<rrou 7rp6t t6 iripay 
TTft diftt 'M-oXeooi, Kai yt<pupa TtS ^virriiS 
TO ttpdw avinnrrey.** The Xystus, as 
is plain from the context, was a place 
for pnblic assemblies. 

• "Irraro Kara t6 nrp6^ tucriv fiipov 

aTTTovaa rep Itpif t^v dwt» m-okuf,*^ 
B. J. vi. vi. 2. Kara t6» ^vordv if 
ov Kal Ti}v y€^6pav koI t6» Xifu»0O9 
irvpyoVf ic.T.X.; ibid. vlii. I. 

7 In the conflict between the two 
factions, John, who held the Temple, 
built a tower above the Xystut, i.e, t 
the eastern extremity of the Causeway/ 
at the Temple. Ant xx. vii. 18. 
Bell. Jud. VI. ill. 2. Simon's waf at 
the other extremity, at the PalaceMjit ii 
clear from the passage just cited. JBelL 
Jud. VI. viii. 1. Nor can I compre- 
hend why << such a proceeding in refer- 
ence to the present Causeway would be 
utterly absurd." TheoL Rev. p. 813. 

^ '*T^« <t>dpayytn «i« dlodotf drwMt>» 
\tififiiyiiv** See above, p. 874, o. 1. 

» SeelKingsx.6, 1r6y. Ndie- 

miahiiLSl. jl^. 



[part II. 

the gate Shallecheth, the gate of the Embankment, 
according to Lightfoot'. Therefore the Bridge and the 
Causeway arc identical 

Again; the north Wall of Sion, as it approached the 
Temple, passed the Xystus, and was joined to the Coun- 
cil-chamber*, so that it must have run in the same line 
with the Bridge, which also joined the Xystus. But 
it is siu*ely very imlikely, to say the least, that this old 
wall, besides making an angle, contrary to the words 
of Josephus^ should be carried down a precipitous rock 
of 20 or 30 feet, as it must have been had it crossed 
the valley near Dr Robinson's bridge, (where the Xystus 
must have stood, if his view be correct,) unless indeed 
it was carried over, or rather down the bridge; but then 
it would have been most manifestly inconvenient, as 
well as very difficult, to cut off such a bridge ; and the 
silence of Joscphus would be still more unaccountable, 
as the work must have been far more worthy of our 
admiration than any which he has mentioned. It is 

* See above, p. 274, note 3, and 
1 Chron. xxvi. 16. nO^ttf 'TjW 
.rh^yn H^DM Vt Robinson 

T ^ T T • : - 

Bays, '*■ that profound scholar seems to 
be in error/* with respect to his inter- 
pretation of these passages; and by 
some critical remarks, very much in 
his usual style, endeavours to make 
out that " the allusion is to stairs and 
staircases,'" and therefore that '*the 
whole argument falls to the ground/* 
But then again the sense is begged, not 
proved, and the critics do not bear him 
out. I may remark that Dr Schultz 
and Herr Krafft agree with me in taking 

n^iiyn rPDOn for the causeway. 

T ^ T T : - 

Schultr, p. 81 ; Kraffl, p. 109. 

« See Vol. I. p. 147. It is per- 
haps worth remarking, that the M eh- 
keme, or Cadi's Office, the modem 
f^vKfj or fiovXevTi^ptotf of Jerusalem 
stands at the extremity of this Cause- 
way, nearest the Haram. The sites of 
Antonia and of the palace of Herod 
—the garrison of the Roman legion left 
there by Titus — are now occupied by 
the Turkish garrison, as es-Seraiyih, 
and el KaPah, respectively. The coin- 
cidences are singular. 

' ^laTeivov iTriTdv^uirrdifXeyo^ 
fieuouy erein-a t^ fiov\^ crvpdirrov iiri 
Ttiv eairepiov tou lepov vrodv dmip' 
tI{€to. De Bell. Jud. V. iv. i. 




bqrood belief that he shooldt neither in Us Moount of 
the fint wall, nor in any mentami of the taridge» relate 
the wonderfid &et of the wall being earned acroaa it 
tat 860 feet» or down such a precipiee, Boch had been 
reaDy the case. The same remark will apply, with 
almoet equal force, to the aqueduct. For why ahoald 
it be brought so far North, and a mound be erected 
ezpresdy for it, when it might have reached its des^ 
tination by the arched bridge to the Soutii ? 

The old wall must have crossed die T^popcBoa* 
even according to Dr Robinson's idea of the direetion 
of die latter^ What can be more likely than that it 
was carried along the Causeway? But how then oonld 
the passage be cut off? Is it not conceivable that, with 
a view to the fortification of the Temple, the JewB 
might contrive to cut a deep trench in the embank- 
ment, passable in peacefiil times by what would answer 
the purpose of a drawbridge in modem warfare, or at 
least by some contrivance short of Cyclopean archi- 
tecture, and that the wall was carried by a single arch 
over this chasm ? This would reconcile all the passages 
in which the bridge is mentioned, and satisfy the strictest 
sense of the word in our language ; but I consider 
it much more likely that there was no arched bridge at 
all, but that the communication was "cut off," or "in- 
terrupted," for the occasion, by a detachment of Jewish 
engineers ^ 

* '^ It ran eastward akmg the north- 
era brow of Sioo, and so acroM* the 
vaUey to the western side of the Tem- 
ple area.** Bib. Res. i. p. 4d9. 

* 'ExKo^av^ diroKOtlfairrev, dvart- 
Tpa/ifuwrit * U. cc. I am sorry that thin 
explanation appears **waj lame** to 

Dr Robinson. And I should lia?e 
been glad to have had a mote satisfac- 
tory solution of the difficulty which Us 
theory involves: but I find none at- 
tempted. Theol. Rer. p. 61^ note 4. 
How could the North wall of Sioo 
reach the Temple ? 



[part 1L 

I apprehend then that none but such as have pre- 
judged the question, will hesitate to admit that the 
claims of the Causeway to be regarded as the Bridge, 
are superior to those of the Arch : and it is a satis- 
faction to find, that the argument as above stated 
approved itself to archaeologists before the discovery of 
another fact, which must determine the point beyond 
all doubt, at least as regards the ruined arch ; for it 
now appears that this fragment is not in the same 
line with the remainder of the West wall of the Haram, 
but that there are two distinct breaks in the continuity 
of that line towards its southern part, one immediately 
South of the Causeway, the other South of the Jews' 
Wailing Place; so that this last-named fragment is 
90 feet, and the ruined arch 250 feet East of the 
Gate of the Chainl 

As this discovery will seem to jeopardy the authen- 
ticity of the Jews'* tradition relating to the Wall, which 
I should be sorry to disturb, I will endeavour, for their 
sakes, to bring the Wailing Place within the boundary 
of the Temple. And though it is quite possible, (con- 
sidering how long they were prohibited access to the 
City,) that they may be mistaken in ascribing to these 
stones, in their present position, such high antiquity, 
yet I think it not improbable that they do water with 
their tears the stones that formed the south-west angle 
of their fathers' temple. 

It does not clearly appear indeed when this wall be- 
came an object of veneration to the mourners of Sion, 

» This will shew the value of Dr 
Robinson's remark quoted in p. 392, 
n. 1, on the relative distance between 
the brow of Sion and the opposite side 

of the valley, at the arch and at the 
Causeway. And see above, pp. 322, 3, 
for the authority for this part of the 


what is their precise notion as to its place in the 
aneient temple': they apparently regard the Gate of 
the Chain as an aneient gate of the Temple, identieal 
with the Gate of Cephenus^ which, according to Lights 
foot, was the later name of the Gate Shallecheth * ; and 
it is curious that a Jewish writer of the 13th centnry 
has remarked in the foundation of this Western Wall 
a kind of large Poreh at the hase of the Temple*, 
probably the head of the identical subterranean gateway 
near the Gate of the Moghrebins, which we noticed 
from Ali Bey* in the interior survey of the Haram *. 
It would be presumptuous to attempt to determine any- 
thing with reference to this Gate without more light 
than can he obtained from the scanty and obeetire 
notices of such an inaccurate writer as Ali Bey : and it 
is clear that the Gate must closely affect the question 

> Benjamin of Tudela (a.d. 1160) 
speaks of the "Weatcrn WaU" "in 
front of the Templum Domini," as one 
of the walls which formed the Holy of 
Holies of the ancient Temple. It is 
caUed the Gate of Mercy, and all Jews 
resort thither to say their prayers near 
Uie wall of the Court-yard. Asher, 
Vol. I. pp. 36 and 70. If he spoke of 
the present Wailing Place he was 
strangely out in his reckoning. He 
probably does not intend to say that 
there was any gate here : for the Jews 
of the present day regard the wall itself, 
or the spaces between the stones, as the 
ffoie through which all prayers ascend 
to heaven. So again, Ishak Khelo, 
( A.D.1334) in theCheminsdeJerusaiem, 
(Carmoly, p. 237,) calls the wall the 
Gate of Mercy. In the Ykhus-Ha- 
aboth (A.D. 15&4), by Uri ben-Biel 

(Ibid. p. 439. Hottinger*i Cippi Heb. 
p. 41) it is simply the Western WaU. 

» So Esthori Parchi (cited by Dr 
Zuns, in Asher, Vol. ii.'p. 897,) a,d. 
1322, writes, "We further recognise 
the Gate of Chulda South, and the 
Gate of Kephinus Westwards." 

* See Lightfoot*8 Prospect of the 
Temple, Chap. v. sect. i. VoL ix. 
p. 226. 

« Samuel Bar Simson (a.d. 1210). 
He speaks of the Gate of the Chain at 
the Gate Shacambo, without which is 
the road that leads to the fountam 
Etham, the bath of the priests : and 
after noticing the great porch ( Portique), 
he remarks that it was by a subterranean 
passage that the priests went to Etham, 
where was formerly a bath. Cannolyy 
p. 127. All this is very obscure. 

* See above, p. 308. 


of the neighbouring walL I would only suggest^ in 
general, whether this ancient wall may not be the western 
termination of the Royal Porch of Herod, erected pro- 
bably without the bounds of the ancient Temple, and so 
forming in the South an extension of its old limits, as 
Josephus describes : for the rapid convergence of the 
TyropcBon and the Valley of Jehoshaphat, would be a 
sufficient reason for not extending the cloister the full 
width of the ancient area. Thus will a satisfactory 
account be given of both the angles that break the 
continuity of the Western "Wall ; for that nearest the 
Causeway will mark the limit of the old area before its 
extension by Herod the Great; and the angle South of 
the Wailing Place will determine the Hne of the South 
Wall of the Royal Cloister; while all South of this will 
belong to the Church and Hospitals of Justinian, built 
in great measure on an artificial foundation, supported 
on arches, as described by Procopius; the continued 
convergence of the two valleys having so narrowed the 
intervening hill as to render such an expedient neces- 
sary in order to procure a requisite space for the given 
dimensions of the buildings. Here, then, it will be 
well briefly to recapitulate the various points which I 
have thus far attempted to establish ; for it is time to 
bring this long disquisition to a close. 

The correspondence between the great drain of the 
Jewish altar and the present sacred Cave of the 
Moslems, having fixed with a great degree of certainty 
the position of the brazen altar, and by consequence of 
the holy House and the sacred precinct, the agreement 
that was found between the proportions and mea- 
sures of that Inner Temple and the present raised plat- 
form of the Haram, was a strong argument for their 

CH, nr,l EESULTS* ^^^^^^ 401 

general identity. Next arose the perplexing question 
eoncerning the extent of the outer area ; in examining 
which I shewed reason to believe that the North 
boundary of the Temple is the same with that of 
the present Haram, arguing chiefly from the scarped 
rock in the N.W. corner, the angle of massive masonry 
at the N»E* corner, the deep fosse on the North, and 
the ancient gateway in the Eastern Wall, I then 
accounted for the remains at the South of the Haram, 
independently of the Temple, shewing that the S,E. 
angolar tower must have belonged to the first wall of 
the city, and that the coincidence between the descrip- 
tion given by Procopius of the erections of Justinian 
and the existing buildings and substructions in this 
quarter^ most lead us to assign these great works to 
that Emperors mechanical architect, Theodore; and 
in further confirmation of this view, I adduced the 
architecture of the Mosk el-Aksa, and an inscription 
of Antoninus Pius, on an inverted stone, in the original 
wall of the subterranean gateway. The ruined arch 
at the S. W. angle then invited more particular notice, 
and I endeavoured to prove that it could not have be- 
longed to the bridge mentioned by Josephus, which 
bridge I have identified with the causeway which still 
exists, and is traversed by the Street of the Temple. 

Thus then I have reduced the area of the Temple 
to the proportions of a square, as the consistent state- 
ment of the Jewish authorities demanded, and have 
brought the southern portico of the outer Court near 
to the inner platform, as the language of Josephus 
requires ; but I do not and I cannot reduce the outer 
Court to the dimensions specified by the same autho- 
rities, nor does any other hypothesis do so, always 
Vol. II. 26 



[part U. 

excepting one which disregards alike all ancient tradi- 
tions and all existing remains ; which utterly ignores or 
boldly over-rides all statements that make against it ; 
which contrives, with consummate ingenuity, to place the 
Temple exactly without the ancient area, in a supposed 
angle of the Haram that does not exist ; and which, lastly, 
finds the Sacred Kock of the Moslems in a Mosk where 
no native rock is to be seen, but the half of which is 
suspended on an artificial substruction \ All modem 
theories, with this exception, are open to the objection 
above stated ; and that which I have here proposed is 
equally opposed to another statement of the Mishna^. 
It is to the effect that the greatest space of the Moun- 
tain of the House (i. e. of the outer Temple) was on 
the South, the next on the East, the next on the North, 
and the least on the West : a statement which I do not 
profess to understand; for the remark that follows 
completely mystifies what would otherwise be a dear, 
though very inconvenient, particular. " Where was the 
greatest space, there was the most service," adds the 
writer ; whereas there was no part of the service per- 
formed in the outer Temple, as the Hebrew Ritual most 
clearly demonstrates. 

But whatever becomes of this difficulty, it is dear 
that the passage in question militates as strongly against 
the only other plausible theory that materially differs 
from my own : since any disposition of the area which 

' I allude to Mr. Fergusson's the- 
ory, which I have partly undermined 
before, and which will soon be wholly 

' Middoth, cap. ii. 1. Mlshna, 
Tom. ▼. p. 334. JTH n^lTT HH 

nwD itTDn Sv HDK nM^D ttoi 

parr po i^ ^^r^ mron 

rvrm upD 2^yt2n p iDijrD 

.WDtDD nn Tvn cw nn 



wmild exclude tlie Golden Gate, must leave the least 
space on the North of the Eock^, where Dr Robinson, 
no less than myself, is disposed to fix the Temple *; while 
the other arguments against that diBposition remain in 
ftiH force. 

The truth is, that all hypotheses have their dif- 
ficulties; that which solves the most and leaves the fewest 
is the best : and I think it more fair to so difficult a 
gobject, as it is more honest, clearly to state the dif- 
fieulties which I cannot solve, rather than to suggest a 
solution not fully satisfactory to myself; and I am not 
afraid that my credit will suffer by the avowal. 

It remains now to take some notice of the position 
of the fortress Antonia, which I have removed from the 
place assigned it by Dr Robinson. Tliia subject again 
is obscure, but to coDect and arrange tlie scattered 
nofiees^ of Jo^pphi)^^ may serve a good purpose and 
assist futiure investigations. 

This historian does not mention the original builder 
of this tower, but refers it generally to the Asmonean 
princes*. Its original name was Baris^, until Herod, 

* Neither would this difficulty be 
removed, as so many others are, by the 
coDYenient, but wholly unsupported, 
atnunptioo that the Antonia is com- 
prehended in the Mountain of the 
House; for then the greater space 
woald be on the North, it is obvious 
that the difficulty is not met in TheoL 
Rev. p. 624. 

* Bib. Res. Vol. i. p. 444. Theol. 
Rev. p. 624. 

* Ant. XV. xi. 3. Bell. Jud. i. iiL 
3 ; V. 4 ; v. v. 8. Prideaux (in ann. 
167) af^ Lightfoot, and both pro- 
fcMmg to foUow Josephus, ascribe it 
to Hjrrcanas, the son of Simon; but 

I cannot find any warrant for thii. 
Lightfoot's reference, copied by Pri- 
deaux, is wrong, as usuaL 

<> Of this name Prideaux says, ''It 
was called Boris from Birah^ which 
word among the Eastern nations signi- 
fies a palace or royal city ; and in this 
sense it is often used in those scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament which were 
written after the Babylonish captivity, 
as in Daniel, Ezra, Chronicles, Nefae- 
miah, and Esther, which shews it to 
have been borrowed from the Chal- 
dspans, and from them biongfat into 
the Hebrew language.** ubi sup. 

26— a 



[part U. 

having greatly enlarged and beautified it, changed its 
name to Antonia, in honour of his friend Mark Antony. 
It combined the strength of a castle^ with the magni- 
ficence of a palace, and was like a city in extent ; — 
comprehending within its walls not only spacious apart- 
ments, but courts, and even camping grounds for 
soldiers. It was situated on an elevated rock, to the 
North of the Temple-enclosiure, or more strictly to the 
North-west, forming an angular acropolis with four 
turrets at its angles, of which that to the South-east 
was the highest, and commanded a view of the whole 
Temple. It communicated with the northern and 
western cloisters of the Temple, at the angle of the 
area, by flights of steps, for the convenience of the 
garrison-; being the fortress of the Temple, as the 
Temple was of the city. It was defended towards 
Bezetha by a deep trench, so as to prevent its foimda- 
tions from being assailed in that quarter. The Temple- 
enclosiu-e, which was of itself four stadia in circuit, was 
six stadia including Antonia^. Thus much we have by 
way of description. From incidental allusions we gather 
a few more particulars, which it will be useful at least 
to note. Titus had hoped that if he made himself 
master of this commanding post, he should gain the 
Temple without more fighting^ ; and when he had 
carried it, some of his soldiers did actually chase the 
Jews into the enclosure of the Temple^. Yet for all 

^ It is commonly called tppovpiov 
in JosqphuSf but elsewhere aicpcnroXtv, 
Ant. XV. xi. 4 : in Holy Scripture, -ra- 
p€fifio\ii. Acts xxi. 34, 37; xxii. 24. 

' KaTafidv€i9 in Josephus. ^Ava- 
fiaBfiobf, Acts xxi. 35, 40. It was by 
these itairs that the chief captain had 

descended to the Court of the Temple, 
to rescue St Paul, verse 32. 

^ Compare Ant. xv. xi. 3, with 
Bell. Jud. V. V. 2. 

* Bell. Jud. V. vi. 2 ; vi. i. 5. 

* Ibid. VI. i. 7. 8. 

m. IV.] 



khf be had still to make regular advances against 
the outer enclosure^. When in occupation of Antonia, 
and during the time that these operations were going 
forward, he would watch them from a commanding posi- 
tion — probably the South-east turret^ — of the fortress. 
I Now to endeavour to get some light from these 
' -various hints* I presume, first of all, that Baris or 
Antotiia occupied a position near to the site of that 
tower which Antiochus Epiphanes built in Jerusalem, 
overhanging and commanding the Temple ^ so that 
the Baris or Antonia of the Jewish War is equivalent to 
the Acra of the Antiquities and of the Maccabees^, by 
which name that tower built by Autioehus is always 
liesignated'^'s and that it was this fortress which gave its 
name to the hill on which it stood, and to that part 
of the city which surrounded it on three sides '^ It is 
no valid objection to this hypothesis that the tower is 
said, in the book of Maccabees, to have stood in the 
city of David** ; for it is very uncertain what part of the 
city is to be understood by that term in this book, 
while it is manifest that its equivalent, "Mount Sion," 

• BcU Jud. VI. ii. 7. 
' lb. VI. ii. 6 ; ill. 1. 

• Josq>h. Ant. xii. vii. which An- 
tonia certainly did, as Titus says. 
B. J. VI. i. 5. 'Ai/a/3aWe9 yovv eiri riiv 
Kwrmviav exofifv ttjv -roXii/. Compare 
the other passages referred to. Yet Dr 
Robinson says, it is not affirmed that 
Antonia overlooked the Temple, which 
Acra (though more distant according to 
his theory) did. 

' I have before identified the same 
Antonia with the fortress of the house 
in Nehem. (Vol.i.p.76,)asDrSchultz 

also does (Jerusalem, p. 92). So 
that there is no disagreement between 
us on this point, as he imagines (p. 106). 
Dr Robinson takes these to be identi- 
cal, but does not connect them with 
Acra: the situation of which is not 
defined by him, except negatively. See 
Theol. Rev. pp. 631, 2. sect, 4. 

*® This word oK-pa occurs between 
20 and 30 times in the books of Mac- 
cabees, always applied to this tower. 

1* Reland is of this opinion also. 
Pakestina, p. 853. 

'3 1 Mace. i. 33; u. 31; xiT.36. 



[part IL 

is constantly used for the Temple-Mount ^ ; and this 
tower is expressly said to have stood on the ** hiU of the 
Temple^" Besides, Josephus, whose language is pro- 
bably more accurate, distinctly says that this tower was 
in the Lower City, on a high place overhanging the 
Temple' ; nor can any other position so well reconcile 
all we read concerning the annoyance occasioned to the 
Jews through the occufMition of this tower by a Mace- 
donian garrison*. 

But it may be objected that this Acra was demo- 
lished by Simon, and the very hill on which it stood was 
levelled^ So Josephus says, but the author of the 
book of Maccabees gives an entirely different account 
According to this earlier writer, Simon was so far firom 
destroying the tower, that after having taken it by 
blockade, entered in triumph, and purified of its poUu- 

' 1 Mace. iv. 37, 60; V. 64; vL 48, 
61. This is denied but not disproved 
by Dr Robinson, in Theol. Rev. p. 633, 
n. 7; who, after having (Bib. Res. i. 
p. 410, n. 2,) maintained that the Acra 
of the Macedonians was in the '^city of 
David, the Upper City of Josephus on 
Mount Sion," denies it in TheoL Rev. 
631, sect. 2. 

* Kal 'M'poc(uxvpot<r€ Td 6po9 tou 
lepov t6 Trapd Tt/i/ axpav Kal wxei iKel 
avrdvKaloiirap* airrov, lMacc.xiii.62. 
Comparing this with xiv. 37, 1 cannot 
doubt that this is the uKpa of which he 
had just spoken in xiii. 60, 61. Dr 
Robinson thinks that the passage cited 
does not bear me out, and yet immedi- 
ately cites the passage himself to prove 
the identity of Baris with " the Temple- 
Hill which Simon fortified,** &c. TheoL 
Rev. p. 631, note 3, and sect. 4. 

^ Ant. XII. V. 4. Tiji/ ev t^ jcaVa* 
iroXci tpKoSSfifjaev aKpav ' riv ydp v»^- 
X?l Kal inrepKeiueifri t<J Itpdv, Jc.x.X. 

* e.g, *' It was a place to lie in 
wait against the sanctuary.*' 1 31 ace. 
i. 36. Judas while purging the sanc- 
tuary was obliged to detach a party to 
keep them in check, iv. 41. See again, 
vi. 18, and xiv. 36. 

* 'EKiroXio/oiciJ<ra« ^k koX Tif* 

aKpav, eh eda<f>Oi aimiw Kadttktif 

Kal TovTO irottj<rat, dpitrroy i&6K€i Koi 
avfKpepop clvai, Kal Td opov i<p)* m nfy 
aKpav eli/ac orvve/Saive, iraOcXetv, hmn 

v^l/rfKorepov ^ n-d lep6v Kixl 'r d v m 

vpotr^aXovm Katf^povv t6 6pot 

Kal KaTtjyayov «l« ida4>o^ Kal in6ani9 
XeioTfTTo. Kal t6 Xoivdv 0^1%*" 
dirdiiTwv (aLaxttv) rd Itpov, t^ dxpat 
Kai TOO opout iip>* w ^v dinjpffffUimv, 
Ant. XIII. vi. 6. 




"he made it Bfaronger than befaro, and there 
he dwelt himself with his eompanyV I do not thmk 
that these two accomits are irreeoncilable. It ai^ieam 
very likely that die scarping of the rock at the 
Ncnih-west of the Haram, and the cutting it perpen* 
dicular at that angle to the depth of 20 feet» is to be 
referred to this time^; so that the rock in qoestion, 
whidi rose perhaps higher than its present lerel in the 
direction of the Temple, was much redoced; for Ihe 
labour of so many willing workmen, engaged inoessantfy 
night and day for three years and a half, nmst have 
aooolnpliahed a work of considerable magnitude. FM>- 
baUy some buildings on the northern quarter of the 
Umer were left standing, or a fortress was soon erected 
there in which Simon dwelt, and which was afterwards 
occiqned by Aristobulus *, and used as a state prison by 
Alexandra'. It served now as a garrison for the Jewish 

* 1 31acc. xiii. 52. Compare xiv. 
37. '*'He placed Jewi therein, and 
fortified it for the safety of the country 
and of the city/* Josephus, Ant. xiii. 
▼i. 7* Dt Robinson's explanation 
(TheoL Rev. p. 633) is curious and 
original : Acra was probably taken in 
Simon's second year, and the public 
tablet recording this fact and his own 
occupation of Acra, was consecrated in 
hia third year. 1 Maccab. xiii. 61 ; 
xiv. 27. He afterwards abandoned 
Acra and demolished it, and the rock 
on which it stood, and built another 
fortreM on the North of the Temple, 
t.#. Bans. In other words, he demo- 
lished a fortress which did not occupy 
any part of the Temple Mount, nor was 
connected with its precincts, but sepa- 
rated from it by a valley, because he 

thought ** it was better adapted to com- 
mand and overawe the Temple than to 
protect it;'* and built another on the 
Temple Mount itself, much better 
adapted to the same purpose f 

^ Josephus says of Antonia, ''d«- 
iSfiriTo S" inrkp 'rerpas 'rejm}iioirrcnn|* 
Xovi fi^v li\ff09 nrepucpi^vov ik wcfdnfv." 
J. W. ▼. V. 8. I think Piideaux must 
be right when he says : ** These M 
cubits are not to be understood of the 
side next the Temple, but of the other 
sides off from it, upon the brow of the 
mountain, on which the Temple stood, 
where this rock, from the valley beneath 
up to the top whereon the castls wai 
built, was 50 cubits high." Connex. 
(ann. 107, note). 

« Joseph. J. W. I. iii. 8. 

^ Ibid. V. 4. 


troops, yet was so contrived as to be a defence in time 
of war, by cutting off the communication with the 
Temple. Two flights of steps led down from the height 
of the precipice to the cloisters below ; by destroying 
that part of the cloisters connected with the staircase 
the approach was cut off. And this was done on two 
occasions; first, when Florus was intending to possess 
himself of the Temple through Antonia, the Jews im- 
mediately got upon those cloisters of the Temple that 
joined to Antonia, and cut them down ; and as soon as 
the cloisters were broken down he gave up the attempt 
The second occasion was that already referred to. Titus 
did not reckon upon such an obstinate defence of the 
Jews, and did not expect that they would have recourse 
to such expedients as burning their Temple. When he 
took Antonia, the Komans pursued the Jews down the 
steps by which they had retreated to the Temple, and 
the battle was continued there for several successive 
day8\ until the Jews, with desperate resolution, '*set 
fire to the North-west cloister which was joined to the 
tower of Antonia," and afterwards " broke off 20 cubits 
more of that same cloister*, nor ceased from the work 
of demolition until the tower was parted from the 
Temple.'^ When this was done, nothing remained but 
to form an inclined plane down the precipice by over- 
throwing the massive foundations of the tower, while the 
works were pressed forward on other quarters of the 
outer area'. 

It would seem probable that a greater part of the 
fortress was attached to the northern than to the 

' See J. W. VI. i. 7, 8. ^ See Vol. i. p 182. 

2 Ibid. VI. ii. 9. I 




side of the area, nofc onlj from ibe present 
appeanuiee of the rock, which extends, I believe, nnioh 
fiurther on the North than on the West side of the 
ang^ but also from the language of Josephus, who 
generally speaks of its situation as at the North^ 
aUhon^^ in some passages he is more definite*. I ima- 
giae then that the Antonia extended about as fiir East 
as the present Seraiyah, about 400 feet further West than 
the western boundary of the Haram, and covered a hill 
which rises in this quarter, and is probably part of the 
same rock^; while northward it crossed the present 
Via Dolorosa, embracing the ''Arch of the Ecce Homo," 
and the '^ Church of the Flagellation,^^ and, perhapi^ 
reached even so far as the '' Palace of ,JEerod^;" and it 

« Ant. XT. zi. 4 X Kara T^y /3o- 
pMlom wXmrpdifm J. W. X. xxi. 1 : t6 
Itfp^r Kal t6 fiopMioif iir* ain-tp tppovpiov. 
The Rexicwer In the Neucs Reperto- 
rium, VI. i. p. 2, who adopts my argu- 
ment as conclusive against Dr Robin- 
son's theory, thinks me wrong in placing 
*ny part of the fortress on the North wall 
of the Temple. He places the S.E. tur- 
ret of Antonia at the N.W. angle of 
the Temple, and represents Josephus 
as saying that the communication with 
the cloisters was at this S.E. turret. 
I do not so read that passage. 

* Kara ywviav fikv duo crrowv €Ke«- 
To TO Tou irpwTov lepov, t6 Te irpot 
iinripoPj koI to irpoi apKTOv* J. W. 
V. V. 8. 

* If at the house of S. Veronica, on 
the Via Dolorosa, coming from the 
West, you take a small street which 
continues nearly in the same line to- 
wards the area of the Mosk, you rise 
by a very steep ascent to the hill men- 

tioDed in the text. 

U hAve bcfiNtc nid (rap. pfL M, il), 
that I take the filling np of the Valley 
between Moriah and Acra to be part of 
the same work with the demolition of 
the fortress and the reduction of the hill 
which it occupied. The Valley was 
filled up, I imagine, about the Via Do- 
lorosa, and thus the Hill of the Temple 
was united to the Hill to the North- 
west, which now came to be called 
from the fortress, "Acra.** Hence 
arose the confusion between Acra the 
fortress, and Acra the hill ; which hat 
so much embarrassed the subject. For 
example, Dr Schultz and Herr Kiaffl 
perplex themselves with looking for 
traces of a Valley filled up between the 
Temple and the fortress (Acra), which 
they both identify with the later Baria. 
But the filling up was between the Hill 
of the Temple (which the Acra also 
occupied), and the Hill which came to 
be called Acra only after the union. It 



[part n. 

is an interesting fact that, without any thought what- 
ever of these traditionary sites in laying out my plan» 
having regard simply and solely to the language of the 
Jewish historian, I was compelled to include them. 
With regard to the fosse, I fear that it cannot now be 
discovered; but when I come to speak of the waters 
of Jerusalem, we shall find that part of it existed until 
within a short period. 

I shall have done with Antonia when I have merely 
noticed one remark of Josephus, which is to me wholly 
unintelligible on every hypothesis, but which doubtless 
has some satisfactory meaning. In speaking of the pro- 
digies which preceded the destruction of Jerusalem, he 
mentions that the "Jews, by demolishing the tower 
Antonia, had made their Temple four-square ; while they 
had it written in their sacred oracles, that then should 
their city be taken, as well as their holy House, when 
once their Temple should become four-squared" To 
what oracle or to what act of the Jews this most per- 
plexing observation relates, I am entirely at a loss to 
imagine ; for we read nothing of their demolishing the 
tower of Antonia during the siege, nor can I compre- 
hend how this could have made the Temple four-square. 
One remark suggests itself, which may serve as a 
solution, unless some future writer should be more 
successful in finding a satisfactory explanation of this 
mysterious passage. 

This portent is introduced by the historian after the 

is curious that the native rock still ex. 
ista where they imagine the Vallej to 
have been. It is noticed by Gather- 
wood, between the N. W. angle and the 

platform ; and by Mc^r ed-din, on the 
West and on the North of the platform. 
Mines d'Orient, Tome ii. pp.90, 91. 
' Sec J. W. VI. V. 4. 

description of the burning of the cluistera connected 
with the Antonia; which however did not completely 
br^ak off the fortress from the Temple ; the Jews still 
continued for some longer time the work of burning 
and demolition, nntil this was effected. From this it 
would appear to have been a work of difficulty to 
diBconnect the two, as it would if part of the fortress 
was built into the temple-square at the angle where 
they were joined. The stairs descending into the 
cloisters must necessarily have been projected into the 
enclosure, and possibly guard -rooms and other cham- 
bers for the troops, li' this were so, the destruction 
of that portion of the fortress would have the eflect 
described by Josephus of making the area a complete 
nquare, which had been before interrupted by this pro- 
jection; and this is the only possible method I can 
imai^nc for the elucidation of his languacre, which does 
appear in general most remarkably accurate'. 

And this will, I think, be further seen, if before 
taking leave of the subject which has been discussed in 
this Chapter, we consider another expression which has 
sometimes been much misimderstood. After his account 
of the western gates of the temple-enclosiure, with which 
the reader will be by this time familiar, he remarks 
'* that the city lay over against the Temple in the man- 

' Dr Robinson does not notice the ex- 
planation, but only the naiveti of the 
foregoing admission (TheoL Rer. p. 
625, n. 1). His theory is that the 
^ Temple and Antonia together form, 
ed a parallelogram which by the de- 
struction of the latter was reduced to 
a square/* A very odd notion, which 

certainly requires proof as much as 
mine. Herr KnSR, acquiesces with me, 
except that he makes the fortress oc- 
cupy a much larger part of the angle 
than I can allow iL The cnttiDg of 
the rock he ascribes to a later period, 
of which history is silent, pp. 76— 78* 


ner of a theatre ^" Now if we suppose that he spoke 
of the general appearance of the city and Temple as 
they existed in his time rather than in Herod's, no com- 
parison could possibly be more happy» as a glance at 
the plan will shew. Let the form of an ancient theatre 
be remembered, let the Temple-area be regarded as the 
scene — ^the city surrounding it on three sides as the 
tiers of seats for spectators, sloping down from all 
quarters (except the South) in the direction of the 
Temple ; Bezetha on the North — ^Acra on the North- 
west — ^then the eastern declivity of the Tyropoeon to 
the West — separating between Acra and the Upper City 
or Sion on the South-west, and the space filled up by 
the ridge of Ophel to the South. The exactness of the 
language in this as in other passages is to me perfectly 
astonishing; and I do think that this author, to whom 
the Christian Church is perhaps more largely indebted 
than to any unbelieving historian, has not been appre- 
ciated as he deserves ; I am convinced that, in almost 
every case where he has been charged with mis-state- 
ment, our ignorance rather than his knowledge is in 
fault. With fair allowance for Oriental hyperbole in his 
descriptive accounts (of works of art rather than of 
nature,) he is, as far as my experience goes, a most in- 
valuable guide. 

Before concluding this chapter, I would remark on 
an objection which some devout minds may possibly feel 
to a theory which would go to prove that any part of 
the ancient Temple can still be identified. Such an 
hypothesis may be thought to militate against the pre- 

* *Ain-ucpif yap ij <roXtc cucctro tov Upov 0car/oo€td»i« ovtra. Ant. XV. xL 6. 


^^ dictions of our Blessed Lord, which have been already 
* referred to, and therefore the objeetion deserves, as do 
all objections prompted by reverenee, the most tender 
ooosideration ; and I would hope that the following 
heautiful passage from Euscbius on this very subject, 
will serve to allay any undue apprehensions, and to set 
the matter in its true light. 

Having discoursed on the words *' Behold, your 
houHe is left unto you desolate ^" on which he remarks 
that "it is right that we should wonder at the fulfil- 
ment of this prediction, since at no time did this place 
undergo such an entire desolation** as shortly followed 
this denunciation; and that *'to those who visit these 
places the sight itself aflbrds the most complete fulfil- 
ment of the predictions;" he thus proceeds to notice 
another prophecy of our Lord ; ** Walking by the side 
of the Temple, and His disciples pointing out to Him the 
greatness and beauty of the same, He answered and 
said, 'Behold, see ye not all these things? I say unto 
you, stone shall not be left here upon stone which shall 
not be thrown down^.' The Scriptures do moreover 
shew that the whole building and the extreme orna- 
menting of the Temple were indeed thus worthy of 
being considered miraculous; and for proof of this 
there are preserved to this time some remaining ves- 
tiges of these its ancient decorations. But of these 
ancient things the greatest miracle of all is the Divine 
Word, declaring the foreknowledge of our Savioiur which 
fully announced to those who were wondering at the 
buildings the judgment that * there should not be left,' 

' Luke xiii. 35. ' Matth. xxi?. 2. 


THB HOLY cmr. 

[part u. 

in the place at which they were wondering, ' one stone 
upon another which should not be rased.' For it was 
right that this place should undergo an entire de- 
struction and desolation, on accoimt of the audacity of 
the inhabitants ; because it was the residence of impious 
men. And just as the prediction was, are the results in 
fact remaining : the whole Temple and its walls \ as well 
as those ornamented and beautiful buildings which were 
within it, and which exceeded all description, having 
su£fered desolation from that time to this I With time 
too this increases ; and so has the power of the Word 
gone on destroying, that in many places no vestige of 
their foundations is now visible! which any one who 
desires it may see with his own eyes. And should any 
one say that a few of the places are still existing, we 
may nevertheless justly expect the destruction of these 
also, as their ruin is daily increasing; the prophetic 
Word daily operating by a power which is unknown. 
I know too (for I have heard it from persons who in- 

* This remark of £u8ebiu8 Beems 
decisive against Dr Kobinson^s theory 
of a restoration of the Temple Walls 
by Hadrian. Herr Kraffl has the same 
idea; and wishes to identify the ito- 
^eKdirvXov of Hadrian with the for- 
tress Antonia, on the ground that the 
itoieKcitrvkov was formerly called dva- 
fiaOfwi. But he fails to prove that 
Antonia was ever called by that name; 
and it is very arbitrary to extend the 
name of the steps (see above, p. 404, 
note 2) to the whole fortress. The 
buildings, &c. erected by Hadrian, are 
thus mentioned in the Paschal Chro- 
nicle : KaOeXwV t6v vaov rwv *lovda[»v 
t3v iy *lepo<ro\vfJMit ticrioe to 6vo 

ii\fi6<Tia Kai t6 dicerpov Kai t<J tpucd' 
fitpov Koi TO TerpdyvfKfHyv Kai t6 dw- 
deKoirvXov t6 irplv dvofia^^Sfigvou dva- 
fiaBfioi Kai Ttjv Koipav, koI ifiipurev 
T»;v -woXiv ele iirrd dfi<poda' k.X. In 
ana 3, JE\. Adriani. Ind. i. p. 254. ed. 
Paris. Tom. i. p. 474. Ed. Niebohr. 
Bonnae, 1832; and see Du Gangers notes 
in loc Tom. ii. p. 327, and the refer- 
ences. Orosius (cir. a.d. 416), having 
related the suppression of the Jewish 
revolt under Hadrian, says, ''Chris- 
tianis tan turn civitate permissa, quam 
ipse in optimum statum murorum ex- 
tructione reparavit, et ^liam vocari 
jussit." Hist. cap. xv. 

CH. I?-] 


terpret the passage difterently) that this was not BBxd 
on all the buildings, but only on that place which the 
disciples, when expressing their wonder upon it, pointed 
ont to Him : for it was npon this that He spoke the 
prophetic Word*." Thus far Ensebiua. For myself, I 
look for the accomplishment of the prophecy in its 
widest and most literal sense ; and expect that if there 
be stiB one stone left upon another, which at least m 
not certain, the mighty, though silent, operation of that 
wonder-working Word will in due time bring it down : 
and who can tell whether, before the time of the end, 
some second Jtdian may not renew the attempt to re- 
build the Jewish temple, which antichrist alone shall 
Tear\ and whether this attempt may not result in the 
destruction of such portions of it as remain ? 

» Theoph. B. ir.c, 18. Lce*s Trani. 
• St Cvril foretold the defeat of 

Juliana's attsitnpt, from bis interpret 
tatioB of 2 Thcas. li. 4. See ihc pas* 
sage cited in Vol. i. p. 254, note 1. 


[part n. 




The necessity of any further remarks on Mr. Fei^g^iisBon's theoiy 
may be thought to be superseded by the examination to which it has 
been submitted in the second Chapter of this Volume : for if I haTe 
there proved that the Dome of the Rock cannot be the Church of Con- 
stantino^ the question is so fiBir settled. 

But Mr. Fergusson might feel aggrieved, were I to pass by withoat 
notice what he considers his strongest argument ; and it is right that he 
should have the full benefit of it, if it may palliate the error whidi 
he has committed : for should his premises, founded on the architecture, 
prove to be correct, his conclusions, however false, will yet deserve 
indulgence. I proceed, therefore, to notice the conclusions which he 
attempts to establish on supposed architectural data. 

Haviog assumed the Dome of the Rock as the Church of the Anastasis, 
and the Golden Gate as the Propylsum of the Basilica of Constantine, of 
which Basilica no traces remain, he was compelled to shift the whole 
site of the Temple, (with its appurtenances, and all the traditions con- 
nected with it,) and of the Mosk which Abd-el-Melik erected over its 
ruins. The process was very simple, when historical and antiquarian 
testimony might be received or rejected ad libitum \ Supposing Dr. 
Robinson's theory of the ruined Arch to be correct*, and the Jews* 
Wailing-place to be in the same line with it a, these remains must be 
taken, he thinks, to mark the west wall of the Outer Temple : then from 
the S. W. angle of the Haram he measures on the south and west walls 600 
feet ( = one stadium, = 400 cubits), and, from the extremities, draws 
the north ^ and east walb equal and parallel to the south and west walls 
respectively, (the S. W. angle being a right augle), and thus he forms 
a square of the dimensions required — by Josephus, at least, if not by the 

» The Theory of the Temple is 
propounded in the fir^t part of the Es- 
say, with which compare Plate VI. of 
Restored Plans. 

2 Essay, pp. 11—13. 
' Ibid. pp. 16, 28. 
^ He finds this northern wall still 
existing; "running parallel to the 

OB. IV.] 

MB. riRoimsoH. 


I*. FlMe tiie Taw«r AnUmk st the N. W. ma^\ nd iht 
iliQCMnpleta Thai the doiible Gsteiivj midv EtiUBM will 
kitte flonfli Gito of tiie Temple '-«dQed the Gito of HoUdi, eom- 
wiOi the Inmieii altar by the Tiiihed psMge, wUeh nil 
the B4^ ddster; and the wall of modem mawnij, huilft 
the pkn of the fabstnictioos on the west aide of the ti^le 
L Gatewqr, will be the ancient city and temple-wall on theEaat*. 
The MoOl el-Akn will be the Dome of the Rock boOd by Abd-eU 
MbIHe, not at an on the ate of the Temple proper, bat onlj within tiie 
mm^. Farther, the triple gateway, with the a^jaoent aabttnietioiii^ an 
tile work of Justinian >% and the iii^gnlarityoftheTanlta enaUeahhnlo 
I the Ghorch wiiich they mpported, and is to him ''afanoat proof 
that Jostinian s Ghorch was situated orer them, or on a oon- 
ofthem." This Church is identical with & Maria deUtinay 
one of the groop of Churches connected with the Holy Sepuldire'^. 

Now, 1 ahall not be expected to refute all these proporitiona: the 
gmtnl theoiy of the Temple has only tins to recommend it, that, having 
die ^riule Haiam at its dispossl, it is able to cut off exactly so \ 
m win serve the requirements of Josephus, though not the i 
of tile Babbies; otherwise it is whoUy arbitmy. It gives no aoooant <if 
tile eastern watt of Cyclopean architecture : it finds no saered roek ISnr 
die thresiiing^-floor of Arannah, for the altar of David, or lor the 
flaUmh of the Moslems. Losing sight of the distinction between Me^id 
and Jamy, so strongly insisted on by the historian, it confounds the 

■outhern walL, at the distance of just 
SOO feet, and extending to the distance 
of joat 600 feet from the western walL*' 
The werj thing — only the wall in ques- 
tion '^Dow supports the southern side 
of the platform/* and was probably 
bailt for that purpose; for, says Mr. F., 
^whether it is of ancient masonry or 
not 1 cmimot say, and no one seems to 
have obsenred.'* £ssay, p. 16. 

* The Rabbies are treated with 
great oooteropt by Mr. Fergusson. As 
for this measure, if it does not agree 
with Joaephas, ^* we have only to reject 
it as a mistake, if not a wilful mis- 
atatement.** p. 21. 

* Easay, pp. 30—34. 

7 Ibid. pp. 13, 16, and 27. 

* Eaaay, p. 16. Comp. his Plan ; 
and lee aboTe, p. 312. 

» EaMiy, pp. 130-144. 

Vol. II. 

'0 Ibid. pp. 117—126. 

" The identity of the Church of 
Justinian with the ** Sancta Maria de 
Latini,** built by the merchants of 
Amalfi in the 10th century, is one of 
many like gratuitous assumptions : and 
the fact -that the Churches about the 
Holy Sepulchre were ^^mutuis inter se 
parietibus cohserentes,** as Bemhard 
says, is wholly disregarded. See p. 106 
sup. That a Church dedicated to 8. 
Mary had existed on the site previonsly 
to the erection of the "de Latinft," as Dr 
Robinson hinu, (Bib. Res. Vol. ii. p. 46, 
note 1 ,) is not borne out by the passage 
which he cites from Arculfos and Bern* 
haid, for the Church of 8. Mary men- 
tioned by them was merely a mall 
Chapel attached to the Rotunda. See 
Professor Willis above, pp. 302, MS, 
n. 1. 




[part II. 

whole area with one of the Moeks ; which Meek (el-Aksa) it farther 
sapposes to remain in the state in which it was left hy Ahd-eUMelik, 
(a. d. 602), and described by Arculfiis^ (a. d. 607)> and therefore leaves 
no room for the complaint of £1-Mahadi, (a.d. 775 — 785,) that the 
building was narrow and long; nor for the execution of his order, 
"Reduce the length and increase the width." And as it ignores all 
historical records, so does it also set at nought all architectural evidence ; 
supposing the existing building to be exactly conformed to the original 
ground-plan ; though its constructive features, no less than the Moham- 
medan annals, assure us it is not It presumes the present arrangement 
and adornment — ^the pointed arches, and wooden architraves, and basket- 
capitals, — ^to be coeval with the building, though we have read of repeated 
destructions and restorations of various portions, amply sufficient to 
account for their later insertion, while the basket-capitals still dedaie 
themselves masked Corinthian ; and, finally, it sets at nought the har> 
monious witness of all intelligent writers that have entered the Mosk, 
declaring with one voice that, even in its barbarised condition, it retains 
unmistakeable evidence of its original destination for a Christian Chudi'. 
The very foundation on which the theory is baaed is a foundation of sand. 
The vestibule of the subterranean gateway, supposed to be that of Hnldah, 
cannot, it is argued, be so late as Justinian, when it is perfectly well 
ascertained that dome-vaults, with pendentives such as these^ cannot 
be earlier. 

Enough, then, of this hypothesis : but there is one question incident- 
ally connected with it that reaUy deserves some consideration : it relates 
to the original structure of the Khalif Omar, the position and history of 
which is involved in great obscurity ; for it happens, unfortunately, that 
no Christian description of the City has been preserved to us from the 
interval between Omar and Abd-el-Melik Ibn-Merwan; and the earliest 
notices after this period ser\'e rather to add to the perplexity, while the 
conflicting Moslem traditions are admirably suited to the same purpose. 
In this however they agree, that the Khalif, having made himself master 
of the City, and found the true site of the Mosk of DaWd, next set 
himself to recover the Sakhrah, or Sacred Rock \ He inquired of one of 
his companions, Kaab Abu-Ishak, " Dost thou know the place of the 
Sakhrah ?" who replied, " Towards the wall which looks towards the 
Valley of Gehenna, at such and such a distance ^'' Then he dug, and the 

* I may mention All Bey, Dr Rich- 
ardson, Messrs. Catherwood, Bonomi, 
and Arundale; also General Noroff, 
who compares its general effect to that 
of S. Peter extra Muros, at Rome. 

' Jelal-addin, in Reynolds, pp.177, 
8. Compare p. 184. Kemal-ad-din in 

Lemming, p. 65. Mejr.ed-din, Tom. 
V. p. lf)l. 

^ I take the reply as given by Mejr- 
ed-din, 1. c. The other authoritiei 
sute it differently, and are one or bodi 
quite unintelligible. Thus in Jelsl- 
addin it is, << Measure out one cubit oo 




The Rock wis camnd iHth a duf-lieqs 
lAidihtMdiiloQilyiBthiiiiielftoolMrawiqr^ The questioii then i 
dwot flie proper poaHiaii of the Mosk. El-Keab leeommwiilwt 
ifthiliiiid tile flUdmh, In oider to join the two KiUahs of MbM aai 
Mfthaimned; i «. lo that the wonhipper nitght fiue the neied plaoee of 
flie Jewi tad Modems at the same time : hot Omar, dMilmig this con- 
foniilgr to the Jewish pxaetioe,piefeRed to.haiUL the Ifodk in front of 
ill iiL €B the South, that the yenexation doe to the KaahaatMeooa 
aiffA he tarecL This was in ▲. h. 16 or 17, a. d. 637, 8. 

BetwacD this period and the xdgn of Ahd-el^Melik we hare n» 
aBoooBtortiieMosk. This Khalif proposed to repair the Mosk of Omar, 
and to hidld a dome orer the Rock, in order to protect the Modem 
mndilppeis against the inclemencies of the season*. His olijeet was to 
dimt his saljeets from the pilgrimage to Mecca, then in the hands 
of Ahd^lhih Ihn-Zoheir, a riyal Khalif *; a corions parsDel to the 
frapedlMit adopted hy Jerohoam the son of Nehat The prepaiaiiotta 
mn eommwiced on a laige scale, and the result was answershle to the 
ilialipi In addition to what has heen already stated^ the Mowing 
pastieiikn may he fonnd interesting. TheKhalifanemUedaUthehest 
f from an parts of his dominions*, and laid np laxge soms of 
In a treasmy on the East of the Sakhrsh, towards the Meant 
of Olifes; Ahd-mikdam Re^j^ Hayret, one of the most leamed docton^ 
was i^^winted architect •, and he was assisted by one Yesid Ibn-Selam, (an 
afiranchised slave of the Khalif^ and a native of Jemsalem^) and his two 
sons. According to one authority, a vaulted crypt was first formed in the 
Rock^*. The Mosk was commenced in a. e. 69 (a.d. 688), and finished 
in three years. 

Abd-el-Melik famished the plan of the edifice, and built the small 
Dome of the Chain, on the East of the great Dome, as a model to the work- 

»" The other buildings on the South of the Platform, extending 

each tide of the wall which is nearest 
to the Vallej of Hinnom, then dig and 
thou ahalt find it'* In Kemal-ad-din 
it is, "si a muro, vallem Gehinnom 
ipectante, loco nescio quo, cubitum 
emensus foderet, ubi sterquilinium es- 
set sacrum ilium lapidem inveniret.*' 
Lemming, 1. c. 

« See Vol. I. p. 317. 

^ Kemal-ad.din, L c. p. 57, and 
Mcjr-ed-din, 1. c. p. 162. 

* 3Iejr-ed^in, L c. and Eutjchii 
Amules, Tom. ii. p. 365, agree in sUt- 
iag this motive. 
Vol. I. p. 318. 

"in this agree the three histories : 
but Kemal-ad-din, p. 57, is the most 

^ Mejr-ed-din, p. 159, adds the in- 
teresting particular, that this worthy 
had red hair and a white beard. He 
diedA.H.112, Abd.el.MelikinA.H.8a. 

" Jelal-addin, p. 186. ThU pro- 
bably alludes to the present entrance to 
<* the Noble Cave :" see above, p. 342; 
note 1. 

" So Mejr-ed.din, p. 162; Kemal- 
ed-din, with greater probability, (p. 57) 
says, that the KhaUf ordered the work- 
men to furnish a model. 




[part II. 

from the "Cndle of Jesus" on the East to the Mosk of the Moghrelms, 
(i. e. Abu Bekr, for I quote Mcjr-ed-dm *) on the West, were also erected* ; 
and^ as 100,000 ducats still remained in hand, the Khalif ordered the 
Dome to be covered with plates of gold. This was accordingly done in 
a most magnificent style, and a wooden hoarding protected it from run 
and snow during the winter-season. 

This last-mentioned hid will serre to explain the descriptioii of an 
Occidental traveller, who visited Jerusalem only a few yean after the 
completion of the splendid structure of Abd-el-Mdik, which would 
otherwise be perfectly unintelligible. It ia Arculfus, who {cir. A.n. 097) 
describes a quadrangular Saracenic Oratoiy as occupying the place of 
Solomon's Temple, and situated near the East wall, constructed of 
upright planks, and large beams over some ruined remains. It was a 
mean building, but capable of containing three thousand men*; and 
the same is repeated nearly two centuries later (ctr. a.d. 870) by Bern- 
hard the Monk \ The earlier traditions of the Moslems also recognise 
a timber Mosk, and furnish a few more particulars. ^ At this time there 
were between the pillars, pieces of wainscot (wood), 6000 oompartmenti 
of wainscot, and therein 60 doors ; and 000 marble pillars, and therein 
seven galleries for announcing prayer." Then, after a description of the 
chains and chandeliers, the writer adds, '* Moreover, there were within 
the Mosk 15 chapels* (to match) to the Chapel of the Sakhrah: and 
upon the flat roof of the Mosk there were 7700 planks of lead, the weig^ 
of every piece 70 pounds, besides that upon the Chapel of the Sakhrah*." 

» See above, p. 308. 

» P»ge 163, the " ^evferent" in 
this passage may only mean restore, in 
which sense it is certainly used by the 
translator in other passages. 

' Quoted in Vol i. p. 317, note 4. 
I have noticed, p. 103, that Mr. Per. 
gusson translates ^' in vicinia muri ab 
Oriente,*^ in the immediate vicinity of 
the southern wall: ^^subrectis tabulis 
et magnis trabibus,*^ he renders, '* the 
pillars were connected with beams**; 
'* Vili opere" he does not notice : for 
wishing to apply the description to the 
Mosk el-Aksa, it must not be made to 
appear a timber building nor a mean 
one. In Vol. i. p. 317, I have copied 
from Poujoulat an error, which the text 
forward will correct, as though Arcul- 
ftts spoke of the original building of 
Omar, or as though his visit was prior 
to the erection of the Dome of the Rock. 

But that building was completed io 
A.D. 691-2, and Arculfus was at Jem- 
salem apparently a.d. 697. 

* Recueil de Voyages, &c Tome 
IV. p. 797. •' In inferiore vero parte 
urbis, ubi Teroplum in vicinia mori 
ab Oriente locatum, ipsique urbi, 
transitu pervio, ponte mediante, fiierat 
conjunctum, nunc ibi Sarraceni/* &c 
as in Adamnanus, Lc This mentioo 
of the pons is very remarkable. 

^ All these fifteen domes Mr. Per- 
gusson crowds into the Mosk el-Akn, 
i.e, his Dome of the Rock. Essay, p. 199L 

* ThisisBeha-ed-din Ibn-Asiker, 
as cited by Mejr-ed-din, who however, 
as translated L c. p. 158, ooovcrtt the 
6000 panels of wainscot into ** coliiinBi 
of wood :** an error corrected by Jelal- 
addin, (Reynolds^s tranaUtion, p. 191.) 
which I fear is also loose and inexact 
Okba, as cited by Kemal-ad -din ( Lem- 


ABD IL-liaUtK. 


to odnoB ovdflr from thii 

Kaab'i dineOon fiir fiattiv liw flUUk- 
an not St an okar. Qnllf it ii oertaiii tlMt 
the Vaiky Gahanwrni, frtan which he maaaoiad, ia the Valkj of Jcho- 
fhagiiafjidifahiaaliwyaao called m the Mehammedaaai^ 
the KhaUfdid ncorer it to hia own flatiabctioiL 

Fhal^ I gather from theae acooonta that the Moak of Qmar, whalefai 
tedbawiat eiy waa not erected orer the Bock, hot prohaUy to the Booth 
of it; and that the Rock waa nncoreied and eiqwaed until the time of 
AbdaiMefflf.idio laid the fanndatJoPB of hia new hnildfag in the middle 
afflmHaiBm*. Next, I obaenre that thia Khalifto wcoka eoukled hi 
pailofnaweiedioni^andinpaitoftheieatorationiof old onm. Neaa^ 
dltheAnUanwiitenagnein atathig that he hnOt the Dome of the 
t9:idiaiheiepaiiedi8not8ocIearljatated. The Moak of Omar, aqra 
I ^; the Dome of the Rock and the Ifodk Bait d^Mnkaddna, 
aaya Keaaal ad-din", lem conecHy, appazentlj oontmnding the new 
aneHon aad the leaUnation : and then, to add to the eonfittion, he aob* 
Joini another tmdition, to the efiect that Ahd-eUMfilik erected the Dome 
Bait d^Mnkaddna, and that Said hia son xeatoiedit"; and, batlj, the 
Aidiitacti^ in their letter, cited by Jelal^iddin, report ^ completfon of 
Ae cnelkm ''of the Chapel of the Sakhrah, and the Sakhiah of the 
Bait d-Mnkaddna, and the Mode d-Akaa"." 

Nowtheaitaation of the small Mode of Omar (on the Eaat of thepie- 
aent Mode el-Aksa,) or of the Mosk Abu Bekr (on the Wort,) wonld so 
well answer to the position of Omar's building to the South of the Sakhrah, 
that I am disposed to credit the Moslem tradition that ascribes one or 
both of them to him^^: and to suppose that here was the Mosk of Omar 
mentioned by Mejr-ed-din as restored by Abd-el-Melik ; or this name 
might have been extended to the whole Church of S. Mary, because 

ming*t tnuislatioD, p. 58,) is scarcely 
Icn ob»ciire. The numbers entirely 
agree— the vord translated "galleries 
for anDooDcing prayer/* by Reynolds, 
it ** oratoria** in Lemming. 

' For proof of this, which is ignored 
by Mr. Fergusson, p. 136, see Mejr- 
•d-dtn. Tome ii. pp. 96, 133, 37R, 9, 
and Ibn Aba-et-Sherif, cap. vii. in No- 
tices dei M8S. du Roi, Tome i ii . p. 61 1 . 

* Jelal-addin, p. 186. I substitute 
Hanm for Mosk to prevent confusion : 
the original word must be Me^id, and 
tlie practice of rendering this word and 
Jmmj, by the same word '* Mosk,*' is 
fnUofincooTcnieoce. SeeaboveYp.297, 

note 3. 

' I believe the sole exception to be 
Abulfeda, Tabulse Syrise, p. 87, edit. 
Kdhler. But this is corrected in his 
Annales Muslemici. 

>o L. c Tome v, p. 162. 

*' Ap. Lemming, p. 67. 

» Ibid. So JeUl-addin, p. 185. 
''It is said, Said-Ibn-Abdul-M^lik- 
Marwto built the Chapel of the Beit- 
el-Mukaddus, and iu outward ooYering." 

" Reynolds's Transhuion, p. 186. 

i« See above, p. 307, and AU Bey, 
p. 217, n. 5. Mejr^-din, Tome ii. 
pp. 84—86. 



[part U. 

Omar had prayed there^ The Moek Bdt-el-Miikaddas, mentknied m 
another tradition as restored hy this Khalif> I have already identified 
with the Church of S. Mary, and proved it to have existed at the time 
of Omar*8 conquest' ; and this Church is perhaps already called the 
Mosk el-Aksa in the letter of the Architects. Nor is it improhahle that, 
as stated hy Mejr-ed-din, the other buildings at the South of the Mosk 
were buUt or restored at this time. 

I have suggested that the Model Dome of the Chain may have 
served also for the Treasury'; but it is perhaps more likely that the 
Golden Gate was converted to this purpose ; which would account for 
the features which it has in common vnth the Dome of the Rock; 
while the existence of a former Gateway would explain the discrepandei^ 
as the architect had here to accommodate his plan to the existing 

Arculfus and Bernhardt I have said, saw only the gigantic hoarding 
of the Mosk, composed of rough timber paneling, which could not 
have presented a very imposing exterior. The marble columns of this 
shed were doubtless taken from the ruins of the Temple, which largely 
contributed to the decoration of the building itself; for we have seen 
that the columns within the Dome of the Rock have been taken from 
an earlier building, and are certainly not in their original position, for 
some of them have neither base-moulding nor regular plinths; only so 
much of the original columns being employed as was necessary to raise 
them to the required height \ The bungling, untechnical description of 
Ali Bey enters most into detail. " The capitals of the columns are of 
the Composite order, richly gilt. The columns which form the central 
circle have attic bases, but the others which are between the octangular 
naves, are cut at the lower parts, without having even the listel or fillet 
which ought to terminate the shaft ; and instead of a base are placed 
upon a cube of white marble. Their proportion seems to be that of the 

* Sec above, p. 378, and notes. In 
the passage last cited from Mejr.ed^in, 
the name seems to be used in this more 
extended sense. Mejr-ed-din says also, 
in p. 84, that the Alur of David in the 
present el-Aksa is sometimes called the 
Altar of Omar, because it was here that 
he prayed on the day of the conquest 
It appears also from Dr Richardson, 
that while the Oratory of Omar is still 
designated by his name, the whole 
Mosk is so called by the Moslems. 
Vol. II. pp. 304, 3(M). 

' See above, p 377, n. 5. This great 

I confusion of names much obscures the 

' See above, p. 304. 

* A very curious instance of the 
manner in which old materials were 
worked up by the Saracens, may be seen 
in the Mosk of Amrou at Cairo, where 
are hundreds of columns of various 
styles and proportions, some standing 
on a base-moulding only, others on a 
proper plinth, others on cubes ; while 
the height of others is eked out by 
inverted capitals, serving as pedestals. 
Coste, Architecture Arabe, PL 11. 




BdtiieiliitfbanflMhieiiMthifl^*.'' Dr fiiehtidMm 
tint the oq>ita]8 of these cdlnmne era not etrietlyeQnk 
to the type of the Corinthkn Older: he ''speeiaUy noted tint tiw 
ht£ m adeed and tuned OTer; but did not ccmiider it the tnie krf of 
the CorinthiHi capital '.'* Another peeoUaiitgr in the aichitectim wfaieh 
dill nm to be noticed, is a heayy impost-block ahoTO the abacaa^ 
w h e r eon rests the horiaontal entablatare thai connecta the pillan and 
Bi^ports the discharging arches. This member was neyer introdoeed 
befi»ve the time of Jnstinian. The entablatare is loaded with ornament 
of a mixed diaracter, and the arches throoglumt the boilding are all 
mon or less pdnted. 

This last-named £ict might be thought ccmclasiTe against Mr. 
Fogoason's theoiy, had he not, with his usual sagadtj, conTerted a 
proof of tlie later date of the Church into an argument for the eaiiier 
of .the pcnnted arch. Haying established the preralenoe of the 
I arch in this building by the testimony of Mr. Arundale, he adds: 
**I haife not myself, I confess, found it before in one of so eaily a date ; 
lot I am delighted to so do now, for eveiy increase of knowledge haa 
ooafaled me to trsoe it higher and higher V Other difficulties are diipoaed 
of with equal ease; e. g. he writes : *^ The mode in which the entablatare 
ia vaed here is peculiar, perhaps unique'. For though, as for jnsfamoej 
in iStm B^tistery of Constaniine at Rome and elsewhere, we haTO sooh 
mk entablatare running over a lower and below an upper range of pDlaa^ 
I know of no instance of a discharging arch being used as this is.** And 
how then is this feature (which is the real peculiarity of the construction) 
accounted for ? " It is exactly such an instance of the use and mixture 
of two styles of architecture as one would expect to find in an age of 
transition like that of Constantine, combining the horizontal or trabeate 
architecture of the earlier age with the arcuate or arched style, which 
by the age of Justinian had entirely superseded and obliterated the 
former." It is singular, at any rate, that an expectation so reasonable (if 
so be) should only be realised here : but still more singular that precisely 
the same feature in the neighbouring Mosk el-Aksa should be adduced 
by Mr. Fergusson as a valid argument against its late Roman origin, and 
a convincing proof of its Mohammedan origin ^ 

» Travels, Vol. ii. p. 219. 

* He call« it a '^sort of Corinthian 
capitaL** He did not remark that it 
waagilt. Travels, Vol. II. p. 298. Mr. 
Catherwood^B drawing of the capital 
and entablature is given in Mr. Fer- 
guason*8 Essay, p. 104. 

7 Essay, p. 112, in a letter from Mr. 

» Essay, p. 104. 

* Ibid. p. 119; and compare the 
Frontispiece, ^' Interior of the Dome of 
the Rock/' with Plate II. p. 143, " In- 
terior of the Mosk el-Aksa,** where the 
construction is precisely similar, only 
that the arches in the latter are more 
stilted and more decidedly pointed than 
in the former. 


In the ^* style of omamentation" tJm, bdow the disme, he finds 
equally condamve proof of his Constantinian theory. ** It is tnie» there 
IS no band of scroll-work, that I can point ont, which is exactly similar 
to the one which here occupies the trifbriiim qtace/* How then is this 
accounted for ? " only from the circnmstanoe, that in all the old basilicas 
this band has been replaced by pictures in fresco or Mosaic, which hare 
obliterated the original ornament ^" " One or two instances^ howcTer, 
do occur of something very similar ;" and it is £edr that Mr. Fergusson't 
argument should have all the support that can be derived from them. 
The first adduced is, " on the two lateral apsides of the vestibule of the 
Baptistery of Constantino, the other, in the apse of the basilica of San 
Clemente at Rome'/* Now any one who will take the pains to compare 
the scroll pattern of the Churches here cited with that of the Dome of 
the Rock, will at once see that the resemblance ia only very geneiaL 
But I could almost regret that it is not more close, as in that case it 
would furnish a stronger argument against Mr. Fergusson's theoiy. 
He entertains, to be sure, no doubt that the Baptisteiy of Constantine wai 
built by him ; but the fact remains that ''some have supposed that it 
was erected subsequently." This instance then is of uncertain date ; and 
even granting the structure to be Constantinian, the omamentation may 
very possibly be subsequent, and must not be assumed as coeval with the 
fabric But the second instance is more to the purpose. ^ The Churdi 
of San Clemente was originally erected in the fourth century, but is 
generally supposed to have been entirely refmilt in the eighth, though on the 
original plan, and the frescos of the apse to have been added in th^ thtr- 
teenth*.*' The reader will need to be reminded that this is Mr. Fergusson's 
proof that the similar frescos of the Dome of the Rock are Constantinian, 
i. e. of the earlier part of the fourth century. But in order that it may 
subserve this end, testimony is, as usual, thrown to the winds ; and the 
latest addition to S. Clemente is assumed to be the only part of the 
original still remaining. " I feel convinced,'* he says, " that we have now 
the original apse, with its ornaments, except the cross in the centre, which 
is an interpolation of the thirteenth centuiy^; to which age also belong 
all the paintings on the front of the arch : the nave may belong to the 
eighth, and the choir to the ninth century ; indeed, they probably do so, 
for their style of ornament is so manifestly distinct from that on the 
apse of which I am speaking, that they cannot belong to the same age, 
and so far go to prove my position/' The frescos of the apse are not d 
the same age, but some centuries later than those of the choir, says 

> Essay, p. 112. 
» Ibid. p. 105. 
« Ibid. p. 106. 

* This is so far from being an inter- 
polation, that the whole pattern of the 

fresco painting evidently takes it* cha- 
racter from the Cross, and is held toge- 
ther by it. All the scroU-work springs 
from its foot : take away the Crots, and 
all is confusion. 




'flidtliit^ofwmjr portion." BMUeswiilBli,Ii 
HHt a difl^ fnmminatto of the Ikweos of the 
baro eovfliieod nj one aecmstoiiied to radi tfciidlei 
Msepoilod: faraUhoiig^ the pattens an ■emewhat d i fen il ie d In the 
DooH^ aa the diivnBj of oonrtraetioii leqnired, jet the idea is tiie asms 
Is all one piece. Bat the IXmie is snowed hy Mr. 
to be ''the latest addttloa to the bolldbigr to he ''both 
r and mteraally of pine B£ah€inetan afduteetaxe^ and li ImowB 
to haire been efected, or at least most thoiooghly xepaned, bj Soltsn 
floKman the Second, one of the Mahometan rakn of Constantino^'.* 
Nmr floliman leigned from A.n. 1687 to 1600: and we have seen from 
that in the eariier part of that centniy (A.n. 1626) the 
> of the bonding was all phun white; the Mosaics deaeribed bj 
Wmiam of Tyie hsTing frllen to decay*: the condasion is obfiou^ and 
fte y**""**** not a little oonfirmatoiy of both notioea.— 8iillnian» iHisn 
he lestosed the Dome, onamented it and the walls below with the "gilt 
alBiiee^* copied in colours by Blr. Gatherwood, and deaeribed aa being ''in 
the Anhesqne style, each as prerails in the Alhambn^" 

Once more; ''The 16 windows in the derestoiy of the Dome^ whldi 
an nrand-headed, are filled with perforated slabs;" and "the penfrntkna 
ne iOled with painted glass of great briUian^ V Thia Mr. Feigua s m 
Hdnks is a pecoUarity of Christian baildings, and addaose the Cfanrdi at 
Bethlehem, and S. Sophia at Constantinople, as examples. A most nnh^»py 
misconception, involving a double or triple error. For first, I have yet 
to learn that the art of glass-staininfif had attained perfection in the time 

* Essay, p. 114. One must look 
with its author's eyes to <* perceive at 
oaee the difference in the style of archi- 
tecture above and belgw the springing 
of the dome : all in the coved part being 
as distinctly and purely Mahometan, as 
all beneath it is certainly Christian !** 

* See above, p. 303, and note 3. 

^ Mr. Catherwood only says that 
the style is the same; there is no simi- 
larity between the patterns, as shewn 
in 3Ir. Owen Jones's magnificent work 
on Alhambra. I have looked through 
Cotters Architecture Arabe, &c. for 
similar patterns, but in vain. The 
reason is obvious. He gives none so 
late as this. The Mosks of Constanti- 
nople would doubtless furnish numerous 
parallels : but they are not published. 

" Essay, p. 106. " 1 have never 
seen it in a Mahometan religious struc- 
ture of any kind, nor do I know of one 
that possesses this ornament** It is 
curious enough that the neighbouring 
Mosk el-Aksa is an exception to this 
imaginary rule. Dr Richardson, ii. 
p. 306, remarks, ^' The dome is painted 
of different colours, and lighted by 
windows in the side. The glass in these 
windows is also painted blue, yellow, 
red, and green. The light admittwi 
through such a medium is softened and 
delightful,** &c Compare Mr. Bo. 
nomi*s account in Hogg's Visit to Alex- 
andria, &c Vol. II. p. 280. If Mr. 
Fergusson were consistent he wonld re- 
gard this as an argument for the Chris- 
tian origjn of El-Aksa. 


of Constantine ; secondly, the Moslems are very partial to this beaatifol 
decoration in their Moeks ; and some of the most brilliant glass I have 
seen is in the Mosk of the Saltan Suliman the Magnificent (a. d. 1620— 
1606) at Constantinople^ which was execated in Persia; thirdly, the 
Mosaic work at Bethlehem and S. Sophia, to which I presume Mr. 
Fergusson must allude ^ is not transparent but opaque, and not at all of 
the consistence of glass. 

Lastly, Mr. Fergusson finds, that the ceiling of the concentric aisles 
" is singularly Roman in its character and distribution, so much so, that 
it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to fix on any period when 
it could be erected between the age of Constantine and the revival of 
the Roman style in the 16th century in Italy'." It is necessary only to 
assume that '^ this revival has not yet extended to Syria,*" and that the 
Mohammedans ''never, in any age or countiy, erected a building with 
a ceiled roof:'' and the '' startling fact" is established : we ''find in a 
building so often burned down— according to the Chroniclers — ^the very 
original ceiling with which it was erected fifteen centuries ago.** 

To sum up then ; The Pointed discharging arches being allowed to 
present no insuperable objection to the Constantinian origin of the Dome 
of the Rock, the fact is established by the following arguments : A style 
of ornamentation for which no exact parallel has been found in a Chris- 
tian building, but the nearest to which is generaUy assigned to the 19th 
century, while that in the Dome of the Rock is known to have been 
executed at the end of the 18th : painted glass, which in the East is 
more proper to a Mosk than to a Church ; and the ceiling which, it is 
admitted, may have been executed in or after the sixteenth century. 

I said, when I considered the historical argument, that the archi- 
tectural argument would be found to halt throughout, and fairly break 
down at last. I must leave the reader to judge whether such is not the 
case. I will only here express my regret that the very positive tone 
assumed by Mr. Fergusson, and his contemptuous expressions so fre- 
quently reiterated against those who presume to question his conclusions', 
prevent him from gracefully receding from a theory which every one 
but himself will see to be utterly void of foundation. 

A few words will serve to clear up all the difficulty and doubt that 

* There is no painted glass certainly ^ ral construction or decoration in draw. 

at Bethlehem : nor do 1 believe that ings indicated by him, it is sometimes 

there is in S. Sophia, at least I do not , extremely diflScult to discover the 

remember any, though it was to be ex- , faintest resemblance, and yet we are told 

pected that the Moslems would intro- , (e.g. p. 98) "that they are so perfectly 

duce it there, as into their other Mo&ks. 
' Essay, p. 107. 1 must take the 
Uberty of remarking that Mr. Fergus- 
son is singularly unhappy in his illus- 
trations. In comparing the architectu- 

identical that it would be impossible to 
distinguish between them,** &c. &c 

* See f.g. pp. 107 ad ped. Ill ad 
ped. 115 ad cap. et passim. 




; the aidiiteeton of the Dome of the Bock. Ififcdoee 
I ft few details more ooofoirmAUe to the ohMdieel tjpo. then wen 
to be e ip e ete d in a Seraoenic boilding at the doee of the 7th eentuy, 
theee laegr be aoooimted for partly by the materials, partly by the aitificen 
employed. Old materials were worked into the new stnictare, and of 
eomse the new work would be made to the seme pattern, as near aa 
mig^ be : and models for imitatbn were at hand. Besides, we know 
that it was the prsctice of the early Khalifii to employ Greek masons 
and boildeis% who woold naturslly follow the dasaical type as neaily aa 
thsy eonld in the then debased state of the art So with the later ona- 
mentil work of the Dome and ceiling of the aisles. It is Tory piobabla 
thai an Italian artist may have been engaged by Soliman 11., (eoEaetlj 
aa Greek artists have lately been employed 1^ the Tnrks to xestom 
the Chnrch of S. Sophia at Constantinople',) which would aoeonnt for 
ny dndlarity that may exist between this and any Christian boilding. 

One word may be necessary to explain the inscriptions cited by Wil- 
Itamof Tyre, m proof that the Dome of thoRock wasboilt by theKhahf 
Omar ; an eixor which \b conntenanced by a fow req^ectaUe wiitei% and 
has become confirmed by the popular name given to the Mosk. The 
inaaiptions no doubt commemorated the recovexy of the Bode 1^ Omar 
and his designation of the spot to sacred uses, and in this way bJs name 
mlfl^ be introduced as the first founder of the Moflk^ althoo^ no part 
of the actusl structure was his. 

* There is a notable instance of this 
in the Great Church of Damascus, con- 
Terted into a Mosk by Welid, the son 
and fuccessorof thatvery Abd-el-Melik 
who built the Dome of the Rock. Abul- 
feda mention!^ that he (a. d. 705 — 714) 
collected workmen from (rreece and all 
the dominions of Islam. In ann. Heg. 
96. Annales Muslem. Tom. i. p. 433, 
ed.Reikke. Hafnis, 1789. DeGuignes 
remarks on this instance, "ce qui 
prouve que dans leur plus beaux mo- 
numens les Arabes eraployoient alors 
des ouTriers Grecs, on en trouve plu- 
lieurs ezemples dans Thistoire orien- 
tale." Notices des Manuscrits du Roi, 
Tome 111. p. 61.'). Mr, A.J. B. Hope, 
writing of the Dome of the Rock, re- 
marks in a letter — " 1 suppose that we 
moft account for its unquestionable re- 
semblance to Christian architecture by 
supposing that, as in Constantinople 
the Turks employed Greeks after the 
capture to biuld Mosks, and these imi- 

Uted Byzantine churches, so the Sara- 
cens employed Christians in Jerusalem, 
who imitated the churches existing 
there— the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, and that of the Ascension.** Ex- 
actly, in fact, as Mr. Fergusson, p. 110, 
supposes San Stefano Rotundo to be a 
copy of the Dome of the Rock. 

^ The infidels have always been 
glad to avail themselves of the services 
of Christian artists. Thus e.g. A. Mo- 
rison ( Relation Historique, &c. p. 294, 
A.D. 1697, 8), mentions that the kadi 
at Jerusalem has power to dispense 
with the rigour of the law that prohibits 
Christians from entering the Mosk, and 
that he had conversed with a clever 
carpenter, who had been forced to work 
there eight or ten days (probably in the 
repairs under Suliman II.) So at Cod- 
stantinople the late Sultan MahmAd, 
father of Abd-el-Mejid, lies in a man. 
soleum erected by an Julian architect, 
within the precincts of the Ounanfeh. 




I HAVE already traced the coniBe of the Second Wall firam the Gate 
Gennath to the Damascus Gate (pp. 55 — 60), but deferred the consider- 
ation of its continuation until I had ascertained the position of the 
Fortress Antonia, at which it terminated, (p. 64). Dr. Wilson, in 1843, 
observed a peculiarity in a portion of the present north wall of the Otj 
which he '* had not seen alluded to in any book of travels, that the wall, 
for some extent above its foundation, bears, in the magnitude and pecu- 
liarity of its stones, the evidence of great antiquity. The Saracens have 
made grooves in them to make them correspond symmetrically with their 
own workmanship above; and the traveller ia apt to pass them hj 
without notice. They are decidedly of the character, however, which he 
has mentioned; and they are probably remains of the second wall, 
described by Josephus. They ought to be taken into account in the 
discussion of the great topographical question of the site of the Holy 
Sepulchre. They extend about 900 feet from the Damascus Gate west- 
ward, to which they also continue '." Here then the stones fidl in with the 
two chambers of Cyclopean masoniy on either side the Damascus Gate', 
which I have before noticed in tracking the course of the second waD, 
(p. 64) : the outer &ces of these stones are similarly grooved by the 

I suppose, then, that the second wall coming from the South joined 
the western extremity of the stones mentioned by Dr. Wilson, and then 
followed the course of the present wall to the Damascus Gate. The 
question now arises, whether it followed that course still further east- 
ward across the high, rocky ridge, now crowned by the city- wall, oppo- 
site to the Cave of Jeremiah. There can, I think, be no doubt that this 
was originally one hill ^ ; and if I could discover when the intervening 
rock was quarried out and the grotto excavated, I should know how 
much to include in the second wall \ The cave certainly existed be- 

* Landsof the Bible, VoLi. p. 421. * I suggested in the firrt edition 

* Accurately represented by Mr. 
Tipping, in Traill's Josephus, p. xlvii. 
where see a full description, and in 
Bib. Res. i. p. 464. 

^ The compariiM>n of the strata of 
the limestone rock near the Cave of 
Jeremiah, and below the city- wall, led 
me to this conclusion, which Dr Schultz 
says his repeated observation has con- 
firmed. Jerusalem, p. 36. 

(p. 283, n. 2) that the materials for 
the present city-walls, erected in a. n. 
1517> may possibly have been taken 
from this quarry, and Dr Schults L c. 
seems to agree with me. Quareamius, 
Vol. II. p. 40, says that the modem wall 
is built chiefly of ruins taken from de- 
solated cities, but in part also of stones 
taken from the neighbouring hills. 




ftn ihB OTHtfon of the pment waUt'; and tfaa deep Imk and qoany 
«n pnbiUtjr itfll eulier. Henoe I htyn mi^giTiiigs about fajfthidtiig the 
wboh lifl]» aa I did in my fonner Flan, ao I have now dwwn the i 
«d along tbeeoaiae of the modemivalL It rnagr he that the < 
af the fvaU in this party ooofllBting entirely of natmal loek mesely ftood 
with aaaomy, will jnatiiy me in ao doing: fhr, althongh I dare not 
aaaome thk to he a peculiarity of Jewish or Roman Ibartifioation, yet we 
know it to have prerailed in Herod's fortrssses^ and have already met 
with it by the Hippie Tower, and at the &E. comer of the Hanam*, 
both wfaidi were in the oonrse of the ancient waUiL The wall will then 
pvoeeed caatwaid, until it reaches the browof the hill that oferiiangathe 
vaDsy which extends down from the Gate of Herod to the western end 
cf the Birket Isnil, and will then follow the ridge down to its point of 
with the Wall of Ant<mia at its north-CMtem an«^ I hafie 
» said, that the dediTity of Acre is as steep on this side aa It fa on 
the West and North; and the Talley which sepanted It from the hiwer 
part of Beaetha fa still to he traced withm the city '. 

It fa a dirioos fiMst, that thfa part of the city was defended by adooble 
wnliao late as the period of the Cmssdes, and the fosse whidi s ep areto d 
Antonfa from Bezetha existed until a much later period. The Norman 
Fmeh writer cited by Beugnot", in followiDg the Via Dolorosa* (called 
by him the Street of Joesphat), from the Vall^ Street, eastward, to the 
Gate of & Bfaiy, (with him the Gate of Joeaphat,) apparently afl« 
passing the " Arch of the Ecce Homo/* (the Dolorous Gates,) says, that 
on the left of this street, between it and the city- walls, are streets, as of 
a city, in which lived most of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. This was 
called La Marie. It derived its name, no doubt, from the Monastery 
of S. Mary Magdalene, situated within it, shewn to later pilgrims as the 
house of Simon the Pharisee, where the Saint anointed our Saviour's 
feet with ointment : and considerable ruins of the church still exist 
Near this Monastery was a postern, by which there was no exit to the 
country but only between the two walls. This is confirmed by the 
Continuator of William of Tyre, in his account of the siege of the city 
by Slt1A<^iT^- After a vain attempt upon the Tower of David for eight 
suoceasive days, the Sultan blockaded the north-east comer of the city, 
from the Gate of S. Stephen, ue. the Damascus Gate, to the Gate of Jeho- 
shaphat ; *' between which ", says the writer, " was neither gate nor poatem, 
save the postern of the Magdalene; through which one went between the 

* It in mentioned by Mejr-ed-din, 
1. e. II. p. 133 ; of which more in the 
next chapter. 

* See the description of the towers 
Uippicus Phasaelus and Mariamne, in 

BeU. Jud. V. iv. 3, and of Antonia, in 
V. & See above, pp. 16, 317. 

7 See above, pp. 62, S, and Dr 
Scholtx, p. 32. 

* OiTen in the Appendix. 



[part n. 

two walls ^" That the Gate of the Magdalene was identical in position 
with the present Bab es-Sahari, or Herod's Gate, admits, I think, of no 
doubt ; but the course of these two walls is a perplexing question, which 
the above-cited passages are not sufficient of themselves to dedde, nor do 
I find any other notice of them. The position of the fosse, before the 
Church of S. Anne, is clearly marked by numerous writers, and will 
require a fuUer notice in the next Chapter. 


I FIND that in p. 321 I have cited Dr. Robinson, as copied by Mr. 
Tipping, too literally. A comparison of Mr. Brettell's measoremcait 
shews that tjersed sine ought to be substituted for oonne, in that passage. 
The cosine would be much more than 3 ft. 10 in. Mr. Brettell's measure- 
ment differs slightly from Dr. Robinson's, and makes the chord 12 ft, the 
sine 11 ft. 64 in., and the versed sine 3 ft. 54 in. Dr. Robinson's elements 
would give a radius of 20 ft. li in., or 71 inches less than Mr. BrettelL 


The passage cited from the Talmud in p. 355, note 5, seems not to 
be correctly given in the edition of Surenhusius, firom which I copied it. 
The folio and quarto editions read as follows : ^2JD tVy\)i m^Ul Itf 

The variation does not justify the translation or the Commentaries, but 
it seemed right to notice it. 


In p. 375, I have adduced the Placentine Pilgrim as the only 
writer that mentions the Church of S. Mary, between the period of its 
erection by Justinian and the Saracenic Conquest. In Vol. i. p. 291, n. 6, 
I have spoken of the notice of it in Lib. i. capp. ix, xi. of S. Gregory of 
Tours, de Gloria Martyrum. But this is spurious, and its date uncer- 
tain ; nor does it furnish any particulars, but merely says, " Monasterium 
est valde magnum in Hierusalem, non modicam habens congregationem, 
in quo: ... Imperatoris jussu non minima largiuntur." Cap. xi. Opera 
col. 733. This was evidently dedicated to S. Mary, but is not neces- 
sarily identical with the Basilica in Cap. ix. Col. 730. 

* Guillclmi Tyrii Continuata Hist. 
Lib. XXIII. sect 21, ap. Martene et 
Durand. Tome iv. col. 613: "des la 
porta Saint Estienne jusques k la porte 
de Josaphas n'avoient porte ne pos- 

teme, par ont il peussent issir as chans, 
fors seulement la posteme de la Made- 
leine, dent Ten issoit por aler entre 
deux murs." 




The object proposed in the present Chapter is an 
elucidation of some antiquities chiefly without the walla 
of Jerusalem ; and I must beg the reader to accompany 
me first to the Mount of Olives, then descending again 
into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, to make a circuit of the 
city, by that Valley and the Valley of Hinnom, pausing 
at such objects of interest as occur in the way. The 
discus^iion also of the Waters will find an appropriate 
phice in thi^ Chapter. 

Leaving, then» the tower Antonia by the Street of 
Jehoshaphat, and passing, for the present without notice, 
the large reservoir under the northern wall of the 
llarani knnwn as Birket Israil, and reputed among the 



[part IL 

native Christians to be the Pool of Bethesda, we make 
our exit from the city by S. Mary's Grate, — ^for I adopt 
the native name, in order to avoid the confusion which 
the transference of the name and the traditions of 
S. Stephen from the North of the city might otherwise 
occasion ^ It is impossible to deny or to account for 
this transference'; indeed, the conflicting statements of 
ancient and modem writers can only be reconciled by 
assuming it, and the period at which it must have 
occurred may be reduced to very narrow limits'. It is 
obvious that the earlier tradition, which fixed the place 
of the Protomartyr's Passion a stadiiun without the 
Damascus GateS has much greater authority than that 

' On this account, alio, I have df- 
parted from my usual practice in the 
Plan, which is to give the current na- 
tive and Frank name. I might have re- 
vived one of its other names, " Porta 
Josaphat** from the Noraian French 
writer cited by Beugnot, and the Con- 
tinuator of William of Tyre, (Mar- 
tene and Durand, Tom. v. col. 613,) or 
" Porta Vallis sive Gregisr See Adri- 
chomius, Th. Terr. Sanct No. 165, p. 
168,and Quaresmius £. T.S. Tom. II. p. 
293. This last writer makes this the Gate 
Oenath! Edrisi and others transfer 
to this gate the name Bab et-Sabat^ 
(the Tribes,) proper to the contiguous 
Gate of the Haram. See Jaubert, i. 
p. 341. So Ibn-el-Wardi, p. 180, and 
Mejr-ed-din, ii. p. 129. On the whole, 
however, it seemed better to adopt the 
current native name, derived from the 
Tomb of the Virgin, to which it leads. 

' Quaresmius, with laudable but 
mistaken zeal for the traditions, attempts 
both. Tome ii. p. 296. 

' Rudolph von Suchem (a.d. 13S6- 
60 ) appears to be the last extant writer 
who gives this name to the Damascus 
Gate. In his days the buildings had 
disappeared : and before that (a. d. 
1325) Sir John Maundeville had found 
a Church of S. Stephen on the East of 
the city by the Valley oi Jehoahaphat. 
p. 80, ed. Lond. 1/27. " The tradition 
had begun to waver.'* See Dr Robin- 
son, in Theol. Rev. iii. p. 639« and 
notes. Com p. Viaggio di S. Sigoli 
(a.d. 1384) p. 71. Firenze, 1829; and 
his companion Lionardo di Nicoolo 
Frescobaldi, p. 114. Roma, I8ia In 
the 15th century the name and tra- 
ditions had become fixed. Theol. Rev. 

^ Dr Robinson, with an unaccount- 
able oblivion of chronology, adduces 
the undisputed fact that the place of S. 
Stephen^s Martyrdom, according to 
the earlier tradition, (without the Da- 
mascus-Gate, ) was within the third wall, 
as a Scripture proof that <<of coune it 

cm^^J^ ' rmunram TiuimnARiii. 483 

iMch, dating only fifom the 14th oratory, finds it with- 
out tfais; and, as "it is not to be supposed that the 
scene of an event so important to the whole Churdi as 
the death of the first Martyr,. ••shonld in so shorta time 
have been forgotten among the Christians of Jemsa- 
lem*/' it is very probable that the Churdi of Eudozia 
did mark the true spot. However this mxy have been« 
I am at a loss to understand how the question of the 
genuineness of the existing tradition, (obviously trans- 
ferred in the 14th century from another locality, wfaidi 
was not itself distinguished by any monument until the 
5th century*) can affect the authenticity of the site of 
the Holy Sepulchre, which has undergone no fmdi trans- 
ference, which was from the first distinguished by a 
rock-hewn monument, least of all subject to decay, 
surmounted in the second century by a pagan shrine, 
demolished in the 4th century, only to make way for 
a more magnificent and substantial erection. 

Descending now into the Valley of Jehoshaphat by 
a zig-zig path of steps down the steep declivity, the dry 
bed of the Brook Kedron is passed by a bridge of 
one arch ; a few paces beyond which is the entrance to 

was not the true spot." Theol. Rev. i of its course. 

p. 640; and in p. 642 he argues on it, as 
usual, ^* tte have seen^ according to the 
testimony of Scripture, this venerated 
spot could not be the true site of Ste- 
phen's fflartyrdom.** But S. Stephen 
was martyred a. d. 33, according to the 
received chronology » and the third wall 
was not built until a. n. 40 : so that at 
the time of his martyrdom, the site, a 

^ Dr Robinson, 1. c. p. 542. 

" The two cases are adduced as ex- 
actly parallel by l>r Robinson, 1. c. But 
who will maintain that the two events 
were equally important? He further 
says, that *'' the evidence and the proba- 
bilily of a traditional knowledge of the 
spot on the North of the city are at 
least as great as in the parallel case of 

stadium North of the Damascus Gate, i the Holy Sepulchre:** p. 641 ad ped. 
was certainly without the second wall, i He cannot really think it. 
even according to Dr Robinson's idea 

Vol. n. 28 



[part O. 

the Bubterranean Chapel of S^Mury on the left, and the 
garden of Gethsemane on the right. 

The authenticity of the Tomb of the Virgin rests 
on a very slender foundation. The silence of the 
Pilgrims and Fathers of the first six centuries is a 
convincing proof that it had as yet no place among the 
sacred localities of the Holy City^; nor is suspicion 
allayed by the fact, that the earliest distinct notice of 
the existing monument is found in a professed quotation 
from a letter of the Patriarch Juvenal to the Empress 
Pulcheria^ adduced by the over-credulous S. John of 
Damascus: for even supposing the letter genuine, its 
authenticity would by no means follow, since this same 
Patriarch was a convicted forger, and may very possibly 
have fabricated this, as Pope S. Leo assures us he did 
other falsehoods, in order to compass the object of his 
ambition, and raise his See to the dignity of a Patri- 
archate ^ 

In any case, the enquiry of the Empress Pulcheria 
proves that the fertile imagination of the Orientals 
had not as yet elaborated the beautiful myth of the 
Assumption; for she enquired for the body, with the 
desire to possess herself of the relics*. It is curious to 

> ThiB if admitted, and the difRcul- 
ties more fairly stated than satisfacto- 
rily met, by Quaresmius. Lib. i v. cap. 
iii. Pereg. vii. Tome ii. p. 244, &c So 
alio Le Quien, loc. inf. cit. note 1 in p. 
867 ad ped. p. 858. 

' See the professed extract from the 
apocryphal Euthjrmian History, cited 
by S. John Damascenus, Homii. 2da 
de Dormitione B. Mariae Virginia, 
sect. XTiii. Tom. ii. p. 879 of Le Quien*8 
edition ; and for the spuriousness of the 

history, see note 1 of the learned edi- 
tor. Juvenal sat from A. D. 429-457- 

3 '< In EphisinA Synodo... JuTcnalii 
Episcopus ad obtinendum Palestine 
provinds prindpatum credidit se posse 
sufficere, et insolenter ausus per com- 
mentitia scripta firmare.** £p. ad Max- 
imum Antioch. £p. xdi. Op. p. 81QL 
Compare Le Quien's note L c. ad fin. 

* Ajcovo/acv civat i» *Ie^ooroX«/(t0«t 

ytac OeoTOKOv Kal aMfWOfiBimv Maplat 




)sit.v, or to inculcate Christian 

■lit of S. Mary's Church and that 

'' its eight venerable olive-trees, 

• •lnK»sc rather to believe than to 

ilii'ct ascent to the Church of the 

'M^ the centre of the three sum- 

;J('l)cl et-Tur*), 2,400 feet above 


I' descend to the examination of 
' of the place, let us mount the 

hr _ tian name and calls it Jebel Zeitun. 
mil Et-TuriB its more common natiTc name, 
• ii which it has in common with two other 
^ c. Sacred Mountainn, vii. Sinai and Ta- 
rn l)or. I must here notice a curious coin- 
r- cidence. In the directions fpven to 
:^' Saul (1 Samuel x. 2— A) we find "the 
.1- Plain of Tabor," between Rachers 
- :ti Sepulchre and " the Hill of (rod, where 
is the garrison of the Philistines.** 
i r.i- , which he must pass on his way home 
lilt to (iibeah of Benjamin. Now where 

. T> ' the anointing took place is not clear 

c]. I perhaps at liethlchem (compare ix. 12, 

: ra- 13 with xvi. 2, A), or at any rate some- 

^•ht where South of the Tomb of Rachel, 

|.r<)- (the site of which is clearly identitied, treii. XXXV. Itl, 20), not far from the 

.'ve.'* South extremity of the Plain of Rephi- 

; pi I- dim, which must be the ** Plain of Ta- 

. nitcy bor/* as " the Hill of God, with the 

I Year Philistine garrison** is certainly Jebus, 

. ' or at I then held by the C-anaaniies. Now, may 

.iitl that not the plain have taken its name from the 

-.1 Sunday most conspicuous mountain in its neigh- 

iMurhood — then, as now, called Jebel 

« the Chris. et-Tur, like its namesake in (ralilee r 



[part II. 

credence, and gave occasion to many superstitions ; and 
that apparently against the authority of a general 
Council; for it is extremely difficult to torture the 
language of the Ephesine decree to any other meaning 
than that the Blessed Virgin with S. John reposed in 
that city^; an interpretation countenanced by the de- 
dication of the Church in which the Council assembled. 
There is a descent of sixty steps to the Church, 
which consequently lies completely under the bed of 
the YaUey of Jehoshaphat. On the right hand of the 
descent is shewn the Chapel and Tombs of SS. Joachim 
and Anna, that of S. Joseph on the left, and towards 
the Elast of the Church (now no longer, as in earUer 
times, a round Church', but a cruciform excavation 
terminating in apses,) is the supposed Tomb of S. Mary, 
bearing a general resemblance to the Holy Sepulchre, 
and probably modelled after its pattern^ Its various 
altars bear witness to the divisions of Christendom, and 
its joint occupation by the various Communities con- 
tributes to perpetuate their miserable feuds : nor does 
the influence of Gethsemane, which is hard by, serve 

(•hurch until much later. It was in the 
time of Charlemagne that the Western 
Church conformed its practice to that 
of the Eastern in celebrating the Fes- 
tival on August 15. See further Le 
Quien, 11. cc, and Mabillon de Liturgia 
Oallicana, Lib. ii. zxii. p. 119. Gre- 
gorius Turonensis de Gloria Mart. Lib. 
I. cap. iv. proves nothing, as the first 
eleven chapters of that book are undoubt- 
edly spurious, by a much later hand. 
Vid. ed. Bened. in loc. Opera, col. 724. 
Parisiis 1699. 

' Hftrropio^ K^Qdca^ iv T^ E^f/- 

oivov SvOa 6 OeoXoyo^ Iomxvvijv, xal rj 

deoTOKo^ Tapdevo^ ij ay ta Mapca * CflO- 
cil. £phe8. Act. i. apud Labbe, Tom. 
III. col. 573, A.D. 431. TUlemont, 
Memoires pour servir, &c. Tome i. 
p. 69. Art VII., suT La Sainte Vierge, 
and in his very fair note, ziv. pp. 
467 — 469, enters more largely into this 

'As described by Arculfus, L c. 
*' Cujus(£cclesi») duplidter fabricate, 
inferior pars sub lapideo tabulato mi- 
rabili rotunda est structure fabricata. Id 
cujus Orientali parte Altare habetur.** 

^ See a description in Quarcamius, 
If. 240—243, and the Plan on p. 248. 


KouiiT ounriT. 


to alby iheir animosity, or to inculcate Christiaa 

Between the oomi of S. Mary's Church and that 
aacred Oarden, with its eight TeneraUe oliTe-trees, 
whose anthentioity I choose rather to beHeve than to 
defend*, is the most direct ascent to the Church of the 
Aaoension, which crowns the centre of the three sum- 
mHs of Mount Oliyet (Jebel et-TOr^), 2,400 feet aboro 
Che Ie?et of the Mediterranean. 

And here, before we descend to the examination of 
the particular tradition of the place, let us mount the 

* It it of couna qaettUmed by Dr 
Hh. Ret. I. S46L.7, and 
His vgimienti will tcarcdy 
nddy those who wish to disbeliere. 
Tho olifo-trses aie Tery old. I like to 
biUovt tiMm as old as the Gospel nar- 
imtiTe. The only srgament against 
tills Tenerable antiquity — for the olive 
is a long-lived tree— is that Titus cut 
down all the trees about Jenisalera. 
But Josephus does not say so. The 
trees oo the North of the city were cut 
down (Bell. Jud. y. iii. 2), the others 
only stripped of their branches (ibid. 
VI. Tiii. 1). It is singular that a tra- 
Teller — apparently without any thought 
of this — has remarked on <' the dispro- 
portionate hugeness of their venerable 
trunks to the thin foliage above.** 
Bartlett*s Walks, p. 105. Let the pil- 
grim, if he have the opportunity, obey 
the injunction of the Christian Year 
in the " Monday before Easter,** or at 
any rate be sure to read or resall that 
piece, and the one for the << 3d Sunday 
in Advent,** in this garden. 

' £diisi,p.344,Uan8latestheChris. 

tian name and calb it Jebd ZdtAii. 
Et-Tur is itsmoiceominonnarif mme, 
which it has in common with two otte 
Sacred Moontains, Tii. Sinai and Ta- 
bor. I most here notice a carioos coin* 
ddence. In the diroctiona gim tb 
Saul (1 Samuel x. 2-6) we find <<the 
Plain of Tabor,** between Rachel*s 
Sepulchre and " the Hill of Ood, where 
is the garrison of the Philistines/* 
which he must pass on his way home 
to Uibeah of Benjamin. Now where 
the anointing took place is not clear — 
perhaps at Bethlehem (compare ix. 18, 
13 with xvi. 2, 5), or at any rate some- 
where South of the Tomb of Rachel, 
(the site of which is clearly identified. 
Gen. XXXV. 19, 20), not far from the 
South extremity of the Plain of Rephi- 
dim, which must be the *' Plain of Ta- 
bor,** as <' the Hill of Ood, with the 
Philistine garrison** is certainly Jebos, 
then held by the Canaanites. Now, may 
not the plain have taken its name from the 
most conspicuous mountain in its neigh- 
bourhood — ^then, as now, called Jebd 
tt'TtLT, like its namesake in Galilee ? 


ruined minaret of my friend Dr. Bchults, and beg 
him to point out to us the yarious features of the 
magnificent prospect that it commands, — ^with every 
phase of which he is so perfectly familiar ^ " Imme- 
diately below, even to the opposite brink of the Valley 
Kedron, Jerusalem lies spread out before us. The 
strong outlines of the Castle of David are seen on 
the Western horizon. The cupolas of the convents and 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the slender minaret 
on the North-east hill of the city, one after another 
stand out to view in the maze of the many roofe of 
houses, some with low vaults, some flat, and surrounded 
by distinct, perforated walls, which again we pursue, 
until we cast a calm look into the great Court of the 
Haram, inaccessible to us, and contemplate the bea«ty 
of the Mosks, of the octagonal Sakhrah, covered with 
the most beautiful cupola imaginable, and of the Aksa, 
reminding one of the Basilica form of the Christian 
Churches, surrounded in solemn silence and almost 
melancholy, by the lively verdure and flourishing trees, 
such scarcities in these parts. 

" If we turn our eyes towards the South, a lofty 
range of the Mountains of Judah limits the horizon in a 
wide sweep, commencing at the Mountains of Tekoa, 
and running westward. . The Frank Mountain (Jebel 
Furdeis) and the environs of Bethlehem are also 
visible. Nearer to us, and in the same direction, lies 
a ridge whereupon stands the Greek Monastery of 
Mar Elias: on this side lies the plain, supposed to 

' The beautiful and graphic de- I is from DrSchults's Jerusalem, pp. 4S, 
scription of this magnificent prospect, ! 43 ; but a translation does it poor justice 

OB.-T.] PBCMraOT nOK OilTBT. 489 

be the ]ihin of * Rephaim/ ccmtrutiiig itself towstds 
tiie mm&Jwegt, into the Boee-Vallqr (Wadi eUWwd), 
wUch oouveys to the enyirons of Jernsileiii fiponi tho 
aea» damp fogs or cooling sea-breexes^ according to 
tiie seasoiL Towards the West lies the nearest parallel 
dope of the mountain ridge, which bears the lUfy 
atj itself and over which lies the Jaffit road If we 
tent further to the North, there the height of NeU 
Samwfl rises up steeply with its Mosk, from whence 
one can see the Mediterranean; fiuiher in the back- . 
ground, the mountains of Samaria: and lastty, to^ 
wards the East we have the Valley of Jordan beneath 
ua, where a green streak on a whitish ground marks 
the course of the Biver toward the Dead Sea, into 
the mirror of which we here and there look, between 
the undulating hills on this side, and see how it 
reflects the rocky shores beyond: and if we follow 
the Eastern boundary of the plain of the Jordan from 
North to South, there is a continuous chain of moun- 
tains, as far as the steep cliffs of the Dead Sea, 
above which rises deeper in the country Jebel Shih&n, 
with its compressed and gently-rising siunmit, which 
is in the winter-time frequently covered with snow: 
whilst close to the sea the valley-clefts of the Zerka- 
River, and the Amon (Wadi Mojeb) are plainly to be 
distinguished; and during clear weather the old for- 
tress Kerak also appears like a rock-nest, where the 
sea has long since disappeared from our eyes, which 
after a Complete circle again rest on the place whence 
we set out." 

The very ancient tradition that has marked the site 
connected with this Minaret and Mosk as the place 
of our Lord's Ascension, has lately been attacked with 




much vehemence': and it has been wged ihat, whatever 
may be said for other sacred localities in or about 
Jerusalem, this at least is '^unquestionably false ;" since 
it is contradicted by the express declaration of Scrip- 
tiure, which states that " Jesus led out His disciples as 
far as to Bethany, and blessed them, and while He 
blessed them, He was parted from them, and carried up 
into heaven' :" whereas the summit of Mount Olives is 
scarcely half-way between Jerusalem and Bethany. 

Now it is certain that, before the Holy Sepulchre 
had emerged from its obsciuity, and while the idol-fane 
as yet excited the horror, and forbade the devotions 
of the early Christians, the place of the Ascension on 
Mount Olivet was regarded with veneration, and visited 
by pilgrims; so that there is no room for doubt that 
the munificence of S. Helena did in this case only per- 
petuate the existing tradition'. If then it can be 
proved that this tradition, whose origin is lost in the 
antiquity of the Ante-Nicene period, is palpably false, 

' It need hardly be said that the 
objector is Dr Robinson, who lays great 
stress upon the argument as demon- 
strating the worthlessness of traditionary 
evidence. See Biblical Researches, i. 
p. 375, II. p. 77, and Biblioth. Sac pp. 
177—181. The tradition of the Place 
of the Nativity at Bethlehem is adduced 
for the same purpose in the same places ; 
but it is said, " the objections are not so 
strong " — "the results not so decided." 
Such as they are, they will be noticed 
in their proper place. 

« S. Luke xxiv. 60. 61. 

^ The date commonly assigned to 
the Demonstratio Evangelica of Euse- 
biuB is A.D. 316. Here, in expounding 

Zechariah xiv. 4, he mentions the place 
on the Mount of Olives, where stood 
the feet of the Incarnate Word, vpot 
TtS aiiTodi i€iKVVfi€vtp <nr7|Xattt>, and 
delivered to His disciples the mysteries 
concerning the end on the summit of 
the mount, and from thence ascended, 
according to S. Luke, in Acts i. 
$f-12. Dem. Evan. Lib. vi. cap. xviil 
p. 288. Parisiis, 1628. The pasMiges 
from S. Jerome, S. Paulinus of Nola, 
Sulpicius Severus, Adamnanus, and 
Bede, are cited by Baronius, Annales, 
in A. D. 34, as also by Gretser, Prolog, 
ad Adamnanum, cap. viii. Opera, Tom. 
IV. pars ii p. 249, &c. ; where he also 
adduces later testimonies. 




Ilia fiwt win serve greatly to inyaHdate the force of tra- 
ditionary evidence in general, and of that relating to the 
Hofy Sepulchre in particular, which is awnmed to date 
osij from the time of Cionstantine. If on this account 
alone, the Station of the Ascension is worth defending, 
nrst, then, the Oospel of S. Luke was certainly 
reoeiTed as canonical in the third century. It is at least 
probaUe that the laborious Ciompiler of the Hezi^»la was 
not altogether ignorant of its contents ; the same may 
be s«d of Eusebius, and the learned Translator of the 
Vulgate, in the fourth century, not to mention the 
deigy and people of the Church at Jerusalem, one of 
whose deacons, as we have seen, had the Holy Scrip- 
tines by heart^. Now these all with one consent re- 
ceiTed the traditions in question, and did not reject the 
Gospel of S. Luke : they must, then, have had some way 
of reconciling the Scripture statement with the prevail- 
ing traditions. It is certainly easy to say that the 
fathers here mentioned were " not experienced inter- 
preters" of Scripture, (although, if they were not, it 
was not at least for want of practice) ; but is it so easy 
to imagine what should induce those who originated the 
traditions to fix on a palpably wrong site — if they did 
fix it at all ? If it were so very obvious that the Ascen- 
sion took place at Bethany, why did they not select a 
spot in that village, which was not far distant ? How 
could they be so rash as to assign it to the smnmit of 
Mount Olivet, if it were " unquestionably, prima f<uAe^ 
wrong,*" and " contradicted by the express declaration 

« See VoL i. p. 232. It ought to be 
remembered, too, that we read the same 
of many of the monks of Mount Olivet 
aod others. They were much com- 

mended for it. IgnoTince of the holy 
Scriptures was not considered a Tirtue 
in those days, as many seem to Ima- 


THB HOLT omr. 

[part n. 

of Scripture"? They might quite as well have trans- 
ferred Bethlehem and Nazareth to Jerusalem ; as a 
mediseval tradition did '* the Mountain of Galilee ^^ 

To proceed now to the main point. I will first 
adduce a passage, in no way connected with the Ascen- 
sion, which presents a parallel difficulty to that which 
does. The explanation of the former may lead to a 
right understanding of the lattor. On the occasion of 
oiur Blessed Lord^s triumphant entry into Jerusalem on 
Palm Sunday, we are informed by two of the Evan- 
gelists that *' when He had come near to Jerusalem, 
to Bethphage, and Bethany, to the Moimt of Olives, He 
sent two of His disciples *,'' &c. These words undoubt- 
edly imply progress to the place from whence He sent 
Yet He had passed the last day and night at Bethany, 
according to a third Evangelist^; and with what pro- 
priety could it be said that He had come thither on the 
Sunday morning, if He had passed the Sabbath there ? 
and, further, how can we account for the mention of 
Bethphage ? The fourth Evangelist seems to make all 
clear*. He writes, " When they drew nigh unto Jeru- 
salem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the Mount of 
Olives, then sent Jesus," making no mention of Bethany. 
It is easy to imagine that an objection might be framed 

' This absurd tradition, which fi- 
gures in all Itineraries from the lt5th 
century downwards, may have arisen 
from a confusion of the place of the 
** Viri Galilei;" for which see above, 
p. 127, note 4, and below, p. 446, note 
2. The Bordeaux Pilgrim (so early 
as A.D. 333) places the Mount of Trans- 
figuration on Mount Olivet ! Ap. Wes- 
seling, p. 595. 

* Mark xi. 1. Luke xix. 29. 

* John xi. 1, &c. 

* Matt xxi. I, &c It may be al- 
lowed to mention that this aolutioo is 
the only one that satisfied me, ato 
some perplexity, on the spot ; when I 
am not aware that I had any thought 
of the traditionary site of the Ascen- 
sion, the difficulty of which never 
occurred to me. 



to ibfBte pM9ig€8» on aoooimt of their ii 
and the most ntisfiustxNfy answm* that would ooonr 
to me ironld be this. That the tillage of Bethany 
gttve its name to the eastern dope of Mount Olivet^ 
at the foot of which it was situated, whereas the west- 
ern slope was called by the name of Bethphage; and 
that onr Lord may be supposed to have sent BJs di»- 
ciplesi not from the viUage of Bethany before they set 
oat, but on their progress to Jerusalem, when th^ had* 
edranced to that point where the two districts joined, as 
two of the Evangelists imply, or where Bethany ended 
and Bethi^iage b^;an, as the last^nted intimates. TUs 
ezphmation would reconcile the four Evangelists. 

Next, if the objector should attempt to bring the two 
passages of S. Luke into opposition one with another, 
maintaining, that in his Gospel he fixes the Ascension 
to Bethany, whereas in the Acts he appears at least to 
assign that event to a point of Mount Olivet much 
nearer to Jerusalem; I certainly could not honestly 
answer that in the latter passage, ** it is only said, that 
the disciples returned from Mount Olivet, not that Hb 
ascended from it^," because I should be afraid to be 
met by the fresh objection, that Mount Olivet is of 
some considerable extent^, and that to say that it is 

» Bib. Res. i. p. 376, note 1. 

* Joseph U8 in one passage says 
that Mount Olivet is five stadia from 
Jcmsaletn. AnL xx. viii. 6. But 
elsewhere he says that Titus ordered 
two legions to encamp tir ttadia from 
the dty on the Mount of Olives. J. 
W. T. il 3L These passages do not 
contradict one another. He evidently 
measures from different parts of the 
3f ouDt. It is therefore scarcely candid 

of Dr Robinson to represent Josephnf 
as saying that the summit of the moun- 
tain is Jive furlongt distant fiom Jeru- 
salem, Biblia Sac. 178, n. 8; for it it 
certain Josephus cannot mean tliat; 
or how could the legions have been 
tut stadia distant from the dty on the 
same mountain? Josephus does not 
even say that their camp was on IA# 
summit of the mountain^-so the sum- 
mit may have been mare than six fur- 




*' from Jerusalem a sabbath-day's journey " appears un- 
meaning, except it be taken to signify a particular part 
of the mountain. Neither, again, should I think it right 
to extend the sabbatical journey fifteen furlongs, so as 
to reach the village of Bethany, because although it be 
true that one very respectable authority may be quoted 
for this opinions yet many more, quite as respectable, 
state it at something considerably less; and in such cases 
it is fair to take, not the extreme, but the computation 
of the minority, which would fix the spot somewhere near 
to the summit of the mountain. I should reply then as 
to the former objection, by the theory of a district, 
as well as a village, named Bethany, (as in the case 
of parishes in England,) extending to the summit of 
the Mount of Olives*, and suggest whether S. Luke 
may not here have adopted the mode of expression 
used by S. Matthew in the former case ; omitting men- 

longs distant, but could not be k»s. 
Havercanip, who supposes, as do most 
writers, that Acts i. 12 is intended to 
designate the spot of the Ascension, 
imagines that in Ant xx. viii. 6, Jo- 
sephus intends the base of the moun- 
tain, and that our Lord ascended from 
the summit, three stadia higher up, 
making in all eight stadia, which he 
takes to be the distance specified, a 
sabbath-dayV journey. Vid. not in 
loc. This I think nearly correct. 

1 This is Buxtorf (quoted by Dr 
Robinson in the note above referred to), 
who states it at 2000 paces — two Ro- 
man miles. The great majority of au- 
thorities vary from five to eight stadia, 
and the Church of the Ascension falls 
between these. See Relandi Palsst. 
pp. 338, 341, 397, 8, 400,450. 

* Dr Robinson has misrepresented 

Lightfoot in the strangest manner for 
the support of his own theory, in saying 
that this author does not extend the 
district of Bethany to the summit of 
Mount Olivet. In order not to run 
the risk of doing so myself, I will sim- 
ply quote the Chorographical index 
prefixed to his works, by J. Williams 
(a learned friend of Strypc's), sub voce 
Olivet. " The foot of it was five fur- 
longs from Jerusalem, saith Josephus : 
Tfie top of it. Acts L 12, called a «ab-*s journey, which was about 
eight furlongs, or a mile ; and was the 
place, according to the latter sense of 
our author, where the tracts cf Beth^ 
phage and Bethany met. Here our 
Saviour ascended, and here he got upon 
the ass when he rode into Jeruaalem." 
All this is proved by references to 
Lightfoot^ which see. 

OB. T.] TBI AmmamoK. 445 

turn of the disiaict which had been tntTened, and 
si iee iijiu g ihat at which thqr had arrived? 

Whether it was by this or some other meihod that 
the ancient Fathers of the Church reconciled the two 
passages of Holy Scripture, and explttned the position 
<£ the Church of S. Helena, it is of course impossible 
to say; for the inconsistency of the tradition with the 
language of the Grospd, which is now represented as 
so very glaring, was a discovery reserved for this 
generation, and seems not to have occurred to earliar 

A very few words may suffice for the description 
of this ruin, for at present it is nothing more. In^ 
stead of a church there is now a mosk near this site, 
the keeper of which holds the keys of a small portal 
g^ng entrance into a paved court of some extent, open 
to the sky, around which are ranged the altars of the 
various Christian Churches, while the centre is occupied 
by a small circular building, surmounted by a cupola. 
Within is a Mohammedan Kibli, or niche of prayer, and 
before this is the rock on which the simple faith of 
Christian pilgrims has discovered the impress of our 
Sariour's foot; and although I trust that those who 
were assembled around that stone on the afternoon of 
Holy Thursday, in 1842, to commemorate the Ascension 
of our Blessed Lord, were guilty of no unpardonable 
incredulity in hesitating to receive this as an undoubted 
fact^ still the ancient story did not invest the rock 
with less interest, nor dispose them to quarrel with those 

' More sceptical in this than Cs- ' cepts, besides, the ntarj of the miracu- 

saobon, who, convinced by the weight I lous reproduction of the rock. Oretseri 

of 8. Jerome's ocular testimony, " hie Op. Tom. iv. pars ii. p. 249. 
dat manus,*^ as Oretser says, and ac- | 



[part n. 

many thousands of pious Christians \rfao, from the ear- 
liest ages of the Church, have been able to feel satisfied 
that such is the case. 

At the South-west comer of the buildings connected 
with this Mosk is shewn the cave where the notorious 
courtezan of Antioch, named for her beauty, and riches, 
and pride, Margarita (Pearl), having been converted 
through the instrumentality of Nonnus Bishop of Edessa, 
passed many years of penance, in the disguise of a 
monk, under the assumed name of Pelagius, and at 
length found her grave, which has been honoured for 
many ages, not only by Christians, but by Moslems and 
Jews, who have found in it the resting-place of some 
saint of their own^ 

Descending now to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, by a 
more circuitous path, a little South of the Church of 
the Ascension, we pass the Cave of the Creed, a curious 
vaulted chamber, in ruins, beneath the surface of the 
ground, apparently sunk in the rock, and plastered; 
oblong in form, with six niches on each side, facing 
one another, where the Apostles are said to have assem- 
bled to compose the Creed *. Further down the moim- 

* The Jewish traditions place the 
Tomb of Uuldah on the summit of 
Mount Olivet : I am not certain whe- 
ther it is this or one a little to the North 
of the Mosk on the road-side, where is 
a subterranean rock-grave. The Jews 
imagine that this grave of Huldah was 
once within the walls of Jerusalem. 
See Parchi in Asher's Ben. Tud. ii. 
p. 399. Ishak Khelo ap. Carmoly, p. 
238, and Vichus Ha-Aboth, ibid. p. 
441. Mejr-ed-din, ii. p. 132, mentions 
the Cave as an object of veneration to 
the Moslems, but assigns no reason. It 

was in their custody in the time of Qua- 
resmius, and the Christians could only 
visit it by stealth. Elucid. T. S. ii. p. 
308. See also Adrichomius Theat T.S. 
Jerusalem, No. 203, p. 172. 

' Probably the ruined Church men- 
tioned by Radzivil as the << Viri Gali- 
l«i ;*' and the cave mentioned by Ease- 
bius as the place where our Lord 
delivered his prophecy of the end. See 
above, p. 442, note 1, and for Kadsivil, 
p. 127, note 4, where for "dtredi** 
read " diruH templi.** The Bordeaux 
Pilgrim, a.d. e. 333, who says nothing 




tain-aide is pointed oat the spot where our BanoHr 
tttqght the disdpleB the Lord^B Prayer, and another 
iriiere He wept over the City, and foretcdd itB destme- 
turn; and the {ulgrim who wOl betake himnelf to tibat 
qiot alonet with this thought in his heart, the Bible 
in his hand, and with a true Tiew of the desdations 
of Jerosslem before his eyes, and there peruse the 
Lunentations of the Prophet Jeremiah, or the 7Mli 
and 80th Psahns, or the Discourses of our Blessed Lord 
here referred to, wiU perchance find that the dlBfflgna- 
tion of these localities, howerer fitmciful, is not with- 
out its use. Between this spot and the TaUey is 
the Jewish burial-ground, the appearance of which 
win fbmish a comment on the words, ** they shall bury 
in Tophet till there be no place';'' the graves being 
here so dose tc^ther that the stone slabs which 
oorer them are almost joined one to another, so as 
to form a pavement of considerable dimensions. 

The Tombs of the Prophets (Kubfir el-Umbia) 
lie within a few hundred yards of the southern sum- 
mit of Mount Olivet, on which are to be found 
large cisterns, and shafts of pillars. The Tombs in 
question have baffled the ingenuity of the antiquary, 
for their arrangement is very different from that of 

of the Ascension, declares expressly 
that the Basilica was built at the place 
whefe our Lord taught his disciples be- 
fore His Passion. '^Inde ascendis in 
moDtem Oliveti, ubi Domious ante 
PassioDem Apostolos docuit. Ibi facta 
est Basilica jnssu Constantini." Wes- 
•ding, p. 595. Eusebius, we have seen, 
1. c connecu the Cave of the Prophecy 

with the Place of the Ascension, and 
so in his account of the Church there 
built by Constantine, VitoCon. iii.zii.y 
and Laudes, sect. ix. The places are 
not too far apart to have been compre- 
hended within the precincts of one 

3 Jerem. xix. 11. Not that this is 


other rock-graves about Jerusalem ^ Through a long, 
descending gallery, first serpentine, then direct, and 
widening as you advance, one passes mto a circular hall, 
rising into a conical dome, about 24 feet in diameter. 
From this hall run three passages, conmiunicating with 
two semicircular galleries, concentric with the hall, the 
outer one of which contains, in its back wall, nume- 
tfHus niches for the corpses, radiating towards the cen- 
tral hall. No inscriptions or remains of any kind have 
been discovered to elucidate the mysteries of these 
mansions for the dead' ; but the fanciful theory which 
would connect them with the idolatrous sacrifices of 
Baal, requires more support than can be derived firom 
the furnace-like form of the vault in the circular halL 

Having reached the brook Redron, and proceeding 
down the left of its dry bed, the first objects that attract 
attention are four sepulchral excavations in the preci- 
pitous rock, which here skirts the Brook, below the 
south-east angle of the Haram, but on the opposite side 
of the valley^. Two of them consist of chambers cut in 
the rock, the others are monoliths cut out from the rock, 
a passage being left around them. The columns and 
ornaments sculptured on the latter shew a mixtiu-e of 
Doric, Ionic, and perhaps Egyptian, architectiu-e ; while 

I See a full notice and good Plan | a quany. 
' these Catacombs, in Lord Nueent^s i ^ Uri o 

of these Catacombs, in Lord Nugent's | ' Uri of Biel (a.d. 1564) connects 
Lands Classical and Sacred, Vol. ii. them with Haggai the prophet. Hot- 
p. 73, &c. 2nd ed. ; Dr Schultz's Jem- I tingcr's Cippi Heb. p. 45. Carmolj, p. 

salem, p. 42; Heir Krafft, Topogra- 
phie, &c. p. 202. Earlier notices may 
be seen in Quaresmius, ii. p. 303. 
Pococke (Description of the East, ii. 
29,) says the further end was called 
the Labyrinth, and seems to have been 

441. But Gerson 0561) places the 
Sepulchre of Haggai, &c. on the Nofth 
of the city. Carmoly, p. 887. 

" See a minute demription in Bib. 
Res. I. 518. &c. 


one of the former, which is called the Cave of S. James, 
is a more pure specimen of the Doric order. This 
excavation occupies a middle place between the mo- 
nolitfaic monuments; it consists of an ante-chamber, 
with two columns in the front, giving entrance to the 
sepulchral vault, which is reported to have afforded a 
hiding-place to the Apostle S. James, during the period 
tliat intervened between the betrayal and resurrection 
of our Lord^ The monument to the South is now com- 
monly marked as the Tomb of Zachariah, that to the 
North as the Pillar or Tomb of Absalom. The entrance 
to the fourth — ^the Tomb of Jehoshaphat — ^is from the 
passage which surrounds the last-named monument. It 
now only exhibits a handsome pediment, above the 
surface of the ground. 

Various are the conjectiu-es as to the date of these 
monuments, and conflicting the traditions as to whom 
they are to be assigned ^ I was struck, at the first sight 
of them, by their resemblance to some of the excava- 
tions in Wadi Miisa, as represented in illustrations ; and 
the fact of this resemblance is confirmed by travellers 
who have examined both\ But in the uncertainty that 
at present exists as to the date of the latter, this does 
not throw much light upon the subject. I have no 
theory to propose, but I should be glad, if it were in 

' QnareflmiuB, Lib. iv. capp. x, xi. ' Dt Robinson remarks this; and 

Pcrig. Tii.Toiue II. p.258,&c. S. (ire- his testimony has been confirmed to 

gory of Tours, de Gloria 31art. Lib. i. me by many travellers. He attempts 

cap. xxvii. Mtyji that S. Jame» was bu- to connect them by an inf^enious hypo- 
ried on Mount Olivet in a monument ' thesis. Compare Dr Schultz, p. 41. 

which he had formed, and wherein he Mr Bartlett is disposed to consider 

had buried Zachariah and Simeon. these at Jerusalem <'as far more an- 

* These will be more fully given in cient.'* Walks, p. 123. 
the Memoir accompanying the Plan. 

Vol. II. 29 


any way possible to connect one of these monuments 
with him whose name it bears. 

In the sacred narrative of the death of the favourite, 
but rebellious son of David, we read : " Now Absalom 
in his life-time had taken and reared up for himself a 
pillar, which is in the king^s dale : for he said, I have 
no son to keep my name in remembrance; and he 
called the pillar after his own name; and it is called 
unto this day, Absalom's Placed" The king's dale has 
been identified with that part of the VaUey of Jeshosha^ 
phat near which the king's gardens were situated, not 
without sufficient warrant. It is probable that a mo- 
nument erected with the design here mentioned would 
be constructed in the most substantial manner, to ren- 
der it as durable as possible ; and it would appear that 
this pillar was in existence when Josephus wrote his 
Antiquities ; for in his account of the same event he 
speaks of it as ''a pillar of marble in the king's dale, 
two furlongs distant from Jerusalem*;" language which 
infers a definite knowledge of the spot. Whether Absa- 
lom intended it as a sepulchral monument, is not clear. 
The Jews, who from the time of Benjamin of Tudela' 

» 2 Samuel xviii. 18. It is a curi- j i^^., j^^^j^^^ ^^y^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

ouB name D^^ T lit " the ^ ,,f^„ ^ ^^^^^^^ Dr Mill hM in- 

hand of Absalom/' as Josephus and , gcnioixsly suggested that -p may be 

the LXX. translate it. T seems to | equivalent to jL Wndi AUhahm, 

be used in the same sen^, ie. for a , , ^^^ ^^^ / 3^ ^^^ ^ 

monument, m 1 Sam. XV. 12, and Isaiah , 1. .„ .... 

' passage runs thus : 'E<m}ict ^ 'A/Sera- 

Ivi. 6. where it is joined with UD x«a»ov i^ nf ^oO^di, tH ^afrCkuc^ 

'^because, perhaps, in such monuments cm,'X„y Xfdou /lop/iap/poir 3,5o «rr«aum 

the name was usually written. The Mxovaav 'Up<Hro\6fi^u, ^y ^po^m^ 

Phomician monuments, it should seem, y6ptv<rev Ulav x'ipa. 

had sculpture on them the form of j 3 Travels, pp. 36, 37. Edit. Aaher. 

a hand raised up on an arm, and on 1 Comp. (Jri of Biel. Hottinger, p. 47. 

this the inscription was engraven." Carmoly, p. 441. 


at Ies8t» have regarded this monmneiit as the Pillar 
of Abaalom, have been in the lialnt» fiom tune imme- 
morial, of casting a etone and spitting as ibey pass hj 
it, in order to shew their horror at the rebellious ocmdnct 
of this unnatural son. If I may not be permitted to 
beUere that the orders of architecture^ exhibited on 
this monument may possibly have been known in the 
East ages before they were introduced into Chreeoe^ 
may I be allowed to submit whether the character and 
ornament of this mass of rock may not have been 
altered at a later period, in conformity to the taste of 
the time? and whether it may not wiginally haen 
formed the pedestal of Absalom's Pillar? 

An incident connected with the excavated Tomb of 
Jehoehiq>hat, which I cannot connect with that king*, 
may dose the notice of these remarkable antiquities. 
An intelligent member of the United Chaldean Church, 
who had been educated in the Propaganda at Rome, 
visited Jerusalem, on his return to his native country as 
a missionary of that Society, in the winter of 1842-3. 
In exploring the inner chamber of this Tomb he lighted 
upon a Hebrew roll containing the Pentateuch. It was 
very beautifully written on skins, and reminded me 
much of the Synagogue Boll, found among the Jews 
of Cochin, and presented by Dr Buchanan to the Cam- 
bridge University Library. The MS. had been iqjiured 
by damp, which may have had the effect of reducing 
the parchment to its original state of leather, as it had 
disunited the various skins. I only saw some damaged 

* Described by ProfesMr Willis ^ Because he *' was buried with his 

above, pp. 167—160. See also Plates < fathers, in the citj of David hit fa- 

6 and 6 for drawings and details by ■ ther.*' 1 Kings zxiL 60, and 2 Chron. 

MrScoles. ! xxi. 1. 



portions, which were in every respect similar to the 
Cochin MS., nor did the skins appear to have been at 
all prepared. It was taken by the Superior of the Latin 
Convent, who intended, I believe, to present it to the 
Vatican. The discovery produced a considerable sen- 
sation among the Franks in Jerusalem ; but the general 
opinion of those best skilled in the practices of the 
Jews did not attribute much importance to it, or ascribe 
a very high antiquity to the manuscript. It appears 
that the rolls used in the synagogues are required to 
be so perfect, that the most minute error completely 
vitiates the whole volume. On the detection of such 
imperfection, or on its becoming unfit for further use 
through age or accident, the MS. is replaced by a 
perfect copy, and the condemned roll is reserved to be 
buried with one of the rabbies. The supposition there- 
fore was, that the Jews, whose burying-place is imme- 
diately above this ancient tomb, had deposited a body 
in this chamber, with this book of the law; but as to the 
date of the transaction nothing could be determined 
with any degree of certainty. 

Between these excavations and the bed of the 
Kedron is another pavement formed by Jewish grave- 
stones of modern date, called the "House of the 

At the Pillar of Absalom an arch is thrown across 
the bed of the Kedron, from which a pathway leads up 
the almost precipitous side of the mountain to the 
south-east angle of the Haram. By following the brook 
1540 feet, we are brought to the "Fountain of the 

» Uriof Biel.ll. cc. CPnn iTl I ^"" «ppclUUon Casmetcry. See Dr 
hirwb^ equivalent to the Chris- I Schulti'i JeruMlem, p. 41. 

OH. ▼•] iNomrr nwsB. 408 

Virgiii," in the oontaracted part of the v$Ikiy, on the 
rigfatJiand side. This fountain will infirodnce the rery 
interesting and difficult sulgect of the waters of Jera-- 
salem, which, I fear, must prove a mystery to anti* 
quaries, until it is permitted to carry on exoavatiami 
at Jerusalem on a very extensive scale. 

But before I enter on this discussion, I must notioa 
the mouth of an ancient sewer which opens in the hilU 
side, above the Fountain of the ^Hrgin*. This suIk 
terranean passage is constructed of massive stones, and 
is doubtless the canal mentioned by Beiy amin of Tudeh,. 
** near which the sacrifices were slaughtered in ancient 
times," and upon the walls of which the Jews used ta 
inscribe their names^ I have no doubt that it ia the 
termination of the drain of the Great Altar, whose oom-» 
mencement we found at the cesspool under the NoUe 
Cave in the Sakhrah^ It was possibly by this sewer 
that Omar was led to the sacred Rock'; as it was 
through this passage that the feUahin efieeted their 
entrance into the city in the time of Ibrahim Pasha's 
occupation of it, and emerged near the western waU of 
the Haram. To return now to the Waters. 

There is a singular agreement among all authors, 
sacred and profane, on this fact, that the Holy City had 
an abundance of water within its walls, while the 
neighbourhood was scantily supplied, or rather alto- 
gether arid^; and it has been truly remarked, that 

' See Dr Schultx's JeruMdem, L c. j 'So Strabo, jrrdt /Uv ivv^ptm^ U- 

* Atber'i Ed. Vol. i. pp. 36, 2, and , Tit M 'wwrr^Kmt U^pdv. xvi. p. 71B. 
p. 71 of the Translation. | Again, ain-i fik¥ iwipw, tii'v dk tcvick^ 

* See above, pp. 341, 2. j x^^P^^ ^o¥ Xvwpdv koX dv^ipow. Other 
^ Bat it it uncertain whether it wat > testimonies will be found below, and 

an aqueduct or sewer that he traTersed. in the accounts of the Tarioos sieges 

See above, pp. 370, 7* Comp. VoL i. in the fonner Paru 
pp. 316, 317. 



[part H. 

while the besiegers have frequently been reduced to 
the last extremity by drought, there is no instance on 
record of the besieged having been distressed by thirst*, 
although they have many times suffered most severely 
from famine. This appears at first sight paradoxical; 
for to judge from the observations of later travellers^ 
one would imagine that the very contrary must have 
been the case. For what is the fact ? Only two foun- 
tains have been noticed, until very lately, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jerusalem, and both these without the walls, 
while it is plain that the aqueduct from the Pook of 
Solomon could never have served the besieged, as it 
must always have been visible where it crossed the 
Valley of Hinnom, and would probably be cut off by 
the citizens at some distance from the walls, lest it 
should be made available to the enemy during the 

But the subject well deserves a particular investi- 
gation. And I proceed to notice the foimtains, pools, 
and aqueducts of Jerusalem, in the hope that I may 
throw some little light on this obscure and perplexing 

To begin with the Fountain of Siloam. Its position 
has been already described ; but its character demands 
a fuller notice. The descent to the spring is one of the 
most picturesque pieces about Jerusalem. It is effected 
by a flight of steps, much worn by the natives, cut 

1 See Robinson't Bib. Res. Vol. i. 
p. 479, and Raumer'g Palestine, p. 329, 
2nd £d. The observations of both on 
the siege by Titus are very just; and 
it is a most remarkable case, considering 
how crowded the city then was. The 
latter writer notices, that the language 
of Josephus on the abundance of water 

with which the Romans were supplied 
from Siloam during the siege, was 
probably only a boast to deceive the 
Jews ; (sec J. W.. v. ix. 4.) as Dio 
says the legions suffered dreadfidly 
from thirst, and had to bring bad 
water from a great distance. Dionii 
Hist. Rom. Lib. lxvii. cap. iv. 

OB. ▼•] 



through the rock, which is wildly irregular. Ther^ are 
tweniy-dz steps, makiiig the depth about 36 feet, for 
the steps are deep. Here is a cave in the rock, of no 
great dimensioiis, roughly hewn, into which the wat6r 
flows from beneath the lowest step. Many earlier 
writers who mention this fountain, agree in witnessing 
to its irr^^ular flow^ though they differ much as to the 
stated periods; a variation which may be readily ex- 
plained by the fact, that the intervals vary according to 
the season, and other accidental causes, which have not 
yet been determined. The fact itself is indisputable, 
and is not one of the least mysterious drcumstanoes 
connected with this extraordinary fountain. The taste 
of the water is very peculiar, and never to be mistaken 
when once known— an important circumstance, iduch 
the reader is requested to bear in mind. It is scarcely 
''brackish;" it is best described by an old writer as 
** insipid^ ;'' but the villagers of Siloam drink thereof 
and their flocks, and do not find it unwholesome, but 

' It does not seem necessary to re- 
peat the testimonies which have been 
latdj given. The curious reader may 
cootult Dr Robinson's Bib. Res. Vol. i. 
pp. 493— 50& 

» William of Tyre, viii. 4, "nee 
sapidas nee perpetuas habet aquas.** If 
the waters have undergone no change, 
tastes must strangely differ. Josephus 
proDOimces the water *^sweeV^ (y\v- 
Kclav), J. W. V. iv.- 1 ; one of the 
historians of the Crusades as " bitter*'' 
C^gusta amarus**), Gesta Dei per 
Francos. 673; another, "tatteleuj^* 
^^Don sapidas;** and a modem writer, 
" 6raclrM^** Bib. Res. 1. c Sweet— 
bitter— tasteless— brackish ! A travel- 
Icr in the 17th century calls it sweet ; 

and gives, in addition, an illuitimtion. 
which will convey a good idea of the 
taste. He says, " if you were to drink 
it blindfold, you would think it was 
nothing else than miik and waUr** 
Journey to Jerusalem in 1669, Lon- 
don, 1672. Nor is the variatioD lest 
striking as to the quantity, than at to 
the quality of the water. Jotephnt 
sutes it to be abundant (wiryifir iroX- 
Xffv), the writers of the middle aget 
small (font modicus, &c.) W. T. L c. 
It should be observed, that Dr Robin- 
son, pp. fi07» 8, proposes to make (hit 
"the Pool of Bethesda," and the ir- 
regular flow, <Mhe troubling of tbt 
waters by the angel.** 



[part in 

the contrary. From the chamber there is a chamiel cut 
in a serpentine cowse, 1750 feet long', to convey the 
water to the Pool of Siloam, which will next demand 
attention. To reach it we still follow the bed of the 
Redron, and pass round the point of Ophel, a dis- 
tance of 1355 feet. The path leads under the village 
of Siloam, hanging on the steep side of the Mount of 
Offence, chiefly composed of chambers excavated in the 
rock, once the receptacles of the dead, now the abodes 
of the villagers and their cattle. Below, in the expand- 
ing bed of the valley, is a verdant spot, refreshing to 
the eye during the heat of summer, while all around is 
parched and dun. These are the gardens of the villa- 
gers, cultivated in terraces composed of soil which has 
either been washed down by the rains, or brought from 
a distance, and watered from the pool, to which we 
must now proceed. Turning to the right, round a sharp 
angle of rock, we enter the mouth of the valley of 
the TyropoBon, and passing under the precipitous rock, 
which has a small channel for the water cut in its base, 
we soon arrive at the Pool of Siloam. 

Here there is a descent through a chasm in the 
rock to a small basin at the end of the channel by 
which all the water not drawn off at the Fountain is 
conveyed to this point. The present Pool is a small tank' 
just without the fissure, of an oblong form, remarkable 
for nothing but the shafts of six marble columns pro- 
jecting from its sides, probably the remains of a Church'; 

1 The direct distance in not 1000 feet. 

* Dr Robinson gives it 53 feet long, 
18 feet broad, and 19 deep. Bib. Res. 
I. p. 497; where, and at pp. 341, 2, will 
be found a most minute description. 

' Benjamin of Tud. calls it *< a large 
building erected in the tiroes of our 
forefathers," p. 37. 1. and 71. Uri of Bid 
connects it with the Mint of Solomon 
( Uottinger, Cip. Heb. p. 49. Carmoly, 


romrrAOi of thb hbauko bath. 


the irater is confined in this or in the rocky baan, and 
dnwn off, u occasion reqaixea, to irrigate the gardens 

lliere is every appearance of there having existed 
formerly a much larger reservoir than the present, im- 
mediately to the East of it, confined at the lower end 
by a substantial dam of masonry, now forming a dry 
bridge, at the South end of which is the ancient tree said 
to mark the spot of Isaiah's martyrdom. This larger 
hdlow is now filled with soil and cultivated ; but eariier 
travellers^ confirm the opinion which its q^pearance 
indicates, and notice a second Pool in this spot. 

The next fountain which I shall mention is one 
within the city, near the area of the Great Mosk, 
kDown only by report until very lately, when an enter- 
prising traveller undertook to explore it; and the com- 
pany to whom he related his adventure in the small 
shed built over the mouth of the well by which he 
effected his perilous descent, will not easily forget the 
thrilling sensations which his narration produced. 

This fountain now supplies the Bath of Healing (Ham- 
mam es-Shefa,) which is entered from the ruined Cotton 
Mart. The present mouth of the well is on the roof of 
the buildings attached to the bath, and is found to be 
about 20 feet above the level of the street. Dr Robin- 
son had in vain sought permission to explore this weU, 
but the reports which he had heard of it^ excited the 
curiosity of a countryman of his who was at Jerusalem 

p. 442,) Felix Fabri, with a Monastery, 
I. 420. The building was still standing, 
bnt converted into a mosk, in Sandys* 
time, (1611). Travels, p. 147. 

* See Bib. Res. i. 4{»8. Comp. Felix 

FabrL i. p. 417. Sandys speaks of it 
as " containing not above half ao acre 
of ground, now dry in the bottom,'* 
p. 146. 

^ Bib. Res. i. 508, &c 



[part II. 

in the winter of 1841-2» and he resolved at all events 
to descend ^ Having endeavoured, without success, to 
induce the keeper of the bath to aid him in the under- 
taking, he prevailed on two peasants of a neighbouring 
village to assist him. This was in the month of January. 
At the dead of night, attended only by a servant-lad, 
and furnished with candles and matches, a measuring-rule 
moreover, and a compass, forth he sallied, equipped as 
for an aquatic excursion. Arrived at the well's mouth, 
he tied a cord round his body, and was lowered through 
the aperture by these felldhs, who had kept their ap- 
pointment, but would, without doubt, have let the rope 
slip, and left their employer to his fate on the slightest 
alarm. However, he survived to tell the tale, an out- 
line of which shall here be given. 

The entrance to the well is not quite two feet square, 
but a few feet lower down it expands and becomes 
about 12 feet square, and is apparently hewn in the 
rock. His first adventure in this aerial journey was 
meeting the leathern bucket which had been tied at 
the other end of the rope as a counterpoise. It was 
** streaming at a dozen apertiu^es, and for the rest of 
the way he was under a cold shower-bath, and could 
with diflBculty keep his light without the circle of it." 
The well was 82^ feet deep, and the water about 4^. 
On arriving at the bottom, the vibrations of the rope, 
before he could get a footing, extinguished his light, 
and he was left in total darkness. He had observed 

' This was Mr Wolcott, an Ame- 
rican Congregational Missionary at 
fieirout, who has been already quoted. 
The narrative was published in Ame- 
rica, in 1842, in Part I. of the Biblio. 

Sacra, p. 34, &c. With this 1 refmh 
my memory of the most graphic de- 
scription of the adventurer, at the welKs 
mouth, which made me shudder. 

'mu r.] WATEB BXCURSION. 459 

in bis descent four arched recessea in the n>ek facing 
one another, and lower down, six feet above the water, 
a door-way leadiiig into an arched chamber, which he 
contrived to reach, and here he refitted for hia further 
voyage. The matches were diy, and other eandle» 
Eoon illuminated tlie darkness. The excavated chamber 
in which he found himself was only 3 or 4 feet in 
height, 15 long by 10 broad, and did not seem to be 
constructed with any reference to the water. Opposite 
to this chamber he discovered a passage which formed 
the water-channel He bad taken the precaution of 
bringing with him an india-rubber life preserver, whieb 
he found useful in his further explorations. He now 
descended into the water, and entering the passage, 
soon passed another excavation in the rock, of which 
he could make nothing. The passage beyond this waa 
2 or 3 feet wide, and about 5 feet high, covered with 
stones laid transversely, but very irregularly; in some 
places were fragments of polished marble shafts, and 
in one place the end of a granite column had sunk 
obliquely into the passage. The bottom of the channel 
was not flat, but grooved ; the passage not straight, 
though its general course was direct ; and *' the cutting 
so uneven as to suggest the thought that advantage 
might have been taken of a natural seam or fissure in 
the rock." Having followed this passage 80 feet, he 
was stopped by a basin or well. of unknown depth, on 
the opposite side of which the wall shut down to the 
water, and presented another obstacle, even could the 
water have been passed. Unhappily he was obliged to 
return without any more satisfactory residt. His exit 
is amusingly characteristic of cool intrepidity. He had 
barely breathing room or space for his candle between 


the sucface of the water and the roof of the passage ; 
and one would think must have felt rather uncomfort- 
able in such a position ; but he first measured the pas* 
sage with his rule, then illuminated it with his spare 
candles, and having taken a last fond look, left them 
burning there, and returned to the well to prepare for 
his ascent. The rope was still there, and the natives 
above. The signal was given, and he again found him- 
self swinging in mid-air, and in darkness, the candle 
which he had reserved having been extinguished as 
before. '' His descent had been uniform, but he was 
necessarily drawn up at intervals, which caused a greater 
vibration. He spun around the dark vault, striking 
against one side and another," and was not sorry to 
find himself again '' beneath the open heaven." It is 
deeply to be regretted that this daring exploit was not 
attended with better success. Its results are very un- 
satisfactory to Mr Wolcott himself. He does not 
imagine that this excavation was orig^ally a well : the 
artificial recesses and chambers in the rock he thinks 
are against it. It more nearly resembles some of the 
sepulchral excavations without the city. The direction 
of the passage he cannot positively determine, as he 
had injured his compass in the descent. He thinks it 
runs eastward in the direction of the E[aram ; but if so, 
it stops short of the enclosure 44 feet^ The passage 
may extend further, the water descending into a lower 
gallery ; if so, it could only be explored when the water 
is very low. Two English travellers were anxious to 
attempt this at the end of a dry summer, but no one 

■ The distance of the well from the I feet, and he penetrated undergnmnd 
wail of the Haram was found to be 124 I onlj 80. 

CH- V.l 


could be prevailed on to aid the undertaking, and it 
was abandoned. At that time it was necessary for a 
man to descend to the well, in order to bring the water 
from a distance to supply the bathj bb the floor of 
the chamber was dry- A dose cross^xaminatlon of 
this man elicited that the water proceeded from an 
immense reservoir beneath the Haram, but it did not 
appear that he had penetrated so far. It must be 
remarked that the water is identical in taste with that 
of Siloam. 

The next fountain I have not seen noticed, and, so 
far as I know, its existence has not been hitherto known 
out of Jo*usalem. I had heard of a constant and abun^ 
daut well of water within the precincts of tJie Church 
of the Flagellation, close to the Seraiyahj which supplies 
the Franciscan Monastery during the dryest siunmcr, 
I visited it on March 13th and 14thj 1843, and obtained 
the following additional particulars from the monk who 
had the charge of the premises. The Church is very 
ancient, but had fallen into ruin, untU the Franciscans, 
about a year and a half before my visit, had procured 
a firman for its restoration'. In the course of the 
repairs an immense quantity of water was required, 
and the well in question was exhausted, and cleaned 
out. In two days it was full again, although it was 
towards the end of the dry season, before any rain had 
fallen. When I saw the well there were in it between 

* See MaundreU, under date April 
a He ftates that it had been <<u8ed 
at a stable by the son of a certain Bassa 
of Jerasalem.** When he was there, 
169S, it was a weaver's shop. In con- 
lEnnatioD of the former part, it maj be 

noticed that Anselm («tr0.15O9) sayi of 
thU church, « De ilia Capcila feeenmt 
(Sarrauni) stabulum jumcntoniin.** 
Descrip. Tor. Sane, apad Canis. Tbet. 

462 THB HOLY omr. [part ii. 

eight and nine feet of water, which completely filled a 
cavity in the rock, and came up into its mouth, which 
was also bored through the rock. The water was 
almost within arm's reach of the opening, and remark- 
ably clear. The cavity I learnt extends some distance 
East and West ; but as I was disappointed in seeing the 
man who had been employed to cleanse it, I could not 
ascertain its nature so exactly as I wished. I tasted 
the water — ^it was the water of Siloam. 

Thus then we have at these three different points 
three fountains, without any apparent connexion one 
with another, all supplied with this peculiar water, 
utterly unlike any I remember to have tasted in thai 
neighbourhood or elsewhere. I am strongly disposed 
to conclude, from this fact, that there must be a com^ 
munication, but how it is very difficult to determine. 

The existence of immense reservoirs under the 
temple-area, is a theory which still requires ocular 
proof, but is so supported by ancient tradition, that 
I think it cannot reasonably be doubted. Among the 
other works of Simon the Just, the son of Onias, about 
the Temple at Jerusalem, in the reign of Ptolemy Soter 
of Egypt, we read, " In his days the cistern to receive 
water, being in compass as the sea, was covered with 
plates of brasa^y During the reign of Soter's succes- 
sor, Philadclphus, Jerusalem was visited by Aristeas, 
who has left us a full account of this cistern, or rather 
series of cisterns, beneath the sacred precincts; and 
although the account may appear to border somewhat 
on the fabulous, yet, making considerable allowance for 

* Ecclus. L. 3. f}\aTTC00i| diro3o- I t6 mpifie^pov ' the sense of which ii 
Xciov ifiaTtotf^ x^^'^^^ Mcrei OaXaortrtjc | very obscure. 

«B. ▼•] WATERS or TBS TUfPLI. 463 

hTperbole both in this and the fonner paaeage* H may 
be admitted as evidence to the eadstenoe of laige rei* 
aervoun in the neighbourhood of the Tem|de ; and there 
18 one very aingnlar coincidence, manifeatiy iindemgned, 
between this and the fore-cited passage, which is worthy 
of remark^ He states that ''a powerfbl natoral spring 
gushes out copiously and unceasingly from within, and 
is receired into subterranean reserroirs, the extent of 
which is surprizing and beyond description, to the 
dreumference of fire stadia about the Temple. Thej 
are connected by numberless pipes, through which the 
waters flow from one to another. There are above 
frequent hidden apertures to these depths, known only 
to those employed at the sacrifices, through which the 
water, gushing out with force, washes off all the Uood 
of the numerous victfans. The reservoirs have their flaon 
ami mdes eoued with leady and are covered over with a 
quantity of earth." It is highly probable that by the lead 
of Aristeas is intended the brasSf with which, accord- 
ing to the Son of Sirach, Onias had cased the " cistern, 
which was in compass as the sea ;" a work which would 
be fresh in the memory of the Jews at the period of 
his visit. And there is an incidental remark in this 

trraaiv, «« av Kai irtiyrjt etrwdev iro- ttoV tlvai 6i irvKvd Tit arSfiara irp6t 
Xvppvrou <pvcrucutv ktri^peovcrti^' eri it t^v fidaip, dopdrtn ix^nrra toistravi. 

Bavfiavimv ical diirfynTrnv incoiox'^^***' 
{nrapxSvTmv turd y^v, Ka6cd« dir€<f>ai' 
woVf iriirrw <rraiito¥ KVK\66eif t^5 koto 

irXifv avToTt olt icrri XtiTovpyla, Alil- 
teas de Leg. Div. Translat. p. 1 12. Ha- 
▼ercamp^s Joseph, cited bj Euaebitis, 

T^ itpdv Jcara/SoX^v. Kal €< toutwv \ loc. inf. cit. 

ovpiyyat dvapidfiov^, KaO' ZKatrrov /itc- | For the Jewish traditions see Light- 
pot iavToit wvairroirrwv tSov pevfid- | foot. Prospect of the Temple, xxiii. 
fwir. Kai murra Tuirra /lefioXvfiiHaaOai \ and elsewhere; of which more will be 
KtcT iidipovv Kal twv Toix^v iirl ik ' said below. 
ToOrmif Kffxvffdat iroXu ti wX^Bov ko- 



[part IU 

curious passage that may serve to explain the silence 
of Josephus, which is certainly a perplexing difficulty. 
The secret of these extraordinary water-works, it ap- 
pears, was known only to the officiating priests. It may 
have been a point of religion with the Jews to maintain 
reserve on this subject, especially in the circumstances 
imder which Josephus was writing. The descriptions 
of Timochares, of the Surveyor of Syria, and of Philo, 
all cited by Eusebius^, speaking of copious streams 
watering the city and gardens, and of enormous cis- 
terns and canals, strikingly confirm the account of 
Aristeas, though they do not connect the fountain 
immediately with the Temple. The traditional notices 
of the Waters of the Temple preserved in the Mishna 
are very numerous, but not so clear as could be desired. 
We collect from them that there were baths for the 
purifications of the priests, both within and without the 
holy place, constantly supplied with running streams of 
water from the fountain of Etam, of which we shall 
hear more presently. 

The High-priest's bath within the sacred precinct 
was situated on the roof of the house of Happarvah*, 

* Praqp. Evang. Lib. ix. capp. 
XXXV — xxxvii. Timochares is cited 
below, p. 478 note 2. The Surveyor 
witnesses, w-ropx***' '■^y*?*' ^i' t« x**" 
pttp, lidt0p ^ayjftXk^ dvapXvT^overav, PhUo 
adds a peculiarity, TauTtiv t^v Kpii- 
vriv i» fi^if TtS "jfiEifiiivi ^fjpaiif€<rdai^ kv 
a T<p depei wX-npovtrdai. The verses are 
taken from a lost wor